LIBRARY OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS
RARE BOOK ROOM
PRINTER'S AND PUBLISHER'S DEVICES
IN INCUNABULA IN THE
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS LIBRARY
References p. $-7
Printer's and Publisher's Devices no. 1-116
Printing Centers p. 9-12
Index of Printers, Publishers, and Places p. 15-17
qQ 3 OWL '^Wk ktu,
References p. S>-7
Printing Centers p. 10-12
Printer's and Publisher's Devices no. 1-116
Index of Printers, Publishers, and Places p. 15-17
- . I . . , ,
The University of Illinois collection of incunabula is a miniature ver-
sion of the total book production of the l$th century in Europe. As ap-
parent from the following tables, it has roughly the same temporal, geo-
graphical, and subject distribution. The statistics for the 10 holdings
are shown here in columns parallel with the figures for the total European
production, as projected by Leonardus Qerulaitis^
Rate of Book Production
ll*50-U*80 2ll 25$
ll*8l-li*90 29$ 30$
11*91-1500 50$ 1*5$
Book Production by Country Book Production by Subject
Total 10 Total 10
Italy 1*1.9$ h9.k% Religious 38$ 1*3$
Germany 29.5$ 3l*.5$ Literary 3U$ 33$
France 15.6$ 5.6$ Legal ll*$ .3$
Netherlands 2% 2.1$ Philosophical
Switzerland 2.9$ 7$ & Scientific ll*$ .9$
England 1.2$ 1$
Although somewhat deficient in books printed in France and in the fields
of Law, Philosophy, and Science, the collection is fairly representative.
It has been estimated^ that two-thirds of all incunabula were produced in
12 centers t Germany (5 cities), Italy (1* cities), Basel, Paris, and Lyons.
The present study undertakes to reproduce and comment upon the printer's
devices found in the Oniversity of Illinois Library's incunabula.
A printer's device is a mark, usually a woodcut - occasionally a metal-
cut - placed at the end or on the title page of a book, as a sort of sig-
nature, identifying the person or firm responsible for the production of
the book and from whom it could be bought. Early printers were not quick
to adopt such devices and to display them in their books. It was from 2
to 13 years after the introduction of printing in the principal European
countries before the first device appeared.
Book, at IU
Prater 's Devi.ce
11*57 or 11*62
Switzerland ca. 11(68
Holland ca. ll*7l/3
1. p. 60-61
2. Gerulaitis, p. 67.
Of the 1085 fifteenth-century books in this collection, produced by 3Ui
printers and/or publishers, 188 volumes (about 1Q%) by 93 printers (about
27^) contain devices of printers, or publishers, or both. Examples of 113
of the estimated 660 identified European devices 1 are to be found here.
For specifics, see the tables on p. 9-12.
The development and elaboration of printer's devices in the 15th ceatury
went hand- in hand with the development of woodcutting*, and, while general-
ly not to be compared to the artistic creations of the l6th century, they
are still interesting.
Early in the history of printing it became the style to provide some
books with ornamentation, such as capitals, borders, illustrations, dia-
grams, portraits, and printer's devices. Some Ul5 volumes in the IU col-
lection (about 3Q%) contain such ornamentation; a little less than a quar-
ter of these have printer's devices. In some 85 volumes, the device is
the only cut in the book, while about 100 volumes contain also other dec-
orations, from a single capital (no.l6) to as many as $66 (no. 37) and
from a single small diagram (no. Ill) to 796 illustrations (no. 37).
Most of the 15th-century devices fall into one or the other of two
groups. The first device, that of Fust and Schoffer in the 1U62 Bible -
or, possibly, in the lu57 Psalter3- consists of two shields suspended from
a branch. (See no. 38 for a ll|69 version.) This pattern was followed,
with variations, especially in the Germanic countries. In the IU col-
lection, 9 designs of this basic type are found in German, Swiss, and Bel-
gian books j in Italy it appears only once, in a modified form, in which
the two shields hang separately from two branches of a tree (no.72).
Very soon, a single shield appeared, alone (no. 33) J or with a single
supporter (no. 112) in Germany and Switzerland; or with two supporters,
such as monkeys (no. 15), rams (no. 19), unicorns (no. 21), griffins
(no. 30), in France, where it was especially popular.
The second basic design was the orb and cross, introduced in Venice
in 11*81, by the publishing firm of Johannes de Colonia, Nicolaus Jen-
son et Socii (no. 78). This simple pattern, with variations, became
practically a trademark of Italian printers. There are 32 examples of
it among IU books printed in Italy; France has 7 versions; Germany, two.
Both the double shield and the orb and cross have been identified as
"housemarks.* Originating in the Middle Ages, the housemark was the
stamp which artisans and businessmen put upon their products for pur-
poses of identification. It is not always possible to identify such
marks, but, with variations and ornamental decorations, they appear in
many printer's devices. Frequently embodying the housemark were the shop
signs, those ingenious substitutes for house numbers, which took the form
of various creatures, real or imaginary. These shop signs are often found
in devices (no. 21). In one case (no. 28), it appears that the process was
1. Davies, p. 113.
2. Meiner, p. 11.
3. Meldau, p. 112; Painter, p. 211*; Davies, p.110; Clair, p.lll.
reversed, when Johann Philippi, moving from his original shop, adopted as the
sign for his new shop the design which he had previously used as his device.
Similarly, the name of the street on which a shop was located sometimes
provided the motif for a device (no. 20).
Before long, it was felt that the basic designs needed to be made still
more specific in order to insure accurate identification. In 1U71, Ther
Hoernen, at Cologne, solved the problem by adding his initials to his tiny
shield (no. 33). Other printers followed suitj initials or monograms are
present in U8 of the IU devices. Later, the monogram assumed greater im-
portance, sometimes completely replacing the original shield or orb (no.7).
But even this was not enough for some entrepreneurs, especially in France;
they went so far as to spell out their full names . Of 11 such devices at
IU, 7 are those of French printers, 3 Italian, and one Swiss.
Punning devices were fairly common. In these, the design of "Uie device
contains a play on the name of the printer (no.U) or of his native city
(no. 56). The arms of the printer's family (no. 115) and of his home town
(no. 39) also provided the motif for devices.
French printers were partial to mottoes or quotations, which they cut on
scrolls or borders of their devices (no. 28, 30). In one case (no. .23) the
first few words of a hymn are represented by a rebus.
One unanswered question is why printers, when once they had adopted a de-
vice, did not display it in every book they printed. Some, like Tacuino
and Scoto, at Venice, seldom issued a book without their mark; some used a
device in their earlier books, then suddenly stopped; others used a device in-
termittently, for no apparent reason. It has been suggested^ that devices
are more frequently found in books in the vernacular than in Latin. The IU
collection, with only 59 vernacular texts, cannot offer much evidence on
this point, but it is true that about 25$ of the 59 volumes contain printer's
devices as compared with about 16$ of the Latin titles.
It has also been claimed that "the majority of fifteenth-century printers
who specialize in the classics, in grammar, rhetoric, or Latin poetry, do
not use the printer's mark - elt was _ added as a help for the many illiter-
ate people who had to handle the book: the packers, the carriers, the work-
men at the binders." 2 In the IU collection, about 2$% of the books in clas-
sics, grammar and mediaeval literature have printer's devices, a larger pro-
portion than is found in the fields of theology and religion, where only
about 1$% of the volumes have devices.
Some printers, having adopted a device, used the same design - even the
same block - throughout their period of activity, e.g., Andre Bocard (no.
16), Jakob Thanner (no. 36), Ugo Rugerius (no.U9). Sometimes they retained
the same design, but had it cut in two or more sizes to fit books of various
sizes (Trechsel, no. 11, 12; Johannes de Colonia, no. 78, 79)o Again, an
original design was modified by the addition of decorative details (Scoto,
no. 96, 97). Some printers had two or more very different designs (Bevilaqua,
1. Kristeller, p. XI.
2. Goldschmidt, p. 81.
no. 72-71*, Sessa, no. 98, 99). Occasionally, a device is known to have passed
from one printer to another, unchanged (Caxton-Worde, no., 6), or with the
substitution of one set of initials for another (Anima Mia-Tacuino,
Since the device served as the signature of the person or firm claiming
responsibility for a book, it was naturally placed at the end of the volume.
But toward the beginning of the last decade of the century, some printers
developed elaborate devices, too large to fit readily after the colophon.
The alternative was to move them to the title page. Then came the pub-
lisher. As the cost of producing books rose, printers found it necessary
to seek relief from their financial and managerial burdens. The answer was
the publisher, whose contribution to the process of publication was deemed
important enough to be recognized by a device in a prominent place - the
title page. In turn, the printer became little more than a technician,
deserving notice, if at all, only at the end of the volume. In the IU
collection, the devices of lU printers and 9 publishers appear on title
pages. Ten of these printers and U publishers were French; in Italy, de-
vices of 5 publishers appear on title pages, while only one printer attain-
ed that position. A few publishers, for reasons unknown, were content with
the end position for their devices; at IU two of these are French and seven
Italian. In Germany, publishers did not gain anything like the importance
that they did in France and Italy. In the IU collection, German publishers
are named in only three books, and none of them had a device.
Most devices, as noted above (p.l) were printed from woodblocks. How-
ever, the earliest examples of the two basic designs, the double shield of
Fust and Schb*ffer and the orb and cross of Johannes de Colonia, Nicolaus
Jenson et Socii, were metalcuts, rather than woodcuts, and they were print-
ed in red instead of black. The use of red ink continued sporadically
throughout the century, especially in legal and liturgical books. In the
IU collection, 16 volumes contain devices in red, ten of them being print-
er's and six being publisher's devices. Metal- instead of woodcut devices
appear occasionally. It is sometimes difficult to distinguish a fine
woodcut from a metalcut.
Little is known of the designers and cutters of devices. There seems to
be no connection between those responsible for the devices and for illus-
trations and other cuts in books. The devices had a personal connection
with the printer; they had no relation to the text of the books in which
Urbana, Illinois Marian Harman
2$ January 1983
Avis, Frederick C. English printers' marks of the incuna-
bula period. (In Gutenberg Jahrbuch (1956), p. 111-11$)
English printers' marks of the fifteenth century.
British Museum. Dept. of Printed Books. Catalogue of books
printed in the XVth century now in the British Museum.
Baer, Leo. Die illustrierten Historienbucher des 15 .
Jahrhunderts. Strassburg, 1903.
Baring-Gould, Sabine. The lives of the saints. Edinburgh,
Blades, William. The biography and typography of William
Caxton. London, 1877.
Clair, Colin. A history of European printing. London,
Claudin, Anatole. Histoire de l'imprimerie en France
au XV siecle. Paris, 1900-lU. l*v.
Conway, William M. The woodcutters of the Netherlands
in the fifteenth century. Cambridge, 188U.
Davies, Hugh W. Devices of the early printers. London,
Donati, Lamberto. Reflessioni sulle marche tipograf iche .
Duff, E. Gordon. The printers and booksellers of West-
minster and London from ll;70 to 1535- Cambridge, 1906.
Fumagalli, Giuseppe. Lexicon typographicum Italiae.
Geldner, Ferdinand. Die deutschen Inkunabeldrucker . 2v.
- Eingemalte und eingepresste Wappen ex libris,
XIV: Erhard Ratdolt. (In Archiv fur Geschichte des
Buchwesens, 8(1966), col. 5-7)
Gerulaitis, Leonardus V. Printing in fifteenth-century
Venice. Chicago, 1976.
Goldschmidt, Ernst P. The printed book of the Renaissance.
Grimm, Heinrich. Das vermeintliche Allianzsignet des
Fust-Schb'ffer und seine Schildlnhalte . (In Gutenberg
Jahrbuch (1962), p.Wi6-U55)
HSCbler, Konrad. Die deutschen Buchdrucker des XV.
Jahrhunderts im Ausland. Mu'nchen, 1921;.
Heitz, Paul. Elsa'ssische Bu'chermarken bis Anfang des 18.
Jahrhunderts. Strassburg, 1892.
Heitz, Paul. Die Kb'lner Bu'chermarken bis Anfang des XVII,
Jahrhunderts. Strassburg, 1898.
Hind, Arthur K. An introduction to a history of woodcut
2v. London, 1935.
Holtrop, Jan W. Monuments typographiques des Pays Bas au
15* siecle. La Haye, 1868.
Husung, Max J. Die Drucker- und Verlegerzeichen Italiens
im XV. Jahrhundert. Mu'nchen, 1929.
Juchhoff, Rudolf. Drucker- und Verlegerzeichen des XV.
Jahrhunderts in den Niederlanden, England, Spanien,
Bbhmen, Miihren, und Polen. Mttnchen, 1926.
Kristeller, Paul. Die italienischen Buchdrucker- und
Verlegerzeichen bis 1525. Strassburg, 1893.
Langer, Gottfried. Von vier sich Shnlichen Titelholz-
schnitten und deren Verwendung als Druckermarken.
(In Gutenberg Jahrbuch (1977), p. 91-5)
McKerrow, Ronald B. Printers ' and publishers ' devices
in England and Scotland, li*85-l6UO. London, 1913.
McMurtrie, Douglas C. Printers' marks and their signif-
icance. Chicago, 1930.
Meiner, Annemarie. Das deutsche Signet. Leipzig, 1922.
Meldau, Robert. Bildungsgesetze von Drucker- und Ver-
legerzeichen des 15. Jahrhunderts. (In Gutenberg
Jahrbuch (19kk-k9), p. 112-17)
Meyer, Wilhelm J. Die franzosischen Drucker- und Ver-
legerzeichen des XV. Jahrhunderts. Mu'nchen, 1926.
Moran, James. Heraldic influences on early printers'
devices. Leeds, 1978.
Painter, George D. Michael Wenssler's devices and
their ancestors. (In Gutenberg Jahrbuch (1959),
Plomer, Henry R. Wynkyn de Worde and hia contemporar-
ies from the death of Caxton to 1$35. London, 1925.
Polain, Louis. Marques des imprimeurs et libra ires en
France au XV* siecle. Paris, 1926.
Pollard, Alfred W. Early illustrated books. 2d ed.
New York, 1968.
Renouard, Philippe. Les marques typographiques parisi-
ennes des XV* 5 et XVI e siecle. Paris, 1926.
Repertoire des imprimeurs parisiens. Paris, 196$.
Schmidt, Charles. Repertoire bibliographique strasbour-
geois jusque vers 1$30. Strasbourg, 1893-6.
Scholderer, Victor. Fifty essays in fifteenth- and six-
teenth-century bibliography. Amsterdam, 1966.
Schretlen, Martinus J. A. M. Printers' devices in Dutch
incunabula. New York, 1927.
Silvestre, Louis C. Marques typographiques. 2v, Paris,
Sorbelli, Albano. Le marche tipografiche bolognesi nel
secolo XVI. Milano, 1923.
Veyrin-Torres, Jeanne. La seconde marque de Durand Qer-
lier. (In Gutenberg Jahrbuch (i960), p.UlO-13)
Weil, Ernst. Die deutschen Druckerzeichen des XV. Jahr-
hunderts. Munchen, 192ii.
Willoughby, Edwin E. Fifty printers' marks. Berkeley,
Winger, Howard W. Printers' marks and devices. Chicago,
The figure in parentheses at the end of each citation is
the number of that item in the book, Incunabula in the
University of Illinois Library at Urbana - Champaign . (Ur-
An asterisk () preceding certain entries indicates that
the device is on the title page.
A red line (A) below the first letter of an entry indicat-
es that the device is printed in red.
IU has 10 books printed in Belgium, by $ printers, in two cities. From Ant-
werp there are 5 volumes, by 3 printers (lU86-ca.l02) an d from Louvain, 5
volumes by two printers (lli7l*-lU87). Only three volumes, by two Antwerp
printers contain printer's devices. They also contain woodcut capitals and
ANTWERP . GOVAERT BAC
IU has two books printed by Bac, both of which have his two devices.
Holt. Lac puerorum. eafter 1500 3 (1*89)
(Has woodcut illustrations, capitals)
*Casus papales. eca.l502 (2l)
(Has woodcut capitals)
Both devices appear in both books, the bird-cage at the end and the
Evangelists on the title page.
1. The "bird cage" in this device is Bac's housemark, his address being
"int vogelhuys." It is the device of his predecessor at this shop,
Matthias van der Goes. Bac changed the initial, M, of van der Goes, to
his own initials, g b, and added his own mark, the good*luck symbol, U,
double-crossed and surmounted by a swastika. The shield bears the arms
of the city of Antwerp, the two severed hands issuing from the central
tower alledgedly being derived from the practice of punishing pirates
by cutting off their hands and throwing them into the Schelle. This
is the third of several versions of this device, which wa3 first used
in lii6. Books containing this device have also that of the "Evangelists."
(Juchhoff 8; BMC IX, p. 199, Device Cj Willoughby, in Lib . Quart .
18(19U8)282j Conway, p. 180, 312; Moran, p. 15)
2. This device is a reverse copy of that of Jacobus de Breda, at Deventer.
(See no.Ui) It contains the sacred monogram, ihs, surrounded by the
symbols of the four Evangelists: the eagle, for John, the ox, for Luke,
the lion, for Mark, and the angel, for Matthew. It was originally used
as a title-page woodcut, with no implications of a printer's device,
but it did serve to identify Breda's books, and Bac used it only on
title-pages of books in which his "bird-cage" device appears at the end.
(Juchhoff 10; BMC IX, p. 199, Device E; Conway, p.l60j Hind II, p.58U;
Cronike Tan Brabant. 28 Feb.ll*97. (306)
(Has woodcut illustrations, coats of arms)
3. For his device Roland van den Dorp chose the figure of his
namesake, Roland, the French epic hero. He stands here
blowing his horn, under an archway from which hang two
shields, the left one bearing the arms of Antwerp and the
right one displaying what are probably the arms of the
printer's family. The cut is a free copy of woodcut illus-
trations in earlier Dutch books of about 1U85 and 1U86.
(Juchhoff 13 & p.lU, 123; Conway, p. 186; Baer LXXIV)
IU has 11 books printed in England; k by two printers at London (II486-
15 May 11*99) and 7 by two printers at Westminster (12 Aug.ll*8l-ll*98).
Two of those printed at London and five at Westminster contain printer's
devices. They also contain woodcut capitals and some illustrations.
LONDON. RICHARD PYNSON
IU has 2 books printed by Pynson (5 July 11*93 & 15 May 11*99)
contain his device.
Parker. Dives and Pauper. 5 July ll*93. (721)
(Device is wanting in IU copy;
Galfridus Anglicus. Promptorium parvulorum. 15 May lit 99. (1*09 )
(Both books contain woodcut capitals)
U. Richard Pynson was the first printer at London to use a device, and
he used it in the very first book he printed (Chaucer's Canterbury
tales . ll*90). In some 80 books produced before 1$01 he used eight
different devices, all of them containing his monogram and/or his
full name, as here. The monogram is on a shield, surmounted by a
crest and supported by two figures, identified as a boy and a girl,
or as Adam and Eve. The latter interpretation is supported by the
belief that Pynson had an earlier career as a glover, and the Glover's
Guild customarily furnished the actors to play Adam and Eve at the
Festival of Corpus Christi. In the border, which is a separate block
but is seldom lacking, the Madonna and Child are in the lower left
corner and St. Catherine of Alexandria, with her sword, and the Emp-
eror Maximin at her feet, in the lower right corner.
There is a play on the printer's name implied in the birds, the so-
called *gay pinsons" (Norman finches) atop the helmet and in the up-
(McKerrow 9a; Juchhoff 66; Davies 19,70; Avis (196U), p. 17;
Winger, in Lib . Quart . 28(1958)3^6; Moran, p.US)
WESTMINST ER. WILLIAM CAXTON
IU has three books printed by Caxton (12 Aug.U;8l-lU q 0). Two of them con-
tain his device.
Roye. Le doctrinal de sapience, cafter 7 May lhQ9= (830)
(Device is in facsimile in IU copy)
Image du monde. English. di^Oa (3>0li)
(Both books contain woodcut illustrations and capitals)
$. Of the approximately 100 books printed by or for Caxton, only about a
dozen contain his device, consisting of his initials, W C, separated by
a design which has been variously interpreted. It seems most likely to
be a mercer's trademark, which Caxton is known to have used as an official
stamp before he became a printer. It has also been suggested that it is
Caxton's housemark; or a date, elliaTU or hi, referring to some unknown e-
vent in his career; or a mark of a society or guild. The significance of
the letters, S and C, to the left and right, is also in doubt. Do they
stand for Sigillum Caxtoni, Santa Colonia, or nothing at all? The device
was probably cut in England, although its first appearance was in a Sarum
Missal, printed for Caxton at Paris, by Maynal, k Dec.ll4.87.
(McKerrow lbj Juchhoff 69; Davies 197; Avis (l96U),p.9-10; Duff, p. 22;
Blake, p. 121)
WESTMINSTER . WYNKYN DE WORDE
IU has four books by this printer (13 Apr. 1495 -lU8). Three have devices,
If ygy _>^* ^y* ,^S-*^V*^V. *^V "^X, *>^< *
Higden. Polycronicon. 13 Apr.lU95. (U86)
(Device is wanting in IU copy)
Vitae Patrum. cbefore 21 Aug.lli95:> (1070)
(Device is wanting in IU copy)
Chaucer. The Canterbury tales. li*98. (#-2$2)
(Device is in facsimile in IU copy)
(All volumes contain woodcut capitals; the last two have each a single
6. When Wynkyn de Worde succeeded Caxton, on the death of the latter in
1U91, he continued to use Caxton* s device. At first, he apparently
employed the same woodblock. Throughout his career, he used over 1$
devices, all variations of the original design, and always retaining
Caxton' s initials - unless the W is to be taken as the initial for
Worde and the C for Caxton?
(McKerrow lb; Juchhoff, p.68j Davies 197; Plomer, p. 102; Avis (I96U)
p. 10, 15; Winger (1976), p.9U-95)
IU has 58 books printed in France by 35 printers (11*79-1510). Of these,
32 volumes (16 Sept.lU88-ca.l500) have devices of 16 printers (in 20 vol-
umes) and 6 publishers (in 12 volumes); in k volumes, devices of both
printer and publisher appear. In 22 volumes, the device is on the title
page (11 printer's and 11 publisher's). Eleven devices are metalcuts.
Eleven volumes have other woodcut or metalcut capitals or illustrations.
IU has 16 books printed at Lyons by 12 printers (ca. 11*85-10 Dec.l500).
Nine of these contain devices of 6 printers (6 Sept. 11*88-10 Dec.l500).
In 6 volumes the device is on the title page. Seven devices are metal-
cuts. Five volumes contain also woodcut or metalcut capitals and/or
LYONS . JEAN EU PR
IU has one book printed by Du Pre. It contains his device.
Rudimentum novitiorum. French. La mer des histoires. 20-23 Aug. 11*91. (83I4)
(Has large woodcut capitals, illustrations (part metalcut), maps, and
7. Du Pre has chosen to use as his device his own initials, surmounted by
a cross, a variation of the Italian orb and cross design. This par-
ticular form is unusual in having the two initials connected by an
oblique line and in using a slanting crosspiece on the cross. This is
the only book in which Du Pre surrounded his basic design with a deli-
(Meyer 31 J Polain 38; Silvestre 263; BMC VIII, p. 282, Device B)
LYONS . PERRINUS LATHOMI , BONIFACIUS JOHANNIS, & JOHANNES DE VILLA 7ETERI
IU has one book by these printers; it contains their device.
Auctores octo. 16 Feb.lU9U/5. (58)
(Has h woodcut capitals)
LYONS . PIERRE MARECHAL & BARNABE CHAUSSARD
IU has only one book by these printers; it contains their device.
Auctoritates Aristotelis. cca.Ui96-9> (59)
(Has 2 woodcut capitals)
8. These printers adopted a version of the orb and cross design in which
the orb became egg-shaped and the cross had a single crossbar. This
is the second version of the device of these printers. Originally,
there was another partner in the fflLrm, represented by an initial, I,
in the device. After 1U9U, this partner dropped out and the I was
changed to an L. The initials now stand for the printers' names, P L
for Perrinus Lathomi, I for Johannes de Villa Veteri, and B for Boni-
facius Johannis. The shield in the lower border is provided for the
purchaser of the book to have his arms drawn in.
(Meyer U6; Polain 53; Silvestre 589; HSbler II, Kristeller 2U0)
9, This is the last of four variations of this device. The initials,
standing for the forenames of the printers, Pierre Marechal and Barna-
be Chaussard, are joined by a looped cord, symbol of the Trinity and
of eternity. The rosary surrounding the initials may refer to the ad-
dress of the firm: prope Nostre Dame de Confort . On the scroll above
the circle are the full names of the printers, Chaussard 's name being
spelled, Chaussart. The significance of the crown above the top of the
rosary is not clear.
(Meyer 5lj Polain $8; BMC VIII, p.3l6, Device B 2 j Silvestre 116;
Willoughby, in Lib . Quart . l5(l9U5)Hi9; Davies 25)
LYONS . NICOLAUS PHILIPPI
Philippi's device appears in the only IU book printed by him.
France. Laws, statutes, etc., lli22-lU6l (Charles VII). Pragmatica
sanctio. 6 Sept.lU88. (UOUa)
LYONS. JO HANNES TRECHSEL
III has 3 books printed by Trechsel, each of which has his device.
Reginaldetus. Speculum finalis retri-
butionis. 3 Aug. 1^92. (817)
Augustinus, Saint. Opus quaesti-
onum. 25 Apr.lli97. (71)
Torquemada. Summa de ecclesia.
20 Sept.lU96. (1017)
(Device wanting in IU copy)
10. Philippi's device is the typical orb and cross design, with the orb
bisected horizontally and a monogram in the lower half. The letters
are probably N M, the initials of the printer, whose real name was
Nicolas MuLler. Or, since most of his work was done in partner-
ship with Marcus Reinhart, possibly the monogram is to be read,
M N, for Marcus and Nicolas.
(Meyer 55; Polain 60; BMC VIII, p.2U2, 316, Device B)
11, 12. Johann Trechsel used the same device throughout his career,
varying it only in size. It is the orb and double cross
design, with a vertical instead of the usual horizontal line
bisecting the orb. Within the orb are the printer's ini-
tials, I T, and above them are two dots. No. 11 is the
original block, used 1U86-1U9U, and no. 12 is a larger ver-
sion, in use 1U93-1U97. In 1U98 he produced a still larger
form, but used it only once.
(Meyer 7U & 75; BMC VIII, p. 291, Devices a & j9 j
LIONS. NICOLAUS WOLF
HJ has 2 books printed by N. Wolf (18 Nov. 11*98 & 10 Dec.l500).
Juvenalis. Satyrae. 18 Nov. 11*98. (569) (Device is on leaf c6 T a )
" (Printed for ttienne Oueynard)
(Has woodcut title page illustration and capitals)
Tartaretus. Expositio super textu Logices. 10 Dec. l00. (917)
(Device is at end of v.2j wanting in IU copy)
(Has 3 woodcut diagrams)
13. The Juvenal is the first of Nicolaus Wolf's books to contain a device,
It takes the form of a monogram: two overlapping Vs to form a W, sur-
mounted by the initial of the printer's forename, N, and the "four"
sign, which BMC identifies as a housemark.
(Meyer 71; Polain 78 j Silvestre ll5Uj BMC VIII, p. 329, Device A)
IU has U2 books printed at Paris by 23 printers (Ui7-ca.l500). Of
these, 23 volumes (ca.lli90-ca.l$00) have devices of 10 printers (in
11 volumes) and 6 publishers (in 12 volumes); in U volumes, devices
of both printer and publisher appear. In 17 volumes, the device is
on the title page (5 printer's and 11 publisher's). Four devices
are printed from metal blocks. Six volumes have other woodcut or
metalcut capitals and illustrations.
PARIS . ALEXANDRE ALIATB , Publisher
This is the only IU book by this publisher.
#Aristoteles. Spurious works. Problemata. U Apr.lSOO. (U7)
(Printer: Quy Marchant)
U*. This device of the publisher, Alexandre Aliate, is another variation
of the orb and cross design, in which the cross is replaced by a
leafless tree, intended to illustrate the quotation on the border:
A fructibus eorum cognoscetis eos, "By their fruits ye shall know
them." (Matt. VII: 20) On the scroll around the tree is the publisher's
name, Alexandre de McialcanaO, and within the orb is his monogram,
AA. Some copies of this book were sold directly by the printer, Guy
Marchant; in these he placed his own device on the title page instead
of that of Aliate.
(Meyer 8lj Renouard Uj Polain 87} BMC VIII, p. 222)
PARIS . An BALIQAULT
IU has one book by this printer; it contains his device. Another book,
doubtfully ascribed to him (ca. 11*98-1500) has the device of the publisher,
Enguilbert de Marnef (no. 2$).
Andrelinus. ELegiae. eafter 9 Sept.lU96? 3 (28)
15. This is the earliest example at IU of a common French device, a tree
(the Tree of Knowledge ?) with a shield hung on the trunk and support-
ers on either side. The French word for the tree, baliveau , may be a
play on the name of the printer, Baligault. The supporters are monkeys,
possibly denoting happiness, in reference to the printer's forename,
Felix, which is also inscribed on the shield. Baligault used this de-
vice frequently, with two- or three-line verses, playing on the name,
Felix. The source of the first line in the version shown here, "Fortunate
is one who learns caution from the perils of others, is apparently the
Speculum stultonm of Nigellus Wireker (1130-lUOO? ) , lines 3893-U. The
source of the other lines is unknown. Surrounding the device is a border
of pieces, presumably derived from a Book of Hours.
(Meyer 82 (var.)j Polain 90 (without border or verses); Davies 125;
Renouard 29; Renouard (1965), p. 16; BMC VIII, p. 170, Device B)
PARIS . AHDRE BOCARD
IU has 2 books by this printer (13 Nov.lU8 & after 12 Oct.lU99). The
first has his device. Another book, doubtfully ascribed to him (ca.lii98-
1$00) has the device of the publisher, Enguilbert de Jiarnef. (no. 2$)
Nicolaus de Byard. Dictionarius pauperum. 13 Nov.lU98. (681)
(Printed for Durand Qerlier, whose device is on the title
page. (no. 19)
(Has one woodcut capital)
16. Instead of a single tree with a single shield, Bocard's device has two
stumps, each bearing a shield, and above them, a third shield, crowned
and supported by two angels. The left shield is adorned with the arms
of the city of Paris j the right one with the arms of the University of
Paris, and the one above, with the arms of France. From one of the
stumps grows a rose, probably the Rosa Qallica , the badge of the French
kings. The meaning of the shields is clarified by the quatrain around
the border: Honneur au Roy et a la Court/ Salut a l'Universite/ Dont
notre bien procede et sourt/ Dieu gart de Paris la Cyte.
(Meyer 8$; Renouard $6; Polain 92; Silvestre 5; Davies U3; BMC VIII,
p.lSU; Willoughby, in Lib . Quart . 21* (195U )1*01 )
PARIS , ANTOINE CAILLAUT
IU has only one book by this printer; it contains his device,
Augustinus, Saint. Spurious works. Meditationes . eca.lUl/2 s (80)
17. The figure here is that of St. Anthony, the patron saint of the printer.
This woodcut has been judged one of the finest of lth-century French
devices. The saint stands in front of his desert cell, holding a book
and a rosary in one hand and his staff in the other. Behind him is a
pig wearing a bell, a symbol of St. Anthony. The border contains the
name of St. Anthony at the top and that of the printer on either side,
his forename, Antoine, being part of the woodblock and his last name,
Caillaut, being set in type. The two initial Cs are of different fonts.
(Meyer 87 j Polain 93 i Renouard 117 j Silvestre U6; BMC VIII, p.U2, De-
vice A; Pollard (1968), p. 161*; Willoughby, in Lib. Quart. U(193U)6$7)
PARIS . ANTOINE DETIDEL
IU has two books by this printer; both hare his device.
Horatius Flaccns. Odae. 1 Dec.lU9C (*i91 ) (Device wanting)
(Printer! Durand Oerlier)
Beroaldo, Carmen de die Dcminicae passionis. e ca.lU98a (121a)
18. In Denidel's derice, Saints Nicholas and Catherine support a shield
bearing the printer's initials, A D, joined by a knotted cord. Above,
and supported by two angels, is another shield bearing the Bourbon
arms and encircled by the collar of the Order of St. Michael. At the
feet of St. Nicholas are two children in a tub, a reference to the
saint's miraculous restoration of slaughtered children in a pickling
tub. The whole design is surrounded by a border of flowers, leaves,
and grotesques, with the printer's name on the bottom strip.
(Meyer 91} Renouard 229j Polain 100; Davies U5j Silvestre 316}
BMC VIII, p.202)
PARIS . DURAND GERLIER , Publisher
IU has one book by this publisher; it contains his device.
*Nicolaus de Byard. Dictionarius pauperum. 13 Nov. Hi 98. (681 )
(Printer: Andre Bocard, with his device at the end. (no. 16)
(Has one woodcut capital)
PARIS . ETIENNE JEHANOT
IU has one book printed by Jehanotj it contains his device.
*Nanni. De futuris Christianorum triuraphis. eca.lU95a (67U)
19. This is the first appearance of Gerlier's device. It is ano-
ther variation of the tree with shield design, and is among the
earliest of French sign-devices. It is a rebus composed of a curry-
comb (trille), a scythe (faux), and a calf (veau), for the address
of Gerlier's shop, "a l'&trille-Fauveau." The shield, which also
contains the publisher's monogram, g g, is suspended from an oak
tree and is supported on either side by a ram. Gerlier's full name
is added at the foot of the device.
(Meyer 96; Renouard 36I; Polain 106; Silvestre l8j Veyrin-Torres,
20. This device is something of a mystery. It may have been inspired by
Jehanot's street address: St. Jacques; or, the blazing sun at the
top may have been his shop sign. The cockle shells on the shield
are an emblem of Saint James, the Greater, of Campostella, who ap-
pears as the supporter on the right. Cockle shells also form the
Collar of the Order of St. Michael, the tutelary angel of France,
the left supporter in this device. The meaning of the sun, moon,
two stars, and the flowering bush is not clear. The device is a
metal- rather than a wood-cut.
(Meyer 101; Renouard U88; Polain 110: Davies 71; BMC VIII, p. 195;
Willoughby, in Lib . Quart , U(193U)U97)
PARIS . THIELMAN KERVER
ID has 3 books printed by the firm, Georg Wolf & Thielman Kerver, for
Jean Petit & Johann von Koblenz. All three have Kerver 's device at the
end and Petit 's on the title page. (See no. 27)
Baptista Mantuanus. Parthenica secunda. e after 5 Aug.lU9a (103)
De suorum temporum calami tatibus. h Sept. &
Contra poetas. 1$ Oct.Ui99. (98)
21. This is another device inspired by the printer's shop sign.
Thielman Kerver, who lived "At the Sign of the Unicorn, w dis-
played two unicorns as supporters for a shield hanging from
an oak tree. The shield bears his initials, T K, and his house-
mark, described by Avis as a "strongly stylized version of the
same motif used by Caxton" (a mercer's trade-mark).
(Meyer 102; Renouard k99; Polain 111; Silvestre $0; BMC VIII,
p.211i; Davies 36; Avis, p. 112)
PARIS . PIERRE LEVET
IU has 2 books printed by Levet (ca. 11*90 & 2 Mar.lli95). The earlier one
has his device.
Petrus de Osma. Commentaria. cca.lU0 3 (7i>2)
22. This is an early example of the variation of the orb and cross design
in which the orb takes on a heart shape. In this case, the usual dou-
ble cross has lost one of its crosspieces. Within the heart is a mon-
ogram in which can be distinguished the letters P L E T, standing for
the printer's name, Pierre Levet. This device, first used in 11*86, is
one of the very earliest to appear in France.
(Meyer 117 J Polain 126; Renouard 662} Silvestre 6; BMC VIII, p. 87;
PARIS. GUY MARCHANT
IU has 8 books by this printer (16 May lU9U-not before Dec. 1^07 ). Three
of these have his device; three others have the devices of the publishers
for whom he printed: Petit (no. 26), Roce (no. 30), and Aliate (no.ll;).
*Le Fevre. Introductiones in libros Aristotelis. 12 Oct.lU97. ($83)
(Has woodcut diagrams)
Niavis. Latinum idioma. 2k Dec.ll*99. (679)
(Has two full-page woodcut illustrations)
Isidorus, Saint. Synonima. 16 May li^9U. (519)
23. This is the third of Guy Marchant's six devices, all of which are char-
acterized by a rebus, a pun, and recondite allusions to such an extent
that they defy complete interpretation. At the top is a rebus consist-
ing of musical notes, sol and la and the words, Fides ficit , to repre-
sent the motto, "Sola fides sufflcit" (from the hymn, Pange lingua glo-
riosi ," of St. Thomas Aquinas). Below the motto are the initials, G
and M, the G being set in type and the K cut in the block. Below these
are two clasped hands issuing from clouds and flanked by angels. The
device depicts the workshop of Saints Crispin and Crispinian, patron
saints of shoemakers. It has been suggested that the presence of these
saints might be explained if Harchant were a native of So is sens, where
they were especially honored. Between the saints is a shield, with a
book, possibly a Bible, held open by two hands. The word, sola (sole
of the foot) and the boots in the shoeshop suggest the word marchant , a
play on the printer's name. The device was printed from a metal block.
(Meyer 122; Renouard 703? Polain 129} Silvestre 39} BMC VIII, p. 56,
Device III} Willoughby in Lib. Quart. 5(1935)350)
2lu This fifth device of Marchant is a simplified and reduced version and
the last stage in the development of this design. The original book on
the shield, has been replaced by a rod, from which it is obvious that a
pair of shoes should hang. Both the shoes and part of the outline of
the shield have disappeared, and the words, Fides ficit have been set in
type instead of being cut in the block.
(Meyer 120} Polain 131 a } Renouard 706} Silvestre 368} BMC VIII, p. 56,
PARIS . ENGUILBERT DE MARNBF , Publisher
IU has one book published by Marnef j it has his device.
*Flores legum. cca. 11*98-1500:. (398)
(Printer: Andre Bocard or Felix Baligault)
2$. This tiny device is that of the publishing firm of the de Marnefs, the
initials, E I Q, standing for the forenames of the three brothers, En-
guilbert, Jean, and Geoffroy. The pelican feeding her young is a repre-
sentation of the firm's shop sign. The other bird in the device is iden-
tified as a hawk, symbolizing watchfulness.
(Meyer 125; Renouard 713; Silvestre 97U; Davies 209; Tibbetts in Lib .
PARIS. JEAN PETIT, Publisher
IU ha* U book* published bfr Petit (after 5 Aug.lU97-30 Not.1U99); all of
them contain his device.
*Sacr Bosco. Sphaera mundi. Feb.lU98. (5U6) (Printer: Guy warchant)
(Has woodcut illustrations, diagrams, border)
*Baptista Mantuanas. Parthenica secunda. B after 5 AuglU99 a (103)
*- ~ De suorum temporua calamitatibas. h Sept. &
30 Nov.1l499. (101)
* Contra poetas. 15 Oct. 11*99. (98)
(These books also contain the device of the printer, T. Kerver (no,21)
26. Jean Petit is not known to have printed any books but he was an extra-
ordinarily active publisher, employing most of the important Parisian
printers from about 11*95 till well into the l6th century. During this
time he used some 2u devices. The lion in the devices shown here was
suggested by Petit' a address, "At the sign of the Silver Lion." Join-
ing the lion as supporter of the shield is a leopard. The printer's ini-
tials, I P, on the shield are joined by a knotted cord, symbolizing the
Trinity or eternity. This is the first state of the device, used 1U95-
lli98. Some copies of this book were retained and sold by the printer,
Marchant; they contained his device instead of that of the publisher.
(Meyer 136 ; Renouard 880j Polain lkk; Davies 92 j Silvestre 1136;
BMC VIII, p. 61*)
27. This version of Petit 's device is more elaborate than the preceding
one. It is a metal cut, with black cribble ground; three birds appear
in the tree, and a more decorative type is used for the printer's
name. If there is any significance in these changes it is not obvious.
(Meyer 138; Renouard 881; Polain U*$; Davies 92; Silvestre 2$)
PARIS . JOHANN PHILIPPI
IU has 2 books printed by Philippi (27 Mar.U*95 & 2 Apr.U*9$). The second
one has his device.
Bertrand. Libellus de iurisdictione . 2 Apr.ll;95. (127)
28. This device of Johann Philippi is the first one in which the initials
of the printer are substituted for the orb in the traditional orb
and cross design. Here, the printer's initials, I P, in Lombardic
letters, separated by a Maltese cross, are surmounted by a cross
with a single cross piece and the good luck symbol, h, at the top.
The three-petalled flowers symbolize the Trinity. The device is said
to be a shop sign, but instead of being inspired by such a sign, it
appears that the device inspired the sign. For it was not until 1500
that Philippi moved to a new shop on which he posted the sign of the
Trinity. The inscription, In nocmien 3 e scan 3 ctcae trinitatis is
set in type rather than being cut in the wood.
(Meyer lUlj Renouard 917} Polain l$; Silvestre 312; BMC VIII, p.lhh,
Device A; Willoughby in Lib . Quart . 2U(l90U)2O5j Davies 195)
PARIS. PHILIPPE PIGOUCHET
IU has 2 books by this printer, both with his device,
doubtfully ascribed to him, has no device.
^Catholic Church. Liturgy. Hours. 20 Mar., 17 Apr.lii97. (225)
22 Aug.lii98. (226)
(The publisher of both of these volumes is Simon Vostre)
(Both books have metal-cut illustrations and borders)
29. This is another device inspired by a shop sign. Early in his career,
Pigouchet had worked with Antoine Caillaut, Ad inters ignum Horainis
Silvestris. Hence the wildman and his mate - sometimes identified
as Adam and Eve - serve as supporters of the shield hanging from a
tree and bearing Pigouchet *s initials, P P, surmounted by a Maltese
cross and a flag. His full name is at the bottom. The elaborate pil-
lars, flat arch, and fruit appear to be decorative only. This is a
(Meyer H2j Henouard 919; Polain 132; Silvestre 71 j Davies 82; Win-
ger in Lib. Quart . 35(1965)12)
PARIS . DENIS ROCE , Publisher
IU has 5 books published by Roce, all of which contain his device.
Heynlin. Resolutorium. eca.Ui95>a (U7S) (Printer: Pierre Poulhac)
Guillernras Saphronensis . Modus epistolandi. 2k Sept.lU98. (U6l)
(Printer: Guy Marchant)
*Joannes Cliacus. Scala Paradisi. cafter 12 Oct.U*99 (5U5)
(Printer: Andre Bocard)
*Dati. Elegantiolae . eca.Ui99 (32U) (Printer: Michel Tholoze)
Matthaeus de Cracovia. De modo confitendi. cca.l500 3 (656)
(All these books have woodcut capitals)
30, 31. Here are examples of the second and third of Roce's four devices,
all of which contain a shield hanging from a rose tree. The coat
of arms may be the legitimate arms of the printer, who had come
to France from Scotland. The dogs in the device denote alertness
and the scallop shell is the emblem of pilgrims to the shrine of
St. James of Campostella. The rose tree is, of course, a pun on
Roce's name. At the foot of no, 30 is the beginning of the motto
which is printed in full on no. 31, "A l'aventure tout vient a point
qui peut attendre" (By fortune all things come to him who can wait)
Roce employed at least 10 printers at various times. These print-
ers often retained and sold some copies of the books they had
printed for Roce; in these they used their own devices instead of
that of Roce. This is true of the book printed by Marchant shown
(Meyer 153 & 15U; Renouard 1003 St 1005; Polain 161 k 162; Sil-
vestre 3U3 & U5l; Davies 135; Winger in Lib . Quart . 50(1980)137;
Moran, p. 33)
IU has 365 books printed in 19 German cities (lU6?-l$00), by 8f> printers.
Of these, 19 volumes (IU69-II498 ) by 10 printers have devices. Publishers
are named in three books, but none has a device. Devices are at the end
of volumes except for one (no. 39) J in one book (no. 3k) the device appears
both at the end and on the title page. Three devices are metalcuts (no.
33> 38, 111). Six volumes contain other woodcuts besides the device.
IU has Ul books printed at Augsburg, by 9 printers (1V72-150-) .
two books, by a single printer, contain a device.
AUGSBURG. ERHARD RATDOLT
IU has 11 books printed by Ratdolt at Venice (25 May H482-8 Dec. 11*8$) and
U printed at Augsburg (6 Oct? or 27 Nov.lU88-26 Mar. ll9l). Only two of
those printed at Augsburg have his device.
ieltata artificem qua -valet ipfe manum.
^illy. Concordantia. 2 Jan.lii90. (6)
Bonatti. Decern tractatus astronomiae. 26 Mar.lU91. (165)
(Device wanting in IU copy)
(Both books have woodcut illustrations and capitals)
32. This famous device of Erhard Ratdolt displays two typically German
elements, the shield and the crest. Although Ratdolt operated a
thriving printing business at Venice from 1U76-1U86, he never used
a printer's device there. Not until 11*90, four years after he had
returned to his native Augsburg, did he display this flamboyant de-
vice. He had developed the design, however, while still at Venice.
Several books which he had sent from Venice as gifts to the Carmelite
monastery at Augsburg contain hand-drawn and painted ex libris very
similar in design to his later printer's device.
The figure on the shield is Mercury, holding two serpents
(the caduceus) and a star, indicating that it was the planet, s~*o
the design he proudly claims the device as his own. ^5*^ \C"*&
Mercury, not the god, that was meant. In the couplet above ^^*^*^^V
(Weil 3U; Davies lUj Qeldner (1966), p.l$7; Meiner, p. 20; x \ m .
Willoughby in Lib . Quart . 10(19k0)26$; Moran, p.US) -JlUrtY X
IU has 73 books printed at Cologne* by 11 printers (lU67-l$QO)j one book has
a device. Books printed at Cologne in the l^th cent, were seldom adorned
COLOGNE. ARNOLD THER HOERNEN
IU has $ books printed by Ther Hoernen (Ui71-ca.ll* 82); only the first one
carries his device.
Thomas Aquinas. Quaestiones de duodecim quodlibet. ll71. (961)
FREIBURG Hi BREISGAU
IU has 6 books printed at Freiburg im Breisgau, by two printers (not after
lii91-ca.]Ji9$); one has a device.
FREIBURG m BREISGAU . FRIEDRICH R IE DEREK
IU has 2 books printed by Riederer (11 Dec.lU93 & ca.H^U); the earlier one
has his device.
Riederer. SpTegelaerwaT!re7rffi?Eor^^ (823)
(The device is repeated at the end of the volume)
(Has woodcut illustrations, capitals, and title page)
33. Arnold Ther Hoernen, the second printer at Cologne, was the first to
use a printer's device there. The device itself, a metal cut, is not-
able for several reasons: (l) it was the first to contain a single
shield; shields usually appearing in pairs; (2) it was the first to
contain the initials of the printer (a h); (3) it is the smallest de-
vice ever used. The design, two crosses placed saltirwise, with a star,
has been identified as the printer's house-mark. Although Ther Hoernen
used woodcut ornamentation in only one book, he used his device in
many of his books printed before 1U81.
(Heitz (Kbln) 3} Weil 53; BMC I, p. 201, Device B; Davies 12aj
Painter (1959), p. 215)
3U. This device of Friedrich Riederer appears not only at the end of the
volume; it was also fitted into the woodblock used on the title page.
The woman in mediaeval dress may be an allegorical representation of
Rhetoric. It is possible, however, that she might be the heraldic de-
vice of one of Riederer' s patrons.
(Weil 67; BMC I, p. 696, Device a; Willoughby in Lib . Quart . 27(1957)335;
Qeldner I, p.283-28U)
IU has 31 books printed at Leipzig by 8 printers ( c a. ll* 86-1500); four
books by two printers have devices.
LEIPZIG . MARTIN LANDSBBRG
IU has 7 books known to have been printed by Landsberg (ca. 11*89-96 - ca.ll*97)
and 2 doubtfully ascribed to him (ca. ll*.87 & ca. 11*90). Three of the books con-
tain his device.
Paltz. Septem fores, cca. 11*91-2=. (720) Wiapina. Palillogia. e ca.ll*97 (1079!
Fabri de Werdea. Proverbia. cca. 11*93* (382)
LEIPZIG . JAKOB THANNER
IU has only one book by Thanner; it contains his device,
Ars oratoria. 11*98. (53)
35, 36. Martin Landsberg, the first printer at Leipzig to use a device,
imitated Peter SchSffer's design of two shields hanging from a
branch (See no. 38). There are various interpretations of the de-
sign on the shields. That on the left is described as a circle,
crescent and star (BMC); a moon sign and star (Geldner)j or a
merchant's mark (a simplified bull's head and a star) (Moran).
The right shield bears the arms of the printer's native city of
Wurtburgj or, possibly it represents a town (Land) behind a moun-
tain ('Berg'), constituting a play on the name, Landsberg. There
are slight differences between the two devices, e.g., the upper-
most ray on the star pierces the border in no. 35 J on no. 36 it
just touches it.
(Weil 71a & b; BMC III, p. 637, Devices a & b; Davies 9; Meiner,
p. 11; Geldner I, 2U5; Moran, p.lii)
37. This device of Jakob Thanner is classed as a variation of the orb and
cross design, in which the orb is left open at the bottom and is cros-
sed by two horizontals extending beyond it. The printer's initials,
i t, are placed on either side of the cross.
(Weil 75; BMC III, p. 658; Geldner I, 25l)
IU has 10 books printed at Mainz by U printers (l4$4/5-lU98).
by a single printer contain de-rices.
MAINZ . FBTBR SCHOFFER
IU has 6 books printed by SchSffer (13 June 11*69-6 Mar.Hi92).
contain his device.
Four of them
Four of them
Thomas Aquinas. Super quarto libro Sententiarun. 13 June Ui69. (987)
T Sunaae theologiae pars pria secundae partis.
"8 Nov.li*71. (974)
Gratianus, the Canonist. Decretum. 13 Aug. 1472. (433)
(Device wanting in the IU copy)
Bote. Cronecken der Sassen. 6 Mar. 14 92. (176)
(Has 799 woodcut illustrations and 566 xylographic capitals)
IU has 6 books printed at Meamingen by one printer (l482-l$00) j the first
has a device.
MEMMINQEN . ALBRECHT KUNNE
IU has 6 books printed by Kunne (l482-l$00) . Only the first has his device,
Rolevinck. Fasciculua temporua. 1482. (82$)
(The device is on leaf d3 r )
(Has 11 woodcut illustrations)
38. This metal device of Peter Schbffer was the first printer's device
ever used and it set a pattern which was copied by some 20 printers
before the end of the 13>th century. It first appeared in the lU$7
Psalter, or the 1U62 Bible, printed by Johann Fust and Peter Schbffer.
The earliest example at IU (13 June lli69 ) is shown here. The two
shields may represent the house-marks or merchants' marks of the
printers, the left one being that of Fust and the right one of Schb'ffer.
It has also been maintained that both the shields together constituted
the arms of Schb'ffer, Fust being without one. The meaning of the de-
signs is disputed. They have been identified as printers' rules used
in setting up type; again, the figure on the left shield is described
as two cramps in sal tire (cramps being iron pieces used in building)
suggesting that Fust's family had some connection with the building
trade. The figure on the right is called a wolf- trap used by shep-
herds, an allusion to Schbffer 's name. It has also been suggested that
the figures on the shields are Greek letters: I(chi), an abbreviation
for Christus, and A (lambda) standing for Logos , symbolizing the Word
of God} the three stars referring to the Trinity. According to a more
fantastic interpretation, the figures are Greek letters with numerical
values known to initiated members of secret societies, implying that
Fust and Schbffer belonged to a secret society and their arms had a
(Weil 8$; Davies 1; Meiner, p. 11; Painter, P.2U4; Meldan &9UU-U9),
p. 112; Moran, p.3-Uj Willoughby in Lib . Quart . 2(1932)302-303; Kri-
steller p. XIII)
39. This is the earliest example of a printer's device being incorporated
in a pictorial woodcut illustration. The entire woodcut is copied, in
reverse, from one in Quentell's 1U79 edition of the same work, but here
Kunne replaced the original arms of Cologne, on the shield on the left,
with those of Memmingen, and put his own trademark on the shield on
(Davies 211*; BMC II, p. 602)
IU has 15 books printed at Speier by U printers (Iii72-lii96)j four books by
one printer have devices.
SPEIER . PETER DRACH
IU has 9 books printed by Drach (23 June 11*79-11*90). Four of them con-
tain his device.
Leonardus Matthaei de Utino. Sermones. 23 June 11*79. ($88)
Dominicus de Sancto Geminiano. Super sexto Decretalium.
enot after lU79^ OU7) (Device wanting in IU copy)
Calderinus. Concordantia. ll*8l. (196)
Paulus Diaconus. Homiliarius. 7 Sept.lU82. (725)
IU has 93 books printed at Strassburg by 19 printers (ca.lU70-ca.l50l);
two books by two printers have devices.
STRASSBURG . JOHANN GRUNINQER
IU has 15 books printed by Gruninger (28 Aug. ll*83-ca. 1500). Only one con-
tains his device.
Horatius. Opera. 12 Mar. 11*98. (U95)
(Has woodcut illustrations)
UO. Peter Drach's device is an early variation of Schoffer's double shield
suspended on a branch. Obviously, the dragon on the left shield is a
play on the printer's name. The meaning of the tree standing on a
triple mound, with two stars, is unknown.
(Weil 95; BMC II, p.U88j Geldner I, 189)
Ul. Gruninger was the first printer at Strassburg to use a device. This
is. the first of fivej one of the few orb and cross designs found in
Germany. The cross has a single crosspiece and the orb contains the
letters, MJ, representing the forenames of the two brothers, Marcus
Reinhard and Johann (Reinhard) Gruninger. The cross is surmounted
by the Strassburg lily. The letters, E. F. and D. V., are probably
the initials of the artists who worked for Gruninger. The device
was made by a new technique similar to that of the metal-cut; it
has even been described as being made of soft metal.
(Weil 98; Heitz 1 & p.IIII; Polain 193} Haebler 98aj Moran, p. 21)
- STRASSBURG . MARTIN SCHOTT
HJ has books printed by M. Schott (ca.lU83-2 Oct.lU98).
appears only in this one.
Schott. Lucubratiunculae. 2 Oct. 1U98. (861)
U2. This device of Martin Schott's has been identified as the arms of
the printer's family. Whatever the figure - a cabbage head or a
tree with open roots - it has been interpreted as a pun on the
printer's name (Schott means "Bulkhead"). In every book printed
by Martin Schott, except this one, he included his own initials,
MS; in this book he uses the initials of his relative, the author
of the book.
(Heitz II, 1} p.XIII, XVI; Meiner, p. 13; Schmidt, p.?; Geldner
I, 70; Weil, p.22, 2$)
IU has 13 books printed in Holland: one at Delft (ill July 1U8U) and 12
at Deventer (2 May 11*81-30 Jan.l$00). The one printed at Delft has a
printer's device at the end, and two of those printed at Deventer have
devices on the title page. None of these volumes contains any woodcut
besides the device.
DELFT . JACOB JACOBSZOEN VAN PER MEER
The only ID book printed at Delft contains the printer's device.
Catholic Church. Liturgy. Hours. Dutch. 1? July 11*81*. (227)
DEVENTER . JACOBUS DE BREDA
IU has 3 books by this printer (ll* Apr.Hi91-ca.l500),
Only two contain
Juvencus. Historia evangel ica. eca.l$00 3 ($71)
Sulpitius. De moribus puerorum. eca.l$O0 a (909)
(IU copy has facsimile of device)
U3. Jacob van der Meer was the first printer at Delft to use a device (in
11*77). Like Peter Schb'ffer's, it consisted of two shields, but they
are supported by a lion instead of hanging from a branch. The left
shield bears the arms of the city of Delft. The three water-lily
leaves on the right shield are the arms of the van der Meer family,
in a kind of pun, water -lilies suggesting the sea (Meer). On the
scroll are the words: Delft in Hollant.
(Juchhoff 21; BMC H, p.l, Device Bj Holtrop 82(lO0)a2. Painter,
p.2l6j Schretlen, p.l6; Moran, p. 17; Winger and Hebert in Lib . Quart .
UU. The idea of using the symbols of the four Evangelists, with the sacred
monogram, ihs, in the center, as a printer's device apparently origi-
nated with Jacobus de Breda, at Deventer. It was copied, in reverse,
by Govaert Bac, at Antwerp (no. 2). Breda used this design in about one
third of his 200 15th-century imprints and the progressive deteriora-
tion of the woodblock, as indicated by breaks and cracks, is helpful
in dating his undated works.
(Juchhoff 29, p. XII, 12li; Conway, p.l60j Hind, II, p.58U)
IU has $2k volumes printed in 17 Italian cities by 183 printer* (before
3 Aug.lU70-after l00). Of these, 116 volumes (1$ June 11*81-13 ***>.
l^OO/Ol) have devices of 38 printers (in 82 volumes) and 12 publishers
(in 3U volumes)} in 5 volumes, devices of both printer and publisher
appear. And in 5 volumes, the device (publisher's) is on the title page.
73 volumes have also other woodcut decoration, such as capitals, borders,
diagrams, and illustrations.
IU has 20 volumes printed at Bologna by 7 printers (11*72-1 Nov. 1500 ). 11
of these, by U printers (5 Apr.lU93-l Nov.1500) have printer's devices,
all at the end of the volume. In 9 volumes the device is the only woodcut;
two volumes have also a single diagram besides the device.
BOLOGNA. CALIGULA DE BAZALERIIS
The only 10 book by this printer has his device.
Hieronymus, Saint. Ordo sen Regula vivendi Deo. 28 Mar.lU98. (U82)
Ui>. This device of Caligula Bazaleriis is one of the few Italian devices
in which the customary orb and cross, with the printer's initials with-
in the orb, is surrounded by a leafy decoration. The first such device
was that of Hamman, at Venice (no. 8$ & 86)} a similar one by Justi-
nianus de Rubeira, of Bologna, was imitated by both Bazaleriis, at
Bologna, and Franciscus de Mazalibus, at Reggio Emilia (See no. 6k).
The initial, K, obviously stands for the printer's forename (Kaligula);
the L might refer to the name of his father (?) but it is more likely
that it stands for Librarius. The crown atop the orb possibly refers
to the printer '8 name, Bazaleriis, or Baccilieri, which must be de-
rived from the Greek faa i\exx;.
(Kristeller Uj Husung 5} Sorbelli, p. 27; BMC VI, p. 836} Willoughby
in Lib. Quart. 20(1950)300)
BOLOGNA . FRANCESCO PLATONE DE BBNBDETTI
IU has k books by this printer (17 Oct. 11*88-17 Jan.lh96). The last two
Herodianus. Historia de imperio. 31 Aug. 11*93. (U69)
Frontinus. De re militari. 10 July H+95-17 Jan.U*96. (1*08)
(Has one woodcut diagram)
U6. The orb and cross with three crosspieces was not common. This device
of Francesco Platone de Benedetti is the third example of this type in
Italy. The letters, PIA, refer to the printer's nickname, Plato. The
hand raised in benediction is a play en his surname, Benedictus.
(Kristeller Sj Husung 6; Davies 172} BMC VI, p. 822)
BOLOGNA. . BENEDETTO D'ETTORE
IU has 6 books by this printer (5 Apr.lU93-l Nov.l500). In all of them he
used his device.
Suetonius. Vitae XII Caesarum. 5 Apr.li93. (902)
Thomas Aquinas. Super secundo libro Sententiarum. 27 May lh9k> (985)
Cicero. Be natura deorum. 10 Dec.lit9U. (260) (Device wanting in IU copy)
Pico della Mirandola. Opera. 20 Mar. -16 July lii96. (761)
(Has one woodcut diagram)
Beroaldo. Cratio proverbiorum. 17 Dec.lU99. (122)
Orationes et poemata. 1 Nov. 1500. (1210
U7, U8. Benedetto d'Ettore adopted the usual orb and cross design, but In
the lower part of the orb he placed a B, the initial of his fore-
name, within a triangle. The narrower design (no. 1*7) was used un-
til 7 Aug.lU98; after 0ct.lU Q 8, the broader and shorter design,
with unusual vertical shading of the background, was introduced.
(Kristeller 11 & 12} Husung 10 & 11} BMC VI, p.8U0, Devices A & B)
BOLOGNA.. UGO RUGERIUS
ID has U books by Rugerius (30 Mar.U*9$-23 Sept.U*96).
The last two have
Samuel Marochitanus . Epistola. 13 May 11*96. (852)
Bolognini. Syllogianthon. 23 Sept. 11*96. (163)
IU has lli books printed at Brescia by 5 printers (17 Feb.ll*86-not before
13 Aug. ll* 99). Six books by l* printers have devices (17 Feb. 11*86-20 Aug.
ll*93). All the devices are ax the end of the volume. Only one volume
(no. 50) contains other woodcuts (illustrations) besides the device.
BRESCIA. BONINO DE BONINIS
IU has 2 books by this printer (31 Mar.ll*87 & ll* Feb. 11*88).
appears in the earlier one.
Dante. La Commedia. 31 May 11*87. (317)
(Has 68 woodcut illustrations)
U9. This device of Ugo Rugerius is one of the earliest versions of the
orb and cross design, in which the orb takes the shape of a shield
or egg. The letters, V R, are, of course, the initials of the print-
er. It appears that Rugerius used the same block throughout the lth
(Kristeller 16; Husung Ik; BMC VI, p. 80$; Davie s 179)
50. Bonino de Boninis had only one device, which, so far as is known, he
used for the first time in this book, printed in 1U87. However, it is
hard to explain the breaks in the frame if it had never been used be-
fore. The odd, slanting crosspiece, with the flukes at the ends is
unique. The letters, B B, are the initials of the printer. This
seems to be the only appearance of the fleur-de-lys in an Italian de-
vice. It may be a conventional rendering of the Florentine lily, or,
possibly, an emblem of the Trinity.
(Kristeller 17; Husung l6j BMC VII, p. 967; Davies 167)
BRESCIA. ANGELO & QIACOMO BRITANNIC I
IU has h books printed by these printers (l8 Dec. 11*91-1 Sept.U*98), one of
them with a device, and $ books by Qiacomo alone (17 Feb.ll*86-not before
13 Aug. 11*99), three of which have his device. None contains any other
Jacobus de Varagine. Sermones. 20 Aug.cll*93?a (538)
BRESCIA. OIACOMO BRITANNICI
Filelfo. Orationes. 18 June 11*88. (39U)
Persius. Satyrae. 17 Feb. 11*86. (737)
Lucanus. Pharsalia. 2 May 11*86. (607)
51-53. Although only one of these books (no.5l) names both Angelo and Giacomo
Britannic i as printers, it is apparent that the books which were pro-
duced between lU8$ and li90 were the result of the efforts of both
brothers, Giacomo doing the printing and Angelo acting as publisher.
All the devices contain only the initials of Angelo (A B), no.5>l and
J>3 actually being the sane block in spite of the discrepancy in the
printer statement. The I at the top of the cross has been inter-
preted as a good luck sign. (Cf. no.5U and 6l)
(Kristeller 19, 18} Husung 19, 17 j BMC VII, p. 973, Devices C, A)
BRESCIA . BAPTISTA FARFENGUS
ITJ has only one book by this printer; it contains his device.
Bonaventura, Saint. Comraentarius . 20 Oct.lU0. (168)
IU has 2k books printed at Florence by 11 printers (30 Aug.H48l-ca.i500).
Three volumes have devices, two being printer's devices (19 Sept.lU89 &
20 Feb. 11*91/2) and one a publisher's device (7 Apr.lU96). All the devices,
including that of the publisher, are at the end of the books. One volume
contains other woodcuts.
FLORENCE . ANTONIO MISCOMINI
IU has 6 books printed by Miscomini (1$ May U4 83-20 Feb. Ik 91/2). The last
two have his device.
Poliziano. Miscellaneorum centuria. 19 Sept.Hi89. (783)
Panepistemon. 20 Feb. Hi 91/2. (78$)
5U. In this modification of the orb and cross design, the orb becomes a
square standing on one corner. The initials, P B, stand for Presby-
ter Baptists; the hourglass is a symbol of the shortness of life, and
the X at the top of the cross may be a good luck sign, like that used
by Britannici (no. $1-53) and Cantono, at Naples (no. 61).
(Kris teller 21; Husung 22; BMC VII, p.98U, Derice B)
55. Miscomini adopted another version of the monogram surmounted by a
cross, using it only in his dated publications. The design of
squares, circle, and triangles seems to be merely decora tire.
(Kris teller U7; Busung 39; BMC VI, p. 636)
FLORENCE . PIERO PACINI , Publisher
IU has one book published by Pacini. It has his device,
Lilio. De origine ~ scientiarum. 7 Apr.li4.96.
(Printer: Francesco Buonaccorsi)
(Has US woodcut capitals and 2 diagrams)
IU has 28 books printed at Milan by 1$ printers (1 Feb.lV?U-l5 Nov.ll*99).
Four books by three printers have devices (19 Nov.lU91-l$ Nov.lU99).
Only the two by Scinzenzeler have other woodcuts (capitals) besides the
MILAN . GIOVANNI BISSOLI & BENEDETTO MANGIO
IU has one book by these printers. It contains their device.
BOS J "LJ?*2
Suidas. Lexicon Qraecum. 15 Nov.lit99. (903)
(Publisher: Demetrius Chalcondylas)
56. The central figure In this three-fold device of the publisher, Piero
Pacini is a crowned dolphin (the arms of his native city, Pescia)
flanked by the letters, S P (i.e. Ser Piero). The two smaller designs
feature a dove (the arms of the printer). The word Piscia, a variant
spelling of Pescia, may also involve a play on the Latin word for fish
Discis, hence "dolphin. " Pacini produced three of the few fully il-
lustrated books in Florence; the three parts of his device, like his
illustrations, have narrow, decorative borders.
(Kristeller U8-50; Husung 10-U2; BMC VI, p. 670; Hind II, p. $28, 531)
57. After only about 1$ months of hard work, the Milan printers, Giovanni
Bissoli and Benedetto Mangio produced the monumental Greek lexicon as-
cribed to a Suidas, or Suda. Quite understandably, they chose for
their device a quotation from Horace ' s Ars poetica Ul3 * Sudavit et al -
sit, "He sweat and shivered," referring to the labor involved in creat-
ing a literary work. In the word, sudavit , there is also a play on the
name, Suda. The initials, I B, stand for Ioannes Bissolus and B M for
(Kristeller 67; Husung 1*7; BMC VI, p. 792)
MILAN . ULEBRICUS SCIWZKNZKLER
IU has k books by this printer working alone (17 Jan.lU88-U May 11*98),
of them contain his device.
Suetonius. Vitae XII Caesarum. 19 Nov.ll*91. (901)
Pius II, Pope. Epistolae. 10 Dec.ll*96. (766)
(Both volumes have woodcut capitals)
MILAN . ULDBRICUS SCINZENZKLER & SEBASTIANO BE PONTRBMOLI
IU has one book printed by these two printers together. It contains a ver-
sion of the Scinzenzeler device.
Isocrates. Orationes. 2U Jan. 11*93. (520)
58. Scinzenzeler was the second printer at Milan to use a device. It is a
version of the orb and cross, in which the two crosspieces are slanted.
An attempt has been made to see in the branch at the foot of the cross
the German word, Schindel , "shingle," hence a play on the name, Scin-
zenzeler. The name, however, probably implies that the printer was a
native of Zinzenzell, near Strassburg.
(Kristeller 96} Husung 58; BMC VI, p. 762, Device A; Davies ll*8;
Scholderer (1966), p. 102)
59. Scinzenzeler used a larger form of his earlier device when associated
with the otherwise unknown Sebastiano de Pontremoli.
(Kristeller 98; Husung 60; BMC VI, p. 762, Device C; Davies 1U8)
HJ has 5 books printed at Modena by two printers (20 May lU90-l00). Two
books of one printer (1500) have his device. They also contain woodcut cap-
itals, and one has a diagram.
MODENA . DIONIGI BERTOCCHI
10 has 2 books printed by Bertocchi, both of which contain his device.
Crastoni. Lexicon Qraeco-Latinum. 20 Oct.llt99-not before 5 July 1500. (303)
(Has one woodcut capital)
Martianus Capella. De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii. 15 May 1$00. (6U9)
(Has a woodcut diagram. IU copy lacks a title page border found in BM copy)
60. Dionigi Bertocchi has changed the usual orb to an oval shape. The let-
ter below the horizontal may be intended for a Greek beta (/3), for Ber-
tocchi. If so, it has been reversed in printing. It is more likely
meant for a cursive d, for Dionigi. Bertocchi used this design when
printing at Modena; at Venice and Reggio Emilia he had another version.
(Kristeller 190; Husung 129; BMC III, p. 1067)
IU has one book printed at Naples. It has a device, two woodcut diagrams,
and a woodcut border on the title page.
NAPLES . AYQLFUS DE CANTONO
IU has only one of Cantono's books. It has his device.
Liiio. Orbis breviarium, 9 Nov # lU6. (597)
(Has a woodcut border on title page and 2 diagrams)
61. Ayolfus de Cantono has chosen an unusually delicate and ornamental design,
suggesting an Oriental influence. Instead of the customary orb is a
graceful figure containing the letters AYO (for Ayolfus) and C (for
Cantono). The I at the top of the double cross is probably the good-
luck sign already found in nos.$l-$U. The decorative border is not
common among Italian devices. Florentine printers were especially
addicted to it.
(Kris teller 111; Husung 68; Davies 181; BMC VI, p. 873)
IU has 3 books printed at Parma by a single printer. All three books have
his device, but no other woodcut decoration.
PARMA . AWELUS DGQLETUS
IU has three books by this printer (31 Mar.lu91-10 July lu99), all of
which contain his device.
Augustinus, Saint. Opuscula. 31 Mar.
Quint ilianus. Declamationes . 3 July
Ausonius. Opera. 10 July 1U99. (86)
62, 63. The first device of Angelus Ugoletus shows a greater variation
from the simple orb and cross style, with horizontal line through
the orb. He broke the line with two lines rising to an angle,
and added a fourth crosspiece to the cross. He was apparently
not well pleased with this design, for he used it only in 1U91
and 1U92. After that he turned to the triple cross form, with a
straight horisontal line through the orb. The letters, A V, rep-
resent, of course, the initials of the printer's name.
(Kristeller 119, 120; Husung 73, 7k; BMC VII, p.9kk, Devices
A 4 B)
IU has two books printed at Beggio Emilia by two printers (6 Oct.lUQl & 12
Nov.lU8). The later one has a device, the only woodcut in the book.
REGGIO EMILIA . FRANC ISCUS DB MAZALIBUS
IU has one book by this printer; it contains his device.
Dionysius Halicarnassensis. Antiquitates Romanae. 12 Nov.lU98. (3U2)
6k. This device of Franc is cus de Masalibus is a variation of the orb and
double cross design, with the printer's initials within the orb and
with a leafy background. Like the device of Bazaleriis (no.U5) it
was modeled after that of Justinianus de Ruberia, of Bologna, and re-
calls that of Hamman (no. 8$ & 86). The space at the top of the cir-
cle and the broken horizontal are new.
(Kristeller U*8j Husung 95 5 BMC VII, p. 1088)
IU has $5 books printed at Rome by 13 printers (lU68-l$00). Only one book
has a device, and it is incorporated in large woodcut designs on the title
page and at the end. There are also woodcut capitals.
ROME . EUCHARIDS SILBER
IU has 18 books printed by Silber (ca.lu80-ca.l5QO), of which only one has
his printer's device.
Campano. Opera. 31 Oct.lu95. (198)
(Publisher: Michele Ferno)
6$, 66. Eucharius Silber printed about 200 books in the l$th century, but
in none of them did he use a printer's device except in this 1U95
edition of Campano. Here he imprinted his monogram surmounted by
a cross on the woodcut of a bell on the title page and also on
the elaborate emblematic cut at the end. The initials E A H,
stand for Eucharius Argenteus (the Latin word for Silber) Herbi-
polensis (i.e. "of Wurzburg" )
(Husung 102; BMC IV, p.xivj Willoughby in Lib. Quart. 2(1932) Hl9j
IU has one book printed at Scandiano. It has a printer's device but no
SCANDIANO . PELLEGRIWO DEI PASQUALI & GASPARO CRIVBLLO
IU has only one book by these printers; it contains their device.
Bojardo. Timone. 12 Feb.l^OO. (162)
67. When Pellegrino del Pasquali moved to Scandiano in Hi95, he brought
with him the sixth of the devices he had used at Venice. In it, the
orb has developed a boss at the foot; within the orb are the printer's
initials and a fluted design below the horizontal.
(Kristeller 2$3i Husung 18$ j BMC VII, p. 1118)
IU has 339 volumes printed at Venice by 95 printers and 13 publishers
(11*68-1500). Of these, 79 volumes (15 June 11*81-13 Feb.l500/Ol) have
devices of 19 printers (in 1*6 volumes) and 11 publishers (in 33 volumes).
Devices of both printer and publisher appear in 6 volumes and, in two
cases (Scoto and Stagninus), the same person performs the functions of
both printer and publisher. In 6 volumes, the devices (l printer's
and 5 publisher's) are on the title page. Besides the device, 68 volumes
contain also other woodcut ornamentation, such as capitals, illustrations,
diagrams, and borders.
VENICE . QBORGIUS ARRIVABBNUS
IU has 1* books printed by Arrivabenus (1* Feb. Hi 90/1-31 Dec.l500), two of
which contain his device and one the device of the publisher, B. Fontana.
Rampegolo. Figurae Bibliae. 31 Dec,
Angelus Carle tus de Clavasio. Summa
Angelica. 2 May 11*95. (3U)
68, 69. Georgius Arrivabenus used as his device seven versions of the orb
and double cross, in all except the first of which the lower part
of the circle is white and the foot of the cross ends in the let-
ter A (for Arrivabenus). In four of the designs, beginning in
lU 90, the orb is drawn to a point at the bottom, enclosing the
letter (for Qeorgius).
(Kristeller 181, 182; Husung 117, 118; BMC V, p. 382, Devices E, F)
VENICE. BBRNARDINUS BENALIUS & MATTEO CAPCASA
IU has one book by these printers. It contains a printer's device.
Dante. La Commedia. 3 Mar. Ili91. (318)
(Has woodcut illustrations and capitals)
VENICE. BERNARDINUS BENALIUS
IU has 10 books printed by Bernardinus Benalius alone (23 Aug.lU83-31 May
1U97), three of which contain his device.
Augustinus, Saint. Explanatio Psalmorum. U Aug.ll;93. (69)
Bernard de Clairveaux. Spurious works. Modus bene vivendi. 30 May lU9u (H9)
Eusebius. De evangelica praeparatione . 31 May 1U97. (375)
70. This little device was used by Benalius and Capcasa only in this one
book, the lii91 Dante. It is the usual orb and double cross, with the
letter B (for Bernardinus) on a black ground above the horizontal and
M (for Matthaeus) on a white ground below. The same block was used in
lU8, with the letters V I (for Vincentius Benalius) instead of M.
(Kristeller 187; Husung 12$; BMC V, p. 370, Device B)
71. Benalius began printing alone in 1U93 "At the sign of Jerome in Mer-
zeria." Hence his device, showing St. Jerome, the patron saint of
librarians and booksellers, sitting before the apse of a church,
holding in his right hand the model of a church and in his left, a
book, probably the Vulgate Bible which he translated. By his left
foot lies the lion, from whose paw he had extracted a thorn.
(Kristeller 186; Husung 121*; BMC V, p. 370, Device C; Willoughby
in Lib . Quart . 21(1957)2lU)
VENICE . SIMON BEVILAQUA
IU has lU books printed by Bevilaqua (26 June ll*93-ll* Dec. 11*99), four of
which contain his device.
Ovidius Naso. Metamorphoses. 8 July
(Has woodcut diagrams and capitals)
Bible. Latin. U*98. Vulgate. 8 May
11*98. (11*6) (IU copy lacks device)
(Has woodcut illustrations and
Plautus. Coraoediae. 17 Sept. Ik99. (77l)
Sacro Bosco. Sphaera mundi. 23 Oct. 11*99. (81*7)
(Has woodcut diagrams and capitals)
72. In all except two of the books In which he used a device, Simon Bevilaqua
chose a cut of a bare tree with an eagle at the top, two shields with
crowns, and a scroll bearing his full name around the trunk of the tree.
This is the only known instance of two shields - so common in Germany -
appearing in an Italian device. Bevilaqua is also one of the few Italian
printers who spelled out his full name in his device.
(Kristeller 191; Husung 130; BMC V, p. 517, Device A; Davies 11;
Moran. p. 37)
73, 7U. In 11*99 Bevilaqua adopted two new devices, each of which he seems to
have used only once. The first (no. 73) was a variation of the orb
and double cross design, in which the lower part of the orb is drawn
to a point; a star surmounts the cross and his full name appears
within the orb. This is also one of the few black on white designs.
A little later is found a smaller orb and cross (no.7U) in which the
cross has only one crosspiece and a sprig of foliage is placed below
(Kristeller 192, 193; Husung 131, 132; BMC V, p. 517, Devices B 4c C)
VENICE . GIROIAMO BIONDO , Publisher
IU has only one book published by Biondo. It has his device.
*Canales. De coelesti vita. 19 Dec.lli9U. (200)
(Printer: Katteo Capcasa)
(Has woodcut capitals)
VENICE . NIKOLA OS BLA.ST0S , Publisher
IU has only one book published by ELastos. It has his device,
Etymologicum magnum. 8 July lh99. (370)
(Printer: Z. KalliergBs, with his device, no. 87)
(Has woodcut capitals and headpieces)
7$. Nothing is known about the Florentine publisher, Hieronymus Blondus,
nor is it known why he chose this striking device of a phoenix rising
from the flames, here printed in red, but also feund in black or red
(Kristeller 201j Husung 138; BMC V, p.U83)
76. At the center of this device, the publisher, Nikolaos Blastos, of
Crete, has placed his elaborate monogram consisting of a large N and
a B, around which are assembled the other letters of his name. On
either side of the Maltese cross at the top is the abbreviation for
Jesus Christus. The background is filled with a graceful vine wreath.
Blastos also incorporates his name in the 22 elaborate head-pieces
throughout the volume.
(Kristeller 196; Husung 75} BMC V, p. 580)
VENICE. ALBXANDER CALCBDONIUS , Publisher
ITJ has 2 books of this publisher, both of which contain his device.
Thomas Aquinas. Expositio in libros Posteriorum . 28 Sept. LU 96. (952)
(Printer: Otinus de Luna)
(Has woodcut illustrations)
Dominicus de Flandria. Quaestiones. 20 Aug.lli99. (3u6)
(Printer: Petrus de Quarengiis)
(The device is repeated at the end of the volume)
77* Alexander Calcedonius seldom signed the books which were printed for him
by some seven or eight printers; he depended upon his fine device repre-
senting the Angel Gabriel to identify him as the publisher. Sometimes
the device appeared both at the end of the book and on the title page,
as it does in the second book listed here. This representation of the
Angel had formerly appeared in other books by other printers, but as an
illustration, not as a device.
(Kristeller 20U; BMC V, p. $17; Donati, p. 9)
VENICE . JOHANNES DE COLONIA , NICOLAUS JENSON , ET SOCII , Publisher
IU has 2 books by this firm; both contain its device.
Thomas Aquinas. Super quarto libro
Sententiarum. 2k June lU8l. (990)
(Printer; Johann Herbort)
Jjmocentius IV, Pope. Apparatus super
Tibros Deere talium. 1$ June Hi 81. ($13)
(Printer: Johann Herbort)
78, 79. This device of the publishing firm of Johannes de Colonia, Nicolaus
Jensen, et Socii, while not the first device to appear in Italy, was
the original orb and double cross design which became the model for
Italian printers just as did the double shield of Fust and Schoffer
become the model for printers in Germany . It is thought to be the
housemark of Johannes de Colonia, It is interesting that this model
Italian device was not that of a printer, but of a publisher. The
printer of these books, Johann Herbort, apparently did not have a
(Kristeller 237, 238} Husung 172, 173; BMC V, p. 300, Devices A & Bj
Davies ll*2j Painter p. 217)
VENICE . JOHANNES EMERICUS DE SPIRA
IU has 2 books printed by Emericus de Spira (2$ May lh9h & 13 Apr. 1$00) .
The earlier one has his device.
Lyra. Postilla super Epis tolas. 25 May lh9h. (620)
(Publisher: L. Giunta, whose device is on the title page. (See no. 83)
(Has two woodcut capitals)
80. The version of the orb and cross design adopted by Johannes Emericus
de Spira contains his initials, ! , in the upper part of the orb
and two crossed hammers in the lower part. It has been assumed that
the hammers (German Hammer ) are a play on Emericus' original name,
(Kristeller 305; Husung 1U$; BMC V, p. 538, Device Bj Davies 1$U)
VENICE . BENEDETTO FONTANA, Publisher
ID has 2 books published by Fontana; both contain his device.
Caraccioli. Opera. 16 May 11*96. (203)
(Printer: Georgius Arrivabenus)
Tacitus. Opera. 22 Har.lli97. (916)
(Printer: Philippus Pincius)
81. This fountain (Italian: fontana ) is obviously designed as a play on
the name of this publisher, Benedetto Fontana, whose initials flank
the fountain. The location of the devices in these two books is un-
usual. In the Caraccioli it is on the verso of leaf t2, following
the printer's address to the reader, and in the Tacitus it is found
both at the end of the volume and on the verso of leaf cl06a, which
contains the first of two colophons in the book.
(Kristeller 212 j Husung ll7j BMC V, p.U93)
VENICE . LUCANTONIO GIUNTA , Publisher
IU has h books published by Giunta (7 Dbc.1U91-13 Apr.l^OO), all of which
contain his device.
Plutarchus. Vitae illustrium virorum. 7 Dec.lU91. (779)
(Printer: Giovanni Ragazzo)
(Has woodcut capitals and borders)
Caterina da Siena. Libro della divina dottrina. 17 May ll9U. (218)
(Printer: Matteo Capcasa)
(Has woodcut capitals)
Lyra. Postilla super Epistolas. 2$ May U*9U. (620)
(Printer: Emericus de Spira, with his device at the end, no.80)
(Has two woodcut capitals)
Joannes Franciscus Brixianus. Regulae SS. Benedict! - 13 Apr.l^OO. (5hB)
(Printer: Eericus de Spira)
(Has woodcut illustrations)
82, 83* Lucantonlo Giunta chose as his device the lily of his native city,
Florence, flanked by the initials of his own name. The larger of
the two shown here is printed at the end of volumes; the smaller
one appears on the title page. Since Giunta was an engraver, it
is possible that he engraved his own device.
(Kristeller 215, 216; Husung 1$3, l$lj BMC V, p.Ul$, Devices A
and C; Willoughby in Lib . Quart . 3 (1933)97} McMurtrie, p.2l*)
VENICE . GIOVANNI & GREGORI O DB'QREGORIIS
IU has 2 books printed by these brothers (9 Aug.lU82 & 13 Sept. 11*92) ,
Only the later one has his device.
Petrarca. Epistolae familiares. 13 Sept. U* 92. (7U3)
Bk. The Gregori brothers chose as their device a large double cross with a
St. Andrew's cross on the staff, flanked by the initials of their fore-
names, Z (for Zovanni, i.e. Giovanni) and G (for Gregorio). The St.
Andrew's cross is an emblem of fertility and good luck.
(Kristeller 228} Husung 62; BMC V, p. 339, Device Dj Willoughby in
Lib. Quart. 21(19$l)l27)
VENICE? . JOHANNES HAMMAN
IU has 3 books by this printer (31 Oct. 11*92-31 Aug. U*96), two of which
contain his device.
Lyra. Postilla super Epis tolas. 13 Dec.lUlu (621)
(Publisher: Ottaviano Scoto, with his device on the title page, no. 96)
(Has woodcut capitals)
Ptolenaeus. Epytoma. 31 Aug. 11*96. (802)
(Has 320 woodcut capitals, an illustration, & diagrams)
85. 86. Of the six devices of Johannes Haranan, the first two are shown
here. The orb and double cross is surrounded by an elegant leafy
design similar to that in the devices of Mazalibus, at Reggio
Emilia (no. 61*) and Bazaleriis, at Bologna (no.U5). The figure in
the lower part of the circle is identified as a monogram, h h,
with a cross, or as I H with the "four" mark reversed, or as
Hamman's housemark. Here is the first instance in Italy of the
combination of the "four" mark with the orb or monogram, an in-
dication of German origin (Hamman was from Speier).
(Kristeller 232, 231; Husung 169, 170; BMC V, p.U23, Devices
D and E; Davies 1$; Meldau, p. 113; Qeldner II, p. 91)
VENICE . ZACHARIAS KALLIERGES
ID has one book printed by Kallierges; it contains his device.
Etymologicum Magnum. 8 July lit 99. (370)
(Publisher: N. Blastos (with his device (no. 76) and Anna Notaras)
(Has woodcut capitals & headpieces)
VENICE . FRANC ISCUS DE MADIIS , Pablisher
IU has 3 books published by Madiis in i486; one contains his device.
Petrus Lombardus. Sententiarum libri IV. 22 Mar.lU86. (75$)
(Printer: Hannibal Foxius et Socii)
87* This device, the doable -headed Byzantine eagle with a shield bearing the
initials of the printer, Zacharias KalliergSs, is found in one of the
four Greek books which he printed for his countryman, Nikola os Blastos.
(no. 76) This is one of the few instances in which both printer's and
publisher's devices were printed at the end of the volume. Generally,
the device of the publisher is placed on the title page.
(Kristeller 206 j Husung 176; BMC V, p.$80)
88. The publisher, Franc iscus de Madiis, adopted a strange variation of
the orb and double cross, in which the orb is flattened and a boss
added at the foot. The initial of his last name is placed within a
triangle at the base of the cross and the initial of his forename
within the boss. (Cf. Arrivabenus, no. 68 & 69)
(Kristeller 2U6; Husung Ui9* BMC V, p.U07)
VENICE . ALDO PIO MANUZIO
IU has lU books by this printer (28 Feb.lli9U/5-Dec.l$00), none with his
device, which was first used in 1$02.
Manuzio, Aldo Pio. Poetae Christiani ve teres, v. 2. 1^02.
VENICE . PELLEGR INO DEI PASQUALI k DIONIQI BERTOCCHI
IU has one book by these printers; it has their device.
Persius. Satyrae. 10 Sept.lJ*8U. (736)
88a. Aldo Pio Manuzio did not use a device in any of his 15th-century books.
The faaous anchor and dolphin design first appeared, as a device, in
1$02, but in the Hypnerotomachia of Colonna (Dec.lU99. (283)) on
leaf dy r , can be found the archetype of the device used as a symbol
of the quality of Patience, and accompanied by an early version, Sem -
per festina tarde , of the Aldine motto, Featina lente.
PATIENTI A EST OKNAMENTVM CVSTO
DI A ET PKOTECTIO VITAE.
Da laltra parte talc elegate fcalptura mirai. Vno circulo. Vna ancora
Sopra la ftangula dillaqle (e rouoluca uno Dclphino.Et qfti optimameti
cufiioliiterpictai. All SnETAi BPAAEQS. Scmg fcftina tardc
89. This simple orb and double cross, like that of its originator, Johannes
de Colonia, but without the dot in the lower part of the orb, was used
by Pellegrino dei Pasquali ontty in this book, in the printing of which
he was joined by Dionigi Bertocchi. After that, he developed several
variations of the same design.
(Kristeller 255; Husung 181; BMC V, p. 389, Device A)
VENICE. PELLEGRINO DEI PASQUALI
IU has U books printed by Pasquali (Ik Mar. 11*93-18 Aug.U*9U).
the first have his device.
Mayronis. Sermones. 11 Feb. Hi 93 A. (660)
Bruni. Aquila volante. 6 June li*9U. (181*)
(Has woodcut illustration and border on title page)
Quintilianus . Institution** . 18 Aug.U*9l*. (811)
(Has woodcut diagrams)
VENICE. BERNARDINO RIZZO
IU has 6 books by this printer (11*86/7-15 Feb. 11*92/3); two contain his
Foresti. Supplementum chronicarun. Italian.
8 Oct. 11*91. (1*02)
1$ Feb. IU 92/3. (1*01)
(Both books have woodcut illustrations and capitals)
90. In the last of Pasquali's variations of his original device (no. 89)
he identified it as his own by placing his initials, P P, in the
upper part of the orb, adding fluting in the lower part, and a
slight boss at the foot. This form he continued to use after he
moved to Scandiano, in 11*95. (Cf. no. 67)
(Kristeller 253? Husung 185} BMC V, p.389, Device F)
91. Like Pellegrino dei Pasquali, Bernardino Rizzo used the simple orb
and double cross design, without a dot in the lower part of the
orb, in only one book, in lu8U. His next design appeared first in
Ik 90. It followed the same basic pattern, but the printer's ini-
tials, B R, were added in the lower part of the orb.
(Kristeller 268; Husung 19U} BMC V, p. 1*00, Device B)
VENICE . JOANNES LUCILIUS SAMTRITTBR & HIEROMMUS DE SANCTIS
IU has one book by these printers. It has their device.
Sacro Bosco. Sphaera nundi. 31 Mar. 1488. (8UU)
(Has woodcut illustrations and capitals)
VENICE . OTTAVIANO SCOTO
IU has 7 books printed by Scoto (lU8l-lli83/U)j only the last has his device.
Caprloli. Quaestiones in IV libros Sententiarum. 1483A. (202)
92. The chief element in this device is the monogram, H. The letters stand
for Joannes Lucilius Santritter and Hieronymus de Sanctis. The star su-
perimposed on the monogram may indicate the astrological interest of the
firm, and the crown was probably its house sign. The device may have
been designed by Santritter, who is known to have designed cuts for Rat-
dolt and others; Hieronymus de Sanctis was his cutter.
(Kristeller 280; Husung 196; BMC V, p.U6l, Device A; Davies 120;
Willoughby, in Lib . Quart . 30(1950)202)
93. This device, Scoto's housemark, is clearly a copy of that of Johannes
de Colonia (no. 78), with the addition of his own initials, Octavianus
Scotus Modoetiensis (i.e. of Monza). He used this block in lii83 and
lii8U when he presumably did his own printing. After 1U8U, he acted
only as publisher, and this block was later used in books printed for
him by Locatelli (no. 95). The device was so closely associated with
Scoto that it appears on his tombstone.
(Kristeller 281; Husung 198, p. XI; BMC V, p. 276, Device A; Meldau,
p. 116; Davies 157; Fumagalli, p.U58-9)
NOBIMJ OCTAViANV.5 -5COTV5DE
MODOETiA MERCATOR LiRROftiHP.WOB
siBi-ET-svccE5SOR!Bvs qvi OBl'iT-
VENICE . OTTAVIANO SCOTO , Publisher
IU has 19 books published by Scoto (23 Oct.U*86-31 Dec.U*98). All except
two (23 Oct.ll*86 & 18 Dec.ll*90) have his device. The printer is Boneto
Locatelli, except for two books printed by B. de Zanis and one by J.
Boethius. De consolatione philosophiae .
2U Dec.lU89. (157)
Gellius. Noctes Atticae. 13 Nov.ll*9u.
Aristoteles. De animalibus. 9 Aug. 11*98.
(U3) (Printer: B. de Zanis)
(Gellius and Aristoteles have woodcut
Lyra. Postilla super Ep is tolas. 13 Dec.
' ll*9u. (621) (Printer: J. Hamman, with
his device at the end. (no. 85)
(Has 6l woodcut capitals)
Silius Italicus. Punica. 18 May ll*92.
Ovidius. Metamorphoses. 28 Feb. 11*92/3.
(712) (Printer: B. de Zanis)
Valerius Maximus. Facta et dicta. 30
Boccaccio. Genealogiae. 23 Feb.ll*9l*/5
Thomas Aquinas. Expositio in libros
Posteriorum. 18 Sept.lU95. (95l)
Super quarto libro
Sententiarura. 23 May 11*97. (991)
Guainerio. Opera medica. ll* Feb.
Boethius. De consolatione philosophiae.
11* June 11*98. (159)
Thomas Aquinas. Expositio super libros
De generatione. 22 Dec. 11*98. (953)
(All have woodcut capitals; Boccaccio
and the 11*95 Thomas Aquinas have dia-
Priscianus. Opera. 21 Feb. lU 96/7. (793)
Yuhanna ibn SSrabiyun. Breviarium. 16
Thomas Aquinas. Coramentaria in orones
Epis tolas. 22 Dec.U*98. (9UD
Opuscula. 31 Dec.lU98.
(All have woodcut capitals)
9U-97. After lhQh Scoto ceased to do his own printing, entrusting that
function to some 10 others, chiefly, Boneto Locatelli. In most
cases, Scoto, the publisher, retained the same device which he
had used as printer, varying only the size. But when Johannes
Hamman did the printing (no. 96) he added a delicate background
of vines, reflecting his own device. See nos. 8$ & 86)
9U. (Kristeller 282; Husung 199; BMC V, p. 276, Device B)
95. (Kristeller 281; Husung 198; BMC V, p. 276, Device A)
96. (Husung 203; BMC V, p. 1*23)
97. (Kristeller 28U; Husung 201; BMC V, p. 276, Device D)
VENICE . JOANNES BAPTISTA SESSA
IU has only one book by this printer. It has two devices, one on the title
page and one at the end.
Valla. Elegantiae linguae Latinae. 8 Feb.lU99A500. (1039)
(No. 98 is on the title page; 99 at the end)
(Has I4.3O woodcut capitals)
VENICE . LAZARO DE SOARDIS, Publisher
IU has one book published by Soardisj it contains his device.
Vincent ius Ferrerius. Sermones. 2 Nov.lli96. (106U)
(Printer: Jacobus Pentius)
(Has woodcut illustration on title page)
98, 99. Joannes Baptista Sessa had two devices, both of which appear here
in the same book. At least three variations of the orb and cross
design are known, all of them containing the printer's initials
within the orb. There were two versions of the cat and mouse theme,
the one shown here being the earlier. Probably no significance is
to be attached to the design, but Sessa' s 16th-century successors
added a motto: Dissimilium infida societas, "Untrustworthy is the
society of dissenters. 11 By that time the mouse was looked upon as
a symbol of the heretic and the motto was intended as a protestation
(Kristeller 289, 291 J Husung 205, 210 j BMC V, p. 1*79, Devices A
and C; Willoughby, in Lib . Quart . 2(1932)1*23)
100. This is one of the few examples of the orb and cross with one, instead
of two crosspieces. An earlier device (lii90 & ll*92) had the usual double
cross. The initials, L S, are, of course those of the publisher, La-
zarus de Soardis. The figure below the horizontal in the orb has been
thought to be the letter 0, the second letter of Soardis' name; or pos-
sibly, a variation of the original dot in the device of Johannes de
Colonia. The nib or boss at the base of the orb is fairly common about
(Kristeller 301; Husung 212; BMC V, p. 1*90, Device B)
VENICE . BERNARDINUS STAGNINUS
IU has 3 books by this printer (10 Apr.lU86-l6 Sept.lU95).
The last has
orpus juris civilis. Codex. 16 Sept. 11*9!?. (296)
VENICE . BERNARDINUS STAGNINUS , Publisher
IU has one book with Stagninus as publisher instead of printer,
a different device.
*Lyra. Postilla super Epistolas. 13 Feb.l^OO/Ol. (622)
(Printer: G. Tacuino, with his device at the end. (no.lOU)
(Has woodcut capitals)
101. Stagninus is the first printer in Italy to use a heart-shaped orb in
his device. This is one of about seven variations of the design
which he used. The S, wound around the cross, is the initial of the
printer's last name, his first initial, B, being placed within the
heart. Stagninus even had his device carved on his grave monument,
as Scoto had done. (See no. 93)
(Husung 215; BMC V, p.361i, Device Bj Davies 177; Fumagalli, p.U58-9)
HfBERNARDlNVi DE FERRARII5 1 .
JDETRiDlNO MOINTI5F- 5TA|
C^. ET 5V15
102. Stagninus had another device with the figure of St. Bernardinus, his
patron saint, and also his shop sign. The saint wears the Franciscan
habit, carries a book and an inkwell and the sacred symbol, IHS. The
three mitres represent the three bishoprics he had refused. This is
the only occasion on which Stagninus acted as a publisher instead of a
(Kristeller 3lU; Husung 217; Davies 225; BMC V, p. 363, $3k)
VENICE. GIOVANNI TACUINO
IU has 17 books printed by Tacuino (after 8 May Ik 92 -after 1500?), Ik of
which have his device.
Silius Italicus. Punica. 20 Sept.lU93. (880) (Device wanting in IU copy)
Mancinellus. Carmen de floribus. 11 Dec.lli93. (626)
(Both books have woodcut capitals)
Curtius Rufus. Historiae Alexandri Magni. 17 July U+9U. (310)
Juvenalis. Satyrae. 28 Jan.Ui9U/5. (566)
Persius. Satyrae. lU Feb.lli9li/5. (739)
Tortelli. Orthographia. 19 Dec.Hi95. (1021)
Diodorus Siculus. Bibliothecae historicae libri VI. 20 Sept. Hi 96
Mancinellus. Carmen de floribus. 11 May Hi 97. (627)
Ovidius. Fasti. 12 June Hi 97. (711 )
Seneca. Tragoediae. 7 Apr.Hi98. (869)
Ovidius. Tristia. 26 Mar.Hi99. (718)
Persius. Satyrae. k Nov.Hi99. (7liO)
Lyra. Postilla super Epistolas. 13 Feb.l500/01. (622)
(Publisher: B. Stagninus, with his device on title page. (no. 102)
Ovidius. De arte amandi. after 15007 (708)
(All books, except the first and fourth, have woodcut capitals;
the 2d, 3d, & 10th have illustrations also)
103. For his first device, Giovanni Tacuino adapted the block of his kins-
man, Guilelmus Anima Mia, who had joined his firm in Hi92. For the
original initials, which had been added in type, he substituted his
own initials, I T, also in type. The letters, P and C, on the scroll
probably stand for Pian Cereto, the native town of both printers.
The significance of the birds, rabbits, flowers and tree, if any,
is not clear.
(Kristeller 32$; Husung 218; BMC V, p. $27, Device A, and p.xxxvi)
10U. In most of his books printed in lh9k-l$00, Tacuino used a variation
of the orb and cross design consisting of two concentric circles
with the double cross and his initials, Z T, for Zovanni (i.e. Gio-
vanni) de Tridino, below the horizontal within the circles.
(Kristeller 326; Husung 220; BMC V, p. $27, Device B)
VENICE . BAPTISTA DE TORTIS
IU has 10 books printed by Tortis (Hi Mar. 11} 82-5, 10 Sept.l500)j five have
Catholic Church. Pope, 129U-1303 (Boni- Corpus juris civilis. Volumen par-
" facius VIII). Liber sextus Decretali- "vum. 3 Nov.lii97. (300)
urn. 1, 15 Apr.lU9U. (236)
prpus juris civilis. Codex. 29 July 1U96.
Baldo degli Ubaldi. Super I-H Codicis.
3 June-5 Sept. Hi 96. (93)
Catholic Church. Pope, 129U-1303 (Boni-
facius VIII). Liber sextus Decreta-
lium. 5, 10 Sept. 1500. (237)
105-107. The design of the devices of Baptista de Tortis remained the same
throughout his long and prolific activity. But there were at
least seven blocks, differing only in small details. The three
examples shown here represent the last three variations and differ
in 1) the overall size, 2) the size of the orb, 3) the size of the
pointed extension at the foot of the orb, k) the placing of the dot
in the lower part of the orb, and 5) the distance of the printer's
initials, B T, from the staff of the cross.
(Kristeller 321, 322; Husung 233, 235, 236j BMC V, p. 320, Devices
E, F, Gj Davies lltf)
VENICE. BERNARDINUS VENETUS DE VITALIBUS
IU has 5 books by this printer working alone (lij98"-after 1J>00 ); only one has
Leto. Romanae historiae compendium. 12 Dec. 1$00. (59U)
(Has woodcut capitals)
VENICE . BERNARDINUS & MATTHAEUS
VENETUS DE VITALIBUS
IU has one book by these printers; it has
the device of Bernardinus.
VENICE . UNIDENTIFIED PUBLISHER
IU has one book by this anonymous
Sabellico. Enneades. 31 Mar. Ui98. (8Uo7
This book has a device of Bernardinus Venetus deJTitalibus in red at the end;
on the title page is the device of this anonymous publisher.
(Has woodcut capitals)
108. This small, stocky orb and croBS is a late derivative of the larger
version (no. 109).
(Kristeller 333; Husung 238; BMC V, p.5U6, Device A)
109. Here, again, is an example of the rare orb and cross with a single
crosspiece, the first of its kind in Venice. The heavy design is
lightened by the surrounding vines (Latin vitis ), playing on the name
of the printer. The initials, B V, stand for Bernardinus Venetus (or
Vitalibus ) .
(Kristeller 332; Husung 237; BMC V, p.5U6, Device B)
110. The owner of this handsome device in the form of a mural tablet with
Renaissance ornament has never been identified. The monogram, with
the letters IT (or T I), D D, and D E? is a complete mystery. All
that is known is that this is the device of the publisher for whom
Bernardinus and Matthaeus Venetus de Vitalibus (whose device appears
at the end of the volume) printed this book.
(Kristeller 335; Husung 239; BMC V, p.$U7)
IU has 17 books printed at Vicenza by 9 printers (llt75-lU98)j k books by
a single printer have devices.
VICENZA . HENRICUS DE SANCTO URSIO
IU has h books printed by Sancto Ursio (21 Sept. 16 0ct.lU86-l6 Dec. 11*98),
all of which contain his device.
\v \ ^ \ vy
N luuTil ;
X X-\ \ \ S\
Tiene. Expositio in Aristotelem De anima. 21 Sept. 16 Oct. 11*86. (1007)
Recollectae super Physica Aristotelis. 23 Apr.H*87. (1008)
Apuleius. Opera. 9 Aug.lU88. (1*0)
Martianus Capella. De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii. 16 Dec. Hi 98. (61*8)
(Has one woodcut diagram)
111. The orb and cross design with single crosspiece is found in Italy
first at Vicenza (ll+8$). In this example, the letters, R 7,
stand for the printer's Italian name, Rigo Vicentino (or possibly
(Kristeller 3^7} Husung 2U2; BMC VII, p.lOWij Davies 18$)
IU has 77 books printed in two Swiss cities, 76 by 16 printers at Basel
(ca.lii70-after 1500) and one book printed at Beromunster (ca. 11*73 )
Nine of those printed at Basel contain printer's devices. Three con-
tain also other woodcuts.
BASEL . JOHANN BERGMANN
IU has 5 books printed by Bergroann 0M9h-lk99)i two have his device.
Brant. Das Narrenschiff . Latin. 1 Aug. 11*97. (181)
1 Mar. U* 98. (182)
(Device is wanting in IU copy)
(Both volumes have woodcut illustrations)
112. This is the second of Bergmann's five devices, the central feature of
which is the shield - here supported by a single lion - adorned with
six mounds or hills surmounted by a lily. The significance of these
elements has been variously explained. The mounds are said to repre-
sent the arms of the town of Breisach, and the lily to refer to Cob-
lenz. But there is no evidence of Bergmann's connection with either
of these cities. It has also been proposed that the mounds constitute
a mountain ( Berg ), a play on the printer's name. The motto, Nihil
sine causa , "Nothing without cause" (Job $16) is said to have been
suggested to Bergmann by his good friend, Sebastian Brant, author of
the Narrenschiff , the first edition of which had been printed by Berg-
mann in I49I1. The date, 11*97, in the device shown here, is the publi-
cation date of the book in which it appears. Albrecht Diirer has
sometimes been credited with this design.
(Weil k9', BMC III, p.79U, Device B; Davies 32; Willoughby in Lib .
Quart . 12(191*2)285; Meiner, p. 21; Oeldner I, p. 128)
BASEL . MICHAEL FURTER
IU has 8 books printed by Furter (ca.LU89-after 1$00); one has his device.
Ivo, Saint. Liber decretorum. 6 & 7 Mar.LU99. (522)
(Has woodcut capitals and an illustration)
BASEL . NICOLAUS KESLER
IU has 7 books by this printer (28 Feb.LU86-ca.LU96); four of them contain
Petrus Lombardus. Sententiarum libri quatuor. 28 Feb.LU86. (75U); 22 Sept.
1U88. (756)j 18 Feb.LU92. (7$8)
Gregorius I, the Great. Moralia. LU96. (U39)
(Each volume has a xylographic capital on the title page)
113. These two shields, suspended from a bare branch, each supported by
a griffin, contain l) the monogram of the printer, Michael Purter,
with a cross rising from the M, and 2) the arms of the city of
(Weil U5j BMC III, p. 781, Device Bj Moran, p.20)
111*. Nicolaus Kesler printed his device at the end of the first book that
came from his press and he continued to use the same device through-
out the entire period of his activity. The design is the typical
German double shield. On the left one are three kettlehooks ( Kes -
selhaken ), a play on the printer's name; the right shield contains
the initial of his surname, K, with a cross extending to the right.
(Weil 1*0; Davies 8} Moran, p. 11, 17)
BASEL . MICHAEL WBNSSLER
IU has lU books printed by Wenssler, working alone (ca.ll*7U-ll*86).
one contains his device.
Corpus juris civilis. Institutiones . 31 July 11*78. (299)
BASEL . JAKOB WOLFF
IU has 3 books by this printer (11*92-11*99); only the last has his
Reginaldetus . Speculum finalis retributionis . 11*99. (818)
115. Michael Wenssler was the first printer at Basel to use a device, of
which he had five. In this, his second device, two shields sus-
pended from a stag's antler, display, on the left, a so-called
"curtailed cross," apparently of no heraldic significance, and,
on the right, the arms of the printer's family, native of the city
of Sternbachj hence the representation of a brook ( Bach ) between
two stars ( Stern ).
(Weil 37 i BMC III, p.719, Device 2; Painter, p. 211, 212)
116. In this device of Jakob Wolff, an angel holds two shields, the left
one bearing the arms of the city of Basel and the right one the
printer's merchant's mark, consisting of two Vs, one inverted over
the other, and with a "four" sign reversed, with a cross through the
tail. If the artist, Albrecht Diirer, did not actually create this
design, his influence can clearly be seen.
(Weil Ul; BMC III, p.776j Willoughby, in Lib . Quart . 13(19U3)62)
*i v s
> t* jC SB
35 21 58 J2i
12 6 16 9
23 1 6 kz 23
2 1 6 1
10 365 19
1 *1 2
PRINTING CENTERS for 10 Books with DeTices
(Names of Publishers are underlined)
Bae , Qovaert 1 , 2
Dorp, Roland ran der 3
Ratdolt, i-.rhard 32
Bergmann, Johann 112
Furter, Michael 113
nesler, Nicolaus 11*
Wenssler, Michael 115
Wolff, Jakob 116
Bazaleriis, Coliguln de k$.
Benedetti, Francesco rlatone de *6
Kttore, Benedetto d' %7 , %8
Rugenus, l/go ky
Boninia, bonmo de 50
Britannici, Angelo u Giacomo 51
, Giacomo 52, 53
Farfengus, baptista 5*
Ther Hoernen, Arnold 33
Meer, Jacob Jacobseoen Tan der *3
Breda, Jacobus de kk
Westminster 5 6
Florence 55 1 56
Miscomini, Antonio 55
Paeini, Piero 56
Freiburg im Breisgau 3V,
Riederer, Friedrich ~$k
Freiburg im Breisgau 3*
Strnssburg 'i1, l \2
5 e u
a o 3 3
c a 3 g j >
!? 8 2 ' 3 *. PRINTING CENTERS for IU Books with Devices
& .H *
b * * a: JSk S
3 2 13 3 HOLLAND *3 4*
1111 Delft *3
2 1 12 2 Deventer 44
183 50 524 116 ITALY ty-1 if
7 4 20 11 Bologna 45-^9
5 ^ 1^ 6 Brescia 50-5*
11 2 2* 3 Florence 55, 56
15 3 28 4 Milan 57-59
2 15 2 Modana 60
1111 Naples 61
113 3 Parma 62, 63
2 12 1 Reggio Emilia 6*
13 1 55 1 Rome 65, 66
1111 Scandiano 67
108 30 339 79 Veniee 68-110
9 1 17 4 Vieenza 111
8 2 31 4 Leipzig 35-37
7 3 Landsberg, Martin 35, 36
1 1 Thanner, Jakob 37
2 1 K 2 London 4
2 2 Pynson, Richard h
12 6 16 9 Lyons 7-13
11 Du Pre 7
1 1 Lathomi, ferrinus, Johannis, Bonifacius, &
Villa Veteri, Johannes de 8
11 Marechal, Pierre & Chaussard , Barnabe 9
1 1 Philippi, Nicolaus 10
3 3 Trechael, Johannes 11, 12
2 2 Wolf, Nicolnus 13
4 1 10 4 Mainz 38
6 h S*h6f fer, Peter 38
116 1 Msaaingen 39
6 1 Kunne, Albrecht 39
15 3 28 4 Milan 57-59
1 1 Bissoli, Gioyanni & Mangio, Benedetto 57
(Publisher: Demetrius Chalcondylas )
4 2 Seinzenzeler, tfldericus 58
1 1 -- , & Pontremoli,
Sebastiano de 59
2 1 I I Hodena 60
2 2 Bertocehl, Dionigi 60
1 1 1 1 Saplea 61
1 1 Cant> Ayolfus de 61
2* 16 kz 23 Paria H-;i
1 1 Aljate . Alexandre 1%
(Printer: Quy Merchant)
2 1 Baligamlt, Felix 15
3 1 Bocard, Andre 16
(Publisher: Durand Gerlier , with his device)
PRINTING CENTERS for 1U Books with Devices
Caillaut, Antoine 17
Denidel, Antoine 18
Qerlier . Durand 19
(Printer j Andre Boeard, with his device)
Jehanot, Etienne 20
Kerver, Thielman 21
(Publisher: Jean Petit , with his device)
Levet, Pierre 22
Marehant, Guy 23, 2k
Marnef , Enguilbert de 25
(Printer: Andre Boeard or Te'lix Baligault;
Petit . Jean 26, 27
(Printers: Guy Merchant; Thielman server)
Philippi, Johann 28
Pigouchet, Philippe 29
(Publisher: Simon Vostre;
Roce . Denis 30, 31
"TPrinters: Pierre roulhac; Uuy Marehant; Andre
Boeard; Michel Tholose)
Parma 62, 63
Ogoletua, Angelus 62. , 63
Reggio Emilia 6'*
Mazalibus, Franciscus de 64
Rome 65, 66
Silber, Eucharius 65, 66
Pasquali, Pellegrino dei & Crivello, uasparo 67
Drach, Peter kO
S trass burg 41 , 42
Gruninger, Johann 41
Sehott, Martin 42
Arrivabenus, Georgius 68, 69
(Publisher: Benedetto Fontana )
Benalius, Bernardinus 71
__________ & Capcasa, natteo 70
Bevilaqua, Simon 72-74
Biond6 , Qirolamo 7$
(Printer: Matteo Capcasa t
Blast os , Mikolaoa 76
(Printer: Zacharias Kallierges, with his device;
Calcedonius, Alexander 77
(Printers: Otinus, de Luna; Petrus de Quarengiis;
h 4> >
4) o 2
p h e
O -H O
ss > *
PRINTING CENTERS for ID Books with Devices
Colonia , Johannes
Socii 78, 79
dr;, Jcnson, Nicolaus et
I Printer: Johannes Herbort)
Emericus do Spira, Johannes 80
(Publisher: Lucantonio Giunta , with his device)
Fontana , Benedetto 81
(Printers: Georgius Arrivabenus; Fhilippus
Giunta , Lucantonio 82, 83
Gregoriis, Giovanni & Gregorio de* 8^
Hamman, Johannes 85 , 86
(Publisher: Ottaviano Scoto )
Kallierges, Zacharias 87
(Publisher: Nlkolaos Blastoa , with his device)
Madiis , Franciscus de 80
V. Printer: Hannibal Foxius et Socii)
Pasquali, Pellegrino dei 90
& Bertocchi, Dionigi 89
Rizzo, Bernardinus 91
Santritter, Joannes Lucilius & Sanctis, Hierony-
mus de 92
Scoto, Ottaviano 93
Scoto , Ottaviano 9%-97
(Printers: Bonoto Locatelli; Bartholomaeus de
Zanis; Johannes Hamman, with his device)
Sessa, Joannes Baptista 98, 99
Soardis , Lazaro de 100
(Printer: Jacobus Pentius)
Stagninus, Bernardinus 101
Stagninus, Bernardinus 102
(, Printer: Giovanni Tacuino, with his device)
Tacuino, Giovanni 103, 10%
^Publisher: Bernardinus Stagninus )
Tortis, Baptista de 105-107
Unidentified Publisher 110
(Printer: Bernardinus &
Vitalibus, with device)
Venetus de Vitalibus, Bernardinus
& Matthaeus 109
Worde, Vfynkyn de 6
Index of Printers, Publishers, and Places
(Names of Publishers are underlined)
Aliate, Alexander (Paris) lU
ANTWERP - - 1-3
Arrivabenus, Georgius (Venice)- 68-69
Bac, Govaert (Antwerp) 1-2
Baligault, Felix (Paris ) 1$
Bazaleriis, Caligula de (Bologna) U5
Benalius, Bernardinus (Venice ) 71
Benalius, Bernardinus & Capcasa, Matteo (Venice) 70
Benedetti, Francesco Platone de (Bologna) U6
Bergmann, Johann (Basel) 112
Bertocchi, Dionigi (Modena)- 60
Bevilaqua, Simon (Venice) 72-7U
Biondo, Qirolamo (Venice) 75
Bissoli, Giovanni & Manglo, Benedetto (Milan) -57
Bias toe , Nikolaos (Venice) 76
Bocard, Andre* (Paris ) 16
Boninis, Bonino de (Brescia) 50
Breda, Jacobus de (Deventer) Uk
Britannici, Angelo & Giacomo (Brescia) 51
Britannici, Giacomo (Brescia) 52-53
Caillaut, Antoine (Paris) 17
Calcedonius, Alex ander (Venice) 77
Cantono, Ayolfus de (Naples) 61
Caxton, William (Westminster) 5
COLOGNE- - 33
Colonia , Johannes de , Jenson, Nicolaus , et Socil (Venice) -78, 79
Denidel, Antoine (Paris ) 18
Dorp, Roland van den (Antwerp) -3
Drach, Peter (Speier) U0
Du Pre, Jean (Lyons) 7
Emericus de Spira, Johannes (Venice) -80
ENGLAND - - U-6
Ettore, Benedetto d' (Bologna) U7, U8
Farfengus, Baptista (Brescia) 5U
FLORENCE - 55-56
Fontana , Benedetto (Venice) 81
FREIBURG IM BREISGAU 34
Furter, Michael (Basel) - 113
Gerlier, Durand (Paris) 19
GERMANY - 32 -k2
GjLunta, Lucantonio (Venice) 82, 83
Gregori, Giovanni & Gregorio (Venice) 8U
Grtfninger, Johann (Strassburg) Ul
Hamman, Johannes (Venice) 85, 86
Hectoris, Benedictus See Ettore, Benedetto d*
HOLLAND - - U3
Jehanot, Etienne (Paris)- 20
Kallierges, Zacharias (Venice) 87
Kerver, Thielman (Paris) 21
Kesler, Nicolaus (Basel)- llU
Kunne, Albrecht (Meraraingen) 39
Landsberg, Martin (Leipzig) 35 36
Lathomi, Perrinus, Johannls, Bonifacius,
& Villa Veteri, Johannes (Lyons) 8
LEIPZIG 3$, 36
Levet, Pierre (Paris ) 22
Madiis , Franc iscus de (Venice) 88
MAINZ ~ - 38
Manuzio, Aldo Pio (Venice) 88a
Marchant, Guy (Paris) 23, 2k
Marechal, Pierre & Chaussard, Barnabl (Lyons) 9
Marnef, Enguilbert de (Paris) 25
Mazalibus, Franciscus de (Reggio Emilia) 6k
Meer, Jacob Jacobszoen van der (Delft) U3
Miscomini, Antonio (Florence ) 55
MODENA - 60
NAPLES- - 61
NETHERLANDS See BELGIUM; HOLLAND
Pacini , Piero (Florence) 56
PARIS - 1U-31
PARMA - 62, 63
Pasquali, Pellegrino dei (Venice) 90
Pasquali, Pellegrino dei & Bertocchi, Dionigi (Venice) 89
Pasquali, Pellegrino dei & Crivello, Gasparo (Seandiano) 67
Petit , Jean (Paris) 26, 27
Philippi, Johann (Paris) 28
Philippi, Nicolaus (Lyons ) 10
Pigouchet, Philippe (Paris) 29
Pynson, Richard (London) k
Ratdolt, Erhard (Augsburg) 32
RBQOIO EMILIA - 6U
Riederer, Friedrich (Freiburg im Bretsgau) 3U
Rizzo, Bernardino (Venice) 91
Roce, Denis (Paris) 30, 31
ROME - - - - 65, 66
Rugerius, Ugo (Bologna) U9
Sancto Ursio, Henricus de (Vicenza) 111
Santritter, Johannes Lucilius & Sanctis, Hieronymus de (Venice) 92
SCANDIANO - - 67
SchBffer, Peter (Mainz)- - - - 38
Schott, Peter (Strassburg) U2
Scinzenzeler, Uldericus (Milan) 58
Scinzenzeler, Uldericus 4 Pontreraoli, Sebastiano de (Milan) 59
Scoto, Ottaviano (Venice) 93
Scoto , Ottaviano (Venice) 9U-97
Sessa, Joannes Baptists (Venice) 98, 99
Silber, Eucharius (Rome)- 65, 66
Soardis, Lazaro de (Venice) 100
Stagninus, Bernardinus (Venice) 101
Stagninus , Bernardinus (Venice) 102
STRASSBURQ - 1*1, U2
Tacuino, Giovanni (Venice) 103, 10U
Thanner, Jakob (Leipzig) 37
Ther Hoernen, Arnold (Cologne) 33
Tortis, Baptista de (Venice) 105-10?
Trechsel, Johannes (Lyons) 11, 12
Ugoletus, Angelus (Parma) 62, 63
Unidentified Publisher (Venice ) 110
Venetus de Vitalibus, Bernardinus (Venice) 108
Venetus de Vitalibus, Bernardinus & Matthaeus (Venice) 109
VICENZA - Ill
Wenssler, Michael (Basel) 115
WESTMINSTERS - 5, 6
Wolf, Nicolaus (Lyons) 13
Wolff, Jakob (Basel) - 116
Worde, Wynkyn de (Westminster) 6