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Full text of "Printer's and publisher's devices in incunabula in the University of Illinois Library"

LIBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 

AT URBANA-CHAMBMGN 



MS 
Q.093 
H22p 




RARE BOOK ROOM 



PRINTER'S AND PUBLISHER'S DEVICES 
IN INCUNABULA IN THE 
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS LIBRARY 



URBANA, ILLINOIS 
1983 



CONTENTS 

Introduction p.l-U 

References p. $-7 

Printer's and Publisher's Devices no. 1-116 

Printing Centers p. 9-12 

Index of Printers, Publishers, and Places p. 15-17 



. 






qQ 3 OWL '^Wk ktu, 



CONTENTS 

Introduction p.l-ii 

References p. S>-7 

Printing Centers p. 10-12 

Printer's and Publisher's Devices no. 1-116 

Index of Printers, Publishers, and Places p. 15-17 



I , 

- . I . . , , 



1 



The University of Illinois collection of incunabula is a miniature ver- 
sion of the total book production of the l$th century in Europe. As ap- 
parent from the following tables, it has roughly the same temporal, geo- 
graphical, and subject distribution. The statistics for the 10 holdings 
are shown here in columns parallel with the figures for the total European 
production, as projected by Leonardus Qerulaitis^ 

Rate of Book Production 

Total 10 
ll*50-U*80 2ll 25$ 
ll*8l-li*90 29$ 30$ 
11*91-1500 50$ 1*5$ 

Book Production by Country Book Production by Subject 

Total 10 Total 10 

Italy 1*1.9$ h9.k% Religious 38$ 1*3$ 

Germany 29.5$ 3l*.5$ Literary 3U$ 33$ 

France 15.6$ 5.6$ Legal ll*$ .3$ 

Netherlands 2% 2.1$ Philosophical 

Switzerland 2.9$ 7$ & Scientific ll*$ .9$ 

England 1.2$ 1$ 

Although somewhat deficient in books printed in France and in the fields 
of Law, Philosophy, and Science, the collection is fairly representative. 
It has been estimated^ that two-thirds of all incunabula were produced in 
12 centers t Germany (5 cities), Italy (1* cities), Basel, Paris, and Lyons. 

The present study undertakes to reproduce and comment upon the printer's 
devices found in the Oniversity of Illinois Library's incunabula. 

A printer's device is a mark, usually a woodcut - occasionally a metal- 
cut - placed at the end or on the title page of a book, as a sort of sig- 
nature, identifying the person or firm responsible for the production of 
the book and from whom it could be bought. Early printers were not quick 
to adopt such devices and to display them in their books. It was from 2 
to 13 years after the introduction of printing in the principal European 
countries before the first device appeared. 



First 


First 


First 


First 


Printed Bpok 


Book, at IU 


Prater 's Devi.ce 


10 Device 


Germany ll*51*-5 


U*51*-5 


11*57 or 11*62 


11*69 


Italy U*65 


1U68 


11*78 


11*81 


Switzerland ca. 11(68 


11*70 


11*76 


11*78 


France ll*70 


11*79 


11*83 


ca.ll*90 


Holland ca. ll*7l/3 


11*81 


11*77 


11*81* 


Belgium ll*73 


11*71* 


11*75 


11*97 


England 11*76 


11*81 


11*85 


11*89 



1. p. 60-61 

2. Gerulaitis, p. 67. 



Of the 1085 fifteenth-century books in this collection, produced by 3Ui 
printers and/or publishers, 188 volumes (about 1Q%) by 93 printers (about 
27^) contain devices of printers, or publishers, or both. Examples of 113 
of the estimated 660 identified European devices 1 are to be found here. 
For specifics, see the tables on p. 9-12. 

The development and elaboration of printer's devices in the 15th ceatury 
went hand- in hand with the development of woodcutting*, and, while general- 
ly not to be compared to the artistic creations of the l6th century, they 
are still interesting. 

Early in the history of printing it became the style to provide some 
books with ornamentation, such as capitals, borders, illustrations, dia- 
grams, portraits, and printer's devices. Some Ul5 volumes in the IU col- 
lection (about 3Q%) contain such ornamentation; a little less than a quar- 
ter of these have printer's devices. In some 85 volumes, the device is 
the only cut in the book, while about 100 volumes contain also other dec- 
orations, from a single capital (no.l6) to as many as $66 (no. 37) and 
from a single small diagram (no. Ill) to 796 illustrations (no. 37). 

Most of the 15th-century devices fall into one or the other of two 
groups. The first device, that of Fust and Schoffer in the 1U62 Bible - 
or, possibly, in the lu57 Psalter3- consists of two shields suspended from 
a branch. (See no. 38 for a ll|69 version.) This pattern was followed, 
with variations, especially in the Germanic countries. In the IU col- 
lection, 9 designs of this basic type are found in German, Swiss, and Bel- 
gian books j in Italy it appears only once, in a modified form, in which 
the two shields hang separately from two branches of a tree (no.72). 

Very soon, a single shield appeared, alone (no. 33) J or with a single 
supporter (no. 112) in Germany and Switzerland; or with two supporters, 
such as monkeys (no. 15), rams (no. 19), unicorns (no. 21), griffins 
(no. 30), in France, where it was especially popular. 

The second basic design was the orb and cross, introduced in Venice 
in 11*81, by the publishing firm of Johannes de Colonia, Nicolaus Jen- 
son et Socii (no. 78). This simple pattern, with variations, became 
practically a trademark of Italian printers. There are 32 examples of 
it among IU books printed in Italy; France has 7 versions; Germany, two. 

Both the double shield and the orb and cross have been identified as 
"housemarks.* Originating in the Middle Ages, the housemark was the 
stamp which artisans and businessmen put upon their products for pur- 
poses of identification. It is not always possible to identify such 
marks, but, with variations and ornamental decorations, they appear in 
many printer's devices. Frequently embodying the housemark were the shop 
signs, those ingenious substitutes for house numbers, which took the form 
of various creatures, real or imaginary. These shop signs are often found 
in devices (no. 21). In one case (no. 28), it appears that the process was 

1. Davies, p. 113. 

2. Meiner, p. 11. 

3. Meldau, p. 112; Painter, p. 211*; Davies, p.110; Clair, p.lll. 



reversed, when Johann Philippi, moving from his original shop, adopted as the 
sign for his new shop the design which he had previously used as his device. 
Similarly, the name of the street on which a shop was located sometimes 
provided the motif for a device (no. 20). 

Before long, it was felt that the basic designs needed to be made still 
more specific in order to insure accurate identification. In 1U71, Ther 
Hoernen, at Cologne, solved the problem by adding his initials to his tiny 
shield (no. 33). Other printers followed suitj initials or monograms are 
present in U8 of the IU devices. Later, the monogram assumed greater im- 
portance, sometimes completely replacing the original shield or orb (no.7). 
But even this was not enough for some entrepreneurs, especially in France; 
they went so far as to spell out their full names . Of 11 such devices at 
IU, 7 are those of French printers, 3 Italian, and one Swiss. 

Punning devices were fairly common. In these, the design of "Uie device 
contains a play on the name of the printer (no.U) or of his native city 
(no. 56). The arms of the printer's family (no. 115) and of his home town 
(no. 39) also provided the motif for devices. 

French printers were partial to mottoes or quotations, which they cut on 
scrolls or borders of their devices (no. 28, 30). In one case (no. .23) the 
first few words of a hymn are represented by a rebus. 

One unanswered question is why printers, when once they had adopted a de- 
vice, did not display it in every book they printed. Some, like Tacuino 
and Scoto, at Venice, seldom issued a book without their mark; some used a 
device in their earlier books, then suddenly stopped; others used a device in- 
termittently, for no apparent reason. It has been suggested^ that devices 
are more frequently found in books in the vernacular than in Latin. The IU 
collection, with only 59 vernacular texts, cannot offer much evidence on 
this point, but it is true that about 25$ of the 59 volumes contain printer's 
devices as compared with about 16$ of the Latin titles. 

It has also been claimed that "the majority of fifteenth-century printers 
who specialize in the classics, in grammar, rhetoric, or Latin poetry, do 
not use the printer's mark - elt was _ added as a help for the many illiter- 
ate people who had to handle the book: the packers, the carriers, the work- 
men at the binders." 2 In the IU collection, about 2$% of the books in clas- 
sics, grammar and mediaeval literature have printer's devices, a larger pro- 
portion than is found in the fields of theology and religion, where only 
about 1$% of the volumes have devices. 

Some printers, having adopted a device, used the same design - even the 
same block - throughout their period of activity, e.g., Andre Bocard (no. 
16), Jakob Thanner (no. 36), Ugo Rugerius (no.U9). Sometimes they retained 
the same design, but had it cut in two or more sizes to fit books of various 
sizes (Trechsel, no. 11, 12; Johannes de Colonia, no. 78, 79)o Again, an 
original design was modified by the addition of decorative details (Scoto, 
no. 96, 97). Some printers had two or more very different designs (Bevilaqua, 

1. Kristeller, p. XI. 

2. Goldschmidt, p. 81. 



no. 72-71*, Sessa, no. 98, 99). Occasionally, a device is known to have passed 
from one printer to another, unchanged (Caxton-Worde, no., 6), or with the 
substitution of one set of initials for another (Anima Mia-Tacuino, 
103). 

Since the device served as the signature of the person or firm claiming 
responsibility for a book, it was naturally placed at the end of the volume. 
But toward the beginning of the last decade of the century, some printers 
developed elaborate devices, too large to fit readily after the colophon. 
The alternative was to move them to the title page. Then came the pub- 
lisher. As the cost of producing books rose, printers found it necessary 
to seek relief from their financial and managerial burdens. The answer was 
the publisher, whose contribution to the process of publication was deemed 
important enough to be recognized by a device in a prominent place - the 
title page. In turn, the printer became little more than a technician, 
deserving notice, if at all, only at the end of the volume. In the IU 
collection, the devices of lU printers and 9 publishers appear on title 
pages. Ten of these printers and U publishers were French; in Italy, de- 
vices of 5 publishers appear on title pages, while only one printer attain- 
ed that position. A few publishers, for reasons unknown, were content with 
the end position for their devices; at IU two of these are French and seven 
Italian. In Germany, publishers did not gain anything like the importance 
that they did in France and Italy. In the IU collection, German publishers 
are named in only three books, and none of them had a device. 

Most devices, as noted above (p.l) were printed from woodblocks. How- 
ever, the earliest examples of the two basic designs, the double shield of 
Fust and Schb*ffer and the orb and cross of Johannes de Colonia, Nicolaus 
Jenson et Socii, were metalcuts, rather than woodcuts, and they were print- 
ed in red instead of black. The use of red ink continued sporadically 
throughout the century, especially in legal and liturgical books. In the 
IU collection, 16 volumes contain devices in red, ten of them being print- 
er's and six being publisher's devices. Metal- instead of woodcut devices 
appear occasionally. It is sometimes difficult to distinguish a fine 
woodcut from a metalcut. 

Little is known of the designers and cutters of devices. There seems to 
be no connection between those responsible for the devices and for illus- 
trations and other cuts in books. The devices had a personal connection 
with the printer; they had no relation to the text of the books in which 
they appeared. 

Urbana, Illinois Marian Harman 

2$ January 1983 



References 



Avis 

Avis (196U) 

BMC 

Baer 

Baring-Gould 

Blades 

Clair 

Claudin 

Conway 

Da vies 

Donati 

Duff 

Fumagalli 

Geldner 

Geldner (1966) 

Gerulaitis 
Golds chmidt 



Avis, Frederick C. English printers' marks of the incuna- 
bula period. (In Gutenberg Jahrbuch (1956), p. 111-11$) 

English printers' marks of the fifteenth century. 

London, 1961*. 

British Museum. Dept. of Printed Books. Catalogue of books 
printed in the XVth century now in the British Museum. 
London, 1908-62. 

Baer, Leo. Die illustrierten Historienbucher des 15 . 
Jahrhunderts. Strassburg, 1903. 

Baring-Gould, Sabine. The lives of the saints. Edinburgh, 
191U. 

Blades, William. The biography and typography of William 
Caxton. London, 1877. 

Clair, Colin. A history of European printing. London, 
1976. 

Claudin, Anatole. Histoire de l'imprimerie en France 
au XV siecle. Paris, 1900-lU. l*v. 

Conway, William M. The woodcutters of the Netherlands 
in the fifteenth century. Cambridge, 188U. 

Davies, Hugh W. Devices of the early printers. London, 
1935. 

Donati, Lamberto. Reflessioni sulle marche tipograf iche . 
Bellinzona, 1959. 

Duff, E. Gordon. The printers and booksellers of West- 
minster and London from ll;70 to 1535- Cambridge, 1906. 

Fumagalli, Giuseppe. Lexicon typographicum Italiae. 
Florence, 1905. 

Geldner, Ferdinand. Die deutschen Inkunabeldrucker . 2v. 
Stuttgart, 1968-70. 

- Eingemalte und eingepresste Wappen ex libris, 
XIV: Erhard Ratdolt. (In Archiv fur Geschichte des 
Buchwesens, 8(1966), col. 5-7) 

Gerulaitis, Leonardus V. Printing in fifteenth-century 
Venice. Chicago, 1976. 

Goldschmidt, Ernst P. The printed book of the Renaissance. 
Cambridge, 1950. 



Grimm 

HSbler 

Heitz 

Heitz (Kbln) 

Hind 

Holtrop 

Husung 

Juchhoff 

Kristeller 
Langer 

McKerrow 

McMurtrie 

Meiner 
Meldau 

Meyer 

Moran 
Painter 



Grimm, Heinrich. Das vermeintliche Allianzsignet des 
Fust-Schb'ffer und seine Schildlnhalte . (In Gutenberg 
Jahrbuch (1962), p.Wi6-U55) 

HSCbler, Konrad. Die deutschen Buchdrucker des XV. 
Jahrhunderts im Ausland. Mu'nchen, 1921;. 

Heitz, Paul. Elsa'ssische Bu'chermarken bis Anfang des 18. 
Jahrhunderts. Strassburg, 1892. 

Heitz, Paul. Die Kb'lner Bu'chermarken bis Anfang des XVII, 
Jahrhunderts. Strassburg, 1898. 

Hind, Arthur K. An introduction to a history of woodcut 
2v. London, 1935. 

Holtrop, Jan W. Monuments typographiques des Pays Bas au 
15* siecle. La Haye, 1868. 

Husung, Max J. Die Drucker- und Verlegerzeichen Italiens 
im XV. Jahrhundert. Mu'nchen, 1929. 

Juchhoff, Rudolf. Drucker- und Verlegerzeichen des XV. 
Jahrhunderts in den Niederlanden, England, Spanien, 
Bbhmen, Miihren, und Polen. Mttnchen, 1926. 

Kristeller, Paul. Die italienischen Buchdrucker- und 
Verlegerzeichen bis 1525. Strassburg, 1893. 

Langer, Gottfried. Von vier sich Shnlichen Titelholz- 
schnitten und deren Verwendung als Druckermarken. 
(In Gutenberg Jahrbuch (1977), p. 91-5) 

McKerrow, Ronald B. Printers ' and publishers ' devices 
in England and Scotland, li*85-l6UO. London, 1913. 

McMurtrie, Douglas C. Printers' marks and their signif- 
icance. Chicago, 1930. 

Meiner, Annemarie. Das deutsche Signet. Leipzig, 1922. 

Meldau, Robert. Bildungsgesetze von Drucker- und Ver- 
legerzeichen des 15. Jahrhunderts. (In Gutenberg 
Jahrbuch (19kk-k9), p. 112-17) 

Meyer, Wilhelm J. Die franzosischen Drucker- und Ver- 
legerzeichen des XV. Jahrhunderts. Mu'nchen, 1926. 

Moran, James. Heraldic influences on early printers' 
devices. Leeds, 1978. 

Painter, George D. Michael Wenssler's devices and 
their ancestors. (In Gutenberg Jahrbuch (1959), 
p. 211-19) 



Plomer 
Polain 
Pollard 

Renouard 

Renouard (196$) 
Schmidt 

Scholderer 

Schretlen 

Silvestre 

Sorbelli 

Veyrin-Torres 

Weil 

Willoughby 

Winger 



Plomer, Henry R. Wynkyn de Worde and hia contemporar- 
ies from the death of Caxton to 1$35. London, 1925. 

Polain, Louis. Marques des imprimeurs et libra ires en 
France au XV* siecle. Paris, 1926. 

Pollard, Alfred W. Early illustrated books. 2d ed. 
New York, 1968. 

Renouard, Philippe. Les marques typographiques parisi- 
ennes des XV* 5 et XVI e siecle. Paris, 1926. 

Repertoire des imprimeurs parisiens. Paris, 196$. 

Schmidt, Charles. Repertoire bibliographique strasbour- 
geois jusque vers 1$30. Strasbourg, 1893-6. 

Scholderer, Victor. Fifty essays in fifteenth- and six- 
teenth-century bibliography. Amsterdam, 1966. 

Schretlen, Martinus J. A. M. Printers' devices in Dutch 
incunabula. New York, 1927. 

Silvestre, Louis C. Marques typographiques. 2v, Paris, 
1853-67. 

Sorbelli, Albano. Le marche tipografiche bolognesi nel 
secolo XVI. Milano, 1923. 

Veyrin-Torres, Jeanne. La seconde marque de Durand Qer- 
lier. (In Gutenberg Jahrbuch (i960), p.UlO-13) 

Weil, Ernst. Die deutschen Druckerzeichen des XV. Jahr- 
hunderts. Munchen, 192ii. 

Willoughby, Edwin E. Fifty printers' marks. Berkeley, 
19U7. 

Winger, Howard W. Printers' marks and devices. Chicago, 
1976. 



NOTE 

The figure in parentheses at the end of each citation is 
the number of that item in the book, Incunabula in the 
University of Illinois Library at Urbana - Champaign . (Ur- 
bana, 1979). 

An asterisk () preceding certain entries indicates that 
the device is on the title page. 

A red line (A) below the first letter of an entry indicat- 
es that the device is printed in red. 



BELGIUM 

IU has 10 books printed in Belgium, by $ printers, in two cities. From Ant- 
werp there are 5 volumes, by 3 printers (lU86-ca.l02) an d from Louvain, 5 
volumes by two printers (lli7l*-lU87). Only three volumes, by two Antwerp 
printers contain printer's devices. They also contain woodcut capitals and 
some illustrations. 

ANTWERP . GOVAERT BAC 

IU has two books printed by Bac, both of which have his two devices. 




Holt. Lac puerorum. eafter 1500 3 (1*89) 

(Has woodcut illustrations, capitals) 
*Casus papales. eca.l502 (2l) 
(Has woodcut capitals) 
Both devices appear in both books, the bird-cage at the end and the 
Evangelists on the title page. 



1. The "bird cage" in this device is Bac's housemark, his address being 
"int vogelhuys." It is the device of his predecessor at this shop, 
Matthias van der Goes. Bac changed the initial, M, of van der Goes, to 
his own initials, g b, and added his own mark, the good*luck symbol, U, 
double-crossed and surmounted by a swastika. The shield bears the arms 
of the city of Antwerp, the two severed hands issuing from the central 
tower alledgedly being derived from the practice of punishing pirates 
by cutting off their hands and throwing them into the Schelle. This 
is the third of several versions of this device, which wa3 first used 
in lii6. Books containing this device have also that of the "Evangelists." 
(Juchhoff 8; BMC IX, p. 199, Device Cj Willoughby, in Lib . Quart . 
18(19U8)282j Conway, p. 180, 312; Moran, p. 15) 



2. This device is a reverse copy of that of Jacobus de Breda, at Deventer. 
(See no.Ui) It contains the sacred monogram, ihs, surrounded by the 
symbols of the four Evangelists: the eagle, for John, the ox, for Luke, 
the lion, for Mark, and the angel, for Matthew. It was originally used 
as a title-page woodcut, with no implications of a printer's device, 
but it did serve to identify Breda's books, and Bac used it only on 
title-pages of books in which his "bird-cage" device appears at the end. 
(Juchhoff 10; BMC IX, p. 199, Device E; Conway, p.l60j Hind II, p.58U; 
Langer, p.93-9U) 







Cronike Tan Brabant. 28 Feb.ll*97. (306) 
(Has woodcut illustrations, coats of arms) 



3. For his device Roland van den Dorp chose the figure of his 
namesake, Roland, the French epic hero. He stands here 
blowing his horn, under an archway from which hang two 
shields, the left one bearing the arms of Antwerp and the 
right one displaying what are probably the arms of the 
printer's family. The cut is a free copy of woodcut illus- 
trations in earlier Dutch books of about 1U85 and 1U86. 
(Juchhoff 13 & p.lU, 123; Conway, p. 186; Baer LXXIV) 



ENGLAND 

IU has 11 books printed in England; k by two printers at London (II486- 
15 May 11*99) and 7 by two printers at Westminster (12 Aug.ll*8l-ll*98). 
Two of those printed at London and five at Westminster contain printer's 
devices. They also contain woodcut capitals and some illustrations. 



LONDON. RICHARD PYNSON 



IU has 2 books printed by Pynson (5 July 11*93 & 15 May 11*99) 
contain his device. 



Both 




Parker. Dives and Pauper. 5 July ll*93. (721) 

(Device is wanting in IU copy; 
Galfridus Anglicus. Promptorium parvulorum. 15 May lit 99. (1*09 ) 

(Both books contain woodcut capitals) 



U. Richard Pynson was the first printer at London to use a device, and 
he used it in the very first book he printed (Chaucer's Canterbury 
tales . ll*90). In some 80 books produced before 1$01 he used eight 
different devices, all of them containing his monogram and/or his 
full name, as here. The monogram is on a shield, surmounted by a 
crest and supported by two figures, identified as a boy and a girl, 
or as Adam and Eve. The latter interpretation is supported by the 
belief that Pynson had an earlier career as a glover, and the Glover's 
Guild customarily furnished the actors to play Adam and Eve at the 
Festival of Corpus Christi. In the border, which is a separate block 
but is seldom lacking, the Madonna and Child are in the lower left 
corner and St. Catherine of Alexandria, with her sword, and the Emp- 
eror Maximin at her feet, in the lower right corner. 
There is a play on the printer's name implied in the birds, the so- 
called *gay pinsons" (Norman finches) atop the helmet and in the up- 
per corners. 

(McKerrow 9a; Juchhoff 66; Davies 19,70; Avis (196U), p. 17; 
Winger, in Lib . Quart . 28(1958)3^6; Moran, p.US) 



WESTMINST ER. WILLIAM CAXTON 

IU has three books printed by Caxton (12 Aug.U;8l-lU q 0). Two of them con- 
tain his device. 




m<&/&w&'&:<'<&> 




Roye. Le doctrinal de sapience, cafter 7 May lhQ9= (830) 

(Device is in facsimile in IU copy) 
Image du monde. English. di^Oa (3>0li) 

(Both books contain woodcut illustrations and capitals) 



$. Of the approximately 100 books printed by or for Caxton, only about a 
dozen contain his device, consisting of his initials, W C, separated by 
a design which has been variously interpreted. It seems most likely to 
be a mercer's trademark, which Caxton is known to have used as an official 
stamp before he became a printer. It has also been suggested that it is 
Caxton's housemark; or a date, elliaTU or hi, referring to some unknown e- 
vent in his career; or a mark of a society or guild. The significance of 
the letters, S and C, to the left and right, is also in doubt. Do they 
stand for Sigillum Caxtoni, Santa Colonia, or nothing at all? The device 
was probably cut in England, although its first appearance was in a Sarum 
Missal, printed for Caxton at Paris, by Maynal, k Dec.ll4.87. 

(McKerrow lbj Juchhoff 69; Davies 197; Avis (l96U),p.9-10; Duff, p. 22; 
Blake, p. 121) 



WESTMINSTER . WYNKYN DE WORDE 
IU has four books by this printer (13 Apr. 1495 -lU8). Three have devices, 




If ygy _>^* ^y* ,^S-*^V*^V. *^V "^X, *>^< * 




Higden. Polycronicon. 13 Apr.lU95. (U86) 

(Device is wanting in IU copy) 
Vitae Patrum. cbefore 21 Aug.lli95:> (1070) 

(Device is wanting in IU copy) 
Chaucer. The Canterbury tales. li*98. (#-2$2) 
(Device is in facsimile in IU copy) 
(All volumes contain woodcut capitals; the last two have each a single 
illustration) 



6. When Wynkyn de Worde succeeded Caxton, on the death of the latter in 
1U91, he continued to use Caxton* s device. At first, he apparently 
employed the same woodblock. Throughout his career, he used over 1$ 
devices, all variations of the original design, and always retaining 
Caxton' s initials - unless the W is to be taken as the initial for 
Worde and the C for Caxton? 

(McKerrow lb; Juchhoff, p.68j Davies 197; Plomer, p. 102; Avis (I96U) 
p. 10, 15; Winger (1976), p.9U-95) 



FRANCE 

IU has 58 books printed in France by 35 printers (11*79-1510). Of these, 
32 volumes (16 Sept.lU88-ca.l500) have devices of 16 printers (in 20 vol- 
umes) and 6 publishers (in 12 volumes); in k volumes, devices of both 
printer and publisher appear. In 22 volumes, the device is on the title 
page (11 printer's and 11 publisher's). Eleven devices are metalcuts. 
Eleven volumes have other woodcut or metalcut capitals or illustrations. 

LYONS 
IU has 16 books printed at Lyons by 12 printers (ca. 11*85-10 Dec.l500). 
Nine of these contain devices of 6 printers (6 Sept. 11*88-10 Dec.l500). 
In 6 volumes the device is on the title page. Seven devices are metal- 
cuts. Five volumes contain also woodcut or metalcut capitals and/or 
illustrations . 



LYONS . JEAN EU PR 
IU has one book printed by Du Pre. It contains his device. 

7 




Rudimentum novitiorum. French. La mer des histoires. 20-23 Aug. 11*91. (83I4) 
(Has large woodcut capitals, illustrations (part metalcut), maps, and 
portraits) 



7. Du Pre has chosen to use as his device his own initials, surmounted by 
a cross, a variation of the Italian orb and cross design. This par- 
ticular form is unusual in having the two initials connected by an 
oblique line and in using a slanting crosspiece on the cross. This is 
the only book in which Du Pre surrounded his basic design with a deli- 
cate border. 

(Meyer 31 J Polain 38; Silvestre 263; BMC VIII, p. 282, Device B) 



LYONS . PERRINUS LATHOMI , BONIFACIUS JOHANNIS, & JOHANNES DE VILLA 7ETERI 

IU has one book by these printers; it contains their device. 

8 




Auctores octo. 16 Feb.lU9U/5. (58) 
(Has h woodcut capitals) 

LYONS . PIERRE MARECHAL & BARNABE CHAUSSARD 

IU has only one book by these printers; it contains their device. 

9 




Auctoritates Aristotelis. cca.Ui96-9> (59) 
(Has 2 woodcut capitals) 



8. These printers adopted a version of the orb and cross design in which 
the orb became egg-shaped and the cross had a single crossbar. This 
is the second version of the device of these printers. Originally, 
there was another partner in the fflLrm, represented by an initial, I, 
in the device. After 1U9U, this partner dropped out and the I was 
changed to an L. The initials now stand for the printers' names, P L 
for Perrinus Lathomi, I for Johannes de Villa Veteri, and B for Boni- 
facius Johannis. The shield in the lower border is provided for the 
purchaser of the book to have his arms drawn in. 

(Meyer U6; Polain 53; Silvestre 589; HSbler II, Kristeller 2U0) 



9, This is the last of four variations of this device. The initials, 
standing for the forenames of the printers, Pierre Marechal and Barna- 
be Chaussard, are joined by a looped cord, symbol of the Trinity and 
of eternity. The rosary surrounding the initials may refer to the ad- 
dress of the firm: prope Nostre Dame de Confort . On the scroll above 
the circle are the full names of the printers, Chaussard 's name being 
spelled, Chaussart. The significance of the crown above the top of the 
rosary is not clear. 

(Meyer 5lj Polain $8; BMC VIII, p.3l6, Device B 2 j Silvestre 116; 
Willoughby, in Lib . Quart . l5(l9U5)Hi9; Davies 25) 



LYONS . NICOLAUS PHILIPPI 
Philippi's device appears in the only IU book printed by him. 

10 




France. Laws, statutes, etc., lli22-lU6l (Charles VII). Pragmatica 
sanctio. 6 Sept.lU88. (UOUa) 



LYONS. JO HANNES TRECHSEL 
III has 3 books printed by Trechsel, each of which has his device. 

11 12 








Reginaldetus. Speculum finalis retri- 
butionis. 3 Aug. 1^92. (817) 




Augustinus, Saint. Opus quaesti- 
onum. 25 Apr.lli97. (71) 

Torquemada. Summa de ecclesia. 
20 Sept.lU96. (1017) 
(Device wanting in IU copy) 



10. Philippi's device is the typical orb and cross design, with the orb 
bisected horizontally and a monogram in the lower half. The letters 
are probably N M, the initials of the printer, whose real name was 
Nicolas MuLler. Or, since most of his work was done in partner- 
ship with Marcus Reinhart, possibly the monogram is to be read, 
M N, for Marcus and Nicolas. 

(Meyer 55; Polain 60; BMC VIII, p.2U2, 316, Device B) 



11, 12. Johann Trechsel used the same device throughout his career, 
varying it only in size. It is the orb and double cross 
design, with a vertical instead of the usual horizontal line 
bisecting the orb. Within the orb are the printer's ini- 
tials, I T, and above them are two dots. No. 11 is the 
original block, used 1U86-1U9U, and no. 12 is a larger ver- 
sion, in use 1U93-1U97. In 1U98 he produced a still larger 
form, but used it only once. 

(Meyer 7U & 75; BMC VIII, p. 291, Devices a & j9 j 
Silvestre 2i*2) 



LIONS. NICOLAUS WOLF 

HJ has 2 books printed by N. Wolf (18 Nov. 11*98 & 10 Dec.l500). 
his device. 

13 



Both hare 




Juvenalis. Satyrae. 18 Nov. 11*98. (569) (Device is on leaf c6 T a ) 
" (Printed for ttienne Oueynard) 

(Has woodcut title page illustration and capitals) 
Tartaretus. Expositio super textu Logices. 10 Dec. l00. (917) 

(Device is at end of v.2j wanting in IU copy) 

(Has 3 woodcut diagrams) 



13. The Juvenal is the first of Nicolaus Wolf's books to contain a device, 
It takes the form of a monogram: two overlapping Vs to form a W, sur- 
mounted by the initial of the printer's forename, N, and the "four" 
sign, which BMC identifies as a housemark. 

(Meyer 71; Polain 78 j Silvestre ll5Uj BMC VIII, p. 329, Device A) 



PARIS 

IU has U2 books printed at Paris by 23 printers (Ui7-ca.l500). Of 
these, 23 volumes (ca.lli90-ca.l$00) have devices of 10 printers (in 
11 volumes) and 6 publishers (in 12 volumes); in U volumes, devices 
of both printer and publisher appear. In 17 volumes, the device is 
on the title page (5 printer's and 11 publisher's). Four devices 
are printed from metal blocks. Six volumes have other woodcut or 
metalcut capitals and illustrations. 



PARIS . ALEXANDRE ALIATB , Publisher 
This is the only IU book by this publisher. 

IU 




#Aristoteles. Spurious works. Problemata. U Apr.lSOO. (U7) 
(Printer: Quy Marchant) 



U*. This device of the publisher, Alexandre Aliate, is another variation 
of the orb and cross design, in which the cross is replaced by a 
leafless tree, intended to illustrate the quotation on the border: 
A fructibus eorum cognoscetis eos, "By their fruits ye shall know 
them." (Matt. VII: 20) On the scroll around the tree is the publisher's 
name, Alexandre de McialcanaO, and within the orb is his monogram, 
AA. Some copies of this book were sold directly by the printer, Guy 
Marchant; in these he placed his own device on the title page instead 
of that of Aliate. 

(Meyer 8lj Renouard Uj Polain 87} BMC VIII, p. 222) 



PARIS . An BALIQAULT 

IU has one book by this printer; it contains his device. Another book, 
doubtfully ascribed to him (ca. 11*98-1500) has the device of the publisher, 
Enguilbert de Marnef (no. 2$). 

15 




Andrelinus. ELegiae. eafter 9 Sept.lU96? 3 (28) 



15. This is the earliest example at IU of a common French device, a tree 
(the Tree of Knowledge ?) with a shield hung on the trunk and support- 
ers on either side. The French word for the tree, baliveau , may be a 
play on the name of the printer, Baligault. The supporters are monkeys, 
possibly denoting happiness, in reference to the printer's forename, 
Felix, which is also inscribed on the shield. Baligault used this de- 
vice frequently, with two- or three-line verses, playing on the name, 
Felix. The source of the first line in the version shown here, "Fortunate 
is one who learns caution from the perils of others, is apparently the 
Speculum stultonm of Nigellus Wireker (1130-lUOO? ) , lines 3893-U. The 
source of the other lines is unknown. Surrounding the device is a border 
of pieces, presumably derived from a Book of Hours. 

(Meyer 82 (var.)j Polain 90 (without border or verses); Davies 125; 
Renouard 29; Renouard (1965), p. 16; BMC VIII, p. 170, Device B) 



PARIS . AHDRE BOCARD 

IU has 2 books by this printer (13 Nov.lU8 & after 12 Oct.lU99). The 
first has his device. Another book, doubtfully ascribed to him (ca.lii98- 
1$00) has the device of the publisher, Enguilbert de Jiarnef. (no. 2$) 



16 



ISSHeWNm*|iPr^E0JFT5 




Nicolaus de Byard. Dictionarius pauperum. 13 Nov.lU98. (681) 
(Printed for Durand Qerlier, whose device is on the title 
page. (no. 19) 
(Has one woodcut capital) 



16. Instead of a single tree with a single shield, Bocard's device has two 
stumps, each bearing a shield, and above them, a third shield, crowned 
and supported by two angels. The left shield is adorned with the arms 
of the city of Paris j the right one with the arms of the University of 
Paris, and the one above, with the arms of France. From one of the 
stumps grows a rose, probably the Rosa Qallica , the badge of the French 
kings. The meaning of the shields is clarified by the quatrain around 
the border: Honneur au Roy et a la Court/ Salut a l'Universite/ Dont 
notre bien procede et sourt/ Dieu gart de Paris la Cyte. 

(Meyer 8$; Renouard $6; Polain 92; Silvestre 5; Davies U3; BMC VIII, 
p.lSU; Willoughby, in Lib . Quart . 21* (195U )1*01 ) 



PARIS , ANTOINE CAILLAUT 
IU has only one book by this printer; it contains his device, 

17 




Augustinus, Saint. Spurious works. Meditationes . eca.lUl/2 s (80) 



17. The figure here is that of St. Anthony, the patron saint of the printer. 
This woodcut has been judged one of the finest of lth-century French 
devices. The saint stands in front of his desert cell, holding a book 
and a rosary in one hand and his staff in the other. Behind him is a 
pig wearing a bell, a symbol of St. Anthony. The border contains the 
name of St. Anthony at the top and that of the printer on either side, 
his forename, Antoine, being part of the woodblock and his last name, 
Caillaut, being set in type. The two initial Cs are of different fonts. 
(Meyer 87 j Polain 93 i Renouard 117 j Silvestre U6; BMC VIII, p.U2, De- 
vice A; Pollard (1968), p. 161*; Willoughby, in Lib. Quart. U(193U)6$7) 



PARIS . ANTOINE DETIDEL 
IU has two books by this printer; both hare his device. 

1? 




^iVk*ilNTHOIN)fDENlDaf^ 



Horatius Flaccns. Odae. 1 Dec.lU9C (*i91 ) (Device wanting) 

(Printer! Durand Oerlier) 
Beroaldo, Carmen de die Dcminicae passionis. e ca.lU98a (121a) 



18. In Denidel's derice, Saints Nicholas and Catherine support a shield 
bearing the printer's initials, A D, joined by a knotted cord. Above, 
and supported by two angels, is another shield bearing the Bourbon 
arms and encircled by the collar of the Order of St. Michael. At the 
feet of St. Nicholas are two children in a tub, a reference to the 
saint's miraculous restoration of slaughtered children in a pickling 
tub. The whole design is surrounded by a border of flowers, leaves, 
and grotesques, with the printer's name on the bottom strip. 
(Meyer 91} Renouard 229j Polain 100; Davies U5j Silvestre 316} 
BMC VIII, p.202) 



PARIS . DURAND GERLIER , Publisher 
IU has one book by this publisher; it contains his device. 

19 




(fr*imaaft+jffftfl 



*Nicolaus de Byard. Dictionarius pauperum. 13 Nov. Hi 98. (681 ) 
(Printer: Andre Bocard, with his device at the end. (no. 16) 
(Has one woodcut capital) 



PARIS . ETIENNE JEHANOT 
IU has one book printed by Jehanotj it contains his device. 

20 




*Nanni. De futuris Christianorum triuraphis. eca.lU95a (67U) 



19. This is the first appearance of Gerlier's device. It is ano- 
ther variation of the tree with shield design, and is among the 
earliest of French sign-devices. It is a rebus composed of a curry- 
comb (trille), a scythe (faux), and a calf (veau), for the address 
of Gerlier's shop, "a l'&trille-Fauveau." The shield, which also 
contains the publisher's monogram, g g, is suspended from an oak 
tree and is supported on either side by a ram. Gerlier's full name 
is added at the foot of the device. 

(Meyer 96; Renouard 36I; Polain 106; Silvestre l8j Veyrin-Torres, 
P.U10) 



20. This device is something of a mystery. It may have been inspired by 
Jehanot's street address: St. Jacques; or, the blazing sun at the 
top may have been his shop sign. The cockle shells on the shield 
are an emblem of Saint James, the Greater, of Campostella, who ap- 
pears as the supporter on the right. Cockle shells also form the 
Collar of the Order of St. Michael, the tutelary angel of France, 
the left supporter in this device. The meaning of the sun, moon, 
two stars, and the flowering bush is not clear. The device is a 
metal- rather than a wood-cut. 

(Meyer 101; Renouard U88; Polain 110: Davies 71; BMC VIII, p. 195; 
Willoughby, in Lib . Quart , U(193U)U97) 



PARIS . THIELMAN KERVER 

ID has 3 books printed by the firm, Georg Wolf & Thielman Kerver, for 
Jean Petit & Johann von Koblenz. All three have Kerver 's device at the 
end and Petit 's on the title page. (See no. 27) 



21 




Baptista Mantuanus. Parthenica secunda. e after 5 Aug.lU9a (103) 

De suorum temporum calami tatibus. h Sept. & 

30 Nov.H^.TlOl) 
Contra poetas. 1$ Oct.Ui99. (98) 



21. This is another device inspired by the printer's shop sign. 
Thielman Kerver, who lived "At the Sign of the Unicorn, w dis- 
played two unicorns as supporters for a shield hanging from 
an oak tree. The shield bears his initials, T K, and his house- 
mark, described by Avis as a "strongly stylized version of the 
same motif used by Caxton" (a mercer's trade-mark). 

(Meyer 102; Renouard k99; Polain 111; Silvestre $0; BMC VIII, 
p.211i; Davies 36; Avis, p. 112) 



PARIS . PIERRE LEVET 

IU has 2 books printed by Levet (ca. 11*90 & 2 Mar.lli95). The earlier one 
has his device. 




Petrus de Osma. Commentaria. cca.lU0 3 (7i>2) 



22. This is an early example of the variation of the orb and cross design 
in which the orb takes on a heart shape. In this case, the usual dou- 
ble cross has lost one of its crosspieces. Within the heart is a mon- 
ogram in which can be distinguished the letters P L E T, standing for 
the printer's name, Pierre Levet. This device, first used in 11*86, is 
one of the very earliest to appear in France. 

(Meyer 117 J Polain 126; Renouard 662} Silvestre 6; BMC VIII, p. 87; 
Davies 177) 



PARIS. GUY MARCHANT 

IU has 8 books by this printer (16 May lU9U-not before Dec. 1^07 ). Three 
of these have his device; three others have the devices of the publishers 
for whom he printed: Petit (no. 26), Roce (no. 30), and Aliate (no.ll;). 




*Le Fevre. Introductiones in libros Aristotelis. 12 Oct.lU97. ($83) 

(Has woodcut diagrams) 
Niavis. Latinum idioma. 2k Dec.ll*99. (679) 

(Has two full-page woodcut illustrations) 



2U 




Isidorus, Saint. Synonima. 16 May li^9U. (519) 



23. This is the third of Guy Marchant's six devices, all of which are char- 
acterized by a rebus, a pun, and recondite allusions to such an extent 
that they defy complete interpretation. At the top is a rebus consist- 
ing of musical notes, sol and la and the words, Fides ficit , to repre- 
sent the motto, "Sola fides sufflcit" (from the hymn, Pange lingua glo- 
riosi ," of St. Thomas Aquinas). Below the motto are the initials, G 
and M, the G being set in type and the K cut in the block. Below these 
are two clasped hands issuing from clouds and flanked by angels. The 
device depicts the workshop of Saints Crispin and Crispinian, patron 
saints of shoemakers. It has been suggested that the presence of these 
saints might be explained if Harchant were a native of So is sens, where 
they were especially honored. Between the saints is a shield, with a 
book, possibly a Bible, held open by two hands. The word, sola (sole 
of the foot) and the boots in the shoeshop suggest the word marchant , a 
play on the printer's name. The device was printed from a metal block. 
(Meyer 122; Renouard 703? Polain 129} Silvestre 39} BMC VIII, p. 56, 
Device III} Willoughby in Lib. Quart. 5(1935)350) 



2lu This fifth device of Marchant is a simplified and reduced version and 
the last stage in the development of this design. The original book on 
the shield, has been replaced by a rod, from which it is obvious that a 
pair of shoes should hang. Both the shoes and part of the outline of 
the shield have disappeared, and the words, Fides ficit have been set in 
type instead of being cut in the block. 

(Meyer 120} Polain 131 a } Renouard 706} Silvestre 368} BMC VIII, p. 56, 
Device V) 



PARIS . ENGUILBERT DE MARNBF , Publisher 
IU has one book published by Marnef j it has his device. 



25 




*Flores legum. cca. 11*98-1500:. (398) 
(Printer: Andre Bocard or Felix Baligault) 



2$. This tiny device is that of the publishing firm of the de Marnefs, the 
initials, E I Q, standing for the forenames of the three brothers, En- 
guilbert, Jean, and Geoffroy. The pelican feeding her young is a repre- 
sentation of the firm's shop sign. The other bird in the device is iden- 
tified as a hawk, symbolizing watchfulness. 

(Meyer 125; Renouard 713; Silvestre 97U; Davies 209; Tibbetts in Lib . 
Quart. U8(1978)208-209) 



PARIS. JEAN PETIT, Publisher 



IU ha* U book* published bfr Petit (after 5 Aug.lU97-30 Not.1U99); all of 
them contain his device. 

26 




JEHAN-PETJT- 






*Sacr Bosco. Sphaera mundi. Feb.lU98. (5U6) (Printer: Guy warchant) 
(Has woodcut illustrations, diagrams, border) 




>;iMHN>:PEnr 



*Baptista Mantuanas. Parthenica secunda. B after 5 AuglU99 a (103) 

*- ~ De suorum temporua calamitatibas. h Sept. & 

30 Nov.1l499. (101) 
* Contra poetas. 15 Oct. 11*99. (98) 

(These books also contain the device of the printer, T. Kerver (no,21) 



26. Jean Petit is not known to have printed any books but he was an extra- 
ordinarily active publisher, employing most of the important Parisian 
printers from about 11*95 till well into the l6th century. During this 
time he used some 2u devices. The lion in the devices shown here was 
suggested by Petit' a address, "At the sign of the Silver Lion." Join- 
ing the lion as supporter of the shield is a leopard. The printer's ini- 
tials, I P, on the shield are joined by a knotted cord, symbolizing the 
Trinity or eternity. This is the first state of the device, used 1U95- 
lli98. Some copies of this book were retained and sold by the printer, 
Marchant; they contained his device instead of that of the publisher. 
(Meyer 136 ; Renouard 880j Polain lkk; Davies 92 j Silvestre 1136; 
BMC VIII, p. 61*) 



27. This version of Petit 's device is more elaborate than the preceding 
one. It is a metal cut, with black cribble ground; three birds appear 
in the tree, and a more decorative type is used for the printer's 
name. If there is any significance in these changes it is not obvious. 
(Meyer 138; Renouard 881; Polain U*$; Davies 92; Silvestre 2$) 



PARIS . JOHANN PHILIPPI 

IU has 2 books printed by Philippi (27 Mar.U*95 & 2 Apr.U*9$). The second 
one has his device. 



28 




Bertrand. Libellus de iurisdictione . 2 Apr.ll;95. (127) 



28. This device of Johann Philippi is the first one in which the initials 
of the printer are substituted for the orb in the traditional orb 
and cross design. Here, the printer's initials, I P, in Lombardic 
letters, separated by a Maltese cross, are surmounted by a cross 
with a single cross piece and the good luck symbol, h, at the top. 
The three-petalled flowers symbolize the Trinity. The device is said 
to be a shop sign, but instead of being inspired by such a sign, it 
appears that the device inspired the sign. For it was not until 1500 
that Philippi moved to a new shop on which he posted the sign of the 
Trinity. The inscription, In nocmien 3 e scan 3 ctcae trinitatis is 
set in type rather than being cut in the wood. 

(Meyer lUlj Renouard 917} Polain l$; Silvestre 312; BMC VIII, p.lhh, 
Device A; Willoughby in Lib . Quart . 2U(l90U)2O5j Davies 195) 



PARIS. PHILIPPE PIGOUCHET 



IU has 2 books by this printer, both with his device, 
doubtfully ascribed to him, has no device. 



Another book, 



29 




^Catholic Church. Liturgy. Hours. 20 Mar., 17 Apr.lii97. (225) 

22 Aug.lii98. (226) 

(The publisher of both of these volumes is Simon Vostre) 
(Both books have metal-cut illustrations and borders) 



29. This is another device inspired by a shop sign. Early in his career, 
Pigouchet had worked with Antoine Caillaut, Ad inters ignum Horainis 
Silvestris. Hence the wildman and his mate - sometimes identified 
as Adam and Eve - serve as supporters of the shield hanging from a 
tree and bearing Pigouchet *s initials, P P, surmounted by a Maltese 
cross and a flag. His full name is at the bottom. The elaborate pil- 
lars, flat arch, and fruit appear to be decorative only. This is a 
metal cut. 

(Meyer H2j Henouard 919; Polain 132; Silvestre 71 j Davies 82; Win- 
ger in Lib. Quart . 35(1965)12) 



PARIS . DENIS ROCE , Publisher 
IU has 5 books published by Roce, all of which contain his device. 




Heynlin. Resolutorium. eca.Ui95>a (U7S) (Printer: Pierre Poulhac) 
Guillernras Saphronensis . Modus epistolandi. 2k Sept.lU98. (U6l) 
(Printer: Guy Marchant) 

31 



h 18 




* T>IM&h*h&0C 



*Joannes Cliacus. Scala Paradisi. cafter 12 Oct.U*99 (5U5) 

(Printer: Andre Bocard) 
*Dati. Elegantiolae . eca.Ui99 (32U) (Printer: Michel Tholoze) 
Matthaeus de Cracovia. De modo confitendi. cca.l500 3 (656) 

(All these books have woodcut capitals) 



30, 31. Here are examples of the second and third of Roce's four devices, 
all of which contain a shield hanging from a rose tree. The coat 
of arms may be the legitimate arms of the printer, who had come 
to France from Scotland. The dogs in the device denote alertness 
and the scallop shell is the emblem of pilgrims to the shrine of 
St. James of Campostella. The rose tree is, of course, a pun on 
Roce's name. At the foot of no, 30 is the beginning of the motto 
which is printed in full on no. 31, "A l'aventure tout vient a point 
qui peut attendre" (By fortune all things come to him who can wait) 
Roce employed at least 10 printers at various times. These print- 
ers often retained and sold some copies of the books they had 
printed for Roce; in these they used their own devices instead of 
that of Roce. This is true of the book printed by Marchant shown 
here. 

(Meyer 153 & 15U; Renouard 1003 St 1005; Polain 161 k 162; Sil- 
vestre 3U3 & U5l; Davies 135; Winger in Lib . Quart . 50(1980)137; 
Moran, p. 33) 



GERMAN! 

IU has 365 books printed in 19 German cities (lU6?-l$00), by 8f> printers. 
Of these, 19 volumes (IU69-II498 ) by 10 printers have devices. Publishers 
are named in three books, but none has a device. Devices are at the end 
of volumes except for one (no. 39) J in one book (no. 3k) the device appears 
both at the end and on the title page. Three devices are metalcuts (no. 
33> 38, 111). Six volumes contain other woodcuts besides the device. 

AUGSBURG 



IU has Ul books printed at Augsburg, by 9 printers (1V72-150-) . 
two books, by a single printer, contain a device. 

AUGSBURG. ERHARD RATDOLT 



Only 



IU has 11 books printed by Ratdolt at Venice (25 May H482-8 Dec. 11*8$) and 
U printed at Augsburg (6 Oct? or 27 Nov.lU88-26 Mar. ll9l). Only two of 
those printed at Augsburg have his device. 

32 

Igrbar&ilftatboltfoclidacdnfpicefigtw; , 
ieltata artificem qua -valet ipfe manum. 




^illy. Concordantia. 2 Jan.lii90. (6) 

Bonatti. Decern tractatus astronomiae. 26 Mar.lU91. (165) 

(Device wanting in IU copy) 

(Both books have woodcut illustrations and capitals) 



32. This famous device of Erhard Ratdolt displays two typically German 
elements, the shield and the crest. Although Ratdolt operated a 
thriving printing business at Venice from 1U76-1U86, he never used 
a printer's device there. Not until 11*90, four years after he had 
returned to his native Augsburg, did he display this flamboyant de- 
vice. He had developed the design, however, while still at Venice. 
Several books which he had sent from Venice as gifts to the Carmelite 
monastery at Augsburg contain hand-drawn and painted ex libris very 
similar in design to his later printer's device. 
The figure on the shield is Mercury, holding two serpents 
(the caduceus) and a star, indicating that it was the planet, s~*o 



4 

the design he proudly claims the device as his own. ^5*^ \C"*& 



Mercury, not the god, that was meant. In the couplet above ^^*^*^^V 
(Weil 3U; Davies lUj Qeldner (1966), p.l$7; Meiner, p. 20; x \ m . 



Willoughby in Lib . Quart . 10(19k0)26$; Moran, p.US) -JlUrtY X 



f* 



COLOGNE 

IU has 73 books printed at Cologne* by 11 printers (lU67-l$QO)j one book has 
a device. Books printed at Cologne in the l^th cent, were seldom adorned 
with woodcuts. 

COLOGNE. ARNOLD THER HOERNEN 

IU has $ books printed by Ther Hoernen (Ui71-ca.ll* 82); only the first one 
carries his device. 

33 




Thomas Aquinas. Quaestiones de duodecim quodlibet. ll71. (961) 



FREIBURG Hi BREISGAU 

IU has 6 books printed at Freiburg im Breisgau, by two printers (not after 
lii91-ca.]Ji9$); one has a device. 



FREIBURG m BREISGAU . FRIEDRICH R IE DEREK 

IU has 2 books printed by Riederer (11 Dec.lU93 & ca.H^U); the earlier one 
has his device. 

3k 




Riederer. SpTegelaerwaT!re7rffi?Eor^^ (823) 



(The device is repeated at the end of the volume) 
(Has woodcut illustrations, capitals, and title page) 



33. Arnold Ther Hoernen, the second printer at Cologne, was the first to 
use a printer's device there. The device itself, a metal cut, is not- 
able for several reasons: (l) it was the first to contain a single 
shield; shields usually appearing in pairs; (2) it was the first to 
contain the initials of the printer (a h); (3) it is the smallest de- 
vice ever used. The design, two crosses placed saltirwise, with a star, 
has been identified as the printer's house-mark. Although Ther Hoernen 
used woodcut ornamentation in only one book, he used his device in 
many of his books printed before 1U81. 

(Heitz (Kbln) 3} Weil 53; BMC I, p. 201, Device B; Davies 12aj 
Painter (1959), p. 215) 



3U. This device of Friedrich Riederer appears not only at the end of the 
volume; it was also fitted into the woodblock used on the title page. 
The woman in mediaeval dress may be an allegorical representation of 
Rhetoric. It is possible, however, that she might be the heraldic de- 
vice of one of Riederer' s patrons. 

(Weil 67; BMC I, p. 696, Device a; Willoughby in Lib . Quart . 27(1957)335; 
Qeldner I, p.283-28U) 



LEIPZIG 

IU has 31 books printed at Leipzig by 8 printers ( c a. ll* 86-1500); four 
books by two printers have devices. 

LEIPZIG . MARTIN LANDSBBRG 

IU has 7 books known to have been printed by Landsberg (ca. 11*89-96 - ca.ll*97) 
and 2 doubtfully ascribed to him (ca. ll*.87 & ca. 11*90). Three of the books con- 
tain his device. 



35 



36 





Paltz. Septem fores, cca. 11*91-2=. (720) Wiapina. Palillogia. e ca.ll*97 (1079! 
Fabri de Werdea. Proverbia. cca. 11*93* (382) 



LEIPZIG . JAKOB THANNER 
IU has only one book by Thanner; it contains his device, 



37 




Ars oratoria. 11*98. (53) 



35, 36. Martin Landsberg, the first printer at Leipzig to use a device, 
imitated Peter SchSffer's design of two shields hanging from a 
branch (See no. 38). There are various interpretations of the de- 
sign on the shields. That on the left is described as a circle, 
crescent and star (BMC); a moon sign and star (Geldner)j or a 
merchant's mark (a simplified bull's head and a star) (Moran). 
The right shield bears the arms of the printer's native city of 
Wurtburgj or, possibly it represents a town (Land) behind a moun- 
tain ('Berg'), constituting a play on the name, Landsberg. There 
are slight differences between the two devices, e.g., the upper- 
most ray on the star pierces the border in no. 35 J on no. 36 it 
just touches it. 

(Weil 71a & b; BMC III, p. 637, Devices a & b; Davies 9; Meiner, 
p. 11; Geldner I, 2U5; Moran, p.lii) 



37. This device of Jakob Thanner is classed as a variation of the orb and 
cross design, in which the orb is left open at the bottom and is cros- 
sed by two horizontals extending beyond it. The printer's initials, 
i t, are placed on either side of the cross. 
(Weil 75; BMC III, p. 658; Geldner I, 25l) 



MAINZ 

IU has 10 books printed at Mainz by U printers (l4$4/5-lU98). 
by a single printer contain de-rices. 

MAINZ . FBTBR SCHOFFER 

IU has 6 books printed by SchSffer (13 June 11*69-6 Mar.Hi92). 
contain his device. 



Four of them 



Four of them 




Thomas Aquinas. Super quarto libro Sententiarun. 13 June Ui69. (987) 
T Sunaae theologiae pars pria secundae partis. 

"8 Nov.li*71. (974) 
Gratianus, the Canonist. Decretum. 13 Aug. 1472. (433) 

(Device wanting in the IU copy) 
Bote. Cronecken der Sassen. 6 Mar. 14 92. (176) 

(Has 799 woodcut illustrations and 566 xylographic capitals) 

MEMMINQEN 

IU has 6 books printed at Meamingen by one printer (l482-l$00) j the first 
has a device. 



MEMMINQEN . ALBRECHT KUNNE 
IU has 6 books printed by Kunne (l482-l$00) . Only the first has his device, 

39 




Rolevinck. Fasciculua temporua. 1482. (82$) 
(The device is on leaf d3 r ) 
(Has 11 woodcut illustrations) 



38. This metal device of Peter Schbffer was the first printer's device 
ever used and it set a pattern which was copied by some 20 printers 
before the end of the 13>th century. It first appeared in the lU$7 
Psalter, or the 1U62 Bible, printed by Johann Fust and Peter Schbffer. 
The earliest example at IU (13 June lli69 ) is shown here. The two 
shields may represent the house-marks or merchants' marks of the 
printers, the left one being that of Fust and the right one of Schb'ffer. 
It has also been maintained that both the shields together constituted 
the arms of Schb'ffer, Fust being without one. The meaning of the de- 
signs is disputed. They have been identified as printers' rules used 
in setting up type; again, the figure on the left shield is described 
as two cramps in sal tire (cramps being iron pieces used in building) 
suggesting that Fust's family had some connection with the building 
trade. The figure on the right is called a wolf- trap used by shep- 
herds, an allusion to Schbffer 's name. It has also been suggested that 
the figures on the shields are Greek letters: I(chi), an abbreviation 
for Christus, and A (lambda) standing for Logos , symbolizing the Word 
of God} the three stars referring to the Trinity. According to a more 
fantastic interpretation, the figures are Greek letters with numerical 
values known to initiated members of secret societies, implying that 
Fust and Schbffer belonged to a secret society and their arms had a 
secret meaning. 

(Weil 8$; Davies 1; Meiner, p. 11; Painter, P.2U4; Meldan &9UU-U9), 
p. 112; Moran, p.3-Uj Willoughby in Lib . Quart . 2(1932)302-303; Kri- 
steller p. XIII) 



39. This is the earliest example of a printer's device being incorporated 
in a pictorial woodcut illustration. The entire woodcut is copied, in 
reverse, from one in Quentell's 1U79 edition of the same work, but here 
Kunne replaced the original arms of Cologne, on the shield on the left, 
with those of Memmingen, and put his own trademark on the shield on 
the right. 

(Davies 211*; BMC II, p. 602) 



SPEIER 

IU has 15 books printed at Speier by U printers (Iii72-lii96)j four books by 
one printer have devices. 

SPEIER . PETER DRACH 

IU has 9 books printed by Drach (23 June 11*79-11*90). Four of them con- 
tain his device. 

ko 



^ti 




Leonardus Matthaei de Utino. Sermones. 23 June 11*79. ($88) 
Dominicus de Sancto Geminiano. Super sexto Decretalium. 

enot after lU79^ OU7) (Device wanting in IU copy) 
Calderinus. Concordantia. ll*8l. (196) 
Paulus Diaconus. Homiliarius. 7 Sept.lU82. (725) 



STRASSBURG 



IU has 93 books printed at Strassburg by 19 printers (ca.lU70-ca.l50l); 
two books by two printers have devices. 

STRASSBURG . JOHANN GRUNINQER 

IU has 15 books printed by Gruninger (28 Aug. ll*83-ca. 1500). Only one con- 
tains his device. 




Horatius. Opera. 12 Mar. 11*98. (U95) 
(Has woodcut illustrations) 



UO. Peter Drach's device is an early variation of Schoffer's double shield 
suspended on a branch. Obviously, the dragon on the left shield is a 
play on the printer's name. The meaning of the tree standing on a 
triple mound, with two stars, is unknown. 
(Weil 95; BMC II, p.U88j Geldner I, 189) 



Ul. Gruninger was the first printer at Strassburg to use a device. This 
is. the first of fivej one of the few orb and cross designs found in 
Germany. The cross has a single crosspiece and the orb contains the 
letters, MJ, representing the forenames of the two brothers, Marcus 
Reinhard and Johann (Reinhard) Gruninger. The cross is surmounted 
by the Strassburg lily. The letters, E. F. and D. V., are probably 
the initials of the artists who worked for Gruninger. The device 
was made by a new technique similar to that of the metal-cut; it 
has even been described as being made of soft metal. 

(Weil 98; Heitz 1 & p.IIII; Polain 193} Haebler 98aj Moran, p. 21) 



- STRASSBURG . MARTIN SCHOTT 

HJ has books printed by M. Schott (ca.lU83-2 Oct.lU98). 
appears only in this one. 

%2 



His device 




Schott. Lucubratiunculae. 2 Oct. 1U98. (861) 



U2. This device of Martin Schott's has been identified as the arms of 
the printer's family. Whatever the figure - a cabbage head or a 
tree with open roots - it has been interpreted as a pun on the 
printer's name (Schott means "Bulkhead"). In every book printed 
by Martin Schott, except this one, he included his own initials, 
MS; in this book he uses the initials of his relative, the author 
of the book. 

(Heitz II, 1} p.XIII, XVI; Meiner, p. 13; Schmidt, p.?; Geldner 

I, 70; Weil, p.22, 2$) 



HOLLAND 

IU has 13 books printed in Holland: one at Delft (ill July 1U8U) and 12 
at Deventer (2 May 11*81-30 Jan.l$00). The one printed at Delft has a 
printer's device at the end, and two of those printed at Deventer have 
devices on the title page. None of these volumes contains any woodcut 
besides the device. 

DELFT . JACOB JACOBSZOEN VAN PER MEER 

The only ID book printed at Delft contains the printer's device. 

U3 




Catholic Church. Liturgy. Hours. Dutch. 1? July 11*81*. (227) 



DEVENTER . JACOBUS DE BREDA 

IU has 3 books by this printer (ll* Apr.Hi91-ca.l500), 
his device. 



Only two contain 




Juvencus. Historia evangel ica. eca.l$00 3 ($71) 
Sulpitius. De moribus puerorum. eca.l$O0 a (909) 
(IU copy has facsimile of device) 



U3. Jacob van der Meer was the first printer at Delft to use a device (in 
11*77). Like Peter Schb'ffer's, it consisted of two shields, but they 
are supported by a lion instead of hanging from a branch. The left 
shield bears the arms of the city of Delft. The three water-lily 
leaves on the right shield are the arms of the van der Meer family, 
in a kind of pun, water -lilies suggesting the sea (Meer). On the 
scroll are the words: Delft in Hollant. 

(Juchhoff 21; BMC H, p.l, Device Bj Holtrop 82(lO0)a2. Painter, 
p.2l6j Schretlen, p.l6; Moran, p. 17; Winger and Hebert in Lib . Quart . 
51(1981)1042) 



UU. The idea of using the symbols of the four Evangelists, with the sacred 
monogram, ihs, in the center, as a printer's device apparently origi- 
nated with Jacobus de Breda, at Deventer. It was copied, in reverse, 
by Govaert Bac, at Antwerp (no. 2). Breda used this design in about one 
third of his 200 15th-century imprints and the progressive deteriora- 
tion of the woodblock, as indicated by breaks and cracks, is helpful 
in dating his undated works. 

(Juchhoff 29, p. XII, 12li; Conway, p.l60j Hind, II, p.58U) 



ITALY 

IU has $2k volumes printed in 17 Italian cities by 183 printer* (before 
3 Aug.lU70-after l00). Of these, 116 volumes (1$ June 11*81-13 ***>. 
l^OO/Ol) have devices of 38 printers (in 82 volumes) and 12 publishers 
(in 3U volumes)} in 5 volumes, devices of both printer and publisher 
appear. And in 5 volumes, the device (publisher's) is on the title page. 
73 volumes have also other woodcut decoration, such as capitals, borders, 
diagrams, and illustrations. 



BOLOGNA 

IU has 20 volumes printed at Bologna by 7 printers (11*72-1 Nov. 1500 ). 11 
of these, by U printers (5 Apr.lU93-l Nov.1500) have printer's devices, 
all at the end of the volume. In 9 volumes the device is the only woodcut; 
two volumes have also a single diagram besides the device. 

BOLOGNA. CALIGULA DE BAZALERIIS 



The only 10 book by this printer has his device. 

U5 




Hieronymus, Saint. Ordo sen Regula vivendi Deo. 28 Mar.lU98. (U82) 



Ui>. This device of Caligula Bazaleriis is one of the few Italian devices 
in which the customary orb and cross, with the printer's initials with- 
in the orb, is surrounded by a leafy decoration. The first such device 
was that of Hamman, at Venice (no. 8$ & 86)} a similar one by Justi- 
nianus de Rubeira, of Bologna, was imitated by both Bazaleriis, at 
Bologna, and Franciscus de Mazalibus, at Reggio Emilia (See no. 6k). 
The initial, K, obviously stands for the printer's forename (Kaligula); 
the L might refer to the name of his father (?) but it is more likely 
that it stands for Librarius. The crown atop the orb possibly refers 
to the printer '8 name, Bazaleriis, or Baccilieri, which must be de- 
rived from the Greek faa i\exx;. 

(Kristeller Uj Husung 5} Sorbelli, p. 27; BMC VI, p. 836} Willoughby 
in Lib. Quart. 20(1950)300) 



BOLOGNA . FRANCESCO PLATONE DE BBNBDETTI 

IU has k books by this printer (17 Oct. 11*88-17 Jan.lh96). The last two 
have devices. 

U6 




Herodianus. Historia de imperio. 31 Aug. 11*93. (U69) 
Frontinus. De re militari. 10 July H+95-17 Jan.U*96. (1*08) 
(Has one woodcut diagram) 



U6. The orb and cross with three crosspieces was not common. This device 
of Francesco Platone de Benedetti is the third example of this type in 
Italy. The letters, PIA, refer to the printer's nickname, Plato. The 
hand raised in benediction is a play en his surname, Benedictus. 
(Kristeller Sj Husung 6; Davies 172} BMC VI, p. 822) 



BOLOGNA. . BENEDETTO D'ETTORE 

IU has 6 books by this printer (5 Apr.lU93-l Nov.l500). In all of them he 
used his device. 

U7 




Suetonius. Vitae XII Caesarum. 5 Apr.li93. (902) 

Thomas Aquinas. Super secundo libro Sententiarum. 27 May lh9k> (985) 
Cicero. Be natura deorum. 10 Dec.lit9U. (260) (Device wanting in IU copy) 
Pico della Mirandola. Opera. 20 Mar. -16 July lii96. (761) 
(Has one woodcut diagram) 

U8 




Beroaldo. Cratio proverbiorum. 17 Dec.lU99. (122) 
Orationes et poemata. 1 Nov. 1500. (1210 



U7, U8. Benedetto d'Ettore adopted the usual orb and cross design, but In 
the lower part of the orb he placed a B, the initial of his fore- 
name, within a triangle. The narrower design (no. 1*7) was used un- 
til 7 Aug.lU98; after 0ct.lU Q 8, the broader and shorter design, 
with unusual vertical shading of the background, was introduced. 
(Kristeller 11 & 12} Husung 10 & 11} BMC VI, p.8U0, Devices A & B) 



BOLOGNA.. UGO RUGERIUS 

ID has U books by Rugerius (30 Mar.U*9$-23 Sept.U*96). 
his device. 



The last two have 




Samuel Marochitanus . Epistola. 13 May 11*96. (852) 
Bolognini. Syllogianthon. 23 Sept. 11*96. (163) 

BRESCIA 

IU has lli books printed at Brescia by 5 printers (17 Feb.ll*86-not before 
13 Aug. ll* 99). Six books by l* printers have devices (17 Feb. 11*86-20 Aug. 
ll*93). All the devices are ax the end of the volume. Only one volume 
(no. 50) contains other woodcuts (illustrations) besides the device. 



BRESCIA. BONINO DE BONINIS 

IU has 2 books by this printer (31 Mar.ll*87 & ll* Feb. 11*88). 
appears in the earlier one. 



His device 




Dante. La Commedia. 31 May 11*87. (317) 
(Has 68 woodcut illustrations) 



U9. This device of Ugo Rugerius is one of the earliest versions of the 
orb and cross design, in which the orb takes the shape of a shield 
or egg. The letters, V R, are, of course, the initials of the print- 
er. It appears that Rugerius used the same block throughout the lth 
century. 

(Kristeller 16; Husung Ik; BMC VI, p. 80$; Davie s 179) 



50. Bonino de Boninis had only one device, which, so far as is known, he 
used for the first time in this book, printed in 1U87. However, it is 
hard to explain the breaks in the frame if it had never been used be- 
fore. The odd, slanting crosspiece, with the flukes at the ends is 
unique. The letters, B B, are the initials of the printer. This 
seems to be the only appearance of the fleur-de-lys in an Italian de- 
vice. It may be a conventional rendering of the Florentine lily, or, 
possibly, an emblem of the Trinity. 

(Kristeller 17; Husung l6j BMC VII, p. 967; Davies 167) 



BRESCIA. ANGELO & QIACOMO BRITANNIC I 



IU has h books printed by these printers (l8 Dec. 11*91-1 Sept.U*98), one of 
them with a device, and $ books by Qiacomo alone (17 Feb.ll*86-not before 
13 Aug. 11*99), three of which have his device. None contains any other 
woodcut . 

51 




Jacobus de Varagine. Sermones. 20 Aug.cll*93?a (538) 



BRESCIA. OIACOMO BRITANNICI 




53 




Filelfo. Orationes. 18 June 11*88. (39U) 



Persius. Satyrae. 17 Feb. 11*86. (737) 
Lucanus. Pharsalia. 2 May 11*86. (607) 



51-53. Although only one of these books (no.5l) names both Angelo and Giacomo 
Britannic i as printers, it is apparent that the books which were pro- 
duced between lU8$ and li90 were the result of the efforts of both 
brothers, Giacomo doing the printing and Angelo acting as publisher. 
All the devices contain only the initials of Angelo (A B), no.5>l and 
J>3 actually being the sane block in spite of the discrepancy in the 
printer statement. The I at the top of the cross has been inter- 
preted as a good luck sign. (Cf. no.5U and 6l) 

(Kristeller 19, 18} Husung 19, 17 j BMC VII, p. 973, Devices C, A) 



BRESCIA . BAPTISTA FARFENGUS 
ITJ has only one book by this printer; it contains his device. 

5U 




Bonaventura, Saint. Comraentarius . 20 Oct.lU0. (168) 



FLORENCE 

IU has 2k books printed at Florence by 11 printers (30 Aug.H48l-ca.i500). 
Three volumes have devices, two being printer's devices (19 Sept.lU89 & 
20 Feb. 11*91/2) and one a publisher's device (7 Apr.lU96). All the devices, 
including that of the publisher, are at the end of the books. One volume 
contains other woodcuts. 

FLORENCE . ANTONIO MISCOMINI 

IU has 6 books printed by Miscomini (1$ May U4 83-20 Feb. Ik 91/2). The last 
two have his device. 



55 




Poliziano. Miscellaneorum centuria. 19 Sept.Hi89. (783) 
Panepistemon. 20 Feb. Hi 91/2. (78$) 



5U. In this modification of the orb and cross design, the orb becomes a 
square standing on one corner. The initials, P B, stand for Presby- 
ter Baptists; the hourglass is a symbol of the shortness of life, and 
the X at the top of the cross may be a good luck sign, like that used 
by Britannici (no. $1-53) and Cantono, at Naples (no. 61). 
(Kris teller 21; Husung 22; BMC VII, p.98U, Derice B) 



55. Miscomini adopted another version of the monogram surmounted by a 
cross, using it only in his dated publications. The design of 
squares, circle, and triangles seems to be merely decora tire. 
(Kris teller U7; Busung 39; BMC VI, p. 636) 



FLORENCE . PIERO PACINI , Publisher 
IU has one book published by Pacini. It has his device, 

56 




Lilio. De origine ~ scientiarum. 7 Apr.li4.96. 
(Printer: Francesco Buonaccorsi) 
(Has US woodcut capitals and 2 diagrams) 



($96) 



MILAN 

IU has 28 books printed at Milan by 1$ printers (1 Feb.lV?U-l5 Nov.ll*99). 
Four books by three printers have devices (19 Nov.lU91-l$ Nov.lU99). 
Only the two by Scinzenzeler have other woodcuts (capitals) besides the 
device . 

MILAN . GIOVANNI BISSOLI & BENEDETTO MANGIO 
IU has one book by these printers. It contains their device. 

57 




BOS J "LJ?*2 



Suidas. Lexicon Qraecum. 15 Nov.lit99. (903) 
(Publisher: Demetrius Chalcondylas) 



56. The central figure In this three-fold device of the publisher, Piero 
Pacini is a crowned dolphin (the arms of his native city, Pescia) 
flanked by the letters, S P (i.e. Ser Piero). The two smaller designs 
feature a dove (the arms of the printer). The word Piscia, a variant 
spelling of Pescia, may also involve a play on the Latin word for fish 
Discis, hence "dolphin. " Pacini produced three of the few fully il- 
lustrated books in Florence; the three parts of his device, like his 
illustrations, have narrow, decorative borders. 

(Kristeller U8-50; Husung 10-U2; BMC VI, p. 670; Hind II, p. $28, 531) 



57. After only about 1$ months of hard work, the Milan printers, Giovanni 
Bissoli and Benedetto Mangio produced the monumental Greek lexicon as- 
cribed to a Suidas, or Suda. Quite understandably, they chose for 
their device a quotation from Horace ' s Ars poetica Ul3 * Sudavit et al - 
sit, "He sweat and shivered," referring to the labor involved in creat- 
ing a literary work. In the word, sudavit , there is also a play on the 
name, Suda. The initials, I B, stand for Ioannes Bissolus and B M for 
Benedictus Mangius. 

(Kristeller 67; Husung 1*7; BMC VI, p. 792) 



MILAN . ULEBRICUS SCIWZKNZKLER 

IU has k books by this printer working alone (17 Jan.lU88-U May 11*98), 
of them contain his device. 



Two 




Suetonius. Vitae XII Caesarum. 19 Nov.ll*91. (901) 
Pius II, Pope. Epistolae. 10 Dec.ll*96. (766) 
(Both volumes have woodcut capitals) 



MILAN . ULDBRICUS SCINZENZKLER & SEBASTIANO BE PONTRBMOLI 

IU has one book printed by these two printers together. It contains a ver- 
sion of the Scinzenzeler device. 




Isocrates. Orationes. 2U Jan. 11*93. (520) 



58. Scinzenzeler was the second printer at Milan to use a device. It is a 
version of the orb and cross, in which the two crosspieces are slanted. 
An attempt has been made to see in the branch at the foot of the cross 
the German word, Schindel , "shingle," hence a play on the name, Scin- 
zenzeler. The name, however, probably implies that the printer was a 
native of Zinzenzell, near Strassburg. 

(Kristeller 96} Husung 58; BMC VI, p. 762, Device A; Davies ll*8; 

Scholderer (1966), p. 102) 



59. Scinzenzeler used a larger form of his earlier device when associated 
with the otherwise unknown Sebastiano de Pontremoli. 

(Kristeller 98; Husung 60; BMC VI, p. 762, Device C; Davies 1U8) 



MODENA 

HJ has 5 books printed at Modena by two printers (20 May lU90-l00). Two 
books of one printer (1500) have his device. They also contain woodcut cap- 
itals, and one has a diagram. 

MODENA . DIONIGI BERTOCCHI 
10 has 2 books printed by Bertocchi, both of which contain his device. 

66 




Crastoni. Lexicon Qraeco-Latinum. 20 Oct.llt99-not before 5 July 1500. (303) 

(Has one woodcut capital) 
Martianus Capella. De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii. 15 May 1$00. (6U9) 

(Has a woodcut diagram. IU copy lacks a title page border found in BM copy) 



60. Dionigi Bertocchi has changed the usual orb to an oval shape. The let- 
ter below the horizontal may be intended for a Greek beta (/3), for Ber- 
tocchi. If so, it has been reversed in printing. It is more likely 
meant for a cursive d, for Dionigi. Bertocchi used this design when 
printing at Modena; at Venice and Reggio Emilia he had another version. 
(Kristeller 190; Husung 129; BMC III, p. 1067) 



NAPLES 

IU has one book printed at Naples. It has a device, two woodcut diagrams, 
and a woodcut border on the title page. 

NAPLES . AYQLFUS DE CANTONO 
IU has only one of Cantono's books. It has his device. 

61 




Liiio. Orbis breviarium, 9 Nov # lU6. (597) 
(Has a woodcut border on title page and 2 diagrams) 



61. Ayolfus de Cantono has chosen an unusually delicate and ornamental design, 
suggesting an Oriental influence. Instead of the customary orb is a 
graceful figure containing the letters AYO (for Ayolfus) and C (for 
Cantono). The I at the top of the double cross is probably the good- 
luck sign already found in nos.$l-$U. The decorative border is not 
common among Italian devices. Florentine printers were especially 
addicted to it. 

(Kris teller 111; Husung 68; Davies 181; BMC VI, p. 873) 



PARMA 

IU has 3 books printed at Parma by a single printer. All three books have 
his device, but no other woodcut decoration. 

PARMA . AWELUS DGQLETUS 

IU has three books by this printer (31 Mar.lu91-10 July lu99), all of 
which contain his device. 

62 




63 




Augustinus, Saint. Opuscula. 31 Mar. 
1U91. (73) 



Quint ilianus. Declamationes . 3 July 

1U9U. (809) 
Ausonius. Opera. 10 July 1U99. (86) 



62, 63. The first device of Angelus Ugoletus shows a greater variation 

from the simple orb and cross style, with horizontal line through 
the orb. He broke the line with two lines rising to an angle, 
and added a fourth crosspiece to the cross. He was apparently 
not well pleased with this design, for he used it only in 1U91 
and 1U92. After that he turned to the triple cross form, with a 
straight horisontal line through the orb. The letters, A V, rep- 
resent, of course, the initials of the printer's name. 

(Kristeller 119, 120; Husung 73, 7k; BMC VII, p.9kk, Devices 
A 4 B) 



REGGIO EMILIA 

IU has two books printed at Beggio Emilia by two printers (6 Oct.lUQl & 12 
Nov.lU8). The later one has a device, the only woodcut in the book. 

REGGIO EMILIA . FRANC ISCUS DB MAZALIBUS 

IU has one book by this printer; it contains his device. 

6U 




Dionysius Halicarnassensis. Antiquitates Romanae. 12 Nov.lU98. (3U2) 



6k. This device of Franc is cus de Masalibus is a variation of the orb and 
double cross design, with the printer's initials within the orb and 
with a leafy background. Like the device of Bazaleriis (no.U5) it 
was modeled after that of Justinianus de Ruberia, of Bologna, and re- 
calls that of Hamman (no. 8$ & 86). The space at the top of the cir- 
cle and the broken horizontal are new. 

(Kristeller U*8j Husung 95 5 BMC VII, p. 1088) 



ROME 

IU has $5 books printed at Rome by 13 printers (lU68-l$00). Only one book 
has a device, and it is incorporated in large woodcut designs on the title 
page and at the end. There are also woodcut capitals. 

ROME . EUCHARIDS SILBER 

IU has 18 books printed by Silber (ca.lu80-ca.l5QO), of which only one has 
his printer's device. 

65 




Campano. Opera. 31 Oct.lu95. (198) 
(Publisher: Michele Ferno) 



66 




6$, 66. Eucharius Silber printed about 200 books in the l$th century, but 
in none of them did he use a printer's device except in this 1U95 
edition of Campano. Here he imprinted his monogram surmounted by 
a cross on the woodcut of a bell on the title page and also on 
the elaborate emblematic cut at the end. The initials E A H, 
stand for Eucharius Argenteus (the Latin word for Silber) Herbi- 
polensis (i.e. "of Wurzburg" ) 

(Husung 102; BMC IV, p.xivj Willoughby in Lib. Quart. 2(1932) Hl9j 

Davies 208) 



SCANDIANO 

IU has one book printed at Scandiano. It has a printer's device but no 
other woodcut. 



SCANDIANO . PELLEGRIWO DEI PASQUALI & GASPARO CRIVBLLO 
IU has only one book by these printers; it contains their device. 



67 




Bojardo. Timone. 12 Feb.l^OO. (162) 



67. When Pellegrino del Pasquali moved to Scandiano in Hi95, he brought 
with him the sixth of the devices he had used at Venice. In it, the 
orb has developed a boss at the foot; within the orb are the printer's 
initials and a fluted design below the horizontal. 
(Kristeller 2$3i Husung 18$ j BMC VII, p. 1118) 



VENICE 

IU has 339 volumes printed at Venice by 95 printers and 13 publishers 
(11*68-1500). Of these, 79 volumes (15 June 11*81-13 Feb.l500/Ol) have 
devices of 19 printers (in 1*6 volumes) and 11 publishers (in 33 volumes). 
Devices of both printer and publisher appear in 6 volumes and, in two 
cases (Scoto and Stagninus), the same person performs the functions of 
both printer and publisher. In 6 volumes, the devices (l printer's 
and 5 publisher's) are on the title page. Besides the device, 68 volumes 
contain also other woodcut ornamentation, such as capitals, illustrations, 
diagrams, and borders. 

VENICE . QBORGIUS ARRIVABBNUS 

IU has 1* books printed by Arrivabenus (1* Feb. Hi 90/1-31 Dec.l500), two of 
which contain his device and one the device of the publisher, B. Fontana. 

68 





Rampegolo. Figurae Bibliae. 31 Dec, 
1$00. (815) 



Angelus Carle tus de Clavasio. Summa 
Angelica. 2 May 11*95. (3U) 



68, 69. Georgius Arrivabenus used as his device seven versions of the orb 
and double cross, in all except the first of which the lower part 
of the circle is white and the foot of the cross ends in the let- 
ter A (for Arrivabenus). In four of the designs, beginning in 
lU 90, the orb is drawn to a point at the bottom, enclosing the 
letter (for Qeorgius). 

(Kristeller 181, 182; Husung 117, 118; BMC V, p. 382, Devices E, F) 



VENICE. BBRNARDINUS BENALIUS & MATTEO CAPCASA 
IU has one book by these printers. It contains a printer's device. 

70 




Dante. La Commedia. 3 Mar. Ili91. (318) 
(Has woodcut illustrations and capitals) 



VENICE. BERNARDINUS BENALIUS 



IU has 10 books printed by Bernardinus Benalius alone (23 Aug.lU83-31 May 
1U97), three of which contain his device. 




Augustinus, Saint. Explanatio Psalmorum. U Aug.ll;93. (69) 

Bernard de Clairveaux. Spurious works. Modus bene vivendi. 30 May lU9u (H9) 

Eusebius. De evangelica praeparatione . 31 May 1U97. (375) 



70. This little device was used by Benalius and Capcasa only in this one 
book, the lii91 Dante. It is the usual orb and double cross, with the 
letter B (for Bernardinus) on a black ground above the horizontal and 
M (for Matthaeus) on a white ground below. The same block was used in 
lU8, with the letters V I (for Vincentius Benalius) instead of M. 
(Kristeller 187; Husung 12$; BMC V, p. 370, Device B) 



71. Benalius began printing alone in 1U93 "At the sign of Jerome in Mer- 
zeria." Hence his device, showing St. Jerome, the patron saint of 
librarians and booksellers, sitting before the apse of a church, 
holding in his right hand the model of a church and in his left, a 
book, probably the Vulgate Bible which he translated. By his left 
foot lies the lion, from whose paw he had extracted a thorn. 
(Kristeller 186; Husung 121*; BMC V, p. 370, Device C; Willoughby 
in Lib . Quart . 21(1957)2lU) 



VENICE . SIMON BEVILAQUA 

IU has lU books printed by Bevilaqua (26 June ll*93-ll* Dec. 11*99), four of 
which contain his device. 



72 




ESJM&tr&t 




Ovidius Naso. Metamorphoses. 8 July 

ll*97. (711*) 

(Has woodcut diagrams and capitals) 
Bible. Latin. U*98. Vulgate. 8 May 

11*98. (11*6) (IU copy lacks device) 

(Has woodcut illustrations and 

capitals ) 



73 




Plautus. Coraoediae. 17 Sept. Ik99. (77l) 



71* 




Sacro Bosco. Sphaera mundi. 23 Oct. 11*99. (81*7) 
(Has woodcut diagrams and capitals) 



72. In all except two of the books In which he used a device, Simon Bevilaqua 
chose a cut of a bare tree with an eagle at the top, two shields with 
crowns, and a scroll bearing his full name around the trunk of the tree. 
This is the only known instance of two shields - so common in Germany - 
appearing in an Italian device. Bevilaqua is also one of the few Italian 
printers who spelled out his full name in his device. 

(Kristeller 191; Husung 130; BMC V, p. 517, Device A; Davies 11; 
Moran. p. 37) 



73, 7U. In 11*99 Bevilaqua adopted two new devices, each of which he seems to 
have used only once. The first (no. 73) was a variation of the orb 
and double cross design, in which the lower part of the orb is drawn 
to a point; a star surmounts the cross and his full name appears 
within the orb. This is also one of the few black on white designs. 
A little later is found a smaller orb and cross (no.7U) in which the 
cross has only one crosspiece and a sprig of foliage is placed below 
the name. 

(Kristeller 192, 193; Husung 131, 132; BMC V, p. 517, Devices B 4c C) 



VENICE . GIROIAMO BIONDO , Publisher 
IU has only one book published by Biondo. It has his device. 

75 




*Canales. De coelesti vita. 19 Dec.lli9U. (200) 
(Printer: Katteo Capcasa) 
(Has woodcut capitals) 



VENICE . NIKOLA OS BLA.ST0S , Publisher 
IU has only one book published by ELastos. It has his device, 




Etymologicum magnum. 8 July lh99. (370) 

(Printer: Z. KalliergBs, with his device, no. 87) 
(Has woodcut capitals and headpieces) 



7$. Nothing is known about the Florentine publisher, Hieronymus Blondus, 
nor is it known why he chose this striking device of a phoenix rising 
from the flames, here printed in red, but also feund in black or red 
and black. 

(Kristeller 201j Husung 138; BMC V, p.U83) 



76. At the center of this device, the publisher, Nikolaos Blastos, of 
Crete, has placed his elaborate monogram consisting of a large N and 
a B, around which are assembled the other letters of his name. On 
either side of the Maltese cross at the top is the abbreviation for 
Jesus Christus. The background is filled with a graceful vine wreath. 
Blastos also incorporates his name in the 22 elaborate head-pieces 
throughout the volume. 

(Kristeller 196; Husung 75} BMC V, p. 580) 



VENICE. ALBXANDER CALCBDONIUS , Publisher 
ITJ has 2 books of this publisher, both of which contain his device. 




Thomas Aquinas. Expositio in libros Posteriorum . 28 Sept. LU 96. (952) 
(Printer: Otinus de Luna) 
(Has woodcut illustrations) 
Dominicus de Flandria. Quaestiones. 20 Aug.lli99. (3u6) 
(Printer: Petrus de Quarengiis) 
(The device is repeated at the end of the volume) 



77* Alexander Calcedonius seldom signed the books which were printed for him 
by some seven or eight printers; he depended upon his fine device repre- 
senting the Angel Gabriel to identify him as the publisher. Sometimes 
the device appeared both at the end of the book and on the title page, 
as it does in the second book listed here. This representation of the 
Angel had formerly appeared in other books by other printers, but as an 
illustration, not as a device. 

(Kristeller 20U; BMC V, p. $17; Donati, p. 9) 



VENICE . JOHANNES DE COLONIA , NICOLAUS JENSON , ET SOCII , Publisher 
IU has 2 books by this firm; both contain its device. 



78 




79 




Thomas Aquinas. Super quarto libro 
Sententiarum. 2k June lU8l. (990) 
(Printer; Johann Herbort) 



Jjmocentius IV, Pope. Apparatus super 
Tibros Deere talium. 1$ June Hi 81. ($13) 
(Printer: Johann Herbort) 



78, 79. This device of the publishing firm of Johannes de Colonia, Nicolaus 
Jensen, et Socii, while not the first device to appear in Italy, was 
the original orb and double cross design which became the model for 
Italian printers just as did the double shield of Fust and Schoffer 
become the model for printers in Germany . It is thought to be the 
housemark of Johannes de Colonia, It is interesting that this model 
Italian device was not that of a printer, but of a publisher. The 
printer of these books, Johann Herbort, apparently did not have a 
device . 

(Kristeller 237, 238} Husung 172, 173; BMC V, p. 300, Devices A & Bj 
Davies ll*2j Painter p. 217) 



VENICE . JOHANNES EMERICUS DE SPIRA 

IU has 2 books printed by Emericus de Spira (2$ May lh9h & 13 Apr. 1$00) . 
The earlier one has his device. 

80 




Lyra. Postilla super Epis tolas. 25 May lh9h. (620) 

(Publisher: L. Giunta, whose device is on the title page. (See no. 83) 
(Has two woodcut capitals) 



80. The version of the orb and cross design adopted by Johannes Emericus 
de Spira contains his initials, ! , in the upper part of the orb 
and two crossed hammers in the lower part. It has been assumed that 
the hammers (German Hammer ) are a play on Emericus' original name, 
possibly Hammerich. 

(Kristeller 305; Husung 1U$; BMC V, p. 538, Device Bj Davies 1$U) 



VENICE . BENEDETTO FONTANA, Publisher 
ID has 2 books published by Fontana; both contain his device. 

81 




Caraccioli. Opera. 16 May 11*96. (203) 
(Printer: Georgius Arrivabenus) 

Tacitus. Opera. 22 Har.lli97. (916) 
(Printer: Philippus Pincius) 



81. This fountain (Italian: fontana ) is obviously designed as a play on 
the name of this publisher, Benedetto Fontana, whose initials flank 
the fountain. The location of the devices in these two books is un- 
usual. In the Caraccioli it is on the verso of leaf t2, following 
the printer's address to the reader, and in the Tacitus it is found 
both at the end of the volume and on the verso of leaf cl06a, which 
contains the first of two colophons in the book. 
(Kristeller 212 j Husung ll7j BMC V, p.U93) 



VENICE . LUCANTONIO GIUNTA , Publisher 

IU has h books published by Giunta (7 Dbc.1U91-13 Apr.l^OO), all of which 
contain his device. 



82 




Plutarchus. Vitae illustrium virorum. 7 Dec.lU91. (779) 

(Printer: Giovanni Ragazzo) 

(Has woodcut capitals and borders) 
Caterina da Siena. Libro della divina dottrina. 17 May ll9U. (218) 

(Printer: Matteo Capcasa) 

(Has woodcut capitals) 

83 




Lyra. Postilla super Epistolas. 2$ May U*9U. (620) 

(Printer: Emericus de Spira, with his device at the end, no.80) 

(Has two woodcut capitals) 
Joannes Franciscus Brixianus. Regulae SS. Benedict! - 13 Apr.l^OO. (5hB) 

(Printer: Eericus de Spira) 

(Has woodcut illustrations) 



82, 83* Lucantonlo Giunta chose as his device the lily of his native city, 
Florence, flanked by the initials of his own name. The larger of 
the two shown here is printed at the end of volumes; the smaller 
one appears on the title page. Since Giunta was an engraver, it 
is possible that he engraved his own device. 

(Kristeller 215, 216; Husung 1$3, l$lj BMC V, p.Ul$, Devices A 
and C; Willoughby in Lib . Quart . 3 (1933)97} McMurtrie, p.2l*) 



VENICE . GIOVANNI & GREGORI O DB'QREGORIIS 

IU has 2 books printed by these brothers (9 Aug.lU82 & 13 Sept. 11*92) , 
Only the later one has his device. 



8U 




Petrarca. Epistolae familiares. 13 Sept. U* 92. (7U3) 



Bk. The Gregori brothers chose as their device a large double cross with a 
St. Andrew's cross on the staff, flanked by the initials of their fore- 
names, Z (for Zovanni, i.e. Giovanni) and G (for Gregorio). The St. 
Andrew's cross is an emblem of fertility and good luck. 

(Kristeller 228} Husung 62; BMC V, p. 339, Device Dj Willoughby in 
Lib. Quart. 21(19$l)l27) 



VENICE? . JOHANNES HAMMAN 

IU has 3 books by this printer (31 Oct. 11*92-31 Aug. U*96), two of which 
contain his device. 

85 




Lyra. Postilla super Epis tolas. 13 Dec.lUlu (621) 

(Publisher: Ottaviano Scoto, with his device on the title page, no. 96) 
(Has woodcut capitals) 



86 




Ptolenaeus. Epytoma. 31 Aug. 11*96. (802) 
(Has 320 woodcut capitals, an illustration, & diagrams) 



85. 86. Of the six devices of Johannes Haranan, the first two are shown 

here. The orb and double cross is surrounded by an elegant leafy 
design similar to that in the devices of Mazalibus, at Reggio 
Emilia (no. 61*) and Bazaleriis, at Bologna (no.U5). The figure in 
the lower part of the circle is identified as a monogram, h h, 
with a cross, or as I H with the "four" mark reversed, or as 
Hamman's housemark. Here is the first instance in Italy of the 
combination of the "four" mark with the orb or monogram, an in- 
dication of German origin (Hamman was from Speier). 

(Kristeller 232, 231; Husung 169, 170; BMC V, p.U23, Devices 
D and E; Davies 1$; Meldau, p. 113; Qeldner II, p. 91) 



VENICE . ZACHARIAS KALLIERGES 
ID has one book printed by Kallierges; it contains his device. 




Etymologicum Magnum. 8 July lit 99. (370) 

(Publisher: N. Blastos (with his device (no. 76) and Anna Notaras) 
(Has woodcut capitals & headpieces) 



VENICE . FRANC ISCUS DE MADIIS , Pablisher 
IU has 3 books published by Madiis in i486; one contains his device. 

88 




Petrus Lombardus. Sententiarum libri IV. 22 Mar.lU86. (75$) 
(Printer: Hannibal Foxius et Socii) 



87* This device, the doable -headed Byzantine eagle with a shield bearing the 
initials of the printer, Zacharias KalliergSs, is found in one of the 
four Greek books which he printed for his countryman, Nikola os Blastos. 
(no. 76) This is one of the few instances in which both printer's and 
publisher's devices were printed at the end of the volume. Generally, 
the device of the publisher is placed on the title page. 
(Kristeller 206 j Husung 176; BMC V, p.$80) 



88. The publisher, Franc iscus de Madiis, adopted a strange variation of 
the orb and double cross, in which the orb is flattened and a boss 
added at the foot. The initial of his last name is placed within a 
triangle at the base of the cross and the initial of his forename 
within the boss. (Cf. Arrivabenus, no. 68 & 69) 
(Kristeller 2U6; Husung Ui9* BMC V, p.U07) 



VENICE . ALDO PIO MANUZIO 

IU has lU books by this printer (28 Feb.lli9U/5-Dec.l$00), none with his 
device, which was first used in 1$02. 

88a 




Manuzio, Aldo Pio. Poetae Christiani ve teres, v. 2. 1^02. 



VENICE . PELLEGR INO DEI PASQUALI k DIONIQI BERTOCCHI 
IU has one book by these printers; it has their device. 

89 





1 

2 




t> 


wmmmba w^mmmm^m 



Persius. Satyrae. 10 Sept.lJ*8U. (736) 



88a. Aldo Pio Manuzio did not use a device in any of his 15th-century books. 
The faaous anchor and dolphin design first appeared, as a device, in 
1$02, but in the Hypnerotomachia of Colonna (Dec.lU99. (283)) on 
leaf dy r , can be found the archetype of the device used as a symbol 
of the quality of Patience, and accompanied by an early version, Sem - 
per festina tarde , of the Aldine motto, Featina lente. 



PATIENTI A EST OKNAMENTVM CVSTO 
DI A ET PKOTECTIO VITAE. 




Da laltra parte talc elegate fcalptura mirai. Vno circulo. Vna ancora 
Sopra la ftangula dillaqle (e rouoluca uno Dclphino.Et qfti optimameti 
cufiioliiterpictai. All SnETAi BPAAEQS. Scmg fcftina tardc 



89. This simple orb and double cross, like that of its originator, Johannes 
de Colonia, but without the dot in the lower part of the orb, was used 
by Pellegrino dei Pasquali ontty in this book, in the printing of which 
he was joined by Dionigi Bertocchi. After that, he developed several 
variations of the same design. 

(Kristeller 255; Husung 181; BMC V, p. 389, Device A) 



VENICE. PELLEGRINO DEI PASQUALI 

IU has U books printed by Pasquali (Ik Mar. 11*93-18 Aug.U*9U). 
the first have his device. 



All except 




Mayronis. Sermones. 11 Feb. Hi 93 A. (660) 
Bruni. Aquila volante. 6 June li*9U. (181*) 

(Has woodcut illustration and border on title page) 
Quintilianus . Institution** . 18 Aug.U*9l*. (811) 

(Has woodcut diagrams) 



VENICE. BERNARDINO RIZZO 



IU has 6 books by this printer (11*86/7-15 Feb. 11*92/3); two contain his 
device . 




Foresti. Supplementum chronicarun. Italian. 



8 Oct. 11*91. (1*02) 
1$ Feb. IU 92/3. (1*01) 



(Both books have woodcut illustrations and capitals) 



90. In the last of Pasquali's variations of his original device (no. 89) 
he identified it as his own by placing his initials, P P, in the 
upper part of the orb, adding fluting in the lower part, and a 
slight boss at the foot. This form he continued to use after he 
moved to Scandiano, in 11*95. (Cf. no. 67) 

(Kristeller 253? Husung 185} BMC V, p.389, Device F) 



91. Like Pellegrino dei Pasquali, Bernardino Rizzo used the simple orb 
and double cross design, without a dot in the lower part of the 
orb, in only one book, in lu8U. His next design appeared first in 
Ik 90. It followed the same basic pattern, but the printer's ini- 
tials, B R, were added in the lower part of the orb. 
(Kristeller 268; Husung 19U} BMC V, p. 1*00, Device B) 



VENICE . JOANNES LUCILIUS SAMTRITTBR & HIEROMMUS DE SANCTIS 
IU has one book by these printers. It has their device. 





92 












SHjg 




5-y*; 






^^^^ 




llei 


vJ 




fexea 







Sacro Bosco. Sphaera nundi. 31 Mar. 1488. (8UU) 
(Has woodcut illustrations and capitals) 



VENICE . OTTAVIANO SCOTO 
IU has 7 books printed by Scoto (lU8l-lli83/U)j only the last has his device. 

93 




Caprloli. Quaestiones in IV libros Sententiarum. 1483A. (202) 



92. The chief element in this device is the monogram, H. The letters stand 
for Joannes Lucilius Santritter and Hieronymus de Sanctis. The star su- 
perimposed on the monogram may indicate the astrological interest of the 
firm, and the crown was probably its house sign. The device may have 
been designed by Santritter, who is known to have designed cuts for Rat- 
dolt and others; Hieronymus de Sanctis was his cutter. 

(Kristeller 280; Husung 196; BMC V, p.U6l, Device A; Davies 120; 
Willoughby, in Lib . Quart . 30(1950)202) 



93. This device, Scoto's housemark, is clearly a copy of that of Johannes 
de Colonia (no. 78), with the addition of his own initials, Octavianus 
Scotus Modoetiensis (i.e. of Monza). He used this block in lii83 and 
lii8U when he presumably did his own printing. After 1U8U, he acted 
only as publisher, and this block was later used in books printed for 
him by Locatelli (no. 95). The device was so closely associated with 
Scoto that it appears on his tombstone. 

(Kristeller 281; Husung 198, p. XI; BMC V, p. 276, Device A; Meldau, 
p. 116; Davies 157; Fumagalli, p.U58-9) 



NOBIMJ OCTAViANV.5 -5COTV5DE 
MODOETiA MERCATOR LiRROftiHP.WOB 

siBi-ET-svccE5SOR!Bvs qvi OBl'iT- 
\XIIII DECEMBRi-1408 



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w I 



V 



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VENICE . OTTAVIANO SCOTO , Publisher 

IU has 19 books published by Scoto (23 Oct.U*86-31 Dec.U*98). All except 
two (23 Oct.ll*86 & 18 Dec.ll*90) have his device. The printer is Boneto 
Locatelli, except for two books printed by B. de Zanis and one by J. 

Hamman. 



91* 




Boethius. De consolatione philosophiae . 

2U Dec.lU89. (157) 
Gellius. Noctes Atticae. 13 Nov.ll*9u. 

(U13) 
Aristoteles. De animalibus. 9 Aug. 11*98. 
(U3) (Printer: B. de Zanis) 
(Gellius and Aristoteles have woodcut 
capitals ) 




Lyra. Postilla super Ep is tolas. 13 Dec. 
' ll*9u. (621) (Printer: J. Hamman, with 
his device at the end. (no. 85) 
(Has 6l woodcut capitals) 



95 



859 



Silius Italicus. Punica. 18 May ll*92. 

(879) 
Ovidius. Metamorphoses. 28 Feb. 11*92/3. 

(712) (Printer: B. de Zanis) 
Valerius Maximus. Facta et dicta. 30 

Apr.LU93. (1036) 
Boccaccio. Genealogiae. 23 Feb.ll*9l*/5 

(153) 

Thomas Aquinas. Expositio in libros 
Posteriorum. 18 Sept.lU95. (95l) 

Super quarto libro 

Sententiarura. 23 May 11*97. (991) 

Guainerio. Opera medica. ll* Feb. 
1U97/8. (1*1*3) 

Boethius. De consolatione philosophiae. 
11* June 11*98. (159) 

Thomas Aquinas. Expositio super libros 
De generatione. 22 Dec. 11*98. (953) 
(All have woodcut capitals; Boccaccio 
and the 11*95 Thomas Aquinas have dia- 
grams also) 



97 




Priscianus. Opera. 21 Feb. lU 96/7. (793) 
Yuhanna ibn SSrabiyun. Breviarium. 16 

Dec.lU97. (1080) 
Thomas Aquinas. Coramentaria in orones 

Epis tolas. 22 Dec.U*98. (9UD 

Opuscula. 31 Dec.lU98. 

T9T5) 

(All have woodcut capitals) 



9U-97. After lhQh Scoto ceased to do his own printing, entrusting that 
function to some 10 others, chiefly, Boneto Locatelli. In most 
cases, Scoto, the publisher, retained the same device which he 
had used as printer, varying only the size. But when Johannes 
Hamman did the printing (no. 96) he added a delicate background 
of vines, reflecting his own device. See nos. 8$ & 86) 
9U. (Kristeller 282; Husung 199; BMC V, p. 276, Device B) 

95. (Kristeller 281; Husung 198; BMC V, p. 276, Device A) 

96. (Husung 203; BMC V, p. 1*23) 

97. (Kristeller 28U; Husung 201; BMC V, p. 276, Device D) 



VENICE . JOANNES BAPTISTA SESSA 

IU has only one book by this printer. It has two devices, one on the title 
page and one at the end. 

98 



99 





Valla. Elegantiae linguae Latinae. 8 Feb.lU99A500. (1039) 
(No. 98 is on the title page; 99 at the end) 
(Has I4.3O woodcut capitals) 



VENICE . LAZARO DE SOARDIS, Publisher 
IU has one book published by Soardisj it contains his device. 




Vincent ius Ferrerius. Sermones. 2 Nov.lli96. (106U) 
(Printer: Jacobus Pentius) 
(Has woodcut illustration on title page) 



98, 99. Joannes Baptista Sessa had two devices, both of which appear here 
in the same book. At least three variations of the orb and cross 
design are known, all of them containing the printer's initials 
within the orb. There were two versions of the cat and mouse theme, 
the one shown here being the earlier. Probably no significance is 
to be attached to the design, but Sessa' s 16th-century successors 
added a motto: Dissimilium infida societas, "Untrustworthy is the 
society of dissenters. 11 By that time the mouse was looked upon as 
a symbol of the heretic and the motto was intended as a protestation 
of orthodoxy. 

(Kristeller 289, 291 J Husung 205, 210 j BMC V, p. 1*79, Devices A 
and C; Willoughby, in Lib . Quart . 2(1932)1*23) 



100. This is one of the few examples of the orb and cross with one, instead 

of two crosspieces. An earlier device (lii90 & ll*92) had the usual double 
cross. The initials, L S, are, of course those of the publisher, La- 
zarus de Soardis. The figure below the horizontal in the orb has been 
thought to be the letter 0, the second letter of Soardis' name; or pos- 
sibly, a variation of the original dot in the device of Johannes de 
Colonia. The nib or boss at the base of the orb is fairly common about 
this time. 

(Kristeller 301; Husung 212; BMC V, p. 1*90, Device B) 



VENICE . BERNARDINUS STAGNINUS 

IU has 3 books by this printer (10 Apr.lU86-l6 Sept.lU95). 
his device. 



The last has 



101 




orpus juris civilis. Codex. 16 Sept. 11*9!?. (296) 



VENICE . BERNARDINUS STAGNINUS , Publisher 

IU has one book with Stagninus as publisher instead of printer, 
a different device. 



It contains 



102 




*Lyra. Postilla super Epistolas. 13 Feb.l^OO/Ol. (622) 

(Printer: G. Tacuino, with his device at the end. (no.lOU) 
(Has woodcut capitals) 



101. Stagninus is the first printer in Italy to use a heart-shaped orb in 
his device. This is one of about seven variations of the design 
which he used. The S, wound around the cross, is the initial of the 
printer's last name, his first initial, B, being placed within the 
heart. Stagninus even had his device carved on his grave monument, 
as Scoto had done. (See no. 93) 

(Husung 215; BMC V, p.361i, Device Bj Davies 177; Fumagalli, p.U58-9) 



& 



HfBERNARDlNVi DE FERRARII5 1 . 
JDETRiDlNO MOINTI5F- 5TA| 
"*l GTSiNVJ-LiBRORc-MERCATOR 
< HEEi5ABETH-CON50RTi-51BI- 



C^. ET 5V15 



.&> 



3 



N 



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t ii 



MDXVIli 



ii ,_, 






102. Stagninus had another device with the figure of St. Bernardinus, his 
patron saint, and also his shop sign. The saint wears the Franciscan 
habit, carries a book and an inkwell and the sacred symbol, IHS. The 
three mitres represent the three bishoprics he had refused. This is 
the only occasion on which Stagninus acted as a publisher instead of a 
printer. 

(Kristeller 3lU; Husung 217; Davies 225; BMC V, p. 363, $3k) 



VENICE. GIOVANNI TACUINO 



IU has 17 books printed by Tacuino (after 8 May Ik 92 -after 1500?), Ik of 
which have his device. 

103 




Silius Italicus. Punica. 20 Sept.lU93. (880) (Device wanting in IU copy) 
Mancinellus. Carmen de floribus. 11 Dec.lli93. (626) 
(Both books have woodcut capitals) 




Curtius Rufus. Historiae Alexandri Magni. 17 July U+9U. (310) 

Juvenalis. Satyrae. 28 Jan.Ui9U/5. (566) 

Persius. Satyrae. lU Feb.lli9li/5. (739) 

Tortelli. Orthographia. 19 Dec.Hi95. (1021) 

Diodorus Siculus. Bibliothecae historicae libri VI. 20 Sept. Hi 96 

Mancinellus. Carmen de floribus. 11 May Hi 97. (627) 

Ovidius. Fasti. 12 June Hi 97. (711 ) 

Seneca. Tragoediae. 7 Apr.Hi98. (869) 

Ovidius. Tristia. 26 Mar.Hi99. (718) 

Persius. Satyrae. k Nov.Hi99. (7liO) 

Lyra. Postilla super Epistolas. 13 Feb.l500/01. (622) 

(Publisher: B. Stagninus, with his device on title page. (no. 102) 
Ovidius. De arte amandi. after 15007 (708) 

(All books, except the first and fourth, have woodcut capitals; 

the 2d, 3d, & 10th have illustrations also) 



(336) 



103. For his first device, Giovanni Tacuino adapted the block of his kins- 
man, Guilelmus Anima Mia, who had joined his firm in Hi92. For the 
original initials, which had been added in type, he substituted his 
own initials, I T, also in type. The letters, P and C, on the scroll 
probably stand for Pian Cereto, the native town of both printers. 
The significance of the birds, rabbits, flowers and tree, if any, 
is not clear. 

(Kristeller 32$; Husung 218; BMC V, p. $27, Device A, and p.xxxvi) 



10U. In most of his books printed in lh9k-l$00, Tacuino used a variation 
of the orb and cross design consisting of two concentric circles 
with the double cross and his initials, Z T, for Zovanni (i.e. Gio- 
vanni) de Tridino, below the horizontal within the circles. 
(Kristeller 326; Husung 220; BMC V, p. $27, Device B) 






VENICE . BAPTISTA DE TORTIS 

IU has 10 books printed by Tortis (Hi Mar. 11} 82-5, 10 Sept.l500)j five have 
his device. 



105 



106 





Catholic Church. Pope, 129U-1303 (Boni- Corpus juris civilis. Volumen par- 
" facius VIII). Liber sextus Decretali- "vum. 3 Nov.lii97. (300) 

urn. 1, 15 Apr.lU9U. (236) 
prpus juris civilis. Codex. 29 July 1U96. 

(297) 
Baldo degli Ubaldi. Super I-H Codicis. 

3 June-5 Sept. Hi 96. (93) 



107 




Catholic Church. Pope, 129U-1303 (Boni- 
facius VIII). Liber sextus Decreta- 
lium. 5, 10 Sept. 1500. (237) 



105-107. The design of the devices of Baptista de Tortis remained the same 
throughout his long and prolific activity. But there were at 
least seven blocks, differing only in small details. The three 
examples shown here represent the last three variations and differ 
in 1) the overall size, 2) the size of the orb, 3) the size of the 
pointed extension at the foot of the orb, k) the placing of the dot 
in the lower part of the orb, and 5) the distance of the printer's 
initials, B T, from the staff of the cross. 

(Kristeller 321, 322; Husung 233, 235, 236j BMC V, p. 320, Devices 
E, F, Gj Davies lltf) 



VENICE. BERNARDINUS VENETUS DE VITALIBUS 



IU has 5 books by this printer working alone (lij98"-after 1J>00 ); only one has 
his device. 

108 




Leto. Romanae historiae compendium. 12 Dec. 1$00. (59U) 
(Has woodcut capitals) 



VENICE . BERNARDINUS & MATTHAEUS 
VENETUS DE VITALIBUS 



IU has one book by these printers; it has 
the device of Bernardinus. 



VENICE . UNIDENTIFIED PUBLISHER 

IU has one book by this anonymous 
publisher. 

110 




Sabellico. Enneades. 31 Mar. Ui98. (8Uo7 



This book has a device of Bernardinus Venetus deJTitalibus in red at the end; 
on the title page is the device of this anonymous publisher. 
(Has woodcut capitals) 



108. This small, stocky orb and croBS is a late derivative of the larger 
version (no. 109). 

(Kristeller 333; Husung 238; BMC V, p.5U6, Device A) 



109. Here, again, is an example of the rare orb and cross with a single 
crosspiece, the first of its kind in Venice. The heavy design is 
lightened by the surrounding vines (Latin vitis ), playing on the name 
of the printer. The initials, B V, stand for Bernardinus Venetus (or 
Vitalibus ) . 

(Kristeller 332; Husung 237; BMC V, p.5U6, Device B) 

110. The owner of this handsome device in the form of a mural tablet with 
Renaissance ornament has never been identified. The monogram, with 
the letters IT (or T I), D D, and D E? is a complete mystery. All 
that is known is that this is the device of the publisher for whom 
Bernardinus and Matthaeus Venetus de Vitalibus (whose device appears 
at the end of the volume) printed this book. 

(Kristeller 335; Husung 239; BMC V, p.$U7) 



VICENZA 

IU has 17 books printed at Vicenza by 9 printers (llt75-lU98)j k books by 
a single printer have devices. 

VICENZA . HENRICUS DE SANCTO URSIO 

IU has h books printed by Sancto Ursio (21 Sept. 16 0ct.lU86-l6 Dec. 11*98), 
all of which contain his device. 



Ill 



\v \ ^ \ vy 


m 


<E9 : 


\ 


1/ 


N I 


r 


P5 


kV 


N luuTil ; 


N M^R|i 


v mf^KM/ 


]/ H/ 


X X-\ \ \ S\ 



Tiene. Expositio in Aristotelem De anima. 21 Sept. 16 Oct. 11*86. (1007) 

Recollectae super Physica Aristotelis. 23 Apr.H*87. (1008) 

Apuleius. Opera. 9 Aug.lU88. (1*0) 

Martianus Capella. De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii. 16 Dec. Hi 98. (61*8) 
(Has one woodcut diagram) 



111. The orb and cross design with single crosspiece is found in Italy 
first at Vicenza (ll+8$). In this example, the letters, R 7, 
stand for the printer's Italian name, Rigo Vicentino (or possibly 
Ursio). 

(Kristeller 3^7} Husung 2U2; BMC VII, p.lOWij Davies 18$) 



SWITZERLAND 

IU has 77 books printed in two Swiss cities, 76 by 16 printers at Basel 
(ca.lii70-after 1500) and one book printed at Beromunster (ca. 11*73 ) 
Nine of those printed at Basel contain printer's devices. Three con- 
tain also other woodcuts. 

BASEL . JOHANN BERGMANN 

IU has 5 books printed by Bergroann 0M9h-lk99)i two have his device. 

112 




Brant. Das Narrenschiff . Latin. 1 Aug. 11*97. (181) 

1 Mar. U* 98. (182) 

(Device is wanting in IU copy) 

(Both volumes have woodcut illustrations) 



112. This is the second of Bergmann's five devices, the central feature of 
which is the shield - here supported by a single lion - adorned with 
six mounds or hills surmounted by a lily. The significance of these 
elements has been variously explained. The mounds are said to repre- 
sent the arms of the town of Breisach, and the lily to refer to Cob- 
lenz. But there is no evidence of Bergmann's connection with either 
of these cities. It has also been proposed that the mounds constitute 
a mountain ( Berg ), a play on the printer's name. The motto, Nihil 
sine causa , "Nothing without cause" (Job $16) is said to have been 
suggested to Bergmann by his good friend, Sebastian Brant, author of 
the Narrenschiff , the first edition of which had been printed by Berg- 
mann in I49I1. The date, 11*97, in the device shown here, is the publi- 
cation date of the book in which it appears. Albrecht Diirer has 
sometimes been credited with this design. 

(Weil k9', BMC III, p.79U, Device B; Davies 32; Willoughby in Lib . 
Quart . 12(191*2)285; Meiner, p. 21; Oeldner I, p. 128) 



BASEL . MICHAEL FURTER 
IU has 8 books printed by Furter (ca.LU89-after 1$00); one has his device. 

113 




Ivo, Saint. Liber decretorum. 6 & 7 Mar.LU99. (522) 
(Has woodcut capitals and an illustration) 



BASEL . NICOLAUS KESLER 

IU has 7 books by this printer (28 Feb.LU86-ca.LU96); four of them contain 
his device. 

1LU 




Petrus Lombardus. Sententiarum libri quatuor. 28 Feb.LU86. (75U); 22 Sept. 

1U88. (756)j 18 Feb.LU92. (7$8) 
Gregorius I, the Great. Moralia. LU96. (U39) 

(Each volume has a xylographic capital on the title page) 



113. These two shields, suspended from a bare branch, each supported by 
a griffin, contain l) the monogram of the printer, Michael Purter, 
with a cross rising from the M, and 2) the arms of the city of 
Basel. 

(Weil U5j BMC III, p. 781, Device Bj Moran, p.20) 



111*. Nicolaus Kesler printed his device at the end of the first book that 
came from his press and he continued to use the same device through- 
out the entire period of his activity. The design is the typical 
German double shield. On the left one are three kettlehooks ( Kes - 
selhaken ), a play on the printer's name; the right shield contains 
the initial of his surname, K, with a cross extending to the right. 
(Weil 1*0; Davies 8} Moran, p. 11, 17) 



BASEL . MICHAEL WBNSSLER 

IU has lU books printed by Wenssler, working alone (ca.ll*7U-ll*86). 
one contains his device. 

115 



Only 




Corpus juris civilis. Institutiones . 31 July 11*78. (299) 



BASEL . JAKOB WOLFF 

IU has 3 books by this printer (11*92-11*99); only the last has his 
device . 

116 




Reginaldetus . Speculum finalis retributionis . 11*99. (818) 



115. Michael Wenssler was the first printer at Basel to use a device, of 
which he had five. In this, his second device, two shields sus- 
pended from a stag's antler, display, on the left, a so-called 
"curtailed cross," apparently of no heraldic significance, and, 
on the right, the arms of the printer's family, native of the city 
of Sternbachj hence the representation of a brook ( Bach ) between 
two stars ( Stern ). 

(Weil 37 i BMC III, p.719, Device 2; Painter, p. 211, 212) 



116. In this device of Jakob Wolff, an angel holds two shields, the left 
one bearing the arms of the city of Basel and the right one the 
printer's merchant's mark, consisting of two Vs, one inverted over 
the other, and with a "four" sign reversed, with a cross through the 
tail. If the artist, Albrecht Diirer, did not actually create this 
design, his influence can clearly be seen. 

(Weil Ul; BMC III, p.776j Willoughby, in Lib . Quart . 13(19U3)62) 






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9 

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4 



5 
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76 

5 

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12 6 16 9 

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PRINTING CENTERS for 10 Books with DeTices 
(Names of Publishers are underlined) 



Antwerp 1-3 

Bae , Qovaert 1 , 2 

Dorp, Roland ran der 3 
Augsburg 32 

Ratdolt, i-.rhard 32 
Basel 112-116 

Bergmann, Johann 112 

Furter, Michael 113 

nesler, Nicolaus 11* 

Wenssler, Michael 115 

Wolff, Jakob 116 
BELGIUM 1-3 

Antwerp 1-3 
Bologna *5-*9 

Bazaleriis, Coliguln de k$. 

Benedetti, Francesco rlatone de *6 

Kttore, Benedetto d' %7 , %8 

Rugenus, l/go ky 
Brescia 50-5* 

Boninia, bonmo de 50 

Britannici, Angelo u Giacomo 51 

, Giacomo 52, 53 

Farfengus, baptista 5* 
Cologne 33 

Ther Hoernen, Arnold 33 
Delft kj> 

Meer, Jacob Jacobseoen Tan der *3 
Derenter kk 

Breda, Jacobus de kk 
ENGLAND k-S 

London k 

Westminster 5 6 
Florence 55 1 56 

Miscomini, Antonio 55 

Paeini, Piero 56 
(Printer: Francesco 
FRANCE 7-31 

Lyons 7-13 

Paris 1^-31 
Freiburg im Breisgau 3V, 

Riederer, Friedrich ~$k 
GERMANY 32-*2 

Augsburg 32 

Cologne 33 

Freiburg im Breisgau 3* 

Leipzig 35-37 

Mainz 38 

Memmingen 39 

Speier *0 

Strnssburg 'i1, l \2 



Buonaccorsi) 



10 











5 e u 
a o 3 3 



c a 3 g j > 

!? 8 2 ' 3 *. PRINTING CENTERS for IU Books with Devices 

& .H * 

b * * a: JSk S 

3 2 13 3 HOLLAND *3 4* 
1111 Delft *3 

2 1 12 2 Deventer 44 

183 50 524 116 ITALY ty-1 if 

7 4 20 11 Bologna 45-^9 
5 ^ 1^ 6 Brescia 50-5* 

11 2 2* 3 Florence 55, 56 
15 3 28 4 Milan 57-59 

2 15 2 Modana 60 

1111 Naples 61 

113 3 Parma 62, 63 

2 12 1 Reggio Emilia 6* 

13 1 55 1 Rome 65, 66 

1111 Scandiano 67 

108 30 339 79 Veniee 68-110 

9 1 17 4 Vieenza 111 

8 2 31 4 Leipzig 35-37 

7 3 Landsberg, Martin 35, 36 

1 1 Thanner, Jakob 37 
2 1 K 2 London 4 

2 2 Pynson, Richard h 

12 6 16 9 Lyons 7-13 

11 Du Pre 7 

1 1 Lathomi, ferrinus, Johannis, Bonifacius, & 
Villa Veteri, Johannes de 8 

11 Marechal, Pierre & Chaussard , Barnabe 9 

1 1 Philippi, Nicolaus 10 

3 3 Trechael, Johannes 11, 12 

2 2 Wolf, Nicolnus 13 

4 1 10 4 Mainz 38 

6 h S*h6f fer, Peter 38 

116 1 Msaaingen 39 

6 1 Kunne, Albrecht 39 

15 3 28 4 Milan 57-59 

1 1 Bissoli, Gioyanni & Mangio, Benedetto 57 
(Publisher: Demetrius Chalcondylas ) 

4 2 Seinzenzeler, tfldericus 58 

1 1 -- , & Pontremoli, 

Sebastiano de 59 

2 1 I I Hodena 60 

2 2 Bertocehl, Dionigi 60 
1 1 1 1 Saplea 61 

1 1 Cant> Ayolfus de 61 

2* 16 kz 23 Paria H-;i 

1 1 Aljate . Alexandre 1% 

(Printer: Quy Merchant) 

2 1 Baligamlt, Felix 15 

3 1 Bocard, Andre 16 

(Publisher: Durand Gerlier , with his device) 






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55 


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15 


h 






9 


k 


19 


2 


93 


2 






15 


1 






5 


1 


1? 


5 


77 


9 


16 


5 


76 


9 


08 


30 I 


79 






4 


2 






10 


3 






1 


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1* 


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1 


1 



PRINTING CENTERS for 1U Books with Devices 



Paris, Cont'd 

Caillaut, Antoine 17 
Denidel, Antoine 18 
Qerlier . Durand 19 

(Printer j Andre Boeard, with his device) 
Jehanot, Etienne 20 
Kerver, Thielman 21 

(Publisher: Jean Petit , with his device) 
Levet, Pierre 22 
Marehant, Guy 23, 2k 
Marnef , Enguilbert de 25 

(Printer: Andre Boeard or Te'lix Baligault; 
Petit . Jean 26, 27 

(Printers: Guy Merchant; Thielman server) 
Philippi, Johann 28 
Pigouchet, Philippe 29 

(Publisher: Simon Vostre; 
Roce . Denis 30, 31 

"TPrinters: Pierre roulhac; Uuy Marehant; Andre 
Boeard; Michel Tholose) 
Parma 62, 63 

Ogoletua, Angelus 62. , 63 
Reggio Emilia 6'* 

Mazalibus, Franciscus de 64 
Rome 65, 66 

Silber, Eucharius 65, 66 
Seandiano 67 

Pasquali, Pellegrino dei & Crivello, uasparo 67 
Speier 40 

Drach, Peter kO 
S trass burg 41 , 42 

Gruninger, Johann 41 

Sehott, Martin 42 
SWITZERLAND 112-116 

Basel 112-116 
Venice 68-110 

Arrivabenus, Georgius 68, 69 
(Publisher: Benedetto Fontana ) 

Benalius, Bernardinus 71 

__________ & Capcasa, natteo 70 

Bevilaqua, Simon 72-74 
Biond6 , Qirolamo 7$ 

(Printer: Matteo Capcasa t 
Blast os , Mikolaoa 76 

(Printer: Zacharias Kallierges, with his device; 
Calcedonius, Alexander 77 

(Printers: Otinus, de Luna; Petrus de Quarengiis; 



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4 
2 

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3 
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k 
7 
3 



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K 
k 
6 
2 
3 



PRINTING CENTERS for ID Books with Devices 



Venice, Cont'd 

Colonia , Johannes 
Socii 78, 79 



dr;, Jcnson, Nicolaus et 



I Printer: Johannes Herbort) 
Emericus do Spira, Johannes 80 

(Publisher: Lucantonio Giunta , with his device) 
Fontana , Benedetto 81 

(Printers: Georgius Arrivabenus; Fhilippus 
rincius ) 
Giunta , Lucantonio 82, 83 
Gregoriis, Giovanni & Gregorio de* 8^ 
Hamman, Johannes 85 , 86 

(Publisher: Ottaviano Scoto ) 
Kallierges, Zacharias 87 

(Publisher: Nlkolaos Blastoa , with his device) 
Madiis , Franciscus de 80 

V. Printer: Hannibal Foxius et Socii) 
Pasquali, Pellegrino dei 90 

& Bertocchi, Dionigi 89 

Rizzo, Bernardinus 91 

Santritter, Joannes Lucilius & Sanctis, Hierony- 

mus de 92 
Scoto, Ottaviano 93 
Scoto , Ottaviano 9%-97 

(Printers: Bonoto Locatelli; Bartholomaeus de 
Zanis; Johannes Hamman, with his device) 
Sessa, Joannes Baptista 98, 99 
Soardis , Lazaro de 100 

(Printer: Jacobus Pentius) 
Stagninus, Bernardinus 101 
Stagninus, Bernardinus 102 

(, Printer: Giovanni Tacuino, with his device) 
Tacuino, Giovanni 103, 10% 

^Publisher: Bernardinus Stagninus ) 
Tortis, Baptista de 105-107 
Unidentified Publisher 110 

Matthaeus 



(Printer: Bernardinus & 
Vitalibus, with device) 
Venetus de Vitalibus, Bernardinus 



Venetus de 

108 
& Matthaeus 109 



^.Publisher: 
Vicenza 111 

Sancto Drsio, 
Westminster 5 

Caxton, 



Unidentified) 



Henricus 
6 
William 5 
Worde, Vfynkyn de 6 



de 111 



15 



Index of Printers, Publishers, and Places 
(Names of Publishers are underlined) 

Aliate, Alexander (Paris) lU 

ANTWERP - - 1-3 

Arrivabenus, Georgius (Venice)- 68-69 

AUGSBURG 32 

Bac, Govaert (Antwerp) 1-2 

Baligault, Felix (Paris ) 1$ 

BASEL 112-116 

Bazaleriis, Caligula de (Bologna) U5 

BELGIUM 1-3 

Benalius, Bernardinus (Venice ) 71 

Benalius, Bernardinus & Capcasa, Matteo (Venice) 70 

Benedetti, Francesco Platone de (Bologna) U6 

Bergmann, Johann (Basel) 112 

Bertocchi, Dionigi (Modena)- 60 

Bevilaqua, Simon (Venice) 72-7U 

Biondo, Qirolamo (Venice) 75 

Bissoli, Giovanni & Manglo, Benedetto (Milan) -57 

Bias toe , Nikolaos (Venice) 76 

Bocard, Andre* (Paris ) 16 

BOLOGNA- U5-U9 

Boninis, Bonino de (Brescia) 50 

Breda, Jacobus de (Deventer) Uk 

BRESCIA 50-54 

Britannici, Angelo & Giacomo (Brescia) 51 

Britannici, Giacomo (Brescia) 52-53 

Caillaut, Antoine (Paris) 17 

Calcedonius, Alex ander (Venice) 77 

Cantono, Ayolfus de (Naples) 61 

Caxton, William (Westminster) 5 

COLOGNE- - 33 

Colonia , Johannes de , Jenson, Nicolaus , et Socil (Venice) -78, 79 

DELFT U3 

Denidel, Antoine (Paris ) 18 

EEVBNTER Uk 

Dorp, Roland van den (Antwerp) -3 

Drach, Peter (Speier) U0 

Du Pre, Jean (Lyons) 7 

Emericus de Spira, Johannes (Venice) -80 

ENGLAND - - U-6 

Ettore, Benedetto d' (Bologna) U7, U8 

Farfengus, Baptista (Brescia) 5U 

FLORENCE - 55-56 

Fontana , Benedetto (Venice) 81 

FRANCE 7-31 

FREIBURG IM BREISGAU 34 

Furter, Michael (Basel) - 113 



16 



Gerlier, Durand (Paris) 19 

GERMANY - 32 -k2 

GjLunta, Lucantonio (Venice) 82, 83 

Gregori, Giovanni & Gregorio (Venice) 8U 

Grtfninger, Johann (Strassburg) Ul 

Hamman, Johannes (Venice) 85, 86 

Hectoris, Benedictus See Ettore, Benedetto d* 

HOLLAND - - U3 

ITALY U5-1U. 

Jehanot, Etienne (Paris)- 20 

Kallierges, Zacharias (Venice) 87 

Kerver, Thielman (Paris) 21 

Kesler, Nicolaus (Basel)- llU 

Kunne, Albrecht (Meraraingen) 39 

Landsberg, Martin (Leipzig) 35 36 

Lathomi, Perrinus, Johannls, Bonifacius, 

& Villa Veteri, Johannes (Lyons) 8 

LEIPZIG 3$, 36 

Levet, Pierre (Paris ) 22 

LONDON k 

LYONS 7-13 

Madiis , Franc iscus de (Venice) 88 

MAINZ ~ - 38 

Manuzio, Aldo Pio (Venice) 88a 

Marchant, Guy (Paris) 23, 2k 

Marechal, Pierre & Chaussard, Barnabl (Lyons) 9 

Marnef, Enguilbert de (Paris) 25 

Mazalibus, Franciscus de (Reggio Emilia) 6k 

Meer, Jacob Jacobszoen van der (Delft) U3 

MEMMINGEN 39 

MILAN -57-59 

Miscomini, Antonio (Florence ) 55 

MODENA - 60 

NAPLES- - 61 

NETHERLANDS See BELGIUM; HOLLAND 

Pacini , Piero (Florence) 56 

PARIS - 1U-31 

PARMA - 62, 63 

Pasquali, Pellegrino dei (Venice) 90 

Pasquali, Pellegrino dei & Bertocchi, Dionigi (Venice) 89 

Pasquali, Pellegrino dei & Crivello, Gasparo (Seandiano) 67 

Petit , Jean (Paris) 26, 27 

Philippi, Johann (Paris) 28 

Philippi, Nicolaus (Lyons ) 10 

Pigouchet, Philippe (Paris) 29 

Pynson, Richard (London) k 



17 



Ratdolt, Erhard (Augsburg) 32 

RBQOIO EMILIA - 6U 

Riederer, Friedrich (Freiburg im Bretsgau) 3U 

Rizzo, Bernardino (Venice) 91 

Roce, Denis (Paris) 30, 31 

ROME - - - - 65, 66 

Rugerius, Ugo (Bologna) U9 

Sancto Ursio, Henricus de (Vicenza) 111 

Santritter, Johannes Lucilius & Sanctis, Hieronymus de (Venice) 92 

SCANDIANO - - 67 

SchBffer, Peter (Mainz)- - - - 38 

Schott, Peter (Strassburg) U2 

Scinzenzeler, Uldericus (Milan) 58 

Scinzenzeler, Uldericus 4 Pontreraoli, Sebastiano de (Milan) 59 

Scoto, Ottaviano (Venice) 93 

Scoto , Ottaviano (Venice) 9U-97 

Sessa, Joannes Baptists (Venice) 98, 99 

Silber, Eucharius (Rome)- 65, 66 

Soardis, Lazaro de (Venice) 100 

SPEIER UO 

Stagninus, Bernardinus (Venice) 101 

Stagninus , Bernardinus (Venice) 102 

STRASSBURQ - 1*1, U2 

Tacuino, Giovanni (Venice) 103, 10U 

Thanner, Jakob (Leipzig) 37 

Ther Hoernen, Arnold (Cologne) 33 

Tortis, Baptista de (Venice) 105-10? 

Trechsel, Johannes (Lyons) 11, 12 

Ugoletus, Angelus (Parma) 62, 63 

Unidentified Publisher (Venice ) 110 

Venetus de Vitalibus, Bernardinus (Venice) 108 

Venetus de Vitalibus, Bernardinus & Matthaeus (Venice) 109 

VENICE 68-110 

VICENZA - Ill 

Wenssler, Michael (Basel) 115 

WESTMINSTERS - 5, 6 

Wolf, Nicolaus (Lyons) 13 

Wolff, Jakob (Basel) - 116 

Worde, Wynkyn de (Westminster) 6