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If." n 

I'lHuDOLPH August Witthaus. 
AM. M.D. 







3i«, KTBAKtt, LONDON, 


r-Zh— 4*^*^ 



a of tliU irork wu to famish, for teacher and 
ha>q«r JSkr, a Text-book, in nhich prinHplrs ind resiilu >hoold 
fat riarij and brkfi^r >t't«l. disencumlmrcd of minute deljtib, 
•dJ aoqAuBine onljr rash illnitraUve coihs u couH fo'' tlie moat 
put, l» CTmpr w t d into a n«rrow compua. 

Bsl lU( brpritj *iid eoiidcruatjoii wer« fonrul i|u1te canB»tenC 
vith ■■ origiul trfatinenl of severxl labjects, and nttli B Uboriooa 
wmij^ of bcU wliicb olli^n lind Utt audigeited. and tberefors 
■■1^ <» mitleadmg. Of (uch elaborate *n>l;f«a, tlie first 
■dhiiai of thu work amtained •eieml MamplEs, uuder tbe beads 
■( (Vk^ Idflititf, tnfiuktlddo, Legitinue;, and UnsoundnoH 

fvaw of Iheae analfMi haTiiig aerfcd their purpose of 
imwamrulinf Uw tnelnraen of ofrtnin tnia and ttandiirds of 
from the Kcond etlilion ; many 
OMW <r«n alKi eitlier curlailod or let aiido, thns 
B fbp a eoiuiilsrablo aomW of wood engra*ingt, com- 
[ 4i*>'mgi oT wall, minatv strudnrat, and diemicit re. 
M BSD niHler the mieroacope. The wmnd edition tliiu 
■ ih» tt* Boglnb tratite on Forensic Uedirino in nhich 
• w«i« Urjtt^ly u«ei!. It also contained nmonew 
d AmU and todi, arising oat of lie mrthnd t)>en recently 
I, tl t^ilaitiBr fot/lmain of nntnh and nirrctiry, o 

if glsM, «o aa to admit of ready eiaminatioi 



In thu tliird edition, the original um of the book wa« not lost 
light of, while the principle of luctoHal illnitration was carried 
ranch fiirtber than in an; similar work. Mhu; of these additions 
had beea rendered uecesKiry by the interiatitig ^uwer; of 
Helwig, of Mnyence, tliat the method of enbliination on Sat 
■nr&ces admitted of eitension to tbe alkalDids. Tbe reaulta 
ohtmoed bj this meang (so eiaj of application in nil cases, pn>- 
dnctire of sucb characteristic appearances in many), were thea 
for the Brst Ume desciibed and illnstratedi and new diagnostic 
metbods, as well aa diitinctive testa for some important poisons 
(especially itrycbnia, morphia, and cantharldine) tiers pointed 

Tha third edition, therefbre, had many attributeB of an original 
work, efpecially in the Toiimlogical part, anil notably in the 
chapters on Methoda of Procedare, and on the Diagnosis of the 
Poiaonona Alkaloids and Aniil<^»u5 Active Frinciplcs. 

Of the wood-cnts illustrating miwoBcopic objects, several were 
taken from photogtaphi by Dr. Julius Pollock, 

In preparing this edition, the original Author has had the 
advantage of the cooperation of Lis successor in the chair of 
Forensic Medicine; and tbe work isi therefore, io part, the 
production of one actually engaged in teaching. Tho work has 
been throngliout snhjcct to a double revimon, resulting in a 
ODDsiderable eondensation of old, and an addition of more 
than 50 pages of new, matter. Some subjects have been 
rewritten, otiicra (chiefly tmicological) added, and some lead- 
ing iUnatrative casea (among them that of tbe Welsh Fust- 
ing Olrl, and the Tichborne cilse) given at some length. 

The HrlihoruG case was reserved for an appendii, inaimuch as, 
when the first pages were aenc to press, it was still a subject of 
dispabi, and there was reason to hope that, by tbe time tbe leit 
WM complete, it conld be treated as a medioo-l^l case belonging 
to the past. In this hqia wo have been di£iippuiutt.-d ; but we 


D oatit ill notice of n cjue liavii^ sach important ind 
t on the Milgeet of ■ Pcnooal Identitj' troold be 
It with the unu and eharactec of tliis work, 
I It iboBlil b* added that mpe of tbu cliief additions inadd 
Toiioologj are condeuwd itatcmeutA of tiie 
■MKJia, at home and nliroad, un the modo of 
n of tba aeTaral poiaoni. Thia portion of the work hm 
nmbb eoriched b; Profenor Ferrier. Wbero it w»» 
BBI7 10 do •□, the work of the orlgiual DOthor haa been 
d fa} the letter, G. 

rt PKETiCE. 

flat rorface of glut, ao as to HdmiC of ready examination b; the 

In the tliird edition, the original aim of the book was not loat 
light or, iv)ule the priaciple of pictorial iltDstration wM carried 
idQch fiirther tban in any ainiilar work. Many of these addilJoiLs 
bad betu rendered necessary by the intaresting diacoTery of 
Belwlg, of Mnyence, that the method of eublimaljoil on Snt 
■urfucN admitted of eitenBToa to the alkaloids. The results 
obtaintd by this means (bo easy of application in all eaees, pro- 
ductire of «Dcb chacucteriitic nppearoocea in many), were then 
for the lirgt timo deicribed and iUastrated; and new diagnostic 
methoda, as well ai distinctive teats for some important poisona 
(npecialty strychnia, morphia, and cantharidiue) were pointed 

The third «l!tion, therefore, had many attributes of an original 
work, Hptfialty in tlie Toxicological part, and notably in the 
ohaptert on Methods of Procedore, and on the Diagnosis of the 
Poisonout Alkaloids and Aniilpgons Active Prinrijilea. 

Of tlie wood-cote illuilraling microscopic objects, aaveml were 
tttkcn frnm pliotograplis by Dr. Juliua Pollock. 



iBTTRODUcnoir (inclading the labject of Medical eyidence) . xix 


Penooal Identity — Age — Sex 1 

Impotence— Rape — Pregnancj— DoUvery . . .35 

Fcetidde — Infanticide — Legitimacy 73 

Life-assnranoe — Feigned Diseases 144 

UnsoandnesB of Mind 165 

PART n. 

Persons foand Dead — Real and Apparent Death — Sndden 

Death— SunriTorship 233 

Drowning — Hanging — Strangulation — Suffocation . . 268 
Wonnds and Mechanical Injuries — Blood'Spots . . . 297 
Death by Fire — Spontaneous Combustion — Death by Light- 
ning—By Cold— By Starvation 336 


Definition of a Poison — Action and ClassiBcation of Poisons 853 
Evidence of Poisoning— Symptoms, Post-mortem Appear- 
ances, and Treatment of Irritants and other Poisons . 366 
Methods of Procedure in cases of Poisoning . 388 

Z C05TK5T8. 

Imorgawie Pwtomi, 


CofTMiTes — The Mineral Adds (Sulphuric, Nitric, and 
Knriatic)— The Alkalis and their Carbonates (Potash, 
Soda, and Ammonia) 414 

Irritanta— SalU of the Alkalis and Earths— The Nitrate, 
Sulphate, and Bitartrate of Potash — the Salphate of 
Alumina and Potash — ^the Snlphnret of Potassiom — ^the 
Chloride of Sodiam — the Chlorides of Lime, Soda, and 
Potash— and the SalU of BaryU 434 

Irritant Gases — Nitrons Acid Qas — Snlphnroos Acid Gas^ 
Hydrochloric Add Gas — Chlorine — Ammonia . . 439 

Phosphorus — Iodine — Iodide of Potassium . . 440 

Metallic Irritants — Arsenic and its Preparations — Anti- 
mony and its PreparaUons — Mercury and its Prepara- 
tions — Lead, and its Preparations — Copper and its Pre- 
parations — Zinc, Tin, Silver, Iron, Bismuth, Chrome, and 
their Preparations 419 

Organic Poisons, 

Narcotics— Opium and its Preparations — Morphia and its 
SalU 521 

Deliriants— • Belladonna— Hyoscyamus — Stramonium — Sola- 
num Nigrum, Dulcamara, and Tuberosum — Campboi^^ 
(Enanthe Crocata — Cocculus Indicus — Lolium Temu- 
lentum — Poinonous Fungi 537 

Inebriants— Alcohol, Ether, and Chloroform — Chloral — Coal 
Naphtha, Benzole, Nitro-benzole, Aniline, and Carbolic 
Acid— Wood Naphtha, Oil of Turpentine, Ereasoto, Amy- 
lene, and Amylic Alcohol— Nitro-glycerine — DippeFs Oil. 555 

Convulsives — Nux Vomica — Strychnia — Brucia . . , 569 

Depressants — Hemlock — ^The Calabar Bean — Tobacco — 
Lobelia Inflata — Curara 590 

Asthenics— Hydrocyanic Add — and the Cyanides — Oil of 
Bitter Almonds— Laurel Water — Oxalic Add and the Oxa- 
lates — Aconite — Digitalis — Veratrum album — ^Yeratria . 602 


■ Cm* (AppcnUx) 


. HokI of ClurlcB the Tint 14 

. The jaw-botK in old ige ■ S3 

', Male and frmale pel«iB ...... 27 

■ Skeletoa of Dr. Parkmaii rMnnstrtuted .33 

I, SpemwttHiK ; blood corpuadn ; and efiitlislial seii.\vs St 

t. Tricboaxmat vagins El 

r. Adult lifpa ovary with OnaAan follicles .64 

L Orulbu blliclta, uniiopregnated and impregiuiled 64 

I A 10. Ookatram ooroporcd nith miUc .... 70 
,12,tl3. Flgnrraofcarlyova . . . 80 A 81 

L EUae tMrnbrnus duchorgol In dynnenorrb^ia . 81 

Ik lntn>utcriDa nuceration . . ' ■ . . 89 

L Dm cJap«l air-cells til 

r. Air-ceUa, oir-vcticlea, cflfawd blobd, and meUnosia . [12 

U DUgnm of ttctii drculalioD 110 

L Fofunen orate Ill 

D. DiaaMiaoffiDtBlinnga 116 

^,22.&S3. niaatnliuiis of idioc; . 179 & 160 

4, S&, & S6. lUiutratioui uf ImbecUit; . 161 & 163 

ES. Illnilmtioiii ofgcDEial paialjsig of the ianiie . 101 

40130. Illnitratiotu of mania 194 

^, Uark of the ami in death bj hanging . . 2S4 

^. DnUi by banging 285 

n. l>7«al> of UiEinme 333 

paetnnn of blixid nolutirjii 821 

t. n* SpactracDpn 3EI> 

C ItaamaUan blDod.MTpiiKlci, in plnu and wctiun . . 3£G 

37. HuniBn blood -corptudei 326 

38. Fibrin of blood 328 

39. Blood-con'iucles in loftD and anioMli . . . .331 

40. BruD-uibataiice 333 

41. Fibres uid hair 334 

42. Microscopic poigonoaa weds ..... 393 

43. Diiljiing apparnlns 396 

44. Apparetiu for destmclioo of organic matter . . 397 

45. Drop baltle 402 

4$. Figure of glass apatnla,^ 403 

47- Reduction tube 40* 

iS. Beiluclioi. tobe (new form) 404 

49. Diak-holder for tlie microMope 40S 

50. Diagram ibowing (nblimation from porceUin-alab . 405 

61. Capilki^ redaction tube 405 

62. Capillar; tube mounted fbr Che microscope . . . 406 

53. Apparatus for sDblimatiim at asoertwiied tetniierataree 407 

54, 65, & 56. The regular oclaliedroii . . . .409 
67&&S. AppeBrsnreaofthe opaque and trAnipareDtDctahcdroD 409 
E9A60. Tarictieaofthooctiliolron . . . .410 
61. Ap]>eaniiieea of the half octaliednin . . . .410 
62 &. 63. Twin crystals, or macles 410 

64. Rcctangulnr priami of arsunions add . . . .410 

65. Plutea of arseiiiooi acid ...... 411 

66. ApiHsrancet of the rhombic dodecahedroD . . , 411 

67, — I & 2. Tbe tetrahedroD 411 

67- — 3. Cuba with Ibo edges replnced hj planes . . 41i 

68. VarioiM prisDiatic forms 4J2 

69. Cube, heiagonal prisms, and other crystals , . . 41a 

70. Crjflals of nilrato of potasb (nan solution . . . 423 
71 & 72. The gullet in poisoning bj hydrwhloric acid , 428 

73. The stomach in poisoning by bjdrotiiloric arid . . 428 

74. AypenranceB of the rtoiDach after death by consumption 42!) 
76. Cabic crystal ^ij 

?& OJobolet of metallic arsenic ^1 


77. Coniponni) ojital of 
7 ^. OnHiji of crjiMk of 

■eid inblimeil 

. tUJiUlion tobe with anenioil cnut 

rt by reflected llf ht 

4G0& « 

St ASS. Miud mt 

■boKing globaI« of tbe mebi) 
S3- CnM of pnre meUllic tmeoic, (bowing globules 
M. 8^ A S6. Forma of Itanh'i appniatiu 
17. Craft ol ■ntliDon; ia horiioaUl tube . 
88. Cnut of anenic in horiiontal tabs 
tSk tana of ■p^inntaa for reducing irttmif by elccttolytii . 
SIX Ancokiai kcid ndhning to the coot* of the it 
91. tJlavi of tlie H;r<}tuni trom omonld green 
03. inim uf the liitid from euicreld green 
SO. iticmacepu: fotma of crvstuli of In 
M A 9€i. Crittali uf eorrmive whlJiDBtc (aublimed) 
fB. CrTitalt of corraiiva lobliiiMle from solution 
lis uf mrri-or; .... 

), 98, ft loa Lnil, tin, and Hl>«r-tx«a . W3, 516, & G: 

8 A lOS. Ct^atal* uf bichromate of poCub trota totalioi 
I. n» ftf"" Kimnircrnm 

b of pijiaTer ninuDifFnini .... 
B of cryatalsof morphia .... 
iteb of roorpbia tram tlie acetate by amnHmia 

9 k 1C& Snhlimata uf morphia .... 
K HO, 111. It 112. Suhliinatn of morphia treated w: 

lijibachlacic acid, ipiriti o( nine, liiguor a: 
ml dl*titl«t wate 
I. Tint bdhulonna pltia 


i. The hjowjamu- | 
I. fltci^Of hynwtii: 
, na ainnianiuin 
I. 8«nh of alrBiRmii 

ivi tun ov vooD cieuTtRaa. 

Fig. fa 

120. Tbe wlraqiD dnlousan ...,..(■ 

121. !SubUmnte of solsniDe & 

122. The (L'DiiDtbe crocntB 5- 

123. Seeds of cocculnsindicQB 51 

124. The lolinm teinnlBntani CI 

125. Cellular tissue of the maBhroom . . . . gl 
12G. Spores of maelirooina 51 

127. The Btrjchnos nui TOmica 5l 

128, 129, & 130. Seed of the nm yomica . . .6; 

131. Form of crystals of Btrychnia S! 

1S8 & 133. Microscopic crjitala of Btrychnia . . &, 

134. SubUmatc of strrehnia 6' 

135, 136, 137, & 138. Sublimates of strychnia . 676 & 5! 
139, 140, i l-tl. Sublimate of Btiyclinia treated bj carha- 

latic acid 577 i 5' 

143. The BBine, treatod by bichronwte of potash . . 6! 
1-13. Crystals of strjclinia from solution in ohlorofonn . 51 

144. Crvalal* of strychi.ia wltli acetic ncLd 




• ■*»!• itMlf of the knoirledge, espetimut, and ikill <tf 
a fbr Urn* dittinct pnrpotm: — I. For thsMre 
taian, pmno*, peapen, luusUta. ud athen for 
■ aC(t7 it Bikaibeir ra^KRoible; 2. Ai offloen of bcidtti i 

■la. A<AiIWd« 

n eonrla of U«. 

Tt» iaiim of lh« medieol man jd tbe firat of these (spadtia 
di Mt Aflir nndi Aqid than vliicb devolve npou him in ttie 
mi^my pnttkt at im |»olbMoii; but he ii expected to five 
MMHti^ la Of piwnitiia u ireU aa the cure of diicHe, and to 
iM U [■i<iiliii«l (kill alDiniitntiTe talent. 

A« hoklik cOctn, bamrta, and aa vitoeaiet in eourts of law, 
■■Avl B^ hat* dutiea to jierfonD foe which tl)e oidiDar)' pntC' 
to if Umit iiirfiMJon allbnb no adctjiiate preparation, medical 
lb lUl of hitc joui, DO ptnper tniniDg, and rae^oJ liteta- 

a, and difficnlty of tlwaa dntiei Ifd 
it of a diitiuct Kdence, taught in 
I of Itctnra, trealed in Mparate worka, and 
_ ^ g lb* attaotiMi of men more or lea leparated and tet 
afiiK far tha pnddtv of the corrvapon^ng art. 

Tbia Of* Mime* (Wkt ombnced all the doUes the medical man 

^if W m)olnd to parfonn on behalf uf the Stalo. iu which case 

k iwalml tb name of lUitical, or Slalc-UediciDe; or it waa 

tiuhll iBto tiro KuDDBi, lb* one under the title uf Bj^fne 

I «» Pokb Hvllh, th« olbar known ituliffiireutl} ■■ Furenaic 

LdiHwi. Jni&al Madkinft, Leeal UxlieiiM!, or Mtdkti Jdi'd- 

^mu^ *" romaaac Midiouk aprtmea with anlBdcnt 

xz isuuurcTKis. 

the appEcaSioa of f dica l kaowfa^ g* tokgil 
itiiQicdmtbem2«crths«ark. JWt teem medieo4efti m win 
in oomxBoo ose, w in the phinn "a^fieo-lcgil knovle^e^* 
" credioo-legal expericDee.* * tifan Wgil ikSL" 

Tbe hiatorr of ForenBC ¥«!irine is that of moit other woBacm, 


Xeeeant J or eonTenlenee givo bixtb to m art prvtiMsd bj penooi 
more or lest ikilfdl, whboat gmdanee from gcDeral prinopks; 
but it* importanee, and the irymaihiBt j attadied to the prM- 
tice of it, aooo create a demand for iutmetianp oral and writtcB. 
wbirfa gradoallj amnmei a fmemntie form. Urns it was that 
the Science of Me^Udne tprwa^ from an cmpirieal art of hni Bug 
In like manner, the Sdenoe of Foreosie Me^cine took ita riaa m 
the Deceaaitj of bringing medical knowledge to bear oo legal 
inqniries relating to injuries or loas of life ; the medical witiMM 
being at first without goidanee in the pe r fo r m ance of his dntj, 
and so continning till a growing sense of the important bearing 
of his work on the interests of society, and on his own reputa- 
tion, created a demand for instroctioD that ooold not fidl of beuBg 
supplied. Cases were aooordinglj ooQeeted, arranged, and com- 
mented on, illostratire fSicts sought after, special ezperimenti 
devised and performed, till at length the mediod witness receired 
in books and kctores the same distinct instruction as the phjsidan 
or surgeon at tbe bednde had already derived from written or oral 
teaching in tbe theory and practice of mecticine, or of surgery. 

But tbe importance of medical testimony reoeiTcd an earlier 
recofrnition from continental goremments than from the paUic 
or tbe medical profession; for tbe earliest State recognitiaii 
(1507) anticipated by nearly a century the first mectico*legal trea- 
tise (1597); and the first appointment of medical men to perform 
mecHco-legal duties followed soon after, namely, in France in 

Tbe bistory of Forensic Medicine in England is of comparatiTely 
recent date. It begins with tbe publication, in 1788^ of Dr. 
Samuel Farr's 'Elements of Medical Jurisprudence,' and was 

* The following dates have an historical iniereit. The penal code of the 
ninhop of Ramberff, proclaimed 1607. A uniform penal code adopted bv the 
IMrt of Ratiibon 1632. The ConstUutio CriwiinaliM Oiro/tiia, published 16SS. 
LeitGff patent, presented to his first physician by Henry IV. of France, 
emwwcnnff him to appoint two surgeons in every dty and large town to ex- 
amine and report opon woonded or murdered persons, 1603. Publication 
at Frankfort of the Methodns TMtifioandi of Condronchus, 1697, and of tbe 
works of Fortunatus Fidelis and Paul Zacchias in 1696 and 1621. First course 
of lectures on Forensic Medidne given by Michaelis at Leipzig about 1660. 
For a learned history of legal medicine, see Traill's ' Outlines of Medical 


blKto>**Bt Edinborgb, id 1801, by Dr. Dqumd, 
^ ' jnhip being conferred bj tiovernmenC on 
I new KicDce Hxm joftifled tLe diattncUon 
t, and mide good ita cUunu to mote geiieni 
a the cnrricnlam of moat of the 
g ba£^; it u taugbt Jo all oar medinl schools; ita 
■ an being ronitmiitlf ippiied in our poktU of law ; and 
Eactruid u mtiuibuting ber fiiir iWe of oburvation and rtwe&rcb 
uwarda kU ni43taion sod hnprorenieiit. 

Til* appLalifni of tbe principles of the KJeara — !□ atiier words, 
Uv praetkit of it ■• an art — devolres, for the moat part, on Lbe 
mt£rml incthiooer. It i* onljr accaaioiialij that thoau ippcialtj 
*««ai ta tto •aUr* aab^rct, or in important parta of it, lacli m 
fttiadaijr, or entncnt in eertatn hlauchea of practice, inch aa 
■Uaifaij ud ttic traatment of tbe ionne, arc sununoDeJ to give 

ira many naaoni wby the medical man aUonld approach 

«f JatiM with apprebenaion. He ii caoMNoua of the 

a tbat sHjubM to liia eridence; be ia waiiUng in the 

<e frequent ^ipearanro as a wilnexit would 

) h* U painftxllj aUie to tbe unitabU Ibandatioii on which 

" ' ~ 'jMnttM r<at ; be kooir* that it ia not caa; in 

r« iht ndoi of eildcnce with which in theory be 

t acquainted: and, abore all, be ahrinki 

in le^al proceedings, tlie unreasoii- 

M allp««d to onunwl, and the ditparaging commenU of 

k itadf. Sjnnjiatbiting in thcee rcaaonsble apprehon- 

M wrlUn of cmiDence and moat authnri on Forennc 

• bars tried to prepare tbe medical witnen for bis dntiea 

2 fbrtb tbe prccaotiona be should obtenc both prior to 

t Hi attmitaoM in oonrt ; and by special directions for 

o-Lega] iaqmriea under the heads of "Pott- 

o," •' Oenoral eTidence of poiwning," "Un- 

■• itf mind." Ac. ; tiio general ptecantiona to be obsened 

■ wiUKas4iDi bang made the lalject of ^stiiict treatment 

r ite tiiJa U ■Dicsj. Bt iaexck. Thia dUUnctioD ia obaerved 

K«B uaBiinfr of the Jntim o( tbe mediotl witacaa, it may bo 
it iko* the fiumlier of casea that oecar year by year in 

WatAof « cUm tsgiva rise tomedieo-Ugat inquiries. 

Refnirt of the Kcgictm-Oeneral fbr the year ISTl, 
tim bUowing fignris. 


lb At 



clMrneM tUe npplicition of medical knowledge to legal p 
it ia uied in tbe tJtle of this work. The l«nn nedico-Ugai ia aimi 
in ooDnnon use, ue in Che phraiea " in^co-legal knowledge," 
" medicn-lcga! experience," " meilico-leg*! skill." 

The liiitor; of Forcnric MediciDe is tluit of most otber sciencea. 
Necc«nty or convenietice gives birth to anirt pinclJied by pcrsoni 
more or 1ms akilfn], witboot guidsnce fiom geoenl piinciplet; 
l)ut its importnnce, and the responsibility attached to the prac- 
tice of it, soon create a deioand for instruction, oml aud written, 
whieli gradoally aaiames a aystematic ronn. Tlius it was that 
tbe Science of Medicine sprang frooi an empirical art of healing. 
In like niiuiner, the Scigqcc of Forensic Mcdicioe took its rise in 
the neecBsitj of bringing medical knowlirfge to bear on legal 
inyniries relating to injuries or loss of life; tbe medical witness 
being at first without goidance in the performaacc of his dnty, 
and BO continoiDg till a growing sense of tbe tmporUint bearing 
of liis work on tbe intereats of society, and on his own repnta- 
tion, created a demand fiir instraction that ooold not fail of being 
supplied. Cases were soeordinglj collected, arranged, aod com- 
mented on, illoBlrstlTe fiicts sought after, special eiperimenCs 
deviwd and perTomi^, till at lenRtb the medical nitneat received 
in InoksunJ lectures tbe tame distinct instruclion as the pbysidan 
or sui^-eon at the bedside bad already derived from written or oral 
tmrbing in the theory and prartaco of medicine, or of snrgery. 

But tbe importance of medical testimony reoeived an earlier 
rccoMnitioQ from continental goremmenta than from the public 
or the medical profensionj for the earliest State recc^itjon 
(15071 anCidjBted by nearly a eentnry tbo first me^co-legal tira- 
tite (1597)1 and the first appointment of medical men to perform 
mediiivlegal duties followed soon alter, namely, in Franco in 
1603.- ■" 

The history of Forenric Medicine in England is of comparfltivelj 
recent date. It begina with the poblicaljon, in 1788, of Dr. 
Samuel Farp'a ■ Elements of Medical Jnrisprndence.' and was"J''J,'"*L"^ ''•'" ^•" " htsWolcal Inlnert. The iwnU eod« of the 
Wrt o? nli^^S'fSf"^"'?!"^- A Mifoni, penal ™lo adoniod bj lbs 

SmS™;^??^ fi?*!."* ^"l ZaodUsi In leagsnd IMl. hrst soaiM 
^ . W.2 h??"*" «•**« Bl™> by Michaells at Wpn- m^%^^^ 


blBetDlMit E^bnrgh, m 1801, b; Dr. Dancm, 

' 'p bong eoaferred b; Goicranwnt oo 

r ideDM won Jiutificil Uie (KiliocliaB 

A «poB it, and Bade good \la elumt to mart general 

ntcn into the corriealsin of mtat cf the 

■ tao^t in aD oar mescal (dratili ; ita 

« baiBg oautantlj applied io our marU el lav ; and 

it ooatnbotisg favr&irthuv of oboratiaii and reManli 

n <jt the prinapltB of the toeaix — in atb«r *ofd^ 
■ «( it a* an art — derdvat, for the moil part, do the 
It it nnl« occanooallj that Iboae qiecialij 
le tntire (abjert, or in iiopoctant put* at it, todi aa 
w eaUDCDt in eetuin bnaeha at practice, aoeh m 
ti the trcatmcsl of the man^ an atuBBOied to pre 

BaBf laaioBa wbj the fii«£ea] waa ahndd appRach 
i ilatiM with appMhtMkm. He ie eaonoai of tU 

~ M to hi* nidfltea g be ia wasting in the 

« friqDnit ainwiamn ■• a witima would 

n b pHfaifUl; alila tc the niMtable fogndWioB m ahidi 

i «f<i»toii» Natl be Lwo* that it i* not Bij is 

* ohMrre tba rain el aridann with whidi in tWnrj be 

V aoqauDled ; and, aUna all, he Jmmtw.kf 

- n legal pn nw iJ iB gi, tha im i t aMB 


1^ it MT be 

|]^lnd aai Wala «f a dMa to ch« Tin 10 Mefiao-IOBBl iDqwtriB. 
~ p AmmI Beport aT tbt l«pabiar-OMMl 6w1h* jtar Um. 

Danths bj aoiiJeat or □egliganue 

„ „ murder aad roanelaaghter. 
Other Tiolent deathi (not okaaed) 

Sadden deathi (cans<» unwaertained) . 



CtTMt Of OftOi. 






Fmotom iod hrnliai' '. 

OnUiindiUbi '.'.'.'■ 
Buna u>d HUldi . . - 











o,^h:^i«: : : : : : 






QroDd Total .... 









The deaths hy Occident ar negligcaco were distribute betwem 
. M follows :— Poison, men 159, women 102; Gunshot, 
women 8 ; Cuts and Btaba, men 93, women 18 ; Droirn- 
217G, women 430) otherwise, men G63. women 246. 
The snicidra irere disti-ibnled us follows : — Poimq, men 174, 
>aien 57 ; Ounsbot, m«n 63, women 8 ; Cats and stabs, meo 
>men, 55 ; Urutmin^, men 173, women 144 ; Hanging 
>ea 448, women 100 ; otherwise men 99. women 36. 
Tlie premature, BD:lcIeD,and violent deatbs gsie lUe to 25,698 


•, of which 17,916 on the bodiea o( malefl, and 7982 on 
UtoM of fenuUa : and u tbe qDalified pisctitianors in Eng:1and 
■nd Wales bU tn ibort of this number, it folloirt that, if the 
dnty of Bttoidiog mt inquatta were ditUibated equallj, each 
member of the profusion ooiild nttend at least one inqneitt erery 

Tbe commlttalB for trial ■ridog oat of these 35,898 ioqaeata 
MDOfuited to 408. of wbirh 226 wero for murder, and 178 for 
maoalaiighter. In 1464 instaacei tbe deatb woi relumed ai 

Tha namlier of catea rcfialring medical evideaca in onr bigher 
Minrt* of law ma; be jiulg:cd of npprouniaUivly from tbo printed 
ictnnia of eommitnienta for trial for offencea agairat the peraon. 
■ \b» jnr 1670~Tl thaa amunoted to 2416, and comprised — 
Hnrdcs and attempt* ta murder . 181 

Tariooa attempt* to maim and injure . . 634 

Anuiha 493 

)IalulBai;bter 278 

CwMWlment of birth 138 

Rape and waulta ivjtb intent . .553 
~ ilollnieea 137 


If w* add to tbe aeauioiui tor medioil evidence ariaing 

t of tbtn crimo, the civil aua in which akiUod medical 

« ii rvqnired. and proncdingt in respect of lunatics, the 

» ua which medical men are rommoned to courts of law, 

V in tbe Hinlce of the State, or on behalf of indiiidnala, will 

ir tety rnmiderable — certainly nnmerong enongli, and im- 

■ortult enongb in themwlves, to justify all tbe attempts which 

bare been made to constmct a adence of Forensic Medicine, to 

it ffileniatially in boolm and lectures, snd to draw up a 

TtJona for tbe guidance of tbe medical witness in 

» of bia dnties. 

nittcu. immiCB. 
nmaybenimmoned as a witneasto itale facta, 
Ikem. He may be examined as to the Acts he 
If wilnewed, uid he may bo questioned as to hit inter- 
in el them. In the one oue be is a common witness, in 
■ ikiUai witDCB, at erptrt. In the nuyorjtj of cases 
IfWN ut tat*n fr«n Ui> uiniu] nport, mtitlcd ' Judlcjsl g1 

be Rot* in both capacities. Ai a skilled witness, be may aba U 
rei]uire<l to ^ve his Dpiiiion on tUe tncU olieerved, and the view* ■ 
expressed, by others. 

In perTanning these duties there nre certain precantiom whidlfl 
the witness ought to observe, and certain legal requirement otM 
which he should not bo i^oroat. W 

1. He iboald " aae his best endeavours that bis mind be clear I 
■nd collected, unawcd hy fear, and unlnSuenced by favoar or ] 
enmity," (PCTcical,) Ho will not find it easy to maintail 
'impaitial (ramo of mind when the crime alleged is one ofni 
anannity ; when popular feoltug runs high for or against tbafl 
iccnsed; or, in times of pnhlic agitsUon, when his evidence tendl^ 
to discredit some popnlsr movement, or deep-rooted prqniUce. 
Kor, when be is en^^^'as n akUled witness, or escjiert, for the 

ocution or for the dofence, most be deem hlmielf free from 
the risk of partiality, even though, after hesriag all the fbets which 
ahonld influence his o[nnion. he feels that be om coDsdentionslj 
give his evidence in sapport of tho side for which he is retained. 

2. The medical witness requires to be specially eantioned 
Rgwnst eipresung an opinion on tho general merits of the cMt 
nndcF inquiry, thus ofleuding Dgainit an admitted principle of 
English law, that "when scienUfic men are called as witneoae^'fl 
Jiey are not entitled to give tboir opinion ss to the mmlt of MM 
ate, hat only as to ihefacU proced on tlu Irial. fl 

3. A special caotioD is also reqoired against indnlging a feelin^l 
of inilplaced biunnnity, or an equally misplaced eandemnatdan of 
the Uw on the score of nndae severity. Both these feelings too 
often found ciprcnion in former treatises on the lang-teets, and 
Mfly trials for infanticide. Bat the witness should understand 
(bat lie it not reipniuilile for the consequences to which hia 
opinions mny lead, provided alffays thut they are the resnlC 

autiona inquiry and dec rtflection. Fcrcivsl accordingly 
,t» '• The dread of bnocent blood being brought upon ua by 
npUcit and honest testimony," as "one of those su 
which Uie nnnie has taught, and which a Uheral educai 
lo purge from the iniud." 

The wiUiea* approaching his duties with n mind thus 
fhnn bla^ requiros some instrucdon as to the mode in v 
hia nldence should be given. 

J. During in mind the distinction just laid down betwi 
I oommoD and a skillnl witness, he should bo cautious not 
obtrtide his opiiiiuns when facts only are roiuirtd of Ulm, n 
dogmallcally to aiuert a* facts things which ant merely ni 
of (i|i!i]1on. He »Luutd a: 

^Tjr coinuel, court, or jory, dcoriy rdi! cnnciBsly, mid if tliese do 
Dot elicit the whole trutli, aupplj what is waDtiog. 

2. His itatemcnt* ihonlil be niwlp, and hit optDiona i^iprened, 
in the plainnl and simpleat langiuigc; and ha ihoiild avoid as 
nacb u posible bII t«cbnicsl terou, andall Hgurutire and meta- 
pfaorioKl expreuiaiu. 

3. The medical witoen ought also to abataio from quoting 
■utl>arili« ia lupport of bii ojnnions; for though tlie rule of 
eidonoD lu» not always been rigidly acted ou, the commoa 
IMigo of our coorta of law ia ccrtunlj to diaallow tliege appeals. 
Kor b thia eieluiion opon to any aerioua objeutioa, for tho nit- 
IMB HI aappuwd to Dialte lumaelf muater of the views of the most 
MDiDeDt writer! on the lubject- matter of his evideoce, and to 
■MB them u aidi and guide* to hii own «pcda1 inqniriea. 

Bat tUongb the witneia may not cite uatharitiei, he may be 
■iked whether A or B ia an eateemed autliurity with his profea- 
doOi and whether be (the witnea) coincidea with aonie opiaion 
npraMsd in bia work). If the witnera anawen in the affirma- 
thc, be becomea the eiponent of the opiaion to which be tbua 
pvn bia aaeiit. 

Tlie Ibn^Dg obterrationi rcUte chiefly to the mode in nliieb 
tha witnm ithoald give liia evidence. Tha preoiationi to be 
ebaen^ in order that liia eridenfs may be admiaaihle atill re- 
omIii to be nmndered, nnder the following beada : — 

1. Setu. — When observing nuy bets which, at a future time, 
■ul^ect-matter for legal inquiry, the medical 
1 abonld not tnut to hii memory, but commit them to 
J. either on the ipot^ or aa soon u potaihle alter tlie tracs' 
to wlui'h they relata If (ua in performing a po«t-n)ortom 
'*Dn) it it ueceasary to resort to dictation, the notea of 
MHiiHs ihoDld be imniediately eiamiued and corrected. 
Ute witneaa may me thew notM in court to refreih bis 
V^DOry, but not to topply its place. If tliey were not made 
tHl Kane time after the creDta to which they refer, or if, having 
hMO made at liie proper time, they have bran entirely forgotten, 
Unj will not be admiiaible. 

i. Cti^-mUm*. — A calprit may mala a conrewion of guilt 
teUfiMdkDl attendant. Tliia. to be admiwible in a conrt of 
law, tnoat be free and volimtarv, uninHuenced by tlircat, promise, 
or bribe- No tort of inducemeot ahonld he held out to malie it, 
Mltwlbg qnntioDs abodd be put, and no commoDta made j but 
Um mr^^'^ man ihuuld reduce the atatement to writing aa 
n ■• pqviUt, read it oret tu tlie person conTessing, obtain bia 
« U i^and oonntcriign it bimtelf. 

xivi ikthoddciidn. ^^^H 

At the wune time the greatest cars ahoold bo taken to tunr- 
tain the bodily henllb and mental state of the port; making the 
confsgsioD. The necnaity of this caution hat been ampl}' proved 
by case* in nhich, daring febrile attu^ln, or after prolongeil ex- 
posure and hardship, confewotia have been made of murden and 
other heinous erimeB whii'li bad never been commitliid. In tiroea 
now happU; passed away, innorent persons, under like conditions 
of body and mind, made confession of inipoisjhle crimes, such u 

8, Death-bed Deelaratiotu. — Thesp are admitted as evidence 
in cases of homicide, where the death of the densued is Che inb- 
jeet of tlie ehar^, and Uie drcnnutances of the fatal injury the 
sulject of the decUration. It is aasnined that the declarant, 
having lost all hope of recovery, la Induced to speak tbe truth by 
Donnderationi sa yiowerful as hd oatb administered In a cuort of 
joitice. It is not necessary, however, that be should rrpreti hii 
conviction. It may be InForred from the nature of the iryitry, 
or from other rircumttanoes of tbe oisc. But if any hope what- 
over be eDtertHined, or may be inferred lo eiist, whether It be 
spontaneous or on the suggesUon of others, deatb-bed deohira* 
tions cannot be received in evidence 

Ilut tlie person, or persons, incolpated by the dechtrant's 
statement, are not precluded from giving evidence a* to hi* atat« 
of mind and behaviour in his last momenta. They nia; he 
■Iknved to show that tlie deceased was inttucnced lij vindictive 
motives, or was not of a character to be " impressed by a re- 
HgioDs MD90 of hla approacliiog tUaaolatioQ." 

Ai djriog declsrationi ara bqt confeesioni of the most tolemn 
kind, the same relcs of procedure apply to them as to confiw- 
aona. Tlie medical man should put no leading questions, but 
only incli u are necesnry to civar up ambignity. He should 
commit the declurstion to writing, read it to the dying man, and 
obtain bis assent, and, if powjble, his signature to it. But U 
tU* cannot be done, be iliouUI make a memorandum of the ile- 
elaratioa at once, vbile it and the words used are Iresh in bit 
tamory. To tliis document the witneaa will be allowed to reta 
lo nftVidi hit memory when be comvs to givo evidence. Another 
taantwl )url uf lue duty is lo ascertain tbe exact state of tlie 
dwdanml's mind, whelhtr he i* calm and collected, or otbiTwbe, 
and wbetbAT !ic it under the inHuence of any strong biu, or 
tiadiu Ibeling of rcMntment. 

4. Xiartag, — lUs is not admislble u evidence unless it 
torn part of the m ^ita. A medical witjiCBi, thcrclbre, thongli 
I iu ctiJeiict Ibi! words he has beard tisod in direct 


e wbicb toma tlic inbject of inquiry, could 
rt of Ilia opiniom, if it ronaitted in port, 
■ it mnit necdi do, of atatenients made bj tlie pationt, hii 
titnda. or ittendHot*. 
6. Srerrii. — The medical man, in the coDtte of bis profeiuotial 
mtteDdance, nu; receive secret intbrmBtian wbicb, under ordinary 
drnimituica, lie would be bound not to divul^. But it ehoold 
oe nndentood that in a court of joatice be majr be oompelled to 
^TUlge tbeaex 


low no longer ueeeaMrj to warn tbe medical n 

1 againit 

g part in doela, even though bra oljeot in bein;; pieaent ia 
to nve life, and not to deatroy it. But if in tbii, or in any otber 
way. be fau acted illegally, he, in commoD with other witneasee, 
ia not obliged to criminalf himaelf. 

8. WUU. — A medical man may hcreqnired,on an emergency, 
t« dfyft tl<e will of a patient, or to act aa one of tbe witneaaes to 
the inatrtimHnt. In taking the inatmctioni of the testator, he 
~ 1 limit Mm>e1f to mcb inqairics aa may enable him to 
and hU withea. Be ahould wrii« them down in the fewest, 
Inpleat. and cleareat worda on one aidn of a abeet of paper, 
4 tbe plan and met date of the traiiBacUoD, and at the 
it of tbe document (leaving room fiir tbe necewjiry aignatuttt) 
« following worda : — 

*■ Signed by tbe abave-nanied teatator, in the presence of ub 
the mine time, who have bereanto aigned our names 
' ■■ wltnaKB thrrelo, in tbe presence of tbe said testalor, and in 
pnarncc of each other." 

Tbe teatator and witntHea mnit attach their aignaturee in 
Mcordance with theae worda. The medical man abould lake care 
■ (o obaerve tbe cundition. bcdilj and menial, of tbe testator, aird 
Kb* vOuM do well lo tniike a note of alt the circumalBIiccs of the 
Keue vbile they are freib in bis memory. 'Wills to mode have 
P^Mfi dirpalvd, and the mediral man hag been auminoned as a 
■vritncaa, and tubmitted to a aearcbing examination. 

Cooivlt Iltilipa and Starkie on Evidence; An Analyria of 
Mcfial Evidence, by John Gordon t^mith, M.D, ; Amo«'a 
Leeinraa in the Tib volume of the Uediral Gsii'lle; Ferrivara 
MrAial Etblw; ArchboldV Summary of the Law relative lo 
~ " g and Rvidcnce iii Crimiual Caso. Also Unm's Justice, 





n panuD. we may h 
■nJ tben tt " 

e fine t 

I the sen 

itir; tlie inriiiiJuol bf characteiiatic nuirki ; 

m [uinu mi; luve to be umsxdered xparatoly. sometinuM 
in U*iag, tomdunn in doul pvnnni. In tliia duiiter, Cho thrw 
HiaecU arc gnniped togcUier, and placed iu the mosC conveiiieat 

r I in the ktt pluc^ from ilB ooiinexioa with the toiiics 
in CLiapter I[. 



Qocatiani of identitji are oftpn raised iu courts of law ; as 
(rtwm ■ claim ia ut up to an inheriUDCc^ or a man who bu beeii 
ntibcd luu to identity tbu tbief, or a witnesa an acquiuntauce ; 
■nd whan a pnaoner makes bit ttcape (rom priiou, and a ro- 
i Jury nwjr bo enipannelled for tbe aole purpoae of trying 
or fail identity. Uti alio ua to pcnons found dead ; 
coronen' inquerta tbe Gral atep taken is to identify llii.' 
<ff awli part* of it Sa are fortbctiiaing. 
lanl^cet of pi:raonal idimtity, tben, divides itaelf into, 1. Tit 
tUf ^ (k Lhiny ; 2, The Identity of the Dead. 

may bo reqnired to eiMinine, Hfitb a vi«w ti. 
lUon, alUf^ defiuuiities or iiyariei, acara, or di<- 
that may Lave lieeu broag;bt about in tbe sklu or 
o eipraM an opinion on tbe cbangea (but may be 
nature^ face, and poraon by Uuie, eipoaare, and 
It would alM be wiiliii? hSaptoviace to give evidcucv 


on tbe cbangei which may be brought about by like cauEcsin the 
mind ind rocmory. lu order to give completeneM to (he nib- 
ject, Mtne queations Kill be briefly noticed in which mediml 
evidence is not needed. 

In cases of dispnted inberilance, mui^h abeaa ia laid on bmily 
roaemblance. The celebrated DonglBB Peeriigo csie not decided 
in bvour of tbe elajmant, Archibald Douglaa, in conKquence of 
bia proved refembknce to Colonel Stewart, his father, the twin 
brother, Sboltu, who died joniig, bsvini; equally reaembled Mra. 
Stewart, tbe lootlier. In ibis case, Lord Maasfield strongly 
inusted on likeness oi an argoment of a child's bring the son of a 
parent ; on the fact that in an army of one hundred thounnd 
men every man may be known froni another ; and that even 
when there ii a likenen of fi-utnrc, size, attlmde, and action, 
there may be a difference in tbe voice, gestures, smile, and various 
other things. 

ThoDgh these observationB generally hold good (and not cf 
men only, but of herds of cattle and llocka of sheep), still there 
are many facts on record to prove that persona having no eoD- 
neiioii by relationibip or descent may jet bear the oloaest reaetn- 
blance to each other. Of this mistaken identity. Lord Chief 
Justice Cockbum, in the Hcblwrne case, gave more than one 
illustrBtioo, and especially a case on the Western Cinniit, la 
whicb two men were tiied for murder, and convicted. Tbs 
identity of one of them was awom to by nnmeroua witneaaea ; 
but it was proved afterwards, beyond all poaaibility of doubt, that 
tbey were mist^iken ; for be nas, at tbe very time of tbo murder, 
undergrang punialjmetit for picking a pocket hundreds of miles 
away. Perbapa the most curious caae of this kind occurred mora 
tlian a century ^o (in 1T7S), when one Mall, a barber's appren- 
tice was tried at tbe Uld Bailey for robbing a Mrs. Ryan, Tbe 
ivitnents swore to bia identity, and the whole court thoaght bint 
guilty T bnt, on referring to the books of the court, it appeared 
that on the day and hour of the robbery be was on bis triul at the 
bar wbeve he then stood for another robbery, in which be wai 
liliewise mistaken for the thief. 

When the qneslion of identity turns on the cliangea which 
liine, toopled perhaps with tba fttigues, hardabipi, and priva- 
tiona of a military life, may work in tbe peiaonal appearunce, it 
bccumes one of unusual difficulty. Zuccliiiis was consnlled in a 
cflsu of this dasa. It was that of Cassali, a noble Bolognesc, who 
lelt his country at nn early age, and was supposed to have died in 
battle; but, atlar thirty yean, returned, and claimed his pro- 
fierty tihicb hit heitg bad appropriitteil. 'I!be cban^e in his 

■ •» gNat, tiut be wu inipri*oncd u sn impoator. 
M in kM nport, eipreacd Ui opinion tint luch ■ 
km bMD wnragbt b? *ge, change of elinmte, di«t, 
I, aad iliwiti uid Omali l-wl left hcHne in the bloom 
•d bvee eipMcd to tbe bardihips of ■ militai; lif^ 
L if ha BBiglit ba bdievtd, It*d lutguitb«d for jen* in priioD, 
t Jb4s*S inffaMMed b; tiiis opinion, util br Ibe Act that the 
naoaiM mt pro*a the death of Cimiili. deen^ the reatantion 

Tim |a«ml qostian thai anbmittpd to Zaccbiw asamnei a 
* ' " ' m «h«i, u in the Frendi cskb of BaroDet and 
a fkb* dainuiit » ooolronttd with a real aoe, or 
» Hi UaoUlf aitli a pawan long dnce dmd, a* in tbe Ildi- 
loaaii* or wlwn, u in thia caie, tlie clainuDt ia all^td not 
J art to b( Um DBS be i* penonating, bat tome other pcraon. 
~ * a of diqnttcd idmtit;, great importanoe baa 

to tbe euatenee, or otb«rwiii), of certain per- 
M nani, moles defcnnitiea, acan of forgone 
n ^ laijar^, and tattoo markinga, on whicb medical men are 
nd to lUta tliar oplninn. Tba TnJibome caae ha* alio 
^m f aa aaai bnpcvtaim la qneatiaaa relating to the affect of 
l^B of Qaa in dmsging tbe itatare, form, and featoiea, and in 
4^b*jtaif w asdi4>»e '^' tDemorj and halMta of Ihoogbt, aa 
■cpv^aad i» worA tpoken or written. That cate bat alio ihown 
Ika iwfuilaaia that ma; attach to jibotognpfaa, u tbe moat 
a«H« mamiBtaliOB poauble of the penonal appeaiBnce at the 
• vha* tiirj wrrn taken. The ■abject* of ican and tattoo 
a ^Barriiig of apecial eouaidention. 
—When a claimant jirevnU bimtelf withoat the 
n kiown U> bare ehancterized the indiriiloal uhom 
B mitat break down; but if, on the cod- 
aaa* are fuond upon him, tbejr most be 
■ m tfaa a lr B U gcrt poanble eridence in hU faiDor. and 
i, te taodvmtt bat for th« pooibilit; of their baring 
tj IwilBtaL or of tbdr baof moat improbable, 
l», oolnddancc*. That each ooincidt.'nce* may 
Lh' f>D*«d Iqr ■ Ma* qooted in Beck'i ' Medical Jarit- 

, _ . .. . and Hiniii Owr . 

ItbrH.^ aiutad astl crlliatHil Irt 

.._;*<U«i^-ia«L*gaJ«/anillie & 

a( IW niraonlliiaiT cmi of Mirwn Guctm - 

-— — It, l»7). J( U lie «» in whi 

i — "^flbfctnuol XatiB, to 

B 2 


pnidenw ' (Age Biiil Ideotity). Jowpli Parlin'. tried nt Naw 
York in 1S04, fur bignmj, wm miiUken for one Tbomas Hoag, 
whom heuot inerel)' reserohled, but had in codhood with him ■ 
•or on the rurchead, a gmall mark on tbe neck, aad a liip in his 
speech; but, unlike Hos^, be had no scar on hii foot. That be 
was Parker, uid not Uaag, was prored to the sutiirBctioD of tlie 
jury by an alibi, 

Tbe question of identity bai sometimes tamed on tbe poesi- 
bilitj of removing scars, and some diSiireuee of opinion has been 
displayed npon this point. Thus, in a liclgiancaae tliat occarred 
in 1S4T, one medical man, M. VandeUer. stated that scsin might 
be removed by time or by OTtifieiDl means, and the physicians of 
the prisons of Vilrorde and Obent conllrmed tbis opinion by 
stating that prisoners are in the habit of efladng scars by apply- 
ing u salted herring to tlieto. MM. LobtiBU and Limanges, on 
the otlier hand, contended tliat scars could not be removed. On 
tliis subject, Casper states tbnt the length of time during which a 
scar sub»>ts depends on the depth to which the tiuues of the 
skin have been injured. Scars of injuries which have only aA'ected 
the epidermis, or scarf skm, or penetrated but slightly into the 
true akin, msy entirely disappear. Henoe needle acrstcbe*, and 
even some veno^iectiDn wounds, leorb bitea, and the marks of onp- 
IHI>g-([lasses, may compleColy disappear. But we may confidently 
assert that woonds which have penetrated tbe whole depth of the 
outaneous tissues, and afiriiori, such woanils, iiyuries, or nlcers 
as have caused toss of substance, followed by griiialatjon, leave 
permanent scan. 

Scars may, however, be much altered by time,and eoosiderably 
modiflod by friction, pressure, or the use of irritanU. But though 
obacured by such means, they may easily be brought into view. 
Thus, Devergie states that when the braDd.mark of the galley- 
alive has apparently disappeared, it may be rendered visible by 
slappng the spot with the band till it reddelii. Tbe white scar 
tbos beeomci visible on the reddened skin. The belief that acnrs 
nay wholly diaappear is probnbly founded on the very slight 
■nark* left by extensive woonds when tbey heal by wlial is tech' 
bioally called the " first intention." Thus, in the case of a manUic 
who had completely removed the parts of generation, the place of 
the wound wai marked by u ftuut white line which might be 
nvorlookcd by a muuul observer; and the severa Hoggings of 
fbrmn tjmeo, which loft tlie back quite raw, are traceable aft«T 
fome years only by very One white lines upon the hack and aide*. 
Mid, wbere tlir knots liad fsllen, by little circolai pits. la a 
Mse in wlih.'U wc were censulted, tbe eudre absence of both biiids 

SCABS . 5 

k enabled ni to Kate vritb conliden(» that tbe mnn could 
t h«Te been, u w»i alleged, very wverely flogged (G), Of 
I pennanencj of inch actn ns tbow left by bt(«diug, a 
illoitnitioa U iSonled by ■ case in wbioh tuio |)bysii'iaiu, 
% the other 61 yean uf ago, twiing dUtiiiat recoUectioa that 
vera bled in the arm at about the age of 7 yean, and not 
', tbe inarka of tbe ojieration were, in both caeca, perfectly 

e eiact abspe and character of h scar may render great 
a detennining a ijnntloa of identity. Thus tbe opera- 
a <>f hleediug, capping, and vaccination, like the puniahmeat 
le Ush, Imtb highly characterUtJc appcaranoea. So alio da 
a and aoalda, blislera, cauatic, t&rUr emetic ointment, iaaues, 
DiwaMia, again, sucb aa imall-pox, aorafulouH ulcers, 
a on tbe Ic^ lupmL and carbuncle, leave indelible marks 
d ttunn. 

11 acara, witbont exception, paM through tvo distinct itagea — 
if inllainiaatoTy redneM (the immediiite eonaeqnenre of the 
J suaMined), and that of brown diuolouration. In phleg- 
n aryaipelaa, and after tbe applicution of bliiters, muatard 
a. and aDchlike irritaote, tbe akin, vbicb waa red during 
iUinmatory atage, awumea a dark brown or coppery hue, 
it rvtaina for munthi, and even for tliree or fuor yean ; 
( length, and by degrees, [he skin reaumea Its liealtliy 
. But aometimea, when the inflammation runa bigb, tbe 
1 diacolountion ii followed by a third atage, or that of 
ble&ehing. Tbui we bate seen, al^er the lapae of two years and 
■ half, Ui« (pot to which a large blister bad been applied defined 
by • while margin, and white decolouration occupying tbe whole 
Mrfaee ou a level with the aurrounding healthy ibin. Sach 
mtfart teari fallow tlie leaa acvere forma of berpca, boil* wbieh 
1 after aligbt diatnictjon of texture, and even inciacd 
la and lancet cul«, where tbe edgea have not been brought 
[Cr, and aome alight anperltQa] ulceration haa taken place, 
■ in which the indainmation, however produced, ia 
id by nlceration, and conaequent de^tmotion of tiuuc, and 
where gangrene acta in, the aeon are wholly or in part 
jhk laomtb tha aurfiice. In thoae coaea, the icar pauaa through 
P tha throe atagea of intlammatory redneaa, brown diacolouratjon, 
d UMchln^ : and the uaoie of the acar may often be inferred 
^poinnce it ]iuU on, aided by the situation iu which it 
Tfaoa a li]ieAr acar, or a round or oval aurface iL'ar on 
n, anUa, or temple, rollowa bleeding; parallel linear i<nra 
k tb« lolna, ihonldcT*, ttap^ of tttvt, or other lleehy partof Ixtdj, 





follow cnpping:; a cnidnl linesir scnr on laij port of the bodj 
would inilioite a boil treated in the usual vty ; two pvntlel 
linear scars on the nape of neck, ihoulder, or inner aide of upper 
arm, woutd mark a seton, and a depressed, pudcered acar on the 
sune parts, an issae ; a boaejcombed disc near the iDseitdon of 
the deltoid mnBcIe indicatea the operation of vaccination ; a 
white diic with dotted border maf follow a boil tint hu healed 
without operation ; and every form of dcatrix in the neelt, on tlic 
clicat, and on other parts of the bnl<r, may follow scrofUloui 
abeceasea. Scrofula, lypbilii, nnd lupus, in oommoD with injuries 
hj guusbot, boras, and escliBrotica, may leaie behind them scan 
of every size and form. It can scarcely be necessary to add that 
the bealing of scars must be infiuenced by many cnutea, such ns 
age, constitution, and states of health, tbeir utuation oo DM, 
rounded, or hollow inrfaees, on parts subject or not subject to 
motion, and in the direction of muscles or across them. The dis- 
tinctness of scRis will also vary with the complexion, and the tint 
of tbo parts ai^acent. Thus nrars are less apparent in persaos of 
fkir compleiion, when the skin approaches in tint U> Uie while- 
neas of the scar it*elf, and moru distinct over a blue vein or 
discoloured portion of >kin. Hence it is tlint scars are ren- 
dered more visible when the skin is reddened hy blows or 

Age of »eart. — As has just been stated, all scars, whether 
■rising from injury or disease, are Srst red, then brown, then 
white and glistening. Therodnesi, as a rule, lusts fbt two, Ibrcn, 
or four weeks, during the period of healing; the brown dis- 
colonratjon for several months, or even for a few yearss the 
Ueaebed appearance for the rest of life. But the length of euoh 
■tage is subject to nmcb variation. In some cases of smiill- 
pox, fbr iuEtancc, the scim are white and sliining at the end 
of sii mouths; in others, tht^ remnln brown even after two or 
tbrte years ; and siTofulous ulcen will sometimes leave culoaied 
"1 for tlie whole of life. A scar, then, that retains its tn- 
Dry redness cannot he of long standing t one that has ■ 
V ooppery eoluur may have ciisled fbr months or years ; 
t, gliat«ning scar, quite free from colour, mntt have b«en 
kIhi^ ataniling, but we cauuot even gueas at ita age. 

Some Bcan are parliivlanrcd, perhaps brown in the central 
parta, witli a white, pnckerod halo, or wbil« iu tlie centre, with 
' n of hrown spots. 8uch was a sear (ram a twil of t«ii 

jwn' standing. 

It • 

of hrowD ■pais. Sometimes n 

a white disc, with ■ circular n 

X*mo Kuu. KSjuaxinos or scau. 7 

NMb M in ■ prifODcr wha bud twn tltatfci of 

. r Ike ripbt, tlx otbcr mtdn the hitt c^vide. 

Lfka tnl, df a frw ■ddUh' ftandin^, dia[ili;«l the nd> is lU 

^b 4rtiila IB dufc bmvn; Uo *n»i>d, of hum; jnn' auidiD^ 

■rittad ol ■ poap <f Kattcnd wlute cicitricea. 

p Z. T t it *t mmriiif*. — Tba pmeoee or ktanne of Ukm marb 

r, prore of tbe Gnt importsDoc ; aad 

Kail UUoa naria are oertainlj iaddiUe if a 

Bol that thay bbj in mme emtt dinpptar b 

of Catpo-, Holiii, and TuAca; 

diSer widdy a« to the prapoHiaa if 

bigh fiMTtioo of 1 ID 9, Tanfira thi 

M t m x6. Hocfa depends on tlw kiod of tba 

^plo ji il; ami Cinnabar, blue ink, and eomooB 

faiaananl mariu than Indian ink, Kxit, w mdnog 

^ilAiUj pRfinned tnttooi^ 

im m»f h* pMOoODocd tndaGble. Tlie fitfmnce 

I IW nktin nlabifitj of tbe onUxinng Banen. 

■ tba; (B^pwT tb« calooring matter b toaoA depoailod in 

■wml a t » »t » n t gUaii, *bera it an; be (bmnl after dMth. 

■ dmm\\l\m U tiM nan aolable nmltcn ia nrdj » oomiilete 

• tracH ticbind. 

ma; be mwied artifionllji bat if tbt ^g. 

> Ain, a dcalrii «iU be leA in tfca apM vbere 

A* axpariaBnt waa male b; Tai£ea oo a 

a onuifls tatlooaJ «itb Isdiw ink on bb 

t lit tattoo 

fril off at tl 
Ml; a Aat aca 
mil. of c 
bat tbew jilan «m be iodnud b; a . 

HOT* or 1^ bdow Um lerd of tbe ikin. 
(e tattoo naris ve may aqr tbat mot of 
Ml tint (onw mnj dinppaar fiaitiall;, a fev 
it IB a 4aHl bod;. tboM nvfca bare dimp- 
viU ba Itend in tke aw ml 

a — t a i i j Ssant.— PWs tlM «af . if poaKble, m the 

~ Iba «n. and. in tba au* of «all and ddieala 

Mtf an^iB; with 

Bacntd tbalWrnai * 

It of mUA It MumUk Jbddbn tb« n 

aktia. you m ' ' 

with BOtnaia, 

8 FBiuoxu. iDEicTnT. ^^M 

took benaatli, the nnmiiiditig taAte; and vbether it mOTW 
villi the akin or raonni fiicd. 

IJaU^liMliom hg Pialofnptd. — Photognphj iiujr miileaiJ 
wben ucd is rapact of ttw limba, bandi, Teet, and puti ibat 
*r« not ID fbnu. Bui tbcjr may md0 great lennfle urbea we 
■re dwling with put* in the lUiM tbctn, md as the featara 
of Uie rec«. But tliia remarii appliea nUwr to the fii«l feature* 
than to the CTprwcoo, vMcb U not qtule the sine in mj two 
pbotognphi taken by the nme Dialer. Even the oatlina of 
the filed feature* nuj varj aoomfiii^ a* they are in light or in 
tbadow. In the Ticfabonie me pbotogrmphi of Boger 'nchborne. 
of the Cbhnant, and of member* of the Orton fiunil;, woe all 
lued at the trial ; lod Kere so (a terriceable sa to itaow that 
the CUimant's bre, and eapeeiall; the ear, difTend wtdd.1 ftom 
that of Roirer Tichbome tKeoty yean before, and aim that the 
Claimaat bore a neajur rcseniUance to membera of the Orton 
&mi]y than to Ko^r. 

Idnl^icitioa kg Stature inuf Qtrft.— In the Tlehborae caae 
lluae point* came into pUy. Artlinr Orton'a Register ticket, 
i**a«d when be wu IH, abowed tliat be wu 5 feet 9| inches in 
hi* llioea, at 6 feet 9 inehs in bia itwkiDgi. The Cliimant, care- 
fully DuaBur«il in hi* docking in pn»n. hi* also B feot 9 incbe*. 
If, then, Arthur Ortotittopped gruwingnt 18, be and the Ciaimint 
might be ona and the aame penon. Hot ii> iiicn, one with aootber. 
fTtvt two inrliw by Uiu time they reach 30, there ii ■ strong pro- 
Uihil'ily ill r.inmr of Orton hariog grown luller, and therefore 
:,^.r-,.f III, I l.iliinut «nd Orton being oDO und the aame. In the 
.1. ,< Ii ,.,.r 'JVbbomc. the Carabineer, the itnture and girth of 
'li- ■ I ■ '1 ■■ ■ r.' ai»A ]in( in cvidenoe." 

' ■ ■ ■ ' ■ " '— i"-n i^erted by eomparing n recent woned 

rn it. In Janoary, 1S46, when freafaly' 

-'rucmd, a robbery wai eommitted at 
I .Id nien. Kext moniing »e»anil ipMa 
ilmr on the left of a cltetl of drawvn 
■ "l-t Other fpoW were found on the 
''.V tlw nihlwn wlum they quitted the 
fT-hand of tlin fmlotvpi. A ulirgd uf 
I Uir< roiil, which proved to Iw a poT- 
iiliiiiurhoal, a man wat fiMiiiiI 
< Miiino and M. Cajorderol 

foil IDBNTinCATtOS. 

Ova rtlier qorrtioa rclaling to tha identity ot the Living 

■uiiu to b« examined, vii, Wial dagret and dmralion r^ light 

t mtc » t * nrjf to fuahle an obtervtr to duUvguitk the Jralvrtt, 

that III* fWTKH* nwy he ajlencardi UhndJUd ! Tbat a vary 

wt dantion of ■ brilliant Iig:ht infficea for this parposo is 

^mni b; tb* fbllowini; caw : — A lad;, on bor wsy frw India, 

awolw in tbg middle of b dark night, and beard laiiiG one stirring 

in hcv eaUn. A tadden flaih of liglitnittg enabled her to see dis- 

_,liae(l}r • tnma mmnu^ng uoe of ber trunks, and so to discern 

'*' ' ' a u to identify him next morning, tjmne of the stolen 

V ftmnd upon bini, and he acknowledged the Rict.' 

In tha foUoving caw, the quation Brine ivhethnr the light 

il bjr the flash of • pistol would suffice to dineover the face 

It tbe pgrMn firing. 

r Tbe Sinir Lab|j«. on a dark night in Maj, 1SD8, nns riding 
pStb tlw widow HeaujeuD, ittouded bj a servant od foot. The 
wounded in ttie hand by a gun flred through ■ hedge 
d bjr a ditch ; and both he and hit master swore that tbey 
d Die asausin bf the light of the discharge. An aocoied 
d condemned to deatli, ajipoaled 
iineBu, Member of the luatitnte, 
■Bd Pre t tmar of Experimental Physics in the Imperial Gallic of 
FkvDM, ns consulted a* to the poasibility of identificatjou in the 
MaOMT darribed. Accordingly, Ginean, his siTn, ProfcssarB 
Dopim and Caiudn, and othera, statjoned at diflercnt distances, 
*■> witsm* Uie efleet, canted several primings to bo fired in n dark 
The light liiough strong, bnt fuliginous, was so trsnaieiit 
*>t VBS scareel^f passible to tec distinctly the form of a liead, 
■1 tint of tbc flue could not be re<x)gni*ed." The ciperimenta 
ra then rcpeatnl in tbe court-yard of the college, the gun being 
* A with powder, but with the same reiulta. The sentence 

iperimente did not conviuoe FoJerf, who thought that 

li^t were dark, and the persons within six, eight, or ten 

other, identiflcalion was posnhle : and the resnlta arc 

nriance with the opinion* of persons Bccustomed to 

well as with our own experiments. We 

rvcogniied the flive of a friend hy the disetiarge, in 

.oTb gmi close at hand (O.). It msy also be rensonably 

' ~'»l under slniug eicitemenl, when the perceptionH 

ihe actions are rapid, n person cxpoaed to danger 

qnieliCT and more distinct perception timn to, ex- 

'OclonicdIsorPraFt.HHi.'srt.IitsntllT. ^^^H 
h) Sick tn-a tbt • Cbbks C^Ubres.' ^^^^H 



periiDenter. The qaeation, tben, ii dub which Bdnuti of taS§- 
taetOTj Bolation only bj collecting curs uf this den, 

Tha foUowine case occurred in England in 1799. One Heinei 
wu indicted far Bhooting at Edmrde, Janei, and DowMm, Bow 
Btreet ot&oen, on the highwaj. Edwirdi deposed that, in con- 
sequence of KTerel robberies aaa Hotinilow, he, with Jooaa and 
Dawson, act off in a praC-chaiM oae dark nlglit Id November, and 
were attacked near Bcdfont by two persons on borsebadf, one of 
whom abitioned himself at the borrea' besdi, and the other at the 
door of the choiae. By the flash of the pistols he conld distinctly 
aee that the man at the clTaiae-door rode a dark-brown horae, be- 
tween thirt*en and fourtwn hnnds high, of a very temarlcable 
shnpe, having a iqanre head, and very thick ahoulders, and alto- 
gelher such thai lie could pick it out of flfty liorsea : be had since 
recog:nised it. He also perceived by the same Ansh of light 
that the man hnd on a rongh abag-brown grreateoat.* 

A few limilnr cases have occarred in England ; and thM« 
French ca*e to the mime effect in the Introduction ~ 
' Tniadse' [note p, 28). 


After death by accident or violence, and in caics of eihnnuitian, 
the medical man may be called upon to asust in idcutifying the 
entire body ; to reconstruct one that hits been cot to pieces, and 
tbe parts acattcred; or to einmine a (keluton or parts of it, in 
order U> determine the sex, age^ and probably statnre of tbe 
l>araon to whom it belong*. 

By careful eianiination be may ascertain tbe sei, form sotn« 
judftmeiit of the age, and even goess at tbe trade or occupation 
by the muwulur development, tbe skin of the palme nf the hands 
and the naili {indicating hard work, or tbe reverse), and the 
ItraasDco or absunce of tattooing «o coinmon in soldiers, sailor*, 
and the idler claasea, so rare in otbers- Stoius on the hands Or 
olothee may niao help to deteiinine the cmploymenC.f 

Tha folloning ore etumplea of successful identiHcation : — 

Dapaytren idcn^Qed a murdered man chiefly by a maltbrma- 
tion of the hip-jWDl i and by a like deFurmity MM. Laurent. 
Notdn anil Vitry a corpae buried iu a csliar at Veraaillva three 
yean. Tlia body uf Maria Martin was identified eleven monilia 
•f l«r ti«r duBtb by Uw absence of certain teeth Irou the upp«r 


vanialied on upoaure. The bead was (oaad loose, Hnd vw bbhIj 
taken oat and held to vieK. It nita heavy and wi>t, withaliquid 
tliHt gave to writing paper snd linen a greeuish-red tinge. The 
textorea of th« neck were »olid, and the hock of the scalp wua 
perreot and of a remarkabljt fteih 
appearsDce. The hair of the head 
was a beantifdl dark broim, that 
afthe beard of areddertioL The 
divided mtucles of the neck were 
coDsiderably retracted and the 
smooth Burfaoe of the divided 
fonrth vertebra nas visible 

K redaced copy of the ea 
\iaf wbicli uccompames the 
npliou u nnneiod 
In the same vanlt in nhieh 
Charles I was interred Henry 
Mil had been deposited. Tbs 
teadtn eofSn eoclosed in a thidi 
elm case appeared to have been 
beaten in so iis to leave an open 
ing large enonghto expose a mere 
skeleton of the king, with some 
beard upon Ibe chin. Tho bodif 
had then been interred a66yBan. 
The search for the Imdy of Hampden n-as made on tho Blst of 
Joly. 1S29, in the presence of Lord Nngont and others, in Hamp- 
den Charcb, Bucks. TVic colSn plate being corroded, the colEn 
selected for oiamiiiatlon vrni assumed to be bis in consequence of 
it! position near the tablet erected to his wife. It was ■ lead 
GofHn, enclosing two wooden ones, of which the inner one wai 
Ailed with sawdust. The body waa tigbtl; wrapped in three 
layer* of i:Ioth. The ahitomen had &llen in. I'lie face, whieh 
«u white, and ninrbled with blood-veraela, showed the upper 
part of the bridge of the nose, eyes bnt slightly sank, aubam 
hair ux inches long, strong whiskers, and some beard. The 
upper teeth were perfect, and those that remained in the lower 
jaw soond. The skn1I was well formed, and the forehead broad 
and high. The upper extremities were muscular, the lett perfect, 
but the right hand was detached, tlie bones of the ann having 
been sawn through. Several small bones of tbe haod, but no 
finger nails, were found in a separate cloth. Tlie nails of the left 
/j^nii H-ere eat'ire. The loft shoulder wasentire, and tbe socket 
of cbejoint white i but the socket of the righl sbonUet ■«!» of a 

4Mteaf Aftin. (kiaddaoee «w ban ^la out of tbe 

AooU k( bsfM in i^nd IhU a^ntiSadiaa after Htm loog 
b t4 tna b («Ir roHlacd pMotil* b; the eidaKcio of the 

■ d— tWiwy mappan anl talei taOoM. How tlw «ark 
■rMWrtJMl '■ laUWWcd witli hj tbc nmdi cf |ialn&c(»n 

■ iMMaaij iliLuwiliw of intamnrt, um! bov it naj be 
U^aly iMrirtal ky «Hr<r«rnoo of tha bod; ioto adipcccre, 
• Aon rin tTMtiag itf IStfrvT^rtMo. 
Ikap^amliaaaritehaanitia imponUeta Ktuij limit 
^ TImw «f KiBg Otgalwrt, <lisnt«rred &D(n the Chnrch 
. rpiTi, albv IMO ram. oliten tram Pompeii iftCT 1800, 
tfaat^M jagnel Egyrtan DiunnuHfoU 2U00 ;«n nM. 
1 tlwir pnmanctwa. Tlnrc i*. thcrdbra, do medico-le^ 

■ *kicb tfccj wimlil nM be fauid in ■ italte lit (or eiunioB- 

« n«MafBil<Ciik«niJnitit]' intht liviDg bavc tbcir pinlktg 
t dmi, ■■ 1^ lUlaning oue will ibm : — 

» ttird for ninng the bod; of ■ joiuig 
tb« eburehjrird of S^Ciiling, nine weeki &fter ilatb. 

clurge, be wt* found giiilt; by ■ mistake of Che corjna delieli." — 
(Dunlop, note to Beet's ■ MeilioU Jnruprodenc*.*) 

Cues itloBtrativa of tLe posiibilit; of imd pamnu hang mU- 
taken for Uiiog ones, not merel)' b; acqauntancei mid fiiendi, 
but by pirpnu and near rplttliaiiB, arp reiionied by Smith, and by 
Dr. Cummiu, in hia lectures. ('Ucdienl Gonetie,' vol. lii.) 

Calculalion qf Stature. — If we nre deuling with an entire 
ikcleton, we may calculate tlie gtntare of the person to whom it 
belonged by adding about nn iuch-nnd-a-balf for tbe soft parta. 
If the bouta are detaclied. tliey should be laid oat ai nearly ■■ 
powUe in the natural poiution, and then nieatumi, making al- 
lowance, aa above, for the soil parts. 

It ia commonly atated that, wlien tbc armi are stretched 
oat horizontally, the line from one middle fin^r to the other ii 
eqoal to the height. This, thongh not eiacUy true (and leu 
true in women than in men), may be oaed to detenuine roaghly 
the Btotnre of a body nben only the bonea of an arm are forth- 
couiiog. By doubling the length of the arm, and adding 
twelve inche* for the clavicles and an inch- and- a-hnlf for the 
sternum, as suggested by Ur. Taylor, a gucu may be made at 
the stature. 

M. Sno, more tban a century ago. collected data for caluulnljng 
the stature from the length of the eitremitieB.* He measured 
BuliJHcta of medium height, chosen as tiull proportioned. Bi> 
meaeurements, reduced to EngUah feet, inches, and lines, are 
([iven in the following table; the first three Unea of wbich 
show tlie results of oucmeasoreiueiit ; the last two of averages : — 



^""'^- 1 E.^^V. 


lyear . . 
8 yean . . 
10 jcan . , 

20-25 yea^ '. 

PI. In. Lin. 
2 11 8 
4 10 S 
6 S 2 

1 2 6 

1 8 i 

2 1 T 
2 C 11 
2 10 1 

9 7 

1 8 

1 8 4 

2 4 1 
8 8 

» 7 

1 8 

1 911 
S 4 10 

2 10 1 

* of M. . 

W M Tji wW» canlian. Ttm of 44 milgi (with 4 eierptiaiu 
tUta^ oBlt ; bMl ifee teagth from tlie r«rt«( tu Uie puW 
aictl; diial to that frna Uu pabc* to tbp Mile of tbe foot : 
■Id* is 33 inrtinec*. dui fann*r mevureni«at excMdetl tlie 
iMMTi Mill in 14 Ul iWt of iu Tlie gmiist diffiiranK on 
* h» adt *«• S^ iaclws EngUili. Agiiu. in luit one ont of 7 
« Uw aboTtinauiirciiienU eqiul: iheupper halroftbe 

. TLem 
o the [lubcs b; It 

e than ^ incb, 

f tbc tahla mar* cli:*iJj, and bringing togetber 
■ ID whkh Uie bnigib froiu Uic vErtei to tbe pqbe> 
h^faw to ba th< wui*, nr have fouuil ■ coniidenible dilfereiiO! 
ii tka l«ir»> f"^ ^ P"^ t« U>« »le. Of afUat atalis 
■ — JH S <M< tf to 2 fnt D^ iniib« Awn Uw Tertei to tht^ 
fh^ a*B whipmI w littla u 2 f<nt T incba bma the pubei 
to Ika tob, vbilc iBother maiurcJ 3 fml lli~a ■liO'.^retice 
^ 4) laeha. A^mu, of tltv fH&uibs, iu wluni lUo upper 
■MMTtotont wm 3 bd 6j to 2 tore 7 incbta, one mauured 
■Mt toON thaa S feit t, U» oUicr lUtle loi Uun 2 feat S— ■ 

hat Es ndilg OriUa'* mcamreinaiit*, we might be in erroi 
oMM of 4 10 if locbta. Bis meuarrmenU of tbe 
« aUUl ibTlitioa* hUI men reunrkkble : (or in one in- 
r put of Ihe body uiHuurto 3 l'e»t It, 
E* onljr 2 feet 8— a difiecenire of 5^ iucbe* ; 
r. ioBbiob Uie Di>per meuuremeDt i* S feet 5^. 
tfea hmm to toiiir« iB » n t b S feel 1 1 i~-a tlitfercnce b the oppu- 
■to fcMlm id B iocbca. 

b UkrWK Xttaa, tlut M. SurV bii* in too few. Niid lii* lUte- 
HMe Ud (iBMt] J uni that eren tbo uiurv nuiiietoui and exw'I 
■MwntosMa «f Urtlk, If luol to (Ixlcnuiiiu tbe ilAtoce. migbt 
^ to fwy MrkM cmir. 
(Mk^ ■Mwar—iBti of Ibc cjUndTial bono^ wbicb be nted 
• Um MMarv of lbs akcletou inij of tbe living bod;, 
ibica tkuw, V 

Crliadrieil BoaeB.— |0r61a'e second table.) | 

Luon a> I OBI. 



Femur 7 ,. 
Tibi» 7 ., 

Ft. In. Liu. 
1 I 

10 8 

1 a : 

1 3 


Ft. In. Lin. 
6 1 S 
6 1 3 

6 10 6 

Ft. In. Lin. 
5 9 9 
5 G 

5 7 

6 6 

IB. Un. 
3 6 

8 S 

9 e 

[OrfUa't fint table.) 

>.»ei. 0> BOB*. 


Ulna 14 „ 
PomoT 12 „ 
TiUl U ,, 

n. In. Lin, 

1 a e 

10 8 

1 5 9 
1 2 6 


Ft. In. Lin. 
5 8 1 

5 10 10 

6 9 S 
5 9 S 

Ft, rim, 

6 16 
B B 8 
5 4 6 

S i 6 

8 7 
E a 
S 9 

5 a 

Here, thetii for tbe mmu leni^b of cylindriral bone, we have % 
variHUon in ataluro of from more than tbrce and a \mlf to more 
than five incbea. 

Thia minate analyaiB of Orli1a'« tables is n-ndered necesmy by 
the nndue importance be himsi'ir nttschi'd to thctn ; fin- be aayi, 
■' n'o are cortniii tbat it will be piasible in the greiit*r nnmber of 
caacr, on consulting these tables, and on having- regard eipeciallj 
to the Icngtba of the femur and bumernn, to arrive suflltiently 
near tbe trutli." This falae ronfidence arosefrom his not having 
properly t«a(ed bia owu figures — an omisBion the more to be re- 
gretted, aa bia table* linve been used for practical piirpoaet. 
Tbna, Dr. Henri Baynrd, in tbree instances, in which Iho onlj 
parta of ti.e body left were the bones, nppliiid Orllla'a datk; In 
two ansDeceHfnll;, but, in the third, nitli a auccvaa which ii Ob- 
■iaiulj/ attrlbotnble to a coioddence. 

t ins Liiiac. 

^^^■^IkM^ sbUiacd froiii U im^c <u>d 7 r«>ule wlgtcU. 




1 1 

Mta*, iK^STixn it* lit 

1 1« 


as 90 9 9 

ri««B Gr<^ UwlbNgeiiigrtUcmetiU thM tliee*tiiiutIoii of 
tnm patte of Um bodjr or ■krietoo k miuh la* ouy tiwa 
kth BoibMitM* htfiw nfttaaOetX it to be. (G.) 

■w iMww witii maoh miniiteneai tbe prinl^^ immii- 
ad mponrflnUtMi thtt beloog lo tbe KvenI period* of 
I nnlj liB^clH, howner, Uiil iLe tDcdlcal man a re- 
^ p*« nitoiea ta thia pniit ; uid the occaiiom for an 
■ill beooow lot inilluinMn ■« our regutntioa of birth* bc- 

iDpletc perwoal identilicatioii 

■ irf 1^ b important, unL like the generai 

■ UmM into t«D port*. 1, Tie Age of Ikt 

Ub low bwD arUtrarilj drilled into Kptcnniil and 

otM^ and ccrtun fn (the dimacicria) liare bwu 

» tpoda of BOiBtni importance sad dai^r. Tlicw 

od Jhliiii tiiim ire wmntiii); la tb« pnoaon nwntuy 

I l«fal porpnaM. Kur do the antngta of QorUlvt 

b* ■rtWaliml •utnra bmI woicht of tbc bodjr at Uil- 

it tfim, mb^ ofappUatkia to lBill*idDab, ukI the u 

■ f^tm lo tb* pniUsa of tl« oeatr* of tlic bod< ai ■ t«»t 

j fer ika^b It mvf ba rtsled, \a gcnenl termf, Ui 

I b at tb* n*ri : In Um adnlt. at tbe pubaj far 

eliate pnita, ntmnr U> the ~* ' 

bonei being >iuiTteT, and the trunk longer, than in man, the 
centre of the bod; U above tlie pub«9. 

The fucti roUling to t)ia |Kriod of pulierty in the two loxei, 
und of chanfce of life in women, also show the little depeadence 
to be pliLcod on tliese orcurreDceB as itidicntinna or mge. The 
eitremca sre so far apart that the averages cannot be saTely 
applied to individual case*. 

We have Dioro preeise, tbougb eUU vary impGrrci.-t, menni of 
fixing tbe age of younger peraoiia, in the aucccstivo appGaiaiHW of 
the teeth both of the flrat und second dentition. 

The hrat set or milk-teeth apixtur in Che following order : — 
Central incisors .... 6 — 7 months 
Lateral incisors .6 — » „ 

Fint molars B — IS 

Canine teeth IS — 18 „ 

Second Molars .... 18 — 24 „ 

The niilk'teetb, then, da not appear at the suae age in all 
infants; while BOine are bom witli the incisors above the gumij 
otiiers bnve no teeth till the end of the second year ; and a few 
even live several years without a single visible tooth. 

Tbe order and probiible time of appenrance of the paimanent 
set, with tbe number of teeth existing at each age, ii abowa in 
the annexed table. 



8 jeata. 

9 yew.. 
10 years. 

























As it wua thought tbaC the tkctc of this table might be e' 
ployed OS a Etsndanl of compariaon in detenniuing the age of 
children, especially of those employed in taclories, Mr. " ' ~ 

sTHtofAge.' BjEAiiiaSvinden. 

■ q^oyr, 219, or ncarljr ODe-half, had Ibc 

* at Ua^ MaUd in the tiblp; tuntelj, 4 ccBtnil iucwin, 

14 aDtcriDT mobn. Of £S1 girl*, of the 

^ 168.0* no<l>wancliinane-hslf.h*d the nine biiidI)ct. 

Im Vma wxb UigrtliFr, 387 <nit of 706 had the ftiU com- 

1 ef (OTth. The mnainder in bolh icin mdHsted of 

■ ■ba> in plao* of 4 oT racfa Itind. lud ■ nmller namber 

w Uw ulliCT. In ■ 1arg« pmportkm of the cbildrcn, roe, 

* of lb* fiiQT lateral indaon -mm wmling. and *o of 

r latski Mrd in GS cam onlj Ibe latenl indun were 

>. in tfa« ooIbbm of the table, oppoiita tlie i^ of il 
' ' a Ibr 4, tba nomben 1, 2, 3, or 4, and Haert 
r WBj at tbm! ninnben arc fosnil, tlie diild it in ita 
rt aantian will \>e tiurnK out m 666 uut of 7IB raiM, 
'b I4v In the Tnuining CS, a diild of eight might 
if OD* of nine ;ean. 

y napcrting children ■ ho bad attained the age of 
■ tiilkni in^ rtaulu : — 

D half the hoji. and more than half the girU, 
J ■ poHiUe half of ibe two teirm taken together, 
•omplenMnt of teeth enteml in the table a* bekm^- 
r la(UUf«De(lS( to 14: b; far the majoiilj of both iciea 
^eoaorBervof IbatMTIwalviIenor iMth: and in llinataiica 
M or BtlMr of the teeth wholly wanting. Id three 
Id of IS night bare beenmirtakenroroneof 12lol2^; 
• cf II, and in BDnther trnr one of 10. In a *>f>t 
Mtaneaa, however, a child baittig one or more of the 
h bitfntail in tba oolimina of tbv table oppoiite 1 S J to 
]• r^ k^ caujitlai Ha IStb jrar.* 

Ihm fMBBbant taath are nut nocnplete till tbr dentrt tapirmtia 
■■ka Ihr^ •((mnaca. Thi* nsnalt; baprcna from the 18th to 
th* tUa far. botaatBethnca mocb Uter i and a csie i* rerorded 
^ Pr. Hamilton of a tnan of HO who dial from tlie inita^u 
d bj mltiDf! a *liiIiiin'toatli, 
>l)Ma baa been Laid ■■ n mi of ag*, on the while line at 
• margin of tha nirnaa. known ai Ibe arrut mill: Ai the 
I b; a ilrpnil i>f nil-globnUii, whtrh nay take 
• other than odranrliig a^e; a* Mr. Canton 

J25''"u»!Ki£i''*''™"''""' """''""*' 'baUnt 

r. Canton ^^1 

rcporti rates of liis own, or on the aathoritT of otbera, tn rliicli 
it bm been preunt U 42, 34, 33, tad eren 28 jMra; and u we 
bivc ODnelres teen it completely rormcd xt 43 and SD, luid BliNtit 
at 79 and 85, it a olivious that tbii appearance must rallier bo 
rejected ai a lest of »^, or only used in lienttliy pmoni lirtng 
or dead, in conjunction with other signi of age. (G.)* 

Alt otbur iadicatiooB of age in tbc Living, snch aa gnjntm 
or bnliliiem of tlie liair, and ioas of teeth, are deceptive. Cmc* 
of premnture old ago, of uniuual vigour ac advanced penodi of 
life, and of reitorntion to the aged of mme of the structuraa aod 
fnnctiona proper to nn earlier pimod (e^i), the eutting of leHb 
and the growth of coloured bair ; the aecretlon of milk, and the 
persiBten™ or return of the racnstnia] dischai^), may prevent 
ns from even gneuing at the age. On the other hand, the early 
occurrence of the marks of puberty in both ecxee, and the pr«- 
matore or very lale appearance of the mentes in the female, 
create difflcultica in rightly citimating the age at earlier 

In the bodies of pcreons recently dead, we have the mme 
mean! of eatimatlng the age ai in the living ; and we may learn 
aometliiiig from the dinet'tion of the body. Bony depoiti in the 
heart and orteries, liir instance, afford a strong prolahility that 
tbe subject had reached a mature if not an advanced period of 

Tlie itate of the bone; ntsa liicuisbee some clue to age, both in 
young and old. Up to tlie aire of So (he pn^roi* of oiiiGcatiun 
in the ioug bones alTordB the rrudieat due to ttie age. The head 
and taberoaitiea of the hameriu blend aboat the age of G, and are 
completely united to the ahafb about the age of 20. The condyles 
unite with the aball at from 16 to 18. Tbe bead and trocbanten 
of tite femur blend with the ihifl at about the age of 18, and 
the condyles with the ahaft at about 2U. About the age of 30, 
it is more dilGcalt to determine the age. As, however, age ad- 
vatiMt certain other changes occur. The cartilages of tbe ribs 
become ossified by degrees, and earlier in men than in women. 
In advanced age tbe cartilages of tbe larynx are converted into 
bone. The laturea of tbe ■liull gradually become lesi distinct ai 
life edvaucea. The frontal suture disapgiears about the age of 
pnberty. If the other autnres have grown indisijnot, we may 
le that the age was not under 50. In advanced age the 

to tha Areat ssollla, or AiCtT demnenUan vl 


■ II, 18S1. 

. By Edwii 

■Bx or Tiie uvu 



nertabral diK> ihrivel, the spine IwndBrorKkrcl. and thebnliet 

Tert«briB twconie bevelled olTin ^iit, the botiei in ^lornl 

rcigbt, and thoM of tlie akull become tUiunor through tbe 

tappeanncs of the diploe. 

> Uut the jaip i* the part which ondergoea the most nmrlccd 

iDt^a nitb age. In the f<Bta> and in eirly inbncy the rannia 

d bod; form ■ very obtuse utigle. In middle life they furm 

■ right angle ; bat in old age, when the teeth hare dropped 

M. the alreulu bonier ii abaorbed, and the jaw reverts to thi? 

In VBry old ^enona the jew hoi the churactc- 

ic appcanuuN tiiowu in the auucied eograviiig ; — 

* of MX mi; be miieil in rererenee bnth to infants 

k In tba eue of • aew-born child the issue of parents 

^ f fMl or boiled property, the right of auvceasian, and 

i dML the dispmal of the property depends an tbo sei. 

a wife boidg tuiunt in tHtl-malc, ie delivered of u son burn 

b IIm btuband** riubt ii teeared i bat the property pasties 

' a if *Iw gives birtli to a daaghlec. This fiwm of suecua- 

B ii tanmid Unavy bg the curtet^. 

It nm; he naotuary aim not merely to ascertain the set, where 

n HD ba dooe, bat in daubtM cises, to determina which aex 

, for It appeaM. on the aathurity of Coke upon 

I " aa liuruuphrodite. wliiuh is also culled Andro- 

1, iIbU be bifire, either a« male or female, according to l^aA 


ktnil of the text vliir}! doth prevail, nnd nr'cordiiigly !t onglit U) 
be haptiiot," 

The queilion of lei may also iriBe at a latw ppriod, lu in the 
case qnoted b; Bwk of n jonng iiobl?niBa of doubtfal sei. wlioae 
parents consulted a medicxl man wliether the education slmntd 
be that of mate or feniBle. 

Tbore ore three iMnditioiiB of the oi^ns of gmcntian which 
may pment difflmltiOB to the mvdical eiRinitUir. 

1. Ttie organ! of a male may rewmble tliow of the femnle. 

2. The organs of a femnle may rSBemble thoBe of the male. 

3. Tli« orgnDB of the two tfxft may be blended. 

1. The organs of a male may riisembte thoie of the female. 
(Androgyni.) The moat common malformntion of tbii aort oon- 
([ata of a amall, imperfect, and imperfonit« penia, a sliort caul 
l>eneath it, and a elell arrotiim, brarinfr reapectivety aome resem- 
blance to the ditorii, Tugioa. and labia of the female. Each 
tection of the acrotom may contain a teatiele. bat the teste*, one 
or both, may be lodged behind the eiteninl T-ing. The abort 
ranni, or esl de lae, whieh repUcea the nrethra and opena 
at the baie of the penis, or in the perineum, near the anna, is 
found to commnnicatc with the bladder. It is often enlarged at 
Sta Himmencement, ao as to roaemble the vagina; and hna been 
even made to discharge ita aeiual fDnction. From the position of 
the opening of the urethra beneath the imperfonte penia, theae 
persons are called hgpoipniiiani. 

The presence of leatii'ies in the folds resembling' the labia, or in 
the groin; the comma nicitian of tbeopfiiing beneath the i(nper> 
forate penis, or in the perinenm, with the bladder; the abaeuee at ■ 
any organ correrponding to the uterna; and, in the adult, tlie 
absence of menstruation — enable as at once to determine thesri. 
In moat of these cases the bnild of the body, the muscolar de- 
velopment, the voire, the taslra and habits, are more ttiose of a 
man than of a woman. Many cases anaivi'ring to tbis description 
are on record ; and there are prcpnralioTia, casts, models, and 
drawinga, illuatrating tlieae malformBtiona in moit of our mu- 
seums. Tlje following cose by Mr. W. Loney (' Lancet,' May 7, 
18E6) is H good illuirtration : — .lime W' , a lunatic, twenty- 
eight years of age, was admitted into the Mawlesflcld workhouse. 
She excited suspicion by her unn-illingneaB to be washed, and on 
being examined, waa found to have a penia two inches long, and 
the aame in cireomfcrencr, plnci<d on the pnhes, just abore and 
between the external labia; with a well-defined prepuce, which 
could be mot'cd nt pleasure, causing a slight erection. Just below 
t/i/s was Bn opening so small as Bcaice\y to admit, 1.\ke\\U\ii flT>ffti, 

Id Ij» felt at abotit three incliei diiliiMe 

(Etlm cmild uot be irni. but a oithrtn 

Ivthrougb IbUopFiiing. 'Hie pcniswu 

f tht hcwl wat abort and curtj, lika a 

— amUr and bur; i and [he voice ei- 

cnline. The mamiun were entirely 

hair than oiiial abont the pubo. She 

ler tut« was to depraved that aiie 

fUh gmt drlight. She wat atron^ and 

IjDUDg womeu in tha nme ward bj the 

ynqmuiliM. Bnt Iherc ate cuet in 

:the breattt. oonpled »ith a prefereSK 

h$ might miiloul if the orgnni of geiiu- 

It and in lomc iiuttiinrea ibe absence of 


, well or iU-fornieil, is confined to tbe 
JbnoBtion of the inl«^ninenti. Thta 
ier il«iatioai from the Domiel ■tmctoie 
In two raK*. one a negro, tbe otiier n 
fden fiitet engravings ; and in Ihe cue 
kroQgbt up B> a girl, Hr. Bmnd hj a 
rottifrted parti, and proved to the 
^ mtataken. 

'klonfCiDg to Ihia diviMon, wbich might 
jinit* in a deBraency of tbe inle- 
rr, and of the correeponding part of 
I fdare btiing oceapied by au irrcgnlar 
Itii the ureter* apening upon it. The 
^ and imperforate, and the TnicnliB 
tnhcrclc at ill root, or on Ibe red nnd 
Igatii'lca are genvnill; well formed, aome- 
ntnni, rometiniM to be Telt in tbe groin, 
A. The Miual appetite niay be atrong, 
lug. Thnae olio have this malforoiR- 

Bay memhle Ibe m«le. (Androgynw.) 
■ging to thia rlma "re an enlarged 
Itcri. In tbe firal caw — that of enlargt^d 
teaticla froDi tlip Ubw, tbeprcscDce of 
MniTTenn of nenatnwtion — thew (ingl; 
kMlnrlian n»;." 

la an itutanco In a FreochwotDOn 

Jj^raMBOTiOOo foinB/I Uir 'Cjo, iif Aoatouiy 




having ■ prolapms orident On iospection, vlio Inid elaim to the 
[Dsle Kx, and was ahowa u ■ cnrioBity. And of tlie second form 
ofniBlfornialinn Mnhon roUtcs the cue of one Margiret Malaura, 
eihibited at Pnm in ll!93, drea»od a« ■ man, aiid allegrng thst *he 
pasHHsed iind could use the orgnni of bath lexei. Several phy- 
sicians and sargeons certiiiod that showiusn hermaphrodite; bnt 
^viard, an eminent lurgeon, being incrednkiuB, eiamiued her in 
the presence or Ilia hrother prnctitioners, and found a prolapsn* 
uteri, which be reduced. 

3. The orgnn« of the two seies rosy he blended. 

Many Cjucs of this imperfect approach to the tnio hernupliro- 
dite are on record. In some an ovary Iihb been found on tbo leR 
side, and a testis on the right) ii. oKiiem the position of theao 
oi^nn hat been rovBrsedj nnd in a third class of cnsea the ex- 
temal oi^ni have approiimated closely to the female type, and 
the Internal lo the male, or the reverse.* Bnt no case of real 
hermaphroditism, the organs of the two seies being perfectly 
developed in tliu same person, is on record. 

In einminiug caaes of doubtful sex, the following pointa 
ilioulit be attended to: — The ilxc of the organ rorresponding to 
the penis or cliUiriB, suj whether it i« perforate or imper- 
forate i the form and mode of attacbmunt of the prepuce ; the 
presence or absance of purts correii|ionding to tlie nympluii 
the presence or absence of testicles. The openings that tiitt 
most be csrefnlly examined with a sound, to ascertain whether 
they oommmiinate with the bladder or uterus, or are merely 
mi* de me I and inqoiry slionlJ be made respecting the eniat- 
ence of the menstruHl discharge, or of vicnrioos di«cbai^«s. The 
tCeneml oonfbrmation and appeaniuco of tbe body should also 
be ohserred, including the growth of the beard.t and of hair 
on diSbrent part* of the body ; tlie formation of the nhonldcr* 
and hips) the development of the breaate; the fulness of the 
ttiighp) the tone of the voice] and the feeling uud oonduct 
towards uther sei. 

?n the entire boilj is suhmitled ' 
theoise of Ihinje or Doni« in rummln's Li 

nkls, thv Terj complati? mad laoro' 
■dU of Anslonii lud PhjsioloB*. 
.cuhoDt CUM given Uv fff. Uho- 
•<lh coplnui boi d ud ■hlsLimi. < 
nef to anr ^illa^6 tign dttsllsd in 
ib(af7orsiuillariDtl*DceB, see' 

inspection, there 

t«lorH, ' MM. Om." toL 
d, Dccamnt balb la Dwa 

nthernlie welHm«lop«a 
Pgr the MSB .Bd'a 

Bn C* TSe DEAD. 

I dw ■kaletoD, or lome part of tbe 
^^^ ^wma, m vlikh ttw bllawing diflereDcei are obserr- 

Th* l^ta of Dm fnnak aj« lightor, more cellular, nnootheT, 
I UwH of tbu mile: the pnxxtaet leu 
naUtir. The ituU of the fL-male is 
! bnlging at the aides, ani] longer 
urn i tlu) facB more u>al, the frontal 
t tmm atmn^/ tnarkcd. the noatrila njure delicate, the 
|n* end Wrth aoalltr, and t>>e chin leu praminont. Tlie 
c4aif irfllMraaiiLlehdiwperthan thatof the male; the sterna m 
■tantr aid BoncoDTu; the meifonn cartilage thinner, and 
r I> Ufa t Uw riba amaller, aud the ortiligoi longer. 
• timber, and the bodie* of tbe rertebne 
le llian io the male. The pelvit. how- 
', I w 1 1 (1 tba MMM •-.riking cootml. Tbe Ilia are inore 
1 Io the female ; the aac^iD mure i»a. 
; the angle formed b; the deaceud- 
* obtwej tha pohic arch Hider, the tubeitMitiet of 
I 1*>B*I7 wpantcd; the forouiEn ovale larger, 
« obliqae ; the aoetnbula wider apart ; 
■• abathnr, but larger in iu oatletj than in 
ibocn in the annexed eagrav- 
s, and B the femnle petris. 
« between tba mala and female akeleton U leas 
J (narked Wbre the age of puberty. 



Tlie following table diovi the recpcctive 

midB snd female pelvi, at tlie brim :- 

Xile. Fmule. 

Antero-ptaterior, or conjugate di 


Oblique .... 

(QuBiD ntid Sliarpej-.} 

Thia gronp of subjects— identity, ag«, ittid wi — may he »i- 
vmntagoiaaly brougljt ta a done by tliree rnsec one in Ibc living, 
and two in the deail, in one ur other of which the question of 
idenlity. in most of the form* it is likely to aaaume. will rec«T« 
arople illtutration. The Tichborne case, which wanid hava 
formed a fltting pendent to that of Martin Guerre, will be found 
at length in an appendix. 

1. Tit eaie of Marfia Gutm.—iioiv than three centuriet 
>ip> (in 1539) a marriago took place at Arltgnes, in Lantpirdoc, 
between two children ahont 11 yeare old. The liDeband wai one 
Martin Ouerre, the wife one Bertraude de Itoia. After the lapw 
of nine years a ton (Sanii) wan born, tinder pecoliar circam- 
atances, 1<nown only to the parents. Martin was nn elder aODi 
and W19 icttled in the tame village with his father. Uartin 
having robbed him of some com, and f«iring detection, di»- 
■ppenred, and was notheanl df for eight yeair. In tliis interval 
his father died, leaving four daughters nnder tlie guardianship of 
a yoDDger brother, Pierre. Meanwhile the nbeent Martin t/a- 
listed ai a soldier, and had for comrade one Arnauld de Tilh (or 
Datille) oliat Paesette, iman of known bad character, who lived 
with Martin on such terms of intiinncy as enabled him lo become 
poHcased of all his leurets, Martin lost n leg in tho wan, and 
b«ng taken ill, end thinking himieir nbout to die. gave Amaald 
what be lind about his person. At tho end of the eight years, 
thia Arnauld, thus possessed of Marlin'a aecrets and personal 
property, and having been iniataken for Martin by Bomo friends 
of his, presented himself at Artlgnee, and was at once accepted aa 
the real Martin Ouerre by his uncle, sisters, and all his rrieiuls 
and acquaintance, and, most strange to any, by Bertrandc heTi«If, 
ivha, having been warmly attached to her husband, welcomed th* 
new-nimer with nnfragned BfTection, and bore him two children, 
one of whom died yonng. Arnauld lived with hiscomrade's wif^ 
and surrounded by his eomrade'i relalivea, friends, and acquain- 
tance, for thr^ years j when a soldier psEsing throogh the village, 
c^W/fif^ertrande with the intelligence tWt her busbnnd Martin, 


» hiHl kn & leg in baltU, vat living id FUniln's. Bertrawli', 
tarbed but DDiMatinced, went to a fiouirj nud tuda liini draw 

• lesont of tb«*ddin'> aMtenicnts: butilie took no further 
« of tbtnn, and oontiuiicd to Uve nitb Anuold u berore. 
T three jrcnn Piem, the uncle, quarrelled with ArimulJ, luil 
Id havv killed him but for tbe iutorferencu of Uerlrxiide. SooD 

lenre of a rillage quarrel, Arnault] ¥-ta Drrefll«d, 

d inpiuoncd at Toulonae, and tlierenpon tbe ancio tvitb other 

' itivea tried to persuade Bertrande to denonnci: him ai an iui- 

1 but the rewlutclj' rrfuied, aUcgiDg that heranft "citlier 

I^Xurtin Uovrre or tbe Devil in bin ilun;" and when he wu 

Ml liait, received biio a* berore with everj' mark of 

But till! nut daj, the nncle. pretendiBg to net under 

K powtr of altoni^ in Uertruide'i nuue, arrested Arnaald, 

^og him with frsnd and deception. The com was tried at 

nnde altvging that Uie priuner wu not Martin 

t bnt Amauld de Tilh. known to many pertons in tlie 

u hii yontli at of bad character. On the iwrt of the 

I tlie utbpr hand, all the fai'ta connected with hit uarly 

d oomidete reeognitiOD wen adduced, and Lib perfect bnow- 

sUna thfl moat trivial and the most secret, bucked by 

'■ upriglit chaiacler, hUnieleas life, and atroii^aifectjau. 

150 in number, were then mllcd, of whom betweeu 

id iO bad no donbt of the identity of the accuned with Uaitiu 

Ci SO ilwiLired him to be Amauld de Tilb, and 60 (aid they 

i by tbe resemblanoe between tbe priiQner uiid 

I at whom Iliey hod known lutiuetvly, that they 

'uson. The ion, Suixi, wu then brought 

iltbaogbtKireaemhhuicecoald be trailed between biui 

M pranounced to have tbe hmily look, and 

walifca Um four lialenof Martin Guerre "ai one egg Isllki- 

Tlie judge, on lumming up the evidence, gave 

lat the prinner, a* an impoator, adulterur, and 

r. and ooadcmucd bim to be beheaded and quartered. But 

aiipaiUd to Uic I'arliameut of Tonlouae, which instituted a 

* inqoir]'. The priioaeT, on being eoufronlod tvitb Uertrunde, 
d Im wmU abide bj bor deciaiun, and place bis life in her 
mSt. WmiU «b« awtiar that be mat not UartJn Guerre p 

"that >lie could neither iwenr nor belicvu 
tue»ea were tlian called, of wliom 10 awort' 
« (icUiDer W1U Martin (iuerre, 7 tbut he wa> Amauld de 
' « ml api^u doubtfully. An uncle of Arnnuld and Bomc 
la mid they bad rvoguuted tbe priaoner a» Anuuld 
n tbe Snt, but aHignitl reaiuus for not having eipaaed him. 

The cvidenco of the witnMm is to the perionil chftn>eleri*tin 
or the two men led to the ooncliiaion that there wai little Kwm- 
blaiire between them. Mmtin wm described as toll and darii, 
■pare in body and limb, with Uiihend aunk between theihouldcn. 
a forked carved i?hin, a banging lower lip^ 8 large tumed-up nou, 
an nicer on the face, and a scar on tbe brow ; while Amauld «u 
■hort, thicb-Ect, and corpnimt, had a ttont Irg and na stoop, ■ 
different set of Teatarea, and scan on the t»ee abnot which the 
witnesae* conid not tgree. But the prinoner had donble eye-teeth 
in tbe upper jnw, a (car on tbe forehead, the mil of tbe foK- 
Dofter of the lefl hand sunk in tbe flesh, three warta on the right 
hand and one on tbe little finger, all which pecoliaritiea wore 
recalled by the witneitesMi belonging to Martin Gaerre. Murtiu'i 
alioeoiuker deposed that bit shoe* had to be made a fourth tonger 
than those of Amnuld. Martin, too. was a akilied fencer which 
Amauld was not, nnd Amauld could not speak eren n few words 
of Martin'a nntive Unique longnagv. One witnesa (Jean Espagnol, 
an innkeeper) asserted tbiit Amauld had coufidcd to bim iu the 
itrieteit secrecy all the fiicts relating to hie cloae intiuiacj with 
Martin, and conaciinent knowledge of all bigaecreta. 

The ParliimieDt of Tonlonae found the evidence On the whole 
BO conflicting, attnehcd bo much weight to the apontaneoos reeog< 
nition of AmauM by thoae who might bs preantned to be the beet 
possible judges, and to bia admitted resembUnco to the foor 
sisters of Martin ; while on the other band, the lapse of time in 
the coae ofa Ind who led bis native village wbcn only 20 jean of 
age, added to the hardahlpa and vicissitudfa of a soldier's lilc^ 
wonld serve to eiplsin even marked changes in form and face^ 
and the failure to recollect the words of bis native tongue, uhicb, 
indeed, he might have forgotten befbre he left his nntive village; 
all these con^derations inclined them Ut give their sentence in 
flivonr of the prisoner. But at tbia jouctorc a man with a 
wooden 1e^, calling himaelf Martin Ooerre, appeared in onrt. 
Ho was immediately nrreited, shut up, snd secrttly examinedt 
when he di^iplayed the same knowledge of facta respecting his 
village, acqii»intnn<«a, and family ns Amauld had done; and when 
confronted with tbe prisoner, bore the test of cross-ciimina^on 
equally well, bat often answering with Icaa readinen, and even 
leea minuteness of detail. Hewaa thenbrooglit fhce to face with 
members of the family of Martin Onerre — tbe brother of Amanld 
having absconded and refined to appear. The sisters of Martin 
Oacrre, aa they entered one Vv one, and glanced ut tbe Iww 
comer, throw their arms round his neck, burst into tean, mlled 
Ann Uieir real brother, and asked h\» v^rdou u thousand tinwa 
ybr baring aJloneJ themselves to bo Aeceivei; nci). UcAn^&L, 

^^H|tlw lilbgm of Anigaes bad reongnised 
^^^iMi ol fvdiDg ■bowed iuelf in ancceMion 
liSPwHtikiam Anuolii'stiiTOQr; and the jadgts. 
M lean uiil )M«iDniite grief of tbe loving wife, 
xa Ooam in ail bit righU, aod condeniDed Arnanlil 
■hi^rI aiiil burnt. Before UU eiecation, the iio- 
Full amtaaioo al hi* guilt. 

'loart In the Jt*i 1831, Uadame Hoaet, a widow 
■I Fmrv, dinppeared ; and ButicD, Hubert, and 

nwprctad of Imriiig nude awn; wiUi ber, were 
le iUtart- ot Auic« ; but for want of evidenee, set 
) anuequuace, bawerer, of inrormation iub«e- 
«4 touching ■ bodj nud to baie been baried about 
in ■ garden, tbo renuim were ao completvl^ 
tha niauiwr of tbe death ao clear); aliown, that 
wa<* «iara>et«d anil puuiifafd. 
■ting ffignrnt parta of tha garden, a workman hit 
tfiit whadi waa found to codIkid the lemaiua of a 
ill ■ ail ahtioU to aikeleton. A drawing wus made 
titm. Tbe fleoro la; on the leit aide, with the 
Iba nwk, the vertebral colamo curved, and tbe 

twaed. ao that the liaud uearlj tcucbed the laee, 
■ Inrad) obliqudy u|iwardai tlie Ibigb-bnnei wen: 
t latg* MWtJ brnieatb thein. The prevailing colunr 
N waa jradkmiab-btQwn. bat tbe |iarta in contact 
lk» loag bolwa were of a deep red tint. 

SSyJiMiSi'liBliii tJiBSS 

claviclo, vien beld together by « blackiili mam, aumiandad if 
uverftl iwiiits of a imnll dccairiid ounl. ieaJitig to tba inference 
that the decensed liwJ beeu Btnmgled. an inference fully borne 
ODt by tbe oircumstajitial evideiuw- 

Screrd eliiborate d(tciiin«iits were drawn up by die rvportcnj 
of the flrat nf wbich the fDllowing ta a reiuoie ; — 

" 1. Tbat theie bones flrc tboK of a Avtmin skeleton. 2. Thitt 
the ikpleCoD !■ that of hfemalt. 3. Ttiat ibe hud Httailmd the 
offe of from 60 to TO. 4. That her atature wai about 4 fleet 
B or 9 iacbva. 6. Tbat her hair, which wa« a bright blond 
in yontb, waa mixed witb ^ray at the time of her dCKtb. 6, 
That tha hands were amall. 7. That diiriag life the bonei 
bad never auffered luiy iiy'ury. S. That this woman died of 
atran^latian, and tbiil the net waa, to all apjiearance, bomiddal ; 
and a. That tlie body magt, have lain for aevoral years iu the 

The priaoners, who had been long sn«pect«J, mere tried, oon- 
demned, and sentenced to forced labour for life. 

8. Can Iff Dr. Farlmnin. — Dr. Georg;s Parkman, of Bc«ton, 
U.S., was last aeen alive on the aftermion of Friday, Nov. 23id. 
1649, entering the Medical Inatitution in which Dr. Jcdin 
W. Webaler was Lecturer on Chemiitry ; and It waa proved 
that he went there by appointment t« receive money whioh 
Dr. Webster had lung owed him. Dr. Parkman waa mined. 
and could not be found; bat on the Friday following bis ^- 
appearance, in consequence of the suspicions aroused againiC 
Dr. Webster, search was made in his Uboratory and the 
places atUehcd to it, wliich issued in the diicoveiy, in the 
vault of B privy, of a pelvis, right thigh, and lelt li^, and 
soma towels marked with Or- Webster's initials, such as he 

I the habit of i 


1 the 

fiiniace of the laboratory, mixed with cinders, many fragmenU 
□r bone, blocks nf mineral teeth, and a quantity of gold. A 
lea-cheit was alau found, which contained, embedded in tan, 
and covered with mliierala, tbe entire Crunk of a human body, 
the left thigh, a hunting-knife, and a piece of twine of the ton 
used in tbe Uboratory. On the left ^de of t^e chest a pene- 
trating wound waa discovered ; and to this the death was attri- 
buted. These portions of a human body being found in a 
medical college, ll miglit be allied that they were parts of • 
dissected subject; but this was shown not to lie tbe eaae^ for 
the vessels were fVee from all trace of the preservative flnid 
always employed in that college. They contuned neither ■raemc 
add, nor cMoride of zinc. It was farther proved tbat the juints 



miDend teeth. These were fbvmd with the dSbris of the hQMi^ 
in the furnace ; and the caat the dentirt had takeo fitted with 
great accnracj the very pecoiiarl j shaped jaw of Dr. Pvkman. 

Thus the identification was complete; and, after a long and 
patient investigation. Dr. Webster was fcmnd gnQtj, and at 
length confessed the crime. He first stmek Dr. Parkman on 
the head with a heavy stick, and then stabhed him in the chesL 

This short account is taken from a fhll report published at the 
time. Dr. Wyman exhibited at the trial a drawing of a skeleton 
with the bones that were foand tinted yellow. In the annexed 
engraving, taken from p. 54 of the Report, these fragments are 
printed black. The case afibrds a good example of the reeon- 
struction of a mutilated body. 



r pmy Id IteeHbMt. 

> (Sw Pill III III «r Mial tafcaJBty. h4 P»»w»T..) 
' ~ 1; la faW tba toM <( the coBttKt 

pWiltof nMrtln >,dwlUwirtfcw»rity n «* i« i.thB«gh 
ifat liM^d»j. faiid not Bl«a ta Hi immt. hri 

TLe csuMS of imp ilence miy be — 1. Pii/iical, 2. Me%lat. 

1. The Fhyiical Cauiei art — a. Too Wnder or 
«n sfe. 4. MnironnBtion or defect of the penii. c Dofect «r 
Jisemv of tbe tettidei. d. ConttitntionBl dlsMue or dcbiliQ'. 

ft. Ag», — Tlie surliest ige reongnUed by taw for tbe marriage 
contract IB 11 in the male, and 12 in tbe female. Bnt the eed«- 
smitical conrti look latlier lo the " hnhit, Btrenglb, and constitu- 
tion of Ibe jnrties," or whctUcr they be habilei ad mairimoinmiK ; 
and the common law tr<U hold in&ntile marriages, dnlj ■olcmniwd, 
valid, " when the purtiei on rvacliing the ages jiut stated do not 
detanr to tlie contrBct." 

Tbe age of pnberty, in both leies, ii anhjeet tfl greet TSriatJon. 
It iB uaoal to recognise 11 years lu ilB mriipBt advent in the 
male; but it may flrtt show itulf much later than this; anil 
many cases ore nxurdetl of large dL-velnpment of the aeiusl organl 
iu cliildhood. Casper allei^es tbat tbe power of coition bepni 
earlier and censes Inter tbnn that of prooreatlan ; and, that in 
Uermsny, the posscBsioD of the one dutcs from about the thir- 
teentli, and of the other from the fifteenth to the siiteanth, yoat. 
(Vol. iii. p. 258.) 

The sigDS of puberty are to be sought fbr in tbe genenil con- 
fimnation of the body, tbe ehamctcr of the voice, the growth of 
hojc on the pubes. end tlie development of tliv orgnni of genera- 
tion. If all the genital organi' are foand to have tbe usual manly 
development, it is Bafb to infer thut complete seiual interconne 

But impotence may ariso from old age as welt as from imma- 
tarity; hence one of the qneetiont raised in tbe celvbmted Banbury 
r«rBge Cime — At wbnt ago do the powers of procreation cease ? 

In this case, tried in the Houde of Lords, and decided in IB13, 
the princi|si1 u^uiciit orged flgaiugt the claimant was tbat tbe 
aae^tor under whom he claimed was eighty yean old nt the date 
of the birth ; hot Sir Samael Romilly. after stating that the law 
□f England admit* of no age at which a man may not become a 
father — tbere in no age, from seven iiptvards. nt which a man is 
denied the privilegi; of having children — cited many medial 
authoritieB in its aiijiport. Dr. Gregory, of Edinburgh, says — 
" Magna antein dehiH rubus difl'urentia; decantautareaim eiempla 
■ennm in castris Veneris slrenue merentium, pottqnam ceutnul 
■nlKM complcverant ; oeque sane dabinm, nut adeo ramm octoge- 
nariom pstreoi fieri." Ualler likewise proaouuces a man of ninet; 
to be capaUe of procreating, Farr became a &ther iu tli* one 

S OE DEreCT 07 PEBI5. 37 

Lord Enkine, foUowing on the Mme 

M IBM of Sir Strpfaeo Foi, who morTinl Ht the iigt at 

' tt sa^ bad ft child hara to bun wben he was Krentj- 

a IIm fbUowtng year, and ■ fbarth child irhen be ww 

L TlMAtlaTiw]r-nnwr*l,SirTic«rvaibb8,»booppowtl 

"■ titl*^ tuilly Kdmitt«d the vcakuoi of tfae o\gtt- 

Morc of ifm by ibiftiDg his argument to the more 

L Ihal agtv tlniogb not a proof of impotency, ti rvi- 

"Tfae jiNUiUliEy of tbe airi'* begetting a child at 

b w; ■Bgbt, mil it ia not inureiued b; the appeaiuice of 

yean Ulcr- Itiataiice* huTc beer) oddoced of 

jr biftlH, but none have beni dted iu which a 

Loo, bnini; begotten ■ mu, had cnnociled the 

" It it riear, then, that no limit is fixed bf law. 

1 liy aeienre, at which the power of proCTeation 

B. liroTUed it be a robmt old age, ii ohrioiulj no 

e uf Lord Banbury, 

3c of fail baTing been able to take itroag 

■ ihutt period of fall dra'h.* 

permalama in tbe bodin of aeverat men abore 

c, mmI of on* art. Wi. lenil'i oonltrnntion to the l>ct< 

• IWlAil nunlagH of old luro.t 

(MB or lUfrri uf pnut. — The expenment* of 

I Roan bare ahown that io uumida complete 

I impregnation; bnt thai the 

a by a fringe, while the aniinal ts in heat, will 

t and John Hnnler** iDgeniooi « 

■ of IktnU ii 


» wtjwl tbe •anun miit \m intrudncrd in 11 

tka »ri«l«nCT of the lenTfal or^aou with the ame 

Bat Hm eaiiM to be cited nnder the h«d of Pregnancy 

a tUi. They abow that a rcmalti may berome 

aaqoeDca of intrrtoarH tnlilng plice \a a itate of 

«*<«■ when atleaikil by b) little injory to Ilia 

( (vatnOioa aa to attnteC n» atuntjon aftorwarda; al» 

■ncy nay oorr (n women with hymen intact. So 

r tb« intradDCtian of lb« male organ nor tlie Tenereil 

n naoaHij to hnpregnatkin. It ftinowi. then, that 

HOT partial mntitatknofthe poni^ii nut to beMoDiint«d 

~ " 1 that what eiiM* or reoiun* of 

< admit of Intradnctlon within the 

mtaibr Ltw id Adailtiitf Bnltrij 



orifice of the vngini, Rod thore be no impediment U 
of aemsn, fruitful intercouno may take plac«. Thus, the li 
of tlie gUiia penis ; of the corpora carernos 
bjr Purii, from Piouoni]; of a very eoniidprable portioi 
orgBD (sB In the taie of t, soldier c|aoted by Frank, in wboa* 
large part of tbe penis was carried away by a muaket-ballt ; &/i 
1 impotence. A still more eitreme cane is on recofd,* 
in irbicli, after amjiutatiun of a diuased penia. there wai onlf ■ 
very atanll protruMon of the organ on prtMura, and jet ibc muti- 
lated patient became tbe faClier of two children. Ampulation of 
the penis c\oae to ita root would in all probability cunae impo- 
tboDgb, for the reaaona already asugned, Impregnatieo 
initiht not be impassible. 

The oppoaite malformntion, Mctoire development, wbetbet 
normal or a ixinaequenee of diBenae, c&n also icarcely be r^ardod 
aa a cause of impotence; for though it might render complete 
intercourse impoaaible, it need not prevent impregnation. 

Nor would a malformation of the penis, in winch the urethia 
opens on the organ itaelf. though not in the usual rituation, entail 
impotence. Several «uch caaes tliut did not reault in impoteoce 
rtre on record, and among them instances in wliich the malfonra- 
tion Vfas transmitted from parent to oliild ; in one case, lepoTted 
by Frank, throagb three geuerations. 

Wlien the opeaiog of the urethra, instead of being npon tbe 
penis, is in the perineuni, fruitfiil seinal intercourse cannot tolie 
place unless the semen be artificially introduced into the vagina, 
as in Mr. Hunter's case. Bat, as in all such cases, whether in- 
tentionally or by accident, Ihu semen ejected from the remote 
opening might reach the vit-^iua, and so cause iiupregnHtlon, it 
wonld be unsafe to prouounce pereons subject to such maHbrnu- 
tion to be incapable of frnitful suinal intercourse. 

Bjipospadioni and Epitpadiaju (pp. I!), 20), must be accounted 
incapable of complete sennnl interconrse; and to become lliu 
parents of children must be aausted by Brtificlal means ;t or the 
discharged semen mnst in some unexpaL'tcd iiiaunur be conveyed 
to tbe seiual organs of the female. Tbe occnrreuce of oases of 
hereditary hypospadia, renders this event probable, wbila two 
casee at leaet of impregnallun by hypospndlans with the urethral 
orifice sealed at the very root of the penis establish it beyond a 
doubt. Of these tbe case of the Hyjioapadian Jolianna K., who 
became the &ther of a child similarly malformed, is the meat 

it. Hard in ' London Vtei. wnA e 
* ' Bd. Uei. and Surg. Jounul,' 


ncTscT OK MBun or ini 

Owfar mft tlwt be knovi of no ei- 
bgr • Mi*a « ■Bic(«d ; while of Ibe two 
aadm" llwj " fbnn no rmon far »- 
pncmtian, n loii^ ■■ it mmot be 
ifatt it k impianbla toiaoj teaaa to 

r Ctaanarital phjrwaik vd ■ onafiaemait oi 


of Ibc 

t of tlie penii to the 
i. ve tuBOng 
ei. and cnrii 
Mki^ndaaaeof llwprauta gl^nd «s wooki preveot Uu a- 
jdriiarf IfasMMMj unI lamljM ol the idibcIh of Ibe paat. 
'■!« «fllM<nM«af impoteua wbkb h»eiheiT MM 

IT Jmimt q^ lit Taliela, — The eidiica at both 

If Ib lib rtwiinn imputeDce ; but wbra thcj are 

r polnltj, Ih* powo' of oamplete ■einl ioteroiarK 

~ ' ' ■ Utat, ud a penoD ta taalSattA mxj rreo 

V tt tfmifrt i tbA Mnwn frntamml in Uie TfirimhK 

■ BMj t«ko phee (or ■ mo- 

difhr til* TMwni of boA taitidcaii proradbr ■ 

I V Sir AMIqi OoopCT.f for tboiit twdn morabi 

VoT tb* MSBod t^lklii tbov were ODiatons in eoitn ; 

m toofc pboe at iliatant intervab, bnt with- 

■oomiiif Ub and la* ftwinent, ooued at tlw 

_ , li^, oo tlw auUuHtf of l^tar Ptank, iclU 

■ wt ftmi artntad migraao aiDgwi, wbo wtM baniahaJ Aob ■ 

B Uifi«B kwa Ifar tbnr nnnjr stoal mlahmMMon. The 

gr aC frvithi Mna] iDterooima taki(« pbee afkv a*- 

«•(• oa lb* dinnrnT of appamtlf good iMneQ ia tbe 

■aainilii at a cntuijmlikc inlarral after the remcival of 

leka w In a cwi dtol bt Utfo ; wi lb« auOo^ of mi- 

4 ■■ at \tmA oM loataiMc in tLe liaonn ■□)>)«<. SnCl- 

• «aa> on ^au ■ntbcwit; of Bojet. in wliub aftar tbe 

d aThMb latklaa. a man bcoun* » fatba.I 

bean «ndl biuidcibhtj iliamaoD a> to tbe poan- 

BwtUiaatjatM iMtldalufiDKcliildnni but aa im- 

bbM \m auppiwaJ to itaptnd ob the cjuanlity of the 

> m^ tUj aOrB tbat ooa aonnd tackle w to ibe fat) 

A ■■two. ManarboalaitielaBmitiuitcia tbcabdooBi 

clmracter for ei 

I. Tlie quotion of tlia 

niprefiniite will he poniidereil prewntly. (See Sterilit*). 

Siniill lUe of tMlicle U Hot anfRcicnt groand fur inferring 
impotence ; for though tlicre arc CB«n on record in which it hM 
cdooided with n total ibieiice of lenud deore. tlieie ii at ImA 
one weU'inthenticnted Instance in which both penta and totfctn 
Siting ori^nall; very tmM, there Here aextuil dccirts, erectina 
luiona, )n«daiil incns« in Azf, and fruitful iniercDane-* 
The (ufficlenr; of even > aingle small teatido ia auppoaed to bare 
been ihown in n oaw which occurred in the rngu of EliMitWki 
Willimet, the flrat wife of one John Bury, alleged that he wm 
impotent ; and on inipe«tian \r/ two phyaidnna be naa found to 
huvB but one teiticle the aixe of a ectall bean, wbile ihe wm b 
ruin. On thii and othor circmnnflnlial evidence, tbe ecde- 
-t annuUed the marriage. Bnt Unr; took a ■wood 
wif^, by whom he lind n boil, and on bis legttiniacy beinp ealM 
ill qontion, the cominoD lawyera were uniiniiDoaBl; of opatM 
that the eccleBia>ticu1 court had l>ecn mialed, and pronniaccd 
tbe flrst mnrriagfi vnlid notnith standi ng^.f 

or the {fMioMf which aSeot the teatitlea, and cause impotCDHi 
tlio waiting thnt •oinetimea Ibllowa attacks of cyanndic parotidM 
ia the uiotC* important. Fodcr^ witnened several auch caaea in 
dcMTlera condemned to labour on Ibe canal at Aries, and LarreJ 
in many loldicra of the army of Egypt. I'he l«stet low tbrir 
•enubilily, become soft, and shrink ta the size of n white Frendl 
bean, and uheil both are nffected, tbe beard gmna tliin, iha 
Intellect fklla, and impotence rcautts. Lnrrey voald not traee 
the diaeaw to previoiu nttiicki of gonorrtm-a, but attributed it to 
tlic u>e of the brandy of date*. 

Elephantiaiis and malignant diseaies, such bb >drrhiu and 
intdtillar; aarcoma, may also lead to the game result ; but it 
would not he anfe to prononace in tavonr of imgntence except 
where the entire structure o1' bolli testicles U aETccted. 

Congenital scrotal hernia, long sUnding inguinal bemia, and 
tnmonrs of la:^ aiie involving tbe genital organs, or affecting 
tlie lower part of tlie abdointsn or npper put of the thighs, may 
oonatitute mechanical impediments tn scinal interconrse. 

d. ContliltiiioBal dueaie or dtbilily, — Uiseaaes which occaakn 
extreme debility may become causes of ioipotence (lempurary or 
permauenOi through tlie weakness towluch they give rite. TiMr* 
moat aiwayi, bowcvcr, be great difficulty in determining the 

axbavtion from diwace or troia age and 
nUob nnputcuee. 

■■( likelj to iKouiaii impeteace are thorn 
n* canno, Mpccially discuci of tlie tjnjie, 

iBUmal onae, or from niEcliinical iiyarj. 
JB ibnat, and parqilfgia, Iroin diaaue or 
vdi mifclit b« suppoavd t4) gire inM to im- 

of ■ weQ-nMrked attack of hemiplegia i« 
lUacti on the owuan of tlie trial of Leg^ 
purtinl rwe»CT y from parnplt^ia, aliio, l!ie 

hI intenoane dtm not appear to t» 1«t.* 

t/S^f$» «. JIViiMiwI(.^Tb« following ia a careful saui- 

' Ite beta of tbil sm (rbirh are interating in a medieo- 

■M id *i*«. Mr. Lcgge, oT Newent, named Angnat 35, 

•4 «*d Juno ^ ISU. Hi* wife »u delivered nf a 

Macb 38, 1837. awl VS^M- of a daughter Octolier 30, 

fear woitlia aftir the death of Mr. L^e. The 

tUMkl Ua age of two ;ear>; the aecond survived 

The hiptiiiiaqt of the aecond child vas called tu 

" OB ■»»oant uf the itat« uf health of Mr. Legge 

to cBdception, and partlj in constijiifnee of the 

uf Mn^ Wb^ ">''' ''■B defendant, to whom the 

r Maiiliil anil bj' whom ihe had children. Hr. 

' 'atk man. illd ■ free lifer, oceaaiunall/ drinlnng 

1 an habitual dmnkanl. On Kovembcr 4th. 

tMrtj-fire or tbirtir-oi years of age, lie Imd a 

^ lactic wiauTi, with loai of tpeecb and hetniplegia 

liti, ftir wlildi he waa actively trmted. and waa «o 

V>d by Notmnhn STih, tittle oiCFre than three week* 

dtfe of the attrck. ■■ to c«ue taking medicine. The 

am Wl him at tbe end of G>e wecka. Aner the lapse of 

U ttiaA waa partially reatornJ; lie tett ki> bed at the end 

ma dnwn ataln ■* early as the end of the tbii-d 

d of tLo fourth nnvlc he wa* walking in the 

■a out. At or aboat thii period be wm seeii 

If won tlun one witnen. On December 7th 

n ■ BDDtli after llw attack], bo went to Ledbury 

AtMag Mmirif pvt of tbe Kay. and aigned hii 

bfciac bi* tonit <nt of a aling fnr tlie parpoae. 

tTlk to llmna>ctcd boilDeH ai niunl. and wri'ti 

Stwent btfore Chri<tiiiiu-day. 


iij ».. 


rode DD horseback before the end of tbe year. On JannaiT^ fl 
he viaiud Glouoester. and Lad traiuactiooB with (eveml tndav- 
men. Before the end of the month he sopped there, and tqieoed 
ojsten, and on the Slat Btt«nded n meeting, at nhich he took d( 
liii coat and cballsnged one of tUe company to Rgbc. Tha mott 
conclusive evidence woa bronght forward to prove thiit betiroeD tba 
end of November, 1813, and clic end of Junuary, 1844, he had n- 
peatedly transited buiineu and written hja name, walked abost 
without aapport, driTsn a gig, ridden on hoTKebaek, and leaped 
hnrdlei, gone oat shooting, aod killed game. It it alio ]irOMd 
by the tegtimony of Boveral witnetaea that he had so far recorertd 
before the end of Januarj lu to aeoni in perfect health. Be bid 
DO new attack of illnew till Februnr; SSth. His death in lb* 
June following waa attribnted toagenenij break up of tbe ifstan. 
following drops;, and diieaae of the bvur. 

From the fore^ing saammry, carefully comjiiled from Ihe 
notci of Mr. Cliarlei Jones, solicitor for the defence, it appear* 
Chat tbere were no medical ground* for Bwuming incapacity Sk 
irnitfal Bcinal intenxiursoat the end of January, tlie presumed 
date of tbe conception of the daughter whose legitimary «nu 
contested. Tbe adtcrae opinion of Drs. Taylor and Carpenter 
was based on other than medical conaiderationg. The Inqittrj, 
commenced at Cheltenbam, wag continued in London, when tlia 
Opinion prcvioosly eipresBcd hy Dr. Semple. Mr. Walsh, and lilt 
author was conflrmed bj- Drs. F. Bird and Blundcll, and tbe Al- 
lowing facts were given in evidence ; — 1. E, K., ict 58, whea 
thirty-three ycnra of age, bad u well-marked ntlouk of bemipUgIa 
of tbe right side, which bas left him lame, and ivith hii aptiA 
■lightly alTeeted. He allegea that he had connection with hi* 
wife within a week of bis seizure, thiit bis seioal powers ban 
not been impaired, and that since the attock he has had three 
children always considered aahis own. His wife gives iLrw 
MS tbe citreme limit of time after the attack at which con 
took place. Tbe Ricts of this case were confirmed by Mr, Wether- 
field, of Covent Garden, who added that he had known other 
rasea of bemipli^c patients begetting children. 2. W. D., eet. 32| 
had ui attack of hemiplegia of the ngbt side nt the earl/ >^ of 
twenty-sii, and a nocimd v^ben twenlj-eiglit years old. lut«r- 
oourae t«ok place within a tbrtnight of tbe first attack ; and 
there bavo been three children of which the first was bom abont 
eighteen months from tbe first sraanre. Neither husband nor 
wife had any doubt that the ohildren were their own. 

In both these instances the recovery wua leas complete than that 
of Mr. Legge.* 

Tbo rnder nill And a fuU aeconnt ot Uils com, ainmos in wms n>»n?*\ 


I, timiititf , ipprebmnDii, 
■ad ditgatt, hare beeo kaowD to 
WoM the aeeptioa of the lait-rumed 
no*— aaOTMH and dla^Tal — the mt are Icansilorv, and 
!». That ^ fftp^^"™ with one bmile i* not inooDRstent 
^vaf abllitj in rMpcrt of othari i* prored bf the cue of 
Bofj, abiad; nrfcnvd ia, u veU u b^ that a( the Karl of 
;, vIm M—i^'— * hi* iiubiUt; to know the Coaaten, bat 
4 MilnpMBea ■• lo other femaLes.* 

a. ntronKo t 

■ •Uch premit 

ml u 

. eiiating in ill lubjecU beAire 
m imUnnn in the ruU^g^rowD adolt- In the 
eaj W remallKd bj emollientt bihI antioiu diU- 
of tit laiia from Inflammatioa, atid obli- 
W thi nw4l>a ftmn Ihu mme came. 3. Ahtence qf Ike 
RMMpniad in aoaic ate* bj atupitre of the atenu. 4. 
lyaea. Thia oftini bslonga 1a the cliu of canble 
ft. TWatatra im (A' cafiaa, >ucl> aa [■olj'pit >ciTThoi» Cbr- 
|wJ«l^i« atari, atkd ;<rolap9iu veaicn. There are other 
)iA Mndw tnnal latcrcouna m difficiilt or painful aa to 
■aMiaa In enanactlon vith thia aubjoct. Of theae Uie 
■hortneaa <if llie Tiginai iDflsm- 
i^lpnot diaauua of tha vatrina or atema : eitreme 
a ttatntooa oiRDinatiicaliaa bctwaen the vagina and 
lalantti ihIm. Of Ihcae aome tat ohvioualy ciuablQ, 
. of BO i*IS>r. 

—Thia maj oixar botb in •omm and in men. In 
am oana «f tlw pbjakal oaiw, nch aa abavnce of the atema, 
M if tlw naek. ur of tb> FBl1u|iiaii (nVo. may eacapa detee- 
Affiiif Bfa. Tbva a>« alau ciinblc •suiKa of iltTility, auch 
~ ' BMBorrhaKia and leucorrhoa, ' 


• Bfe i 

■I of«»<^b/BeDk,p.4j_ 

BiM, tal^MMBufcisrikf |nTnw>ifal«De(«ri)whjai 
TIm Meant dotnctaM «f Um bjnwB piwnallM REcot ■ 
tv» I tmi it tlwr* ar* odMr iMr^ of violoKc on the jmtu 
nn (It* pvNna of Hi* fanal*. tbne on be m naaaaaUe don 
llw euotnilHloii at > ttpa, u br h Uut crime *dDiiCi of I 
prtff ol by iihjiimi Mgn"- 

W|i«i ttw dotruotion of tba h^men U recent, the rorva 
•nyrfj/VrrnM ir* funnd ■*oll«i anil iDfUnieil ; bot the; grad 
• IMiiT mil alirloh with time. 

Til)* itlniitiM of lh# byciwn. *nd aubatitaticm of the camni 
muat niit b* Uksn w )iniof thut the femslo hid had pn< 
•uaiml IntncoiirH, tar tUu mcmbmnii qikj bi^ otiienvue deatrt 
friiiii wllliln, ir ibs aptrtaro b« nnall, by thu Hrat menttruit 
iW W III* «nnnnulati(in of othor diMlun^ii from withoni 
■I'Vliltiiil, at by riin'i|i» boillv* |iun>nwly intTodaand; ala 
It ma)' avvn bo originally wanting, ua ia > caae ra 

■wnneo of tb« hymea tuuit ni 
liiiitityi (br it W Kuained i' 

oron alter the birth of chik 
i.T. Klitfeie, Capuron. Daudelo 
'>r> in whom It wu ruptttrud b 

: and Tolbcrg. on the anthin 

,.!■ (i< a WT)oi«n iu whuui Ihp h; 

. «« afUr tlir birth nf ■ (M 

DWDibnuiA. sun a pi 

ntlnu ami Ihu brawta eaafoi 

■iruaic«M pmuiniiiiiui of rhaal 
, tt Uw hymen, or ito TMCait 

ieity aT tb> UUa, the tnu^ii 
i^f^flf «&aic of the tviimi a v 
.^thr ddBoal^ and MiB It 

/ HmL Bal all Uw a%a 

(N«»> *M wy V tB)iM)d t( 

The fa^ kttendin^ ■ fint rannmtion 

n>IW to 

(irginity dh; n 


J, W oril illBMrBbid b; tbo fbl1< 
■m of gml>d appcianncr were alUrlial in the 
by aoow jonag bch. *Iio called tbem ojiprotiriou* 
i-liy tli»l lliej were no lietur tliim 
paJ'UaUiTrd perHiTi> mcnleil lb» 
,Md Mak tba (itV paiti ami a eumiiUint wu Imlged on 
' deOoDcn, *bo were (ummoneil bcOire a 
ploidcd a jailification. while the 
I}- inuWd OB their purity, and erra 
I ^NMt U itwpeeUon bjr ■ iB«ili«l euDiiueri — whioli 
iM pHtjr darol tfano to do. A. gwom iiupntor, clever 
ko^MH. ■*• ippoinlei b; tlie ouigutnit^ adJ reported 
w lataQj OM of hit pnrer to mj tojMtig certain U to 
■> (■■•Ih : ike Bttght or miebl not be ■ vir^iio i but 
othar had pr»toUf bad aame iutenuarw with men, 
be omU M* aaert Uw fact piailively. Vet it unb- 
(^B* eiH Ibat tlMae jvnng Kunim hud artnully 1i«en 
timm «« Ibe ragiiten of the piiliL-e, aud hid butb had 
T»«— ^~ rf tba tenereal tUieaie. 

ijwal ti«B* of r*pe mnaut in markB of violence on the 
ikn, pTDpDTlioncd to tbo force employed, the 
, and llrr rvUtivc ilUproportion ofthe purl!. Ill 
jinjilHl.i [irnelniHon) the bymeD would be 
luijilil tie tom 1 and the porti woald be 
In juuiig cUildren, there uiay hu no 
■taa^ a*>l Ihetafote no distructiuD of (he lij'men. nml tia 
ntaab bol brokiiig at tbc external UFKan*. After wme 
, f^im win W ■ark* at revent infUiRinalion, with increaied 
a^—Bim. «iUi ptoAiM dM-har^, Kt Hnt of inucDt tinged 
IkaC tkaa of a Bnas-pinileut Uuld, or a greculnb-yelliiw 
f wd ctatfMoa Khancwr. 

^ a*lA*an«anrnta*ta«aeiitwbrallie iiyorieii 
i^««t«f ik*«a«r four ilaja the liiBaiumution will 
bi^ Ito ^f> mmj hoal, and no trace of tlie injury 
B. TW ^RBCBrMalltDg TroiD tlie iiyaric* csi 
■ * l i H . lad a pecaliar gait, ubitli l»tt ta 
ft ^ aMb bit tsnsar in cbUdrcu -ho hara b« 

60 BAFX. 

jared. There ii aln eoiD(ditint of pain ii 
times in rctieTing llie boireU. 

TLe [narks of violence are catfrii paritiu, l«a diatincC, kdcI the 
remlting inHuoisatioD test inteine. in women icho Imve bad 
miurI interHmne, have borne children, sre it the nienitnuJ 
period, or ■re »iiffering from any praftuo diuharge. 

ThcM marlii of ii^urr to tbu piu-t* of genention nuj eiiit, 
■nd yet no rape have beun committed; for a Bnt interaoune, 
with full ODDKnt, or ■ ^reat diipmportioa of parts in one aociu- 
titmed to Beiool intereoune, woiild gsja ri*e to the wme appnr- 

Injarira to the organa of generation luvo aIaob«en fraudnlcotly 
produced, in order to lapport n charge of rapit. Foder£ cit« • 
auv in whicb inflamed apatia were produced by the preBsore ofacoin. 

Appearance* rtsembling thoae dne U> riolenre, may aln b« 

d by diaeaie, u vriu finl thonn by Dr. Peidval. Jane 
Hwnpwn, nt. 4, wai admitted an oat-patieot of the Manciieater 
Infinoarj, February 11, 1791. Tlie mother lUtcd that tbe ehiM 
flnl complflineil of pain in maliing water the day before. This 
led her to eiamine the parte, which abe naa aurprised to find 
liiglily inflamed, sore, and paiafnl. The child had slept two or 
Uiree night* in tlio same bed with a boy fourteen jears old, and 
had complained of being Tcry macb hart by him. Leeches and 
other eitemal application!, witli appropriate iDtemal remedie* 
were preariihod ; bnt the child grew weaker, and died on the iOlh 
of February. A coroner's inquest was lield ; prior to which the 
body wo* inspected, and the abdominal and thonicic viK«rn bnng 
fonnd free horn disease, Mr. Ward, the anigeon attending the 
(aae, gave it as his opinion that the child's death niis canard by 
encTtial violence. A verdict of murdir woa aceordinffly retnrued 
agiunit the lad. Xot many weeks however, elapsed, before sereral 
(inular ease* oecarred, in which there was no mapltdon of external 

which it was « 

n that it bad m 

\ fcwof tlnsa patients died, Mr. Ward was wnviticied 
that he bad bom mistaken, and informed the oonmer of hia rM> 
sons for chanting hi> opinion. Accordingly, when Ihe boy waa 
oslU-d tn the Inr at I.ania>ter, the joitge told the jnry that Uw 
eridenia adlurad waa not sufloiont to convict; that it would 
give rise lo much indelioato dieDUssion If tlioy prooeeded to the 
trial, and that be hupad thoy woald ueqult him without calling 
■UnaasM. With this rfqnrst the jury complied. The diao ' 


Dr. Pop^val, had b*un ■ lypbu* 

d with k niortinntlon of the pndenda.* 




A ■imllw wmpluinC hu Imva dt.-»i7ibed b; Mr. Kinder Wood. 

u preesded by febrila •ymploim for about three da.™. Al- 

m <nu tliea called to tlie seat ar tla^ discaae, bj compUints 

in iu vwdiiig the urine, arid wlieu the genital arfnm were 

id, DM or both labia were fbnnd ealnrged and the aeBt of 

; iuflammatioii, which noon eitciided orer the c^lltoria, 

c, and Ujrmeii. Ulceration luoceeded, leniUng to progrca- 

- lion of the nturnal organs. The diiea«e seemed l» 

ir kind of emptive fever, and proved verj- fntal.* 
nioe, in hii 'Surgical Lectorea,' also deicribod a peculliir 
■tinn of tba exlemal organs of cbildren. aa not only a 
iflcctinn in it*elf, but apt to be confoanJed nitli ayphlUii, 
gi>e riie to tbo inipicion that the childieii hod been 
In aoine initaneea aerioDa Judicial triala hnd been tli» 
TIm diuaae ocrars in yonng sutyeota of from four or five 
n of age ; and cooaigts of inHamnintiou of the 
d eileraal oi^na, fFhlcli flasanie a deep, dnaky red colour, 
It of fout ulcen. witli a tawny gray, and some- 
1 MCDBl (toughing mrhice, attended with a thin fiHtid 
ge, with fefcrialineB. rolleanicBS, great pain, and very 
rablc diatnrbanm of the health of tho child. The diaease 
widely from ayphilis, and the ulcere have cbaractera totally 
any primary venereal aore. Lawrence hud 
• etidence in the cue of a child aaffering IVom thia nflcc- 
HjneiiM of profenloDal opiniona thnt it traa the 
WBi interrogiited into the idea niggeated and 
ly mlertsinnl by tbepareuCa, tbatn certain youth liad dont^ 
'l>g or other to her. He wna taken to Bow-Btreet, et- 
, and tried at the Uld Itjiilcy. 

', of Dublin, deaoribta n Uko nS'ection of the parts of 
s of young children in connection with 
ia, and tialea facta to prore that both affeolioni are 

cues of thia deep-rolourcd inflaiunuition 
IS ifrnilala with proTiue dischnrge. not proceeding to ulcura- 
anil have gi-nerally funiid the friends auspiciouB of 

nfcnnce to all theac Ibrms of diieaie. it ihonld be borne in 
It only young children, and that the annie 
n prevail! at the same time, in the same plaee. 

>l. vlli. n. 94. R» also GeoL-i'MBlLciIJurla- 


2. The evidence aObrded b; injar; to tbe parU of g 
inny derive cooSmution from an exKmiiiation of tb« pcnon of the 
r<MDale. Iftberohus been gieat vialeoce and modi resiiUncp, 
bruises and acratcliM will be found od tbe ^roiaa, tlugliB, anil 
kaeca, and on tlie anna end cheat; and the clothea inaj alco 
be (Am in tbe itrui^le. 

Uarks of violence, then, on the parti of generation, eoirobo- 
ratcd b; bruiiei and Kratchos on other parts of tbe poraoa, form 
the principal physical signa of rape. 

3. ExawinalioH of the Linn.— Tlia linen wum by tbe feniale 
at (he time of tbe allied rape may famiah valaable neiiative 
evidence, or nrny issue in tlic distovcry of spots or itaina of blood, 
of racnstruil flaid, of temen, or of oilier discharges. 

Spoil of Blood, — When tbe injury is rncent, the linen will bo 
spotted with pure blood of a uuifhrm red colour ; but when tbe 
first bsmorrhage has ceased, tbe blood will be mixed with mucus, 
producing; stains less defined, reddish, or yellawish red, lighter iu 
the centre, dnrker nt the circumfcMnce, 

These spots of bliwd, or of diBclinr^ tinged with blood, c<un> 
dding with marks of violence, sflbrd astrong presumption ofrspe. 

For tlie chemical testa and microocopic rharsctert uf spota of 
blood, tbe re«diT ia referred to the chapter on Wounds. 

Tie meitttrtial fiuid. — It is neceenry to be on our piard 
against confounding bloDfl-itnins witli those produced by tbe 
menstrual disDharpe. This fluid is secretfd by the lining 
niembrune of tbe uterus; is of a rich cherry-red colour, nd 
hrighlenvd by contact n'itb air, and passes by exposure to n 
brownish-red. It cnntaini teas Abrin than blood, and does not 
form so Hrm or thick a ulot ; but it is eonjetimes disciwrged with 
elnta nf blood. It bus a charaeteriitic nonr odour, and an add 
renoCton, due to tbe pretcDce of free pbonpborie and Inetie acida. 
It also contuina mncoiis globules and epithelial srales from th« 
oterna and vagina. By these properties the unmiied menstrual 
fluid may be distinguialied thini blood; but tlieapoLi or atains 
whirh it forms arv not readily distinguished fhtm stains of blood 
wlivn blended with miicui. And tliia ii cepecially true of the 
aolled Uni-D of llie class on whom the crime of rape ia moat 
tVcqnanlly vommltled. As to sliiins on linen, tberefore, it ia lafb 
to ndiipt Ilie atat«iaenl of Cmpcr. " ibat there ia no dialinguish* 
nlilp dtlli'i-i'nr'u lietweon the two kind* of blood." The DntUTM of 
thu tluUI might be ascfrtaincd by plugging the vagina, 
www found lo flow fWim tlie upper part nf Ibc pi 
be safely inferred tliit it nn* nicnitrnul. 


9 w«r* Inti^ at the time of ao >Ueg«d npt, 

wind with tbc iluidiar^, anil wunld be fimnd 

V*B tb*m«i«d p«rU,iiriii caiHotu doCa Den the Kcne of 

IbdW took pboB ID the a>e of Marj Aahrord : — 

1 were flowing at the time of (be alleged npe, and 

>od was fmmd at the apot where the oinoeeCiao took 

oiddla of Uh itopnanon of a fignre aa the fcraM. 

■n torn, and oorcred with eoafpilatcd 

Uw akirt and fsntahMoa of tha acaiacd, Abraham 

Db Uoodjr. He coofcsaed the eoaaeetion, but 

Tba dfsd bodj of Harj jUhfori wu fband neit 

pod «r wafer.* 

il wt a a l jp>/i. — Wtiea a frmale ii eumined M»n 
■Baa maj be dtnaorvrol at the orifire of the vagina, 
•r m Um «tbiV pacta of genention ; or aenuDal ipoU ma* be 
ftaari oo tlw Anft. The real cbaraeter of tbe Said maj be 
bad b; the nrimarcrpe, which rereila the proence of 
fharoiiriittt bodtot, rarioual; deaignaled a* iprrmaloOMi, 
■mt, aai' a a J smauiraln, and rrroaria (noau. Tlif; 
I ih* Willi of Bala anin^ that have reached l)ie age of 
Vitetj, JiU hiad tiDOOgti Uia wmen in large but rariable nnm- 
mtn, aiaad wtth graaulaa v furpwelM of nod hrger *iie- 
«DDiM of a long aloider fllaiaenl mrrDomted bj an oval or 
I. Th*7 ate very nuuat«, tbeir entire length 
aat aoaadinff the fiOOch of an inch, and the pearihaped 
hnaf abovt half tbe iiM of the homan rrd blood-carpmcle. 
Vk« amvnl hum aflar tba death of tbe animal to whieb tbejr 
'Mlaag, Um Mamtnl liaa a paenliai lulling, undnlating, or vibiat- 
mg ■MVwnHiI. ttot when tbej have ceawil to move, Ibej inaj 
M W 4atartad by Ib^ {wenlial ahape, which the; retain even 
H^ irj 1 and Uiitj hare been detected, after long interval* of 
■•■. hi Uo Eqoid nfataitiail bjr ateeping (eminal Kaini in ■ nnaU 
■aMiljr at AatiDed walcr. Derer^ (bnnd them in ituiH 
■Niha aid, CiMpaj al the and of ■ rear. Uajanl after three, 
Htta* tAtr but yaara-t Tbey also miil putrefaction, ant have 
ta« otoarvad In potHd aenieo kept for ten weeki-J 
*** ^^ M ■MtkiBCBBmlU'iLaKora.'llfd.auVm-P- 

• 1 •■» B( mi. b} il. Umt) Man*. moidvviM lir » •"C^i 

— "^^kuddcbaln, lbi>(«IMUa«l«c>ribci 

DM bndiM M Ha la Ik* UqnU nbOiM 
wMiir. wUI U rcwad n AaWa 'AnUvi 

a. Mi-l.tailifaig.Jtitta.'nLtr.jt\i. 


m Kminal ipot ii oon- 
t be undentood that ■ sbun ma; 
a and jet contain no looapeniiB ; 
I* ofaaenratiom on tbc bodies of men 
1 b; nrioiu fornift of nolence, that oat of 2i jtmog 
la^ad adslta fiantnl of tbeoi ponrerful and vigorfnu 
otipaa mntuniil nnn>«™i tooqienna in 6, few in 9. 
ks 8 : vhilc of men abora 60, a bad them in larfo 
mmI S in ■Bill, ohile ID tfarea odlen thej were Dot die- 
Ddpla)' abn fmuid tlie looapeniu abtent in 14 oat of 
B. A tipunn natoratiat, GO jean of age, ai^vratamed 
a of the miCTOfnpe. eumiaed. with Cuper, hia own 
a aSar aottM, and tbe5 feaod everj wintum irom no loo- 
■ dcambed u innamcrable, and from 
• large. The fact* thoa indoitriontl; 
d iMiM aij jnrtHj Cuikt'r cnnclunon " that thoagh (tains 

" D b«af Mmiinal origin when th«e •psdflc a 

Um^ jat that tha abaenc ' 
hM>«lalaa bax uot bern 

* - 'n of aaminal *po(#, other than the diacorerj of 

'i ba Mmud tliat, thmifli aTailable whpii we are 

" MO, tb«7 are of little valoe wheo we have to 

HDanU uT the poor. Id prepering the »pc<, 

, . • ahoold ba talwn aot U> deatroy the »»- 

■ V> raavb IHRC. U iboohl b« cut out, placed in a waCch- 
' ■ few dnpa of dittllled water, and genti j moved abont 
M BfataAk AfUr a ()aftrler of an hour Uie stained 
■ «fll bart« baooma ufUned and permeated with « 

■ ba arahll* ranored, and allowed to drain. From 

ghOy ofBlaueDt fluid may he eqneeied with 

' I alide, cDvered with a iWc, and 

' a power of not Lea 

w l^fMl^- ml. l pp. IW •! teq. 

thmi 300 diameters. The (Hacorery of loorpenns woald be am- 
clniiTe of the iireeence of semen ; for, as Ctsper juitlv remtrkl, 
" WTioever bu only onoe «e"ii a single clmractBriitic apennaUiaoon, 
dead or alive, enn never be deceived again." 

Other diichargei. — Tlie phyaicsl aigna of rape niay be compli- 
Cited by the preseaoe of the venereal diaeau, and a queation m^ 
arise aa to the value Ijt be attached In this fact. As the earlieit 
period after connection at which the diaeaae oconra is aboot tbK« 
ilaya, it* presence in a female eiamined (oou after the alleged vio- 
lence wuuld aimply prove the fenmle unchaste. If, on eiaiuioatioa 
at a later period, the disease ahooM be detected, it would pnne 
the feiDale anobaate if it were absent in the accused, hat would 
form a atrong eorrulmrntian of the charge if present. In aceoaa- 
tions of rspe based on the eiistence of a puralent or uDeO- 
parulcnt discharge in youn^ female*, the ascertniiied abaenoe of 
gononhcea in tliu accused would be of the atmost importanoe to 
the defence. Aa tbe gonorrhceal discharge cannot be diatinguiabed 
with certainty tram the purulent nr muco-purulent discharga* of 
children, or from the highly coliiured leucarrh<cal diachnvge* of the 
adult, grent ointion is needed in forming an opinion bnaed on the 
nature of any existing discharge. 

The infcroncca drawu froni tlie state of the parts of gi 
person, and linen of the femnte may be strengthened by 

Eramiiiai ion of the acetutd. — If eiamiiied soon after the 
rape, bis person may bear distinct marlis of resistance ; and the 
linen uoro at the time may he found loiled vitli blood and aemen. 
fie may also have used such force as tti cause a rupture nf the 
flianum. On the other linud, the accused laay prove to be too 
weak, or of too tender, or fui advanced, an age to be jnstly 
ebai^eahle with rape ; or it may happen that he is impotent, in 
which ciue the charge most fail to the ground. 

Allegations of rape are sometimes confirmed by an inspection oT 
tbe spot on which the offence was alleged to have been com- 
mitted. It may bear distinct traces of n struggle, iind be found 
covered willi blood. 

When death follows rape, the parts of generation, and the 
body itself, will have to be cnrefuUy examined, and tite chararter 
and extent of all injuries ascertained. The month shonld be 
inspected, as foreign bodies are sometimes introduced to stop tbe 

Tliougli tbe inspection of the persons of the comphiinant and 
of the BccQsed may leave no douht that forcible seinal interconwB 
has taken place, tlie pRmf nf rape may atill be incomplete; fbr 
the feuu^e amy have consented after offering a cerlAia reitstuiee. 

nrastxcj rouAwixc ra; 

fign 1 tbs place aiiil i ' 
d to )»ve bcvn comnuttcdi Ibe time 
e; wlwlber, if other jwr- 
e beard; and whetlitr, if 
I oat before the ditoirerj. 
DO pUoe in the tax o{ 
m 7«m tttge, of tdioti, or of frmalta in ■ state 
^ howevfr pcciliiad. 
> id mnwiit hnt bem toinnuril;^ ancwvreil, l» 

I nu [iriraliiii of her r«iuea. Ttwt tlita, 

I, ia poaribU. U anffidentlj proTcd bjr Cafe 

I, *bL iii. «f CHper*! Baodbook ; lint ■■ tlie term 

1, the dflunce oiait be wlmittcd to be pi»- 

a Urong man, or if tbcrs ii gie>t dupnrit)' 

Hat Itaalr. loo, ma; faint froni (Hf ht, or jield to 

a fimatc hr wiolatnt rfoniajf tUtf WAea' Afr tnoK- 

b^f— That a t^e »■; be oominitted during tbe itupor pro- 

* vd by iwmitiia. tken i* no doubt : tbal a frmalc, acmstoined 

■saal ialaiMuav. m»j he riolktrd daring profoand elttp, a 

m bJiWi iwabaUr i* bot [hat Hit* ibunld liipjien to a virgin is 

fctta W gh— ibipw itn|>ra)>»ble. ^lobitioii i« here used in the 

■ of tfrfWt ant mnpUle •^nud inlcrcfiune ; bnt ander the 

*lll b* citfi] to pnire the pnwbiUtj of 

g woman being followed b; pregnancy, 

la bjr earpriie — a prtof that th« ooDDec- 

it anMn^alinl witb riolcnca. 

I nrr fnllav rap* ? — IVrffnanej may follow 
n I benre tb* trMTCal <n](uin << not a me 
■I aaa i U naj aUo bllow a lint itil«rouurte nilli oananit. It 
h Ibawfaa. la t^ falgheat drgrao imprDbabk that an aveut 


whicb may follow an ict anronaFiausli,- pcrfarmed, and In fpits 4 
the pain of a fint intercourse, alioulii be prevented even bj d 
most pasuonate repugnance. 

It iiow onlj' remains to give BOme sliort directiona tar n 
legal eiaminstioni in ciaes of >ll^'d rape. 

1. Visit tlie female witbont ^rinff time for prepantioa, and 
note tlie time of the visit and tlint at which tlic offente la alated 
to hAve been committed. A*ud leading queationa, eapedoUf 
in the case of chUdreD. 

S. Aacertain the age. atrengtli, and atat? of health of the CDm- 
plainuit; examine the injuries of wbich «ho complnloa, and aee 
whether thej correspond with the cnuse to which she attribnt« 

3. Examine the organa of generation, and note whether lh«j 
are bloody, Bwollen, abraded, inflamed, or ulcerated; whether 
there ia any dischar^, and wbeuce it flows: whether the hymen 
and fourcbette are injoreil, and if aa whether recently, and 
wbnther the carunculee myrtiformea are pretent; Bacertun the 
date and origin of marks of violence, nud determine wbetlier 
they might not have been produced by other than the alleged 
cause, aa, for iusbince, by foreign bodies, purposely applied to, or 
introduced into, the part^. Inquire, also, wbether the alleged 
vtoUtiun took place daring the menstrnoJ period, or while tba 
female was auflering fVom any relaxing diacharge. 

4. If there is any discharge ohserre its quantity, and collect « 
portion of it fur exaoiinntion : and proceed in the same way willi 
spots of blood or semen found on the person or clothes. 

5. If ilealh have taken place, a complete eiamination moat be 
nuHte of the body and the internal viiceni ; search being 
for hruiaei^ fractures, or dislocations, and for foreign ' 
into the mouth. 

6. Kundne the spot on which the offence was committed. 
Lattlg. Examine the person of the accused ; note liia streni 

and examine the [wrls of generation with a view to discc 
whether he he im|wtoR(, or capable of producing the existing 
UBOnnt of injury, wlietlier he have the venere«l diMiue. or any 
Tocent abruion or rupture of the fVwnnm. GiamioD bia peraon 
al«>, with ■ view to discover bruisei, ecrakbe*, or other marka.1 " 
. ronatance j and his linen Ibr apoU of blood or s 

If the jnnt eiaminatiun of the oomplainHnt ami arcuaed do 
Mipport Urn ehargs of n,pe, it may justify tlie clia^ of 
witb intent tu commit Iti and another indictairnt may *" 
ebor^ng the prisoner with the uiitdcinninour. 



r, but H 

\mfn)iitd \yj the ufmuuried to extort moner, 
iNdl tW to« lb<a > af ■ innunour or ivilnwr, or lo iDRuenca s 
~ ' ~* ■aaaawM of duiufet for bn*cb of promrie ; b; tbe 
pMiJ^ tlic ariibra of ■ boaband, or to produre ■ tap- 
hIt to HI «rtat« 1 ukI ilso. boUi 'by single and mirried, 
tej Am MMUtiULi of ovita] pmu^ment. I*regiuuic<| ouij >1k> 
hf nmri^ and umuuriHl, to avi^d divgnc?, 
' eonuut infiiatidde. 


vUo*. on Ito dnth of b<T bmbHnd, by all^png 

Ab k sUli Aild, >&qr[Knnt> the hrin to tbe eetale; and in 

taal uuwU. wb«tt ■ woinaji ooDdenuied to deatb pb:tdi preg- 

; ts «uj of tiamlion. 

Via* bfri praadnra in th* fint cue u by the Unie of > writ 

rinln iatfiritmllo, the tuminatioD being intmited to njurg 

mmlnmm, or illiif « women, g«nenllj twelve in nnmber, who, 

bay lai Un f«aial« prefpant, are diarged with the dot? of 

Nw^ wnUUng her UD her delirer;. In tbe •econd caie, the 

y itf ibajoi^ii to Meerl«iD,Dot only whether ibe U prcgnint, 

■be •bNlw Am <» qmiei rM dtOd. 

fWa Jm7 haa not atwaja been conatituted in the mne maniier ; 

" '' '■ BOW ■ eouMMi paotice to reqnire the aid of (killed 

tmnamtn. ThM in tbe cue <it llri. Fui,* two medical 

id two ma I mm wen appointed to Tiiit her onra b fbrt- 

■dJ 1b > crininal cue (Uir; VetVi, indicted for the 

aTGeorg* Weak*. WeM«ra CircDit, Horcb 20, 1850). tbe 

fat the dafeoee haHiig tnoied for a ■taj' of eiecatioD, *a 

IMW WM qoid with child, thv doon of the court were 

1 a jnrj of matroni wu called into the 

to Inqnir* into tbi! fact. Two lucdliial 

laminii the [.riaoner, and give evidenco 

who ratiml fnr a iburt time, and, on retuming, 

wa» In tbo coiiditlon alleged. Sentence 

till the priiener ahould be delivered, 

■In bterfrrcden proof ofllie pregnaiicj of 

being made to wlniit her lu bail. A caie 

m ma]> aliu aria* nniler the act 1 Qui. IV., 

pi>rk>M tlut a iepaitioa u»j lie read in ovi-^inl.xra.p.isi. 


60 ^^ 

dence when it on be shnivii to tlie aatiarncHau of the jud^ that 
a witneM ii unable, from permnnent aicknm or other infirmity, 
to ntteod the triul. It has been ruled llint iuimineDt delivery i« 
■ Cttuio for examination under tlii* wt. 

As the subject of pregUHnoj ia one that involvtw many detula, 
it will be einmlned Quder the followiiig disUaet lieada : — 1. The 
tigai and lymploiiw nf pregnawry dmrit^ life. S, Exammaio» 
of the Miertu and iU appendant* after death, leilh a tiete to the 
dueonery of pranft of an exhting or previoitt pregnancy; aud 
3. Qtettiont of a medieo-legal natare conntcUd vith pregnatiej/. 

The leading Signs of Pregnancy are here briefly dneribed, the 
reader being rererred For more occarato information to wofkl on 
midwifery, or to monographa trusting eipreaslj on this sulijeot.* 

Cotuiilulional Signs or SyiHplom. — An irritable and capri- 
rioua temper, uduisB and hingnor; a worn and dejectud eiprea- 
aioD of coant«naDW ; nsusea, bearthnm, loathing- of food, a capri- 
cioui, variable, or di>pnived appetite j vomiting, eapedally in the 
morning, and a aMtire itate of bowels; feverithaesi, determina- 
tion of blood to tlie bend, with eraptioni on the face ; uid in 
some case* salivation, and peiiit of the fneu and teeth ; are reeog- 
uised ^mptoms of this state. Taken separately, they have littlt 
valne, s,nd even when several nieiist, they are not condusive. 

The BreiuU.—The changes in the breaabi consist (a) in in- 
ereaied eise and firmness ; (h) in a moist dnrli circle, or areola, 
iWddod with mocoua follielM formed round the nipple; and (c) 
in a mixed svcretioa of milk and serum Howing from the nipple. 

The Vtena. — The eigns referable to this organ are, a. cbaugM 
in the uze and shape of the abdomen; b. qnickening; e. anp- 
preasion of the menses; d. changes in the neck and oriflce oftbe 
nteras j e. increased sin) ; /. bAllottement ; g. disooloration of tin 
mucous membrane of the vagina; h, sounds beard on applying 
the itothoscops to tlie abdomen. 

a. CiMnget in the Sise and Shape of the Abdomen. — TbcM 
conust in a symmetrical ODlorgomeut, lint perceptible nbout tlie 
end of the third month, and incrtasinc up to ilie lime of deUvnj. 
Before the third month the uterus sinking into the pelvis ouoaM 
tbo abdomen to apptnr flattened, and the umbiljaus depressed. 

b. Qaickming. — Tliis 1* vulgurly attributed to the mov« 
of Um ohild, hut is really due to a sudden change in the )> 


ConiDlt Ifantgornrn 

s or rfttcsisoi. 

^Bbxs o: 

^^KmUt tiie* plaoe brtireen the I4tb and 
^^^■iM " •■rty u Uie 12th. It ii ■ tci? 
^^^Bt movtmtata mty not be percerved tt bII, 

of Ibfl ^aceni. or laddi^a contrsctioui of [he 

■ ^ tke Cotonroio. — The mnues nu; be nip. 

poioda, fntai oiiura oiIxt than prrenancjp ; or 
■CQt fer one or tiro prriod* aner coiicuption, mil 

wkil* CDorw of getlaliau ; or, agit'in. they may 
Umv tinwa. and appear aniy nft«r coDceptiim. 
^ b muiiig is fcnuleii wbu bcconie pregiiint 
intiHtnalrd. A wonun whu in really prvgnuiit 
1 tiM bet b^ preteiiiling that stie !■ n^uhir, anil 

. tit Srfkaud Orifiaqftlu Ulm^.—lkn npck 
it«d wmub u full, runnil, aofl, aiid I'laitie ; Ilia 
I, laa* tlwiT wall-dvlitird nJgc, and bcoume tufl, 
ArtnKti and in odrund prvgoanc;, th« ueuk 
. mmI ta at loi^ no longer Co be felt. Tlie oii- 
fc«iu|[ (janatcnie, becinnn circiilar, and admits lliu 
for mora raadily, and tu a grenter d«pth. The 
Ra iu poailioa a> pra^aiic; adranoct ; it rises 
In* it Ullad forward, and the nock ballkwu^l. 

tfin of VUnii,— Ua\nag the flrst threa months, 
m^g j«t nwD out of the pelvis, no enkri^eaieni, 
i*>ai h^ runilnalioii per raginam ; hut at the end i 
nnth it may wDwliuin be felt above tbe pubeai 

tttit, liAii ntvrtmUy and p>^r iragiTinm. .Kt this 
* of HI* may ob* loiuly he due to sues ottur 
V it b not a aora <ign uf it. 
imt. — Thi* la tlui namv given to the leiitatiDii 
all (f Uw fatga alW it lia* l>e«n jerbiil uptnrda 
naaot of tha Bn«v. It i* not available till after 
(btaednrwly modi batond tbe end of thr liith. 
hAih la • i><pi of gmt valiu. 
Ufaa V<** JVoroiu Mrmbnnr of Ike Vagiita^ 
lalMtM U tha f ftgina of d>e pregnant woman baa 

•dXtatH win*. 'Hiia tluwKli au excclletit lign 
la iD«Hn«id«nt in applicatioo. 
laiwfi. — Two •uimd* noay he heard on aiiplyiiig 
>«aar llM n«ka of the gravid nteriu i <Ar jm^a. 
Iiaf JUarf, and (4* aiEna' nomw. Ilie/wbufioa* 
art rmrj Itws ISO to MO ia a ntiaatc, aiij bow no- . 


the puliation of Uie motlior. 
and reumblea tlie tick of a watch beard through a jnllow. It la 
Dot alwBjB beard in the ame place, but geuemlij on one ride, at 
a point nearly midwuy between tlie navel and tbaai 
ipine of the ilinm ; it is occanonall)' ioaudible. Wbcn heard, 
it is a sure lign of pregnancj. It faili in the c 
fcetui, and is inipplicatilo at an earl; period of gestation. The 
uterine rmmmr a a low cooing sound, such as is made by blowing 
gently over the lip of a iiride-iDOQthed phial. It u ajncbronom 
with the pulse of the raotlicr, und may generally be detected in 
the ktonl or anterior parts of the utcnis, boiug first diatinetly 
audible about the end of the fourth month. 

Tlu Urine. — A glistening scum (cunsiitiiig of triple phospbatt 
and minute fangoid und confervoid gronths) is found floating oa 
the urine of prtgnnnt women, after standing one or two days ; 
■nd nnder the name of Kyettein wan once deemed a certaili aign 
of pn^ancy. Thongli generally prrsent in pregraney, it has 
been shown to occur also in ansmie women who are not pregnant. 
I^iis, then, like the fact thnt the nriuc in pregnancy oRen iiod> 
tains grape-sugar, is of little Talne ai a wgu. 

Of the foregoing signs few are conclasive when taken by then- 
srives; while many are extremely falladoQs, and are liiible to ba 
aimolated b; various diseasod conditionit, or to be obscured hj 
co-eiisting disease* of the uterus, or of the abdominal viscoib 
The best of these signs can only be duly appreciated by eiperienoed 
persons, to whom alone this class of inquiries sboutd bo intnMlad. 

Substances expelled {root the womb sometimes furnish evidoMS 
of pregunnoy. The chief of these are, 1. An early ovum, 2. UoIm. 
3. Hydatids. 4. False membrunes. 

1. An Sarlif Ortrni.— This may be renignised by the charvcten 
of the contained foetus, and by that of its memhranes. The ap- 
pearance* presented by Uie ftetus during the early stages of its 
development will be eiamined in the ne>t chapter, llie mem- 
branes present hlglily eharacteristin appearances. The deeidtia ia 
known by its soft, rich, pulpy appearance and strong red cohnr, 
its rongh external surhte perforated by small fornmiua, and iU 
smooth internal surface. The inner decidna i* known by its 
binooth outer surface, and itB internal one covered with tlie Gla- 
menta that receive the arborcsceot villi from tbe eurface of the 
chorion. These appearances are not assumed by any product of 

2. MoIe>. — Some authors regard these bodies as producti of 
conception. If so, the; will be ideiiUfled as such by the dti' 
corery of some constitnent piirta of in ovum ; but if no sodi paita 



It b ri(bt to ■aonw that the lubaUDce luidcr oiami- 
B WA due to iofngnation. 

tmiiili. — Hmt* h a derided bKknce of opinion in Ibvour 
knoy in bQ E*a« fTOdncU of eonceptiuli. It miul b« 
d. I wF WWtr, tint Bjdilidi mijr tpring Irom portian* of 
t* tkaA hava been reUiotd for leTenl montlu, lo that 
Mt (Wi* lo fix Uie date of the ptcgruorj. 
itr IfiMJimii — Time ire often expelled in dfimeuor- 
Hd > aatUm obaamr mi^ht prononnM them product of 
pa. The rale alraad; Liid duvn, that no labitatin) pi- 
rns lb* ««)^> iboaM be dwined a prodoct of coiK^ption, 
k mntaia —irHitfrf' pann of an orum, miut be otwervtd 
llri* (SKi. For ao illoitTation of a lUw membisDe dis- 
I iariag patiifDl nuntmatiim, >ee fig'. 14^ p. 81. 

r, in onln to detcnnioe the eiiilence, cr 

SUlIt, b) pnMDling: tbe imall lize of the virgin 
aaea nagatJte tbe eappcwtion of pir^ane;. Or it 
1 ^atfuL by( «mpt7, and marked by tome of the 
MoaMpasj geataUcm. In thit caae ire ihould not 
•aartiag that pregttancj had eiiited. beranac thcae 
■■J be do* to an} tamoiir irbicb lud diatended tlie 
waitd a laai nlir onuuction with it* internal anrftiN. 
it (Kit finmd empty, its content* niu<t be carefQllj 
i it tnse* of an avam ahonld be diacorered, the fnct 
iapriflMtion woold be made out. 

I fonnerl; attached la certain appearances 
of pngnuic; ; and on llie (rial of Mr. 
W til* manlrr nf Mm* Uniiu, a cDf7JU( 
ta ttw orarj waa held to pnre tba hd of 
ey, in tl« brc of mucb i M ftJante of a))in>0B tt 
■a tu bf drawa froni the appevramti of tbe *oni1> 

T«Bto* of 1X4 corftM Ulnm u a aign of prrviona impregua- 
■a hM« • «alli*M of llval; diieiuaion, and tbe cluwti'n 
t^tiagtUb th* In* eorpoa latenm, tbe prodnet of conwp- 
^m tht bim, n fimnd bi rlrgtn*, haTe been mrj miiiDlely 
lid. It foaalk bam tUa dtei»BioD,that tba diatinctlon bi-- 
tl« trva and tba falw onpnt iatvam o not so marked and 
UmtaJmM^^iamtMiiBffPoaildent ate of it for medion. 



legal pnrpoaei.* But lietween the oorpon tutea o 
virgia oviTj, and thote oT the pregnant woinaa, the difliirencei 
are eiich bb ouglit to be pointed out and illiutrated. A(»»nlingl; 
tlie following illustrations ore appendtd from the able monograpli 
of Dr. Arthur Fnrre.f Fig, 7 
sliow« the longitndiiial aertion 
of an adnll virgin ovary, witb 
Oraafian follicles of ordinary 
use before enlargemenl, and 
■tellate remuas of follidea whinh 
liave buT«t and ilinink after di*- 
ciinrging thrar o». la Hg. 8, 


largeil follkle, witb central bbwd 
vlnt, IVum u woman wbo died on 
the tciitli dayaft^r the eoa- 
meiicciiicDt of her but iDeiiitnia- 
tion ; 2, tlie section of a large 
folliult ivhidi had reccull.v liursland disctuirgeditacouUuits; wliile 
3 auil 4, ibDw a anperlicial atid a deeper lectioD taken from the 
ovary of a woman who died at the end of the fourth month ofg»la- 
tiiili;aiid5,lheiitellaIerolUcleIwodayiafleriuBtnre delivery. The 
last three flgurpa present appewancea which mey be deemed 
vhancterUtic They hxre " dUcharj^ed an ovdiu, which bii been 
afterwards impregnntcd." The question of prior pregni 
on tlie appearance of the ovaries shonld always be an 
lome comjictcDt nutboriiy kiionn to have ciuefully a' 

P«g™n<7 up 

D the t 

V of the hynwn rebot the mppoti- 
d 5. U (operfptation poBible ? 
^ CUU-imrtag. — Cue* of r*r\y <rintfglB« 

■allwritia. Cup«r states genenllj (bat tbe 
tfae ptoerMltTC powtr hut be daied (rom the 
j^tr, aod ill ecMation hnuD the oOLh to tbe 

260.) n* reoonU of the UlMpm L;iE«-ia 

CMC ti dcGm; at IS jean 1 manth: und 
red B fcmale of twin* bebre the annpletioa of 
r. WtboD of OiHgow rrporto > cue of dtlJcery 

E. HoBc girts an imtame of prcgniiM^ in 
1 La Uotte a lue of delitei? before 13 ; tbe 
ODe in the 12th ; Mr. Robertoo a oue of 
BD AM in a (actaj ^rl little more Iban IS 
. SKith of CmreotTjr one at IS jean 7 tnnntha ; 
I, anil Dunlap, in Hengai, met mth toothen of 
iladi girea an iiialanecof pregnaDcj in a Swia 
nr (Male, p. I7fi}i Jcubert and Srborigiiu 
■Mlf agt (Soitl). p. 406) ; and we hare it nn 
■ria and FonUinqoe that "in tbe rear 1816 
■itted iato tbe Jtfotmnt^ at PariiaaioDng a* 

the Raralotiea one or two initanea ocmrred 
md erm brio* that age, being reocired in a 
. tbat h—piUi"» 

e rcmnUd of iiregnancy at rerj 



de TaxiE i> atRtcd to liave bunie a health; cbild at the a^ of 8S 
(Suitb, p. 496). CHpuron 6Ut«a that a. wonuin of 63 waa geiu- 
™llj believed in Paris to biTB given birth lo a daughter ; and 
laitl;, Beck qnotei a eaee Ironi the ' Boaton Medical aod Surgical 
Journal, ' of a woman at Wliitehall (State of New York) becoming 

Bather i 


It will be obaerred that at every nee from 51 to &4 iui^lnaivc^ 
Bevernl ioBtaiioe* of pregnancy are reconled on undoubted aullioritj. 
After thia age there ia a break in tie chain, the earliest of tbe 
more Temarkable caaei having occurred at 68. and the bitest at 
61 ; and these were, for each age, >olit«ry iDatancea. 

Aa the Hrat and lait appearaufe of the meDiea are iudbUj 
luppoeed to fix the limits of pomiblo rruitfaltiesa. and oa cosei of 
early and late meuatrnntion do certainly lend mpporc to ouei of 
early and Inte prt^nncy, it may be well to atate tliat meustnta- 
tiou at 9 ycara i« not an uncommon occurrence in England or on 
the Continent. Male met with two inatancea of rcgoliir return of 
the catamenia and partial development uf tlie breaata at hi yean 
of age. In one French cuie, moDBtrDatioa is recorded at fire 
yean. The occurrence of the menstrual dischurge, even in tbe 
first year of life, resta on good authority. Oat of 1500 caaai to 
which 1 directed my rnqoiriea, I fouod one of menatruation befon 
the completion of tbe eighth year. (G.) 

On tbe other band, I bave known munatnuition t« oontinne 
uninterruptedly as lute aa the B7th year {G.)j and Dr. Jamec 
livid recordpd instnncea for every year from that age up to tbe 
69tb, inclusive. Cases of menstruation recnrring, alter inter- 
mption, at a atill more advunced age are fliao on record. 

Aa the age at which tbe mensct first ap pear admits of medico- 
legal application, it may be well U> state t hat the 11th and IGth 
years are the most common epoch of thiir cummeucement, then 
the 16th, tbcn the ITtb and 13tb, then tbe 18th and 12lh, and 
the other ages in the following order :— the 11th, 19tb, 20th. 
10th, tut. 22ad, 9th, and 23nl. (G.) 

Tbe moat common period for the disappesrsnre of tbe menan 
WDDld seem to he from the 4ath to the hOlh year, incliuiTe ; bat 
the innlanccg bclbre 40 and niter 50 ore uumeroue. 

3. Can a ff'omnn conceive viite in a liatc of imcoiicioiaiutt 1 
— The ariKner to this question ia affirmative. Capoion atjt, 
" It is a fuct, which eiperioDce has more than once coiiflnnad, 
that a woman may hecoine with cbild while in a state of hyiteria, 
under the inliucnee of nareotica, during aipbyiin, drnnkenneEa. 
or rfefjj *&'?, and consequently wilboiit being conaciima of it, or 
ahariag the enjuj'Bjent of the mau nho diidionoura her.'' This 


bj * m»e gltat b; CiipDron himidf, 

took piaee daring a profound 

I h7 • OM cited by Befk. Art. Png- 

brougbt iboat hj ■Kiaet and 

d to Voder^ by De*gniag«. ia whicb 

d with tbe ume intent. 

interroune daring: pn>- 
^J be dud, the one on the aalborit; of 
1 tUt of Dr. Cnauk. Of oncmueiaiu 
„ ' prolonged funting 
B «a> eoDiniinioUd lo me bj Ur. Hevitt of Bark- 
m (G.)i mi of vioUtkni witb tlw mne mqlt dDnng;«ph;ui, 
11 cited bj Poivri [yd. i. p. 600) 
■ CA»bn».- 

u oondittoni of iiueiuibililj', doriiig 
iMMt place foUoited br eooaplioii, the 
u of Itic occarrence, ind not snspeetiiig it 

t> On ■ Wamaw rrmaim igmoraul offttr Prtgitancs vp loOu 
(i^ ^ ZnH»wy f— It M obrioM th«t in the cmo jiwt refetrad 
*• Ihii b qsll« pMHblr. A ooouui irbo b not coTucioai of b*Tii« 
■pBsd htfatf ta Ih* nk of bfooming a mother, would lutntttllj 
Mntel* Inr aBhrgaDMot, and all Ute attendunt t^mptcmi, lo 
MJ fMH* bM Iba Irnc one. A like ignoratice ia perhapa poanUe 
wt^ • (iaala jlaldi to nlidlalJoD nnder wlenui amitaacei 

tai^v. Tin* Fodcr^ on tbi inthoritj of Dagruigra, dtca the 
^im irfa f<i>>>S gM a-bo jieiiled to the •oUdtalioiu of ber lorer, 
* ■ witb him in a bath, mder the aMoranoe that 
■be tan do riik. Sbc benice a mother, bat 
1 ifBotant of bei atnatioo till the hut, and 
ttMt tbr drctunataoce of the iuterooune 
n tbe water hid renxwed all id« of pi^- 
1 tlan prenila that a nngle coitot ia ud. 
~ it piDTidcd the act b« inconiplele, 
imM Iki bj w ooti^Bied. liopregnation a impoeiible. I'odvri.' 
a Id protif of the onnfidence placed by pregnant 
a tliey had t«keti. 
|« all toA ram it ia pgaible, though nnlikely, that 
^ aUhbolc^r ■ymjiluui to diacai^ and nally believe what 

bmatr ^H 
what ^H 



■he 10 mncli dearei ihonld be tine, the wisli id thii, as in othn 
thinga, boinp fatliBTto tile thought; ■nd as the nmrried «i>nj«n, 
uinousfor DfiBpTing-, conatnies every unninal Bcnintian inUmeign 
of pregnane;, and mskes terioas preparation! for the event whidi 
it to (Town her wishes, bo tlie single womBn, whose wlshta all 
tend the other wbj, may linFerely attribute to any onse htit tha 
true one, every aymptom of a state which threatens her with 
eipoanre. But even married women wbo haye no motiTe to mis- 
anderstaad or misrepresent theit true condition, may. np to tba 
Terj last, attribute it to a wrung; cauw. The conditions under 
which thia is idmI Ukel}' to happen are snch as occnrred in a cue 
reported by Dr. Tanner. A lady 42 years old, and married three 
years, after menstruating scantily for Hre or six months pre- 
viously, had ceaaed to be unwell for abont nine monthi, ■'H 
taken in labour and delivered by instmments of a mature femalo 
Inbnt. Botli patenta, though aoiions for ehlMren, despaired of 
having them, nnd the lady had no sU'picion that she wna prc^ant, 
and reeeirrd witli unsfTect^ inirredulity the stnli'ment that aha 
wu not only in that itnte, but had been in labour for ten hours.* 

But perhaps the most remarkable instance on rei'ord of prtg- 
tiancy ignored, If not by (he femnle herself, at least by those most 
liiiely to sutpect her. was fiiinisbed by the Hawkina' diTorce CMC 
tried before the Home of Lords, May, 1B63. The husband, alter 
an absence of ten months from England, r^oini hii adulterDni 
wife, cohstnts with her for more than two months, and eren 
sleeps with her up to within five minutes of lier dellvety— a cir- 
cumstance the more eitrsordinary sa be had alreudy cohabited 
with her during two previous pregnanciea. Nor waa the true 
state uf the case anspccted hy any of her friends and acqnaint- 
ancea, by her maid who had dresaed and undressed her np to the 
night of her confinement, or by liw medii-ol men, the alteratioii 
that had taken place in her personal appearance having been 
nnifbtmly attribnied to illness. Indeed, it was by medical Bd*ie6 
that she remained in England uhile lier husband acrred abiDad. 
Singolar as the Acts of the case were, the I<ord Chancellor ei- 
preued liia belief that the petitioner was whntly unconsdous of 
his wife's state till she gave birth to the child. 

4. Doet the premee of the fff/uien re/ml the nppoiilion of 
Prrgnamy 7— This qoestinu is anwered by the facta quoted at 
p. 48, proring that the hymen may survive repeated intereoune, 
and not be destroyed even hy deliverj. 

G. litiipftfalalioHpmsibUT — Thisquealinn ia discuaaed undo' 
(he bead uf Legitimacy, to which it properly tielDngl. 

ry. BhB pnfomej, nuj- be ooocesled or pretcnJed;^ 
I, wlUl • vww of hiding ihunCb or deatrnjing the child ; 
i. to onUr to prodiica > «appoaiLicioiu heir ta an eatate, 
•boQl B manng*, or to aati^j' thu wiiliai or appeaK the 

■afiMl onn. Lbao, roaj be reqaired for medico legal par- 
'it sndcnoe of daliVBrj in ooncealed cosei, and 
prMciulal cuo. The hitter clas ii cuinpara- 
tt UiF fonoar u of freqaent orcurreace, ntpeciiilly 
of iafitntiddc, whea the aaspeclcd mother has to 
> daUrmiiM whetlier >bi> has been recently diiti*sred. 
liaBa' Irmiiitj du} be odlad for in tlic dend. It may also be 
MH0J tB toiluilllii whalber ■ female hm home children it a 
^m pMltiti Ami a qoaOiun may be raiwd (capecially in triala 
hAtiltaMa) aa lo thi punibility of ■ woman being delivered 
b naiMdoa^ or in a«th » poaitiun sad in audi circumstances 
•IttaM anj crinusal aot of bar own, to endanger tbe lifii of 

_ prl. tbrtfora, raaolTea itaelf into four diviminii : — 
IV mifm ^ rwtnt Drlietrg in tki Lining. 2. Tie $iff<iu of 
»mi tMittiyiatktDtad. 3. Hu wigiu nf a prrrioui Dilipery. 
Ollar mtdim~itS9l qvttiout cmii^otnl teilh DrliDtiy. 

t ■ few ilaji after dali»ery, 
:^TliB/<ttr U pale, a. in 
alight illueaa, and tbe eye aonkeii, and >i 
idal hj ■ dark eLrda. The puLw i* quickened, and Che ik 
mad oam, ia outataifd witli aweat of a peculiar and nnph 
I adaw. Tha bfnut4, aapcdaUy on the tliird or fonrth day, 
ftaai lUL teoa*, and knotty. Tbe nipplea are turgid, and 
■Msta [ if aitu thr apiwaraium proper tu the atato of Preg- 
n, TW huaata wh*u prtoaed ur drawn yield a milky fluid. 
A ^aaauta nicraaci^r eliaraclcrt of aome practical value in 
mnlUto with daUrery «a well aa with infanticide. For the 
1 ftr* HT ala daya afUr dalirvry, tlw lluid lliat may be expreaacd 
■ tta hiiaili b more walcry and opaleaoent than ordinary 
k. awl laM ohila aial opaque. Under the microtcope, along 
b IM wAmit nvlk t^'^'** *>"'■ "^'^ rpitlieliuin, and the 
Wf^tt %iu»tlkl enjmnte Mmtwa aa eolotlmm rorpuieti 
J^''0'o*'rm'n from a lienltli 


<r Mir^ (tig. 9), wu, Um milk of anoU 

' thrown inlo foldj, 
by light' 


sioss 07 i pazviocs delivery. 71 

mbinilion. Th? atenu Hud mgini nuy be enlnr^ed, anil tlic 
I Mlwial parti diitended bj anj tniooar recently eipelled. A diB- 
je mu; How from tbe (reaitnU, and the breasts may enlarge 
{■BdKcrete milk, from synipitby witb the diivtonded nteroB. Tlie 
. bIid, may display all the marlu of recent diKtenaion. 
The eiaminstJOD aliould be made withont delay ; for tbe eigns 
W; diwppeur belbre tbe tenth day ; and, as a general rule, uo 
kctoi; rcsolta are to be expected ailer that date. It may 
D be difficult to give a decided opinion before tliis period has 
iapaed, specially if tbe fictiu be small and the mother vtgorotu. 
In cam of early abortion, the appearance! ore alight and 
niuBcent. and before the end of the second month no evidence 
if iweent •bortion woold be diacoverable. 

Tbe ettenml parta hiive the nnie appearance aa in the living, 
g the abdomen, tbe ntenu i> found to present different 
^ ftccotding to the time that elapKd between delivery 
If dsxtb hai txken place immediately after portnri- 
iteri will be fband wide open, and the womb it«elf 
J, from 9 to 12 incbis long. iU cavity containing 
Mtl blood, ita inner surface lined by the auft and pnlpy 
■ of tbe decidtii, and the attnchment of tbe placenta dia- 
[Alj viaible, ehancteriied by the dark colour, tbe small number 
", and the wmilnnar openings on its laHiK^ 
w of the womb at periodi mure roinole from delivery 
9 with llie degree of Dontractioa. In tbe first two or three 
■by* after the delivery of a mature child, it Is about seven inches 
long by font bnud; iu eiternal surfaoe 'a vascnUr, and miirked 
hj pnrple paUhw ; and when divided it is fomid to be from an 
laeh to an iosb and a half thick, of the colour and consistence ol 
flrm mnacnlar fibre. lis iBternnl aorbce retains the appuHrances 
joat deaerlbed. At ^>e end of a week it is between five and sii 
Inrlua lung and sbout an inch thick ; leas vascular, bat more 
trm. Tbe iniwr snHant is still btcndy, and partially covered by 
daddna. At the end of a fortnight the length does nut exceed 
five inches, and after tbe lupte of a month, it bas resumed its 
vripnal «se, bnt tbe os nteri never closes so completely as in tlio 
_ Tii^a state. The Fallopian tubes and one or both of the ovaries 
id vaacular, and on bdng cut into present one 



abdomen, and dpcciallj in the grcHiia. Theae marka w* cAw 
absent, and wheo preient merel; indicate great ptvvioui duteuBon 
ftillaw«l by ludden aubudence. The marks ou the abdomen in, 
for obvioiu reasani, the iao«t fallacious ; but thaae on tbe breuU 
are very nnlikelj to be cuased by any othar firnn of diEtmnoD. 
When the two coGxist they famish strong evidence either of ■ 
former delivery, or of some diitension of the womb prodadng 
sympaLlietio enlargement of t)ie brvaits. An experienced hand 
will detect in tlie os uteri a peculiar, jug'Rcd coudiljon, ou wbieh 
much stress hss been laid. Tbe marks of a previuns ruptare of 
the fburcbette or perinonm wuntd also aflbrd eoDfinoatory 
evidence. Ou tbe ether lisnd, we may find decisive negitiva 
evidcni-e in a state of imperforation or DHrrowneea quite incon- 
^Bt«nt iFitb eitbor pr^gnsiiey ur delivery. A perfect bymcn 
would a1»o afTurd a preanmption against a previous deliveij. 
(See p. 48.) Tbe following case illustrates the difficulty that 
may exist of proving the f:ict offi previooa delivery ^ — " We very 
lately examined a patient who had borne Aie children, and nnraad 
thTBeof them, the yoangest being now five yean old; tbefareaiti 
ware imall, but nt^ither Hnccid nor peudnlons; tbe nipples short, 
with not the least shade of bro*n colour in the areola;, which 
eKbibited only the dulieato rose colour so often observed on that 
part of the virg:in breast ; there were neither lines nor spoU of 
any kind on the abdomen ; tbe oa nteri was smalt and natnral; 
the va^na Contracted, and the fourchette perfectly entire. It 
should be mentioned tliat this lady never carried lier children 
beyond the end cf the eighth month."* 

4. OMer Medico-ltgal Qiieiliniu eoaneeifd (ci<* Dtlivtry, — ■ 
Two such questions still ren^xin to be examined, 1. Can ■ 
womsn lie delivered in a slate of nnixiuscioamesg ? 2. Can a 
woman, if alone and without isaistance, prevent her child tuna 
perislilng? Tbe lirst of these questions will be examined in thia 
place; tbe seeoud belongs to the lubjeet of Infanticide. 

Can a woman be delivered in a state of uncousdousikeas ? Tbit 
question can be answered in tbe affirmative. Tbe event may 
happen under the influence of narcotica or ardent spirits j and 
during coma, delirium, or pnerperal convuluong, attarlu of apo- 
plexy, deep sleep, and sasjiendiid animation. Cases of unconadoat 
delivery are not likely to happen in a female pregnant for the 
first time; but in women who have borne many children, and 
have easy deliveries, such an event is more probable. 

• HontgomefT : ■ rjelo. Pnrt. Mai.,' vol. Lv. p. eoi 





aBo«TH un vwrwLonrtsT or th> rcnrrs. 

ll mmi to he uacrtcd Uiat ■ diitiiMt omud tonl^iutif; a 
Mm4 wtiijn gnnul b« daanend io tli« womb befbn tbe Kith 
i> Bal ^^ I bat Tdpna* mw thite o<r> not mon than twdTS 
^y» (U, M>d tnr B. Bomc Toand • terj minate otnm in tbe 
^vban); •l(titda^aAeri>n)in^itiDii.'f' The ttMowing tceoant 
•t 1)m Aardapownt of tbe erebiTO ■• bai«d ebieflj on tbe daKri|>- 
Vim at De aui t fa. ; 'itb Uie ixtinutfa of tpngtb anJ weight giien 
" " [hBnria, Uaponni, Oiannier, Hajgrier, Fodere, Orfila, 
1 V«lp<H. and IBcbard'a mewamDcnC* at the (iBtal 
■ Fiwrti WMMm and waigbia being radncad to tlia 

/ ■! 

Wilftt. atont SO gvrinc Sin. that of * lar^ ant, or ■ bariej- "^ „*^^ 
a««. rkrm. thai of ■ avpeat. the head indumted by a iwelliDg.Vf C^*^' 
Ifca OMaid otHBilT deodar, and ending in the nmhiliDal cord ; - ", 
thaBOBlb iMlialad bj ■ cMt; tbe e;a hy two Mack Ininta-.J}^ ri^CAM 
Aas^afcanaqqwarlnv Bani|ip1e-1I1ie protnbennco. The rilkM- f 

Hm «f the Aorlgn ubICititiI; >[irMd orer the anrfice. 

Jb V«eA>. — Xngrfi, from half an ineb to Icaa than an incli. ' ' . I . 

Wi^/U. fr« Ml to ?E gnina. Tbe bead dininet traa the dmt, 1- .7 

«rf lb* laa ftocB Uw eniADiD. and tlw apertora of the ncae, i^^ '7 ^ *? 
■Mfc, «}«i^ aarf Hn paa«aptlble; tbe faanda and fonamu in the ' ^ 

^MbariUlaegUmalUiiansendiatiDet; the leg* and feet (Tvi^- ^ 
rilarta Mar tlw aowt a iHatinrt unbiticw fcr tbe attachment of 1 
a* «ri, wUch eantfila «f iba unphalo-nuaenbirie i^li, of 



Fvt <f Um n«di^ of the inUMiml tabe, nd of fflamcnb wbkll 
w p mm t tlM BmKGcil remb. TW plBcenU fonDias- ; tbe 

dnnoanidimBaoaMillMpKatB: tke maMiral veMel very lugs. 
i^>Mb ^a wi^eaf ioum tbe darkde and muiUar; bone. 

ncv MonUu.—LatgUL, TBikmlj itsUd it (Void 1^ inch to 4 
tMhM. WtigXf, Z to S dtiuliiiH. Badimaiti oT noM, Upa^ ad 
cjdidi ; orgww of genantioD visible ; anv and l«^ detaebid 
6<>Di trank ; tatta vi»AtA bjp a dark ipot ; radimmU of lnog^ 
ap l ata , and fupts-noal capnile* ; fscnm b^ind the ambilkoa i 
digcatiTe (aiul witbdravo into tbe ibdomeiii anchm viable; 
cboriDn begiaoing to toncb the ■niuioD al the point opponle tlw 
hnertion of tlie placenta, which begins to utume ita regDlar 
fenn ; umbilical tbwcIi becoming twitted. Foimit of otiifloalion 
in fnmtat bone and riba. 

Tiree Jlon/it, — Lenglk, variansl; slated at &om 2 to 6 iiuiba. 
ITeisil, ^in 1 oance to 3 ouqch. Tbe bead Tolaminanii tb* 
cyeliifa and lips in contact i mi-'ubrana pnpillarii visible j tiiigera 
•epanled ; lower extremitiei longer than rodimentary tail ; paita 
of geoerativn proniinent, and the lei distlngulahuble bj the lenaj 
tbjrmuii and nipra-renal capiulEa pre«nt ; the ventriclei of tb* 
heart diitinct. Tlie doridua nlerina and relleu in eootact; tii* 
Inaia containing nmbilical reiseli and a little gelatinoua matter; 
placenta complelel; iaoUted ; the ombilical reaicle, allantoic, and 
onpbato-meaeDteric venels hare disappeared. 

^mr MinUkt.-—Leitg{h, Tarioual; stated at from 4} to 8} 
ioeliea. Wtighl, 2} or 3, to 7 oc 8 oimcei. Skin los;. asd 
tolerably dense ; mouth Tery targe and open ; membrana paidt 
lari* lery evident; nails appearing! ki distinct; gall-bladder 
appearing; meconinm in duodennm; CKCal valve visible; mn- 
IiilicoB near the pabes. Co:nplel« contact of chorion and amnim j 
membrane forming at point of attachment of placenta to nlema. 
PoM* of ottificatioH in inferior parte of sacruni ; oeaicala ludl- 
toHa Dffiifled. 

Hee JUaiUht, — Lfnylh, variously stated at from 6 to 10^ 
inches (a still-born male 13, femnle 13j ; male born alive 9, 
female 10, inches). H'eighl, 5 or T ounces lo 1 pouud 1 onnoe. 
(A stiU-bom male, 1 ponnd 13 ounces [Schmitt] ) two atilL-boro 
twin females, 1 pound 6 ounces, and 11 onnret [0.}). Volume ef 
bead still oainparatively great; nails very distinct; bur of tht 
hend showing as a light down; akin without sebaceona coreril^j 
heart and kidneys very voluminous ; gall-bladder distinct ; meco- 
nium of a yellowieb-green tint nt commencement of large in(<a- 
Unes. PottUt of oiiijicalioa in pnbei and oe ealcia ; germa of the 

penauieat leetb. 

(S TSK TtKTTS. 75 

Sn MmOu. — Ltimta, nrioodj ctatcd >l from 8 (o UJ 
aA& ItViriU. 1 Ik. ta > IW. 2 OK. Skin hu «onia tppcuuta 
d ttMM « a ^ *ui <^ uri > tt^tni with don ud <etaMca 
un*i Ifa faodj of dw aoliv «f risaalari cjdub aia ai- 
kai^; mMhnak pajilkiM rt3I akting; fiuiii narrtcd ■ 
lBbAM«ttw*ikMi MMSMMn iu sppvput cf hige into- 


Middte poiBt of bo^ al 

J aani; aB tU lng« i 
•Ink w krfa ■• rigU; siil-hlMU*r tcalMuirg Uk: bin 
te^ia; iMlkb man dUiMt fnin ViiliMii Ant •f<ir$ifin 
h« k a* Mti^iha. MUdI* point «f bodjr ft Bnk Mo* tlw 

>^ JTa-Iia.— £avU, 1« to IS bOm. WofU, S Ak, 
t « to fi Al T a. Skia roi;, corand vith bw ifart Utv tai 
<ilk ■ <l —I nl *d»wwi amlopa: nili rMclnaf odi rf 

Km MmmtU. »r frtt nna^J^^O. 18 to SO istkL 

r.«H 4 1^ fi oi. to T B>, n*b«damr«d*Uh*>fegtt 

'~'i wUb w wiMw; the <»«■ 


■^ w4 M* eAf* faanl la ■ 

7i rancnn. 

As the gronrth «nd derelopment of the TictQi hM w 
bearing on the anbjecti of this ihapler, and Uia eitimHl«a jost 
giren are obrioiuly too general. 1 have prepared two babla 
founfled on tbe accurate objervation* of different autbore, and 
presenting not only tbe average weigbta and measurca. bnt tbe 
tarQ extremes; fbr it ia obvious that tbe extreme Tnlaea whicb 
have hitherto been »o much ne(:!ected in nil numerical inveiljga* 
tions, are often thMC mivit needed. (G.)* 

Of tbe fbllowing taUes, the Rnt (p. 77) prewDts tbe BK«r- 
tuncd weight of the fietuB at the aeveral age» ^pepified, the 
second (p. 78) the nuertained length. In lioth tables the still- 
barn are distingaisbed tram tbnie bom ntivc ; among tbe latter 
those only being included wiio had survived tlR>ir birth one week 
or less. Tbe li>reign weights and measures have heen reduced to 
the English standard, frnotioaal ports of an ounce being omitted. 
Tbe namber of obacrvatians is stated, in order that the valoe of 
the rcaulta tnay be better appreciated, and that fresh obserrations 
may at any time be added. 

Tbe weight of tbe fottni at full term has been made the sub- 
ject of many investigations, and as it is important in itself^ anil 
interesting as throwing light un tbe probable liuiitsof variation at 
earlier periods of gestation, the results, as deduced troin upwards 
of 20,000 observations, by Quetelet, Cnmus, Li^eni, and Bandc- 
loiique, and by Dre. Mscaulay and Clark, including the bets in 
the table, are subjwned: — 

Greatest Ulbs.; least, 2 lbs. G oz. ; avenge, S lbs. 11 ox. 
Weight* have been recorded greatly eieeeiling even tlila 
maiimnni. Dr. Merriman gires one eicveding; 14 lb*.; Sir 
Richard Crott one, and Deweea two, of 1 5 lbs. j Ur. Rnmsbatbain, 
HBiiiir, and Dr. Moore of Mew York, instances of 16^ tha. ; wid 
Mr. Owens, of Ludlow, one of IT Lho. IS on. Even this ^roit 
wright is sud to have been exceeded. 

at the 6ma oi 

indboak, voL lU. p. U aj 









1 s 

1 15111-::::-: 

II B 1=:: :" =:: 


sl'4U — — — 

l-lji ■ 



i «15::: ::: ::: 

ii|«|i::: ::: ::: 


i:.: .:: ::: 

i % 

*2r" =:" =3- 

fil4 H 



i;:„ ;_- ;:« 


-a 'A 

j=:: -; -: 


ill ill ill 

3 J 15 



-.a j.o ..e ^t,E6S°S3 

Iti iii i.=_! .flJUffs 

I I 111 iliiJiiis 



iMgik of tba fixta at fdtl term, u ^jta 
ifHwh uUm**: — 
i lettt 17 indN*: iTvrsge, 19 indio. 
Ml the Wogth hu eiM«*led exra tlii* 
D i» « »» ArUuUiwr, met with « I«ngUi of 27 indM*. 
ba «dl Id add Uut, u a rule, ttOI-boni inCuiU are 
d lanpr ihaa tlioa* bom alife, maJca tlian feaalca^ 
n Uaa twim^ add twiu tban triplets. 
t ■Mrtiirity utd immatnh^ will be gtaned fivtn tbe 
t <f Ibe ilcidcfnnrat cf tike fcFlw; uid tbej 
c lUI; Duler Iba bead of legitinucr. 


cricpe oi almtioD fa&uU in tmiawfnUy administenng to 

K or (aDKDg to be taken b; ber (nhetfaer she be oilh 

at), with intent to procore ber nuacarri*^ an; poboD 

miiw tbin^, cr ming for the aune pnrpoae nay inatm- 

<lMr mtva vlialiDrTrr ; ■)» in the ow of tba Mme 

th the Haw inleiit b; bdj oomaii being with child 

k )B TieL o^. r. { t», 69). Ttus ftatnte a ulest ■■ to the 

•■•Mtign biti n wi woaen gaifi uu) aof yielt irUh child. 

TW tm ilat; of the nnltnl •uraiBer ti lo eetabliih the fact 
rf ahartkM hj eiamining anj iDbMana* that maii have beai 
i^rilid bnm th« voaih. BiTing aicertained that the; i» 
pa^Mla ti enottp t l m , he maj ba ntfcatvi to detenoine whether 
tb iAwtiiai wM doa lo natnra] canae*, to dmg*, or to Ttolenee. 
b ran iwliBna, UXk he m*j bare to eunune the female in 
' B U alleged to hare taksi place, io order to 
le not die baa bent reccntlf ileiiTcred. Tbrte 
■a thenftre m*]' he required. 

anca upelled frccn the womb. 
■ of the abmtian ; and 
■ it Ibe female fBppoaed 
■ mptU-J fivm (jle U'omi.- 
1 that thia 
nbr^o ha* ■tt^4inl a nrtaiD degree of 
! la ignhe cheractcriMic The mle 
■ (p. 63). in fpnking of moliaaad lUie tnem- 
Inaa m dgua atfntnmrj. mint be obaemd ia caaca of allesed 
Amim, nc t»admit B»rob(laix« to be a pnjdac* (tf oooeeptioa 
h itlali ^mioA tneea of an mam aaaOt be noofiwd. To 
■ Ah nit bydatUa fcr« a aoliurjr eic(|>tion. 
V At MMiii i|fwm/^m BaoUr'M -Gnwid Vtn^ aba* U,a 


« of earl; or*, in contnit viUi Omt of ■ & 

liriuie diachirged in djnDtnotTho*. Fig. 11 exluUb > 

mum of Kbont IhrN 
ric-11. week), ttithbristUii B, 

vity. (mm the anglca 
A, J, OQrTGfpoiidiii^ to 
Vbe Fillopiui Uibei In 
(be point oppoaite the 
neck of Ibe ntems. 
Fig- 12 ihowv tbe wae 
amm witb mnch of iU 
anterior vail cat an;. 
A small lij'datid whicb 
complicated tbe fignrea 
ounecoaBirilj ha* b«en 
omitted. Th« two fignna 
are reduced to about 
two-thirds of tbe ori- 
giaal. Fig. 13 abowt an 
ovam of about agllt 
weeki, conNsting of tb« 

the decidni. Tbe eiut 
iginaL Fig. 14 rcpramta 

the ulenm ca>t off dnring 
painful memtruatioiu 
It presenta all lb* cba- 
tvcleri of a tmc deddsal 
etrnctnre, havii^ on the 
ride whicb rorreKpondt'd 
with the oterine cavity 
11 Hnecribrirorm aurliue, 
and on the rpvcna tida 
Uie rangh floccalaitap- 
pmnncs characteristic 
of the oater atiKiice of 
meintiraiKS ordiKaril} 
■Iiairl«rged, along with 
ibv ovum, Id abortion. 

Unviug aMMUiDad 
thai tbe fobatanea nb- 
min«d Ui our imptotiM 
It rvMy ■ prudM 


To these may bo added, rigidity of the womb in t 

for tbe firat tiint^ at a msture age. and a rebued condition of tbu 

neck. Oci'aBianally, abortion bra been epidemic.* 

Tlie prediBposin^ causes dependent on tbe «Lfltfl of the oviini 
are very nnmeroua. eispecially in tbe curly monUu. According to 
Velpeaa, of apwiirdi of 200 embryo* cipelled before tbe end of 
tbe tbird mootli. at leaet one bnlf were diseued. Tbe diieaae 
may be in tlie membnuies, in the phicontn, or in the fcBtut itaelf; 
nnd it may assume any form oFitmctani] degeneration. Disease 
of the fcetns, or ila anneies, affords, of coorae, a strong prabablli^ 
in fHvoar of abortion from nntunl cautes. 

A woman who bus once mistarriod is libely to miaaajy ogun 
from tbe same caosc, and at or about tbe same period of gesta- 
tion ; and it ii oanal to attacb some imporUnce lo tbe inero force 
of liabit. Id b rase giyen by Heberden (• Couiioentaries.' p. 15), 
there were no less tbau 35 miscarriages. 

b. To the occaiional, or exciting canset, belong atrott^ and 
sndderi actions of tbe muscles of tbe abdomea, us iu coughing, 
stmining effurcs to void urine or tiecei, kt. ; violent eiarcue, l» ill 
daiicii^ ; iirofnse discbarges from the bowels or from tbe womb 
itself; nndoeeicitementof the genital organs) blows, and varions 
forms of meohanieal injary. 

All tbeeo occasional or erciting cansea fail U) produce abortjon 
when tbe ovmn is sound and tbe female bealtLy ; but tbe moat 
careful ahatinenca &om all eudting oosea will not prevent abor- 
tion when tbe predispodtion from either cause is strong. 

Tbe criminal iiuaiu are beat divided into two cbisses, general 
•ud local; tbelim acting through tbe constitution of the mother, 
the second by immediate application to the abdomen or nterua. 

1, Qtneral, or Cotatitutionai. FencEmrfios. — The coii6denc« 
placed by the vulgar in this remedy rests, Uke many other popu- 
lar fiilbtcie*, on bigh medical authority — that of Hippocrates. 
But it is a natorions fict thst pregnant women bear blood-letting 
well, and tbat it is often the b«Bt means of averting a tbriutiined 
abortion. I'he assumption tbat blood-letting prouiotee abortion 
is morcavcr rebutted by numerona well-attested fbcts. Cases ir« 
recmdod of women bled 48, SO, and 87 times in the ooorsa of 
tlicir iiregnanaes, without mlsmrringei and Dr. itush. who blad 
tvT) freely in the yolloH' fever of 17!)3. asserts Ibal nut one preg- 
nant wumau to wboni he prewrilied bleeding died or ml*- 

Thc popakr bcliof In the eSlcocy of bleeding fi 

" SMnltevnoM t* 

Iu Vcl|,« 


^rti an sa better foniulation, nor doai tUe removal of blood by 
Urektw ta tba aim* or tmlea — a pniutice rarely re^^rted to in thii 
oomtrr — pfi— MB any peculUi eSmicj'. 

Smeti^. — 11 U well knoim tbat during tlie early montha of 

Bven in unio mtUmns tbrougUout it* entire dura- 

I, uvere and dUlrewng Tomiting ocmrs, wltbout produeiog 

irtioD. 'rliu bet, coapled aritb tbe tailitre of beverid active 

tritaot pcwnu productive of violent Tomiting' to caaav miacar- 

t, aCirda (onie preaumption ngniiut the effiuocy of emetics, 

a worntu atrongly predisposed. 

Caiiarlipt, — These niuiedie«, too, mny be given repeatedly, 

n very large dowt, withoat prodadng abortion, eioept, as 

t in womea ittongly predisposed. Dr. Bnab's eiperianoe 

U tbe jellov fever of 1793 la conclutive on this point.' 

Xrimntia. — Tbese remediei are inentioned ai calcultited to pro- 

e >b<irtion, bat witbout suScieot reason. Irritant pinsons, 

It moderate dniee ns diuretics (e^., nitre), mny uccH- 

ti atiortioil ; but not siinpty by tbeir diuretic »cUod, 

l_ One of the irritaat poisons specially deserves notice in Chii 

: Dunely, etiHtAaridrt. It ii a strong emetic and purgative, 

Ml cRbetive diuretic, acting violenlty on the organs in the 

edJato ndghbiiarhaud of the iromb, viz., the bladder and 

1, oeeaMoning also intonao fever and greut wreoknias ; nnd 

tt vnni this drug in full do«w may Ml (as iu a case related by 

*t. Laau, of Leeds). The teqaent failore of snch active poisons 

V the (dbacy of len powerful remedies extremely doubtful, 

« (bare is no decided prediaposi^on to miscarry. 

t Mmmna^i^mei.—EtideT this name a vast number of active 

d inert romediea are claoaed, moit of wliidh bave as little elfect 

I the womb a> on other parts of the body. Stirin, OHrcary, 

wmaJHrm/l, and penitgrogal, have been classed under this head. 

tinahsrout anil pennyroyal do not appear to be very efflcuiiona. 
V crcorT and its prepantions, even when given in large doses, so 
■f to fwue profttse SBlivBtion, nppoar to be attended with little 
rlafc. But Mria bu some pretenuona to be considered a 
J wi g M WH drug! for, in couimou with other irritant poisons, it 
has DDiIontit«d1y occasioned abnction in more than one inotunee, 
tlHnigli it baa fkiled iu otbura, and in otbera, agnio, bss killed 
both mntlicr and rhild. 

Clowly allied to the so-called rmmmasoguei a the teeid* eor- 
■vtua, at (Tgot of rye, which puMCsaci the remarkable property 
of aMiting Uw miacular Hbrcs of tbe nterns to contract, and is 
]b ftnjnaDt oae ht that purpose. Concernii^ the eSicocy of this 
'Ttrt. CbHmllmi tad Inqt^iiu,' Ta\. ill. p. VIS. 


remftil;, nccli dilTerenee of opinion eilata. Some ntboN iMVt 
BDppoeed tLat the power of the er^ is limited to the period of 
delivorr, and to the alnte of fall eipannOD «lid devGlo|iment of 
the lit«rns. But this opinion is refntfd by comb in which it 
produced abortion at an rarlier period of gcatation, and eipori- 
meots on iinimals have shown that it may be efitelual nt any 
period. On the olher hand, several tatea are recorded by Dn. 
Condie and Beck, in wliich repeated large dosea of ergot faiUd to 
produce abortion. 

The root of B plant called the Aelaa raeoHoia has the repnta- 
tion of being nearly ai actiFe ai the ergot. 

Diffiialii has been dusted among abort^Tot on the strength of 
a case related by Dr. Cfunpbell. The dnig wac given for dropsy; 
the child was still-bam, and the mother died soon eiler. llr. 
W. S. Dickinson ('Med. Chir. Tnins.,' vol. xuiv. p. 1) baa 
showu that digitalis in such doses aa from Jts. to ^ia. of the in- 
fuirioB, and lUii. to mil. of the tincture, has a apodfic action on 
the tromh ; and its power of prodoeing abortioii, though not 
proved, ii to be inferred Irom the facta atflted. 

It rewltfl from these olwervalions on the power of drugs, 
that there ia no medicine that can be depended on to procure 
abortion in women not strongly predisposed; that, if giiven in 
doses short of those vhich risk the life of the mother, they 
would almost certainly (iill ; that, when they do succeed, they 
place her life in jeopanly, and onen samfico it; and that, for 
eter; case in which the mother escapes, there is probably one at 
least in nbicb mother and ofl^pring both perish, and one in wfaidl 
the mother diM. the child remaining intact in the womb. 

Load, or Meehonicai mnifit.^ These coninit either of rxttmal 
tiolnuT, or of itiMlruatnlt ntroduced into the iram&. 

External vioUner a a snffideut canse of abortion. Bat It 
wonld appear that unless it is such ai to endanger the Ufe of tho 
BOlhsr, it is not likely to snccued- 

In 181] a man was executed at StufTord fbr the murder of his 
wife. She was prri-nant, and he aaccecded in inducing abortion 
tnr vioIenUy vlbuiiiDg iier in bed, rolling over her, &i: ; hot ho 
auu canitd her denlli.* A fcmUe in the hut month of her prcg* 
nancy was alruck on the abdomsn by herhnsband. An ciltiisivv 
<lctacjii»(iiit of the pUntnla cHuted tlie iiunie<riate dealli of the 
fottii*. mid that of tba raotliDr ll(ty.ou« hours aflnr.t 

S*tcre Siijutiea not directly Inflicted on the abdomen often fail 
' n abortion. Tims. Uadnmo I.a ChnpcUe telli as of f^ 

IWaig midwife, who 

.s prcgln 

lie f 1x11, op. el 

EiAnniAiioN or iHE IEMM.E. S5 

■fctmenKsbortionaiid ttiM the Catsarian eection. tlirew Ler- 
'" ' • bdKht. Shedi«il from her woTiDdi, but did not mb- 
Uattriceau ftln prea tbe caie of > pregnant feaiaU aeveo 
M gODV. wbo to eacape from a Ure alid doivn f^'oin tllo tliird 
r, but liMiDg liLT hoU, Ml DD the «tones and frnctured bi3' 
i but t1;etv was no abortion. 

una rcroarkf apply to tbe iatroductio* of inttrameHtt into 
i bj luukUfal pemns. lu aome initnncea abortion bag 
waKdi in otbeta. after conudcnible Iryury hud been in- 
la tbe vagina and Dterui, tUe ebild was burn alive; nltd 
B at) of tlitmi tbe mather'a life boa been endangered or sacrificed. 
bdlpburie acid baa been injiKted into tbe vagina with a view 
udncing abortion; and occa.<iioncd violent jnllnmniittion of 
a, and adbenon of tlie oa tinciE, vitb the fonuation of a 
etnbnuti? over it. After uttemptiug delivery by itieiaiona 
i« neck of tbe womb. It waa found neceaaary to perform the 
■ian operation — and both niotbor and child died.* 
eaae which occurred iu tbe pracUeo of Dr. Wagner, of 
rlio, illiatraUa ao forcibly tbe difficulty of procnring; abortion 
n not prediapoaed, whether by medicine* or by force, that 
mn ■ fitting concloslon to ttaia auljoct. 
& joung woman, leveu moutba wltli child, had employed aavlu 
t otbur dmga to prodnee uiiscajTiage. Aa theae failed, her 
niiur boand a strong leBtbtm strap (tba thong of a akate) 
ly round ber body. Tbla loo aviiillng nothing, be (liy 
>wn ccDfnuoD) knelt npon ber with nil bii weight, and 
while abe lay on her bock, " Ai tbla also 
), bo twk a sliarp-pointed pair of eriasora, snil proceeded to 
pcrfbratfl tbe atero* through the vagina. Mncb paio and 
hanDurrbage eniioed, but did not loat lung. Tbe woman's iiealtb 
^' [itaulltvin theleaat; and pretty nmch about the regular 
a living child wia brougbt into the world without any marks 
f BXtemal iiuury npon it." 

JEromiiHiftoa ^ Ut/emale. — We abould be guided in Ibia by 
"^ ngn* ulrendy bud down at p. 69 ; bearing in mind that they 
■ ]mm atroogly developed iii tbe early monttaa, and that before 
~ia Ultle dependence em be placed on tbem. 
^.If tbfbnulodite, vee may be required toeiamiue the body, 
ftbagoidtd by the cIi^b of delivery a* at tbe full period, 
'~" la the period of utero-geatation is earlier. 

is a sauunary of the ubief points to be attended 

a Um AMJoa 

: XalluBi 

1 (.[ PjTi 





1. The mppowd prodact of conceptioii mi 
minute uid corefiil exnminBtion. Ifa ftctiu hu been expelled, 
its age mmt be determined bj the miei Blready Uid dotrn. 

2. The repuUd mothei-. whether alive or desd, mtut then b« 
exsmined; — if alire^ we must aBrertuD, if poeuble, whether 
there wm each ■ predigpoaition to Bbortion >s to icoonnt for it 
withoot HttnbatiBg great efficacy to the meam employed. To 
delennine whether or not iBcb a predicpoiitioa eiiats, wo miut 
inquire into the general stnte of health of the mother before the 
abortion took place, and especially whether she has had previona 
abortimu — and if »o whether they occorred at or about the >ame 
period of geatatioD. If the female died from the meani employed, 
we muit lue the same can in eiaminiog the utenu, and muit 
obwrre tlie rule* hereafter to be laid down for conducting pnat- 

( tbenuelves op with tbe 

Under vhat cinrtimttoiicet, an4 bg leial meaiu, it it morallif 
and tegaUi/ proper to induct prtmaivrt dfliverg 1 and what cir- 
aiartatieei viUjutlify tht Cittarian oprraliott 

Such queitioni are easily answered. Tbe metUcal man a ctetirly 
justified in resorting lo any ineasnre which pnaniee* to preserve 
tbe life of mother and child nhen both are threatened i and 
where one only can be preaerved, the female herself may ute her 
right of (elf.preservatinn. and choose whether her own life or 
that of her child shall (all a sncrifice to the means recommeoded. 


There are no criminuls who meet with so mncb sympathy ai 
women guilty of Infiinticide. This feeling, largely shared by mem- 
ben both of the n^ical and legal profestlon, is partly eiplnined 
by the exceptional nature of the crime, and partly perhaps by tbe 
atmns hanhnoa* and cmelty of ■ (hrmcr statute (21 Jae. I, 
rap. £7], wbicli virtotilly Tinted tlie conocatmeiit of shntne with 
tlie pwiithnieRt of murder. It Has under tlie iittlueiice of lltit 
IttJiutle* that Dr. William Uimter, in lISS, wrote his celebf«tcil 
may < On the Uneertnluly of tbe ^igiu of Mnrdar in tlie Case of 
Baatard Children.' Abont a quarter of a ccntnry Utet (IMOS) q 
Act was jniscd decreeing that womm accused of iuliialidde it 
b« tried by the wmu rules of evidence as obtain in olh«r ti 
(drmmdcri but llmt if arqaitted, they may be tried Ibr c< 

It of thir hill hi and, if found guilty, pnniibed by ImpriMi 

■ tnm not wcwdtng two ymrs. 



Tbe iirovinoiw of thUcUtuteirere conltnncdby an Act patsctl 

F Job*. 1828 (9 Geo. IV. etp, 31), which alao pravidea tbnt it shill 

L BOt be newnrj to prove whether the child died before, at, or 

"XT it* liinh. The Coiumlidition Act (21 and 25 Vic cup. 10O) 

ppta mud extends these provimona.* 
E QaeatioiB of infanticide are nccessHril; more complicated than 
e of bomicide in ^eriernl ; for, before inqairing how a child 
me by ita death, it U neceraary to ihow tliat it waa born 
The nifpectfd mother msj alao have to tie namincd, in 
k) determine whether or not she hae been recently delivered. 
L Two claiKi oT qneations, then, may bo raised in cases of iiifuu- 
■dde 1 tlie one relating; to tbo child ; the other to the mother. 
I Thou relating to the child are the following : — 
[ 1. What ia Ihedcgree of maturity of the child? 
1 i, Wm the child bom alive F 
L t. If bom alive, bowr long did it survive its birth? 
f 4, How long has the child been dead P 
' B. What oat the caaae of death ? 

Tbh will be determined by a carefiil comparison of the leng:tli 
md weight of the child, the poiition of the centre of the body, 
the proportiomil development of its parta, tlic growth of the Imir 
and nalla, the itate of the skin, the presence or absence of the 
ineitibranB pupillaria : and, in the male, the descent or ngn- 
tocmt of the testicle*, kc. (See anle p. 73). 

> delxcml 

irU^acUU. it U, tSa tBOawiat eS 
ir*dlQd,n«Tp>non who ihaltbr 
,rLheiiiaciliiild,<'IialIiernr-'- "'' 
-' Iha Mrtb then 


til blnh. aidoTonr le nw«l iha Mrtb thnwr, ikail bg rdIIIj oI 

', uidlwbiE«iinl(UdllKi«>r*hiIlbeH>bleit IbedlKHUos i 

lie iTiiiirixiiinl (br IB) t*Rn not ocHdlDK Iwo jett, Mih c 

. Idnl tW If SPT penon triad for the matder dT SB 

1 ■ r«if, ii ihill beUwW BirlhetiirT, h« whtasvordii 

nrj.wiln<l, in !»-■■-•- .- _^_ . 

i! bod} uf «iieh chDd, nideaviK 


f prepiinej ii a «inilorT oHinM. By 

jd that ■■ If any "oniKi ihillcDowaJ h*t pr 

Ji* wIMI* niriod ihrnol, aail ibill not lall Ua sod nuka un 

I* IMb, and If Ih* rhlld h« foBud dad ur anlulnic, ihp tl 

'- ■prrlod noleMwdtnelitn Jcait" It is common t« pn 

inalnnt iuMatd of (ho giavtr cne of cbilil-muiilei. 


- )Mk *i4. < ftMrf c«ttT. lobke 


bronght into Che world; and it mu<t have ad iad^ndmt eirm> 
lation; but tbia docs uot imply tbe Bevcrunca of the uinbllioil 

Iq Bjamininp the Imily of n child with » view to detemiino 
whether it naa bnm alive, the chief paint to bo attended to i« the 
■tate of the lungs -. forifwoSiid in tbeu organs lipu of retpi- 
ration, there isn prabahilitj in fiivonr of live-birth; if not. Ibaro 
is in equally strong probability thiit the child wat itill-bom. 
Bat at, in tbe absence of signs of respiration, proof may still 
be forthcoming tbiit a. child haa or hiw not h^n bom nlivc, 
the present inqairy will consist of two parts. 1. The evi- 
dence of live-birtb, prior to, nnd independent of, respiration. 
2. The evidence of live-birth sabsoquont to, nnd deduced from, 

Tie ecidtnce of live-birlh prior to rfipiratioa a either ncgnUve 
or po^bive,-^negqtive when we find aigna of previous death 
within the womb, nnd positive wlicn there are such injoriea on 
tbe body of the child as must luive been inflicted while tbe blood 
WIS sljll rirculnljng, and » extetuivo awl nevere tbut tbcy 
could not hare reaultad from accideut, oi have taken pUci iiifiii^ 
the UrUi. 

Inlra-uUrine macemlion. — A child that baa died iu the womb, 
Hdd there undiirgooe maceration, presents tlie following appear- 
Bucea 1 — AU porta of tbe body are sbrunlien and tiaccid, the chest 
and abdomen flattened, the rib* distinctly vinhle through tbe akin, 
tbe Ilia prominent, tlie head so soft und yielding that it fklU flat 
In whatever position it muy be placed, and the periosteum readil; 
sepufiites from the bonea. Tbe cuticle ia detached in patcllei, 
atul easily separates from the troc ikin, and on the bands and 
ffiel if white, thick, and wrinkled, ns if from the application of a 
poultloe. The true skin is more or lesa extensively diaeolonted, 
the change beginning on the abdomen, which has a mottled 
■ppmrance, blending a rose and ash coloor. Elsewhere the skin 
usemei a brownish -red, withoat admixture of green; and the 
part* of gcnimtion have a deep-red colour, as have also, in a Imb 
d^ree. tbe head and (lice. The umhilioul cord ii straight and 
flaedd. The whole anrSiee U covered with a soapy fluid, so that 
the body, when handled, slips from tbe grasp. Tbe MltoloF 
mcmbranis when cut, is foand filled with reddened serum, and In 
porlA, Mjiotially In tlie scalp, wiih a aubsUincv iipUy cumpored 
to goosobiTry jnlly. Tbe cavities are flileil with an abundant 
bloody sernui, and tb« minute xtructnce of the viscera, whh^ ar« 
Ungvd thronghiiut of a reddUh-hrown colour, ii very diitinct. 
TbcsH appuaranoe^ which are more or lew distinct, u tlieohUd 

Tb* ■inglo OK in «-hicb, anUrior to, and inclppendent of 
mny aUIe tint s uhiUI wni born iilive, U, when 
Bnd OMrha oT liolence on the bodj h wvere that tlicy could 
tiavu orlgiiuted duriBg the birtL, knd attended ivitli Uniaor- 
that it oonld only haio occurred while the blood 
*lt11 nFCuUtJDg. Thai Dercrgie rdatei ■ cue of en luRiat 
bkd Dot broUied. ;et wm prored to bavo bei-n niurdcreil, 
i*n wnaiiJi >nd lunrks of greut tiuleoce on the head, 
«Htb (Opknui eHavuii of blood.* To joatify a poutive opinion, 
Om 1dm of hliiod mimt be Urge ; for o aevere wound inSicted on 
B plvthorie lufant after tbe circoUtion had cesMd, might be 
" * ' with conndsnible bomarrhiige. 




Tbere ore two ratta, tben, in wfaicb, tadependent of, uid an- 
teriot to, rnpiTation, we may decide the question, " mw tbe duld 
born alive ?" n^atWelj, when we flnil the nurki of iDtrA-iilttiiw 
mHcemtlon ; iiffitinatively, nhen we discover injuriei «o eiteiwft 
and terere, that they Diust havo been inflicted after the luitl^ 
and whilr the blood was etill drculatiiig. 

But the cases mnet needa be very rare in nhich eridenw (ui 
be obtained, or will be needed, of lire-birth before mpiratloai 
for very few children in whom the blcxtd is atill drcnUUng uc 
born withoat breathing, at leant imperfectly. 

In the great majorit; of cases, then, evidence of live-birtb moil 
he sought for in the Innga, proof of respiration being the lint link 
in the obain of evidence that the cliild wsa bom alive. Wa 
have firet to show that the child had brenthed, and then that the 
act of breathing took place alter tlie birth j for it may bm 
hreallied daring the birtli and yet have perished before that oon- 
plete delivery which constitutes live birth. 

The best evidence of respiration is the change it prodnoetin 
the eitemal nppcanuice of tbc lungs ; and, were it not that iaSa- 
tioo gives rise to the same change, mere inspection would snpenede 
all other tests. As it is, it servM to establish the alternative of 
respiration or inSalJan when all other means fail. 

Lnngs which have neither breathed nor been inflated, are of a 
uniform Arm tcitare thronghont, and resemble in colour and 
consistence the adult liver. Their surface is miirkGd by atigbt 
furrows, which obscurely denote the division of the lobules. In 
lungs that are fiill of bloal, these are scarcely visible ; bnt in longs 
that oontun little blood, they are more distinct, and are very 
strongly marked after intra-uterine maceration. The lunga are 
also sometimes found studded with small melanotic spots of 
various shapes. 

The efTect of respiniljon or inflation varies according to its 
degree. The sroallest qnantity of air developes some of the cell* 
on the surfkce of the lungs, and these lorm the best jiroof of tlie 
admission of air in one or other of these ways. The right lung, 
and iispecialty the edges and concave surface of its upper lobe, 
admit air most readily ; and it is here that the first efiects of 
inflation or respiration must be looked for. 

The appearance of tbe airH.-eUB thns developed is highly chanc- 
teristic. If the lungs are fresh and full of blood, they take the 
form of brilliant vermilion spots; if tbe lun^ contain less blood, 
or are etntnined some days after death, the spots are of a lighter 

tkcnos, EMPnrsEKA. 


«bo hmre mrvired Iheir birth eomi! ds; 
r rwrj novly the bae of the bolthy adult iung. 
rv kod amuigviamt of these ce1]f are not 
wUTWtte tlum tlior eolaor: tbef are ^''' ^*- 
t, M« not panc[«ibl; niseil, and ore alivi- 
"amiimtiuux, Ihoogb near tbe lurfuce, of 
Tb* gn>a|Bnp uf tlie nila if g:?!!!?*!!/ 
r. Iml Umjt ire KnnxltiBea fouod in rvgniur 
iiiiliifl fioajw of (uor. Tluir ordinui^ | 
e and gmnptnii '« aluiwii in tlie onnnid 

n from « oolourod dfiwing of lung* i" which re- 
iMn iinp«rf«tl; let ap.* 

itKxs on Uie tnrfice of the lunga vitb wluch 
i >lr-crll* iiii);ht pcwblj ba oonfoandcd, are, I, 
1 I. tyoU of blood; and 3, air-babbln, the pro- 
Tbe flnt two appearance* ure nt once 
I bj their ohararteriatic Colour, and the abMmce of 
MjtkJBg naimbliiig a dereloped texture. Both kioda of ipot 
fswF^j aaaonw a ixmnil torm. 

TW ■Huamim snied bj pntrdaetioii are qaite aa character- 
ttiK, Tie ur bdUvoU nn the Hufnce, and between tbe lobei of tlie 
laap^ «iUMr ia det iictad projecting globnlea, the uie of pew, or 
la lUtDfi el mall ttaSeIn, like a fine mermHal injection benenth 
lia^w-pifar. U U nldniUjr nmiu'ned in tbe cellular membniDo 
•Mdi iima ei Ja tb* plrDta Kitb tbe iiuface of tbe lung, and ita 
^t^i^'ir B (An poiutod cot bjr a imall globule seated on a 
_ w^»^ If lima ajipnrancB were not luScient to distinguish 
tm tk« indart of pulnTactiun, (torn air in Ibc air-celk, it wonld 
~ ' ' ( tingcr oier Ibe lurfiice of tbe lung. The air 

mcnt of tba llngi^, nod a gentle prcsinre eflhcei 
1 cm break* down tbe Urpir giobales. No 
re M applied will form the aii oat of the »r-cBllsi 
vis tnj nj alter Ibeir appeannce. 

aalhae*, a* will U pttaeatij more tall; stated, bare 
as cnjibTatua nf ths fatal Inngi as giving riw to Bmo 
f fat appljiaf tb* bjdrvatatic test; but it will bu ihown 
enphfwina b wcrdj an incipient process of 
g tbe laOMi ippoinncia, and admitting uf the 
limtiau. The •nhjoiiicd engraving (llg. IT) in 
arnlatiati, on a aoniewbat enlarged scale, ns 
E la peMtU* to' (i**, withont eoluue, of the appcBtanrea just 
" ' WUi tke eaceptioa of tba large ur-bnbblea, token 

■ frmp of miU (rtabalri, lib ni 

02 DfTiSTlCIDE. 

from another ralject, they were all pwipnl on ■ limie«<l »pM« rf 
tlio SBBio luDg. The Blr-<:ell» are ri?co^iwd by tlieir pooulto 
ilispe and gronplBi; ; the rounded dark spoU aro iDelanDile. tiM 
fainter »pota aro effutied bl.iod ; the strine of imall light ronnJ 
dots, and llie large circular Bpots, arc iiir-bubblcs. 

Till contact of the air witi 
lie nurfiice oT the freih fictal 
1111; givM rise to exactly the 
ime change of rolonr a* U NN 
I the dereloped air-celli; bat 
his contact of aJr id no wtj 
I aXttn their tcxtnre. 

Tijo appearance at the da- 
veiiiped air-cells la, therelbce, 
d luruct eristic ; it fomiihet on- 
I dcninblc proof cither of r«iph*- 
or of inaution. It it tb« 
only lung'teat to whicii no lerious objection can be oAndi 
and it 19 at dolicate as it ia titnple ; for it detectA a qoanti^ 
of air too aoiall to affect the specific gravity dtbar of the vbol* 
lung, or of the parts into which it biu been introilnoed. I ha*a 
repeatedly detected at a glance, in the luperHrial air-odk 
■ qoautity of wr inaalHcient to render the iroalleat fragment of 
Inng buoyant ; and I have never found those «gns of respiration 
absent in any caae in which a child v/at itated to have breathed, 
thengh for the shortest space of time. In one case in which the 
child was reported to have givcu only three gaspa, the reauU ma 
obriooa, at a glance, in the bright Tennilion'cotoured groDpa of 
developed alr-celli scattered over the anrfiice of the right 
lung. (O.) 

Ifnapiritlon produced ndifferentappcttrnncc in tiieair-eellsfifna 
thatcaaaed by inflation, and we could infallibly distinguish the one 
from the other, there would be no need of any other Inng-tert. 

Now, Derergie,* after staling, correi'tly enongli, that ■ careibl 
eismlnation had enabled him to distinguish, i priori, and withost 
nny other research, lungs belonging to a atilUborn infant from 
those of an infiuit which bad tireiithcd; and also to determine 
whether the air bail dilated all parts of the longs, or merdy 
certain portions, adds, that "in maiy ones he could determme 
whether the distension of the longs with air was the effect of 
rrapiration or of insoflktioD." In respiration he states that 
there ii a minute iryection of cnpilUrj rcssols on the surface of 
the air.cclU, which does not take place in inSation. This distinc- 

to Uia mvtbor't 01 



it dealt witb veiy minute parte, 

n iCaHaiont, ii to be relied on 

t 'm ali aitm, it majr b« let down an nnfit 

1 lut« not mjielf obunrcd focli ■ dilter- 

m tatvam tba cAsota of inflatioii and refpintkiD h to pretend 

la Ml ;■ tbia m»y to di«tiDguiih the odc from tliu otLer. (Q.j 

, Ibeu, form the bcK, and iioljr neoenaiy 

n tf air into tbe lon^ ; and tliey on; to Im 

la of nspintkm or inSation, bowerer limited 

M ia lifpw-* Tlie number of ibe celli U. 

'■ of Uie extent to wbich tliete jicoceae* have 

■ iMmpiete, tlie lan^ preient 

M ipannr, cnpitant ebancter u Id the adult, ami diOer 

Mn obI] IB having a more roa; bne. 

ge£ag la the othei 1ang-(e*ti, «e miut premise 

•I ia not B andilrn, bat a ^ailmtl procaa ; that it is 

'm, Mmtileted in a few reipiriitiotii ; that it 

■a tnonnplete and partial after mau j hoart, da ji, 

»d llial in (ome irnmn-np )ienoiui portidnt of 

ir fiEtaJ Btiite. In the great 

ea gf lirfantkidc. therefore, wc ibiill have to deal 

In >hick m|ilntiaD baa bevn verir incompletely Kt 

V ilia importaun of a tign wbivji stands ui in atcad 

^ aa vQI b* p r iK 'ntJj ihowu, ^rery otfaer lot may fall. 

t tki tilm'iMiiai of air ial4> tbe celli of the Ino^ ia not the 

rtta sf ropintlen. Ai a gei»iBl role it 11 attended by an 

Md afloi t£ UoiMl.addtti( to the weight of tlie loug^ both 

tabs bjr tbcmadiea, and wbeu mnopared with the weight 

■ Uiiy M afcUA t^ bekmg. Thu iuereaac of weight, 
Ba mt r^miwt. hat bean made the bana of two lung-tesb. 
mimtt V'HfU afOt X«i^.— Tbia teat of rmpiration rcota 
« aa«ilia|illni tint Ih* arterie* and vdn* of luugt which 
not trnf i nti, an* onpty, and in a itatc of colUpu, while 

■ ■|Uill II Omj bccDine more or len SUed with blood. That 
tttfftT* d( fiAtit, BDjn corTM'ted by Orfila aud Dtvergie, 
rt •anmamHt I ban bad many opjiortuuitiei of proriog ; for 
• fcuud lBnK> wbu.^ had breathed alinort deMitute of bbiod ; 
lliMi tbal had BCfat admitted air, or presented only a Tew 

■ tf iWral cptU catlfc gorged with blood in oicry part. (G.) 
of wnght were tp arcordante "ilb thwo 

Tbe Imip of Toatnra cliildrea before 

■ tl Mitnaift Ibatlbto ibBpla rifB nt rmlimikiB •bouM htT*b(niaa 


respmition were gtated to weigh one onuce, or 4S0 ^rairu ; mfter 
rcspiratiou tn'O ouacCB, or 060 grains. How remoU thew att- 
niHtea were froin tlie troth, the following iTerages, fonnded on 
uijwsrds of 400 observatiolHi on tnnlure children. Kill ihnv:— 
Sdll-bora, 871 gnuoB; children who hid >umTed their birth mm 
month or loaa, 1072 graini. The oboervtnj weight, thcrefbre, in 
atill-bom children a nearly doable tlie rude e>tiitiat« of utbon; 
and the increase after rcapiiation, instead of being equal to Um 
original wnghC, is leai than one-foartb. These averages diflir 
too little to ndinit of application in a court of law ; tbe ettmw 
flgnrei nre still more condniive, ai the campariKm made in tlM 
following table will sliow.* 







From this table it appeurs that ont of 3-1 cases, there ii not 
one in which we eould have slntei). by means of this teat alone, 
that reapimtion bad, or had not, takoii place; while, iu two in- 
stances, the great weigbt of tlic lungj would have led qb to in&r 
regplration in still-horn infants. 

As in most cases of alleged iiifitnticids the tun;^, if the child 
luu breathed at all, are found to contain but little air, it is 
important to detsnnina the effect of imperfect respiration In 
iniretuiiig their weight. Tbe fallowiug arc the average fignree 

" FtiTthepirtleulsrflortheHOlHBrvstlaiia, whli'hireai! tnken fruniEnrilik 

Kinrc», lec ' LwiMt,' Oct. 1, 1M2. The cuse markoJt luu bi ' '- 

Mdded. IliMglrea on the anUiorlt] of Ih-Tailiii. 


The kbdUs of tliU tabW differ BDmcttlmt from those obtained 
in the cue of the aliBolntc wmght of the Inngt j for in 7 cuw 
out of 33 thcro it a prohnbility, derived &om the low ratk^ tbM 
rcqiintioii hod Dot taken plaee; but^ on the other hunil, tbsrt il 
one CKse in whjcli, relying on the high ratio of 1:21, we ilioald 
have miatsken n itill'bum child tor one that had hrenthed. 

The falloiriag ure the mean proportions alter different dm- 
tions of mpimtiona : — Still-bom, 1 :57 ; l«u than ono hour, I'GI ; 
13 honn, 1:53; 1 d><r. 1:48; 1 month, oc leaa. 1:38. 

The difference between tbece several proportiotu ia certKiol;r 
mach too unall to justify the oae of tbe t«Bt in cages of impvrfn^ 
respiration, in which alone it wonld be required. 

If further proof were needed of the futility cf this test, it 
minht be found by n niniple ramparieon. The weight of tbe 
body being in each of two children bom alive 32,^36 grain*, tbe 
luii^ bore to the Iwdy in the one the proportion of 1 to 21, in 
the Dtlicr of 1 to 66 j tbe first ratio being more t)ian three timei 
OB groat as the second. 

The same remarht. then, api'ly to both theae teste. Simple 
innpectioQ would render them auperflnous even if they weremefoli 
and thi^' rannot serve lo diitingnish inSution from ref))iraliDni 
therefore both tenta ahould be allowed to fall into diaoBe aa alike 
uimfe and unnMeaaiiry. 

Tie HgdrotCalic Tett. — This teat ia very interesting from the 
rontroveraiea to whidi it has pven rise, the impoitaot purpose to 
which it waa applied, and the high iraluc formerly nnil^ed to it. 
'That it majF be cnderatood, it most be premiaed, that thoogli. 

k to a 

itsentti ctntoiy. OritpBaJlj, uil tiU 
period, it eonriitwl is pbdsg the hit^^ 
. art «ud>c4 in > ««Mel of ««lcr <rf tiie 

■K of tboot 60^. nil rao^ tol wa tntt snfiflcii I» 
t tt AtWog Iba tsngi inio Hntud pieBi, aod eiperi- 
" t^B w with Ub cDtite long*. The Utt. nvm 
niatt in Beit tiuiMiKng thaa picas of ilx Im^ is 
ilh«a appljliig to tb«D tlw nbdiGvT tat <f rnaon^ 
p pravnl^ MOi tiat tb* olgactiani to th« hjdfcMttk 
r la it diiaBj w oiiclaillj perfcra>edi and that tUi 

aTi>mo«&'nc twt. owectioss. 

n impoctuit 10907 ■• 

m la (bII brrm, tai o 
tiOB b«t>Mn Iba (&c< 
b* «Mi*«Bnit to oonnilir Snt tba Tskia of il 

W ■ Isl of lite-birlh, bat ontj- at n 
r if tlw tMl tbv ipplM would uanl on iu baiMiC Ual, 
■pt obatbir astir* or diitded iota punioDi, vhen piMed 
■1 laf wnlat, •Ink la tba bottom, napinoai las aat labia 

rtioD Uxre ara t*o otgcctJoiK L That tgpilioo 
m lakM pUot, •■»! jfwt buUi iba >gtiN lan^jBud the 
~ tMO ■ bk^ Uicj bin Uvn dividad, buj qak ia ag»- 
iBwaw & TImI rcpinOiou bu; hira takes p«ai« 
■lud an aUaO, at m to inip'rf«t a naanw. tkii 
p aad fnr; put of tbnn. (laoocb pertcctff Ixalthj, mat 
oo^ tlw cnlinarf qtuutitjr of Idoid, jnaj axralUa* 


^ tba bvltbjr pettfam wnuU it 
r if air ulTiiitlril into Uwm-waw ■ 
■a4. tba £«■« MpanptNMtflo' iwp 

■a* of ibMMa pBODBenia hbd Ite *«^tb day. ifl «U(i> 
" mmA oonplrtdji t*aa (o Umit MMdloM pulidaK" ia 
I'bjp Caipvjtbat tt mmlil maoUdita the «lMii« if both 
tbarafarv, enoM 1« /wod to loit. (^ 


cua miut be eitTemelj rare in whicb it woold eotutitnte m nN 

In the OBO of partial dtwue of the Inngs, the first objection 
merges in the aeeond ; for if lungs healtbj in all tbeir (arte nnj 
reipire without beconupg boojint, it follow* that the bealtfajF 
portioni of diuued Inngi nuj receive ur in qgantitiet equallj 
liiadeqiute to came tbem to flcnt. 

That tlie woond otjection, va, ; — That re<)HnitiDD nut; ba** 
taken place, bat to k> limited an extent, or so imperfect!;, tbat 
the langt and every part of tbem, tboogb perfectly hatltllf, 
and eontoining only the luofll qnaatit; of blood, may rioll, ii 
valid, a ringle caae will mffice to prove. In a (emale twin, 
weighinn Utile abort of five poanda and probably nearly matiiT*: 
" Tlie inbrtaoee of the Innga was healthy, of a deep Modena-rad 
colmr, with bere and there palcbea of a aomewhat ligbler bBe.** 
There wai no crepitstion ander the knife, nor any eongeaUML* 
Both lun^fi, when placed in water, nnk with equal rsjriiUlj; 
aa did every one of the fifteen pieon into which each Inng wtl 
divided: 011(1 on cnmpresuon below the larfico ao air-bobbin 
eacaped. Thia child liad nirvived its birth twetity-foar hom^ 
and this case ii hy no means nnicjae ; for umilnr ones have been 
reported by Bemt, Remer. Orfila. Daniel. 8chenlt. and CWander. 

Billard, meeting with aome of these cases, fell into the atranga 
error of supposing, tbat children may nirvive thetr hirtb fbr 
honn, and even days, without breathinft.f I bare mynlf ra- 
peatedly eiamined langs in which mfnration had been letj 
imperfectly set np in •everal ports of one or both, and yet only 
000 or [ho of these parts floated. Bnt 1 hnve not met with my 
instuBcH in whiclj every portion of both Inngs sanfa. (G.) 

The two nlyeotians, then, to the statement that the nnlcing of 
the lungs, whether entire or divided, is a proof that rea|HiBtioti 
has not Inkvn place, arc both vnlid as applied to the bydroatUlc 
test in its original form -, and they of course apply eqoallj to 
lungs heiitthy in all their parte, snd to those which iuaa onlj 
portions of their structure Free from disease. 

I,et us now suppose tlint the Inngs, or one or more of tt* 
parts into which thoy have been divided, float; and that this 
bnoynnoy of the whole long, or of its pnrtf, !■ alleged aa proof 
tbat respiration has tiiken plsco. This assertion would be met 
by three distinct otijections. The biio^^nncy msj be due, not to 
respiration, but 1. to Emphysema; 2. to Putrefaction; or 8. to 

a E»kDS,' ti 


«r. Tlie tenn emphTKma, is iU 

ikifnunt or rDptoic <tf tbe bt- 

■>iU 'n ocpod tlw -ir-cdl M Co 

Bbyn. italf. dktJiiet fnxif tbt 

mdU WaNnc idcntial vUb tin 

Si4 a an otjettioa to the fajdlro- 

Udsg.MppoN.1 to k dortour 

ini<rfU>eluDgtiao>. TUi -M 

HmeU thM iiifiuiti miglt <nftr 

Ow libMtrbaDK t>£am tad tbe 

•idn of Hm Aat sugbt b« « 
c/tbe hag* m to injure Uieni ; 

1 udpoflir. notmiiBg ^in ki^ 

1 thit ii .bit mm MtlKX* oQ 

B otnctiDg oi hitat bj tbe f«t. 

1 lanpt Ooitai Ihoagb tin cbiU 

■J, ud h»l ocrt«i>); Dot brollnd. 

»«M • «aQ»l«rb(»e.Mpe(UI; 

> IW bEba. nU^t «fir ■ nrt <tf 

■ •ftMod into tbor tiM^ B%U 

hMtm «( ^, u4 to the OBK- 


» to be IcMBd in • a^d* bd that 

vinkr of IMO. I emfael th. 

tMt,*itldD fan»i«U bxn of ita 

W> «• M lh« Ashtot tna> (/ 

I tha lun; ao chBB« of oalont. 

of ■ p. w tbr nr&w «f <M of 

■ taia a gallipol, .nd arried ia tb* 

ba «>d of whkfa tin Uxir -hoi*«k^nMa.l.nte>..p«. 

S3£42Sn3Sii^''"- ^ 


itign If poWribertcB oaf «H> ln_ 

W^»IM i«in»tot »Mfcli lilM |liH«Mtn( cmB.gflW II U ■ ^a» 
^^■■ifciw—lHi>>tiwiiMirif UBibaalite 

— H>aii»iw n fi* — iiiMr i W»t»i'<"* i ^*«-P*«»—ifc 

A tapporten 


n, then, tbat to tli8 RydnHbitic "tert, as orig:'miJly 
i, moA and merdj u a tut of respiration, liters Are four 
^mw; two to the (inking af the Inngt as ■ tign tint 
1 1u« not taken place, and tno to the Hoating u a pnx>f 
■ : Ut tbe linking ■* a prtxir of non-reapinition, diseue, 
mpmfect re^ilntioti : to the duating as a proof of mpira- 
I, pntrefiteUoa (in ita ■evnul il^rees and stugei) ind inflation, 
li wu tbe b<riIn»latiD Mt, Dp to the time of the introduc- 

Uie TetC modiflnl by Fraturi. — The mode of 

« ia not tnatcrial, provided it be not carried to 

It ot dcrtrojiiig tlic lung toilore. Air, the prodnct of 

R, ii rradilf eijitlliKl bj the jirenaTe of tbe linger and 

I) qndor water; but if itrongar presaure be required, the 

it of long inij' b« placed in n clan cloth, and the cloth 

d oppoaila waji. In eiperimenta presently to be detcribed, 

M of lung were labmltud to itill stronger prenure 

g tbo cloth nndsr foot. 

rr of tbe bjritrostalic teat, in this it* modem lignifi- 

OD. would ■wort, on ita behalf, tbat if the Inuga, both entire 

' " 1, wfaen placed in water, rink, both before and after 

e, tbat Topiratiini ha«iiot tiiken place. 

iion are the uma that opply to the 

^ via, diaeue and imperfeot respiration ■, with this 

I luverer, that portlom of lung contnining 8 large 

r blood and too little air to rundcr them bnoyant, 

A after a [lortion of the blood liad been forced 

ti tntnM flattened. Hence the (inking of the Inngs 

•, would affcrd ■ atrunger rouoo fbr auppoaiug that 

aa not taken ;dace. 

Id thaieieni }iortioua oftlie Innj^e float, both befoniand 

its; and thia bnoyancy of tbe luug betuken Baa proof 

I, dothetwo-o^tctiom arged with lucccu against 

., patrefiKtiou and InlLitiDn, bold good agoinat 

tkb inodem Ut alao P 

Tbe objcTtioTi nn the Kore of pntrefactien falli at once to the 
ytuund ; fur llu! luure prawnre Of Uie (logera eipela Ibe air 
tcl \'y piilnfartion, and cauie* the lungi to link. Tfaere 
», tbcrafitre, tlw (iDgle objecljoa, that inflation ma; cauae 
jl tu fluAt. 
It air ao iulrodDeed into Ibe Inngs will render them booynut. 
n be nu douM ; but wlH.'tber prpegnre will dittiiiguiah the 



from that due 
ful ooniiidcratiol 

1 iuflalioi 

103 iBFAKticmE. 

The idJition of prewure to the old hydnMatic tect was mtg- 
ge9l«d hy B&lani, uid introduced into practire in thi* coant^ 
by Dr. Taylor,* and Mr. JeQnitigs,t botli of wImMd etDplored it 
ai a diofmottic mark, lliti fornier conrlud«i trma tvprmUd cs- 
perimentt, " that air, introduced by artificial inflation, may, oihIb 
■11 dnniniBtBiicea, be eipelled by rampmiicni, if the experiment 
he properly perforaicd, and the preunre contina^ a luffident 
length of tinie."J Mr. Jennings etates, that " air introdneed 
into the iatigi, by artificial inlktian, may be expelled by preannt, 
ao that the langa will «ink in water," and on the other hand, that 
" after respiration, the air cannot he eipolled from the Imigi 
without completely breaking down the atinctnre of eierj part of 
the organ. Any pert, bowover inudl, not thni broken down, wilt 
continue to float." 

Thia atatement of Mr. Jennings respecting rca[nred ^t i> want- 
ing in exactness, and is corrected by Dr. Taylor, on the anthoril;r 
of Case III. in the Essay jnatcit«d.5 This case proves " that air, 
fooai reepiration." (imperfect respiration,) "may, by tery mode- 
rate prcmare, he forced out from divided portions of the organs ;" 
while Case II. stiowa "tliat there are no estistaFlory means 
of diitinguishing artificial infUtion from feeble refpiration." 
Schinitt also reports a case iu u'liidi only the middle labe of the 
right lun^ of an infant that had lived twenty-tour hours, nrd in 
which inflation had not been practised, floated, and that iinper- 
feetly, bat sank BgSiin when forcibly compressed.|{ 

Tbia teat, then, does not distinguish imperfect respiraldon 
from imperfect inflation. On the other hand, my experimenta 
made in the year IBll prove that lungs completely diitendod by 
inHation cannot be made to ainl: hy pressure short of that whidi 
deKroya their texture ; and that Inngs so distended with air diS^ 
fraoi those that have breathed completely only by reqoiring eome- 
what more pressure to make them sink. 

I subjoin an account of one of thesu experimenti bom notet 
taken at the time: — 

" I took the lungs of a child two months old who bad died of 
mamsmuB, and the Innga of a fietns. still-boro, at eight mootht, 
I inflated the fcEtal lung* completely, and in doing so ruptured 
the air-cells, and produced emphysema over the entire surfiice, so 
that when I aaucd to inflate tliem, the Inngs rapidly colbpaed. 

' 'London UDd. and Pti's.Joanii].' 1 

T. 1832. uid Jan 

id Uij, 1939. 

'i HoiiriUl Report",' No. t, 
lii haan, snd bmlhcd tctj 1 




I tlta> took one loba from the lung of eittier body, anil, placing 

n tof:BtheT in a duth, gqbniitled them, by mean* of nn aa- 

, ItMant, tuMning prcHore. Both pgrtioiii atill retninecl tlieir 

L boDTUKy. I next Hood on the dath, and reputedly staaipcd on 

[' I^ bul lUll twtb Boated, thongb their strueture uus olmoBt de- 

L Itwj <it. I then took > portdan (roni the Inoga of bath diUilren, 

r.^iUlignlihin{; tho Inng which bad brenthed by the darker colour 

Ktf its contnil portion, plu»d tbem both tngcther in the nme 

■Ath, and proceeded u before. After applying pronure by 

1 tarhtin^ t)i« doth itroiigly, both pieces contianed to float ; they 

I MfathiLd their buoyancy eren after they were trodden on, and it 

I VM dM till they wer« poonded with the heel, and tbdr ttriictore 

£4010081117 broken up, that the inflated portion aank : the portion 

^f the iangt which had breathed itill flonted, though inipeEfectly. 

B pmnding thii portiuu of long ■ lecond time, thii likewire 

'[- A HcoDd Mid a third eiperiment led to the Bsme rcsnlt, 

inlUt«d portion of long linking after ■ teiii degree of prea- 

e than llie portion which bud breathed, hut the atmcture 

'n both porliant broken up before their biioyniicy was de- 

," Another BoHci of experiments was attended with the 

le iwalt. (Q.) 

' If. in IhsK uperiinent*, prenure, short of that required to 

Mik down (he atmeture of the long, bad caosed the inflated 

partion* to aink, while the portioos that bad bresthed could not 

b> ntde to nnk till their atmcture waa deatroyed, we could under- 

^^^nd bow ^i>«iiin> might become a ineana of diagnoaia ; hut as 

^^^W odIj difference ia the d^reo in which the atnicturo is bmken 

^^HMt and u> in any given ctue, we ahull have to oiamlne a portion 

^HB iBBg vpontlely, and not tide by aide with one which wa can 

^^Hun ■■ > atandard of comporiaon, it la obvioni that thia test 

fi not apj^able to medico-legal pnrpoKa. 

It liMbteD objected that these eiperimenli, having been made 
M luNff* inflated oat of the body, do not admit of application to 
Uw <mm of lungs inflated within the body. This ul^ection, of 
* ■ h il hi difllmll to aee the validity, baa happily buea obviatud 
« ujuii Iniigs SDCceafully inflated within the body, 
wi, of which one was reported in the ' Medical 
iM.' Nov. S'l, 1S44, were communicated to me by Dr. Ucnry 
"-r, and two aimilar CJiea by Dr. F. J. 
.■I in the • Medical Timet.' Feb. 8, 1845. 
' 'tin-born, and the Inngi were ettunsively 
aink by prcnure till their 




tc Ihnn s (iiiMtti 

Tbti ojilj objectioiiB^ then, to the hjilrtKtiti 
■uch (ireMure u may ■aSlce to dispel the producli of pntreruetim, 
■re three : — 1. The lungs mny sink, niul yet thu citild lutve 
brathed, iniumncli as reqiinitioii mn; hare been too iniierlfact 
lo rcniler any part of them Imoyaat. 2, The lunf^ may nak. 
Ihoogh reapirntioo hare taken place, in coaaeqamce of diaeam. 
3. The Innga mny float, and yet the child not have bmthvd, in 

The follcnvhig additional t»ti of respiration have been propowd : 

Cliaitffet in Silt oiuJ Siape of ChetL—Tiia cheat htfora n- 

epiratioD is itated to be sniall, narrow, and flati«ned ; after r^ 

s)rinitian \b be larger, end ronnder. Thi* test a not wonted it 


•chile ii 

a tb« 

presumed cliange* do not occur. It ii uccdleai iu Uie □ 
and nselen in tlie other, 

Ckangt in Potiiiou of Diapkrasm, — The diapliraem, before 
respiration, is stated to be arclicd and to rite liigh in the chest ; 
after reapiralion, to be RslleDed nod depressed. This sign is open 
to tliu Htac objection us the rorei>oing. 

IiUTtateil Volume i^tht Luagi, — The lun((s are stated to be 
moro bulky afler respiration; thii incr™*ed silo bedng due 
partly to afflux of blood, bat mainly to ndniisrieii of air. This 
Uat is condemned by whnt has been already said of the static 
lnng't4«Cs. It alKt is needleaa when lespiraUon ii iierfet-t nr ei- 
taiaive, anil uaelcM when imperfect. 

AUend Potilioit iff ike Ltmgs. — Be&re re«|HratJoa the Innga 
Uo fkr back in the chest, learin^t the thymua and pericaidinin 
OMOvemI, and preaenting sharp edges; after retpiration tliej 

S'ect forwards, seem t» Gil the chest, nearly cover the thymus 
perii'ftrdiam, nod hate ronnded edgM. This ia a description 
of fii'tnl lungs and of those that have fully respired: it ia inap. 
plioalilc to casn of impciTect respiration ; for, in nil these pmnta 
iaHtX longs eloBoly mcmlilo thoHi that hate brentbed ImperfiKtly. 
Mterrd OiiKi'tletitt i^lig Lamgt.—iietore respiration the loa 

amtnrT i^ I7 Ui« hteh nntharilr nf Cuper. Ho tag' : 
iv( III •u)>pii>r. u bs* barn dux. that Ihcsli nil bcasll' 
Hui irul ut lua|» arUanliUlj iBflaM, lint nut out nf Ui 

otiieu hjsG'Tesis. rnACtiCit. directions. 

m Hver ; ancr 


n, ipoiigy Buil crepit'iuB. When 

_ ■, Ihpy ItHve, of coursa, ivcitiveft nir; 

It tliat air niaj Iuits been «it1m in&Kted or hreatlicd. In im- 

!t ncpiratimi, the change in the Inn^ dtc* not extend be- 

■1 tlis liliilt* of tbs developed air-cclk 

WtiffU Iff Lirer eompartd with ff'eiffhl qf Bodg. — Aftra 

'mtlon port uf the bloud whitb had drt'ulated tlirougb the 

ia diverted to tbe tungi. llie lirer, therefOTe, Ioim weight. 

t, of Tieiina, availed hiin«]f of thla fhct to encumber Ilio 

■nigect of infuitiride with nnutbcr oaeleu t«t; nnd OrfiU look 

" t Dacdlca puna lo aubmil it to experiment. All t1>e objec- 

nt alrmdj adraiicn] i^punst the sUUu lung-teila, aud all that 

jhl b« urged agniiut auj t«>t wbatever, apply to thii. 

To all tha foregoing tola, then, there ia one aimple objection, — 

a Majantion ii complete tbey are neediest, and when iropei^ 

latttM; and ^y do not diatiui^ulih iaflation fVom rcipira- 

],aihieh ia the only iDfommtion not obtained by the Brat glance 

"~in Um anrfiwe lA tbe lunga. 

Tlie tefitmnenla of balanccB and gmdoated Jiirg, with which 
•nw Gamnn aulbon have eiicnmbered the hydroalatic teat, may 
faa Midy ainugned tn oblivion. 

■ m of tlie lunga themielTes la the be«t, and 
■a of dal«nnining whether or not the; have 
au oir throngb the rir-ptangfii. If tbe air-cella are de- 
■d. >t ran only be by respiration or inflation, and the naniber 
la ao darelnped ia llie IhmI mo^nira of the extent to which 
prooeaui have been carried. The e^e will dcte<:t theae 
la of iba admiaaoo of air into the tungi where the quantity ii 
inalj to render any purlioa ol their texture buoynnt. 
« piwctical dirwtjuua fur delennining the question of re- 
' 19 ar«t tharvfore, very simple. Proceed at once to eitmct 
tgi, lakiuf; (TBrH not to iigure them or the aurronnding 
: ouuinc tbem cloaoly, and if Ibcy have throughout tliii 
owl tixture of the adult lirer, reapiration hni not taken 
J bat if (he larlinca is mottled with hriglit vennilion or rote- 
id apiita, and Ibwic apota coiilaiu deielopod air-cellB, then 
lioii >ic iiillBliiin baa Mken place. 

ppaara. tlitn, that the only difficulty we encDuntcr in asccr- 

t trhethrr a new-born cldld has, or haa not, hieatlied, 

It of tbe naemblanoe of tha effwta of bflation to thwo of 

Thin diScnlty oinnul be ovurvom» by any tung-tust, 

f tu materially Iwwnfd by aunte very obvioiia con- 

) H b aew pmerally admilted th]it the lunga of oii infant may 


106 ixtisncwt. ^H 

be inflated tliroogh the mouth, witliaal the aid of any inafar^^B 
ment. All that ii needed is to secure the naatrili, to fi>rce tbf 
ffinilpipe buck on the ^Ut, and td imititte the movements of 
raspimtion by alteriiitel; eompresunn hdiI releoaiag the chart. 
Four instBDces of <ach luccewfiil inthition are referred to at 
p. 103 of this work. Schmitt mojeeded iDore than once* in oom- 
pletel; inflating the longi in tliia way ; in two ao perfectly, " that 
not even a single point woa to be found in either luni; into which 
the air had not penetrate(I."t Such romplete inflation ia not 
rMdilf effected even out of the bodyi fiir I bare repoatedlj 
removed the lungB, and inflated them hy the blow-piplv and in no 
caie bave I been able \o eipniid their entire teitnre without 
rapturing acnnc of the BopBrficiel air-celts.^ (O.) It ii not eaij, 
therefbre, even for an initructed and skilful penon, to elFect ■ 
complete cjEpauBion of the Inn)^ ; and it may be safely affirmed 
that inch complete inflation eanld not be pmctised by an nn- 
skilful one. If, then, it were urged on a trial for infiinticide, that 
the mother bad tried to aave tlie life of her child by inflating its 
langa (for the supporition that this might be done maliciooalj to 
criminate the mother ii limpl; absurd), and it appeared in 
evidence that the Innga nere completely e:(piuuJed, the otgeotion 
must ftdl lt> the ground. But even if the lan|^ were found very 
imperfectly distended, it wonld admit of grave doobt whether 
even this canM be effected by an nuiustmcted and unpractiaed 
tcmale recently delivered. 

But to make the plea of inflatinn by the mother at all ftaaible, 
•he most have shown her anxiety to preserve the life of her off- 
•piing at least by making some prepnrations for her delivery, and 
preparing clothes fur her child. In the great inijori^ of caaea 
of alleged iufaiiticide, no such pre]>aratioiis hive bren made ; and 
the plea of inflation would he still less tenable in that large 
dam of oues Id which the body of the child bears mnrki of tio- 

Mao; attempts have been mude [o distingnish intUtion from 
mpiration. Jletzgtir gives no less than foor diagnoKtic marks, 
and states that inflation is distingaisbed by inniinplete distmaion 
of the lungs, by flatneea of the chert, by absence of erojdlatioa 
ith«n Iba Imiga ara incised, but chiefly by their bloodlew HmU, 
neb «lat« not bcbg accmmttd for by previous hs'morrhaee. All 
thcM distinHioDi are unfounded ; fur impeTfrFt rvsgnration alao 

; Op- ' 

U GTlWTliiKniti Im. 
I qiHUd bj Cislier. in 

nbem tu ni>in wawhIb] la 


DEuvEEr. 107 

I inmniplele diMtauioa of the lungs, ivitll flatoesa uf 
eace of crepibitioD ; and these muy foincide witb a 
e of the Inngi. The statii' tung-testa bnve lAao 
neani of dugnong; but at these t«M do not dls- 
ib mpintion from non-reapintljon, and intlnled lun^ are, 
■ hr u conoinnB the bhxid they contain, in the itate of lungs 
~Nich bare not breathed, it tbih)ws that tbe static lung'teatB 
A dmUngaish reapiraUon from iuEatioa. 

e it fortnnately one BTsiiabte diatinction on which Httle 

a haa been bud. In all unskilfal attempts to intlate tho 

I thraagh tlie mouth, air is introdnced in conaiderahla 

" / into tbe itomach. Ita nhacnoe, tbereforo, from the 

h would go hr to prove that inUutioa had not been prac- 

i; careful inapectioa of tbe langs, we hnre convinced 
■ tbat either rctpiration has taken place or inflation been 
pncUtcd i and further, that tho body ahowa marka of violence, 
that tbe stoniach doeanot contain air, nnd that the circumstantuil 
pridsnoe, (trengthened hjr the general considerationa respecting 
tb* dificoltj of inflating the Innga, render the plea of iolhition 
mleiiable, and leave no alternative but that tlie infant had 
bftatbcd, a further inquiry is still needed before wc can aaaert 
ttat It wiw horn alive, in the senae the law attachea to that 
tanB. Tho qaestion still to be aniwcied is: — Did the infant 
farwtbe before, dnring, or after Mrth ? 

B«^tatian ma; tate phkce belare complete deliver?, a. in the 
wanb; ft. In the paosaguj and c. after the delivery of the head, 
a, Bwpitation may take place in the womb in casea of face- 
pRMDtAtwn ; bat thia is a rare event, occurring only once in £80 
MlvouaL In this potition, t«o, respiration would be extremely 
' t, to tlut any oonuderable expansion of the tunga would 
» wgative the »nppa«tJon of the cbild having breathed 
rRbiD tliH womb, and periahed hetbre oomplet« delivery .f 
i t. Keapiralion may olto occnr dnring tbe pauoge through the 
: and cfpecially if the bund ia inlroduced to beilitato 
It labonr, or chanRe the pODtioo of the child. It must ulao 
I admitted to be poauble in the absence of mannal uaaiatanee, 
n tlHl parts of tbe mother are cnpaciooa. In tbia duM of 
^ too, it is probable that respiration would be very imper- 


^^'\ a bfC oT prutifld vsIl 

! (lomMli sod InmUtm. Vol. ill 
n uf hifkullclilc. C'upcr tipreai 


feet, u that ui; eoiuidernbla duteiuion of Uw li 
RegatWe the auppoution of mpiratiun luiving oisniiTRl onlj iB 
thu va^Qo. 

f. Ileap'imtion aft«r delivery of the hi^cl, and befnre compWi 
aeparation of the bod; fVom the mother, ia ■ common btmL 
In Buch ■ coae there ia not likely to be any tenons impedimnt 
ta onnjpleto delivery, Sclimitt relates no lev thnii nine chm 
□f tbia kind which occarreil in hia own practice, and in all itf 
them the child waa bont alive. On the other linnd, a lew (MM 
■IV recorded in which children, haviDg.breutbedin tliiaaitiiatldl^ 
pcriahed before the completion of the labour j and the aaw 
reinlt may happen to children breathing in tlie nomb or id tbt 

The possibility of respiration before the complete sepuraHon ot 
tbe obild from the mother ia thai ptaoed beyond a doubt ; and it 
moat be evident that the mere inspection of the longs wonU 
not enable oi to aaaert positively that rijapimtion look plM« 
bribre, during, or after the birth. Hut if the lun)^ are finutl 
fully or even largely diatended with tiir, wo ahonld be juatifled in 
■aanming that reapiration had not taken placo only in tlnv 
titQBtioDii, but that the child waa born alive. 

Bnt we may anccoed in obtaining hett«r evidcnre of U*a4Iltt 
than tbe etute of the Inngs can BiTord, by a eareftil euminatiM at 
other parta of the body ; — of the stomach, inlMtinea, and bladdwt' 
of the organa of circuktion, umbilical cord, and akin. 

The chingea in tlie orguia of nrcalatiou, umbilicnl oord, and 
■kin, are both proofs of live- birth, and mejns of detorniLniDg bow 
long ■ uhild hna survived. Theae pmnts will, therefore, be re- 
■erved till tbe iadlcationa to be drawn &om tbe atute of tht 
internal viscera liave been considered. 

The ttamaei may contain milk or Girlnaiwoua fbod, prarisg 
that the child wns bam alive, and had lived long enough to U 
fedj Milk iK rendily idontiticd by its pbyalnil characterst bjr tU 
nae of the microscope (see Hgs. tl & 10, p. TO), and by Tromtnor^ 
test, a* oaed for detecting the presence of sagar in urine.* 
Farinaceous food may be identiRed by the starch it containa, 
which haa cbnmetoristic appearances under the microiGOlke, and 
■trikes with iodine-witer a blue colour ; and by Trommer'a test, 
if the food Ilia been sweetened. The presence of blood in the 

" Trominpr'B teit. Add totheU^Dld tobc vumlucda tow drops of a »*^ 
aolatkn at iidphatv oF copper, aud viunlle notba in cXK-vn. and applj ths 
apMl-liuiip. TLh Liqiad uaumH a dnep ilolFt Uui, and uii being nutba 
hsaled depodls md lub-iiiilo o! copper. Thii I«il nWa cliinctcrlille maW 
«Uli the whrj aud card of milk, at wcUaiwiiU Uqiddi coBMinlug togar. 


SFJi\ivE? 109 

uid> a pn>b>l]ilit;f of liTe-Urlh, for It u mors 
M> nralloiWFd tlian to havu been poured ioto the 

mtimtt. \a matnre ■mi-born children, are filled 
; mmI thongti this ma; bo purtially expelled 
. RxuMlBraUe quanlitj of it remuiu in ill ukb 
[la cooiplate ex|inldun. therelbre, wonid fnmiBli 
iTrt; Uui ■ dilM bad ■urrired iti Unb. But, on 
Um praMDc* of ■ ooniidcnble qnuititjr In Iho 
DOt he taken to prnre that the child was not born 
" > delajed for xmie boun or 

b eofdiBcml} emptied of iti content* •oon afler 
if (bond eniptj, U hu bren uinmcd that the child 

i V full, that It wa* atill-bom. But this ai^ ia 
K bf the Uaddn mi; eortiiinly be emptied of 
viny bbour, a> it tuaj be replenished aboalil the 
la birth mtat tine. The Btatement of Casfrr that 
abarad timw " found a full hlndder and ta frnply 
■ rvione, deprlvu Ibete signi, token together, of 
f fuig-hl be augipoacd to pcwe*a. 
f otijlmlian in tie hmitr epiphgtit of the femnr, 
in oDle to p. 75 aa a tat of age, mnj be admitted 
fym of anrviionhiii. But ic roust bare a very 

unra Diu TBI CHitJ> ernviv:! rrs hcbth ? 
I it anMtering tbia qiMnUoD are lea> preciae than 
ti. The eiteiit to Khii;b reapiration baa taken ploM 
■nded n|H»i; aiul rucent otiumtljain have tended 
i^ the value of at Ivnit one of tbe three ai^a juat 
aaialj — a. Chent(« in the organa of circobition) | 
■r tbc nnbiUnl end ; and e. Tbe atate of the ikin. 



■rv doliueil (or citra-aUritiv lifr. Tliete coniiet of llie ui 
arteriri (a a), which retarn the b1»ud of tlie fietas U> the i 
tht nmUUcal rein (<^)i wlikh oonvejri the btnod of the motlier, 
through Uie inMrrenUon of tha placenta, to the ftcciu; the 
■iDotni vwimua (e), which convey* port of the mother'a hlood 
•U^lCI W(A), llieuoMidine cati; tho dactoi arteriwoi (d), which 
cx>nvcyii th>' Ijhnd dntin«(l allar btrlh to dnnitiit« t^raiigh Uu> 
liulmaimry tir1«nu (i k), ilirmt inia (/] llie 4lacei>ding aorta ; 
iinil the fonimen onin («, fig. li)), ritiuted at (r). wUch. bf 
■Mobliihing > ivoimnnlcatlan twtween the n'ght and left luridc 
makai the iloubto h«irt of the fatorc bmllung uuidbI, > tiufle 


caA:(GES IN THE OBOA-ts of cikculiiion. 


(Mie during the life in the womb. 
All tLcM part*, twit^ uimeNsnry 
to eitni-at«rine lift^ ars dosed 
after birth.* 

Tie L'mbiUcal Arteriet ami 
rnV— 1'ho obliteration of the 
arttrirt takei place mach wioner 
Iban that i^ the vein. At the end 
of tweiitj'-lfour boon tbey present 
a inail^ed contnction and tfiicken- 
ing of thar coata oear the ainbili- 
etn. At tho end of two da,vB the 
eontnction «it«ndi through a 
gnat part of tbeir length, and at 
IIm and of the third day reachea 
Marlji to tbeir ternuiutiou in tbe 

The changes ia the umbUiatt Mia and d»elki vmoimt 

much more alow);. Daring the Bnt three daji there i» 

I (light cantmction ; On the fouitb thia is moro marked, and 

b the Sfth it ii, with few exceptions, Mnnplete. 

p The cLanget iu the i/mWu arlerionu have been minately 

•cribod by Bemt of Vienna. The vessel is about an ini^li long, 

d abont as large an the polmonary artarj. After a few rcspira- 

it TOUtncts tonardi the aorta, bat alter some honn or dajs 

■nly throDghout. At tbe end of a week it has pussed from 

» aiie of a goosc-quiU tn that oT a irOW-qDill ; and on the eightli 

H b obliterated in half the cliildrcn, aud about the uiuth or 

ialh in all. 

'"Tlie period of oblileratiou of the foramen ovale is eitremely 
iviablc. Thus BiUard fbnnd it closed in 1 ont of 18 inbnts of 
« (h; old ) in 4 out of E2 of two days ; in 3 out of 2S of three 
dtyii and in 2 in 27 of four days old. Devergie oiiniiriai these 
obanraliun* as to the nncedaiii period at which the foramen in 
doMid- It nften ceintinne* open even in tbe adult, and, in Bome 
CMea, without any dangeroos eousequcncea. 

Uamt mten into minatc detaib respecting the aitnation of tbe 
opening of the Foasa oinlia at ditTerent int«rva]i after birth ; bnt 
^^Ihiiii ha«( no practical value. Indeed, the confidence (brmerly 
^^Hned in the clccure of the aevenil fietal venol* and of the Ibra- 
^^Ktn (nalu, aa Mgua of live-birth, and in the order and progress uf 
^^^bflantion in those parts respectively, as menus of determining, 

^K> latl 



ka dagruB f ; npnHBl Ihs [ll*v ineriii. < th> ileKQndiiig ea 
aalaof tbe poml iiiUib, dmlisd tnm Iu uiublUia] nin. 

ntion of whlcb^H 

lia iK?iKTicrnE. 

with some apprtmch le kcciir«cy, how Iohb b child h»d «nr»iT»d H» 
birtli, hiu Wd iiitcl; radety tlialien ; Ibr it has been ■bowii tliat, oa 
the one band, all the vemeb and tlie fonimcD ovale may be found 
opeu id ohildivn wbo hnve survived tbeir birth leviinil daji; 
and, on the other, that the two p«rta on the obliterntion of wl ' ' 
the greatect reliiince has been iilKced [the ductui 
the roraaien ovale) ma; be closed within a few 
hirth, or even, in rare instances, previoui to it. 

Of the patency of the FfEtnl venels after liTe-birth a good' 
eiample is given by Mr. Henry Lee. in hii ' pHthologlcal ftnd 
Surgical Ohservntion*,' p. 116. Tlie umbUIcal vein, dnetiM 
rvnmis, dactiu BrtsriosDs, and left umlnlical artery, were all 
open, tbe right being cloaeil only near the umbilieus, and yet the 
child fhnn which the preparstiou was token died from ambiUeal 
hiL'tuorrhiige when a fortnight old, and ux days nAer the lepara- 
tion of the funis. Similar casea liave been reported by JOrg and 
others. On the other hand, tbe tittle importance which attacba 
to tlie closure of the fottal venelB and fbrsmen ovale is sbowo ~ 
a cnw reported, by Dr. Norman Chevera, to tlie I'atholi 
Society, January, IStT. The child had aurvivcd its birth 
HltceD niiiuUe, and yet the ductus ortfriosni was found UDifbrtn] 
contrBctvd so as only lo admit the shank of a large pin, wbtlo " 
coats exceeded in thiotinMa those of any other large vev 
Dr. Chevers tliought that the contraction of Che vessel took pli 
before birth ; on opinion which receivea some countenance 
the tact thnt the duet has hem foniid absent, or the vary 
chMurc of the foramen ovale, ■ remarkable case wn« reported 
Mr. 8mith, at a Uter meeting of the tauiB Society (Dec, 7, IB'' 
Tile uliild died coiDBtoae at tho end of aiiteen hour*, and 
foramen ovale was found elosed by a itroDg rctlcntated roeiahrai 
llrmly attached to its distinct nnnaloi, impervious, and ; 
Dr. Chcvcrs inclined to the cpiniuo that in this case, 
closure had («ben |riace before birth. 

The open flHt« of the Aetiil vessels and (bramen ovale is IliarM 
fore DO proof of stilUhirth ; and, on tlie other hand, tb*i eonti 
tion of llie doctui arteneaus and ilosure of tbe tbnunm ovale 
quite canai«t«ivt with ■ very short period of anrvivonhip. 
luBdico-lc^l value, Ihcreforc. of these tests itt live-lurtU and 
*ironUp ia nearly ou a par with that of the statio lung- 
TbeopwiaUlsof tlievinM'laaflhrdsalow probability of *tiU-1 
and Uia eoiitraetion or clmura of one or mora of tliem of 
birth I but the length of lime that the child hosaarvlved Its bi 
cannot be nfoly iufemd. 

i, Ckimgt* (■ iSt Cmhilimt OW.— In n new-born child 



d of H binii 

WBWieal ODrd ii (resh, firm, ron 
mull atill conUin Uoodi nnit iU tiie v»t\ea wii.1i the aiiionnt of 
gelatinout fluid it conUini. The ibriaking. wifAering. or oinm- 
■i^alioi of the cnnl is tlie Gnt obangu : it comlnencM at Oic 
~ A B&d gndnallj extend* to tlie luivel. In hiidb cases it 
ki dirnctl; tfter birth ; in otbras not tjll tome liimrs hnve 
' it !■ ranlj deUyed b«jond thirty houm or two ilnys, 
•r li)rigrr than tlirce. Th? cord is uow flabby, srnd same- 
• diatliict red rirrla ii perwptible round \U insertion, with 
I tbiekening, Rttfl slight purulent sem^tion. Tlio 
^•0 is rfdnccoftoi. Tbe cord first Dssumes a rcddiah- 
n ooknir, and bemmes leiai'traunparent; ii is tben flattened 
■itelled; and when tbe proceu ia still more lulvuni.'nl it 
• quite transparent, and of the cnWr of piirctutient, tbe 
ilsoael* being contracted, and oontainjng clotted blooil.or 
re eompUtely oblileratnl. Tliis prooera of doiccatiun seta in 
M or ton to foar diiy> after birth, Hnd it mny Ih.' cutnpletc 
n one to Btb days, but tbe anul period is tliree dnys. I'he 
It atage is thefallixji tiff of t1>e eord i this asaally bnppens on 
AlUi day. CiMfn'iatloa of the umbilims, the lost cbango, 
M place about the tenth to the twelflb dny. Tbia deacriptiun 
1 cblcfl]' on tbe aUervaliuns of Billard. 
ehangca in tbe cord of * child born dead, are merely the 
n eonsequencea of putrefaction. Desiccnljoa does not occnr 
FT the latest period at nhich it tnkea place in ibe cord of a 
g child i and the cord does not aeparate. thongh the cuticle 
« nadily peeled <M. Casper has shown thut tlie first change 
' d) is not a vitul pmcces; but that it huppens with 
a of the curd cnt offaiid exposed. He docs not, therefore, 
" tbe alighteat value a» a proof of eitra-utcrine Ufe !" 
M oonudera the bright red ring surrounding tbe insertion 
I, nlth inflammatory thickening, and alight purulent 
\, as affording " irreftagable proof of tbe eitrii- uterine 
le cidld." This red line requires to be diitinguiubcd from 
•r circle fouml in still-born cbildren- 
Mjre la lik* Sa*. — Tliis consista in nn eifijllatioii of the 
ii^ in acaltv, or aa a line dust, beginning on the abdoniru, 
ig ■orCKssirely to the cheat, (groins, aiillat, inlencapular 
A limln. and imding with tbe bands and feel. It may 
D wb«n the child ia a day old, but mny be debiye<l till Ihe 
il or nmrtb day. It buta, aUo. u variable period, — tumelime* 
' ny days, and sometimes of tuo montiis. It lasts longist 
lie and deliota children. 

t, too, is a Tital process, differing easantiully from tlmt 



separation of cnticle which takes place in consequence of potn- 
faction. Although the period of its occnrrence is Tariable^ its 
existence afft^rds clear proof that the child has snririved its Inrtit* 
The following table, based on Billard^s observations, presents^ si 
one view, the principal changes just described, the probable date 
of their occurrence, and the proportion of cases in wfaidi tbs 
foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus have been found open. 





per (.ent. 

per cent. 











• a • 

















• • • 

Contracted., Contracted. 





• • • 

Obliterated. 'obliterated. 



, 25 











The two (luostions — 1. W'a.s the child born alive ? and, 2. If 
born nlivo, how lonc^ has it survived its birth ? having been 
answered, wc nuiy have next to inquire, 


Post-mnrtcni changes occur in the same order in the infant as in 
the adult. The animal heat first disappears, rigidity then ensues, 
and putrefaction follows. The body of tlie new-born infant parts 
with its heat very quickly ; the rigidity is as great, and lasts as 
long in the infant as in the adult ; and putrefaction, according to 
Devergie, jioes on more ra])idly. This diflerence will have to be 
borne in mind in making application of the principles laid down 
in a future chapter. (See Putrefaction, under real and apparent 
death). The effects of intra-utcrine maceration, described at 
p. 88, must not be confounded with thoee of putrefaction. 

• Li'.lard : ' Maladies dcs Enfants,' pp. 13-24. 


t Thcrr aro fevcral w»yt in wbich the life of a child may be 
* " a abort period of iU bird), without violoiico on 
• mother"* part : a. It maj be immatare or feeble ; 4. it may 
r obftnclM to the contiDUSTico of reepiration ; or, e. a 
■ may prevent Ibo cuntiaaance of the Tilal 

■t. Th« death of an infent after a few respiratioiu, in ipite of 

■t akilfnland peneferiiig )ittenipt« to reBtore iinimiitlOD, is 

"; wdl knowp to every acoonirheur; and mnit lie a 

1 in children bom under circntDBtnncea vrhicli 


ptechul* eflectval a^ 

doth oro a \tmg ami tedion* labour, b^morrbag^ fODtinued in- 

IcrrnptioQ to tLe drcnlatiaa through the cord ; and imtDaiurity 

CT freblcnai. It should alw be uiiilerBtood that the cauaes uljich 

ocaaaiun •Lill'birth promote the early ileatli of children born alive. 

e large iulanti periilt in the birth, or die coon alter, 

1 onn, and more imiilea {■« being larger) thiin fcmalca. 

_ I, tW danger to the child is groiteit in a llrit pregnancy. 

K i« {iTotMUe, too, tliat in the alwctice of violence, or even of 

' neglect, ill^timate children wonld be epecmlly liable 

Bbeatill-bom or bo die sudd afterbirth. Therepnrta of obatetrir 

I Bmrtitianen nisotc that, while the mortality of legitimate children 

lib aboot 1 ill 20, that of the illegitimate h about 1 in 10 ; the 

[ Iwlhi of main bdng t« thoae of females ai about 7 to E, 

i. Thschirfobatadea tothecontiunanceof reapinitiou are inicb 
I pODtiai) ai iliall cause the infant'* montb to be applied to Bome 
■A BAd yiel^Dg object, or to be immeracd in blood, the die- 
tM(M fc or water ; and ttie aecnninlation of mneni in the mooth, 
a, and aii^panages. Rtspimtian tnpy also be prerented by 
■ dtild being bom in the meinbtanei. 
W*- Tba cotigenital di*ea«es which prevent the eatabliahmGut of 
p rital proreaHt, or render their continoance for nny length of 
« hnpiMaible, have their aeat in the three or^ani most essential 
the heart, the Inngg, and tbe bnun. 

M of lA* Kearl and large ritasU arc rare in infancy ; bnt 
£jrmatian« as eontraction or early closure of tbe fcctal 
■e impOTlaiit aa affurditig a presumption oE death frotn 

lH«««*n of the Imiffi are mora important. They are mi in 
. HepatiiaUon (red and grey), tbe conicquence of 
ia belbrebirlh. 2, rulmonary a|K)plaxy. S, 'I'Dbercles, 
L (■ A diieaae di;scribcd by Uevcrgiu. at ccdcmn larduci- 


fonne. And B. A lUie known a» »telfcl«»i'. Tlie tim 
lion* of alelecUsii, iinlmonarr «popleiy, snil ipdenn Urdidfon 
■re illustrsled in portioni of iun(f« in the nnm-jed fijrore, of which 
1 . ahowi BtelectBui u flgured bj JOrg. S. Tlic lEdema dnciihiid 


sn'l lignred by [W^ie, And 3. Palmoniry ipoploty fntm the 
Inngs of B cliikl tlirm wefhe ulil, on« of urrernl infintt of the 
•amv fiimilf, thnt had died ubout the >ame age Irani embarraBed 

Theie diicBse* ma^ RtTpct ^ther tho whole Inngt or only > purt. 
In the Snt owe, regpintion cnnnot he perfeclly eatahlished, >nd 
the child oiniiot long lurvivc its birth ; when, however, the di*- 
etfo la partial, it will affect life, and ahorten it in pmportion to its 

The state of long to which Dr. Jiir^ of Leipaig gsie the name 
of itleUrlann or iraperfect expniuion, it not, strictly opealting, a 
dlssaac, but an absence of rMpfntioii and pcnistrace of llie fctUl 
eondltim. ftmnd to a greatei or les extent in most oew-born 
diUdren. ami oontinuing fur days or weeks. Hie lungi in the 
niMxptndtfd parts are perfectly healthy. 

Tbt chief iliseasca of the hrain and tpinal ■nnrrov are apoplexy, 
acrainaliilJinH of Said, and morbid laftenintt. The apnplety of 
tb* Avtni and ncw-bom inflint lUflcr in do respect iriiiii that of 
Uwailnlt. U. LiHcrra (Kanking's ' Hetroipect.' lol. iii. p. 842) 
ijiTCB a CUM of meniii^enl apoplexy, a seoonil of effudon of hlood 
into tlio ivntricti'i. niiit a IhinI inb> the buck |iiirt of the left 
ttnoisplisTf. A amall <)anntity of semm betweeu tlie mraibnuia 
or In ih* vontrkle*. may be ditrDgnidod, but • cousioriitble accn. 
mohitlon would afford a lulSeient eipluialion of the premature 
diaith of tbo child. Uorhid soflcning of the bmin and ■pinol 
oord la anullier ohvioiu isais of eailj death i bat it miut bo borne 
In tnlod that the hniii of the fains is naturally tott 


Of nil the diseases jiut ipcdUcd, It may bo remHrked that tliej 
f ftnjiictit ofcurrence; QM wben present, it ia rarely 
« nich > dvgrev u to Bccaniit for tLe apeedy dtratli of tlie child ; 
(1 ttut it U on)j ttlieu proofs of mpiration are present that 
Ve ligot at death from uatunil imiucs have my Bigniflciince. 
^ In tbccaKof diildrcD that have inrviied thdr birtb bnt a 
if marks of rioUnce afibrds u fiiir pre- 
■Iplion tb«t dcatb wu due to natural cauiea. It ii true tliat 
p eUU may have died tbrough iub;iitiotiBl Deglect—fnim tlic 
■t oT tbon oniple aids by which cliu liveg of diililrea in mora 
wnbla mrcumtLuieEs are preierved^or by the aimple closure 
BtbeaXMth and nostrili; but Ihasa causes of death leave no 
'a hchind Uiem, and tbo accused must have the 
It of the doubt that attaches to the oue. 
I Wat tke Dtath due to Tiolencg ? — In aniwering this queation 
it ha*)! to bear in iniud the fact that fatal injuriea mny bo the 
(git uf acdilent. But in some cases we may decide withaat 
a tlut they were due Ifl niorderous violence. Punctured 
it of tlie fontancllea, orbita, heart, or spinal murrow ; dialo- 
eation of the neck ; separation of the head from tlie body ; ex- 
' r« fracture of the bonea of the bead and fuca i suffocation by 
-^ (lagging lb« fiiuca; orstraiigulatiou eHected witb uhusurI force 

'"" ""^ ■" a tale. But there are other coiea in which the 

LUie of the injury can only be determined by refe- 

» to obtletric eipcrience and medico-legal experiments, illua- 

f tbe roecbanical injuries a child may nutiuu during the 

if larturilion or immediately afterwards. 

~ ' — Ree^oration, at already atatcd, ia aometimes pre- 

d or arretted hj accidentnl causes which leave no murk of 

>o tliat it cannot be stated ohether the child fell inlJ> the 

n of danger, «'ai intentionally placed in it. or waa allnwed 

«in there when it inigbt liave been retcued. Thla difliculty 

■* itadf in » cue of not nncommon occurrence. & child is 

a ptivy, and the qu«tion arises whether it wai aaftbcated 

{ tlirowD into it, or eKpelled wblle the mother waa there 

a fwlnral jnirpose. In such a case, if reepinttion is found tu 

' D place eitenslvely or completely, there is a atroug pre- 

a against accident; while very imperfect respicutiou would 

d an eifoally itrong probnbiUt; the other way. 

Isny cuea of sudden [wrtarition in inch »ituatioos are on 

' i bat tbey arc rare in wumea wbo have not previonily 

ID children. Jtirg rclatua tlw cuse of a pregnant woman, who 

if a dnini to evacuate the bowels, went to tho 

■t-atoul, and bnni^hl forth utiiag oa thu, witliaul unj pnln 


n. • lv«e bt;, «ba tM. ilisck Oh «b>. 

dUoodoB the Wt 
ate ma&M l&> cmb o( ■ BMnd U; 
k>BM^«oI. H*MBMW«ntkb)v.brtp«DM4^< 
Balk eUIdm dM-f It w>t W MiniU^ Hhi^ m r« 
' ■ * yity nwff l»« fcw wiliil; ^ 


tlcHth. WlMtUrtlMfan(piiidiUDw«oatdhaTebi«Bdn«BiRl« 
tike KKmth iiiUi tbe bnatli, or «■» iotantionallj mtrodDcc^ HMt 
t« ibterntiiMd bj iU qantJilj ami am(w:toe». 

Inbnta ■>■ maclinMi raflbnital lij ralfing the toogai bade 
lala ttio tlmtrt. But w it woolil pnbaUj resoDe Bb bm^ Btai- 
tlon. It \t onlikcl; tliat tbii nmE trf lUatli viraU l« detteUd. 

Slrai^lalion, — A eluld tnaj h< ■ttnglod bjr ■ tori, and ]rct 
DO marba appnr on tks nrck. But nan wbco Ukk ■ a db- 
roloared lUpraaotRi ronud iIm uak. it )■ not sertuo tbaC tUa ha* 
bam laiuinl tiy tha nuiClwr; fiit it ml^t iriae tttias tbe tuMilig 
of tliu itatvl-alriag, or bj tbc [itiaiun: of the Deck of tlia wnBib. 
Tb« ymtiaclUm of marks of itnuigliljilioD bj tlieia tniua hm 
been dnildl. Miudallj b; Klein, obo affirtniKl tttat he bail ncrar 
*IUiiuiii prwItKwl bjr ihaorideadf 

Itrcat III 

i,j 1 

Lli.iugh h 

lad k 

li t)a- iitx-lc iif tha iii£uit bad html 

1 :.< fiiriia iiiiou <ir tA-icc Iwlitcd round it, aa aa 

. l^iioQ. or tu rcDdar it iumiaeDL Uat 

. .liovi lliat tbc ciperienca of S3aa a 

I -" Tbc narcl-atring bad heea twbUsI 

1^1 1 hml left five tOlcrablir deep r«d in- 

- ■ -' r rl niaiM of Ibe same khul.I 

' I iDg; ta brood, omticinun^ 
I. lit •omalimca n>ni!*ttii|| in 
iimtnwtion of tlia n" *" ^" 
I Uvid atripc 
I '.V tJis uarel-alring, ii 

THE SKULl. 119 

nbnttsd in tbcxa msa in whkb tlie cord i» vary Hliortj ror 
. ttoogh it 'a luuiit'^ nbout i.\w k-ngtli uf tli<! Wly iui'ir(<iay 18 
I IbcIws). it niHir b« u ihort ni 4}, atul ua long m 69, incbo. 
i (Churchill.} 

Hulu of preMora on the neck, tliiirelare, cannot alwaji ba 
■ttribnUd ta intcntioiul violeiics; but as a murderer gcuorally 
WW ncm taite than U neodlul, they nic too distinct to be 
1 for b/ the icddantal twisting of tbe cord rouud the 
If Ibe cord Itulf were used tu a liguture, it would probably 
IV ^ipli«d «itb ondue force. Moreover, tbe roinpletu eatabliali- 
~~~ ' of reipiiilirni would afford the atrongeat preaamption 
it tbe itnngulatioD baviiig been produced b.v a cauie acting 
g tktt Urtb. On tbe otber band, tbu iib«nco of sign* of 
"» affords ■ presumption in favour of tbe Galialnction 
ten doe to a cauie acting before tbe birth. 
]t be well to ttate that tbe twlattng of the nnvel-strliig 
i the neeli does not always occasion a fiital compreeiinn : for 
■•ppeat* ftom bet* indaBtrioaalf collected in Oennaiiy. tbnt tbe 
'la attributable to tbit cauw fonn abont 1 in 38 uf tbe cnsea 
|i wbicb it il prceent — reialti in itriking contraat to thone that 
» prDtapse of, and couMquent preiEuro on, the cord, wbicb in 
or« than half the aaet. It ought nlao to bo und^raUiod 
when the cord ia tightly drawn round tbe ueok, death 
f act mult from aimple Btrangnlation, but from interruption 
'"MdreuUtion through tbe oord. This intermption, however 
" i» efforta at inapimtion to wbicb Casper 
pibntM the eccb^imoaeB of the lungs, described at p. 91, and the 
g of the ur -tubes with liqnar smuii.* 

^nUtion nay alio be effected by tbe preasgro of tlic fingera 
p Um throut, leaving bmiaee corresponding witb tbe cnnae. 
~ Idling. — Tbe signs of this form of death are the aamu as in 
Tbey will be described in a future chapter. 
vlar* tf lie Stvll.—T\ui may happen:—!. Within tbe 
nh, 2, During Ubour. 3. I)y foils. 4. By oriniinnl violence. 
" " SMS raWd by Casper (vol. iii. p. lOtP) it miiy be inferred 
H of tliB f'lital •kail may be ocCBHOned by Iklla of the 
im a ooniidcrable height. Such fractures Imvc, liow- 
tb* Ditate of tbe cue, no nedioo-legal interest. 
a alioll may be fractured daring labour U proved by 
f viU-aalhRitiaited cues. Siebold relatei tbe nue of a 
la witb vmy tuimw pvlria delivered, witlinatauittuuce, of u 
1 (lin-biini female cliiUL Oa examining tlie bead, a 
lltjr of blood was found on tbe turface of the cranium, 
• Ste Casiwfi Umdliogli, loL Hi, p. lis. 



knd Llioro were three flnum iu the Wft pHrietal, md oii« in 4t 
lull half of the fr<iiil>il. bone. Uichaeli* of Kiel ilsa repurU tba 
CUM iir a wimiun with it weU'fonn«d pelvia, wlio wm delivered of 
hiT nnt i-liitil uftirr i natunl labour. Tha child bnatbiil daring 
mid iiiiiiicdlatrty aflor binb, but then died. Tlie head wo* mach 
illili^iiii'il ; mid the right purWtal butic, nbich during birth had 
bi'i'ii i!iri.>rtrd undcT tli« promontory of the nonuu. wai eovend 
niiliriiirly Hud above with efluted liUiod, and on the removal of 
lliu |H'riiMl>iiiiii wan rooiid ft«ctnred in five plucei. The whole of 
tliit biiiu' wan miiilinmonly thin. On openinK the ikall there wai 
no extrnvaMllau boiMalb tlic tlaurea. but the longitudinal sinui 
WH* ruptured, and tbers wan an eitenuve coagaluta on the oet»- 
brum oil both udei. under tbe dura inater, and on the tcDtoriam.* 
Thwa two ca«M allow bnw great an amount of injuij Ibe bead 
liiajr ■luliiin Uuriii); tnrtU. But, aa a ^iierat rule, fnivtareB thai 
take plan) dnr'ing iMrtaritioo arc niers fiuarca, moatly lituate on 
tbe parietal bone, and mnnins at right angles to tbe aagittjil 
BUturc. Leu frequently tlic; oemr in the fiviital bone, and run 
ill a Utnvliun parallel to tbe sulure. They are not attended by 
ecohynnit or bmalion of tbe enlp. 

It>il»Mii t1i-'-i' rnii'luri? nf the ikuU and nich as are tbe resilt 
•if ' ■ .' ■ ■ ' . '' a tio csBenlial diflertnce, except in 

Tl ::il violcncv is UMt, and the Iraclur* i* 

iii< 1 urtuRipanieil by ilepmiiiiu ; or ii cot 

1 I ' )iiiit witli fiacturei canted by pnatote 

.•( , '.A and (WmUl boots, bat eitoub U* 

<.■! .iiJ eivn to thoce ofthe fitco. Defective 

^' . . v>f ibc ncw-boni infant would explain 

V . iiul fijcturot witlwol tlic nocoail} of 

M nauti hy (k!h have liMit tllosttatcd 
1:; ' ..iiiilaaiido^Hnvlkuis. ChamKer liamid 

If J .vn tfi'l-buni <^iUb«a lt( fall 6vm a 

k< u. H-iHtn t<ar. ana « botli d On )aoirtal 

bi*n hi.i li A.t.. Till! »aa» mmba rf frxtBWi umui g d iibea 
tbe bttflht nu a Icvt end a|n«rd^ and ta a &« tbe ifgnj 
MMmUI «■ tW h-tal beo>.t 
IhlTWa *(4a calbMcd hj Kldn ttalv U doBbdU -WUmt 


A tluira wag not a lingle destli amnng tliem, nor fraiHare of the 
llksll. or utlier miKliief; tbaagh aome of tbe dilldrea bad ikllea 
~n bun Umrda, nod aoam an the pavement. Tlie teatoa of the 
ISkreiiee betneen Ctiouativr's experiments and tbcic cuaoa ii 
oud to be tbat, in the latter, the bod; of the hifant ia pro. 
Brtod* abliquel^, lo as to breal: the &11. But casea reported by 
Jltprt ihuw that tbe luddeii exjjuUive power of the ul«ru8 uiubC 
W Hi off agiiuit the cannee thut tend lo break the fall. In no lea 
IfaMi &v« imtauces the child ii desia'ihed as having buen ihol from 
tlx mother, and in one of them to have beenyStta/'y injured. Tliia 
poup of (*i«a 14 alio intereating as proving that, in rare inataticea, 
Um height of the child's fall may eacced that of the diitaaca 
Ifrmn the gcnititls of the mother lo the ifround. Tlie condusion 
VliSdi Cujwr draws from hU reading and personal obaervation is 
~|i fidluwi : — " A parturient female loBy be Bnrpriaed by tlie iMt 
let of birlb in every poation, even when erect, that the child 
Baj be tbiu (brdbly eipellcd from lier geaitiiK and may be 
'•3 itqared, p^rUcularly on itt bead, and tbut even fatally." 
Handbook, vol. ili. p. 138.) 

From eertain facta colluded by Dr. Cohen von Baren, it may 

W infmred tbut tbe praaeuco or nbsence of (racluru of the akull 

■ hrgdy determined by the state of tbe cord. Out of his 50 

wore boru while the mother wan itanding, 17 while 

IT aitting, and 3 while bniwling. Of the hO, 32 wero 

Alburn, and 43 at full term. Of Vi inAmU horn while the 

>tlm *M ttanding, one only bad fracture of tlio aknil, aud the 

•oae of tbia waa doubtful. But out of 25 Caies iu which tho 

Drd waa rupturetl, 6 prcaonted fraclurea of tlie ikQll. Those 

kMtorca occaiioned by falls cun alio he dintluguiahed Irom thoae 

In* to intentiaiwl violcnio only by the comparatively slight 

Bsonat of it^nry coutnislcd with tlie great extent of that in- 

•ntionaUy inllictfld. When we .£nd eomniiiiuted fracturea of 

•Taal Umea— tbe parietal, b^mtal, and ocdiutal^wearejuatiGed 

N attrihuling lliem to niurderooi violenoe. 

Wb«n tha nmbltiral cord ii torn, it i« gencmlly found not to 

•d, or GWD to (all abort of, tbe ttiiuil length. The aeat of the 

tvra ii naoally witbin one or two inchet of tbe navel. If tho 

I, inrtoad uf being turn, i« found cut through, it may be in- 

■d that tlie iujuriva to tbe head were not due to acddcnt. 

iny caa«, the atate of Uie uord abould be aicertjiined. 

. Fr«ctura of the akull by intentioanl violence are cbarac> 

utt, aa a general rule, by the undue force einpioycd. 

obvrveil. takf • f iivjillon to 
vf SMa am AiuuJciI. 



MvarpccMalMhrabink; ad ■■ Ukj an aoteMadbf 

>b9d.rb.t' - - ■ ■■ 

bonw in mtnd, Uwl u connwinn of the IwmI diriBf 
nwAnu ■ B*id (weffing, lodi an ■ppcanns* nmt aet be atltt- 
bolsl to o ipie al nolenee. 

Ivittd ami Pmaetmnd WbmaJt. — ThoB is BOlUBg |iiiiiliw 
ia thcv mmiidi whea inflicted «d the nnr-bani imhUL F<r tb« 
dietiiirtiati between them end other i n juri ea '»***—* dariag lifc 
•nd ifter death, the reader ii referred to the mt^ect of WniMda. 

Foitnung. — Tbti a a laic «Biir of desth is dcit-Ikiib infrnle, 
thudgh leTenl oaa of hinnicidat poimung b; the miDeral oada 
hare oecorTEd ia foaiig diiktren. Tbey toe chKnetsrixsd fa; Uw 
a«ine appeanncei on the bodj' and dotha as mark the letioD of 
thOH andi iu the idalt. It aboaU.howerar.bebonielBiiriiidtlHt 
in D«« born childien the alimeiitirj cunl. in eommoa irith otbcr 
important organic ia labject Ui diieaie. Sometimes Uie Bning 
menihnne of the aiophagm preamta red ipoti. toDgicoiliiial linn, 
or MinilloitJiiBi. Tlieae, if amnged tmrarenely, mi^ht be iiu«- 
talun for the eS^Cta of ■ lii^tnrc appUed to the neck. Tie 
wtomack, mia«o*n', as well aa other parti of the aliaentarr eaiul, 
m»j be tb« lEatof uloentioiu with a asngainoleDt, dark-oaloared 
discharge. The niles fur the tuamiiuitiaa of the stomach and 
inl^atiBM, and tb«ir eonlents, are the lame for the infant and 
■dnH i and will be treated under ths general head of Ptnwning. 

J»/<tiaU«le bg Omittiom. — The amission to tie the nrnlnlical 
cwd ma; proTc Aial ; and there can be no donbt that it b iime- 
Ijmea • criminal act. Fodor^i relate* a rase in which the chUd 
pMi)hed ttitm Ilia Ugstare bwuming loiii«i* and Dr. Campbdl 
T«p«rts tno fatal easoi, onx from the acddtntal, the otlier 
111* Inteational, romoral nf tlie ninLf 

Bat the icstimoujr ol Klein and other* thnt fatal 
thage fiirtlj fMlnwi n'ptvrr of th'' ivjnl, pnn« that i 


■■••; the paleneaa of elery 

.11 tiusniity of bbiod la ttM 

:.^u (if woBiids, this Moodlna 

V rqjurdcd m lUe piubublu utftwlof hmrnontBgefrom 

periah b; oth«T Mta oTomiaaiMi 

• VoLlr-p m- 
« M Uic siiul; aud rnsUea of HU-U 

Til* motlie 

1 hvio /iiiled to praviJe propur ulothiog or fuod, to 
in a potiUon of dnngcr, uid to deiir the mouth of 
■ther aeuidcatal impedimcnti to breathing. Death Tfoi 
tod woulJ balmy itself by the groat emacmtion of tbo 
bmasi ■ml the erapt; gtato of the adnientory i 
I9 •tarratinn &ad mid combined, by pallor of the aurlkce, 
— '' a of the internal port*. 
^^ ifinRlnlJdde by omiiuian arediiScultof proof ; nnd 

artwn there arc wma ouriu of violence on tlie body, the in 
I apt toiMnme n oomplieated a ihape, that the jury cniic 
^^"--' — -4 Iq retoTD a verdict of wilful murder. 



.■■Dt of 


The flfat inquiry with rDferanee to the famiihi suipcctisl of 
iring ^rim birtb to the child ii, — Whetlior she bus been re- 
nUr ileiirered, and if to, whethHr the period of bi^r ddlirery 
_>oodt with the time at whiah tba child is rapposcil to hnve 
bom. (See Delivery, p. 6!).} 
Anotbet imjuiry ia eomotimea necc«mry ; and tbnt is into the 
of tbe mother's mind. Puerperal inaatiity ia nnt n rure 
tr> and it may talie the form of homicidal maniu, threatening 
life of the child, u in the folloning case quoted by I'lirta and 
nqiie.* A married woman, of good reputation, was do- 
iif 1 child, and not having tlopt many nights, fell into a 
mporary frenzy, and whilst iloDo killed her in^nt ; but com- 
ing oomilig in, she told them that aho had killed it, and there 
by. The goifd rqiatatiun <be bad prcvioiuly borne, the long 
tilt of (iMp. and tiio entire absence of the uanal motiree to bucIi 
ecime, addnil to " mnnj eircnmstniicra of inaanitj appearing," 
) to lier afquittnl. Dr. Parii observe*, in reference to this ease, 
at "had tbii woman been of donbttui clmracter, lliougli inno- 
Bt, ihe might have been ciecDted for want of medical evidence 
|ita*e the nature and frequency of puerperal intaiiity." 
A qnsUon of loma imporlance in ita bearing on infaatioido, 
id having reference to the mother, is whether a femalo recently 
iliterod, haa the (trength requinte for the destruction of her 
lild. The nniirer is in the affirmative. Thai, Foderc relntea 
we of a French widow, wbn being teized with labour p^ini 
raoriving a viiil from eight of her ncighboum, complained 
colic, and acBting hcnelf on a bucket in bed, as loon tis the 
bild'* brad pasted the vagina, nquoezed it Hat by compreaaiug it 
1th her thigba. That n woman has atrength enough to move 
xml and eiert benelf after her delivery, is protcd by the ai 
• -Mdikal JurUi'iuJouco," loL iU. p. IM. 



cessfiil CODTOAlinoiit of ttio fact of dellverf, uid of tlie imi 
inbnt. in tbe mBJoritji of cniei brought lo trial ; u well ■■ bj 
well-aiithentlcatfd inatiLnceg uf remale* wnlkiog wrenl mils^ or 
resuming laborioni oecDpalions, on llie verj day of lh«r deliTa}, 
This Buliject of inbnticido will be beit brangbt to a conclunoo 
by the RjUmi'ittg ■aminnry of tba cUief pointi La be attcDdeil ta 

1. Examine tbe body of tbe child to determine its degree of 
matnrit)' ; for thla purpose weigh and moaBure it. nscertibi the 
position of tbe centre of tbe body, nnd attend to the several pmoU 
comjirised in the description of tbe growth and deTelopmant of 
tbe fiutus (p. 73), Hote uhn any malformation that maj be 

2. Note the rereral drcamstanoei by which the time that hu 
tbipsvd liucD the death of Iho child ma]' be dotermiiied, sucb ai 
tbe presence ur absence of nniinal beat and rigidity, the exiilenas 
or DOu-eiistencv of putrefdCtion, and, if putrebi;tiou be preMOt, 
the degree to which it hai advanced. 

3. Kiamine thi- entire aur&ce of the body with a view to dil- 
covcr tDariii of violence, and, iFany be pretent, dctcriuine wbclbet 
they might have beco produced duriiig; birtli, or by acddental 
CHUMg acting nlterwada. Eiamine tbe month fbr foreign bwllM 
introduced into it. and tbe fontunelles, orlnli, heart, aud nncbB, 
in search of wounds inflicted by pointed inetrnments. Note the 
itate of the umbilical cord, mttaiiure it, and ascertuin whetha 
it baa been torn or cut i and ob&erve tbe condition of the akin, 

i. Open tlie chest, uid remove the heart, lungi, and thymni 
gland. Separate tbe lungs, and carefully inspect their aurfiice. 
Obaei'vo whether they are of a uniform liver-colour and compact 
ooiuistence througliout, or unifbrmly spongy lilie the adnll lung, 
or mottled vith developed oir-cells, aa in imperfect respiration. 
If there am parts of a lighter colour than the rcet, observe 
whether the tmturo of the Inng is developed in those parts, and 
distinguish tlie developed cells ft\nn air the product of indpieDt 
or ndvaarvd putrcraction, by applying gentle preaaure with the 
finger. In luiiga free from putrefactii'n, the liydroststic test 
may be resorted to, to ascertido their degree of booyaucy, ai a 
rough meuBure of the quantity of ur tlicy contain. 

6. Examine tlie be«rt and foramen ovale ; the ductua aitoriotu* 
and vettosuB ; and the umbilical arteries and roin. Obienre 
whether tbcae parla are contnuted, and to what extent, or 
obliterated ; and whether they contain much or little blood. 

6. Examine the stomach to ascertain whether the child has 
been fed, using toe tbia purpose the tetts for augar, milk, and 
'tandi ; if there i» any appeoctmce of ui&amnuiAjiQn m tioa al^- 


nlarj canal, twt its contenU with a view lo the ciiBfovery of 
■on. Note whether the intesfjnet coalnin meconmm and in 
at qointity. xnl whether the arinnry bindder coiilnitia urine. 

7. Examine the bancg or the ikuH both at vvrtei anil ba<e, in 
ittji of fnMnrei. Intpeot the brain and its tnombrance, Btid 
to anjr efi^on of iHiioii or ■enun. EiamiDe the ajMne witli s 
nr to tlie iliKJOrer; oT iliiiocHtion or fracture of the vert«hrai. 

8. Eumioe the nugpectvd female in order to McertHin wbctlier 
B hat been recentlji delivered, and biiv,- long. In ucrtain caaea, 
Hiire into the *tute of the womau's micd. 


A child bom in wedlncl: is premiued lo have tlie mother'a 
[•band for itj ^ther; but tliia preaniDptiou nia^ he rebutted hy 
tniihnce of Tion.aceeaa, or of impotence. 

There are ■errral rircnnutancea ont of which the question of 

|igitini«cy may spring. 1. A woman may bear a aliild alter her 

' haa bwR abumt more thiin nine caleiidnr monlbai and 

case the qucation iriwe. Does tbe period of otero-gettatiun 

of lieinfr extended beyond tbla the utitatMtn temjnu pari- 

S, A woman within a aliort period of lier marriage may 

ehild capable of being reared, and here tlie question ariiea, 

vInt ia tbo cerlieat period at which a viable child may bo bom t 

A voiDBn before the expiration of nine olendar munthi from 

( Hate of her marriage, my in the Tth or 8th mouth, may be 

iivfredof a child having the size and nppearani-e of one at Full 

■ni ; and it may become a queftion whether being apparently 

mature, it oould have been of tbe aapposed age. 4. A woman 

ly give Inrth to a child during tlie life-time, or after the death, 

of bcr htuband, he liaviug been at the date of the conceptiGu in 

Htch a atate of feeblenen or diseuse, or imperfect eonvulesrence 

from aome •were malady, as to raise thoqaeation whether he could 

bave be«D the father of the child. 5. A hnsband dies auddenly 

health, aud shortly after bi> death his wife bciira an 

ebild, and after an interval a second at full term or 

shing maturity, and here tlie question urlies nliether the 

child was the Inue of a iQperfictation. A quvation of 

ay also arise, where there is no doubt of tbo ehild'a 

macy, In couaequeuce of tbe mnrringe of the mother to a 

d hnaband immediately after tbe death of the fint. For 

of diapntcd legitimacy turning on tlie alleged ii 

" Impotane 

Tbe questions i 

this place aru chiefly— 1. TAa Dura 

li fall 

1. Tht I'iahitils of Childreti. 

Hiong-li the practice of oar courts of Uw is to ronaider fortj 
weiiks as the mare naiul darHtion, evidence is allowed to be giren 
tu to the )K>B»l]ilitj of that jieriod l>eing extended. 

The period of ntoro-geatDtion tu the human suhject i* genentllj 
stilted at 9 cnlendar moiithi, 10 Innar montlu, 40 weeks, or 380 
diifS; and n'o often meet with tlw Icsa definite eipramtm "9 
months, or 40 weelca." Bat there ia a material diflerGnco be- 
tween U calendar months on the one hand, &nd 10 lunar months, 
40 weeks, or £S0 daja, on the other ; for 9 calendar months msj 
consist either of S73, 274, 276, or 27G days, foiling short of £80 
by from 4 to 7 days. 

Anntlicr source of inaccuracy springs from tbc oticertainty 
attaching to more tban one means of fixing the date of o 
tian. These means are /our innnmher. ]. PeruUnr Smut 
attending conception, it. Ctttation of the CalameHta. 3. Tie 
Period of Quieteninff ! nod 4. A »ingle Coitut. 

1. Pecnliar Seitialioiit aiimdiiiy Couivptioii, — Tills mode of 
reclcaning is open to the olijei^tions that these senutiuns are not 
so defineil ua to be recognised by tbose who coBc<M\fij for tbe flr« 
time { tliBt they are not constant in their occurrence in tlie aame 
female ; and thnt tliey do not take place at tbe exact time of the 

2. Ceiiatioii of the Caiamaila. — To this mode of reckonii^ 
there are the obvious objections, 1. ThatthecataineDiamay cease 
from causes other than conception ; so that ■ woman who, from 
some such cause, cease* to tnonstruatc, and cancelfcs immediately 
Iiefbrc or after the next suppressed period, may date the concep- 
tion frcm the first period. 2. A woman niny mcnstnuite once, or 
more than once, after conception. In the first casetlie reckoning 
would exceed, in tbe second it wonld fall short of, the trnc dura- 
tion. 3, Tliat at the best it can give only BU approximative result ; 
for if H'e afsunie £8 days to intervene between tbe coinmencenieot 
of one mcostnuJ period and tbat of the next, there may be an in- 
terval between the termination of one period and the beginning 
of tbe next of nearly SS, say 31, days. If conception be assumed 
to take place on the day /olloiriiis the cessation, and we redion 
from the suppression, tlie enlculation would fall short of tbe real 
dnration by S4 days, II', on the other hand, we assnme cotMep- 
tion to take place on tbe day precrdiim the cessation, and wa 
reckon from the last appearance of the menses, the calcniated 

ncKAiios or fkegsasct. 


1 ciranl tin real dontion b; tbe mna periol of 24 daji. 
mid Um povn>te prar of 34 Say%, the pxpediebt lua bcm 
lad la of dividiiw Il>e interval into two pnrtt, and reekoimig 
t^ ili*tnan. In tbi* w>; the pooible error U reduced to 
U 4a]n. In Umkb aua in wbich tbe uiter*a] ii contracted, eiih«r 
Hg (Ik mMMH ccotUining for •etcral diij«orr«cinTiDgp<ier; three 
* iiV nvty fntnight, the powible error would be len; iniiit 
I la greitar in tbuw iii whicb the interTJil a pnJonged to 

t. ApwJ ^ ^"'^'"'■V- — "HiU (tuting'point i* eafficientlj 

tdmtaml hj tbe (act tbiit qnickeiiiiig, wben it i> perccired, 

eon at Tcrir variable pcriodi, barlDg k nage of at leut >ii 

(Mm tlM ISlh to f-he IStb), and if we combuie tbe Mate- 

of NVetsI aathor*, of aitlAen weeka, dudcIj, from tb« lOtb 

4, J fi^U CWai. — Tlua U tbp ml; acmratemode of rodom- 

1l-iUal«l fiicb of thli clan bavi now been cuOeeted 

I vnmber to pru>e that Ifac dnntUn of pregnane n 

to a marked eie— above 2S0 


■irh caM* jiald an aTcnf^ of SS4, i 

Inunn atSM injt. Tbe range vu therefore S3 
I abofa 180 daj* 13, and IT lo £0 aboTe 9 

Tlia urf«i«pw ifaavn from cwea in which Ibc dDration oTpreg- 
mrj b fiual hjt a tinRle rriitoa, h ■trengthened bj analcgooa 
m*t In wbieb iba awUva daatli of a hoihanil, or tlie date of 
if^rMioM fnim hi* "if*, i* uaed to (hrlerroiue not the eiact bat 
Hit BilninuiBi dnralina of pnfjnaunr, cDiiception hang aanuDed 
fc kua takn pUor on the icr; di; of death or dei«rtin«. £7 
im ubieh the dDTatioii *Bi Uitu flicil \ij nngle otatiu, or b; 
a 4Mtb or dqjaTtnre of tioataind, gare an BTersBe of 384, a 
■Dm uf sen, intl a naiitnDm uf 308 daji.* The rmge wai 
bra *8 ioyt, the »c«u alwve S80 daji 2B, and tbe eucat 
Ibna 9 nltndar mootba. 32 to 35 dujn. 

TbMa K tlin«fi>rc, the itrongEft naaon to regard tbe petiod of 
MO-gcitatim at rarnble and not Sud ; and abo (o eipect in- 
taad d l ten f t'ta *ilh id iiureaae in tbe noinber of facU- 
Thaaa tIv** drrive tbe ttrongert coolimiatjon fnoD the analog; 
if anisula. Ktmnerly thvlr pcriud of gotatSoo wm al» held to be 
bad ; anil It >ai ttatcd to be 1 1 calendar wontbi in the luaro. 

123 LEGiriXACT. 

and 9 in the oov. Bat tbia ii now aacertAined l<yl)*Te beon ■> 

Tlie wcll-linown observatiom of M. Tewler, whkh extended to 
lOS mares iind 160 don's, give the Mlowiog itriking rsdICb : — 
Shark^l: — Mara 311 days. Cow 211 d^^H 

LmiKeat . . . „ 391 „ 308 ^^H 

Itsnge 63 ,, 67 ^^| 

E.c™ above) 570^60.. ., 32 or 86 ^™ 

stated periud ( 
Average period . „ 11 mtli*. 10 „ „ 9 mtlis. 10 „ 

Earl Spencer made a >til1 more erlcnsive soriel uf otHerrlliaTM 
on 764 cowi," with these resnils !— ^^^ 

Shortest period (cair living) 220 Onyt. ^^| 

ShorUsb period (oalf reared) 312 „ ^^M 

Longeit period 313 ,, ^^H 

IUtige(i3tf living) 93 „ ^^1 

Baiige (calf reared) . 71 „ ^^H 

Eiccu beyond S6U days, before which time ) .„ ^^^| 

a calf wai deemed immntnre ... J " ^^^H 

Gxcoa ubtn-G 9 calendar montha . . 87 or 40 „ ^^^| 

Exceaa above 10 Inniir months 33 ,. 

Average dnratioD 2S4or2b5 „ 

Tie roajoritj of instanccj of gestation protracted beyond the 
average period, occurred in tbe cow of hull cslvea, the onmbera 
being, of cow-calve« 90, of bnll-ralvea 152. 

These obaervatioiu of M. Teaaier and Lord Spencer prove that 
the period of geatation ]n the cow end horw. icbich, like that of 
the hnmnn luhject, waa formerly regarded as filed, i» not only 
variahlc, but that the eilremea are widely leparated. and the 
longest period iti exceaa of the avera^ by considerably more than 
a calendar montb. 

The rase in fnvourof a vnriable period in the hnniRii anlject 
admits of being strengthened hy otlier argnmenta. All the fhne- 
tiona of the human body that have been carefully einmined, snch 
*i the cutting of the teeth, the pulse, the respiration, are fhund 
to vary within wide limits. So also with the functions more 
dlroetiy connected with pregpianey : the catamenia may appear 
at any age, from 9 years, or earlier, up to 23 or 2i, or later ; and 
they may continne np to any age from 36 to B5, or even later. 
They may also recur nt intervali of a month, six weeka, or a fort- 
night, and the periods may comprise a variable number ol 
' SMiJie'BryilihaiidForeiinMcillciilfteVitVloTlwvAavv 

or PUOHAsct. 139 

TWl, kcaift. Uie period uf qoidiciutig varies ftmn thelDtbor 12Ui 
to U>r imh cr ^Jth week, or eren later ; Bnd child-beuing, 
utiA bm ivnall; csacd b; 46. ma; occur ai late w 64, and 
^■■blj ■< a (till mon adraimd ag«. 

IbbUmt alfumMit of uo uliKlit fort« in &vonr of a rariable 
fmia^ Wkd of iu poalble aiteoaiaD bejond the liiDit luuallj 
■riifBiiL It roand in Ibc fiict that the adrocatei uf n fixed pei-iod 
M* Ht >yiri aaung thnnwlvea as to what that period u. Of 
Ih* M*MrtB>a moliail mm ptajnined in tbe Oaidner Peeragi 
■M^ A«« ailToratnl ■ ftiml periud, and oppcaol the idea of {jro- 
iHMad ^italiiiii ; but all of them, with the oicejjtinn of Sir 
TlhMll OaAe, who fiied U at 10 wecka or 2S0 d*y>, atated the 
fcnttiB dlfcmlly, and were forced tc admit a grailer or len 
darttllOB htn a fiud itandanl. Dr. Oooch stated it at from a day 
«> no b<faf> to a daj or two after 9 calendar montlit, and Dr. 
r two DDdar 9 calendar montlu ; while Dr. Rleg- 
an intvrra] of from 39 to 40, and Mr, i'cfiaingtan 
37 (o 40 wMk*. 

•bo* fi*a ef the Mttnteen medial men aapported the 
Ibat tlw period of fcatatioa wna filed, or near!)' to, twelve 
ibat 11 miaht be protraeted to 91. Id, or 11 calendar 
«r (188— XOO) (301—306) (331 — 337) dufs. 

of autlioritjr. both ancient and malern, aw; be 

in Mppurt of the theor; of a laiiable period, nnd 

of prtgnancy bejond tbe 380 Jiiy>. 

ar^menta may be (dded tbe fact, that Icftal 

ematrr have been favour»ble to prolrucied ges- 

maj bo Bid of tlie dcriiioiiii und even 

itt Mbar oonntiM. Tbua the Code Mapiil«on nllowt 

■^ lb* Pnjuiaii taw SOS daja, and Uierc ha* becu a deci- 

la dM I'siwd OtaU* In Gtvour of SIT daji.* 

parMof ulorO'gistatiiHi. tbenfbre, being lubjoctlovaria- 

bejmd 280 da J*, n qaoation now 

•■ ta lb* Itmit el thai rxtcniioc. What i* the longest 

a ^ngla ooitoi give, it wilt he wen. x 

D of XS3da;f(,~ while the 37 bawsl jointly on a .inplu 

^ soil Mm dMlh or abneim of the butband, extend the 

a l» auS daya. One of two n>ea by l*r»f. Sinipwn bring* 

313 daji. and two oa«. by Morpby up to 3U 

1 XSt daja fa*p«tii«ly. 

"Dm ^Miiliw. iif Ilw iiliiil to wbieh tbe periodiif ntero-gwla- 
» ma)! Wpraliae t td bfjroBd iSO dtjrt tMuiaeJ a dt6nitti iba^ 
■^■rjmneaJMwe^' lA-tolMT, Utg. 



fruit atmtatl intnooon* oa the SOtti of Jancaiy, b^g 311 

1. CooU ■ duU Inni on the 8th of Deecmber have been the 
bint of Kiml intarmnne oa the 7th at Pebni*r,v, being 304 day> ? 
S. CbaM a dald bom on tba Stb of December, aud livingr to 
■uibood, bara been tbe fruit of iviiwl intercaune on or after 
tha Ittk at July, ■ pniod of 150 daji, or two or thrtw daji ibort 
rft*««al*adar nwotlu? 

1W <nl t«o qantuioa oa; be redaded to one, ao u to give 
f allonalifa ; — if Che child were legitimate, he mngt 
* ISO dayi* •ihild. or a 304 or 31 1 da}^ child 
b and tiro or niiia days beyond the tuUalum 
Tim bllcT alteraatire, nt., gntation pro- 
is lb* 30* or ail, WBi the one chiellj inu>t«d ou in 
lahMad trial. The <su vat not deoded by Che modioli 
M tat by the adaltrrj of the mother of Henry Fenton 
m* baring been proved, tbc daim of ibe petitioner, 
■ Lma Osdnvr, waa alloirod.* 


' Tha ^uaHaw. What ia tba ihortart period of geatation at wliich 

') ria>l» ddld majr be born f nai rwied in the Jardine cau^ 

' ' '■, Ihowgh laa known titan tbe Gardner Peerage caie, ia 

mIIj iMm<^iBg, a* no laa than 14 medical uien, uid u itiU 

' n-pra(^anonaI witoeiae* gave their evidenca. 

re WM great difference of opinion among tbe 

li* evidcDoe of Dra. Aliaon and ChristiHiQ 

id a Lntorei* on Forenaic Medidne, vrhoae attention 

B finctad to Uw qneatloo involved ; and it may be aafcly 

L thai I>r. (^wiatiion threw more light apon the caae than 

■ pot tofcether. 

' Tka fldlowliiK la a ibort abatrBct of thia oaae :— 

' TW dcfarianl *aa married on the 8rd of Uarrh, 1S35 ; and 

B lit* Mtb of Aspiat following, bia wifg wu delivered of a girl. 

W mpjU Ki tg bar to have baen the fiait of leiual inlereonne on 

• ^joTUm wanUga, waaooly ITldaya.or 5 calendar muuthe 

d Zl Repaid. Tba infWot. which *■« uiidmibtcdly innnalnre, 

■^b ta what irgrte coold not be determined, died on Ihe 20l.h 

t )lai4 USD, baring anrvived about leven montlir. 

r TW DM efaaigad the ilalpndant with having a>Rimitted fomi- 

' n wi(b U* <nfa be.'ora laarriage. A great nianjr witn^-- 


were called, aama U> prore tho ponibilitj of teiD]iI lot 
Iwfore amrriiige, othen to lUow tbat tlie child, Ibaugh BcnoU tad 
Teeble, was not Immittare, or at least not to innnatare ac tlie date 
of the marriage would make it ; and othera to [peak to the ini' 
pOHifailit; or improbihility of a child sarriring at that e<irl<r 
period, Tbo extent to which the sU^atiunB of Ilie liW were 
nude good, and the vague iialnre of the evidence adduced in 
thdr support, will appear hy the foUowing eitract Irom the 
dediion of the Prabyterj-, November 7lb, 1838:— "That the 
teatimon; of the Hveral witneuei, both with reaped to mitten 
of liut, vii., the appearance of the child at birth, ix^ and alaa 
with respect to the opinions of medical men regarding the via- 
bilitv of anch a prainatare child aa the child in question ii wd to 
be, is of aacb an opposite and contradictor} nature, that the 
Presbjter;, with tlieir present light, have great diffiealty in 
coming to an; d«3»on on theae points. The Prestrftery, there- 
fore, agreeably to a common msjiini of law, Saliiu al impHitiliim 
rfUnqiiifiKi»Hi noeenlit quaiH inHacrtUem damnari, God the libel 
not proven."* 

liie principaJ points eatabliabed faj the general and medical 
eriileuce in relation to Hra. Jardine and ber infant were, tbat 
she bad menstruated as uanal the week preoions to her marriage i 
tliat she was, both before and after her marriage, in a very weak 
■tutc of liealtb ; that she was herself a seven months' child ; tbat 
slie had a second (.'hlld, a duoghter, which ahc believed to hare 
lieeu bom "just about the commencemeut of the cig;hth month 
of lier pregnancy," and tlwt ahe had not provided bahy-linen for 
this child. Ai regards the infant, the evidence, though contra- 
dietory on many pointa, ahowed that it was Bmall (it weighed 
three pounds when bom), very feeble, and devidedly immature, 
though no data were addoced to show the degree of immatarity. 
■ ' " ' 1 -.. ;, but not with those extreme 

precnutioni for preaerving warmth, whic! 
absolutely neressary in the cases of Drs. Ri 
preaently to be descrilii-d. 

The apodal qnestioa raised in the Jardine case was 
Could a child born 174 daya, or five calendar months and t 
one days, nfter marriage, be reared to the ago of seven m 
and thn general question suggeat«d by the case it — Wlial 
earliest period of gestation at which a viable child may be bom t 

m and Outrcpont, 


dion ia (he reftmiM \>j Iho Sjaoel gf rife, to tirj 
!nibi]r oTUii' Cburcli of ^Scatlauil, Id Hh), 1b39. of 

' Edliibiii((b, IBSB. 

Kifitr viABn-iTY. 133 

Now it ia nnivenallj idmUUd tliat a cliild mnj be born and 
mjed to nutihogd u earlj u Ihe seventli montli ; and as gene- 
nUljr beltercd that n viable child c&anat be boni biifore five 
calendar numtbi. or 150 diji. 

To teat the aonodneu of tbi« opinion, and to ascertain the 
cariieat date at which ■ child maj be born alive and reared, we 
mnat ccwndar two diitioct orders of feet*. 1. Puets which afford 
a preaamption in favour of earlj viability bj showing tluit iufanu 
bom alive at nn enrjy period have anrvised a fu* hours or dava ; 
and 2. Fact* of the aainc order relating to inlknta that have be«n 
reared to adalt age, or tu inch an age aa affnrda reaaonahle pre- 
•umption in fiiv one of their having attained that age. 

]. To tbu fint claaa belong auch esaet aa those of Mr. Thom- 
•oo," in whioh BQ infant of the eslimated age of G montha, aur- 
»h-ed S^ houTBi of Christiwn.t in which oua of 167 days old 
■urrived 8) hours) of Buehottz,! in which one of 189 daj> old 
nrviTSd 2 daja; of Koyip,5 in which one of 18Z day* nirvived 
4^ iMJf. and of n«aclimiinn,|| in which ono of 168 da;s aur- 
Tivod B daya. 

I>r. Bonnar^ boa compiled a table comprising no Ibbb than 

118 carcs of inCinta born alive at perinds varjing from 120 to 

Ho days ; and if from this collection of facta, more or Icaa well 

tkMtkated, we omit 39 caaea of Infants bom at 210 daja. and 

It obioh there need be no diapate, there remain 73 infanta 

n alive at various agea from 193 dawn to 120 daya. Of these 

9 bad atUined aget fi-om 191 to 198 days ; i Imd reached 190 

ria^i a from 183 to 199; 3H were IBO daja old; 3 from 174 W 

ITSi G from l(iS tol68; 1, IGSr 8 of the ageoflBOdayai and 

^^A vatioaa aee* from ISO to 147 days. Out of the large group 

^^bf infanta bom at ISOdayt, 18aDrvived their birth from G minntea 

^^MlSlioursi 6 lived one day; 3 ^nn S to 11 days; 1, aiiweeka; 

^^Plt taar nwmlba : and the remaindur (7 in ninnber) 1 year, 2 yearii 

^Itd lit years respectively. Of the 8 infanta of the reputed age 

«f 150 daya, 2 tiarely lived, two lived 3 miontos; one, 2 houn; 

MM, S4 \ioan ; one, 6 days ; and one, 19 yeara. Tlie gronp of ' 

flvc raaai born prior to the ISOib day comprises one of 120 born i' 

leaf 185 surviving ai» bonrti oncoif 147, living 12 houra | 

loted hj B«k. 

^118 ES 
^BSwut 1 

131 LEClTlltACT. 

ODD of 133 (RodmtD'i cue), £1 montlu ; lod one of 135 (Capti- 
ron's case of Fi>rtDnki Liceti), Itriog t« BO yatn of age ! 

2. The gecoiu] elm comprisea the tliree leading cisea bj Rod- 
inui, Outrepont, and Belloc. wbich will preseutl; be more closelj 
eiunined. Of the beta of tlie fint order it mnj anffii-e to atate 
that Ibere ii nothing in the accompinjiing history of wragrhta and 
miaunre* to militate againat the authors' eatimates of the period 
of gestation at which tbe aeverul infdnta had arrived; while, on 
the otiier band, in the Jirdiae case, Che weight of 3 lbs. stated Ui 
belong to a child boni nt 174 daji, or belbre the eompletion of 
the 6tli month, ia a ponnd in eiccu of the higbeat weight of any 
of tlic five infants in the first gronp; and excceda the weights 
given at p. 77, with the eiceptiuu of the very donbtful inatance 
of 3 lbs. 13 oz. 

But amall length and weight ore bet two signs of immatnrity 
among several wliich are at Lenet equally deserving of attention, 
such as the high position of the centre of the bod;, the dispro- 
portionate size of the head, and wide separation of the fontanellea ; 
the presence of the meinbrana piipillaria; the non-descent of the 
testicles ; the prouiinence and deep red colour of the parts of 
generation; the intense red colour, mottled appcuranoe, and 
downy covering of the skin; tlic nails not formed; the scant; 
deposit, or total absence, of tehaceous matter on the skin ; the 
feeble movements and cries; the inability toanck ; the nec«wly 
of artiQrial beat j the almost unbroken sleep ; the rare and imper- 
fect discbargcs of nrine and meconiam ; and tbe closed stale of 
the cjellda. month, and nostrils. ' 

These, on Che other hand, are mgat at oijiturity : — 
Strong movements and cries as soon as the cbild is bom ; 
the body of a clear red oolonr. and well coated with seBaeoous 
matter ; the mooth, nostrils, eyelids, and ears perfectly open ; the 
skull having some flrmness, and the fontanclles not far apoit ; 
the hur, eyebrows, and nails perfectly developed ; the testicles 
descended ; the free dischurge of the urine end meconium • few 
hours after birth ; nnd the power of suction, indicated by the 
seizure of the nipple or a finger placed in the mouth. 

By comparing these descriptions with some of the more re- 
markable recorded cawi, we shall see that there la reason to be- 
lieve in the occasional aurvivorship of very immature infants. Of 
the three cases mentioned in gronp 2, the coses of Urs. Rodman 
and Uutrepont are deserving of special considenition. 

Dr. Roduuin. after describing the mother as " cautious," 
" accurate," and tmstworthy, and stating Hut she had borne five 
children, and " was confident that tbe period of her gestation was 

bodhan's case. 135 

Um than nineleen wmIeb," isj^g, tbat premature labour wan 
bniDglit on by htigning exertioDS, and that aha was delivered 
of R liviog male infinl. 

Not daring to wa«b the child, it wiu quickly wiped and wnipped 
in fl«nnel, witbonljan opening near the mouth for llie admi'simi 
of mir ; and it wa» takm ialo tbe warni bed with the mother. 
TboDgb the child wai weiik, no feeding wag attempted till after 
tbe Inpae of twelve hour*. " The noariibing beat with tlie 
mntber in bed wu reliud on." Tbe next day, the bead, bod;, 
»nd citremitie* were surrounded with fine cotton-wool, pressed 
like doth, to the thickiieu of two or three rolli, and over that 
tbe lUnnel aa before j aud again the child was given to the mother 
in bed. Even with this dreas, he conld not be kept wanu 
enough ; aud as he *ood became weaker when eiposed to the beat 
of a finv H bilat the wnrmth of the mother enlivened and atrength- 
ened bim, he wu kept warm, by the mother and two other 
female lyin^ in bed wilb him by lumi for more than two 
nontbe. it>er thia lie could bo lefl atone from time to time, but 
w«» iiill undreteed very csutioualj. It waa not till bo waa three 
•eeka old that the length sod weight of the body could be 
hvert«iD«I. Tbe /ct^M wbi (bund to be 13 inchei, the wtight 
1 /*, 13 OS. aroirdtipoi*. It wai eitreuiely difficult to get tbe 
cSiMtoawal'ownoarifthnient the first week; tbe joUdw gam soon 
mne on «nd the thruah seized him severely on the eighth day, 
•bd luted till tbe end of the third week. During the firat week 
fce Mi fed trith two or three teaspoanfulaof toasted bread boiled 
Mtl mtUr, sweetened «id .trained though fine linen; in the 
J™7*^ twenty df«p. of beef-tea « ere added and amnll d™e. 
y^i ""ri^ «d«.inistered. At tbe end of three weeks he 
^f!"^'"" ,^t^in«<'"fi,ls of bis ".other's miUt. and two day. 
b(g«,(Ofit«JIo*^'^^ -Pl,g moiber-s milk wa. gradually 
•fttf maJe uffbrt" j, which waa still given occa^onally 

"httitoUd /■<"■ ** twTt wine Under thi« careful manage- 
'hh M fr.r dr^°l Jl „f four montha. «.d bis health jjnd 

«a»tary fiuW*'*^ Ij^nd paper by l>r. Bodman.* th^ ch.ld 
cr((«y fn. ^^^ ", ,^;" Lner be describes the mother as 

Dr. Jtunai Hamilb 

that this iaruiit Mvei a jear and i 

n UU evidence in tlie Jardim 

DnthB ; bnt that A 

circumstaacea meationed to him hj Dr. Rudinnn. lie bad aim 

tlii>ji;ht t 

it there w 

HDil that the infant wiia a diri 

liitako in the w 

i«deniblj iDuller th 

those pun; iofiiata bom within tho six months, w 
seen drug on a miserable oiiatcnce for four or five daji. 

It maat be ac!mitt«d that, in this inatani^, an eibreadiS 
feeble and innnnture child iras reared by Tcrf jndiciona tiM^ 
ment, and that the mother's estimBte of the age was at leMt m 
IxVtij tu bo correct ai such estimates erer can be. Tbe I«ngtb 
and wwglit of the child, too, are in keeping; with the o^tr 
tenths and weights given at p. 74, and they will be iiniDd to 
condde with the extreme weight and length of the tables at 
pp. T7i 78. The absence of any desmption of the appearances 
presented by the child prerenta us from determining its degne 
or immaturity. It might have been a Svc months' child, bat 
there ii no ground for sappoung it to have been bom befor« the 
completion of the fifth month. 

Tbe cane related by Dr. Ontrepont, of EnmUTR, is very vala- 
able, Ibr it is the only qnite nneqaivocal instanoe on record of the 
rearing of a ail months' child. The particulars are pven so 
fully, and with such precisian, that even Hnnke, who prertoosly 
denied the posnbility ofsoeh an incident, candidly admitted that 
Ootrepoat's case is an unequivocal oiaiuple.* The evidence it 
complete both us derived from the date of inipregnalaon, and 
from the structure and hiaUn-y of the ehijd. The motlier, a 
young woman, who had always been perfectly regular, man- 
struatcd as usnnl ten days afler her marriage, and was iubsa- 
quently repeatedly connected with her husband. Aboot a fort- 
night after this menstruation, she became changed in appearance, 
and, for the first time in her life, had frequent attacks of 
Tomiting and fainting. These symptoms continaed. but tbe 
catamcnia did not return : and ntraat twenty weeks after thnr 
last appearance, she felt tbe first movements of the child. F^vg 
weeks after this she wna seized with laboar-paius and hvmar- 
rlingfl ; and Dr. Outrepoat, having ascertained that this proceeded 
from the ptaoenta being attached to the c« nteri, encouraged the 
labour, and brought it to a prosperous conclusioa. The evidenEe 
of this child being not more than twenty-five weeks old, ia aa 
strong as it ia Teonmable to expect. The state of the cUld at 
birth was still mure unequivocal. It was a buy, i 

• 'ZdlKhrilt.-Ti, 27. 

otTREPosTfl CASE, !trrEnriKT*TioN, 


imtatdStUilj oa baing bora ; meuiired thirteen and « half inebu«. 

and wtighed one pound and n half. Iti skin wxi covered with 

•iDooth lank down, and wai modi wrinkled. Tbo eitremitioi 

nere extremely amiill in proporllon to the trunk, HtiJ wem kept 

comUuitlf bent over tbe bod;, u in tbe fistuB in Ibe womb. 

The null of the flngera and toes were like white folda of skin, 

tbe UB^cle* were still witliin tbe belly, nnd tbe pnpillarj mem- 

bnne wm entire. The cbild whined but oould not cr; \ slept 

■Imoiit ounitADtlj; woke Oulj once a day; aeldom opcnod it4 

1id«. and wu obTiously itnenHble both to light and sound. 

tint ditflurge of urine took plate on the seventh day, and 

tint eVBcnation of tbe bowels on the ninth. Snluequently 

trine was vi^ded once in fortj-eight Lodts^ nnd the (oKfa 

two or three day*. Tbe child was placed in n hatket 

with vDol, kept in a unifonn temperatnre, and mOTed with 

ore. Pur loino time it was fed with the spoon on diluted 

Ik and sugar. In fbar weeks tbe down began to drop ofl' 

the skin. In fifteen weeks tbe wrinkles bad disappeared 

the ikin, and tbo length was inireased an incb and three 

Prom thil time, which oarresponded with tbe fortietb 

after impregnation, — that is, with tbo full period of nterO' 

_ don, — it made rapid advanees; sleeping less, eating laoie, 

etjing itmnfcly, and bccomiug evidently sensible to sound, and 

pleued with Uie light. When fbarteen months old, it was of 

reight and stature of a child bora at full term. In tbe 

.^gbteenth month, tbe testicles descended intji tbe scnitum. The 

.h began to appear early in his third year. He did not begin 

walk till half a ;ear later) and then differed from other chil- 

of the tame age, not only in site, bnt also in the singularly 

of hit conntenantie. When Dr. Ootrepont saw 

fcisi In 1616, he wa* eleven years of age. was as big as a boy of 

•eren or nght, and had jiut begnn to read and write.* 

In thU ease also the teni^h and weight are in keeping with 
tb« Imgtlu and weights given at p. 7^, and much within the 
IM given in the tables at pp. 77. 7S ; and the signs of im- 
ily are to ■oil nurked and so miunlely ditsCTib«l as to be 
>B of the pnnhility of nmriiig » child bom berore tbe end 
dttk tail montli, or 2G weeks. 



^^ jlyhfamnl.h mc 

H^h began t< 
^mto walk till hi 
^HibeB of the H 

at tbe conception of a lecmd embryo during 
ftrst, the product* o( the two eoucoptioui 
ihn aanie ornt diOerent times. 


Some light ii thronn upon thU queition by luoro than ow 
weU-iathenticBted cue in nbicli a womcin hna been delireml of 
twini of different oolonrs, bolli fallj fomied. The MIoh-id^ tic 
taken from manj mmilu' ones qnoted or referred to b; Beck : — 
A fenule nt L'harleaton, in South CuroIinB, wai delivered in 1 711 
of twins, within s verj short time of each other. One wb« bhA, 
Hnd the other vhite. Slie confesMHl that on a particular dij, 
iniinodiat«l<f after her hiubaiid bad left hia bed, a nc^o entered 
ber room, and hj threaleiiing tomardei- her, had connection with 
her. Thia ease is related on tbe authority of BufTon. Dr. Hoaetey 
montiona tbe following as occurring within bis time at Shortwood 
eatate, in the ialand of Jamaica : — A n^ro woman brought forth 
two children at a birth, botli of a riie ; one a ifgro, Ike otkar m 
nttalto. She explained tbe occan'ence h; ataUng that abe 
iuDlired the emhracea of a white man belonging to the estate 
directly after her black hualniiid had quitted her. A cs«e of triplMi 
of three different coloun may be omitted aa reating on insufficient 

These are laaei in wliicb the two mature children are hroogbt 
into the world differing in nothing but c»laur from children of 
one father and one ooiicvption. There ia another cla«a of oaea 
equally easy to believe and anderstand, in which the birth of two 
cbildren is separaled by a short interval, or by an inlerval cloaely 
oorreaponding te their relative ate nnd development, on the anp- 
pnntion of their being twins. Of the former class of caa» the 
following, dted by Beck, from tbe Cotuilia of Zacchiai, is an 
example: — J. N. Sobrejua lost bia life in a qnarrel, leaving his 
wife pregnant. Eight montlis alter his death sbe was delivered 
of a stjll-bom deformed i^hild. Uer abdomen remained large, and 
waa supposed to contain a second infant, bat tbe eflbrta made to 
procure delivery proved fruitless. One mouth and n day there- 
after, tbe widow waa again taken in labour, and brnngbt forth a 
perfect liriog child. Tlie rolations of the husband contested its 
legitiinaoy, on the ground tint it was the fhiit of a supcrfceta- 
tion, and Zacchias was consulted. He ngre^ that the two infanta 
could not have been tbe pri-duet of one conception, since the 
interval between their birih was so great: but gave it bi hia 
opinion, that Oie Jlrat was the product of n soperfietation, ntul 
coni'eived a month after the other. As the hnsband died sud- 
denly while in a state of perfect bealth, his opinion preeened tbe 

. child* bom iHet ]7i dax> bdn^ 

•dlh sltentlnns and aildltioiJ 

I it u diffiralt to DDdentend on wlut 
Mdteoiriidm that theebild&nt bom wu tbe kit con- 
s an n^ ifaatioot, tbe vinst mnum ii to prefer tbit 
tioB vtiicb iBTOlTa tb« last difficolt;, and U most 
with npcneoca. Kow tlie eipalnoo of twini at dif- 
mt m alkrwcd to be a conimaa irsnt, of wbicb example* 
hni in mial worki on fdidvirer;. The ont feoaible 
MM, «■«)■ to be, tint thia waa a case of twini concaved 
■• tiai^ bat of Mhlcb one died, aad iraa discharged, 

■ a III! laaia aliiili do not admit of ao eai; an eiplaoatioii, 
oartuoly CDontenance tbe tbeorr of a double conception. 
ft of KajiDand Villard, of Ljotu, nuuried at tvent;- 
hfOBiw pnpiant at Uie end of Qve jvait, bat hsd on 
t Iba HTeolh montb, on tbe SOtb of May, 1779. Slie 
agiia within a mootbi and on tbe 20tb of Janiur;, 
M ttnntbi after ber deliTery, and «even montha from 
I aooMptioo, *be wa* laddBnly delivered of a danghler. 
aj wai not, bocever, fallowed by tbe umal symploms — 
ippMnd, tlie lochia were wantiog, and tbe abdomen 
iniiiiih in *iie. It vu aroordingly foand Decenary to 
Dsne fbr the child. Two taTgeons ttbo vinted the 
T* at a loB wilh napect to her utaation. and coDtnltcd 
M, nho declared that ibe bad a secoad child in tbe 
1hc« weak* aft<;r her delivery the again felt the motioni 
i; lb* abdomen agun iucreaaed in tiie, and on tlis 6th 
t (ha «Die year. 1790 (five montht and aiileen daya 



Assuming the fiirtg of this case to be correctly lUted. it mW 
be adroitted Co be nearly omcluiivo b> to the poHibllit; of nipa- 
rcBtdtienj for if wo denj thii, and aMume both cluldren lo hiT« 
been the product of » aiinultBDeoiii fonceptiOD, and the last child 
to have been it fbU term, the lirat, which, be it observed, in 
coDimoD with the otlier survived its birth between one and two 
yeun at the least, miut liave been bom alive it tliree moatlu 
and a half: or, if the fint child be adiiritlTd to be (even montiu 
old, the second mast have been born alive at six weeks. The 
alternative loppogition, that the serand child was the frnit of 
seinal intercoarse iiabBeqDent to the delivery of the Qrat, is alio 
in the highest degree improbable, for it snppose* a child, bflrn 
beCbre the completion of tho flftb month, to be reared, and Uut 
without an; difficaltj. The onl; remaining aiippoiition, uamelj, 
that the second child was a twin born atter a gesUtion of twelve 
months and a half, presents equal difficulties. 

Dr. Maton has also related a well -authenticated case, in whieb 
two male children (both " bom perfect") were brought fortb at 
an interval of uearlj three calendar mqpths. If this bad becu 
a case of limiiltaneaui conception, the nge of the one would bavo 
been six months or less, that of the other nine months or tern. 

Additional coses are referred to hy Beck, in three of wUcfa 
there was an interval of one month, in two an interval of two 
months, and in one an iolfirvai of four months; and Dr. BomMr 
oibes Teipean for a case in which an infant " tboaght to be at filU 
time," was bom five mouths after " a child nt fti^/Hll timt," 

In deciding tins queetion, tlinse esses only must be admitted 
to have any weight in which the interval between tlie births is 
conudomble i tbr, where it is short, if we suppose the cliild last 
l»rn to be mature, the first may hove heen eight or seven montha 
old, which is qnite reconcilable with the anpposiUan of it* bring 
reared. When, however, the interval is of four months, if we 
assnme, «s before, that the child laat boru is mature, the first 
cannot bo more than five months old, an age at which it is m 
the highest degree improljable that n child could be reared at all, 
and certain that it ooold only he saved hy ingenious and ca[«tnl 
contrivances of which mention is sure lo have been made. 

In any cases that may hereafter occur, it will be important to 
observe the siie and development of tho chiidrun. Bat it must 
not t>e foi^ott^n that even the healthy proilucts of the same con- 
ception may differ greutly in siae— a fact well illuEtrated hy a 
esse broagbt under my notice by Mr. Streeter, in which female 
Iwinii five and a quarter months old, were born enveloped in a 
commoo chorion. The one via* more tbau t-«\te tt« «™ cS Sob 

acrBWEunoa . 141 

Mkw. iHt Iba imtOm alcnc hd nnd* toccoifu] rflbrts to 

ir tlw ai^ fM« of Um irift of B>7iDcn>d Vilkrd be <nrTCctl7 
ttaUd, tb* ilwlrin* of *Bp«rf(Ptaliiin mnt be Bdmilted to be 
■jr bi lucful to m^inu the duef ■ijoaiaiti 
rib; the niliiicitn uid opponenU of that doctrine. 
Tht un—iiiiti ol tupcrfixUtioii allq^ that the oocafrenee t* 
iBpndit^ koeaan 1. ihvtJjt ttUx eimeejitioD the oi tinoe, m 
wM m Ik* ialcnwl Bpntan* of the Fallopiui tube*. *re doaed 
bf > tUA uairinw mneiu. 2. Tbe membnna deculin, which 
It ■!■> f-nftt* ■•on atliae eouetpOioa, lioee the atena, uxl udi in 
( the apaiqn into it* cavity. 3. Wben the g 

A Qpn ■ bare Mnnuption, amd nay 
llwirfae b* BBmeurilr dl— uaad. The thiid olgcctioD. if Tilid, 
BWt prove !klal t« lb« deetnnc of npofolBtion ; bat thoogb 
lU* ohrta rt a KMj eiiat ia t^ foUj'deTekiiied atcm. the onty 
bb4 TmBafmii tsbe* are not nwre prefcoted frotn eoming into 
I laitai I villi aadi otbar ia the aarlf itage c^ oteio-genation, >t 
vhiA al w we lapnfiiUtiaa ia aUaged to take place, than in the 
lad aUtau ~ 

t Dawlj-fiKned 
Dt *ith Ihf nificea and «dl> of the olenu, 
D trnHj lo it aa not to admit the paaagc of tlw wnwD. 
«f luawatiiiallijai ia DDtnerooa cwa occvrring daring a 
ha Bbola «f pwgnanfj. leama to prora that the aJbaian 
Kit fH* I^Medoa nnwB and of tha deddoa ta by ao meani aa 
~ t to IfatUd I)m paiga of fluid j and tin* argoment ia 
1 bj Uw ftaqaani oeemTciiee of hwuu ir h agc in the 
affw ct fngnancy ia Eooaaqoom of partial detacb- 
t of tha ylaiaaila. The argnmcnt* adnneed agwnrt tha 
' m «f amwifialalliai are thmfore not of loOcient *eight la 
rbalanee tha InpNUUIitica Mt fcrth b tbe eaae of Kajr- 
d VUkrd i and unl^ that caaa cao ha iho«D to be antnul- 
■ to ha ao altetnatiTr bat to admit the troth 

If, than. «■ admit Ibe pfMdUlltj of anpcriictatiaa. the qtietlitni 
' •. Cta •• aapUa thk ocGumm >o a* to arobl Die aVym- 
la of Ua tmti^tf/ Tb» atmUaa of dpoUa uteri, aitd 

' tvqaired aplaitaUoa 



I tbe reoordcd catte of tbii mnlfbnnation w 

«iiperfiietRtion, it is quite poa^ble that 
80D1B of the Utter mii; be eipl^nMl li; the maUbrmution in 

That tbii maironnntioD does really eiplain nme cnsea of mper- 
fmtationi ifl proTod by a cau related by Sahe[der of a wornan who, 
six weeka all^r luaniage, bore a four montha' child, and forty 
weeks afl«r marriage mature twios, Od eiamiaatioT]. tbe uterna 
and va)paa were both found double, and each vagina had a 
■eporate orifloe.t 

Dr. Bonaar, in the Essay already referred to, raisee a qotbI 
qaeation of mncb interest in itself, and obviooaly admitting of 
praidjcal applicatiou, namely, bow soon after her delivery inay a 
woman again beeome pregnant. Starting from the common 
auumpliou that at least thirty days muat elapse before tbe oterDa 
can T«BUnie its generative fnaetion, and adding from 374 to 390 days 
for tbe period of geatution, it would follow that no woman could 
beu a mature child aooner than tbe 304tli, or from that to the 
310th day. Dr. Bonnar, by reforriDg to ' Lodge'* Peerage and 
Baronetagev' ihnws that there hare been at leaat lH rerarded 
caaea, in wbicb the interval between one birth and another hna 
been 309 days or leia. There were ten catae of 309 to 300 davs ; 
2 of 299 to 290 J 4 of 289 to 2B0j 1 of 373; 1 of 353; l' of 
182 i 1 of 173 1 and I of 127 days. Dr. Bonnar, taking these 
oases into consideration, and weighing the facts relatjng to tbe 
■late of the vagina, uterus, and locbial discharge, fixes on tbe 
fburieailh day alter delivery as the earheat at which a freaU 
impregnation may take place. 

Having discussed at length tbe three leading qneations con- 
nected with tbe sahjcct of legitimacy, it will be necestary to say 
only a few words ooumequeationioflessmtereatandimpartance. 

Tbe question of paternity, as already stated, may arite when a 
woman, soon after the death of her husband, marries again. 
Sometimes this question aatumes the ihape of the one last dis- 
CQiacd. A child is bom within five months, or thereabouts, of 
the death of the 6nl husband, and the question of paternity 
bocomea one of liability. Where the child is of moh an age u 
that it might have had either husband ffar its father, the pater- 
nity must be dedded by ■ reference to the state of health of tbe 
deceased huiband at the presumed time of conception, 

n CIS il'Vlinu Double, si da SBperAsts- 

1 UUln'i' 

4 II etliBi, IB Uu« of whkb Uit vafina n 
18, and * LoaloB Ksd, Osa,' VI 

In M«iBb7. ma; uin in (laTe-holfDf ■■ 
■d poaot* at a dnid an of diKnnt o ~ 

'fa tlaa OHe k di^ so tha daatb </ Ut w{ 
rUa Bfcw tonutf bj tlw tmrto? of Eastai 
I af the inaiMiai lor* afiM, te not tba mbb i 
im ot inhntioJe. It tm baen deddad Uiat n 
qp b; tb* auUtj, uij kind of taatkm, wta ' 

triad b 1S06, i< beld to be ndCaeat endcn 

■e a^»ble at a 
M, ad w aw w a d bjr BlaekAn^ wbo at 
ItMili hath not tbe ibapa of nMnkiiid." "I 
lUwd/* bu iC in ((il 

k ™.ke 



MiDlciL men IiBve to perfomT important fQiir.tioTU in relatioa to 
Ufe'MSurBTice. Applicaota for iniuninn! are mbmittcd to tlis ID- 
qiectioii and GiaminHUini of phyBlauis or curgeoan lelectcd for 
the pirpocc, uid tbeir ordinarj medical attendants are couultcd 
reipecting the diseaies from which tlwy may have enfiered. Tho 
sen'irc* of the med'cnl man are eepecially required b; tliow 
offices which undertake the innftanee of mnound Urea, or which 
arc in the habit of scoepting livea that fiill short of the Btandard 
nf robust health ; for all informHiJon r«apeeting ipecial rislis mmt 
be drawn from rocdipnl •onrfen. In the beat managed oScn, 
ugoiu. medical men of standing and experience occupy places on 
the board, and by afTording information respecting the meaning 
of lemu, and the tme significance of i;tatcmenla contained in the 
reports anbrnitted, arv able to render very important aervioe. 
Medical men are alw called npon to report on iiyuriea soitained 
by pcr«ona assured against accident, and tbvy have to render 
aimilnr sorvicoi to benefit locietics, and %o make similar personal 
examinationa in the case of recruits, emigrants, pritonen, and 
candidates for employment in all public officoi In wbich strength, 
activity, and health are deemed important. 

The insurance offices provide the medical examiner with a 
printed list of qneationa, prepared under niodiml advini, or sog- 
gest«d by their own experience, refuting to the itate of health of 
the applicant, his family and personal history, his occnpation and 
hatuts, the diaeasea which he has luffi-Ted, and sach other partico- 
Urs as are presumed (o affect tbe probable duraUon of hia life. 

Hence the duty of tlie medical examiner resolves itself into a 
work of inquiry ai^d a uork of personal inspection and elamlna- 
lion, respecting both of nhieh a few pnictioil suggestaoiia may be 
offered with advantage. 

]. The Inquiries which tbe meilical examiner la eipect«d lo 
mske relate [)artly to the family, and partly to the personal hia- 


iMnL Tlie flnt cka are chiefly directed to ■«- 
ralam of hovditwy prediaposition, wlietber of ■ 
raftTOorablB diuacler. Ai a general rule, tlie 
« who die oil] lire to he old i wtiile tlie cliildreu 
dia jroSBgue ahort lived. Tbe m^cal examilier 
I, aioerlaiti. wiili inpcct to the parent* of tb« 
iag, wbat tgt ttiejr hire attained; if deed. »t 
Aedi and tie ilmuld eitund this iaquiry to 
ten. if the aniwers rHpi-ctiag tbuie iiiur rela- 
arabU, it Kill not be neoeiaarji to extend (he in- 
Int if they have died early, or if tbej appear to 
Be benditary malady anrirnuly afiitcting tbe dura- 
k> and aunU. and even a larger circle of telu- 
KKVU tie iudnded. Haiiiig aKertained tbe aga 
d datMMHl roeiabrr* of tlie spplicant'i fLimily, the 
I not inquire lato tbe nutei of death* oi then 
It* »ba hii*e not died of old age. If one or mare 
lo hare died of (jalinoimry ootunnplion, utlima, 
Huer, heart ditoiipnr acute riienmatiam; orMime 
■Adona afliwtioa ; or uf upapleiy or dmpjy at an 
bet. maid have to be noted at more or lea* 
line of the Hfej and aimiUr importauce woold 
e of any of tliete diieaiei 
r» of the ipp^Innt'i famil)'. 
hiitary of Uw applioiiit mil coinpriae hit age, 
rbether nwnied or aiogle). occnpution, place of 
>liiUor Ufe i wbethei he bai had imall-poi. or 
and itw iiiuaiiii to which be hu been especially 
kUw diiaaiai or ■ymptonu of diseaao to whidi 
• atUchw may be mentioned afritting of 
g probatniity of cooiiimipljon) ; Ront, 
lis. and aithma (both as liable to recur 
n fur HTioD* oi};auic ihsuget) i dropsy 
lodicBllon at levere organic roinbicl'] j 
[I (n IcBTlng bohiud it wme uufuvourablB 
<jt a* being tbe direct crmwqaenoe of 
ril)] Ota (aa betnying aeriooB le«ioa of tbe 
t (aa inTalring danger of itrangohu 
r (a* obviotuly tending to iborteli 

Fill have lo be conducted with 



grenter or lesa a 

a as tbe fnmily ind 

ir otheriviae ibuDrDiHl, ftod tile 

e ii pale, tbe compleiion un- 

; and eapraiallj if tlie nppli- 

hlatory have proved favourable or otherwiw. If favonrable, a cur- 
lory inepection and examinaticm will mSce : and if the applicant 
i> well fonued ; the complexion healthy ; the pnlae regnlar and 
equal, of fair force, and not exceeding TO or 75, or bllini^ much 
below 60 (in the female not more than 80) ; and if tbe breathing 
is free and trauquil, the life nuiy W ■afely recommcndi^d fnr 
aeceptsnce. But if the family or pcrKiual history ia unmljsbc- 
tory ; if the person a ill tbnned or diBproportionwl, emaciated or 
bloated ; if tbe pnlse a frequeat o ' ~ ~ 
reapiradon unnntnml i if the fact 
bealthy, and tbe eipreauon auiioi 

Quit has been attacked by any terioai diieaso ; a more minate 
examination directed to tlie (tate of tbe nervuuB tiystem, of t1j« 
longs, of tbe heart, aud of tbe Drinary orgaua, will be required. 
Tbe cheat ihonld he examined by ptrcuamoD and auacultatiun, 
and in ■ few caua of ditease of lung the reipiTAtion may be 
teatodby tbe »irirometcr of Dr. Hutshinaon.* In tome osKstbe 
nritie will have to be tcalfd for albumen or sugar. 

To tbeae obaervstiona on the duties of tlie niedieal examiner, 
we add a brief summary of our knowledge a( the iuRuence on 
longevity, of place of re«deiicp, change of climate, occupatioa 
and batata of life, peculiarity of conititution, hereditary predi^ 
poiiUons, and pre-existing disease. 

J'taee of Rttiiteaa. — Tbe priiidpal facta tbit have been as- 
certained respecting pemoua living witbin tbe limits of their 
native country ire tlic following; — 1. That tbe inhabilanla of 
rural districts are longer lived than those ot towns. 2. Tliat 
large eitiea arc more &tal to liFe ttion small onca. S. Tbnt 
marahes, and low-lying districts on the banks of rivers, are leas 
healthy than more elevated apota. 4. That of two districts of 
equal elevation, that which his a sandy or gravelly soil is healthier 
than that which conaistsof clay or rich allDviom. 5. Tbatclose. 
damp, and ill-drained hoiiaea are pncnliaily fatal to life. Such 
coiindenUons as these ought, in extreme cnseo, to iuflnenoe tbe 
UBminer In seli'clin); Uvea for assurance. 

Change ijf ClimaU. — Tbe removal tnm a temperate or cold 
cUmat* to a but an« alTeiita the duration of life much mon> 
Mrioualy than any cluing of rnidence fVom one part of a man's 
native connlry lii mii'tfier. Our iDiarance offices, accordingly, 
wittadr Ttfaw to Hsoiire lives at all in extreme cases, or demand 

• Pocai 


n nf ihl> li 


), VHrf mg with tlie aaccrtnined 
Minwleil incroue of risk. Tlie beat information we potnea in 
i sobjert in drawu (rom tlie report* of tbo iDor- 
aiity of our troojK imd mmen employsd in difTuront parts of tlie 
Id; from nhich it appears that while tbe itiB'ereni'e between 
Pf dmnp wtomtioiii and drj elevated ones prei-nils everywhere, 
'ncreasea nith tlie temperature, sttiunin)c iti 
Miimnm within the tropica, uid fsJIint; to the ntnndBrd of Eng- 
ir eveii belov it, in coU or tetuperate n^on^. Some aa- 
nnoe offices, acting on thia general prindptu, allow the samrcd 
Id mi<)e without eitni cliarge iu any part of tbe wirld beyond 
Ertj ilt^reeB fram tbe equator, reqoiring frain those who tnkeap 
It abode withia these limit! an eitrs pajmrnt, roughly pro- 
portioned to the additional risk. 

Oetmpation. — The occapation* whicli shorten life are those 

tbat Inil to excuB ia epirilaoui liquors; thow that combine 

J liabits. or ■ mininiDm of exertion, witli eipoinre to a 

and heated ntmospbere; those that entail uiidne eipoanre 

to the weather, with hat^ships and privations ; thoso tbat reqnire 

long bonn of work, and a sacriBce of mtiiml rest ; those that 

mr« carried on in cioaJ* of dnst ; and those that bring men into 

t contact with poisonous substnnres. The employments 

ibioh demand special attention, n> belonging to these «cvcm1 

lads, are licensed victuHllers, potboys, and brewers' draymen ; 

tnponton, tailors, and drapers' asstetsuts; soldier* t^A sailors 

nring active wnrbre; Inkers; knife and needle grinders; 

le-paintera, manuAictarers of cards eusmellcd with lend, 

I who work with lead, mercnnr, phosphorus, or the 

ptitc of ineaic. One occupation not easily brought under any 

t tbase heads has been shown to sborten life without cnusing 

if sickness, namely, the employment of the 

mportant of the above employrqents, in ita hearing 
Vm life UBurance, is that of the licensed victiiHllcr, wboau life is 
Vithraja regarded with saapidoo, and even deemod uninsurable, 
Tl the ahaencc of ver; diatanct proof of temperate hnbita. 

SabiUof Life, — Lniury, sloth, £asipation, and intempurance, 

* o life ; bat tbe last in the only one of which it is 

!o obtain distinct proof. When the fact of intemperance is 

wly ntabliihed it aflbnls ground for peremptory ri^ei'tian, It 

' D well ascertaiued that onoaual risk attvuds the assuring of 

. hving in a oontiniul slate of pecuniary uuibarraES- 

PiaUiarily of Coiw/ifafion.— Cnder this head it vnW val&vt 


U7 ^H 


to notice the urofiiloiu <»iutitntian ; the long nwti and t 
chut lo common in contamptiTe patientai and tbe abort n 
florid ronplexion. Urge cbot, md tendency to corpulenej of ti 
vii^im* nf Bpopleiy. 

Jlrreditaiy Frrdiipotilioit. — The moiit important iitcmte i 
relation to life-awurancc it pnlnioniuy ci)nntmption ; for it i 
■ pecnliar mnaner tbe diieiw of grown-np men, and eiperi 
of yonng men, and there ii no doubt thiit it rana iu ^ 
The inqiiiria of the medial examiner alionld, Ibprefore, 1 
apecikllj directed to ditrover tnret of tbie diiexe in the H} 
hiatorj, and ht ghoold attach great importance to the DCCDm 
of Kveril deathi from thii cnuie aaioiig tbe ueamt relati 
Iniaiiit;, goot, nsthma, nrinarj ralculna, liuart djacaie, droj 
iipupln;, and oncer, et^pecinlly when tbey appear to have cat 
the death of more thnn one member of tbe futuily at an early 

Pre-axittiitg Dittan. — The medical eiamiuer will hare to ronn 
liin own Mtimate of tbe inRnence which previoua attacks of diieaw 
niBjr havD hod OD the health of tlie appliant and the valne of Ilia 
lifii. Aa B rale, mild attacliE of tbe febrile exanthemata, whtch 
occur cliieflj in cbildhood, and of l^^hua or tjphwd fcier in the 
adult, do not permanent]; alfect the valne of tile. Bot attocka 
of etynpelaa. gout, acute rbenmatiim, aathma, and ooniomptioD 
(nhii'h often proves &tal after icTeral distinct attacki) must be 
differvntlj' viewed on ncooant of their lialrility to re«nr. Among 
•ymptoma, that of ipittiiig ot blood, taken as an indication of con- 
tumjitioa, ii of special importance. Tbe expectoration of ■ cun- 
aidcnibla quantity of verm ilioii<colou red blood would alwaya 
wwnnt tbe rejection of a life ; but even a tcenty diioharge of 
blOMI, whether light or dark oDloured, whatever the part from 
iriildi it is allegeil to have oome. mu«t be regarded with ■Dipidou, 
loullng to a minute and careful atamimitiun of the cheat. luflam- 
wilica or other severe diieaKi of the luugi, or repeated attacks 
at troncbitl^ figuring in the previous hittory of the applicant, 
wooU alio lead (a d carehil numination of tbe chest; lor r- 
■re important in tlwrnsolves, and .may be the re 
"" ' tit, or lay the foundation for mort*l Jisca» 

U iha apptiiaut'a fatuily and personal hUlor?, and e 
•tate of bolth, prove favoumbl^ bis life wonld tie reconii 
for •Mumncc on ordinary (enna ; but if unfavoutabb!. the »o 
•ihat difBcult '|uiwiii>n hHsbs wbethor the life riionld be a 
l^thM- ntji'cicd. or accrpted with a greater or 1«^ addition U> 
itfdlnsry prcuiium or (ithnt naounta to the mme thin^ on [ 



m laqairarf Lt ■ halUiy pcnon of ■ nunc iil- 
B^UtaMnti otn only be sifcl/ mnde by 
Lpri a maJ meiUtsl tncn. Thiit the practical 
■r their ulTice are Btia&ctory ma; tw uiferral 
t of iIm Kiglo InaannM oSce u let fbrtli 
>. lJ»>rg« Hitmtilirejri. It appears that aa 
r ;e>n fur appUcauU whote penoo&l or fiunilv 
Ukj la diaBMCT of the nrgina uf ropiralian. 
Ml i«(n«d mOdent, aud thnt the sine addi- 

■ •■Sead fcr pcnooanf intempcnto huHita; bUq that an 

■ af 9 jawa Iwi «tBo*d fi>r MUfncioiu fdmil; hiitarj and 
^. 4 to goola >ad 3 for bemia. It ahoalil, liowcrer, be 

Mn* to mbd Uul theu ar« aetrage idilitioiu, and tbo number 

f J 11 mUoI u p«al«r u the appUoiDt ij yoonicer. Tbaa, if 

M taka OD* atom of addition with aDotbcr the figure* for looma- 

i— 1w biciDDiDg with that endijg at SO. were 9. 8, C, 6. 

MmI S. Aa ■ (auTiil rule the mure Bdraoced agea demaud- 

» tfcfjr dc^ a higher praoiain, require a •anller adtUtion of 

r may be reqoired to giTe adviiTe 

KUBDce Da BOaouad Ut« fiir short 

_ t the t«nm on which they ought (o be 

f ba of tha nlinast importance to effect an in- 

H nr t«D yean on a life which must he rejected if 

ocw tam. A yooog person, for inUaoce, icIki 

amplion, and whose 

nnvnind, maj deairs lo insure 

■nitier maj have to report on 

J uf BDdarlaldnp the risk ; in wbidi case he woatd 

■ HBlJai bj auoM each coowkrations as the following : — Pul- 

mtaiftioa may prora fatal in any one of a loug «rieB 

Wj^ut, and tlie cfaaBCa a^inst an attuck of the ditease fallinf 

ar ara conaidErable i and even shoald it occur 

d hj the aaiunnee, then is the fhvourable 

• nf tta eoannvficinj; at a Ute paiiod of the year, and atlwr 

g IWtal wtlluD the year, or (as tha difease in its fsiU\ 

an aTrrago dimtion of nearly two yean) not having 

w til] long after the pcriud cuTere>l hy the policy has 

Smikr rauunings apply lo other aeiera diseaiea, and, 

WKlifti^tinni to the atauranco of all unsound liTes. 

nA of tha tulgcGt, too. it is not poariblE to lay don-n 

'm, Ta term ■ right decision larec profeaiionnl 

* hf eomblDad wltli imnd jmlsmv"^- 

g on the aocepUno 



W 150 

150 LI FE>AS3U BANCS. ^^M 

tion of Hppliciuits for life Mcnrance, which can be foil; dUciuufl 
only in biioJa wbDlly deroted to that sol^ect," or in mich learned 
worka »» Wolford'* ' lumrance Cyclop^ia.' But BOnie poinM 
of prscticnl importaace may be noticed with advantage in such 
brip/ ■uinmaries aa those nhicb follow, in which mme lending 
fliuti >ud numerical dotaila arc 8Ct Torth nnder diiUoct heads. 

PvIiNonory Consumption. — A disenae apt to be concealed under 
Bnch vjorda aa BBthma, broDchiti*. pneomonia, frequent colda, 
and liabitual cough ; and, aa a eanae of death, under " death in 
childbed." Fitlula in lao juatifies a niapicion of it, and a small, 
(luiek, frequent pnlae, (pitting of blood, and nnuaual lialrilit; to 
attaclia uf oold, iudigeation, and diarrhcca, are atnoDg its matt 
common aiitecedenta. It is an hereditary malady, more bo ia 
fcmalea than in malea. Bud variously estimated B« allowing itaelf 
in from 25 to GO per cent, of deacendnntu and near relativea. 
The class oF tubercuhir diaeoses to which it belong caaaes Uttls 
leia tlmli one-seventh of nil the death' in England and Wales, of 
both Hexes Bud b1) ages, and consuniption itaelf nearly one-ninth. 

In England, futnales of all ages ore somewhat more tiuhle taoon- 

Bomption thin males ; but, attei 15, admewluit less so, and they 
die earlier. In London they arc less liabletoconsumptiou Uun 
male* :— st all agon in the ratio of t)8 to 117 ; above 15, in that 
of 162 to 213 ; above 20, in that of 157 to 211 j and tbey attain 
their msiimnm mortality later. 

Cancer. — Females are more liable (a this diaeue than males in 
the ratio of 222 to llT; and thcy attain tlieir maximum mortality 
earlier. The hereditary tendency lo cancer hai been variously 
I'titimated at from 20 to 30 per cent. 

Goaf.— The mortality from this disease is small in men, and 
still Boiiiller ia women. The hereditary t^ndenry is estimated at 
60 per cent. 

Aeute EhetiiHatlim.—Tae liability to this diaeitte ia nearly 
equal in the two sexet, and the maiimum mortality occurs in 
both in the decade ending at 26. It is not the direct canse of 
many deaths, but is apt to recnr ; anil it lays the foundation of 
heart disease. Its hereditary tendency has bceti estimated at 
30 per cent. 

heart DUerae. — Females ire tomewbut more liable to heart 
diiease than males, the increased liability slioniiig itaelf chiefly 
aflor 50 years of age. Diseases of the heart (aneurism Bicludcd) 
occasion about 1 in 20 of the deutlis in England nt all ages. 

Attima. — There are more thtui cases of asthma in men than 

• BUEbuBrlDlon's'URUalSeKKtloD of Livu Tor Auaraun,' or Slctc- 
Ung*! ■ Uedlcal Adviser b Utv Asiuran«.' 

It 19 tbe cause of 1 per cent, of the total dentin of 
DulMtgeil 35 ti>45, knd theinsiinium mortality isnttaiaedin the 
decade ending at 65 ycui of age. It is Dever to liigb u 2J ]>er 

BrtHHehilu. — Thii dionue a somenliat more htal to females 

than to niili:*. and ocoiuons 9 per cent, of tbe ntDrtality at nil 

■tres- Tlie dmth.nte from thii diiieoae, which i* nearly 8 per 

cent, nnder 15, bnt enly 1 per cent, in the interval from la Ui 

. tG. increaaei in tbe following decades at the numbers 2, 5, 10, 

Ll7. and 16. 

B IitKinitf, — Tbia ii the ouse of a somewhat liif(her mortality 
Hb womm tliNn in men ; but it occuiona in both eexea bat a 
■miall portion (leaa than a half per c<?nt.) of the total mortality. 
The higWt proportion of deaths (0'4l in men, and 0'55 in 
women) occurs in the decade ending- at 65. lit hereditury force 
bas been varionsly estimated sa 16 and 57 per cent., and it is 
believed to be much more decided in the higher than in tbe 

ri Di*ortUr$, — Thete museuBomewbat higher mortality 
a than in females, and they occasion about oiio-ci^hth i^ 
le eatira mortality at all ages. Apojileiy and paralysis are the 

» of moat interest in reference to life osiaiancc. 
ApopUxg. — This disease is more fetal to females thim to males 
B tbe pro)>ortion of abont 24 to £1. The death-rate, which is 
' 1 per cent, for tbe decade ending at 26, increateB. as tbo 
_ 1^. !^i 4. 6\i and Gin the succeeding decades, the greatest 
Bortalit; being in the lOyears ending 66. 

~ ' ' — ■ - Q for thia caau ia also somewhat 

I in males, but the ex««i shows 

lalify, whidi is insigniRcnnt Tor 

M for tbe succeeding decades as 


On the purely legal bearinRS of the subject of life osjuranco 

~ le Med be said. It ia obvious that tbe contract entered into 

■ policy of insurance may be rendered void by any intentional 

wlment or omisiion of iucb particalars of the prerimis hoaltb 

"ta of the applicant as, if lino*rn, most have caused Che life 

Is b« Iqected, or accepted only on more onerous t«rtDs ; also by 

Initting to name tbe medical nien wlio have attended him in anj 

iB-ioai illnesto. But even where there lias been no fraudulent 


PanUytU. — The d«lh-ti 
higher (S4 to 23) in females tl 
haelf chiefly after 60. The i 

u Ainim hi D» forccolD^ alsteinanl 

■re the n 


ooneealment, qneitinTu hive been railed u to the tendeney n 
pkrtieuUr diuaies, such lu indigestion, go^U or mental unsound* 
nesi; of Bcoidetital injuries, such as frnctureg, niul of paiticaUr 
hnbiCa, auch as Biuaking mid opiuro -eating, to Bhortcn life. Od 
aU «aoli qaestiona tbere is mnch rooiD Ibr differeuce of o 
fining even well-in rormcd medrcnl men. 

Tlie ilefinits queatioiu now commonly prepsidd 
guidanve of the medioll eiaminor, itnd the experience of the 
suranoe offices of the difficnlty of obtaining ■ verdict in lb 
favour, eicapt in cases or Dndouhted fraud, tend grentlj to limit 
tbe namber of actiona at law, end to deprive this aubject of tame 
l^iai intereet wliieh it formerly possessed. But \U importanoa 
in every other point of view, and the value of tiie services of thfl 
medical einminer and referee, arc increasing with the growbf 
appreciation of tlie value of the assurance of life and heeltb, i ~' 
tlie coiisequeat extension of the pructic 



far i^H 




Difeaws and disabilities arc feigned from s grent variety of 
molivea : the loldier or sailor to escape from duty, or to obtain 
bis discbarge, and the mendicant to avoid labour, obtain pnroehiul 
relief, or impose on private benevolence. They are also asaomed 
witli a view of defmndin^ benefit tocjeties; or procuring the 
comfort* of an bospltnl s obtaining compenaation for siine pre- 
tended injury : prociirii^ a releose from conHnement, or e 
tion from pnnishment ; and there arc persons, p«rticularly j 
oniiiarried iemales, wlio, without bnpe of gain, feign diseai 
order to eiiai« pablic interest and eiiriouty, or private s^mpa 

Useasea are most apt to be feigned by tbuse wlio mnen^ 
moat} n> soldiers, sailors, prisoners, be^iiars, and scboi'l boys m 
girli. Rut the best achool for Mgncd diseases is the army ; 
Foder^, tpeaking of the tima when tbe eonacriplion wna in 
force in Frani'e, says tint malingering "was biooght to 
perRtcUun, hi to render it aa difficult to detect a feigned i 
« to cure a ml one." 

In trtsting of ftigned diseases a claaaiHed list will first bl 
of the priaoipBl dinatea and defects which have been un 
and thii will b» fiillownl by rules for their detection. 

fHgned ilisiMBCi are not easily eknifisd; bat the most nitill 

* On tha mrdlro-Jni 
wKh adtantiKc M. » 


itribatinn i> inla, I 

Thin cliM <xnitiuiis tbe fbUowinR niMiTuioni : — a. Inaiiutd 
td di»i»i*lud lit* of parlt. l. Jla^omiaHoHi. c, WomuU, 
een, and npttfiaal itfljiiaiitalioiu. d. Diich^r^a, t. Spat- 
odic afftctioiu. f. Paraiiitic affeeliom. 

a. IiKreaied and diminUhed Site of Parlt.—Ttmoun, A 

roiirite mode of produuing tumann n b; iojecting ur Into Che 

lltilur liHue — beiiuo'.li tha akin of tbe abdomen to imilato 

riUt, into the Mrutum to ImiCaM hydrontJe lod kernia. under 

I* Kalp to gi>'e tlie njipoarance of hgdrocephaliH, into virions 

[rt* of the limbi, with the belp of liguturo), to imitate loi'al 

rdling*. Tbe aperture throngli whioli the wr haa been intnr- 

Kcd ii UMwlly found covered by » amall piece of plut«r. 

nmDun are alio pralaced by [iruslure. Swelling* of the limbs, 

lamrva, faricotf aeint, and an appearance reaembling elepAan- 

Mi*, have hena cauaod by ligature* ) and adtma of the arm by 

wgiag the liuib over thu back of a chiur. Marki of the prea- 

n >M ditooverable on carenil unrcb. Tt/inpinitri lias been 

■italed b; iwallawiiig sir, or drinking quaulitiea of chalk and 

Bagar. A aolntiDn of QUuber'B nita iu H-esk toboceo-waler 

OTedTery effieaeioin in the hands of Dr. O'Uim. Abdomiiiul 

riDMra have been imitateil by fbrdblo protnuion of the «pino. 

[^ical diaeows or* Ibi* d>uta have been simnhitod by eitraneous 

■abatwiCM : — polyput tff Ike not, by tbe testes of a cock, or the 

kidney* uf a rabbit, retaioed in tbe nostril, perhaps iin]n-egnat«d 

witli ttelid jnic**. Strolls' sterautatorie* unmask tliene cases. 

Samarrkoid* have hum imitated by the bladders at rats or small 

Hah partly introduced liito thu rectam. Prolapnt am by the gut 

of an oi or sheep, or by tbe everted anal extremity of the bowel 

of » oolt or hog. In one case mentioned by Peri-y and Laurent, 

* actually pmdtKcd by passing into the bowel the 

al'iwp. distending it witb air, and forcibly retracting 

■L Prolapwas nltri has been imitated by simitar means ; kg- 

datid* of tbe womb by veaicii'* prepared from tha iiitestines of a 

pig; malifftutl Iminonri by a sponge soaked in VHrioui colouring 

mattcn; and iernia by the injectioD of air, or the forcible re- 

tnetiwi of tbo teaticlea towards the rings. Cancer has been 

Imitated by a odw'* iplceu, and by a sponge tnoiiteued with milk 

Bieri under the annpit. SaielUngt of thr joialt, intended (o r 

prueitii while sweiiiiigs, have hfCn pn.idoec<t by acrid planl 



BU(^tl as the ranniKniliia acria or Hcuteratns. applinl to tlie jit^~ 
Enlnrgcmont nf the nbdomen in the female bin been siaiulated 
bj n pad. Partial atrophy may be proituce<l by prpMure, 

Tbe frxads coinpriicd undsr this Iirad require, for their deter- 
tion, a careful eutmiiutioii of tbe put by the eye and by tbe 

ft. May^rmatioHt, — Lateral curoature of the «j)iiw hna been 
imiutpd. The curve ii in the dorso-lqmbor rpgion.and tingle: 
the convex lide not gibbous. The skin on the voncaro aide ia 
folded once or twice ; and tlie bauneb of thot side ia ao raised *■ 
to give Clie leg the appenrtuice of being shorteDed. Oiblotilif, 
or elevalian of Ike ihimlderi, tpry aeci. Up diteate, and eontrac- 
tione of tie limtt or joint; are imitated by long-continued ilelion. 
aidpd by inaction and the uae of biglit bandugea. The contrac- 
tion ii uaually attributed to a previoua attack of rheiimatiaai i 
bnt lometinies to a Inim or previous injnry. In t.heae cases ma- 
picion ii Bicited by the hard-svollen state of the contracted 
niuaclea ; and tbe abeonce of cicatrix, and of atrophy of 
the limb. Tbe means proposed for the datKCtion of thesa im- 
positions are:— pressure on the necvei supplying the eontmct^d 
mnacles; application of a wet bandage tightly roand the limb, 
which, when dry, may conipresa the mnacles; moying the Umb 
daring natural sleep ; examining the limb during tbe cickneaa 
and weakness produced by au emetic, or by intoxication, or, 
better still, ander tbe influence of chlorofbrm ; the electric iboek ; 
gradual snd rejieBted tension by a pulley or weights; making 
sodden eitension while the attention la engaged ; the actnat 
cautery, if that remedy he indicated in the rai diaense; or 
recommending the warm climate of tbe coast of Africa as a cure. 
In fome casea the most etfeclual method is to treat the dafonnlty 
importance, not reiiuiring anrpcal treatment. 
itiont, especially of the alioulder-jinnt and patella, may be 
Intentionally, and real fraclurti are oonverUd Into 
ti by frequent motion. 
WotHiU, Ulcere, and Superficial Injlatiunalioiit, — Mulila- 
Man b a common practice in tlic army, especially in regiinenta 
anbmitled to very strict and Imruanng duties; and in conutriea 
wliera the conscription is in force. ConvwiW at public works are 
•Im adilictcd to placing thinr hands under the wheels of waggoua. 
VMMuJf. — The dirtinotion betveen wounds aeir-iuflicttd, inflicted 
fay ath«n, or acaiilental, will be comidereJ under thi> butul of 
Bmitei have been imitated by colooring materia]^ 

g true toni 

I, an eouly diteetad by tlut e 



'"rienoed eje. Uletrt, wken tiicy exist natnrally, are often 
' tntentiooBllj incTcnied ; or they an cauaed bj' tUe applicalioii 
* carrooTe scids and alkalies, caoBtica, corroaire Bnblimate, 
lenk. and its aulphnreC, copper wire, acetate of copper, blia- 
iring plaiter, quicklime, the flame of burning bodin. tlie 
mIies uid chcnvil leaves of tobncro, siu^li vcgetalile acrid) as 
tanuucnlns acrii and sceleratus, meiteroon, eaphnrbium, arum 
macnlatam, and juniper; and by pmaure or rriction wltli aand. 
Ulcen have alao been imitated by a partion of a apleen or the 
•kin of a frog kept moist with blood and water. 1'he legs are 
tlie parta usually chosen for tbeae tricks. Factitiona ulcers may 
be detected by rsrcful tnipcctton of the surface and dre«aing;s, or 
close eisminstion vitli the lens. Tbe sodden and repeated increase 
of indaiomation ronnd the part, and tbe healthy appearancu of tlia 
■dflerer. naturjlly eieite suBpicton. In hospitals and prisoTis the 
leg may be enclosed in a boi. Fitlala in (ma and in piriiieo 
hare been imitnted by inserting a tent dipped in some irritant, 
er made of the root o( tliu milk thistle, or white hellebore, into a 
panctnre. Factitioni titix lJuirasef have been prodnced: — lapui 
by pounded garlic, or tbe juice of the eapborbinm ; eryiiptlat, by 
Uktsrs; arfiearia, by eating sliell-fishi jMoriatit and impeligo, 
hj atrong rubefiideiita; pompiofjfj, by blistering plaster; icabiei, 
Iq' )innclDres initatoil with gunpowder; porrigo, by nitric acid 
dn^iped on the hand, or by a paste compoied of raucid butter, 
booey, salphnr, and powder of c^intluridcs. Baidiieit has been 
effieted by nitric acid. Variola in its ernptive stiige has been 
iiDitated by bay-salt and gunpowder rubbed into pcnctures. 
Jimiidin has been imitated by aeverul colouring matters. 

Paotltiotu diaenlei of the eyes are not nneommon. Opklhalmia 

!■• baun cidled by gonorrtiiEal matter, nitric acid, corrosive 

' Ihoats, mlphate of capper, nitrate of silver, lime, pepper, aimfl', 

amcdia and jnice of tobacco, salt. alum, tbe powdered root of 

iboitdum. ■ blast of cold air, cantliarides, IVietion, porticlcs of 

and bsgmcnts of cloth or muslin. The counterfeit dinease 

genenlly confined to the conjunctiva of one eye, and that the 

[bt; its progrcHS is mpid, and it stops short of affecting the 

Amung soldiers it attacks only the privates and non- 

ioned olGcen. llie irritants that have been used may 

be detected, aa in the rase of ulcen, by aioiple inspectiiin. 

OpAthaimia tarti is simulated by strong irritants, or tliu eKtraction 

of the eyela»hcf. A healthy aspect of countenance would eicite 

s the real disease rarely occurs but in the scrofnlaus 

iifl. OfOfity t^ tie conea hns been caused by dropping 

■ -t-it^i, i,r 

;t niixiir 

p .if lini-^ar .md Imrat ovfc, bjr* 

-n If -™i. .H- inlpKat^ 

■rf rno, Lr .lra«it imr^es, or l^ 

« |«»«i 

-ill. -..Innd 

,.r ilwy «p TOkrarai .lu* r«l bir log). 

.•r.--n Irr *t 

vi^ »n^ 

IJ«k by .Uep-tnioHTHi >ih«a. Iba 

- ■li"*™!?™! 


, tlie Imp^-tinn .>f ili« liixn. md tfaa 

is> .>f i1* »Hnnat«i 'yn 

>"n clumnily 

liiiitHlMt ii 

.yiiierat-ifrhreail. A -^pKinaflizmL 

i's™rt m the . 


1., In ii oiM mlatod by Dr. 3|mbb>. 

t>-i ^rpnriti 

!,«.>. h«.r 

, flmn.l t« ™n.irt .,f «n.l. priifaia, 

IMMMry, RTuIyicd. Hmtatemftii U nmolated 
« Hood of in uiiuMd. Olorrhaa, liM bran 
y, pw lanriil txllow, ainifiptiiia. nr old chooe, 
tB^Uid ntiUd hj eanthvide*, or b; imlatiiig 
M bj limilar mmii. Falid breath and pnr- 
sta pradiKvd b; cdl of dipplr. aoafietidB. old 
f flih, Bud tbr nu>cid oil tVom > cart wbefl. 
I, iwl elca* wat^biug, will Hrve to detect thoe 

ffttlum*. — T>)«e an freqnestl; ind lutccnfiill; 
r SpiUpff, vhich hu the reomiineiidation of 
(oniaiiml tliDH. In ndilition to tlw Tiotimt 
rhuBCtcrki the tiue dbcue, impoitors icSict 
muni u pvidvncv of former nttackri, vomit blood 
tei. imitalti llw fnam at the mouth by chewing 
I« the nriiie u if involuiilMilj, A* in the true 
th«n ii m eoUre ■Umn of fcnnbilit;. the 
. nadlly detected by the un) of tonie powerful 
■■ btftahura. bamiog ralpbur, %aaS, or pepper, 
Katril; B few dmpa of bIcoIioI or turpentine 
•ye i A lUlatiDn OC niDitanl, or eommoo ult, 
Doutli 1 IhA watiT, or actual HaiDc applied to the 
nB of tlio naked feet with i irti lowct or band- 
irtjeotioiiaUe and highly effvctual teet. Some 
tcata BB pricking tlieir Bkiu. Oonmltiotu. — 
the •Bi^ct uf iiiiulaiiury imitation, loinetimea 
nor* ftcqo«Dt in wamcn than in 
between real and (Signed i 


le onueqitni^' 

reioediiw for impostara. Hyteria. — Ic ii of little o 
whether sn atUck of hjglCTia be feit{ii«l o. 
whiFh is the bwt remedy fur thu real diieme, is oot • pleaauit 
npplicatioD in ftrigncd nttadcB. Cnlaltpty. ii ver; nre, and it* 
eiiiteace, espediitly in a male, jnstiflei siujncion. PuwerlHil 
Btimulaata, tjie propotal of tlie eclanl cantery while the finger a 
on the puke, appendii^ a weight to the extended limb and oatting 
tlic (tring suddenly, have been reannmendeil and practised with 
eSect in feigned cisaj. Unsuccmibl attempts have been made 
to fngn Utaniu and hjidrophohta. The fingen have been 
Hircibly coatncted, and the nails driven into the palni of the 
hand. By wearying the inusotes with a conical piece of wood 
Uiis impaction is readily detected. Slanmeriiig is often feigned. 
The best distinction ii founded ou the fiwt, that true itammerera 
hesitate little or not at all in repeiitine wliat they know by heart, 
and in aingiiig. Strabstmiu, niclilaiion, and btepharotpamiu 
are nniniportBut aad easily pretended. Dj/tphaffia, when feigned, 
may bo cared by the penevoring u»e of the probang. The ans- 
peoted person should be narrowly watched. Stricture of the 
MTetkra has b<!en feigned, bot aa the treatment of the real disease 
is not agreeable, the impoutlon is soon abandoned. 

/. Paralj/tic AfftcHoiu {Hemiplegia, Faraple^a, and Local 
Paralalia). — In tme pnlsy, the alTecbed parts an relaxed and 
emaciated, and their tempcnituie is loweroL In puraplegia, the 
nrine geuerally undergoes a marked change. These characters 
are uot present in the Sctitions malady. Every fimu of partial 
paralysis has been feigned. In palsy of the fore.arm and hand, 
the discovcFry of a blue line on the guma would be a reason for 
believing thB.pamlynis real. Faralgtii affitant.^lt is eharac- 
leriitic of the real disease that the patient in attempting to walk 
"ii impelled unwillingly to adapt a muning pace." Bnt the 
pratandcr hesitates in his movementa and advances with diffi- 
culty. It bapiicns fortanately that the remediea proper Ibr real 
patay are not agrwable onesi and where there is a good ground 
lor suspicion, low diet will be found a uaeful auxiliary. Jtoiit, — 
11x1 impostor generally minkea attempts to prorent the raising of 
the eyelid, and ihus bctnys himself. Feigned i^tntililUf may 
bt dutacted by stitnnlanU, and otUn by inconaiBtnit ilatementa 
U to the oaosc. Gtma anil lelkargj/ have b«en ■ueceufiilly 
feigned, and in ono or two instances the impoitor has rmislvd 
every stimulant that could be thought of. In ono case the opera- 
Ikn of trvphiiui^ canscd merely a nngle groan, The treatment 
wbkli wvalHMihl bejusti&ed in resorting to if the oomplnintmrt 
iW iTroves • Irjlng duicipiiiiB to must tmpostwra. " "^^^ 




i* Narolj adoiit* «f bciog fanned, for if the impoitar can 
■ to gmw taltw be onnot Doritrol tlie action of tlie 
nd Btaio. Hon Uisn oae cue. bawever, of a mlanterj 
onr Uw drcolatioo ii cm record, Tor wbicb the reader a 
d to lb« dtajAer on Bod aud AppttreuC Doatli. Cues of 
npoted pntcming will be soUced onder the bead of 
n< of traodnlent ditpoaal of a deud body w m that 
f«>r to h*Tii beoi due to banging or drawniag will 
k flmod nadv thow baaiUnKi. Amoi^ prumwrs unreal attempts 
■t widdi bj «nip«n«op or itnu.guiation are unially made wben 
(■MsBOi b knmn to be at bund. Tbe feigned inienubility 
■lUck Mkma k bat onmuked by the electric ihock. 


J, inereawii, and b, 

IB. — Faiit. Tbii is easy to tuaiime and 

L to dctMt. Severe oeiualgia ofWa occurs in persons 

k to all appearance, healthy ; and the caiue of naiiy 

• ia utronaly ohacure, w that real luflbrini; hiu been 

< If it were awmoed. In dealing with case* of tliii class 

lion aod patimo: are ueoeuary ; for nnne malingermi 

■Itted to the oiMt acTere and trying remedies, and even 

Mial uftix tirewts and limbs, fcir (imuliited nenralgic 

Pain ■■ Utt ilnuf, and the giddiness which olVen 

re also easily feigned, and not easily prored to 

TO* of riemtatK paint in every part of 

ially In tb* loins and thight, inasmach as they 

m)anied liy any change in the parts affected, or by 

il CDaatitationat lyinptoniB. [n idany works on 

s, long rul«* are given for detecting feigned jiain, 

lau of almost every diioue accompanied by puin 

^dctalladi hut it may be suced u a general rule 

■e otKotv feigned diteaar* can be detected only by 

10 b«*e ntmsTe experience of real ones. 

■miMjW mualion. — AmamnKtiM is s favourite feigned 

t, pRKtnnKl hy tbe juice or eilntrt of belladonnB or hyos- 

■V tlM diaUlled valer of the ipurge-laurel, or ntnff mois- 

d with a dacortjon of balladonaa. It disappean if tbe im- 

irehtl; Mlalad and wnUbad. In illaaLnUan of the 

* witli wbieh the pretence of biindness is sometimes 

, • au0 ia related by SCahou. A recruit fragned bllnd- 

nm all ulbae oaaos bad been tried without locce 

«M pteoed on the hank of * rirer, and ordered to walk (i 


WHrd, which he ilid. Ilo afterwards ivinreised the inip<«tiinF 
Mgopia. — Shart-iigbtednew bein(> « dinbiUty hi tlie urmy ft 
often folfnicd. Il in>y Iw ilctwtcd by placing an open bt»k cloce 
to tbo flicO) or bj requiring Uio «u»pwt«l porwni to reaJ priut at 
■line dlirtaiiM by thu uid o( gLiiws for Ibe near-uglited. iV**- 
Infnpia i* rnrvly taigneii, Ibe mode of detection i> tbe convena 
□r th« pracndinit. Jmtlgopia, or weak light, u alto rarei; pre- 
tended. Ifgetalopia. — Nigtht-bliudaets. Thii diieue ia peculiar 
to warm dimnUia, in which the aun'i ran hare {treat power. 
Tliww irc 00 MtlaTactory Rie»na of distinguiEbing the 
tliefin^pBd di»aie. aa oppoute states of pupil may exii 
real ohm*. Htmfratopia, at dHy-bliiiilne«, i* not important;. 
i* an oceaidanal ayinptoin of warm^ or of other intestinal irri. 
tlon. The diii([noni will depend upon our kuowled^ of the 
dJHuao of wliicb itw a aymptoln. In the army tlteae pretended 
dofoeta are beat eared by employing the aolgicta of them in di*- 
taateflil urviocalbr which the real defect doeanot unfit them. Drqf- 
•#M. — K* thia may (Kcnr witbont chan^ in the external ear, it ia 
% IkTunrilii inipoailiun. A watch alioutd be set on the siupecta4'< 
pnaou day and night ; and it baa been iccommeiideJ to place Vbki 
flnfon on the |iu1m while had news, or a threat nf punidhmeatt- 
ia Mtig nttcrsd ; to call liim aharply or nneipectedly by iwmt, 
or In a whisper i to iduw blin ttma >teep and then speak to him. 
or to let a place of money Ml dioe t" hiin. Alt such leMs, and 
•*»n tba londaat nusea, have failed. In one rne, relatnl by 
DutUfl|i, a pialul wa* fired oK close lo tbe car wlthont eflfai't ; 
but on the man hsiiig sont to sleep hy opitun. the imposition was 
dvUctad OD the repetition of tbe tiring. J}iim}>»ea. — This ia 
sovrtinca aBiitucd with great porwvvrauns. Aa a general rule 
If a man in'i ilmf mn move hit tontciM be is out dumb. Boms 
•ltd I" : < ■ ■■ U'ugttfi matiUtkm of Ibe 

whii 1> -.< XmtM into the throat, and 

Init i! V '""ggar who had oieited great 

mloT i iiscrihinp hi* (MplJvily 

Alp.'i - .1. _ o-^ nnmaifcni by ■ 


I In the preriatu divinona thoie impontiona liave hwn con- 
ired wbi«ti corubt of ■ siagle antvanl manirenlBtJan, tau^ible 
er viable; or of a nngle alleged symptom or dafect, not coid- 
bined with other (jmptom) to coiutitDte a duesse. It now re- 
naint to (p«>k of (ua in irbirh whole tnituofsymptoniii proper 
to certain diwaan hare been Buomed, with mom or Im lucnesa. 
Thia dhinOD EOiuist* of two cUnei : a, DUeiuei of the body, 
i. J>itean$ of lit mind. 

a, Dutai» qf lAf Body. — Eeetr. Foder£ states, tbat he 
hM often iwn intpoalarB prodoce an eitraordinnry frequency of 
pniM, atcompunieil with chattering- of the teetb and pnrfbund 
^gha. Febrile lymptomi maj be excited bj atrong stimulants, 
•Mh M wine, brand;, or ouitharideB; also by the introduction 
et • dore of garlic into the reetnm. Violent exercise, or atroug 
cootnution of the litnbs, or n heap of bUnkcti has been resorted 
to M ft moui* oT imitating ferer, the tongue being whitened by 
idMdk, pipeclay, teap, flour, or wbiting; and tinged brown by 
tobaooo, hridf-dast, liqaorioe, or gingerbread. Pallor of the 
ikiabMbeen imitaled by emetics, by smoking, by digitalis, or by 
drinking lo iofonon of cumin seeds ; and a flush by friction. 
n» dMectiOD of casea of aimnhited fever is eaiy. The ejects are 
d««j* aphemenil, and all that is needed Is to watch the patient 
Kr a few honn. Ague Is often Fdgned, but not witli mnch 
Mno^ The shivering fit is not followed by the other stages. 
Hm •flbrt to imitate the rignn throws the Impostor into a per- 
tftnUaa, which lends to detection. Tarions cheat ilTections sre 
aaMOod. Anmaaia. — In one iDstancomentionedby Dr. Gavin 
tfaii WH aMnmed, but nnsacfoiliilly. Tbe stetboeeope terves to 
pqn Ha Don-eiistnKe. FMhUit. — It is difficult to deceive a 
MmAI otaerver, sliilled in the nw ol'tbe stethoscope; but many 
I of the disease have been successfully assumed. 
COM eipccloration have been imitated in the 
« already dcKribed. Emarintion may be prodnced by 
■UttMoiee. by drinking vinegar, or by sacking a ropper coin ; 
SWIa ^mptoms by tbe means just pointed out. MlAm^ also, 
kaa bMD imitated, bat the slethrwnpe assists in the detection. 
^pepUxy caunol be mcecsafully feigned. The l^ud is easily 
daUetod by steruulatoriea, or by strong stimulants. Di/tpfpna. 
'Vomiting, gaitralgia, pyrous, and in bet all the symptoms of 
hive been asaained, and the imposition has been de> 
only by careful watching. OoMlritii, or acute dyspepsia. 
vomiting and bright.ttd tongue of acute gastritis 





■re not uuily usnmcil Peritonitit, — In one cose in whjdl Q 
*•• a pretence of great pain iDCreoscd by pressure, & Ante oC 
Dplum was given, uul tlie iDsn bore ver; atroag pressure nitlunt 
being roused from sleep. Jltpalitit in iU chranic fonn it 1 
iBTanrite feigned iliKue, m it ii vei; prevalent in hot climate^ 
and is Buppoted to be commoD in tVa cotmtiy. The doll beitj 
pain in ttie riglit ude, and the pain in the abonlder are e 
BsBDnied. Int llie discoloured e;e and okin, the unhealthy w_ 
of thecDunteuanDe, and the mental deprevion and listlesmeH lot 
readilj. Jaandict Iiai boen imitated by atmning the akin with 
all infiuion of the root of carcuma longa. or of aaffron, with 
tincture of rhubarb, the hruiKil seeds of the broom, or the 
■tamons of the iris. Claj-eolaDred (tools have been prodooed bj 
taking sinall quantitica of muriatic acid, the rolenr of the mine 
has been heig-litcned by rhubarb, and atlenipta have been mid* 
\o pHW oS' pebbles for gnll-Bttiuei ; but it ia not eaav to tinge the 
CDiyunctivu yelluw, nor to combine the yellow skin, pale stooU> 
and liigh-roloured orine. Scurty. — l}ne prominL'Dt symptom of 
this affection, the spongy and bleeding gnms, ia oflea imitated 
by the Qse of irritating anbatancea or l^ puncturing the game 
previous to the vLiit. The other aymptomi are Dot easily Adgtied. 
Jfephritii. — The paia ol thia disease has been uaaunied, and son- 
firmed by producing pebbles or f^gmenta of brick ; but it ii not 
eaa; to aaaame all the symptoms of nephritis. 

This division of feigned diieaaea might be treated at great 
length, and minnte rulea for diagnoaiabe laid down; hnt it ii not 
by written deaeription, but by actual experience of diseus* that 
the true are to be diatinguishcd tVoin the falee. lu duiibtfiil caaes, 
reference must be mnde to the best description of the disease lop- 
poaed to be assumed, with the nndentanding that symptoms 
commonly deemed of high diagnoatic value may be abicnt in the 
real aflection, and ao lead to uigust suspidons. Tlioae who us 
familiar with treatises on this subject will know how mndi of 
false dingnoais tbey contain. 

b, DhfOif of the Miml. — Feigned insanity will be treated in 
tlie natt chapter under Unaonndnesa of Uind. 

The following gsneial rules may render some luaiilaDce in dis- 
tinguishing s feigned disease from a real one. 

ves for deception. Wil 
anything he deetrei^ a 
, boworer, be bone ii 

1. Inquire into the existence ot 
the suspected person, by imposition, 
escape anything be ilrc«deP It i 



mind thkt both men uid women Teign diseases fh>ni othsr motives 
thnu liiiMe of gain ; and tbat there may be ao complete tn absence 
of all discoverable niatiTcs,BS to force as to believe in the existence 
of B moral iosnity diapbjing itself in this way. 

2. Inquire into the prerioos history of the patient, and the 
cbaracter be bears among his comrades or companions ; and 
wbeUiet lie has been previously noted for dishomaty and de- 
eeptioo. Bat men wlio have for years borne the best charucters, 
■nd coodDcled IbeiDselvca with propriety, have been conviiHed of 

3. Wlicn the lusnnied disease is eitornal and obvioDs td the 
WMet, make a minnte and carefol examination both by eye and 
band. When there is ■ ■□■pictoD of the ose of some irritating 
■obstance, iiupcct tlio part narrowly with the lens, search the 
pockets, boies, or bed of the suspected party, and, if necessary, 
lidate him so as to deprive him of the miistance of others, and 
of hit nmns of deception. Kiamine subitaucea alleged lo have 
bMO dlsobar^ed, if necessary by the mtonwcope or by chemical 
tSNto, Id cases of rigidity, anchytmis, or deformity, place the 
fl^y*^r^ [leraoD nnder the influence of chloroforra. 

A. Wben KMne defect, or disability not obvious to the senses, 
fart dependiiig on the atsertion of the person himself, as pain, 
itiBfiliM. ttc, is snppMed to be asiuiDed, try to take him by aur- 
pnM. Ajsnmed dmlhea^ for inslance, ahuuld be tested by sudden 

' I ipaaliiDg sharply to the suspected person on his being 
' n his solf-control baa been impiiired by 

!■ uf fugned diseases, properli^ so called, ire must in- 

*]r into the hialary and alleged caoses. and compare 

M present with gnid descriptions of the real disease 

• lusjiocted ponou should be visilcd at times when ho 

' Id be seou ; be watched by those whom be is not 

I and bomislcd into the assumption of symptoms 

g nialady ha is simnhLtiag. By coitcealtng his sds- 

1 fureliilling the advent of symptoms which do not 

tbii aiiuined disease, the medical man may lead tho 

whatber tlie suspected person makes use of the 

H prescribed for his relief 

ll of sn^pieions casee. no measures ought to 

HOOld not be jnstiflahle if the disease were 

ground for soapioion, low diet, 

may be resorted to. When the 

a not daiii^nnius (f . g., s^tuamo^ 



161 raai 

twitching of tbe muKlee), it ebould be treated vitb indiSerenee, ' 
and ai not requirmg medical treatment, Perwiu waDtonly 
■iMtiiiiiing from food geoerBlly desist iF allusion is made, in 
their liearing, to cases of prolonged abitinenra; and refusal to 
take eierdso in»j be met bj slrikmg off the best menl of the daj, 
u unnecesfiar; in mch cases. Impostors may be cauu-d to densC 
by treating their sevend sjmptonu in det^. A convict pro* 
Teased BxcraciBtiDg besdache, ofTenuve discharge from tbe ear, 
palsy of u) arm, and veukDPfs of tbe l^s. The pain in the haul 
WRi met by tbe quiet of a solitary cell; a fragment of btDtting 
pBpsr wat placed in the car, wbicb va« covered with ndtaenve 
plaster, so tbat the natare of the discbm^ might be ascertained. 
The dropped hand n-as snpported by a splint, and the eiteDsor 
muscles strengtbened bj ^arp electric ihDCfas. Hii diet was 
proportioned to the exercise he coold contrive to take. Under 
ibis treatment be improved daily. There was no offenwve di«- 
chargc from the ear. In three neeks he wag strong enoagh to 
attempt ao es(«pe from prison, in which attempt be displayed 
great strength and activity. 

Closely connected with tbii mbject is that of disqnaiifjing 
diseases- It is chiefly interesting to military and navnl anrgeons ; 
bat the services of tite medical man are occBiionslly required in 
civil cases. He may be directed to ascertain whether a |>enon is 
fit to serve on a jury, or to attend as a witness; whether be is 
competent to take on him certuin offices or dntiea ; or can bear 
bard labour, or other severe puniahment. Bo may also have to 
ascertwD the statu of health of children presenting themseives for 
admiasion into pnblic schools. In this case, ni in that of recrnit^. 
and of persons desirous of insuring their lives, attempts are made 
to represent the health as better than it really is, and to conceal 
defects and diseases actually existing. Tbe sulject of ditqualifi- 
cation in civil and criminal cases scarcely reqnirea, or admits of, 
any predie rules; and disquiliHcation for military servico is 
treated in works which the miUtury surgeon is required to pos- 
seaa. The foregwng observations on fagned and fictiUc 
maladies apply to maUngtrtri in the army and ilnUktr* il " 
navy no len than Ut imposton in civil life. 



I ii m mtgeet on which medicd men are often required to 
giTB rridenoe. A man ntikos a will ; its validity u disputed : 
*«a tha ietUUiT, wben he mwle it, in full posBeraion of his 
benlCieiP Another tquandera his property, or is accased of lo 
doing: ii be coinpelent to manage bU nffdiraP A tbird oon- 
tneta M nnraitable muriBge : could he give a T»1id aoaaeot to 
the antract P A eiiminiil, or person under accusatioD, makea a 
•cnGMikni: was hi* mind aound wLeo be made it? An act of 
greftt atrocit; ia cooimittcd : was the perpetrator reaponnble for 
Ui act } A criminal a auppn«ed to feign insanitj that be maj 
Msape puniibnicnt : a be renlly of anaound mind P That thew 
of fluent occnrrcntx maj be inferred from the 

t that there are upvarda of 50,000 permms of recognised 
anooiid mind in England; that the nnmber of certified caaea 
bu been tor maoj jean incroa^g at the rate of 1000 a year ; 
■ad that the number of inaone persona of all clanea and agei oer- 
taisly aG««da tbc full eatiouted proportion for Europe genersllj 
«f 1 in GOO of the popalation. 

The medical man may be Bommoned to give hia evidence in 
mj rf onr coorla of law, civil, rriminal, or ecclefflaatical : before 
eomniaaiaiti teebnically deu^^nted dt tunatico iiuptirendo : in 
Um cMe of criminala brougbt up for trial ; and, in the caie of 
pmtp«r InnaCica, before a magiatrate. He may also be called 
npgn to aign certificates of unuoundnesa, at the instance of private 
perwoa, with a view to provide for the aafe cnatody and proper 
laiatiniiiil of those in whom thej are interealfid. 

All itiqiurica into the state of the mind are anrrounded by 
p«CTliaf difficultie« — difficulties Inherent in the aubject itself, or 
craatod by the requiromenta of the law. and pnblia feeling and 
prcgn^oe. The dilBcultiea of the Srat order arise out of the 
ai^sal iodividaal character of the mind, tlie degree in which it 

1y hate bten developed by inatroctioa and education, and the 
idutoa and rcatraiut to wMob it ma; have been ta\:^ec\«i&. 

OtbOT difficnme* inliorent iu the 9al:ject are to be fbimd in tht 
purelj infetentjal character of oar knowledge of the iniiKl, in Um 
inapplJcsbiJitj to it of the method of eipcruoant, i 

any recogiuBed BtoDdnrd of lani 
our own mental eip*rience 
othen. Minda thus diStiring 
knowledge and Labile, are varl 
and moral aw^, and subject 

ity, and ia the neceintii of erecting 
1 atimdaTd for the mioda of 
Iginal power, and in ncqiured 

iooily affeated by the eame ptiysioil 
lanj distinct fonus of diaraae. 

diiplaying themselves in Ungoage and acta the moat varied. 
Some part of the difficalty that iiuroundi thil nibject ii alio to 
be traced to the nadue importance formerlji ^ven, in mctaphymeal 
treatiaes, to the higher ^ulties of the mind. Reason and imagi- 
nation were pot ao pTominently forward, and the emotjona and 
pasaons made to play so anbordinate s part, that soandaeai and 
uaaoundoea of mind came to be regarded as almost aynonjmooi 
with a Bound or erring reason ; imagination had to bear dl tbe 
blamo of nuBleading the judgment; and delusion bouams the 
fsTonrite and sole test of iasanity. 

A more atmple and practical theory of the mind, recognisiDg 
several distinct faculties, has now taken tlie place of the narton 
ipecuktioos of the older metaphy»ciaiis. And this theory of 
separate ihcultie^ originally of different power in diffcreot per- 
BDus, more or less improred by instraction and education, under 
greater or less restraint from withoat or within, sul^ect to 
different degrees of excitement from caoses acting witUn the 
body ar external to it, is the theory that agrees best with reason 
and Biporienoe, o^ra tbe readiest ci|iUnatiaii of the inSnite 
variety of character, the endless diversities of opinion, and the 
strange eoceotridties of conduct prevailing among mankind, and 
U moat in harmony with what we know of tbe uosonud 

The seoond class of difficulties, or thoee duo to legal require- 
ments, originate in part from the hiwycr's ineiperienoe of tbe 
onsonnd mind, tbe narrow views handed down to him, and the 
■election of testa difflcnit, if not imposaible, of appUeatiou : also in 
part fniDi lii> looking at the whole qoestion, mainly as it affects 
individual liberty, or the safety of the State. 

The difficnttiea of the third clau, or those that arise out of the 
■tate of public feelinr, are partly political and partly rcligtous — 
politini, ioosninch as tbe vien'a cipresud with respect to persona 
of uiuouod luind are regardnd, not *a they are tmo or false, but 
■I th^y are thought to affect the aafety and well-being of society; 
"-■ - 'Mcaase being deeply impressed with the fallen am] 
W of man, the moat estimable pcraoni are ever ready 

_ a tltODghU tnJ reroltiDg acta rather to that 
original Uint Ihan to djacaie. 

In trMting; of the nnBonnd mind, wo nmat premue that it i* 
not ptanblo to fnmt ■ tdiigle definition of that rtatc, nor to pre- 
Mnt aJDit view of it in one de«criptioo; for mental untcMjndnesa 
MMnet rouij ihnpea, necMstating maoj divisiouB ana ^nb- 
diTimou, vith n eormponding nomeQclatare. In framing a 
AtUng cbuiileDttoii and nomenclatnre, we shnll adopt, at 
Ar a* praeticabli^ tbo dlvinoni and Damn tanctioneil bj legal 
oaage. Where Itio law deflniM with preduon the mraning uf 
Unm, tboae terms will be preferred ; but whuro it has failed to 
do wa, tbcae will be employed which bave been accepted bj the 
bwt nwdial Ruthoritic*. 

Iq the learcb afler appropriate terms, we Grat cnmanter the 
word* "mad" snd "inune," applied to the person alTeGtcdi 
"madneai" and "iniaailj," to the state of the sufferer. These 
temu might be at once adopted if the; were comnunlj ami us 
the OMt Dpporitea of tlu wordi "sane" and "sanity." But as 
the]' arc gmerallj employed in a restricted Kose, and apply chiefly 
lomoh drriatioin from the healthy state of the mind a> consist in 
vceBBTe adivitT, and rarely, if ever, to those cbaracteriied by 
deficient energy, original or acquired, ws most seek for terms to 
which we may attach a more precise meaning. Such are " Un- 
MODdnea* of mind" applied to the condition of the mind itself, 
and "Non compos mentis'' to the prrsnu whose mind is aflected. 

But of ^>e*e l«nn>, tbe lint — " Unsoundness of mind" is not 
&«• from objection; for in the Portairouth case Lord Eldon 
ip6kt of it as a stale rrquiring to be diitinguishcd, both from 
idleoy and lanacy. and in many statutes it is found assodatcd 
with the words Idiot and Lnnutic. Still, as it is better than 
" Innnity," or any other phrase in common ose, it is placed at 
the head of this chsplfl'. The other terra, "Noncotnpoi mentis," 
applied to penont of nnaonnd mind, has been more consistently 
iiied by Ic^l antboritica, and is tlierefore to be preferred to all 

Qaving thus chosen a term coinpreheniive enough to include 
all deriitions (rom a state of sanity, we must next imjuire what 
tlia lair includes under thit term, noa eompoi nenlii, what forma 
of nnvundnesi it recogniMa, and liow fur it coiisists with oar 
Itoowledge as medical men to adopt a tnbdlvisiau in acoordsnco 

Tha Mmmon law of England originally included niider this 
lenn only two brms, Idiocy and Lunacy, but the highest legal 
antboritlcs hare seen tbe neonnCy of more m\Qal« ta^l^v(nvnv. 



N SOUNDNESS or utyn. 

Thus Lord Coke recognised fonr aorta of Ran compat me^i*. — 
" 1. Idiota, wLicli from liii oativity by ■ pcrpetml infirrait} a 
turn conpiu menlit. 2. He that by alcktiesi, ^ef. or oUia 
■undent "hollj lowth bii memory and nndersMnding. 3. A 
lunatic tbit bath toiDetime bii uaderatandJDg.and eoraetiniei nut, 
aliqitaiido gaitdtt Itieidit iitUrrallit, and therefore be a cdled 
BOB compoa DHMfuiolDiigulie hath not understanding. Loftlj, 
be that by hla own iridoat act for a time deprivetb hinuelf of lui 
memoiy and DDderstanding, aa be that U druuken." 

Here ce bare distinctly recognised three forma of QOMiDDdneai, 
Idiocg, Draatiia, and iMmtey ; of which the Srat two araia 
well defined u la admit of being used both by Uwyenand docton 
in the nork of cbiHiflcatiini. But the tfrm I/tinacy is olgectioD- 
able, as implying only that fonn of uiatua which a choractoriied 
by lucid interval*. 

Since Lord Coke'* Ume little ha« been done towards a bettec 
dauification; tbongh Lord Hale, in rrcotcniiing a distinction 
between general, or total, and partial unsoundueis, may be laid to 
justify the separadon of nionouiania ftoai mania. If thia be an, 
we have good l^al authority for at least four forma of utuooiid- 
ae» — Idiocy, Dementia, Hania, and Honomania. 

These four sUtea, taken aa varietiea recognised by the law, may 
be expanded into a reasonable and useful classification by adding 
the forms or phases of unsoundness recognised by the beat medical 
authoritiea. Idiocy, Imbecility, and CretiniKm, may be made to 
fall under the one heading, AiifUia ,- Dementia to tompriic tbe 
acute and chronic, or primaiy and secondary, forms of mental 
degeneracy, as well aa the state known aa General Pjualy«a ; and 
Mania, not aflections of the intellect only, but those a1»o of the 
amotions, recognising in both a general and a parliiU nnsound- 
ness. The fultowing tabular arrangemeDt presents the leadiug 
farms of unsoundness at one view : — 


Amfittia. Dementia. I Mania, ^^H 

i. Ocneral Para- 

Tlita ckaeiflmttou, bo it understood, \a 

{kiVosiiphy of the ODtooad mim), bnt ratlit'r at ■ , 

index (MT Uie order io wMch this i 

bject will be treated. 

a mndition wbicii comprises botli Idiocy 
, (im mui oorporaJ defecta and roRUbnaatioiu to 
raqnire upanle nutice ; in like nmnner, Seaile 
the Oenrrd PanijiU of tbe IniaTie, tboDgli alike 
ital d*ci7, deiuftod > lepante reco^itioD ; vbile thti 
HuuB are but imperfectly Mt forth id the table. 
■t pbilonphicul clunBcation that coald be proposed 
oa the recognition of three leading forms : — Che 
le destmerali, sud tbe duordered mind — AmentiB, 

. Jkt HMMUidoes of mind i* % Urg:e inlject, embrBcing manj 
•^•n^ ■ BBthodksl amiigemBIit of it i« sbaolntel; necexary. 
It «{|] aeeordii^lf ba treibed uoder tbe following heads ; — 1. Of 
MVtiia Matia cf nund compatible with auiitj, but illniitrative of 
■ " -rit, iUnaoai, dreama, uid somnambiiligm. S. Of 

' to uunandneM, and caaaed bj diteaw, or tbe 
delirium, delirium tremuns, and drankeu- 
9. Of Um atlent form* of nntound mind treated in the 
«r4wbwUe)i the; itaod in tbe foregoing table. 4. Of tbe more 
*~ *anct«ra of the nnMmod mind,aDd of itii medicul mid 

t. Of foigned DnmiDdneu of mind. 6. Rules for 
ki be of onionnd miad, imd for 
at tbe modical wilneai in theae caaea. 


I in Um i 

a half a dcm cotmeiion with, and direct boar- 

, MMiIal uuioondnEaa. Spectral and other illmiaDi are 

m; dreamt are geBerallf recognised ai 

aiid the acta of tbe •Dmnambuli^t aaj gi«e 

il qoationa. 

■aoMtian witlioat ■ aorreaponding eitental object 

d an ilUmom. ftliai il ia doe bo an aot of tbe will, it la 

t pmtflio*. When the e;e i*, or weQu to be, 

t of tbe vtaaliCKi, it ia ratted a ifentral illation, pAon- 

r fiamtoM*. In the well-koown caae of Buivuelli, tbs 

' h1 aa to tlie proper meaning of 

There onght to have liecn no 

I dofining them. Tbe difference i* beat aliown bj 

]h I — an illnnoii of tbe aeniea, a duliuion 

■ a mocker; , falao ibov 

Biwwa/ a dalniiiMi ■ cbimaiaU (fjoiigbt. Il nuj \m 

^ tAtt aa Ubmoa of tbe wtiaet, it iMlievsd to be » 

TIHBOTlllDNEas 0? U 

reslity, becomes ■ delnsioD nf the mind. The word illnsion miy 
be applied, with equal proiirlotit, tn a BGDiation nithoat cor- 
reaponding object, to a tnmaformed appearance of ■ real otged. 
or to an tntfmal RensBtion emggeratod or midinterprcted. It it 
improperlj applied to real teimtions, aa of enlarged ibadowa piD- 
jected onto masiiea of oloads, misinterpreted for s time throopli 
i^orance and niperstitian into the " Oiant of the Brocken," 
sailing ahipa, and fightjng armies. Those who wish to distingniib 
illnsians, pnre and mmple, from what may be called " illuiTe 
tmnsformationi," make nw of the term tiaUiiciiiatiM. Brierre de 
Boismont, for instance, nsea tbc term to deHig^iste an anrenl sensa- 
tion wbollj doe to the Hction of the hrain ; and Ulvrion to designate 
a real sensation eiaggeni(«d or disturtod by the same Dperation; 
and Grieaingor, quotinf; Esqulrol with approval, sanctions auhgton- 
tially the same distinction. This word, as the French use it, has 
indeed the same meaning as oar word illuuon ; bat as old English 
wrilfira nsed it in Iho sense of nn error, rDistabe. or blnudfr, 
and medical irriler« sometimes of an illaeion, sometjiaes of a 
delasion, it oQgbt to be allowed to fall into dieosc. Whaterer 
teima, however, we elect to nse — these fonr distinct condition! — 
we ought not to confound tbe one with the other ; a volunUr; 
representation of an idea on an organ of sense, which is a virid 
conception ; a sensation, without corresponding eiternal olgeoti 
whieb is an iUution; an involantar; transformation of a realot^eet, 
which is alsa an illnsion ; und an actual vision {e^., a mlnge) 
aimpljr misanderatood nod misinterpreted. 

Illusions maj occur as eorlj as four yeara of age j in jonng and 
middle-nged adults ; nnd in octogenarians : some in perfect health, 
some Buffering from trivial and transient indispositions curable bj 
such remedies as moderate depletion and simple aperients, others 
in the fljat onset of more serious diseases, inflammatory and febrile, 
or during convaleacenc*. Illusions have also boon prodocod bj 
ever; form of arrested and disordered inrcalation through tbe 
brain, b; the iuhaUtiou of carbonic ncid, or its generation within 
the body itself, and by many poisons of the narcotic and narcotico- 
acrid class; and notably by opium, oloihol, Indian hemp, bella- 
donna, hyoscyamus, and atramoniuni. lllnsions of sight (spectral 
illusions) nre the mmt common; those of bearing come next in 
order ; those of taste, smell, and tonch, are more rare. In spectral 
illusions, which have been most slodiod, there are diflbrcncea 
interesting to physiology, but of little practical importance.* 

Lettera OB KstnnI Msgii;,' Sir Walti 
sod Bticrrc de BolimoDi ' On HaUuci 

I 'Apporillfma.' 

B«t tbsM too (iuiU ma; be applied with advantage in tbe itndy 
of tlie muoand mind; — 1. That these llluiiioDS ocear in the iire- 
roedtably blind, and that, in thae ouei, they muit result from 
ehaugea in tlie cerebral dreulation. or of the bnin-tiHne. 2. That 
tboDgb, in some cttMS, they follow directly an an eicited emcition, 
•oeh a» miiety or fear, and may he attributed to an imagination 
rttpotaavt to it, in the gmter nnmber of cnaes they are ai 
inTolnntary as spurns or convalsioni. 

Ni>ir apcctnl and other iUomoiig are very commnn in Bome 
Ibmu of UDSootidneBi, and they eerve to eipUin, in part, the 
otntinate iMUef by which the mind is possessed. Thas a religious 
maniac, the aatborof a most interesting autobiography,* atrongly 
confiimed by itatementa made to ns by persona simiUrly afflicted, 
wji, in reference tn one of his many spectral illndons : " I 
imagined I was really present to ihrm ; end that my not 
•cknowledging it was a deluNon, an obstiuate realstanco of thn 
Divine will on niy part. That of tlie two, tbe appearance of 
the bed, walls, and fhmitDre oas fidse, not my prctorDatnral 

Spactnl illnrions, then, may occnr in persons of sonnd and of 
immmd mind, the difference being, tbnt tbe former do not behere 
IB their reality, tbe latter do. The sane man corrects these folse 
impTcsaions by comparing them with those springing from the 
other sense*, or with tbe sensations of others ; whiio the man of 
VMatmd mind nt^lecta these simpte meana^of andecoiving liimaclf, 
or cannot nse them ; or, if be entertain any donbt. dispels it by 
ttw help of hie delusion. Thus, the author of the autobiography 
thoogbt it intpiom to doubt. 

Urtimit. — The phenomena of dreaming have a striking auali^ 

to tbOK of some forms of unsound mind. The eitenial world 

being shut out, and the higher faroltiei Inaetire, ilhisioiu and 

* ' ' IS have tbe vivid impress of reality, and follow each other 

to associations over which we liave no control. Many 

« directly tracoabls to states of the body, which, nben 

\ awake, produce pain or uneasiness, ancb as fulness of 

h, distention of bladder, or irritation of skin. The alccper 

cioos of this nneaay sensation, and seems to be aoeking 

in mililiely ways and places, or he associates it with 

^nary events. Tbua a fit of indigestion ia cooverted into a 

nor*, and the ruffled dretslng of a blister on the bead sug- 

■ droatn of being scalped by savages. In other instancei 

nauy •ensation gives rise to a dream whicli hu no other 

k Namlttr of tlif TrHlncnt otpcrioiKd \ij i Gvillcmun Uuilng s state 



while Um other slqit ; but the former tMiog tu\mp, %nd dmm- 
ing that lie waa pnnued, shot bis compatiioD throagh the hoTt. 
Aguin, tliere ii the ciue of the jiedkr, n'lio h^Dg redely ranaed 
from sleop bj a pMBer-bj, ran liiiD through tlie body with tlie 
blade of K Bword-itick ; aad wa« fDimd g:ailty.* If these oaiea 
tte rightly reported, it h difficult to nadentond bov tbe homi- 
ddal Oft iboald be deemed crioiinal. 

Sotnnambitlijm. — This le a funu of dreaming in which the 
Koaes and voloalary moBclee bave fiill play; tlie one eiCTciaed 
with extraordinary acuteaeas on the gabjecC-matter of the dream, 
the other obeying the maudates of the sleeper's will with un- 
wontnl prBriiion, The mind during the dream is so concen. 
ttated on one ot^ect, that tbo reason or fancy will accomplish 
tasks to wlucb it is unequal during the waking hoars; and this 
CDDoentirBlJOD probably accounts for that eitraordiiiBij acuteneas 
of tbe Msnsai, tliat precision of movement, and that total absence 
of teni which nuulis such acts u iralking on the edge of a pre- 
cipice, swimming a rapid stream, ca riding at full g^op. Some 
sleep-walkers, at each recurrence of the fit, perform some 
ronline dnty with all the predion of their waking hours. 

In some cases, so complete is the mind's abstraction, that the 
loudest noises are unheeded ; in others, those things only ore 
attended to which liarmonise with the existing train of tbonght. 
After the fit, there is cither complete anconsi'iousness of whst 
bos occurred, or such remsiubranGe of it as in an onUnety dream. 
In same cases, that which has transpired in one fit only, is dis- 
tinctly remembered in subsequent ones, but quite forgotten in the 

Tile aiiiilogy already pointed out between dreaming and in- 
■uiity extends to some cases, at least, of sumuBmbalism ; Ibr in 
some madmen, as in some somnambulists, tliere is a remarkable 
iocreaae of talent, in others a complete change of chuitctec; in 
other words, there lUny be an intellectual and mornt somnam- 
bulism, u there is an intellectual and moral insanity. The fol- 
lowing casoi support this view, A Cartbu^un monk, remorkabie 
Ibr duplicity, nndour, and proUbj, walked almost every night 
in his al^ep, a tbief, and a plumlErer nfthe dead. A pious clergy- 
«uui, in his llta of aamnambulism, would steal and secrete what- 
ever ho couhl lay his hands ugiou. and even plundered his own 
churoh. A suicidal sumnumbalist hod (jts every ni^ht, and 
m)lt!nfd to be wntohed, as if suffering from sn scute disFSse. He 
always tried to ewupei and un<> iiighl hsring succeeded, was 
■ Tbssa duu sn quuW bi Dr. FurbM Wliiiluu In Lii 'Ftoaof iDunllr 
In Crtiaiwil Ua-i,' >W Oni ftun ill. I^uu, tUi kit trum Uil> 'BrUUhana 
-Amtfli iltilkral Uirluw.' 


DeUMVv. 176 

llangiBg lij the feat from the limb of a higli tree.* llomi- 
ddal toiQiiaoibDliBDi i> illmtrntcd bjr tlie following uiue. ImM 
one eTcniiii; n monk entered tbe room of the prior of tlie cod- 
\eat, his eje« open and fiiod, a frdwn on hi* featnreB, and a knife 
in hii hand, lie walked Btroight up to the bed, u if to aicer- 
tuD if the prior wore tliere, and then gave three stalw, which 
penetrated the bed'clathes and a mat that lerred the pnrpoae of 
a mtttrsu. He then returned with bis featarea relaxed, and 
wearing an air of «ati»ftction. The ncit day, on being quea- 
t«nwd. he confested, that having dreamed that iiii mother had 
be«n murdered by tfae prior, and that her spirit bad appeared to 
him, and cried for vengeance, bo waa tmiuparted with fur;, and 
nu direct]; to «tab her auossin. Shortly after he awoke, 
ooverud with penpim^n, rqoiced to find that it waa only a 

£<yal rtlaUoBt of lomitamhuliHn. — A qaestion hna been 
Miaed aa to the responniiilit; a( the ammumhuliat Tor acta cxim- 
mitted during the fit, and an attempt Uiu been made to show that, 
•t what ii dune in the St is often only the accompiiihmeiit of a 
prnjoct formed while he waa awake, ho ought to be held respon- 
•ible. Thin ia a perfectly gratajtooa asEuinptiou, tluit cannot 
be wHonsly entertained till moe fact ahotl have been udvaneud 
in iti iQpport. If such a qneation of teaponiihilit; ahoiild arise. 
it ongbt to be shown that the sleep-walking was not feigned, and 
that the acciued waa mlyect to it. 
_ For Bime interesting cases of adtasia, or cataleptic aomnam- 
im, which is iieurly allied to hysteria, and almost isivariubly 
'a femalee, the reader is referred to Abercrombio on the 
d Powers. 


ItcUriiim occurs in most severe febrile and intlamm story 
iliiratra, Bspecially those which attack the inlemal viscera ; ia a 
cnminon seqnr.nce of severe accidents, and anneal operaUons i 
mdoBMi naUeniD the &tal termination of chronic disorders. 

Febrile delirinm is geucnilly preceded by pain and throbbing 
in the head, heat of scalp, and Hashing of facei but it lome- 
times tnaka< its attack suddenly. In the Grat cIbbb of cases it is 

ItRea pre<?«d«d by drennunK. Hie patient talks in his sleep, and 
frakca np confused and forgetfu] ; bnt when fully roused, ia 



cs) Jurlipiai 

DKaonxmiEGS of hihd. 

coUed()d, and bo rei 

tbia disturbed sleep 

liea on liis bnck, dull and liatlesa, 

•J} himself, nnconadoaa of pei 

im till the aeit riamliar. By degrtw 
' waking delirium. Thif patirat 
with eyea half open, mnttering 
[IB or things around him, lod 
when rouaed icaroel; recogninng thrm. As the disonler in- 
nreues and the atrength rails, the >oice hecomes more Indiitinct 
the fingere are coiuUnCly pioking at the bi>d-clutfaea. the erwii^ 
tiana pau DnronxnonBlj', and the patient can no longer be romej 
to an eflbrt of attentiiHi. 

If detiriuui occun et au earlier stage of the disenae, or befon 
the itrength has been much impaired, the ajmploniB are aooie- 
what modified. The i^es are bloodshot, and iuteutly Gied as if 
on some object really present. Tbe patient talks loudly and 
eoracBtly, toues rCBtlaaly about, makes repeated attempts to 
leave his hed, perhaps escapes from the attendanU, displaya gnat 
strength and activity, and may even commit acts of faM vio- 
la &tal cues, delirium usually passes into ootna, but ocouion- 
ally it disappear* some hoars or dnyi before death, leaving the 
patient in foil poeseasion of his faculties. 

In some cases, again, tbe memory of things long past revivea, 
and langaagea in complete disuse are recollected and spoken with 

Delirium Is an atmoat constant symptom of poisouing by betla- 
donna, hyuocyamus, and Etramouium; a treqaont result of poison- 
ing by other'rids ; an occasional one in poisoning by 
the pore narcotic and irritant poiaona. 

Delirinm closely reaemhIeB that form of unsound mind known 
as inooherenis, hut ia distJnguiahed fram it by its history. Deli- 
riuiDi when not cansed by poiKin, is a symptom of aome well- 
marked disease, generally febrile or inflammatory, while iuoo' 
bereoce is rarely accompanied by bodily disorder, till it has lasted 
long iinougU to become associated with paralysis. 

Lfgal relatioiu of delirium. — Civil acta pertormed during an 
access of delirium are necessarily void, and criminal acta entajl no 
reaponribility. The validity of wills made by patieota labouring 
under diseases attended with delirium is uanally decidud less Ir^ 
tbe proved eiistence of a lucid interval, than by the character of 
the will itself. If in koeinug with the testator's known 
cbaracter, and with intenUona expressed or instructions given 
when sound in mind and body ; if the several parts are oonsiatent 
with each other ; and if no improper infloence was brought h> 
bear upon him ; the will wonld be declared valid, even thongh 
the medical evidence tbrew doabts on bii capacity. On the 

^flBStnd, ii 


n tb« nbrance of these coadiHons, tLc will would 
generally be decUfed invalid, in spite nf the atrougcBt evidenm 
of the tettalnr's cajincit}'. 

Ii ii important to diiUngnUh Ueliriam, with intervsU of per- 

' I tlie dlmneu of dcmemumr •ometime* 

BOMimvd b; pUienta laboaring under itrnuge deluslutiB, the result 

" * Bn»oiiiidin;» of mind ehDwing it»elf in the first stage of con' 

1 from feier or other scute diseisii ; or as part of 

Ireinoni broogbt nu \y drinking. Hero, too, the biii- 

7 of the cue, nod the >Ute of the putieut. will have to be 

ftilly considerad. 

IMirlam IVramu, — The delirium of drnnkards is easily reeog- 

1 bjr the pecoliar form which the meotal nnsouDdness 

•Muniet, and by the equally eLaracteristic bodily syaiploms, 

aided bir tlie previon* history ; and, in most cases V llie prompt 

rvr* eflbcted by the usual remedies — alcoholic stimuluuts and 

«piat«a, RDd natriUous food. 

The patient is restleaa, slecplen, limid, saipicioas, and cunning, 
" ia nitgect lo illusions of the senses, and fancies hiumelf sur- 
ded by hideous and kiathaame objects, such aa toads, ser- 
nta, and aeorpionB. and that be is persecuted by stranife sounds 
d tbrMtening voices ; or be thinks tliat thieves or evil spiriu 
we breakioK inlu the liousc Wlieu uudur treatmt'nt he is sns- 
pioiooa of the attfoduDla, is coostiuitly trying to esunpe; and, if 
MX pcoptrly watched, may do violence to himself or others. 
l« patients display a painful etigcraess lo t;i> soiQeH-hiTe, or do 
in which their miudi are bent. In eitrcme cases the 
■nt eihibits all the symptoms of acute mania. The bodit,v 
sistof the bemorfrom wbieb the diiease derives ils 
IL with a pale, sold, clammy skin, a moist, while, treniutous 
' a small weak pnlse. The history of the case is tliat 
of intempennco terminited by a short supply of 
•ome eihanatiug di«ease or surgtcnl inj iiry. tjome' 
)waa aiiiglc debauch, especially in men who have bud 

Cvkius attacks of mania, or of cerebral iiifbiminatiun, or who 
e lulTercd ftwn Krcrc fklls or blows on the head. 
Jn the mlldn-forme of the alTectiiKi, the patient goes about as 
■Hal, answer* questions coUecledly, and converses ratiouully ; 

II wlien Ml la binuetf, he is as one in a waking dream, spcuk- 
f of things calcolated itmngly to excite (he feelings and pu- 
Bi with a manner perfeclly free from eicitemcDti e^., asking 
I pwter of the uut-patioDts whether he did not say that be 
bU kill him. 
Pioton^ abilinsiice, too close atlentioD to itud;f or ba»it«R. 



■nd folitary confinemeot, sometime! bring on a state rload; lUitA 
to dslirinni tremeng, and dutrncterized like it bj illuaiona of tight 
and hearing. 

Legal Selaliotu of DiUrium Trentn*. — As deliriam tremen* 
ia ■ recogniBed diteue, with mentBl QnionndoeM u a •jmpMm, 
the potient cannot be b«ld rrapoDMblo for hia acta. Accordingly 
tliough druiikenneu bus uu effect on riiil or criminal acti^ 
delirinm treoieiiB bas tha aamn effect an inaanit; itself. 

IffutikeniHiH, — The excitement which, in peraana of sODod 
mind, ntt«nds the iiiitulgence in alcoholic liquore, is concerted, in 
tboae of unsonnd mind, iutii maniacal incoherence, distinguishable 
from mania dne to other rauaea onlj by tha history of the case 
and the eviiieuceof the aense of amell. A craving ufter apirltuont . 
liquors IB one of the recognised forma of nnsoucd mitid [diptOi 
mnnia); while in others it is merely a leading ajmpUnn of ■ 
more gtmeral diaorder. In some cases the craving atlur alcohulittl 
liquors ahowB itself only at intenals. 

Ltgal Relaliont of Dntitkmteti. — Tiiia has no legal eflect. It 
nather increasea nor mitigat«B the penalties that attach to crime, 
and it has even been deemed an aggravaliun. A drunbard'a acts 
are theretbie viilid, unloi it can bo shoAii that the dmnkenneu 
was procnred by auotber person to ohtuin an unfair advuitage. 

I of »^H 




Uimy. — Tlie beat legal and medical writari 
\l\g Idiocy as a congenital mitUdy, and the idii 
Uam tat DBtlvlty by » perpetual infirmity ia noa 
■' But tDme writera of both profenions have oaed tl 
precinon, evidently c " 

The time for aiu-b mntitfiun o 
V ■ vicar nndiTiitandiug that ic 
:-j .111 defect of all llie mental faeul 

1 -. and, like other fonua of uusv 

ii' ' ' Mini the ntreme ofbudily dofon 

,n i-iiili'tKi.' [iiiH'Ji ii'L^i'iuIivo. Such iiUoti acem devoid 
i«tKin, anil »oald pcTuh if not clcaely attended to. 


wnewbat higLcr fonn tfasre are «aaBitions of beat nnd cold, ut 
K-lnrni^ and thint, mid Jast intelli^nce enough lo iiidicute tlie 
tneat wuiU by iLgus. A atill higUer cUw consisU of those 
who hHve aeuutiou and otuuduiuDew, recognise funiliiir 
a and ubjecla, htb niaceptihle of attanhment, can mow 
D place to place, are able to make known Iheir sante bj get- 
Niuiid*, or even bj wordi imperfectly articaktei> am 
.0 acquire habits of decency, can learn to hum or alnt;. 
n to perform the linipler operatioui of BriChmeUc, and are 
itible ut aome improvumetit in tboir bodily and mental con- 

>r careful, luaidiioiu, anil akjltul teacbers. 
a ral«, idiot* are dcfarmed in body as well as stunted in 
kllect. The; have imall, mitebapen heads, and features 111- 
laed and intoned — squinting eyes, large guping mouths with 
tliick Upit, irrei^ular teeth, and aallaw and unhealthy compleiioim. 
The limbf and trunk are nlao imperfectly dovoloped, and their 
gait ii awkward iind unsteady. Some of their bensea are unnting. 
■nd otben very imperfect. 

Fig. 21 (one of tbe graphic Kij. ^i. 

Qlotuvtlons of the lute .Sir 
Alexander Moriwin*) shows the 
>r an idiot of tbis type, 
rs old, (our feet and a hil t' 
, Willi flattened furebead, 
I li|M, and large gaping, 
g luoBth, and awkward 
ady gait, bis fbvaurite 
■e leaning agait ' 


C gently with hii 
le of touch ii VBT\ 
te; bi> 
I munoyllable lee, 
1 good, aa 
If diMurdoutly. 


;, fig. 22. i> 18 years old; h. 

'iDt not defurmed i liua a vaiaut expreS' 
Hta tbe mooDiyllable urn, am, and will 
orda giiod dag, good i 






„. ■ 

find of »wecU, u)d pl«ued ■ 

*ilb Hnerj. 81ic put* ■ wabl iato 

be, inoatb. Sbc feed* 


heneif, but cuinot dr»a 
or aiidre«. and doe* not 


attend to the tall! of ni- 


TliB cliild wlio« por- 
t«it » p.™ m fig. 23 

Uloiiin to the sm»rii!r 

.' i^ d«n "of Idiol* who BK! 

Eri>c from cnnUI and 



fudal deTorinitf. Hiiase 

U .U. H« »u bom ta 


idiot, bul ieem» to hiive 


grown worse nfler attack* 

of meaalct und whooinng- 


cDUgb ill bU tbird yenr. 
His senses are perfect i 
be Ban sav a few word*. 

\ -^^^ 




bag; lai afTeetion fin hia 

pareuta, takea ui iater- 


est iu walcbing bia father 
■t work, and eibibiM 

■Vbt power or iffiiUUmnriHsls himself, but win eut iUli lud Beeb 



mw ; attend, to the odl. 
of nature 1 is very Teat- 
Uia, and keep* op B eon- 
tiuual whine. 

Idiots at the age of 
puberty often diaplay Ibe 
•eiuat psBsian b; offeusive 
features anil diigtuting 



liahiu. Me aulyect to vio- 
lent ontbnrats of paadon. 



aula of alrocioiw cniellj. 
r4i> Legal StlaliuM 

.^^k """^ 

0/ JdUs, in tUe aeuu 

nt obvious. It impUni 

cuniplcte o:vIl diMbUitv, 

^^■l ^^'^'"■""C 





P^lumiHd Id dnlgnnte ■ msuUl defect muiirmtiDg iUelf in 

V falkncf. M duUnguUliMl fnim that which ia congenital. 

I It) (tnetoaa of hngiuge. perlmpi, idiocj sod imbeciUt.T would 

f^ki fqoalljr cliiracWriwd w congeniUI defect*, of which the more 

Urked (hlioc}') makei iUelf loODeA known, while imhecilitf i* 

~ t raeopiiwd till the ficaltiee have been teal«d hy education, 

A (bund wiDling. it la aim obvioui that no iharp lin« of dia- 

ic«ion ou be drawn betweon the idiot aitd the imbecile, for the 

inter ahndra of loibedlitj pan into the lighter tinia at idiocj. 

But tlie puaaauion by llie imbecile of the bcolty of speech, ae 

atingniabcd from the porroC-like nttenince of the few words 

'ueh (hfl idiot can leam ii the beat line of di 

Uoat imbecile* are intellectually aa well u morally definent. 
~ limited power of acquiring- or rBCaiaiiig knowledge ; 

■nnot andontand or appreciate the cuitomi of locicly or lawa 
o and iltvine; cannot control their emotioni and panioni 
n of toond mind can do. But tbrro ia ■ imall eiccptionul 
wfaleh eihibita intellectual defidency vithout aerloaaly 
"ag againat momllty, and a larger oue, which combines lliu 
t inlellectuol endan'- 
» with ottar incapncity f'g- 2*. 

ig tha ooodiiet of life. There 
h, tlHnfore, an inlellKtual. 
m moral, and a funeral im- 
Iwdlity, aatheie la anintel- 
ItEtnal. moral, and genentl 

TIm flnt of the anneicd 
UloMiii^oiu (fin. a) rrpre- 
wnt* an imbucilo thirty yeara 
of agc^ and four feet nine 
Inijia in bnght. who ia de- 
•etibed u having a very 
anall hratl, and an piprea- 
akm of tillineea In hia coun- 
(•nante; liia eye, luiwvter, 
i» nlliar llridy, and he pot- 
•naca more intalligencc than 
wa ahould cipcct from bis 
appmraneci be can talk 
rationally upon common anlijecta, ai 
liaa worketl in wrvlle irfRciw, 

The aubject of IIm Ulualration in fig. 25, tike the idiot child In 


d makei himaelf naeful. tie 

IM c^tsouxDXESs or xino. 

the Goorta «f jaitice, to priwHU vA (caffoldi, niars mfjactt tbu 
u ganatiBj tappaatd" — * ■Catemcnt the trath of which wetn 
■ble to cooSnu bj oar curn eiperimce. (0.) 

Bat iahfolitjr. u alreadT poinled oat, n not alvmji of lUi 
Muied <lMnct«r, displijitipitHirattheuinetiiDe in the iatdltM, 
norali. and amdnct. It a tometima partial, afiectiai^ onlj vt 
diiefiT eitlifT Uie intrilectiutl or the moral character. There mjr 
be, on the one hai>d, an ioabilitj la ac?qiiire aiul >l'pl; knowkdgo 
in penoM ttbo bare a doe tense oftigbt, act willi integiita, and 
pcrfbriD nerj aodal dutj ; and, on the other, an nnoaoal power 
of acquiring knowledge, with judgment, laac; and refined taal^ 
bat combiMd xilh feeUmeaa of purpoae. want of aelfHMDlnl, 
inaptitude for bovneat, dimcard uf dnij, and want of comnMKl 
)ione*t;. Such pera^na are known in aociety ai weak, KriV WJi 
good-natured, well-nteanin^, good tort of people, and ifpoMmnl 
of brilliant talenti, aa haiing ever; lentc bat coramoa Ktae, 
lliey are too eaijr to be joat ; too tbougbtlea to be honnt. They 
bare an iiutiuctiTe horror of bnilnen, an ■renkm to their i«gal«T 
occnpatkRB, and « di>taal« for ercrjibiog that wenn the alupo of 
a daljr. Tht^ are ntterl. t ignorant of tlie value ormone;, and the 
Iwt ute the; make of it i» to pa; their debla. Earh man ainong 
them hat hii own Rivouritc form of eitrsvagance, and his own 
mode of mining himself. Onecalli an architect to hit aadataoce; 
anotlier an opholiterer; a third collecti utelul things which be 
nerer nw*. or displays a corioiu laste in worthies triBcsi or 
(none still) beromca the incorrigible patron of mendinnta Mid 
mendicant- thieves. Tlietepoople arealwayafonningarqnaintanora 
with onwortiij personi, who find it worth their while to know 
and to flatter them. With all 'heir eaiinen of dirpowtion they 
hare moeh « srmth of temper nad strength of panion. Tbey are 
bad children, busljandf, sod tsthera, becaucuin these relation* thay 
have duties to perform. Thronghont life Ihej are neak, wavering, 
Eckle, and telf-willeil an children ; tbH aunrce of conaUnt anxiety 
and misery to their fainiliii; the prey of duugning knaves; the 
eipeded iniiuites of gaols, worklionws nnd lunatic atylama. 

These moral imbeciiea remain at large, beomse the intellect 
being annfleeted, they have nn diitinct delwDona, and as weakoeta 
of intellect i> a neceasary ingredient in the legal idea of inbo- 
dtity, the attempt 1o prove Buch persons of unsound mind, in ■ 
court of law, Detessnrily fails. That abfeticc of moral sense, kml 
(Hirresponding want of self-conlrol, which is Iho essence of their 
mmtsl malady, can be proved only by thehigtory of thdr daily life j 
■ history ofleu hard to obtain, and generally aludionsly withheld. 

Imbvdlta sre sonielimei as bhic\i iroiw ft* ft(jnnis««i ift. 


cbiliiiali finriei lu iiiiiiuiai are of deliuioni. A i-timmiuion of 
Idiucj wu gnnliid in the cat» of ■ jcmng gentliiuisii, aged 20, 
who wu the ilave of ■ childititi hmrf for windmilK with hii 
•Temon njuall; gtrung to vittn'iDilla. Having been plsi^etl under 
Fontrol in n place where tbere were do windmills, be ciit the 
calvci of » cbild'i le^ through to the bone, and atntpd thnt he 
■hunid have taken awa; il< lir«, that he might be tried for his 
set. and rrmoved frota > piece where there were uo windmills, 
d always bet^n violent when thwarted in his funcy, had 
hia keeper and memheri of hia rnmily, and had more 
n once made preparation! for committiii|i mnrdor. VHieii we 
^uiDced to tee him in a diitaat ujlum, he was expecting to bo 
mipointed head aiillur to a maniac who alleged, among other 
« claims to dignity and importance, that be was king of 

- L (O.) 

Ltgal Setatiomt of Jmbecilily. — In respect to this form of 
mt«l nmoundneta. two kinds of i|ueslionB may arise-— questions 
J, and queationa of rfipmuibilUi), 
tpelency of imhecilea to fomi contracts, and their tk* 
litjr when formed, has often en);agcd the attention of our law 
arts. Pemns of weak mind have been brought by improper 
illUDOi to ally tlwmselve* in marriage, and the validity of such 
■nisges lias been tuceesafnlly disputed, as in tbo case of Porti- 
Bath v. Portsmouth, in nhich, as lu other Initnnces that might 
I citsd, the proof of imbecility was rightly drawn not from n 
ir iaoliltnl Aicti, but from an inveatigallun of the whole life, 
hdiict, and character. 

The competency of imbeciles to manage their a^rs ia often 

llod Id question. As tlie condait of life is partly dependent on 

'knowtnlge of the D>e and value of money, partly on judgment 

dtscrvtion, inquirii^s of this class may aasume a very aimple, 

tnj complicated ihape. 

n rare instances men have been pronounced incapable of 
aging their aSiiirs, on the ground not so mucli of general 
itDMs of intellect, ss of deFectiie knowledge of nambera and 
Talue of money. Two such cases are relaUd by Abercrombie, 
M of whish tbcr* was a " total insbillly to perform the moat 
lis process of ■rithmetic," and in the other " a total want of 
paww of tnning relationB both as to time and numbers." In 
of evidence showing that they bad mnde much progress 
pronounced in('ap.ible of managing 



or how mmj ihillingi in > •ovprtigo ; oooli) not p 
easuMt opentioii of nrithmetic ; did not know the date, uiontti, 
or jear i or the name of the reigning moiuirch ; nor recognue 
perwni with whom he had mnveneii ouly foqr dttya presiomlf. 
His Btteatioa was rooied with the utmost difficulty, and coulil 
not he Sied to an; one snljwt. DU loot wiu vannt. hi) dreia 
paciilUr, bis pnit SKkward, his motions grotesque, his speech 
■low and heiilaCing. He used tbe eaine words and expresdona 
iigain and agnin. repeated imperfectlf the tiiaka and prayers of his 
ohildhood, and imitated the contortions of peraons, lito hinueir, 
iubjrat to Bta. Such a cane could present no difficulty either to 
witne» or jury. (0.) 

More diflicolt quHtiona arise in respect of persona who though 
they display many marks of imbecility, in chiliUih wayt, ecxsn- 
trlc habits, violent passions, nnd cmel diapoaiUoni, are yet able 
to perform the simple operations of arithmetic, know the value 
of money, and can comprehend sudi atatcmsnts and suggeaUona 
with respect to their affaire as are anbmitletl to them. In aoiDa 
of these cases, a snccesstiil appeal lias been made to the effident 
manner in which the party bu nctnally conduclnl his own afiiiin. 

The proof of imbedlitj, uimbined ivith undue iiillaeni«, hat, 
in many instances, beeu bcld to invalidate a wilt; but, in the 
abiencc of such influence, all that is required to ettablisb tilt- 
wills uf people of weak nnderslanding i«, that they should hai* 
bven capable of comprehending their uatnre and effect. 

Tlio question of ntponnbiiUji for audi acta as arwm and 
murder, can only he answered by weighing well nil the lAnma- 
stnnvca of the act, the motives by which it wn* instij;at«d, mi 
tlie whole tile and character of the nocused. This iiilijeot win 
ha donsidered when all llie forms of onsonDd miud have b»rai 

Several interesting and iuitmctive cases of imheeilet, eoDcem- 
ing whom the two questions of cempflteney nnd reiponulriUlf 
hive b(«n raised, are given In detail, and mnde ttie lulyeot <i if 
jodidoni tnmmentary in Kny'a 'TrentJiK) ou the Medical J 
pradenoe of Insanity.' 

Ovf^i/M. — In many parts of the continent of Burapc^ M_ 
in vsllcya lying among bills, but occasionally in unhealthj n 
and nrbiui districts in all parts oT the world, a disease pret 
which combines the eitrcine of bodily defonnity and degeneracy 
with daficimcy of intcUeet. In Switierland and Savoy pi 
sn affidcJ are called pmiai, and in (Vance ca^oti. Tbe n 
ftstnrs by which Umy ara chiufly distiiigiiiBhod is the enlargi 
•it llie Uimnt. known as yoifr* or hroai-hocitf ; but to this ai 

■ sulyeot rf 

dial Jld^H 

ISO prev^^^^ 

toAlj detMi and defomitin are (opcrndiled. The ttatnre is 
dwaiffd, tbe betW Urge, the Ug* naaU. the hmd conical, thearcli 
rf Ilia ti»\ate high and Barrow, tLe teeth irregulnr, the mouth 
Itr^, the lipi thick, thu complvuon ullaw, the mice hinh and 
■brill, the apeerh thick sad indistinct, the eyea aqainting, the g-ait 
ft«ble and uniteady, the Kmal power weak, or wanting. 

Hie beat BatboriCies represent this phyiical dn^neracj, with 
tbe ooeriitinp mentnl deliciency, ■> commonly dating, with rare 
•loeptkiiu. from > period Bnbseqneut to birth. Abont the filth 
we siilh mODth, tbe bodily ile*o1npment seems to be checked. 
The child looks nnhealthy and seems weak-, the head is Urge, 
and it* bones widely separated ; the bellj swells and the limbs 
Arink ; teething tTxt* *"< ^^y slowly, nnd the child cannot stAnd 
«r tpeik till its fifth or siith year. Some cases are complicuted 
' distortion, some with hydrocepbilus. 
ims of this ^ngalar nlTuction are nsunlly divided into 
three ekines — cretini, semi.cretiDB, and the cretinous, or cretins 
af the third denree. 

- Tbe Br»t dan answer to the description of idiocy nlready given, 

frith the addition of tbe pccaliar deformity of the throat. Their 

Mh is aotomalici they have no intelligence; tbrar tenses are 

taM, or wlioily wanting; they cannot speak; their time ie spent 

in baskrnti in the «nn or ^tting- bj the fire ; and only the moat 

Mils of natnrc ronn their attention. They do not possess 

power of reproduction. The next class, or temi-cretlnti, sliow 

liigbar lntcllig«ncF. They can be taught to resd and to repeat 

lyen, bat without nnderstaiiding wliat they Isim; they have 

idea of nambers ; they note what pnraes around them, and use 

iUfpinge to eiproa their wants ; they remember common events. 

idenland what ia said to them, nnd speak intelligibly on com- 

00 niljeeta. Cretins of the third degree show glimpnes of a higher 
itnre, and can attain a certain degree of proficiency in mechu- 
eat nnployments and contrivances, in drawing, painting, and 
siie; bntBrithmetioisavery rare aeqiiimment. Tliey are said to 

1 acntely alive to their own interest, intrtmely litigious, unable 
muuge their alfain, but obstinate and unvrilling to be advised. 
Cnttns of the second and tblid degrees, if removed from their 
rtb-pliee early in lifi-, and put under jndicions superintendence, 
ay be grostly improved both in body and mind, and bci'unie 

memliers of society. 



becliity it shona iUelf in enrly liCui but in Jenientii it fn|IIP> 
venei slowly or luddeniy in « inind alrvoilj (nllj developed, and 
in ohildliood. manliood, or old age. It tli^vn also from mDnin, 
fijr it consisM in eiliHnstion nnd torpor of the &cultjei, not in 
violent and sustiiiued Eunloraont. 

The mental state in deoieatia ia beat described by the word 
tncoberence. There is also a form of mania erjually well described 
by the snine word j hut tlie incoherence of dementia ii marked bj 
languor, )bnt of mania by eicitement. It muat, however, be 
tmdorstood tlist the dumcoted are liable to miinlacal paioiysmi, 
and muniRCB to remlsuona of com para tivdy tranquil iocohe- 

Dementia is divided into aeale, or primaiy, and cArtinic, or 
tetnidaiy. The first form is rare, and coruiaU in a itatc of pro-, 
found melancholy or stupor; the second very nommon, Knd 
I'hHrHOtsriud by incoherence. There is also a Senile Dementia, 
nnd H furui of dementia associated with Qeneral Paralyus. 

There are al'o degrees or stages of dementia, which Prlcluud 
indicated by the worda forgettulnesa, irrationality. iiicomprehen< 
sion, and inappetcncy, A patient aulTeriiig from deinenUa, w 1m 
pnHed from W to Worse, would Srst eiiiihit want uf menwry, 
then loas of rcusoiiiag power, then inability to comprehend, wiU. 
lastly, an abolition of the common Instincts and of voUtiotu 

1. AaiU DemeHlia.— TIM form of demt1^lia which arise* tntm 
audilen menial shuclii often presents a distinct nnd very peculiar 
feature. — The mind ii, as it were, arrested and llxed C>r the re- 
mainder of life in sad abstraction on the one event which hail 
occarioned it : or the shock deatniys all mental power, nnd bringi 
ou a state limilnr la that of the imboule or idiot. 

D. ring the earthquniio panic of IS')3, we saw a case of de- 
nieiitia in a Ind twelve years oF age, bronght on by the alamlng 
converaition of a knot of Iriahmeu in the diuk of the evcnittf. 
The poor boy seemed deprived of all his Aicultiei, was dtdl and 
llstloa, and answered every inquiry by a vnciint smile. He bad 
nn DocBtional iccesi of terror and eicitemmt, hut soon relapsed 
into stupor. (U.) 

2. cironie liemenlia. — Tbia form may generally be traced to 
aouie antervdent acting giBduully on the mind, sncli aa prolonged 
grief or siiiitty ; to severe attacks of fever, mania, melancholia, 
npoplMy, paralysis, or npcaled 6.\s of c]rilcpay. In all these 
tasDt it may depend ou soneniiig or other chronic disease of tlic 
brain. It may b« inftrred from two melam-holy cases of TMwnt _ 
unmrrance that the inhalution of one poieuu^ius VH|<anr ■ 

methjl) an induce in liodthy n» 

iDg i^dualljr into tbe most hopeleo dementia. 

. SniU IltmeHtia,oi tliHt wbicli 19 incidental tossed persons. 

timple and well-marked rarm of tlie dsmcntiu whicli arises 

from CBOset acting ilowlj and graJiialiy. Tliu firit Hj-mptom 

ii impuml memorir of recent event*, with dulness of pcroeptiini 

itmd apprehcuuon, and an inability to fli tho attention, or foliov,- 

anj train of tliuught. The tbiiigs heard five ininutifs since are 

Ibrgottcn, and the same qnestion is lepested again and again. 

Bencc, the tntnsactioa of buaiuen reqairing sustaiued attenUon 

become* imposaible. The control of tl;e will over the thooghta 

brcoming more and more enfeebled, the rea«ming powers anffer ; 

lorsciireeljBre the preiniMcs laid down before tliey are forgotten, 

that the act of compuiiaon bj which tbe conclusion it arrived 

cannot be )>erformed; and ictrr punning the same topic of 

nTcmtian through part of a sentciiee, tome accidental sng- 

stion tanu the idcHi aside. Pertons so affected know their 

ktteadauta and i-ecoguisc their friends, but tlie; seldom display 

rigai of emotion on seeing tliem ; and they can ttill employ them- 

jelvea mechanically,— mcu in writing, and wonioti in knitting and 

.aeirrng. Tbe next pbnsa of tbe malady is one of complete Inoom- 

lon. Memory, reason, and the poner of BtteatiOD are eo- 

Hrely lost; but tlie muscular force remaias intact, and displays 

perpetual activity, in jampiug or running lo und fro, or 

ronrid in a circle, or rocking backwards and forwards in 

ehair, dandng, singing, ami shouting, or in lalking or muttering 

lecmntly. Many, liowever, sit sil«nt and tranquil, or with a 

-■ -'- ' g (tnre, for Hceki, monlhs, or even years. A few 

in one nneasy posture, or they stand erect with 

neck rigidly Siod at right angles to tbe body. Some disphiy 

' te dolonona. In the last stage of all, e\-en thu animal in'- 

are lost; there is neither sensation, memory, thought, nor 

but bate physical eiiitente; with occaoonally, at distant 

\t, a short resuscitation of some of the mental powers. 

4. Oferal Paralftia (farwu).— Tbe wcikened sUte of the 

tbia interesting form of dementia shows itself in niott 

dsluuona of unlimited power and boundk-is wealth ; in all 

We decay of bodily and mental power. Among llie surly 

ma are n^lect of duty, a restless and wandering disposi. 

lU commisBton of petty thofta. Indecent eiposnre of tbv 

acts of citnivagancu, and a andden change of opinion and 

tnonl and religious. The disease is rnre in womtn, 

I of «diiealion and position ; and it generally 






9 or Misn, 

ibowi itself iu wliijta oC middle age — tiom tliitly to iixty. Um 
taiuH ure iatcmpcraDce, uiual excsHOt, tlio uiiietiei uid undue 
mentid liiboun of the active and stirring period of lite, and 
bereditarjr t^t. ThR mental deTect ii lomelimea recDgiuMd 
before thL' pnraljBie, tomctimei with it, and tometinies the tpinal 
marroiT i« flrat atfectcd, IheD tbe itructnrc and fUnctiaiu ef the 
bnin. ltd dnrHtJim i> usaally staled Rt from a few mOBtlu to 
ttiroe yean. The paraljtiu nymptoms ihow themu'Ivn fint in 
tbe tongue, lipi, and features. The articoUUkm is lie^tatin^ and 
indixtiact ; the lips, tongue, and moHlea of tlie face are tremu- 
lous and quircring ; the pupilaare often unequally dilated. TLen 
the moKlis of the UidIh are affected. The patient tripa, 
dtumbtci, and itaggers, and cuii iiii longer perforni lucb oom- 
hined muecuhir mavenientB as playing on musical inatrumenU, 
writing, and lewiiig. Thete paralytic aymptcmu go on inareai- 
ing, and, ut length, the iphinctera cease to act. and it ia out uu- 
eommon for death to happen from auflbcation in the act of 
Bwalloiting food. Oeouional fits of violence and of epilepsy 
occur U) vary what would otherwise generally prove a gradual 
dncont towards death, with iucreasing wenlcneuand helplesaiiCH. 
At the lost, sloughing bed-aorea, and attacks of diarrheea or 
piivamonia cloae the weno. One ooCewortliy and cbaraeteriatic 
leuture of the mohidy ii tbe change in tlie eiprenioo of tlie 
eunnlcnance in an early itage. Tbningh the r^aulion of tlie 
muiclcii the wrinkles of the face disappear, and the patient 
H^elns to liavc grown yonngor; but at a Inter stage, tbe face 
beoomea curiously wanting in eiprvosioD. fiot to the last tba 
menial chamcl^i istiM remain tUe same, and the last multered 
winds arc about " gold, and carriages, and millions of money."* 
The Ggurei auneied (see neit page) represent Uio early and 
udvsnnd >tngc of General l^rulyiis in a gardener, set. 38. Tbe 
inisfoiiduGt of a dnugbter had brought on a vlate of molanduily 
which lusted for ■ fhrtnight, at tbe end of which time he be^n 
to uwiit that he wu the king, tliat he was in hie palace, wtJcb 
was made of gold, and that he had a million oT money. His 
memory hiled him, he did not know the month or year, hia 
Kptoch wu alightly impaired, but his walk was lolerahly ftm. 
Fig. %7 was taken a month after the appeaiauce of tbeae aylnp< 
toma, and Qg. 'iH after the lapse of another mouth, when Uie 
ditraie liad made uiueb progrcus, as was shown by the in 
emhanasamcut of hia ipeoeb, Ilie nvBrly utter lou of a 
• L.Utjrt: qBM*4 by Hsudsl*! Inhu- rbyunlogyu 

tottering psit (for be oould icarrelf wbIIc at nil), saJ, i 
iiitlniliDg 1 very goud appetite, his npiJ emaciation. 


Legal Selatitnu ofDenenlin, — Ilementui iaa comman lut^ect 
f the inquiry de liuuilico. A dmiented peraon lapws into 
'iil< of nuDCHK eitnvagincc, and the inquiry liiu for its object 
imrtiuii wbethcr he ii Me to nunuge his affitin, and if not, 
« vlwt date the inrmpaidty hiu eiiated. Tliia iniguir;, diffi- 
I in itcelf, it made man euibainimug by the Etrong nval 
iftita which alwBj* gron up aroand periaru of Ihis ctiist. 
A qanUon frequently rained reepecting this fono of uimouni]' 
rtlatM to the validity of iviUi muda or alleml by penuns 
«d tu be ■nfl'oriiig From leiiili dpioenlja. The inquiry ia 
^^^ mllj one of considerable difficulty ; for anch perMiis vary 
Jimtlj from dny to dxy, aud present themaelvea to diffKrvat 
bnrrera iu difltrent light*. Accordingly there is room for very 
Alcting tntitnony, and wide divergeuces of opinion, both 
BIiNig miskilled and iliilltid witue^aea; and the legal deciiion 
' 'mataly tumi uiuch moie on the character of the will iticll 
ila couaanimcj, or otherwibe, with the known intetitioua 
p* of the tntalor at an earlier period ofhia life, ind with the 
aatnnl iMlinga of pcrmni of laund intellect, tlian on thi 
■Hdkal or other evidenre mpecting hit mentnl condition. 

(iMicrBl pukljaii. in any degree, afiordi b atrDDg pTctnmplioi 
d^init the compelenrj of the aatyvet of it, implying, aa u ver; 


^eaersl rale, eniggrercted ideu of wealtli, and indbility to nuke 
a rensoDible un of money. 

The rcapoiiiibility of tbe demented fnr acta wliieh In the unc 
arc Crimea will be coosiderod presently. 

TbU torro Indudoa all the forma of nnaoundQeas tint aro 
clinnKterixed by undue excitement; and tberefore di<tbn in a 
marked manner from thosu already deacribed. There U no 1eg!i1 
term in comman me which properly cluiracteriica this «Iat«i 
niid one of its moat important Idrmi, moral inaanity, ia ea yet un- 
recogniaed by the law. The only le^c-il term employed in a eenie 
nnulngouB to that of mania ia Ittnacg, which, ai alnnidy re- 
marked, ia otijectionahle from being founded on a variable featnre 
of the dlaeaw. 

Tl'ere are three forms of Mania (lable, p. 168] ; General, la- 
ttlltelual, and Moral ; and eiieh of the two latter has two anb- 
dlviaione — Qeneivt and Portia (. 

Gtnerrtl Mama, — -Tbia form afibcta the iutelleet, the ema- 
tiona, and the paaaiona, and throws tbe whole miud into a atate 
of mingled eiciument and confoaion. It ia the counterpart of 
the iuuoherence of dementia, and tho form which, in aome catca. 
mania aaanmea tVom tbe very fint It would be correctly deag- 
liat*^ by tbe phraae "raging inooherencc." Thero la another 
form liable to be confounded a'ith this, on the one bund, and with 
tuonomania on the other, but which, wheu carefully examined, la 
foond tJ) be a gvnenil □naoundneu, t ' ' 
aome predominant emotion or paasion that takoa tlie li 
unioand, a« it had previously done in the sound mind 
jifanja, whatever form it auumea, uulea it be the i 
ronsoqacnce of injuries, moral ahocka, intoxintioii, ]im>ooing, or 
Hoat« disenae, ia commonly preened by iaipiirtiint bodily and 
mental clinngii, which take place gradnally. oumpying^a vanahio 
(leriad of time, from a few dnya, to IS ur £0 years, and ia known 
U the period of iimlialian. 

When the period is abort, tlio diaeaac ahows itieK at the end 
of aome honra or days of aniiety, unoaalueas, and depre^DD. by 
boulaebe, aleepleasiien, and eicitemcnU 'I'lie patient bcgina to 
babble, cry, aiid «ug, becomes wild and ugitated. and appvon 
Ilka s petaou iutoiicuud. When the period of incubation ia «• 
toaded, the ditcBfe generally commence* with a conaciouaMaa on 
the part uf tbe fialient of tome disorder in hla mental fknilttti^ 

d changing ar " ~ ~ 

la TBiaed at tbe cbaiig 

and trie* to conceal il 



1 >Tiil, like It man in tbe Bnl itage of ii 

makca gnM cffiHit to appear r^awiiiable. Meanwhile Ilia liealtli 

gtjet WBj. Hia ilee)! ia diiturbed ; he loses tleth aad appi^titu ; 

wad mitten from indigntian nnd constipntioQ. At the aame 

Ume, > great cbiDge takes plere in his tnatce, hablU, nOectioni, 

|> end cbnncter, and in hU BpUtado for busiueu. If he wai gay, 

r'tfnmmnnicBtive, and social, he becomes «ad, moroae, and nverK to 

r nciety ; tear* and laughter incccfil each other withoat apparent 

I if open and cauilid, he becomes iuipicloui and jealcui ; if 

f nuderata in hia political and religion! opinioiii, he panes to nii 

J extreme exHj^ration in both ; if alTuctuuiatoly attacbod to wife, 

Wltiildren, and relations, he regnrde them witb indifferencu or dia- 

i if he was order); and economical, he becoiuee conFoaed and 

' i if correct in couveraation, his tangfuage becomes vio- 

It uid obareno ; if obaite, or muderaie in kiubI indnlpence, he 

a of iiiaatlable desirea, and either aeclu to 

X with tbe other wx, or has recourse to diigracefal prac- 

a first attack, the nature of the change ia migonder- 

jiut to bim which harass and pain him, or 

lie is irritated by offendre iniinuatioiw and frivolous accusations : 

d when,Rt Icnpb, be brents out into Airioua mania, the attack 

■ attribnted to lome canse quite inadequate to produce it. 

r The period of Incubation pasted, and the disfaie full; esta- 

~, the oieatul and physical plienomena nudergo a clinngi!. 

« patient ha> faith in his deluNons, and instead of concealing 

b tbongbls, openly and strenaonsl; afoni them, except when 

1 bj powerful motives to a contrary course. When 

twuted and opposed he nses the most violent, obscene, and in- 

lUng language. Nor doea hi« violence always spend itaelf in 

mis, for he tear* his clothes and bedding to pieces, and inHicts 

£lj Injury on himself and those about bim. The pbydcnl de- 

it displays itself in a fluabed fac«, a wild sparkling eye, 

t, wfigbl and faddiness in tbe head, rin^cing in the ears, re«t- 

Ms* and sl«epie«neas. Tbe pntieut is also nngnlarly inteti- 

i« to odd and beat, and either abitaiaa from food and drink 

•tag long intervals of time, or eata vorarionsly. His muscnlar 

« i* inonUnately develuped, and hu lostains for a long time. 

] ilttf, a EUCc»sion of efforta which wonld soon utterly 

banat a ballthy person. Hit habits arc olten most diiguating 

FThe appearance of the uwniac duiing the fits, and in coinpnra- 
«ly Innqoil anJ IniU intervals, it well shown in the nnneied 
1^ of whieb 6g. 29 shows nu cnileplic maniac, set. GU. in n 

Orttml JfUlXtettial 3fr»ui.— The opioion is gniniiig ground 
tbat BMiiU it in lU oues primarilj M) euiotioiul dlwaw, lod tliat 
tlio iScclion of Uie inlidlect Lt Kcondarjr. But there is certainljr 
one clua of atet iu wbkb the diirue appean to he BlmiMt 
Itiuitcd to the criuesi whicli irc the fporc of stnnge ilIaBana, oi 
to the intellectual fncallir*, proiierW to oallnd. Of the fint d 
HO have at Iis-ist thrtv pi'A eiainptet iu the eaUmable gi 
of ArgOB, iuiiiiortnliteil by IIoi 
" Qui M cwMal mil 

ulOBona, or 

^hefimdovi ., 

n his fluiriBfl'^ 

in itnather at Abido* mmtioned by AririoCle. %oA in t1i# p 
iif "rnltc^ rank" wbmn Kr Henry Ilalfjrd nw in his Auitaeif 
[iialrr> ■ml linnl ' call upon Ut- tiirrick to virrt himtelf in 
the prribmwncc of UamlcL" In Uhso laiu it ii Ulinod thai 
tbew mixed illiulanf of nght aoit bniing, looked Djnn u real, 
auislitnced the whole of the nncoandoDB. Of tile •eoonil eloB « 
bir «au»plM nifclil aim br tonnd, u in • jfnitlcnua aho thuufifat 
MnHtU wcrsUiy lo Ute bkiod. hot does net Mm to haoe <wT)e4 
In* DBMiaailiKM Isin mbluniry aSaln. 

Rqt than 1* aTtsUity * my ilMiiicI and well-narl«il ekM< of 
(■M* wroocly regarded m inteUectual, bot ^ " ' 





em«at oF tome strong emo^D or panion, ancb ni pride, 

« mnbition. Thai Ur. Ueid telli lu oF ■ vnin j'onng 

■ mmliisl Mudent, ivIki, expecting Co reiliie a tbrtune by sttiiiaing 

P'Wudcmical honoora, i^tereU hiinulC at C4mbridge, hiiU »a ii^^ircd 

' *■ LMlf.h by FruiileM iipplioiitioii to EtuJy, na at lengtli to Fall 

to > liMto of ilucidnl daniTi^meiiC, alleiiing tbut be was the 

Lr&ae Heraulea; hud wrilteii Dr. CUrlie's Triiveli iii Uiiisla ; 

id eompoMd tbe jCiioid of Virgil ; hid punted oiiu oF tlie mHi- 

M of Rafliielle, >iid knew vierything . 

Ur. Henry Jahnun, in his work on the BTmnfement anii 

Dciidattira of Menlil Ulaorderi, aUo givea tlie highly chnrac- 

pteriaLio tntter oF bu ambitiuiu patient who cUimed the wnieivhRt 

titles of chmnpion ami king uF Euglaad, aud heir 

' pmumplivR to the crown, at tlie tame time that be woitopuliuKi 

mil Lhe prindpul officw of ttate. 

The «ototeogm]ihy, already poferred t", of i> gontleuinn who 
L fcki] racorered Iruin an attaok of munia, ahowe how gnaeral waa 
I tfaudiaturbmice of the whole intellectual and moral lieing; though 
a religioua ehsuai.'ter, the case 
Kadgbt bare been desciibol aa one of Teli|^au» luonoinunla. 

(imcnl intellectual mania conaiala, tlirn, in many caaea, in a 
rat diatarbance of all the iiitclleelnal fiictilties brought about 
f tlif ovar-excitemeDt of eome one leading eiuoUon or piiiaioD. 
farliat lulelUctxat Jfaaio.— This wnt ivllvd mehiuclialia, 
M miataluiti noUon tbut auoh partial alTecliuna of the intel- 
t aliraya of a gloamy chnrictet. Bat Etquirol ahowed 
bat locb peraoni hare often eitremoly gay nnil pluaaant ideaa, 
nd •nbatitnted the term moooDinuia, now gunerally renrived. 

Tike aimplesC fonn oF tbia disorder ia that in which the patient 
takei op aoine one aotioa opposed to common aeiue and aniveraal 
•xptrience. He ia aecretary to the mogu, lhe Crysttil hiUrv, a 
gnlnof wheat, a goose-pie, a pitcher oF oil, a wolf, adng, oracut. 
In many easea, thia tingle delusive idea rektea to, or is occa- 
le aanaatioii or disease, which the monomaaiac, like 
■Muciatea Mitli imaginary nccompaniments, and 
la by the aid of b(a delusion, 'iltoa. Gequirol lells ds oFa 
a having hydati<la in ':he woinb, who insisted that she was 
t with tbo devil: of another, wIk> having adheaions of 
\\am after oiironic peritonitis, imsgined that a regiuient 
t ky ounnaled in ber belly, straggling and fl^thting; 
* third, wbo, BUlTiiring io the same way, believed that the 
ea and evangeltaU had token np their abodf in her bowels, 
1 WON occatioually rl«it«d by the Pjp« aud Ibv patriurcliB uF 
• Old-" 



h'shness of (okd. 


u wiM^^H 

It ludi deluuoDs a» these, tbongh ori^nallj foauded a 
ly conliuDG atler the beosittionB themwlve 
paued aws]-, u U proved by ibc curea tLat hnve beeu h 

bj a laudable tpedei of deCTplioo. Tliiii, ■ patient, t' 

tbnt a KTpeDt had been extracted from hi) bovek by a prctcndad 
surpical ojieration, look up the idea tbat the creature had left its 
ova behind, ready to b« batched into a brood of young ones ; but 
vat reusured by the deiteroni reply, that the make na* a malt!. 

But inch cases of parlinl intellectnol inania do not comptiie 
»\1 tliose designated as moiioMaiuti,- for in moat inatanre* the 
mentui aSecUon goes beyond a ^gle innne idea, and influenrea 
more or le« eitenovely the thooghti and the conduct, bdog 
marked by other intellectual and moral iDcoiuiitendn. 

Moral Mania. — It waa Finel who Smt recognised tJiia form of 
inianily, the diieaw having been previously considered ■■ either 
exclusively, or chiefly, a malady of the reasoning faculties. He 
found, to bii great surprise, tliat theie were at the Biejtre man; 
numiaca " who betrayed no lesion whatever of the UDiierstaniUng, 
but were ander the dominion of initinclivu and abstruct fury, ai 
if the afTective bcultie* alone hail sustained injury." This he 
called DUHiie ntnj tUUn. Tlje reality and great importance of 
tills distinction between inteilectnkl and moral mania are now 
nniverMlly reongiilaedj and with it tlie further fact that moral 
generally precedes inlellecttlal, insanity. Priehard, an able 
writer on this subject, deflnca morn] mania <is " a morbid perver- 
nou of the nntumi ftelinfrr. nffcetiuni, inclinations, temper, habiti, 
and moral diii|ioiilJonE, witlioul any notable lesion of the intellect, 
or knowing and reasouiug faculties, and particniarly without aiijr 
maniacal hallucination." 

Mora) mania, like ibe intelleotnal farm, tniiy be either gevrmi 

Oraeral Moral Mania, — Priehard observes that there are 
many panous living at htrge in sodety who are reputed to be 
■ingnlar. wayward, and eccentric. An attentive obserrer will 
neojpiitii something remarkable in thar manners and habits, 
vhich may lend iilm to doubt their unity ; end oncn on inituii; 
hi* tn^idons are stmngtliened by Hnding that ui hereditary 
tendinH^ U> mudneu wltta in the family, tliat several uf the rela- 
Uoiw have UUnirod under other did'ases o( the liniin, or that the 
individual hiiuwlf has fbrnicrly bod a dcddcd attack of madnasa. 
Ills temper and (Uipasilian are found t« hnve changed j to b« 
nol obal they were prvtioua to a certain time ; and the change 
nuy [lorliipg he traced to a t«riod wUvn hv luid o reverie of fbr- 
luue, or lutt >oui> beloveil reUtive. or siulxiiinl sumo surcrc am- 


■UtuttMul ihoclc, aome Febrile or ioBftmniatorj dinrder aU't'ctinf 
the bmin. • tlig:lit attack of pnbv, or a Ht of epilepsy. Id some 
CMC*, the nlteralion in temper and habit* lina been gradnnl and 
iitipiin'cpliblo, and waevta to have consittot merely in on exalU- 
tiOD or increaae of psculiaritiei alnraya more or leM natural nilit 
lialritDiil. Tliese penoiu are capuble of raiBoning or inpportitig 
■n argument on any subject withiu their sphere of Itnonledje; 
•Dd tbey often diipUy great ingvnnity in justilying nud eipUiu- 
'~g tliEir feeling nnd conduct. lu one sense, indeed, tlieir 
tellectual feeultie* muy be termed unKnind ; tbey think and 
t niuler the inHaeacc of tiia lame «tronglj<>ex<nted feelini^ 
ramler »ne pei»oni proverbially liable to error bulh in 
ent and conduct. 

rbaner, too, recogniica thia moral form of mania. " It is 

' he sayi, " that mania may e^iat anoom plicated with 

I deluwm; it ii, in fiiet,only a kind of Riental eialtation 

■il), a ftate in wbieb the reston ba» lost it> empire over the 

u and the actiooi by wliicb tbey are manifected, ia such a 

e^ that Ibe individoal can neither rcprea* the fanner, nor 

n tfota the Utter. It don not follow tliat he may not bu 

* hi* aeuK*, and even of his umal iotelligpnce, 

.a order to reuit the impulses of the puniun*, it i* not inffi- 

ll tlut the reaaou thotdd iaipnrl its counsela, — ire mmt hate 

ceaMry powar to obey tliem." Esqnirol not only recog- 

;fai* form of niuonndnera, but even ivunt ao thr ■■ to declare 

i Bllcnatiou to be tiie proper cluinicleristic of menial dc- 

additig tbat though " there are mndmen In nhoiti 

m difficult to Snd any trace of halluciuatioo, there are none 

irioni and moral aOk^na are not perverted and 

i Monl inaanity i* illnstrated In the worka of Prichard and Itiy, 
yiBvenlatriking-eaara; the moot remarknUe. perhnpi, beine that 
^n«deridt William of Pruiaia, father of Frederick the Qreut. 
n^and imnking hypocliondriae, and the strange, H'nywnrd, 
icl tyrant of bis fnmily and lionwhold. Hii religious 
iff, hia diagnating and brutal bebuviooi to hia children, 
imided hatred of his own son, iind repeated attempt* ou 
a, his one attempt upon hia own life, hU courae of tteady 
d nnnterving pcrK«ation of the innocent otijccta of hii soapidon 
d dialilie, without any delualon beyond that nhich mi({1it falrty 
I rtfirdcd » the oifiprlng of his hate — present a itriking 
~ -e of gemiml monl mniils. 

iwlili^ givca OB aa " Ilie eitremeit cianiple of moral in- 
• Tlie*PhiilolegJWiilP«b(ilt«jo(il.i!M!ud.>. ai7. 





uoitj" hf hnt lecn, the case of nn olil man. ict. 69, vlio 
been in one iu.vIriii nr uiiullier far SReea >vHrB. He bud ^ent 
intplleatnul |>atrer, cCiiild compoie wall, write tolerable puetr; 
with miifh llcenc}', anil w» an ekcetlent keeper of accouuU. 
He hnd no delwioti, bnl " tnorallj he wm utterly dqiraved." He 
would iteal tiiiil bide wbut«ver l>e i-ouli), mid aeveml timei eicaped 
from tliK wylntD with miirvellDns ingenuity. Ha then pnwned 
wliat be li*d stolen, begged, nnd lied with such pUnsibility th*t 
be deceived iDRny people, until he got int« the hnnds of the police, 
nr KM Ibnnd in i wretched >tate in the wont einnpanv in tha 
wont P*>'t of town, Ito had been teveral times in priHm Ibr 
BtcBliug. In tlie nnylum be whs most troubleaome. cunning, 
pUnwIile, and Ireacherons; HliDBi%-e. fDal, nnd blaephemDns ia 
language; drew indecent picturei, and ru guilty of most in- 
decent acta. At long intcnnla. cometinies of two ycar«, be fell 
into profound inelnnchnl)' for two or three months, ri'fuicd food. 
and tvu si plainly inuine aa any patient in the nsylum. " In 
short, he had no uioral sense whatever, while all the fanlt that 
could be found with bia very acoIB inteUect was, that it was en- 
tirely ciit^cfJ in the service of bia depravity." 

Partial Moral Mania. — This consisti in the intense nclivlty of 
some one paraiou or propensity, and its predaminmicc or I'oniplete 
mnstery over every other. The jiemani ao nSecled are usually 
porfefttyciinsrious of their mndition. and either evince the utmost 
burror at the conduct to wbirb their ruling pHSsion would impd 
tbem, ai'd with difficulty restrain ihemulre*, or they give way, 
R> if in d«]ieratimi, to the impulse. 

There ia no strong impulse of our niiinre tlint may not be that 
placed, by morbid cucitrmi-nt, beyond the restraii 
itnwdenre. Tlie fuUu»in^ forms hib now gene 
and have rccrivvd distini't nHuiesi — Kleptoman 
l^rominia, Dipconiania, f!uiciilal Mania, Uoniiddal Mania, these 
Hvof apcelil intortnt to tlie public and the legislature i but Uiei« 
■rv many othto' distinct vurielia, tome marked by extreme de- 
pTmlDD, and otiien by grrat exdtt>infut, which have heva rlaBcd 
UoAnt the two lipads of MtlanrAolia and Etallalion, the Drat 
cnroprislng the Ilirco ipedea, hypochondriasis, nostalgia, and r«- 
ligluus doiatlr ; the accond. cxccaave pride, vanity, or ambitjon. 

Klrplomania or propmrUy to ttr/l.—Titu is of Common occur- 
runc« in prnons placed bj their wealth bejond the reach of 
vulgnr ttmjitalinn ; women Unng wore aulyect to it than men. 
[t la also B roinnion fi'alun' of imlieoility and at mauin, and rBi 
Inuideiil of innnlaiut paruiytin*. Ppichard mL'itt 


lud I 


ruadman wito won]*! ncv«t est )iis food unless be I141I 
•vionilj atolen it. 

~ ' r dinonniji noijimt. — ThU iliBoue, known u 

WjTiwu when it *tUcki meni und Sgiaphomania wben it 

• afflict* v' - - - - 

d pnHloni with hoimr nnd n 

•■a, or propmrily to iiweiidiariiin. — Thii, in common 

e (VcijuGnt in women than in men, 

iatif in jonng girla subject to meoatruHl suppression or dU- 

It is also very common in the imbecile tramps who 

Eeit our nr»\ <)iitticts. 

'0 ilerire for drink, in some cases enn. 

n others iutennittent, is a well-rec<^i>ed form <tf un- 

y be part of a more general unsoundness, or the 

» of all the minlfcstBtians of ausoundneas the patient 

Ho is perfectly rational when not undur the inflaeace of 

StiMal iTonomaiHa. — There it mach diSiTpnce of opinion 

ai to th« n»l mental state of self-murderers. Tlie fuet of suicide 

fcariog been geuentllj' practised and sonctioned by philosophers and 

lai^vera of post times, and of being still in common use in nations 

vhiub have attained in nuny respects a high ciTiliiation. sncti as 

Cliiaa and Japan, bns led some to the belief that it is not always 

tha raanit of an insane impulse. The calm and delibomte manner 

ia which the act is ofteD set about, anil the plausible reasons 

nee, have led some to doubt whether .suicide 

i alwsli an act of madness. Those who recognise a " folie 

It have seen coses such as that which recently came 

V oar own notice, of ■ yonng man who had displayed high 

rata, Bod achieved great distinction both at school and college, 

■rnilig a series of abortive attempts at suicide with one success, 

aibJDg his own mental state in terms of singnUr clearness, as 

» to which we ran attach no better epithet tlutn mtntal 

f (G.), will nnt attach much importanoi to this duubt ; 

il th«y will find a better renson for believing it to be, at least 

nally, independent of inanity in the RwH, that in France 

« penont often cunihine tat the porpoee of aelf-destmetion ; 

n of purpose being Hitremoly rare in the case of the 

Our own eipcricnce of snicide lesrls us to believe tliat it 

I* oft«n the result of d sudden impulse, on very slight provocation, 

of pmoDi not prcvionsly depresed in mind. (0.) 

Hm Migument diawn from national nsage in andent and 
* " • - - , (jj^ ^jjQ would hatltij 

tbnrmtenui un Engliali widoir who ahoQld bam LprMlf on t 
deatb of hor busbund, u insane? tbangh sncli wlf-ncriSca * 
tiU recentlj a Uiiditble ciutom in India; or tboogh mat 
HvngBs Bit bnmxu lleab, look upon the «cC of the French womttl 
who killed ber child, cooked nnd ate paxt of it, nod ofkreA tba 
disli to her husbnnd, aa anything but a atrong evidence of in- 

A careful conslderalion of recorded casea of nticide mait lead 
to thx coQclniion, tbat very many are the result of iniuie im- 
palie, a coucliuion strengthened by the frequent attempts at kV- 
deatraction made by some inmate* of lunatic luyliiras. TIi* 
ilranga modea of death tometimes selected might also be urged 
as an argoment iu favour of the insane origin of snidde. It 
may be added, that anch high anthoritiea aa FoderS aiid Etqdral 
have strongly uuiintaiued the necessary dependcnoe of aoidde i 

Bomicidat Sfaaia. — The best authorities, botli at home ai 
abroad, have rocoguiaed this fonn of mcutal unsoundnea^ as 
having an eustence independent of dvlnsion. I'be recorded a 
are now very numerous, and comprise instances of sucoewAil 
reaiatanoe M the impulse, volnntary gnhmiasioo to restraint^ 
ftilure. Wameo seem to be more liable tbnn men to tbia fbrn of 
moral mania, even if wo ut apart soTiie cases of infiinUcida ai 
special inalaucea of it. Women angering from grief or aniie^, 
from hahitnal discharges, at the menstrual period, at the dunge 
of life, and soon after delivery, are tlirawn into a peci " 
nerrona state, known as nuRioni inquiela, uliii'h is sometimes 
accompanied by a strong impulse to crime, with an overwhelm- I 
ing dread of giving way U> It. I 

Putrperal 3ta»ia. — This is named after ila cause, and not I 
after any leading symptom. It attaclis Kouiea who bave been I 
recently conHned, generally at some period between the Brat 1 
lodiliDg of the cliilU and the last ahow of the lochia, aad ia | 
•omeCimn occasioned by the eupprcssion of the secreljoua of 
breust or womh, but sonetinies also in consequence of ciceaalTa 
kctatioii or profuse vn^nal diachargp, of great weakueas how- 
ever induced, or of want of sleep. The disease ia rare before 
the third day, and meet commoa between the Itfth and Sfteeutb. 
The sympttims may be those of any of tlie Icadiog fbmu of un- 
sooodnew,- in many case* tbero is a strong homicidal tendency, 
and tlie child falls n victim to a audden impulse, there being na 
awignable or imnginahle motive, no concealment, and often no 


atatsd, three principal forms of meUncholio, all clisnicteriied by 
profound wdness : hgpoeltoitilruuU, conaiiting in a itcBponding- 
view of tba condition of the bod; nod of tbe health, ottcii, bnt 
tMt alwnyB, bated on uncax; bodilj lenaatiooB and ilisord^rs of 
th« dimstiTe organ* ; iioitalgitt, or on intcuie longing tor coantry 
and borne; und feligiout detpair. The eitretne tana of melao- 
diolii, avociated with Bome terrible delaBion. in which the 
patient ia Hied in one poaltioa, like a atatae, liiu been distia- 
gmahed *i mtlanchotia atlonila, 

EzaiUitioii. — Thia opporite »f melancholia prevails ia those 
who exalt in the belief that the; are pouessed of greiit personnl 
■ttraetion, gicat power, great dignity, great iavanCivo faculties, 
or great iirqoota of benevolence. 

Helaucholia and eiHltation somotimes alternate in the state 
patient with some approach to cvgnliuity, conatitQting the form 
of uiuoandneas to which some French Nuthars have given tbe 

Ca<» also abound, both inrido and ontnide of onr nsylums, 
«liich munuit the use of a larger voenbutory of terms — cases, 
fbr iiutaun). io which a Ijing or begging propensity, or a strange 
pleunre in tbe act of giving or spending mono;, is quite as 
I dtnply morked as n thieving propensity iu those designate as 
■. Nor a it possible to omit the remarliablD re- 
if lyynthropi/, one of which (that of the soldiei' 
ad) oocurreJ not many yean ilnce in France, the violation 
( tlw gmre brang with him an inl«nnitt«nt insane passion, 
■Uch no lento of pcnonul danger was allowod lo diHtppoint. 
, The longings of pr^nnt nomon, carried to a strangi; excess 
c srha kiiled her husband, and pictled his body, to ent it 
dalty) ; ■ peniatent morbid deure to be haag^ ; and the 
g of children by th«r fathers or mothers with tho sincere 
IM of tending them to heaven, — might also be properly de- 
Iribed aadiitioctand well-dell ned fbrma of partial moral mania. 
I Of Maitia »iY4 Lucid /ii/'ira'/.— Mania, in many cases, 
SM a tvcurrent or intermittent form, tbe patient in tbe 
Tal b«ng in hia right miud. The proportion which (heiB 
N bear to those of coniplule recovery has been variously stated 

[ Ttw interval la varioiu. Eaquiiul has seen n qnoUdioa, tertian. 
~A qautoo type, nt well as tbe intervals of a month and of a 
. More fl^nentty tiie intervals and durations ol attacks ore 
nneertaiD. Thii reinrrent mamo, with intervals of coin pleto 
nl bo ponTonniM with tlioie periods of enmpnrntiri 
KKlBilliC)' which, like lulls in n stonu, occur in most ciuvs o. 

202 niisodNDSEss o? hind, 

nmnii, With regvd to mob intervals of comparaUve repiw 
HbiUhi remarka that, "ma conitant observer of tijis diaeue ft* 
more than twenty-five years, ho cannot affirm tbnt the Innalia^ 
with wbom he had daily intercourw, have inBnile<t«d altomatiOBi 
□f imnnity and reason. They may at intorvali become nun 
tranquil, and le«a diapmed [o obtrude their diitempered ttwim 
iuto DoHce. For a time their minds may be leu active, and tlw 
■uccenion of thor thonghta conseqacmtly more deUbente; tbqr 
ma; endeavour to effect tome desirable pnrpOK, and artfiillj con- 
ceal their real opinions; but thej have not abandoned or renounced 
tbeir distempered nationi." 

Tbe law generally views civil acts done in Inrid intercalt ai 
performed by a person In a pemianenlly sonnd state of mind; it 
ncknowledgcs the validity of villa mnde during auch interval^ 
and bat, in more than one case, admitted the reasonableneei of 
the will as prlior of a Incid interval. With regard to iriininal 
nets, it makes a ronsoimhle distinction ; for it justly regards tbe 
ulnditioD of uneouudueiB as one readily reproduced by pravoea- 
tioD or eicit«ment. The legal rclatians of tbe other foniis of 
maai* will be fully eonwdered in tbe following division. 


A biionleage of tlie leading cbnracteriatica of mental ansouiid- 
nen is of the tir>t iDipartance both to tbe lawyer and to the 
phyaiciaD, Without it a mere description of it* several fomtt 
wonld prennt but an imperfect view of the aulgect. It a pro- 
posed, thrrefDre, to cstablisb. by nppeali to facts, the mora 
remarkable phenotneni uf inent4d utisoundnesis as preliminary ta 
the discnnion of the oliief legal questions that arise out of that 
state ; and to prescribe, for the guidance of tlie mEdicil witness 
sncb rules as these phenomena shall be found to sngfreet fbr 
reci^ieiiig it, and for distinguisliing it from its counterfeit. 

0/ Ihe Charact^t itf UmoviiJiie'i of Mimt arUing from 

Drfeclivt Developmenl or Diminuhrd JctMly. 
The appearance of the idiot or imbecile ia ao peculiar tbit it 
scarcely requires to be conSrmed by an act^ual inquiry into hit 
mental condition. Difficulty in rousing and filing tlie attention ; 
slowness of apprebension ; forgetblnota of recent occnrrenca; 
ignorance of sodal relations, of lucb fimiliar things ns liia age, 
the plnce in wbieh he lives, the mode in which he pnases iua time, 
the year, tbe month, the day of the month'and week, and of tboae 
pab)ic persons and evenU which are the common lo^iei of con- 



vtnaKon *!th tlio»e wbo tak^an interest in tlie caminon oSain 
of tifc, «■ the Dame of tlie reigning mouarch. of tlie priino minis- 
ter. &K.; ■ acontj' ucqanintBiice wUti arithmetio and the value of 
money I on imperfnt knowled^ of right anil wrong, and of thu 
Uv relating to the Dint conimoa and Taaiiliar crimes j—mny be 
menUcmeil among the clmmetera of unsoundneBi from ilefectire 

In ordlnarf and citremc ciuei of imbecility there can be no 
ASpuUj' id dedding na the competeDCy of the individual to take 
mie of liii aSbim, to form contractt, to devise property; bat 
(rhera the imbedlity eii«t« in a leu degree, the quention is not 
4b nmplei and npcdslly when the subject of inquiry lias been 
■ntmaled with, or eonsalled about, the management of lili Hff^ira. 
Id all tach i-aie*, n compariwn of the eiisting with the fortnur 
■lAte of miud. auppliei a simple and obvious teat, which aeenig tu 
hare been atrangely orerlooked by medical men, (ill thu interest- 
IPS case of Mr. Edward Davie! gave Dr. Goocli the opportunity 
looting it nut, and insisting npon it* imparlance. (See 
irlerly Review,' 1830, and tbe first edition of this work.) 
'Bita of capacity nioally recouimended in cases of imbo- 
obviODsly insi^ciant to determine whether or not a man 
ipable of managing bis own property. The arithmetisnl test, 
"gh so much strvas has been bid, is a test of knoivleilge, 
powifr. A man muy be the b»t uccoanlant in the world, 
may labour nnder a moral imbecility, and huve >q mean a 
of right, M childish a fancy, and so weak a will, tliat from 
ige be may jield to everf impnlse, and gratily eiery 
mt once cnunting the cost. A patient of our own, 
we had been intimate for years, oweil pence as a child, 
at a boy, and added debt to debt with each year that 
orer bis heed, UU at length a severe disappiiintment 
distinct attack oF mania, of which a benevolent hut 
mission, violent ontbunta of {Husion, and fierce 
RRWigeinents to spend a year's income in e week, and 
undcd expectation of an immense fortune on Ihe morrow, 
ranatitnent parts. Ho cnrried with him to an asylum delu- 
l);h to furiiiiih a doien madmen, and died in the firm 
I that lie was the Saviour nf mankind. In this cate 
tlie cultivated and rellned intellect of s man with more 
Wcaknes nf a child ; but no lest cmdd have proved liitu 
if managing hlmtelf and hia affairs, save only Ihe hit- 
life. (G.) 

aiiial acts of persons of week intellect arc as itronttly 
folly a> llieir daily words and acUuua. Tliey have no 


cssotsBNEss or stisD. 

surer clunictera, and we no tiett«r tesl. But in thia ate, at fa 
thnC of numaa, tbc In* iniifU apon the tot of m knowledga »l 
riglit aud wrong, whicb a u inauffinent in criminll, M tiw 
BrithmeticKl ttat in civil caiea. It ia a tat oT knowledge, not of 
power { and tlie knowledgu of right, and the power to act wigfaC. 
an u diiCinct ns idenco and srl. 

C^ Ike Charaettn of Utuoa»dtiett nf Mind from Exemiee 

In tracing the marc prominent charanen of thia iliviiian, or, 
in olhoT words, of mania, th« term will be tued in its moat 
rat«nded aense as applied to tboae caeea (and the^ are the great 
mjgorily) in which the intellect, the affectiona, and the paariom 
are jiuntly impiicuCed, whether there be one delusion or many, ur 
merely aome one excited emotion or paiuion, the nnrce of • 
thoaannd changing funciea. Thi« inquiry will prepare the way 
for an axomination of the plea of insanity in criminal caaea — a 
aufaject of great intereat and importanw. 

1. 7« tnaSKi, coiHCioiifnets, menmrg, and reato* noy rrmaim 
ialaet, nen in the midri of Ihe mral tiolent paroxytmi. — The 
doctrine that mania is in all oiaea primarily an emotional discaae 
ia quite conaiatcnt with tliii propoaition. It ia qnite eoncdvable 
that the emotiona and painona may be aubject to the most aiotent 
excitement, constant or interaiitteat, and yet the patient retain 
tlie oae of renaon, a perfect consdoDaneaa of all the relatione in 
wliich he Btandi towards othera, and a rivid recollection of every 
occnrreuce in which he hai borne a port. It is true tliat in the 
actnal paroxyam of maniacnl excitement, there can be neither 
time nor place for acts of comparison or processes of reasoning, 
and that even conadcnce may lose all reatraining power ; bnt Ibat 
memory remains intact, evsn in tbe moat violent mniiiacal ont- 
barsts, there is no room to doaht. We were consnlted in the c«d 
of a lady who had been «a<Tcring from mania for many years, with 
ti^uent pnroiyema of entreme violence ; in one of which alia 
had deatrayed some valuable pnpers belonging lo her biubind ; 
and yet after the lapse of twenty years, during an interval of 
tranqnillity, alie reverted lo the occnrrence, and eipreased ber 
regret at wliat had happened. Wo have found similar evidence 
of accurate rccollectian in the antahiograpbies and rird-roM 
hiatoriea of convnlescenta from mania. (G.) 

Of the intact ciudition of the higliiM- mental flicalties in the 
maniac's more tranquil momenta no medical evidence need be 
tdduceil. It will suEBce to qnnte the words of Erskine, used at 
le triui i>( Hnilficld for shooting at Geovga III. in Drarj Lane 

cuia&CTEBisTJCs ot \ 


Tb«atra in 1800. " In aU tLe cuie^" be uya, " whidj liaie fill.'J 
Wettminlter H«U with thi- taott. complicated EOnaiUeraliuns, the 
lliDatin> Uld otlier iiiaane persons who luve beeu Ihe eubjecta of 
tbetn, tiNV« not only hid mcmor; i» nyimueo/iheexpmtion, — 
tbejr have not onlj had the luott pcrfeot knowlodgc nnit Tecollec- 
tiou oT all the relatione tbey itood in toniirds others, uiid uf the 
>cts *ud circuraatance* of tholr livei, bnt have, in gcnenil, bccu 
mnBtLaUe for nlbtlet; and acuteDCo. Defccta in their Teaaon- 
'iBg have aetdodi bran tnuenblc^ — the di*eMo cmuiating in the 
ddnnve teanxt of thought, — all their dedoctiom, u-itbin tbe 
•oopi of thrir malady, being fhaiided on the imiaoetalile asaump- 
UoB of matten ai reoliUti, either trithoat auy foandation n'hut. 
■rer, or iO diilorted and ^iflgured by Guicy, ai to be nearly tlie 
Muc thing a* thdr creation." 

The madman, then, reasona like other men, with tbia difference, 

that hij drlunoni being atronger than the imagiDationii of a nnc 

tHO, and hU panioni more violent, reaaon is more readily made 

t advocate of the oni; and the slave of the other; and thia ia 

ic of all the Sicnttiea of the mind, and even of the aennea. Hii 

po too strong even for them. 

^i. The teuKt an direrirtd aiul eoafouifled.—The author of 

• aDtotriography referred to at p. 171, auys : — " Uy acnies were 
K mocked at aud deceived, In reading, my eyes saw words an 

• paper, wliich, when 1 looked again, nerc not. The forma of 
~ w aronnd me, and their fcatnrea, changed eren aa 1 Icxilied on 

"I beard the vmovs of invi^ble agents, and iiotes so 
dlriuc ao yon, so holy, that they alone, perhaps, might recom- 
|ictiai; me lor many anffeiings. My aenw of feeling was not the 
■■mei m) ainell, my tuste, gone or conroonded." The conversion 
at bmiltar sounds, aiich aa tbe towing of cattle, the falling of 
water, ibe grating of a chain, tbe iiiuse of footctepa, into articolate 
qMcch, icaa not the lout remarkable fcatare of thiantott interest- 
ing and itistmcUTS case. Ulaaions of sight and hearing, and 
jllwdre Iriuafurmalions uf real eenmtioDs, art;, it ia well known. 
among Uie ninat gentm! occoiiipiimmenta of mania. 

3. Tit* JfnuM ^ ahirm l^t taatiiitau it mrrouitdtd dtriee their 
rilaraei wi from Him dcluion. — In the eyei of tbe autluir of the 
•tnobidgnphy the inmates of the aaylam and bis keepers were 
•Dpennloral bdngi. Tliere wua a maniac there whom liis spirita 
esiltfl the Lord Jeluivul), sniirtmel.v omnipotent, tbe Ti'inity in 
imity ; and he took onx nf tlie kippers to he the Saviour of mun- 
IdluL 11ie« same pcmii* nnderweut tbe alrHngeat transtbnna- 
Uon. and according to tlie atate of bis mind, were cither angels 



4. Seal impreitiom on the organi of teste beeoma, at fa 
dreamt, the material* r<f imagino/y trenei, — Thia carjotw pheiio- 
menoD, alui. ia itrifcingly illantrated in the ButobiagTa|i1i.v. 
The cold uir ))lo<*i on lum u be ii trjing to suffocate himaelf, in 
obedience Co the spirits that tpeiik withiu him : and he oonjuN* 
lip the Fpirit* of bb »iste™ cooling him with their breath, and en- 
Wnngln^ him to go through with his taai. The bmiliar Mnca- 
tioii of water trickling down the back i> mnverted into tbo cijital 
tenrs of hii flither, whose venerable countenance he leea bending 
over him. Hia shaven hi'ad suggests the painful notion tint li« 
has received the tonsure of the Roman Catholts prii>sthaod, ■ 
mark of the beast. The llaines in the grate become the otte- 
rnncc of his father's epirit, nriving within him to save him, and 
obliged to return to bell-fire, to be parified from the eontamiok- 
tion of hia foul thoughts. The lowing of the cattle omifeya to 
liim arttcoUto lonnds and sentences, and the grating of the ohur 
against the wail speaks to him in his father's voice. 

6. The tirange antiet of lie madman are tie rffrelt of JUi 
ittlvmiM. — The following paasagei from the autobiography fully 
Mtabliih this proportion: " I expected to be guided to pr«jer; 
bat a spirit guided me, and placed me in ■ chiur, In s conatmined 
position, with my head tnrned to look at tiie clock, the hand of 
which 1 saw prac^inj; lo thi! Hm quarter ; 1 undoratood I waa 
to leave the poaition ivlien it came to the quarter." "Another 
deluuon I laboured ntider wns, that I shoald keqi my head and 
licart together, and so serve the Lord, by throwing myself 
head over beets over every stile or gate I came to; the condition 
here was, as before, on its being done in jirfciaon and deciaitm'' 
A krapcr, in atrugghng with a patient, throws bim down and 
nearly atraiigtei him. " When I srw his bloated and inflamed 
checks, and the eyta aturttng out of the sockets, I oSbred to do 
anything to rescne him. Hy tpiril* desired me to whirl mysdf 
nmnd and round as fait is I could, which I did till 1 alaf 
igiinat llic will, and nearly fell on the stone pKvement." 
hut quotation suggests the corollary thut 

0. TAr madtniin'i /leU, tht rfttillt of hit Mvaient, am M 
nv latf ma* nvkU MitmfilUd lo compni* the obfoti in vi 

7. Tin riolrnix if the madmiin u oflen Iht sjferf itol ifl^ 
pattion tvl <f Au dtlinoa, — " 1 knew no malice," asys * 
HBthor of the autobiugraphy, "no rice. 1 imagined Uiat tbey 
(tbo kcepcn) loved me, bdiI wore nil deeply Inlereeted Id tha 
■Ivitlnnof mj'sanl.Kud I iaiagined, too, (hat I loved tbetodeM^-, 
Yet I vrmtlvrl with tbo keepers, and offemi to do so with at'' — ' ' 
uTid atracb niuny hard hluwsi K>metime«, as one Inrormad 


it difficult for three strong; men 

r I did tbu. I wiu oommanded, tlint the)' wiblied me 

1, to prove iDjr tnith nnd connige, but that tlivy were 

pTore both till they were latiBfieU or my lin- 

' Mritj." "It wM nl»a}'« ■ greit detight to me to get nij hand 

at Ubertjr, even tor ■ moment, nnd the Bnt ate I usunll; made 

«f it WM to itrike the ker[>er wiiu untied me; directed by my 

■piriti to da lo, 09 the retaru he desired abuve all Ihiuga el>e, 

hMuDM lie knew I was proving my ttrHtitndc to the Lord Jehovah 

at the mk of being itruek myKlf." Doahtleio the keepen re- 

gMiM ttiia u mere leiueteaa nnd motiveleu violence. Do nc 

not eqaill; miitrndentand the criminal acta of the lunatic ?* 

8. r** nuniiac. if qf a memcd diipoiiHon, or mhen impeltal 

' If a tlrmig motice, can noKctal Ait delatioa, — The proef of this 

~ mfMMition may be found in every work on insanity ; and a re- 

■arkable lltuatratian of it was given b^ Enkine in liii d> 

€ HadfleM. A pemrn who had been confined in on aiylnm piii- 

cnt«d hii brother and the proprietor for imprisonment and fake 

: Enkine wsa told that the mau was undoahtcdly incane ; 

bat not told the particular form which the malady assumed. 

~ . . .- . -^ lupport of the iuilictmBnt, 

u pat into the witne<u-hoi and eiumined ; and when Ertkine 

eame to crou-eiamine him, he found his evidence clear, distinct. 

OoOected, and mtienal. He tried to discovur tome lurking alien. 

•tioa of mind; hut during a cross-exam inn tion, conducted with 

H tha skill and lagacily of which he vas mastm*, for nearly an 

a completely foiled ; the annvera were perfectly 

re wa> not the atightest appenrance of mental 

Jut a gentleman who had been aecideDtalty de- 

intu court, and whispered in Krikine'i ear that the 

m thuugbt be waa Iho Saviour of mankind. On reeeiviug 

m hint, Enkine made a low buw to the witneta, addressed him 

u of great reverence, respectfully bilged to upologize for 

m aneeramonious manner in which he had treated n person of 

d character, nud called him by the name of Christ. The 

IKD inmadiately said, " Tliou hast spoken truly : I am tho 

* ■ "■* Pinel reUtea a similar case. A commission iip- 

a viut the IMlre, eumineil one particular patient 

•ttedi; an many suc»wive days ; bnt all their endenvoun to 

e failed. They aoiordinglj ordered a cchtilicata 

be pTDpat^d lor liii release ; and placed it before liim for his 



BignHtnre. He signed ".Tesoe Clu'Ut." Id a case towbichwa 
have already referred (p. £03). we bHve reaaon to betieve ttuit 
more than one of the pntieat'* deluaioni vm never meotiont^ 
to any one but ouraclvci, nnd that only once ; nor could lie ba 
inducod by lonp; converanlioiii filmed tor the pnrpoM to give tb« 
Eligbtest i[idication of Ihtm to third partiea. And > lady who, 
unong other delu^ona, believed herself Quera of England, apoke 
on the lut^ect only to one of bcr uitert; «a that it was only by 
lUteniug at the open door Chat we could obtain evideuee of tb« 
fkct. {G.) 

d. The aeU qf Ike atanUc oftrm miter the lame foreiluiagkt 
and prrparatioa a> thoie of the tane. — A patient confined in the 
Maouheater Lunatic Asylum, had been (.Taelty treated by a 
keeper, and in revenge killed hilu. He related the parricijan 
of the tmniaction co Dr- Hailam with great calmness and self- 
poMcaaion. He said: "The mnn whom I slabbed richly de- 
aerved it. He behaved to me with great violence and cmelCy; 
be degraded my nature as a bnman being'; he tied me down, 
handcoCled me, and confined my bands much liigher than my 
head, with a leathern thong; he atretchcd me on the bed of 
tortnre ; after some daya lie re!<ased mc. I gave hiin warning ; 
for I told hia wife I would have justice of bim. On her cotn> 
monicating this to him, be came to me in a rnrioos pasaion, 
threw me down. dragg;ed me through the court-yard, thumped 
me on my broaat, and conSncd me in n dark and dump cell. 
Not likmg this situation, 1 was induced to pby the hypooitei, 
I pretended extreme sorrow for haviag threatened him, and, by 
an aSertation of repentance, prevailed on bim to relnue me. 
For aeveral dayg I paid him great atMotion, and lent him every 
aaaiaCance. He seemed much pleased with the flattery, and be- 
came vpry frieDiIly in his beluviour towards me. Ooing one day 
into the kitchen, where his wife wob busied, I nw a knife; thia 
was too great a temptation to be resiilcd : 1 concealed it about 
my pvnoDi and cniried it with me. For some time afterwards. 
the same friendly inlcroourse was maiutaiocd betweeu na ; bat 
■a he wu> one day unlocking his garden door, I seiicd the Dppor< 
Innity, and plunen) the knifn up to tho hilt in his back." 

10, The tfOiaiui. i» rpitt <if hit prorerbial atiming, u taitig 
impond nfwa. — Of Ibis, wliiuh Ibrms the great aiifcgunrd of lb» 
sue in their dealing* with maniacs, a good illustration is em- 
t^n«d in Lookbart'a ' Life of Sir Walter Scott.' Henry Weber, 
teitt'a pmt#g^ and aminuctisii, bad been reproved by hiafiKk< < 
bdolging In habit! of intoxintion. which injured his htill^^^' 
bitnlerad with hi* lilerary porauiti, On thr evoniug a" 


p^^^Oilibiirgh, Scott oUened Weber's eyt flied 
a witL un anusuBl8o[eniiiit;f of oipreuion- Oa inquiring 
li Iiolth, Wehcr rorc bdiI mid: "Mr. Scott, ^ou have 
Rllt«d me, and 1 can bear it do tongar. I Lave brought 
of [riitola with ido, and moit iniiat on your Inking one 
D iuxtantl;;" nod with tliat be produces! the wvnpuna. 
bad been depouted nnder liia oiiair, and laid one of lliem 
if ■ mBnuacript. " Von arc miBtaliea, I tbinl<." auid 
'Id your nay of letljitg about tbis aSair — but no muttiT. 
llow«ier, be no part of your object to Bnnoy Mrs. Scott 
ichildren; therefore, if jod pioaie, we will put the pistol* 
t drawer till after dinner, and then aminge tti gu out to- 
like gentlemen." Weber answered with cqnal coolness, 
tte tbit will be better," and laid tbe second pistol alan 
hble. Scott locked them both in hie desk, and uiid : '■ I 
d yoo b«»e felt the propriety of wlrnt I suggested— let 
f reqawt farther tint natbing may occur while wo are at 
k< gi'v my wife any suspician of wbnt bu been pAwing." 
Il^ain aweiiled, and Scott withdrew to his dressing- room, 
bed ■ meaage to one of Weber's intimate companions, and 
> maniac secured and phiced in eonSnement. 
Haifidef iji foitfin&iaeiii are often conechvi of their atate, 
MB the legai relationi in lohieA it fitafiH Ihevi, — An tu- 
\, unruly, vicious rondmau was dclvoled with a piece of 
Bob be bad contrived to shape like a dagger, and Gi in u 
Whan tlie wespoa was taken from him. he became ei- 
r abusive, and bad to be placed under restrnint. In the 
fj tbat fbllownl, he ntl«red the moit revolting impre- 
■nd ewUimed to the keeper, " I'll mHrdergov gft .- / in 
»», and thry mntuif ia^g ne/or it." Wben Mnrtln set 
ITork Uimter, the inniitei of a neighbooring mnilhouse 
1 Ibe question whether Uartiti would suffer the rilrenie 
ft tbe law. Tariou* opinions were oipreeseil; but one 
■pparantly ai nud as tlio rest, exclaimed, "He (Martin) 
p be haugrti— of eonrso be will escape." "For wbnt 
' aikcd sevoml voices- " 'Ihey cannot hang him," 
he Innslic, " became he is med. — A« it one of ourtehen ."'• 
Iporlant to anderstand that tliit cmisdiiiu'nosa of tlieir 
JDBg* obi; to madmen surrounded by madmen in lonsiic 
, or to tliose wbi> have been nudor treatment, 
(bregwng are some of tboK Imding diameters of mnnia 
HC m the dedtioti of medico-legji quett'ions. 'Iliey sene 

' WLnilos's 'Phu otlssHiitr In Cnmiiial Cases,' pp. IB. 17. 



to throw light apoii tha phraomena of imanity, and ta m 
■ome of the arguments adiancod by penons ignonint nf tlie red 
nature of tbU atrange condition of miiiii.* To tbc better in- 
fimned thej mij be usafiil bj setdng forth more clearlj thitn injr 
genoni dtnmption could do, the contrBdictiuoe of which the mad- 
mau ii the tport. It i* probably beynni] the power of the Mne 
miod to concnve the fonfnnon which rcigni in the mind of the 
madtnati. A Bcriea of doliuiotta, the ofispring of »m« oiie eidted 
pasajon or emotion, or one lingle Jeluslou, tlie work of fiiney, the 
interpreter of every aeDHitiaD, tbe source of every tbonght, the 
mainspring of every action ; holding every facally in atem aDbjea- 
tioti, making tlie ttuaes its dupe), the reason it* advocate, the 
fancy ita sport, the will its ilave; now whispering in the ear 
tbinga nnepoken, now painting on the eye things tmaeen; 
changing haman beings at will into fiends or aogels ; converting 
every sensation into a vision, every soand into articDlata speech; 
tbe nnroni world within in constant conflict with the real world 
wilhont; onderatood of no one, yet believing liimietf to be com- 
prebendsd by all ; poniihed Ibr the very acta which he belierei 
his tynmta to hiiva commanded, controlled in everything which 
he thinks it his doty to perform. There is no wish however pro- 
Bumptaons. no fancy however monstroDB, no action however 
alMurd. no crime however hnnous, that his delusion cannot cr^aie, 
prompt, and justify. 

The degive of confiision existing in the mind of the madmu 
will, of course, vary with tbe nature ond extent of bis delnsioiu. 
When several spring from One excited cmotian or pasaion, such M 
pride, vanity, or religiona veneratioo, the distraction must lie greater 
than when one single deliiiion takea pceieaaion of the mind. 

Lrgai Ttlatiom of Mania. — There is a diSereoce between the 
effect of mania on dvil and criminal acta. 

Ill all civil matters, if a man can be shown " to be non riempot 
vmtit, tbe taw avirids his act, though it cannot be tnuHl to, OT 
connEOted with the morbid imagination which constitntta liii 
dlteaie, and which nuiy be extremely partial in its influence an 
conduct."t In rrfiTence to teafamcnlary cnpaoity, however, the 
■dminiitratlon of the law is modified uocording as the individaal 
in queatioD ia the antiject of general mental nbermtion or only of 
partial insanity — monomania. In the fonncr case Htttc or tio 
difficulty Is eiperienced. In the latter, however, decisions in several 

* FW a vny sill* (inflaltlaii of «kb> of lbs ehsra(4*r* af tsinii, mcUm- 
otmnMe. ■ On ihf InlnlfHlual powcn,' e[h fdillon, pp. SU anii aSO. 

t KnVrH, Id U> JrMu uf hii&M: dIk 1<» iuikiatui vfSli^^^H 
Wild* In Uu cws of Un. Tbvsllf i, AagssI, 1W7. ^^^ 


M distinctly remgnUe tlie fact, thitt tlie individBal a 
KtOBtldtdteA qnite capable of makiug ■ nill, iinli»* hu u uliOwu to 
vlsfe labcmretl under & ddntion witicb would iout«mlly inlluence 
I'Ui depmition. 

In the ouc of " Bmlu ». Goodfellmr,"* in wliicb thu qaentioii 

e wliether a deluaion not directly ctktcalated to influence llw 

of (iroperty aiioulil be considered to inraUdBte the will, 

C J., Mid — " We are of ofrinion that » jury sliould be 

1 tint the existence of a delonon compntible witU tlie reten- 

in of the general ponen of tju faculties uf tlie mind M'ilt not be 

nlWietit to overtbrour the will, unlets it urns oilcalated to iuAii- 

Partiil iutdlertual imanitj, therefore, need not, >e(.-ording t« 
tin t>ir, deprive a laiu of bit civil capdty ai far as regard* 
bi* power lo make a will. In other Ciiws, however, the capjcit; 
U apparently not recognised. 

But in crinrinnl eases it ii not enough to prove ■ maa dob 
MMifKW M#»(w; he i« liable to punishment for tranBgressiani oC 
the law, unless it can be slionn that he is insane uei'jn'ding to 
wlut the law choosea to la; down ai a practi«iil (eat of iiiaanitv. 

Of Mt years a perpetual contliet bas ciisted bctwoea the legid 
md medicsl profession on the sntgeeC of the plen of inuinity in 
(Diminnl cuesi the law bang unwilling toroi-ognise tbeteachiugi 
oT tnodern mediml p«ychoUigy as tending to subvert the doctrine 
of BMiral r«spon»bility, and defeat the olject the law ha« in view 
—YiL, to deter frmii crime. In their endeavoars to eatuUisb a teK 
of ilUBiuty, madicMl paycholi^isti have not nlwayi in disputed 
CMS* et p i v Mu d their views with tliat degree of onaniuiity which 
woold jnsti^ a radical revinon of the eijsting legal test, nor luve 
tlwjr taken into ao.'ount the dllBcuIty which the law, as a pnic- 
tini science, eiperieoL-ea in laying down mice wliich will in all 
turn* conform to the strictly acientific view. Uedical men will 
not nnilertake to define the terms sanity and insanitf. An 
abrapt line of demarcation doe* not exist. Yet the law must 
■dept «nno elandaid by which to determine the eiiatenee or not 
«f nvponsibility. 

To fnune a standard of moral reeponiibility which shall at the 
Wma Ume satisfy the reqniremenla of an enlightened piychuTogy. 

1 j<t not weilton the inHiience of the law in its main object, 

> prevention of crime and protection of society, is a taslc uf no 
idinary difflcolty. So much so, that maoy hnve contended 

it no null teat is poanble, and Ihat each case should be decided 
I merits and on the opinions of piychulogical eirn 


• UwEe^.Ml. T.Q,l).S. 



lliU propotitioD la obvionsly oat of the qnesUon <rben it 
[iractical Hpplicatioii. 

The difficnlty which ttie law itself biu DipeHenced in adaptiBg 
its reqDirBmenU lo the prt^resrive knowWgc of the true lutoTC 
of ineiitiJ unBoundnecs. uiil of its mnn; fanni and Tarietia. it 
well shown in tlie moiliScatioM which hare token place in the 
legal tests of intanity. 

The pleti of TmuiHilg in nrimiTial caiet. — 11 ii necesMry t« 
premise [hat the pleu of inaanitj uu; be raised in respect of meh 
grava olTence* ni homicide, >r>an, and theft ; but na the large 
Di^ority hare Ikcii mca of homicide, and almort all the legal dis- 
cuMioDs of impoTtaau haw aruvii out of them, the remarks that 
follow most be niiderstood to relate primariW to hc'micide. It 
should also be borne in mind that though the plea of inutnitj ipay 
he set np in rer^uoe tt> homiddal acta committed in a mBDiacsl 
pnmxynn, and bj persons otlierwlao ratioDal alleged M be n»ted 
with an uncontrollable impubw, the greater Dumber of cuei 
belong to the clan of moiuu with ddiuion In which the homiddol 
let ha« been careful); pLuined, and carried daliberutel; into 

Oar earliest legal antlioritiea eridentlj confonndcd mania with 
idiocy, for Bracttm defines a madman a* one who " dot* not 
iinderatond what ho is dfung, and, wanting mind and mann, 
ditTen little from brutes ;" and when the attorney-general, on the 
trial of Hadfield, in the first jear of this centory, laid down th« 
law, " that to protect a man IVom sriminal responubilit; there 
most he a lolal de]iriv>tion of memory and underslandil^b" 
Knkinc adniiltiHl this to be " the ver; expTcaoon useil bnlli bf 
Lord Coke and by Lord Hnl«." and Uioogh Lord HaU made a 
■light step in advance by distingniBlilng lolid fium partial 
inaiinilj, uilvBing that partial insanity was no Bicuwi in tlie cow- 
niitsI'Mi uC uny eipitul olTence, and sn^eating lu a niNunira of 
ru>iKiii<il>ilU)'. " that inch a person as, labonring under metoii- 
choly itiitu!ii|>erB, luth yet as great nndBTslnnding as ordinarily ■ 
eliild of fonrteen years liath, is such n person as eon be guilty nf 
trtwuD and rioiiy," we find Hr. Jtutioe Truey, in the trial of 
Amotil, in 17^3, ^r ahonting at t^urtL Onaluw, stjll under tbo 
gnlilanrc of Kradon, and <ibiitr<ring : "It ii not every kind at 
fmntie hnnii-nr. or sanotliin^ onaccnnntabla iu n innn'a aaU 

tli^ir \ (» IiIti) out to be raeh a mndntun aa is ciempled C 

{riLiil>l<iiK-i'i ' it ninst bea man that is totally deprived (~ 
Tinii<'r>r.,[iiiiiiL' und memory, and doth not know what he ' 
no luuTv '' nn tin infant, tlian a brute, or a wihlbcoat: ■ 
ii aeTcr Uiv iJ^jvi-t of jiuulsliuienl." 


Die trial nf RiidiiiJd ^re the doath-blow iu thrae tibitow Bad 
BDaoDiid (loetrinea, snd eatoblti^ed delusluti ua die tmii teat of 
lBt«lleetuil mania. In coodncting the dufence, Rrsklne sUowcd 
that what the lair had «tjted mndneai wu idiocy — the idiocj 
i aatinlatt eet ileaHilia mUuralii ot Lord Halo hiin«lf— and 
lo aoch mndncH ai tbnt inugiued by the uldcr written had 
-*evaT eiiatrd in tlie world." Ue then aucceeded iu showing 
" deliuion. when there is no frensy or raviTi^ mHdncafl, ii the 
la eharacler of iotanity." bat added the very queBtioiiahlo pro- 
> that in order to render the madman irreepontrlfale for crime, 
lit bo aliown, tbat the act in question was the immediate 
■lifled of&pring of the diimse. 
Tfavae Diw doctrine*, tlioogh nlwnya quoted with ap|>rabation, 
D l«t light of, snd in place of the teat of deloaiun, sprang 
f tliat of " right and wrong." Thoa, in tite cue of Uallingham 
~ A at the Old Bailey for the raurdet of Mr. PercCTill, Mny IS, 
91S, Uana&ihl, C. J-, ii reported to hnTe told the jury tliaC they 
■t be utiaAed, in order to acquit, that the prisoner waa ipi- 
« of judging between right and wrong, and tlmt at the 
» of outamitting the atnwiaui act with which be stood chained, 
ot conaider tliat murder wiia a nrime agaiast the laws of 
I yalurr. In a ctiae which occurred only tMo monthi 
T (tliat of Bowler tbr ihooting Mr. Burrowea), Mr, Juaticc Lo 
A thi^ jury tu determine whether the prisanur, when 
he oommitted the (dTence, waa incapable of diatiuf^ishing between 
r^bt and wrong, or whether he was under any illo^on in reajiect 
to the penon be alioC, which rendered bia mind at the time in- 
■mnble to the nature of the act he waa about to commit j aince 
)■ tbab CMS he would not be legiilly rciponiible fbr bis condurt. 
Ib* atiU more recent cow (Rex it. OfTbrd), Lord Lyndhurat told 
tejor; lo wnjnit, if they were satisSed that tbe priaoncr did not 
~ " bin act any crime Hgiinat the laws of Qod lUid Salnre. 
ir principle, with alight nnd unimportant verbal ruriatioiia, 
• ifflnaid in the trial of Oifurd for firing at the Queen, and in 
■ MM of VNaa^'hten, which led to an able expocition of the 
W by the lord cbanecllor in the House of Lordi, nnd elicited tbe 
' ' la of the law lorda, and cartfnlly oonildereJ aniwcn to 
Uiti qnsaliuns addreaaed Uithejudgea. 
U Tb* atate of the llw up to a reoful; date, and, indeed, up to 
« pnsenl lime, may be inferred from the anawera of tlie fitteen 
jndg«a to the quKtiuos aoggeital by tlie trial of M'Niiughttn, 
and mbmicied to tbcm by the House of Lorda. The iiniwen, in 
wUoh the whule bench, witli the excepticHi of Mr. Juitlce MnuW, 
^HBDEUmid, were rvsd to the IIuumj by Lord Clkiuf i\ui.\MTvuji).\ 


on llie 19th June, 1843. Thoy are given t"« erlmua below.* ■nd 

it will l)e Ken from tlram tltat before tbe pica of inmnitj- oui be 
allowed, it mnit be proved in evidence Ihut the accused vat cf 
dijeaied mind, aiid Ibnt at the time of nunmittiiig tlie act be WM 
not CDiucioua of right and wrong ; that thougli delusion be taken 



Iha kllrgrd crime iba iweiiMd Xatw bt wu kIIii( eontm 
Uh act complihwd of wlib Ou ilmr, andar lb* IoBbhii 
delnloii. oT ndnHbut Br avancfBC Hniia isppoHd grl«TU» or li^ 
prodacinit IKH» npiUMd poMlg bnMfltF~AiHwar. naapimnigf _ 

wot, Uial, naJmiAtmdimf Otpar^r m mm ilt id a wnwf h^ mMitt fu B MH iy 
■■jW A^ Ufa Vutt ie Vtff f g arM in J a auppoatd jfruvamee er injtKy, or vtdtr 
lit impnnlmt ^ MaMt^ •out fthUs or prirali hnf/U, *• vsi litUt M 

qoHllon II, Vkal u 

a be nbmltUd lo (he Juj, 

Tbe]BTT'">^"<iaki»H>ui H 
■antmlnd until bfae Dootnrr wi 
plei of buuill]' ibDold be allot 


iJ linuiulea 

u qftigkl «i am^. TUi opinion relat 

n> oli>Tg«d with BD lUtgil Kt, uid ■ r'~~ 

- tt ivppottd it InwvMo^Uf Zi 

iidiiJtwmrlfUfrcminvmg. If IhU wu not ufiUheUirllj DnvoSTUi* 
uHnued wn Hula (a puniahmcnt; vul it wv the datr oTtba jaa,fe » to tril 
"" J jBrr whm mniBitag up the " - ..i.-... — 

HrratloDI which tba DUnn i 

QiHl'rHi ill. In wbal terme oaitht Ihe quntlon lo be 1(A to 


tt the teit of innnitf, the kooirledge of riglit and wrong it token 
u tbe crilerion of reaporiBibilit]-. 

To make detunon the aole legal teat of insanitj in criminal 
eaaes, and eapedaUj iDca«> of homicide, is completely at vnriBnca 
witfa tbe well ucertained rarta of impuUive inniuit;, in which tlie 
exiateuce of delusion can be distioctl; negntiTed, ua well M in 
manj forms of emotional insanitjr, in wbiah dDlogiona ibrm no 
necMrar; feature of the disease. 

On the other band, it nppenra at Gnt sight very absard to 
make the linonloige of right tnd wrong the teat of responaibilitj ; 
for a great manj insane patienta have a dear apprccimion of the 
two ideal. Indeed, the wiiole manugement of aayimni pre- 
suppose* a knowledge of right and wrong on tbe part of the 

There it, howerer, a vast differcni^e between a apecalative 
knowledge of n^ht and wrong and the power to net accordingly ; 
^^fcr a man may be fnlly convinced of the criminality of an act, 
^Htad yet be nnable to refrain from oimmittiDg it. From some 
^^■■(ne initinctiTe impalse apringing fVom within, or more fre- 
^|k*ntly *et in motion by (ome eilemal itimolas (just at a miucle 
^^1 made to contract by reflex action), he may be impelled to 
oomniit an set of homicide ; and yet befbre thii initinctive iinpulso 
■nM, and, as freqnently happeni, ader the net lins been com- 
mitted, he may haTo as lively a sense of the criminality of tbe 
act, and of tliegenenl notions of right and wrong, ai any perfectly 
■ne man. So agiun a man may have ■ general sense of right 
•ad wrong, and yet be impelled by some delusion, sneb a£ a super- 
DBtural Toice, to commit aome crime. In this case the knowledge 
of right and wrong hu no exi«teiice in reference to this deed. 

The mere knowledge of right and wrong must therefore be 
regarded a> a defective and uruHtiafBctflry test, Mr. Balfour 
Bniwne* baa ingeniously poinled out that the legal test haa been 
mtteb mlaapprebended, and be anggeate a way !n which the 
'a tome measure be got over. He soys ! — "The 
li of tbe Jodges" answer are these : ' That before a plea of 
Ulit; (hould be allowed, nndoubted evidence ought to be 
d that tbe accnied waa of diseased mind, and that al the 
e DDnmitted the act he was not conscioui of right and 
,* " t think that any one who reads these words will be 
Eed that it ii not the knowledge of right and wrong which 
ly spoenlalively entertain in calm moment* which is monnt 
y persons » 


Kii tbe aotire ides of riglit and w 

' BespoDilbiUir ud DiHAse,' j. le. 

^18 iTNaocjiDjfESi or mihd. 

which leeiiia to precloiie r saliafactory uuwer. „ .^ 

lieio» hinudf to have heev injured by gnotbur, and he kill* bin. 
If the injary we™ real, tlie luurderer woald be nsporuiUc^ oj 
so, it ii contended, ought Ibe maJmsn to be. Thin curiranl; il- 
logial ailment igiDorea the aitnplo fact that the two cuw >■•• 
nothing in coinmoa but the act iUelf. The ima^narj a 

has imaginary accoinpnnimantg, and every thought cont 

with it a one of confusion. To aappotc that a mind which an 
imagine an impouible offence ia sound in all other reepecM ■ to 
oatm^ eommon sense, and set at nought the oipcrience of all 
wlio bate knowledge of the insane, who with one consent npo- 
diate the notion of a mind subject to lurh a delnsion being aonnd, 
and free t« act as it will, bejuud the sphere of ita inRneoc*. Tb« 
more closely the lictim of this partial delusion Is observe^ tht 
more extensive is found to he the disorder of his intellect. Hi) 
actions which are not directly prompted by his delusion iire man 
strange, and hia paasions more excitable than tliose of other meo. 
The theory of a nngle insAnc idea, unaccompoaied by any other 
disordered action of the faculty from which it takes its riicv 
having no effect on the rotnaining faoultica, and showing iliaU 
■imply by prompting an action whicli, once suggested, is carried 
out with the same complete consciousness of its real mUare as 
exists in the mind of a sane man acting nnder the suggestion of a 
corresponding reality, ia loo absurd to be for a moment enttr- 
tained. Even in this cose, then, the question of rosponubiU^ 
cannot be decided by the simple test of a knowledge of right and 


But there is another case allied to the one noir nnder con- 
nderulion which pre«onts still greater difficulties. A man re- 
cdva a ml injury, and avenges bimi^lf ; but it is allied that 
he was not of sound mind when lie committed the acL The iin- 
tnundnias of his mind is admitted, but he is deemed rusponiible 
hmuao he was initigsted by the common motive of revenge. 
"nie obvious answer is, that the real injury has been by hi* in- 
sane mind raagnifled to undue importance, and then acted Dpon 
just as if it had been altogether imaginary j and that he ia there- 
fore neither more nor less re^ontihlo for his act thnn the man 
whose motive was from the very first in the nature of a delnuon. 
In this cose, loo, an inquiry into the state of the mind, eilending 
much beyond tlie 1^1 test, will be necessary, and cannot be 
refused) aad this, once granted, most result in showing the in- 
sufBciency of the test. Even in those cases where the criminal 
act oinnol be traced to any delusion of which it is the legitimate 
offering, but it ii simply allied iu defence that the party is of 


DMOnnd mind, tbe very fiict of the unKiniidDGBa becomis on lire- 
tiitibleplM in mitigation. It would lie atrangc, iu deed, if tlie 
cue of tht> miuiliic under the ocouaition of crime wore the only 
one in which such » plea i> ignored and rofuud. 

It is omiiuuitlj abiard to oredit a mind which ii alretdj 
ocmpied bj delnsioDii with an otherwise efficient stuts of ita 
benltle*. It ii in the highest degree iinprobable thnt a mind bo 
piiaMaed la able, beyond tho i]iheTO of iti deluBioDB, to think, 
dwl, and let witli tbe cloarneH, force, and freedom of the aani:. 
And llungh theaberratjon mtj fbr a time remain oin Sued within 
a 11niil«d tfihere, it i( alway* very oncertnin whether it will not 
nUimalely perrert the wholeof tbe mental fncultiea. For ronny 
prHCliml pnrponei it may be well to roct^iiie tbe BBnity of tbe 
indiTiduai in other respect) i but great ii^iiBtice wdhU be done 
if the law took no rogniinnpe of the unoertaiu condition of the 
inind iutjrct to partial deluHions. Theoretirally tbe low doei 
not, bat practicaUy it doe* recogniae it in ita decisions; for it 
■lionri itaeirin sneb cases more ready to accept the plia of iu- 
aanity than in those where insanity had not before beea bUowd to 
nift. Tlie legal testa of insanity are tlierrfore subject to gmve 
otgcelaana in many perticiiliin ; bat Hinsidering the difBimlty of 
laying down any rules wliich sbRll be cotuistent at once with tlie 
data of scianee luid practically applicabUs gieat allowances must 
ht toAde; and until medicail paychologista have tbomtolvca 
atriied at a itandard which shall draw a sharp line between 
rMpooailnlily and irresponsibility, law, as a practical sciuace, 
moat adopt a standiird i^ refponsibility by which cases mny be 
tried. liiaC tbe present is in mnny respects unsotiafactory moat 
be admitted, but it is oaaier to raise ot^eelious than remedy them. 
Sotae writers, under a strong sense of tbe failure of tile legal 
taat of a knowledge of tight and wrung, hare souglit to set up 
'd its place (be power of oantrol or reitraint. The test baa been 
luia tniuiWred (ram tbe intellect to the will — from tlie knuw- 
[• of right to the power of actiajc aright. But thia is a mere 
ig of the difficulty; for it is obviously not more easy In 
iiD a nan's abatnct knowledge of right and wrong, lawful 
I Md nDlawfal, tlinn to measure the etact amount of hja aelf- 

Thia IMt appear*, indeed, to have one advantage over tbe 

' right and wrong. The very mode of accoinpllih- 

leenu to supply a measure of tlie 

■ Tcalraint or self'UintrDt wbicb tbe maniac is able to clert. If 

p Walebea his opportunity, bides bis time, prcpurrs a fitting in- 

n the otdioary way, it ti Inferred that lie 


libert; awaita bim. It is not likely, tlier^rore, thiit (oeii^t; would 
iiiflur an} injanf hj the Miioj)tion of tlie cotine presentl}' to be 
advocated ; and we may, perLsps, find thiit it gaim aomethuig bjr 
opeiil; altrlbating to diwauB gome of the nioiC revolting n't* 
wliiRh degnde and debaie oar (wmmDn nature. 

Since the last edition of tbia work was pablUhed, nanelj. in 
1 SliS, 1 bave tubmitt«d to the ordeiil of fart the important quet- 
tion on the solution of which the releatiDn of the plea of inainitjr 
ma; be said to torn, whether the admiuinn of tbu plea anil tbe 
consequent acquittal of notorious homiclilea tend* in any wh} or 
degree to the enconrngement of crime. The inlwer it dialinetljr 
Id the n^^ntive: for "oa tealing the triala wliich Imva excited 
most public int«reat, and led to motit discouloo," nnmel;, tboae 
of M'NuughCen and Dadd, and U arlba Briiey, of Ortbrd, and tbe 
equally notorioua, thongb diflerent caeei of Francii, aud Lieutenant 
Pate, "by the figuroa which repreaent either inaane bomiddn 
or nne murderen in the year or yeaia iminedUtely following, 
there are no ligns cf encouragement when the penalty at death is 
not iiiflieted, or of diacooragemeut irhen it ia : — that on the con> 
trary, the fignrea would aeem to joatify the inference Chat neither 
to the sane nor to the intnne ciasi among onr criininala doei the 
prospect of long imprisonment, or detention for life in a lonatic 
asylum, offer any attraction or temptation; nhile the pnuUh- 
mant of death (perhap* only as formerly indicted) seems as IT il 
miglit luve eiercised a certain attrHcUon or bscinstlon."* 

In respect to tbe retpDuslbility of madmen, then, the hiw s p tn w 
to be in thia dilemma j^it mnat either insist upon a teat which it 
ia impoialble to apply, or it must uniformly refuse or admit the 
plea of insanity. If it hold to a test, its dedsions will want that 
uniformity which ought to belong to them, and their aauDdntaa 
will he constantly liable to be called in question i if it reject tlie 
plea of inaanity, it ought forthwith to do away with ail otbor 
pleaa in mitigation. 

In the case, then, of the class of maninca now under CDuaiderB- 
tion, who. being subject to delusion, oommit their acta at Tiolence 
with premeditation, it is submitted that all the legal and muni 
tab are iuapplicable and useleu ; and that tbe btw of Kng'tand 
ought to be assimilated to that of France — " 11 n'y a ni arine nl 
delit lorsqne le prevenn itaii en ilat de d^meuce an temp* ife 

The foregoing obMrvutlons apply to those caies only in which 

* 'OnlnunKt aDdCriiP«:*vd on IhEPI 
Bj WllUsm A. Uu, M.H.. F.Kij,, *e. Ae. V 
iti. mil p. lU (April, IMB). 


pioof hna been obtained of oiuouinln«s of mind, cxiiting 

ily, IB iTvll u at the very titni? oT the crimiiinl oc', nii<l 

bnt inslmclirp inailiioa wUicb is iilti>f(eIhi.T independent 

of tbo intellect, and coonBia merely in ancoatrutlable impDlse. 

Tbi* tana of midnen is now generfilly recognised by medical 

ED u inilitclhe or impuliint mania, and hu on more tban one 

oecubm led la the acquittul of an aecoHd party. 

The oriminal acta committed uuder ita infiuonco bave most or 
aH of the ioUowing chamuters : Tbey are without discovornble 
notiTe, or in opporition Ui all known molivea. A man killa hia 
Wife, to whom he is tenderly attached; a brother hii aiitvrj a 
Bother her intiint; or the victim is one whom the madman never 
iw before in the conrae of hia life, and againit whom it is im- 
poarible that be can bear any malice. After the conimiiulon of 
the act, be doea not aeelc to escB[>e ; he often pnbliaheB what he 
lone; doea not couccal the body from view, bnt openly 
a it; delivers HmKlf up to justice^ describes the stale of 
which led lo the act, and eitlier remaina atopid and indtf- 
t. or ii orerwhi'lmed by remorse. Ho has no occompliires, 
nada no preparations, aod takes nothing from bit viotim. 
Bfrmetimn be bns previonaly spoken of hia atrong temptation, 
id begged to be prevented from dmng mischief. These homi- 
dal acts are generally preceded by a itriking change of oondnct 
id chamcter, and, on inquiry, the accused is often foimd to have 
■D hereditary tendency to insanity, to have attempted inicidc, to 
imre expressed a wish for death, or to 1>e eieruled as a criminal. 
b this claaa of cases, it ia moat important that all the I'acti 
lid be duly weighed, and careful search made after those 
which most frequently actuate the crimiTial. 
in SDch difficult cases, too, that a caution ii eapednlly neces- 
tujr against biung a deciaion npon one or tvio alleged cbiimet»- 
ViiUci. AU tbe dreumstnuces of the act ought to be duly weiglicd, 
fel the spirit of the worda of Lord Hale : " leat, on the one side, 
"art bo a kind of inhaminity towards the defects of human 
Itire, or, on the other side, tiio gn'at an indulgence given to 
'•at Crimea." Tbii instinctive madneaa is no doubt sometimoB 
looiat«d with delmdona, the criminal act itself being the result 
■trong eicitemeut of the passions, while the delusions suggest 
« motive. To this daas probably belong those cases of whole- 
la murder in which the father of a family destroys hia wife and 
prevent them from blling v' ' 
puu an end to hia own life; the idea that t 
lens them bring inaane, no leM tban the impulse whiah 
iprom^la aacli a mode of escape. 


poBveiwd nch sd HmoaQt of BVlf-contruI bi Doght to have ] 
vented the murderous ■L't. Bat tlie miiwer it obvioiu. I 
dimwn from the nnalogy of the mRdmsn's sensitioiu and thoog^M. 
If he could not prevent tbe icngH frcna being the ajiort of ilia- 
■iona, and itu uiubla to root oat delusion! from bis mind, it a 
not to be aapposed that lie can control the irre^Ur impaleeiiDd 
pM»on8 which are to the will what illaaiona are to the wnaa 
or delusiona to the intellect. And if it be alleged that tbe Aill 
eiinced in planning tbe homicidal net. and tbe patience ibown in 
waiting for a fBToarahle opportunity, onght to be taken ai 
evidence of lulequate ulf control, appeal may again be made to 
analog;. The acta of the maniac sre iu atrict keeping with hit 
thoughta. Hia delnaiona, even whpn thej are most diatinctif 
prennt to hia mind, are quite compatible with tbe eierciae of all 
Us tacaltiei. If the; are attscked, be defenda tbem acutely, tad 
joatifies them plnuaihly. Tbey have not deitroyed his Ricaltin 
tbey have merely perverted them to a wrong uae. So ia it with 
Ma hmmicidal net. Tbe impnlae wbicfa aeisca upon hia amouiid 
mind doea not deatroy ita powera, it merely perverts them. 

Accordingly, if a muniao is under the delusion that his keeper 
ii a flend, or if he believes that the Deity baa commisaioned him 
to take a<v*; bis life, he niU aecrete and sharpen a knlft, wateta 
hia opportunity, and act in every respect as a aaue criminal would 
da And, if prevented, ha will wait for a more favoumble ooca- 
non. Nay, tiie merest imbecile knowa that n knife or a piatol 
ia a eommon instrument of death; ami weak aa hia mind maybe, 
he cunoeHls hia weapon, not becaDse ho ia conscioaa of guilt, but 
because he knows that, if it were openly displayed, the action be 
coatempiates would be prevented. The fact la, thiit in propoaing 
this test, as in the general diacnasion of thi> question, two dis- 
tinct things have been confounded — the act itself, which is the 
result of the debiaion, and tbe mode of nccompUahing it. It is 
the deluxion which diatinguishea the inadmnn. and not tbe mode 
in which the delosive impnlse ia carried into effect. 

The difficnity of devising a test which shall not be open to l}ie 
mott serious objections, has led aomc peraona b> invent sn easy 
method of escape, by depriving persona of unsound mind of what 
they call the privilege of insnuitj, or, in other words, refunng 
to entertain the question of the state of tlie mind at all. This 
lO^estion may have the merit of niupUcity, but it ia open to tbs 
•erioua olgection that it could be acted upon only once. The 
tpectade of a madman on the scaffold would be simply intolerable. 
Mo jury eould be found to convict; and tbe iudiaeriminating 
stitnte would prove oi compLeto a dead teUAt aa^,\k« Mitute vtludi 

tool are, ]ik» otber men, infliuDCfd bj tnr, the 
af daUi w Uw eonaeqaenee of ronrder, ihauhl be 
their ejca, TtM theorj maj be nid to lUTe broken 
am of UCTiteiuDt Pnte, joat refeired to. It w mmt 
ihat Uiu poof imbedle wai ignmnt of tb« degm^ne 
■mnM b} ■ rarmt lUtate to penom vbo ibootd 
iinrcni|[n ; but the threat bod no effect apaa lun. By 
tnaJBg. it •Mmt moat probable that Uie thnatsMd 
of ikalb inHilil prove aqaallv iDrffcctaal in eveij 
nva. But, in mlitj, the natninin^ inflneiwe of Il« 
«f ihath i* alnadj brought to har ; for it ibtrald be 
■t Hut mm who hare not bero MTtiSed n* masw^ 
: in lunatiR aaylama, <1d sot beline Ui«DHl>a lo be 
> are. in tb^ owu Hght, taae men. It ia otlj after 
•at laoght, bj coofinament ai aBdniea, that t^af are 
M bdk vcd to be ID, Uiat the tenor at tht g~ 
the ^trnMlire terror of perpetaal ud; 
■u miunUiii the Uwoij now Boder e 
d il b]r onoipariug penaot at nnacnnil 
lU, alleging tint, a* ilog* can ha ircaiied hj p 
pnclion dututofU to their a 
ftnan erime by teu of death. 
g ttrvinl thi* argument fron analagj t*" ^ela are 
-tW hct that th« aninul ha* been {Hunihcd, atid ha* 
«nll«cUi>D of III* |i^ indicted iipuo Um, vhile (he 
I b«*n Mrrotj thrcaleacdi and tbefMt that tbov an 
rbo (annot U weaned tn 
' the miBt mum* rttM'lm 


■ud auBtain ; uxi we nw; be aiuated in out diagnous b; ditcmec- 
ing marks of Uie form of panlyBU whicli attends one (brm of 
cbronic demeDtia, Oar chitf dliBcnlty id dia^oni mhj triw Oat 
of tbe rare obstiiuie; witb wbich a prisoner — ■ tfemale npedillj— 
will maintain h *eak expression of countenanm, npmt ■ few 
Billj phrasM, pass the excreta ns if involuntaril^v, >nd milt 
every tent tbut it ii posuble to apply. Sucli a roaliogerer nuy 
never hive deceived tlie medtcsl ubserrer for ■ motneDt ; but be 
Buy be mmpelted to wait patiently for a confeMOn of the fiuid. 

Mania. — As it ii more easy to aisnme the violence of maaii 
tiuiD the more subdued choroclen of th« fbregoing- fbrmt of 
uiuouDdneaB. nunia ii more frequently ffflgned. Tbe diitincttoit 
between the fictitious and the true disease, tfaoogh occaaianRlly i 
work oT time and patient observalDOn, ia not difficalt i but in this, 
as in other leigned diaeasM, tbe impostor often obstinately reaisti 
the elTarla of tbe medical man to obtain a confesiion of bis fraud. 

The peculiar intense eipreuinn of coimteniuiDe, the marked 
altentiou of feature, uid the wildness of eye of real mikDia, are 
very bard to asiQme and maintain. The violent exdtAmenl, tlie 
loud ahouts, the strong- struggles and convulsive moremeDta of 
the pnroiysms also scarcely admit of imitatiOD, and cannaC be 
■Upported fbr any length of time. The real oianlae will cODtinQe 
without aleep for days, and even weeks, or. If he steep at all, his 
rest will bedialnrbed and ap'"'*^; bnt the iiupcetorcan scwcely 
keep awake beyond one or two daja, and a dose of opium, which 
would prodnce no effect whatever on the madman, would inhl- 
libly send the impostor to sleep. Tbe same remark appliei lo 
other remedies, aouh aa emetics and pur^tives. 1'be madnuui 
will ah« go without food for days together with impunity, and 
Kttlu loss of slreDgth ; and is so insensible to external imprasnona 
that he will bear the most intenaa heat or cold, and gaze, withont 
being dnnled, on tbe «trong light of the mn. Other lymptoau 
nf less importance have been insisted on, such as tbe torpid atate 
of tlie bowels, the modereto or low temperature of the trunk and 
limh)^ a psenliar gdoer of the akin, and a Ireqoeat pnlse.* 

Tu thia account of tbe phyncal Mgus of mauia, it may be added 
that tbe impostor will overact his part during such times as he 
is watched ; that instead of becoming more quiet and raerred 
on the approadi of the phyaiman, his riolenco inoreaises ; that h» 
BMumes a want of inleltigence instead of that pcrreruon cd' 

■ rn lh> I 

■I oillUon of ihl* irarli ftpts mate sddaced to *him lb 

LillttfiuHitit ms] 

mark hid beta tlii|t(craltd. 

;iA. 327 

reaaon wMdi ii lo cbancteristic of tbs real nOecLioDi tint liH 

obtrndet initoul of conceiding hb HiougbtB ; that be protends h 

defect of netnory Bnil apprebeniion which does not belong to 

rail iiuanit}-, give* fiiUe laawers to queallom, and iSectJi out to 

raongnue penona whom be knOHi ; thxt he does Dot recur coa- 

itanllj' lo tbi leading idea; that he betraifi heaitation in the 

■Diibl of fail aanimed violeDce i that be boa not tiie ateady gsna 

of the nadoliui: that bii fits arae auddanly and at irregular 

and convdiieat intervalt, inatoid of having the periodicity of m- 

tCTmitteiit attacba of mania. It may be added, that matead uf 

baring a periml of iocubntion ao general in true mnnia, the first 

atuuik of bra dlaonler is sudden. That pervenjon of the moral 

fbdJOgi which causes the madman to dialike erery person to 

n he was pruviooily atta«l]«l, being a svmptom little kuovrn 

■ Id the vulgnr. is also not aasumed by the impostor. BaildeB the 

K,dbgiio<tic marka to be gleuni.'d thnn the foregoing description. 

d llie precaoCiona already menliuned onder the head of feigned 

e spi-cia! lest* have been recommended, sueli as tei- 

le lUipcclud peraon a series oF ideas recently uttered, 

Aen the real maniac will introduce new tdeaB, but the impostor 

II repeat the same words. The use of the nhirllug cliuir baa 

n beoi reconunendcd, as producing giddiness and nansea in the 


FaHial luUUerlHat Mania.— Moncmania. MriaHcheUa.— 
ThcM partial (bmu are less frequently feigned than geiierel 
mania, or niTing inEoherence, and rarely with aucccss. Many 
oftlM cbaracterm of mania already deacribnl, are present In casea 
of iBt«Uectiial mania springing out of some eicited emotion, surh 
a* loide or vanity. Tliere is the same irritability of temper, the 
le Tiolent prejodlcea, the Hme unfounded avernons and equally 
I attachments, the wme sleeplewneas, the aame insvnsi- 
bilitj to iiDpmnons, and to the operation of mediuiiHM. The 
prrlMded monomaniac makes a more open display of his astuined 
daluioil tban thi real nonumuniiic who rarely solicits attention. 
n< tnui roononauiac la generally reserved, tacitaro, and in- 
but ia eHuly excited and angered by oppoailjon and 
Wlieu hard pressed, msn generally take refuge in 
violenee, and women in teara. 

Tfaa ffarma of intellerlual insanity moati commonly assumed, 
and mont difficult to distinguish, aro those which consist in the 
auumptloD of a ain^-le delnuon, or of profound melancholy ; and 
it <■ obnonsly difficult lo lay do*m any diagnostic marks by which 
tlie r<al Jvieuc can be ilistinguuhcd trom the false. 

The Jidlcutly of diagnosis la acriously euhaiicod when, oa soino- 

or MIBI). I 

tioiEs huppeni, tbo malingerer ie a good actor, and niBkes « &Hb- I 
ful copy of tba words anil acts nf a madman with whom he hsi 
been brought in contact in oi oat of an aajlum. 

Moral Mania, Ofneral and Partial.— Oenenl mors! innni^. 
roniisting of a etrange combination of fooliah, obscene, and crrnl 
acts, may have to be diBtingubhed from mere wjcki^neas; bat it 
ii not apt to be auumed. To dietingniah moral ioaanity from 
vice may be difficult ; bot. ae ■ general rule, there ia a itnoge- 
nca and variety in the acta of the miitman which do not bekif 
to those of the tane criminal. Aa the character of the act or aOt 
committed ia tbe chief grotmd for believing in the ciiatctice of 
partial mania, there ia no certnin means of diatinguiiihing the 
real from tbe feigned diaease. It a, however, ao noliJiely that a 
«ana man would be guilty of an act for which no moUve cantw 
diicovered, with the certainty of being aeverelj punished if fbnnd 
sane, and imprisoned for life if prunoanced mad, that we may 
fairly anume audi an act, if accompanied by all or many of the 
oharaotera nlrendj pointed out, to have been the result of real 
moral iosaiiity. The personal and family history of the accnsed 
would also aflbrd acme preeumptioua in &vmir of or against the 
theory of iasnnity. 

CoHCtaled huaniiy. — The |Hnvcr of roncealing his delnaioDi, 
under the influence of some strong motive, haa nlreadj been 
•hown to belong to the madman ; and long-continued obcervatian, 
repeated interrogations, and careful Inqiurj into the pntienfi 
previoua history may be uecessiry to bring the deluaiona to light 

The main |>(nnt!i to be attended to in the levenil eiamiuationi 
which the medicnl man may be required to institute, are the 
following : — 

1. Observe narrowly the general appearance, conformation, atld 
ihape of tbe bead ; the comploiioo and eipreraion of the conule- 
nance ; the ^it and movements, and the speech. 

S. Ascertain the stale of the health, of the appetite, and 
^geation, of the liowela, of the tongue, akin and pulee. Note 
especially the presence or absence of febrile symptoms, ai im- 
portant in distingniahing delirium from madness. Ascertain 
whether there ia sadneta or eicitement, restlesEoes* or ■litlneaiv 
and whether the steep is sound and continuous, or diaturbed aud 
broken. In fcumlea. Inquire into the state of the menstrual 

3. t\it ftttfUs Milury should be traccil out, iti order to ascertain 


■ ■faether tbere ii any hereditary prediipMltioii to iDunity, tnd 
whether any membera of the family have been subjoct to flta, or ' 
have betrayed marked ecs^ntricity ofbebavioar. 

4. The pertonal hitlory ahonld be ucerC&iDed with equal care. 
If the toiad apptnr anmiind, ucertain whether the atitoundnca 
date* from birth, from infancy. Or from what time. I( tlie nn. 
•DnndQeaa have «(ipervened lator in life, whether it followed 
urere bodily illiieu, acddent, mental ahock, long'-continiied 
•niicty of mind, repeated epileptic flta,or indulgence la habits of 

E. Inquire whether the present state of mind differs materiallj 
team that which eiiited when it waa reputed to be sound ; and 
wbetbcr the feeling*, affections, and domestie hahiti have under- 
, (one any marked change. 

6. Aacertain wliether the eiiating- nnaonndnen is a Gnt attack, 
d if Kk whether It began with depression or eieitemrnt j if not, 

ure follow a period of nielnneliulj, passing into 
into alow oonvuleicence P I f any signi of general 
nJjns are present in tlie apeech or gait, lina the pntient 
Wed bifl money, grown refltleaa, and wjindtrpd aboat, 
d hia perioa, ootnmitted petty thelta, or had illuaiana of 
.h and grandeur ? 

7, When onr object ia to aacertaiii the aeiital oapaoity, it 
moat be t^ted by converaatlon direeled to aoeh mnttrra na age, 
the Irirth-place, profesaion, or occupation of psronta, number of 
hmtber*, aiatera, and near relationa, common events remote and 
leeevt, the year, the name of the month, and the day nf the week, 
the name and family of the aoveroign, and of peraons best known 
•nd moat talked of. Tbe power of performing limplD operationa 
of aiithmoCic, and the knowledge of the value of money ahuuld 
Iw taatcd, and the memory by repealing aimple form* of worda in 
ggneral uae,anoh as the Lord'a Prayer and Creed. In testing the 
power of attention, merely ne^tive or affirmative answers to 
leading (|uections should be diatinguiahcd from sui^h repliei as 
jDdieata judgment and reflection. If the inquiry relate not to tlie 
capadty of tlie mind, but to ita aouiidnen In other rvapects, delu- 
■ona should be songbt for by conversations directed to those 
topia that are most likely to interest and eicite the mind. Tbe 
itata of tha moral feelings will bo teated by conversHlion directed 
li> ralaUw and friend*. In cases of supposed moral insanity, 
^ligent inqnirj should be msde into the motives which might 
)iai*e led to the oommisaion of the act of wUicb tbe party is 

■ B. The medical niaa should insist on full opporWnAj ^Mnu^ 


given him oF fonamg bti opinion. He ■honid rardj' 

self wllh ■ lingleviat; and in eaavtot great dlill 

require thit tlie partj be plaued for some time nndar Ui dtw^ 


y. Wlien aDdprgoinc examiDHtion in a court of Ibw, tbemffitd 
wimen it recommended 1o avoid all deRnitiDni of insanity, <m the 
plea that taentHl, like ijodilv dieeabcs» do not admit of detimtimit 
but aretntyectB for diwcription. 

ID. In signing ccrtitlratw of Innncj, the medical man ihoaM 
bear in mind thai he ie reqnircd to leo tlic patipiit by himidf. lu 
fign the ccrtificaU at the time of the rint, and to ungn thi 
resKnu wbii'h hare iui1iieni«d liim in attaching liia u^natnrp to it. 

To the foragmng directions a f^ practicul «ugg«i>tioru and 
hints mny be add<:d witli advantRgo relating to the two important 
and reaponiible dutiei of the medical man — imposing resttwnt 
and signing tertiflcatss. 

Setlraini. — The medical man, in the eierdse of hi* prof u rinn, 
may be called to a patient mfferiog from fever, delirium tremait, 
or mania, and may Rod him in a state of excitement dnngenni 
to bimself and to tlione abont bim. It seems as natural to biin 
to order the patient to be restrained as to preKrilie meihHne fix 
him. If he were not to order him to be platwl nnder reatnint, 
and the [ntient were tu destroy biuisrlf or othera. he wonld e>- 
poee himself to the indignant censnre of tlie nhoW comnfanilj. 
Bnt If, in the exercise of his discretion, he makes arrangeraait* 
lor restraining the patient, and the patient, ou recovery, !«■! Or 
apparent, pleases to ane bim for dnmngcs, he may indict tipM 
bim the annoyance, loss of time, and expense of a trbal by joy. 
This riak, it appears, cannot be avoided ; hut it may be i«dnetd 
by tbe medical man observing the precaution of obtaiiuiig a 
written anthority from tbe neurest relative in atteadaaoe On tl>« 
patient — from husband or wife, father or mother, brother oi 
water, as tbe caso may be. 

CW-/i/!™(M.— In the case of paupers One medical certificate 
only is T«quired, with an order signed by a jUBtico of the peace, 
or, in his absence, by Uie relieving officer or overseer and tbe offi- 
ciating rlerf yman of tbe parish in h hicb thn lonatic js at the 
time. In all other case* the certilicates of two medical pracli- 
tionert and tlie formal demnnil of a relation or Iriend. Tbesc 
certificates, to be valid, must be sigiicil by l^ally qualified prac- 
titionen having no intercut, direct or indirect, in Uie patient, or 
In the estahlishment to which he is to be sent ; tbey must bear 
the exact address of the potient, and tlie date of the eiamina- 
tioD and signature ; the visit ovust he n Wi'^umtA liul (ftch 

a exkmining tbo patient separutelj) ; and tliB certili- 
mntt set fbrtb ditliiicti; tbo ground) of the opinion, under 
M diitinct bMdi of bets obierved b; himaeir, and facta com- 
aiuoited bj otber* (such otben to b« BpedGed) ; and be aigonl 
with lUDie. addroH, and date. It rvm«iii9 valid oal; for teyea 
daji. If defective it may be aioeDdcd. 

A proper printed fonn in acoordance with the >tatutcs repi- 
Uting tbe custody and tmtmenb of tbe inaane, and oonEaioiiig 
pkiu marpnal directioiia, m*} be obtained of the Inw atationen. 
It oampriK* a " Notice of Admiaiion," to be signed by the 
nperintendent or proprietor of the asjlam, lo be forwarded to 
tbe CoDimiMkmen of Lunacy witbin one clear day from the 
patienfi roceplJOn ; an "order for the reception of n private 
patient" addretaed to tha proprietflr or ntperintendent of the 
ntaUishment, and lifned by a penon who ipei-ifiea hii " deforce 
of rslationihip (if any)" with a "statement" antaining a 
datuled account of the patient and hia history ; and, lastly, two 
idBnticnl forms of " Hedical Certificate," of which we append a 

In tbe case of insane persons wandering abroad, without proper 
oarc. provision is made fiir their protection by 16 &, IT Vict. 
MM. 67, Strand TO: which inllict a eoeoTlO/. on medical officers of 
pariiheii as well as on overaeers or relieving officers, wbo, liavitig 
kiKra1«dg«i in uny way obtained, that a lonatic Is " wondering at 
lar([e" er "not under proper care and control" or "cruelly 
traated or neglected" does not take meaauriw to bring the case 
bafore a niBgiBtrat& Additional protection is affiitded lo the 
inaano person, and to tbe pohlic by sec. 68 of this Act, which 
aaltee it " lanfal for any jnttioe, upon its being made lo appear 
to bim by the inforntation npon oath of any peraon wbonisoerer 
t any person wandering at large within tbe limits of hi» 
" ' Ui is deemed to be a lunatic, by an order under the 
i seal of such justice, to require any coniUhle of tbe 
jwrish or place, or relieving offirer or overseer of the parish where 
aoeh person may be found, to apprehend him and bring him bcfoTf 
■oeh jnatiee," &c* 

a rod 

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PART 11. 




CKDn tbe generel hauling of Periom found Dead the precaa- 
tion* to be dIhotipcI in ooiulucting inqniriea oonoerDing; tliou 
wboas mode ot dcatli i> nnknowo, will be diiearaod. Aa tbe Hnt 
qiMstioi] that patunll; iriiica is na to the rmlitj of denth, tbe 
(Direct of Seal and Apparent Dialh folloira in Order ; thm 
fik^Jm Death, in whicli some of the more commoD modei of 
rlJMrilminn arc brietlj roruidered ; and, Untlj, Sureioorthip. 


^B In tmtir^ of Medical Evidence, instractlonB were given as to 
Pvi best mode of atating Suts and opiniona in a court of law, ao 
ta to giTG th«ni their fnll force, and lo render them adminiblc aa 
eridence. In thia place, dirretiooi will be ^veo for observing and 
edleeting that im|iortant cUaa of fiicta which refcn to peraone 
foaod dead : in other worila, Ra diacharging, in feferenco to such 
penona, the fanctjona of a common and of a ikilled ttitncw. If 
acnt for to a dying msn, or to one Blready dead, the medical 
man nia«t nnda observe many things connected tiith the body 
itaelfi ancb aa the poaltion in which it ia placed, and thu objecta 
wUch aurronnd it, that might aa well be obaerved and stated in 
nidenee by any other peraon ; bnt ■ poat-mottem inapection if 
Ft be entruited to bimwlf or to aome other akilleJ 
anber of tbe profwaion. Hencs the present inquiry branches 
' ' divlsiinu. 1. Tke relatio-i ••/ the bodg to i»rroand- 
n otjectt. S. DiftetioaM Jbr Iht ptr/ormanee of potl-morttm 
it fbr legal pttrpotti. 

Th* msdlol man it • 
(uiIiIhi d«th, uid lliu hcecMura one nf tbe Grat, aod pnlali^ M 
tlw bunt «ddnt«d miil moit intel1i|^nt iiitnaws af tboM u^ 
fiUU •rhidii in nitnitiil cuct, Mnmtitate the pranoipliT* or 
dminiiitantlil tmiilmirr. H« ihoold Uwrefort, ccperuUj hi 
■napIolDiu mwi, tw iitlKiitivH to lU tliit i< punn^ amond Ud. 
that no oljuct, howevvr trifling, otlcolated ki tlirow Ufiht oa the 
rauH Iff dnith, nnY be oTcrtoolled. The fiJIowing are nme of 
tha jiriDFTpat point* which ahuiild engage his attentum : — 

Tht pLum i» Kiiflh llwhoify it/oVKJ.— ThUUiiot>l<rBj«thit 
ill wiilcli (Until tojk yhtu ; tor, in micidil u well lu bomtcidi] 
cue*, p«noTu wTer^l; wnuntied ma; be ubie to toove nine dhUnra 
tlmti the (pot on whicli tlinr injariea Here receiTed, and tbt 
marderor miy try to conceal hia crime hj earrjing the bod; to * 
plaeu remote IVam the Mene dF violence. 

Tit potiliiiit axd altUudi of Ihe Jorfy.— Thin mOT not corre- 
•ponii ulTli Ihe r«ti«. of .)«illi, «. when (hp Wv "f ii' nwn kilW 
by a blow nn the liead was found atunding upright, ropportcd b; 
nwunden fence ; and mnrJercrn often udiBpofe Cbe bodiea oT their 
Tiotim* ai to malie it uppcar that the; had committed nikide. 
Thni, peraonj bavo been poisoned, and aflcrwardi anapended b; 
tba reck, or thrown into the water i and the hod; of 6ir 
Edmnndhnr; Oodfre;, who wai proved to have been noient]; 
■tnngled, wai foand lying in a ditch, pierced with hia ownavord, 
■nd with hii clothea so arraoged tu to create the belief tfaat be 
died b; bla own band. From ohaervationa made on the field of 
battle, it ia inferred that men killed in a hand-to-haod straggle 
often wear an eipreaaion of rage, contrasting strongly with the 
Mhn eipreation of thwe killed b; gnnshot. Some Boldiera, too, 
are fonnd in the very attitude in vrhich the; CAtA. If we findan 
MprMuon of angry rcaiatance on the face, baoda, and body, «• 
Bu; infer that dnth was the iasne of a struggle. 

Tht rpot on which ihe bodg it found. — In cawa of fatal injur; 
to the bead, it ia aaoal to allege that the death was cansed by a 
fall on aome bard reiiiting bod; ; an allegation onl; lo be rebatted 
b; an eiamination of the spot. Thus, the death of a man found 
lying in a field with a severe bmise on the head, liaving been 
■ttriboted to a fall on a atone or fragment of wood, the field was 
earefnll; aearchcd, and no aiich object conld be fbond near the apot 
on which the bod; la;. In anotlier ease, a email wound of the 
b^") vhicb had penetrated to llic brain, and bad been recared 
rderoua atruggU, w»a aUributed to a EaU oa « ahar^ 




oljject, loch u a nail flied in the floor ; but the floor bnving been 
fsamlned, and na luob otfject ruutiil, it folloned tbat tbu vroaiid 
had bMQ iuflicteil b; a ■mill-pranUd uwtrniDeiit. The murderer, 
•fter hi* acquittal, irbich wu dao to ^KfcctiTe medinU eTidence, 
coufenod tbat be had itruck hU victim nitti the poiut of b pnir of 

Tit mil ur *urfan on vkieh the bodif lia, — Struggles often 
leavK OD the spot tnweH wbich maj becomppred with the ciothefl 
of tl'C nispecl^d miirderer or or his ficlim, and foot-priutB in tlie 
ninw, or on the loil, have ufleo fiimiahed important evidence. 
Sir Walter Scott giv» an aiKiiilDt of a mtirdM' discovered bj the 
piiat of the iDorderer's foot oa the clay floor of a eotti^ in 
the deatb'strngitle. The mciiiure of the foot, the trend, and the 
mode in which the sole of one oF the sboet had be«n patched, 
mrmponded oioiit cto«ely with the foot-mark j and tbia was the 
«r»t link in the chaio of evidence which led to tho conviction of 
the mnrderer. In oasei of mnrder, folloKcd b; the Euleide of tlie 
murderer, important light Iiaa been thrown on the tmnuction hj 
flnding stuns of blood on the floor, and on the soles of tlie feet of 
the perpetrator of the Jonble crime. 

Potition of mrotmditg ohjnli, — In aniddal casen the instni- 

ofdmlh is generell; found near the body; in bomicidal cues 

It is often mnoted and concFuled. In death b; the more active 

poiMini, the vessel which contained the poison is often found on, 

the person. The correspondence of wounds or bruises 

dead bod; with tbe objecte immediately am-ronnding 

soaictlneB throws great light on the canse of death. Thus, in 

M of the Prince de Cond^. who was fonnd inspended by the 

In his bed-room, tlic eorreapondence of certain ubrasions on 

ga with s hearj chair placed close to them, and of otbers on 

shoulder with a projecting part of the window to which he was 

"ided, hnrmouiied with tlie straggles of a man auspended 

life, and juBtifled the opinion of those who attributed tbe 

o snicide. 

Tit Clolka. — Hiving noted tlie pbce and spot on nhich the 
ly lias, its position, snd the objects by which it is (urrouDdcd. 
inspection sbonld be made of the body itself. Tbe 
;hc*uay be sinled with mud, or corroded by an acid, or stained 
blood, or aomo animal secretJon ; or they may be torn or cut. 
cbaneter uid position of the ataiiis, and the direction of the 
I, ahoold be carefully'nated ; and cuts which truverse 
iits than one should I>e compared with each other, and 
a found on the body ; for a mnrderer may try to 
rime by cutting the clothes alter he hat wtawdfiii VW 



bodj, uid that tbe voaDdi aaJ incisioaa nuy not coiadde. It it 

scarce); necsawT? to state that rriintaiili are bein;; cnaittMj 
idedUAed thrangb tbedoMoorroajioiideaceof thin){« bondiathair 
powewion with those osed id the pcrpctraUaa of the crime* them- 
■elves. The bearing nnd conduct of tlio parties in BttendBOoe oa 
lick, d;int(, or dead ponona ihoold not bo ovrgrloakcd, espcoillf 
in caica of inspected poiwnitig. 

To what baa nair hem said respecting pemni foand dead, ib 
may be well to add that neither eiamplej nor rule* can do moni 
than suggest the sort of ini]uiric« that ma; be needed. There is 
alwaji great scope for individual jndgmiint, foreaight, and do- 
dsion. The sfrrice which an intoliigent medical witnan maj 
have it in his power to render to the canse of jnstica cannot be 
better illuitrated than bj a case, for which the aotbor it indebted 
to the Uto Dr. James It«id. It is given, as nearly as po*«ble, in 
bis own wonis : — " I was sent for one daj to a man and bii wite, 
whom I found tying in the same room with their throat* ent. 
The woman wai on the floor, with her right am] extended onder 
the bed, and a nizor close to her right baud, tier throat was 
deeply ent tram ear to ear, atid sbe la; in a oomplete pool of 
blood. The hnsband, who was in bed, had n wound in the throat, 
wbieb bad merely divided the traohea wiClioat wounding anj 
important blootl.vessel, and without causing any great loaa oC 
blood. Wlien questioned, he gave the following accoant: — In 
the middle of the night he was roused from sleep by recoTing 
a wound in the throat from the hand of his wife. Tbe shock, the 
wound, and tbe 1o»b of blood tt^etber, bad prevenUd him from 
makiog any resistance Or giving any aUrm. My suspicioiis wen 
roused, partly hy the man's manner, and partly by observing the 
water in a basin standing in the room slijtbtly Unged with blood. 
In endeavouring to find some conlirmation of my suspiinoa^ a 
thought struck me. I turned up thd bed.clotbea, and fontid tfaa 
soles of tbe feet coveted with dried hlood. This (tct, which I 
stated at the coroner's inquest, was deemed conclusive, bat the 
man died almost at tbe moment that tbe verdict wat piaseJ." 


The medical man, having discharged tbe duty of a common 
witness by noting all tbose paints of presumptive or ctrcnmatantial 
evidence wbieb may throw light on tbe mode and cause of death, 
proceeds to the examination of tbe body itself. When it i> that 
of some person nnknown, those chsrueteristics whicb may lead to 
its identiflcation sboold be noted &>«&, iaaoccicdwuie wiib iMtrae- 

of dsKtb, 

tion ind dreaUtioD, cambine to prodoo 

and to create temporaij diffimlty cren fur the medical n 

The lubject of real end apparent death would be incomplete if 
■amc notice vere not taken of thoae cates in which a aUte of 
■pporent death hu b«en brought nbout by au effort oT the will. 
Tbe ocduonal occoirence of auch casea lias boea placed beyund 
the reicb of doubt; and > minutely described and well authentl- 
eated iTwtanee of thia kind, tbat of tbu Honourable Colonel 
Townahend, ia relnted by Cbeyne in hia ' BngUah Malady.' 

" He told u he had sent for ui to give him eame acconnt of 

an odd •cmktjoo he had for some time obaerred and felt iti biin- 

itit; which wat, tbat eompnung himself, he conld dje or expire 

when be pleucd, and yet, by an elTort, or aomehow, he conld come 

to Ufe again, which, it seemi, be bad lometimee tried befrire he 

hftil sent for \u. We all three felt hii pnlio first ; it was diatinct, 

tbcwgh amall and thready, and hia heart bad its uamil beating. 

Ha oonpoaed himself on his bacli, and la; in a stitl pOHtnro some 

time ; while I held his right baud, Dr. Barnard laid bis band au 

lu« bnrl, and Mr. Sbrinu held a clean looking-glass to hia month. 

I hnnd hi* poise sink gradually, till at last 1 could not feel any 

tf the meat cuot and nice loudi. Dr. liaynard conld not feel 

^Btbe lost motion iu hia heart, nor Mr. Skriue dlsceni the least 

^Bfoil of breath on the bright mirror he held to hia lUDUth. Then 

^^EmIi of us by tnros eiaioined his arm, bcarl, and breath, hut 

^^B>a1d not by tbe niceat scrutiny discover tbe least lyniptom o( life 

^B^ him. This contiuued abont half an hour. As we were going 

•way (tbicking him dead), we observed some motion aboat the 

hndy, and upon examination found hia pulse and the motion of 

U« heart ^radnallj returning; he began to breathe gently, and 

ipcak sufUy." Tbit raperimcnt was made in the morning, and 

b« died in the crening. On opening the body nothing «as dis' 

(Dnrcd bat disease of the kidney, for which he had long been 

gndcrmediail treatment, all tbe other visceia being perfectly sound. 

This ease of Colonel Townaheiid is not only curious but initruc- 

E<, fiir it allows that iberc is at Uaat one state of ayal^m so 
r]y reecmbling death aa even U> decdve medical men. dis- 
fiuihuble Trom real death only by the eontiouance of animal 
t, tbe afaaencr of rigidity, and the suocen of the meeni of 
RHOIsUoUi Kiiit this faet aiUiiita of practical application. It 
leaches us that n-e should not hastily abandon tbe attempt tu 
nsMobiU persons who have sppeurcd to perish by synci'pc or 
MphysSa, by hartnorrhage, shock, sun-ttruke, drowning, and Uie 
' iTti*! forms of suflboatiun. 



glfl-KS OP DsATn. — Of the sigat of dralh inoalcd upon bj 
■utbora Minie ue triTuil and inconclunre, otben of coDBidenUc 
imporlauce, both us ripu and u meana of fbnniDg a, jud^oit 
of the time that life has b«en eilinct. To the fint clis b^ong 
the OwfofiM of lie Cirmlatioa and Selpiralitm ,• iA* AtKnet iff 
State and Motioin lit Fadti Hippocralica ; tie Slate i^ lU 
Eyi ! the Slate of tie Skin i and lie ErliKelian of Muxmiar 
IrritiJiililg. To the latter claia bcloog the Exlinetian of Animal 
Stall Cadavarie Rigidih/ -, &TiA F^rrfaetlon. 

CettatioM of Ue Circu'lation.—U do pulae can be felt U t^ 
milt, and the beat of tie heart can neither be felt nor beard 
with tbo atAthowope, it may lie wanmed that the drcnUtiaa of 
the blood haa cenavd, tlioagh it is puaaible that very feeble mme- 
meutaof the heart might eBi:iipe obaervation. Theabsolnte ooaa- 
tion of the heart's ■etion may be tdien a* ■ sure eign of dcatli. 
The great difficulty, however, ia to atcertaiii tlila beyond the 
mch of doobt. It ia not enough merely to feel the pulae at tha 
iTTiat, fi>r, ai in Colonel Toitnihend'i cue, even eiperieneed 
medicul men might be unable to detect pulsation*, and oonclode 
that the heart lind ceaaed to beat, It requiHa the appHcstkm of 
the atethdicope by ui eiperieuced perton for aevenl aeeaDd^ 
repeated at abort interval, iiefore it can lie said with any degree 
of certainty Uiat the heart has quite rcaned to boat. But if th« 
heart doot uot beat for five minutes we may conclude that death 
ii certain, llie cessation of the heart's action for a much lev 
period than thia would csuas dmtlii but iti cDanilion Ibr five 
minutea would, in our opinion, be conclualve. The apparent 
death of the Indian faliira ia much more remarkable than the 

e of Colonel Townahend ; but there i; 
that in them the lieart ccetea to beat, though the vitel pi 
may he reduced to the lowest ebb. 

On account of the difficulty attending the uae of the atethoscope 
by uninstructed penons, Magnoa has proposed an iugeniOQi 
method of aftcertaining whether the circulation hai or lias not 
ceaaed. He recommenila that a Ugatnre bo applied to a finger, 
when, if there ia life, a ring of arterial anaemia showa Itaelf round 
the aeat of the ligature, and a gradually increaaing rednen and 
liiidity in the part beyond. This is a ample plan that may be 
prartised by the iueiperienced. 

C^iaalio' of lie SrtpiroliBH.—The circulation aod the reapi- 
ration are ao rouncctcd, that what ia true of the one in likely to 
be true of the other. I1ie tests of respiration^ — the looking-glaii, 
and feather held to the mouth, and the cup of water placed on the 
client or nhilomen — are at Icaat as deiicate us those by wliich vt 


Mek to determine the ronlinaniiee of the heirt's action. It ii 
•cintlj poaaible thut respirution, bowover tecble, ahoalil take 
pimce, tod ;et escape detfction bj «ach mmna ; and jet to tbe 
sue or Colanel Townsbend, the glasa remained for » long period 
niuDiled. and no sign of reipiration could l>e detected. The 
•oapcniion of the lapiration, thCTCforo, la not a sure agn of 


Bat the jwnt cewitiaa of the ropiration and cirealation, 
vben pn)p«rly Hicertaiaed, woald prOvB the fact of dealh. 

Then (igiu are inpported lif the rnllowing, which, though not 
tt tbemaelvea ooncloaive, anpport each other. 

Abtmi» af 8ttt amd Jfoiion.— Thii ii common to BQipended 
anlmiUoii and rral dcatb ; and therefore anccrtain. The com- 
linstion i« nut rare in h;>teric femalca, and in the mesmeric 
dumbo-; but in these CBtea the fonctions of circulation and 
nQnintt;iTnpledIf,nnen combined with a vibrating 
it of tbe eyelid, which forms an exception to the general 
rnlc of iminobllity. 

The Faeiet BippoenUiee. — This pecoliar eiprowion of count«- 

nanoe, combiniDg the sonkea eye, aharp no«e. pointed chin, 

bolloir temple, prominent cheek -Inne, projecting ear, and 

wrinkled brow; the dry liiid skin, and the wliite powdered hair 

I df the DortriU and eyebrowi ; i* a trivial andnnaafe lign oF death, 

t open to tbe icnons objectioni : — 1. Thnt it iinenrly alwafanbscnC 

■ of luddcn death, and in the victims of acute dlnease. 

'' %, That it is preHnt in tbe dying aa well aa tbe dead, and even 

9 tbat hare rMmvered. 3. That it may be brought aboat 

by a stnnig impnasion nf danger, the appreheiMion of a dreadfnl 

pumihment, at the anticipation of certain death. And 4. That 

. when it etUta, it does not long survive tbe extinction of life. 

I a/the Egi. — A teoaciouB glairy mucos on the corjunc- 
1, earning; ■ Ioh of tranaparency in tbe eye, and a collapsed 
■ nd minkled comea, are among tbe beet and eailieat of the trivial 
IS of death. But they are not concluure ] for, on the one 
1, tbe conjunctiva may be invested by a miicona Sim and the 
eye may Iom i(a briiliincy in tbe living, nnd, on tho otlicr hand, 
In death Irom apoplrxg, cariontc add, and pruiric and, the eyea 
nay omitinne brilliant and prominent for a long time. Putre- 
hction, too, or a ferment introdnced into the stomach, by dis- 
tenifing the bod; with gaa, rends blood la the head, and makes 
lb* ejea brilUant and prominent. (Nyateu.) 

Stat* «f tht alin. — Pallor, owing to absence of circuhition j 
Utid (fucoIlKii'iDM, doe to the anbildence of the blood ; and 
Ion tftlcHicilg, have been mentioned among the slgvia of dcaiU. 




nd be abnot m M«an] S 

« KBhrMoc Snd, BBd tban k 

of the bo4;. Bat iM of iliililily k k nOoaUe ^i^ 
*ci7 carij dnJBped. 

£rtiw*>M> < JbtcmUr inritoWi^.— Thk lot aw Cnt 
tiiMedb;N;alc(i;«aliiB«rtaangnafdeatli. U>' 
bna nd tMtBd b; pmuttate or b]F tb ^ 
DO coDlnrtka, tbe 104; >• d<^i bM it* 
iwirf other rf Efc<wwwnt itwH BoMatbd hw nvtMlj 
Toailcd it bothHao^ oTdntKaDd umncu* ofdcbn 
i^ HiiamJMtinlj tb« *rte c< the deatk. Be itatc* Ibtt 
electric ciataliE^ aaj eooliaaa tbite boon after death, 
the notatafily cuti, it tnfiatei eithtr &£■ or ranat dfatfc j 
it fbond toeut tman than ten boon after life ia nf^ae» 
be otiMt. tt iadkalaa iti fniatwim Bj lUe method 
mat death hrtj-ttmr Inan aft« 

Aau^ the trirlal a^nB ef death, the lenre of tb*r thaab 

aooB the poha of Ibe band h^ be BeatiaBed. It eiw 

tUa podlkD hOa* adnnie rigifl; temm (^ bat it ia uaabr^ 
eaaitnettd dariag Bfr in eattin i^aBBeAe aT ' 

Till fie 1^1 «i. Hgne do not Mppl}' the ■ 

t, ii> ia th* « 
vMe hodf. nn berans nbL Bmh the e 
«Uhtlbt>dMtbi and *>«a the tntend perU CDuI do«B.'M k 
4««» ^thtfMldaiM of the breath i aadu Iiagtb, »hn liic ie 
«MMt, enn part bcnoa mU. Bot ea. eo the oa* bu^ 

h tbe lulf lAan p 

1 the other, after ntibn and liotaM 
•iih it* faMl nfj •k-l;. the tatae at 
aaa^a hui natanlka of brat. «ilk. 
OulMjaU-rr ^ <rf B6^ bla alao bora «hMrt^ lo lak* |lMi 
' ' \hj ckiteai u4 Mr. Sana; bm ehTaB iktf '« ■ 



d dug Idlled bj (tnrrtuiii, the tcmperatari! rose one or 
M *A<T life WW eitinct. 

liBCtioo of auiaial heat ■ gnre m<»m of ile- 
leof dmtbi Tor the rate of cooling of tie bodj- 
igc, the ODM of dejtii, the treatioent of the 
w tUt« of the ■un»pbeni ; bo thnt Che period 
f Tirj from two or tliree boura lo Sfleeii or twenty, 
I extend to apmrdi at Gwr ikj s. 
i uoU ilowlir when cloUied niid eipoaed to s wttrm, 
B, qiuekl; nben eipneed naked to ■ draft of cold 
■ with It* bnt more ipeedlly in water than in air. 
ii «m1 dentfa bj hKoirirrhnge or clmmic Uiseiun, 
idiiig; jootb uul rienur, corpoleaee, aud acate 
'j death retard it. In peraona dying of the aame 
animal heat la, «rtn-u paribHi, oa the 
k which it pnnea fatal. In chroiiic dUeitei, the 
t* wfUi noA of ita heat durini; lifr. 

It medico>legiI vian wLidi have Intclj occurred 
r. iseo, Doidge. Uuxltivr the Sweep, and Jeasa 
t, 1862), Irara ■howD the necvaait/ of eumioing thia 
■• daelj, with a view, if pooaible, of determining the 
ling of the dead bod;r. and the time of death. Ac- 
r Dn. Taylor and Wilka bare recorded a lerie* of 
I on bodiea tranaferred traai the warda of Gny'a 
^Ib* daod-booM. Ont of 100 obaenatlons m made, TO 
a philoaopbical incjoirj, and the Tacti, when aub- 
il eiomiDation and iinalyaii, are found to jield 
e mdta. The bodie* when lemorod from the 
I dead-hoaae, were platied in on open ahell, and 
a aliitt, ahitt, or ibL-et; and trom the tiuie of 
ad-honae the terapfratore of the akin of the 
nained at varioiia auecVHive inurvala, by the 
I ooDiplete ohaerratioua, recording the tenipe- 
t tbe vonb and di«d-bauae, oa well m of tlie body, mid 
r llw pniod from Febronry to Jane, IB63, gnve 
a range (ruoi BO" Ui 6B° Falir., and fur the dead- 
W fM«B 3^ l« fii^. Though aeveral of the DbatrvdClooa 
■I to IVOB 16 le so boon, the body, in t» oec, fell to tlie 
« of tb* oir. the uearfat approach to it being in the 
a giri Bt. 19. who died uf plilhuiia, and in whoiD lb honra 
W dtalh the temperature of tlia body bad tkllen lo S^ , l\int 
" " " ' a> bnng 48". It ii tlair, Ihon, that the cooUnR 
a wbta eormd oalj ly e ainfflu layvr Ol vMa,\\ 

V piocrm, Mud t 


dot hed, or in bed, and id * room of roodent« tampentiira. it 
would be anmAonabte to rapwt the cooling of the bod; till Iba 
UpM of upwurdi of 2i boura at tlie very \eaat. It dq^ iko 
to be unilentood Clint tbo ttnuperature of the bod;^, when Ant 
ascettAined two lioura after death, in 18 instances prowuled ■ 
maiimum of 88°, » miDimum of 76°, and a mean of aSP; (ks 
that on an average the rato of cooling ii about one degree ptr 
boar. If then, in uij case, we auiime the teniperataia of tbt 
abdomen at death to have been 90°, and the temperatora of At 
■if 60'', it would not be reasonable U> expect the tempentOM af 
the abdomen to have fallen to that of the air till the lapae flf at 
least 30 boura. Theae Btatcments nre the result of an am^ai 
which we have made of the facta contained in tlie tablea,' Stt 
theto facta and inferences must be applied to iBdlTidnal omcb 
with great cnution ; tor not only have wa erery varietj of ome 
of death (both disease and accident), hut an unuaiial eipomra of 
the body; and a rate of cooling, which thongh on an arerage 
about a degree an hoar, wai in some caaca as low as }°, and in 
othera HI high as 2^, 3°, or even *". 

Bj Bxtrsoting from the tables the case* of death by « 
right in number, asaaming the rute of cooling from the p 
death to the date of the first observation to Ildtc been eqnal to 
thlt nibuiiUGntly ascertained, and disregarding the oscertallMd 
t«inpetatnra of the dead-house, I bare oblAined the following 
fljprei as applicable to death by violence, followed by free t\- 
posnre of the body to the air with a single light covering : — 
average temperature of abdomen at dcatli, 83°; range of teinpe- 
ratnre of abdomen at death, 79°— 89°; rate of cooling per hour, 
aboot 1", or Bpproiimalively 13° in 11 hours, Tliese are the 
ntoaTprecUc data wo now potoess appUcahle to cases of violent 
death; and we cannot approilmalc nearer to the truth than bj 
aMoming a temperature ut deatb of 83°, and a rate of cooling 
per hoar of more thin one degree if the body is eipoecd, or les* 
tban one degree if it is clothed. 

The nse of the thermometer may be very properly imisted on 
in everj case, na much more satisfactory than the senrationa of 
the nbiervcr: and it is not to be doubted that very incorrect 
inferences nmj be drawn from the sensation of cold at imparted 
lo the band of an observer on touching the hands or feet, the 
nose or ears, of a corpse rwentlj dead. A moii must have little 
eiperience of living bodies who docs not know what a senntion 

• 'On the Cooling of tht Hamm Boflj airr Dwilh,- Bj I>r. Alfttd 8. 
TMjIot and IM. WUtoi ' Maft HoiBlltl a«vort»; Ol\. V«a,v. W*. 


le after Ufa 

Vf icy coldnMSmay be imparted to the warm baud hj c 
>l4th tbe linnds or feet of another. 

Ciulaptric r^idilg — Bigor nmrlit. — Fo 
a sppureuUy oitjuct, tbe miuclea contiiv 
{timuUtod. The eiCreme daratjon of thin irrituUlity, 
tte moKlee of TOlnntary niotion. does not exceed tvo 

; Bud wben it ceawa, caduTBnc rigiditj sets in. Tlie ex- 
MrimBtit«of Valpianand BrowD-S^qiurd abaw tbat this irrita- 
Xolity of the muicles Uita laager in a low temperature thilii iu a 
fctgher one t >nd the kit-oamoj aothor proved by cipcrjmeat 
'bat both the contnctlllty of the mnules miglil be restored, and 
■* ligiiUly of the corpse be destroyed for a time by injecting de- 
ed arterial blood, or aerated venooi blood, into the vesKlsi* 

^ it the rigor mortis may be hastened by ethunsting the 

ttiiUnlity of tbe mosclee by powerful and repeated galvanic 

Thii pbenomenon occurs in ail chuses of Koimolg alike, and is 
^ba Hnt certaio evidence of death. It malies its appearance 
ijoag before the body haa cooled, and commcnL-ea in those pnrtii 
rihat low their heat the latest It mxj even set in before the 
llwart hat eeaiad to beat On the other hand, it may be delayed 
t»Ofity-four hours or more 1 and it may lust fori few minutes or 
Jbr aereral days, or even as long as two or three weeks. Its 
1a in the musciss, and it is dao to the Eoagnlation of the 
ie plaaiDa, and the formatioD of myoHO, or muscle fihrin. M the moaclei remain entire, the lia:ibt eontinue iu- 

flluble. tuteiB great force be used; bat when they are cut or 
Ikmii Ibe rigidity c«ues. It takea ptacu in all positions of the 
ilniik tud limbs, without cbanging those positions. It shows . 
nwir snceessively io the muscles of the bock, of the bead and < 
lotrer jan>. iu those of the face, in those of the neck and chest, | 
la tbe utDS, in tho tegs : and it disappears nearly io the same I 
OTderj the nuscles of the lower eitremity oflen remaining rigid j 
when those of tlie tmnk and upper extremity havo rennmed thor • 
U 'jUate of rdaxHtiDn. It is entirely ind^ieadeiit of the nervous 
fftam, for it comes on after the uerves have ceaaed to be excited 
jr tb« galvanic fluid. Adiviaon of the nerves, even the removiil 
if tbe brain, doe* not prevent it ; and in death from npoplciy or 
■ I, the paralysed limb is affected in the samo way, and 
Qe Mtent, as the sound one. It is strongly markud 
n luoscolar sulrjeots, and, as a general rule, it 
it seta in late. In death by lingering diseasea, 
■ Btf Brnnaft Cuanh Intom on ' Life sad Death' fur tmftui fiuta cllvd la 




killed kts^H 
mtucijlar Coli- 

■ninttla OTer-driveo or haiited to death, 
& battlo, and in perioiM eitiiuitad by cnnTalniani (Sarorjr). 
mn; even set in iminedlatelj after deatb, so that mtucijlar 
traction pasaea into the conilition of miucular rigiditj, witliont 
the occnrrenoe of an intermediate itsge of relBxalion. This con- 
dition bu been termed ' cadaveric spasm." The Ki»*ni of 
■trjrchnia poisoning ii siud to para thai directly into eadiverio 
rigidity, though Mine recngaiw ■ abort intervnl of n'UxatioD. 
It is not an unusual occurrence in cases of violent and sudden 
death, especially where there lia» been great nervouB excitement. 
It has been apecinlly obiierved in some ciues of death in battle, 
in which the very attitude and eipresHon at the moment of 
death are retained, and weapons are found grasped in the hand. 
And as the soldier will he tbnnd grasping bia rttle in tbe act of 
taking aim, wo will the suicide or murdered penoD be found 
olatching tbe object ho held tbe moment before. Thia fact ia of 
great importance in a medico-l^nl point of view. Thai, n ramr 
or pistol found firmly grasped in the hand of a dead man vogld 
aObrd a strong presumption of suicide. It could not be saceen- 
ftilly imitated by a mnrderer. The cause of tbia sadden trann- 
tioD of spasm into cadaveric rigidity is not tatiafactorQy mada 
out. On the other hand, in death by acate inflammation of the 
itomoch or viscera, by irriliint piHsona, whether mineral, vtge- 
table, or aerial (provided tboy exert no apeci6c inSuenee on tbe 
eontrat-tlle powers of the muscles), tbe rigidity is for the most 
part slow in making its appearance, strongly developed, and laita 
for a considerable time. After death from cholera rigidity is mid 
to oDmmence very early, and to last four or Hvc days. 
alow in showing itself in death from apoplexy, lunno; 
wounds of the heiirt, decapitation. Injury of the spinal ma) 
and asphyxia. lis dumtion in poisoning by carbonic acid is 
considerable, and in one case Nysten found that it 
seven days. On the other bond, in poisoning by sulpliuretted 
hydrogen, rigidity doea not occur; and Caiper alleges that it 
other does not tjike place after narcotic poiaoning, or las ta a veij 
short time. It is iligbtly developed, and of short continoance, 
in tbe new-bom inbnt. A low temperatore, and recent indul- 
gence in spirits, are mentioned by Casper as bronrable to ths 
paraistenoe of cadaveric rigidity ; and in thou cases where it 
laaU longest be has (bund it to coexist with patraflictive cbaogM, 
— (' Handbook,' vol. i. p. CO.) 



CWhTBric rigiditj cannot be mistakun Tor the stiffness caused 
by inteiue cold, nor for any other conclitioa of the dead body. 

The muoular rigiditj present during lift; in saoh diseases as i 
catalepsy and tetiiau', is readily distinguUlicd from csdnvoric 
rigiditir by forcibly bending thelimb: if due loa litid coatractlon, 
it rciumes its portion, which docs not happen in tbe rigidity at J 

Ri^dity, then, is a certain sign of death, and not to be con- 
founded with any state of the living body, and as it sBpervenes 
ftlter the eitincliim of mnscnlar irritability, it is a sure indication 
of the hopelsasness of attempts at nanscitatiDn. 

Coiiaerrie Lieidifif, or Sypoitiuii. — lliis, too, is an inriillible 
•igii of death, not requiring to be distiDgoished from any condition 
I af tbe living body. 

In the interval bitween tbe citinction of life and. the com- 

Deneement of palrernction, tbe body foils more and more under 

r tlie influence of physicnl laws. The tkin loses its olastidty, and 

ts ArmuesB, and tlie blood, which nas equally diatrihuteil 

I tlirough the body, now gravitates towards the most depending 

irU. Beno) tlm pslenesa of some parts and the deep violet 

lit of others, the discoloration of tbe occiput and back, and of 

e lowsat lying parts of tbe intestines, lung>, and brain. There 

■coloarcd patches begin to form, on the average, in from 8 to 

i hoars after death. Tbe seat of the lividity Is determined hj 

le poaturs of the body, so that if it be placed on the face, it will 

I 'Donipy the anterior part of the body and of tbe viscera. If again, 

I aner disrolorations have formed on the back, the body be turned 

I while stilt warm, and before the blood has coagulated, tbey will 

■ Jiwppenr. These diicotorutions are often very extensive, and 

1 vhen the body lies on a cmooth snrbce, nnifonn in tint ; but if 

I the tnriiKe is uneven, the disculorations are interrupted and 

I faregolar. Tbe pressure of tbe clothes prodnces the same efiect ; 

I ao that a atrele>s observer might mistake tbe marks of clolhea 

I Ihftened ronnd tbe neck for tbe effect of strangulation, or isolated 

I pttchea for severe bruiics. 

1 The extent and amount of discoloration are proportioned to tbe 

I foanlity of the blood, so that its prevalence through the whole 

I body indicates a general falness of the vascular system, and rice 

•rriif. Sodden death, unattended by low of blond, is characteriied 

by eitennTe lividity ; but lividity is not al^ent even in cases of 

death from bmiuMTbage. 

This mbsideuce of tbe blood explains the diminished intennty 
I of colour in parts which had been tbe seat of the less severe and 
^ non* iiSate fbrma oC inOamniatioD. Bat tbe appetnnoa ^to- 



doced by mcfa amt« inflammation lu foIk>ira hanu 
blistera, and itrong fTictioii, and the action of the more r 
UTitant pouoni oa the intenml paHA, are pcmuaeat, ■ 
diatincl in the dead bodf • 

I Cadaveric liiidity must oat be mistaken for ecchj 
1 eitravaaliini into the ciitanemu titcues. the mult of iijaj. 1 
I The; are eaiil; diitinguiahod from each other by making u I 
tineiaioD into the diieolonrcd tpot. In hypotlaui tkc cnt sm * 
jwill exhibit a lev puHcia crvrnta, or blixidy points, which ai 
lopni moatha oT naall blood-veiaelB. while in eeebymaoB the 
anil be found diffused into the cutHncoui tiisaet. 

A* hypoatui* con«iBt< >iui[i1y in the graritittion of the blood, 
whether extenuilly in the ikin. or ioternally in the viacera, it i> 
of importaiioe that tbi> vuKularity of the internal parti ihould 
not be miatalien for the tigm of iudamraation. Mistukea of tliit 
Idnd have been maile in reference lo the brain, lungi, and 
intertinal canal. 

In Gonneiion with this subject of the luhridence at the blood, 
it will be neceanry to notice the foogulation and ccmieqiMit 
wpaiation of the eonstituenta of the blood which takes platwaAw 
death. Thii subject was ably treated by Sir Jimce Paget, in ■ 
paper published many yean nnce.* He there abows that tiw 
blood contained in any cavity or tcskI of the body at the tima rf 
death, rosgoLites as it would do if drawn into a bann, or ottNT 
Teasel, daring; life ; that the part of tbe blood which occnpiea Iba 
bigbeat position in the body, like the bnffy mat of inSammatka 
* luod drawn during life, is leiut coloured, and that whidi Vet 
St the mosti that such highest portion may lie like a nearly 
urleas jelly, wliile the lowest has a deep blue or blnck colour ; 
that this port-mortem separatJon is distiagoishable from ainuhtr 
aeparations during Ufe, inasmncli as the Utter adhere in lajen 
(as in tlie sac of an aneurism) to the containing cavity or veasel ; 
■nd lastly, tlut, in most osca, the blood does not congnlate in 
the body till the lapic of tVom four to sii. eight, or more Loon, 
but yet coa^lates within a few minutes of being let out of tha 
veawls. Sir James farther shows that these phenomena of posl- 
mort«ni ooagutatioD may have a pmctical application in deter> 
mining the postnre in which the body wns left for some time 
alter death ; and he give* in illustration the case of n man riffer- 
ing from eicessivc dyspncea, who died sitUiig up with hi* head 
mling on bis knees, and so remained for three or four hours 
after death. The relative position of the constituents of the 

3 tbe Cosvulatioi 
riJ. p. fl». 

of the BlDod alter Death ; ' LoaaoD Medical Gaii 

_ ik, the emet rerene of that ninally obrerTed. joBtified the 

opinion eipmud before the fat-ts of the caw were kuown to 

r Jouin, that the bodj had not b<ieD laid out jn the aaviul 

B««idi9 tbe*e diacotoratiaiu cuuiied by the blaodwhi«li foUowa 

e eoone of the vevehi, there are otben due to truisurlBtiou. 

Wine the parts in contact with the gBll-hladdBr are deeply tinged 

iritb bile ; uid the eye ihrints from the tmngndatioa of the 

■ijueoiu hooiour. 

Pulrefaetian. — The chrODOlogical aeqnence of the phennmena 
cbaracterLilic of putrefkctioii, both cit«rnnlly nnd intornally, hu 
' lutoly described by Ciisper, and may alTord lomu indica- 
tion of the time that haa etapaed «nce death. 

External phfiomeHa.—The Bnt lign in point of time is the 
well-known greeniab ducoloration of the abitoiDen. This may 
take place in (rom one to three da^t after death. Within ihe 
le period the eyeball becomai soft, and yielda to the preunre 
tbe finger. After three to Jlre daye the green coloration 
hu become deeper, and spread orcr the catire abdomen, inch). 
of the geuitala, on which the coloor ia of a dtrty brown, 
peen appearanco. At the aaaie time liLrgc or small patches of 
gnen begin to make their appearance on other parts, p.irticuljrly 
OD die hack, the lower ettremities, the neck, and ildct of the 
(dicst. Ga* i> developed in the abdomen, and in consequence a 
qnaotity of bloody froth begins to exude from tbe month end 
Id about eight to ten dnye the discoloration baa become 
r. and tbe strong odonr of pntrefHCtion is well developed. 
The abdomen is distended with gs*. The cornea hai fallen in 
oncave. The sphincter aoi ii relBied. In certain 
jMrti of tbe body the cntaneons reins are seen as red cotdi in the 
nidit of patches of paler ooloor. fiiurlem to twealy daj/i aller 
death, the body has become greenish-brown throughout. Tbe 
vtHdermis has become raised and peeled off io palirhes, Tbe 
and thorax are blown up. Tbe cellular tissue is like- 
Inflated, so that the body has a gigantic uppearance. The 
ires arc completely oblitented. Tlio penis is enormously 
.#wonen. Tbe nails are loose and cnsily ditachid. The hair ia 
•1m 1uas« and easily pulled out. 

The iDbseqaent progress of the pntrcfactire changes is very 
ariable, acoording to the tempeintnre and the medium in which 
IB body lies. This hct is recognised by Caiper, who states that 
body tti odriuicnl in putrrfiiction, "at the expiration of one 

I wilb certainty be diitinguishcd from one (ea' 
iribtu) U the endof 3-S months." 


Theont stage ia thiit of CuUiqaalive Puirrfaelion. ^^^^ 

Tlie thorax and ubdainen have bnrst open. The nitartB of 
the ikuU jiuld. TliB orbit* ate empty, and the tiasDc* gencmllj 
have lic|ii(:Sed, and Ufl the bonus ripaaed. TlieH ultimately 
separate tnna destrndion of the ligamenta. 

Infental. — The inttmal changes Best maniTest themaelvei in 
the moooui membrane of the larynx and trachea, which, in from 
3-B dajs in summar, and 6-8 day* in winter, becomes of a dirtj 
cherrjred or brawniBli-r^d coloar, and nltiniately an olive-greea. 

The varions nrgaiis putrefy with diflerent degreei of rapidity. 

The atomach putrefies at an carljr period. In tioai/bTir ta 
til dnya after death dirty-red patches appear on the poaterior 
VfuU, and gradually exleodover the whole interior. The mnootu 
membrnno becomes soft and pulpy. These changes are soue- 
tiuira mietulieu for tlie etTects of corrosiie poisoDs. 

Neit follow the intcstiaea ; then the apleenj after this, Uie 
liver, which, however, mny reranin firm snii compart for aome 
months after death. Futrefdction commencca with a green 
eolonr in the diaphragmalic anrface. Tlio bnun follows next. 
It collnpies after death, and putrefaction commences in the line 
of the vesaeli, from withoat inwirdi, proceeding from the beae. 
In lao io Ihree weeks it Iwoamea qnite diffluent. The brain ef 
children, however, is the first organ to be destroyed by pntrehe- 
tion. The henrt and Inngs rcaat putrefaction for n long period, 
nnd traces of disease arc distjnipiiabahle in them long alter other 
organs are quite decomposed. Orlila detected pneumonia 37, 
and signs of pBrirarditi* &7 days nfterdeath. The kidneys raslat 
patrefaction for a long time; the bUdder, the osophsgns, anil 
pancreas remain still longer. Hie diaphragm may be lUatin- 
gaished even after four to sii months. 

The otems rctists putrefaction longest of all. It still remaliu 
comparatitely fit for eiamination when all the other organs ar* 
far beyond that stHte. It cnahlea us to distinguish the eei oiler 
the complete ileatraction of all the other soft parts. 

Cas|«r nilatea a case where afar aiotilii nfler death the uterus 
woa found in a lit itate for ciami nation, so that he could antwoF 
the question whether the deceased were pregnant at the time, 
and this after all the other vitcera were completely gone, and the 
bonn almost arparated from each other hy the process of cnlU- 
quativii pnlrefactinn. 

3/adifieolieiu qf tht Futrrfaftive Froctn. — I . Ssponillcatian 
— Adipoccrc — Instead of passing through the rnriouB stages 
ahora described, the lisfnea mny become snponitied, and be H 
KerteU into ibc sahstance known us adipocere, Thb W" 

d Ur^I 




lilT tnnifonnntioD of dead bodie* wm tirat obscived by Four- 
cmy, at the end oT the lut rcnturr, during t)ie temaval of 
bodies from the Cemcti^rc dc* lonoceiu at Paris. Adipocere has 
an appeanare ioUmiediale l^tween fat and »n>, and hcuce the 
nune giTBn lo it. It ii a while or browoigh, >ofl, nnctuons sab. 
■lance, which becomei lighter and harder when dried. It con- 
idlta of a Bliidn of fiitty acid with ammonia, ao an to farni an 
mmmonia^ ntap. Occuionallj the aDHDoniacal btue may be re- 
placed l>v calcium, bo a« to form a lime aoap. Thi* occur* espe- 
eiaU} in calcoreoiu aoila, aod Doder the influence of watvr oon- 
tainiiig ■ large proportion of lime taltM. It is aoppoBed to be 
Ibrmed by tlie union of the ammonia given off by the decompori- 
tion of the Uonei with the htly acida of the decomposing Tnta. 

There ii no trace of ttmcture in ftilly formed adipocpre. 
though fngments of unsaponiGed liuue may be mixed with it. 
II remain! for many jean nnchanged. 

The fbmution of udipocece depends on the presence of fat; 
and hence it i* found more particularly in the fatter parts of the 
body, and mora readily the fatter the body. The bodies of chil- 
il«n undergo the trauaformatiun into adipui'ora more ooailj than 
of idolt*. 

neceasarj for saponificaHon. The 
only takes place in bodies which have been lying in water 
damp soil. The time required for saponification of a body 
filed rales c»n bo laid down r^ard- 
rungty supposed tliat a period of thirty 
M;essary to causa the traiuromiation. Devergie 
le year ia rceesaary to came the taponiecation of a 
\j lying in waler, and aWut three years if it is buried in a 
Dp aoL Casper thinks that the farmation of adipoeere ia not 
ily to OtOTlr to any considcrahlB eitent in leu liian three to 
water or half a year in moist earth, though it 
ly hi*e commenced at a mocb earlier period. In souie cases 
may be oUened in the space of five weeks in bodies Boating 
niter (Taylor). 

Rarely doea the violr body bceome saponified j but many 
exatnplea of this complete tmntformution were found among the 
large number of bodies disinterred while Inyiug the foundations 
of King'a Collrge Honpit 

■ jlhcr condition . _ ^ 

Instead of undergoing 

m wlBqiiatiTa putreAictian, or becoming sapoidfied, the body may 

IB dried up or mummiflpJ. The name lufllcieiilly indicates 


r eertain perulUr 

nulher condition nf the body may mult 

W appesrauco which the body u 

. The whole body becomes 

I I H I iir*— fct 

<^ 1^ j«&* kaaAi Ai'aun it^rsx miib or anote potn- 
> ■&«««(. A T^ nmM jtf «>r kH tke WW cfcct bj 

>>«ik«, t« raUi^iC enponCiaa a> IcB thu bf 

Aeet*t of Air. — Thattlie preunce oT atmospheric nir promotes 
palnJactimi ia bIiowd bj the clow deielopiuent of ^gaa tluit take* 
place wben blood or flab U introdooed into ■ veeel throagh 
tncnmr^r, to m to eicloile nil the air which iloea not attach to tha 
■obatance introduced; aba, on tiie other band, b; the preservation 
I of Bob in atmoapberes not containiug oij-geo, Boch aa bydrogen 
nd nitrogen ; leas completely in ntmospherea in which oi_vf;en is 
Dhemically comUned Mith lome other ^na, na in carbonie acidand 
Hntroiu a^ ; oUo in atmoapberei Itllcd with vapoan that abtorb 
DBJgen, iDch u turpentine. Oijgen, tnkeu aepiiBtclj, promotca 
t pBtrefiictioii more than an; other gas, but when comtntied with 
tftrogen, si in the stmosphere, it* actiiit; is greatly incTesseO. 
Bat It must be rcmenibered Chat the liree iicceM or air also affords 
the moat fiivonrnble condition for the nccesii to the body of the 
g«not, which are now generally regarded as the actire agenta in 
die pntrsfactiTe procen. 

Unt, moiitare, and free aeceas of air, then, are tho conditiona 
»o«t faTonrahle to pntretaction ; and in judging of tho time at 
Wbich death took place, we should well weigh the amount of 
InfloBDce neb of thise agent* baa brongbt to bear on the result. 
Prriod, Plact, and Mode of /aiM-HWuf.—PerioJ.— Bodies 
intrtfT much more speedily in «r than in the ground. Uenrc 
"i« longer interment is dehiyed, the greater the cliangcs they 
Thut. Orflla obierree, that if, during summer, a Imly 
eipoeed for Ave or ui dajs, and then interred, it will h 
Mde^oue at the end of ■ month aa much ehange aa it wonid 
'' ' ie at the end of seven months, had it been interred 

-In dry elevated iitaationa, pntrefiiction goes on slowly : 
■ low awampj grunods, rapidly. Soil. — ^A dry sbaorbent toil 
retards, a moist one accelenites, pntrefaction. In sand or grarel 
Uw change goes on slowly, and adipocere is mrely met n ith : 
marl or clay, and in hxxa mould, especially tliat which is impre 
aatad with animal or vegetable matter, moreijuickly (uiccpt pvat, 
whiri retards putrefaction). The deeper the grave, cattru 
fotibut, and tho more com[Jetely the body is defended from 
air by clolhet or coffin, the slowor the pntrefaction. It Ii rapid 
wb«ra Iba builj is in contact with the soil, but reiy slow wliirc 
it is buried in a coffin bermetiially sealed.* 

.i^>.— Otber things bdng equal, the bodies of children putrefy 

■ Coanll Orflla's 'TralU dia GihioutioDa jDridlqen,' snd Dner 
- XM^iDii Ul|(al>,' which coiilBlaa (ha marrow of (>rais'sobHr»ti>>n>. 

sM lM|>«r-t Huidbs«k,ivl, I. p, 30: 


more cpeedll; than those of adnlu itni) aged pcnoni, and the 
bodJM of old penoni more npidly tbui thou of adult*. 

Sex. — According to Orfllu, piitrefactioD U more npid in wotiieii 
than in men. He attribuW* this to tha greater qoantity of &t 
which they conliJa. an eiplanation vhicb, though not quite 
utufsctory, agrees with the fact thnt the corpulent pntrety more 
readily thun the lean and emaciated. Cnaper. who dispola the 
inHuence of aei, obicrvea that the bodies oF women dying dnriog. 
or soon after cliild-blrth, putrefy very rapidly. 

Condiiion of Bodg and CauM of Drath. — Putreftction takea 
pUce moat speedily in bodiea filled with Ruid. Acoordlnglj, it is 
very rapid after sodden death, and death from acute diaeate 
(f^. 15 boura in a woman dying from hydrophobia in mid.wintcr 
— Sauvage) ; slower after death fronj hiBtDnrrba^, nod froni 
(jirooie diieaae, nulesa camp1ii»ted with dropaj, or extcuaira 
■truetural cliange, as in typhiu, and typhoid forera, amaU-pi)i, 
eryidpelu, &c. 

What ia true of the entire frame, i« troo alao of paiU of the 
body ; for tboae which are full of fluid at the time of death, 
through iaflammatJOn, congestion, or dropsy, woundti or bruiaea, 
pDtrety more rapidly than heal t)tj and entire structures. In some 
instances, aa in low fevers, puticfactiun atlacki the extremities 
beibre the trunk hu ceaied to live. 

II wai ftmnerly believed tliat the bodiea of porsoni destroyed 
by ptnaon putrefied very rapidly ; but this is now known to be a 
tnislnlie. Caiper specifies phosphonia, alcohol, and sulphuric add, 
u poiwna that retard putieiiiotion, and though be daises Emoke 
and carbonic add with sulpliurptted hydrogen and nnrcolic poiEon^ 
W hMteniog it, it nppeors from three casei reported by Devo^ie, 
tiut in death by carbonic acid tlio process u decidedly retarded. 
Arsenic^ and the utlier mineral polnnns, act aa antiseptics. Animal 
•nd Tegetnble potaona have probably no effect either way ; but 
pefMDi killed hy tliem putrefy rapidly, as in other cases of speedy 
daalb. There is reaaon to believe thnt putrefactiou takea place 
with nnunul rapidity in animiUs driven soon after a mcsl and 
■lying sudilvnly ; in men dying suddenly during violent eiortioo 
•ltd in Kildien killstl Ute in battle. i 

Fminfiudioa in Water. — Mure dependence is to be placed on 
tbo cril«ria laid down thr deterinii]iiig tho period of death uf 
bodies which Lavs rcmxlned in the water, than of those exposed 
to Uu air or interred, for the obvious rcssons, that tho temiiera- 
iurs of tho water is more nniforni, and the body, nnles when ft 
l« the surfacv, ia prottctcd from the air. A* Deveii' 
~ 'al poutiou at thu I'ariti Morgue has given hiui unM 


taiu of obieTTRtion, ploeei much rGliincc on the algm by which 
I period of death li determined in the drowned, the foUoning 
Knint bated upon hi« de*cri)itiaD a mbjoimid : — 
Tb« bodies of the dniwDed ire sutiject, like those who periib 
Ib other ifRvi, h> lo» of heat and rigiditjr, and to pulrefactioB, 
but ia * moditled form, accompanied bj the fbrmstion of sdipocere. 
Ooe of the fint chingea, which nmy be seen us tarl} as tlie tiirii 
or /ovrth day, eonaiBU in bleacbiog of the Aia of the bands. 
M the end of a icetk the bod; is found sopple, and the sVin of 
Ute p&luu of the handi very white. A msek to tiutlre dayi of 
lBimer«oii bleaches the backi of the hands, and suflens and 
Uwiche* the fare. At tkumd of a fortnight the bands and fwt 
wre Uaiirbed and wrinkled, the fnce alightlj' awullea witli spota of 
red, and the middle of the stemoui hag a greenish tinli. At Ike 
rn4 of a mon/h Ihe hands and fiwt are uompletely bleached and 
wrinkled as if b,v a poultice, the ejelidi and Iip« are green, the 
rt*t of the face reddiih-hrown, and the front of the chest pruaents 
a krge patch of grecu with a reddish -brown spot in the centre. 
At lie twi cftao moiif A«, the bee is awolten and brown, and the 
bun an bnt aligbtl; adherent: mDcb of the skin of the hands 
■ad leet is detached, bat the nails have not separated. At imo 
notUlU omI a haif the skin and nuls of the bands are detached, 
and tlie akin of the feet, bat the toe-oails still adhere. In the 
fcmaU, teddlsh discoloration of the subcutaneous cellular (isauo 
«f the neck, of that wbicb surrounds the tmoheo, and of the 
organ* oootained in the cavity of the chest ; partial •npooificatioo 
of Uie eheeks and chin ; snperlldul saponiScatJon of the mammai, 
tttaaxUla, and the anterior |inrt of the Ibigbi. At tkree iHOHt/u 
and a kalf, the skin and noils of the baud* and feet eAmpletely 
MnoTod i part of the hairy scalp, of the ej elida, and of tlio nusc, 
and tbt ikiu of many pnrLs of the body datroyed; and the face 
and Qpper part of the neck and axillie pjirtially tapatiiflcd. At 
Jbur montki and a half, nearly total saponification of the fat of 
Ihs fcee, of the Deck, of the aiiltK, and of the anterior part of 
tbe tllighl; commencing earthy incrustation of the tbigtui 
indpicnt saponification of tbe anterior part of the brain ; opaline 
•taM of the greater psrt of the skin ; almost entire separation 
■ad deatniMion of the hairy sadp; calirarium denuded and 
beginning to be very friable. 

Ai to more remote periods n 
j^ten; but Derei^e alleges that the above signs have been ri 
peatedly applied with complete success to bodies that had been 
in the waUr Ibr unknowu periods. 

Ib* lbr«g(niig detcription applies to bodies luimL'rsed during 


25S etniDts dbath. 


winter. Bodie* immened ia tmmwr nmlergo tlte m 
much mora rapidlj. Tbu. 6 to 9 boon in mnlna 
to 8 to 6 diji in «int«r; 24 boon to 1 to 8 dajraj 
8 to 12 dajri ; i daj* to IS d>rt. Tlim oo tbe aTcr^e tl 
chin^ JD nmmer take pitce Amid tbi«e to Gre a 
rapiiUj u in vinter, or even more prompllj thi 
cbangu io ipring und tatnicD htiag inUrmediate. 

That ilevelopmmic of gas witMn the bodj vhtcb cmoMi it to 
rise to the (orbce. takes place alowlf in iritit«-, and tbe body 
rarely floaU in Icai than nx weeki or two months. Bat tbe aame 
change take* place in (ummer from the l-Ub to tbe 16tb day, or 
even earher. In lonie inatancea the body becomea buoyant at a 
■nocb earlier period tbau either of thoK now indicated. 

Of tbe (nl^ect of pnb-efaction geaeially, u a meaiii of fixing 
the period of death, it ihoald be obaerred that it is, &am tbe 
natnre of thing*, inrronnded with difficoltieo, in canwqDence of 
the nutny elements that most have combined to produce tbeae 
change* in tbe body. So that we read withoat aarpriae tbe 
following atatcmenta:— "On tbe SOth March, 18M, I euunined 
the bodiea of foarteen men, almcat all ot the tame aj/e. 24-30 
years, preTiooalj occupying precisely the tame tocial potiliom 
(workmen of tbe lowest dau), all lying together in the tame 
pare of our dead-house, who had all met the laaie death, 
haling been shot oo the barrindea on thi> 18tb of March, and had 
all notonoosly died at tbe tame time." "And yet I can testify 
tint in no one case did the ugna of pntre&ction resemble those 
of another." (Caaper'a Handbook, vol. i. p. 33.) " An <dd 
coDpIc of aboot the came age, 50-60 years, were su&orated dar- 
ing the night by carbonic acid ga«. Up to the time of our 
Biamination, theae bodies bad been eipoaed to procisely similiir 
inBoence*, and yet, on tbe fourth day after death (in Norember), 
tlie body of tbe man waa quite green, both on tbe abdomen and 
tha back, and tbe trachea was browniBh-icd from putridity, Jte^ 
wbild bi* uncommonly &t wife was perfectly fresh both ontaide 
■sd in." (Ibid. p. 34.) In the face of facta like tbcie, we find 
botb Krencb and Uorman autbara cpcaking with much confldenco 
III the *al<ia of tlie signs of putrefncliou ; and Caiper Mmaelf 
Muting that at a similar average Icmperntnn! putrefaction in tb« 
ojion air. In water, and in a coffin, will have advsncod eijoallT 
after tha lapae of onr, two, and mgbt month* respectively. 


Tliat easM of sDddcn or apccdy death are not uncomnum my 

U inrt'irtd froio the but, tliat upwards of UOUU sudden dtaths 

0AO8E8 or 81T0DFH DEATH. 357 

ir jua by year in England and Wolei from caiues not a^er- 
er and nbnve Uio 13,000 returned ta duo ta viulcnt 
wliich tlw gr«ntor Dumber also belong to Ma cliiu. 
ui«j not nlnayi be p-jeible to ascertiiin Ihe true cnuse 
of deatli, senile advantsge innjr srue from a ditciuBiiiu of taaw of 
(be oiainioD chium of ludJen nnd *pei^y dcnth, coupled witU 
Mttie ucount of thi»e appeamncea In the boJy whiob are moit 
abarwtrmtic of difierent inodn of diaBululion. 

A ttmporary nitpennon of tbe Uenrl'i actioti i* thi chiof I'ign, 

pFiplitreiit death i a total arrest of its coutrtwtioiu U real deatU. 

Lm*"* "^ endowuienta of tbe blood and moiclee inrviie this 

a oT the circulation ; and llie liiii(CTing irritability of 

a brart itnir. and opedally of tbe right aariele, form) our 

and of hope in lutng inenn* of retoicitiktion. Thi* am- 

r total arreat of llie bcort'i action, or, in other words, 

or real denth. inay be bronght alHint by diSvrent caoGsa 

le act directly on Uie benrt, olbsn inilinwtly Ibrough 

» of fuddcn death wliiab act directly on the heart are 
I-l. Slrwtural diiHU'i of iKe irarl ittelf, and of the large 
. Nireou) liocki pnralgiiitg iU minelet, 3. Caiurf 
^effiti fpplt of hlooA. 1. Camet dfntroyinff the itinu- 
rf propeHji of the binod. 
[ 1- Tbe (trarliiral diieaw* of tbe heart nnd brge lestftt — 
irtropby, valvular dlteau, iiieiiriMn, and OKtificnlicm of llie 
•art, aorta, or coroiiary arteri™ — are reodily diicovered on post- 
Hrten examination. But there ii reiuou to believe tliat 
trophj and Eitty degeneration of the muKular tissues of the 
Mrl ara omHuiomlly overloaked. In two caaea relaUd by 
ir Jane* l^geli death reill; due to btty dcgeneratioti was be- 
~ ' "j> have been rauied by piiinn. 

lie nemma thocli* of lufflcient force to piral.vw tbe heart, 
oecMion inatsnt or apecdy deaih, may t>e cnuBod by itrung 
Men onotioni of fear and joy, by lightning aud tbo sun- 
by htavy blowe on tbe head or pit of tbe KlomiKb, by 
VKcrtion cttiutni; sodden effusion of blood on the bmin (of 
9tM e*ae liai rome under nor notice), by large di-afls of culd 
W (wallowed when the body is heated, and by a few of the 
« aetlva polioiis in fell ibue*. 
I. Ttic npply of blood ncceaary for the licart'ii action may be 

ffby profuK hieinorrhage. 
k Thf pn^per rontlitutlon of tbe blood may be destroyed me- 
nioUly by the admiitore of air intrmuircd into tbe veini 
Bring ojieiatiaiu on the neck, iboulder, or axiils ; nod cbeiiiuMUij 



35 S srsDEH DUTff. ^^H 

bj pcuons dirertl; introduced into tlie circnlatiim. Thu cosi^^^^ 
nation af tiie blood plBfa an intporliUit pnrt in death b; all icUve 
and deadly poitotu, wbetlier inhaled or snallowGd. 

Of the oiatet of sudden or ipcedy death whieli *ct indirect]; 
on the heart, the moat mmmoD a that arreit of drculntiou 
through the lim^ whii-h atteitdi (he levenl forma of mfibratioo. 
A limilar arrest is the iutennediale link between tb« leia aererc 
uerrous aliocki, and the nltimst^ arrest of the hearl'K nctiun. 

Serernl of the forefcning cnnses of sudden deatli are at once 
revealed b; a careful ioBpection of the bodj- ; but those iriueli 
have not giien rite to inir ttructunil change tna; yet ommJod 
nich DiBrled rbangii in the diitribution of the blood ihroagli the 
body, and in and abonC the btart, as to aid in in our ioqairics 
into the trae caoee of death. Thoi, death fma the rapid loo of 
blood would be indicated by pallor of the inrfnce, and tlie emptj 
and eontnicled state of all tbe ravltiea of the heart ; death fraa 
abork luddcnl; arreatini: the rirculation, by a distended state of 
all the ravitiea; and death fmin sufTm'BtiDn by violet patehet on 
the lurlnce, and dtitenriciD of the right side of the beml with 
dark bloud. 

The caiuea of ffidden death, and the post-mortem appeannm 
by which they are indicted, may be more fully discuoed by 
adoptiog the wcil-known ctuuiflcaiinn of Bit-hat — namely, death 
beginnit'g at the htad, ttmrl, mid lunffi respectively. 

Sailtleti Dealh eommtnriiiff at the Ileari. — Syieope.— Tbe 
pheRDDiEna which attend tbii form of death ai« :— Pnllor of the 
Ace and lip. cciUl swents, dl»ine>^ dimnesa of vision, dilaM 
pu[Hb^ gasjitng and tighinj; rnpirution, n sluw, wcnk, and irrepi- 
iir puW) to wliicti arc sometimes added nausea and vomiting, 
rntletsiicsa and toaing of the limba, tranment delirium and Don- 
TulsioiiB. On inxpccting the body, the tetsela generally are fbimd 
to contain little blood, and the heart to be nearly or quite empty, 
■nd eontncled. Thla empty tlnte of all the cavitin of the Itcart 
Mntraits alron^ly with their dislendrd state in the rare eases of 
death ori^uaIli>g in Ibe brain, and acting directly upon the 
lienrt ; and mil k-sa sttnngly tvllh the distended ciiiidilion of tho 
rigl.l lAAr at the liearl, and em]ily flate nf the lelt, wbieb occnra 
in death commencing in the lungs. 

jSdrfrf-H Death roammcinff al He J?end..— Injorlei to Iha 
DervTiTu reiitres irny act directly on the heart, and stop iti onn- 
ttniliuii-: or they may Rrst alTvct th« res{Hratioii by paralyaiag 
till' rr.|il™ii'iy niusotes. What the heart i« dirwlly affected, tha 

tcriiivd ita m 

', aisreted ■ 
E', corh lido of I 

I R>Lll i 




proportion of blood, and ftU tho »vitie» being di«tendeil from its 

(uddeii loH of power to propel its contenU. mode of denth 

hu Wu derignated mlietiui. Wlim, on tbe cootrary, tbe 

iDiuc1« of reipiration are parulysod, the poat-morlem appeannices 

will be thoee prewDtl; to be described under tbe bend uf apaiEa. 

Suddfn Death imnuteaeiKg at the Langt {Atphnri<i).—T\ie 

tern aspbjiia, literally taken, means pnlselcsaneai. It is now 

luderftood lo mean real or nppuront deutb duo to it auipenaion of 

la fonction of respiration,— a mode of death mnch better defined 

y the term apniea,* of which tbe fbUowing are the cbief eanses : 

i-1. Cti^tum of i)n aciioH of the tanKtei of Rupiraiion. 2. 

Ttfatioa of the action of the Lmgi Ihemeehai. 3. Sxelanon of 

Itfivm the Litp: 

'. Cauaiioa <^ Ihg Aelio* of the MatcUt of Eeij>iratio<naa.j 

lui to inertia of the ninacles themstlvhs, Irom cold or debility ! 

I htt of nermna iaJlueiKe, »a tVom division of tho upper part 

t tbe spinal cord, or of tbe pnenm<^atric snd phrenic uerves; 

ED tbe lightning stroke, and from apoplectic leiiures; to meeha- 

it rttlraint, as by pressure on the cheat or abdomen; or to 

ie tpatM, at in death Irom Tetanos or Hydrophobia. 

2. OetfaliQa of the Action of the Lung' maj be dne to a divi- 

if tbe eighth pair of neriea j or to a mucbanlcal obstacle, 

di u the admiisibn of air into the ptenrro, or the intmaion of 

lO ibdanuDal Titcem tbrongh a icound in the diaphragm. 

' 9. The partial or compute Exelurion of Atmotpheric Air 

' m the iMtgt may be brangbt about by the entire absetiee of 

. aa io a racnom ; or by its extreme rarefiiatioa, as on tho top 

rery lofty mnantaias. Tbe air, again, may be mechanically 

' idM, by a Ibreign body in tbe larynx, by sobmenion, sufloca- 

stranguUtion, or suspennon. Lastly, tbe place of tlie 

■phcric idr may be taken by an irrespimble gai, inch as 

or hydrogen. Tbcre are otijer gases which cuerclse a 

uinflnence, independent of the exclusion of nir. Of tbe^o 

« are intensely irritating, as tbe inlpburoos add gns, chlorine, 

nnouia i otben, tbuugh leas irritating, are not less fatal, 

I onbotdc add, carbonic oxide, curbarettcd hydrag(?n, 

aod, hydroanlpburic add, liydrosulphale of ammonia, 

1 hydrogen, and tbe vapoar of bydroryanic acid. 

Thew, a* well as ll>a umply irritant gases, may net mechanically 

by aanng spasmodic closure of the glottis. 

To tliii list of the cauKa of apnora may be added certain dis- 

bern siiplled br phTsLotog^Bts to th 

' ' - - - - ripnijilsd lij uniflclal Bit 

I is brre nied ia th« a\i 


hi blnod ia lii>l 


esBei or the lntig», as hi'piitlZHtion, ndcmn, or tubercalar i(ifiUn> 
tiun, which flU tbe air-cells, and prfveiit reijHnttion. 

The tyaploiHM of apnau are mare oc lest itrang:!/ marktd 
■ccordiog «■ the uphyiiBting caaio icta auddenly or sinwl;. If 
tbe air is saddeoly exoluded, at by mechanival oomprcuion of 
tbe tnchea, complete wbtDeraioD, or tUe iahnlation of « gnt whiob 
caam Bpasmodic contTBClioo of the glotlia, tbe gymptoini an 
argent, and mn a rapid counc. The aiilTGrcr itrnggli4 violeatl; 
for breath, and iitea alroag efforts to remove the olxtruction. 
The fdce €uihe9, and >oon growl tnrgid and livid; the veins of 
llie head aud neck swell ; the ej'ebnlU aturt from thnr iocketi ; 
aaU the swollen tongne protrndea between the teeth, A abmt 
attack of giddinoia, with hnglit spots before the eyei, and ring- 
ing sounds in the ears, is followed by loss of conudonsneu, coD- 
Tulfions of tba limbs, and relaution of the sphincten, wi^i 
eipaluon of the pi'oitatie flaid, of the urine, or of urine ind 
fteces. In two oi three minute^ if relief be not given, life it 

When the aaphyxiating cnnse nets mora bIowI;, the s^mphnni 
ue modified, aud succeed each other at longer iatervalt. Thtire 
u> nieling of oonitricliou in the chest, from which the snITemr 
triu to free himself by etroiig rulonlAry efTurta to intpire, or bj 
the involuntary eflbrU of yawning or sighing. A dull heavjpvB 
in the forehead, with giddiness, dimnes of sight, and torpor of 
tbe intellMt anoceeds, and graduiil lot* of sensation and Tolnnlnrji 
motion. Still, the functions of reipiration and dri'nbtinn nMitiaiie, 
as shown by almost imperreptiblc movements of tbe walls of the 
ebeet. and pulnitioiu of the heart scarcely wnsible to the hand. 
This imperfnit elate of reapiration and circulalioti i> folluwed bf 
Ilie entire ce»Htion of those functiom, and bj conpleto loss it 
motion, voluntary and involuntary. At this pinnt of time Ui* 
fblnes* of the cupillary system begins to show ilaelf, by a den 
violet discoloration of the lace, which alio extend* tn tba hatii 
ami feet. Some poitioas of tbe trunk and extremilies exhibit 
■pots more or lata eitensice, of the same colour. At lunglb, 
liie capillary circulation ceases, aud the state of uiido» ■■ com- 

In some eases, the asphyxiating cause, acting more slowly lUU, 
indoocs a sleep which terminates witliout ■offering, in death : ia 
Other inatauoea, the ■cnsatioDi are even plcasumble, consatiag. 
of 4 Ji*iila; of beintiful colnurs or of pleasant laiidecapca beftira 
tlio ey«*. Tbereisitillanotlierclntiof cases In which thetnOVrar. 
toddenly ronictl tmo a stnic of toi'por to a vivid and pvinhil 
|i«vv]>tloD of bu state, trici to ocnpe trota the death wUcli 

TiraoRT or AFHiEA. 


Tlie pent- mortem npfciranco 

but his itrfogth bils, and tio falli to t 

I the following :—Patchei of 
ition on the face or on otiier 
piTta of the body, a* much on the le^it aa on the moat depending 

The eje» nsunlly prominent, firm, end brillinal. The. 

intonieouea eiprcnive oF eHlinneM> in othera of tufleriiig. 
I'ric rigiility ttrongly nuirked and peniatent. The venoiu 
9 of tlie brain commonly full of blood, hut iti substiuice 
tnttiig^, *lien divided, few bloody point*. Somctiroea thu 
mtriela contiiiD lenim ; lonietinie* blood la ctTuted >t the biue, 
1 the aub«titiir«, or on the lurftiee, of the organ. Tlie bou.' of 
» tongus ii almost alwajs injected, and ita paplllii! are strmgly 
'etop«d. Ilie liuing mrmbiane of the ejiigloltiii, larynx, and 
* I deep red coluur, beiximiiig more intense aa we 
ub the lilt nmiGcationa of the air-tube*. The air-pR3ragel 
■ bloody froth. The liingi are bo much distended 
1 wiUrgcd a* to prnject orer and coiicenl tbo pcricardiam. 
L deep violet colour, and when cut into SiUd com- 
I, large drop* of blaok, thick, liquid blood exude. The Urer, 
, (lid kidneyi. are alto gorged with blood. The veins of 
heart ai« dirtinctty tiaced on il> sairace, its riglit cuvitiei 
1 the large Tenoiu trunk* are gorged with blnck, thick, liquid 
' ; but it* left cnvltiee are found nearly or qait« empty. 

h are the appcuriince* ptetent in death by npncen in ite nn- 

ni(C*l form ; at in d«ntli by carbonic icid. But they are not all 
[■■went in every caw, nor, if prevent, equally marked in all. 

Tiitmy of Apnaa (^jj><lyzia).-~~Wben air is prevented from 
rnehlng tlie lunga, the blood does not undergo it« utuul change 
(ton venom to arterial j and venous blood doet not support the 
vital funrtlona of the Kvenil ot^ni so romplelely as arterial 
blood Uoca. Some, indeed, hare supposed that venoot blood la a 
pDaitiv* jioiivmj to thnt it ia much vnne for an organ to he 
snppllid eiclnuvtty wilb Tcnous blood than to reoeive no blood 
•It alt. 

On till* Bsanmption, the eesaation of the henrt'a action may be 
dplained in one of three wtyt: — By tbe circulation of venoue 
blood IhrODgh the coronary artcriea in pince of arterial blood; 
by the TeiMHu blood failing lo eicite the left cavities of the heart 
to ronttaclioii ; or by the iwrvoiit centres, in coniequcnce of tbo 
rtrcnUtion of venoua blood throngh them, hiling to nipply the 
reqalsitc motite power. 

Whether vcnooa blood It directly poiaonoaa, and worie than no 
bUml at all, baa been ibe tubject of ntunetona ex^cnmerA*. 



Kay has ■hown thnt it bag no iluletenooi influence m (be m 
\i<f compftring the contractiUtj' of a timb from which tho lujiply 
of arterial blood hu been cut olT with that of a limb (applied et- 
cluaivolj with Tenoiu hlooil; and Edwardi fontid that a nild- 
bloudpd inimal livei longer in an aspiiyxiating medium than one 
whose heart and bulb of tbe aorU have been eidied. 

Ab tbe abseni'eorall circnlation throngb tbe veiscla of the heart, 
or through those of tlie hrain, or llirongh the nerves tapptjing 
tbe heart with vital itimuliu. wonld certainly and tpeedilj de- 
«truy life, ao would the mccbaniMt eiclnBion of arterial blood 
from the reaaela of those parts, whether b; warm water or bf 
Tenons blood. This theory of eiclusion, then, is adeqoate to the 
explanation of deatli by apnica. But whether the excess of 
carbonic acid, or absence of oxygen, or both together, be tbe true 
cause of the nymptoms, tbe eaMntia) character of this fbna of 
deatli consiits in tho aecDmaUtloa of blood in the longs and right 
cavities of the heart, leading to a diminished supply Ui its left cavitin 
and a gradnal ceaaatjoo dl tbe eirculution. Hence in death by 
spDooi the left vcntricls is found oontmcted, and nenrly or alto- 
gether empty. The prodmato cause of this arrelt of eirculatum 
tiiroogb the long! Is of little importance; the fkct it all witli 
which, as medical jurists, we have to do. 

On contrasting tbe past-mortein apponrances proper to the 
three modes of death, ayncope. asthenia, and apncea (asphytia), 
it will be seen, that in the Arat, all the cavities of the beart an 
empty, or contain little hlood ; in tho Kcond all tho cavities are 
filil 1 and in the third, the right side it gorged with blood, while 
the left veutriole conlBiiis litlto or none. 

It should, however, ho home in miud thnt the chanicteriatio 
appBurancea of Buddi'n death, dne primarily to the beart, the langi, 
(FT the brain, are not always equally marked ; that they may be 
combined with each otlier in difli;rent proportions: and that a 
cnuse saaBlly productive of the one may give rise to the other. 
Tliu^ a man may be tbrcat«ned with suffocation (one caose of 
apnips). and (Hgbt may give rise U> sadden ij/ncope ,- or a viohml 
att«mpt to usuape may hunt a blood-vessel in the brain, and cause 

The felbwing liieta t«lating la sudden death are taken from 
the IBth Anntul Report of the ncgiitrnr-Goneral. Of 4l6,4Ti} 
dmtttu froTu all causM. oocurring in England and Wales, on tha 
•vcngn of tho Ave year* 18Sa-GS. 13,711, or about 1 it " 
*toWnt doatlu, of which 904B were due to various 
chemlMl iiyury, 3N2R to apncea (atpbyila), and tbe r 
DBiO to virloua mecbanlcal injuries, Of tbe 13,711 1 



I, XOflil oooorred in malea. ■od 

n dcaitlis, for tbe Brenge of the aaaui live yean, ure Btatod 
C 3!I43 or nearly 1 per cent. (1 in lOD). They an diatributed 

D xalia Had reranles in the proportion of aliout 3 to 2. 
I Tba micida on tbe avero^ of tlis nine Hve yean aniiiiueed 
B 1063. of whirh 777 were mea unil 306 women. Of lO-ki ilue 
ft sioertained cnuaet, 6 >2 were by vnrioiu fbrma of BiiitiicHtion, 
;I1 by poiaou. 1 by btirnlng, uul tlie remainder by miwbiiilcHl 
J ' . HiDong wliicli 210 EDt tlinnts, 43 gan-abot wound*, 
U other wonnda, mid SO lalla. The «Qii.idea by piiion of mea 
d womBQ renpeolively were m 6 to S. by npniea a» nbuut 3 to 1, 
A by mechaDicnl itgurivs Ha nbout 4r to 1. Ttaegreatcut number 
auicidi!* in both lexet occarred between ihe ngm of ih mid !>5. 
The reUtiVH frequency of tbe •ereml forma of audilirn doatb 
.tniMn, froin ■ work of Peirario and Soriuoni on iuddt'U dentbE 
^OlS in number) occnrring in Milan, to tw hi followa : — 
Bead {ipopleiy. cerel>nd coQCDnion, 

verti^ inil ooniii) 879 or about -l in 6. 

Heart (diaexw* of tbe heart, ansinn 

peetoria, aneurisni, iind bieuiorrimge) 150 or shonl 1 in 7 - 
Lniigi (ujihyxiii. luffociitiie cutarrb. 
and pulmonary apoplexy) .... 14 or about 1 in 75. 

I Difienit luboun 5 

I- He relative frequency ofthe different formi of andden death 
' acourding te tbeir proiimata cnusea miut, liowever, be 
)d to diller at di9brent periods of life. Tlie abjve pro- 
are obriously those th:it obtain cliiedy amuii 
ID deaths in infancy and childliood. if c1aa»ed 
I tlwdr ewuca, would reTerao tbe order juat itatMl. Ily far tbe 
Ml frequent CBU>e of dentli in iuRinay and childhood ia to be 
QDd in tba Inngi, and the leaat common in the bmin i t1ii>a)(h 
|t foet oreonruiaiani being very common in early life might 
id Wtheioferenae that tbe m^ority ofaoddeu deatha originate 
ithcbniik and not in the lung*. The diaeoaea of tbe Inngi which 
ire ri*e to audden or ipeedy death in infiintt and young obildrea 
n (peimodio iranp or laryngismua (tridului, CO whieb Ur. West 
'bolei three out of four of the sudden deatlu of children 
IT one year, imperfect eipansion uf the lang« at birth (atelec- 
titta pnlmonunx), sudden collapse of tbe lung, cuiuobdatiun from 
pneamonio. and eodilen aeraa] effusion into tlie pleara, to wblcli 
ought to be added a diseaae not mentioned in tbe pnpur now 
Nfcned to, pnlmonnry apoplexy. A not nncomnon cause of 

ri death among the children of tbe poor ii aoffociition, m a 
oenoa of drinliing hot water tmrn the (pool of l.\w ^l\\e. 


iidulu i 


Next to diwtiiea of tlia lungs, nidilea d«ath by eiLanitiaa f 
innifflpieut food, or rhronic dUrrlKca, is matt commim, w 
fntal disorder* of llie bniin arc verj nmjly to be wt down am 
Llie CAUses of sudden ileatli in inHinojf and cltildhood.* Of 
snddea deaths entered in (lie tabiei of the Begiitra 
Dpwu^ of one-third occur in infancy. 

11 for u 


wa or more penone die by the sb 
riie a» to wLich died lirst; for, 
.0 pTiiperty woald be lecured o 

me Drcideot, ■ 

in certain cuei, tlie 

proof of snrvironhip 

Little hBi jiet lieen dane towards eatsblisbing general pria- 
ciple» applicable to this cIbm of inquiriea, chiefly from want of 
tlia reqoiiite materiati. Some of ihe more accurate resolta vlwdl 
hBVe boen attiined will be (bond etated under the following 
beadg: — 1. Of Ikt ptohabilitiei ajforded h;/ age am! lex, irrt- 
tpKtioe of the itinde of death. 2. Of the degree in teKicK inch 
pnbabililf it affected bg the mode of death. 

Age. — As the liodj attains its full growth and «trength at 
about 27 yeiirs of h^-u, or (roai SB to 30, and liealtlijr pemna 
continue Uttaifi and vigorous up to about 60, there will be no 
■ufficient ground fur inferring turvivorship in tlie caw of adulta 
orcheiame >e<, whoK Bgesraoge betnrem 25 and 45, or eten 
between 20 and 50, provided the form of doith be one in wliidi 
mare streuffth and power of endarauce is concerned. Before and 
after the ages epecitied, Ihoie will be less ) hut still within Um 
limits of pnbert)' snd old age (say 15 and 60 yenn) the dilTtfrance 
will probahiy be Incttniidenible. The probaUlity of surrivonhip, 
in the mu« of a middle-aged adult perishing with one nnder 
pubsrly or alxive 60, will ba in Rivonr of the adult. In the Msa 
of one under m und one above 60 peiuhing together, the French 
law assumrs thut the runner survived r when hotb are under 15, 
UmL tha elder oatlived the younger. According to the rivil taw 
of England, if parent and child peiidi by n oommon death, the 
child i* preumiKl to have aurvlfcd if nhorei and to ban died 
flrit if Dndvr, puhorty. 

In the null of a mother and child both dying in childbed, 
witliOQt aMlstanco, the pMsumpIinn is. Ibat Uie mother snrvind i 

■•MS l*rlBri< tit Dr. W••^ m Paililm I>uili la Inlkno 
In th* -HfiUcsl TJnuiaad eawlte,' Sat. Jd, tM3l 

APNIEA. 265 

Ibr llun k « elianM of ttilt birth, and a Turther probability that 
Ibe child, if ham alive, would dia befbre tho tDOther could render 
it the aniilanfe nccewary. A Urge child would be glill more 
likdy to peiiiU first, for, a* eliewhere itnWd, itill-bom children 
■TMtty eioecd in am and weight thoiH born alive. It tUe child's 
' body could be examined, the pranuiption might be Btrensthened 
^r the ratxTa of h diScalt Ubonr, or the alniyacp of the nigni 
«f TMpiraUon. Lc^jt decision! have not ainsys been in con- 
Ibrinily nritb the principle here laid down. 

Sex, — Ifa mate and femBle peritli by a oominon lecidenti in 
' %liich ttrcngth nad mnmge give the best chnncc of snfoty, 
It may be inferred tliat the male, being the stronger, is the sur- 
vivor. But fomalps, being sutject Ui prolonged fainting from 
.ftight, msy be, by that very circnnuUince, iiicap.ieitated from 
•e struggles wlilcb in ao many forma of death may be prv- 
ned to iacreue danger. Wl^en, then, tliere ii safety in exer- 
n, the probability of'sarvivurthip nrill be with the innlu; when 
]n pamrs endunnce or inseaiilMlity, with the female. 

Under this bend some counntn modes ttf death wHl be ipeci- 
fled. Mid an BtteinFt will bo-made to eBtibliiili lome gencml prin- 
oiplca with rwpect (o them, ■Hmning, as befure. that the pncties 
Atoot whom the question ia ruined ara'pluced, ai nearly aa may 
n Ibe aame ciicumstncce*. 

nt [Atphgxia]. — Women consaioe less oiygen than men ; 
le ntme qnnntiCy of air will last them for s looger time ; 
d of ftdnlt males and females perithlng together by atincco, the 
nalea may be presumed ta have survived. In poisoning by 
■rboaic acid giit, h bii-h is nearly allied Co death by apno^a, the 
lurvivorship are with the femnle. Tliis BtBtement 
Ea on the authority of n large anmber of tnnta. lo 19 out of 
a of poiaoning by carbonic Bcid, which took plnce in 
la dnrlng 1834 and 1S3S, a man and woman were expoted 
) Uw ftamca of diarcoal together : of these, three only were 
lavod. ami tbeu were females. In solitary casci of 

D of death the result is also favourable to the female; for 

It out of 73 females were restored, and only 19 oot of 63 males, 

I tbat the ehancM for the female aod male respectively are 

mtlj u IS and 14 (instead of 6 and 4 as Devergiu rcpreutDts 

Hngia caiei are in onnformity <vitb this remit. Tims, in a 

» quoted by Beck bom the 'Trantjlvanin Junmal,' a man 

nen eapOMd in a naull room lo Ute gm hoxa^nb 


Cfmls. The nuin wa» found Head, rigW, and contracted, hut 
tbu woman was atill breathmg, and recavered. Akuih, iu ■ m* 
reported by M. Sardaillon, a man. hii wiro. Mid tliotr child, ifad 
■even yean, were tupbyxiated in a porter'i lodge. Thr cbild 
died, tbe father wu very ill, and with difficulty restored to life, 
while the wife wu able to cnll Tor help and to uadit botli 
husband and child. In these casei it ia neceaury to take 
into account the position which the pmtic« occupied io the num, 
whether on the bed or on the door, near to or reinote I'nim an 
open window, Ik. 

Drawmng. — There are many complicated oinBidenktiaaa con- 
nected with this mode of death, la sbipwrecka men are more 
likely to be in a ravonrable situaUon for aaving themselves, as 
they are more on deck than women, leaa encainbered by dothing, 
more likely to be able to swim, or to olint; to dmcing pardons of 
the wreck. When the compariMni is between men similarly tt- 
posed and capable of the lanie eisrtion, it miiy be iwoeisary (o 
inquire whether One was more exposed to cold by bavini; (ha 
body half immersed, while the other was more nadcr water. 
iWrch should alto be made for severe injuries wbieh may har* 
prevelited the swimmer from using bit strength, or mny have 
othorwiw proved fiital. Apoplaiy is stated by Devergie to hi 
sooner btol than apiima, while in death by syncope " 
beat chance of recovery. 

Sujfoealion. — In all cases of snflbcation depending npon 
anfficient quantity of mr, or upon air rendered p.tTtially 
reapiraiCion, it may be preaumed that those who reqalre 
live the longest — women longer than men, children thai 
In suflboation froto the falling of bouses or earth, or by 
means in general, the itronger muy be presumed to survive tna 
ireakar — men, women i adults, children and old persons. 

Cold. — As young ehililren bear cold worse than adults, the 
pmbsbiUty of survivorship in exposure to the same degrea of 
oiA ia in favour uf the latter. Uen bear cold better than womcn^ 
■dulls better than the aged. It [s neceasary also 
■OGOunt the clothing of the exposed penons. and t 
bvalth. ftpiritnous lik|Uon in eice^ increase the cfTrct of i 

Seat. — The young and old, as they aulfer 
do the; bear heat better. The relative tolerance of heat 
two loxei ia not well ascertained. FodenS relatM the case or 
Engiiahiiisn and his dsuRbier aged seven yearn, wbu, in the yi 
18tl,onMi«I th«d(B«r(ofayriato the Fcrtian Oalf. Bothn 
on DBinebi, ami w*ra placed in precisely simUac dreuoul 
bat tlia fatbur died, wiiile the child arrived iiLfe 

to 1m 



n women. 
take il^^^^ 




end. Tb'i* remit might, however, be eiplalned bj the greater 
eiertion whkb the parent trould be called apan to make. 

Hunger and Tkirtt.^-lhoie who hiive not rencbod thdr foil 
growth require more noDriihincnt thaii adaUs, nnd adolta more 
than aged persoiLS. The aged, then, if health; and robust, may 
be presDmod to aarvive both, Hud the adult to live longi^r Ihan 
the child. Corpaleat pcrvoiu arc thought to bear hanger better 
than the emaciated. In death from itarration, tbue who have 
the freeot accsB to water amy be preaameit to hve the longeit. 
Tboae who uie the greatest eurtjniu will mffer earUeat in thia ai 
in the foregoing toodei of death. Thote wbopoasen mo«t pawiTS 
endoraDce Dwy bs eipected to live the longest. 

Such are aoma of the principal forma of death, in which the 

mitulicc* of the aeveml victimi are likely to be lo aiinilar aa 

mlt of the appliiaition of general rulea. In other niodea of 

I, and in thcK nnder certain drcumstancea, there may be no 

a admittiDg of itrict compariaon, and many things which 

erdie a marked inSaence on the resolt will liave to bs 

into accoant. The reader will find several aucb casea 

in Beck'a 'Medical Jariipmdencu ;' but aa they throw 

ght npon the general qncation, and eatabliah no filed prin- 

they are not quoted here. 

u been auggeated that u diatiuct enactment would be pre. 

to the preaeat custom of deciding each case on its own 

Such an enactment, attending to thnt targe clsu of 

n which the ciicumataneea of the death are but imperfectly 

to those in which it ia in the very niitura of things 

> come to a correct deoimoD, ia certuuly mach to be 






TLo medira-lfgttl importance of this lulgect maj be inTemA 
from tlie fact, that on an average of thu fire vean 1S52-SI>, 
S352 deatba were eniistH) by drowning, of which 1817 in main 
aDd S05 in fenialn. Of tliis number 164 (87 nii1« and 77 
fvmnltB) wets ufcrtaioHl acts of auii^ide. In 1671 tlie number* 
were :— malcB, 2346 ; femidea. 574. Tutal, S922, Of wliicb, hj 
nicide: — malei, 173; femnleB, H-t. 

Death by drowning ii eomnionly attrihulcd tn npncmj bnt m 
it 'a not llwa^i due ta that cnutc, it will he necesuiry to dctcribe 
tb4 Tiriana mode* in whi:^h a man who has died in the water 
nay have nrnie bj hli death, 

When * mnn in perfwt pooenion of hi« facnlties falls into thit 
water, he ainki to » greuter or lera depth, bat immediately rarm 
to the turfHce again ; anil, if ho is a ewimmer, makes effiirta to 
Mf R blmKlf, till at longlh he is Tcdutcd to the Dondition of on* 
who cannot awiin at all i with th» diffkrence, thitt be has alrckdy 
eilianated the atrcngth wbieh the other haa in reierve Ibr the 
iifUh-»lTn«g]K» ouruuion to both. These atruggtr* Liinsiil of 
Irnvilbir miivemFiita nf Ihe nnai and 1^^ and griieiiings of the 
honda at all objcrta witlilu reucb, whether Boating in the watiff, 
flxed at the bolumi, or growing on the bank*, lu the i-oante of 
* tbwr Irrcgnlar movDnient* ho rlKs repeatodlir to the lurfWco, 
tris lo brvnlhe, aoil takes in lir anil wnter. The oontact of Iho 
IT with Iba windpigie cannea ■ t«ugh, l<y which part of Iba 

""III In rijortwl, i 

■iilh it ■> 

< again and u|;alll, till the body n 

CiDSES or DEATH. 369 

kter alone ii received in the Tpin effbrti to respire, 
while fonable involnntery eipirotims continue w expel air from 
the chat. At lenirth eII tbe>e cffurti eeue, tlie bod; linkB lo 
the bottom, ml bubbles oC air ue forced rrom tbe cbeet b; the 
daftic reaction of i!a pirietcB. The gretiter piirt of tlio w.itet 
wluch bu entered tbe montb tSnila iti way into the iloiniiL'b, tbe 
rMt into the lnng«; and thia refidne, mixed nith tbe H!cr(:tiolu 
of the month and air-punger, nud frothed by the air inipired 
and expired, fonni tbe foam lo conitanlly met with in pursoni 
who bive periabod in thii way. 

In these cases we niaj eipact to find tbe characteristic marVs 

of apDow, coopleil with thoie duo to the nieilium in wlti<:h the 

, (leath takes phice. In the case of the swimmer ilvatti may 

' e phu» from eihaostian, mth le^ diatiact signs gf desth 

But tloith may take place in the water, and yet be cauaed 
intber bj sjiiiceH, dot by exliauslion. Tliere may be complete 
Bat of ooiuciousiiess at the very moment of ituiuerHon. This 
ny happen from Iriitht, from dronkenDesi, from au attack of 
ir of catalepsy (of wliiiJi wo have kuown one ioatauee) ; 
Fjind in this cue the body falls to the bottom, rises s^nin lo a 
eirtain hinght, and sinks witlioot a straggle. lu theite cases 
dMiil is due to shock, or to syncope. 

Again, a man may hM, or throw himself into, tbe water head 

Ibremoiit, and, strikiog ogainit a rock or frngmenC of wood, or 

•ren against the water itself, (leriih by concnssioo ; at tiilling, or 

baing thrown, from a bfislit, may strike tbe water with the 

ehen xul pit of the stonuch, so as to muse instant death from 


^ Again, cold, eicitement, or the first violent struggles, may occa- 

Ej{ki apoplexy, or sudden death from disease of the beiirt. Tliae 

^■VUen deaths by diseases of tlie brnin and heart are of occsslonnl 

HientNiiM in pertona bathing in cold shaltuw water. 

H[ DmUi by drowDiDg may also l>e of a mixed character. A man 

^Hlla into tbe water in full poasetaion of all bis faciiltia, which be 

^KnMnes tor a time, till, struck with horror at the death which 

^BiMHtMs him, he bints, and thus perishes. 

HT It appcan, then, that death by drowning may he doe to apncca, 

^b nbanation, l^shock^ syncopt^and to npopleiyi or psirtly 

^B) ipiraB. partly to one of the other oanses just specified. 'I'lia * 

^hM* In which there edit mnrka of apom more or less disUnct 

^■brndMl with those proper to aome other form of death, are much 

HBm moat oommon i while those in which the signs of apnos are 

KwImU; absent form ■ small minority, aiid cnsc^ of pure uud 


ilm>t ^1*— wtupT "P intermediate place. Derergk, whoH 

I 'HfvnMKV of llie drowned has btfua already allnded to, Mti- 

■ of unmiiei) apnos ai tieo i» right of the vludit 

Uob no tracea a( upnica eiUt U t>a« in eigU, and 

W tfivt-fi^ilia. 

'a the body of the drowned mtut iii i iawii|j 
y vM'ttw loanner and csuse af deatb. 

Me OUM in wbicli dcatli faaa been doe to apmaa, tbt 
in»l iiiiiiliiiii appenrancct nill be tlioao proper to that mod* tf 
igtib (Me p. SBl), blended witli those duo to the mediula it 
h tlw death happened, and modified by the time the body 
tnaincd in tbe water, as well ns by the length o( luhnqoMt 
ra to tbe air. 
If tha death waa dae to apncea. and the eiaminalion irai wait 
t the death and removal froin the WHl«r, it may ba tl- 
o present the following Bppeamnce* ;— The ^ux wd 
■1 mrfiux) of the body ure either pale or ilightly Und, wttt 
' ■ deeper tint. The eipreuion of the lace ia geaenOj 
. The [oDgae ia swollen, and cliwely applied to the tttSb, 
J protmded betweeo the cloacd jnw>, and ttill more rac^ 
* * 1 bloody ; and there ia a (rotby (bam at the moolfc. 
lUin a froth, which ia soiuetimeB tii^ 
; and the trachea and larger branchial tubes ooataia 
««lar, wbloh lometiiDe* peaetrates lo their mott minute nutdB- 
wMoM^ and may be in lach qoautity as Ifl fill the whole of tlw 
tdrfMNgaa. The water occaaionally carries with it particoi tt 
iAm tr mud, or fragmenta of aquatic p!an1«. The lining moB- 
immt of the air.pataages it aometimca conj^eated ; the lung* ooo' 
Vk a hilgo quantity ef hlack fluid blood, which also diiteiidl 
ijh* invM caTR and right tide of the heart, while tbe left caiitiai 
fait«(t« are comparatively empty. 'Mio stomacli almost alwayi 
(HMHtM water, aouietimea ia conaiderablc quantity. The iotM- 
tito« hare a rosy colour ; tbe liver, splaeu, and kidaeya an 
IMMil with blood I and the bladder aomctimea contains bloodf 
iltflMkk Hm brain pTexentit the same spgieanuices na in oUlcT 
(MN vf dsatb by apntn, Sand or mud is often fonnd in tlw 
Iftkhm tt tbr nsila, tbe Sngers are sometiinei abraded, and par- 
U/gIt «f plania growing !□ tbe water, or on the banks of Um 
itlWUII- May be found Kraaped in the hands. Injnries reccjvad Id 
lli)U^ Wo Ihe water daring the deatb .struggles, or through tba 
vlH^MiM of tbe atreani, may also leave tlicir marks upon the bndy. 
1^ badMa that have remained in the water, or been eipoaed 
lUltMAitfin some time, the pilid, or slightly livid hne of the 
tt^fitm mij Ik eichuiiged for a blout«d s'^fBs.Ta.Dce, and large 



mnniied apiKHi occupy nn intermediate pUce. Dvrergie, wiiom 
\Mige eiperieDce of the drowned hag been ilreaily illnded to. ttd- 
natca tile eua of umciied Kpiiira a> two in right of the wbolt, 
the ciues ia wbidi no traces ur upniea exist at ow in eighl, md 
Uie mixed cuea aa fire-eiylilhi. 

The ippearaaceB in tbe body of the drowned miut iii i i^iilj 
vary with the nunner >nd cniue of death. 

In those cuei in which death has befn due t« apman, tin 
poit-mor1«m appninuicoa will bo those proper to that mode of 
death (aee p. 2Eil), blended with those due to tbe medium in 
which the death happened, and modified bj the time the body 
hiu remained in the water, as well lu by the length of ■uheequent 
eipoiare to the )ur. 

If the death was duo to HptiiEa. and the eiamioalion was made 
MOD after [be deatti and removal from Uie water, it may be ex- 
pected to present the following nppcarnDcea: — The ftjx and 
general surface of the body ure either pale or iligbtly livid, with 
patches of s deeper tint. Tlie eiprcxsion of tbe (iice in geoelalty 
calm. The tongue ia swollen, and closely applied to Uie taett, 
rarely protruded between the closed jnw«, and still more nnlj 
wounded and bloody ; and there is a frothy foam at tbe moott. 
The air-paxages also contain > froth, which ia lometJmci tingad 
with hlood ; and thu trachea and larger bronchial tabes cnttdl 
water, which aometimes penetrates t« their most mioate rantl- 
ColJons, and may be in such quantity ai to Gil tbe whole of Dw 
air-paraageo. The water occasionally carries with it portioM el 
slime or mnd, or fragments of aqnatie plants. Tbe lining- dmh- 
hnuie o( the nir-paMnga it oometimea congested; the longs eOB- 
tain a large quantity of black fluid blood, wbicb also "liiifiiMlt 
the venB! cava and right ude of the heart, while the left eatttka 
and aortd are comparatively empty. 'I'he stomaoh olmoat alwijn 
mntiuna water, sometimea in considerable quantity. The ints- 
tines have a rosy colonri tbe liver, ipleen, and kidneys are 
gorged with hlood; uud the bladder sonii'iiiDea contains bloody 
urine. Tbe brain presents the same apiKiirances as in otba' 
cases of death by apnms. Sood or mud is often fotind in tba 
hollow of the nails, the fingers arc sometimea abraded, and par* 
tions of plants growing in the water, or on tbe banks of tin 
stream, may be found grasped in the hands. Injuries received in 
'falling into the water during tba death-itrugglea, or tbroogfa tllA 
violence of the stream, may also lenve their mnrki apan the bndj. 

In bodies that bave remained in tbe water, or been eipwod 
to tbe air for some time, the pnllid, or slightly lii-id hue of the 
features may be excbauged tur » Uoatxd s,f >^ncQe, oud large 




Kvid ipots miy ahOnr themielvei on diflcrent pnila of the twdy 
u in otLer catea of death bj apnixs. 

In death by sliock, ijncopB, or eihauation, tliere is little or HO 
water ia the nir-paiuges or stomach. Tlic CMvitiea of the heart 
•nd the Urge veneta are eqi»U; dialcndcd with blood, or are 
Dearly empty, and the brain and internal vigceni are in their 
natnril ttate. 

Death by eoDcuiaion or by apoplexy, or by disease of the heart, 
nreals itaelf by the nsnal post-mortem appearances. 

In miied caiea, the appearaDccs dae to Rpno>a will be lets 
•bongly marked. There wilt bo leu froth at the mouth, less 
water and Troth in the nir-pasuges and stomafh; less congestjon 
of the long*, heart, and grvMt vetseln, and intemsl v'acen, 

SeTeml medioo-lef^l qnestions Hnggeet themselves in reference 
to a body fonnd in the water. The lint in order is the rollowing : 
— fFbi drath eauifd bg iroir-miig T In tlio caic of a bod,v foand 
in the water, death may obvionily have hapiiened prior to im- 
mcrtiOD from natural enuses or from intentional Tiolcnce ; and in 
the Utter case the death may have been due to some cause pro- 
dndng apncea, and giving rise to the characteristic sppearaneea 
proper U tbat mode of death. In other words, a person may be 
•Uangled or lufTocated, and then thrown into the water to con- 
ceal the true caaw of death. In deciding a question of so much 
diSicDity, *<■ shall have U> eonsider whether the post-mortem np- 
pearmncn alleged to be characteriitjc of death by drowning might 
have been nccouoned by ransea acting before immersion i also 
whether, in tile case of bodies remaining in the water some lime 
•Act death, the appearances usually attributed to tho mode nf 
dnth may not be eiplained by the circumstances of tlie im- 
merwNi itself. 

Of the post-mortem appearances present in the bodies of those 
who h»»e perished by drowning, some are proper to that mode of 
<Uath, Othen common to deatb by other forms nf apnos. To the 
> daas belong the paailjon and swollen state of the tangne ; 

lepallsT with rosy or violet diacolontiims of certain part* of the 
^ini the li^ectcd state of the brain; the congestion of the in- 
alviacermi the greatly increased volume of the lungs; the 
H> of the right cavltiea of the heart, and emptineu of tbe 
tcA; tbe fluid sbite of the blood; and tbv piistencc (very rare) 
of Uoody urine in the bUdder. To tho former cla» belong : — ei- 
ooriattona of tbe Angers, with sand or mud in the hollow nf tbe 
nalltl fyogmonla of plants graaped in the hand; water in tbe 
■tDmaeh i froth at the mouth and nostrils; froth, water, mud, or 
aaud in tba air-pasaogesi and retraction of the poiiis. 


!«•■*■»•.««. M (Umm tkM tad Urn W-mdletki' 



fore, coiuidereble ; »nd it is protmbte, that wbero the wnter ii 
tttry i^ni it may roriu the pawage of Ule osophagna, even thoiiph 
the auiinal itied previoiul; to submcraaii. But it has bwn 
•hovD by rqKated eiperiment* ou nninmla tliat, as a rule, water 
4am nut ent«r the slomach after death. It appeari, iDOreOTer, 
lh*t water may eiitcr the itamach when the timet have been 
njual by patrefactian.* 

It ia abvioua, then, that water in tliD Momacli la not to be con- 
1 aa concluiive erideiioe of death by drowniug, wheu the 
qnm' b of great deptti, or wben the holy ia (at advanced in 
intrafiKtion. It miut alao be admitted to be pouible thut the 
■»«ter night iiave bean iwallowed iramediately previcnialy to im- 
uid poaaible. also, thoogh laost improbable, that it might, 
■led by Orfila, be mahdously injected after death- 
Bat though water in the gtomBcb aflbrdB a preBamption ot 
th hf drownlag, iti abaenoe mutt not he taken as evidence to 
eoDlraryi for it ig not present in death by drowning due to 
oUkr than apntca, aueh as shook, syocopc, conriiBioD, or 
The leaduncy Ui cwidlow umy also be voluntarily re- 
tha body mnj lie. in some wny or other, prevented 
to the inrfaet. 
On tba other liand, water may have entered the stomafh, and 
be Amnd there ntter death ; for if the head be idloired to 
Ig down, the wati^r will Barape. This Fact also whs by 
Taylor's eiperiments. A^plin, lengthened eipo§ur« uller 
' &om the wster. may cause the fluid in the stomach to 
tiwuada through ita coata, and disappear. 

Th« abaanoB of vrutcr trom the stomach, therefore, ii not con- 
d«H*a agunat death by drowning, for it tuny bavo eutured the 
ibaequmitly dinppeared; or it may never have 

■MBK tm ^Bi ad a<^ and Wm gf poaU, kiK wit mill 

■^mMAcM-.'I ten BERT ri£led to cUab t*JH— i> 
MMBBiri ib1» a f«T [art rf Uic )««>. (G.} 

>M A* nbt itf tUi ■¥> B inpmvd bj ibc fact Art V 
«ifi «Mr tia hni|- ef ikuc «b<k ten Iwa Ukovb in ■ 
<kMk (Mk mJ Fknj lc«nd, tltf Ibc qiMBtiljt vkiA a* 
■■■■4 ■^■aa^ ta ite Imgt, noied Mat^Tif to Ike poalk 
W* la^ IsBf biE* •l«v ii nauiHd ^n^: Icn alM 

TW i ^iy i^kn Hat >kter b*; be it^irtti aAer teitk aa^ ta ' 

MaMuI sf a &Tici/iil rcfiiKmeiit. Hat nICT >a oat alnji 
praaiBE in ibelncpi in death Lj droicuinc; for, u in the tatt nt 

tkn itie«t, if U:e bead la p1«ci-d doBiin-arfs, tit wtta Ban 
Wk Lk'Cf n|<^™i^ too< "ill nDFe it to trnimide snd be lot. 

ftvli at lie 2l<mlA and yottriU.—lhit, (oo, is a ngn of 
ilMtti bv Jionmng; but oitcn lo all the objections jmt dated io 
iHi|)iiu<l ut' frvMh in the air-|ui!!Hi^e<. It haf, indeed, > doer de- 
ftaiiiiai!t oo the eiUtcnce of trutb in the air-pnsafcs. aided by 
the «bt<;ki<iiient of tLc gicies tf putrefaction lorciog it into tbe 
tuteoi. Ileuee it i» more couimon in summer than in wintCT. 

CUitaurriiKi. — In dvatli from drowning, uhptber in rnminer 
« s'lltNt. tt^ twdj eihihits tijc nppeamnce known as " f«ee- 
dtdi" w« i-ala uueriua. TliiH is cHU»oJ bj the contracted state of 
1^ ii><>»t'ltfrTi {»''•, and ii eliioHy necn on the aaterior snrfiwe of 
^«ktnw*lH^ '^B CDtU auBctiDa may, however, be toand in 
A ftww vtbrr canaei, and particularly in caaea of tndden death 

nerrom vxmtenient. Taken hy ttsoir, it» presence does ni 
e dAlh by drowniTip, bol ili nbsence would be a seriinift ol 
on to llie fut of dmth bj dronning aali&BUthHriigiiBt 
unoniany proRDiincinl character. 

SitrafUoit ^ the Pritit. — Cin]wr nllegeB that, in men *hn 
into tlie water alive, and died b^ ilrowning', be bnt 
r fwled to End tliia ipixianinre, while be lias not ob- 
rred it ao oonitantif after any other kind of death. — (Handboolc. 

i. p. n^.) 

m tbii examinution at llin ligna of death b; drowning, it 

n that there ia uo lingle one on which eiitiro rclinnra mn 

Iced. Bat when eereral signi coiacide, the probAbiltty ia 

J itrengtbeDeil. Like the eymptomB of disease, they maj- 

M of little nilue when talcen sepamtely, hnt when comtnned they 

» cafe dbgnosia. Some nnthon, and Orfila 

HMig llie nambcr, have, indeed, tliought tiuit the quoition. Wan 

a drowning? admits of no dedaion ; bat from this 

c Derergie and Caaper very properly diMent. 

'lonld atao be borne in mind, that the moat chniacteriBtic 

neei of death by drowning are not jicrmam^n 

lyoootinucHller the body hna lain ttom Hflfeu to eighteen 

10 tha water, but in tummer they may dtanppcar aa early 

« Uurd day. Etpoaure V} the air alto cauaea them rapidly 

Mppear, and in ttie height of anmrner a few hoara may auffioe 

aipatc tbem. Advanced putrefaction lUraiputva all the aijcns 

h by diawning. 

le thai the body haa romnined in the wutur will l* At- 
wd approiimatnly by the «gi» laid down iit p. 251. 
i« niiience derived fhim the tiRiia of death by drowning 
M of btinj; ai'illrmed or invalidated by the condition of the 
'y In other rapecta. eipcrially by the presence or abneucc of 
"« qf Vwlt-mr. — With regard to injuriea on thebodiei 
» taaoA in the water, thri'e qneitiona arise :— 
.. Wen tbey inlliclod during Ufe? 2. If ao, are tlicy inch 
'B kCODont for death Iielbre aubmeraiun ? 3. Were they 
■ntal, auiddul, or homicidal ? 
t« Srat and third qucttlona are fully din 
ronnda. 11ia immcraion of the t)odT it 
10 decin'un •<( thcH cjueationa, only in ao fttr aa iJiu 
'H tliareby altered in ajipeorunce. 

' ' ■ irinu U, navunljiir DraOi bi-fort Su'.. 


X fire waya in which a body taken from the « 
B to eihlbit nurlu of violsnoe. 1. & vtan ha^ >>« 


manlered, and thrown into tbe water dead ; 2. He may n 
ferere injury from the lianda of others or hioadf, nnd maj llw 
Iw thrown (Or throw blmtelf) into tbe water while' »tiU aliie. U 
tbo ii^urica aro in the sbnpe of bruius, the j maj lia«e be«i ca 
3. Bjr the deatli itmgglea ; 4, By nme oUtscle n^ainat whidi ibt 
body Li bomei 6. In the irery tuit of fulliii|; intn tbe water. 

1. In a uiiin wbo liaa been mnrdercd and tbrown inlo tin 
wat4ir dead, we should cipect to find all tbe ugns of death bj 
droA'niug abient, with the exception of auch aa may have ben 
taoaed by nnroninion depth of water, or advatued patrelaetua. 

S. On the auppoutlou that a man foand in tbe water had fint 
been aeverely injured and then thrown in aliie, ire migbt eipMt 
to find signs of drowning proiiortioned in number aud dialinit- 
nea to tbe strength still left afler tbe violence inAict«d. 

3. The bruises caoeeJ by tlie struggles of the drowniDg maa 
woold not be ho severe ur extenHVe ai to endanger life. 

4. The bruiaea caused by tited obetadee, against wliich tbe bodj 
might be borne by a rnnuing stream, would not bo F^trongljr 
tnarksd. It ia not likely that ineh seven! injariea aa dislocatioiu 
or fractnrea could originate in thia way, nnleaa the obataele 
irere in motion — e.g. a water-wheel. 

B. faUing into the Water.—K person who f.ills or thnnn 
bimself from ahi'ight upon a hard bunk or pier of a bridgt^ may 
not only be svveiely bruised, but snniain sucb severe injuriea aa 
ftvcturea of the skull 0t limbs, and severe lacerated wounda. 

Uiilocatioii of tbe limbs is a pus«ble consequence of falGng 
from a great height. Many years tinee, » stated by Dr. Gordon 
Smith, H man wlio used to jump fiom tbe parapet of LondoD 
Bridge into the Thames for a wager, nnd had previonily per- 
formed tbe fiwt with impunity, Bank and was drowned. Both 
arma were found dialouitrd, in conseijuence, it is thought, of bis 
having fallen with them stretched out instead of cloaa to bis 
aides, na wjs liia wont. 

Two cases are also recorded (Sooth's edition of Cheliua'a Snr- 
icery, vol. i. p. 533), the one of A'actaro of the body aud arch of 
the fourth i^rvical sertebra, tbe other of fracture of tbe body 
of the filth vertebra, caused by jumping into the water. Th« 
deaths were attributed to a luddeu retraction of the head to avert 
collinon with the botlom. 

The medical man should, therefore, ascortain whether the 
drowned man fell from ■ height i whether the water is a nitnd 
strcum; and whether the body was found near obstacles fixed or 
in motiuD ; and if there are no such causes us these to accmmt 
for the iigories inataliied, he maj fwtlj trace thein to sooie 


K preceding tiie immenioD. In liodiea foiinii in itiallaw atili 
tBter, nutks i>f liolence afford atrang preminiptlon of liamioide. 
AMnmJng duntb to have been due U drawning, inotber qaea- 

ir Monii- 

B Ifat the Dnmiiitg tit rmll of Aeeldeat, Buiei 

H »Ut t — TbiM question a eicecdingly difficult to atiswvr ,' lOr ir 
H Mtare an tin nmrka of fiolenee on tlie body, it is not ponible to 
r mj wliethar ttie inin (tU in, vr jniapod in. or wu pushed in ; 
mod in nspcct of bodies fouml ia running Btrcnmi, it ma; not }ic 
(Kanblo tOMCortain BtiKbiit point tbey entered tbe water, 

Kor if we find t)io baud* of the drowned mnn gpasping \varpg 
or gnn, showing Uint be had itrcggled hard while in the water, 
can we affirm that be waa thrown or pnihed in by otiiert. 

Hot a^n, does the fact of a nan being drowned in a abnllow 
atream of vaUr eiehido the idea of liomicide; for if ii strong 
mui were to hold the head of a weak or inflrni one in a liuain of 
water, h« might drown himjost bb effBctually a« in a di>ep stream. 
On the Mh«r faand, it ahould be bomo in mind tliat cases of 
raiiadal drotrning in almllow water, or in very nirrow spui^es, tucli 
M nnall honH-ciiterns, ia nccaaionally ooeur. 

It ii evident, fVom wlint lian been itnted, that where there are 
ilenee on the body, we have no monni of dutennin- 
le dmmung was the remit of accideot, luicide, or 
i; and that oitcrnal injuries to throw any light upon the 
t b« Kch a* could not havi been inflicted by the 
I hlmielf prior tu iaimerBian. or by the acddcntal 
q of the body i^init an obstaolo in entering the water, or 
g the death atroggle. 

« ii Ane case wbicb woald at firat Hght seem conclnuve of 

He, namely, where a body ia fouod in the water tjed hand 

Dr. Smith, however, relatea the following caie: — In 

.A, the body of a gauging-inttrument maker, who had 

ring for Bonie days, was diacovered floating down tlie 

On being taken out, his wrists were funad tied together 

I fliit to hii knees, which wero in like mnnner aecnred to 

b Atber. He had bemi detaoged for two years. The cord 

fa ■rbloh bo bad tied lumself was recognised aa the one with 

It he ni«d to raiM himself in bed. He wai a good iwimmeri 

pl ptAablr took tbe precaution at disabling biuuelf. The rer- 

It waa *■ Found dmwned." Two similar casea are on reconl, 

t bjr toStri, in whldi the handi and fingers were tied together 

~ DBS ft'ldai and another in tlie ninth 

', and lUn \ait^wci c 







umin^ (Vire. Qoichard, £c.) m the o^ier, gite their opmoo ta 
favour of inldde. In inrh raws u tlioe it would be neceiw; to 
iletermme wlioCber the knot) or folds admitted of beiog nudt 
wilJi tliQ l«eth, or by toy moyementt of the buida or limla. 

treattnent of the drowned, it miy b« »cU to reall the bot tM 


iij iii.M (leiilb* by ilrowning the ciu<e of (li-alh 16 iipnce*, cimple 
III' ihivokl; flnd thqt the lOPiiiis to bo Bc]o;kt4rJ aro iboao wbjcb 
iMiiili) \k ]iresi'iilicd in oIIht cnsi» of h-ulibciition, with certain 
ulvini? iiimlilicutions sn^^estcd by tile d<>ntb having occurred in 

:i'iii]>L*t III lire of llic skin, nnd renders necpisnry more prompt and 
-<i>l»iiied nttrmptA to restore it. TIig lungs nnd stomach iboold 
:i1m' Ih> ri'lievtil of the water which had entered them. 

Tilt' I'ullntving roles for the tre.itmont of the drowned are in 
iuwinbim-e with the mcthixl of Dr. Henry Silvester, which bai 
ii'-iv, l^v (rrnicrnl comenl. takeri the place of that rerommended 
bv Dr.' Marshal Hull. Send immediately for bbnketa and dry 
I'tothii^i;, liut treat the patient instantly on the spot, in the open 
,iir, First pluL-c tite body, for a few seconds, with the face dowa- 
niink the head 1o«-lt than the feet, the month open, and the 
:i>ii|r<i>' drawn furuardj then turn the l»dy on the back, place it 
»ii Ml inclined eurfacc, oise the elioukler^ and support them, and 
liv Ihi' («t. Now pratji the arms ot tlie elboiv^. draw tlwio 

» dcntfai. In tbs wbale tie yetn only o 

1 deuM< (of a ctiild 

r flie jcais old) was Ht down na an act of bomicide, In 

' "I males aTid 1(X) female* oonimltted tuicide by liantnng. 

came of detth i» the sama in hanging, ■trangulitimi. 

ation, it may be well lo uinke a fa* prBllminnry obser- 

a tlMi« modua of death baiiire proceeding to euktnine 

n t»piiirately. 

r Thongb in cainiuon Ungaage, death fVom any of theae three 
doe to n^aeal ion, this term liu in mediMhlegnl Ungniigv 
meaning of iu own. 1 1 menus death canisd b; some 
at to the rojpiratioQ, which dm* not act by compreuin^ 
I ur tncUpa. Tbna ■ man ia said b) be anSocatad if 
ti and DMtrili are cloied. or if be !■ proventcd from 
thing by prenure on tbe ebest oc abdomen. Certain iioxioui 
to deitra.* life by niObcnUan, The aubjecl of 
I, then, separate* itself ut once from those fiirmi of 
4Mth (hangin);, atraagDlation, and throttling) in all of which 
proagre ia eatrciied on the air-tubt and iJtroal. 

Tb* moat smple oauu of death is throttUitg, or direct prea- 

anra on the tracbea with the lingera. Here tlie cauie is obvioua > 

it b Uu) nmc as in many cases of drowning; the same ns in 

— lit, apmsa (oipAy^ia). Death tukes place from llio 

tanioal hindrance to resplrutioo, Bnt the cause of death U 

ID olnl' when tbe entire drcamferenee of the nock ia snbject 

hlpnnnre; Gir in tliis cate net only the laryiii or tracliea, but 

• Uood-v«iHls also BuObr. In aome initnne«a both nir-tnbe* 

d blood-osHls are impliuiledi in others the sir-tubiH auiTer 

I and the resaela escape; In others, ngain, tbe nir- 

la iiutiun all the preaanre. The I'espi- 

a attd circulation nre mntt completely impeded when a conl 

■t TMind tiie hwor part of the neck, so ■■ lo embrace tlie 

ai tlia Urge raaeli at their entranoi into and exit from 

; or when it is applied, or drawn by the weight of the 

oatb the lower jaw. Both fnuctioru are le» iuteHercd 

in tbtt eunl ia lixed directly over the larym, as the pro- 

M tj Uie iM byoideB and thyroid eartikge alTurd some pro- 

n to the vludpip« and blood-veiHiU. 

\ TiS* varhitJon in tlia ponton of the Hgnture. and in the 

lercisue on the origans of roupiration and circu- 

n raapwtively, eiplaini the dilference in the len^h of time 

' I* dMtnr^ life in all those au» in which death does not 

« lliatantanaouslf from injury to the spinal card', attd 


1 of the « 

qtMBtion. wbether tbo pre« 

«- M A# H»ttl-riiwelg ia the iroinediate csnne of dealh, 
WoJfc it dntb etD*ed by apnaa, or bj apoplrjj/ ? 

It ••■ tanaarlj thn general belief that death as 4 
^P^Im^: and thii opinign wi» not qnrenHinBble, fbr it i 
kMN dNl nwre proraute with the fin^cn on the earaljd 
vflltnMrictp, by checking the aupply of blood to the bni 
ttal iia^ei; ii on^ii braught an, in penoDg prediquid ta 
^mtt, b; l]be prennre of a crnvnt impeding the return of 1 

That apopleiy, therefore, may bo hreifit 
tt by pc fu re on the large bkod-vmclB ia not to ' 
'ion atill recun — in those caaes of at 
in which tbe air-tube and blood-veiiaela art aiaik 
ly conprEaKd, to which of the two pressures i* diatb IsW 
Both caiuei dnubtlceaoontribute u the fatal radt. 
hiatoppageof tbereapiratinn ia certainly tbe eBSeDtialcanHi 
■Ui 1^ apncea would be mnch more speedily and eaUMj 
)d by a aampleto or partial stoppage of the breathing, tliB 
ll apipleiy by the eomplete or parlial arreit of tbe drcnUtiH. 
It aa appeal may be made to actual experiment for th<- dttakai 
A d(^ wm suipendcd by the neck with a rod. 
f having been prcvioualy made in the trachea bdaw 
■e tbe curd wns applied. After hanging for aboid 
rs of an hour, during which time the circulation aiid 
a as usual, tbe animal wai cut don-n, and did 
lO have autTered materially. Tlie cord waa thf n abifled 
M)W tbe opening into the trachen, id aa to atop the ingress of 
wr lMi> the lungs; and the animal bang i^in suspended, waa b 
A ttm Hunutea quite dead.* In this experiment the compreanon 
uf tbii nwels was probably less than it would be in mxny cnaeaof 
diiUtIt (torn hanging in the human anlijcct, in which the violenoe 
(HUl^ed. iho height of the fall, and the weight of the body com- 
t^oe tu tighten the cord, and thus excrclae the strongest pressure 
uu lb« vthIs as well aa on the air-tuhe. 

.V aiaillar operation on the buman subject ia described by 

■' .V aun of the name of Gordon was eiecuted Bl Tyhnm, in 
A)irkl, 1T33. Ur. Chovet having by IVequent eiperimonts on 
doip^ diaaivered that oiwning the windpipe would prevent the 
fatul ouusDiiavncea of Uiu halter, DudertoDk Ui save Gordon, wul 

dc UHUclne,* Ap]«ndli, p 

•oKinlinpl]' made an indiion In b!i windpipe, the elTect of which 
mi, thai when Gordoo sMppeJ hia moutb, noitrils, imA ran fnr 
tmvit tinit, ur enoiiich came tbroogh tbe opening to allow of the 
(Kmliniwncc or life. Wbcn hanged, be ma obterved lo he nlive 
■Rer all llic rat weru dead ; and nbcn he had hung threa- 
quuten nf an hour, being carried lo a houw in the Tyburn road, 
he opeiuiil hia mouth wvcral times and groaned; andavein bEing 
cqmied he bled freely." But these were the only mgi» of life. 
, Dr. Smith attribuleil the want r>( aacceu to the great weight of 
n, conpled jwrhape with the inniHlcieucy of tbe openiai; 
told the tncbn. It ia obvioaa that the >ame reinlti wnnld 
Itopptn if an equal iiretaure by atraoguIaUati were lubttitutcd liir 
"V weifhtof the body. 

ippeanv U>e"i Chat when the windpipe and the large blood- 
a BOllhr compreauon, death miiy be attribuU^ to iipnira; 
m the teapiriition ia free, or but (lighttj affected, pressure 
namla may caoie deatli by apoplexy, but mure dowly ; 
■ when reapimtiun and cirealDtisn are both impeded, 
Ji may coRlrihale lo the filial r»alt, though tbe hindmuce to 
» RVplration i* the more effiaeat. 

•■ been iiiggnted that tbe immediate cause of death in 

( inJ (tnuigulntion is pressure on the nerves wliicli 

ftinetion of rtwpimlion; \ut as sueh pressure does 

Ml till tbe lapse of many hours, this eiplnnation 

>* njcclcd. 

"Ing now cnmined the qneationa common U> dmtb by 
'g and fay ttraugulation, the sohject of death l^ lunging 
K! resumed. 
li tabes pbiro irerj luddenl; in certain eaaea of mspensioii. 
>am fear jiroduciDg ayiitape as in some eaaei of drowning, 
I Injury to the spinal eord by Inia^n of tbe rcrvi<«I 
*, ttactDTO of the odouUnd process, or rupture of tlie 
rvint«br*I substance. Tbeao iiguries to the spine beiug 
il eitbrr by tbu fall of thu body from a height, or by a 
1 motion giveu to Uie body al the moment of the fell, 
b by lianging taliet place, then, iu dllTcrent jvsys and at 
t iatermla of time. The more speedy dnitbs may he 
« ii^ory of th« spinal mnrron above the origin of Che 
ef resjantion, und, more larely, to syntopu from fright. 
■•xt In point of rapiility will Iw ilealli from apaoM, nnd Ihc least 
~ 'A that by apoplexy. 
Tt m Bol without Information as to the icnutions that 
npMi;r <l*»Hi bj hanging, tiuieidea saved fnnn denth, mid 
kUluaophva who have inslituifd experimenls ou theuise Ives, haw 



boUi cDDtriba[«d umethiug c 
th«H ictiHiIioiu ue nut Bilw 
probibly depeuiU on the vari 
Had bloud-reaiila are compnw 
Iwtkin of whftt happened In 
■uilden lou of ■ 


our knowledge. II appM 
'9 the HUDe ; and the i£f 
n dcgreea in wLicli Ibe W 
1. l^uiue hiiTG retuual b 
theiD; others were o 
ithen a deep d 

inhered in by fluahoi of light, hy a blaiih flame, bj 1 
oirclca of colonra, or by more deGtiito ocuhkr illaa 
bj biidng or anging in the ear*. Id other inatanctt the'i 
tioni are stated to baie bmn oitromel.v pleuurable, tbmfhtf 
ihort daration. These Mnsationa resemble those that oKsr i> 
caaei of disordered cerebral drculation, and thoae thut luherii 
the fit* in mmo ca«i of epilepj. 

But it i> ouly in ana of luicide that these pleasarablc aa*- 
tiodt manifcit themwives. In huiuicidul casea, when uaeb tn- 
tenco ii wal, the coanteaaace eipreasea sufl^ringi the era 4lt 
brilliant aud staring, and aeem la be bncstinj; from their ndelt; 
■nd the evelidi open and injected ; the tongue, snollen am! UrU. 
u forced aeruDat the teetb, or mare or Xena protruiled ftfm ttw 
month, and coinpreued or toni by the coiitracled Jane; tiM li|a 
an iirollen and thu month distortpd; and blooJ, or a blmdjr 
froth, tunfp about the month and noatrils; the armi art stit 
the band) livid, and the fin^ra ao fbrciblj cloied on the palm m 
to (btee Che nula into the fleslij and the convubioiu are m 
violent aa eron to cause the expulsion of the oonteata of tlw 
boweU and to produce erection of the penis, with ejpnliioa rf 
the nrine. semen, or prostatic duid. The circumacribed raat cr 
Tialet disoolonttioni on the trnuk and extremltiea cotnnian Is 
■II cases of death by npnmi are strongly developeJ j tbe oonne 
nf the cord ia liiatinctlj indicated by a well marked braiie, or bj 
tome of tbe appearsnoes presently to be doscribed ; and, on dia- 
lecCion, the miisclei and ligaments of the windpipe are foand 
strpteheil, bruised, or torn, and the ituier coats of the mrotid 
arteries aometimes (i:vided. 

Ttt intemid appearances are those of »fBll-mBrked apnoa. 
Tlie Innga nra sometimes distcntted with air, aometimns oollapnd. 
Two principal medioo-legal qnestions arise in regard to persODS 
foond hanged. 1. Did the suspeaaloii take pLioe during lira, or 
after death P and, S. Was the hanging Mvidcntal, suicidal, or 
homieidnl P 

1, Did Itf KUpentSon tateplacf during lift, or after dealt t 

The poitlls most worthy of attention as bearing on tbe solatioa 

of Ihisqpestionare!— r** i«art qf /*df CDi^; The appmraaet 

^a» eoaaXntanw; T^ fotUiiM awl tUU of tke Coagw ; r** 

t 0/ tie gmitrtl orgaat; and TKe expuli 

of the 

n* Mart nf tJui Cord. — Tlie appearancas on the neck Jlle to 

ipeoaion during life are by no means naifann. The homicuUl 

>ta involving rtroiig strngglea, tlie neck auitoiiu gretit injury, 

■rked b; Ihe braited <kiu. Mid, Llie torn itatu of tlie subjacent 

rts; but jn judicial and Euicidal Imngiu^ mucii less ii^ury ia 

oa both to the nirfkce Dud to the dw|ier-seiited jiAtU, 

la tlioM cue* (botb judidal ind luictdnl), in whicb tbo pgHtiim 

4f UiB cord u miiDly determined h; the weigbt of tbe body, it 

fttllo** prMt; donelj the lino of tlie jsw-bone, ind tbere in an 

obllqua iudeuted uurk, ot the colour of n recent bruise, an the 

~ pan of tlie ueck, and jelloHieb broim, as if tVom a unge, 

■rd( tbo angle of tlie jaw. llie bruise uiaj correspond with 

wbuli br«»dth of UiB ligature j or there may bo a Jeep groove, 

lered bj Iwu discoloured liaea. The mark VHriei with the size 

lesture of the cord, being Icsa dialjuct wbeu a solt iQateriai, 

I ■■ a handkerchief, is used, tbun when a bard ligature, such 

rope, ti empbyud. Wlien Ibe material is hard and resiaCing, 

Dowbcr of liaies Cbnt tiie ligature has been pasted round the 

[, and the duici'irI of vihich it consiuls, ere denrly diaplajod. 

in many cue* of judicial and suicidal banging, the mark of 

1h« tvpe ouliutta at Hrst of a simple depreasiou witbout any chaugc 

' Mloar, oblique if due to the weight of the body, boriionul if 

nly Sied round lliu iiuck. Afler the lapse uf aovend liuors, 

» rope-mark Bisumu a llf>lit-brownish tint, and if an indsimi 

tbe skin tlie eetlular memhrdae is found stronglj 

na to fbna a thiniug white band. Sometimes the 

■are is not equal on the two side*, or the back of tbe nwk 

ipea. i'omeltuies. also, the prennre is lessened by the beard. . 

I coantoBaiicr, ni will be presently more fully stated, iaal brst 

I and its eiprcsaion natural, and it it not till several hour* have 

■odi that it BsauiDta a Urid tint, and still longer before it wears 

Uwt«l appeannni. 

» MM of jadidal hanging, in which the curd was removed 
Acr Ihe body luid been cut down, we observed merely u 
■ed drcls on tbe foro part of the neck, and a slight oica. 
t, with ■ burnt appearsnoe over the angle of the jaw. In 
of suicidal banging witli a small rope tied firmly round the 
which waa removed without delay, there was a whitv 
line deeper at the h«eb of the neck tbnn in front, and 
mlag a Juaky hue atirr tbo lapw of laveral lumrs. 1'be 
inds of the rope were diatinetly marked, but there was nu 
kymoal* on any part uf tbe neck. In anothui eue u( wl<^^M 

huDging ■ hard ilepressvd cliDcolate-colonred band « 
flurranniled [lie neck, uml carreapondrd lo the rope of o 
lind Iweii uied, 

'llie appBHranc™, thrni, produced by Uie cord in c 
ing darine life are not alwoji the ntne : in aoniB cues thert tl \ 
n well-marlied bruise or ecchjmaiU, in otherisn indmtnlioii ■itt' 
nut diicoloration, and a oondenaed atate of the eubcntaMOiB 
tissUH, mtembling old parcbmcntj in othen, ■ 
depreued rbdoolate-tsUinred line; and tlicie mitka limited lotbi 
fore part of tlic neck, may )« combined at tbe angle of (ba jaB 
Willi a singed appearance. Tbe cuticle may aim be abnJed te« 
and tliere. 

The qoGstion. wliether the appearaneei oeeaiioiud if tie M)J 
-/■rinj fife can be producfd afier death ? " ' 
Ihc affirmativo. In Che Chapter on Woandi and HecbuuMl Ifl- 
JiirieB.'it H-ill be ^ovn thnt bruites may b« prodnced ftr MM* 
time atler life is eitinctT and that which is Croe of brDHt* k 
general will of eonrae hold KOod with raapn:! In tliU partiffldar 
form of bruite. Aceordinglir Orfila prmed, by eiperimciils on 
the dead bodj, that, np toeig-hteen hounnflerdcslh.precistlftlM 

ntuie ap|ictintncea mav be produdid aa in suspenuon during lifb ; 
Oevocgip haa produced Che parchment-like condltioa of the akin 
lUid autjiiceut celliihir tiaaue, iw weli as tbe ecclij^osed appear- 
HDDe hounding the deprension ; and Casper immi up tbe resalta of 
a long scriea of ciperimente b; the remarkable stalemcnt " that 
any ligRture with which any body may be ni»[Kiided or stranyled, 
not only within a few hours, but even dBj8a.ft«t deatb, eapecially 


If Ibo body be forcibly pulled downwirdi, may (iroduce a mark 
prociuly Bmilar to that which iiobiened in uiaicortliase banged 
while Rlivui" oud he add> that be has biieii convinead by his 
UperiuiunU Ibat the mart of Ihe cord U a pHnlf Biuiaoerie 
fitnomenoH. [Umdhook, vol. u. p. 17S.} 

Bat for tbcu confident (Mtementi of Caiper, based upon 
«tvenl rxperinieDta and large ciperience, 1 >bould have attached 
Mne nliw to tbe dark depreoiMl cbaookte-coloured line which 
I MicODiitered in one case of suicide, aceompdiiied by ■> cod- 
denied a cuuditjoa of akin that, when eat, it reeembied closelyClw 
tODgheit bnwu. Tbe appearoDce of the ueck is well ahown iii 
tba engraving (Gg. 31) tukeo from a pholiigrnpb, wbich abu 
lUiplayi tbe miilb of an experitoent made with tUe tame cord 
tlutt M>a< lueil in tbe atupeiuioa. TbU wa> fuBtened tightly round 
the neck witbiu an hour of the death and j.| ^^ 

Ut ftc aboat 20 boun. The reiult was 

■ iligbtly depressed mark of tbe size of 
the <nfd. aliDwiug tbe pnjacbing itniods lii 
white dspressiaiu, tbe rest in liunb roee- 
DOloarad liuet. This mark did nob deepen 
io colMir by aipmare. The only other 
appouanoe worthy of note was the deep 
imiigo blue oohinr of the ears. 

llkB suicide had altsobed a neckerchief to 

■ hook, and through the loop be Lad 
Jawitd a small rape of coir, b; which be 
Hspcadod himself. He had climbed on tu 
m table which he kicked from under him. 
Bis fwt nearly tonebed tbe flour of the cell, 
<rig. 33.) (U.) 

Hat even in tboae casea in wliicb the 

BUrk of the cord Is Isb distinct and not 

Is itatlf (uncliuive, an eumioatlon of the 

liarta boDealb the skin may enable lu to 

i^iatk with cou&dauee. A ouoaideiuble 

~1lvam of Uuud, » rupture uf the traHiea, 

■|«lalliiii of 111 carlilagea, n dislocation 

ElM s^ns, a dlriaioci of the coatl of the 

iV—J^ oc, indeed, any evidcuoe of greet 

vx, mHild fumiah a strong probability 

IpWHiau during lifsi of ^ suspeiiuon 

MnriBlo (tnuigutiition. 

Stat* uf ik* (^ateiuiKW. — In death by banging, whether 

■uiddal, the couiitcuanuo i^ usually pale, and the ex. 




preuion nstoral. But tliiii piillor of the face ii Ibllowfd, 

Tew boun, by i livid line of the 1i|K, eyelids, can, and beij 

rally i and, after a atill lonser intervnj. by a marked 

of the countenance. There i» iiolhtDg in the «i|ireBiOD ori 

of tlic face to show that Buspenaian took place during life 

death ; hah if the vewels of the bead and face are fmnd bigblj. 

congeated in a body recently cnt donn, there is u probibiUty ntl 

mnpenainn during life; for laspension after death, tliomrh 

produce dixvloratinn of the neck, could not cause turgeareme 
the Teasels of the head nnd ftce. 

J'tuitiim and Slate of the Jbirjriie.— Tlie some injeclcd Mid 
airollen »tat« of the base of the tonf^ae, with or wUhaat protni' 
don, which ocmrs in other fornii of death bj' apnrpe. oeaa* ato 
in death by hnnging, and ufibrils a Btrong probatillity oF anipen- 
■ion during life. 

Slate of the GenUal Orgnns.—The genital oi^na of botb wm 
nre aflected in deatli )iy hanging. In the female, rcdnen of the 
labia and discharge of blood have been occanonally noted, md in 
the male ■ more or led eomplete itnte of erection of tbe poiii 
with dischargG of urine, of inucui, or of the prostatic flnid. ■• 
present iu at least one case in three. There may abw he disriuup 
from the urethra without erection. But it must be home in mind, 
that these appearances in the genital or^ns, when the; do occur, 
are not chatacteriitic of death by hanging or stianjrnlalJOD, tv 
they have been ob!iCTTe<l in other formi of rioicnt and mrfdeu 
death, as in fatal gun-shot wounda of the bnuu, and of the large 
veaaeli, and in poisoning by prussic acid. 

This Btgn then, when present, is of ctmrideralile importance, fir 
it is strictly vital, and atTords a sure proof nf violent and sudileu 
death ; and if combined with characteristic entemal egta and 
internal appearancei, of death by hanging, On the other haad, 
the ubKnee of erection aud cmiuion is no evidence that death wu 
not doe (o this cause. 

Expalnvn of the Firce». — This happens ta about nne-focrtli of 
the catea of death by banging ; but as it also occurs in other fortBs 
of sudden or violent death, it needs to be confirmed by chanc- 
teristic appearances, eitemul nnd internal. 

2. Aecideitl, Hoiriile, or Homiciile. — Accidental lianging i» *erj 
rare. One case is given by Gordon Smith :— It was that of a 
girl wbo was swinging in a brewbouse, and near the ropv uBpd by 
her for that purpose Has another for dran-ing np Ebinght«red she^. 
In the course of the cierciie her head got throngb a noose oTthii 
wnd rope, by wliich she was pulled ont of the swing, and kept 
endedata considerable belgbliUntiLttie^iai. Dt.TajWabo 


K oua OTiuiDimiatcJ lo him hy one of his pnpilt -, — A hej 

n oil] hw] biTii amtutnf! hiniwir by fnateniug a |Bcec of 

n to ■ Lwp i'l ■ o"nl fiupended &i»m a tvBiti in tli« raOD. 

c Mt cf Ktinginit lie miani mid tamed hlmwlf, wben the 

) •iidit«nl]r n)D)>lil liiis Duder Ibc chin, iiu! HK- 

« ncrption rf ■ few nuo of this rliiH, in which the 

r dotlh i* obriinn, Ihu iiaetiioa uiuliiT coDMlentioD ii 

~ (o lld> : ITiu tti katging nifidal or koiKtdal f Tbc 

f Uie Bcgittiv-GeDeral ihoir ilut the pnibibilit; ii 

otiglj ID taroar of tniciije ; tnd, far otnkni iiiBiiii. 

• ■ DKide of doth which a raordem' it not likdj 

It pftrngipnwi b gr«it dl>|>iv]iorti(ni of tttKhgOi 

• Uh Durdem and liii victim, or a cmnhiuBtioii of two Or 

I* agiiiut one. Tlie wlilij uoertaiocd cafe of homi- 

kSfa }nn 1^2 to ISsA, waa oiinaiitled on ■ jnmg 

» vMiaig m the appearance of the bodj itielf, 

T (troggle, to dittiogniih Uiv bomi- 

but if a man were foand niBpefided 

a thapmnd ulikh be coqUdoI b; uij pcaaibOitj 

1 nilb uo otjfct Dear on >hkb be ooold bne 

■t conclDde that he «■■ nupcDdcd fair another. 

n fonnd with tbe feet tt aaoie 

olj toudiiiig tba grooDil wa* tniite Hktij to bars 

'^ amiltieT than bf hiiOB'lf i but mrefbl abaemtioD 

Ii to b* ID >TTnr, fur MiiiiHJn Itare been foiiiid, not 

B*C (OBching the frnmnd, but vilb tbe kiuea beat 

u the v'"'"^- " '" ""'' pulaT* tlot dcatb moit 

1 ptodturd bj kuiing furoblj furward to at to coo- 


It uT the own In •bii'h Ibe bud; tuucbes the groood 

il Bould Dot be u putim llio ittttcb aa Ut pve it ila uoal 

m {mailiQa. Uiatv would ba no diObrenoe bctweco radi aaea 

M nt atraopikliaa, f icepi, perhaps that in the Uticr tbe 

paid be mar* diitinot, ud iroold embtuc a gnatcr por- 

-p> t>Kk. 

t>i-l«tit •trngglf* oo lb* clAtlua or pRaca of the 

1, ur uf icvcK Injcliot, woold junih a tw\neioa of homi- 

' • hOnHca have been kwiwQ to be 




•roold mult frani iU applicBtion daring lire; aud the tnrgejcenra 
of the counlfiiaacv, as trell m the characferiHttc pont-morteni ftp- 
peanocft, tronld be wanting. It !■ onlj'. tbererurf, in suicides, 
and to the Karoetr concdrable cnte of slight foTDe being uied by 
tbe murderer, or dcnth taking pinni luddenly, from dinck or 
(jncojw, that the appearances pi^idiieed by a cord applied during 
Mh onild Tetenible thne dne lo iti apphcation after denLh. Tbe 
maie obscrvitiona apply to direct pmaare on tbe windpipe. Ai, 

tbe murderer i* not Ukely to bide the real mode of dentb by 
(!nralat«l ttrangnlation. It is much mora probable tiiat liaving 
■tnngM hi> victim, be w(>nld try to conceol tlie real mode of 
death, by mFpending the body or pluL-ing it in a piHitiuu sQg- 
gaalire ofiuiinde. 

In the well-knowD oue of Bartholomew Pourpre, the de«iu»d 
rtrangled aud tben lOipeiidGd, and the mark of tlie cord 
d it Uie kiirer part of tlie neck, wbile the teetli knocked 
, and tbe bloody month, showed the violence tliat had been used. 
The muideren of Sir Edmondbary aodfiey, after strnngliiig 
Somerset lIouMi with a twiated handkerchief applied 
great forre^ concealed the body for o time, and tlien carried 
:io Ulington, threw it into n ditch, puied his owo aword tbrougb 
aim, and laid hi> glove* and other articles of di'css on ibe bank, 
■oMloeieate tbo belief that be had i-ommittcd (uicide. The 
■baenea of bLiod from t1i« wound, though the sword lind passed 
tbe heart, eidted nupieion, which was fully eoiitinncd 
ttheottrj of ■ brniw, au inch broad, eitending round the 
Bd • fractare of tbe cervical vcrtetiric, wliieli rendered the 
I Boible that it evuld be turned froui otie shoulder to the 
The bre, which during life was remarkably pile, was tivid 
ftMd, and tlie eyes bloodaiiot. 
JeeUnt, Sakidt, or Mopiiaidf.—Tlut Btrangulation, like 
n»s be occidental, U proved by tlie follawing ciwa !^ 
miow young man, havii^ nearly lost the use of his arms, 
le habit of moving a hetiTy w»ght hy a cord attnched to 
poNed lonnit bit neck. One morning, sooii after having 
to hb rooni, bia liatcr Ibnnd him nttiiig in a diair quite 
'itb the card twisted round hU neck. The deceaaed must 
nptod In move the weight in Ibe ueuhI way, but it had 
hind, and so itranj^led him. (Smith.) 
p, 1S30, Eliznbeth Kenchan, an extremely dinipated, 
tni disorderly woman, went to bed intoxicated, with 
it nn, and in the morning was foond strangled in its 
Sbt bad falicp out of hed, her bonnet beciime died 

la ibM^ hJMiilf bftk ptauc of Ui bodicmi aitb tfca 


to. laaDcaMc(Orfl>)iti 
nmi tkt nek j ia anotba (Di^cf ), a lUte; and ■ ragill (tWft 
ftr tbe^M F'na'i <" ■ >l->^ caw. tW ladp of ■ |io« ■«■ 
la iW JMT 1B38 a Hr. Waboa, (gcd 88, ttras^id Ub- 
■ poker IbfOB^ Ike tie af Lii DcckcnUef nd 

lljr Ibe Bant, Md frmgA Mm final' agaiart a nH till bcNaa 
^•i. C% cMMittlag tkc ba^. tbe bn >m Bxad Ii*U and 
' iLe feitora fitofled; aad tkov wm OGaifaaUa 
■ad i Kfu iw u i i wten the g \ l— ] t bad ttm ^ifB»d. 
rHaaMa to te act, laid tba BU vai frat^ to b« 
n at tke Choter Awtan, *rnL 18)S.) 
laM ttta«|« bit attribote dMtk to acoOnrial tfaot' 
1^ »ai Mik ia 1783. ia tU wd-kamra nua af BoUi^Add. 

Kama (boad 4(bi] ia U* btd-mnot, and Ut vifc and nab 
MVfaat wna chaqfal wiib tfcc nnadfr. TW meAia] lialliiiMij 
arai vcn* iia^Ttifi tuij, aa ao &nctM& bad takao pkn^ baft il 
■aa pnmd tbat Munc wen nurk* en the axfc i m LBag tb^ 
cf la^m. Ooa iiuguia skid \hm nrr ^tts of a tkanb aad 
Ur*r llB««n; Ow oUxi </ a tbamb lad /w Jl^fn,- vUb 
aai>»T aitiMa ■■ — Ij taa, - vbifUiuknl ■■ ertbeUoarfwaa 
a( la Ihe itia," Tlu ifatfw^ aa* fuvnd Idaf aa Ui lb<« oo 
tba Im. attb <>■ Uad ranad Ui Mvk. Oae of tW ninbMb 
aAw laaAnaMiaD OMAatd 1^ h. favl .OaagM BiJIJlgtrfU 
la Ida (iHrp tr •B'^ >^ >^™* «<t^ Ui Ml tndi ori tkat 

Thu •ppnnnm i»i» d bj tbmttfinv. •ben |T«at wJi KaaCT k 

o&n^ Ba; U iafirtad hm lb* ntiat* tt Ht. T. WUhm In 

< MM rf Hrrtar H'DLaaU. (onM*! of Ik. mvdw of fcla 

'it, at Uiwaij. April. l»T- Timn aat aa abaim •■ aaA 




tide of the windpipe, fire ibnuiuns on tbe Ictl, and three on the 
rigbt >mi ; and the ikin on the front uid «<li» of the neuk, and 
on tbe opper pact of the ohest nriu blsckcnod. On the throat 
were tlie mariu of a thnmb and throe Sogers. It wu inferred 
Uiat the throat had been gmiped bj tbe led, hand, of which the 
wrat wu prened opon the che«t, sod that tlie right hand had 
giMpcd the left arm of the victim. The internal appearan«a 
were highlf eharacteriittc of death hy apnoHi. The substance 
■lud memtiraDe* of the hniia vers injected ; the lungs and right 
dde of tbe heart contained a qonntit]' of darli fluid bloixl ; the 
left WBi nanriy empty. All tbe internal viscera were boalthy. 

Tb* folloiring i* a ceae of homicidal itrangnhttinn by a foreign 

body introduced into tbo ligature; — Dr. Clench, n Iiondon pby- 

'" ' D, wM railed out of bed by two men on the night of the 

of Janoarf, 1692, t« viait a ack friend. Be entered a 

iney enaeb with them, and waa driven about aavenil atreeta 

' « Gty for nn honr nnd n quarter. The men then left the 

I, and aent the driver on an errand. When he retncneU, he 

(bvnd Dr. Clgncb sitting on tbe bottom of the coach, with bi> 

tuad on the cnihion of the front seat. Thinhing bim in liquor, 

b* ahook bim, bat obtained no nnswer. He then called the watch. 

they fcund him xtrangted by a coal wrapped in a handker- 

t. Mid applied directly over the windpipe. Tbe couchman 

bnrd no ikmsb while driving the curinge. 



y Under this bead are comprised all cases of apn(en,not produced 

jf (Urvct pressure on the windpipe, with tbe exception of drown- 

^L wfaicb has already been treated separately. 

jj^On an average of the Hve years 1853 to 1856. 708 death* by 

~ '' a occurred, of which 137 in males, and £81 in femalei. 

• whole namber, 106 were infanti killed by overlying, and 

o«t 160, also infants, were Enftbcated by bed-dotheii G7, of 

n the nujortty were joung children, were Bu9(>cated by tbcir 

I, S8 by gaMS, chiefly carbonic acid. Two luicidis. hve 

me mensUnghter by luSbcation are reported to 

« happennl annually. In 1871, among deathi by occiitent or 

"J in males, and 628 in females, are attributed to 

I indication, 

SuSbciilion msj take place in many ways. 
1. TAr moalk ami moHrilt mog be ttopped accidentally or by 
on iu a state of helptcaincas, from wUntvvcr cauic, 

f 4h** afMT 

liOf williUiirlal<i«i^«Bthtladr.n««» I 
C tU wU^pawKbtbehnd: crcMtMi ' " 
and dalof the nwialh and Ptrtrik fWfcEaticB 
Um dMt ean*maud part el tte fmw >rfa « 

■luiiiit liw. A ruk of •oodmfaJ MflnBlia ty ci— i« mi» 
tllMt hubf«DinnirTediDlahin(<aMairithpb«(r«f IWk, 

(>n llie IMIiof Jnor, 1837, no la* tt— iiw^- Uu m y w 
Iwl their live* at llie C1:*iiipt <1( Mar* iij fntmit m a am 

iteatb being due parti; to ■aJTocsUcd and farttj t« KToeiqi* 
lu the dual. 

8. Clonre n/tht GloltU. — Tbn tiua no; onv wridadd}, 
*■ In tlir 67 m*n mmtioTieil abore of lofliirstkiii b; food. W)i« 
tliit Iwiqwin in ulalta thej are Binall; intoxiralcd, <ii in a It. 
Thn* INrii ani) Fnnblaitiiae quote tbc (mc of ■ patient «bo iM 
In an opilrptu: fit nfLcr ■ heaij' mml of pork. Tbe tracbta ai» 
talnad ■ quaiitily of nwller, reembling the peak cat irliidi \» 
bad rcnotlj dliwd. SuSbcation bjr f.Khd k not an iiiiiimiiiw 
tannltiatiDn of tlir grnml pnmljsii of the inane. 

Among liiiniljar ciunpln of aoridnital inSbcation tnaj be olal 
tho death of AnHTCon, sttribnted to a grape-tod ; and (if Gilbert 
tha poet to a piece of mntton. There ii • cue on record of uf- 
foratton from (wallowing n bee iti tame boneji and another fran 
alaked llniD getting into tbe Urjni. ^neh (mall bodiea ■• ■ 
jiii-i'e of potato p«l have been found impacted in the riaia 
^lultldii, aud nnall inorUd fiowths, and the prodacta of inflam- 
niutlon have often lufficed to dote lliia narrow pasnge. 

Kullbcalion lia* alM been often tbreatcnEd and nmelinea 
brougllt about b; bodira impni.'tcd in the upper part oF the gullet* 
Slave*, botli in ancient and moilem times, are alleged to have 
■wallowed their tungnvi. Some article of dretx, aueh as a hand- 
kiirclilnr, liaa lieen awalloned. and one dctennincd suicide ouMd 
A fiital hannorrliage hy awallowiug a corli briatling with abarp 
|dni. The preparation ii in the niuteum of Kitig't College. 

hnlridal (uflbeation by the vapours of chsrcoal are not commoa 
in Kngland hut verj frequent in France. 

t^uHbration b not a mode of death often resorted to bjr Bfl^^ 


itren, tn the (arc, at \eiat, of young anit vigorous adult:a ; for 
the tone reqaircd U tucli u to reveal the cause of death by ex- 
t«nu] iiurka uid inl«ni«l ■ppvuninees ; but wlion the body » 
very ireak from tnj o>u«e. u in the naw-boni inrunt, t)ie old 
H^jMlu or the intoxiiuhNl. gulTacation ii not very difficnit U> cft^t. 
^bM if not Ktteiidad by great violetice, might not betrny it«lf by 
^HK« «tate oT the body eitKriiHlly or internally. 
^F The ptM-niorteiii ajijieitranaei pieient in weU-mirked aam of 
iMth by MiBbaation nwy be inferred from Dr. OIlivisr'B iicconnt 
of IboperKHuiialliicatvdia theCbimpide Man. la tbe twenty- 
three ponooi, witbont cxeoiilioti, the skin of the face and neck 
mu of k anitbrni viiilet lint, ipotLed with blucliith eccliymosei. 
S the cyca trsre blondihut) id four, > bloody froth ran 
a the mmtb and DOilrilti in four, blood flowud tVom tlic 
iirib^ In three, from tlie annj leven bul frectunHof the riba; 
utlta. fnctura ofthe itemuni. In aixteeD bodiestbet 
L the hloud wxi blu>k and fluid, and fiUedall the large 
IB at the riKl>t ude of the hurt. The pohaonary tieaue wu 
uf K reddiah-bmwn, and in three qaarlers of each lung, 
orly, there wii a conudemble accumulation of black and 
d blood i bnl there wna no eoobyraosiii, «tber ou the lurfacs 
P la the aubttance of the lnngt, eicopC in one cnse. In all the 
D whirh tile eyee were hloodahot, and in tboie in which 
lowed from Uic ean, the veuela of the |iia mater and inb- 
IB of tlie hnin were gorged. 
f Stale qf /A* Lung: — 'I'wo uppearancee frequently occnr in I 
b bjr auffocatioa. vii., partial empliyteuia, and panctiforml 

K Tbs larrace aC the langi in most csnei of death by niBDCelion, 

d of bring tmooth, hat an uneven or tubercuUted chiiracter. 

• to (ilo occurrence of partial vesicnlar or interetitial emphyaemL 

I one of theu potchei shows thiit the pareiichyina of 

■ limi^ U alTected. 

Tbc pDiKiilorm ecehymaBes (Tardinu'a spots) are found moA 
tamonly In children whii b»ve died of satTociition, but they may 
O aocoT iu wlultB. They are rainuU apotson the pleura (lisceral 
9 coM^). but ate not rcinHned lo the surfoce ot the lungi, for 
f «B»y bo oWrred on the aorta, the heart, or the diaphragni. 
kUo on tlw eurfaee of tbu abdominal viscem, as well u on the 
(iinuT •otfiicBoflhe.calp. TIib "Lurfaca of the long lookn as if it 
li.itl been BpHnhled uith drop, of . d^rk purple fluid. They •"> 
diss I'l rnpliire of capillaries ftmn ovsr-di'lciuio". and occur. 
trdiug lo Likkomiliy, wi,py ^^^^^ j,^ e»pln " 


mwiiwlj iwng Ibe geocnl blood 'prenotv- TWiCn ia 
tiat Hkj vac dwpmtie of death by w il bd i iM m i 
gdAcd fr^ otbrr mode* of death bj apnmk. Tkii«^ 
how«f«r, ii not ccmfinned b; othn- otaarrm, br tl " 
ocmr vliere ■ amiUi mndition u rcf^ard* the idaliM 
(he re*pinl0i7 moremeats and tbf blood-prcmire mil 
oraar in children from Interraptian of the plscentala 
Tbne ipoti indicate dcsth b; aiphyxi* id fome tiwm, 
dw mode in which It wu biuapht mbont. Thcj •] 
with in the ItiD^ of Dcir-bom inranti. (Se« p. 9L) 

From the alic^bt injuHea ciuted by tbe nuSbcidaii of fa 
people, this mode of death iru, preriom to the pai 
AtutocDj Act, Kle(-ti?d by (he mnrderen Barke a 
Bark^ wi(]) hii female anwiitplice. Mnedon^ll, im tik 
Edinbotfh in 1B28, and Bishop, vith WiUimn and Ha 
LoDdoD. in 1831. 

Borice killed Hirger; Csinpbell, br gittii^ on her bodj. • 
n^ her mouth and nostrils with one hand, and applTiog 
otb«r ftirdblji under tbv diin. 

Fifty-nine bodrs after death, tlie eyeaarereclosed ; the ft 
eompoied, ai in deep iteep, red, and somewhat swollen ; tb> S 
of ■ dirl; colonr ; and the e}t% bloodshot. Tliere iraia IHdcll 
blood on the left cheek, npporetilly from the DoMrila; tbato 
•mta not protruded or torn liy the teeth, hnl there « 
laceration on the inside of the upper tip op]u«ite tbe left eye-to 
the cntide nnder the chin was mnch ruffled, and tbe mrfare of 
th« tma ilcin, when laid bare, waq dry and brairn ; bnt there ni 
DO braise. The integnroent*, eici^it on Ilia fiice, were perf»etlj 
fnw from liiridity. The joints ■"etv flacdd. There wia no edn- 
rion of blood or Uoeration of the parts aroand tbe nHndpipr^ and 
IM ilijnrj of the cartilai^, bat tlie on hyoida and thjnrid car- 
tilage were fiirthcr apart than nsiinl, in conseijueDce of the stretdl- 
ing of the connecting ligament. The following were the mtemalap- 
ptarancca: Tlie membrane of tbe windpipe healthy, witli here and 
theK •oroe longli mucni, not frotliy, and a few points of Mood 
between it and the mcmbmne. The nr^ns within tha «bMl 
ptrfeetlj natarul ; tbe langn re:narkflbly so. Tlie blood tbroi^- 
oat the body was hlsck and Ruid. and Hccnmnlated in tbe larp 
ir«R^ and in the right cavities of the heart. The nbdominal 
nsDPta, with the eiception of incipient disease of the lirer, wer* 
^Uttj. The brain alw was qQite healthy, and presented a tittlt 
■ot* torpKence thun usnal i and there were three eitravawlaoaa 
•tHMi Id tbe loalp. bat without earrdFpoi)dit>g extemnl I: 
Ita* wen •omw nnrkB of violence on ' " * 

itemnl bnuMs> ^ 

rosT-KOBTEX untx^scn. 393 

■ tt blood aiaoBg Uie Dtuscte it the neck, boek, and Icrini^ 
lb* ahauh of Die tpiod oml. Tbe posterior ligiaicntous 
ion batvnB tbe thin] tad roortb c«rvi<ial vcrtebno were 
TImw iajurie* to Ib« back a-ere ihown In have been ocot- 
■Act dath b)r the Ibpcible dogbling np of the body. It 
W uUcd thai ■ ** budfill " or dotted blood w<s foand 

M BM* nf Cm-Io Ferrnri, the Tictim of Bishop and Williem*, 
^ainai trom wluch mflbimtlon might bare been inlemA 
ri* itm (tranglj onrked. lie Uec, il i* tror, wutmiEleii 
ig»it»J ; the eyn Uoodihot, and tbe Ijpi tumid ; irat tha 
••ra quite healtlij and not mngisted, the heart mi 
te^M«d*UiUeaTiUe*i|i]i(eBnipt;. Bat these eireptional 
nCM wem eipluniid, by tlie fact, tlut the niDrd>.'ren, after 

flag their irietim with liijuur, towered bit body into a well 
■d dmrnward^ taking care to keep the mouth below 
la this casa, too. there was saine eitmraiated blood 

'tbaKmlivatoDng thnmn<elc«ortlie ncd>,itnd on tbetpinal 
Tlw IfbA itate of the body, the appturance of the 
MBaa^ and a wound upon the left temple, combined to 
iMfh l Bli. aod led to the eommittHl and roavictioQ of tbs 

Mil (hcK casea dcatli was certainty caused t>y suffoeation. 
It the appearance of the bodies wat not inch la to lead at 
I tiM <tine1ii9ion (hat death had happened in this way. The 
1 naisinen, in both cam, were inclined to ainibe tbe 
lo the Injui7 dona to the apine, which ttu afler<rard* 
to hate bevD ocoinnned after deUb tiy tbe forcible iLoubling 
ha bodia in parking them. 

UoBOfi to the opiniiM Mprened bj aome medical men, that 
IN of inSxation are so stron)|;ly marked m of llmnHlra to 
atlMitim, Ut. ChrtitisDn nbiervH : — " In tbe body of the 
■ CWspbell, DO peraon of iklll.whoaealtention waspiunuidly 
i ^ batnff totd that from i.-«inral drcumsiaaeei marder wai 
U^ hit th* Buniwr of doth unknown, could bare fuiled to 
fc rigna Hut woold ratic a sutpician of anSinitioD. Bnt if 
MIlOBhiJttOibaeBWnaedi if,for namplB.hehBdeumiited 
Iw aBalflMioal t h xt t e of an ho^tal, without knowing that 
kaa ftoB gananl dreuimtanoM were enlertaltted rcgjrdinft 
Might buv Itt^Klad tl *Ten roinulaly. and yet neglected 
mmmaem in qoertlon. Say. ■ psmo of akiU and eiperiencn 
I hm bMn man Ukriy to do aa than another, becaoM erery 
rbo k omTerwDt with palbnIoK>nil anatomy mutlbcCamWui 



diKuei." Dr. Cliriatiaai] then draws atteatimi to U 
reteniblaDce botwe«n the apjKarBoces present in the 
Campbell anJ those oburved in thu bodj' of a man aba 
djieiiterj, adding that the " vascuhirity of the conjnncU 
the contoiions on the legs made the uniy difference."' 

In Medicftl Jarlspnii 




b ll» ChapUr all iDJnrio inflicted bj mechnnii^l means will 
ItatMl of, noipt tbe wreral fbriDi of (leatU bj aiiifooa- 
■ (umiiMil in jimrioiu cbapten. and injnriei by fire, ond bf 
rrod for acporvte eumination in mixecding- 

I inSida upon anotlwr, 

inRmmeDU, bj bit own pcnon, 

arle. Kill bava to b 

inigbinent or all mch ii 

uto law makaa proviaion, do teaa than 

[, enlting, (booting, dmvaing, itnngling, and aoffo- 

''• inwrtiaii of ihe worda "or iball bj anj meaM 

id or eauw inj grieroni bodil; tunn to an; 

If an; Buraoi MLei than tiune ipecified," tx-, 

thout %nj weapon or inatmnieDt," Ac. (§S 11. 

Mtrj. Tha diffuent kinda of mechaoical iifinrj 
ly nmwiWrrd, tbtn tLe c]D«tiana commoa 
ni the way in whtcb they affect the more 

ii^iiriva nut niiiiilly deiigimtiMl u 

d nrylcal dednition et a voaitif* roakea it to mniiit in n 
■ €j^ eomtmUf. Hrcbanictl injariu. therefore, amy be 
IjriDTidid luloaQshaaarovUAaiiljoIafuMa/'cmifiHiii'y 

I a lahnloa of axUlaulij In aor put •>' tt» t>o<l; •uddnly 

u~~tUdurd WIHmi 

'CtUniiVliBlTnaliMi,' bwAi. 

mod inch h tTtvUitolntioiiBfeaiUiiiaUf. The GntoiU in 
nmtenow, concMtiioiu, timple fraeturn, ditloeaiiniu, uni f 
The ■econd cotupriaM iiteitioia, punrturea, 
pound fiaelmrti, tad gun-iltoi aoumii. 

Encb clwa of injuries, wliatevor the parts a 
pointj eommon to nil tlie furmi of violence Indiubd In ll 
Thai, ilmott all iigiiri<» afleirtiiig tbe deeper-aaktsd p 
»ocomi«nied by exltrnol traces of the force OaX pi ' 
wlwther it cauMd a nolnlion of contiim' _ 
m«l c»e« we ihoU have traces of the iiijary on the nufaet, n 
it will tlierefbro be newesiry to etnmine minntely the nibJKt it 
liruiMS and iuciijoni idvolrin^ the oiternil parts of the bod;. 

The (nbject will be best eiaicined under the following head). — 
1. TTie chttTflCters of contosed wonnda, and of injariea onaRaB- 
pnnied by KiliiCion of coDtiimity. 2. The characten of inciMl 
wound*, and of tbiwe Rccompsnied by tnlution at oontinait;. 
3. The rhiraften of gun-shot wounds. 4. The qaeaLions common 
tfl alt fbrmi of mechanical ityary. 5. Wounds as tliey afi^l tLt 
Mvaral important oi^ns o( the econom]'. G. The detectim li 
blood-staiiu on clotliea, weapona, &c. 

A blow with a blunt instmuicnt causes an appearance an the 
■nrbce commonly known as a bruise, and, in leiGntitic^ longnnga. 
■a an tecipnotit. It cansists in a discoloration of the akin pro- 
dnced by eitnvasatiou of blood into the celiuUr memhiaiie. 
When this happens in the snperfictal parts, and esperiilty in iu 
and yielding portiong of the skin, the colour mokes its appearanc* 
at once ; but when deeper acoted, days rany elapse before tlie skin 
becomes discoloured, and Ihen it is not blue, as in superficial partis 
bat of a Tiolot, grceuiih, or jrellowiab hue; nor is it always imme- 
diately over the extravasation. 

The bine oolonr is not fnlly developed at once, bnt it continna 
to deepen for five or six houra. When blood ceases to flow tVoin 
the broken vessels, serum is cfi\isod,and inllnmmBtion is set up, and 
thus the bruise is enlarged. lis colour also undergoes a ehaogf, 
pasBing from deep blue through shades of green, yellow, and lemon 
rolour. After a further interval, the effused fluids are absorbed, 
and the colours first fade and then wholly disappesr. If the 
injury has been severe, the inflammation runs on to euppnraljon, 
forming an abscess if deep, an ulcer if superficial. 

The change of colour begioa at the circumference, when jj 

BxriSES. 999 

d flniik ar* teantj, aiid tnrel* inirard* townrd* (he centre, 
t« Uk; ar* nbuiiiliiiit, «nd nben Clia deep blue colour often 
Qf Uie brniM hu compl^tel}' changed iti 
ta bndaa of bdj oilcnt, niul in |iarti which ooutain 
i, aotgnla ■«) formed. 
I n* KUat «f Uw liniiMi, aod the rxptdit; of its change irill 
d on tte Km naal. tlie lite and chanrter of Che wmpon, 
a, aud health of the nfferer, the fall or empty 
I, and Uw teniion or Iniitj of the iliiii. A 
hnor ia trdiiiag would nareelj bo marked b; a blow that wmild 
" * 'n ordinary beallh ; and In seuerB owub of 

bMKb caiue* a broiae doielj reacmbling that 
ij pnwn* hj greater violence. 

' r ia Duinly detennined by the shape 
t, it Dflrd fbrniahn ftrmiic presumptive evidence. 
m hi* ' Law of Evideoc?,' nlaCo* a ca«e in which a 
M pTin in Mir-defmoe, with the he; of the hoate 
a braiae which correiiponded in ihape to the ward* 
o Identify the man who bad mmmitted 
Tb« aobJMU of de«th hy banging, itraiiguhition, 
1^ finalah goud oumpla of thii oorreipondence of 

» which conitilQtc ■ bruiie are not onnfined 
■nbcane, but intoUe more or len the nibatance 
Bmiisa are thut diithigaiilied tVom codaTeric 
(8n p. U7.) 
i Mawi. a*en when rery ie*«re, do not preduoe mirin of 
' ^ if tlie parU bineatb are soft nnd yicldiiitc. 
■•oo tb* •bdomon, •ctfto onongh to rnplani the visecni, 
Wnlw lh» akin, though thoj (Ometlinea Imd to tlie 
d between the monelex. Ou tlie other band, whrn 
d partiv ■0'^ *■ fnctura of bono, are unnt- 
thor* la a tMag pmamptLon agidiut their 
m anaed by a blow. 
m tit mff tmaaai Iff a Bnut i* produeni afiT Dnlk t 

b •iMwtrwl by ChruitiMii'* eiiicrimriHi, from -V 
h that, np to two bonra after death, and, in 

qlurtfr, appniraticoa may bn prudnced Ct\^iif >M 

braina indinted daring; lifai blood il i,^^Jtr* 

■dJ into tin etfflalar tiinia, on the unrfnce </ tlie niiia, and 

m^ iBia il* «ubaUM>| and lb* Hfiund blnod aiaguUt«a. <*■*-• fM- 

XUrtiBCMim hfh>rr» BrnUa imjlinttd daring L\f» and after */^/r''iJ 

M_ia _t_ __4.i. _.^ thia dittinction I* faay. If Ihew i* i^^^^^ 

much «weIl'iDg, any chingc of colanr, or injr sign of ui 
tjon, the brnite iniut bnve been inllii'teil during life. 

If on cnttiug into the bru'iM, tUo efiusion of b1fX>d !* fi> 
he CODndenitit?, aud tbe elota large, the pretutapCion ii 
in favour of its bav'mg; been inflietad during life. So aln it l| 
entU M diicoloareil from the effiuion of blood in( " ' '^ 
ThEi last is a viluable diagnoiti< mnrh, except ii 
bruiiea inflicted ■ few iniiiutea after dratli, when, judging fe 
the Bnali^ at incised wonnds, we mny eipect the nme >)I(l■^ 
BDce« u in Iboie produced during life. 

Aa the lume effusion of UwhI, which, on the mrface, giiei ili 
to tbe appcKi-suce of a braise, miif, when it ovcura in Ihe deqn 
seated ijurls leave little or no trnce on the snrface, it is impodlBt 
to aiverlain whether boch deeper eOasiODs of blood raaj tik* 
place att«t death as well as during life. This question loo ^ 
been answered in the nfflnnalive. In tbe body of Hvga; 
Campbell, tlie victim of Burlie, there were niiirlts of sssirt 
injnri' to the hoclf, to whioh Christison wus at first inrlinedta 
altribute her death j and semi-Suld blood was found ondet Um 
tnpeiius mnscle, neur the inferior angle of tbe tctipula, and ii 
the cerrical, dorsal, aud left InmlMT regions, bat there wst no 
conwponding bruise on tbe skin. The posterior ligaments of tt* 
TBTtebras were rupture'), but there was no fracture. On tlie 
■heath of the tpinnl cord opposile tbe rupture, there was a m» 
of s«aii-fluid bluck bluod an inch in diameter, nnd about the 
tllickoesi of a penny; rmm this a tliln Injer of blood eitendfd 
along the posterior surroro of the aheath, ai fiir as Ibe lowol 
doml vertebra. The spinal cord wns uainjared, and there was 
no blood under iU sheath. Christiwin proved tluit all tl)^ 
matlu of violence miglit be produced seventeen honn aflar 
death, b.v hentdng the head forcibly on the cheat. In the biidy 
of Carlo Ferrari, also, five or sii ounces of coagulated blood wen) 
found among the deep.sented mutclea of tbe neck, from lb* 
ocdpnt to Ihe Isat cerrlciil vertebra; and there was a large 
qaantity of fluid hlood in the upper and tower part of the spiiul 
canal, exterior to the iheath of tlje cord, bub an blood wilhiu tb* 
■bcatb, nor had the vertehree, or their ligament*, or the cord 
itself, sufFeredsny injur;. Thu canfiKsion of the criminnlt showed 
that these injorics to tbe spine were produced afler death. 
(Bafar to p. Z9C.) 

The difficulty of determining whether a bruise was inHicted 
during life or soon after dcnth, will be much increased iC patre- 
faction hni set in ; for it piiii-scmtes the sppearance of injury, 
■ud produces great alteratioas aC coimihiatx ud. cJau -, '«luie 



the preMan of the guoi eTolved ma; cuu* 

of bluoii tliruugh rnjjtiireil vcMeta. This v 

body of B maa who hod died of apoplioiy. Tlie whit of both 

■mu hwl been opened, but no blood had llowoci dnring life. 

Aftsr dMLb, however, «& abundBut bieiuarriijiga took place &um 

tha wonuJeil voieli. (O.) 

Id > cMe which occiiirvd at Pmii, the eSaeion of hlooil canied 
hy strangulation wai diicoverctl ii« a black mass tn-iiity yean 
after dealh. But tbe eont wai tbund round the neck, nod 
Tomoved tlie difficolty which might utherwiae have existed. 

Id reaped to fracUrrt the «ini9 obaervationB apply, in nearly 

tl)« Mine degree. A fracture produced wilbin a liiort period 

•Aar ileatb, and one produced during life, but ipeediiy folloived 

. ij death, would probably present very nearly tho norne ap- 

f yMtraneei. A fracture cauud (ouio time before death woold be 

k ;9Midily dUtinguUhed by the inflauiniHtion tet up about it. 

FrBciurea may be detected long lifter death. Tbui, in the 
body of Clarke, the Tii:tiin of EugCQe Aram, the frnelure and 
ladentation of the tempoml bone were plainly duitingulahcd after 
tha lapae of thirteen jrun. 

n, tnciSKD wooNBS, inq woo 

L Under thia head are eompriaed iuciaed, punctured, and lacerated 
m-aliot wound* wilt be trratcd of lepurntely. It ii 
a incbnl wnuuda that the (bllowing ohaervatioiia rbielly apply, 
f Hie iumiediale obvious canaequencBi of wounds with »olulion of 
Bntinuity are huemarrbiige, and retraution of their ed^es: the 
piole eBeda are those of inflammation and ita Kqneliu. In a 
t inoiiied wound. inSlcted during lire, there is copious hoMnor- 
„ !. Ilw cdlnUr time ia filled with blood, there are ooagnla 
I ' JMtw«t>n tbe lipa of the wound, and the edges ore everted. After 
li tte Upae uf from eighteen ia twenty.lonr houra there are the 
of uiRainnialion, ioeienKd rednoa, awdling, and effusion of 
l«1iU lymph, 

[ Aaarnle buued wound*, whcUiercaueed by cutting or slashing, 
e fiuaforDi in «hB)w, owing to the retraction of the tisauei in the 
iddlc. and eapeciiily so when mnacular flbm have been divided 
iaT«rMty. Incincd wounds UFually LMmnieuee abruptly aiid 
minalc gradually, or tail off. This ofteu iudicatea the direc- 
^n in which llie inttruaiciit was drawn. 
Ineiwrd wownd* do not uirreapond in ahnpa to tbe weapon 
-b which tliey were iiiffictiil, as the woQud i» alwuya broader 
D the tnitling cdgu. 

ran»r ri . , ^ ™=*'n for 
"«.. Hut lHcera(<5d unrf .„ 

"P>nilag Ih. ri„" ' ■ ' ■"■■ 


woandi, bnng accompBiiiad with leiiB bEemorrluige than the 

ler, itnd lew diwoloraiion than the Istter, The eilgea are 

\</ tom, bat, u Hbore stated, though ceoBed by blunt 

I or falla, they did; be aametimes tbarp and defined. They 

cotTeBpand in ahape with the instnimellt Or material 

wliirh ciiued them. The dUtiacl^oii between luch woimda 

isSieted during life uid after death ii lesi eaaily made. 

J'miietvred woandH are iatermeiljate betweea incised and 
laeenited woniida, retemblin)^ the former when inflicted with a 
■harp initrnnient, and being often accompanied by pnifiiEc 
hBroorrhagc; but when mmic with i blunt oljjeet. being more 
like lacerated wounda, and ucouiuntng little torn of blood. The 
fi>nn depends on the ehupi? of the weapon and on the direction 
of the Tiolence. Thcj are in general smaller than the weapon. 
Tbey may reiemble incited wonndi if the weapMi by which they 
•re inffi<Md ii ■ bmd, two.edged blade. If the wonnd waa 
made by a perpendicular ttroLie, they will oorreipaud to the 
Invadth of the weapon. If the blow waa atmck obliqnely, the 
wDond will be longer. A weapon with a thick back and a aharp 
edge will eauae a correaponding:ly abaped wound. Triangukr 
weapom, fuch ai tnyoucta, cause triangular wounds. 

It mtHt be remembered, however, that the auoe weapoii may 

diffitrently ahaped woanda on different pjrtii of the body, 

' ' tiwoe penetrated, and the amount of retruution 

The chief danger ii trooi injury to internal 

Urgaiu or penetration of internal doled caTities, luch as the pleom. 

Strord wonndi trnverBing the body, have a Urge depressed 

trifiee of entrani'e, and a amnll and raised orifice of eiitj but 

Je roveraed when the weapon is drawn out, 

if it ia rough from rust or otherwise. 

^H Tliae 

Tliae belong to the cIbm of contused or lacerated wounds ; oF 
~ wound* when the ihot does not penetrate, of lacerated 
wound* when it enteri or tnverscs the body. Tliey are, ae Wise- 
maB olMBrvca, "the moat oom|>licale sort of wonndi;" they com- 
Un« "eontnuon, nttriUon, and diluceraUon" in a high degree; 
UM7 oooMon " all Borli of inictarei ;" they introduce extraneons 
"* " and they give rise to bamorrhagc, inflammAtion, ery- 
gangrene, and aphaceln*. The lips of a gun-ahot wonnd 
rid or blwkiah:" they become the arait of indiimmatiDu 
'■lUngi and " blisten fteqneutlj rise about ttcm," coniuii- 
"a 'rpliil imdl." 
ludi caused hy discliui^ei cloae to Ihu perjun are 

" bnrnt by the Same," and tliey tna; eontkin iMrtiel ^ 

■umcd powder. If(MTpr«l bvelothes,the«« b1»o niMj be Wtokencd 
or bitmC, Aj « general rule gaii-*bot woandi, uiilna Ibej ugare 
•nntti ^gv T^Hsel, do not give riHC to mncb hKiDarrbngO » 1>ut 
the dettruction oT purti trom tlie alooghin^ *ad soppuratiun that 
tbllow them, often occaiioni profiue and fatal diicliar^a of blood. 

the ballet, ihot^ or wadding difchargcd from fire-ums at 
■bort digtancei sometime* lodfiea in Ibo bod.y, wmetima tn- 
reraea it. Wben it 1odg», it often tumiihes conctiuire eridenee. 
The bullet may prove to have been cait in a moald, or tixt 
wndding to bo formed b; printrd i«peT or oth?r mnterinl, in the 
poneraion of tlie penon who flred the shot. It may even happen 
that the compoiition oTthe liuilet, or the mode of mnking it. ii 
peentiar. In medico-legal cows, therefrire, the vnnUnts of a 
^n-slKit wonnd ahonld be carprally riamined. and preaerved. 
When the billet* traverse the body, tbe two apertures ahould bo 
carefully eiamincd. The npcrtare of entnnce is round and clean, 
thatnf eiit leu r^|:ubr in sliaiio and jogged. On entering tho 
bodif " the hnllet tbrces the Hesh in with itv and the place by 
nhieh it entera presently roiitrscta cloaer; bat tta |)mng out i* 
more Ini." The lame diiferenre of entrance and exit is seen in 
tlie clotliea. Such la generally the case, but tbe rule i* by no 
means abulutc. Uucli depends on the velodty of the bullet and 
the amount of reustance it meets with in its passage throogh tbi> 
tissues. And in reference to the effect of cooimi bulteta, whicli 
are now generally used, a distinction between the aperture of 
entfincc and that of eiit is extremely difficult. For, lU ■ general 
rule, both aperlurn arc of much the aauio siie and have n soma- 
what triangolar sliapc. This is so even when vci; eitenuv* 
dMtruL-lion of deep parts bus been caused by the paaiage of tlw 
projectile. Bullets that ilrike the body obliquely produM J 
tatvniar wound, 

Bullets which ktdge in the body are often 
direct course by contact with a, boue, or ol 
■tructure. Thns (lo give einmples [rom the practiee of Bid. 
WWmiin) a bullet entered the cheek and was cut out IVnittJl 
back of tbe neck ; a second, entered tbe outside of the sms 
iJu) leg. and was found on the Inside of the thigb above the k) 
and a tliinl mU-red Ihu outude of the arm, unii was cat out Is 
lbs soapnU. Ill (Dine dues, ihe bullet has struck the fan 
abdomen, and alter trnierring the half-ctrcumference of tfae ft 
liaa been found lodged, or to have paiaed oi 
point. Again, bullets may be split into two 
by sthklng a boDU, and these fragmcnta nay dtber traven* tfas 


bodj or loilge in it. If th?y lodge, Uu^ may hf round to hnve 

fabon tbe (mhu eccmtric cauree lu tlie undivided bullet iu the 

CMM jmt ciled: if tbcj tinTerse lliey may occasion more than 

e wonnd or exit FEMmblia^ tliat cHnsed bj a (ing-le bullet. 

When tbe bullet lalie* ■ direct conne throngli Uie bodj (tliBt 

to aaj, when it i* not deflected) the rfianicter of Hip two nper- 

m onijded with tlu dirmtlon of the line which joini tliem, 

ly wrve to indieiil« Ibe posture of the body at the time the 

>und wn» received. So nlw when a bullet, Mller travening ■ 

wooden paling, or n window, itrikes a wall bejond, the line 

of flight, and ipot froin which the (hot wiii tired, may be 


Small ahot diwrharged quite close to the body, and striking it 

right anglea, may caiue a round tleao wound not ea&il; dis- 

igtUahed rrom one prodiicxl by a bullet ; but nt the liiatance of 

'fcot or mor« thu iliot scntter, and oeniNon an irrcguUr woaod. 

tbe diilam-e of thr«e feet the ihot are so mncli tcattered tbnt 

it it not powible to cnnfound the injnry with one nosed by a 

bullet, la theao wounda some of the allot lodge in the body, and 

when Brad cloee, or within n abort diatoace, there will be marks 

of barning on the akin and clothing. 

Fire-unma loaded with waddlni;, and fired close to the body, or 
within a few inches, may produce severe, and even fatal, peno- 
tntii^ wouada, and eren at the diitancu of a foot may give rite 
to aitensivo aaperlicial injuriea. Tbe nnconsumod powder, when 
fire-aroii loaded only with ponder are diachargcd close to the 
kody. Day produce tl)e anine injuriea aa small ahot. 

From wbat has been aaid above of the complicated nature of 
(OQ-abot wounds, it is obvunit (hat they are very dungoroua lo 
Hti>. They may prove fatal, immedintcly, or within a short 
intarral, by ahock, or luDmorrhage, and after a longer interval, by 
irrhoge, by erysipelas, by tetanos, or by the 
1 eiteniivs suppuration following on thedwth of 

^t medico-legal questions, anch sa tlic more or leu 

cbHracter of the wound, tbe effect of the trciitment 

and of tbe anlHequent conduct of the wounded pcraiin. 

of tlio injnry, and the amount of locomotion pontblo 

ation wbellier the ' 

was the result of afcidm 

H ildBJi-tdf may alao be raised rcapecttng these in 

>b otbvr wounda. Aa a general rule, accidental wounds, whether 

" td by tbe wounded person, in loading, or in tbe act of car- 

a \imAtri ineoe, or by anotiier petaou pointing at him a jriece 

mppond not to b« loaded, or wnlkiog or ■hooting \n tii< cDiBpnf 
huve ttie characlera of woiinil* csuwd b; diacliargn u«r lU 
pfrton 1 but {licH tlnracteTB thcj- hnve iu romroon with t 
wonnili. But suit^idal troutidi hnve tlie clkmi^er wbici 
denUl WDUudi otVen, and tiomicidal voanili (ometitnci. Ud[,^ 
being inflicted in front on tho head or region of l)w bnfl Tg 
thii ru1«, lionever, aame miridvl gun shot noonds Torm md en 
tjnn, Insainorb a> ttie weapon is directnl la the tniok of tlic Iu 
Ai ■ general rule, too, the iDieide firei only one shot i hut mie 
have been known to Are two pistolK, autl evi^n to retorl to fire- 
anna aner the fnilure of incisfd wounds. In m»d« rue* tin 
aaieide is found in a rooin secured frnm within, with the KSpos 
itill gnuped in tho hand, and when tlie priming wu of poinltr, 
with the hand ilained by it. 

Bouw advantage is on»sional1i| derived from sn eiamlnslioB tt 
the gnn or piitol. When the coniliuttion of the powder ia inpar- 
ftct, tbe fi'iger introduced into tlie barrel ii bhickened by tlie 
ancongnmed clinreoal ; and tho reaidue is found to eonsist of tUi 
nncansnmcd chnrroal mixed witli sniphide of potaHinm. Bat 
when Ihe combDBtion ill perfect tlie finger is not blackened, fiv 
the residue consists of the white sniphiite and oirbanate of potulk 
AfWr no intervnl of aotne days, varying witli the qnanmy of 
moisture in the air, the mlied reaiduo of charaMl and suljjiide 
of potawuin is converted into nil))hBte, which B<ter a still longer 
interval mny be foimd blended with the mst of iron. 


There are three qnestiona i-ommon to all forms nf mechanital 
injory:—!. Wo*. 7 M/(iW(rfrfi<m^ /./rf 2. Was it the e-mte pf 
death J and 3. Wai U accidental, niMdal, or kontiridal t The 
flnt queition has been ah^dy examined; the second and third 
remain lo be discussed. 

Wat the Wound lie ra«ae of Bea(*7— TI.8 answer to this 
question rarely presenta any dlfBcully when a man in the enjoy- 
ment of perfect lienlth receives a sorere injnry, and dies b^ora 
snfllcient time has elapsed for disease to set in, or negleit, or nn- 
ikilltal trcetnient to prove iiijnriniu. But irhen a connidenble 
interval elapses between the receipt of the injury and the dial 
event, such complicatJonB may arise, and render the answer to the 
qnestion difficult. 

To the lirstclau of cases belong the abnormal formalion of the 
parts injured (as in the instance of a boy caaght robbing an 
orchard, whose death was caused by n blow intended as a simple 
a aknU uretenuAMnll^ \,V\YLVui&\h«.T&bDatnal 


iitnitloD (u in the nuniUir mstaocea of an ingainol hemii in- 
jnred by > kick ; of biRl biciniiiThage cauifd by a blow on tba 
loini over tlie teat of > kidney contamlng n jagged calculua ; and 
■ lurgu BbKen behiad the car ruptured by tlip luaie mesne). 
To this clast *Uo beloug those sudden death* whidi rollow fglli 
blows too alight to Hccount for the fatal result by the direct 
fagnry they occuion, death being: reolly earned by the ruptnre or 
I the brain, or of nn nneoriini ; in both which caws it 
bpoiBibleCo sttribute tbedenth tolheeuitement of Ihestruggi* 
mi well HI to the full or blow. AUo thoie caan of Intent clfusioD 
ou the brain or into the cavitiea of the chest which might pro«« 
(oddenly futiil even in the abscnca of violence, but are very likely 
to cauao death nnder the influenco of excitement or ahoclc. 

In tbew com the injury ii inflicted in ignorance of the exis- 
tence of any caose by which, though eomparatively slight, it 
night ba rendered mortal. To all other i-asca, Buch aa thou of 
ng, feeble, or aged persona, and pregnant women, the Gng- 
fatw, at Uid down by Lard Hale, will apply : " it is sufficient 
prove that the death of the party was acetlerated by the 
tlioioai ut of the prisoner, although the former hiboared under 
miorial diwaao at tiio lime of the auddent." 
Tho second clau, or that in which an interral elapses before 
wound proves mortal, comprisea a Ereator number of special 
Ilefnre trntiiig of these in delail, it it iiceestnry lo pre- 
iie that even when the interval between Ihe injury anil the 
jktsl t«sult is considerable. It may be quite possible to attribute 
the death to the injury without any misfiiTiog; for it may be 
•ocb that no strength of constitution, and do care or skill, could 
■rrTt a fatal tenninution. In fractures or dislncatiotis of the 
■ptae, for instance, nnd in gnU'ihot wounds when the bullet 
]odgc« in the bndy, Imwever long the fatal retialt may be pa«t< 
poned, the death is fairly attribulablc to tlic injury alone. Hut 
tboogh, in case* of this kind, no dotibt ran eiist either respecting 
the true eauso of death, or the guilt attarbing u> (he act of vin- 
lance, the Ispso of time lias, in most civiliMsI countries, been 
takan into account, and by the common law of England, if the 
iqjiircd yxty survive one year and one day, tlie crime ceases to 
ba murder ; and Enaliih juries have sometimes shown a dispoai- 
tion to ahorteti this perinl very considerably. 

Witbin thi> perioil of 3G6 dnyi there U ample oppartnnitj for 

loine of tbe ciruumtuncM luiw to be tpecified to come into pUy. 

1, A trifling wound or injury may prove fatal, fvom ilie in- 

part taking oa an onhcaltby cbuscter, such au si-rafulau* 



inflimmBtion dae ta pecntUritj of conBtitutJon, or eryrip^ 
inflammntion from expoaore to eonta^on. 

2. To tiic aame elus of eaaa biAonif attack* of Rital tetsotu, 
or of delirium treinetu from iliglit iqjurios, a) veil ■« rare in- 
lUncea of pyicniU froin Uteot abscns brought into actiTity by a 
fall or blow, and fiiEal diseuM of iDternal orgaua arising inijo- 
pendent oF, but soon after, the injuiy. 

8. Aootiier circumitance bearing on tlie queiticm. Was the 
ironnd the eaiuc Ot death ? a thu improper managsment of tlio 
wounded parly; whether conuating ia tlie n^leot of medical 
a—utuDce, or ofmedicsl inBtructioaa ; or in the resort toi^nnrant 
and Doqiulifled practitionera ; or in irregrularlties, miBgOrem- 
ment, and recklcea expoaure to cold, fntigue, or freih injury, or 
to intoiication, on the part of the patient himgelf j or in mala 
praxis on the part of a qualifled medieid attendant. 

Wai lie W^OHtd Acddaital, Suicidal, or Soaueidal ?— Aod- 
dental death ia a common occurrence in crowda, and in wrestling! 
and flghta, when the droeDsed penon fulls, or i« thrown, or itrocL 
■gainit, hnrd reaiiting ohjecta, in which GaBe on examinution of 
the ipot will help to determine the queation. 

There is always a probability of BJ^dent wben a body iifonnd 
in ■ daogeroiia rituation, aa at the foot of a predpice, or in a 
river with ateep bank* : nud the probability ia inoreaaed when the 
deceased ia proved to have been drinking. In nil doubtfnl coaa 
the character of the injnriea will go lar to dctcnnine the olaia to 
which the death belongs. Broiies. fractures, and didooatioiu, 
for inalance, are more conaiateat with the theory of death by 
accident than inciaed, panctnntd, or lacerated wounda. 

If we anppoae the alternative of accident to be eiclnded by the 
nature of the oue. the original qneation la narrowed to this, Wat 
tie MKyund tuicidal or Aomicidal ? 

Ai tnicido ia much mure common than homicide, there ia 
kiwny* a prim4-^neit probability in favour of loieide, especially iu 
middle-aged peragna; but this probability will be msteriallf 
modiflcd by auch conbidentiona aa, the place in which the t ' 

if found: tlie 

le number of wounda. 

and direction of the n 

Plaai Klum the Body u /nund. — Tlie finding of a oarpn ■ 
■ room with the windon-a and duura faitvued on the i 
eonclnaive of anidde. Tliu absence of the iaatmment of 
ODDoluf've m le murder. So also, if the blood from a 
woond haa been wiabed (torn the body or Boor, or the body Uj 
bu Van pbccd in « podtioa Inoootialcot with Um mode of 4| 

or covorad, or buried. 


nature of lie Waved, — Conttiied tanmdi an rsrelj raicidal, 
I though HtteiD^U at Klf-ileiCractlon by knocking the hendagilnat 
~ wilII are not ancornmon. Bovere contuaionB, then.>ror«, are 

it probntily liomicitUl, unleia the Uodj it lying □eur s height 

n which it might have hllen, or from which the decewed 
might have thrown himielf. Incited teomtdi are as likely to be 
•ak idal Bs hoinicidul, and it a not easy ta infer rrom the character 
of the wound to ivhich dun it belongs. The cteannen anil even- 
DEM of an inciud wound fauvc, iniieed, been thought to afford « 
probability in IkToor of bomicide, but withoot sufficient rauioa ; 
tbr ■ reaoluta (iiidde a more likely to have a ateody hsnd than a 
murderer to meet with no reiialanM ; and aome of the deupeet 
•ad deansat wounds of the throat are certainly suicidal. 

In a few inatonces the ikape at an incised wound help* Qs to 
determine the quotion of tuicide or homicide, by indicating the 
kind of instrument with whicb it was inflicted, und the occupatJOQ 

I of the murderer. Tbns, a man with hii throat cnt from within 
to without, as butchers slanghter aheep, was found to have been 
Murdered by a bntclier ; and in the case of a lindy divided into 
tmo parts by a cutting iurtrometit fussed into the fibro-cartilage 
iMiitinit the third aud fourth lumbar vertebrtc, lo as to divide the 
ttrtiriilsUng processes trunsversi'ly, as batchers cut through the 
(fdnes of animsla. u butcher was proved to bave been the mnrderer. 
Situation of tie Woiiitd. — It may be laid down as a general 
nie, that if u wound is lo utnatcd that the initmment of dcoth, 
when placed in the hand of the deceased, cannot be made to reach 
it, whether by the motion of the hand iUelf, or by that of the 
jart injured, or by both jmntlj, it was not self-iofliclcd. Wounds 
oa aoneealed pans of the peraon, as within the labia, and beneath 
the breast of the female, are in nil pn)l»bility homiddal. It 
moat, liowpver. be borne in mind timt while mordercn sometime* 
Inflict il^ariea of a kind to appear luiddnl, many amcldea are 
d by very tcceiitrir impulses. 
ErtenI ijf Ike HeB*/.— It lias beeu thought that a micide 
OoM Uvt have courugH or strength lo indict a very eitenaive 
wnd upon hiroaelf j bat etp«rieac« is opposed to this view. 
Suicidal wounds of the throat, for imtancc, ore usnslly deep and 
1 and nothing is more common Ibnn to read of the head 
being nearly aevered from the body. But aupcrflciul wounda of 
" B throat are among the moat comman forms of pretended 

Dirtetion of Ike Wimitd. — Suicidal wounds generally follow 
' It nMural morement of the arm from left, to t\^1, aii&, fatstt. | 

310 WOUVDS. ^M 

kboTe to birlni*. Rat in the CMe of left-handed pemmt, 1^^ 
direction would l>« reversed. WouniU of tbe throat, whether 
nicidat or hmnicidul. are. Lowever. gi'iiernlijr trvniverH. When 
petwni of diir^rent etalurca light toiiether, a wound inflicted by 
the tnllor man would pau from above dawuwards and the rerena 
if giren by the Ghorter, snppowng both combatants to maintaia 
the erect pmture. Id wounds inflicted by a snord, or hj Are- 
■Tins, it ii alwiya importaat to Dotice both their direction and the 
orifirea of entroncie and eiit. 

Number of Woumii, — The coeiiitenee of several mortal woondi 
kflbrd* a preiuniption against eiudde, but only a premniptian; 
for after Inflicting on themselTea wound* necesHrily mortal, 
■aicide* have retained etrei^h and dctcnniiutioD to indict other*. 
Thn* Orflla reUtea tbe caw of n gentlemaD at Rouen foand ilead 
ID hli chanilier, with two pistols lying;, one near the bodf, tbe 
other on the bed, at lorae distance from iL He had «ho( bim- 
aelf in two pUco, One wound, apparently made while he waa 
Dn the bed, had tniiened tho lell aide of the cheat, breaking a 
rib before and Iwbind, perforating the middle portion of the Inn^ 
utd pauing near the roots of the pulmoniuy Teins. A Urge 
quan^tj of blood was oitrariuated in the chest. After inflicting 
on himaeirtbia teriout iiijuiy, tbe deceased must bare rUcn &om 
the bed, walked to a closet to get another pistol, with which he 
produced a teoand wound that innat hate killed him instaoUj. 
The ball had entered tho frontal bone, and, after travening the 
left hemisphere of tlie brnin, had lodged n^inst the os ootipiUa. 
There was no doabt of this having been n delibeiate loiade. 

Wiitaon gives a case of inicide in which no lew than ten woundi 
irera inflicted on the throat. 

It is scarcely nerestary to observe that moat of the probabili^n 
jiut eatablished may lead to error if too implicitly relied upon ; IWfl 
that in doubtful casea we must gnnrd agaiust ralMinfereneesflnMM 
droamstdnces purely accidental « well u from arTaugeuM^H 
made to decoire us. J^l 

Nor is il always Safe to aanuDe thnt ■ severe injary, ■('MfijH 
lafllcled by another, is the rcnl caiiae of death ; for, as in a 0^^| 
ntotcd by Wildberg, a death occurring during a cluistiaai8M^| 
may, on ouminatian, be Ibund to fanre been due to poison. ^H 

Tlio rireinntlanlirit nidentv in death by wonnda is of gr^^| 
impurtance. Hr* " |ivr«nn found dmd" (p. 334). Ttios SvUUl^H 
Mrvant of the Dnke of CuinbrrUnd, alterwunU King of Hniwtil^| 
WM rmnd dead on hi> bed wltli hi* Ihmat rut, while Ilia nMl^H 
wrtrrly wounded in the head and luiid, nxa under th* calO^^^^ 
&r Evoranl llume. Ths Duke stated that he au lOuacd h^^H 



blow on the hmd, followed by iB»eral otters, one of 

licb caiued an iEnmeaM effnsiaQDl' blood; Lliat he ieaped out oT 

mil fulloH'cd his BsaniUnt, wlio repeatedly Blriick nl him, 

would doulitles* have murdered biin, but the inon pro- 

bvtetl hii perioa from ■omo of the blows. Evury jiiirt of ttiU 

■tktement wu eonflrmiid b; tbe cirvumatnntial evidence. The 

oolonred dropory at Ihe heiid of the Diike'd bei wiu apriokled 

with blood ; there were tiflces of blood on the piiwigeB nod atnir- 

the doon of all tlio ilute ajmrtiiieiitti ; iiiid Sellia's 

id on a oliair out of reauli of blood Irani b» bed, but 

rith the (leeve cpriakled from ilioulder to wriit " with bluud, 

lito dry. and criiUnlly from & wounded nrtcry." 

Lord WillUm KumbU, the »letain of Courvoi*ier, wna found 

■d in bed with bii throat cat ; the instrameut of ileHtli did nut 

I netir the body, and a nnpltin vraa placed over (lie (ace. A 

Kuan of the name of Norkott wat found dead iu bed with her 

KMt cut. and od her Irfl >ia»d a bloody murli of n Iffl lta»d. 

I both tbue ones tliit evidonce of murder was eoinplute. 

Tliera am ttiU other quotioni that miiy have to be ciiniidered. 

'a may be asked wliether a given wound is ilaiigerous to life, 

id, of many wounds, which was mortal. It nmy ulso be im- 

Mant to know how Iduk the wounded person lurvivod tlie 

qjury, nnd U> fli the pwnt of time at wMdi a wound wa» 


It (i* Wound dangertnu lo Z-ift?— Tliis 
■wered in the case of injuries to la 
irluiC viscera, bat lesi easily in the ci 
Ik rather by their extent than tiie ioiportnnre nf tljs {iart< 
iplkBted; for niiile, on the oiie hand, alight injariea to porta 
ItOKother auimpurtuat may, in peculiar itales of eonatil utjon, 
the otiier, recovery may take place (rum injuriea 
e ai>d eit«iis>ve, as in the neil-known m>e of Ur. 
sa pinned against a itable.door by the abiilt of a 
; travening the cheat. 

The danger attending itynrioa of tho levernl important pirta of 
ba body will be found diteused under the neit heading. 
Qf uutKg IFoKcfa, miiei aat mortal t — It ii eusy to under- 
lod how tliia question niay become important. A mortal 
uggla may Ih^o with bloMi and end with the use of a stjibbing 
cutting iuatrnment ; and the crime would h.<ve a very tlilferent 
aocording as the deitb was nttriltutiibte to tlie bbiiva or to 
bi or cuts, Tho question ia of ao general a nattirs that il 
ut tofflee to indicate itn itnpCFrlti 
SoK long did the aauaded jf«i"»o» nniceJ — Tliii i^mM^sm, 

plained of heafliiclio, but wu not otherwise ill, Fevenih 
totes then cinie on, faUowed by dlgbt delirium uiil i 
■bo divd two months afVer tlie falL Distension of tlie 
with wrma flnid was llie only morbid «ppe«raiK*. 

Cempreision, — Tbit may be caiued bj depressed bi 
effused blood or terum. The symptoms come on auddeol; w 
gnduilly, Eccordinj; to the nataro of tbe compreHing came, «t 
the fulfil retnlt follows in vnrying interraU of lime, lu oa- 
pmaiOD due to depressed bone, the caose of death a obnttf; 
bat when it arises from effusion of blood or Bemm foUawinga 
il^ury, it may be alleged that the effnaion and ooiu«)nent (iMl 
resnlt wen- due, not to the injury ii«elf, but to some cudcodjIivi 
dn^initance. Tbut, If in the course of a Btruggle a loaa ii 
tbrowa down or struck, and dies Kwn after, with ■ymptmi 
of compression, and ui eTnsinn of blood has taJicn plsa^ 
this mny be attribute to the excitement of tbe contest, and hi 
to tlie injury itself; and tliii is more likely to be the cue if it* 
deoeated was given to habits of intoiicatton, or waa of a pletlxnc 
lisbit and HpopW'tic mHke, or of an advanced a^. Tbe inquiry 
will be still more dilGcuIt, If on dissection t^e vcesdi of the bnia 
are found diseased ; but as sanguineous eSuiion mrcl; takes plsn 
OH the Murface of the brain fnim diseaK, Ibo difGcult; will onl; 
attach to effusions at the base, in tbe Tcntridia, or into it* 

Wotmdt. — These prcwnt considerable difficulty in a medico- 
legal p<rint of view — a difficulty well set forth in tbe wotdi of 
Hiulisrd Wiseman. He says, "tbe greater aymptoms that an 
usually said ta attend tbe wounds of the brain do show theia- 
selves more uncurlninly than a ipeculntive chirurgi.'on would 
imagine i and in cnts and wounds made by sharp weapmu or 
sudden strong force, more uncertainly than in contuiions, hhicbi- 
nans, and depressiotid of tbe skull; tliu blf:best of tbcm, vis, 
Tomitiiig. stupor, loss orsplHIa, with a paralysis of tegs and tnni, 
arising mare suddenly in these latter cases than in the former." 
"Nay, we see many die suddenly from a box ou tlie ear, and 
from small bloit's or wounds. In some whereof, npon opening 
the cranium, there lixth been much blood citravasated : in othen 
Done at all, ur aught cite that mi>y be thought to have killed the 
patienL" "Others 1 have been called ou to see opened, when 
there bad preceded only a cnutuaion of the calvaria, without any 
fionirc, or more eitravusated blood than is usually seen in every 
opening on taking off the cranium ; yet the patient Uy. as I am 
infaim>-d, under all those symptoms o( delirium, coma, kc 
again, 1 have droKt muny that have been cut through tbe 



ic aliWen of bones lying poslit witb the fi»h and hair upon tlie 
a mater : j'ot tbe patient hath been widiuut an; fymptomsof 
b a vDund ; which I topposo liappvnei] h; reosan of the bona 
|]ring looseupon the DiembrBne." 

Of tevere tymplomi qnicklj' foUowiDg ■ alight iiyiiry the fol' 
lowing i) vt etample: — A young man rorcived u blow on the 
fbrebnid from ■ eudget, loon took to hi> bed and became deli- 
rioos : ■ topor followed, and aHirr H>me dnyt he died. A euihU 
hair- like fLKaare wu found mnning from the groat uinthua of the 
«j« Qpwird. On remoTini; the aknll and dura mater but little 
blood vrat found cxtniviHitcd, and the pia mater little altered. 
Of oompntalivelj ilighl symptom* following very eavere injuries, 
the tblluwiiig ii an etimple of the opposite kind from the >Bmg 
aatbor : — A soldier was shot in the face h; a oue-sliot, ani) had 
" hia face, with bia eyea, luxe, inauth, and forepart of llic jaws, 
irith the chin aliot away, and the remaining ports of them driren 
In. One part of the jaw bung downbjr hi» tliront, and the other 

IjMrt pnihed int« it, I aaw Ibe brain n-orking out undurneatb 
Dm Iseerated acalp on both >idi-s botwmn bis eyes and brows." 
Tet thia man, after being carried off as dead, was Itannd next 
'Vomini; knocking against the door of the loom in whieli he had 
bacn pUcod, and wa» teen (landing by Ilia door. He was qnite 
wnaible. implored help by sigiia. and assisted himself to drink. 
I^ia wounds were drased, and lie remained under Wiseman's 
■ve til or seven days, being left alive at tbe end of thut time. 
An equally lemarknhle case, illustrating the power of loroniotion 
that msj survive very severe injuries of the hrain, is reluted in 
tbe toyHge* of the gi eat I'renuh surgeon, Ambnite I'urf. "A 
•cildier in my presence gave to one of his fellows a Mroke with an 
halUid npon tbe head, penetrating even to the left ventricle of 
Iha brain, without falling to the groand." After being dreitcd 
" ba retomed all alone to his lodgiuga, which was ut loa»t 200 
paeea ^stant." The third day he came staggering to l*ar£'i 
lent to be dressed, but died nnder his bauds in a coninlsion. 
Pind say* : " I have rcdied this history as a mcnalrous tiling, 
that the soldier Fell not t« the ground when be had received this 
peat stroke, and was in good sense* even till death." 
Otber striking C4sas of the samo kind are to be found ir 


ii of I 

Tlie folloi 

Thomas t'otliergill was charged before Mr. Justice 

rUleaat Newcastle with the wilful murder of John Smith. Tlie 

oner knocked tbe deceased down by * blow an Iho head nith 

■ pcksxe. and then struck liim again with the plfknic on the 

' e the deceased hiii> ubio to n-ulktu UiaWic- 


inga. nheneo lie trM ttken to t1iD Newoutle InGrmar;, wliere lie 
died ten dii;> nfter. Thu temporal bone bad been driven in and 
hud lucemted the brain ; and the spleen wm (band torn. Kilher 
injur; wu nufGcient to cansedeitb. 

InfinmmadoM. — This may fallow iiyuries, not only to the rrrfaa 
itself, bnt lo tbe scalp, and tbe parta most ueiu't]' connected with 
the lirun, such as the orbit and ear. Its Bererity is not alwajs 
proportioned to the tnjnry received. A iligbt iiynry may ^ta 
rise to very aevero inflammation, a serere irynry to very iHgbt 
elTecta, The period nt which iDitainmatiDn seta in i> also very 
variable. Aa a general rule, it doei not directly followt the 
Injury, bnt eereral hoon, some days, or even weeks may elapse 
belbre it taVes place. 

IiijBriea of the head, then, hnve tfai« pecDlierity, that at fint 
tlicy oflen seem of little consequence, but after va interval often 
eonsiderahle, dangerous aymptdnis may arise and end &taUy, 
Railway nccidents oflcu pve risD to difficult questjons relating to 
this class of injuries, 'llie symptoms of injury to the nsrvoos 
system have not shown themselves st once, hut the tolkming day, 
or alter a still longer interval, and much difficolty hss been 
experienced by the jury in awarding damHges. in cnnseqnenoe of 
confiioting medical opinions. In the interval between the rectipt 
□f the injury and the aoeession of dungeroua symptoins, there ia 
room fbr neglect or miBinsnagement, on tbe part of the patient, 
bis fKenda. or llie medics) attendant, which nuy materially afTect 
tbe queaUon, — Was the injur; the cause of death ? 

Injnriti to tie ^tnal Cord.— Thii, like tbe brain itielf. ia 
■ulijcct to concnsaiou ; to compreasion, from clfiuian of hiood on 
iUaurfluwor in ita snhstance; and to wonnds IWim f^etured 
vertebm. Cunentsion and compreawon may follow levvrc sIkuIii^ 
M in railway awidents: the mora severe injuries arise from fidia 
or blnwo. or snddeo twiding movements iif tbe neck. Iiijnries 
lo the substance of the cord genemlly prove fatal, Ilie interval 
varying according to tbe degree of violence and the part of the 
apiue tbflt has been ii^ured. Seriuns ii^ury to tbe npper part of 
tbe cord provea imiDodiatcly or sj-xwdily fhlul by paratysinn the 
muscli'S of respiration ; injuries to tlie rord oppuato Ibe h>wer 
cenienl vertchrw (the tourtli, Hllh, siith, and aeventh) provH 
fatal in (Von four or five hours to as many weeks or months : !u 
tar« instances not till the lB]iao of years. In tbe case of John 
Carter, of Coi^cabBll in Uact, lUsplacenicnt of llic last Uwm 
vcrlebrB with presauro on the cord opposite the seventh vortebn, 
did not prove fatal for fburteen yivra. When the ounl ii ininnd 
in the dunal or lumbar region there is toas uf pousr and m 

8 or THE THHOiT. 


In tbe put* below tba teat of injury, with n 
lou of power in the aphinctt^r ant, requiring conBtHnt iDcdical aid 
Vii (»rrrul Duniu{-. With theie aids life maj be prolonged for 
jeaTD. Mid; injnriw to tlie brain principiillj aSect ita Imse. and 
hj caming prsMors on the tnedulhi ohiongiitii impair tbe functiona 
of tbe nerves iiippl;iiag tbe maiclas of reBpintioa.* 

Wourndt of tht Face. — Tliew iojurici not only occaaion ^- 
fignremcnt. but, in nmseqneDce of Ibe frte diitiibntlon of im- 
portant nerre* over the Rice, atill more grave inconTenieoce. 
From the near proiimit; of the principal fenturea to Ibe brain, 
there ia alao a ri<lt of injury to tliat organ, aa well as of inflnm- 
Blalioa eitendin)!: from tbe (eat of the wound. Id this respect 
wound* of the fucu rank next in importance to tboeit of tbe 

WouwU of iht Throat. — TheeB are imporlont from their fre- 

qnencji Tliey are the chosen niixlu of death witli a great 

minority of aaiciilet, and aomctimea a murderer infliets a wound 

pn the tame part, hoping that liia victim will be auppoaed to 

hare coninitted niicide. Tbe degree of danger dependa on the 

futt inplicaled. Wounda of the miteriur part of the throat are 

baa dangeroua tlian tboae of the aide of tbe neck; tbuae of the 

lower part of the tliroat, leas ao than Ibnae of the upper part. A 

W Criuon of the enrotid artery ia almost neceaaatily Gital, and that 

I tf the internal jugular vein attended with great d]ingi:r from 

kwiiorrbage, Ironi the introduction of air into the circulation, 

' and from phlebitis. Wounda of tbe loryni or tiachea are 

attended with coaiparatively little danger, and tboee of the 

trachea are leas important than tboae of the Uryni. 

The queation, Waa the wound the causa of death ? ia eaall] 
BUawered, but the qneation, Wai the wound suicidal or homiddnl ? 
ii leaa eaty of noiatiau. There ia also a qneation uf eonsiderable 
intarcat relating to wound* of the throat, namely, What anionnt 
of voluntary motion ia poanble after the receipt of a ncrere 

»The qi 

The qneationa of anicide or homicide, and of the amoant of 
Inntarj motiaii potublc after a aevere HOuiid in the throat, 
i^en niaed in tlie cue of Captain WHgbt, xho shared the cap- 
tivity of Sir Stducy Smith and hia celebrated cacape from the 
Temple, and who bad the miiifortune to be taken ■ second time 
and impritoned in the tame place. He wai found dead in bii 
bed with his throat cut, and tbe raior clriaed in bia right hand. 


wai Ml eiten^Te tntnirem w nnd on he an enor toA 

parti til liroa bo h boo w ndpipa, 

; hrough h tk h mtnc *• h w nd pe gnUMt 

b ood eatt i, il p Dg to h cerr ra erIebnBL 

til case re m ol ed n » m aifiUry 

o determ I7 he ende ce co etted witil 


K ogainst 

f. In 


1. with 



b d 


m the 


ind on 

m d 


ore he 



e nde, 

d h. 


to hi* 












■ «on»ris or the heart. 310 

qnance of thetc injuries. The blood may be diwiwi^ed by tlifl 
wound, or bj eipwtorntion, or it mny ■rcumuUte in tbe cavitj 
of tbe pleura, cnuaing icreat iJiffiirulty of breathing. When tbe 
la^eveawlB nre wonndeil Iba bieiuorrbiigB i» TOpiou) and "peedjlj 
fatal. Injnries b> the mbitBiice of tbe lung itself are not neoes- 
Mrily fatnl, for pntienla have recorered after rcmovnl of a portioa 
of the Inng; and, in rare iiutancv, foreign bodies, tncli r> bullets, 
have remauied in the long for jemt, ani have been inc^lcHed in a 
ejat. liiHammation ii a cominoa consequence or these wounds, 
eapeeially when a foreign anlBtaace liBi been introduced, na 
happf ni in injuries wilh flrc-Brnii. Cnan of n-ounda of tbe Inngs 
Nqnire oircrul man^ement, and long:-eontinned rest, »'ithont 
»hieh injuries that have been repaired muy be reprodueed. 
EmphyMma is a familiar elTeot of llicw woundtj but when 
jadicioaily treated it doet not materially increase the danger. 

Woundi of thf fienrf.^Penetiatiui; wounds of tbe lieart are 
apeedily futoJ from Immorrbage, unless they puts so oliliqaely 
through the parietea that the Hap aets like a valve, or a foreign 
body happen to plofc tbe orifice. Death may be dpliyed in these 
cam, for some hours or even days. The date of the death will 
depend on the situation of tbe wound, woundg of the base proving 
more speedily fatal than thoao of the apex, and Bupcrfinul wonudi 
dividing ita nutrient vessels less promptiji than those timt peiie- 
trale its caviUea. John Bell gives the case of a. soldier, in wliom 
tbe apex of tbe heart was out with the polut of a very long and 
•lender swoni; and yet this soldier lived twelve hours, during 
which time, as appeared after his death, the heart had, at every 
•trohe, been losine a small quantity of blood, till it entirely Ull^ 
the chest, and the patient died riSbcated. Another man was 
wounded with a sword, tbe point of which cut the coronary 
artery ; but it was two hours before tbe pericardluni filled with 
blood, and then, after ^eat anxiety, the patient died.* In very 
rare instances, when the wound does not prove fatal by lucmor- 
ihage, complete recovery takea place ; na in a case ralaled by 
Foamier, and autlieDticated by M. Hanren, chief sargwm to tbe 
bo^tal at Orleans, of a parent who died after tbe lapse of ni 
;taT« fVmn the date of a gun-shot woand, from disease nncon- 
neeted with it, and the ball was found embedded in the heart. 
MM. Ollivier and Sxnson have colleeted n nnmbnr of cases of 
penetrating wounds of [be heart, with a view of determining the 
pnihable period at wbicli lliay prove fhtal. Out of twenty-nine 
tkaaa of wounds of the cavities only two were fatal within forty> 


■ Princlpln of Snrgefj,' i,« 

320 WDUNDfi. 

^ht honn. In Uie remamiler, dentli took placa ii 

variriDit iTom four U> twentf-eight diiyi.* 

k'ouHdi of tie Aorta and Palmonary Artery ■: 
iktul ; btit piitienta hHVe lived k few ilijt ■fin' small pone 
wonndi 6veu of the aorta. 

WoKndt of the (Eaophagtu and Thoracic Jhtel. — Soch 'v 
arc nwxxnril; isrt from the great depth at vhich than parttfe 
Tliey wnutd be dangerout from the eitnruAtion of tbt«r uniTirt 
Orfila, however, uieDtiani a caie of recovery Iram a bajonet-xiwi 
of tho (MopIiBgns. 

Waasdi of tie Diapiragm, — Ponctared wontids of thi* part 
donol appear to be attended with great diinger, when they do tnt 
involve iiijur; Iji the part* above or below. Hernia of the Btomarli 
(in occaiional remit) ha* proved Iktal. ItupCura of the dtaphngn 
from aevGn) blowa or Ihlli la not unrammon; and in iD«t caan 
is attended by fatal abock to the nervous ajitein, aod luddn 
death. Bat death may take place after a long intervnl from the 
protnuion of the viatera of the abdomen into the cliest, and the 
consequent diitni banco of the function) of the displaced organa, 

H'imndt of the Abdomfn. — Incised wounda of the abdomiiul 
Willi miy divide the epigastric artery, ind ao prove &ta]. In 
woundf of the tendona as In acalp wounda, danger may arue frau 
the Rccamulstion of matter benea'.b them. Ventral hernia is a re- 
mote eoDaeqoence of wounds of the walla of the abdomeo. Sevsit 
blowB oRea prove fatal by shnek, hemorrhage from raptured 
viscera, or inflammaljan. The liver and spleen ar« the oi^uia 
moat liable to rupture. 

Wovndi of the Liner. — Deep penetrating wounds of tbia orfcan 
are apt to prove btal by i^viding the Urge vcssela. In other 
cases dangeraua inflammation follows. Woouda of the gall- 
bladder prove Rital by cauaiog efluaion of bile, and eooseqnect 
peritonnal inAiunmitJon. 

ffoundi of tie SpUen. — Deep woniids are fatal by hamor- 
Tbage; hot recovery rony take place from superfidul wonnda. 
Rupture of the spleen from blows proves fatal, acoording to the 
anonnt of ii^ury, in from a few hours to sevcml daya In n ooB- 
vileaeent patient, a kick over in enlarged and eitremely soft 
spleen canaed the eltiuion of several ounces of blood, and death 
in a fow minnl«s.t 

WoKndt of the Stomach.— These kill by shoclt ; by haemor- 
rhage from the large vessels ; by the extravasation of the contenta 
infiummstion; and by iaSammatioa 



^■■f the vUcns itielf. But they are not alwnfg t^tnl, and min; 

^^nuM af recovery are reoorded, even when the wannd vrag ox- 

^BlviiiTD, and hilliet«d oa a ■Mmsch dulendcd with tooS, 

^f Wotimit of Ike /afntijHW.— 'rheM prove fiital like those of 

the itoouch hy hioinorriuige, by <li»cliargo of contents, and con- 

■eqnenC peritoDJCia, or bj inOaaiinabion of the part itself. The 

danger U g:reater in tlie small than in the large inteatmet, and 

greatest in the diioileDiim, from the more fluid state of their 

contenta, and greater risk of eltraTatatiaii. In the ahienee of 

aitraraiation, wounds of tlie intestine* sametimes heal by the 

eH'tisioo and organiutioD of coagulable lymph abont their edges. 

WtmiHl4 of the Kidtttgt. — The kidneys may bo injured by 

bkw* and itaba in the loiru. Penetrating wonnds niuy cause 

fhtat hBmorrhnge, eitrarasation of urine, or inflBmnwtioti. If 

Iho arino can be provcnted &om being cffiuied into the peritonanl 

oarily, recovery may take place, 

K'oimU of tlie Bladder occaiuan dnngerous eitnivniatlon of 
urine, cspedall; when the organ is distended ; or they prove 
fiital hy the inlhimmalion Ut which they lead. After rupture of 
the hUdder, the sufferer may be nblo to walk wrnie distaiiee; hut 
the a«idmt pravtn nltimiitely, though not sprcdily, fhtal. 

WimiuU tjf Iha Oenital Organi. — A removal of the penis, if 
Dot bUl by hninorrhagc, ia not dnngerous ; but an indaed wound 
uf the urethra entail* the risk of extrnvdntiou of urine and fttal 
alDughing. The removal of the tcsljclea is attended with leas 
danger than a coutuuon, which somctiDieB proies btnl by shock. 
Wounds of the spvmiatic cord occasion dangerous ha!tnnrriiBge. 
The oomplala removnl of ull the parte of genenUou of the male 
taay lead to do bad result. Deep wounds of the labia of the 
female are dangeroua from hnmorrhage. Fetal ii^nrie* have 
heen inflicted on the utems, bladder, or rectum, or on the large 
naael* of the pelvis, by instruments introduced into tlie vagina. 
Cousolt Watson's ' Mediealegal Treatise on Homi<nde.' 

The medical jurist may have to eiaraine rvd ipots supposed 
I to be oauaed by hlood ou wearing appnrel, on cutting icstrumentt, - 
I on Uoort or turmture. or wherever they may liave blleu; alio. 
same uses, to examine eolations of blood in wnltjr : ami he 
ly be asked to ai^gti the soiircu whence the hlood, if linman, 
I Sowed, and to distinguish humnn blood (t<ia\ the blood nf 
f animali. 

hen the hlood-spst is recent, and the nuantAt^ tmtt\\iiiniJ*» 

ntioua, aud t| 

Weir resctiuna and imtia 
deteotjon orttuna. 

1. Tie ChimiaU leiU.—Tbeae h» 
which fornn the coloqring nutter of 
ni«ttCT ia mnipletelj mluble in cold « 
^^)btained liu a red colour. Thi. fat 
"Oged into R dirt, akte colomvl 
i(<«»<r diMolvd the clot, and yUtt 
Qy ""f^- "n** ^ by tranjoiitteS 
)to made to reappear bj the add 

I lU* .V«.^cb«,ged m «,lour hy the additiwJ 

■ -Ui^ i-K*-. f,"'*"'*- No other red soluUoni b 

f. *.X>'w /°*"^ P'"''- <"■ ««'let inlWion. rfl 
^^,»<«>.W jni«,orfn,it,^a™rf„,^^ JM 

,;J^, i,^ ,S. cochineal to crimwra. The red nlatioi 

■-'.'<:-. *• "^r yiel^ "itf the „me reagent Vt 

, and thepink solution ory*™ai^( 

. , W iron 

I red prea'piti 

3 "''™n.yi«litadaiJ<.b!naprwipit*„. , 
"■'*'*, AnothET t«t of conademble deluu 
, ,^ liy Sonnenaohdn .• A «oluticm of («m3 
with acetic or phoiphoric add. t-ivra. nil 
ing matter of blood, a red p™Hpit.U .S 
lorming a dichrine, groeai^.red fluid. 1 
bj oddfc The precipitate, «-hc., fa ' 
nitr^ le>n» an insoluble residap of oi 




it othyAiogen, m rich, upphire-blae colonr result«. TbU 
K iaditcctl; applicable to Uaini on lioon, wliicli, ivtitm muiatensd 
'h liwtnre of gauanD. uul tbeo vitb peraiiUe af byilrogeii 
• o( a bloa colour. Thia l«*t ii very dHticatf, 
xadaite, u certain otber >ubat«ncet ti 
• bav* tb* powar of onilinTig ganiiciim in ■ ■luiilar mm 
_ ~ la t»*t, — Of all the teita lor blood colourinf matter tliis 
i* tb* miat cotain. Bat ■■ there are eertaiB coailitioiiB in whicli '^ ^ -. 
it Mk, •ocb biloM vmtt not b« taken to prove thr absence o(i,^tt*2 iM 
Ueod. If Uie tat iDOMeiU, it it nbsolotelj ixindiinve ofthe pre-'^ (•' ^j 
••aw ef bbod. To apply tbii leat, we miul tuc the blood aolulion ^ ^ ^^ ' 
HHMil<iil to drjUVM^ Ot a amall portion of dried blood from a J<- "*.'/'" 
Main. Tbt AntA iWdue of tho mlutkin in a wattb-glasa, or a j^Jei/ 
pvtian cf dried Uood uii • micTTHicope alide, ia to be covered nitti ' 

ghdal trnMn aod, a r^ital of cbloriile of todiDin added, and then 
c«M<Uly b^atad to bailing over a sidrit-hunp. It ii well lu 
nfart tha addition of aoMic acid once or twice, npeciailf if tlie 
(MMtH li aooddcted on a lUde. On allowing the inua to cool, 
•nadnritai with the micTowope *ill reveal, alung with oryituU 
of Mdnidaand aoriste of aodiuni, 
t oT dark'browu 
B rtenUc [nhilialic erjAaUof bcnii 
I'M IB tg. U, in ■bich (1) ifaa 
■teig** eiTMala after Virchow, a 
■illir erjratab from a 
itqvtefilwq/tUood, Thejr 
7 mch in atai aooonling to the > soo ^imeien. v 1M. 

' fit; rfeijitnirimiuiii 

I m^mUU are a mnpoand of hjdroehlDric acid with 

\ «Ucb k ODc of the pmdurle of the dccompodtinn oF 

Hn; are knourn a* IMrlmsii'i CrytlaU. 

if common nit (1 

■J to add tho chloride of todtuoi. 

e Irtl. — tiolBtioni of the colouring matter of the 

d Ihrough llie apeutroacapc, give a (pectrum 

1 faj the prewnfe of dcHnitc ab»urplioD bindi. If 

n ie too eonnnlttalvd, only the reil end of the Bpectrnm 

Bi'1* tMIiU. Wban of the proper degree of cnnccntntion, two durk 

*n the apecttani in the (trwn between 

H D aiHl a> Tbf Hr«l BtaurptioD band— >■*,, from left, la nar- 

y dfllnrd than the wcond, wliirli ia ie]n- 

D U bjr ■ gr«en inlcrapace. In very dilute aolution* the 

I lb* OM to ^aippear, Ttie apeclrum, with the two 

b b ttari of oiidiied httunigloUn (2, %,%. Vi\ 

Jit worxDS. 

VVIien a mincing agent ia ndded to tht miiHk 
nium or lodinni nilphidc, the twQ bnnda diappar ; and ii lUr 1 
stead (me band only a wen, dark in the middle, and ntb *■ 
out edge*, occopjinf; what was ronnetl; the greo iala 
between tlie two banda of oiidiied batmag-IolKi). "Dna i 
tpwtnun of rcdoeed hmuglobia. (3. Fig. 34). Bj altakiag tkt 
wlatiao nitl) uc it if agun reoitdized, and givsa the ngtitna 
niUi the two Hum t» before. 

A ltd aoliitiaii fnwranid of the ibore chnnu'tcri esn onljp W a 
wdution of blood ctlDuring nuLtn. (Murr ml soloticiit^ mtii m 

llie ipBctrum, nor an 
Ihejr o^mUc of rednc- 
tion aod reoiidatioi 
ia the manner dr- 
The reduc' 
tjon teM abmld, there- 
fore, alwayi be had 
1. BolH-BpertroDi, t. OiWiied PenagWiln. I*^"?"^!, .■.'" ^' 
|yiM<l I'! uHdt. i. H«iiaglabiii de«iiop«al by aeope whether a giTen 
•i^^"- eolation ia b blood 

■ololion or ooL HuimnglqWn, on the other hand, ia liable to 
rradergo dorompoait.ion qmnlaneooily and under the ioflueiice 
of TBrions roigenta, uid tbe epeclruin nndei^oea eorreaponding 

For a ramplcl^ aciimnt of tbsse niriona modiflationa referenn 
Aoald be made to Ptcjer'a work on ' Die Dlutcr^iatoUe/ One of 
the moat cuiuinon alCerntiona to be fonnd in old ataina it tb« 
ftmnation of bieniiiliD. wbich gives a band in tbo orange or yellow 
aKciding KB the blood baa been decompoaed by addi or alkaliea. 
If ibe whole of tlio hmmaglobin hna been decompwed, only the 
AM bawl of hffimntin is aeen ; but frequently a miiture of unde- 
rattcmd hwnuiglobin nilli lucniatin glvea the conjoint banda of 
ng^Mmaglobin and hwmatin. The band of acid bEwatin cun. 
riiW lowly >f ith Frauenhofer'a line c in the coiifinea of the orange 
tni t*J- (*■ ''¥■ **■) ^^ '''* ''l'*^ l"" ''«n deconiporad by 


drmUr, large apota appronch the drcnlar form ; large and 
■mall alike have ■ defined and ibnipt margin. 

Arterial blood bas a briglit red colour, and venoaa btood a diu-k 
or purple hue, but becomeBartcrial on expoaore to the sir. After 
tbe lapae of a few boDra lK>th hindi of blood low thrir brlgbt 
colour and aanime a reddisb-brown Lup, whicb maj remain nu- 
dianged for years. 

Certain of tlie abore-ineatiODed tests nre at onee applicable to 
the itaina, and (he; may be applied bcforo proceeding to tlis 
oUien. A amall (tain or a minnte fragment of a Btuin. if only 
on« eiiita, may b« rut out und tested finl with liipior ammoaur. 
nil will at once diatinguish between blood and Teget:ible colour- 
ing matters. To a liroilar frsgraent {a few fibres will do) a drop 
of tjnctare of gnuiacnm and a drop of poroiido of liydrt^cen ahimld 
be added on a slide. If blood colouring mutter ia present the 
reaalt will be tbo production of ■ sapphire blue eolouf. If tlio 
(tain ii very old* and dry this reaction does not lake place at 
ODoe, and not until tbe texture has become thoroughly moistened. 
Tbe other testa, with tbe eiception of the hannin test, reqnire tlie 
■olntion of the oolonring matter. The bicmin teat is perhaps 
more ranreniently applied before the solution is made. For this 
pnrpoac a small acraping of the stain is t« bo laid on a slide, a 
dTstal of chloride oF sodium added, and then bulled with glacial 
acetic add in the manner before described. As already stated, 
the demonstration of bannin crjstals is proof poiitive of the 
eaiatence of blood. The solotioa of the stain is best made in a 
•olution of common salt (1 in 200). The lUin U lo bo cut out 
■nd suspended bj a thread in a tot tube or watch-glass con- 
tiihnnfr n imall quantity of the sntt solution. A TScenC stain so 
treated, generally yields a rcddiah or reddish-brown solution, the 
colour being most intense io the deeper strata. If the stain is 
old, it gi*ea up it* colour very slowly and imperfectly, the process 
taking many boun. The solution may be aided by tearing the 
fibres of the doth and by agitation. 

When the aolatlon has been effected, the cloth may he ei- 
■mined with a lens tat the presence of threads of insoluble fibrin 
wbicli remain after the colooring matter has been entirety dis- 
■olvrd. (See Bg. 38.) 

When the solution has been allowed to settle, the superfidnl 


^m- When the solut 

^^K). Ha tiMwht U 

—Dr. flsffhos iiitrEeiled aiototloi 
Q sftfl hy the <iiilrlur qi 
n proiriuog propoul. 

iqalicd ^^^J 



Iron. A drop of hydrochloinc add pUced on tbe spot of rn^Ai 
salves it, ind \etnca tbe meUl tleta, >ud on dilating tbe nMh 
with distilled water, evidence of tbo eiutcDce of iron a*r4 
obtained by ippropriBte teila. 

Spoil qf leiMm-juire bave been mutalcen for tboM of H 
A man. as in a ease related hj OrGla, wai nupedcd (fT ta 
murdered moCber, and a knife, appiiTentl)- covered witli k 
wu found in hii powesaioDi but od eiunining tbe kiuf^ ibt 
■poti were found to be due Ui citric arid. Tbe inatmnienl M 
been used aomu dayi befbre ftir catting a lemon, Mud bad beat 
pat by without being wiped. 

The thioncr ipate prodoced in this way have a reddJah-y^ow, 
the thicker a reddish-brown, colonr, nearly resembling thai of 
blood, and they separate, like blood-spot*, n'ben niddenteiy 
beiatej. When heated in a tnbe tbcy give i^ ■ volatile natUr.n 
which hai ao acid reaction — apoti of blood have an altaliiie nJ, 
action. Hie solution In distilled water is ligM f/elloiB — that of 
blood is red; it sometiDies has an acid reautian — that of Uood 
is neuiral, or Jaintlg alkaline ; with infusion of gilla it yiddl 
a bUKk precipitate, a bl<u with ferrocyanate of potash, and a 
rich cherry red with the inlphocyaniile of pataagiaiD. EQoad 
yields a red predpitate with the flrat test, aod is annfiected bj 
the others. The oxide of iron is thrown diiwn by alkalies. 

It having been clearly made out that the stun we have been 
exuniaing is a hlood-Btain, three qneations may arise: 1. /i if 
human blood, or thai of an animal I 2. Prom Khat part of lie 
body diditJloK? 3. What ie lie age of Ihe ttaini 

1. Saman blood and tial of anmaft. — Two memos of iUag< 
nosis liBio been proposed, the one niicinsaipic, the other cbrmiol. 

Diagitont hy the mieroseope. — The only means of distiuctinn 
under the mieroseope is sfforded by certain well-known diffe- 
rences in the shape and size of tbe corpuscles. Tbe human blood- 
corpuscle, depicted in Sg. 36, p. 3S6, Is a circular Rattened disc ; 
and that of mammalB, with a single unimportant elceptiou, bai 
tbe same form. The only appreciable difference is in the «ie of 
tbe globules. In man tbey measure on an average yj^ of an 
inch ; in nnitnals the diameters vary from j-^^ to n^'g, - But 
these are only BTemges; and the extreme measurements which 
in man may be stated at Yr,'„g and ^ A^ , lie, in some auimali, 
still wider apiirt. When it is borne in mind that, in moM in- 
stances, we huve to examine a blood-solution obtained from dried 
blood, made to approximate U> tbe average ilcnslty of blood by 
the addition of syrup, glycerine, or a saline solution: that the 

riobulea Is materially affected by tbe dettuty of U^^ 



I wh'ich tbey float; and Oat in the blood itself the 
di*meler of oue globule may be twice a» gnilt as tlint of aoother, 
it if not [o be expected that the most akilful and pructiaed per- 
■on should be able to dislin^ish hnman blood from that of other 
mammals. But tbo blood-corpiucles of birdi, reptiles, and fishea 
differ ao widely in nze and shajw from tho«e of mna and hdi- 
nulla, ai to enable nsto state positively that the blood in a given 
cue 19 dtUer that of a mammnl, or belongs to one of the three 
claaiei of creatures just apecified. The diOercncea of elie and 
■hspe are shown in the auoeied woodcut, in which (1) is liumaa 

i, (2> the blood of the common fowl, (3) the Wood of the 
tng, and (i) the blood of a flili. (For some minute deUils of 
meamrvmenta in Mnmnialin, >ee ' Micrograpbic Dictionary,' Art. 
BVnd, as well aa Plate 39.) 

Chemiral Diaymuit. — It was Barruel who first proposed to 
llUtin^iidi the blood of dilferent animals by the cliaroctcriatie 
odour given oiT on adding inlphurie add. If this ncid, diluted 
with hair its bulk of water, la added to the blood of an animal, 
■n odour it perceived wblcb closely resembles that of iU perapini- 
tjon ; and probably persona would recognise the odour if informed 
of its existence, and equally probable that they would be mistaken 
if asked to name the animal which had supplied the blood. 

I make thii statement aa the result of experiments with (Venh 
blood of diSereot animals, in such quantity as a drachm or more, 
made in the class-roora for aeveral years in succeraion. The 
majority have always been wrong in their gneiaea ; bnt on one 
occasion, a momber of my class was uniformly right in hi* opinion, 
thoogh the eiperiment was so devised as to preclude mere gnos- 
inse. As a means of distingnishing spoti of blood, or aolutions 
obtained froin them, Ibia lest must certainly be disallownl. It 
has utterly liiiled in the bands of very competent persons. (O.) 

In 1844, Professor Toddei published at tnorence a treatise, in 
which be propoasd to distingnish the blood of man from that of 
atnrcsby ■ method as remarkable for its niinnte com- 
as for its eniinontly unctrtain resulti, Briand. iwi 




E. Kiir of I'll. F. olVUbUi. «. oV VIik. \. u« 
K. qrCnt, L. oTDog. , ^ , . ,,> 




I Dir tlie avenge o( the fire yarn 1863-^, 2623 dnths >n 
EngUad uid VV'bIh vers sttributed Ui the Hijeucy of heat. Of 
Hum number 4S3 wora bums, of which 43*3 were by clothes catch- 
ing Hra, 16 by oonSagratioua, 24 by gunpowder nnd flreworki, 
lad T by exploave gma. 46 deaths were caused by driukiug hot 
ud 611 deaths by sculdiug liquids, i^utered under " liurua 
ds." 1548 deaths were less accurately defined. In tlie 
e years, 2 ■niddos, 1 murder, nod 4 maoslauglilera were 
tributed to burning, and S manshiugbters to suilds. In 18TI, 
« dcathi by bnma and scalds were 2612. 

le of death by burning is noC always tlic samv. Some 

«d by smoko ; othen die frightened, or by hlowt fVooi 

Uing bodies; otben by the ibock thut follawi eitenaive inJDry 

llie tissues ; Bud others, again, at periods more Dr less reiooCo 

n tbo bnToing, by collapse, or the elTecti oF inflammatioD. 

The appearoncer produced by barning consist of blisters, entire 

Bw burst, rinitod patches, sooty spoU and marks from burnt 

Ittidea of clothing, and singed hair. 

The meiliou-legal qnestiouB tbat arise in reference to death by 

Ijbv are lltose reliicing to other forms of eilemal injury, eieept 

■ tittt the altemalives of suicide and homicide rarely prcaent tbem- 

I wives; for most deaths by Bre ore accidental. In these, and in the 

rare Cvhs of laicide and murder, the buniilig would leave inarkt 

on the buily showing tlut it was inHieted during life; but as tbc 

baming of the dead body is sometiinea resorted to by a murderer 

to conceal the real mode and cause of death, wc may buve to dis- 

^H' tdngnisb bnnii taking place dnriug life Item those occurriag alter 

^^Bteath. AgaiDj when a body 'n found vvltb vaK/*» f& ^»u\t»i%V«s 



sroMTASEona combcjtiom. 337 

Cisper tarns op the resnlu of yery nuintrouB eiperimenlt by 
■talJog thnt " voicatiuiu em be producnl on Llic ili'nc! body," and 
" ttml it i* quite impowble to confound a bum inflicled during 
life witb one inflicted afier deitli." He oIki illegn that •• every 
Teneation produced by burning" during life " I m a img ^le.rod 
b onndT T line, be it BTer lO nnrmwr. pprTi-pl.l Y Tiwii l g la tlia nuli od 

tion >re mdily disUoguiaiied by tbe sbsence uf these nppearuncea, 
the opowd triie bIeiu b«iig, iike that of adjacent purte, ooknirleu 

The nppcannces jn>t described ai due to the appliration of 
heat to the liring body are common to all intenie inRiiminntionK 
of tbe akin, whctlier dne to diaease, or prodored by the npplim- 
tion of eantharides and other rtrving itimulanti, bjr pressure, or 
hj friction. 1 hure teen, on the snklee of a yonng mau n'bo bad 
died of acnto pbthiiii, two patches of inflnnimatioii of » deep led 
coUnir not rrmoi-ible by preaiure, and with vell-deHned niBrgini, 
on one of which Here large vesicles eontainiog (erom. t nKcr- 
tajoed bt-yoiid doubt that the apota, which had been olwerrcd 
during 1if«^ were not caused by tbe appl'icatloD of any heatoil 
body. (0.) 

Id all these eases of acute cutanecui inflprnmation, a tliiu 
vertical section of the inftamed sliin and underlying Iubum di»- 
playi, eren to the naked eye, distinct red patebet, cmilrestiiig 
TOry strikingly wLlh Mmilar sectioDB of akui diBaih>nred by the 
mere anbsidence of the blood. 

It is scarcely neetsnry to add that redneia bllmrs instantly on 
the npplioition of heat, and that vencles show themielves afier 
the interval of a lew suninds. Tlie results just itatnl have n 
direct betiring on tlinse rare casea iu which, as io tljat nf Bulnoi, 
tried at Newcastle in l&'Mi. arsmi is resorted Co loctmccal the true 
csnse oF death. Of tbe qoestion of aeadeat, nicide, or homicide, 
it moat sulRco to observe that suicide* and homiddea by fire are 
of Tcry rare occnrrence, Ihu great nnjurity of i«bc« bt'iiie ae- 
eideutal. The suiddal cues occar vhielly among pi;rsuus ot uu- 
sound mind. 


Tbe fbllowing case, whicb reals on the authority ol Le Cat, a 
finn believer iii tpontaneotis combiution, furms a fittlnji introduc- 
tion to this tnbjrct. It is said to hare Uken place in ITZ5: — 

One Millet, of Ithrimc, was charged witb the murder of his 
tfiSe, tbe rcm^iiiiB of whose body were found Ijing d»u U.\« 


33S spoxujczorG anceusnax. 

kitdMB hmnk. Put of Uie bad, partionc «f tlte h 
trWTHr^ mad m trw of the teitebrK, Iiad euped cot 
Tbe float beoMth ttie bodj wu pirtUUj bant. MiUct ■ 
ttMt be and lui wife had refired b ' 

Uat iliMnt bang bUc to ileqi. g^ 

u be mppoeed tti aum btovelfi Unt b> vw roandbj Lb*M 
of fire, aod goidg dovn lo tbe kitdieii. Cnuid Uw dem^d l*^<V 
new tb« bautb, in tte meuiMr cuted. Ik innacr niioo- 
iematd U> doUi, bat, no iqipcal to ■ higber ooort. Ilw w^ttiiBa 
WM TCTokod, md it 

KaA. Tbe haa« 

liiiL [I ' Ti I ilirtliiii m irmi,'lif liiilj ■ iii ilj 

It iitklj of fBTHtetv Mttnda^ ftavr o^Bswdj 

n* ailk and ftnhnc «n eo wr ed ntli ■ tUA gnutj 

■BCanJ tW «ir i» Im pre p fd »tUi ■ ~ 

I ^KaMl iiMilMMtiMtiij i' iW tod;, tiw i m ; )■ at* ti^ir ■ 

L dadww ^hl itrr- at ivfanr) Xnt filBJnufc .^^^w^i 

» better aulbeDtioted, and more acenrately reportrf, we mnrt 
conteDt oiinelvei nith this iDioant of knowledge, not forgetting', 
meanwhile, that nich men ai Liebig mid Ciuper trent the very 
notion of ipontaneoQi combuftion as an idle fable, itampnl with 
the brand of •heor crcdaUtj, and one opposed to Biich simple fiicti, 
among others, u that the bmnsa body eontuns TS per cent, at 



From the Report* of the R*gi«tnir-QcnBral for the five jeara 
IB5S-66, we leara tbut about 21 death; by lightning Oi-cur, one 
year with another, in England and Walee; 18 in males and 3 in 
females. This mode of dealb rarely gives rise to medico-legal 
qneotiOD* ; bnt at tbe effects of lightning on the body often re- 
semble those cansed by mechanical violence, a qoestion might 
■rise, whether a pcraon found deul, nnder unknown circnm- 
ttances, had periihed by lightning or had been murdered. 

In moat ciues we havs a clue to the canse of cleatb in tbe fact 
Ibat a thnniler-stariu hsa taken place, and tbac the corpse is 
found in inch a sitaatlon, and with snch surroundings, as is cun- 
dstant with its having been struck by li);hCning. 

As K general rale it nay be stated, that the electric fluid 
prefbra and seehs out good iiondnctors; and as the hnmon body 
il a very good condoctor, it is as likely to be struck many objeet 
rimilarly utiuted. unleia, perhaps, that object be of metsL 

it a general rule, too, lofty ol^ects are tbe most likely to be 
(buck ; bnt tliis rule is snbject to many exceptions, for persona 
have been struck in the immediate neighbourhood of lofty trees 
which have been uninjured ; and in woods it is not alwayi the 
talleat trees that ore stnick. 

The electric fluid is often conducted to the body by lofty 
objecta in its proiimily, such as trees, maats, the rigging of 
sbipi, and the moiit strings of kites. Tbe danger of remaining 
mder * tree doting a storm is proverbial. 

It has be«n thaoght that a person is tolerably safe in an open 
space far from any olject which could attract the electric fluid ; 
bat this is an error. The human body may be, in these circum- 
■tances^ the most prominent object and also the best couduetor. 

Death may be caused by an electric shock, other than the 
.rake. This happens when n cloud near the earth is 

ItJllvcIj elcctrifled, while the earth is positive, and the Unumi 


body KrVM M tin conductor, by trhipb the eqnilibriain i> rMtorvd. 
Tlii'i ii railed tbo atcewliig or retaniag ttroke. 

Tlie Tiulent mnban^cal efTecU pradac«il b.v the electric discbarge 
-^ibe dianiption of buil^ngi and remoiBl of parta of tb^m Ui 
X diaUnca j the rending of the traiik* of treM into latbi ; Uie 
•eparBttOD of good coudacCnn from bad ones ; the fiuion of ineUUie 
•ubftsncei; the ignition of iD6aiiiiDab)e ones; tbe mimetic pn>- 
pertin oommonicatoj touiiclei of iron and iteel — are bmiliarlj 

The Pott-morleiH appetwaaces in bodie* itrock bj lightning 
nre very Tsrioiu. Sometime* no nurkt of iqury erv foond, and 
thi« i« said to occnr meat coininoiilj in death by the rtlurniitg 
ttroke. In other raiei tlie body ii bmiied or torn at the ijioi 
where tbe etectrlr Said biu entered ; or there is merely ■ (mail 
round hole at tbe point of eiiL Eitenure brniaea are HHnetimei 
preterit, most frecgaently on the back, the electric fioid sppenrinir 
to prefer the track of the ■{nnal cord. Frecturt* of the boiiea 
nreisre: they may occur, a« Ambnxe P«r^ atatea, vilhoat et 
tamal wonnd. A eaie of exteuaive fracture of 4he bonea of the 
•kali is relaled by Pouitlet. Slnrks of bum* are tonietiinet pre- 
lent. They may occur uven when the clothes huie pot been wt 

The Btat« of the blood (alleged by some ■uthoritiea to be fluid, 
by othcra coagnlated), the atnte of the limbs (aKirted by •omo to 
be relaxed, but by othora, with better renson, to be rijrid. and 
aometimea even to broome qnickly nud eicessively so), and the 
pulrnfactive prooese (stnted by Pari snd others to be retarded, 
linf by utlien to be bsitened) — are ngn* of little medieO'legftl 
ImjiorUnce. Theae points aia worthy of noto: bnt even eliouM 
(he blood be fluid, rigidity absmt, and pntrcfluition hnalened, 
these »ro not pBCuliar M> death by lightning, for they » 
ooiucide ill other mmloof anddan dentb. 

In some ease* the alnte of the nbfecta found on 
belonging tv it, niniinh eomplefe erideuee of the o 
The elothea may ha torn and burnt ; the shoes strDch fb 
feet; mstalllc bodies fusnl and forcibly cunicd b 
anil articles of iron or steel, such a> the steel of the stays, a 
mnin-spnng uf a watch, renilrrrd strongly muiinetii!.* 

r<>iuii^/>«i(A.— Tlie electric fluid aotii oliieHy thr 
nervfiiia iiyatntn, and thv causn uT deuUi is the shoiik •ui>taiti« 
It. WliHo not fatal, Itt action on the bmln, spinal nisrrcn*,-4 

II drunplleB nt V\, ttHnU nt U(btD[o| will In Ibuad ttS 



Tliii U >n oncomiuon event io thia conntrj, though ^mtb bjt 
nrid and innniticni combiaed ii not tevj rare in severe wiiitcn. 

The lint effeet of intenie cold ib b >ense of nnmbnew and ■tJIT- 
MB in tbe muiclH of tho timbi and fare. TLii ii khu rollowed 
b; torpor and pn>rouad >!iiep, putiiig into eomu and death. 

The effect of cold on tba droulation » to drive the blood from 
tha anrfiuie to the intenor or the body, co iw lo gorf^o Ihu spleen, 
liver, lungi, and brain. TIib geuiul organs are similaTly nfTectod, 
ttnd priRpism sometimes reaults from congHtion of the penis. 
The tempentnre »f till' blood itself is louervd; the heart contiacts 
■lowly and fnbly, canting a small, weak pnlse. The congestion 
of ihe nervoiu ventres occasions nnnibneBS, torpor, somnolency, 
giddiness, dimnen of sight, tetanns, and paralysis; and Ihe con- 
gtitian of the br*in sometimes occasions a species of delirium, as 
happened to Edwnrd Jenner, or llie nppearauce of intoxication, as 
witncand by Captain Party and others in the cxpediUoos to the 
Mortb Pole. 

Tlie effect nf cold varies in intenaty with tei, aure, and strength : 
the very joQiig-, the aged, the infirm, penonn worn out by disease 
•nd fiiljgne, and those addicted to the use of intoxicnting liqaors, 
pemh soonest. Some perHni, too, liavr a great advantage over 
Othera in their power or r«usling cold — h fact frequently observed 
bj Tojragers and Crarellen in the Arclir regions. 

In eatiinating the effect of oold on the body, it should be borne 

in mind that the bod; is cooled in three ways — hy eutaneous 

Fnbablion; by conduction of the ^ in contact with it; snd by 


«enu friatafien i* increased by dry and diminished 
■, Hence the body parts with its heat more mpidly 

a dry inunspliere. On the other hand, tho boily is eo' lucl hy 

daeliiMi, when theair is moist; so that the body itcMxilid nliko 
ijr dry cold air and by cold moist air. Cold humid windu lower 
' lU temperature of the body in ■ verv striking degree. A rapid 

tewal of tlie air, as in a brisk cold wind, lowers the tempeta- 

« of the body, botli bj evaporation and by conduction. The 

>et of a slight breeae in increa»ng the feeling of cold was !«• 
I Markably shown In the expeditions to tho polar seas. 

^att-mortem Jpptaraarat.—A* a rule, the tnrfiice is pale, bnt, 
iceptional mta, Borid. Tire vi«era of the head, chrat, and 

MDca an oongtrted. Then if ctmgcUiou oE \^uB lea^ (A >^ 



- 11-.. 

pi-r: ' 




;r '".f : 

• ■ • 

.\ - . 

•.•■• v..i"cr V. ..^ '. v::.^ :• .; 


■ •' •.:•.:':•..■. i-i-'.* (.\;* -. i' '.. •., 
•r ■ ••'•.i»! 1; .' ■ •■ • : :■.- . ; •'. 

' V I . : 

'•n.i'b ]:■>*, ; ll.t.' ir.- v.'l; !:\ i; i ]•..»; ": • ;. 
■ ■"* :i 1(1 *itl !■•!' 'ir. !;.•• )' '.:■ ".* !::<.■'.:.'' r. '..t " 
1 :i:i.l itfl !:iir'!, :;'. >\ •:..■:!! t ;kr'« ;'l.'.o 1:. 

. or ill li' ri '■■'.' I ■•'. '. nW: ■:«■. 
■i~i-iiti_\ t" li.- (•••f.i. ;i::.i til,. >ta*»?i!,ti.:~ 

■■■.ii:::ir:!y .il-.t;i':i,,-,l. i? :<vj« :'r< ili.i: :!.. 
..r*iii .ill .iir ll.r.r t';i\<. :i:ivl M;.;T ll-.i. 

V. — 'I'lu' l"'il\ i< iii'.i.-h 1 us.iriaTril. -.n..'. 

'■•.I' rv<s ;iiv itil till' >k!n. 

• • 'I.iii! irli :u:(l iiiti-' li'.i'-; i-nn»lv .;: -.j 

■"...'.' i"* »li»!.iMliil vi!i! liilo ; liio ln'nrt. 

i'lVi I -I il. !i!'l «!r-? :'!'.!■.■ '.t' M .".il : a:iil 

. ,:n'M'. I ln-i- ;'.|';-i ir.i:;-!-^ :iri' Mi't •'.• 

..-ivr <'t'lljr 111' 'l'- lit 'It.ltli ; Init ill til" 

l'i-!"'\i^ .if i>\;rr;iK' I'iiMcia'ii.'.i, >ijfh ;: 

■ <r!.-M.r iir.-r.nii'li-ii uf lii.Mtli l.iv -.tar- 

• ".vTli'l, that tlii-rc aiv iiuil.ulio such a- 

CLAssincATios c 


Itrietare of the cesopluiguti, and organic disesw of the atomncli, 
which prove &tii1 bjr Bturvatian. S«ucb glioDld, lliurefore, be 
made fur auvh cbuhs oT deotb. 

The piBl- mortem nppeiinincea ware taUlifnlly dewribed by Mr. 
B'ggt in ■ cue of murder bj lUrvntkm »nd exposure -, tUat of 
Mull CornUh, aMrvedb; liistiithiir and ilep-mother.* He atated 
at the corO'icr'* inqaest that the decotsed wu so wutod that hu 
bad K*K«]y any muscle left, and no fat; that be looked like a 
(keletoa with the skia ttghily itretched i»er him ; that be could 
not Dol; tee eocb bone but its peeuliaritjci j that hII the orgaiii 
were b«lthy, though the heart and itomacfa were smull ; tliat the 
omeHlum wu at cU'[ir as gbiM; that there wiu uo 1'ood in the 
nomach^ aod that the auull inteadne« vere nearly empty; and 
that there was no ippeurauce of chyle. 

The period at which death hnppciia varies with nge, ici, and 
■trcngth, the amoanC of eiertiuu, and mpecinlly with the anpply 

The time that a person may reranin without food, or with a 

Wrj acHBty anpply of it, niay become a qnestjon of aome iropor- 

tRDOCvai will appear from thecaicof ESlimbeth Canning-. qunTe<l by 

Dr. Cncnuiing in hia Lecture* in the ' Medical Gazette.' vol. six. 

Tlie qocation rai«d in thi» case was, whether a girl of eighteen 

oonld be confined, in the depth of wiutcr, twenty-eight days, 

■t fire, with ahoat n gallon of water in a piteber, and with 

i but aome pieces of bread, amounting altogether M about 

k qmrtom IobC i>nd a sniall mince pie which ahe happened to 

'a her pocket, and at the eipiratlon of the period retain 

leirnt ttrength to break down a window -shutter fastened with 

Hit, get out of the KJndow on to ■ aort of pent-houM, thence 

ip to the graniid, nine or ten feet below ; and Gniali by walking 

n Rnlleid Wash to Aiacrnuuibury. 

wTo this i|Ue>tii>n we could not but rctnrD an answer in the 

iliYe. The cue* preiently te he cited give lu good groniid 

P belieting, that life might liaro been piotongcd for t»entv- 

^^ght daya, or even more, on tbia acanty supply of nouriiliinent i 

*>ot it ia extremely improbable that, at the end of thia time, 

^linibeth Canning would have hud alrength enough left ra elTcot 

i«er oainpe. This caae is also curioua in il« hearing on the qnee. 

ClJoti of iilmtity. A freih iul«regt hna been given to this question 

^* I*rxilonged nbatinence from food by the case of Surah Jacob, 

*■■■ Welah fasting girl. 

^^«re am (onr distinct chuses of case* which may be used to 

* 'Momiog OminlEle,' FolitURrj. M, 1653. 





tbrow light on the quulion of the duration of Bfe po) 

ODin pinto, or nearly complete deptivMloD of food. 1. Cuarfn 

ineehaniciil obitracticiD lo the p,iMHgo of food throngb the pilM. 

2. CuH of ihipwnirked persons aubj^ct to eipasiire and tuigtt. 

3. Cnwi of penons impriwncd, riuI rendered inactive, bj ■ ' 
obetructioiia as fulling urth in mines. 4. Cbki of ; 
■tain'mg fnim food of their own accord, geiierallj on 
stancttt damanding litUe eiertioo of mind or bodj. 

1. For an inlcrtstlug caaa of Ihi* cUa H-e are indelilFd la Dt. 
Currie, of Liverpool. A man, 66 ;ean of age, CQt-rived s 
plete ohsCruction of the gullet (with (he uid of natritiooi cl 
and batliB of milk -nod- water ndmmiatored during 32 day*) fbr t6 
days. Thv man, wlio wh tall and corpulent, wu reduced from 
an ascertained weight of 240 lbs. down to 138 lbs. — a \tm of 
102 lbs., of which two-fiftba took place in the spw^e of 38 daji, 
for his weight before the complete obstruction of the gullot «m 
170 lbs. In the last twelve dnys be lost IG lbs., or^t the faU oi 
IJ lb. per diem ; and this loea the alreadj^ waited fmmA sutiUixd 
ill spile of tliD uonrisbmeDt Bdmiiiislered in the mode just 
describeil. WImt Ibe unchecked rate of waste would have been 
we have no meiina uf ascertaining ; but we know that death took 
place when the bod; had lost 102 Ibn. out of £10, or little idots 
thsn two parts in five of its original weight. Now UiU redac- 
tion of two-Gftha ouncflpunils moet closely to the reiulla of 
Cboesut'i eiperiments ou aoinuUs. He laid it down ai ■ broad 
priuriple derived from eiperiments on idbdj different living 
creatiiren that Ufd erases when an animal loses t«o-fiAbs uf ita 
WHiglit. Ho llinl an animal weighing 100 lbs. would die when ila 
weight was reduced to 60 lbs. Tbuugh life may cease before 
Ihii point is atUincd, it aa> rarely extend beyond it. The time 
dnrinc which the destruetiie rhange iigtnng on may vary greatly 
in dlflereut alasses of animals, but the limit it the same in all. 
The daily loss amounts to one-twcnty-fonrth of the entire 
weight : — H statement in harmony with the Condntlon of Bidder 
and Schmidt, that an animal, to maintain ita weight, ought to 
Mke one- twenty .third part of it daily, in the abape of food sos- 
ruptible of btMQg assimilated, water of course indndcd. liut, if 
we asb-ume a man to weigh S3D Iba., the daily supply will r«ach 
tJie moit unlikely qusntity of 10 lU. 

The progrcsaive and rapid waste of the body, and the eitine- 
linn of life at or about the point at which un animnl loses two- 
filllu of ita weight, may tbororore be taken hs data soffidently 
eitablisheil, as also the fact, long since estiihUsbed by Kedii tl 

kDln»l> lire moch longin (binli more Iban twice aa long) wben 
they havB free aocew (o water. 

S. Of tbs praloDgBttoa af life under the rntignes, eipmnire, totsl 
priTation of food, and want of IVeih wiiter {except mcb aa may 
have bnn aupplied by dew or ruin) incidental to aliipwrecka. we 
Imts mne well autbcntinted cam. A namtive of ■ ihipwreck 
oil tbs CMlcuttM ooMt wbich hu been plated at my diapoaal ahoini 
tlwt out oF 13 men wlllioat food or water 12 dayi, three died, 
tbo nat Cfcaped and reeovuriMl. (O.j And a very detailed and 
•ridontly faitliful icconnt of the picking ap at aea of Cuptun 
Vtacy, Comtnindcr of the Jane Lotirden, timber reuel. aliowi that 
oat of 18 men, indailing the captain himself, wholly without 
prorisonaand freshwater, one survived 11 da}'*,on« 12 daya, on* 
14 daya, two 15 daya, one 18 daya, and the captain himael^ who 
raCDTered, SS daya. Two men ap|>e<tr (o hare died early, furioody 
dvUrloU, one (a lad, ait.lS) wliodiedonthe ISth da] , wni quietly 
deliriou^ mj^ apectral itlnaona : two other* were ddirioua, and 
CaplaitaCaMy had illiuiou of bearing.* 

3< Of ODiiflnenwnt In (rati minea, we bare instances of men and 
boyi aarriving G and 8 dnyt, und one nau 23 lUys. Tlils wai 
caaa publuhed by Dr, Slain ('Med. Oaz.' vol. irii. pp. It 
knd S8S). There waa loten to water for the tlNt ten days. 

4. Tha loiigut abatinence of food, with free acceia to water, of 
wliitb I have had etperience among pri»ocra. is ten diyt. In two 
nen and on« woman euniplet< abstineiic« from food during thia 
period wai futlownl by no hnd aymptom, and the ordinnry priaon 
dift waa reanuied witlioat iifjory to health. The priaoDen wcra 
weakened, bot by no meana cihanaled. (G.) tn the caae of ten 
daya* atarvalJon ol' a pruuner reported by Caaper, acarcely nny 
liijaid WM taken, and the eibniution was much greater. — (Hand- 
book, vol. n. p. 2N.) 

The nue of Bcmanl Cavanngh, thongh nut one of complete 
■Intiiwncei may be litirly adilwl to the lorei^oiug. Having biyn 
DiHuUiittrd tu gaol for three monthi, be waa placed in a eell 
uudar tbs Oricleat aurvoiltance, sud refnaed to cat or driok. 
'Hiii coiilinaed, ai il waa alleged, nine daya, at the end of which 
time be waa rtported to be in "perfert bodily health."' But on 
the 13th lUy, it waa renwrkcd that tlie gruel aupplied U 
came lauk the aame in ijuiinlity, bnt mucli thinner. Tbii trick 
bdne diKo«<^r«d, ami tbe man'i health having by tbii timo 
•ufferrd, ha waa aupplird with, and rery gUdly receivi ' 
iiig foul. (■ Medial llnea,' Itecember 4. mtt.) 

Uut tre have well-autbeuticatDd cas-i cxteiuliDg much beifoud 
• Tbt ■riawa.' KcbnuBT 7,\Wa. 




3ir ■ 

mlTerlnga, he lingered till tlip fi[t;-(^i^bth day, vrben be eiplrad, 
■fW itraggling fUir hourt in convQiriona.* 

From the bat lulhenticaUd run of prolonged abtpnce from 
food, wliHber voluntary or involuntarj', we inri^ Ibnt thoiu;b lif« 
DMj be prolonged up (o the limit of >hoat two month*, lucli 
■bttinenoe i> Bttended by progrewTe aud rapid lou of weight. 
Mid M length by pitreme cmieiitjon. If, then, it were ilieged 
bjr, or on behalf of, aoine man, woman, or child, that there had 
bsen ■ total al»tiDence from fbod for tome period eiceedji^ 
two monChi; or abstinence, oot from food only, bat Irinn wal 
alB, for wme lucti period ai ono montli. we iliould be jnitified 
looking op the ease with the utmo*t pooible luspidon, eapeciRlljr 
if the penon m> alnlaining, having snjihiiig approaching the 
plUTUpnt^s and Ireah coloor belonging to health, were to nawrt 
that no action of the bowela or bladder had taken place. If these 
thiiip were pretent to juitify tbentrongest niipicion, the malting 
tnch penon the lulgeet of c:(hihit40n, and itill wane, of gain, 
would add indignBtion to doubt, and leare u> no alternative but 
to demand Ihe dediivg teat of the cloaent aarveillance. 

Two Engliah cuea, in which thia aovere teat waa applied, arg 
on record. The one ia that of the FasUng Woman of Tatbury, 
the other of the Faating Oirl of Wale* ; (or we posa over all caiei 
not thoa teated. Ann Moore, the Paating Woman of Totbnry, 
wti 58 yntn of egg in IS08, when aho HBurlud that the hod gone 
twenty muntbi without food. She alleged that fonr yean before 
that dat« (he had a aerere attack of illnesi which Uated thirteen 
WBcLi, and that ber recovety «at not complete; for ahe waa rab- 
Ject for month* afterwirda to violent fits and ipaem* at freqnent 
■od irregular ioterral*. A year later ibo had another aevere 
illnes thai laited eleven weeks, and whi followed only by loii of 
appetite and indigettion, incrcaaed in 1806 by naraing a boy 
■Siictol with a repulsve diaeoae. From October in that year to 
Kfbruary, ISOT. ahe ate a penny loaf in a (brtnight, and drank 
• little tea witbont milk or aagar. From that tine till November, 
180S.ehDlived, ahe Hid. only on water and tea. The oiae having 
been publiallad in tbs ' Monthly Haga^na ' early in 1809, created 
a gmt aeuaation, and led to donationa of money, on which the 
woman lived four yean. Bnt, in 1813, a few adentiac difd in 
tha neighbourhood detonuined to lift the matter to the bottom. 
Tlicy got her to eonacnt to have her room guarded and watched. 
Thii WB* done during nine daya, at the end of which time she 
garo in, being terribly emaciated, and now really almost itarvcd 
ta d«Lth. She tilled for food, recovered her atrength, and let 




faumblf uiliel panloa of Gud and mui for Uie nicked deopliin 
■be bad pmctbed. 

Tliii hiatorj of Ann Moore ii a furtber abbrenation of \it 
■batmct gi\BO in 'All the Year Bouod.' The ncoouut of Uk 
Welih Futing Girl !■ Ukeii froin Dr. FoHler's work, whicli deiini 
a RpEcial interest fVoin the prumiaent part plajed by it* aiiUuiT 
in the oue from flnt to last,* 

Sarsh Jnixib, daughter of Evnn Jacob, n respectable and nilmil 
tenant farmer, wan tbe third diild of a heulthy fomily of Hmn, 
living lu a mean-Icxiking himse, with thatched roof and claj Boor, 
in which the ^irl and her parents occnpied the same small bed- 
room. She was born May 12, 1867 ; ber case bcgMi to atlnct 
public attentim in 1S67, when »he was more than ten ;e«TS (Si i 
Slid iho dinl December T, 1969, little more than 12^ f em of 
age. She was ■ fur, good-li»kin^ child, intelligent and preooama. 
impreinDnablG and emotional, fond of finery, and addicted to tbe 
rending of i-cligioua booki, aud the reciting and amiponog of 
verso. In Febtunr}', 18G6, wlien nearly niii(i ye^n old, she had 
■n sttiick of scarlet Fever, followed by acute piin of stonucb and 
vomiting of blood; and from thia time, as it is alleged, she kept 
her bcxl. The pain and vomiting were mod followed by atrong 
eonvulsioni, with arching backward of the body, and tjmplonu 
of plouriny. The body remained li^ for a month, the took 
little food, and grew thin. In April, 1867, abe ten treated for 
infl.<maiation of the brain, and sbont this time is stated to bare 
taken no food for a month, though the lips were moislened fhim 
time to time with baer, and only scanty evacoalions of eitber 
kind wtire passed. After tlie inflammatory attack she k«t her hair. 
Tlie fila, which bad been convnlsive, now changed to sliort lones 
of oonsnonsness, with sudden wakings aiid throwing aboot of the 
ormii and the left leg was staled to be rigid. On tbe 10th 
October uf this year (ISOT), she is tud to have ceased to take any 
kind of food, on the 0th of the following month to have had the 
last dischai^ from the bowels and at the end of it to have 
passed nrine for the last time. 

We glean from the detnilcd accounts of the case that the 
Iktbec laserted, and the public were aaked to believe, that this 

• ' A Complete RirtoiT of the Case or the Welsh PsHIng Glri (Ssrah Jacoh), 
Willi Comircnta Tb«noD ; and ObarrviUona on Death ttaa Staivstian.' B; 

kM tnt Wlnliiii for two \e»n ind two moiitlis, and 
: (nd neverlhrlw, during llic fint 
.bstin«nce, the bond! w«re iiot odI; 

, jij rcltned (possibly of itmlleru tiilleMcd 

i^'JitntlUt Uu tmui qoaatitt of vBter una pnKsnl for 

I iamal ircdu, tbit the bur wbtcb hsd fUlen off grew agaiu, 

I lUck km! bBg, that her naturally health; look wxi more tban 

iwd. aad ber bulk ap|ArtD(lj incmaed. 

H at the period to vhlcb we ars raTemnp (October, 1967) 

! ttat tUla ef (vrioutir oommeneed, aod aoon bevami? coiDmon, 

'" pd bjr tfaor nalaral (onieqiHmn — prewnti of moni!; and 

lyM); Rli|poaa. The girl wai gail; and fnnlailifally 

i, and gut up (or iliow, aomcnhat after the fanhiuri of a 

Br Dm and of tbs jeir 1SK6. th« nw braiine w 

na tlud virita grew more and more nomcroua, miJna.TS 

■»! pndoa coining into requUitioti. A local reporter and 

riaadbal roitora noir appnr on the stage. In thu spring 

maeting <rai held, and a natcbing committee 

incBcienc^ and f-iilure are dnly reporteid at 

lar'a irork. Other imtt of inquiring uiid intel- 

Iknnd. and on the 7th September, l»fS9, Dr. 

r <mle a Mtar to the 'llinaa,' giving the rciulta of n 

il Bid jndieioiM inquirj carried at f,ir ■> the parent! would 

It, and ftiring it aa hiii opinion thnt Sarab Jacob »u de- 

if[ W partnta, and that it waa not pouible to atatc what 

pan of tbt tflnjAaiBt reaultcd froni " a morbid pervuTHoa of 

rill," and whiit tma "intentional dccoit." 

The cnmplate pablirit; tfaua giren to the eaie ted, by itepa 
ant ntwuary la dBcribe, to the aelMition of four traiiic-d nanwt 
from Ony'> lloaintal, to flult and keep ooiutint watch urer 
Sarah Janils In order to ascertain wliether ibe got food and 
4rtnk, ur not> (.'(rtain medical men were alao (elected e> viutora. 
An aarly ranlt of thi> procedure waa to diaprore one of the aa- 
HTtioDa made by the parent* to the eSt-ct that tlie uiubI dia- 
(kargea from the bowel* and btadili-r were abacnt. Tiie liiatorj 
«f (ha caae fram d>y to day ia una or gradual hna of alrengtii, 
4aralopB*nt of feiarklinets, reatleamienii, and oocaiional dotiriaui, 
fn^nrntt quickening of the pulie, and the eihnlatioii from 
tha body aiid breath of a Tery pacntlar and higltly uffeuuve 
•door. In apit« of tb* warning! giten to the htber. no food or 
drink vB* aupplio], and on the cdghth day the ^1 diod ex- 
haaXed and Inwnaible. 

On tha Sin Uaamber. IBfig, an inrineat wa> huld. and cvi- 
dna giian aa lo Ihealato of the body after deulh. \tviut v^vimi) 





>nd veil fDrmed, and covered with fat from half an im 
inch tbick, there wu no obatraction in ■.□; part of the ■timt 
tor; canal, and all the importsnt orgaiu of the body irera •om 
The body wu perfectly free ftom diseoBe. The Jot; brmght 
a verdict ta the aSect that Sarah Jacob died 
caiued hj the father's neglecting to induce the child 
food. The father was aonrdingly coiDmitted for 
bnt admitted to bul. The cue was then taken up l^ 
Oovemmciit, and on tlic S6th Fehmary, ISTO, an 
wrved on the five medical aon who bad been 
daring the ititcMag, and on the parents of the ipH ; anil a ten 
dnyi' inquiry wu held before the bench of magiitralis, *d- 
joarned, and resomed. The resnit of the inquiry waj the 
acquittal of the metUcel men, bnt the committal for trial at the 
next anizea of tbe parente, Kvan and Hannah Jacob. Od the 
IStb July, 1870, the grand jury found a true bill, ' and the fol- 
loving day the trial took pUco, tvliich iasaed in a cerdict of 
guilty agaiuBt both parenta, with a recommendatjoii to mercy of 
the mother. 

Sarah Jacob evidently anccumbed to the eamo form of atarva- 
tion that proved fatal to the three who died among the thirtevu 
abipwrecked buIotb wbose caies are given above, and to tbow 
who perished aooneat among the eighteen, of whom Captain 
Casey was tbc aolitai? lurvivor on the 2Bth day. Tbe death, 
certainly not duo to diieave of any vital organ, or to obstructJon 
of the alimentary canal, took place by eibaoiition before there 
had been time for that loDg-coutinued and progreaave absorption 
of the fat and tiMuea of tbe body whieh occurred in the caact 
reported by Currie and Willan. Tu these quicker deaths 
attended by only aligbt losa of anbatance, the analogy of medical 
nomenclature jiiBlilieii oe in applying tbe term "Amte Slarralion." 
In the instances jiiBt adverted to we have cases of death in men 
under combined privation aud eipoaare in Ie« than tveire davl 
(in one instance in eleven) ; and to these we have now to add 
tbe death of a girl of twelve and a half years of age, apparently 
healthy, but ill-prepared for t<ital atatinence from food and drink 
by more than two years spent chiefly in bed, datjug from a re- 
eorery not complete from a aeries of maladies, oompriung scarlet 
fever, acute gastric derangement, symptoms attributed to inflam' 
motion of tbe brain, pleoriay, and anomalous rigid spLisma of 

If the term omfe ttarralim be areepted as descriptive of the 
case* just referred to, and the limit of siirvivorsbip be Ijiken at 
two mrrkt, we shall be juatiftad in da«iii^ undor the bead 

n which tLe abstinence from 
ftod (eoupbte, or aaizij ao) hu extendod to the citreme limit 
of tm0 mmbUi. In tbc flnt cUa of ouea, the body hibv he fouad 
vdl Doarahad; in the latter ledaced to the eitnime of tbinneas, 
dwerilTd bj' Dr. Willm w ■' emaciated to a most aBtoniahing 
itgnt," iaa whole apponnco tnggeitiiig " tlie ides of a akeluton 
praparad bj drying the mnsclea opon it in thoir natural 
A repeat the vordi of Mr. Bigg* (p. 313), look- 
" UIm ■ ikeloton with the akin tightly itretched over him ;" 
hat " be ooold not oul; lee each bone but its pecuUaritiee." 

PART m. 


■ ul 11-u ■tilyu't of poboniiig » 
I, Id llirra tcpniU' cbupUrt, bving 
■ rf (In priiiciiKl tohjiKi of VuBiiSi 



1. IJtfiitition of a Fuiton. — Tho meaHi'itff which ought to 
■Uoch to the word paixm U beat Hscerlaioed by n simple proceii 
of cxclaman. A lalntaDee ichich nfii^ta one penon through 
pecnlUHty uT oonititution, but bus uo effect on athL>r!>, in not a 
poison i a ftubfltHDce whlcb owes its effect to wnne temporary con- 
ditjoli of (ystem, ai wben cold water is iwiilow^ bj a penon 
)mt«d bjreierciH, i« not a poiaon: inbitBDoes which mochinicallj 
iqjoTiB uhI iaflmne the intenuil porta, such as pioa sad needtea, 
mild partieln of ateel or gkaa, are not poiaona : agaio, hot wattn-, 
the water being merelj a vehicle for beat, ia not a poiioti. Sub- 
atincet, tberefore, which owe their actiou to aame peculiarity of 
MnttltnlioD, or unusoul condition of the body ; anil mechanical 
irriUnla, and harmleaa aubatancea rendered iujarioua by eitnineous 
mMm, u* not properly termed poiaona. Nor does the mode of 
application to the body form aoy port of the detinltion of the word 
putoQ, Whether applied to the akia, or inhaled, or awallowed, 
or introdoced into the anna or rsgina, or into the ear, it la sUU a 
poiann. Again, the ijnoDtit; that may prove tiital, or the time 
reqiured to deatroy life, cannot enter into the definition; for in 
both thae raapect* undoubted ptnaona diflcr widely from each 
other. Laatly, tho form of the aubBtance or matter, whether 
■olid, Hqnid, or gaaeou), moat be hold to be immateriBl. These 
eicltUDona hDTU narrowed the ponible deHnition of a poison, so 
that the following may be ireepted ai snSlcient for <;very prac- 
I tiai purpose. — A poison is any aulatance or matter (nolid. Uquid, 
I or pueoua) which, when applied to the body outwardly, or in any 
■ay introdoced into it, without acting mecbaaicsllj, bat by ilf 
nm iaherenc qoaUtiea, can destroy life. 
In the gmt msjorit; of cues poiaona are swallowed. They 
I, " admimiitirrd lo," or " taien &y" the person injured 
V killed ; but they ban been introduced into the body through 
» longa, rectom, Tagina, or ear, and they might be ioserWd 


into the naitril. Thej have alio beun applicil to the ikin nnbrok■^^ 
or iibruil«1. Now tbou|[h tlie worda " admiitirtrr to'' and 
•' takm bg" are uwil in $| 11, 11. S3, S4, of the " Act to ton- 
toliittte ktitl Htnend lli« Statute Lkw of Kngtruid and Ireland 
folaling tn otTi-nroi R|piin«l the penon," Si and S& Vict. 1S6I, 
the word " apftji" {'• npjilj or adminiEter to") U Qaod only in 
5 2S, in nfinwiOD to " chlcnifonn, landanaui, or otlicr atuprF^ini; 
or overpowering drug, matter, or thing." It is to Ik: rt^rultvd 
that tbu aaniH full and eipliclt phraaeulogy wiu nut «m)ilDyed in 
tM tlie Mctioni of t1>e Act. 

The word "jmlaoa" ia often qualified hysnch terin»a«"'»cti»«," 
"tiralcol," "deadly," and the List of thete lenna ia rorjr geas- 
nlljr uaed in indiotmeuta. 

A "deHdIy" poiauD nia; mean one thnt ii fatal in a tmtiX dcM, 
or kilU quirltly in ■ larj^ one. or wlileh, itreapectivH of tlia 
doM, i* room dangaroua or dilGcult to counteract tlian others. 
Strychnin and nulic nnd, fat inntimce, are Inth " dendly paiaonii'' 
bnt wliile len than a grain oFthe ons may dntroy tifcabant liaU 
■n ounce or Die other i* a fiitHl doae; yet a full dow of oxalic add 
nwy kill nini'li luuia quickly than «ven a latge doae of atrydinia. 
On tlin other banil, tjit Altai doae nf Epxini ulte or aalphate of 
potirih l> Iwii or tlirwuuncoa, and enn tboK qnantittca nould 
ivl ; li'Mlj&Uli M that it would be incormt 

I' ' iliiiUly poinns." Mor would the t«nii 

II sulphate of line, which 

■inrllr ii 

• nr I. 


irludf a 

leit l)e conriderod. Tliesc lire, — Tkair mode of aptioii, snil The 
■uutitt whiei modij^ l/irir action. 
2. llodf of aeliom tif i'owu.— Thii is twofold, Wal 3D<I r^ 

chemiciil decom- »" _ji" 


ponlion, u when a itning add, a pure 
ii applixl extoniBU.y or taken inlarnally: ia ia/tamraaiji 
lowed by Kilhation, snppunitiun, ulrnintioD, or ginerene, whm 
lucb irrituiU u anenic, tartar-anietic, or ia<alli«riJ<», nre eimi- 
lirljr takm or ipplied t and la«tly, id bu effect on the nerves oT 
seuMtion or motion. The Dnmbnoa Bud tioaling nf the lijis, 
tongue, and throat, aeciMioned hjr cliewin); moululioitd, the sharp 
prioking aciMitton in the tijngue cnosed bj the arum macu- 
Utum, and tha oonibDen of the ikin obicb enanee on tlie appli- 
oition of pnunc acid, ehloroform, or temtria, are instancvs of 
lootL aoliuii on tbe nerves of senution ; wliile the paity. due to 
Uie direct a|»pUcilJoa of opiam, ticiiOHi, or pru>«c icid to [he 
muscle*, the dilaUtion of the pupil from tlie application of belU- 
dmuu, and ita contraction under the use of the Calnbar baan, 
lUnatnto Ih* nme locul action on the tisauea of tbe iris. 

Vh rrmott action uf [AoUans is also twofoU, cammou and 
Wftetfir. Thiitr Mnamaa cIToct is that which would result from 
e liyUI7 to Iho same part; tlieir apedfie i>0iKt snch as 
lakuecan prDjaec, The two eReola, or modes of action, 
ly ba nabcd in the ajr mptouu rausod by sach a poison hi arsenic, 
oeb when swallowHl, and so applied to the lining membrane of 
• alimeiitary canal, gives rise to tlia aame et«m]» in the eitre- 
■K preiaut iu cholera, English and Auatic, and in all 
" u of the nmo membrane 1 but the same poison, 
hi a wound, applied to tii« skin, or inhaled, inltamoa 
t (urfiew with which it dnes not oume into immo- 
. This is ila ipi^cilic action. Again, oxalic ncid, 
a tha stoBuuh as a oormdve and violent irritant. 
ne eottstiiutloaal shock ivhich attends all severe loial 
' ll^nrirs: this is its remote rommon ofeot; but it biu iilso • 
ntmate tpm^f eflt'ot on tbe' liriirtnndnervouBiyfteni. Tlie purest 
•Xampiv ut a remote amititutioiuil slTiNit of a couinion kind is 
•flbrdeil by Ibii mineral acida, uiiU the alkalis and their carbonutea, 
which, by the Incsl dcalrurtiiin tlioy oecaaUin, give rise to the 
■ynptoois of eollapsD prasant in ntensive burns and spuldi. Tbia 
•bssnro of mnotH spcdfle cAcrta baa led tome luthora to doubt 
iriety <if eUsnng tlivM chemicala among poisoni. 

apedlle wfliKts uf puismis may alio Iv diatinTuished 
il partial — thai is to say, us prududns a general 

M mmit IK «aiiHui. 

« \\i* v,\\<At tfmr, m « |«ftW ilM w ■ pnttakr ct|M 

"H^^>^ *^ i( t<n<i>H mwlitw tM to MIm Dm dMi to 

,, .:. .,-■.... .. Xsv...vV, ..Jw.v.-. i-i^nEf. 



pagtW to the Derroiu centrei, ind thcnoe reRocfcd od the 
OTg^tu remotely nSbcteJ. Now there la abaudunt proof of 
the >bsor|ilJan of poisoiu, and their circulation through the 
iystem, and eiperrmenlB an aaimalB hive ahawii that UiU takei 
place in whatever viajr the poison is applied or introduced. By 
the wwlyiii of the blood, lecretioni, and xalid tcxturei, tlie poiioui 
are fhrthcT proved to have aircala ted with the blood j and tbe 
Uit of poitoni tbuB detected iacludea every eubatanco which caa 
be recopiised by ita odonr or colonr, or which, not having been 
completely decomposed, can be submitted to chemical reagents, 
Tbe flut of tbe abearption of poiaona li therefore establiabed and 
admitted; hut the qneation aritea— U the fatal action of poisoni 
doe to tbinr abtorption ? This qnvitiou will bo atiBwerod in the 
affirmaUvo if it can be shown, on the one hnud, that poisons 
continue to act so long as the blood piisaes ireely from the point 
of insertion to tbe tisiiics or organs aflbctcd, and that, on the 
othor, thdr action is stopped or postponed when tlie circulation 

Uagendia'i well-known experiment in which a poisoned limb 
was conitected with the body only by quUls introduced into 
ita latK« veiaels, and yet the poison continued to act, establiibea 
the Bnt propoaltian aa true of wonndsi nhilo Mr. Blake's ei- 
periment with pmsiic acid introduced into the itomacb through 
an opening in it* wilts, the pmson producing no effL-ct so long as 
tbe TBisds pasnng from the stomach to the liver were secnred by 
ligature, but beginning to act within one minute of it« removal,* 
provea the second propoation as true of poisons thnt are swal- 
lowed. That (be great nervoua trunlta cannot transmit the 
poisonoos iudoence, is proved by tbe fwitM that poisons inserted 
into B limb connected with the body by nerves only are inactive; 
that divinon of the rpinsi marrow docs not prevent tbe action of 
thoie pcriaons which prove iaial by attacking that part ; and that 
the direct oonCact of ptMsooa with tbe substance of the br^n itself 

It appeart, then, that pcuaona, whether inserted into wounds or 
IntroduoecJ into the stomach, act by absorption, and that, when 
■haorption is prevented, and the circulation arreited, they eease 
to act. it is only indeed when it enten Uie circulation Ibat the 
poUon can be truly said to bo Introdnced into the body. A 
polaofioiu Bubatonce taken into the stomach is as much outside 
llie qiMan u if it were applied to the akin. 

The iinedion now arises — In what tvay do poisons, circulating 

■ 'Ed. HtlandSarg. JDannl,'TD\,m.^.tt. 


Ihrougb the ijilroi, produce their bul eflecta ? On wImI Si 

and Orgini do tfaejr act ? 

It is plain that all poisoci do not dotroy life in the tune «ij. 
Some panlTse the heart, otiien act directlj on the iKDgi, ud 
mflbcate; a third data attnck tlie bnin; b fonrtli Uw ^dnd 
marrow ; and a fifth apptiar to affect the entire cafrillat; dit^ 
lion. Mdi^id and Addimn tried to prove that tbeae diflenU 
tuodet of death were doe to aome potrerfol inflaeoce tmafemd 
to tbe argnD or tiuoe affected, Ihron^b the nervca of the Uooi- 
T««el9 theniKlTei; but an experiment by Mr. Blake, id m)aA 
binod poisoned with woorara continued to trairene the artcris 
and veins of the sbdomioi) vifreis for tevecsl minuta beftrenf 
effort monireried itaelf, aflbrda a anfficient refiitatioii of tUi 
hypotheiii. ImportaDt addiliona have been nude to onr knar- 
ledge of tbe action of pintonii, and of the pniiiniate caue at 
death in piHsoning, b; M. Clande Bernard. He showed bj nail* 
devisod eiperimenta on animala that tbe more active poiaoia IdU 
by Bttw'king particnlar tiaanes or orgaiu — that woorars paraljtMi 
the motor nervei; ihat atrrchnia nttacka the spinal cord, and 
eicilea fatal reflex actions ; that digitalis, apaa atitiar, oorroiiil, 
and vao, veratria, and aeTerel other poiaoni, act on the muacnkr 
tinoe throngbout the hod;, and on the heart as a niuacle.* 

There remaini. then, hot th» cx^tanajioii -Of JJie_&t!l...ltfua 
of poisons — that thej are carried wittithe hWidj tn^th* ffty^iw <« 
fisauea on wh ich tbey act : some' Tiy Ihe coronary arteries to tbe 
'heart, wtiTcb^bey paralyse; others (o the spinal marrow, eroUng 
fatal tetanic spasms in tbe respiratory ninicleii otbcn to tbe 
brain, proving fatal by an indirect action on rhe respiration t and 
otbcn, again, to the longs, arrvstiDg the eapillarjr circulation, and 
killing by saUiK-ation. 

This theory, of the necesaity oT ahaorptjon to the actioti of 
ponons, had to encounter a difficulty in tbe rapidity with whtdi 
certvn poisons, mch at pmsaic acid, prove fatal ; but this was 
removed by Blake's iDgeniously contrived and carefully.perlbrmed 
eiperiinentc. Having providrd u delicate mcnsaie of the state of 
tbe corcuUtlon by inserting into the femoral artery of tbe animal 
experimented on the hsma dynamometer of PoiseoiUe, he inbo- 
doccd directly into tbe vesteli vniious substances previously known 
to paralyse the heart, and notrd tbe instant of time at which the 
Brat effects of the poison showed tLenuelvea, and at which the 
heart ceased to beat. Ue found that a poison pasied fnnn tbe 
jugular vein to the lungs of a dog in Irom four to aii seconds; to 
tbe coronary art«rici of tbe heart in seven ; to the carotid artery 
• LMlurei hi 'Medical Times uiiGiiioWe; \%*n.iiA.'4-1ia«.B!n~^>«A^- 

qnicE AssoBPTioN of poisoks. 

^^H from five to seven ; and from the norta to tbe Fapillarics in 
^^Bnr BecondB. A poi«an introduced into the jugulur vein vtas dli- 
^^Hbated through the whole bodj id nine senmda. In the borae, 
^^M* drcnktion wan completed rii from twelve to twetitj' uconds, 
or ■omewhat le» thnn the twentj-flve second! deduced by Bering 
of Stotti^rdt from hia experimoot. 

'Dioe eiperiment* nre conGrmcd by the more nx'ent onca of 
CUodu Beriinrd. A BitDrBted eolation of sulphuretted bydro^n, 
introdnoKl into tlie jngolar vein of ■ dog, bcgnn to be eliminbted 
from tbe Inni^ in three aecond* ; and when injected into the 
femoral vein of the sime dog. in six wcands. 

Tbe time reqair*d for the cirenlation ol a poiion throutrh the 
bodj of k dog being taken et nine aeconda, it follows thnt if pd- 
■one applieil to tbe dog*! tongue do not tel In bo abort a apace of 
tinw, mbaorption may tflke place, and tlie blood may he diatri. 
bgled to tbe organ on wMcfa it producea iti futnl eflecti. Sow, 
Blake fimnd that strong bydrocjanic acid applied to the tongne 
of > dog dii not begin to act till eleven eecondi. and did not 
kill till tbirty-tbree aeconils; and when a tube was previansly 
Immdoecd into the laryni, ao that tbe vaponr of the acid did not 
tMei 0)6 Inngi, tbe flrat tymptoin* did not show themselves till 
ond death did not take place till after the lapsa 
I af brtf-Bve Mconds. Nicotine, the eaaential prindple oftubaFCO, 
" ' to tba tongne of tbe same unimnl, did not kill till twenty 
Tbeae eiperimenla would niUice to prove the neceaaity 
I to the fatal action of poiaona, bnt for a small gronp 
lanlicatcd otaes in which prntons bave dealToyed life 
ily. or moch nwre promptly than in any of Btako's 
Thus Cbrirtiaon atotw that an animal has been 
d outright by pruano acid in fbar semnda;* and caees are 
1 hy the aame aotbor, and by Dr. Tajlor.f in which the 
n killed in three, and even in two. secondi ; iiiiil in tbe 
U of Kr Benjamin Brodie, abnhol and tbe eaaential 
t bUt«r almonda ie«m to have had tbe la 

i In proMiice of tlifW fiicU, and with the knowledge we have 
"" " " iprwiion, or shock, produced by eiteosive 

. or chomicsl injuries, it uiuitt be ndmitlcd timt the 

jmixjna titken in largo doses may dealTOj life by a 

«_nnrvi)us (hoeS. 

t reporlcd by Sir B. Brodie renders it prubabte that 

t ' Fbjalsloiilctl BoiuvliM.' p. 136. 


poixmi mK; act tbnnigh footinuitj of tj«ae. A hud wi* Utlai 
in the hmid bj a rattlesnake. InflaniiDatton, ilongbing, ui 
Bnpputatiou of the cellalar tiEsne of the arm (bDa«ed> *ltll 
copiooi and citeiuiTe extraraaitinii of blood beneath the tiaad 
the cheit and bock, limited to the ii^ured nde of the bodj. 

The theory of absoqition findi a pnctieal applioatian i> tlM 
lue of ligBtnrcB, cnppioij-gluaeB, and Up-aocUoii, in the caw of 
pmaoiu inserted intc woanda. 

3. 2%e mxei vhuk modi/g tie aclioM ofpoUtmt are Unt* b 
number: — 1. Their quantity aitd form. 2. VhtparitomtiA 
they are applied. 3, The andUiaii of iht body tttelf. 

1. (^nantilg aad F->rm QiuMlilg. — As a ^neral nila, tite 

larger the quanUt; of ■ poison the more prompt anil seien ill 
action i bot when poiaotu are swallowod, a large Joce niajr ba 
immoiliatel; and oomplelelj di«ch«rg«l by romitin^, while s 
smaller dose will temun on the stomach, and prove btnl. The 
action of aome poiMini also rariei remarkably in kind as irell H 
in degree with the qninlity taken. Tbiu a tar^ doae of oulicjl 
>cid may kill almost iostsntly fay shock ; a smaller doae may still U 
prove fatal by ae^ng; on tbe heart ; a yet amaller dow affiEtiJ| 
chieBy the spinal cord; and a more minate dose still, the tmin. 
Again, small repeated doses will developo other symptoma than 
a lingle Ui^ dose. Of tbe whole class of narcotie(^«and 
ptnaons, it may be affirmed, tbat in large doaei they act cluedf 
OQ the nerroBi system, in smaller doses on tlie alimentary catuL 

.fbrm. — Under this head will have to he coondered — a, SM* 
(^Aggrvgationt. b. Chemical Combinalio*. e. Mixlurr. 

a. State of A.ggregalHin. — Solution increases the acting of 
pwaons, both by promoting abaorptioD and by applying them to 
■ larger surlaee. Soluble piusoiu, therefore, are the most actire, 
aoluble salts more actiTe than their less solnble bases, and volatile 
ptriaont act with great enei^y on the lungi and skin. 

b. Chemical eomiianfioii. — Such poisana ai the mineral adda 
and the alkalis lose their active properties when neutralliadi 
and, as a mki, the salt reaulting fVom tlie union of acid and ban 
ti more or leai actiro aa it is more or less soluble. Aeid poiam^ 
in oambining with liaies, or basic poisans combining with addi, 
conlbrmto the same rule, and the resulting compounds, if w>lah|e^ 
retain tbe spedliG chamctere of their nctive ingredient. Thm all 
tbe soluble silts of morphia have tbe same action ; and the aame 
it tme of all the soluble compoonds of oxalio acid. When twn 
pinsonouG substances combine (as arscnioui acid with oopp«r, OF 
pnuHC aail with mercury or silver), the resulting compound nuqr 
pre riae to tbu a^rmptoms of tbe more active, to tbe m ~ 


of the two, or to ijmptoDU pecuUor to itself. Lastly, >ome 
{Xriioni uudloble in water, u ■rwalto or copper, anA cnrbonite of 
lead or barjUi, may ba renderad soluble and active bj Ibe acid 
jnicei of the ftoraacb, or by llie lecrctioiu of the akin. 

p. JfixfHrs. — All adraiitnre* wbieh render a poiioa more 
■alablc make it mare ifCiie : all othcrt have a coDtnry effvct. 
Tbu* acida increaae tbo aetirity of opigm, and of tho aalla of 
copper, Biid water of anenic ; bnt oily, mucilaginoiu, Hlbaminoiu, 
and alarchj- liquida retard the action of poiaons by protecting 
the coats ol the ttonuu^, by involving the poison, if in lub. 
atance or powder, or oven by acting aa antidotca. Henoe the 
IVeqaent SKape of thDM who Lave taken large doses of ursenii: or 
oonuvve sablimate witb, or direotly after food. Much alao 
depends on the chorBcter of the food. Thns araeoic in a solid 
dumpling would act much more ilowly than in porridge, and in 
porridge than iu the liquids in common use ; and strychnia iu a 
1^11 wiMid act more slowly than in a miitare. We aviul oar- 
■elKea of the protective eJTeot of the thick liquids just mcotiuned 
in the treatment of cases of poisoning, and we administer sub- 
■ that have tittle po<<^r a* antidotes, because they have the 
rty of withdrawing and holding in (uspcnaion certain 
a. Powdered charcoal is the best example of this clnss j 
[ and nagnoria and tho sesquioxide of iron owe thcdr repute, as 
Utidotes to ancnic, aliielly to this property. 

8. Pari to KhicS the PoUon u applitd.—l^ie effect of a 
Mison on Afferent parts of the body is directly aa thdr absorb- 
ing power. ThuB poinna act moat promptly when inserted into 
a woond ; the serous surfaces hold the neit place; then the 
stomach; then the unbroken akin. Injection into a vein in- 
•urea the qDiebcat action ; but volatUo poiioni introduced into 
the bingt act with nearly as greut rapidity. Tiie oorroaivo 
pCBBOna and stronger irritants prodnoe an effect proportioned 
to the importance of the part to which they are applied. Thuii, 
the miMrnl aclda prove speedily Ritnl when they attack the 
windpipe ; Icb speedily when they act on the gullet and stomach, 
and thuy must destroy a large surfaee of akin iu onlur to 
kill quickly. Many animal poisons, such ai the poiton of the 
tiper or mad dog. and also curara, introduced into the system in 
^L ninnle quantity, by puncture of the skin, kill very quickly, 
^Wfeoagh tha some small quantity, and even a much Urgur doM^ 
^■■■y be Bwallowod with ImpuBicy. 

^B This remarkable bet oan naw be explained on phyNoIogiod 
^HlBoands. A certain quantity of tho pulion must bo present i 
^^VW circalalioa belure it nan maiiit<.it its «ff<>iiU. U V'u« um«- 



iva M the abtaTption. no «tttst will b« pnisai. 
Dn like cnnirn, taken into Ihe (tomieh. i< dm ib- 
nickly thnn it ii ^t rid of by the eirretorj' orgm 
—, tLe fimrtion of eicretioD ii impeded by tifcitiM 

Of U.i> iriGry, lliu introdactiiKi of the po'uun into >ht 

ftomach wm devdofie the ■ymplmoa of poisoiiiiig jurt «* nr- 
t«!nly n« if it were eonveyed into tlie drculation by b wtiaai. 

3. Cooditien 0/ tlu Boig ilwIf.—VaAvr Was hnid rill buc 
to lie cODMdored^ — a. Habil. b. Idirnyncratji. e. Di*t»m, 

a. Rahit. — No lirosd gi-nenl role ran be laid dnwn in nts 
Knee to the influence of habit. Snvae vegeUlile pmaon^ nek 
H opium, hIcoIioI, Bnd tolMrco, lose their eHWt by repcthko, 
ud may Ht lenffth be lAlten in iom v\Ack would poiton • nm 
Dot Bixartomed to tLeir use ; and tlie Ices deadly mtaHri 
piriBOiis, such u tlie tnlplintee of una ond irun, may b> 
talcon by henithy iiersoas in continually increostng daw* ; bat 
■neaic, mcrcory, nod phoupboras, when used ia the srta, 
mnd gndually introdoeed into tlic syitem, appear, like the at- 
honale oT le«d, to be n>ore dangeTOni the loc^r thejr >k oted. 
Kor du men ind wnmen who work with arsenite of oopper gnnr 
more Ifllcrant nf the poiton. The same cffecta nro reprodond 

bowcver, become nccuBtoined to poison, nnd grow nearly insen- 
uble to it, as happens with ttii^ spirit-dritilier. It slionld, how- 
ever, be l»me in mind thnt even tliosc poisons to which the 
aystem most readily sdnpti itwlf, produce permanently injnriooa 
effects. Thug alcohol causes disense oT the lungs, liver. liidneyB, 
and brain { tobacco quirkens the pulse; and opium injures the 
digestion, emaciate-^ the boily, nnd enfeeh1i>B the mind. 

b. Idioitincrax^. — Under this term are included certain pecn- 
liaritiea of constitution, of the true nature of wliich we are igno- 
rant. Soma of tliem inoy he ei(ilai"ed by the phyaiologieal 
relation between tlie two processes of absorption and excretion ; 
but there are others of wliinli we can give no satisfactory ex- 
planatioii. Peculiurity of constitntton may show itself in two 
ways — 1. By a greater or less susceptibility without difference of 
action. Thus, a few grains of mercury sliull salivate one man, 
but as many draclimi or ounces shnll not affect another. 2. By 
eii«ptional action. Thus, Kpsum stilts linve been known to act 
Lke opium, and opium (a have a purgatire effect ; and a simple 
article of diet, which is tlie daily food of other men, shall act 
like a poison on a few individuals. Thus, certain kinds of meat, 
flsh, fruit, and vegetables act tike irritant poisons on some 


|«nnnr. Kven matton hai been knoim to act iDramblj in tbii 


r. />iVa«^.— Tbif^ u ft general rule, renders the body less 
Rioeptilile of potMii. Thns patients reduced to extreme weak- 
ne^M l-T fever or otber causes, are «carcelv affl'cted bv stimulants 
whit h wuuld overpriwer the strong. In cotitinnc4 and in ycl!c>ir 
fi'itT there is increased tolerance of mercury, but iu paralytic 
affccti'ii:!!, and auonnic statv», an opposite comlition ]>revax'.$ ; in 
ana mia, larje dn.4e8 of preitanitions of steel are rea>iily K>rae ; 
and in #«rer« dvaeiitery, c)io]fra, and baMnorrhAsre. laree quan- 
titieih of i^pinm ; in all the more se^'ere nffLt-tioniC of the nerrcos 
itytttm, i-%'cry remeily, but e«^Hi>ially the nrinvTii- ]->.'. <<in», kst 
be e'wvn in ^nvatlv incri-aiied closer. Dtrlirium tremtrcs may he 
Mfrlv ami succcMffuUv treated bv half-ounce df'se^ of r:nc:'jre '.f 
diffitaKfi, and opium may he given in one form of c:an:3 in re- 
{ i-uted itrscs of two scruple*. The only exception to the ^T.eral 
raltf \» in tlio case of {wtiMiu which give ri!*e t'^ 5yiuj<:am.« ^:■J::Ur 
t'l th'''4e ai-:n:iliy I'xihtiiip. Thus, the irritant j vi'ju'.i :r.c-rya»e 
^■ifclril:*. d':anhii.i, ur dysentery ; and the i:.irr».::> txa.*ptrale a 
detenninatiiiu nf hhxicl to the bruin, or un alt.u-k i.-f cni-Tn:.i. 

Th#-rf in still nno rnndititm of livstem which d^-^+rves 
a.-* tending* li» ini]Kiir the t'tftft of juiisr^:;.-* — viz.. ^'.wp. Ir. ti.L* 
••tate all the fumtiuns arc carried on niorv Lnizc:<llv, niA :lr U<Jv 
14 liE>>i> alivf to the action of uicdiiincs :ind y In^n*. Ti::o ia Izi:- 
*A *lii-}i anificially induce<l, wj that narL-oT:!- j. \^'jv.* ^'.^t'. »:!:. 
> r («-f'.re oilier jNiiiion-, mii»t wi-aki-n nr ti.trir t?ei?tp. 
0| i :iii, example, when given with ar-t:.:c, n t -.i/.y ir-^!.*.* 
the hMiijitoms prujier to that pciiK»n, Lut ajjit-ars tv r^rari :i? 

4. ^7*;jr«#7?«'a/iOA ^.f /'••iV./ijr. — Tliere are or/.v two i-rlr.?": '=*» 
iif t'.jViticalion which commind ll.enr.-HrSes to ti.e y.\z*i^'Z.\ t* 
V^iriniry m 'ind and pmctically u^ttul. The '^r.o! tj.t 
{■iiinijnA arc>rdiu(; to their feourco, the 'thtr in ar-*-- rliLt.-ir v.::;. 
their action on the M>tem. When the i^t< priijcij '••• :- a: J'^-i, 
|-»;-«.n* are arrur^rctl as inrrgani<' anil i. rj";iT:i..- ; .r ::. 
le:tdirig claHM^* — niiiieral, v^||^rtahle, u:..:i:i!; ■«:.•-;. t:.e 
iK^vind isi pri'fi-rred, it i» u>ual t^i arrai:se tl.tni •,.\<f It. ti.rt.e 
I la«M^ irritantj-, nan-otics, and n.'ir«"lici>-:rr:*.a:.T*. Ti.i- :ir-t 
c-:u.»iricatii.n ia o|ien to the uhviniis o: j»'Ct;<in that :;.■■•.::•. a!::, i-t 
all the jMiiitr>ns fruui I lie mint ml and frfix:i the :i:.i::.:i'. ii. !:.;.": ore 9 
are irritants, th*7«e from the vi-j'tahle kli-irl-n. "/n.j r.*<-. in 
uil'tilion to Hn)ple irritantN a rrreat i;unjliT *•{ ['•■>■:..'* ^«j.'.(.-h, 
uiidrr any ounceivable arrangement , uiu»t he d.5*wr;'Mited intfi 


iflntion '>*i^^| 

■tm the nM^^I 

mui; diitinct groaps. On tbe other band, ■ clwillnlioii bi 
on the mode of action of puiaooa U subject to the iaoonieaii 
of aeparatiog from each other poiaona derived froin the ■ 
kingdom of nature, and, for that rauon, presenting uuJogiea 
and contresta of chemiod compoaition wlueh render their juxl»> 
position eitremelj conienient. 

By no pcaaible clxuAeation, therefiire, can <re reconcile the 
conflicting reqnirementa of phjnolog; and natural hiabori. or 
satisfy tho« who wek in all auch arraneementa the higbeat 
sdentiAo aecnrapy. But thoae nrho nee in cluaification rather an 
inatmment of oonreniancEi than an exprennon of abatiact trulb, 
will be ready to oojiiiesce in any grouping which bringi into 
closest contact those objecla that can be best studied when they 
prvoode or follow cnch oUier, and concerning which, when u 
plaa.<d, certain |;EDenil principles can be laid down. The acbeme 
nhicb be<t fulfils these conditiona n-ill be set Ibrth and explained 
when some of the extating claa^5caUoni have been diocribed and 

Tbe division first proposed by Poder^ into irritault, norcotiei, 
mareotico-acricU. and ifptia, reat* on a physiotofical basis, ss doea 
also the more generally accepted triple division irbich eiclndea 
tbe hat, and retains the other tbree. But the beat toueologial 
writen have groim diaaatisfied with the third group of narcoticD- 
•erids, as oflending againat every sound logical principle, and hare 
mdcavoured to reconstniet tbe claaiificncion of poisons on a aonnd 
phyaiologinil hasia. Tbe meat ambitious, hut least ■noceasTuI, 
attempt is that of Ikrdieu :■ that of Casper ia acucely an im< 
pnivenitnt iipjo it t 'he scheme of Dr. Tajhir is leis open la 
' I'lamintng these scheme*, and A^H 
' ir'ire tiie, id preTer a iiiinpiiiiJ|^B 
'^ ^y and natural history. We 8|^H 

CLUsaiarms oi i 

mptwtaBt dbtt produced on Uie nwaoi 
. ET OD the Jangi. Hm duHfisatiDa, m flu 
7 tit ci|i)wa it in ttui plao^ will thereto* bt ■ 

« kadiiiK duMi of inorginie ud orgnnie pouona fignre 

L h tlw bilU at mortaUt; ftir ISS£-6 a* noung respeetirel; 7? ud 

LsSl dcMlii ont <r tiie 8f% do« to prntoru dialinctly tpadSed. 133 

d bjr paiioa* not identified, bciog added, makes np ■ 

ll llf Mil ilwlln M Mill laiiii 111 to luve been produced by poi*an 

»al them jaum. It will be leen that out of 100 

g ditBl, Stf would be iDorganic, and 71 orgBOic. Tlio 

at pnatm* of tlie two duiea are bIiowd by tbe fol- 

g fijtiirea ; — IiwrgaHic : atwnk S7, nits of lead S3, mineral 

15, laU* oT nKTcarj 10. Organic: laudanum, opium, 

_ _ a, ami Gudfrej'i onrdial lit, pnuuo acid, ownCiBl oil of 

UUci dmood*. and cyanide of potaaaium 34, oxalic add IS, 

■aliject of claaaiflcatiDn, it niaj ba well 

ic of tlie r»alt« of tbe plin now adopted u com- 

irf wllb that preferred in former editiona of tbia nork. Oulie 

I, wbtdi followed the contwve mineral aeidi, and resembled 

n tn Uw dfatmctire elTedii of it* itronger aotutionn, i* now 

I grouped witb {muaie add, wbidi it aa nearly rcsemblea in tlie 

. • :. .;.g mj mnriicd effect on the nervous centre* ; 

ita actire prindple, cantlmridiDe, with aonie 

r Impinlaiit patait, aro removed from tbe irntant to the 

iliich will now be found every active prio- 

^in; BO that these principles lony now be 


I llurit diachBtiuation the one from the others and the ioorganic 
pusana ou b« nmilarly treated with like adtantnge. Tbe illus- 
tntlolH of tbe pdaonona phuili will ako be found ude bj aide 



UxDEa the title nl the head of this cl 
tlie drcumstsncea wbicli would lead oi 

IB been taken. 

bate moat direct!}' la the fonnation of on opinion are the SjfK^lomi 
and jKwi-morimi appearaitret : expvrinituU om oninafi ; elu- 
mical anaU/iU; and condMct iff itupevltd pertoiu. VatoaUe 
eridence ia also Hffi>rded by Me ii/mplupit atiH poit-iiorUm 
vppearancfM proper lo the differmt olmm of poUonj. 

1. St/Mptomt. — In romt cuea (•( poianiiing tlie symptomi ip- 
pear laddeiilj, in a penoti in good healtb, ttxm after tuking food, 
drink, or medidne ; and in Moat fatal cage^ dentil kappeni io « 
few minulei, hoora, or dajt 

The tadden appearaneg qf tke ij/n^lovu aflbnis a presnmptiim 
in fWvour of poiBoning ; for, in full imet, poiaoni act prampl];. 
On the other hand, when given in rduII und repeHted dom^ tha 
iavHuon of the lymplotna nmj bo jcrailaflL It must alio be 
recollected that manj diaeaie* of the vital o^ani — the bru&, 
heart, and lungs— perrorntion of the iloniMh or inteatjnei, and 
«evcre epidemic maladiei, tucih aa plague, chotera. jrelloir rever, 
continued fovur, the febrile exaiithenialji, •mall-poi, acarlaUna, 
and measles, set in sudden]; with severe ajinptonia of iniUt. 

TAb oecHivenee of thf ii/mptotm in a pmon in gwd htalli, 
also uiTords a presumjitiou iu fuvour of ptnsoning; but as many 
Mate diieaaea anddenly attaek healthy persons, and msuj (udden 
deaths occur in peraonn aecmingly in rude health, loo much stren 
must not be laid on thii sign. It should also be borne in mind 
that poisons nre cometimea ^ven to tho aiek, and tlisl after the 
healtli bus been alowlf Dudermiueil b; repeated dosei of some leas 
BCUve nihslanee, i:nch as tartar emetic, death lins been andden]; 
brought about b; a deadly iwicon, aucli at morphta, strychnia, or 
veralria. Witness the French csw of Castaign, and the Bnglbfa 
eaaaa of Palmer, Dove, and Friteliard. 

BM «f l[l|liiiyit^t nptmaf tb> aorti af tte « 
■MMrf by | W»» «Mr, v(-a^ l-k. ptwt -Mb th« 
■PB ■ iaal I *iU faal: iimt B^fGA Adas ^ b« 
mm^ t) >>{,. IMh P«ra -Mk «r " 
■null aililMt«ltfpilrMBU«fcohl a 


e wnl m amilarij »SteuH : bal too maeh ii 
I BoC b* <ttl«rlirf to On alaeiwe of (odi <&cU ia 
nlfcmi. 6* tkcpcmwia vboa the ijmptau har* ibovs Iham- 
« il w a«iy Imo partaken el nme dnh, or part of a didi, or of 
■^ vioa or drink, whidi tha Uliaia had not buted. 
. naaUaik of aerfnl penasi bf amUar amen BfmpbiaiK aUD 

'^ afto' a aval of vhich all bare partakto, aSiird* the ilioofot 
piariUa pfwmptlon nf pcManinf; ntbar bjr the (bod iudf, or by 
aOB* aectdanlal or intcBtional a^iitiire. If the ^tnptomf are 
tbaR «f MiBidr irntant puuotiiDg. we cauoot dutermina bjr tbo 
HMyliUUi alOD* •bkb of Uwaa allamatinn it Ihe Iidc one; but 
Wtj ^tj fc* M diarularBtJe ai not only to prove tlie adminiatn- 
Dm af * foitnt, but to iodiiate Ibe ver; ptnaon iUtXf. 

Th« tfmalCaacoai fatal atladl of wtctbI prrsaiis in tba «n» 

plan, or no tbe mido miiaion. in tbo abgenra of pnwf that thrj 

iMd ]iu1«km of tbe nme food, onald also ftiruiali a ilrong prc- 

•otaplHiii of pcuaonm^. Tlins, tli« death in oiio night of four of 

I'' Um ogbt p««n winkled to rejireteut tlie SlnIti^<ll nation at the 

■■ MpUala at Queen Uarj with Uw Dauphin of Fnncr, in ISiM 

H pi«n] rkmb^ at Parla, Biabop iJdd, tbo Karl of Rotlico, and 

IT tlw Rarl «f CaHilin at Dieppe) I'ertaiiil; juatiSed the suBjiiriou of 

polaaninft, lor whirh tba rafqiol of the Scotliah d.-'pnties (o Rrnnt 

th« sraan uatriinuiiial to the bridegroom bad fomishvd a niutive, 

bjr (Mug yrtat olTanoo to the Frenob Court.* 

A lafplcian of poinmiBg is oflcn Bnccc«rnlly rebutted by tbe 
bet that no ftiod, drink, ur mediome had been taken for haun 
bnfare the oointuencunient of an illueu sttribnted [o a i]iue)ily 
aallng prawn. TLu loreronce woold be Bonu'whiit wnk<med if 
tlavp bad oocunvd ili tbg intvrial. In tbia p!ace it may b« well 


I ' Pnmge'— lUuqnii 



lO advert to the fact that piueong hate been introdDccd intafl 

IS or vngnDR, poariKl down the tbnxtt of a dmnkeD or di 
penon. or inaerted into the ear ; and that tlie bypodennic a 
cf BdiDiniiteiing native mcdiciiiGs is not unlikelj ti 
bj the better inFbnned ehias of poUonera. 

The rapid noum i^ the lympttmu toipardt a fatal U 
afbrda bnt a weak presumption of poitouing; for many a 
powoning ond fatollj afler a ooiuiderable inttrvol, utd hudj anla 
diaeaMi run a very quick ooarae. 

All the c1uu^eb>n now mentioned are, therefore, to he reeeif b1 
with cantion. and carefnUy weighed. Hie joint occurrence of twn 
or mors of tliem would aSbrd a atrong presamption ; and Ha 
coinddence nf all, thoDg;h not decinre, would jnatifj a very itroag 
aoBpieion. IliuH, if a penon in perfect health, 30oa after taking 
food, were attacked with aevere and eontiniied vomiting and 
purging, nnd died within twenty-fiiar hoars, a strong dufodoa 
would naturally arise that the food had coutained some pfHsonoig 
flubetancei and the niBpiciDn would be greatly atrengtbened if 
other persons who had partaken of the ume food were limilariy 
afffccled. The fbod itself might have had poiaonona properties ur 
the poiBOD might have been addnl to it ; but the probability of 
puisoniug in one of these two waya is very atrong ; and the in- 
feienca would he almost irresiatihle if it could bo shewn that the 
person affected had never sniTered in the same way before, and 
that neither Engliab nor Aaintic cholera prevuled at the time. 

2. Pait-mortem Apfearaaeei. — There are certain praeorta and 
classes of poisons which leave in the dead body nnmistakeahle 
ngm of their action. Mineral acids stain and corrode the patta 
with which they come in contact, nnd oxahc acid in ttmng soln- 
Ijon, as well as one or two mineral corrowres. destroy the lining 
membrane of the gullet and stomach. Other paisous yield highly 
characleristic'dcpoeits. Thoa eorrodvo anblimnte, denimposed by 
the Kcretions and mcmhrane of the itomoch, or by its albnminons 
CDDtcnla, leaves a >lat«-eoloured depo«t of finely-divided mercury ; 
and Brsenions acid in sobstance a white palish clinging to the 
inflamed membrane, which may he changed into the yellow anl- 
phide by rolpburetled hydrogen, the prodnct of pntrefaction. 
Orpiment and Scheelc's green, canthorides, and nnx vomica, and 
tbe spores of ptrisonous muthrooins, also leave a coating of chaise- 
teristic colour ; pbocphorua belraya Lt«elf by ahiuing in the dark ; 
and vegetable poisons are aomettmes identified by seedi^ or ft 
menta of leaves left in the ahmentary ranaj. 

Other poisons, again, whether inorganic or organic, both tl 
which have a limple Irritant action, and those formerly c1 



tc ■ nian intsnfe inflmunullaD in the lUmacb 
thU due to diwuc. A Itt* degree of inflim. 
ion in tbon who die > natunil death, woald 
a of ptimmiag; and the nmo remirk ■ppiiei 
of vaagtatina in the hnin which ire commoD 
ll tin irtkw at tlw nmotici umI nareotieo-acridi, and Co muj 
■nbnl tteuai awl dianrdsr*. 

Orcat tnqwtaiice natnrall; attachn to the negative cndemv 
bwB poat-awrtrMi appeanifcea ; tneh aa the abaenoe of conoikni 
ii alla^rf aaa of pcuming b; eorninTea, aod of iattaniination. 
ifttr lk« alleged adminiatntioo of an irritant or uareoticn- irritant 
■alBon. The abnnce of ooT^^tioD of the brain, in a eaie of 
■BpoMd nvmtic pmioaing, ■oold aObrd a lower prenimptiao. 

Th» attimi of chanctcriMic poat-moitf m appearaneea migfit 

aln bnooM important in the rer; imptubable event of ptuon 

le bodj after death, with a liew to ineol- 


Ftmncrij undue impartane 
or Liiriitj of the ikin, and to 
fefl valance of iwiauriiitif;. Ik 

f wu attaebed to nnuaual blacknai 
the earlj oocnrrence of putrcfactioD 
it there ii no reaaoQ to believe that 
uiamon after death bj poiaoti than 
alia' stbat brm of nidden or •pevdj' death ; and it ii now wtfi 
ha0wn ihait Mm* of tbe tDineml pcuoni — for iiafoce, anemooa 
trill. CMTodM ablinute, and ebloride of lioc — pruerre the putt 
•tUk wUeh tbe? onm* Id contMt. 

nM-owften appMranee* Mmilar to tboie prodoeed bj paboo. 
mn thmasfa cooflraed bjr the diacoirery of the poiaeo itidf. 
vookl ool pm* liiat daath baa bmn caoaKl bjr poiaon; ftr it 
■ifM W 4m t« aome Moie antidpatlag it* &tal aetioo. On tbe 
adm hnd, a diMl bud; mtj baar narka of tema aUnmi 
tnjoiy. «r al«D^e dIaeM* of tbe inUmal oe^gan^ and jtt tbe 
iwl mmt el daath ba poJMn. 

1W p ait n atte ni atiparaneaa, then, Iboogh thaj' fnmiah eeo- 
lio^et iml epan JH it eridnM* in tbe eaae ofleTeml r"-*", a&nl 
on); • rfifht pnoamptiuD to a higer miMiba-: bat eitn when 
i xun n tl n^n In tbemMlraa, the; maj atrangthta, bj Ifaeir pr»- 

— Theae are reiy nhuUe boUi aa 
>BuiJbi||' erfdaoM of [vriaoning, aod a* iUaatniing the moda of 
•yoalkin of polaona. KipeHment*, mnBrmad b; bapp; aoddenta 
(aa wbM doMPatlc aldaaUa and ponltr? have partaken of tb* 

IL-wm ftiod M 1 



^- . ^'J" "troDff w, " """nifwiKsi of ,k " "« dia.ll 

■"• •'«• been 


poitonoiM. DnrinfT the fiimoiu retreat of tbe 10,CmX) ncder 

ion, the army toffered KvereW by eating: the hi^ney col- 

0d from tbe azalea pontiea. Tbe milk as well as tbe flesh, of 

bfft>w«Bg oa lome of the herbage in Soath America has 

po ii oao B a ; as hai the fleth of harei that bad eaten tbe 

chiyHntbemnm, tliat of pbeaMntf that had fed on 

bfoda and ibooU of tbe calmia latifolia. and that of partridzet 

bad partaken of certain berries daring tbe Canadian winter, 

kad been imported into this country ]iacked in ice; and as 

lairiy aa September, 1862, Mr. F. Taykn-, of Romsey, reported 

two oaaea of great severity from eating the Canadian partridge, 

the ease of a cat sickened and paralysed by the same cause. 

tine sinee, levenil persons near Tookrase were poinned by 

a <Uah of snails which had been fattened on the leaves and sbo'^ts 

of cofftaria myrtifolia.* 

It nay be safely conceded, therefore, that certain pouoos 
balooging to the vegetable kingdom may be consumed with 
inipniuty by insects, birds, and animals, and yet tbe boner 
cuUcct«d by bees, tbe flesh of birds, and tbe milk and flesh of 
aaiinab, if consumed by human beings, may occasion distinct, and 
dangcstms* and ewn fatal, symptoms of poisoning. 

To the evidenfO drawn from eiperiments on animals with 
matters rejected from the human stomach, or collected from the 
utomacli and intestines after death, it has been objec'ti-d that tLe 
animal secretions may be so vitiated as tbem««lve!t to j-riv^ 
poisonnos, und the obj««tion has been eiiforctd by a wf-r.-k^.^wr. 
cxperinH-nt nf Mor)r:i$;ni. TlielMle from the st'.>xMch '/ ft •■'i'-'ii. 
wIk> died in ronvulsii mi* from tertian ague, mixed with Vrr^i «:.-: 
given to a rock. oinM-d ooiiviilMons and dvath in a f<:w ::.!: •r.p«. 
and tbe same eflVct fallowed in two pigeon* iri'ini-a*^ w!*'. :t. 
Hut it is obvious that cxiierimeiits wiih the hiierf a d.-^^^^^.-' 
ifahjcct c»n liave no projier application to csttv* ::i u:.!". ! ■: 
rtjected fnmi a healthy fitoroach ha* prov(*(l |i»iR'.n ■':« v. a;:>r. -I- 
It is aran-elv nii*eMarv to state that the neL'H':v']r r«r-':!: ■ f ^i* 
periments with KnlMt:inces rtjected from the *•'..!; :'K. t r •:•.: 
then* after di-ath, is not crnirloMve RL^ain-t ji ■-":.. r./. f«r •.:> 
{«iiaijnous ftulistaniv may have been e\'a|»>rjted. ■ !•.-<' m*^;-.-!, 3th- 
iMirlied, or previously nJiTted. 

When there i* reason to helie^'e that ^e ^r** d'/.i!!r .» %'.•.'. a 
small quantity of ]ViiKm, small aniuu!->. f^\*-)i a? r:*- 't " ><•. 
should be rln»M.'n (or eX|ieriHU-nt ; or the inrj, hi j-ir*'.- If.v 
adaptt^ for ex fieri ini'nt witli tn'.nnto qunn^'i*':''- '•!' -t.. ;, y.\~i.}.^ 
ii^ tlr^chnifi. J^eei'hi-H have uWi l>een su^'l:* »*■"': -•■' a; ,...<-i'j|<.' ij 
* ' If Ml. Tfoir* and Usu.,' M-pt. Is, j-« i. 

h V. i 



tliD nme pnrpoie. The bypodennic isMbod of ■ 
■Dch nrtire niedidim ■■ morpbia and « ' ~ ' 
(if uitenuon to the identiAntioti ot f 
oxiii tu ■uScimt dais luve be«i coUartad hf m 
IHirimenUi,* Thoae who desin to tbllHr gji lUtdMitt il 
UU4IU ihmild ulect Tw their pmpiMe o ■ • - 

roooe the dog. 

Id d»liiig with brgin- animaU tha 
with fioiKini trhich act speedilv, the ^idlct aboold be » 
with a li^ture. 

Tlie iKWPwt,T of eiperimi 
■nltd iiy oheiiiical urialjiisi but b> the tcMi far « 
Tff^tabla poiuiu are oncertaiD, auch nprrimaiti, f 
with caiv, *rc valuable, and have been admitted ai 

Whon aipvrimmU on auimals are reported to, in ordm 
tiato the nrode ot opciation 
portant igimtiun, inch «■ the aharteit ti 
of iM-nuii: «dd ma; [irare fatal, or the posnble abaoioe ol 
of inflimmatioa in tlie eloniach sfler poisoning bt b 
■wb ni nimnive suhlimate, chince Bhould be made of the dj 
the aninnl of which we liuve the Inrgoit eipcriencc- 

4 Climital Analyiii. — Thii form of evidence, tboii^ n 
•olutely iiece«f«rj wlien tho BymptoiDa, poat-mort«m ■ 
and circumstantial evideoce coaGrm each otlier, or 
two of the tliree coincide, is always of the tint ii 
piriaim may be discovcTEd in the living person b j t< 
the arine, to tUo blood ab<tract«d by bleeding, copping, or k 
or Ui the Acrnm of a bliitorcd turfaoe ; or it may be detMUd h 
Uio deud body in the blood, flesh. viKen, and ■ucretkoa. In 
either caie the dUcovery of the poison aflbrdi coaduaTe eridmn 
nfila admin intuition. 

When we are deHliug with gohatanos r^eeted from the 
■tomach or voided by tlie boweli, with the contonta of the 
ttHOHuh and buweU after death, or with food or medicine of 
which tho sufferer liu |Mrtaken, the evidence is obviously Icb 
CMh-luaiVB. for objuctlons uiny be raised on each of the thiw 
■Bi^aBition*. tUnt poinon is detected, tliat it it not detected, or 
that It U found In very imall quantity. 

Whan ■ pmmm itfmnd in the matters discliai^cd during lile, 
or Ml in the alimentary omal sfler ileath, or in food ur medi- 
dM. It may be ol^ected that it might Imve been acddentally 
wlsfd witli it, or fraudulently, in order to incnlpate an innocent 

* Kr.ldiB narlij't QulitoDlui lictum giTcn it the CnllSfe nf Phjitelaas 


tn wtiicih cue t)ie evidence inusl lis lapported b; proof 
tnat this eouM nat ha<e bAppeiied. 

Bat wbea a pdiaon if miljiHiiml in aaj of the (ubattincefl sub- 
mitted In aiialytii, it doo not follow that nonu iiiu heon taken ; 
(or, in the rate ofa meal sctnall; containing piMSon, nnil fallowed 
bj aymptoma of pmioning, the articlm aubmilted tn atutlyiig may 
not GOntain Che poiKin, tboofih tome other portion or the meal 
ma;. The poison may even be so unoqoally diitribiileil througti 
a aiiigle di<h that the part examined may not oootnin it, thoug-h 
otbera paria of it do. The poiHan may be Id the gravy, and not 
in the meat, or it may have been sprinkled only on the ouCado 
of the joint. A^in, we may bil to detect pmaon in the contenta 
of the atomach and Inteatinn, becaoae it had been rejected, or 
evaOUBt«d, abaorbod, ilwompowd, or evaporated; or became it 
btlone:* to thatlnr^ olua of vegetable poisons nhiebwehave not 
j«t foond the meHii« nf diacovering with certainty. Poiaons are 
moat likely to be rejected or evacuated when thej belong to the 
claaa of irritants, abaorbed when they are in a floid tliiie or 
•oIdUo, dccompoKd when they belong to the animal or vege- 
tabla kitlgdom. Poiaona which are inaoluble, or sparingly aoluble. 
anch aa an«iic, may uftea be detected in the stomach, and some- 
in tho Intestines, alter repeated vomitioj; anil purging, 
glaed to the mucous coat by the teoaciooa produirts of 

■n the oiaininaUon of the body i* delayed, and in cases of 

ilii(«rtnent, we may fail to discover a polaon which was In the 

'j at the time of death, from ita having duded through the 

ntnrw, eniporat«d, or been decompoMd. ThisoliservHtion does 

.apply to mineral poisona; Ibr though aubject to chauge by 

la decay of the teiturer, they are trAnsronne<1, not destroyed. 

It arsaniona acid may be converted into the yellow tutphide ; 

corroaive niblimite may be changed into the binck suJphide 

■Of msnniry, or to cakimel, by contact with the mocDui menv- 

h may depont finely divided mercnry. Among animal 

poiaiuM, ointharide*, nod, among vegetable poison*, strychnia, 

may be monUoned aa tmdieigoing little change from the decay of 

tlio tea tare*. 

It iatoarcely necetaary to add that maliciona or miilflken Im- 
patatioiit uf poisoning may be aliOHU to be unfonnded by the 
IKin-ditcovHTy of polsiai in the matters allGgvd to contain it. 

Wlien yiAtoa ia found in cm/ imall qaatilUt/, the objection ia 
mre to bo adranood that il was not tiiffldent to account ftir 
daitb I but the ol^Mtioa is met by the obvious reply that th* 
quantity found moat needa fall tbort oE UuA uAueWj tjCfceavVit 



a feurUon grami, nhilo the latter coutaincd obIj five 
^(nuiu, totbe ounce.* 

Smnuel WhsUey wu iiiJietrf Rt Tork Spring Amubi. in 1881, 

iniitmng ursentc to Hnrlha King, urlio was pregnant b; 

I. But it appeared tittt, of the tarts in whicli the arnnic 

I alleged to have been adminietered. the portiani eaten conid 

i hive tontained more than ten g[nina, wbilc th« matten 

Uegcd to have been vomited, containod, even aflei repeated 

sttadu of vomiting, fifteen grains. 

S. Coiuiacl of ivtperled persotit. — Oreat iraportaiice If verj' 
properly attached, in triuU for puiaoning, to tlie conduct of the 
priKmcr, before, during, and afttr the illneaa of the decGai«d. 
He ii oft«n prored, without adequate motive, to have made a 
ttudy of polaons and their properties j to have pnrcliased poison 
under blae pretences; Xo bare compounded mediCToe. or pre- 
pared rood for the deceased; to have aanght opportanitiea of 
■dmiuialering medicine or food ; to have made biinseir the sole 
Rttendant on the decoued ; to have hastily diaposed of mntten 
irhl(4i might have been oiamined ; to have placed olxlacles in 
the way of oblaining proper medical assistatice ; to have kept 
new rdativea, and otijcr inconvenient witnesses at a distance; 
to have made harried arraogemeata for the l^inural ; to have 
opposed the examination uf the body j to have tampered with the 
nulteri reserved for analyut. Such acts ns linage, aoiae of which 
■n likely lo fall under the notice of a medical nttcndant, will 
have to be cartfUly weighed by the jury, together with such 
Other itema of geoenil or circunutanUol evidence as point to the 
uiiteneeofan obvious motive or inducement to the crime, or 
Indicate the previous state of mind of the deceased, ai affording 
. K probability, or the reverse, of suicide. 

L 8. SgnploBU and poil-mortrm appranmeet proper to the 

mt^ ^ trf H t eUuttt of poitom. — The foregoing obscrvationi will be 

^Wldentoud lo apply la p(risons in general. The symptoms and 

■torn appearances proper to the principal classes of poisons 

F be described, both as giving completeness to the pre- 

It chapter, and as supplying information applicable to the 

dal poisons both of the inorganic and organic divisions. There 

a of pi^iis which present both symptoms and posl- 

' a well-deBned character — the eomvives 

rritants — and a third class, divided into Impirtniit sub- 

I, icccirdlng aa they affect the brain, the spinal cord, the 

'' * ' "' "te symptoms are well marked, bat 




it lalsnttUiB csw lec tli 

sorTENiKS or the mccous membrane. 377 

t, ofteii black from blood eit»va«ted into tlie cellalHr 
« beneatb, or iajecCian of tbe vesaeU with dork blood. Some - 
timet the tiwuea are found (oftened, aometime* faard«ied and 
•hrivelled. The«e poiiooa often produce in the EUllet ■ peeulinr 
wrinkled and worm-raUtn appennmce, due to tbe contrai-tioa of 
the longitudinal and traasTene flbres, and tbe remoial of patchea 
of epitheUmn. (See flgs. 7a, 73. and 71. p. 428.) 

As these effecU of the coirouva putwmi may ponibly be inis- 
tafcen for p«t-mortera appearances due to otiior caniei, it niay 
ba well to point oat more particularly tbe cbanLut«rs by which 
tbe one may be diatingoiibed from the other. 

Sijfleiaiig of tbe mucoiis mcmbiBne dne to tbe corroaiTes is 
attended by chiogea of colour ariaing, in tbe case of tbe mineral 
acids, from tbdr direct action on the tiMues, in tbe cate of 
'e auUimato, from the depoait of the tiiiely divided metal 
U anlpUide. In tbe ole at aome other corroiive poiiona we 
not udited by these changes, Init must be guided by the 
e of tlie gullet, and tbe action on tbe ekin auil clothes. Tlie 
impBd atalc of the parts with which the corroiiTe 
ea in contact \t eminently chancteriatic ; it la never present 
JMase. The Ulnck injection of the veiiela ia not concluuve, 
it may be produced by the action of any add liquid or acid 
1 of tbe stomacb itwlf. Oangmu U a rare result of 
ditoue, and the black inljltratjon into tbe tubDiucoua tissue for 
vbioh it is sometimrs mlaUkeu is equally uncommon. UlcenUioa 
and rooaequeut perforalioji, the result of the action of the cor- 
rfiuvea, is to be diaUngnisbed, in tbo cue of moat of them, by 
ehatacteristie colonn ; and this it true both of small ulcers and of 
oteusiTe destmcliou of the tissues. The cbnmcterB uf ulcers 
bom disease will be presently described, when speaking of irritant 
primia. That eitensive destruction of tlie coats that sometimes 
Rtisa from tlie edion of tbe gastric juice alter death belongs to 
tlui place. 

Tkt diitmeliw action of IS* gatirie Juice after death «a» 
acrly a subject of controvorsj ; but thu fact of iis sometimes 
g place bos been placed beyond a doubt, by obeerTatious in 
u aiul eiperiments on snioials. The usual seat of the opening 
he posterior part ol the stomach, but it varies with the poai- 
m of the body. The aperture may be us small as a shilling or ns 
e as tbe palm of Uie band i and it bos even been found to 
py ooe-balf of the stomach. It may assume any abapej its 
9 ore fringed, safUned, and smearnl with a dark pulpy moss; 
'te vesKcIs of tbe stomach are often found injected with dark 
action, m already sUtcd, oC add fluids. The 


nRgtibonring viscera (cniftiiDei anilerg^ ■ Rinilirduiigfi On*' I 
ikmill; there u more Iban one npertDre. A« tbeta n 
niftlioii ttroQtid the opming, it ifl not povible to oot 
poM-ntarlein rhunfe with the effect of an irritant [kudd, «tU 1 
would be attended by marka of acute inflaniinattoiii, and b; dai 1 
taotariitic FtainB and depoaila. When the gaatric juice aeb 9^ I 
OD the mucoui membrano of tlie Hlomach it prtt it a oi | 
gdatinooa appeanuice of a black or dark brown colonr. 

PerforatioL of the intritinti it very rare in case* of IniM 
poiKniiiig, and perforaUon of the ffulUt itiU leas oommini. lUI 
may occur trDDi diMasea not diScult to recognise tttrr death. 

b. Irrilanl Fotioni. — SnbataiiCEs that mflnme the paiti l» 
which they are applied are aud la act as irritant! to thote parbi 
and tliose which produce the aame etRct on the olinienlary odmI 
are also termed irritanCi ; &nd, with the exreptiona indinled 
wben defimng the tertn poiton, of bot and cold water, and neb 
artielea aa pina, needlea, and powdered gbas, may daini to be ad- 
mitted into the lilt of irritant poinna, if they prcjre in any 
inatance fatal to life, or prodoctite of aymptoms of great Hre- 

The daaa of jrritunla mmpHaei mineral, animal, and 'rfgetabk 
■nhatances ; it contains S greater nonibcr of individual pdRma 
than all the lenuining clastea put together; tind it alao conlri- 
bnlca Urgely to tbo list of raw* oF poianning. It acconnU for 
nearly one-lonrtb (88 in 268) of the annual deathe fhnu aacer- 
t^ned pOTBOOB ; of which the great migority (61 in 90) were 
metallic irritanti. , 

Of thia considerable cliaa two groups admit of diatitiction *od|l 
sepanlion ; one. tlie memhera of which dntroy life by the irritB- 11 
tion they eet up in the parti to which thi^ are applied ; the other, 1 1 
by adding to local irrilation pwuliar or aperific remote effecta.'/ 
To the flrat group belong the princiinl vegetable irrilnnta, some 
of tbo nlkallne salts used in mc<!icine, the leas active metallic 
pdsons, aome producte of deatructive diatillation, and the irritant 
gnsea. The second gronp comprises Ihe metallic irritantm, arsenic, 
mert-ury, antimony, lead aod copper ; the mctalliudal elemontt, 
phospboruB, and iodine ; and one product of the animnl kingdom, 

Tbe fi/tHflrmtt < anted by irritnnt puitona, as a class, are burn- 
ing pain and conatriction in tbe throat and gnllet ; aliarp pain, 
increaaed by prcaanre, in the pit of the stomach; intenae thirst j 
nauKa and vomiting, folloned by pain, tension and lendcmeaa of 
the entire abdomen; and purging Htleiided with tenouiut, 
frequently witb dymria. Tbe cQnslitiitiun»l ajmiitoma tsij 



D »eat« infiaininatioD of Ihe il 

A>i»tic dwlen, ii 

in rnptore of these porta, «■ of other raMnl of the tMeoKB. 
TUej mty tito be prodomd h; drinliing hot er oald «l«r ; lod 
antbon hare been tit tome paint ti ihcm that nnple di«t«taaa 
of the itDniKfa, ramititig >Dd purging of Mooitt eulif. atrai- 
goUtcd henuk, obatmctioa of tbr bovek, dturhiEa, and dfleo- 

irntant [xuoiuog, aad naj itill eior« oeul; loemUs enti^ 
eueptiooel cuea. Though •ome of the otj^dkoi ftranded «■ 
tin* poaobla raeenbhDCs of diaeue to pa'aocDng ufl of WSa 
tan». U iMf b« no ts poiBt out nmr Inding faUnm in wUdi 
thedNMMa in miialiiii differ froa the DHial effect* of initaiit 

1b Sa^lttk tJbhr«, Uw natation tctt mnJ? aootaio bloo^ 
and tWe it nn puo and oonrtrirtion in the Ihraet, tbongk IbCM 
ma; be «>aw nrene* m the ranit of ccnMant ctlbrti to nMb. 
TW illwer pr«Tuk ^trfj 'm nnnner uul uniutnn. *&d it rwvlj' 
IhtaL In Jnatie tlmttrm, loo, diKbi^ of blond it • rtrr ni« 
a w ui reiKie. tbongh the eneutioai eometinua h*l« a {airt-atee 
tisl ; auiI the j^o and autrictioo of the thnat an «airiiB|'. 
Id bath likeatM tlM patgnif fcUe«* ttw vomLHsg hbi^ b«« 
rafidi; tbaa ia cmb il ( lO Mnwng . Thare >i oh graqi of cawi 
of piiitcsiiig bj aneBic. in wlucb the ajsplM* aa pari; re- 
' '■ of the two liinB. of rbdL«n. that mudiol men hM« 
r witkeat terlodtlj tlfrrling thor npotatioo. 
• a^Or ^mikJu Dat|« ■ th« mit «f drink- 
' fdwt of mne trritant lahetaaa 
^ )• n*7 lUT. and !« not •noilad t? (wb 
I • ■'■ inill n -. 'j --'■ Jateoflaat- 

■ ■ril* tMBfc ^M» their piri lpniBl o^mnf. and it 
- - -- " " J>iA.miam of Or riaieaB*. th^gh 




l«!lli eicraciatiiig p^Oi anil eitrsmi) teDdemew of the atxtomen, 
cold skin, fteble puW, ud lymptoms of callHpae. with death 
witbiu twenty-four hours. The effect of drinking Ac/ water 
diffura from that of the aiiople corrosives, chieflj in the absence 
of ebaracterSstic Mains, and the negative nsult of an nnalytU. 
The drinking of eold tiquidi sometime! eansee Tomiting aod 
porging, and other ijniptoms allied to those of irriUnt ptHson- 
iDg ; and, in the abeeiice of n complete hiatorj of the case, we 
maj have to rvaort la the n^itive evidence afforded b; the 
result of an analysis. 

Of womitmg and frging of blood it will lie sufficient to 
remark that thoy are not iioocmipanied by argent i/mptoms log- 
geMiva of the action of poiion ; of diarrhaa aud dgKnlerg that, 

I in the (frcat majoKt; of cases of poitooing diuihargoa froio the 
boweU are aMociated with vomiting ; and of co'jc, ttfangidated 
Jkraic, and ohilrvetio* of tkt hmceU, that they are attenJed by 
constipation, and that the yomited matters are often feculent. 
'tiit pott'Oarlem appearamni in irritant pmsoning are not al- 
waya ehatncteristic; and it is true of themorecoDimon appear- 
■DHik u of aome of the more nsaal symptoms, that they may be 
.(Mxadoned by disease. TI104 oinally specified are Scdntu, Qat- 
grtf Ba<' Lifiditii, Sofleniag, Clceratiow, and Perferation nf 
tk* maoaiu memliraHe. 

Bai*rM of (Ab oHicoia mtmbrow may he produced by colour- 
ing uiall«T : bat when it is doe to blood contained in the leuoU, 
it may be traeed to iubaideDce after deatb ; to repletion of the 
■mall vEMels hy the contruction of large arteries; to trnnsn- 
daCion tlimugh tbe peritoneal covering of the liver or ejilcen ; to 
oungalioD in cases of ludden death, especially if cansed by 
■pnin, when it often oomrs in large briglit patches; of lastly. 
It may rvaiilt from (bu (low of Mood to the stomach which takes 
place daring digmtinn. Sometimes, too, a remarkable redness of 
the iloiDac^ is fiiuod after death wilhoiit any symptoms huvint; 
uccarriMl daring life U> account for it. Hence, mere roduess of 
tlio mucous Dnt of the itomacb is not to be regarded as a proof 
of mflummattcm I bat when it is eomtnned with softening, putre- 
faelion lint luvini; Ml in 1 when tbe membrane iC«elf is covered 
^tliwk and tenaciOBsmueaa; wbcn it is opaque, so that 
d olf it hides the Soger over which it is stretched, 
kvMJT oettainly be attributed to inflammatian ; aud 
'[> apply to the intesUnes. 
I Liadilg, — Oaagrent at the mucous membrane 
■rn eonsHjuimee of obitrocted drcalnljon in cases of 
d coustriclioD, and Authors i>( reputation 


BTmEscx or poiumsa. 

>itfa ii 

LiteidUg. — W1i«ii tliii oRare u ■ ainiite i 
(weU wirb blxcb blood (Ggt. 7l and 75, pfk 4 
may be the molt of the action of an acid inlrndar 
out. or gcttcratifl vitliiii the bodj; and it can be 
death bjr poanng an; of the minenl acid* into 
Lividitj' tlifn, or blackncn, of tlie memlmtw. • 
caiued by gan^iir, U an appeamoce not directly do* to dl 
bat tbe pSect of •ome ai-id, (wallowed or tevretod. 
ncM aametimei met with in tbe inteatinn in acute djt 
ontoritia, if not gnngrenoua, a probably due to tbe a 
The depcHt of black pigment known as iceUaoaia, U dn 
by being arranged in r^^Ur, well-defloed spot^ vitbont tl 
iug of tbe memhrane, or aifnu of nrnHutduig inflaataatian. 

5M/I«iij^.~Tbe mntoiu memlHtttie Buy be •ofUned or b 
deneil by the action of poiioaB, or ai tbe reault of i< ~ 
cButed by tbcm, or it rpmlta from dbeaae. Bal it b a t« 
common effect of the action of tbe gaitric juice after death. J 
tbiit orauioiied by tbe non-corroNTe irriUnt* la attended I 
nurki of initc inSBmnintiua, the true canie wiil be readily neq 
niied i and the fact that morbid aoftening ia not preceded bf ■ 
chanicleriBtio aymptoiiu will greatly asoA the diagnoiia. 

Ulreratio».—X^Ven of the itomacli may arise from ifiiii aai . 1 
from the action of poiton. The &rmer are the result of eaut 
of the itumacb, which is radily recognised, or they oecnr I 
Btoiiiuchs which, in other parta, preaent ■ healthy appcaraM 
Opeii nicer*, or tbe scars of ulcers, are present in aboat one dfl 
body ill ten, and in about one-Glth of the eaK> there ia mor* tb| 
one ulcer. Tbe ulcer Is rarely much smaHer than > foarpen 
piece, or larger than a crown, but it may tiXjia a lUameter 
five or ni inchea. II is usnally round or ornl ; and preaenia tl 
appearance of a ahalloR but level pit, with a sharp, mool 
vertical edge, as though it had been punched out; and «a tl 
opeiiiiig in the submucoui areolar tisane Is smaller, and tbe apt 
ture in the [leritoneum, if tbe ulcer perforates, still more minnl 
it has tlie appeiirBUce of a cone, with tbe base directed iiiwari 
Tbe uiQcous membrane and tbe nreolar ttasue are Mimewll 
tliickennl by exudation of lymph \ and it ii not uunsnal to A) 
adhe«otu to auiTounding purts. lu some caaes there is little ' 
no appenrance of Inflammstion around tbe nliier ; in most ll 
edges are thickened and riiied, and the tbickeiiinK may eitei 

pKEroaATios OF the stokach. 

Wm ft drole of half in iuEh or an Inch; aud n 

TOODiliog ports are da^cribtd aa " a tbick brawny masa," Or aa 
bdag blackened. These sppearancei hare beea miaUkan (or 
eaaoer. Mare than a tliird of the nteers iMcup;^ the posterior 
aurliwe of the atonuch. and mare than three-fgnrthi either that 
part, the lener oorvalure, or the neiglibourhood of tbe pf lonii. 
The nlcera cau<ed by pwioiun^ are tbe reault of a more iutenn 
inflamioatioii ; and they are often foand dUcoloored, aa in the 
cue of pouoning by nitric add anil iodine ; or coin^red with a 
white povdur, aa in tbe case of poiaoning by arsenic ; or Coaled 
with the decompoaed poiun, aai'b aa the bladi powder (minutely 
divided mercury), farmed by the decompoution of curroaive sul)- 
limatOiOr thejellow tulphldearaneDicfonnad during the prooeas 
of pntrefactiou afUr death. 

FerfonUUm of tht Stomaeh may ante, from 1, CarranoD ; i, 
InflammaUoa, followed by nIceraUon; 3, Softening daring lifei 
and 4, The artion of the gastric juioe after deatb. 

1. Pufomtion from Corroho*. — It is impouible, as already 
atated, to cnnrooiid a perforatiaD due to the direct corroiict action 
of all irrititut jioisoa with any perroratlon arising fruin natnnil 
canses acLing either during life or niter death. Tbe stAte of the 
moath, throat, and gallct, and aCtca of the akin and clothe* of 
tbe deceaMd, rcnden the distinction pnay ; and in many ouea Uu 
oootenta of the atomach or bowela escape into the onvitjr of the 
ibdomeOi and leave truoea of their action on otiicr viiK-era. 

2. Adoration /riim CUrralim a very rare. When Canaed 
by idinjMthic inllainmation, the sarroundiDg mocoos membrane ia 
lesa highly inOamed, and neither i(«Ded nor covered with 
depcait, aa in poUonlng hy thv Irritants, 

3. Paforation fron Stiflming of tl;e coata of the atomaeh 
daring life la not a rare occurrence. It moat freqaently happens 
in yoang fcmale», from lllleen to twenty.flye yeara ol' age, and 
often after ali^jhl symptoms of indiipoidtion. The rupture gene- 
rally («kes place loan alter a meal, mare rarely as a conaequeiice of 
Buddcn cMTtioQ, and it ia instantly foUowcd by iharp puin of tlic 
abdomen, ud aymplonii of acute inSamnution af the peritoneum. 
There S« titttc vomiting, and no purpng, but the patient die* in 
• atJile of CoUapie in fram eighlMn to tliirty-wi hoiira; but in 
■iniie coios, whsu the stomach la nearly empty, tbe fatal event ia 
poatpoucd, lo that tbe inflammation is of limited extent, or tab- 
acute in character. The opcjiing in tbe pcribmeom is generally 
tmall. and the ulcer has thu pecaliar charocten just described. 
In one-tliinl of the cuscb the perforation has been in the Iehot 

[ survature ; iu one-t«ulli at the pyluric eitremity ; in about one- 

384 BTisnrrE or foisoktcg. 

twcnlitth on tbe posterior inrfitce ; in the nnie nmnber, at tt* 

cardiac eilromit j ; while in DDe->%bth of the oues two jUan 
bave been foDud oppoaite laieh otlier on the anterior and pceI«riDi 
Biirra(»s or tbe organ, tbe liret being tbe wat ot the perfmatian* 
The absence of marki of iculc inHamniBtioii, and of chuvcteriMu 
diamlorations ; the non-detection of poison in the staniarb, nr in 
the contents of the abdomen ; the snilden occairence of pain in 
the betif »■ tbe first ajmptani ; tbe slight Tomiting; isd the 
absence of diarrbon, distiugniah this form of perfoiaUiKi frm 
that doe to polaon. 

4. Tbe destruction, and consequent perforation ronrnJ Ijf lie 
gaiirie j¥iix aftin- dtafh, bns already been epolten of at p. 377. 

Tbe poisons which ure neither corroaiiea nor irritants, or 
which, if tbej act in either of tbeee ways, prove btal hy thrir 
effect on the nervous centreSi and, through them, on the brain, 
heart, or longs, were fonnerlj comprised under the two beads of 
tiareotict and nai-cottco-acndt, oxalic ncid (a corrouve in strong 
solution) bring the prindpal eiceptiun. These two classes m 
now more convcaieutly treated in different sections ■rccrding u 
their most obvious and striking svmptouis, when given in folT 
doses and acting in thrar osual manner, are thcne of tbe brwn. 
spinal cord, heart, or longs. These will be drsignnted. for the 
sake of convenience, IS affecting tbe brain, ipiKol eord, heart, and 
lungs respectively. It may be well to repeat that this anrnnge- 
ment is based on some notable prevailing symptom or graap of 
symptoms, not on the predse mod¥t operandi, or proumate 
and real cause of death. 

1. The poisons which affect the hralH may be djitribnted into 
three leading sub-clssses : one group, of which opium is tbe 
type, cat:BiEg sleep more or less profoondj a smind, of which 
belladonHa is the type, pnidacing deliriom, with illusdons ; and S 
third, of which alrohoi is the type, giving rise to eibilaration 
followed by deiirinni or sleep, or both soccssHvelj or alterualelj-. 
according to tbe dnse and tbe eonstitntion ot the inditidoaL 

The graup of poisons of which opium is the most conapicmos 
member owes il< Importance lees to tbe numbtpr of individuals 
which it comprises (for they are few), tlian to the habitnoJ uae 
made of them by large clsswa of penons, their constant employ- 
ment in the treatment oF medical and surgical mals^ea, the 
many accidents to which they give rise, and the many occasions 
on whicb they are employed by the suicide end morderer. 0]hudi 

* CoDmlt Brbitoa ' On the I>allioli^, Simplnnx, snd Tmlniint 
of the Slumscb ;' scd Tajhn") Eiwj in ' Onj'a Hmidul Brporli,' S 



■ prepnnlUoni alona are tnken in nearly hnlf the cue* in 
which tlie poima »n be iduDtifled. 

The pouoni of thii lub-alua preaeiit dlfflmltiu which do not 
oconr in the oue of irriUnU. Tlieir ayniploma more iirarl; re- 
Mtmble thoM of diaeuo, ind tbo pMt-njartem appeargnces are 
oflen Jay iiiiliatinct, and, even when bist marked, not highlj 
obanrteristic. The chemical analjM* alto i* lew sure and ralia- 
flwlorythan in Uio cue of irritant poiioning. Tlie tjmplomt 
propor to tliii claa* are giddinew, headache, dinnea of sight, 
mtnine ooutractiou of Ihu pupil, noiae* in the ears, drowBinwa 
and ODnruiiini of mind, paanng into imeiwibiliCj more or lent 
eoinplate. Delirinm ia T«m, and paralysii, conmlaioiu, and 
totanlc ■paami only of ocoaaioiial occurrence. There ia no 
direct Initation of the itomach and howela, bnt nsDMa and 
vomiting may ocoiir, not at the commenMmeiit (aa in the eaie 
ofirritanta), but when the patient begiiuto recovur. Diarrhtca, 
■Ian, ia a rare ineidvnt. 'Die patl-morltm appearaitett eon«at 
ill fulnaaa of the vdu* and ainuaa of the brain, dftiaion of aeram 
bcneatli the mcmhranea, at the baw, or into the vontriclca ; and, 
ill ■ f«w cues, oxtnviUBtion of hlood. 

Tbare are avreral diNaava of the nerroiu centre* wbicb, in rota- 
mnn witli oiiium and in pr^imrationa, have ooma more or ten pro. 
found, and inaeniihiltty more or lea* oomplet«, aa prominent 
■ymptoma. Apoplcly, cerebral cffuaion and turgeacencv, hydro- 
uphalna, blow* and li^uric* of the head, fcbnle nffeciioni In 
certain atigo*, untnuia, the olute of an epileptic 6t, expniure to 
extreme cold, and m:iny poiwna in cerlAin lUigsa of tUeir action. 
■re aUendwl by a prormmd aleep, from which the patient i> not 
wnly luuaed, or even with cainaandinienaibility. The diagnoaia 
of diteaaeand poiaoning duilng life will, Ihereforn, aometimea be 
difBcnIt, aqMOially in infanla and young children; and after 
the appearannn of the limin may prove ineoncluaive^ Tlie 
of 4iavB»« nf the kitlney woold fumiah a prohalnlity of 
orannia, atul inflanimation or chronic diaeaae of the brain, or any 
eunaiiltiyUa collccthni oC aiiraui upon or within it, would supply 
■ anAtclent oiiilanation of d«th. 

Thi atlh-dM* of poitona, of which belludonnn ii the beat namplr, 
ia ttrMiglyehanoterlivd bj iJ«linuin,ap(>d.rHl illurian«,andB hirgaly 
d)hit«d pnpili with dryncaa of tcoulii nul tbnat, and Ihirat, witli- 
out any cliaractarlitlu poat-morlvm nppearance. T«tAniu !.paania, 
hoi);hlgncd aaiialbillly, pantly^ of the motor and acnnCiva nerxi, 
eouiB, and inaenublUly, are Bmong the raccptional aymplom*. 
Hut great diDbrence is dtgrct. and alran^ varietlaa in the eou- 




shock, or by syncope or collapse less rapidly indooed. The first 
diyision comprises hydrocyanic add and the snbstanoes that con- 
tain it, and oxalic acid and its salts. The second embraces 
aconite, digitalis, tobacco^ lobelia inflata, and hemlock, and some 
poisons of less importance. A knowledge of their characteristic 
symptoms may be important in cases of sndden and speedy death. 
In the case <^ hydrocyanic acid we are happily greatly asnsted 
by its characteristic odour; in poisoning by oxalic add by its 
corrosive action on the gnllet and stomach ; and in that of aconite 
by its pecaliar effect on the lips, tongue, and palate. 

4. The poisons which act on the Inngs, and so destroy life, have 
for their type carbonic-acid gas, which occasions the symptoms and 
post-mortem appearances present in death by apnoBa, however 
brought about. The operation of this class may have to be distin- 
gnbhed from apncsa produced by other causes ; and it should be 
well nnderetood that in poisoning by many of the more active 
poisons, and notably by pmssic add in doses short of a quickly 
fotal one, life may be destroyed by a remote action on the lungs 
prodacing fiital apnooa. 

GQ ^ 



Tirs fectn and disenHinoDB or the preceding cbapler Lave pi 

ttie WSJ' for a more direct eiaiomHtion of the doUea Uut detain 

OD the medical uinn in CMca of alleged pmoniiiig. 

Suspicion of pMHming moj ari« under very different d 
Btaoces. It miy ipring up in the mlmU of prrun* igtmrwitof 
thenBtnreuid action of poiwna, inggested by iDine leTiniD- 
nera, or (odden or speedy death, conpled with Uia miqndciiii 
condnct of some rrliitive or friend; or it mRy occur to Uie 
medical nun bimielf during bi> attendancG on a palieut; or, 
again, it may be ibe ntlerly gronndlen fancy of > pemon of tm- 
•onnd mind, >ncli fancy constituting the leading features of hit 
nilUdy, or one only of h\t many deluuuDS. Bat, in whaterQ 
way tbe mcdicul man may be brought to entertain and consider 
■ auipicion of puiicnlng, it oidbI be an advintage to him lo be 
reminded of tbe points to wbich bis attention should he directed. 
The following it a aummnry of the leading cimmulaQcea to be 
attended to, and noted down : — 

1. The itBte of the patient before (he commeu cement of the 
Bjmptonia, whether in Kood health or ciiQering from iilneo— the 
time at which the symptoma b^iin, and at what inlurvul ntlet a 
meal, or after taVing food, drink, or medicine — their nature, and 
order, and Ume of occurrence, and t/ie ]>eriod of the commence- 
ment of any new aymplom or train of lymptoma; nhetlier Ihey 
increaaed eteadily iu acverity, or alternated with intervala tj 
ease, and whether the eiaceibationa correaponded with a repeti- 
tion of food or medicine, or followed tbe n»e of any new orticJe 
of food or medicine — also tbe chiiracter of any anbilanoes which 
may have been njected from the atomach, or paased from the 
bowula. . The etncl. time of tlie dcnth iboulil be notpd down, and 
if the pcnou b found dead, tlie tim'3 wfacn he wai loat teen 

2. If the Fymptoma of poisoning showed themselres aoan after 
a meal, minute iiii[uirles ibould be made as tu the cooling ll 

IMT«I*I diihta; the leawli nied in tlie prpparation of the tbod 
■honld be iuipBCted, iiiiil their mnU'iita. if iietitiary, pmervudi 
mpieioui powJen or liqiiidi faaiul in tbe houso should nlco be 
•Kiled aad kept, irierentl penoiii bare pirUkoti of l.he Hma 
liKal, ore itaoiiUI be taken to atcertain what Brlic1« urers tukrn 
bj thoM who iDlTervd, and by tbow who ocaped. and in what 
qoantjtin, and ivhether the nme articles of food bad been pre- 
vionilj taken without bad effect by tha p^iani attacked. 

3. The vomited matCen mu>t be carefully oollMted, and re- 
moved from clothing, fnmitnre, &£., on which they bad beun re- 
jeot«di and portioao of the dreu. furnitaro, or UDoriug may, if 
necanary, be reierreil for einmiimlion. 

But iiu|Mcioni of potaoiiiug may fint occur lo tha medical 
man during tlio ]ierfc<rmaace of a poat-mortttin eiamimitlon, or 
he may ba Tn|mred to make aucb au eximiiiatioD in oonicqueDce 
of anapidona having already arisen In the minda of nlativai, or 
in the oouna of an inqair; in the coroner** ooorl. In certain 
rami, too, be may be required to conduct at tlie tame time iho 
diMntarment and the post.mortem eiaminution of a body aiippoged 
to contain poiion. Hence the importunce to the medical man of 
being fbrniabed with a like aummary of mlra and auggeallona to 
guide him in thia important and responiible daty. 

Hariiig obaerved the precantiona inaiited on at p. £37 u 
oommon la all pott-mortem cuminatioua for legal purpnaea, cer- 
tain other precautions proper to eaiea of luipected poiaoning 
will havo to be luken. These arise oat of the fiict that while 
foaanM tluimMlves, aa well ai their moat notable effects, are 
fonad in the ■limealory canal, they, and certain of their weondary 
effitcta, ars lo he aoufht iifter in the orpciiD* and tiunei into 
which they are cani«l by the blood. The alimentary cnnal 
and tha principal viicera or parts of them, and, in aome cases, 
blood, or portiona of nmacle, wiU have to be prcMrved for the 
minute etamination and chemical rewarcb of the penon making 
tbe inapKlion, or of aoioe akjlful cbcmiit to whom tbey must ba 

Prior to the Inipectimi, one Urge widc-monthed jar, of gUaa or 
eartbenwarc. and a fcir imailcr ones abould be got ready, which, 
if not new, should be repntedly wnahcd out with wntrr and 
drained, au u to be quite clean. Tliey ahoald he furnished >vith 
elenu gronnd'gUaa ■tappo'a, or with new eur^s, or other nuo- 
metalUc meani of elnaura. The Urgur jar ii for the itileitinal 
Mual and Urn eotttcnta, th« unallcr fhr tlic otbnr viteent. or parts 
^ ef them. Tho mrthod of procedure, us far as it reliiiea ta th 
ol miul. nuat bo governed bj hucU ci'ui\doio.<.uni& u ^,^: 


Ukra *■ mrdJcis*, or tnnuact tai ptta at m ptBaco, ud 
pawTalj mdlACdied comsTc wMinatf, « uBptrieeUj c&aidtcd 
ciTiuJs, BT of oialif acid. 

W( K>T iLw ncDgiiiie tbe euitaiie actioa ud chaiBctviatie 
d>K«lmtt«ii of tbc miDcnl »di, and, sbcn tbc (bNmch ii ttr 
■drsDcnl in patrc&ctuo, xbe nlpludiii of ttw nwtak (anouc 
Teiio*. uiuiij«]]i oruigT, menxaj bladi) or Gadj diridad ma- 
cary w a dark gnj coaung; ai alio Ilw grrca aceto-anaiile 
of ot'PpH', the thioing green and gold ^Hcki of ranlharidt^ the 
brOHii pocder of nai lomlu, the blae of Baltic'* rermiD killer; 
u>d, a* leea in tlie dark. Ibe phaapbor«sc«i[ light of pbo^khoroa. 

Tbe ccdoor and coniiKence of Ihe conlait< of tbe uomacb >U1 
afford important indications. The black, dark brovn, or greeniih 
brown gramoni mall«T reuniting from tbe action of tbe mlncnl 
add* and oullc add on tbc blood, food, and tiasnea; aixl the 
green matter reaalting from tlie eating of green lea«ea from ths 
hedge* are alio characttriitic : and Bometimea we maj find tng- 
menu of leaves large enoogli (or idsnlilication. 

When the fruitii of jioisouoUB plaots are ealen by children iro 
IMj find in the etonmch or inteatines the leeda which tbej con- 

' For rhechinctfri'iic fomi referred toin the teil,oaiuallthe 'Uiero 
fragile Uictiooar;' of Uiiffitb aad UcDfte}-. 


MlCBOGCOPIi: EIlHtHltlOlr. 393 

Iain. Those of tlie pUnta wLirJi require the mlcrowtipe far 
(hoir identifinlioii aru ilimtn in llie iiiiiened ligUTC. in whieb — 
1. Shows tbe seed of BelUdonnai Z. Tlint of Hjoecyainoi ; 
3. Tbatof the Papaver aomnifpruin ; 4. That of Digit«li»j and 
5. That of the Lobelia indeta. 



) b« idcnliSul b; 

Portion! of tbe larger polio 
i Mleliicmn, aoonile, Qutor, and eroton. maj 
the colooT and markiugi of their cuticle*. 

The advantage that may acLToe fruin a tborough eiaminaUini 
of the cont«uta of tbe itonucb ii well ahoivn by a nue girea 
bj Tardieu. A child toelve year* old dirni at acbool niter 
f aeatfl luflering on the day on which iU itepmollicr 
d brought it Kvcral good tbingi to eat. Among the ctinUmti 
bTthe atomach there were found certain fragmenti of crumb and 
it of bread, which, when eMmined by the microMOpe. «i>re 
band oorered with fungoua growtb, showing tbat the bread »u 
Duldy. powder, wis elao found in large qaantity. 
' le fact of the monldjr brnkd wia noted down, but no importance 
mod lo atUrh to it, till, at the trikl, ono of tbe witncnea, a 
I MtTWit of liiv (teiimuUier, atalcd that h«r ni>tire« wu In tbe 
habit of carrying to the child tUi:«a of bread Hod jam, but that On 
tha day of the drath *he laid llut she would not take it, beoauae 
the bread wti mouldy. It bad been in that itate for one or two 

^K Uiving indicated tlic pmauliou 

I (u be tuken in tcoTching tho 


portiona of the iJiineDtarj ciit*l lUHi lOil witli tiwir t 
coDtenU Tor cbemir*) eumiDBtion, m few binUwUI now I 
(u remioden to those who paacs practinl eiperiam,iill 

nrifirj imtrnction to Uie Inmer) nnder tbe ttistjul bi 
ng^eitcd by tbe following oouiiderBtioiia. 

The piHaonaiu snlxtanas ■ubmitled to tbe cbeotirt '"B 
unination ma; be in their pure nnmiTed farm, whetber «" 
liquid, often in larpe quinlitiet ; or tb^ mi; be KnaQ Ki 
q( powder or ojital iidheriiig to papen fiam wfaidi tbijai 
taken, or lo ciipt or glanei out ef which tbej were " 
other inaUncea tbe ptriaon i> di<«oWed id some too 
tt beer, bruidj, rnoi, tea, or coflbe. In other cuei. >g>iti. it t* 
to be aonght for id the urine; orln tbewrain of a bliitmdtaitK 
or of a ■eroni inc after death ; or laitif , it mav be cmitained It 
mixed articles of food of ■ome coniioteuce, (piiled in the atet 
Bwallowing, voided during life from the itomacU and bovala," 
fbond in tbem after death ; or iu aocb thick tiadd mattoa *■ Ibl 
blood 1 or even in the aolid Btmctiirei of the body. 

Coaee in which the poiKiD exiala in a pare itate and in kip 
quantity mtj be disregarded for tbepment, aa belonging ntbwii 
the domun of chemistry than of toxicology, atlention being giia 
to tbe detection and identification ofanch minnteqiiantjtiea ■*•» 
extracted ftom the body itwlfan ultimate reaulta of long and eom- 
plicated proceiact of analyna. The metboda of dealing with tb« 
minute quanUtiea lo obtained are, however, eqaally applicable to 
all the more delicate operationi of toxicology ; (o that one dm- 
■ion of onr lubject will be luefQlly devoted to ■ de<cription of 
thoae tnetboda. Another division will comprite tbo«e metbodt 
by which we aucceod in reducing tbick miied o^anic liquida^ or 
the solid teitnrea. to ■ etate to pass the filter and become 
HmcnDblo to chemical testa. A third diTiiiou aboold treat of tlie 
method of procedure in those rare caiea in which au organic liquid 
is presented lo the cbemiat for iinalyiU in tbe belief tliat it cm- 
taina aome poiaon, bnt iu ignorance of what that poiam ia. 

The aabjeet of cheuicii. fbocedubes will therefore be trvated 
under tbe following distinct lieade: — 1. Themctboda of obtainiiig 
a dear liquid from an organic mixture or lubatance. 2. The 
method of procedure when tbe poison contained in an organic 
mixture orsubataiice ia wholly unknown. 3. The methods ot de- 
tectiog and ideutifying minute qnantilies of pcoaon. 

1. There are four methods of obtainiDg clear solution*^ 
a. Simple filtration i b. Dialysis ; c, Filtration following tbe pre- 
liminary coagulation of organic matter ; d. titration following 
its deatruction. 


a. Ot filtration, m twmmnal]' pnctiud in the Inboratorf , it il 
o (pnk : hnt it uiBy be well to point out thst, 

^'■rlMn we iro dealing with iinnll qainlitiea of liquid, we may 
,>t with Kdvintagc a mctliDd twommcnded by t'liristiion. A 
iBiid of fllteriag piper ia rolled up mid bent into the Torm of ■ 
nphon, the abort leg of whirh dips \ato ■ wBtcb>gli>as, or other 
imatl veml contniniDg tbe ptriaoo, and the long lei; into a geomd 
nmiUr nnel pbiocd benenlh it. Tlie pnper being moialcned with 
dirtiltvd WBter, will be Toand to traiufer tbe tbinaer porljon of 
the mixed liquid from th>: one rewel to the other. 

b. The method of dialgtii of Oruhaio ia foonded on the fact 
Ibat \t a mixed liquid connoting of aibomiiiooA. gtlHtinoni, 
cueoiu. or fiuinin; matters, on the one hand, and crjnlalUne 
luatten, tnth u arMnioua acid, or itrycbaia, on tbe other, be 
pgnred into a aliort cylinder fitted with ■ aaitable Dietobrane 
after the manner of a t«mboiirine, and then floated on the aurFace 
of diitllled water, the crystalline matter will pass into the wstvr, 
and the other matters remain behind. Tbe tmnbonrine-like Boat 
ia called tbe dialiatr i tbe natten which pas» through lo the <Iii- 
tilled water arc termed erstlalloidi, and tbe mutters that remain 
tpsbiiul foUoid*. The dinlyaing mcmbracH recommended for 
the polpow ia tbe rmgelabU parfhrnr*! uf commerce. Tbii 
dmpte and ingeniona method, poaaeased as it ia of the obTioiig 
■drantage that il ititrodncea into the orgaiiii.' liquid no imparity, 
Ina not teallied tbe etpi'dotioni that were formed of it. Tardiea, 

t, aaya of it that ita '* remits have not been so saticfac- 
■> he had wislicd ;" that cryatalline matten, meh hs arveniona 
i UhI atrjchnia. pau through tmly In small [(uantity, and 
A with a proportion of organic mntter; that tbe method 
irith thr Mita of mercnry and copper, and that it ia only 
n the quantity of tbe poiton ia very large, not combined with 
PitiS tiianea, or become inaoloble throngb patrefaction, that the 
ulate a small portion of it; bat that even 
lial uin arrive at the tame result by other 
• This statement, jnatifled as it ii by eiperimenta,* may be 
(■ken M a fUr tipreacntalian of the truth. It limit* the use of 
Uw netiiod of dialyiia to tboae casca in which we know that we 
■re dealing with conaiderahle qnintities of pcaion, in wbieh diln. 
tion with distilled WBler would not interfere with our fatnrc 
operatiinis, and in wTikh alto tbe loss of several honn of time is 
unimportant, If, for instance, a chemist receives b substance for 
analysii in the after part of the day, be may find it advantageous 


TsidJcD. 'fucL'imiol 

itnt,' p. 100. 

iVe^Ut I 



to fubmit It to diiljsiB during the oigbt. Anmnini 
Che iDetbnd of dkly^La will Siiil occaiiaiial ■gjpliiati'ii 
well to indiiste one or two liuiple farms of ■ppartitiu 
the purpoie. For mnt pnrpowa ■ common funtHsl re 

'a tumblar b*lf Full of witter will •ofGoc. Tbe i 
parchincnt, cot and folded a* for a cannnon lilt«r, bdcig ii 
miked ill distilled water, i< to ba applied to tbe ade of tti 
funnel, tlie matterg \a be operated nn are to be ponied intath 
and the fanoel imnieraed to nearly tbe opper ed^ of the fltur. 
~ * it i* ihown in fig. 43, A cooveniont modiGcilaM 

i-onaiati of ■ funnel to the uteiii of which a gka 
tul>« dravD ont to a fine point ia attaiJMd bj 
Tnlranized I adia-mbbar controlled bj a ^iting. 
A filto' huldi the matter to be dial;aed.the (mod 
itaeir containi the distilled water, aod t^nim 
it ao long a« the spring ia in action : nrbm it it 
loosened tbe dialj'ied Ikjuid can be made to bU 
drop by drop on a gluts disk, witbont waale, ht 
eraparaled &«m time to time, and examhied b; 
the microacope, and bj eheminl teata. Or we maj 
apply the nietiiod on a Buiitler acale, nbatitot- 
ing a watch-glan for the tombler, tbe dialncr 
folded aa a liltor.reatingon an eitemporu«d (op- 
itof aaqaurcof itout cardboard truncated at the an- 
ear the four eoraen, and with a circular bole puncbed 
I. The curd bent at right angles at tbe created linei 
DnTenient support for the filter, whicli is nippowd to 
dip to the bottom of Ibe watub-glaaa filled with water. Again, 
we may opsTAte on a atitl smaller scale by reating a piece of vrgt- 
table parchment the siie of a liipenoe on ■ large drop of diitilled 
water standing on a disk of glaat. The piece of parchment moiit- 
ened in distilled wntar, and moulded into a small cup by preasarc, 
containa tbe speck of matter to be operated on, and ill cryitalloida 
puss throQgh to the drop of liquid on the glass disk. 

c. CoagKlalioit i)f orgaiis mofier.^Thii simple method, which 
also dom not inlt^UCs any foreign mutter into the analyua, might 
bo very lately carried out by licutiug tbe orgBnie matters ta 
dryness over a \Tater bath, were it not that some volatile liqoid 
poisons, fcveral of tbe poiionons alkaloids, and one metallic ault at 
least, are dimipated by a temperature much below £12°. When, 
as is the caie with moat metallic poisons, and some of the matt 
important alkabidi, the subliming lempemture eiceodt SI2°, tbia 
simple method may be advantagcouily adopted. It is a1» appli- 
cable, with like leitrictions in respeet of ^olioaa ^bid^ volaS^aa 




' nnder 180°, t« >eroi» Ouitk, and to pouons mixed with gretae or 


d. De'lneliOM of Orgiaie Matter. — Sernral method* ha*« 
been recommended for tbis porpoBo, of which two only oeod b« 
, fc«c« deK^ribed— the firM aa pmciiBBl diicflj b France, the 

TliB flnt nietbod, a» Kcomnieiidcd and practised by Tardim 

Lontun. was fine pro;>oa«l bj KUndiD and Dnnger. The 

mnllen bnraght to tUe coDHst*rco of B soil eitract (by 

I ■taporatio* over a nater-bulh if iieeei»ary), are lienleU with a 


ftmrlh part of llifir weigljl of pare Ci.nceiilratfd suljitiuric arid 
in a rotort placed over a nnd-liath, and atlaetied to a remvcr in 
the manlier Indicatnl above. When the acid vsjunia are no 
longer giren cdT, the organic tnntters are foand to be rednt-ed to 
a drj and friable charcoal, whifh is to be pondered and treated 
with atrong nitric add. The acid liqnor, which haUi the inorgsnie 
tnattet* in MilDtion, ia to be decanted or filtered, and cvopo- 
taled to drynew. Tbia dry reaidue ia then diiMilred in distilled 
water. Tlii* aquemu aoluiion is free from organic matter, and 
ronlnina all tlie metali of which the nitrntea are lolnble in walfr, 
blended, Iiowever, witli the intirgHnio constitnenta of the food 
and animal fluid* and tisoei tbenitelvca — lime, maguisia, alum, 
iron. >uda, bydiocbloric and pboaphDric acida. 

In the acrond metbnd, the orgtuiic matters, cat into amall 
intyveyA*. or rcdoeed to the oonuatence of a totV ntract, are 
hintird for alKint an hour in a poraclain diih, over a nater-batb, 
willi ■ miitura of one put hyitrocbloiic acid to ati water, and 
chlorate of poluh is then stirred into thu miiture by degfeet till 

gw!^^ft»itwti* I r T] ■ r I ii iiNiHi 

•^ved in a imall qtuntit; of dUtiUed water, ia teited lu fulloiva: — 
Dropped ancoppur full, it prodacei a white lUio disupated 
(mtraiiy), or it caiuea s rod aCniD on an iron plate, wliich eoloiir* 
■mmonia bins (copper), or it gives a yeUow precipitate with 
iodide of palauiam mid a wbite with mlphatc of soda (Uad). If 
the solpharctted hvdrc^en cauud no preciiHtatc, the liquid, enpo- 
nt«d to ■ tenth of it* voluiue, i> introduced into Uanh'« appK- 
ntti*, when, if it fields metallic ipota Holuble in hjrpuchtorite of 
•oda, it contained arienic. If it vieldi no metallic apota, recoarie 
b again bad to the carbouaeeoiu man on the tiller, which i* 
dinded into two parts. The fint ia boiled for Italf an honr with 
a aftlution of earbouiite of soda, and then Hltered, tlis trharciiBl 
wuhed with dilute nitric add, and tiie liquids miicd. The add 
Uquor, evaporated to a convenient qiutntitj, givei with anlpha- 
retted hydrogen a black, aud with iodide of potassinm a yellow 
pro(!i[atate {lead). The aeoand part of the cliarcoal i* txHled 
with a aolntion of tartario acid, and the mnmn^ liquid filtered, 
and reduced bj eraporition. This, tested by Uursli'a ptweaa, 
jielda metallic ataina, soluble in nitric add, and iosolable In bjpo- 
^lorit« of aoda (amlimony). 

B. Searci/or Orgatiie i^iuou.— The apparatus (Hg. 41, p. 3^} 
, bnra^ficd thos: — Tlie beak of the retort is introduced into a 
t tube, and this into a reodrer containing a solution of 
latv of nlver, and au arraD^ment ismude for passing a current 
ir through the npparatua. Tbe organic liquid, hrought by One 
lion of tJie solid matters to the condition of a tliin aonp, is 
pMKd into the retort, which is heated over a aand-liath, and the 
Tapoor tnioatnitt«i through the porcelain tube hmted to red- 
DMi. If the ulver solution shows a white precipitate, toloble in 
UBnuniiai bihI insoluble in ImiliDg nitric add, the puson waa 
oitlorffbra. If no preripiute is lormed the cunii.-nts of tbe reliirt 
■re treated by Stas's luelhad, and the resnltant of hia process, if 
a alticinK alkalltis liquid, with the odour of tobacco, is sirofia* .- if 
soUd a part uf it is introduced into au incinon in the thigh of a 
fVog. If it greatly dilates tbe pupil, and the residue readily dia> 
solves in water, giving a atrongly alkaline aulution, precipitated 
brawn by iodine, nnd eaaily aaauming a nauaeoua odnur, it is atro. 
piu. If the frog it smed with t«tanic canvulaiuaa, and the 
residue reaponda to the well-known colour teal, it Is 'tryekaia. 
If the Irog grows very weak, and baa irregular, and intermittent 
bmts of the Imrt, am] if Ihe residne dissolves in warm water, 
and yirlds a suIdUmi wbidi is nut alkaline, but gives a pnicl]Nlale 
with laimin, and if Um residue itielf ia coloured grvun by hydro- 
elilorlc add, it ia difilatiiu. It the frug prineuta coujplei phjno- 





logical phenomeTi*, >nd the roidae U OTitaUIne, iM>ri* 
in water uid ether, ■olublo iu caustic poUib, and nt 
iMognised t«t« for niorpliii. il » opium. 

3. Dtteelion a-nJ Jdentifieatiim qf mimuU fmmlilii 
— When such minute qoantities of pmsoD «• the 
t«a thouianiltb. hnndred tboiuniidth, or mra milliont 
arc ipokcn of at eaiy or poinhle of detection, inexperi«Dcal 
•on* are apt to he incredaioiu throngh 
buJk of BiHlteT wlijeh a gnun represent*. 

Tlie beat way to correct tliii mi 
DQiDber of (Itstiiiot visible particlei of 
ranied tbii to bo ilone in tlie caw of certaio iniali aeeda, and 
found that those of ditjttalis nomber 1126 to the grsiD, mui 
of lobdm inflnU 3176, while the fen seedi of the shops e 
oouDted to the nomber of 50,900. I hare aloa b; 
division* and sabdivisioTu of a grain of strjdinia. the allrtlriM 
being strewn on a sorfsce of bliek glass, aniTed at tba ^ t tA( iB < fc 
of a grain risible us a 1>rigbt speck \>y tlie naked eye. I h«n 
elsewhere shown* that crjilsJi of arsepiom acid, weighing as 
Utile M the ito si B Tiirath of a grain, may be seen and ncogniaed 
under the micraseope. When, therefiire, we speak of the ready 
identiHcalioil of the tbonsandtb of a graiu of arsenic, and the 
possible recognition of the live thoussndtJi or ten tbausaiKltli, we 
are slJU speaking of viuble particles. When, agiun, ko spaak of 
meUllic crusts obtained by Uanh'i apparatus, from the half- 
millionth or millionth of a grain of arsenic^ i^ is only neoeaary to 
revert to the fact, that a single grain of gold can be nieclniiiolly 
divided into 400,000 visible pieces ; and into the almott incredible 
niiniber of 4.900,000,000 fragments vinble by the micnaDC^.t 
Of the recognition of minute qnaatidcs of matter by other 
senses, ciamplea are given in the distinct imprenioD on the sense 
of smell caused by j^nn''^ "^ sulpliuretted bydrogEU, ^^g^h 
of bromine, TTiriBSa'^ "' "'' °^ resin, and a still leia quanUty of 

or the methods of detecting such minute quantitic* of pidaon 
sa are here spoken of, some are of partial application (Marsh's 
apparatus to arsenic and antimony, Iteiosch's method chieSy to 
ind antimony, the redaction by line mainly lo 
lead, tin, and silver, tbe bluw-pipe end bonii bead to metals and 
ihtir sails), others of moat eitensivs use. Of these the micro. 
mpi. the meiivd iff precipitalioB, the meliod of ni/inoliva, 
the mtiiad of l^nid reactim oh drg tfoU, cryitatlinefonn, and 

Ine,' No. 1 



(^ JficnMrope,— The neceMitj of re«ortin( 

In coaei of rape and woonda, ta identi^ ipermatroi 

Clak*, bos lo ' 


U)Dg been recogiiued, but it U onl; very reOEntly 
Id lo pin; a promlneut pnrt in toiicology. But 
f its ^ipliMUotu ore very eitsniive. tod promUe soaa to 
t ilill more lo. One of itt reoogniaed uses ia to muka a 
llMTj eiaioinatian of gabstaiices suppiMad to bo poisoiioua, 
IDnt^n poboii; iiDOtlicr to watcli tlid progresa and miilate 
of thoK chemical clunRes which nre known ua pnvlpi- 
cH M to wcertiuii the cryitalline or other (brau which 
le whan the chemical rescLloii it comptcte ; a third to 
ke (TyBUIlinii and other foniis of Bublimatea obtalnoi! hy 
well u the effect of reagrnU upon tliem. By the io- 
adaptntion of the spectroscope t« the mieroieupe the 
of the iaitrument ia giwtly iucreased itnd ouhirged, Ai, 
i* probable that the microscope will be most largely 
lining; tbe Girnu of cryBlHl« alitained by lablinialion, 
Ktiuns oil anblimatei, and by drop-precipitation ; and 
lUy in watching the whole count; of these chemical changes i 
•ar that, for medico-legal purposes, tha farm of micruscupe 
ommended is tlmt vrhleh atone cuahla us to view Ilieio 
I thsir entirety — not only M see the dry result of u 
>r reartion in full relief, hut to appreciate fully all 
that take plHce on the snrrace as well as in the 
of tha Uquid. All tliit prcmpiioses the ura of a good 
IT mioruaaope; and as good light nod clear defiuition is 
■t «t*irj oaM ta more important than mars eulargemanl, 
inch otgeet-glnis. with a deep eye-picoe, will bu fonnd to 
in the nqnirementa of the great inqority of rases; and 
) MBOnlingly rwommcDd with the confidence arising uut ol 
largs eipanence. (Q.) The combinacion of tin Inch ohjact- 
RUb a Ko. 1 eye-pieco of our best maken, givo» a lUKg- 
t power of 50 dlamelsTS. , 

r/m airtiorf 1^ prtriyHaiioii.—The methoa here spoksi. 
lot tliat which rcqulriB the tise of the test-tube, hut that 
is perfhrmcd nniler tha field of the microscope wbeti a iliop 
liiuiil supposed to eontoin a poi«m ia treatwl with another 
t a liquid mgciit. It is one that presupposes some deli- 
tt niunipulRtioa. tcrupuloua cleoDliness, and the use of 
-airrveil and ajiplied aa to be free from impurity, 
idemtum is Inl nccoinpHshcd hy nsini^ a lonn of 

Ttc fipt tt ^ dma M a^ |i 

McfcoftlM hottk B* a a^^ 
■WBtkof ttcbaodispcli ito« 

m tib» Eqmd, vhicb mO lav tM« it m ^ fh* ' 

BV&tt (T^i^aa ailah 

a trimgolar picee of « 

B «dgai, (tunntd at the pnott. a^ iMNiri 

■ wooden bandla. ai ibowii ia %. ««. «g|li 

Afmatdferj •cntoable. Tlie anMBnt fafltetf 
■ limp of liquid nuj be takea op fiiM tk 
drip of tlia pipette, aiid the adaa mif h 
tiMil tA en»h (ouiil crydaU, ■■ well ■> to dnw &o» tha WfeM 
■if ■ ru[uid coDtaininp ndiment i portion of ciar liqaid. i pan 
■>r pUcinnm wire iiuerted in a bandies and gnmnd t» a foiat, amj 
)m ■ubititi.Ud for a «t«el needle ai being mora dfanlj, and tta 
cirrvtd brua forerpa may be comiDended ■* the btat bni fa 
tbew and ■imilar nie*. A drop of tbe liquid iiiiiixgad to ontain 
jioiiKiii ia to be placed on a gUu ilide, or the omtre of the glai 
■Ibk pmently to be recommended tor iDiiTaeco[HC rablimalca, and 
mrofullj examined : tUe reagent is tlien to be added sitbant dk- 
liirbing the (lidc or diak, and the immediate effect obNne^ n 
well uii tlioee changea wliich lake pUce more ilowlj ; and la^j, 
Ibe licgaid having been atkiwrd to drj nndiiT cover, ia i^un aol^ 
milleil to vinminallon. The reactioai tbai produoed may take 
plnm initinlaiieouil;, quickly, or alovlj, Rod they may ehow tbetn- 
•I'lve* oTi the iurfhce of liic gla«i or liquid, or in tbe body of the 
liipiid Itaclr If oryntalt are formed tliey may Hoat, lie flat on 
tbe glan, or etand op in the fluid xa com on tha gronnd. In the 
dry aputi, alao, they mny be found on the glaia, or prqecting 
I'rom it. It is Ihia vuricty of plice and poailJOD that rendwa the 
binocular micnwcope ao importunt, and even eaMnliat] Ar it ii 
1KI eiaggerutioD to uy tbut a microacopic cryatsl ii not fallj wen 
till it Ii viewed bj tUU iutUumoA. W mmsi^ ym^mit -K^it^ 



la >alDlioni, two moet important precxuliona ibould 
never he iii!glecl«d. The salutioD Bbonld be of 
& deflneil ■trci>g;th, and the fariD af tba CTjalals 
which it luves 00 evBponlJDD liiould be |ire- 
vionlly aicCrtaiQed, Tbem ery»l«l», with very 
me exc^eptioDB, will be found furining part 
of the dried ipot. For most teat-wlutione 
put bjr wdght in 100 it a auiUble atrength. 
Id loino eiues, perbapa, it nu; be well to J 
eoYsr tbo drop oT liquid witli ■ diik of thio / 
glui, and to apply the reagent U> tbe margin. ^ 

8. The method of «J>limaiwn. ~ - ' 
method, nlwBya largely uwd in letting for 
pnioiu, ioM lately acquired a new and 
ereaaed importance from the iutfresting 
MTBry of Dr. Helwig, of Mayaiice,' 
tbe alkaloidi, wheii aublimed in the mannur 
[ trhich I recommended some yean siai'et for ar- 
e, and other inorgaiiie 
I, alio yield lublimntea, some of whioli 
re eminently cluractcriitic in tlieir micmwopic 
III tttlcmpt- 
Ing to veriQ' thestatomentaof Ilelwi);, I have 
■wia reuou to modijy his method, and U> ei- 
ttnd it to a mnch tnrger clasa of objects. (G.)^ 

The aimpleaC form of sublimntiDD is with the ipirit-lamp and 
pUtinun foil. It deali with amall quintitiea of matter, and 
■Obrd* many nsuful imUcatJona. Some puitona, aa araenioui odd, 
oonouTe tubrimato, oialio acid, and i»ntUaridiiie, are aublimed 
withoat reeidao; otiien, inch as the alkaloids, change oolonr, 
melt aiiddepoiit carboD, andaomeotheranndergonooharacteristJc 
chanite. Another method of aaUimation commonly practised 
oonB>t4 i a the me of the ipirit-lamp and tcit-tube, and thit. iu 
eerUiin cawe, as in thoM of anenious acid, corroKve sublimiti', 
le metala anenic and mercnry, baa the twofold advantage of 
I eihibitingtbe changetcanied by heat in tbe poison itself a« well 
I M the character of tbe niblimate depoiited on tbe higher part of 
When thia method is practised, greet care ihould be 
n lo avnd soiling the inside of the tube in introdudng tbe 
This may bo done either by using 

Dm Mikmkap In ia ToiikalD^' 1BQ5. 
t Bain's ' ArshlTO.' Ko. iil, IS6B. 
-' " ■■ "Jiw to 0«olwr, we7i anil ' JounuJ gf 



a aaaRer tnbc vitli fo 

nnelled montli, or b? jblding & nura^^H 

ofpgiwr ltnsth«»js. 

pUcicig tbe lubatimce at a« cod t4^H 

Fig. *7. 

grooie. introdaring Uia I»|>v^^H 

fnllf into the tube b«U tot^KT 

U.\\J. and then nuamg it vitLflV" 


plHD conaista iu ptaang tlu ak V- 

stance in n abort inner tnbih Ml l' 

dn^iping ttaii inU. the n)(lac«» 1' 

tube, u in Rg. 47. To thia metU 1 

\ \ 

there U the obviana aljectiaa Ite 

inner .urfiice of a Pound tnhe^ il 

tiou l«i uie to propose the mcdbW 

k plan A^red in the •SDezol n^m- > 

\ ing, Txke . emali. cleMl. drj 41*. | 

S,^ % cimen-tnbe, n, alntit twios di ' 

V^ tetigth and aiie diowti In SgL « 

^^ place it in a l»le in a alab of »M. 

UJn or hnm, h, and hold !t npriRht. Place the subtU^to 

W inUimed at the bottom of tka 


lobe. Then hold a disk, e, of thro 

/ (o^ 

-V . crown glaa of the siu of ■ MSiag 

\* in the name of tbe apirit-Ump till il 

ta quite i!rj .- place it over tbe mouth 

tlie pmnt of tbe flame of tba bop 

tieadily to the bottom of tbe tube. 

tiU the lower rarfi.ce of the elw 

draw the lamp, and repeat the 

wnodpD bolder ns b fiif. 49, Bud enmiiie tbem undo- tbe micni- 

X'opc. n«ng reagents 

if desimhle. Another method, lo which 

liTen great iroporlBnce, conriat* in the dm 

aubstanre to be erami 

ed ia placed on tbe ilab (o). fig. 60. in 


glasB (i). tiifl glaaa diak (e) dried in tbe 

llBini- i. o.aiie to re.t 

n the ring ; the flame of tbe lamp U llien 

Btendily applied to the 

nnder aiirfiico of (be porcelain, and the 

Bnbiiiunte \a received 

□n the uudei iutCws -if Ma.^ Hilt. The 

■iririt-Iainp U th«a irithilnwTi. > fmh iliak nppli 
operation npeated. Wlwn this aitnple operaUon 
ii carefully performed, do part of tbe aubUiiiule 
escapes. But u it nujr be well to giurij ngainst 
racli escape when (le.iUng' with very smill quan- 
titie* of mutter, and some operators Hcciutomod to 
the tast-tube may prefer eome modificntioa of it, 
the followio;; is suggested : — •Draw out a smuU 
tobe of green glass a a* into tbe form slioiva 
in fig. 51 i drj tUe tube by pusdng it repeatedly 
tbrongli tbe Same of the spirit-lamp, latroduce 
the substance to be sublimed into one of the open 
ends of tlie tatw, as at b. Seal the tube at a, 
and shake the slips down to the sealHl end. Pliu-u 
the tntie in a good side light, and, after beating the 
capillary portion, Hpply the Sumeof the lamp sliadity 
to the end. Wheutbe suUimate ahowi itself, as at c, 
U the rapiUarv tobe at if 

• -.for the ^'•f'"- 

tg. 62, 

notDon glass eliite 
central Npirrture 
bysidecnta. Tliu mpiUary tube r; 
gmuned to the back of tbe card, and ii 



the slips ofgommed paper a a. Write a memonuidum of the date 

andciccnmstaocesof theredudioD on the card. As the sid« of the 

«pl11arj lobe e d are eiccedlngly thin, they offer no impediment 

~'o an uamiDatioii of the itiln b, with tbe higher powers of thi> 

krrosoape, espedilly if far the roond glass tube we snbttitute a 

httened glaa tube with long oral sectioii. But the simple 

Mhod of piDcedniv dewrnwd above (Gg. GO) a the one that has 

te greataat ralut aa a rocan* of diaguosis ; for it combines the 

tavantoge of tbe plstinnni faO with that of the reduction tuhe, 

imnch at the white snrfBee of porcelain teen tbrongh tlie 

B disk shows dearly tbe direct effect of hent, while tbe disk 

■ » tbe rablimate in a form admirably adapUd to microscopic 

ikaminaUon, and the anbacgnent use of reagents. To tUow tbe 

V and 


0. Sfr^dnia. — No thsngo of form or colour till BobliiiiatioEi 
•t 346° J at 430° melU, darkeiu, and de|)osiU carbon, *lill jielU- 
ing »Qbliinal«. ilorpkia, no chntiga 
of form or colour till 330°, when it n?. m. 

' niblime*, melts at 340°, darkens and ^ 

^^depnaitt carbon, still jriddiiig lubli- 


P ''' 
~ tit 1 


4. Digitaline. — Darkens, tben 
Belts and snbliuiei at 310°. AeuHi. 
melt* at 140°, cliiiiigea colnur 
at iBO°, lablinica at 400°. Atro- 
pit melU at 150°, sablinics at 280^. 
Vmarint melts at 200°, lubltinEii at 
360°, yielding isolated crystals. 

or tlie method of snbliinstion con- 

doeted in the manner jnst describeil. 

with or without the tbcrmomcter, it 

\j be abaerred fortber tbut it a ap- 

to tbe following distinct piir- 

-Th« direct mblimutiou of 

rtiita pooden or colourless crystnls ; 

aabllmalion of deposits from 

adutioDi; the aApntation 

ToUtihi pinaonous prindptes from pnw- 

deta whicb contain tbem as oousli- 

toents or ■dmiitann. Tbe following 

■n gifen aa Qluitrations : — Take i> 

llina apeck of strj-chnia. It will 

distinct white sublimate. Tnke 

, quantitj as the j^th groin. 

I yield several suecesfflve sobli- 

bvfore and atler melting. From 

ickaat of thcac proceed to obtain 

idar;r anbliniatea. Disaolve a gnin 

ious aad in an ounce of distillpd 

ampunito a drop on a slab of 

n and sublime the dry midnc. 

e tlie i^th grain of poi 

intharides. It will yield ■ wcU- 

r distinct if noisiennl witli 


to be founil in aliuoBt ererj groqp of crystal*, oi«y be •dvan- 
t>igeou»ly oouudertJ. 

The ivguLir ootuliedron is sbown in outline iii fig. M; m it 

tji^em vlien > ^Insa model of it ii eecn witb a trinngtiUr fitcette 

in advitiiEe, in Bg. 55 ; and W cleft by a pUne parallel to two of 

ita tide* in flp. 6G. It conaiits of eight equilatprul iriauglce 

joined Rt tlieir edge*; and a wcCion passing through four fdge^ 

>o ■• to ^vide the orystal into two equal pnrts. «huwB a perfect 

Minare. Tlie «ection ihoKn in fig. 66 also divides the crjital 

into two equal parti, eicli of whii;h bus an equilateral triangle 

fbr one ^ce and ■ beisgon for the other. The entire crrstal 

I presents itself under diflVrent aspect*, arcording bi it adheres by 

b«D angle, face, or edge, and tho light tniverBps, or la reflected 

^B 6am it. In opaque niedeU, or in granps of LrjBtals seen b; re- 

.▼ uo^ 

W< fictMl li|;lit, two, three, or four aiOen onl)' ore displayed it in the 
I,, anneud UluatrsUDns (Sg. 57j. liut ulien the light is trans- 
Fig. M, 

■ittwl ihrongh the crvstala, these fortos nre modified and dis- 
d by such shadows at those shown in Hg. S8. It is not ollcn 

; 70JUIS. 
D foTiDi eiw. and IblclLdcn are alio vcn; o 


^0 rbOnUC dodei^hwlp^n in rim VDn/ino TuwiTinna 

be fint bur of tbe I 

The rbomUe dodBOhedron, in tbe varioos poutioni iliown 'm 
tbe fint bur of tbe figure* iDDeiod (%. 66), and tlie maclet, ur 

twio-trjftAli, depicted in the tiab and aiub, go fur u> uimplelc 
tbe huiorj of the crj-Btal of arseiiioM «eid toVeQ as an eMmple 
of ■ GTjaUl of definite form, pnlling on appeirancee tho most 
virioDa through difference of ponition, imperfect dovclopmenl. 
rotation of half cr;aUU, and roodiflcationa of form in harmony 
with the enfaical lyatein lo which it belongs.* 


Aootber crystal which baa a certain incdica>lcgal interest. 
ftom bang preeent in aome deponta from eolutions of tartar 
emetie, ii tbe tetrahedron, abawn In outline in (1) lig, (37. together 
with tbe alternative form, coneiating of a cube with it* edges 
remoTecl, ai at 3. 

Tbe tetrahedron consiile of four equilateral triang lea, joined 
at their edge*, and prornta itielf Tery conatantly in the manner 
ahown in tbe abaded cryaljd (2, fig. 67). 

■ TbOH 

111 h-Jd. *1u>ii7d otQdj I hem on tbe lare 
knd bailiff tbe biDoeolmr Bdcrratope^ 

mIj to MFWn. Ui' erjiHalt 

&PECT&I; K-A>IlLTStS, 413 

reeogniml that the amaller tbe qimntit; the more defined thu 
crrataU; of itrengtK of lalatioa, that this will of itsulf tamt- 
timea dBtermitie tlie form of coiopannd crritikli, »r, in the cate at 
bichroRiRte of potash, whicli, in itrong eolution, fields a dcpnsic 
of deep pUtes and prums, in weak nolution, of a deticatu urbo- 
reacencc. {Sue Btchramate of Potaali.) So important is thi* 
cause of miation, that I hare tLoaght it eipedienc thronghoDt 
this work to bdicHte tbe itrength of the Mtlation to be t«*teil, aa 
well ■> of tbe reagent, adopting fi>r both, as matt conienient, tbe 
aaiue (raction of one pet cent. This precoutian in, at leait, as 
necemrj u affixing 10 microecopic oljjecte the scale of eolarge- 
meat. (G.) In the case of crjatalB rorniiiig nnder tbe mien- 
acope, different fonni of crystal n-iU develope themselves in a 
deep nndiatorbed drop and in a thin Uyer. 

6. SpaclTHm-analjitu, — This elegant and doticato inctliod of 
detesting and identifving iDinat« ijUDntitias of matter has already 
been described (p. 3'ih) and applied to diitinguiBh the dissolved 
oolonriog matter of tlia blood, whether pure, or acted on by 
reagent^ trom colouring mutters having the same tint. Of the 
titrcniB dellcaef of this method there can be nn dnubt ; hot it is 
DUO roqairing (br its JUOceaiAil and afe application prartiaod skill 
and great care, and caiea most be eiCremely rare in which other 
mora woplc and ready methods having fsUod, we should feci 
OotDp«Ued to resort to this.* 

'to eanpletii the accoant here given of the methods of analysis 
applicable to the detection of minute quantities of poison, some 
notice ought, perhaps, to be taken of the ose of palariad ligttt. 
and of tbe fWcts relsting tajtuorescenee. Of the eitrema ddlitacy 
of the t«ita artRng oat of Uie application of these phenomena, and 
of thor high ratue whan applied by skilfnl and practised persons, 
there can tie no ikmbt; but the descriptions and e>plnnationi 
ntrcoMry to enable tha student to apply them with safety wonM 
occapy moi« spaco than it conristent nith tbe plan of this work. 
For clear explanations of then) optical phenomena, the reader is 
rvferrad 1<i Miller's ' Elements of Chemiitry,' Fart I. 

* Tbii iMdn l> ntaiii to PnliwiT Bnle'i 'How to WoA wllb tliD 
V1vr«Map*.'4th nlll.i>.Il>i.ttir sp^KTb; Mr. !h>rbf UmscU. Aboin'Tho 
KlcnawpSb lu HlIlDtt, CoiiitRNUoD, and ApplkaUim.' bf Jibci Hon, 
•iith ndlUan. p. I III and p. 7U, bi 1 [oil dHciJrrilon of thr InitruBuni. See 
alia lh( ' Procndlngs nt tbs Korsl Sndct]!,' rol. iv. Ni>. H, For ■ papw h} 
Mr. Suitif.upUiBlnrbbKala of meanmneDl: sod the ■ Ph»nrsr««ll«a 
J^miud,' fib. ISM. for a linAtm ua BpMtmm Anal)(U, bi Pror, W. A. 
liKllot,,,(nrai»iidnissdhliWtjaf tbt ungln snd pni||ms at 



DS. 415 

The Stiiieral Aeidi havD tlie fbllowing faimliar prt)porti«s : — 
tbey cbur and dettroj orgnulc amHers; disoolnar, aQi3 rarriKie, or 
injure, llio texture or bUch clnlb; reddeu viigsUbU bluea; nad 
klter or diicbBrgu tbe colour of fifed arliclM of dreta. 

Tbe tifiaplOBU oamoion to these Rcub are : — n aoHr taate aad 
boruing pniu in the mouth, tbront, and giiUot, f/gngjj^jfjjjjjjfi 
■wallowiiig tb« acid, followed by eicruduting pain lii the itoaiacb, 
emctBtioiii, conitnnt retching, anil vomitmjji of a brovnuh or 
blackuh mutter coatainiug blood, coagulattnl raucna, fbtkei of 
epitheUmn, or portion* of the lining membrane or tlie gaHet and 
■tfflnach. Tlte act of (wallowing ii painful, or even imposribic, 
and theifl i« inleiue thiraL The bo*eli are ooative, the urine «amty 
or rapprcued. and tbo patient ii teaied with conitant teucimiu and 
dyturia. Tlie pulte it generally amall and &fqaent, tbe reapiritioQ 
cmtcbing, and sometimM laborioua, and the conntenance eipreesei 
intcnie anxiety. In aoma roie* the add pouea Into tlie windpipe, 
•nd caaaei a haraicing cough, with cronpy rcipiration and honrae 
viMC*, and the awnmolalion of tenacioua inucui diacharged with dif. 
ficolly, and threatening inatant lullbcal ion. Tbe lips art- ihrivolled, 
and blialured or eicomted, or tbey prtaent spata of the charac- 
tfrirtje EOlour of the add bordered with red; the cheelu and chin 
ue alto ipottcd, and ducoloured itri^ks run from the anglea of 
tbe month. Tbo inside of tlie Dioutb ia white, ahrivelled, and cor- 
loded, brown or yellow, and the teeth toote and diacoloiircd. Tiie 
tongue ii aometimes while and poltahed, aoinetimes diucloured. 
Uatinct marka of the acid are abio commani; fbund on tbe neck 
or finger*, and on the ckitbesi and tlie vomited mattrra, if rejected 
on a iimeatone pavement, cnpae efleTTCKonco. In fiitul caaest 
dmih u generally preceded by ■jmptonu of collapw, the intel- 
lectual ftuoltiei leuinining clear to the laat. Some patienta die 
convnlacd, others mfibcated. Severe nervoup ayoiptoma, aucb bi 
trinnni, tetanus, epilepay, and deliriam ore ocouiunally present, 
■ud rathe* aometiuiea appear on tbe ikin, 

Th«e poiaont may destroy life in lucb small qunntitiea as one 
or two drachma, and in luch short periods aa two houre or less. 
Rut the patient may linger for dayi, weeka, or months. In 
cbronio cue* be iifeireriib) has a dry akin and frequent poise; 
•MciaioDiUy romita liis food miied with ihikn of lalae mem- 
brane, or portions of the lining membrane of tbe gullet and 
atuDHcli, similar flnkn bdng somelimei ilischsr^ed from the 
buwcli: anil suBbn from ulivntion nith fiElor of the breath. 
I'bo holly Ii U-lise; tlie breathing short and difficult; there are 
tains and cmmpa of the limbaj digestion u impaired; nil tbo 
fUDCtions of the body Jaiiguiab; eitreine emncintlon luperTenes; 





and death bappeoB in a period vu^ng ftom a Ibrtiufbl to n 

Other patienti recover imperfectly, to become djipepdi- tiW 
djoariant for life. RatLer tew thaa half the number oT ultlli 
rccnver oonipleteiy. 

Tliu a t- id m iiy cot reocli the otomneh, but kSM tbt UmA 
(Hillcl, and Vmdpipe ; or it maf act only on tbe windiripe, aaiif 
death by sufibcadon. 

Tlie mineral arid* have boen injected into tbe boirela oi ra^ 
or poured into tbe ear ; and in all tbeae nays Iiave prored (UaL 
Tbe poit-atortem apptamneet eommon to the mineral wait 
are the foltowing : — Tbe bpa, chiu, and other parti of tbe tn^ 
are miirked by tbe acid in the manner jiut dearribed. Tbe UoDg 
maaibnoe of tbe moath. tongue, and tbroat u wlute, 
lirown, ihriTelled and cmToded; and aometimea coated ai «ilk 
wbite paint. Portion* of the tinuea are highly inflanted; i 
tiuiai they are gangrenous, Bametimea corrodod. The ejHgWta | 
may be cotitraeted or luoUeD. tlie rima glottidia contraMeil, ud I 
the larynx inflamed. The gullet preaenta tbe niDe appaarWMM 
aa the mouth and thro«t, iuid it it commou to End its Wat 
membrane more or leu eiteaaively dotaclied. (Set- Sg. 7% p. 
42S ) Sometimea it prcceitti the peculiar vriultled and woni' 
eaten appearance shomi in 6g. 71. In tare cue* it bpconui the 
seat of nIceratioD, and la perfonted. Occaaiooally it ealn«ly 
escupes. The atoiuach is usually distended vith giis, and filM 
with a yellow, brown, or black glatinoos liquid, nbieb also eitesdi 
into the gnllet and comramcement of the noall inteatines. Tlif 
lining membrane ii hig:bly ioHamed. its v«aKla are miautel) 
injected with black blood ; 'at in Bg. 73, p. 128, or black blood U 
eitrAFBiBted into ita aabatance; the rugsa are loftened, and cl- 
ave deitructiou of its coal*. uU'eration, nnrt perToration, are el 
freqnent oceurreooe. The pylorus is commonly contradeL 
When pcrforadon takes place, the apertures are generallj drcnlir, 
sitnated at the posterior part of the organ, and mmunded \ij 
inflnniination and black eitrnvantion. The duodenum praents 
nppctiraDcea lumilar tu those fbund in tbe stomach. The periloonl 
surface of the vijjcera, even where there is no perfiiratioD of the 
imach, is highly inflamed, and coated with coagulaUe lympli. 
When tlie cout«iita of the atomnuh eiicnpe into tbe cavity of the 
abdomen they net upon tbe viicera, sncl impart to them a peraliar 
tuons feel. Tbe inSaiDmation may citcud into the cheat, and 
tlio tliuracic surlace of tlie duipbragm become eoaled with lymph. 
Tlie blood in the largo vesselB is oS\sn found firmly coagt' 
' ariiiary bladder is genvrallj em^lj txA inntnicted. 

suLFHcaic *ciii. 417 

Eiceplinns to tbe general rule of the past-nior(<iD ipprarniicei 
nro iiiiineroui, arising Eitbor rroni tbo atre»|trLh and quMititji of 
the acid, tlic fnll or emptf Btate of the itnoisch at tbe time, nr 
th« piirt of the alimentary canal which the pcrison reaches. It 
may not pui U'fond the mouth, it ma; not enter or pa» th« 
ttoinach. and ita action mn; b« limited to the upper part of the 

The dioffrntiit of pii»oning hj the mineral adds i> ea»y. The 
•oar tait«, tbe iiHmediaIr commencement of tbe iiimiitoma, tbo 
eitmiivc (liiiuvaniiatioD of all the parts with which the acid 
oonwa in contact, the kbvuce of diarrhosi, tbe itaini on tbe akin, 
and the iiyury to the clotbra, furm a combiastion not to be attii- 
balml to any other cauK. la tbo great majority of cues, both 
ajnlptonM and post-mortem appearaucM are clei'iiive of Uienuelrea, 
bat when cooiUned they leave no room for donbt. to almost evmj 
inataiMo additionnl evidence ia aAuriled by chemical amilytii. 

TrtotmfiU, — The beat antidote would lie cnlcin^ mHgnciia, or 
the oarbonaiti. mixed with water, or with milkaudniitfr. liutaa 
theae ara not likely Id he at band, chalk or wliiting, tbe platter 
trma the ceiling or wall of an apai-tment, milk, nil. or aoHp-iada, 
or aoda or potaahes, mlird freely with water, ehoold be given 
without delay, Uilk, mucilaginaui and oily drinki, and dilote 
alkali'w noliiliun*, should bo given frKly and fr«)Ucntly for 
BUrcral t>niir» Ur days. 

Tbe corroded and wftened state of the part* wonld forbid the 
on of tlis stamarh-pamp. even if it were pottibte to introiluce it. 
If tbe patient is quite nnablo to swalloir, a cautiout attempt may 
be madtf Id introduce the tube into tbe oeophagiii beyond tbe 
obstruolioo. The sabsequent treatmeot must depend ou the 
nalnra and itveritj of the syniptonu. Lcocbe* to the pit of the 
nvmach are likely to afford relief, and, if gralcfal to tbe {xlient, 
ie* in cufaatauc*. or livd drink* may bt prewribcd. Tlie bowels 
Unat be kvpt open at flrit by iiyections ol thin gruel and ■■ loon 
•■ kperianta ■pprar sale, by mtor fft, previoualy well-miicd with 
ubout twice ita quantity of hot milk, and given cold. Eicori- 
BtiiHiB on the aurhoe must be trsatcd as bums. 

I. iiTLMirwo xcm. (Oil of r.lriol.) 
In the Arc yran 1A52-SC, sulphnric acid wat crvdileil with 73 
out of tl» 77 dmlhi attributed to tbo mincinl aciits. and it t^kea 
Uit Bfth place among tbe poisons in order of frcqurncv. 

Mig acid is aold by druggists and oilmen aa "oil of 

" •; and the dilute add aa "vitriol," 

inc« of Titriol," for cli^auiog 'ilennls of 


I'esFy oily liqny^ 

*'"' "WW tnniina 

'hcrate, iodine /ren^ 

*r ■■« or tli« allaioid. , 

' . coionr is iinniediatel. n 

•den ivamwd & clf»r bl 

''"^T coltectwl, 
enleJon char, 
iiverted into t 

0. *I9 

b; approprialu trmU. WormUy rcoomniGiiiU veratrinc m the 
be<t Uat for the free acid, and one in every mpect niperioT lo 
Rnngs'i cane-sngir lent. If ■ fragmant of tbe alkaloid be 
dropped inUi ■ llqaid Mutaining ai iittle u tite one-thouMndth of 
s grain or the tree acid, and i^aaolved by tlis aid of beai, it fomu 
a oalonrlms miitnre, which, evaporateU to ilryneaa, leaves a Ja- 
pont with a fine crimaon border. 

a. Slaiiu an Oath. 

The atroDg acid atuna black doth, flrat red. then hrowD, and 

coTTodn it. The itain oootiuan nuriit for moDth* cir jean, and 

b** an add reaction. Tbe dilute add produm the same change 

of eotoor, and le« oomnion ; but the fpot« nre dry. 

To detect the add, tlie atuined fragmenl of rloth nmat be 
boiled in H uniall ijuantity of distilled water, the liqnid filtered, 
and tested for the free acid. A drop of the filtrate should be 
•nponted on a glass slide, and if a viiiblu staia rcmaini^ it 
_ fboold be eiainined for saliiie matten, and au unstained purtiou 
If tlie same cloth should be exacoined in the ennie nay. 
' Clean linen and cotton fabrics corroded bj the add may be 
~ Innitted to deatmctire distillation in a reduction-tnbc^ in tbe 
oath of whicb a slip of filtering paper, moiatenad with solution 
t itatdi. and sprinkled with iodic acid, ii placed. Tbe releaaad 
idine revcala iU preaenoe by the blue iodide of farina. This 
B la not applicabto to woollco tvxtures, which oonttun sdI- 
hatea, to tbe coats of the stoouch, or to ita coutenta. A parallel 
niment «hoald always be made with an unttdioed portion nf 
- rial. 

4. Organie Mitturtt. 
Aiuing organic mnttor, luch as tea and colTce, Iwcr 
d porter, if tliieli or larbid, uiut be bulled with diatiUed water. 
d filtered tbraagh paper eapported by muslin; if cleur, they 
ly b« ffltcred at once. The oolanred precipitate thrown down 
ie add and nitrate of hiryla is to be cotlncted, boiled in 
% nitric acid, to destroy the oi^anic matter, and conTerted 
ID anlphlde of bariam, at abore. 

ti of the atoinBdii or tbe vomited malten, will ba>e 
rcMtion if no antidote hns heca given ; but if the 
oaae bas received mwliail treatment, or the pntient has aurrived 
some tiinc, they may he neiitnl or even alkaline. 

a. Ifihey liaveat) acid nactioii, it is probable that they contain 
a free add, wlilcli may be the sulphuric or one of the two acidi 
ally found in the atomai^b. the acetic and bydniebloric. Tbesi' 


•ridi in^li*i^>nUd brdUiffiiv Iteillfmd Eq«d (awH)** 
•:itlnnc Add). liD H hM tbe mnriMBtt of a thim fn^f. U M^ ■ 
txat> fur bjdradilone and acctie'aada give ■ ncgatii* m^^ ^ J 
|].|ui.l 10 th* ntort imnt Ic iQiiUd. UUttd. and U^tt ^'^1 

phurir khL If, bnmer, tl^ probo of duiHIatiaa tmitii I 
rHtliT aod, wa dilate Uia Uqoid. ami oootimc the £M3lrtll4|. 1 
adding fttah wHer U ammaj, dli all tnce of theac ad* te I 
nppKir*. Tba fliud reoisiniDc' in tbc reUnt is Uten lo be tcMf ^ 



■.-.. till .-fflTVCvt 


es that tlie fnt 
: 'kalirjr tkhtr "ilh a tupennlpbaWv 
i)i:ite. Hucli lu Epsom salts, combjoed 

n tlic Uiltor nii«, Ke add carboDatfl of 
tj, anii calciUtc llic qnuDtitjr of free 
sulpliale ot baryta. 

■ have 


aiid Sltend; tlic 

■t lie bollvd in il»til1ed « 
lug jjililicil to the dltercil liquid. 
:.rl-,nati! i.f lime lias Urn piven a* an anlidote, the 
:■ nnliiliHte miut be iliit^ilvcd hy boiling witli nitric add. 
1^ i|iianti1v of at'id dlKcverfnl bv any of the»e proowsea il 
mil, Ihcru in no prixfrthiit it litis bevn EnalluHni ; fur the 
>t till- ht'iiiiurb a1^ ny» roiituln a aiuall (jUMUIity of tien- 

QuaittUatim Analfi/ii. — Uso for this parpnse tlie preripltiiled 
■olplute of barjta, bcnlBd in pure mtric add. waahed sad dried. 
100 ports of the salpbite CDnUin 41 J ofthe Strang acid. 

Symplowu.—ThoK alrendy dewribcd nt p. US, but seiera in 
pniportion to the strength and aorroaWo prapvrtiiu of the acid. 

ISerere nertoiu ajmptanu are tianietiiiies present, aiich u locked- 
J»w, rigid apasiDa of the eitreiDitiea, epilKpsy, aod dBlirium. 
Diagnotif. — The darfc-brown «taiiu ou tlie ikiu, and the moist 
brown corroded staiiia on black cloth, are oharacteriatic 
Pott-morlem appeanncet. — 1'boae diucribed at p. 416; bnt 
tbi' diaorganiutiim gnMter, and perfbmtion more (requeet (about 
> tbird of the cues), than in paiaaniog by the otber mineral 
acidi. The oolODT of the epitlietiam and mucous membrane 
dark-brown or bliu-k, u if diorreil ; while in casea of poiaoning 
bif nitric •cid it ia more commonly yellow or green. Wbou 
tbickljr coated with mucui. the lining mouibrane of the mouth 
>nd ■limenlary oinal seems amcared with white paint. This is 
the efleot of the acid on the secretions of the canal after death 
(Dr. Chowne). Tlie poat-mortem cttect on the mucous membrane 
itself is to render it yellowish and brittle, to bleach Lbo muacular 
■nd peritoneal coat, and to char the blood in the reaaela (Orfila). 
Falitl JoM.—la the ndalt, one drachm: in an infant Ave 
weeks old, half ■ drachm. Foar ouncea have been swallowed by 
tat adult without htal conteqaeocca. 

Fatal ptriod. — Shorinl one hour : in a child " atmoil intme- 
diateli/." Life may be prolonged for several days, weeks, or 
months, op to the limit of two jiars. Aceragt. — In ea&ea that 
prove fatal in 24 hours, about 10 boors. 

Mortalitji. — Almost all infants and ; Don g children. Inadulfs. 
two-thinla of Che cases.* 

ZWofMflif.— That alraidy dewTibed at p. 417. 

■ The Mlowin J an the naolti s( tcnni turn raporlcd In Uib EngUib md 

Uf M DW (Ui* mKiMr hoi^Hl— W uttti tatal (all the obUdmi aod 18 
adnlUt, sDd 10 nantni (kU aduUi). 

Of SI fam^lniir(psnl(ililil.a baoiridB] (all touoe dilUnm). and 8 ani- 
dmUl a it IhtiD elilldmi). 

AiBDiut adults, both In aedilmlal and nldilBl twlsuning. Uion was 1 rsDO- 

or tb« n fttal MUs, 10 hwbM s da; ot leu 1 e non thin adST and IcH Una 
awstki SlaHlhsoslDrUiltihli 1 rmn a forlnigtil to IhrH estks; 1 axua 
tlun t)ineir«1ii>i andS rIsdiM rVan STeto Umj.&tt weeks. 

Xks lead dunlion In S cihlldrea was tbiM and a tialf bMis, the yiafnt 



r dktiifa^ 

3. Slamt <m CUtlX. 
Boil tbe &nginent of doth in a imall qwuititj of d 
wntcr. The preaenK of an acid will be indicalal bj teat-fipMfi^ 
and tliat of nitric acid b; the appeanuice of tbc Mjiin. Kcotill&M * 
with cubouate of potub, and filter. The dry filter bam lOAj 
toticli-iiaper. Bv^iotat« the liquid eollcct and uamhie ikm 
rryi'tuU by Ihe micnwvipe, and apply the bmcia test u aborat 

'[■1 ili^tingiiiib st;iin» of nitric acid from tho« Closed by iodine 
•IT \i\ bile, text nilh a nmk Biilution of (3U!^tic potash. The 
iiiih IlIjIi; nitric and gtuin aMtimon a ch'ar oranf;c tint; that catued 
Iry irjiline iniintdiatcly disiippearj; thi! bile-^biin ifl uncbaoged. 

.(, Organw ilirtare,. 

If the liqnht is visritl, dilute with distilled water, \)tB, and 
liil< r. If it hus an acid reaction, neutralize with carbonate of 
j"Fl.i-h, iTvstalli/c, and aiijilv tbo tests jiiat dcsjTii>«l. 

II nntidotes, siicli as clialk or magiieaia, have been given, the 
lii]iiiil, instcHJ of hnvin)c an acid reuction, tnay be neatral or 
li't'bly :ilk»Unc. In this case, also, tbn tillered liquid ia to be 
tir Micrl with carhon;itc of potash ; soluble nitrate of potash will be 
foniii'il. and insolnble carbonate of lime or nia^neiia thrown down, 
t lii-' III Inj; separated by &eel< liltration. The tittered liquid ig eva* 
" HI tested for nitnite of potash. 


■re cfa&racteristic of thi* said, 
3 the penon and dreu of rm 

jeUmi cantdon* on tbe drtm. 
The dlMnvery of the*e ataitu i 
Mx-DWil [leraan hiu W to liii ninviccioa. 

PtHl-morltn appearaaeet. — Thow ■Irendj' de«crib«d (p. Uti). 
The colour of tbe murooa tcembrane jiellow, or green in pirt* of 
theiLotDtcb ond inteitinn containing bile Tbo degree of corro- 
don l«a, uid perforation more rare, than in the caae of Bulpbnrio 

filial doM.—Two drachnifl. (Tsjlor.) In infimta leu. Re- 
MV8T7 hu taken place after half an onnce,* or more. 

Fatal period [tSorlHl). — In the adult an boor and tbree- 
quarteri : In the infant a few minutea. 

Aetrage. — In tfae m^ority of faUl eoua death takea place 
within twenty-fbnr houraj but life may ba prolonged to aevcral 
d«ja, weeks, or niontha. 

MoHalilS- — About hHlf tbe caKe. 

lVtalment.—h» for tbo mineral acidi generally (p. 417)t 

Kitric add haa bc«i poured into the ear, and caused iloughing, 
•bnndant hunnorrhtige. parnljiis jactitana, extreme debility, and 
death in about tiitrlven weeks-t 

The orange fumea given off when nitric acid is poarvd upon 
eopper or mcrcorj (and commonly known ai nitroua acid gai) art> 
prmluad iu large qnantity in lome proceaiea of the arte, (neb W 
<nt«r-gilding and braat-button making. They irritate the eyet 
■lid lungs, and gire rice to a Iroubleaeme oougli, renewed by each 
Mpetition of tbe proceu ; and at length becoming habitual. In 
Bore than oncinMancc it biia prared fatal iu periods T8i7ing from 
;tMent;.<e*en honrs to two dnyt.l The lymptomt are burning 
JNat in the tbroat; tightncsi at the chest and pit of tbe stomach) 
•itrenie lUslention and acute pain of the abdomen; nausea and 
vomiting ; pnrging of n yellow matter ; acanty aecrelion of urine 
and dyaiiria; cough, at fint dry, then attended by scanty orange 
aipcetontioD. with extreme dytpnim, and feeling of impending 
■nllbcation ; transient delirium; extreme debility; incxprenible 
anxiety ; and death after convnluons. The potl-vtorifii apjiear- 
tmtrtt conaiat In rigna of acnte inflammation and ita cuiiaequcncH 
in the air-paaaagea and lung*, and in the alimentary canal, engargc- 
nteiit of the lungs and heart with black liquid blood, distcnrioo of 
the atomadi and intestines with gas, and a yellow colour of the 

4!S ^^k 

— lo^ 

•Ed. itU. p. *U laWtTDKinJ 1 ■ liluflvw Htd. Job 

□ iiT-i llMplUI 

II1BBB4L i.ciaa. 

Tlie blaoiideordnutoiide of nitrofren gives ri«e it 
tameB by combining wilh air in thu langt. Ao 
H, Davy Hiflered very Wferely when be tried to iahitlt Ik 1 

m, HTDBOCHi^aiC iciD {Muna/ie Acid. Spirit of SM^. 

Tlioagli mariHtic add ia loiDewhBt Urgrel; employed i> 0* 
Brta, it ia Dot (Aim uted na > poiwm. No caie of poiHuiiq; bj t 
wu reporlcd in the jeura 1837-38; only two ctaea iotluhl 
yean 1852-56. The poiEOn may have Ui br eiamineil u--* "' '' 
ilrons Ofid. 2. I'lltfttlHtni oiHif. 3. Initaiiu im elalk. 
organie nuxtum. 

L Strong Bi/drorhloric Acid. 

The add of commerce la of a yellow ooloor, fuming L 
air, and yielding denae white vaponn with Bmnxiaia. 
ducei s dry green itoin on blsd; olutb, bat dof not oomdaiti 
or the itaiii is flrat red and then greea. It a dartingoiiltad im 
aulpharic acid by ita colonr, and fVom lutric acid by the ahamt 
of orange fiiniea when poured on copper. When bntcd with ptP 
oxide of manguieae, chlorine ia girea off, known aa sodi bf itt 
colour, odoar, and bleaching propertiea. 

2. DiUlf Bydrorliloric Acid. 

The liquid ia proved to contain an add by the ose of htmu 
paper. Tlic nitric acid and nitrate of baryta teat cauaea no \n- 
dpitate. It iaprobablo. therefor^ that the add isdther nitric or 
bydrochloric. If a (olution of nitrate of silver yieidi a deoie white 
pittdpitate inaolnhle in nitric add, and in canntic potaah, but 
Tcry aolublo in amtoDnlai and which, when dried and beat«d, 
fnaea into a yellow liquid, cooling to a loll boru; maaa, the acU 
IB certainly bydrochloric. 

Aa a ditoride (auch a» common aalt) wilb a free add would 
bave an add reaction, and yield the same white pcedpitale with 
□itrate of ailver, a drop of the liquid slioald be eTsporated, wheo, 
if there is a cryaUlline residue, the add should be diatiUed o*ac 
and the cryitAllioereiidae examined by the microacopcuid UMed. 

3. Staint on Cloth, 
GmX the atained doth in diatilled water, Rlter, teit with idtall^ 



*. Organie SKxlurei. 

iioA orgnmu lujmili cootain bjdrocblarii; acid free or oomliiiied, 

md moft organic matton yield ■ precipitate with nitrata of silver. 

■ la tlie GOiit«Dta of the itomBcli, the acid may either eiiiC in Che 

lfi«e state, jielding a itrong ndd reaction, or it uu; be combined 

(ifitb an antidote, the liquid bi.'iiig neatrel. 

If the liquid hiu a tUoag acid reaction, wc diatil it at a tow 

mperatare, b; immoniog the retort in a boiling loliition of 

Ihlorids of (sidnm (two parts to one dF water), the diitilhitioD 

^ repeated bj adding distilled water to the drv retidne. The 

BqDid in the rec^vei ma; be treated a» pure dilute add. 

The detection of a minute quantity of Tree hydrochloric acid in 
the contents of the stomach dua not prove its exbitution at a poison, 
fiir the gastric juice ilself cnntaiui » minate proportion (1 part 
in 1500) of the free hydrochloric acid. But when the acid is fonnd 
in appreoable quButitji in the stomach of one in whom the symp- 
toma and tbs poft-moTtem appearance* were such as a mineral 
acid would prodocc, the cause of death admits of no doubt. 
If the organic Hqaid is neutral, it may either contain no 
I fc}pdroaUoric add. or the add may be combined with ao Botidote — 
«iai lime, soda, or potash. In this case «u evaporate to 
■ and calcine, diaolre the tcaidae, and lest the solution 
W of silver. 

If the rnidne coDsist of common salt, it may hare resulted 

ion of cBrhonate of soda as aii antidote, or it 

imj ba<ra formed part of the lixtd. In ihis case also the chemical 

oufirmed by the syinpUiniB and poBt-mortem ap- 

F stains which we may discover on tho clothes. 

QMnrtKafive Analfti*. — Use fiir this purpose the dried pred- 

A chloride of silver, of which 100 grains are equivalent to 

' HI of liquid hydro^loric add, 

' — Tliow already described (p. 415). 

tearamcei. — Those already described (p. 416). 
1 which a large quantity of the strong; add 
^^_ d In laal than twenty-fcNir hours, the epithelium of the 
Hltd ffBllet was ileatroyed iu patches, and the stomach con- 
i m la^t* quantity of black gramoui matter, Hdberiiig to 
• lurfsoe H< as l« admit of being prawrvcd, 1'he prcpim- 
1 (prtHuted by Hr. Bowman), with a drawing uf Uib gullet 
I stomach, is tn the Hnseum at King's College. As the ap- 
piraiices in thia case, especially the shrivelled and wonn^ealen 





Tbe nuDcnl atiit hkre >Iio besn taken in ■ tttlt d m 
with ulber mbaUoeet — nitric itdd with UndaDum, alon. it. 
hjdrodilorii' acid, in oombiluitioii vitb tincture of ino ai al 
ronve wblimiite, ii in nimmoii OM for browning gna-bontj^iSM^' 
liu been takoo u a poiHiQ in oue caie.* 

Thi alkalie* and tbrar carbonata share with tbe p* 
of irritnnt*. the minenl acidi. tbe property of Jtitiujiig 4! 
nnimal Unuei bjr tbe violence of their aclioo. witlmat pri>t di 
lo BprdGc remnte eO^ti : also tliat of acting as cono^ni ^ .1 
whon awallaned in a nineentnited fona (in luhalaDce, ir «n^ I 

The iIlHlies and their carbonntea, in oonimon with Ihe lUabt 1 
earthy are dislingmiihed from one clam of tbe metalt In Ih ' 
negatire eOect of nilphidr of amraoninm. from another daw brbi ' 
negalire elfeet of hjdnmlpharic acid and anlpbide of ammiiaiB 
Tliv)' resemble tbe alkaUne eartlii in hannp an alkaline tfttta 
bat thej differ tma tbein in yielding do prudpiute wilh (■ 
bonato of amnuniia. 

Tliough thej are in common use for bootehfild piuposta, <t ■ 
1, thcj are seldom taken as poisons. 

Canlic Folaih, aa nsfil in the laboralor; , la in tli 
Kra]rieh maasea, preaenting an imperfect crjntalllQe teitare. I 
i> aoap; to the tancb. acrid to the taste, bighl; drjiqoe 
fniblo bj heat, rapidl; absorbs carbonic acid from tbe u 
is very Balnhle in water. When fused in nnall (ylindrical n 
It is till- pataiiajiua of the ihopi. 

In solution as Uqtior potonit tt has a strong alkaline n 
changes tbe colour of black cloth lo brawn ; is not preapital 
by carlioaic or SQlphnric arid, but jieids with a solutdon of II 
chloride of platinom a yellow precipitate. 

The carboaale i^f polatk, birarbonale of poUufi, at tati A 
tartar, is sold by oilmen in two forms. 1. Aj a inottlcd d 
queaeent maM— grey, yellon, brown, and black — with a 
feel, nriDons laate, and stronfr alkaline reaction. In this fbrm it 
is known at A)bu) or Polathii, and is neal chiefly for cleaning 
oil lampa. 2. In laall white graina, or at a nbite aemi-crydal- 
line nuus {Fearl<u\) baring: similar detergent propertiw, mt ' 
Ditd for wwhtog and other clcaiudng purpones. 

■ * Midinl Gu«tle.' Noi. 1B». 

^m uxiuei L«3 


<iiaTiKttr of llw »Jw i"^ tlw t*i> »lki«tw, *\ ben ronvertei 
(ritralf bv dOBlf nitric ■ctd, fc^ etjttiUiiw u rLombic j 
and potath u prinu. 

S. /• Orgaaie JtUtmrvt. 
The [irorea ii tlw nunc at fnr cirbooatv of potash. 



iW-wor(flB appearancet, — Th« liuingmembnoeaf tk. 
and gullet ii (oneDHl and corroded; the oaiplugii^ i) 

and iaUtXioa are inflimal, with abniBun and nlcentioaa 
lining ■Dembnnc, smI dark spot* or pntuhes oiund bjr tM 
nied blood. SiHDetiinei the mflanmiBtJoii extendi to thfrlL 
or lungs.* Id chronic cues, large portions of epitlidiiimV 
mneoii* uiembrnae are found remavul, and Ihc gullet and ilnM 
are contnelw]. Pcrforalion ha« nut taken plaM in aoj of Ih ] 
recorded i-ases. 

Fatal q»aalUg.—Ua\{ m otiniM. 

Fatal pfriod. — Skortrtt, three lioura. Artrvge, in Uwd^ ' 
ritjr of cusea, witliin twentj-four huun. In clironic ouot, Ifet 
fatal event may be delayed for days, ireeka. niontli^ m wen )eBi. 

Tnattatal. — Ai an antidote, Tinegnr, largely dilated «ttl 
water, or lemon-juice and water. Acidulated deuuliciit drinks 
and the Joice of orangei and ripe fruits muj then be fndi 
adniniiteted. and almnnd or oUve oil. Inflannnatioii nu> bt D«( 
bv giving ice in luhntance, or cold liquids; pain by prtyt '' 
(tX upiuui i and colUpie, if present, by ntiumlautj. llie il 
pump hIioqU not be oied. 

Cauttic toda baa uo medico- lefral iutereit. Carltmafa t^wttb 
is sold by oiltnen for clennaiiig purposes, in two faring h wdk 
and liettmda — the soda in a dirty crystalline man, tbe bcatag^ 
in msHcs of a purer white. Carboinito of aoda may ban to bl 
identified in subitatiiM, in solution, and in organic miitam. 

1. In SMbataim. 

Carbonate of toda lias an alkulino reaction ; efrorveace* and 
give* out ruibonic acid wbeu treiiled witli an arid ; readily aji- 
talUzcs ; is efflorescent ; and imparts a yellow tint to the flame of 
tlie blowpipe, 

2. Ja SoUlion. 

Carbonate of soda differs from carboiiit^ of potash by yielding 
no precipitate with bichloride of platinum, or with turtaric ai-id - 
while it gives witli anttmoniate of potHBh a white cryatuUine pre- 
cipitate. Further disljuctions miglit be founiled on the form and 
character of the salts of the two alkaliea. When i-oaterted IbIa 
nitrate by dilute nitric icid, suda cryelallins as rhombic n 
and potash as prisma. 

!l. In Orgaa 


' JUixlum. 

'4rl>onate ol 

t, Patl-merlfm AppeanuKti, and Trealmeat. — Tliofe 
g hj carUmate of poluU; the lyniptonu lea levere, 
■ Um pcM-mortciil appeuciMCB leu inarkcil. 


inionU. diMolved In vBt«r, as the Vtqvor anvunitr, 
nUncd irith carbonic add u Clie Htquicarbomsit, ii largely 
ri ID nxiBdiK and llw arts, and octasiuiull; taken as a pinson, 
'all/ I17 accident. Tbe inoatiooa n>e of the vnponr, to tddm 
~ ' m fiuDting fita, liu al» raiual death by loffocatian or 

a of tbe air-paingga. 
■ nponr of ammomi ii readilj recogniud b; its pnn^nt 
■r. aad bj tb* change it prodacea in legclaUc colours being 
IpMad fay beat. Tbe itiqiiearionaU (ralgarly known u 
kbat^ nilatUa mIi, or Huelling ulti) ig nxogsited bj iti 
(■rt fldoor, and diitinguiabed Itma tbe carbonatcB of potiuli 
. Mda hf Wng Eompletely dUaipnted when beated on plminam 
, tl b iliilliiltiiiihi <\ from liquid ainniaiiia b; efferreacin); with 
Midi afld jicUing ■ wbite preci)ntate with the aaltc of lime. 

( i« aat tne Etdid ita lalts when they bto heated nilh 
'w, the nponr bving identitled by iti 
ion, and b; tbe denie tamtt furmct 
with bjdnicbloriG acid. Ammonia ii 
it flnt be Mparatad by i^Cillation and Lben 
MvliStd tj I(> appropriate tcaU. of which the moat delicate ia 
VtaiWi iw^liiil. vbich prei a reddiih-brown colour witb tnicea 

fyiifiiwl — Theacs ai tiv aa they are doe to contact, are the 
■ID* a* Ibow caoMd bj potaab and aoda, and tbeir cartioiiateai 
bat ban ita olrcme ndatilitj it gaina acceaa lo tbe ur.paaaagea, 
■nd haa Utua proved fatal in lO dutt a time a* /oar niMifer. 

Ad-awrffiB AppeoriuuM. — Sign of violoub influoimation in 
tL« aSmrstary uDal with teparation of the epithelium of the 
■Doatb. and Inflainmiitorj appeanuuxa in the air-|xuBagei. 

Fatal Dot*. — One drachm of the ilrong Lii]. AiniuoniiB baa 
pnived EitaL* A caie of death by SO gTamaica.t and another by 
to iiMiiiiia. baa been Tepart«d.t 

AiaJ i^triod.— From ■ few mlnataa to fevera] honra (8. 4, 11). 
IVMClMat. — Ttnrgar and water aa an antidote, aiid the attur- 
V to Ibed 


■Oar'* floavUat bportiu' *. itH. p. W (HIotodhii). 
t ■ J«D. 4* flKm. MM.' Jolj, 1MB. 
t'JaM,d>CtuB.IU<L,'M>j, laaS. 





ThK carbonates of potasli, wrfn, and nmniOQia have been >In»i^ 
treated of (p. 430). Tha binmulute of potash will be exsoiiacd 
witli oxalic acid; and the iodide of poUusium with iodicie. TtK 
poisons, thwefore, which remain are: — 

I. Nitrate of Potash. 2. Sulphato of Potash. 3. Ktartntt 
of Fatash. 4. SulplAte of Alumina Bud Potash. 6. Sulphoretrf 
Polo^um. 6. Chloride of Sodium. T. Chlorides of Lime, SaiM, 
and Potash. S. Sxlts of Baryta. 

Tho nitnte, lolphatc, and Intartrate of potash, t^ mlphMc of 
elatQioa and potasli, and the chloKde of sodium, act ai poiioD^ 
only in large doses. As they are not deemed p<n*oi>ciii, tkf 
liBve I>eeD preti to discharge n'Ormt or to procure abortkiD. Bttt 
thu snlphuret of potsseium, comhining the irritant action of Uh 
base witli tlie narcotic property of tho tulphm'etted hj-drogen gs^ 
is an ai'tivc and fatal poison. 

I. MiTSiTB or POTABH (Ifitre. Sallpelre. Sal PruneOe). 
Poisoning with nitre is genemUy Rfxidtntal, b^ng mifltaltea &r 
sulphate of soda or sulphate of inagneua. 

Fmpertiti. — -It is sold as colourless or nearly colonrlen trji- 

tala, or as crystalline niasseij and in uhito epherical or cin^lit 

cakes (sal prunelle). It has a salt cool taste, and the lamiliai 

property of earning matters with which it is miied to defl>gnt«. 

Tuli.— See nitnc acid {p. 433}. 

f^M^jfonu.—Nitre may be ^ven in sncli doses as a aeraple, 
two or three scrnplcs, and even half an ounce, withont injariooa 
eirects. In larger doses of one or two ouuees it has acted only 
as a strong emetic or purgative. But seveml case* are on Koxd 
in which doses of an onnce and upwards hav« prodaced symptoms 
of acute irritant pwaonicg, with profuae dtschargea of blood by 
vomiting and purging, and bloody urine. There ii extreme pros- 
of strength, accompaoicd or fallowed in some instancea 1^ 
< sytnptouis, snch as convulnious, (light trismus, ti 



and itopor, loa of apeech, Bcmotioti, >th1 Toluntary motion, uid 
illumoDB of thi) Kauei. In one case th»ra wbe cbotts of tvo 
monlLa' dumtion. 

Fatal Date.— Oae oanoe ot the suit has prm-ed fatal. A cuo 
of btal poiioriiiig by 25 gr.immes (about 37fi grains) is reported 
by Clievftllier.* On the otber band, Bnileyt report* a oiue of 
recover; after 4 oimc««, tiilieQ bj luiBtike for anlpliate of nuig- 

Fatal Period. — Duath bag taken place in thne honn. 

Poit-tnortan Aypearaneti, — Acute iaflauiniatiDn in tlie (to- 
inach and naall inte4tini», with black patclics in llie atomacb, 
naambling gangrene, la ons cue, a imiUl opening id the 

TreatmaU. — Vomiting, if nbaent, to be promotud by emeticE, 

followed by the abandant use of dilaenti: or tbe stomach-pninp 

tnaj be nied. ADtiphlogistic remodiia nuiy be rei]uired ti> 

combat bigb inflanimntorj action, tedatives if nervoua aymptomE 

I an proKnt, and atimulanta in case of GoUapac. 

n. IDLFHATB OF POTASH (Sal de duoba; Sal Polychreel). 
Thil adt has proved Mai when given in large doses. Ten 
imi given, in divided doiea, to a Frencli lady witbin a week 
f confiDemeDt were btal in two hanrB, with tbe lymptams 
d poat-noTtem sppeoninoes of inilant poisoning. In a niiddul 
ca ODOoe and a half csiued marlied appearances of irritation 
■tomach end amall inteatinei. (Lethebj.) 
It.— Tiie nit ia readllj idcntincd by nitrate of hnrytn, na a 
It tar the acid, and bicbloiide of platinum ii a teat for tlie haw, 
Trtatmnl. — Aa for nitrate of potash, 

, BITlSTBtTB oj P0TA3H (CVeaM nf Tartar, Argol). 
In (Dch large doaca la two onncea and upwards, tliis «alt i> a 
It baa proved fatal to an adoU male in forty- 
Lb tbe aymptoDta and post-mortem appearances of 
It poiaoning. It ia generally fonnd aa a sparingly soluble 
powder. The solution liaa a feeble acid reaction. Tht 
■ converted by beat iuto carbon and cnrbooate of potash, 
h-htter efi>iTTnCOi with acida. Tbe base may be identJUed 
t platlnam. It may be obtained as a aedimeot 
]1lhla. Tlie irealmnt 'a by copiooa demulcents. 
nntdies approiiriute to the condition of the lystem. 
n of tLti IncnrlioDate of potash nisy be given with 


IT. de Cbi 

^ MM.- Feb. H 

■t ' Phil, HnL wid Surir. iKpV Jlma, 1<I}1, 


' ALJumx Aid) poTiaa {dbtm). 


Pmp^fiai. — It u found in (3>mmeive u a colottrlMi 
line mui, or in the oalcined state bb a. whit« niMa orpowdv. U 
IB also met with u iron-Blum. It hni a sonr t^ite, «id ;i«UiN 
idd lolntion, readily dinin^iahed frani dilate free acidibf an- 
poration. If b drop of the lolnticm be placed on ■ slip of fj^ 
it commonly leaves on evaporation a beaatifiil ooaipoiuld eijMll 
consititlag of atrniglit parallel columns crosaed at right anglt* tj 
short line^ and Bnrroanded by reetangolar CTjitaUine fao^ 
blended with regalar octahodra. From ntursted or iliDDguti- 
tioTu of alum the crystuli are deposited nther M octabedra V N 
cubes, and large msBaes of crystals, consiiting of pUea of ocUtwte 
either colourless or coloared, are ftmiliar objeels in the ^upL 

Teili. — The snlphnric acid may be detected fay the adntte rf 
nitrate of baryta ; the alumina is thrown down by liq. potasa^M 
a white preci[ntate, soluble in so exceis of the preciiutant; ^ 
the potash may be detected by (he chloride of platinum. 

Symptonu.— Those of simple irritant poisoning (p. 878). 

TrtatneiU. — That of simple irritant pirisoning. ASler ew^ 
iag the stomach by tbe stomach-pump or by emeUca, lime-wala 
may be given with advantage. 

T. BCIPUUBET OF POTAsaiCM (Lifer o/ SWpiw). 

The alkaline BUlphorets are active pcrisons, coabmung an irri- 
tant base with a narcotic gaseons acid. 

Pnpertifi, — It is found in tbe shops in dirty-^reen nusae^ uc 
in powder of the same coloar. It yields a yellow eolation, and 
has a strong odour of sulphuretted hydrogen. 

TetU. — On adding an add the gas is disengaged, and plo> 
duces its characteristic effect on paper mtniteaed wilii acaUle d 

SsfptoBu. — Those of acute irritant poisoning, with the ad£- 
tion o( convulsioDS, or of stupor. The breath, and the matten 
discharged from the stomach and bowels, have the odoor of iha 
gas. Death may oocur in so short a time as a quarter of sn 

Poit-mortem Apfearaneei. — Redness of (he stomach and dno- 
denmn, and deposit oF sulphar on the mncous membrane. The 
■nrfiue of the body very livid. Tbe lungs gorged with dark 


»l. — Dilute BolulJaiu of cbloride of soda or 
(bliMching liqaiJa) ihonld be imnipdlatel; administered. 
ntnuDder ef the treatment la that of irritant poiioning. 

OP BODiim {Cotnmon Salt). 

Froptrtiei a»d Ttttt. — The salt ia aoluble in water, and the 
KktiOD on eVBpontioti field) cable cryalals. 'Ilie acid ii de- 
tected b; the luluLioD of nitrnte of mlver, which throiri down the 
white chloride ; aod the boae by the negative reitctioa wjtb the 
bichloride of phitiimm. 

Bj/vtptotiu. — Those of irritant poiaoDing (p. 3TB). 

Treatmml.—iit for nitnte of potash (p. 435). 

FtncdfTi and Liquidt). 

I ( BleacMog 

The chloride or hypochlorite of lime (common hleaFhing 
powder) j of aoda ( LnbamqDe'a or Fincham'a Uquid) ; and of 
potwb (Ebu de Javelle), ant all poinonoiu. 

Fropurliet. — Thne sebiituKeB and aolutiona ;ie1d chlorine 
^niitaneoD<l<r, or on adding an add ; and the; have a strong 
odoor of the gas ; and powcrAil bleaching iirop«rties. 

Tha Bjrmptoms, post- mortem appeurancoi, and treatment would 
ba thoae proper to the olau of irritants. 

Trofertiet. — The chloride of bariom is irregaUrlj crjatalliied 
In tables, It is permanent in the air, soluble in water, and has 
III acrid taste. Tlie carbonate ia a line white powder, iniolable 
in water, bat aoloblc with eHervescence in dilnte adds, and 
readily docompoaed b; the free acids of the stomach. 

Tiil». — Baryta ia precipitated (roiD its aolntlona as a vhite 
carbonate by caibonate of potash, and ai an inaotiiblo white 
nlpbate fay nilplinric add or the alkaline sulphates. Oulic aoid 
doea not predpitate baryta ttma dilate solutiona. The adds in 
eombinatjon with the hue are easily distinguished : carbonic add 
by effenesdng with dilute adds ; muriatic add by nitrate ot 
ritver; nitric acid by predpitating tlic base with aulphate ot 
potash, when uitre will remain in solation ; and acelrc acid by 
tbe odonr of the vapoor disengaged oa adding dilute salphoric 


Salts o? tub alkalies axu unas. 

debllitj, dimness of ligbl and double v 
and violent be&ting at tbe heart, 

Poii-miM'lem Appearaticei. — Those of irritant lf«'»i^ | 
(p. 378). In one case, in which death todi pkoe ii 
the itomacb wu found perforited. 

liital Dow.^Tiiit hiu not been oacprtained; fa< 
teresUng CHM rejrorted by Dr. Tidj.* vrbere "green Sre" wii 
given bj mistake for flowers of anliihor, death took place in Bj 
houra. 'rbe quantity talcen would be equivalent to lOiDeirlal 
more than a qiuirter of an ounne of nitrate of baryta. 

Tivalmnt. — The tree tue of the «u!pha[« of soda or of Mf 
nesla ae an antidote, emeties. and the stomacb-pump, nwift«k 
It is that proper U) tlie iirilanta as a claai. 

' ■ Ucd, Prai uid Clreulu,' IMS, p. U7. 



1. Nltniui-aold Oas. (Sa> p. 425.) 

2. Snlphuroiu-add Qas. 

3. Ujdn>i-hlaric->i^d Gas. 

4. Chloriue. 

5. AmmoniiL (See p. 433.) 

9bM initant guc* faive the common propert; of irriUCing nnd 
hming tlia tjt%, thnwt, aod wbola extent of tbe air-pawaget, 
d ia m oOneeatnUd farm mif caiue fatid Bpuim (if tie glaltia. 

2. Salpi»mu-acid Oaa. 

This gM ii on* of tbo prodncta of the combaation of commoo 

•Ml, and ixntribates to tUc latal result nrhen con! m burnt in 

■pBTtmedts. It i* alao the chief csase of the imtiiting 

which iaae from the baker'i oTea. aiul contributes to pro- 

the diKuc* of tbe cbeat to which the London bakers ure 

3. Hsdrochlonc-aeid Oat. 

nuule on plants by Drf. Turner and 
Cfaristison, anil from csperitncnta on small anioinls h; Mcwn. 
BOfCTSoa (we chapter on Poinnous Graa in CbriBtiMm ' Oa 
~ ' ']^ It is evident Ibat this gHS is posseued of highly irri- 
tiOL, and that if inhaled by the iiomnn lubject it 
lif^ ■■ certainly as any other of the irritant gaie*. 
4. Chlorine. 
{« largelj used in bleaching, and, in the aick room, as 
It prodqcei violent irritation in tlie eyes, nostrils, 
I, and throat. In a rate ated by Christison, grcst 
tf WM obtuned by the inhalation of a small quantity of sul- 
pbar«tt«d hydrogen gu. 

From ioformation collected by Chriatisno, it appears that men 
wIki are in tbe habit of inhaling air imprognftled with iihloHno 
Ucoma gradually afvnstomed to its use, tliougb they tuffer from 
dyspeptic oomplninM and acidity, and lose Heib ) bnt nevertbelcM 
uaaj of them attain to an advanced age. 



rnospROBua. 441 ^^M 

ovfT-doMit it veej often Ukeo in Prunes, and aomrtimM in 
EngUnd, u It eiiiEa on lacifer nntchQi ; and hiu bwn given in ' 

■ulataiKEi uid liquiJa of itrong colcrar and ttarour as a poiton, or 
M in ai^TodisiRc. 

Sifmploiiui. — Poiaonlng by phoaphnra* ia characterized hy tlie 
rariety of ita ijmpCom*, and often b; thnr obtcuro and iiiaidioa* 
character. It ma; ocouion three well-deHned groups of eymp- itrJittj^ 
toma — a. Irrilaml ,- b. Stnott ,- e. Urtmorrhagie. 

a. At the mooieiit uf awalluwing the poison B digagr^islile '^ 
tote and odtnu are often perceived, comiisrcd by aome to garlic, I/. 

bj other* to bnmiug solpbur. There ii hent and pain in the ^****A*I 
throat, swelling of the tongui!, and ■ametimn pniu In the pit of ^\i^ , 
thostomichiWitb discomfort and exritement, and DHUseg. followed / 
often after a considerable interval, by Tomitiii); of inatl«rs mo- ^^H 

eons or trilSunsi rarely bloody % ■omatimes shining- in the dxrk. ^^| 

Vomiting, when it oecnrs, afibrdi rvlief, but it ii often absent. ^^H 

Colic paiiu and diarrborn, with some tendome» of the belly, ^^H 

■MDetimm folloir. The countrnsnco undergoes little change of 
expraaion, and the mind is intact. At the end of tweuty-four 
or tturty-sii boors the vomitings cease, the patient goes uboat as 
(MOal, complaining of vandering puns in the limbs and loins. 
The pulse is (mall, nit, and slow. Thta treacheroas calm ma; 
last far two, three, or four days, or evon more, and wL«i the 
patient seems to bave recorered, he may die suddenly without 
pTcaenting any new symptoms. Bat generally, on the second or 
fldrd day, jaundice shows itself with headache and sleeplettness and 
retention of urine, whicb, when drawn off by the catheter, is 
fbnnd tinged with bile, and perhaps albuminous. Vomitings 
Rbo occur ftom time to time, and painftil, sometimes Involnntary, 
dachargei ttma the bowels. Acute deliriom, followed by Gttat 
eoma, tasting from ui to twelve honn, terminate the case. In 
man; young infants, vomiting, folkiwed by somnolence and con- 
valsions, ore the leading symptoms, and death takes place in from 
fbur hours to two days. 

b. In this form tJie symptoms in the throat and stomach are 
attended by iTceping tenntions in Ibe limbs, painfol cramps, and 
repeated fsinlings, with extreme prostration and somnolence, but 
DO feter. and no venereal excitement. The skin is dry, yellow, 
and marked by erythematous spots. About the fifth or sixth 
day, lomctima later, acute delirium suddenly breaks out, with 
ripd contraction of the jaw, and conTnlMons, folkiwed by coma, 
and death in from a week to a fortnight, rarely later. 

^^ c. The symptoQU set in as in the previous varieties, bnt the 
^Bttmtten vonuted often comist of pure blood, and are succcedod by 




•t. — One ^io or leM. 
I Frriod. — In acute aaa bi little as Toar bonra. In 
I, Iir« miy be pralmigiHl Tor Berersl moatlia. 
— H'ben odled to > rsM of poisoning supiioeeil to ba 
1. tlie nediml man may be able (a au-'ertain llie fnct 
ll bj doiitig the doon and windowB, and eimniuing 
d DOitrilt, penon and dotbea of the patient, ub well 
« reeded from the attimBch Or bonclB, oc things □□ 
BWajr have been discbargcd. 

C br nbttphony TeiBp|blM in miinv rwnwlj. thp 

-p 1 aente t>1L«> Klmnt.. if l.h» livw There arc, 

lain point* of difference. lu acute yetlow atrophy 

i ngn* of unite gaitritia vhich in phospboma polwa. 

■ the jaundice, are nantingi and cerebral ajmptoms 
B prediiiainant ; and thongb in both condition* there ie 

Btion of the liver and internal org:an>, in phoepborua 

I lifer ii anully Tound enUi^ei], and tbe lobulea 

l^irtula in scale jellow Blropliy the liver \t greatly 

e, greaay on the mrtace, and with the lobnlel 


■ jellov atropby lendn anil t}iro«ii are fonnJ abnn- 
n Qm nriiie ; while in phoapbunu poisoning thete pioductc 

e twIt if erer found, thmr place being taken by eertoiD pep- 
'" e bodUa along with Hrcotaotic acid. From the rciearchca 
of Vat and Batter (we ' Joum. of tbe Chem. Soc.,' vol. xxir. 
f, MA) it wmld appCBr, however, tbat theru is no easential dilTe- 
I MMin halwrnn the eflecta of pboipliorui poisoning ami acute yellow 
atnftbj I tbe differencet obwrvablo being dae more to the fiut 
lh«t lh« dvuigei tatie place more rapidly in acDte yellow atrophy 
tlm ba pdnnuig by pboaphonu. Tbe latty degenerBtioii canaed 
bj pbMi^Ninu ia atbibal«d to dimiBiabed oxidation of fat and 
JBuraMid tiuuTormatioD of tbe nitrogeainu tiaaaea. 

TW»<irnt. — AHlidolt. — Tbe recent reeearchea of Kobler, , 
TMtcv, and othera leem to prove that in oil of turpentine we fill ff\ 
pMBm Ml ettdent antidote for pluMpbonu, provided it be given \ ,\j j 
hi tia«> Tbate ia aonw difference of opinion an to tbe kind of <Hi Jw vp>*W' 
«f tarpcilUiM which ii moat effectual. It would appear that oil 
«pf terpentine whivb ba* not been rectified, and which baa become 
if^t'*"* by long ftnoding, i> tbe bent. Vetter recomineada Da tn 
bafin tti* treatnimt with an emetic of aalpbate of copper (regarded 
m a powNfnl aotidote by Bamberger). After tbe action of the 



emetic, oil of tnrpentine » to be giren in M-misini 
muetUge, everj 15 minutea Tor an honr. Next itj, 
ahould be given in miicilngiiioai driotu, and lata _ 
held. The reat of tbo treatment will vary with tbe 

Detection tf Fhoiphomt. — Tlie cLaracteriitie odo 
phoms may often be perceired in tbe contents of tl 
If phospboniB bai been token in aabstance; nicb M h 
nuilcUet, it will be seen on inipectioD. It maj Im «_ 
solid •ediroent, whicb will become luminom, or bum, a 
bested. If we do not find any pbotpbonu i 
BtoDiiicli, spread out on a plate, taken into a A»A f 
wormed, may become InmiaouB, at tbe fiume tii 
tcrifttic odour ii^vea oat. Patrrfuctlon doe» m 
noutyi but it la concealed by turpentine, etber, ■ 
kmiDonia. Anatber metliod of procedure eoniisti in s^titing tkt 
on^nic nutter with biinlphide of carbon. Tbe liquid on eripm- 
tion may leave globules of phoapborna, wbicb will inflame is Ihl 
application of a hot wire. 

If DO reaiilt» are obtained by tbe above motboda, before preoel- 
Ing- to more minute analysia, we may apply Scbener** trial tiA 
It con«iat« in iiupending in tbe montb of tbe Qiub whicb i* np- 
pa«ed to contain the matter impregnated with phofpbarav a ittip 
of tbin filtering piipt^r aoaked in a uolutjoa <rf' nitrate of vlvir. 
On wanning the iWk, if photpborui be present tlie paper «ill 
become blackened by tbe reduction of tbe lilver and formation of 
pboaphide. But oa blackcuinic may likewiaa be earned by «nl- 
phuretled hydrogen, it ia recommended to loapend along with llie 
nitmte of silver paper a paper aoturated with acetate of lead. If 
tbe silver paper ia blackened, and tbe lead paper not, pboipbcra 
ia present. 

Mittc^iiicKt 'Meihod. — Tbia is one of the moat delicate tnta 
fbr pboaphonu. " To the organic matter dilated with *at« a 
small quantity of lulpburio acid ia added, to neutraliie any 
ammonia that may be present, llila ia diatiUed in the dark born 
a dask, tfarongb a tube kept cool by a stream of water. At rtA. 
condensation of tbe vapoura in tbe tube a luminons apiieanmw ii 
perceived. The appanlus is limilar to that figured at p. 396, but 
tbot. in lien of tlie cenlral tube, a long glaaa tube of tmall diameter, 
enclosed in an outer tube nmlaining ronning water, ia snlMi- 
tnted, and the vessel of water ii dispensed witb."t It ia wit 

* For (s>pIfmB tnnorls or tefWDl rsuanhes iu r^atstt to phoapbami Kt 

•oolb?. tn thp Sjdcnhom Socictj-i Y™ B«)Ik. IBtB-IST!. _ 


^Mom^ft 3f^ji))<f.— Thn ii bawd on the tact discovered by 
bat pluwphorat aai its lower oxidntion prodncta in pte- 
ttcmt hjrditigcn CDTpbine to fonn pliospborettcd bjdro- 
I, vhb^ barni with an emerald-green flmne. Tbe Hjiplication 
', reqqirea tn ippinttiB limilar to tbsC uud in 
MM for tbedetectioD of arsenic (See fig. SS, p. 461.) 
n M generfli^d with pore nae and dilate aulpbaric acid| 
<l th* dnitl material rappoted to contun pbDnphoma i« then iatro- 
a (bnncL K phospbonn ia prewnt, the ga» isniing 
p tbf appantu bums nith an emerald -greeo fiame. Two or 
'[HU are to be observed in refereDcu to tbis. It li 
te uonle made of plaUoum, alt sucb metala as copper 
g Bfoiitcil A glaia nmile ipeedilji becumes no hot that tbe 
•h ann tluiogh phoaphorua ii preaent, does not eibibit a fjeea 
Tbt green oolout may be brought out in groat brilliancy 
Bag the Same from the direct ninli^ht, and pressing on ^t 
■ odU pncelaju lid. I'be pretence of certain vapoura, sncb 
■■ thorn <d akobol and ether, ranoeal the colonr of Ibe flame. 
Kvm (vIpfaDnUcd bydrogeo *u said to do so. Itlondlot, tborefore, 
Inataai of igniting tbe hydrogen inning from the aimplo arrange- 
nMDt dwnibiil, recommends that the pa should be made to ptisa 
into a vtanl eonUining a solntioo of nitratu of ailver. If plion- 
pbena ia preaent, a brownish-black preci[ntale of silver in combi- 
natioD «ith pboapbonu is thrown do«n. This pret'lpilate is tiicn 
to ba introditccd into a Uanh'i apparatus as befure, when the 
■BWraU-graen colour will be obtained with great distioctDeei. 

All tbaaa mettiDds for the detection of pluHphorus are adapted 
to the discover; of phoapboroi itself or ita lowest oxidation pro- 
dMta. Tie pretence of photphoric acid would be no indication 
' «nia baviog been taken as ■ poison ; far phosphoric scid 
ii a BOrtoal coMtilneot of tlia body, and of maDy arljclus of food. 

Cironie FoaoKing by Fieipiorut. 
. TIm tD*ktn of phoaphoma, the manobctnrers of congrcvo 
Hatftiea, the makera of soma kind* of verm in -paste, and pliarma- 
J cbcmiata, are more or lesa eipnaed to the vapour* of 
TboM who niffer from such exposure waste away 


» or its prcpBistioiu In medicinal doses, addsd to irrita- 
b of the klitneiitirj ennat. are catnrrhal ii<;mploniB, emaciatinn, 
, palpitation, gradual atisorptiaii of the tegticlcs, matninv, 
r glandaUr itructum, ptjaliim, increase of luret of the 
m, ptiapimi, and enlar^emeDt and tendernese of the liver. 
■ •j-atptoma hive been more than once produced bj udbII 
• admilurtered for a few dajrs at a time. 
W< mtrrtrm Jpptaraaeet, — Tliose of icnte irritant pcHsonitig, 
I corrcaum (p. 379). EnhirgeniDnt of the liver. 
|VaatB«B(. — After the ttomach-puiiip, the free nse of a weak 
Akm of orbouale of aodo, nod of dilnenta containing starch, 

hJJM » Organic Miziurtt. — The polaon ia readily identiflod 

Um tJtwacten abore ^ven. Biiulphidc of cartnn which dii- 

B it rewlil<r, peldiog a piuk aolution, luta alto the property 

r|Mn*if|f it fnta iome of ita eoladoos, aud drposiljug it 


lODIDI 0» rvuSBUm {Ugdriodale of Puiash). 
tpwriiu. — A crjitallioe anbitnnce, having a pecahir faint 
; white when pore, pennanent in the air, and 
T«r; Mhible in wntcr and alcohol ; hut wf ' 
t % jdbnrah cohnir, and dellquHcent. 
bna a cnbo (fig. T5). 

Titt$. — Strong nitric or »Qlphiiric acid tnms the ' 
(firatala brown, and liberate* the iodiae, which, o 
idjiog l""**" ™" '" violet vaponra. 

tm SaliliiM it has the following reactioiu :— Corroeive aabU. 
Bate thmwa down a fins carmine-red iodide of mercury; 
Elat* of load, the yellow iodide of lend j the inbnitrate of mer- 
ry, Uw ye)k>w gobiodide of mercury, which gradnully changce 
a dirty bmwn j aniphnric aud nitric adds change the solution 
a brown; and, on the addition of slarch, lo a churiicteristio 
It. The base m«j be detected by the bichloride of platinum. 
In OryaKic Uixtvrt: — Trarumlt aulphuretted hydrogen 
throqgb the nuxlnre to convert free iodine into hydriodjc acid. 
Kxpd tbe eiceaa of gas by a i;entlti heat, add potash in excess, 
fllter, and evaporate to dryneai. Plitra the residue in a covered 
trsoiUfc and char it at a low red beat j reduce the charred mass 
to powder, treat it with diitillud water, and Biter; coucentnte 
ky •rapotnlion ; and apply the lest of starch and sulphuric add. 
*,ii tbia way minute quHntiliin of the poison mBir be detected. 

fcy»y(on«.^Mlicn given as a mtdicini-, In small doses, the 
bydriiMlate of potash sometlmca acts injuriously, Ilimugh pecu- 



4 that BO ynpnation of awnnt; U 
an (f narcaiial Baliraiion no* p* 
Kd iiImiJiHiII I csnes the pbour 






Aumo u by Ik tlia most importnnt of t\w metallic poiwina. 
Whether mouurMl by the eilent to vhich it In diffuied, ita many 
■pplicationi In medicine unci Che irta, ur its lue u ■ pinton. 

Anonie and it« cumpaands enter Iiu^ly into tbe corapoutMn 
of the oirlh'i enut, u motallic snenic, nneniwia leld, the two 
•nlphido, TMlgitr Slid orpimont, or u a oonititiient of aeveral 
CTM of iran. copper, gilvDr, tin, liun, nickel, and cobalt. Most nf 
4m uMniuui a^ of commaree it prepared from an nneiiiisl inl- 
•fblda of iron, known u miapicbal, or nmmiical pyritv* ; the rc- 
' M>lnilef fVom the routing of oret, cbieQy of capper nod cobalt. 

Ananie hai aoojnlitigly been fonnd in Hierai ■oiti, and in 
~* ' wn in tliem, aiiil in aoaie mineral wntera and running 
■ma. Anenioiu adit ii largely difliiseJ tbraugb tbe air ear- 
foanding aome viiwItinK IWnacu, and arsenic acid and tlio alka- 
line MionRtee are nx-d aa niDrdaat*, in lonie dye-work* to anch on 
•xtoot aa lo puiwD the stream* into which they dtacharge tliclr 
nfoM 1 and even to tunt the water^upply of towni. 

Aa tha iron pyrites, or rnimdic, largely tuvd in the manufac- 
tnra of (nl of vitriol, contains imenie, much of the aulphuriu acid 
of eommetco is twnMd with it; and this bein^, in it* turn, used 
in the manidiieUirQ of nitHc, hydrochloric, und other *olatile 
amda^ of mlphate ol aodn, a* a preliminary to the making of thi- 
rarlxinat«, and for other pnrpoiea, many liquid aud solid anli- 
atHUCus in common uau in niedkina and tbe nrts are iinjirepuitvd 
with anciiio. 'llin two metals, iine aud cogiper, tbe two addt, 
the mlphurio and hydroehlnricv and the sulphide of iron nsed in 
In^ far tnenie, have all been found to mnlnin it. 

Araeaiooa auid, the moat iinportant compound of arKiiic, i> 

ACis. 4S1 

Tbt mtUU uwnie i> «(>Ud to niblimo it S56° Fubr.; but I 
haTO round thftt imatl qnniititieg ofthe mctitl lublinie St 330°- 
(O.) The aubiiniation givoa rUe to tbe oiloar of garlic Wli«o 
tbe procen U conducted in clme reuels, in an atmoapfaere of oar- 
bonic acid, it Kttlea on cooler lurfacei uiichaogedi but irbeD 
heated in tfaa air, it ii depoaited aa wliite cnide, or anenious acid, 
or ai a mixture of the aoid with tbe lurtn!. In eommoD with 
anlimon; it combioes with naaotmt liydrogea to fDnn arseniuretted 
bjdrogSDi irhicb gaa, wben heated or bnrned, girea up the pure 
metnl to cooler anrbuna ; and it iharei with teveral other metali 
tbe propert; of bting reduced and depoaited on copper hnled in 
■n acid liquor ooDtaining any of its prcpantiona. 

All thne properties of melnllic anenic are displayed in opera- 
l Hoiu on tlie luiall scale with the Bpirit-hunp and reductioa-tnbe. 
BiXhe vapour of tbe metal baa the garlic odoar : it ii depaait«d aa 
minua acid, when the tnbe contain* atmoapberic urj and u 
e metal when it ii filled with oarbonic acid ga« : it fbrmi a 
iaiag metallic cruit, or stain, an white ponwtiin when the 
niing jot of aneuiuiotted bjdrogen U directed upon it fivm 
mli'i appuatua; it leaves a aimilar itain in the tube through 
lAich the gaa ii transmitted, when it is heated by tlie 

d it give* a melallic coutiug to copper "^'B' ^' 
a bmled in liqulda acidubited with liydrochloric acid. ^ • 
1 Itoinsdi's process. The vapour of tbe pure un- ^^''^ 
d metal is depoaitcd on cooled surfaces at minnte ^1*1 
'gkbnlM. which sliine by reflected light like those of • • * 
mercury (fig. 7fi) 1 but when there is euongh air present 
to oiidiie part of the vapour, the globulea of metal iro blendvl 
irith the white powder or brilliant crystals of arsenious acid.' 

iMiWTOcS iClD {Oridr of Arim'ie, StiJuioxiiU tff Arimie, 

JTiife Oxide of Athihc, iVUti Armie, Arsei^.f) 
In tbe two ynrs 18.17-S9, irsenioos add was Ihe aieertained 
OKBan of IS5 deaths, beinj; as many u tbrae attributed ta all the 
prBparations of opium, and many more than those eanaad by all 
oMier poison*. Of lb«M 18.') dsath*, 113 were ascerbdned lo 
liHre been suicidal, 21 icddantat, and 12 homiodal; but the laat 
^Sure is ecrtaiiilj too loir. 

Sin<« the act of 1861 {14 Viet, cap. ilii.), which restficted tbe 
^'•■la of aneniCi and pnaoribed its admixture with soot or indigo 


a |iap«r hy Dr. Oaj, ' I 

II Prnienlon uii] IdsatilcaUun <. 


if (old in small qanntities, polnnlng by unetiiaiu acid hu UoSH 
less frequent, b^lli nlnalutely mid relatively to other poiicoi. Ii 
the Ave jt»n 1852-o(l, it ^ve rise to 27 only of tbe laootl 
■veiage ot 268 deatbi by uccrtuinnl poiMac In tiK first frnai. 
tli(Tcfi>Te, the proportiou nu 1 in 3, or 31 per c«nt^ in tlie Mcoii 
period 1 in 10, or 10 per cent. In Prance aneoiou acid Ida 
Btill hif^ber nak u a poiwm. 

Tbii mmtnon ii>e oT arscniooi acid as a poison will eralcM 
■urpriM ; for it i> 01 vhit« ai floor, is Is^telpaa or Deariy WB, nq 
be mixed with article* of food orithout undergoing or cmaaft^ 
cb*oge, ii ver^ cheap, and is largely uaed. as alreadj atatd Ibra 
great Toriety of porpows. 

Arteoicmii acid ia faoad in commenw ns R coke, and aa a aUb 
pander. The eake, when fir>t sublitDMl, ii nearly trauqann^ 
but in time becoinee opaque, reumbliuf; a white enamel with lU* 
trantparent stris. It ii the ponder that ia oommutily Died m t 
poiaon. Ar»eniau> arid, in both tbeae fomu, bfta wetl-marked idij- 
aical properiiea, and inay he readily identified by cbimirat ivU. 

Proptrtitt. — I. Sparingly aotubte in water, hot or cold. S. Vm 
nlutioa hai a very lUght acid leiclJott. 3. In sabstauoe tMr- 
leas, but ite loliitlon or vapour lia> a very fkint iweet taUc* 

4. The aqueoni aolalion alowly evaporated depoaita octabcdnl 
cryitala. 5. Very suluhte in atnmoDia, bydrochlorie arid, and car- 
bunate of potatb ; and deposited front its aolulJoiDS in uamm 
and hydrwhloric arid, also ai oetohcdra. 6. Combioa <ritk 
aUaliea, forming: wluble arnenitea. One of tbeae properties tU 
talMbilitg, muat be more minutely eiamineil. 

SoUtbUitg. — All 011DFC of cold viaUx disnlvea from half ■ 
grain to a groin j boiling water pnured on tlie poiion retain m 
uuling a grain and a quarter to the onncei and water bnlol Ii* 
an hour on tlie pon-der 12 gtaini to the ounce. The preieac* d 
organic mattcir renders the poiaon len lulublc. (Tnylur.) 

Tiatt. — We may liave to identify the puiiion — 1. /■ nAi 

5. ia (D^Hlioa. 3. /■ oryanie Uquidi. 4. /■ lir JtuidM a»l 
t.,lid, 0/ Ibr tody. 

1. ArteMouM Jeid in SKbttmce. 

n much anmlDiu leid a> mM 

J. 453 

depoul«d as an amorpbotu powdor. or u octahedrnl cr^iUI*. 

c. Moistened by liquor potoaaw tt nadeT^Doa no cban^ of colour. 

d. Hoiatened bj sulphide ot ainmoninm, no immediiite cliunge 
takes pUoe ; but wlien the eiceas of aiumonia hu evaporated, been 
diuipkted by beat, or neiitnliied by aceljc und, u canary -coloured 
Bolphide of areenic renuuoi. e. Wben amnious ucid mixed with 
cbarroal i» dropped into a reduction .tube and healal, tbe metal ii 
reduced and volatilized, and depoaited on the cooler part of the 
CqIw ai a thiDing metallic crust. _f. The sublimed metal has tbe 
odour of garlic. 

The two teat* of aublimiitlou and reduction most be more 
exactly deacribed, and their results miuotely ernmined. 

SublmalioH. — It hfta just been stated tbat anenians acid 
dropped into a mdoctlou-tabe and heated by the flame of a 
qnrit-lamp, becoiaes a while vaponr, which deposila on the cooler 
part of the tube an amorplioui powder, or octabedral crystals. 
But as tbe crystals are cbaracterigtic of tbe poison, uoC the white 
luitorpbouH depout, it should be well auderstood tbat in order to 
get characteristic crystals the white vapour must be rceeiTed on a 
heated iurbce. On a cool surlacv it is deponted as an amorphous 

The process of tuhlimatioa is osuoUy performed in a reduction- 
tube of aboDt the uxe and length shown iu 6g, 79, p. 455. After 
drying tbe tnbe by paadng it repeatedly tliroogh tbe flame of the 
lamp, the anenions acid, placed in s short tulxi of smaller size, la 
dropped in, and tlip flame of the lamp applied, so as to envelope 
tbe lower third of the lube. By the time that the inner tube is 
to bonCnl as to aublime its contimla, the temperature of the outer 
tnbe will be fiivourable to the depout of distioot orystals. 

The subliming teniperature of ameoioaa add is variously sUt«d 

tt 370° to 400^ Fahr., but I have uoertaioed, both by the method 

I MphuDed at p. 106, and by pUicing fragmentc of anenioua acid 

\ In nnall reduction- tabes and plunging thoin into n sand-bath 

with tbe tbenoometer, that the real subliming piunt is at or 

about S80° Fahr. (G.) 

The crystals of arsenions acid obtuned by this coarse method 
of aublitnation alu mult from the oxidation of the metal arsenic, 
•■ a constituent part of teats yet to be described ; und as these 
crystals always furnish a very important means of ideutiScatiun, 
their shape and characteristic properUes should be well under- 

TJif CryitaU of A mmou* Acid an remarkable for brilllaDcy 

d ppnuaneDce. Tliey are almost always distinct and separate, 
1 superimposed ; occastoiMlly they are groaped In 


(probalilj from iimilHi iwl 
heat) >11 tbe er^iUb uaoaie irregulu' md cviifam] btn^ irf 
■ame few Bpeaoiens conaist alniort wholly of tfae deep triaagilit 
plates which faiTs been mutaben for leir<A«ira (a form that iietR 
occars), white in otherB »gain plaUa of eTaiy roe, ibipe, and tlikk- 
ncu aboDnd. 

>e of the many forms which the ert- 


tala of a 

^ ^ "a- 7S, ox well as in Gga. 81 ami 82, i 

* ^J/Sfc/7 ''"T "™ miied with scattered globnlgi rf 

^^[^^QV bj reflected light in fig, BO. 


•nioQB acid, well mixed 
with about four times its bnik of finely pow- 
dered reeently ignited cbarcoal, is intra- 
dneed into the tubu. (ig. 79, at; a, with tlie 
precantions desorllied in speaking of the process of soblimation, oolj 
tluttitis not necessary to heat the middle portiou of the tube. The 
tube being hetdaten angle, and the flame of thetplrit-tainpn«Bclilf 
applied at o, the metal rises in yaponr, with the odourof garlic, and 
iidepouted from a quarter to half an Inch above the miitnre, as a 
dork brown or blitek ring, k. As the vapour qmckly attracts 
oiygen from the air, it is readily oxidized : ao that the ring is 
aiwa;* a mjitare, in variable proportions, of metallic anenie and 
nrsenioDs Bcidi the metal chietlj at the lower part of the ting 
wearing the appeuianca of n mirror; the middle portion cou- 
taining a Urge admixture of arsenious acid ; and tbu upper part 
oousiBting almost whollj of it. By cautiaoaly applying the A 

of the Ump to the lower part of the rltig. it may bo rendered 
mars compact and more diitinctly metsllici and by driving the 
crust npcatcillj up nod down t)ie tube, it stg. TV. 

nuj b« wholly oouvorted Into cryitola "f d~ 

When tbis reduction is pcrfDrnied with 
proper precaution* (oeing n tabe of green or 
Oennaa glau*), taking care tbst the mil- 
tare of arutiiuiu acid md cbircoal, ami tbc 
tobg itwlf, are tree from moiiture, to that 
the miitnrD inay not be driven a|> into the 
tube i lulling equal care lo introduce tbe 
milture (o w not to mil the tube; very 
Htiafaclcry rnulta are obtwned. Theuiiiod 
cmsia Dunnot he miitalicn Ibr glubula of 
luvrcur; j nnr for tluj crutt obtniiied hy Ilia 
nme proceia front llie while hydnl«l uidu 
of cadmium, ai the anhydrous uxido of 
cadmiam blended with the cnut has n brown, 
green, or jrellow eolonr. 

Bat a* it nugbt be alleged that the onut obtained by thi> pro- 
oeM of redudioa doe> not pracnC socb diatlnct elinrMtten lu to 
ju*ti(y ■ wIlneB in affirming that ll ii due to anwnic and to nutbing 
ebe, «• pnMead to obtain the crystal* of amenioii* acid in one of 
two way*. The «ealal end of tbu tube containing the reaidne of 
the charcoal i* dnwn ofT, nnd the inetatlio cnut driven up and 
down the tah« till it ia wholly changed into cryital* of tile lutde i 
or the aealed end of tlie Inbe. ■* well ai the part free from dcpoiit, 
•r* filed o/T, and tlie part cuntaioing the crnti, being folded in 
papar, i> broken into imall (Vagnienta, which are intrn>lu''ed. with 
like prDcautiOD*. Into a inwud reduction -tube, and tlw crust con- 
Terted into araentuiu aoid by beat. 

Bnt this moilo of procoring a crurt of metallic anenie ttom 
■nenioiw acid and charcoal, and crjitalaofaneniooiacid from the 
cnut IMIf. ia open to two claMea of oljectious. The method 
itanlf la wanting In ddlcacy, and encnmhcred by precnutionai and 
the Tcauita pnnent themarlvee in a farm very unfavourable tor 
namina^un by the Irn* and microscope, etpecislly when we are 
dealing with very amall quantities of the metal or il« oKide. 
Thew ohjeclion* are nlniatnl by the use of the slaiple aiiiiHrutui 
(fig. Wl diMTibed at p. 4U4. 

The mixture of arMDlrtoa add and chnrcoiil is flnt dropped Into 

^BBixed me 

mierotoope tbe sppeamion shown in Qg. 83, nioy be reidity 
obtained by covering tbe mUlure of BrMnlutu acid and charcoal 
with a Ujcr of dried biarbannle of ooda, » ai to fill the tube 
with an Btmoiphcre of carbonia add gas. S«) alio fig. 76, 

Tbe appoarnncei ehown In fi^rci SO, 81, and 83, prove COO- 
ively th« presence of arsenic. Thooe presented by Ibo nn- 
metai in fig. 83 are l«i conclusive, a* the globults ars 
be disUnguialied fiun those of mercury. Hence 
it my be ncoeisry in tbe case of tbe purer cnuti of arsenic, 
and expedient iii other cases, to confirm the evidence afibrded by 
the miiTOaOOpic eharBcters of the metallic or miicd emit, by con- 
verting tbe metal into arsenious acid. With thin view the por- 
tion of glau hearing the crust ahoutd be nit into narrow ahps 
with a initjng ^amond, and the alipa being dropped inUi a 
^>edmen-tabe (fig. 46), must b« treated in tbe manner just de- 
scribed. The gUis disk will he covered with glittering crjatslg, 
nr with a mist which can be rc»lved, under the higlier powers of 
the microscope, into groups of ocUhedra. 

It nay be well to state thnt the metals aidmlum, seleninin, 
■od tolturium btb alio iDblimed by tbe heat of a spirit-lamp ; 
itenium is deposited as globule^ and teUuriom sometimes 
' d into crvstats of telluric acid. But crngte of leknium 
! ooluur of port wine, the crystals of tellnric acid are 
and the metallic cruita of cadmium and (ctlnrium are 
globular : BO that tbe mixed cmsts of nrsenic cnnnat bo oon- 
■ ad with any other rwult of HiblimntioD, 
ire ia ttill one method of procedure specially aj'plicable U> 
V qoantittcs ofameDUKis acid. If, on evnpi>rsliDg on a porce. 
lab a dmp of liquid anpinised to hold anenious acid in 
m, a while amorphous, or obscure crystnUinc ilain it tefl, 
ly test it in one of two ways. 
By the simple praooM dcacribed In p. 405 (fig. 50). 
bvating tbe porcelain (lab. a mist will settle on the healed 
nipoMd diak al glass, which, when euuiined by the micro- 
will be found to condst nf crystals of arsenious acid. In this 
^Vrn f^ arsciiioDs add moy be iden^fied without difficulty, 
von m^ grain he found to yield characteristic rctulta. 
IVk* a fragment uf microseo[MC glass, and mark it with a 
diamond, an Hut when broken it may yield narrow slips, 
drop uf tb« solnlion on the gliua, let it dry, and then 
lie glan. lulroduoe t 


rnctioiu given. 

ir described, and proceed afcordlng t 


r part vf tbo lube will o 


crjotali of arudioDi ooiil. In tliis way, Um, nieh inmn qi 

of tbe poison a* tbe - u f ^ ^ gttxn may In iletfict«i] • 

Rnd leu than ^^ grun whox tho redoetion ii rarwAillj inl 

ikil fully perfonnei].* 

Tlieu) two roethala nf proi.-edare nte njoally «pplliailil* to tte 
redoetion of the metol : the flnt to the stnio of tnetalllr mnmie 
obtained by Uanh'i method on the ilab of white pOTMiaia ; iW 
second to tUo mixturo of uneniuDS odil and clurconl. By tlie 6t^ 
method tho ataln will be lubliined and de|iMit«il la ancsiina 
acid 1 by the ucond a cruil will be ohtnineil ; the llnl put d 
wbicb will gencrnlly be found la oansiit of metallic glabale^ Ha 
Kcuud of c^ry^tals of aiwiibiis add. 

i. Ariff 

u Aeid in SoMioi 

n aolution : — Thiw 

Tliere ore nevural Wit« for a 
applied us Itijuid, and known aa li^ 
guiihed OB tbu.7iuinnM fcff ; a fifth is the well-known Manlii 
tetl ; and a sixth the now equally well known le«t of SWateL 

1. The Liquid 7^(»,— TheM Me three in nnmbnri— th» 
am mo nio- nitrate of «it*er, the immDnlo-inlphata of cO)iper, and 
mlphiiretted hydrogen wnter. a. Ammonio-nilnite of nlnr-t 
Thii tbrow* down a rich yellow nruuitH of aillcT, whirb, ea il> 
poaure tn light, chtnget to dingy brown, b. Ammoniii'^talpliito 
of copper^ cauiei » preclpltita of the bright gnen knenit* cf 
copper, c. Sulphuretted hydrogen water throwsdownlheydlow 
Bulpliide of urBonic Tho lulpbido of niuinonium pnxliioea DO 
imniedinte oHbct, but utter a loug inUrval, or on the addltlM 
of a lew drap» af acetic acid, CDiuei the aame proclpitute. 

Thoe t«tg are suppotid to be applied in BnnKsaion to ■ clear 
coloartew liquid believed to contpiB araenions arid, iTid so appllld, 
ure free Irom objection; but it aliould be uiiderit{ind lliub a eola- 
tion of phoaphoric arad yields with iimmouia- citrate of nilrw ■ 
yelhiw prwipilnle, Ha nn alVnline iihrmphiit. 


c. 469 

and that ■ deooctiDn of onioru (rim with the coppec nolution > 
green prnripitatc. Al thue tiquidi ini only meil ai trinl l«U, or 
to prnve llial ■ white powdor or oolourleai cryital* abt«inod Irom 
the oiitlaCion of a ring of motal renlly cnmiuit of aneBiniu add, 
thcM IkcEi <b) not oonatitntfl an olgcction ta the t«<ti. 

OoHinu Tttt, — Thia tfil. too. ia auppoaed to be applied to k 
clnr colonrkaa liquid. UaTing ftKertained thnt it liaa no dedded 
Mill or alkaline reaction, we aligiitly acidulate with acetic acid, 
■nd tmiumit tlie lulphnretted h;ilr(^u gut through the liquid. 
If it eonUina aneniouB add. it won aaiumea a rich golden jellair 
tint. If llie qnnnlitj oT the piuaan ia cooaidenble, a preci[Nlate 
of the mme colour ia fonucd ; hut if it ii in small quantity, the 
precipitate I> not fonned till the ex«» of gu hua been expelled 
by heat, and the liquid haa been left at reat for tevenl hours. 
The only other aubatanccs which jield with culphuretled hydrogen 
* yellow precipitate are the peroiiilcaoftin and cadminm, both of 
rare occurrence, and eaaily diitinguished. Tbv aalphide of anti- 
mnay it orange-coloured. The pretumption, therefore, ia attong 
in laTOiir of anenic, and may be converted into certainty by col- 
lecting and tcating the prccipilate, or by applying the ammonio- 
nitrate of ailver aud the auiuionio-mlphate of copper to other 
porliooi of the aaiue liquid. 

The predpitated nilphide of anenic having been allowed to 

•nbaide, ia to be caretUly collected, washed, and dried, and lub- 

mitt«d to a proocB of reduction differing from that already 

dsKribed when apeaking of anenioua acid only in the aobatitnlion 

fbr charcoal of a Uoi containing an alkaU. That uaually employed 

i( tbe blaekfita formed by incinerating a iniiCure of onp port of 

nitrate of potaib with two of the bitartratc. But incinerated 

acetate of aoda, or a mixture of one part of cyanide of potaawnm 

«^Ui three parti of carbonate of loda, preriouitly well dried, ia to 

I i» preferr«d. If thia lait fim is used it should be in the propor- 

' Hm of one of the sulphide to tweWe of the llnx. The metalllo 

I (mat obtained by this proceaa of reduction i* found to be a 

I nUtnre of metallic arunic, anenious add. and undeoomposed 

1 Mlphiile. 

[ Id dealing with minnte qnantitia of the mlphide, the method 
of reduction by the catulhu? tube (lig, 51, p. Wh) should be em- 
ployed. fatlnWKl, if Uia qnantitj h« mfficicttt, by that described 
al p. «H (fl«. M). 

ilw aulphidei of cadminm and tin arc thrown down imme- 
diately by oBlphula of ammoniam, but the sulphide of araeulc not 
Etha amminiia hai been dii«ip«tcd, or neulraliied by nn add. 
aniphida of anoolc i* very aolnhle in ammonia, those of 

In thi« ippitmiu!! hydrogen is gBDeriiE«d by pure xmc kod 

I ffllato ■uliiliuric Bcld, uid ths action i< continued till the Btma- 

I 9hMn<^ aic i* cmnplctel; eipellcd, und all riali of an eiploBion 

I BTi^iJed. Tbp dime of b ipirit-lamp is then iteodily applied fur 

[ ten OF fifteen minntn to tbe liorizoDtal tube. If lliere ii no 

it we nmcliiile th»t the linc and snlphoric acid do not them- 

I mIvw eontiin artenic. Having ascertained (liia, we poor into the 

1 tnbe part of tbe liquid rappoaed tn contain anenions 

d, nnd intmediatcly reapply the apirit-lanlp to the horizontal 

If tbe licjuid contain aramiooa acid, a mi'tillia deposit 

place iD tbe tube balf an incb or mors fmm tbe pxrt 

licb tliB llame is applied. Tbe boriiontal tube sbould be 

IT HI incbea long, ao tbst we may obtain two anvh omits 

ut. Bavins procared tlicse, we light tbe bydrogoa as it 

■uea from tbe end of tbe tnbe, and obtain one or two depouta 

n sUpa of poreelain, and othon on diaka of crown glaai. A very 

' le ijuantity of arsenic luffinea for botb tbeae purposes. We 

:ben continae to apply tha Usme of the Innip to the honKontal 

c till the ■bsonaa of slain fnim ■ fragment of glau bcld before 

let provM that the metal Is eihansted. The ■]>ata tbos 

ned connit eitlivr of arii-nie or of antimony. 

« aridenw aflimted by the stains tbm oblained may be eon- 

med by bending the horiaontal tnbe at right nnglm and holding 

ibc over the flame (fig. 86). Hie tube will he coated 

la add nanlting fWim the oiidiiUrin of tlie mctil, and 

In coiilonta, di»al(«d In ■ small quantity of distilled wjil«r, we 

jr apply tliB liquid tat'. 

The round lUriuon tlie nrfnce of poiceUio hare Ibefol 
[littiiirtive properties : — 

0. The BiMniol itain baa crefy TBriet; of t 
D tiiitt of copper to llut of iteej, but it iwTeT » 

appcsrsDce proper to moat crntla of antiinonir. i, Tbta 
■Uiii it mach more rewlil; diinpaled by the heat of tk' 
il gives out the garlic odour.* e. Tbe Ivo 4 
cb«ncteriiticii]l<r aOeclHl bj wrenl liquid aod g 
fnna which we leXeM three, Ibe tint two ■« t«ta bj m 
tioo, Iha laat at a lest bj aolutiqn followed by ■ 
The Gm of tliue Irata wu 
HiKhoS; the ac-ond by Dr. Ooy (' M«dusl Timet,' j 
the third alto by Dr. Guj in a former edition of tbi» w 

1, Tbe arMuical itaiii u mpidly diuolvpl by ■ 
chloride of lime {bteadung liquid), whicli due* aut itBtct Iht ttt- 
moainl ataia. 2. The antJiiioiual (taia is le« spredilj, bat it 
length completely diatolved by a aolntJoti of tlie prutuddiltidi rf 
tJn, wliieh doe* not dinolve the aneniisl (nin. a. "At iMi- 
monial (tain ii rapidly dinolved by the adlphido of antDOdoBl 
the anenicol itain ikiwly aod imperfectly. Tfa« lolttlica of Ut 
Butimontal staiu, wben dry, leave* nu onngc-oolonnd ^ot W 
Rilphiile of BUtimony, wliile the imperfuctly-diuolvid arawiial 
■lain preaents a light lemon-yellow apot of anlpbide at inaic 
miied with port^oni of anditaolved metal. 

Should the itain coatiun both antid-.ony nad Brtenic tba chlo- 
ride of lime will diaaoWe out Ihe araenic, and leave the notiniaiiy. 
80, on the other hnnd, the protochloriile of tiii will disKlni th 
antimony, anil leave the arsenic. 

Tbe anoDioil atain, aa it uaaally conlaina •oma aratniun* arid. 
may be teatcd directly by the ammonio-nidate of ■il*i!r iu ttrn 
following limplc way : — Add to the itiln a drop of nitrate of lilicr 
aolutlon, with a glaaa rod (alightly stirring), and then blow the 
vapour of ammonia upon it. The lemon-yeikw arsenite uf lilTcr 
will be immediately fiirmed. 

The larger and thicker atsina of araenic may alaa Im rmdily 
identided. Globules of metallie srsenio may be Hen by Hit 
higher ponera of the microecopu on the diska of glaaa (dg. tU\ 
or tho; may be transferred from tbe slab of poreelun to b glala 

• Thli ttstnubanipUsd tslblloiit:— Pi 

of antiiDDU on tMandaar mo obJunK iniu 1 1 
tha Dlkersida oftba alabalhim tfa«ll.|iii<i ' 
San* of Ibe arirtt-laiHp ateadllr to Iha iri < [ 

Oa D()iH, Ibe a»lii1llaoaiiceD([u(Diii<i'i [l.> '' ' '>-' - 

pasr, bsRin Uie othv ahomaDi aiKuiof Man itTw 

marsh's test. 

disk by the method dooribed it p, 40H, and itloatratcd in tig. GO). 
Tlie gi»m disk will be found covered witli octabednil crjilab; 
ta, if the eoU is lerj ahBliow, with (tlobnles of tlie metal, or tlie 
two cmnbined. 

The atuina of antimony and anenie in the tnbe alao present 
■one remirkalilc differcnon. Tbe sntimony ii deposited doea to 
tlie point to whicli tlie heat ta ■pplii'd. anil on botb liclea of the 
fljuii« (A, %, 87) ; the anrauc at aome distunve fram it (B, fig. 88). 
When lieated. the antimon}' volatiliiea very slowly, tbH araenio 
qoickly ; the nnenic hai often a nut-brown or copper rotnnr, tbe 
antimony the luatre of tin. Of these prapertiea the firat and 
■ecoDc] are highly eharactcristli: ; but tlie colanr of Iho cruala ia 
kM conatant ; for thongh antimoiiy rarely pr«aenta the diatinot 


^Haopper coioor of aiwnic, nor anenic the tin-liltc luatre that 

^^■iWlongs to moat crusts of antimony, cruita of antimony and 

^^EHsenic ma; happen to rewnibie eaali other in coUmr. Ihnngh not 

^^ Id aliape or poaition. The effect of heat ia dcciaive; for wbile 

tbo crilat of antimony motea alowly under tbe flamo of the apirit- 

lampi and undergpva no remarkable cbanjce, tbe oroat of araenie 

is taiiily dienpnted, and readily conferted into chami'terialio 

Ioryalalt of itneniouB acid. The cmata of arsenic and antimony 
aiay alio tic rmdiiy diitinguished by delacliing the horiiontal 
tube, traiumitting a stream of dry aulphurelted liydrogea f;n 
tlirongh it, and chodni: the metal, by the flame of tlie lamp, in a 
direction oppoaile to the stTeaQi of gaa. The antimouiul ccnst 
•haiigea it> place very alowly, and gnidnally aaanniri, but only in 
put, the cbaraeteTiaUc orange hue of the aulpliide: while the 
(tain of tnmic is really driven from point to pcHnt aa a light 
lenwa-yellow cmatof anlphide, 
Somf pnvantiona are necessary in oring Marsh's t«t. To 
fnard Sfi^Hinat exphaion, the gaa shonld be ^encntid freely at 
Snt, bat Iraa bri^ly wlicn adding the anapcctcd liqaid ; for the 
■maUert addition of another meliil occaiions ■ viuVnt ettriration 
wf gas. The flnt violent aetion hnritig aubaided. Iho jet thoold 
'•ht llglitcd i and the abacim uf araeiiiL- (in other worde the purilj 


t i»» ra -: — — ^_, 

db,ti.bviy.>»«^i ^ w I T il l I 


An^^ V BmUj eatet tor WM« 
ri) ii tin M ta i i m l w l ■!■ (ha «yKn ' 

arihi. Ki|«rii 

dip. up 10 * an 

le mttbod figorfd tad d 

. --aU of u _ 

¥ reaJit}' ti^mined bj Ibe microscope. 

K mellHaii gatitbctorj resolu iboold be db- 
ij gnuQ of arscDic, uid in (kitfol and pnc- 
' .-„',in Rrain-' 

uiui-i be taken in emploj-ing this test. Ai 
acid maij o " 
my i>( tbOK tbrowQ donrn by the electrotype proces. ■!» 
it, llio cuppnr dimM be fint boUed in the dilnu bydi«- 
ncirl. If it i« untarnislied, the Bcid may be considend 
ml if the cnpper itacir, when bcriled in tbcscid liquor np- 
> euntuln ■nenic, is nnt disaolved, and does not impart i 
ilour to the liquid, the copper may be uwd Kith saftlr. 

btilDllinearnBllaiuDlilin rarFincHmmL ditduk thMand nsd] 

CDlmui irid. TIh 
would atrj rf,. 

0JU.T&K1C TEST. 465 

It U anl; whea tlie liquid which ii being Ueted diwolTet tli* 
coii)>er, that tba impurit; of the metal can interrero witli the 
rctult. In onler. howover, U> ^ruinl sgiinat both fulluciei and 
ol^octioiu. a oopp«r of ascertaiood puritjr Bhould he luvi]. 

Tli« procww of labliioBtion wbich conititotes the secoiid part 
oTthatMtb necaury beaiaM other metala at well aa irkeuie 
jield mdallic depoaits: •oiutiou* ountaiaiiig mercuij and Nlver 
witlioot boiling, and Cbow containing antimony, )ri*iuotli, tin, and 
t\, on applyii^ lieaL AlkalLue lulphides alsu tamiih the m«lal. 
, TbcH mutallic deposits differ iu appearance; but not >o ai to 

HI with the n» o( furlhitr teit*. 

I Tliat Ume and Minilor itatenienls reaperling the detfction of 

XI quantities ofnraenic, or of other ptHaoiii. may not be dii- 

idited. refer to what is laid on this inbject at page WO. 

GitlmiH fill. — Onr colleagoe, Profi» Bloinm, advocates 

^^_lw method of eleclrolyus a* tbe lead objectiouable means of 

ft{|wvratii% atioainretted hydrogen and procuriofi onuts of 

PjMtallio arsenic. He lint made use of a simple modification of 

~ s J-tntie tig, 84, p. -160, but alterwurds pterrared an appa- 

■s of tlie bnn iliuwn in tlie nunciHl engraving, in which m 


e bottia, tlie bottom of wliicb is repkeed bj »ag«. 

loWu jMTcliiuait 4, sDCnred bj thin pbtiixna wire. Tbe cork a. 

carric* a fliaiieiled tube c. a imail tube d, bent at rigiit uigics. 

and cotinoctcd hj a raoulvhoiio tubu «, with a dmwn-out reduction- 

I ■blbn/; auil it is pierced bj n piatinum wire i, sutjicnding ■ 

"^-^tflofphitinuin.fiiil /. The wlte is conncotnl with ilie negnlivu 

ofa galvanic hatterj. Iliis bottle u placed in ■ gbtai a, n 

B liiTgn than llseir, and into whiob tlie pontite plate >. 

Udud to Uw H-lro It, of tba batter; is iiitroduued. Ttie 

a placvd in a lurgei vtsMd, e o, ItUed with eold w< 



poison ii coniidenible. In other cues tbe procen prsKntly to be 
dcKribod mnit be emplojed. Tbe solid matters Chat remalD on 
the Hlter mnit be prewr*ed, ao that if we fail to procure 
evideim of arsenic from tbe filtered liquid, it may be treuCed by 
tbe metbodji now to be described a* applicable to the tolida and 
Bnidi of the bod;. 

i. ArtrnifKH Aeid in llu Solid* or FCmuii of the Bodg. 
As there ar« caiea of poisoning by itraeaic, in which the poiron 
is entirely eipelled during life, w tfajit no trace of it cnn be found 
ia the sUiinacb after dcalh, it ia most important to be able to 
detect it in the fluids or solids to which it bus been conveyed by 

All tlie methods which hate bv«n proposed for effecting this 
otgect conust of three euential parts : — The deatmction of the 
Animal matter so ■■ lo ohlwD a liijnid which will pais Ibe lilUr ; 
tlie redaction of the poison to the metallic statp by Keinscb'a or 
Manh's method, or by electrolysis, and tbe complete identilicB- 
tion of tlie metal. 

For the destruction of tbe animal matter four principal methods 
IB been proposed — by oitrste of potash; by nitric acid; by 
Iphoric acid j and by hydrochloric acid. The lust of these me> 
tbods is recommended by its nmplicltj, as well as by the fact 
tbit the luid employed is the same that is used in lUinscb's test. 
. The fUiowing process, proposed by Freseuius and recniomendcd 
hj ProfsssoT Bloxam, has the ^cat advanUge of presenting the 
puiann in tlie Miiveuient and muisgCBble form of areenious ainil. 

If the or^uic matters are solid, they must be finely divided 
•ad bconght to the oonslslcnce of thicli gruel by mixture with 
If already in a liquid stale, we proceed at once U> digest 
fbr an boor, in a porcelain dish over a water-buth with 
hair aa ounce of bydrocliloric add, adding powdered cblo- 
Wte of potash oocanonally till the organic matten are diainte- 
ftitod. The rcaalUng oulonred liquid ia then to be filtered otT, 
tmporated over tbe water-bath to about an ounce, poured into n 
4>sk, and a few drop* of a strong solution of trisnlpbite of toila 
added tilt it smtdls stroiigly of anlphnroDs acid. The flitslc is then 
' 'a waler.bath until this odour ceases. Tbe resulting 
mixod with at least an equal hulk of water, may be 
for arsenic by the methods already deactibed, 
lalier Analftit. — llie quunUty of arscoious acid ia best 
by the use of the pure tulphldo obtained from > 
portion of the Altered llqnid: liX) graius of tnlpbide 

ff>MaetaJ.rrf>]i«n— w T|Diii ki tem 
« |<ifin » M« ultnmc, ■ i B iii li t r rt fartfct 
knd th* |Mw« i> <MMtad ta tte ■ t n .— ili. !■' iW 

or n U* toA at tW budj. it U 

MWBk iwitrinrf tn Ibr nmawCnf 

mmt eai mjy ti into the bodjr. To nu 

■wvwif; 10 anl^ ■ p-«tioa of tb* Md. U«b 

M« flm tnat«d irith hoUitig wmbr, wnl ' ~ 

kg wp gr rtk a to ■ oneienicnt quuMilj, ia tarfcd 

[■ uni . lrUiitgi*nna iBiBmiion ot ttic _ 

wH h WwioJ vltli one jmn of hydrodilorie acid to 

tbr lin* HhI iniD diacdirid b; tbii 

tidaif tufsrhonic of potuli in ettcw, and tlu 

Bi«nd and mlocnl h More, i> eiuniaed bt ~ 

11« fiiUasing fitcU hcariog OD tbc ralne to be 
ii*» » timi oT ammtit in the dtad bodj' reqairv I 

«. An«^ nar be detected In t)i« dead body aR«r 
iMw^iali cf tiw( aa aeven and leu ynra. i. An 
■■■^T fand Ultited to tba raata of Uie meet ■ 
«tM* jialir or pul«^ u tou-rettei iotu tlie yellow Klpkl 
tk nlfJntittad bjidtoem generated hy foUeUetioo. 
paiWii— «f aww ri c fraanc dead aniniil malter, d. Tbttiti ' 
foad RHja tm bcUning that OHlla «aa mUtakoi whM 1« 
attrvad that annuo b ■ nataial coiulUuent of Uie linaiBn bail. 
•> Aniaic whan cmtaimd in the tail of cciiieterie* U frntnilj, 
U Bol a)«8ir^ IB an liwilllUc form, in romlHUatioii nilh irao > 
Bar. /. h*r*'*'^<*'* °f <m«nie. ntliotlitr laken in aini^le kttc 
ttanx or In rnicatcd miall nr-m, ire alsiirU-d into tbe bluid. u4 
■•j^ hp futtiid in IIk Icxlum and >c(Tblicinii anil they an Ml; 
atoal.i eKnimtnl rmm ifaa budy. The limit unwlly ttmttdli 
tbr cuait>Irte diaunallon of sncuic fhnn llio bunaau lioity ii lima 
««)l> ; but It hai Ivea mleodcil to a monlli by M. Uonjoui.* 

Sgim f lvmM. — lu unit <aaca tbe ^it>|>louu tet in witLra an hmr 
artI>r»aUu«)U|;uI Uio yiusun, witli burning ]wiii at tbe {ntoTtba 
•toDUK'b iwraMil br |in»ai*k with nautni, aud iomittDg,nvMnl 
b; the aot of a* b1L» iu^. llie pHiu toon beomea mora diffiai^ 
and llvrc i* iwrllint: aud UDdeniea* el llie bdlj, nilh diarrbm^ 
IwtMniim, and dynina. Alter Uie ■rtltnit in oT vomitjug. ir Dol 
IMvioualy. ihair 'a a tniac oV eouvlrirtiuii In the throat. »<ib 
iiiti'iue ihln:. ludBmuiation and amarting of tin) eya, lioadacb^ 

* IiuLinf*i'tIiU'-V(atlj Abunici,' tel.iii. ^^| 



Tiolmt ^tlng- of tha heirt, fmqiient palw, quick catchiug 
reapintinii, eitruino reatleuneu, great ilcbility, cruuipB in tbe 
Ug», and couvDiiiive twitcliin^ ill tlie eilremitits. In Ihu 
llii\fanty of cue* tbe mitul ia iotnct. Wlien tlie puiton (irare* 
.n^itdly tiltal, deatb oommanly bikes plica by collapw, or by oomii : 
b more cbraiilc eatm, tbe intient cliea eilmusted by tho violcnw 
at tbe irritative fever, or after n long train of nervuiu (fiiiptoma 
terminaled by couvuluona. PatienU wbo recover »ru eilber 
reiiMred to perfect lieattb. or tliey inffer troui inill^Btiou, Iroin 
prolnnged vfeakueas or paliy of tbe limbs, or Trum epltcplic 

> of poisoning by nrwiiic present tlia preeteat poiaible 
variety in tbe cbiiracUr, oumbi nation, hiiiI severity of tbe symp- 
^tomi, and vxoeptioiiB ami luiouiultii of tbe moet per)i1eiiiig kind. 
I In one coiuiilvralile elnai of cans, the BymptomB are tliose just 
'detailed in an aggniviiled form. The vomiting i« ini-emntj tlie 
pain in tbe pit of the stomach moat ncnte, nnd increii>e<l by tbe 
alighteat presnirc! the mouth, ton^^e, and thnut arc rul, hot, 
and (woliun: tbe eyes hloodsboti tlie rountenance flittlicd; tbe 
thint euMHie; ihediarrbaH profuse, and attended ulUi lenesmna 
and dUcbargei of blood; the belly acutely paiiiiiil and tender, 
and much swollen; tlie nrine suppreswil or with pain Hnd 
diffloulty i the pn]<e Full, qoiok, >n<l frequent ; and the reapinitioii 
laborious ami painful ; tliera ii a sense of fulness and oppression 
it tha bsHrt with violent piilpitaUon; intense lienducbe, with 
[iddinea^ ineeiiBnt reatlaianesa, and severe crampa in tbe legs and 
red, if lil'e ia prtilouged. by oonvuirions, letniiic gpasmB, 
llcptic flta, dclirinm, coma— a gronp of nervons symptoms vary- 
' .h each case, nnd terminatiiig iti various n-uys, and at various 
lis, in recovery or deatli. 

I nennul closa, the symptoini are tliose of colUpw. There 
little or no pain, mmiUi^, or diarrhixa; a cold and clumoiy 
In : eitrame prottrntiun of atren^tb ; very frequuiit and almost 
iptlble pnlse, nr one as low as thirty or forty benta in the 
, The mind, as in nrnt csaei of arsenical jHiiKining. is un- 
ipairtd, bat there i* soma appioacb to coma. tli|{ht crimps or 
iTulaioai, and death witboot reaction, uaunlly in four or five 
rarely beyond twenty hours. Sometimes this atato of cul' 
is accompanied by constant vomiting nnd profuw piirg- 

d dus of eaiies the pntient flill* into a profound sleep, 
into ooiDB, and dies in a few hours wiiliuut rallying. 
B ia reported by Mr. T. Wright, uf Uiiblia. Uealli 
It place iu toDT hours, nnd fulbwed upon auuud sleep i and aner 


1.) Tie 


vntj oUmt inkrk«d ijmpUmi. biu been wholly i 
vomilfd maittri totutatoA, in 3 cMes, at blwxl ; in S. of muciu 
tinged with blood; in 1, oF mnoiu onijr; in 1, of valet ooDlaining 
snenic ; In 1, of bile, w\A in 1. of bile and Tnjcea. (The romiteJ 
nult«rg are Mtoietinie) dewribed aa jellov or brown.) Diarrkaa 
present in II cates. bnC ftbseiiC in ii in T caie* eiceuive. The 
malltrt patied by ttool oonnited, in 3 otwa of blood, and in 2 
of B material clowly rewinbling green puint. Pain, pretent in 
19. and altngetber absent in 1 ; in 2 Inttancds it subsided alter a 
abort time, and It li stated not to bave been increnaed by pmanre 
in 2 inatanees. Tbe foajr» and throat sore, constrictvd, hot, 
painfal, and tense, in 9 cases. TMrtl -. preaent in 15, and absent 
in 2 ; in 13, deatiribed ai intense. Tbe coii»(«iaivv fliuhed and 
awdlen in 7 caaea ; pale and aniious in 5 i the facies liippooratica 
infseut in 1- The eyei inflamed, swollen, or smarting in 7 
cases. Tbe <JttN hot and dry in 6 case* ; covered with oold per- 
spiration in 4 ; profusely perspiring, with pctecbie, in 3; nni- 
Tersal desqaHmaUiHi in 1; oovered with an edematous eruption 
in I. Btadac\e in 9 cases, absent in 1 ; deacribed ta intense in 
4. Violent palpilafio* In 2 oues. PuUe generally very fre- 
quent, but of rariablo character, ranging from 90 to 140, or 
more ; In one ease 30 to 19. Janndlee, luppreaion of arine, 
atnngnry, and saliration must be added to this list of symptoms. 
JV«rnHu SfmploBu. — Eitnme reilUmrit in S ciueei extreme 
dtbilUg in 10; coma in 3 cases; dtUnum in 3. Tlie ntiiui nn- 
imp^red in 6 case* ; cram/a in the l^s in 9 caae^ in 4 extend- 
ing to the arms; wnnifiKnu in 6 cases | paralytu of ton^e 
•od ^Uet in 3 cases ; letaiuu in 2 cases ; chorea in 1 ; igileria 
in 1 1 epitejHy In 2. Tetanus, oodib, Knd delirium soccessiTely in 
2 coses. Death took plac« in 3 casM in tbe midst of convnisions, 
■nd in one after a horrible lit of convulsive laughter followed by 
rigid spasms of the whole body. 

Locked jaw lusbcen observed among the early lymptomi— -in 
one ouo so early as three-quarters of an hour. (Orftle.)* 

■ Til* taadsr l> rrftmd U Iha IbllawlDi cases l— Kissrs. Temer, and Hi. 
OsdsilsB. poluned b; Eliss rsnnini. Id Mr. r 
Uuss aTlh* MUcbflb. nfM b} Ur. » ' 
■nd Son. Joamal,' < 
HcUod, IB tbs 

Dosltstkmi ol _ — 

■ 1-lld.Ilid.aDdlii-. _., .. _., „.. 

t.' Joljrll.MVi Aug. U, IMBi Oct. 31, IIMtILIHi On.e, 18Ui 

'— —A do*. It, WW. ' MeUal Osiitle,' ». «l : U, f— — 

-" — "— ".ondonlWlcalKaTlow.MT.laei.^.™^ 

»i-. and sobsaqiisnl lolamia. 8m. slso. 


1. npurlfd b] Mr. j 

-ai. svUi-p. 147, sna inmtriuv i^iin 

Joonisl, lot. IV. p. SK. Thsst « 
isrrass •jiDpums ohk-h I " 
\tag. JontnsI,' >. aW| Ul. 

T. AWunder 

pears Hoipllal lUpHta, 


- a marksd bslote. 



Tlie lonp pcTBUtenec oTnenoD) (^rnptoini u wellillnlntedl^ I 
the MM oT Mr. Gadsden, one of the victinu ot Klin fraa^ I 
Ho wit smed witli epilepBT on the fintdny ; lull fhatelticttM I 
tbe tecand, tbtn > fit ev?rj evening nt the tatnu lioor, (br tmt- ' 
teen ntcrotsiTe evening ; then »n interval of *even or «glHdt}% i 
lollowed by ■nothor reUpK, nnd thiit b; RiKither intend rf " 
weeki> ; at the end oF thrpe tnontha the fit (till rt un n l ' 
twelve boon, or tbtee or fotir times in two daji i imd ht «•■ 
liDued, eveu after the lapse at two je*n, to bvsat^ertlornqa 
■tuck*. In tbe ease of Helen Mitchell, then «m aHa 
debititj of the limbs fiir three month*. 

Pott-mtrtem App'aranert.—Tiio Btonmch la the trtt of Mdi 
inflammation, *preadiiig over the entire larfoce. or oonlEud ta 
the rugn in well-defined jntebei, or atreak*. Sometime), ra ta 
of the bright tint of inflammatioa the membtBDe hai tbe dcif 
hue of rongestioD. When the poiaon ii laken in aiibalana^ 6k 
mcHt common and cberaototiitie appearance is that (if odc a 
more patchea, from the liie of a ibillint; to tliat of a fToam. mb- 
aiating of a tongh white or yellowiah paste of arvemoua loi 
uiied with ooagulnble Ijtnph, Hrmly adherent to the inflimri 
mucoui membmne, and formilif; to manj centrei of intena* ii- 
llammHtton. White apoti of ■rwnious acid are alio often hmi 
between tha rugn. The annexed enpraring abowa ■ gnmf d 


Hamed bate, and ninnniM 
by deop dnaky red itmbk 
tliTniiian i« <»mi«raUr(lf 
rare, and pn-roration itOl Iw 

rureotTurrencn jbut tlirdatt 
■wollcD a]]pcar«iicc pradnoed 
by eti niTaaation of Uood InU 
tbr giibmaniii* tUiae b bfUn 
luet with. The elomach «M- 
nll; notaina a brown pn>- 
moui matter, oocauonallj 
linped with blood i but Eometimei Ihe colour b yellow, trom iHt 
portiul convulsion of tbe ptijaon into ealphide ; and tbe mnnxH 
mat has U-en found ameared aa with yellow paint. The 
iiiiloaimation generally cxtonda to the duodenum and com- 
ravnci'Dient of Ihe other tmall inteatincB, and oceauonally 
alTects the whole length of the inti'stinal canal, being moM 
coniipicuouii in the lower bowel. The lesopliagus, alio, b lotne- 
llmi's the scut of iiillumiualion, and in rare iutiiucei (lie month. 


t, md windpipe liavs heea itiiolved in the influm- 

I. Tbc peritoncHl eomring of tUe itomBoh or of 

pabdonen i* somelimea fbnnd in ■ state of inHamnia- 

4tli« intdtioil gtsDcls >re swollen. Aninng ocduional 

ipcaranm may bo mentioned, inflBmrnation or the 

;nta on tlie skin, and roni^Htion of the brain with 

) bat the most renurkublo post-murtem appear- 

ncefroiD the lining membrane of the atomncli of nil 

t tsBammation, and of every otber charBCtfristic chanm. 

umaaij ii not due to death hiving taken place before in- 

liaa Ronld be wt up ; for vell-mBrked tnHammitarf ap- 

ea hare barn preient in the moat rapidly -f'^tal cgsifs. 

lio. like phosphorus, hat been found, bolli by eiperimenCa 

bbU* and by clinital ohacrvation, to cause a futty de- 

iiNi of the njoKlea and of rarioiu argsna, especially the 

Im kidneya, and tlie t;1and« of the stouiuh. A fact of 

hftitilti|pcal than toiicological inlertat bns likewise been 

It by Saikuwiki — vii., thatin ani mills poisoned byanenio 

~ lialea cannot be caused by the uaual method. 

■ ftirtunately for tbo endi of justice that arsenic not 

El the stomach M'hea surronndin); parla are in a state 

d decay, hot tbut even tlie chnracteristic appearancea 

a may be present after the body haa been boried 

.—In a mlution, as amall u tjuantity na tvia graiiu 
Ml. Tico gnUiu and a half, coDtuined in two 
!y-wat«r, killed a strong healthy girl cetat. 19, in 36 
baby). Uncb imallra' tjaantities have ^ven rise to 
mptomt. On tbe other hand, recovery haa taken 
aet of half an ounce, nn onnce, and even an ounce 
t the pinson in subatance. Tlicse larger dose* are 
on a full ttomach, and are promptly rgeol«d with the 
rried acay by the brisk action of tbe bowels. 
'rriod. — Tlie poison has proved tatjl in tvo hmiTt, in 
r fcor instance* (one by Mr. Foster, of Huntingdon, and 
00* bjr Hr. Hacaulay, of Leiceater), but Mr. Tliompson communi- 
OUad to Dr. Taylor a case fatal with tetanic symptoms in tarnls 
mtmi'T On Ibe other band, casea may prove fat«l after three, 
fear, Ave. aii. or seven dayi, or even as late as tlie second or third 
whIi. and from setoudiiry iyni[)Uiiiis, in two or three yean. The 
■TBafc durslion of fatal cases is 20 hours, of those whicli tcr- 
■ioate within 21 hours, leia than 7 hours. As many as 85 io the 
100 dia within £1 hours. More than half llie 
t. suit. 




474 Aunic 1 

witlnB 6 boon, t*o-Aiidi wiibia right hoan, sad i 
thiB«fautli» vitMn U bom.* 

JftmEoUy.— About b^ of the a 
of rtoDrcTj w Si to 48. 

iVsporftM of SnciJal, HamiMti, aid ^ 
la 100 cue*, iboat 46 ■» imcidal, 87 Ixrauddal. and 8 * 
TUa rtatemcnt u bMcd On 92 cuH. The omb el adi 
equally dinded between meo and mman. 

OHiHKanvHat o^ SfviplomM, — In lonie iiMtmnoa^ ten nmMM 
after Ukiug the pnuoo ; and thej have bMn deamlMd m mHIoi 
in immediatelj. But thej may be delayed for acTsnl boan ()■ 
one caw tea bmui). It ii EvtoFal to foppow that tlM)i anadd 
dalay &£ opeiatioo of tbe praaon. 

2V«<ifmn{. — .K» anenioDs arid itaelf la a powecfml ematn it 
li ■omrttiDe*. opeoally vhen swdlowed with, or aooo ofto' a 
meal. cniDpletelj rgected (rata the atomaeb. In Other raira. !■ 
tbe eiklbicioa of an eoiecic. or tba ^>in)d(i]t aie of diluent^ tfat 
content* of the itomaeh are dUcharged, and iriUi tbem tbe poiana. 
When, on the otlier hand, it ia takea on au mnpty atoiMfii, il 
attache* iuelf lo the mncoiu coat, excito* violent intUmniaUoo, 
and the fomutum of a tenanoas aecretiOD, whii^ gluea it (o li* 
■nrbce, and protect) it froni tbe action both of emetia and 
aDtidntei. In tlie first clan of es«et recovery ii often attribotad 
to aome aobataoee which ii thOQght to poaaeai the lirtoea of aa 
antidote. Araenie, alao, by iti pnrgatiie action, otay imarioa m 
trtt an eTanualum of tbe bowel* u to carry off Ibe poiaoa parti) 
by this channel. 

The lint step in the treatment coniitt* in remoring tbe pcuoa 
ai pramptly ai poaiible from tbe ttomach. If the ftonucb-paai|i 
U at hand it (lionlcl be naed without delay. If not, and tbe pdMB 
itMlf ia acting Ireely ai an emetic; vomiting iboald be promotad 
by copiom draughta of warm milk and water, and tickling lb* 
throat with ■ futfaer. If the putimt ia not Mk, emetin nf 
ipccaeoanha, mustard, or ooniman nit, aided by limilar oopiooi 
draoglitt of warm milk and water, ihnald be given. When tbe 
itomacb baa been emptied by these means, utllk, nr tnilk bcatsn 
Dp with ef^^ or a miitnre of milk, lime water, and white of tgg. 
■himld be given Eroety at iburt intervala. 

Tbe rest of the tre4(inent will be determined by lb« symiitma* 

id iMi Ihui a iaj, 3 

n; lb 

or T wlilDb lui>il taan ituu ■ du, I *M (Uil (nJ^ 

' dkji uit k hiir I I Id t <!>;■ and a halt) 1 la tt 


wtiich Iwppen to b« niort nrgent. If the inflammatory sjmptflma 
run bigh, blood ma; be taken bj leechea froin the pit of the 
■tsmacb, When coma tbrestena, blood niaj alto be removed 
with aitvanlngo. The atate of oolUpse mast bo met by itiinu- 
laoti, and the nerrotu lymptDm* bjr aooilynea. Totanic ipanoa 
woold be beat relieved by chloroTorni. Tlie intenie Ihirat mij 
be mtiated with small qonntitie* of iced water; the tenetmni 
■nd djiuria by injtvtiona of gn>e\ containing landaDnm ; the 
diarrbipa, if incRectmil and painliil. b; caalor oil tniicd with milk. 
Anlimonj mint not be giten ai an emetic ; for the rcierobUnoo 
of the cmiti orantiinoiiy to tboee of anenic would give rite to an 
objection to tbe chemical evidence. The snlphatra of uuc and 
copper, and antidote* containing iron onght also to be arinded, teat 
it ihould be alleged that ar«nic eiiated in them as an imparity. 

Aulidoltt, — Several prepanitiona of iron, of which the bydrated 
Maqiuoiide ia the best, the bydnted oiide of mngnnta, calcined 
Blagneaia, and animal clurcnal, have been reoommended m antidotea 
applicable to araenions acid in aolation. 1'he hydraled lesqnioiide 
of iron, formed b; precipitiiting the tinctnra ferri muriatia of the 
ahopa witb excen of ammonia, rendcn a aolation of artenioui acid 

k wholly or nearly inert, and aomc eiporiments on dc^ made by 
Dr. W. Watt prove that, a« an antidote for arsenioiu add in 
•dntioa, it is really elGcietit-* It sltonld be (reely given in the 
ncMSt atate. Tbe hydrated oiide of mBgneaia precipitated Irom 
■ atroDg anlDtion of the snipbate by liq. potame, and well vaahed, 
baa been also shown to be ellectnal. and i« free from objection 
■honld tlio patient die, and an analyais of tbe ronteuta of the 
■lomach be requlred.t When the poiaon ii given in tbe solid 
form theae antidotes are much less eftkacious; and still leaa >o 
when it adhere* to Ibe lining membrane. 

While treating a case of poisoning by anenious acid, or by 
, Otber prepanUions of arsenic, it should be liorn« in mind that 
I i evidence of poiaoning mair be obtained by examining the anne, 
I 'llle semm trom a blistered snrfiice, or tbe blood, as well as from 
I tbe mattera vomilM oi paued Irom the bowels. 

ArsBoioDi acid has been introdaced into tbe body otberwiae 
a by the month. It hai been in»crted into llie vagina, pro- 
|< dncing intense local Inflammation, and the characteriBtic gcnrral 
I'lyniplonu of arMnieal poksoniiig. It lias been applied to the akin 
■>jb the (brm of a mixed powder and of <rintmeDt, with similar local 

• WonDtiT's ■ Mkro-CbsmlstiT of Poimis' p. MJ. 
mbiiniHilllfrCAnD, d. Mjntiii/ in) on ibr EBmcj of Irr" 
h ia Potioahi; bj AtscdIc. 1 be Iruu heetat tcj hav« |ir ~ ~ ' 




nd conititutioniil rttaltt (eqjecially in the band* of '(■ 
doctors") ; aud it hsi been iuhalcd u viipour, tod u aTWDiarCttid 
hydragen. The amoke of eiadlu coutaiuiOK ■rwnie lu« iIm pi* 
duoed Mvera iiidupaaitiua- 

Armiit of Polaih. — ^The nrtivo principle of i'oviet't mlalioii •- 
in whiulj it may be readily detect^ \ij any of tlie matliods di- 
aeribad for arMnioue add. 

Ar»enic Acid.—T\iis aold, thotgli a pun-srfal f 
medico-lfgal interest excvpt aa lieing fonneil in 
fbr detecting anenioui acid. It U a uliite dcliquaKent ai 
coinpUtely Tolotilized by liMt, very lolubla in water, bdiI 
a strong aoid raction. It yiebli a metallic mblioMt* « 
duced with charcoal, and a metaUic crnat when trtatml bj 
or BcinKh's method ; and gives a yellon precipluta « 
pburett4sl bj'drogen, on btnting. It i> precipitated » b 
by nitrate of ailvia-, and by the nmoionio-nitnite. 

The salts of urseoic araii (inenstes) give tbe aatne n 

Aranile 0/ Copper (Scbecla'i Green).— This is « fii 
powder, contuiiiing one part of arsenioua aind to two of 
copper. It yieldi diatlnet crystals of araenjous acid wbei 
and ■ residue of oiida of ooppeir 1 and is soluble bi>th in 
■nd in nitric acid. 

Aeelo-Arienile of Coppar. — This is a bright |[i«en [ 
known as mineral, Subwdiifurt, Bniaswicb. or '^~ 
in England usemeraJd green, or "emerald," 
by pBper-Etninere, fin- hncj and for wall-papen^ botli a 
impart a fiill green colour, and mixed with oiide Ot »i 
powder, or whiting, to give more delicate tints of givcl 
naed to give a greeu colour to gweetinents and a 
wafers, toys and c»ges, cukes of water colour, laX colourii w 
of dren, and papers used oa wrappers for fruits and awcetiw 

Ttii: — The powder roniiata ot arscnirai add l! paHa; j 
of rapper S parts ; and acetic acid I port. Arx 
for« constitutn two-thirds oF Its bulk. It is rcailUj klentiflU 
giving aS wbcn heated ilroD^ fumes of acetic <udd and di 
crystala of nrsenious avid, with n residue of oxide of 
papers and other ntattera ailiiiired with emerald gnssn 
midily iletecled by scraping oft' Ihe surface aud ai 
powder lliua dctactiird^ ur. by dropping a tVagmont of the ft 
natsrinl Into a tot-tuba containing a wcilc suktinu of H 
•mtnonin. The matcHal will be blracbrd; a bluo anluUoa' 
show ibe pmcnce of vuppir ; nod if a I'nigmuut uf ni 


ii dropped into it, a precipitate of tiie <felli)v inenito ot lilvar 
will be rormed. If ■ poper rttuinHl with emeruld green bs 
touched with liq. ammoaia', Ibo spot mad the liquid turn bine. 

Sgrnploau. — Thaw of tho acute form of paiauninj; luny b« in- 
ferreil from the caee of a priut-colourer admitted into King'i 
CuDege McHpitsl, June, 185S. Uaitb wnn ciuaed I); au ounce of 
Uie poiann in Bevaa boun, under symptami iKloiigliig to tba 
B«oand variety of anenical poiiotiing dvncribod at p, 4139. Ho 
did not vomit till an emetic wa> givuii, and diarrboaL did not farm 
a jiromineat ayftptom. He wa> pale, eictteil, raiiit. and anxious 
witb a atnall feeble pnlae, aligbt epigastric tonderaeH, intense 
tbint, profiuu) oold aweatt. lerere erampa in tbe calves of tbe 
lege, and in tbe Itands, with twitchingl of the lpg» and arma. 
" tiiiTer rallied, and died eibauited. Tbe tongue wiu tinged 
en, and tbe matt«rt rejected from Ibe etoinacb and bowell 
■e of tbe lame colonr. Tbe stomach puuip was <u«d, and the 
l^^drfltcd leaquioiido of iroo freely g^ven. Tbe port-mortcm 
arances were a dircy green tongue) in the itomjcb a large 
itity of tba antidote ajieckled witli greent congtitioa of its 
Mu coat, and of tlut of tbe amall intnitiiiea; deep clia.-oliiIo 
ir of the fold* of the stoumcb, and dot* of exinvasatvd blood 
Piwer tbe •urftw'e, eapedsllj near the pyloriM. Lung* greatly crni- 
|eal«l ; limin wid kidoeya eound. 

It may be ilatad generally thiit tbe ajmptomi, poat-mortem 
ippearauOM, and treatment of puiwning by tbe anenilo of euppel 
md by llie aeeto-iinDnitc, are tboae uf poiMiiing by iirii:ii;uus 
Kid. [n two cans the lymptom of jaun^ce stiowixl it«elf us if 
Ihe copper bad proved active. 

Tefy lovere, and even filial, aymptoms of irritant poiioning 
kkve been iuduced by eiting gabatAnces ooloured nilb amenite of 

\ Tlie aymptmni of tbe chronic form of poiMniog by iulmllng and 
i:mllowing the powder detached from the wiille of room* have 
I sot bmn uniform. They have cooBiatud of aeveral of tbe following 
L.^mptonu TariouEly gronped : — The tneoing and tHchrymation of 
Ls coniiuon cold j cough ; nunacB and lou of appetite, sickueu and 
fcidiarrlKDa, colic paini, cninpa, and ipaiml, dryneaa of llie tongot 
[-and tlirOHl, and tliint; depreniou and weakneu, lieadauhe, 
ixKM, anil eitreme wealiueH, or actual |ial>y of the ealre- 
(In one uue tbe dropped bund, at in iwisoulng hy lead, 
\ In anutbu- great weakneai and uiiatexdineis of uU the limtu.J 

Wbau tba powder i> largely diQ'iucd through tbo air, ai in 
' ■ " '" may abow t!ieniBflv« in a 

uud tbey coiuiauuly u^'paat i^ 




one or two boon iu the *h«pe of ■evere ratarrhal *jvt\ 
headache uul bleeding at Uie noatb foUoiied aner ■ t 
mfa pretentlj to be dncnbeiL 

The penoDi employed ia making artificUI learei. ■ 
•nd flaven, chiefly joong woman, mfier f 
and lore tliroat j the raah on (lie oeek, face, ean, head, H 
pudenda; thlnt, nsoiea, aooreiui. pun i 
vomiting, colic pune and cnmp, pal^HCatioo and ■ 
hraath J gnat weaknen, fever, headache, dtmoeg* of Bgkt, a 
HEM, reetleanen, tremUingi, and coovuUive twitchioga. 
One fatal cue, at least, hu occumd tiaoag fooug w 
lowing thii occapation. In tba one faUl cue with whii 
inqiurica made me acqoBiiited, the occupation had beea 
on for aghttua months, and ihe died in coi 
DCCnired every five minuta Ibr seven boon and a half. 

Anenite ot copper mixed with warm fiie ii largely Died b 
making tint«d paper* aad 
^ ' paper-haiigingt, and '» m 

Imd onaitocomcintocoo- 
tact with the hanb of th« 
workmen. Alter one <v 
two day* the men begin I9 
toBcT, andareao 
t4> abandon their e 
mcnt. The Snt ^ 
is a pajiular n 

oT tirt B 
the bock of tlie M 
bendi of th« dbo 
the inwde n 
BafTer in order f andfl 


often «een sprinkled with niperlkial cimiUr ol 
of a ipUt pea to that of a fuurpenny piece, kwking n 
pimi^h. Sometimes the fingers are iullanied. nnd th« d 
off. The pnl« ii sometime* qnielwued, and owwoiiaJly ti 
■martandtheepgastriomistMidw. On abatidoniogf*-- 
wimu the efftcu aoon pa» awayj and tbej might 
BVindod by acrupulous clamboaa and ample [iTBcaatw 
contact with the poi*on. . 

ni« BfTort of the p<a»on on the serotum u wen m fig. 91, w 
•llow. both the rircular nlcen just d«cf ibod. and the diffused m 
™«Bod ulcerations (ijjurcd hj Or, Venwb in the paper i^ 

their edgra. Dr. 
Fietn SuntB, ia 
ilea d'Hjrgiine,' 
\&S, p. 339, gives 
■ccouDt of the 

■per by M. A, 

iu the 
aly, 1S59 ; > 
»r. VemoU in the 
I'Hygii-ne.' jeer 
6;«nil Dr.Oiiy'a 
■AUiged FaUl 

Poisoning by 
rreon, icj in the 
ort of the Madical 
be Pri*y Council,' 
> Kbo an intemting paper on poinonlng ^m vall- 
Dr. Kirchgiiier, in the ■ Viertcljahrschria f. Gericlit. 
p. 06, of which there is aba a full alwtrnct In the 
Hetroapcct of the Sjilenham 80^61/ for 1867-68, 
' ptHKming hRVB occurred in aniline dje niRDufactoriea, 
eczemalou* affectionri bave been obaerved as resulting 
rearing of undor-clothing dyed with theae materiala. 
ii largely oied in the pTeparation of the anilme coloun, 
often contain a large proportion of arsenic arid is in 
;(&« • Pbarm. Journ.,' 1868, Oct. ; ■ Brit. Med. Journ.,' 

« and Binarifnatf of PolaA, — Theae are actiye poison* 
in this country. The arsenate is while, deliqaeacent, 
ninble, with the reactions of " arsenic add." The 
I is known as " Hacquer'i neutral anenieal nit." 
muile uf Soda a used as a medicine in France. A 
e salt to an ounce of water constitula " Feursoa's soln- 
1 paper soaked in a solution of one part of arsenate of 
wo of sngaraDd twenty of water, is in use for poisoning 
c "papier BWii™" owea lis poisonous properties to 

ti <tf Arirmc. — Realgar, or red nisenic, andaT^vmn&, 

pM Tvicinble* tlioM nre intUncei of anenicftl poiianm^ in 
JHMtif^ ■j'iDpl'iiiii nre TOry pramineiil. Such wu tho cbancl«r 
if ■ CUD uf poiHDiiiit by anenie uid liuitiuinm wbicb occurred 
(MM ;e>n dncr in Kiog^a CoUrge UoapitaL 


I A few jGsn aince polioning by antimony wu m> rare that the 
Mbon i« not ■pt'cified iu tbe liit of tnbitancea that |inwe(l fstal 
I ibe Ave yam 1852-66. BdI ^om tbe trials of l^mcr, Dove, 
KoMiiIleii. H*rilm>ii, FReman, Smethurtt, WinalDw.iDd Pritcbard, 
r which the three flnt took pUce in 1856 and tbe la 
Ti, the lalgijin of poiioning by antimony. Hud espedally by nuall 
_aaled Joaca of tartir emetic, hag aunnied graat importauoe. 
I Tlie preparatiaua of antintony wliich are important iD i 
idioo-legil pmnt of view, are tartar-emetic and the chloride. 
M precipitated lulpbide !■ of intereat from being developed in 
■ting for tbe ptuon. 

KTIh mrlat antimony aiiaret with anenic the property of com- 
dog with DBKent bydrogiin, and of being depoaited in the 
tallio furm on baraing tbe jet of gaa, nr heating the glut tnbe 
migh vtuch it ii pouing. It ditfera from anumic In not being 
ihtilited, when in the maaa, by the bent of the tpirit-Ump, and 
"b diSenlty wlien ia tbe fotm of thin Hlma. In oomtnon with 
aoit^ ineraury, and Kvenii other metala, it ia depouted in tbe 
Ullk Rtu) on copper vrben it* lolntiooi are treated after tbe 
nhod of Relnich. Tbe metti antimony often containa a minute 

lO precipitated ■alpbide, formod by transmitting a itmm of 
bborettsd hydrogen through a aolulionuf a aaltof antimony, or 
mting metaUicntaioa of antimony witliaulphidiiafaBimoninai, 
a ebainictcrisUc onnge-red ctilour. and like the blacli pte- 
i lolphido yield* metallic aaUmony when heated in a cunvnt 

aanc (TariariuJ Aiilimom/, Slihialtd Tartar, 

PoloMia-TartTaii' of AMtmOHy). 

ic« ia found in the ahop* aa a whit« poH-dor. or ii 

liali-wbila rflorweent erytlal*. In common witli aiitlioonial 

|id Jama*'* powdar, it may motain minate tracw »t' arienio, 

■ •Itbcr from tlw mclal antimony, or tVom tba *ulphurio 

d in iu Dianuhctiir*. 

—Tartar ametia i* lolable in about three port* of 
d lUU«n uf cold watar, but inmiluble in alouboii and 11 
ulj nwlaUn luta, and fnint add rcuction. 

iKU ITS putrAiunovs. 

ntti.—'We maj have to lot tbr the poiaoa tB n 
leUlioa, in organic rnielurn, and in Hhi fluid* ttud M 
1. /■ SthtUme*. 

a. Heated bj the Ikme of n Bpirit'lanip it 
ind if tbe bluivpipe a used, the metai ii reduced. L HIm 
hested in tlie maimer described at p. -I07, it is (bund to dcoc 
piUta at 3B0°, to mbllme ilowl; and Manttl; (jieUinf a 
iinoTphaiu depoeit on tbe gbn disk) at ^fP, and li> nlartf 
&»/'. s. When treated nith inlphurettcd fa; drAgen, ur ealliUi 
of Bnunomam, the ebaniotoruitic orange-Ted ■olptude b fomid. 

2. la SoUliaa. 

a. A drop of a lolation of tartar emetic evnponted ua i <Gp gf 
glass leB«e9 a crfbtaHine deporit. which, when Fuminkl \i] lis 
or niicroscnpp, is Foand to contain woll-CoriDed crystoli tliil in 
either tetmbedra (1 and i, fig. 67, p. 411), or ciil>«« witi Ol 
ed^es removed (3), or (ome modification of the cabe. SoalU^ 
all the crjBtaU aisumis the one slinpe. aometimea tha olbvi M 
in manjr caaes both bindi are to be found in the nine tpl^itm, 
~ ' ; tugether with the branched "y^BlIlfw flvBi ■ 
commcm in dapodll taB 
nline •olntimn. IteM 
crjFBtnli are olttaiiul |t« 
boE Bolntiotu. 

b. TheioIi)tJaBi(r» 

ni to oontsin a ah «f 

untimonjr hj ^xiBg tt 

omnge-eolomreJ pndpi- 

tats with 8ulpbai«tM 

bydmj^eu, or aotpbldto' 

nrnmoninm. Tlli* prtd- 

pitiitu is Boloble JneaaMii 

1^ In ■ largo axcen of iinmonia, and in utiong hjdnAkri> 

• aolattan in bydrochioriu- acid Laa tUu ebani ' "" 

[yiifloUiDB fall a white prcdpitute when Ur^/ 

TliB nilpbide ii alu de«inipn*ed vtMn r 

e arid, lulpborttted bfdrogon being (Hvta 

■f ■ntiniuiiy nnniiningin Hiliitiun; and it tDaftvi 

ill' liy liiiating it in a current oTlifdl 

jTi iilTordcd b; tbii teit it ooiiftruied bf 

Uiroft dilnta minoral adda throw down 

L IB mtinuUed lij the add lu txctm, 

ieacld. Of Uiwwadil 





e three conjoiotlj ore conclnsive. 3. A ilrong 
iDtUsiun of gnll-nuU gives a ilirty jellon'isti'H'iiite predpitate. 
3. FonKjitiiilc of patBBUiim caiuea no preci[utHCe. 

J. Inlroiluce a portion of the lolntion into n Mnrafa'a appanita*, 
and prOFeeduin IhacaMofnTMnic (p. 460). Thecni«l< ublaiDsd 
bji inflaiaing the jet genmll; po«e» ■ leu distinct metallic laitre 
unit a more atnoky appearance tlian tlioae of anenii^ but cnuta 
ma; be obtalued wbicli migbt be miitaken for those of tlie latter 
metaL Tbe cruats in tbe borisontal tabe hare B charaiieristic 
■bape (fig. S7. p. 463) and tin-like luitre. For tlie mode of die- 
tiDguithing tbe crusts of tho two metali, >ec p, 463. 

: Trent tbe mlulion after the method of Reiiucb (p. 46-1). 
taking cnre to nn nipper free fVom uttimon; u ncll a> arsenic. 
The antLuioti}! depoiit li generally of a violet tint, and does not 
yield a erjHtrflline lubliiuHte. It maj' be lUiaolved olT from the 
copper, either, 1, by bdiUng the metal io a neak uiution of per- 
manganate of Jhitaih rendered slightly allialine by liquor potasto 
(Odluig) ; or. 2. by a weak tolDtioo of potaiih and Ihe lieijaent 
expaaanofttiemeUl to tbeairfMr. Wat»on,of UoutUm). If the 
Brut proffu U adopted, the Mlntion of antimony must be freed 
fnim tbe brown depoait of the bydrated peroxide of manganeaa 
by filtration, aligbtly acidulated with hydrochloric acid, and 
treated with mlpboretted hydrogen gaj. If tlia second procesa 
is adopted, the solution of tbe metal a filtered, auiiiulited with 
bydroehloric acid, and treated with sulpharetted hydro):;<!D. 
S, Tbe metal may be separaled from liquids containing it by 
• praeaai of electrolysis Jcecribed at p. 46&. It U depoaitedan 
^ platinoin plate connected with the n^ative pole of the 
r, and may be identified either by waabing it with «ul- 
Q, and evaporating the solntiou, or by either 
M BBlhoda just describod- 

3. J» Organie Liquids. 
Il All Tcgetable mhstuicei containing lunnln decompose tbe salts 
of antiinony, and milk is coagulated by their strong solutions. 
iSrvetal other vegetable aebitRncei nflect the action of tlie testa. 
(_'<iIotiTeJ flaid*. Iboogh they modify the action of the other teats, 
have little fOcct on sulphuretted hydrogen, the sulphide rdaiO' 
ing itt characl eristic colour. If no antidote bas been given, and 
tho poiaon hu not been wbolly rgected by vooiitiiig, it may re- 
maio in I he ilunacb DuoIiangMi. In this case we dilute. tUter, 
■oijnhito with tartanc aod, tmlumit lulphuntted hyilrogen gas, 

K obtain tha cUaractcrtatle orang« aulphidc of antimony. If 
pto e eaa bOa, «c adopt for tho aohd coiiUnitg vf the itomaelx 



and the coati of tlic viiciu tbe Hme mcLbod as for Uie orguk 

The diBCdvery oFsntimonj, b; either tnctbod, in tile eontoA 
of the itonuicii proves that one of iU prpparntioiu hu been ttim, 
either u medicine, or a> a pramn ; and iT the qnuitiljr ooMdi 
that of an ordinarT niadicinal doae^ there is atraiig pr««iniptiM i4 
pcnaoDing ; but nhen the quanlJty ii nuall, we cannot MtU that 
it baa boia adminietered u a poiaou, nnlen ve can prove that It 
was not giren aa a medicine. Antimoninl emetioi are of toam 
inadmisaible in cues of poisocing. 

4. In the TUnea. 
Antimonj is ahtorbed, and may be fornid in the *«ct«tiaii. 
blood, and solid liaceni of tbe body. The proccM for detecttnc 
the ptnjoD in the blood or aolid visoera ii that already rsMOu 
mended (or srienlo (p. 466). The resultJOB add liqaor «n«f b» 
treated afW the method of Reimch (p. 4B4), or that of Manb 
(p. 460). DC by electTDlyns (p. 465). If by BnnKh'a mtbod 
thu metal mutt ba identified in the tnaQHer jost deaoribiAi If 
by Manh'a method, by the characters describi^ at p. 48S. 

Quanlitathe Ana/yiit, — Use the precipitated aulphid^ im^ 
fnlly wnabed and dried. One hnndred parts eorresponda te M 
of erystulUzed tartar emetic. 

SipfrimetiU on Animali. 

Iiargc doBM of tnrlnr emelic, aniili as half an ounce, may le 
given to dogs with impunity if they are alloved to vomit ; bat « 
few grains prove fatal (then the gullet ia tied. Wlien i[|jal«d 
into Ibe vein^ it gives riae to vomiting and pnrging, and loam 
marks of acute intlaminalion in the alimentary canal and in tt< 
lang). In some inatancea of speedy death there waa no infltB> 
matlon in any organ of the body. 

An interesting aeries of eiperimenla on alow poiaonfalf I7 
antimony haa been made by Dr. Nevins ('Liverpool KadtaK 
Cbinirgical Journal.' No. 1), In iUostration of the d«Klb tt 
M'MuUen, attributed to tlie repeated admluistrvtion of mmB 
dOMS of tartar emetic by his wife. Tbe animala (elected fot •!• 
perimeiit were rabbitf, eleven in number, lo wLteh lartarcmMk 
in powder was given four timea a duy, in doae« of lialf a f^nin, a 
pain, and two pnina. The <in»ntity niiiiireii to deatmy lifnin* 
twelve gmina in a feeble rabbit, and ceveuly-two in the Imgal 
survivor. Five of the rabtntt died, the Dnt alter ibar. tba iMt 
•ftar seventeen davs. I'hrea aiirvived ntlcr biking tbap' 
menlrva days ; tai thri« were killed, afier one, Uirei^ u 




imjt n»peiMye\y, two itter an intorvul of roorteeii dsjB, and one 
tbirtj-one days after (Bk'mg the U»t dose. 

The tymplomt were Ioh of apptiiU, Imi ufspiril, and, >ft«r 
the liitb dajf, grtal emaeialiuit. None of the rabbiti vomited ; 
■nd diarrhaa wu ibniit in five oat of eig)it. TUoro were no 
orampt ; but tbree of the five Chat died of tbo poiion were rio- 
lantly eonBuUtd a few miimtfs before deatb, and a fourtb alightly 
■o. Several of the animals had fUxratioK of the month, where 
tbe powder came in contact with the lining membrane. One of 
tiie rabbiti, being with jonng, aborted. 

The poiUmorUm apptaraneel confflsted id coigation of Ika 
lioer in all the rabbits, tieid rfdiu** of aome part of the lining 
membrane of the ilomach in most, ulmralian in two ; and carti- 
laginong hardneu of Che pylorus in aome. Tbe tmnll inttttinel'ia 
tome of the animali prennted patcbea of inflammation thToughout, 
and, in two, the lolilaiy glandi, throoglioot the bowcla, were 
enlarged, promioeDt, of a bright-yellow colour, and loaded with 
anUmooy. The colon and ret^tom were nearly always hejilthy. 
In two initancei tbe mncna of tbe stomach or boivela had a 
browiiiali eolonr, attributed to the fonnatlon of the aulphide. The 
Udmeyt were generally more or loB congested, and the bladder 
TBseiiUr, and diatended with urine. Tbii waa not tbe case, how- 
erer, in the animals that were killed after a few days, or aome 
time after tbe diaamtinaance of the poison. Ilie brain, h^art, and 
spleen were alwayi healthy, but the Ifigt in many caies were 
deeply Oongcatcd, and in wme acutely inflamed, somctimea hepa- 
tiied, and gorged with blood, the air-tubea being of a bright-red 
oolmir. Bloody extrarasatluna (or euudatiaus) were found in the 
{mritiea of lbs I'heat and abdomen, and also between tbe mnacnlar 
and moeoui coat of the cecum, in more than one inBtance. 

The poiaan was fonnd, by means of Beinsch's t«t, in every pert 
of the body — o/ieayi in great abundance in the tieer; in amaller 
qnonUty in tbe tpUen ; at tbo earliest period in the tissues of tbe 
ilomach i at a later period in the tidnegt, and in tbe nrcvm. Tbe 
liDcea always contained tbe poison — in one rabbit killed fourteen 
daya, in another twenty-one diys after the lait dose. Antimony 
was also found in the Iki^ trom on eatly period. In tbe rmudet 
and in the ilood it wu difficult to detect; but it was found in the 
bonri on the fifteenth duy, and thirty-one dayi a^er tbe poiion 
bad been diacontinned. It was also found in tbe frntal rabbit*, 
of which one of tbe p<M*cmed animals thorted. 

The polaon was being conitantly eUminated by the kidney*. It 

bwos diaoatsrable in tbe oHne afUr the twelfth dose ; and in that 
voided tweniy-oiwxUyi after the pwMn hod boon soatntvled. TUk i 

j but that tlw Utal qiwntitj n 
ud kin Uw IcDgtlt of time nqnired. are ivijr onaUt ia OBK 
ca«ii tliUU>eT«ukci>nnilenbkgnirralijvaari[7tntte)T^ 
toon and mcrtiid ippeanDca pndaetd, bat hj mi wsb* ^Bfan 
aaiformitT: that Uw poiion permeates alnvat all tht Simmil 
Um body. iDd ei«i thne of the aobom oflspn^ if ite adaliM* 
tkn <■ amtiniicd long enon^b, wbOit, at tke ^ne lia^ ti b l» 
atanU; beiog eUrainatcd from the ^«Um bj lb klA^^ 
bowek i and lutlr, that the ratal cfleeU are cAmi dfafmfMtlMlt 
t« the appaimt dwDgfa fboiid after death." 

Tbeaa oondimai* are generatl; in banncnqr with the nmUt^ 
the experimenta of M(«n. Uillon Bod l^tTrsB, mde ia IM 
(' Annalca d'Hjgifaie,' toL uiTi. p. 221.) 

■rm-TOKB, roar-MOBTsM AFru&uicBt. ua> nutrxm, 
Sfmplom*. — The ajmptomi of acnle ^mtotdog iu iba hoMa 
lubjeet are:— A alroog meUllia taate percdtnl in tin uA d 
(irallawiDiE, aith heat, intulriction, and ■iriiiiiwi of Uie moath nj 
throat, folloirrd by naiuea. vomiling, pwn abd iMuIernm cf Ik 
cpigaatrium. eittmdiiig to tlie wb<^ abdomen, icon folloaBlIiJ 
repeated and protiue diBrrluEa, wilb severe erampa of the ft- 
teemitits, and ■jinploim of coUipw ; — cold akin, cUmmy anaUi 
■ (inall ijckli pulie, nud groit weakius. D«tli aiay happen l« 
UlU itate of coIlapM i but it ii aoinetiiDca pmrdEvI b^ deUnOh 
•Dnndaiooa, and toUnic tpaann. Large donea eoiuetiDiai oooadia 
inun-ibilili, ti9 ODD of tbcar earlieat effect*. In raori) than au 

• ■' . . Iinrieteriittc piutalar raah hu been jitwnit oa th« 

' < iliioat. In aomo Mceptimal am Ihvni lia* h**D 
..(I no purging Mil otter emetita were (dmiitiftaNd. 
—In an adult, turn gniui ; in a diild, j of ■ gnlm. 
_ t HmpXM Report*.' Oct. 1667.) One dnobn rf 
^Ull«d t bealihjr adult in ten haun. A praia and « 
''\ Itfteen (gniia ut ipencunnlia two duya rnoninc 
^jm, purpi>B> praatntjiin, ami daath in a healt^j 
javt ii<Wi lier oanRnenient. (■ UmL I'iinis and Qaa.' 
n liiTn been killrd by tim frmot bt * 
Unnd, Mch lar)(o doaea u y liaTo bacs 
iisputiiljr, in euiHiioam ot Ita {ironpt 
I. nr iMovery tuH laliKi plus wlllioal 
t, but with pnifuH diairbuia, aftat the 


opcomncc of ^erj il"ngcrt>DB symptom, , y 
bive \Bcn ptodnced by to ■mall a <lo9^ ^ : *.*T Wvoro effecU 
beta giveu in inflaminatioii of the lun„_ in^"^' ^' ''" °*^°" 
repnted at short interval, withoiat nrnil..^- " '""^ K™"", 
cfibcta. '^ "8 "°y injuriou. 

JWoI PmoiJ.— Tartar emetic, fa n g, ^ , 
in a r«w bouts {in «a (dult female, 4tt,ntit„ „"^* ''<»«. w»y lUU 
—Wonokj); bnt. on the hu^d, , „«"= ,," """^ '" ' '"'"^" 
five day! the tilting of forty gtiiiiu. ,nj , •crunl"'7""^ nearlj- 
proved fctal to a womnn ■fter a year of luOeriaa poi»ou 

JfoWoWy.— Some*h»t Itm th«n half the en^' 

Tart«r emetic appliwl citernallj ;„ lotion o ' ■ 
InaaminHtiou of tbe ikin and n crop of puatnlag, ' "'"'"""'t can»e^ 
Dmy prodnco ilonghing. Nam™ «aj vomitin "h '''''"'*^»» 

attended tlii« eilcnwl uie of the paison. ^ * sometimes^ 

Fott-morlen, Jppfantwe..— InflanimatioD of th 
Inane of tbe itoniacii eilending somolim^ to ih """^"n mom 
rarely to tbe thrtmt «nd gullet. Sometimoi ;„«'"'" '•>^tine» ^ 
Inngii, and in the br.m. After death hv rerZ!'^"'*"'''' '" '''■^* 
qMd.1 attenllon .honld be paid to the .Uto*^^ '"■"" <'<-''<^ 
large iDteetina-f aec-um an ^^^ 

lW<ttm0U.—ThB bert antidote i, tinctore of .i,,,^ ,. ^^ 
Wlien thu i» not at hand, the JewHon or ao«./ ™ '*"'W. 
rtituM. or Uqnid. containing teonin. auch „I .r """^ '"' ""^ - 
deoootfon of oak b«rL In the aheence of the anlid'"''^^ ***' '^^ ""~^ 
it ii bdng prepured, ramitiiig >houId be promoted blL ' "^ "^'- ^ ^^^^ 
milk, or nmcilapinoo. drinki. and by tickling the tl ? *'-'*'**=X^^9s, 
ftather; or the nomaeh piirap may ba emi.loyeJ '^ ""JL^ ^'^ 
trestment mnit be dcwrniined by tbe BjaiBtoinM ' f i- "^-^^ ^^ 
be prwmbed with advantage. "^ ' ^""n ^tC^?'^^ 

Ciramie Pouomng. — The cipepiment* of Dr N ■ ^^^ --.I!! 

dMailed have remored anv doobt whioh mav !««»?? . '^^'•*. "^ 

»ea.t mediw-legal ««», o to the paweTi^un '"'"«>'?^^-*^ 
rep»t«d -nail d«»«. to d-traj lift- It givL r ^ ,'"" *^ ^^ 
vomiUng. and purging, eitmne debility, anj f-t,, *f ,IL>*.^ ^ 
and Ih. like aymptom. h.« o^nrred in m" V ^n "f^„lI^ ^^^^^ 

p,;,r •"*• '' "'■ """"^ '"""■"^' 'Hi^r^w.,,,'" "p,^ '^^ 


Oat Dr. OaoiAciiu'i paper Jihi 

4SS uEHctmi ASD r 

yonng children, etpeeutll; when to&ring from iHfritoi locii u 
croup, there leeniB lo be gie^t tolerance of tiirtar emetic; at m 
proved b; ■evernl ctaet teltteil at qnoted faj Dr. EUiolaon. Bnl 
in these caKS tetanic lymptomt Here praeiit x in kkh am 
of iMiUoning in the lululC. (' Hed. Timea >ud OataCte.' Jalf 6, 

C&loride qf Aniimotiy {Bttiler of Antimoaf ). 

A corto«vB liquid, of n liglit-jcllow or dark-red coloor, wbfch 
!iiu been taken bj ntlstalce Iot ginger-beer, and for ■ntinHoiial 
wina. When hirgelj dilnUd with water the white <n;chlorid> rf 
antimonj bill down, and the cleat liquid ii pmred to ooDtain 
muriatic arad bj the addiUon of nitnte of aiUer. The labudiAV 
of n white precipitate an ndding water in eicca also occnn «Itb 
■olutiouB of the bb1(b of hiamutb : but wltti aalpharetted bydngvn 
biunutb jieldi a black, and antimony an orange-red proaiutaliV- 

Sj/niptoTiu. — The action of the chloride ia both prompt tnl 
violent. Id One Ritiil case, death took place in ten bour* and a 
half after awallowing between two and three onneea of the liifaid. 
^lareotic bympComs were added to thoae of riolent itritatiao of 
the nlimentar; canal, ami after death the i 
tbe entire canal pn^enled a charred appearmnca. and WM k 
and abraded. Kecovery luu taken place afler a 
oance of the poivao. 

Treattnent. — That of poisoning by tarfar r 
draughta of warm water Bhoald be promptly admiiiii 
lowed by tincture of bnrk. 

Tlieae are in common uw in the arts and in medicine, • 
are occaiiocallj uied bb poitnni. They take tlii< aevnith^ 
namag the ascertained muses of death by paiMin. uiuinff n 
aflrr oxalic acid, and they are creililed by the ncgi^tmr^cnEtal 
with ten deatba a year, on the Bveni);ii of the flv« yeun l>iEi! 
Cnrrorive mblimate, the [irepimlion uanally taken or glv 
poiaoii, was the cautc of twclie duI of 543 deathi from or 
1S3T and IsaS; of which twelve auet two 

trial m Dr Wlchi 


ID nfuilm] doMVn 


Metallic mercorv, sj umA in the arts, giro rim 
to •erereaudvrelUdeSnedmiladin.aDd the medicinal prvpanljona 
uionKll; prore Bital when given in ■□ ovprdose, or 
in u) ordiunry ioae to penom vcr; wuceptible to their nction. 
Tbe netol itwtf ii inert, and ma; be given in largn qauiUties 
withoot injury ; but ila oxide when diffused througli the tit, or 
brought into conatunt oontnct with the altin, ii well known to 
prodoee iiijiinaua eSects. 

One iaijiorlant property of metallic mercury requires to be 
Daticod, u it ia made use of in medico-legnl iaqnirieg. It aubUmoa 
unchanged at 660°, and when the HulillmatiDU la conducted in a 
g]aat tube, a ring uf luiill metallic globulin is dopoiitod. Wlien 
more laJDutely divided, it baa tlic appearance of a black 
powder; in which form it ia thrown down from aolutiona of 

Tbe moat important preparations of mercnrj- are : — the cbloride 
or oomxive Bubiiinnta; the snb-eblurido, or calomel; the am- 
nioaio-cliloridc^ or white precipitate ; the red oiide, nitrin oxide, 
ornd precitntale; the sulphide, cinnabar, or vermilioD; the sab- 
anlphate of the oiiite, or Tnrpeth mineral; the bicjoniile, or 
pnunate; and the two nitrates. The bhiclc lulMiiide, aud snb- 

rlphide UN lam important. 
Of these, oarroslve lablimate is by far the most important. 
OObsObitb suuuuiix {Oiymuriate. Corrotlfe Muriate, 
Biehloride, more properly CMoride, of Mercury). 
Tba subatatice is used for preacrring the feethcra of birds 
and ikini of animals from moth ; for deatroying bugs and killing 
Uoe and maggots in man and in animals; and when disaoired in 
■|Nrits of sweet nitre ai a popuhir remedy for gonorrhcea and 

Pmperiiri. — A very heary cryitalline mass, or white powder, 
of a pecoliarly nauseous taate, prrman^nt in air. but slowly <le- 
compoaed in anosliine, an insoluble grey powder being formed. 
It is salable in twenty parta of cold, and two of boilin|r, water; 
and more silubla in ntcobol and other, for which reason ether ia 
nsed to remove it tram its aqoaoos solutions. Common salt, *1*<^ 
liKire«Ka its stdaUlity . 
[ Ttttt. — We may encounter tlio poison in nttlaiiee, in lolulion, 
■In orgtuue Uqaid; and in the tUtiMt mirf orgam of the bodg. 

■ 1. /• Subitanet. 

W When hoatcd do platinum foil It is wholly dij^pulf<J in whlt« 

mscuBT ixn m 

Rt one or both mda, and tAeo ndiatiiiK 

■ point. 1%. M libowt a earn*, ud Bg. 96 

•pbsmm, the lut iroa a photograph. ~ 

liqaidi. If t fabUmata doa not ]u|qMi 
minate drop of liqnw potuMi applied to on* purl al ii,mmt<d 
nlotioii of iodide of paianam to uioUter, will adenti^ it b]t Ai 
jraUoT and tai\*t fcaetioDa. Hihc toti ar« oondas**. Tii 
Stnat nlubilitj of cammre nMioute in 
' u add ind calomeL 



'nie addition of ■ few drapa of liquor potan* plww Uw