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Full text of "Urdu; readings in literary Urdu prose"

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TSeFARM 
(S-GARDEN 
RULE-BOOK 



L.H.Bailey 




Mi- ^ Agric.Oeirt. 



AGBta 
UmWRY 



FARM AND GARDEN RULE-BOOK 





Ube lltttal Aanuals 




j^ 


Manual 


OF Gardening — Bailey 


Manual 


OP Farm Animals — Harper 


Farm and Garden Bule-Book — Bailey 


Manual 


OF Home-Making — In preparation 


Manual 


OF Cultivated Plants — Inpreparor 


tian 





FARM AND GARDEN 
RULE-BOOK 

A MANUAL OF READY RULES AND REFERENCE 



WITH RECIPES, PRECEPTS, FORMULAS, AND TABULAR INFORMA- 
TION FOR THE USE OF GENERAL FARMERS, GARDENERS, 
FRUIT-GROWERS, STOCKMEN, DAIRYMEN, POULTRY- 
MEN, FORESTERS, RURAL TEACHERS, AND 
OTHERS IN THE UNITED STATES AND 
CANADA 



BT 

L. H. BAILEY 

•i 



NcfD ^Otfc 

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 
1911 

All rights ruerved 



( : ( ■ 

LIBRARY 



Ck>PTRiaRT, 1911, 

bt the macmillan company. 



Set up and electrotyped. Published November, X91Z. 



Notteoob TfiwM 

J. 8. Gushing Co. — Berwick A Smith Co. 

Norwood. Mass.. U.S.A. 



PREFACE 

The first edition of this manual was published late in 1889, 
and the second early in 1892, both by the Rural Publishing 
Company, publisher of the "American Garden" and "Rural 
New-Yorker." The third edition, much remodeled, was pub- 
lished by The Macmillan Co., May, 1895. The book has 
been reprinted, February, 1896; May, 1897; August, 1898; Au- 
gust, 1899; June, 1901; October, November, 1902; February, 
1904; July, 1906; January, 1907; May, June, 1908; August, 
1909. 

The old form of the book, under the title " The Horticulturist's 
Rule-Book," is now to be discontinued, having served its place 
and day. So far as I know, it was the first compilation of its 
kind in this country, and therefore it was very inf^rfect and 
incompleta The intervening years, covering nearly a quarter 
century, have also seen a vast enlargement of the farmer's hori- 
zon, so that the little book that I prepared in my novice days can 
no longer represent the situation. 

I am sure that I have more misgiving in putting out this 
larger and completer book than I had in the small first effort. 
The field is wider, and therefore more difficult to cover; and 
knowledge has grown so uninterruptedly that one knows scarcely 
where to begin and what to compass. The only definite point is 
where to end, for publishers fortunately set limits to sizes of 
books ; and when this limit was reached I discarded three or four 
chapters and prepared the index. 

For myself, I am conscious of the many good things that have 
not been printed in the book; but I hope that my consultant 
— I cannot expect to have a reader for a book of this sort — 
will find some satisfaction in the things that are included Every 

2659(58 



vi PREFACE 

care has been taken to choose reliable sources of information, 
but I can scarcely hope to have escaped errors; and of coarse 
I cannot hold myself responsible for the value of the many 
diverse varieties of information and advice that are here collected. 
Any user of the book will do me a kindness if he reports to me 
any error that he may discover. If the new book should meet 
with the favor that fell to the old, I shall need these suggestions 
in the making of new editions; but I can hardly hope that 
such ccmtinued favor will come to it, for this would mean that 
the two would span a half century, and in these rapidly enlarg- 
ing days this is too much to expect of any fascicle of facts. 

I am indebted to many good persons for the information con* 
tained in the book^ as the names in the proper places testify ; but 
I am specially under obligation to Professor A. R. Mann for 

mudi help. 

L H. BAILET. 

' Ithaoa, N.Y., September 1, 1911. 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER I 

PAOM 

Tub Weather 1-28 

Hwo tou9eike Weather Map 2 

The stonn-tiaeks, 2 — The weather map, 4 — The weather iudl- 
catione, 6. 

Weather Bureau Forecasts 6 

Signals of the United States Weather Bureau, 7 — Canadian 
sipials, 8. 

Barometer and Wind Indications 9 

Popular Weather Signs 11 

Frosts, and Methods of Protection 12 

How frost forms, 12 — To find the dew-point, 14 — Tahle for 
determining temperature of dew-point, 16— Methods of protec- 
tion against frost, 16. 

Phenology 17 

ClimaU and Crop Production ; keeping Beeords .... 10 
Climatic records compiled by the weather senrices, 20 — How 
dimatic data may be secured, 21 — Making local observations, 28. 

CHAPTER n 

Thb Elbmehts and the Soil 24-89 

Distribution of the Elements 26 

The atmosphere, 26— The elements essential to the life and 

growth of plants, 26 — Ultimate composition of a wheat plant, 26 

— Ultimate composition of haman body, 26. 
The Ash and Mineral Parts of Animals and Plants .... 26 

Mineral elements in animal bodies, 27 — Composition of aah of 

haman body, 27 — Composition of the ash of leading farm crops, 

28. 

Chemical Compounds 28 

The Sou 29 

Classification of soils in respect to origin, 29 — Classification of 

vii 



viii CONTENTS 

soil constituents, 29 — Weight of soils, 80 — Texture of the soil, 
82. 

8oU Water 82 

Amount of water used by various crops in producing a ton of 
dry matter, 82 — Mean volume of water held by different soils, 88 
— Water evaporated by growing plants for one part of dry mat- 
ter produced, 38 — Water needed under arid conditions, 84. 

Flantrfood in the SoU 84 

Plant-food in surface soil, with calculations to pounds in an acre, 
84. 

Alkali Lands 86 

The normal condition of arid lands, 85 —Percentage composition 
of alkali, 86 — Quantity of gypsum required to neutralize sodium 
carbonate, 87. 

Tillage^ and SoU Management 87 

Objects of tillage, 87— Jordan's rules of fertility, 88. 



CHAPTER m 

Chbmical Fertilizers; and Lime 40-80 

Some of the Sources of Chemical Fertilizers 41 

Composition of materials used as sources of nitrogen, 41 — Com- 
position of materials used as sources of phosphoric acid, 41 — 
Marketed production of phosphate rock in United States, 41 — 
World's production of phosphate rock, 1905-1907, 42 — Average 
composition of Stassf urt potash salts, 42 — Potash salts produced 
in the United States, 1860 to 1905, 43 — ImporUtion of potash 
salts, 43 — Potassic materials produced by the aid of electricity, 
44 — Principal potash material used in United States, 45. 

Fertilizer Formulas and Guarantees 45 

Methods of Computing Value of Fertilizers 47 

Trade-values of plant-food elements in raw materials and chemi- 
cals, 1910, 47 — Valuation and cost of fertilizers, 48 — Valuation, 
and agricultural value, 48 — Kule for calculating approximate 
commercial valuation of mixed fertilizers, 48 — Computing the 
trade value, 49 — How to figure the trade value, in greater detail, 
60. 

Some- Mixing of Fertilizers 62 

General advice, 62 — Incompatibles in fertilizer mixtures, 63 — 
Table for calculating raw materials required per ton by mixtures 
of given composition, 53. 



CONTENTS IX 

PAOH 

8oU Analysis and Fertilizer Testa 64 

Field tests to determine fertilizer needs, 66. 

Analyses of Various Chemical Fertilizer and Belated Materials .. 67 
Dissolved bone-black, 67 — Bone charcoal, 67 — Ground bone, 
67 — Dried blood, 68 — Dry ground fish, 68 — Sulfate of ammo- 
nia, 68 — Sulfate of potash, 68 — Sulfate of magnesia, 68 — Nitrate 
of Soda, 68 — Muriate of potash, 58 — German potash salts, 68 — 
Kainit, 69 — Land-plaster or gypsum, 69 — Ashes, unleached, 69 
— Ashes, leached, 69 — Coal ashes, bituminous, 69 — Coal ashes, 
anthracite, 69 — pas-lime, 69 — Seaweed, 60. 

Fertilizer Formulas for Various Crops 60 

Formulas suggested by Maine Experiment Station, 60 — Specific 
mixtures for different crops, 63. 

Lime for the Land 77 

To determine whether a soil is acid, 77 — Application of lime, 
78 — Forms of lime, 78 — Fineness of division, 79 — Classification 
of lime for agricultural purposes, 79. 



CHAPTER IV 

Fabx Maiturbs, and Similab Matbbials 81-91 

Composition and Characteristics of Manures 81 

Cattle manure, 81 — Stable or horse manure, 81 — Sheep ma- 
nure, 82 — Hog manure, 82. 

Composition of Manure from Different Animals . . .82 

Composition of fresh excrement of farm quadrupeds, 83 — Com- 
position of drainage liquors, 83 — Composition of litter, 84 — 
Poultry manures, 84. 

Utilization of Manures 86 

Rate of production, 86 — Use of manures, 86 — Commercial 
value, 86 — Losses by leaching, 87. 

Further Analyses of Animal Excrements 88 

Common barnyard manure, fresh, 88 — Common barnyard 
manure, moderately rotted, 88 — Same, thoroughly rotted, 88 — 
Cattle-feces, fresh, 88 — Cattle-urine, fresh, 88 — Horse-feces, 
fresh, 88 — Horse-urine, fresh, 89 — Sheep-feces, fresh, 89 — 
Sheep-urine, fresh, 89 — Swine feces, fresh, 89 — Swine-urine, 
fresh, 89 — Peruvian guano, 89 — Human feces, fresh, 90 — Human 
nrine, fresh, 90 — Sewage, 90. 

Analyses of Fruit and Garden Products^ with reference to their Fer- 
tUissing Constituents 90 



X CONTENTS 

CHAPTER V 

PAoas 

Sbbd-Tables 02-106 

Quantity of Seed required per Acre 92 

Hay and Pasture Seeds 94 

Pennanent meadows, 94 — Permanent pastures, 94 — Number 

and weight of grass seed, and another estimate of quantity to sow, 

94 — Examples of seed mixtures that would furnish 20,000,000 

grass seeds per acre, 96 — Testing grass seed, 96. 
Number of Tree- Seeds in a Pound 96 

Fruit trees, 96 — Forest trees, 96. 
Weights and Size^ of Seeds 97 

Seedmen^s customary weights per bushel, 97 — Weight and size 

of garden seeds, 98. 
Figures of Germination and Purity 100 

Testing seeds, 100 — High average percentage of purity and of 

germination of high-grade seeds, 101 — Average time required for 

garden seeds to germinate, 102. 
Longevity of Seeds 102 

Vilmorin*s tobies, 102 — Haberlandt's figures, 104— Vitality 

of seeds buried in soil, 104. 
Average Yields of Garden Seed^Crops 106 



CHAPTER VI 

Plantino-Tablbs 106-123 

Dates for Sowing or Setting Kitchen-Garden Vegetables in IHffer- 

ent Latitudes 106 

Lansing, Michigan, 106 — Boston, 106 — New York, 107 — Nor- 
folk, 107 — Georgia, 108— Tender and hardy vegetobles, 108. 

Date-Tables 109 

Vegetoble-gardener*s planting-table, 109 — Usual planting dates 
for field crops, 110 — Flower-planting toble, 116. 

Distance-Tables .119 

Usual distances apart for planting fruits, 119— Usual distances 
apart for planting vegetables, 119— Orange trees, 119 — Number 
of plants required to set an acre of ground at given distances, 
120 — Quincunx planting, 123. 

Plan for a Home Garden 123 



CONTENTS xi 

CHAPTER VU 

PAOB8 

BtiTURirns, Yiblds, and Multiplication 124-132 

MalurUy-TdbUs 124 

Time required for maturity of different garden crops, reckoned 
from the sowing of tlie seeds, 124 — Time required, from setting, 
for fruit-plants to bear (for northern and central latitudes) 124 
— Averagp profitable longevity of fruit-plants under high culture, 
125. 

Tield'Tahlea 125 

Average full yields per acre of various horticultural crops, 126 — 
Yields of farm crops, 127. 

Prapagation-Tablea 180 

Tabular statement of the ways in which plants are propagated, 
130 — Particular methods by which various fruits are multiplied, 
180 — Stocks commonly used for various fruits, 131 — How vege- 
table crops are propagated, 131 — How farm crops are propa- 
gated, 182. 

CHAPTER VIII 

Crops fob Spboial Farm Practices. Home Storage and Kbep- 

iNO OP Crops 133-140 

borage Crops 133 

Roughage, 133 — Fodder, 138 — SoiUng, 133 — Silage, 134. 

Soiling Crops 134 

Soiling crops adapted to northern New England, 185 — Time of 
planting and feeding soiling crops, 185 — Soiling crops for Penn- 
sylvania, 130 — Crops for partial soiling for Illinois during mid- 
summer, 136 — Succession of soiling crops for dairy cows for 
Wisconsin, 136 — Mississippi, 137 — Kansas, 137 — Dates for 
planting and using soiling crops in western Oregon and western 
Washington, 137 — Dairyman's rotation in middle latitudes, 137. 

Cwer-Crops 138 

Catch-Crops 139 

Nurse-Crops 140 

Field Boot^frops 140 

Methods of Keeping and Storing Fruits and Vegetables .141 
Apples, 141 — Cabbage, 142 — Celery, 142 — Crystallized or 
glac^ fruit, 143 — Figs, 144 — Gooseberries, 144 — Grapes, 144 — 
Onions, 146 —Orange, 147 — Pears, 147 — Quince, 147 — Roots, 
147— Squash, 147 — Sweet-potato, 148— Tomato, 149. 
Cold Storage 149 



xii CONTENTS 

CHAPTER IX 

PAGBS 

Commercial Grades or Crop Peoductb. Fruit Packages . 160-171 

CoUon Orades 160 

Grades of Hay and Straw . . .161 

Hay, 161 — Alfalfa, 162 — Straw, 162. 

Grades of Grain 168 

White winter wheat, 163 — Red winter wheat, 164 — Hard winter 
wheat, 164 — Northern spring wheat, 164 — Spring wheat, 166 — 
White spring wheat, 156 — Durum wheat, 166 — Velvet chaff 
wheat, 166 — Pacific Coast wheat, 166 — Mixed wheat, 167 — 
Rye, 157 — White oats, 157 — Mixed oats, 158— Red or rust- 
proof oats, 168 — White clipped oats, 168 — Mixed clipped oats, 
169 — Purified oats, 159 — Corn, 159— White com, 160 — Yellow 
corn, 160- Mixed corn, 160 — Milo-maize, 160 — KaflBr corn, 
161 — Barley, 161 — Winter barley, 162 — Sample grades, 168. 

FruU Packages 163 

California deciduous fruits, 163 — Chautauqua grape figures, 164 
— California citrus fruits, 164 — Apple boxes, 164 — Canadian 
fruit packages, 167 — Proposed United States standards, 168. 
Packages for truck cropsy including strawberries , . . . 169 



CHAPTER X 

The Judoivo of Farms, Crops, and Plants. Exhibition and No- 
menclature Rules. EmbleIiatic Plants and Flowers 172-186 

Farms and Farm Practices . . 172 

The agricultural virtues, 172 — Loudon^s rules for gardeners, 173 

— Essential points to consider in the organization of a farm, 174 

— Points of a good farm, 174 — Score-card for farms, 176. 

Corn and Potatoes 177 

Score-card for dent com, 177 — For use in the plant selection of 
seed com, 177 — Card for use in judging varieties of com at 
husking time, 177 — Score-card for potatoes, 177. 

Standards ffjr Judging Fruits at Exhibitions 177 

Apples and pears, 177 — Peaches, 177 — Plums, 178 — Cherries, 
178 — Grapes, 1 78 — Collections, 178 — Barrel apples, 178 — Box 
apples, 179. 

Flowers and Plants 179 

The American Rose Society scale of points, 179 — Standardiza- 
tion of roses, 179 — Camations, 179 — Gladiolus, 180— Chrysan- 



CONTENTS xiii 

PAGCS 

themum, 180 — Sweet pea, 180 — Scale of points of florists* 

planto, 180. 
Sample Rvles to Govern Exhibitions 181 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society rules, 181. 
Nomenclature Eules 183 

Rules for naming kitchen-garden vegetables, 183 — American 

Pomological Society rules of nomenclature, 183. 
Emblematic Plants and Flowers 186 

State flowers, 186 -^ National and regional flowers, 186 — Party 

flowers, 186. 

CHAPTER XI 

Greekbodsb A!n> Wivdow-Garden Work 187-201 

Greenhouse Practice 187 

Potting earth, 187 — Suggestions for potting plants, 188— r Wat- 
ering greenhouse and window plants, 188 — Liquid manure for 
greenhouses, 188. 

Lists of Plants 189 

Twenty-flve plants adapted to window-gardens, 189 — Vegetable- 
growing under glass, 190 — Twenty-five useful aquatic and sub- 
aquatic plants for outdoor use, 191 — Commercial plants and 
flowers, or ^'florists* plants,** 191. 

The Heating of Greenhouses 192 

Methods of proportioning radiating surface for heating of green- 
houses, 192 — Size of pipes connecting radiating surface and the 
boiler or heater, 194 — Table of dimensions of standard wrought- 
iron pipe, 194 — To design heating surface, 196. 

Other Inforjnation relating to Heating 196 

Diameters for chimney flues, 196 — Effects of wind in cooling 
glass, 196 — Table of radiation for glass, 196 — Radiating surface 
of pipes, 197 — Method of finding boiler capacity for cast-iron 
pipe, 198 — Customary temperatures in which plants are grown 
under glass, 198. 

Various Estimates and Recipes 198 

Percentage of rays of light reflected from glass roofs at various 
angles of divergence from the perpendicular, 198 — Angle of roof 
for different heights and widths of house, 199 — Standard flower- 
pots, 199 — To prevent boilers from filling with sediment or scale, 
200 — To prepare paper and cloth for hotbed sash, 200 — Paint for 
hoUwater pipes, 200 — Liquid putty for glazing, 201 — Paint for 
shading greenhouse roofs, 201 — To keep flower-pots clean, 201. 



XIT CONTENTS 

CHAPTER Xn 

PAGES 
FORBSTRT AND TiMBES 202-220 

Planting Notes 202 

Nursery planting-table for forest trees, 202 — Forest planting, 
203. 

Hardness of Common Commercial Woods 204 

Forest Yields 204 

Approximate time required to produce wood crops, 204 — Yield 
of white pine, 206. 

Life of Fence-Posts and Shingles 207 

Durability of fence-posts in Minnesota, 207 — Prolonging the life 
of fence-posts, 207 — Prolonging the life of shingles, 209 — Sug- 
gestions for community action, 210. 

Board Meas^ire 210 

Cord Measure 211 

Log Measure 212 

Scribner decimal log rule, 214. 

77. S. Forest Service Log-Scaling Directions 214 

Allowances for taper, 216. 

Cubic Log Measure 216 

Method by measurement of length and middle diameters, 217 — 
By length and end diameters, 217 — Solid cubic contents of logs, 
218. 
Cubic Contents of Square Timber in Hound Logs .... 218 
The two-thirds rule, 210 — The inscribed-square rule, 220. 

CHAPTER XIII 

WsBOB 221-233 

General Practices 221 

Annual weeds, 221 — Biennials, 222 — Perennials, 222. 
Chemical Weed-killers or Herbicides . . . . . . .223 

Salt, 223 — Copper sulfate (blue vitriol), 223 — Iron sulfate, 223 

— Kerosene, 223 — Carbolic acid, 224 — Sulfuric acid (oil of 
vitriol), 224 — Caustic soda, 224 — Arsenical compounds, 224. 

Application of Herbicides 224 

Gravel roadways, gutters, tennis courts, walks, 224 — List of 
weeds that may be controlled by means of chemical sprays, 225 

— List of weeds on which present spraying methods are not effec- 
tive, 225 — Rhode Island experience with iron sulfate, 225 — 
South Dakota experience with iron sulfate, 226— Ohio experi- 



CONTENTS XV 

PAGBS 

enoe, 226 — Cornell experience, 227 — Varions experiences, 227 

— When to apply weed sprays, 228. 

TrtatrMntfoT Particular Weeds . 229 

Poison ivy, 229 — Prickly lettuce, 229 — Bracted plantain, 229 

— Horse nettle, 229— Boffalo bnr, 229 — Spiny amaranth, 229 

— Spiny cocklebor, 229 — Chondrilla, 280 — Wild carrot, 230 — 
Wild oats, 230 — False flax, 280 — Mustard, 230 — King-head, 
280— Canada thistie, 230— Dandelion, 281 — Sow thistle, 231 — 
Quack-grass, 231 — White daisy, 231 — Black mustard, 232 — 
Orange hawkweed and chickweed, 232. 

Lawns 232 

Weeds in lawns, 232 — Moss on lawns and walks, 233. 
Moss or Lichen on Trees 288 



CHAPTER XIV 

Pbsts akd Nuisancss 234-261 

Mice and Bats 284 

To prevent mice from girdling trees in winter, 284 —Washes to 
protect trees from mice, 236 — Carbonate of baryta for rats and 
mice, 286 — Tartar emetic, 236 — Strychnine for mice, 286 — 
Camphor for rats and mice, 236— French paste, 236 — Phoephoms, 
236 — To protect seed-corn from burrowing animals, 236. 

Babbits 236 

Wash for keeping rabbits, sheep, and mice away from trees, 236 

— Blood for rabbits, 236 — To drive rabbits from orchards, 287 
—Another wash, 237 — Calif omia rabbit-wash, 237 — Calif omia 
rabbit poisons, 237 — Sulfur for rabbits, 237 — Cow-manure, 237 

— Asafoetida, 238 — Kansan method of protecting trees from 
rabbits, 238 — To remedy the tnjniy done by mice, rabbits, and 
squirrels, 241. 

Ground Squirrel or Spermophile Bemedies 241 

Moles 242 

Prairie-dogs 242 

Woodchucks or Oround-hogs 243 

Pocket-Gophers 243 

Wolves and Coyotes 243 

Muskrats 243 

Pestiferous Birds 248 

Bird poisons, 243 — Poison for English sparrows, 244 — To pro- 
tect froitB from birds, 244 — To protect newly planted seeds, 244 



XVI CONTENTS 

rAOBS 

•—To protect com from crows, 245 — To protect young chickens, 

246. 
Mosquitoes 246 

Kerosene for mosquitoes, 246 — Fishes available for destruction 

of mosquito larvae, 246 — Hibernating mosquitoes, 246 — Rules 

for mosquito extermination and prevention, 247. 
TheHouse-Fly 249 

The typhoid fly, or house-fly, 249 — Control, 260. 
Slime on Ponds 261 

CHAPTER XV 

FuNOiciDBS AND GsRMioiDBs FOR Plant Disbasbs . . . 262-268 

Practices 262 

Destroying affected parts, 262 — Rotation of crops, 263 — Steri- 
lizing by steam, 263. 

Substances 263 

Bordeaux mixture, 263 — Ammoniacal copper carbonate, 266 — 
Copper carbonate, 256 — Corrosive sublimate, 256 — Formalin, 
266 — Lime, 266 — Lime-sulfur, 266 — Potassium sulfid, 268 — 
Resin-sal-soda sticker, 268 — Sulfate of copper, 268 — Sulfate of 
lion, 268 — Sulfur, 268. 

CHAPTER XVI 

Plant Diseases • 269-286 

Certain General or Undassifled Diseases 260 

Damping-off, 260 — (Edema or dropsy, 260 — Smut of cereals, 
260 — Storage rots, 262. 
Diseases of the Different Plants or Crops ...:.. 262 
Alfalfa, 262 — Almond, 263 — Apple, 263 — Apricot, 265 — 
Asparagus, 266 — Barley, 265 — Bean, 265 — Bean, Lima, 266 

— Beet, 266 — Blackberry, 266 — Brussels sprouts, 266 — Cab- 
bage, 266 — Carnation, 267 — Cauliflower, 267 — Celery, 267 — 
Cherry, 267 - Chestnut, 268 — Chrysanthemum, 268 — Corn, 
268 — Cotton, 269 — Cranberry, 269 — Cucumber, 270 — Currant, 
270 — Ginseng, 270 — Golden-seal, 271 — Gooseberry, 271 — 
Grape, 271 — Hollyhock, 273 — Lettuce, 273 — Muskmelon, 274 

— Nectarine, 274 — Nursery stock, 274 — Oats, 274 — Onion, 274 

— Pea, 275 — Peach, 276 — Pear, 277 — Plum, 279 — Potato, 279 
—Pumpkin, 280— Quince, 280— Radish, 280— Raspberry, 281— 



CONTENTS xvii 

FAGSS 

Bice, 281 — Rose, 281— Spinach, 281 —Strawberry, 282— Sweet- 
potato, 282 — Tobacco, 282 — Tomato, 288 — Violet, 283 — 
Wheat, 283. 
Sud and SoU Treatments 284 

CHAPTER XVn 

ImscTioiDAL Materials and Practices 286-300 

QenertU Fracticea 286 

Cleanliness, 286 — Hand-picking, 286 — Promoting growth, 286 
Burning, 286 — Banding, 286— Fumigation, 287 — Fungous dis- 
eases as insecticides, 290. 

Insectiddal Subetancea 290 

Arsenic, 290 — Arsenicals, 291 — Bait, 293 — Bran-arsenic mash, 
293 — Bisulfid of carbon, 293 — Carbolic acid materials, 293 — 
Criddle mixture, 293 — Distillate emulsion, 294 — Hot water, 294 
— Kerosene emulsion, 294 — Lime-sulfur, 294 — Miscible oils, 
297 — Fyrethrum, 297 — Resin and fish-oil compounds, 298 — 
Soaps, 298-299- Soda and aloes, 299 — Sulfur, 299— Tangle- 
foot, 299— Tar, 299— Tobacco, 299 — White hellebore, 300. 

CHAPTER XVIII 

IirjURious Insects, with Treatment 301-336 

General or Undassi/ied Pests 301 

Angleworm, 301 — Aphides, 301 — Bag-worm, 301 — Blister- 
beetle, 302 — Brown-tail moth, 302 — Cutworm, 302 — Flea- 
beetle, 303 — Four-striped plant-bug, 303 — Gipsy-moth, 303 — 
May-beetle, 303 — Mealy-bug, 303 — Nematode root-gall, 303 — 
Red-spider or mite, 304 — San Jos^ scale, 304 — Scale-insects, 
304 — Snails, 306 — White ants, 305 — Wire- worm, 305. 
Insects class(fled under the Plants they chiefly Affect .... 305 
Apple, 805 — Apricot, 310 — Asparagus, 310 — Aster, 311 — Bean, 
811 — Birch, 311 — Blackberry, 311— Cabbage, 311 —Carrot, 
312 — Cauliflower, 813 — Celery, 313 — Cherry, 313 — Chestnut, 
313— Chrysanthemum, 313 — Clover, 313 — Com, 314 — Cotton, 
816 — Cranberry, 317 — Cucumber, 318 — Currant, 318 — Dahlia, 

319 — Egg-plant, 319 — Elm, 319 — Endive, 320 — Gooseberry, 

320 — Grape, 320 — Hollyhock, 322 — House-plants, 322 — 
Lawns, 322 — Lettuce, 322 — Melon, 322 — Mushroom, 323 — 
Onion, 323— Orange and lemon, 323 — Parsley, 324 — Parsnip, 
324 — Pea, 324 — Peach, 325 — Pear, 326 — Pecan, 327 — Per- 



XVm CONTENTS 

Simmon, 828— Pineapple, 328 — Plum, 320 — Poplar, 329 — Po- 
tato, 329 — Privet or Prim, 330 — Quince, 330 — Radish, 330 — 
Raspberry, 330 — Rhubarb, 331 — Rose, 331 — Squash,. 831 — 
Strawberry, 332— Sugar-cane, 333— Sumac, 334 — Sweet-potato, 
334 — Tobacco, 335 — Tomato, 336 — Violet, 836 — Wheat, 886 

— Wmow,336. 

CHAPTER XIX 

Liyb-Stogk Rulbs and Rboords 887-364 

Determining the Age of Farm Animals 887 

CatUe, 337 — Sheep, 838— Swine, 389— Horses, 889. 
Gestation and Incubation Figures 842 

Number of young at birth, 843 — Number of eggs in brood, 843. 
Other Characteristics 844 

Average temperatures of farm animals, 344 — The pulse of farm 

animals, 344 — Period of heat, 344 — Quantity of blood in the 

bodies of farm animals, 846. 
Temperatures for Cold Storage of Animal Products , . 846 
Adoanced Begistry 845 

Schedule of charges for supervising records of cows, 348 — Hol- 

stein-Friesian records, 349 — Ayrshire records, 850 — Guernsey 

records, 361 — Jersey records, 864. 
Fast Horse Eecords 857 

Trotters, 868— Pacers, 368 — Fastest records for one mile, 358 

— Fastest records for two miles, 369 — Fastest records for three 
miles, 369 — Fastest records for four miles, 369 — Fastest records 
for five miles, 369 — Fastest records for six miles, 869 — For ten 
miles, 369 — For eighteen miles, 369 — For twenty miles, 360 — 
For thirty miles, 860 — For thirty-two miles, 860 — For fifty 
miles, 860 — For one hundred miles, 360 — For decades, 860. 

Profit-and'Loss Figures 860 

Profit or loss in dairy cows, 360 — Profit or loss in fattening 
steers, 362 — In fattening sheep, 362 — In fattening swine, 362. 

Cow-testing Associations 862 

Apparatus required, 364 — Value of cow-testing associations in 
Virginia, 364. 

CHAPTER XX 

Poultry 365-382 

Standard Weights of Poultry in Pounds 366 

Descriptive Score-Card for Standard Poultry 367 



CONTENTS XIX 

PAOIB 

Xgg9 308 

Scoring and judging one dozen eggs, 308— Students* score-card 
for a dozen eggs, 800. 

Bule9 for Maehine Incubation 370 

Feeding 372 

Cornell ration for egg-production, 372 — Relation of f ood-con- 
. sumption to egg-production, 872. 

Preparing Fowls for Market by Bleeding 374 

Care of Feathers and Eggs 375 

Feathers, 376 — General care of eggs, 376 — Preserving eggs, 370. 

Parasites of Fowls 377 

Hen louse, 877 — Chicken mite, 377 — Scaly leg, 378— Deplum- 
ing scabies, 378 — Hen fleas, 878 — Chicken tick, 378. 
Sample Rules and Regulations for the Exhibition of Poultry . . 378 
Outline for CriHcdl Examination of a Poultry Farm . .381 



CHAPTER XXI 

SxHiBiTiNo AHD JuDoiNo Lxvb-Stogk. Markbt Gradbs . 383-408 

General Rules and Regulations governing Exhibits of Live-Stock . 383 

Score-Cards for Farm Animals 392 

Draft-horse, 302 — Light-horse, 303 — Students* card for propor- 
tions of horse, 305 — Beef-cattle (female), 305 — Beef -cattle 
(bull), 307 — Dairy-cattle, 308— Mutton sheep, 300— Breeding- 
sheep, 401 —Fat-hog, 402 — Bacon-hog, 404. 

Market Classes and Grades 404 

Beef, 404 — Veal, 406 — Mutton and lamb, 400— Pork, 400— 
Swine, 407. 

CHAPTER XXn 

% — 

COMPDTINO THB RATION FOR FaRM AnIMALS .... 400-428 

Computing by Energy Values 400 

Computing on Basis of Quality and Quantity of Milk . 410 

Computing the Balanced Ration by the Wolff-Lehmann Standards . 413 

The Feeding Standards 414 

Feeding standards per day and 1000 lb. live weight, 414 — Per 
day per head, 416 — Proteid requirements for cattle, sheep, and 
swine, 410 — Average weights of different feeding stufiEs, 417 — 
Sample rations, 417. 
Oon^^osMon Tables 410 



XX CONTENTS 

PAOB 

Composition tables, 419— Digestion tables, 424— Fertilizing 
oonstituents, 426. 



CHAPTER XXm 

EzTBRNAL Pabasitbs OF Animals 420-^1 

Handling the CaUle-iick or Texas-fever Tick 429 

Dips for cattle-ticks, their preparation and use, 429 — Method of 
spraying, 433 — Disinfectant for ticks in infested stables, 434 — 
Eradication of ticks by rotation of fields, 436. 

Other External Parasites of Fann Animals 434 

Lime-and-sulfur dips, 434 — Nicotine solutions, 434 — Commer- 
cial dips, 436 — Crude oil emulsion, 486 — Lice powder, 436 — 
Cresol disinfecting soap, 436 — The kinds of parasites (cattle, 
487 ; horse, 439 ; sheep, 440 ; swine, 441). 



CHAPTER XXIV 

Milk and Milk Products ; Daibt Farms .... 442-472 

Composition of Milk 442 

Composition of cow's milk, 442 — Average composition of milk 
of yarious kinds, 443 — Average composition of typical cow*s 
milk, 443 — The milk of difiterent breeds, 444 — Milk solids of 
different breeds, 444 — Ash in cow*s milk and its products, 444 — 
Mineral constituents in milk, 444 — Variation in average compo- 
sition of 574 samples of market butter samples, 446 — Nutrients 
and energy in one pound of food materials as compared with 
milk, 446 — Average composition of milk products and other 
food materials, 446. 

MUk, BuUer, and Cheese Tests 446 

Babcock test for butter-fat, 446 — Computing total solids, 447 — 
Test for acid, 447 — Test for boiled milk, 448 — The lactometer 
test for specific gravity, 448 — Test for boric acid or borax, 449 
—Test for formaldehyde in milk, 460 — Standardizing milk, 460 
— Butter moisture-test, 451 — Salt in butter, 453 — Salt in cheese, 
468 — Over-run in butter-making, 464 — Spoon-test for oleomar- 
garin and renovated butter, 456 — Moisture in cheese, 456 — 
Babcock test for fat in cheese, 466 — Casein in milk, 466 — Wis- 
consin curd-test, 467. 
Propagation of Starter for Butter-Making and Cheese-Making . . 468 



CONTENTS XXI 



Farm Butter-Making 468 

Bitter milk and cream, 450 — Why batter will not ** come/* 400 
— Oid cream makes poor-flavored butter, 461 — White specks in 
the batter, 461 —Mottled batter, 461— Effect of feed on butter- 
fat, 461. 

Butter from Whey 461 

Milkt Butter, and Dairy-farm Scores 462 

Score-card for market-milk, 462 — Batter score-card, 468 — 
Cheese score-card, 464 — University of Wisconsin score-cards, 466. 

BuUer Classifications and Grades 466 

Definitions, 466 — Grades, 466 — Specials, 466 — Extras, 466 — 
Seconds, 466 — Thirds, 467 — No. 1 packing stock, 467 — No. 2 
packing stock, 467 — No. 8 packing stock, 467. 

Dairy Establishment Scores and Bules 467 

Score-card for production of sanitary milk, 467 — Milk inspec- 
tion of farm dairies, 469 — Rules for the production of clean 
milk, 471 — Sanitary inspection of city milk plants, 472. 

CHAPTER XXV 

CoNSTBUCTioir, Farm ENonrsEsiNO, Mechanics 478-608 

SOos 478 

Least number of dairy cows for silos of given diameters, 478 — 
Feeding capacity of silos, 478 (Approximate quantity of silage 
required per day — Necessary diameter of silos for feeding given 
numbers of cows) — Other silo figures, 476 (Weight of silage- 
capacity of cylindrical silos) . 

Barn Figures 477 

Wire Fence 477 

Dimensions of 1-, 2-, 8-, 4-acre lots and fence required to inclose 
them, 478 — Gauges, sizes, and weights of plain wire, 479 — Barb- 
wire, 479 — Galvanized coiled spring-steel wire, 479— Rods of 
fence required for fields of different sizes, 480. 

Tensae Strengths of Bopes 481 

TOe Draining 481 

Number of feet of tile per acre, 481— Limit of size of tile to 
grade and length, 481 —Number of acres drained by given sizes 
of tile, 482 — Price-list of tile, 483 — Cost of laying tile, 483 — 
Drainage points, 484— Don'ts in land drainage, 484. 

Boad-Drags 486 

Use of the King road-diag, 486— The split-log road-drag, 487. 



xxii CONTENTS 



Data on Water 480 

Rules, 480 — Feet-head and pressure, 480 — Pressure and feet- 
head, 400— Equivalents for moving water, 400— -Foot-loss of 
water through pipes by gravity, 401 — Friction-loss of water in 
pipes (pounds), 402 ^ Friction-head (feet), 408 —Barometric 
pressure at different altitudes as affecting pumps, 404. 

Windmill Figures 404 

Windmills for pumping, 404 — Power of mill, 406 — Speed of 
mill, 406 — Loading and speed, 407 — Sizes and cost of circular 
reservoirs for irrigation by windmills, 407— Cost of mills, 408. 

Machinery) and Motors 408 

Widths of belting, 408 — Size and speed of pulleys or gears, 408 
— Calculated capacity of piston pumps, 400 — Power required to 
operate triplex pumps, 600 — Horse-power required to raise water 
to different heights, 601 — Horse-power of steel shafting, 601 — 
Electric appliances on the farm, 602 — The motor power of a 
stream, 602 — Hydraulic rams, 603 — Hot-air engines, 608. 

CHAPTER XXVI 

Mason Wobk. Cbmbvts, Paints, Glubs, and Waxbs 604-616 

Building or Mason* 8 Cement ; Oravel and Pitch .... 604 
Approximate estimates of mason-work, 604 — Floors, borders, 
walks, and foundations, 606. 

Mending Cements 607 

Cements for iron, 607 — Boiler cements, 607 — Tar cement, 608 
— Copper cement, 608 — Fire-proof or stone cement, 608 — 
Earthenware cement, 608 — Cement for glass, 608 — Sealing 
cements, 608. 

Paints and Protective Compounds 600 

Home-made washes for fences and outbuildings, 600 — Fire-proof 
paint, 600 — For damp walls, 600 — Water-proofing paint for 
leather, 610— For cloth for pits and frames, 610— For paper, 
610 — To prevent metals from rusting, 610 — To prevent rusting 
of nails, hinges, etc., 610— To remove rust, 611 — Amount of 
paint required for a given surface, 611. 

Olues 611 

Liquid glue, 611— Flower gum, 611 — Gum for labels and speci- 
mens, 612. 

Waxes for Greying and for Covering Wounds 612 

Common resin and beeswax waxes, 612 — Alcoholic wax, 613— 



CONTENTS XXlll 

PAon 
Pitch wax, 613— Waxed string aod bandages, 613 — CoYen for 
wounds, 514. 

CHAPTER XXVII 

Computation Tables 610-642 

TaUta of Begular American Weights and Mecuurea . 516 

Avoirdupois weight, 516 — Troy or jewellers', 616 — Apothe- 
caries', 516 — Comparative weights, 617 — Dry measure, 517 — 
Liquid measure, 517 — Apothecaries* fluid measure, 517 — Lme 
or linear measure, 517 — Surveyors' or chain measure, 518 — 
Square measure, 618 — Surveyors' square measure, 518 — Solid 
or cubic measure, 618 — Paper and book denominations, 519. 

Metric Weights and Measures 619 

Weight, 619 — Capacity, 520 — Length, 520 — Surface, 620 — 
Cubic, 620 — Equivalents in metric and American measures, 521. 

Money Tables 621 

English money, 621— French, 622 — German, 522— Dutch, 622 
—Italian, 622 — Spanish, 522 — Ruasian, 522 — Austrian, 522 — 
Monetary units of American countries, 622 — Other money 
equivalents, 623 — Money table, 624 — Legal rates of interest, 
524. 

Wage-Tables 626 

Day wages, 626-627 —Month wages, 626. 

Thermometer Scales # . . . 627 

Miscellaneous Measures, Weights, and Estimates 628 

Measures and dimensions of many kinds, 528 — Weights of 
various varieties of apples per bushel, 629— Dried fruit and 
cider, 629— Various estimates, 529— To find bushels in bins, 
530— To find tons of hay in mow or stack, 630 — To figure cost 
of hay by the ton, 630. 

CapacUies of Pipes and Tanks 631 

Quantity of water held by pipes of various sizes, 531 — Number 
of gallons in circular tanks and wells, 631 — Approximate con- 
tents of cylinders, 631 — Gallons in square-built tanks, 632. 

Legal Weight of the Bushel 633 

List of products for which legal weights have been fixed in but 
one or two states, 633, 640 — Legal weights (in pounds) per 
bushel in the United States, 634 — Other articles, 640— Legal 
weights of seeds and grains in Canada, 640. 

Government Townships • , .641 



XXIV CONTENTS 

CHAPTER XXVIII 

PAQSfl 
COLLBCTIVO AND PrBSBRVINO SPECIMENS FOR CaBIKETS OR EXHIBI- 
TION Perfumery. Labels 643-558 

Collecting and Storing Samples of Soil 543 

Samples of Seeds and Grains 544 

Collecting and Preserving Plants for Herbaria .... 546 
Preserving, Printing, and Imitating Flowers and Other Parts of 

Plants 546 

Collecting and Preserving Insects 551 

Making Perfumery at Home 551 

The Preservation of Fruits for Exhibition Purposes .... 552 
Six Canadian recipes, 552 — A California method, 656. 

Labels 556 

Jars for Specimens 558 

CHAPTER XXIX 

DiRBCTORiBS 550-667 

Institutions and Agencies making for a better Rural Life . . . 550 
Agricultural and Forestry Colleges, Schools, and Experiment Sta- 
tions in Canada 561 

Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations in the United States . 561 

Forestry Schools in the United States te4 

North American Veterinary Colleges and Departments . . . 565 

Home Economic Institutions and Departments 566 

Institutions teaching Landscape Architecture {or Landscape Garden- 
ing) of College Grade ... 567 



FARM AND GARDEN RULE-BOOK 



FARM AND GARDEN RULE-BOOK 



CHAPTER I 
The Weathbb 

Thb fanner lives with the weather. Therefore he should under- 
stand it ; and he should be able to follow the indications of the weather 
maps, and should be provided with good thennometers and barometers 
of his own. 

It is important that the thermometer should indicate the tempera- 
ture correctly, and for this one must rely on the maker. Most reli- 
able instrument-makers place the firm name on their instruments as 
a guarantee of accuracy. When purchasing, it is therefore well to 
see that the instrument bears the name of the maker. A reliable 
thermometer of the ordinary pattern costs $1 to S3, depending on 
the siae and style of the case. Probably the most satisfactory instru- 
ment for farm use is '' Six's " pattern of self-registering maximimi 
and minimum thermometers. This instrument is but little larger 
than the ordinary thermometer, and arranged with two scales, one of 
which shows the highest and the other the lowest temperature since 
the instrument was " set." To " set " the thermometer, the small 
steel index in the tube is pulled down to the end of the column by a 
magnet that accompanies the instrument. The current temperature 
IS indicated by this instrument in the same way as by the ordinary 
thermometer. Thermometers that cost from 25 ff to 50 ff are usually 
inaccurate through a part of the scale. 

The same rule as to maker should be observed in the purchase of 
an aneroid barometer, although there are probably fewer worthless 
barometers on the market than worthless thermometers. A good 
aneroid barometer costs S 10 to S 15, depending on the size and make. 
As these instruments depend for accuracy on the mechanical con- 
struction, the cheaper grades are usually unsatisfactory. A pocket 



2 • ............... TBE\WEATHER 

.•V«.;:/;/f ;,; '::.^:•\ .* 
aneroid barometer (about the size of a watch) costs about $12. 
These instruments are arranged to determine elevations as well as to 
give weather indications. 

Mercurial barometers are more expensive, costing $25 to S 40. As 
the mercury in the colunm of a mercurial barometer changes its 
length with changes of temperature just as the column of mercury 
does in a mercurial thermometer, it is necessary to correct the read- 
ing at each observation. Tables, giving the amount to be added or 
subtracted from the reading for each degree of temperatiu^, should 
be secured when the instrument is purchased. 

Thermometers should be exposed in the shade, and where there is 
a free circulation of air. Barometers should not be exposed to full 
sunshine for any great length of time. Any convenient place in the 
house will give proper exposure for barometers. 

How to use the Weather Map 
(Weather Bureau, U. S. Dept. Agrio.) 

The first impression of a student of the weather maps, as they pre- 
sent their seemingly endless forms and combinations of the temperature 
and pressure lines, is often one of confusion. This feeling is likely 
to be attended by one of discouragement, and the impulse to abandon 
the task of seeking an imderlying plan is more powerful with many 
persons than the incentive, which depends upon curiosity, to know 
what it all really means. 

The 8tonn4rack8, 

The storms of the United States follow, however, year after year a 
series of tracks, not capricious, but related to each other by veiy well- 
defined laws. 

The positions of these tracks have been determined carefully for 
the United States by studies made in the Forecast Division of the 
Weather Biu'eau, on the long series of maps that have been made during 
the past twenty years. The track that the central point of a high area 
or that the center of a storm follows in passing over the country from 
west to east is laid down on individual charts, these are collected on 
a group chart, and from this the average track pursued can be readily 
described. The chart herewith (see fig. 1) shows the general result of 



THE WEATHER MAP 




4 THE WEATHER 

a study of tracks of storms in the United States. It indicates that, 
in general, there are two sets of tracks running westerly and easterly, 
one set over the northwestern boundary, the Lake region, and the St. 
Lawrence Valley ; the other set over the middle Rocky Mountain dis- 
tricts and the Gulf States. Each of these is double, with one for the 
'' highs " and one for the " lows." Furthermore, there are lines cross- 
ing from one main track to another, showing how storms pass from one 
to the other. The transverse broken lines show the average daily 
movement. On the chart the heavy lines all belong to the tracks of 
the " highs," and the lighter lines to the " lows." Let us trace them 
somewhat in detul. A " high " appearing on the California coast 
may cross the mountains near Salt Lake, and then pass directly over 
the belt of the Gulf States to the Florida coast ; or it may move farther 
northward, cross the Rocky Mountains in the State of Washington, up 
the Columbia River Valley, then turn east, and finally reach the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence. The paths are determined by the laws of the general 
circulation of the atmosphere and the configuration of the North 
American continent. This movement of the " highs " from the 
middle Pacific coast to Florida or to the Gulf of St. Lawrence is con- 
fined to the sunmier half of the year — April to September, inclusive. 
In the winter months, on the other hand, ihe source of the " highs " 
is different, though they reach the same terminals. In the months 
October to March, inclusive, many " highs " enter the United States 
near the one hundred fiftieth meridian and move south along the 
Rocky Mountain slope into the southern circuit, and thus reach the 
South Carolina coast ; or else they turn more abruptly eastward and 
move in the northern cu*cuit over the Lakes to Newfoundland. The 
chief difficulty in the art of forecasting is to decide which of these paths 
will be pursued and the probable rate at which the movement will take 
place. 

The weather map. 

The daily maps of the Weather Bureau show stations in the United 
States and Canada that make telegraphic reports of the weather each 
day at 8 a. m. and 8 p. m., seventy-fifth meridian time. The reports 
consist of obser\'ations of the barometer and thermometer, the veloc- 
ity and direction of the wind, amount, kind, and direction of move- 
ment of clouds, and amount of rain or snow, and the 8 a. m. reports 



WEATHER INDICATIONS 5 

are fumiahed to nearly one hundred stations of the Weather Bureau 
for use in the preparation of maps and bulletins. 

On the weather maps solid lines, called isobars, are drawn through 
points that have the same atmospheric pressure, a line being drawn 
for each one-tenth of an inch in the height of the barometer. Dotted 
Hues, called isotherms, are drawn through points that have the same 
atmospheric temperatm^, a line being drawn for each ten degrees of 
temperature. Heavy dotted lines are sometimes used to inclose areas 
where decided changes in temperature have occurred during the pre- 
ceding twenty-four hours. The direction of the wind at each station 
is indicated by an arrow which flies with the wind. The state of the 
weather — clear, partly cloudy, cloudy, rain, or snow — is indicated by 
symbols. Shaded areas are used on the maps issued at Washington, 
and at several stations, to show areas within which precipitation in 
the form of rain or snow has occurred during the preceding twelve 
hours. The tabular data give details of maximum and minimum 
temperatures, and 24-hour temperature changes, wind velocities, and 
amount of precipitation during the preceding twenty-four hours. The 
text printed on the maps presents forecasts for the state and the sta- 
tion, and summarizes general and special meteorological features that 
are shown by the lines, symbols, and tabulated data. 

The weather indications. 

The centers of areas of low barometric pressure, or general storms, 
are indicated on the map by the word "low," and the centers of 
areas of high barometric pressure by the word " high." The gen- 
eral movement of " lows " and " highs " in the United States is from 
west to east, and in their progression they are similar to a series of 
atmospheric waves, the crests of which are designated by the " highs " 
and the troughs by the "lows." These alternating ''highs" and 
" lows " have an average easterly movement of about six hundred to 
seven hundred miles a day. The " lows " usually move in an easterly, 
or north of east, direction, and the " highs " in an easterly, or south 
of east, direction. 

In advance of a " low " the winds are southerly or easterly, and 
are, therefore, usually warmer. When the " low " passes east of a 
place, the wind shifts to westerly or northwesterly with lower tempera- 
ture. The eastward advance of ** lows " is almost invariably preceded 



6 THE WEATHEB 

and attended by precipitation in the form of rain or snow, and their 
passage is usually followed by clearing weather. The temperature on 
a given parallel west of a ''low" may be reasonably looked for on 
the same parallel to the east when the 'Mow" has passed, and when 
the night is dear and there is but little wind, frost is likely to occur 
along and north of an isotherm of 40**. A "low" is generally 
followed by a "high," which in turn is followed by another "low." 

By bearing in mind the usual movements of "lows" and "highs" 
and the general conditions referred to that attend them, coming 
weather changes may be frequently foreseen. "Lows" often move 
south of east from the Rocky Mountains to the Mississippi Val- 
ley, and then change direction to north of east. " Lows " of tropi- 
cal or subtropical origin often move in a westerly du*ection to our 
south Atlantic and Gulf coasts, and then recurve to the northeastward. 
The centers of '' lows " do not as a rule cross isotherms, but generally 
follow the general trend of the isothermal lines. Cold waves are 
always accompanied by, and forerun, '' highs." 

When isotherms nm nearly east and west, no decided changes in 
temperature are likely to occur. When isotherms directly west of a 
place incline from northwest to southeast, the temperature will rise; 
when from northeast to southwest, the temperature will fall. 

Southerly to easterly winds prevail west of a nearly north and south 
line passing through the middle of a '' high," and also east of a like 
line passing though the middle of a " low." Northerly to westerly 
winds occur west of a nearly north and south line passing through the 
middle of a " low," and also east of a similar line passing though the 
middle of a " high." 

An absence of decided and energetic " lows " and " highs " indicates 
that existing weather conditions will continue until later maps show 
a change, which usually appears in the west. 

Weather Bureau Forecasts 

Forecasts of the weather expected during the ensuing thirty-six 
hours are issued by the United States Weather Bureau daily at about 
10 A.M. and 10 p.m. and are distributed to all parts of the country 
by telegraph, telephone, mail, and by means of flag and whistle signals. 

Nearly all telephone companies cooperate or are willing to codperate 



WEATHER FLAQ8 AND SIGNALS 7 

with the Weather Bureau in making the information available to the 
public in general. It is thus possible to obtain the official weather 
forecast by calling the central exchange of almost any telephone one 
may be using. 

SigndU of the United States Weather Bureau. 

Flag Signals (Fig. 2) 

ti' N' u k' &• 

Fig. 2. — United States flag signals. 

No. 1, square white flag, alone, indicates fair weather, stationary tem- 
perature. 

No. 2, aquare blue flag, alone, indicates rain or snow, stationary tem- 
perature. 

No. 3, square, white above, blue below, alone, indicates local rain, 
stationary temperature. 

No. 4, triangular black, refers to temperature. 

No. 5, square white, with black center, cold wave. 

No. 1, with No. 4 above it, indicates fair weather, warmer. 

No. 1, with No. 4 below it, indicates fair weather, colder. 

No. 2, with No. 4 above it, indicates warmer weather, rain or snow. 

No. 2, with No. 4 below it, indicates colder weather, rain or snow. 

No. 3, with No. 4 above it, indicates warmer weather with local rains. 

No. 3, with No. 4 below it, indicates colder weather with local rains. 

No. 1, with No. 5 below it, indicates fair weather, cold wave. 

No. 2, with No. 5 below it, indicates wet weather, cold wave. 

Whistle Signals 

The warning signal, to attract attention, will be a long blast of 
from fifteen to twenty seconds' duration. After this warning signal 
has been sounded, long blasts (of from four to six seconds' duration) 
refer to weather, and short blasts (of from one to three seconds' dura- 
tion) refer to temperature ; those for weather to be sounded first. 



8 THE WEATHER 

Blasts Indicatb 

One long Fair weather. 

Two long Rain or snow. 

Three long Local rains. 

One short Lower temperature. 

Two short Higher temperature. 

Three short Cold wave. 

Interpretation of Combination Blasts 

One long, alone Fair weather, stationary temperature. 

Two long, alone Rain or snow, stationary temperature. 

One long and short .... Fair weather, lower temperature. 

Two long and two short . . . Rain or snow, higher temperature. 

One long and three short . . Fair weather, cold wave. 

Three long and two short . . Local rains, higher temperature. 

By repeating each combination a few times, with an interval of ten 
seconds between, possibilities of error in reading the forecasts will be 
avoided, such as may arise from variable winds, or failure to hear the 
warning signal. 

Canadian signals (Fig. 3) 



12 3 4 

Fxo. 3. — Canadian storm warnings. 



No. 1, gale at first from an east- No. 3, heavy gale at first from 

erly direction. an easterly direction. 

No. 2, gale at first from a west- No. 4, heavy gale at first from 

erly direction. a westerly direction. 

The night signal corresponding to Nos. 1 and 3 is a red light. 
Night signal corresponding to Nos. 2 and 4 is a white light above a 
red light. 



ATMOSPHERIC EDDIES 9 

Barometer and Wind Indications 
(W. M. Wilflon) 

The mercurial barometer is the instrument used for all observations 
when great accuracy is required, but an aneroid barometer is more 
convenient, less liable to injury, and will answer all practical purposes. 

Attention need not be given to the legends fair, changeable, stormy, 
etc., that usually appear on the face of the instrument, because 
changes in pressure are much more important indications of approach- 
ing weather than the actual pressure at a given time. 

To forecast the weather accurately, the force and direction of the 
wind should always receive equal consideration with the changes of 
pressure as indicated by the barometer. 

The following general statements may aid in showing the relation of 
^nnd, pressure, and weather : — 

The atmosphere may be compared to an ocean of air that rests 
upon the earth just as the water rests upon the bed of the oceans. 
There are great currents of air in the atmosphere, just as there are 
great currents or rivers of water in the oceans. 

Storms are eddies in the atmosphere, and float along in the currents 
or rivers of air very much like the eddies often seen floating on the 
surface of a river. 

All of the United States and Canada, except the southern part of 
Florida, lies at the bottom of a great river of air that flows from west 
to east around the world with the north-pole at the center. It is 
called the cuxumpolar whirl. And as the storms in this latitude 
are eddies in the north-circmnpolar whirl, they float along from west 
to east in the current of this river of air. 

The lur always whirls about the center of every storm-eddy in the 
same direction — counter-clock-wise in the northern hemisphere and 
clock-wise in the southern hemisphere. Therefore, if a storm-eddy in 
the latitude of the United States is approaching, the winds will first 
be from a southerly direction, and when the center of the storm has 
passed, the wind will come from a northerly direction. 

If the center of the storm passes north of the observer, the wind will 
change from S.E. to S., then to S.W., and finally to W. or N.W. as 
the storm passes on its way eastward. 

If the center of the storm passes south of the observer, the wind 



10 THE WEATHER 

will start in from the S.E. and graduaUy " back " to the N.E., then 
to the N. and finally to the N.W. 

To locate the center of the storm, stand with your face squarely 
to the wind, and extend your arms from your sides. Your right hand 
will then point in the direction of the center of the storm. For exam- 
ple, if one faces a wind from the south, his extended right hand will 
point toward the west ; if one faces a west wind, his extended right hand 
will point north. 

A study of the daily weather maps, printed in many daily papers, 
will be of much help in becoming familiar with the movements of these 
storm-eddies. 

The pressure of the atmosphere at the center of the storm-eddy 
is always less than at a distance from the center; therefore, as the 
storm approaches, the pressure will decreajse and the barometer will 
fall. Thus a falling barometer indicates the approach of a storm- 
eddy, and the direction of the wind will give approximately the 
location of the center. 

If the barometer is falling and the wind square from the soutli, the 
indications are that the storm is approaching from the west and will 
probably pass near the observer. 

If the barometer is falling and the ^vind from the southwest, the 
center of the storm will probably pass north of the observer. 

If the barometer is falling and the wind N.E., the center of 
the storm is approaching from the southwest, and will probably 
pass south of the observer. If the barometer is rising and the wind 
S.W. to W., the center of the storm will pass north of the observer, and 
clearing weather follow soon. 

The following barometer and wind table is condensed from Pro- 
fessor Garriott's more extended compilation, and is the result of many 
years of study and experience : — 

Barometer steady ; wind, S.W. to N.W. ; fair weather, with slight 
changes in temperature for 1 or 2 days. 

Barometer falling slowly ; wind, S.W. to N.W. ; wanner, with rain 
in 24 to 36 hours. 

Barometer falling rapidly; wind, S.W. to N.W. ; warmer, with rain 
in 18 to 24 hours. 

Barometer falling slowly ; wind, S. to S.E. ; rain within 24 hours. 



BAROMETER INDICATIONS 11 

Barometer falling rapidly ; wind, S. to S.E. ; wind increasing in 
force with rain within 12 to 24 hours. 

Barometer falling slowly ; wind, S.E. to N.E. ; rain in 12 to 18 hours. 

Barometer falling rapidly; wind, S.E. to N.E. ; increasing wind 
and rain in 12 hours. 

Barometer falling rapidly; wind, E. to N.E.; in summer rain 
probable within 24 hours; in winter rain or snow with increasing 
winds, probably continuing 24 to 48 hours. 

Barometer rising slowly ; wind, S. to S. W. ; clearing and cooler 
within a few hours, and probably continued fair weather for several 
days. 

Barometer rising rapidly; wind, S. to W.; clearing and cooler. 
In winter cold wave probable. 

Should the barometer continue low when the sky becomes clear, 
expect more rain within 24 hours. (C. L. Prince.) 

Rapid changes in the barometer indicate early and marked changes 
in the weather. (E. B. Garriott.) 

If the thermometer and barometer rise together, 
It is a very sure sign of coming fine weather. 

If the barometer falls two or three tenths of an inch in four hours, 
expect a gale of wind. (C. L. Prince.) 

In sunmier, when the barometer falls suddenly, expect thimder- 
storms; if it does not rise again when the storm ceases, there will 
be several days of unsettled weather. 

The barometer falls lower for high winds than for heavy rains. 

Popular Weather Signs (Wilson) 

When it is evening, ye say. It will be fair weather : for the heaven 
is red. And in the morning, It will be foul weather to-day : for the 
heaven is red and lowering. — Matthew, xvi, 2, 3, Rev. version. 

When ye see a cloud rising in the west, straightway ye say. There 
Cometh a shower; and so it cometh to pass. — Lxtke, xii, 54, Rev. 
version. 

After fine, clear weather the first signs in the sky of coming changes 
are usually light streaks, cm-Is, wisps, or mottled patches of white, 
distant clouds, which increase and are followed by an overcasting 



12 THE WEATHER 

of murky vapor that grows into cloudiness. Usually the higher and 
more distant the clouds seem to be, the more gradual but general 
the coming change of weather will prove. — Fitzroy. 

If cirrus clouds form in fine weather with a falling barometer, it 
is almost sure to rain. — Howard. 

If cirrus clouds dissolve and appear to vanish, it is an indication of 
fine weather. — GarrioU, 

When cloud streamers point upward, the clouds are falling or de- 
scending, and rain is indicated ; when cloud streamers point downward, 
the clouds are ascending, and dry weather is indicated. — GarrioU. 

Clouds flying against the wind indicate rain. 

If in hot weather two strata of clouds appear to move in opposite 
directions, thunderstorms are indicated. 

Well-defined cumulus clouds forming a few hours after sun-rise, 
increasing toward the middle of the day, and decreasing toward even- 
ing are indicative of settled weather ; if instead of subsiding in the even- 
ing, leaving the sky clear, they keep increasing, they indicate wet 
weather. — Jenyms. 

Birds fly high in fair weather and low in foul weather. The expla- 
nation is that in fair weather the barometer is usually high, the air 
heavier and denser and capable of sustaining a given weight at a 
greater elevation than when less dense during the passage of a storm. 

Frosts, and Methods of Protection 

How frost forms (Wilson). 

In the day, plants usually receive more heat from the sim than they 
give oflf (radiate), and consequently become warmer ; but at night the 
process is reversed, and they radiate more heat than they receive and 
thus grow colder. When the surface of a plant has lost (radiated) 
sufficient heat to cause its temperature to fall to 32° or below^. frost 
forms. Any condition that causes increased radiation will increase the 
liability of frost, and conversely, whatever checks radiation or supplies 
additional heat to the air will tend to ward oflf frost. 

A clear night is favorable for frost because radiation or loss of heat 
from the surface of the earth proceeds most rapidly under a clear sky. 
Clouds act as a blanket. The heat rays do not penetrate them easily, 
but are reflected back toward the earth, thus checking radiation by 
confining the heat to the strata of air between the earth and the clouds. 



FROST 18 

A quiet air is favorable for frost. Hadiation proceeds more rapidly 
from the surface than from the air above the surface. This is shown 
by the fact that a thermometer placed in the grass on a quiet, clear 
night will read 10^ or even 15^ below one suspended three or four feet 
above the surface. If there is much wind, this difference will not occur, 
because the wind mixes the colder air at the surface with the warmer 
air above, thus giving a more uniform temperature. 

A moderately dry atmosphere is favorable for frost, because when the 
air is himdd only a slight fall of temperature will occur before the 
temperature at which dew b^ins to form (dew-poinl) is reached, and 
when the vapor in the air begins to change into water (dew), the heat 
that was used originally to change the water into vapor is no longer 
required and is said to be Hberated, and tends to raise the temperature 
of the air, or at least to retard the fall. 

The effect of the liberation of heat in the process of the formation of 
dew may be appreciated when it is said that the heat added to the air 
in the formation of a pint of dew is sufficient to raise the temperature 
of more than five pints of water from the freezing to the boiling point. 
Under ordinary conditions, when the dew-point is 10^ or more 
above the frost-point, 32**, a frost is not likely to occur, but if the 
dew-point approaches 32^, frost is likely to occur. 

In a cranberry marsh near Mather, Wis., during the season of 1906, 
Cox found that the minimum temperature averaged 8.2^ below the 
temperature of the dew-point as observed the previous evening, and 
in extreme cases the difference was as much as 20^ and 22^. On 
a marsh near Berlin, Wis., on the night of September 27, 1906, at 
11 P.M. the dew-point was found to be 43**, yet frost began to form 
m parts of the marsh at 1 p.m. when the temperature had fallen to 
28^; frost became general at 2 a.m., and the following morning a 
minimum temperature of 24.4^ was observed. 

The dew-point of the previous evening cannot, therefore, be regarded 
as a safe guide for the minimimi temperature of the following night. 
The chief value of dew-point observations of the previous evening 
appears to be in the fact that they indicate the temperature at which 
the heat from the condensing vapor will begin to be poured into the 
wr, and if this temperature is much above the frost-point, this addition 
of heat may be reasonably expected to check the fall of temperature 
and thus ward off a frost. 



14 THE WEATHER 



To find the dew-point. 

The dew-point is determined by the wet- and dry-bulb thermometer 
(or psychrometer). The instrument may be made as follows : For the 
frame find a board eighteen inches long, two inches wide, and one half 
inch thick ; bore a hole in one end so as to hang the apparatus on a 
nail when not in use. Get two all-glass thermometers with cylindrical 
bulbs, and the degrees Fahrenheit engraved on the stem. Cover the 
bulb of one thermometer with a thin piece of cotton cloth, fastening it 
securely by a thread. When this cloth covering is wet with water and 
exposed to evaporation in the air, it constitutes the " wet-bulb ther- 
mometer " ; the other thermometer has no covering on its bulb, is not 
wet at any time, and constitutes the " dry-bulb thermometer." 

The range of temperature of the open air in the following table is 
from 36° Fahrenheit to 75° Fahrenheit, and of depression of tempera- 
ture in the wet bulb, from 1° to 13° Fahrenheit, giving a range in 
both directions of sufficient scope for the needs of northern fanners 
during the growing season. The temperature of the dry-bulb (or open- 
air temperature) is found in the left-hand column of the table ; the 
difference in degrees between the readings of the dry- and wet-bulb 
is entered in the horizontal line at the top, from 1° to 13°. To find 
the temperature of dew-point at any observation, find in left-hand 
column the temperature of dry-bulb, then follow the horizontal line 
opposite that figure till you reach the perpendicular column under the 
difference between dry- and wet-bulb readings, and the figures at the 
meeting of these two columns will give the temperature of dew-point. 
For example, suppose the dry-bulb stands at 65° and wet-bulb at 55° : 
the difference is 10°. Pass across the page in the line of 65° till you 
intersect the vertical column imder 10°, and you read 47°, which is dew- 
point under these conditions. If the dew-point is 10° or more above 
frost-point (32° Fahrenheit), there is little danger of killing frost ; but 
if the dew-point is less than 10° above 32°, danger may be apprehended. 
If a line is drawn from the intersection of 43° — 1° and 67° — 13°, 
of the table, this may be called the danger line, and all dew-point 
temperatures below this line indicate danger of frost, and are printed 
in italics. This margin of 10° is taken because the temperature on a 
still night will often sink several degrees below the first dew-point, 
and the temperature of Jhe air at five feet above the groimd is 



TO DETERMINE THE DEW-POINT 



15 



several degrees above that at ground level. For these reasons 
combined, a margin of 10'' may be safely assumed as the limit of 
safety. 

Tahle for determining the temperature of dew-point from the readings of the dry-bulb 
and toet-btUb iJiermometera (Hazen) 



si 






DBPRB88XON OF THE 


Wbt>bulb Thbrmohbter 






'4 


V 


«» 


«• 


4- 


6"» 


e- 


70 


8- 


o» 


10- 


W 


12* 


W 


W 


74 


72 


71 


69 


68 


66 


64 


63 


61 


69 


67 


56 


64 


74'' 


73 


71 


70 


68 


67 


65 


63 


62 


60 


68 


56 


64 


52 


73« 


72 


70 


69 


67 


66 


64 


62 


61 


69 


57 


55 


63 


51 


72« 


71 


69 


68 


66 


64 


63 


61 


59 


58 


56 


64 


52 


50 


71« 


70 


68 


67 


65 


63 


62 


60 


58 


56 


56 


53 


51 


48 


70« 


69 


67 


66 


64 


62 


61 


59 


57 


55 


53 


51 


49 


47 


60** 


68 


66 


64 


63 


61 


59 


58 


56 


64 


52 


50 


48 


46 


68« 


67 


65 


63 


62 


60 


58 


57 


55 


63 


51 


49 


46 


44 


67« 


66 


64 


62 


61 


59 


57 


55 


54 


62 


50 


47 


45 


43 


66» 


64 


63 


61 


60 


58 


56 


54 


52 


60 


48 


46 


44 




65° 


63 


62 


60 


59 


57 


65 


53 


51 


49 


47 


45 


42 


41 


64« 


62 


61 


59 


57 


56 


54 


52 


50 


48 


46 


43 




40 


63** 


61 


60 


58 


56 


55 


53 


51 


49 


47 


44 


42 


41 


88 


62** 


60 


59 


57 


55 


53 


52 


50 


48 


45 


43 




39 


S7 


61« 


59 


58 


56 


54 


52 


50 


48 


46 


44 


42 


41 


38 


36 


60» 


58 


57 


55 


53 


51 


49 


47 


45 


43 




89 


36 


88 


59<» 


57 


56 


54 


52 


50 


48 


46 


44 




40 


88 


35 


82 


58° 


56 


55 


53 


51 


49 


47 


45 


42 


41 


39 


86 


33 


30 


67° 


55 


54 


52 


50 


48 


46 


44 




40 


87 


86 


31 


28 


66° 


54 


53 


51 


49 


47 


44 


42 


41 


39 


36 


38 


SO 


26 


55° 


53 


62 


50 


48 


46 


43 




40 


37 


34 


31 


28 


26 


54° 


52 


50 


49 


46 


44 


42 


41 


39 


36 


S3 


SO 


27 


23 


53° 


51 


49 


47 


45 


43 




40 


57 


34 


31 


28 


25 


20 


52° 


50 


48 


46 


44 


42 


41 


38 


36 


S3 


SO 


27 


28 


18 


51° 


49 


47 


45 


43 




40 


37 


34 


31 


28 


25 


21 


16 


50° 


48 


46 


44 


42 


41 


38 


36 


33 


30 


27 


23 


19 


14 


49° 


47 


45 


43 




40 


37 


34 


31 


28 


26 


21 


17 


11 


48° 


46 


44 


42 


41 


38 


36 


33 


30 


27 


23 


19 


14 


9 


47° 


45 


43 




40 


37 


35 


32 


29 


26 


22 


17 


12 


6 


46° 


44 


42 


41 


39 


36 


33 


30 


27 


24 


20 


16 


10 


3 


45° 


43 




40 


37 


36 


32 


29 


26 


22 


18 


13 


7 


-1 


44° 


42 


41 


39 


36 


S3 


SO 


27 


24 


20 


16 


11 


4 


-6 






40 


37 


36 


32 


29 


26 


23 


19 


14 


8 


1 


-9 


43° 


41 


39 


36 


34 


31 


98 


25 


21 


17 


12 


6 


-2 


-16 


42° 


40 


38 


36 


33 


29 


26 


23 


19 


15 


9 


3 


-6 


-22 


41° 


$9 


36 


34 


31 


28 


25 


22 


17 


13 


7 





-11 


-32 


40° 


38 


35 


33 


30 


27 


24 


20 


16 


11 


4 


-4 


-16 


-74 


39° 


S7 


S4 


39 


29 


26 


22 


18 


14 


8 


2 


-8 


-23 




38° 


86 


33 


31 


28 


24 


21 


17 


12 


6 


-1 


-12 


-36 




37° 


36 


32 


29 


26 


23 


19 


15 


10 


4 


-5 


-17 






36° 


34 


31 


28 


26 


22 


18 


13 


8 


1 


-8 


-25 







16 THE WEATHER 

Methods of protection against frost (Wilson). 

Protection against frost is not only possible, but practicable. Tlie 
method to be employed depends on the kind of crop, the expense its 
value will justify, and the facilities at hand. But whatever method 
is chosen, it must be carried out systematically, intelligently, and with 
thoroughness if satisfactory results are to be obtained. 

Progressive cranberry growers resort to three expedients to ward 
off light frosts, aside from flooding, which is practiced in the spring and 
autunm and also when exceptionally severe frosts are expected. These 
methods are cultivation, drainage, and sanding. By cultivating the 
marsh and keeping it free from weeds, moss, and other vegetation, the 
heat from the sim more easily penetrates the soil, and there is, there- 
fore, more heat to be given off when needed to prevent frost during 
the night. Good drainage decreases the effect of cooling by evapora- 
tion, and a dry soil becomes warmer imder simshine than a wet soil, 
and therefore radiates heat more freely into the air at night when 
needed to ward off frost. A covering of sand lowers the specific heat 
of the soil, and thus stores up a large amount of heat during the day to 
be given to the air at night. In the Cape Cod marshes it is the prac- 
tice to spread about half an inch of sand over the surface of the marsh 
each year. These methods, when systematically and carefully carried 
out, are usually effective in warding off light frosts that are liable to 
occur between early spring and autunm. 

Smudging has been practiced for many years in the trucking sections 
of the Southwest, as well as in the fruit-growing districts of California 
and Florida. The object is to cover the garden or orchard with a 
thick blanket of smoke and vapor, with a view to checking radiation. 
The success of this method depends upon the care and thoroughness 
with which it is carried out. The cloud of vapor or smoke must cover 
the garden or orchard, and be dense. A thin blanket will not be suffi- 
cient. The fire should be built on the windward side of the orchard, 
and such material used as damp straw, prunings, manure. 

If the fire bums briskly, it may be sprayed with water to increase 
the cloud of vapor. 

Portable smudges have superseded the stationary smudge in many 
places. They possess the advantage of being moved from place to 
place, thus overcoming the effect of a change of wind, which often ren- 



FROST— PHENOZiOOY 17 

ders the stationary smudge ineffective. Any sort of a fire-box that 
can be placed on a stone-boat or sled will answer the purpose. 

The most effective method, and the one now practiced by the large 
fruit-growers of Colorado and California, is the distribution of a large 
number of small fires, %bout forty to the acre, throughout the orchard. 
In this case dependence is placed in the direct heat ^ven off by the fires 
as well as in the cloud formed from the smoke. Coal is the fuel most 
generally used in California, while oil is coming into use in Colorado. 
When coal is used, it is the practice to suspend wire baskets 
a few feet from the ground, containing ten to twenty pounds of 
coal, which is lighted when frost threatens. Forty such baskets 
will raise the temperature of the orchard three or four degrees. 
The cost depends upon the price of the fuel. In California a ton 
of soft coal that costs S2.50 was considered sufficient for one acre 
each night. 

Some orchardists have replaced the coal baskets with oil burners. 
This method is more expensive to install, as the burners are more 
costly than the baskets, and tanks must be provided for the storage of 
the oil ; but it is said to be much more convenient, and quite as efficient. 
At the Hamilton fruit ranch, near Grand Jimction, Col., the 
temperature in an orchard of twenty acres was maintained at 33^ 
by the use of oil burners, while a minimum temperature of 2T 
was registered in surrounding localities. The cost of the protec- 
tion of this orchard for four nights when frost occurred in the vicinity 
was approximately ten per cent of the value of the crop. Methods 
less systematic than the above are usually disappointing. (For 
another discussion, see Paddock and Whipple, " Fniit-Growing in Arid 
Regions.") 

Phenology 

Phenology (contraction of phenomenology) is that science which con- 
siders the relationship of local climate to the periodicity of the annual 
phenomena of nature. It usually studies climate and the progression of 
the seasons in terms of plant and animal life, as the dates of migrations, 
of blooming, leafing, ripening of fruit, defoliation, and the like. If 
observations are to have permanent value, they must be taken with a 
definite purpose. The particular objects of phenological obser- 
vations are the following: — 
c 



18 THE WEATHER 

1. To determine the general oncoming of spring. 

2. To determine the fitful or variable features of spring. 

3. To determine the epoch of the full activity of the advancing 
season. 

4. To determine thp active physiological epoeh of the year. 
6. To determine the maturation of the season. 

6. To determine the oncoming of the decline of fall. 

7. To determine the approach of winter. 

8. To determine the features of the winter epoch. 

9. To determine the fleeting or fugitive epochs of the year. 

Good phenological observations upon plants should satisfy the fol- 
lowing tests, ajs given by Hoffmann : — 

1. They should represent as broad a distribution as possible of the 
given species, selected for observation. 

2. Ease and certainty of identif3dng the definite phases which are 
to be obser\'^ed. 

3. The utility of the observations as regards biological questions, 
such as the vegetative periods, time of ripening, etc. 

4. Representation of the entire vegetation period. 

5. Consideration of those species which are found in almost all 
published observations, and especially of those whose development is 
not influenced by momentary or accidental circumstances, as is the 
dandelion. 

The epochs of vegetation that should be observed for most pheno- 
logical purposes are these: — 

1. Upper surface of the leaf first visible or spread open. 

2. First blossoms open. 

3. First fruit ripe. 

4. All leaves, or more than half of them, colored. 

T3T)ical and average plants should always be selected for observa- 
tion, and they should be few in number. A dozen well-selected species 
will afford more satisfactory records year by year than observations 
made at random upon a great variety of plants. For the sudden moods 
of spring, the peach and dandelion are useful for obser\'ation, but such 
plants — those which respond quickly to every fitful variation of the 



PHENOLOOT — RECORDS 19 

early season — are not reliable for the staple records of the years. 
Useful plants for study are thefollowing: — 

Apple. Cultivated Strawberry. 

Pear. Lilac. 

Quince. Mock Orange (Philadelphus). 

Plum. Horse Chestnut. 

Sweet Cherry. Red-pith Elder. 

Sour Cherry. Common Elder. 

Peach. Flowering Dogwood. 

Choke Cherry. Native Basswood. 

Wild Black Cherry. Native Chestnuts. 

Japanese or Flowering Quince. Privet or Prim. 

Cultivated Raspberry. Red Currant. 

Cultivated Blackberry. Cultivated Grape. 

Climate and Crop Production; keeping Records (Wilson) 

Every farmer understands that a vexy intimate relation exists be- 
tween climatic conditions — the average temperature, rainfall, and 
sunshine — and the growth of plants ; but not all farmers appreciate 
the full significance of the climatic factor in crop production. 

An officer of a state college of agriculture recently asked five members 
of the faculty to assign respective values to the three main factors 
affecting the average yield of com imder the climate of the forty- 
second parallel. The factors considered were : soil, including texture, 
fertility, and cultivation ; climate, including temperature, rainfall, and 
sunshine ; and seed. The average of the five estunates on the basis 
of 100 were for soil, 46 ; climate, 36 ; and seed, 17. Three out of the 
five gave to climate a value of 40, one 35, and one 25, and two out of 
the five gave climate and soil equal values. 

If these estimates are near the truth, it becomes apparent that 
climate is nearly, if not quite, as important a factor in crop pro- 
duction as soil, and much more important than seed ; yet it receives 
but scant attention from the average agriculturist, probably because 
climate, unlike soil and seed, is beyond the control of man. 

The weather is a variable factor, because it changes from day to day, 
from week to week, and from season to season. But climate is a per- 
manent factor ; for climate, which is the average of all the weather, 



20 THE WEATHER 

does not change, except possibly through long geological periods. 
When the climate of a locality has been once determined, it may be 
counted on absolutely. What the climate is for this generation it will 
be for the next, and the next, so far as we can see. It could not be other- 
wise, for climate in the large is the result of the sun's heat, modified 
by the topography of the earth's surface — the moimtains, the valle3rs, 
the oceans; and "so long as the sun shines with his accustomed 
vigor and the hUls and the seas abide in theur places," so long will 
the climate of every locality remain unchanged. The fact that crops 
now are grown successfully in what are considered arid regions, and 
are being pushed farther and farther into the frosty north, has been 
cited in support of the contention that the climate is changing ; but 
these changes in the area of successful production have not been 
brought about by an increase of rainfall on the one hand, or of 
temperature on the other, but by new methods of cultivation and 
seed selection, and better adaptation of human practices to natural 
conditions. 

We may rely, therefore, upon the permanency of the climatic factor 
in crop production. The weather may vary by a small margin from 
year to year, or from one season to the next, but the average tem- 
perature, rainfall, and simshine for so short a period as ten years will 
depart so little from the true normal climate that the departure may 
be neglected in actual practice. 

Climatic records compiled by the Weather Services. 

As it requires about ten years of careful observation to determine 
approximately the average or normal temperature of a locality, and 
perhaps twenty years to determme the normal rainfall, few farmers 
would feel that they had the time or skill to devote to so serious an 
undertaking ; nor is it necessary that they should. This work has been 
done already in the United States, and with great accuracy and care. 
The Weather Bureau of the United States Department of Agriculture 
has collected and tabulated all records of temperature and rainfall 
that have been made in the United States. Some of these records 
cover a period of more than a himdred years, many of them more than 
fifty years, and the work still is going on. At present, observations 
are being made at about 4000 places. With this number of records, 
distributed more or less evenly over the entire country, it is possible 



WEATHER RECORDS 21 

to determine very accurately the normal temperature and rainfall 
for almost any locality in the United States. 

A similar system is in operation by the Canadian Government, and 
information as to the climate of ahnost any inhabited locality in the 
Canadian provinces may be had on application to the Director of the 
Canadian Meteorological Service, Toronto. 

The data are usually compiled by months. For example, the normal 
temperature and rainfall by months for Ithaca, N. Y., are as follows : 
Normal or average temperature, 31 years record : January, 24^ ; 
February, 25^ ; March, 32^ ; April, 44^ ; May, 57** ; June, 66^ ; 
July, 71** ; August, 68** ; September, 61** ; October, 50** ; November, 
38** ; December, 28** ; Annual, 47**. Normal or average precipitation 
m inches and hundredths of inches, including melted snow : Januaxy, 
2.07 ; February, 1.84 ; March, 2.42 ; April, 2.30 ; May, 3.39 ; June, 
3.73 ; July, 3.51 ; August, 3.06 ; September, 2.89 ; October, 2.96 ; 
November, 2.50; December, 2.30; Annual, 32.97. 

These values would be considered approximately correct for a radius 
of twenty to fifty miles, depending principally on the topography, 
whether mountainous or level, and the proximity of large bodies of 
water and the prevailing wind direction. It is recognized that there 
may be an appreciable difference between the climate of a valley and 
that of an adjacent hill, or, on accoimt of differences of soil character, 
between one farm and another in the same locality. Such local va- 
riations are usually small, although important, particularly in such 
matters as air dndnage and frost, and can be determined only by 
observations made on the spot. The averages, compiled by the 
Weather Bureau, include observations made on hill-tops as well as in 
valleys, and, therefore, represent strictly average conditions. They 
have been carefully computed, and may be relied upon with confidence. 

How dimatic data may be secured. 

The Climatological Service of the U. S. Weather Bureau is organ- 
ized by sections, each section embracing a single state, except in the 
case of some of the smaller states, which are included in one section. 
The New England States make up one section ; also Delaware, Mary- 
land, and the District of Columbia. The work of each section is under 
the supervision of a section director, in whose ofiice are kept all records 
pertaining to hia section. The accompanying list gives the city in 



22 



THE WEATHER 



which the office of each section director is located, and the section 
under his charge. A request for climatic data should show clearly 
(1) the locality for which the data are desired, and (2) the character 
of the data, and should be addressed, Section Director, Local Office, 
Weather Bureau, followed by the appropriate city and state : — 



Cmr 



Section 



CiTT 



Skctiok 



AtlanU 
Atlantic City 
Baltimore . 
BLsmarck . 
Boise . . 
Boston . . 
Cheyenne . 
Chicago 
Columbia . 
Columbus . 
Denver 
Des Moines 
Grand Rapidd 
Helena . . 
Honolulu . 
Houston 
Huron . . 
Indianapolis 
Ithaca . . 
Jacksonville 
Lincoln 
Little Rock 



Georsia 

New Jersey 

Maryland and Delaware 

North DakoU 

Idaho 

New England 

Wyoming 

lUmois 

Miawuri 

Ohio 

Colorado 

Iowa 

Michigan 

Montana 

Hawaii 

Texas 

South DakoU 

Indiana 

New York 

Florida 

Nebraska 

Arkansas 



Ix>uisville Kentud^ 

Milwaukee Wisoonsin 

Minnei4X>lis .... Minnesota 

Montgomery Alabama 

Nashville Tennessee 

New Orleans Louisiana 

Oklahoma Oklahoma 

Parkersbui^ .... West Virginia 

Philadelphia .... Pennsylvania 

Phcenix Arixona 

Portland Oregon 

Raleigh North Carolina 

Reno Nevada 

Richmond Virginia 

Salt Lake City . . . Utah 

San Francisco .... California 

San Juan Porto Rioo. W. I. 

Santa Fe New Mexico 

Seattle Washington 

Springfield Illinoia 

Topeka . . . . Kansas 

Vicksburg Mississippi 



Probably the most important information for the general farmer 
concerning the chmate of his locality is the average temperature and 
rainfall by months, but the following data are available for practically 
all parts of the United States, having been compiled in 1906 and 
published in Bulletin Q, to which reference should be made when mak- 
ing request : Temperature by months ; mean or average ; mean of 
maxima ; absolute maximum ; mean of minima ; absolute minimum ; 
highest monthly mean ; lowest monthly mean ; precipitation, includ- 
ing melted snow ; mean or average ; number of days with .01 inch 
(one hundredth of an inch) or more ; total amount for the driest year ; 
total amount for the wettest year ; dates on which the extreme tem- 
peratures for the locality occurred. For northern states the dates 
are given generally when the minimum temperature fell to -10** (10* 
below zero) or below, and the maximum rose to 90** or above ; for 
southern states, when the minimum fell to 32** or below, and the 
maximum rose to 95** or above. 



MAKING THE OBSERVATIONS 23 

Making local obaervalums. 

The value of climatic infonnation, supplied by the Weather Bureau, 
may be enhanced greatly by observations of temperature and rainfall 
made on the farm, particularly if made in connection with phenological 
observations suggested on pages 17-19. Such a record is a valuable 
asset to a farm, and its value increases as each year's record is added. 
A suitable equipment need not be expensive, nor the work made la- 
borious. The highest and lowest temperature may be obtained at a 
single reading, made preferably about simset, by use of Six's pattern 
of maximum and minimiun thermometers, mentioned on page 1. The 
average of the two thermometer readings gives the daily mean. 
This is the method used by the Weather Bureau, and will make the 
record strictly comparable with any data obtained from that source. 

A serviceable rain-gauge may be constructed by the use of any vessel 
having straight sides. A tomato-can, placed two feet above ground, 
and fifty feet from buildings or trees, will give good results. The 
depth of the water caught may be measured with an ordinary rule, but 
to make the record comparable with those made by the Weather Bureau, 
the fractions of an inch should be reduced to decimals. Perhaps it 
would be better to make a rule graduated in inches and tenths. 
Ten inches of average snow will make, when melted, one inch of water. 

A convenient method for recording and preserving weather obser- 
vations is important. A book is preferable, having at least thirty-four 
ruled lines. Use one page for each month. Rule the page into eight 
columns, leaving ample margin on the right for phenological notes. 
Beghming at the left, head the columns as follows : date ; highest tem- 
perature; lowest; mean; rainfall; snowfall; wind direction (every 
farm should have a good weather-vane) ; weather; phenology. Enter 
each day's record on line with appropriate date. Under phenology 
full notes should be made, showing the condition and advancement of 
the various crops, for here is the point of contact between current 
weather and plant growth. All this may be combined with a diary 
of farm work. At the end of each month the temperature coliunns 
should be averaged and the total ramf all set down ; and when these 
values are compared with the normal, the importance of the climatic 
factor m crop production will be more fully understood. (For ther- 
mometer scales, see Chap. XXVII.) 



CHAPTER n 



The Elements and the Soil 



The mass of the earth (and the atmosphere) is at present assumed 
to be composed of certain elementary or indivisible substances, and of 

combinations of these substances. The nimiber of elements now 
recognized by chemists is eighty-three. The names of these elements, 
with the symbols that are used for convenience and brevity in ex- 
pressing the combinations into which they unite, are given in the 
table: — 

The elemenis and their tymboU 

Iron Fe. 

Krypton Kr. 

Lanthanum La. 

Lead Pb. 

Lithium Id. 

Lutecium Lu. 

Magnesium Mg. 

Manganese Mn. 

Mercuiy Hg. 

Molybdenum Mo. 

Neodymium Nd. 

Neon Ne. 

Nickel Ni. 

Niobium Nb. 

Nitrogen N. 

Osmiimi Os. 

Oxygen O. 

Palladium Pd. 

Phosphorus P. 

Platinum Pt. 

Potassium K. 

Praseodymium Pr. 

Radium Ra. 

Rhodium Rh. 

Rubidium Rb. 

Ruthenium Ru. 

Samarium Sm. 

Scandium Sc. 

Selenium Se. 

Silicon Si. 

Silver Ag. 

Sodium Na. 

Strontium Sr. 

24 



Aluminum 












. . Al. 


Antimony 












. . Sb. 


Argon . . 












. A. 


Arsenic 












. As. 


Barium 












. Ba. 


Beryllium 












. Be. 


Bismuth . 












. Bi. 


Boron . . 












. B. 














. Br. 


Cadmium 












. Cd. 


CaBsium 












. Cs. 


Calcium . 












. Ca. 


Carbon . 












. C. 


Cerium 












. Ce. 


Chlorin . 












. 01. 


Chromium 












. Or. 


Cobalt 












. Co. 


Columbixmi- 












. Cb. 


Copper . 












. Cu. 


Dysprosium 












. Dy. 


Erbiimi . 












. Er. 


Europium 












. Eu. 


Fluorin 












. F. 


Gadoliniimi 












. Gd. 


Gallium . 












. Ga. 


Germanium 












. Ge. 


Glucinum 












. Gl. 


Gold . . 












. Au. 


Helium . 












. He. 


Hydrogen 












. H. 


Indium 












. In. 


lodin . . 












. I. 


Iridium . . 












. Ir. 



THE ELEMENTS IN NATURE 25 



Sulfur S. 

Tantalum Ta. 

TeUurium Te. 

Terbium Tb. 

Thallium Tl. 

Thorium Th. 

Thulium Tm. 

Tin Sn. 

Titanium Ti. 



Tungsten W. 

Uranium U. 

Vanadium V. 

Xenon Xe. 

Ytterbium Yb. 

Yttrium Y. 

Zino Zn. 

Zirconium Zr. 



Distribution of the Blements 

Oxygen, hydrc^n, nitrogen, and some of the rarer elements exist 
in the atmosphere in a pure or free state as well as in combinations in 
animal and plant and earthy substances ; but most of the elements are 
present in nature only in combination with other elements. The 
larger number of the eighty-three known elements are very rare. 
Nearly 99 per cent of the earth's crust (including the water) is made 
lip of eight elements, as follows (according to Clark) : — 

Oxygen • 47.02 

SiUcon 28.06 

Aluminum 8.16 

Iron 4.64 

Calcium 3.50 

Sodium 2.63 

Magnesium 2.62 

Potassium 2.32 

No other element is estimated to contribute as much as 1 per cent 
to the composition of the crust of the globe. Hydrogen is estimated 
to comprise .17 per cent, and carbon .12. 

The atmosphere is a mixture (by volume) of seventy-nine parts of 
nitrogen and twenty-one parts of oxygen, with small quantities of 
argon, carbon dioxid, vapor of water, anmionia, and organic gases in 
addition. 

The dements essential to the life and ffrowih of plants, so far as known, 
are ten: calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, iron, sulfur, 
from the soil; carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, from the atmos- 
phere. Combinations formed by the vital processes of plants and 
animals — as starch, sugar, acetic acid — are known as organic com- 
pounds; all others are inorganic compounds. The different elements 
making up a compound are calculated in terms of their atomic weights. 

The elements of which plants are composed, are largely oxygen, car- 
bon, and hydrogen. The younger and more succulent the plant, the 



26 



THE ELEMENTS AND THE SOIL 



greater the proportion of oxygen and hydrogen, because the proportion 
of wat.er is greater. 

Ultimate composition of a wheat plant at maturity, containing 10 per cent moia- 
tare. The hydrogen and oxygen of the water are incliided in the atatement 

Carbon 42.87 

Hydrogen 6.04 

Oxygen 45.26 

Nitrogen 0.94 

Potassium 0.36 

Calcium 0.33 

Phosphorus 0.11 

Other ash constituents 4.09 

100.00 

Ultimate composition of human body. The proportion of C varies greaJOy with the 
amount of fat, also the O and ash to a less extent. The statement includes the 
oxygen and hydrogen of the water 



KXBK 



VOLKMAN 



O 
C 

H 

N , 

Ca 

P 

S 

Na 

CI 

F 

K 

Fe , 

Mg 

Sc 



72.0 

13.5 
9.1 
2.5 
1.3 
1.15 
0.15 
0.1 
0.08 
0.08 
0.03 
0.01 
0.001 
trace 



65.7 

18.4 

10.0 

2.6 



The water is about 65 per cent, which makes the dry-matter in the 
animal much less than in the mature plant, the moisture content of 
which is shown to be 10 per cent in the preceding table. 

The Ash and Mineral Parts of Animals and Plants 



When a plant is oven-dried, the free or uncombined water passes off. 
When it is completely burned, the carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and most 
of the oxygen are driven off. ^Vhat remains is ash^ containing the mineral 
elements. Incomplete burning of plant material results in coals and 
ash ; the coal is mostly carbon. Charcoal is carbon. 



COMPOSITION OF ANIMALS AND MAN 



27 



Mineral elemerUa in aninuU bodies 
(Calculated from Reaulta of Lawea and Gilbert) 





Ox 


Calf 


Shbbp 


T.AMB 


PlQ 




Half 
fat 


Fat 


Fat 


Thin 


Half 
fat 


Fat 

"%~ 
35.6 
12.2 

2.81 
43.4 

6.0 


Very 

fat 


Fat 


Thin 


Fat 


Pat 

Nitrogenowi matter 

Minerals 

Water 

Contentsof stomach, etc. 


16.6 

4.66 

51.6 

8.2 

100.0 

% 
.803 
1.608 
.051 
.170 
.108 
.028 
.015 


% 
30.1 
14.6 

3.92 
45.5 

6.0 
lOO.O' 


% 

14.8 

15.2 

3.8 
63.0 

3.2 


% 
18.7 
14.8 

3.16 
57.3 

6.0 


% 

23.5 
14.0 

3.17 
50.2 

9.1 


% 
45.8 
10.9 

2.9 
35.2 

5.2 


% 

28.5 
12.3 

2.94 
47.8 
8.6 


% 

23.3 
13.7 

2.67 
55.1 

5.2 


% 

42.2 
10.9 

1.65 
41.3 

4.0 


Total 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


iqoo^ 

% 

.454 

.846 

.029 

.123 

.072 

.024 

.012 


100.0 

% 

.484 

.886 

.033 

.131 

.096 

.021 

.011 


100^ 

% 
.492 
.916 
.031 
.138 
.076 
.018 
.016 


100.0 


100.0 


MiNBRAUB 

Calcium 

Magnesium .... 

Potassium 

Sodium ..... 

Iron 

Sulfur 


l77 

1.281 

.037 

.146 

.094 

.017 

.013 

1.419 

4yr. 


.670 
1.177 
.048 
.171 
.109 
.015 
.016 
258.8 
9.5 
wk. 


.944 
.034 
.144 
.090 
.026 
.021 


% 
.524 
.965 
.031 
.140 
.077 
.029 
.014 
105.1 
3K 

yr. 


^5 
.771 
.032 
.163 
.082 
.015 
.021 


.455 
.019 
.115 
.054 
.009 
.012 


Live weight, lbs. . . 
A«e 


1.232 
4yr. 


97.6 

lyr. 


127.2 
IH 

yr. 


239.4 

yr. 


84.4 

>^yr. 


93.9 


186.0 



Composition of ash of human body (Beaunis) 



TUSUB 


BONS 


Calf 

Mua- 

CLB8 


Bbain 


LiVBB 


Lungs 


Blood 


Milk 


Lymph 


Analyst 


Heintz 


StafiFel 


Breed 


Oidt- 
mann 


C. 
Schmidt 


Verdell 

58.81 
4.15 

11.97 
1.76 
1.12 
8.37 
8.37 

10.23 

10.23 
1.67 
1.19 


Wilden- 
stein 


Dahn- 
hardt 


Sodium chlorid 
Sodium oxid 
Potassium oxid 
Calcium oxid 
Magnesium oxid 
Ferric oxid 
Chlorin . . 
Fluorin . . 
Phosphorus pen- 

toxid . . 
Sulphur trioxid 
Carbon dioxid 
Silicic oxid 
Potassium chlorid 




37.58 
1.22 
1.66 

53.31 
5.47 


10.69 
2.35 

34.40 
1.99 
1.46 

48.13 
0.81 


4.74 

10.69 

34.42 

0.72 

1.23 

48.17 
0.75 

0.12 


14.51 
25.23 
3.61 
0.20 
2.74 
2.58 

50.18 
0.92 

0.27 


13.0 
19.5 
1.3 
1.9 
1.9 
3.2 

48.5 
1.4 


10.73 

21.44 

18.78 

0.87 

0.10 

19.00 
2.64 

26.33 


74.48 

10.35 
3.25 
0.97 
0.26 
0.05 
1.09 

8.20 



28 



THE ELEMENTS AND THE SOIL 



Compontion of the cuh of leading farm crops (Snyder) 









CoicpOBiTioN OF 100 Parts or thb Purr Ash 




Dry- 
Mat^ 


PURB 

Ash 




BmmsM 






















TBB 




K.0 


Na,0 


CaO 


MgO 


Fe^5 


P.O. 


SO, 


SiO, 


CI 


Wheat . . . 




2.03 


30.24 


0.66 


3.60 


13.21 


0.60 


47.92 




0.73 




Oats .... 


1^ 


3.12 


17.90 


1.66 


3.60 


7.03 


1.18 


26.64 


1.79 


39.20 


0.94 


Barley . . . 


2.61 


20.92 


2.39 


2.64 


8.83 


1.19 


35.10 


1.80 


26.90 


1.02 


Rye: . . . 


2.09 


32.10 


1.47 


2.94 


11.32 


1.24 


47.74 


1.28 


1.37 


0.48 


Cora . . . 


1^ 


1.46 


29.8 


1.10 


2.17 


15.62 


0.76 


45.61 


0.78 


2.10 


0.91 


Flax .... 


3.67 


26.27 


2.22 


9.61 


15.86 


1.11 


42.48 




0.88 




Clover . . . 


|8 


4.60 


36.36 


0.95 


6.40 


12.90 


1.70 


37.93 


2.40 


1.30 


1.23 


Peaa .... 


2.73 


43.10 


0.98 


4.81 


7.99 


0.83 


36.90 


3.41 


1.91 


1.60 


Beans . . . 


3.63 


41.48 


1.10 


4.99 


7.15 


0.46 


38.86 


3.40 


0.65 


1.80 


FODDSRS 
























Clover . . . 


1 


7.02 


27.26 


0.80 


29.26 


8.32 


0.57 


10.66 




6.18 




Timothy . . 


6.82 


34.69 


1.83 


8.06 


3.24 


0.83 


11.80 


2.80 


32.17 


6.20 


Brome grass . 


6.66 


27.66 


0.89 


7.69 


4.32 


1.83 


6.84 




4.37 




Com . . . 


B ■*» 


8.72 


27.18 


0.85 


5.70 


11.42 


0.86 


9.14 




40.18 




BnuwB 






















- 


Flax .... 


2.86 


34.07 


4.37 


24.81 


16.04 


3.67 


6.24 




6.70 




Buckwheat 


6.16 


46.60 


2.20 


18.40 


3.60 




11.19 




6.60 




Pea ... . 


i^ 

■^ 


4.80 


21.40 


6.70 


38.80 


7.20 


1.40 


7.10 





6.40 




Bean . . . 


6.10 


32.70 


8.70 


26.30 


7.30 


1.70 


7.90 




6.60 




Wheat . . . 


6.37 


13.66 


1.38 


6.76 


2.46 


0.61 


4.81 





67.60 




Oat ... . 


7.17 


26.42 


3.29 


6.97 


3.66 


1.20 


4.69 


3.20 


46.70 


4.40 


Barley . . . 


6.36 


23.26 


3.64 


7.22 


2.68 


1.13 


4.24 


3.80 


61.00 


3.20 


Roots 
























Potatoes . . 


24 


3.80 


60.00 


2.96 


2.64 


4.93 


1.10 


16.86 


6.60 


2.10 


3.40 


Sugar-beets 


15 


3.80 


63.10 


8.92 


6.10 


7.86 


1.14 


12.20 


4.20 


2.28 


4.80 


Turnips . . 


12 


8.00 


46.40 


9.84 


10.60 


3.69 


0.81 


12.71 




1.80 


6.00 



Chemical Compounds 

The chemist uses initials (or other letters) to designate the elements, 
when he makes a formula to express the composition of any compound ; 
and he adds a figure to each symbol when more than one part or atom 
(by atomic weight) enters into the make-up of the molecule. Thus 
H2O represents a compound in which the molecules arc two parts 
hydrogen and one part oxygen; in common language, this particular 
compound is known as water. KoO is potash (or potassium oxid) 
— two parts potassium and one part oxygen. Gypsum or land-plaster 
is calcium sulfate, — CaSO^, which means calcium one part, sulfur 
one part, oxygen four parts. Quartz is SiOg. Quicklime is CaO. 



NATURE OF SOIL 



29 



Phosphoric acid is PaOj. CJommon table salt is NaCl (sodium 
and chlorin). 
Following are the formulas for various common substances : — 



Acetic acid C.H«0| 

Ammonia NHa 

Aniline NH,(C«Ha) 

Areenious oxid .... Afl.Os 

Carbon dioxid COs 

Carbonic oxid .... CO 

Chloroform CHCU 

Ferric oxid (iron mat) . . FejOa 

Ferrous oxid FeO 

Hydrochloric acid . . . HCl 

Mercuric oxid .... HgO 

Nitrate of soda .... NaNO. 

Nitric add HNO, 



Nitric oxid NO 

Nitric peroti J .... NO» 

Nitrous oxid NjO 

Saltpetre KNO, 

Starch CsHioOs 

Strychnine C„HaiN,0« 

Sugar, cane ^ . . . . CisHnOu 

Sugar, grape or glucose . C«HuOe 

Sulfate of potash ... . KiSO« 

Sulfuretted hydros in . . HiS 

Sulfuric acid H^0« 

Sulfuric oxid SOj 

Sulfurous oxid .... SO, 



The Soil 

The soil, as the farmer understands it, is the soft tillable covering or 
epidermis of the earth. It is derived primarily from disintegrated rock, 
but all productive soils contain organic remains, or materials derived 
directly from these remains. Some soils, as those in swamps, are very 
largely organic. 



ClassifiocUion of aoila in respect to origin (Merrill) 



il 



Sedentary 



Transported 



(Residual deposits 
Cumulose deposits 
' CoUuvial deposits 

Alluvial deposits, 
including the 
aqueo-glacial . 

iEolian deposits . 

Glacial deposits . 



Residuary gravels, sands, clays, wacke, 

laterite, terra rossa, etc. 
. Peat, muck and swamp or palludal 

soils, in part. 
Talus and cliff debris, material of 

avalanches. 
Modern alluvium, marsh and swamp 

deposits, estuarian clays. Loess and 

adobe in part. 
Wind-blown material, sand-dunes. 
^ Adobe and loess in part. 
Morainal material, either lateral, ter- 
minal, or ground moraines, drum- 

lins, etc. 



Ckunfication of 8oU constititenta (U. S. Dept. Agric.) 
Samm 

1. Gravel 

2. Coarse sand 

3. Medium sand 

4. Fine sand 

5. Very fine sand 

6. Silt 

7. Clay 



Sim or Pabticlbs 
(diameters in millimeterB) 
2.0 to 1.0 
to 0.6 
to 0.25 
to 0.1 
to 0.05 
to 0.005 



1.0 

0.5 

0.25 

0.1 

0.05 



0.005 to 0.0000 



30 



THE ELEMENTS AND THE SOIL 



Weight of soils. 

Soils vary widely in weight according to their com()osition and the 
size of the particles. Humus soils are the lightest, and sandy soUs are 
the heaviest. Clay soils weigh less per cubic foot than arable soils or 
sandy soils. The larger the amount of organic matter in a cubic foot 
of soil, the less it weighs. For this reason, surface soils are lighter, as a 
rule, than subsoils (Stevenson). 

The weight of a cubic foot of dry soil is given by Shubler as 
follows : — 

LB. 

Silicious sand 110 

Half sand and half clay 96 

Common arable soil 80to90 

Heavy clay 75 

Garden mold rich in vegetable matter 70 

Peat soil 30 to 50 

Warington gives the following data regarding the weight of soil per 
acre : — 

1. Old pasture, Rothamsied, loam wUh day subaoil 





Oriqinal 
Wet Soil 


Dby Soil 




Total 


Stones 


Fine soil 


Roots 


First 9 inches . . 
Second 9 inches . 
Third 9 inches 
Fourth 9 inches . 


lb. 
3.294,380 
3,867,780 
4.091,620 
4,139,420 


lb. 
2,328,973 
3,098,939 
3,273,324 
3,343,787 


lb. 
174,091 
353,322 
217,515 
280,730 


lb. 
2,144,470 
2,744,715 
3.055,501 
3,063,057 


lb. 
10.412 
902 
308 



2. Arable land, Rothamsted, loam with clay subaoil 



First 9 inches . 
Second 9 inches 
Third 9 inches 
Fourth 9 inches 



Orioinal 
Wet Soil 



lb. 
3,288,553 
3.688,115 
3,882.285 
3,995,723 



Dry Soil 



Total 



lb. 
2,919.689 
3,044,615 
3,215,285 
3,313.563 



Stones 



lb. 
340.656 
141,861 
213,190 
197,400 



Fine soil 



lb. 
2,578,634 
2.902,682 
3,002,095 
3.116.163 



Roots 



lb. 
399 
72 



WEIGHT OF SOILS 



31 



3. Arable land, Wobum, sandy soil 





OiuanfAL 
Wbt Soil 


Dbt Soil 




Total 


Stones 


Fine aoU 


Rooto 


First 9 inchefl . . 
Second 9 inches . 
Third 9 inches 
Fourth 9 inches . 


lb. 
3.835.104 
3,947,640 
4,046,364 
4,014,432 


lb. 
3,157.448 
3,381,804 
3,462,498 
3.501.466 


lb. 

93,763 

201,527 

170,443 

274,239 


lb. 
3,063,074 
3,180,277 
3.292.055 
3,227.227 


lb. 
611 



These tables show: (1) That each of these classes of soil is lighter 
at the surface ; (2) that in each case the weight increases with an in- 
crease in depth. This increase in weight of the lower zones is due: 

(1) to the increase of pressure to which the lower zones are subjected ; 

(2) to the fact that the surface soil is more loose and porous; (3) 
to coarser texture of subsoil. This condition is brought about by the 
removal of the finest soil particles from the surface into the subnsoil 
by the action of rain ; by the accumulation of organic matter in the 
surface soil ; and, in the case of arable soils, by tillage. 

The specific gravity of a soil indicates its weight as compared with 
the weight of an equal volume of water. An English authority has 
publish^ the following table, which gives the specific gravity of the 
more common soil constituents : — 



Water . . . 










1.00 


Dolomite .... 


. . . 2.8-3.0 


Humus . . 










1.2-1.5 


Mica 


. . . 2.8-3.2 


Clay . . . 










2.50 


Hornblende . . . 


. . . 2.9-3.4 


Quarts . . 
Feldspar . . 










2.62 
2.5^2.8 


Augite 

Limonite .... 


. . . 3.2-3.6 
. . . 3.4-4.0 


Talc . . . 










2.6-2.7 


Hematite .... 


. . . 5.1-6.2 


Caldte . . 










2.76 







Schone gives the following for the specific gravity of soils : — 

Claysoa 2.65 

Sandy soil 2.67 

Fine soil 2.71 

Humus soil 2.63 



The true specific gravity of an arable soil varies from about 2.5 to 
2.7. 



32 



THE ELEMENTS AND THE SOIL 



Texture of the eoil. 

The size and shape of the particles of which the soil is composed 
determine its textvre. The arrangement of the particles determines 
its etntdure, as "loose," "open," "mealy," "friable," "cloddy," 
" porous," " hard," " compact," " retentive," " leachy." 

The texture determines the amount of soil-surface exposed to roots, 
and to a great extent the quantity of moisture that the soil may hold. 

The size and form of the particles determine the number in a given 
volume of soil. It has been estimated by Whitney that a gram of soil 
contains 2,000,000,000 to 20,000,000,000 soil particles. The number of 
particles per gram of different soil types is approximately as follows : — 

Early truck 1.966,000.000 

Truck and Bmall fruit 3.966.000.000 

Tobacco 6,786.000.000 

Wheat 10.228.000.000 

Grass and wheat 14,736.000.000 

Limestone 19.638,000,000 

Owing to the fact that a soil is made up of particles, there is between 
them a certain amount of space that is occupied by air or water ; this 
is known as the " pore space." In ordinary soils the pore space varies 
from a little over 50 per cent in the finest clay soils to about 25 or 30 
per cent in coarse sands of uniform texture. 

Soil Water 

Water occurs in. the soil in three forms : (1) Gravitational or hydro* 
static water ; (2) capillary water ; (3) hygroscopic water. 

Amount of water tued by vartoiu crops in producing a ton ofdry^maUier (Stevenaon) 





No. OF 

Trials 


Watbb uskd 
PKB Ton of 
Dbt-Mattbb 

tODB 

464.1 
603.9 
270.9 
676.6 
477.2 
386.1 
446.3 


Watbb Ubbd 


Dbt-Mattbb 

PBB ACBB 


ACBB-INCH 

or Watkb 

PBB Tow OF 

Dbt-Mattbb 
(King) 


Barley .... 
Oats .... 
Maiie .... 
Clover . . . 
Peas .... 
PoUtoea . . . 
Average . . 


6 
20 
62 
46 

1 1 
14 


in. 
20.69 
39.63 
16.76 
22.34 
16.89 
23.78 
23.166 


tons 
6.06 
8.89 
6.69 
4.39 
4.009 
6.996 
6.987 


4.096 

4.447 

2.391 

6.0899 

4.212 

3.339 

3.939 



WATER JN THE SOIL 



33 



Mtan volume of water held by different soils, in laboratory tests in columns 4S inches 
kioh, with calcula t ions to field conditions (Lyon and Fippin) 



1. Dune sand . . 

2. Coarse sand . . 

3. Fine sandy loam 

4. Light silt loam . 
6. Clay . . . . 
6. Muck aoil . . . 



52 
51 
50 
50 
59 
801 



10.7 
10.6 
18.0 
20.0 
30.4 
250.0 



III 


ml 



5 
10 
17 
80 



IV 



7.7 

7.6 

13.0 

10.9 

13.4 

170.0 



V 



lb. 
80 
81 
83 
83 
68 
15 



VI 



cu. in. 
166 
170 
300 
250 
252 



CO. 
2,720 
2,790 
4.900 
4,100 
4,140 



740 lh550 



VII 

;| 

III 



4.60 
5.20 
8.50 
6.90 
7.03 
20.50 



1 Estimated. 

Water taken from the soil by evaporation is a loss additional to that 
transpired by the crop. The following results were secured at the 
Iowa Experiment Station m an experiment to determine the total 
amount of water removed from the soil by evaporation and tran* 
spiration : — 



One Ton 


Tons of Watbr 
Lost 


ACRB-INCH OF 

Watbr Lost 


Clov*»r hikV 


1560 

570 

1200 


13 7 


Air-dried com fodder 

Oats and straw 


5.0 
11.0 



One inch of water covering an acre of land weighs about 226,875 
pounds, or more than 113 tons. 

WtUer esaporated by growino plants for one part of dry matter produced, in 
pounds (Lyon and Fippin) 



Lawks ak d Gilbbbt 


Hbllribgbl 


WOLLKT 




Kino 




England 


Gbrmant 


Germ ANT 




WWCONIIIN 




Beans . . . 


214 


Beans . . 


262 


Maise . . 


233 


Maise . . 


272 


Wheat . . 


225 


Wheat . . 


359 


MiUet . . 


416 


Potatoes 


423 


Peas . . . 


235 


Peas . . . 


292 


Peas . . . 


479 


Peas . . . 


447 


Red clover . 


240 


Red clover . 


330 


Rape . . 


912 


Red clover . 


453 


Bariey . . 


262 


Barley . . 


310 


Barley . . 


774 


Barley . . 


393 






Oats . . 


402 


Oats . . . 


665 


Oats . . . 


557 






Buckwheat . 


371 


Buckwheat . 


664 










Lupine . . 


373 


Mustard 


g43 










Rye . . . 


377 


Sunflower . 


490 







34 



THE ELEMENTS AND THE SOIL 



Water needed under arid conditions. 

Under dry-farming conditions, Widtsoe calculates that 

1 acre-inch of water will produce 2^ bu. wheat 
10 acre-inches of water will produce 25 bu. wheat 
15 acre-inches of water will produce 37 >^ bu. wheat 
20 acre-inches of water will produce 50 bu. wheat 

if all the water could be saved and be fully utilized in plant growth. 
Under average cultural conditions in arid regions, he concludes that 
approximately 750 pounds of water arc required for the production of one 
pound of dry matter. 

Plant-Food in the SoU 

In estimating plant-food, chemists usually catalogue only the three 
elements (or combinations of them) that are likely to be much depleted 
by the growing of crops, — nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium. (These 
determinations were made by the solution-in-hydrochloric-acid 
method, sp. gr. 1 . 115. Other anal3rtical methods in use would give 
higher readings, particularly in phosphorus and potash, as stronger 
acids are used to make the soil solutions.) 



Plant-food in surface soiUt wUh calculations to pounds in an acre 


(Roberts) 


No. 


NrraooKN 
N.,% 


Pro«. Acid 
P,0,. % 


Potash 
K.0.% 


Lb. N. 

IN iBT 

8 IN. Soil 


Lb. P^. 

IN IST 

8 IN. Soil 


Lb. K,0 
IN 2d 

8 IN. Soil 


1 


.379 


.059 


.062 


8.310 


1.294 


1,360 


2 


.293 


.056 


.034 


6,250 


1,194 


725 


3 


.195 


.196 


.183 


4,218 


4.240 


3,959 


4 


.282 


.267 


.866 


6.436 


6,094 


19.766 


5 


.245 


.05 


.232 


5,364 


1,095 


5,079 


6 


.26 


.052 


.348 


6,700 


1.140 


7.630 


7 


.26 


.029 


.182 


5,635 


628 


3.945 


8 


.26 


.15 


.903 


5,700 


3.289 


19.800 


9 


.109 


.032 


.149 


2,321 


681 


3.173 


10 


.334 


.038 


.056 


7,224 


822 


1.211 


11 


.14 


.051 


.047 


2,971 


1,082 


997 


12 


.295 


.037 


.130 


6,312 


792 


2,782 


13 


.04 


.23 


.23 


872 


6,016 


6,016 


14 


.09 


.019 


.019 


1,912 


404 


404 


15 


.12 


.23 


.9 


2,648 


4,884 


19.113 


16 


.07 


.13 


.83 


1,512 


2,808 


17.929 


17 


.03 


.22 


.65 


635 


4,659 


12.812 


18 


.09 


.3 


2.1 


1.958 


6,526 


45.686 


19 


.07 


.29 


1.19 


1.497 


6,202 


25.448 


20 


.12 


.44 


1.96 


2.571 


9.428 


42.000 




000,000 1 


000,000 


000.000 



TBS ALKALINE SOILS 



36 



No. 


NmtooBif 


Phob. Acid 


PoTAan 


Lb. N. 


Lb. P/), 


Lb. K,0 

in. 2d 
8 IN. Soil 


N..% 


PsO„ % 


KA% 


8 IN. Soil 


8 iii. Soil 










000,000 


000,000 


000.000 


21 


.10 


.33 


1.8 


2,153 


7.105 


38.752 


22 


.11 


.16 


.83 


2,343 


3.195 


17,682 


23 


.11 


.28 


1.95 


2.455 


6,250 


43.526 


24 


.04 


.13 


.89 


850 


2,759 


18.890 


25 


.07 


.21 


1.1 


1.484 


4.451 


23.314 


26 


.08 


.18 


.98 


1,701 


3.846 


20,833 


27 


.08 


.10 


.86 


1,699 


4.034 


18,260 


28 


.03 


.15 


.54 


636 


3,180 


11,447 


29 


.22 


.49 


1.85 


4,746 


10,571 


39,910 


30 


.16 


.36 


1.9 


3.509 


7.895 


41.670 


31 


.04 


.14 


.73 


848 


2.967 


15.480 


32 


.06 


.14 


.92 


1,272 


2,969 


19.510 


33 


.17 


.38 


1.18 


3,599 


8,046 


24.984 


34 


.1 


.2 


1.13 


2,143 


4,285 


24.212 



AlkaU Lands 

In countries of heavy rainfall, the alkaline materials are leached out 
in the drainage waters. In arid countries there is veiy little or no 
leachage ; the water passes off by evaporation, and the alkaline and 
other materials in solution are left at or near the surface of the ground. 

The normal condition of arid lands is illustrated in the table below 
(Means). The first part gives the percentage of total soluble salts 
in two soils from central Montana, where neither soil originally con- 
tained enough alkali within the zone of root action to be detrimental. 
The second part shows the condition of these soils after a few years 
of judicious irrigation, and the third part displays the condition after 
a few years of irrigation without drainage : — 

Table showing percentage of alkali in soils 



Dbptb 



First foot . . 
Second foot 
Third foot 
Fourth foot 
Fifth foot . . 
Sixth foot . . 
Se\'enth foot . 
Eighth foot . 
Ninth foot 
Tenth foot 
Eleventh foot 
Twelfth foot . 



Unirbioated 



Sandy 
Loam 



.04 
.04 
.03 
.03 
.05 
.06 
.06 
.17 
.24 
.24 
.21 
.12 



Clay 



.04 
.04 
.05 
.20 
.33 
.34 
.25 
.25 
.28 



Irriqated 



Sandy 



.04 
.05 
.04 
.05 
.06 
.05 
.06 
.07 
.05 
.06 
.07 
.07 



Clay 



.10 
.07 
.08 
.08 
.08 
.16 
.21 



Oybr-irrioated 



Sandy 
Loam 



.79 
.92 
.94 
.79 
.52 
.52 
.36 
.36 
.29 



Clay 



.76 
.71 
.63 
.61 
.69 
.19 



36 



THE ELEMENTS AND THE SOIL 



PercenUige composition of alkali in arid aoiU^ (Lyon and Fippin) 



Potassium chloride, 
KCl .... 

Potassium sulfate, 
KiSOi .... 

Potassiimi carbonate, 
K,CO, . . . 

Sodium sulfate, 
Na,S04 . . 

Sodium nitrate, 

NaNO, . . . 

Sodium carbonate, 
Ns^Om . . . 

Sodiimi chloride, 

NaCl .... 

Sodium phosphate, 
Na,HP04 . . 

Magnesium sulfate, 
MgSO* . . . 

Magnesium chloride, 
MgCl, . . . 

Calcium chloride, 
CaCl, 

Sodium bicarbonate, 
NaHCO, . . . 

Calcium sulfate 

CaSOi . . . 

Calcium bicarbonate, 
Ca(HCOa)« . . 

Magnesium bicarbon- 
ate, (Mg(HCOs)« 

Potassium bicarbon- 
ate, KHCOj . 

Ammonium carbon- 
ate (NH4),C0a 



Yakima Co..Wabb. 
Mbadowland 



Sur- 
face 
12 in. 



8.74 



66.94 



13.30 
1.90 



9.12 



2d 

12 in. 



5.61 



9.73 



13.86 



36.72 

1.87 

16.48 

12.57 



3d 
12 in. 



7.82 



8.64 



6.58 



45.28 

6.17 

13.17 

12.34 



Bona Val- 
LBT. Idaho 



8ui> 
face 
12 in. 



8.08 



16.54 



41.55 



.82 



31.27 
.64 



1.10 



Sur- 
face 
Depo- 
sit 



Crust 
0-1 



1.84 



67.70 



.10 
17.66 



6.15 



.72 
5.93 



BiLLIKOB, 

Montana 



1.60 



21.41 



85.57 



trace 
.55 



8.90 



.67 
2.71 



Sur- 
face 
10 in. 



35.12 



7.28 
trace 



4.06 



22.06 
10.07 



Caufobmia 



Tu- 
lare 
Exp. 
Sta. 



3.95 



25.28 
19.78 
32.58 
14.76 
2.25 



43.34 



1.41 



Mo- 
jave 
Pla- 



.92 



15.38 

39.34 

1.02 



Im- 
perial 
Dee- 

ert 



1.15 



8.21 

.68 

28.83 



2.81 
58.42 



1 Compiled from analyses made by the Bureau of Soils of the United States 
Department of Agriculture and by the California Experiment Station. 



TILLING THE SOIL 



37 



The following table shows the quantity of gypsum required to neutralize 
9odiwn carbonate in an acre-foot of soil : — 



Pbb Cbmt Sodium 
Cabbonatb 


Otpbuh pbb 

ACRB-FOOT^ 


Pbb Cbnt Soomii 
Cabbonatb 


GTFSUlf PBB 
AcBB-POOTt 


Pte-oent 
.01 
.02 
.03 
.04 
.05 


Pounds 
640 
1280 
1920 
2560 
3200 


Percent 
.06 
.07 
.08 
.09 
.10 


Pounds 
3840 
4480 
5130 
5760 
6400 



^ An acre-foot of soil weiffhs 4,000,000 pounds. 

Very often the black alkali is accompanied by other soluble salts, 
and the change in kind of salt brought about by the gypsum leaves 
more white alkali than plants will stand. The economic use of gypsum 
is therefore restricted to localities having only small amounts of total 
soluble salts. As a general rule, drainage can be properly applied, 
and the land freed of both black alkali and white alkali at less expense 
than by the application of gypsum. Gypsum costs S4 to $10 per ton 
in the regions where it is needed in black alkali reclamation, and when 
it becomes necessary to apply sufficient to neutralize 0.1 per cent of 
sodium carbonate in two or three acre-feet of soil per acre, the cost 
ia seen to be prohibitive. 



Tillage, and Soil Management 

Tillage is the preparing and stirring of the soil with the object to 
make it more congenial to the growth of plants. On the wise manage- 
ment of the soil depends the perpetuation of the human race. 

Objects of tillage (King). 

Stated in the broadest and briefest way, the purpose of tillage is 
to develop and maintain beneath the surface of the field a commodious 
and thoroughly sanitary homeland feeding ground for the roots of 
crops and for the soil organisms that help to transform the organic 
matter and the less soluble forms of the minerc^l plant-food materials 
of the soil into more soluble and suitable conditions adapted to the 
immediate needs of plants. But to make the habitable part of the soil 



38 THE ELEMENTS AND THE SOIL 

of a field commodious and sanitary, and at the same time to maintain 
within it a sufficiently rapid development of readily water-soluble 
plant-food materials so conditioned as to be highly available to the crop, 
requires careful attention to many essential details. Some of the chief 
objects of tillage are : — 

(1) To secure a thorough surface uniformity of the field, so that an 
equally vigorous growth may take place over the entire area. 

(2) To develop and maintain a large effective depth of soil, so that 
there shall be ample living room, an extensive feeding surface and large 
storage capacity for moisture and available plant-food materials. 

(3) To increase the humus of the soil through a deep and extensive 
incorporation of organic matter, so that there may be a strong growth 
of soil micro-organisms and the maintenance of a high content of 
water-soluble plant-food materials. 

(4) To improve the tilth and maintain the best structural condition 
in the soil, so that the roots of the crop and the soil organisms may 
spread readily and widely to place themselves in the closest contact 
with the largest amount of food materials. 

(5) To control the amount, to regulate the movement, and to deter- 
mine the availability of soil moisture, so that there shall never be an 
excess or a deficiency of this indispensable carrier of food materials 
to and through the plant. 

(6) To determine the amount, movement, and availability of the 
water-soluble plant-food materials present in the soil, so that growth 
may be both rapid, normal, and continuous to the end of the 
season. 

(7) To convert the entire root zone of the soil into a commodious 
sanitary living and feeding place, perfectly adapted to the needs of the 
roots of the crop and to the soil organisms, — adequately drained, 
perfectly ventilated, and sufficiently warm. 

(8) To reduce the waste of plant-food materials through the de- 
struction of weeds, and the prevention of their growth, through preven- 
tion of surface washing and drifting by winds. 

Jordan* 8 rules of fertility, 

1. Thorough tillage, with efficient machinery, to be given if possible 
when the moisture conditions of the soil admit of satisfactory pulveri- 
sation. 



RULES OF FERTILITY 39 

2. Frequent surface tillage at times of scanty rainfall, in order to 
conserve the supply of soil moisture. 

3. A sufficiently rapid rotation of crops to insure good soil texture, 
to allow the necessary frequency of applying fertilizing material, and 
as a main result to secure a paying stand of crops. 

4. The introduction into the soil at frequent intervals of an amount 
of oi^ganic matter necessary to proper soil texture and water holding 
power, either by application of farm manures, by plowing down soiling 
crops, or by the rotting of the turf. 

5. The scrupulous saving of all the excrement of farm animals, 
both solid and liquid. 

6. The purchfljse of plant-food with due reference to the needs of 
the farm and to the system of farm management prevailing. 

7. The maintenance in the soil of those conditions of drainage and 
aeration which promote the growth of desirable soil organisms, and the 
introduction into the soQ, when necessary, of such organisms as are 
essential to the growth of particular plants. 



CHAPTER III 
Chemical Fertilizebs; and Limb 

A fertilizer is a material added to the soil for the purpose of supply- 
ing food for plants. 

An amendment is a substance or material that modifies the physical, 
mechanical and chemical nature of the soil. 

Stable manure is both fertilizer and amendment. Lime is used 
mostly as an amendment, since it is not often necessary to supply it for 
the plant-food that it contains. On sandy soils it may be needed as 
a fertilizer. 

The extent of the fertilizer industry is indicated by the following 
figures of complete fertilizers manufactured in the United States in 
two given years : — 



1900 



1005 



Incbsass 



Pkr Ckz«t or 
Incbbaab 



Quantity in tons of 

20001b 

Value 



1,478,826 
$26,318,095 



1,603,847 
$31,305,057 



125.021 
$4,986,062 



8.5 
18.9 



Fertilizer discussions are concerned mostly with nitrogen, phosphorus, 
and potassium (always in combination with other elements, never used 
in their elemental form), since these are the elements most likely to be 
deficient in the soil. To be economically usable as a fertilizer, a 
material must not only contain some one or more of these three 
elements in available form, but it must be relatively low in price and 
obtainable in large quantities. Nitrate of potash (saltpetre) is a good 
fertilizer, but it is impossible to use it because of the cost. Many of 
the fertilizer materials, — as bone-black, blood, ashes, — are waste 
products or by-products. 

40 



FERTILIZES MATERIALS 



41 



Some of the Sources of Chemical Fertilizers 

Pereeniaoe composition of nuUericUs used aa sources of nitrogen (Gonnan Kali 
Works. N.Y. City) 



Nitrate of soda . . 
Sulfate of ammonia . 
Ehied blood (high 

^rade) 

Dned blood (low 

grade) 

Tankage 

Dried fish scrap . . 
Ck>tton8eed meid 
Castor pomace . . 
Tobacco stems . . 



NlTBOOBN 



15 to 16 
19>^ to 21 

13 to 14 

10 toll 
5 to 9 
9 to 10 
6Hto 7}^ 
5 to 6 
2H to 3 



Equivalsnt 

TO 

AmiONiA 



18 
24 



to 19H 
to25>^ 



16 to 17 

12 tola 

6 toll 

11 to 12 
7Hto 9 

6 to 7 

3 to 3H 



Potash 
K,0 



IH to2 

1 to IH 

2 to 10 



Pbos. Acid 
Total 



2 to 3 

IHto 2 

9 to 16 

5H to 7 

2 to 3 

IHto 2 

3^ to 1 



Composition of materials used as sources of phosphoric acid (Kali Works) 



Acid phosphate 
Carolina phos. rock 
Diseolvea bone 
black . . . . 
Bone meal . . . 
Dissolved bone 
Thomas slag . . 
Peruvian guano 



Total 



16 to 19 
26 to 27 

17 to 20 
20 to 25 
16 to 17 
22 to 24 
12 to 15 



Avail- 

ABLB 



14 to 17 



16 to 18 

5to 8 

13 to 15 

7to 8 



Insol- 
uble 



Ito 2 
26 to 27 

Ito 2 
15 to 17 

2 to 3 
22 to 24 

5to 8 



NrTBOOKN 



1 to 43^ 
2to3 

6 to 10 



Equivalsnt 

TO 
AlflfONIA 



15<to 
2Hto 



6H 
3H 



7Mto 12 



Potash 



m to4 



Marketed production of phosphate rock in the United States, from the beginning of 
the industry in 1867 to 1909, in long tons (Van Horn, U.S. Geol. Surv.) 



Ybaji 




Valus 


YlAB 


Quantitt 


Valub 


1867-1887 . 


4,442.945 


$U:iX>:tTXil9 


1900 . . . 


1,491.216 


$5,359,248 


1888 . . . 


448,567 


■Jj)ls,.>52 


1901 . 




1,483,723 


5.316,403 


1889 . 




550,245 


■JJJ-47.776 


1902 . 




1,490.314 


4.693,444 


1890 . 




610,499 


:^.-ii;^,796 


1903 . 




1.581.576 


5,319.294 


1891 . 




587,988 


.■Ni.-.;,t50 


1904 . 




1.874,428 


6.580,875 


1892 . 




681,571 


„,«^u,«27 


1905 . 




1.947,190 


6.763.403 


1893 . 




941.368 


4,136,070 


1906 . 




2,080.957 


8.579,437 


1894 . 




996,949 


3,479.547 


1907 . 




2.265,343 


10.653.558 


1805 . 




1,038,551 


3.606.094 


1908 . 




2.386,138 


11,399.124 


1896 . 




930,779 


2,803,372 


1909 . 




2.330.152 


10.772.120 


1897 . 




1,039.345 


2,673,202 












1898 . 




1,308,885 


3,453,460 


Total . 


33.924.431 


139,487.246 


1899 . 




1,515,702 


6,084,076 









42 



CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS; AND LIME 



World* 8 production of phosphate rock, 1905-1 907 ^ by countries, in metric tons 

(Van Horn) 



Country 


1906 


1907 


1908 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Algeria . . 
Aruba (Dutch 


333.531 


$965,600 


373,763 


$2,183,404 


452.060 


$2,639,940 


West 
Indies) 


26,138 


1 


36.036 


1 


29.061 


1 


Belgium . . 


152.140 


282,612 


182.230 


332.114 


198,030 


355.897 


Canada . . 


521 


4.024 


748 


6.018 


1.448 


14.794 


Christmas 














Islands 














(Straits 














Settle- 














ments) 


92,010 


1 


112,147 


1 


110,849 


» 


France . . 


469,408 


1,872.000 


431,237 


1.876,736 


485,607 


1.896.606 


Norway . . 


3.482 


46,524 


» 








Spain . . . 


1,300 


7,592 


s 








Tunis . . . 


796,000 


2.304.400 


1,069.000 


4,547,842 


1,300.543 


5.531.624 


United King- 














dom . . 






33 


224 


9 


68 


United States 


2,114,252 


8.579,437 


2,301,588 


10,653,558 


2.424,453 


11.399,124 



Average composition of Stassfurt potash salts (Gennan Kali Works) 





1 h 


&. 






K 






'4. 


hS 


^ 


Q ^ 


"^1 


eSh 


^e 




Calculatkd 




*?s 


hU 


a H 


" ^ 


<* 


HI < 




TO PUBB 




S^ 


?;,^ 


ing 


5?f 


1^ 


g J 


PS 


Potash 


Namb op Salts 


jCU 


gu. 


Li 


'^i 


^ *^ 


p 


K^ 


In 100 Parts arb Contained 


J5 *• 
Wo 


Ka 


CO 

Mg- 
SO4 




-3 


Ca- 
se, 


^ 




Avei^ 
*«e 


Guar- 
anteed 


A. Crude Salts 




















(Natural Products) 






















Kainit 


21.3 


2.0 


14.5 


12.4 


34.6 


1.7 


0.8 


12.7 


12.8 


12.4 


Camallit 





15.5 


12,1 


21.5 


22.4 


1.9 


0.5 


26.1 


9.8 


9.0 


B. Concentrated Salts 






















(Manufactured Products) 






















Sulfate of Potash ^g% 


97.2 
90.6 


0.3 
1.6 


0.7 
2.7 


0.4 
1.0 


0.2 
1.2 


0.3 
0.4 


0.2 
0.3 


0.7 
2.2 


52.7 
49.9 


51.8 
48.6 


Sulfate ofpotash-magnesia 


50.4 




34.0 





2.5 


0.9 


0.6 


11.6 


27.2 


25.9 


Muriate of (90-95% 
Potash 80-85% 





91.7 


0.2 


0.2 


7.1 


— 


0.2 


0.6 


57.7 


56.8 





83.5 


0.4 


0.3 


14.5 


— 


0.2 


1.1 


52.7 


50.5 


Manure salt. min. pot- 






















ash ... . 20% 


2.0 


31.6 


10.6 


5.3 


40.2 


2.1 


4.0 


4.2 


21.0 


20.0 


Manure salt. min. 30% 






















potash 


1.2 


47.6 


9.4 


4.8 


26.2 


2.2 


3.5 


5.1 1 30.6 


30.0 



» Value not reported. 



> Statistics not yet available. 



SOURCES OF POTASH 



43 



Poiath aalis produced in the United States, 1860 to 1905 > (Phalen, U.S. Geol. 

Survey.) 



CkK8U8 


NuMBKR or 

ESTABUBH- 
MKMT8 


Product 


.\vERAac Frigs 




' Quantity 


Value 


PKR Pound 


1850 

1860 

1870 

1880 

1890 

1900 

1905 


569 
212 
105 

68 

75 

67 « 

39 « 


lb. 

4.571,671 
5.106.939 
3.864,766 
1.811.037 


$1,401,533 
538,550 
327,671 
232,643 
197,507 
178,180 
104,655 


$0,051 
0.039 
0.046 
0.058 



> Munroe, C. E.. Bull. 92. Census of Manufactures, Bur. Census, 1905, 
* Includes establishments engaged primarily in the manufacture o) 
products. 



p. 38. 
»f other 



There was a time when the United States produced a large part, 
if not all, of the potash it consumed. The burning of wood and the 
lixiviation of the resulting ash to extract the potash, though of minor 
importance so far as the monetary value of the product is concerned, 
is one of the oldest of the purely chemical industries in this country. 
Ck>gnizanoe was taken of it in the census reports as early as 1850, so 
that data are available for comparing the condition of the industry for 
each decade since that year. The above table gives the quantity and 
value of potash produced in the United States from 1850 to 1905. 

Potash salts are used extensively in the United States. They are 
essential to numerous industries that are vitally connected with the 
welfare of the American people — the most notable being the ferti- 
lizer industry. They are used also in the manufacture of glass, in 
certain kinds of soap, in some explosive powders, and in the chemical 
industries, including the manufacture of alum, cyanides, bleaching 
powders, dyestufifs, and other chemicals. (Phalen.) 



Importation of potash salts 

The potash industry has not been revived in the United States thus 
far, and the great bulk of the potash salts now used are imported. The 
following table (by Phalen) shows the magnitude of the importation of 
potash salts for the years 1900, 1905, and 1910 : — 



44 



CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS; AND LIME 



ImporU €if potaah talis for the calendar years 1900, 1905, and 1910, in pounds. 
[Figures from Bureau of Statistics] 





1900 


1905 


1010 




Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 




lb. 




lb. 




lb. 




Chlorate .... 


1.243.612 


$68,772 










Chloride .... 


130,176,481 


1,976.604 


214,207.064 


$3,326,478 


381,873.875 


$5,252,373 


Nitrate (crude and 
refined) . . . 














10.545.392 


276,664 


9.911.534 


304.596 


11,496.904 


333.854 


AU other, including 














carbonate (crude 














and refined), bi- 














carbonate, caustic 














(crude and re- 
fined), chromate 


























cyanide, hydrio- 














date, iodide, io- 














date, permangar 














nate. pruanate 














(red and yellow), 
sulfate (crude 














and refined) . . 


54.904.08S 


1.407.303 


82,935.532 


1.891.081 
5.522,155 


116.820,873 


2.777.396 


Total .... 


196.868.573 


3.729.343 307.054.130 


510,191.652 


8.363.623 


Increase .... 






110,185,673 


1.792.812 


203,137.522 


2.841.468 


Peroentage of in- 








' 






crease .... 






55.96 


48.07 


66.15 


51.45 


Kainit, "kyanite." 
and kieserite. and 




















manure salts * 


520.606.120 


1.608.217 


830.903.360 


3.116.884 


1.288.199.360 


3.251.511 



> This table is based on total imports for the calendar year, not on imports for consump- 
tion for the calendar year. 

' These figures are for the fiscal years. 



Poiaesie materials produced by the aid of dectrieity 

Among the chemicals produced by the aid of electricity are potas- 
sium chlorate and potassium hydroxid. The following table gives the 
quantity and value of the potassium salts made electrolytically at the 
censuses of 1900 and 1905, with the amount and percentage of increase 
(Plmlen) : — 





1900 


)905 


iNCBBASa 


P«B Cewt or 
Incbbasb 


Quantity, tons . . 
Value 


1.900 
$80,097 


3.908 
$200,008 


2.008 
$119,911 


105.7 
149.7 



CONTENT OF FERTILIZERS 



45 



Frindpal polaah nuUeriaU used in fertUitera in the United States^ 1900 and 1906 



1900 



1005 



Incrsabk 



Peb Cent of 
Incbsasx 



Kaiait: 

Quantity, tons . 

Value .... 
Other potash salts : 

Quantity, tons . 

Value .... 
Nitrate of potash . 

Quantity, tons . 

Value .... 
Wood ashes : 

Quantity, bushels 

Value .... 



64,700 
$520,833 



$3,098,400 

884 
$32,156 



190.403 
$1,891,073 

122,107 
$3,606,701 

1.160 
$39,039 

17.083 
$2,050 



136.793 
$1,370,240 



$608,301 

276 
$6,883 



248.3 
263.1 



16.4 

31.2 
21.4 



Fertilizer Formulas and Guarantees (Voorhees) 

Probably more than nine-tenths of the fertilizers used in this country 
are purchased in the form of mixtures containing all three of the essen- 
tial constituents, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. The various 
brands are prepared from formulas designed to be especially suitable for 
different crops and soils. This method of purchase saves labor and 
thought on the part of the farmer, but the cost of the constituents is 
greater than if the fertilizer materials are bought and home-mixed; 
besides, in the mixtures the farmer does not always obtain such pro- 
portions of the constituents as are best adapted to his conditions. 
These mixed fertilizers, as a rule, are, and should always be, accom- 
panied by a statement of guaranteed composition. This is very essen- 
tial, because purchasers are unable to tell, by mere visual inspection, 
what kinds and proportions of fertilizing materials have entered into 
the mixture. In many states the laws require that the source of the 
materials also shall be distinctly stated, in order to insure the use of 
good products, as the mixing permits the disguising of poor forms, 
especially of those containing the element nitrogen. 

Guarantees, however, sometimes confuse the purchaser, because the 
method of stating the guarantee is such as to mislead, provided he does 
not understand the meaning of the terms, or is unable to convert the 
percentages into their equivalents. It is entirely legitimate, when there 
are no laws forbidding, for the manufacturer to guarantee ammonia, 



46 



CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS; AND LIME 



instead of nitrogen ; bone phosphate, instead of phosphoric acid ; and 
sulfate of potash, instead of actual potash. The statement of the 
guarantee of the constituents in combination increases the percentage, 
thus leading ignorant purchasers to think that they are obtaining a 
larger percentage of the constituents than is really the case. 

In the case of raw materials, a guarantee based on the purity of the 
chemical salts is very frequently used. That is, a substance when pure 
contains 100 per cent of the specific salt, and the guarantee which 
accompanies this product is merelj^ a statement that indicates its purity. 
For example, when nitrate of soda is guaranteed to contain 95 per 
cent nitrate, it means that it is 95 per cent pure nitrate, or that 5 per 
cent of the total substance consists of impurities. The same is true in 
the case of sulfate of ammonia, sulfate of potash, muriate of potash, 
and other potash salts that may be offered. In order that the farmer 
may have a simple method of determining the actual content of the 
constituents, however guaranteed, the following tables are given to 
show the terms that are used, their equivalent of actual elements, and 
the factors to \ise in converting the one into the other : — 

To convert the guarantee of 

Ammonia . . . 

Nitrogen . . . 

Nitrate of soda 

Bone phosphate .... into an 

Phosphoric acid .... equivalent 

Muriate of potash ... of 

Actual potash . . 

Sulfate of potash 

Actual potash . . 





Multiply by 


Nitrogen . . 


. 0.8235 


Ammonia , . 


. 1.214 


Nitrogen . . 
Phosphoric acid 


. 0.1647 


. 0.468 


Bone phosphate 
Actual potash 


. 2.183 


. 0.632 


Muriate of potasl 


1 . 1.683 


Actual potash 


. 0.64 


Sulfate of potash 


. 1.86 



The following statements show the methods of stating guarantees 
on the basis of purity, in the case of many raw materials^ and the equiv- 
alent percentage on the basis of actual constituents : 
Guarantee on basis of purity : — 

Nitrate of soda, 96 per cent, or containing 95 per cent pure nitrate. 
Muriate of potash, 80 per cent, or containing 80 per cent pure muriate. 
Sulfate of potash, 98 per cent, or containing 98 per cent pure sulfate. 
Kainit, 25 per cent, or containing 26 per cent pure sulfate. 



Guarantee on basis of actual constituents : — 

Nitrate of soda, total nitrogen 15.64 per cent. 

Muriate of potash, actual potash 60.50 per cent. 

Sulfate of potash, actual potash 63.00 per cent. 

Kainit, actual potash 13.60 per cent. 



TRADE VALUES OF FERTILIZERS 47 

The following illustration shows a guarantee of the same mixed 
fertilizer y on the basis of equivalents in combination, and on the basis 
of actual constituents: 
Guarantee on basis of equivalents in combination : — 

Nitrogen (equivalent to ammonia), 2 to 3 per cent. 

Available phosphoric acid (equivalent to bone phosphate of lime), 16 to 20 

per cent. 
Potash (equivalent to sulfate of potash), 6 to 8 per cent. 

Guarantee on basis of actual constituents : — 

Nitrogen (total) 1.65 to 2.50 per cent. 

Phosphoric acid (available) 7.00 to 9.00 per cent. 

Potash (actual) 3.25 to 4.25 per cent. 

It will be observed that the guarantee in the one case means the same 
as in the other. Different methods of stating guarantees should not 
mislead those who will familiarize themselves with the terms used, and 
with the conversion factors. 

In the case of the mixed fertilizers, the percentage of the constituent 
elements that are given on the basis of equivalents represents the 
amounts when they exist in combination with other elements, viz., 
nitrogen, as ammonia; phosphoric acid, as bone phosphate; and 
potash, as sulfate. 

Methods of Computing Trade Value of Fertilizers 
Trade-values of plant-food elements in raw materials and chemicals^ 1910. 

The trade-values in the following schedule have been agreed 
upon by the Experiment Stations of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, 
dTonnecticut, New York, New Jersey, and Vermont, as a result of 
study of the prices actually prevailing in the large markets of these 
states. 

These trade-values represent, as nearly as can be estimated, the 
average prices at which, during the six months preceding March, the 
respective ingredients, in the form of unmixed raw materials, could be 
bought at retail for cash in our large markets. These prices also corre- 
spond (except in case of available phosphoric acid) to the average whole- 
sale prices for the six months preceding March, plus about 20 per cent 
in case of goods for which there are wholesale quotations. 



48 CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS ; AND LIME 

cts. per lb. 

Nitrogen in ammonia salts 16 

Nitro||en in nitrates 16 

Orgamo nitrogen in dry and fine-ground fish, meat and blood and 

mixed fertilisers 20 

Organic nitrogen in fine-ground bone and tankage 20 

Organic nitrogen in coarse bone and tankage 15 

Phosphoric acid, water-soluble 4>^ 

Phosphoric acid citrate, soluble (reverted) 4 

Phosphoric acid in fine-ground fish, bone and tankage .... 4 

Phosphoric acid in cottonseed meal, castor-pomace and ashes . 3^ 

Phosphoric acid in coarse fish, bone and tankage 3^ 

Phosphoric add in mixed fertilisers, insoluble in ammonium citrate 

or water 2 

Potash as high-grade sulfate, in forms free from muriates (chlo- 
rides), in ashes, etc 5 

Potash in muriate 4>i 

Valuaiian and cost of fertilizers. 

The total cost (to the fanner) of a ton of commercial fertilizer may 
be regarded as consisting of the following elements : (1) Retail cash 
cost, in the market, of unmixed trade materials ; (2) cost of mixing ; 
(3) cost of transportation; (4) storage, commissions to agents and 
dealers, selling on long credit, bad debts, etc. While the total cost of a 
fertilizer is made up of several different elements, a commercial valua- 
tion includes only the first of the elements entering into the total cost, 
that is, the retail cash cost in the market of unmixed raw materials. 

ValtuUion, and agricultural value. 

The agricultural value of a fertilizer depends upon its crop-producing 
power. A commercial valuation does not necessarily have any relation 
to crop-producing value on a given farm. For a particular soil and 
crop, a fertilizer of comparatively low commercial valuation may have 
a higher agricultural value ; while, for another crop on the same soil, 
or the same crop on another soil, the reverse might be true. 

Rule for calculating approximate commercial valuation of mixed ferU- 
lizers on basis of trade-values for 1910. 

Multiply the percentage of nitrogen by 4.0. 
Multiply the percentage of available phosphoric acid by 0.8. 
Multiply the percentage of insoluble phosphoric acid (total minus 
available) by 0.4. 
Multiply the percentage of potash by 1.0. 



FIGURING FERTILIZERS 49 

The sum of these 4 products will be the commercial valuation per 
ton on the basis taken. 

Illustration. The table of analyses shows a certain fertilizer to have 
the following composition: Nitrogen 2.52 per cent; available phos- 
phoric acid 6.31 per cent; insoluble phosphoric acid .89 per cent; 
potash 6.64 per cent. According to this method of valuation, the 
computation would be as follows: — 

Nitrogen 2,52 X 4.0 « $10.08 

Available phoephoric acid 6.31 X 0.8 « 5.05 

Insoluble phosphoric acid 0.89 X 0.4 « 0.36 

Potash 6.64 X 1.0 - 6.64 



$22.13 

This rule assumes aH the nitrogen to be organic and all the potash 

to be in the form of sulfate. If a considerable portion of nitrogen exists 

in the fertilizer as nitrate of soda or as sulfate of ammonia, and potash 

is present as muriate, the results are somewhat less. 

Farmers should be warned against judging fertilizers by their valuar 
tions. A fertilizer, the cost of which comes chiefly from the phosphoric 
acid present, would value much lower commercially than a fertilizer 
with a high percentage of nitrogen, and yet the former might be the 
more profitable for a given farmer to purchase. 

Table for converting ike fertilizer elements into their ueually reported forma, 
and vice versa (J. P. Stewart) 

(a) CoNVKBTiNo Elements into Com- (&) CoNVERTiNa Compounds into Elb- 

POX7NDS MENTS 

K X 2.4103 - K,0. KX> X .4149 - K. 

P X 4.6806 - PjP,. P^g X .2183 - P. 

N X 1.2143 - NH,. NH, X .8236 - N. 

Ms X 1.6667-» MgO. MgO X .6000 « Mg. 

Ca X 1.4000 - CaO. CaO X .7143 - Ca. 

Computing the trade value, 

A simple way offiouring the value of a commercial fertiliser > (Cavanaugh) 

Example No. 1. Guabantbed Analysis 

Nitroeen 1.60 to 2.00 per cent 

Phosphoric add available 7.00 to 8.00 per cent 

Potash 2.00 to 3.50 per cent 

Cost per ton $29.00 

1 In these and the succeeding examples, it happens that the trade values per 
lb. of chemicals are not those of 1910, given on pp. 47-48 ; but it is intended 
only to explain the method. 

B 



50 CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS; AND LIME 

Multiplying the lowest figure representing the per cent of the given 
element by 20, and calculating the value from the price per pound, we 
have in No. 1 (remembering that 1 per cent means one pound in a 
hundred, or twenty pounds in a ton) : — 

Nitrogen 1.60 X 20 «- 32 lb. @ 15^ « $4.80 

Phosphoric acid 7 X 20 « 140 lb. @ 5^ « 7.00 

Potash 2 X 20 = 40 lb. @ 6^ = 2.00 

Commercial value per ton $13.80 

Example No. 2. Guaranteed Analysis 

Nitrogen 3.30 to 4.00 per cent 

Phosphoric acid available 8.00 to 10.00 per cent 

Potash 7.00 to 8.00 per cent 

Cost per ton $38.00 

Its value is calculated the same as No. 1 : — 

Nitrogen 3.30 X 20 » 66 lb. @ Ibf » $9.90 

Phosphoric acid 8.00 X 20 » 160 lb. ® b^ ^ 8.00 

Potash 7.00 X 20 « 140 lb. @ 5^ - 7.00 

Commercial value $24.90 

The cheapest fertilizer is the one in which one dollar purchases the 
greatest amount of plant-food. In No. 1, $29 obtained $13.80 worth, 
which is at the rate of forty-eight cents worth for $1. In No. 2, $38 
buys $24.90 worth of plant-food, or at the rate of sixty-five cents worth 
for the dollar. The difference between the commercial value, as calcu- 
lated, and the selling price, is to cover expenses of manufacture, bag- 
ging, shipping, commission fees, and profits. 

Hofw to figure the trade valve of a fertilizer in greater detail ( Voorhees) 
It is assumed that the mixed fertilizer is guaranteed to contain 

Ammonia 4 per cent 

Available phosphoric acid 8 per cent 

Total phosphoric acid 9 per cent 

Potash 6 per cent 

and that the nitrogen exists in three forms, as nitrate, as ammonia, and 
as organic ; the phosphoric acid in three forms, soluble, reverted, and 
insoluble ; and potash in two forms, sulfate and muriate. The 4 per 
cent ammonia would be equivalent to 3.28 per cent nitrogen, 1 per cent 
of which is nitrate-nitrogen, \ per cent sulfate of ammonia-nitrogen. 



FIGURING FERTILIZERS 



61 



and 1.78 per cent is derived from organic forms. Of the total phos- 
phoric acid, 6 per cent is soluble, 2 per cent reverted, and 1 per cent is 
insoluble ; of the total potash, 3 per cent is derived from muriate and 
3 per cent from sulfate. 

The first colimm in Table A shows the percentage of the constituents 
contained, which, multiplied by 20, gives the pounds per ton in the 
second column, which, multiplied by the schedule prices per pound, 
^ves the valuation per ton, as shown in the fourth column. 

In the case of ground bone, the guarantee is 4 per cent ammonia and 
48 per cent bone phosphate, which are equivalent to 3.28 per cent nitro- 
gen and 22 per cent phosphoric acid. It is assumed that 60 per cent 
of the material is finer than ^ of an inch, and is regarded as " fine," 
and 40 per cent is coarser than A of an inch, and is regarded as 
" coarse." 

Table A. — Complktb Febtilizeb 



Per cent or 
pounds per 100 



Pounds 
per ton 



Value 
poun( 



r 



cents 



Nitrogen, as nitrates . . 
NitroiEen, as ammonia salts 
Nitroien, as organic matter 

Total nitrogen . . . 
Phosphoric add, soluUe 
Phosphoric acid, reverted 
Phosphoric acid, insoluble 

Total phosphoric acid 
Potash, as muriate . . 
Potash, as sulfate . . 

Total potash . . . 



1.00 X 20 
0.50 X 20 
1.78 X 20 
3.28 

6.00 X 20 
2.00 X20 
1.00 X20 
9.00 

3.00 X20 
3.00 X20 
6.00 



20.0 X 16.5 
10.0 X 17.5 
35.6 X 18.5 
65.6 

X 

X 

X 



120.0 
40.0 
20.0 

180.0 
60.0 
60.0 

120.0 



4.5 
4.5 
2.0 



4.25 
5.0 



4 
Estimated 
value per 
ton of each 
constituent 
' $3.30 
= 1.75 
- 6.59 



$5.40 

1.80 

' 0.40 

2.55 
3.00 



5 

Total 

estimated 

value 

per ton 



$11.64 



7.60 
5.55 



$24.79 



Table B. — Ground Bone 



Percent 

or 
pounds 
per 100 



Percent 

of 
fineness 



Per cent 

or pounds 

per 100 



Pounds 
per ton 



Value 
cents 



Nitrogen/ 3-28X60 - 
iMitrogenj 3.28 x 40 - 

Total 



1.97 in fine X 20 - 
1.31 in coarse X 20 - 
3.28 
Phosphoric/ 22.00 X 60 - 13.20 in fine X 20 = 

acid 1 22.00 X 40 - 8.80 in coarse X 20 ^ 176.00 X 3.0 = 
Total . 22.00 440.00 



6 7 

Esti- 
mated Total 
value esti- 

V^-^- oTei^g TJ^ 
con- per ton 
stituent 
39.40 X 18.0 » $7.09 
26.20 X 13.0 » 3.41 
65.60 $10.50 

264.00 X 4.0- 10.56 
5.28 

15.84 
$26.34 



62 CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS; AND LIME 

The first column of figures in Table B shows the percentage, or 
pounds per hundred, of the constituents, which is multiplied by the 
percentage of fineness, which gives the percentage or poimds per him- 
dred of fine or coarse in the third colimm. The calculation is then 
finished, as in the case of complete fertilizers. 

Home-Mixing of Fertilizers 

General advice (Kentucky Station). 

The fanner may mix his own fertilizers in a satisfactory manner. 
He should first determine how many pounds of phosphoric acid, nitro- 
gen, and potash he wishes to use per acre, then determine how much of 
each of the materials used will be required to furnish the desired 
amounts of the ingredients. This having been done, it is easy to figure 
to any number of acres. It does not matter about figuring out what 
per cent there will be of each ingredient, the important thing being to 
know how many pounds of each ingredient are being applied. The 
foregoing points having been determined, the next step is the mixing. 
Prepare a tight floor of sufficient size. Put down the bulkiest material 
first in an even layer, following with the others in order of their bulk. 
See that all lumps are well broken up. Potash salts and nitrate of 
soda may be lumpy. Take a shovel and begin at one end of the pile 
and shovel the materials back, turning and mixing each shovelful aa 
much as possible. Repeat the operation until well mixed. There is 
no doubt that fertilizers may be well mixed at home, but it is advised 
only when it can be done more cheaply and when fertilizers of the 
desired composition cannot be purchased. 

The fimction of the fertilizer factory is to mix fertilizers cheaper 
and better than the farmer can do it himself. That the factory can do 
this there is no doubt. That they are not doing so, as .a rule, is 
evident. 

In some states, the farmer decides what he wants to use on his land 
and submits his formula to the manufacturer, who mixes his goods for 
him and charges the retail price for the singles or simples used, and a 
reasonable profit on the actual cost of mixing. 

It is gratifying that some of the largest manufacturing concerns 
advocate the exclusive use of high-grade fertilizers and the unit or 
pound basis of purchase. 



ANTAGONISTIC INGREDIENTS OF FERTILIZERS 



63 



Incampatiblea inferiilizer mixtures (U. S. Dept. Agric). 

The danger of indiscriminate mixing of fertilizing materials should 
be understood, and a diagram (Fig. 4) is given to indicate what com- 
binations may be safely made of some of the more common materials. 



ThomAS Me£. 




Samytid 



Monr«KUui nltnto 
(bMlo eddam 
aitnte). 



Jvaintt. 



Fio. 4. — Incompatible combinations in f ertiliiers. 

In this diagram the heavy lines unite materials which should never be 
mixed, the double lines those which should be applied immediately 
after mixing, and the single lines those which may be mixed at any time. 

Table for calcuiaHng raw fertilizer meUerial required per ton by mixturee of 
given composition 



FOBMULA 


Per Cent op 

NiTBOOBN (N) 

IN THE 

FOBlfVLA 


Equivalent 
TO Ammonia 

Peb Cent 


Factor for 

calculatino 

Fertilizer 

Material 

FROM Nitrogen 


Factor for 

CALCULATING 

Fertilizer 

Material 

FROM Ammonia 


Nitrate of soda 
Dried Wood 
Sulfate of ammonia 
Cotton-seed meal 


15.0 

12.4 

20.0 

7.0 


18.2 

15.0 

24.3 

8.5 


Multiply by 
133 
161 
100 
286 


Multiply by 

110 

133 

86.4 

235 



54 



CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS ; AND LIME 



Table for calculaiino raw fertilizer material required per ton by mixturea of 
given compoeition. — Continued 



FamruBSR Matsaial 

▲B CALLSD rOB IN ▲ 
FOBMVLA 



Phobfbobus 

(P) 

Pwi Cbnt 



Phobproric 
Agio (PiO.) 

Per Cent 



Factor for 
calcui^atinq 
Fbbtiluer 
Material from 
Phosphorus 



Factor for 

cau7ulatino 

Fertilizer 

Material from 

Phosphoric 

Agio 



Acid phoaphate 
Basic slag 



6.1 
7.0 



14.0 
16.0 



Multiply by 
328 
285 



Multiply by 
143 
125 



Muriate of potash 

Kainit 

Sulfate of potash 



POTASBIUll 

(K) 
Per Cent 



Potash 
(K,0) 

Per Cent 



Factor for 

calculating 

Fertiliser 

Material from 

Potassium 



41.5 

10 

40 



50 
12 

48 



Multiply by 

48 

200 

50 



Factor for 

Calculating 

Fertilizer 

Material from 

Potash 



Multiply by 

40 

167 

42 



To mix a 2-S-6 fertilizer, i.e. a fertilizer containing 2 per cent 
nitrogen, 8 per cent phosphoric acid and 6 per cent potash, the 
quantities of raw material may be calculated as follows : — 

2 X 133 = 266 lb. nitrate of soda 
8 X 143 = 1144 lb. acid phosphate 
6x 4 = 240 lb. muriate of potash 
1650 lb. mixture 

If dried blood were used instead of nitrate of soda, it would be 
necessary to use 322 lb. of it to secure the required amount of nitro- 
gen (2 X 161 = 322) in the ton. If the formula called for ammonia 
rather than nitrogen, the multiple would be 110 or 133 respectively. 



Soil Analysis and Fertilizer Tests (Cavanaugh) 

A chemical analysis of a soil consists in finding the amounts of nitrogen, 
phosphoric acid, potash, lime, magnesia, and humus that it contains. 
It may be carried further, and the other constituents detennined. 
These materials, except the humus and nitrogen, are extracted from 
the soil by strong acids. The action of these acids is many times 
stronger than is ever brought to bear on the soil in its nonnal con- 



CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOILS 56 

dition in the field. It is therefore impossible at present to draw any 
certain conclusions from the results of such an analysis that are 
applicable to field conditions. 

If, however, an analysis shows only a very small amount of nitrogen, 
then one may conclude that the soil is deficient in this element and 
will probably be benefited by its application. But this may be as 
easily told by a simple inspection of the field while plants are growing. 
A soil deficient in nitrogen is constantly showing its condition in the 
plants. Short growth of straw and vine, failure to develop a full, 
dark-green color, and the growth of sorrel and ox-eye daisy, all tell as 
accurately as the chemist with all his skill that the soil lacks nitrogen. 
And it is the same with the other constituents. It is only when a 
soil is extremely deficient in certain plant-foods that an analysis shows 
the cause of the trouble. 

The great majority of all soUs, good and poor agriculturally, differ only 
in narrow limits as to their composition. Every soil that 3rields well 
does not contain more plant-food than one that 3rields less; on the 
other hand, many soils that give poor yields are often rich 'in plant- 
food. 

Two samples of soil were recently examined in the chemical laborar 
tory. On one of the soils alfalfa grows readily, on the other it has 
failed. It might seem that the cause could be discovered by analyzing 
the two samples. • Following are the results : — 

No, 1 , thai does not grow alfalfa No. f , that grown alfalfa 

Nitrogen (N) . . . 0.07 per cent Nitrogen (N) .... 0.07 per cent 

Phosphoric acid (PtOg) . 0.12 per cent Phospnoric acid (PiOs) . 0.12 per cent 

Potash (K,0) . . . .0.14 per cent Potash (KtO) . . . . 0.13 per cent 

Lime (CaO) . . . . 0.17 per cent Lime (CaO) .... 0.20 per cent 

Magnesia (MgO) . . 0.24 per cent Magnesia (MgO) . . . 0.22 per cent 

Organic matter (humus) 3.45 per cent Organic matter (humus) 3.15 per cent 

Soils have an average weight of 2,(XX),(XX) lb. per acre for a depth 

of eight inches, and the composition of the two soils by weight is as 

follows : — 

No, 1 No. t 

.07 N » 1,400 lb. per acre. 0.07 N « 1,400 lb. per acre. 

.12 RO, - 2,400 lb. per acre. 0.12 P-O. « 2.400 lb. per acre. 

.14 K,0 - 2,800 lb. per acre. 0.13 K,0 = 2,600 lb. per acre. 

.17 CaO - 3,400 lb. per acre. 0.20 CaO « 4,000 lb. per acre. 

.24 MgO -> 4.800 lb. per acre. 0.22 MgO » 4,400 lb. per acre. 

3.45 humuB -* 69,000 lb. per acre. 3.15 himius » 63.000 lb. per acre. 



66 CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS ; AND LIME 

It will be seen that in chemical composition these soils are practically 
identical, and yet one grows good alfalfa and one does not. 

This shows that the chemical composition is not always the deciding 
factor in fertility. As a matter of fact, it is rarely the deciding factor. 
A soil that showed higher amounts of plant-food than in the cases cited 
above gave very low yields. A good system of tile drains was put in 
this field, and three years later the crops were very large. The drain- 
ing produced no dififerences in the chemical content, but it brought 
success. Failure may be due in other cases to poor tilth, acidity, bad 
rotations, and various physical causes. 

Chemical analyses of soils are valuable mainly to assist in con- 
ducting investigations of a scientific character. With the present 
methods they are of little use as a means of deciding what fertilizer 
should be applied. The farmer should experiment with dififerent fer- 
tilizers, and not depend on a chemical examination of his soil, unless 
he has reason to think that he has a very special problem. The wide- 
spread notion that chemical analyses of soil and of plant will tell what 
fertilizers to add and what crops to grow is erroneous. 

Fidd testa to determine fertilizer needs may be made as follows : — 

The field should be plowed before the plats are laid out. Then 
use substantial stakes at the corners of the plats and mark them 
well. It would be well to leave a space of 4 feet between each two 
plats, to be sure that the plants on one plat cannot feed on the fer- 
tilizer each side of it. 

Do not lay out the plats on land that has been manured within one 
year. If you made fertilizer experiments last year, do not use the same 
set of plats again this season. 

The following diagram shows the arrangement of the plats, with 
the spaces between, each plat containing 1*9 of an acre : — 



1. PlatK. 151b. Muriate 



,w>*oaK 100 lb. lime 



2. Plat N. 15 lb. nitrate 



.,. 100 lb. lime 

«<^* on thifl half 



3. Plat P. 30 lb. super 



*xK^.»k.«^ 100 lb. lime 

phosphate ^^ ^^^ y^^ 



ANALYSIS OF SUBSTANCES 



67 






4. Plat Blank. 



Nofer 



tiliier 



100 lb. lime 
on this half 



5. Plat KN. 



15 lb. muri 



15 lb. nitra te soda 



ate potash 



100 lb. lime 
on this half 



I 6. Plat KP. (inixtd) 



1 15 lb. muriate 
\30 lb. superph 



potash 
osphate 



100 lb. lime 
on this half 



7. put NP. 



15 lb. nitrate 
30 lb. Buperp 



soda 
hosphate 



100 lb. lime 
on this half 



8. Plat NPK. 



(mlxtd) 



15 lb. nitra 
15 lb. muri 
30 lb. super 



te soda 
ate potash 
phosphate 



100 lb. lime 
on this half 



9. Plat 8. 



stable manure 



100 lb. lime 
on this half 



Eight rods long. 



Analyses of Various Chemical Fertilizer and Related ICaterials 
DnsoLYSD Bonb-Black 

This material is a superphosphate prepared by treating refuse bone-black from 
sugar refineries with oil of vitriol, which renders neariy all the phosphoric add 
soluble in water. 

Soluble phosphoric acid 14.55 

Reverted phosphoric acid 2.39 

Insoluble phosphoric acid 0.20 









Bone Charcoal 














Moisture at 100« C 18.16 

Ash 72.24 

Total phosphoric add . . . 25.58 
Soluble phosphoric add . . . 0.38 


Reverted phosphoric add . . 
Insoluble phosphoric acid . . 
Insoluble matter 


5.18 

20.02 

0.69 


Gbound Bone 


(Two samples) 




Moisture at 100« C. . . 

Ash 

Total phosphoric add . 
Reverted phosphoric a-id 
Insoluble phosphoric* add 

Nitrogen 

Insoluble matter . . . 
























3.97 
49.35 
19.49 

3.80 
15.69 

4.04 

0.7$ 


12.43 

64.21 

25.67 

6.20 

19.34 

2.68 

0.42 



68 CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS; AND LIME 

Drobd Blood 

Moisture 16.02 Nitrogen 8.24 

Dbt Ground Fish 

Moisture at 100® C 8.34 

Ash 37.76 

Total phosphoric acid 8.23 

Soluble phosphoric acid 0.10 

Reverted phosphoric acid 3.81 

Insoluble phosphoric acid 4.32 

Nitrogen 6-81 

Insoluble matter 0.82 

Sulfate of Ammonia 

This article, now manufactured on a large scale as a by-product of gas-works, 
usually contains over 20 per cent of nitrogen, the equivalent of from 94 to 97 
per cent of sidfate of ammonia. The rest is chiefly moisture. 

Nitrogen 20.02 Ekiuivalent ammonia .... 24.30 

Sulfate of Potash. (Two samples) 

The double sulfate of potash and magnesia is usually sold as "sulfate of 
potash.'* 

I. II. 

Actual potash 27.76 61.28 



EU pot 

valen 



Equivalent sulfate of potash 51.3 94.80 

Sulfate of Magnesia 

Moisture at 100® C 29.01 Sulfuric acid 30.36 

Magnesiimi oxide 16.87 Insoluble matter 6.29 

NrrRATB OF Soda 

Nitrate of soda is mined in Chile and purified there before shipment. It 
usually contains about 16 per cent of nitrogen, equivalent to 97 per cent of pure 
nitrate of soda. It contains, besides, a little salt and some moisture. 

Moisture 0.35 Sulfate of soda 0.21 

Salt (sodium chloride) .... 0.23 Pure nitrate of soda .... 99.21 

Muriate of Potash. (Two samples) 

Commercial muriate of potash consists of about 80 per cent of muriate of 
potash (potassium chloride) ; 15 per cent or more of common salt (sodium 
chloride), and 4 per cent or more of water. 

I II 

Actual potash 50.0 52.82 

Equivalent muriate 79.2 83.70 

German Potash Salts — Average of 1 1 Analyses 

Moisture at 100® C 13.14 Magnesium oxide 9.25 

Potassium oxide 21.63 Sulfuric acid 10.S5 

Sodium oxide 13.76 Chlorine 36.63 

Calcium oxide 0.85 Insoluble matter 2.08 



ANALYSIS OF SUBSTANCES 



Kainit — Average of 3 Analyses 

Moisture at 100® C 9.26 Magnesium oxide 

Potassium oxide 14.04 Sulfuric acid 

Sodium oxide 21.38 Chlorine . . . 

Calcium oxide 1.12 Insoluble matter 



8.97 
21.05 
32.38 

0.89 



Land-Plaster or Gtpsum 

Hydrat«d sulfate of lime 74.88 

Matters insoluble in acid 1.23 

Moisture 1.18 

Other matters, chiefly carbonate of lime 22.66 



Ashes (Wood), Unlbachbd 

Moisture at 100® C. 

Calcium oxide . . 

Magnesium oxide . 

Ferric oxide . . . 

Potassium oxide 

Phosphoric add 

Insoluble matter, before calcination 

Insoluble matter, after calcination 



16.72 

28.61 

3.00 

1.03 

8.72 

0.32 

18.49 

12.12 



Ashes (Wood), Leached 



Moisture at 100® C. 

Calcium oxide . 

Ma^pesium oxide 

Ferric oxide . . 

Potassium oxide 

Phosphoric acid 

Insoluble matter, before calcination 

Insoluble matter, after calcination 



13.72 
48.07 
6.06 
0.68 
1.92 
1.79 
5.49 
2.67 



Water . . . 

Organic substance 
AshT .... 
Potash .... 



Coal Ashes, bituicinoxts 

. . . 5.0 Soda .... 

. . .. 5.0 Magnesia . . 

. . . 95.0 Phosphoric acid 

. . . 0.4 Sulfuric acid 



0.4 
3.2 
0.2 
8.6 



Coal Ashes, anthracite 

Water 5.0 Soda .... 

Organic substance 5.0 Magnesia . . 

Ash 90.0 Phosphoric acid 

Potai^ 0.1 Sulfuric acid 



0.1 
3.0 
0.1 
5.0 



Moisture at 100® C. 
Calcium oxide . . 



Gas-Lime — Average of 4 Analyses 

.... 22.28 Sulfur .... 
. . . . 42.66 Insoluble matter 



20.73 
6.05 



60 



CHEMICAL FEBTILIZERS ; AND LIME 



Sbawxbd. (Two samples) i n 

Moisture at 100* C 12.06 14.96 

Nitrogen 1.66 1.28 

Phosphorio add 0.44 0.17 

Potassium oxide 3.81 0.36 

Calcium oxide 2.73 3.86 

MagnewTim oxide 1.48 1.30 

Fertilizer Formttlas for Various Crops 

There is no exact method of determining the fertilizer or plant-food 
needs of the various crops. Certain guides have been established, 
however, from analyses of the plants and other means, and some of 
these block formulas are given here for the information of the con- 
sultant. The careful grower will make tests of his own (see p. 56), 
and use formulas only as guides. 



Farmvlas suggested by the Maine Experiment Station. 

It is to be borne in mind in using these formulas that they are only 
suggestive and that different conditions of soil make such different 
treatment essential that a formula which may prove successful on one 
farm may not be equally so on another. In no case is it to be expected 
that fertilizers will take the place of good tillage and care of crops. 





Wrioht 

USRD 

PBR Acre 


NlTRO- 

acN 


Phosphobic Acid 




Cbop and Fshtilizinq Matebials 


Avail- 
able 


Total 


Potash 


Corn on sod land or in conjunc- 
tion with farm manure : 

Nitrate of soda 

Acid phosphate 

Muriate of potash .... 


lb. 

100 
400 
150 


lb. 
16 


lb. 
52 


lb. 
56 


lb. 
75 


Total 

Percentage composition 


650 


16 
2.5 


52 

8.0 


66 
8.6 


75 

11.5 


Nitrate of soda 

Screened tankage .... 

Acid phosphate 

Muriate of potash .... 


100 
200 
300 
150 


16 
11 


15 
39 


32 
42 


75 


Total 

Percentage composition 


750 


27 
3.6 


54 
7.2 


74 
9.9 


75 
10.0 


Nitrate of soda 

Cottonseed meal .... 

Acid phosphate 

Muriate of potash .... 


100 
200 
400 
150 


16 
14 


52 


3 
56 


4 
75 


Total 

Percentage composition 


850 


30 
3.5 


52 
6.1 


59 
7.0 


79 
9.3 



FERTILIZER REQUIREMENTS 



61 





WCIORT 
VSCD 

m AcBE 


Nrmo- 

GBN 


Phosphoric Acm 




Cbof AMD FumLBiNa Matbrialb 


Avail- 
able 


Total 


Potash 


Gbabs — spring seeding with 
oats as a nurse crop in con- 
junction with libend appli- 
cations of farm manure : ^ 

Nitrate of soda 

Acid phosphate 

Muriate of potash .... 


Ih. 

60 
200 
200 


lb. 
8 


lb. 
26 


lb. 
28 


lb. 
100 


Total 

Percentage composition 


460 


8 
1.8 


26 

5.8 


28 
6.2 


100 
22.2 


oats without farm manure : 
Nitrate of soda 

Acid phosphate . . 
Muriate of potash .... 


100 
600 
200 
260 


16 
28 


36 
26 


80 
28 


125 


Total 

Percentage composition 


1050 


44 
4.2 


62 
5.9 


108 
10.3 


125 
11.9 


Grabs — summer or fall seeding 
with farm manure (at seed- 
ing) : 

Add phosphate 

Muriate 


100 
75 




13 


14 


38 


Total 

Percentage composition 


175 




13 
7.4 


14 
8 


38 
22 


The following spring apply — 

Nitrate of soda 

Acid phosphate 

Muriate 


100 
200 
200 


16 


26 


28 


100 


Total 

Percentage composition 


500 


16 
3.2 


26 
5.2 


28 
5.6 


100 
20.0 


Gbabs — summer or fall seeding 
without farm manure (at 
seeding) : 

Nitrate of soda 

Screened tankage .... 

Muriate of potash .... 


100 
400 
100 


16 
22 


29 


64 


50 


Total 

Percentage composition 


600 


38 
6.3 


29 
4.8. 


64 
10.7 


50 
8.3 


The following spring apply — 

Nitrate of soda 

Add phosphate 

Muriate ........ 


100 
200 
200 


16 


26 


28 


100 


Total 

Percentage composition 


500 


16 
3.2 


26 
5.2 


28 
5.6 


100 
20.0 



> If dedred to apply by machinery, it would be necessary to mix with about 
200 pounds of some fine, dry material, as muck or loam. 



62 



CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS ; AND LIME 





Weiost 

USED 

FER Acre 


Nrnio- 

OBN 


PHoePHOBic Aero 




CbOF and FXBTILUINa Matbbials 


Avail- 
able 


Total 


Potass 


land, suflsested by the Rhode 
Island Experiment Station : ^ 

Nitrate of soda 

Acid phosphate 

Muriate of potash .... 


lb. 

350 
400 
250 


lb. 

54 


lb. 
52 


lb. 
56 


lb. 
125 


Total 

Percentage composition 


1000 


54 
5.4 


52 
5.2 


56 
5.6 


125 
12.5 


Clovjbrs, or alfalfa, without 

carrying the proper root tu- 
bercle organisms : 

Nitrate of soda 

Acid phosphate 

Muriate of potas!i .... 


50 
400 
250 


8 


52 


56 


125 


Total 

Percentage composition 


700 


8 
1.1 


52 

7.4 


56 
8.0 


125 
17.9 


Beans or peas without other 
manure on soil carrying the 
proper root tubercle organ- 
Nitrate of soda 

Acid phosphate 

Muriate of potash .... 


50 
400 
150 


8 


52 


56 


75 


Total 

Percentage composition 


600 


8 
1.3 


52 

8.7 


56 
9.3 


75 
12.5 


Mangolds or other beets, 
based upon experiments at 
the Rothamstcd (England) 
Experiment Station (to be 
used in conjunction with a 
liberal dressing of farm ma- 
nure) : 

Nitrate of soda 

Muriate of potash .... 

Common salt * . ... 


400 
400 
200 


64 






200 


Total 

Percentage composition 


1000 


64 
6.4 






200 
20.0 


Mangolds or other beets 
without farm manure : 

Nitrate of soda 

Screened tankage .... 

Sulfate of ammonia (or 300 
pounds high-grade dried 

Acid phosphate 

Muriate of potash .... 
Common salt 


200 
800 

200 
200 
400 
200 


32 
44 

40 

~116~" 

^.8 _ 


58 

26 

84"~ 
4.2 


128 
28 


200 


Total 

Percentage composition . 


2000 


156 

7.8 


200 
10.0 



> Rhode Island Sta. Bui. 90. ' Beets are successfully grown in Maine without salt. 



FERTILIZER REQUIREMENTS 63 

It is of the utmost importance in purchasing materials for these home 
mixtures to buy only on a guaranty of composition and to insist that the 
materials shall be of standard high-grade quality. 

Specific mixtttres far different craps (Agric. Exp. Sta. Geneva, 
N.Y., 14th Kept.). 

In the following tables (pages 64 to 77), Van Slyke gives 
formulas for various crops as an illustration of the kinds of mixtures 
that are ordinarily advised. He is convinced, however, that prac- 
tically all purposes would be satisfactorily served by the use of not 
more than a half dozen different formulas. We should work toward 
the more or less independent handling of nitrogen, phosphorus and 
potassiimi compounds, using them separately or together as special 
conditions and the results of observation and experience may suggest. 
This is possible, of course, only with the student farmer. For the 
mass of farmers, the formal recipe or the commercial mixture must 
yet form the basis of fertilizer applications. As a broad statement 
to guide the careful farmer. Van Slyke suggests the following : — 

For leguminous croi>s, a formula of 1-S-lO (in the order of nitrogen, available 
phosphoric acid and potash). 
For cereals, 3-^5. 

For all kinds of garden crops, 4-8-10. 
For grass and forage crops, 4-6-9. 
For orchards, 2-5-10. 
For root-crops, 3-8-7. 

The materials that are given for use in the succeeding tables are 
assumed to have a fairly definite composition, and the calculations are 
based on the following conditions of composition: — 

(1) Nitrate of soda, 95 to 96 per cent pure, containing 16 per cent 
of nitrogen. 

(2) Dried blood, containing 10 per cent of nitrogen. 

(3) Sulfate of ammonia, containing 20 per cent of nitrogen. 

(4) Stable manure, containing .5 per cent of nitrogen. 

(5) Bone-meal, containing 20 per cent of total phosphoric acid, 
one-half being calculated as available during first season on application ; 
also containing 4 per cent of nitrogen. 

Whenever bone-meal is used in a mixture, allowance should be made for 
its nitrogen, and so much less of other forms of nitrogen-materials used. 



64 



CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS ; AND LIME 



(6) Dissolved bone, containmg 15 per cent of available phosphoric 
acid and 3 per cent of nitrogen. 

(7) Dissolved bone-black, containing 15 per cent of available phos- 
phoric acid. 

(8) Dissolved rock/containing 12 per cent of aA'ailable phosphoric add. 

(9) Muriate of potash, 80 per cent pure, containing 50 per cent of potash. 

(10) Sulfate of potash, 90 to 95 per cent pure, containing 50 per 
cent of potash. 

(11) Kainit, containing 12 to 13 per cent of potash. 

(12) Wood-ashes, containing 5 per cent of potash. 

Alfalfa 



Nitrogen 



Available phos- 
phoric aad . 



Potaah 



PkbCbmt 



10 



PotTNDS 

FOR One 

ACRB 



6 to 10 



30 to 60 



40 to 80 



Pounds or DimtRCMT Matbrialb for 
Onb Acrr 



(1) 30 to 60 lb. nitrate of soda : or 

(2) 25 to 50 lb. sulfate of ammonia ; or 

(3) 50 to 100 lb. dried blood ; or 

, (4) 1000 to 2000 lb. stable manure. 

(1) 300 to 600 lb. bone-meal ; or 

(2) 200 to 400 lb. dissolved bone-meal or 

bone-black; or 

(3) 250 to 500 lb. dissolved rock. 

(1) 80 to 160 lb. muriate ; or 

(2) 80 to 160 lb. sulfate ; or 

(3) 325 to 650 lb. kainit ; or 

(4) 800 to 1600 lb. wood-ashes. 



Applbs 





T>,„ 1 Pounds 
^"'^^ AcRB 


Pounds op Diftbrbnt 








Matbrialb for Okb Trxb 








.(1) 50 to 100 lb. nitrate of 


r (1) 1 to 2 lb. nitrate of soda : 








soda; or 


or 








(2) 40 to 80 lb. sulphate of 


(2) ^ to IH lb. tuUate of 


Nitrosen . . . 


2 


Stole 


ammonia; or 


ammonia: or 
(3) IH to 3 lb. dried blood: 








(3)80 to 160 lb. dried 








blood; or 


or 








(4) 1600 to 3200 lb. sUble 


(4) 35 to 70 lb. sUble ma- 








^ manure. 


^ nure. 








(1) 300 to 600 lb. bone- 










meal: or 


or 


Available phos- 






(2) 200 to 400 lb. dissolved 


(2) 4 to 8 lb. dissolved bone 


phoric acid 


8 


30 to 60 


boD&-meal or bone- 
black: or 
(3) 250 to 500 lb. dissolved 

*^ rock. 

r(l) 100 to 200 lb. muriate: 


or bone-blaok ; or 

(3)5 to 10 lb. dissolved 
*^ rock. 
(1) 2 to 4 lb. muriate ; or 














(2) 100 to 200 lb. sulfate; 


(2) 2 to4 lb. sulfate; or 


Potash. . . . 


12 


50tolOO 


(3) 400 to 800 lb. kainit; or 

(4) 1000 to 2000 lb. wood- 


<3) 8 to 16 lb. kainit: or 
(4) 20 to 40 lb. wood-ashes. 








1 1 1 


^ ashes. 



FORMULAS FOR DIFFERENT CROPS 



65 



Abpabagus 



PbbCbit 



Pounds 

FOR One 

Acre 



Pounds or DxrrBRBMT Matbriau for Onr Acre 



Nitrogen . . 

Available pho 
phono acid 



Potaah 



20 to 40 



30 to 60 



35 to 70 



(1) 120 to 240 lb. nitrate of soda ; or 
'2) 200 to 400 lb. dried blood ; or 

3) 4000 to 8000 lb. stable manure, 
vl) 300 to 600 lb. bone-meal : or 

(2) 200 to 400 lb. dissolved bone-meal or 

bone-black; or 

(3) 250 to 500 lb. dissolved rock. 

(1) 70 to 140 lb. muriate ; or 

(2) 70 to 140 lb. sulphate ; or 

(3) 300 to 600 lb. kainit ; or 

(4) 700 to 1400 lb. wood-ashea. 



Barlst 



Per 
CEtrr 



Pounds 

POR One 

Acre 



Pounds or DirrsRSNT Materials roR 
One Acre 



Nitrogen 



Available pho 
phoric acid 



Potash 



12 to 24 



20 to 40 



25 to 50 



(1) 75 to 150 lb. nitrate of soda ; or 

(2) 50 to 120 lb. sulfate of ammonia ; or 

(3) 125 to 250 lb. dried blood; or 

(4) 2500 to 5000 lb. stable manure. 

(1) 200 to 400 lb. bone-meal ; or 

(2) 150 to 300 lb. dissolved bone or bone- 

black; or 

(3) 175 to 350 lb. dissolved rock. 

(1) 50 to 100 lb. muriate ; or 

(2) 50 to 100 lb. sulfate ; or 

(3) 200 to 400 lb. kainit ; or 

(4) 500 to 10001b. wood-ashes. 



Beans 



Per 
Cent 



Pounds 

rORONB 

Acre 



Pounds or Different Materials for 
One Acre 



Nitrogen . 



Available pho 
phoric acid 



Potash 



5tol0 



30 to 60 



35 to 70 



(1) 30 to 60 lb. nitrate of soda ; or 

(2) 25 to 50 lb. sulfate of ammonia ; or 
^ (3) 50 to 100 lb. dried blood ; or 

(4) 1000 to 2000 lb. stable manure. 

(1) 300 to 600 lb. bone-meal ; or 

(2) 200 to 400 lb. dissolved bone or bon 

black; or 

(3) 250 to 500 lb. dissolved rock. 

(1) 70 to 140 lb. muriate ; or 

(2) 70 to 140 lb. sulfate; or 

(3) 300 to 600 lb. kainit ; or 

(4) 700 to 1400 lb. wood-ashes. 



66 CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS ; AND LIME 

Bebts 



Pbr 

CXMT 



Pounds 

lOR One 

Acre 



PoTTNDS or Different Matbrxaub fob 
One Acre 



Nitrogen . . . 



Available phosH 
phoric acid 



Potash 



20 to 40 



25 to 50 



35 to 70 



(1) 120 to 240 lb. nitrate of soda ; or 

(2) 100 to 200 lb. sulfate of ammonia ; 

(3) 200 to 400 lb. dried blood ; or 

(4) 4000 to 8000 lb. stable manure. 

(1) 250 to 500 lb. bone-meal ; or 

(2) 175 to 350 lb. dissolved bone or bone- 

black; or 

(3) 200 to 400 lb. dissolved rock. 

(1) 70 to 140 lb. muriate; or 

(2) 70 to 140 lb. sulfate ; or 

(3) 300 to 600 lb. kainit ; or 

(4) 700 to 1400 lb. wood-ashes. 



Blackberries 



Per 
Cent 



Pounds 
FOR One 

Acre 



Pounds of Different Matbriajjs fob 
One Acre 



Nitrogen . . 



Available phos- 
phoric acid 



Potash 



15 to 30 



30 to 60 



40 to 80 



(1) 100 to 200 lb. nitrate of soda; or 

(2) 75 to 150 lb. sulfate of ammonia ; or 

(3) 150 to 300 lb. dried blood ; or 

(4) 3000 to 6000 lb. stable manure. 

(1) 300 to 600 lb. bone-meal ; or 

(2) 200 to 400 lb. dissolved bone or bone- 

black; or 

(3) 250 to 500 lb. dissolved rock. 

(1) 80 to 160 lb. muriate ; or 

(2) 80 to 160 lb. sulfate ; or 

(3) 300 to 600 lb. kainit ; or 

(4) 800 to 1600 lb. wood-^ashee. 



Buckwheat 



Per 

Cent 



Pounds 

FOR One 

Acre 



Pounds of Different Materials for 
One Acre 



Nitrogen . 



Available phos- 
phoric acid 



Potash 



15 to 30 



30 to 60 



35 to 70 



(1) 90 to 180 lb. nitrate of soda ; or 

(2) 75 to 150 lb. sulfate of ammonia ; or 

(3) 150 to 300 lb. dried blood ; or 

(4) 3000 to 6000 lb. stable manure. 

(1) 300 to 600 lb. bone-meal ; or 

(2) 200 to 400 lb. dissolved bone or bone- 

black; or ; 

(3) 250 to 500 lb. dissolved rock. 

(1) 70 to 140 lb. muriate ; or 

(2) 70 to 140 lb. sulfate ; or 

(3) 300 to 600 lb. kainit ; or 

(4) 700 to 1400 lb. wood-ashes. 



FORMULAS FOR DIFFERENT CROPS 



67 



Cabbage 



Per 
Cbnt 



Pounds 

porOnb 

Acre 



Pounds or Dxptbrent Materials for 
One Acre 



Nitrogen . . . 

Available phos- 
phoric acid 



Potash 



40 to 80 



70tol40 



90 to 180 



(1) 250 to 500 lb. nitrate of soda ; or 

(2) 200 to 400 lb. sulfate of ammonia ; or 

(3) 400 to 800 lb. dried blood ; or 

(4) 8000 to 16,000 lb. stable manure. 

(1) 700 to 14001b. bone-meal ; or 

(2) 500 to 1000 lb. disflolved bone or 

bone-black; or 

(3) 600 to 1200 lb. dissolved rock. 

(1) 180 to 360 lb. muriate ; or 

(2) 180 to 360 lb. sulfate; or 

(3) 700 to 1400 lb. kainit ; or 

(4) 1800 to 3600 lb. wood-ashes. 



Carrots 





Per 


Pounds 

FOR One 

Acre 


Pounds or DirrERSNT Materials 




Cent 


FOR One Acre 








r (1) 90 to 180 lb. nitrate of soda ; or 


Nitrogen . . . 


3 


15 to 30 


(2) 75 to 150 lb. sulfate of ammonia ; or 

(3) 150 to 300 lb. dried blood; or 

(4) 3000 to 6000 lb. stable manure. 


Available pho»- 
phoric acid 


7 


35 to 70 


(1) 350 to 700 lb. bone-meal ; or 

(2) 250 to 500 lb. dissolved bone or bone- 

black; or 

(3) 300 to 600 lb. dissolved rock, 
f (1) 80 to 160 lb. muriate ; or 


Potaah . . . 


8 


40 to 80 


(2) 80 to 160 lb. sulfate ; or 

(3) 300 to 600 lb. kainit; or 

(4) 8000 to 1600 lb. wood-ashes. 



Celbrt 





Per 
Cent 


Pounds 

POR One 

Acre 


Pounds or Ditferrnt Materials 
FOR One Acre 


Nitrogen . . . 

Available phos- 
phoric acid 

Potaah . . . 


5 
6 

8 


40 to 80 
50 to 100 
65 to 130 


- 


(1) 250 to 500 lb. nitrate of soda ; or 

(2) 200 to 400 lb. sulfate of ammonia ; or 

(3) 400 to 800 lb. dried blood ; or 

(4) 8000 to 16,000 lb. stable manure. 

(1) 500 to 1000 lb. bone-meal ; or 

(2) 350 to 700 lb. dissolved bone or bone- 

black; or 

(3) 400 to 800 lb. dissolved rock. 

(1) 130 to 260 lb. muriate; or 

(2) 130 to 260 lb. sulfate; or 

(3) 500 to 1000 lb. kainit ; or 

(4) 1300 to 2600 lb. wood-ashes. 



CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS ; AND LIME 



Caulifu>wbb 

Same as for cabbage. 

Chsrbibs 



il 



Pounds of 
Matsbialb roB Oira Acmb 



POUNDB or DlfTBRXNT 

Matbrialb for Om Tbsb 



Nitrogen . 



AT»nable pho»- 

JBOld 



phorioi 



P6Uah 



10to20 



85 to 70 



4«to90 



(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(4) 

(2) 
(3) 

8i 



60 to 120 lb. nitrate of 

soda; or 
60 to 100 1b. sulfate of 

ammonia; or 
100 to 200 lb. dried 

blood; or 
2000 to 4000 lb. stable 

manure. 
360 to 700 lb. bon»- 

meal; or 
250 to 500 lb. dissolved 

bone, etc. ; or 
300 to 600 lb. dissolved 

rock. 
00 to 180 lb. muriate; or 
00 to 180 lb. sulfate; 

or 
350 to 700 lb. kainit ; or 
000 to 1800 lb. wood- 
ashes. 



(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(4) 
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 

81 



H to 1 lb. nitrate of 

soda; or 
H to 1 lb. sulfate of 

ammonia; or 
1 to 2 lb. dried blood : or 

20 to 40 lb. stable m^ 

nure. 
3H to 7 lb. bone-meal ; 

12: 



or 



to 5 lb. dissolved 
le, etc.; or 
3 to 6 lb. dissolved rock. 

1 to 2 lb. muriate ; or 
1 to 2 lb. sulfate; or 

3Hto71b.kainit: or 
to 18 lb. wood-ashes. 



Clowb 
Same as for alfalfa. 

COBN 





Pbb 


POTTIfDB 
FOB OnB 

Acre 


PoxTNns or Ddtbbbmt Matbbials 




Cbmt 


FOB OnB AcBB 








f(l) 60 to 120 lb. nitrate of soda; or 








(2) 60 to 100 lb. sulfate of ammonia ; 


Nitrogen . . . 


2 


10 to 20 


or 

(3) 100 to 200 lb. dried blood; or 

(4) 2000 to 4000 lb. stable manure. 


Available phos- 






(1) 360 to 700 lb. bone-meal ; or 

(2) 260 to 600 lb. dissolved bone, etc. ; or 


phoric acid . 


7 


36 to 70 








I (3) 300 to 600 lb. dissolved rock. 








\l) 60 to 120 lb. muriate ; or 


Potash 


6 


30 to 60 


(2) 60 to 120 lb. sulfate ; or 
(3)250to6001b. kainit; or 














I (4) 600 to 1200 lb. wood-ashes. 



For sweet com, somewhat larger amoimts of nitrogen may be 
applied. 



FORMULAS FOR DIFFERENT CROPS 



CUCUICBBBS 



Nitroten . 



Ayailable phos- 
phoric acid 



Pdtaah 



Pbb 
Cbkt 



Pounds 
roB Onb 

ACBB 



30 to 60 



50 to 100 



65 to 130 



POUNIM or DiFPBBBNT MaTBBIAU 
FOB OnB AcBB 



(1) 180 to 360 lb. nitrate of soda; or 

(2) 150 to 300 lb. sulfate of ammonia ; 

(3) 300 to 600 lb. dried blood; or 

(4) 6000 to 12.000 lb. stable manure. 

(1) 500 to 1000 lb. bone-meal ; or 

(2) 350 to 700 lb. dissolved bone, etc. ; or 

(3) 400 to 800 lb. dissolved rock. 

(1) 130 to 260 lb. muriate ; or 

(2) 130 to 260 lb. sulfate ; or 

(3) 500 to 1000 lb. kainit ; or 

(4) 1300 to 26.000 lb. wood-ashes. 



CXTBRA.NTB 





Cbbt 


Pounds 
FOR Onb 

ACBB 


Pounds of Diffbrbnt Matbbxau 
FOB Onb Acbb 


Nitrogen . . . 

ATailable phos- 
phoric add . 

Potash. . . . 


2 
5 

8 


10 to 20 
25 to 50 

40 to 80 


(1) 60 to 120 lb. nitrate of soda; or 
, (2) 50 to 100 lb. sulfate of ammonia ; or 

(3) 100 to 200 lb. dried blood ; or 

(4) 2000 to 4000 lb. stable manure. 

(1) 250 to 500 lb. bone-meal; or 

(2) 175 to 350 lb. dissolved bone, etc.; or 

(3) 200 to 400 lb. dissolved rock. 

(1) 80 to 160 lb. muriate; or 

(2) 80 to 160 lb. sulfate; or 

(3) 320 to 640 lb. kainit: or 

I (4) 800 to 1600 lb. wood-ashes. 



Eoo-Plant 



Nitrogen . . 

Available phos- 
phoric acid 



Potash. 



Pbb 
Cbmt 



Pounds 
FOR Onb 

ACBB 



40 to 80 
50 to 100 

90 to 180 



Pounds of Different Matbbials 
fob Onb Acrb 



240 to 480 lb. nitrate of soda; or 

200 to 400 lb. sulfate of ammonia ; or 

400 to 800 lb. dried blood ; or 

8000 to 16.000 lb. stable manure. 

500 to 1000 lb. bone-meal ; or 

350 to 700 lb. dissolved bone. etc. ; or 

400 to 800 lb. dissolved rock. 

180 to 360 lb. muriate; or 

180 to 360 lb. sulfate; or 

700 to 1400 lb. kainit ; or 

1800 to 3600 lb. wood-ashes. 



70 



CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS ; AND LIME 



Flax 



P«R C«NT 



Pounds 
FOR Onb 

ACBS 



Pounds or Ddtbrbnt Matxrials for Onx 

ACRB 



Nitrogen . . 



Available phos- 
phoric acid 



Potash . 



10to20 



25 to 50 



30 to 60 



(1) 60 to 120 lb. nitrate of soda ; or 

(2) 50 to 100 lb. sulfate of ammonia ; or 

(3) 100 to 200 lb. dried blood; or 

(4) 2000 to 4000 lb. stable manure. 

(1) 250 to 500 lb. bone-meal ; or 

(2) 175 to 350 lb. dissolved bone or bone- 

black; or 

(3) 200 to 400 lb. dissolved rock. 

(1) 60 to 120 lb. muriate ; or 

(2) 60 to 120 lb. sulfate ; or 

(3) 250 to 500 lb. kainit ; or 

(4) 600 to 1200 lb. wood-ashes. 



GOOSEBERBIBS 

Same as currants. 
• Grapes 



Nitrogen 



Available phos- 
phoric acid 



Potash . 



Pbr Cbnt 



11 



Pounds 
FOR Onb 

ACRB 



8 to 16 



30 to 60 



45 to 90 



Pounds of Diffbrbnt Matbrials for One 

ACRB 



(1) 50 to 100 lb. nitrate of soda ; or 

(2) 40 to 80 lb. sulfate of ammonia ; or 

(3) 80 to 160 lb. dried blood ; or 

(4) 1600 to 3200 lb. stable manure. 

(1) 300 to 600 lb. bone-meal ; or 

(2) 200 to 400 lb. dissolved bone. etc. 

or 

(3) 250 to 500 lb. dissolved rock. 

(1) 90 to 180 lb. muriate: or 

(2) 90 to 180 lb. sulfate ; or 

(3) 350 to 700 lb. kainit ; or 

(4) 900 to 1800 lb. wood-ashes. 



Grabs for Pastures 



Nitrogen . . 

Available phos- 
phoric acid 



Potash. 



Pbr Cent 



2 

8 

10 



Pounds 

FOR One 

Acre 



15 to 30 
30 to 60 
40 to 80 



Pounds of Different Matbriau for Onb 

Acre 



(1) 90 to 180 lb. nitrate of soda; or 

(2) 75 to 150 lb. sulfate of ammonia ; or 

(3) 150 to 300 lb. dried blood; or 

(4) 3000 to 6000 lb. stable manure. 

(1) 300 to 600 lb. bone-meal ; or 

(2) 200 to 400 lb. dissolved bone. etc. ; or 

(3) 250 to 500 lb. dissolved rock. 

(1) 80 to 160 lb. muriate ; or 

(2) 80 to 160 lb. sulfate ; or 
] (3) 275 to 550 lb. kainit; or 

I (4) 800 to 1600 lb. wood-ashes. 



FORMULAS FOR DIFFERENT CROPS 



71 



Gba88 for Lawns 



Nitrogen . . . 

Available phos- 
phoric add 



Potash 



PebCsztt 



Pounds 

roR Onb 

Acre 



20 to 40 
25 to 50 
30 to 60 



Pounds of DirrBRSMT Matsrxalb fob Ons 

ACBK 



(1) 120 to 240 lb. nitrate of soda; or 

(2) 100 to 200 lb. sulfate of ammonia ; or 

(3) 200 to 400 lb. dried blood ; or 

(4) 4000 to 8000 lb. stable manure. 

(1) 250 to 500 lb. bone-meal; or 

(2) 175 to 350 lb. dissolved bone, etc. ; or 

(3) 200 to 400 lb. dissolved rock. 

(1) 60 to 120 lb. muriate ; or 

(2) 60 to 120 lb. sulfate ; or 

(3) 250 to 500 lb. kainit ; or 

(4) 600 to 1200 lb. wood-ashes. 



As a more specific mixture, we suggest the following : 100 lb. nitrate 
of soda, 100 lb. bone-meal, 100 lb. acid phosphate (dissolved rock) 
and 100 lb. muriate of potash an acre. 

Grass fob Msadows 



PbrCknt 



Nitrogen . . . 

Available phos- 
phoric acid 



Potash. 



Pounds 

roR Onb 

Acre 



15 to 30 
30 to 60 
35 to 70 



Pounds of Different Matbriau for One 
Acre 



(1) 90 to 180 lb. nitrate of soda ; or 

(2) 75 to 150 lb. sulfate of ammonia ; or 

(3) 150 to 300 lb. dried blood ; or 

(4) 3000 to 6000 lb. stable manure. 

( 1) 300 to 600 lb. bone-meal ; or 

(2) 200 to 400 lb. dissolved bone. etc. ; or 

(3) 250 to 500 lb. dissolved rock. 

(1) 70 to 1401b. muriate; or 

(2) 70 to 140 lb. sulfate ; or 

(3) 275 to 550 lb. kainit ; or 

(4) 700 to 1400 lb. wood-ashes. 



Hops 



Nitrogen . . 

Available pho 
phone acid 



Potash 



Per 
Cent 



Pounds for 
One Acre 



3 



12 



20 to 40 

35 to 70 

100 to 200 



Pounds of Different Materials for One 
Acre 



(1) 120 to 240 lb. nitrate of soda ; or 

(2) 100 to 200 lb. sulfate of ammonia ; 

(3) 200 to 400 lb. dried blood ; or 

(4) 4000 to 8000 lb. stable manure. 

(1) 350 to 700 lb. bone-meal ; or 

2) 250 to 500 lb. dissolved bone, etc. ; 

3) 275 to 550 lb. dissolved rock. 
1) 200 to 400 lb. muriate ; or 

(2) 200 to 400 lb. sulfatp ; or 

(3) 800 to 1600 lb. kainit ; or 

(4) 2000 to 4000 lb. wood-ashes. 



72 



CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS ; AND LIME 



Hoiun Radish 



Pbb 
Cbmt 



Pounds 

FOR Onb 

Acre 



Pounds or DirrBRCNT Matsrxaub fob 
Onb Acbb 



Nitrosen . . 

Available phos- 
phoric add . 



Potash 



15 to 30 
25 to 50 
35 to 70 



(1) 90to 180 lb. nitrate of soda; or 

(2) 75 to 150 lb. sulfate of ammonia ; or 

(3) 150 to 300 lb. dried blood; or 

(4) 3000 to 6000 lb. stable manure. 
^ '\) 250 to 500 lb. bone-meal ; or 

;2) 175 to 350 lb. dissolved bone, etc. ; or 
. ;3) 200 to 400 lb. dissolved rock. 
' (1) 70 to 140 lb. muriate ; or 

(2) 70 to 140 lb. sulfate ; or 
^ :3) 275 to 550 lb. kainit ; or 

;4) 700 to 1400 lb. wood-ashee. 



LmrucB 



Pbb 
Cbnt 



Pounds 

FOR Onb 

Acbb 



Pounds of Dotbbbnt Matbbials fob 
Onb Acbb 



Nitrogen . . . 

Available phos- 
phoric acid 



Potash 



40 to 80 
50 to 100 
75 to 150 



(1) 250 to 500 lb. nitrate of soda; or 

(2) 200 to 400 lb. sulfate of ammonia ; 

(3) 400 to 800 lb. dried blood ; or 

(4) 8000 to 16,000 lb. stable manure. 

(1) 500 to 1000 lb. bone-meal ; or 

(2) 350 to 700 lb. dissolved bone, etc. ; 

(3) 400 to 800 lb. dissolved rock. 
^ (1) 150 to 300 lb. muriate; or 

(2) 150 to 300 lb. sulfate: or 

(3) 600 to 1200 lb. kainit ; or ; 

. (4) 1500 to 3000 lb. wood-ashes. 



MiLLBT 

Same as for meadow grass. 



MUBKMBLONB 

Same as for cucumbers. 



Nursery Stock 



Per 
Cbnt 



Pounds 

FOR One 

Acre 



Pounds of Diffbbbnt Matbbxaus fob 
Onb Acbb 



Nitrogen . . . 

Available phos- 
phoric acid . 



Potash 



10to20 
25 to 50 
30 to 60 



(1) 60tol201b. nitrate of soda; or 

(2) 50 to 100 lb. sulfate of ammonia ; or 

(3) 100 to 200 lb. dried blood; or 

, (4) 2000 to 4000 lb. stable manure. 
^ (1) 250 to 500 lb. bone-meal ; or 

(2) 175 to 350 lb. dissolved bone, etc. ; or 
, (3) 200 to 400 lb. dissolved rock. 
^ (1) 60 to 120 lb. muriate ; or 

(2) 60 to 120 lb. sulfate ; or 

(3) 240 to 480 lb. kainit ; or 

. (4) 600 to 1200 lb. wood-ashes. 



FORMULAS FOR DIFFERENT CROPS 



73 



Oats 



Peb 
Cbnt 



Pounds 
fOB Onb 

ACBB 



PoxTNDB ow DzFFBBBirr Matbbials fob 
Onb Acbb 



Nitrogen . . . 

Available phos- 
phoric add . 



Potash. 



12 to 24 
20 to 40 
30 to 60 



(1) 75 to 150 lb. nitrate of soda ; or 

(2) 60 to 120 lb. sulfate of ammonia ; or 
* (3) 120 to 240 lb. dried blood ; or 

(4) 2500 to 5000 lb. stable manure. 

(1) 200 to 400 lb. bone-meal ; or 

(2) 140 to 280 lb. dissolved bone, etc. : or 
I (3) 160 to 320 lb. dissolved lock. 

'^ (1) 60 to 120 lb. muriate ; or 

(2) 60 to 120 lb. sulfate ; or 

(3) 250 to 500 lb. kainit ; or 

(4) 600 to 1200 lb. wood-ashes. 



Onions 



Peb 
Cbbt 



Pounds 

FOB Onb 

Acbb 



Pounds of Diffbbbnt Matbbxau fob 
Onb Acbb 



Nitrogen . . . 

Available phos- 
phoric amd 



Potash 



45 to 00 
55 to 110 
80tol60 



(1) 270 to 540 lb. nitrate of soda ; or 

(2) 225 to 450 lb. sulfate of anmionia ; or 

(3) 450 to 900 lb. dried blood ; or 

(4) 9000 to 18,000 lb. stable manure. 

(1) 550 to 1100 lb. bone-meal ; or 

(2) 385 to 770 lb. dissolved bone, etc. ; or 

(3) 450 to 900 lb. dissolved rock. 

(1) 160 to 320 lb. muriate ; or 

(2) 160 to 320 lb. sulfate ; or 

(3) 650 to 1300 lb. kainit ; or 

. (4) 1600 to 3200 lb. wood-ashes. 



Pabsnips 



Pbb 
Cbnt 



Pounds 

fob Onb 

Acbb 



Pounds of Diffbbbnt Matbbiaub fob 
Onb Acbb 



Nitrogen . . . 

Available phos- 
phoric acid . 



Potash 



20 to 40 
55 to 110 
50 to 100 



(1) 120 to 240 lb. nitrate of soda ; or 

(2) 100 to 200 lb. sulfate of ammonia; 

(3) 200 to 400 lb. dried blood ; or 

(4) 4000 to 8000 lb. stable manure. 

(1) 550 to 1 100 lb. bone-meal ; or 

(2) 375 to 750 lb. dissolved bone. etc. ; 

(3) 450 to 900 lb. dissolved rock. 

(1) 100 to 200 lb. muriate ; or 

(2) 100 to 200 lb. sulfate; or 

(3) 400 to 800 lb. kainit ; or 

(4) 1000 to 2000 lb. wood-ashes. 



74 



CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS ; AND LIME 
Peaches 





Pkb 


Founds 

FOR One 

Acre 


Pounds of Different Matbrxaus for 




Cbnt 


One Acre 








f (1) 90 to 180 lb. nitrate of soda ; or 


Nitrogen . . . 


2 


15 to 30 


(2) 75 to 150 lb. sulfate of ammonia ; or 

(3) 150 to 300 lb. dried blood; or 

. (4) 3000 to 6000 lb. stable manure. 


Available phos- 
phorio acid 






r (1) 400 to 800 lb. bone-meal; or 


6 


40 to 80 


(2) 280 to 560 lb. dissolved bone. etc. ; or 








(3) 320 to 640 lb. dissolved rock. 








(1) 1 10 to 220 lb. muriate ; or 


Potash . . . 


7 


55 to 110 


(2) 110 to 220 lb. sulfate; or 

(3) 450to9001b.kainit; or 

(4) 1100 to 2200 lb. wood-ashes. 






Pears 






Same as for apples. 






Peas 






Same as for beans. 






Plums 






Same as for cherries. 






Potatoes 




PSR 


Pounds 

FOR One 

Acre 


Pounds of Different Materxaub fob 




C«NT 


One Acre 








r(l) 180 to 360 lb. nitrate of soda; or 


Nitrogen . . . 


4 


30 to 60 


(2) 150 to 300 lb. sulfate of ammonia ; or 
, (3) 300 to 600 lb. dried blood. 


Available phos- 






(1) 400 to 800 lb. bone-meal ; or 


phoric acid 


6 


40 to 80 


(2) 275 to 550 lb. dissolved bone, etc. ; or 

(3) 325 to 650 lb. dissolved rock, 
f (1) 130 to 260 lb. muriate; or 


Potash . . . 


9 


65 to 130 


(2) 130 to 260 lb. sulfate ; or 
.(3)520tol0401b.kainit. 



Pumpkins 

Same as for cucumbers. 

Quinces 

Same as for apples. 



FERTILIZERS FOR SPECIAL CROPS 



76 



Radishbb 



Nitrogen . . 

Available pho 
phoric acid 



Potash 



Per 

CSNT 



Pounds 

fOB Onk 

ACRB 



15 to 30 
35 to 70 
45 to 90 



Pounds or Dipferknt Matsrials roa 
Onb Acbb 



(1) 90 to 180 lb. nitrate of soda ; or 

(2) 75 to 150 lb. sulfate of ammonia ; or 

(3) 150 to 300 lb. dried blood; or 

(4) 3000 to 6000 lb. stable manure. 

(1) 350 to 700 lb. bone-meal ; or 

(2) 250 to 500 lb. dissolved bone. etc. ; or 
, (3) 280 to 560 lb. dissolved rock. 

' (1) 90 to 180 lb. muriate ; or 

(2) 90 to 180 lb. sulfate: or 

(3) 350 to 700 lb. kainit ; or 

(4) 900 to 1800 lb. wood-ashes. 



Raspberries 



Nitrogen . . . 

Available phos- 
phoric acid 



Potash 



Pbr 
Cbnt 



2 

7 

10 



Pounds 

FOR Onb 

Acbb 



12 to 24 
40 to 80 
60 to 120 



Pounds or DirrsRENT Matbbials roa 
Onb Acbb 



(1) 75 to 150 lb. nitrate of soda ; or 

(2) 60 to 120 lb. sulfate of ammonia ; or 

(3) 120 to 240 lb. dried blood; or 

(4) 2400 to 4800 lb. stable manure. 

(1) 400 to 800 lb. bone-meal ; or 

(2) 280 to 560 lb. dissolved bone, etc. ; or 

(3) 320 to 640 lb. dissolved rock. 

(1) 120 to 240 lb. muriate ; or 

(2) 120 to 240 lb. sulfate; or 

(3) 480 to 960 lb. kainit ; or 

(4) 1200 to 2400 lb. wood-ashes. 



Rte 
Same as for oats. 



SOROHUM 

Same as for com. 



Spinach 



Nitrogen . . . 

Available phos- 
phoric acid 



Potash 



Pbr 
Cbnt 



Pounds 

FOR One 

Acrb 



15 to 30 
55toll0 
40 to 80 



Pounds or DirrBRBNT Materials roR 
One Acrb 



(1) 90 to 180 lb. nitrate of soda; or 

(2) 75 to 150 lb. sulfate of ammonia ; or 

(3) 150 to 300 lb. dried blood ; or 

(4) 3000 to 6000 lb. stable manure. 

(1) 550to 11001b. bone-meal; or 

(2) 375 to 750 lb. dissolved bone, etc. ; or 

(3) 450 to 900 lb. dissolved rock. 

(1) 80 to 160 lb. muriate ; or 

(2) 80 to 160 lb. sulfate ; or 

(3) 320 to 640 lb. kainit ; or 

(4) 800 to 1600 lb. wood-ashes. 



76 



CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS ; AND LIME 



Squashss 

Same as for cucumbers. 

Stbawberribb 



Pu 
Cbnt 



Pounds 
FOB Onb 

ACBB 



Pounds or DirFBBBMT Matbrials 
FOR Onb Acbb 



Nitrogen • • . 

Available phoe- 
phoric acid . 



Potaah 



25 to 50 
55 to 110 
70 to 140 



(1) 150 to 300 lb. nitrate of soda ; or 

(2) 125 to 250 lb. sulfate of ammonia ; 

(3) 250 to 500 lb. dried blood ; or 

(4) 5000 to 10,000 lb. stable manure. 

(1) 550 to 1100 lb. bone-meal; or 

(2) 375 to 750 lb. dissolved bone, etc. ; 

(3) 450 to 900 lb. dissolved rock. 

(1) 140 to 280 lb. muriate ; or 

(2) 140 to 280 lb. sulfate; or 

(3) 550 to 1 100 lb. kainit ; or 

(4) 1400 to 2800 lb. wood-ashes. 



Tobacco 



Pbr 
Cbnt 



POUKDS 

FOR Onb 
Acbb 



Pounds of Diffbkbmt Matbriau 
FOR Onb Acbb 



Nitrogen . . . 

Available phos- 
phoric acid . 

Potash . . . 



6 
10 



30 to 60 

50 to 100 
80 to 160 



(1) 180 to 360 lb. nitrate of soda; or 

(2) 150 to 300 lb. sulfate of ammonia; or 

(3) 300 to 600 lb. dried blood ; or 

(4) 6000 to 12,000 lb. stable manure. 

(1) 500 to 10001b. bone-meal ; or 

(2) 350 to 700 lb. dissolved bone, etc. ; or 

(3) 400 to 800 lb. dissolved rock. 
( (1) 160 to 320 lb. sulfate ; or 

(2) 1600 to 3200 lb. wood-ashes. 







Tomatoes 




Per 


P0UND« 


Pounds of Diffbrbnt Matbriaub 




Cent 


FOR One 

ACRK 


FOR Onb Acbb 








f (1) 150 to 300 lb. nitrate of soda; or 


Nitrogen . . . 


4 


25 to 50 


(2) 125 to 250 lb. sulfate of anunonia; or 

(3) 250 to 500 lb. dried blood; or 

(4) 5000 to 10,000 lb. stoble manure. 


Available phos- 






r (1) 350 to 700 lb. bone-meal ; or 


phoric acid . 


6 


35 to 70 


(2) 250 to 500 lb. dissolved bone, etc. ; or 

(3) 280 to 560 lb. dissolved rock. 
f (1) 80 to 160 lb. muriate ; or 


Potaah . . . 


7 


40 to 80 


(2) 80 to 160 lb. sulfate ; or 






(3) 320 to 640 lb. kainit ; or 








I (4) 800 to 1600 lb. wood-ashes. 



SPECIAL FERTILIZERS. — LIME 



11 



TUBNIFS 

Same as for beets. 

Watbbmblons 
Same as for cucumbers. 



Wheat 



Pkb 
Cbmt 



Pounds 
FOR Onb 

ACRB 



Pounds of Dzffbbxnt Matirialb 
FOB Onb Acbb 



Nitrogen . . . 

Available phoe- 
phonic acid 



Potash 



12 to 24 
20 to 40 
12 to 24 



(1) 75 to 150 lb. nitrate of soda ; or 

(2) 60 to 120 lb. sulfate of ammonia ; or 

(3) 120 to 240 lb. dried blood; or 

(4) 2400 to 4800 lb. stable manure. 

(1) 200 to 400 lb. bone-meal ; or 

(2) 140 to 280 lb. dissolved bone, etc.; or 

(3) 160 to 320 lb. dissolved rock. 

(1) 25 to 50 lb. muriate ; or 

(2) 25 to 50 lb. sulfate ; or 

(3) 100 to 200 lb. kainit ; or 

(4) 250 to 500 lb. wood-ashes. 



Lime for the Land 

Of late years the old custom of liming the land has been revived. 
It is now found that lime, or other alkati, is needed to neutralize the 
acidity of certain soils. 



To determine whether a soil is acid, and therefore prchMy in need of 
Ume (Wheeler). 

By litmus paper (to be secured at drug store). — To half a cup of 
soil add water until it is like thick porridge, and then insert blue litmus 
paper without handling the end introduced into the soil. After an 
hour or two, remove and rinse only the lower end. If this end is in- 
tensely reddened, liming is probably desirable. The color is pinkish if 
much acid vegetable matter is present; but if it is not present, the 
color may be brick-red. 

By ammonia water. — To a tablespoonful of soil in half a glass of 
water add a teaspoonful or more of dilute ammonia water ; if the liquid 



78 CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS ; AND LIME 

becomes intensely brown after standing for some hours, and especially 
if it becomes black, the probable presence of acid vegetable matter is 
indicated. 

When a soil test indicates only slight acidity, lime may not be needed 
for most plants. 

Application of lime. 

On sandy soils, 500 lb. of lime to the acre may be sufficient. On soils 
very rich in acid organic matter, as much as 5000 to 6000 lb. may be 
needed. Under usual conditions, about one ton to the acre is a good 
dressing (20 to 40 bu., with 30 bu. perhaps the average). The legal 
weight per bushel of lime is 70 lb. in some states and 80 lb. in 
others. 

Some persons apply lime after plowing and mix it into the soil 
with the harrow ; others apply in fall and follow by spring plowing. 

Forms of lime (Fippin). 

In a pure form, the calcium equivalent in 100 lb. of lime is about as 
follows (Ca is calcium ; 0, oxygen ; H, hydrogen) : — 

lUU LB. jQQ ^ L^y^ ljj^ 

(a) CaO, Lump lime, freshly burned lime, 

quicklime 71 100 

(&) Ca(OH)t, Hydrated lime, water-slaked 

lime . .• 54 132 

(c) CaCOt, Lime carbonates, air-slaked lime, 

ground limestone, marl 40 180 

(d) CaSOi + 2HfO, Gypsum, land plaster . . 23 310 

(e) Cas(P04)s, lime phosphate, ground phos- 38 Pure 187 

phate rock 39 26% CaCO» 181 

CO CaH^CPOOf + CaSOi, Acid phosphate 

(16% P,Os) 23 310 

io) (CaO)4PtOs, Basic slag, Tomas phosphate 

powder 43 165 

(h) Ashes (containing quicklime) 15 to 30 450 



Strictly speaking, the lime manufacturers are concerned with only 
the first three forms, but these must compete to some extent with other 
forms. Phosphate fertilizers may sometimes owe their benefits to 
their lime contents. The same result might then be secured at much 
less cost from lime. 



AGRICULTURAL LIMB 



79 



Fineness of division of lime (Fippin). 

The finer the lime (the smaller the particles) the greater its availa- 
bility. Considering the calcium content, first cost, freight, and fineness, 
it is often better to use the lump or hydrated or ground lime than the 
ground limestone or marl ; the lump quicklime slakes into very fine 
particles when applied to the soil. It is impossible to attain the same 
degree of fineness by grinding that is attained by burning and slaking. 
Seventy-five per cent, at least, of the ground material should pass a 
100-mesh screen. The larger the percentage of coarse material, the 
larger the amount necessary to get the same net effect. Considering 
composition and fineness as conmionly found on the market, 50 lb. of 
lump lime is equivalent approximately to 

60 lb. hydntted lime. 
100 lb. air-«laked lime. 
2fi0 lb. ground limestone or nuui. 



(1) High Calcium < 



(1) Spraying 



(2) Land 



Classification of lime for agrvcvUvral jmrposes. 

Agreement between the Directors of the New England and New Jersey Ex- 
periment Stations and the Special Committee of the National Lime Manufac- 
turera' Association of Boston, March 3, 1909. 

Must contain 93% 
combined oxides 
and hydrates and 
all pass a standard 
I lOO-mesh sieve. 

(1) Hydrate \ rMust contain not 

less than 90% 
combined oxides, 

- hydrates, an J car- 
bonates, of which 
not over 25% shall 
^ be carbonates. 
Must contain 90% 
combined oxides 
and carbonates, of 
^_, ^ which not more 

(2) Caustic \ (2) Fines -j than 10% shall be 

carbonates, except 

LIME \ ing Ground, which 

may contain 20% 
I carbonates. 

(Must contain 90% 
combined carbon- 
ates and pass 50- 
mesh sieve. 
{Not guaranteed, 
contains core, 

ashes, and refuse. 



(2) Dolomitic 

or 
High Magnesium 



(3) Ground Limestone . 



(4) KUn Slaked 



80 CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS ; AND LIME 

All shipments except Kiln Slaked shall be accompanied by a state- 
ment showing (1) proper class name and (2) guaranteed analysis, in 
which the respective percentages of calcium and magnesium oxides are 
given. 

Package shipments to show class and analysis on each package. 

Bulk shipments to have class and analysis statement attached either 
to invoice or inner side of the car. 

All lime to be sold by weight cwt. or ton. 

Analyses to be those at kiln, and guaranteed. 



CHAPTER IV 

Fabm Manurbs, and Similab Materials 

Animals are among the most essential agents in the maintaining 
of the fertility of the land. Fann manures are of great value, not 
only for the plant-food they contain, but for the humus that they 
contribute and the organisms that they carry. 

Composition and Characteristics of Manures (Brooks) 

CatUe manure. 

For practical purposes, one will be sufficiently accurate in estimating 
well-kept barnyard (or cattle) manure to contain one-half of one per 
cent each of nitrogen and potash, and one-third of one per cent of 
phosphoric acid. On this basis, a ton of manure would contain 10 lb. 
each of nitrogen and potash, and 6f lb. of phosphoric acid. A cord 
of well-preserved manure kept without loss of urine and without ex- 
posure to the weather will weigh a little more than three tons. A 
cord of such manure, therefore, should contain about thirty pounds 
of nitrogen and potash and twenty pounds of phosphoric acid. 

Sloi>le or horse manure. 

The manure from horses is generally more valuable than that from 
the other larger domestic animals, excepting sheep, provided it has 
been well kept. It is richer in nitrogen, and usually also in phosphoric 
acid and potash, than the manure of either cattle or hogs. It contains 
relatively little water, and ferments rapidly. 

Experiments at the (Domell Experiment Station showed horse manure 
to have the following composition : water, 48.69 per cent ; nitrogen, 0.49 
per cent; phosphoric add, 0.26 per cent; potash, 0.48 per cent. 
Plaster was very freely used in this experiment, and this doubtless 
reduced the percentage, so that the figures are undoubtedly below 
the average. 

o 81 



82 FARM MANURES, AND SIMILAR MATERIALS 

Sheep manure. 

Sheep manure is generally accumulated under the animals with 
sufficient litter to keep the latter dry and clean. Under these condi- 
tions, there is commonly no appreciable loss either of urine or of am- 
monia because of excessive fermentation. The amount of urine voided 
by sheep is relatively small, and the elements of value in sheep manure 
ordinarily suffer less loss than is common in the case of other kinds of 
farm manure. When sheep manure is finally removed from the pens 
and put into loose piles, as is often the case, in order that it may be 
worked into suitable mechanical condition to spread, it very rapidly 
undergoes decomposition, and heats quickly. It is then likely to lose 
a part of its nitrogen in the form of ammonia. To prevent this, it is 
well to scatter kainit or land-plaster as the pile is built up. The aver- 
age of four analyses of sheep manure made at the Massachusetts 
Experiment Station showed it to contain: water, .2922 per cent; 
nitrogen, 1.44 per cent; phosphoric acid, .92 per cent; potash, 1.17 
per cent. Sheep manure is now sometimes collected, dried, and ground, 
and put on the market as sheep guano. In this form it is a concentrated 
manure, especially valuable for dressing lawns, for use in hothouses, 
and like purposes. 

Hog manure. 

The manure made from swine undoubtedly varies more widely 
than that from the other domestic animals, because of the wider varia- 
tions in the nature of their food and the conditions under which they 
are kept. The excrements of swine on most farms are not kept by 
themselves but are mixed with other manures, and this in general 
would seem to be the better system of management. Hog manure, 
if kept by itself, is relatively watery, and is usually poor in nitrogen and 
rich in phosphoric acid. It decomposes slowly, and must be ranked 
as a cold manure. 

Comparison of Manure from Different Animals (Brooks) 

Having made separate statements on the qualities and character- 
istics of the manure from cattle, horses, sheep, and swine, we may 
now compare these manures in tabular form : — 



CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF MANURES 



83 



Composition of Jresh excrement of farm quadrupeds. 
One thousand pounds of fresh dung contain : — 



• 


Watbb 


NiTROOBN 


Phosphoric 
Acid 


Alkalibs 


Horae 

Cow 

Swine 

Sheep 


760 
840 
800 
580 


5.0 

3.0 
6.0 
7.5 


3.5 
2.5 
4.6 
6.0 


3.0 
1.0 
6.0 
3.0 



One thousand pounds of fresh urine contain : — 





Watbb 


NiTROOBN 


Phosphoric 
Acid 


Alkalies 


Horae 

Cow 

Swine 

Sheep 


890 
920 
975 
865 


12.0 
8.0 
3.0 

14.0 


0.0 
0.0 
1.25 
0.5 


15.0 

14.0 

2.0 

20.0 



The potash of both the dung and the urine is included with lime, 
magnesia, and other elements, to make up the so-called " alkalies." 



Composition of drainage liquors. 
One thousand pounds contain : — 



Drainaise from gutter 
behind milch cows . 

Drainage from manure 
heap 



Water 



932 
820 



NrntoGEN 



9.8 
15.0 



Phosphoric 
Acid 



2.4 
1.0 



Potash 



8.8 
49.0 



The figures presented in this last table are based on analyses made 
at the Hatch Experiment Station, Amherst, Mass. It will be noticed 
that these liquors are richer both in nitrog;ea ^d in potash than the 
average of farm manures. 



84 



FARM MANURES^ AND SIMILAR MATERIALS 



Composition of litter. 

One ton contains in pounds : 



NiTBOour 



Pbosphobio 
Acid 



FOTASB 



Wheat straw . 
Rye straw • . 
Oat straw . . 
Barley straw . 
Pea straw . . 
Soy bean straw 
Buckwheat straw 
Millet straw 
Marsh hay . . 
Ferns . . . 
Leaves . . . 



9.6 
11.2 
14.4 
11.4 
20.8 
14.0 
13.0 
14.0 
17.2 
00.0 
16.0 



4.4 
6.1 
3.6 
6.0 
7.0 
6.0 
7.1 
3.6 
10.6 
7.4 
3.2 



16.4 
18.1 
23.0 
23.6 
19.8 
22.0 
24.2 
34.0 
54.0 
37.2 
6.0 



Potdtry manures. 

Poultry manures are richer than the other farm manures when well 
preserved. There are two principal reasons for this : First, the food 
is richer, as a rule ; and second, the excretion corresponding to the urine 
of the larger domestic animals is semi-solid, voided with the dung, and 
not subject to direct loss. Poultry manures as a rule are rich in nitro- 
gen and phosphoric acid, because the foods given the fowls are rich 
in these elements. These manures are relatively poor in potash, al- 
though they may contain a larger percentage of this element than 
do the other farm manures. The composition is subject to wide 
variation. The table shows the results of analyses : — 



Watmm 



Nrrno- 

OKN 



Pbosphobic 
Acid 



POTAttl 



Hen manure, fresh, accordinK to Storer . . 
Hen manure, fresh, analysis by Goessmann 
Hen manure, dry, average two analyses, 

Goessmann 

Duck manure, fresh, according to Storer . 
Goose manure, fresh, according to Storer . 
Pigeon manure, according to Storer . . . 



Percent 
56.00 
52.35 

8.35 
56.60 
77.10 
52.00 



Percent 
1.60 
0.99 

2.13 
1.00 
0.55 
1.75 



Percent 
1.5O-2.00 
0.74 

2.02 

1.40 

0.64 

1.76-2.00 



Poroent 

0.80-0.90 

0.25 

0.994 
0.62 
0.95 
1.0-1.25 



HOW TO USE MANURES 85 

Poultry manure fennents very quickly, and, as frequently handled, 
loses much of its nitrogen in the form of compounds of ammonia, which 
are rapidly formed and which escape into the air unless means to pre- 
vent are taken. The mixture of poultry manures with such materials 
as land-plaster, kainit, acid phosphate, or superphosphate plaster is 
ahnost imperative for satisfactory preservation. Often dry earth or 
powdered dry muck or dry sawdust are also excellent materials to mix 
with it. If kainit alone is used, poultry manure remains very moist, 
and will bo found difficult of application. As a result of experiments 
in the Massachusetts Experiment Station, it is concluded that the 
annual excreta collected beneath the roosts per adult barnyard fowl 
will amount to about 30 to 45 lb., according to the breed. 

Utilization of Manures 
Uak of 'production (Roberts and Brooks). 

Extended investigations at the Cornell Experiment Station showed 
that the following amounts of excrements were produced daily for each 
1000 lb. of live weight of animal : — 

Lb. 

Sheep 34.1 

Calvee 67.8 

Pi«i 83.6 

Cows 74.1 

Hones 48.8 

Fowls 39.8 

Total excrements 348.2 

Total manure 388.0 

If straw bedding be added, which is nearly or quite equal to ex- 
crements in potential manurial value, it will be seen how large a 
quantity of manure is produced from 6000 lb. of mixed live-stock. 
A dairy of twenty 1000-lb. cows comfortably fed would produce, 
in the six winter months, 133} tons of excrement, or 146} tons of 
manure. Animals fed a highly nitrogenous ration, say 1 : 4 (as were the 
pigs in the above investigation), consume large quantities of water, 
and hence produce large quantities of excrements, especially liquid, 
the weight of which usually exceeds the weight of food consumed; 
while those fed on a wide ration, say 1 : 9, consume comparatively 
little water, and hence produce less weight of excrements. 

The experienced farmer will know from the results of earlier years 



86 FARM MANURES, AND SIMILAR MATERIALS 

about the quantity of manure that will be made from a given number of 
animals. For a beginner, some rule whereby the amount to be made 
can be estimated with reasonable accuracy will be useful. As the 
result of careful experiments, German investigators give the following 
rules to determine the quantity of manure that will be made : Multiply 
the dry matter in the food consumed by the different classes of farm 
animals by the following factors : for the horse, by 2.1 ; for the cow, by 
3.8 ; for the sheep, by 1.8. To the product, in any case, add the weight 
of the bedding used. The horse of average size consumes daily about 
24 lb. of dry matter, and makes, therefore, 2.1 times 24 lb., or 50 lb., of 
manure daily. The cow of average size consumes daily about 25 lb. 
of dry matter, and makes 3.8 times 25 lb., or 95 lb., of manure daily. 
A 125-lb. sheep consumes about 3 lb. of dry matter daily, and makes 
1.8 times 3 lb., or 5.4 lb., of manure daily. 

Use of manures, 

A thousand pounds of wheat, 16} bu., and 2000 lb. of straw (an 
average crop per acre) require 27 lb. of nitrogen, 12.4 lb. of phosphoric 
acid, 17.9 lb. of potash. Ten tons of fresh unrotted manure from 
horses and cattle fed a moderate grain ration contain 136 lb. of nitrogen, 
44 lb. of phosphoric acid, 120 lb. of potash. In farm practice it is esti- 
mated that the first crop grown after maniuing may utilize, under 
favorable conditions, one-half of the plant-food contained in the manure 
applied. The plant-food available in ten tons of good fresh manure is : 
nitrogen 68 lb., phosphoric acid, 22 lb., potash, 60 lb. Thirty bushels 
of wheat and 2600 lb. of straw require, approximately, 46 lb. of nitro* 
gen, 21 lb. of phosphoric acid, and 27 lb. of potash (Roberts). 

Manures are frequently wasted by l)eing applied too liberally. It 
is not economical, except for special crops or si)ecial conditions, to 
apply as much as thirty to forty two-horse loads or tons per acre at one 
time. For usual farm purposes, ten to twenty tons, or ten to twenty 
two-horse loads, is a liberal application per acre. It is best to apply it 
as it is made, if the land is not in a growing crop. The manure 
should be spread directly from the wagon, or a manure-spreader be used: 

Commercial value (Roberts). 

The value of manure in the following tables is determined by in- 
vestigation during the winter months, and the nitrogen, phosphoric 



VALUE OF MANURES 



87 



acid, and potash are computed at 15, 6, and 4i cents per pound, re- 
spectively (see prices, p. 47). The indirect benefits of manures may 
be considered an equal offset for the slightly less availability of their 
plant-food constituents as compared with fertilizers : — 

KiKD OF Manuiu Vauhb per Ton 

Sheep $2.30 

Calves 2.17 

Pigs 2.29 

Cows 2.02 

Horees 2.21 

Limited amounts of bedding were used in the tests from which the above 
figures were made. The plant-food in straw is not so quickly available 
as it is in the excrement of animals. 

The foUowing table exhibits the value of manure from different 
animals of average or aggregate weight of 1000 pounds : — 

Eon) OP Animals Valus pkr Year 

Fowls $51.10 

Sheep 26.09 

Calves 24.45 

Pigs 60.88 

Cows 29.27 

Horses 27.74 

Manurial value of a ton of the usual bedding material computed as 
above : — 





NlTROOBN 


Phosphoric 
Acid 


Potash 


Total 


Bariey straw ... . 

Oats 

Rye 

Wheat 


$1.65 
1.38 
1.47 
1.44 


$0.34 
0.33 
0.30 
0.26 


$1.74 
1.59 
0.77 
0.57 


$3.73 
3.30 
2.54 
2.27 



Losses by leaching (Roberts). 

Manures exposed at Ithaca in loose heaps of two to ten tons for six 
months showed loss of values as foUows : — p^^ ^^^ 

1889 hone manure 42 

1890 horse manure 62 

1890 cow manure 30 

IS89 mixed manure (compacted) ' • 9 

In other cases, when small quantities of gypsum were mixed with the 
manure, the losses were notably diminished. 



88 



FARM MANURES, AND SIMILAR MATERIALS 



Further Analyses of Animal Excrements 
Common barnyard manure, freak 



Water 710.0 



Organic Bubatance 

AbE 

Nitrogen 

Potash 

Soda . 



246.0 

44.1 

4.5 

5.2 

1.5 



lime 

Magnesia .... 
Phosphoric acid . . 
Sulfuric add . . . 
Silica and sand . . 
Chlorine and fluorine 



6.7 
1.4 
2.1 
1.2 
12.5 
1.5 



Common barnyard manure, moderaiely roUed 



Water 750.0 



Organic substance . 

Ash 

Nitrogen 

Potash 

Soda . 



192.0 

58.0 

5.0 

6.3 

. 1.9 



Lime . . . 
Magnesia . . 
Phosphoric acid 
Sulfuric acid . 
Silica and sand 
Chlorine and fluorine 



7.0 
1.8 
2.6 
1.6 
16.8 
1.9 



Common barnyard manure, thoroughly rotted 



Water . . . . 
Organic substance 

Ash 

Nitrogen . . . . 
Potash . . . . 
Soda 



790.0 lime 

145.0 Magnesia .... 

65.0 Phosphoric acid 

5.8 Sulfuric acid . . . 

5.0 Silica and sand . . 

1.3 Chlorine and fluorine 



8.8 
1.8 
3.0 
1.3 
17.0 
1.6 



Water . . . . 
Organic substance 

Ash 

Nitrogen . . . . 
Potash . . . . 
Soda 



CaiOe-feces, fresh 



838.0 lime . . . 

145.0 Magnesia . . 

17.3 Phosphoric acid 

2.9 Sulfuric acid . 

1.0 Silica and sand 

0.2 Chlorine and fluorine 



3.4 

1.3 
1.7 
0.3 
7.2 
0.2 



Cattle-urine, fresh 



Water 938.0 



Organic substance 
Ash . 
Nitrogen 
Potash. 
Soda . 



35.0 

27.4 

5.8 

4.9 

6.4 



Lime 

Magnesia .... 
Sulfuric acid . . . 
Silica and sand . . 
Chlorine and fluorine 



0.1 
0.4 
1.3 
0.3 
3.8 



Water . . . . 
Organic substance 

Ash^ 

Nitrogen . . . . 
Potash . . . . 
Soda 



Horae-feces, freah 




757.0 Lime 


. . 1.5. 


211.0 Magnesia 


. . 1.2 


31.6 Phosphoric acid . . . . 


. . 3.5 


4.4 Sulfuric acid 


. . 0.6 


3.5 Silica and sand . . . . 


. . 19.6 


0.6 Chlorine and fluorine . . 


. . 0J8 



ANALYSES OF MANURES 



89 



Horae-tirinet freak 



Water 901.0 

Orgamc substance .... 71.0 

A«h 28.0 

Nitrogen 15.5 

Potaah 15.0 

Soda 2.5 



Lune 

Magnesia .... 
Sulfuric acid . . . 
Silica and sand . . 
Chlorine and fluorine 



4.5 
2.4 
0.6 
0.8 
1.5 



Water . . . . 
Organic substance 

Aah 

Nitrogen . . . . 
Potasb . . . . 
Soda 



Sheep-feces, freak 



655.0 

314.0 

31.1 

5.5 

1.5 



Lime . . . 
Magnesia . . 
Phosphoric acid 
Sulfuric acid . 
Silica and sand 



1.0 Chlorine and fluorine 



4.6 
1.5 
3.1 
1.4 
17.5 
0.3 



Sheep-urinet freak 



Water 872.0 

Organic substance .... 83.0 

Ash 45.2 

Nitrogen 19.5 

Potash 22.6 

Soda 5.4 



Lime . . . 
Magnesia . . 
Phosphoric acid 
Sulfuric acid . 
Silica and sand 
Chlorine and fluorine 



1.6 
3.4 
0.1 
3.0 
0.1 
5.5 



Svrine-fecea, freak 



Water 820.0 



Organic substance 
Ash . 
Nitrogen 
Potash 
Soda . 



150.0 

30.0 

6.0 

2.6 

2.5 



Lime . 

Magnesia . . 
Phosphoric acid 
Sulfuric acid . 
Silica and sand 
Chlorine and fluorine 



0.9 
1.0 
4.1 
0.4 
15.0 
0.3 



Swine-urinet freak 

Water 967.0 Soda 

Organic substance .... 28.0 Magnesia .... 

Ash 15.0 Phosphoric acid . . 

Nitrogen 4.3 Sulfuric acid . . . 

Potash 8.3 Chlorine and fluorine 



2.1 
0.8 
0.7 
0.8 
2.3 





Penman guano 


Moisture at 100^ C. . . . 


. 12.17 


Total nitrogen . . . 


Total phosphoric acid . . 


. 18.45 


Actual ammonia . . 


Soluble phosphoric acid 
Reverted phosphoric acid . 


. 1.54 


Organic nitrogen . . 


5.92 


Nitrogen as nitric add 
Insoluble matter . . 


Insoluble phosphoric acid . 
Potassium oxide .... 


. 10.99 


3.46 





5.13 
3.94 
0.86 
0.33 
13.64 



90 



FARM MANURES J AND SIMILAR MATERIALS 



Human feces, fresh 



Water . . . . 
Organic substance 

Ash 

Nitrogen . . . . 
Potash . . . . 
Soda 



772.0 Lime . . . 

198.0 Magnesia . . 

29.9 Phosphoric acid 

10.0 Sulfuric acid . 

2.5 Silica and sand 

1.6 Chlorine and fluorine 



6.2 
3.6 
10.9 
0.8 
1.9 
0.4 



Human urine, fresh 



Water 963.0 



Organic substance 

Ash 

Nitrogen 

Potash 

Soda . 



24.0 

13.5 

6.0 

2.0 

4.6 



Lime 

Magnesia .... 
Phosphoric acid . . 
Sulfuric acid . . . 
Chlorine and fluorine 



0.2 
0.2 
1.7 
0.4 
5.0 



Sewage (Samuel Rideal) 
1000 tons of London crude e 



Ammonia 219 

Phosphoric acid (soluble) 28 

Phosphoric acid (insoluble) 24 

Potash 61- 



Analyses of Fruit and Garden Products, with Reference to their Ferti- 
lizing Constituents (Wolff and Goessmann) 

One thousand parts of the plants contain in pounds : — 



Name 



Corn, kernels . . . 

stalk and leaves . 
Potato, tubers . . . 

vines .... 
Peas, seed .... 

vines .... 
Beans, seed .... 

vines .... 
Carrots, roots . . . 

leaves .... 
Sugar beet, roots . . 

leaves .... 
White turnip, roots . 

leaves .... 
Swedish turnip, roots 

leaves .... 
White cabbage, head 

roots .... 



Wateb 



144 
150 
750 
770 
143 
160 
150 
160 
850 
822 
815 
897 
920 
898 
870 
884 
900 
890 



Nrrao- 

OEN 



16.0 

4.8 

3.4 

4.9 

35.8 

10.4 

39.0 

2.2 
5.1 
1.6 
3.0 
1.8 
3.0 
2.1 
3.4 
3.0 
2.4 



Ash 



12.4* 
45.3 

9.5 
19.7 
23.4 
43.1 
27.4 
40.2 

8.2 
23.9 

7.1 
15.3 

6.4 
11.9 

7.5 
19.5 

9.6 
15.6 



Potash 



3.7 

16.4 

5.8 

4.3 

10.1 

9.9 

12.0 

12.8 

3.0 

2.9 

3.8 

4.0 

2.9 

2.8 

3.5 

2.8 

4.3 

5.8 



Lmx 



0.3 
4.9 
0.3 
6.4 
1.1 

15.9 
1.5 

11.1 
0.9 
7.9 
0.4 
3.1 
0.7 
3.9 
0.9 
6.5 
1.2 
2.8 



PROft- 
PHORIC 

Acid 



5.7 
3.8 
1.6 
1.6 
8.4 
3.5 
9.7 
3.9 
1.1 
1.0 
0.9 
0.7 
0.8 
0.9 
1.1 
2.0 
1.1 
1.4 



FERTlUTt CONTENT OE VEGETABLES 
Analyses of Fruit and Garden Products — Continued 

Nams 



dl 



Savoy cabbage, head 
Cauliflower . . . 
Horseradish, roots 
Spanish radish, roots 
Parsnip, roots . . 
Artichoke, roots 
Asparagus, sprouts 
Common onion, bulb 
Celery .... 
Spinach .... 
Common lettuce . 
Head lettuce . . 
Roman lettuce . . 
Cucumber ... 
Pumpkin ... 
Rhubarb, roots 

stem and leaves 
Apples .... 

Pears 

Cherries . . . . , 
Plums .... 
Gooseberries . . . 
Strawberries . . . 
Grapes . . . . . 

seeds . . . . 



Watkb 


NlTRO- 
OEN 


Ash 


Potash 


LUfE 


871 


5.3 


14.0 


3.9 


3.0 


904 


4.0 


8.0 


3.6 


0.5 


767 


4.3 


19.7 


7.7 


2.0 


933 


1.9 


4.9 


1.6 


0.7 


793 


5.4 


10.0 


5.4 


1.1 


811 




10.1 


2.4 


1.0 


933 


.3.2 


5.0 


1.2 


0.6 


860 


2.7 


7.4 


2.5 


1.6 


841 


2.4 


17.6 


7.6 


2.3 


923 


4.9 


16.0 


2.5 


1.9 


940 




8.1 


3.7 


0.5 


943 


2.2 


10.1 


3.9 


1.5 


925 


2.0 


9.8 


2.5 


1.2 


956 


1.6 


6.8 


2.4 


0.4 


900 


1.1 


4.4 


0.9 


0.3 


743.5 


6.6 


28.8 


6.3 


5.0 


916.7 


1,3 


17.2 


3.6 


3.4 


831 


0.6 


2.2 


0.8 


0.1 


831 


0.6 


3.3 


1.8 


0.3 


825 




3.9 


2.0 


0.3 


838 




2.9 


1.7 


0.3 


903 




3.3 


1.3 


0.4 


902 




3.3 


0.7 


0.5 


830 


1.7 


8.8 


5.0 


1.0 


110 


19.0 


22.7 


6.9 


5.6 



Phos- 
phoric 
Acid 



2.1 
1.6 
2.0 
0.5 
1.9 
1.1 
0.9 
1.3 
2.2 
1.6 
0.7 
1.0 
1.1 
1.2 
1.6 
0.6 
0.2 
0.3 
0.6 
0.6 
0.4 
0.7 
0.5 
1.4 
7.0 



For aiial3rses of fertilizer ingredients in forage crops and feeding- 
stufifs, see Chap. XXII. Consult, also, Cover-crops and Catch-crops, 
Chap. VIII. 



CHAPTER V 

Seed-Tables 

The fann practice of the particular person greatly modifies the quan- 
tity of seed to be used to the acre, as also the purpose for which the 
given crop is to be grown ; but the average quantities are to be found 
about midway between the extremes given m these tables. 



Quantity of Seed Required per Acre 



Alfalfa (broadcast) 
Alfalfa (driUed) . . 
Artichoke, Jerusalem . 
Asparagus .... 



Barley 

Barley and peas . . 

Bean, dwarf (in drills) 

Bean, pole (in drills) . 

Bean, field (small va- 
rieties) .... 

Bean, field (large va- 
rieties) .... 

Beet 

Beggarweed (for forage) 

Beggarwecd (for hay) 

Bent-grass .... 

Berseem 

Blue-grass .... 

Brome-grass (alone, 
for hay) .... 

Brome-grass (alone, 
for pasture) . . . 

Brome-grass (in mix- 
ture) 

Broom-corn .... 

Broom-corn (for seed) 

Buckwheat .... 

Bur-clover .... 

Cabbage 

Carrots (for stock) 

Cassava 

Cauliflower . . . 



Celery 



20-26 lb. 

15-20 lb. 

• 6-8 bu. 

4 or 5 lb., or 

1 OS. for 50 ft. 

of drill 

8-10 pk. 

1-2 bu. each 

IH bu. 

10-12 qt. 

2-3 pk. 

5-6 pk. 

4-6 lb. 

5-6 lb. 
8-10 lb. 

1-2 bu. 

H-1 bu. 

25 lb. (pure) 

12-15 lb. 

15-20 lb. 

2-5 lb. 

3pk. 

1 pk. 

3-5 pk. 

12 1b. 

^-1 lb. 

4-6 lb. 

By cuttings 

1 OS. for 1000 

plants 

1 oz. for 2000 

plants 



Chick-pea .... 30-50 lb. 
Chicory (and by cut- 
tings) 1-lH lb. 

Clover, alsike (alone, 

for forage) . . . 8^15 lb. 

Clover, alsike (on 

wheat or rye in 

spring) .... 4-e lb. 

Clover, Egyptian or 

berseem .... ^-1 bu. 

Clover, Japan (lespe- 

desa) 12 1b. 

Clover, mammoth 12-15 lb. 

Clover, red (alone, for 

forage) .... 161b. 

Clover, red (on small 

grain in spring) . . 8-14 lb. 

Clover, sweet (melilo- 

tus) 2 pk. 

Clover, white . . . 10-12 lb. 
Clover, yellow (for 

seed) 3^ lb. 

Clover, yellow (in 

mixture) .... 1 lb. 

Corn 6 qt.-l bu. 

Corn (for silage) . . 9-11 qt. 

Cotton 1-3 bu. 

Cowpea 1-1 >4 bu. 

Cowpe%(in drill, with 

corn) y^-l bu. 

Cowpea (for seed) 3 pk. 

Cress, upland (in drills) 2-3 lb. 
Cress, water ( in drills) 2-3 lb. 

Crimson clover . . 12-16 lb. 

Cucumber (in hills) . 2 lb. 

Durra. See Kafir 

and Milo 



92 



SEEDS TO THE ACRE 



93 



Eggplant .... 

Field-pea (small va- 
rieties) .... 

Field-pea (large varie- 
ties) . . . 

Flax (for fiber) 

Flax (for seed) 

Grass, for lawns 

Guinea-grass 

Hemp (broadcast) 

Hungarian-grass (hay) 

Hungarian-grass (seed) 

Johnson-grass . 

Kafir (drills) . 

Kafir (for fodder) 

Kale .... 

KoUrabi . . . 

Lespedesa . . 

Lettuce . . . 



Lupine . . . 
Mangels . . . 
Meadow fescue 
Melon, musk (in hills) 
Melon, water (in hills) 
Millet, bamyaid (drills) 
MiUet, foxtail (drills) 
Millet, German (seed) 
Millet, Aino (drills) . 
Millet, pearl (for soiling) 
Millet, pearl (for hay) 
Millet, prose or pan- 
icle (drills) . . 

MUo 

Mustard, broadcast 
Oat-grass, tall . . 
Oats 



Oats and peas . 

Onion (in drills) 
Onion seed for sets (in 

drills) ..... 
Onion sets (in drills) 
Orchard-grass . . 

Par»-|ras8 . . . 
Parsmps .... 
Peas, garden (in drill) 

Popcorn 

Potato (Irish) average 
Potato, cut to 1 or 2 eyes 
Potato, recommended 

by many for best 

yields . . . 
Pumpkin . . 
Radish (in drills) 
Rape (in drills) . 
Rape (broadcast) 



1 OB. for 1000 
plants 

2Hbu. 

3^Hbu. 

lH-2 bu. 

2-3 pk. 

3^bu. 

Root cuttings 

Syi-A pk. 

2pk. 

1 pk. 

1-1 H bu. 

3-6 lb. 

10-12 lb. 

2-4 lb. 

4^ lb. 

12 1b. 

1 OB. for 1000 

plants 

lH-2 bu. 

5-8 lb. 

12-16 lb. 

2-3 lb. 

4-5 lb. 

1-2 pk. 

2-3 pk. 

Ipfc. 

2-3 pk. 

4 lb. 
8-10 lb. 

2-^3 pk. 

51b. 

Hbu. 

30 lb. 

2-3 bu. 

f oats 2 bu., 

(peas yi bu. 

5-6 lb. 

301b. 
6-12 bu. 
12-15 lb. 

(pure) 
Cuttings 

4-8 lb. 

1-2 bu. 

3 1b. 
10-14 bu. 

6^bu. 



15-20 bu. 

4 lb. 
8-10 lb. 
2-4 lb. 
4-8 lb. 



Red-top (recleaned) . 12-15 lb. 

Rescue-grass . . . 30-40 bu. 

Rice l^bu. 

Rutabaga .... 3-5 lb. 

Rye (early) .... 3-4 pk. 

Rye Gate) .... 6-8 pk. 

Rye (forage) ... -^-Ibu. 

Rye-grass .... 2-3 bu. 

Sage (In driUs) . . . 8-10 lb. 

Sainfoin (shelled seed) 40 lb. 

Salsify (in drills) . . 8-10 lb. 

Sand lucerne (broad- 
cast) 151b. 

Serradella (alone, in 

drills) 40-50 lb. 

2^4-3 bu. 



Sheep's fescue 

Sorghum (forage, broad- 
cast) 

Sorghum (for seed or 
syrup) ..... 

Sorghum, sacchanne 
(for silage or soiling, 
driUs) 

Sorghiun and peas 

Soybean (drills) . . 

Soybean (broadcast) . 

Spinach (in drills) . . 

Spurry 

Spurrv (for seed) . . 

Squaan, bush (in hills) 

Squash, running (in 
hills) 

Sugar-beets . 

Sugar-cane . 

Sunflower 

Sweet clover 

Sweet-potato 

Teasel . . 

Teosinte . . 

Timothy 15-25 lb. 

Timothy.ndcloverjti^^lO"'- 

i 1 tablespoonf ul 
Tobacco .... ^ to 100 sq. yd. to 

( set out 6 acres 
Tomato (to transplant) Va lb. 

Turnip (broadcast) . 2-4 lb. 

Turnip (drills) . . .• 1-2 lb. 

Turnip (hybrid) . . 3-6 lb. 
Velvet bean .... 1-4 pk. 

Vetch, hairy (driUed){ '^^^^^^ 

Vetch, hairy (broad- J 1% bu. -f 1 bu. 

cast) I small grain 

Vetch, kidney . . . 18-22 lb. 

Vetch, spring . . } ^S.'a/JaL"- 
Wheat 6-9 pk. 



lH-2 bu. 
2-5 lb. 



6 Ib.-H bu. 

3-4 pk. each 

2-^pk. 

1-lH bu. 

10-12 lb. 

6-8 qt. 

4qt. 

4-6 lb. 

3-4 lb. 

15-20 lb. 

4 tons of cane 

10-15 lb. 

2-4 pk. 
1*/M bu. 
1-m pk. 

1-3 lb. 



d4 



SEED-TABLES 



Hay and Pasture Seeds 



Permanent meadows : 



Timothy 12 lb. 

Red clover . . . . 4 lb. 

Alsike 21b. 

Timothy 16 lb. 

Red-top 16 lb. 

Red clover . . . . 4 lb. 

Red-top 13 lb. 

Orchard-grass . . . 181b. 
Meadow fescue . .91b. 
Red clover . . . . 4 lb. 
Tall oat-grass ... 28 lb. 
Red clover . . . . 8lb. 

Timothy 81b. 

Red clover . . . . 4 lb. 

Alsike 2 lb. 

Kentucky blue-grass . 2 lb. 

Red-top 2lb.. 

Orchard-grass . . . 10 lb. " 
Red-top (recleancd) . 6 lb. 
Red-top (in chaff) . 12 lb. 
Tall meieulow oat-grass 121b. 
Red clover . . . . 8 lb. 
Alsike clover . . . 4 lb. 



20-24 lb. 
per acre 



Permanent pasiurea : 

Timothy 31b. 

Orchara-grass . . .21b. 

Red-top 21b. 

Kentucky blue-grass . 2 lb. 
Italian rye-grass . . 1 lb. 
Meadow fescue . . 2 lb. 
Red clover . . . . 4 lb. 
White clover . . . 2lb., 
Kentucky blue-grass . 8 lb. ' 
White clover . . .41b. 
Perennial rye-grass . 9 lb. > 
Red fescue . . . . 3 lb. 

Red-top 81b., 

Red-top Hlb.l 

Alsike 81b. 

Creeping bent . . . 6 lb. 
Perennial rye-grass . 12 lb. ^ 
Redfeacue . . . .201b. 

Red-top 101b. 

Kentucky blue-grass . 8 lb. 
White clover . . .21b. 

Timothy, red-top, Kentucky blue- 
grass and red clover, equal parts, 8 to 
20 lb. pounds per acre of the mixture. 



Wet pas- 
ture 

light 
sandy 
soil 



For quantity of seed for cover-crops, see Chap. VIII. 



Number and weight of grass seeds, and another estimate of quantUy to 
sow (Fraser). 

The following table has been adapted from "The Best Forage 
Plants/' by Stebler and Schroeter, and from it calculations may be made. 
The actual number of grains in a pound will frequently vary 20 per cent 
either way ; for example, in recleaiied fancy seed there are fewer grains 
to the pound, while in an unclcaned sample free from chaff, but con- 
taining many small seeds, the number will be greater. The recleaned 
seed weighs heavier per bushel. The uncleaned seed may contain a 
large proportion of chaff, and in such case the number of seeds per 
pound of material may be very low. The numbers given are per pound 
of pure seed. The percentage of germination of average samples of 
seed is frequently but half, and even less than half, of that given in the 
table. The germination of the rye grasses given in the table is a little 
higher than ordinarily found in the United States, even with imported 
seed. Low germinating power may be due to lack of uniformity in 
ripening the seed ; to part of the seed on a plant being mature before 



0RAS8-SEKD TABLES 



95 



the remainder, frequently seen in meadow foxtail ; or to poor methods 
of harvesting, as in Kentucky blue-grass : — 



Namb 



Ml 

SSSp 



qO 



Pa 

hi 
lis 



Awnlesa brome grass 
Kentucky blue-grass 
OrchArd-graBS . . 
Perennial rye-grass 
Italian rye-grass 
Meadow fescue 
Sheep's fescue 
TaUoat-graas 
Meadow foxtail 
Red-top . 
Timothy . 
Alsike clover 
Red clover 
White clover 
Alfalfa . . 



137,000 
2.400.000 
679.000 
336.800 
285.000 
318,200 
680.000 
159.000 
907.000 
6,030.000 
1,170.500 
707,000 
279,000 
740,000 
209,500 



Pounds 
30-50 
15-20 
20-35 
25-40 
30-45 
30-35 
25-30 
20-30 
20-25 
8-16 
10-16 
10-13 
10-16 
10-12 
15-n30 



75-90 
80-90 
80-95 
95-98 
95-98 
75-95 
60-75 
80-90 
60-90 
90-95 
95-98 
95-98 
95-98 
95-98 
95-98 



Poundt 
13-14 
14-32 
12-23 
18-30 
12-24 
12-30 
10-25 
10-16 
6-14 
12-40 
45^8 
60-64 
60-64 
60-64 
60-64 



Pounds 
72.99 
4.17 
17.25 
29.7 
35.1 
31.42 
14.85 
62.89 
11.02 
1.65 
8.54 
14.14 
35.8 
13.51 
48.56 



Examples of seed mixtures that wotild furnish 20^000^000 grass seeds per 
acre, and the weight of same (Fraser) 



No. of 
Seeds 
Par hay and fall pasture. Heavy land. Brief duration. 

Timothy 13.400.000 

Alsike 3,300,000 

MThite clover 3.300,000 



For hay and pasture, 
Timothy .... 
Kentucky blue-grass 
Orchard-grass . . 
Meadow foxtail . . 

Alsike 

White clover . , . 



Weight of Pure, 

Viable Seed. 

Lb. 

11.44 
4.66 
4.46 



20,000,000 
For hay and pasture, 

Timothy 10.000,000 

Kentucky blue-grass 2.000,000 

Orchard-grass 1,400,000 

Alsike 3,300,000 

White clover 3.300,000 



20.000.000 

8,000.000 
2.400,000 
2,000,000 
1.000,000 
3.300.000 
3,300.000 
20,000,000 



20.56 

8.54 
0.82 
2.42 
4.66 
4.46 
20.90 

6.84 
1.00 
3.46 
1.10 
4.66 
4.46 

21.52 



^dishtofPure. 



96 SEED-TABLES 

Bxamplea of seed mixturea — Continaed 

No. of Viable Seed 

Beeda Lb. 
For hay. Heavy loam. 

Red clover 2,790,000 10.00 

Alaike 2,121,000 3.00 

Timothy 7,089,000 6.06 

Red-top 8.000.000 1.32 

20,000,000 20.38 

Testing grass seed (Fraser). 

In testing the seed for germination power and purity it is more satis- 
factory to weigh out a sample of the seed, separate the chaff and inert 
matter, weigh it, and then proceed to make a germination test of the 
remainder. For example, if a sample of awnless brome grass contain 
10 per cent of dirt and cbafif, and 75 per cent of the pure seeds are viable, 
the actual germination power of the sample is 67.5 per cent, or 

75^ « 67.5. 
100 

Number of Tree-Seeds in a Pound 

FBUIT TUBES 

About 

Apple 12.000 

Cherry pits 1,000 

Peaoh 200 

Pear 16,000 

Plum 600 

Quince 15.000 

Mulberry 200.000 



* By count 

Butternut Juglans cxnerea 15 

Black walnut Juglans nigra 25 

American horse-chestnut . . . .fisculus glabra 36 

Hickory (shellbark) .... Caiya alba 78 

American sweet chestnut . . Castanea vesca. var 90 

Silver-leaved maple .... Acer daacycaxpum 2.421 

Honey-locust Gleditschia triacanthos .... 2.496 

Black cherry Prunus serotina 4.311 

Black ash Frazinus sambucifolia 5.629 

American basswood .... Tilia Americana 6.337 

Norway maple Acer platanoides 7.231 

Sugar maple Acer saccharinum 7,488 

Barberry Berberis vulgaris 8.183 

Red cedar Juniperus Virginiana 8.321 

Rock elm Ulmus racemosa 8.352 

American white ash .... Frazinus Americana 9.858 

Osage orange Maclura aurantiaca 10,656 



FOREST AND FARM SEEDS 



97 



B — Continued 

By count 

Silver fir Abies pectinata 12,000 

Box elder Negundo aceroides 14,784 

Hardy catalpa Catalpa speciosa 10,776 

Ailanthus Ailanthus glandulosus 20,161 

White pine Pinus Strobus 20,640 

Scariet maple Acer rubrum 22,464 

Green ash Fraxinus viridis 22,666 

Black locust Robinia Pseudacacia 28,092 

Red elm Ulmus fulva 64,360 

American white elm .... Ulmus Americana 92,352 

American mountain ash . . Pyrus Americana 108,327 

White birch BetuU alba 600,000 

Figures vary greatly in different counts, the variation probably 
amounting to as much as 20 per cent. It is usually estimated that 
jMie pine seeds run about 30,000 to the pound, and red cedar 20,000. 



Weights and Sizes of Seeds 
Seedsmen* 8 customary weights per bushel of seeds (Edgar Brown) 



Kind or Sbsd 


Pounda 
per bushel 


Kind of Seed 


Pouoda 
per bushel 


Alfalfa 

Amber cane 

Bent-grass: 
Creeping 

Bermuda-grass 

Bird'sfoot clover .... 

Bitter vetch 

Blue-grass: 

Canada 

Kentucky 

Texas 

Broad bean 

Brome, awnless 

Broom com 

Bur clover : 

HuUed 

UnhuUed 

Spotted 

Castor bean 

Clover : 

Alsike 

Crimson 

Egyptian 

Mammoth 

Red 

White 


60 
45-60 

10-20 

10-16 

24^6 

60 

60 

14r-20 

14-30 
14 

60-eo 

10-14 
46-60 

60 

8-10 

60 

46-60 

60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 


Cowpea 

Crested dog's-taU ^ . . 
Fescue : 

Hard 

Meadow 

Red 

Sheep's 

Tall 

Various leaved . . . . 

Flat pea 

Flax 

Hemp 

Japan clover : 

Hulled 

Unhulled 

Johnson-grass .... 

Kafir 

Lentil 

Lupine, white .... 
Meadow foxtail .... 
Meadow-grass 

Fowl 

Rough-stalked . . . 

Wood 

Millet: 

Barnyard 

Broom corn .... 


66-60 
14-30 

12-16 
14-24 
12-16 
12-16 
14-24 
14-18 
60-^0 
48-56 
40-60 

60 
18-25 
14-28 
50-60 

60 
50-60 

7-14 

11-14 
14-20 
14-24 

30-60 
45-60 



SEED-TABLES 



Weights and Sizes of Seeds — Continued 



Kind cm Sbbd 


Pounds 
per bushel 


Kind 07 Seed 


Pounds 
perbushd 


Millet — continued. 
Common 

Golden Wonder 

Hungarian 

PcmP 

Milo 

Oat-grass: 

Tall 

Yellow 

Orange cane 

Orchard-grass 

Pea: 

Field 

Garden, smooth .... 

Garden, wrinkled . . . 

Peanut 

Rape, winter 

Red-top: 

Chaff 

Fancy 

Rescue-grass 

Rice 


48-50 
48-50 
48-50 
48-50 
48-56 
50-60 

10-14 

7-14 

45-60 

10-18 

60 

60 

56 
20-30 
50-60 

10-14 
25-40 
12-28 
43-45 


Rye-grass : 

English 

Italian 

Sainfoin 

Serradella 

Soybean 

Spelt 

Sunflower 

Sweet clover : 

Hulled 

Unhulled 

Sweet corn (according to 

variety) 

Sweet vernal, perennial . 

Teosinte 

Timothy 

Velvet bean 

Vetch: 

Hairy 

Spring 

Water-grass, large . . . 

Wild rice 

Yellow trefoil . . . . 


10-30 
14-25 
14-32 
28-36 
58-60 
40-60 
24-50 

60 
33 

36-56 
6-15 

40-60 
45 
60 

50-60 

60 

14 
15-28 

60 



For legal weights of seeds, grains, fruits, and other products, see 
Chap. XXVII. 

Weight and size of garden seeds (adapted from Vilmorin*s tables) 



Weight of a qt. 
of seeds in os. 



Number of seeds in 1 grain 



Angelica 

Anise 

Asparagus bean (Dolichos aesquipedalxs) 

Balm 

BasU 

Bean 

Beet 

Borage 

Borecole 

Broccoli 

Cabbage 

Caper 

Caraway 

Cardoon 

Carrot with the spin'^s .... 
Carrot without the spines . . . 



5.827 • 
11.65 
29.91 
21.36 
20.59 
24.27 to 33.02 

9.71 
18.65 
27.19 
27.19 
27.19 
17.87 
16.31 
24.47 

9.32 
13.98 



11.02 

12.96 

32.40 to 42.12 in 100 gr. 

129.60 

51.84 

4.86 to 51.84 in 100 gr. 

3.24 

4.21 

19.44 

24.30 

19.44 

10.37 

22.68 

1.62 

45.36 

61.56 



GARDEN SEEDS 



99 



Weiohi and aixe of garden seeds — Continued 



Catmint 

Cauliflower 

Celery 

Chervil 

Chervil sweet-scented 

Chervil turnip-rooted 

Chicory 

Chick-pea 

Coriander 

Corn-salad 

Cress, American 

Cress, common garden 

Cress, meadow (cuckoo-flower) . . 

Cress, Para 

Cress, water 

Cucumber, common 

Cucumber, globe 

Cucumber, prickly-fruited gherkin . 
Cucumber, snake {Cucumie fiextidaue) 

Dandelion 

DiU 

Egg-plant 

Endive 

Fennel, common or wild 

Fennel, sweet 

Gumbo, see Okra. 

Good King Henry 

Gourds, fancy 

Hop 

Horehound 

Hyssop 

Kohlrabi 

Leek 

Lettuce 

Lovage 

Maise, or Indian com 

Marjoram, sweet 

Marjoram, winter 

Martynia 

Musianelon 

Mustard, black or brown .... 
Mustard, Chinese cabbage-leaved 
Mustard, white, or salad .... 

Nasturtium, tall 

Nasturtium, dwarf 

Okra 

Onion 

Orach 

Parsnip 

Parsley 

Pea 

Pea, gray or field 



Weight of a qt. 
of seeds in os. 



Number of seeds in 1 grain 



26.42 
27.19 
18.65 
14.76 

9.71 
20.98 
15.54 
30.30 
12.43 
10.88 
20.98 
28.36 
22.53 

7.78 
22.53 
19.42 
19.42 
21.36 
17.48 
10.49 
11.65 
19.42 
13.20 
17.48 

9.13 

24.28 
17.48 

9.71 
26.42 
22.34 
27.19 
21.37 
16.70 

7.78 
24.86 
21.37 
26.22 
11.26 
13.98 
26.22 
25.64 
29.13 
13.20 
23.30 
24.08 
19.42 

5.44 

7.78 

19.42 

27.19 to 31.08 

26.41 to 31.08 



77.76 

24.30 

162.00 

29.16 

2.59 

29.16 

45.36 

1.94 in 10 gr. 

5.83 
64.80 
61.56 
29.16 
97.20 
220.32 
259.20 

2.27 

6.48 

8.42 

2.59 
77.76 to 97.20 
58.32 
16.20 
38.88 
20.09 

8.10 

27.86 

1.29 

12.96 

64.80 

55.08 

19.44 

25.92 

51.84 

19.44 

2.59 to 3.24 in 10 gr. 

259.20 

777.60 

1.29 

2.27 

45.36 

42.12 

12.96 

4.54 to 5.18 in 10 gr. 

9.7 in 10 gr. 

9.7 to 11.66 in 10 gr. 

16.20 

16.20 

14.25 

22.67 

1.29 to 3.56 in 10 gr. 

3.24 to 5.18 in 10 gr. 



100 



SEED-TABLES 



Weight QTid size of garden needs — Continued 



Peanut 

Pepper 

Pumpkin 

Purslane 

Radish 

Rampion 

Rhubarb 

Rocket Salad 

Rosemary 

Rue 

Sage 

Salsify 

Savory, summer .... 

Savory, winter 

Scorsonera 

Scurvy-grass 

Sea-kale 

Spinach, prickly-seeded . . 
Spinach, round-seeded . . 
Spinach, New Zealand . . 

Strawberry 

Strawberry blite (Blitum) . 
Strawberry tomato (Physalia) 

Sweet Cicely 

Tansy 

Thyme 

Tomato 

Turnip 

Valerian, African .... 

Watermelon 

Wax gourd 

Welsh onion, common . . 
Welsh onion, early white . . 
Wormwood 



Weight of a qt. 
of seed in os. 


Number of aeeds in 1 grrnin 


15.54 


1.29 to 1.94 in 10 gr. 


17.48 


9.72 


9.71 


1.94 in 10 gr. 


23.70 


162.00 


27.19 


7.77 


31.08 


1620.00 


3.10 to 4.66 


3.24 


29.13 


35.64 


15.54 


58.32 


22.53 


32.40 


21.37 


16.20 


8.93 


6.48 


19.42 


97.20 


16.70 


162.00 


10.09 


5.83 


23.30 


97.20 to 116.64 


8.16 


9.72 to 11.66 in 10 gr. 


14.57 


5.83 


19.81 


7.13 


8.74 


6.48 to 7.77 in 10 gr. 


23.30 


51.84 to 162.00 


31.08 


324.00 


25.25 


64.80 


9.71 


2.59 


11.65 


453.60 


26.41 


388.80 


11.65 


19.44 to 25.92 


26.03 


29.16 


4.27 


16.20 


17.87 


3.24 to 3.88 in 10 gr. 


11.65 


1.36 


18.65 


19.44 


22.92 


32.40 


25.25 


745.20 



Figures of Germination and Parity 

Seed testing. 

The testing of seeds is of two purposes, — to determine whether 
the sample is adulterated, and to determine the viability or germi- 
nating power. 

Adulteration or impurity is discovered by examining the sample 
under a lens. 

Viability is determined by sprouting the seeds under favorable 
conditions. Mix the sample well, and choose 100 seeds as tl^ey come, 
eliminating only the foreign seeds. Place them between folds of 
moist Canton jQannel, and keep moist (not soaking wet) by covering 



OERMINA TION • TABLES 



101 



with a plate. Keep at living-room temperature. As rapidly as the 
seeds sprout, remove them. See that the seeds do not touch each 
other, or mold may spread. 

High average percentage of purity and of germination of high-grade seed 

(Duvel) 



Sbkd 


Purity 
Pkb Csnt 


Germina- 
tion 
Per Cent 


Sbbd 


Purity 
Per Cent 


Germina- 
tion 
Per Cent 


Alfalfa . . . 


99 


95 


MUlet, hog 


. . 99 


90 


Asparagus . . 
Barley . . . 


99 
99 


85 
98 


Millet, pearl 
Mustard 


99 
. . 99 


90 
95 


Beans .... 


99 


98 


Oato . . 


. . 99 


96 


Beet, garden 


99 


150 » 


Okra . . 


. . 99 


80 


Beggarweed . . 


99 


90 


Onion 


. . 99 


96 


Bermuda-graas . 


98 


90 


Orchard-grai 


ss . 95 


90 


Blue-graas, Can- 






Parsley . 


. . 99 


80 


ada ... . 


95 


85 


Parsnip . 


. . 98 


85 


Blue-grass, Ken- 
tucky . . . 






Peas . . 


. . 99 


98 


95 


85 


Pumpkin 


. . 99 


96 


Brome, awnless . 


90 


90 


Radish . 


. . 99 


97 


Buckwheat . . 


99 


96 


Rape . . 


. . 99 


96 


Cabbage . . . 


99 


95 


Red-top . 


. . 96 


90 


Caraway . . . 


98 


90 


Rice . . 


99 


95 


Carrot. . . . 


98 


85 


Rye . . 


. . 99 


96 


Cauliflower . . 


99 


85 


Rye-grass, I 


tal- 




Celery. . . . 


98 


85 


ian . . 


. . 98 


90 


Clover, alsike 


98 


95 


Ry&-gra8s, E 


.ng- 




Clover, crimson . 


98 


97 


lish 


. . 98 


90 


Clover, red . . 


98 


95 


Salsify . 


. . 98 


85 


Clover, sweet 


98 


90 


Sainfoin . 


. . 99 


95 


Clover, white 


96 


90 


Sorghum . 
Soybean . 


. . 98 


96 


Collard . . . 


99 


95 


. . 99 


95 


Com. field . . 


99 


99 


Spmach . 


. . 99 


90 


Com, sweet . 


99 


94 


Spurry . 
Squash . 


. . 99 


90 


Cotton . . . 


99 


90 


. . 99 


96 


Cowpea - . . 


99 


95 


Sugar-beet 






Cress .... 
Cucumber . . 


99 
99 


90 
96 


SuS^-bB^t^^ 


8) . 99 


175 » 


Eggplant . . . 
Endive . . . 


99 


90 


(sm'all balj 


Is). 99 


150 » 


99 


85 


Sunflower 


99 


90 


Fescue, meadow 


98 


90 


Sweet-pea 


99 


90 


Fescue, sheep's . 


96 


85 


Teosinte. 


99 


90 


Flax ... . 


99 


95 


Timothy 


99 


96 


Hemp .... 


99 


90 


Tomato . 


99 


94 


Kafir com . . 


99 


97 


Tobacco . 


99 


90 


Kale .... 


99 


95 


Turnip . 


99 


98 


Lettuce . . . 


99 


98 


Velvet bean 


99 


90 


Melon, musk 


99 


96 


Velvet gi 


-ass 




Melon, water 


99 


96 


(hulled) 


97 


85 


MiUet, common 


99 


90 


Vetch . 


99 


93 








Wheat . 


99 


98 



1 Each beet fruit, or "ball," is likely to contain two to seven seeds. The 
numbers given in the table represent the number of sprouts from one hundred balls. 



102; 



SJiSD-TABLES 



Average time required for garden seeds to germinate 

DaT8 DaT8 

Bean 5-10 Lettuce 6-8 

Beet 7-10 Onion 7-10 

Cabbage 5-10 Pea 6-10 

Carrot 12-18 Parsnip 10-20 

Cauliflower 5-10 Pepper 9-14 

Celery 10-20 Radish 3-6 

Corn 5-8 Salsify 7-12 

Cucumber 6-10 Tomato 6-12 

Endive 5-10 Turnip 4-8 



Longevity of Seeds 
Vilmorin*8 tables 



An^lica 

Anise 

Asparagus bean (Dolichos aeaquipedalia) 

Balm 

Barley 

Basil 

Bean 

Beet 

Borage 

Borecole 

Broccoli 

Buckwheat 

Cabbage 

Caraway 

Cardoon 

Carrot, with the spines 

Carrot, without the spines .... 

Catmint 

Cauliflower 

Celery 

Chervil 

Chervil, 8weet-sc?nted • . 

Cher\'il, turnip-rooted 

Chicory 

Chick-pea 

Clover 

Coriander 

Corn-salad, common 

Cress, American 

Cress, common garden 

Cress, meadow (cuckoo-flower) . . 

Cross, Para 

Cress, water 

Cucumber, common 

Cucumber, globe 



Atsraob 


ExTRBm 


YSARS 


Ybau 


1 or 2 


3 


3 


5 


3 


8 


4 


7 


3 





8 


10 + 


3 


8 


6 


10 + 


8 


10 -h 


5 


10 


5 


10 


2 


— 


5 


10 


3 


4 


7 


9 


4 or 5 


10 + 


4 or 6 


10 + 


5 


6 + 


5 


10 


8 


10 + 


2 or 3 


6 


1 


1 


1 


1 


8 


10 + 


3 


8 


3 




6 


8 


5 


10 


, 3 


5 


' 5 


9 


4 
5 


V; 


5 


9 + 


10 


10 + 


6 


(?) 



LIFE OF SEEDS 



103 



Longevity of Seeds — Continued 



Cucumber, prickly-fruited gherkin . 
Cucumber, snake {,Ciu:umi9 flexuosua) 

Dandelion 

DiU 

Egg-plant 

Endive 

Fennel, common or wild .... 

Fennel, sweet 

Flax 

Gumbo, see Okra. 

Good King Heniy 

Gourds* fancy 

Hop 

Horehound 

Hyssop 

Kohlrabi 

Leek 

Lentil 

Lettuce, common 

Lovage 

Maise, or Indian com 

Marjoram, sweet 

Marjoram, winter 

Martynia 

MiUet 

Muskmelon 

Mustard, black or brown .... 
Mustard, Chinese cabbage-leaved 

Mustard, white or salad 

Nasturtium, tall 

Nasturtium, dwarf 

Gate 

Okra 

Onion 

Orach 

Orchard-grass 

Parsnip 

Parsley 

Pea, ^tfden 

Pea, gray or field 

Peanut 

Pepper , 

Pumpkin 

Purslane 

Radish ^ . . . 

Rampion 

Rape 

Rhubarb 

Rocket salad 

Rosemary a . . . 

Rue T . . . 



AVERAOB 




Yharh 


Ybars 


6 


7 + 


7 or 8 


10 + 


2 


5 


3 


5 


6 


10 


10 


10 -h 


4 


7 


4 


7 


2 


— 


3 


5 


6 


10 + 


2 


4 


3 


6 


3 


6 


5 


10 


3 


9 


4 


9 


5 


9 


3 


4 


2 


4 


3 


7 


5 


7 


1 or 2 


(?) 


2 


— 


5 


10 + 


4 


9 


4 


8 


4 


10 + 


5 


5 


5 


8 


3 


— 


5 


10 + 


2 


7 


6 


7 


2 





2 


4 


3 


9 


3 


8 


3 


8 


1 


1 


4 


7 


4 or 5 


9 


7 


10 


5 


10 + 


5 


10 + 


5 




3 


8 


4 


9 


4 


(?) 


2 


6 



104 



SEED-TABLES 



Longevity of Seeds — Continued 




Rye 

Sage 

Salsify 

Savory, summer .... 

Savory, winter 

Scorsonera ...',.. 

Scurvy-grass 

Sea-kale 

Soybean 

Spinach, prickly-seeded . . 
Spinach, round-seeded . . 
Spinach, New Zealand . . 
Squash, bush-scallop . . . 

Strawberry 

Strawberry, tomato (PhyacUia) 

Sweet Cicely 

Tansy 

Thyme 

Timothy 

Tomato 

Turnip 

Valerian, African .... 

Watermelon 

Wax gourd 

Welsh onion, common . . 
Welsh onion, early white 

Wheat 

Wormwood 



Haherlandt'a figures of longevity (Quoted in Johnson's ** How Crops 

Grow ") 





PSRCBffTAOB OF SbEDB THAT OBIUIINATBD IN 


1861 FBOIf THB 


Ybau 




1850 


18ffl 


1854 


1855 


1857 


1858 


1859 


I860 


Barley . . . 








24 





48 


33 


92 


97 


Maize . . . 





not tried 


76 


56 


not tried 


77 


100 


96 


Oats .... 


60 





56 


48 


72 


32 


80 


100 


Rye .... 




















48 


96 


Whe-at . . , 








8 


4 


73 


60 


84 


89 



Vitality of seeds buried in soil (W. J. Beal). 

In the fall of 1879, fifty fresh seeds of each of twenty-one kmds of 
plants (mostly weeds) were mixed with moderately moist sand and placed 
in uncorked bottles that were buried twenty inches below the surface, 
with the mouths slanting downward. Acorns were buried near the 
bottles. Six tests have been made of these seeds. The crosses ( + ) 
indicate germinations : — 



LIFS OF SEEDS 



106 



Namss op Smmhb tsstbd as 


&rH 


IOth 


l&TH 


2(>rH 


2&rH 


30TR 


XNOwir IN 1879 


Ykar 


Year 


Year 


Y«AR 


Ybab 


Year 


Amarantus retrofleziis . . . 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


4- 


Ambrosia artemisuBfolia 
























Braaoca nigra . . . 






? 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


4- 


























Capeella Bursa-pastoris 






+ 


? 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


Erechtites hieracifolia. 
























Euphorbia maculata . 
























Lepidium Virgiiiicum . 






+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


-f 


+ 


Lychnis Githago. . . 
























Manila Cotula . . . 






+ 


+ 


+ 





+ 





Malva lotundifoUa 






+ 








+ 








CEnothera biennis . . 






+ 


+ 


+ . 


-f 


+ 


4- 


Plantago major . . . 












+ 











Polygonum Hydropiper 









+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


possibly 


Portulaca oleracea . . 









+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 





Quercus rubra . . . 
Humez cripsus .^. . 




























+ 


? 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


Setaria glauca . . . 






+ 


+ 


+ 





+ 


+ 


Stellaria media . . . ' 






-f 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


Thuja occidentalis . . 
























Trifolium repens . . 
























Verbascum Thapsus 






+ 


? 


+ 


-f 









In all of the six tests, eight species out of twenty-two failed to germi- 
nate ; and of the remaining fourteen species, seeds of eight, possibly 
nine, genninated often when they had been buried thirty years. The 
aooms (Quercus rubra) buried near the bottles of seeds were all dead 
at the end of two years. 

Average Yields of Garden Seed-Crops 



When Crop is as good 
AS 20 Bu. OP Whrat 
PER Acre would be 



When Crop is vert 

HEAVY 



Bean . . . 
Pea ... . 
Sqoash, summer 
Squash, winter 
Sweet com 

Cucumber . . 
Muskmdon 

Watermelon . 

Tomato . . 

Cabbage . . 



lbs. of Mod per acre 

600 

900 

100 

100 

1000 to 2500 

(according to variety) 

150 

125 

150 

100 

250 



Jbs. of seed per acre 

1500 

2500 

700 

400 

2500 to 4000 

700 
600 
1000 
400 
800 



The average crop is probably 10 to 20 per cent less than the figures 
gjyen in the first column. 



CHAPTER VI 
Plantinq-Tableb 

The novice always wants exact advice as to dates, depths, and dis- 
tances. It is impossible to give such advice that is reliable in all times 
and places ; it must be given only for suggestion and guidance, not for 
exact and absolute application. Accepted in this spirit, planting-tables 
may be very useful, even for the experienced planter. 

Dates for Sowing or Setting Kitchen-Garden Vegetables in Different 

Latitudes 
Lansingj Michigan 

(Average of 4 and 5 years.) 

Bean, bush May 16. 

Bean, i>ole May 30. 

Beet April 20. 

Broccoli May 10. 

Brussels sprouts May 10. 

Cabbage, early, under glass March 15. 

Cabbage, late May 20. 

Carrot May 7. 

Cauliflower, under glass March 15. 

Celery, under glass March 18. 

Celery, in open ground May 20. 

Corn May 10. 

Cucumber May 23. 

Egg-plant, under glass March 15. 

Kale May 9. 

Kohlrabi May 9. 

Lettuce May 5. 

Melon May 30. 

Okra May 15. 

Onion April 17. 

Parsnips May 7. 

Peas April 15. 

Pepper under glass March 16. 

Potato May 3. 

Pumpkin May 31. 

Radish April 26. 

Salsify May 7. 

Spinach April 10. 

Squash May 28. 

Tomato, under glass March 13. 

Turnip April 15. 

Boston (Rawson) 

Asparagus About the end of April. 

Bean, bush About the first week in May. 

106 



DATES TO PLANT GARDEN SEEDS 



107 



Beao, pole From about the middle of May to the let of June. 

Bean, lima About the Ist of June. 

Beet About the middle of April. 

Borecole, or Kale . . . About the middle of April ; plant out in June. 

Brussels sprouts . . . . In March or April in hotbed. 

Cabbage Transplant the last week in April or the Ist in May. 

Carrots Last of May or 1st of June. 

Cauliflower From the Ist of May until the 1st of July. 

Celery The 1st week in April to the 2d in July. 

Com. sweet About the 1st of May. 

Cucumber For 1st crop, about the middle of March. 

Egg-plant About March 15 in hotbed. 

Endive June or July. 

Kohlrabi May or June. 

Okra About the 10th of May. 

Peas During the last of April up to the 1st of May. 

Pepper Put out of doors about the 1st of April. 

Radish From the 1st of April to the middle of June. 

Spinach About the 1st of September. 

Tomato About the 25th of May set plants outdoors. 

Turnips, for fall use . . Any time from July 1 to August 20. 

Watennelon About the middle of May. 

New York (Henderson) 

Plants to sow from the middle of March to the end of April. Thermometer in 
shade averaging 45 degrees. 

Beet Cauliflower Parsley 

Carrot Endive Peas 

Creas Kale Radish 

Celery Lettuce Spinach 

Cabbage Onions Turnip 

Parsnip 

From the middle of May to the middle of June. Thermometer in the shade 

averaging 60°. 

Bean, bush Bean, runner Nasturtium 

Bean, cranberry Com, qweet Okra 

Bean, lima Cucumber Pumpkin 

Bean, pole Melon, musk Squash 

Bean, scarlet Melon, water Tomato 

Norfolk, Virginia 
Months in which different crops are planted or sown, or set out in the open air. 



Kale and Spinach 
Cabbage . . . 



Onions 
Leeks . 
Lettuce 
Radish 
Peas 

Beans . . 

Egg-plant 

Tomatoes 



sown during August, September, and October. 

The seeds are sown in August and September, and the plants 
are transplanted in the open air in November and De- 
cember. 

Sown in August, September, January, and Febmary. 

The same as onions. 

Sown in September and January. 

Sown in every month in the year. 

December, January, February, March, April, August, and 
September. 

March and April. 

April and May. 

April and May. 



108 



PLA^TlNQ-TABl£3 



Squash 
Cauliflower 
Potatoes . 
Sweet-potatoee 
Beets . . 
Com . . 
Oats . . 

MiUet . . 
GrassHseed 
Carrots 
Celery . . 
Cucumbers 
Watermelons 
Canteloupes 
Peanuts . 



April. 

March and April. 

February, March, and July. 

May. 

Februaiy and March. 

April, May, June, and July. 

September, October, November, December, February, and 

March. 
June and July ; after i>otatoes. 

September, October. November, February, and March. 
Feoruary and March. 
April and May. 
April. 
April. 
April. 



lay. 



Georgia (Oemler) 



Asparagus . . From December I to the middle of March. 

Bean, bush . . From the Ist to the middle of March. 

Beet .... Through November and December. 

Cabbage . . . From the 1st of October to the 15th. Transplant about 

November 1 and later. 

Cauliflower . . From May to September. 

Cucumber . . About March 1 to the 15th. 

Egg-plant . . To prick out, about the middle of January, otherwise ten or 

fifteen days later. 

Lettuce . . . About the middle of September. 

Onion .... About January 1. 

Pea .... About December 1. 

PoUto . . . The Ist of February. 

Radish . From Christmas to the last of February. 

Spinach . . . From September 10 until October 16. 

Squash . . . About the last of February up to the middle of March. 

Sweet-potato . In cold frames, about the 1st of January. 

Tomato . . . About January 1. 

Watermelon . . About the 15tn of March. 

Tender and hardy vegetables 

Vegetables injured by a slight frost, and which should therefore be planted only 
after the weather has settled. 



All Kidney, Lima, and Common Beans Egg-plant 
Corn All melons 

Cucumber Okra 

Pepper 



Pumpkin 
Squash 
Sweet PoUto 
Tomato 



Vegetables which, when properly handled, will endure a frost. 



Asparagus 



ragus 
i. Win 



Bean, Windsor, Broad or Horse 

Beet 

Borecole 

Broccoli 

Brussels sprouts 

Cabbage 

Carrot 

Cauliflower 

Celery 



Corn-salad 

Cress 

Endive 

Horseradish 

Kohlrabi 

Kale 

Leek 

Lettuce 

All Onions 



Parsley 

Parsnip 

Pea 

Radish 

Rhubarb 

Salsify 

Sea-kale 

Spinach 

Turnip 



WHEN TO PLANT GARDEN 8EED8 



109 



Date-tables 
VegetahU^ardenera plarUinff-table (U. S. Dept. Agrio.) 

See »leo seiMrate table of distances on p. 119. 





SSBDS OR 

Plamtb 

BBQUIBBD iOR 

100 Fbbt or 
Row 


DlBTAMCB rOR PlAITTS TO StaKD 






Rows apart 


Plants apart 
m rows 


Plamtdco 




Horse culti- 


Hand culti- 




vation 


vation 






Artichoke, clobe . . 
Artichoke. Jenioalem . 


H ounce 


3 to 4 ft. 


2 to 3 ft. 


2 to 3 ft. 


lto2hu 


2 qt. tubers 


3 to 4 ft. 


1 to 2 ft. 


1 to 2 ft. 


2 to 3 m. 


Aiparacua, seed . . 


1 ounce 


30 to 36 in. 


1 to 2 ft. 


3 to 6 in. 


lto2in. 


sssr^-""" 




60 to 80 plants 


3 to 6 ft. 


12 to 24 in. 


16 to 20 in. 


3 to 6 in. 




Ipint 


30 to 36 in. 


18 to 24 in. 


6 or 8 to ft. 


Hto2m. 


Beans, pole . 






Hpint 
2 ounces 


3 to 4 ft. 


3 to 4 ft. 


3 to 4 ft. 


1 to 2 in. 


Beets . . . 






24 to 36 in. 


12 to 18 in. 


6 or 6 to ft. 


1 to 2 in. 


Brussels sprouts 






}i ounce 


30 to 36 in. 


24 to 30 in. 


16 to 24 in. 


^in. 


Cabhage, early 






W ounce 


30 to 36 in. 


24 to 30 in. 


12 to 18 in. 


Hin. 


Cabbage, late 






H ounce 


30 to 40 in. 


24 to 36 in. 


16 to 24 in. 


^in. 


Cardoon . . 






H ounce 


3 ft. 


2 ft. 


12 to 18 in. 


1 to 2 in. 


Carrot . . . 






1 ounce 


30 to 36 in. 


18 to 24 in. 


6 or 7 to ft. 


Hin. 


CauUifewer . 






U ounce 


30 to 36 in. 


24 to 30 in. 


14 to 18 in. 


Hin. 


Celeriao . . 






}i ounce 


30 to 36 in. 


18 to 24 in. 


4 or 6 to ft. 


%in. 


C«lery . . . 






jounce 


3to6ft. 


18 to 36 in. 


4 to 8 in. 


^in. 


Chervil . . 






1 ounce 


30 to 36 in. 


18 to 24 in. 


3 or 4 to ft. 


lin. 


Chicory . . 






yi ounce 


30 to 36 in. 


18 to 24 in. 


4 or 6 to ft. 


Hin. 


Citron . . . 






1 ounce 


8 to 10 ft. 


8 to 10 ft. 


8 to 10 ft. 


1 to2in. 


CoUards . . 






H ounce 


30 to 36 in. 


24 to 30 in. 


14 to 18 in. 


Hin. 


Com salad . 






2 ounces 


30 in. 


12 to 18 m. 


6 or 6 to ft. 


H to lin. 


Cora, sweet . 






^piot 


36 to 42 in. 


30 to 36 In. 


30 to 36 in. 


1 to 2 in. 


Cress, upland 






U ounce 


30 in. 


12 to 18 in. 


4 or 5 to ft. 


H to 1 in. 


Cress, water . 






U ounce 


Broadcast 






On surface 


Cucumber 






u ounce 


4 to 6 ft. 


4 to 6 ft. 


4 to 6 ft. 


1 to 2 in.. 


Dandelioa . 






U ounce 


30 in. 


18 to 24 in. 


8 to 12 in. 


Hin. 


Egsplant . . 






% ounce 


30 to 36 in. 


24 to 30 in. 


18 to 24 in. 


H to 1 in. 






ounce 


30 in. 


18 in. 


8 to 12 in. 


H tol in. 








rOrooto 


30 to 40 in. 


24 to 30 in. 


14 to 20 m. 


3 to 4 in. 


Kale, or boreook 






u ounce 


30 to 36 in. 


18 to 24 in. 


18 to 24 in. 


^t 


Kohlrabi . . 






H ounce 


30 to 36 in. 


18 to 24 in. 


4 to 8 m. 


Leek . . . 






H ounce 


30 to 36 in. 


14 to 20 in. 


4 to 8 m. 


lin. 


Lettuce . . 






u ounce 


30 in. 


12 to 18 in. 


4 to 6 in. 


^in. 


Melon, muskmelon 


Vi ounce 


6 to 8 ft. 


6 to 8 ft. 


Hills 6 ft. 


1 to 2 in. 


Melon, watArmelon . 


1 ounce 


8 to 12 ft. 


8 to 12 ft. 


Hills 10 ft. 


1 to 2 in. 


Mustard 


H ounce 


30 to 36 in. 


12 to 18 in. 


4 or 6 to ft. 


Kin. 


New Zealand spinach 


1 ounce 


36 in. 


24 to 36 in. 


12 to 18 in. 


1 to 2 in. 


Okra, or gumbo . . 


2 ounces 


4 to 6 ft. 


3 to 4 ft. 


24 to 30 in. 


1 to 2 in. 


Onkm.seed . . 




1 ounce 


24 to 36 in. 


12 to 18 in. 


4 or 6 to ft. 


H to 1 in. 


Onion, seU . 






1 quart of sets 


24 to 36 in. 


12 to 18 in. 


4 or 6 to ft. 


1 to 2 in. 


Parsley . . 






bounce 
H ounce 


24 to 36 in. 


12 to 18 in. 


3 to 6 in. 


%in. 

3^ to 1 in. 


Parsnip . . 






30 to 36 in. 


18 to 24 in. 


6 or 6 to ft. 


Peas . . . 






1 to 2 pints 


3 to 4 ft. 


30 to 36 In. 


15 to ft. 


2 to 3 in. 


Pepper . . 






<4 ounce 
jounce 


30 to 36 in. 


18 to 24 in. 


15 to 18 in. 


Hin. 


Phymlls . . 






30 to 36 in. 


18 to 24 in. 


18 to 24 in. 


Hin. 


Potato, Irish 






6 lb. (or 9 bu. 
3 lE!(or7?BUps) 


30 to 36 in. 


24 to 36 in. 


14 to 18 in. 


4 in. 


Potato, sweet 






3 to 6 ft. 


3 to 6 ft. 


14 in. 


3 in. 


Pumpkin . 






H ounce 


8 to 12 ft. 


8 to 12 ft. 


Hills 8 to 

12 ft. 
8 to 12 to ft. 


1 to 2 in. 


Rsdish . . 






1 ounce 


24 to 36 in. 


12 to 18 in. 


H to 1 in. 


Rhubarb, seed 






Hf ounce 
33 plants 


36 in. 


30 to 36 in. 


6 to 8 in. 


^ to 1 in. 


Rhubarb, plants 






3 to 6 ft. 


3 to 5 ft. 


3 ft. 


2 to 3 in. 


Rutabaga. . 






H ounce 


30 to 36 in. 


18 to 24 in. 


6 to 8 in. 


H to 1 in. 


Salsify . . . 






1 ounce 


30 to 36 in. 


18 to 24 in. 


2 to 4 in. 


H to 1 in. 








1 ounce 


30 to 36 in. 


12 to 18 in. 


7 or 8 to ft. 


1 to 2 in. 


Souash, bush 






H ounce 


3 to 4 ft. 


3 to 4 ft. 


HilIe3to4ft. 


1 to 2 in. 


Squash. Uta . 






H ounce 


TtolOft. 


7 to 10 ft.. 


Hill87to9ft. 


1 to 2 in. 


Tomato . . 






% ounce 


3 to 5 ft. 


3 to 4 ft. 


3 ft. 


H to 1 in. 


Turnip . . 






}4 ounce 


24 to 36 in. 


18 to 24 in. 


6 or 7 to ft. 


K to >^ in. 
1 to 2 m. 


Vegetable marrow 




H ounce 


8 to 12 ft. 


8 to 12 ft. 


Hill98to9ft. 



110 



PLANTING-TABtSS 



< 






•42 



I 



< ^ 

-3 



11 



Oi5 












1x3 



















5sssssfc< 









II, l2,3 !,3| 



■I 

I 

s 



s 






s m l\h\\ \ili I 



1 nulla 'll 



1=5 "=c^=5>.& 



j4 , 



.1. 



J ^ 



SS IB sssss 



>• 

3 



s4 5SSS ss 



I. 



ss 



< ^^ n(SffiSddoc36sSM£J*3SSSS 



FIELD-CROP DATES 



111 



ll|M|ll|ll!!|ll||, 



S 



^ ^ ss 



IJ 



ssss sf 



III 



J? I 



? is 






ia&^ 



=^lg. 






& i-:;. 



1 & 

■< s 



1 s 

ll^.l|3«. 



9 



IT "S .3 



s ^ 



if S » 



X X I =2 bx i 

o. a fi. ^ a 

< < < '^< 



li' 



ill 



111 !.| ^ 



ihi 



-7, . 

s s s sz ss 



la? "- 






^ ^'^ Si 

S S S ■?■: 



ss s 



» ^ if 

s s s 




QHb. 



112 



PLANTING-TABLES 



I 






•2 AC. 



1^^ 



^^1 s. 



J2 i-i "^S 



ill 




k 















5 






3 2ii= Usjii, 



s sssi s-<ss ^ 



52 1 
If if 










lllllll lalliil 



CQflOOi 



m immi 



flELD-CttOP DAtSa 



113 



e 

' i 

152218 8||«i 
SSS S Ss £■< 



^ I MvM I I ^ I lO I ^ 



11^11} 1^1 

s ss 



s 



s s 



II I fl III I III I 



i!?i if 

h 1 



4l'|' 



n 


















X. 



CO CO 

^ I 






1^ I 



iiiiiiii 



I2I2I2 









111.1 IS=.s||3|?3i 



1411 



m 



s 



Si I 

HI = 



%t\i 
» II ii 



IB|!||||| 

Hill i 



;l 






lldll llsi Ifllll 111 



flllli 



IsliSII l<Ssl^ 



GO QQ CD QQ 00 OQ 00 H H 



I 



1! 

II 

11 

r 

I 

'\ 
il 

ll 

IS 



114 



PLANTING- TABLES 



if 



s 



& f 









s 



4l 



I 



I 






s « 
J. 7 



il.i 






a ^ ^ s?| 1^ 

s s s s^ ^ 



.o ^««o 2 «J 



^i? 






, i^ i^ i^ 2^ 



s ss s s sss s s s s s s 



(CIO 

'll 



M 

£ 

a 

< 



. II 1 1 III 1 1^-11 m 'll 

S 2 S 

III !2 ^ III -m ll! 

ill g 8J.2 2 4 I P. &r8-2 I Is 

s ■? s jss s a •§■ •< a ■? 

i I'll ll ^ill |i| i \i 

I if 1 a III I I ill -« ^ I lis 

m ^ I III J I all I i I te 



gas 

II 



FIELD-CROP DATES 



115 



^ 

S 



'^ « «-• 1-1 \^ 



V 



5 ^ I s 



till 



•C • fl'C 



III III si 
ll 1 1 1 ii 



Is t 1 1 II 



12^ 

SS 






in 



?-< 









ss sssss 



iQ lO e) lO 

oS S S S 



lit nil, lis Jt|? I llll I 
I'll III I II llll III! 1 1 

2 - =3 2 2 

i\<< 2I2 2||lj.|4l^l8S IL-I 2 I < 
I tl I 1 I 1 1^^ 111 II t 

■g fig s ■? s Sfc ■? a-< s a a 

iiijiiiiiiMiiiifii^.?ii 

<S aI% a s^J8 s I 

lis ■ III li :l: liiil illi I ^ I 



116 



PLANTING-TABLES 



Flower^plarUing table (Suburban Life) 



It is a wise plan to grow enough extra plants in a reserve bed or in pots during the sum- 
mer, so that any gaps in the bed may be filled as the occasion re9uire8. This tt^ie include* 
some perennials and biennials, as well as ann 
New York. 



I annuals. It is miule for about the latitude o^ 



Varxstt 



Abronia . . 
Achillea (Sneesewort) 
Adonis ... 



Ageratum . . 
Agrostemma (Roee- 

of-Heaven) . 
Alonaoa . . 
Amaranthus . 



Aquil 



quilegia 
bine) . 



(Colum- 



Arnmone (Mexican 

Poppy) . . . 
Asperula . . . 
Aster (China) 

Aster (|*erennial) 

Balloon Vine . . 
Balsam .... 



Bartonia 
Beets 



Black Dahlia . . 

Br^hycome (Swan 

River Daisy) . 
Cacalia (Emilia) . 

Calandrina 

Calendula (Pot Mari- 
gold) .... 

Ceuliopsis (Coreopsis) 

Callirhoe (Poppy 
Mallow) .... 

Campanula (Canter- 
bury Bell) . , 

Candytuft . . 

Cannabis (Giant 
Hemp) . . 

Cardinal Flower 

Castor bean (Ricinus) 

Catananohe . . . 
Celosia (Cockscomb) 



Whxn to bow Skbd 



Indoors Outdoors 



March 



March 

March 

April 
April 
April 



April in 
pots 
April 

March, 
April 



April 
April 



April 
March 



April 



March 

March 
April 



April 



March 
April 

March 

March, 
April 



May 

Juno- 
Sept. 1 
April 

May 

May 
May 



July-Sept. 1 

May 

May 
May 

July- 
Sept. 1 
May 
May 

May 
May 



May 

May 

May 

Late April 

April 
May 

July- 
Sept. 1 
May 



May 



May 



Thin 

OR 
TRAWa- 
PLANT 

TO 

(Inches) 



12 
12 



6 to 12 
18 



8 
12 



12 



6 
24 



6 
12 



10 
9 



12 
4 to 12 



Hbiobt 
(Inches) 



HtolVi 

ItolH 

1 

HtoH 

ItolH 
1 to3 
6to6 

2H 
lHto2 

1 
• 1 to3 

lto3 

10 
2to2H 

1 to3 
1 to2 

ltol% 

Htol 
1 to2 

1 to3 

2to3 

>itolH 
10 

lto2H 
4to8 

2to3 

HtoH 



SSASOlf QT 

Blooii 



July to frost Yellow, pink, 
rose 
White 

Crimsoa 

Blue, white 



July- 
October 
June- 
August 
June to frost 



July to frost 

July to frost 

August 

June-Sept. 1 

July. 
August 
Aug., Sept. 
July- 
October 
Sept.. Oct. 

Aug., Sept. 
July to frost 

July-Sept. 



July. 
August 



July to frost 



June-Oct. 

June to frost 
July to frost 

June- 
August 
June-Oct. 



Aug., Sept. 



June- 
August 

June 
to frost 



Color of 



Roee. white 
Scarlet, white 
Red, puxple, 
yellow, wnite 
Yellow, white, 

red, blue 
Yellow, white 

Blue 
Yellow, white 

red, blue 

White, pink. 

blue 

White 

YeUow.wfaita. 

pink, red 

Yeliow 

Ornamental 

foliage 

Darki«d 



Blue, white 
Scarlet, yel- 
low 
Roee, purple 
Orange, y«l- 

yXw 
Purple, lilao. 
red, cherry 
Blue, white^ 
pink 
White 
Inconspicu- 
ous 
Scarlet 
Grown for 

foliage 
Blue, white 

Red 



FLOWER PLANTING 



117 



Flower^planting table — Ck>ntma6d 



Vaustt 



Whkn to sow Sbbd 



Indoon Outdoors 



Trix 

OR 

Trakb- 

PLANT 
TO 

(Inches) 



Hbioht 
(Inches) 



Season ot 
Bloom 



Color of 
Flowrrs 



Csnmiion (Marxuer- 
ite) 

Oentaurea (Blue 
Bottle) .... 

CentrantbuB . . . 

Cbiyaanthemum, An- 
nual 

Cleome(Spider Plant) 

Cobcea 

CoUinsia .... 

Convolvulus . . . 
Coemoe, Early . . 

Coamoe, Late . . 

Dahlia 

Dianthua (China 

Pink) .... 

Digitalia (Foxglove) 

Esehseholxia (Cali- 
fornia Poppy) 
Evening Pnmrose . 

Flax 

FourO*elook . . . 

Gaillardia .... 
Gilia 

Globe amaranth 

(Qomphrena) . . 

Golden-tuft (Aly»- 
snm) 

Oourda 

Gjrpeophila . . . 
Hawkweed . . . 
Helianthus (Sun- 
flower) .... 
Hibiscus .... 

HoHj^iock .... 

Honesty (Lunaria) . 

Hop 

Ipomoea (Moming- 

Glory) .... 

Koehia 



March 



April 
March. 
April 
April 

March. 
April 
April 



April 

April. 
May 

March, 
April 

March, 
April 



April 
April 

April 



March, 
April 
April 

April. 

May 
March, 

April 
March, 

April 
March, 

April 



March 



April 

May 
May 

May 



May 

April 
May 

May 



May 5 

July- 
Sept. 1 
May 



May 
May 

May. 

May 

May 

July- 
Sept. 1 
May 

Mav 

April, May 
May 

July- 
Sept. 1 

July- 
Sept. 1 

Ma> 

April, May 
April 
April 



6 

6 

9 
8 

8 

8 

8 

2 

12 

24 
3 
6 
9 

4 

20 

8 
8 

6 
3 to 12 

6 

6 

12 

8tol2 

6 
12 to 36 

15 to 24 

15 

12 

12 

6 

9 to 12 



ItolH 

2to3 

lto2 
Itol^ 

2 

10 to 20 
ItolH 

6to8 

4 

itolH 

3to4 

H 

1 tolH 

2 to 2^ 
l>ito2 

^tol 
Hto2H 

1 

H 

15 

lto2 
Htol 
3to6 

5to7 

5to7 

20 to 30 
10 to 15 
2 to 23^ 



June 
to frost 

June 

to frost 

July to frost 

June-Oct. 

July, 

August 

Aug., Sept. 

July. 

August 

July to frost 

July, 

August 

Sa>t. 

to frost 

Aug. to frost 

July to frost 

July, 

August 

July-Sept. 

July-Sept. 
July-Sept. 
July to frost 

July to frost 
July-Sept. 

July to frost 

July- 
October 
September 

July-Sept. 
Aug., Sept. 
July to frost 

Augtiat 

August 

June, July 



June 
to frost 



White, pink, 



^" 



Blue, white, 

pink 
Red, white 
White, red, 

yellow 

Purple 

Violet, green- 

bh purple 

White, Iliac, 

violet 

Blue 

White, pmk 

White^ink, 

White, red. 

yellow 
White^ink. 

Pink, white 

Orange, yel- 
low, white 

Yellow 
Red. blue 
White, yel- 
low, red 
Yellow, red 
Blue, red. 
white 
Red, white, 
blue 
Yellow 

White 

Rosy 

Yellow, red 

Yellow 

White to red 

White to red 

Pink, purple 

Ornamental 

foliage 
Blue, red. 

white 

Grown for 

foliage 



118 



PLANTING-TABLES 



Flower^planting table — Continued 



Vabbit 



Larkspur (Annual) 

Lobelia .... 

Lupinua . . . 

Madia (Tarweed) 
Marigold . . . 
Martynia (Unicom 

plant) . . . 
Matthiola bioomis 
Misnonettfe . . 

Myoaotis (Forfet-me- 

not) . . . 
Nasturtium 

Niootiana (Tobacco) 

Pansy .... 

Petunia . . . 

Phlox (Annual) . 

Poppy (Annual) . 

Poppy, Iceland . 

Pyrethnun 

Portulaoa . . . 
Salpigloesis . . 



Salvia ... 

Scabiosa (Mourning 

Bride) . . 
Silene (Catchfly) 
Snapdragon . . 

Stocks (Ten Weeks) 

Sweet Alyssum . . 
Sweet Pea . . . . 
Sweet William . . 

Venus' Looking-glass 

(Speccularia) . . 

Verbena .... 

Zinnia 



Wbkn to bow SxBn 



Indoors (Xitdoors 



March, 
April 
Feb.- 
AprU 



April 
April 



March, 
April 
April 

April 

April 

March 

Feb.. 
Marcn 
March, 

April 



April 

Feb., 
March 
April 

March 
March 

March. 
April 



March 



Feb.- 
April 
March, 
April 



Mays 

May 

May 

May 
May 
May 

April 
May 10 

May 

Mayl 

May 10 

April, July, 

August 

May 

May 

April, Sept., 

October 
April-Sept. 

July-Sept. 

May 
May 

May 

May 

April 

May 

April, May 
Mar., April 
July- 
Sept. 1 

April 
May 

May 



Thin 

OR 
TRANS- 
PLANT 
TO 

(Inches) 



6 

4 

6 

12 

6 

24 

6 
6 

6 

6 

9 

4 

6 
12 

6 

6 

12 

6 
6 

18 

9 

6 
6 to 12 

12 

4 
3 
6 



HCIOHT 

(Inches) 



1 tolJi 

H 

2 

1 to2 
J4to3 

1 

Htol 

H 

ItolO 

3 

% 

1 

1 

1 to2 

1 

2 

1 
2to2H 

2to3 



1 tolH 
Hto3 

ItolH 

KtoH 
6 
2 



H 
I 

lHto2 



Sbason or 
Bloom 



June-Sept. 

June 

to frost 

July, 

August 

July-Oct. 

July to frost 

July 

Aug. to frost 
July to frost 

June- 
August 

June 

to frost 

July to frost 

April 
to frost 

June 

to frost 

July to frost 

June- 
August 
June- 
August 
J3y, 
August 
July to frost 
Aug. to frost 

Aug. to frost 

July to frost 

July-Sept. 
July to frost 

July-Sept. 

June-Oct. 
July-Sept. 
June, July 



Aug., Sept. 

June 

to f roat 

June-Oct. 



COLOB OF 

Flowbbb 



Blue, white, 

red. pink 

Blue, white 

Pink, blue, 
white 
Yellow 
Yellow 
Yellow, pur- 
ple, white 

White 
Greenish 

yellow 
Blue. pink« 

white 
Yellow, red, 

orange 

White, pink, 

red, 3reilow 

Various 

Red. white, 

pink 
Red, white, 
pink, yellow 
Pink, red, yel- 
low, white 
Red. yellow, 

white 
White^ink, 

Red. white 

Yellow, white 

red, brown 

Scariet 

White, pur- 
ple, yeuow 
Red. white. 
Yellow, white. 

pink, red 

Pink, scarlet 

white, j-ellow 

White 

AH oolors 

Red. white 

pink 

White, blue 
White, pink, 

red. blue 

Red. yellow, 

pink, white 



now FAR APART TO PLANT 119 



Distance-Tables 

UbuoI distances apart for planting fruits 

Apples 30 to 40 feet each way. 

Apples, dwarf (Paradise stocks) 8 to 10 feet each way. 

Apples, dwarf (Doucin stocks) 12 to 25 feet each way. 

Pears 20 to 30 feet each way. 

Pears, dwarf 10 to 15 feet each way. 

Plums 16 to 20 feet each way. 

Peaches 16 to 20 feet each way. 

Cherries 16 to 25 feet each way. 

Apricots r 16 to 20 feet each way. 

Nectarines 16 to 20 feet each way. 

Quinces 8 to 14 feet each way. 

Figs 20to25 feet each way. 

Mulberries 25 to 30 feet each way. 

Japanese Persimmons 20 to 25 feet each way. 

Loquata 15 to 25 feet each way. 

Pecans 35 to 40 feet each way. 

Grapes 8 to 12 feet each way. 

Currants 4X5 feet. 

Gooseberries 4X5 feet. 

Raspberries, black 3X6 feet. 

Raspberries, red 3X5 feet. 

Blackberries 4X7to6X8 feet. 

Cranberries lor 2 ft. apart each way. 

Strawberries 1 X 3 or 4 feet. 

Oranges and Lemons 25 to 30 feet each way. 

Distances recommended for orange trees in California 

Dwarfs, as Tangerines 10 to 12 feet. 

Half-dwarfs, as Washington Navel 24 to 30 feet. 

Mediterranean Sweet, Maltese Blood, Valencia . . 24 to 30 feet. 

St. Michael '. 18 to 24 feet. 

Seedlings 30 to 40 feet. 

Usual distances apart for planting vegetables (see also table, p, 109) 

Artichoke . . . Rows 3 or 4 ft. apart, 2 to 3 ft. apart in the row. 
Rows 3 to 4 ft. apart, 1 to 2 ft. apart in the row. 
1 ft. apart in rows 2 to 3 ft. apart. 



Asparagus 
Beans, bush 
Beans, pole 
Beet, eariy 
Beet, late . 
Broccoli 



Cabbage, esaly . 16 X 28 in. to 18 X 30 in. 



Cabbage, late 
Carrot . . 
(Cauliflower 
Celery . . 

Corn-salad 
Com, Sweet 
Cress . . 
Cucumber 
Egg.i>lant . 
Endive 
HoiaeFadish 



3 to 4 ft. each way. 
In drills 12 to 18 in. apart. 
In drills 2 to 3 ft. apart. 
1^ X 2^ ft. to 2 X3ft. 



2 X 3 ft. to 2H X 3^ ft. 
In drills 1 to 2 ft. apart. 

2 X 2 ft. to 2 X 3 ft. 

Rows 3 to 4 ft. apart, 6 to in. in the row; "new celery 

culture," 7 X 7 in., each way. 
In drills 12 to 18 in. apart. 

Rows 3 to 31/^ ft. apart, 9 in. to 2 ft. in the row. 
In drills 10 to 12 in. apart. 
4 to 5 ft. each way. 

3 X 3 ft. 

1 X 1 ft. to 1 X IH ft. 
1 X 2 or 3 ft. 



120 



PLANTING-TABLES 



Kohlrabi . . 
Leek . . . 
Lettuce . . 
Melons, musk 
Melons, water 
Mushroom 
Okra . 
Onion . 
Parsley 
Parsnip 
Peas 

Pepper 
Potato . 
Pumpkin 
Radish . 
Rhubarb 
Salsify . 
Sea-kale 
Spinach 
Squash, bush . 
Squash, late . 
Sweet Potato 
Tomato . . 
Turnip . . 



10 X 18 in. to 1 X 2 ft. 

6 in. X 1 or l}^ ft. 

1 X IH or 2 ft. 

5 to 6 tt. each way. 

7 to 8 ft. each way. 

6 to 8 in. each way. 
IH X 2 or 3 ft. 

In drills from 14 to 20 in. apart. 

In drills 1 to 2 ft. apart. 

In drills, 18 in. to 3 ft. apart. 

In drills ; earl^ kinds, usually in double rows, 6 to 9 in. apart : 

late kinds, m single rows, 2 to 3 ft. apart. 
15 to 18 in. X 2 to 2}^ ft. 
10 to 18 in. X 2^ to 3 ft. 

8 to 10 ft. each way. 

In drills, 10 to 18 in. apart. 

2 to 4 ft. X 4 ft. 

In drills. IH to 2 ft. apart. 

2 X 2 to 3 ft. 

In drills, 12 to 18 in. apart. 

3 to 4 ft. X 4 ft. 

6 to 8 ft. each way. 
2 ft. X 3 to 4 ft. 

4 ft. X 4 to 5 ft. 

In drills, 13^ to 2^ ft- apart. 



Number of plants required to set an acre of ground at given distances 

This table is computed by dividing 43.660 (the number of square feet in an 
acre) by the product of the two distances, in feet : 43,560 -r 6 (2 ft. X 3 ft.) » 
7260. This assumes that the acre is full to the margin. A square acre is a 
little less than 209 ft. on all sides. 



lin. X 


1 


1 in. X 


2 


1 in. X 


3 


lin. X 


4 


lin. X 


5 


lin. X 


6 


lin. X 


7 


1 in. X 


8 


lin. X 


9 


lin. X 


10 


1 in. X 11 


lin. X 


12 


2in. X 


2 


2 in. X 


3 


2 in. X 


4 


2in. X 


5 


2in. X 


6 


2in. X 


7 


2in. X 


8 


2in. X 


9 


2 in. X 


10 


2in. X 


11 


2in. X 


12 


3in. X 


3 


3 in. X 


4 


3in. X 


5 



Plants 

in 6,272,640 

in 3.136.320 

in 2,090.880 

in 1.568.160 

in 1.254.528 

in 1,045.440 

in 896.091 

in 784.080 

in 696.960 

in 627.264 

in 570.240 

in 522.720 

in 1.568.160 

in 1,045.440 

in 784.080 

in 627.264 

in 522.720 

in 448.045 

in 392.040 

in 348,480 

in 313,632 

in 285.120 

in 261.360 

in 696.960 

in 522,720 

in 418,176 



3 in. 


X 


6 


3 in. 


X 


7 


3 in. 


X 


8 


3 in. 


X 


9 


3 in. 


X 


10 


3 in. 


X 


11 


3 in. 


X 12 


4 in. 


X 


4 


4 in. 


X 


5 


4 in. 


X 


6 


4 in. 


X 


7 


4 in. 


X 


8 


4 in. 


X 


9 


4 in. 


X 10 


4 in. 


X 


11 


4 in. 


X 


12 


5 in. 


X 


5 


5 in. 


X 


6 


5 in. 


X 


7 


5 in. 


X 


8 


Sin. 


X 


9 


5 in. 


X 


10 


5 in. 


X 


11 


5 in. 


X 


12 


6 in. 


X 


6 


6 in. 


X 


7 



Plamts 

in 348.480 

in 298.697 

in 261.360 

in 232.320 

in 209.088 

in 190,080 

in 174,240 

in 392.040 

in 313.632 

in 261.360 

in 224,022 

in 196.020 

in 174.240 

in 156.816 

in 142.560 

in 130,680 

in 250.905 

in 209.088 

in 179.218 

in 166.816 

in 139.392 

in 125.452 

in 114.048 

in 104.544 

in 174.240 

in 149,348 



NUMBER OF PLANTS TO TEE ACRE 



121 



Plamth 

6 in. X 8 in 130,080 

6 in. X 9 in 116,160 

6 in. X 10 in 104,544 

6 in. X 11 in 95,040 

6 in. X 12 in 87,120 

7 in. X 7 in 128,013 

7 in. X 8 in 112,011 

7 in. X 9 in 99,562 

7 in. X 10 in 89,609 

7 in. X 11 in 81,462 

7 in. X 12 in 74,674 

8 in. X 8 in 98.010 

Sin. X 9 in 87,120 

8 in. X 10 in 78,408 

8 in. X 11 in 71,280 

8 in. X 12 in 65,340 

9 in. X 9 in 77,440 

9 in. X 10 in 69,696 

9 in. X 11 in 63,360 

9 in. X 12 in 68.080 

10 in. X 10 in 62,726 

10 in. X 12 in 62,272 

10 in. X 15 in 41,817 

10 in. X 18 in 34,848 

10 in. X 20 in 31,363 

10 in. X 24 in. or 2 ft. . . 26,136 

10 in. X 30 in 20,908 

10 in. X 36 in. or 3 ft. . . 17.424 

10 in. X 42 in 14.935 

10 in. X 48 in. or 4 ft. . . 13,068 

10 in. X 64 in 11,616 

10 in. X 60 in. or 5 ft. . . 10,454 

12 in. X 15 in 34,848 

12 in. X 18 in 29,040 

12 in. X 20 in 26,136 

12 in. X 30 in 17,424 

12 in. X 42 in 12,446 

12 in. X 64 in 9,680 

15 in. X 16 in 27,878 

15 in. X 18 in 23,232 

15 in. X 20 in 20,908 

15 in. X 24 in. or 2 ft. . . 17.424 

15 in. X 30 in 13,939 

15 in. X 36 in. or 3 ft. . . 11,616 

15 in. X 42 in 9,953 

15 in. X 48 in. or 4 ft. . . 8,712 

15 in. X 54 in 7,744 

15 in. X 60 in. or 5 ft. . . 6,969 

18 in. X 18 in 19,360 

18 in. X 20 in 17,424 

18 in. X 24 in. or 2 ft. . . 14,520 

18 in. X 30 in 11,616 

18 in. X 36 in. or 3 ft. . . 9,680 

18 in. X 42 in 8,297 

18 in. X 48 in. or 4 ft. . . 7,260 

18 in. X 64 in 6.453 

18 in. X 60 in. or 5 ft. . . 6,808 

20 in. X 20 in 15.681 

20 in. X 24 in. or 2 ft. . . 13.068 

20 in. X 30 in 10,464 



PLAim 

20 in. X 36 in. or 3 ft. . . . 8,712 

20 in. X 42 in 7.467 

20 in. X 48 in. or 4 ft. . . . 6,534 

20 in. X 64 in 5,808 

20 in. X 60 in. or 6 ft. . . . 5,227 

1 ft. X 1 ft 43,660 

1 ft. X 2 ft. . . . . 21,780 

1 ft. X 3 ft 14,620 

1 ft. X 4 ft 10.890 

1 ft. X 6 ft 8,712 

1 ft. X 6 ft 7.260 

1 ft. X 7 ft 6.223 

1 ft. X 8 ft 5,446 

1 ft. X 9 ft 4,840 

1 ft. X 10 ft 4,366 

1 ft. X 11 ft 3.960 

1 ft. X 12 ft 3.630 

2 ft. X 2 ft 10,890 

2 ft. X 3 ft 7,260 

2 ft. X 4 ft 6.446 

2 ft. X 6 ft 4,366 

2 ft. X 6 ft 3,630 

2 ft. X 7 ft 3.111 

2 ft. X 8 ft 2,722 

2 ft. X 9 ft 2,420 

2 ft. X 10 ft 2,178 

2 ft. X 11 ft 1,980 

2 ft. X 12 ft. . . . . . . 1,815 

3 ft. X 3 ft 4,840 

3 ft. X 4 ft 3.630 

3 ft. X 5 ft 2,904 

3 ft. X 6 ft 2,420 

3 ft. X 7 ft 2,074 

3 ft. X 8 ft 1,816 

3 ft. X 9 ft 1,613 

3 ft. X 10 ft 1,452 

3 ft. X 11 ft 1,320 

3 ft. X 12 ft 1,210 

4 ft. X 4 ft 2,722 

4 ft. X 6 ft 2,178 

4 ft. X 6 ft 1,815 

4 ft. X 7 ft 1,666 

4 ft. X 8 ft 1,361 

4 ft. X 9 ft 1,210 

4 ft. X 10 ft 1,089 

4 ft. X 11 ft 990 

4 ft. X 12 ft 907 

5 ft. X 6 ft 1,742 

5 ft. X 6 ft 1,452 

5 ft. X 7 ft 1,244 

5 ft. X 8 ft 1,089 

6 ft. X 9 ft 968 

5 ft. X 10 ft 871 

6 ft. X 11 ft 792 

6 ft. X 12 ft 726 

6 ft. X 6 ft 1,210 

6 ft. X 7 ft 1,037 

6 ft. X 8 ft 907 

6 ft. X 9 ft 806 

6 ft. X 10 ft 726 



122 



PLANTING-TABLES 



Plants 

6 ft. X 11 ft. 660 

6 ft. X 12 ft 605 

7 ft. X 7 ft 889 

7 ft. X 8 ft 777 

7 ft. X 9 ft 691 

7 ft. X 10 ft 622 

7 ft. X 11 ft. . . . . . . 665 

7 ft. X 12 ft 518 

8 ft. X 8 ft 680 

8 ft. X 9 ft 605 

8 ft. X 10 ft 644 

8 ft. X 11 ft 495 

8 ft. X 12 ft 463 

9 ft. X 9 ft 637 

9 ft. X 10 ft 484 

9 ft. X 11 ft 440 

9 ft. X 12 ft 403 

9 ft. X 14 ft 345 

9 ft. X 16 ft 322 

9 ft. X 18 ft 268 

9 ft. X 20 ft 242 

10 ft. X 10 ft 435 

10 ft. X 12 ft 363 

10 ft. X 15 ft 290 

10 ft. X 18 ft 242 

10 ft. X 20 ft 217 

10 ft. X 24 ft 181 

10 ft. X 30 ft 145 

10 ft. X 36 ft 121 

10 ft. X 42 ft 103 

10 ft. X 46 ft 96 

10 ft. X 48 ft 90 

10 ft. X 54 ft 80 

10 ft. X 60 ft 72 

12 ft. X 12 ft 302 

12 ft. X 15 ft 242 

12 ft. X 18 ft 201 

12 ft. X 20 ft 181 

12 ft. X 24 ft 161 

12 ft. X 30 ft. 121 

12 ft. X 36 ft 100 

12 ft. X 42 ft 86 

12 ft. X 48 ft 76 

12 ft. X 64 ft 67 

12 ft. X 60 ft 60 

16 ft. X 15 ft 193 

15 ft. X 18 ft 161 

15 ft. X 20 ft 146 

15 ft. X 24 ft 121 

16 ft. X 30 ft 96 

15 ft. X 36 ft 80 

15 ft. X 42 ft 69 

15 ft. X 48 ft 60 

15 ft. X54ft . 53 

15 ft. X 60 ft 48 

18 ft. X 18 ft 134 

18 ft. X 20 ft 121 

18 ft. X 24 ft 100 

18 ft. X 30 ft 80 

18 ft. X 36 ft 67 



PLAinB 

18 ft. X 42 ft 57 

18 ft. X 48- ft 50 

18 ft. X 54 ft 44 

18 ft. X 60 ft 40 

20 ft. X 20 ft 108 

20 ft. X 24 ft 90 

20 ft. X 30 ft 72 

20 ft. X 36 ft 60 

20 ft. X 42 ft 61 

20 ft. X 48 ft 45 

20 ft. X 64 ft 40 

20 ft. X 60 ft 36 

24 ft. X 24 ft 75 

24 ft. X 30 ft 60 

24 ft. X 36 ft 60 

24 ft. X 42 ft 43 

24 ft. X 48 ft 37 

24 ft. X 64 ft 33 

24 ft. X 60 ft 30 

30 ft. X 30 ft 48 

30 ft. X 36 ft 40 

30 ft. X 42 ft 34 

30 ft. X 48 ft 30 

30 ft. X 64 ft 26 

30 ft. X 60 ft 24 

36 ft. X 36 ft 33 

36 ft. X 42 ft 28 

36 ft. X 48 ft 26 

36 ft. X 64 ft 22 

36 ft. X 60 ft 20 

38 ft. X 38 ft 30 

38 ft. X 40 ft 28 

38 ft. X 42 ft 27 

38 ft. X 48 ft 23 

38 ft. X 60 ft 22 

38 ft. X 64 ft 21 

38 ft. X 60 ft 19 

40 ft. X 40 ft 27 

40 ft. X 42 ft 25 

40 ft. X 48 ft 22 

40 ft. X 60 ft 21 

40 ft. X 64 ft 20 

40 ft. X 60 ft 18 

42 ft. X 42 ft 24 

42 ft. X 48 ft 21 

42 ft. X 54 ft 19 

42 ft. X 60 ft 17 

48 ft. X 48 ft 18 

48 ft. X 64 ft 16 

48 ft. X 60 ft 15 

50 ft. X 50 ft 17 

60 ft. X 54 ft 16 

50 ft. X 60 ft 14 

54 ft. X 64 ft 14 

54 ft. X 60 ft 13 

60 ft. X 60 ft 12 

70 ft. X 70 ft 8 

80 ft. X 80 ft 7 

90 ft. X 90 ft 5 

100 ft. X 100 ft 4 



FAMILY GARDEN 



123 



Qmncwnx pUmt- 
ing. 

To find the num- 
ber of plants re- 
quired to set an 
acre by the quin- 
cunx method, ascer- 
tain from the above 
tables the number 
required at the 
given rectangular 
distances, and then 
increase the number 
by one-half. 

The real quincunx 
planting places a 
tree in the center of 
the square. The^ji 
trees cannot all be 
equal distance apart. 
The so-called quin- 
cunx that places all 
trees at equal dis- 
tances is only the 
square method run- 
ning diagonally 
across the field. 

Plan for a Home 
Garden (Fig. 4) 

Many plans may 
be found in books 
and periodicals for 
home gardens. 
They are not to be 
accepted literally, 
but as suggestions 
of the problems in- 
volved- 



(H^^ 




w 

-79''' 



Hhtf rf 



^InmXtaM^. — ..... — . 

"If— . .a«r^«Mifli... — ..... 

L Cviiic 6«»MK .Ovftmrn^tft £o>£vX Idwt. fii«yMnv. .... — 

. A... ........^■.AMnAWIV.J«MN»J«JOI0«.. ........... 

•tfwvviinf'. 4'5rf^v^ v-r% • • • • « 



• • 



.. yflU&MEJSW&eWC. . 

tfsf%.QrvJSrm[Smi 



jg' 

B 

Fig. 4. — A garden for a family of six 
persons (Suburban Life). 



CHAPTER VII 

Matubities, Yields, and Multiplication 

Ant figures of dates of maturity of the various plants or crops and 
of 3rields must necessarily be only approximately or averagely correct ; 
but methods of multiplication allow of more definite statement. 

Maturity-Tables 

Time required for maturity of different garden crops, reckoned from the 
sowing of the seeds 

Days FRoit Skbd 

Beans, string 45-65 

Beans, shell 65-70 

Beets, turnip 65 

Beets, long blood 150 

Cabbage, early 105 

Cabbage, late 150 

Cauliflower 110 

Com 75 

Egg-plant 150-160 

Lettuce 65 

Melon, water 120-140 

Melon, musk 120-140 

Onion 135-150 

Pepper 140-150 

Pumpkin 100-125 

Radish 30-45 

Squash, summer 60-65 

Squash, winter 125 

Tomatoes 150 

Turnips 60-70 

Time required, from setting, for fruii^plants to hear, (For northern and 
central latitudes) 

Apple — 3 to 5 years. Good crop in about 10 to 18 years. 
Apple, on paradise stocks, good crops in 4 to 5 years. 
Blackberry — 1 year. Good crops in 2 and 3 years. 

124 



MATURITY AND YIELD TABLES 



126 



Citrous fruits (oranges, lemons, etc.) — 2 to 3 years. Good crop 
2 or 3 years later. 

Cranberry — 3 years gives a fair crop. 

Currant — 1 year. Grood crops in 2 and 3 years. 

Gooseberry — 1 year. Good crops in 2 and 3 years. 

Grape — Fair crop in 4 years. 

Peach — 2 years. Good crop in 4 and 5 years. 

Pear — 3 or 4 years. Fair crop in 6 to 12 years ; dwarfs in 5 to 7 
years. 

Persimmon, or ICaki — 1 to 3 years. 

Quince — 2 years. Grood crop in 4 years. 

Raspberry — 1 year. Good crop in 2 and 3 years. 

Plum — 3 years. Good crop in 5 or 6 years. 

Strawberry — 1 year. Heaviest crop usually in 2 years. 



Average profitable longevity of fruit^plants under high ctUttwe 



Apide 35-50 yean 

(Leas in parts of the prairie states 
and more in northeastern states.) 

Blackberry 6-10 years 

CiUTant 20 years 

Gooseberry 20 years 

Orange and Lemon . . 50 or more 



Peach &-12 years 

Pear 50-75 years 

Persimmon, or^Kaki, as long as an 
apple-tree. 

Plum 20-25 years 

Raspberry 6-10 years 

Strawberry 1-3 years 



When serious trouble from diseases is to be apprehended, the plan- 
tation may be brought into early fruiting and then destroyed before the 
disease makes great headway. This is particularly applicable to black- 
berries, rasi>berries, and strawberries. 



Yield- Tables 

Average full yields per acre of various horticultural crops 

The yields of those crops in which the salable products are equal in 
niunber to the number of plants per acre, and in which the product is 
sold by the piece, are to be calculated from the planting-tables in 
Chap. VI — such as cabbage, celery, and the like. Usually the profits 
are secured from yields above the average. The statements here 
given are growers' estimates rather than census figures. 

Apples — A tree 20 to 30 years old may be expected to yield from 
25 to 40 bushels every alternate year. 



126 MATURITIES, YIELDS, AND MULTIPLICATION 

Artichoke — 200 to 300 bushels. 

Beans, Green or Snap — 75 to 120 bushels. 

Beans, Lima — 75 to 100 bushels of dry beans. 

Beets — 400 to 700 bushels. 

Carrots — 400 to 700 bushels. 

Com — 50 to 75 bushels, shelled. 

Cranberry — 100 to 300 bushels. 900 bushels have been reported. 

Cucumber — About 150,000 fruits per acre. 

Currant — 100 bushels. 

Egg-plant — 1 or 2 large fruits to the plant for the large sorts like 
New York Purple, and from 3 to 8 fruits for the smaller varieties. 

Gooseberry — 100 bushels. 

Grape — 3 to 5 tons. Good raisin vineyards in California, 15 years 
old, will produce from 10 to 12 tons. 

Horseradish — 3 to 5 tons. 

Kohhubi — 500 to 1000 bushels. 

Onion, from seed — 300 to 800 bushels. 600 bushels is a large 
average yield. 

Parsnips — 500 to '800 bushels. 

Pea, green in pod — 100 to 150 bushels. 

Peach — In full bearing, a peach tree should produce from 5 to 10 
bushels. 

Pear — A tree 20 to 25 years old should give from 25 to 45 
bushels. 

Pepper — 30,000 to 50,000 fruit-s. 

Plum — 5 to 8 bushels may be considered an average crop for an 
average tree. 

Potato — 100 to 300 bushels. 

Quince — 100 to 300 bushels. 

Raspberry and blackberry — 50 to 100 bushels. 

Salsify — 200 to 300 bushels. 

Spinach — 200 barrels. 

Strawberry — 75 to 250 or even 300 bushels. 

Tomato — 8 to 16 tons. 

Turnip — 600 to 1000 bushels. 

For yields of seeds in various garden crops (by seed-growers), see 
p. 105. 



YIELD-TABLES 



127 



Yidds of field crops (Cydo. Am. Agric.) 
Aa reported by obaervers in several parts of the continent 







QtTSBBC 


Nbw Yobk 


NOBTH CaBOUNA 


Alabama 




Average 


Average 


Best 


Average 


Best 


Average 


Best 


Alfalfa. . . . 


3 tons 


2.3 tons 


7 tons 


1.7 tons 


5 tons 


3.5 tons 


7 tons 


Barley . . 




25 bu. 


23.9 bu. 


50 bu. 


10 bu. 


25 bu. 


12 bu. 


45 bu. 


Beans, field 




20 bu. 


10.5 bu. 


45 bu. 


10 bu. 








Broom-corn 






5651b. 


10001b. 


455 1b. 




4001b. 


6001b. 


Buckwheat 




25 bu. 


16.9 bu. 


40 bu. 


10 bu. 


30 bu. 






(TabtMse . 




12 tons 


10 tons 


40 tonal 


100 crates 


200 crates 


5 tons 


10 tons 


Carrots 




12 tons 


10 tons 


20 tons 










Clover . . 




2 tons 


1.1 tons 


4 tons 


1-2 tons 


3 tons 


2 tons 


3 tons 


Cotton. . 










Hbale 
10 bu. 


2 bales 


2001b.> 


10001b. 












30 bu. 






Cowpeas . 
Fid<i-pat . 










1.5 tons 


5 tons 


10 bu. 


30 bu. 




25 bu. 


17.1 bu. 


45 bu. 


1-2 tons 








Flax . . 




15 bu. 


8.5 bu. 


15 bu. 










Kohlrabi . 


















JfS?~. 










1.25 tons 


2 tons 




2 tons 




25 bu. 


32 bu. 


100 bu. 


13 bu. 


100 bu. 


14 bu. 


76 bu. 


Manseb . 




20 tons 


24 tons 


40 tons 










MdUotus . 










2 tons 




2 tons 


3.5 tons 


MUlet . . 






1.7 tons 


5 tons 


1.5 tons 


4 tons 


1 ton 


3 tons 


OaU . . 




35 bu. 


32 bu. 


80 bu. 


10 bu. 


50 bu. 


15 bu. 


70 bu. 


Parsnips . . 






3.35 bu. 


1000 bu. 










Potatoes . 
Pumpkin . 
Rape . . 




150 bu. 


79 bu. 


600 bu. 


70 bu. 




60 bu. 


300 bu. 




20 tons 














Ri« : . . 










3601b. 




12 bu. 


30 bu. 






10 tons 


14 tons 


30 tons 


100 bu. 








Rye ... 




15 bu. 


16 bu. 


35 bu. 


5.5 bu. 


20 bu. 


7bu. 


20 bu. 


Sorghum . . 










5-6 tons 
12 bu. 


10 tons 
40 bu. ' 


2.5 tons 
15 bu. 


7 tons 
25 bu. 


Soybean . 










1.7 tons 


4 tons 


1.7 tons 


4 tons 


Sugar-beets 




15 tons 


7.8 tons 


30 tons 










Sugarcane 










7-8 tons 


12 tons 


200> 


600» 


Sweei-potatoe 
Tirootby . 


M . 




119 bu. 


200 bu. 


85 bu. 




80 bu. 


400 bu. 




2 tons 


1.1 ton 


4 tons 


1-2 tons 


4 tons 






Tobacco . 




1000 lb. 


1155 lb. 




6501b. 




5001b. 


10001b. 


Turnips . 




10 tons 


12 tons 


28 tons 


100 bu. 








Vetch . . 




2 tons 






1-2 tons 


3 tons 


1.5 tons 


3 tons 


Wheat . . , 




15 bu. 


18.9 bu. 


60 bu. 


7-8 bu. 


30 bu. 


8bu. 


30 bu. 



' Including varieties grown for stock-feeding. 



>Lint. 



* Gallons of syrup. 



128 MATURITIES^ YIELDS, AND MULTIPLICATION 



Yields offiM crops — Continued 

Aa reported for this volume by observerB in aeyeral parts of the oo&tinent 







Indiana 


WUCONHN 


Manitoba 


Eastkbn Tbzas 




Average 


Best 


Average 


Best 


Average 


Best 


Average 


Best 


Alfalfa . . . 


3-4 tons 


6 tons 


3 tons 


6 tons 


3 tons 


4 tons 


3 tons 


7tons 


Bariey . . . 


25 bu. 


40 bu. 


30 bu. 


65 bu. 


30 bu. 


75 bu. 






Beana. field . 






18 bu. 


30 bu. 






150 bu. 


200 bu. 




















Buckwheat 






15 bu. 


35 bu. 










Cabbage . . 














4000 1b. 


60001b. 


Carrots . 








10 tons 


18 tons 


300 bu 


800 bu. 


90001b. 


12.0001b. 


Clover . 




1.5 tons 


2.5 tons 


3bu.seed 
1.5 tons 


5bu.seed 
4 tons 


2 tons 


4 tons 






Cotton . 
















1.5 tons 


2balaB 


Cowpeas 
Field-pea 




18 bu. 


30 bu. 


8bu. 


15 bu. 






3 tons 








10 bu. 


25 bu. 


40 bu. 


65 bu. 


40 bu. 


60 bu. 


Flax . . 








13 bu. 


25 bu. 


18 bu. 








Kohlrabi 
Lespedexa 
Maue . 
















1200 1b. 


20001b. 




40 bu. 


100 bu. 


41 bu. 


100 bu. 






30 bu. 


90 bo. 


Mangels 
Melilotus 




IS tons 


25 tons 


25 tons 


60 tons 


800 bu. 


1200 bu. 


5 tons 


6 tons 








2.5 tons 


4 tons 










MUlet . 




1.7 tons 


4 tons 


30bu.8eed 
2 tons 


65bu.seed 
4 tons 


2 tons 


4 tons 


1 ton 


2tonB 


Oats . . 




30 bu. 


80 bu. 


36 bu. 


97 bu. 


40 bu. 


110 bu. 


35 bu. 


8Cbu. 


Parsnips 








8 tons 


15 tons 


300 bu. 


600 bu. 


9000 1b 


12.0001b. 


Potatoes 




100 bu. 


200 bu. 


92 bu. 


400 bu. 


300 bu. 


800 bu. 


60 bu. 


150 bu. 


Pumpkin 
















6 tons 


8 tons 


Rape . 








15 tons 


35 tons 


10 tons 








Rioe 
















50 bu. 


100 bu. 


Rutabaga 








12 tons 


40 tons 


500 bu. 


1000 bu. 


6 tons 


8 tons 


Rye . . 




14 bu. 


60bu.i 


16 bu. 


40 bu. 


20 bu. 


40 bu. 






Sorghum 




9 tons 


15 tons 


15bu.8eed 


2obu.seed 






2.5 tons 


6 tons 








8 tons 


15 tons 










Soybean . . 


20 bu. 


35 bu. 


15 bu. 


35 bu. 










SugaM)eets . 


14 tons 


20 tons 


12 tons 


30 tons 


300 bu. 


800 bu. 


4 tons 


6 tons 


Sugar-cane 














25 tons 


40 tons 


Sweet-potatoes 














100 bu. 


400 bu- 


Timothy . . 


1.5 tons 


2 tons 


1.5 tons 


3.5 tons 


1.5 tons 


4 tons 






Tobacco 


, 






1280 1b. 


1800 1b. 






8001b. 


12001b. 


Turnips 


. 






10 tons 


35 tons 


600 bu. 


1100 bu. 


6 tons 


8 tons 


Vetch . 


, 






8 tons > 


12 tons' 


2 tons 


3 tons 






Wheat . 


• 


14 bu. 


45 bu. 


12 bu. 


35 bu. 


27 bu. 


56 bu. 


12 bu. 


48 bu. 



« Winter rye. 



* Green feed. 



YIELD-TABLES 



129 



YieUU of field crops — Continued 
As reported for this volumo by observers in several parts of the continent 





New Mrxico 


Wtomino 


Washington 


BnmsH Co- 
lumbia 




Average 


Best 


Average 


Best 


Average 


Best 


Range 


Alfalfa . . 
Barley . . 
Beans, field . 
Broom-corn . 
Buckwheat . 
Cabbage. . 
CarroU . . 
Clover . . 
Cotton . . 
Cowpeas 
Field>pea . 
Flax . . . 
Kohlrabi 
Lespedesa . 
Maue . . 
Mangels . . 
Metilotus . 
Maiet . . 
Oats . . . 
Parsnips . . 
Potatoes 
Pumpkin 

Rape . . . 
Rice . . . 
Rutabaga . 
Rye . . . 
Sor^um 
Soybean . 
Sugar-beets . 
Sugar-cane . 

Timothy . . 

Tobacco . . 
Turnip . . 
Vetch. . . 

Wheat . . 


3 tons 
40 bu. 
600 1b. 

22 bu. 
35 bu. 

11.5 tons 
10.0001b. 

30 bu. 


7 tons 
70 bu. 
1000 1b. 

60 bu. 
85 bu. 

19.5 tons 
18.0001b. 

63 bu. 


3 tons 
35 bu. 

12.0001b. 
18 bu. 

40 bu. 
75 bu. 

15 tons 
18 bu. 

10 tons 

1.5 tons 

25.5 bu. 


8.5 tons 

16.150 lb. 
21.1071b. 

34.7 bu. 
16 bu. 
15.4751b. 

137 bu. 
8200 lb. 
972 bu. 

34 bu. 
28.7 tons 

40 tons 

50bu.> 
78 bu.« 


6 tons 1 
29.7 bu. 
13 bu. 
3000 1b. 
19.4 bu. 

476 bu. 

2.2 tons 

26 bu. 
5.7 bu. 

21 bu. 
600 bu. 

1.5 tons 
42 bu. 
377 bu. 
142 bu. 
1384 
pumpkins 

14.6 bu. 

3.3 tons 
2.0 tons 
00 bu. 
3.7 tons 
1.5 tons 

236 lb. 

3 tons 
25 bu. 


lOtons* 
80 bu. 

5 tons 

40 bu. 

160 bu. 
600 bu. 

18 tons* 

irrigated 
dry land 

100 bu. 


35bu.tol05bu. 
15 bu.to 25 bu. 

13bu.to41bu. 
3ton5ito25tnns 
4 tons to 85 tons 
1.5 tons to 4.5 1. 

25 bu.to 106 bu. 

10 t. to 16 tons 

10t.to45t.» 
13 t. to 50 1. 

1 ton to 6 tons 
35bu.tol25bu. 

8 1. to 28.5 1. 

20 1. to 63 1. 
15bu.to.32bu. 

4.5 tons 
6 tons to 23 tons 

2 t. to 5.5 tons 
llbu.to43bu. 



1 Under irrigation. On dry land, 2.5 tons and 4 tons, respectively. 
* Under Irri^itioa. * Field culture. * Garden culture. * For silage. 



130 



MATURITIES^ YIELDS, AND MULTIPLICATION 



Propagation-Tables 

Tabidar statement of the ways in which plants are propagated^ 



A, Bt Sbbdb — Seedage 



I. On their 
own roots 



B.BtBxtzw 



I. Byunde- 
tached 
parts — 
Layerage 



II. By de- 
detached 
parts 



n. On roots 
of other 
plants — 
Chraftage 



1. Root-tips. 

2. Stolons and runners. 

3. Layers proper. 
Simple. 
Serpentine. 
Mound or Stools. 
Pot or Chinese. 

1. By undivided parts. — Separa- 
tion. (Bulbs, conns, bulblets, bulb 
scales, tubers, etc.) 

' Division. 
Cuttings 
proper. 
Of stems. 
Growing 
wood. 
Ripened 
wood. 
Of tubers. 
Ofrooto. 
Of leaves. 

I. By de- ri. Budding: Shield, flute, veneer, 
tached rin^, annular^ whistle or tubular, 
scions \ 2. Grafting : Whip, saddle, splice, 

veneer, deft, bark, herbaceous, 
seed, double, cutting. 

II. By undetached scions. — Inarching, 



By divided parts 
— Cuitage 



Particular methods by which variotu fruits are multiplied 



Barberry . 
Orange 
Figs . . 
Mulberry 

Olive . . 



Pomegranate 

Apple and Pear .... 
Peach and other stone-fruits 



Quince 

Grape 

Currant and Gooseberry . . 
Raspberries, red .... 
Raspberries, black and purple 

Blackberry 

Dewberry 

Dwarf Juneberry .... 
Cranberry 



Cuttings of mature wood ; seeds. 
Seeds; seedlings budded or grafted. 
Cuttings, either of soft or mature wood. 
Cuttings of mature wood. Some varieties are 

root-grafted, and some are budded. 
Cuttings of mature or even old wood. Chips 

from the trunks of old trees are sometimes used' 
Cuttings, layers, and seeds. 
Seeds; seedlings budded or mfted. 
Seeds; seedlings budded. Peach-trees are sold at 

one year from the bud, but other stone-fruit 

trees are planted when two or three years old. 
Cuttings, usually ; the cuttings often gnifted. 
Cuttings of from one to three buds ; layers. 
Cuttings ; gooseberry oftener by mound-layers. 
Suckers from the root ; root-cuttings. 
Layers from tips of eaues ; root-cuttings. 
Root-cuttings ; suckers from the root. 
Layers of tips of the canes ; root-cuttings. 
Sprouts or suckers from the root. 
Layers or divisions. 



> Modified from a synopsis prepared by B. M. Watson, Jr., Buasey Institution. 



PROPAGATION-TABLES 131 

Strawberry Runners; tip-cuttings. 

Banana Suckers from the crown. 

Stocks commonly used for variot^8 fruits 

Almond Peach, hard-shell almond, plum. 

Apple Common apple seedlings, Paradise and Doucin 

stocks, crab-apple and wild crab. ** French 
crab " stocks are common apple seedlings reared 
in France and imported. 

Apricot Apricot and peach m mild climates, and plum in 

severe ones ; Marianna. 

Cherry Mazzard stocks are preferred for standards; 

Mahaleb stocks are used for dwarfing. The 
wild pin-cherry (Pruniu Pennsylvanica) is 
sometimes used as stock in the Northwest, on 
account of its hardiness. Seedlings of Mbrelio 
cherries are also used there. 

Medlar Hawthorn, medlar, quince. 

Mulberry Seedlings of white and Russian mulberry; cut- 
tings of Downing. 

Orange Seedlings; Otaheite orange, shaddock; Citrua 

trifoliata, particularly for dwarfs. 

Peach and Nectarine . . . Peach. Plum is often used when dwarfs are 

wanted, or when the peach must be grown in a 
too severe climate or upon heavy soil. 

Pear Pear (seedlings of common pear and the Chinese 

type). Quince (rarely mountain ash, or 
thorn) for dwarfs. Apple temporarily. 

Persimmon, Japanese . . Native persimmon. 

Plum Plum, mjrrobalan plum, peach ; Marianna. 

Quince The finer varieties are sometimes grafted upon 

strong-growing kinds like the Angers. When 
cuttings are diffi^lt to root, they are some- 
times grafted upon apple roots, the foster-root 
being removed upon transplanting, if it does 
not fall away of itself. 

How vegeiohle crops are propagated 

By seeds 

Artichoke, globe also by offsets (see p. 132) Kohlrabi 

Asparagus Leek 

Beans of all kinds Lettuce ^ 

Beet Martynia 

Borecole or kale Muslonelon 

Brussels sprout Mustard 

Cabbage Onion (see also p. 132) 

Carrot Parsley 

Cauliflower and broccoli Parsnip 

Celeriac Pea 

Celery Pepper 

Chicory Pumpkin 

Com Salsify 

C>)m-flalad Spinach 

Cress Squash 

Cucumber Tomato 

Dandelion Turnip 

£sK-;pl&nt Watermelon 

Endive 



132 



MATURITIES, YIELDS, AND MULTIPLICATION 



By other means than seeds 

Artichoke, globe ; by seeds, but many worthless plants may be secured ; by 
suckers about the crown of the old plant, if particular strains are to be per- 
petuated. 

Artichoke, Jerusalem ; by tubers, or divisions of the tubers. 

Horseradish, cuttings of side roots. 

Mushroom, by spawn (or dried and prepared mycelium) ; latterly also by 
spores. 

Omon, the '* black seed " or usual onions, by seed ; potato or Egyptian onions, 
by "tops" or bulblets borne in the place of flowers ; multipliers, by the natu- 
ral divisions of the bulbs. Onion "sets" are small dry onions that renew 
their growth when planted. 

Potato, cutting of the tubers. 

Rhubarb, or pie-plant ; by seeds, but these give variable progeny ; preferably 
oy division of the roots into strong eyes. 

Sea-kaie ,* by seeds, but better by root-cuttings from the best plants. 

Yam, Chinese. Bulblets from Uie axils of the leaves ; division of the root. 

How farm crops are propagated 



By seeds 



Alfalfa 

Barley 

Bean 

Broom-com 

Buckwheat 

Cabbage 

Clover 

Coffee, seeds started 

planted. 
Corn 
Cotton 
Cowpea 
Flax 
Ginseng 
Grasses 
Hemp 
Kafir 
MiUet 
Oats 



in beds, and trans- 



Peanut 

Pumpkin and Squash 

Rape 

Rice 

Root-crops 

Rubber, Para (Hevea), seeds in 

nurseiy beds. 
Rubber, Panama (Castilloa), 

seeds in nursery beds. 
Rubber, Ceara (Manihot), 

and cuttings. 
Rye 

Sorghum 
Sugar-beet 
Tea, in nursery beds 
Teasel 
Tobacco 
Vetch 
Wheat 



By other parts than seeds 

Arrow-root, division of underground parts. 

Cassava, mostly by cuttings of the seed-canes, as for sugar-cane ; eariy va- 
rieties sometimes by seeds. 

Hop, cuttings of the underground BteD[is or "roots." 

Potato, cuttings of the underground stems or tubers. 

Sugar-cane, cuttings of the canes ; rarely by seeds for production of new va- 
rieties. 

Sweet-potato, sprouts from the potatoes, in seed-beds. 



CHAPTER Vin 

Crops fob Special Fabh Practices. Home Storage and 
Keeping of Crops 

Different systems or plans of farming are expressed in the char- 
acter of the cropping scheme ; and some of these schemes are so special 
that they may be thrown together in a reference advice-book. 

Forage Crops 

Forage is herbage food, whether green or cured. The forage crops 
are grasses (whether utilized in meadows, pastures, or otherwise)/ all 
coarse natural grazing crops such as animals are likely to find provided 
in nature, and miscellaneous roots and vegetative part» grown specifi- 
cally for feeding purposes. They are distinguished from the threshed 
grains and aU mani^actured products. It will be seen at once that 
there are two cultural groups comprised in the class of forage crops, — 
the group occup3ring the land for a series of years (meadows and pas- 
tures), and the group comprising the annual-grown or biennial-grown 
plants (as maize, cowpca, pea, millet, roots). These groups overlap, 
however, so that no hard and fast line can be drawn between them. 

The word roughage is applied to the coarser forage products, as 
maize, cowpeas, kafir; sometimes it is used as equivalent to forage. 

Fodder is practically equivalent to the word " forage," but is less 
specific ; it is by some restricted to dried or cured forage. The word is 
commonly used for the coarser kinds, in distinction from hay. 

Some of the leading forage crops are alfalfa, cabbage, the various 
cereals, clovers, cowpea, kafir, maize or Indian com, mangels, millet, 
rape, soybean, sorghum, vetches. 

Soiling is the feeding of green harvested forage direct from the field to 
the animals. The feed is carried to them. This s>'stem is distinguished 
from pasturing. The animals are kept in small inclosures or in stalls, 
and thereby their feed is regulated and the standing crop is not injured 
by them. The term is probably derived from that use or origin of 
the verb " to soil " that indicates to satisfy or to fill. 

133 



134 CROPS FOR SPECIAL FARM PRACTICES 

A species of pasturing is sometimes known as soiling. By means 
of movable fences, the animals are allowed to graze a part of the crop 
clean and then to move on at the next feeding to fresh foraging. This 
use of the term is allowable, since the object is the same, — to supply 
the animal with a given amount of succulent food ; the animal does the 
harvesting. This practice may be knoWn as pasture soiling. 

It would not do to allow animals to roam at will and to gorge themselves 
in such crops as maize, growing grain, heavy alfalfa, clover, or cowpeas ; 
consequently the animals are soiled on these crops in one way or another. 

Silage is green or uncured forage that is preserved, or ensiled, in a 
tight receptacle or silo (see Chap. XXV). TTie following crops have at 
various times been reconmiended for ensiling: com, clovers, alfalfa, 
meadow-grasses, cowpeas, soybeans, Canada field peas, sorghum, sun- 
flower, millet, apple pomace, beet pulp, canning house refuse. 

Soiling Crops 

The more important soiling corps are: winter grains (cut before 
blooming), peas and oats, alfalfa, clover, vetch, soybeans, millet, oow- 
peas, com, sorghum, and rape. 

If it is desired to feed green crops throughout the entire season, the 
following rotation is suggested (WoU) : — 

(1) Winter wheat or rye, ready to cut and feed during May ; 

(2) Green clover, for feeding during the early part of June; 

(3) Oats and peas, sown as early as possible in the spring, and later 
two or three times at weekly intervals; available for feeding during 
the remainder of June and July; 

(4) Com, or com and sorghum, planted at the usual time, for feeding 
in August and September; 

(5) The land occupied by oats and peas when cleared may be sown to 
millet or barley, for feeding during the fall months. 

The following crops for partial soiling are recommended by Jordan : 
Tliree sowings of peas and oats in May and early Jime, and two 
plantings of com, one at the usual time, the other two weeks later. 
These crops will furnish a supply of green feed when this is most likely 
to be needed. Quincy included four crops in his system, viz. early 
clover (for feeding during May and June), oats (for July), com (for 
August), second growth of clover or grass (September to October 15), 
tops of carrots and turnips, cabbages (October 15 to November). 



SOILING CROP TABLES 



135 



Special rotations for soiling crops have been recommended by various 
authorities, and the farmer has the choice of a variety of crops that 
may be grown for this purpose. The rotations suitable for soiling in- 
cluded below are given as guides for farmers living in the states men- 
tioned, or under similar agricultural conditions (collected by WoU) : — 

Soiling crops adapted to northern New England (Lindsey) 
(For 10 cows' entire aoiling) 



KlKD 


Sbbd pbb Acrb 


Time or Sbso- 

ING 


Abba 


Time or Cuttino 


§^- : : : : 

Red clover . . . 

Grass and clover . 

Vetch and oaU 
Vetch and oats . . 

Psas and oats . . 

Peas and oats . . 

Barnyard millet . 
Barnyard millet . 
Soybeans (medium 
gr«en) .... 
Com ..... 


2bu. 

2bu. 

201b. 

li bu. red-top. 1 pk.l 

timothy, 10 lb. red 

I clover J 

3 bu. oato. 50 lb. vetch 

3 bu. oato. 50 lb. vetch 
{ U bu. Canada peas.1 
1 mbu.oato J 
f 11 bu. Canada peas,) 
t IH bu oato / 

IS: 

18 qt. 


Sept. 10-15 
Sept. 10-15 
July 15-Aug. 1 

September 

April 20 
April 30 

April 20 

April 30 

May 10 
May 25 
May 20 

May 20 
May 30 
July 15 

August 5 


k acre 
) acre 
{acre 

facie 

} acre 
1 acre 

i acre 

\ acre 
1 acre 
i acre 

k acre 
1 acre 
1 acre 

1 acre 


May 20-May 30 
June l>Jime 15 
June 15-June 25 

Junel5-Jimo30 

June 25-July 10 
JulylO-July20 

June 25-July 10 

JulylO-July20 

July25-Aug.l0 
Aug. 10-Aug. 20 
Aug.25-8ept.l5 

Aug 25-Sept. 10 


Corn 




Sept. 10-Sept. 20 


Hungarian 
Barley and peas . 


Ibu. 
fmbu-peas, IH bu.| 


Sept. 20-Sept. 30 
Oct. 1-Oct. 20 



Time of planting and feeding aoiling crops (Phelps) 

The datea given in the table apply to central Connecticut and regions under 
approximately similar conditions 



Kind or Foddbb 



Amount or 

SCBD 

PER Acrb 



Approximate 

TiMB 

or SsEDDva 



Approximate 
Time or 
Feeding 



1. Rye fodder 

2. Wheat fodder 

3. Clover 

4. Grass (from grass-lands) 

5. Oats and peas 

6. Oats and peas 

7. Oats and peas 

8. Hungarian 

9. Clover rowen (from 3) . . 

10. Soyb&fins 

11. Cowpeas 

12. Rowen grass (from grass- 

lands) 

13. Barley and peas .... 



2i^to3bu. 
2H to 3 bu. 
201b. 

2 bu. each 
2 bu. each 
2 bu. each 
lyi bu. 

1 bu. 
1 bu. 



2 bu. each 



September 1 
Sept. 5-10 
July 20-30 

April 10 
April 20 
April 30 
June 1 

May 25 
June &-10 



Aug. 5-10 



May 10-20 
May 20. June 6 
June 5-15 
June 15-25 
June 25, July 10 
July 10-20 
July 20, Aug. 1 
Aug. 1-10 
Aug, 10-20 
Aug. 20, Sept. 5 
Sept. 6-20 

Sept. 20-30 
Oct. 1-30 



136 



CROPS FOR SPECIAL FARM PRACTICES 



Soiling crops for Pennsylvania (Watson and Mairs) 



Cbop 



Arba roR 
10 Cows 



When to bb Fbd 



Rye 

^falfa 

Clover and timothy 

Peas and oats 

Alfalfa (second crop) .... 
Sorghum and cowpeas (after rye) 
Cowpeas (after peas and oats) 



3^ acre 
2 acres 
^ acre 

1 acre 

2 acres 
H acre 
1 acre 



May 15- June 1 
June 1-June 12 
June 12- June 24 
June 24- July 15 
July 15-Aug. 11 
Aug. U-Aug. 28 
Aug. 2&-Sept. 30 



Crops for partial soiling for Illinois during midsummer (Fraser) 



Kind of Foddbb 



1. Com, early, sweet, or dent 

2. Corn, medium, dent . 

3. Cowpeas 

4. Soybeans 

5. Oats and Canada peas 

6. Oats and Canada peas 

7. Rape (Dwarf Essex) . 

8. Rape, second sowing . 

9. Rape, third sowing 



Amount of 

Seed 
PER Acre 



6qt. 
5qt. 
1 bu. 
1 bu. 

1 bu. each 
1 bu. each 
4 1b. 
4 1b. 
4 1b. 



Approxucatb 

Time 
OF Seeding 



May 1 
May 15 
May 15 
May 15 
April 15 
May 1 
May 1 
June 1 
July 1 



Approximate Time op 
Fbboino 



July 1-Aug. 1 
Aug. 1-Sept. 30 
Aug. 1-Sept. 15 
Aug. 1-Sept. 15 
July 1-July 15 
July 15-Aug. 1 
July 1-Aug. 1 
Aug. l-Sept. 1 
Sept. 1-Oct. 1 



Succession of soiling crops for dairy cows for Wisconsin (Carlyle) 



Crop 



Fall ry« 

Alfalfa. . 

Red clover 

Peaa and 
oats . . 

Peaa and 
oats . . 

Oats . . 

Alfalfa (sec- 
ond crop.] 

Rape . . 

Flint com . 

Sorghum . 

Evergreen 
sweet com 

Rape . . 



Pounds 

of 

Seed 

PER 
ACRB 



2.5 
60 

2..'> 



Time 

FOR 

Sow- 
ing 



Approximate 



Time of Cutting 



gn 



Sept. 10 
Mar. 20 



April 16 

April 26 
May 5 



May 26 
May 20 
June 1 



May 31 Sept. 10-25 
July 20 Sfpt. 25-Oct. 10 



May 1&-June 1 
June 1-15 
June 15-25 

June 25-July 5 

July 5-15 
July 15-25 

July 15-30 
Aug. 1-15 
Aug. 15-25 
Aug. 25-Sept. 10 



248 
72 

70 

70 
70 

67 
86 
86 

102 
67 



I 

la 



Dborebs op 
Maturitt 



Before blooming 
Before blooming 
Id bloom 

In milk 

In milk 
InmUk 

Before bloominc 

Mature 

In Bilk 

When well headed 

In silk 
Mature 



Palata- 
Biurr 



Poor 
Fair 
Fair 



Averace 
Average 

Average 
Good 
Very good 
Very good 

Very good 
Good 



Remarka. — Feed in stable during dav and turn cows on pasture at night, or feed carefully 
in the pasture, spreading the forage. After cutting rye. use same groxmd for the rape, flint 
com, and sorghum, and after cutting peon and oats, use same ground for evergreen sweet ooni 
and rape. After oatA, sow peas and barley. In this way a single acre only is required 
(except alfalfa, which is permanent), and the forage produced is ample succulent feed for 
ten cows for nearly half, the year. 



SOILING CROPS 



137 



Mississippi, — " One of the best, surest and safest crops for soiling 
is sorghum, planted thick, and with the rows not over two feet apart. 
The sorghum may follow a crop of oats or some other early crop, and 
will withstand dry weather better than most other plants. Cow- 
peas are good, and com may be used satisfactorily on land that will 
produce fair to large yields." (Moore.) 

Kansas. — Dates when soiling crops are avulable: Alfalfa, May 
20 to September 30 ; wheat, June 1 to June 15 ; oats, June 15 to June 
30 ; sweet com, July 15 to July 31 ; field com, August 1 to September 
15 ; sorghimi, August 1 to September 30 ; kafir, August 1 to Sep- 
tember 30; wheat and lye pasture, until the ground freezes. (Otis.) 

Dates far planting and using soiling crops in western Oregon and western 
Washir^fton (Hunter) 



Csops 


Wmif Plantbd 


When Ub«d 


Rye and vetch . . . 
Winter oats and vetch 


September 1-15 


April 1-May 15 
May 15-July 1 


September and October 


Winter wheat and vetch 


September and October 


May 15-^July 1 


Red dover .... 




May 15-July 1 
During June 
During June 


Alfalfa 




Oata and peas . . . 


February 


Oata and vetch . . . 


February 


June 15-July 15 


Oats and peas . . . 


April 
May 1 


During July 


Rape 


During July 


Oats and peas . . . 


May 


During August 


Rape 


June 


During August 


Com 


May 10-20 


During August, Septem- 
ber, and October. 


Turnips 


July 1 


Late fall and early winter 


Thousand-headed kale . 


March 15 and trans. June 1 


October 15-April 1 


Mang^ carrots and 


April 


Oct. 15^April 1 (fed from 


rutabagas .... 




bins, pits, or root-houses). 



Rotation used successfully by practical dairymen in the middle latitudes 

(40* N.) 



Cbop 



Rye and vetches . . 
Wheat and vetches . 
Red and alsike clover 
Oats and Canada peas 
Very early sweet com 
Late sweet com . . 
Sorghum and cowpeas 



ScsDiNo TniB 



September 

September 

April or August 

April 

May 

May and June 

June 



Qemd pbb Acrx 



2 bu. rye, i bu. vetch 
2 bu. rye, 1 bu. vetch 
25 to 30 lb. 
2 bu. oats, 2 bu. peas 
8qt. 
6 qt. 

10 qt. sorghum, 50 qt. 
peas 



In Pbimb FxKDnro 
Condition 



April 25 to May 10 
May 10 to June 1 
June 1 to June 25 
June 25 to July 10 
July 10 to July 25 
July 25 to Aug. 25 
Aug. 25 to frost 



138 CROPS FOR SPECIAL FARM PRACTICES 

Cover-Crops 

A cover-crop is one that is grown for its effect as green-manure or 
protection, or otherwise, rather than for its value as a product of itself. 
Cover-crops are used 

1. To prevent the loss of soluble plant-food, which occurs when the 
lands are left uncovered during the late fall and winter ; 

2. To prevent the galling or surface erosion of hillsides or slopes 
by winter rains; 

3. To prevent root injury by excessive freezmg of orchard lands ; 

4. To supplj' humus; 

5. To improve the physical condition of the land. 

Legumes used as cover-crops: red clover and Canada field-peas, 
widely useful in the northern tier of states ; alfalfa in the western states 
and California; soybeans, cowpeas, and crimson clover in the central 
and southern states ; velvet bean and beggarweed, especially useful only 
in the South ; hairy vetch and spring vetch, most successfully used in 
the South, though rather generally grown in the northern states ; sweet 
clover and, for peculiar conditions, serradella. 

Non-legumes used as cover-crops : rye, wheat, oats, and barley, of 
the cereals, are more commonly used ; rape and turnips, which are not 
hardy in the northern sections ; buckwheat, white mustard, and spurry 
under special conditions. 

Some of the leading cover-crops mentioned or recommended for 
fruit plantations (the leguminous or nitrogen-gathering species being 
starred) : — 

Living over winter: — 

* Clovers. 

* Hairy or winter vetch (Vicia villosa), 

* Sweet clover (little used). 
Winter rye. 

Winter wheat. 

Killed by freezing: — 

* Cowpea. 
•Soybean. 
♦Velvet bean. 
♦Pea. 



COVER-CBOPS 139 



* 



Bean. 



qt. of spring or winter 
vetch (seed) weighs 
lilb. 



* Beggarweed. 

♦Spring vetch (Vicia saliva) . 

Rape. 

Turnip. 

Oats. 

Bariey (little used). 

Buckwheat. 

Maize. 

Millet (little used). 

Average quantities of seed per acre for heavy cover-crops in fruit plantations 

Barley 2-2^ bu. 

Beans 1)^-2 bu. 

Beggarweed 5-8 lb. 

Buckwheat 13^ bu. 

Clover, red 10-15 lb. 

Clover, mammoth 15-20 lb. 

Clover, crimson 15-20 lb. 

Cowpea l>4-2 bu. 

Maise 2-3 bu. 

MUlet 1J4 bu. 

Oats 2-3 bu. 

Pea .• 2-3 bu. 

Rape 2-5 lb. 

Rye lH-2bu. 

Soybean 2-4 pk. 

Sweet clover 10-12 lb. 

Turnip 4 1b. 

Velvet bean 1-4 pk. 

Vetch 20lb.tolHbu. 

Wheat 2-2H bu. 

Alfalfa (20 to 24 lb. to the acre) is sometimes used as a cover-crop 
in orchards, being plowed a year from sowing or allowed to remain for 
a longer period. Various combinations or mixtures are also used : as 
mammoth clover, 6 lb., alfalfa, 10 lb., turnip, 2 to 3 oz. ; alfalfa, 6 lb., 
crimson clover, 6 lb., alsike clover, 3 lb., straps-leaf turnip, 2 to 3 oz., 
all sown in midsummer. Cowpeas in drills and cultivated, and rye. 
rape, or turnips added at the last cultivation. Winter vetch, 1 bu., 
rye, J bu. Cowpea, 1 J bu. ; red clover, 6 lb. Oats, 2 bu. ; peas, 2 bu. 

Catch-Crops 

Catch-crops are those crops that occupy the ground for short inter- 
vals between the growing of other crops, in order to secure more prod- 
ucts within a given time. 



140 



CROPS FOR SPECIAL FARM PRACTICES 



Nitrogen-oonsuming catch-crops: rye, wheat, buckwheat, turnips, 
dwarf. Essex rape. 

Nitrogen-gathermg catch-crops: red clover, 15 lb. per acre; mam- 
moth clover, 15 lb. ; alsike clover, 5 lb. with 5 lb. red clover ; crimson 
clover, 12-15 lb.; alfalfa, 25-35 lb. broadcast or 15-25 lb. driUed; 
Canada field-pea, ^-2 bu. ; cowpea, 1-1 1 bu., broadcast; soybean, 1-1) 
bu. broadcast, or 2-3 pk. drilled ; velvet bean, 1 bu. ; sand or winter 
vetch, U-2 bu. 

The amount of nitrogen contained in various crops : — 



Tons pbb 

ACRB 

Grbbn 



NiTROOBN 

Lb. 



Organic 
Mat 

Lb. 



Cowpeas . . . 
Soybeans . . . 
Cnmson clover 
AUike clover . . 
Red clover . . . 
Canada field-i)eas 



48 
60 
60 
60 
60 
50 



1020 
2640 
2160 
2640 
2400 
2200 



Nurse-Crops 

Plants used to aid, shield, or shade other plants, until the other plants 
become established, are nurse-plants. Grain is a nurse-crop when it 
is used as an aid to seeding to grass. Nurse-cropping is practiced in 
forestry, also. 

Field Root-Crops (Minns) 

Seeds of the mangel may be sown in central New York from May 
1 to June 1, with expectation of a good crop. Ltate frosts do not en- 
danger the young plants ; and if the ground is in good condition the 
earlier they are sown in the month of May, the longer the growing 
season will be. They are not seriously affected by dry weather if 
given good tillage. They are mature enough to harvest by October 1 , 
and may be allowed to remain in the ground until November 1 with 
safety. Hard freezing weather damages the part of the root that 
stands above ground, and therefore it is safe to have them harvested 
before November. 

Seeds of carrots are slow to germinate, and must be planted near the 
surface of the ground. It is essential to have the best of soil and weather 



BOOT-CROPS 141 

conditions for them. From May 20 to June 20 inclusive would be 
the proper time for sowing carrots in this latitude. They do not make 
much growth until the heat of summer is past. The seedlings are 
very feeble, and require much hand tillage ; but after harvest time 
is over, and especially after August and September rains, carrots make 
vigorous growth until late in the autumn. As the root grows mainly 
below the surface of the ground, they need not be harvested as early 
as mangels. They may remain out of doors, and will continue to in- 
crease somewhat in size until the ground begins to freeze. It is better to 
harvest them before bad weather sets in. 

Rutabagas do not require as long a season in which to mature as do 
carrots or mangels; They are also sensitive to drought during mid- 
summer. In order to have them mature at a time in the autmnn when 
they are wanted for feed or to store away for winter use, it is best to 
plant the seed from June 1 to 20 inclusive. The seed germinates 
readily, and the plants soon become large enough to till easily. From 
seed sown in June, the crop will usually matiure by October 1, 
which is early enough for stock-feeding purposes. They may be left out 
of doors until cold weather comes, in November. 

White turnips of different sorts will mature in a comparatively short 
time. They also are sensitive to smnmer drought, and therefore it is 
best to sow the seed fom July 20 to 30 inclusive. Even then their suc- 
cess is dependent very largely on the amount of moisture in the soil 
at the time of sowing and during the month that follows. If conditions 
are favorable, they will mature by November 1, and as they are not 
easily damaged by frost, they can be allowed to remain out of doors until 
freezing weather sets in. 

White turnips are frequently sown as a catch-crop after a crop of 
early potatoes has been removed, or at the last cultivation of a field of 
com which has been planted early. Sown in this way, the cost of grow- 
ing them is low and consistent with their value for feeding purposes. 

Of the four types of root-crops named, the mangels are the most 
reliable in this locality, and the carrots the most expensive to grow. 

Methods of Keeping and Storing Fruits and Vegetables 
Apples. 

1. Keep the fruit as cool as possible without freezing. Choose 
only normal fruit, and place it upon trays in a moist but well-ventilated 



142 CROPS FOR SPECIAL FARM PRACTICES 

cellar. If it is desired to keep the fruit particularly nice, allow no 
fruits to touch each other upon the trays, and the individual fruits may 
be wrapped in tissue paper. For market purposes, pack tightly in barrels 
after the apples have shrunk, and store the barrels in a very cool place. 

2. Some solid apples, as Spitzenburgh and Newtown, are not 
injured by hard freezing, if they are allowed to remain frozen until 
wanted and are then thawed out very gradually. 

3. Many apples, particularly russets and other firm varieties, 
keep well when buried after the manner of pitting potatoes. Some- 
times, however, they taste of the earth. This may be prevented by 
setting a ridge-pole over the pile of apples in forked sticks, and 
making a roof of boards in such a way that there will be an air 
space over the fruit. Then cover the boards with straw and earth. 
Apples seldom keep well after removal from a pit in spring. 

4. Apples may be kept by burying in chaff. Spread chaff — buck- 
wheat-chaff is good — on the barn floor, pile on the apples and cover 
them with chaff and fine broken or chopped straw 2 feet thick, exercising 
care to fill the interstices. They may be covered in leaves or moss. 

Cabbage, 

The most satisfactory method of keeping cabbages is to bury them 
in the field. Choose a dry place, pull the cabbages, and stand them 
head down on the earth. Cover them with soil to the depth of 6 or 
10 inches, covering very lightly at first to prevent heating — unless the 
weather should quickly become severe — and as winter sets m, cover 
with a good dressing of straw or coarse manure. The cabbages should 
be allowed to stand where they grew until cold weather approaches. 
The storing beds are usually made about 6 or 8 feet wide, so that the 
middle of the bed can be reached from either side, and to prevent heat- 
ing if the weather should remain open. Cabbages quickly decay in the 
warm weather of spring. 

Cabbage for family use is most conveniently kept in a barrel or box 
half buried in the garden. Cabbages and turnips should never be 
kept in the house cellar, as when decaying they become very offensive. 

Cdery, 

For market purposes, celery is stored in temporary board pits, in 
sheds, in cellars^ and in various kinds of earth pits and trenches. The 



STORING CELERY— GLACE FRUIT 143 

points to be considered are, to provide the plants with moisture to 
prevent wilting, to prevent hard freezing, and to give some ventilation. 
The plants are set loosely in the soil. There are several methods of 
keeping celery in an ordinary cellar for home use. The following 
methods are good : — 

Secure a shoe or similar box. Bore one-inch holes in the sides, 
four inches from bottom. Put a layer of sand or soil in the box, and 
stand the plants, trimmed carefully, upon it, closely together, working 
more sand or soil about the root part, and continuing until the box 
is full. The soil should be watered as often as needed, but always 
through the holes in the side of the box. Keep the foliage dry. 

Celery may also be stored and well blanched at the same time, in 
a similar way, by standing it in a barrel upon a layer of soil. Some 
roots and soil may be left adhering to the plants. Crowd closely, 
water through holes near the bottom, as in case of box storage, and keep 
the plants in the dark. 

Blanched celery can also be preserved for a long time by trinuning 
closely and packing upright in moss inside of a box. A large quantity 
of the vegetable may thus be stored in a small space. 

CrystaUued or glad fruit. 

The principle is to extract the juice from the fruit and replace it 
with sugar sjmip, which hardens and preserves the fruit in its natural 
shape. The fruit should be all of one size and of a uniform degree 
of ripeness, such as is best for canning. Peaches, pears, and similar 
fruits are pared and cut in halves; plums, cherries, etc., are pitted. 
After being properly prepared, the fruit is put in a basket or bucket 
with a perforated bottom and immersed in boiling water to dilute and 
extract the juice. This is the most important part of the process, and 
requires great skill. If the fruit be left too long, it is over-cooked 
and becomes soft; if not long enough, the juice is not sufficiently 
extracted, and this prevents perfect absorption of the sugar. After 
the fruit cools, it may again be assorted as to softness. The syrup 
is made of white sugar and water. The softer the fruit, the heavier 
the syrup required. The fruit is placed in earthen pans, covered with 
syrup, and left about a week. This is a critical stage, as fermentation 
will soon take place ; and when this has reached a certain stage, the fruit 
3nd syrup are heated to the boiling-point, which checks the fermenta- 



144 CROPS FOB SPECIAL FARM PRACTICES 

tion. This b repeated, as often as may be necessary, for about six 
weeks. The fruit is taken out of the syrup, washed in clean water, and 
either glac^d or crystallized, as desired. It is dipped in thick syrup, 
and hardened quickly in the open air for glao6ing,orleft to be hardened 
slowly if to be crystallized. The fruit is now ready for packing, and 
will keep in any climate. 

Figs. 

After the figs are gathered and dried in the same way as peaches or 
apricots, wash to remove all grit, and spread in shallow pans, and set 
them in the oven to become thoroughly heated, taking care to prevent 
scorching. Then roll in powdered sugar, which has been rolled to 
remove all limips. When cold, pack away, preferably in paper bags. 
They make a delicious lunch with a bowl of milk. They are also ex- 
cellent for the dessert. 

Gooseberries keep well if kept tight in common bottles filled with pure 
water. Be sure that none but perfect berries are admitted, and keep 
in a cool place. The berries should be picked before they are ripe, 
or edible from the hand, — in the stage at which they are used for 
culinary purposes. 

Grapes. 

1. The firm grapes usually keep best — as Catawba, Vergennes, 
Niagara, Diana, Jefferson, etc. Thickness of skin does not appear 
to be correlated with good keeping qualities. Always cut the bunches 
which are to be stored on a dry day, when the berries are rii>e, and care- 
fully remove all soft, bruised, and imi>erfect fruits and all leaves. Keep 
the fruit dry, cool, and away from currents of air. Many varieties 
keep well if simply placed in shallow boxes or baskets and kept undis- 
turbed in a cool, rather moist place. 

2. Pack the bunches in layers of dry, clean sand. 

3. Pack in layers of some small grain, as wheat, or oats, or barley. 

4. Cork-dust is also excellent for use in packing grapes. This cork 
can be had from grocers who handle the white Malagas, which are 
packed in this material. 

5. Pack the bunches in finely cut, soft, and dry hay, placing the 
grapes and hay in consecutive layers. 

6. Dry hardwood sawdust is also good for packing. 



KEEPING QRAPE8 145 

7. Place on shelves in a cool, airy room. After a few days wrap 
the bunches separately in soft pai>er, and pack in shallow pasteboard 
boxes, not more than two or three layers deep. Keep in a cool, dry 
room that is free from frost. 

8. Cut the bunches with sliarp scissors, place in shallow baskets, 
but few in a basket, and after reaching the house dip the cut end of 
stems in melted wax. Now take tissue paper or very thin manila 
paper cut just to the right size, and carefully wrap each cluster of 
grapes. Secure shallow tin boxes; place a layer of cotton-batting 
at the bottom, then a layer of grapes, then batting; three layers of 
grapes are enough for one box, alternating with cotton-batting, and 
topping with batting ; then gently secure the lid to each box, and when 
done place in cold storage for use in April, or even later. If cold storage 
cannot be had, put in a dry, cool room, and when cold weather ap- 
proaches, cover in an interior closet with just sufficient covering to 
prevent freezing; warmth will cause over-ripening and deterioration. 

9. Roe's method. — In a stone jar place alternate layers of grapes 
and straw paper, the paper being in double thickness. Over the jar 
place a dotii, and buiy below frost in a dry soil. The grapes will keep 
until New Year's. 

Keeping grapes for market (W. M. Patlison, Quebec). 

It is the generally received opinion that the thick-skinned native 
seedlings are the only keepers. This is correct as regards preserving 
flavor, but several hybrids of foreign blood are the best keepers known. 
B^ore giving results of this and former triab, instructions in packing 
may be of service. The varieties intended to be laid up for winter use 
should be those alone which adhere well to the stem and are not inclined 
to shrivel. These should be allowed to remain on the vines as long as 
they are safe from frost. A clear, dry day is necessary for picking, 
and careful handling and shallow baskets are important. The room 
selected for the drying process should be well ventilated, and the fruit 
laid out in single layers on tables or in baskets where the air circulates 
freely, the windows being closed at night and in damp weather. In 
albout ten days the stems will be dried out sufficiently to prevent mold- 
ing when laid away. When danger from this is over, and the stems 
resemble those of raisins, the time for packing has arrived. In this, 
the point to be observed is to exclude air proportionately with their 



146 



CROPS FOB SPECIAL FARM PRACTICES 



tendency to mold. I have used baskets for permanent packing, but 
much prefer shallow trays or boxes of uniform size to be packed on 
each other, so that each box forms a cover for the lower, the upper- 
most only needing one. Until very cold weather, the boxes can be 
piled 80 as to allow the remaining moisture to escape through a crevice 
about the width of a knife-blade. Before packing, each bunch should 
be examined, and all injured, cracked, and rotten berries removed with 
suitable scissors. If two layers are packed in a box, a sheet of paper 
should intervene. The boxes must be kept in a cool, dry room or pas- 
sage, at an even temperature. If the thermometer goes much below 
freezing-point, a blanket or newspaper can be thrown over them, to 
be removed in mild weather. Looking over them once in the winter 
and removing defective berries will suffice, the poorest keepers being 
placed accessibly. Under this treatment the best keepers will be in 
good edible order as late as February, after which they deteriorate. 

The following is a list of grapes worth noticing, that have been tested 
for keeping : — 



Description 


List or Grapes to bb Recommended 


J 


Nov. 1 


Lady, Antoinette, Carlotta, Belinda. 


1 
k 

i 


Dec. 1 


Lady Washington, Peter Wylie, Mason, Worden, Senaaqua, 
Romell, Ricketts No. 546, Concord, Delaware. 


Jan. 1 


Duchess, Essex, Barry, Rockland, Favorite, Aminia, Garber, 
Massasoit, Dcmpsey. Burnet, Undine, Allen Hybrid, 
Agawam, Gen. Pope, Francis Scott. 


Feb. 1 


Salem, Vergennes, Eldorado. 


3 


Jan. 15 


Wilder. Herbert, Peabody, Rogers No. 30, Gaertner, Mary, 
and Owosso. 



Onions demand a dry cellar, and the bulbs should be thoroughly 
dried in the sun before they are stored. All tops should be cut away 
when the onions are harvested. If a cellar cannot be had, the bulba 
may be allowed to freeze, but great care must be exercised or the whole 
crop will be last. The onions must not be subjected to extremes 
of temperature, and they should not thaw out duripg the winter. 
They can be stored on the north side of a loft, being covered with two 



KEEPING FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 147 

or three feet of straw, hay, or chaff to preserve an equable temperature. 
They must not be handled while frozen, and they must thaw out very 
gradually in the spring. This method of keeping onions is reliable 
only when the weather is cold and tolerably uniform, and it is little 
employed. 

Orange, 

Aside from the customary wrapping of oranges in tissue paper and 
packing them in boxes, burying in dry sand is sometimes practiced. 
The fruit is first wrapped in tissue paper, and it should be buried in 
such manner that the fruit shall not be more than three tiers deep. 

Pears, 

Pears should be picked several days or even two weeks before they 
are ripe, and then placed in a dry and well-ventilated room, as a 
chamber. Make very shallow piles, or, better, place on trays. They 
will then ripen up well. The fruits are picked when full grown but 
not ripe, and when the stem separates readily from the fruit-spur if 
the pear is lifted up. All pears are better for being prematurely picked 
in this way. Winter pears are stored in the same manner as winter 
apples. 

Quinces are kept in the same way as winter apples and winter pears. 
Some varieties, particularly the Champion, may be kept until after 
New Year's in a good cellar. 

Roots of all sorts, as beets, carrots, salsify, parsnips, can be kept from 
wilting by packing them in damp sphagnum moss, like that used by 
nurserymen. They may also be packed in sand. It is an erroneous 
notion that parsnips and salsify are not good until after they are frozen. 

Squashes should be stored in a dry room in which the temperature 
is uniform and about 50°. Growers for market usually build squash 
houses or rooms and heat them. Great care should be taken not to 
bruise any squashes which arc to be stored. Squashes procured from 
the market have usually been too roughly handled to be reliable for 
storing. 



148 CROPS FOR SPECIAL FARM PRACTICES 

Sweet-potaiQ. 

In the North. — Dig the potaft>es on a sunny day, and allow them to 
dry thoroughly in the field. Sort out the poor ones, and handle the 
remainder carefully. Never allow them to become chilled. Then 
pack them in barrels in layers, in dry sand, and store in a warm cellar. 
They are sometimes stored in finely broken charcoal and wheat-chaff. 

Sometimes they are kept in small and open crates, without packing- 
material, the crates being stacked so as to allow thorough ventilation. 
The Hayman or Southern Queen keep well in this way. 

A warm attic is often a good place in which to store sweet^potatoes. 
A tight, warm room over a kitchen is particularly good. 

In the South (Berckmans). — Digging the tubers should be delayed 
until the vines have been sufficiently touched by frost to check vegeta- 
tion. Allow the potatoes to dry off in the field, which will take but a 
few hours. Then sort all those of eating size to be banked separately 
from the smaller ones. The banks are prepared as follows : Make a 
circular bed six feet in diameter, in a sheltered comer of the garden, 
throwing up the earth about a foot high. Cover this with straw and 
bank up the tubers in shape of a cone, using from 10 to 20 bushels to each 
bank. A triangular pipe made of narrow planks to act as a ventilator 
should be placed in the middle of the cone. Cover the tubers with 
straw 6 to 10 inches thick, and bank the latter with earth, first using 
only a small quantity, but increasing the thickness a week or ten days 
afterwards. A board should be placed upon the top of the ventilating 
pipe to prevent water from reaching the tubers. Several banks are 
usually made in a row, and a rough shelter of boards built over the 
whole. The main point to be considered in putting up sweet potatoes 
for winter is entire freedom from moisture and sufficient covering to 
prevent heating. It is therefore advisable to allow the tubers to under* 
go sweating (which invariably occurs after being put in heaps) before 
covering them too much ; and if the temporary covering is removed for 
a few hours, a week after being heaped, the moisture generated will be 
removed and very little difficulty will follow from that cause. If 
covered too thickly at once, the sweating often endangers rapid fer- 
mentation, and loss is then certain to follow. Sand is never used here 
in banking potatoes. Some varieties of potatoes keep much better 
than others. The Yellow Sugar yam and the Pumpkin yam are the 



TOMATOES — COLD STORAGE 



149 



most difficult to carry through ; while the Trinidad potato keeps as 
readily as Irish potatoes, only requiring to be kept free from frost and 
light by a slight covering of straw, if the tubers are placed in a house. 
Next in keeping quality come Hayti yam, Red-skinned, Brimstone, 
Nigger Killer; and last of the potato section is the Nansemond. 

Tomato. 

Pick the firmest fruits just as they are beginning to turn, leaving the 
stems on, exercising care not to bruise them, and pack in a barrel or 
box in clean and thoroughly dry sand, placing the fruits so that they 
will not touch each other. Place the barrel in a dry place. 

In the autumn when frosts appear, tomatoes, if carefully picked and 
laid on straw under the glass of cold frames, will continue to ripen until 
Dear Christmas. Green but full-grown tomatoes may be gradually 
ripened by placing them in cupboards or bureau drawers. 

The ripening of tomatoes may be hastened ten days by bagging them 
as grapes are bagged. 

Cold Storage 

Storing under refrigeration is mostly a business by itself, and is 
therefore out of reach of a general book of rules. However, a few 
figures drawn from experience may be useful to the farmer: — 

Temperature for fruits and vegetables in cold storage (Rochester Cold 

Storage Co.) 



QOOM 


TWMTWMATXJRm 


Goods 


TmnuuTURs 


Apple.* 

Berries 

Canned Boodfl .... 

Celery 

Cherries 

Cranberries 

Dried berries .... 
Dried apples .... 

Dried corn 

Dates 

Evaporated apples . . 

Figs 

Grapes 


30-33° 

36° 

35° 

32° with care 

36° 

33° 

30-32° 

30° 

30° 

35° 

30° 

33° 

36° 


Lemons 

Maple Sjmip . . . 

Nuts 

Oranges 

Pears 

Peaches or plums . . 

Prunes 

Quinces 

Raisins 

Vegetables .... 

Wine 

Watermelons . . . 


36° 

36° 

35° 

36° 

32° with care 

35° 

35° 

30° 

35° 

35° 

40° 

35° 



^ ApplM are often carried aa low as 30*. in a dry-air circulating room ; the heavier- 
■kinnedapplee may be carried as low as 29*. With pears and celery, which contain much 
water, care ahould be taken that they do not go below freesing. 



CHAPTER IX 

Commercial Grades of Crop Products. Fruit Packages 

The market grades or classes of some products have been veiy care- 
fully standardized. This is particularly true of grains, hay, and straw, 
and to a less extent of fruit. In prepared animal products there has 
been very little standardizing by societies or committees. 

Cotton Grades 

No printed rules have been formulated for the official grading of 
cotton, as this work proceeds upon the basis of a set of types of actual 
cotton, adopted as standard on the recommendation of a committee 
representing the entire cotton industry. Tliese sets of cottons are 
made up by the United States Department of Agriculture and furnished 
to all applicants at the cost of their preparation. The samples are put 
up in specially prepared boxes. 

In the Cotton Grades, as now being issued by the Department of 
Agriculture, several new ideas have been embodied, conspicuous among 
which is the protection of the grades by photographs. Each of the nine 
grade boxes contains twelve samples of cotton, separately packed, 
representing as nearly as possible the range of diversity in the grade 
represented. The boxes are twenty inches square; inside the lid of 
each is a full-size photograph showing the appearance of the cotton 
when certified by the Secretary of Agriculture. As each particle of 
trash and each material unevenncss in the surface of the cotton is sho^Ti 
in the photograph, it is evident that any material change in the appear- 
ance of the cotton itself can easily be detected by comparison with the 
photograph. Of course these photographs make no pretension to show 
the grade of the cotton, — only the position of the .trash and fiber. 
The seal of the Department of Agriculture and the signature of the 
Secretary, together with a seal-impress certifying the grade of the 
cotton, appear on the photograph. Experts of the highest class have 

150 



HAY AND STRAW 151 

been employed in the preparation of the Official Cotton Grades, and 
each set is a correct copy of the original types promulgated by the 
Secretary of Agriculture on the recommendation of Committee. 

Grades of Hay and Straw (Established by the National Hay Associa- 
tion, Inc.) 
Hay. 

Choice Timothy Hay — Shall be timothy not mixed with over one- 
twentieth other grasses, properly cured, bright, natural color, sound, 
and well baled. 

No. 1 Timothy Hay — Shall be timothy with not more than one- 
eighth mixed ^ith clover or other tame grasses, properly cured, good 
color, sound, and well baled. 

No. 2 Timothy Hay — Shall be timothy not good enough for No. 1, 
not over one-fourth mixed with clover or other tame grasses, fair color, 
sound, and well baled. 

No. 3 Timothy Hay — Shall include all hay not good enough for 
other grades, sound, and well baled. 

Light Clover Mixed Hay — Shall be timothy mixed with clover. 
The clover mixture not o\'er one-fourth, properly cured, sound, good 
color, and well baled. 

No. 1 Clover Mixed Hay — Shall be tunothy and clover mixed, with 
at least one-half timothy, good color, sound, and well baled. 

No. 2 Clover Mixed Hay — Shall be timothy and clover mixed with 
at least one-third timothy. Reasonably sound and well baled. 

No. 1 Clover Hay — Shall be mediima clover not over one-twentieth 
other grasses, properly cured, sound, and well baled. 

No. 2 Clover Hay — Shall be clover, sound, well baled, not good 
enough for No. 1. 

No Grade Hay — Shall include all hay badly cured, stained, threshed, 
or in any way imsound. 

Choice Prairie Hay — Shall be upland hay of bright, natural color, 
well cured, sweet, sound, and may contain 3 p>er cent weeds. 

No. 1 Prairie Hay — Shall be upland and may contain one-quarter 
midland, both of good color, well cured, sweet, sound, and may contain 
8 per cent weeds. 

No. 2 Prairie Hay — Shall be upland, of fair color, and may contain 
one-half midland, both of good color, well cured, sweet, sound, and 
may contain 12i( per cent weeds. 



152 COMMERCIAL GRADES OF CROP PRODUCTS 

No. 3 Prairie Hay — Shall include hay not good enough for other 
grades and not caked. 

No 1. Midland — Shall be midland hay of good color, well cured^ 
sweet, sound, and may contain 3 per cent weeds. 

No. 2 Midland — Shall be fair color, or slough hay of good color, 
and may contain 12} per cent weeds. 

Packing Hay — Shall include all wild hay not good enough for other 
grades and not caked. 

No Grade Prairie Hay — Shall include all hay not good enough for 
other grades. 

AlJaLJa, 

Choice Alfalfa — Shall be reasonably fine, leafy alfalfa of bright 
green color, properly cured, sound, sweet, and well baled. 

No. 1 Alfalfa — Shall be coarse alfalfa of natural color, or reasonably 
fine, leafy alfalfa of good color, and may contain 5 per cent of foreign 
grasses ; must be well baled, sound, and sweet. 

No. 2 Alfalfa — Shall include alfalfa somewhat bleached, but of fair 
color, reasonably leafy, not more than one-eighth foreign grasses, sound, 
and well baled. 

No. 3 Alfalfa — Shall include bleached alfalfa, or alfalfa mixed with 
not to exceed one-fourth foreign grasses, but when mixed must be of 
fair color, sound, and well baled. 

No Grade Alfalfa — Shall include all alfalfa not good enou|^ for 
other grades, caked, musty, greasy, or threshed. 

Straw, 

No. 1 Straight Rye Straw — Shall be in large bales, clean, bright, 
long rye straw, pressed in bundles, sound, and well baled. 

No. 2 Straight Rye Straw — Shall be in large bales, long rye straw, 
pressed in bundles, sound, and well baled, not good enough for No. 1. 

No. 1 Tangled Rye Straw — Shall be reasonably clean rye straw, 
good color, sound, and well baled. 

No. 2 Tangled Rye Straw — Shall be reasonably clean; may be 
some stained, but not good enough for No. 1. 

No. 1 Wheat Straw — Shall be reasonably clean wheat straw, sound 
and well baled. 



HAY AND STRAW— GRAIN 



163 



No. 2 Wheat Straw — Shall be reasonably clean ; may be some 
stained, but not good enough for No. 1. 

No. 1 Oat Straw — Shall be reasonably clean oat straw, sound and 
well baled. 

No. 2 Oat Straw — Shall be reasonably clean ; may be some stained, 
but not good enough for No. 1. 

The above grades of hay and straw have been adopted by Exchanges 
in the following markets : — 



Minneapolis, Minn. 
JackaonviUet fla. 
Washington. D.C. 
Philadelphia^ Pa. 
New (Cleans, La. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Kansas City, Mo. 
Norfolk, Va. 
Duluth, Minn. 
Toledo. O. 



Richmond, Va. 
Buffalo. N.Y. 
Saginaw, Mioh. 
Atlanta, Ga. 
Savannah, Qa. 
Columbus, O. 
Baltimore, Md.^ 
Cleveland, O. 
Birmingham, Ala. 
Cincinnati, O.^ 
^ Using grades in part only. 



St. Paul, Minn. 
Nashville, Tenn. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Chicago, lU. 
Pittsburg, Pa. 
Louisville, Ky. 
State of Minnesota 
New York City 



Grades of Grain (Adopted by the Grain Dealers' National Associa- 
tion, 1909) 
Wh^ winter wheat. 

No. 1 White Winter Wheat — Shall include all varieties of pure soft 
white winter wheat, sound, pliunp, dry, jsweet, and clean, and weigh not 
less than 58 lb. to the measured bushel. 

No. 2 White Winter Wheat — Shall include all varieties of soft white 
winter wheat, dry, sound, and clean, and shall not contain more than 
8 per cent of soft red winter wheat, and weigh not less than 56 lb. to 
the measured bushel. 

No. 3 White Winter Wheat — Shall include all varieties of soft 
white winter wheat. It may contain 5 per cent of damaged 
grains other than skin-burnt wheat, and may contain 10 per cent of 
soft red winter wheat, and weigh not less than 53 lb. to the measured 
bushel. 

No. 4 White Winter Wheat — Shall include all the varieties of soft 
white winter wheat, not fit for a higher grade, in consequence of being 
of poor quality, damp, musty, or dirty, and shall not contain more 
than 10 per cent of soft red winter wheat, and weigh not less than 50 lb. 
to the measured bushel. 



154 COMMERCIAL ORADBS OF CROP PRODUCTS 



Red winter wheat. 

No. 1 Red Winter Wheat — Shall be pure soft red winter wheat of 
both light and dark colors, sound, sweet, plump, and well cleaned, and 
weigh not less than 60 lb. to the measured bushel. 

No. 2 Red Winter Wheat — Shall be soft red winter wheat of both 
light and dark eolors, sound, sweet, and clean, shall not contain more 
than 5 per cent of white winter wheat, and weigh not less than 58 lb. 
to the measured bushel. 

No. 3 Red Winter Wheat — Shall l^e sound, soft red winter wheat, not 
clean or plump enough for No. 2, shall not contain more than 8 per cent 
of white winter wheat, and weigh not less than 55 lb. to the measured 
bushel. 

No. 4 Red Winter Wheat — Shall be soft red winter wheat, shall eon- 
tain not more than 8 per cent of white winter wheat. It may be damp, 
musty, or dirty, but must be cool, and weigh not less than 50 lb. to 
the measured bushel. 

Hard winter wheat. 

No. 1 Hard Winter Wheat — Shall include all varieties of pure, hard 
winter wheat, sound, plump, dry, sweet, and well cleaned, and weigh 
not less than 61 lb. to the measured bushel. 

No. 2 Hard Winter Wheat — Shall include all varieties of hard winter 
wheat of both light and dark colors, dry, sound, sweet, and clean, and 
weigh not less than 59 lb. to the measured bushel. 

No. 3 Hard Winter Wheat — Shall include all varieties of hard winter 
wheat of both light and dark colors, not clean or plump enough for Xo. 
2, and weigh not less than 56 lb. to the measured bushel. 

No. 4 Hard Winter Wheat — Shall include all varieties of hard winter 
wheat of both light and dark colors. It may be damp, musty, or dirty, 
and weigh not less than 50 lb. to the measured bushel. 

Northern spring V)heat. 

No. 1 Hard Spring Wheat — Shall be sound, bright, sweet, clean, and 
consist of over 50 per cent of the hard Scotch Fife, and weigh not less 
than 58 lb. to the measured bushel. 

No 1 Northern Spring Wheat — Must be northern-grown spring wheat. 



GRADES OF GRAIN 155 

sound, clean, and of good milling quality, and must contain not less than 
50 per cent of the hard varieties of spring wheat, and weigh not less than 
57 lb. to the measured bushel. 

No. 2 Northern Spring Wheat — Shall be northern-grown spring 
wheat, not clean enough or sound enough for No. 1, and must contain 
not less tlian 50 per cent of the hard varieties of spring wheat, and must 
weigh not less than 56 lb. to the measured bushel. 

No. 3 Northern Spring Wheat — Shall be composed of inferior shrunken 
northern-grown spring wheat, and weigh not less than 54 lb. to the 
measured bushel, and must contain not less than 50 per cent of the 
hard varieties of spring wheat. 

No. 4 Northern Spring Wheat — Shall include all inferior northern- 
grown spring wheat that is badly shrunken or damaged, and must con- 
tain not less than 50 per cent of the hard varieties of spring wheat, 
and shall weigh not less than 49 lb. to the measured bushel. 

Spring wheat. 

No. 1 Spring Wheat — Shall be sound, plump, and well cleaned, and 
weigh not less than 59 lb. to the measured bushel. 

No. 2 Spring Wheat — Shall be sound, clean, of a good milling 
quality, and weigh not less than 57^ lb. to the measured bushel. 

No. 3 Spring Wheat — Shall include all inferior, shrunken, or dirty 
spring wheat, and weigh not less than 53 lb. to the measured bushel. 

No. 4 Spring Wheat — Shall include all spring wheat damp, musty, 
grown, badly bleached, or for any cause unfit for No. 3, and weigh not 
less than 49 lb. to the measured bushel. 

White spring wheat. 

White Spring Wheat — The grades of Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 White Spring 
Wheat shall correspond with the grades of Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 Spring 
Wheat, except that they shall be of the white variety. 

Durum (Macaroni) wheal. 

No. 1 Durum Wheat — Shall be bright, sound, dry, well cleaned, and 
be composed of durum, commonly known as macaroni wheat, and weigh 
not less than 60 lb. to the measured bushel. 

No. 2 Durum Wheat — Shall be dry, clean, and of good milling 



156 COMMERCIAL GRADES OF CROP PRODUCTS 

quality. It shall include all durum wheat that for any reason is not 
suitable for No. 1 Durum, and weigh not less than 58 lb. to the measured 
bushel. 

No. 3 Durum Wheat — Shall include all durum wheat bleached, 
shrunken, or for any cause unfit for No. 2, and weigh not less than 55 
lb. to the measured bushel. 

No. 4 Dunmi Wheat — Shall include all durum wheat that is badly 
bleached or for any cause unfit for No. 3, and weigh not less than 50 lb. 
to the measured bushel. ' 

Velvet chaff wheat. 

No. 1 Velvet Chaff Wheat — Shall be bright, sound, and well cleaned, 
and weigh not less than 58 lb. to the measured bushel. 

No. 2 Velvet Chaff Wheat — Shall be sound, dry, clean, maybe slightly 
bleached, or shrunken, but not good enough for No. 1, and weigh not 
less than 57 lb. to the measured bushel. 

No. 3 Velvet Chaff Wheat -— Shall include all wheat that is bleached, 
smutty or for any other cause unfit for No. 2, and weigh not less than 55 
lb. to the measured bushel. 

No. 4 Velvet Chaff Wheat — Shall include all wheat that is very 
smutty, badly bleached and grown, or for any other cause unfit for 
No. 3. 

Pacific Coast wheat. 

No. 1 Pacific Coast Red Wheat — Shall be dry, sound, clean, and free 
from smut, and weigh not less than 59 lb. to the measured bushel. 

No. 2 Pacific Coast Red Wheat — Shall be dry, sound, clean, and only 
slightly tainted with smut and alkali, and weigh not less than 58 lb. 
to the measured bushel. 

No. 3 Pacific Coast Red Wheat — Shall include all other Pacific Coast 
red wheat. It may be smutty or musty, or from any other reason unfit 
for flouring purposes, and weigh not less than 54 lb. to the measured 
bushel. 

Pacific Coast white wheat shall be graded according to the rules for 
Pacific Coast red wheat. In case of a mixture of Pacific Coast 
wheat with our home-grown wheat, red or white, such mixture shall 
be graded " Pacific Coast Mixed Wheat." 



GRADES OF GRAIN 157 

The grades of Pacific white and Pacific red wheat are to include 
all such. wheats as are grown in the extreme Northwest and on the 
Pacific slope from either spring or winter seeding. 

Mixed wheat. 

Mixed Wheat — In case of an appreciable mixture of hard and soft 
wheat, red and white wheat (except as provided in the rule of red 
winter, white winter, and northern spring wheat), durum, and spring 
wheat, any of them with each other, it shall be graded according to 
the quality thereof, and the kind of wheat predominating, shall be 
classed as No. 1, 2, 3, and 4 Mixed Wheat, and the inspector shall make 
notation describing its character. 

Rye. 

No. 1 Rye — Shall be dry, sound, plump, sweet, and well cleaned, and 
shall weigh not less tlian 57 lb. to the measured bushel. 

No. 2 Rye — Shall be dry, sound, and contain not more than 1 per 
cent of other grain or foreign matter, and weigh not less than 55 lb. 
to the measured bushel. 

No. 3 Rye — Shall include inferior rye not unsound, but from any 
other cause not good enough for No. 2, and weigh not less than 53 lb. 
to the measured bushel. 

No. 4 Rye — May be damp, musty, or dirty, and weigh not less than 
50 lb. to the measured bushel. 

While oats. 

No. 1 White Oats — Shall be white, dry, sweet, sound, bright, clean, 
free from other grain, and weigh not less than 32 lb. to the measured 
bushel. 

No. 2 White Oats — Shall be 95 per cent white, dry, sweet, shall 
contain not more than 1 per cent of dirt and 1 per cent of other grain, 
and weigh not less than 29 lb. to the measured bushel. 

Standard White Oats — Shall be 92 per cent white, dry, sweet, shall 
not contain more than 2 per cent of dirt and 2 per cent of other grain, 
and weigh not less than 28 lb. to the measured bushel. 

No. 3 Wliite Oats — Shall be sweet, 90 per cent white, shall not con- 
tain more than 3 per cent of dirt and 5 per cent of other grain, and weigh 
not less than 24 lb. to the measured bushel. 



158 COMMERCIAL GRADES OF CROP PRODUCTS 

No. 4 White Oate — Shall be 90 per cent white, may be damp, 
damaged, musty, or very dirty. 

Notice. — Yellow oats shall not be graded better than No. 3 White 
Oats. 

Mixed Oats, 

No. 1 Mixed Oats — Shall be oats of various colors, dry, sweet, 
sound, bright, clean, free from other grain, and weigh not less than 
32 lb. to the measured bushel. 

No. 2 Mixed Oats — Shall be oats of various colors, dry, sweet, shall 
not contain more than 2 per cent of dirt and 2 per cent of other grain, 
and weigh not less than 28 lb. to the measured bushel. 

No. 3 Mixed Oats — Shall be sweet oats of various colors, shall not 
contain more than 3 per cent of dirt and 5 per cent of other grain, and 
weigh not less than 24 lb. to the measured bushel. 

No. 4 Mixed Oats — Shall be oats of various colors, damp, damaged, 
musty, or very dirty. 

Red or rust-proof oats. 

No. 1 Red Oats or Rust-Proof — Shall be pure red, sound, bright, 
sweet, clean, and free from other grain, and weigh not less than 32 lb. 
to the measured bushel. 

No. 2 Red Oats or Rust-Proof — Shall be seven-eighths red, sweet, 
dry, and shall not contain more than 2 per cent dirt or foreign matter, 
and weigh 30 lb. to the measured bushel. 

No. 3 Red Oats or Rust-Proof — Shall be sweet, seven-eighths red, 
shall not contain more than 5 per cent dirt or foreign matter, and weigh 
not less than 24 lb. to the measured bushel. 

No. 4 Red Oats or Rust-Proof — Shall be seven-eighths red, may be 
damp, musty, or very dirty. 

White dipped oats. 

No 1 White Clipped Oats — Shall be white, clean, dry, sweet, sound, 
bright, free from other grain, and weigh not less than 35 lb. to the 
measured bushel. 

No. 2 White Clipped Oats. — - Shall be 95 per cent white, dry, sweet, 
shall not contain more than 2 per cent of dirt or foreign matter, and 
weigh not less than 32 lb, to the measured bushel. 



GRADES OF GRAIN 159 

No. 3 White Clipped Oats — Shall be sweet, 90 per cent white, shall 
not contain more than 5 per cent of dirt or foreign matter, and weigh 
not less than 30 lb. to the measured bushel. 

No. 4 White Clipped Oats — Shall be 90 per cent white, damp, 
damaged, musty, or dirty, and weigh not less than 30 lb. to the measured 
bushel. 

Mixed clipped oala. 

No. 1 Mixed Clipped Oats — Shall be oats of various colors, dry, 
sweet, sound, bright, clean, free from other grain, and weigh not less 
than 35 lb. to the measured bushel. 

No. 2 Mixed Clipped Oats — Shall be oats of various colors, dry, 
sweet, shall not contain more than 2 per cent of dirt or foreign matter, 
and weigh not less than 32 lb. to the measured bushel. 

No. 3 Mixed Clipped Oats. — Shall be sweet oats of various colors, 
shall not contain more than 5 per cent of dirt or foreign matter, and 
weigh not less than 30 lb. to the measured bushel. 

No. 4 Mixed Clipped Oats — Shall be oats of various colors, damp, 
damaged, musty, or dirty, and weigh not less than 30 lb. to the 
measured bushel. 

Note — Inspectors are authorized, when requested by shippers, to 
give weight per bushel instead of grade on Clipped White Oats and 
Clipped Mixed Oats from private elevators. 

Purified oats. 

Purified Oats — All oats that have been chemically treated or 
purified shall be classed as Purified Oats, and inspectors shall give the 
test weight on each car or parcel that may be so inspected. 

Cam, 

The following maximum limits shall govern all inspection and grad- 
ing of corn : — 

Percentage cob rotten. Percentage 
Exclusive of bin burnt dirt and 

or mahogany corn broken grains 

1 1 

5 2 

10 4 

See No. 4 Corn rule, ail colors. 





Percentage 


Irade 


of 




Moisture 


1 


15 


2 


16 


3 


19 


4 


22 



160 COMMERCIAL GRADES OF CROP PRODUCTS 



WhUecom, 

No. 1 White Com — Shall be 99 per cent white, sweet, and well 
matured. 

No. 2 White Com — Shall be 98 per tsent white, and sweet. 

No. 3 White Com — Shall be 98 per cent white, and sweet. 

No. 4 White Com — Shall be 98 per cent white ; but shall include 
damp, damaged, or musty com. 

Yellow com. 

No. 1 Yellow Com — Shall be 99 per cent yellow, sweet, and well 
matured. 

No. 2 Yellow Com — Shall be 95 per cent yellow, and sweet. 

No. 3 Yellow Com — Shall be 95 per cent yellow, and sweet. 

No. 4 Yellow Com — Shall be 95 per cent yellow ; but shall include 
damp, damaged, or musty com. 

Mixed com. 

No. 1 Mixed Com — Shall be com of various colors, sweet and well 
matured. 

No. 2 Mixed Com — Shall be com of various colors, and sweet. 

No. 3 Mixed Com — Shall be com of various colors, and sweet. 

No. 4 Mixed Com — Shall be com of various colors ; but shall in- 
clude damp, damaged, or musty com. 

MUo-maize. 

No. 1 Milo-Maize — Shall be mixed milo-maize of choice quality, 
sound, dry, and well cleaned. 

No. 2 Milo-Maize — Shall be mixed milo-maize, sound, dry, and 
clean. 

No. 3 Milo-Maize — Shall be mixed milo-maize, not dry, clean, or 
sound enough for No. 2. 

No. 4 Milo-Maize — Shall include all mixed milo-maize that is 
badly damaged, damp, musty or very dirty. 

Milo-maize that is wet or in heating condition shall not be 
graded. 



GRADES OF GRAIN 161 

Kaffir com} 

No. 1 White Kaffir Corn — Shall be pure white of choice quality, 
sound, dry, and well cleaned. 

No. 2 White Ka& Com — Shall be seven-eighths white, sound, dry, 
and clean. 

No. 3 White Kaffir Com — Shall be seven-eighths white, not drj% 
clean or sound enough for No. 2. 

No. 4 White Kaffir Com — Shall be seven-eighths white that is badly 
damaged, damp, musty, or very dirty. 

No. 1 Red Kaffir Com — Shall be pure red com, of choice quality, 
sound, dry, and well cleaned. 

No. 2 Red Kaffir Com — Shall be seven-eighths red, sound, dry, 
and clean. 

No. 3 Red Kaffir Com — Shall be seven-eighths red, not dry,, clean, 
or sound enough for No. 2. 

No. 4 Red Kaffir Com — Shall be seven-eighths red that is badly 
damaged, damp, musty, or very dirty. 

No. 1 Kaffir Corn — Shall be mixed kaffir corn of choice quality, 
sound, dry, and well cleaned. 

No. 2 Kaffir Com — Shall be mixed kaffir corn, sound, dry, and clean. 

No. 3 Kaffir Com — Shall be mixed kaffir corn, not dry, clean, or 
sound enough for No. 2. 

No. 4 Kaffir Com — Shall include all mixed kaffir com that is badly 
damaged, damp, musty, or very dirty. 

Kaffir com that is wet or in heating condition shall not be graded. 

Barley (Barley Association of the United States). 

No. 1 Barley — Shall be sound, plump, bright, clean, and free from 
other grain, and not scoured nor clipped, shall weigh not less than 
48 lb. to the measured bushel. 

No. 2 Barley — Shall be sound, of healthy color (bright or straw 
color), reasonably clean and reasonably free from other grains and 
seeds, and not scoured nor clipped, shall weigh not less than 46 lb. to 
the measured bushel. 

* By Bome writers now spdled kafir, and written without the word " com." 
See Cycle. Amer. Agr. ii. 384, where the word "maixe" is also dropped from 
milo. " Kafir " is used in this book by preference. 

M 



162 COMMERCIAL GRADES OF CROP PRODUCTS 

No. 3 Barley — Shall include slightly shrunken or otherwise slightly 
damaged barley, not good enough for No. 2, and not scoured nor 
cUpped, shall weigh not less tlian 44 lb. to the measured bushel. 

No. 4 Barley — Shall include barley fit for malting purposes, not 
good enough for. No. 3. 

No. 1 Feed Barley — Shall test not less than 40 lb. to the measured 
bushel, shall be cool and reasonably free from other grain and seeds, 
and not good enough for No. 4, and may include barley with a strong 
ground smell, or a slightly musty or bin smell. 

Rejected Barley — Shall include all barley testing under 40 lb. to the 
measured bushel, or barley which is badly musty or badly damaged, 
and not good enough to grade " feed " barley, except that barley which 
has been chemically treated shall not be graded at all. 

Bay Brewing Barley — The grades of Nos. 1, 2, and 3 Bay Brewing 
Barley shall conform in all respects to the grades of Nos. 1, 2, and 3 
Barley, except that they shall be of the Bay Brewing variety, grown in 
the far West and on the Pacific Coast. 

Chevalier Barley — The grades of Nos. 1, 2, and 3 Chevalier Barley 
shall conform in all respects to the grades of Nos. 1, 2, and 3 Barley, 
except tliat they shall be of the Chevalier variety, grown in the far 
West and on the Pacific Coast. 

Bay Brewing Mixed Barley — In esse of admixture of Bay Brewing 
barley with barley of other varieties, it shall be graded according to the 
quality thereof, and classed as 1-2-3 Bay Brewing Mixed Barley. 

Chevalier Mixed Barley — In case of admixture of Chevalier barley 
with barley of other varieties, it shall be graded according to the quality 
thereof, and classed as 1-2-3 Chevalier Mixed Barley. 

Winter Barley, 

No 1 Winter Barley — Shall be plump, bright, sound, and clean, free 
from other grain, and weigh not less than 48 lb. to the measured 
bushel. 

No. 2 Winter Barley — Shall \ye sound, plump, may be stained, shall 
contain not more than 3 per cent of foreign matter, and weigh not less 
than 46 lb. to the measured bushel. 

No. 3 Winter Barley — Shall include all shrunken, stained, and 
dirty barley, shall contain not more than 5 per cent of foreign matter, 
and weigh not less than 44 lb. to the measured bushel. 



SIZES OF FRUIT PACKAGES 



163 



No. 4 Winter Barley — Shall include all barley not fit for a higher 
grade in consequence of being poor quality, damp, musty, or dirty ; shall 
contain not more than 10 per cent of foreign matter, and weigh not less 
than 40 lb. to the measured bushel. 

Sample grades — General rule. 

All wheat, barley, oats, rye and corn that is in a heated condition, 
souring, or too damp to be safe for warehousing, or that is badly 
bin-burnt, fire-burnt, fire-smoked, or badly damaged, mixed with 
garlic, onions, or containing live weevil, exceedingly dirty, or where 
different kinds of grain are badly mixed with one another, shall be 
classed as Sample Grade, and the inspector shall make notations as 
to quality and condition. 

Fruit Packages 

Sizes and weights of packages for deciduous fruits (California Fhiit 

DiBtributors) 

Weinhts in first table, sizes in second 

Cherri€8 11 pounds per box 

Peaches 21 1^ pounds per box 

Pears 50 pounds per box 

Pears for export to Europe 24 pounds per box 

Prunes 26 pounds per single crate 

Apricots 26 pounds per single crate 

Nectarines 25 ]X>unds per single crate 

Plums 26 ]X>unds per single crate 

Grapes 26 pounds per single crate 

Grapes 56 pounds per double crate 



Cherries, box 

Peaches, box 

Pears, box 

Pears, for export to Europe, box 
Apricots, sin^e crate .... 
Nectarines, single crate . . . 
Prunes, single crate .... 

Plums, single crate 

Grapes, single crate .... 
Grapes, double crate .... 



Depth 



2^ 

5 

9 

5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
11^ 



In Inches 



Width 



9 
UVa 

iiH 

llH 

16 

16 

16 

16 

16 

16 



Leogth 



19H 
19H 
19H 
19H 
17H 
17H 
17H 
17^ 
17H 
17^ 



164 COMMERCIAL GRADES OF CROP PRODUCTS 

Chautavqiui, N. F., grape figiares. 

The grapes are shipped in 8-pound Climax baskets, which weigh, 
when not filled, 20 ounces. A carload is 2800 to 3000 baskets. A 
girl will pack from 100 to 150 baskets per day. One and one-fourth 
cents per basket is paid for picking and packing. An average acre of 
Concord grapes yields about 500 baskets. The average annual cost 
of cultivating the vineyard up to picking time is $8. The expense of 
picking, packing, packages, and carting is about S28 for the 500 bas- 
kets. In bulk, the grapes are shipped in crates of 38 lb. capacity ; 
cost of picking in crates is about 2 cents for quantity representing 2} 
baskets. The bunches are cut from the vmes with shears made for 
the purpose. In the packing house the bunches are trimmed. 

CUrua fruits. 

The specifications of the boxes used in the packing of California 
oranges are shown in the railroad tariffs with an estimated weight, and 
the box so shown is the only one used. The inside dimensions are 
Hi in.Xlli in.X24 in., the slats are 26 in. long, but the thickness of 
the ends and center-pieces is 2 in., making the inside length 24 in. 
No. 2 Jumbo orange-box, 11} iQ* X 12} in. X 24 in. 

The California box for lemons shown in the tariff is lOi in. X 14 in. 
X 25 in. Recently, the lemon shippers adopted a new-sized box 
which packs lemons to better advantage, and this new box will be 
used as soon as the accumulation of old stock is exhausted, and 
the tariffs will be changed to show its dimensions, which are, lOf in. 
X 13} in. X 25 in. mside. Old box, 3675 cu. in. ; new box, 350lA 
cu. in. 

Florida orange-box, 12 X 12 X 24} in. inside. Half-box, 5f X 12 
X 24} in. 

Apple boxes (W. A. Taylor). 

The memoranda following (p. 165) show legal weights to the bushel 
of apples and legal sizes of apple-boxes and barrels ; also the usual 
standard (not legal) sizes of apple-boxes and the heaped-bushel ex- 
pressed in cubic inches in such states as have expressed the capacity 
of the heaped-bushel in that form. 

All these boxes when actually used are subject to considerable 
variation in capacity, resulting from the use or non-use of cleats 
under the covers. 



SIZES OF FRUIT PACKAGES 



165 



Statb 
Arkansas 



Connecticut 
Florida . . 
Iowa . . . 
Kansas . . 
Maine . . 



Apple leffiakUion (Box and barrel sisea and weights per bushel) 

Babjul SlZB 



Pounds pbb Bu. 
** Green apples " 60 



••Apples" . . 48 
*' AppleSt green " 48 
"Apples" . . 48 
" Green apples " 48 
-Apples" . . 44 



Box SiZB 
20" X 12" X 9" 
"lawful bu. 
measure" 



20" X 11" X 10" 
2250cu.in(>) 
** stand, bu. box" 

Maryland 2212 cu. in. . . . 

Massachusetts "Apples" . . 48 

Michigan . . "Apples" . . 48 



Minnesota 
Missouri . 



Nebraska . 
New Jersey 
New York . 



* Apples, green " 50 
'Apples" . . 48 



" Green apples " 48 
"Apples" . .60 
"Apples" . . 48 



North Carolina " Green apples" 48 
North Dakota "Apples" . .60 
Ohio .... "Apples" . . 60 



Oregon "stand- 
ard box " . . 

Oregon "special 
box" . 

Tennessee 

Texas . . 

Vermont . 

Virginia . 



Washington 
Wisconsin . 



"Apples" . .46 18"xlli"xl0r 

20" X 11" X 10" 
"Apples, green" 60 
"Apples" , . 60 
"Apples" . . 46 
"Apples" . . 46 



3bu. 



"Green apples" 46 18"xlU"xlO|" 
"Apples" . . 48 



2100 cu. in. 



Head 174" 
Stave 281" 
Bulge 64" 
62531 cu. in, 



Heads 16|" 
Stave 27" or 
'flour bbl. sise 

Heads 17}" 
Stave 28)" 
Diam. center 
inside 20^" 



Head 17|" 

Stave 28i" 

Bulge 64" 

100 qt. 



Head 174" 
Stave 281" 
Bulge 66" 

2173) cu. in. 

2200 cu. in. 
2ibu. 



Head 174" 
Stave 271" 
Bulge 64 



100 quarts 



Other apple^box eizea 



California (40 lb.) 201" x lOi" x 9|" 

lib.) 201" X 11}" X 101" 



. . . 1966 " 

California (60 lb.) 20}" x llj" x 10|" : . . .2393 " 

Canadian (legal) 20" x 11 'x 10" 2200 " 

Colorado 18"xll"xl2" 2376 " 

Washington "specinl' . 20" x 11" x 10" 2200 " 

Norweatem ^peciii 20" X 12" x 10" 2400 " 

1 Printed 2260 cu. in. in the law, but the dimensions figure 22(X) ou. in. 



166 COMMERCIAL GRADES OF CROP PRODUCTS 

Legal ?ieaped-bushd capaeiiies (Apples) 

Connecticut (heaped bu.) 2564 cu. in. 

Kansas (heaped bu.) 2564 " " 

Washington (heaped bu.) 2564 " " 

Box packing of apples in Washington and Oregon (C. S. Wilson). 

Booces. — (a) Standard, 10) in. X 11} in. X 18 in. inside measurement 
(6) Special, 10 in. X 11 in. X 20 in. inside measurement. 

Material, — Ends, j in. ; sides, I in ; tops and bottoms, two pieces each, 
} in. thick. There should be two cleats for each top and bottom. The 
sides of the box should be nailed with four nails at each end of each 
side. The cleats should be put neatly on the box, and four nails driven 
through them and through the top or bottom into the ends. Five- 
penny cement-coated nails are preferable. 

Wrapping paper, — Any of the following grades may be used: 
Light Manila, heavy-weight tissue, or " white news." The size of 
the wrapper will vary somewhat, according to the size of the apple. 
Two sizes should be ordered, 8 in. X 10 in. and 10 in. X 10 in. The 
approximate cost of this wrapping paper would be, light Manila and 
heavy-weight tissue, 4} or 5 cents per pound, or about 35 cents per thou- 
sand sheets; "white news," 3i cents per pound, or about 30 cents 
per thousand sheets. 

Lining paper, — The lining paper is made from " white news," size 
18 in. X 24 in. The approximate cost of this paper would be 3i cents 
per pound, or about $1.15 per thousand sheets. 

Layer paper. — In some cases it is necessary to use layer paper to 
raise the pack in order to come out right at the top. For this purpose 
use colored tag-board, size 17i in. X 11 in., or 19i in. X lOi in., ac- 
cording to the box. The approximate cost of this paper would be 
about $7.50 per thousand sheets. 

Packing, — Before placing the apples on the packing table they 
are usually graded into different sizes. This facilitates very much the 
work of the packers. A sizer may be used at the beginning, but one 
soon trains the eye to recognize the different grades. The diagonal 
pack is preferable, although one is forced to use the straight pack for 
a few sizes. * 

The following table was used at Hood River, Oregon, in the fall of 
1910 (C. I. Lewis, in "Better Fruits"): — 



SIZES OF FRUIT PACKAGES 



167 



Table of commercial box packs 



SiSB— Ex- 












raSMED IN 

No. Apples 


Tier 


Pack 


No. Apples 
IN Row 


No. INTERS 

IN Depth 


Box Used 


PCB Box 












45 


3 


3 St. 


5-5 


3 


Standard 


54 


3 


3 St. 


6-6 


3 


Special 


63 


3 


3 St. 


7-7 


3 


Special 


64 


3>^ 


2-2 Diag. 


4-4 


4 


Standard 


72 


3H 


2-2 Diag. 


4-5 


4 


Standard 


80 


2-2 Diag. 


5-5 


4 


Standard 


88 


3H 


2-2 Diag. 


5-6 


4 


Standard 


96 


SJ4 


2-2 Diag. 


6-6 


4 


Special 


104 


2-2 Diag. 


6-7 


4 


Special 


112 


3H 


2-2 Diag. 


7-7 


4 


Special 


120 


3H 


2-2 Diag. 


7-8 


4 


Special 


128 


4 


4 St. 


8-8 


4 


Special 


144 


4 


4 St. 


9-9 


4 


Special 


150 


4^ 


3-2 Diag. 


6-6 


5 


Standard 


163 


4H 


3-2 Diag. 


6-7 


5 


Standard 


175 


4^ 


3-2 Diag. 


7-7 


5 


SUndafd 


188 


JS 


3-2 Diag. 


7-8 


5 


Special 


200 


3-2 Diag. 


8-8 


5 


Special 



Fndt packages in Canada (Fruit Marks Act). 

The minimum legal limit of apple barrel is a barrel having a dimen- 
sion of not less than 261. inches between the heads, inside measure, 
and a head diameter of 17 inches, and a middle diameter of 18^ inches, 
representing as nearly as possible 96 quarts. 

When apples are packed in Canada for export, for sale by the 
box, they shall be packed in good strong boxes, of seasoned wood, the 
inside dimensions of which shall not be less than 10 inches in depth, 
11 inches in width, and 20 inches in length, representing as nearly 
as possible 2200 cubic inches. 

The Inspection and Sale Act, dealing with fruit baskets (May,. 1907), 
reads as follows: — 

" 2. Every basket of fruit offered for sale in Canada, unless stamped 
on the side plainly in black letters at least three-quarters of an inch 
deep and wide, with the word * Quart ' in full, preceded with the mini- 
mum number of quarts, omitting fractions, which the basket will hold 
when level-full, shall contain, when level-full, one or other of the fol- 
lowing quantities : — 

" (a) Fifteen quarts or more. 



168 COMMERCIAL GRADES OF CROP PRODUCTS 

" (6) Eleven quarts, and be 5} inches deep perpendicularly, 18 i 
inches in length, and 8 inches in width at the top of the basket, 16} 
inches in length, and 6i inches in width at the bottom of the basket, as 
nearly exactly as practicable, all measurements to be inside of the 
veneer proper, and not to include the top band. 

** (c) Six quarts, and be 4^ inches deep perpendicularly, 15i inches 
in length, and 7 inches in width at the top of the basket, 13^ inches 
in length, and 5} inches in width at the bottom of the basket, as nearly 
exactly as practicable, all measurements to be inside of the veneer 
proper, and not to include the top band : Provided that the Governor 
in Council may by proclamation exempt any province from the opera- 
tion of this section. 

" (d) Two and two-fifths quarts, as nearly exactly as practicable." 

Proposed United Stales standards (Provisions in the Lafean Bill, 
' now before Congress, 1911). 

First. The standard box package for apples is a box having a ca- 
pacity of not less than 2342 cubic inches when measured without dis- 
tention of its parts. 

Second. The standard basket package for apples is a basket having 
a capacity of not less than 2342 cubic inches, when measured level- 
full, without distention of its parts. 

Third. The standard barrel package for apples is a barrel of the 
following dimensions, when measured without distention of its parts : 
Length of stave, 28} inches ; diameter of head, 17i inches, distance 
between heads, 26 inches ; circimiference of bulge, 64 inches, outside 
measurement. 

Section 3. That the standard grade for apples which shall be shipped 
or delivered for shipment in interstate or foreign commerce, or which 
shall be sold or offered for sale within the District of Columbia or the 
Territories of the United States, are as follows : — 

Apples of one variety, which are well-grown specimens, hand-picked, 
of good color for the variety, normal shape, practically free from in- 
sect and fungus injury, bruises, and other defects, except such as are 
necessarily caused in the operation of packing, or apples of one variety, 
which are not more than 10 per centum below the foregoing specifica- 
tions, are standard grade " U. S. Size A,'' if the nunimum size of the 
apples is two and one-half inches in transverse diameter ; or are stand- 



SIZES OF TRUCK PACKAGES 169 

aid grade " U. S. Size B" if the minimum size of the apples is two and 
one-fourth inches in transverse diameter; or are standard grade 
" U. S. Size C./' if the minimum size of the apples is two inches in 
transverse diameter. 

Packages far truck craps, including strav^)erries (L. C, Corbett). 

PoUdoes. — Truck crop potatoes are shipped from the Atlantic sea- 
board points in ventilated barrels holding 2f bushels ; from the Mis- 
sissippi Valley and Gulf States in sacks holding 190 pounds ; from 
Maine in sacks holding 165 pounds; and from the California and 
Colorado sections in sacks holding 100 poimds (ever3rthing in this 
re^on being sold by net weight rather than by bushel). In northern 
sections of Vermont, New York, Michigan, Wisconsin, potatoes are 
largely sold in bulk by weight at so much per bushel. 

Cabbages from the Atlantic seaboard states south of Baltimore are 
shipped either in crates or ventilated barrels holding 2f bushels. 
These crates are usually flat, about 3 feet long. At the North, crates 
3 feet square are often used for shipment of cabbage, but the general 
crop grown for storage and for the manufacture of kraut is sold in 
bulk by the ton (heads trinuned). 

Cauliflower from the Southern fields is almost universally shipped 
in ventilated barrels, packed in excelsior, barrels being standard truck- 
crop-barrel of 2} bushels. Califomia package is a flat carrier holding 

I dozen or 1} dozen heads. 

Brussels sprouts are packed in quart cups, in crates holding 32 cups. 

Tomatoes from Eastern States in crates holding about 1 bushel, 
amilar to those used for the shipment of muskmelons, dimensions 
about 12 in. X 12 in. X 22 in. Some fruits arrive from Florida in this 
type of package, but most tomatoes come in 6-basket carriers similar 
to those used for peaches. In Texas a flat, 4-basket carrier, which is 
only one tier deep, is almost universally used. 

Onions of the winter sorts are shipped either in ventilated barrels or 
standard sacks holding about 2} bushels. The Texas Bermuda crop 
is universally shipped in slatted bushel crates, 20 inches long, 12 inches 
wide, and 12 inches deep. 

Celery from the Florida section is packed in flat crates usually 

II in. X 20 in. X 24 in. The Califomia package is a cubical crate, 



170 COMMERCIAL GRADES OF CROP PRODUCTS 

24 in. X 24 in. X 20 in. Most Eastern sections use the California type 
of package. 

Muskmelons from most sections arrive in a veneer crate very similar 
in shape to the orange-box but somewhat smaller, the dimensions be- 
ing approxunately 12 in. X 12 in. X 22 in. Some sections ship melons 
in 60-quart and 32-quart berry crates, while a small percentage of the 
crop arrives in flat carriers arranged to hold a single layer of melons. 
These carriers usually contain 18 to 24 melons. 

Eggplants are usually wrapped in paper and forwarded in 60-quart 
berry crates. 

Peas are shipped largely in | standard Delaware baskets with ven- 
tilated wood covers, or in barrel-high Delaware baskets with ventilated 
wood covers. 

Sweetr-poUitoes are shipped in ventilated barrels holding 2| bushels, 
covered with burlap. 

Asparagus is shipped in carriers made to accommodate 8 to 12 
bunches. 

String beans (snap) are shipped either in ^-bushel or barrel-high 
Delaware baskets. 

Beets are usually pulled when 2 or 2i inches in diameter and tied 
in bunches of 3 to 6 beets and packed in 60-quart berry crates, venti- 
lated barrels, or barrel-high Delaware baskets, depending on the market 
to which they are consigned. 

Water-cress is either marketed in bunches or in bulk in iced barrels, 
or in iced barrel-high Delaware baskets. 

Cucumbers are marketed from the trucking region either in venti- 
lated barrels, barrel-high, or ^-bushel Delaware baskets; and in the 
pickle-growing districts they are marketed in bulk by the hundred- 
weight. 

Lettuce from the truck-farming districts is marketed in either 
^bushel or barrel-high, Delaware baskets or in ventilated barrels. The 
barrel package is not, however, generally used. 

Spinach is almost universally marketed from the truck-farming 
sections in ventilated barrels. A small quantity is received in barrel- 
high Delaware baskets. 

Okra is marketed either in 6-basket carriers or in a special flat 
carrier without baskets, in which the pods are carefully arranged one 
layer wide. These packages are usually about 2 feet long. 



SIZES OF TRUCK PACKAGES 171 

Oretn peppers are almost universally marketed in ^-basket carriers. 

Radishes are tied in bunches and packed in 1-bushel or barrel-high 
Delaware baskets, as a rule. A few are marketed in ventilated barrels. 

Strawberries are offered in quart cups, either in GQ-quart crates from 
the Carolina and Norfolk region, or in 24- or 32-quart crates from 
other regions, the 32-quart being more universally used than any other. 

Dimensions. 

The truck barrel is 28 inches high and has l&-inch heads. 

The eggplant and squash crate has a head 11 in. X 14 in., and is 24 
inches long. 

The half-barrel basket commonly used in the Norfolk region is 20 
inches high, 9^ inches at the bottom and 17 inches at the top. 

The asparagus-box has heads 10 in. high, 15 inches at the top and 
17 inches at the bottom, and slats 26 inches long, outside measure, 
making it 10 in. X 15 in. X 17 in. X 24 in. inside. 

The one-half barrel lettuce basket, called the " Delaware barrel-high 
basket," is 16 inches inside diameter at the top, 9 inches inside diam- 
eter at the bottom, and 27 inches high. 

The cabbage crate which comes from Norfolk is lU in. X18 in. on 
the heads, and is 36 inches long with a partition in the middle. 

The three-peck basket which is used early in the season for shipping 
peas, beans, cucumbers, and crookneck squashes is 20 inches high, 14 
inches inside measure at the top, and 8^ inches inside measure at the 
bottom. 

The flat onion crate with partition in the center has 16 in. X 7 in. 
heads, and is 24 inches long. 



CHAPTER X 

The Judging op Farms, Crops, and Plants. Exhibition and 
Nomenclature Rules. Emblematic Plants and Flowers 

In recent years there has been great development of the desire to 
standardize knowledge in agriculture; and to this end many formal 
plans have been devised to enable one to set numerical measures to the 
various attributes of an object or an establishment or an operation. 
One is thereby able " to judge," and to score the object by com- 
parison with an ideal scale of points rather than with other objects like 
itself. Good scoring eliminates the old method at fairs, for example, 
of giving a first prize to the best of several competitors : it gives it only 
to those that score sufficiently high in a scale of grades of perfection. 

The making of score-cards has now come to be a popular practice in the 
colleges of agriculture, in fairs, and in societies, and the number of pub- 
lished cards is very large. In this chapter only a few representative 
scores can be given ; score-cards for animals are given in Chap. XXI. 
If the reader wants score-cards of the different breeds of animals, he 
may find them in Vol. Ill of the Cyclopedia of American Agriculture. 

Farms and Farm Practices 

The " agricultural virtues " (Pearson). 

Better prices, more than anything else, have put new life into our 
agriculture, and have brought about a disposition on the part of some 
farmers to adopt better methods, and have emphasized the greater 
opportunity open to all farmers and the need of the general adoption of 
the best methods, such as are well known to the few. These best 
methods include the following : — 

1. Conservation of fertility. 

2. Thorough cultivation. 

172 



PRECEPTS FOR FARMERS AND GARDENERS 173 

3. Drainage. 

4. Growth of leguminous crops. 

5. The use of cover-crops. 

6. The proper use of lime and conmiercial fertilizers. 

7. Crop rotation. 

8. Selection of seed. 

9. Spraying for fungous and insect pests. 

10. Disposal of poor cows. 

11. Use of pure-bred sires. 

12. Feeding economical rations. 

13. Protection against bovine tuberculosis. 

14. Production of clean milk. 

15. Keeping of farm business accounts. 

16. Use of mechanical power and machinery. 

17. Employment of labor throughout the year. 

18. Maintaining a reputation for honesty. 

19. The providing of home comforts. 

20. Reading reliable agricultural publications. 

21. Memb^^p in active agricultural organizations. 

Loudon* s ndeafor gardeners. 

1. Perform every operation in the proper season and in the best 
manner. 

2. Complete every operation consecutively. 

3. Never, if possible, perform one operation in such a manner as to 
render another necessary. 

4. When called off from any operation, leave your work and tools in 
an orderly manner. 

5. In leaving off work, make a temporary finish, and clean your tools 
and carry them to the tool-house. 

6. Never do that in the garden or hothouses which can be equally 
well done in the reserve ground or in the back sheds. 

7. Never pass a weed or insect without pulling it up or taking it off, 
unless time forbid. 

8. In gathering a crop, take away the useless as well as the useful 
parts. 

9. Let no plant ripen seeds, unless they are wanted for some purpose, 
useful or ornamental, and remove all parts which are in a state of decay. 



174 THE JUDGING OF FARMS, CHOPS, AND PLANTS 



Essential things to consider in the organization of a farm. 

It is difficult to state principles underlying the proper layout and 
organization of a farm, since the plan must conform to the person and 
to local conditions. The leading points to consider are perhaps the 
following : — 

The adaptation of the plan to the kind of fanning that is to be pur- 
sued. 

The best utilization of the different soils and exposures and natural 
features on the place. 

The economizing of time and labor in reachmg all parts of the 
farm. 

The best location of buildings with reference to efficiency of admin- 
istration. 

Such layout as will best provide for rotation and the maintenance of 
fertility. 

A proper proportion between the different parts, as between tilled 
and untilled land, forest and open, meadow and pasture, forage crops 
and grazing, orchards and annual crops. 

Provision for the necessary livenstock. 

Such shape and size of fields as will best lend them to economical 
working. 

Provision for the more personal parts of the place, as gardens, yards, 
and ornamental features. 

Development of the artistic or attractive appearance of the entire 
estate. 

Points of a good farm. 

In looking for a farm, the inquirer should consider the question pri-* 
marily from a business point of view. He should know what are the 
" points " of a good farm. It is well to make a list of the points, to 
study the place with reference to them, and to score it under each, as 
one would score a horse or a cow. The points or attributes are 
of two classes : those that are internal, or part of the farm itself ; 
and those that are external, or have to do with geographical loca- 
tion, neighborhood, and the like. Some of the points may be 
mentioned : — 



FEATURES OF GOOD FARMS 176 

Internal Exlemal 

Lay of the land, or topography Climate 

Sise of the farm Healthfulneas 

Shape of the farm Neighborhood 

Kind of soil Distance from town or railway station 

Condition of soil as regards fertility and Shipping facilities 

physical properties Means of communication 

Drainage Labor supply 

Water-supply Markets in which to buy and sell 

State of cultivation School and church privileges 
Crops now standing, and their oondi- Character of the farming in the com- 

tion munity 

Woodland Rural organisations 

Character of fields and of fences Likelihood of increase or decrease in 

Buildings and other improvements value 

Kind of farming to which place is 

adapted 

Score-card for farms (Warren) 
Size Standard 

1. Adapted to kind of farming 20 

FlKLDS 

2. Shape and sise 30 

3. Nearness to farmstead 30 

TOPOOBAPHY 

4. As affecting ease of cultivation 30 

5. As affecting production 10 

6. As affecting erosion and loss of fertility 15 

7. As affecting air drainage 5 

Febtilitt 

8. Natural 80 

9. Condition 40 

Pbtsical Propbrties op the Soil 

10. As affecting economy of cultivation ) gn 

11. As affecting number of days of labor ) 

12. As affecting loss of soil fertility 10 

13. As affecting kinds of possible crops 20 

Drainage 

14. Natural 1 ^ 

16. Artificial ( ^ 

Condition 

16. Freedom from stumps, stones, weeds, waste land, etc. ... 50 
Climate 

17. As affecting animal and crop production 

18. As affecting number of dajrs of labor 

Hbalthfulness 

19. As an economic factor 40 

Location 

20. Distance to market 40 

21. Roadways 50 

22. Local markets 30 

23. Shipping facilities 20 

24. Neighbors as an economic factor 40 

25. Labor supply of neighborhood 10 

26. R. F. D., telephone, trolleys, etc 30 

27. Churches, school, grange, etc., as economic factors .... 30 
Taxes 

28. Per cent on cash value 10 



176 THE JUDGING OF FARMSy CROPS, AND PLANTS 

Score-card for farma — Continued 
SiZB Stahbasd 

WaTBB-6X7PPLT 

29. Running water, wells 40 

Improvbmbnts 

30. Site of farmstead 10 

31. House as adapted to needs of farm 60 

32. Other buildings 60 

33. Fences, kind, condition, arrangement 30 

34. Timber, orchards, vineyards, etc 20 

Total 

Deductions for 

BCORB 

Area in acres 

Price asked 

Price per acre 

Price per acre (excluding waste land) 

Estimated value 

Which farm would you prefer to buy 7 

The number of points assigned in the foregoing score-card is not the 
limit, but is suggestive. For example, if the water-supply is exception- 
ally good, give it more than forty points. Any other exceptional 
values may be scored more than the points assigned. In some cases, 
a deduction of all the points assigned is not sufficient. Distance to 
market may absolutely disqualify a farm for the sale of milk. If the 
score-card is followed exactly, this farm may score higher than a fairly 
good farm near market. In all such cases, deduct additional points 
from the total score. It is only by this flexibility that scores can be 
made that are truly comparable. The best farm for the purpose 
should have the highest final score. The chief purposes of a score-card 
are to make the examination systematic and to prevent the forgetting 
of important items. 

If the points are not properly distributed for the kind of fanning to 
be followed, a new distribution of points should be made before com- 
paring farms. For example, for truck farms, all points that have to do 
with ease of tillage should be given a higher rating, while fertility is of 
less importance. In irrigated sections, water right, alkali, and ease of 
application of water must be included. 

No points are assigned for climate. This should be considered when 
judguig farms in different regions or at different altitudes, or when 
topography or proximity to water makes a difference in the climate of 
the farms that are being compared. This would be specially impor- 
tant near sea-coasts and in little understood climatic situations. 



aCORE-GARDS 177 

Corn and Potatoes 

ScoTe<ard for dent com (Ohio Improvement Association) 

For u«€ in the final teleetian of teed ear» 

1. AdaptabilitjT 26 

2. Seea condition 15 

3. Shape of kernel 15 

4. Uniiormity and trueneas to type 15 

6. Weight of ear 10 

6. Length and proportion 10 

7. Color of grain and cob 5 

8. Butts and tips 5 

ioo 

For uee in the plant eeUdion of eeed com 

1. Adaptability 35 

2. Vigor 25 

3. Height of plant, and height and angle of ear 15 

4. Uniformity and trueneas to type 10 

6. Weight of ear (estimated) 15 

100 
Card for lue in judging varieties of corn at hushing time 

1. Bushels per acre (uniform moisture test) 50 

2. Maturity 25 

3. Uniformity and trueness to type 15 

4. Color ~J0 

100 
Score-card for potatoes 

Uniformity 20 points 

Symmetry 15 points 

Trueness to type 20 points 

Freedom from disease and insects 15 points 

Commercial value 30 points 

100 points 

Standards for Judging Fruits at Bzhibitions (Ontario, Canada^ 
Fruit-Growers' Association, 1911) 

Apples and Pears. — Single Plates 

Form 15 

Sise 15 

Color 25 

Uniformity 25 

Freedom from blemish 20 

100 
Peaches. — Single Plates 

Form 15 

Sise 20 

Color 25 

Uniformity 20 

Freedom from blemish 20 

100 
N 



178 THE JUDGING OF FARMS, CROPS, AND PLANTS 

Plums. — Single Plates 

Form 10 

Sue 25 

Color 16 

Uniformity 25 

Freedom from blemish 25 

100 
Cherries.. — Single Plates 

Form 10 

Size 20 

Color 20 

Uniformity 25 

Freedom from blemish 25 

100 
Grapes. — Single Plates 

Form of bunch 10 

Siie of bunch 15 

Sise of berry 10 

Color 10 

Bloom 5 

Freedom from blemish 20 

Flavor 25 

Firmness 6 

100 
Collections of Apples, Pears. Plums, Peaches, Cherries, and Grapes on Plates 

Freedom from blemish 20 

Color 15 

Uniformity 10 

Siae 10 

Form 10 

Commercial value 10 

Quality 10 

Nomenclature 5 

Arrangement 5 

Season 5 

100 
Barrels. — Apples 
Fruit: ^ 

Siac 10 

Color 20 

Uniformity 15 

Freedom from blemish 15 

Texture and flavor 15 

76 76 

Package : — 

Material 4 

Finishing ^ 

10 10 
Packing: — 

Facing '. . 6 

Tailing 2 

Racking 3 

Pressing 4 

15 J5 
lOO 



SCORE-CARDS 



179 



Pj^^. Boxes. *— Apples, Pean, Peaches 

Sise 10 

Color 20 

Uniformity .... - 15 

Freedom from blemish 15 

Texture and flavor 15 

75 76 

Paekage and packing: — 

Material 3 

Finishing 4 

Fullness or bulge 4 

Solidity or compactness 5 

Attractiveness and style of pack 5 

Alignment 4 

"25 -^ 

Flowers and Plants ^^ 

The American Rose Society scale of points 

All exhibits will be judged by points in accordance with the following official 
scales: — 



POINTB OF VaLUB 


Coif- 
Clabsbs 


NOVSLTIES 

roR Ckb- 

TIFICATBS, 
■TC. 


Ponm OF Value 


Com- 
Clabsbs 


Novelties 

FOR CbR- 

TIFICATE8, 
ETC. 


Sise .... 
Color .... 
Stem .... 
Form .... 
Substance . . 


15 
20 
20 
15 
15 


10 

20 
15 
15 
10 


Foliage . . . 
Fragrance (for 
novelties only) 
Distinctiveness 


15 
100 


15 

5 
10 

100 



Standardization of the grading of roses (American Rose Society, 1911). 

Nine-inch, twelve-inch, fifteen-inch, eighteen-inch, and twenty-four- 
inch, and higher as necessary. Such a grading should be appreciated 
by both the commission men and retailers. 

Scale of points for judging carnations (American Carnation Society) 

This scale shall be employed in judging all seedlings for Certificate of Merit, 
or for any special prise, and in all classes where competition is close, it shall be 
used to arrive at a decision : — 

Color 25 

Sise 20 

Calyx 5 

Stem 20 

Substance 10 

Form 15 

Fragrance 5 

Total 100 



180 THE JUDGING OF FARMS, CROPS, AND PLANTS 



Scale for gladioli (American Gladiolus Society) 

Resiatance to disease 6 

Texture of flower 10 

Duration of bloom 10 

Size of bloom 10 

Color of bloom 15 

Form of flower 10 

Form of spike 10 

Stem (length and stiffness) 10 

Number of flowers on spike 15 

Vigor (aside from disease resistance) 5 

Chryaanthemum (Official Scale of ChiyBanthemum Society) 



Commercial 

Color 20 Pnlnr 


Exhibiium 


. . 10 


Form 


.... 15 Stem . . 




. . 5 


PuUness .... 
Stem 


.... 10 Foliage . 
.... 15 Fullness . 


. . 5 
. . 15 


Foliage 

Substance .... 
Size ...... 


. . . . 15 Form 


. . 15 


.... 15 Depth . 

.... 10 Sise . . 

100 




. . 15 

. . 35 

100 



Single varietiee 

Color 40 

Form 20 

Substance 20 

Stem and foliage 20 

100 



Pompon varieties 

(Dolor 40 

Form 20 

Stem and foliage 20 

Fullness ^ 

100 



Single varieties to be divided into two classes, large-flowered and small- 
flowered. 

Scaie of points to govern judges of swed peas (National Sweet Pea 
Society of America) 

Length of stem 25 Substance 15 

Color 20 Number of flowers on a stem . J15 

Siae 25 Total 100 

The sweet pea or other foliage can be used with the flowers unattached, and 
flower stems must be free of wood, unless otherwise specified. Wiring of flowers 
or stems will disqualify. 



Scale of points of florists^ plants adopted by National Flower Show 
of the Society of American Florists 

No. 1. Single Specimen Foliage Plants 

Sise of plant 25 Rarity 15 

Cultural perfection 35 Form 10 

Distinctiveness 15 



SCORE-CARDS 181 



No. 2. Single Specimen Flowering Plants 

Siie of plant 20 Floriferousness 15 

Cultural perfection 35 Color 10 

Rarity 10 Foliage 10 

No. 3. Collections or Number of Flowering Plants 

^e of erroup or collection ... 15 Arrangement or staging . . . . 10 

Distinctiveness 15 Color harmony 10 

Cultural perfection 20 Rarity 10 

Nuftiber of varieties 20 

No. 4. Collections or Number of Foliage Plants 

Sise of group or collection ... 15 Number of varieties 20 

Rarity 15 Arrangement or staging .... 20 

Cultural perfection 30 

No. 5. Group of Foliage Plants 

Sise 10 Rarity 10 

Distinctiveness 20 Arrangement or staging .... 30 

Cultural perfection 20 Color effect 10 

No. 6. Group of Flowering Plants 

Sise of group 10 Arrangement ....... 35 

Rarity 10 Quality of flowers 20 

Cultural perfection 15 Foliage 10 



Sample Rtiles to Govern Exhibitions 
MaasachtiseUs HorticuUurcd Society rules (1911). 

Special rules of the plant and flower committee. — 1. All named 
varieties of Plants or Flowers exhibited for premiums or other awards 
must have the name legibly and correctly written on stiff card, wood, 
or some other permanent substance ; and each separate plant or flower 
must have its name attached. 

2. All exhibits shall be marked by a card on which shall appear the 
name and address of the exhibitor and inclosed in an envelope on which 
shall appear only the number of Prize as listed in the Schedule. 

3. Plants in Pots, to be entitled to Prizes, must evince skillful culture 
in the profusion of bloom or decorative foliage, and in the beauty, 
symmetry, and vigor of the specimens. 

4. No awards will be made on other than regular prize da3rs, except 
for objects of special merit. 



182 THE JUDGING OF FARMS, CROPS, AND PLANTS 

Special rules of the fruit committee, — All fruits offered for pre- 
miums must be correctly named. Indefinite appellations, such as *' Pip- 
pin/' " Sweeting/' " Greening/' etc., will not be considered as names. 

2. All Fruits offered for premiimis must be composed of exactly the 
number of specimens or quantity named in the Schedule. A " dish " of 
Apples, Pears, Peaches, Plums, Nectarines, Quinces, Figs, Apricots, 
etc., is understood to contain twelve specimens, and this number will 
be required of all Fruits when not otherwise specified. 

3. The whole quantity required of any one variety of Fruit must be 
shown in a single dish or basket except in collections. 

4. Contributors of Fruits for Exhibition or Prizes must present the 
same in the Society's dishes. All Small Fruits must be shown in 
baskets of imiform size, which will be furnished to exhibitors by the 
Superintendent at cost. 

5. No person can compete for more than one Prize with the same 
variety or varieties of Fruit; except that a single dish of the same 
variety, but not the same specimens of fruit, may be used by an ex« 
hibitor for both Special and Regular Prizes. 

6. The Fruit Committee, in making its awards, will consider the 
flavor, beauty, and size of the specimens, comparing each of these 
properties with a fair standard of the variety. The adaptation of the 
variety to general cultivation will also be taken into accoimt. Other 
things being equal, specimens most nearly in perfection as regards 
ripeness will have the preference. Score-cards may be used at the 
discretion of the Conmiittee. 

Special rules of the vegetable committee. — 1. The specimens offered 
must be well grown and placed on the tables clean and correctly 
labeled. 

2. All exhibits of Vegetables offered for premium must be composed 
of exactly the number of specimens or quantity named in the Schedule. 

3. At all exhibitions of Fungi distinctively colored cards, having the 
word " Poisonous " plainly printed thereon, shall be provided, and all 
persons exhibiting Fungi not known to be edible shall be required to use 
these cards in labeling all such exhibits. 

4. All collections of vegetables will be judged on merit, ^ving con- 
sideration, first, to quality; second, to arrangement; and third, to 
variety. Not more than two varieties of one kind of vegetable admis- 
sible in collections. 



BULKS FOR NAMING VEGETABLES 183 



Nomenclature Rules 

Rvles for naming kitchenrgarden vegetables^ adopted by the Committee on 
Nomenclature of the Association of American Agricultural Colleges 
and Experiment Stations (1889, and still in force). 

1. The name of a variety shall consist of a single word, or at most of 
two words. A phrase, descriptive or otherwise, is never allowable; 
as, Pride of Italy^ King of Mammoths^ Earliest of All. 

2. The name should not be superlative or bombastic. In particular, 
such epithets as New, LargCy Giants Fine, Selected^ Improved, and the 
like, should be omitted. If the grower or dealer has a superior stock of a 
variety, the fact should be stated in the description immediately after 
the name, rather than as a part of the name itself; as, ** Trophy, 
selected stock." 

3. If a grower or dealer has secured a new select strain of a well- 
known variety, it shall be legitimate for him to use his own name in 
connection with the established name of the variety; as, Smith's 
Winnigstadt, Jones's Cardinal. 

4. When personal names are given to varieties, titles should be 
omitted; as Major, General, etc. 

5. The term " hybrid " should not be used except in those rare in- 
stances in which the variety is known to be of hybrid origin. 

6. The originator has the prior right to name the variety, but the 
oldest name which conforms to these rules should be adopted. 

7. This Committee reserves the right, in its own publications, to 
revise objectionable names in conformity with these rules. 

Code of nomenclature of the American Pomological Society. 

Priority. — Rule 1. No two varieties of the same kind of fruit 
shall bear the same name. The name first published for a variety 
shall be the accepted and recognized name, except in cases where 
it has been applied in violation of this code. 

A. The term " kind " as herein used shall be understood to apply to 
those general classes of fruits which are grouped together in common 
usage without regard to their exact botanical relationship, as apple, 
cherry, grape, peach, plum, raspberry, etc. 

B. The paramount right of the originator, discoverer, or introducer 



184 THE JUDGING OF FARMS, CROPS, AND PLANTS 

of a new variety to name it, within the limitations of this code, is recog- 
nized and emphasized. 

C. Where a variety name through long usage has become thoroughly 
established in American pomological literature for two or more varieties, 
it should not be displaced nor radically modified for either sort, except 
in cases where a well-known synonym can be advanced to the position 
of leading name. The several varieties bearing identical names should 
be distinguished by adding the name of the author who first described 
each sort, or by adding some other suitable distinguishing term which 
will insure their identity in catalogues or discussions. 

D. Existing American names of varieties which conflict with earlier 
published foreign names of the same or other varieties, but which have 
become thoroughly established through long usage, shall not be dis- 
placed. 

Form of Names. — Rule 2. The name of a variety of fruit shall oodt 
sist of a single word. 

A. No variety shall be named unless distinctly superior to existing 
varieties in some important characteristic, nor until it has been deter- 
mined to perpetuate it by bud propagation. 

B. In selecting names for varieties the following points should be 
emphasized: Distinctiveness, simplicity, ease of pronunciation and 
spelling, indication of origin or parentage. 

C. Tlie spelling and pronunciation of a varietal name derived from 
a personal or geographical name should be governed by the rules ^diich 
control the spelling and pronimciation of tlie name from which it was 
derived. 

D. A variety imported from a foreign country should retain its 
foreign name, subject only to such modification as is necessary to con- 
form it to this code or to render it intelligible in English. 

E. The name of a person should not be applied to a variety during 
his life without his express consent. The name of a deceased horticul- 
turist should not be so applied, except through formal action by some 
competent horticultural body, preferably that with which he was most 
closely connected. 

F. The use of such general terms as seedling, hybrid, pippin, pear- 
main, beurre, rare-ripe, damson, etc., is not admissible. 

G. The use of a possessive noun as a name is not admissible. 

H. The use of a number, either singly or attached to a word, should 



BULE8 FOR NAMING FRUITS 185 

be considered only as a temporary expedient while the variety is under- 
going preliminary test. 

I. In applying the various provisions of this rule to an existing 
varietal name which has through long usage become firmly embedded 
in American pomological literature, no change shall be made which 
will involve loss of identity. 

Rule 3. In the full and formal citation of a variety name, the name 
of the author who first published it shall be given. 

Publication. — Rule 4. Publication consists (1) in the distribution 
of a printed description of the variety named, giving the distinguish- 
ing characters of fruit, tree, etc., or (2) in the publication of a new 
name for a variety which is properly described elsewhere ; such publi- 
cations to be made in any book, bulletin, report, trade catalogue, or 
periodical, providing the issue bears the date of its publication and is 
generally distributed among nurserymen, fruit-growers, and horticul- 
turists ; or (3) in certain cases the general recognition of a name for 
a propagated variety in a conmiunity for a number of years shall 
constitute publication of that name. 

A. In determining the name of a variety to which two or more names 
have been given in the same publication that which stands first shall 
have precedence. 

Reifiaion, — Rule 5. No properly published variety name shall be 
changed for any reason except conflict with this code, nor shall 
another variety be substituted for that originally described thereunder. 

Emblematic Plants and Flowers 

State flowen adopted by the vote of the public schools, sometimes by the 
lesiaiatures (*), sometimes by choice of the people. 

Alabama Goldenrod 

Alaska Forget-me-not 

Arkansas Apple blossom 

California California poppy (EscfiachoUia) 

Colorado Columbme 

Connecticut Mountain laurel 

* Delaware Peach blossom 

Florida Orange blossom 

Idaho Syringa 

Illinois Violet 

Indiana Corn 

•Iowa Rose 

Ki^nipuff Sunflower 

Kentucky Trumpet-flower 

Louisiana ....«« Magnolia 



186 THE JUDGING OF FARMS, CROPS, AND PLANTS 

* Maine Pine cone and tassel 

Maryland Goldenrod 

* Michigan Apple blossom 

Minnesota Moccasin-flower 

Mississippi Magnolia ■ 

Missouri Goldenrod 

* Montana Bitter-root {Lewiaia) 

♦ Nebraska Goldenrod 

Nevada Sage-brush 

New York Rose 

North Dakota Wild rose 

Ohio Scarlet carnation 

Oklahoma Mistletoe 

♦ Oregon Oregon grape {Berheriti) 

Rhode Island Violet 

State tree Maple 

South Dakota Pasque {Anemone) 

Tennessee Daisy 

Texas Blue bonnet 

Utah Sego lily {CalochmiuB) 

♦ Vermont Red clover 

Washington Rhododendron {R. CcUifomieum) 

West Virginia Rhododendron 

Wisconsin (State tree) Maple 

NationeU and regional flowers 

Canada Sugar maple 

China Narcissus 

Egypt Lotus {Nymphxa LoHu) 

England . . .' Rose 

France Fleur-de-lis (Iris) 

Germany Corn-flower {Centaurea Cyanus) 

Greece (Athens) Violet 

Ireland Shamrock (Trifolium, usually 

T. repens) 

Italy Lily 

Japan Chrysanthemum 

Nova Scotia Mayflower {Epigoea) 

Prussia Linden 

Saxony Mignonette 

Scotland Thistle 

Spain Pomegranate 

Wales Leek 

Party flowers 

Beaconsficld's followers Primrose 

Bonapartists Violet 

Orleanists White daisy 

Ghibellines White lily 

Guelpha Red lily 

Prince of Orange The orange 

Pamellitcs Ivy 

Jacobites White rose 



CHAPTER XI 

Greenhouse and Window-Garden Work 

Greenhouse production has now passed beyond the stage of exclusive 
amateurism, and has become a^ recognized form of agriculture. It is 
farming under glass. The area is small, but the investment is high and 
the skill is great. 

Greenhouse Practice 
Potting earth. 

lioam (decomposed sod), leaf-mold, rotted farm-yard manure, peat, 
and sand afford the main requirement of the plants most commonly 
cultivated. Seedlings, and young stock generally, are best suited by a 
light mixture, such as one p&A each of loam, leaf-mold, and sand in 
equal parts. The older plants of vigorous growth like a rich, heavy 
compost, formed of equal parts of loam and manure; and a sandy, 
lasting soil, made up of two parts each of peat and loam to one part of 
sand, is the most desirable for slow-growing sorts. A little lumpy 
charcoal should be added to the compost for plants that are to remain 
any great length of time, saj^ a year, in the same pot. The best condi- 
tion of soil for potting is that intermediate state between wet and dry. 
Sphagnum (moss), or fibrous peat and sphagnum in mixture and 
chopped, should be used for orchids and other plants of similar epiphytal 
character. 

Cow-dung is highly prized by many gardeners for use in potting soil. 
It is stored under cover and allowed to remain until dry, being turned 
several times in the meantime to pulverize it. Manure water is made 
either from this dried excrement or from the fresh material. When 
made from the fresh material, the manure-water should be made weaker 
than in the other case. 

187 



188 GREENHOUSE AND WINDOW-GARDEN WORK 

Suggestions for potting plants. 

The pots should be perfectly dry and clean, and well drained. How- 
ever one-sided a plant may be, it is advantageous to have the main 
stem as near the center of the pot as possible, and the potted plant is 
usually in the best position when perfectly erect. Soft-wooded plants 
of rapid growth, such as coleus, geraniums, fuchsias, and begonias, 
thrive most satisfactorily when the soil is loose rather than hard about 
the roots. Ferns should have it moderately firm, and hard-wooded 
stock, azaleas, ericas, acacias, and the like, should be potted firmly. 
In repotting plants, more especially those of slow growth, the ball of 
soil and roots should never be sunk to any great extent below the 
original level, and it is always preferable to pot a plant twice, or even 
three times, rather than place it in a pot too large. 

Watering greenhorise and window plants. 

Plants cannot be satisfactorily watered just so many times a day, 
week, or month. All plants should be watered when necessary — 
when they are dry. This is indicated by a tendency to flag or wilt, or 
by the hollow sound of the pots when tapped. The latter is the safest 
sign, as, after a prolonged period of dull weather, many plants wilt on 
exposure to bright sunshine, although still wet at the roots. But a 
growing plant should not be allowed to become so dry as to wilt, nor 
should the soil ever reach a condition as dry as powder. This is a condi- 
tion, however, which is essential to some plants, more particularly the 
bulbous and. tuberous kinds, during their resting period. Incessant 
dribbling should be avoided; water thoroughly, and be done with it 
until the plants arc again dry. Plants under glass should not be 
sprayed overhead while the sun is shining hot and full upon them. The 
evening is the best time of the day for watering in summer, and morn- 
ing in winter. In watering with liquid manure, the material should, 
not come in contact with the foliage. Plants recently potted should 
not be watered heavily at the roots for a week or ten days ; spray them 
frequently overhead. 

Liquid manure for greenhouses. 

Most of the artificial fertilizers may be used in the preparation of 
liquid manure, but a lack of knowledge as to their strength and char- 



WINDOW-GARDEN PLANTS 189 

acter lessens their value in the minds of gardeners. Clean cow manure, 
which varies little in stimulating property, is considered by gardeners 
to be the safest and most reliable material to use for a liquid fertilizer. 
A bushel measure of the solid manure to 100 gallons of water makes a 
mixture which can be used with beneficial results on the tenderest 
plants ; and for plants of rank growth the compound may be gradually 
increased to thrice that strength with safety. Soot may be added with 
advantage, using it at the rate of 1 part to 10 parts of the manure. The 
mixture should stand for a few days, being stirred occasionally, before 
application. • 

Lists of Plants 
Twenty-jive planU adapted to mndow-gardena 



Adiantum cuneatum. particularly the Fuchsia, varieties, 

form known as A. graciUimum. Mahernia odorata. 

Alojrsia citriodora. Myrtus communis. 

Begonia metaUica, and many others. Pelargoniums, in variety. 

Cocos Weddelliana. ' Primrose, Chinese. 

Ficus elastica. Pteris serrulata. 

Freesia refracta. Vallota purpurea. 



Epiphjrllum truncatum. Saxifraga sarmentosa, beefsteak gera- 

Fragaria Indica. nium. 

Fuchsia procumbens. Sedum Sieboldii. 

Othonna crassifolia (O. CapenaU). Tradescantia zebrina, wandering Jew 

Oxalis violacea. (Zebrina pendtUa), 

Pelargonium peltatum. 



Eichhornia crassipes (E. speciota). Narcissus Tazetta, var. orientalis, 

Hyacinths. Chinese sacred lily. 

In selecting plants for a window-garden or house conservatory, those 
plants should be omitted that are much subject to the attacks of 
aphis and mealy-bug. Amongst the common plants which are much 
infested are coleus, German ivy (Senecio acandens), calla, Vinca 
variegata, Cyperus alternifolius, fuchsia, cineraria, and carnation. 
Those that are nearly exempt are most kinds of geraniums, begonias, 
wandering Jew, and most ferns. Palms are very liable to scale in- 
festation. (For insects, see p. 301.) 



190 



GREENHOUSE AND WINDOW^GARDEN WORK 



Vegetable-gramng under glass 



Asparagus 
Beans . . 
Cauliflower 

Cucumber . 



Lettuce . . 
Mushrooms 

Muskmelon 



Parsley . 
Peas . . 

Radishes 
Rhubarb 

Spinach 
Tomato 



NiOBT 

Tbm. 
•F. 



45755 
60-65 
60-55 

60-65 



45-50 
60-60 

65-70 



46-50 
45-60 

45-60 
46-60 

46-50 
60-66 



DAT 

Tbm. 

"F. 



60-70 
70-80 
60-65 

70-75 



55-66 
50-60 

70-85 



65-65 
66-65 

55-66 
56-60 

55-65 
75 



MATuarrr 
FROM Seed 
OR Roots 



3-4 wk. 
6-8 wk. 
4-5 mo. 

10-14 wk. 



7-12 wk. 
6-8 wk. 

10-14 wk 



8wk. 
70-80 d. 

5-6 wk. 
3-5 wk. 

8-10 wk. 
4-6 mo. 



Advicb 



Roots are taken from field. 3-5 years 
old ; use only strong roots. 

Little grown commercially and then 
as incidental crop. 

Transplant once ; give abundance of 
air ; requires much water, yet good 
drainage. Avoid checking growth 
of plants. Commonly naatured un- 
der glass, as a late spring crop. 

Often follows winter tomatoes, in 
ground beds, making a spring and 
early summer crop. Sometimes 
grown on benches. There are two 
types of forcing cucumbers, the 
common, or White Spine, type and 
the English or frame varieties. 
' Grown mostly on the ground. 

Grow under benches, or in cellars; 
an uncertain crop. 

Not commonly forced. When grown, 
usually as a late fall or late spring 
crop. 

Transplant in the fall from the field, 
and cut back. 

Little grown under glass, as the yield 
is light. Must be off before hot 
weather of spring. 

Rapid growth should be secured; 
use no old manure. 

Roots dug in fall, frozen and planted 
under benches or in frames. After 
cropping, replant in field. 

Grown as an incidental or secondary 
crop ; does well in solid beds. 

Transplant into pots, hand pollinate 
in winter and dark weather, but 
most growers depend on shaking 
the plants. Now widely grown in 
ground beds. 



Beets, cress, sweet herbs (particularly spearmint), are also grown under glass. 



GREENHOUSE PLANTS 



191 



TioerUy-five useful aquatic and sub-aquatic plants for outdoor use 



t denotes those that do not endure the winter (tender). 



Acorus gramineus, variegated. 

Aponogeton distachyum. 

AzoUa Caroliniana. 

Caltha paiustris. 

Cyperus alternifolius ; I. 

Eichhornia crassipes or asurea (prop- 
erly E, apeciosa) ; t. 

Limnanthemum Indicuxn; I. 

Limnanthemum nymphoides. 

Limnocharis Humboldtii {Hudrocleys 
Commersonii). 

Myriophyllum proserpinacoides ; (. 

Nelumbium {Nelumbo). Many species 
and varieties. Some t. 

Nuphar advena. 

Nymphsa. Many species and vari- 
eties. Some (. 



Ouvirandra fenestralis {Avonogeion 

fenesirale) ; t. 
Papy^rus {Cypertu Papyrus) ; t. 
Pistia Stratiotes; (. 
Pontederia cordata. 
Sagittaria Montevidensis ; t. 
Salvinia natans. 
Sarracenia purpurea. 
Scirpus TaberniB montani lebrina (Juiy- 

cus effusiu, variegated). 
Trapa natans. 
T^pha latifolia. 
Victoria regia ; I, 
Zixania aquatica. 



Commercial plants and flowers, or *' florid* plants " 
The following are chiefly grown by florists in this country : — 



Adiantum. 

Alyssum. 

Anemone. 

Antirrhinum 

Asparagus plumosus. 

Aster, China. 

Asalea. 

Begonia. 

Bougainvillea. 

Bouvardia. 

Calla. 

Carnation. 

Cattleya. 

Chrysanthemum. 

Cineraria. 

Coreopsis. 

Cyclamen. 

Cypripedium. 

Dahlia. 

Daisy {Bellia perennia). 

Dcutsia. 

Dracena. 

Freesia. 

Gaillardia. 

Gardenia. 

Genista {Cylitus), 

Gladiolus. 

G3a>8ophila. 

Helianthus. 



Heliotrope. 

Hyacinth. 

Hydrangea. 

Lilac. 

Lilium Harrisii (L. longifiorum, var. 

eximium). 
Lily of the Valley. 
Marguerite, or Paris Daisy iCkryaan- 

themum frutescenSt and C. fanicu" 

Iticeum). 
Mignonette. 
Narcissus. 
Nephrolepis (fern). 
Nymphsea. 
Pansy. 
Peony. 
Phlox. 
Poinsettia. 
Rhododendron. 
Rose. 

Smilax (Asparagus medeoloides), 
Spirea (Astilbe). 
Stevia {Piqueria trinervia). 
Swainsona. 
Sweet pea. 
Tuberose. 
Tulip. 
Violet. 



192 GREENHOUSE AND WINDOW-GARDEN WORK 

The Heating of Greenhouses (R. C. Carpenter) 
Methods of proportioning radiating surface for heating of greenhouses. 

Radiating surface, whether from steam or hot-water pipes, is esti- 
mated in square feet of exterior surface. All projections, ornaments, 
etc., on the exterior of pipes or radiators are counted as efficient surface. 
Formerly, cast-iron pipe of about 4 inches in diameter was used almost 
altogether for greenhouse work ; it is still used to some extent for hot- 
water heating, but the great majority of houses are now piped with 
wrought iron or steel pipe, which is made of standard size and 
thickness, and is a regular article of trade. 

The heating surface in a boiler or hot water heater is that portion of 
the boiler, or heater, which is exposed to the direct heat of the fire or of 
the heated gases. 

Grate surface is the number of square feet of grate in the boiler or 
heater. 

In estimating the heat required for greenhouses, the area expressed in 
square feet of glass in the roof and walls is taken as the basis from which 
computations are made. Certain rules of practice have been adopted, 
and appear to give fa rly good results in proportioning radiating sur- 
face, grate surface, and heating surface. The ratio of heating surface 
to grate surface in heaters will depend upon the kind of coal to be 
burned and the economy desired. The more heating surface provided 
per unit of grate surface, the higher the economy, but the greater the 
first cost of the heater. The usual practice in large boilers is 
to employ 40 square feet of heating surface to 1 of grate surface 
for hard coal, and 80 feet of heating surface to 1 of grate surface for 
soft coal. 

In small cast-iron heaters the proportion of heating surface to 
grate is frequently one-third to one-fourth that given above. 

If the greenhouse is maintained at 70^ when the outside tempera- 
ture is zero, one square foot of radiation will supply 5 square feet of 
glass surface, if steam is used at 5 pounds pressure, or 4 square feet 
of glass surface if water at a temperature of 180** F. is used. The 
following table gives the ratio of radiation to glass surface for various 
temperatures: — 



GREENHOUSE HEATING 



193 



{A) Table showing relation of glass surface^ radiating surface^ and heating 

surface^ 





HOT-WATBR HkaTING 




Temperature of radiating surface . . . 


160® 


180® 


200® 


Prcuur*) Pmfure) 
220® 240® 




Square feet of glass for 1 square 
foot radiating surface. 


Temp. 100** F. above surrounding air . . 
Temp. 90^ F. above surrounding air . . 
Temp. 80® F. above surrounding air . . 
Temp. 70® F. above surrounding air . . 
Temp. 60® F. above surrounding air . . 
Temp. 60^ F. above surrounding air . . 
Temp. 40® F. above surrounding air . . 
Temp. 30® F. above surrounding air . . 

Radiation per pound of coal 

Heat units given off 1 square foot radiating 
surface B.T.U.» for 70® Temp. diff. . . 


2.3 
2.55 
2.75 
3.2 
3.8 
4.5 
5.7 
7.7 
56.2 

160 


2.7 
3.0 
3.38 
4.0 
4.5 
5.4 
6.7 
9.0 
47.7 

190 


3.2 
3.55 
4.0 
4.5 
5.25 
6.4 
8.0 
10.6 
40.9 

220 


3.5 
3.9 
4.37 
5.0 
5.85 
7.0 
8.7 
11.6 
40 

225 


4.2 
4.66 
5.25 
6.0 
7.0 
8.4 
10.5 
14.0 
36 

250 



For instance, to maintain the temperature of a greenhouse 70^ 
at zero weather, there should be 1 square foot of radiating sur- 
face for 4.0 square feet of glass for hot-water heating, in which the 
ni^tviTniim temperature of the water is maintained at 180^; or 
there should be 1 square foot of radiating surface for 5 square feet of 
glass for low-pressure (imder 5 poimds) steam. These numbers are 
given somewhat greater by some authorities, and there is no doubt 
that if the house is not much exposed, higher proportions will give 
satisfactory results. 

The preceding table gives more exact values for these quantities, 
and will be foimd to accord with the best practice in heating of green- 
houses, either by steam or hot water. Each poimd of coal burned on the 
grate will transfer to the water or steam in the heater about 9000 
B.T.U. As the amoimt of coal consumed can be varied with the 
draft or firing conditions, it is evident that no fixed rule can be given 
for the proportion of grate to radiation. 

1 From Carpenter's work on "Heating and Ventilating Buildings.*' 
s British Thermal Unit, — heat required to raise 1 lb. of water 1 degree. 
O 



194 



GREENHOUSE AND WINDOW-GARDEN WORK 



Size of pipes connecting radiating surface and the boiler or heater. 

Various empirical rules have been given for proportioning main- 
supply and return pipes, which have proved quite satisfactory in 
practice. George A. Babcock gives the following rule, which will be 
found very satisfactory for greenhouse heating, whether with low- 
pressure steam or with water : — 

The diameter of main pipe leading to the radiating surface should 
be equal in inches to 0.1 the square root of radiating surface in 
square feet. The main pipes should not be less than 1{ inches in 
diameter, return pipes for water heating the same size as mains, and, 
for steam heating, one size less than mains, but never less than } inch 
in diameter. The following table shows the radiating surface sup- 
plied by various sizes of main pipe. 

(B) SlZB OF PlP£8 R^DXATINa SUBFACB^SUPPUBD 

1}4 inches 155 square feet 

lyi inches 225 square feet 

2 inches 400 square feet 

2|^ inches 620 square feet 

3 inches 900 square feet 

Syi inches 1220 square feet 

4 inches 1600 square feet 

(C) Table of dimensions of standard wroughiriron pipe — For steam 
and water 

1 inch and below, butt-welded ; proved to 300 pounds per square inch, hydraulio 
pressure. 

1>^ inch and above, lap-welded; proved to 500 pounds per square inch, hy- 
draulic pressure. 

Table of Standard Sizes 



fa & j 



III 









H 
H 
1 

V4 

2 

3 

3H 
4 

4^ 
5 



0.3048 
0.5333 
0.8627 
1.496 
2.038 
3.355 
4.783 
7.368 
9.837 
12.730 
15.939 
19.990 



2.652 
3.299 
4.134 
5.215 
5.969 
7.461 
9.032 
10.99 
12.56 
14.13 
15.70 
17.47 



4.502 
3.637 
2.903 
2.301 
2.010 
1.611 
1.328 
1.091 
0.955 
0.849 
0.765 
0.629 



0.221 
0.274 
0.344 
0.434 
0.497 
0.621 
0.752 
0.916 
1.044 
1.178 
1.309 
1.656 



0.0102 
0.0230 
0.0408 
0.0638 
0.0918 
0.1632 
0.2550 
0.3673 
0.4998 
0.6528 
0.8263 
1.0200 



14 

14 

IIH 

IIH 

IIH 

11>4 

8 

8 

8 

8 

8 

8 



OREENUOUSE HEATING 



195 



The preceding table gives the standard sizes and principal dimensions 
of wrought-iron pipe. From this table the amount required for a 
given amount of radiating surface can be readily computed. This pipe 
can be purchased of any dealer. 



To design healing planl, 

1. Find radiating surface by dividing area of glass in square feet 
by results in table A. Hot water pipes can be kept at a temperature 
of 180** F. if desu^. 

2. Find the size of grate by multiplying amount of radiating surface 
by nimiber of poimds of coal per square foot of grate per hour divided 
by " radiation per pound " in table A. 

3. Find size of main pipes by table B, using size next larger when 
radiating surface comes between numbers given. It is usually better 
to have several main and return pipes, and divide the radiating surface 
in sections. 

Other Information relating to Heating 

Diameters for cylindrical chimney-flyeSf for given heights and boiler 
capacities (R. C. Carpenter) 

Foiip-comered chimneys are considered to be equivalent to cylindrical chim- 
neys when the sides equal the diameter. 



Height op Cbimnby in 
Fbkt 


80 


40 


50 


60 


80 


100 


31 Boiler 
w I Capacity 


II 


r Sq. Ft. 
^ted 
Boiler 

L Capacity 


Diameter 

in 

Inches 


Diameter 

in 

Inches 


Diameter 

in 

Inches 


Diameter 

in 

Inches 


Diameter 

in 

Inches 


Diameter 

in 

Inches 


250 


375 


7.0 












500 


750 


9.2 


8.8 


8.2 


8.0 






750 


1,125 


10.8 


10.2 


9.6 


9.3 


8.8 


8.6 


1,000 


1,500 


12.0 


11.4 


10.8 


10.5 


10.0 


9.5 


1,500 


2,250 


14.4 


13.4 


12.8 


12.4 


11.5 


11.2 


2,000 


3,000 


16.3 


15.2 


14.5 


14.0 


13.2 


12.6 


3,000 


4,500 


18.5 


18.2 


17.2 


16.6 


15.8 


15.0 


4.000 


6.000 


22.2 


20.8 


19.6 


19.0 


17.8 


17.0 


5,000 


7,600 


24.6 


23.0 


21.6 


21.0 


19.4 


18.6 


6.000 


9,000 


26.8 


25.0 


23.4 


22.8 


21.2 


20.2 


7,000 


10,500 


28.8 


27.0 


25.5 


24.4 


23.0 


21.6 


8.000 


12,000 


30.6 


28.6 


26.8 


26.0 


24.2 


23.4 


9,000 


13,500 


32.4 


30.4 


28.4 


27.4 


25.6 


24.4 


10,000 


15,000 


34.0 


32.0 


30.0 


28.6 


27.0 


25.4 



196 



GREENHOUSE AND WINDOW-GARDEN WORK 



Effects of wind in cooling glass (Leuchars) 



Velocity of Wind 
per hour 

3.26 miles 

5.18 miles 

6.54 miles 

8.86 miles 

10.90 miles 

13.36 miles 

17.97 miles 

20.45 miles 

24.54 miles 

27.27 miles 



Time Required to lower Temperature 
from 120- to lOO* F. 



58 minutes 
16 minutes 
91 minutes 
66 minutes 
50 minutes 
25 minutes 
08 minutes 
00 minutes 
91 minutes 
81 minutes 



Table of radiation for glass (Dean 









Hot Watbb 


Table of 


amount of steam radiating sur- 




face neoeaeary to heat a given amount 


necessary to beat a given amount of glass 


of glass 


ezpoeure to various tempera- 


exposure to various temperatures in lero 


turesin 


aero weather. 




weather. 




Number of square feet of 




Number of square feet of radiation 


Square 


radiation required at 


Square 


required at 


feet of 






feet of 
exposure 




exposure 
























40« 


46- 


60» 


60» 


70« 




40» 


46«» 


60» 


60» 


70» 


26 
50 


ii 


il 


3^ 

7f 


li 


5 
10 


25 

50 


1' 


6 
10 


6i 
13 


.V 


U 


76 


8 


9 


10 


13 


15 


75 


13 


15 


19 


21 


25 


100 


11 


13 


14 


17 


20 


100 


17 


20 


26 


29 


33 


200 


23 


25 


30 


33 


40 


200 


33 


40 


60 


57 


67 


300 


34 


38 


43 


60 


60 


300 


60 


60 


76 


86 


100 


400 


45 


60 


67 


67 


80 


400 


67 


80 


100 


114 


133 


500 


66 


63 


72 


83 


100 


600 


83 


100 


125 


143 


167 


1.000 


112 


125 


143 


167 


200 


1.000 


167 


200 


260 


286 


333 


2.000 


223 


250 


286 


333 


400 


2.000 


333 


400 


600 


572 


667 


3,000 


334 


375 


429 


600 


600 


3,000 


500 


600 


760 


857 


1.000 


4.000 


445 


500 


571 


667 


800 


4,000 


667 


800 


1.000 


1.143 


1,333 


5.000 


556 


625 


714 


833 


1.000 


5.000 


833 


1.000 


1.250 


1.429 


1.667 


10.000 


1112 


12.50 


1429 


1667 


2.000 


10,000 


1667 


2.000 


2.500 


2.857 


3.333 


20.000 


2223 


2500 


2857 


3333 


4.000 


20.000 


3333 


4.000 


5.000 


5.714 


6.667 


30.000 


3334 


3760 


4286 


5000 


6.000 


30.000 


5000 


6.000 


7.500 


8.573 


10,000 


40.000 


4445 


5000 


5714 


6667 


8.000 


40.000 


6667 


8.000 


10.000 


11.429 


13.333 


60.000 


5556 


6250 


7143 


8333 


10,000 


60,000 


8333 


10.000 


12.600 


14.286 


16.667 



> IVom DeaD*s ** Qxeenbouae Heating,** by permission of ** Domestio Engineering.'* 



OREENHOUSE HEATING 



197 



Radiating surface of pipes of different lerigtha and diameters 





%IN. 


llN. 


iy4lN. 


miN. 


2 In. 


2% In. 


3 In. 


BHlN. 


4 In. 


Pin 


Pip» 


PiPB 


Pira 


Pxra 


Pira 


Pips 


Pip. 


PlPB 


10 


2.7 


3.5 


4.3 


4.9 


6.2 


7.5 


9.1 


10.5 


11.8 


11 


3.0 


3.8 


4.8 


5.4 


6.8 


8.3 


10.0 


11.6 


13.0 


12 


3.3 


4.1 


5.2 


5.9 


7.5 


9.0 


11.0 


12.6 


14.1 


13 


3.6 


4.5 


5.6 


6.4 


8.1 


9.8 


11.9 


13.7 


15.3 


14 


3.8 


4.8 


6.1 


6.9 


8.7 


10.5 


12.8 


14.7 


16.5 


15 


4.1 


5.2 


6.5 


7.4 


9.3 


11.3 


13.7 


15.8 


17.6 


16 


4.4 


5.5 


6.9 


7.9 


10.0 


12.0 


14.6 


16.9 


18.8 


17 


4.7 


5.9 


7.4 


8.4 


10.6 


12.8 


15.5 


17.9 


20.0 


18 


5.0 


6.2 


7.8 


8.9 


11.2 


13.5 


16.5 


19.0 


21.2 


19 


5.2 


6.6 


8.3 


9.4 


11.8 


14.3 


17.4 


20.0 


22.3 


20 


5.5 


6.9 


8.7 


9.9 


12.5 


15.0 


18.3 


21.1 


23.5 


21 


5.8 


7.3 


9.1 


10.4 


13.0 


15.8- 


19.2 


22.1 


24.7 


22 


6.0 


7.6 


9.6 


10.9 


13.7 


16.5 


20.2 


23.2 


25.9 


23 


6.3 


8.0 


10.0 


11.3 


14.3 


17.3 


21.1 


24.3 


27.0 


24 


6.6 


8.3 


10.4 


11.9 


14.9 


18.0 


22.0 


25.3 


28.2 


25 


6.9 


8.6 


10.9 


12.3 


15.6 


18.8 


22.9 


26.3 


29.3 


26 


7.2 


9.0 


11.3 


12.8 


16.2 


19.5 


23.8 


27.4 


30.5 


27 


7.4 


9.4 


11.7 


13.3 


16.8 


20.3 


24.7 


28.5 


31.7 


28 


7.7 


9.7 


12.2 


13.8 


17.4 


21.0 


.25.6 


29.6 


32.9 


29 


8.0 


10.0 


12.6 


14.3 


18.0 


21.8 


26.6 


30.6 


34.1 


30 


8.3 


10.4 


13.0 


14.8 


18.7 


22.5 


27.5 


31.6 


35.3 


31 


8.5 


10.7 


13.5 


15.3 


19.3 


23.3 


28.4 


32.7 


36.4 


32 


8.8 


11.1 


13.9 


15.8 


19.9 


24.1 


29.3 


33.7 


37.6 


33 


9.1 


11.4 


14.3 


16.3 


20.5 


24.8 


30.2 


34.8 


38.8 


34 


9.4 


11.7 


14.7 


16.8 


21.2 


25.6 


31.1 


35.8 


40.0 


35 


9.6 


12.1 


15.2 


17.3 


21.8 


26.3 


32.0 


36.9 


41.1 


36 


9.9 


12.5 


15.6 


17.8 


22.4 


27.0 


33.0 


38.0 


42.3 


37 


10.2 


12.8 


16.1 


18.3 


23.0 


27.8 


33.9 


39.0 


43.5 


38 


10.5 


13.2 


16.5 


18.8 


23.7 


28.5 


34.8 


40.1 


44.6 


39 


10.7 


13.5 


16.9 


19.3 


24.3 


29.3 


35.7 


41.1 


45.8 


40 


11.0 


13.8 


17.4 


19.8 


24.9 


30.1 


36.6 


42.2 


47.0 


41] 


11.3 


14.2 


17.8 


20.5 


25.5 


30.8 


37.6 


43.2 


48.2 


42 


11.6 


14.5 


18.2 


20.8 


26.1 


31.6 


38.5 


44.3 


49.4 


43 


11.8 


14.9 


18.7 


21.3 


26.8 


32.3 


39.4 


45.3 


50.6 


44 


12.1 


15.2 


19.1 


21.8 


27.4 


33.1 


40.3 


46.4 


51.7 


45 


12.4 


15.6 


19.5 


22.4 


28.0 


33.8 


41.2 


47.4 


52.9 


46 


12.7 


15.9 


20.0 


22.8 


28.6 


34.6 


42.2 


48.5 


54.0 


47 


12.9 


16.3 


20.4 


23.2 


29.2 


35.3 


43.0 


49.6 


55.2 


48 


13.2 


16.6 


20.8 


23.7 


29.9 


36.1 


43.9 


50.6 


56.4 


49 


13.5 


17.0 


21.3 


24.2 


30.5 


36.8 


44.8 


51.7 


57.6 


50 


13.8 


17.3 


21.7 


24.7 


31.1 


37.6 


45.8 


52.8 


58.7 



198 



GREENHOUSE AND WINDOW-GARDEN WORK 



Method for finding boiler capacity for C4i8t-iron pipe 

Table showing how to get at the amount of dH-inch cast-iron pipe necessary to 
heat greenhouse to temperature wanted, when outside temperature is at sero, 
Fahrenheit (Lord & Bumham Co.) 



For 10*» 
For 70° 
For65*» 
For 60° 
For 65° 
For 50° 
For 45° 
For 40° 
For 35° 



below zero, add 10 per cent, 
to 75° divide square feet of 
to 70° divide square feet of 
to 65° divide square feet of 
to 60° divide square feet of 
to 55° divide square feet of 
to 50° divide square feet of 
to 45° divide square feet of 
to 40° divide square feet of 



: for 20° add 20 per cent., and so on. 
glass and equivalent by 1.8. 
glass and equivalent by 2.28. 
glass and equivalent by 2.62. 
glass and equivalent by 3. 
glass and equivalent by 3.46. 
glass and equivalent by 4. 
glass and equivalent by 4.67. 
glass and equivalent by 5.5. 



For 2-inch work, use same table and same example and multiply the amount 
of 3>^-inch pipe obtained by 1.68. 

In proportioning glass surface, all wall surface must be figured in ; about 5 
feet of wfldl equals 1 foot of glass. 

Customary temperatures in which plarUa are grown under glass 



Asparagus plumosus . . 
Asalca. Indian .... 
Bulbs ^hyacinth, tulip, etc.) 

Carnation 

Calla 

Chrysanthemum .... 

Cineraria 

Cyclamen 

Ferns, as maiden hair . . 

Lily (Easter) 

Lilv of the valley (forcing) 

Palms, house 

Primulas 

Rose 

Smilax 

Stocks 

Sweet pea 

Violet 



Day 


NlQHT 


70° 


60° 


65° 


50° 


60° 


45° 


60° 


50° 


70° 


60» 


55° 


45° 


65° 


50° 


65° 


50° 


75° 


60° 


65° 


55° 


90° 


90° 


75° 


60° 


65° 


50° 


65° 


55° 


60° 


50° 


65° 


50° 


60° 


50° 


50° 


40» 



Various Estimates and Recipes 

Percentage of rays of light reflected from glass roofs at various angles of 
divergence from the perpendicular (Bouguer) 

1* 2.5 per cent 

10° 2.5 per cent 

20° 2.5 per cent 

30° 2.7 per cent 

40° 3.4 per cent 

60° 5.7 per cent 

60° 11.2 per cent 

70° 22.2 per cent 

80° 41.2 per cent 

85° 64.3 per cent 



GREENHOUSE FIGURES 



199 



Angle of roof for different heights and widths of house (Taft) 



Hbiqbt 
Fur 


4 Ft. 


6 Ft. 


6 Ft. 


7 Ft. 


8 Ft. 


9Fr. 


Width 


o / 


o / 


o / 


o / 


o / 


o / 


Put 














6 


33 21 


39 48 


45 


49 24 


53 8 


56 18 


7 


29 44 


35 32 


40 36 


45 


48 49 


52 07 


8 


26 33 


32 


36 52 


41 11 


45 


48 22 


9 


23 57 


29 3 


33 5 


37 52 


41 38 


45 


10 


21 48 


26 33 


30 58 


35 


38 39 


41 59 


11 




24 26 


28 36 


32 28 


36 2 


39 17 


12 




22 57 


26 33 


30 15 


33 41 


36 52 


13 




21 2 


24 47 


28 18 


31 36 


34 42 


14 






23 12 


26 34 


29 44 


32 44 



Among greenhouse builders, 32° is the pitch of roof that has 
practically been established for all houses up to 25 feet in width ; 
beyond that width, 26° is commonly used for the slope or pitch 
of the roof. 

Standard ficwer-pots. 

American 

The Society of American Florists has adopted a standard pot, in 
which all measurements are made inside, and which bears a rim or 
shoulder at the top. The breadth and depth of these pots are the same, 
so that they " nest " well. 

English. — Chiflwick Standards 





DiAM. AT 

Top 


Dbpth 


Thimbles 


In. 
2 

2H 
3 

4 

1^ 

IIH 

12 
13 
15 
18 


In, 
2 


Thumbs 


2H 
3H 
4 


60*8 


54'8 


48'8 


5 


32*8 


6 


24*8 


8 


16*8 


9 


12'8 


10 


8*8 


11 


6*8 


12 


4*8 


13 


2*8 * 


14 







200 GREENHOUSE AND WINDOW-GARDEN WORK 



To prevent boilers from filling with sediment or scale. 

(1) Exercise care to get clean water and that which contains little 
lime. (2) Blow it out often. It can be blown out a little every day, 
and occasionally it should be blown off entirely. (3) Put slippery- 
elm bark in the boiler tank. Or, if slippery-elm is not handy, use 
potato-peelings, flax-seed, oak-bark, spent tan, or coarse sawdust. (4) 
Put in, with the feed-water or otherwise, a small quantity of good mo- 
lasses (not a chemical sirup), say one-half to one pint in a week, de- 
pending upon the size of boiler. This will remove and prevent 
incrustation without damage to the boiler. These vegetable sub- 
stances prevent, in a measure, by mechanical means, the union of the 
particles of lime into incrustations. 

To prepare paper and doth for hotbed sash, 

1. Use a sash without bars, and stretch wires or strings 
across it to serve as a rest for the paper. Procure stout but 
thin manila wrapping-paper, and paste it firmly on the sash with 
fresh flour paste. Dry in a warm place, and then wipe the paper 
with a damp sponge to cause it to stretch evenly. Dry again, and 
then apply boiled linseed oil to both sides of the paper, and dry 
again in a warm place. 

2. Saturate cloth or tough, thin manila paper with pure, raw lin- 
seed oil. 

3. Dissolve If pounds white soap in one quart water ; in another 
quart dissolve H ounces gum arable and 5 ounces glue. Mix the two 
liquids, warm, and soak the paper, han^ng it up to dry. Used mostly 
for paper. 

4. 3 pints pale linseed oil ; 1 ounce sugar of lead ; 4 ounces white 
rosin. Grind and mix the sugar of lead in a little oil, then add the other 
materials and heat in an iron kettle. Apply hot with a brush. Used 
for muslin. 

Paint for hot^wcUer pipes. 

Mix lampblack with boiled oil and turpentine. It is harmless to 
plants. 



OREENHOUSE RECIPES 201 

Liquid puUy far glazing. 

Take equal parts, by measure, of boiled oil, putty, and white lead. 
Mix the putty and oil, then add the white lead. If the mixture be- 
comes too thick, add turpentine. Apply with a putty-bulb. 

PaifU for shading greenhouse roofs. 

Make a paint of ordinary consistency of white lead and naphtha. It 
is removed from the glass by the use of a scrubbing-brush. Make it thin, 
or it is hard to remove. 

Ordinary lime whitewash is good for temporary use. If salt is added, 
it adheres better. It may be applied with a spray pump. 

To keep flower-pots dean. 

When the pots are cleaned, soak them a few houre in ammoniacal 
carbonate of copper (recipe, page 255). Soak them about once a year. 
This fungicide kills the green alga upon the pots, and prevents a new 
growth from appearing. 



CHAPTER XII 

FOBSSTRY AND TiMBER 

Forestry is the raising of timber crops. It is not the planting of 
shade trees or ornamental trees, or even of groves, but the planting 
and rearing of forests. The primary product of the forest is timber ; 
usually the timber is sawed into boards, known collectively in North 
America as limiber (lumber is properly and differently used in Eng- 
land); some timber is used for fire-wood, some for wood-pulp, and 
some for other uses. In the trades, timber usually means the 
squared or heavy sawed product used in framework. 

Planting Notes 
Nursery planting^able for forest trees (Farmer's Bulletin) 



Spbcibb 



When to 

COLLBCT 

Sbbos 



How TO flTORB 

Seeds 



Ash, green . . 

Ash, white . . 

Baaswood . . 

Beech . . . 
Butternut * 

Box elder . . 

Catalpa, hardy 

Cheny, black . 

Coffee tree, 
Kentucky . 

Cottonwood • . 

Elm, slippery . 

Elm, white . . 

Hackberry . 

Hickory, pignut^ Sept. or Oct. 

Hickory, shag- 
bark » . . . 

Hickory, shell- 
bark . . . 



Oct. 
t« 

Sept. or Oct. 

Fall 

Sept. or Oct. 



Oct. or Nov. 
Aug. or Sept. 
Sept. or Oct. 

June or July 
May or June 

Oct. 



Si 

o^ 



Bury in sand 

Sow at once 
Bury in sand 



Cool, dry place 
Bury in sand 
Cool, dry place, 
or bury m sand 
Sow at once 



Bury in sand 



35-50 
35-60 
5-60 
70-80 
76-80 
40-60 

40-75 
75-80 
70-75 

75-95 
50-75 
50-75 
70-80 
50-75 
60-75 

50-75 



When to 

PLANT 

Seeda 



Spring 

Fall 

Early spring 

Spring 



Summer 
Late spring 

Sprin|E 



Spacing op 

Sbedb in 

Rows 



Scatter thickly 



2 in. apart 

3 to 6 m. apart 
Touching ic 

rows 
H in* apart 
2 to 3 in. apart 



1 In. apart 
Scatter thickly 

I to 2 in. apart 
3 to 6 in. apart 



In. 

e-9 

6-10 
6-12 
3-6 
10-18 
10-14 

14-30 
4-6 
3-6 

20-30 
15-18 
6-10 
6-12 
2-6 
2-6 

2-6 



> Di£5cult to transplant on account of tap root. Advisable to sow seeds in permanent 
sites in field whenever possible. 

> Easily grown from cuttings. Not necessary or advisable to attempt growing from seed. 

202 



FOREST NURSERY 



203 



Nursery plarUing-table for forest trees — Continued 









H p *> 




eS 




^9- 


Spxcixs 


When to 


How TO 8TOSB 

Seeds 


When to 

PLANT 




Spactno op 
Seeds in 


ill 




Seeds 




SXEDB 


Rows 












In. 




In. 


Locust, black . 


Oct. 


Cool, dry place, 
or bury in sand 


30-67 


Spring 


1 


2 to 3 in. apart 


lS-20 


Locust, bonsy . 


•• 




50-75 


Fall or spring 


H 


•• 


6-14 


Maple, red. . 


May or June 


Sow at once 


25-60 


Late spring 


1 


H in. apart 


6-10 


Maple, silver . 


•* 


•* 


25-50 


«• 


1 


.r 


12-20 


Maple, sugar . 


Oct. 


Sow at once, or 
bury in sand 


30-50 


Fall or spring 


1 


" 


6-12 


Mulberry. Rus- 
sian 
Oak. bur t . . 


July or Aug. 


Cool, dry place 


75-95 


Spring 


H 


Scatter thickly 


»-10 


Sept. or Oct. 


Sow at once, or 


7&-95 


Fall or spring 


IH 


3 to 6 in. apart 


5-9 






bury in sand 












Oak. red 1 . . 


" 


•• 


75-95 


" 


1^ 


M 


6-20 


Oak. white t . 


•* 


•• 


75-95 


•• 


•• 


JV-9 


Osage orange . 
Poplar, yellow 


•* 


Cool, dry place 


60-95 Spring 
5-10 Fall 


Vi 




10-15 


" 


Sow at once 


\\. 


Scatter thickly 


4-6 


Walnut, black' 


" 


Bury in sand 


75-80,Spring 


3 to 6 in. apart 


10-18 



For number of tree seeds in a pound, see Chapter V. 

* Difficult to transplant on account of tap root. Advisable to sow seeds in permanent 
sites in field whenever possible. 

3^ole on fA««mi/er«(Afu//ord). — White pine. Scotch pine, and Norway spruce seed should 
be collected as soon as it is ripe, in September. The cones should be dried, allowing the 
seed to fall out. The seed should be stored for the winter in bags hung in a dry, oool 
place, and should be sown thickly in the spring, covering with about one-eighth inch of soil. 
From 60 to 90 per cent of the seed should germinate. One-year-old seedlings are from one 
and one-half to three inches high. 



Foreat planting (Mulford). 

Forest planting is usually done with the mattock (grub hoe). A 
space about twelve to sixteen inches square should be cleared of all 
growth, and a hole dug in the middle of this large enough to receive 
the roots comfortably. Another method is to plow and harrow the 
ground, mark out with a corn marker, and simply set the tree in a 
slit pried open with a common spade, the slit being closed by a second 
thrust of the spade. By the former method, from 250 to 600 trees 
per day per man can be planted ; by the latter method, from 800 to 
2000 trees. Forest trees are ordinarily planted 4 X 4, 5 X 5, or 6 X 6 
feet {i.e. about 2700, 1750, and 1200 trees per acre, respectively), the 
closer spacing being more necessary with slow-growing trees and on 
poor soib. 



204 



FORESTRY AND TIMBER 



Hardness of Common Commercial Woods 



Shellbark hickory 


. 100 Black walnut . . . 


65 


Yellow pine . 


. . 54 


Pignut hickory 
White oak . . 


. . 96 Black birch . . . 


62 


Chestnut . 


. . 52 


. 84 Yellow oak. . . . 


60 


Yellow poplar . 


. . 51 


White ash . . 


. 77 White elm . . . . 


58 


White birch . 


. . 43 


Scrub oak . . 


. 73 Hard maple . . . 


56 


Butternut . . 


. . 43 


Red oak 


. 69 Red cedar .... 


56 


White pine . 


. . 30 


White beech . 


. 66 Wild cherry . . . 
Forest Yields 


55 







ApproxinuUe time required to produce different wood crops (U. S. Forest 

Service) 



SpBcns 



Northern forests 

Aspen 

Beech! 

Birch, paper 

Hemlock > 

Maple, sugar * 

Pine, red 

Pine, white 

Central hardwood forests 

Chestnut" 

Oak, red 

Oak, white 

Poplar, yellow 

Farm timber plantations 

Catalpa* 

Larch, European * . . . . 

Maple, silver * 

Walnut, black * 

Cottonwood* 



Southern forests 

Ash, white 

Cottonwood 

Cypress 

Gum, red 

Pine, loblolly 

Pine, longleaf 

Pacific coast forests 

Fir. Douglas 

Hemlock, western . . . 

Pine, sugar 

Pine, western yellow . . . 
Redwood 



Me. 

Mich. 

Me. 

Mich. 

Mich. 

Wis. 

N.Y. 



Md. 
Ky. 

Tenn. 



111. 
lU. 
lU. 
111. 
Nebr. 

Ark. 

Miss. 

Md. 

S.C. 

S.C. 

S.C. 



Wash. 

Wash. 

Cal. 

Cal. 

Cal. 






Years 
30 



32 
32 

20 
25 
35 



20 
23 

25 



40 
20 

25 

40 
25 
20 



Years 

40 

80 

50 
100 . 

90 

40 

40 

25 
30 
45 
45 



25 
35 
18 

30 
15 



25 



35 
50 
50 
35 
25 



a 3 



Yeart 

60 
100 

130 

55 
55 

40 
45 

80 



45 

65 
30 
40 
75 

45 
70 
65 
45 
35 









YeoTM 

75 
55 



75 

55 
100 

50 



55 
50 



5« 



Years 
200 



200 

100 

90 

85 
100 
160 
110 



85 
30 
90 
55 
70 
130 

75 

125 

100 

80 

70 



> Species tolerant of shade which should show better results io second growth. 
' Species growing under favorable conditions when measured. 



FOREST YIELDS 



205 



Yidd of white pine per acre in southern New Hampshire (Margolin) 

QUAUTT I 



Agb 


NUMBXB 

or Tbus 


Basal 
Area 


Mban 

Heiobt 


VOLUMB 


CUBBBNT 

Annual In- 

CBBMBNT 


Mean An- 
nual In- 

CBBMBNT 


Fmt* 




SquartfL 


Feti 


CvbiefL 


Cubic n. 


CvhiefL 


25 


2.430 


190 


33 


3.100 


124 


124 


30 


1.840 


215 


41 


4.367 


263 


145 


36 


1.260 


230 


48 


5.850 


296 


167 


40 


870 


238 


56 


7,033 


236 


176 


46 


640 


243 


64 


8.000 


193 


177 


60 


610 


246 


70 


8.767 


153 


175 


56 


430 


249 


75 


9.476 


141 


172 


60 


380 


252 


80 


10.100 


125 


168 


65 


340 


255 


84 


10.633 


106 


164 


70 


310 


258 


87 


11.100 


93 


158 


76 


280 


261 


90 


11.667 


93 


154 


80 


260 


263 


93 


12.000 


86 


150 


86 


240 


266 


95 


12,383 


76 


146 


90 


220 


268 


97 


12.767 . 


76 


142 



Quality II 



26 


2.430 


163 


31 


2,700 


108 


108 


30 


1.840 


183 


38 


3,700 


200 


123 


35 


1.250 


195 


a 45 
• 52 


4.850 


230 


139 


40 


870 


212 


5.800 


190 


146 


45 


640 


221 


59 


6.600 


160 


147 


60 


510 


228 


66 


7.300 


140 


146 


56 


430 


233 


71 


7.925 


125 


144 


60 


380 


236 


76 


8.600 


115 


142 


65 


340 


238 


80 


9.000 


100 


138 


70 


310 


241 


84 


9.450 


90 


135 


76 


280 


244 


87 


9.900 


90 


132 


80 


260 


247 


89 


10,300 


80 


129 


86 


240 


250 


91 


10,650 


70 


125 


90 


220 


253 


93 


11.000 


70 


122 



QUALITT III 



25 


2,430 


150 


28 


2.300 




92 


30 


1.840 


165 


35 


3.033 


146 


101 


36 


1.250 


176 


42 


3.850 


163 


110 


40 


870 


185 


48 


4.567 


143 


114 


45 


640 


191 


54 


5,200 


126 


116 


50 


510 


197 


60 


5.833 


126 


116 


55 


430 


201 


66 


6,375 


108 


116 


60 


380 


205 


71 


6.900 


105 


115 


65 


340 


208 


75 


7.367 


93 


113 


70 


310 


211 


79 


7.817 


90 


112 


76 


280 ' 


213 


83 


8.233 


83 


110 


80 


260 


216 


85 


8.600 


73 


107 


86 


240 


218 


88 


8,917 


63 


105 


90 


220 


221 


89 


9,233 


63 


103 



206 



FORESTRY AND TIMBER 
Second growth 



AOB 


VOLUMB 




Quality I 


Quality II 


Quality III 


year. 
20 


Board feet 

4,600 
8,400 
15,100 
24.950 
33.550 
40.750 
47,450 
62,350 
67.300 
61,850 
65,900 
69,750 
73,300 
76,700 
80,050 


Board feel 

3.150 
5,900 
10,800 
18.050 
25.000 
31.450 
37,800 
42,550 
47.400 
51,850 
55,800 
69,500 
62,850 
66.000 
69,000 


Board feel 
1,700 


25 


3.450 


30 


6,550 


35 


11,200 


40 


16.450 


45 


22.150 


60 


27,660 


65 


32.750 


60 


37.500 


85 


41.850 


70 


45.700 


75 


49.250 


80 


52.400 


85 


66.300 


90 


67.950 







Volume in board feet is round-edged box board material. 
WkUe pine thinnings 





QuALrrr I 


.QUALfTT IF 


QuALrrr III 






Trees 






Trees 




Trees 


Aqb 




under 






under 




under 




Total Thinning 
per Acre 


5 Inches 
in Di- 
ameter 


Total Thinning 
per Acre 


5 Inches 
in Di- 
ameter 


Total Thinning 
per Acre 


5 Inches 
in Di- 
ameter 






Breast- 






Breast- 




Breast- 






high 






high 




high 


Yeare 


Cubic 


Board 


CuWc 


Cubic 


Board 


Cubic 


Cubic 


Board 


Cubic 


feel 


feel 


feel 


feet 


feel 


feel 


feel 


feel 


feel 


25 


1,350 


2.000 


830 


900 


750 


750 


600 




600 


30 


1.730 


4,500 


660 


1.380 


3.300 


600 


1.090 


2,200 


500 


36 


1,980 


6,800 


480 


1.680 


6.600 


450 


1,440 


4,300 


400 


40 


2.120 


8.700 


270 


1.900 


7.500 


300 


1.640 


5,800 


300 


45 


2,240 


10.100 


60 


;2.040 


8,900 


150 


1.750 


6,900 


200 


50 


2,280 


11.200 





2.100 


9.900 





1.800 


7.600 


80 


55 


2,280 


12.000 




2.100 


10,400 




1,780 


8,100 




60 


2.260 


12.300 





2.000 


10.600 




1,700 


8.300 





65 


2,200 


12.300 




1,850 


10,300 




1,590 


8.200 





70 


2,100 


11.900 




1.630 


9.500 




1,420 


7.800 




75 


1.950 


11.100 




1,300 


8.000 




1,200 


6.900 




80 


1,700 


9.500 





860 


6.000 




920 


5,600 




85 








200 


1.200 




650 


4.000 





90 














370 


2,300 









TREATING POSTS 207 

Life of Fence-Posts and Shingles 

Durability offence poaU in Minnesota (Green). 

Ybabb 

Red cedi^ 30 

White cedar (quartered 6 in. face) 10-15 

White oak (6 in. round) 8 

Red and black oak 4 

Tamarack (red wood) 9 

Elm 6-7 

Aah, beech, maple 4 

Black walnut 7-10 

Prolonging the life of fence-posts (Willis). 

Measures for posts named in ascending order of efficiency : — 

Peeling and seasoning. 

Charring. 

Painting. 

At best, surface brush paintings are not very durable. Some of the 
substances which may be applied with a brush are whitewash, petro- 
leum-tar creosote, coal-tar creosote, and various patented products 
of coal tar and petroleum tar. Paint and whitewash are inferior to 
antiseptic preservatives; products of coal tar (creosote, etc.) are the 
best. These are best applied hot, in two or more coats. A barrel (50 
gallons) of creosote should be sufficient to paint at least 300 posts with 
three coats for the butts and two for the tops. 

Dipping. 

One defect of brush treatment is that the preservative does not 
enter readily the cracks and checks. This defect may be overcome 
by dipping the posts in the preservative. Another advantage of dip- 
ping, as compared with painting, is a saving in labor. On the other 
hand, dipping requires a larger quantity of preservative, and, in ad- 
dition to the amount consumed, there must be enough surplus to keep 
the barrel or tank filled to the proper depth. This usually forbids 
the use of any expensive preservative for dipping. Petroleum tar, 
coal tar, and the creosotes, however, may often be advantageously 
employed. 

Posts have been treated by dipping the butt in cement. This is 



208 FORESTRY AND TIMBER 

hardly satisfactory, owing to the ease with which the protective 
covering may be broken ; moisture is absorbed after treatment ; and 
causes the wood to expand and crack the cement. 

Cold-bath treatment. 

This differs from dipping because penetration of the wood is se- 
cured by leaving the post in the bath for ten hours or more. As a rule, 
only the cheaper preservatives can profitably be used in the cold-bath 
treatment. Coal tar is so ropy and sticky that it will scarcely pene- 
trate even the most easily treated woods. Crude petroleimi enters the 
wood rather readily, but lacks strong antiseptic qualities. A long bath 
in crude petroleum may, however, prove a feasible method of treatment 
where petroleum is very cheap and the woods used are readily impreg- 
nated. Creosote is usually the best preservative to employ. Coal- 
tar creosote requires a slight heating to liquefy it. Water in the wood 
cells resists the penetration of the oil. Thorough seasoning before 
treatment, therefore, is necessary to allow the oil to penetrate readily 
and to prevent checking after treatment. The cold-bath method of 
treatment has not yet been thoroughly investigated. It is probable, 
however, that it will impregnate but few woods. The woods which 
are likely to prove most suitable are beech, cottonwood, the gums, pin 
and red oaks, the pines, sycamore, and tulip tree. 

Impregnation with creosote. 

The impregnation of fence posts with creosote is best accomplished 
by the so-called ^* open-tank " process, so designated to distinguish 
it from the "closed " or " pressure " cylinder process which is often 
employed in creosoting ties and piling. This consists of heating wood 
for a certain period and then cooling it in the preservative. The 
principle is simple: during the heating the high temperature causes 
the air and water contained in the wood cells to expand, so that a por- 
tion of this air and water is forced out. The rest contracts as the sub- 
sequent cooling progresses, and a partial vacuum is formed, into which 
atmospheric pressure forces the cool preservative. 

The open-tank principle may be variously applied in the treatment 
of posts. The best way to heat the posts is to immerse their butts in 
creosote maintained at a temperature of 220^ F. If a single tank is 



TREATING POSTS AND SHINGLES 209 

used, the cooling bath may be given by permitting the temperature to 
fall, and in this case the preservative must, of course, be used for the 
hot bath. It is better, however, to employ an additional tank containing 
the cold preservative. If two tanks are used and a thorough impr^- 
nation of the top of the post is desired, the cold-bath tank should be large 
enough to permit the soaking of the entire post. The top of the post 
will not be too heavily impregnated, because it has not been im- 
mersed in the hot oil. With two tanks, crude petroleum or any heavy 
(high-boiling) oil may be used in the hot-bath tank. Creosote is 
usually the most satisfactory preservative. 

Other wood. 

Wood used on the farm in various forms other than post material 
may often be advantageously preserved from decay by chemical 
treatment, as all timbers used in foundations, sills, beams, and plank- 
ing, as well as the lower parts of board fences, and the lumber used 
near the ground in sheds and barns. The treatment of these is very 
similar to that given posts. 

ProUmging the life of shingles (Willis). 

Water absorbed during a storm subsequently evaporates rapidly 
from the upper surface pf shingles and rather slowly from the lower 
surface. Consequently, the upper part of the shingle shrinks more 
than does the under, and curling or warping results. The impor- 
tance of excluding moisture is obvious. In addition to this, it is 
advisable to employ an antiseptic to retard decay. The best pre- 
servative, it follows, must possess such qualities as will operate in 
both these ways to prolong the life of the shingles. Apply preserv- 
atives only when the wood is thoroughly dry. 

Non-antiseptic preservatives. — The application of paint is the pre- 
servative measure most commonly used with shingles. The method 
of applying it. is of paramount importance. Dipping the shingles 
individually is the only satisfactory procedure. When a roof is 
painted ridges of paint are formed at the base of the shingles, owing 
to the irregularities of the surface over which the brush passes. 
These cause the water to permeate the crevices between the shingles 
and frequently hasten decay. 



210 FORESTRY AND TIMBER 

Antiseptic preservatives. — The best antiseptics for shingle treat- 
ment are creosote and other derivatives of coal tar. Painting the 
roof with these oils is a rather satisfactory method of treatment, 
since the coal-tar derivatives penetrate the shingles better than 
ordinary paint and do not leave ridges below the base of the shingles. 
At least two coats should be applied. Dipping the individual 
shingles gives good results. The best results, however, are obtained 
by heating and cooling the wood in the preservative, as described 
for the treatment of fence posts. 

Suggestions for community action (Willis). 

It is often difficult for a farmer efficiently to treat his own material 
with preservatives. This, however, does not indicate that the work 
should be neglected. Rather it points to some different means of 
securing the desired result. 

There are two practical methods of doing this. One is for some 
individual to undertake the work for the neighborhood. A small 
wood-preserving plant could be profitably operated in connection 
with a threshing outfit, a feed mill, or sawmill. The other plan is 
for several farmers to codperate in establishing and operating the 
plant. As an indication of the success which should attend such an 
undertaking, the cooperative creameries of various sections of the 
country may be cited. 

Board Measure 

Board measure is designed primarily for the measurement of sawed 
lumber. The unit is the board foot, which is a board one inch thick 
and one foot square, so that with inch boards the content in board 
measure is the same as the number of square feet of surface; with 
lumber of other thicknesses the content is expressed in terms of inch 
boards. 

Lumber is always sold on a basis of 1000 feet board measure, the 
abbreviation for which is B.M., and for thousand is M. Thus, 500 
feet B.M., costing $18 per thousand, would be S9; 100 feet B.M., 
$1.80; 10 feet B.M., 18 cents. 

At $10 per M., B.M., lumber costs 1^ per square foot ; at $12, 1.2^ 
square foot; at $14, lAf; at $15, U^ ; at $17, 1.7^ ; at $20, 2^ square 



BOARD AND CORD MEASURE 211 

foot. At $9 M., 1 sq. ft. is T^f ; at $8, -^f. Multiply the number 
of square feet B.M. by the price per square foot. 

To find the B.M., multiply the length in feet by the thickness and 
width in inches, and divide the product by 12. Thus, a plank 18 ft. 

18 ^ 2 y 8 

long, 2 in. thick, and 8 in. wide contains — = 24 ft. B. M. 

1^ 

Or, the length of the plank in inches may be multiplied by the end 
area in square inches, and the result divided by 144. For example, 
the number of feet B. M. in a piece 18 ft. long, 2 in. thick, and 8 in. 
wide, will be 216 in. (18 ft. X 12) multiplied by 16 sq. in. (2 X 8, the 
end area), or 3456 sq. in., 1 in. thick ; dividing by 144, the result is 
.24 ft. B.M. 



Cord Measure (The Woodsman's Handbook, U. S. Forest Service) 

firewood, small pulp-wood, and material cut into short sticks for 
excelsior, etc., is usually measured by the cord. A cord is 128 cubic 
feet of stacked wood. The wood is usually cut into 4-foot lengths, in 
which case a cord is ^ stack 4 feet high and wide, and 8 feet long. Some- 
times, however, pulp-wood is cut 5 feet long, and a stack of it 4 feet high, 
5 feet wide, and 8 feet long is considered 1 cord. In this case the cord 
contains 160 cubic feet of stacked wood. Where firewood is cut in 
5-foot lengths, a cord is a stack 4 feet high and 6| feet long, and contains 
130 cubic feet of stacked wood. Where it is desirable to use shorter 
lengths for special purposes, the sticks are often cut 1}, 2, or 3 feet 
long. A stack of such wood, 4 feet high and 8 feet long, is considered 
1 cord, but the price is always made to conform to the shortness of the 
measure. 

A cord foot is one-eighth of a cord, and is equivalent to a stack of 4- 
foot wood 4 feet high and 1 foot wide. Farmers frequently speak of 
a foot of cord wood, meaning a cord foot. By the expression " surface 
foot " is meant the number of square feet measured on the side of a stack. 

In some localities, particularly in New England, cord-wood is meas- 
ured by means of calipers. Instead of stacking the wood and computing 
the cords in the ordinary way, the average diameter of each log is de- 
termined with calipers and the number of cords obtained by consulting 
a table which gives the amount of wood in logs of different diameters 
and lengths. 



212 FORESTRY AND TIMBER 

Log Measure (The Woodsman's Handbook) 

In the United States and Canada logs are most commonly measured 
in board feet. In small transactions standing timber is often sold by 
the lot or for a specified amount per acre. Standing trees which are to 
be used for lumber are occasionally sold by the piece. Hoop poles 
and other small wood are sold by the hundred or thousand. Ties and 
poles are sold by the piece ; piles and mine props by the piece or by 
linear feet, the price varying in piece sales according to specifications 
as to diameter, length, and grade. 

Firewood and wood cut into short bolts, as for small pulp-wood, ex- 
celsior-wood, spool-wood, novelty-wood, and headbg, is ordinarily 
measured in cords. 

In certain sections of the East it has been the custom to use a stand- 
ard log as a unit of measure. In the Adirondacks a common unit of 
measure is the 19-inch standard, or, as it is often called, the " market." 
In this case the standard log is 19 inches in diameter at the small end 
inside the bark and 13 feet long. In New Hampshire the Blodgett 
standard is in common use. This unit is a cylinder 16 inches in diam- 
eter and 1 foot long. There were formerly other standards in use, 
such as the 24-inch standard once used in New England, and the 
22-inch standard in use in certain parts of Canada and northern New 
York. The standard measure is decreasing in use. 

The cubic foot is the best unit for measuring the volume of logs. 
It has gained a foothold in this coimtry, and will unquestionably be 
the unit of the future. Even now, red-cedar pencil-wood, wagon 
stock, and other valuable hardwood material is occasionally sold by 
the cubic foot in certain sections of the East. The unit is used by a few 
companies in Maine for measuring pulp-wood. A special commission 
on the measurement of logs has recently recommended to the legisla- 
ture of Maine that the cubic foot be adopted as a statute imit of 
measurement. 

The cubic foot has for a long time been used for the measurement 
of square timber. Round logs are often measured in terms of cubic 
feet, but the plan is to determine the contents of the square which can 
be cut from the log, rather than the full contents, including slabs. The 
cubic foot is in common use in the measurement of precious woods 
which are imported from the tropics. 



LOQ MEASURE 213 

In continental Europe and the Philippine Islands, the cubic meter 
has been established as the standard unit for the measuring of logs and 
timber. 

In recent years, board measure has also been used as a imit of volume 
for logs. When so applied, the measure does not show the entire con- 
tent of the log, but the quantity of lumber which, it is estimated, may be 
manufactured from it. The number of board feet in any given log is 
determined from a table that shows the estimated number which can 
be taken out from logs of different diameters and lengths. Such a 
table is called a log scale or log rule, and is compiled by reducing the 
dimensions of perfect logs of different sizes, to allow for waste in manu- 
facture, and then calculating the number of inch boards which remain 
in the log. 

The amount of lumber that can be cut from logs of a given size is 
not uniform, because the factors which determine the amount of waste 
vary under different circumstances, such as the thickness of the saw, 
the thickness of the boards, the width of the smallest board which may 
be utilized, the skill of the sawyer, the efficiency of the machinery, the 
defects in the log, the amount of taper, and the shrinkage. This lack 
of uniformity has led to wide differences of opinion as to how log rules 
should be constructed. There have been many attempts to devise 
a log rule which can be used as a standard, but none of them will meet 
all conditions. The rules in existence have been so unsatisfactory that 
constant attempts have been made to improve upon them. As a result 
there are now actually in use in the United States 40 or 50 different log 
rules, whose results differ in some cases as much as 120 per cent for 
20-inch to 30-inch logs and 600 per cent for 6-inch logs. Some of these 
are constructed from mathematical formulsB ; some by preparing dia- 
grams that represent the top of a log and then determining the amount 
of waste in sawdust and slabs ; some are based on actual averages of 
logs cut at the mill ; while still others are the result of making correc- 
tions in an existing rule to meet special local conditions. 

The large number of log rules, the differences in their values, and the 
variation in the methods of their application have led to much confusion 
and inconvenience. Efforts to reach an agreement among lumbermen 
on a single standard log rule have failed so far. A number of states 
have given official sanction to specific rules ; but this has only added to 
the confusion, because the states have not chosen the same rule, so 



214 



FORESTRY AND TIMBER 



there are six different state log rules, and, in addition, three different 
official log rules in Canada. It is probable that a standard method of 
measuring logs will not be worked out satisfactorily until a single 
unit oir volume, like the cubic foot, is adopted for the measurement 
of logs. 

The Forest Service of the United States Department of Agriculture 
has adopted the Scribner Decimal Rule for timber sales on the National 
Forests. It has been in use for about four years, and, in the main, has 
proved satisfactory, since competitive bids enable the buyer to bid 
higher if the character of the logs indicates a mill overrun. 

Scribner decimal log nde 

The total scale is obtained by multiplying the figures in this table by 10. Thus 
the contents of a 6-inch 8-foot log are given as 0.5, so the total sceJe is 5 board 
feet. A 30-inch 16-foot log is given' as 66, or a total scale of 660 board feet. 



j 


Lbnotb (Fkbt) 


I 

1 

In. 


Lbnoth (Fcvr) 


Q 


6 


8 


16 


IS 


14 


16 


6 


8 


16 


12 


14 


16 


In. 


Bd.fl. 


Bd.ft. 


Bd./l. 


Bd./t. 


Bd.ft. 


Bd./l. 


Bd./t. 


Bd./l. 


Bd./t. 


Bd./t. 


Bd./t. 


Bd.ft. 


6 


0.5 


0.5 


1 


1 


I 


2 


42 


50 


67 


84 


101 


117 


134 


9 


1 


2 


3 


3 


3 


4 


44 


56 


74 


93 


111 


129 


148 


10 


2 


3 


3 


3 


4 


6 


48 


65 


86 


108 


130 


161 


173 


12 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


50 


70 


94 


117 


140 


164 


187 


15 


5 


7 


9 


11 


12 


14 


54 


82 


109 


137 


164 


191 


218 


18 


8 


11 


13 


16 


19 


21 


56 


88 


118 


147 


176 


206 


235 


20 


11 


14 


17 


21 


24 


28 


60 


101 


135 


169 


203 


237 


270 


22 


13 


17 


21 


25 


29 


33 


65 


119 


159 


199 


239 


279 


319 


24 


15 ' 


21 


25 


30 


35 


40 


70 


139 


186 


232 


279 


325 


372 


26 


19 


25 


31 


37 


44 


50 


75 


161 


215 


269 


323 


377 


430 


28 


22 


29 


36 


44 


51 


58 


80 


185 


247 


309 


371 


432 


494 


30 


25 


33 


41 


49 


67 


66 


85 


210 


281 


351 


421 


491 


561 


33 


29 


39 


49 


59 


69 


78 


90 


236 


315 


393 


472 


551 


629 


36 


35 


46 


58 


69 


81 


92 


95 


262 


350 


437 


526 


612 


700 


40 


45 


60 


75 


90 


105 


120 1 


100 


289 


386 


482 


579 


675 


772 



U. S. Forest Service Log-Scaling Directions 

Unless timber is sold on the basis of an estimate, it must be scaled, 
counted, or measured before it is removed from the cutting area, or 
from the place agreed upon for the scaling, the counting, or the 
measuring. 



LOG-SCALINQ RULES 215 

All saw timber will be scaled by the Scribner Decimal log rule. This 
rule drops the units and gives the contents of a log to the nearest ten. 
When the total scale of a log is desired, all that is necessary is to add 
one cipher to the sum of the numbers read from the scale stick, except- 
ing the contents of 6 and 8 foot logs, 6 and 7 inches in diameter. These 
are given as 0.5, which, multiplied by 10, gives 5 feet as the actual con- 
tents. 

In the absence of a scale stick, or where the position of logs in the 
pile makes its use difficult, the diameters and lengths may be tallied 
and the contents figured from a scale table later. 

Purchasers should be required to skid logs for scaling, if the cost of 
scaling will be materially decreased by these requirements and if the 
cost of logging will not be greatly increased. 

The forest officer should always insist on having one end of piles or 
skidwa3rs even, so that ends of logs may be easily reached. 

When necessary and possible, the purchaser will be required to mark 
top ends of logs to avoid question when they are scaled in the pile. 

Each log scaled must be numbered with crayon. The number will 
be the same as that opposite which the scale of the log is recorded in 
the scale book. 

The logs in all skidways must be counted, and the number in each 
checked with the entries in the scale book. 

Each merchantable log after scaling will be stamped " U.S." on at 
least one end. Logs so defective as to be unmerchantable will not be 
stamped, but will be marked '' cull.'' 

On all national forests except those in Alaska and on the west slope 
of the Cascade Mountains in Washington and Oregon, logs over 16 feet 
long will be scaled as two or more logs, if possible in lengths not less 
than 12 feet. 

The following table shows how the lengths will be divided when 
scaling logs 18 to 60 feet long. The number of inches to be added to 
the diameter at the small end of each log, to cover taper, is placed under 
each length. 

For example, a 42-foot log 16 inches in diameter at the top would be 
scaled as — 

One 12-foot log with a diameter of 16 inches. 

One 14-foot log with a diameter of 17 inches. 

One 16-foot log with a diameter of 19 inches. 



216 



FORESTRY AND TIMBER 



Allowances for taper in logs 

This table is intended to be used simply as a guide. The allowances for taper 
should be varied to conform to the actual taper 



Total Lenoth 



Loo Lknqth 



Total Length 



Loo Length 



Feet 



Butt 
Log 



Sec- 
ond 
Log 



Third 
Log 



Top 
Log 



Feet 



Butt 
Log 



ond 
Log 



Third 
I^g 



Top 
Log 



18 ... . 

Increase 
20 ... . 

Increase 
22 ... . 

Increase 
24 ... . 

Increase 
26 ... . 

Increase 
28 ... . 

Increase 
30 ... . 

Increase 
32 ... . 

Increase 
34 ... , 

Increase 
36 ... . 

Increase 
38 ... . 

Increase 



10' 

I" 
10' 

1" 
12' 

1" 
14' 

1" 
14' 

1" 
14' 

2" 
16' 

2" 
16' 

2" 
12' 

3" 
12' 

3" 
14' 

3" 



12' 
1" 

12' 
1" 

12' 
1" 



8' 

0" 
10' 

0" 
10' 

0" 
10' 

0" 
12' 

0" 
14' 

0" 
14' 

0" 
16' 

0" 
10' 

0" 
12' 

0" 
12' 



40 
42 
44 
46 
48 
50 
52 
54 
56 
58 
60 



Increase . 
Increase . 
Increase . 
Increase . 
Increase . 
Increase . 
Increase . 
Increase . 
Increase . 
Increase . 
Increase . 



16' 

3" 
16' 

3" 
16' 

3" 
16' 

4" 
16' 

4" 
14' 

4" 
16' 

4" 
16' 

6" 
16' 

6" 
16' 

5" 
16' 

6" 



12' 

1" 
14' 

1" 
16' 

1" 
16' 

2" 
16' 

2" 
12' 

3" 
12' 

3" 
14' 

3" 
16' 

3" 
16' 

3" 
16' 



12' 

1" 
12' 

1" 
12' 

1" 
12' 

1" 
14' 

2" 
14' 

2" 



12' 

0" 
12' 

0" 
12' 

0" 
14' 

0" 
16' 

0" 
12' 

0" 
12' 

0" 
12' 

0" 
12' 

0" 
12' 

0" 
14' 

0" 



Cubic Log Measure (The Woodsman's Handbook) 

A cubic unit, either the cubic foot or cubic meter, ultimately will be 
in common use for the commercial measurement of timber. This will 
come about with the increase of the value of timber. When the whole 
log, including slabs, can be used, the owner cannot afford to sell his 
logs purely on a basis of an estimated product in manufactured boards. 
If logs are bought according to their solid contents, though they may 
not cost more, yet the buyer will feel that he pays for the material he 
wastes, and therefore will be more eager to utilize it. 

There are a number of methods of determining the solid contents of 
logs in cubic feet. The two methods in most common use for commer- 
cial work are given in this book. Other methods, designed for scientific 
work, are discussed at length in treatises on forest mensuration. 



CUBIC LOG MEASURE 217 

Method of cubing logs by the measurement of the length and of the middle 
diameters. 

To cube logs, one method requires the measurement of the average 
diameter of the log at its middle point and the length. The volume 
of the log is obtained by multiplying the area of the circle correspond- 
ing to the middle diameter of the log by the length : — 

in which V is the volume of the log in cubic feet, B} the area of the 
middle cross section in square feet, and L the length in feet. 

Example : Suppose a log to have a middle diameter of 15 inches and 
a length of 30 feet. One finds in a table of areas of circles (giving the 
diameter in inches and the area in square feet) the area corresponding 
to 15 mches, namely, 1.227 ; then V - 1.227 X 30 = 36.8 cubic feet. 

This method is very simple, because it requires only two measure- 
ments of the log — the diameter at the middle and the length. Tables 
showing the areas of circles in these units are readily accessible, and 
also tables showing the cubic contents of logs of different middle diam- 
eters and lengths, so that there is no computation necessary. 

Method of cubing logs by measurement of the length and end diameters. 

By this method the diameters of the two ends of the log and its length 
are measured. The volmne is obtained by multiplying the average of 
the areas of circles that correspond to end diameters by the length : — 

in which V is the volume of the log in cubic feet, B and b are the areas 
in square feet that correspond to the diameters of the two ends, and L 
is the length in feet. 

Example : A log is 12 feet long, and the diameters at the ends are 
16 and 18 inches. The areas that correspond to the end diameters are 
found in a table of circular areas, and used in the formula, as follows : — 

V =1:3?6 + L767 ^ ^^ = 18.97 cu. ft. 



218 



FORESTRY AND TIMBER 



Thia method requires one more measurement than the previous, and 
is therefore not as rapid for ordinary work in conmiercial scaling. It 
is, however, a very convenient formula for determining the contents of 
logs where it is not possible to take the measurement at the middle, as on 
logs piled on a skidway. 

Solid cubic contents of logs (in cubic feet) 



jS 


AveiuoB DiAMKTen in iHcass 


• 
1.9fl 


8 


1« 


12 


1« 

12.27 


IS 


Sfl 


u 


m 


ss 


u 


U U 


49 


10 , 


3.49 


6.45 


7.S5 


17.67 


2i.a2 


31.42 


49,99 


69.40 


70.69 


87.3 lose 


125.7 


H . 


210 


3,«4 


fljM 


8.64 


t3..W 


19,44 


24.00 


34..'i6 


.-^.OO. 05.34 


77,7/i 9(^0' 11 6.2 


138.2 


12 . 


2.3(j 


■I.IU 


0.65 


9.42 


14.73 


21.21 


26.18 


37.70 


6ii.91) 71.27 


84. S2 lCii.7 l2tV7 


1.^8 


13 . 


2.53 


\ M 


im 


10.21 


I5 9.i 


22.97 


28.30 


40.84 


fV-3.Sl 77.21 


91 ,w^ Hi A 1 17.3 


ml.4 


14 . 


2.75 


4. mi 


7 m 


11.00 


17,|K 


24.7! 


30.54 


4 3. AH 


68.72 8:115 


98.90 122.2 H7.8 


176.9 


15 . 


23F. 


r^M 


H.IH 


n.7H 


IM.IJ 


2(if>t 


.t:!.72 


47 5 2 


73.03 mm 


l06.0:j'l^*fl.U J5N.4 


]tm5 


lt\ . 


SM 


5.59 


8.71 


12.57 


i!ro'{ 


2?^. 27 


31.^^1 


5e)27 


7S.54I 95.fJ.l 


11 3. in ],19.0 108. a 


201,1 


17 . 


3.94 


:xm 


U.27 


J 3,35 


2{L>'i 


mm 


.iJ.m 


5;i,4 1 


8.1.45' 1O0/I7 


120.17 148.4 1 179 5 


213.0 


18 . 


3.63 


(1.28 


9.H2 


14.14 


22.09 


;ii.si 


.39.27 


5(1.. 5,5 


S.8.30'n»'i.^n 


I27.:^2 157,1 190.1 


220,2 


19 . 


3,73 


6.*>;j 


1030 


I4ii2 


23.. i 2 


;a.6H 


41.45 


59.09 


93.27 112 ^'J 


I il :^0 165.8 2<K1.0 


218.8 


20 . 


3.03 


6.98 


10.91 


15,71 


2f.-l4 


:n.Ji 


1.1.03 


62.8.1 


98.17 lis. 711 


m :s7 ]7irt 211.;! 


251 3 


21 . 


4J2 


7.-13 


I!. 45 


10.49 


25 r 7 


.{7. 1 1 


15.82 


06.97 


mi.os ]j} r ; 


r n ( ? ls^..i 22(.T 


2)it9 


22 , 


4.32 


7.fl-H 


12,00 


17.2*^ 


27 'HI 


.iS..>iV 


4.S.O0 


09.11 


107.W,1 •;iM^7 


r.". "il I'JJ.n J -12 .t 


2:iir> 


2.3 . 


4.52 


.sn:t 


T2..'[ 


isM, 


-'^. J.-l 


HMit 


50.18 


72.26 


MZ90 ]3«i.«il 


Hi2. > 2IH>.7 .nj.y 


2N9.0 


24 . 


4.71 


K :-^ 


1 P 1 1 


1 :s ^."l 


J.I 1.". 


12.41 


52.30 


75,40 


117 81 ]42.-ir] 


hinr,-, jiY.i^ 2r.:{A 


301.6 


25 . 


4.91 


S 7.i 


l.i.'.i 


r ■ M 


!■! \.\ 


l\.in 


64,54 


78 6M 


122.72 I4sm 


i7<i 71 J1S.J 21^1.0 


314.2 


ae . 


5,11 


9.tJ^ 


n i.s J- 




1 ,->.95 


-^.72 


81 .r,^ 


I27ri:i ]r*iA:i 


IK17> JjrtM 274. .> 


320,7 


27 , 


5.30 


042 


14 7.{ .■ 




7.71 


,i*i.90 


8i..sj 


i.'{J..M I0f)..t7 


I'MI.S.'h j;-i.'H '1 2S5.1 


.139.3 


2ft . 


s,ao 


9,77 


15.27 - 




|:J.48 


01.09 


87,1Ji^ 


1,17, H ]r>rv.tl 


|^'7.'+j L^.n :i 2'K'p.7 


151 9 


29 . 


5.09 


10.12 


t.'i>2 _V.,- 


'> '. j'l 


.M.25 


a.1.27 


inn 


I42.;^5 ^72.-:; 


jni 'M* j:, M li>0.2 


Mi A 


30 . 


5.B9 


10.47 


Iii.:t<i 2:t.-H> 


:ui sj 


53.01 


65.45 


94.25 


147.20 17^.111 


j\j li'. 2hi.H ;u(j.s 


177.0 


31 . 


6.09 


J0.S2 


h\Ml -Ji.^^ 


;is(>i 


54.78 


07.63 


07.39 


\n2A7 ]^i Ai 


2ri 1.^ jrii,5 :^27.3 


iHO.fl 


32 . 


6=28 


11.17 


i7.4.-j^."» ri 


3^1.27 


56.55 


09.81 


]m.Ta 


1.-7 ns I'M! (17 


jij. I'f J7'*-i :^:^7.'l 


11:121 


S.T . 


6.4 S 


11.52 


lH.rVl^;,.'l2 


lfj.50 


.W.32 


71.99 


ur.\ f,7 


ii',1 >yt I'H^MI 


j;-;:'! 2u j^-^.n M^ r-, 


Ui.7 


34 , 


am 


ILS7 


l^i..M 2i;.7n 


4 1,72 


mm 


74.18 


HKSI 


H\\\ 'MJ :jikr.ii."f 


2Hk .;,i 2Mr,.7 :^V,(.i) 


(273 


35 . 


6.S7 


12.22 


iSl.riU :^7.41J 


42.95 


0L.H5 


76.30 


uy.^Mu 


171. Si :in:..ss 


2l7.(fi :ni?*.i :irl9.ti 


1111.8 


315 . 


7,07 


12.57 


19.04 2H.27 


44. IH 


03.62 


7,8.54 


iri.Ki 


l^^^7l|2I3.82 


2,V|,47^n4 2.1Hf!.l 


4.-12.4 


37 . 


7.2(1 


i2.n2 


2n. iw 2U W 


45 4 1 


05. 3H 


J^0 72 


IHI.24 


isi.i;2 219.70 


201.54 322 irim). 7 


4rl.!i.9 


3§ , 


7 4ft 


13 2(1 


2Cl.7a 2f"ix- 


40.1K1 


F-7.I5 


S2^i(i 


n'.i.3.s 


lSt^„^.H 122.1. 70 


26^,(11 1:1h11 401.2 


477.6 


m . 


7lWi 


Kl.fil 


21.27 m.iv.i 


il.Si't 


IJ.S.1-+2 


S'fMS 


) 22.52 


191.44 231.64 


275.117 140.3 411.8 


490.1 


40 . 


jm 


UM 


>\>.\i :\\ \2 


V.i.it'A 


70 <V.> 


><■ 7 . -7 


] 2."t iW 


196.15 ■;.-l 7, 5*1 


2X2 74 119 1 (22.1 


."»()2.7 



Cubic Contents of Square Timber in Round Logs (Woodsman's 
Handbook) 

The most common methods of determining the cubic contents of 
square timber that may be cut from round logs is the so-called Two- 
thirds Rule, and the Inscribed Square Rule. 



CUBIC CONTENTS OF SQUARE TIMBER 



219 



The two-thirds rule. 

In the Two-thirds Rule the diameter of the log is taken at its middle 
point, or the diameters of the two ends of the log are averaged. The 
diameter of the log is reduced one-third to allow for slab, and the re- 
maining two-thirds is taken as the width of the square piece which may 
be hewed or sawed out of the log. The cubic contents of the squared 
log are then obtained by squaring this width and multiplying by the 
length of the log. 

Square timber ctU from round logs (in cubic feet) 
(Inscribed-Square Rule) 











AvxRAQB Diameter in 


INCBBB 








J3 z 


6 


8 


10 


12 


18 


M 


U 


M 


SS 


M 


10 


1.3 


2.2 


3.5 


5 


11.3 


13.9 


20 


31.8 


37.8 


45 


12 


1.5 


2.7 


4.2 


6 


13.5 


16.7 


24 


38.1 


45.4 


54 


14 


1.8 


3.1 


4.9 


7 


15.8 


19.4 


28 


44.5 


52.9 


63 


16 


2.0 


3.6 


5.6 


8 


18.0 


22.2 


32 


50.8 


60.5 


72 


18 


2.3 


4.0 


6.2 


9 


20.3 


25.0 


36 


57.2 


68.1 


81 


20 


2.5 


4.4 


7.0 


10 


22.5 


27.8 


40 


63.5 


75.6 


90 


22 


2.8 


4.9 


7.6 


11 


24.8 


30.1 


44 


69.9 


83.2 


99 


24 


3.0 


5.3 


8.3 


12 


27.0 


33.3 


48 


76.2 


90.8 


108 


26 


3.3 


5.8 


9.0 


13 


29.3 


36.1 


52 


82.6 


98.3 


117 


28 


3.5 


6.2 


9.7 


14 


31.5 


38.9 


56 


88.9 


105.9 


126 


30 


3.8 


6.7 


10.4 


15 


33.8 


41.7 


60 


95.3 


113.5 


135 


32 


4.0 


7.1 


11.1 


16 


36.0 


44.4 


64 


101.6 


121.0 


144 


34 


4.3 


7.5 


U.8 


17 


38.3 


47.2 


68 


108 


128.6 


153 


36 


4.5 


8.0 


12.5 


18 


40.2 


50.0 


72 


114.3 


136.2 


162 


38 


4.8 


8.4 


13.2 


19 


42.8 


52.8 


76 


120.7 


143.7 


171 


40 


5.0 


8.9 


13.9 


20 


45.0 


55.6 


80 


127.0 


151.3 


180 


42 


5.3 


9.3 


14.6 


21 


47.3 


58.3 


84 


133.4 


158.8 


189 


44 


5.5 


9.8 


15.3 


22 


49.5 


61.1 


88 


139.7 


166.4 


198 


46 


5.8 


10.2 


16.0 


23 


51.8 


63.9 


92 


146.1 


174.0 


207 


48 


6.0 


10.7 


16.6 


24 


54.0 


66.7 


96 


152.4 


181.5 


216 


60 


6.3 


11.1 


17.4 


25 


56.3 


69.5 


100 


158.8 


189.1 


225 


62 


6.5 


11.5 


18.0 


26 


58.5 


72.2 


104 


165.1 


196.7 


234 


54 


6.8 


12.0 


18.7 


27 


60.8 


75.0 


108 


171.2 


204.2 


243 


56 


7.0 


12.4 


19.4 


28 


63.0 


77.8 


112 


177.8 


211.8 


252 


58 


7.3 


12.9 


20.1 


29 


65.3 


80.6 


116 


184.2 


219.4 


261 


60 


7.5 


13.3 


20.8 


30 


67.5 


83.3 


120 


190.5 


226.9 


270 


62 


7.8 


13.8 


21.5 


31 


69.8 


86.1 


124 


196.9 


234.5 


279 


64 


8.0 


14.2 


22.2 


32 


72.0 


89.9 


128 


203.2 


242.0 


288 


66 


8.3 


14.7 


22.9 


33 


74.3 


91.7 


132 


209.6 


249.6 


297 


68 


8.5 


15.1 


23.6 


34 


76.5 


94.5 


136 


215.9 


257.2 


306 


70 


8.8 


15.5 


24.3 


35 


78.8 


97.2 


140 


222.3 


264.7 


315 


72 


9.0 


16.0 


25.0 


36 


81.0 


100.0 


144 


228.6 


272.3 


324 


74 


9.3 


16.4 


25.7 


37 


83.3 


102.8 


148 


235.0 


279.9 


333 


76 


9.5 


16.9 


26.4 


38 


85.5 


105.6 


152 


241.3 


287.4 


342 



220 FORESTRY AND TIMBER 



The inscribed'Square nde. 

The Inscribed-Square Rule gives the cubic contents of square pieces 
which can be exactly inscribed in cylinders of different sizes. The 
width of this square piece is usually obtained by multiplying the diam- 
eter of the cylinder by 17 and dividing the result by 24, or by multi- 
plying the diameter by 0.7071. This rule of thumb for calculating 
the width of the inscribed square piece is based on the fact that one side 
of the square inscribed in a circle 24 inches in diameter is 17 inches long. 

The exact mathematical rule for determining the side of a square 
inscribed in a circle is to square the diameter, divide by 2, and extract 
the square root. The table on the preceding page was computed by 
this method. 

Practically the same results are obtained by the Seventeen-inch 
Rule, which is based on the fact that a 17-inch log will square 12 inches. 
According to the Seventeen-inch Rule, the cubic contents of a log are 
obtained as follows : Multiply the square of the diameter of the log 
by its length, and divide by the square of 17. 



CHAPTER Xm 

Weeds 

A Weed is a plant that is not wanted. The methods of weed- 
control depend largely on the character of soil, system of farming 
practiced in the neighborhood, and, particularly, on the type of weed 
concerned, whether annual, biennial, or perennial. The better the 
crop-scheme, the less will be the difficulty from bad weeds. The prime 
remedy, therefore, is to improve the general farm plan and practice, 
and to use only clean seed. Special means and methods may be dis- 
cussed, however; and these discussions are drawn from Farmers' 
Bulletins of the United States Department of Agriculture, from bul- 
letins of the Rhode Island, Ohio, and North Dakota Stations, 
Cyclopedia of American Agriculture, and other sources. 

General Practices 

For annual weeds, which reproduce from seed only, the root and 
branch dying each year, the essentials for eradication are the use of 
clean seed, the killing of plants before they ripen seeds, and the preven- 
tion of new infestation by such means as manure from stables where 
weed forage has been used. For permanent pastures, lawns, and 
roadsides the prevention of seed production is often the most practi- 
cable method, and it is sufficient if persistently followed. In culti- 
vated fields the land thus seeded may first be burned over to destroy 
as many as possible of the seeds on the surface. It may then be plowed 
shallow, so as not to bury the remaining seeds too deeply. The succeed- 
ing cultivation, not deeper than the plowing, will induce the germina- 
tion of seeds in this layer of soil and kill the seedlings as they appear. 
The land may then be plowed deeper, and the tillage repeated until 
the weed seeds are cleared out to as great a depth as the plow ever 
reaches. Below that depth, eight to ten inches, very few weed seeds 
can germinate and push a shoot to the surface. Barren siunmer- 

221 



222 WEEDS 

fallowing is often practiced to clear out weedy land by the method just 
described ; but usually a cultivated crop may better be grown. 

For biennials, which also reproduce from seed, mowing them when 
coming into flower or cutting the roots below the crown is usually 
effective. Autumn is the be^t time for such grubbing. Biennial 
weeds are readily killed by such tillage as is given to hoed crops. 

For perennials which reproduce both from seed and from surface 
runners or perennial underground roots or stems, seed production must 
be prevented and the underground part must be killed. Seed production 
may be prevented by mowing when the first flower-buds appear. The 
best methods for killing the roots or rootstocks vary considerably 
according to the soil, climate, character of the different weeds, and the 
size of the patch or the quantity to be killed. In general, however, the 
following principles apply: — 

1. The roots, rootstocks, bulbs, and the like, may be dug up and 
removed, a remedy that 6Jan be practically applied only in small areas. 

2. Salt, coal oil, or strong acid applied so as to come in contact with 
the freshly cut roots or rootstocks destroys them for some distance from 
the point of contact. Crude sulfuric acid is probably the most effec- 
tive of comparatively inexpensive materials that can be used for this 
purpose, but its strong corrosive properties render it dangerous to 
handle. Carbolic acid is less corrosive, and nearly as effective. Arse- 
nite of soda and arsenate of soda, dangerous poisons, are effective, 
particularly the former, applied as a spray on the growing weeds. 
Fuel-distillate, a petroleum product, is very promising. 

3. Roots may be starved to death by preventing any development 
of green leaves or other parts above ground. This may be effected 
by building straw stacks over small patches, by persistent, thorough 
cultivation in fields, by the use of the hoe or spud in waste places, and 
by salting the plants and turning on sheep in permanent pastures. 

4. The plants may usually be smothered by dense sod-forming grasses 
or by a crop like hemp, buckwheat, clover, cowpeas, or millet that will 
exclude the light. 

5. Most roots are readily destroyed by exposing them to the direct 
action of the sun during the siunmer drought, or to the direct action of 
the frost in winter. In this way plowing, for example, becomes effec- 
tive. 

6. Proper crop rotation is one of the best means of eradication. 



WEED POISONS 223 

Chemical Weed-Killers or Herbicides 

The usefulness of chemicals as weed-killers is largely limited to the 
following cases (Jones) : — 

1. When an especially obnoxious weed, as poison ivy, occurs in a 
limited locality and is to be destroyed regardless of consequences to 
soil or neighboring plants. 

2. When the aim is to render the soil permanently sterile, as in 
roadways, tennis courts, and the like. 

3. When the weed plant, as orange hawkweed and mustard, is 
much more sensitive than the associated useful plants to the action of 
some herbicide. 

Kinds of herbicides (L. R. Jones). 

The chemicals used as herbicides, the worth of which has been 
established, are the following : — 

SaU (sodium chlorid), is more commonly used than any other com- 
pound, chiefly because of cheapness and handiness. It should be 
applied dry or in strong solution ; and it is most effective in hot, dry 
weather. Salt can be used in any weed-killing operation, but it is most 
valuable on roadways and like surfaces and for certain lawn weeds. 
Hot brine (one pound salt to one gallon water) is useful on walks and 
roadways. 

Blue vitriol (copper sulfate). — This is more powerful in herbicidal 
action than salt, but its cost prohibits its general use. For most pur- 
poses it is best used in solution, 2 to 10 per cent being effective. It is 
often used on gravel walks and similar surfaces, but salt will generally 
be found cheaper and arsenical poisons more effective. Its chief value 
is against charlock or mustard. 

CJopper sulfate solution, containing 8 to 10 poimds of blue vitriol to 
50 gsJlons of water, and applied at the rate of 40 to 50 gallons per acre, 
is a good formula. 

Iron sidfate (copperas) solution, containing 1} to 2 pounds of iron 
sulfate to the gallon of water (100 pounds iron sulfate to 52 gallons of 
water), is a good herbicide. Use at the rate of 50 to 75 gallons per 
acre. 

Kerosene. — This and other coal-oil products will kill plants. It is 
weak in efficiency, and relatively more costly than any other chemical 



224 WEEDS 

here listed. A pint of crude carbolic acid will do better service than 
two gallons of kerosene, and costs much less. 

Carbolic add, — This is one of the quickest and most valuable herbi- 
cides. The crude acid is relatively cheap. It is not quite equal to the 
arsenical poisons for penetrating the soil, or in lasting effects, but it is 
often preferable because of cost or convenience. It does not corrode 
metals, and therefore may be applied with any spray-can or pump. 
An effective method is to squirt the strong acid from an ordinary oil 
can on the roots or crown of individual weeds. If it is to be sprayed or 
sprinkled broadcast on the foliage or ground, it should be diluted with 
15 to 30 parts of water, and this mixture agitated frequently during use. 

Sulfuric acid (oil of ^atriol). — This is destructive to everything it 
touches. It can be applied in the crown or about the roots of coarse or 
especially hardy plants, provided the user is willing to kill the adjacent 
vegetation also. In general, carbolic acid will be preferred, partly 
because sulfuric acid can be handled only in glass vessels. 

Caustic soda. — A strong solution of this material makes a cheap 
and effective herbicide, commended especially for pouring on soil 
where it is desired to destroy poison ivy or other deep-rooted or woody 
plants. Soil so treated will be rendered sterile for some time, but the 
soda will gradually leach away. Like salt, this is most effective if 
applied in hot, dry weather. 

Arsenical compounds. — One or another of the soluble arsenical com- 
pounds form the most effective herbicides known, to use on roadways 
and other plain surfaces. These form the basis of all, or nearly all, of 
the various proprietary " herbicides " or " weed-kUlers." The sim- 
plest to employ is arsenite of soda. This needs only to be dissolved in 
water for use, the rate of 1 pound in 3 to 9 gallons of water. White 
arsenic is still cheaper, but according to Schutt's formula it must be 
combined with sal soda, which is somewhat bothersome. (White 
arsenic, 1 pound ; washing soda, 2 pounds ; water, 3 to 9 gallons.) An 
important characteristic of these arsenical poisons is that they endure 
for a long time and do not readily wash or leach away. 

Application of Herbicides 

Oravd roadways^ guilerSy tennis courts^ walks, and like surfaces can be 
kept free from weedy growths by the application of any of the above. 



WEED POISONS 



225 



If salt is used, it should be scattered freely in the dry fonn. Caution is 
necessary where it is liable to be washed on to lawns, lest it damage 
the grass borders. Carbolic acid or arsenical poisons are preferable, 
being both less liable to wash and more enduring in their action. One 
quart of crude carbolic acid in eight gallons of water, or one pound of 
either arsenical compound mentioned above in a like amount of water, 
will suffice to cover a square rod or more of surface; and one or at 
most two applications per year will be sufficient. 

Walks should be so made that weeds cannot grow in them. This 
can be done by making a deep stone foundation and filling between the 
stones with cinders, coal ashes, or other similar material. 

List of weeds that may be controlled by means of chemical sprays. 

The following named weeds may be eradicated or largely subdued in 
cereal grain fields through the use of chemical sprays: False-flax, 
worm-seed mustard, tumbling mustard, common wild mustard. 
Shepherd's purse, pepper-grass, ball-mustard, com cockle, chickweed, 
dandelion, Canada thistle, bindweed, plantain, rough pigweed, king- 
head. Red River weed, ragweed, cocklebur. 

Weeds on which field spraying methods as now in use are not effective. 

The following weeds are not effectively controlled by chemical sprays 
as now used : Hare's ear mustard, French weed, pink cockle, perennial 
sow-thistle, lamb'»-quarters, pigeon-grass, wild oats, chess, quack- 
grass, sweet-grass, or holy-grass, and wild barley. 

Results of spraying with iron stdfatefor the control of weeds (Rhode Island Sta.) 



Plant 


Epfbct 


Common Name 


Botanical Name 


YeUowdock .... 

Sheep sorrel .... 

Common chickweed 
Mouse-ear chickweed . 

Purslane . . . . . 


Rumex crispus 

Rumex Acetosella 

Stellaria media 
Ccrastium vulgatum 

Portulaca oleracea 


Plants checked for about 

three weeks. 
All blossoms killed and 90 

per cent of all leaf growth. 
Killed. Can be controlled. 
Practically killed, but not so 

easily as the common 

chickweed. 
Young leaves and tips of 

stems killed. Old growth 

not injured. 



226 



WEEDS 



Results of spraying vnth iron sulfate — Continued 



Plant 



Common Name 



Buttercup 

Shepherd's purse . . 
Five-finger . . . . 

Poison ivy . . . . 

Wild carrot . . . . 
Common plantain . . 

Rib grass, narrow- 
leaved plantain . . 

Robins plantain . . . 

Yarrow 



Botanical Name 



Ranunculus bulbosus 
Capsella Bursa-pastoris 
Potentilla Canadensis 

Rhus Toxicodendron 

Daucus Carota 
Plantago major 

Plantago lanceolata 



Erigeron pulchellus 
Achillea Millefolium 



Eftbct 



KiUed. 

Completelv controlled. 

Young plants killed, old 

plants seriously injured. 
Not injured when sprayed 
with concentrated solution. 
Only slightlv injured. 
Leaves badly spotted, plant 

not killed. 
Young plants killed, old ones 

prevented from maturing 

seeds. 
Blossom buds killed, no seed 

formed. 
Practically no injury. 



With the exception of the application to the poison ivy, the iron 
sulfate was applied as a 20 per cent solution, using it at the rate of 
100 to 150 pounds per acre. 

At the South Dakota Station the following weeds were entirely killed 
by the use of iron sulfate: — 

Wild mustard (Brassica arvenais) ; ragweed (Ambrosia artemisasfolia) ; 
king-head or greater ragweed (Ambrosia trifida); bindweed (Convol- 
vulus Sepium) ; marsh elder (Iva xanthifolia) ; milkweed (Asdepicis 
sp.) ; pepper-grass (Lepidium Virginicum) ; pigweed {Amarantus sp.) ; 
sweet clover (Melilotus alba and M. officinalis). Those that were 
more or less badly injured : Russian thistle (Salsola Kali) ; sunflower 
(Helianthus sp.) ; dandelion; dock (Rumex crispus) ; thistle (Carduus) 
sp.) ; white clover (Trifolium repens) ; red clover (Trifolium pratense) ; 
alfalfa (Medicago saliva). The following were but slightly injured: 
plantain (Plantago major); sheep sorrel (Oxalis violacea)) prairie 
rose; lamb's quarters (Chenopodium album). Grasses in general, 
including the grains (wheat, oats, com, barley, and speltz were sprayed 
in our experiments) were none of them seriously injured. 

According to the Ohio Station^ salt has thus far proved the best spray 
tested for Canada thistle, poison ivy, yarrow, and horse-nettle. In the 



WEED POISONS 227 

Northwest, sodium arsenite (U pounds sodium arsenite in 50 gallons 
water) is given first rank. Salt is probably the most effective to destroy 
dandelion and some other weeds. Iron sulfate is very satisfactory to 
kill mustard weeds, ragweed, white-top, yarrow, and we believe a great 
many other broad-leaved weeds. Neither the salt nor the iron sulfate 
is regarded as offering any risk of application to pastures in which stock 
is running. Sodium arsenite is a very active poison, and rather dan- 
gerous for that reason. Calcium chlorid (of same strength as common 
salt solution) has done very well where tested, but appears to be slightly 
inferior to salt. Copper sulfate solutions may be used in grain fields 
for mustards, especially, but owing to the poisonous nature of the 
copper sulfate, it has a very narrow range of application. 

Experiments by the Cornell Station gave the following general con- 
clusions : Wild mustard growing with cereals or peas can be destroyed 
with a solution of copper sulfate^ without injury to the crop. A 3 per 
cent solution (about 10 pounds to the barrel, or 40 gallons of water), at 
the rate of 40 to 50 gallons per acre, gives very satisfactory results. 

The following notes on the effect of the copper sulfate solution on 
different plants are from observations and reports from various sources: 

" Plants reported killed by copper sulfate solutions : wild mustard, 
wild radish, wild barley, penny-grass (if young), shepherd's purse, wild 
buckwheat, lamb's quarters, ragweed, sow-thistle, hemp-nettle, bind- 
weed, dock, dodder. 

" Plants reported severely injiu^ ; curly dock, black bindweed, 
dandelion, sow-thistle, and senecio. 

"Plants reported as not injured: wild rose, poppies, pigweed, 
spurge, corn-flower, field-thistles, chamomile, couch-grass, bent-grass, 
and horsetails. 

" Crops that may safely be sprayed : . all cereals, as wheat, rye, bar- 
ley, and com ; the grasses ; peas ; sugar beets. 

" Crops that are killed or severely injured by the copper sulfate 
solution : beans, potatoes, turnips, rape." 

Charlockf known also as kale or wild mustard (Brassica Sinapistrum)^ 
is easily destroyed in oat-, wheat-, or other grain-fields by spraying with 
a solution of 1 pound of copper sulfate in 4 to 6 gallons of water (2 to 3 
per cent solution). A force pimip should be used, supplied with fine 



228 WEEDS 

nozzles. The treatment is most effectively made when the grain is 
3 to 6 inches tall, since at this stage the large charlock leaves spreading 
above the grain are easily covered by the spray. About one barrel of 
the solution (30 to 50 gallons) suffices to cover an acre and destroy the 
charlock, and this amount causes httle or no damage to the grain. 
This same treatment is reported to be more or less effective against a 
variety of other common grain-field weeds. The wild turnip (Bra&sica 
campestris) and some allied cruciferous weeds are less easily killed 
because the spray does not adhere to their smooth leaves. 

When to apply weed sprays (Ohio Station). 

In practice, the time of applying sprays needs to be adjusted to the 
condition of the growing crop, and the relative development of the weeds 
to be killed. It seems probable that very early spraying will be less 
effective than spraying after the weeds have developed a fair supply of 
leaves. The first spraying should be made not hit«r than the beginning 
of bloom. Repeated applications need to be made as often as a new 
supply of leaves is developed, provided the condition of the host crop 
permits this. In grain-fields, the best results will be obtained on prac- 
tically all weeds, when only a single spraying is to be made, to apply 
the spray just as the crop is ready to occupy the land. With mustards, 
this will find some already in bloom. With ragweed, it is best to spray 
before the stems of the plants become hardened. With other weeds, of 
which these two are the type, as well as with these, it is often profitable 
to make an extra earlier spraying than that designated. For perennial 
sow-thistle, wild lettuce, and orange hawkweed, the spraying in grain- 
fields should precede the blooming of the plant^s, and in cases of bad 
infestation with perennial sow-thistle or the golden hawkweed, two 
spraying^ should be made before the grain occupies the land. It is 
not clear just what can be done in the handling of bindweeds in grain- 
fields, but similar principles will apply. For spraymg in timothy or 
other grass meadows to kill white-top, yarrow, self-heal, ox-eye daisy, 
and a number of meadow weeds, the principle is similar to that stated 
for grain-fields, namely, to spray thoroughly just before the grass begins 
heading out. This will be during late May and early June for Ohio. 

In spraying pastures to check weeds, the maximum returns will 
usually come from a beginning application in late June or early July 
before many weeds are coming to bloom. After the initial application, 



THE KINDS OF WEEDS 229 

the spraying should be repeated as often as there is development of 
new foliage to a marked degree. 

In general, better results are secured from applications made in 
cloudy weather, although any weather, except that followed by rain, 
is satisfactory. 

Treatment for Particular Weeds 

Poison ivy and similar woody-rooted pests can be eradicated by cutting 
off the tops in hot, dry weather in midsunmier and pouring a saturated 
solution of caustic soda about the roots. The arsenical solutions men- 
tioned above can be used, but are generally objectionable because they 
render the soil sterile for so long a period thereafter. 

Prickly lettuce (Lactuca Scariola), called also milk-thistle, English 
thistle, and compass plant. Biennial or annual. Mow the plants 
repeatedly as they first begin to blossom. Thorough cultivation with 
a hoed crop is most effective. Mow and bum mature plants. Most 
frequently introduced as an impurity in clover, millet, and the heavier 
grass seeds. 

Bracted plantain (Plantago aristata). Annual. Employ hand 
pulling and burning. If well established, a series of hoed crops may be 
necessary to eradicate. In permanent pasture, mow the plants as the 
seed stalks first appear. 

Horse nettle (Solanum Carolinense). Perennial. Keep the plants 
mown to prevent seed production. To destroy the roots, practice 
clean cultivation and grubbing or spudding to prevent any develop- 
ment above ground. A thick growth of grain will weaken the roots. 
After the grain is cut, the land should be immediately plowed and 
harrowed repeatedly, and then sown to a winter crop. Then follow 
with a hoed crop. 

Buffalo bur (Solanum rostratum). Annual ; subdued by preventing 
seed production by mowing as often as the yellow blossoms appear. 

Spiny amaranth (Amarantus spinosus). An annual, subdued by 
preventing seed production by thorough cultivation, mowing, or grub- 
bing out the plant before the flower spikes develop. An intertilled 
crop followed by a winter crop ^ill keep down the weed. 

Spiny cocklehur (Xanthium spinosum). Annual ; may be choked 
down by any quick-growing crop that will crowd and shade it. In 
permanent pastures and waste places mow the plants twice a year, in 



230 WEEDS 

August and September, or cut them out with hoe or spud in May and 
June. 

ChondriUa (Chondrilla juncea). Biennial. Destroyed by cultiva- 
tion and fertilizers to encourage the growth of desirable grasses. 

WUd carrot (Daucus Carota). Biennial. In permanent pastures, 
mow persistently as the flowers appear. Cutting the roots well below 
the surface and hand pulling are effective. Thorough cultivation 
subdues it. 

WUd oats (Avena fatua). Annual. Stir the land when it is warm and 
moist to cause the seeds to germinate, then cultivate to kill. Keep the 
ground occupied or stirred. Omit oats from the rotation. Plow 
shallow in late fall. In the spring, plow deep and summer fallow, 
keeping the ground clean. Plant to grain the next season without 
replowing. Then plow deep early the next fall. Then repeat the 
fallow, followed by grain two years later, again without replowing. 

False flax (Camelina sativa). Annual. Omit winter wheat and 
rye from the rotation, and raise crops that will permit full cultiva- 
tion. Hoed crops are best, as they induce the seeds to germinate. If 
well established in permanent pastures, plow and cultivate the land. 

Mustard, Charlock (Brassica Sinapistrum). An annual, destroyed 
by early cultivation. Destroyed by spraying, when the plants are 
just beginning to bloom, with iron sulfate, copper sulfate, common 
salt, and sodium arsenite. Use 75-100 pounds of iron sulfate in 52 
gallons of solution per acre ; of copper sulfate, 12-15 pounds to each 
52 gallons of water ; common salt, i barrel to each 52 gallons of water ; 
sodium arsenite, li pounds to each 52 gallons of water. Spray after a 
rain, or in a wet season on a bright, still day. 

King-head, Greater ragweed (Ambrosia trifida). Annual. Culti- 
vate to cause seed germination a suflScient time before cropping to allow 
the killing of the weeds by a subsequent cultivation. If the weeds are 
large on summer fallow, plow them completely under or collect and 
bum. Spray, when the plants are tender, with conmion salt, copper 
sulfate, iron sulfate, or sodium arsenite at the same rate and strengths 
as for mustard, except that at least 100 pounds of iron sulfate should 
be used for each 52 gallons. Throw the spray forcibly. 

Canada thistle (Carduus arvensis). Perennial. The plant should 
never be allowed to produce seeds, and the underground stems, which 
are usually 3 to 12 inches under ground, must be removed or starved 



THE KINDS OF WEEDS 231 

by covering with straw. Cutting the plants just before the budding 
period is destructive. To eradicate by cutting or cultivation no plant 
should be allowed to show green leaves for a period exceeding a few 
days. The most effective spray is sodium arsenite, ll to 2 pounds per 
52 gallons water ; or common salt, § to i barrels to 52 gallons water ; 
or copper sulfate, 15 pounds to 52 gallons water; or iron sulfate, 
75 pounds to 52 gallons of water, sprayed on twice, one week apart. 
Spray just before the budding period. Spray again after the crop is 
harvested. Repeat the second year. Sodium arsenite is a very active 
poison, and must be used with care. 

Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale). Perennial. Cutting below 
ground is effective. Keep lawn heavily seeded to crowd out the 
dandelion. Spray with iron sulfate, U to 2 pounds for each gallon of 
water. Spray two or three days after mowing lawn, and do not again 
mow until two or three days after spraying. Spray on bright, sunshiny 
days. Heavy wetting within two days after spraying destroys the 
weed-killing power. Spray at intervals of four to six weeks. 

New York State Station (Geneva) reports, 1911, that spraying 
dandelions with iron sulfate was not successful. The second season 
of treatment the grass was considerably injured. 

Sow-thistle (Sonchus arvensis). Perennial. Spraying is not effective. 
Practice bare cultivation for two seasons, allowing no green leaves to 
appear. On small patches, smother by covering with straw or manure. 
There are annual species of Sonchus. 

Quackrgrass (Agropyron repens). Perennial. In small patches, 
uproot in dry, hot weather and remove all underground stems. Cut 
off closely in July, and smother with straw or manure. In large areas, 
mow when in blossom, and break the sod shallow in mid-July. Back- 
set in mid-August slightly deeper than before. Disc and harrow 
throughout the fall, allowing no green leaves to show. Then plow 
deeply in late fall. Plant cultivated crop next season, and dig out 
every blade of grass. Or sow a heavy seeding of millet or other dense- 
growing annual forage late in May on a well-prepared seed bed. The 
drier the groimd and the hotter the weather, the better the killing 
effect of cultivation. 

While daisy J White-weed (Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum). Peren- 
nial. Plow up old infested meadows. Spray with iron sulfate 
at rate of 150 to 200 pounds per acre. Spray when blossom stalks 



232 WEEDS 

are just forming. Two or more years are required for eradication. 
(R. I. Sta.). 

Black mustard (Brassica nigra) and wild rmistard (B. arvensis). 
Annual. Spray with iron sulfate, 50 gallons to acre, using 75 to 100 
pounds of iron sulfate, depending on whether the plants are tender and 
succulent or more mature and hardy. 

Orange hawkweed (Hieracium aurantiacum), chickweed (Stellaria 
media), and some other of the shallow-rooted succulent weeds of lawns 
and grass lands can be combated effectively by the use of salt, more so 
than by any other chemical. Fine, dry salt should be applied on a bright, 
hot summer day (late June or early July best), broadcasting it so as to 
cover all plants imiformly, since it kills chiefly by drawing water from 
the leaves. One to four quarts of salt can be used per square rod, with 
little or no permanent injury to the grass if on a strong soil in the north- 
eastern states. Since the effect varies with local conditions, advance 
trials should be made on small scale. Following the application, 
the dead weeds should be raked out and a liberal application of grass- 
seed made. 

Weeds in lawns. 

Weeds usually come up thickly in newly sown lawns. They are to 
be prevented by the use of commercial fertilizers or very clean manure 
and clean grass-seed. Clean June-grass, or blue-grass, seed is usually 
best. Grass-seed should be sown very thick — 3 to 5 bushels to 
the acre — and annual weeds cannot persist long. Frequent mowings 
during summer will keep these weeds down, and most species will not 
survive the winter. In old lawns most perennial weeds can be kept 
down by frequent mowings, with a good lawn-mower. Grass can 
stand more cutting than weeds. If mowing cannot be practiced often 
enough for this purpose, the weeds may be cut off below the surface 
with a long knife or spud, and the crowns are then readily pulled out. 
Or a little sulfuric acid or other herbicide may be poured on the crown 
of each plant. 

It will usually be found that weedy lawns are those in which the sod is 
poor and thin. The fundamental remedy, therefore, is to secure a strong 
sod. This is done by raking or harrowing over the lawn in late spring, 
when it is somewhat soft, and sowing a liberal dressing of chemical 



LAWNS AND LICHEN 233 

fertilizer and grosa-seed. Roll the land down level. All poor spots in 
lawns should be repaired in this manner every year. The use of fresh 
and coarse stable manure on lawns should be discouraged, both be- 
cause it is offensive and because it generally abounds in weeds. 

Mo^ on lawns and toalks. 

In damp and shady places, and also in sterile places, moss may ap- 
pear on walks and lawns. If the conditions cannot be improved, the 
following treatments may be tried : — 

One pound oil of vitriol (sulfuric acid) to ten quarts of water. Wet 
the surface thoroughly, being careful not to sprinkle edgings or good 
sod. 

In early spring when the ground is soft, work it backwards and for- 
wards with a long-toothed rake, in order to bring the moss to the 
surface. Clear away the moss, and leave the ground untouched for a 
fortnight. Early in March repeat the operation, and about the middle 
of that month apply a dressing of rich compost, which may consist of 
any old rubbish well decomposed, adding one-sixth of fresh lime. Mix 
with compost a few days before using. Cover the ground with the 
compost at the rate of 200 barrow-loads per acre, passing it through 
a i-inch sieve, to save the trouble of rolling. Rake it evenly 
over the surface, and when dry seed down. An English method. 

Endeavor to improve the sod, as recommended on page 232, and 
thereby drive out the moss. In shady places, where grass will not grow, 
plant some shade-loving plant, as periwinkle (Vinca minor) ^ lily-of- 
the-valley, violets, moneywort (Lysimachia nummidaria), or species 
of carex. Note the ground-cover plants that grow in shady places in 
the region. 

Moss or Lichen on Trees 

Moss on fruit-trees is usually an indication of lack of vigor. Culti- 
vate and prune. Wash the trees with soap or lye washes. Scrape 
off the bark, exercising care not to expose the " quick," or the tender 
inner bark. A good scraper is made of a small and much-worn hoe 
with the handle cut to about two feet long. 

The moss is readily destroyed by bordeaux mixture and other good 
fungicides. 



CHAPTER XIV 
Pests and Nuisances 

Various kinds of mammals and birds become plagues and nuisances 
at times, sometimes destroying plants, sometimes annoying human 
beings ; and with these may be included mosquitoes and flies. 

Roaming cats are often nuisances that demand control. A tres- 
passing cat should be considered as much a transgressor as a trespass- 
ing dog or chicken or goat, — and perhaps even more so if the neighbor- 
hood is choice of its music. Owners of cats are under just as much 
responsibility to keep their cats at home as to keep their horses or 
pigs at home ; if they cannot keep them at home, they should not be 
allowed to have them. 

A clean and tidy place harbors few pests. In general, if the plan- 
tation is free of litter, and the adjacent fields contain no harbors of 
brush, mice and rabbits are rarely annoying to orchards. In hard 
winters, with deep snow, these animals are more destructive than 
in open winters. Rabbits browse young growth of nursery stock 
and small trees. Sheep and hogs rarely girdle trees if they are 
given sufficient food and water, the latter being especially important. 

Mice and Rats 
To prevent mice from girdling trees in winter. 

In heeling-in young trees in the fall, do not use straw or litter, in 
which mice can make their nests. In orchards, see that tall grass, corn- 
husks, or other dry materials do not gather about the trees in fall. If 
danger from mice is apprehended, tramp the first snow firmly about 
the trees, in order to compact the grass and litter so that mice cannot 
find shelter. 

Where the paper-birch grows, it is a good plan to place sections of 
birch-bark from limbs or small trunks about the base of the tree. 

234 



TO KEEP MICE AND RATS A WAT 235 

These sections roll tightly about the tree, and yet expand so readily 
with the growth of the tree that the}' may be allowed to remain, al- 
though it is advisable to remove them each spring, so that they will 
not become a harboring-place for insects. Tie thin strips of wood, as 
laths or shingles, about the tree. Common window-screen placed 
about the tree is effective and safe. Remove in spring, as it is likely 
to attract borers. Tarred paper is sometimes advised to keep away 
mice and borers, but it is very likely to kill the bark, especially on 
young trees, if tied on, or if left on in warm weather. 

Washes to protect trees from mice. 

Wash the trees with some persistent substance in which is placed 
pans green. Ma3mard finds the following substances useful for holding 
the poison: portland cement of tlie consistency of common paint; 
Portland cement 10 parts and gas-tar 1 part; portland cement 10 
parts and asphaltum 1 part ; portland cement 10 parts and Morrill's 
tree-ink 1 part. 

Lime-wash, to which is added a little sulfur, tobacco-decoction, and 
soapsuds. 

Carbonate of baryta for rats and mice. 

Sugar and oatmeal or wheat flour, of each 6 ounces ; carbonate of 
baryta, \ pound ; oil of anise-seed, enough to give the mixture a pretty 
strong odor. 

This remedy is frequently made simply of oatmeal and barium- 
carbonate, 1 part poison to 8 of oatmeal, the combined materials 
being made into a stilT dough by the use of water. This has the ad- 
vantage of working so slowly that the victims generally leave the 
premises in search of water. 

Tartar emetic for rats and mice, 

Tartar emetic, 1 part; oatmeal or flour, 4 parts; beef or mut- 
ton suet enough to make all into a paste. 

Strychnine solution for mice. 

Mice have been successfully poisoned by the use of wheat soaked in 
strychnine solution. (See ground squirrel remedies, p. 241.) 



236 PESTS AND NUISANCES 

Camphor for rats and mice. 

Mix a few pieces of camphor with v^etable seeds, to repel vermin. 

French paste for rats and mice. 

Oatmeal or wheat flour, 3 pounds ; powdered indigo, i ounce ; finely 
powdered white arsenic, 4 ounces ; oil of anise-seed, i dram. Mix, and 
add of melted beef suet or mutton tallow 2i pounds, and work the 
whole up into a paste. 

Commercial forms of phosphorus are popular as extenninators of 
vermin. 

To protect seedrcom from burrowing animals {chiefly fldd mice). 

Drop poisoned bait into small holes made into runways, then cover 
the holes. Com or wheat treated as for ground-squirrels is effective. 
Or the grain may be moistened with water containing a little gum 
arable, and then dusted with ordinary white arsenic. The grain may 
be allowed to dry before using. To prepare a bait that will work in a 
planter, it is recommended to dissolve one-eighth of an ounce of strych- 
nia sulfate in two quarts of hot water, preferably rain water. Soak 
the corn in this for forty-eight hours, and then spread it out and dry 
thoroughly. A teaspoonful of coal-tar to a peck of dampened grain 
seems to be effectual protection. 

Rabbits 

Wash for keeping rabbits , sheep ^ and mice away from trees. 

Some writers recommend fresh lime, slaked with soft water (old 
soapHSuds are best) ; make the wash the thickness of fence or house 
wash. When 1 peck of lime is used, add, when hot, i gallon crude 
carbolic acid, i gallon gas-tar, and 4 pounds of sulfur. Stir well. For 
summer wash leave gas-tar out, and add in place of it 1 gallon of soft 
soap. To keep rabbits and sheep from girdling, wash late in fall, or 
about the time of frost, as high as one can reach. 

Blood for rabbits. 

Blood smeared upon trees, as high up as rabbits can reach, will 
generally keep them away. 



TO KEEP RABBITS AWAY 237 

To drive rabbits from orchards. 

Dip rags in melted sulfur, and then secure them to sticks which are 
stuck promiscuously through the orchard. 

Another wash to protect trees from rabbits. 

Fresh cow dung, 1 peck; quick-lime, i peck; flowers of sulfur, 
i pound ; lampblack, i pound. Mix the whole into a thick paint with 
urine and soapsuds. 

California rabbit-wash. 

Commercial aloes, 1 pound to 4 gallons of water, both sprinkled on 
leaves and painted on the bark, gives a bitter taste, which repels rabbits. 

California rabbit poisons. 

1. Pieces of ^watermelon, canteloupe, or other vegetables of which 
they are fond, may be poisoned with strychnine and then scattered 
around the orchard. 

2. To 100 pounds of wheat take 9 gallons of water and 1 pound of 
phosphorus, 1 pound of sugar, and 1 ounce oil of rhodium. Heat the 
water to boiling-point, and let it stand all night. Next morning stir 
in flour sufficient to make a sort of paste. Scatter it about the 
place. 

3. Another preparation is i teaspoonful of powdered strychnine, 
2 teaspoonfuls of fine salt, and 4 of granulated sugar. Put all in a tin 
box and shake well. Pour in small heaps on a board. It hardens into 
a solid mass. Rabbits lick it for the salt, and the sugar disguises the 
poison. 

Sidfiir for rabbits. 

Equal proportions of sulfiu*, soot, and lime, made into a thick paint 
with cow-manure. Smear upon the trees. 

Cow-manure for rabbits. 

A mixture of lime, water, and cow-manure, made strong, is said to 
be an excellent anti-rabbit composition. 



238 



PESTS AND NUISANCES 



AsafoBiida for rabbits, 

A teaspoonful of tincture of asafcetida in i pailful of liquid clay, 
mud, or muck of any kind. Apply with a brush to the stem and 
branches of young trees. Two or three applications during winter. 

Kansan methods of protecting trees from rabbits (Kansas Station). 

1. Trapping, — Traps of various sorts may be constructed. A 
simple and successful method is to sink a barrel in the ground level, 
with its surface. Fit the head slightly smaller than the top, and allow 
it to swing freely on a rod or old broomstick. Pieces of apple or grains 
of com may be placed on the outer edge of the cover, and when the 
rabbit attempts to get these, the lid tips up, and he slides into the 
barrel, while the lid, which is slightly heavier on one side than the 
other, assumes its original position. The heavier side should strike 
against a heavy nail or bolt so that only the lighter side of the lid will 
drop. It should be covered over with brush or light, flat stones. 




^^^ 


F^-^'-r- 1 


\ 


^ 


,--•■■' / 4 




^ 


\l 



^ 



; . /- 



.■^ 



b 


f f 


4 a 
\Li-iJ/- 





c d 

Fio. 5 — Wellhouse rabbit-trap. 



An ingenious trap for catching rabbits has been designed by Walter 
Wellhouse, and used with remarkable success by him in his orchards 
(Fig. 5). The trap consists of a box made of fence boards (old ones 
preferred), six inches wide and one inch thick. The boards are cut 
twenty-two inches long, and the top and bottom boards are nailed on to 



RABBIT TRAP 239 

the side boards, thus making the opening four inches wide and six inches 
high. The door, D, is made of wire, shaped as shown in fig. d^ and hung 
with two staples, cc, to the under side of the top board. To prevent 
the rabbit from pushing the door open, a strip three-fourths of an inch 
square is inserted in. the opening and nailed to the bottom board, as 
shown in fig. a, and in part in fig. d. The door must be made long 
enough to reach well below this catch, as shown in fig. d. The trigger 
is made of wire, bent as shown in figs. 6 and c, and hung loosely with 
two staples to the center of the top board. These staples must be 
carefully placed, to allow the trigger to be pulled forward far enough 
so that the door will rest upon it when the trap is set, and also to allow 
the loop in the trigger, A^ fig. c, to be pushed against the back of the 
trap by the rabbit when it is sprung, thus preventing its being bent. 
To operate the trap, push the door, Z), inward, and with the forefinger 
catch the hooked end of the trigger, B, fig. c, and pull it forward until 
the door rests upon the wire above the hook. The rabbit enters the 
trap, prompted by curiosity or otherwise, just as he enters a hollow 
log, and thinks no more of the wire trigger than he would of a small 
piece of brush which he must push out of his way. As soon as he 
touches the trigger, the door drops and the rabbit is caught. No bait 
is used, and the trap cannot easily be sprung by birds or wind. Care 
must be taken to see that all staples are loosely set, so that the trigger 
slides easily and the door will drop of its own weight. If new boards 
are used, it would be well to stain with some dark coloring material 
which is not offensive to the rabbit's delicate sense of smell. 

2. Wrapping, — When one has only a few trees, such as fruit or 
shade trees, the most satisfactory method is to wrap them. An ordinary 
tree veneer which is made of very thin wood may be purchased from 
any seed store or nursery company. This fits closely about the body 
of the tree, and will enlarge as the tree grows. However, during the 
smnmer it may offer a harbor for injurious insects, and should remain 
on the tree only during the winter. Trees may be wrapped with bur- 
lap, corn-stalks, or ordinary lath. The only caution with any of these 
is to remove them when the tree resumes growth in the spring. Ordi- 
nary wire screen answers very well as a protection for the tree. 

3. Repellents, — The tree may be covered as far as the rabbit can 
reach with blood. The entrails and blood of the rabbit itself rubbed 
over the tree is quite effective, but is very apt to be washed off by rain. 



240 PESTS AND NUISANCES 

A concoction of tallow and tobacco smeared on to the trees acts as a 
repellent. However, where there are a great many trees, and especially 
small trees, such as honey locust, elm, and others, used as windbreaks, 
it is out of the question to treat each individual tree by hand. In this 
case, a spray applied by a hand pump will be found effective. The 
common lime and sulfur spray used to destroy the San Jos6 scale has 
been recommended, and can be applied with an ordinary spray pump. 
Mix together dry, fresh hydrated or ground lime, 4 pounds ; powdered 
sulfur, 3 pounds. Add water to form a thin paste, and boil from one-half 
to one hour, or until the mixture becomes a reddish amber color. Dilute 
to 10 gallons, spray on to the trees while the liquid is still warm. This 
spray is excellent for the trees as well, but must not be applied to the 
trees while they are in leaf. 

Commercial aloes at the rate of one pound to four gallons of water 
sprayed on to the trees gives the bark and leaves a bitter taste which 
repels rabbits. 

A spray made of buttermilk and conmion stove soot has proven 
quite satisfactory here. Buttermilk, 1 gallon; common stove soot, 
i pound. Boil for twenty minutes. Keep well stirred to prevent 
clogging the pump. 

4. Poisoning, — Much may be done in eradicating this pest with 
poison. The ** Wellhouse " poison is made as follows : Sulfate of 
strychnine, 1 part ; borax, J part ; white syrup, 1 part ; water, 
10 parts. Put the mixture into a jug or large bottle, and shake well. 
Cut fresh twigs — apple water sprouts are best — and with a small 
brush paint them, especially over the terminal bud, with the above 
preparation. Scatter the twigs in the runways and about the trees 
where the rabbits feed. Stock or fowls will not molest this poison, and 
it is said that dogs may eat the dead rabbits and suffer no ill effects. 

The Western Australia Department of Agriculture recommends a 
similar poison. Dissolve ll ounces strychnine in 1 quart of vinegar; 
dilute with 5 gallons of water ; add 2 pounds of flour and 1 pound of 
sugar ; stir well and apply to twigs as recommended above. 

A jam made of fruit and sugar is readily eaten by the rabbits. Chop 
apples or melons into small cubes. Add sugar equal to one-half the 
weight of the fruit. Boil until the mass forms a thick jam. Add 
strychnine, either powdered or dissolved, at the rate of 1 ounce to 
25 pounds of the jam, and mix thoroughly. 



BABBITS AND Q BOUND SQUIBBELS 241 

To remedy the injury done by mice, rabbits, and squirrels. 

1. Pare and clean the wound, and cover it thickly with fresh cow- 
dung, or soft clay, and bind it up thoroughly with a cloth. Grafting- 
wax bound on is also good. Complete girdling, when done late in 
spring — when settled weather is approaching — can be remedied in 
this way. 

2. Insert long scions over the wound, by paring them thin on both 
ends, and placing one end under the bark on the upper edge of the 
wound and the other under the bark on the lower edge. Wax thor- 
oughly the points of union, and tie a cloth band tightly about the trees 
over both extremities of the scions. 

Ground Squirrel or Spermophile Remedies 

1. Secure 5 quarts of clean wheat ; scald with water ; drain. Take 
} cup of white sugar, dissolve with sufficient water to make a syrup ; add 
1 ounce powdered strychnine, stir thoroughly until a thin paste is formed. 
Pour this on the damp wheat. Stir thoroughly for at least 15 
minutes. Add 1 pint powdered sugar, stir ; add 5 to 10 drops of rho- 
dium and 5 to 10 drops of oil of anise-seed. Place a few grains in each 
squirrel-hole, putting it as far in as possible 

2. Dissolve 1^ ounces of strychnia sulfate in a quart of hot water. 
Add a quart of molasses, — molasses, sorghum, or thick sugar and 
water, — and a teaspoonful of oil of anise. Thoroughly heat and 
mix the liquid. While hot pour it over a bushel of clean wheat 
and mix completely. Then stir in two or more pounds of fine corn- 
meal. The quantity of corn-meal will depend on the quantity of extra 
moisture present. There should be enough to wet every grain of the 
wheat, and no more. Let the poisoned grain stand over night, and dis- 
tribute it in the early morning of a bright day. A tablespoonful is 
placed near the mouth of the burrow, scattered in two or three little 
piles. The best time to use this or other poisons is in early spring, 
when the ground-squirrels are hungry from their winter fast, and when 
the destruction of the old ones before the young are born will greatly 
lessen the numbers of the pests. 

3. Bisulfid of carbon is also largely used. A small quantity is 
poured into the burrow, and the hole is immediately closed securely 
with dirt. 

R 



242 PESTS AND NUISANCES 

4. Tying newspapers about trees in such manner as to allow the 
upper part of the paper to project loosely a few inches frightens the 
squirrels away. 

Moles 

Moles are rather easily poisoned by inserting in the runways corn 
in the milk stage, freshly cut from the ear, and poisoned with strychnine 
solution. 

Moles live in loose and sandy land. If the place is watched, they 
may be destroyed when they are heaving their burrows. Mole-traps 
are on the market. (See gophers, p. 243.) 

Prairie-dogs 

Prairie-dogs may be destroyed by much the same means as are 
ground squirrels. (See ground squirrel remedies^ p. 241 ; and toood- 
chuck or ground-hogs^ p. 243.) 

Poisoning by grain soaked in strychnine solution has proved most 
successful. The following method has been devised and used by the 
Kansas Experiment Station : The mixture is in the form of a syrup, 
composed of the following ingredients (for 1 quart) : 1 ounce strychnia 
sulfate (powdered), 1 ounce potassium cyanide, U ounces alcohol, 1 pint 
syrup. One ounce of green coffee-berries is mixed with the white of one 
egg, and allowed to stand at least fourteen hours. The strychnia is 
dissolved in a half-pint of boiling water: The potassium cyanide is dis- 
solved in a quarter-pint of hot water and allowed to cool. Add a little 
warm water to the mixture of coffee and eggs, and mix it with the po- 
tassium cyanide. Then strain this mixture through a coarse sieve into 
the mixing vessel, and add the syrup. Mix the alcohol with the hot 
solution of strychnine, and add it to the other mixture. Stir all 
thoroughly. One quart of the mixture is sufficient to poison a half- 
bushel of wheat or kafir. The mixture must be thoroughly stirred 
before it is poured over the grain. Two or three pounds of fine corn-meal 
are stirred in with the grain to take up the extra moisture. On a 
bright, warm morning in January, February, or March, place half a 
teaspoonful or less of the bait in two or three little piles at the outside 
of each burrow occupied by prairie-dogs. A half-bushel of grain should 
poison 500 to 600 holes. 



VARIOUS PESTS 243 



Woodchttcks or Ground-hogs 

These animals are readily trapped at the mouths of their burrows. 
They are also easily killed by the vapor of bisulfid of carbon, the liquid 
being poured on a handful of moss, cotton, or other absorbent material, 
and pushed down the burrow, all openings being at once closed. The 
vapor is heavier than air, and will settle to the bottom, where it will 
kill any animal present. 

Pocket-gophers 

These pests are readily destroyed by poisoned grain, com being espe- 
cially recommended for the purpose, although various other materials 
may be employed. A dibble, made by adding a metal point to a spade 
handle, is used to make holes in the runways, into which the poisoned 
bait is dropped. " A skillful operator," writes D. £. Lantz, " can go 
over twenty to forty acres of badly infested land in a day, and, if the 
work is done carefully, at a time when the pocket-gophers are active, 
all the animals should be destroyed by the first application of poison." 
The pests may also be destroyed by trapping and by fumigation with 
carbon bisulfid. 

^ Wolves and Coyotes 

These animals are most easily destroyed by hunting out the breed- 
ing-places in early spring and killing the litters of pups. They may 
also be poisoned and trapped. 

Mttskrats 

Powdered strychnia sulfate sweetened with powdered sugar or 
commercial saccharin and sprinkled over freshly cut pieces of apple, 
carrot, or ripe squash has proved effective. Crystals of the same poison 
may be inserted in the bait with a knife. 

„. , Pestiferous Birds 

Bird poisons, 

1. Place a shallow box on the end of a pole, and put it four or five 
feet from the ground to keep the poison out of the way of domestic 
fowls. In the box sprinkle corn-meal and a very little strychnine, 
which mixture the birds eat. It will not hurt dogs or cats to eat the 



244 rSSTS AND NUISANCES 

dead bird, for the reason that there is not enough poison absorbed by 
the bird. (California.) 

2. Put the strychnine in pieces of apples, and stick them on the 
ends of Umbs of the trees. (California.) 

3. Poison for English sparrows. 

Dissolve arsenate of soda in warm water at the rate of one ounce to 
one pint ; pour this upon as much wheat as it will cover (in a vessel which 
can be closed so as to prevent evaporation), and allow it to soak for at 
least twenty-four hours. Dry the wheat so prepared, and it is ready 
for use. It should be distributed in winter in places where the sparrows 
Qongregate. Wheat may be similarly prepared with strychnine. 

4. Put i ounce of strychnia sulfate into f of a gill of hot water, 
and boil until dissolved. Moisten U teaspoonfuls of starch with a few 
drops of cold water, add it to the poison solution, and heat till the starch 
thickens. Pour the hot poisoned starch over a quart of wheat, and stir 
until every kernel is coated. 

To protect fruits from birds. 

One of the best devices is mosquito-bar spread over the bushes or 
trees. For bush-fruits and small trees the expense is not great. There 
is a commercial netting made for the piupose. 

Have a taxidermist mount several hawks, and place them in natural 
positions in the trees or vines. 

In large plantations of cherries or other fruits subject to the depre- 
dations of birds, the injury is generally proportionately less than in 
small areas. Some cherry-growers plant early sweet varieties to feed 
the birds, which, getting their fill, give less attention to the main crop. 
Birds prefer the Russian mulberry to cherries, and an occasional tree in 
the cherry orchard may protect the crop. 

Plantings of mulberry, buckthorn, elder, and chokeberry may serve 
to protect raspberries and blackberries. For strawberries, sweet early 
varieties which are left to ripen on the vines have been reconunended. 

To protect newly planted seeds from birds. 

Coat the seeds with red lead by moistening the seeds slightly and 
stirring in red lead until all the seeds are thoroughly coated. Let the 
seeds dry for two or three hours before sowing. 



BIRDS, MOSQUITOES 246 

Several ways to protect com from crows. 

Dip the kernels in coal-tar, and then dust them with plaster ; tar the 
seed; plant it deeply; scatter soaked corn over the field to attract 
attention from the young plants ; hang streamers of cloth from twine 
strung about the field on poles; or use scare-crows. 

To protect young chickens. 

Young chickens may be protected from hawks by covering their 
runways with fine wire netting. Chickens are comparatively safe 
when king-birds or purple martins breed about the farm-yard, as these 
birds drive hawks away. They should be encoiu'aged. Some hawks 
are frightened away by guinesrhens. A pair of ospreys or fish-hawks 
nesting near a farmhouse will keep other hawks away. 

Mosquitoes 

The discovery that certain mosquitoes carry the organisms of malaria 
and other diseases has started a crusade against these pests. We 
now feel that mosquitoes must be controlled, both as a sanitary meas- 
ure and as a relief against the insects themselves. 

The chief mode of attack is to destroy their breeding-places. They 
breed only in standing water. Draining the breeding-places, or filling 
them up and emptying all receptacles in which water stands, is the 
first thing to be considered. The big gray mosquitoes that breed in 
tide marshes are specially pestiferous. They propagate in the brackish 
pools. These pools should be filled or drained, or else the tide dyked 
out so that the pools may dry. 

The second thing to consider, if the above cannot be carried out, is 
to cover the breeding-pools with oil so that mosquito larvae may be 
deprived of air (they rise to the surface to breathe). 

In fountain tanks, lily ponds, and other water areas that are to be 
retained, the mosquitoes may be kept down by stocking with fish that 
eat the larvae or wrigglers. 

Kerosene for mosquitoes (Needham). 

An ounce of kerosene to every 15 square feet of surface is about the 
right proportion, according to Howard. The film of oil will be retained 



246 PESTS AND NUISANCES 

for about two weeks. The grade of kerosene known as " light fuel oil " 
is best. 

Any kerosene will kill aquatic plants, if sprayed on them. It 
should be poured on surface of water in cultivated ponds and spread 
with a broom or mop. It should be applied oftener than once in two 
weeks in such cases, and in much less quantity. One-fourth as much 
twice as often will probably be equally effective. 

It is best not to use kerosene at all on ornamental ponds ; it is un- 
sightly ; it smells badly ; it kills all larva that require air derived from 
the surface, including those of many of the higher diptera which as adults 
are useful flower pollinators ; it endangers the plants even when most 
carefully applied, to say nothing of smearing them. 

Fishes available for destruction of mosquito larvce (Needham). 

1. Goldfish eat eggs by preference, also the larvse. They thrive 
in any warm pool, or even in cisterns with scant light ; eat prepared 
foods, so can be readily supplied with supplemental food if necessary. 
They are easily obtained in the market, and are ornamental. Must 
be taken indoors for winter. 

2. Top minnows are natural enemies of mosquitoes in native water. 
They are hardy and long-lived ; but they are not on the market, and 
have to be sought with a seine. Not especially ornr mental. 

3. Sunfish are fond of mosquito larvae. They do well only in 
midst of aquatic growth ; require much food, and insect food is pre- 
ferred. Ornamental. 

4. Sticklebacks are most voracious mosquito enemies, and are also 
worthy of cultivation for their remarkable nest-building habits. Rather 
particular as to conditions, but in proper pools they are hardy. 

All these fishes require room in which pasturage may grow. A pair 
of the smallest of them would probably find scant natural food in a 
square rod of water area. 

Hibernating mosquitoes. 

Some mosquitoes hibernate in cellars, and from them the breeding 
starts in spring. Cellars may be fumigated with powdered Datura Stra- 
monium (Jimpson weed), or with culicide (culex is the generic name of 
the greater number of mosquitoes). In either case, according to J. B. 
Smith, the cellar to be fumigated should be as tightly closed as possible, 



. MOSQUITOES 247 

to hold the fumes and make them most effective. The powdered 
stramonium is used at the rate of eight ounces for each 1000 cubic feet 
of space, mixed with one-third its weight of saltpeter to facilitate com* 
bustion. Spread the mass out on a tin plate or stone flag and light at 
several points to hasten the burning. The vapor is not dangerous to 
human life, so even if some escapes into the rooms above, no harm will 
be done. If the cellar is leaky, usei;wo or three times as much as ad- 
vised, and in all cases keep it as tightly closed as possible for two hours at 
least. 

Culicide is made of equal parts by weight of carbolic acid cr3rstals 
and gum camphor. Melt the acid crystals over a gentle heat, and pour 
slowly over the gum. The acid dissolves the camphor, and makes a 
clear, somewhat volatile liquid, with rather an agreeable odor. This 
solution is permanent, and nfiay be kept indefinitely in tight jars. Use 
three ounces of this culicide for every 1000 cubic feet of space, and 
volatilize over a lamp of some kind. A simple and inexpensive appa- 
ratus for this purpose (J. B. Smith) consists of an 8-inch section of 
galvanized-iron stove-pipe, cut so as to leave three legs, and with a 
series of i-inch holes near the top to make an outlet for the draft. 
Upon this place a shallow, flat-bottomed basin to hold the culi- 
cide, and beneath this use an ordinary glass or other alcohol lamp. 
Two ounces of culicide may be evaporated with \ an ounce of alcohol 
in twenty-five minutes, and a larger quantity would probably re- 
quire proportionately less time if given a larger evaporating surface in 
a dish of larger diameter than the pipe. This combination is inflam- 
mable, but not explosive, and should be used on a cement, earth, or stone 
floor, or on bricks in a tub of water, to avoid danger of fire. The fumes 
are not dangerous to human life until they become very dense, and such 
as might penetrate into upper rooms through leaky floors or doors 
would do no harm to anything. This also should be allowed to act at 
least two hours before the doors are opened again. Flies and other 
insects succumb as readily as mosquitoes. 

Rule8 for extermination and 'prevention of mosquitoes. (Anti-Mosquito 
Convention, N. Y.) 

Pools of rain water, duck ponds, ice ponds, and temporary accumu- 
lations due to building ; marshes, both of salt and fresh water, and road- 



248 PESTS AND NUISANCES 

side drains; pots, kettles, tubs, dprings, barrels of water, and 
other back-yard collections should be drained, filled with earth, or 
emptied. 

Running streams should have their margins carefully cleaned 
and covered with gravel to prevent weeds and grass at the water's 
' edge. 

Lily ponds and fountain pools should, if possible, be abolished; 
if not, the margins should be cemented or carefully graveled, a good 
stock of minnows put in the water, and green slime (algae) regularly 
cleaned out, as it collects. 

Where tanks, cisterns, wells, or springs must be had to supply water, 
the openings to them should be closely covered with wire gauze (gal- 
vanized to prevent rusting), not the smallest aperture being left. 

When neither drainage nor covering is practicable, the surface of 
the standing water should be covered with a film of light fuel oil (or 
kerosene) which chokes and kills the larvse. The oil may be poured on 
with a can or from a sprinkler. It will spread itself. One ounce of 
oil is sufficient to cover fifteen square feet of water. The oil shoukl 
be renewed once a week during warm weather. 

Particular attention should be paid to cesspools. These pools, when 
uncovered, breed mosquitoes in vast numbers; if not tightly closed 
by a cemented top, or by wire gauze, they should be treated once a 
week with an excess of kerosene or light fuel oil. 

Certain simple precautions suffice to protect persons living in mala- 
rial districts from infection : — 

First : Proper screening of the house to prevent the entrance 
of the mosquitoes (after careful search for and destruction of all 
those already present in the house), and screening of the bed at 
night. The chief danger of infection is at night (the anopheles 
bite mostly at this time). 

Second: The screening of persons in malarial districts who 
are suffering from malarial fever, so that mosquitoes may not bite 
them and thus become infected. 

Third : The administration of quinine in full doses to malarial 
[>atients to destroy the malarial organisms in the blood. 

Fourth : The destruction of mosquitoes by one or more of the 
methods already described. 
These measures, if properly carried out, will greatly restrict the 



MOSQUITOES. HOUSE-FLIES 249 

prevalence of the disease, and will prevent the occurrence of new 
malarial infections. 

It must be remembered that when a person is once infected, the 
organisms may remain in the body for many years, producing from 
time to time relapses of the fever. 

A case of malarial infection in a house (whether the person is 
.actively ill or the infection is latent) in a locality where anopheles 
mosquitoes are present, is a constant source of danger, not only to 
the inmates of the house, but to the immediate neighborhood, if 
proper precautions are not taken. It should be noted in this 
connection that the mosquitoes may remain in a house through an 
entire winter, and probably infect the inmates in the spring upon 
the retiun of the warm weather. 



The House-Fly (C. R. Crosby) 
The typhoid fly, or house-fly {Musca domestica). 

For ages this ubiquitous pest has been looked upon as a harmless 
though annoying and unpleasant nuisance, and its presence has been 
tolerated as a necessary evil. It has now been scientifically demon- 
strated that it plays an important r61e in the transmission of certain 
intestinal diseases, such as typhoid, cholera, infantile diarrhoea, etc., 
by carr3ring infected matter from the excreta of patients to the food of 
healthy persons. It is now thought that next after polluted water and 
contaminated milk, flies are the most important factor in the spread of 
typhoid. Both in city and in country the presence of these pests is a 
constant menace to the health of the community. 

House-flies breed chiefly in horse manure, and to a less extent in 
garbage, human excrement, and other filth. Each female lays about 
120 eggs, which hatch in a few hours. The maggots become 
full grown in about five days, and an equal period is spent in the 
pupal stage. The whole life cycle thus requires only ten to fourteen 
days in midsummer. In the climate of Washington, D.C., there are 
twelve or thirteen generations annually. Dr. L. O. Howard reports 
finding 1200 larvse and pupae in a single pound of horse manure. 
The winter is passed either as adults hidden away in houses or as 
pups beneath manure piles. 



250 PESTS AND NUISANCES 



CorUrol. 



The house-fly nuisance can be abated most easily by the elimination 
of possible breeding-places. The great majority of the flies found in 
houses breed in piles of horse manure about near-by stables. Breeding 
in such places may be easily prevented by storing the manure, pending 
its removal, in a dark, fly-proof bin. This receptacle may be built as a 
lean-to attached to the stable with which it is connected by a small 
screen door. A larger door outside provides for the removal of the 
contents. The manure should be carted away at least once a week, 
and spread out on the land, where by drying it soon becomes unfit for 
breeding purposes. Whenever it is necessary to store such material 
in piles in the open, they should be located as far as possible from the 
nearest dwelling or milk-house. Flies do not usually travel more than 
one-fourth mile from the place in which they breed. 

When only two or three horses are kept in a town, the manure can 
be handled in regular garbage-cans, in the same way as the kitchen 
refuse or ashes. 

It is rather difficult to treat manure piles with any substance to 
prevent breeding: chloride of lime, kerosene, and iron sulfate have 
been tried, but when used in economical quantities are not effective. 

Kitchen refuse and similar garbage should be kept in tight cans and 
removed at frequent intervals. Flies should be rigidly excluded from 
all places where food is exposed to contamination, including kitchens, 
dining-rooms, stores, etc. Especial care should be taken to protect 
milk and milk utensils, since milk furnishes an excellent medium for 
the growth of typhoid bacteria and is a common source of infection. 

Flies may be driven from rooms by leaving one door open and darken- 
ing all the rest. Then evaporate a spoonful of carbolic acid over a 
lamp, or burn some pyrethrum insect-powder. They may be caught 
on sticky sheets, or poisoned with a sweetened 5 per cent solution of 
commerical formaldehyde. 

On isolated farms each owner has it in his power by proper measures 
in the disposal of manure to reduce the fly nuisance to a minimum. In 
towns the case is different ; there cooperation is necessary. 

In attempting to reduce the numbers of house-flies in the District of 
Columbia, the health department has formulated a series of rules which 
L. O. Howard has sununarized as follows : — 



HOUSE-FLIES, PONDS 251 

" All stalls in which animals are kept shall have the surface of the 
ground covered with a water-tight floor. Every person occupying a 
building where domestic animals are kept shall maintain, in connection 
therewith, a bin or pit for the reception of manure, and, pending the 
removal from the premises of the manure from the animal or animals, 
shall place such manure in said bin or pit. This bin shall be so con- 
structed as to exclude rain water, and shall in all other respects be water- 
tight, except as it may be connected with the public sewer. It shall 
be provided with a suitable cover, and' constructed so as to prevent the 
ingress and egress of ffies. No person owning a stable shall keep any 
manure or permit any manure to be kept in or upon any portion of the 
premises other than the bin or pit described, nor shall he allow any such 
bin or pit to be overfilled or needlessly uncovered. Horse manure 
may be kept tightly rammed into well-covered barrels for the purpose 
of removal in such barrels. Every person keeping manure in any of the 
more densely populated parts of the District shall cause all such manure 
to be removed from the premises at least twice every week between 
June 1 and October 31, and at least once every week between Novem- 
ber 1 and May 31 of the following year. No person shall remove or 
transport any manure over any public highway in any of the more 
densely populated parts of the District, except in a tight vehicle which, 
if not inclosed, must be effectually covered with canvas, so as to prevent 
the manure from being dropped. No person shall deposit manure 
removed from the bins or pits within any of the more densely populated 
parts of the District without a permit from the health officer. Any 
person violating any of the provisions shall, upon conviction thereof, 
be punished by a fine not more than $40 for each offense." 



Slime on Ponds 

The slime, or algae, on ponds may be destroyed by copper sulfate. 
The common spirogyra is dispatched by 1 part of the sulfate to 
25,000,000 parts of water, and other forms by a stronger solution. 
These weak solutions are little injurious to the higher plants and not 
much so to any animals. A better way is to keep the toads and to 
let their tadpoles eat the algse. Red-bellied minnows would also 
help. 



CHAPTER XV 

Fungicides and Germicides for Plant Diseases 
Bt Donald Reddick 

Plant diseases are caused by parasitic fungi or by bacteria, or 
other vegetable parasites ; or by forms of physiological disturbance. 
Each disease calls for special treatment. Most plant diseases must 
be prevented, not cured. 

It should be understood that spraying is only one of the control 
measures effective against plant diseases. Many diseases are not 
affected by spraying, though perhaps more are susceptible to this 
treatment than to any other. 

A satisfactory fungicide must be one that does not injure the plants 
and at the same time is effective against the parasite. For spraying, ad- 
ditional requirements are imposed; it should not dissolve readily in rain 
water; it should adhere to foliage and fruit; in some cases it should 
be colorless in order not to make ornamentals more unsightly than 
when diseased. The fungicide which has been used most for general 
purposes is bordeaux mixture. Lately some other preparations, par- 
ticularly lime-sulfur combinations, have come into use, and in many 
cases are supplanting bordeaux. There are in addition a large number 
of other substances which have fungicidal value and are in more limited 
use for specific cases. 

Practices 

Destroying affected parts. — It is important that all affected parts 
should be removed and burned, if possible. In the fall all leaves 
and fruit that have been attacked by fungi should be raked up 
and burned. Diseased branches should be severed at some dis- 
tance below the lowest visible point of attack. Fungous dis- 
eases often spread rapidly, and prompt action is usually necessary. 
Practice clean and tidy culture. 

252 



STERILIZING 263 

Rotation of crops. — One of the most efiFective and practical means of 
heading off fungous diseases. Especially applicable to diseases of 
roots or root-crops, but also to many other diseases of annual 
plants. 

Sterilizing by steam. — An effective fungicidal practice for several soil-in- 
habiting organisms which attack roots and stems. This includes 
nematode worms. It is especially applicable in the greenhouse, 
where it may be applied (a) through sub-irrigation tile or through 
specially laid perforated steam pipes in the bottom of the 
bed. Cover the beds with blankets, introduce steam under pres- 
sure of 40 to 80 pounds for two hours. Insert thermometers at 
various places to see that the soil is being uniformly heated. (6) 
A large galvanized iron tight box may be constructed with finely 
perforated trays 4 to 6 inches in depth. Soil placed in these 
trays and steamed for two hours as above will be freed from par- 
asitic organisms. In this case the frames should be sprayed with 
a solution of formalin, 1 pint in 10 gallons of water. 

Steam sterilization of soil may be used on intensively cultivated 
areas or extensive seed-beds. A portable boiler is necessary. 
The beds are sterilized after they have been prepared for seed, 
and just before the seed is sown. A galvanized pan 10 by 6 feet 
and 6 inches deep is inverted, and the edges are pushed down 
into the soil one or two inches. The pan is connected with the 
steam boiler by means of a steam hose and live steam is run into 
the pan from about forty minutes under a pressure of 100 pounds 
and up. The higher the pressure the more thoroughly the soil 
will be sterilized. 

The cost of sterilizing is approximately three-fourths of a cent 
the square foot. It should be noted that soil sterilization has an 
invigorating effect on the plants, and it will be necessary to run 
greenhouses at a lower temperature (5°-10**) both night and day. 
Field sterilization also kills weed seeds, and with the reduction of 
the cost of weeding makes the process practicable. 

Substances 

Bordeaux mixture. — A bluish-green copper compound that settles 
out when freshly slaked lime and a solution of copper sulfate (blue- 



254 FUNGICIDES AND GERMICIDES FOR PLANT DISEASES 

stone) are mixed. Many formulas have been reconunended and 
used. The 5-5-50 formula may be regarded as standard. In such 
a formula the first figure refers to the number of pounds of copper 
sulfate, the second to the stone or hydrated lime, and the third 
to the number of gallons of water. Bordeaux must often be used 
as weak as 2-2-50, on account of injury to some plants. 

To make 50 gallons of bordeaux mixture, proceed as follows: (1) 
Pulverize 5 pounds of copper sulfate (blue vitriol), place in a glass, 
wooden, or brass vessel, and add two or three gallons of hot water. 
In another vessel slake 5 pounds of quicklime in a small amount 
of water. When the copper sulfate is all dissolved, pour into a 
barrel and add water to make 40 or 45 gallons. Now strain the 
lime into this, using a sieve 50 meshes to the inch or a piece of 
che^e-cloth supported by ordinary screening. Stir thoroughly, 
and add water to the 50-gallon mark. The flocculent substance 
which settles is the efiFective fungicide. Always stir vigorously before 
filling the sprayer. Never add the strong lime to strong vitriol. 
Always add a large amount of water to one or the other first. 
Blue vitriol used alone would not only wash off quickly in a rain, 
but cause a severe burning of fruit and foliage. Lime is added to 
neutralize this burning effect of the copper. If the lime were 
absolutely pure only slightly more than one poimd would be re- 
quired to neutralize this burning effect. For many purposes an 
excess of lime is not objectionable and may be desirable. For 
nearly ripe fruit and ornamentals an excess of lime augments 
spotting. In such cases the least amount of lime possible should 
be used. Determine this by applying the cyanide test (2). 

(2) Secure from the druggist 10 cents' worth of potassium 
ferrocyanide (yellow prussiate of potash) and dissolve it in water 
in an 8-ounce bottle. Cut a V-shaped slit in one side of the 
cork, so that a few drops of the liquid can be obtained. Now 
proceed as before. Add lime with constant stirring until a drop 
of the ferrocyanide ceases to give a reddish-brown color. 

(3) When bordeaux mixture is desired in large quantities, stock 
solutions should be made. Place 100 pounds of copper sulfate in 
a bag of coffee-sacking, and suspend in the top of a 50-galIoii 

. barrel, and add water to the 50-gallon mark. In twelve to fifteen 
hours the vitriol will be dissolved and each gallon of solution will 



FUNGICIDES 255 

contain 2 pounds of copper sulfate. Slake a barrel of lime, and 
store in a tight barrel, keeping it covered with water. Lime so 
treated will keep all summer. It is really hydrated lime. This is 
often dried, pulverized, and offered on the market in paper bags 
of 40 poimds, each, under such names as ground lime, prepared 
lime, hydrated lime, etc. If the paper is not broken, the lime does 
not air-slake for a long time. One and one third pounds of hydrated 
lime equals in value one pound of quicklime. Air slaked lime 
cannot be used in preparing bordeaux mixture. 

Arsenical poisons can be combined with bordeaux mixture. 
See Chapter XVII, page 290. . 

Ammoniacal capper carbonate. — For use on nearly mature fruit and on 
ornamentals. Does not discolor. Weigh out 3 ounces of 
copper carbonate, and make a thick paste with water in a wooden 
pail. Measure 5 pints of strong ammonia (26^ Beaum6) and 
dilute with three or four parts of water. Add ammonia to' the 
paste, and stu-. This makes a deep blue solution. Add water 
to make 50 gallons. 

Capper carbanate. — For use in the above formula, it may be obtained 
as a green powder, or may be prepared as follows: Dissolve 12 
pounds of copper sulfate in 12 gallons of water in a barrel. 
Dissolve 15 pounds of sal soda in 15 gallons of water (pref- 
erably hot). Allow the solution to cool; then add the sal soda 
solution to the copper sulfate solution, pouring slowly in order to 
prevent the mixture from working up and running over. A fine 
precipitate is formed which will settle to the bottom if allowed 
to stand over night. Siphon off the clear liquid. Wash the pre- 
cipitate by adding clear water, stirring, and allowing to settle. 
Siphon off the clear water, strain the precipitate through muslin, 
and allow it to dry. This is copper carbonate. The above 
amounts will make about 6 pounds. 

Copper sulfate. — See Sulfate op Copper, p. 258. 

Corrosive sublimaie (mercuric bichloride). — Used for disinfecting 
pruned stubs and cleaned-out cankers, at the rate of one part in 
1000 parts of water. Can be secured from the druggist in tablet 
form in vials of 25 each, and costing 25 cents: One tablet 
makes a pint of solution. Make and store solution in glass and 
label poison. 



256 FUNGICIDES AND OEBMICIDES FOR PLANT DISEASES 

Formalin (forty per cent solution of formaldehyde gas in water). — 
A pungent, clear liquid, very irritating to eyes and nose. Ob- 
tained at any drug store at about 40 cents per pint. Used for 
potato-scab, oat smut, bunt in wheat, soil disinfection, etc. 

Lime. — Ofifered for sale in the following forms, (o) Ground rock 
or ground limestone ; air-slaked lime is of the same composition, 
i.e. a carbonate of calcium. (6) Lump, barrel, stone, or quick lime ; 
this is burned limestone, and should preferably test 90 per cent 
oxide of calcium, (c) Prepared, ground, or hydrated lime ; this is 
water or steam-slaked quicklime, dried and pulverized. Used as 
an applicant to the soil to correct acidity (p. 77), for club-root of 
cabbage, etc., and for preparing spray mixtures. 

Lime-sulfur (see page 294). — In the many possible combinations, 
lime-sulfur is coming to be equally as important as bordeaux mix- 
ture, in the control of many plant diseases. 

(a) A mixture of equal parts of dry lime and powdered sulfur 
is often dusted on plants for surface mildews. 

(6) A paste of equal parts of lime, sulfur, and water. This is 
painted on the heating pipes in the greenhouse, and is valuable 
for keeping of! surface mildews. 

(1) Home-boiled dilute lime-sulfur. This solution has been 
widely used in the past as a dormant spray, particularly for San 
Jos^ scale and peach leaf-curl. It is likely to be supplanted by 
(2) or (3). For preparation see page 295. 

(2) Home-boiled concentrated limensulfur. — When a great 
deal of spraying is to be done, a concentrated lime-sulfur solution 
may be boiled at home and stored in barrels to be used as needed. 
For method of preparation see page 295. 

Test with a Beaum^ hydrometer, which has a scale reading from 
25^ to 35°. Dilutions are reckoned from a standard solution 
testing 32°. If the solution tests only 28°, it is not as strong 
as standard, and cannot be diluted as much as a solution testing 
32°. The table on opposite page shows the proper dilution for 
solutions testing 25° to 35° Beaum6. 

Decimals are given in all cases, but for practical purposes the 
nearest eVen gallon or half gallon can be used, unless appliances for 
more accurate measurement are at hand. It is understood in 
making all dilutions that water is added to one gallon of the con- 



LIME-SULFWR 



267 



centrate to make the stated amount. Do not measure out the 
stated amount of water and add the concentrated solution to it. 





1-10 


1-15 


1-20 


1-25 


1-30 


1-40 


1-50 


1-60 


1-76 


1-100 


25° 


7.4 


11 


14.7 


18.4 


22.1 


29.5 


36.8 


44.2 


55 


73 


26« 


7.7 


11.6 


15.4 


19.3 


23.2 


30.9 


38.6 


46.3 


58 


77.2 


27« 


8.1 


12.1 


16.1 


20.2 


24.3 


32.4 


40.5 


48.5 


60.6 


80.7 


28* 


8.4 


12.7 


16.9 


21.1 


25.4 


33.8 


42.3 


60.7 


63.5 


84.5 


29« 


8.8 


13.2 


17.6 


22.1 


26.5 


35.3 


44.2 


53 


66.3 


88.2 


30« 


9.2 


13.9 


18.4 


23 


27.6 


36.9 


46.1 


55.3 


69 


92 


31« 


9.6 


14.4 


19.3 


24 


28.8 


38.4 


48 


58 


72 


96 


32« 


10 


15 


20 


25 


30 


40 


50 


60 


75 


100 


33« 


10.4 


15.6 


20.8 


26 


31.2 


41.5 


52 


62.4 


78 


104 


34° 


10.8 


16.2 


21.6 


26.8 


32.4 


43.2 


54 


64.7 


80.8 


108 


35° 


11.2 


16.8 


22.4 


28 


33.4 


44.9 


56 


67.4 


84.2 


112 



(3) Commercial concentrated lime-sulfur. — As manufactured 
and placed on the market is a clear amber liquid, and should test 
32^ to 35° Beaum^. It costs about 20 cents per gallon retail, 
and comes ready to pour into the spray tank. For apple and 
pear diseases. Arsenate of lead can be used with this solution, and 
increases its fungicidal value. 

(4) Self-boiled lime-sulfur. This is a mechanical mixture of the 
two substances, and is really not boiled, the heat being supplied by 
the slaking lime. In a small barrel or keg place 8 pounds of 
good quicklime. Add water from time to time in just sufficient 
amounts to prevent burning. As soon as the lime begins to slake 
well, add slowly (preferably through a sieve) 8 pounds of 
sulfur flour. Stir constantly, and add water as needed. As soon 
as all bubbling has ceased, check further action by adding a 
quantity of cold water, or pour into a barrel or tank and make 
up to 50 gallons. Keep well agitated. Very effective against 
peach scab and brown rot. Several other formulas have been 
used : 10-10-50 and 5-5-50. Arsenate of lead can be used with 
this mixture. 

By using boiling water and allowing the hot mixture to stand for 
half an hour, a stronger spray mixture of the above can be secured. 
It cannot be used safely on peaches, but has been used success- 
fuUy on grapes for surface mildew. The addition of sulfate of 

8 



268 FUNGICIDES AND GERMICIDES FOB PLANT DISEASES 

iron or sulfate of copper, one or two pounds to 50 gallons, has 
been used for apple rust. 

Potassium sulfid (liver of sulfur). — Simple solution 3 ounces in 10 
gallons of water. For mildew in greenhouses, on rose-bushes and 
other ornamentals. 

Resin-sal-soda sticker, — Resin, 2 pounds ; sal soda (crystals), 1 pound, 
water, 1 gallon. Boil until of a clear brown liolor, i.e. from one to 
one and a half hours. Cook in an iron kettle in the open. Add 
this amount to 50 gallons of bordeaux. Useful for onions, cab- 
bage, and other plants to which spray does not adhere well. 

Sulfate of copper (blue vitriol). — Dissolve 1 pound of pure sulfate of 
copper in 25 gallons of water. A specific for peach leaf-curl. 
Apply once before buds swell in the spring. Cover every bud. 
For use in preparing bordeaux mixture. Costs from 5 to 7 
cents per pound, in quantity. 

Stdfate of iron (copperas). — A greenish granular crystsllline substance. 
Dissolve ,100 pounds in 50 gallons of water. For mustard in 
oats, wheat, etc., apply at the rate of 50 gallons per acre. Also 
for anthracnose of grapes as a dormant spray. 

Stdfur (ground brimstone, sulfur flour, flowers of sulfur). — Should be 
99 per cent pure. Valuable for surface mildews. Dust on dry 
or in the greenhouse used in fumes. Evaporate it over a steady 
heat, as an oil stove, until the house is filled with vapor. Do not 
heat to the burning point, as burning sulfur destroys most plants. 
To prevent burning, place the sulfur and pan in a larger pan of 
sand and set the whole upon the oil stove. 



CHAPTER XVI 

Plant Diseases 
Bt Donald Reddick 

Some knowledge of the habits of the organism causing a disease is 
usually necessary in order successfully to combat it and prevent its 
ravages. Those diseases caused by powdery mildew fungi (which are 
surface infestations) can be cured. Practically all others must be 
prevented. 

Fungi attacking parts of plants above ground are usually dissemi- 
nated by means of spores. Water is often necessary to liberate the 
spores from the fungus proper, and is nearly always necessary to permit 
spore germination and infection of other plants. Heavy dew sometimes 
furnishes sufficient moisture, but prolonged drizzling rains are more 
favorable. For this reason a fungicide, in order to be effective against 
such parasites, must be applied before the rain. If it is going to rain 
to-morrow, spray to-day. But how know whether it is going to rain? 
This can best be told from a study of the United States weather maps, 
which are printed and distributed from the many weather stations, or 
else appear in the daily papers. Storm periods, indicated by a " low " 
barometer, travel quite regularly from west to east, and are usually 
accompanied or followed by rain. This can be determined by noting 
the amount of precipitation, if any, in the wake of the storm. Local 
conditions are often a factor to be considered. A few minutes' study of 
the weather map each day will soon make one reasonably efficient in 
predicting the weather. See Chap. I. 

It is unfortunate that a definite system of naming plant diseases has 
not been formulated. Diseases of plants of a similar nature should 
bear the same common name. The term "blight" is commonly used 
for many kinds or forms of diseases. It might well be restricted to 
bacterial diseases like fire-blight of pear or bean blight. When 'some 
definite system of naming diseases is adopted, it is likely that a tabula- 

259 



260 PLANT DISEASES 

tion of methods of control will be somewhat simplified, for if the 
term " blight " is restricted to bacterial diseases of the miture of pear 
blight, it will be understood that certain control measures, such as 
spraying, will not be effective. At present, each case must be con- 
sidered separately, and in the following pages the popular names are 
used. These names are followed by the technical botanical name 
of the organism causing the disease, in italics, and this by a brief 
description of the disease, the most prominent symptom being men- 
tioned first. 

Certain General or Unclassified Diseases 

Damping-off. — A term applied to the decay of young seedlings or cut- 
tings at or near the surface of the ground. The trouble is due to 
the action of various organisms, especially Pythium deBaryanum, 
Phytophlhora cadorumy Rhizoctonia sp., etc. Wet soil, confined 
atmosphere, and crowded plants are conducive to damping-off. 

Control, — Steam-sterilize seed or cutting beds. Sterilize nursery 
seed beds with formalin, using 1 gallon of 1 per cent solution to 
the square foot, i.e. 1 pint of formalin in 12-15 gallons of water. 

(Edema or Dropsy. — A disorder of various plants under glass, as 
tomatoes, violets, geraniums, which have insufficient sunlight, 
stimulating temperature and soil, and too much moisture. It has 
also been observed on twigs of the apple. It is usually indicated 
by elevated corky or spongy points or masses, much resembling 
fungous injury. The leaves curl. The only remedy is to improve 
conditions under which the plants are grown. 

Smuts of cereals. — Practically every cereal is attacked by a specific 
smut fungus, and most of them by two perfectly distinct species. 
These smuts are confined to a single species of cereal, and never 
cross from one to another. Some of the smuts produce a loose 
black spore-mass (loose smuts), while in others (covered smuts) 
the seed coat of the grain is not affected, so that the smut is not 
detected until the grain is broken open. The most important 
difference to be noted, however, is the method of wintering. In 
some the spores adhere to the surface of the seed and infect the 
young seedling plant at the time of germination, while in the other 
case the spores fall upon the blossoms and grow down into the seed 
directly, there lying dormant until the seed is planted. 



THE SMUTS 261 

Control. — The treatment is very different in the two cases. If 
the spore is on the surface of the seed, it may be killed with forma- 
lin; but if the seed is infected internally, a different treatment is 
necessary. The formalin treatment is very simple and inex- 
pensive. Select a clean place on the barn floor, and heap the 
seed grain upon it. Make a solution of formalin at the rate of 1 
pint of formalin to 50 gallons of water. Use as many gallons of 
this solution as there are bushels of grain to treat. Shovel the 
grain over, and at the same time spray the formalin over with a 
sprinkling pot. Shovel over twice, and then cover two hours 
or over night with blankets or canvas. Spread out the grain to 
dry. Make allowance for swelling of the seed at the rate of one 
peck per acre. When the infection is internal, the hot water process 
of treatment must be resorted to. Obtain a reliable thermometer, 
and make arrangements to keep a quantity of water at perfectly 
uniform temperature. Soak the seed in water at ordinary tem- 
perature for five to seven hours. Then place it in small loose 
sacks or wire baskets containing not more than a half peck each, 
and allow to drain. Provide two tubs or vats, of 30 or 40 gallons 
capacity, which can be heated, or provide in addition an iron 
kettle for heating a quantity of water. Heat the water in the 
two vats to the temperature indicated below. Immerse the 
drained sacks of seed in tub 1 to remove the chill, then 
suspend in tub 2 for the indicated length of time. Keep the 
temperature of tub 2 constant by applying heat or adding 
small amounts of boiling water. Treat for the indicated time, 
remove, and dry. 
Barley. Covered Smut ( Ustilago hordei). — The covering is thin 
and easily broken, and when old may resemble loose smut. Seed- 
ling infection. 

Control. — Formalin, as indicated above. 
Loose Smut ( Ustilago nuda). — The smutted heads are loose and 
black from the first. Flower infection. 

Control. — Hot water, as indicated above. The temperature of 
tub 2 should be 127** F., and the seed should be left in fifteen 
minutes. If the temperature of tub 2 varies slightly from 127**, 
the length of treatment should be lengthened or shortened ac- 
cordingly as the temperature is below or above that desired. 



260 PLANT DISEASES 

tion of methods of control will be somewhat simplified, for if the 
term " blight " is restricted to bacterial diseases of the miture of pear 
blight, it will be understood that certain control measures, such as 
spraying, will not be effective. At present, each case must be con- 
sidered separately, and in the following pages the popular names are 
used. These names are followed by the technical botanical name 
of the organism causing the disease, in italics^ and this by a brief 
description of the disease, the most prominent sjrmptom being men- 
tioned first. 

Certain General or Unclassified Diseases 

Damping-off. — A term applied to the decay of young seedlings or cut- 
tings at or near the surface of the ground. The trouble is due to 
the action of various organisms, especially Pythium deBaryanum, 
Phytophthora cactorum, Rhizodonia sp., etc. Wet soil, confined 
atmosphere, and crowded plants are conducive to damping-off. 

Control. — Steam-sterilize seed or cutting beds. Sterilize nursery 
seed beds with formalin, using 1 gallon of 1 per cent solution to 
the square foot, t.e. 1 pint of formalin in 12-15 gallons of water. 

(Edema or Dropsy. — A disorder of various plants under glass, as 
tomatoes, violets, geraniums, which have insufiScient sunlight, 
stimulating temperature and soil, and too much moisture. It has 
also been observed on twigs of the apple. It is usually indicated 
by elevated corky or spongy points or masses, much resembling 
fungous injury. The leaves curl. The only remedy is to improve 
conditions under which the plants are grown. 

Smuts of cereals. — Practically every cereal is attacked by a specific 
smut fungus, and most of them by two perfectly distinct species. 
These smuts are confined to a single species of cereal, and never 
cross from one to another. Some of the smuts produce a loose 
black spore-mass (loose smuts), while in others (covered smuts) 
the seed coat of the grain is not affected, so that the smut is not 
detected until the grain is broken open. The most important 
difference to be noted, however, is the method of wintering. In 
some the spores adhere to the surface of the seed and infect the 
young seedling plant at the time of germination, while in the other 
case the spores fall upon the blossoms and grow down into the seed 
directly, there lying dormant until the seed is planted. 



THE S^fUTS 261 

Control. — The treatment is very different in the two cases. If 
the spore is on the surface of the seed, it may be killed with forma- 
lin; but if the seed is infected internally, a different treatment is 
necessary. The formalin treatment is very simple and inex- 
pensive. Select a clean place on the barn floor, and heap the 
seed grain upon it. Make a solution of formalin at the rate of 1 
pint of formalin to 50 gallons of water. Use as many gallons of 
this solution as there are bushels of grain to treat. Shovel the 
grain over, and at the same time spray the formalin over with a 
sprinkling pot. Shovel over twice, and then cover two hours 
or over night with blankets or canvas. Spread out the grain to 
dry. Make allowance for swelling of the seed at the rate of one 
peck per acre. When the infection is internal, the hot water process 
of treatment must be resorted to. Obtain a reliable thermometer, 
and make arrangements to keep a quantity of water at perfectly 
uniform temperature. Soak the seed in water at ordinary tem- 
perature for five to seven hours. Then place it in small loose 
sacks or wire baskets containing not more than a half peck each, 
and allow to drain. Provide two tubs or vats, of 30 or 40 gallons 
capacity, which can be heated, or provide in addition an iron 
kettle for heating a quantity of water. Heat the water in the 
two vats to the temperature indicated below. Immerse the 
drained sacks of seed in tub 1 to remove the chill, then 
suspend in tub 2 for the indicated length of time. Keep the 
temperature of tub 2 constant by applying heat or adding 
small amounts of boiling water. Treat for the indicated time, 
remove, and dry. 
Barley. Covered Smut (Ustilago hordei). — The covering is thin 
and easily broken, and when old may resemble loose smut. Seed- 
ling infection. 

Control. — Formalin, as indicated above. 
Loose Smut ( Ustilago nuda). — The smutted heads are loose and 
black from the first. Flower infection. 

Control. — Hot water, as indicated above. The temperature of 
tub 2 should be 127** F., and the seed should be left in fifteen 
minutes. If the temperature of tub 2 varies slightly from 127**, 
the length of treatment should be lengthened or shortened ac- 
cordingly as the temperature is below or above that desired. 



260 PLANT DISEASES 

tion of methods of control will be somewhat simplified, for if the 
term " blight " is restricted to bacterial diseases of the nature of pear 
blight, it will be understood that certain control measures, such as 
spraying, will not be effective. At present, each case must be con- 
sidered separately, and in the following pages the popular names are 
used. These names are followed by the technical botanical name 
of the organism causing the disease, in italics y and this by a brief 
description of the disease, the most prominent Sjrmptom being men- 
tioned first. 

Certain General or Unclassified Diseases 

Damping-off. — A term applied to the decay of young seedlings or cut- 
tings at or near the surface of the ground. The trouble is due to 
the action of various organisms, especially Pythium deBaryanumy 
Phytophthora cadorum, Rhizoctonia sp., etc. Wet soil, confined 
atmosphere, and crowded plants are conducive to damping-off. 

Control. — Steam-sterilize seed or cutting beds. Sterilize nursery 
seed beds with formalin, using 1 gallon of 1 per cent solution to 
the square foot, i.e. 1 pint of formalin in 12-15 gallons of water. 

(Edema or Dropsy. — A disorder of various plants under glass, as 
tomatoes, violets, geraniums, which have insufiicient sunlight, 
stimulating temperature and soil, and too much moisture. It has 
also been observed on twigs of the apple. It is usually indicated 
by elevated corky or spongy points or masses, much resembling 
fungous injury. The leaves curl. The only remedy is to improve 
conditions under which the plants are grown. 

Smuts of cereals. — Practically every cereal is attacked by a specific 
smut fungus, and most of them by two perfectly distinct species. 
These smuts are confined to a single species of cereal, and never 
cross from one to another. Some of the smuts produce a loose 
black spore-mass (loose smuts), while in others (covered smuts) 
the seed coat of the grain is not affected, so that the smut is not 
detected until the grain is broken open. The most important 
difference to be noted, however, is the method of wintering. In 
some the spores adhere to the surface of the seed and infect the 
young seedling plant at the time of germination, while in the other 
case the spores fall upon the blossoms and grow down into the seed 
directly, there lying dormant until the seed is planted. 



THE SMUTS 261 

Control, — The treatment is very different in the two cases. If 
the spore is on the surface of the seed, it may be killed with forma- 
lin; but if the seed is infected internally, a different treatment is 
necessary. The formalin treatment is very simple and inex- 
pensive. Select a clean place on the barn floor, and heap the 
seed grain upon it. Make a solution of formalin at the rate of 1 
pint of formalin to 50 gallons of water. Use as many gallons of 
this solution as there are bushels of grain to treat. Shovel the 
grain over, and at the same time spray the formalin over with a 
sprinkling pot. Shovel over twice, and then cover two hours 
or over night with blankets or canvas. Spread out the grain to 
dry. Make allowance for swelling of the seed at the rate of one 
peck per acre. When the infection is internal, the hot water process 
of treatment must be resorted to. Obtain a reliable thermometer, 
and make arrangements to keep a quantity of water at perfectly 
uniform temperature. Soak the seed in water at ordinary tem- 
perature for five to seven hours. Then place it in small loose 
sacks or wire baskets containing not more than a half peck each, 
and allow to drain. Provide two tubs or vats, of 30 or 40 gallons 
capacity, which can be heated, or provide in addition an iron 
kettle for heating a quantity of water. Heat the water in the 
two vats to the temperature indicated below. Immerse the 
drained sacks of seed in tub 1 to remove the chill, then 
suspend in tub 2 for the indicated length of time. Keep the 
temperature of tub 2 constant by applying heat or adding 
small amounts of boiling water. Treat for the indicated time, 
remove, and dry. 
Barley. Covered Smut ( UstUago hordei). — The covering is thin 
and easily broken, and when old may resemble loose smut. Seed- 
Img infection. 

Control, — Formalin, as indicated above. 
Loose Smut ( Ustilago nuda). — The smutted heads are loose and 
black from the first. Flower infection. 

Control. — Hot water, as indicated above. The temperature of 
tub 2 should be 127° F., and the seed should be left in fifteen 
minutes. If the temperature of tub 2 varies slightly from 127°, 
the length of treatment should be lengthened or shortened ac- 
cordingly as the temperature is below or above that desired. 



260 PLANT DISEASES 

tion of methods of control will be somewhat simplified, for if the 
term " blight " is restricted to bacterial diseases of the nature of pear 
blight, it will be understood that certain control measures, such as 
spraying, will not be effective. At present, each case must be con- 
sidered separately, and in the following pages the popular names are 
used. These names are followed by the technical botanical name 
of the organism causing the disease, in italics^ and this by a brief 
description of the disease, the most prominent Sjrmptom being men- 
tioned first. 

Certain General or Unclassified Diseases 

Damping-off. — A term applied to the decay of young seedlings or cut- 
tings at or near the surface of the ground. The trouble is due to 
the action of various organisms, especially Pyihivm deBaryanum^ 
Phytophthora cactorum, Rhizodonia sp., etc. Wet soil, confined 
atmosphere, and crowded plants are conducive to damping-off. 

Control. — Steam-sterilize seed or cutting beds. Sterilize nursery 
seed beds with formalin, using 1 gallon of 1 per cent solution to 
the square foot, t.e. 1 pint of formalin in 12-15 gallons of water. 

(Edema or Dropsy. — A disorder of various plants under glass, as 
tomatoes, violets, geraniums, which have insufficient sunlight, 
stimulating temperature and soil, and too much moisture. It has 
also been observed on twigs of the apple. It is usually indicated 
by elevated coricy or spongy points or masses, much resembling 
fungous injury. The leaves curl. The only remedy is to improve 
conditions under which the plants are grown. 

Smuts of cereals. — Practically every cereal is attacked by a specific 
smut fungus, and most of them by two perfectly distinct species. 
These smuts are confined to a single species of cereal, and never 
cross from one to another. Some of the smuts produce a loose 
black spore-mass (loose smuts), while in others (covered smuts) 
the seed coat of the grain is not affected, so that the smut is not 
detected until the grain is broken open. The most important 
difference to be noted, however, is the method of wintering. In 
some the spores adhere to the surface of the seed and infect the 
young seedling plant at the time of germination, while in the other 
case the spores fall upon the blossoms and grow down into the seed 
directly, there lying dormant until the seed is planted. 



THE SMUTS 261 

Control, — The treatment is very different in the two cases. If 
the spore is on the surface of the seed, it may be killed with forma- 
lin; but if the seed is infected internally, a different treatment is 
necessary. The formalin treatment is very simple and inex- 
pensive. Select a clean place on the barn floor, and heap the 
seed grain upon it. Make a solution of formalin at the rate of 1 
pint of formalin to 50 gallons of water. Use as many gallons of 
this solution as there are bushels of grain to treat. Shovel the 
grain over, and at the same time spray the formalin over with a 
sprinkling pot. Shovel over twice, and then cover two hours 
or over night with blankets or canvas. Spread out the grain to 
dry. Make allowance for swelling of the seed at the rate of one 
peck per acre. When the infection is internal, the hot water process 
of treatment must be resorted to. Obtain a reliable thermometer, 
and make arrangements to keep a quantity of water at perfectly 
uniform temperature. Soak the seed in water at ordinary tem- 
perature for five to seven hours. Then place it in small loose 
sacks or wire baskets containing not more than a half peck each, 
and allow to drain. Provide two tubs or vats, of 30 or 40 gallons 
capacity, which can be heated, or provide in addition an iron 
kettle for heating a quantity of water. Heat the water in the 
two vats to the temperature indicated below. Immerse the 
drained sacks of seed in tub 1 to remove the chill, then 
suspend in tub 2 for the indicated length of time. Keep the 
temperature of tub 2 constant by applying heat or adding 
small amounts of boiling water. Treat for the indicated time, 
remove, and dry. 
Barley. Covered Smut ( UstUago hordei). — The covering is thin 
and easily broken, and when old may resemble loose smut. Seed- 
ling infection. 

Control, — Formalin, as indicated above. 
Loose Smut ( Ustilago nuda). — The smutted heads are loose and 
black from the first. Flower infection. 

Control. — Hot water, as indicated above. The temperature of 
tub 2 should be 127^ F., and the seed should be left in fifteen 
minutes. If the temperature of tub 2 varies slightly from 127®, 
the length of treatment should be lengthened or shortened ac- 
cordingly as the temperature is below or above that desired. 



262 PLAINT DISEASES 

In no case should the temperature go above 129^ or below 124^ F. 
This treatment will also be effective for covered smut. 

Oats. Loose Smuts ( Ustilago averue and Ustilago levis). — Both 
characteristic loose smuts, and both seedling infection. 
Control — Formalin treatment, as indicated above. 

Wheat. Stinking Smut or Bunt (TiUetia fcetens), — Can be de- 
tected in the field by the flaring of the beards, in the bin by the 
peculiar fetid odor and by breaking open the kernels. The 
seed coat remains intact. Seedling infection. 
Control, — Formalin treatment, as above. 

Loose Smut ( Ustilago tritici). — Characteristic loose smut of the 
head appearing at blossoming time. Flower infection. 

Control. — Hot water, as indicated above. The temperature 
of tub 2 should be 129^ F., and the seed should be left in ten 
minutes. If the temperature of tub 2 should go above 129** or 
fall below 126** the length of treatment should be diminished or 
increased accordingly. In no case should the temperature go 
above 131** or below 124** F. 
Storage rots (PeniciUium expansum and P. italicum), — These two 
organisms are responsible for much of the rot appearing in storage 
or transportation. The former is the common one on apples, the 
latter on oranges and lemons. These organisms are not able to 
enter through an unbroken surface, but are dependent upon 
cracks, bruises, scab spots, etc. 

Control. — Avoid puncturing the skins with shears or finger- 
nails, handle and pack with care to prevent bruises, and spray to 
prevent scab spots. Store at a temperature of 32**. In making 
long distance shipments, pre-cool the car and ship under ice. 

Diseases of different Plants or Crops 

Alfalfa. Leaf Spot {Paeudopeziza medicaginis). — Small black spots 
on the leaves. Causes the leaves to turn yellow and fall. 

Control. — Frequent close mowing usually holds the disease 

in check. 

Dodder (Cuscuta epithymum). — A tangled mat of yellow threads 

entwining the alfalfa stems. Usually appears in spots in the 

field and spreads from these points. Is easily spread by the rake. 



APPLE DISEASES 263 

and especially in seed. Dodder is not a fungus, but a specialized 
parasitic plant of the morning-glory family. 

Control — As soon as discovered, cover the infested spot with 
straw and oil and burn. Screen the alfalfa seed to remove seed of 
dodder. Make a screen 12 inches square by 3 inches deep with 
a 20 X 20 mesh wire-cloth made of No. 34 steel wire. Sift each 
half pound of seed vigorously for one half minute. 
Almond. Blight (Coryneum beyerinkii). — See Peach Bught, p. 275. 

Yellows. See under Peach. 
Apple. Blight. — The same disease as Pear Blight, which see. 

BrrrER-ROT or Ripe-rot (GlomereUck rufomaculans), — Produces a 
browning and drying of the fruit. Progressing in concentric rings 
from a central point. Attacks nearly mature fruit. Also occurs 
on limbs, where it produces a canker scarcely distinguishable 
from New York apple-tree canker (p. 264). 

Control — Trim out all cankers early .in the spring, and remove 
all mummied apples from the trees. In addition to the spray- 
ings for apple scab, make three, four, or five sprayings with bor- 
deaux mixture, 3-3-50, according to the severity of the disease 
and the character of the summer as regards rainfall. 

Black-rot of fruit. — Fruit stage of the New York apple-tree canker 
disease, which see. 

Blotch (PhyUosticta solUaria), — Attacks fruit, twigs, and leaves. 
Blotches a quarter of an inch or more in diameter appear on the 
fruit. These often coalesce, and the fruit often cracks deeply. 
Scurfy cankers are formed on the twigs while very small ; circular 
spots a quarter of an inch in diameter are formed on the leaves. 
Ben Davis is especially susceptible. 

Control — Careful pruning to remove cankered twigs. Spray 
as for apple scab and bitter rot. 

Brown-rot. — See under Cherry (p. 267). 

Canker. — Smooth cankers in bark of trunk and limbs usually in- 
dicate blight, rough ones New York apple-tree canker. 

CoLLAR-ROT. — A dead area in the bark near the ground ; often 
girdles the tree. Cause not known. May be started in some 
cases by the fire-blight organism, in others by winter injury. Com- 
mon on King, Baldwin, and Ben Davis. 

Remedy. — As soon as noticed, cut away dead bark and wood 



264 PLANT DISEASES 

to the living healthy tissue. Swab the wound with a solution of 
corrosive sublimate, 1 :1000, and paint over with a lead paint which 
is free from turpentine. Slit the callus on the edge from year to 
year to make it spread faster, and keep dead wood well protected 
with paint. 

Crown-oall {Bacterium tumefaciens). — See under Pbach, p. 276. 

New York Applb-treb Canker (Sphoeropsis mahrum), — The 
fungus causing the disease attacks limbs, causing roughened 
cankers and often girdling the limb ; attacks leaves, causing a 
reddish brown leaf-spot, and on the fruit produces a black rot. 
Abundant on Twenty Ounce. 

Control, — Remove and bum old cankers. Clean out and dis- 
infect small cankers as for collar-rot. Soak old limbs well with 
spray mixture when sprajdng for scab. Spraying as for apple scab 
usually controls black rot of fruit, though in the Ozark region 
a late spraying may be advisable for leaf-spot. Cultivate 
thoroughly. 

Powdery Mildew {Sphoerolheca leucotricha), — Attacks nursery 

stock, covering the leaves with a grayish white, powdery mildew. 

Also on leaves and twigs of new growth in the orchard, often 

causing the leaves to fall. 

Remedy. — Lime-sulfur, 1-40, as applied for scab is a specific. 

Rust (Gymnosporangium macroptis). — A bright yellow rust appear- 
ing on the yoimg leaves and fruit. Enfeebles the whole tree and 
produces one-sided fruits. It is known that one stage in the cycle 
of the fungus is the cedar apple, which occurs on the red cedar. 
Apples are always infected from the cedar, never from apple 
to apple. 

Control. — Destroy red cedars in the neighborhood, also wild 

. apples and hawthorns. Spray thoroughly in the spring as for scab. 

Scab ( Venturia incequalis). Olive green, brownish or blackish 
scab-like spots on leaves and fruit. Arrests growth, and often 
causes distortion. In severe cases may make the leaves and 
young fruit fall. Makes leaves susceptible to spray injury. The 
fungus is known to be dependent upon weather conditions, as out- 
lined in the beginning of this chapter. The fungus winters reg- 
ularly on the dead fallen leaves. In the milder climate of Vir- 
ginia, the fungus may winter on the twigs. 



APRICOT — BEAN 265 

Control, — Rake and burn leaves, or plow under very early 
(before blossom buds open). Spray with lime-sulfur 32** Beaum^, 
1-40, or bordeaux, 3-3-50: (a) when blossom buds show pink, 
but before they open ; (6) when the majority of petals have fallen ; 
(c) three weeks after b depending upon the weather ; (d) if a late 
attack is feared, spray thoroughly before the fall rains begin. 

Apricot. Leaf-rust. — See under Plum, p. •279. 
Yellows. — See xmder Peach, p. 276. 
Black-spot or Scab. — See under Peach. 

Asparagus. Rust. — {Pvccinia aaparagi), A rust of the tops, which 
is often so severe as to kill them, thus interfering with root de- 
velopment. 

Control. — Three weeks after cutting stops dust the young tops 
with dry sulfur at the rat« of 1} sacks of sulfur per acre. This 
should be done very early in the morning while the dew is 
still on, and only on a dewy morning. In a month or less make 
another application, using 2 sacks of sulfur per acre. The 
sulfur must go on in a dusty, smoky cloud and form a covering 
over all the growth. Flowers of sulfur is more satisfactory for 
this work, and is less expensive in the long run. Dusting machines 
may be obtained on the market. 

Barley. Smut. — See under Smut op Cbrbaus, p. 260. 

Bean. Anthracnosb or Pod-spot (CoUetotrickum lindemiUhianum). — 
Reddish-brown scab-like spots appearing on stems, pods, and veins 
of leaves, particularly on yellow-podded snap beans. The fungus 
grows through the pod and into the young bean seed. It lies dor- 
mant in the seed, and becomes active when the bean is planted. 
Control, — Select pods which are free from the spots and save 
the seed for planting. Such seed will grow a clean crop. If dis- 
ease appears in the garden, it can be controlled by thoroughly 
hand spra3ring the vines from beneath as well as above, repeating 
the operation every ten days as long as necessary. 
Blight (Bacterium phaseoli), — A bacterial disease. Causes large, 
papery spots on leaves and watery spots on pods. 
Control. — As for Anthracnose. 

Bean, Lima. — Blight (Phytophthora phaseoli). — Attacks the pods 
in August and September, covering them with a white, felted coat- 
ing. It also attacks shoots and leaves. 



266 PLANT DISEASES 

Control, — Spray with bordeaux, 4-4-50, beginning about 
August first, and making applications at intervals of ten days or 
two weeks. 
Beet. Heart-rot (Phoma betcB). — Leaves appear spotted late in 
July, then wilt, and finally a dry heart rot appears. 

Control. — Destroy infected plants. Practice long rotation. 
Treat seed with formalin, 1 pint in 30 gallons of water. 
Leaf-spot {Cercospora heticola). — Ashen gray spots with reddish 
borders occurring on leaves. In advanced stages, leaf becomes 
much cracked and torn. 

Control — Spray with bordeaux mixture, 4-4-50, at frequent 
intervals. 
Scab (Oospora scabies), — Fungus produces a scabby patch on the 
root. The same disease as potato scab. 

Control, — Avoid planting beets after potatoes for several years. 
Blackberry. Anthracnose. — See under Raspberry, p. 280. 
Crown-gall or Root-gall (Bacterium tumefadens). — A bacterial 
disease which soon ruins the bushes. 

Treatment. — Plow up and bum all bushes in a diseased patch. 
Plant clean roots in a new place. 
Red or Orange Rust. — See under Raspberry. 
Brussels sprouts. Club-root. — See under Cabbage. 
Cabbage. Club-root or Club-foot (Plasmodiophora brassica). — 
A contorted swelling of the roots of cabbage in the seed bed or 
field, preventing the plant from heading and causing it to assume 
a sickly color. Occurs on many allied plants — turnips, cauli- 
flower, Brussels sprouts, chard, radish, wild mustard, etc. 

Control. — Destroy affected seedlings. Rotate crops, and do 
not follow with other susceptible crops. Keep down weeds on 
which disease occurs. Lime the soil at least eighteen months 
before planting to cabbage, using at the rate of two tons of quick- 
lime to the acre. 
Black-rot {Bacillus campestre). — The bacteria causing this disease 
get into the sap tubes, turn them black, and cause the leaves to 
drop, thus preventing heading. 

Control, — Practice crop rotation. Soak the seed for fifteen 
minutes in a solution of mercuric chloride, one tablet in a pint of 
water. 



CARNA TION — CHERR T 267 

Carnation. Rust ( Uramyces caryophyllinua). — Produces brown, pow- 
dery pustules on stems and leaves. 

Control. — Take cuttings only from healthy plants. Pick oflf 
diseased leaves. Spray once in two weeks with a solution of 
copper sulfate, 1 pound to 20 gallons. Keep water from leaves, 
and grow the plants at as low temperature as is compatible with 
best development. 
Stem-rot (Rhizoctonia and Fusarium), — The former produces a 
sudden wilting of the plant, and the stems are soon dead and dry. 
The latter produces a slow rot of the heart, one branch dying at 
a time. The treatment is the same. 

Control, — In the field change the location every year. In the 
greenhouse sterilize the soil with steam. 
Cauliflower. See under Cabbage. 

Celery. Early Leaf-blight (Cercospora apii), — A spotting and 
eventual blighting of the leaves early in the summer. Begins in 
the seed-bed. It is favored by hot weather, either wet or 
dry. 

Control. — Spray with ammoniacal copper carbonate, 5-3-50, 
beginning in the seed bed and keeping the new growth covered 
throughout the season. 
Late Blight {Septoria petroselini var. apii). — A fungous disease, 
appearing late in the season, causing a blight of the foliage, and 
often destructive after the celery is stored. 

Control. — As above, except that spraying should be continued 
up to harvesting time. In either case, the disease is practically 
controlled by growing the plants under half shade. 
Cherry. Brown-rot (Sclerotinia friictigena) . — Attacks flowers, leaves, 
and fruit. The flowers die and decay, the leaves become discolored 
with irregular brown spots, and the fruit rots on the tree. Attacks 
also peaches, plums, and apples. 

Control. — Spray with bordeaux mixture, 4-4-50, or lime-sulfur, 
1-40, (a) just before the blossom buds open; (b) just after the 
blossoms fall; (c) make one or two more applications at intervals 
of ten days. 
Leaf-rust. See under Plum, p. 279. 

Powdery Mildew {Podosphcera oxycanihs). — Attacks leaves and 
twigs, often causing defoliation. Serious on nursery stock. Spray- 



268 PLANT DISEASES 

ing as for brown rot usually controls this trouble. If it appears, 
spray with lime sulfur, 1-40, or dust heavily with powdered sulfur. 
Leaf-spot (Cylindrosporium padi). — A fungous disease in which 
the leaves become thickly spotted with reddish or brown spots and 
fall prematurely. The spots often drop out, leaving shot holes. 

Control — Spray with lime sulfur, 1-40, or with bordeaux 
mixture, 4-4-50, as for brown rot. 
Winter Injury. — Trees so injured make a scant growth ; many 
leaves turn yellow and fall about picking time; gum exudes at the 
crotches and about the trunk; sometimes the bark on the stock is 
entirely killed, in which case the tree languishes and finally dies. 

Control — It is thought that heavy applications of highly nitrog- 
enous fertilizers in late summer favor winter injury. Do not 
stimulate the tree to too active wood development. Cut out the 
gum pockets and cankers, and paint them with a heavy lead paint. 
Chestnut. Bark Disease (Diaporthe parasitica). — A fungous disease, 
attacking the bark of the American chestnut. Limbs and trunk 
are girdled, and the tree dies. The disease is present in many of 
the nurseries. 

Control — Inspect nursery stock very carefully, especially 
about pruned stubs. Discard diseased trees. Make a careful 
examination of old trees, especially about old wounds and pruned 
stubs. If the disease is present, clean out the diseased wood with 
a gouge, and coat heavily with gas-tar. If the disease has pro- 
gressed far, cut off diseased limbs or the whole tree and burn at 
once. Keep all wounds and pruned stubs covered with gas-tar. 
Chrysanthemum. Leap-spot (Septoria chrysanthemi). — First ap- 
pears as dark brown spots, which increase in size until the leaf dies. 

Control — Pick and bum diseased leaves. Spray the plants 
with bordeaux mixture, 4-4-50. 
Rust {Puccinia chrysanthemi). — Reddish brown rust pustules on 
the leaves. 

Control — Avoid wetting the foliage when watering. Spray 
as for Leap Spot. 
Com. Ear-rot {Diplodia zece). — Several other organisms may cause 
an ear rot, but this is the more common one. The ear is imper- 
fectly developed, soft, and overrun with a whitish mold. In 
many cases the husks and silk are also involved. 



CORN — CRANBERRY 

Control — Destroy old infected ears and stalks. Practice a 
rotation which will exclude com for two years from or near the 
given plat of ground. 
Rust (Puccinia maydia). — Reddish pustules on the blades. Com- 
mon on some varieties of sweet com. 
Control. — No satisfactory method of control is known. 
Smut ( Ustilago zees), — Attacks stalks, ears, and tassels, produc- 
ing abnormal boils or outgrowths. Will infect at actively growing 
points at any time. 

Control, — Rotate crops. Do not manure com ground. Cut 
out smut and burn it. Soaking seed is of no avail. 
Cotton. Anthracnosb (CoUetotrichum gossypii). — Forms black or 
purplish colored spots on bolls. Disease also occurs on seed leaves 
and on the leaves and stems. Select seed from fields free from the 
disease. Rotate crops. Use disease-resistant varieties. 
Root-rot (Ozonium omnivorum), — Easily recognized by the sudden 
wilting and dying of the plants in the field. 

Control, — A combination of rotation of crops and deep fall 
plowing is effective. 
Wilt (Fusarium vasinfecta), — Causes a gradual wilt and eventual 
death of leaves and stems. 

Control, — Rotate crops. Secure seed of wilt-resistant varieties 
of cotton. 
Cranberry. Blast or Scald (Guignardia vaccinii), — The fungus 
causes a blast of the flowers and very young fmits, and attacks 
older fmits, causing them to appear scalded or watery. 

Control, — Spray five or six times with bordeaux mixture, 
5-5-50, to which has been added 4 pounds of resin (ish oil soap, mak- 
ing the first application just before the blossoms open. Long 
lines of hose are most satisfactory for this work, and the spra3ring 
must be done thoroughly. 
Rot. (Acanthorhynchus vaccinii). — A disease which cannot be dis- 
tinguished from scald with the naked eye. 
Control, — As for Scald. 
Hypertrophy {Exobasidium oxy cocci), — Appears on the young 
leaves soon after the water has been let off in the spring. The 
axillary leaf buds are attacked and produce short shoots with 
rather close, enlarged, swollen, and distorted leaves which are 



270 PLANT DISEASES 

pink or light rose color. The production of fruit is prevented 
or reduced. 

Control, — Early spraying with bordeaux mixture has been 
advised. 
Cucumber. Anthracnosb. — See under Muskmelon, p. 274. 
Blight or Mildew {Pseudoperonospora cubensis). — A blighting and 
premature yellowing of the foliage. 

Control. — Spray with bordeaux mixture, 5-5-50. Commence 
to spray when the plants begin to run, and repeat every ten to 
fourteen days throughout the season. 
Wilt (BadUus iracheiphilus), — This is a disease caused by bacteria 
that get into the sap tubes of the leaf and stem, clog and destroy 
them, causing the plant to wilt. The bacteria are distributed 
chiefly by the striped cucumber beetle. 

Control. — Control the striped beetle. See p. 318. Gather 
and destroy ail wilted leaves and plants. 
Wilt {caused by malniUrition). — Excessive fertilizing with highly 
nitrogenous fertilizers will sometimes produce a peculiar curling 
and wilting of the leaves. 
Currant. Anthracnose {GlxBosporium ribis). — Small dark brown 
spots, chiefly on the upper surface of the leaf. The leaves finally 
turn yellow, and fall in July or August. 

Control — Thorough applications of bordeaux mixture, 5-5-50. 
Leaf-spot (Septoria ribis j Cercospora angulcuta etc.). — Whitish 
spots with black centers. Appears in midsummer, and causes 
defoliation. 

• Control. — As for Anthracnose. 
Wilt or Cane-blight. — A destructive fungous disease which 
causes the canes to die suddenly. Character of the wilting much 
like that produced by the cane-borer. 

Control. — No satisfactory method known. The most that 
can be done is to go over the patch three or four times during the 
summer, cut out and burn the blighted canes. 
Ginseng. Blight (Altemaria panads). — Papery brown spots on the 
leaves, which spread until the whole leaf is involved. Also at- 
tacks the seed heads, producing a blast. 

Control. — In the spring before the plants come through the 
ground spray the soil thoroughly with copper sulfate, 1 pound to 



QINSENQ — OB APE 271 

10 gallons of water. As the plants are breaking through the soil, 
spray with bordeaux, 3-3-50. Spray repeatedly while the plants 
are coming through the ground, making a special effort to cover 
the stems. Keep all growth covered with spray throughout 
the sununer. Spray the seed heads thoroughly just after the blos- 
soms fall, and again when they are two-thirds grown. Destroy 
all diseased tops. 
Fiber Rot {Thiehma baaicola). — Conmionly called rust or rusty 
root, from the characteristic appearance. The plants eventually 
wilt and die. 

ControL — Treat the soil with acid phosphate at the rate of 
1000 pounds to the acre. Dip the roots in bordeaux mixture, 
3-3-50, before planting. 
Mildew (Phytophthora cadarum). — Attacks tops shortly after 
they come up. 

ControL — Thorough spraying early, as for blight, will control 
this disease. 
Wilt (Acrostaiagmus sp.). — A sudden wilting of the whole plant, 
caused by the action of the fungus in the sap tubes of the 
root. 

Control, — Remove the wilted plants as soon as discovered in 
order to prevent further spread. 
Root-rot. — Caused by various soil organisms. Favored by wet, 
soggy soil. 
Control — Underdrain the soil thoroughly. 
Golden-seaL — Consult treatments under Ginseng. 
Gooseberry. — Mildew {Sphaerotheca mofs-uvoe), — A powdery mil- 
dew attacking the fruit and young growth of English varieties of 
gooseberry. 

ControL — As soon as the leaves begin to unfold, spray with 
potassium sulfid, 1 ounce to 2 gallons of water. 
Rust (/Ecidium grosstdarias). — Orange-colored rust pustules on 
the fruit and under side of the leaves. 

ControL — Early sprajring as for Mildew. Keep down sedges 

and grasses. 

Grape. Anthracnosb {Sphaceloma ampelinum), — Occurs on the 

fruit as a definite dark brown spot with a lighter auriole ; on 

canes as deep pits with an elevated red margin, and on veins of 



272 PLANT DISEASES 

the leaves, causing the leaves to crimp. Occurs on all varieties, 
especially Roger's hybrids. Not so abundant as formerly. 

Control. — It is said that an early spraying before the buds 
open with sulfate of iron, 100 pounds to 50 gallons of water, is 
very important. Later sprayings for black rot will also be 
effective in preventing spread. 

Black-rot (Guignardia hidweUii), — The most serious disease of 
grapes east of the Rocky Mountains, especially southward. At- 
tacks all green parts. Produces a brown circular spot on leaves, 
a black, elongated, sunken pit on petioles, canes, etc., and on the 
berry a brown rot with shriveling and wrinkling ; finally the 
berry becomes black and hard. 

Control. — This disease may be controlled by timely applica- 
tions of bordeaux mixture, 4-4-50. It is of great importance that 
spraying be done before rain storms, as the berry enlarges so 
rapidly. Spray (a) when the third or fourth leaf has unfolded ; 
(6) as soon as the blossoms have, fallen; (c) when the berries are 
the size of a pea ; (d) in about two weeks. In a wet season make 
two more applications. After July 20 make the bordeaux 4-2-50, 
or use ammoniacal copper carbonate. In case of dense foliage 
all applications except the first two should be made by hand. 
Attach trailers to the sprayer, and have two men following to 
apply the spray directly to the clusters. About ten acres can be 
sprayed in a day, and the total cost of labor and material should 
not exceed 75 cents per acre for each application. 

California Vine-disease. — An obscure disease, which destroyed 
thousands of acres of vines in California. Cause not known, 
and at present practically unknown and of no importance eco- 
nomically. 

Crown-oall or Black Knot (Bcxterium tumefaciens). — A tu- 
merous, gnarled outgrowth on roots and stems, especially on Euro- 
pean varieties. Frost injury often forms an infection court for 
the bacteria. See p. 276. 
Control. — Grub out and bum infected vines. 

Downy Mildew or Leaf-blight {Plasmopara viticola). — Appears 
in white frost like patches on under side of leaf, the upper side of the 
leaf showing a yellowish discoloration ; gradually spreads to all 
parts of the leaf causing it to dry up. Attacks the berry, which 



QRAPE — LETTUCE 273 

remains hard and white or gray. Worst on hybrids with vinifera 
blood ; especially common on Delaware and Roger's hybrids. 
Widespread in North America. 
Control, — Spray as for Black-rot. 
Necrosis or Dead-arm Disease (Fnsicoccummticolum). — Attacks 
shoots, and progresses from there to the old wood, causing a dry 
rot and eventual death of the vine. 

Control. — Inspect canes at trimming time, and use care not to 
leave those on which the brownish black spots are present. Train 
up renewals from the root, and cut off the old stem below the dis- 
eased area. 
Ripe-rot (GlomereUa rufomaculans), — See under Apple, p. 263. 

Treatment as for black-rot is efficacious. 
Shelling or Rattles. — Cause unknown. The berry breaks 
squarely off at its juncture with the pedicle. The leaves on such 
vines usually turn reddish brown about the margin. Powdery 
mildew is sometimes responsible for shelling. 
Control. — No method is known. 
Hollyhock. Anthracnosb {CoUetotrichum malvarum). — Angular 
brown spots on leaves and stems which spread, killing the entire 
leaf. 

Control. — As for Rust. 
Rust {Puccinia maJvacearum). — Attacks all parts of the plant, 
causing reddish brown pustules on affected parts ; later leaving 
deep pits ; may entirely destroy the leaves. It is abundant on 
the common mallow or " cheeses." 

Control. — Eradicate the mallow ; pick off diseased leaves in 
the fall, and bum all litter. Repeat in the spring, and spray new 
growth thoroughly with bordeaux mixture, 4-3-50. Spray every 
week until the flower-stalks are well developed. 
Lettuce. I^af Perforation {Marssonia perforans). — Dead areas 
in the leaves which finally drop out. Also on veins of the leaves. 
Control. — As for Rosette (p. 274). 
Downy Mildew {Bremia lactucce). — Yellow spots on the upper 
surface of the leaf, accompanied by a frosty growth on the opposite 
side. 

Control. — Destroy infected plants. Keep water from the 
leaves ; furnish water by means of subirrigation. 



274 PLANT DISEASES 

Drop or Rot {Sderotinia libertiana). — Base of the leaves or stem 
rots off, allowing leaves to drop. 

Control. — Sterilize the soil with steam before planting. See 
under Steam in Chapter XV, p. 253. 
Rosette {Rhizoctonia sp.). — A rotting or damping-off of the stem. 
Late affected plants have a rosetted appearance. 

Control. — Start seed in steam-sterilized soil, and transfer to 
beds that have been sterilized with steam, as for Drop. 
Muskmelon. Anthracnose ( CoUetotrichum lagenarium) . — Dead spots 
on the leaves and stems and sunken pits on the fruit. Thorough 
and frequent spraying with bordeaux mixture will hold this dis- 
ease in check. 
Downy Mildew. — The same disease as on cucumbers (p. 270) . Often 
very destructive. 

Control. — A satisfactory method is not known. Spraying as 
for cucumber mildew has not proved effective. 
Wilt. — See Cucumber. 
Nectarine. Yellows, etc. See under Peach, p. 276. 
Nursery Stock. — Foliage on young trees is apt to be attacked by 
various leaf-spot fungi. The damage comes in reducing growth, 
thus often making seconds. Several applications of bordeaux 
mixture to keep the new growth protected are beneficial. 
Oats. Rust {Puccinia coronata). — A red rust of the blades. 
Control. — There is no known method of control. 
Smut. — See under Smut op Cereals, p. 260. 
Onion. Mildew {Peronospora scMeideniana). — Causes a wilt or 
blight of the leaves. 

Control. — Spray with bordeaux mixture, 5-5-50, to which has 
been added one gallon of resin-sal-soda sticker. - The first applica- 
tion should be made when the third leaf has developed, and the 
application should be repeated every ten days until the crop Is har- 
vested. 
Smut ( Urocystis cepvloe). — Forms black pustules on the leaves and 
bulbs. Seedlings may be killed outright. 

Control. — Onions from sets or from seed started in soil free 
from the disease seldom have the smut. Practice crop rotation. 
Drill into the soil with the seed 100 pounds of sulfur and 50 
pounds of air-slaked lime to the acre. 



ONION — PEA CH 276 

Pea. Mildew (Erysiphe polygoni). — A powdery mildew on pods and 
leaves. 

Control. — Dust dry sulfur over the plants, repeating the opera- 
tion if necessary. 
Pod Spot and Leap-spot (Ascochyta pisi), — Black circular spots on 
stems, leaves, and buds. The fungus grows through the pod into 
the seed, and is thus carried through the winter. 

Control. — Select pods free from spots, and save the seed from 
these for the next year's planting. On a large scale have a clean 
seed garden in which to grow clean seed for the following year. 
Peach. Blight (Coryneum beyerinkii). — A spotting, gumming 
and death of the buds and twigs, particularly in the lower 
part of the tree. The fruit drops. Especially serious in Cali- 
fornia. 

CorUroL — For California conditions two applications of spray 
are made : (a) in November or December, and (b) in February or 
March. This also controls leaf-curl. Bordeaux mixture, 5-5-50, 
or lime-sulfur, 1-10, may be used. 
Brown-rot {Scerotinia frudigena). — Causes a rot of the fruit, and 
often runs down the spur, forming a canker in the limb. Also 
produces brownish irregular spots on the leaves. 

Control. — Spray with self-boiled lime-sulfur, S-8-50, adding 
2 pounds of arsenate of lead. Spray first about time shucks are 
shedding from young fruit; second, two to three weeks later, and 
third, about one month before the fruit ripens. Omit the arsenate 
of lead from the third spraying. On early maturing varieties two 
applications may be sufficient. Spraying within a month of 
picking time is apt to leave the fruit spotted. It is especially im- 
portant that sprayings be made before a continued storm period. 
Destroy rotten peaches. The rotten ones on the ground are as 
great a menace (especially if plowed under) aa those on the tree, 
as the fungus winters readily on the fallen mummies. Brown-rot 
also occurs on cherries, plums, apricots, and sometimes on apples 
and pears. 
Leap-curl (Exoascus deformans). — Causes the leaves to crimp and 
curl and often to turn bright red. Also causes shoots to swell 
and become distorted. 

Control. — In an infected orchard more than 90 per cent of 



276 PLANT DISEASES 

the curl can be controlled the first year. The second year control 
should be complete. The secret of control of leaf-curl lies largely 
in the thoroughness with which the work is done. A number of 
spray substances may be used. A single thorough application 
before the buds swell in the spring is sufficient. Every bud 
must be covered and from all sides. Lime-Sulfur as applied for 
San Jos6 scale will control curl. Commercial lime-sulfur, 1-20; 
bordeaux mixture, 4-4-50; or a simple solution of blue vitriol 
in water, 2-50, are all specifics. 

Leap-rust. — See under Plum (p. 279). 

Little-peach. — A disease that in its early stages resembles 
yellows. It differs from yellows in producing small fruit 
that matures later than normally. Fruit does not have the small 
red spots characteristic of yellows, nor are there slender sickly 
branches. The cause of this disease is unknown. Apparently 
spreads more rapidly than yellows and commonly destroys the 
affected tree sooner. Occurs in the northern states. 
PreverUive. — As for Yellows (see next page). 

Powdery mildew {SphcBroOieca pannosa). — A whitish powdery 
growth on the young shoots and leaves, and whitish spots on the 
fruit. 

Control. — Self-boiled lime-sulfur as for Rot. 

RooT-GALL, Root-Knot, Crown-gall, Hairy-root (Baderium 
tumefaciens), — Hairy roots or tumerous outgrowths on the roots 
and root crowns ; sometimes occurs on trunks and limbs. Pri- 
marily a nursery disease. Does not seem to be a serious disease 
on peaches in the North, but is reported as very serious in the 
South. Attacks a wide range of orchard plants, including apple, 
pear, brambles, grape, etc. 

Control. — Reject all stock showing symptoms. 

Rosette. — An obscure southern disease of peach trees and some 
kinds of plums, characterized by bunchy growths containing very 
many rolled and yellowish leaves which fall prematurely. The 
tree dies the first or second year. There is no premature fruit as 
in yellows. It is often accompanied by gummosis of the roots. 
The disease is communicable by budding, and it may enter through 
the roots. All affected trees should be exterminated. Known 
in South Carolina, Georgia, Kansas, and Arkansas. 



PEACH AND PEAR DISEASES 277 

Scab or Black-spot {Cladoaparium carpaphilum). — Black scab- 
like spots on the fruit, often causing it to crack deeply. 

Control. — Self-boiled lime-sulfur, as applied for Brown-rot. 

Yellows. — A fatal disease of peaches ; also attacks nectarine, 
almond, apricot, and Japanese plum. Cause unknown. The 
first symptom in bearing trees is usually the premature ripening 
of the fruit. This fruit contains definite small red spots, which 
extend towards the pit. The second stage is usually the appear- 
ance of " tips," or short, late, second growths upon the ends of 
healthy twigs, and which are marked by small, horizontal, usually 
yellowish leaves. The next stage is indicated by very slender 
shoots, which branch the first year and which start in tufts from the 
old limbs, bearing narrow and small yellowish leaves. Later the 
entire foliage becomes smaller and yellow. In three to six years the 
tree dies. The disease spreads from tree to tree. It attacks 
trees of any age. Known at present only in regions east of the 
Mississippi. Peculiar to America, so far as known. 

Preventwe. — Pull up and burn all trees as soon as the disease 
appears. Trees may be reset in the places from which the 
" yellows " trees were taken. Laws aiming to suppress the disease 
have been enacted in most peach-growing states, and the enforce- 
ment of them will keep the disease well under control. 
Pear. Bught {Bacillus amylovorus). — A very serious bacterial 
disease. Bacteria winter just at the edge of the dead wood in 
trees blighted the previous year. With the advent of warm spring 
dajrs they ooze through the bark in sticky drops and are carried by 
bees and fiies to blossoms. The blossoms blight, and the spur may 
also blight. Plant-lice carry bacteria from blighted blossoms to 
spurs and shoots. If a spur becomes blighted, the bacteria may 
spread in the bark of the limb, causing a depression or canker. 
This may girdle the limb and cause its death. The leaves turn 
black and stick tenaciously, even through the winter. Succulent 
water sprouts are very apt to blight and cause large cankers. 
Generally distributed in North America, and known only in 
America. Attacks apple, quince, mountain ash, hawthorn ; the 
Spitzenburgh is specially liable to attack. 

Control. — Clean up hedgerows of hawthorn, old blighted 
pear trees and apple trees. In early spring cut out the blight 



278 PLANT DISEASES 

of the previous year and disinfect the stubs with corrosive sub- 
limate, 1-1000. Clean out cankers with a sharp knife, and dis- 
infect. Paint over with lead paint. At blossoming time make 
a systematic daily inspection for blossom blight, and break it out. 
Watch for blight in the shoots. When it appears get a long- 
handled pruning-hook, fasten a sponge near the knife, and saturate 
it with corrosive sublimate solution, 1-1000. Clip out the blighted 
twigs, cutting five or six inches below the blight, and sop the 
pruned stub with the sponge. During a blight epidemic, drop all 
other work. The work must be done systematically and per- 
sistently, or not at all. One week's work may save the pear crop 
and the pear trees. 
Lbaf^blight and Cracking of fruit (Fabrea maculata), — Attacks 
nursery stock of pears and quinces, beginning as small circular 
brown spots on the leaves. These spread, and if numerous cause 
the leaf to fall. The same disease produces a black spot or pit on 
the fruit. 

Control. — In nurseries spray with bordeaux mixture, 4-4-50. 
In the orchard spray as for pear scab, with perhaps one additional 
application. 
Leaf-spot (Mycosphcerella sentina), — Small lecticular spots with white 
centers on leaves. Spots become so numerous as to cause defoli- 
ation. The fungus is known only on leaves, and it winters on them. 

Control. — Bum fallen leaves. Spray as for Scab. 
Scab ( Venturis pyrina). — Greenish brown or black spots on leaves 
and fruit, arresting growth and often causing fruit to crack. 
Severe on Flemish Beauty. Often attacks pedicles of fruits and 
causes them to drop, and may even cause defoliation. Is different 
from apple scab, but behaves much like it. Differs especially in 
the fact that the fungus winters on the twigs as well as on fallen 
leaves. 

Control. — Owing to the nearness of the fungus (on the twigs) 
and the slowness with which the pear-leaf unfolds, two applications 
of spray before the blossoms open are sometimes necessary, and one 
immediately after they fall. Use lime-sulfur, 1-50, or bordeaux, 
3-3-50. 

Remarks in regard to apple scab (on page 264) are equally 
important here. 



PLUM AND POTATO DISEASES 279 

Rust {Gymnosporangium globasum), — Having the same habits and 
appearance as apple rust. 
Control. — As for Scab. 
Plttm. Black-knot {Plowrightia morboaa). — ^A black tumerous swell- 
ing from one to several inches in length, appearing on the limbs 
and twigs of American plums and sour cherries. Point of attack 
is usually under a bud or in crotches. Confined to America. 
A very serious disease. In some regions it has destroyed the 
plum industry. It was once supposed to be caused by an 
insect. 

Control. — Bum all affected parts in the fall. Cut several 
inches below the swelling. A badly infected tree should be cut 
down at once, as there is no hope of saving it. Many states have 
a law requiring the destruction of affected trees. 

Brown-rot. — See under Peach (p. 275). 

Shot-hous fungus. — See Leap-spot of Cherrt (p. 268). 

Leaf-rust (Puccinia prunvspinoaas). — Small circular powdery 
spots of yellowish brown on the under surface of the leaves, and 
reddish spots on the upper surface directly above them. 

Control. — Early spraying with bordeaux, 3-3-50, or self-boiled 
lime-sulfur, 8-8-50. 

Powdery mildew. — See under Peach (p. 276). 
Potato. Early bught {Altemaria aolani) . — A blight of foliage begin- 
ning as an even circular spot and coming early in the season, 
usually in July. Progresses slowly. This disease does not attack 
the tubers. . 

Control. — Bordeaux mixture at intervals of ten days, beginning 
when plants are 6-8 in. high. 

Lato blight andPoTATO-ROT (Phytophihorainfestans). — The fungus 
winters in the tuber, which shows a faint pinkish tinge and a dry 
rot. Diseased tubers are planted, the fungus fruits on the cut 
surface and its swarm spores pass through the soil-water to the 
leaves which touch or are buried in the soil. An extensive ir- 
regular blighted area covers the leaf, the under surface of which 
may have a mildewy appearance. The disease spreads very 
rapidly. Later spores are washed down to the tubers and infect 
them. Appears late in the season, usually not much before 
August 1. 



280 PLANT DISEASES 

Control. — Can be controlled successfully by the use of bor- 
deaux mixture, 5-5-50. It is always profitable to spray at least 
three times, and in a wet season six or more applications should 
be made. As the vines increase in size, greater quantities of spray 
and more nozzles must be used. Use from 40 to 100 gallons of 
spray mixture per acre. 
Dry-Rot and Wilt {Fusarium oxysporum). — A dry rot of the tuber 
in storage and wilt of plants in the field. Can be detected in the 
seed tuber before there is any external appearance by examin- 
ing a section near the stem end. A black ring or chain of dots 
near the surface is indicative of the rot. Infection frequently 
takes place through wounds. 

Control, — Reject all diseased tubers for seed. Practice a 
rotation in which potatoes are not grown on the soil for at least 
two years. 
Scab (Oospora scabies). — A scabby and pitted roughness of potato 
tubers. Lime, ashes or manure added to the soil increases the 
amount of scab by favoring the growth of the fungus. It has 
become one of the serious diseases of the potato. 

Control. — Do not plant on land which has grown scabby 
potatoes. Plant clean seed. If only scabby seed is at hand, soak 
the uncut tubers in a solution of formalin, 1 pint in 30 gallons 
of water, for two hours. Drain, cut, and plant in clean soil. Use 
the formalin solution over and over. The same fungus also 
attacks beets. 
Pumpkin. — See under Mdskmelon (p. 274). 

Quince. Black-rot {Sphceropsis malorum). — A trouble which usually 

appears at the blossom end of young quince fruits, causing them 

to become black and hard, with a dry rot of the tissue. The same 

disease occurs on apples, which see. 

Blight. — See under Pear Blight (p. 277). 

I^AF- AND Fruit-spot. — See Pear-Leap Blight, which is the same 

disease. 
Rust. — The organism causing this disease is of the same habit and 
nature as that causing apple rust. 

Control, — As for Apple Rust (p. 264). 
Radish. White rust or Mildew { Albugo caruiidus). — A whitish 
powdery growth on the leaves and petioles, often causing distortion. 



ROSE — SPINACH 281 

Control. — Steam-sterilize the soil before planting. 
Club-root. — See under Cabbage (p. 266). 
Raspbeny. Anthracnose {Gloeosporium venetum), — Circular or 
elliptical, gray scab-like spots on the canes. 

Control. — Avoid taking young plants from diseased plantations. 
Remove all diseased canes as soon as the fruit is picked. Practice 
frequent rotation. 
Crown-gall or RooT-OALL (Bacterium tumejaciens). — Tumerous 
outgrowths on the roots, especially on red varieties. It is con- 
tagious and destructive. 

Control. — Never set plants which have galls on the roots. 
Avoid setting on infested land. See under Peach (p. 276). 
Red or Orange rust (Gymnoconia interstitialis). — A dense red 
powdery growth on the under side of the leaves of black varieties 
and of blackberries. The fungus hibernates in the roots. 
Control. — Dig up and destroy infected plants. 
Rice. Blast, Blight or Rotten-neck (Pirictdaria oryza). — An ex- 
tensive paling and drying of leaf and stem, and a partial failure 
of the heads to fill. 

Control. — The selection of early maturing varieties is advis- 
able. Burn stubble and trash left in the fields. 
Rose. Black leaf-spot (Actinonema rosas). — Attacks the full-grown 
leaves, first appearing as small black spots, but later covering 
nearly or quite the whole surface with blotches. The spots have 
frayed edges. 

Control. — Spray with ammoniacal copper carbonate, beginning 
with the first appearance of the spots and continuing at intervals 
of one week until under subjection. 
Mildew (Sphcerotheca pannosa), — A white powdery mildew on the 
new growth. 

Control. — For greenhouse roses keep the steam pipes painted 
with a paste made of equal parts lime and sulfur mixed with 
water. Out-of-door roses should be dusted with sulfur flour 
or sprayed with potassium sulfid, 1 oimce to 3 gallons of 
water. 
Spinach. — There are numerous fungous diseases of this crop, but a 
practical method of control has not been developed. The best 
that can be done is to rotate crops. 



282 PLANT DISEASES 

Strawbeny. Leaihspot or ubaf-bliqht (Mycoaphmrella fragaruE), — 
Small purple or red spots appearing on the leaves. They increase 
in size and make the leaf appear blotched. The fungus passes 
the winter in the old diseased leaves that fall to the ground. 

Control, — In setting new plantations remove all diseased 
leaves from the plants before they are taken to the field. Soon 
after growth begins, spray the plants with bordeaux mixture, 
4-4-50. Make three or four additional sprayings during the 
season. The following spring spray just before blossoming, and 
again in ten to fourteen days. If the bed is to be fruited again, 
mow the plants and bum over the bed as soon as the crop is off. 
Mildew (Sp?UBrotheca castagnei). — A whitish cobweb-like mildew 
on fruit and leaves, causing the latter to curl. 

Control, — Spraying as for leaf-spot ; dusting with sulfur flour. 
Sweet-potato. Black-rot (Ceratocystis fimbriata), — Causing black 
shank of the plant and a black rot of the tuber. The spots on 
the tuber are greenish black, from a quarter of an inch to four 
inches in diameter and extending for some distance into the 
tissue. 

Control, — Never use affected potatoes from which to grow 
sprouts. Steam-sterilize the soil in the hotbed. Practice rotation. 
Rots. — The sweet-potato is susceptible to a large number of rots, 
soft, dry, hard, white, etc. In practically all cases the organism 
producing the disease is an inhabitant of the soil. The best 
method of preventing these diseases is to use perfectly sound 
potatoes for sprouts and plant on soil which has not grown sweets 
potatoes for several years. 
Tobacco. RooT-ROT (Thielavia basicola). — A rot of the main root 
and dwarfs the plants. Occurs both in seed-bed and field. 

Control. — Steam-sterilize the seed-bed by the inverted pan 
method. (See discussion on p. 253.) Rotate crops. Avoid lim- 
ing, and add acid fertilizers. 
Wilt (Bacterium solanacearum), — A wilt of the plants caused by 
bacteria. 

Control, — Very difficult to control, as the organism lives in the 
soil for years. Never plant on land known to be diseased. Do 
not cultivate related plants, as potato, tomato, egg plant, or pepper, 
on the same soil. Transplant early, and avoid breaking the 



TOM A TO — VIOLET 283 

roots. Where tobacco is grown under shade (as is now a common 
practice) the soil should be steam-sterilized. 
Tomato. Bacterial bught. — See Tobacco Wilt. 
BuQHT OR Scab (Cladasporium jvUmm). — Soft brown irregular 
spots on the under surface of the leaves. The upper siuface be- 
comes spotted with yellow. The leaves finally wither and die. 
Most serious in the greenhouse. 

Control. — In mild cases the disease can be prevented by pick- 
ing off the affected leaves. In severe cases spray with bordeaux 
mixture, 4-4-50, at intervals of ten days. 
Downy mildew (Phytophihora infestans). — The same fungus that 

causes Potato-bliqht, which see (p. 279). 
End-rot. — Not well understood, and no method of control is known. 
Leaf-spot (Septoria lycopersica). — A serious disease attacking leaves 
and stems. At first small spots appear, which spread until the whole 
leaf is consumed. , In severe cases the fruit may also be attacked. 
Control. — Spray with bordeaux mixture, 4-4-50, making the 
first application two weeks after the plants are set out, and repeating 
every two weeks throughout the growing season. 
CEdema. — A diseased condition of forced tomatoes characterized 
by rolled or curled leaves, distended veins, and by swollen 
areas having a frosty appearance on leaf veins, petioles and stem. 
This condition may be brought about by insufficient light, too 
much water in soil, excessive fertilization, high soil temperature. 
Prevention. — Avoid conditions favorable for the disease. Pro- 
vide good ventilation in forcing-house ; in field, cultivate deep 
and avoid topping plants. (See p. 260.) 
Violet. Leaf-spots and leaf-bughts. — A number of different or- 
ganisms are responsible. Usually not very destructive. 

Control. — Destroy affected plants; use fresh soil for new 
plantings; spray the foliage in the summer and fall with bor- 
deaux mixture, 4-4-50. 
RooT-ROT (Thiekuna basicola). — The same as the root-rot of 
tobacco. The plants make poor growth, owing to the fungus on 
the roots. 

Control. — Start in steam-sterilized soil, and transfer to sterilized 
beds. 
Wheat-Smut. — See imder Smxtt of cereals (p. 260). 



284 



PLANT DISEASES 



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SEED AND SOIL TREATMENTS 



285 




O A4 A4 K O4 QQ H 



CHAPTER XVII 

iNSBcnaDAL Matebials and Practicbb 
By C. R. Crosby 

The results secured from the use of an insecticide or fungicide depend 
upon tlie operator. TimelinesSf thoroughness, and persistence are the 
watchwords of success. It is easier to keep an enemy away than to 
drive him away. The worst foes are often the smallest ones ; and the 
injury is often done before they are detected. Be ready; begin early. 

General Practices 

Cleanliness. — Much can be done to check the ravages of insects by de- 
stroying their breeding-places and hiding-places. Weeds, rub- 
bish, and refuse should be eliminated. 

Handrpicking is often still the best means of destroying insects, despite 
aU the perfection of machinery and of materials. This is partic- 
ularly true about the home grounds and in the garden. The cul- 
tivator should not scorn this method. 

Promoting grovih, — Any course that tends to promote vigor will 
be helpful in enabling plants to withstand the attacks of plants 
lice and other insects. 

Burning, — Larvs which live or feed in webs, like the tent-caterpillar 
and fall web-worm, may be burned with a torch. The lamp or 
torch used in campaign parades finds its most efficient use here. 

Banding. — To prevent the ascent of canker-worm moths and gypsy- 
moth caterpillars, various forms of sticky bands are in use. For 
this purpose there is no better substance than Tree Tanglefoot. 
It may be applied directly to the tree-trunk, but when so used 
leaves an unsightly mark and requires more material than when 
the following method is used : — 
First place a strip of cotton batting three inches mde around 
286 



FUMIGATION 287 

the trunk ; cover this with a strip of tarred paper five inches wide ; 
draw the paper tight and fasten at the lap only with three or four 
tacks. Spread the tanglefoot on the upper two-thirds of the paper, 
and comb it from time to time to keep the surface sticky. 

Burlap bands are made by tying or tacking a strip of burlap 
around the trunk and letting the edges hang down. The larva 
will hide under the loose edge, where they may be killed. 

Banding is now little used for the codlin-moth, since spraying 
with poison has been foimd so much more efifective. 
Fvmigation, — Fumigating or " smoking " or " smudging " in green- 
houses is performed by the slow burning of tobacco-stems. Best 
results are obtained when a sheet iron vessel made for the purpose 
is used, having holes in the bottom to supply draft. A quart 
of live coals is placed in the bottom of the vessel, and about a pailful 
of tobacco-stems is laid on them. The stems should not blaze, 
but burn with a slow smudge. If they are slightly damp, better 
results are obtained. Some plants are injured by a very heavy 
smoke, and in order to avoid this injury, and also to more effec- 
tually destroy the insects, it is better to smoke rather lightly and 
often. It is always well to smoke on two consecutive days, for the 
insects which persist through the first treatment, being weak, will 
be killed by the second. If the plants are wet, the smoke is more 
likely to scorch them. The smudge often injures flowers, as those 
of roses and chrysanthemums. In order to avoid this injury, the 
flowers should be covered with paper bags. Tobacco fumes can 
be conveniently generated by burning strips of prepared nico- 
tine paper, or by vaporizing a concentrated aqueous solution of 
nicotine in pans over alcohol or special kerosene lamps. 

Fumigation with hydrocyanic acid gas. — Hydrocyanic acid gas 
is a deadly poison, and the greatest care is required in its use. Al- 
ways use 98 to 100 per cent pure potassium cyanide and a good 
grade of commercial sulfuric acid. The chemicals are always com- 
bined in the following proportion : Potassium cyanide, 1 ounce ; 
sulfuric acid, 1 fluid ounce ; water, 3 fluid ounces. Always use an 
earthen dish, ponr in the water firsts and add the sulfuric acid to 
it. Put the required amount of cyanide in a thin paper bag, and 
when all is ready, drop it into the liquid and leave the room 
immediately. For mills and dwellings, use one ounce of cyanide 



288 INSECTICIDAL MATERIALS AND PRACTICES 

for every 100 cubic feet of space. Make the doors and windows 
as tight as possible by placing strips of paper over the cracks. 
Remove the silverware and food, and if brass and nickel work 
cannot be removed, cover with vaseline. Place the proper 
amount of the acid and water for every room in two-gallon jars. 
Use two or more in large rooms or halls. Weigh out the potas- 
sium cyanide in paper bags, and place them near the jars. 
When all is ready, drop the cyanide into the jars, beginning on 
the top floors, since the fumes are lighter than air. In large build- 
ings, it is frequently necessary to suspend the bags of cyanide over 
the jars by cords running through screw-eyes and all leading to a 
place near the door. By cutting all the cords at once, the 
cyanide will be lowered into the jars and the operator may escape 
without injury. Let the fumigation continue all night, locking 
all outside doors, and place danger signs on the house. 

Fumigation of greenhouses. — No general formula can be given 
for fumigating the dififerent kinds of plants grown in greenhouses, 
as the species and varieties differ greatly in their ability to with- 
stand the effects of the gas. Ferns and roses are very susceptible 
to injury, and fumigation, if attempted at all, should be per- 
formed with great caution. Fumigation will not kill insect eggs, 
and thus must be repeated when the new brood appears. Fumi- 
gate only on dark nights when there is no wind. Have the 
house as dry as possible, and the temperature as near 60^ as prac- 
ticable. 

Fumigation of dormant nursery stock. — Dormant nursery stock 
may be fumigated in a tight box or fumigating house made espe- 
cially for the purpose. Fumigating houses are built of two thick- 
nesses of matched boards with building paper between, and are 
provided with a tight-fitting door and ventilators. The stock 
should be reasonably dry to avoid injury, and should be piled 
loosely in the house to permit a free circulation of the gas. Use 
one ounce of potassium cyanide for each 100 cubic feet of space, 
and let the fumigation continue forty minutes to one hour. 

Fumigation of citrus trees. — In this case the tree is covered 
with an octagonal sheet tent made of 6} ounce special drill or 8 
ounce special army duck, and the gas is generated in the ordinary 
way beneath it. The tent is so marked that when in position it is 



FUMIGATION 



289 



an easy matter to determine the distance over the tent and the cir- 
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Dosage chart for fumigating citrus trees (Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. Agric.) 

proper dosage may be obtained from the above chart, which 
has been prepared for a strength of one oimce of cyanide for 
each 100 cubic feet of space. 



290 INSECTICIDAL MATERIALS AND PRACTICES 

The top line of numbers, beginning at 16 and continuing to 78, 
represents the distance in feet around the bottom of the tent. The 
outer vertical columns of larger numbers running from 10 to 59 rep- 
resent the distance in feet over the top of the tent. The number of 
ounces of cyanide to use for a tree of known dimensions is found 
in that square where the vertical colunm headed by the distance 
around the tree intersects the horizontal line of figures correspond- 
ing to the distance over. 
Using fungcms diseases as insecticides, — Fungous diseases have been 
successfully employed against the citrus white-fly in Florida. 
There are seven species of fungus which attack the white-fly, and 
nearly all are more or less valuable. The object is to introduce 
some form of the fungus into orchards and on trees where it is 
absent. This, may be accomplished by spraying the under side 
of the leaves with a mixture of fungus spores in water. The 
mixture may be made by placing two or three fungus-bearing 
leaves in a quart of water, and stirring occasionally for fifteen 
minutes. Strain through cheesecloth, and apply to those parts of 
the tree most badly infested with the white-fly larvae. 

The fungus may be introduced by pinning a dozen or so fimgus- 
bearing leaves to the under side of the leaves of the tree infested 
with white-fly. The fungus-covered surface should face downward. 



Insecticidal Substances 

Arsenic, — Known to chemists as arsenious acid, or white oxide of 
arsenic. It is considered an unsafe insecticide, as its color allows 
it to be mistaken for other substances ; but in its various com- 
pounds it forms our best insecticides. From one to two grains, 
or less, usually prove fatal to an adult; 30 grains will usually 
kill a horse, 10 grains a cow ; and 1 grain, or less, is usually 
fatal to a dog. In case of poisoning, while awaiting the arrival 
of a physician, give emetics, and, after free vomiting, give milk 
and eggs. Sugar and magnesia in milk is useful. 

A cheap and effective insecticide may be prepared from white 
arsenic by the following methods : — 

For use with bordeaux mixture only. Sal soda, 2 poimds; water, 
1 gallon; arsenic^ 1 poimd. Mix the white arsenic into a paste, and 



ARSENIC AL8 291 

then add the sal soda and water, and boil until dissolved. Add 
water to replace any that has boiled away, so that one gallon of 
stock solution is the result. Use one quart of this stock solution 
to 50 gallons of bordeaux mixture for fruit-trees. Make sure 
there is enough lime in the bordeaux mixture to prevent the cauch 
tic action of the arsenic. 

For use without bordeaux mixture. Sal soda, 1 poimd ; water, 1 
gallon ; white arsenic, 1 poimd ; quicklime, 2 pounds. Dissolve 
the white arsenic with the water and sal soda as above, and use 
this solution while hot to slake the 2 pounds of lime. Add 
enough water to make 2 gallons. Use 2 quarts of this stock 
solution in 50 gallons of water. 
Arsenicala. — A term popularly used for compoimds of arsenic. The 
leading arsenicals used in destroying insects are arsenate of 
lead, pans green, and london purple. 

Absbnate oFvLead. — This can be applied in a stronger mixture than 
other arsenical poiE^ns, without injuring the foliage. It is, there- 
fore, much used agamst beetles and other insects that are hard to 
poison. It comes in the form of a paste or powder, and should be 
mixed thoroughly with a small amount of water before placing in 
the sprayer, else the nozzles will clog. Arsenate of lead may be 
used with either bordeaux mixture or lime-sulfiu* without lessen- 
ing the value of either. It is used in strengths var3ring from 4 to 10 
poimds per 100 gallons, depending on the kind of insect to be killed. 

London Purple. — An arsenite of lime, obtained as a by-product 
in the manufacture of aniline dyes. The composition is variable. 
The amoimt of arsenic varies from 30 to 50 per cent. The two 
following analyses show its composition : (1) Arsenic, 43.65 per 
cent; rose aniline, 12.46; lime, 12.82; insoluble residue, 14.57; 
iron oxide, 1.16; and water, 2.27. (2) Arsenic, 55.35 per €ent; 
lime, 26.23; sulfuric acid, 0.22; carbonic acid, 0.27; moisture, 
5.29. It is a finer powder than paris green, and therefore remains 
longer in suspension in water. It is used in the same manner as 
paris green, but is sometimes foimd to be more caustic on foliage. 
This injury is due to the presence of much soluble arsenic; but it 
can be averted by the use of lime, as advised under pans green. 

Paris Green. — An aceto-arsenite of copper. When pure it contains 
about 58 per cent of arsenic. By the provisions of the federal 



292 INBECJICIDAL MATERIALS AND PRACTICES 

insecticide act of 1910, paris green must contain at least 50 per 
cent of arsenious oxide, and must not contain arsenic in water- 
soluble form equivalent to more than 31 per cent of arsenious 
oxide. It is applied in either a wet or dry condition ; but in any 
case, it must be much diluted. For making a dry mixture, plaster, 
flour, air-slaked lime, road dust, or sifted wood ashes may be 
used. The strength of the mixture depends upon the plants and 
insects to which it is to be applied. The strongest dry mixture 
now recommended is one part of poison to fifty of the diluent ; 
but if the mixing is very thoroughly done, 1 part to 100, or even 
200, is sufficient. 

Paris green is practically insoluble in water. When mixed with 
water, the mixture must be kept in a constant state of a^tation, 
else the poison will settle, and the liquid from the bottom of the 
cask will be so strong as to do serious damage, while that from 
the top will be useless. For potatoes, apple-trees, and most 
species of shade trees, 1 pound of poison to 200 or 250 gallons of 
water is a good mixture. Paris green is very likely to bum the 
foliage of stone fruits, especially peaches and Japanese plums, 
and has been generally replaced by arsenate of lead for such 
purposes. In all cases, the liquid should be applied with force, in 
a very fine spray. At some seasons of the year foliage is more 
liable to injury than at others. The addition of a little lime (twice 
the bulk of lime as of paris green) to the mixture will tend to 
prevent any caustic injury upon the foliage. 

Spraying with paris green or london purple does not endanger 
stock pastured in the orchard. 
Combinations of Arsenicals and Fungicides. — Arsenicals may 
be used in connection with some fungicides, and both insects and 
plant diseases in this manner may be combated at the same time. 
The arsenicals may be added to bordeaux mixture in the same 
proportion as if the bordeaux were plain water. Arsenate of lead 
may be added to the lime-sulfur wash, but the addition of paris 
green or arsenite of lime is liable to cause burning. 

The addition of lime to paris green and london purple mixtures 
greatly lessens injury to foliage, and, as a consequence, they can 
be applied several times stronger than ordinarily used, if they 
are combined with the bordeaux mixture. The free lime in the 



VARIOUS INSECTICIDES 293 

mixture combines witli the soluble arsenic, which is the material 
that injures the foliage, and the combination is thus made quite 
harmless. 

Bait, Vegetable bait. — Spray a patch of clover or some other plant 
that the insects will eat with paris green or some other arsenical; 
mow it close to the ground, and while fresh place it in small piles 
around the infested plants. To avoid wilting of the bait, cover 
the heaps with a shingle or piece of board. 

Bran-arsenic mash. White arsenic, i pound, or paris green, 1 pound; 
bran, 50 pounds. Mix thoroughly and then add enough water to 
make a wet mash. 

Sugar or molasses may be added, but is unnecessary. Poisoned 
baits are used against cutworms and grasshoppers. See Griddle 
Mixture, below. 

Bisvlfid of carbon. — A thin liquid which volatilizes at a very low 
temperature, the vapor being very destructive to animal life. It is 
exceedingly inflammable, and should never be used near a lamp or 
fire. It is used for many root-insects. It is poured into a hole, 
which is immediately closed up, causing the fumes to permeate the 
soil in all directions. In loose soils it is very destructive to insects. 
Against weevils infesting stored grain and com, carbon bisulfid 
is effective at the rate of 5 pounds for each 1000 cubic feet, pro- 
vided the application is made while the temperature is not below 
65^ F. Make the bins as tight as possible, and after sprinkling 
the liquid over the grain, cover tightly with gas-proof tarpaulin. 
Let the fumigation continue for at least twenty-four hours. 

Carbolic acid and soap mixtures. — One ounce crude carbolic acid ; 
1 pound fish-oil soap; 1 gallon hot water. Mix thoroughly. This 
wash is used for borers. Apply with a cloth or soft broom. Use 
only on dormant wood. 

Carbolic acid emulsion. — Soap, 1 pound; water, 1 gallon; crude car- 
bolic acid (90 per cent strength), 1 pint. Dissolve the soap in 
hot water ; add the carbolic acid, and agitate into an emulsion. 
For use against root-maggots, dilute with 30 parts of water. 

Carbon bisulfid. — See Bisulfid of Carbon, above. 

Criddle mixture. — Mix 1 pound of paris green with 1 barrel of horse 
droppings, and add 1 pound of salt if the material is not fresh. 
For use agamst grasshoppers. 



294 INSECTICIDAL MATERIALS AND PRACTICES 

Distillate emulsion, — 5 gallons of 28** gravity untreated distillate ; 
5 gallons boiling water, U pounds whale-oil soap. Dissolve the 
soap in hot water, add the distillate, and thoroughly emulsify by 
means of a power pump until a yellowish, creamy emulsion is 
produced. For use on lemon dilute with 12 parts of water; 
on orange, with 15 parts. 

Formerly much used on citrus trees, but now generally replaced 
by fumigation. 

HeMxrre. — See White Hellebore, p. 300. 

Hot water, — Submerge affected plants or branches in water at a 
temperature of about 125**. For aphis. It will also kill rose-bugs 
at a temperature of 125**-135**. 

Kerosene emulsion, — Hard, soft, or whale-oil soap, 1 pound ; water, 
1 gallon ; kerosene, 2 gallons. Dissolve the soap in hot water ; 
remove from the fire and while still hot add the kerosene. Pump 
the liquid back into itself for five or ten minutes, or until it 
becomes a creamy mass. If properly made, the oil will not sep- 
arate out on cooling. 

For use on dormant trees, dilute with from 5 to 7 parts of water. 
For killing plant-lice on foliage dilute with from 10 to 15 parts of 
water. Crude oil emulsion is made in the same way by substitut- 
ing crude oil in place of kerosene. The strength of oil emulsions is 
frequently indicated by the percentage of oil in the diluted liquid: — 
For a 10 per cent emulsion add 17 gallons of water to 3 gallons 
stock emulsion. 

For a 15 per cent emulsion add \Q\ gallons of water to 3 gallons 
stock emulsion. 

For a 20 per cent emulsion add 7 gallons of water to 3 gallons 
stock emulsion. 

For a 25 per cent emulsion add 5 gallons of water to 3 gallons 
stock emulsion. 

Lead, arsenate of. — See under Arsenicals, p. 291. 

Lime-sylfur. — A compound of lime and sulfur makes both a good insec-. 
ticide and a good fungicide (for an account from the fungicide point 
of view, see page 256). There are several forms of it, as (1) the 
ordinary dilute home-made ; (2) the concentrated home-made ; 
(3) the commercial concentrated brands ; (4) the so-called self- 
boiled preparation. The three first are solutions, and are modi- 



LIME-SULFUR 296 

fications of one preparation ; the self-boiled is mostly a mechanical 
mixture of the lime and sulfur. 

1. Home-made dilute solution of lime-«ulfur. — Quick lime, 20 
pounds; sulfur (flour or flowers), 15 pounds; water, 50 gallons. 
The lime and sulfur must be thoroughly boiled. An iron kettle 
is often convenient for the work. Proceed as follows: Place the 
lime in the kettle. Add hot water gradually in sufficient quan7 
tity to produce the most rapid slaking of the lime. When the 
lime begins to slake, add the sulfur and stir together. If con- 
venient, keep the mixture covered with burlap to save the heat. 
After slaking has ceased, add more water, and boil the mixture 
one hour. As the sulfur goes into solution, a rich orange-red or 
dark green color will appear. After boiling sufficiently, add water 
to the required amount and strain into the spray tank. The wash 
is most effective when applied warm, but may be applied cold. If 
one has access to a steam boiler, boiling with steam is more con- 
venient and satisfactory. Barrels may be used for holding the 
mixture, and the steam applied by running a pipe or rubber hose 
into the mixture. Proceed in the same manner as for boiling in 
the kettle until the lime is slaked, when the steam may be turned 
on. Continue boiling for forty-five minutes to an hour, or more 
if necessary to get the sulfur well dissolved. 

This mucture can be applied safely only when the trees are dor- 
mant, — late in the autunm after the leaves have fallen, or early 
in the spring before the buds swell. It is mainly an insecticide 
for San Jos6 scale, although it has considerable value as a fungi- 
cide for certain diseases, like the peach leaf-curl. As the San 
Jos6 scale is not killed unless the solution comes in contact with 
it, great care should be exercised to completely cover the branches. 

2. Home-made concentrated lime-sulfur wash. 

For making the concentrated mixture, the steps are the same 
as in making the usual boiled wash, but the following formula 
should be used : — 

Pure calcium oxide 36 lb. 

or 

Lump lime < 95 per ct. calcium oxide 38 lb. 

or 

.90 per ct. calcium oxide 40 lb. 

Sulfur 80 lb. 

Water 50 gal. 



296 



IN8ECT1CIDAL MATERIALS AND PRACTICES 



Slake the lime, make a thia paste, and add the sulfur. Flowers 
of sulfur or light or heavy sulfur flour may be used. The lime 
should be fresh lump lime, free from dirt and grit, containing 90 
per cent or more of calcium oxide and less than 5 per cent of 
magnesium oxide. Stir thoroughly during the hour of cooking, 
to break up the lumps of sulfur. Enough water should be added 
at the start so that the evaporation will not leave the quantity 
less than 50 gallons when the cooking is ended. If kettles are 
used, 10 to 15 gallons additional will be needed, while with 
steam none may be required. The kettles should be considerably 
larger than the amount of wash to be made, to prevent loss of 
material by boiling over. The clear liquid should be drawn off 
into tight containers if to be kept any considerable time ; and 
stored where there is no danger of temperatures much below 
freezing. For use, test the clear solution with the hydrometer, 
and dilute as indicated in the table : — 

Dilutions of Concentrated Lime-Sulfur Solutions for Spraying 
(N. Y. Exp. Sta.) 







With Each Gallon of 






WrTH Each Gallon or 


^? 


Ck)NCENTRATB, UbB — 


Vi 


CONCENTaATB, USB — 


8d 




ForSaa 


For Blister 


§2 




For San 


For Blister 


QA 


Jo86 scale 


Mite 


Q« 


Jo86 scale 


Mite 






OaU.uxUer 


OdU. water 






QaU. water 


QaU. water 


35 


1.3181 


9 


12 


25 


1.2083 


5} 


71 


34 


1.3063 


8} 


n\ 


24 


1.1983 


5i 


7 


33 


1.2946 


8 


11 


23 


1.1885 


4} 


6} 


32 


1.2831 


7| 


10* 


22 


1.1788 


4} 


61 


31 


1.2719 


7| 


10 


21 


1.1693 


4i 


5i 


30 


1.2608 


7 


9* 


20 


1.1600 


4 


5i 


29 


1.2500 


6| 


9 


19 


1.1507 


3i 


5 


28 


1.2393 


6i 


8} 


18 


1.1417 


3| 


4} 


27 


1.2288 


6 


81 


17 


1.1328 


3 


4i 


26 


1.2184 


5! 


7| 


16 


1.1240 


2| 


4 










15 


1.1153 


2* 


3i 



3. Commercial concentrated mixtures. 

The lime-sulfur may be purchased in the concentrated form and 
the trouble of making it avoided. The strength of the commercial 
product varies considerably, and in order to compute the proper 
dilution correctly the strength should be determined by means of 
a hydrometer. Having determined the strength of the concen- 



VARIOUS INSECTICIDES 297 

trated mixture, the proper dilution for use against the San Jos^ 
scale and blister mite may be obtained from the table on 
opposite page. 
4. Self-boiled. See page 257. 

London pvrjjk, — See under Arsenicals, p. 291. 

Miscihle oiU. — There are now on the market a number of prepara- 
tions of petroleum and other oils intended primarily for use 
against the San Jos^ scale. They mix readily with cold water, 
and are inunediately ready for use. While quickly prepared, 
easily applied, and generally efifective, they cost considerably 
more than lime-sulfur wash. They are, however, less corrosive 
to the pumps, and more agreeable to use. They are especially 
valuable to the man with only a few trees or shrubs who would not 
care to go to the trouble and expense to make up the lime-sulfur 
wash. They should be diluted with not more than 10 or 12 parts 
of water. Use only on dormant trees, and when the temperature 
is above freezing and the trees are not wet. 

Paraffine oil, — Essentially the same as Kerosene, which see (p. 294). 

Paris green. — See under Arsenicals, p. 291. 

Persian insect powder. — See Pyrethrum. 

Pyrelhrum. — A very fine and light brown powder, made from the 
flower-heads of species of pyrethrum. It is scarcely injurious to 
man. Three brands are on the market : — 
Persian Insect-powder, made from the heads of Pyrethrum roseum, 
a species also cultivated as an ornamental plant. The plant is 
native to the Caucasus region. 
Delmation Insect-powder, made from Pyrethrum cinerariafoUum. 
BuHACH, made in California from cultivated plants of Pyrethrum 
cineraruBfolium. 

When fresh and pure, all these brands appear to be equally val- 
uable, but the home-grown product is usually considered most 
reliable. Pyrethrum soon loses its value when exposed to the 
air. It is used in various ways : — 

1. In solution in water, 1 ounce to 3 gallons. Should be 
mixed up twenty-four hours before using. 

2. Dry, without dilution. In this form it is excellent for thrips 
and lice on roses and other bushes. Apply when the bush is wet. 
Useful for aphis on house plants. 



298 INSECTICIDAL MATERIALS AND PRACTICES 

3. Dry, diluted with flour or any light and fine powder. The 
poison may be used in the proportion of 1 part to from 6 to 30 of 
the diluent. 

4. In fumigation. It may be scattered directly upon coals, or 
made into small balls by wetting and molding with the hands and 
then set upon coals. This is a desirable way of dealing with 
mosquitoes and flies. 

5. In alcohol. (1) Put a part of pyrethrum (buhach) and 4 
parts alcohol, by weight, in any tight vessel. Shake occasionally, 
and after eight days filter. Apply with an atomizer. Excellent 
for greenhouse pests. For some plants it needs to be diluted a 
little. (2) Dissolve about 4 ounces of powder in 1 gill of alcohol, 
and add 12 gallons of water. 

6. Decoction. Whole flower-heads are treated to boiling 
water, and the liquid is covered to prevent evaporation. Boiling 
the liquid destroys its value. 

Good insect-powder can be made from Pyrethrum roseum, and 
probably also from P, cineraricrfolium, grown in the home 
garden. 
Resin and fishroil compound. — Ten pounds of resin ; IJ pounds of 
fish-oil, 3 pounds of caustic soda, and enough water to make 50 
gallons. 

Break the resin into small lumps, and place it together with the 
caustic soda in the boiler, with three or four inches of water. 
Stir till the resin is dissolved ; then add about one-fourth of the 
required water and boil one-half hour. Place in the spray tank 
and add the rest of the water. 

Used in California against the cottony cushion scale and the 
brown apricot scale. 
Soaps J whale-oil f Or fish-oil soap, — Soaps are effective insecticides for 
plant-lice. Dissolve in hot water and dilute so as to obtain 1 
pound of soap for every 5 or 7 gallons of water. Commercial 
whale-oil or fish-oil soaps frequently injure tender foliage be- 
cause of the free alkali which they contain. 

An excellent fish-oil soap free from uncombined alkali may be 
easily prepared at home, as follows : 

Six pounds of caustic soda ; li gallons of water ; 22 pounds 
of fish oil. 



VARIOUS INSECTICIDES 299 

Completely dissolve the caustic soda in the water, and then add 
the fish-oil very gradually, under constant and vigorous stirring. 
The combination occurs readily at ordinary summer temperatures 
and boiling is unnecessary. Stir briskly for about twenty minutes 
after the last of the oil has been added. (New York Experiment 
Station.) 

Soap and tobacco. — Dissolve 8 pounds of the best soft soap in 12 
gallons of rain-water, and when cold add 1 gallon of strong 
tobacco liquor. For plant-lice. 

Soda and aloes. — Dissolve 2 pounds of washing-soda and 1 ounce of 
bitter Barbadoes aloes, and when cold add one gallon of water. 
Dip the plants into the solution, and lay them on their sides 
for a short time, and the insects will drop off. Syringe the plants 
with clean, tepid water, and return to the house. For plant-lice. 

Stdftir. — Fumes of sulfur are destructive to insects, but should be 
carefully used, or plants will be injured. The sulfur should be 
evaporated over an oil stove, until the room is filled with the 
vapor. The sulfur should never be burned, as burning sulfur 
kills plants. For greenhouse use. See p. 258. 

Sidfyr and water. — To 3 gallons of weak soap suds add 1 pound of 
flowers of sulfur and stir thoroughly. Apply as a ppray. For 
red spider and mites. 

Tanglefoot is a sticky conunercial substance much used for banding 
trees. See under Banding, p. 286. 

Tar is sometimes used to prevent the female and wingless canker- 
worm from ascending trees. The tar should be placed on cotton, 
or some material which will prevent it from coming in contact 
with the bark, and a band of the preparation is then placed 
around the trunk. Care must be taken to see that the tar does 
not injure the tree. 

Tarred paper may be rolled loosely about trees to keep away 
mice, but it should be removed before warm weather. It is 
sometimes recommended as a preventive of the attacks of borers, 
but it very often injures trees, and should be used, if at all, 
with great caution. 

Tobacco. — 1. Stems, placed on the walks and under the benches of 
greenhouses, for plant-lice. Renew it every month. 
2. Tobacco-water, used with whale-oil soap. 



300 IN8ECTICIDAL MATERIALS AND PRACTICES 

3. Dust and snuff. Snufif may be blown lightly on plants, as 
house-plants, for lice. 

4. Fumes. Bum dampened tobac(XHstems. See Fumigation, 
p. 287. 

5. Nicotyl. Steep tobacco-stems in water, and evaporate the 
water. 

6. Tea, or common decoction. Boil the stems or dust thoroughly, 
and strain. Then add cold water until the decoction contains 
2 gallons of liquid to 1 pound of tobacco. 

There are various concentrated conmiercial preparations of 
tobacco which have recently been giving good results against plant- 
lice. 

WhUe arsenic, — See Arsenicals, p. 291. 

While hellebore, — A light btown powder made from the roots of the 
white hellebore plant ( VeraJtrum album) ^ one of the lily family. 
It is applied both dry and in water. In the dry state, it is usually 
applied without dilution, although the addition of a little flour 
will render it more adhesive. In water, 4 ounces of the poison is 
mixed with 2 or 3 gallons ; and an ounce of glue, or thin flour 
paste, is sometimes added to make it adhere. A decoction is 
made by using boiling water in the same proportions. Hellebore 
soon loses its strength, and a fresh article should alwajrs be de- 
manded. It is much less poisonous than the arsenicals, and 
should be used in place of them upon ripening fruit. Used for 
various leaf-eating insects, particularly for the currant-worm and 
rose-slug. 



CHAPTER XVIII 

Injurious Insects, with TiiEATBiENT 
By C. R. Crosby 

Insects are of two kinds as respects their manner of taking food, — 
the mandibulatc insects, or those that chew or bite their food, as larvs 
(" worms '') and most beetles ; and those that suck their food, as the 
plant-lice and true bugs. The former class is dispatched by poisons, 
the latter by caustic applications, as kerosene or soap preparations. 

General or Unclassified Pests 

Angleworm or Earthworm. — The common angleworm often destroys 
greenhouse plants by its burrowing. It is sometimes annoying 
in gardens also. 

Treatment. — Lime-water applied to the soil. 

Ants. — See Lawns, p. 322. 

Aphides, Plant-lice or Green-fly, and Bark-lice. — Minute insects of 
various kinds, feeding upon the tender parts of many plants, both 
indoors and out. 

Treatment. — Kerosene emulsion. Hot water (about 125**). 
Pyrethrum. Fish-oil soap. Tobacco-water or extracts. Alco- 
holic and water extracts of pyrethrum. Hughes' fir-tree oil. In 
the greenhouse, fumigation with tobacco or hydrocyanic acid gas. 
Knock them off with the hose. In window gardens, dry pyre- 
thrum or snuff. 

Bag-worm or Basket-worm (Thyridopteryx ephemerceformis). — Larva 
working in singular dependent bags, and feeding upon many 
kinds of trees, both evergreen and deciduous. In winter the bags, 
empty or containing eggs, are conspicuous, hanging from the 
branches. 

Treatment. — Hand-picking. Arsenicals. 
301 



302 INJURIOUS INSECTS, WITH TREATMENT 

Blister-beetle (Lytta, two or three species). — Soft-shelled, long-necked 
and slim black or gray spry beetles, feeding on the leaves of 
many trees and garden plants. 

TreatmerU. — Arsenicals. Jarring. 
Brown-tail moth (Euproctis chrysorrhoea). — This highly destruc- 
tive European insect was introduced near Boston a number of 
years ago, and is now rapidly spreading over New England. The 
snow-white moths, with a large tuft of brown hairs at the tip of 
the abdomen, appear in July and deposit eggs on the leaves in 
elongate masses covered with brown hairs from the body of the 
female. ' The caterpillars become only partly grown the first season, 
and hibernate in conspicuous nests, three or four inches long, at 
the tips of the branches. The black-bodied caterpillars, clothed 
with rather long, brownish, stinging hairs, complete their growth 
the next spring, feeding ravenously on the tender foliage and 
causing great damage in orchards, parks, and forests. 

Treatment. — Cut out and burn all winter nests before the buds 
start. In the spring spray with arsenate of lead, as recommended 
for the gipsy-moth. Prevent the ascent of caterpillars from 
other trees by banding the trunks with tanglefoot. Keep the 
bands fresh by combing the surface every few dajrs. 
Cutworm. — Various species of Agrotia and related genera. Soft 
brown or gray worms, of various kinds, feeding on the roots, 
crown, or even the tops of plants. 

Treatment. — Encircle the stem of the plant with heavy paper 
or tin, coating the top with tanglefoot. Arsenicals sprinkled 
upon small bunches of fresh grass or clover, which are scattered 
at short intervals about the garden towards evening. They will 
often collect under boards or blocks. Arsenicals mixed with 
shorts and placed about the plants. Make two or three deep holes 
by the side of the plant with a pointed stick ; the worms will 
fall in and cannot escape. Dig them out. Plow infested land in 
the fall to give birds a chance to find the worms. 
Cutworm, Climbing. — Several species. The worms climb grape vines 
and small trees of various kinds at night and eat out the buds. 

Preventive. — Band of cotton batting tied about the tree by lower 
edge, and the top rolled down like a boot-leg. Baits (see p. 293). 

Treatment, — Arsenicals. Hellebore. 



VARIOUS INSECTS 303 

Flea-beetle (PhyUotreta vittata; HaUica striolata, etc.) — Minute, dark- 
colored beetles, feeding upon many plants, as turnip, cabbage, 
radish, mustard, potato, strawberry, and stocks. They jump 
upon being disturbed. Closely related species attack various 
plants. Very destructive to plants which are just appearing 
above the surface. 

Treatment. — Bordeaux mixture applied liberally is the best 
remedy, — it drives them away. 

Four-striped Plant-bug (Pcecilocapsua lineatus). — A bright yellow, 
black-striped bug about one-third of an inch long, puncturing 
the young leaves and shoots of many plants. 

Treatment. — Jarring at any time of day into a dish of dilute 
kerosene. Kerosene emulsion (diluted five times) when the bugs 
are young, in their nymphal stage. Cut of! and burn the tips 
of the growing shoots in early spring to destroy the eggs. 

Galls. — See Nematode Root-gall, below. 

Gipsy-moth (Parthetria dispar). — Larva, nearly two inches long 
when mature, very hairy, nearly black, with a yellow stripe along 
back and sides. Devours many kinds of foliage. Confined to 
New England, where it was introduced from Europe about 
1869. It has become a serious pest. 

Treatment. — Spray with arsenate of lead as soon as the cater- 
pillars hatch in the spring. Band trees with tanglefoot. 

May-beetle or May-bug {Lachnostema fusca). — A large and familiar 

brown beetle, feeding upon the leaves of many kinds of trees. 

The common white grub is the larval state. It often does great 

damage to sod and to strawberries. Sometimes called June-bug. 

Remedies. — See under Corn, p 314. 

Mealy-bug {Pseudococcus citri and P. longifilis). — A white, scale-like 
insect, attacking greenhouse plants. 

Treatment. — Whale-oil soap. Carbolic acid and soap. Re- 
moving insects with brush on tender plants. House-plants may 
be washed in soapsuds. The best procedure in greenhouses is to 
knock them ofif with the hose. A small, hard stream of water 
upsets their domestic affairs. 

Nematode Root-gall (Heterodera radidcola). — A disease characterized 
by the knotting and contortion of the roots of the peach, orange, 
and many other plants. The knots are mostly rather soft swell- 



304 INJURIOUS INSECTS, WITH TREATMENT 

ings, and on the smaller roots. It is usually most destructive on 
the peach. It is caused by a nematode, or true worm (not an 
insect). Gulf States. Attacks greenhouse plants in the North. 
Preventive, — Plant non-infested plants in fresh soil ; bud 
into healthy stocks. Fertilize highly, particularly with potassic 
fertilizers. Set the trees 8 or 10 inches deep in high and dry 
soils. Infested small trees may be remedied, in part at least, by 
transplanting them into highly manured holes which have been 
prepared contiguous to them. Does not live in regions where 
the ground freezes deeply. If it is feared in greenhouses, see that 
the soil has been thoroughly frozen before it is used. White- 
wash the benches. 

Red-spider or mite {Tetranychus bimaculalus). — A small mite infest- 
ing many plants, both in the greenhouse and out of doors. 
It flourishes in dry atmospheres, and on the under sides of the 
leaves. In some forms it is reddish, but usually light^colored and 
two-spotted. Common. 

Remedies, — Persistent S3ninging with water will generally 
destroy them, if the spray is applied to the under surface. Use 
lots of force and little water to avoid drenching the beds. Sulfur 
and water. Dry sulfur. Sulphocide. 

San Jos6 Scale (Aspidiotua pemiciosus). — ^This scale is nearly cir- 
cular in outline and about the size of a pin-head. When abun- 
dant it forms a crust on the branches, and causes small red spots 
on the fruit. It multiplies with marvelous rapidity, there being 
three or four broods annually, and each mother scale may give 
birth to several hundred young. The young are bom alive, and 
breeding continues until late autumn, when all stages are killed 
by the cold weather, except the tiny, half-grown, black scales, many 
of which hibernate safely. 
Spray thoroughly in the fall after the leaves drop, or early in the 
spring before growth begins, with lime-sulfur wash, or miscible oil, 
1 gallon in 10 gallons of water. When badly infested, make two 
applications, one in the fall and another in the spring. In case 
of large, old trees, 25 per cent crude oil emulsion should be ap- 
plied just as the buds are swelling. 

Scale-insects. — Various species of small insects inhabiting the young 
growth of trees, and sometimes the fruit, in one stage character- 



VARIOUS INSECTS 305 

ized by a stationary scale-like appearance. Lime-sulfur and 
miscible oils are the best remedies. Species which migrate on to 
the young growth in spring can be readily dispatched at that 
time by kerosene emulsion. 

Snails. — These animals are often very troublesome in greenhouses, 
eating many plants voraciously. 

Preventives. — Trap them by placing pieces of turnip, cab- 
bage, or potatoes about the house. Scatter bits of camphor-gum 
about the plants. Strew a line of salt along the edges of the bed. 
Lime dusted about the plants will keep them away. 

White ants or termites. — These insects often infest orchard trees 
in the southern states, particularly in orchards which contain 
old stumps or rubbish. 

Remedy. — The soap-and-arsenites wash brushed over the trunk 
and branches of the tree. 

Wire- worm (various species). — Slim and brown larvae, feeding upon 
the roots of various plants. They are the larvae of the click- 
beetle, or snapping-beetle. 

Remedy. — Arsenicals sprinkled upon baits of fresh clover or 
other material which is placed about the field under blocks or 
boards. Sweetened corn-meal dough also makes a good bait. 
The best treatment is to plow infested land early in the fall. A 
system of short rotations of crops will lessen injury from wire- 
worms. 

Insects classified under the Plants they chiefly Affect 

Apple. Applb-bucculatrix {Bucctdatrix pomifoliella). — A minute 
yellow or green larva feeding upon the upper surface of the leaves, 
causing the lower surface to turn brown. The cocoons are white 
and slender, and are laid side by side upon the underside of twigs, 
where they are conspicuous in winter. 

Treatment. — Lime-sulfur while tree is dormant. Arsenicala 
for the larvae in summer. 
Apple-curculio (Anthonomua quadrigibbus). — A soft, white grub, 
about half an inch long, living in the fruit. 

Treatment. — Clean cultivation. Rake the small apples that 
drop early out into the sun where they will dry up. See Plum- 
cuRCuuo, p. 329. 



306 INJURIOUS INSECTS J WITH TREATMENT 

Apple Flea-beetle {Graptodera foliacea), — Brassy, green beetle, 
one-fifth inch or less long, feeding upon leaves. 

Treatment. — Arsenicals. Limensulfur or bordeaux mixture 
as a repellent. 
Apple-magoot or Railroad-worm {Rhagoletia pomonella). — Mag- 
got ; infests harvest and fall apples mostly, occasionally attacks 
winter fruit. It tunnels apples through and through, causing the 
fruit to fall to the earth. 

Treatment, — Pick up all windfalls every two or three days, 
and either feed them out or bury them deeply, thus killing the 
maggots. Pasture to hogs. 
Bud-moth (Tmetocera ocellana). — The small brown caterpillars 
with black heads devour the tender leaves and flowers of the 
opening buds in early spring. 

Treatment. — Make two applications of either 1 poimd paris 
green or 4 pounds arsenate of lead in 100 gallons of water ; the 
first when the leaf-tips appear, and the second just before the 
blossoms open. If necessary, spray again after the blossoms fall. 
In cases where lime-sulfur is used just before the buds open for 
scale or blister mite, arsenate of lead, 4 pounds to 100 gallons, may 
be added and will help- to control the bud-moth. 
Case-bearers. The pistol-case-bearer {Coleophora malivarella) 
and the cigar-case-bearer (C fletcherella). — The small cater- 
pillars live in pistol or cigar-shaped cases, about a quarter of an 
inch long, that they carry around with them. They appear in 
spring on the opening buds at the same time as the bud-moth, 
and may be controlled by the same means. 
Canker-worm. Spring and fall {PaleacrUa vernata and AUophila 
pometaria). — Larva ; a " measuring worm," an inch long, dark, 
and variously striped, feeding upon the leaves. 

Preventive. — Band the trees with tanglefoot to prevent 
the wingless females from climbing. 

Treatment. — Arsenicals, thoroughly applied in spray, are 
very efifective. See Banding, p. 286. 
CoDLiN-MOTH {Carpocapsa pomonella). — This is the pinkish 
caterpillar which causes a large proportion of wormy apples. 
The eggs are laid by a small moth on the leaves and the skin of the 
fruit. Most of the caterpillars enter the apple at the blossom end. 



APPLE INSECTS 307 

When the petals fall, the calyx is open, and this is the time to 
spray. The calyx soon closes, and keeps the poison inside ready 
for the young caterpillars' first meal. After the calyx has closed, 
it is too late to spray eflfectively. The caterpillars become full 
grown in July and August, leave the fruit, crawl down on the 
trunk, and there most of them spin cocoons under the loose bark. 
In most parts of the country there are two broods annually. 

Treatment, — When the majority of the petals have fallen, spray 
with 1 pound paris green or 4 pounds arsenate of lead in 100 
gallons of water, using a stifif spray to force it into the blossom 
end of the apple. Repeat the application three weeks later. 
For use of the poison with bordeaux or limensulfur, see Apple 
Scab, p. 264. 
Fall Wbb-worm (Hyphantria cunea), — Hairy larva, about an 
inch long, varying from gray to pale yellow or bluish black, feed- 
ing upon the leaves of many trees, in tents or webs. 

Treatment. — Destroy by burning the webs, or removing them 
and crushing the larvse. Spray with arsenicals. 
Leaf Blister Mite (Eriapkyea pyri), — The presence of this minute 
mite is indicated by small irregular brownish blisters on the leaves. 

Treatment. — Spray in late fall or early spring with lime-sulfur, 
or miscible oil. For dilution of commercial lime-sulfur, see p. 296. 
Flat-headed Borer (Chrysobothris femorata). — Larva about an 
inch long, flesh-colored, the second segment (" head ") greatly 
enlarged ; boring under the bark and sometimes into the wood. 
They are readily located in late summer or fall by the dead and 
sunken patches of bark. 

Preventive. — Soap and carbolic acid washes applied from 
May to July. Keep trees vigorous. 

Treatment. — Dig out the borers in early summer and fall. En- 
courage woodpeckers. 
Pear Twig-beetle. — See under Pear, p. 326. 
Plum-curculio {Conotrachelus nenuphar). — Beetle ; deforms the 
fruit by its characteristic feeding and egg-laying pimctures. The 
grubs develop in the fruit and cause it to fall. 

Treatment. — Spraying with arsenate of lead, as for codlin- 
moth, whenever it can be applied with a fungicide so as not to 
increase expense, will help to control the trouble. Thorough su- 



308 INJURIOUS INSECTS, WITH TREATMENT 

perficial tillage of the surface soil during July and August will kill 
many of the pupse, and is recommended. For treatment dn 
plum, see under Plum, p. 329. 

Railroad-worm. — See Apple-maggot, p. 306. 

RooT-LousE, "American Bught." — See under Woollt Aphis, 
page 310. 

RosE-CHAFER. — See under Grape, p. 322. At the first appearance 
of the beetles spray plants with arsenate of lead at the rate of 8 or 
10 pounds to 100 gallons of water, to which should be added 1 gal- 
lon of molasses (New York Experiment Station). 

Round-headed Borer {Saperda Candida). — A yellowish white 
larva, about one inch long when mature. It is said to remain in 
the larval state three years. 

Preventive. — Keep the beetles from laying eggs by spraying 
the trunks several times during the spring and summer with 
kerosene emulsion or by coating them with an alkaline wash 
made from soap, caustic potash, and carbolic acid. Tarred paper 
tree-protectors well tied at the top, or wire mosquito netting 
protectors closed at the top and encircling the trunk so loosely 
that the beetles cannot reach the bark, are effective in preventing 
egg-la3ring. Practice clean cultivation, and do not let water 
sprouts or other rank vegetation encircle the base of the tree. 

Remedial. — Dig out the borers whenever they can be located 
by discolored bark or by the sawdust thrown out of the burrow. 

San Jose Scale (Aspidiotus perniciosus). — Seep. 304. 

LEAF-CRUBiPLER {MifieoUi indigeneUo) . — Reddish brown caterpillars 
that live in slender, horn-shaped cases and feed on the tender 
leaves. They hibernate as partly grown larvse and attack the 
opening buds the following spring. They usually live in a nest 
of several leaves fastened together with silk. 

TreaJtmerd. — Gather the nests and bum them. Arsenicals 
when the buds open. 

Oystbr-shell Scale {Lepidosaphes idmi). — This is an elongate scale 
(sometimes called bark-louse), one-eighth inch in length, resembling 
an oyster-shell in shape and often incrusting the bark. It hiber- 
nates as minute white eggs under the old scales. The eggs hatch 
during the latter part of May or in June, the date depending on the 
season. After they hatch, the young may be seen as tiny whitish 



APPLE INSECTS 309 

lice crawling about on the bark. When these young appear, 
spray with kerosene emulsion, diluted with 6 parts of water, 
or whale-oil, or any good soap, 1 pound in 4 or 5 gallons of 
water. Where trees are regularly sprayed with limensulfur as 
for the San Jos6 scale or blister mite, the oyster-shell scale is 
usually controlled. 

Scurfy Scale (Chionaspis furfurua), — This whitish, pear^haped 
scale, about one-eighth inch in length, often incrusts the bark, 
giving it a scurfy appearance. It hibernates as purplish eggs 
imder the old scales. 

Treatment. — Spray as reconmiended for Oyster-bhell Scale 
(p. 308). 

Tent-caterpillars (Malacosama americana and M. disstria), — 
Larva, nearly two inches long, spotted and striped with yellow, 
white, and black ; feeding upon the leaves. They congregate in 
tents or in clusters on the bark at night and in cool weather, and 
forage out upon the branches during the day. 

Treatment. — Arsenicals, as for Codun-moth (p. 306). Bum 
out nests with torch, or cut them out and crush the larvae. Pick 
of! egg masses from twigs during winter and spring. 

Tussock-moth (Hemerocampa leucoatigma). — A handsome, red- 
headed, yellow and black tufted caterpillar, about an inch long, 
which devours the leaves and sometimes eats into the fruit. 

Remedial. — Collect the frothy egg-masses in fall and winter 
and band the trees to prevent a reinfestation by migrating cater- 
pillars. Spray with arsenicals as for codlin-moth, taking care to 
cover the under side of the leaves. 

TwiG-BORER (Schistoceros hamatus). — Beetle, three-eighths inch 
long, cylindrical and dark brown, boring into twigs of apple, pear, 
and other trees. The beetle enters just above a bud. 

Treatment. — Bum the twigs. The early stages are passed in 
dying wood such as pmnings, diseased canes, and in upturned 
roots. Burn such rubbish, and thus destroy their breeding- 
places. This is also a grape pest. 

TwiG-PRUNER (Elaphidion villosum). — Yellowish white larvae, 
about a half inch long, boring into young twigs, causing them to 
die and break off. 

Treatment. — Burn the twigs. 



310 INJURIOUS INSECTS, WITH TREATMENT 

Woolly Aphis (Schizoneura lanigera), — Small reddish-brown plant- 
lice covered with a conspicuous mass of white, waxy fibers, found 
on the branches, sprouts, trunks, and roots. 
Preventive. — Do not set infested trees. 

Treatment. — For the form above ground drench the infested 
parts with 15 per cent kerosene emulsion ; for the underground 
form remove the earth beneath the tree to a depth of 3 inches, 
and apply 10 per cent kerosene emulsion liberally, and replace 
the earth. In the case of nursery stock the emulsion may be applied 
in a shallow furrow close to the row. 
Apricot. Pear Twig-beetle. — See under Pear, p. 326. 
Pin-hole Borer. — See Bark-beetle under Peach, p. 325. 
Plum-curculio. — See under Plum, p. 329. 
Brown Apricot-scale {Eulecanium armeniacum). — A soft brown 
scale infesting the under side of the smaller branches. 

Treatment. — Spray with resin and fish-oil compound, taking 
care to hit the underside of the twigs. In California the applica- 
tion should be made in January and February. 
Asparagus. Common Asparaqus-bebtle (Crioceris asparagi). — 
Beetle, less than one-fourth inch in length, yellow, red, and shin- 
ing black, with conspicuous ornamentation, feeding upon the 
tender shoots. Larva feeds upon the leaves and tender bark. 

Treatment. — Freshly slaked lime dusted on before the dew 
has disappeared in the morning. Poultry. Cut down all plants 
in early spring to force the beetles to depofflt their eggs upon the 
new shoots, which are then cut every few days before the e^^ 
hatch ; or leave a row or so around the field as a lure for the 
beetles where they may be killed with araenicals. 
The Twelve-spotted Asparagus-beetle {Crioceris IS-pundata), 
— Similar to the last, but with twelve spots on the wing- 
covers. 

Treatment. — Similar to that used above, except that the grubs 
cannot be destroyed by lime, since they live within the berry. 
Asparagus Miner {Agromyza simplex). — A maggot mining under 
the skin near the base of the plant. 

Treatment. — Leave a few volunteer plants as a trap in which 
the fly will deposit her eggs. Pull and bum these pbmts in late 
June and early July. 



ASTER — CABBAGE 311 

Aster. Aster-worm {Papaipema nitela). — A small larva boring in 
the stem of garden asters about the time they begin to flower, 
causing the heads to droop. 

All infested stocks should be burned. Destroy by burning all 
rank weeds, such as ragweed and cocklebur, before September. 
Bean. Bean-weevil or Bean-bug {Bruchua obtedua), — Closely 
resembles the pea-weevil, which see for description and remedies. 
Holding over the seed will be of no value with this insect. 
Seed-corn Maggot. (Pegomya fuacicepa), — A maggot attacking 
germinating seeds and roots of young plants. 

Treatment. — Avoid stable manure ; practice crop rotation. In 
the garden use sand moistened with kerosene around the plants 
to keep the flies from laying the eggs. 
Birch. Bronze Birch-borer {AgrUtis anxiua), — A slender, creamy 
white grub, three-fourths inch in length when full grown, that 
burrows under the bark of the white birch, ultimately killing the 
tree. The eggs are laid during May and June by a slender, olive- 
bronze beetle about one-half inch in length. 

Treatment, — After a tree has become thoroughly infested, 
nothing can be done to save it. As the first indication of the 
presence of the borer is usually a dying of the topmost branches, 
such trees should be carefully examined, and if infested should 
be cut down and burned before May 1, to prevent a spread of the 
trouble to other trees. 
Blackberry. Cane-borer. — See imder Raspberry, p. 330. 
Root Gali/-ply. — See under Raspberry. 
Snowy Cricket. — See under Raspberry. 
Cabbage. Cabbage-worm or Cabbage-butterfly {Pantia rapce), — 
The green caterpillars hatch from eggs laid by the common white 
butterfly. There are several broods every season. 

Treatment, — If plants are not heading, spray with kerosene 
emulsion or with paris green to which the sticker has been added. 
If heading, apply hellebore. 
Flea-beetle. — See Flea-beetle, p. 303. 

Common Cabbage-looper {Atdographa brassicce), — A pale green 
caterpillar, striped with lighter lines. Feeds on the leaves. 
Treatment. — Arsenicals applied to lower surface of leaves. 
Cabbage Aphis {Aphis brassuuB). — These small, mealy plant-lice 



312 INJURIOUS^ INSECTS J WITH TREATMENT 

are especially troublesome during cool, dry seasons, when thdr 
natural enemies are less active. 

Treatment. — Before the plants begin to head, spray with kero- 
sene emulsion diluted with 6 parts of water or whale-oil soap, 
1 pound in 6 gallons of water, or use one of the concentrated 
tobacco extracts. Destroy all cabbage stalks and other crucif- 
erous plants in the fall. Dip infests plants in soap solution 
before planting. 
Harlequin Cabbaoe-bug {Murgantia histrionica), — Bug about 
a half-inch long, gaudily colored with orange dots and stripes over 
a blue-black ground, feeding upon cabbage ; two to six broods. 

Treatment. — Hand-picking. Place blocks about the patch, and 
the bugs will collect under them. In the fall make small piles of 
the rubbish in the patch, and bum them at the approach of winter. 
Practice clean culture. Destroy all cabbage stalks and other 
cruciferous plants in faU. Early in the spring plant a trap crop of 
mustard, radish, rape, or kale. When the overwintering huge 
congregate on these plants, destroy them with pure kerosene or 
by hand. 
Maggot {Pegomya braasicce). — A minute white maggot, the larva 
of a small fly, eating into the crown and roots of young cabbage, 
cauliflower, radish, and turnip plants. 

Treatment. — Carbolic acid emulsion diluted with 30 parts 
of water applied the day following the transplanting of the 
cabbage plants, and repeated once a week for several appli- 
cations. Remove a little earth from about the plants, and 
spray on the emulsion forcibly. It has also been found practi- 
cable to protect the plants by the use of tightly fitting cards cut 
from tarred paper. 

In seed beds protect the plants by surrounding the bed with 
boards one foot wide placed on edge, across which a tight cover 
of cheese-cloth is stretched. 
Carrot. Parsley-worm. — See under Parsley, p. 324. 

Carrot-beetle {Ligyrus gibbosus). — A reddish brown beetle 
one-half inch or more long, which attacks the young plants. The 
larva lives in the ground, where it feeds on humus. 

Preventive. — Crop rotation and other remedies for white grub, 
which see under Corn, p. 314. 



CARROT — CHR Y8ANTHEMUM 313 

Cauliflower. Cauuflower or Cabbaob-worm. — See under Cabbage. 

Maggot. — See under Cabbage, p. 311. 
Celery. Cakrot Rust-ply {PsUa rosai). Minute whitish yellow 
maggots infesting the roots and stunting the plants. 

PreoerUwe. — Late sowing and rotation of crops. Celery or 
carrots should not follow each other. 
Celery Caterpillar {Papilio polyxenes). — ^A large green caterpillar, 
ringed with black and spotted with yellow, which feeds on 
the leaves. 

Treatment, — Hand-picking as soon as observed. 
Celery Leaf-tyer (PhlycoBnia ferrugalis). — A greenish cater- 
pillar, feeding on the under side of the leaves. 

Treatment, — Spray with arsenicals while the larvse are still young. 
Little Negro-bug {Corimdoma pulicaria). — Glossy black bugs 
one-eighth inch in length, which collect in clusters in the axils of 
the leaflets and cause the plants to wilt. 

Treatment, — Kerosene emulsion or tobacco extract. 
Cherry. Canker-worm. See imder Apples, p. 306. 
Plum-curculio. See under Plum, p. 329. 
Rose Beetle. See under Apple and Grape, pp. 308, 322. 
Slug {Eriocampoides Ivnacina). — Larva, one-half inch long, black- 
ish and slimy, feeding upon the leaves ; two broods. 
Treatment, Arsenicals, hellebore, tobacco extract. 
Aphis {Myzus ceraai). Blackish plant lice infesting the leaves 
and tips of new growth. 

Treatment. Spray as soon as the first lice appear with whale- 
oil soap or tobacco extract. 
Chestnut. Weevil {Balaninus probosddeus and B, rectus), — A grub 
working in chestnuts, making them wormy. 
The weevil is a curculio-like insect. 

Preventives, — Destroy wild trees where the insects breed. 
Plant the most immime varieties. Gather and destroy the in- 
fested nuts immediately after they fall. 
Chrysanthemum. Cabbage-looper. — See under Lettuce, p. 322. 
Chrysanthemum Leaf-miner (Oseinis sp.). — Works on the leaves 
of the chr3rsanthemum. 
Remedy, — Hand-picking. 
Clover. Flower-midge (Dcuyneura leguminicola), — An orange-red 



314 INJURIOUS INSECTS J WITH TREATMENT 

maggot infesting the flower-budSi where they consume the contents 
of the ovary. 

Preventives, — Cut the first crop for hay as early as possible, 
thus destroying the undeveloped larvae of the first brood. In the 
latitude of Illinois this should be done before June 25. 
Seosd-chalcis {Bruckophagus fundnis). — A white grub found in- 
side the seed. 

Preventive, — Same as for Flower-midoe, above. Destroy all 
volunteer clover plants. 
Seed-caterpillar {Enarmonia interatidana). — A small iiidiitish 
or orange caterpillar infesting the heads. 

Pretfentive, — Early cutting of first crop, as for Flower-hidge. 
Root-borer {Hylastintie obscianui), — Small white grub burrow- 
ing in the roots. 

Preventive, — Plow imder badly infested fields as soon as pos- 
sible after cutting. 
Hat-worm {Hypsopygia costalis). — A brownish caterpillar three- 
fourths inch long, infesting stacked or stored clover. 

Preventive, — Remove old clover hay before putting in the new. 
Place stacks on log or rail foimdation, and salt the lower layers. 
(Illinois Experiment Station.) 
Com. Corn-root Aphis( Aphis maidiradicis), — A blubh green aphis 
infesting the roots. 

Preventives, — A short rotation period in corn, especially in dry 
years. Deep and thorough and repeated stirring of old com 
ground in fall and spring as a preparation for corn-planting. 
Maintenance and increase of the fertility of the soil. 
White Grubs (Lachno^ema spp.). — The large white curved larvae 
of the common June beetle. 

Preventives, — Rotation of crops ; do not let com follow sod, 
but let a crop of clover or clover and oats intervene. To help 
clear sod land of gmbs, pasture to hogs any time between April 
and October. To prevent la3ring of eggs in corn-field, keep the 
ground free from weeds during May and June. Thorough cul- 
tivation and heavy fertilization. 
Northern Corn Root-worm {Diabrotica longicomis), — A whitish 
grub two-fifths inch long, which burrows in the roots. 

Preventive. — Crop rotation ; corn should not follow com. 



CL VER — CORN 316 

Wire-worms {ElateridiE). — Hard, yellowish, or reddish, cylin- 
drical larvae feeding on the roots. 

Preventives, — Crop rotation ; let clover intervene between sod 
and corn, planting the corn late the second or third year. Early 
fall plowing. 

Cut-worms {Agrotis^ Hadena^ etc.). — Soft-bodied caterpillars eat- 
ing and cutting off the young plants. See p. 302. 

Preventives, — Early fall plowing of grass lands intended fpr 
com ; pasturing by pigs of grass or clover land intended for com ; 
distributing a line of poisoned bran by means of a seed-drill. To 
prevent the caterpillars entering from a neighboring grass field, 
destroy them with a line of poisoned vegetable bait. 

Sod Web-worms {Cra^nbus spp.). — Gray or brownish caterpillars 
about one-half inch long, living in a silk-lined burrow in the soil at 
base of the plant. They thrive in grass land. 

Preventive, — Early fall plowing of grass land intended for 
com, or else plow as late as possible the next spring. 

ARBfT-woRM. {Leucania unipunda), — A cut- worm-like caterpillar, 
which normally feed on grass. When this food supply is exhausted, 
they migrate in numbers to other fields .and attack corn, wheat, 
etc. 

Preventive. — To stop the advance of the " army," plow deep 
furrows so the dirt is thrown towards the colony ; in the bottom of 
the furrow dig post holes into which the caterpillars will fall and 
where they may be killed with kerosene. 

CmNCH-BUQ (Blissus leucopterus), — A red or white and black suck- 
ing bug, three-twentieths of an inch long. Attacks wheat and 
corn in great numbers. 

Preventives, — Clean farming to destroy suitable hibernating 
shelter. Stop the migration of the bugs from the wheat-fields into 
corn by maintaining along the field a dust strip ten feet wide in 
which a furrow and post-hole barrier has been constructed. This 
may be supplemented by a coal-tar barrier. 

Grasshoppers (AcrididcB). — Poison them with the Criddle mix- 
ture (p. 293). 

Corn Ear-worm {Heliothis armiger). — A green or brownish striped 
caterpillar feeding on the com beneath the husk. Three to six 
generations yearly. 



316 INJURIOUS INSECTS, WITH TREATMENT 

Preventives. — Plant as early as possible, and still avoid a " set 
back" to the crop. 

For insects infesting stored com, see under Fumigation, p. 2S7. 

Cotton. — BoLLWORM {Heliothia obsoleta). — This insect is also known 

as the com earworm and tomato fmit-worm. The caterpillars 

are over an inch in length, and vary in color from greenish to 

dark brown. 

Preventives. — Produce an early crop of cotton by planting 
early varieties, heavy fertilizing, early and frequent cultivation. 
Practice fall plowing, to destroy as many hibernating pupse as 
possible. Use com as a trap crop. Plant it in strips across the 
field and time it so that the crop will be in silk and tassel about 
August 1. In areas infested by the boll weevil follow the recom- 
mendations given below. (Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept. 
Agric.) 
Mexican Boli^-wbevil (Anthonomits grandis). — A snout beetle 
about one-fourth inch in length, which lays its eggs in the squares 
and bolls, producing a grub which eats out the contents. 

Treatment (U. S. Dept. Agric.) : — 

1. Destroy the v^t majority of weevils in the fall by up- 
rooting and burning the plants. This is the all-important step. 
It results in the death of millions of weevils. It insures a crop 
for the following season. 

2. Destroy also many weevils that have survived the pre- 
ceding operation and are found in the cotton-fields and along the 
hedgerows, fences, and buildings. This is done by clearing the 
places referred to thoroughly. 

3. As far as possible, locate the fields in situations where 
damage will be avoided. This cannot be done in all cases, but 
can frequently be done to good advantage. 

4. Prepare the land early and thoroughly in order to obtain an 
early crop. This means fall plowing and winter working of the 
land. 

5. Provide wide rows, and plenty of space between the rows 
and the plants in the drill, for the assistance of the natural enemies 
of the weevil, which do more against the pest than the farmer can 
do himself by any known means. Check-rowing, wherever prac- 
ticable, is an excellent practice. 



COTTON — CRANBERRY 317 

6. Insure an early crop by early planting of early-maturing 
varieties, and by fertilizing where necessary. 

7. Continue the procuring of an early crop by early chopping 
to a stand and early and frequent cultivation. Do not lose the fruit 
the plants have set by cultivation too deep or too close to the rows. 

8. Where the labor is sufficient, pick the first appearing weevils 
and the first infested squares. Do not destroy the squares, but 
place them in screened cages. By this means the escape of the 
weevils will be prevented, while the parasites will be able to escape 
to continue their assistance on the side of the farmer. 

9. Use a crossbar of iron or wood, or some similar device, to 
cause the infested squares to fall early to the ground, so that they 
will be exposed to the important effects of heat and parasites. 

10. Do not poison for the leaf-worm unless its work begins 
at an abnormally early date in the summer. 
Cranberry. Fruit-worm {Mineola vaccinii), — Small caterpillar work- 
ing in the fruits, eating out the insides. 

Preventive. — For bogs with abundant water, reflow for 
ten dayB immediately after picking. Let the foliage ripen, and 
then turn on water for winter. Draw off water early in April, 
and every third or fourth year hold it on until the middle of May. 
For dry bogs spray three times with arsenate of lead during 
July. Bury all screenings. 
FiRB-woRM, Cranbbrrt-worm, or Black-headed Cranberry- 
worm (Eudemia vcuunniana), — Small larva, green, black-headed, 
feeding upon the shoots and young leaves, drawing them together 
by silken threads ; two broods. 

TreattnerU. — Flooding for two or three days when the worms 
come down to pupate. Arsenicals. 
Yellow-headed Cranberry- worm (Aderis minuta), — Stout, yel- 
lowish-green, small caterpillar, with a yellow head, webbing up 
the leaves as it works. 

Treatment. — Hold the water late on the bog in spring to pre- 
vent egg-laying. Arsenicals from the middle of May till July 1. 
Cranberry-girdler {Crambua hortvelliis). — Small caterpillars feed- 
ing on the stems just beneath the surface of the sand. 

Preventive. — Reflow just after picking, for a week or ten days, 
or reflow for a day or two about June 10. 



318 INJURIOUS INSECTS, WITH TREATMENT 

False Armt-worm (Calocampa nupera), — Green to blackiab 
caterpillars devouring the leaves and buds. 

Treatment. — Reflow for from twenty-four to thirty-six hours 
soon after the middle of May. It may be necessary to reflow 
a second time. Destroy all caterpillars washed ashore while the 
water is on. 

In dry bogs, spray early in May with arsenate of lead. 
Cttcumber. Pickle-worm {Diaphania nitidalia), — Liarva, about an 
inch long, yellowish white, tinged with green, boring into cucum- 
bers; two broods. 

Preventives, — Clean farming, fall plowing, and rotation of crops. 

Remedies. — Kill the caterpillars before they enter the fruit 
by spra3ring with arsenate of lead about the time the buds begin 
to form, and repeat in two weeks. 
SiiiM-BORER. — See under Squash (p. 331), where it is described as 

root-borer. 
Melon-worm. — See imder Melon, p. 322. 
Spotted Cucumber-beetle (Diabrotica IS-punctata). — Beetle, 
yellowish and black spotted, about one-fourth inch long, feeding 
upon the leaves and fruit. Sometimes attacks fruit-trees, and the 
larva may injure roots of corn. 

Treatment. — Same as for Striped Cucumber-beetle, below. 
Striped Cucumber-beetle {Diabrotica vittata). — Beetle, one-fourth 
inch long, yellow with black stripes, feeding on leaves. Larva one- 
eighth inch long and size of a pin, feeding on roots; two broods. 

Preventive. — Cheap boxes covered with thin muslin or screens 
of mosquito-netting, placed over young plants. 

Remedies. — Arsenicals in flour. Arsenate of lead. Ashes, 
lime, plaster, or fine road dust sprinkled on the plants every two 
or three days when they are wet. Air-slaked lime. Plaster and 
kerosene. Tobacco powder, applied liberally. Apply remedies 
when dew is on, and see that it strikes the under side of the leaves. 
Currant. Borer (Sesia tipvlifarmis). — A whitish larva, boring in 
the canes of currants, and sometimes of gooseberries. The larva 
remains in the cane over winter. 

TrecUment. — In fall and early spring cut and bum all affected 
canes. These canes are distinguished before cutting by lack 
of vigor and by limbemess. 



CURRANT — ELM 319 

CuRRANi^woRM, OF CuRRANT and GOOSEBERRY Sawflt (Nemolus 
ventricosus). — Larva, about three-fourths inch long, yellow- 
green, feeding on leaves of red and white varieties; two to four 
broods. 

Treatment, — White hellebore, applied early. Arsenicals for 
the early brood. Treatment should begin while the larvse are 
on the lowermost leaves of the bushes. Before the leaves are 
fully grown, the holes made by the worms may be seen. The 
second brood is best destroyed by killing the first brood. 
Currant Measuring or Span-worm (Cymalophora ribearia), — 
Larva somewhat over an inch long, with stripes and dotted with 
yellow or black, feeding upon the leaves. 

Treatment, — Hellebore, applied stronger than for currant- 
worm. Arsenicals. Hand-picking. 
FouR-BTRiPED Plant^bug. — Scc p. 303. 

Green Leaf-hopfer {Empoa aUxypicta), — Small insect working 
upon the under surface of currant and gooseberry leaves. Also 
upon the apple. 

Remedies, — Pyrethrum. Kerosene emulsion. Tobacco-dust. 
Tobacco extracts. 
Dahlia. Four-striped Plant-bug. — See p. 303. 

Cabbage Looper. — See under Cabbage, p. 3U. 
Bgg-plant. Potato-beetle. — See under Potato, p. 329. 
Elm. Canker-worm. — See under Apple, p. 306. 
Elm Leaf-beetle (Galerucella luteola). — A small beetle, imported 
from Europe, which causey great devastation in some of the eastern 
states by eating the green matter from elm leaves, causing the 
tree to appear as if scorched. 

Remedy, — Arsenate of lead (U pounds to 25 gallons). 
Elm Sawfly Leaf-miner (Kaliosysphinga idmi). — A greenish white 
larva feeding between the two layers of the leaf, causing large 
blotches ; when abundant, the leaf dies and falls. They some- 
times kill the trees in two or three years. 

Treatment. — When the blotches are about one-third to one- 
half inch in diameter, spray with "Black-leaf 40," tobacco extract, 
1^ gallon in 800 gallons of water, adding 4 pounds of whale-oil 
soap to each 100 gallons. 
WiLLOw-woRM. — See under Willow. 



320 INJURIOUS INSECTS, WITH TREATMENT 

Endive. Cabbage-loofer. See under Cabbage, p. 311. 
Gooseberry. Currant-bober. — See under Currant, p. 318. 

Currant Measuring or Span-worm. — See under Currant. 

Four Striped Plant-bug. — See p. 303. 

CroosBBERRir or CuRRANT-woRM. — See under Currant. 

Gooseberry Fruit-worm {Dakruma carwoliUeUa), — LArva, about 
three-fourths inch long, greenish or yellowish, feeding in the berry, 
causing it to ripen prematurely. 

Treatment, — Destroy affected berries. Clean cultivation. 
Poultry. 

Green Leap-hopper. — See under Currant. 
Grape. Grapeberry-worm (Polychrosis viteana), — Larva, about one- 
fourth inch long, feeding in the berry, often securing three or four 
together by a web ; two broods. 

Remedy. — Spray with arsenate of lead before blossonis open. 
Repeat after blooming and again in early July. Destroy wormy 
berries in August. 

Grape-curculio {Craponivs inoBqualis), — Larva, small, white, 
with a brownish head. Infests the grape in June and July, 
causing a little black hole in the skin and a discoloration of 
the berry immediately around it. The adult is a grayish brown 
snout-beetle, about one-tenth inch long. 

Treatment, — Spray with arsenate of lead while the beetles 
are feeding on the leaves. The beetle may be jarred down on 
sheets, as with the plum-eurculio. Bagging the clusters. 

Grape-slug or Saw-fly (Selandria tntis), — Larva about one-half 
inch long, yellowish green with black pomts, feeding upon the 
leaves ; two broods. 
Remedies. — Arsenicals. Hellebore. 

Grape Root-worm {Fidia vitidda). — The small white grubs 
feed upon the roots, often killing the vines in a few years. The 
adults are small grayish-brown beetles that eat peculiar chain4ike 
holes in the leaves during July and August. Cultivate thoroughly 
in June, especially close around the vines to kill the pups in the 
soil. At the first appearance of the beetles spray the plants with 
arsenate of lead at the rate of 8 or 10 pounds to 100 gallons of 
water, to which should be added 1 gallon of molasses (Geneva 
Experiment Station). 



GRAPE INSECTS 



321 



Grape-vine Flea-beetle {Graptodera chcHyhea). — Beetle, of a 
blue metallic color, about one-fourth inch long, feeding upon the 
buds and tender shoots in early spring. 

Treaimerd. — Arsenicals to kill the grubs on leaves during May 
and June. The beetle can be caught by jarring on bright days. 
Grape-vine Root-borer (Memythrus polistiformis). — Larva, one 
and one-half inch or less long, working in the roots. 

Prevenlwe, — Thorough cultivation during June and July. 
Treaimerd. — Dig out the borers. 
Grape-vine Sphinx {Ampelophaga myron). — A large larva, two 
inches long when mature, green with yellow spots and stripes, 
bearing a horn at the posterior extremity, feeding upon the 
leaves, and nipping off the young clusters of grapes ; two broods. 
Treatment, — Hand-picking. Arsenicals early in the season. 
There are other large sphinx caterpillars which feed upon the 
foliage of the vine and which are readily kept in check by hand- 
picking and spraying. 
Phylloxera {PhyUoixra vastatrix), — A minute insect prejring 
upon the roots, and in one form causing galls upon the leaves. 

Preventive. — As a rule this insect is not destructive to American 
species of vines. Grafting upon resistant stocks is the most re- 
liable method of dealing with the insect yet known. This pre- 
caution is taken to a large extent in European countries, as the 
European vine is particularly subject to attack. 

Remedies. — There is no reliable and widely practicable remedy 
known. Bum affected leaves. Bisulphide of carbon poured 
in holes in the ground, which are quickly filled, is very effective. 
Carbolic acid and water used in the same way is also recommended. 
Flood the vineyard. 
Snowy Cricket. — See under Raspberry, p. 331. 
Leaf-hopper (Typhlocyha comes). — These small yellowish leaf- 
hoppers, erroneously called " thrips," suck the sap from the under- 
side of* the leaves, causing them to turn brown and dry up. 

Treatment. — Spray the under side of the leaves very thoroughly 
with whale-oil soap, 1 pound in 10 gallons of water, or with 
"Black-leaf" tobacco extract, 1 gallon to 100 gallons of water; or 
1 gallon " Black-leaf 40 " in 1000 gallons of water about July 1, 
to kill the young leaf-hoppers. When using tobacco extract add 
y 



322 INJURIOUS INSECTS, WITH TREATMENT 

about 2 pounds whal^-oil soap to each 50 gallons to make it spread 
and stick better. Repeat the application in a week or ten days. 
In houses, tobacco-smoke, pyrethrum poured upon coals held 
under the vines, sjrringing with tobacco-water or soap suds. 
Grasshoppers. — See under Corn, p. 314. 

RosE-CHAFER (Mocrodoctylus subspinosus), — The ungainly, long- 
legged, grayish beetles occur in sandy regions, and often swarm 
into vineyards and destroy the blossoms and foliage. 

Treatment, — At the first appearance of the beetles spray with 
arsenate of lead at the rate of 8 or 10 pounds to 100 gallons of 
water, to which should be added 1 gallon of molasses. 
Hollyhock. Bug {Orthotylus ddicatua). — A small green bug, attacking 
the hollyhock with great damage. 

Treatment, — Kerosene emulsion. Tobacco extracts. 
House-plants. See Aphides, Mealy-bug, Mites, and Red-spider, 

pp. 301-304. 
Lawns. Ants (Formica sp.). — Insects burrowing in the ground, 
forming " ant hills." 

Remedy. — A tablespoonful of bisulfid of carbon poured into 
holes six inches deep and a foot apart, the holes being inmiediately 
filled up. 
Lettuce. Aphis or Green-ply. — A plant-louse on forced lettuce. 
Preventive, — Tobacco-dust applied on the soil and plants as 
soon as the aphis makes its appearance, or even before. Renew 
every two or three weeks if necessary. Fumigating with tobacco 
is the surest remedy. See Fumigation, p. 288. 
Cabbage-looper (AtUographa brassiae), — Larva, somewhat over 
an inch long, pale green, with stripes of a lighter color, feeding 
on leaves of many plants, as cabbage, celery, and endive. 

Remedies. — Pyrethrum diluted with not more than three times 
its bulk of fiour. Kerosene emulsion. Hot water. 
Melon. Melon-worm {Diaphania hyalinata), — Larva, some over an 
inch long, yellowish green and slightly hairy, feeding on melon- 
leaves, and eating holes into melons, cucumbers, and squashes ; 
two or more broods. 

Remedies. — Hellebore. Arsenicals early in the season. 
Spotted Cucumber-beetle. — See under Cucumber, p. 318. 
Squash-vine Root-borer. — See under Squash, p. 331. 



MUSHROOM — ORANGE 323 

Mttshroom. Mushroom-fly. — The maggot bores through the 
steins of the mushrooms before they are full grown. 

Preventive. — Keep the beds cool so that the fly cannot develop. 
When the fly is present, growing mushrooms in warm weather is 
usually abandonded. 
Onion. Maggot (Pegomya cepetarum). — Much like the Cabbage 
Maggot, which see (p. 312). 
Remedies. — Carbolic acid emulsion. Bisulfid of carbon. 
■ Thrips (Thrips tabaci). — Minute elongate yellowish insects that 
cause a wilting and dying of the tops. 

Treatment. — Clean culture, kerosene emulsion, tobacco extracts. 

Orange and Lemon. Purple Scale {Lepidosaphea beckii). — An 

elongate brownish purple scale resembling an ojrster-shell in shape. 

Treatment. — Fumigation, using heavy dosage. 

Red-scale (Aspidiotus aurantii). — A nearly circular reddish or 

yellowish scale. 

Treatment. — Fumigation. Distillate. 
Black-scale (Saissetia olea). — A large soft-bodied dark brown 
or nearly black scale. 

Treatment. — Fumigation. Distillate. 
Mealy-bug {Pseudococcus dtri). — A mealy white soft-bodied 
insect nearly one-fourth inch long, occurring in masses in the 
angles of the branches, axils of the leaves, and around the stem 
of the fruit. 

Treatment. — Fumigation. Destruction of all rubbish imder 
the trees. 
Red-spider (Tetranychus eexmacidatus). — Minute greenish yellow 
mites found on the leaves. See p. 304. 

Treatment. — Dry sulfur, or sulfur and water used as a spray. 
White-fly {Aleyrodes dtri and A. nvbifera). — The immature stages 
are found on the underside of the leaves and are scale-like in form. 
The adults are minute white-winged flies. 

Treatment. — Fumigation. Fungous diseases (p. 290). 
Rust-mite {Phytoptus oleivorus). — A minute mite, causing the rust 
on oranges and lemons. 

Treatment. — Sulfur, dry or as a spray. 
Thrips {Evihrips dtri). — A minute, active, yellow insect that 
scars the fruit and curls and distorts the leaves. 



324 INJURIOUS INSECTS, WITH TREATMENT 

Treatment, — Make four applications of lime-sulfur (33® Beau- 
m6), 1 gallon in 75 gallons of water, adding "Black-leaf 40" 
tobacco extract at the rate of 1 part in 1800 parts of the di- 
lute lime-sulfur, as follows : — 
First. — Just after most of the petals have fallen from the 

blossoms. 
Second. — Ten or fourteen days after the first. 
Third. — From three to four weeks after the second. 
Fourth. — In August or September, to protect later growths of" 
foliage. (U. S. Bureau of Entomology.) 
Parsley. Parsley-worm {PapUio asterias). — Larva, inch and a 
half long, light yellow or greenish yellow with lines and spots ; 
feeding upon leaves of parsley, celery, carrot, etc. When the 
worm is disturbed it ejects two yellow horns, with an offensive odor, 
from the anterior end. 

Remedies, — Hand-picking. Poultry are said to eat them some- 
times. Upon parsnip, arsenicals. 
Parsnip. Parsley-worm. — See under Parsley, above. 
Parsnip Web-worm (Depressaria keradiana), — Larva, about a half 
inch long, feeding in the flower cluster and causing it to become 
contorted. 

Treatment. — Arsenicals, applied as soon as the young worms 
appear, and before the cluster becomes distorted. Bum the dis- 
torted umbels. Destroy all wild carrots. 
Pea. Pea-weevil or Pea-bug (Bruchua pisi). — A small brown-black 
beetle, living in peas over winter. The beetle escapes in fall and 
spring, and lays its eggs in young pea-pods, and the grubs live in 
the growing peas. 

Treatment. — Hold over infested seed for one year before plant- 
ing. Late planting in some localities. Fumigation with carbon 
bisulfid. 
Pea Aphis {Macroaiphum pisi). — A rather large green plant-louse, 
often attacking peas in great numbers and causing enormous 



Treatment. — Rotation of crops. Early planting. When peas 
are grown in rows, the brush-and-cultivator method may be used. 
The plant-lice are brushed from the plants with pine boughs, and 
a cultivator follows stirring the soil. This operation should be 



PEACE INSECTS 326 

performed while the sun is hot and the ground dry. Most of the 
lice will be killed before they can crawl back to the plants. 
Repeat every three to seven days. 
Peach. Black Aphis {Aphis persioB-niger). — A small black or 
brown plant-louse which attacks the tops and roots of peach-trees. 
When upon the roots it is a very serious enemy, stunting the 
tree and perhaps killing it. Thrives in sandy lands. 

Treatment, — Kerosene emulsion. Tobacco decoction and ex- 
tracts. 
Round-headed Apple-tree Borer. — See under Apple, p. 308. 
Flat-headed Borer. — See under Apple. 

Kattdid. — This insect is often troublesome to the peach in the 
southern states in the early spring, eating the leaves and girdling 
young stems. 
Remedy, — Poisoned baits placed about the tree. 
Green Peach-louse or Aphis {Myzua persicce). — A small insect 
feeding upon the young leaves, causing them to curl and die. 

Treatment, — Lime-sulfur, kerosene emulsion, or tobacco de- 
coction. After the buds open, either of the last two. 
Peach-tree Borer {Sanninaidea exitiosa), — A whitish larva, about 
three-fourths inch long when mature, boring into the crown and 
upper roots of the peach, causing gum to exude. 

Remedies, — Dig out the borers in June and mound up the 
trees. At the same time apply gas-tar or coal-tar to the trunk 
from the roots up to a foot or more above the surface of the 
ground. 
Peach Twig-moth (Anarsia lineateUa), — The larva of a moth, a 
fourth inch long, boring in the ends of the shoots, and later in 
the season attacking the fruit. Several broods. 

Remedy, — Spray with lime-sulfur just after the buds swell. 

Spray trunks and larger branches in late spring to kill first 

brood pupae in the curls of bark. 

Peach-^iree Bark-beetle {Phlceotnbus liminaria), — A dark 

brown beetle one-tenth inch in length burrowing under the bark. 

Treatment. — Bum all brush and worthless trees as soon as 

the infestation is observed. Keep the trees in healthy condition 

by thorough cultivation and the use of fertilizers. 

Apply a thick whitewash to the trunk and branches three times 



326 INJURIOUS INSECTS, WITH TREATMENT 

a season ; first, the last week of March ; second, second week 
in July ; third, first week in October. 

Fruit-treb Black-beetle (Scdytua rugidosus). — A small beetle 
similar to the last. 

Treatment, — Same as preceding. 

'PhXThi-cuncviAoiConoirachelua nenuphar), — In Missouri and Geor- 
gia this insect has been successfully controlled on peach by spray- 
ing with arsenate of lead, 4 pounds to 100 gallons of self-boiled 
lime-sulfur. Spray, first when the "husks" drop from the fruit; 
second, ten days or two weeks later. It is unsafe to spray 
peaches more than twice with arsenate of lead (p. 329). 

RosE-BEBTLE. — See under Grape and Appu:, pp. 308, 322. 

Red-leoged Flba-beetu: (HaUica rufipes). — A flea-beetle feeding 
on the leaves of peach trees, often in great numbers. 

Remedies. — The insects fall at once upon being jarred, and 
sheets saturated with kerosene may be used upon which to catch 
them. Spray with arsenate of lead in self-boiled lime-sulfur. 
Pear. Apple-tree Borer. — See under Apple, p. 306. 

Bud-moth. — See under Apple. 

CoDLiN-MOTH. — See imder Apple. 

Flat-headed Borer. — See under Apple. 

MiDOE (Diplosis pyrivora), — A minute mosquito-like fly; lays 
eggs in flower-buds when they begin to show white. These hatch 
into minute grubs which distort and discolor the fruit. New York 
and eastward. Prefers the Lawrence. Introduced in 1877 from 
France. 

Remedies, — Destroy the infested pears. Cultivate and plow 
in late summer and fall to destroy the pupae then in the ground. 

Pear-leaf Blister {Eriophyes pyri), — A minute mite which causes 
black blisters to appear upon the leaves. The mites collect imder 
the bud-scales in winter. 
Remedy. — Lime-sulfur or miscible oil as a dormant spray. 

Pear-tree Borer (Sesia pyri). — A small whitish larva, feeding 
under the bark of the pear tree. 
Remedy. — Same as for round-headed apple-tree borer. 

Pear-twig Beetue (Xyleborus pyri). — Brownish or black beetle, 
one-tenth inch long, boring in twigs, producing effect much like 
pear-blight, and hence often known as " pear-blight beetle." It 



PEAR INSECTS 327 

escaDes from a minute perforation at base of bud ; probably two 
broods. 

Treatment, — Bum twigs before the beetle escapes. 
Pear Psylla (PsyUa pyricola). — These minute, yellowish, flat- 
bodied, sucking insects are often found working in the axils of 
the leaves and fruit early in the season. They develop into mi- 
nute, cicada-like jumping-lice. The young psyllas secrete a large 
quantity of honey-dew, in which a peculiar black fungus grows, 
giving the bark a characteristic sooty appearance. There may 
. be four broods annually, and the trees are often seriously 
injured. 

Treatment. — Clean culture ; remove rough bark from trunks 
and larger limbs to discourage adults from hibernating on the 
trees, and spray with miscible oils while trees are dormant. Spray 
with lime-sulfur wash at strengths used to combat scale, 
just before leaves appear, to destroy eggs. After blossoms have 
dropped, spray with whale-oil soap, 1 pound to 5 or 7 gallons 
of water ; kerosene emulsion diluted with 8 to 12 parts of water ; 
or standardized tobacco decoctions at strengths recommended on 
containers. If psyllas are abundant, trees should be frequently 
sprayed. (New York Experiment Station.) 
Pear Terips (EtUkrips pyri), — Minute insects, ^ inch in length, dark 
brown when adult, white with red eyes when young, that attack 
the opening bud and young fruits in early spring. They suck 
the sap from the tender growth, and the females lay eggs in the 
fruit stems, causing a loss of the crop. The nymphs hibernate 
in the ground a few inches from the surface. A serious pest in 
California and recently introduced into New York. 

Treatment. — Thorough cultivation during October, November, 
and December (in California). Make two applications of 
" Black-leaf " tobacco extract, 1 gallon in 60 gallons of 2 per 
cent distillate oil emulsion, the first just as the fruit buds begin 
to open, the second just after the petals fall. In the East it 
may be controlled by timely applications of tobacco extract and 
whale-oil soap. 
Pecan. Bud-moth (Proteopteryx deludana). — A brownish caterpillar 
about one-half inch in length, feeding on the opening buds in early 
spring and on the underside of the leaves in sunmier. 



328 INJURIOUS INSECTS, WITH TREATMENT 

Treatment, — Arsenate of lead in summer to kill larvse of second 
brood. Lime-sulfur and arsenate of lead in dormant season just 
before buds open, to destroy hibernating larvse.^ 
Case-beaber (Acrobasia nehvlella), — A small caterpillar living in- 
side a case which it carries with it. It attacks the opening buds. 
Treatment, — Arsenate of lead as soon as the buds begin to 
open. Repeat if necessary. 
Borer (Sesia scituta). — A wood-boring caterpillar working in the 
sapwood. 

Treatment. — Digging out. 
Twi6-GiRDi£R8. — See under Persimmon below. 
RosE-BEETLE. — Scc Under Grape and Apple, pp. 308, 322. 
Round-headed Borer. — See under Apple. 
Slug. — See under Cherry, p. 313. 

TwiG-GiRDLER {Orudderes cingvlaius), — A brownish-gray beetle, 
about one-half inch long, which girdles twigs in August and Sep- 
tember. The female lays eggs above the girdle. The twigs soon 
fall. 

Remedy. — Bum the twigs, either cutting them off or gather- 
ing them when they fall. 
TwiG-PRUNER. — See under AppiE, p. 309. 
Persimmon. White Peach-scale (LHaspis pentagana). 

Remedy. — Lime-sulfur when the trees are thoroughly dormant. 
TwiG-GiRDLERB (Oncideres ciugvlatus &nd 0. texana). — Dark gray 
long-homed beetles that girdle the twigs, causing them to drop. 
Remedy. — Pick up and bum fallen twigs in fall and winter. 
Pineapple. Katydid {Acanthacara similis). — A large katydid which 
attacks, among other plants, the leaves of the pineapple. 
Remedy. — Arsenicals, before the plants are mature. 
Mealy-bugs (several species). — These mealy white insects attack 
the plant at the base of the leaves, usually underground. 

Treatment. — Set only clean plants, or dip them in resin wash 
or kerosene emulsion. In the field apply tobacco dust freely in 
the bud before the bloom begins to appear, or spray with kerosene 
emulsion. 
Red-Spider (Stigmceua fUmdanus). — Minute mites occurring in 
great number at the base of the leaf, where they induce rot. 
Treatment. — Tobacco dust applied to bud. 



PLUM-— POTATO 329 

num. Canker-worm. — See under Apple, p. 306. 
CuRCUUO (Conoirachelus nenuphar). — Larva, a whitish grub, feed- 
iug in the fruit. 

Remedies. — Arsenate of lead, 6 pounds to 100 gallons of water; 
apply as soon as the calyx falls, and repeat two or three times at 
intervals of about ten days. Jarring the beetles on sheets very 
early in the morning, beginning when trees are in flower, and con- 
tinuing from four to six weeks, is probably the most sure proce- 
dure. There are various styles of sheets or receptacles for catch- 
ing the insects as they fall from the tree. Clean cultiure. 
Flat-headed Borer. — See under Apple. 
Pear-twig Beetle. — See under Pear, p. 326. 
Plum-gouger (Coccotorm prunicida). — A small larva, feed- 
ing upon the kernel of the plum. The beetle bores a round hole 
in the plum instead of making a crescent mark, like the cur- 
culio. 
Remedy, — Catch the beetles over a curculio-catcher. 
Scale (Lecanium comi), — A large circular scale occurring on 
plum (and perhaps other) trees in New York. 

Remedy, — Thorough spraying with kerosene emulsion, one part 
to five of water, in the winter. More dilute emulsion or tobacco 
extracts in midsummer, when the young insects are on the leaves 
and young shoots. 
Slug. — See under Cherrt, p. 313. 
TwiG-PRUNER. — See under Apple, p. 309. 
Poplar. Cottonwood Leaf-beetle (Lina scripta), — A striped beetle 
feeding on the leaves and shoots of poplars and willows. 
Remedy. — Arsenicals. 
Willow-wobm. — See imder Willow, p. 336. 
Poplar Borer (Cryptorhynchua lapalhi). — A whitish grub bur- 
rowing in the wood. 

Treaimerd, — In nurseries spray thoroughly about the middle 
of July with arsenate of lead to kill the parent beetles. 
Potato. Colorado Potato-beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), — 
Beetle and larva feed upon the leaves. 

Remedies. — Arsenicals, either dry or in spray, about a third 
stronger than for fruits. Hand-picking the beetle. 
Stalk-weevil (Trichobaris trinotata), — A grub boring in the stalk 



330 INJURIOUS INSECTS, WITH TREATMENT 

of the potato near or just below the ground. Serious at the West 
and in some places eastward. 

Remedy. — Pull all infested vines as soon as they wilt, and spread 

them in the sun where the insects will be killed. Bum the vines 

as soon as the crop is harvested. Destroy all solanaceous weeds. 

Flea-beetles (HaUicini). — Small, dark-colored jumping beetles 

that riddle the leaves with holes. See p. 303. 

Preventive. — Bordeaux mixture as applied for potato blight 
acts as a repellent. 
Potato Tuber-worm (Phthorimcea opercidella). — A small caterpillar 
burrowing in the stems and tubers both in the field and in storage. 
Preventives. — Clean cultivation, sheep and hogs to destroy the 
small potatoes left in the field after digging. Crop rotation over 
a considerable area. On digging remove the potatoes at once to an 
uninfested storeroom. Do not leave them on the field over-night. 
Wire-worms. — See p. 306. 
Privet or Prim. Privet Web-worm (Diaphania quadristifftnalis). — 
Sinall larva feeding in webs on the young shoots of the privet, 
appearing early in the season ; two to four broods. 

Remedies, — Trim the hedge as soon as the worms appear, and 
bum the trimmings. Probably the arsenicals will prove useful. 
Quince. Gound-headed Borers. — See under Apple, p. 308. 
Slug. — See under Cherry, p. 313. 

Quince-curculio (Conotracfielus craUsgi). — This curculio is some- 
what larger than that infesting the plum, and differs in its life- 
history. The gmbs leave the fmits in the fall, and enter the ground, 
where they hibernate and transform to adults the next May, 
June, or July, depending on the season. When the adults appear^ 
jar them from the tree on to sheets or curculio-catchers and de- 
stroy them. To determine when they appear, jar a few trees daily, 
beginning the latter part of May. Aisenicals. 
Radish. Maggot (Pegomya brassicoe). — Treated the same as the 

Cabbage-maggot, which see (p. 312). 
Raspberry. Cane-borer {Oberea himaculaia). — Beetle, black, small, 
and slim ; making two girdles about an inch apart near the tip 
of the cane, in June, and laying an egg just above the lower 
girdle ; the larva, attaining the length of nearly an inch, bores 
down the cane. Also in blackberry. 



BASPBERRY — SQUASH 331 

Remedy. — As soon as the tip of the cane wilts, cut it off at the 
lower girdle and burn it. 
Raspberry Root-borer (Bembecia marginata), — Larva about one 
inch long, boring in the roots and the lower parts of the cane, 
remaining in the root over winter. 
Remedy, — Dig out the borers. 
Raspberry Saw-flt (Monaphadnua rvbi). — Larva about three- 
fourths inch long, green, feeding upon the leaves. 
Remedies, — Hellebore. Arsenicals, after fruiting. 
Root Gali/-flt (Rhoditea radicum). — A small larva which pro- 
duces galls on the roots of the raspberry, blackbeny, and rose, 
causing the bush to appear sickly, and eventually killing it. The 
swellings are probably often confounded with the nematode root- 
galls, for which see p. 303. 

Remedy, — There is no remedy except to destroy the galls ; 
if plants are badly affected, they must be dug up and burned. 
Snowy or Tree-cricket {(Ecanthua niveus), — Small and whitish 
cricket-like insect, puncturing canes for two or three inches, and 
depositing eggs in the punctures. 
Remedy. — Bum infested canes in winter or very early spring. 
Rhubarb. Rhubarb-curculio (Lixua conawus). — A grub three- 
fourths inch long, boring into the crown and roots. It also attacks 
wild docks. 

Remedy, — Bum all infested plants, and keep down the docks. 
Hand-picking. 
Rose. Root Gall-fly. — See under Raspberry, above. 
Mealy-buo. — Tobacco extracts. Syringe the plants in the mom- 
ing, and two hours later syringe again with clean water. See also 
p. 303. 
Rosb-chafer, Rose-beetle, or " Rose-bug." See Grape, p. 322. 
Rose Leaf-hopper (Typhlocyba roam). — A very small hopper, 
white, often mistaken for thrips, living on the leaves of roses. 

Remediea. — Whale-oil soap. Kerosene. Kerosene emulsion. 
Dry pyrethrum blown on bushes when leaves are wet. Tobacco 
extracts. 
Squash. Borer or Root-borer {Mjelittia aaiyriniformia). — Soft, 
white, gmb-like larva which bores inside the stem and causes rot 
to develop, killing the vine. 



332 INJURIOUS INSECTS, WITH TREATMENT 

Preverdives. — Plant early squashes as traps. As soon'as the 
early crop is gathered, burn the vines to destroy eggs and larvsB 
of the borer. Fall harrowing of infested fields will help to 
expose the pupsB to the elements. Cut out borers whenever 
found. After the vines have grown to some length, cover some 
of the joints with earth, so that a new root system will develop 
to sustain the plant in case the main root is injured. 
Strawberry. Crown-borer (Tyloderma fragaricB). — White grub, 
one-fifth inch long, boring into the crown of the plant in mid- 
sununer. The mature insect is a curculio or weevil. 

Preventives. — Rotation of crops. Isolation of new beds from 
infested beds. Plant uninfested plants. 
Lbaf-rollbr (Ancylia comptana), — Larva, less than one-half inch 
long, feeding on the leaves, and rolling them up in threads of 
silk; two broods. 

Treatment, — Turn under in the fall all old beds that have 
become worthless. Spray with arsenate of lead, 4 pounds in 
100 gallons of water, after the eggs are liud but before the 
leaves are folded — the first half of May in the latitude of New 
Jersey. 
Root-borer (Anarsia sp.). — Larva, about one-half inch long, 
whitish, boring into the crown of the plant late in the season, and 
remaining in it over winter. 

Remedy, — Bum the plant. 
RooT-LousE (Aphis forbesii), — From July to the close of the season 
the lice appear in great numbers on the crowns and on the roots 
of the plants. 

Remedies, — Rotation in planting. Disinfect plants coming 
from infested patches by dipping the crowns and roots in kerosene 
emulsion, or tobacco extract. Fumigation. 
Saw-ply {Emphyius maculatus). — Larva, nearly three-fourths inch 
long, greenish, feeding upon the leaves ; two broods. 

Remedies, — Hellebore. Arsenicals for second brood. 
Weevil (Anthonomus signatus), — Beetle, one-eighth inch long, 
reddish black, feeding on flower-buds, particularly those of the 
polleniferous varieties. 

Preventives. — Plant principally pistillate varieties. Every 
fifth row should be of some profusely flowering staminate variety 



8UQAR--0ANE INSECTS 333 

to insure poUinization. Clean culture. Destroy all wild black- 
berry and raspberry vines in the vicinity. 

Root-borer {Typaphorus caneUus). — A whitish grub one-eighth 
inch in length, feeding on the roots. The parent beetle is brown- 
ish, and appears in great numbers in May. 

Treatment, — Arsenicals to kill the beetles. Plant new beds at 
a distance from old ones. 

White Grubs. See under Corn, p. 314. 
Sugar-cane (D. L. Van Dine). Stalk-borer (DiatroBa saccharalis), — 
This is the '' cane-borer " of the South, and is a species of long 
standing in the southern United States. The insects attack 
com and sugar-cane. The insect occurs as far south in the United 
States as the Rio Grande valley in Texas, and as far north as 
Maryland on the Atlantic coast. In corn-growing areas in the 
South, it is known as " the larger corn stalk-borer." The eggs of 
the insect are laid on the cane-leaves, and the caterpillar of the 
moth develops within the cane-stalk. Between the months of May 
and December, the complete development of the insect occupies 
a period of a little over thirty days, that is, a brood may be ex- 
pected about every month. 

Treatment, — The control measures consist of the burning of the 
trash after harvest, fall planting where possible, not to intercrop 
cane with com, not to plant com or cane on windrowed areas, that 
is, areas on which cane has been windrowed for the spring plant, 
and to cover all seed cane well to prevent the emergence of moths 
which may have developed from " borers " planted in the seed cane. 

Mealy-bug (Pseudococcus calceolaricB). — Common on sugar-cane 
in the southem parishes of Louisiana, and recorded further in the 
United States from Florida and California. Known in Louisiana as 
" pou-4-pouche." The insects occur in a mass about the roots 
and beneath the lower leaf-sheaths of the cane plant, and the mass 
is covered by a white mealy secretion. The mealy-bug hiber- 
nates on the roots of the stubble beneath the surface of the ground 
or on the stalks put down in windrow as seed for the spring 
plant. Brood follows brood throughout the simimer months. 
Treatment, — Buming of trash after harvest, fall planting, and 
the selection of seed cane from non-infested areas are the main 
methods that may be employed in the control of this species. 



334 INJURIOUS INSECTS, WITH TREATMENT 

Root-beetle (Ligyrua rugiceps), — This insect occurs throughout 
the lower Mississippi valley and the southern states generally as far 
north as North Carolina. As the name implies, the beetle 
infests the roots of the cane plant. The insect hibernates 
in the advanced larval or the pupal stages, and the adult 
appears in the spring. The injury to the cane is accomplished 
by the adult eating into the young shoots just below the surface 
of the ground. From this point the insect works downwards 
to the roots, where the eggs are laid. The larva develops about 
the roots. In the case of yoimg shoots the injury is sufficient to 
practically sever the shoot from the mother cane or stubble. This 
kills out the heart of the young plant, and unless the cane suckers 
well, the stand is seriously affected. 

Treatment, — If the stubble cane is off-barred in the spring 
and the soil kept away from the young cane as late as the conditions 
will allow, much injury from the root beetle will be avoided. Fre- 
quent cultivation of the plant cane will disturb the beetles in the 
soil and lessen their chance of attacking the cane. No great 
amount of vegetable matter should be plowed under on those 
areas where the root beetle is abundant, since this favors the de- 
velopment of the larvfiB or " white grubs." The headlands 
and ditch banks should be kept clear of grass, since the beetle de- 
velops in these situations bordering the cane-fields. In districts 
where freezing temperatures occur, late fall plowing will turn out 
many of the grubs, and they will perish from exposure. During 
an attack, it is often profitable to have children follow and collect 
the beetles behind the hoe gangs. 
Sumac. Apple-tree Borer. — See under Apple, p. 308. 
Jumping Sumac-beetle {Blepharida rhois). — Larva, half-inch long, 
dull greenish yellow, feeding on leaves ; two broods. 

Remedy. — Arsenicals. 
Sweet-potato. Saw-fly (Schizocerus ebnus and 5. privatus). — Small 
larva about one-fourth inch long, working upon the leaves. The 
fly is about the size of a house-fly. 

Remedies. — Hellebore and arsenicals. 
RooT-BORER (Cylas formicariua). — A whitish grub one-fourth inch 
in length, burrowing through the tubers. 

Preventive, — Burn infested tubers and the vines. 



S WEET POTATO — TOM A TO 335 

Tortoise BEETLES (Cassidini). — Beetles of brilliant colors and 
their slug-like larvse which eat holes in the leaves of newly 
reset plants. 

Treatment, — Same as for next. 
FusA-BEBTLB. ( ChoBtocnema confinis) . — Small, dark-colored beetles, 
which attack the plants soon after they are reset. 

Treatment. — Dip the plants in a strong solution of arsenate of 
lead before resetting. Spray once or twice later with the same. 
Rotation of crops. Destroy all bindweed and wild morning-glory 
plants. 
CuTWORBis. — Poisoned bait. Late planting. Keep the land free 
from weeds the previous fall. See p. 302. 
Tobacco. Flea-beetle (EpUrix pannUa), — Small beetles eating 
holes in the leaves in the seed beds. 

Treatment. — Cover the beds tightly with canvas, or spray 
thoroughly with arsenate of lead, one pound in 12 gallons of 
water. 
Cutworms. — Use poisoned bait. Sod land should be plowed in 

faU. 
Horn-worms. — See under Tomato, below. 
Flea-beetles, Grasshoppers, and Tree-crickets. — Attacking the 
crop in the field, may be controlled by spraying with arsenate of 
lead, 1 pound in 16 gallons of water. 
Tomato. FRurr-woRM (Heliothis obaoleta). — Larva, one inch in 
length, pale green or dark brown, faintly striped, feeding upon 
the fruit. Also on com and cotton. 

Treatment. — Hand-picking. Avoid planting close to com or 
cotton, or after either of these crops or after peas or beans. Prac- 
tice fall or winter plowing. 
ToMATO-woRM (Phlegethontius sexta and P. quinquemaculata). — 
A very large green worm feeding upon the stems and leaves of 
the tomato and husk tomato. Seldom abundant enough to be 
very serious ; kept in check by parasites. 

Remedies. — Hand-picking. Rotation of crops. Clean culture. 
Turkeys. 
Flea-beetles. — Dip the young plants in a strong solution of arse- 
nate of lead. Bordeaux mixture acts as a repellent. See p. 303. 
Violet. Aphis. — Fumigation when grown under glass. 



336 INJURIOUS INSECTS, WITH TREATMENT 

GALI/-FLT (Contarinia violicola), — The adult is a minute mos- 
quito-like fly. The whitish or yellowish maggot feeds in fdds 
of the opening leaves, which become deformed, turn brown, and 
die. 

Treatment. — Fumigation is practically of no value. Thorough 
hand-picking as soon as any sign of injury is noticed. Do not 
let the pest become established in a house. 
Red-spider (Tetranychus bimacidatus). — Minute mites which 
cause the leaves to turn paler and become yellowish. 

Treatment, — On greenhouse violets there is nothing better than 
a stiff spray of clear water so applied as not to drench the beds. 
Repeat the spraying once or twice a week. See p. 304. 
Wheat. Hessian-flt (Mayetiola destructor). — ^A small maggot in- 
festing the plant between the leaf sheath and the stem. When 
full grown they transform to the puparium or '' flaxseed " stage. 
Preventwes. — Crop rotation, destruction of all volunteer wheat. 
Burning stubble where practicable. Late sowing as follows : — 
After September 1 in northern Michigan ; September 20 in south- 
em Michigan and northern Ohio ; October 1 in southern Ohio ; 
October 10 to 20 in Kentucky and Tennessee ; October 25 to 
November 15 in Georgia and South Carolina. (Bureau of Ento- 
mology.) 
JoiNT-woRBis (Isosoma spp.). — Small yellowish larvse found in 
the straw, causing hard knots or galls. 

Preventives. — Crop rotation. Heavy use of fertilizer to give 
a rapid growth. Burning of stubble wherever practicable. 
Chinch-bug. — See under Corn, p. 314. 
Willow. WiLLOW-woRM (Euvanessa antiopa). — Larva, nearly two 
inches long, black, feeding upon leaves of willow, elm, and 
poplar ; two broods. 
Remedy. — Arsenicals. 



CHAPTER XIX 

Live-stock Rules and Recobds 

Farm livenstock, as the term is usually understood, includes the 
mammals that produce edible products or perform agricultural labor, 
as the cow, the horse, the sheep, the goat, the swine. Strictly speak- 
ing, it should aJso comprise poultry (Chapter XX), but this large group 
usually is treated by itself. Many kinds of pets and of fancy stock — 
cats, dogs, cavies, canaries — form another group. 

Determining the Age of Farm Animals (Wing) 
CaJtfk, 

The teeth of the ox serve to help in the determination of its age, 
although not so accurately nor to so great an extent as in the horse. 
Under ordinary circumstances, the incisors are the only teeth that are 
used in the determination of age. Of these, the ox has eight, or four 
piurs, and on the lower jaw only. There are two sets, the temporary 
or milk teeth, and the permanent teeth, the latter differing from the 
former mainly in their greater size and width. 

The calf is bom with the two central pairs of milk teeth fully up, 
and the remaining pairs appear within the first month after birth. 
When the animal reaches the age of about eighteen months, the middle 
pair of milk teeth are replaced by permanent ones that are fully twice 
as broad as the milk teeth. The interval between the appearance of 
the succeeding pairs is rather variable, depending on the precocity or 
early maturity of the individual and also on the breed and the way 
in which the animal has been kept. Yoimg cattle that have been ill- 
kept, and whose general development has been delayed, will have 
their dentition delayed, and will show a young mouth for their age. 
The interval between the appearance of each two pairs of teeth is 
seldom less than nine months, so that the age of the animal at the 
time each pair is up and in full wear may be reckoned as follows : 
z 337 



338 LIVESTOCK RULES AND RECORDS 

MOMTBS 

First, or middle pair 18 

Second, or first intermediate pair 27 

Third, or second intermediate pair 36 

Fourth, or outer pair 45 

If there is any variation from the foregoing, the animal is likely 
to be older rather than younger than the teeth indicate. After the 
teeth are up and in full wear, there is comparatively little change ~ 
in their appearance for several years. The teeth are broad, flat, and 
white in color, and their edges should almost or quite meet. They 
are never firmly fixed in the jaw, as in the case of the horse, but 
rather loosely imbedded in a thick, cartilaginous pad or gums. The 
looseness of the teeth should not therefore be taken by the novice 
as an indication of unsoundness or of advancing age. 

After the animal has reached an age of eight or nine years, the 
teeth become narrower through wear. They shrink away from 
each other and often become more or less discolored and finally 
drop out one by one. A vigorous old cow will often do very well, 
especially if fed liberally on grain and succulent food, after the last 
incisor tooth has disappeared. And so long as the teeth are all 
present and reasonably close together, the animal is said to have a 
good mouth. This condition may remain up to ten or twelve years 
of age, and occasionally even longer. 

The horns also afford a means for estimating the age of cattle, 
especially of cows. During the first two years, the horns grow 
rapidly and the greater part of the total growth is made in this 
time. Afterward, the growth is slow from year to year, and each 
year's growth is marked by a more or less distinct ring. The first 
ring appears when the animal is about three years old, and the age 
may be reckoned by adding two to the number of rings present. 

Sheep, 

Sheep have two sets of incisoD^teeth, on the lower jaw only. The 
first or middle pair of temporary teeth is replaced by permanent ones 
when the lamb is thirteen to fifteen months old, and thereafter the 
succeeding pairs of permanent teeth appear at intervals of a little less 
than a year. Most shepherds reckon a year for each pair, so that 
when the last pair is fully up and in wear, the sheep is four years old. 



AGES OF SHEEP, PIOS, AND HORSES 



339 



As age advances, the teeth grow narrower and slimmer until advanced 
age, eight or nine years, when they often shorten rapidly from wear, 
and finally disappear. So long as the teeth remain strong and fairly 
firm, the sheep may be said to be in good working condition. 

Smne, 

While swine have two sets of teeth, temporary and permanent, 
as in the other domestic animals, the dentition is so irregular as to be 
of little service in determining the age of the animal. Moreover, the dif- 
ficulty of catching, holding, and examining the animal is so great that 
the teeth are seldom, if ever, used to determine the age of swine. In 
market stock, the age does not play an important part, as the value 
depends entirely on the weight and condition of the animal, except in 
the case of old sows and stags (castrated mature males). The former 
are easily distinguished by evidence of having suckled pigs, and the 
latter by the tusks and the development of the "shield " — a coarse 
heavy fold of muscle under the skin on the shoulder. In breeding 
animals, the age is always indicated on the certificate of registry of 
pure-bred stock. 



Horse's teeth at different ages (Roberts). 



non 

1-2 weeks old. 4-6 weeks old. 8-10 mos. old. 



1 

Milk, 
tooth. 




The lower nippers at two 
years old. 



Ix)wer nippers at three 
years of age. 



Side yiew of the 
teeth of a four- 
year-old. 



340 



LIVESTOCK RULES AND RECORDS 





Lower nippera at four years of 



Lower nippen of a fiTe-yearH>ld. 




Side view of the teeth of a 
five-year-old. 




Side view of the teeth of a 
six-year-old horse. 





Lower nippers of a six-year-old. 



Lower nippers of a sevenr-year^d. 



AOES OF HORSES 



341 





Side view of the nippers of a 
seven-year-old. 



The lower incisor, or nipper, teeth 
of an eight-year-old. 





Side view of the teeth 
of an eight-year-old. 



Cross section to 
show shape of in- 
cisor tooth at 4, 9, 
14, and 20 years. 




The lower incisor teeth of 
an old horse. 





A side view of the nippers Oi 
an old horse. 



Showing, at the upper end, the wear- 
ing away of the cusps at 3,4,5,6,9, 
and 20 years. 



342 LIVESTOCK RULES AND RECORDS 

Gestation and Incubation Figures 

The period of gestation is the time between the impregnation of 
the ovum and the birth of the young. In egg-laying animals it is the 
period of incubation. The length of this period is subject to con- 
siderable variation, determined by various causes not well understood. 
In general its length is in relation to the size of the animal. The 
following list, and remarks, represents only a few animals and the 
period of gestation of each (F. B. Mumford) : — 

Elephant 20 to 30 months 

Giraffe 14 months 

Buffalo : 10 to 12 months 

Ass 12 months 

Mare 11 to 12 months 

Cow 9 to 9H months (285 days) 

Bear 6 months 

Sheep and goat 5 months (21 weeks) 

Sow 4 months 

Beaver 4 months 

Lion 3H months 

Dog, fox, or wolf 2 months 

Cat 60 days 

Rabbit 30 days 

Squirrel and rat 28 days 

The period of incubation extends as follows for domestic fowls: — 

Turkey 26 to 30 dajrs 

Guinea 25 to 26 dtayn 

Pea hen 28 to 30 days 

Ducks 25 to 32 days 

Geese 27 to 33 days 

Hens 19 to 24 dajrs (average 21) 

Pigeons 16 to 20 days 

Canary birds 13 to 14 days 



Small breeds hatch earlier. Hamburgs hatch at the end of the twen- 
tieth day ; game bantams at the end of the nineteenth day. Duck 
eggs hatch earlier under hens than under ducks, probably because of 
the higher temperature of the hens' body. 

Small breeds of animals require rather less time than larger breeds, 
although early maturity shortens the time. Cold weather retards the 
process of incubation especially. According to Youatt, all animals vary 
greatly without any known cause. The period of gestation in a horse 
has been known to vary from ten to over twelve months. Tessier re- 
ports 582 cases among mares, with a range of 287 to 419 days ; 1131 



NUMBERS OF YOUNG AND OF EOOS 343 

COWS ranged from 240 to 321 days. Earl of Spencer reported 764 cows 
with a range of 220 to 313 days. L. F. Allen reports results for one 
year among a herd of 50 Shorthorns, Herefords, and Devons, as rang- 
ing from 268 to 294 days, or an average of 284 days. Tessier observed 
912 ewes with a range of 146 to 161 days. Darwin found that 
Merinos run about 150 days, while Shropshires and Southdowns re- 
quire only about 144 days. Swine vary from 109 to 123 days, but 
usually run 116 days. 

In practice there are some causes which hasten birth. A sudden 
cold spell will hasten the birth of a litter of pigs. Nervous excitement 
will hasten birth, especially in cows. Parturition of a neighboring 
cow often hastens birth. It is a popular opinion that male offspring 
require a longer period of gestation. There is not sufficient evidence 
to warrant this, but in one case of observation on cattle, the average 
period for five years was males 288 days, females 283 days. Heredity 
may influence the period somewhat. 

Number of young at hirth (Harper) 

Elephant 1 

Giraffe 1 

Buffalo 1 

Asa 1 

Mare 1 

Cow 1 

Bear 2 

Sheep 1-2-3 

Sow 2-14 

Beaver 4 

Lion 2 

Dog 3-8 

Cat 3-6 

Rabbit 4-^ 

Squirrel 3-6 

Single-birthed animals occasionally bear twins. All multiple-birthed animals 
are exceedingly variable in the number at a birth. 

[ Number of eggs in brood (Harper) 

Turkey 12-16 

Guinea-hen 16-18 

Pea-hen 10 

Ducks 9-12 

Geese 16-18 

Hen 12-15 

Pigeon 2 

Canary 3-4 



344 LIVE-STOCK RULES AND RECORDS 

Other Characteristics 
Average temperature of farm animals. 

Horse, 100** F. ; ox, 101** to 102.5** ; sheep and swine, 103** ; d<^, 
102.5** and very changeable. It is lowest about 4 a.m., and highest 
at 6 P.M. The liver, of all the organs, has the highest temperature, 
106.2** F. Poultry 105** to 106**. 

The pulse of farm animals (Harger). 

The pulse is a dilatation of the elastic wall of an artery at the moment 
of the heart-beat. Its character is some indication of the state of health. 
It is felt in the horse on the lower jaw-bone ; in the ox on the jaw, the 
inside of the elbow and cannon, and the base of the tail ; in the dog 
on the inside of the thigh. 

Number of pulse-beats per minute : Horse, 36 to 40 ; ox, 45 to 50 ; 
sheep and pig, 70 to 80 ; dog, 90 to 100 ; camel, 28 to 32 ; elephant, 
25 to 28. It is slower in the male than in the female. It is more rapid 
in the young than in the old, as for example, in the foal, 100 to 120 ; 
in the calf, 90 to 130. The daily work of the heart is estimated at 
1,539,000 foot-pounds, or one-third of a horse-power. 

Period of heal in farm animals (Mimiford). 

The beginning of puberty in the female is characterised by the 
ripening of a matiu*e egg, and external symptoms which together are 
called the period of heat, or, in some wild animals, the rutting season. 
This period is accompanied by various manifestations. The external 
genitals become swollen and red, and this is accompanied by the dis- 
charge of a reddish mucus. There is frequent urination, and some- 
times a swelling of the mammary glands. The female is often restless 
and utters loud cries. 

The duration of heat varies, but normally continues in the mare two 
to three days, in the cow twelve to twenty-four hoiu^, in the sow one 
to three days, and in the ewe two to three days. The frequency 
with which the heat recurs in different animals varies within rather 
narrow limits. The period of heat in the mare recurs rather irregu- 
larly, but most stallioners agree that the mare will come in heat nine 



COLD STORAGE OF ANIMAL MATERIALS 345 

days after delivery and each two or three weeks thereafter. The cow 
comes in heat forty to sixty days after delivery, if suckling the calf, 
and twenty to thirty days if the calf is taken away at birth. After the 
first appearance of heat in the cow, the period recurs with con- 
siderable regularity each three weeks thereafter. The sow invariably 
shows signs of heat three days after weaning the pigs, and recurs 
every nine to twelve days. The mare and ewe come in heat regularly 
during the spring and autunm months. At other seasons, the period 
is irregular and often entirely absent. 

(All dates and periods of this kind are exceedingly variable.) 

Quantity of blood in the bodies of farm animala (Harger). 

In the horse, A (6.6 per cent) ; ox, A (7.7 per cent); sheep, A (8.01 
per cent) ; pig, A (4.6 per cent) ; dog, A to A (5.5-9.1 per cent) 
(Sussdorf). An average horse has about 66 poimds, or nearly 50 pints, 
of blood. In bleeding horses, about one pint of blood for every himdred 
poimds of body weight is removed. 

Tempermtures for Cold Storage of Animal Products (Hygeia 
Refrigerating Co., Ebnira, N. Y.) 

Hams, pork loins, poultry, and all meats that are to be held for a 
long carry, should be put into the freezer at ^a temperature of 10® 
above zero or lower, and after they are thoroughly frozen they 
may be transferred to a temperature from 15® to 18®. Meats to be 
held for a short time only may be carried at 30® to 32®. Eggs 30®. 
Condensed milk- is carried at 32®; fresh milk at a point just above 
freezing, where it can be carried, of course, only a short time. Con- 
densed milk can be successfully carried several months; cheese at 
31® to 32®; dried fruit, nuts, groceries, etc., at 35®; butter from zero 
to 10® below zero. 

The success of storage depends not alone on the control and 
accuracy of temperature maintained, but on control of humidity, and 
in some cases on pronoimced circulation of air. For temperatures for 
fruits, see page 149. 

Advanced Registry 

The herd-book conserves the purity of a breed, being based upon 
purity of blood, any animal being eligible to registry whose sire and 
dam have been recorded. An Advanced Register is a herd-book within 



346 LIVE-STOCK RULES AND RECORDS 

a herd-book based upon individual merit, and designed as an aid to 
improvement within the breed. Advanced registry is especially 
adapted to the improvement of the dairy breeds of cattle. The registry 
is made on the report of an official test as to milk yield and butter-fat, 
conducted by an Experiment Station. 

The Advanced Registry system has had marked effect in discovering 
and publishing the good animals, eliminating the poor animals, and 
standardizing the performance. The four leading dairy breeds in 
America — Holstein, Jersey, Guernsey, and A3Tshire — now have well- 
authenticated records as a result of this system. 

As illustrating the nature of the test to warrant Advanced Registry, 
the following set of general rules of the Holstein-Friesian Association 
of America is inserted : — 

1. The Station representative shall be present at the last regular 
milking preceding the beginning of the test and shall satisfy himself 
that the cow is milked dry at that time. He shall note the hour at 
which this milking is made ; and the final milking of the test, whatever 
its length, must be at exactly the same hour. 

2. He must be present at each and every milking during the test, 
and satisfy himself that at the close of leach milking the pail contains 
nothing but the milk drawn from the cow under test. 

3. Under no circumstances can more cows than one imdergoing test 
be milked at the same time. The Station representative must in every 
case be in position to observe the milker during the whole milking. 

4. Inmiediately after the milk is drawn at each milking, he will 
take charge of the pail and contents, will weigh the same to pounds 
and tenths on scales provided by his State Experiment Station, and 
enter the exact weight of milk at once in his note-book. He will then 
take a correct sample of the milk, sufficient for his own tests and for 
the composite sample to be sent to the Station, in accordance with the 
following directions: 

5. As soon as the milk has been weighed it is to be thoroughly 
mixed by pouring it from one pail to the other, or by means of a dipper; 
and a pint fruit jar is to be immediately filled about two-thirds full of 
milk for the test samples. The Station representative takes charge of 
and is personally responsible for this sample. It should be kept under 
lock and key until tested. The test is proceeded with as soon as con- 
venient, after the milk has cooled to ordinary room temperature. 



ADVAlfCED REOlSTRr RULES 347 

6. Fat determinations are always made in duplicate, and the average 
of the two determinations recorded on the record sheet. The sample 
taken of any one milking is not to be thrown away until a perfectly 
satisfactory test of the milking has been obtained. On completion of 
each test, the Station representative will at once indelibly enter in his 
note-book the results obtained. In making entries of fat, the super- 
visor shall use three decimal places. If the figure in the fourth place 
be a 5, or greater than 5, he shall count it as one of the next higher 
order; but if it be less than a 5, he shall drop it. 

7. If any of the milk or the test sample from a milking be acciden- 
tally lost, the missing weight of the milk or fat credited to this milking 
is to be obtained by taking the average of all corresponding milkings 
during the whole test; that is, if e.^., the evening milk is lost, or the 
test sample therefrom, the average of the weights of milk and of fat 
of all evening milkings during the test is taken as the yield of milk 
and fat for the milking lost. It must be stated on the report that 
data so obtained are estimated and not actual. 

8. Composite-Test Sample. At the time the test of the milk is 
made, a sample, comprising as many cubic centimeters of milk as the 
number of pounds in the milking, is placed in a pint fruit jar, con- 
taining a small quantity of preservative, for the composite-test sample 
to be sent to the Station when the test is completed. A 25 c.c. glass 
pipette for taking this sample is furnished in each outfit. 

Each and every milking must contribute to the composite-test 
sample in proportion to the amount of milk yielded each time, which 
will be accomplished by strictly following the directions. The Station 
, representative will be responsible for the proper care of the composite 
sample, and will send it to the Station by express inunediately on the 
completion of the test. 

9. In selecting official test periods of not less than seven consecu- 
tive days for report, the test periods so selected may begin with any 
milking made at the regular hour for that milking ; provided the pre- 
vious milking, as well as the last milking of the test period selected, 
are also made at the regular hour. When any official test period forms 
a portion of any semi-official test, a detailed report of the whole official 
test period must be made ; but the Superintendent of Advanced Regis- 
try will only report as A. R. O. record, or records, such consecutive 
portion, or portions, of the test as the owner may select. 



348 LIVE-STOCK RULES AND RECORDS 

The Station representative shall fill out all blanks furnished by his 
Station, or by the Holstein-Friesian Association, and shall make oath 
before a notary public to such reports as, in conjunction with the 
authorities of the Holstein-Friesian Association, are required by the 
Station. 

10. The Station representative is not at liberty to decide as to 
which stipulations contained in the rules are essential and which are 
not, but is required to observe directions in all details. He shall re- 
port to the officer of his Station in charge of tests of dairy cows any 
irregularity or unusual occurrence in connection with the test which 
he may observe, and shall, in general, take all possible means to 
conduct a fair and equitable test of the cows placed under his 
supervision. 

Schedule of charges for supervising records of cows 

As an illustration of the costs involved in the testing of cows, a 
statement is here given of the charges made by one of the colleges 
of agriculture for such work. Something like one-half of all Hol- 
stein cows in the United States with advanced registry are tested 
according to this schedule. Of course the schedule applies to any 
breed. 

A uniform flat rate is charged for supervising records of cows. 
This flat rate covers the entire cost of supervision to the breeders so 
far as the college of agriculture is concerned, and includes per diem 
of supervisor's traveling and hotel expenses, expressage, postage, etc. 
The owners and breeders supply the sulfuric acid, pay notary fees, 
arrange for conveyance to and from the nearest railway station, and 
provide for living expenses at the farm during the test. No super- 
visor will be allowed to remain more than 30 days at one place. 
The schedule is as follows : — 

1 day record $6.00 

2J day record $9.00 

7 or more days $2.25 per day 

For each T-day or 30-day record reported $1.00 

A single supervisor will not be required to test more than 6 cows 
milked 4 times a day ; 8 cows milked 3 times a day ; or 15 cows 
milked twice a day. 



HOLSTEIN RULES AND RECORDS 



349 



Supervisors will be sent to suit the convenience of owners as far 
as possible, but we cannot promise a supervisor for any definite date. 
Between October and June, application for supervisors should be 
made at least three weeks in advance, in order to be reasonably sure 
of a supervisor at the time desired. An application for a supervisor 
may be canceled or a date deferred at any time up to three days 
before the man is due. Supervisors will be sent to waiting owners 
in order of date of application. 

Holstein-Friesian records. 

The Holstein-Friesian Association has four prize divisions, with 
seven classes in each division. Following are the leading records for 
each class in three of the divisions, — the 7-day, 30-day, and the semi- 
official or yearly division. Breeders are not usually satisfied to have 
their cows merely qualify, but strive to see how much they can exceed 
the minimum requirements, which are as follows : — 

If the cow calves at two years of age or imder, 7.2 lb. fat in seven 
consecutive days. 

If the cow calves at three years of age, 8.8 lb. fat in seven con- 
secutive days. 

If the cow calves at four years of age, 10.4 lb. fat in seven con- 
secutive days. 

If the cow calves at five years of age or older, 12.0 lb. fat in seven 
consecutive days. 

If the cow calves between two and three years, or between three 
and four years, or between four and five years old, every day of in- 
creased age adds to the requirement of the year .00439 of a pound 
of fat. 

Leading oows in the 7-day division 



Namb or Cow 



Pontiac Pet 

Pontiac Clothilde De Kol 2d . 
Aaggie Cornucopia Pauline . 
Jessie Fobes Bessie Homestead 

K. P. Alcartra 

K. P. Metis 

Lockhart De Kol 

Cedar Lawn De Kol Johanna 



No. 


Agb 


Milk 


69710 


7-6-10 


690.7 


69991 


6-10-24 


646.1 


48426 


4-11- 4 


659.2 


100742 


4- 1-18 


671.3 


99163 


3- 9-19 


652.0 


110268 


3- 4-24 


664.2 


101644 


2-11-21 


666.9 


113565 


2-2-20 


513.7 



Fat 



30.142 
29.766 
27.459 
27.964 
24.692 
26.394 
23.418 
20.697 



350 



LIVE-STOCK RULES AND RECORDS 



Leading oows in the 30-day division ' 



Name of Cow 



Pietertje Maid Ormsby 

Pontiac Clothilde De Kol 2d . . . 
Aaggie Cornucopia Pauline . . . 
Jessie Fobes Bessie Homestead . . 
Lady Longfield 4th*8 Homestead Lass 
Bloomingdale Hengerveld Ormsby . 

Lockhart De Kol 

Edith Prescott Pontiac 



No. 


Aqb 


78051 


6- 4-14 


69991 


6-10-24 


48426 


4-11- 4 


100742 


4- 1-8 


100738 


3-11-19 


88658 


3- 5-12 


101544 


2-11-21 


123450 


2- 3-4 



Milk 



2,667.8 
2.588.4 
2.640.3 
2,886.0 
2,651.6 
2,093.9 
2,415.9 
1.728.8 



Fat 



116.530 

116.229 

110.093 

i 113.727 

99.536 

102.256 

93.226 

81.225 



Leading oows in the semi-official yearly division (Holstein) 



Colantha 4th's Johanna . . . . 

Vale de Kol Elliston 

Trixy Stone 

Pietertje Lass Aaggie Netherland 2d 
Pauline Johanna De Kol 2d . . . 
Prescott Mercedes Julip 2d . . . 
Copia Hengerveld 2d's Buttercup . 



48577 


a- 1-19 


27.432.5 


87448 


4- &- 4 


24.191.9 


82045 


4- 3- 2 


19.519.2 


104094 


3-10-10 


20.165.4 


97145 


3- 3- 9 


19,349.5 


101873 


2- 9-14 


19.153.4 


93139 


2- 3-26 


18.349.3 



998.260 
832.330 
645.010 
660.750 
639.154 
680.809 
679.950 



Ayrshire records, 

A cow is eligible for Advanced Registry in the Ayrshire Breeders' 
Association as follows : — 

No cow shall be admitted to Advanced Registxy unless she shall 
have been previously recorded in the Ayrshire Record. 

Two-year-old form. — Year's record. If her record begins the day 
she is two years old, or before that time, she shall, to entitle her to 
record, give not less than 6000 pounds of milk in 365 consecutive 
days from the beginning of the test and 214.3 pounds of butter fat, 
and for each day she is over two years old at time of beginning the 
test there shall be added 1.37 pounds of milk to the 6000 pounds 
and .06 pound of butter fat to the 214.3 pounds. 

Three-year-old form. — If her record begins the day she is three 
years old, she shall, to entitle her to record, give not less than 6500 
pounds of milk in 365 consecutive days from the beginning of the 
test and 236 pounds of butter fat, and for each day she is over three 
years old at the time of beginning the test there shall be added 2.74 
pounds of milk to the 6500 pounds and .12 pound of butter fat to 



AYRSHIRE RECORDS 



351 



the 236 pounds, which addition shall be made in each succeeding 
form to maturity. 

Four-year-old form, — Year's record — 7500 poimds of milk and 
279 pounds of butter fat. 

Maivre form. — Year's record — 8500 pounds of milk and 322 
pounds of butter fat. 

Two-year-old form (Ayrflhire) 



Name of Cow 



Hazel of Sand Hill 
Polly PuHB 2d . . 
Kasiab of Highland 
Ithandth. . . . 



Lb. Milk 



11.078 
11.060 
10,970 
10.398 



Lb. Fat 



627.13 
461.33 
425.47 
436.96 



Lb. BmnvB 



732 
638 
497 
610 



Three-year-old form 



McAliater's Betty . 
Matie of Sand Hill 
Bemice Clyde . . 
Keepsake 2d . . 
Curfew Bell . . . 



14.208 


681.41 


13.897 


693.16 


12.606 


629.36 


12.236 


634.38 


11,181 


602.99 



678 
692 
618 
623 
687 



Four-year-old form 






Bfftmie of Roffemont ..... r .. . 


14.102 
12.230 
11.934 
11.677 
11.448 


678.67 
610.67 
492.91 
447.72 
411.10 


676 


Cora T. 2d 


696 


Bell Ayer 


676 


Lady Douglan of Riverside 

Douslas Cordelia 


622 
480 







Mature cow class 



Netherall Brownie 9th . . . 

Rena Roes 

Midget of Sand Hill . . . . 
Auchenbrain White Beauty 2d 

Fern Ayer 

Auchenbrack Sweet Pea 2d 



18.110 


820.91 


16.072 


643.71 


14.433 


621.86 


13.789 


664.39 


13.601 


619.64 


13.097 


632.87 



968 
761 
609 
668 
606 
622 



Guernsey records. 

All cows admitted to the Advanced Register must previously be 
entered in The Herd Register of The American Guernsey Cattle 



352 



LIVESTOCK RUJjES AND RECORDS 



Club. Any such will be admitted into the Advanced Registry under 
any one or more of the following conditions : — 

Cows — a. Admitted for milk or butter-fat records and scaling 
over 75 points. 

Cows — ' 6. Admitted for milk and butter records without scaling. 

All cows admitted must equal or exceed one of the following : — 

Yearns milk record. — If record is commenced the day the animal is 
two years or previous to that day, she must produce within one year 
of that date, 6000 lb. of milk. For each day the animal is over two 
years old at the beginning of her year's record, the amount of milk 
she will be required to produce in the year will be established by 
adding 3.65 lb. for every such day to ihe 6000 lb., required when 
two years old. 

This ratio is applicable until the animal is five years old, when the 
required amount will have reached 10,000 lb. ; which will be the 
amoimt of milk required of all cows five years old or over. 

Year's buUer-fai record. — If record is commenced the day the ani- 
mal is two years old, or previous to that day, she must produce within 
one year from the date, 250.5 lb. butter fat. For each day the ani- 
mal is over two years old at the beginning of her year's period the 
amoimt of butter-fat she will be required to produce in the year, will 
be established by adding .1 (one tenth) of a pound for each such 
day, to the 250.5 lb. required when two years old. This ratio is 
applicable until the animal is five years old, when the required amount 
will have reached 360 lb., which wiU be the amount of buttei^fat 
required of aU cows five years old or over. These yearly standards 
are based upon one complete year's record from the time of beginning, 
regardless of the time lost by being dry or calving during that period, 
should such be the case. 

Class A. — 5 years and over 



Nami op Cow 



Aoa 


Lb. Milk 


Lb. 

Burm 

Fat 


PkbCxmt 

BUTTBB 
FXT 


Yr. Mo. 


9 6 
5 10 


14,920.80 
17.297.61 


867.16 
836.21 


6.74 
4.84 


5 5 


16.109.10 


778.80 


6.16 


9 3 
8 3 


14,009.89 
14.011.40 


776.69 
728.46 


5.62 
6.20 



Yeksa Sunbeam 16439, Adv. R. 331 . 
Dolly Bloom 1 2770. Adv. R. 40, Re-entiy 
JedetU of Pinehurat 17434. Adv. R. 602, 

Re-entxy 

Imp. Princess Rhea 16479. Adv. R. 69. 

Re-entry 

Modena 11779, Adv. R. 67. Re-entry . 



QUEBN8ET RECORDS 



353 



dasB B. — 4^ to 5 yean 



Namb op Oow 



AOB 



Yr. Mo. 



Lb. MnjE 



Lb. 

BOTTBB 

Fat 



Pk bCbm t 

BOTTBB 

Fat 



Missy of the Glen 18390, Adv. R. 936 

Imp. Itchen Daisy 3d 15630, Adv. R. 
100, Re-entxy 

Standard's Morning Glory 12801, Adv. 
R. 358 

Penthesilia 17625, Adv. R. 550, Re- 
entry 

Imp. ramrose of the Prevosts II. 22706, 
Adv. R. 938 



4 7 

4 7 

4 11 

4 11 

4 6 



14.591.70 
13,636.80 
12,917.00 
12,723.70 
9,266.01 



954.76 
714.10 
714.01 
658.39 
639.21 



6.54 
5.24 
5.53 
5.17 
6.90 



aasB C. — 4 to 4H years 



Honor Bright F. 17524, Adv. R. 875 . 
Yeksarose 16610, Adv. R. 472, Re-entry 
Yeksa Lind 14275. Adv. R. 377 
Portia of Maplehurst 10071. Adv. R. 22 
Spotswood Daisy Pearl 17696. Adv. R. 
790 



12.674.00 
11.710.40 
11.930.90 
11.622.65 

11,570.71 



694.64 
678.16 
650.56 
602.37 

572.67 



5.48 
5.79 
5.45 
5.18 

4.95 



Class D. ~ 33^ to 4 years 



DoUy Dimple 19144, Adv. R. 628. Re- 
entry 

RobiUne 2d 16117. Adv. R. 602 

Countess Fantine 14730, Adv. R. 344, 
Re-entry 

Miranda of Mapleton 19606. Adv. R. 
914 

Lavender of the Glen 18391, Adv. R. 
886 



3 


9 


3 


10 


3 


11 


3 


6 


3 


10 



18,458.80 
11,761.00 

11,363.00 

10,342.52 

10.203.90 



906.89 
603.59 

582.33 

565.97 

559.41 



4.91 
5.13 

5.13 

5.47 

5.48 



Class E. — 3 to 3>^ years 



Dairymaid of Pineburst 24656. Adv. 
R. 843, Re-entiy 

Dolly Bloom 12770, Adv. R. 40. Re- 
entry 

Emma McPeake 19995, Adv. R. 1074 

Modenall779, Adv. R. 67 . . . . 

Imp. Beatrice of the Isles 16005, Adv. 
R. 310 

2a 



14.562.40 

12.674.83 

9.451.90 

10,628.77 

8,975.66 



860.26 

623.94 
604.96 
580.32 

518.52 



5.91 

4.92 
6.40 
5.46 

5.78 



354 



LIVESTOCK MULMS AlfD JtMCOSDS 



Class F. — 234 to 3 years 








Aac 


Lb. Milk 


Lb. 

BUTTBB 

Fat 


PbbCbnt 

Butter 

Fat 




Yr. Mo. 


Yeksarose 16610. Adv. R. 472 .. . 
Lily of Hdendale 16916. Adv. R. 637 . 
Florham Pride 20163. Adv. R. 932 
Sister Sue of Mossgiel 17480. Adv. R. 

270 

Rigolette 16611. Adv. R. 483 .. . 


2 7 
2 9 
2 10 

2 7 
2 7 


11.276.60 
11.401.00 
10.860.60 

10.622.26 
11.622.30 


638.49 
600.49 
691.86 

682.37 
648.26 


6.66 
5.27 
6.45 

6.48 
4.71 



Class G. — 2 to 2H years 



Glenanaar of the Glen 23619. Adv. R. 

1060 

DoUy Dimple 19144. Adv. R. 628 . . 
Langwater Princess 22138, Adv.R.1044 
Manon of the Glen 21201. Adv. R. 886 
Langwater Dolly Bloom 22136. Adv. R. 

973 




12.229.90 
14.009.13 
12.280.60 
11.281.90 

10.381.00 


775.94 
703.36 
661.19 
617.66 

594.81 



6.34 
6.02 
6.30 
5.47 

6.73 



Jersey records. 

The regulations of the American Jersey Cattle Club governing 
" authenticated fat tests " are as follows : — 

Seven, fourteen, and thirty days* tests, — (1) In the case of tests for 
* seven, fourteen or thirty days, the Babcock method must be applied 
to a sample of the milk of every milking during the test, and the 
milk of every milking must be weighed. 

No record will be accepted of a test of less than twelve pounds of 
butter-fat in seven consecutive days. 

No record will be accepted of a test for a period of ninety con- 
secutive days or any shorter period down to seven days unless the 
butter-fat amounts, on the average, to one and seven-tenths pounds 
per day. 

Year*s tests. — (2) Year's tests must be authenticated by appl3ring 
the Babcock test to a sample of the milk of every milking during 
two consecutive days in each month. 

If a test for the period of one year is commenced the day the 
cow is two years old. or previous to that day, she must produce, 
within one year from the date the test begins, 250.5 pounds butter- 



JERSEY RECORDS 366 

fat. For each day the cow is over two years old at the beginning 
of her year's test, the amount of butter-fat she must produce in the 
year is fixed by adding 0.1 (one-tenth) of a pound for each such day 
to the 250.5 pounds required when two years old. This ratio of 
increase applies until the cow is five years old at the beginning of 
her test, when the required amount will have reached 360 pounds, 
which will be the amount of butter-fat required of all cows five 
years old or over. These standards are based upon one complete 
year's record from the time of beginning, regardless of any time which 
may be lost by being dry or calving during that period. 

The production of butter-fat for each month is to be estimated from 
the results obtained by the official application of the Babcock test. 
The milk of every milking during the continuance of a test must be 
weighed, and, in reporting the test to the Club, must be set forth in 
detail and certified to on a form provided for the purpose. 

"Authenticated milk tests" of the American Jersey Cattle Club 
are as follows, (authentication consists of a check by the tester 
for two successive days per month, on which days he shall weigh the 
milk of every milking and report the same to the Club. Such milk 
yields as meet any of the following requirements may be received 
and published as authenticated milk yields) : — 

K a test for the period of one year is commenced the day the cow 
is two years old, or previous to that day, she must produce within 
one year from the date the test begins 6,000 pounds of milk. For 
each day the cow is over two years old at the beginning of her year's 
test, the amount of milk she must produce in the year is fixed by 
adding 3.65 pouads for each such day to the 6,000 pounds required 
when two years old. This ratio of increase applies until the cow is 
five years old at the beginning of her test, when the required amount 
will have reached 10,000 pounds, which will be the amount of milk 
required of all cows five years old or over. These standards are 
based upon one complete year's record from the time of beginning, 
regardless of any time which may be lost by being dry or calving 
during that period. 

A cow meeting the requirements as to year's milk yield as stated 
above is eligible to the Register of Merit. 



366 LIVESTOCK RULES AND RECORDS 

Highest Jersey Records made to January 31, 1911 

Confirmed huUer testa 
Churned Butter. — 

SisDagmar 147286, 20 lb. 2.5 os. in seven days. 
Butter-Fai, — 

Ck>unte88 Matilda 74928, 16 lb. 15.5 os. in seven days. 
Milk.— 

Sig Dagmar 147286, 385 lb. 13 os. in seven days. 

Authentieaied fat eatimatea for one year 

Class 1. — Cows undbb 2 Ybabb 
Butter^Fai. — 

Yolette of Sheomet 208614, 433 lb. 13 os. in one year. 
MUk.— 

Yolette of Sheomet 208614, 8645 lb. in one year. 
Pereentage of Fat. — 

Gedney Farm Agatha's Bay Oirl 201358, 6.038%, average for one year. 

Class 2. — Cows 2 Ybabs Ain> ttndbb 2}^ Ybabs 
Butter-Fat. — 

Pearly ExUe St. Lambert 205101, 816 lb. 1.27 os. in one year. 
MUk.—- 

Pearly Exile St. Lambert 205101, 12345 lb. 8 os. in one year. 
Pereentage of Fai. — 

Pearly Exile St. Lambert 205101, 6.61%, average for one srear. 

Class 3. — Cows 2\i Ybabs and undbb 3 Ybabs 
BuXt/er-Fai. — 

Lass 38th of Hood Farm 223628, 544 lb. 14.8 os. in one jrear. 
MQk.— 

Merry Miss 180051, 11152 lb. in one year. 
Percentage of Fai. — 

Lassie of Sheomet 180927, 7.023%, average for one year. 

Class 4. — Cows 3 Ybabs and ttndbb Zy^ Ybabs 
BuUer-Fai. — 

Landseer's Pacific Pearl 205097, 659 lb. 6.6 os. in one year. 
MUk.— 

Gertie of Glynllsm 2d 206903, 13198 lb. 1.6 os. in one year. 
Pereentage of Fai. — 

Landseer's Pacific Pearl 205097, 7.289%, average for one year. 

Class 5. — Cows 3^ Ybabs and undbb 4 Ybabb 
Butter-Fat. — 

Lass 30th of Hood Farm 214511, 684 lb. 13.9 os., in one year. 
MUk.— 

Lass 30th of Hood Farm 214511, 11990 lb. 5 os. in one year. 
Percenlaoe of Fat. — 

Tormentor's Luna Altama 185538, 6.758%, average for one year. 

Class 6. — Cows 4 Ybabs and undbb A\i Ybabb 
Butter-Fat. — 

Spermfield Owl's Dawson 193935, 629 lb. 2.3 os. in one year. 
Milk.— 

Spermfield Owl's Dawson 193935, 11585 lb. 11 os. in one year. 
Pereentaqe of Fai. — 

Adelaide Marigold 158219, 6.569%, average for one year. 



FAST HORSES 



357 



Class 7. — Cows 4>^ Ybabs and undbb 5 Ybabs 
BuUer-Fai. — 

Sophie 19th of Hood Farm 189748, 854 lb. 13.7 os. in one year. 
Milk.— 

Sophie 19th of Hood Farm 189748. 14373 lb. 3 os. in one year. 
Percentage of Fai. — 

Red Roee of St. Saviour's 197620, 6.606%, average for one year. 

Class 8. — Cows 5 Ybabs and Ovsb 
BuUer-Fat. — 

Jacoba Irene 146443, 952 lb. 15.4 os. in one year. 
Milk.— 

Jaooba Irene 146443, 17253 lb. 3.2 os. in one year. 
Percentage of Fai. — 

Olive Dunn 188832, 6.766%, average for one year. 

HlOHBST RbCOBDS AT ANT AOB IN YbAB'S TbST 

Butter-Fat. — 

Jacoba Irene 146443, 952 lb. 15.4 os. in one year. 
Miik.— 

Jacoba Irene 146443, 17253 lb. 3.2 os. in one year. 
Percentage of Fat. — 

Landaeer's Pacific Pearl 205097, 7.289%, average for one year. 

Authenticated fat eetimatea for seven days 
Butter-Fat. — 

Jaooba Irene 146443, 20 lb. 8.8 os. in seven days. 
Milk.— 

Jaooba Irene 146443, 444 lb. 6.4 os. in seven days. 
Percentage of Fai. — , 

Lome's Oonan 135969, 7.3%, average for seven dsys. 



Fast Horse Records ^ 

Trottere 

Arranged according to record to close of 1910 

Lou Dillon, ch. m., by Sidney Dillon, 23157 
Uhlan, bl. g., by Bingen, 29567 .... 
Major Delmar. b. g., by Delmar, 13313 
The Harvester, br. h., by Walnut Hall, 31641 
Hamburg Belle, b. m., by Axworthy, 24845 
Sweet Marie, b. m., by McKinney, 8818 . 
Cresceus, ch. h., by Robert McGregor, 647 
The Abbott, b. g., by Chimes. 5348 . . 
Alix, b. m., by Patronage, 4143 .... 
Highball, b. g.. by Dr. Hooker, 24518 . . 
Nancy Hanks, br. m., by Happy Medium, 400 
Jack Leybum. ch. g.. by Alto Leyburn, 38399 
Peniaa Maid, b. m., by Pennant, 1968 . . 
Sonoma Girl. b. m.. by Lynwood W., 32835 . 
Bob Douglas, gr. h., by Todd, 33822 . . . 

> Abbreviations are as follows : — 

ch., chestnut in color. br., brown, 

bl., black. gr., gray, 

b., bay. p., pacer. 



1:58| 

1:58} 

1:59} 

2:01 

2:0U 

2:02 

2:02| 

2:03| 

2:03} 

2:03} 

2:04 

2:04i 

2:04 

2 : 04 

2:04 



8m 
m., 
h.. 



gelding. 

mare. 

horse. 



358 



LIVESTOCK RULES AND RECORDS 



Pacers 
Airanged according to record to close of 1910 
Dan Patch, br. h., by Joe Patchen, 30239 
Minor Heir, b. h., by Heir-at-Law. 14035 
Audubon Boy. ch. h.. by J. J. Audubon. 16995 
Star Pbinter, b. h., by Brown Hal, 16935 
Prince Alert, b. g., by Crown Prince . . . 
Dariel. b. m., by Alcander. 6617 .... 
John R. Gentry, b. h.. by Ashland Wilkes, 2291 
Lady Maud C, ch. m., by Chitwood, 5212 . 
Bolivar, b. g., by Wayland W., 22510 . . . 
The Broncho, b. m., by Stormcliffe, 11674 
Copa de Oro, b. h., by Nutwood Wilkes, 22116 
Hedgewood Boy, ch. h., by Chitwood, 5215 . 
Joe Patchen, bl. h., by Patchen Wilkes, 3550 
Little Boy, b. g., by Kenton, 6779 .... 
Robert J., b. g., by Hartford, 3574 .... 

Fastest records for one mile 
To Sulky-Race 
Minor Heir, p., br. h., by Heir-at-Law 

To Sulky — Against Time 
Dan Patch, p., br. h., by Joe Patchen 

To Wagon — Race 
Angus Pointer, p., b. g., by Sidney Pointer 

To Wagon —Against Time 
Dan Patch, p. br. h., by Joe Patchen 

Under Saddle 
Country Jay, ch. g., by Jayhawker 

Team Record — In a Race 
Charles B., p., bl. g.. by Octoroon | 
Bobby Hal, p., b. g., by Octoroon ) 

Team Record — Against Time 

Hedgewood Boy. p.. ch. h., by Chitwood j 

Lady Maud C, p., ch. m., by Chitwood ) 

Team, Three Abreast — Against Time 
Belle Hamlin, b. m., by Almont Jr. } 

Globe, b. g., by Almont Jr. > 

Justina, b. m., by Almont Jr. ) 

Team, Four-in-Hand — Against Time 

Damania. ch. m., by Nutmeg 
Belnut, ch. g.. by Nutmeg 
Maud V, ch. m., by Nutmeg 
Nutspra, ch. m. by Nutmeg 

With Running Mate — Races 
Frank, b. g., by Abraham 

With Running Mate — Against Time 
Flying Jib, p., b. g, by Algona 



1901 
1905 
1904 
1903 
1909 
1900 



1:591 

1:59^ 

1: 

2:00| 

2:00i 

2: 

2: 

2: 

2:01 

2:01 

2: OH 

2:0U 

2: Oil 



2:00! 
1:55! 
2:041 
1:57J 
2:08! 
2:13 



1909 2:02! 



1891 2 : 14 



1896 2 : 30 



1883 
1894 



2:081 
1:58! 



FAST HOBSSS 359 

Fastest records far two miles 

In Harness — Race 
Monette, bl. m.. by Monon 1804 4:45 

In Harness — Against Time 
The Harvester, br. h., by Walnut Hall 1010 4 : 15^ 

To Waflon — Race 
Dexter, br. g.» by Hambletonian 10 1866 4 : 56| 

To Waeon — Against Time 
Ed Byran, b. g., by Little Corporal 1007 4 : 43 

To Road Wagon — Against Time 
Temple Hope, b. h., by Norval 1005 5 : 14| 

Under Saddle 
George M. Patchen, b. h., by C. M. Clay 1863 4 : 56 

Fastest records for three miUs 

In Harness — Raoe 

Fairywood, b. g., by Melbourne 1805 7 : 16| 

In Harness — Against Time 
Nightingale, oh. m., by Mambrino King 1803 6 : 55| 

Fastest records for four miles 

In Harness — Race 
Longfellow, p., oh. g., by Red Bill 1860 10:34| 

In Harness — Against Time 
Joe Jefferson, p., br. h., by Thomas Jefferson 1801 10 : 10 

Fastest records for Jive miles 

In Harness — Race 

Zambra. b, g., by McKinney 1002 12:24 

In Harness — Against Time 
Pftscal, bl. g.. by Pascarel 1803 12:45 

Fastest records for six miles 

In Harness — Against Time 

Long Time. b. g., by Jack Rowett 1803 16 : 08 

For ten miles 

In Harness — Race 

Controller, b. g., by May Boy 1878 27:23^ 

In Harness — Against Time 
John Stewart, b. g., by Tom Wonder 1867 28 : 02i 

For eighteen miles 
In Harness — Race 
Bill, ch. g., pedigree unknown 1885 58 : 10 



360 LIVESTOCK RULES AND RECORDS 

For twenty miles 
Capt. MoGowan, roan h., pedigree unknown 1865 68 : 25 

For thirty miles 
Gen. Taylor, gr. h., by Morse Horse 1857 1:47:59 

For thirty^wo miles 
Chancellor, gr. h., by Chancellor 1831 1:58:00 

For fifty miles 
Black Joke, bl. g.. pedigree not traced 1835 3 : 57 : 00 

For one hundred miles 
Conqueror, b. g., by Bellfounder 1853 8 : 55 : 53 

Fastest records at different decades since 1800 

Yankee 1800-1810 2:59 

Boston Horse, ch. g 1810-1820 2:48| 

Bowery Boy, p., p^igree unknown 1820-1830 (2 miles) 5 : 04| 

Drover, p., b. g., pedigree unknown 1830-1840 2 : 28 

Unknown, p., ch. g., breeding unknown . . . 1840-1850 2 : 23 

Pocahontas, p., ch. m., by Cadmus 1850-1860 2:17- 

BiUy Boyce. p., b. g., by Corbeau 1860-1870 2:14: 

Sleepy Tom, p., ch. g., by Tom Rolfe .... 1870-1880 2 : 12; 

Johnston, p., b. g., by Joe Bassett 1880-1890 2 : 06 : 

StarPointer, p., b. h.,byBrown Hal .... 1890-1900 1:59- 

Dan Patch, p., br. h., by Joe Patchen .... 1900-1910 1:55;: 

Proflt-and-lo88 Figures 
Profii or loss in dairy cows (Conn. Agric. Coll.) 

The cow is charged with the cost of food eaten at regular market 
rates, in the locality where the herds were tested. The prices for 
the year averaged as follows : Hay $16 per ton, silage S3.50 per ton, 
and grain S30 per ton. Besides the cost of food, each cow was sub- 
ject to a fixed charge of $45 for conducting the business, obtained as 
follows : — 

Bedding for one year $2.00 

Service of bull 1.00 

Labor 27.00 

Interest on investment 6.00 

Taxes 60 

Insurance 40 

Depreciation 8.00 

$45.00 

It was estimated that one good man would do the work for 20 
cows, including milking, feeding, handling of the milk, and delivering 
it to the depot, washing all utensils used about the bam, etc. Such 



PROFIT AND LOSS WITH ANIMALS 



361 



a man would be kept busy caring for twenty cows. If his wages were 
S45 per month, it would therefore make a labor bill of 127 per cow 
per year. 

The next item is one of interest on investment. Allowing S60 
as the value of the cow, and S60 as each cow's share of the investment 
in bam, tools, etc., the total investment per cow is S120. Interest 
at 5 per cent equals S6 per cow. Taxes at ten mills on one-half 
valuation calls for 60 cents, and insurance for at least 40 cents. These 
interest charges must not be overlooked in any careful reckonmg. 

The last item in the general bill of expense is one of S8 per year 
for depreciation in the value of the cow. Unfortunately money put 
into cows is not a permanent investment. The period of usefulness 
of dairy cows will not average over four or five years. A large num- 
ber turn out to be poor milkers not worth keeping, and must be sold 
at a loss. Others are ruined by accident and by sickness, so that prob- 
ably five years covers the average milking period of dairy cows. 



Summary for one herd of 16 cowa for the year^ Ftbrtiary to F^tmary 















Total Cost 
















for TBB 












Total 




Ybab. 






Lb. OF 




Valub of 


Incomb fob 




CBARGING 


NbtPbofit 


AoB or 

Cow 


Milk 


AVBBAOB 


MiLXFOB 


TBB Ybar, 


CO«T OF 


$46 PBB 


OBliOflS 


GIVEN 


PbbCbnt 


TBB Ybab 


COUNTINa 


Food fob 


Cow FOB 


FOB TBB 


FOR HUB 


Fat 


AT 4 Cbmts 


Mabubb 


TBB Ybab 


Labob, Db- 


Ybab fbb 




Ybab 




pbbQuabt 


AND Calf 

WOBTH $12 




pbbciation, 

Taxbs, 

Insurancb, 

Etc. 


Cow 


3 


3289 


6.0 


S61.18 


$68.18 


$34.68 


$67.18 


$11.00 


10 


4312 


3.6 


80.23 


86.39 


36.69 


64.44 


31.96 


3 


3209 


4.2 


69.69 


66.86 


32.93 


61.68 


14.17 


3 


2634 


4.0 


49.00 


64.33 


31.66 


46.66 


7.77 


9 


4507 


3.1 


83.84 


96.84 


62.94 


107.94 


- 12.10 


8 


7686 


3.1 


142.98 


164.98 


71.67 


116.67 


38.31 


9 


6736 


3.0 


126.40 


137.40 


69.70 


114.70 


22.70 


9 


7493 


3.6 


139.40 


161.40 


76.86 


120.86 


30.66 


9 


7863 


2.9 


146.10 


168.10 


71.00 


116.00 


42.10 


— 


6464 


3.2 


120.07 


132.07 


70.16 


116.16 


16.92 


10 


6678 


4.3 


106.64 


117.64 


63.40 


108.40 


9.24 


8 


6439 


3.6 


101.20 


113.20 


68.13 


103.13 


10.07 


9 


1804 


4.3 


33.67 


39.73 


26.66 


44.41 


-4.68 


6 


6214 


3.7 


116.62 


127.62 


68.29 


113.29 


14.23 


10 


6738 


6.1 


106.76 


118.76 


61.98 


106.98 


11.78 


8 


7023 


2.9 


130.6 


14.96 


69.14 


96.64 


44.32 



362 LIVE-STOCK RULES AND RECORDS 

Profit or loss in fattening steers (Nebraska Bulletin 116) 
84 days' feeding 

Initial cost of 1043-pound steer (^S6.00 per cwt. $52.15 

Cost of 1680-pound8 com @ 52c per bu. 15.60 

Cost of 640-corn-8tover @ 4.00 per T. 1.28 

Cost of 570-alfalfa hay @ 7.00 per T. 2.00 

Risk, labor, and shelter 5.00 

Total cost .... 76.03 

Selling price, 1274-pound steer 6.02 per owt. 76.70 

Value of manure 5.00 

Income 81.70 

Total cost of steer . . 76.03 

Total profit .... 5.67 

Profit per $1.00 invested .08 

Profit or loss in fattening sheep (Obio Bulletin 187) 
06 days' feeding 

Initial cost of 50-pound lamb ®$6.00 per cwt. $3.00 

Cost of 134 pounds com @ 40c per bu. .96 

Cost of 125 pounds clover hay @ 12.00 per T. .75 

Risk, labor and shelter .50 

Total cost .... 5.21 

Selling price, 74-pound lamb & 7.00 per c¥rt. 5.18 

Value of manure .60 

Income 5.78 

Total cost .... 5.21 

Profit .57 

Profit per $ 1.00 invested .11 

Profit or loss in fattening swine (Indiana Bulletin 137) 

60 days' feeding 

Initial cost of 115-pound hog @ $5.25 per cwt. $6.04 

Cost of 214 pounds corn-meal @ 18.00 per T. 1.93 

Cost of 214 pounds middlings <d 25.00 per T. 2.67 

Risk, labor, and shelter .75 

Total cost .... 11.39 

Selling price, 234-pound hog @ 5.25 12.29 

Value of manure .60 

Total income .... 12.79 

Total cost .... 11.39 

Profit 1.40 

Ptofit per $ 1.00 mvested .12 

Cow-testing Associations (Cornell Station) 

All evidence goes to show that the dairy business meuntiuns a faurly 

profitable status only because good individual cows make up for the 
deficiencies of the poor ones. The elimination of poor producing 



COW-TESTINO ASSOCIATIONS 363 

animals is undoubtedly the first step toward improvement, and this 
elimination cannot be successfully brought about unless records of in- 
dividual production of each cow are systematically kept, and along 
with such records of production, it is also, if not absolutely essential, at 
least highly desirable, that a record of food consumed as well be kept. 

There is no reason why any dairyman should not himself keep the 
records that are necessary for this selection, but the fact that most 
dairymen do not keep such records has led to the formation of cow- 
testing associations, so that the ordinary dairyman by cooperative 
effort may secure information at small cost that in most cases he 
would not take the trouble to secure for himself. 

Cow-testing Associations may be organized in various ways and 
under various plans, and each association should be organized with 
due regard to its own local conditions. The essential feature in any 
organization is to secure a good, reliable, trustworthy, and painstaking 
man to do the work. Such organizations have now been in successful 
operation in other states for several years, and it would seem that 
the time is ripe for the dairymen of New York State to avail them- 
selves of these organizations in order to make their business more 
satisfactory and more profitable. 

The most feasible method of organizing such associations seems 
to be for twenty-five or twenty-six dairies to associate themselves into 
a cow-testing association, each owner agreeing to weigh the milk of each 
cow every day, and the tester to test the milk of each cow at least 
for one day each month. This may be done by the tester himself 
visiting the individual farms in turn and taking the samples and making 
the test ; or it may be done by the owners themselves taking the 
samples and carrying them to a central point to be tested. In either 
case the tester makes the tests, calculates the production of fat for 
the cow for the month, and makes record of the same and of the food 
consumed, and reports regularly to the owner on blanks furnished for 
the purpose. 

The details of carrying out this work may be varied to suit con- 
ditions. In any case it would require the services of a reliable man 
for his whole time, and this man will have to be paid a fair salary. 
Experience has shown that an assessment of one dollar for each cow 
represented in the association will cover the expense of the work for 
a year, and in some cases it has been done for somewhat less than this. 



364 



LIVE-STOCK BULKS AND BKCOBDS 



Apparatus required. 

Babcock tester, not less than 10-bottle size, and if to be used in a 
creamery where steam is available, at least 24-bottle size. Babcock 
glassware (state brand). At least twice as many test bottles as the 
capacity of the machine, with acid measure, pipettes, thermometer, etc. 

Sulfuric acid, — about a pint or two pounds per cow per year. 

Sixty-poimd spring balance scales, graded to tenths. 

As many wide-mouth sample bottles as there are cows in the largest 
herd to be tested. Each bottle should be supplied with a numbered 
metal band, or otherwise plainly and durably labeled. 

A supply of record blanks, ruled so that the whole record for a cow 
for a year can be entered upon it. 

The cost of the above should be approximately as follows : — 

Wages of man one year at $50 per month $600.00 



10-bottle Babcock tester, $10, U, original cost each year 

Extra glassware and breakage 

125 gal. sulfuric add at 55 cents gal 

1 set spring balances 

4 doien sample bottles 

Record blanks / 



2.50 
10.00 
67.75 

5.00 

10.00 

20.00 

$715.25 



Value of cow-iesiing associationa in Virginia (Virginia Bulletin 190) 


1 


3 


II 

II 


1 

8 


Valub of Fat 
AT 30 Cents 
AND 25 Cents 
Pee Pound 


Value of 
Skim Milk at 
25 Cents pee 
100 Pounds 


ii 

i 


65h 


1 


1 


1 


8109 


4.33 


351.12 


$102.09 


$16.22 


$118.31 


$44.64 


$73.77 




2 


5023 


5.20 


261.20 


76.12 


10.04 


86.16 


* 




41.62 




3 


4897 


5.13 


251.22 


72.87 


9.79 


82.66 


t 




38.12 




4 


4573 


5.30 


242.38 


' 69.70 


9.14 


78.84 


t 




34.30 




5 


4423 


5.33 


235.75 


68.36 


8.85 


77.21 


« 




32.67 




6 


4805 


4.63 


222.47 


63.99 


9.61 


73.60 


• 




29.06 




7 


4100 


5.20 


213.20 


59.73 


8.20 


67.93 


• 




23.39 




8 


3808 


5.33 


202.97 


58.05 


7.61 


65.66 


r 




21.12 




9 


3128 


5.83 


192.36 


55.70 


6.25 


61.95 


< 




17.41 




10 


3164 


5.27 


166.74 


47.85 


6.33 


54.18 


• 




9.64 




11 


2850 


5.75 


163.88 


47.13 


5.70 


52.83 






8.29 




12 


3215 


4.80 


154.32 


44.08 


6.43 


50.51 






6.97 




13 


2755 


5.13 


141.33 


40.56 


5.51 


46.07 


M 




1.53 




14 


2835 


4.60 


130.41 


37.56 


5.67 


43.23 








1.31 


15 


2345 


5.13 


120.30 


34.15 


4.69 


38.84 


t« 




6.70 




4002 


5.13 


203.31 






$66.66 


$44.54 


$21.99 





CHAPTER XX 



Poultry 



The term pauUry is used to designate all birds that are in the 
nature of farm animals or farm live-stock, as chickens, geese, ducks, 
turkeys. Birds grown merely as pets or fancy animals, or to stock 



f^if/e 



-^//— - 



Cifs/i/an 



!(■ 



n 



■■^'i 









^€7rloi?e3 


'J Jlr 


^mn^ 



^^f^-' 



/rei 



^W 






/Tee/ 



/li^^a/rren- 



Fio. 6. — Parts of a fowl. 



R>Qt 



game preserves, are not classed as poultry ; but when any of these 
birds come to be grown as food animals (as pigeons), they are practi- 
cally included with other domestic fowls under the general denomi- 
nation of poultry. 

365 



366 



POULTRY 



Standud Weights of Pooltiy in Pounds (Am. Poultry Assoo., 1910) 



Cook 


COCKSRBL 


Hbm 


9.6 


8.0 


7.6 


8.6 


7.6 


6.6 


9.6 


8.0 


7.6 


8.6 


. 7.6 


6.6 


9.0 


8.0 


6.0 


12.0 


10.0 


9.6 


11.0 


9.0 


8.6 


11.0 


9.0 


9.5 


9.6 


8.0 


7.5 


9.0 


7.6 


7.6 


8.0 


6.6 


6.6 


8.0 


6.6 


6.6 


0.0 


6.0 


6.0 


7.6 


6.5 


6.0 


8.0 


7.0 


6.6 


9.0 


8.0 


7.0 


7.6 


6.0 


6.0 


10.0 


8.6 


8.0 


7.6 


6.6 


6.6 


8.0 


7.0 


7.0 


8.6 


7.6 


7.6 


9.0 


8.0 


7.0 


8.0 


7.0 


6.0 


9.0 


7.0 


7.0 


26 OS. 


24 OS. 


24 OS. 


20 OS. 


22 OS. 


22 OS. 


26 OS. 


22 OS. 


22 OS. 


26 OS. 


22 OS. 


22 OS. 


30 OS. 


26 OS. 


26 OS. 


26 OS. 


22 OS. 


22 OS. 


26 OS. 


22 OS. 


22 OS. 


22 OS. 


20 OS. 


20 OS. 



PUIAOT 



Plymouth Rocks, all varieties . . 
Wyandottes, all varieties .... 

Javas, all varieties 

Rhode Island Red 

Buckeye 

Brahma, light 

Dark 

Cochins, all varieties 

Langshans, all varieties .... 
Minorca, Single-comb Black . . . 
Minorca, Single-comb White and 

Rose-comb Black 

White-Faced Black Spanish . . . 

Blue Andalusians 

Dorking, White 

Silver-Gray 

Colored 

Redcap . '. . . . ^ 

Orpingtons, all varieties .... 

Houdan 

CrevecoBur 

La Fleche 

Cornish 

White-laced Red 

Black-breasted Red Malay . . . 
Black-breasted Red Malay Bantam 

Sebright Bantam 

Rose-comb Bantam 

Booted White Bantam .... 

Brahma Bantam 

Japanese Bantam 

Polish Bantam 

Game Bantam 

Leghorns, Ancona, Polish, Hamburgs, Games, 

standard weights 
Turkey, Bronse 

Narragansett 

White Holland .... 

Black 

Buff 

Slate 

Bourbon Red 



Sumatra, Sultan, 



Duck, Pekin . . 

Aylesbury . . 

Rouen . . . 

Cayuga . . . 
Crested White 

Muscovy . . 

Blue Swedish . 



36 
30 
28 
27 
27 
27 
30 

Adult 
Drake 

9 
9 
9 
8 

7 

10 

8 



33 


26 


20 


18 


20 


18 


18 


18 


18 


18 


18 


.18 


22 


18 


Young 


Adult 


Diake 


Duek 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


7 


7 


6 


6 


8 


7 


6.6 


7 



6.0 
6.5 
6.6 
5.0 
6.0 
8.0 
7.0 
7.0 
0.6 
6.6 

6.6 
6.6 
4.0 
5.0 
6.6 
6.0 
6.0 
7.0 
6.5 
6.0 
6.5 
6.0 
6.0 
6.0 

22 OS. 

20 OS. 

20 OS. 

20 OS. 

24 OS. 

20 OS. 

20 OS. 

18 OS. 
Friasle, n 

20 
12 
14 
12 
12 
12 
14 

Yoong 
Duck 

7 
7 
7 
6 
6 

5.5 



SCORE-CARD 



367 



Standard Weights of Poultry — Continued 



Ck>CK COCKIBBL HXN 



PULLBT 



Goose, Toulouse . 
Embden . . . 
African . . . 
Chinese . . . 
Candian or Wild 
Egjrptian . . 



Adult 
Qander 

26 
20 
20 
12 
12 
10 



Young 
Qander 

20 
18 
16 
10 
10 
8 



Adult 
Qooae 

20 
18 
18 
10 
10 
8 



Young 
Goose 

16 

16 

14 

8 

8 

6 



Descriptive Score-Card for Stsndgxd Poultry 

American clou (Ck>rnell) 



SacrnoN 


PsarBcr Scobs 


DsFBcrs DT Sbapb 


Shape 


Color 


Symmetry .... 
Weight or sise . . . 
Condition .... 
Head and beak . . 
Eyes 


8 
6 
4 

3 


3 


Rangy, blocky, unbalanced. 

Over, under, undeveloped. 

Not alert, low vitality, dirty, poor, fat. 
r Flat, lone, short, narrow, coarse. 
\ Sunken, dull, droopy. 

Sinole and Pea 


Comb 


8 




Extra points, few points, uneven, 
wrinkled, twisted, thumbmark, back 
slope, coarse texture. , 

Rose 


Wattles and ear lobes . 


2 




Low front, hollow center, spike high, 

spike low, spike small. 
Long. irreguUr, unequal, torn, wrinkled, 

coarse. 


Neck 

Wings 


3 
4 




Long, short, not arched, hackle undevel- 
oped, scant at sides, scant at shoulders. 

Outside: High, low, large, small. 

Inside: Feather out, broken, improperly 
folded. 

Roach back, narrow, drooping, deficient 
cushion. 

High, low, pinched, sickles short, coverts 
scant, feathers out, broken. 

Narrow, flat, shallow. 

Narrow, too low, tucked up, crooked keel. 


Back 

Tail 

Breast 

Body and fluff . . . 


6 

4 

5 
3 


3 








Unfeathered Varieties 


Legs and toes . . . 


3 


3 
30 


Long, short, feathered stubs or down, 
knock-kneed, thin, crooked, injured. 


Perfect Score . . . 


K 





368 



POULTRY 



For Asiatic fowls, the Cornell score runs : Symmetry, 8 ; weight 
or size, 6 ; condition, 5 ; head, beak and eyes, 3 for shape and 3 for 
color ; comb, 8 ; wattles and ear-lobes, 5 ; neck, 4 for shape and 6 
for color ; wings, 4 and 4, back, 4 and 5 ; tail, 
4 and 5 ; breast, 5 and 5 ; body and fluff, 5 
and 3 ; legs and toes, 8. (The reader may 
wish to compare these categories with scores 
for other live-stock in Chap. XXI.) 

Bggs 
Scoring and judging one dozen eggs (ComeQ). 

Disqualificalums. — Extremes in size and 
shape ; very rough, freckled eggs in extras 
and firsts, dirty, or cracked shells ; badly 
spotted interior, or eggs having a noticeably 
loose content. 

The entire dozen is discarded when more 
than two eggs are disqualified. 

Eggs weighing one-half ounce more or less 
than the average for that dozen shall be 
disqualified for extras and firsts. 

When two or less eggs are disqualified, de- 
duct from the final score or the dozen, 8 
points for each egg disqualified. A disquali- 
fied egg is not scored with the remainder of 
the dozen. 

GVadc«. — "Extras" (XXXX). Large 
and uniform in size and color, weighing 26-30 
ounces per dozen, and scoring 90 points. 

" Firsts" (XXX). Good size and uniform 
in size and color, weighing 24-26 ounces per 
dozen, and scoring 90 points. 
Weighing 20-24 ounces per dozen, and scoring 




Fio. 7. —Skeleton of cock. 

1, cranium; 2, septum inter- 
orbitale; 3, beak; 4, man- 
dible ; 6, cervical vert^ne ; 
6, scapula; 7, humerus; 
8, radius ; 9, ulna ; 10, met- 
acarpal bone; 11, thumb 
bone; 12, middle finger; 
13, third finger; 14, furcula 
or wish-bone; 15, coracoid 
bone ; 16, sternum ; 17, crest 
or ked of sternum ; 18. ribs ; 
19, pelvis; 20, caudal ver^ 
tebns; 21, femur; 22, pa- 
tella; 23. tibia; 24, fibula; 
25, metatarsus; 26. spur; 
27, hind toe; 28, inner toe; 
29, middle toe; 30, outer 
toe. — Cydo. Amer. Agrict 
after Ellenberger. 



" Seconds 
80 per cent. 

" Thirds " 
per dozen. 

Each grade allows the possibility of a 100 per cent score. 



" (XX). 
(X). No weight clause required. 



Standard 24 ounces 



SCORE-CARDS FOR EGOS 



369 



" Seconds ''include mixed eggs both of size and color, but they must 
be necessarily fresh. This grade would take ordinary farmers' fresh 



All preserved and cold storage eggs are debarred by the score of 
80 per cent from every class except " thirds." 

The standard weight for each grade shall be the highest weight 
mentioned for that grade. 



Students' seore-card for a dozen eggs 



Value 

SSCTION 



l8t 

Dox. 



2d 
Dos. 



3d 
Dox. 



4th 
Dox. 



5th 
Dox. 



6th 
Dox. 



Grade 

Shape 

Color 

Condition of shell . . . 
Appearance at candling . 
Yoik, quality of ... . 
White, quality of . . . 
Cut for disqualified em . 
Cut for under-Btandard 
weight 

Total cuts .... 

Final score .... 



12 
12 
12 
14 
25 
25 



Explanation of score-card : 

Shape. — The shape should be uniformly oval throughout the dozen. 

Color. — The color should be uniform over the entire shell and 
throughout the dozen. The standard should be a clear, pure white 
for white eggs and a rich, dark brown for brown eggs. 

Condition of shell. — The shell should be spotlessly clean and un- 
smeared or glossy by washing. It should be of uniformly firm condition 
throughout, not twisted or folded. 

Appearance at candling. — The contents should be clear and trans- 
parent, the yolk being scarcely perceptible. The air space should be 
very small. A large air space indicates greater age of the egg, except 
in water glass eggs. 

An egg must necessarily be broken for scoring the yolk and white. 

YoUe. — The yolk should be a rich golden in color, and should keep 
its shape when opened into a saucer. It should show no spots other 
than the germinal disc, and should be of a sweet, agreeable odor. 
2b 



370 POULTRY 

While. — The white or albumen of the egg should be fresh, sweet, 
clear, and viscous. The two layers of albumen should be of a distinctly 
different consistency, — the one very viscous, the other rather watery. 

Scale of cuts : 

Shape (one point for each egg). — Cut to the limit in proportion 
to the defect and then disqualify. 

Color (one poiat for each egg). — Cut to the limit in proportion to 
the defect and then disqualify. 

Condition of shell (one point for each egg). — One-half point when 
wrinkled severely ; one-half to two points when three or four or more 
are glossy ; one-half point for each weak shell ; one-half to one point 
for each soiled egg. 

Candling, — Cut one-half point for each egg showing distinctly 
cloudy appearance. 

Cut one point for each egg having unmistakable blood spots. 

Cut one-quarter to one-half point for each egg showing large air 
space. 

Qtudity of yolk. — Five points for each spot on yolk other than the 
germ discs. Cut as high as ten points when odor is disagreeable. Cut 
as high as ten points when yolk flattens and breaks. Cut as high as 
five points on a pale color. 

Quality of white. — Cut as high as fifteen points when the two al- 
bumens approach the same consistency. Cut as high as five points 
when albumen will not hold up the yolk. 

Cut one-half point for each one-half ounce in weight under the 
standard weight of the grade for the dozen. Cut eight points for each 
disqualified egg. 

Rules for Machine Incubation (Finch) 

Never ptU the eggs in the machine until the temperature is properly 
regulated. 

Temperature. — After the eggs have been put in the machine, the 
temperature will drop and remain low for some time, gradually in- 
creasing, often taking from twelve to fourteen hours to reach the desired 
degree. Do not try to run the heat up too quickly. It is better that 
the temperature should be increased gradually. 



INCUBATION 371 

After the correct temperature is reached, the incubator should run 
with only slight variations. Although it is best to maintain an even 
temperature, it is not always possible to do so, and a variation of one- 
half degree, or more, from time to time, will not result seriously if the 
average temperature is correct. A high temperature should be avoided, 
especially at the beginning of incubation. 

The temperature should be read through the glass door. The door 
should be opened as little as possible. 

Temperalurey first week, — The position of the thermometer should 
always be considered in determining the proper temperature to main- 
tain. If the thermometer hangs above the trays, as it does in some 
machines, thereby registering the air temperature and not the tempera- 
ture of the eggs, the actual temperature of the eggs would be from 
one to one and a half degrees lower the first week than the registered 
temperature. To give the eggs the proper amount of heat the first 
week, where hanging thermometers are used, it is necessary to keep the 
temperature at 1021^ or 103^; whereas with contact thermometers, the 
temperature should be 102^. Contact thermometers should always 
be placed between two fertile eggs. 

Temperature f second week, — The outside temperature has less 
mfluence over the machine temperature after the first week, owing 
to the increasing amount of anim&l heat given off by the growing em- 
bryos. Machines using a hanging thermometer should be held at 103^ 
F., while in those using contact thermometers, the heat should be 
increased to 103** F. 

Temperaturef third week, — Hold the temperature as near 103** 
as possible up to about the eighteenth day, when it may be allowed to 
run up to 104**. 

The eggs. — The eggs should not be put in the <nachine until 
it has been run for several days properly regulated and all 
directions have been followed out in regard to setting up, paying 
special attention to the manufacturer's directions about ventilators, 
felts, trays, etc. 

Incubate eggs of uniform size, shape, and color as far as possible, and 
eliminate those with very porous or otherwise defective shells. 

Eggs from the heavy type of fowls usually take a few hours longer 
to hatch than Leghorn eggs ; therefore it is not advisable to set the two 
kinds of eggs together in an incubator. 



Ground feed in hopper, afternoon. 



372 POULTRY 

Feeding 

Cornell ration for egg-production 
200 lb. wheat ) 

200 lb. cracked com > Grain fed in deep litter sparingly in morning and freely 
100 lb. oats j at night 

60 lb. wheat middlings 
60 lb. com meal 
50 lb. beef scraps 
30 lb. wheat bran 
10 lb. alfalfa meal 
10 lb. linseed oil meal 
7 lb. salt 

Proportion about 2 lb. grain to 1 lb. ground feed. 

Cabbage, beets, sprouted oats or grass ; oyster shells ; grit ; water. 

Results (1909-1910) 
Best pullet laid 258 eggs. 
Next pullet laid 253 eggs. 

Fifteen selected pullets, averaged 236 I .__. _^l 
Best flock pullets averaged 182 ) ^^^ ®*^°- 

Relation of foodrconaumption to egg-production (CorneU). 

That the number of eggs produced bears a close relatiouship to the 
amount of food consumed is shown in the chart (Fig. 8) A and B 
where it will be seen that the hens which laid the largest number of eggfi 
in a stated period consumed the most food. Periods of large egg- 
production always appear to be periods of increased food consump- 
tion, and vice versa. 

It will be noticed that the increase in food consumed precedes, by 
a few weeks, the increase in production, showing that the fowl fortifies 
her body by storing up the nourishment from which to produce eggs 
(A, B, and C). 

A glance at the plotted curves, comparing (B), the weight of the 
fowls during each period, and (C), the percentage egg-production for 
each period, will show how uniformly the curve expressing increase 
and decrease in production follows the curve of increase and decrease 
in weight. The weight of hen is greatest preceding heaviest ^g- 
production. 

A comparison of the amount of food consumed, the eggs laid, and the 
weight of flocks of different ages shows that the youngest fowls ate 
the most food and produced the largest number of eggs. ' 

The percentage egg-production varies each month, according to 
the seasons, with remarkable regularity. This is strikingly 




FiQ. 8. — A comparison of one-, two-, and tbree-year-olds per period of 28 days, of 
both starved and fed fowls. A «■ Consumption of food. B » Weight of fowls. 
C » Percentage egg-production. Note that an increase or decrease in weight 
is usually preceded by corresponding increase or decrease in the amount of food 
consumed by each flock, and that an increase or decrease in per cent egg-pro- 
duction is preceded by a corresponding increase or decrease in weight of each 
flock. It will also be observed that there is great uniformity between the 
various flocks each period as to increase or decrease in food consumption, 
weight, and per cent egg-production. The transverse chart-lines show upper- 
most set starting at 1 year, 2 years, 3 years ; middle set, 3 years, 1 year, 2 
years ; lowest set, 1 year, 2 years, 3 years. 

373 



374 POULTRY 

illustrated in the plotted curves of production during the sixteen 
periods of twenty-eight days each, for the six flocks of fowls of 
different ages (C). From August 11, the beginning of the ex- 
periment, there was a gradual decline in production with all the 
flocks imtil the latter part of December. From this time production 
increased rapidly until the latter part of April, when it remained 
practically stationary until the middle of May ; then it declined grad- 
ually until the close of the experiment, November 8. 

Preparing Fowls for Market by Bleeding (Graham) 

Hold the head of the bird with the left hand, back of the head up, 
keeping the hand on the back of the neck to avoid cuttmg yourself 
should the knife slip and pass through the top of the head. Take the 
knife in the right hand, the back of the blade toward your body. 
Insert the blade in the mouth, keeping the pomt to the right side of 
the bird's neck and as near the outer skin as possible until it is well past 
the neck bone. Then press the edge toward the bone and slowly draw 
the knife from the mouth, the hand moving from your body, so that the 
knife appears to pass across the neck. Repeat the process on the left 
side of the neck. This should cause the bird to bleed freely, but by 
holding the beak up the blood will remain in the neck, giving you plenty 
of time to pierce the brain. The latter is located just above the eye 
and can be easily reached through the upper part of the mouth by 
using a stiff steel blade, inserted in the mouth with blade edge up and 
pointing slightly over the eye. With young birds little trouble is ex- 
perienced in piercing the brain, but with older buxis a very stiff blade is 
required, as the bones are much harder. When the point of the blade 
enters the brain, give the knife a quick twist to right or left to widen 
the aperture. If the brain has been reached, the bird will attempt to 
squawk or will give a nervous jerk as the blade touches the spot, and 
this touching the brain or nerves not only loosens the feathers of the 
bird for dry plucking, but will greatly improve the appearance of scalded 
stock. 

A weight, which may consist of an old tomato can half filled with 
stones and cement, is immediately attached by means of a wire hook 
to the lower mandible of the bird. Then by grasping the wings close 
to the back, the bird will not be able to flutter, and can be easily and 



TO KEEP EOOS 376 

rapidly plucked. This, of course, should always be done while the 
bird is bleeding. The can catches the blood, and by hanging the bird 
over a barrel the feathers may easily be saved. 

Care of Feathers and Eggs (Lambert) 
Feathers. 

When dry picked and sorted so as to keep the stiff from the soft, 
and the white from the colored, feathers have a market value worth 
considering. Mixed colors of soft chicken feathers bring 4} to 10 cents 
per poimd, and piure white bring 20 cents per pound. Duck feathers 
bring 33 to 42 cents per pound, goose feathers 42 to 60 cents per 
pound, goose quills 15 cents per pound. Long, bright-colored 
chicken feathers are sold for millinery purposes at about $1 per pound. 
The stiff turkey feathers are in great demand for feather dusters 
and the like. Feathers are ciu*ed in sacks of thin material exposed to 
the sun and air for several days. They can be sold and shipped in 
these original sacks. 

Oeneral care of eggs. 

Eggs for market will keep better from spoiling if not fertilized. Those 
from mated pens should be kept from heat over 60^ Fahr. The 
nests should be kept supplied liberally with dry sawdust or some clean 
absorbent. The eggs that become soiled should be wiped with a damp 
cloth and never submerged in water if they are to be kept more than 
one week. The natural color of the shell is not indicative of the 
quality of the contents, although the preferences of the market 
should be catered to, if one wishes to secure best prices. Brownnshelled 
eggs are usually larger than white shelled ones, because all the 
larger breeds except one lay brown eggs, or those from a delicate pink 
to a light chocolate. The color of the yolk is controlled by feeding 
green foods and certain grains. Eggs are porous and susceptible 
to taint from bad odors. Care must be taken to keep them in clean, 
cool places, Marking the shells in any way is not desirable. Cartons 
holding one dozen eggs can be purchased from paper dealers. These 
have specially printed covers, "One Dozen Fresh Eggs," etc., 
and can be used several times if desired. Cases holding fifteen 
or thirty dozen each, for shippmg to the trade, are popular sizes. 



376 POULTRY 

Deliveries and shipments should be made each week ; if a private trade, 
on the same day of each week. There are wire fillers for the cartons 
that display the eggs very attractively, but require more time in plac- 
ing the eggs and removing them from the tra3r8. With the straw- 
board fillers, each egg is in a separate compartment, and there is little 
danger of breakage. If one becomes cracked, the leakage is usually 
confined to the one compartment. 

Eggs intended for cold storage must be absolutely fresh, free from 
dirt, and packed in standard-size thirty-dozen cases ; and the fillers 
must be free from mold, dirt, or odors of any kind. Cold-storage plants 
begin operations e& soon as the lower prices are reached, about April 
1, and continue until the latter part of May. During warm weather 
the quality of eggs deteriorates, and they do not keep so well as when 
cooler. The market for these cold-storage goods opens in the fall and 
continues until Christmas. 

Eggs should be gathered every day, and all broody hens removed 
from the house. If a nest is found in an unusual place, the eggs should 
be tested before a bright light, and the unclear ones discarded. 

Preserving eggs. 

There are several methods of preserving eggs during q>ring and 
summer and keeping them wholesome until they will bring higher 
prices, but none by which they can be kept any length of time and sold 
as fresh-laid ones. The shells may be covered with melted paraffin or 
vaseline to prevent evaporation, and they will not spoil so long as they 
are kept cool and turned every few days. Packing in common salt and 
turning occasionally is another method. The contents remain sweet 
and wholesome, but the albumen will not beat up bs it will in fresh- 
laid ones. The shell will lose its freshness, and the eggs will not remain 
good long after being taken out of the preservatives, and they should 
be designated as preserved eggs when offered for sale. 

The best method of preservation is as follows : One part of 
water-glass (sodium silicate) mixed with nine parts of boiled spring 
water. Put the eggs in a stoneware crock when gathered from the nests, 
if cool and clean, until the crock is nearly full ; then pour in the water- 
glass solution until there is at least two inches of liquid over the top 
layer of eggs. Keep in a cool place. If carefully done, this method 
is reliable. 



PRESERVINQ EQQS — HEN LICE 377 

Another successful method is to slake two pounds of gbod lump lime, 
and while hot add one pound of common salt. After cooling, add ten 
quarts of boiled spring water and stir thoroughly several times the 
first day. Then let it settle, using only the clear liquid, which may be 
poured over the eggs after they have been placed in a stoneware crock; 
or the liquid can first be put in the crock and the eggs put in that, day 
by day, when gathered. The eggs must always be two inches below 
surface. More of the solution can be put in when necessary. Stone- 
ware vessels are the most desirable ones for keeping these mixtures in. 

Eggs are sometimes removed from the shells, canned, and kept in 
cold storage or frozen, and sold to large consumers. The most whole- 
some method is evaporation. The egg is then reduced to powder 
that will keep any length of time, in any climate, and can be carried 
to places where poultry-keeping is out of the question and where all eat- 
ables carried must be reduced to a minimum weight. 

Parasites of Fowls (Crosby) 

Hen Louse (Meruypon pallidum), — There are several species of 
lice infesting poultry, of which this is the commonest. When full 
grown, it is over one twenty-fifth inch in length, slender, and of a 
pale straw-yellow color. The eggs are laid on the feathers near the 
base. The lice do not suck blood, but run actively over the body 
and feed on the dried skin and feathers, but in so doing irritate the 
skin with their sharp claws. 

Treatment, — Keep poultry in clean, airy, weD-lighted houses, and 
use perches and nest boxes that can be removed easily. Spray 
perches, nest boxes, and the whole interior of the house either with 
a 2 per cent solution of cresol disinfecting soap (formula page 436) 
or with a mixture of one part of crude carbolic acid and three parts 
kerosene. The application should be repeated in about a week to 
kill any lice that may have escaped before. To free the fowls of 
lice, dust them thoroughly with some good lice powder, and repeat 
the application in about a week. (For formula see page 436.) 

Chicken Mite (Dermanyssits gaUinai). — Minute grayish or red- 
dish mites which attack poultry, mostly at night, and suck their 
blood. During the day they hide in cracks and creviceg about tbQ 
perches and nests. 



378 POULTRY 

Treatment. — Keep the houses clean as directed above. Supply the 
fowls with a dust bath and separate sitting hens, which are especially 
liable to infestation, from the rest of the flock. 

Scaly Leg (Sarcoptes mulans). — A disease caused by minute mites 
working beneath the scales on the feet and legs. The irritation causes 
the secretion of a fluid which on drying turns to a whitish powder 
beneath the scales and raises them from their natural position. Crusts 
or scabs are formed, and the fowls become lame. 

TreaimerU. — Isolate infested birds to prevent the spread of the 
disease. Carefully remove the crusts by soaking in warm water and 
soap and apply carbolic ointment or a mixture of creosote and lard 
(1 to 20). Disinfect the house as directed on preceding page. 

Depluming Scabies {Sarcoptea Usvis), — Minute mites working 
at the base of the feathers, causing them to break at the surface of the 
body. The mites also set up an irritation which causes the birds to 
pull out their own feathers. 

Treatment. — The disease is contagious, and infested birds should 
be isolated. Apply creosote and lard (1 to 20), or dust fresh Buhach 
into the feathers. 

Hen Fleas (Argopsylla gaUinacea). — In the South these fleas are 
very annoying to fowls, especially to sitting hens. They attach them- 
selves in great numbers to the face, comb, etc., where they remain until 
ready to lay eggs. 

Treatmerd. — The same measures are advised as for lice and mites. 

Chicken Tick (Argas miniatus). — A reddish brown tick, some- 
what larger than the common bedbug, infesting poultry in the South. 

Treatment. — Keep the houses thoroughly clean, and disinfect at 
frequent intervals. 

Sample Rules and RegolationB for the Exhibition of Poultry 

Ontario (N. Y.) PouUry Association, 1911. 

1. All entries must be made on blanks furnished by the Secretary, 
and all remittances should be made payable to the Secretary, and should 
be made by P.O. money order, express money order, or registered 
letter. 

2. Labels will be sent to each exhibitor ; the reverse side must have 
the sender's name and address legibly written thereon, and the name of 



EXHIBITION RULES 379 

the express company for their return delivery. If from accident the 
Association labels do not arrive in time, send exhibits without them, 
and the Secretary will make duplicates. Unhealthy specimens will not 
be exhibited, but will be returned to the owners at their expense. When 
more than one specimen is sent in the coop, each entry must be properly 
divided and separately labeled. 

3. Entries will positively close Monday, January 9, 1911, but should 
be sent as long before that date as possible. This rule will be strictly 
adhered to. The building will be open for the reception of specimens 
at 8 A.M., Monday, January 16, and those not received by 8 a.m., Tues- 
day, January 17, will be debarred from competition. 

4. All specimens shall be exhibited in their natural condition, with 
the exception of Games and Game Bantams. Any violation of this 
rule shall exclude the specimen from competing and cause the with- 
holding of all premiums awarded the owner of such birds. 

5. The reports of judges shall be made in writing to the Secretary, 
and will be final after having been approved by the Executive Com- 
mittee. As soon as possible after the awards of the judges have been 
supervised and approved, a card or badge stating the premium will be 
placed on each winning coop, where it must remain until the close of 
the show, and each winning exhibitor will be notified by postal card 
at once. 

6. The judges are strictly prohibited from making known their 
awards, except through the Secretary or Superintendent. Any person 
attempting to interfere with the judges in their decisions, by letter 
or otherwise, will be excluded from competition and exhibition. 

7. No protests against awards will be received unless accompanied 
by a deposit of $2, and if after the matter has been thoroughly in- 
vestigated by the Show Committee, the protest should prove to be 
without foundation, the deposit will be forfeited to the Association. 
Protests must be made before 6 p.m., Wednesday, January 18, 1911, 
and must be made in writing. 

8. All display premiums in the open classes, unless otherwise stated, 
will be decided thus : First Prize to count 6 points ; Second Prize, 4 
points ; Third Prize, 3 points ; Fourth Prize, 2 points ; Fifth Prize, 
1 point. 

9. Season tickets will be issued free of charge to all exhibitors whose 
entry fee amounts to $2 ; single admission tickets, 25 cents ; tickets for 



380 POULTRY 

children above eight years and Under fifteen years of age, 15 
cents. Exhibitors' tickets are not transferable, and will be forfeited 
if presented by any one but the owner. Season tickets will be sold 
for $1. 

10. No specimens will be allowed in the hall except those which 
have been duly entered in the books of the Association and the entry 
fee and express charges paid. 

11. The Association will be pleased to undertake the sale of birds for 
the exhibitor, free of charge, selling price to be stated on entry blank. 
All sales must be reported at the office at once. 

12. During the exhibition no specimens can be removed except by 
order of the Secretary. Any fowl showing disease will be removed 
and cared for. 

13. No one will be allowed in the aisle while judging is in progress, 
except by permit from the Superintendent. 

14. The term " Cock " means hatched prior to 1910 ; the term 
" Hen " means hatched prior to 1910 ; the term " Cockerel " means 
hatched during 1910, and the term " Pullet " means hatched during 
1910. 

15. Prizes in cash, special prizes, ribbons, etc., for all exhibits will 
be awarded. Blue Ribbon for First Prize, Red for Second, Yellow for 
Third, and Green for Fourth. Lost prize ribbons will be duplicated 
at 15 cents each. 

16. The entry fee for poultry, ducks, geese, turkeys, etc., in competi- 
tion is 50 cents, exhibition pens, $1.25, pigeons and pet stock, 25 
cents each. This includes coop, feed, and attendance. All specimens 
entered for competition must be shown in coops provided by the 
Association. 

17. The Association reserves the right to place more than one bird 
of the same variety and belonging to the same exhibitor in one coop. 

18. There must in all cases, whether competing as pens or single 
birds, be four entries, or first prize will be awarded and second 
money paid, or if the birds are not worthy of first prize and gain 
second prize, they will be awarded third, etc. In no case will 
more than the entry fee be paid on any variety containing only 
one entry. 

Four entries means four birds of the same kind and variety, as four 
cocks, four hens, etc., whether shown by one person or severd. 



SCORING A POULTRY FARM 381 

Outlina for Critical Examination of a Ponltry Farm (Rice) 

Visit the farm and make careful obaervatioiui to secure auawen to the f oUow« 
ing questions : — 

Pabt l^The location 

1. Where is the farm located ? 

(a) State (6) County (c) Town 

2. What are the climatic conditions ? 

(a) Temperature : Max Min Mean 

(b) Season of frost : Early Late 

(c) Rainfall : Max Min Mean 

(ct) Sunshine : Max Min Mean 

(«) Prevailing winds : 

CO Amount of snow (season of bare ground) : 
(jg) As influencing egg production. 

As influencing crop production. 

As influencing number of labor dasrs. 

As influencing cost of buildings. 

3. What are the market conditions ? 

(a) Name principal market or markets. 

(b) Population. 

(c) Distance from local station. 

(d) Express rate on eggs (30 dos.) ; dressed poultry (1(X) lb.) ; live poultry 

(100 lb.). 

(e) Freight rate (per ton feed). 

(/) Passenger rate ; frequency of train service. 

fg) Commercial importance as r^^ards kind and type of customers. 

4. What is the condition of the roads ? 



[a) Dirt, stone, etc. 

b) Grades. 

[e) Distance from farm (a) R.R. Station. 



(6) Express, 
(c) ~ 



Post office, 
(rf) Church. 
Free or toll. 
How kept in repair. 
iThat is the sise of the farm ? 

6. What is the shape of the farm ? (Make sketch.) 

7. What are the topo^phical conditions regarding : 
(a) General direction of slope of the land ? 

(h) Air drainage ? 

Ic) Contour as affecting location of buildings ? 

Id) Shelter from prevailing winds ? 

(si Altitude. 

8. What is the nature of the soil as regards : 
(a) Fertility. 

(6) Drainace — natural artificial 

9. What is tne condition of the farm as regards weeds, stone, stumps, old 

fences, etc. ? 

10. What is the condition of the farm as regards healthfulness 7 

11. What is the nature of the water supply ? 
(a) Quantity. 
(6) Quality. 



(c) How secured. 
Wh 



12. What are the existing crops ? 

(a) Timber — kind, size, and condition. 

(b) Orchards — kind, size, and condition. 

(c) Field crops — kind, sise, and condition. 



382 POULTRY 

13. What are the educational advantages? 
(a) Distance from school ? 

(6) Sixe and kind ? 

14. What are the religious and social advantages? 
Denomination? 
Distance from church ? 
Character and progressiveness of people ? 
Or^nisations — Granges, farm clubs, poultry associations, ooOpera* 

tive associations, etc. 
Ce) Kind of neighbors and distance from residence. 

15. What are the neigborhood conveniences — Telephone, R.F.D. of maiL 

Pabt II — Airanoement and ncUure of buildings 

16. Make a sketch of the farm showing the approximate location of all build- 

ings, fences, fields, and crops. 

17. Give dimensions of main building, and make sketch showing (a) front and 

(6) end elevation ; (c) floor plan, (d) state kind of materials used in con- 
struction, (0) square feet floor space, (/) cubic feet air space. 

18. What kind or kinds of laying houses are used ? Take measurements, and 

make front and end elevation and floor plan sketches. 

19. Estimate square feet floor space and cubic feet air space. 

20. State kind of material used in construction of sides, roof, floor, and founda- 

tion. 

21. Give dimensions of incubator cellar and nature of construction, and esti- 

mate square feet floor space and cubic feet air space. 

22. Give number and dimensions of brooder houses, and make sketches 

showing end and front elevations and floor plan, and estimate square feet 
floor space and cubic feet air space. 

23. Give number and dimensions of fattening houses, and make sketches show- 

ing end and front elevations and floor plan, and estimate square feet 
floor space and cubic feet air space. 

24. Give number and dimensions of batn or other auxiliary buildings, and make 

sketches showing end and front elevations and floor plan, and estimate 
square feet floor space and cubic feet air space. 

25. Make sketch and brief description of residence, giving principal dimenaiona, 

number of rooms, etc. 

Pabt III — BquipmenU 

26. Name all the more important machinery and equipment used on the farm. 

27. State kind and capacity of incubators. 

28. State kind and capacity of outdoor brooders. 



Pakt IV — IAv&^tock 



29. 



State kind and quantity of live stock 




Mature fowls 




Mature males 


(a) Fowls . 


Pullets 




Cockerels 




Young Chicks 


(6) Ducks. 
\c) Geese. 
(d) Turkeys. 


(«) Guineas. 


(/) Horses. 


(O) Cows. 
(A) Swine. 


(i) Sheep. 





CHAPTER XXI 
Exhibiting and Judging Live-stock. Market Grades 

It is intended in this chapter to give a sample plan for the adminis- 
tering of a live-stock exhibition, standards to aid in the making of 
judgments of the qualities of animals, and a view of a few regulations 
governing the grading of animals and animal products in the markets. 
This is comparable, in a way, with Chapter IX for plants and plant 
products. 

General Rules and Regulations Governing Exhibits of Live-stock 
(Ohio State Board of Agriculture, slightly modified.) 

Competition open to the world, except where otherwise specified. 

Receiving exhibits. 

1. All animals for competition and exhibition, except speed horses, 
having first been properly entered within the time specified in the rules, 
must be placed in proper position by the first day of fair at 9 o'clock 
A.M. Exhibits not in position by the time required will be positively 
excluded from competition. 

2. Entries in the several departments must be received by the Secre- 
tary fifteen days before the opening of the Fair. 

Entries of animals. 

3. All entries of animals must specify the owners' names, and the name, 
age, sex, record number (if any), and description of every animal offered ; 
ages of horses to date from the first of January of the year foaled ; 
ages of other animals, except cattle, to be considered in months and days 
at date of fair, basing dates of dairy cattle to be February 1 and 
August 1, while in the beef breeds the basing date shall be September 1. 
A breeder is held to be the owner of the female at the time of service. 

383 



384 EXHIBITING AND JUDGING LIVE-STOCK 

All entries of livenstock must positively be made on the regulation 
entry blanks, which will be furnished upon application to the Secretary. 

4. Entries must be made in the names of bona fide owners. Should 
any be found to be otherwise entered, they will forfeit any premiiuns 
awarded by the judges. 

5. An animal entered for exhibition in one class cannot compete 
for a premium in any other, except where specified. 

6. A single animal may be exhibited as one of a pair or herd. 

7. All animals shall be exhibited to the satisfaction of the award- 
ing judges. 

Recording entries. 

8. On receipt of entries of live-stock, cards will be made out indicat- 
ing the books, entry numbers, and classes, and will be ready for delivery 
by the superintendents of the appropriate departments when exhibitors 
arrive on the grounds, or will be sent by mail when specially requested. 

Delivery of animals. 

9. Exhibitors must see to the delivery of their animals to the super- 
intendent of the appropriate department, and to placing them in 
position under his direction. The buildings and grounds will be in com- 
plete readiness for the reception of exhibits during the entire week 
previous to the opening of the Fair, and it will greatly facilitate arrange- 
ments if exhibitors will early take in hand the preparation for the dis- 
play of their exhibits. 

A place is provided for storing boxes, crates, and the like, all of which 
must be promptly removed from the buildings to this place of storing. 

Removal of animals. 

10. Live-stock, other than speed horses, may be removed the last 
day of the Fair, at 4 o'clock p.m. Speed horses may be removed any 
time after their racing engagements. 

Protection of animals. 

11. The Fair Board will take every precaution in its power for the 
safe preservation of stock on exhibition, after its arrival and arrangement 
on the grounds, but will not be responsible for any loss or damage that 
may occur. 



RULES FOR LIVE-^TOCK EXHIBITS 385 

Register number of animals. 

12. Persons exhibiting pure-bred animals, one year of age and over, 
will be required to furnish register number of animals to be exhibited, 
or, in case of younger animals not registered, the names and register 
number of sires and dams. 

Animals exhibited as breeders. 

13. Evidence satisfactory to the members in charge, or the Award- 
ing Judges, will be required that the animals exhibited as breeders are 
not barren, and no awards of premiums shall be made where there is 
unsoundness in breeding animals, which is transmissible. 

Interference with judges. 

14. No person other than the judges, except the officers of the Fair 
Board, the superintendent, and the grooms in charge, will be permitted 
to go into the rings where the stock is being passed upon by the Award- 
ing Judges, and no exhibitor or other person will be allowed to inter- 
fere or communicate with the judges of live-stock during the adjudica- 
tions. If j udges desire information from exhibitors or others concerning 
animals on exhibit, they will make the fact known and call for such ex- 
planation or information as may be necessary in the case. A violation 
of this rule will disqualify exhibitors from competing, or subject them 
to a forfeiture of any premium that may have been awarded. 

Disrespect to awards or judges. 

15. If any disrespect is shown to an award or to the Awarding Judges, 
by the exhibitor or his agent, he shall forfeit all awards made to him, and 
the member in charge shall report the same promptly to the Secretary. 

False evidence. 

16. Should a premium be found to have been obtained by false 
evidence or misrepresentation, or a violation of any of the rules of the 
Board, it will be withheld. 

Animals entering the ring. 

17. Horses and cattle can enter the arenas only under halter unless 
otherwise specified, and in charge of grooms, and sheep and swine only 
in charge of attendants. 

2c 



386 EXHIBITING AND JUDGING LIVE-^TOCK 

Premiums indicated. 

18. Horses, cattle, swine, and sheep will be exhibited in the arenas 
of ample capacity, and the premium ribbons attached or delivered by 
the judges before the animals leave the arenas. First premium, blue ; 
second premium, red ; third premium, white ; fourth premium, yeUow; 
fifth premium, green; Championship, purple ; Reserve Championship, 
pink ; Grand Championship, royal purple rosette. 

Protests. 

19. Protests against awards in any of the departments of the Fair 
must be made in writing, clearly setting forth the grounds for protest, 
and must be filed with the Secretary not later than one day liter the 
awards are made. All protests will be considered by the Board at its 
first meeting succeeding the Fair, unless otherwise ordered. Parties 
interested will be duly notified, and opportunity given them to sub- 
mit evidence. Premiimis on protested animals will be withheld until 
the protests are decided. 

Animals not entered. 

20. A charge of double the regular fee will be made for each stall or 
pen occupied by animals not entered for premium competition. 

Advertising. 

21. Exhibitors will not be permitted to attract attention to their ex- 
hibits by means of perambulating advertisers, or any method tencting 
to objectionable noise and confusion. The promiscuous distribution of 
hand-bills or other advertising matter is strictly prohibited, and no 
tacking or posting of advertising bills or cards will be permitted on or 
in any of the buildings. Exhibitors may advertise at and distribute 
from their places of exhibit only. 

Judges. 

22. Expert judges, appointed by the Board, will report to the Sec- 
retary, and he will direct them to the members in charge of the depart- 
ments in which they are to ser\'^e. 

23. No person who is an exhibitor can act as judge, or in any other 
capacity, in the department in which he exhibits, or upon stock in 
which he has an interest. 



RULES FOE LIVE-STOCK EXHIBITS 387 

24. When animals are not deemed worthy, judges will refuse to 
award premiums, whether or not there be competition in the classes. 

25. Animals for which no premiums are offered, but which in the 
opinion of the judges deserve special commendation, will be so re- 
ported, but premium cards or ribbons must not be attached. 

26. If there be any question as to the regularity of an entry or the 
right of an animal to compete in a given class, the judge shall report 
the same to the member in charge for adjustment. 

27. Judges in the several departments, when requested, may give the 
reasons for their decisions, embracmg the valuable and desirable qual- 
ities of the animals to which the premiums are awarded. As the 
one great object of the Board is to coUect valuable information upon 
subjects connected with agriculture and the industrial arts, the 
several judges and superintendents are requested to gather all the in- 
formation possible from exhibitors in their respective departments, and 
make their report as complete as circumstances will permit. Reports 
of awards are to be made to the members in charge as clearly as pos- 
sible after the adjudications. 

Payment of premiums. 

28. Premiimis are payable in cash (check) except when cups, medals, 
or diplomas are specified or desired in lieu of cash. Medals and di- 
plomas will be forwarded as directed, to the proper person, by the Sec- 
retary. Speed premiiuns will be paid on the last day of the Fair, and 
all other premiums will be paid within fifteen days after the close of the 
Fair, or at the time stated. 

All premiums awarded, and not called for during the calendar year 
in which awards are made, will be forfeited. 

Exhibition and examination. 

29. Examination by the judges for premium awards will begin in 
each of the live-stock departments at 9 o'clock a.m. of the day named 
for showing, except special classes as noted, and the judges will pro- 
ceed in the order directed by the members in charge of the departments. 

Forfeiture of space. 

30. When space has been assigned to any exhibitor, the member 
m charge shall have the right, in case the exhibitor shall fail to make 



388 EXHIBITING AND JUDGING LIVESTOCK 

or mamtain a creditable display, to declare the space assigned, or any 
portion thereof, forfeited. Exhibitors must arrange their exhibits in 
as neat and attractive a manner as possible, in default of which the 
member in charge will report the entries to the Secretary for cancel- 
lation, and require the removal of the stock at the expense of the ex- 
hibitor. 

Signs and arrangements of exhibits. 

31. The members in charge of the several departments shall have 
the right to prescribe the dimensions and to regulate the positions of 
all signs, and generally to direct the arrangement of exhibits, so far as 
the same may be necessary to secure harmony and to be attractive in 
appearance. 

Straw and feed. 

32. Arrangements wiU be made with a responsible party to furnish 
straw, hay, com, oats, and chopped feed on the grounds at market 
prices, in quantities to suit the purchasers. 

Regulation for helpers. 

33. The members in charge of the several departments wiU issue free 
daily admission tickets to such helpers as are tiecessary and actually 
under pay in caring for or operating exhibits. A list of such helpers 
must be fiunished to the superintendents of the departments, on arrival 
of exhibits at the buildings or grounds. 

Special rules governing horses. 

34. Entries must be made fifteen days before the fair opens, and be 
accompanied by proper fees to cover charges for exhibitor's ticket and 
stall rent. Exhibitors are requested to specify the number of stalls 
required, upon receipt of which information staUs will be assigned and 
their numbers sent to the person or firm making entries. 

35. Charges for stalls. 

BoxstaU $4.00 

Open stall 2.00 

Pony stall 1.00 

Exhibitor's ticket 2.00 

36. The published order of exhibition will be conformed to as nearly 
as possible ; provided, however, the right is reserved to make such 



RULES FOR LIVE-STOCK EXHIBITS 

changes in the order of exhibition, as in the discretion of the mem- 
ber in charge will facilitate the work. 

37. The superintendent of each department must check the entries 
shown in the entry books in each ring, with the exhibits present, and 
so mark the entry books that they will show what animals were passed 
on by the judges. 

38. The member in charge may exclude from competition exhib- 
itors who occasion unnecessary or embarrassing delay in bringing ani- 
mals into the show ring. 

39. The judges shall not make any award where there is unsound- 
ness in breeding animals which is transmissible. 

40. All breeding animals must be recorded in Standard Stud Books, 
and exhibitors must be prepared to submit certificates or registry. 

p ... Speed classes — trotting and racing 

41. Entries will close the tenth day before the Fair opens at 11 
o'clock P.M. Records made within fifteen days no bar. Entrance 
fee five per cent of purse, with five per cent additional from winners. 
The same horse entered in more than one class will only be required 
to pay entrance for the starts made, except if no starts are made the 
fee in each class entered may be required. 

42. Five entries and three starters required. Horses will be caUed 
at 1 o'clock P.M. daily. 

43. Races will be mile heats, three in five, to harness, and will be 
conducted under the rules of the National Trotting Association (or 
American Trotting Association). 

44. Heats in each day's races may be trotted or paced alternately. 
The published order of program will be followed as nearly as possible, 
but the State Board of Agriculture reserves the right to make modi- 
fications, in the discretion of the member in charge of the speed depart- 
ment, to meet conditions as they arise. Usual weather clause rights 
reserved. 

45. A horse distancing the field, or any part thereof, will receive but 
one premium. 

46. All premiums for speed classes will be paid on the last day of the 
Fair, by bank check payable to the order of the owner or the party 
in whose name the entry is made. 



EXHIBITING AND JUDChlNQ LIVESTOCK 

47. The race track will be placed in the best possible condition for 
each of the interesting events. The track is a most excellent one, 
the back stretches being wide and easy, with a great home stretch 
one hundred feet in width. 

48. The speed bams, located conveniently near the track, are in good 
condition and well equipped for the care of race horses. The races are in 
circuits that will give horsemen the advantage of several weeks' con- 
tinuous work. 

Special rules governing cattle. 

49. Entries must be made fifteen days before the Fair opens, and 
be accompanied by proper fees to cover charges for exhibitor's ticket 
and stall rents. Exhibitors are requested to specify the number of stalls 
required, on receipt of which information stalls will be assigned and 
their niunbers sent to the person or firm making entries. 

50. Charges. 

Each animal over one year old, S2; each animal under one year old, 
SI; exhibitor's ticket, S2. 

51. Purity of blood as established by pedigree, symmetry, sixe, 
early maturity and general characteristics of the several breeds of 
animals to be considered; the judges will make proper allowance 
for age, feeding and other conditions. 

52. Persons exhibiting pure bred animals will be required to furnish 
to the Secretary, at the time of making the entry, the name and 
register number of each animal entered. 

53. Basing dates of dairy cattle to be February 1 and August 1, while 
in the beef breeds the basing date shall be September 1. 

54. All cows over thirty-six months old must have given birth to 
calf at full maturity within past year, or show unmistakable evidence 
of being in calf at time of exhibition. 

55. All cows in the dairy breeds, to be judged in the morning 
shall be milked at six o'clock p.m., the day previous to being 
judged, and all dairy cows, to be judged in the afternoon, to be 
milked at six o'clock a.m., of the same day. The judge may, at 
his option, require any cow to be milked while in the ring or before the 
awards are made. 

56. Exhibitors will be required to have blankets removed from cattle 
between the hours of nine a.m., and four p.m., each day of the Fair. 



RULES FOR LIVE-STOCK EXHIBITS 391 

57. Cattle will be assigned to the exposition building, the judging 
to take place in the arena of same. 

58. The superintendent of each department must check the entries 
shown in the entry books in each ring, with the exhibits present, and 
so mark the entry books that they will show what animals were passed 
on by the judges. 

Special rules governing swine. 

59. Entries must be made fifteen days before the Fair opens and be 
accompanied by proper fees to cover exhibitor's ticket and pen rent. 
Price of pens, SI each ; exhibitor's ticket, S2. 

60. Swine must be owned by the individual or firm making the ex- 
hibit and must be registered in the accredited records of their respective 
breeds. 

61. The superintendent of each department must check the entries 
shown in the entry books in each ring, with the exhibits present, and 
so mark the entry books that they will show what animals were 
passed on by the judges. 

Special rules governing sheep. 

62. Entries must be made fifteen days before the Fair opens, and be 
accompanied by proper fees to cover cost of exhibitor's ticket and pen 
rent. Price of pens, $1 each ; exhibitor's ticket, $2. 

63. Sheep must be owned by the individual or firm making the exhibit 
and must be registered in the accredited records of their respective 
breeds. 

6-1. Each exhibitor restricted to two entries in one class. 

65. Sheep competing in the Merino classes must be recorded 
in the American and Delaine-Merino Record Association, or the 
Merino Record Association of Ohio, Vermont, or New York, 
and certificates of registration, properly signed by the secretary of 
one of the above-named associations, must accompany each animal 
in the ring. 

66. The superintendent of each department must check the entries 
shown in the entry books in each ring, with the exhibits present, and 
so mark the entry books that they will show what animals were passed 
on by the judges. 



392 



EXHIBITING AND JUDGING LIVE-STOCK 



Score-cards for Farm Animals 

Herewith are given sample score-<!ards for different species and classes 
of animals. For score-cards of the breeds see Vol. Ill, Cydo. Amer. 
Affr. (from which most of the following cards, by F. B. Mumford, are 
taken) : — 

Drajtrhorae scoreboard 

Class, Gelding 
General characters 



Form. — Broad, massive, blocky, low-down, compact and ss^mmetrical. 
large for the age. 

I. 



Scale 




Fio. 9. — Parts of the horse. 1, muzzle ; 2, nostrils ; 3, face ; 4, eye ; 6, forehead ; 
6, ear ; 7, neck ; 8, crest ; 9. withers ; 10, back, 11, loin ; 12, hip ; 13, croup ; 
14, tail; 15, thigh; 16. quarter; 17, gaskin or lower thigh; 18, hock; 19, 
stifle ; 20, flank ; 21, ribs ; 22, tendons : 23, fetlocks ; 24, pastern ; 26, foot ; 
26, heel of foot ; 27, canon ; 28. knee ; 29, forearm ; 30, chest ; 31, arm : 32, 
shoulder; 33, throatlatch ; A, thoroughpin ; B, curb; C, bog and blood 
spavin ; D, bone spavin ; E, splint ; F, windgali ; G, cappel elbow ; H, poll- 
evil. {Cydo. Amer. Agric.) 



POINTS OF A DRAFT-HORSE 393 

Quality, — General refinement of clean-cut and symmetrical features ; bone 
dean, large, and strong ; skin and hair fine ; tendons clean, sluirply defined, and 
prominent. 

Conaiitutum, — Generous and symmetrical development; lively carriage; 
ample heart-girth, capacity of barrel and depth of flanks ; eyes, full, bright and 
clear ; nostrils large and flexible ; absence of grossness or undue refinement. 

Scale ctf points ' ^ 

Pbbfbct Score 

1. Height, estimated hands; corrected hands. 

2. Weight, estimated lb. ; corrected lb. ; score according to 

a^e and condition 10 

3. Action, walk : rapid, springy, regular, straight ; trot : free, balanced, 

straight 15 

4. Temperament, energetic, tractable 3 

5. Heaa, proper proportionate size ; well carried ; profile straight . . 1 

6. Muaale neat ; nostrils large, flexible ; lips thin, even, firm .... 1 

7. Eyes, bright, clear, full, bol^ same color 1 

8. Forehead, broad, full 1 

9. Ears, medium size, well carried 1 

10. Lower jaw, angles wide, well muscled 1 

11. Neck, well-muscled, arched ; throat-latch fine ; wind-pipe large . . 2 

12. Shoulder, moderately sloping, smooth, snug, extending mto back . . 3 

13. Arm, short, strongly muscled, thrown back 1 

14. Forearm, long, wide, clean, heavily muscled 2 

15. Knees, straight, wide, deep, strong, clean 2f 

16. Fore cannons, short, wide, clean ; tendons clean, well defined, prominent 2 

17. Fetlocks, wide, straight, strong, clean 1 

18. Pasterns, moderately sloping; strong, clean 3 

19. Fore feet, large, even size ; sound ; horn dense, waxy ; soles concave ; 

bars strong, full ; frogs large, elastic ; heels wide, one-half length of 

toe, vertical to ground 8 

20. Chest, deep, wide ; breast bone low ; girth large 2 

21. Ribs, deep, well sprung ; closely ribbed to hip 2 

22. Back, broad, short, strong, muscular 2 

23. Loins, short, wide, thickly muscled 2 

24. Barrel, deep, flanks full 2 

25. Hips, broad, smooth, level, well muscled 2 

26. Croup, wide, heavily muscled, not too drooping 2 

27. Thighs, deep, broad, muscular 3 

28. Quarters, plump with muscle, deep 2 

29. Stifles, large, strong, muscular, clean 2 

30. Gaskins, long, wide, clean, heavily muscled 2 

31. Hocks, large, strong, wide, deep, clean, well set 8 

32. Hind cannons, short, wide, clean ; tendons clean, well defined ... 2 

33. Fetlocks, wide, straight, strong, clean 1 

34. Pasterns, moderately sloping, strong, clean 2 

35. Hind feet, large, even size ; sound ; horn dense, waxy : soles concave ; 

bars strong, full ; frogs large, elastic ; heels wide, one-half length of 

toe, vertical to ground 6 

Total 100 

Lightrhorse score-card 

Class, Gelding 

General characters 

Form, — Light, lean, lithe and muscular ; long-legged, short in back ; having 
general appearance indicative of extreme activity. 



394 EXHIBITING AND JUDGING LIVE STOCK 

Quality. — Extreme refinement of symmetrical and clean-cut features, showing 
every requirement of strength, endurance, style, and grace; skin thin and 
pliable, snowing veins plainly ; hair fine ; mane and taH fine and long ; bone 
possessing plenty of substance but great refinement ; tendons clean, strong, and 
sharply defined. 

Constitution. — Generous and symmetrical development ; an expresaon of 
great nervous energy ; action spirited ; heart-girth large ; floor of chest full : 
barrel well rounded and moderately deep; hind flanks properiy developed; 
eyes full, bright, and clear ; nostrils large ; bone possessing abundant substance 
as well as refinement. 



Scale of points 

Pbbfbct Score 

1. Weight, lb. ; corrected lb. 

2. Height, hands ; corrected hands 2 

3. Action, walk: long, fast, elastic, straight and regular; trot: rapid, 

regular, straight 15 

4. Temperament, spirited, energetic, and tractable 5 

5. Skin, thin, pliable, showing veins plainly ; coat fine, soft, bright . . 3 

6. Head, correct proportionate size, well carried ; features clean cut ; pro- 

file straight 2 

7. Muzzle, neat, nostrils large, flexible ; lips, thin, firm, and even . . 1 
' 8. Eyes, full, bright, clear, same color 2 

9. Forehead, broad and full 2 

10. Ears, medium size, pointed, well carried, alert 1 

11. Lower jaw, angles wide, space clean, well muscled 1 

12. Neck, well muscled, arched, throatlatch fine ; windpipe large ... 2 

13. Shoulder, long, sloping, smooth, extending into back 3 

14. Arm, short, strong, well muscled, thrown back 1 

15. Forearm, long, wide, clean, well muscled 2 

16. Knees, straight, wide, deep, strong, clean, strongly supported ... 4 

17. Cannons, short, clean, wide ; tendons large, clean, and prominent . 2 

18. Fetlocks, wide, straight, strong, clean 1 

19. Pasterns, long, sloping, strong, clean 3 

20. Fore feet, medium size, even and sound ; horn dense and waxy ; soles 

concave ; bars strong and full ; frogs large and elastic ; heels wide, 

one-half length of toe ; vertical to ground 6 

21. Withers, high, extending well into back 1 

22. Chest, deep, low, girth large 3 

23. Ribs, deep, well sprung, closely coupled 2 

24. Back, short, broad, strong, muscular 2 

25. Loins, short, broad, thickly muscled 2 

26. Barrel, long in under line ; flanks well let down 1 

27. Hips, smooth, wide and level 2 

28. Croup, long, wide, muscular, not drooping 2 

29. Tail, attached high, well haired, well earned 1 

30. Thighs, deep, broad, strong, muscular 3 

3 1 . Quarters deep, plump with muscle 1 

.32. Stifles, strong, clean, muscular 2 

33. Gaskins, long, wide, muscular 3 

34. Hocks, large, strong, wide, deep, clean, well set 7 

35. Cannons, short, clean, wide ; tendons large, clean, and prominent . 2 

36. Fetlocks, wide, straight, strong, and clean 1 

37. Pasterns, strong, sloping, springy, clean 3 

38. Hind feet, medium size, even, sound ; horn dense, waxy ; soles con- 

cave ; bars strong, full ; frogs large, elastic ; heels wide .... 4 

Total 100 



HORSE SCORE-CARD 396 

StudenVs card for the proportions of the horse (Cornell) 

Name of Animal Breed or Bervioe 

Sex Age 

Color and Markings Blemishes 

Defects 

Estimated Weight Actual Weight 

Owner P. O. 

Inches 

Height at withers 

Height to highest point of croup 

Length from point of shoulder to quarter 

From lowest point of chest to the ground 

From the point of elbow to the ground 

From the point of elbow to trapezium 

From trapeaium to ground 

Circumference of the arm 

Circumference of cannon in center 

Circumference of foot at coronet 

Length of head 

Width of forehead 

Circumference of muasle at angle of mouth 

Width of chest from outside of shoulder points 

Width across hips 

From center of dock to anterior point of patella 

From point of hock to point of hip 

From point of hock to ground 

Circumference of thigh 

Circumference of shank in the center 

Circumference of body at the girth 

Length of croup 

Height of crest of occiput from ground 

Dorsal angle of scapula to hip 

From angle of lower jaw to forehead above eye 

From throat to superior border of neck 

Beef-cattle score-card 

Class, Breeding Females 

General characters 

Form. — Compact, thick-set and short-legged in appearance ; body deep, 
thick, and of medium length ; top line straight, under line low in flanks ; scale 
medium to large, not greatly above average for the breed. 

Quality. — General refinement of symmetrical and clean-cut features ; breed 
characters pronounced ; bone fine and clean ; hair fine and soft ; skin of not 
more than medium thickness ; head, neck, and legs short and fine, but strong. 

Condition. — Great wealth of natural flesh, as from abundant supply of Best 
grass or other roughage, but not excessively fat ; flesh firm, mellow and springy, 
without ties, lumps, patches, or rolls, especially in the back and loin ; skin loose 
and soft ; depth and evenness of flesh consistent with degree of fatness. 

Constitution. — Generous and symmetrical development ; lively carriage ; 
ample heart-girth, capacity of barrel and depth of flanks ; eyes full, bright, and 
clear ; nostrils wide apart, large and open ; absence of refinement to point of 
delicacy ; skin of at least medium thickness and free from scurf ; coat soft and 
bright. 

Early maturity. — General refinement and compactness ; body large, extrem- 
ities small : shortness of head, neck, and legs ; amplitude of girth in cnest, belly, 
and flanks. 



396 



EXHIBITING AND JUDGING LIVE-STOCK 



Sexuality. — Strongly marked ; a general appearance of sensibility and 
feminine refinement of featuras ; moderata length and great capacity in coupling ; 
width in loin, hipnbones, and pin-bones ; well-developed udder and prominent 
milk veins ; horn and coat fine ; eyes expressive of mild and gentle sensitiveness. 




Fio. 10. — Parts of the cow. 1, muzzle ; 2, face ; 3, forehead ; 4, throat ; 5. neck ; 
6, dewlap ; 7, shoulder ; 8, wethers ; 9, back ; 9i, crops ; 10, chine ; 11, ribs ; 
12, fore ribs ; 12i, fore flank ; 12. 12i. chest ; 13. belly ; 14, flank ; 15. loin ; 
16, hips ; 17, rump ; 18, setting of tail ; 19, thurl or pin-bone ; 20, quarter ; 
21, thigh : 22. hock ; 23. switch ; 24. leg ; 25. stifle ; 26. udder ; 27. teat ; 
28, forearm ; 29, knee ; 30, shank ; 31, hoof. {Cydo, Amer. Agric.) 



Scale of points Pbrfsct 

SCORB 

1. Age, estimated ; corrected 

2. Weight, estimated lb. ; corrected lb. ; score according to 

age and condition 5 

3. Skin, of medium thickness, loose, soft, elastic, free from scurf ... 3 

4. Hair, fine, soft, thick ; color and markings according to breed ... 3 

5. Temperament, quiet, mild, and contented 3 

6. Muzzle, mouth large, lips thin, nostrils large, open, and wide apart . 2 

7. Face, fine, moderately short and broad 2 

8. Forehead, full, broad, and square 2 

9. Eyes, full, bright, clear, and placid 1 

10. Jaws, wide, deep, and strong 1 

11. Horns, medium to small, fine texture, shape and color according to 

breed 1 

12. Ears, medium size, fine texture . 1 

13. Neck, thick, short, curving smoothly into shoulders and brisket; 

throat clean ; dewlap slight 3 

14. Shoulders, compact, snug, smooth, well fleshed 5 



CATTLE SCORE-CARDS 397 

PvRrBcr 
Score 

15. Fore legs, short, straight, strong ; arm full ; bone fine and clean ; feet 

small, strong, even ; hoofs dense 3 

16. Brisket, moderately projecting, neat and broad 1 

17. Chest, full, deep, wide | heart-girth large ; fore flanks deep and full . 10 

18. Barrel, capacious, medium length 5 

lU. Crops, moderately full, flesh thick and even 5 

20. Ribs, long, closely set, well sprung, extending fairly well back ; back 

broad and straight ; flesh tnick and even 10 

21. Loin, broad, straight ; flesh thick and even 6 

22. Hips, wide but not prominent, capable of being smoothly covered . 3 

23. Rump, long, level, wide ; tail-head smooth ; flesh thick and even . 5 

24. Pin-bones, far apart, not prominent 2 

?5. Tail, tapering, bone fine 1 

26. Thighs and twist, full, muscled well down to hocks 6 

27. Hind legs, short, straight, strong; bone fine and clean; feet small, 

strong, even ; hoofs dense 3 

28. Hind flank, low, full, thick 3 

29. Udder, large, shapely, evenly quartered, not fleshy; teats uniform, 

medium-fiised, squarely placed, milk veins prominent 5 

Total 100 

Beef-cattle acore-card 

Claas, Breeding Bulls 

Oeneral charctctera 

Form. — Compact, thick-set, and short^legged in appearance ; body deep, 
thick, and of medium length ; top line straight, under line low in flanks ; fore 
quarters heavier than in a cow ; scale medium to large, not greatly above aver- 
age for the breed. 

Quality, — Features clean cut and symmetrical ; showing great strength with- 
out grossness; breed characters pronounced; bone strong and clean; hair 
moderately fine and soft ; skin of medium thickness ; head, neck, and legs short, 
strong, and massive. 

Condition. — Great wealth of natural flesh as from abundant suppl v of best 
grass or other roughage, but not excessively fat ; flesh firm, mellow, and springy, 
without ties, lumps, patches, or rolls, especially in the back and loin ; depth and 
evenness of flesh consistent with degree of fatness. 

Constitution. — Generous and symmetrical development ; lively carriage ; 
ample heart-girth, capacity of barrel and depth of flanks ; eye full, bright, and 
clear ; nostrils wide apart, large, and open ; absence of grossness or of undue 
refinement. 

Early maturity. — Compactness and strength, with as much refinement as is 
consistent with masculinity ; body large, extremities small ; shortness of head, 
neck, and legs ; amplitude of girth in cnest, belly, and flanks. 

Sexuality. — Strongly marked ; a majestic carriage and general appearance 
of masculine power and aggressiveness; great strength without grossness in 
head, neck, and legs ; chest well developed ; shoulders very strong ; well-devel- 
oped soxual organs. 

Scale of points Pbritbct 

SCORB 

1. Age, estimated ; corrected 

2. Weight, estimated lb. ; corrected lb. ; according to age 

and condition 5 

3. Skin, moderately thick, loose, soft, elastic, free from scurf .... 3 



398 EXHIBITING AND JUDGING LIVE-STOCK 

PBRrscT 

SCOBE 

4. Hair, thick ; moderately fine and soft, color and markings according to 

breed 3 

5. Temperament, alert but quiet and good-natured 3 

6. Muzsle. mouth large, lips round and firm ; nostrils large, open, and wide 

apart 2 

7. Face, short, straight, strong, full 2 

8. Foichead, full, very broad, heavy between eyes 2 

!> Eyes, full, bright, clear, mild 1 

10 Jaws. wide, deep, and strong 1 

11 Horns, fine texture, strong; shape and color according to breed . . 1 

12. Ears, medium size, well haired, not coarse 1 

13. Neck, short, massive, curving strongly into shoulders and brisket; 

crest strong ; throat clean ; dewlap slight 3 

14. Shoulders, strongly developed, compact, snug, well fleshed .... 5 

15. Fore legs, short, straight, arm full, bone strong and clean ; hoofs large, 

strong, even, and dense 3 

16. Brisket, deep, broad, rounded, neat, moderately orojecting .... 1 

17. Chest, full, deep, wide ; heart-girth large ; fore flanks deep ... 10 

18. Barrel, deep, broad, medium length 4 

19. Crops, full and thick, straight in top line 5 

20. Ribs, long, closely set, well sprung, extending well back ; back broad 

and straight ; flesh thick and even 10 

21. Loin, broad, straight ; flesh thick and even 6 

22. Hips, wide, but not prominent, capable of being smoothly covered 3 

23. Rump, long, level, wide ; tail-head smooth ; flesh thick and even . 5 

24. Pin-bones, far apart, not prominent 2 

25. Tail, tapering, bone moderately fine 1 

26. Thighs, full, wide and deep ; muscled well down to hocks .... 4 

27. Twist, deep and full 4 

28. Hind legs, short, straight, bone strong and clean ; hoofs large, strong, 

and even 3 

29. Hind flank, full, low 4 

30. Testicles, well developed, both present and normally placed . . . 3 

Total 100 

Dairy-cattle score-card 

Class, Breeding Females 

General characters 

Form. — Spare, angular, moderately short-legged ; barrel, capacious ; bind 
Quarters, wide and deep ; scale, medium to large, not greatly above average for 
the breed. 

Quality. — General refinement of syinmetrical and clean-cut features ; bone 
fine and clean ; hair fine and soft ; skin of not more than medium thickness : 
head, nock, and legs fine and of moderate length. 

Condition. — Spare, no fat apparent ; skin loose and mellow. 

Constitution. — Generous ana symmetrical development ; lively carriage ; 
ample heart-girth ; capacity of barrel and depth of flanks ; eyes full, bright, and 
dear ; nostrils, wide apart, large, and open ; absence of refinement and spareness 
to point of delicacy or emaciation ; skin of medium thickness, free from scurf ; 
coat soft and bright. 

Ncrvoue energy. — Spinal column prominent, vertebne wide apart ; forehead 
high and wide ; ears active ; temperament alert ; also the indications of con- 
stitution and quality. 

Sexuality. — A general appearance of sensibility and feminine refinement 
of features ; moderate length and great capacity in barrel, width in loin, hip- 



DAIRY-CATTLE POINTS 399 

bones and pin-bones ; well-developed udder : horn and coat fine ; eyes expres- 
sive of mild and gentle sensitiveness. 

Milk-giving capacity. — Udder large, shapely, evenly quartered, free from 
fleshiness, extending well up behind and far forward, strongly attached ; milk- 
veins large and tortuous ; milk-wells large ; secretions of skin abundant and 
yellow ; also the above indications of all the other general characters. 

Scale of pointa Perfect 

SCOHB 

1. Age, estimated 

2. Weight, estimated lb. ; corrected lb. ; score according to 

age and condition 2 

3. Skin, medium fine, loose, mellow, elastic, free from scurf ; secretions 

yellow and abundant 5 

4. Hair, fine, soft, thick ; color and markings according to breed ... 2 

5. Temperament, alert, but mild and tractable 5 

6. Muscle, clean-cut, mouth large, lips thin, nostrils large 1 

7. Face, lean, fine, slightly dished 1 

8. Forehead, broad, high, slightly dished 1 

9. Eyes, full, bright, clear, mild 3 

10. Horns, medium to small, fine texture, shape, and color according to breed 1 

11. Ears, medium size, fine texture 1 

12. Neck, fine, spare, medium length, throat clean ; dewlap light ; neatly 

attached to head and shoulders 2 

13. Shoulders, lean, sloping ; narrow at withers, moderately wide at points 2 

14. Fore legs, straight, short, bone clean and fine ; feet strong, hoofs dense 

and even 2 

15. Brisket, light, thin 1 

16. Chest, deep, capacious 8 

17. Barrel, capacious, medium length 10 

18. Back, lean, straight, medium length ; vertebrae wide spaced and promi- 

nent ; ribs long, broad, wide spaced, moderately well sprung . . 8 

19. Loin, broad, lean, coupling, roomy 3 

20. Hips, far apart, level with back 2 

21. Rump, lean, long, broad ; pelvic arch prominent ; pin-bones high, far 

apart 4 

22. Tail, tapering, bone fine, length according to breed 1 

23. Thighs, thin, incurving, twist roomy 3 

24. Hind legs, straight, short, bone clean and fine; feet strong; hoofs 

dense and even 2 

25. Udder, large, shapely, evenly quartered, mellow, free from fleshiness, 

extending well up behind ana far forward, strongly attached ; teats 

uniform, well placed, of size and shape convenient for milking . . 20 

26. Milk veins, large, tortuous ; milk wells large 10 

Total 100 

Mutton-sheep score-card 
aass. Fat Wethers 
Oeneral characters 

Form. — Compact, thick-set and short-legged ; body deep, thick, and of 
medium length ; top line straight ; under line low in flanks ; scale large for age. 

Quality. — General refinement and symmetry of clean-cut features ; mutton 
breed character pronounced ; head, neck, and legs short ; bone fine and smooth ; 
fierce pure and fine. 

Condition. — Prime ; a deep, even covering of firm, mellow, and springy flesh, 
without lumps, patches, rolls, or undue accumulations of fat, especially in back 



400 EXHIBITING AND JUDGING LIVESTOCK 

loin, rump, or fore flanks ; neck thick ; shoulder-vein full ; top and points of 
shoulder, back-bone, and loin smoothly covered, and leg of mutton deep and full. 

Constitution. — Should be thoroughly healthy. 

Early maturity. — General refinement and compactness ; body large ; ex- 
tremities small ; shortness of head, neck, and legs ; amplitude of girth in chest, 
belly, and flanks. 




Fig. 11. — Parts of the sheep. 1, head ; 2, neck ; 3, shoulder vein ; 4, shoulder ; 
5, brisket ; 6, fore leg ; 7, chest ; 8, ribs ; 9, top of shoulder ; 10, back ; 11, loin ; 
12, hip ; 13, rump ; 14, tail ; 15, giggot or leg of mutton ; 16, hind leg ; 
17, flank ; 18, belly 19, fore flank ; 20, twist. (Cydo. Amer. Agric.) 

Scale of poinU Puncr 

1. Age, SooEB 

2. Scale, estimated weight — lb. ; corrected — lb. ; score according to age 12 

3. Skin, bright, clean, and free from scurf ; color according to breed 1 

4. Fleece, pure, uniformly long and dense ; crimp, even and fine ; quality 

fine ; condition bright, clean, and lustrous ; yolk evenly distributed 

and moderately abundant ; general character according to breed . 12 

5. Muzzle, fine, nostrils open 1 

6. Face, short ; color and covering according to breed 2 

7. Eyes, bright and clear 2 

8. Forehead, broad ; wooled according to breed 2 

9. Ears, fine ; length, color, covering and carriage according to breed . 2 

10. Neck, short and thick, blending smoothly with shoulder 3 

11. Shoulder, broad, compact and snug; thickly and evenly fleshed . . 5 

12. Fore legs, straight, short, arm full ; bone fine and smooth ; feet strong ; 

color and covering according to breed 3 

13. Chest, deep, broad, and full; brisket wide, heart-girth large; fore 

flanks deep and full 5 

14. Back, broad, straight, and of medium length ; ribs well sprung ; thickly 

and evenly fleshed 10 

15. Loin, broad and straight ; thickly and evenly fl^hed 10 

16. Rump, long, level and wide ; hips smooth ; thickly and evenly fleshed 10 

17. Thighs, full, fleshed low down, twist deep and full 15 

18. Belly, not unduly large 2 

19. Hind legs, straight and short, bone fine and smooth; feet strong; 

color and covering according to breorl 3 

Total 100 



POINTS OF SHEEP 



401 



Breeding-sheep scare-card 
OenercU characters 

Form. — Compact, thick-set, and short-legged ; body deep, thick, and of me- 
dium length ; top line straight ; under line low in flanks ; scale large for age. 

Quality. — General refinement and svmmetry of clean-cut features ; breed 
character pronounced ; head, neck, and legs short ; bone smooth, moderately 
fine in ewe, somewhat stronger in ram ; fleece pure, fine in ewe, somewhat coarser 
in ram. 

Condition, — Great wealth of natural flesh, but not excessively fat ; flesh firm, 
mellow and springy, without lumps, patches, rolls or undue accumulations of 
fat, especially in back, loin, rump, and foreflanks ; depth and evenness of flesh 
consistent with degree of f'^tness. 

Constitution. — Generous and symmetrical development ; ample heart-girth, 
capacity of barrel and depth of flanks ; eyes full, bright, and clear ; nostrils large 
and open ; throat free from lumps ; absence of refinement to point of delicacy ; 
skin bright ; fleece bright, soft, and long, crimp even, yolk moderately abundant. 

Early maturity. — General refinement and compactness ; body large, extrem- 
ities small ; shortness of head, neck, and legs ; amplitude of girth in cnest, belly, 
and flanks. 

Sexuality. — In males : A bold, active, and aggressive carriage ; great strength 
without grossness in head, neck, legs, and shoulders; well-developed sexual 
organs. 

In females: General refinement; good development of barrel; head, neck, 
and legs lighter and finer than in ram. 



Scale of Ponm 


Shebp 


FlN»- 
WoOLED 

Sheep 




Perfect 
Score 


Perfect 


1. Age, 

2. Scale, estimated weight lb. ; corrected lb. ; 

score according to age 


10 
3 

15 

5 
3 

3 

3 

3 
4 

4 


8 


3. Skin, bright, clean, and free from scurf ; color ac- 
cording to breed 


6 


4. Fleece, pure, uniformly long and dense ; crimp even 
and fine; quality fine; condition bright, clean, 
and lustrous ; yolk evenly distributed and moder- 
ately abundant ; general character according to 
breed 


30 


5. Mussle, fine in ewe, broad in ram ; nostrils open . 

6. Face, short ; fine in ewe, strong in ram ; color and 

covering according to breed 

7. Eyes, large, bright, and clear 

8. Forehead, broad in ewe, still broader in ram ; wooled 

according to breed 


1 

6 
3 

3 


9. Ears, fine ; length, color, covering, and carriage ac- 
cording to breed 


3 


10. Neck, short, blending smoothly with shoulders ; es- 
pecially thick in ram 


2 


11. Shoulder, broad, compact, snug, and well fleshed 

12. Fore legs, straight, short, arm full, feet strong ; bone 

smooth, fine in ewe, stronger in ram ; color and 
covering according to breed 


3 
3 



2d 



402 



EXaiBITINQ AND JUDQINO LIVE-STOCK 



Scale op Points 


Mutton 
Sheep 


FlNB- 
WOOLED 

Sherp 




Perfect 
Score 


Perfect 
Score 


13. Chest, deep, broad, and full ; brisket wide ; heart- 

girth large ; fore flanks deep and full .... 

14. Back, well fleshed, broad, straight, and of medium 

length ; ribs well sprung 

15. Loin, well fleshed, broad, and straight 

16. Rump, long, level, wide, and well fleshed .... 

17. Thighs, full; fleshed low down ; twist deep and full 

18. Body, deep and capacious in belly and hind flanks . 

19. Hind legs, straight and short; feet strong; bone 

smooth, moderately fine in ewe, strong in ram ; 
color and covering according to breed .... 


10 

6 

6 

6 

10 

4 

4 


10 

4 
4 
4 
6 
3 

3 


Total 


100 


100 








Fio. 12. — Parts of the hog. a, snout ; 6, ear : c, neck ; d, jowl ; c, shoulder ; /, back : 
(7, loin ; h, rump ; j, ham ; A;, side or ribs ; I, flank ; m, belly ; n, fore flank ; 
o, fore leg ; p, hind leg {Cydo, Amer. Agric.) 



Fat'hog acore-card 

Class, Breeding Hogs 

General characters 

Form. — Low-set, broad and deep ; standing squarely on short and strong legs 
and feet ; back slightly arched ; body compact in male, of good length in female ; 
under line approximately straight; scale medium to large, not greatly above 
average for the breed. 

Quality. — General refinement of symmetrical and clean-cut features; bone 
clean and strong, moderately coarse in male, moderately fine in female; skin 
smooth ; hair fine ; head, neck, and legs short ; shields in male not; unduly coarae ; 
breed characters pronounced. 

Condition. — Strongly muscled and thickly fleshed, but not excessively fat ; 
flesh firm, mellow, even, and smooth. 



POINTS OF SWINE 403 

CorutUution. — Generous and symmetrical development ; lively carriage ; ample 
heart-girth, capacity of barrel and depth of flanks ; eyes full, bright, and clear ; 
coat thick, smooth, and bright ; absence of refinement to point of delicacy. 

Sexuality. — Strongly marked. In males : Active carnage, aggressive dis- 
position ; strength without grossness in head and legs ; neck arched and heavy ; 
snout broad; shoulders strong; shields present in mature animals; well ae- 
veloped sexual organs. In female : General refinement of features ; good length 
and depth in barrel ; full number of well-placed and well-developed teats present ; 
head lighter than in boar, neck narrower behind ears ; good breadth in loin, 
hips, and rump. 

Early maiurUy. — General refinement and compactness ; body large, extrem- 
ities small ; shortness of head, neck, and legs ; amplitude of girth in cnest, belly, 
and flanks. 

Scale of points Perfkct 

SCORS 

1. Age, estimated : corrected 

2. Scale, estimated weight lb. ; corrected lb. ; score accord- 

ing to age 6 

3. Skin, smooth, mellow, and free from scurf 2 

4. Hair, thick, bright, smooth, fine, and uniformly distributed ; color and 

markings according to breed 2 

5. Temperament, aggressive in male ; gentle and quiet in female ... 2 

6. Snout, short and smooth, tapering from face to tip of nose ; broad in 

male, finer in female 1 

7. Face, short, smooth, broad between eyes, dished according to breed ; 

cheeks full | forehead high and wide 2 

8. Eyes, full, bright, clear and not obscured by wrinkles ..... 1 

9. Ears, medium or small, fine in texture, neatly attached, carriage ac- 

cording to breed 1 

10. Jowl, full, smooth, firm, and neat 2 

11. Neck, wide, deep, short, and nicely arched, blending smoothly with 

shoulder ; in male, heavy ; in female, finer behind the ears ... 3 

12. Shoulder, broad, deep, full, and compact ; heavier in male than in fe- 

male, but shields not unduly coarse 8 

13. Fore legs, short, straight, strong, squarely set, wide apart ; pasterns 

short : feet strong ; bone moderately coarse in male, moderately fine 

in female 6 

14. Chest, deep, wide, and full ; breast-bone advanced 8 

15. Back and loin, broad, strong, and slightly arched ; moderately short in 

male, moderately long in female ; thickly and evenly fleshed ; ribs 
well sprung 12 

16. Sides, deep, full, and smooth 8 

17. Belly, wide ; under line approximately straight 3 

18. Udder (female), full number of well -developed and well-placed teats . 
Testicles (male), well -developed, both present and normally placed . 8 

19. Hind flank, low :•,.:,,• ^ 

20. Rump, long, broad, gradually rounding from loin to root of tail ; thickly 

and evenly fleshed : hips wide and smooth 6 

21. Hams, full, deep, and broad : fleshed well down to hocks .... 10 

22. Hind legs, short, straight, strong, squarely set, wide apart ; pasterns 

short ; feet strong ; bone moderately coarse in male, moderately fine 

in female 6 

23. Tail, tapering, medium-sized, or small 1 

Total 100 

The fat-hog is peculiarly an American product. It is universal throughout the 
corn-belt. It is marked by extreme compactness and by very small development 
of bone and of waste parts. The hams and sides bring the highest prices, and 
these have been much developed. The tendency to lay on fat is very marked. 



404 EXHIBITING AND JUDGING LIVESTOCK 

Bacon-hog score^ard 
General charaetera 

Form. — Long, deep, smooth, and of medium width ; sides straight ; less short 
for the breed ; head light ; back slightly arched, under line straight ; scale large 
for age ; standard weight 170-200 pounds. 

QwtlUy. — General refinement of symmetrical and clean-cut features ; bone 
smooth, fine, and strong ; skin and hair fine and smooth ; head, neck, and legs 
short for the breed ; bacon hog breed character pronounced. 

Condition, — Heavily muscled, moderately fat ; covering firm, smooth, and 
of uniform thickness, especially in sides and belly. 

Conatitution. — Should be thoroughly healthy. 

Early maturity. — Greneral refinement, especially of head, neck, and legs ; 
body large ; extremities small ; amplitude of girth m chest, belly, and flanks. 

Scale of points Psktbct 

Sooax 

1. Scale, large for age 6 

2. Skin, smooth and fine ; color according to breed 2 

3. Hair, abundant, fine, bright, smooth ; color according to breed . . 

4. Snout, shaped according to breed 

5. Face, smooth and slightly dished 

6. Eyes, full and bright ; not obscured by wrinkles 

7. Ears, fine in texture ; shape and position according to breed ... 

8. Jowl, Kpht, smooth, and neat 3 

9. Neck, light, medium length 3 

10. Shoulders, smooth, compact, free from any coarseness ; moderately fat 8 

1 1 . Fore legs, straight, short for the breed ; bone fine, strong, and smooth ; 

pasterns upnght, feet strong 3 

12. Chest, deep ; full in heart-girth 5 

13. Back and loin, long, smooth, strong, medium and uniform in width ; 

moderately fat 15 

14. Rump, long, smooth, medium in width ; rounding from loin to tail ; 

moderately fat 5 

15. Hams, firm, smoothly covered, fleshed deep and low toward hocks 10 

16. Sides, long, smooth, deep, straight, moderately fat 20 

17. Belly, long, smooth, straight, and firm 12 

18. Hind legs, straight, short for the breed ; bone fine, strong, and smooth, 

pasterns upright ; feet strong 3 

Total 100 

Market Classes and Grades 

Beef, veal, mutton, and pork recognized in Chicago wholesale markets. 
(Hall, Illinois Station.) 

Beef 

The general divisions of the beef trade are (1) Carcass Beef, (2) Beef 
Cuts, and (3) Cured Beef Products. 

Carcass Beep. — The classes are Steers^ Heifers, Cows, and BuUs 
and Stags. They differ not only in sex, but also in the uses to which 
they are adapted. 



GRADES OF BEEF AND VEAL 405 

The grades within these classes are primes choice, good, medium, 
common, and canners. The grades are based on differences in form, 
thickness, finish, quality, soundness, and weight. 

The terms " Native," " Western," and " Texas " beef each include 
various classes and grades of carcasses, and refer to general differences 
in form, finish, and quality. 

The terms " YearUngs," " Distillers," " Butcher," and " Kosher " 
also include various classes and grades of beef, and merely indicate 
characteristic features of carcass beef used by certain branches of the 
trade. 

'' Shipping beef " refers to that sent to eastern cities and consists 
principally of steers, heifers and cows of medium to prime grades. 
Export beef consists largely of medium to prime steers. 

Beep Cuts. — The " straight cuts " of beef are Loins, Ribs, Rounds, 
Chucks, Plates, Flanks, and Shanks, 

The grades of beef cuts are No, 1, No, 2, No. 3, and Strippers. The 
grade of a beef cut depends upon its thickness, covering, quality, and 
weight. 

Cured Beep Products. — These are classified as (1) Barreled, (2) 
Smoked, and (3) Canned Beef. 

Barreled Beef is graded as Extra India Mess, Extra Plate, Regular 
Plate, Packet, Common Plate, Rolled Boneless, Prime Mess, Extra Mess, 
Rump Butt and Mess Chuck Beef, Beef Hams and Scotch Buttocks, 

Smoked Beef consists of Dried Beef Hams, Dried Beef Clods, and 
Smoked Brisket- Beef. 

Canned Beef consists principally of Chipped Beef, Beef Loaf, Corned 
and Roast Beef, 

Veal 

The divisions of the veal trade are (1) Carcass Veal and (2) Veal Cuts. 

Carcass Veal. — The grades are choice, good, medium, light, and 
heavy. The grade of a veal carcass depends upon its form, quality, 
finish, and weight. 

The terms " Native " and " Western " veal each include several grades 
of calves, and refer to general differences in form, quality, and finish. 

Veal Cuts. — The regular veal cuts are Saddles and Racks, They 
are graded as choice, good, medium, and common, according to the same 
factors as carcass veal. 



406 EXHIBITING AND JUDGING LIVE STOCK 

Subdivisions of the regular cuts are made in some markets and sim- 
ilarly graded. 

Mutton and Lamb 

The divisions of the trade are (1) Carcass Mutton and Lamb and (2) 
Mutton and Lamb Cuts. 

Cabcass Mutton and Lamb. — The classes are Wethers, EweSy 
Bucks y Yearlings y and Lambs, 

The grades within these classes are choicey goody mediumy common, and 
cuUs. The grades are based on differences in form, quality, covering, 
and weight. 

The shipping trade goes principally to cities in the eastern seaboard 
states, and consists largely of medium to choice lambs. 

Mutton and Lamb Cuts. — The leading cuts are Saddles and RackSy 
together with LegSy Loins y Short Racks, Stews, and Backs. They are 
graded in the same manner as carcass mutton and lamb. 

Pork 

Hog products are described under three heads : (1) Dressed Hogs, 
(2) Pork Cuts, and (3) Lard. 

Dressed Hoos. — The classes are Smooth, Heavyy Bvichefy Packing 
and Bacon Hogs, ShipperSy and Pigs. The classification is based on 
the uses to which the hogs are adapted. 

Distinct grades are recognized only in the Packing and Bacon classes, 
the former being based on weight and the latter chiefly on quality and 
finish. 

Pork Cuts. — The classes are Hams, SideSy BeUies, Backs, Loins, 
ShoidderSy Butts and PlateSy and Miscellaneous. 

Pork cuts are quoted as fresh pork, dry-salt and bacon meats, bar- 
reled or plain-pickled pork, sweet-pickled meats, smoked meats, " Eng- 
lish " meats, and boiled meats, respectively. 

The grading of pork cuts is much more complex than that of other 
meats. It involves not only their quality, shape, finish, and weight, 
but also the styles of cutting and methods of packing used. 

Lard. — The grades are Kettle- Rendered Leaf, Kettle-Rendered, 
Neutraly Prime Steam, Refined, and Compound Lard. The grading 
is based on the kinds of fat, included, method of rendering, color, flavor 
and grain. 



OSADES OF PORK AND SWINB 



407 



Grades 

Prime heavy hogs, 
350 to 500 lb. . 



Swine 

Subclasses 



Qradbs 



Prime 



Butcher hogs, 
180 to 350 lb. 



Packing hogs, 
200 to 500 lb. 



Light hogs, 
125 to 220 lb. 



Heavy butchers. 280 to 350 lb I Good* 



Medium butchers. 220 to 280 lb. 
Light butchers, 180 to 220 lb. . 

Heavy packing, 300 to 500 lb. 
Medium packing. 250 to 300 lb. 
Mixed packing, 200 to 280 lb. 



Bacon 



English, 160 to 220 lb. 



United States, 155 to 195 lb. 



Light mixed, 150 to 220 lb. 



Light light, 125 to 160 lb. 



Prime 

Good 

Common 

Good 

Common 

Inferior 

Choice 

Light 

Fat 

Choice 

Good 

Common 

Good 

Common 

Inferior 

Good 

Common 

Inferior 

Choice 

Pigs, 60 to 125 lb. j Good 

I Common 

Roughs. 

Stags. 

Boars. 

Miscellaneous : — 
Roasting pigs, 15 to 30 lb. 
Feeders. 
Governments. 
Pen-holders. 
Dead hogs. 

Roughs are hogs of all sizes that are coarse, rough, and lacking in 
condition — too inferior to be classed as packing hogs or as light 
mixed hogs. The pork from these hogs is used for the cheaper 
class of trade for both packing and fresh meat purposes. 

Stags are hogs that at one time were boars beyond the pig stage and 
have been subsequently castrated. They sell with a dockage of eighty 
pounds. If they are of good quality and condition and do not show 
too much stagginess, they go in with the various grades of packing 
hogs. When they are coarse and staggy in appearance, they are sold 
in the same class with boars. The intermediary grades sell for prices 
ranging between these extremes, dependent on their freedom from 
stagginess and their quality and condition. 



408 EXHIBITING AND JUDGING LIVE-STOCK 

Boars are always sold in a class by themselves, and bring from $2 
to $3 per hundredweight less than the best hogs on the market 
at the same time. They always sell straight, with no dockage. There 
is no distinction as to grades ; they simply sell as boars. The pork 
from these animals is used to supply the cheaper class of trade, and also 
for making sausage. 

Roasting pigs are not generally quoted in market reports. They come 
to market in small numbers and only during holiday seasons, and their 
price varies greatly. 

Feeders are hogs bought on the market and taken back to the country 
to be further fed, a practice which is followed only to a very limited 
extent. 

Governments are hogs rejected by the government inspector as not 
sound in every respect. They are usually bought up by a local dealer 
and taken to one of the smaller packing houses, where they are slaugh- 
tered under the supervision of an inspector. If found to be affected 
so as to make their flesh unfit for human food, they are condemned, 
slaughtered, and tanked. The tank is a large, steam-tight receptacle, 
like a steam boiler, in which the lard is rendered under steam pressure. 
This high degree of heat destroys all disease germs with which the 
diseased carcass may have been affected. The product of the tank is 
converted into grease and fertilizer. 

The commission men who sell the stock as it comes to the yards, 
and the speculators who handle part of it, pay nothing for their privi- 
lege of doing business in the yards. They hold their respective positions 
by common consent and their respective pens by keeping hogs in them. 
These hogs are called pen-holders, and have no influence on the market. 

Dead hogs are those killed in the cars in transit. They are used for 
the manufacture of grease, soap, and fertilizer. 



CHAPTER XXII 
Computing the Ration fob Farm ANiiiALs 



Modern experiments (principally German) have resulted in formu- 
lating standard rations for different animals at different ages and under 
different conditions. These feeding standards are only approximate 
guides, but they are sufficient for practical purposes. 

Computing by Energy Values 

A method is proposed of calculating feeding requirements, reckoned 
on the protein and the energy values or therms of chemical energy. 
A therm is the heat required to raise the temperature of 1,000 kilo- 
grams of water 1° C. The chemical energy contained in anthracite 
is 3.583 therms per pound. (A pound of anthracite produces heat 
enough to raise the temperature of 3.583 kilograms of water 1^ C.) 
In the same way the amount of chemical energy contained in many 
feeding stuffs has been measured. Following are determinations of 
chemical energy in 100 pounds (with 15 per cent moisture) : — 



Thbhms 

Timothy hay 175.1 

Clover hay 173.2 

Oat straw 171.0 

Wheat straw 171.4 



Thbhms 

Corn-meal 170.9 

Oats 180.6 

Wheat bran 175.5 

Linseed-meal 196.7 



MainUnance requiremenla of ccUtle and horses, per day and head (Armsby) 

(Production requirements are also determined, and must be used in calculat- 
ing rations.) 





Cattle 


HORSBS 


Live Wbioht 


Dicestible 


Energy 


Digestible 


Energy 




protein 


value 


protein 


value 


Pounda 


Pound* 


Thentu 


Pounds 


Themu 


150 


0.15 


1.70 


0.30 


2.00 


250 


0.20 


2.40 


0.40 


2.80 


500 


0.30 


3.80 


0.60 


4.40 


750 


0.40 


4.95 


0.80 


5,80 


1000 


0.50 


6.00 


1.00 


7.00 


1250 


0.60 


7.00 


1.20 


8.15 


1500 


0.65 


7.90 


1.30 


9.20 



409 



410 COMPUTING THE RATION FOR FARM ANIMALS 

Compttting on Basis of Quality and Quantity of ICilk 

" The quality of milk is quite as important a factor in formulat- 
ing a feeding standard or guide to feeding practice, as quantity of 
milk yielded/' according to Haecker (Minn. Bull. 79). " It would 
seem quite as consistent to feed an animal food regardless of its 
composition as to feed an assumed ration regardless of the composi- 
tion of the product which is to be elaborated from the nutrients of 
the food." 

It is probably not possible to " feed fat into milk/' provided the 
animal is otherwise well nourished, but the Haecker standards are 
not founded on that idea, but on the assumption that the greater 
the yield of butter-fat the greater should be the feed of maintenance. 
This method is sometimes used instead of the German method 
(p. 413), in figuring rations for dairy cows. 



Nei ntUrienis used by mature cow$ for the production of one pound of mUk 
testing a given per cent butler-fat (Haecker) 







Carbort- 

OBATB8 


Ema 
Extract 


MUk testing 2.5 


.0362 


.164 


.0124 




' 
















. . 2.6 


.0369 


.167 


.0126 




• 


















. . 2.7 


.0376 


.171 


.0128 




• 


















. 2.8 


.0333 


.174 


.0131 




' 


















. . 2.9 


.0390 


.177 


.0133 




t 


















. 3.0 


.0397 


.181 


.0136 




• 


















. 3.1 


.0404 


.184 


.0138 




1 


















. 3.2 


.0411 


.187 


.0140 




* 


















. 3.3 


.0418 


.190 


.0142 




* 


















. 3.4 


.0425 


.194 


.0145 




* 


















. 3.6 


.0432 


.197 


.0147 




* 


















. 3.6 


.0439 


.200 


.0149 




' 


















. 3.7 


.0446 


.204 


.0152 




t 


















. 3.8 


.0453 


.207 


.0154 




( 


















. 3.9 


.0460 


.210 


.0156 




t 


















. 4.0 


.0467 


.214 


.0159 




* 


















. 4.1 


.0474 


.217 


.0161 




* , 


















. 4.2 


.0481 


.220 


.0163 






















. 4.3 


.0488 


.223 


.0165 






















. 4.4 


.0495 


.227 


.0168 




< 


















. 4.5 


.0502 


.230 


.0170 




< 


















. 4.6 


.0509 


.233 


.0172 






















. 4.7 


.0516 


.237 


.0175 




t 


















. 4.8 


.0523 


.240 


.0177 










. 4.9 


.0530 


.243 


.0179 



THE HAECKER STANDARDS 



411 



Net nuirierUa used by mature cows — Continued 





Pbotbik 


Carboht- 

DRATE8 


Ether 
Extract 


Milkteating 5.0 


.0637 


.247 


.0182 




















. . 6.1 


.0544 


.250 


.0185 




















. . 5.2 


.0651 


.253 


.0187 




















. . 6.3 


.0668 


.256 


.0189 




















. . 6.4 


.0666 


.260 


.0192 




















. . 6.5 


.0672 


.263 


.0194 




















. 6.6 


.0579 


.266 


.0196 




















. 6.7 


.0586 


.270 


.0199 




















. 6.8 


.0593 


.273 


.0201 




















. 6.9 


.0600 


.276 


.0203 




















. 6.0 


.0607 


.280 


.0206 




















. 6.1 


.0614 


.283 


.0208 




















. 6.2 


.0621 


.286 


.0210 




















. 6.3 


.0628 


.289 


.0212 




















. 6.4 


.0635 


.293 


.0215 




















. 6.5 


.0642 


.296 


.0217 




















. 6.6 


.0649 


.300 


.0219 




















. 6.7 


.0656 


.303 


.0222 




















. 6.8 


.0663 


.306 


.0224 




















. 6.9 


.0670 


.309 


.0226 




















. 7.0 


.0677 


.313 


.0229 


Coefficients for food of maintenance * per cwt . 


.07 


7.7 


.01 



'' Given the daily 3deid of milk in pounds, its percentage of butter- 
fat, and the weight of the cow expressed decimally, it is an easy 
matter to determine the required ration. As an illustration, suppose 
a mature cow weighs 825 pounds, gives 20 pounds of milk daily 
testing 4 per cent butter-fat. One pound of 4 per cent milk re- 
quires of protein .0467, carbohydrates .214, and of ether eictract 
.0159; multipl3dng these factors by 20 it is found that for the 
production of milk the cow needs .934 of protein, 4.28 of carbohy- 
drates, and .318 of ether extract. For food of maintenance, mul- 
tiply .07 protein, .7 carbohydrates and .01 of ether extract (main- 
tenance' formula) by 8.25, which gives protein .578, carbohydrates 
5.78, and ether extract .082 ; adding to this the nutrients required for 
milk production, we have 1.51 of protein, 10.06 carbohydrates, and 
.40 ether extract, the nutrients required in the ration. They should 
be supplied in such manner with reference to bulk that the ration 
will satisfy the appetite. A ration like this should be largely made 
up of roughage.'' (Haecker.) 

For a cow weighing 850 pounds and yielding 40 pounds of 4 per 
1 Maintenance standards not detailed here. 



412 COMPUTING THE RATION FOR FARM ANIMALS 

cent milk daily, the required ration would be (P= protein; C. H. 

= carbohydrates) : — 

P. C.H. Fat P. C.H. Fat 

(.0467 .214 .0159)X 40=1.868 8.56 .636 

(.07 .7 .01 )X8.50 = .595 5.05 .085 

Ration required, 2.463 14.51 .721 

A ration like this should be largely composed of grain so that it 
will not contain so much bulk that the cow will go off her feed, and 
yet furnish the nutrients required. Cows do not require a uniform 
nutritive ratio, but the ratio varies according to the quantity of milk 
and weight of cow. To illustrate, let us suppose a cow weighing 1200 
pounds and yielding 20 pounds of milk daily, and one weighing 850 
pounds yielding 40 pounds of milk, both testing 4 per cent fat : 

Nutrients for 1 lb. of 4 per cent milk, 
Nutrients for 1 cwt., maintenance, 



P. 

.0467 
.07 


C.H. 

.214 

.7 


Fat 
.0159 
.01 


g 20 lbs. of 4 


per cent milk : 


P. 
.03 

.84 


C.H. 
4.28 
8.40 


Fat 
.32 
.12 



Nutrients for 20 lbs. nulk. 

Nutrients for 12 cwt. maintenance, 

Ration required, 1.77 12.68 .44 

Nutritive ratio, 1 : 7.7 

For cow weighing 850 lbs. and yielding 40 lbs. of 4 per cent 
milk : 

P. C. H. Fat 

Nutrients for 40 lbs. of milk, 1.87 8.56 .64 

Nutrients for 8.5 cwt. maintenance, .59 5.95 .08 

Ration required, 2.46 14.51 .72 

Nutritive ratio, 1 : 6.5 

But if the cow weighing 12 cwt. yields 40 lb. of milk per day and 
the cow weighing 8.5 cwt. yields 20 pounds, the nutrient require- 
ments for their respective rations according to table will be as 
follows : 

Nutrients for 40 lbs. of 4 per cent milk. 
Nutrients for 12 cwt. maintenance, 

Required ration. 
Nutritive ratio. 

Nutrients for 20 lbs. of 4 per cent nulk. 

Nutrients for 8.5 cwt. maintenance, _ 

Required ration, i.52 10.23 .40 

Nutritive ratio, 1 : 7.3 



P. 

1.87 
.84 


C.H 
8.56 
8.40 


Fat 
.64 
.12 




2.71 


16.96 


.76 


1:6.8 


P 

.93 

.59 


C.H. 
4.28 
5.95 


Fat 

.32 

.08 





THE GERMAN STANDARDS 



413 



Computing the Balanced Ration by the Wolff-Lehnuum Standards 

The usual method of computing rations, however, is by the use of 
the German standards (Table I) as a basis, and then determining 
from the composition tables (Table II) how the various feeds may be 
compounded so that they will produce approximately the ratio of the 
feeding standards. Feeding standards have not been sufficiently 
worked out for poultry. 

In the following dairy ration, the nutritive ratio is much too wide 
as compared with the standard: — 





Dbt 
Mattbb 


Pbotein 


C. H. AND 

Fat 


Total 


NUTHITIVB 

Ratio 


201b. hay 

4 lb. oats 

4 lb. com 


17.40 
3.56 
3.56 


0.560 
0.368 
0.316 


9.300 
2.772 
3.056 


9.860 
2.640 
3.372 










Total 

Feeding standard 


24.52 
24.00 


1.244 
2.5 


14.628 
13.4 


15.872 
15.9 


1 : 11.7 
1:6.4 



The following table shows the ration more nearly balanced by the 
substitution of buckwheat middlings for the com: — 





Dbt 
Mattbb 


Pbotbut 


C. H. AND 

Fat 


Total 


20 lb. timothy hay 

4 1b. oats 

4 lb. buckwheat middlings . . 


17.40 
3.66 
3.48 


0.660 
0.368 
0.880 


9.300 
2.272 
1.824 


9.860 
2.640 
2.704 


Total 


24.44 


1.808 


13.396 


15 204 







Nutritiye ratio 1 : 7.4 

By adding cottonseed meal, and reducing the hay, the ration con- 
forms practically to the standard: — 





Dbt 
Mattbb 


Pbotein 


C. H. AND 

Fat 


Total 


18 lb. timothy hay 

4 lb. oats 

4 lb. buckwheat middlings . . . 
2 lb. cottonseed meal 


15.66 
3.56 

3.48 
1.84 


0.504 
0.368 
0.880 
0.744 


8.370 
2.272 
1.824 

0.88S 


8.874 
2.640 
2.704 
1.632 


Total 


24.54 


2.496 


13.354 


15 850 







Nutritive ratio 1 : 6.3 



414 COMPUTING THE RATION FOR FARM ANIMALS 

In computing the ration, proper consideration must be given to the 
digestibility (Table III), and also, as determined by experience, to 
bulk and palatableness. The fertilizing value of the manure differs 
with the different feeds, as is indicated in Table IV.* 

An exact mathematical method of equating rations is worked out 
by WUlard in Bull. 115 of the Kansas Exp. Sta., and condensed in 
Cyclo. Amer. Agric. Ill, pp. 103-105. It rests on finding the pro- 
tein-equating factor. 

The Feeding-Standards 

The relation between the protein, on the one hand, and the carbo- 
hydrates and fat on the other, is known as the nutrUwe ratio : thus 
1 : 11.9 means protein 1 part to carbohydrates and fat nearly 12 (11.9) 
parts. A ratio less than 1 : 5 is usually said to be narrow ; one more 
than 1: 7 is said to be tmde, 

Tablk I. Feeoino-Standardb 
A. — Per day and 1000 Ih. live weights 







DiOBSTIBLS 






Drt 








NUTBI- 












Matter 




Carbo- 




Ratxo 






Protein 


hydntes 
and Fat 


Total 






Ptntndn 


Poundt 


Pounds 


Pounds 




Oxen at rest in the stall 


17.5 


0.7 


8.3 


9.0 


1:11.9 


Wool sheep, coarser breeds 


20.0 


1.2 


10.8 


12.0 


1:9.0 


Wool sheep, finer breeds 


22.6 


1.6 


12.0 


13.5 


1:8.0 


Oxen moderately worked 


24.0 


1.6 


12.0 


13.0 


1 : 7.6 


Oxen heavily worked 

Horses lightly worked 


26.0 


2.4 


14.3 


16.7 


1:6.0 


20.0 


1.5 


10.4 


11.9 


1:6.9 


Horses moderately worked 


21.0 


1.7 


11.8 


13.5 


1:6.9 


Horses heavily worked 

Milch cows, Wolff's standard .... 


23.0 


2.3 


14.3 


16.6 


1:6.2 


24.0 


2.5 


13.4 


15.9 


1:5.4 


Milch cows, when 3rielding daily — 












11 lb. milk 


25.0 
27.0 


1.6 
2.0 


10.7 
11.9 


12.3 
13.9 


1 
1 


67 


16.61b. milk 


6.0 


22.01b. milk 


29.0 


2.6 


14.1 


16.6 


1 


5.7 


27.5 lb. milk 


32.0 
27.0 


3.3 
2.5 


14.8 
16.1 


18.1 
18.6 


1 
1 


4 5 


Fattening oxen, preliminary period . . 


6.4 


Fattening oxen, main period .... 


26.0 


3.0 


16.4 


1«.4 


1 1:5.5 



» The tables are abbreviated from Cyclo. Amer. Agric. ; and noe. II, III, 
and V there adapted from Henry. 

* The fattening rations are calculated for 1000 lb., live weight, at the begin- 
ning of the fattening. 



ACCEPTED FEEDING-STANDARDS 



415 



Table I. Fesdino-Stamdardb — Continued 



Dbt 
Mattkb 



Fattening oxen, finiahing period 
Fattening sheep, preliminary period 
Fattening sheep, main period . . 
Fattening swine, preliminary period 
Fattening swine, main period . . 
Fattening swine, fimshing period . 
Growing cattle : 



Age (months) 

2-3 

3-6 

6-12 
12-18 
18-24 
Growing sheep : 

6-6 

6-8 

8-11 
11-15 
16-60 
Growing fat pigs : 

2-3 

3-5 

6-6 

6-8 

8-12 



Average live weight 
per head 

160 lb. . . 

300 lb. . . 

600 lb. . . 

700 lb. . . 

860 lb. . . 



561b. 
671b. 
761b. 
82 1b. 
86 1b. 

501b. 
100 It. 
126 lb. 
170 lb. 
2601b. 



Pound* 
26.0 
26.0 
25.0 
36.0 
31.0 
23.6 



22.0 
23.4 
24.0 
24.0 
24.0 

28.0 
26.0 
23.0 
22.6 
22.0 

42.0 
34.0 
31.6 
27.0 
21.0 



DlOX8TIBL> 



Protein 



Cartx>.| 
hydntes, Total 
and Fat 



Poundt 
2.7 
3.0 
3.6 
6.0 
4.0 
2.7 



4.0 
3.2 
2.6 
2.0 
1.6 

3.2 
2.7 
2.1 
1.7 
1.4 

7.6 
6.0 
4.3 
3.4 
2.5 



Pounds 
16.2 
16.3 
16.8 
27.6 
24.0 
17.6 



18.3 
16.8 
14.0 
13.9 
12.7 

17.4 
14.7 
12.6 
11.8 
11.1 

30.0 
25.0 
23.7 
20.4 
16.2 



Pounds 
18.0 
10.3 
19.3 
32.6 
28.0 
20.2 



22.3 
19.0 
17.4 
16.9 
14.3 

20.6 
17.4 
14.6 
13.6 
12.6 

37.6 
30.0 
28.0 
23.8 
18.7 



NCTHI- 
TIV« 

Ratio 



B. — Per day and per head 



Growing cattle : 

2-3 

3-6 

6-12 
12-18 
18-24 
Growing sheep : 

6-6 

6-8 

8-11 

11-16 

16-20 

Growing fat swine : 

2-3 

3-6 

6-6 

6-8 

8-12 



160 lb. . 
300 lb. . 
600 lb. . 
700 lb. . 
8601b.. 

56 lb. . 
67 lb. 
76 lb. , 
82 lb. , 
86 1b. . 



601b. 
1001b. 
126 1b. 
170 lb. 
260 1b. 



3.3 


0.6 


2.8 


3.4 


7.0 


1.0 


4.0 


6.0 


12.0 


1.3 


7.6 


8.8 


16.8 


1.4 


0.7 


11.1 


20.4 


1.4 


11.1 


12.6 


1.6 


0.18 


0.074 


1.164 


1.7 


0.18 


0.981 


1.161 


1.7 


0.16 


0.953 


1.113 


1.8 


0.14 


0.975 


1.115 


1.9 


0.12 


0.965 


1.075 


2.1 


0.38 


1.50 


1.88 


3.4 


0.60 


2.50 


3.00 


3.9 


0.64 


2.96 


3.50 


4.6 


0.58 


3.47 


4.06 


6.2 


0.62 


4.05 


4.67 



416 COMPUTING THE RATION FOR FARM ANIMALS 

Protdd requirements 

From the results of a considerable number of fattening experi- 
ments with cattle, Armsby has formulated the approximate proteid 
requirements, comparing them with those for growth formulated by 
Kellner ; and these are here followed by proteid requirements of sheep 
and swine : — 

Approximate proteid requirements, ia pounds, of cattle, per 1000 pounds live 

weight 



AifSRicAN Results 



Gbriian Rbsclts (Keilner) 



U. 

Age 1 month 4.80 

Age 2 months 4.00 

Age 3 months 3.50 

Age 1-1 H years 2.00 

Age 2 years 1.75 

Age 2}^ years 1.50 



Age 2-3 months . 
Age 3-6 months . 
Age 6-12 months . 
Age 1-1 ^ years . 
Age 1-1^-2 years 



Lb. 
4.50 
3.50 
2.80 
2.20 
1.50 



Mature, fattening 1.60 



Proteid requirements for sheep, per 1000 pounds live weight (Kellner) 




MtrrroN Brbbos 



Age 5- 6 months 
Age 6- 8 months 
Age 8-11 months 
Age 11-15 months 
Age 15-20 months 



Lfr. 

4.5 
3.5 
2.5 
2.0 

1.5 



Proteid requirements of swine, per 1000 pounds live weight (Kellner) 




FEEDINGS TUFFS 



417 



Average weights of different feeding-stuffs (Mass. Sta.) 



Fbbdino Stuff 



Barley meal 

Barley, whole 

Brewers* dried grains 

Corn-and-cob meal 

Corn-aod-oat feed 

Corn bi^Q 

Corn meal 

Corn, whole 

Cottonseed meal 

Distillers' dried grains 

Germ I oimeal 

Gluten feed 

Gluten meal 

Hominv meal 

Linseed meal, new process 

Linseed meal, old process 

Malt sprouts 

Mixed feed (bran and middlings) 

Oat feed (a variable mixture) 

Oat middlings 

Oats, groundf 

Oats, whole 

Rye feed (a mixture of rye bran and rye middlings) 

Rye meal 

Rye bran (Conn. Sta.) . 

Rye, whole 

Wheat bran 

Wheat, ground 

Wheat middlings (flour) 

Wheat middlings (standard) 

Wheat, whole . 

Mixed wheat feed (Conn. Sta.) 



One Quart 
Weighs — 



L6. 

1.1 

1.5 

0.6 

1.4 

0.7 

0.5 

1.5 

1.7 

1.5 

0.5-0.7 

1.4 

1.3 

1.7 

1.1 

0.9 

1.1 

0.6 

0.6 

0.8 

1.5 

0.7 

1.0 

1.3 

1.5 

0.6 

1.7 

0.5 

1.7 

1.2 

0.8 

1.9 

0.6 



One Pound 
Measures — 



0.9 

0.7 

1.7 

0.7 

1.4 

2.0 

0.7 

0.6 

0.7 

1.0-1.4 

0.7 

0.8 

0.6 

0.9 

1.1 

0.9 

1.7 

1.7 

1.3 

0.7 

1.4 

1.0 

0.8 

0.7 

0.6 
2.0 
0.6 
0.8 
1.3 
0.5 



Sample rations. 

The following twelve rations for milch cows are given as samples of 
the systems of feeding to be recommended in different parts of the 
country. 

(1) Hay, 20 lb. ; oats, 3 lb. ; corn-and-cob meal, 3 lb ; oil-meal, 2 
lb. 

(2) Hay, 10 lb. ; corn-stalks, ad lib. ; wheat bran, 3 lb. ; com meal, 
2 lb. ; cottonseed meal, 2 lb. 

(3) Roots, 60 lb. ; stover, ad lib. ; oats, 3 lb. ; bran, 3 lb. ; gluten 
feed, 3 lb. 

2n 



418 COMPUTING TBE RATION FOR FARM ANIMALS 

(4) Com fodder, ad lib. ; corn silage, 40 lb. ; shorts, 2 lb. ; dry 
brewers' grains, 2 lb. ; oil-meal, 2 lb. 

(5) Silage, 40 lb. ; hay, ad lib. ; bran, 4 lb. ; oats, 2 lb. ; gluten 
meal, 2 lb. 

(6) Com silage, 45 lbs. ; hay, ad lib. ; oats, 4 lb. ; oil-meal, 2 lb. ; 
cottonseed meal, 1 lb. 

(7) Corn silage, 35 lb. ; clover hay, ad lib. ; bran, oats, and com 
meal, 2 lb. each. 

(S) Clover silage, 25 lb. ; hay, 5 lb. ; corn-stalks, ad lib. ; oats, 3 
3 lb. ; com meal and oil-meal, 2 lb. each. 

(9) Clover or alfalfa silage, 30 lb. ; hay, ad lib. ; bran, 4 lb. ; mid- 
dlings, 3 lb. ; oil-meal, 1 lb. 

(10) Alfalfa hay, 20 lb. ; oats, 4 lb. ; corn meal, 2 lb. 

(11) Hay, 20 lb. ; cottonseed hulls, 10 lb. ; cottonseed meal, 4 lb. ; 
wheat bran, 2 lb. 

(12) Com silage, 30 lb. ; cottonseed hulls, 12 lb. ; bran, 6 lb. ; 
cottonseed meal, 3 lb. 

Henry, in his '' Feeds and Feeding," gives the following rations, 
from various sources, as a guide in determining the amount of feed 
that should be allowed the horse under various conditions : — 



Ch/iracter of Amiiial 


Ration 


AND Work rbquirbd 


CoQcentrates 




TroUing horse. — (Wood- 
ruff.) 
Colt, weaning time . . 
Colt, one year old . . 
Colt, two years old . . 
Colt, two years old, in 
training .... 
Colt, three years old, in 

training 

Trotting horse. — (Splan.) 
Horse on circuit . . . 

Horse on circuit . . . 






2 lb. oats 
4 lb. oats 
6 lb. oats 

8 lb. oats 

8-12 lb. oats 

10 lb. oats 

[15 lb. oats, in excep- 
\ tional cases (as with 
I Rarus) 

15 lb. oats 
8 lb. oats 


Hay unlimited allowance 
Hay unlimited allowance 
Hay unlimited allowance 

Hay, allo?rance limited 

Hay, allowance limited 

Hay, fair amount 

Hay, fair amount 


Horse varwusly used. — 
(Stonehenge.) 
Race horse .... 
Hack 


6-8 lb. hay 
12 lb. hay 



COMPOSITION OF FEEDINQ-^TUFFS 



419 





Ration 


Chabactsb or Animal 






AND Work Requibsd 








ConceDtrates 


Roiigha«e 


Horse varUmaly used. — 






(Fleming.) 


• 




Pony 


4 lb. oats 


Hay. moderate allow- 
ance 




12 lb. oats 


12 lb. hay 


Hunter, large . . . 


16 lb. oats 


10 lb. hay 


Carriage, light work 


10 lb. oats 


12 lb. hay 


The draft Aor»«.— (Sidney.) 








f 13 lb. oats 


15 lb. chafiFed clover hay 


Heavy, hard work . . 


6 lb. beans 




, 3 lb. corn 


] 


Farm horse. — (Settegast.) 






Light work . . . . 


6-10 lb. oats 


6-9 lb. hay 
3 lb. straw 


Medium work . . . 


10 lb. oats 


10 lb. hay 
3 lb. straw 


Heavy work .... 


13 lb. oats 


( 12 lb. hay 
3 1b. straw 



Composition Tables 
Tablb II. AvsRAOE Composition of American Feeding-stuffs (Henry) 



FSBDINOHVTUm 



Concentrates 

Corn, dent .... 

Corn, flint 

Corn, sweet .... 

Com meal 

Corn cob 

Corn-and-cob meal . . 

Corn bran 

Com germ 

Hominy chops . . . 
Germ meal .... 
Dried starch and sugar feed 
Starch feed, wet . . . 
Gluten meal .... 
Gluten feed .... 
Wheat, all analyses . . 
Flour, high grade . . 
Flour, low grade . . . 



PSBCBNTAaS COIIPOSmON 



Water 



10.6 

11.3 

8.8 

15.0 

10.7 

15.1 

0.4 

10.7 

9.6 

8.6 

10.9 

65.4 

9.5 

9.2 

10.5 

12.2 

12.0 



1.5 
1.4 
1.9 
1.4 
1.4 
1.6 
1.2 
4.0 
2.7 
2.4 
0.9 
0.3 
1.5 
2.0 
1.8 
0.6 
2.0 



Protein 



10.3 

10.5 

11.6 

9.2 

2.4 

8.5 

11.2 

9.8 

10.5 

21.7 

19.7 

6.1 

33.8 

25.0 

11.9 

14.9 

18.0 



Crude 
fiber 



2.2 
1.7 
2.8 
1.9 

30.1 
6.6 

11.9 
4.1 
4.9 
3.8 
4.7 
3.1 
2.0 
6.8 
1.8 
0.3 
0.9 



Nitro- 
gen-free 
extract 



70.4 
70.1 
66.8 
68.7 
54.9 
64.8 
60.1 
64.0 
64.3 
47.3 
54.8 
22.0 
46.6 
53.5 
71.9 
70.0 
63.3 



Ether 
extract 



5.0 
5.0 
8.1 
3.8 
0.5 
3.5 
6.2 
7.4 
8.0 
4.2 
9.0 
3.1 
6.6 
3.5 
2.1 
2.0 
3.9 



No. of 
analy- 



86 

68 

26 

77 

18 

7 

6 

3 

106 

23 

4 

12 

12 

102 

310 

1 

1 



420 COMPUTING THE RATION FOR FARM ANIMALS 



Tabls II — Continued 







Pbrcentaob COIIPOBmON 






, 














No. of 


FE£DINO-«TUm 








1 


Nitro- 
gen-free 
extract 




anjily- 




Water 


Ash 


Protein 


Crude 
fiber 


Ether 
extract 


ses 


Flour, dark feeding . . 


9.7 


4.3 


19.9 


3.8 


56.2 


6.2 


1 


Bran, all analyses . . . 


11.9 


5.8 


15.4 


9.0 


53.9 ; 


4.0 


88 


Middlings 


10.0 


3.2 


19.2 


3.2 


59.6 ' 


4.8 


106 


Shorts 


11.2 


4.4 


16.9 


6.2 


56.2 


5.1 


94 


Wheat screenings . . . 


11.6 


2.9 


12.5 , 


4.9 


65.1 


3.0 


10 


Rye 


8.7 


2.1 


11.3 1 


1.5 


74.5 


1.9 


57 


Rye flour 


13.1 


0.7 


6.7 , 


0.4 


78.3 


0.8 


4 


Rye bran 


11.6 


3.4 


14.6 ' 


3.5 


63.9 


2.8 


29 


Rye shorts and bran . . 


12 4 


3.2 


15.7 


4.1 


61.5 


3.1 


21 


Barley 


10.8 


2.5 


12.0 


4.2 


67.8 


1.8 


22 


Barley meal 


11.9 


2.6 


10.5 


6.5 


66.3 


2.2 


3 


Barley screenings . . . 


12.2 


3.6 


12.3 


7.3 


61.8 


2.8 


2 


Brewers' grains, wet . . 


75.7 


1.0 


5.4 i 


3.8 


12.5 


1.6 


15 


Brewers' grains, dried . . 


8.7 


3.7 


25.0 


13.6 


42.3 


6.7 


53 


Malt-sprouts 


9.5 


6.1 


26.3 


11.6 


44.9 


1.6 


47 


Oats 




11.4 


3.2 


11.4 


10.8 


59.4 


4.8 


126 


Oatmeal . . . 




7.9 


2.0 


14.7 


0.9 


67.4 


7.1 


6 


Oat feed . . . 




7.0 


5.3 


8.0 


21.5 


55.3 


2.9 


110 


Oat dust . . . 




r..5 


6.9 


13.5 


18.2 


50.2 


4.8 


2 


Oat hulls . . . 




7.4 


6.7 


3.4 


30.7 


50.5 


1.3 


11 


Rice 




12.4 


0.4 


7.4 


0.2 


79.2 


0.4 


10 


Rice meal . . . 




10.2 


8.1 


12.0 


5.4 


51.2 


13.1 


2 


Rice hulls . . 




8.8 


15.6 


3.2 


36.2 


35.2 


1.0 


17 


Rice bran . . 




9.7 


9.7 


11.9 


12.0 


46.6 


10.1 


24 


Rice polish 




10.8 


4.8 


11.9 


3.3 


62.3 


7.2 


21 


Buckwheat 




13.4 


2.0 


10.8 


11.7 


59.7 


2.4 


33 


Buckwheat flour . . . 


14.6 


1.0 


6.9 


0.3 


75.8 


1.4 


4 


Buckwheat hulls . . . 


13.2 


2.2 


4.6 


43.5 


35.3 


1.1 


2 


Buckwheat bran .... 


8.2 


4.9 


12.6 


32.9 


37.9 


3.5 


4 


Buckwheat shorts . . . 


11.1 


5.1 


27.1 


8.3 


40.8 


7.6 


2 


Buckwheat middlings . . 


12.8 


5.0 


26.7 


4.4 


44.3 


6.8 


40 


Sorghum seed .... 


12.8 


2.1 


9.1 


2.6 


69.8 


3.6 


1 10 


Broom-corn seed . . . 


12.8 


2.8 


9.9 


7.0 


64.3 


3.2 


4 


Kafir seed 


9.9 


1.6 


11.2 


2.7 


71.6 


3.1 


19 


Millet seed 


12.1 


2.8 


10.9 


8.1 


62.6 


3.5 


6 


Hungarian-grass seed . . 


9.5 


5.0 


9.9 


7.7 


63.2 


4.7 


1 1 


Flax seed 


9.2 


4.3 


22.6 


7.1 


23.2 


33.7 


! 50 


Lins(!od meal (old process) 


' 9.8 


5.5 


33.9 


7.3 


35.7 


7.8 


1 191 


Linseed meal (new process) 


1 9.0 


5.5 


37.5 


8.9 


36.4 


2.0 


' 52 


Cottonseed 


1 10.3 


3.5 


1S.4 


23.2 


24.7 


19.9 


, 5 


CottonHoed roasted . . 


i 6.1 


5.5 


16.8 


20.4 


23.5 


1 27.7 


' 2 


Cottonseed meal . . . 


1 7.0 


6.6 


45.3 


6.3 


24.6 


10.2 


319 


Cottonseed hulls . . . 


11. 1 


•2.H 


4.2 


46.3 


33.4 


I 2.2 


20 


Cottonseed kerm 


?ls (with- 








1 




1 




out hulls) 




6.2 


4.7 


1 31.2 


3.7 


17.6 


1 36.6 


2 


Cocoanut cake 




10.3 


5.0 


19.7 


14.4 


38.7 


11.0 


— 


Palm-nut meal 




1 10.4 


4.3 


16.8 


24.0 


35.0 


1 9.5 


600 


Sunflower seed 




I «-^ 


2.G 


1 16.3 


29.9 


21.4 

1 


21.2 


1 2 



COMPOSITION OP FEEDINO-^TUFFS 
Tablb II — ConHnued 



421 



FEEDiNO-arurFS 



Sunflower-seed cake . . 
Peanut kernel (without 

hulls) . . 
Peanut cake . 
Rape-seed cake 
Pea meal . . 
Soybean . . 
Cowpea . . 
Horse bean 

RonoHAOs 

Com forage, field-cured — 

Fodder com 

Corn stover (ears removed) 

Com foTOQe^ green ^— 
Fodder corn, all varieties 
Dent, kernels glazed 
Flint, kernels glazed 
Sweet varieties . . 
Leaves and husks 
Stripped stalks . . 

Hay from grasses — 
Hay from mixed grasses 
Timothy, all analyses . . 
Timothy, cut in full bloom 
Timothy, cut soon after 

bloom 

Timothy, cut when nearly 

ripe ... 
Orchard-grass .... 
Red-top, cut at different 

stages .... 
Red-top, cut in bloom 
Kentucky blue-grass . . 
Kentucky blue-grass, cut 

when seed is in milk . . 
Kentucky blue-grass, cut 

when seed is ripe 
Hungarian-grass . 
Meadow fescue . 
Italian rye-grass . 
Perennial rye-grass 
Rowen (mixed) . . . 
Mixed grasses and clovers 
Barley nay, cut in milk 





Percentao« 


CoiiposrrioN 




Water 


Ash 


Protein 


Crude 
fiber 


Nitro- 
gen-free 
extract 


Ether 
extract 


10.8 


6.7 


32.8 


13.5 


27.1 


9.1 


7.5 


2.4 


27.9 


7.0 


15.6 


39.6 


10.7 


4.9 


47.6 


6.1 


23.7 


8.0 


10.0 


7.9 


31.2 


11.3 


30.0 


9.6 


10.5 


2.6 


20.2 


14.4 


51.1 


1.2 


11.7 


4.8 


33.5 


4.5 


28.3 


17.2 


14.6 


3.2 


20.5 


3.9 


56.3 


1.5 


11.3 


3.8 


26.6 


7.2 


50.1 


1.0 


42.2 


2.7 


4.5 


14.3 


34.7 


1.6 


40.6 


3.4 


3.8 


19.7 


31.5 


1.1 


79.3 


1.2 


1.8 


5.0 


12.2 


0.5 


73.4 


1.5 


2.0 


6.7 


15.5 


0.9 


77.1 


1.1 


2.7 


4.3 


14.6 


0.8 


79.1 


1.3 


1.9 


4.4 


12.8 


0.5 


66.2 


2.9 


2.1 


8.7 


19.0 


1.1 


76.1 


0.7 


0.5 


7.3 


14.9 


0.5 


15.3 


5.6 


7.4 


27.2 


42.1 


2.5 


13.2 


4.4 


5.9 


29.0 


45.0 


2.5 


15.0 


4.5 


6.0 


29.6 


41.9 


3.0 


14.2 


4.4 


5.7 


28.1 


44.6 


3.0 


14.1 


3.9 


5.0 


31.1 


43.7 


2.2 


9.9 


6.0 


8.1 


32.4 


41.0 


2.6 


8.9 


5.2 


7.9 


28.6 


47.5 


1.9 


8.7 


4.9 


8.0 


29.9 


46.4 


2.1 


21.2 


6.3 


7.8 


23.0 


37.8 


3.9 


24.4 


7.0 


6.3 


24.5 


34.2 


3.6 


27.8 


6.4 


5.8 


23.8 


33.2 


3.0 


7.7 


6.0 


7.5 


27.7 


49.0 


2.1 


20.0 


6.8 


7.0 


25.9 


38.4 


2.7 


8.5 


6.9 


7.5 


30.5 


45.0 


1.7 


14.0 


7.9 


10.1 


25.4 


40.5 


2.1 


16.6 


6.8 


11.6 


22.5 


39.4 


3.1 


12.9 


5.5 


10.1 


27.6 


41.3 


2.6 


16.0 


4.2 


8.8 


24.7 


44.9 


2.4 1 



No. of 
analy- 



7 

2480 

500 

2 

16 

2 

1 



35 
60 



126 

7 

10 

21 

4 
4 



126 
68 
12 

11 

12 
10 



10 



4 

13 

9 

4 

4 

23 

17 

1 



422 



COMPUTING THE RATION FOR FARM ANIMALS 



Table II — Continued 







Pebcbntaob CouposmoN 




1 
















No. of 


Febdino-wtdffs 


Water 


Ash 


Protein 


Crude 
fiber 


Nitro- 
gen-free 
extract 


Ether 
extract 


analy- 
ses 


Oat hay. cut in mUk . . 


14.0 


5.7 


8.9 


27.4 


41.2 


2.8 


4 


Swamp hay . . . 




11.6 


6.7 


7.2 


26.6 


45.9 


2.0 


8 


Salt-marsh hay 






10.4 


7.7 


5.5 


30.0 


44.1 


2.4 


10 


Wild-oat grass 






14.3 


3.8 


5.0 


25.0 


48.8 


3.3 


1 


Buttercups 






9.3 


5.6 


9.9 


30.6 


41.1 


3.5 


2 


White daisy . 






10.3 


6.6 


7.7 


30.0 


42.0 


3.4 


2 


Johnson-grass 






10.2 


6.1 


7.2 


28.5 


45.9 


2.1 


2 


Fresh grass — 
















Pasture grass 


80.0 


2.0 


3.5 


4.0 


9.7 


0.8 


— 


Kentucky blue-grass . . 


: 65.1 


2.8 


4.1 


9.1 


17.6 


1.3 


18 


Timothy, different stages . 
Orchard-^ass, in bloom . 
Red-top. m bloom . . . 
Oat fodder 


61.6 


2.1 


3.1 


11.8 


20.2 


1.2 


56 


73.0 


2.0 


2.6 


8.2 


13.3 


0.9 


4 


65.3 


2.3 


2.8 


11.0 


17.7 


0.9 


5 


62.2 


2.5 


3.4 


11.2 


19.3 


1.4 


6 


Rye fodder 




76.6 


1.8 


2.6 


11.6 


6.8 


0.6 


7 


Sorghum fodder 
Barley fodder 


... 


79.4 


1.1 


1.3 


6.1 


11.6 


0.5 


11 




79.0 


1.8 


2.7 


7.9 


8.0 


0.6 


1 


H u ngarian-grass 


. . . 


71.1 


1.7 


3.1 


9.2 


14.2 


0.7 


14 


Meadow fescue, in bloom . 


69.9 


1.8 


2.4 


10.8 


14.3 


0.8 


4 


Italian rye-grass, coming 
















into bloom 


73.2 


2.5 


3.1 


6.8 


13.3 


1.3 


24 


Tall oat-grass, in bloom . 


69.5 


2.0 


2.4 


9.4 


15.8 


0.9 


3 


Japanese millet .... 


75.0 


1.5 


2.1 


7.8 


13.1 


0.5 


12 


Barnyard millet .... 


75.0 


1.9 


2.4 


7.0 


13.1 


0.6 


2 


Hay from legumee — 
















Red clover 


16.3 


6.2 


12.3 


24.8 


38.1 


3.3 


38 


Red clover in bloom . 




20.8 


6.6 


12.4 


21.9 


33.8 


4.5 


6 


Red clover, mammoth 




21.2 


6.1 


10.7 


24.5 


33.6 


3.9 


10 


Alsike clover . . . 




9.7 


8.3 


12.8 


25.6 


40.7 


2.9 


9 


White clover . . 






9.7 


8.3 


15.7 


24.1 


39.3 


2.9 


7 


Crimson clover 






9.6 


8.6 


15.2 


27.2 


36.6 


2.8 


7 


Japan clover . . 
Alfalfa .... 






11.0 


8.5 


13.8 


24.0 


39.0 


3.7 


2 






8.4 


7.4 


14.3 


25.0 


42.7 


2.2 


21 


Cowpea .... 






10.5 


14.2 


8.9 


21.2 


42.6 


2.6 


17 


Soybean . . . 






11.8 


7.0 


14.9 


24.2 


37.8 


4.3 


12 


Pea vine . . . 






15.0 


6.7 


13.7 


24.7 


37.6 


2.3 


1 


Vetch .... 






11.3 


7.9 


17.0 


25.4 


36.1 


2.3 


5 


Flat pea . . . 






8.4 


7.9 


22.9 


26.2 


31.4 


3.2 


5 


Peanut vines (without nuts) 7.0 


10.8 


10.7 


23.6 


42.7 


4.6 


6 


Fresh legumes — 1 














Red clover, different stages 70.8 


2.1 


4.4 


8.1 


13.5 


1.1 


43 


Alsike clover 74.8 


2.0 


3.9 


7.4 


11.0 


0.9 


4 


Crimson clover . . . . ' 80.9 


1.7 


3.1 


5.2 


8.4 


0.7 


3 


Alfalfa 


71.8 


2.7 


4.8 


7.4 


12.3 


1.0 


23 


Cowpea 


83.6 


1.7 


2.4 


4.8 


7.1 


0.4 


10 



COMPOSITION OF FEEDING-STUFFS 



423 



Table II — Caniinued 







PxBCBNTAoa CoupoemoN 




















No. of 


FEBDiNO-aruFn 










Nitro- 
geo-free 
extract 




analy- 




Water 


Ash 


Protein 


Crude 
fiber 


Ether 
extract 


ses 


Soybean 


75.1 


2.6 


4.0 


6.7 


10.6 


1.0 


27 


Horse bean 


84.2 


1.2 


2.8 


4.9 


6.5 


0.4 


2 


Straw — 
















Wheat 


9.6 


4.2 


3.4 


38.1 


43.4 


1.3 


7 


Rye 






7.1 


3.2 


3.0 


38.9 


46.6 


1.2 


7 


Oat 






9.2 


5.1 


4.0 


37.0 


42.4 


2.3 


12 


Barley .... 






14.2 


6.7 


3.5 


36.0 


39.0 


1.5 


97 


Wheat chaflf . . 






14.3 


9.2 


4.5 


36.0 


34.6 


1.4 


— 


Oatchaflf . . . 






14.3 


10.0 


4.0 


34.0 


36.2 


1.5 


— 


Buckwheat-straw 






9.9 


5.5 


5.2 


43.0 


35.1 


1.3 


3 


Soybean . . . 






10.1 


5.8 


4.6 


40.4 


37.4 


1.7 


4 


Horse bean . . 






9.2 


8.7 


8.8 


37.6 


34.3 


1.4 


1 


Silage — 
















Corn (immature) .... 


79.1 


1.4 


1.7 


6.0 


11.0 


0.8 


99 


Sorghum 

Red clover 


76.1 


1.1 


0.8 


6.4 


15.3 


0.3 


6 


72.0 


2.6 


4.2 


8.4 


11.6 


1.2 


5 


Soybean 


74.2 


2.8 


4.1 


9.7 


6.9 


2.2 


1 


Cowpea vine 


79.3 


2.9 


2.7 


6.0 


7.6 


1.6 


2 


Barnyard millet and soy- 
















bean 


79.0 


2.8 


2.8 


7.2 


7.2 


1.0 


9 


Corn and soybean . . . 


76.0 


2.4 


2.5 


7.2 


ll.l 


0.8 


4 


Rye 


80.8 


1.6 


2.4 


5.8 


9.2 


0.3 


1 


RooU and tubers — 
















Potato 


79.1 


0.9 


2.1 


0.4 


17.4 


0.1 


41 


Beets, common 






88.6 


1.0 


1.5 


0.9 


8.0 


0.1 


9 


Beets, sugar . . 






86.5 


0.9 


1.8 


0.9 


9.8 


0.1 


19 


Beet, mangel 








90.9 


1.1 


1.4 


0.9 


5.5 


0.2 


9 


Turnip . . 








90.1 


0.9 


1.3 


1.2 


6.3 


0.2 


8 


Rutabaga . 








88.6 


1.2 


1.2 


1.3 


7.5 


0.2 


4 


Carrot . . 








88.6 


1.0 


1.1 


1.3 


7.6 


0.4 


8 


Parsnip . . 








88.3 


0.7 


1.6 


1.0 


10.2 


0.2 


— 


Artichoke . 








79.5 


1.0 


2.6 


0.8 


15.9 


0.2 


2 


Sweet-potato 








68.3 


1.1 


1.9 


1.1 


26.8 


0.7 


48 


MlBCRLT.ANEOnS 
















Cabbage 


90.0 


0.8 


2.6 


0.9 


6.5 


0.2 


1 


Sugar-beet leaves 






88.0 


2.4 


2.6 


2.2 


4.4 


0.4 


— 


Pumpkin (field) . 






90.9 


0.5 


1.3 


1.7 


5.2 


0.4 


— 


Prickly comfrey . 






88.4 


2.2 


2.4 


1.6 


5.1 


0.3 


41 


Rape .... 






84.5 


2.0 


2.3 


2.6 


8.4 


0.5 


2 


Apples .... 






80.8 


0.4 


0.7 


1.2 


16.6 


0.4 


3 


Cow's milk . . 






87.2 


0.7 


3.6 





4.9 


3.7 


793 


Cow's milk, colostrum 




74.6 


1.6 


17.6 


— 


2.7 


3.6 


42 


Skim-milk, gravity . 




90.4 


0.7 


3.3 





4.7 


0.9 


96 


Skim-milk, centrifugal 




90.6 


0.7 


3.1 


— 


5.3 


0.3 


97 



424 COMPUTINO THE RATION FOB FARM ANIMALS 



Tablk 11 — Continued 











No. of 


FSBDING-STUFTS 








Crude 
fiber 


Nitw>. 


Ether 
extract 




Water 


Ash 


Protein 


gen-frae 
extract 


«■ 


Buttermilk 


90.1 


0.7 


4.0 





4.0 


1.1 


85 


Whey .... 






93.8 


0.4 


0.6 


— 


5.1 


0.1 


46 


Dried blood . . 






8.5 


4.7 


84.4 








2.5 


3 


Meat scrap . . 






10.7 


4.1 


71.2 


— 


0.3 


13.7 


144 


Dried fish . . . 






10.8 


29.2 


48.4 








11.6 


6 


Beet pulp (wet) . 
Beet molasses 






89.8 


0.6 


0.9 


2.4 


6.3 




116 






20.8 


10.6 


9.1 


— 


69.5 




35 


Apple pomace 






83.0 


0.6 


1.0 


2.9 


11.6 


0.9 


6 


Sorghum bagasse 






83.9 


0.6 


0.6 


3.2 


11.7i 


— 


2 


Distillery slops . 






93.7 


0.2 


1.9 


0.6 


2.8 


0.9 


1 


Dried sediment from dis- 
















tillery slops .... 


6.0 


11.3 


27.4 


8.0 


36.1 


12.3 


1 



^ Includes fat (sorghum bagasse). 



TaBLS III. — DlGEBTIBLB NUTRIENTS IN 1 LB. OF THE MOBB COMMON 

Feeding-stuffs (Calculations by J. L. Stone) 



Kind and Amount or Fkbd 



Soiling fodder — 

Fodder corn 

Peas-and-oats 

Peas-and-barley 

(Practically the same as peas-and-oats) 

Red clover 

Alfalfa 

Hungarian-grass 

Corn silage 

Roots and tubers — 

Potatoes 

Beet, mangel 

Beet, sugar 

Carrot 

Flat turnip 

Hay and straw — 

Timothy 

Mixed grasses and clover .... 

Hungarian hay I .92 

Red clover hay I .85 



Total 
Dry 

Mat- 
ter 



21 
.09 
.13 
.11 
.10 



Pounds op DiGBariBLa 

NlTTRIBNTS 



Protein 



.010 
.018 
.017 

.029 
.039 
.020 
.009 



.009 
.011 
.011 
.008 
.010 



Carbo- 
hydrates 
+ (fat X 
2.25) 



Total 



NUTRI- 

nvB 
Ratio 



.028 ! 
.062 I 
.045 I 
.068 I 



.125 
.076 
.077 

.164 
.138 
.169 
.129 

.165 
.056 
.104 
.082 
.077 



.465 
.460 
.546 
.396 



.135 I 1 : 12.5 
.094 1 : 4.2 
.094 I 1 : 4.5 

.193 I 1:6.6 

.177 I 1 : 3.5 

.189 I 1:8.4 

.138 I 1 : 14.3 



.174 
.067 
.116 
.090 I 
.087 I 



1 : 18.3 
1:5.1 
1:9.4 
1 : 10.3 

1:7.7 



.493 , 1 : 16.6 
.522 ' 1 : 7.4 
.591 1:12.1 
.464 1 : 5.8 



DIGESTIBILITY OF FEEDIN0-8TUFFS 



425 



Tablb III — Continued 





Total 
Dry 

Mat- 
teb 


Pounds or Digestible 
Nutrdbnts 


Nutri- 


EiKD AND Amount of Fbed 


Protein 


Carbo- 
hydrates 
+ (fat X 
2.25) 


ToUl 


tive 
Ratio 


AlfRlfR hftV 


.92 


.110 
.025 
.017 
.043 
.036 
.004 
.012 

.079 
.102 
.099 
.087 
.092 
.077 
.168 

.044 
.122 
.128 
.135 
.082 
.115 
.074 
.220 

.186 
.039 
.157 
.232 
.322 
.248 
.075 
.293 
.282 
.372 

.018 
.017 
.025 
.006 
.091 
.011 
.007 
.029 
.039 


.423 
.373 
.340 
.341 
.397 
.372 
.404 

.764 
.730 
.700 
.692 
.568 
.533 
.534 

.665 
.453 
.607 
.658 
.647 
.548 
.347 
.456 

.409 
.125 
.478 
.699 
.468 
.552 
.705 
.485 
.464 
.444 

.091 
.051 
.141 
.073 
.595 
.164 
.188 
.059 
.065 


.533 
.398 
.357 
.384 
.433 
.376 
.416 

.843 
.832 
.799 
.779 
.660 
.610 
.702 

.709 
.575 
.735 
.793 
.729 
.663 
.421 
.676 

.595 
.164 
.635 
.931 
.790 
.800 
.780 
.778 
.746 
.816 

.109 
.068 
.166 
.079 
.686 
.175 
.195 
.088 
.104 


1:3.8 


Corn fodder 


.58 


1 : 14.9 


C\c%TT\ stover ......•• 


.60 


1 : 19.9 


T'pA-vinp RtrAmr .... 


.86 


1:7.9 


RpAn-str&w 


.95 


1: 11.0 


Wheat-straw 


.90 


1:93 


Oat-atraw 


.91 


1 : 33.6 


Grain — 

Corn faveraflTR^ » . . 


.89 


1:9.7 


Wheat 


.90 


1:7.2 


Rye 


.88 


1:7.1 


Barley 


.89 


1:7.9 


Oats 


.89 


1:6.2 


Buckwheat 


.87 


1:6.9 


Pq{^ , 


.90 


1:3.2 


MiU proditds — 

Corn-and-cob meal 

Wheat hran 


.85 

.88 


1:15.1 
1:3.7 


Wheat middlinfffl 


.88 


1:4.7 


Tiarlr feedinff flour ....... 


.90 


1:4.9 


T^ow-ffrade flour 


.88 


1:7.9 


Rye bran 


.88 


1 : 4.8 


Biirkwheat bran 


.90 


1:4.7 


Buckwheat middlings 

By-producU — 


.87 
.90 


1:2.1 
1 : 2.2 


Brewers' grains, wet 

Brewers' grains, dry 

Buffalo gluten feed 

Chicago gluten meal 

Distillers' dried grains, Bile's xxxx . 
TTnininv rhoDS ....•• 


.24 
.92 
.90 

.88 
.92 
.89 


1 : 3.2 

1:3 

1:3 

1:1.5 

1:2.2 

1:9.4 


Linseed meal (old process) .... 
Linseed meal (new process) .... 
Cottonseed meal . 


.91 
.90 
.92 


1 : 1.7 
1:1.6 
1:1.2 


Miscellaneous — 
Cabbage 


.15 


1:5.1 


Siiffftr-heet leaves ....••• 


.12 


1:3 


Pea-vine silace 


.27 


1:5.0 


Stiffar-beot duId .....••. 


.10 


1: 12 


Beet molasses ........ 


.79 


1:6.5 


Aoole Domace 


.233 


1 : 14.9 


Annlpff ••• 


.19 


1 : 26.8 


Skim-milk, centrifugal 

Buttermilk 


.094 
.10 


1:2 
1 : 1.7 









426 COMPUTING THE RATION FOR FARM ANIMALS 



Table IV. Ayeraoe Febtiuzino CoNsnTUEMTs in Amebican FBEDiNo-flrnm 



Name or Feed 



Fbbtu^ii 






1000 Las. 




Nitrosen 


Phosphorio 
Acid 


Pdtaah 


Lbt, 


Lb9. 


L6«. 


18.2 


7.0 


4.0 


3.9 


0.6 


6.0 


13.6 


5.7 


4.7 


17.9 


10.1 


6.2 


54.8 


3.3 


0.5 


34.7 


3.9 


2.1 


7.6 


2.9 


1.5 


49.8 


5.1 


1.5 


16.8 


9.8 


4.9 


57.7 






36.3 


4.1 


0.3 


40.0 


3.7 


0.4 


19.0 


5.5 


8.7 


19.2 


5.7 


5.4 


28.9 


5.6 


3.5 


29.4 


21.4 


10.9 


24.6 


26.9 


15.2 


28.2 


13.5 


5.9 


26.3 


9.5 


6.3 


20.0 


11.7 


8,4 


18.1 


8.6 


5.8 


23.3 


22.8 


14.0 


18.4 


12.6 


8.1 


19.2 


7.9 


4.8 


42.1 


17.4 


19.9 


10,7 


4.2 


0.5 


40.0 


16.1 


2.0 


18.2 


7.8 


4.8 


12.8 


6.1 


7.2 


5.3 


1.6 


4.9 


11.8 


1.8 


0.9 


5.1 


1.7 


1.4 


19.0 


2.9 


2.4 


19.0 


26.7 


7.1 


17.3 


6.9 


3.0 


7.3 


4.3 


14.7 


20.2 


4.2 


12.7 


42.7 


12.3 


11.4 


14.6 


8.4 


3.4 


15.8 


7.2 


5.2 


17.4 


6.5 


3.3 


36.2 


13.9 


10.3 


54.2 


16.6 


13.7 


60.0 


17.4 


13.4 


29.4 


10.5 


10.9 


72.5 


30.4 


1 15.8 



CONCBMTRATBB 



Corn, all analyses 
Corn cob .... 
Corn-and-cob meal 
Corn bran . . . 
Gluten meal . . 
Germ meal . . . 
Starch refuse . . 
Grano-gluten . . 
Hominy chops . . 
Glucose meal . . 
Sugar meal . . . 
Gluten feed . . . 
Wheat .... 
High-grade flour . 
Low-grade flour 
Dark feeding flour 
Wheat bran . . 
Wheat shorts . . 
Wheat middlings . 
Wheat screenings . 
Rye 



Rye bran 

Rye shorts 

Barley 

Malt-sprouts 

Brewers' grains, wet . . . 
Brewers' grains, dried . . 

Oats 

Oat feed or shorts . . . 

Oat hulls 

Rice 

Rice hulls 

Rice bran 

Rice polish 

Buckwheat 

Buckwheat hulls . . . . 
Buckwheat bran .... 
Buckwheat middlings . . 

Sorghum seed 

Broom-corn seed . . . . 

Millet 

Flax seed 

Linseed meal (old process) . 
Linseed meal (new process) 

Cottonseed 

Cottonseed meal . . . . 



FERTILIZING VALUES IN FEEDINQ-STUFFS 421 



Tablb IN — Continued 



Naiu: of Food 



Fbrtiluinq Conbtituents vh 
1000 Lbb. 



Nitrogen 



Phoaphoric 
Acid 



Potash 



CONCBNTRATBB 

Cottonseed bulla .... 

Cocoanut cake 

Palm-nut cake 

Sunflower seed 

Sunflower-seed cakes . . . 

Peanut cake 

Rapenseed cake .... 

Peas 

Soybean 

Horse bean 

ROUGBAQB 

Fodder com — 

Fodder com, ^reen . . . 
Fodder corn, field-cured 

Fresh gr<u8 — 

Pasture grasses 

Kentucky blue-grass . . . 
Timothy, different stages . 
Orchard-grass, in bloom . . 
Red-top, in bloom . . . 
Oat forage in milk .... 

Rye forage 

Sorghum fodder .... 
Meadow fescue, in bloom . 
Hungarian-grass .... 

Hay — 

Timothy (all analyses) . . 

Orchard-grass 

Red-top 

Kentucky blue-grass . . . 
Hungarian-grass .... 

Mixed grasses 

Rowen (mixed) .... 
Meadow fescue .... 
Mixed grasses and clover 
Soybean hay 

Straw — 

Wheat 

Rye 

Oat 

Barley 

Wheat chaff 



LbB, 

6.7 
31.5 
26.9 
26.1 
52.5 
76.2 
49.9 
37.9 
53.6 
42.6 



2.9 
7.2 



5.6 
6.6 
5.0 
4.2 
4.5 
5.4 
4.2 
2.1 
3.8 
5.0 



9.4 
12.9 
12.6 
12.5 
12.1 
11.9 
18.6 
11.2 
16.2 
23.8 



5.0 
5.0 
5.8 
7.0 
7.2 



Lbt. 

4.3 
16.0 
11.0 
12.2 
21.5 
20.0 
20.0 

8.4 
10.4 
12.0 



1.1 
5.4 



2.6 

2.6 
1.6 

1.3 
2.5 
0.7 

1.2 



Us. 

10.4 
24.0 
5.0 
5.6 
11.7 
15.0 
13.0 
10. 1 
12.6 
12.9 



3.9 
8.9 



7.4 

7.6 

7.6 

3.8 
7.1 
3.4 

4.2 



14.2 
10.9 
10.2 
15.7 
15.4 
15.5 
14.9 
21.0 

10.8 



6.3 

8.6 

17.7 

10.6 

8.2 



428 



COMPUTING THE RATION FOR FARM ANIMALS 



Table W — Continued 



Nams or Food 



Fresh legumes— ^^^^^ 
Red clover, dififerent stages 

Alsike, bloom 

Crimson clover 

Alfalfa 

Cowpea 

Soybean 

Legume hay and straw — 

Red clover, medium . .... 

Red clover, mammoth . . . 

Alsike clover 

White clover 

Crimson clover 

Alfalfa 

Cowpea 

Soybean straw 

Pea^vine straw 

Silage — 

Corn 

Roots and tubers — 

Potato 

Beet, common 

Beet, sugar 

Beet, mangel 

Fisit turnip 

Rutabaga 

(Carrot 

Parsnip 

Artichoke 

Miscellaneous 

Cabbage 

Spurry 

Sugar-beet leaves 

Pumpkin, garden 

Prickly comfrcy 

Rape 

Dried blood 

Meat scrap 

Dried fish 

Beet pulp, wet 

Beet molasses 

Cow's milk 

Cow's milk, colostrum . . . 
Skim-milk, gravity .... 
Skim-milk, centrifugal . . . 

Buttermilk 

Whey 



FeRTU^ISINQ CONSTrrUCNTS IS 

1000 Lbb. 



Nitrogen 



Lbt. 

7.0 
6.2 
5.0 
7.7 
3.8 
6.4 



19.7 
17.1 
20.6 
26.1 
24.3 
21.9 
14.3 
17.6 
14.3 

4.3 



Phosphoric I 
Acid 



Lb9. 

1.5 
1.1 
1.2 
1.3 
1.3 
1.4 



5.5 
6.2 
6.0 
7.8 
4.0 
5.1 
5.2 
4.0 
3.5 

1.1 



3.4 


1.6 


5.8 


2.4 


0.8 


4.8 


2.9 


0.8 


3.7 


2.2 


0.9 


3.8 


2.1 


0.9 


3.4 


1.9 


1.2 


4.9 


1.8 


0.9 


2.6 


2.6 


2.0 


4.4 


4.2 


1.4 


4.7 


4.2 


1.1 


4.3 


3.8 


2.6 


5.9 


4.2 


1.5 


6.2 


2.9 


1.6 


0.9 


3.7 


1.2 


7.6 


3.6 


1.2 


3.5 


135.0 


13.6 


7.7 


114.0 


81.1 




77.4 


140.0 


3.0 


1.4 


0.3 


11.4 


14.5 


0.5 


56.3 


5.8 


1.9 


1,7 


28.2 


6.6 


1.1 


5.6 


2.0 


1.9 


6.0 


2.1 


2.0 


6.4 


1.7 


1.6 


1.0 


1.1 


2.0 



Potash 

LU. 

4.8 
2.0 
4.0 
5.6 
4.6 
5.6 



18.7 
11.6 
13.9 
13.2 
13.1 
16.8 
14.7 
13.2 
10.2 

3.7 



CHAPTER XXIII 
External Parasites of Animals 

The many diseases of farm live-stock cannot be treated in a book 
of this kind, and very brief advice might be more dangerous than useful ; 
but the ticks, lice, fleas, and similar things that infest animals may be 
included. The spraying of live-stock is as iniportant, in many cases, as 
the spraying of plants. 

Handling the cattle-tick, or Texas-fever tick (Margaropus annulattts) 
(H. W, Graybill, Bur. Animal Ind., U. S. Dept. Agric.) 

On the pasture there are three stages of the tick — the engorged 
female, the egg, and the larva ; and on the host are four stages — the 
larva, the nymph, the sexually mature adult of both sexes, and the 
engorged condition of the female. 

Animals may be freed of ticks in two ways. They may be treated 
with an agent that will destroy all the ticks present, or they may be 
rotated at proper intervals on tick-free fields until all the ticks have 
dropped. 

Dips for caiUeMcks, their preparation and use 

Crude petroleum, — Various kinds of crude petroleum have been 
used with more or less success in destroying ticks. The heavier 
varieties of oil are very injurious to cattle. On the other hand, the 
very light oils are so volatile that their effect lasts but a short time 
thus rendering them less eflficient. The petroleum known as Beau- 
mont oil, obtained from Texas wells, has given the best results. The 
best grade of this oil to use is one that has a specific gravity ranging 
from 22 J® to 24}® Beaum6, containing U to U per cent of sulfur, 
and 40 per cent of the bulk of which boils between 200° and S(Xf C. 
The oil may be applied by employing a spray pump or a dipping vat. 

Animals that have been dipped in crude oil, especially during warm 

429 



430 EXTERNAL PARASITES OF ANIMALS 

weather, should not be driven any great distance immediately after- 
wards, and should be provided with shade and an abundance of water. 
Unless these precautions are observed serious injury and losses may 
result. 

Emtdsions of crude petroleum, — In the majority of cases the best 
agent to use is an emulsion of crude petroleum, preferably Beaumont 
crude petroleum. The use of the emulsion makes the treatment less 
expensive than when the oil alone is used. The emulsion is not so 
injurious to the cattle and is almost if not quite as effective as the oil 
alone. The formula for preparing an emulsion of crude petroleum is 
as follows : — 

Hard soap 1 lb. 

Soft or freestone water 1 gal. 

Beaumont crude petroleum 4 gal. 

Making five gallons of 80 per cent stock emulsion. 

When a greater quantity of stock emulsion is desired, each of the 
quantities in the above formula should be multiplied by such a number 
as to furnish the required amount. For example, if it should be con- 
venient to mix 10 gallons at one time, the quantities would have to 
be multiplied by 2 and if 15 gallons were desired, they would have 
to be multiplied by 3, and so on. 

In preparing the emulsion the soap should be shaved up and placed m 
a kettle or caldron containing the required amount of water. The 
water should be brought to a boil and stirred until the soap is entirely 
dissolved. Enough water should be added to make up for the loss by 
evaporation during this process. The soap solution and the required 
amount of oil are then placed in a barrel or some other convenient re- 
ceptacle, and mixed. The mixing may be effected by the use of a spray 
pump, pumping the mixture through and through the pump until the 
emulsion is formed. A convenient and time-saving method is to do 
the mixing in a barrel by first pouring in one part of hot soap solution 
and then four parts of crude petroleum, and repeating this until the 
barrel is filled. The oil should be poured in with as much force as pos- 
sible, and the mixture stirred constantly with a long paddle imtil the oil 
is completely emulsified. The mixing is facilitated also by dipping 
up the mixture and pouring it back with a pail. If made properly, this 
stock emulsion is permanent, and will keep indefinitely. 



TEXAS TICKS 431 

To prepare the stock emulsion for use, it is diluted with water to a 
20 or 25 per cent emulsion. In order to obtain a 20 per cent emulsion 
of oil, it is necessary to use one part of the stock emulsion to three parts 
of water, and for a 25 per cent emulsion, one part of stock emulsion 
to 2| parts of water. The stock emulsion is permanent, but the diluted 
emulsion does not remain imiformly mixed, so that if allowed to stand 
it should be thoroughly mixed by stirring before using. Only rain 
or freestone water should be used for diluting, and if this is not available, 
the water should be " softened " by adding a sufficient amount of con- 
centrated lye, sal soda, or washing powder. Care should be observed in 
this process not to use an excess of these preparations. 

An 80 per cent stock emulsion is on the market, and much time and 
labor can be saved by obtaining this instead of making the emulsion. 
To prepare it for iise, it should be diluted in the same manner as in- 
dicated above for the home-made stock emulsion. 

The arsenical dip. — This dip is used considerably, on account of its 
cheapness and the ease with which it is prepared. In general, it has 
proved very effective in destroying ticks, and is less likely than crude 
petroleum or emulsions of the same to injure cattle when dipping has 
to be done in hot weather. Some injury to the skin is, however, 
likely to occur when the arsenical mixture is used, and this injury, 
which will be so slight as to be scarcely noticeable if the cattle are prop- 
erly handled, is liable to be serious if the cattle are driven any distance, 
especially if allowed to run while being driven within a week after 
treatment. The formula given below for making an arsenical dip is 
the one most commonly used in this country : — 

Sodium carbonate (sal soda) 24 lb. 

Arsenic trioxid (white arsenic) 8 lb. 

Pine tar 1 gal. 

Sufficient water to make 500 gallons. 

If a stronger arsenical dip is desired, ten pounds of arsenic may be 
used in place of eight pounds, but in general the stronger solution 
should not be used. In warm weather particularly it is not advisable 
to use a solution stronger than that given in the above formula, if the 
animals are to be treated every two weeks. 

In preparing the dip, a large caldron or galvanized tank is required 
for heating the water in which to dissolve the chemicals. Thirty or 
forty gallons of water should be placed in the caldron or tank and 



432 EXTERNAL PARASITES OF ANIMALS 

brought to a boil. The sodium carbonate is then added and dissolved 
by stirring. When this is accomplished, the arsenic is added and 
dissolved in a similar manner. The fire is then drawn and the pine tar 
added slowly in a thin stream and thoroughly mixed with the dip by 
constant stirring. This strong stock solution is diluted to 500 gallons 
before using. 

The diluted arsenical solution m^y be left in the vat and used re- 
peatedly, replenishing with the proper quantities of water and stock 
solution when necessary. When not in use, the vat should be tightly 
covered with a waterproof cover to prevent evaporation on the one 
hand and further dilution by rain on the other hand. Securely cov- 
ering the vat when not in use also lessens the risk of accidental poison- 
ing of stock and human beings. 

On account of the fact that arsenic is a dangerous poison, great care 
must be observed in making and using the arsenical dip. From the 
time the arsenic is procured from the druggist until the last particle 
of unused residue is properly disposed of, the most scrupulous care 
should be taken in handling this poison. Guessing at weights or 
measures or carelessness in any particular is liable to result in great 
damage, and not only may valuable live-stock be destroyed, but human 
beings may lose their lives as well. 

In the use of arsenical dips care should be taken not only to avoid 
swallowing any of the dip, but persons using the dip should also bear 
in mind the possibility of absorbing arsenic through cuts, scratches, or 
abrasions of the skin, and the possibility of absorbing arsenic by in- 
halation of vapors from the boiler in which the dip is prepared or by 
the inhalation of the finely divided spray when the spray pump is used. 
It should be remembered that the absorption of even very small quan- 
tities of arsenic, if repeated from day to day, is liable ultimately to re- 
sult in arsenical poisoning. 

Cattle should always be watered a short time before they are dipped. 
After they emerge from the vat they should be kept on a draining-floor 
until the dip ceases to run from their bodies ; then they should be placed 
in a yard free of vegetation until they are entirely dry. If cattle are 
allowed to drain in places where pools of dip collect, from which they 
may drink, or are turned at once on the pasture, where the dip will 
run from their bodies on the grass and other vegetation, serious losses 
are liable to result. Crowding the animals before they are dry should 



TEXAS TICKS 433 

also be avoided, and they should not be driven any considerable dis- 
tance within a week after dipping, especially in hot weather. If many 
repeated treatments are given, the cattle should not be treated oftener 
than every two weeks. 

In addition to protecting vats properly containing arsenical dip when 
not in use, another precaution must be observed when vats are to be 
emptied for cleaning. The dip should not be poured or allowed to flow 
on land and vegetation to which cattle or other animals have access. 
The best plan is to run the dip in a pit properly protected by fences. 
The dip should also be deposited where it may be carried by seepage 
into wells or springs which supply water used on the farm. The same 
precautions should be observed when animals are sprayed as when 
they are dipped. 

Method of spraying. 

Spraying is probably the most practicable and convenient way 
of treating cattle on the majority of farms. A good type of pail 
spray pump, costing from S5 to $7, will be found to be satisfactory 
for treating small herds. About fifteen feet of three-eighths-inch 
high-pressure hose is required, and a type of nozzle fiunishing a 
cone-shaped spray of not too wide an angle will be found satis- 
factory. A nozzle with a very small aperture should not be used, 
because the spray produced is too fine to saturate properly the hair 
and skin of the animals without consuming an unnecessary amount 
of time. 

The animal to be sprayed should be securely tied to one of the posts 
of a board or rail fence, or better still, when convenient, to the 
corner post in an angle of the fence. This will facilitate the spray- 
ing by preventing the animal from circling about to avoid the treat- 
ment, and will reduce the amount of help necessary. Every position 
of the body should be thoroughly treated, special attention being 
given to the head, dewlap, brisket, inside of elbows, inside of thighs 
and flanks, the tail, and the depressions at the base of the tail. 
Crude oil alone may be used, but in general a 20 to 25 per cent 
emulsion will be foimd more satisfactory. All the cattle on the 
place should be sprayed every two weeks with this emulsion. The 
horses and mules should be kept free of ticks by picking or other 
means. 

2f 



434 EXTERNAL PARASITES OF ANIMALS 

Disinfectant for ticks in infested tables. 

Eradication will be much facilitated if at the beginning of the work 
all litter and manure are removed from stables, sheds, and yards that 
have been occupied by the cattle, and deposited on land where cattle are 
not permitted to run. After this is done, the buildings should be 
thoroughly disinfected to destroy any eggs or ticks that may be there. 
For this purpose the following substances may be used : 

1. A mixture made with not more than 1^ pounds of lime and 
1 pound of pure carbolic acid to each gallon of water. 

2. Any coal-tar creosote dip permitted by the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture in the official dipping of sheep for scabies, 
diluted to one-fifth of the maximum dilution specified for dipping 
sheep. 

A spray pump should be used to apply the disinfectant, and the 
walls, floors, and various fixtures of the buildings should be thoroughly 
sprayed. 

Other External Parasites of Farm Animals (Crosby) 

The insecticides. 

Following are the leading insecticidal substances used against fleas, 
lice, ticks, and other pests of farm live-stock : — 

Lime-andrsidfur dip. 

Unslaked lime 8 lb. 

Flowers of sulfur 24 lb. 

Water 100 gal. 

Slake the lime in a little water and add the sulfur, stirring constantly. 
Transfer the mass to 25 gallons of hot water, and boil for two 
hours, adding water to replace that boiled away. Let the solution 
stand until all sediment has settled and then draw off the clear liquid 
and dilute to 100 gallons. (U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry.) 

Nicotine solutions. — There are now on the market nicotine solutions 
with a guaranteed strength of from 5 to 40 per cent of nicotine. 
For use they should be so diluted as to give a solution containing 
liv of 1 per cent of nicotine, and 16^ pounds of flowers of sulfur 
should be added to each 100 gallons of the liquid. 



Eradication of ticks by rotation of fields (Graybill.) 



KlIZ.IWt'MtHim. 
TO nCLONOA 



rf- 



»aa^j 






fifUMfta 



"hmssT" 



naoMt4L 



TT" 







Fig. 13. — Rotation plan for freeing planta- 
tion in South from ticks in 41 mos. 



tvttMtwmoM 
nrittpTOFitiM 



"aSSShu 
Btewa Twr nn^ 



nnoNoi 
cct tstwt mm re /iri« m. t. 

/UWT M 0MM 4W0 ram*/ WftN C«MM«9 



mti MMfomp 



MNDnm. II ffOIC TNI 
MOW TV no* Ml «> 



IKLDllAl«t 



Wft 1 M9K TNT NCAO 



OCTIS MOVK TMTNCnO T«mi0 



JMSTUnf. 

! mUMftM. 

LfleriNMNmOTOMSTIM. -_-_.^ 

*~^ •-— IT.HiUM 




Fio. 16. — Plan requiring 8 moB. 






— WUiT/IMetMH* 



tmn.m 






„mf^jyf^wf^^M,^.n. 



Fio. 14. — Plan requiring 4 mos., with new Fio. 16.— Feed-lot or soiling method of elimi- 
pastuie. nating ticks. 



436 EXTERNAL PARASITES OF ANIMALS 

Commercial dips, — There are a large number of these proprietary 
dips on the market, many of which contain as the active agent coal- 
tar derivatives. Use only those that have the approval of the 
United States Department of Agriculture, and follow closely the 
directions given on the container. 

Crude oil ernvMon (for spraying stock). 

Soap 1 lb. 

Crude oil 4 gal. 

Water 1 gal- 

Dissolve the soap in hot water, and while still hot add the oil slowly 
and agitate into an emulsion by pumping the mixture back into itself. 
For use, dilute with water so as to secure a 20 or 30 per cent 
emulsion (see p. 430). 

Lice powder. 

Gasoline 3 parts 

Crude carbolic acid (90^05 per cent strength) 1 part 

Mix these together, and then stir in enough plaster of Paris to take 
up all the moisture. If properly made, a dry pinkish powder will b.-? 
the result. If good crude carbolic acid of the proper strength cannot 
be obtained, cresol may be substituted, but will not give quite as good 
results. 

Cresol disinfecting soap. — Measure out 3i quarts of raw linseed 
oil in a four or five-gallon stone crock ; then weigh out in a dish 1 
pound 6 ounces of commercial lye or "Babbit's potash." Dis- 
solve this lye in as little water as will completely dissolve it. Start 
with i pint of water, and if this will not dissolve all the lye, add 
more water slowly. Let this stand for at least three hours until the 
lye is completely dissolved and the solution is cold ; then add the cold 
lye solution very slowly to the linseed oil, stirring constantly. Not 
less than five minutes should be taken for the adding of this solution of 
lye to the oil. After the lye is added, continue the stirring until the 
mixture is in the condition and has the texture of a smooth, homoge- 
neous liquid soap. This ought not to take more than a half hour. 
Then, while the soap is in this liquid state, and before it has a chance 
to harden, add with constant stirring, 8J quarts of commercial 
cresol. The cre^oI will blend perfectly with the soap solution and 



INSECTICIDES FOR ANIMALS 437 

make a clear, dark brown fluid. The resulting solution of cresol 
soap is then ready to use. This cresol soap will mix in any pro- 
portion with water and yield a clear solution. Use a 20 per cent 
solution for disinfecting chicken houses, incubators, etc. 

The kinds of parasites. 

Following are the leading external parasites of cattle, horses, sheep 
and swine (for parasites of poultry, see page 377). 

Cattle. Ox BOT-FLY OR WARBUB-FLT (Hypoderma bovis and H. 
lineata), — Large lumps or warbles along the animal's back filled with 
pus, within which a large, thick-bodied maggot develops. When full 
grown these maggots, about an inch in length, work their way out 
through the skin, fall to the earth, and there after a time transform to 
a large blackish fly with yellow markings. The flies glue their eggs 
to the hair of the host, usually around the heels and flanks. The 
eggs are licked off by the animal, hatch in the mouth or cesophagus, 
and the larva bores its way through the tissues until it comes to lie 
under the skin along the back. The cattle have an instinctive dread 
of the flies, and are thrown into a panic by their presence. Badly 
infested animals lose flesh, and the flow of milk is greatly reduced ; 
the holes made m the skin also decrease the value of the hide. 

Treatment. — Squeeze out and crush the grubs and disinfect the 
sore. The practice of killing the grub under the skin by the application 
of grease or kerosene is more liable to cause an infection from the de- 
caying maggot and produce a serious sore. 

Horn-fly (HoBmatobia serrata). — Flies considerably smaller than 
the house-fly, which they closely resemble in shape and color. They at- 
tack cattle in great numbers, clustering on any part of the body and 
sucking blood. They have the peculiar habit of resting in dense 
clusters on the horns. The eggs are laid and the maggots develop in 
fresh droppings, and the transformation to the fly takes place in the 
ground. 

Treatment. — Spread out or mix with lime the manure as soon as de- 
posited, to prevent the development of the maggots. Let hogs run 
with the cattle ; scatter the manure. Spray the animals with crude 
oil emulsion often enough to prevent attack, or apply train oil or 
a mixture of two parts of crude cottonseed oil and one pint of pine 
tar. The last two m^y be applied with a large brush, and remain 



438 EXTERNAL PARASITES OF ANIMALS 

effective for four or five days. Where the flies have produced sores, 
treat them with a weak solution of carbolic acid. On the range 
where large numbers of animals are to be treated, dip them in a 
dipping vat provided with a splash-board which will throw the 
spray down on the animal and kill most of the flies. Use any of 
the oily dips recommended for the Texas-fever tick. 

Cattle uce (Hcematopinus spp. and Trichodedes scalaris). — 
Cattle are especially liable to become infested with lice during the 
winter and early spring. They acquire a generally unthrifty look, and 
the flow of milk is greatly lessened. On yoimg stock the injurious 
effects are more noticeable ; lousy calves are thin and do not make 
the proper growth. 

Treatment, — When the weather will permit, spray or wash infested 
animals with a 10 per cent kerosene emulsion or the nicotine-and-sulfur 
sheep dip as used for sheep scab. 

Southern buffalo-gnat (SimtUium pecuarum). — A small black 
gnat or punkie occurring in the lower Mississippi Valley, where it causes 
immense loss to the live-stock interests. The larvse are aquatic, and 
are able to develop only in swiftly running waters. The gnats appear 
in great swarms in early spring and attack cattle, mules, horses, sheep, 
and other animals in countless nimibers. They feed by sucking the 
blood and at the same time inject a poison into the wound, causing 
great distress and producing an acute inflammation. Animals in poor 
condition from exposure or lack of food are frequently killed. 

Treatment, — Protect the animals by smudges producing a dense 
smoke, or keep them in dark stables until the swarms of gnats have 
disappeared. Working teams can be protected by using train-oil or 
the cotton-seed oil and tar mixture advised, under Horn-fly. To 
reduce the irritation caused by the bites, rub the animal thoroughly 
with water of anmionia and give internally a mixture of 40 to 50 
grains of carbonate of ammonia in a pint of whiskey, and repeat 
the treatment every three or four hours until relieved. 

ScREW-woRM FLY (Chvysomyia maceUaria), — Whitish maggots, 
three-fourths inch in length when full grown, infesting sores and wounds 
of animals in the Southern States. The eggs are laid on the wounds 
in masses of 100 or more by a bright, metallic green fly a little larger 
than the house-fly. The maggots enter the wound, feed on the putrid 
matter within, and as they increase in size burrow into the fle^, fre- 



CATTLE AND HORSE PABASITES 439 

quently excavating a large cavity. The purulent discharge from 
such sores attracts other flies to lay their eggs, more maggots enter 
the wound, and unless aid is rendered the animal dies. A slight scratch 
or merely a mass of blood from a crushed tick may serve as a starting- 
point for the trouble. The flies also breed in decaying carcasses. 

Treatment. — Prevent the deposition of eggs by washing all woimds 
as soon as noticed with a disinfectant, and then apply a dressing of 
pine tar or tar and grease. When wounds are foimd infested, dislodge 
the maggots by injections of carbolic acid diluted with 30 parts of 
water, or one of the coal-tar sheep dips may be used. After the maggots 
have been removed and the sore thoroughly disinfected, dress the 
wound with a coating of pine tar. Deep sores should be packed with 
sterilized absorbent cotton. 

By careful attention to the destruction of garbage, carcasses, and other 
filth in which the maggots breed in enormous numbers, much loss may 
be avoided. Carcasses left to decay exposed to the air about pastures 
are constant sources of danger. 

Horse. Horse bot-ply {Gastrophilua equi). — The light yellow 
eggs are glued to the hairs on the shoulders, forelegs, and under side 
of the body by a brownish fly about three-foiuths inch in length. 
By licking these parts the egg-cap is removed and young maggots taken 
into the mouth. On reaching the stomach they attach themselves 
to the walls and remam there until the following spring. When abun- 
dant they may nearly cover the whole inner surface of the stomach, 
interfere with the secretion of the digestive juices, and by collecting 
near the pyloric opening prevent the natural passage of the food from 
the stomach. When mature they loosen their hold and are voided 
with the excrement in late spring. These full-grown bots are 
about three-foiuths inch in length ; they burrow into the ground 
where the pupal stage is passed. The flies emerge thirty or forty 
days later. 

Treatment, — Remove the eggs within a week after they have been 
deposited by clipping the hair, or destroy them by washing with a solu- 
tion of carbolic acid in 30 parts of warm water. When only a few 
bots are present in the stomach, they do not seem to cause the animal 
inconvenience ; when very abundant, they may cause fretting and 
colic, and the horse may loose flesh. In such cases consult a veteri- 
narian. 



440 EXTERNAL PABASITE8 OF ANIMALS 

Sheep. Sheep bot-fly or head-maooot {(Estris wis), — The 
dark brownish parent flies, somewhat larger than the house-fly, emerge 
during June and July, and deposit living maggots in the nostrils of sheep. 
The animals have an instinctive fear of the flies, and are thrown into 
a panic by their attack. The maggots work their way up the nostril, 
and And lodgment in the frontal sinuses, where they feed on the 
mucus. Their presence causes great irritation and the discbarge of 
purulent matter. Sometimes the maggots penetrate into the brain 
cavity, and death may result. 

Treatment, — It is almost impossible to dislodge the maggots by the 
injection of any substance, and such treatment is not advised. Never 
try to extract them with a wire. To prevent the flies from depositing 
their young, smear the sheep's nose with tar and grease. This is most 
easily done by placing in the pasture logs in which holes have been 
bored. Salt is placed in the holes, and the edges smeared with 
grease and tar. In trying to get the salt the sheep will keep their noses 
covered with the tar. 

Sheep scab {Psaroptes communis). — The cause of this disease 
is a minute mite which lives on the skin under a scab or crust and causes 
the wool to fall out in large irregular patches. The irritation causes 
intense itching, the sheep become restless, lose in weight and vitality, 
and in severe cases die. The disease is contagious and may be trans- 
mitted either directly from animal to animal or by means of infested 
quarters, cars or pasture fields. 

Treatment. — Dip the infested or suspected animals in some reliable 
sheep dip at the temperature of about 100^ Fahrenheit ; hold the 
sheep in the liquid two or three minutes, and immerse the head once 
or twice just before the sheep is released. Soften thick scabs before 
dipping by wetting with some of the dip and by rubbing with a smooth 
stick, taking care not to draw blood. Repeat the dipping in ten days 
or two weeks to kill any mites which may have hatched from eggs since 
the last treatment. After dipping do not return the sheep to the same 
field in less than thirty days, to avoid reinf estation. When it is necessaiy 
to return the sheep to the same bam or pen, these quarters should be 
thoroughly cleaned and disinfected with cresol or some other coal-tar 
dip, used at the rate of one part to 50 parts of water. The addition 
of whitewash to the disinfectant will serve as a marker and show when 
the work has been thoroughly done. Avoid introducing the disease 



SHEEP AND SWINE PARASITES 441 

by having all sheep brought from infested regions dipped before 
delivery. 

Sheep tick {Mdophagvs ovinus), — Reddish or gray brown, flat- 
tened, wingless flies that infest sheep of all ages, but are most in- 
jurious to lambs. They remain on the sheep throughout their 
whole life cycle. The young are nourished within the mother until 
full grown, and are ready to pupate when bom. 

Treatment. — The nicotine-and-sulfur dip has given the best results 
in the control of this pest ; many of the conmiercial cresol and coal-tar 
creosote dips are also effective. The lime-and-sulfur dip will not kill 
the ticks. When only a few are to be treated, kerosene emulsion may 
be used as a spray and rubbed into the wool. 

Swine. Hog louse (Hcematopinus suis). — Lousy hogs are likely 
to be in a stunted, unthrifty condition, and when badly infested the 
skin becomes covered with scales and sores. 

Treatment. — Clean and whitewash the pens and sleeping quarters, 
adding 1 pint of crude carbolic acid to each 4 gallons of the white- 
wash. Spray or dip infested animals with 10 per cent kerosene 
emulsion, or iise the tobacco-and-sulfur sheep dip. Repeat the ap- 
plication in two weeks to kill any lice that may have escaped. ~A 
wallowing trough containing five. to eight mches of water on which is 
floated a thin layer of crude oil is frequently used with success. 



CHAPTER XXIV 

Milk and Milk Products; Dairy Farms 

Dairying comprises two occupations, — dairy husbandry, or 
the producing of milk ; and dairy industry, or the marketing and 
manufacturing of milk and milk products. This chapter is designed 
to compass chiefly some phases of the latter subject. 

Composition of ICilk 
Composition of cow's milk 



CONflTXTUSMTS 



Fat 
Casein 
Albumen 
Sugar . 
Ash . 
Water 



QuAmrrr in 
Atbraqe Milk 



Per Cent 
4.0 
2.6 
0.7 
6.0 
0.7 
87.0 



Extent or Vamia- 

tion in nobmal 

Milk 



2.5-8.0 
2.0-3.5 
0.6-0.9 
4.0-6.0 
0.6-O.8 
84.0-88.0 



Fai in milk is in the form of minute globules having a diameter of 
izUz to ^-hjs of an inch. These float in the milk, forming an emulsion. 
When highly magnified, these fat globules may be easily seen. In any 
milk, many different sizes of globules are found, but the average size of 
globules in Jersey and Guernsey milk is much larger than the average 
size of globules in the milk given by other breeds. As the specific 
gravity of the fat is .93 and the specific gravity of the remainder of the 
milk is about 1.04, the fat globules always tend to rise: They are more 
or less entangled by other constituents of the milk, and great numbers 
of the smallest sized globules fail to reach the top, or the cream layer 
(Pearson). 

Milk-fat is a mixture of several different fats which are combinations 

442 



COMPOSITION OF MILK 



443 



of glycerine and fatty acids. The principal fats and their proportion 
in milk-fat are as follows: — 

PcB Cbmt 

Palmitin 40 

Olein 34 

Myristin 10 

Butyrin 6 

A few others vary from 1 to 3 per cent each. 

Butyrin is the characteristic butter-fat, and is absent from butter 
substitutes, such as oleomargarine. The melting-point of milk-fat is 
about 92** F. (Pearson). 

Average composition of milk of various kinds (U. S. Dept. Agrio.) 



Kind of 


Watsb 


Total 




Protsin 


Fat 


Carbo 

HTDRATES 


Mineral 


Fuel 
Valur 


Milk 


Solids 






(Milk 
Scoar) 


Mattcrs 






Casein 


Albumin 


Total 




Pound 




PerCtnt 


Percent 


PerCenl 


Percent 


Percent 


Per Cent 


Percent 


Percent 


Calories 


Woman 


87.68 


12.6 


0.80 


1.21 


2.01 


3.74 


6.37 


0.30 


310 


Cow . . 


87.27 


12.8 


2.88 


0.61 


3.39 


3.68 


4.94 


0.72 


310 


Goat . 


86.88 


13.1 


2.87 


0.89 


3.76 


4.07 


4.64 


0.86 


316 


Sheep . 


83.67 


16.4 


4.17 


0.98 


6.15 


6.18 


4.73 


0.96 


410 


Bufifalo 


82.16 




4.26 


0.46 




7.61 


4.77 


0.84 




(Indian) 




















Zebu . . 


86.13 










3.03 


4.80 


6.34 


0.70 





Camel . 


87.13 




3.49 


0.38 




2.87 


6.39 


0.74 




Llama . 


86.66 




3.00 


0.90 





3.16 


6.60 


0.80 





Reindeer 


67.20 




8.38 


1.61 




17.09 


2.82 


1.49 




Mare . 


90.68 


9.9 


1.30 


0.76 





1.14 


6.87 


0.36 





Asa . . 


90.12 


10.4 


0.79 


1.06 




1.37 


6.19 


0.47 


216 



Average composition of typical cow*s milk (Conn. Sta.) 



Authority 



English (Richmond. 1906) . . . 
(Richmond, 1907) . . . 
(Richmond, 1908) . . . 

(Vieth) 

Canadian (McGill) 

German (Koenig) 

German (Fleischmann) 

Dutch (Fleischmann) 

American (Van Slyke) 

(Van Slyke, cheese factory) 

(Voorhees, Ayrshire) . . 

(Voorhees. Guernsey) . . 

(Voorhees, Holstein) . . 

(Voorhees, Jersey) . . . 

(Voorhees, Shorthorn) 



Total 
Solids 



12.70 
12.64 
12.69 
12.90 
12.62 
12.83 
12.26 
12.00 
12.90 
12.60 
12.70 
14.48 
12.12 
14.34 
12.46 



Fat 



3.73 
3.71 
3.76 
4.10 
3.80 
3.69 
3.40 
3.26 
3.90 
3.76 
3.68 
6.02 
3.61 
4.78 
3.66 



Solids 
NOT Fat 



8.97 
8.93 
8.94 
8.80 
8.82 
9.14 
8.85 
8.76 
9.00 
8.86 
9.02 
9.46 
8.61 
9.66 
8.80 



Per Cent 
OF Fat 
IN Solids 



29.37 
29.36 
29.66 
31.78 
30.11 
28.76 
27.25 
27.08 
30.23 
29.76 
29.06 
34.66 
28.96 
33.33 
29.32 



444 



MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS ; DAIRY FARMS 



The milk of different breeds. 

The analyses of large numbers of samples of milk given by different 
breeds have been made by the New York Agricultural Experiment 
Station, and the averages of fat for the different breeds are : — 

Per Ccmt 

Holstein-Friesian 3.4 

Ayrshire 3.6 

Shorthorn 4.4 

Devon 4.6 

Guernsey 5.3 

Jersey 5.6 



Composition of milk solids from six breeds of cows (Van Slyke) 



Breed or Cow 


Fat 


Casein 


SCOAR 


Abb 


Holstein 

American Holderness 

Devon 


28.0 
28.1 
30.1 
27.3 
35.1 
36.4 


27.4 
26.8 
27.3 
26.3 
24.7 
25.4 


39.1 
39.7 
36.8 
40.8 
35.0 
33.4 


5.93 
5.53 
6 52 


Ayrshire 

Guernsey 


5.34 
5.16 


Jersey 


4.82 







Ash in cow's milk and its products (Simon) 

Whole milk 0074 

Skim milk 0074 

Cream 0061 

Buttermilk 0067 

Whey 0065 



Mineral constituents in milk (Abderhalden) 



Species 



Human 
Dog . 
Swine 
Sheep 
Goat . 
Cow . 
Horse 
Rabbit 



POTAS- 
8ICM 



.066 

.115 
.078 
.810 
.108 
.148 
.0S7 
.209 



Sodium 


Chlo- 

RIKE 


Iron 


Cai^ 

CIUM 


Mao- 

NESIUII 


Phos- 
phor- 
us 



Paris per hundred 



Ash 



.190 


.047 


.0006 


.035 


.004 


.025 


0.20 


.058 


.166 


.0014 


.325 


.012 


.222 


1.33 


.058 


.076 


.0028 


.178 


.010 


.135 


0.80 


.064 


.130 


.0029 


.175 


.090 


.128 


0.84 


.046 


.102 


.0025 


.141 


.090 


.124 


0.78 


.072 


.137 


.0015 


.119 


.014 


.083 


0.70 


.010 


.031 


.0014 


.089 


.008 


.057 


0.40 


.147 


.135 


.0014 


.637 


.033 


^.435 


2.50 



COMPOSITION OF MILK 



445 



Variation in average composition of 574 samples of market butter samples 
collected each month for a period of one year (Illinois Experiment 
Station). 



Month Collsctbd 



NUMBBB 

Samples 

BACH 
fiOKTH 



Pbrcbnt 



Water 



Fmt 



Salt 



Casein and 
Ash 



March . 

April 

May 

June 

July . 

August . 

September 

October 

November 

December 

January 

February 

Average 



47 
49 
49 
49 
40 
37 
54 
49 
50 
41 
53 
56 



13.59 
12.94 
13.48 
13.23 
13.92 
13.64 
13.31 
14.05 
13.31 
13.35 
14.16 
13.64 
13.54 



82.73 
83.34 
82.97 
83.58 
82.83 
83.67 
83.64 
82.73 
83.53 
83.56 
82.69 
83.29 
83.20 



0.74 
0.85 
0.82 
0.94 
0.99 
1.04 
0.90 



Nutrients and energy in 1 pound of the water-free edible portion of 
several food materials in comparison with milk (United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture). 



Food Matbbiaia 


PROTBIN 


Fat 


Carhort- 

DRATBS 


MiNBBAL 

Mattbr 


Fubl 
Valub 


Whole milk 

Skim milk (0.3 per cent fat) 

Buttermilk 

Cheese 

Beef, round 

Smoked ham 

Wheat flour 


Pound 

0.25 
.36 
.33 
.39 
.67 
.26 
.13 


Pound 

0.31 
.03 
.06 
.52 
.40 
.66 
.01 
.02 
.01 
.03 


Pound 

0.39 

.65 

.53 

.03 

.85 
.82 
.85 
.92 


Pound 

0.05 
.06 
.08 
.06 
.03 
.08 
.01 
.01 
.04 
.02 


2.476 
1.835 
1.845 
2.990 
2.760 
3,275 
1,865 
1.865 
1.790 
1.885 


Wheat bread 

Potatoes 


.15 
.10 


Apples 


.03 







446 MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS; DAIRY FARMS 

Average composition of milk producU and other food (U. S. Dept. Agric.) 



Matbbial 



Whole milk 

Skim milk 

Cream 

Buttermilk 

Whey 

Condensed milk, unsweetened 

Condensed milk, sweetened . . 

Butter 

Cheese, American Cheddar . . 

Cheese, cottage 

Cheese, Swiss 

Milk powder (from skimmed milk) 

Kephir 

Koumiss . . . < 

Infant and invalid foods, farina- 
ceous 

Infant and invalid foods contain- 
ing milk and starches . . . 

Infant and invalid foods, malted 
preparations 

Beef, sirloin steak 

Eggs as purchased 

Wheat flour, patent roller process 

Wheat bread, white 

Beans, baked 

Potatoes, as purchased .... 

Apples, as purchased .... 



RSPDSE 



Watbb 



Per cerU^Per eerU 

; 87.0 

90.5 
74.0 
91.0 
93.0 
71.3 
26.0 
13.0 
33.5 
53.0 
31.4 
3.0 
89.6 
90.7 



12.8 
11.2 



20.0 
25.0 



9.4 

4.3 

4.2 
54.0 
65.5 
12.0 
35.3 
68.9 
62.6 
63.3 



Pro- 
tein 



Per cent 

3.3 

3.4 

2.5 

3.0 

1.0 

7.4 

8.2 

1.0 

26.0 

19.6 

27.6 

34.0 

3.1 

2.2 

9.4 

9.6 

12.0 

16.5 

11:9 

11.4 

9.2 

6.9 

1.8 

0.3 



Fat 



Carbo- 

HT- 

DRATB8 



Percent 

4.0 

.3 

18.5 

.5 

.3 

8.5 

9.6 

83.0 

35.5 

23.2 

34.9 

3.1 

2.0 

2.1 

0.4 

3.8 

1.0 
16.1 
9.3 
1.0 
1.3 
2.5 
0.1 
0.3 



An 



Per cent Per cetU 
5.0 0.7 



5.1 
4.5 
4.8 
5.0 
11.1 
54.3 

1.5 
2.1 
1.3 
51.9 
4.5 
4.1 » 

79.9 » 

80.2 « 

79.8' 



7.51 
53.1 
19.6 
14.7 
10.8 



0.7 
0.5 
0.7 
0.7 
1.7 
1.9 
3.0 
3.5 
2.1 
4.8 
8.0 
0.8 
0.9 

3.9 

2.1 

3.0 
0.9 
0.9 
0.5 
1.1 
2.1 
0.8 
0.3 



1 Including 2.1 per cent alcohol and 0.8 per cent lactic acid. 

* Including 1.7 per cent alcohol and 0.9 per cent lactic acid. 

* Including 6.62 per cent soluble carbohydrates (sugars). 

* Including 49.05 per cent soluble carbohydrates (sugars). 
' Including 48.39^ per cent soluble carbohydrates (sugars). 

Milk, Butter, and Cheese Tests 

Babcock test for butter-fat (Pearson). 

A measured sample of milk is mixed with strong sulfuric acid, which 
dissolves all of the milk constituents except the fat. The mixture of 
milk and acid is then subjected to centrifugal force in a specially con- 
structed machine, by which the fat is separated from the heavy liquid, 
and, after the addition of water, the fat is brought into a part of the 
bottle where it can be quickly measured. The entire test can be nuulc 
in fifteen to twenty minutes. 



MILK TESTS 447 

In detail the test is made as follows : The milk to be sampled is 
thoroughly mixed by pouring it several times from one vessel to another. 
By means of a milk pipette, or measure, graduated to hold 17.6 cc, 
this quantity of milk is transferred to a special form of bottle, which 
has a capacity of a little more than one ounce and a long neck with 
graduations or per cent marks from to 10. The cubic capacity of 
the neck, from to 10, is exactly 2 cc. This is the volume of 1.8 grams 
of melted fat, which is the substance to be measured on the scale. As 
the bottle is so graduated that 1.8 grams represents 10 per cent, it 
is necessary to use a sample weighing ten times as much, or 18 grams, 
and it is found that the 17.6 cc. pipette will deliver approximately 
this weight of milk. There is then added 17.5 cc. of concentrated 
commercial sulfuric acid, having a sp>ecific gravity of 1.82 to 1.83. 
The acid and milk are mixed by a rotary motion. The action of 
the acid on the water and solids of the milk generates considerable 
heat. The sample is promptly placed in a centrifugal machine and 
whirled for five minutes. Hot water is then added to bring the fat 
to the base of the neck. It is then whirled two minutes, and more 
hot water is carefully added until the fat rises in the neck so that it is 
opposite the graduations. The sample is then whirled one minute, 
to insure collecting as much fat as possible in the neck. While the fat 
is still warm, its percentage is ascertained by reading the marks at its 
upper and lower levels and taking the difference between them. 

The cost of a small complete outfit for testing milk is S6 to SIO. 

CompiUing total solids of milk, 

Babcock and Richmond have proposed formul£e for computing the 
total solids of milk. One of the best is : — 

- + 1.2 F + .14 = total solids. 
4 

L represents the second and third decimal figures of the specific gravity, 
or the Quevenne reading, and F represents the i>ercentage of fat. This 
formula is used largely, and for practical purposes agrees closely enough 
with results of gravimetric analysis. 

Test for acid in milk (Pearson). 

It is not practicable to isolate lactic acid from milk and measure it as 
milk-fat is measured. But its quantity can be easily determined by 



448 MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS; DAIRY FARMS 

slowly adding to a known weight of milk an alkali of known strength 
until all the acid is neutralized. The neutralization is indicated by 
phenolphthalein, which was previously added to the milk and which 
causes the milk to turn pink as soon as it begins to show an alkaline 
reaction. It is customary (Mann's test) to use deci-normal alkali 
solution, 1 cc. of which will neutralize .009 gram of lactic acid. The 
equipment includes, besides the neutralizer and phenolphthalein, a 
burette for measuring the neutralizer, cup and glass rod. If twenty 
grams of milk is used and it requires 6 cc. of alkali to neutralize the 
acid, it is known that the milk contains 6X.009 or .054 gram of lactic 
acid, or .27 per cent. Alkali tablets (Farrington's), each capable of 
neutralizing .034 gram of acid, are on the market. They may be 
used in solution instead of the deci-normal solution. 

Test for boiled milk. 

It is sometimes desirable to determine whether milk has been sub- 
jected to 176° F. or higher heat. A successful test has been devised 
by Storch. To 5 cc. of the suspected milk add a few drops of potassium 
iodid and a similar quantity of starch solution, also a few drops of 
hydrogen peroxid. If the milk has not been cooked, an enzyme which 
is present will decompose the hydrogen peroxid, setting free oxygen. 
This combines with the potassium salt, and thus iodine is in turn set 
free and with the starch it forms a purple color. If the milk has been 
heated so that the enzyme is killed, no color will result. 

Another test for cooked milk is given by Arnold, as follows : Tincture 
of guaiac is added, drop by drop, to a little milk in a test-tube. If the 
milk has not been heated to 176** F., a blue zone is formed between 
the two fluids. If it has been heated, there is no reaction. The guaiac- 
wood tincture is said to be more reliable than other tinctures, and it 
should not be used when fresh, but when at least a few days old and its 
potency has been determined. 

The lactometer test for specific gravity in milk (Pearson). 

As the specific gravity of milk is markedly changed when it is adul- 
terated by the addition of water or the removal of cream, the lactometer 
is an important instrument to indicate such adulteration. It is of 
little use if both kinds of adulteration have been practiced on the 
same sample of milk, as the increase in weight due to removal of 
cream can be offset by the addition of water, which is lighter than 



MILK TESTS 449 

skimmed milk. In connection with the Babcock test, the lactometer 
is most valuable, and several formulae are in use by which the solids 
not fat or the total solids of milk may be closely computed from the 
specific gravity and the fat test. 

The lactometer is a form of hydrometer adapted especially for use 
in milk. Several styles are in use, the Quevenne being the most con- 
venient because its readings indicate the specific gravity without the 
necessity of more than a simple mental calculation. The readings 
on the stem of the Quevenne lactometer are from 15 to 40, and they 
represent the second and third decimal figures of the specific gravity, 
the preceding figures always being 1.0 ; thus, a reading of 29 represents 
a specific gravity of 1.029. This instrmnent should be used in milk 
at a temperature of 60® F. If the temperature varies therefrom, a cor- 
rection of the reading must be made, .1 of a lactometer degree being 
added to the reading for each degree of temperature of the milk above 
60® F. or if the temperatm^ is below 60® F, .1 of a lactometer degree 
is subtracted from the reading for each degree of temperature of 
the milk below 60® F. Thus, if the lactometer reads 31 at a tem- 
perature of 65® F., the corrected reading for 60® F. would be 31.5, and 
the specific gravity of this milk at 60® F. would be 1.0315. Special 
tables for making corrections for different temperatures are published 
in books treating on the subject. By the rule given, it is not advis- 
able to attempt to correct for a variation of more than 10® from 60® F. 

Another style of lactometer in conmion use is known as the New 
York Board of Health lactometer. Its graduations are from 10 to 120. 
The instrument stands at 100 in milk having a 8i>ecific gravity of 1.029, 
and it would stand at 0, if graduated to that point, in a fiuid having a 
specific gravity of 1. Thus, 100® in the B of H lactometer equals 29® 
on the Quevenne lactometer, and it is a simple matter to compute the 
equivalent reading of one lactometer for any given reading on the other 
by the formula : — 

Q = .29 B of H, or B of H = -^. 

Test for boric add or borax used as preservatives (Van Slyke). 

Add lime-water to 25 cc. of milk until the mixture is alkaline to phe- 
nalphthaiein ; evaporate to dryness and bum to an ash in a small por- 
celain or platinum dish. Add a few drops of dilute hydrochloric acid 
2q 



450 }fILK AND MILK PRODUCTS; DAIRY FARMS 

to the ash, care being taken not to use too much acid, then add a few 
drops of water, and place a strip of turmeric paper in this water solution. 
Dry the paper, and if either borax or boric acid is present, a cherry- 
red color will appear. This test is confirmed by moistening the red- 
dened pap>er with a drop of an alkali solution, when the paper will turn 
to a dark olive color, if borax or boric acid is present. 

Test for formaldehyde in mUk, 

This test can be performed in connection with the Babcock test. 
Measure into the Babcock test bottle 17.6 cc. of milk. Add five 
or six drops of ferric chloride solution and shake thoroughly. Add 
17.5 cc. of sulfuric acid, but do not mix the acid and milk. If 
formaldehyde is present, a lavender-colored ring will appear at 
the point of contact of the acid and milk. If the contents of the 
bottle are mixed slowly, the entire mass of curd will turn a lavender 
color. This test will not work if the sample is too old. 

Standardizing milk (Pearson). 

Standardized milk is that which has been changed in its composition 
to cause it to contain a required amount of fat. This is usually ac- 
complished by adding cream or skimmed milk. A convenient rule for 
determining the amount of ingredients to make a mixture testing a cer- 
tain per cent of fat, is as follows, supposing cream and milk are to be 
used (in most States it is unlawful to add skinmied milk): — 

Draw a rectangle, placing the per cent of fat in the cream at the upper 
left-hand comer, and the per cent of fat of the milk at the lower left- 
hand comer. Place the desired per cent of fat in the center. The dif- 
ference between the numbers in the center and at the lower left-hand 
comer should be written at the upper right-hand comer, and the dif- 
ference between the numbers in the center and at the upper left-hand 
comer should be written at the lower right-hand comer. These right- 
hand numbers represent the proportions of the substances represented 
at the corresponding left-hand comers, which must be mixed to produce 
a milk testing the desired amount of fat. 

Thus : To raise the fat test of a 3.8 per cent milk to 4 per cent by the 
use of cream testing 25 per cent, by completing the figure as explained, 
it will be seen that for every 21 pounds of 3.8 per cent milk there 
should be used .2 of 1 pound of 25 per cent cream. 



MILK TESTS 451 

BuiUT fnoi8ture4e8t (Cornell test). 

The apparatus used in the Cornell moistttre^est is an alcohol lamp, 
stand, asbestos sheet, hot-pan lifter, aluminum cup for holding the 
sample, and a special moisting scale. The scale is especially adapted 
for moisture work, but may be used as a cream scale in operating the 
Babcock test. 

The scale has a tare weight for balancing the cup and a large and 
small weight for weighing the sample and obtaining the percentage of 
moisture. The beam has two rows of figures, which give readings 
with the larger weight. The lower row gives readings in grams and 
the upper row in percentages. The smaller weight gives readings in 
grams when the weight is moved from 1 forward. Each notch repre- 
sents .02 gram, the total value of the small scale being .2 gram. When 
the small weight is moved from backward, each notch represents a 
loss of .1 per cent of moisture when 20.2 grams of butter are used. The 
small weight is intended to be used only in moisture work. In using 
the scale for Babcock work, the small weight is not used, but is left at 
rest on the figure 1. Then when the scales are balanced, the small 
weight is negligible. Care must be taken not to let any draft of air, 
as from an open window, strike the scales when in use, as they are so 
sensitive that a very slight current of air would throw them out 
of balance. The scales will give readings in percentages only when 
20.2 grams of butter have been weighed, or, in other words, when 
the large weight is on 20 (of the gram scale) and the small weight 
is on zero. 

The cup used is of cast aluminum, and is durable and perfectly smooth. 
The absence of creases or crevices allows it to be cleaned and dried 
thoroughly. 

Taking the sample. — It is necessary that a representative sample be 
taken for a moisture-test. If the butter is sold in tubs, the sample 
should be taken from the tub with a butter-trier, after the butter has 
been packed. It is best to take three drawings — one from near the 
edge, one from the middle, and one half-way between the edge and 
the middle. Some butter-makers test the butter as soon as it is 
worked. This is a mistake, since considerable moisture is lost in 
the process of printing and packing. 



452 MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS; DAIRY FARMS 

Operation of the test, — After the cup is thoroughly cleaned and dried, 
it is placed on the scales and balanced by means of the tare weight on 
the round bar attached to the beam of the scales. The large weight 
should rest on the zero mark (of the gram scale) and the small weight 
on 1 while the cup is being balanced. The cup should not be balanced 
until it is about the same temperature as that of the room. After the 
cup is balanced, the larger weight is moved to the 20 mark (of the gram 
scale) and the small weight to the zero mark. Butter from the prepared 
sample is then added to the cup imtil the scales are accurately balanced. 
The alcohol lamp is then placed under the iron stand and the asbestos 
sheet placed on the stand. The lamp is lighted and the cup placed on 
the asbestos sheet. It is well to light the lamp at least two or three 
minutes before placing the cup on the asbestos in order to heat 
the asbestos and save time. The heat of the flame may be in- 
creased or diminished by raising or lowering the wick. The cup 
should always be handled with the hot pan lifter, as by so doing 
it will be kept clean and errors in weight due to dirt on the cup 
will be avoided. 

While the sample is heating it should be shaken from time to time, 
as this breaks up the blanket of casein on the surface and hastens the 
escape of moisture. As soon as the casein has lost its snow-white color, 
the cup should be removed from the flame. When the moisture has all 
been driven from the sample, a slightly pungent odor may be noticed. 
This may also be used as a guide to tell when the sample has been heated 
enough. The foam begins to subside at this point. Often one or 
two small pieces of casein are slow to give up their moisture. This is 
indicated by the snow-white color of the pieces. Evaporation can be 
hastened by shaking the sample with a rotary motion and thoroughly 
mixing these pieces with the hot liquid. If this is not done, one might 
have to heat the sample so long that some of the fat which had already 
given up its moisture would volatilize. 

After all the moisture is driven off, the sample is allowed to cool to 
room temperature. While cooling, the cup should be covered with 
something (a sheet of paper will do) to prevent the sample taking up 
moisture from the atmosphere. After cooling, the cup is placed on 
the scales. The sample is lighter than before heating, because it has 
lost its moisture. The bar of the scales will therefore remain down. 
The weights are then reversed until the scales just balance. 



MILK TESTS 453 

Each notch that the larger weight is reversed has a value of 1 per 
cent (readmg on the upper scale), and each notch that the smaller 
weight is reversed has a value of .1 per cent. If, for example, after 
heating, the scales just balance when the larger weight rests on 15 
(upper scale) and the smaller weight rests on .2, it would mean that the 
sample contained 15.2 per cent moisture. 

Test far saU in butter (Ross). 

Weigh out accurately, from a well-mixed sample, 10 grams of butter. 
Add to the 10 grams of butter 100 cc. of hot water, and thoroughly mix 
the butter with the water. Then cool to harden the fat, and pom: off into 
a clean dish the 100 cc. of water. Repeat this operation until 300 cc. 
of water has been used. Thoroughly mix the 300 cc. of water, and meas- 
ure out 17.5 cc. into a glass beaker or white cup, and add five or six 
drops of potassiimi chromate. This will turn the solution a lemon- 
yellow color. Run in from a burette an — normal solution of silver 

10 

nitrate. Thoroughly mix the solution as the silver nitrate is added. 
When the solution turns to an orange-yellow color, enough silver ni- 
trate has been added to neutralize all of the salt. The number of cc. 
of silver nitrate solution added equals the per cent of salt in the butter. 
For example, if it requires 2 cc. of silver nitrate, there is 2 per cent 
of salt in the butter. If more or less than 10 grams of butter are 
used and more or less than 17.5 cc. of the solution are used for the 
test, the burette will not give readings directly in terms of per cent. 
Care should be taken not to run in too much silver nitrate. If too 
much silver nitrate is used, the color will be a dull brick-red, and incor- 
rect results will be obtained. An — normal solution of silver nitrate, 

10 

which is accurate enough for the purpose, may be made by dissolv- 
ing 17.5 grams of silver nitrate in 200 cc. of water and then making 
the solution to 1000 cc. or 1 liter. 

Test for scdi in cheese (Ross). 

Bum to a gray ash in a porcelain dish 5 grams of the cheese. 
Care should be taken to keep the contents in the center of the dish. 
If this is done, it will make it easier to reduce the cheese to an ash. 



454 MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS; DAIRY FARMS 

Cool and dissolve the ash in 20 cc. of pure, clean water. Transfer 
the 20 cc. of the ash solution to a glass beaker or a white cup. Add 
five or six drops of a water solution of potassium chromate. This will 

turn the solution a lemon-yellow color. Run in from a burette an — 

10 
normal solution of silver nitrate. Thoroughly mix the solution as 
the silver nitrate is added. When the color of the solution turns to 
an orange-yellow, enough silver nitrate has been added to neutralize 
all the salt. Then multiply the number of cc. of silver nitrate used by 
.00585. Divide this result by 5, the number of grams of cheese 
taken, and multiply the quotient by 100. This is the per cent of salt 
in the cheese. 

Care should be taken not to run in too much silver nitrate. If too 
much silver nitrate is used, the color will be a dull brick-red, and in- 
correct results will be obtained. An — normal solution of silver 

10 

nitrate, which is accurate enough for the purpose, may be made by 
dissolving 17} grams of silver nitrate in 200 cc. of water and then 
making the solution up to 1000 cc. or one liter. 

Over-run in huUer'Tnaking (Pa. Sta. and U. S. Dept. Agric). 

Over-run in butter is the amount of water, casein, and salt incor- 
porated in the butter-fat in making butter. Creamery over-run, how- 
ever, should always be computed from the number of pounds of butter- 
fat received and the pounds of butter sold. 

The formula for calculating over-run in percentage is as follows : 

Pounds of butter made — pounds of butter-fat received ^ --^ 
pounds of butter-fat received 

= per cent over-run. 

In a whole-milk creamery it is possible to obtain from 18 to 20 
per cent over-run and have only 14 to 14} per cent moisture in the 
butter, while in a creamery where hand separator cream is received, 
20 to 22 per cent over-run can be obtauied. This is shown by the 
following two examples : — 



MILK TESTS 466 

Example : 

10,000 pounds 4 per cent milk contains 400 pounds butter-fat. 

10,000 pounds 4 per cent milk gives 1600 pounds 24+ per cent cream 
and 8400 pounds skim milk. 

1,600 pounds of cream testing 24+ per cent contains 391.6 pounds 
butter-fat. 

8400 pounds skim milk, loss (maximum) .1 per cent, is 8.4 pounds 
butter-fat. 

1600 pounds cream less 391.6 pounds butter-fat, leaves 1208.4 
pounds buttermilk. 

1208.4 pounds buttermilk at .2 per cent loss is 2.4 pounds butter-fat, 
the loss in churning. 

8.4 pounds butter-fat, loss in skim milk, and 2.4 pounds butter- 
fat, loss in buttermilk, gives 10.8 pounds butter-fat loss in both. 

10.8 pounds butter-fat from 400 pounds butter-fat leaves 389.2 
pounds of butter-fat to be churned into butter. 

If 389.2 pounds butter-fat is churned into butter containing 14 per 
cent water and 4 per cent salt and casein, it will make 474.6 pounds of 
butter. 

474.6 pounds less 400 pounds gives 74.6 pounds of butter, which is 
the over-run. 

74.6 pounds of butter times 100 makes 7460, divided by 400 gives 18.6 
per cent over-run. 

Spoon^test for oleamargarin and renovated butter. 

Place in a tablespoon a piece of the sample, about the size of a 
hickory-nut. Hold the spoon over the flame until the sample is 
melted, and stir frequently while melting. Then lower the spoon 
into the flame. Oleo and renovated butter will boil with a loud 
crackling noise, and there will be almost no foam on the surface of 
the sample. Genuine butter will boil quietly and the surface will be 
covered with foam. 

The teat for moisture in cheese (Ross). 

Obtain a representative sample of cheese as directed in the test for fat 
in cheese. Then in a flat-bottom dish at least three inches in diameter 
weigh out 3 grams of cheese. If no glass dish is at hand, a tea saucer 



456 MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS; DAIRY FARMS 

will answer the purpose. Heat the sample m a water oven at the tem- 
perature of boiling water for eight hours. Cool the dish, weigh and 
divide the loss in weight by the three grams of cheese taken. Multiply 
the quotient by 100. This quotient is the percentage of moisture in the 
cheese. Care should be taken to place the cheese in the dish in as thin a 
layer as possible. This will make it easier for the moisture of the 
cheese to escape. 

The Babcock test for fat in cheese (Ross). 

Secure a representative sample of the cheese. This is best done by 
means of a cheese trier, taking a plug from the center of the cheese one- 
half way between the center and the outside of the cheese and one 
very near the outside of the cheese. Using a knife, mince these three 
plugs as fine as possible and mix them thoroughly. After the sample 
is minced very fine and thoroughly mixed, weigh out on a set of cream 
balances in a cream bottle 4 grams of the cheese. Add 5 cc. of 
warm water and shake thoroughly for one or two minutes. Then 
make the sample up to approximately 18 grams by the addition of 
water, and add 17.5 cc. sulfuric acid. After the acid is added, shake 
the sample thoroughly for from two to three minutes. The purpose 
of this shaking is to dissolve all of the cheese curd. If this is not done, 
the fat colunm will be cloudy. Then place the bottles in the machine 
and proceed with the test in the ordinary way. 

Test for determining casein in milk (Van Slyke and Bos worth). 

A given amount of milk, diluted with water, is made neutral to phe- 
nolphthalein solution by addition of a solution of sodium hydroxid. 
The casein is then completely precipitated by addition of standardized 
acetic acid ; the volume of the mixture is made up to 200 cc. by ad- 
dition of water, thoroughly shaken, and then filtered. Into 100 cc. of 
the filtrate a standardized solution of sodium hydroxid is run until 
neutral to phenolphthalcin. The solutions are so standardized that 1 cc. 
is equivalent to 1 per cent of casein when a definite amount of milk 
is used. The number of cubic centimeters of standard acid used, divided 
by 2, less the amount of standard alkali used in the last titration, 
gives the percentage of casein in the milk examined. When one uses 
17.5 cc. (18 grams) of milk, the amount used in the Babcock milk- 



MILK TESTS 457 

fat testy the standard acid and alkali solutions are made by dilut- 
ing 795 cc. of tenth-normal solutions to one liter. By using 22 cc. 
of milk, tenth-normal solutions can be used directly ; or by using 
20 cc. of milk and tenth-normal solutions, adjustment is made by 
multiplying the final result by 1.0964. 

Wisconsin curd-test. 

This curd-test may be of use to creamerymen in detecting milk 
which is giving trouble on account of odors, taints, gas, and so forth. 
Sometimes the milk from a certain cow contaminates the milk of the 
entire herd. In such a case, the dairyman may find this test useful. 

Sterilize as near as possible by inunersing in boiling water for 30 
minutes as many pint glass fruit-jars as there are samples to be tested. 
Cool the jars at the same time, keeping them covered to prevent 
contamination. Then fill the jars two-thirds full of the milk to be 
examined. Set the jars in a tank of water, the temperature of which 
is about 100° F., and allow the milk to come as near as possible to 
the temperature of the water in the tank. The temperature of the 
milk may be taken with a thermometer that has been held for at 
least one minute in boiling water; the thermometer should be thus 
treated after taking the temperature of each sample to prevent car- 
rying contamination from one sample to another. 

When the temperature of the milk has reached about 95® F. to 98® 
F., add to each jar of milk about 10 drops of rennet and shake thor- 
oughly. The rennet will coagulate the milk in about 20 minutes, and 
the whey should then be poured off. The whey will separate more 
readily from the curd if the latter is broken up with a knife or other 
instnmient which has been dipped for at least one minute in boiling 
water. As much of the whey as possible should be drawn off. The 
jars should then be set in the tank and kept at a temperature of 
about 100® F. f OT 6 to 8 hours. Examination of odor and condition 
of the curd may be made every 30 minutes. The condition of the 
curd may best be told by cutting it with a sharp knife and examin- 
ing the freshly cut surface for gas pockets. 

Great care should be exercised in the entire process to have every- 
thing which comes in contact with the milk as near sterile as pos- 
sible. 



458 MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS; DAIRY FARMS 

Propagatioii of Starter for Butter-makiiig and Cheese-makiiig 

(Guthrie) 

1. Take three one-quart milk bottles or fruit jars. 

2. Use fresh, clean milk (either whole milk or skimmed milk) which 
must have a nice flavor. 

3. Fill the containers one-half to two-thuxls full of milk. 

4. Protect the containers with regular covers (caps or tops). 

5. Pasteurize by heating to 180°-200° F. for thirty minutes or longer, 
and then cool to ripening temperature of 60^-75° F. 

6. After pasteurization the milk is ready for inoculation. Inoculate 
in a quiet place where the wind cannot blow dirt and bacteria into 
this clean seed bed. 

7. Incubate at about 60°-75'' F. The first inoculation from the 
commercial culture should be incubated at about 70®- 85° F. 

8. The starter is ripe when a curd forms. This cmrd should be soft 
and like custard in appearance. 

9. After the starter is ripe, hold it at 50° F. or a few degrees lower 
until time to use. For best results a starter should not be held longer 
than a few hours. 

10. Upon examination the curd should be smooth and compact, 
without gas pockets. Gas shows the presence of undesu^ble bacteria. 

Farm Butter-making (Trueman, Conn. Exp. Sta.) 

The farmer will not ask, is it more scientific to make butter than to 
sell milk, or is it less trouble, or does it take less time and work, but, 
does it pay ? That question can best be answered by a comparison of 
the amount received for 1000 pounds of milk by each method. 

One thousand pounds of milk equals 465 quarts. At 3i cents per 
quart, its value is $16.27. The value of the same amount of milk made 
into butter will depend upon the richness of the milk. If it will test 
4 per cent of fat, then the 1000 pounds will contain 40 pounds of fat. 
Under ordinary conditions this will make about 44.5 pounds of butter. 
This at 35 cents per pound is worth $15.57. Add to this the value of 
800 pounds of skim milk and 150 pounds of buttermilk, a total of 950 
pounds at 25 cents per himdredweight, equal to $2.37, a total of $17.94 
for the 1000 pounds of milk when made into butter. This gives a 
balance of $1.67, in favor of making butter, to say nothing of the value 



FARM BUTTER-MAKING 469 

of the fertilizer material in the skim milk and the profit in havmg 
healthy, rapid-growing calves. 

It will readily be seen that the side on which the profit will appear 
will depend wholly on the prices received for milk and butter. If the 
milk is sold at the farm at four cents per quart and the butter must be 
sold at 30 cents per pound, then the margin of profit would amount 
to S2.88 per 1000 pounds of milk, in favor of selling by the quart, 
provided the milk tests 4 per cent as in the first case. 

If, however, the herd in question consisted of well-bred Jerseys, 
giving milk testing 5 per cent on the average, the result would be some- 
what different : 

1000 lb. milk 466 quarts 

466 quarta ® 4f $18.60 

1000 lb. milk testing 5% 50 lb. fat 

60 lb. fat 67 lbs. butter 

67 lb. butter @ 30^ $17.10 

060 lb. Bkim milk and buttermilk @ 25^ per cwt. 2.37 

Total $19.47 

This leaves a balance of 87 cents per 1000 pounds of milk, in favor of 
making butter. 

Bitter milk and cream. 

Milk may have an acrid, bitter taste, caused by the cows eating 
ragweed, an herb which is common in pastures late in the summer. 
Flavors produced by what the cows eat are most noticeable when the 
milk is first drawn from the udder, while flavors produced by the growth 
of bacteria get worse as the milk gets older. The only remedy for rag- 
weed flavor is to remove the cows from the pasture containing the weed. 

Bitter milk is sometimes given by cows that are advanced in their 
period of lactation and giving a small quantity of milk. Such cows 
should be dried up at once. 

Certain bacteria that develop at low temperatures may produce 
bitter flavors in the ripening cream. In this case the cream is all right 
when fresh but gradually develops the bitter flavor. This can be 
stopped by using plenty of steam or boiling water to sterilize thor- 
oughly all utensils, and by using a good active starter to hasten the 
development of lactic acid. The cream should not be allowed to get 
old and the temperature should be kept up to 7(f F. or 75" F. during 
ripening. 



460 MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS', DAIRY FARMS 

Why butter wiU not " come" 

One of the most common complaints is that the butter will not come. 
This generally happens in the fall in herds where the cows freshen in the 
spring or early winter. When fall comes, these cows have been milk- 
ing a long time and are not giving much milk. The character of the 
milk changes as the lactation period advances. The per cent of fat 
and of solids-not-fat, increases. This makes the cream more viscous, 
and more inclined to '' whip," or to froth up and fill the churn. When 
this happens, and the chum is full of frothy cream, about the only 
thing to do is to add hot water to warm up the fat and to destroy the 
viscosity of the cream. Such treatment will not make the best of but- 
ter, but is better than churning all day and finally becoming so dis- 
couraged that the whole churning is thrown out. 

This trouble may be avoided by using more starter, ripening at a 
higher temperature, say 75° F. to 80° F., and churning at a higher tem- 
perature, say 65° F. This again will not make the best of butter, but 
will enable one to handle successfully that kind of cream. 

Sometimes the butter will not come because the cream is too thin. 
The fat globules are not crowded closely enough together in the milk 
serum to cause them to stick together when the cream is agitated. 
Cream should contain over 20 per cent of fat in order to make it chum 
easily, and 30 per cent is better. 

Sweet cream does not chum as easily as sour cream. Souring tends 
to reduce viscosity and prevent whipping. 

Frequently the butter will not come because the cream is too cold. 
The thermometer should be used, and if below 60° F. warm up by add- 
ing hot water, or by taking out some of the cream and warming it and 
then returning it to the main lot in the chum. Unless the cream is 
already too thin, hot water, added carefully, will generally be found 
satisfactory. Cream may become too cold from churning in a cold 
room, especially if a metal or crockery churn is used. 

Too thick cream will sometimes stick to the sides of the chum and the 
butter will not come from lack of concussion. Water or skim milk of the 
proper temperature may be added to reduce the thickness of the cream. 

If the churn is too full, the proper amount of concussion is not pro- 
duced and the butter fails to come. Take out part of the cream and 
make two chumings. 



FARM BUTTER-MAKING 461 



Old cream makes poor-flavored butter. 

Probably the most common cause of poor-flavored butter is cream that 
has grown stale before being churned. Fine, fresh-tastmg butter, with 
delicate flavors and aroma, cannot be made from old cream. Three 
days should be the limit of age, if the best quality is to be produced. 

White specks in the buUer. 

These are caused by dried cream, and by liunps of coagulated casein. 
The cream should be stirred frequently while ripening and always 
strained through a fine-mesh wire strainer, when put in the chum. 

MotOed butter. 

"Mottles" are caused by an uneven distribution of the salt. The 
action of the salt on the casein causes light streaks and spots to show 
all through the butter. The remedy is to wash well until the water is 
clear, and to work a little longer until the salt is evenly mixed with the 
butter. The proper point at which to stop working can be learned only 
by experience. 

Effect of feed on butter-fat. 

We have not much definite knowledge about the effect of feeds upon- 
texture and flavor of butter. Strong-flavored feeds, such as turnips, 
garlic, cabbage, silage, etc., may be fed immediately after milking and 
they will then have little or no effect upon the flavor of the milk. 

Gluten feed, oil meal and soy beans are known to produce softer 
butter than corn meal and cotton-seed-meal, the latter being especially 
noted for the production of a hard, tallowy fat. 

Butter from Whey 

The quantity of butter that can be made from the whey from 100 
pounds of milk is somewhat variable, depending on the amount of fat 
that is lost in the whey during the process of cheese-making. This 
loss depends on a great many conditions, but on the average about 
5 ounces of butter can be made from the whey from 100 pounds of 
milk. 



462 



MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS; DAIRY FARMS 



Milk, Butter, and Dairy-fann Scores 
ScoTt<ardfor market milk (U. S. Dept. of Agric, Dairy DivisiozL) 



NUMXSICAL SCORB 



Flavor, 40 



Composition, 26 



Bacteria, 20 



Acidity, 5 



Appearance of 
package and 
contents, 10 



Perfect 
score, 100 



Judge's 



DBSCSIPnVS SGOBB 



Flavor 


Composition 


Bacteria 


Acidity 


Package and 
contents 


Excellent . . . 


Perfect 


Perfect 


Perfect 


Perfect 


Good . 














Fair . 






Fat, — per cent 


Total, 


— percent 


Foreign matter 


Bad 














Flat . 






Solids not fat.— 


Liquefiers — 




Metal parts 


Bitter . 






per cent 








Weedy 












Unattractive 


Garlic . 














Silage . 














Manure 














Smothered 












Other Taints 





















Remarks : • 
Date:- 

Flavor. 



Directions for scoring 



If rich, sweet, clean, and pleasant flavor and odor, score perfect (40). 
Deduct for objectionable flavors and odors according to conditiona 
found. 

Composition. 

If 3.25 per cent fat or above and 8.5 per cent solids not fat or above, 
score perfect (25). Deduct one point for each one-fourth per cent fat 
below 3.25, and one point for each one-fourth per cent solids not fat 
below 8.5. 



SCORE-CARDS 463 

Bacteria. 

Less than 10,000 per cubic centimeter ' (perfect) . 20 

Over 10,000 and less than 25,000 per cubic centimeter 19 

Over 25,000 and less than 50,000 per cubic centimeter 18 

Over 50,000 and less than 75,000 per cubic centimeter 17 

Over 75,000 and less than 100,000 per cubic centimeter Id 

Deduct 1 point for each 25,000 above 100,000. 

When an unusually large number of liquefying bacteria are present, 
further deduction should be made according to conditions found. 

Acid. 

If 0.2 per cent or below, score perfect (5). Deduct one point for 
each 0.01 per cent above 0.2 per cent. (If Mann's test is used, dis- 
continue adding indicator on first appearance of a pink color.) 

Appearance of package and contents. 

If package is clean, free from metal parts, and no foreign matter 
can be detected in the contents, score perfect (10). Make deduo- 
tions according to conditions found. 

BvUer scare-card (Cornell) 

Flavor 46 — 

Body 26 

Color 16 

Salt 10 

Package 6 

Total 100 

Nams of Jxtdoi 

Flayob 

DenrabU Due to farm conditions 

Clean, creamery — pleasant bouquet. Dirty (name cattae if posBtble) 
aroma. Pails, cans, barn, milkhouse, etc. 

Weedy (name weed if poeeibU) 
Undeeirable Barny 

Due to creamery conditions Feedy (name feed if poeeible) 

Dirty (name cause if possible) S^*«®' ^""^^ «^*^ 

Chimi vat, refrigerator, separator, ^hi^ ^ ^j^^^ creamery or farm con- 
Woody' Rancid ditions or both 

Poor starter Too high ripening Flat Cheesy 

Oily temperature Smothered Bitter 

Fishy Metallic 

Turpentiny Dirty strainer 



464 



MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS; DAIRY FABMS 



BODT 


Salt 


DenrtMe 


Desirable 


Wtay, medium grain (in length) 


Well diaeolved, medium in amount 


Undesirable 


Undesirable 


Weak Too much water 




Tallowy Not enough water 
Milky brine Water not weU inoor- 


Too high Gritty 

Too li^t Not well distributed 


Greasy porated 




Short grain Leaky 






Packaoi 


COLOB 




DeeirabU 


DesirabU 


Uniform, medium shade (June or 


Neat, dean, attraetiye 


straw) 


UndesirabU 


Undesirable 


Not suited to market Not finished 


MotUed Too high 


Poorly packed Moldy 


Streaked Too light 


Cheap Not fuU 


Wavy Not clear 


Dirty Damaged 



flavor . • 50 — 



Body and 
Texture • 25 



Color • . • 15 



- 1 



Finish. . . 10 

Total . . 100 



Ckeeae acore-card (Cornell) 

Perfect, clean, too much acid, too little acid, sour, 

sweet, tainted. 
Weedy, cowy, old milk, bitter, fishy, yeasty, fruity, 

rancid, feedy. 

{Perfect, smooth, silky, waxy, pasty, stiff, eurdy, 
mealy. 
Greasy, close, loose, gassy, yeasty, acidy. swteU 
watery, too dry. 

Perfect, white specks, streaked, seamy, mottled, 
wavy. 
[ Rust spots, acid cut, too high, too light, unoolored. 

{Perfect, undesirable sise, uneven, edges, cracked 
rinds, unclean surfaces, wrinkled bandage, 
greasy, no end caps. 



Univernty of Wisconsin score^eards 

Chsbsb 

Flavor 45 

Texture 90 

Color 15 

General make-up and package lO 

Total 100 



SCORE-CARDS 465 

BnmB 

FUtTor 45 

Body 26 

Color 15 

Salt 10 

Package 5 

Total 100 

Butter ClassificationB and Grades (N.Y. Mercantile Exchange) 

1. Butter shall be classified as Creamery, Process, Factory, Pack- 
ing Stock, and Grease Butter. 

DefinUiom, 

2. Creamert. — Butter offered under this classification shall have 
been made in a creamery from cream separated at the creamery or 
gathered from farmers. 

3. Process. — Butter offered under this classification shall be such 
as is made by melting butter, clarifying the fat therefrom, and rechum- 
ing the same with fresh milk, cream, or skim milk, or other similar 
process. 

4. Factory. — Butter offered under this classification shall be such 
as IB collected in rolls, lumps, or in whole packages and reworked by 
the dealer or shipper. 

5. Packing Stock. — Butter offered under this classification shall 
be original farm-made butter in rolls, lumps, or otherwise, without 
additional moisture or salt. 

6. Grease Butter shall comprise all classes of butter grading below 
thirds, or of packing stock grading below No. 3 as hereinafter specified, 
free from adulteration. 

Grades, 

7. Creamery, Process, and Factory shall be graded as Specials, 
Extras, Firsts, Seconds, and Thirds ; and Packing Stock shall be 
graded as No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3. 

8. Grades of butter must conform to the following requirements : 

STpecials, 

9. Shall comprise the highest grades of butter obtainable in the 
season when offered, under the various classifications. Ninety per 

2h 



466 MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS; DAIRY FARMS 

cent shall conform to the following standard ; the balance shall not 
grade below Extras. 

Flavor. — Must be fine, sweet, clean, and fresh, if of current make, 
and fine, sweet, and clean, if held. 

Body. — Must be firm and uniform. 

Color. — ^A light straw shade, even and uniform. 

Salt. — Medium salted. 

Packaqb. — Sound, good, uniform, and dean. 

Extras. 

10. Shall be a grade just below Specials, and must be fine butter 
for the season when made and ofifered, under the various classifications. 
Ninety per cent shall conform to the following standard ; the balance 
shall not grade below Firsts. 

Flavor. — Must be sweet, clean, and fresh if of current make, and 
sweet and clean if held. 
Body. — Must be good and uniform. 
Color. — A light straw shade, even and uniform. 
Salt. — Medium salted. 
Package. — Sound, good, uniform, and dean. 

FirstB. 

11. Shall be a grade just below Extras, and must be good butter 
for the season when made and offered, under the various classifica- 
tions. Ninety per cent shall conform to the following standard; 
the balance shall not grade below Seconds. 

Flavor. — Must be good, sweet and fresh if of current make, and 
good and sweet if held. 
Body. — Must be firm and fairly uniform. 
Color. — Reasonably uniform, neither very high nor very light. 
Salt. — May be reasonably high, light, or medium. 
Package. — Sound, good, uniform, and clean. 

Seconds, 

12. Shall be a grade just below Firsts. 
Flavor. — Must be reasonably good. 

Body. — If creamery, must be solid boring. K factory or process, 
must be 90 per cent solid boring. 
Color. — Fairly uniform, but may be mottled. 



BUTTER GRADES 467 

Salt. — May be high, medium, or light. 
Package. — Good and uniform. 

Thirds. 

13. Shall be a grade below Seconds, and may consist of promis- 
cuous lots. 

Flavor. — May be off-flavored and strong on top and sides. 

Body. — Not required to draw a full trier. 

Color. — May be irregular or mottled. 

Salt. — High, light or irregular. 

Package. — Any kind of package mentioned at time of sale. 

No, 1 'packing stock, 

14. Shall be sweet and sound, packed in large, new, or good uniform 
second-hand barrels, having a wooden head in each end, or in new 
tubs, either to be parchment paper lined. Barrels and tubs to be 
packed full. 

No, 2 packing stock. 

15. Shall be reasonably sweet and sound, and may be packed in 
promiscuous or different kinds of barrels, tubs, or tierces, without being 
parchment-paper lined, and may be packed in either two-headed or 
cloth-covered barrels. 

No, 3 packing stock. 

16. Shall be a grade below No. 2, and may be off-flavored, or strong ; 
may be packed in any kind or kinds of packages. 

17. Charges for inspection of packing stock shall be the same as the 
rules call for on other grades. 

18. Mold. — There shall be no grade for butter that shows mold. 

Dairy Establishment Scores and Rules 

Score^ard for production of sanitary milk (Pearson) 

Pbrfbot 
( Health and comfort of the cows and their isola- 
I. Health of the herd tion when sick or at calving time .... 45 

and its protection. Location, lighting, and ventilation of the stable 35 

I Food and water 20 

Total , , 100 



468 



MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS; DAIRY FARMS 



II. Cleanlineas of the 
cows and their 
wirroundingB. 



m. 



IV. 



y. Handling the milk. 



Confltnietion and 
care of the uten- 



Health of em- 
ployees and^ man- 
ner of miiicing. 



Cows 30 

SUble 20 

Barnyard and pasture 20 

Stable air (frecMiom from dust and odors) . . 30 

Total 100 

' Construction of utensils and their cleaning and 

sterilising 40 

Water supply for cleaning and location and pro- 
tection of its source 25 

Care of utensils after cleaning 20 

Use of small-top mil Icing pail 15 

Total 100 

' Health of emplosrees 45 

Clean over-all milking suits and milking with 

clean, dr^ hands . ^ 30 

Quiet milking, attention to cleanliness of the 

udder and discarding fore milk 25 

Total 100 

' Prompt and efficient cooling 35 

Handling milk in a sanitary room and holding it 

at a low temperature 35 

Protection during transportation to market . 30 

Total 100 

Total of all scobbs 500 



II. 



A brief deBcripUon of what coruHtulet perfect under each heading 

Health. — No evidence of chronic or infectious disease or of acute disease in 
any member of the herd on the dairy premises. Freedom from tuber- 
ouTosis proven by the tuberculin test made within one year. 

Comfort. — Protection from weather extremes. Stall comfortable, — at 
least 3 feet wide for a small cow. or 3 ^ feet for a large cow ; length of stall 
sufficient for cow to rest easily. Sufficient bedding. Frequent outdoor 
exercise. 

leolation. — Removal of cows to comfortable quarters outside of the dairy 
stable, when sick or at calving time. 

Location of stable. — Elevated, with healthful surrounding. 

Lighting. — As light as a well-lighted living room, and with not less than 
four square feet for light from the east, south, or west, for each cow. 

Ventilation. — An adequate ventilating sjrstem of the King or other ap- 
proved pattern, and, except when the stable is being cleaned, no marked 
stable odor. 

Food. — Clean, wholesome feeding stu£Fs, fed in proper quantities. 

W<Uer. — Clean, fresh water, free from possibility of contaminatioQ by 
disease germs. 

C0W8. — Cleaned by thorough brushing, and where necessary by washing : 
no dust nor dirt on the hair (stains not considered). The udder thor- 
oughly cleaned by brushing at least thirty minutes before milking, and 
by washing just before milking, leaving the udder damp to cause dust to 
adhere. 

Stable. — Free from accumulation of dust and dirt, except fresh ma- 
nure in the gutter. Apart from horses, pigs, privy, poultry-house, etc. 

Barnyard and pasture. — No injurious plants, no mudhote nor pile of 
manure or any decaying substance where cows have access. 



INSPECTION SCORES 469 

Stable air. — Free from floatins dust and odon. Tight partition or floor 
between the space occupied by cows and that used for storage of feed or 
other purpose. 

III. ConHrueiion oj utentUs. — Non-absorbent material and every part acces- 

sible to the brush, and, except inside of tubes, visible when being cleaned. 
Cleanino. — Thorough cleaning with brush and hot water, and rinsing. 

No laundry soap. Thorough sterilisation. 
Water. — From a source known to be pure ; protected from contamination 

from seepage, or surface drainage. 
Care of uterutUs. — Such as to avoid contamination by dust as well aa 

coarser dirt. 
SmaU-top paiL — With opening not over seven inches in diameter, and at 

least one-third of this opening protected by hood. 

IV. Employeea. — Free from contagious disease and not dwelling in nor fre- 

quenting any place where contagious disease exists. 
Mukinq euiU. — Freshly laundered and clean ; ample to protect from dust 

and dirt from the milker's person or clothing. 
Maker's hands. — Hands and teats dry when milking. Hands thoroughly 

cleaned before milking each cow. 
Milking quietly. — So as to avoid dislodging dirt from cow's hair. At 

least four streams of foremilk from each teat to be discarded into a 

separate vessel. 

y. Coolino. — Cooled vrithin fifteen minutes of milking, to temperature below 
46«F. 

Handling. — In a room used exclusively for handling milk, and free from 
dust, dirt, and odors ; and the milk after being cooled, always at a tem- 
perature below 45®. 

Protectitm during transportation. — Protected from dirt by tightly closed 
receptacles, temperature always below 45® F. ; not delayed in transit, 
reacning market within twenty-six hours after milking. 

MUk inspection of farm dairies (Pearson) 

Dairyman Date 

P. O Location 

No. of Cows milking . . In herd . . ' Qts. Milk . . Cans or Bottles . • 

Milk sold to License No 

Report by At milking time ? . . . . Hour • • • 

I. Health of the herd and its protection. 

Do all cows appear healthy ? 

Are