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With 9 Maps, 96 Illustrations, Appendices, 
and an Index. 

2 vols. Qvo., 425. 

LoNDox ASD Niw York : 






And Ani wt oiut beniD wiUi Auk, (o aiLicb the (irat pint's ia 
, u boos tb« pUec of the Qnl Hen. fint Relit;ion, fint Citiet, 
juva, ArU; vbcn Uia moil Uiing* menlioned ui Srripiure were 
' ; Um pUet when Pitndw wu watvd, the Arlie imIm), Uie Law 
fiTu, uh) wbenoe Lbe Qoipall pruceediid ; llie plua wliLch ilid 
c Uim in Hit Oeth, Uuit bj Hit Word buivth up ftll Ibitigi ' 







■ 1 








Trb Work of which I hera publish the first port, 
ibagh the outcome of two journeys rouml th»* world 
in 1887-8 %w\ in 1802-3, does not prel«nd lo be a 
book of trsTcl. Bather in it an attempt to exninine, 
IB * coinparutire tight, the politicnl, social, aud 
"'^imic i-nntlitioiis t»f tin- kitifjiloms and j>riiiri- 
Mitic- of the Far East. By this title I si-rnify the 
'I'mnrks ih:it lie l)etween Tiidia and the Pacific Ocean. 
Thiy [iichide l)Olh the best known and tlie least 
K'l'uri i»f Orienlal nations — Japan and C'liina in tlie 
f"rm<r i-att-jjory ; Korea, Tungking, Annani, Cochin 
'^'iii'i, Canibogia, and f^iam in llic latter. In respect 
'■f riic. reli;:ioii, and habits, Burma should fall within 
*"■' saiiu- cbiss ; liut since it is now an inlegral porliou 
"f ''i'' Indian lunpire. it will be purposely excluded 
■■'■■^ survey. 

Till- .■d)n\c-nn-nlioncd comilries have eai-h their 
*i'''i-il f>-:itiin's of climate, scenery, arcliitccliire, rcli- 
'■'■li- mill liTe. difTercntiating them from each other, 
'■■'!-till more from tlic rest of the world. To ilictra- 
^■■ll'T till-.- idiosyncrasies cannot fail lo appeal; nor 
'■'''■ !:■■ lie indill'ereiil to llie atmosphere of romance 
"' M'liifli those fancifnl regions, when once he lias 


left them, appear ever afterwards to float. To su( 
aesthetic impressions I would profess no invulner 
bility ; and the descriptions which will be found 
these pages of the capitals of Korea and China, ai 
of other scenes, will prove the completeness of n 
occasional surrender. On the whole, however, I ha 
relegated these aspects of my journeys to the bac 
ground, and have preferred to discuss the problen 
perhaps less superficially interesting, but incompai 
bly more important, and vastly more abstruse, wlii' 
are suggested by the national character, resources, ai 
organisation of those countries as affected by tli( 
intercourse with foreign or Western Powers. Wh 
is the part which they are now playing, or are capal 
of playing, on the international stage ? What is I 
political future that may, without foolhardiness 
prediction, be anticipated for the peoples and Ian 
of the Far East ? 

In preparing and comparing my observalic 
upon these countries, I very early found that 
attempt to deal with the political features of eig 
different States within the compass of a single volui 
could only be achieved at the expense both of un 
and exactitude — a conviction which was fortified 
the natural subdivision of my subject into a twof( 
heading. Japan, Korea, and China suggest a numl 
of problems, substantially similar if not actually int 
connected. Their maritime outlook is towards t 
Pacific Ocean. The remaining countries of the I 
East are in a different stage of evolution; and par 
owing to their intrinsic weakness, partly to the dejri 

id vlucb they have already been brou^'ht luukr 
BnKpean conlrol, iUnslrate a tlifTerent jirgiiiiient. 
Tkfx ore ako alike in turuing a backward ^^aze 
u]nti the iudUn 8eas. Folluwing this natural cla8f«i> 
firxtion, I have confined llie prestnit voliimo to the 
uunbiiiion of the three Srst- mentioned Stales, 
merriii^ for a future work tha territories of the 
Iai!i>OiiDe>e peninsula. 

Ill the rase of Japan I must confess to having 
'iquriwi widttly from the accepted model of treat- 
oi'uil. There will be found nothing in those pag(>s of 
^ Jkpain of temples, tea-houses, and bric-^-brac — 
toll infinitesbnal segment of the national existence 
*Mn)i ilie travr-IIcr is -*o prone to niislake for the 
"!niK\ and by doin;; which he fills the educated 
■'sfiiif* with such unspeakable indignation. 1 liave 
l-nii iiiort' interested in the efforts of a nation, still in 
|*'iptil;ij.'t-, to assume the manners of the full-irrown 
'■■;'!^ in the roiistitulional struggles througli which 
■'si'iJi i* ]ix>sing, in her relations with foreign Powers, 
^■■'M(i till- future that awaits her immense ambitions. 
■■^imii.irly in China I have been more concerned 
wi:]j ill,. iiiiiTital structure of that mysterious archaism, 
*ilitliv |H>lii.y of its rulers, the strength or wcak- 
'-■*" "1 iij resources, and with (he pulse that throbs 
■" '■'fi.iiitly iH-neaitt the bosom of its amazing pfopK-, 
■-■'■I Willi the sighis and scenes of Treaty Tons, or the 
■■■Mi'Til features of native existence. In Korea I 
'r'"'li;ii I may claim in .--omo resjieds to ln-t-ak 
a,:.,ri.! [|,.\v grnund. In the ft-w and singularly 
!:-Ji]'"jualu accounts of that kingdom that have 


appeared in Europe, and that have left it, next t< 
Tibet, the least known part of Asia, no seriouj 
endeavour has been made to examine its politica 
status — a question of great complexity and of inter 
national importance — or to determine its bearinj 
upon surrounding States ; and I doubt whether tc 
most persons at home Korea is known except as i 
land of white clothes and black hats. If a dispropor 
tionate space may appear to have been allotted to iti 
treatment, as compared with that of China and Japan, 
it will be because of an intrinsic noveltv that is no 
yet exhausted, and of a general ignorance that ii 
view of present events deserves to be appeased. 

If, in spite of a good deal of descriptive mattei 
that may perhaps interest or assist both the reade: 
and the traveller, it be objected that the trail of poll 
tics is over all this work, I answer that such is tin 
principal claim that I venture to make for it. Otlie 
writers of great ability have recorded their impres 
sions of the social or artistic sides of- Eastern life 
But, in their interest in the governed, they have to( 
frequently forgotten the government; nor does tb 
photograph of a fleeting moment lend much assistanc 
to the forecast of a wider future. For myself, in essay 
ing this more ambitious task, I can honestly disdain 
on the several occasions when I have travelled in th 
East, any a priori prepossession for this or prejudic 
against that people. I have no anterior theory to suj 
port, and no party interest, unless the British Empit 
be a party interest, to serve. But to my vision all tl 
nations of the East seem to group themselves as se< 

lk«u «■ parts, of rnrj'tiig age and utilHy, in the mosC 
voaferfol piece of natural and fauinaa mechanism that 
lb world nov presenU, namely, the pohtical evolu* 
dnof the Aaialic Continent. What function in ful- 
Qed br each in the movement of this vast machine, 
howfu they individually retard its progress or con- 
ttiboie to the colluctivt' thund(.'r uf ita wheels, is to me 
flu mart absorbing of i»roblem8. What will become 
flftldi great fiibric in the future, whether its minor 
atsm will break up and split asunder, thereby adding 
to the already formidable strain upon the larger units, 
■litflicr (he stow heart of the Eaat will still continue 
lopllpitate beneath the superimposed restraints of 
"-^'TTi fnrrt- <;r i^x:inipk-, or wln^llicT :i,s li;iri bocii 
pffJicted, some tremendous cataclysm may be ex- 
P^ied, in which the tide of human conquest shall 
*"ice more be rolled back from East to West, are 
s[)ecubtiuns to the solution of which I iiave no 
lender wish than to 8ubscril>e my humble <iu()ta of 

Rtially, these volumes are part of that sclicme of 
""fk, now nearly half realised, which ion years ago 
I iirsi wt Ix-fore myself in ihe examinalioii of the 
'•'*Tf-tii ;ispf*'ts of llie Asiatic problem. What I 
'■3>'e aln-ady endeavoured to do for Hussia in (Vnlral 
-"ij. :in(l for Persia, or the countries on this side of 
Ii'iia, if. thi- Xear luist— what I hope in be abU- 
■'> do hereafter for two other liiile-kninvn Asiatic 
rt-.-ii-ii*. directly bordering upon India, /.'■. ilu- 
'•■ntral I-^^l — I attempt to do in this volinui', and 
hi that which will follow it, for the countrii-; lying 


beyond India, i.e, the Far East. As I proceed with 
this undertaking, the true fulcrum of Asiatic domi- 
nion seems to me increasingly to lie in the Empire of 
Hindustan. The secret of the mastery of the world, 
is, if only they knew it, in the possession of the 
British people. 

No Englishman need grudge the splendid achieve- 
ments and possessions of the mighty Power whose 
hand is outstretched over the entire north of Asia, 
from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific. He need 
not be jealous of the new-born Asiatic zeal of our 
next-door neighbour in Europe. He may respect 
alike the hoary pride of China, and the impetuous 
exuberance of renascent Japan. But he will find that 
the best hope of salvation for the old and moribund 
in Asia, the wisest lessons for the emancipated and 
new, are still to be derived from the ascendency of 
British character, and under the shelter, where so 
required, of British dominion. If in the slightest 
degree I succeed in bringing home this conviction to 
the minds of my countrymen at home, I shall never 
regret the years of travel and of writing which I 
have devoted and hope still to devote to this con- 
genial task. 

My sincere thanks are due, for revision- or advice 
in different parts of this work, to Mr. Cecil Spring- 
Eice, of H. B. M.'s Diplomatic Service, the delightful 
companion of my later journeys ; to Mr. W. C. Hillier, 
late Consul-General in Korea ; and to Mr. J. N. Jordan, 
of the British Legation at Peking. 

George N. Curzon. 





— Ilrr prCNliicU ' HomogenFOiuneBS— 

A-r— ^ with iMUMtioo— Mont Immim— llie Fat Esat—Iu 

IB Um i^voi 



JafADMC railwayii— The streets of Tokio— The Diet— Public 
opinion — pKrliAHicDt&ry Bjinptoms — Bocks ahead— The Minis- 
trn and Pari iainent— The Ministry of All the TaJents — 
KiiMvtalions-Sestion of 1892-S~Session of 1893— The CTJBifl 
-GeiKTal Elections of 1S94 — Heal points at issue— 1. Clan 
P'tcmiDeDt — Oligarchy v. Democracy — 2. Position of the 
!^tfr*ien -8. Ministerial reBponaibilily-TIie issue- Japanese 
N«iv — Army — Corroborative opinion — Fiiiancea— Trade — 
M aim hcl urine inilustries — Attitude uf Japanese tovvards 
f(ir»iiriii-rB - Schoolboy jmtriotisni —Chances of Chrii 

CUAlTElt m 


i-iion - History of th.' Trenties— P.isti 
Tin- caie of , -Tlio case of Hie F 
■. at Ueutiun. Cuimt Inouyc, IBW 7 

Hit of lle- 

i -IVvioilN 

uit Ukutua. 



1888-9 — Viscount Aoki, 1890— Bases of settlement — Position 
of the Codes — Further postponement — Address to the Throne 
in 1898 — Anti-Mixed residence agitation — The Chinese Ques- 
tion — Agitation against foreign ownership of property — Other 
demands— Prospects of settlement 60 




The fascination of Korea— Literature of the subject — The Treaty 
Ports — Fusan — Gensan — Chemulpo — The Korean people- 
Total population — Ethnology and language — National^ cha- 
racter — The extremes of society — Necessities of travel — Visit to 
the Diamond Moimtains — Korean monks — Monastic hfe and 
habits — Buildings — Korean rehgion— Spirit- worship and Con- 
fucianism—Conditions of travel — Sport — Peasant life — Rural 
habits— Memorial tablets — Tombs — Wayfarers — The Korean 




Name of the capital — Walls and gates of Soul — Its situation— 
Beacon-fires — Population and streets — Dirt and ditches — 
Houses — Street-life and costume — Dancing-girls — Hats- 
Amusements — The Big Bell— Shops —Stone pagoda and pillar- 
Temples — Red Arrow Gate — The painted Buddha — Execution- 
place — Royal fortresses — Sovereignty in Korea — Royal Palaces 
— East, or New Palace — West, or Old Palace— Great Hall of 
Audience — Summer Palace — The King of Korea — The Tai 
Wen Kun — The King's reign — His character — The Queen — 
, The Crown Prince — Theory of monarchy — Audience with the 
Foreign Minister — Court dress and etiquette — Audience with 
the King — Royal procession — Korean army — State review . 12 



Lb AMMfe BBicrMMUn — Konnn ftdtuiiuRtratioti — lUvenna uid 
Mt— FonJcn TrtMiw— Forsitr> Ailvtimni— Projects and 
— X«w Uint BDiI Hilv«r coinajje — 
t davfJopmaot. M«iuui of 
— Bivnnftviffatiini- Cooiit navigation 
— BiDwv* Orowth of lnd«~Btuuiwhip iwrric« — Cii«Uitu» 
Uiro •Undpomt Kline* Uiil uint^rkla 
mitn\»ry work in Korea. 1. 
l^fMcviMn— t. ToUnrtJoD- Eosliiii ProtosUnt MImIou — 
ABHw MOttnkiBl «4a •■■ •••! 

cHArrEB vn 


LBMHkoa pofitifl tUtiM of RorM— CoimecitoD will) Japan— 
Trifcnt» Miaomi* ■ FHrti.-n irwl ni)-ttire Itupovrry of infln- 
»nr*. Trealjof 1876 - -Convention of Tientsin in 1865— Com- 
mcrcial atccndcory- IC«cenl lIuKler — True policy of Jnpan — 
PiMTnt cutnjilicBlions — Connection with China - ExistinR evi- 
dcnm «( KiTc&n vnualai;«- Death of llic Queen Dowager in 
IfOO Thread of Ciiinese policy. 1. Repudiation -2. Nentral- 
iiatton TertnB of tlie Treaties- Question of cnvovR — Ques- 
tii.Q of troops at Siiiil -8. Practical roi erticnty Tha Chincoe 
]>M.lent I'oMtiun of the King Juistificnlion of l.i Ilung 
t);»ni; - Ccinneclion with ttnssia -Aggressive ilcsi(,'na - Ad 
infrrim plann Altituile of Great Itritnin- Occupation of I'ort 
Huuill.iu in lfi»5 -Tlie other I'owera-Tlie carcase and llie 
(>«;!«• -ConcluHioQ 1 


cnAi'TKu vni 


■■u.nion I.-. China- TipnlBiri-Tlip Vio.n.y l.i IIunK Cltni.R 
Iiii«rii«w--Joiimey li> I'ekint; Chini-se niral life Fnlriinri- 
ti r(k.Ji([-Oroundplan-Tbp three r.kiot;- I'ftii"riiiuii of 
iMitnreU— Native practiliouere — The Imperial ruluee- Tliu 



Emperor Tung Chih — The two Empresses Regent — The Em- 
press Dowager — The Emperor Euang Hsu — Palace roatine— 
The Temple of Heaven — Difficulty of admission — The Annual 
Sacrifice — The Observatory — Examination building— Dram 
and Bell Towers — Temple of Confucius — Hall of the Classics- 
Great Lama Temple — Outside the walls — The Great Bell— 
The Summer Palace — Yuan-ming-yuan — ^Wan-shou-shan— The 
Great Wall— The Ming Tombs— British Legation . . . 281 



Relations between Chinese and Europeans — The Tsungli Yamen 
— A Board of Delay — Chinese diplomacy — The Right of Audi- 
ence — History — English embassies Lord Macartney in 1793 
— Lord Amherst in 1816 — Interval — Audience with Tung Chih 
in 1878 — Audience with Euang Hsu in 1891 — Subsequent 
audiences — Summary of achievement — True significance of 
the dispute— Foreign policy of China— Attitude towards Russia 
— China and the Pamirs — Attitude towards Great Britain— 
Anglo-Chinese Trade — Opium Question — Missionary Question 
— Protestant Missions— Their good service — Sowing the seed- 
Objections and drawbacks — 1. Religious and doctrinal. Hos- 
tility to Chinese ethics— Disputes as to name of the Deity — As 
to the form of religion— Unrevised translations of the Scrip- 
tures—Christian dogma — Irresponsible itinerancy — 2. Political 
— History of the Treaties — Subsequent understanding — Impe- 
rial Edict of 1891 — Chinese sentiments — The appeal for gun- 
boats — Privileges claimed for converts — An imperium in 
imperio — Plea of political agitation — 8. Practical Mission life 
— Employment of women — Situation of buildings — Refusal of 
converts to subscribe — Belief in witchcraft— Horrible charges 
— Summing up— Results— The right policy. Respect for the 
Treaties — Stricter precautions — Choice of material . . .26 



Is China awake? — A tactical surrender— Railways in China — 

Manchurian Railway — Line to Peking— Great Trunk Line 

Hankow Line and factories— Formosa Railway— Other com- 

Bri I- -M 

— Uiliton nfortn— Tb« Mutoliu unJ NKtiarnkl 
— SMito ulUrire— Eurupvau ulUouni — Cmi 
— Qm»frtl GorduD'a opinion — Goncrnl 
ttift^M-Oikmi Ddl-Tb* ChlnMw Navv-Tb« Mm uh] 
AiiMl hmwi Tt» DtreeiuriM of Europe— TIib Prau Eq 
CMm S*lt»« MlOTptte— Ths ooTM of offlrialiain — Th« M»n- 
ka^nmt Tb« CUiMM ■Uadpabit— TIm ploiiir* of pragiVM - 


HOXAflncisx nt cbixa 

— It« npsTMiiion* auiBtina— Con(nuli«tory 
*plaiMi of moak* — Ili npluMilou — OrtRiii^ coo^FpUoa of 
aMaalidifM — Ito icwBiiiD— A apiriui&I iiiaiiran«e~0-itraeiui] 
of ifcadniatn-— Piifiilaroditiiii— Cotiiiiion iiiipoitiire- I)itTfr«nt 
<*l«**n of retrmiu— Mw»n« of Biibiistence— ^[o^a«tic temples^ 
FIntt»ncr B»tew«v— M»'" leinple— fiervice — Vor el prtFtcrea 
'• Tenant!! of ulam ImviSM - I'raceBgion — Iteliiinnry - 
I *v)iufstic preliiiwi 




-..^:;;>r\ Til,, fiimrc of Ji.i«.n- The Givi.l llriwiii ..f (lie 
> ui V-.H'iif of Kor«-a t'liiuro of fliiim Tlu' ('hi]iF«< 
i:..:.. Th.- iii.-orv of ChineBO rcsiimrti.i.i Mr. IVar; 
»-r.[i.»nl. m il. favour Tlii> new iiuiroli .)f tlic M<.ri-. 
L.ri. „f il.e Objection of uti.K^ciii.ii.d i.rua iit Itot. 
l>»*,n. (..r di.pTiliiiK Mr. I'oam.m Allei;i"l kiu-.-.-hms ,>f C 

I.i^ < 


■ uf I 


M iiT.rv »..alviie»- of I'liiiia fliLiiese r.o.ii.iM.M iiiiixi-.«iM.- 
i ■.» ii.wi»ia]»iUie<.si« liilliu-iiOf ..f ii:ilioiinU'liii[-in-l. 

I> •«. 'O* (it KiKtory I>anu?r of ri'U-llioii I'lii- ri'ul ili'>Iiii> 
l.mer and i'Ui|<irc 





The rdle of Great Britain — Reflex influence upon England — Com- 
mercial supremacy of Great Britain — Our rivals — Contraction 
of business^Cbristian Missions — English life in the Far East 
— The Press — Domestic life — English character — British diplo- 
macy — British representatives — Suggested libraries of special 
reference — Diplomatic anomalies — Future of Great Britain in 
the Far East — The English language 418 

INDEX 437 



■furt Li Oat, Kuh or Kqku . P'ronlUyitM 

m»t>m nr Jatui buvuia to tmr I 

Ml «r CiUN.i An Si is ti 

ii-LCsti:atI"xs i_\ tkxt 



Korean Villagers 94 

Korean Schoolmaster and Bots 95 

A Korean Magistracy 100 

Keux Kang San, or Diamond Mountains 108 

Street in a Korean Village 114 

A Korean Peasant Family 116 

South Gate of Soul 121 

East Gate and Wall of Soul 123 

Beacon Tower on Nam San 125 

Ground Plan of Soul 127 

The City and Old Palace, Soul 129 

Korean Secretaries 182 

A Korean Waiting-maid 183 

The King's Band 134 

Korean Mourner 186 

Archway of the Chinese Commissioners 143 

The City and the New Palace 147 

The Great Hall of Audience 149 

Interior of the Old Palace 151 

The Tai Wen Kun 153 

The Crown Prince 157 

A Korean Minister 161 

A Korean Colonel 164 

Street in Peking .... 250 

Southern Altar of Heaven 264 


Korea and Peking To face 28i 

Japan, Korea, and China At the end* 




Th« jronih wild lUiljr IknliDr beta ilie Eiwt 
U*Mt trai»l, alill ifi SatiLTv'« |>rie«t. 

Anil by tii* cison ^eatti J 

U on bia «kT atlMiJad. 
WoMMWiHtm, tliJr on InHiaaliont of Immortahtff. 

.V-iA li3.< nl^ruvs ajipeareil In iii'' to jmssr-^s ,'i lii-cina- 

lioii which no country or empire in Europe, still less 

j^ any part of the Western Hemispliere, can 

"X^i' claim. It has been the cradle of our race, 

the birthplace of our language, the Iicarlh- 

Moneof our religion, the fountain-head of the best of 

I'ur ideas. Wide as is the chasm that now severs us, 

»itli its philosopliy our thouj:fht is still iiilerpenc- 

tnteil. The Asian continent has supplied a scene 

f'T the principal events, and a stage for the most 

pt'-fliineiit figures in liistory. Of Asian parentage is 

ibat forcf which, more than any other iTifluence, has 

"■Ui-'lunned and glorified mankind — viz. the belief 

If a single Deity. Five of the six greatest moral 

'''i'her> that the world has seen — Moses, Buddha, 

*.■lrif^(■ill^, Jecus, and Mohanuued — were born of 

■liiaii parents, and lived upon Asian soil. Itoughly 

'Jtaluiig, their creeds may be said to have divided 


the conquest of the universe. The most famoitf 
or the wisest of kings — Solomon, Nebuchadnezzar, 
Cyrus, Timur, Baber, Akbar — have sat upon Asian 
thrones. Thither the greatest conqueror of the 
Old World turned aside for the sole theatre befit- 
ting so enormous an ambition. * Cette vieille Europe 
m'ennuie' expressed the half-formed kindred aspira- 
tion of the greatest conqueror of modem times. 
The three most populous existing empires — Great 
Britain, Russia, and China — are Asian empires ; and 
it is because they are not merely European but 
Asian, that the two former are included in the cate- 
gory. From Asia also have sprung the most ter- 
rible phenomena by which humanity has ever been 
scourged — the Turki Nadir Shah, the Mongol Jinghiz 

Yet for such crimes as these has Asia paid to us 
no mean compensation. For to her we owe the 
H„ noblest product of all literature, in the OM 

prodocu Testament of the Hebrew Scriptures; the 
sweetest of lyrics, in the epithalamium of a Jewish 
king ; the embryos of modem knowledge, in the em- 
piricism of Arabian geometers and metaphysicians. 
In Asia the drama was born. There the greatest 
writer of antiquity chose a scene for his immortal 
epic. There, too, the mariner's compass first guided 
men over the pathless waters. In our own times 
alone it is with her aid that we have arrived at 
the evolution of three new sciences — comparative 
mytholog}', comparative jurisprudence, and philo- 
logy. From Asia we have received the architecture 


rf the Xodem — that most spiritnal ami n^lint'd of 
latDAn conoeptioiui — the [>oroolaiu of China, the 
Curare of I'enU, Rhodes, antl Damascus, the in- 
finitelr ingenious nrt of Jn|>aii. On hur soil were 
mral the most aslonisliirig of all cities, Babyluii ; 
!be riKWl priticflv of palaces, Persepolis ; the state- 
IiMt of temples, Angkor Wat ; the lovelii'st of 
tomfag, the Taj Mahal. Tliere loo may be fount] 
thr nuMt of Xature's productions; tlie 
lofiirst monnlitinit on the Riirface of the globe, the 
most renowned, if nut also U»e largest, of rivers, tlie 
xami enlrani^ing of landscapes. In the heart of Asia 
Men lo thin da}' the one mTftt'Cry which the nineteenth 
wntfiry ha« still left for the Iwonllelh (o explore — 
\\x. tbf Tibt'tan oracle of Lhasa. 

(If course, in displaying this panorama of Asian 
Wonders or Asian charms, while claiming for her an 
u,^.^ individuality which her vast extent, her 
" "" " historic antiquity, and her geographical 
features go far to explain, I do not claim for her 
»ny absolute unity of product or form. On the 
contrarTi\ the distinctions of race, irrespective of 
ctimale, are perhaps more profound in Asia than in 
any other conlinetit. Tliere is, on the whole, h-.-s 
exterior resemblaiice be*. ween a Japanese and a 
IVrsian than there is between a Pnissljui and a 
Spaniard. A Dutchman is more likea'ireck than 
a Turkoman i-* like a Malay. Tliere is a wider gap 
l»-twe«n the finest Aryan type and tlie ab<irigin;il 
l«»rbarian in the recesses of Saglialin, Formosa, 
or«. than there is, for example, iK'tiveeii the 


Egyptian and the Hottentot, or between the French- 
man and the Lap. Not less marked are the distinc- 
tions of language and habits, of caste and creed. The 
Western world in the Feudal Ages was less sundered 
and split up than is Hindustan at the present 
moment. And yet, after visiting almost every part 
of Asia, I seem, as soon as I taste her atmosphere 
or come within range of her influence, to observe 
a certain homogeneoasness of expression, a certaui 
similarity of character, certain common features of 
political and still more of social organisation, certain 
identical strains in the composition of man, that 
differentiate her structure from anything in Europe 
or even in America, and invest her with a distinction 
peculiarly her own. The sensation is strengthened 
by the impression left upon most minds since the 
days of childhood by the two best books that 
have ever been written upon the East — viz. the Old 
Testament and the Arabian Nights. If I strive still 
further to analyse it, I find that in scenery, as I have 
elsewhere endeavoured to explain,' the dominant note 
of Asian individuality is contrast, in character i 
general indifference to truth and respect for success- 
ful wile, in deportment dignity, in society the rigid 
maintenance of the family union, in government the 
mute actjuiescence of the governed, in administrati<Hk 
and justice the open corruption of administrators 
and judges, and in e very-day life a statuesque and 
inexhaustible patience, which attaches no value to 
time, and wages unappeasable warfare against hurry. 

* Vide Persia and the Persian Questionj voL i. pp. 13-15. 

^W TOE FAH £dST 5 

h/e inipAct between this solid amalgam or 
cter ftnd haliil, ami the elagtic and iii8itiuatin;r 
fiorce which we dennmlHate civiligation, is 
s pheoomciifiti which now in many countries 
e set myself to examinp, and which, I venture 
ink, MiqiaMCfl all others in human interet^t. In 
the combat is Wlween antagonists who are 
nialched. It resembles onp of those ancient 
sis between the glatlitUor and the rftiariw, the 
with the rude blade and the man with the 
e net, that fiI1e<l with ^trainin^ crowds the 
rial arena at Borne. For lhou<,'h cra/t and 
f and superior science will, in the long run» 
allv p''t \ho hfttpr of rniilr fnrrf rind liif iialced 
>n. yet there are moments when, in the twinkling 
eye, tlie tables are turned, wlien the swordsman 
■s tlie iietman in twain, wlien the nntulore<l 
tal makes short .shrift with the subtleties and 
•tries of the West. If Japan, for instance, 
■atc-s the easy victory of llie European, China 
- registers an equal triumph for llie Asiatic. 
rica and America, wlicre no serious contest has 
possible, because of the vast moral and intel- 
il disparity hotwecii the organisms engajrcd, lint 
■ civilisation advances like tlie incomiiij; tide 
he castles built by children with woodt'ii spades 
<• sand, the spectacle is devoi<l of any sm-h 


le =arne train of reflection may leail us tn avoid 
iii'iii pitfall of writers ujHni the Kast — viz. tli" 
icy to <lepreciate that nhicli we do not our- 


selves sympathise with or understand, and which we 
are therefore prone to mistake for a mark of infe- 
Morai riority or degradation. Mankmd has built for 
lessons -^^ moral habitation different structures in 
different lands and times. It has adopted many 
divergent styles of architecture, and has entertained 
widely opposite views upon material, ornament, and 
design. Sometimes the fabric would seem to have 
been erected all aslant, or even to have been turned 
topsy-turvy in the course of construction. And yet, 
just as there are certain common laws observed in all 
building that has endured, so there are points of con- 
tact in all civilisations, common principles which lie at 
the root of every morality, however contradictory ite 
external manifestations. It is among the ancient 
races of Central Asia and in China that these reflec- 
tions are chiefly borne home to the traveller's mind. 
When he meets with a civiUsation as old, nay older, 
than our own, when he encounters a history whose 
heroes have been among the great men of all time, 
religions whose prophets have altered the course of the 
world's progress, codes of morals which have endured 
for centuries and still hold millions within their 
adamantine grip, a learning which anticipated many 
of the proudest discoveries of modern science, and a 
social organisation which has in places solved the 
very problem of reconciling individual liberty with 
collective force, whereupon the new-fledged demo- 
cracies of the West are expending their virgin ener- 
gies — he feels .that it is absurd for him to censure, 
and impertinent in him to condemn. The East has 


t exbausifd \\s le^soos for lu, aad Europe may 
i At tht* ival or Uer elder sUter. 
I introduction u m.^Mlt'd in prc-Mriumf.- the Far 
3 an English audii^nc*},' siuue, ou the whole, 
it is better known lo them already than the 
Xear East, or than the Central East, if these 
iphical dislinctiom may be permitted. Asia 
, the Cancasus, Persia, HeluchistAn, and Trana- 
, are each a terra innyuita tu tlie majority of 
lontrynien compared with the coa-sts of China 
te cities of Japan. The situation of these, on 
IT to the ocean highways, and the advanced 
of cirilisatiun lo which their inhabitants have 
ad and which has long ailratted the notice of 
e, and the extent to which they have in recent 
Ix-en made accessible by steam-traffic by land 
a. have diverted liiitlier the stream of travel, 
ave familiarised men with Tokio and Canton 
ave never been to Syracuse or Moscow. Com- 
oo j)Iay.s a large part in the discrimination 
vel. Were there a railroad from tlie Caspian 
eran, more people would visit the capital of ihe 
Were there an hotel at Haglulad, we mi^'lit 
k- hear of Cook's parties to the ruins of Hal»ylon. 

ii»y luivi- lif.'ii r<>rh>tittr[i by iiiuHt rciwIiTH, but it is iii'vi-rl!ii-lr,-s 
tlial ih^ liUtoritsl conntalioiL ..f Knuliui.l »iil. tli.' I'^r Ku-l 
v.- leiU lo h>-rc>miH'['tion wuli Ituliii. Tli.' Knst lo.lm Tnuliii*; 
\ La.l irailiii); hUliimn in llie Miilu\ I'.iiiiiKuU. in Siituiitni. 
id I;..nii-.>. bt'fore llj.'V \ui.i ..[M'i>.-d a »iii;.'lt' U<.-l.,ty \i\ Hill 
l)i>' Kpict' trmiif bviiij; tlif Imit Unit ilri'W tli'tii m) fnr HliiUI. 
11.1. ».l%r.[.cf,if ilu- pa*i iintiin luis ihiT^f-.r.' Win iii,t.)> n 
TUir,- iipuu k BCflu- «lnri- llii: EhjjIipIi iUh first IIlM iii'iirls 
n »««. 



Nevertheless there are portions of the Far East which 
the precise dearth of those communications of which 
I have been speaking has still left isolated and almost 
unknown. The number of Englishmen who have 
travelled in the interior of Korea mav be counted 
upon the fingers of the two hands. I know of none 
who have selected Annam as the scene of their 
explorations. Perhaps, therefore, in including them 
in my survey of the Far East, I may help to fill a 
gap, at the same tim^ that I subserve the symmetry 
of my own plan. 

There are certain main distinctions which separate 
this region from those parts of the Asian continent 
itBidio- ^^^^ border upon the Mediterranean and the 
syncrasies ^^^biau Sea. Much of it, comprising the 
whole of the Indo-Chinese peninsula, lies south of the 
Tropic of Cancer, and accordingly presents us with a 
climate, peoples, and a vegetation, upon which the 
sun has looked, and which possess characteristics of 
their own. Greater heat has produced less capacity 
of resistance ; and just as in India all the mascuhne 
races have their habitat above the 24th degree of 
latitude, so in the Far East is there the greatest con- 
trast between the peoples of China, Korea, and Japan, 
lying north of that parallel, and those of Burma, 
Siam, Malaysia, and Annam, which lie below it. The 
one class has retained its virility and its freedom, 
the second has already undergone or is in course 
of undergoing absorption. Throughout the Far East 
there is abundance of water, and the scorched and 
sullen deserts that lay tlieir leprous touch upon 


^nia, Cmtral Ana, and 3[oiij;oHa, are tiowhero re- 
prodarcd. In the Xear East, i.e. west of the Indus 
■nd the Oxiut, (here arc ahsotutt>]y only Iw rivers of 
•ar imporUncv, the Tigris and the Kupliratea ; and 
the main reason of the backwardness of those 
(-ountriM U the dearth 1)r>ih of moisture and of 
raeau of conununiiyiiion which tlic absence of rivers 
entaiU. A further Blriking diflerence. of incalculable 
ivportaoee in itit efferl. u[MJn national development, 
ii that of religion. Western Asia is in the unyield- 
ing and pitiless clutch of Islam, which opposes a 
Cyclopean wall of resistance to iimovation or reform. 
In Eastern Asia we encounter only the mild faith of 
ihi- Irnliaii prin'-c, rnciri' or h-.'s nviTl.'U'l \vil)i siijicr- 
stition and idolatry, or sapped by scepticism and 
decay; and the strange conglomerate of ethics and 
demonolatr}- which stands for religion in Cliina and 
ii8 once dependent stales. Neither of these agencies 
is overtly hostile to Western influence, though both, 
when arouse<l, are capable of putting forth a tacit 
weight of antagonism that must be felt to be appre- 
riated. Finally, whereas in the Near Ivist popula- 
tion is sparse and inadequate, in the Far East it is 
crowded upon the soil, cultivating the Mi'll-soaked 
bndfl with close diligence or massed behind rity- 
walls in seething aggregations of humanity. These 
conditions augment the complexity of the problem 
which their political future involves. 

Midway Wtween the two flanks of tiie continent 
wbo«« rival differences I have sketched lies India, 
•itaring the features, both good and evil, of both. 


She has wide, waterless, and untilled plains ; but she 
also has throbbing hives of human labour and life. 
India the ^^^ surfacc is marked both by mighty 
p*^'*^*' rivers and by Saharas of sand. Among her 
peoples are Mohammedans of both schools, mixed up 
with diverse and pagan creeds. Of her races some 
have always subsisted by the sword alone ; to others 
the ploughshare is the only known implement of iron. 
She combines the rigours of eternal snow with the 
luxuriant flame of the tropics. Within her borders 
may be studied every one of the problems with which 
the rest of Asia challenges our concern. But her 
central and commanding position is nowhere belter 
seen than in the political influence which she exer- 
cises over the destinies of her neighbours near and far, 
and the extent to which their fortunes revolve upon 
an Indian axis. The independence of Afghanistan, 
the continued national existence of Persia, the mam- 
tenance of Turkish rule at Baghdad, are one and all 
dependent upon Calcutta. Nay, the radiating circle 
of her influence overlaps the adjohiing continents, 
and affects alike the fate of the Bosphorus and the 
destinies of Eg}'pt. Nor is the effect less remark- 
able if examined upon the eastern side, to which in 
this book I am about to invite attention. It is from 
jealousy of India and to impair the position which 
India gives to Great Britain in the Far East that 
France has again embarked upon an Asiatic career, 
and is advancing from the south-east with steps that 
faithfully correspond with those of Eussia upon the 
north-west. The heritage of the Indian Empire has 


wiUiin tLe lut ten years made ustUu laiid-iiei<,'hljoura 
of C'liitiA, anil has muliipliod ihrccfold the urea of our 
diplomacy at Peking. Even the fortunes of n-mote 
Kitrva are Id b msiuicr Ixiuiid up with thu poIitii--s 
1^ Utitcliutaii, seeing that it is by the soiue foe tliat, 
i& the lut rei4in, Ifuth an> ihrealtrned, ati<l timt ihe 
loclit.-* which aim at the appropriation of the smaller 
umi havf? »i iheir ulterior objetrtivu the detriment of 
the grt-ater. Such and so ttuprvme U the positiou 
vigoywl in the Asian continent by the limpire of 
ih*- Kai*«;r-i-Hind. Towards her, cir iulu her orbit, 
a centripetal forci-, vhich none appears able to resist, 
dra«-!i i-ver)' wandering star. Just as it niaj- 1« said 
that the Eii^ivrn Uucsliun in Europe turns upon the 
di«neiubennent of Turkey, so tlie Eastern Question 
in Asia turns upon the continued solidarity of 
Ilindubtan. In what relation to that problem stand 
the countries anil peoples of the Far East, what i« 
iheir present political condition, and in what way 
they are engage<l in constructing the history, or re- 
oms-tructiiig the maps of the future, it is my object 
in these pages to detenuine. 


' Much hare I travelled in the realms of gold. 
And ni&nj- gocxUj" states and kingdoms seen, 
Round many Eastern islands have 1 been.' 

J, Keath. 


TiiK KT(n.i:Tro.v or m'iukrx jipax 

sin vaMl^ (arrent, 
Omni* W 4dvenutii •gwelantla, niiUit retrnrnmi. 

UoucE, Ep. 1. 1 74-~t. 

DcBXa the five years that clapsi-d between my 6njt 
ukI BPc^nd viaitR to .Tapnn, in IK87 aiirl in ll^f'i, I 
,,,,,„ found that many tilings had changed. The 
"" F-uropeanisalion of ihe country proceeds 
ajiare, thou|.'li perhaps with a slightly less headlong 
rapidity than I>efore. In 1S87 sliort lines of railway 
ran only in the nt'ighlxiurhood of the two capitals, 
Tokio and Kioto, and of the Treaty Ports, Kobe and 
Yokohama. Now it is possible to travel by rail 
within a single day from Tokio to Kioto, and also 
fn-m Tokio to Aoraori on the northern coast; lOSd 
miles of the iron road are recorded as already open 
to traffic ; and a great programme of railway loii- 
•iruition, according to whicli a sum of S,VlO,(HHI/. is 
to l>e 8[M-nt upon further extensions during tlic next 
twelve years, has received the sanction of the Piet. 
Iii a few yt-ars' time those to whom the discontforls of 
1 marine voyage are inadequately compi'ns.iled by 
the fairy landscapes of the Inland Pea, will be al)le 


to travel overland, without leaving their compart- 
ment, from Kioto to Shimonoseki ; while there is a 
talk of bridging the Straits that bear the latter name 
with a fabric that shall excel in monstrosity even the 
Forth Bridge. From Tokio to Nagasaki it will thea 
be as commonplace an incident to travel by rail as it 
is from T^ondon to Wick ; and the jinriksha will 
relapse into the dusty limbo of the postilion and the 

Where the * iron horse ' has rushed in, it may be 
certain that minor forms of Western invention will 

The Btreets ^^^ ^^^^ ^ trcad. lu Tokio tramways clat- 
of Tokio |.gj. along the streets ; gas flames in some 

of the principal liighvvays ; and the electric light is 
uniformly employed in the public buildings, in many 
of the residences of ministers and nobles, in the tea- 
houses whicli figure so largely in the holiday life of 
tlie Japanese gentleman, and in quite a number of 
stores and even small shops. Telephones and tele- 
graphs stretch a web of wires overhead. The long pic- 
turesque lines of yashikis or fortified city residences 
of the feudal lords and tlieir sworded retainers, that 
covered so crreat an area within the moats, have 
almost all disappeared, and have been replaced by 
public offices of showy European architecture and 
imposing dimensions. An immense pile of scaffold- 
ing, surrounding a space much larger than the Law 
Courts on tlie Strand in London, conceals what will 
presently be known as the new Ministry and Courts of 
Justice, where will be dispensed a jurisprudence that 
has been borrowed, with a truly Japanese eclecticism, 


from tlie codes uf half the nations of Kumpe. The 
perpetual bogle-note, and the sight of neat fijrures 
in wliite cotton uniforms and hUtck boots, are indica- 
tive of a national army, whose inohtlised strength in 
Ihae of pe»i:e i« .jO,(H»0, and whose discipline, phy- 
ciqtie. and weaitcms are the adiniralion of European 
critics. Out in Tokio Hay the smart while hulls of 
gnnboata, lying at anchor, represent a navy whose 
creation luu forcihly stirred the national ardour, and 
which It destinwl iu the future to he no mean factor 
in tlie iK'Utics uf the IVnfic. Finally, after a twenty 
yean' trarail, Japan has given hirth to a Parlia- 
loentaiy Constitution; and au nnpreteniiouH but, 
rr--.Tiiv tf-trnv-Tiry ^tnirtnn-. built of wcxkI, like i(s 
prfde<essor which was burnt <lown in 181)1, and with 
no trace i>f native art (ir architecture about it, accom- 
iiKfdaies the nominees of royalty or the representatives 
of ihf i)eople, who, in the two Chambers, created by 
the (oristitutioii of Feliruarv ISS'.I, and respect ivelv 
eiiiithd the House of Peers and tlie House of Kepre- 
v-iiTatives, constitute the Imperial Diet of Japan, and 
art- -wit'ily iiilroduring Iier people to the amenities 
<■( I'arlianu-ntary exisleiict — olistruction wiihiTi the 
I .'.anilx^r, platform oratory out of door.- — lo the 
p!.--;;oiiif[ia <if Kadii-al and I'rogressivc parlies, and 
;■■ !li«- tinie-liononrfd fulii.tli't of begging and refusing 

:..L- : . .,.1 ..lli.T Kiir,.iH-«ii ..r l.irvij;n Ih.kI.I. Th.-,. ,.( IV.-r- i-. 
f^- . 1,. r..i]l«r>. panlv i..i[iiiiiHl.-.l. nii.l Jmillv .l.rt,,l. linl.-r llii. 
:.r.- --•-lii.L- om- l)i>- tiii|R-ri>i1 IViuv- m.i t)i. Inulu i ii<.l>Llii> 

Ii. It _:— :"_ L : _il: "rir^ :: ::5 •rjdstence, since 
.-• z-'-' ^— ■--- .- Z'l^TiiiTr 1^>*, ihe Japanese 
I-.r" __• 3 ir>ri "IT. itI six >es$ions and 
'—-- '----:- j1-:-:::l5. The two Honaei 
^-r^: _:_ . _!-_" -tt 1 il :- ^iz-r and design, ahnoet 
-_T ^" Lj:-:- .T eir.j: :'::t "esrr.ce of :he Imperial 
:"_r::T -In.: "..t irr-iiTr.'> •::.air in the House of 
iTrr« T..t:7 j7 : i:. >: .11. lis ':»rer. b«.^rrowed fix>m 
-Li: : -Lr ilii : i.ttL't: I-'^jislative Chambers, the 
^r.r.^ 1-'. .T-i- .: "-.T r.iTi..' rrrs :^:ng ranged in the 
.-.r . .: ::. :r._r :r. :.:::: j :i raised platform, upon 
-^l: 1. -irr *_.-r • :r*. :":.::il o::air, the speaker's 
:rl ^:-r. Tl-r ir-V: : :Lr ■ :i::ial reponers, and — a 
-r-. .I'll::;" .:" :-t 'jiTii.rSr I»:r: — :»n either side of this 
::::rr •. r -^v :' -t .'^ -. r-v.-ri-ri bv ihe Ministers or 
I «':r. ..,".- -::' "l-r vi^ri'-us departments, who 
- «.l;\:..'-rr. vr: :::•' of::, and who sit there 
.:'- ri.y. ou: of ::.e:r own option, and with- 
• ■:: V. -r-- *:• drfvr.l :hr:r departments, to make • . :... rl:..r-:: .- : r :..-.r:: :rl *:* -k^n-iots to the State, or far 
• r- : : i : ; T" -r :^ •:.."'- r - . : ': : 1. : : . •. s*^ classes sit for life. Under tfal 

*.:.:.- i '..r- : :::._: .\r- ::.;/::•: :!.v b-;lk -.f ihe iverage, sitting only for ft 
:• r:.. : -• '■ • " t -r*. .:. \ ^ :.f:-:i:'ff if a muiib^r of counts, viteoiiiilift 

r-.:. i ': -.r : r. • I-lV. 1 ; t'.-ir '.vn . r'urs. ami of rt-presentatives of dM 
. :rio> I y '. ::.'-. r- :..•..■ i. >-"! -tc; :- iiw approbation of the £inp0niv jt 
by -ii.u. »!•«-■• r;:'- ::• ^ ^ '.i.y-i^fi of the highest tax-paynb ' 
'I]i» H'.- -' '■! 1- • r-. :;.> «X'::-:i:*;:r«i. contains at the present 
•jTO 11.' I:. !'••-. '!:.• L- 'A. r H-'i-ii. which contains 800 uiemberBv 
-'.r- 1". .:• t"-ir ;. t.irs, r-::.j: i- •iml to fi-'-t-iiil'le at least once every 
I'.i 't -•»-:;:; ■ I ti.r- • :;.■ :.:h-. i- wi:i.illv i Ifctive, and composed of 
1. |.i' - r.'.iti. • - ■•!" t''.' ] r:: ■■ii'il iwi ffct'irt-s ami towns, returned ii'.jr.-.ij ■ ! ■■.•■ :■• •■.. rv I'J^jMM) ul* thf people, upon a tax- 
r< I'll j'^i il. ;i:. i :«_'• iV i!;' iii-* . tlu- iiunlitiration for electors beiiw 
j,.,*.-. -,:i.;i ..I ].i:. i lit" t1i# •;i\;ibl,- \:iliio of ^^600, or cf an 
iirf'.rm '-t >" :i :•,•..]•. •■ iiji-iitlis' nsiilencf. and the minimum 
1,1 iv. I u* ■. ti". ' . 

\ « * - * « A 


tches, or lo answer (luesijoiis.' Tlic Japanese 
ear to liave atxjaired with characteristic facility 
external ffatures o( Parliamentary conduct. 
y make excellent sjieeches, frequently of great 
fth, and markf^l by graces e»f Rtyle as well as by 
^kiieas of reasoning. On the whole, cuneidering 
r immature it the Lower House, and how inevi- 
ly, as t shall presently explain, it is by its con- 
ation afflicted with the rices of an irresponsible 
potilion, it succeeded till lately in conducting it« 
Tfttioni! with a creditable decorum. Very full and 
arale rejK>rt« of the speeches are publislied by a 
venmient staff of reporters, whose stenographic 
.liumenis are on a par with the most highly-trained 
[it-rt-i of Europe or America; and a condensed 
r>ii.ii of ihf debates in l-'iiglish appears in the 
lumii- of the '. Japan Daily Mail' from the able ])en 
iii Well-known editor, Captain Hrinkley. 

■ T>i. 



nil] nt 

^•mlnnrc of 



1 lui nlnml. 




ion an 







iTiiil n 

w.-. Id 




of t1 

. I'roc 


fi3 r. 




ill); i 


nu pus 

i-l 1., 

> privi. 







:,i..„ r. 

•.U. 1) 




«i al 




The new Parliamentary regime lias developed a 
prodigious mushroom growth of native journals, few 
Public enjoying at all an extensive circulation, but 
opinion each attached to the creed of some party or 
section, or inspired by some leader. In this way is 
being manufactured, with almost bewildering haste, 
a body of public opinion whose movements it is im- 
possible to forecast, and with which Japanese states 
men already find it difficult to grapple. In the 
country we read of political clubs, of large meetings 
held in theatres and public places, of eloquent 
speeches, of cheering audiences, of the virtues and 
the wickedness of public men ; and we realise that in \ 
Japan, as elsewhere, Demos, having found belated , 
articulation, is repeating, for the comfort of the 
scientific historian, the familiar and venerable 

There are other evidences that Japan is in the 
bondage of a universal law. Tliough the level of 
Puriia- political intelligence in the Chamber is rea- 
Byniptoms souably high, it does not appear that that 
of character or prestige is equally so. The attrac^ 
tioii of a salary (for each member of both Houses* 
receives a compulsory yearly allowance of iJSOO, 
ef^uivalent at the present rate of exchange to 
not much more than 100/. a vear — no inconside- 
rable income in Japan) is not believed to add muct 
to the popularity of a political career, since it is 

^ Except tho cj' officio and liereditary Peers, i,e. the Princes ani 
Miiniuises. The Iiiiporial Princes are in receipt of personal granH 
from the Emperor ; but tlie Maniuises have no salaries, and are mAn5 
of {\\(nw very poor. 

■ rtts sroLVTio.y of moi^ks.v JAfAJv 21 

usiiuuied thstf thou-fh a member receives £800 
simuAllT, he has to fipt'iid £2,0UU al ]emt, aiid i^iiu-e, 
•Imjv the strongest dJWTpdit attaches, theoretioally, 
to any luapidon of pei-utiJarv moiiveii. But the sys- 
tem of edacaiion orpanised afit-r tlie fall of Ft-udal- 
iim — a »}-9t*;m based on the aspiration of bridging, 
with all possible rapidity, the >,'uif that centuries or 
ivolaljon hnd pnMlured in Japanese knowled^'e — 
proved dUproportionutc to the practical need.s of the 
aatimi, aud caWtxl into existence a set of youths nvIio 
Rgarded official and political life ns the otdy sphere 
befitting tbetr superior attainments. From the 
ntnki of this c1»m there has ^.Tadualty been fonucd 
i',:,.u,r,.n. l,J.y nf jin ,t'.-.iM.,ril p..Iiii,-ianv whn lind 
ill platform and I'arlianieiilary publicity a conipen- 
satii.n for ilif clost-d doors of rank or olllce. These 
iiMividuals arc in a position of perpetual fret-doni 
iiiil tici responsibility ; they can enjoy the luxury of 
a'tsrkin^r and paralysinj^ every (iovcrnnicni in I urn ; 
and, whilst by their votes tliey can neither form nor 
oust a Ministry, they can fetter its limbs with any 
number of Lilliputian ct)rds. The predominance of 
this class at iirst deterred many of the older ;iTid 
'""iv influential men from otleriuL' themselves for 
fiwiii.n; but there are si;,'ns that llic-ir reluelaiicc 
i* yielding' to the necessities of the situation. It may 
'«• said, indeed, that the rarliamenlary experiment is 
Ijfinj.' wat4'lied by the mnn- stable ctemenis of the 
'■oramuniiy from a suspicious thnui;]i narrowiiiL' <!is- 
:*:.■■(-. and tliat a sen<e of national obli''alion t<. ilie 


highest duties of citizenship has not yet been at all 
widely aroused. 

At the same time, charges of Government nepo- 
tism and electoral tyranny are freely bandied about. 
R^^k„ It is alleged that the Imperial nominations 
ahead ^^ Life-pceragcs, which are reserved by the 
Constitution for the reward of distinguished public 
service or erudition, are distributed among Ministe- 
rial adherents. At the General Election early in 1892 
official interference appears to have been openly and 
flagrantly exercised. At least, such was the declared 
opinion of both Houses of the Diet ; for, whilst the 
Lower House only failed to pass by three votes a 
motion for a memorial to the Throne, declaring that 
in the elections administrative officials had wantonlv 
perverted the authority of their office by tempting 
and inveigling voters or by resorting to force for their 
compulsion — and seeking to fix the responsibility 
upon the Govenmient — a motion which, if carried, 
would have amounted to a direct vote of censure- 
both Houses passed by large majorities a representa- 
tion to the Government urging them to punish the 
imjjlicated officials ; and the new Cabinet so far ac- 
cepted the instruc^tion as to dismiss five of theae 
oflenders from their posts. Tlie General Elections (tf 
1892 and 1894 were also distinguished by a good 
deal of rioting*, and by a notable percentage of broken 
heads. We may detect similar reproductions, as yet 
in miniature, of Western forms, in the commencement 
of an atiilation tor tlit^ reduction of the franchise, 
whicli is now based upon a high assessment to direct 




•■. » 


uxmtioa ; whilu the minimum a^ litnil of meiulters 
of Parlianuut — vut. tliirly years — impliea a mistrust 
of precocious fcenius which is naturally difstasteful to 
the aelfcoDcoit of youug Japan. 

XotMi of ih«w 'Rocks ahead,' however, can he 
compared for «?riou.sness with the main question of 
Tw Kikifr the rehttifttiK t>f the Chanilicr with the Oovern- 
is««»»-»t lueut, which reproduce in a tliflerent but not 
Ws acute fonn the coutroverKial iin/mi-ie that is from 
time to time presenttii in Eiijjknd, not hetweL-n ihu' 
House of Commons and the Ministr}'. but Iielween a 
Bidiciil majority in the Hou^ of Commons and a 
Obuen-ative niaJ4>rity in the House of Lords. Japan, 
thouj.'!! ^'MV'-riii-tl !.y ji;iriy nu-ii, is iml blfsst-d i>v 
cur>it-J with party government. The Ministers iu 
J.ipaii, Uke the President's Cabint-t in America, are 
thf nominees and servants of the Emperor. They 
:irt- not responsible to the Diet, and can remain in 
(iffii-f as Ion;; :is the Soverei;;n lionours them with 
hi' cmfidence. But whereas in America a majority 
h<t»tilc to the I'Jtecutive in liotli Houses is a phenome- 
non extremely rare in occurrence, and certain to be 
!*nnin3ted in a short ])eriod of time, in Ja[i.Tn (here 
i> !!•< •! i-riori rc:ison wliy such a situation should not 
■-\iit in the first place, or he indefinitely prolon^'ed. 
Tli- theory of the Japanese Consliliitiun, therefore. 
!--iriu' tile rule of a (iovernment lej:isl:»liii;: throuj.'ii 
Twi> (.'liaml>ers, I)ut n(»t resiKjnsihh- to either, and 
!r»-atinj; tlieir representations with coniliiirative in- 
>hlI.-R-nce, it may readily be under^Uiod tli:it tlie 
j»ipular Chaml»er at any rate, which re^ts >oleIy upon 



HBlMMa, or to ftosn'or qia'tsliuns.' The J:ip.inese 
afipear to have acquired with charactcri»li<! fucilily 
\\ve external fL-atures of I'arliament.'iry ronduct. 
■ni***- mako excelleni spceolies, freciuuiitly of great 
Imgitu and marked by graces of slylf as well as by 
qaicknifas of rt-asoiiing. On the whole, considering 
hov immaluro is the Jjower House, and how iucvi- 
tablr, as I shall presently explain, it is by its con- 
stitatton afllirUKl with the vices of an irresponsible 
*Jppontiou, it sHOL-eeded till lately in fondiiclin;; its 
•ipenlions with a creditable decorum. Very full and 
aocttraie roporu of the speeches are publii^Iietl by a 
Goremment ttaff of roport«rs, whose stLiiographic 
»ttainnienls are .hi a par with thf iiiosf Iiighly-trained 
ex|)erts of Europ*' or America ; and a condensed 
ver-toii of the debates in Enjflish a])pears in tlie 
■ iiliinuis of the * Japan Daily Mail ' from I lie able pen 
nf its well-known editor. Captain Brinkley. 

■ TTif iiitrrU optionnl atttnilnnre of ministcrH iri tlip Lower Hmme 
ii» ■'ini'il ui nlri'wlv p'retptible irritfttion miiont.' the cliniiipionB of 
I'lrWiK'iitBrv uiiinipc>t<>nc« ami miniHltrini rt'HjKiiisibilitv. For in- 
■UMr. iJiP piibliiihtil Itcport of the PiwfeiliintB iliiriiii; liit of 
\**H 3 ronUinc^l the following intfrpHliiit; pnKWkCfn. A imtrion wsa 
imtr hi ■ private lnniilifr. nixl wng rarricil, lliiil the I'resiili'iil tw 
i^H to in.inirr wh,-ii \\w CnhinH >[iniKl.TH p<.nlil be in llivir pbweB. 
v_W.j.|riid>. ilie Oovcnimint n-plicil. witb soiin' ciirtiit «, thai 
iu.*4«.r» b»viiis liif ]«>' 

> iHl 

I tll.- 




li.l be 

I^ptrwitUtivra al 1.1.' 
■.irk u ihrir olTirrn. 


Constilutioa,^ render him the most respected and 
influential of Japanese public men. Already once 
Prime Minister and President of the Privy Council, 
and the first President of the House of Peers, he nowr 
returned after an interval in which he had seen 
other Ministers come and go in the preliminary flux 
consequent upon a new order of things, in order to 
mould into durable shape the offspring of his own 
pohtical creation, and to endeavour to give some 
thing like stability to the administration of his 
countrw With him were associated in the Cabinet 
his old friend Count Liouve, a former Minister for 
Foreign Affairs, and, perhaps, the most daring and 
original of Japanese statesmen ; Count Yamagata, 
himself a former Premier, to whom was entrusted 
the portfolio of Justice; and Mr. Mutsu, a travelled 
and highly-accomplished statesman, who had repre- 
sented his countrv at Wasliincrton before bein<T trans- 
ferred to the Foreign Office. The only public man 
of tlie verv first rank who was and who remains out- 
side the new Ministrv was Count Okuma, the author 
of the famous attempt at Treaty Revision that cul- 
minated in an attempt upon his life, and who, for no 
very well ascertained reason other than that he is 
the acknowledged leader of the Progressionist party 
in the House of Representatives, was supposed to be 
more or less in opposition. The new Government 
might almost claim to be a Ministry of All the 
Talents ; and, undoubtedly, the summons of Count 

* Count Ito has himself published a learned commentary on the 
Japanese Constitution, which has been translated into English and 
is published in Tokio. 


thy the Emperor npon ihe fall of tlic Matsukata 
inet in the sanimer of 1892, and the composition 
of bu Adnitnltttratioii. li:ul excited the liveliest satis- 
CKtion in pcilitiral ciri'les in Japan. A few caustic 
ceiuim!* on Clan government scarcely broke tlie 
gcnerml conxetuuA, nn ibe one hand, of cougratula* 
tion that the irue leaders bad at length consented to 
lead, on the other hand of judgment held in suK[>eiiqe 
autil they Imd ■'bown of wliai stutl" ihey were made. 
I enjoyed the pleuure on several occasions of meet- 
iog and conrersinf.' on the political isituatioii with 
OoonU Ito and Inouye, and with Mr. Mutsu: and 
a foreigner may ptTbaph be allowed without iin- 
[H-riiiif-n<*^ to ri>iiijiliinriil the country that can pro- 
duce bucb public men. 

The question of the hour was the attitude to be 
adopted by the Government towards Parliament 
Fii[«-t.. when it should meet that body in November. 
■■** In the Session of 1891-:i, the Budget had 

U-en so systematically opposed that it was never 
{ia.<s.<ed at all, and recourse had to be made to an 
anicle in the Constitution, admitting in such a 
ca?e I with wi.«e foresight of the idiosyncrasies of 
Japaiiese character') of the readoption of the estimates 
<>i the previous year.' Tlie repetition of such a 

- It ■• uiiiimnu. in the light of nhat linn actiinlU happi'iicil, to 
r»«d Cirtint Ito- MriKiiini' eoitiiiii-nUu-v upon lliis wtii'li' i<l iho Cm- 
*Maium rN,.. l.XXI.i: When llu- Dii-t has not v»t>'.l .>ii ih. iU>-iu<-t. 

■r iht bu<lci-t ha> m-l Ix-f n broii^-hl into ftrlilid t- NiKUliri', th<' rt-xiilt will 
b». ii, •■iirruif ra>(-i. ihi- titstnirtiun of the iiiiliuiiiil i\i«lHn-r; nml. in 

'T-i.iiwv imr*. il>r piiralvi>is uf th<' machiniTv of th<' AJiiiiiii-tniti^'n. 
/../ .M^l. ., .t^lr ../ „jf«,« hr.n.j ,..„.,l.l.- ..„/,, ,., c..,u,lr,.-. u-hrr,- 

ti--nM. ft (« mmmiraliblr K-i/A a fiiiliti) hkf iniri.' 


rebuff could not lightly be endured by the strongest 
Government that modern Japan could produce ; and 
public opinion exhausted itself in surmise as to the 
probable bearing of Count Ito and his colleagues 
towards this obstreperous nursling. How was it 
to be controlled — ^by a policy of cuffs, or by a pro- 
gramme of caressed? Should the Ministry rule in 
despite of the Chamber, or should it make terms 
with the latter, and treat it with that assumption of 
deference that is so grateful to injured pride ? The 
answer that was returned to these questions by the 
experiences of the two Sessions of 1892-3 and 1893, 
sheds so luminous a ray both upon the internal 
polity of modern Japan, and upon the dangers by 
which it is threatened, that I make no apology for 
referring to them. 

The actual fiicts were as follows. The Govern- 
ment met Parliament with a programme whose two 
Session of chief itcuis wcrc a sclieme for the reassess- 
^^"'"^"^ ment of the Land-tax — a time-honoured griev- 
ance in Japan ever since the Eestoration ^ — ^whicU 

' After the Revolution in 1868, the Japanese farmers, who were i^ 
theory though not in practice tenant8-at-wiU» received certificates ^^ 
ownership, with freedom of transfer and sale. Henceforward the^ 
paid their rent as a direct tax to the Government, which had resume^ 
possession of the national property. Since the days of the Shogunirt^ 
the tax has been reduced by one- half, while the proportion which i* 
bears to the entire revenue has largely diminished, owing to th* 
increase of receipts from other sources of taxation. Nevertheless th^ 
one great domestic question in Japan is the reform of the land-taSf 
promised by every (iovernment and introduced in every Session. The 
assessment is said to be botli obsolete and unetjual ; the State as rent- 
collector is not prone to mercy ; and the tax being paid, not, as for- 
merly, in kind, but in cash, is seriously affected by the fluctuations in 
the price of grain. 


•chemr would involve a retluctioti uf ilfS,7oO,000 in 

the Tvr«nuc so nu8«l; ntid a plan for I he iiH-rease 

of the Nary by the expcmlitiire of Sie.OOO.OOO, tu 

b« sprvail over sevt-u years, llie appropriation re- 

quirMl for these two purpo«es boiiig raised by an 

increaw of the tobact-o-tax. the ^'UAtax, and the 

income-tjuc. From th(> ver}' lirst the Hoiist; showed 

it< temper iii the most iincomproiuising fashiou. 

The two sections uf tlie Opposition, the Kaishinto or 

PtogreaMonitt*, under Couut Okuma, aiid the Jiyuto 

or extreme Badicals, under CVxint Itagaki, f.deefiilly 

joitied bands in ortler to embarrass the Govenjraent. 

The new ta3te« were refused ; a private bill for the 

!":!■!, .-i1i;i"- r'-dii'-tii'ii "f tlii- land-tax. indt-iit-mU-nlly 

of reassessment, was carrie<l by the I-ower House ; 

f-vfii the Upper Chamber passed a representation in 

(iv.iiir of the rediH'tion of all olhcial salaries (witli 

lU- txreption of those in the niililary, naval, diplo- 

niitii, and consular departments) from 12 percent. 

'"T jM-r cent, of the total revenue, and of ihe dis- 

riiUsil of superfluous officials ; and when llie Hudjjet 

*i» filially introduced in the House of Hepresenta- 

'»>> ils items were ruthlessly cut down, wliolesale 

'^iurtioiis %vere made in official salaries, and llie 

>ppri>priaiii>n- fi>r the new ship-buildiiiL' [iro^rrannne 

"t-re absolutely refuse*!. Three limes did llu- in- 

"I'lrable Opjiosilion send back tlie amended Bud-ret 

lo till- Giiverninent ; tiiree times ilic (iovernnicnt 

M''i-*-d IM .aiT.-pt it. Then came itie cri>is. The 

\<-\i\,-T i.f the (ipposiiion moved iht- aduiilion of a 

r- prt-*-nl:ilii'n ti» (lie Throne, wliii-h was tantamount 

30 JAP AX 

to a vote of want of confidence in the Ministry. But 
no sooner had he opened his speech than the Presi- 
dent had placed in his hands an Imperial Eescript, 
ordering (under the terms of an article in the Con- 
stitution) a special adjournment of the Diet for 
fifteen days. An attempt at compromise in the 
interval resulted in failure ; and when the House 
met again, the same resolution was moved, and in 
spite of a temperate and conciliatory speech from 
the Prime Minister was carried by a majority of 181 
to 103. Three days later an Imperial message was 
read out in both Chambers, in which the Emperor 
pointed out, in language of reproachful solemnity, 
that the spectacle of discord presented by the Par- 
liamentary conflict was one by which the spirits of 
his Ancestors were likely to be much disturbed ; ^ and 
that to end the crisis and recall the nation to its 
duties in the matter of the national defences, where * a 
single day's neglect might involve a centurj-'s regret,' 
he proposed to surrender, during the space of six 
years, one-tenth of his Civil List, or the sum of 

' The belief in an immemorial antiquity of the Imperial Throne, 
and an immense and ceremonious respect for the Imperial Ancestors, 
supply an archaic framework in which the brand-new Japanese Consti- 
tution sometimes looks strangely out of place. The Preamble of the latter 
begins with the words : ' Having, by virtue of the glories of Our An- 
cestors, ascended the throne of a lineal succession unbroken for ages 
eternal.' Article I. repeats the same consolatory fiction, while pro- 
jecting it into an endless future : * Tlie Empire of Japan shall be 
reigned over and governed by a line of Emperors imbroken for ages 
eternal.' In the Imperial oath, taken at the promulgation of the 
new Constitution, the Emperor said : ' That we have been so fortunate 
in our reign, in keeping with the tendency of the times, as to accom- 
plish this work, we owe to the glorious spirits of the Imperial Founder 
of our House, and of our other Imperial Ancestors.' 

Im^rae sroivTSoy of modehx japax 31 

'300,000 annually ; at the eoino time directing all 
uGUiy aitd civil officials to coDtribute a »milar 
il^fOrtion far the same period.' To this Efscript a 
^dnply wt« voted; and a Commitfee of ilie Lower 
iotne wa« appointwl to confer with the Government. 
IV bitter practically gave way on the main pointa, 
tlnlging iheiiwclves to sweeping adniiniatralive re- 
nnm, and to a large re<lnciion both of oiBcials and 
>f otfcial salaries as vkW as to special refumis in the 
S»T»i Deparuuent. The Budget was then passed, 
uxlthe cruii was temp<fr»rity at an end. From the 
s«li(.t the Govenimenl had oidy cincrjreti by the 
Mtuoal intervention of the Enipt-ror, and by a 
snilulation on many important jHiints to tlieir ail- 
>>rsari<«. In ihe compromise the latter were the 
■ful vir-tors. 

In tlie fiisniiiLT Session, which opened in Novera- 
'"!■ \^'M. the cri>is arrived with even ;:reater 
■^ r...( rapidity, and demanded a more drastic 
sohition. No sooner had the Diet assem- 
■W ih:ui ihi- Ix>wer House proceeded to pass, bv 
* Urjie m-ijoriiy. a vote of want of confidence in its 
'[■eaker or IVesiilent, on the scarcely concealed 
-Ti'iirni that, ihon^'h ori^'inally appointed by the 
^iicaU a- a lladical partisan, he had lalsitied cxpccta- 
.'■ri-Ify shiiwiiiL' an uiLbecmniiij.' iin-liiialion to favmir 
> <i..v,.rhni.-nt. The I'lesidenl, whn liad been elected 
■r lour vi-ar^. dei'bned tn resiirn: and llie House 

32 JAP AX 

accordingly voted an address to the Throne on the 
subject and adjourned. In the end this particular 
quarrel, the importation of the Emperor into which 
was a symptom of the advanced state of Parlia- 
mentary disorganisation, terminated in the expulsion 
of the recalcitrant official by the appointment of a 
successor in his place. Meanwhile the House of 
Eepresentatives, having, so to speak, tasted blood, 
proceeded to gratify an even more dangerous appe- 
tite. Unable to wreak that personal vengeance upon 
the Government which a majority of its members 
desired, they addressed the Throne on two subjects 
— (1) on Official Discipline and the Status of Minis- 
ters, practically demanding the dismissal of the 
Cabinet ; and (2) on the strict enforcement of the 
Foreign Treaties — a part of the petty and vexatious 
policy recently instituted by the Opposition in order 
to embarrass the Government and to force Treatv 
Revision upon their own terms. After this step the 
sittings of the House were again suspended ; and 
Count Ito, in presenting the address to the Throne, 
requested, as a matter of form, to be relieved of the 
discharge of duties whi(*h a majority of the Chamber 
were l)ent upon rendering impossible. 

A few days later the Emperor replied, in a states- 
manlike Rescript, declining to dismiss his Ministers, 
a prerogative wliicli, he remarked, apper- 
tained, not to the Diet, but to the Crown; 
and i-efusing to depart from the policy hitherto 
pursued towards foreigners, which had been liberal 
and progressive. Anything tending to interrupt the 


Munmation of that policy would be coiilntiv U* 
f b^ierial wiihes. Betrogratle and vexatiuns pn> 
Nbsocli as those «uggesl«d would ali^naiu Fomgn 
wen, and were iDcompatible with the spirit of 
ilisaiion. L'poo the reassembling of the House. 
i»e \-iews were enforced in a sinpiilarly lempernte 
\ (lifinifled speech by the Foreign Minister, Mr. 
itni : which however did not prevent the neciir- 
ice of violpnl sccoes, ;u»i the use of oiiprol)rioiiH 
d diflimccful language. The IHet was foriUwiih 
tirogaed for a fortnight : but it was obvious that ,i 
petition of adjoummenis was a palliative limt had 
reailv lout tia efficacy; and. on the last day but oiw 
" ilie v<-ar appeared an Itnperial Decree dissolvinjr 
■f Iiici. Like many European forerunners, x\w 
>[jatic>t- Ouvenunciit had realised tlial the otiIv pur- 
-iiivf for a fariioiis and discredited Parliament is an 
I'l*;!! to liie people. Siinnltaneonsly tliey a-^serted 
!iiUiri'n;.'tliciifd the authority of the Executtv)' liy 
I'Kilvin^r the Tlreat Japan Society — an anti-forei^-n 
is-ytiatinn that had been formed for tiie purpose of 
trii.iti[i^' a;/aiiist the Itevision of the Treaties except 
■I'lii lt-rm> inequitable to tlie foreijriier — and prn- 
■■'"t't! piilirii-al societies. 

Hi.. prM;jn>s of rlie General Kle.-tion. wtiicli 
■^■"l fur uvii niontlis. was attended wiih si-eins i>r 
^'^■^- vi..|i-ticc anil even bloodshed, in whidi 
'■•■' the s".s/m or professional rowdie-;, who arc 
■■'■:>, f.'T a <_'t)n'>idcration. to let out their -^crvit-cs 
■• •■.iV.'-T party in Japan, played a proniim-ut pari, 
•:i Minh 1 tlie elections look place. llie resull b'iii.j 

34 JAI'AN 

that the Government failed to better their condition, 
the aggregate of the various Opposition parties being 
sufficient to render them impotent in the Diet, and to 
secure for Japan a continuance of those constitutional 
struggles which, at a moment when all parties should 
combine to lay firm the bases of the new polity, 
threaten to jeopardise its very existence, and to con- 
vince the world that the Japanese are at present in 
too feather-headed and wayward a mood to be able 
to work out even their own salvation. When the 
new session opened in May the Ministry was vehe- 
mently assailed, its bills were rejected, and a vote 
of want of confidence in the Government was within 
five votes of being carried. Eealising that with such 
a Chamber legislation, or even government,. was im- 
possible, Count Ito again advised the Emperor to 
dissolve the Diet. And thus, for the second time 
within the present year, Japan is plunged in the 
throes of a General Election. 

These events are interesting, and I have narrated 
them, less as incidents in a Parliamentarv drama than 
Rt.aii)oiut8 because of the explanation that lies behind. 
at i8Hue fY[x^x are symptoms of the threefold problem 
by which Japanese statesmen and the Japanese nation 
are now confronted, and which will not, in all like- 
lihood, be solved without a great strain, if not actual 
jeoj)ardy to the Constitution itself. The principles 
involved, or the questions at issue, are these : the an- 
cc'stral conflict between democratic and oliorarcliical 
ideas in gcn'ernment ; the part to be played in a so- 
(talled Constitutional reijhne by the Sovereign; and 


the rvlaliou of m'mUlorial re«poii.sibiIity to :i Parlia- 
iBtoiUr^' syetem. They are problems alxmt which 
European Slalu have been f)<rhtitig (and in some 
e«ae* are still fighting) for hundreds of years ; and 
lM>w thai our uwii aDalojioits coullicls arc for the 
most part over, we may conienoplaie, with the sen- 
letttiouB NitiBfariion of maturity, the almost iden- 
tical fltrug^les of im]M.*iuoua youth. 

In refusing Ihe appropriatioDs asked for the 

Aip-building programme in IS93, the Opposition 

i ch- fipeakera were careful to explain that it was 

■M from no stint of patriotism or disbelief in 

tlie Deed of a powerful navy that they t^Mk that stej). 

Tlie administration of the Naval Department they 

Wiltobe cnrrupl and had, 1ml, as one speaker aaid, 

'the bead and fmnt of all the rcfomia needed was to 

^ the navy from the dominant influenen of the 

l^tnma cLui.' On another occaaicm another t^peaker 

I xavked: *A uian could not Ijeeoiue head of the 

I Bwne Office, or of the liailway Bureau, unless he 

■weofChoabiu origin, or head of the War Depart- 

•■oiiior the Xavy, unless he were of the Satsuraa 

L eUa.' These ubservalions inlrotluce us to a turious 

l^uri* in the Japanese system, rarely noticed by 

Kipt-an writers but uevertheless exereisinj.' a pre- 

At and conservative force in the midst of a 

rof chaii^fe, viz, llic continued d<mnninn of the 

liClau tysteni, which has prevailed in Japan ever 

, ju»l as it had done for centuries befon-, the 

>lution. leyasu, the founder of tlie laal ur 

mwa Cuuily of Shoguns lu 1G03, wa« prariirally 


the head of a northern confederacy, which defeated 
and held in subordination the clans of the south and 
south-west. Two and a half centuries later the 
decline of the Tokugawa Shogunate gave to these 
the chance of a long-postponed revenge. Eaising 
the cry of the restoration of the legitimate Sovereign 
and the expulsion of foreigners, they rallied around 
themselves all the disaffected and patriotic elements 
in the country, and carried their purpose. Satsuma, 
Choshiu, Tosa, and Hizen were the four principal 
clans concerned in this successful revolution, which 
re-established the ascendencv of the South over the 
North. In their hands the new government, though 
outwardly based on European ideas, was in reality 
administered on the old Japanese system, namely, 
by a territorial clique. The Satsuma rebellion 
showed that one great section of tlie victorious clan 
cared only for the old system, and not at all for the 
new principles. It was defeated, and the Progressive 
policy prevailed. Nevertheless, under a Western 
exterior the victors have always clung tightly to the 
traditional methods, and have retained an almost 
unchallenged supremacy, alike in the formation of 
Cabinets and the distribution of patronage. In the 
old days, no doubt, this was due to the importance 
of powerful princes or nobles backed by formidable 
aggregations of armed men. It is now the triumph^ 
not of territorial influence, but of a civil and military 
hierarchy, largely organised upon the privilege of 
birth. The army, and still more the navy, which in 
the background play a very important part in the 


poUUcs of imxlern Japan, aiitl which are th« real 
ULUiutAy of the Government against tlie subversive 
tendencies of Parliamentary majoritifs or demagogic 
Badicalifin, are principally officered by men belong- 
ing to the chief rlan-t ; the present Cabniot is mainly 
recruited from the same sources ; and the ory of the 
Oppoaitioii is to a Urge extent well-founded, that to 
b« a chuuman is to ponseKs tlie key to the doorH of 
official promoUoD. 

In re-aiity llie conflict is only a Japanese version 

of the familiar duet lietween a powerful and dls- 

, O ipwii j ciplined oligarchy and an ambitious but as 

' mrj yet imperfectly organised democracy. It is 

(vmiKi^lly tlx' t-aiuc }iit>(i.iri<-ul plictiunicnciii tlial was 

piTsenled by the contest of the Oracclii with the 

^iiate in the expiring century of tlie Roman Re- 

[mbli.- ; and that was reproduced in our own country 

in the |M)pular struggle against what is commonly 

'allwl \\liig ascendency in the first ijuarter of tlie pre- 

•«ni century. TheCaliinet of Count Ito is in Knglish 

fwlitical terminology a Whig Cabinet, composed of 

i memliers of the great Wliig families, the Cavendishes 

; »i"t liiissclls of modern Japan (though without their 

I pwliorefSL and sustained by the patronage whicli 

iJif Japanese eipiivahnts to rotten borouglis afford. 

Tie sy.-tem possesses that desperate tenacity which 

i* the re.-ull of inlieriied ability and conscious worth. 

It Iix* the authority which prescription and posses- 

ftifdi uniic to c<infer, and it is undoubtedly in con- 

funuity with I lie Iiistory and the nio>t elicrished 

trwliiioiLS of the people. A long linic may yet ehip,>>e 


before it disappears ; but ultimately, in face ol 
opposition which complains with some truth tb 
is being deluded by the mere semblance of lib 
and outward form of change, it seems destinec 
perish, as did the influence of the Whig oligarch 

It will have been noticed that in each of 
three Parliamentary Sessions of which I have spo 
2. Posi- the majority of the Lower House, profi 

tion of the 

Sovereign by the liberty conceded by an article ir 
Constitution,^ addressed frequent representation 
the Throne, in a sense hostile to the Governmer 
the day ; and further, that in the Session of 185 
a settlement of the political deadlock was 
obtained by the direct intervention of the Emp< 
This habit of erecting the Sovereign into an oui 
court of appeal against the Executive is both in < 
divergence from the spirit, even though permi 
by the letter, of the Constitution, and, if persistei 
cannot fail to cause trouble in the future. 
Ito, in his Commentary on the Constitution, evide 
never contemplated such an abuse of the prerogj 
of memorial when he thus explained its app 
tion : — 

' The meaning of the word *' addresses " includes 
reply to an Imperial speech in the Diet, addresses of 
gratulation or of condolence, representations of opinion, 
tions, and the like. In transmitting the writing, p 
forms of respect must be observed. The dignity o 

* Article XLIX. * Both Houses of the Imperial Diet may r 
tively present addresses to the Emperor.' 

Kmpmir mmt nut ht: inrnngt-d hy nny proceedintr implvitig 

i^tiU more aeriotu however m its couut^quences, 

if too frpfiuently repeated, must be the petisoral 

d«rent of ihe Sovt-roign, :is ii sort of Attic Jem ex 

macAf'mi.ou to the riirliaineiitary stage. The Kinperor 

cannot p*rpL'tually be extricating }iis Ministers from 

difficulty, ontl tlic Diet from a deadlock, by a surrender 

ur put of hi« Cinl List ; nor should his interposition 

in ibe dispiiiei* of the (.'hambers oome lo l>e rejfarded 

ft* the sole po**ible exit from a rttl de sav, carefully 

prepared in advant-e by an Opposition ostentatiously 

ilevi)id of any wn5e of responsibility. The Throne 

•^rupies a very singular and unique position in the 

\>o\i\\ (if modern Japan. 8lill enveloped in tlie dig- 

""y iif a liniitU'-s-i past, and not yet wliolly stripped 

"f till' halo of a once divine sanction, it stands out 

"» ihc breathless turmoil of Japanese evolution as 

''!♦=■ iii,ir|e (.'leini-iit of unshaken stability, the rallying- 

I" •iiii of all parties, the coinTuoii oracle of warring 

" "^ 'v.\\ :inil i>i>litical creeds. To tlie Japanese the 

'■*«»(i.ror is the personification of that intense and 

1" " ^itTvid spirit of patriotism whieli, alone of Eastern 

!■"- 'ijlfs. they api^'ar to feel. He is identified wiili 

'■■•^ir Ix-autiful islands, wiili tlicir iniiacTuorial lan- 

-''*:i;v. with thfir ancestral religion. He represents 

■-" iriiiinph of no conquering raep, of no alien caslc, 

■"^"1 'it no iimipuKory creed. His forefathers created 

■^■»paii fnr the Japanese to inhabit, and for their 

'■'"-Hidanis to rule. So little in Japan are men 

I'rtilisjK-it-d lo quuf-iion the Imperial sanctity, iliat 


it may be said to be almost independent of the 
personality of the Sovereign. Just, however, as the 
gods of Olympus, when they descended from their 
misty heights, were found to be men of like passions 
with men, and ended by becoming the personifications 
merely of exaggerated human attributes or lusts, so 
will the prestige that still clings to the Mikado's 
authority and name be rapidly dissipated by their 
employment on the battle-ground of parties or in tlie 
strife of factions. The strength and safeguard of the 
Throne lie in its entire severance from the political 
arena. For centuries, while his practical authority 
was a figment, the Emperor never lost his hold upon 
the public imagination, because of the mysterious 
and awe-inspiring background in which he lived. 
Rival combatants used his name while they fouglit, 
and his prerogatives after they had conquered. The 
clans rose and fell, but the Imperial power, though 
held in suspense, remained. Whilst this is no longer 
either possible or wise, yet the attitude of reserve 
and withdrawal is still, under a Parliamentary r^</i/w^, 
tlie true secret of Imperial strength. The Emperors 
function is to support his Cabinet, who, under the 
Japanese Constitution, are his own servants and 
nominees, and to entertain no address that brings 
liim down, so to speak, from the throne, or that 
touches liis prerogatives as fixed by law. Any 
modification or alteration of them should proceed 
from liis own initiative, and not at the dictation of 
the Diet. Xor should such a course be attended by 
any insuperal)le difficulty, seeing that this is the 



lli«tn' of the Imperial prerogative plainly contera-' 
pUltxl by the friuuers of llm new Constitution, and 
ttiat the latter ia guarded with the peculiar jealousy 
attaching to a written instrument by a people who 
cUiin lo aee in it the emboditnent of all eonstitulional 
trudom* and who arc sensible enougli to rceogtiise 
the danger of bf^nning to tamper with so delicate a 

A wore iiuaiiuent and less easily solnblu problem 

u th*t presented by the open combat between the 

•. MM*. Executive and the ParUameiitary majority. 

n^ a aiy It is obvious from recent exiK^rionce tliat 

j the Government, however powerful its composition, 

lias little hold over the Diet, and but slight control 

"VtT public opinion. Weekly it has seen itself flouted, 

iiisuhtHl, and crippled by a combination of parties 

jxifftTlfSS to eject it. and incapable of replacing it if 

[ ■■j"tMl. Tlie Address to the Throne presented by 

i ilie majority of the House of Itepreseiitatives in 

• F'-liriiari' 1893, contained the following deGnition 

i "Hlie siiiiatioii and account of its origin : — 

» ■Hnnitl'- reflection leads jour Majesty's servunts to cuti- 

*■ "I- lliat th*' fhiff (ibject of reprt'Sfutativi- jiiivf ninifiit is tn 
; tinfli,.tH omn^nl brtwif u lii^h and Itnv, and tn sociire thfir 
i f^ft-nuon in aid of the St.ite. Hentv tlitre can U' nu 
i'"/<miiii^r ..r ((rvat,T d.-sidrnitiim than tiiat i In- Legislature 
U'llh-- AdminJKtmtiiin should occupy tow.trds e;irli iilher an 
•■'lituii*- of thorough oinrerity, and should achii-ve the n^aiity 
'' binnotiiouii oo-operation. Hut ever since the opening of 
'B'lVf. th^ Ix-gislalure and the Adniinistmii..n have Uvn 
■Mling in ciiiconi, all their projects have beiii ini|)id.-d. all 
tii-ir (-apaliilili'-H inarreil, so that in the seijui-l tiny have 
hiiri\ III n^urf for the country the Wnefits uf progri.'^sive 

42 • JAPAN 

development in concert with the advance of the age. Your 
Majesty's servants acknowledge that the insufficiency of their 
own zeal is in part responsible for these things, but they 
believe that the chief cause is to be sought in the Cabinet's 
failure to discharge its functions. . . . The origin of the 
friction between the Government and the Diet, and of the 
discord between officials and people, extends to a remote 
time. Unless accumulated abuses be removed, and the 
reality of representative government achieved, the nation 
will lapse into a state of decline. . . . Your Majesty's 
servants gave expression to the desire of the people, but the 
Cabinet utterly declined to list-en, and thus prevented us 
from discharging our legislative function of consent. Soch 
is not the proper course to adopt in adjusting the finances of 
the Empire and carrying out the administration of the State. 
Your Majesty's servants apprehend that, so long as they are^ 
associated with such a Cabinet, it will be impossible for them 
to discharge the trust reposed in them by your Majesty 
above, and to give expression to the desires of the people 

Here is a sufficiently plain statement, though couched 
in somew^hat circumlocutory language, of the demand 
by the popular Chamber for Party Government upon 
the accepted European lines. Such a demand is 
wholly inconsistent with both the spirit and the 
letter of the new Constitution. Ministerial respon- 
sibility is there defined as existing towards the 
Emperor alone, and is thus explained by Count Ito 
in his Commentary : — 

* Who is it, except tlie Sovereign, that can appoint, 
dismiss, and punish a ^linister of State? The appointment 
and dismissal of them having been included by the Constitu- 
tion in the sovereign power of the Emperor, it is only a 
legitimate consequence, that the power of deciding as to the 
responsibility of Ministers is withheld from the Diet. Bat 


Ilk' Vf\rt tiUT put [{unstionM to the Miniaterfl and demaail 
open uuw«n frum tiM<m btit'ore tli^ {lublJc, M\A it inny niso 
fmnl Mldrow* to the Sort-reign aetting forth it.^ npinicnit). 
VvHnvr, »IUioiigb tlw Emperor reserves to hiiusclf in thet 
CrarthiUtm the right of appoioliug his Miniiit^ni ar hi» 
phHaru, ia maldng an sppoiDttneiit the sfittceptibilities of 
lW}nblio Bind rntiM hIm be taken into conHidentI ion. Tliin 
■If h* ni^rdrd u «□ indirect methtxl of omlrolling t^e 
■i^awlnlily of MiDisl^n.' 

Wbt the 'susceptibilities of the puljlii! luiml ' de- 
■wd in Japan is not however a remote and indirect 
"w io ihe appnintmcnt of Ministers, but a direct 
n<« in their dtsmlsgal : and the chasm that 6cpa> 
iWMtbe two parties is one (hat no conceesioiis on 
ritW side appear likely to fill. Prior to the opeii- 
ui? of the second Session of 1893 tlie Government 
"wiiSed iheir recognition of this fad by publishing 
Bi simnuncement that until a parly (not an acci- 
'I'Bial or momentary combination of parlies) ap- 
[*3n-tl in the House with an alisoUite nin.jority on its 
•bK they would neither aurremk-r their power nor 
>bre it with any sectimi however influential : and 
tlal they would regard no vole of censure or rejee- 
tioQ of ibeir proposals, but would remain in oflice 
■otil nwD appeared with aulh<iriiy to lake it from 

This (told acceptance of tlie cliallen^'c to war h 

-ttr-jur^ might seem to some an impnlitic tlctianic of 

the enemy; and in any conntry wherf the 

I'arlianientary system was more developed, 

riT political training more widely dilTiised, il might 

he the premonitory system of uliiniate defeat. In 


Japan itself there exists a strong party who see in 
the so-called popular demand a movement which 
will not lose, but will, on the contrary, gain force 
until it has secured its object and revolutionised the 
Constitution. But there are opposing considerations 
that may justify a more sanguine forecast. First of 
these is the respect, before spoken of, for the written 
Constitution. Further, the prominent men in Japan 
are almost unanimously in favour of the existing law, 
and the cohesion of the Clan and Court party will 
not easily be broken down. Thirdly, the Japanese 
are as yet too ignorant of Party Government to be 
able to work any such system as is demanded without 
risk of total collapse ; the Opposition is so spht up 
by personal animosities as to render the creation of a 
working majority out of its ranks highly improbable : 
whilst the Eadical party in particular is so far much 
too wanting in dignity or prestige to justify the 
granting of concessions that might transform the in- 
temperate filibusters of the ballot-box and the tribune 
into portfolio politicians. Finally, the analogy of 
foreij?n States su^trests that a modus viveiidi will ulti- 
mately be established in the Chamber itself, by an or- 
ganised Government party less amenable than now 
to the shifting currents of popular caprice. In the 
meanwhile, however, we may expect a period of 
political fermentation, and even of chaos, by which 
such an issue mav be for some time retarded, and 
from which the Constitution itself may not escape 

Among the respects in which the advance of 

THE sroirrroy of modkrx japa.v 45 

modern Japan has been moat rapid, though as yet 
•earoely appr«etat«(l by foreigners, is the develop- 

■ 1,1,, I, I mt- lit of the military and naval forces of the 
'^ Empire. Aspiring to play a predominant part 
in the polilica of Eastern Aaia, nhe li:is spitred no 
eflbrt and shrunk from do Barrifice to pkcc horsclf in 
the toatter of armed equipment upon a level with 
ber pcMuble rompelilor8. The Japaneife iire bom 
nilon ; and a coiinirj- with so extensive ami vulne- 
rable a w-abuard ccmld in no case atlur^l to neglect its 
maritime defences. About their navy the patriotism 
of the Japanese h as easily aroused a^ is our own in 
Great Britain ; and although the administration of 
the N:iv:il T'epirniifnl h the fnihjeoi df nrriuioniniiH 
party conflict, there is no disagreement upon the 
broad Imperial policy of a largely increased naval 
outlay. Wlien in 1893 the strength of the Japanese 
navy amounted to 40 vessels and 50,000 tons, and 
;he Government laid down the standard of national 
requirement as 120,000 tons, there %vere some among 
'Ik- eitreme Radical party who would have preferred 
u, --ee this figure raised to 150,000. The sums ''on- 
:rihmfd by the Emperor in the crisis of iS'J'o, and 

■ •rdered to be deducted from the salaries of" all niili- 
;ary and civil officials, were specially ear-marke<l 
iVom the start for the construction of now battle-ships 
'if the first rank. An order amounting to 2,000,000/. 
IS now in course of execution in Europe ; and Count 
Iro's boa-tt to me that the Japanese tiect is the next 
-wrongest to tliat of Cliiiia in the Xortheni Pacific, and 
> far more serviceable for action, is amply justified 

i ■ 


by the facts. It is largely by the offer of the 
alliance of her navy that Japan hopes in the future 
to control the balance of power in the Far East. 
Simultaneously the maritime defences of the countn', 
which have been executed under the superintendence 
of a distinguished Italian engineer, have reached a 
formidable state of proficiency; and we are not 
likely to have any ^Shimonoseki bombardment' in 
the future. 

Not less satisfactory or admirable is the spectacle 
presented by the reorganised Army of modern Japan. 
With a mobilised peace-footing of between 
50,000 and 60,000 men, with a reserve of 
113,000, and a landwehr of S0,000, armed, equipped, 
and drilled according to the highest standard of 
nineteenth-century requirement, and moreover eco- 
nomically and honestly administered, the Japanese 
Army need not shrink from the test of comparison, 
in point of efficiency, with the forces of European 
States. Lest, however, my appreciation sliould be 
attributed to the uninstructed partiality of the 
civilian eye, let me quote an English militar}' 
authority. Colonel E. G. Barrow, who has himself 
recently visited Japan. Confessing that he was 
' fairly astonished by the marvellous picture which 
military Japan presents,' he amplifies this statement 
as follows : — ^ 

' llie officers of the Japanese Army have mostly passed 

througli the Imperial Military School, and may therefore Ix* 

held to be of much the same stamp ])rofet?sioiially as the 

generality of officers of European armies. The barracks are 

* United Service yiagazinc, September 1893. 


lonjca] wixiden bnilding^ with ttiri-, nell-ventilat«tl 
I, umI Knijiulouslv dewi. The Blore>roniii8 are. bow- 

the rMtlly ■triking fcottin of the Japanese military 
n. tn complHencM &iicl in arrangein<>nr tlicre is 
D^ better to bo found in Europe. ... As retiarda the 
p, (hr inCuitij orv very good — better evtn tliuii some 
jxnui iofKOtiT I could iiiun*'; tht- artillon,- good, or at 

fiur; and ibr cavalry iudiiriTcnt. Wm itt Kcort-ely to 
ndc-red »tw The Ja]uitie«i< are not on equeetrian race ; 
Irane poawaof* iieithtr of thr churKin^f|iiiititi»8of Mpoed 
oghi : and, (injitk, the physical aspect of thf cciiiitr^' ia 
•oe that Liinid t-vrr biipu for lbi> di'velopmeot of good 
r^. , . . Thi- army '» not » paper »h»in, but n coinpipte 
f nrgftnimUon. fraiued on the best models, and as a ruU' 
^fhly adapted ta the rrqain-niente of the country. . . . 

ve biM an array of 75,{KKt bi<-r, capable of being 
-d in war, which costs uiilv about jd?."*"!,!'"!'. or, ap- 
rnst^ly. J.-'>i>i.i,Oi)U/. . . , The Japanese soldier has disci- 
. pi-r-f Vf mnci-. and (freat endurance. Has he valour aleo ? ' 

Pu the latter (lueslioii no one %vlio is aciiiiaiiitod 
(he iiiaiiv strikiiifj pajies in Japanese liistory 
ln-iiatt; to return an affirmative answer. There 
■ riation in the world, of anvtliing like eotnpa- 
e anii<iiiity, whose annals exhibit a more brilliant 
rii i.f persona! valour and patriotic devotion. 
I'ViT a iliotisand years there have been sunj: in 
\.\: -ouie verses that filly express the liij:li ideal of 
a! ,iiid national loyally that has always lieen eii- 
\v-.--A by the Japanese soldier : — 

' I- itiv piith iipoii tile oociin vonili'r ? 

I.^t ll..- H1H.-S iiiv i.hip«rwk,..l Ih»1v lii.U' \ 
Mit.l I .>^.T t'l»>" "ixl m.iiiiii..i<i w.uia.T? 
l,.l .10 -liiiii ■■..rpw. ■ni-.iDi 111,- -r(i-s ul.iii.' : 

V lifi,'i-lurd'« HJili' ! 


Nor could any- people have enacted the tragedy of 
the Forty Eonins, or maintained for centuries the 
strange but heroic code of honour involved in hara 
kiri^ without possessing a superlative though mis- 
directed form of human courage.^ 

A still more recent work bv an En^xlish militar\' 
critic contains an equally discriminating but not 
corrobo- Icss laudatorv verdict upon the Japanese 

rative ^ r r 

opinion Army.^ The author describes the cavalry 
as poor, for the reasons before mentioned, but the 
infantr}' as quite excellent, the drill as smart and 
efficient, the armament as good, and the barrack 
accommodation as admirable. He supplies figures, 
derived from official sources, of the numerical 
strength of the various battalions, regiments, bri- 
jrades, and divisions ; and he gives the total strength 
of the Territorial Armv and Eeserves combined as 
228,850 men. If his views of what the Japanese 
Army may be expected to do in the field of inter- 
national action are in excess of all probability, his 
testimony to its practical efficiency as a fighting 
machine is sufficiently authoritative to merit quota- 

^ For many instances of such conrafife, vide A. B. Mitford*8 Talfi 
of Old Japan. \Vitli them may be compared the comparatively recent 
incident that concluded the sanguinary Satsuma Rebellion in 1877. 
Old Sai<(o, with a band of devoted adherents, made his way from the 
East, where his army had been cut off, to his native place, Kagoshima. 
There, entrenched on a hill above the town, he and his men fouf^ht 
till they perished. When he fell, wounded, he prayed his devoted 
friends to cut off his hca<l. They complied, and then committed 
suicide. The dead bodies were found together. 

* On Short Leave to Japan, By Captain O. J. Younghusband. 
London : 1894. Cap. xvii. 


To E lympatluser Triih Jupan not ibu U^axt 
gTaur>ing among the evidences of her progress are 
the si^na of a quite unconitnoii iinaiicial 
prosperity. M<mey is plf-nliful in t!je couu- 
tr}'. There is a great circulailou iu notes, and a 
htfge rvaerve lu Bpecie in the banks. The Govern- 
metit hfts a handsome surphis at its command ; and, 
inasmuch as the bulk of the taxes are levied by 
fixBcl Uwa, the eoononiics resulting from the recent 
adoiinistrstive reforms, which have already produced 
an annual reduction of iS8,000,000, will considerably 
iweli this total. In consequence of the profitable 
year's tnide in 1802, all flood stocks rose in value 
from 20 to oO ]tLT cent. There bus fiirtbor bi-cii a 
vi-rj- nipid dt-vuhipnu-iit of (.iovenimctit croilil, ;ui 
illustrated by the conditions of tlie National Debt, 
llt'uds paying' a lufjh rate of interest have either 
Ix-fU convened into 5 per cent. I)onds or have been 
paid off without option of conversion. The only 
jMiriion of the I>ebt which is slill located outside of 
J.ip:!!! is a sum of 750,000/., which was raised in. 
I^^3 and will mature in 18'J7, Tpori this 7 per 
it-nt. interest is p.iid in gold, efjuivalent to .lapan to 
I:J per rtiit. on tlie ori<iinal <'apit;d. The iattTest on 
ill.- remainder of the Debt i.s paid in silver. Tlie total 
mitrnal debt amoujits to >f2')2,00l>,000, to tlie p-iy- 
iiu-ntof priiiiipal and interest upon wiiich if^^.dOd.OllO 
are appli<il annually. Japanese statesmen have t'ortu- 
iiately fomu-ti a verj' high conception of the value 
l^>:h of naiion:d credit and of liiiancial reireiK-lnuent ; 
ai.d the suspicion of extravagance or corruplion is 


cor irMiT irc»-ics 11; immediate furore in the Chamber. 
I: i^ :o Itr rezre::^i :hai in their dealincrs with 
fr-rririters tbesiiniiri of commercial morality that is 
^r-nzjcc-T obserrei by Japane:?e merchants is neither 
s:^ rCaniriess in :he-My ix>r so inflexible in practice. 

A> re,^raris the Trade of Japan. I will not here 
rrToiu^r >:a:isucs :ha: mav be found in Consular 
T»ublica::oiis. but will merelv notice certain 
salirn: characteristics. Her foreign trade has 
:r.?rriLi<-i so rapidlv that its total sterlin<T value, 
wl'Ich :r. l>:'i stc^cd at 23.800,000/., is nearlv double 
:l.a: of 1>>4. ai:d sre and a half times as much as 
:::r»: of 1S07. The share in this total that is claimed 
1 V the Br:::>h Eiripire i.t\ Great Britain, India, and 
:Lv Colt :::rs is bv far the lanrest, amounting to over 
>.*--3i\00m.. : al:houi:h these ligures represent a steady 
rroe:.: devhi.e, iIa- proponion. which in 1890 was 
4l per oe:::. of the whole, having, mainly owing to 
the greatly i:icreaseil export of silk and tea to the 
Uniied States, fallen to 35 per cent, in 1892.' lii 
^'hipping, however. Great Britain easily retains her 
j)reJonHnance : the total tonnage of British vessels 
trailing with Jaj)an exceeding that of all other 
countries, including Japan itself, put together. Of 
the total merchandise imported into and exported 
from Japan in 1892, 58 per cent, was carried in 

* On the other hand, in the Trade Report for 1898, which came to 
hand only alter these pa<;es were in print, out of a total increase of 
Japanese trade of ^15,5r)0,000 in the year (the increase being 
entirely in imports, chiefly raw cotton and machinery). Great Britain 
improved her position by #8,000,000, of which ^#7,000,000 were 


British Iioltonu. Tlie fierman proportion Id the 
ftame year ww 10 [ler cent. ; while the ligiire tlmt is 
\ix\i\ to justify the lol'ty commercial oispirHtiotis of 
Fruice iii the Far Enet was only IS per cent. 

A murv n-markablc development of Japniiese 
ccmmcTcc is thft adranco of her owu manufacturing 
nnmUw- iniluistries. Japan ia rapidly becomin}^ her 
ii m' I owu purveyor, particularly of cotton cloth- 
in|r- Thv simultaneous process is obscrveil in her 
Custom Itetumfl of a great increase in the import of 
nw material, anil a corresponding decrease in that 
of manufactured goods. In 181)2 she imported 
dcren times the quantity of raw rotton imported in 
1?^S7 ; while since 1888 her import of manufactured 
(oitons has decrrayed 44 per cent. In the last five 
vi-ars bt-r ex])ort of poods manufactured in her own 
li^mis been (juadrupled. That this process has 
U't-n very much acielerated by the recent chancres in 
Indian currency there can be no doubt. Just an 
Itnlia has bitbtrti) profited in lier competition with 
l-an-ashire, >ij will Japan now profit in her com- 
p»'tition with lk>mbay. She is rapidly extending her 
plant, and before tlie year is out, will have doubled 
ln-r number of spindles. Especially will she profit 
in her export of manufactured cottoTis !o Cbina. 
H>th are silver-standard countries, and in boihwapes 
»re paid in silver ; and when lier superior proximity, 
her low rate of wa;:es, and the cheapness of coat, are 
uken into account,' Manchester and Homb.iy alike 

' T)w wkcm uf a coUon o|>entlive in Jnpnn are froni II) to 'JD cpntn 
1^. U. to fid.i k day. Japaaeaa coal U Jeiiver«il at titu tuilU for 
fH • ktoo. 

52 JAPA^If 

should find in her a most formidable competitor. 
There is even a talk in Japan of still further stimu- 
lating this natural movement by abolishing both the 
import duty on raw cotton, and the export duty on 
the manufactured article. European merchants are 
for the moment somewhat nonplussed by this 
Japanese development. But it may be pointed out 
to them that any faUing off in foreign imports which 
may result from native competition should be 
more than compensated by the increased purchasing 
power of Japan in respect of foreign articles, such 
as machinery, which she cannot provide herself. 
Among the other resources which Japan is turning 
to good account in her industrial expansion is her 
coal. Japanese coal is now exported everywliere 
throughout the Far East ; it is burned on the majority 
of steamers between Yokohama and Singapore, and 
it may be said to have driven the Australian product 
from the Eastern market. 

Among the questions which are much discussed, 

alike bv forei<rners and residents, and about which 

Attitude of ^'^'O' contrary opinions are expressed, not 

wurdT merely at different times, but by different 

ortigiiera ^yj-j^^j.^ ^^|^ ^j^^ sauic tlmc, is the general 

attitude of the Japanese people, and particularly of 
the rising generation, towards foreigners. It should 
not be inferred, because Japan has recognised that 
Europe is ahead of herself in many branches of 
knowledge and resources of civilisation, and that she 
must go to Germany for her guns, to France for her 
law, to England for her railways — that she is, there- 


tore, an indiscriminate ailmirar of that which 
tmitatga, or that tlie W'cstera man is an idol in her 
■ocUl panlbeoQ. On ihe contrarj', the more she has 
—imiliTfd European excellences the more critical 
ibe luu bKomt! of Kuropcan defects ; whilst the at 
times precipitate rapidity of her own advance has 
prodQced a reactionary wave, which occasionally 
«Momes wriouB pn:tportion3. The existence of guch 
a feding is by no means surprii^ing wlien we remem- 
ber the forcm Iiy which it is rtH-ruited. Among these 
may be counted, the latent Congervatism in the 
nmional character, which, though but little expressed, 
vtiti nnouldeni with an intenial combustion that, 
like those sudden shocks of nature that wreck the 
Japanese landscape, now and then breaks forth in a 
passionate vendetta of outrage or assassination; the 
inordinate vanity of the people, fostered at once by 
'.heir illustrious antiquity and by the ease with which 
they s**ein to have planted themselves in tlie forefront 
of the files of time ; the indiscreet rapidity with 
which they have been asked to swallow, almost in 
ihe ume gulp, a foreign dress, a foreign language, 
and a foreign religion ; and a consciousness of na- 
tional strength that resents the suspicion of liaving 
liartered its birthright to aliens. I'olitical incidents 
— a proposal of Treaty Revision on terms at all 
derogatory to the national dignity, tlie not t(K» sensi- 
tive and sometimes brutal candour of the European 
I'rea«, the resolutions passed at a meeting of foreign 
merchants — may excite this feeling to a white heat 
of fur%'. At other times it slumbers. 

5S ^^ 
she f 



In 1891 it seemed for a time to have experienc 

a sharp inflammation, but afterwards to have si 

I sided. Towards the close of 1893 it underwent a br 

revival, in consequence of the judgment of the Brit 
j Supreme Court at Shanghai, reversing the decis: 

I of the inferior Court at Yokohama in the case of i 

collision of the P. and 0. steamship 'Eavenna' with i 

Japanese cruiser 'Chishima' in Japanese waters. T 

I . judgment, which was adverse to the Japanese claii 

! was criticised as though it were a deliberate ex 

bition of foreign malevolence, directed against t 

expanding ambitions of Young Japan. Foreigne 

I including some old and well-known residents, w( 

openly insulted in the streets of the capital, while t 
native police made not the slightest effort to interfei 
and a sharp reminder required to be addressed to t 
latter of their elementary duties. Anotlier manif 
tation is the boycotting of foreign manufactures, ev 
when the corresponding native articles are of grea 
inferior quality. In 1892 an attempt was actua 
made upon the life of a well-known native merclia 
because he had advocated the use of foreign pi] 
for the Tokio water-works. These emotions find th 
chief exponents among the student class, many 
whom, under the tuition of American missionari 
have imbibed American notions of democrac}', a 
whose smattering of universal knowledge seems life 
to create a considerable element of danger. Periu 
the most innocent form is the continuous dismis 
of foreigners from posts in the public service, or 
the employ of business firms, their places being fil 

r srowTTOX oe modern japan 

bjr JapUMe specially cHlucatccl, tliou};li tint unifurmly 
fiued. for tbc purpo«e.' Serious though these in- 
flividtul cbuUitionB tindoubledly are, the liest autho- 
ritiet do not Mwm to anticipate any very perilous 
JfVflopineiit* of iliis phase of uatiuiial rcBuscitalioii ; 
and it may probahly be regarded as the best safety- 
I vilve for humours that might otherwise require a 
wan tempeituou* outlet. 

A OOlUteral iUustration of the sanie thou^htksii 
MdaiMBMines foolish patriotism is the possiouatc 
~. - J exdteiiient displayed by the Japanese at any 
' '" '~ aucrtioii, however extravagant or ridiculous, 
of the national spirit. In this respect ihey maybe 
termed the Frenchmen of the Far East. In the 
course of 1803 there occurred three illustrations 
<.f this unseasonable ardour. A young lieutenant or- 
;;ani.<ed a project for forming a fishing and maraud- 
ing colony on one of the Kiirile Islands ; and when he 
6tart(-<l from Tokio with thirty volunteer companions 
in a nund)er of open row-boats upon ihis scatter- 
l.rainwl quest, the jwpulace crowded the wharves of 
the Sumida, and gave an ovation to tlie departing 
h*-ru 3ji tliougti lie were Xels^n eniliarkiiig at Ports- 
mouth to take command of tlie Mediterranean Fleet, 
I'resently came llie retribntorv sequel. The lieutenant 
encountered a storm. Two of his lioats were swamped, 
and seventeen of the wiiuld-Ix' colonists were drowned. 
Tlie second instance was that of a .Tajiancse niiliiary 

' In JiiIt. lrK>:t. llie Intnl niiiiibcr at U.ti-\e\u-T* in tlir ciiiplxy ..f ))i.> 
JatnoMC (iovpniiiicnl. hIih-Ii n few yi'iir^ iiu" ^l<H.a nt M'Vi>nil limutr.'iU. 
«aa tmlj Vl,iA whutu SU were Uritiah, II Uenuiuis, ID AuicricKnx, niiil 
S Tmtch. 


attache at St. Petersburg, who rode overland from that 
place to Vladivostok. When he landed in Japan he 
was received with as much honour as though he were 
Moltke returning from the Franco-German campaign. 
One trembles to think what will be the fate reserved 
for a genuine Japanese hero, should such a one ever 
appear. The third example was even more puerile. 
In pursuit of a forward policy as regards Korea, the 
Government was persuaded in 1892 to send a new 
Minister to that Court. This individual, having 
insulted the King of Korea, and quarrelled with his 
Ministers, was very shortly recalled ; but, owing to 
his name being popularly associated with a policy of 
so-called courage and energy, in other words with 
the daring diplomacy of gunboats and bounce, he 
was entertained and toasted at a great banquet at 
Tokio upon his return. The military parade which 
Japan, taking advantage of the recent disorder in 
Korea, is making in that country as these pages go 
to press, and which threatens to involve her in serious 
dispute, if not in actual conflict, with China, is a 
later outcome of the same impetuous Chauvinism. 

It is probable that these pyrotechnics of a some- 
what schoolboy patriotism, which are not unnatural 
in the case, either of a country like Japan that is only 
tentatively winning its way to greatness, or of one 
•like France that is smartin^r under the memory of a 
jjrreat national humiliation, will diminish in proportion 
as Japan secures the recognition at which she is 
aiming, and accjuires the self-control that is bom of 
conscious strength. At present they bring a smile 



lo tbe lip even o( the most iiujiagsioued apologist for 
national delirium. 

A further question, much agitatetl by foreigners, 
and espmally by Fjiglisli and Americans, is the 
^,11 likelihood of Chrislianily being adopted as 
SS^ta the national religion of .lapan. A combina- 
^^ lion of circumstances — the disestablishment 
of Buddhixm in ibn present reign, the reasonable 
rhararter and general freedom from superstition of 
the ppople, the admitted indiflerunce to older creeds 
ot the upper classes, anil the unhaniiKrred field opened 
to the labours of the foreign missionary sorie- 
tiM — has led many to suppose tliat here, at least, 
the Church of Christ is nure of a magnificent spoil, 
and that Japan is trembling on the brink of a 
nighty regeneration.' If I do not filiarc these anti- 
cipations it is not from any denial either of the 
■rcnoouB exertions of the reapers, or of tlie intrinsic 
tiduMflB of the han-est. Hut, though the Slate in 
hfKa has withdrawn its sanction from Iluddhism, the 
•tnun of the common people does not appejir to 
hnv beeo one whit diverted from its crumbling, but 
<^haUoirefl, shrines : and in the clapping of bands 
Md short prayer before the gilded altar, and the 
[nctical semions of the Ixjnzes, the lower clashes 
■iB find what is to them au adequate salvation. 
At the old capital, Kioto, there has been building for 
■■r years, out of private subscriptions only, what 
■iD, when completed, be by far the L-u-gest Buddhist 

* lack affMrs to h* iIm tinw of tlip ChniYli Miuioiurv SortMv, 


temple in all Japan. Nor can a people be described 
as without faith, who yearly send forth tens of 
thousands of pilgrims to climb the sacred summits 
of Fuji, 12,300 feet high, and of Xantaisan. 

On the other hand, with the upper and lettered 
classes, the advance of knowledge has brought a 
widespread scepticism, and a reluctance to accept a 
doOTia that eludes the test of material analysis. 
Neither can I think that the missionary army, though 
it enters the field with banners waving and soldiers 
chanting, utilises its strength to the best advantage 
by dividing its host into so many conflicting and 
sometimes hostile bri^ifades. I find in the directon' 
that at Tokio alone there are represented thirty-one 
different missionary churches, societies, sects, or 
denominations, with an aggregate of 300 male and 
female missionaries. When Episcopalians, Presby- 
terians, Baptists, Evangelicals, Lutherans, Church of 
England, Methodists, Eeformed, Russian Orthodox, 
Quakers, Unitarians, and Universalists appear simul- 
taneously upon the scene, each claiming to hold the 
kevs of Heaven in their hand, it cannot be thou^dit 
surprising if the Japanese, who have hardly made up 
their minds that they want a Heaven at all, are 
somewhat bewildered bv the multiplicitv of volun- 
teer door-keepers. Were the ethical teachings of the 
Bil)le to be offered to them in a svstematised bodv of 
precept and of prayer they might turn a willing ear. 
Xay, I doubt not that a committee of Japanese 
experts would undertake to-morrow the codification 
of the moral, just as they have already done that of 


the *'ivil and criminiil law ; ami ihat they would tuni 
out for tlic odiGcalioii of their fellow-cinintmnen an 
»lu)irabte BnithesU of the ethics of all tiuie. Who 
■IiaII *ay whether the ni'W Japan may not yet undpr- 
\akii thin niDnientouB task? In the meantime the 
omens appear to be a^'ainst the- ulTicial or po[>iiIar 
•election of any professed branch of Christian theo- 




And statesmen at her council met 
Who knew the seasons when to take 
Occasion bv the hand and make 

The boonds of fireedom wider yet. 


Ever since the Bestcration, and with a progres 
that has advanced by leaps and bounds during re 
^^^^^ cent years, as the nation has increased 1 
Rev.>:on ^tatuFe aud acquired no modest or shrinkin 
estimate of its own importance, the biggest politici 
question in Japan has been Treaty Revision. Fo 
a Ion a while dwarfed bv the more serious imminenc 
of domestic problems, and retarded by the imms 
turity and inexperience of the new regime^ sinkin 
at times into a complete background, but at othei 
sweeping all before it on a tide of popular emotioi 
it has exercised much the same disturbing an 
seismic influence upon Japanese politics as has th 
Home Rule question in Great Britain. It has mad 
and it has upset Ministries, and may very likely (3 
so again. At this moment it confronts the stronge 
Government that Japan can produce with a problei 
which even its strength, it may be feared, will pro\ 
unequal to solve. 

I ' 

^" JJtjy AXt> TUB POWERS 61 

Tlie Treaties which regulate the coraniercial rcla- 
tiotis of Japan with foreign countries, and winch 
fLiowy pmvidc for the resilience in the Treaty 
T w rt M ports, and fi>r the separate jurisdiotioa there 
of foreign lubjrcts, have been concluded at va- 
rioiu periods with nu fewer than eighteen signatory 
R>wer«,' siuce the fii>t American Treaty was 
•igned by Commodore Perrj- in 1854. Koughly 
speaking, the contract between the two parlies was 
in each case tm lollowu. Japan consented to opeii 
a limited number of [jorts to foreign trade and resi- 
dence.' There only were the subjecls of the eon- 
Iracting Powers perniitted to live, to trade, to buy or 
tell priJi"_Tiy. y>r lo elf;.',^•/c in i!ldll^lrial eiiii'i'['risi'. 
(Outside the narrow limits of the settlements all these 
privileges were forbidden ; nor was travel or niove- 
nit-nt |>ermitted without a passport. On the other 
hand, inside the pale the subjects of foreign Powers 
were exempted from Japanese jurisdiction, except, 
of course, when sueing Japanese subjects, and were 
amenable only to their own Consular Courts — a 
prerogative commonly described as tlie Kxtra-terri- 
toriat system; while the Customs tari fi' on foreign 
trade was fixed at a nominal 5 per cent, ad vilorem 

• Thf^- *T» Ore« BriUin, Fnuicp, Gcriimiiy. Anrilrin. lluBsia. 
Italj. Bclpuiu. HulUni). Siiain, I'uiiiit;iO. Sh il/crliuiil, bwvileii, Dun. 
OMTk. .Uuenr>. i'tni. Uoxiri>. lUwaii. nriil Cl>in». 

' Ukr Open I'lirU are Yr<li> (Tnkiol, Knnagima < Vokuhniiin). Iliogo 
■ E.iU).l>mkM. HmkofUle. NftfCMaki. nnrl Nij}.i«l«. Tlu' f.<ll.>»itii: |H,rt8 
«*TT •abwqOFiilly iipenpil in IWH) u> .IiipnuPM' fipurlvr-. i.f KTain. rire, 
r»Bl. Ac. ;— Shiiu'inrneki. Uoji. Hnkatn. KarnlHii. Kiu'hiiu.i^ii, >[i>iiiiii, 
IdfOKmhATm. S>ii*hiiiii. Suiiiu, uiJ Otiirii. Tlit nmiib.iB of riMrlint 
fcrf^LCWn ia the Treaty I'orU, i>n Jaiiiuiry 1. lbU4. uir.' ns fultuus :— 
linU^ l.Utl, Amcricuu 100, G«nuuii 410, FrLiicli t)4U. 

cii the inajorify of IbrciLni imports, tourtluM' wiiii 
a duty of 5 per cent, on exports. Hiicli is the 
system under which Japanese association with the 
outer world has been conducted, at least upon 
Japanese soil, for nearly forty years; from which 
she has made many abortive efforts to escape ; and 
under which she proclaims, with yearly increasing 
insistence, that it is incompatible with her national 
dignity to continue. 

Conscious that the terms of orimnal affreement 
could not be permanently stereotyped, a clause in 
Postpone- the English Treaty, concluded by Lord Elgin 
Revision in 1858, provided for future revision, upon 
the notice of either of the high contracting Powers, 
in 1872.^ But when 1872 arrived neither party was 
in a position to move ; and on the various occasions 
since, when revision has been seriously attempted, 
the endeavour has resulted in failure owing to the 
difficulty of reconciling the conflicting claims of the 
foreign Powers, who have been averse to stepping 
down from their pinnacle of vantage without either 
a definite quid pro quo^ or at least a guarantee that 
they will not suffer by the surrender ; and of Japan, 
who, with a natural consciousness of her steadily 
improving position and of the obligations of what 
she terms her ' sovereign rights,' whittles away one 
by one the counter-concessions which she was at 
first prepared to make, and now even talks about 

^ Art. XXII. — * It is a^eed that either of the high contraetiiif 
parties, on giving one yearns notice to the other, may demand a re- 
vision on or after July 1, 1872, with a view to the insertioii of tndi 
amendments as experience shall prove to be desirable.* 


I ooDtlitioiu fatntelf. Ileiice tlie deadlock in 
vladi, tooner or bier, negotiations have always 
Uwme involvwl. For my own part I do not sliarc 
the fadings of eitlicr of ihose »diool» between whom 
I<ublic opLmoI^ as n^prcseutcd in books and iwwu- 
luptn about Jiipaii, seems to be divided — namely, 
ilio«e,on tLe one hand, the sentimentai side of whose 
uiure, inflamed, if they are Japanese, by patriotism, 
if ih«y are foreij^uers, by contact with an enffaging 
fw-lile and a pretty country, revolt* against what 
ilwy dtwribe as a ^nrat national wroiig, whereby 
Japan has been ehealeil out of her birthright, and is 
U-jng kept in perpetual exile in the tenia of Edom; 
I r. .Ill tlu' ollur !i;uid. tliose whn aryiic for tlm 
iirict Icller of the treaties ad fftermim, and decline 
to m:ike the smallest concession to the vast clianjie 
that forty years liave effected in the status of modern 
Japan. The former attitude is adopted — naturally 
(^nou;.'h — by Japanese writers ; foolishly, as it seems 
•.o me, by the majority of English and American 
ti'iirists in Japan, who, without an inkling of what is 
^■oinf.' on behind the scenes, or of tlie labours of those 
»bom they condemn, pronounce e.c catfu'Ji-'t upon 
X ^iiuation of which they really know as little as, 
for example, they may do of the difli-Tenee Ijctween 
old and modern lai.(iuer. The second or ultra-Con- 
6*rnative attitude is taken up by many of tlie mer- 
chant class ill the Treaty Forts, who, for perfectly 
honourable but selfish reasons, would like to main- 
lain ihe slal>i.-i quo as long as they can. As a matter 
of facl, there ia quite sufficient justice on both sides 


of the controversy to admit of temperate discussion 
and of amicable agreement ; and the energies of the 
true friends of Japan should be directed to mini- 
mising the points of friction and broadening the 
basis of possible compromise, instead of sharpening 
their blades for a further barren encounter. 

With approximate fairness the two cases may be 
thus stated. Japan demands Judicial autonomy and 
Tiie case ^he dcmauds Tariff autonomy, from both of 
of Japan -^j^j^ii, as already explained, she is excluded 
by the Treaties. She demands the former, because it 
is derogatory to the dignity of a civilised Power to 
have alien courts of justice sitting within her terri- 
tories, and because she claims to have acquired a 
jurisprudence based upon the best European models. 
She demands the latter, because she is precluded at 
present from utilising her imports and exports, except 
upon certain narrowly prescribed lines, as an expand- 
ing source of Imperial revenue. Upon her imports 
she only makes an average of about 4^ per cent, in 
customs, and is compelled in consequence to fix her 
export duties at a higher figure than she would wish. 
She desires to raise the former with a view to reducing 
the latter, and the Land-tax in addition. Extra-terri- 
toriality being abolished, the foreign settlements and 
municipalities would lose their present character and 
would, so to speak, ' fall in ' to the Japanese Groveni- 
ment, which would probably issue new leases for the 
land held l)y foreigners therein, similar to the leases 
held by Japanese. If she can get these main conces- 
sions (she would, of course, like a few more thrown 



ini J^an luu hitberin been prepared to open the 
latire couuir)- to foreigners to-inorniw. Phe takes 
I h*r iiand, ilierefore, i-'noriiig the present Tr<-*ali«s, 
Bpin the Ui\v\ facts uf her attained positiun and pros- 
Ii{r^ awl upon an appeal to the unligbtened s}'iii- 
inlliie« of foreign nations. 

Tlie merrhanlx, on the other hand, r()r whom tlit- 

I'ltwBrt, through their miriif^ters, are the offK^iaJ 

■^«— epokeauten, are not particdlarly keen aI»out 

''*» the opening up of the countr*-, in which they 

do tM>t «.« the pruApect of great mercantile advan- 

tag» 10 themMlveft ; iheyare averne to the conditioiu! 

} oadrr which iherhohl land in the settlements (as th(f 

r-siiU or .1 ro\>'n:iiil willi tlit- J;ipriiiiSf (Jnvcrnmctit i 

fn-irifT altered or assimilated to native custom Avithout 

their fonseril ; and they are genuinely alarmed at the 

Iini|K>sed almlition of Consular jurisdiction and the 

ytilement (»f all rases, in which they may he coucei-ned 

as liii;jants, in Japanese courts and before Japanese 

JLui;;i-s. They point to the admitted facts that the 

rt-^frganised courts have not been long established, 

and that the IJench, though occupied by Japanese 

wtiH have Ih-i-u parlially educated in Western Univer- 

-i-ic*. lacks alike the Iraditii>u and the disliuctii>ii of 

Kari»iH-aii judiciaries. They i.oriteiul that niiscania'je 

<-f jii?.tice wuuld result, in the main from the igiio- 

riiice. f^imetimes. perhaps, from the prejudici-, of 

i.ative judges. Tliey fear the risk and complexity of 

Jlr'■■t■^s^•sIH■f^■^e a St range court in a strange language; 

a:.d they resent the [K>ssible subjection of tluir lives 

and homes to the domiciliary visits of native police- 


66 JAPAir 

men. Moreover, they have a very well-founded dis- 
trust, not merely of the administration of Japanese 
law, but of the law itself, particularly in such points 
as the law of evidence and the law of contract, which 
are interpreted in Japan in a manner little in har- 
mony with European ideas. Finally they can point in 
support of their alarms to the constant diplomatic 
troubles arising out of * miscarriage of justice ' in the 
small independent States of the New World. Some of 
their papers publish very wild and silly articles about 
the inherent incapacity of the Japanese for the exer- 
cise, of judicial authority of any kind; although I 
suspect that many of the British merchants who may 
be involved as litigants in the courts of the petty 
South American Eepublics would not so very greatly 
object to a change of venue to the courts of modern 
Japan, liut though these more extravagant diatribes 
may be disregarded, there is undoubtedly a solid 
substratum of truth in the apprehensions of the 
foreign trading community, and any attempt to pre- 
cipitate too hasty a solution might involve tlie 
Japanese Government itself in difficulties which it 
had not contemplated. 

In what quarter, then, does the solution lie? 
The answer will Ije found in a brief examination of 
Previous ^'^^ various proposals for Treaty Revision that 
nt rIJI^J-^ have so far l)een made by Japanese states- 
inouyJ,*""^ iii<-'ii to the foreign representatives, or n<r 
versa. Their history has been one of un- 
broken disappointment and failure ; but it has also 
been marked by certain signs of progressive develop- 



ment wliich may lend guitlaiicf! to Hlatt^siiutri at the 
preoenl ftLape- Three times in tliu last twelvG years 
hare Japanese Foreign Ministers made overtures to 
ibe Treaty Powers. The first of these wils Count 
Inouvtf, the present Minister for Home Affaiia, who, 
in 18$2, uriginally supfiesled the ultimate aIx>lition of 
Cocualmr jorisdiclion and the ad interim diitrussinn of 
temu. A preliniinar}' conference wa« suiiimoncd in 
15S2, and memoranda, prepared by the Drilish and the 
Japanese (iovemment*, were auocessively sul)niilted. 
The negotiations continued till, in 1S8G, the actual 
coafen-nce of all the Treaty Powers n\et in Tokio, 
when a definite scheme, initiated by the Uritlsh and 
German Governments was propounded, and passed 
thniuph many of the preliminary stapes both of 
exaniinaiion and acceptance. There were to be a 
larpe nurol)er of forei<m judges on the Japanese 
bench, the cojiditions of whose appointment and re- 
moval evoked much hostile criticism in the native 
Press Tlie ])roraised codes and future amendments 
therein were to l>e submitted to the Foreign Powers — 
an ad<Iitional source of national irritation. It was not 
■urprisiiip lliat upon these points the negolialions at 
length broke down in 18S7, although it is to be 
r^^Tetted that the opportunity was lost of ifTccting 
a ^eiihment on conditions even a contracted edition 
of wliicli would have been far more favourable to 
the !-frtipli« (if fureigners than any future trtaty is 
i,ow likely lo Ik-. 

riidt-t.-rrt-d by tiie failure of bis predecessor. 
Count Okuma resumed negotiations in 18<^8 : but, 


having learned by experience the mistake of dealing 
with a Eound Table at which the representatives 
Count of eighteen nations, with conflicting interests, 
1888^89 were seated in conclave, he approached 
the Powers individually, offering, in place of an 
elaborate scheme of courts with foreign judges, the 
presence of a majority of foreign assessors in the 
Supreme Court in cases where foreigners were con- 
cerned, A space of three years was to elapse be- 
tween the promulgation of the promised codes and 
the final abolition of Consular jurisdiction. Upon 
these lines the United States, Germany, and Eussia 
had already signed treaties ; and Great Britain, the 
vast preponderance of whose commercial interests 
in Japan renders her in every case the arbiter of the 
situation, was within measurable distance of the 
same end, the nature and extent of the securities to 
be given for the administration of justice to foreigners 
being one of the few points still undetermined, when, 
public opinion having been already gravely excited 
in Japan at the proposed appointment of alien judges, 
and being further inflamed by the promulgation of 
the new Parliamentary Constitution and the impend- 
ing elections for the first Diet, an attempt was made 
with a dynamite bomb upon the life of Count Okuma 
in October 1889. The statesman escaped, though 
seriously mutilated. The would-be assassin killed 
himself. But his ulterior object had already been 
gained, for, at the very Cabinet Council in leaving 
which the bomb was thrown at Count Okuma, a 
decision had been arrived at, on the advice of Count 


YsDUgmta, who had just returned from a sperial 
miMion to Europe, to suspend negotiatioiu. Oticu 
more, accordiiigljr, was Treaty Revision dropped 
like a hot «ial from tht* baffled fingers of the pleni- 
potentiaries at Tokio. Xor could this renewed failure 
l»e Tairly sti down t»i rowardic-e, seeing that public 
sentiment, thou|.'h not behind tht- a!is»)sin, was in 
open sjTiipathy with the motives that had actuated 
him to a deed which was the more significant that 
it by no means standi alone in the aiinald of modern 

Since thnl tlale the opening of the Japanese Diet, 
and the rapid prowth ImiiIi of national self- respect and 
v.v^wDi *>^ ill-iuarelialltd but jjowtii'ul publi<; upiiiiou 
*' '■"*''* which it has produced, have not combined 
In render a s<-'ttlement more easy, while they liave 
provided Japanese statesmen with an armoury of 
dffensive pleas which a purely irresponsible Oovern- 
nienl i-ould not previously employ, Xevertheless, 
Viscount Aoki, Foreigu Minister in the succeeding 
(tovennnent, gallantly re-entered the lists in 1S90 ; 
and it is understood that his overtures, which were 
naturally direried in the first place to the removal of 
tht- lingering vestiges of British opixisition, were met 
in the un»st favourable spirit by the administration 
of lijrd i?alisbnry ; and that it has since only rested 
with the Japanese Government itself, by the fulfd- 
iii»-nt of conditions which it has more tlian once 
adnillied to be reasonable, to enter ui>oii the fruition 
• if tlu- h»ng struggle for complete national autonomy 
whose successive stages I have described. 



What must be the leading features of any such 

solution will be manifest from what has already been 

Bases of ^aid. lu the first place, the full text of the 
Bettiement ^^^ j^.^ q-^-j ^^^ Commercial Codes under 

which it is proposed that foreigners shall in future 
reside and conduct their business, must be promul- 
gated, translated, and put into satisfactory opera- 
tion. No nation can with justice call upon the 
subjects of another, even within its own territories, 
to exchange a position of judicial security, esta- 
blished by treaty and ratified by long and successful 
experience, for the dubious protection of an inchoate, 
an imperfect, or an ill-comprehended body of law. 
Secondly, a period must elapse in which the new 
codes thus promulgated shall be tested by practical 
operation, the judges becoming accustomed to the 
exposition of rules which involve in many cases a 
complete revolution in Japanese customary law, and 
the new law itself acquiring public respect by pure 
and consistent interpretation. Not until after such 
a probationary period can foreigners reasonably be 
expected to yield to the Japanese demand for com- 
plete judicial autonomy.^ Thirdly, these conditions 

^ Tho problem that has ahready arisen in Japan was anticipated 
by Sir Harry Parkes in his Treaty with Korea, where it is hardly 
likely ever to arise ; for a protocol to the Treaty (which was signed 
November 20, 1883) contains these words : — * It is hereby declared 
that tlie right of extra-territorial jurisdiction over British subjects in 
Korea, granted by this treaty, shall be relinquished when, in the 
judgment of the British Government, the laws and legal procednre of 
Korea shall have been so far mtKlified and reformed as to remove 
the objections which now exist to British subjects being placed under 
Korcim jurisdiction, and Korean judges shall have attained similftr 
legal qualifications and a similar independent position to those of 
British judges/ 


lariiig betm reaHswl, ihc final abandonment of estra- 
enitoml jurisdiction may fitly be made to syn- 
rlironiw with ihe entire opciiinj,' up of the country. 
>Iier point* may well become the subject of diplo- 
natic ponrparUn and of intermediate agreement. 
-iich, for itutance, are an ad itiUrim extension of the 
f»re«ent pawport sptem in return for a revision of 
Lh« Urifl*: aiid the novel l)Ut intelligible Japaiiettc 
lemaml, nf which I idiall presently speak, that 
MffignerB shnll not be allowed to own real property 
T lo buy ftliarea in Japanese banks, railways, or 
ihipptng ronpanieft. 

Ther? are a multitnde of obstacles, however, that 
■i-tpiire to be overcome before any such settlement 
■-,!.-« can be arrived at. The first of these is the 
■^" Parliamentary position of the Codes them- 
.-Ive«. Though the process of Japanese judicial 
■'-fiirin has been conducted with commendable rapid- 
ly, the goal of even approximate finality is yet far 
Ii*tant. It was in IST2 that the moderTi Judicial 
v«iem was first organised and courts and judges 
■'tabiinhf'd ; l>oth being sulijected to a thorough rc- 
■r^'arii-aiion in ISOn. In tlie interval llie Codes 
.:ive oin' by one tK-en evolved. The Criminal Code 
* MS prnnmlgaled in ISSO, and has now for some tinu- 
- -ri in o[)eralion. The C'oiles of Criminal and Civi 
■r'-'fliin* were promulgated at the same time, and 
.fit- into opfHition in IK'.'O. As regards the Civil 
ivA '.immercial ('(kIcs, however, the situation id l<->s When I was in Japan in 1S02 the Cmu- 
:;.-rcial Code had already l>een promulgated, but 


I « 


not yet translated; and the date of its operatic 
originally fixed for January 1, 1890, stood postpon( 
till January' 1, 1893. Those portions of the incoi 
plete Civil Code that had been published stood sin 
larly postponed. In the Session of the Diet of 189 
however, the drift of popular opinion was clear 
indicated by the passing with much enthusiasm I 
both Houses of a bill, introduced by a private men 
ber, for further postponing the operation of hot 
iodes till December 1896, in order to submit thei 
in Japanese interests to a thorough overhauling, 
was with little effect that Viscount Enomoto, the 
Minister for Foreign Affairs, pointed out the intimai 
connection between the Codes and the subject ( 
Treaty Ee vision, and urged the Chamber not one 
more to slam the door in the face of those who ha 
at length shown such a temperate willingness t 
opt'u it. Conservative alarm at the innovations ii 
t reduced by the new Codes, particularly in the la 
of inheritance and in other matters affecting famil 
life, and at the subversion of the immemorial religioi 
traditions of the country, joined hands with tl 
Radical aspirations of Young Japan to settle tl 
question of Treaties, not as the Powers like, but ujk 
her own terms and on a footing of absolute equalit; 
and the bill was carried by majorities of more th; 
two to one in both Chambers. 

This bill had not received either the assent 
v(4o of the Emperor when Count Ito's Cabinet w 
formed, and much speculation was indulged in as 
the advice which he would «iive to the Sovereifl 


Jis it tamed oat, tlie postpunement was accepted by 
the Ooremment on tlie ground that the Codes siood 
ftrthif greally in newl of amendment, but with a 
•»>* prortso that such parts of tbrm at> were 

Amended to the satiafartion of a Special Commissiotl 
^pointed for the purpose and of the Diet, might 
come into operation at any time. Subsequently, 
early in 1SD3, a large portion of the Comniereial 
Code-, dealin;]; with the law of partnersliip and com- 
panies, of bills of fxi'hange, promissory notes, and 
checiues, and with tht; taw uf hanking, was passed, 
atid cxaie into force in July ]8t)S. It will be seen, 
therefore, that the Codes are only fiUm-Iy, and by 
piecemeal, coming into operation, and that the test of 
the practical working of the entire revised law is one 
wbost' possible application still lies in tlie future. 

In the same Session (February 1893) the attitude 
of the Lower House on the whole question of Treaty 
jjjj,._^ Kevision was shown by an address to the 
Tv)!« ID Tlirone, which, after being debated in secret 
'"^ session, was voted by 13d to \'1\. It con- 

tained these words, which are significant as showing 
not ihf wJMloni, I)Ut the temper, of the Assembly: — 

■ Th'- niiHiir Treaties remain imreviswi. Tlifcoii^cijnciice 
1- tiiat our juri-s-'lictioii tK>e8 not estend to lureigiii'i-s living 
Bitbiii our liorders, nor do we possess tariff autonomy. No 
tr>-»pasi*rs on (^tir national riphts can be fireater than lliese ; 
kiwi wht-nev.T onr thouiyfhtt dwell iiptm tlie Enhject we are 
cn-'rainwl to bitter regrets, llie exen'i>e of tin- extni- 
crrit-rial i^Tslein enables fnn-igners to cljey only their own 
!.i"- and I" lie subjected to iheir own judieiaiy within the 
trrrit«ri« of this Empire. Yet we, in their countries, are 


compelled to obey their laws and submit to their jurisdiction. 
Further, the restrictions imposed in respect of customs tariff 
disable us from exercising our natural right to tax imported 
goods, whereas foreign countries impose heavy duties on 
goods exported by us. Thus our judicial and fiscal rights 
being alike impaired, foreigners are enabled to behave in an 
arbitrary manner. The result must be that our commerce 
and industries will daily deteriorate, that the national wealth 
will decrease, and that in the end there will be no means of 
recuperating our resources.* The fault of concluding such 
treaties must be attributed to the fact that the people of 
your Majesty's realm, both high and low, were basking in 
tranquillity and peace,^ and, as the country had been isolated 
for a long time, the Ministers of State were entirely ignorant 
of foreign conditions. . . . The right of concluding treaties 
belongs to the prerogatives of your Majesty ; and we, yoar 
^lajesty's servants, are not permitted to interfere with it. 
But since your Majesty has made oath to the gods in heaven 
above and in the earth beneath, to manage all the affairs of 
the nation and to administer the Empire in accordance with 
popular opinion, we, your Majesty's servants, representing 
the Lower House of the Diet and the opinion of the people 
of the realm, may be permitted humbly to express our 
opinions. They are : — Firstly, that the extra-territorial 
system be abolished ; secondly, that the Empire's tariff 
autonomy be recovered ; thirdly, that the privilege of taking 
part in the coasting trade be reserved ; and, fourthly, that 
all foreign interference in our domestic administration be 

Piicli then is the attitude of the Popular Chamber. 
But a far more serious obstacle to successful negotia- 
tion consists in the ill-digested but formidable bodv of 
public opinion that has since then been called into 

^ Of course this is quite fantastic, the Treaties havinf^ so far had 
a precisely opposite effect, in builtling up the commercial prosperity 
and wealth of modern Japan. 

^ Equally absurd and untrue. 


exMtfloce aiul organised throujihout Ilie ciiiinrrr by 
ihe rKirlioiiar)' party, ami which threalens by the 
^.^ irruiionnl extmvagaiice of its demands to 

n.'Tfcai ruin the prospects of Treaty Revision alto- 
*•****" gether. Although it must be obvious that 
Revision can only rt'sult from mutual cuuression^, 
Js{>an recovering her judicial and tariff auloimmy at 
ibe price of frwly o]»ening the countrj- lo foreifniers, 
■a nuut-iatioti ntiined the Orcat Japan Union was 
■larted in 1802. and, until its suppression at the end 
of ISdS. coaducted a furious a^tation against what 
ii called Mixed Residence in any form in the inte- 
rior. In oiher wonls. foreigners are to surrender pverr- 
thinp now guarantee<l to them by the Treaties, but to 
pet nothing whatever in return. In the settlements 
they are to be subject to Japanese laws and jurisdic- 
tion, while outside their borders they are not to be 
permitted to live or move or have their being. A 
milder party exists which proposes to sanction mixed 
residence in all other parts of the country except 
Yezo (the Northern Island) and certain other specified 
i-lands ; but this compromise, which is quite illogical 
Eiiil indefensible in itself, does not satisfy the patriots 
■ ■f ihe Great Japan Union, who are l>ciit npim 
mskiiip their country and cause ridiculous in the 
face of mankind. For, on the one hand, their njjita- 
tion, which is based upon an unreasoning dread of 
f"r"?i;ni competition, involves a confession of woak- 
ri'-ss in ludicr<)us contrast to the vanity by which its 
authors are inspired. Secondly, it shows a com- 
plete ignorance of and indifference towards all 


that foreigners have done for Japan under the 
Treaties, in creating its trade, in teaching it the 
secrets of manufacture and industry, in converting 
swampy hamlets or fishing villages into magnificent 
and flourishing towns, in pouring daily wages into 
Japanese pockets, and in leaving the lion's share of 
the profits of commerce in Japanese hands. Thirdly, 
it proposes to deprive foreigners of the verj^ privileges 
which in the dominions of their respective govern- 
ments the Japanese already enjoy. Fourthly, it is 
inconsistent with the example set by Japan herself, 
when, in order to acquire a convenient precedent for 
Treaty relationship with a foreign State without 
extra-territorial jurisdiction, she concluded, in 1888- 
9, a treaty with Mexico (although there are no 
Mexican subjects in Japan), conceding the privilege 
of Mixed Eesidence without any restrictions,^ and 
containing also a most favoured nation clause, ex- 
tending the same privileges to any nation willing to 
accept the same conditions. Finally, this policy is 
one of midsummer madness, since its only effect can 
be to stiffen the backs of the Treaty Powers (whose 
•subjects it is proposed to subject to this puerile in- 
equality), and so to postpone Eevision to the Greek 
Kalends. A certain section of the extreme party is, 
however, so well aware of this that they would pro- 

^ Article IV. of the Treaty f::ranted to the Mexicans ' the privilege 
of comiii*,', remaininji:, and residhig in all parts of Japanese territorie? 
and possessic^ns, of there liirinj^ and occupying houses and wiire- 
houses, of there trading by wholesale and retail in all kinds of products, 
manufjictures, and merchandise of lawful commerce, and, finally, of 
there engaging and pursuing all other lawful occupations.* 


pOie to ieize the opportiinily thus deliberately manii- 
turtured, in order to repudiuto the Treaties altogether, 
ignuriiig the iguoiuiny that would attach to their 
oouatry if ahe started upon her independent career 
with the brand of repudiation upon her brow, as 
well AS the humiliating r^ulu of & |irobablo naval 
demoDBtraiioD of the Foreign Powers who ha<i been 
•o rashly insulted. 

It should be added that the Mixed Kcsid«m:e 
question is Muncwhnt compHeuted by the in<:UiMion 
T w among the Treaty Powers of Japan's most 

^■■* "" formidalrle industrial rival, Cliina. Were 
the privileges of free resideuce and trade in the 
interior extended without reserve to the frugal and 
laborious subjects of tlie Celestial Empire, there 
might lie some ground for alarm on the part of 
Japan at the competition of so powerful an an- 
tagonist.' Such considerations, however, apply to 
the subjects of no other Power; and can probably 
be met by the policy of approaching the different 
I'owers separately, and negotiating with them upon 
independent though parallel bases. 

A further agitation has sprung up against the 
ownership by foreigners, as a condition or <-onse- 
4C01.MI quence of Treaty Revision, of real or personal 
ir-fm projierty outside the pale of the settlements. 
■*frBf.^j The forms of investment commonly specified 
under this would-be prohibition are lands, mines, 

■ Thfre MT at i.nfwnt in the Tretty Ports of Jnimn. « lipre nloii* 
•J>vT SIT prniiilt«<l \o rciiile, 4.500 male and l.OM ftiiiiklv L'liiucsv, or 
Mmm-btiha of ttM eolira foreign popul«tion. 



railways, canals, waterworks, docks, and shares. 
This particular outcome of native susceptibilities is 
due to a not unfounded alarm that the superior 
wealth of foreigners might enable them, unless care- 
fully guarded by law, to acquire a commanding hold 
upon the national resources, and that Japan might 
some day find herself in the disastrous position of an 
Asiatic Peru. It is also possible that in the first 
instance there might be some danger in the specu- 
lative rush of foreign capital for a new form of 
investment ; although, in the long run, natives would 
enjoy an advantage with which no foreigner could 
compete. Means ought to be found, however, 
without great diflSiculty of reconciling these appre- 
hensions with the reasonable demands of foreign 
residents possessing a large stake in the fortunes of 
the country, and capable of rendering it increased 
service in the future. 

The prohibition of the coasting trade to foreigners 
is another of the conditions that have been sufffjested 


other ^y ^^^^ alarms of the new school that com- 
demands ^^j^es, iu sucli cqual proportions, timidity 
with bravado. In the event of their extreme 
demands not being conceded, and of the Goveni- 
ment continuing to slirink, as it must do, from a 
policy of repudiation, they further propose a warfare 
of petty revenge upon the subjects of the recalcitrant 
Powers, which is to take the form of a refusal of 
passports, minute restrictions upon the issue of ganu*- 
licenscs, limitations upon the facilities of railroad and 
steamboat traffic, upon the postal and telegraphic 


Mrrioeif and upon the foreign Press, atul a strict 
enforcement of the existing,' laws as re-farda loiiur« of 
[iniperty and iDtlusLrial invei«tmeiil in the interior, 
which have occasioiialiy been clmlfd by foreigners 
■bfliering thenuelves under Japanese names. 

Thvs« are the main difllicuUies with which the 
path (if Treaty Itevision is beset. Arriinging them 
Ttm^mu side by side and ubeeniDg. on tlie one liand, 
«H* the ignorance and vanity of the extreme 

Beaclionanes in Japan, the preleusions of Lliu Diet, 
the openly avowe<l desire nf the O[i]iosition to 
cmlNUTSMi the Oox'emtnent, and the diflii:iiliy ex- 
perienced br the latter in plving any cnrli upon 
public opinion ; on the other hand, the genuine 
alarm of the foreign merchants, the mutual jealousies 
of the various Treaty Powers, and the unfortunate 
fiimity which the postponement of revision is likely 
til .-reate between natives and foreigners; we must 
admit that here is a problem requiring on both sides 
tilt- exercise of great tact and statesmanship. On 
(onie |>oints, such as the ownership of property and, 
j>erhap3, the coasting trade, concessions to Japanese 
M-iitimeiit are clearly possible. But on tlic broad 
(j>n>iions of the Codes and of Mixed IJesidence, no 
f-ulement tliat attempt.s an unnatural or patchwork 
< Miiiprumise i.s fea.sible, or, even if feasible, is Hkely to 
I.-- [M-niianerit ; while to expect foreigners, with the 
1,^-1 will in the world towards Japan, vohintarily lo 
strip tlieniselves of all the safeguards which Treaty 
t-h.-ictments have given tbein, and to liand iht nisclvcs 
o'.er as a corjmn vile for the experiments of Japanese 



Jacobins or neophytes in political economy, is to 
presuppose an innocence on their part to which 
previous history would aflbrd no parallel. Fortu- 
nately neither the leading statesmen of Japan, nor 
the most responsible organs of the native Press, have 
hitherto shown any real sjrmpathy with the Extremists. 
The matter now lies in the hands of the Government, 
since the friendlv attitude of the Powers is well 
known, and since it can no longer be pretended that 
unreasonable scruples or prejudices on their part 
1/iock the way. Already Count Ito is reported to 
have approached the several Governments with 
separate and confidential communications, hoping, 
no doubt, to extract from the complacency or the 
needs of one a concession which shall act as a prece- 
dent for similar terms with the others. Nevertheless 
Great Britain remains, as she has all along been, the 
pivot of the situation — no slight proof of her com- 
mandinir influence on the destinies of distant Asia. If 
the negotiations be conducted between the two Govern- 
ments on the basis of a fair and proportionate ex- 
change, there should be no insurmountable barrier to 
an amicable solution. Bv no Power certainlv would 
Japan be welcomed more cordially into the comity 
of nations, with whom alreadv she shares so manv 
common relationships, than by ourselves, who fill in 
the West the role which she aspires to play in the 
Far Ivast, and whose commerce and enerirv have 
contributed so largely to her own expansion.^ 

* On the very night (July 80, 1894) that these pages leave my 
hands, the British Government has announced the conclusion of a 
Treaty, dealing with Kevision, with Japan. 


• L'Orient ! L'Orient ! qu'y voyez-vous, po^tea ? 
Tournez Ters TOriont vos eaprits et voa yeux ! 
Ht-las '. ont reponda leurs voix longtemps muettee. 
Nous Toyons bien R-baa na jour myst^rienx' 

Victor Hloo, Chants de Cripascuh 



M<^o*tnat thnnnk-Umuiinnuiigl*, 
■ bHAj^pMlu u-anilor itail winil, 
~^n dnixBQt rn-nUl uparkloit. 
fMBBlt IheLr waur-workti pl,v. 
A. H> CwcoB, Jmour* d* Voyofft. 

^K die bett knovm and most visited I pass to tlit* 
■ -1-1 known atiil least visited of the countries of the 
"-'.- Far Jjisl. 'I'hi' name of Korea' is one that 
i* still wiappt-d in so inurh mystery to the 
■ulk (if i"nL'hshini-ii at home, and the phenomena 
hr it pn-senls are at once so interesting,', and, for 
■•■ Weak and ill-dcvt'loped a countr}', so relatively 
'-ilF-Tiant. ihat I can inia^'ine few places appeahnj: 
-I'T..- stron^dy Id tin- traveller's thirst for the novel. 
Til., sptctai-le of a country possessin<r an historical 
*:.n.jviiiy. lontcniporanetnis, as alleged, with that of 
T^fi'-U-? and Hahylon," hut ownin;: tin ruins; boasiing 

. Kor, 

uriginnlly llio 

■ v( th.' 



It Co 


I. ft 

t.r. til 


-.■nch J.M. 



r.. 1 







f ■ Til.- 





i(< niiilofl: 

. l.W 

*.i.. if. 





ion. (.■tiiiif 

Hw KurKuix cLuiii u ihcir Rnt king Ki Jut 
^a CtkinA. uiil fuumlMl t JyiuMty ftt Pjong-iiuig ii 


a separate, if not an independent, national existence 
for centuries, and yet devoid of all external symptoms 
of strength ; retaining latest of all the kingdoms o£ 
the East the title to successful exclusion of the 
foreigner, and yet animated by no real hostility to 
aliens; containing beautiful natural scenery still 
virgin to the traveller's foot ; claiming to have given 
to Japan her letters, her science, her reUgion, and 
her art, and yet bereft of almost all vestiges of these 
herself; inhabited by a people of physical vigour 
but moral inertness; well endowed with resources, 
yet crippled for want of funds — such a spectacle i^ 
one to which I know no counterpart even in Asia, 
the continent of contrasts, and which from a distance 
had long and powerfully affected my imagination. 
A bridge between Japan and China, Korea is never- 
theless profoundly unlike either. It has lackeil the 
virile training of the Feudal System in Japan, and 
the incentives to industry supplied by the crowded 
existence of China. Its indifference to religion has 
left it without the splendid temples that adorn tlu- 
former countrv, without the stubborn self-sufficiencv 
of character developed by Confucianism in the latter. 
Japan swept it clear of all that was beautiful or 
ancient in the famous invasion of Hideyoshi ^or 
Fidejosi, commonly called Taikosama) three centuries 
ago — an affliction from which it has never recovered. 
China's policy has been to keep it in a state of 
tutela<»-e ever since. Ilaced in an unfortunate irei>- 
graphical position midway between the two nationN 
Korea has Ijeen, like Issachar, the strong ass couching 


between two buFdens. Suddenly, at the end of the 
wnweenth century, it wakes up from its long sleep 
lo find tlie alarum of the nations sounding at its 
pia; tbo plenijjotenuarivji of frreat Powers appear 
B its ports to solicit or to demand reciprocal treaties ; 
il enlera the comity of civilised peoples: and, si ill 
Wf UupeHed by its long rejjose, relaxes but slowly 
dtMftth the doubtful rays of Western oiviliaation. 

Id the examination of this country and its people, 
Ik traveller or student has not tlie advantage, open 
tteMM (o him in most other parts of the world, of 
^frt an adequate hterature composed by compe- 
tent writera. Owing to the long and absolute seclu- 
lion of Korea, no foreigners beyond a few heroic 
liuman Catholic missionaries, who, in the latter part 
at any rate of their sojourn, carried their lives in 
their hands, had penetrated into the interior of the 
|M-nin9ula or become domiciled there, anterior to the 
first opening of tlie country twenty years ago.' A 

- Tbr siotcle notnMe exceptiim wan Henilrik Homel, a Dutchiii&n. 
uul ■DpcrcftTgo of the ship ' Spertter,' or ' S]>&iTOW-hii«'k.' who was 
rrrrkHl. with thirt_i>livo of the rrew (iiichiJing a Scotchman. John 
Koakrt'. Dpon the islnnJ of Qtielpart, while iimkitiR fur the Dutch 
W-u*:. U Nw.-«ski. in 1653. Thiy were conveve>i to in I6.-i4. 
u,i srrr iuiprixiiKil i[i ilifTereiit parts of the country till U'AVi. when 
I fr« ef the ciiriivurs siirceeiletl ill tnakinR their escnpe by m-ii to lhi> 
AilcA (if (jiiti). anil thence to .Tnpan. Hniiiel wnite an aci-ount of 
Lh'if tipfrirnce*. which was tiret piibliKhe<l in ItiOt'. at H.^tterdiiiii. 
ufl «u ibtn lran«late<l into French ami Kncliith. ami itirhiiled in 
\iitieV.. Cinkerton-.. ami nnirchil|-« Collecliorw ,if Vo>ii^',-. For a 
,.,aic timr doubt vat rant ll|ion its aulhenlicily : but. thoiij^h the 
lutlior «&■ a man of no great eiliiration, ami niicht liiive tobl ns 
ruurh nxYr. his nan-alive, aiich an it i«. has been amply I'linlirniiil by 
lau-r kofwledije. ami i* liiichly interestins- It i^ ctiriuiLi' iimX. uben 
Hanvli party mm wrecke*!. there was alremly in Soiil unotlier 
Itutduoan. Jan JaniMiti Wellenreo, who, witli two of his fellow- 


Fr^i:eh coTT^pilarioa by Pere Dallet, in whose hands 
verr plic€d the materials thus acquired, appeared in 
1S74, arid has almost ever since provided the sub- 
s:az:v>e of Earopean knowledge about Korea, of whose 
pecpl-e, and institutions, and life, it presents a minute 
anvl absorbing picture : * although, being based upon 
d'LVjiriierLTs extending over the previous half-century, 
:: relates :o a time and describes customs which have 
r.ow passed out of recollection or have ceased to 
prvrvail; whilst, being compiled by a writer who 
had r.o: hin^seb' set foot in Korea, it lacks the advan- 
taiie of arst-hand editorial revision. Since 187G. 
:he da:e of the first Treatv, the two most useful works 
vn the country have also been the productions of 
authors who had never set foot within its borders. 
'T::e Hermit Nation/ bv Mr. W. E. Griffis, an Ame- 
rioan, is a soliolarly compilation of its past histon'i 
mainly from Japanese sources, and a careful, thoujrli 
frequently obsolete description of its hal)its and cu^- 
toms. The other work, bv a Scotch Presbyterian 
missionary, liev. J. Eoss, wlio lived long at ^'e^^' 
chwaniT. is also in the main historical. The narratives 
oi the few foreign travellers who have explored the 

countrymen. h:ul been kept prisoners by the Koreans since 1<>^'' 
when they had ha^n sent ashore from the * Jacht Ondekerke/ to tt^ 
wator ami provisions. Not even these, however, were the tir*^ 
Europeans to set iooX in Korea. This distinction belongs to a Porto- 
gue?Ne Jesuit, Gregorio de Cespetles, who was sent over by Hideyoshu 
in 15114, as chaphiin to his second expedition against Korea, ^hich 
was connnanded by a Japanese Christian, Dom Augiistin Konishi 
Yukinaga, and contained many Christians in its ranks. The only 
rehcK of the Dutch captives that have, so far, been discovered were 
two l)utch vessels, unearthed at Soul in 1886. 

' Hiatoirc dc VE(jUs€ dc Cone. 2 vols. Paris : 1874. 

Ur£ 4Si> THAVSl IN KOREA 87 

country iiitm its openitig ore as a rule scattered iii 
iJ»e jaarails of Geographical Societies, in Govern- 
loent reports, or in publications neither easily 
accessible nor generally known, fiy far the moat 
meriLoriouB of these, and, within a narrow space, the 
ncHt rivid and arciimte account of Korean life and 
cltaracter that I have seen, la a report written by }Ax. 
C. W. Campbell, of the Uritish Consular Service, and 
printed as a rarliameniary paper in IS'Jl.' Tim 
earlier work by one of his predecessors, Mr. W. ii. 
CarW, contains rouch iatcresting inforniatioa, but is 
on the whole disappointing.* Much more so is the 
riupaodical production of an American writer, Mr. 

Tlie foreign visitor to Korea will naturally first 
bud ii[K>n il."i chores at one of the three Treaty rorls 
Ti-Tr«ij '*^ Fusan, Gensan, and Chemulpo. As I 
visited and stayed at eacli of these, I may ap- 
ptiii! a paragraph upon their characteristics. Fusan 
'' upon ihe south-east, opposite to and within 
■i;.'K[ of the Japanese islands of Tsushima (Tlie Twins). 
''|'ii.iti is ujKin the east coast, about half-way between 
^'i^iJi and Vladivostok- Oiemulpo is upon ihe 
*«I coast, and is the port of the capital. Soul. A 
i.Tea!ir variation can hardly be imagined than 
■••tWK-n the ea.steni and western shores of the 
fiiinsida. Tlie former are mountainous, the spurs 
"f ihe Korean A[>enriines reaching d»iwn in many 
\'h<-'-i to the water's edge, and are pierced by a few 

'l,in«. N... -i. ilH-Jl.) 
L,i, ,n Korta. Ijtmion : IWW. 
■ CA,*,,., Thf Land f/ Ihr Morning Calm. Lomloii : IWW. 

fine harbours, in whicU there is but a weak tide, and 
which are open all the year round. On the west 
coast which is laved bj' the Yellow Sea of Diina. 
there are, on the contrary, only shallow and tortuous 
inlets, shielded by an archipelago of islands, and 
either filled or bared by a tide that rises from 25 to 
40 feet, and is frequently frozen in winter. 


TIk" li.-irboiirs of Fusaii and Gensaii are alike in 
huu\<: situated at the botlom of dee]i and shelttTfil 
1ms, wliieli could provide aneliorajre for 
inuneii.'ie armadas, and whieh are visited by ;t 
yearly increasinj/ mere:mtile uiarine, fiyinir tlic Japan- 
ese, the Chinese, and the llussian flags. Fusaii.' as 

s lli.-.l>i|uiirR.-. I'li^imllio Ko 

iitliiio of the knoll iij. :. 


the port netrest lo Japan, has retained for cf^nturtes 
m more than Dominal connectiou wiiti tlie neigliltour- 
ing Power, luiving Ijeen from early times a fief of 
the dainiio or lord of Tsushima,' until, in 1S76, it 
became a trading port constituted by treaty between 
the two Powers. A tinurishing Japanese community 
ouDLainin^j; over 5.000 Japanese subjects (exclusive 
of a floating population of 6,000 Japanese fishermen) 
is the modem heir of the former mditary and trading 
colour, and Is settled round the base of a knoll, 
crowned with a dump of crj-plojnerias — an obuous 
importatioD from over the sea — and with two dilapi- 
dated Japanese temples, just opposite to the large 
hilly bhtnd called by the Europeans Deer Island, 
which shelters the southern side of the bay.' A 
Ultle to the north of this town is a new Chinese 
setllemeut. the latter people having recently broken 
gfouiul iu Fusaii, though hiiudlcapiH'd as yet by the 

* II «iM in tlw yw*e H4S tlut. h; kn avrMtuicat U-twvL-n llie 
ftte(»«(1^Bliitiia u»l tli4i VttierX of Ti>ii>;iiiti <uear Fiiiuini. th» tint 

•lartinff far lbs Shogun's court mt Kaiuokiira. and there also loililtMl 
Ihe two nic-cfMive inTading anuies of HUleyoRhi, m i:.'J-2 and IfiOtt. 
KipTi mtlTT the eTU-ualiiui of the counlrj' hy llit- Japnnesc. il remained 
Lit thrir handH, a curison of 800 men lieiiie [lerluAncntly ijiuirti'ied 
ihnt- behind ■ uliM-kade, the anl,v Japaneiti- ci>l»ny in tlie vorlil : nnlil. 
mflfr ll>« Uevoliitiiin in IbfiH, it pa^txeil. with the other fcniUI {iroiHr- 
lira of JapMi. into (he handn of the Mikado. Iih formal ii|<('niriu »■< 
a Tr»«lT I'ort in IWTG was a recopiitioii of ihc resiniijm.m of Kunnn 
ovncraliip, aJthoaub the Japuiete wtlleni^nt. for wbirli n iioininiil 
bfailrvnt of Jf.'iOi* iiupiM>««il to be paid, remiiiiis iiniplicnllv n JBiiani-.i> 
pf n nin. being adiuiniiitervd by the Japanene I'oniinl. ami ii inniii- 
-.p.] c.nnr.1. 

' TTm- Kxrpanii rail ihin iiland Tetsiive. the Isle of Kni'hniiliii« 
V„ii. (,r Maki. the l»le of Urcen r»Btnr«'9 ilM>cnuso il ivns iniru.larrjt. or 
a bone rearing pUcel. 


superior start and numbers of their rivals. North- 
ward again ^s the original Japanese settlement, 
known as Kuk-wan ; while a little beyond hes the 
Korean town surrounded by a stone wall and possess- 
ing (he ruins of a castle, outside whose gates are a 
squalid native hamlet and bazaar. The background 
is formed bv wild and desolate hills, with a thin fringe 

of firs bristling on the skyline, and bright red terraces 
uf cultivated soil below. 

Gensan ' is situated in the southern hollow of the 
reniarkabk' inlet in the eastern coast, called, from 
tht> IJritisli navigator who first surveyed it in 1707, 

' Gcnsnn is llic .Inpniipse, Ytiprisim the Chinese, ami ^VollRan llie 
lioreiiii ^eraiim of llie iinuie ; tlie tlitTvrence arising fruin llie ilifTercnt 
pruiiiuiciation by the tlii-po iienjilos of the sniiie ChiiieEo ideogmi'hf. 



Brooghton Bay.' A dt:cper, and even litier indentation 
oC the some bay, efaeltered by X\\*i XaklmoS' ponin- 
^ lolo, ia the well-known I'ort Lazarefi", first 

surveyed and named by the Hussiaiis in ] 854, 
and ever iince regarded by that people, from ihcir 
ice-bound c^uarters at \ladivoetok,- with a more than 
m^-ioui eye. Tlie entire l«iy h fourieeii miles in 
length, from two to six in width, and }uu> u deptli of 
frum nx to twelve fathoms. Seawards ita eulraiici; 
is masked by an archtpela^ of islets. As we steam 
up the bay, the Japanese settlement founded in 
1879* Asd DOW coDlainiug over 700 colonists, may 
be aeen dnstered at the base of n hill upon the 
right. Some mile and n half to the south, and a little 
way inland, a cloud of gniokc indicates tike situation 
of the native lowu, which contain!* 18,000 inha- 
bitant*. Wooded hills frame a picturewjue bark- 
groond, and vapour-caps hide the mouniains iulond. 
A Ins vigorous trade is here conducted by both 
JapUteM- and C'hitiese (the latti-r having only recently 
entered tlic fii-ldl "■il!i thf nnrtln/ni jin.iviiicfs. X\w 
popalous towns in which are more easily reached 
fntiii ihe western coast, and will ultimately be more 
naturally sen'ed from the river-port of Pyong-yaiij.' 
ur ring-yeii^l, xs soon as the latter is opened lo commerce, or as tlic Korean coaslinj^ marine 
U-nimt-s equal to its sui)ply. 

' \\.U r«i.iniii W. it. llr.m(.'lit<>n'n r-yi.'/r p/ /fi.rni-crt/ ^. Ihr 
Srth I'aeific Ocean. I^ndi.ii : lt*04. 

' I>uri[it; iht' liut vc&r. INUU. sn ntlcni]!! uns iiiaili' ivitli a Ktonin 
.;• rrruhvr lo kti-p the linrbimr uf Vlixliv.mluk 0)><'ti tliu ■k\m\v vear 

tviiuJ : but U aaid to haie resntled in failure. 

Chemulpo* has few natural aptitudes as a port 
beyond its situation on the estuarj' of the southern 
branch of the river Han, or Han-kiang, upon 
which stands the Korean capital, and its 
consequent proximity to the main centre of popu- 
lation. The river journey is fifty-four miles in length 
to Mapu, the landing-place for Soul, which hes three 

miles farther on. The land-march to Soul is an un- 
inviting stretch of twenty-six miles. In 1883, when 
Chemulpo was first opened to foreign trade, there 
was only a fishing hamlet with fifteen Korean huls 

' Chemulpo (siKiiifying ■ Vari on s-nrli do s- river- bank ') is the iwuiie 
of the Hettlcment foruiorly known and Bpokcn of in the Treaties, ftviii 
the niiiiie of the nearest iuat;ialracy, five miles away, as Ja|>njie^ 
■Tinnen or NiiiRen, Chinette Jeneliunn, Korean Inchiun or Inchon. 

sigiiifj-ing ' Benevolent slreaius." 


on the Hie, where now may be seen a prosperous 
town contAining over S,000 foreigners, of whom 
2,500 are Japanese, 600 CtuDanicn, and over twenty 
Earopeanft, as well u a tiative populaiiou of about 
eqna] nuniben. There are a Kuropean club, several 
billiard uloous and restaurants, atid some excellent 
Chinese storej*. Tlie outer anchorage is some two 
miles from the skore, for the tide runs out here for 
miles (with a riae and fall of liO lo 3U feet), leaving 
an exposed wanie of mud-flaif and a narrow chaunol, 
in which steamers of light draught rest upon the 
<io«. The busy streets and harbour are indications 
of a rapidly advancing trade, which promises further 
expansion in the near future. 

The first glimpse of the Korean coast, at or near 
any of these ports, which is monnl.'iinoiis, but little 
Tw wooded, and rehiiivelv bare, jiives no idea 

T II I . , 

p««i* of the timbered heights and smiling valleys 

vfaich maybe encountered in the interior; but the 

fint sight of its white-robed people, whose figures, 

if slalir.nary. nii-jlit be iiii.'takcii ;it :i distance fur 

white mileposts or tombstones, if moving, for a 

'olony of swans, acquaints us witli a national type 

and dress that are quite uniijue. A dirty peopk' 

who insist upon dressing in white is a lirst pecn- 

liariiv ; a [K-nple iidialiiting a northern, and in winter 

a ver\' rigorous latitude whu yet insist iipnn wearing 

• ■t-tton (even thongli it be wadded in winter) :dl ilie 

vear round, is a second ; a pcnjile who ;ilwa\s wear 

hat», and have a lieadpiece acc(inniiod;ihd lo everv 

••ituation and iihuost e%'ery incident in life, is a tliird. 

But all these combine to make the wearers pictu- 
resque ; while as to Korean standards of comfort we 
have nothing to do but to wonder. As to their 
physique, the men are stalwart, weU-built, and bear 
themselves with a manly air, though of docile and 
sometimes timid expression. The hair is worn long, 


but is twisted iiilo a topknot, protected by the crown 
of the aforeiu^ntioiiod hat.' The women, of whom 
those bDloniiiiiif to the upper classes are not visible. 

' This U tlo i)U Chiu.'Si f.nhi 
copied, with otliLT Cliiiif^i) h:ibil<. i 
hy the MiiuchiM in Chinn. 


but ihe poorer among whom may be Been by 
handreds enpagt-U in manual lalxMir in ilie houses, 
itreets, uid 6elils, cnnnnt. bf> described as bciuiUfu]. 
They have a peculiar arrangement of dress by which 
a iburt white bodifc covers the shouIderM, but leaves 
the breasts entirely exposed : while voluminous petti- 
rcriti, vi-rv' full at ihf- hips, dupeud froru a wai^l just 


t-|i.w the armpits, ;ind all but t-oiiceal cnar^ie white 
'■r brown paiiCaliKtiis bulow. Their hair is black, and 
i- wound in a IjIl' coil round the temples, sujjplyinj.' 
a M"f|c-nme contraj«t to the jrreasy thoujrli fascinating 
• ..itliire of the females of Japan. Indnd, if the 
:;:•-!! <if ihi- two nritions are unliki'- — llic tall, roluist. 
L-'^-Mookin^', id!-' Kor^'an, ami the diminutive, ul'Iv, 
lunible, indomiialde Japanese — still more so are \\w 


women — the hard-visaged, strong-limbed, master- 
ful housewife of Korea, and the shuffling, knock- 
kneed, laughing, bewitching Japanese damsel. The 
Korean boy, indeed, might more easily be taken to 
represent the gentler sex, since, until he is engaged 
to be married, he wears his hair parted in the middle 
and hanging in a long plait down his back. 

Of this people, the males among whom exceed 
the females, there are believed to be about 11,000,000 
T^^i in Korea, an area very similar in extent to 
population^|. Britain.^ I give this total as a mean, 

possessing a probable approximation to truth, be- 
tween the two extremes of 7,000,000 and 28,000,000, 
both of which have figured in recent publications,'- 
and which illustrate the prevailing ignorance about 
a country and a population that have not as yet 
passed through the mill of the statistician. Marry- 
ing at an early age, prone to large families, and un- 
diminished for manv vears by war or famine, the 
Korean population ought to be on the increase were 
it not that the infant mortality is enormous, and that 
tlie death-rate from epidemics, against which no pre- 

' The best estimate appears to be 80,000-90,000 square miles. 
But some place it as high as 100,000-120,000. 

- Eveline Daveluy, in 1847, gave 3.598,880 males, 8,745.481 
females, total 7,:J44,3(>1. Oppert, in 18G7, gave 15,000,000-16,000.000. 
Ttre Dallot, in 1874, gave 10,000,000. Japanese statistics, in 1881, 
gave 10,227,885. Grims, in 1882, gave 12,000,000. Sir H. Parkes, in 
1888, gave 8,000,000 10,0()0,(X)0. An obviously supposititious census. 
in 1884, is quoted as liaving given 28,007,401. The latest Goveriunen; 
census, cited in tlie StntcsnuuCs Year Bool'y is 10,528,937. Varal. 
the most recent foreign writer, names 10,000,000-18,000,000. On the 
<»ther hand, tlie Chinese figures, in a work entitled Important Facts 
rehttiiKj to the Kastrrn Stockade, are 3,310,704 males, 3,259,401 
females, tiHal 0,570,105. 

LifB JLSO rmrsL ix koksa 


)Uiitry ■ 

cautioRi are t»ken, and wliirh Kvrecp over the coui 
every third or fourth year, is certainly high. On the 
other hiUKl, the large tracts of uncultivated and al- 
most uninhabited ruunlrj' that still await Ihe ploug'h- 
ftharo and the peasant will accommodate an exi)au- 
linn that cannot fail to disappoint the Malthiisian 
enthiiMa&t for many yenrs to come. 

Tlie Korejuis l>eloiig unmistakably to the Mongo- 
lian atock, occupying' a sort of intemipiliate eta^'e 
miiiinj between the Mongolian Tartar ami lliu 
I — — ■■ Japanese. It \« impossible to confound 
ihem either with the latter or with the Chinese-, and 
a Korean would, to anyone wlio has travelled in the 
countrv, be a known man in any city in the world. 
It has been supposed by some writers, who have 
oliserved a different variety with blue eyes and fair 
hair in Korea itself, that there is also a Caucasian 
element in the stock; but I am not aware that this 
liypothesis has found any scienlific confirmation.' 
Their lanjruage is of the Turanian family, with the 
addition of many Chinese words ; and they may be 
said to possess two syllabaries or alpliabets — the 
Nidi) or Korean syllabary, which drives a phonetic 
value to some 250 Chinese ideographs in common 
ii8»*, anil wliidi was invented by Syel Cltoiig, a 
famous scholar and priest, 1,100 years ago ; and tlie 
I»«')pular Korean alphabet, or script, which was first 
[tp^mulgaled by royal decree in 14-17 A.i».. and is 


Still used bv the lower orders.^ If one does not 
either speak or understand Korean oneself, it is 
always possible to communicate with a Korean by 
using the Chinese s}Tnbols, which he equally employs. 
On the other hand, among the upper and lettered 
classes, Chinese itself is the invariable vehicle both 
of speech and correspondence, just as it is also the 
official language employed in Government publica- 
tions, proclamations, examinations, and decrees. 

Of the people so constituted there appears to be 
but one opinion as to the national character and 
National physiquc. While an invigorating climate 
character j^^^ madc them naturally long-lived and 

strong, their habits of hfe and morals ^ have rendered 
them subject to many forms of ailment and disease ; 
while their want of contact with the world and their 
servitude to a form of government which has never 
either encouraged or admitted of individual enter- 
prise, but which has reduced all except the privileged 
class to a dead level of uncomplaining poverty, have 
left them inert, listless, and apathetic. As individuals 
they possess many attractive characteristics — the 
upper classes being polite, cultivated, friendly to 
foreigners, and priding themselves on correct de- 
portment ; wliile the lower orders are good-tempered, 

' Tlio most iutoresting evidence of the early development of Korea 
is Mr. Sfttow's demonstration that the Koreans printe<l from movahlt 
metallic types two centuries before they were known in Enn>pe. Hf 
possesses a Korean reprint of the Chinese Confucian Table-Talk. 
which was printed in 1817 a.d. in this fashion. 

^ Tolyj^'amy may bo said to prevail ; for whilst m(»st Koreans onl> 
have one wife, they keep as many concubines as their circumstances 
I)(rn)it. Amonp: the lower orders there is neither cleanhness nor 
decency, and many vices prevail. 


though VBTJ- excilablc, rln-errul, and talkative. Beyond 
1 ceiintn point, however, bolJi classes relapse into 
a siniiUr indiOerenct?, vhich takes tlie form of an 
indulent proieat u^aiiist artion of any kind. Tlie 
jioliticinn in S"'ul remains civil, but \-& wholly doaf !(> 
pcnuiuiuii. The eoolie works one day and dawdles 
away his wages upon the iwo nejcl. The mitpu, or 
OBller, takes bts own time about \m own and his 
park-pony's tneal.^, and no reasoning or compulsion 
in the world wouhl disturb him from his complacent 
laDgiior. Tliese jilJof-jTicrasies may only be inli-'resl- 
mg to the unconcerned student uf national character. 
hut they are of capital im|Mirtance in their bearin;; 
upon national lite. Wlien, luriher, ihey are crysial- 
hsed into hardness and are inflamed by the habits of 
an upper and oflicial class — which subsists by extor- 
tion and prohibits, outside its own limits, either the 
exercise of surplus activity or the accumulation of 
wealth — they explain how it is that the Korean 
people remain poor amid stores of unprohed wealth, 
lethargic where there should otherwise be a liundred 
incentives to diligence, nerveless in the face either of 
com[K'titioii or of peril. I have seen a Korean coolie 
raiTAing a wei^dit that would make the slnulest ox 
siag;.'er, and yet 1 have seen three Koreans lazily 
employed in turning up the soil with a siii;:Ic shovel. 
bv an arrangement of ropes that wasted the labour of 
three men without augmenting the strenglli of one. 

So it is in every department of the national 
exitlenee. An immense reserve of masiiiliiie lone 
iH diverted from the field of hil>our and is lost to the 


nation by being absorbed into the yamens, or oflSces 
of the local magistrates and prefects, where their 
The function, instead of invigorating the blood 

otsKieij of the country, is to suck that of their 
fellowKiountrymen.' The population of Korea may, 
indeed, be roughly divided into two classes — the 
upper or official, entitled yangban^ whose position 

,or gentility is :t bar to work, and who, therefore, 
must subsist upon others; and the great residuum, 

' Mr. Carles, in one nf liis Reports (Oorea. No. 2, 1885), menlione.! 
tliL' priivinrc nf r.vmi^'nn-ilo he having 44 tnagiBlrAcJeB, with lui 
ii\erai;e of 4<N) iiDicLikl hiitii.'erK-iin in ench, harinK nothing to do bnl to 
pulii'i' tlic ilisti-ict mill x« rDJIect taxes— in all, a total of 17,000 men. 

-' I-itiTnllv Sijn'i'i-V""' IT Two Onlera (civil and iniliUry), Trhi> 
(■Dii^titiite tilt' ari.stooriicy of liirth, descending from on aristocrar; ol 
oMicc, Mr. Caiui'l'eU. in hin Iteport, ^'ives the best account of thein: 
^' The nijaiig-piiu etijiHs many of the ueiial privilegeH of nobility- 


whone btutnesK it is to be subsisted upon, and to filch 

from the produce of ItiPir labour llie slender neces&I- 

tfa of existence for ihemselves. Poverty in the 

•tme of destitution tlier« is not ; but poverty in the^ 

s«nse of having no surplus beyund the bare mcauK ol 

livelihotxl and of the pAralyeis of all enterprise is 

■Inuwt universal. Am* less indolent people mi^ht 

be expeetetl to rebel j and occasional magjslerial 

encroachments beyond the limits of practice or 

endunuiee lesult in shorl-tived ^paiinifi of mutiny, in 

the course of whieh an ofiV-nding official is seizeil 

and. perhaps {an happenet] once in ISUl), in burned 

alive. Hul ordinarily (liiti implies too |;reat an 

exerti(Ri ; the people are unarmed and very helpless, 

ami the system is inuiely ncquie^ced in, unlesK pushed 

to iniok-rable extremes. 

1 For travelling in the interior of Rore.i il is advis- 

i able to inroke some sort uf otlU-ial assistance. Olher- 

FjpPMe the poverty of the coiinlr}- renders tt difficult 

R^p i» •wanpt tima »n*A, >>xcv|>i l> coniiiiiwil of Uir Kinu ur tli<- 
K,^pwwv uf tb* [mivinra lii wliicb lu< trMclo«. Miil then lin t> nni 
J^attm M pMraotwJ pnnwhincnl. «ii'r|it {<ir tUv itrnvcal rriiutM. •iidi nn 
m«liin or •Uortian. H« «loliU ui iiiit->rratic atra; nmr the inmUu' 
nf his hoow. umI bu fiiU licence ti> resent any renl ur fnncicd iiiBiilt 
kirlleil kt him by the ^.in, i.r. 'low men,' the proletnrial. jii>>l hh 
be pleaaen. .At the nAine time, (he nijnng-iMtn lies tmtler unr tn«al 
• MiK^lion. "vhltttr oblige; he cattnul perform nny mrniul ncirk. i>r 
enciMT* in uiv trmile or imliislrikl ocrii|ialiu[i. OiilKtilr tht- piiblii' 
vrtire. irwhiDK m the only fonu oreittplityiiii'iit open t<i htm. If he 
■prL* any iilher. he ninks irrevoobly l.i the liM'l uf Wl* ocriipiitioit. 
Thrre it no law Uitl down on the point. The pcniiltv in c'iif<irre<) 
•la-udlv. uul i* pan of the UnsritU'ii c<h1i' of ri^ririy.yniri Ftii[iit'tU'. 
Thr*» privilegn anil oblig«tii>np l]a\p mttnmllv iiillui'iu'i'd t]it> chn- 
rvu-r of the rlasa, ta that ihe uftirekiu •tijn>.'j-/»ni. lu. miiltcr how 
|inor, u pmod and punctilioiii nii n SpnnUh hiitnli^o. nut hIhivi' 
ne«ii4ialin|( a loan with the mont *haiiiel('Hii etTrt'mcry. .Mt ket'ii l<> 
rnetil llx ili([hleat ahade of difre»pert froui iin inferior.' 

102 KOREA 

in parts for the stranger to procure either beasts of 
l3urden, lodging, or food. The Foreign Office at SiJul 
Necessities issucs a ^ocunicnt known as a kiian-^how, 
of travel ^ri^^i^h authoriscs the bearer to employ 
Government couriers and ponies, and to put up at 
Government inns and yamens^ and which calls for 
fodder, chickens, and torches at night, to be fortli- 
coming. The natives frequently endeavour to circum- 
vent this order by hiding away everything in their 
possession, and protesting the entire nakedness of 
the land. Its production at a magistracy is con- 
sequently very often necessary, since it is an impera- 
tive mandate to the local official to bestir himself in 
the interests of the bearer, who may otherwise repOTt 
his indifference at Soul. Without a kuanrchaw 
might never have started from Gensan, where 
was a conspiracy among the owners of ponieB 
refuse all their animals, except at preposterous 
tliat was only overcome after a two days' delay 
a somewhat stormy interview, kuan-chow in 
with the locmn tenens at the local yainen. 

Travel in the heart of a country brings 
stranger into contact with a type of humanity more 
Visit to the primitive, l)ut also more representative of 


Mountains tlic uatioual cliaractcr, than that encountered 
in tlie capital or in large cities, whilst it also discloses 
features of natural srenerv of which the residents in 


towns or the fre([iK*n(ers of hiufh routes alone may 
remain permancntlv ignorant. Both these advan- 
tao^es were derivable from the circuitous journey 
which I took from (lensan to the cai)ital. The 


biBnur route between thcsu places is o50 li, or 170 
mile*, in Icngtli, aoil, with the exception of one 
ipleodid niouutaiU'croiulii;;, iraversi-a a Iandii<-spu 
lierer without interetil, though lacking in the hi<,'ht*r 
lAiemeMti of grandeur or romam^e. A (iivergenre. 
bomver, of a fuw days from the truck brought we 

have yet visited, nixl wliicli coiilaiiissonieol" tin- must 
r-nowned scenery in K<irea, as well as t lie picluresiiiic 
aiid venenible relics of ihe ilisoslabhshed Ittiddliist 
r-ligion, wtiiili for l.dlH) years iK-fon' the fnniidation 
"t thf [)resent dynasty, in alKnil I40II .v.ii. was tin- 
..tCcial and popnlar cult of the country. This rc^'ion 
I* known a« the Kenm San, or Oiamnud Moun- 

104 KOREA 

tains : and there — amid mouutain valleys and recesses 
whose superb forest mantle rivals in amplitude, nrhile 
it excL'ls in autumnal tints of maple and chestnut 
the garniture of Californian canons, where rushing, 
crystal-clear torrents dance through every glen, and 
far skywards bare splintered crags lift their horns 
above the foliage — are scattered a number of monas- 
terii»s, whose buildin^rs are in some cases manv 
centuries old, and whose dwindling congregation of 
inmates perform in these secluded retreats, secure 
from any intrusion save that of the itinerant pilgrim. 
the stereotyped devotions before gilded images of 
IJuddlia and his disciples, in which tliey themselves, 
in common witli the mass of their countrvmen, havt- 
long ceased to believe. By lovers of the pictures(pie 
nothinir more enrhantin<? than these monastic ri^trenis 
can anvwhere be found: nor will the discoverv 
that, while every prospect pleases, man alone is viU- 
— evtMi though his depravity assume, as is eredihly 
alleged of the Korean l)onzes, the most profligate 
expi'essitui, or, as it did in my own experience, tlu' 
nion* modest form of larceny of one's personal eflect> 
— (Ictcr tlic traveller from keen appreciation of siu- 
roinKliniT"^ so romantic 

Sur|)rise mav be felt that in a countrv where lh<' 
cloister is >o gciuM-ally and not unjustly despised, it 
K.Mvu. sliould Vet succi'cd, in spite of popular scep- 
'"""^'^ ticisiu and ollicial negh^ct, in attracting to 
itself a >iiiru.'ieiii lunnber of recruits. The answer 
lies ill the incurable la/iiies.s of the ]>eople. The 
mouk>, who do but little in the wav of manual 


Liliour, tMtyond occaoioiially tilling the plot« of ground 
attoclted to tbc monasteries, or making sandals,. 
subrist in the nialn upon the chanty of others — an 
occupation in which the Korean finiU an enchantment 
(hat peraooal t:xertion ran never >iupply. Hither 
tbereforc rcliru llios*- who have nothing to do, or still 
more, who want to do nothing; bachelors who cannoi 
tonrry or widowors who do not want lo marry again i 
children of whom their families want to get quit, or 
wb(i want to get quit of their liirailies ; sometimes 
fugitiveit from justice to whom the Buddhist monas- 
tery i» like the Jewish City of Refuge ; perhaps, here 
and there, though not once in a hundred times, an 
individual who desires to forsaktf the worhl, and to- 
surrender himsetl wholly to study and devotion. 
Ilitlier also eomes the Korean sight-seer, the local 
equivalent to the l-lnglish Hank Holiday ynutig man 
<«! a bicycle — a character veri* common among the 
Koreans, who cultivate a keen eye for scenerj', and 
who love nothing better than a hthjenij, or pleasure- 
trip in the country, where they can shirk all business 
and dawdle along as the humour seizes them ; living 
ii|ion and, where possible, abusing the hospitably of 
others, and halting as they mount each successive 
t-rest. and a new outlook opens before them, to ex- 
patiate uiK>n its beauty, to deposit a stone or hang 
up a rag in the little wayside shrine erected to the 
local genius or deity, and, if they be sullii-iently 
wlm-aled, either to ([uote the rliapsodics of some 
[previous ptH.'t or to compose a stanza themselves. 
How deeply ingrained in the people i^- tliis semi- 

106 KOREA 

aesthetic, semi-superstitious nature-worship may be 
illustrated by the case of Paik-tu-San (White Peak 
Mountain), the celebrated mountain on the northern 
frontier, with its gleaming white crown, and with tlie 
unfathomed lake in the hollow of its crater. Every 
year an official deputation starts forth from Hain- 
lieung, the nearest seat of provincial government, 
and when it arrives at a point beyond Unchong, near 
the Yalu Eiver, from whence the first view of the 
sacred crest is obtained, makes genuflexions, lays out 
its offerings, and retire§. That the monasteries have 
for long been visited far more for pleasure's sake than 
for duty, is also evident from the remark of Hamel. 
240 years ago : — 

* The Nobles frequent the Monasteries very much to 
divert themselves there with common Women or others thev 
carry with them, because they are generally deliciously 
seated, and very pleasant for Prospect and fine Garden-^. 
So that they might better be called Pleasure-houses than 
Temples, which is to be understood of the common Monas- 
teries, where the religious men love to drink hard/ 

A full niu'ht's sleep is not easy of attainment in a 
Korean monastery, even though one's bed be spread 
Monastic on the floor of one of the sacred halls, and 

life and r ^ 1 * V. 

habits at the foot, as often happens, of the hijin 
altar. Before the first lilimmer of dawn, some piou^ 
monk, anxious to anticipate his fellows, begins to 
walk round tlu^ courts, tapping a drum, and singinii 
the most lugubrious and discordant of chants. Then 
somebody else beirins to clap, clap, upon a brass 
irong. Next the ])ig drum on the platform over 


rntrance is lieatt>n td a fratilic tune ; and linally 
■J IkU, gung, and drum in die tstablinhtnent are 
going at oiict?. This is the r^ommun esperiencu 
lU who sojouni ill Buddhist monastenesn, where a 
ipulou» adherence to ritual prevails, and where 
out-^idc nf the cup and platter its much more 
ight uf than i\\v cbararlt^r of the inward parts. 
The itilcrnal arrangements of the:«e monasteries, 
rrhich there are said to be nearly forty, alonj^ 
with a few nunneries, in the Diamond Moun- 
tains,' and of which I aUo vJditcd the chief or 
TOpotitan moniuteni-of .Sak Wang Sa, about twenty 
M from Gensftii, nre commnnly the siune. Adjoin- 
. sometimes over, the entrance, is a roofed platform 
lerrace, the pillar); and sides of which are thickly 
i;i witli the votive or subscription tablets of former 
:riiiis. lli-re is usually placed a j:ij.'antic drum, 
"siof; ujion the back of a painted woollen monster, 
■ni by a bi;.' bronze bell hanjrs behind a grill, 
p central court, ini" which one first enters, contains 

■ principal sluine or lemi>lc, usually at the upper 
i, and siitisidiarv shrines or jiuest-rh;unbei-s on 
lier side. AH art- of the >anie paltern^iow de- 
IihI buildings, wiili heavy tiled roofs and over- 
i^ng eaves, closed by srreens. or shutters, or 
'f* along the front. Inside is a sin;.'le gloomy 
itiiWr or halt, the riddy <':irvcd -.wid painted 
lui' ol" whii-h is sustained liy l;tr;:r retl jjillars. 
-t^itf the tnirame is the ni;iin ;ili.-u-, a green or 

ni» •rciiijl>aii\iiii- jihi.ioirrBjihs o( si'iinrv in thi' Kfum Kivnj; 

■ fn- laktn bv Mr. ( . W. ( Htii|>)>('ll. 


I)iiik gauze veil hanging in front of which but half 
conceals the gilded figures of seated or standing 
I^uddhas behind, while all round the sides are ranged 
grotesque and grinning images, usually in painted 
clay, of other demigods, saints, or heroes. A loir 
stool stands in front of the main altar, and supports 
a copy of the liturgy and a small brass bell. Thereat^ 
when the hour strikes for morning or evening 
prayer, a monk, hastily pulling a grey robe and red 
hood over his white dress, kneels down on a mat, 
intones a prayer in a language which he does not 
understand, touches the ground with his forehead, 
and strikes the brass bell with a small deer's hooL 
Smaller replicas of the same sanctuary, dedicated to 
(liflerent deities, stand in the neighbouring courts. 

The Korean form of Buddhism is, it will thus be 
soon, closely akin to the Chinese, and is widdjT 
Konini divorced from that which found favour m 
"'*'"'"" the more artistic atmospliere of Japan. lis 
hidooiisly bodaubod temples, which only becooie 
toloniblo with ajro, and its multiform, grotesque, 
nnd l:)arl)arous images have little in common with the 
])oautv of IkoL^ami or the irlories of Nikko, or even 
witli tlio less aesthetic attractions of Asakusa. Essen- 
liallv Chiuosso. too, is the manner in which the ori- 
filial faith has l.)eon overlaid with anthropomorphic 
or dcnionolaii'DUs superstitions, and has had grafted 
on to it an oiitin' i)anthoon of semi-deified heroes. 
Nf\oriliolo>s. it i< w woloonio relief to alight upOD 
lli(» shriiu's ovt'U of a dishonoured and moribund 
faith in a ronntrv wliorc no j)c»pular cult appears ti> 


cut save that of spirits, dictated in most cases by 
rrvous apprehension of the forces of nature, and 
here, -xt the old Dutch navigator put it, *as for 
eliirion, the Cure&ians have scarcely any.' 

To these Buperstilions is the Korean peasaiU pecu- 
irly proiic. Outside bi» villages are seen wtioden 
^^ dintance-posts carved into the hideous and 
Tci. gnnning likeness of a human head, in order to 
""*" propitiate the evil spirits.' Of -iiinilar applica- 
0(1 arc the bronze figures of monsters that appear 
pon the roofs of palaces and city gates, tlie rags and 
tpee that are tied to the bouglui of trees (sup- 
cised, in Korean demonoloijy, to bo the particular 
jode of spirits), and the stones that are heaped 
>f!«'lbcr on the summits of hill-roads, in p-n-ssinj^ 
hich our native camp-followers would invariably 

■■ Thf-e iniACCS are c.imiionlv from 4 lo M fici i„ height. 
«pr pui <-»n!ii«t» of a roiiehly hewn lui- or piitil. on tlic- rmnt of 
birh i> all inKcri]iliun in Chinese chararlcrH. uiiile the upper part in 
Lri>-<1 iiil» the liki-nf>>H nf a KroleMiuc lieml. with fenliircK bdiinoarpil 
ith rr<) psint, white e^'e-bnlU, nml hiiRe ki'>ii'i>1)> iiimilh. Their 
laTirwI iiiirp(>*c np]<enr)i ti> have been tliat of liiile-HtoneB lo n-ciinl 
•lAnc*. m uhirh case ihey are rnlltij Chang ar Jang-$aii'_i ; lull 
h* ti I'luittil ill ruw* at llie eiitranee and exit of vi11ii;.'es ibi -v iir« 
— ■ rtilnl Si/"n<j-*at-miik, an<l are reKanleil as (iileliirv ifiiiiriliana 
ru::>t • III *|>iril>'. Clianii-HiinR in naiil to have bti'n ihe niiiiie nf a 

'(..-rJ or ufficial of hidi rank. who. areonlinK to 'litTennl MrHioiix 
to- »ii..- leirenil. iuur.l. r.'a hi» nile ami .lanu'liter. or iiiitrrle.l liiH 
>n .lank'hUT, who. for her part, roiiiiiiitte.l xiiiriae. Deteel..! aii>l 

ur,i, l„. iia. put to ileath by Hiv Kiiie. aii<l the likeness of hix head 
a> rari'ii) as a MamiliK ii)>>'ii the ilJKtniLre p(»l!t lhn>u;:lir>iil lh>i 
-•i^tr>. A tomeuhat aiinlr>p.ns idea is r.'pres.'>il.'.l in ill.' Kor.'itn 
rvtiri-. at rerlaiii waxnis of the vi-ar. of niiikiiit; little stniw etti^'ies, 
• >I If f<->l in height, in the hiLeness of Honie ilislike.l in.lividiml. 
.w rtiiik! ■ few l<«>U' ca«h iilsidi-, aloiiK with ii short praver. ami then 
urruni; llie whole ihini; " a Kapc-icat. or prewtiliti;; it to u b.-j;(,iir, 

bo will gU4l,v apiirupriale Iho gift for the sake of ihe eoins. 

110 KOREA 

bow and expectorate. Female sorceresses and sootli- 
sayers, to cast horoscopes, and to determine the pro- 
pitious moment for any important action, are also in 
great request.^ Tn Soul I heard a story of a sick 
man who was supposed to be possessed by a devil, 
but was successfully cured by an English mission 
doctor, who affected to drive out the evil spirit, 
which was forthwith pursued down the street by a 
large crowd and ' run to ground ' in the mission 
compound. Among the upper classes the only vital 
form of religion is ancestor worship, developed by 
familiarity with Confucianism and by long connection 
with the Chinese. A man has no higher ambition 
than to leave male descendants who may worship 
his manes and offer sacrifice at his grave. An outcome 
of the same ethical system is the sense of filial piety, 
which would have rendered ^Eneas a typical China- 
man, of unquestioning obedience to the sovereign, 
and of duty to the aged and to friends. No Buddhist 
monks are allowed inside the cities — a prohibition 
which is said to have originated in the Japane>e 
invasion oOO years ago, when the invaders crept 
into some of the towns in monastic disfjuise — 
although the King, in the neighbourhood of the 
capital, has one or more secure mountain retreats, 

* Outside the walls of Soul I visited the house of a sorceress- a 
hij? hlaek woman with a forbiddiiifj countenance and an enoniioJH 
black hair wi*;. which she put on and off, at the same time that slu- 
donned different coloured robes, waltzing slowly round the whilf to 
the sound of drums and jronj^s, and droning a horrible chant, nnuh 
to the consternation of the large crowd who had come to consult lur. 
bringing big tables i)iled with sweetmeats, but who were evidoiitl) 
very much frightened by her incantations, and plied her with an\iou* 
and tearful entreaties. 


.'ht(b«r, ill time of danger. lit- lleea to Ihe protection 
fa luonkisb garriMHi. 

Travelling in Korea i» be^t undertaken in the 
iilunm uiuutlut of ihe year. The cliniiiti' is then 
,„,^, ,„ i>crfect — a warm sun by day and refreshinff 
'""' (-oolnefts at night. In the winter deep snow 
iIU ftnd the cold is cxceiiaive. Tile summer bcnin 
re equally unpleasant. Tliert* are no made roads 
I the country, and the tracks are mere bridhvpatlis, 
f preaWr or less width, accordhig to the extent to 
hidi they are troihlen. Tn a country that if as plen- 
fuUy fprinkled with mountains an a ploujfhed field 
i with ridpi's, these are frecjuenlly eteep and stony 
1 the extreme, and in tin- <mt-of-the-way ])art8 
liicb I visited the track was not uiifrc<niently the 
n-iipitoiis and boulder-strewn bed of a mountain 
■rreiil, amid and over the ja^'ged rocks of wliich 
i:>ne but a Korean iH>ny could pick his way. A 
I'tiderful little animal indeed is tlie latter. With 
1.- exception of the ox, whirli is the be;ist of heavy 
iirdcn. and the donkey, which is mucb afTecled by 
It- impecunious gentry, no other pack or riding 
fiiiii:tl is known. Karcly more than eleven bands 
i-^]i, combative and vicious, always kicking or 
jilting when lie can, lie will yet, with a burden of 
■'.tt lbs. or 20t> lbs. upon his back, cover a distance 
r -'luie thirty miles jier dicin : and provided be lias 
i" slu>h iif beans and chopped straw, boiled in 
at<-r, three limes a day, bt-forc starting, at n<n»n, 
lid ill the evening, he emerges very little the worse 
'. the end of a lengthy journey. ICaeh pony is 

llf KOREA 

atteuded by its own nuipu, or driver, and the 
humours of these individuals, who sing and smoke 
and crack jokes and quarrel all the day long, are 
among the alleviations of travel. K the destination 
be not reached before nightfall the bearers of official 
passports have the right to torch-bearers from each 
village. Long before reaching the latter, tremendous 
shouts of ' Usa. usiil ' ^torch), are raised by the mapft.s 
or yd/wfii-runners : and if upon arrival the Govern- 
ment hnkmen are not forthcoming with their torches- 
made of a lopped pine-log or a truss of straw — tliev 
are roused from their slumbers or hiding with cuffs 
and violent imprecations. In a few moments half-a- 
dozen torches are ignited, and, amid waving banners 
of flame, the cavalcade disappears into the night. 

Sport is a further and agreeable concomitant t»t 
iourneying, although, as in every countr}" in the 
world, not much frame can be seen except 
bv (liver^rence from the hurried track oi 
travel. Dieasants abound in the undergrowth on 
the mountains. In the winter months everv va- 
riety of wild-fowl, from wild geese and swans to 
wild duck, teal, water hen, plover, and snipe, swario 
alon<r the coast and rivers or in the soaking rice-plot>- 
Tlie natives either snare them or shoot them sittings 
and the spi^etacle of a rocketing mallard broujih^ 
down from a great height in the air is greeted by 
them with frantic shouts of admiration and deligW- 
Turkey bustards, cranes, lierons, pink and white iH^ 
are also encountered, and there is a larcje ead^N 
whose tail-feathers are much prized by the Chinese 


for fans, llat ihe ricliness of the Korean troveri lie« 

rather in fur and skin thau m fenthcr. Hares, 

foxM, badgers, vild cat. wild boar, sables, ermin, 

and otter in the fnr iiorlli, and diH'erent kimU of 

deer (which are hmityd for the medicinal properties 

mippoAed in Cliilia to belong' to the honis of the 

young bnck) are to be found in the scrub on the 

moantoins. Leopards are quite common, and in 

ih« vinrer months sometimes venture e^en inside 

the walls nf Siiul. Bui the tiger is the kinp of 

Korean quarries. He is of great size ; and I miw, 

while in Koren. wme splendid akius. His liauut is 

i>tf w(vi.).'it ninQnlairi-slnjiPM near t!n' f.n.*i co.-ist, 

and the entire belt of country nortlnvanU as far as 

the forests on the Yalu, where maii-eateiii are not 

uncommon. In winter-time lijiers liavt- nunc than 

onw come down into the settlement at ' it-nsan and 

^^arriMl off a victim; 1 even heard there of a Euro- ■ 

P*an who. poin^r out to dine, met a tii.'tr walkin*j 

''"Wn the middle of the road ; and when 1 was at 

^Tiwiff An Sa (the Hall of Eternal IVac.-l, the 

principal of the Keum Kang San monasteries, one 

*M -iaid to patrol the quadran;.'le every ui^'lil. and 

*•■ came across their spoor and drDpijiiiLr-. Tlie 

^'"ii; maintains a body of royal lijier-Iinnlers. who 

•^piiire them by means of pits and iiap?-, the 

'^inone*'! of these being a sort of Iml' wooden 

'^g^ constructed of timbers and slnne?, latluT like 

* triiraniic mouse-trap. A pij.' is lied up inside. 

111! the entrance of the tiger releases tlif dnor and 

wmfines the l>east, who is then de>.pairlii-.l with 

fipears. The natives, however, regard the animal 
with an overpowering apprehension, and there is an 
old Chinese saying that ' The Koreans hunt the tiger 
during one-half of the year, while the tiger hunts the 
Koreans during the other half.' They will not travel 
singly at night, but go abroad in company, brandish- 
ing torches and striking gongs. They are also most 


reluctant to act as beaters; whence, perhaps, it arises 
tliat, conimon as the tiger is in Korea, I have rarelv 
heard of a European who has bagged one to his own 
rifle. I am sonietiiues asked by sportsmen as to 
the charms or chances of a Korean espedition. As 
regards wild-fowl shooting, the great nuisance is that 
there is no means of disposing of the slain, and afur 
a time mere slaughter palls ; while, as regards big 


game, the iliflicultlcs ami hardships of travel, accom- 
nuidation, fooil, aiul following, M'ill probably send 
back the sportsman with a much worse appetite thau 
when ho ttanotl. 

TliUii wayfarinf; tlirough the countrj' one sees 
much of peasant life and agriculture, The vil- 
p_,„„, lagtfH vixv collectious of mud-huts, thatiihed 
"** with straw (over which, as a rule, runs a 

cUmbing gouDl), wami»l by fliifK running beneath 
ibe doors, and surrounded for protection or gcclusion 
by ft waltlfd fence of branches or reeds. On the clay 
floor outitifle are uousllv »een drying a raatful of red 
cbilUefl, or of milU'i and rice grains fresh threshed by 
thf flail ; long strings of tobacco leaves, suspended in 
festooa^, have been picked from theganlen plot hani 
by, from which also a few caslor-oil plants are 
rarely alwent. A small sty of black atid abominable 
Utile {Hgi usually fronts the road, on whitJi thu 
dtildren arc disporting themselves in a state of 
eomporativt! nudity. Inside, the dour-visaged females 
are jperfi inning llie work of ihe bousehnld, or are 
grinding, threshing, or winnowing the grain on the 
open threshold. The men are away in the rice-fields 
or among the crops of millet, beans, and buckwheat, 
which are the staple cereal produce of the country. 
Cultivation is assiduous, but not close. Hundreds of 
acres of cultivable, but uncleared soil, alternate witli 
the tilled patches; and coarse grasses wave where 
the yellow grain should be rijiening for the garner. 

I saw no carts or wagons on my journeys, allliough 
ihey are used in the north, near Ilam-heung. and in 

116 KOREA 

a few other places. The ox, which is the familiar 
beast of burden, sometimes drags after him a rude 
g^^ wood^i sled. More commonly a sort of 
'"'^ rack is fitted on to his back, and is packed 
with firewood for fuel. Men do not, as in Japan 
and China, carry burdens on bamboo poles, but in 

wooden racks, called ch'hkm, upon their backs. Tliey 
rest themselves by sittiiifx down, iu which position 
ilie rack, having a wooden peg or leg, stands upriglii 
uptm the ground. The long, thin pipe of the counlr}". 
between two and itiree feet in length, when not be- 
iweeii the lips of its owner, is stuck in his collar ai 
the back of his neck, and protrudes sideways into 


xhf. air. Wh<-n a pony U eliod it is thrown dowu 
upon itii back, and it« legil tied together at the fctlook 
hf a rope. 

Outside towns of any bize may commonly Iw seen 
a numbt.-r of stones, or Uihlets (itometimtss of iron 
M.^^.1 or copper), bearing inscripiioua in Chinese 
"""^ charACters. Tliese are erected either in con- 
nection with iorae historical event, or more frequently 
in honour of a loi-al governor, who liiis earned tlie 
f^iititude of tiie people, not for justice or clemency, 
which are not expected, but for wielding with no 
more than ordinary severiiy his prerogative of 
»quevze : or of a successful local candidate at the 
literary examinations, or of some public benefactor, 
or of a virloous wife who has found in suicide the 
x>li' consolation for the loss of her spouse. 

Chinese influence is visible everywhere, notably 
in the disposition of the dead. Tlie lioynl Tombs 
are at a distance of ten miles from the east 
gate of Siiul; but they are on a modest scale 
rompared with the mausoleums of I'eking and Hue. 
Jl.indarins' graves are frequently marked by a stone 
table or altar* for oflerings, and a .s(f/.' or pillar, 
l»faring the epitaph of the deceased. Sometime^, 
after the Chinese fashion, stone effigies of warriors 
or animals are added, or a saddled stone horse, in 
'■ase the spirit of the defunct shciuld care to take a 
ride, or a small column in case it should have been 
metamorphosed into a bird and sliould require a 
perch. The commonest form of grave, however, is a 
lar)re, circalar, grassy mound, usually placed u[>oq 

118 KOREA 

the side of a hill or summit of a little knoll, and sur- 
rounded with Scotch firs. The site is selected after 
consultation with a soothsayer, is visited every year 
on fixed days, and is ever afterwards kept inviolate 
from the spade or plough. The environs of Soul are 
sprinkled with thousands of such graves. 

Officialism, which is the curse of the country, is 
not without its efiect even upon the fortunes of travel. 
Such an incubus is the travelling manda- 
rin, who quarters himself where he pleases 
and exacts rations for which he never pays, that the 
villagers flee from an official passport as from the 
pest. Tliough I paid for everything, chickens and 
eggs were coustantly refused me, on the plea that 
none were forthcoming, but really, I suppose, from 
fear that, on the strength of the kuan-chow, I should 
appropriate without payment whatever was produced. 
Under these circumstances, it is necessary to cslttx 
almost every thing with one, in the form of tinned pro- 
visions. In the out-of-the-way parts few wayfarers are 
encountered ; but near the capital the road will be 
crowded with officials, tucked up in small and com- 
fortless sedans, with candidates going up to or 
returning from the examinations, with pilgrims, 
traders, professional players or mountebanks, beg- 
gars, picnicers, and impecunious vagabonds of ever}' 
quality and style. 

These are the picturesque sides and spectacles of 
Korean travel. There are some who would find in 
the Korean inn, which is the unavoidable resting- 
place at night, a more than compensating pain. 


There are no guod inns iu ihe f-ountry, becauite there 
is no claw to patroaittG them. The officials and 
Tw yarijr^R4i,nsI have shown, qtnirter themselves 

in oa the ma^Utractea. The poa^^uul accepts the 

mde hosiHUlity of hb kind, and the village inn is 
only iha compulsory report of the residuum. Sur- 
rounding a small and lillhy courtyard, to which 
occew ifl gninetl by a gateway from the street, is on 
one side a luttg shed with a wuodeu trough, from 
which the ponies suck their sodden food ; ou another 
side U the earthenware vat, and the funiace by which 
it is coOked ; opening ulV in a single, small, low^roofed 
PMim. iit^iinlly H feel .«quare. unadoriiod l>y any funii- 
lure save one or two dilapidated 'straw mats and 
some woo<len blocks to serve as pillows. There the 
travfller must eat, UTidress, dress, wash, and sleep as 
■well as he can. He is fortunate if the surrounding' 
fihh is not the parent of even more vexatious enemies 
til slunil>er. Nevertheless, I have wooed and won a 
royal sleep in the Korean inn ; wherefore let me not 
iindulv abuse it. 

120 KOREA 



Beautiful for situation is Mount Zion. On the side of the north i» 
the city of the Great King. Walk about Zion, and go round about 
her: tell the towers thereof. Mark ye well her bulwarks, consider 
her palaces ; that ye may tell it to the generations followingt 

Pgalm xlviii. 2, 12, 18 

Among the unexpected features of Korea is the posses- 
sion of a capital that, as regards size and population. 

Name of ^^^^T fairly be counted one of the great cities 
the cap.tai ^f jj^^ ^^^^ j j^^^.^ gpcUed thc uaiue Soul ;' 

but I should sav in advance that I have never met 
two persons, even scholars, who pronounced the name 
in exactly tlie same way. Seoul, Syool, SawuU, Sowul 
are among the more popular phonetic transliterations. 
That the word is a dissyllable seems to be certain ; 
but not even on the lips of Koreans does the precise 
equivalent to the vowel-sounds employed make itself 
apparent. Perhaps to an English ear the true pro- 
nunciation is best conveyed by saying that the way 
in which an Irishman pronounces the immortal part 
of him fairly represents the sound. 

* The name signifies * capital city.' Compare the Chinese Pe-king 
and Nan-kin«;, i.e. northern and southern capitals, and the Japanese 
Tokio and Saikio (Kioto), i.r. eastern and western capitals. Si>ul i* 
the Sior of Hendrik Haniel. 


To tli(»e wild bear in mind the Chinese ctintiec- 
tion of Koiva, upon which I shall wt frequently have 
WkibMMt to itisi^t, il n'ill be no surprist! to learn that 
9«i Sijul i» in tnoet exterior respects a Chinese 

cilr. Iinlee<l, it wan firat miule the capital of the 
Ikore&n kinj-tlcm exactly five cenluritfi ;igo by Ni 
Tsijo, tho founder of the reigning house,' a rooiiaroh 
who in everjthinj^ aped the Chinese model, at that 


time. and. we may almost say now, the stile standard 
"f majesty or fa.-hion to the petty surroiiiidin^r rotates. 
He built the >tone wall, over twenty feet hijih, with 
liattlemerits ami loopholes for archers, by which the 

' Tb« rrtralia nml rotw ■ of Rtate of Ni Taijn an- mill pniu-rvcil in 
tbr iiietnip»liUi> iii<>tia>l«n- of Skk Wuif; Sa. uliirli lie foiimliil in 
nrawry of hi* ' mil ' ti> nilo from this xpot. Thv iui>iiB<iti'ry in. 
•ap»rt>lj ailDaU'il in a roouutio wooded gorffi^, aI>oul t»i-ulv milcH 

133 KOBSA . 

city is surrounded; and he'madti the eight great 
gates, conusting of a tunnelled passive in the wall* 
surmounted by a single or a double-storeyed project- 
ing tiled pavilion, by which access is still gained to 
the interior.' like the gates of Peking, these have 
names of swelling import—the Gate of Elevated 
Humanity, the Gate of Blgh Ceremony, and the Gate 
of Bright Amiability. As at Peking, also, the heavy 
wooden doors, sheathed and damped with iron, are 
shut soon after sunset, the keys being taken to the 
King's Palace, and deposited with His Mqesty, or, 
when the Chinese Commisnonere are in Soul, 
the latter.* No bribe can then open them, and 
only method of ingress is by climbing, witli the aii 
of a friendly hand with a rope, a dilapidated portion 
of the waU. Just before my visit a Uriiish admiral, 
being a few minutes too late, had been compelled to 
enter in this not unnautical faaluKti ; whereat the 
Korean dignitaries could not make up their 
whether to be more shocked or amused. 

The entire apace circumscribed by ihe wall 
built over, for the latter climbs with antelope-like 
facility the scarp of the various rocky hills and 
Its ^,„^ mountains by which the city proper ia sat- 
''"'' rounded, and includes much ground which 

could by no possibihty admit of human dwelling. In 
fact, the wall may be said merely to embrace a de- 
fensible area, in the midst and low-lying portions of 

> They are eituatcil two on the oorth, one on the nortb-eMtt m* 
on the east, one on the Buuth-east, two on the Boatfa-wMt, ud <kw <■ 
the west. The main gates are the eoat ftnd w«t. 

' An iutereeting collateral admiasion of Chinue wcatrtiakj. 

cat the 
' mi^H 

II isnfl 


liicb hiu Iteen plfurecl a great human hive. The 
luatiou of the city, thus nestling in a trough between 
gh hills, is therefore picturesque in the extreme, 
kd would appear lo have been spetually designed 
r ihe purpose, were it not ihat tin- confined atmo- 
here in summer, operating upon a densely crowded 
us of dwellings where the moi^t ronteniptuous dis- 

Lird of sanitary laws prevails, renders it at that 
ne a nurser)' of pestilence and sickness. Unlike 
e scenery which I have de8crii>e(l in the last cliapter 
prevailing in the more northerly and eastern parts 
Korea, the hilU surrounding SiUd are bare, arid, 
d uninviting. The disintegrated granite of which 
ey are conii)08ed does not admit of ninch vegetation, 
itle Kuch verdure as once adorned their slopes has 


124 KOREA 

in large measure been swept away. A scanty growth 
of timber clothes the north hill, called Pouk San, 
which, very much like Lycabettus at Athens, rises to 
a sharp elevation behind the Eoyal Palace. But the 
other hills are almost treeless, with the exception ot 
Nam San, which is splendidly timbered up to its sum- 
mit, 800 feet above the city on the south. Further 
away on the northern side the nearer elevations are 
dominated by the imposing mass of the mountain of 
Pouk Han, whose gleaming grey pinnacles protrude 
themselves from sterile lower slopes. 

It is worth while to climb Nam San ; for from 
there is a wild and gloomy outlook over mountains 
Beacon- rolliug like grey billows on every side ; wliile 
'^**' alon<x the wideninjr vallev between them the 

river Han pushes its broad and shining coils to the 
sea. Oil the top of Nam San, too, are four beacon- 
towers — circular structures built of bisjf stones, in 
whose interior tall piles r)f leaves and brushwood are 
nightly set ablaze, to .signal to the capital the message 
of peace and security or the reverse, which, like the 
l)ale-fires of Troy, is supposed to have been passed 
from peak to peak from the southern confines of the 
kingdom. On the north-west side another tall and 
three-pointed hill — known as Sam Kok San, or Three- 
peaked Hill, which the French in their expedition of 
1800 called the Cock s Comb, because oT the fiervred 
which it blushed at the earlv dawn — flashes an an- 
swering gleam from tlie opposite quarter ; nor has this 
primitive form of telegrajihy been nominally aban- 
doned (though it is believed to have fiillon into 


ctical disiise), except on Ihe lines where it has been 
tat>ed by the eit-etric wiro. A special code of 
mU, ilepcndin'! on the iiiimljer. pi^sition, and &e> 
■nee of ihe Iwacon-fires, is empi<)ye(l in times of 
[(fer to aiuiounre to the capital the Bceiit' or moment 
invasion and ihe fortnnt's ot conilmt in the pr<>- 

..'I'li-itonu-d tr) the novelty, insists on Hiniing sky- 
ds. and is not satisfied till tin-<uriiig spark 

iiTiitTS brijrlitly from eacli sentiiifl peak. 

Within llu' s]»ace thus pn<-Insed and built over is 

,, „ ciiiitaiiied a population, ilu- various esti- 

''"^' mates of whose numerical itnal range from 

MiiiO I.) 300.000. Anuffi.-iaU-alcuIation lias placed 
iiuml>er <if houses at 30,000, and we may accept 

126 KOREA 

200,000 as a probable total for their inmates.^ The 
bulk of these are crowded in thatched hovels, lininjr 
narrow and fetid lanes; but in singular and truly 
Oriental contrast are the main streets, three in 
number, one of which runs from the Palace to meet 
the second, which intersects the city from east to 
west, while the third strikes off from the latter to tlie 
south gate. Each of these is of a breadth and ampli- 
tude that would dignify a European capital, being at 
least fifty yards wide and smoothly gravelled; but 
even here the native love of crowding and squalor is 
allowed to assert itself, for the roadwav is encroached 
upon by rows of rude straw-thatched shanties that 
have been erected by poverty-stricken squatters on 
either hand, encumbering the passage, and reducing 
the space available for locomotion to a narrow strip 
in the middle. When the King goes out, or when 
any state function of great solemnity takes place, all 
these improvised tenements are pulled down before- 
hand (but re-erected directly afterwards) ; and I own 
that I was far from sorry to see a large block of tlieni 
blazing merrily one night, both because the street for 
a brief space resumed its proper dimensions, and from 
the insight which the spectacle afforded into the 
manners of the natives. Some of them sat on the 
neighbouring housetops, praying to the spirits to 
arrest the conflatxration, which they made no effort 
to retard ; others adopted a remedy by one stage 

* On the other hand tlio Chinese pubHcation," Important Facts 
relating to the Eastern Stoehade, ^\\q^ the number of houses a- 
4G,565, and of inhabitants as 202,039. 



wan pnetical, seeing that they nm about with small 
pots» bowls» and even teacups, filled ViUi water, 
wUch they dashed with sanguine fu^ty upon the 
flames. Bat had it not been for the privately organ- 
ited fire brigade maintained by the Clunese Besident 
fax the protection of the Chinese quarter, in or near 

t IM |->W> (KW.U-IKT 

to whi(-'h the burning houses lay, rliere secnit-d no 
plausible reason why the conflagration sliould evi'r 
have Btoppe<i until it had reduced the entire citv lo 

In the niapc ?iiul is made lo stand n|niii the rivi-r 
Ilan; and when I had read in historv-lxKiks of ilic 
French and American frigates steaming up i)ic rivi r 

128 KOREA 

to threaten or attack it, I had pictured to myself 
a scene and a site not unlike the Nile at Kliartum. 
Dirt and ^^^^ ^s a matter of fact, the river is between 
ditches three and four miles awav ; and the only 
local substitute for it is a narrow canal, which may 
be an Abana or a Pharpar in the rainy season, but 
which, when I saw it, was merely a filthy and shallow 
sewer, in which the Korean urchins appeared to find 
pleasure in paddling. Each street or alley, moreover, 
has an open gutter running upon either side, and 
containing all the refuse of human and animal life. 
Soul is consequently a noisome and malodorous 
place ; and exploration among its lab}Tinthine alleys 
is as disagreeable to the nostril as it is bewildering 
to the eye. A few elevations spring up from the 
sjfeneral level of tlie city basin ; and these have been 
opportunely occupied by foreigners with a superior 
appreciation of site, the British, Russian, and Japanese 
Leirations and the French Catholic Establishment 


l)eing from any altitude the most conspicuous objects 
in the town. A settlement of 1,000 Japanese is in 
acnite competition with an even larger and increasing 
colony of Chinamen. Nearly 100 Europeans and 
Americans represent the remainder of the foreign 
conimunity ; but tliis admixture makes httle superficial 
impression upon the white-coated, white-trousered, 
white-socked mass of humanitv that swarms to and 
fro in the thron^ied thorouirhfares of the citv. 

The public buildings of Schil are remarkable for 
their paucity and insignificance. With the exception 
of the sxreat hooded roofs of the Audience Halls in the 


FalocM. the whole city, when seen from alxive, ])re- 
KittK xn almost even level of liled roof-tops, packed so 

cIcMM-'ty toj^etlier that it looks as llioujjh a man 

might »t<?p from one to the other. Tlie narrow 
alleys between them cannot be diswnied, and only 
the while riband of the three principal streets, 
midered whiter still by the white dres^ies of iho 

Koreans, strutting up and duwTi by the hiindrfd. 
breaks the brown monotony. Even wlien we descend 
into the town, we find no In-auty Iti tlic exterior of 
The liouj'es ; for they are, as a rule, con-itructed of a 
mixture of mud, paper, and wiiod ; alllionjjh lliosc 
which are more stronj.dy built have walls made of 
round stoneis, wliich are tied niund and lield lo;:i-tlier 
by plaited straw in lieu of the too cxpeniivc luxury 

130 KOREA 

of mortar. There are no windows in the house- 
fronts — only lifting or sliding screens ; and whatever 
of neatness or elegance exists in the abode is con- 
cealed in the interior, where the private dwellings, 
unseen from the street, are ranged round small courts. 
The houses of all classes are uniformly built either 
on platforms or on raised floors, for the purpose of 
warming by means of flues running underneath from 
a single furnace that serves the entire building. At 
the other end the smoke escapes by a blackened hole 
in the wall, usually into the street, where it adds to 
the aesthetic pains of perambulation. There is no- 
where in the city anything in the least resembling 
the elaborate carved and gilded woodwork that 
adorns the shop-fronts in Peking, or even the monu- 
mental painted sign-boards of Canton. Another ob- 
stacle to street embellishment has been the existence 
of crude and foolish sumptuary laws, prohibiting the 
erection of houses of more than a certain size, or 
beyond a fixed outlay. 

For these drawbacks, however. Soul does its best 
to atone by two properties of unquestioned and more 
street- Creditable individuality — viz. a singular and 

life and . .^ t i^ i • i • 

costume picturesque street-life, and a Court which is 
alternately dignified and comic, and sometimes both 
at the same time. Why the Koreans should all 
dress in white cotton no one seems able to sav. It 
is not a fashion imposed by conquest, like the pigtail 
in China ; nor by smartness, like the Albanian petti- 
coat ; nor by dignity, like the Roman toga ; nor by 
serviceableness, like the Highland kilt ; not even by 


thtf vulgar criterion of comfort, like tlie European 
irouBcr. Th« colour catitiot have becu designed tn 
mutt the Biui, In-cause in winter there is not tiKi 
much tun to resist ; nor can the material have been 
Mli'detl for its tightness, since iu the t^old weather it 
is only rendered wearable by being tltickly wadded 
with cotton-wool. I can only attribute the plieuo- 
menon, therefore, to one of those inesplicable freaks 
of fortune which have endowed the worhl. fur iii- 
cUuice, with the erinuline and the top-hat ; although, 
whatever the cause of ila original introduction, 
I harbour a secret suspicion that the white cotton 
parmeiii!^ of the men are now mainmiiied by them 
for the excellent purpose they serve in keeping the 
women busy. All day long, as you are walking in 
the streets of Soul, you will hear a mysterious tap, 
tap. tap, emerging from the chtsed shutters of the 
houses. This is the housewife who is at work in- 
doors with a woollen cylinder with which she beats, 
beats, beats, her husband's white cotton clothes, in 
onler to give them the peculiar gloss which masculine 
fashion affects in Korea. Over their white cotton 
drawers, which terminate in a kind of padded stock- 
ing, the men of the middle classes wear an outer 
tunir or skirt of similar material, which is split up 
at the sides, and looks very much like a nighlshirt. 
Sfcretaries and persons in civil employ wear over 
thi-t a Bimilar semi-transparent garment in black. The 
women of the lower onlers are also as entirely clad 
in white as a class of English girls going to a Con- 
firmation Ser\-ice ; but in the upper classes a gown of 

green, or crimson, or purple, instead of hanging from 
the shoulders, is drawn up over the head, with the 
sleeves hanging down in two long lappeta behind, 
and is held closely together in front, admitting only 
a fugitive glimpse of black eyes behind. The most 
astonishing Korean coiffure is that of the Abigail or 
waiting-maid, who wears a colossal erection upon her 


head made of greasy black hair twisted in plailJ. 
bigger by far than the artificial head-dress of an okl 
Egyptian Pliaraoh, or the wig of an English Ijjnl 
Chancellor. Upon the summit of this an enor- 
mous tray reposes as safely as upon a four-leggetl 

Another peculiar coiffure is that of the King's 
dancing-girls, or ' corps de ballet," who are a regular 


feature al every Korean eiilerlaiument.' These girls, 
iriio are called ' Kl'Saiog,' correspond to the Geieha 
B^^^ of Jnpan. Coinjianies of iliem exist in every 
•**■ towD of aiiy size, combining iirostitution 

with the pursuit of llieir professiori. Many of them 
are far from bmUInnklnL'. liic lypf nf iV-ature ticing 


lii'i'ii Mi.u-f rej^ular, even if wunling in the feminine 

■ — of the Japanese girl. The natiunal 

. . :■ ii is [wrfomictl lo the slrains of a slow 

i-Ui-'iiive music evoked by a sealed band, is nioiu*- 

■oootu in character and intemiinnble in length. 

«M«hM fcj Ohmui CMtJ*. of II. M.S. ■ Uftoikr.' in ISM. 

Like all the dances of the Far East, it consists of 
a series of postures free from indelicacy, and some of 
them not without grace, and has been described as 
' a not unpleasiog mixture of minuet atad quadrille, 
with a dash of the reel towards the finish.' The 
Koreans will sit and gaze at it in rapt ecstasy for 
hours at a stretch. 

It is as a country of liats that Korea has aiiaincil 
the widest external fame, and in the course of a single 
stroll the strenls of Siiul will afibrd material 
for an extensive classification. The onlinan' 
headpiece is a twofold structure ; for the ouler bat. 
broad -hrimmed and willi slightly conit-al crown, no* 
unlike the old markel-lial of the Welshwoniiu — 





tbouffb made of a material more delicate than Wales 
ever saw — namely, among the upper olassee splil 
bamb(K> fibres, woven together ami lacquered black, 
and among ihe lower orders a cheaper variety of the 
same, or horsehair — is only the exterior covering or 
sapenjtruclure of a skull-cap or headband of the 
Mme maiL-riftl, which is pressed around the tcmpIcR, 
in order to hold in place the uncut hair of the met:. 
drawn upwanl^ and tied in a knot ujHjn llie crown. 
The vjtterior hat \* kept on by a riband or string 
of amber and comeHan beads beneath the chin. 
Then tliere are hats for every rank, occupation, and 
even phase of life. The youth, when he is be- 
trothetl, wears, till his marriage, a smart fabrication 
of straw. 

Tlie successful candidate at one of the literary 
examinaiions is distinguished by two wires adorned 
witli coloured rosettes, which project like hoops or 
<i(if. »»if over the summit of liis hat. I'easants ami 
buU-<lriversare remarkable for colossal penthouses of 
plaited straw, which almost conceal the features, and 
whf>3(- circumference embraces the full width of the 

IVrhaps the mourner has the worst time; for, 
Tiot (inly must he wear a somewhat similar extin- 
^'uisher, hexagonal at the brim, but for a periiKl of 
one, twi», or three years, according to his relnlionship 
with the deceased, he is compelled tn don a lieinpen 
rijb<-. tied by a '-ord round the waist, and lo carry in 
frunt of his mouth a small hcmiK'ii screen between 
two sticks, in order, 1 believe, to keep at a proper 

distance the spirit of the departed.' During t \» e 
period of mourning, prescribed by an inflexible rag i i - 
lation, he ia further forbidden to marry, or indul^^^^ 
in any of the hghter occupations of life ; aicirad 
instances have occurred of ill-starred bridegroon^^s, 
a continuous mortality among whose relations h— as 


left them stranded high and dry for years on the s*'' 
sands of celibacy, tlieir fiaurees meanwhile groff'"? 
grey and ill-favoured before their eyes. Monks have 
a hat peculiar to their order, made of rush-matting 
with a hexagonal brim, and terminating in a conical 

' This drcBB was «orn for diBRiiise Ij.v ihe Boiiwn Catholic wi- 
during tlie Christian pcrBCciition. 


lex ; while lliere is a se])arate long narrow straw 
,bric for nuns. The Korean soldiers al"*© have a 
Lstitigtiishing hat-, made of black horsehair felt, tied 
1 with coloured tape rihaiids ; a superior variety of 
le same article, adorned with plumes, inake-S of 
leir officers a wondrous sight. It is c>uly, however, 
hMi we reiuih the grades of oourt and oflicial bo- 
iety that the Korean hatmaker achieves his greatest 
lasterpierps. Thus, for the govHrnor of a provtJicu 
? supplies a surt of iniire of gill pafitfhuard ; while 
r miiiiriters and officials generally are prescribed 
iLrious degreen of headpiece, conslrucied with re- 
■ding stages, Jike a Doge's cap of state, atul fitted 
iih wings or paddles projecting from the back, 
• f\\ the royal lackeys ha%'e a headpiece, consisiinjr 

a small banilH>o structure, stuck on sideways, with 
huge Imnch of artificial flowers at tlie back, which 

"lily less fantaslii- than the harlequin's cap of the 
'I'tli's runners at Teheriin, 

Willi nine out of every ten persons clad in white, 
''dwiih the entire ten adorned with these astonish- 
'-.»-. ing varieties of headgear, it may readily be 
imagined that street-life in .Siiul is not 
fXactly the same, for instance, us in I^trndoii or Xew 
^'""k. Xor are there any carriages, or wheeled 
^"hicles of wliats(»ever descTi|ition. lo suggest a 
"fsieni parallel. Ix>romoti(in is entirely pedestrian, 
'We for such piT^ons, usually ".'f hi;.'h eslMlo. as are 
i"-rche<! uiK)n the liack-* of the diminutive Korean 
["uies, clin<iin;j with difliculty lo liie ])onnnel of 
1 swldle, which lilts them almost as hijfli alwve the 

138 KOREA 

back of the animal as the latter is above the ground ; 
or as are borne along by shoutmg attendants in open 
chairs, or sedans. Next to ponies the most familiar 
animals encountered in the streets of SSul are mag- 
nificent bulls, marching along under vast stacks of 
brushwood, and behaving themselves with a docility 
that is quite extraordinary. They are the only other 
beast of burden known to the country, are highly 
prized, and fetch comparatively heavy prices. Chil- 
dren abound everjrwhere, and derive a peculiar grati- 
fication from sporting in the gutters. They are 
frequently clad in pink or some other bright colour, 
and are usually engaged in flying small rectangular 
painted kites, made of the wonderful oiled paper of 
the country.^ Kite-fighting consists in drawing one 
kite sharply across another when at a great height 
in the air, so as to sever the rival string. Another 

' The Koreau paper is the most remarkable native manufacture. 
It is made from more than one material, though usually from the 
inner bark of a mulbery-tree ; but there is hardly anything in Korea 
that cannot be made of it. After it has been soaked in oil of sesame 
it becomes both exceedingly durable and waterproof. As such it is 
used instead of carpets on the floors, instead of paper on the walls, 
instead of glass in the windows, and instead of white-wash on the 
ceilings. Clothes, hats, shoes, tobacco-pouches, and fans are made of it : 
so are umbrellas^ lanterns, and kites. Rooms are divided by paper 
screens ; clothes are kept in paper chests ; men travel with paper 
tnmks ; children play with paper toys. Then there are the oidinar>' 
purposes of writing and printing ; and so frugal are the Koreans, that 
even the examination-papers of the candidates in the literary examina- 
tions, instead of being thrown away, are disposed of for a few coppers, 
and subsequently do duty as improvised macintosh capes on the 
shoulders of the coolies, who go marching along in the rain, innocently 
parading the maxims of Confucius on their backs. The principal 
manufactory is in a valley watered by a stream butside the north gate of 
Soul ; and a steam paper-mill, with foreign machinery, has just been 
erected at Yang-hwa-chin on the Han, fotu* miles below the eapitaL 


popular urban nmiMenient is stone-throwing. Diffe- 
rent parlH of till* capital, which i)» dividtKl into fiv*; 
fjuju^crs or wards, or differt-nt villajfes, wage 6erc© 
warfare ua ao opun space of gi-ouml, driving each 
other backwards and forwards with showcTK of 
miodles. Tliew contests are conducted with great 
ferocity, and frequently result in loss of life. Even 
with the advance of civilifiation their saviiger^' has 
•carcel}' abated ; ihoagh the sport, which has nothing 
to recomtnend it, is said to be less popular than of 
Tore. It is not unUkc the cuMotn, still prevailing in 
one or iwo Knglish places, of an annual football 
match in the main street between two parts of a 
ifiwn, in which every one who likes may take part. 

A history of sack and siege has left wery few relics 
of aiiti<{uity either in the capital or in its neiglibour- 
rh-Big hood ; but, such as they are, I will describe 
*^" them. At the junction of the two main 

>tr€*i-t8, under a roofed pavilion, known as the Chong 
Kak. or liell Kiosque, and behind wooden bars, hangs 
a famous old bronze bell, which is reported, with a 
uioiIeKiy that I cannot think remarkable, since I have 
found it shared by at least half a dozen rival com- 
jtetitors in the course of my travels, to be the third 
largest in the world. It is in no respect an astoni.sli- 
iiig l>ell. I»eing without ornament, save for an inserip- 
lion, which relates that it was erected in A.n, 14C8, 
by Taiju Tai Woang. But the Americans an- said to 
have tried to get hold of it for Chicago ; and it never 
allowx its own presence to be forgotten by strangers, 
for it is banged with a swinging wooden beam every 

140 KOREA 

evening for some minutes between 7 and 9 p.m. 
before the gates are shut, and also before sumiae, 
between 3 and 5 a.m., as well as on other occasions, 
when there is a fire. The roads diver^bg from the 
Chong Kak are known as Chong Bo, or Bell Boads. 

It was close to the Bell l^osque that the stone 
was placed in 1866 by the old Begent, the Tai Wen 
Kun, who reigned before the present King 
had attained his majority, with an inscription 
calling upon the Koreans to kill all Christians ; nor 
was it till 1883 that it was finally removed. Adjoin- 
ing the same site are the only two-storeyed shops, or 
warehouses, in Soul. They belong to the Kmg, and 
are leased to the merchants of the six great trading 
guilds of Korea, who pay him a substantial price for 
the privilege of controlling the sale of Chinese and 
native silk, of cotton goods, of hemp and grass cloth, 
and of Korean paper. The shops open on to a narrow 
central court, but the goods there displayed, consisting 
of silk and cotton and figured gauze fabrics, Chinese 
shoes, native paper, and brass utensils,^ do not greatly 
attract the foreigner. He is more likely to pick up 
something amid the old rubbish lying upon the open 
stalls in the main street outside. 

In the back court of a mean hovel, at no great 
distance, stands a small and exquisite, though much 
defaced, white granite pagoda, whose ascending tiers 

' Among these it is unfair to pass without notice the national 
implement of Korea, a circular brass pot, with a lid, bnt no handk. 
which is carried about by the attendant of every respectable citiieo* 
and serN-es alternately as pillow, candlestick, ash-plate, spittoon, and 
pot de chambre. 


are richly carved with images of the seated Itnddhn. 
The lopmotti tier hna been broken off — it is Haid by 
•iM* (he Japanese during their invasion 3U0 y^arB 
fiOu ago — aiid is lying upon the ground hard 
by. Thifl monument was variously reported to me 
as having l»ceu bn)Uj;hi over from China by the 
CHuneae wife of a Korean monarch some eeveu 
caifcuriei ago, and as marking/ the site of what was 
once an importaiit Buddhist monaster}' in the heart of 
the city. Not far away stands a Chinese stde or tall 
granite pillar, with wreatlied dragons at the top, and 
an umlecipherable inscription on the face, repotung 
upon an immemw granite tortoise.' Tliere are a similar 
])illar and tortoise outside Siiul, about 7^ miles from 
the east gate, with an inscription in Cliiuese and 
Manrhu u\n>\\ the opposite faces, commemorating the 
iii-titutioii of tlie Korean king, wlio kmcUnced at 
iliis sjKit to the Mancliu con([ueror, upon his second 
invasion of Korea in 1G37, and renounced allegiance 
10 llic Mings in his favour. Between this pillar and 
the city i-s passed the Pen Kuang Kio, an old bridge 
of white f-tone slabs, resting upon twenty-one stone 

lieligion at present has but few altars in or near 

\» the capital. There is an altar to the t^pirits of the 

I.and (sometimes miscalled the Temple of 

IlcaveiiV c'onsisting of a liare o|>en platform, 

m-on which annual sarrifiees are offered by the King. 

.IS on the She Chi Tan in China and in Annani. 

' TTie lortoio* in Chintnc uiytholoiry i* oni' .if tlio iiinf (.tT-]irinB 
■ ■f ibe drmffon. anil i« plarcil below luemorial [nllnrH niiil gra\ e stunt'" an 
ui cnibleni of stTtnjjth. 

142 KOREA 

Inside the walls on the north-east is the Temple of 
Confucius, where there is the customary sanctuary 
containing the tablet of that philosopher, and a large 
building for students and literati. I also visited the 
Temple of the God of War, outside the southern gate, 
one of those semi-heroic additions to the Chinese 
pantheon (the god being reported to have been a 
real historical personage or distinguished general who 
was canonised by Imperial edict) which are familiar 
to the traveller in the Celestial Empire. The images 
in the temple are hideous beyond words, but in one 
of the courts is an interesting sun-dial in a basin ; 
and two side galleries contain a curious collection of 
genuine old helmets and armour, exactly like those 
which I shall shortlv describe in the Eoval ProcesaioQ, 
and a number of wall-paintings, representing batde 
scenes bv land and sea from the famous Chmese 
historical novel San Kuo Chili, or Record of the 
Three Kingdoms. 

One of the most conspicuous objects in Soul is 
the Hong Sal Mun, or Red Arrow Gate, erected at 
Red Arrow s^me distaucc from the Palace. This is a 
^''^** lofty wooden arch, some 30 feet high, painted 

red — the royal colour — and consisting of two per- 
pendicular posts, united at the top by two horizontal 
traverses, through which a number of red arrows 
are fixed with their points upwards. Tliis archway, 
which is of Tartar origin, and somewhat resembles 
the torii (or so-called bird-rests) which precede 
both Shinto and Buddhist temples in Japan, as well 
as the commemorative arch or pailoic in China, is a 


symbol of majesty aiul government in Korea, and is 
accordingly trecled in front of royal palaces, Govern- 
ment buildings, and tt^mpleg or mouaiiterieH (as at 
S»k Wang 8a) under royal patronage. In Siiul it 
niarlu the approach to the Xam I'iel Kung, or Palace 
of the Chinese Imperial Conitnisstoners. A not dis- 
similar bat far more elegant and purely Chinese stone 

an-hway, called the Geo Mini, stands about a mile 
outaide-the western ^'ate on the road to Peking, and 
marks the point to which the King goes forth to meet 
the Im{)erial Envoys. Xear to it is the Itokakan, or 
mansion in which he awaits tlieir arrival. 

Continuing past this gale to a point about three 
mileflfrom the city on the north-west, one arrives at a 
gigantic image of Huddha, lo feet high, wltich \\a>. 

144 KOREA 

been painted upon the upright surface of a huge 
fallen granite boulder. The figure is all white, but 
Tw the eves, mouth, ears, and head-dress have 

^ffl»* been coloured ; and a gaudily painted temple- 
roof has been erected as a shelter over the whole. 
One hand of the image is uplifted, the other reposes 
at his side. 

The place of execution used to be near the 
southern gate, where, after decapitation, the head- 
j^j^^^rtion- ^^^ trunk and trunkless head of the criminal 
^'^^'^ lay exposed for three days. The introduc- 
tion of the foreign element, with its scruples, has 
removed the scene of operations to a site some miles 
from the citv, where a friend of mine witnessed an 
execution of several culprits — the head never falliuL^ 
till after several slashes from a bin sword — and even 
painted a picture of the gruesome scene. 

Amonu the other environs of Siml, the onlv ones 
worthv of mention are the two roval retreats or 
^ , fortresses in the mountains of Pouk San and 
fortre^^s ^^j^^ K6)^ Sau, whicli are surrounded by 

walls and fortified, and are held bv monkish <rar- 
risons.^ To one or other of these, in times of 
invasion, revolution, or danger, the King escapes, 
provisions being stored there in anticipation of a 
lon^r sieae. The nearest of them is eleven miles 

' This clerical militia is a legacy from the davs when the Buddhist 
hierarchy was a f^eat power in the land, and produced statesmen ami 
warriors as well as devotees and students. The monasteries were then 
fortified buildinp:s, and were garrisoned bv their inmates. It was from 
one of these fortified monasteries that the French met with their di>a> 
trous repulse on Kanghwa Island in 1860. 

rns CAi'iTAi. ash court of Korea nn 

liUunt, and ia called Uokauzan. the wolk-d enclosure 
brin]; live milefi in rircuit. The larger is gixlcen 
mi)<-!i distAiit, and it« wall is seven inilen round. It 
is 4Talled Xunkaiizaii.' 

I next turn to the Itoyal I'alares. Just as tbt* 
fapilal is the rentre nf the kingdom, to whi<!li 
^^^,^^ evenbody and CTerytliinj: — society, officials, 
umKixw candidates, merchants, business, employment, 
relaxation — gravilnto. go diHis ihe entire life of the 
capital re%'olve round the centre of tlie Palace ami 
the King, The latter may lie a small pcrBona^re to 
thf* oqler world — perliapa a ]arf;e majority of math- 
kind may be unaware even of his cxislenrp — but to 
his subjects he ia something ovenvhelmingly great, 
while to tliese attributes is added, in tlie case of 
t'liina and of its oni-e dependent States, the prestige 
'>r a rank tliat is held divine, and entitles its wearer 
In \n- called the fym of Heaven. Xo celestial scion 
in the world in all probability exercises less influence 
ii[*<in its destinies than lUs Majesty the King of 
Korea: but thai does not in the least detract from 
lii< limlar miinence in Ihe eyes of Koreans, which an 
aii'icnt and in(Ic-xil)le etitjueite maintains in a be- 
toniing atmosphere of mystery and isohitioii, I'or- 
luiiately in the <'ase of Korea, the hedge of royal 
dignity, still unimpaired in the case of llic suzerain 
r<»wer and of the t'ourt at Peking, has been snfli- 
■ iently hritkcii through by the force of i-ircunislanres 

' Thi. ti..i.i Uili'-F..rt <.f \iii.mi» S«iwmm:'i.f Mn.Jnk n.uti.l. 
iVr-lhr Kiiie f'drril in wnr. whirll MIM' >it to w^.'n Imi^'ii,-.. or tliM'r 
-■-.■tr«. friiiii 8i."T. «ji" "liiriil witli three iciirH' [iri>vi-i"ii-, iin<l whk 
I by ■ rrliKiuuii-' 

146 KOREA 

during the past twenty years, to admit of audiences 
being readily conceded by a monarch, whom close 
contact reveals as an amiable personage, not less 
human — perhaps in certain respects rather more so 
— than the bulk of his fellow-creatures. 

There is quite a number of palaces in Soul. One 
of these, the Nam Kung, near the south gate, is 
j^^ ^j employed for marriage ceremonies, and has 
Palaces somctimcs been the residence of the Com- 
mander-in-Chief. Another, the Nam Piel Kung, near 
the west gate, is reserved for the accommodation of 
the Imperial Envoys from Peking. A third, the Un 
I^^on Kung, in the northern quarter, was fonnerly 
occupied by the Tai Wen Kun, or Eegent, the father 
of the reigning King, who practically usurped the 
throne during his son's minority, persecuted the 
Christians, tortured and killed the missionaries, and 
by his savage and reactionary policy forced upon 
foreign l^owers the first opening of the country, 

Tlie principal residence of royalty has usually 
be(*n in one of two palaces of much greater size than 
East, or those liitlicrto mentioned. Accounts van* 
Pai.u (. as to tlie respective antiquity of the pair, the 
one that is temporarily occupied by the Sovereign 
l)eing (!onimonly denominated the New Palace, pre- 
sLnna])ly because repairs have recently been requimi 
ill order to render it habitable. The two together 
occupy an enormous space, surrounded by wuUn 
and entered by j^reat gates, in the northern part ot 
tlie city ; and iu their precincts are included several 
hundreds oi* acres of enclosed but uncultivated L^rounJ. 


ending to iha summit of the north hill, a conical 
raUon covered with low scrub, that rises to a 
rp and lofty point just behind. As a matter of 
t, the m(n« easterly of the two palaces is the 
rer, having been erected for the Heir Apparent 
»Dt 400 years ago. It has thirteen gates and 
era an enormous space of groond, much of which 

laiil out in pardciis ami walks, and is ad<n"nt'(l 
li lotus-ponils, l)ridj.'c«. ami suinnuT-Iii»uses, It 
i fx'ruiiied by tlie Kitij: iti the early years after 
.icccssioii, was partly burned dowti in 18Sl*, was 
iiilt and re-fKrcujiieil, but a;jain deserted alter tin- 
x-Uioii uf 1.SS4, and, when 1 was in Snil in U^-'2. 
i without a tenant ; thou^di it was reported tliai 
King was poinp back there, lieeanse a snake had 

148 KOREA 

fallen from the ceiling of the Crown Prince's room in 
the other palace. Shortness of supplies, liowever, 
interfered with the execution of this design ; but the 
King had already connected the grounds of this palace 
by an enclosed passage-way at the back witli the 
other palace in whicli he was then residing. 

The latter, which is the more westerly and now 
the principal, is also the older building, having been 
West, erected 500 years a<]:o. It stands at the 

or Old "^ ^ 

Palace head of the broad thoroughfare known as 

Palace- street, the end of which is entirely filled bv 

its massive stone gateway, surmounted by a heavy, 

double-roofed pavilion. Outside the gate are two 

grotesque stone lions upon pedestals, and a ramp 

with eighteen low stone pillars on either side. In 

the l)ase of the gate- tower are three arched doorways, 

closed with wooden doors, adorned with painted 

figures. Of these the middle door, or Thoi Hwa 

]\ruu, is only opened for the ingress or egress of the 

King, or of a Minister Plenipotentiary going to present 

his credentials from his Sovereign; but theothersare 

tlie legiilar passage-way to the multitude of interior 

<()urts, which are crowded with officials, retainers, 

•soldiers, ministers, secretaries, lackeys, runners, and 

liaiiL'"ers-on of every description. Five hundred 

guards protect the royal person, the remainder of 

the irarrisou of 4,000 (which represents, under nonnal 

circunistaiu'os, the entire standing army of Korea) 

iH'iiiii: stationed in Ijarracks outside. There are 

flirt lirr report(Ml to be aI)out 2,000 retainers in the 

Palace (Miclosure. 


First c-otue Uvu imineDsu paved courts, surrountU-il 
by low buildings, and terminating in great {gateways. 
Una The Bt't-ond of these conducts to « furtlit-r 
laji w quadrangle, alao of great size, at the upper 
end of which, on a twofold terrace or platform, sur- 
rounded by white granite balustrades, and Jiscended 
by tri[»U' llij»hi8 of Kieps, the middlejnost of which are 




^ ' 





- :::--"7rwr>'" 








* — -■ 


■ ■ll>"(^ 


re**T\-ed for the palanquin in which is borne the 
myal person — stands the Great Hall of Andience, 
wherein is held the imposing pageantry of the annual 
Utxea on the King's birthday, on New Year's Day. 
and on other festive anniversaries. The building 
ODfuUtg of a great twin-roofed liall, constructed 
entirely of wood, the richly carved and reticulated 
ceiliog of which, painted red, blue, and green, is 

]-.> KOREA 

supported by immense v-ireular pillars, coloured red 
atx-ve and wliite at ibe base. It is empty except for 
a loftv scarlet dais facinir the entrance, and ascended 
by six steps, upon wliiclu in front of a beautifully 
carved scarlet and black screen of pierced woodwork, 
is i^laced the chair of state of the Kinjr. From tliis 
jH^sition he looks down upon the matted floor of the 
halL through the open doors on to the double terrace 
outside, and thence to the paved quadrangle, where 
twelve inscribed pillars on either hand indicate the 
various positions taken up by the diflerent ranks of 
r.obles and oflicials at the roval levees. The furthest 
i»f these is so distant as barely to render visible the 
;iUi:ii>t form of the Sovereimi. The idea of this 
s:>lendid Audience Hall, <irandiose in its mas^ve 
>implioity, is curiously analogous to the talars^ or 
throne-rooms, of the Persian kings from the days of 
]\irius to those of Xasr-ed-din Shah ; and the spectade 
which it ]uvsents on the great days of audience, like 
that which I shall describe inmv succeedincr work at 
Hue, is one of the few surviving and intact pageants 
of the Far Kast. 

Tn an adjoiniiiir (HMirt is tlie Summer Palace, a 
large hall or pavilion raised upon forty-eight i)illars 
smnnur ^^f J^touc, twt'lvc fcct high, in the middle ot 
rahice ^ lotus-pond. Hard bv mav also be seen 
the Chhi ChauL^ Hall, or Hall of Dili<jrence, the Yun 
Hall, or Hall of I)ei)artfd Spirits, which is used in 
the funeral celebrations of rovaltv, and the Chai Hall, 
or Hall of Fasting. The rear part of the building, 
where the King and his seraglio reside, consists of a 


umber uf Amallcr courti^, kiosques. nml jiitvilions, 
lorned with a ifood deal of brighi paintni^r, and 
OMSMing a certain fantastic ek-<;anc>e. Tlie electric 
crht waa inrtaUed in this part of llie I'alac-f by nrder 
■ ihc Kill}*, who has the Oriental's fondness for any 
'w and expensive inveiilioji ; but it ver\' soon came 

I •iTu-t. It w;is in one of the smaller cdificfs lliat I 
as adraittetl lr» an aiulienre witli His Majesty, 

I,i Ilsi, King of Korea (whose ori;.'inal Korean name 
;i-« Mini;r I'ok-i"), is the twenty-eighth sovereign of the 
'^ K<nt reigning dynasty. He was liie iicjiliew of 
' ^^""^ I.i Hwaii. the la>t king but one. wli-> having 
» children had lieeii suceeeded by In^ untie I.i I'ing. 
h<<al'u»diedi-liildlessin 18(i4. 'riKTea|i<)n ilie young 
jy. at that time twelve years of nge, was selected 

152 KOREA 

ss heir bv the Bo jal Council, and was adopted by lus 
great-grandmother, the Queen Dowa^per Chao, the 
widow of the Crown Prince li Ying, who had nevet 
socceeded to the throne. This 6IA lady died in 1890- 
The young Sovereign bdng a minmr, the roy^ 
authority was rested in a Council of B^ency, one 
,i^^^ whom, liHsiaYing, the father of the boy 
w«n Km ^ jj^^2^ ^f great strength of character, t 

advantage of his position to usurp the chief powe::=== 
Nominally as Begent, with the title of Tai Wen Kui 
Lord of the Great Court, he ruled the kingdom wit^ 
great severity from 1864 to 1873. He it was wh 
was responsible for the furious persecution of th 
Christian missionaries that broiight the unsuccessfur- 
French expedition of 1866 into Korea, and for tli -^ 
frantic anti-foreign crusade which eventually brok^^ 
down under the combined pressure of the foreigr^ 
Powers. He was once aptly described by a nativtr* 
writer as having * bowels of iron and a heart of stone. ' 
Upon the assumption by the King of full sovereignty 
in 187o, and the subsequent opening of the countn\ 
the Tai Wen Kun headed the Conservative or Eeac- 
tionary party, against all treaties and all foreigners, 
and is believed to have instigated the first outbreak 
against the Japanese Legation in 1882, when an 
attempt was made to kidnap the King and to kill the 
Queen,' and when the Japanese Minister, Hanabusa, 

* So universally were ^oth the Queen and the Crown Prince believe*! 
to have been killed, that their death was printed as a fact in Mr. W. E. 
(triffis* Hermit Nation^ which was pnblished shortly afterwards. It 
bein^ undesirable for a while to reveal the truth, national mourning 
for a year was even ordered, and was observed for the full period. It 


il liio following had lo retreat fifilitiiig to C1iemuliM>, 
wre ihty were pirktd tip l»y a British mau-of- 
\T. Yen* shortly the Jajiam-sc Minister reappeared 
ih demaiuls fur immediate and ample rfi>ar»lion ; 
,t. while the nejp)tiatiotis Ntill liiifjered, the sky was 
ddeiily "'leared by a lhimderb)Il taumlifd by Li 

iiiijr Chang, the fireat t'liinese Viceiuy, who had 
i/eil the opportunity to reas,-ert the com prom ist-d 
zt-niinty of his Iiiipcrial niasior. The Tai Wi-n 
jii was himself kiihiapped and dt'porlcd lo China, 
it-n- h« was kept a prisoner at I'aoliiig Kn. 

«n|Uviill.v truiKpiml thnt tile giiivii hni) >h"Ii iiiiiiii;i;1<d "Ml iii 
niH »» the wir« of ft »»l>lier, kiiJ ibit i>iif i>f tlir (Kiiri litili>'« liii.l 
■n lulled ill Iiit place. 


154 KOREA 

During his absence in 1884, a second revolution, o^ 
somewhat similar character, broke out in the capital- ^ 

fix>m which the King only escaped by jumping on ^^^^ 


the back of a eunuch, in which not too dignified po^^^' 
tion he was carried into the Chinese camp outside Sou:::^^ 
After matters had been somewhat composed, the Kii ^g 
began to think that the abilities of the old Eege^*^^ 
might perhaps after all be more usefully employ^sd 
at home; and accordingly he himself applied "t^^ 
China for his restoration. It cannot be said that tt"^^ 
experiment was a success, so far as the relations ^'^^ 
the pair were concerned, for in the summer of 181F ^ 
a determined attempt was made by the politic^^ 
opponents of the Tai Wen Kun to blow him up wit^^ 
gunpowder, though the misdirection of the explosive' ' 
which blew out the side of the room which h ^ 
occupied, instead of the floor, saved the old gentle ^ 
man's life. It could not fail to be remarked that th^^ 
King evinced no solicitude at the miraculous escape:^ 
of liis parent — a callousness which was the nior^ 
extraordiuarv in a countrv where Confucianism ha^ 
inculcated filial respect as the highest duty. The 
Tai Wen Kun, now seventy-two years of age, is stilJ 
living, and is probably expecting to be blown up again. 

' The leader of tliis revolution, Kim Ok Kiun, who escaped at the 
time and lived for some years as a refugee under Japanese protectioD 
at Kioto, havinf( incautiously proceeded to Shanghai, was murdered 
there in the sprin*,' of 1894 by a fellow-countryman, it is said at the 
direct instigation of the King. Anyhow, his remains, upon being taken 
back to Korea by order of the Government, were there subjected t«) 
mutilation and public exposure ; the remaining members of his fSuuily 
were put to death, and the murderer was loaded with honours. Korea 
never so sucoessfiiUy vindicated her claim to exclusion from the pale 
of civilisation. 


To tbf n-tnarkable experiences wliirh I have related 
lie also adds the acc-umplislimriiUi of an iirtist ; and 
I aiii the possessor of an excellent signed pen-and-ink 
drawing by bin hand. 

With the escuptiuu of ilic two alwve-nienlioned 
revoh* in 1882 and 1884, which were in both cases 
TWK^s ^t^ rcsuh of political and Court intrigue, 
"** rather than of any popular movement, the 
King has until thi* present year occnpie<l lln* throne 
ibr twenty years without menace or peril. Upon 
biJth thow occasions, thouj.'h the external symptom of 
<I>e outbreak was an attack upon the Japanese Le- 
paiifwi, who invariably represent the least jiopular 
element of society in Siiul, the real object of the con- 
''pirators was to capture, without injuring, the person 
"f the Kin;;, whose seal anil signature lend a much 
'oveted sanction to the succcj^sful faction.' It was 
"t>t the life of the Sovereign that was aimed at it) 
*"lier case ; but the influence of those under whose 
'■""Urol he was, and is supposed t<i be. In February 
'^1 the present year (1S!M) a plot was discovered for 
oliiinDg up with gunpowder the King, Crown Prince, 
s"d chief Ministers of State wliile on a visit to the 
H'lyal Ancestral Temple; but wlial the exact object 
"f ihis Korean Ouy Fawkes may have been, or who 

' The perxin of ihe Sovcroic" is \\p'\<\ sncrpil ami itiviolnble— hi» 
'nl wfrKOkrd aifminBt ftSB«Kginntioii : l>it( it U lli<- rnval kcuI tliitt in thn 
f'Trttd object. Till recent veam n chBdiri' of liftrlv in Kiireun i"iin-m- 
■nrat Iwliifh there is no iiiaehinerv for elTi'i'lin^- l-y n i^i'iieriil elcrtinnl 
■uinvtriablt curieil out an follonx :- Tlie n>it»|'imtorK t-nlhiTi-tl in 
raAeiral nuuibcrii in llic I'nlnci-. «<']/>. I uml nN^iH-iriiilirl lln' U'ltili-ra of 
liwfiuvrmmrnt. Uiilliolili>f tlitKinifiinil I'filif Hnil orSlnlr. itiiil ruiu- 
p«>lM bill) to nifCTi the warrants for ilie i'\t'i'iili<>n of tlif luuTiit'rei) 
« sell a« their own caiiirni»Kioii!i. 

156 KOREA 

were the real instigators of the design, has not yet 
transpired. It is generally supposed to have been 
the old Regent's reply to the attempt upon himself 
two years earlier. Whether the father, or the son, 
will first succeed in this campaign of competitive 
explosion it will be interesting to observe. 

His Majestv is a man of much amiabilitv of clia- 
racter ; and many instances are related of his personal 
His cha. charm of disposition and bearing. K he does 
"^ ^' not share the bigotry, neither does he inherit 
the determination of his father ; and placed as he b^ 
been in difficult circumst^mces, for which, by trainior 
and tradition, he was equally unprepared, there a^^ 
many excuses to be made alike for volatility of pu^' 
pose and irresolution of action. He takes a kee^^ 
zest in anv new discoverv or invention, but is \\o^ 
free from the superstitions of his race and country- 
It will be accounted a remarkable fact in historv that 
both Japan and Korea should have undergone in tb^ 
second half of the present century the greatest revo- 
lution in their annals, under the sceptre of sove- 
rei»rns whose personality struck in neither case a very 
definite or individual note. 

The most powerful influence in the Palace, and 

indeed in the country, is reported to be that of the 

Queen, the members of whose family, known 

Tlie Queen , ' 

as Min, have been introduced into nearly 
every position of importance or emolument about tbe 
Court and in the Government, and have thereby 
accjuired an ascendency which is the cause of great 
political jealousy and intrigue. The Queen's infor- 


iiitH ami «pies are said to \w evtn'where, and 
ihing » (lone withotit her kiiowletlgo. It was 
ninst this omcitpoiciii influciurt* that ilie Tai Wen 
in (lirerled »ll tlu- forces al liis disposal ; ami ib 
A long boi'U felt in Korea that the emotions of the 
«tile and disoom6[r-4l pnrly mav ai any time cultni- 

ilf in an oiitltriMk in wliirii lieails ni:iv fall. The 
iiwn is l)erHv.'(l not to (.-iijoy vny lolmst licahli ; 
id ill the event i)f any iii-i-itU-iit tn !nr, the powerful 
an of tlie Min^ would ptol.ably .xp.iieiue lively 

TheKiiij.'s ehU-sl son hy ih.ljii.viu l.i \U\:\ l.y 
line, id the Heir A]ip iient.ur C'n>w]i I'riiKU', and w;l3 

158 KOREA 

bom in 1873. His abilities, however, are so much 
below the average, and there is so little chance of 
f^ Crown ^^^ founding a family, that his position in the 
Pnnoe gtatc is Icss important than it might otherwise 
be ; and attention has lately been directed to another 
and elder son of the King by a concubine, of whom 
more may be heard in the future. 

The Korean monarchy is absolute, hereditary, and 
divine. The King is master of the lives and property 
Theory of ^^ ^^^ subjccts and of the entire resources of 
monarchy ^j^^ kingdom. All officcs are held at his 

pleasure. His word is law. In his person is concen- 
trated every attribute of Gtovemment. If in relation 
to China he is a humble vassal, in his own dominions 
lie is supreme. The opening of Korea to the world 
has, however, not been accomplished without dealing 
many and inevitable blows at the peculiarly sacro- 
sanct character of the royal authority, upon which 
stress has been laid by so many writers.* This ha^ 

* Dallet, and Griffis, in the main copying from him, describe 
several features of Court ceremonial, and of the Korean theory of 
kingship, which were probahly derived from the ancient statutes of the 
kingdom, but which have long been, or are now, obsolete. These 
fictions have attained a wide popularity, mainly owing to their repeti- 
tion in works of comparative sociology such as ' The Golden Bough,' 
by J. G. Frazer (2 vols., 181K)). The latter, in vol. i. pp. 164, 172, savs 
that the Kings of Korea are shut up in their palaces from the i^ of 
twelve or fifteen ; that if a suitor wishes to obtain justice of the King he 
sometimes lights a great bonfire on a mountain focingthe Palace ; that 
when the King goes out of the Palace, all doors must be shut, and each 
householder must kneel before his thresliold with a broom and a dust- 
pan in his hand, whilst all windows, especially the upper ones, must be 
sealed with strips of paper, lest someone should look down upon the 
King ; that no one may touch the King ; and that, if he deigns to touch 
a subject, the spot touched becomes sacred, and the person thu> 
honotured must wear a visible mark (generally a cord of red silk) for 


iK-en nflected lieyoml repair, and will jrradually con- 
tract Into the moro imxlpst conception of kiiig9hii> 
that has been evolved hy \VesU*rn experittice. 

BeTure proceediii}! to tlie royal aiidicnee. lenjoyeil 
an interview with the I'reHidenl of the Korean Foreign 
ABdMw Office,' an uld fit-iitleinan with a faultless 
V^^ bLirk Iiat, u b«'tiign and sleepy expression, 
i(j»Mn plump cliw*k!i, and a lon^ thin grey moustache 
juiil iH'ard. I Femend>er some of his ([nestions ami 

tb» nat nf Ilia tife- Xol aa» iifilia** iiWrvMico* !■ now lUKinUiiU'd. 
S wil ot* wMuBK lo abuin » Iwnuin^ bnni th* KiuK Aa not light • Imiii- 
At*, but iU cnlMib tba r«liuv|{Kt« villi iheir pttilian plM«il an ■ 
taUc in IhMit DfUmn, until tlir fw^t U n-panni ta llu> Kini[. m)iI Uu' 
[•tiliiMi i* InLvn It) ukI cniiM.UrviI. Whrti i)i« Kioveiw* mil ..f thf 
I'klace in proeeMiion. the ■hop* bIomk the rout« «re eliised, but no re- 
■trirtUin ia placed upon the Hpoctutore, who crowil the strecta. nnil even 
the riMiftops. cuiniiiK in from tho cciuntry in tlioiiMtndB ti> Bpe tli<' 
p*cc«nt: nor ia an,vol>ei»«nceriH{uired frrnu them. Ketlttirdleii.uhicli 
itt* <|uite roRininn. have also ceoseil to bear the alle){e<l aij^iticanre. 
Other ■tklementn jioputBTlj- repeated \f.g. in tho 'Enr\rlop(cdia Ilri- 
tuinirs'l.that it ia Mcrilene tii utter the Kinx'R Dtune, and hi|;h treaitoii 
to tiinrhhini with irun.nnil tW every horseman must diunoiint when 
pAMlnK the I'alai-e, are eijiiall; erroiieoQS. Only thoae official* di»- 
luimnl who prupuse to enter the Palace. Similarly the oft-ifnotcd mio 
f.Tbiddinf^any Korean Kubjefllo((o nnt at night in Siiul. except wniiien, 
'•Ihciala. and blind jieraoni, hu fallen into lU'auetude since the nnuibtT 
.>f rhiorM and Jai>aneBe in th« city, and of aennnta in thi' eiuploy 
iif forfijpiera, has rendi-reil ita enron-ement iliipoasible. 

' Tlu-re arc ihrce prinripol Minislt'rF< of Stale in Kuren. di-nonii- 
•iate<l Ciincillora <if the Middle. I^n. and lliRht. Tlu-re aro ntM> .it 
(ioieninicnt l»e part men 1-. namely, the Officers of (i.i Civil Affairs ur 
i'lblif Kmplnv : (ii.) finance, i r. the Trtiutnrv ; (ili.l Kites ,.r ftr.-- 
i.>.>ni»>nd I>ub)ie lu.lnirlion ; >iv.l War; iv.) Jimtice : oi.l I'uldic 
\\,.rk*. To theae. since thi' i<p<-ninK .4 tlie e<iinitry. ha^c Ix-en addtnl 
i>» new deparimenia^lhe .V.ri-mu /in. ..r tlome Olfi<-e. »hic1i lia^ 
. I'TfMd-'nt. l».. native Vice rrc«iiiini-. two foniini Vic.-I'resia.nt-^ 
<(.aiui-ly. the K..riii,'n Adxiwra). .mi' l'..iincill.>r. and a .inlTi.f twenty. 
!]><' rlerk*. and wliirh haH tirttutlly Biii<erM'd<'d the »1<I -iv Iniard- ; 
uwl tlie ih-a-iiiun. at Kureiftn Office, with a fimiLir iTiiAnisHtion. 
■ hHrh was fumierk iiniler the Minialer «f ('I'rctnuiiie-.. Iliirc htititi)f 
b(«n in those daja pr4rtically no Fureipi Afliiir-'. 

160 KOREA 

answers. Having been particularly warned not to 
admit to liim that I was only thirty-three years old, an 
age to which no respect attaches in Korea, when he put 
to me tlie straight question (invariably the first in an 
Oriental dialogue), ' How old are you ? ' I unhesita- 
tingly responded, ' Forty.' * Dear me/ he said, 'yon 
look very young for that. How do you account for it ? ' 
' liy the fact,' I replied, * that I have been travellinfr 
for a month in the superb climate of His Majesty's 
dominions.' Hearing that I had been a Minister of 
the Crown in England, he inquired what had been 
my salary, and added, ' I suppose you found that by 
far the most agreeable feature of office. But no 
doubt the perquisites were very much larger still' 
Finallv, conscious that in his own countrv it is not 
easy for anyone to liecome a member of the Govern- 
ment, unless he is related to the familv of the Kintr 
or (iueen, he said to me, ' I presume you are a near 
relative of Her Majesty the Queen of England 
'No,' I replied, 'I am not.' But, observinjr ^''*' 
look of disirust that passed over his oountenaiitH\ I 
was fain to add, 'I am, however, as vet an unmarri^'n 
man,' with whicli unscrupulous suggestion I coiu- 
])l(*tclv retrained the old gentleman's favour. 

Til the Valace everything — dress, deix)rtment, 
movement, gait — is regulated by a minute and ^it^' 
(..nrt«in>.s coiu piXMuisiiig ctiqiiett^i. I'pon one 0''<'^' 
.ti-iu.'tt. sion a British Consul was not admitteil to 
andicnec with tlu^ King, because, having packed np 
his uniform, he c^ame onlv in eveMiinif dress. H^^' 
middle and lower ollieials wear brijjhtlv-colourtHl 

THK CAflTAL AXO COf'fiT Of KOI/t'A 161 

» of scAfltft, ))lue, ttuil yellow ; but ilic iiiiiiUterit 
chief iiutablt-e affect a riclier and more sober 
usually dark hint- or imcc, t\w material beiiiy 
gUTud eilk. Oil the Iwsom in fixed a ptaiilroii or 
ul of eoanie embroider)', representing a tiger, or 
(, or fiomt- oilier svmlmHc;iJ (Tcaturc; while 

lid tin- %vaist is worn a l»r>>ad lielt, varii)U8l\- 
•nieil witli ffold, silver, jadf, iviuv. or linrii. whii-li 
jeils several iiu'hes tVoiu tin- person, like 
lio«ip of a beer-barrel tliai li;i- started from its 
'e. On the head rejio.-es om- i.f" tlie win-jed liaras 
i<-li I have before deM-riiied. i- also a 
uhar strut, whi<-h is known as iln- 'i/aii'//-/ii walk," 

162 KOREA 

and which all ministers or nobles affect when they 
appear in public. It is a slow and measured move- 
ment, with the feet planted rather wide apart, and 
an indescribable but unmistakable swing of the body 
that is most comic. The main attribute or manifes- 
tation of dignity in Korea seems, however, to be that 
its possessor is incapable of moving without support. 
Unsustained he would, I suppose, fall to the ground 
from the sheer weight of his own importance. Ac- 
cordingly, a minister, if seen walking in the streets, 
is invariably supported by one, sometimes by two 
attendants, who deferentially prop him up under the 
arm or arms, as he slowly and consequentially struts 
along. If he be mounted,. the same theory prescribes 
that he shall be held on to his saddle by retainers 
rumiiiig on either side. Thus upheld, the Minister 
for Home Affairs and the President of the Foreign 
Ollice were solemnly escorting me to the presence oi 
rovalt V, when I suddeulv seemed to observe a vacuum. 
The .supi)orters had disappeared, and the ministers 
hud hurled themselves, forehead forward, on to the 
ijfround. Mv old friend, who was far advanced m 
years, must have found it extremely trying. 

The Kiiijf was standing in a small, brightly- 
painted pavilion, which opened on to one of the 
Amiitnr.f minor eourts of the Palace. His hands 

^vitli tin? 1 • 1 1 • 1 - 

Kin- rested upon a table, on which a hideous 

Hrusst^ls table-cloth half concealed a gorgeous pie<*^ 
of Chinese einbroidiM'v. Jiehind and around him 
were clustered the Palace (uniuchs in Court dresses. 
At the side stood the iut(»rpreter, with his shoulders 



, head Ijowed in attitiidf of the lowest reverence, 

Ksting the wonU which the King whispered in his 

On either aide stood the two sword-bearers of 

He, and at a little distance the two Ministers, who 

resumed an eri-cl pouiiion. Upon the royal 
w was a double- tierexl violet headpiece. His 
e was of scarlet figured silk — the royal colour — 
1 panels of gold embroidery upon the shoulders 

breaat. and a L'old-studded projecting belt. Li 
U a m:m of ismall Htature and ftiillow complexion, 
a hair drawn tightly up from the forehead be- 
th the Korean skuU^.-ap, very slight eyebrowa, 
II. viva.-ious Ma-k cm-, lecili diMolourfd from 
wing the betel, a piece of whi'h he continued to 
licate throiigliout the interview, and a sparse 
■k moustache and tufi below the chin. The 
g's countenance wears a singuhuly gentle and 
Lsing expression ; and in the course of the 
iencf, which lasted about twenty minutes, and 
t-nlirely conducted by His M;ijesty in person, he 
ice<l the most lively interest in the frJt-ndsliip and 
■iideration of Great Britain, and a personal regard 
tlie services of Mr. W. (.'. liillier, the capable 
■er by wlioni the Quft-n was at thai time repre- 
*ii in Siul. After the audience with ilie King I 

ninducted to another pavilion, where I was 
ilarly rei-eived by the (_'ri>wn I'rini-i-. But his 
itioiis 'ir reinarki. whicli wer.' diriated to him 
hi^* 'liiff cnmicli, were y^i no intttesl, and the 
■rvifW was one tif mere ••erfninny. 
Tin- true comicality, howt-vt-r, of the Korean 

164 KOREA 

Court can only be properly estimated upon one of 
the occasions, somewhat rare in occurrence, when 
-g^ ^j the King goes in state through the city to 
proceaaiod ^jgj^ g^^g temple or tomb. Of one such 
function I was the interested witness. From an 
early hour in the morning the streets were guarded 

by military, of a species unique in the world. Tin.- 
infantry lined the roadway, and were for ilu' 
most part lyinj: !isk'i.-p upon tlie ground. They liad 
alniosl as many flags as men ; and their muskets. 
wlii(!li I cxaniinc'd as they stood piled together. wiTf 
couiinoiily (Icstitutt eitliiT of hammer, trigger, or 
plate, sonietitnt-s of all three, and were frequently 


ouly held together by string ; while llio bayonelH 
were Wiit and rusty. Infinitely more remarkable, 
however, were the eavalrj*. These were elad in 
umformn probably 8f»nie 300 years old. coiisigting 
of a batleretl liebnet with a spike, and of a cuirass of 
bUck leather studded with bra«s iKJSSfS, and worn 
over a hea^"}' jerkin of moth-eaten brocade.' Enor- 
mous jaek-boot« completed ihc costume, and rendered 
it difficult for the men to monnt their steeds, even 
although thcite were rarely more than eleven hands 
liigh. Banners of yellow, red, and green, with a tuft 
of pb^sMnt-feathers at the top, and stacks of arrows, 
were rarriod iu front of the oiBcers, who were with 
dilficiiliy r*tiii]>nrtod by s^fiuirt-s niton tlieir jiyrMniidal 
saddles. The middle of the roadway was supposed 
to be kept clear, and was strewn with a riband of 
sand, about a foot and a half in breadth ; but this 
was trampled upon and scattered almost as soon as 

Throughout the morning processions of ministers, 
rourtiers, and officials passed along on their way to or 
from the Palace. The majority of these were borne 
by shouting retainers in open chairs, on the back 
of which rested a leopard-skin. In some cases the 
sedan was also supported by a single leg underneath, 
terminating in a wheel, which ran along the middle 
of the roadway, easing the burden and increasing 

' Compare the sccoont of Hftuiel. 240 \rant nei- ; -'Their Hotm- 
»r±t Catnmtn, Ueadpiecei, and SworilK. an bJm) Itnun niiil .Kmins. 
ukl n~hipa like oun, only that thein bavi- hiiiaJI iron I'oiols. Tlicir 
} o<A u weU u Ihe,v wear kCuneli-I. a Ilinapifce. a Suonl. aii.l 'SUykvK 
or Half pikt. The Ofllcert carry nothing but Bows anil Arrnuo.' 

166 KOREA 

the pace of tlie bearers in front and behind. Some 
of the officials wore gilt helmets of pasteboard, with 
Chinese characters upon the back. The Chinese 
Eesident, the principal personage in the city, as 
representing the suzerain power, dashed past in 
a black velvet sedan, swiftly borne by stalwart 
Celestials with red tassels. Upon either side of 
the street the white-robed crowd were pressed 
back against the house-fronts, and were prodded 
by the soldiers with their muskets, or spanked by 
active runners, who laid about them liberally with 
long wooden paddles. On the occasion of the 
previous procession the mob had been suffered 
to approach too nearly to the person of royalty; 
and a notification had in consequence appeared 
in the ' Official Gazette,' docking the Minister of 
War of three months' salary for his faulty arrange- 

At length, after hours of waiting, the Palace doors 
were thrown open, and there issued forth the most 
motley procession ever seen outside of London on 
Lord Mayor's Day, or in the Christmas pantomime at 
Drury Lane. The soldiers snatched up their vene- 
rable muskets, or climbed on to their microscopic 
steeds. The banners were plucked up, and danced 
in lines of colour along the streets. First from the 
Palace irates emerged a company of men in red ^ 
mitres, carrying scarlet lacquered chairs ; then a 
similar band in bine. Presently appeared the Royal 
^>tandard, on which was emblazoned a mighty dragon 
upon a ground of yellow silk. The sound of drmns 

j I 



succeeded ; ami tliere was a shoyt to keep silence. 
In the centre of a ninning crowd there ibUowed 
upbonie a single empty sedan, coloured the royal 
red. I heard two explanations given of tliis episode. 
One was that in fonni>r dayg, when eti([uette had not 
beeu Bulliciently relaxed to admit of any portion of 
the royal person Iwnig seen, two identical chairs were 
used iu the processions, no one knowing which of 
the pair contained the King, much iti the same way 
IU an empty train frequently precedes or follows that 
oODlainiog the Kuxsiaii Czar, with a view to frustrate 
the possible designs of conspirators. The other 
theory wxt that llie first chair in kept intentionally 
empty, in order to hoodwink the evil spirits who 
would be likely to assault it in the idea that they had 
got hold of the royal person. I have also heard it 
suggesteti that the empty Utter raay contain the 
ancestral tablets of the royal family. Next came a 
long procession of the King's valets, in yellow robes 
and tiny straw hats, with worsted rosettes, perched 
siileways on their heads ; the corps of royal drum- 
mers, beating with frantic flourish the royal drums; 
a medley of cavalry, shambling along without the 
least attempt at onler; a small detachment of 
artillery, dragging after lliem two small Gatliiig 
guns; files of runners, in alternate bluf and green 
gauze, stretching across the street ; a company of 
flute-players, blowing a lusty monotone on a shrill 
note; then a rush of feet and shouting of voices to 
make way, and a phalanx of sturdy licarers, clad in 
reil, with double mitres on their lieads, ruiniing 

168 KOBE A 

swiftly, and supporting in a canopied chair of state, 
with red silk screens and tassels, the uplifted person 
of the King. As he passed along he looked to right 
and left, and the movement of the bearers made him 
bob up and down. At a little distance behind fol- 
lowed the Crown Prince, in spectacles, in a similar 
scarlet palanquin, carried by men in green mitres ; 
and then came a heterogeneous jumble of courtiers, 
generals, colonels, matchlock-men, and tottering 
cavaliers ; the procession being closed by the Euro- 
pean-drilled troops, who made some attempt to march 
in step, and whose commander, heralded by stento- 
rian cries, carried an immense banner on his own 
shoulder. Later on, towards dusk, I met the same 
procession returning. Everything and everybody 
had got thoroughly mixed up in the narrower streets : 
soldiers and citizens, colonels and chamberlains, were 
all wedged together in inextricable confusion ; but, 
above the heads of the crowd, ever oscillated the 
scarlet palanquin of the King, lit up by lanterns of 
blue and crimson silk, tossing at the pikeheads of the 
infantrv soldiers. 

It will have been gathered from the above 
description that the Korean Army is not the least 
Korean Tottcu adjuuct of thc Korcau monarchy. 
''^""•'' Those infantrv re^riments that have been 
taught by foreigners and that constitute the garrison 
of the capital, 4,000 strong, are said to show a 
capacity for drill and discipline. Up till the Rebellion 
of 1884 they were officered by Japanese; but since 


hal tlnle Uiey have Iwen in the hands of twu 
\.inencan (Iritl-inKlruclorH. who possess the hi^'h- 
lowTi lilies of Vice-PreeidL-nt and Cxinncillor of ihe 
Hoard of War, but who exercise no comniaiid, and 
lo not accompany their men on to the tleld. This 
brce is divided into tliree battalions, and is armed 
(nth rifles of a (.Tcat variety of pattern. Its native 
jfficers are Iwneath vonlempt. There is ati arsenal 
Ki-ke-kuk) in Siiul with foreipi machinery; but it 
iS (inly iiwd for the repair of arms. As for the 
jiurely native re^riments, they are not a standing 
irmy but a standing joke; while in Europe the 
lavalrj* would with difficulty secure an engagement as 
'upers in the pantomime of a second-rate provincial 

t »nce every twenty or tiiirty years a review is 
lield of the entire force on a parade-ground outside 
>ui^ the city, the experiment being so costly that 

""'" it cannot be more fre<|uently repeated. As 
:i -jH-ctacle it is more unitiue evf;n than tlie royal 
linxession. One such review was held during the 
[last summer. It was announced to begin at 9 a.m., 
but from that liour till 5 i'.m. were the 30,000 
spectators on the ground compelled to wait, before 
ihe vanguard of the royal corti'ye appeared. This 
I onsisled of no fewer than 10,000 persons, in the midst 
if whom the King and Crown rrince rode on horse- 
liack. The troops, 7.000 to S.OOO Iti number, then 
riiarrlied past the saluting-i)oinI. saluting by bowing 
iheir bodies to the ground. So unsatisfactory, how- 



ever, was the display held to have been that there 
was great fluttering in the military dove-cots, and 
the Commander-in-Chief was forthwith degraded 
from his post. It is now contemplated to hold 
a review of the troops drilled upon the modem 

i ( 

' 1 

1 i 

i * 



DiogMiM Al«uu)dro roguiti at dic«ri-i ■{ ijnul opn» mmI, ■ Sudo 
qnidam pwiUalnm,' inqoit, * a aole.* C'ii-kku, Tuie. DUp-f. 

If the people, the scenery, the rapital. and the Court 
of Korea have each an individuality tliat diatiii- 
An Atuiic guislies them from similar phenomena in 
™-™ other countries, there are yet in the 

Korean polity, viewed as a form of jruvernment, 
features inseparably associated with tlie Asiatic sys- 
tem and recognisable in every unreformed Oriental 
i*tale from Teheran to Siml. A royal fijriireliead, 
enveloped in the mystery of the palace and the harem, 
burronnded by concentric rings <if eunuchs. Ministers 
of State, oflirials, and retainers, and rendered almost 
intangible by the predominant atmosphere of in- 
trigue ; a hierarchy of office-holders and office-wekers, 
who are leeches in the thinnest disguise; a feeble 
and insignificant army, an impecunious ex<hequer, a 
debased currency, and an impoverislicd people — 
these are the invariable symptoms of the fast vanish- 
ing r^ijimt of the older and uniedeemetl < 'rieutal type. 
Add to these the first swarming of ilu- Itoek of 
foreign practitioners, wh<» seent tlie enfeeliled consli- 


174 KOREA 

enable his exchequer to recover financial equilibrium, 
still further mortgages the fast dwindling resources 
of national wealth and independence. The amount 
of the royal revenue cannot be ascertained ; but it 
is derived from the following, sources : — (1) a Land- 
tax, which is principally paid in grain, and fluctuates 
according to the nature of the harvest ; (2) a House- 
tax, very capriciously assessed and levied ; (3) the 
Customs Revenue, which is levied upon imports and 
exports at the three Treaty Ports, and which in 1891, 
the high-water mark yet reached, amounted to over 
90,000/., but which, with a new tariff classification, 
the opening of another Treaty Port,^ and a preventive 
service to stop the enormous amount of smuggling 
that prevails, might be very greatly increased ; (4) 
the proceeds of the (jinsemj monopoly ; * (5) the pro 

' The British and subsequent Foreign Treaties with Korea stipulated 
for the opening of a further Treaty Port, Yang-hwa-cliin on the river 
Han, as a river-port for the capital. If the steam-traffic on the Han ij^ 
(leveioped, Yong-san or Hyong-san, which is only three miles from Soul, 
mi^'lit be selected. Tlie greatest advantage would result to the country 
from the opening of Pyong-yang on the Taidong river, which is only 
served by small native steamers and junks. 

"' Ginseng {Panax quinque folium) is the plant, of the Araliacca 
or Ivywort tribe, whose root is so immensely valued for medicinal 
and recuperative purposes in China. One of its principal areas of 
production is Korea, where it both grows wild in the forests of the 
north (fabulous sums being sometimes paid for a single root), and is 
artificially cultivated under screens. A less valuable variety of the 
same plant is also produced in America, principally in Virginia. Red 
or clarified ginsnu/y which is prepared by steaming the root over boilinj; 
water, is a monopoly of the King in Korea. Its export, except by 
a single guild, is prohibited by treaty, and is punishable by death 
For years it has been farmed out to the Chung In, a body who used 
to accompany the Tribute Mission to Peking as interpreters, in which 
capacity they did a little trade on their own account. They are now 
a close corporation, and are said to pay the King firom 80,(XH)/. to 
100,000/. a year. A tax is also levied upon the growth and export if 


c«4m1s of oilier mouopoliea or Govcrument-licences, 
rach fiA gold-mi Ding, .ind the various Trade guilds ; 
(6) irregular taxation. 

It is eiglileeu years aince tlie first Foriiigu Treaty 
wa« signed whh Japan in iS76. I^aler corivemions 
rMMn opened Gensan in 1879, and Chemulpo in 
TnMwa iggO; and fnrilitr Trade and Fishery Eegu- 
Utions were concluded between the two C-iovernments 
in 1883 and IS8H. The Chmese Trade Kegulaliuiis 
arid the American Treaty were signed in 188'i. 
Ctreat Britain and Germany followed in 1S83, RtiJtsia 
uid Italy in 1884, France in 1880. An Overland 
Trade t'onventinn wan also concluded with Eussia in 
18S8; and finally Austria entered the list of Treaty 
I'owers in 18!'3. For a full decade, therefore, exclu- 
ding the special priority of Japan, Korea has had 
the experience of commerce and contact with the 
outer world. How has she benefited by it ? 

The sudden leavening of so arrhaic and stubborn 
a lump by the strenuous agency i)f civilisation has not 
j,^^ been pursued without the familiar symptoms. 

"'"" Kach foreign countr\' has tliougbt itself or its 
• iiizens the I>est qualified to act as guides to the 

ofdinuy ijitumg. which is prepueil by Jrvinij ihc riiol i>\ rr a oli«rc<ial 
6re. A* much NCKin, howevvr. is luid ti> be duitiKi-'lt'il "nl "f ihc 
(stontrr u puwn IhroiiRh the hands nf tho snWA. Ginten-j is con. 
lontrd in China by cnttins up ihe root intu minute frnKiiictii^ mul 
4t«*fiinn tbcm in wine. Hal it ii iisimtlf niitiil nith nlher ilniK-*. An 
1"M ■«" u lAlT, Hichari) Cock^. Factor of the Knxt India C.>iii]mriy 
>i Firuido in Japan, u'nt home a piece or ibf root, of wbicli lie '■^li.l 
ihM il waa ■ worth ita wtJKht in Milver; all tiiwl can be k"! i" Iftk.n 
bj- the Kmperor: it is held in Japan lIienioKt precious ibiiii; in |>In -ii- 
in the world, and sufficient ti> put life itito any inun if he chii but djnu 
brMlh.' Staff Pajitr; Kail IndUi Serie: itfli-lti^l. 

176 KOREA 

trembling footsteps of the bewildered ingenu. Of these 
external aids to local embarrassment perhaps the 
most remarkable has been the continuous maintenance 
of one or more so-called Foreign Advisers by the King. 
There have been successively four of these gentle- 
men. The first was a German, who was appointed to 
the double post of Director of Korean Customs and 
Foreign Adviser by the Viceroy Li Hung Chang. 
He disappeared abruptly in consequence, it is said, 
of having drawn up a secret treaty with Russia. 
The second was an American, who created quite a 
stir by issuing a pamphlet in defence of Korean 
independence, and in repudiation of the Chinese 
claims of suzerainty, and who spent his whole time 
in coml)atini? the Chinese Resident . There are two 
present oceupauts of the post, both of whom are 
Americans. The function of these individuals is 
apparently to advise the Korean Government on any 
negotiation or complication that may arise with 
foreign Powers, and to assist them in the makinir of 
purchases from, or sale of concessions to, outsidt^ 
parties. With the policy of the Government they 
have nothing to do; and the greater part of its ad- 
ministrative and executive action is performed behind 
their backs and without their cognizance. It is not 
surprising that a position so ambiguous should ope- 
rate against anv verv lenirthv tenure of the office in 
question. The historical sequence is, as a rule, the 
same in each case : great ambitions on the part oi 
the newly appointed official : gradual disenchant- 
ment; salary in arrears ; i\\\^\fnic(is and departure-. 


leaving li«Ii)n(] imsatlstied cl^tini.i, with futile throats 
of Ieg.ll enforcement. 

In other di-partuiPiils less official but cquiiUy 
offii'touK auxiliaries have profTered a not more A\»- 
Vnff inUTL'sled aisifttanoe. A fuw years ago a 
wti— • Oonuan undertook to rcgencratu the eounlty 
br introduring the nlk industry ; and the grounds 
of A deserted palace were handed over to the spade 
and the mulberrj*-lree. There are the trces; but 
the Oertnau and the silk-worms have disappeared. 
Somebody else was desirous of making miiti-'hes 
naA glass ; otliers were unselfishly iDtcresled in tlie 
rreation of an arsenal and thn mannfarlure of L'un- 
]H)vrder. A Post-office was started and stamps were 
printed, but the Post lost his life in .i 
[Kditical revolution, and the stamps are wn\ only a 
joy to the philatelist. The Germans were willing to 
K-ll some steamers to tlie Korean Oovcrnnient in 
order to encourage the co.isling trade. 'Die Anieri- 
rans, as already observed, have taken in hand the 
Army. Xor was agriculture left out in the cold, 
for the King was persuaded to start a i[o<lel Farm 
f'T the growth of foreign cereals and the breeding 
of foreign .'*to<'k. Almost all these vcTiture-; have 
f.iiled ; though a Foreign School, which w;i~ sNirled in to impart the elements of a modern i(luc;iti<'n 
to young Koreans of good position, and in wliii-h 
llitr King takes or took such an intere:jt llirtt on one 
(^■'■asion he personally examined the pupils, and 
:iwarded rank or office to such as distiii;.'uislied 
themselves, still continues, in spite of inadeipiaie 

ir^ KOREA 

to exist. The average attendance of stu- 
dents is scaled to be twentv-fiTe, 

The moist interesting iDiistrations, howeTer, of the 

capaeiries of native ignorance in alliance with foreign 
speculation is supphed by the history of the 
Korean cuirency, to which the Japanese 
have turned an unremitting attention. Among the 
devices for replenishing its exchequer that was sug- 
gested to the Korean Government by one of its Fo- 
reign Advisers a few years ago was the issue of a new 
cash piece \^the pierced coin of brass or copper and 
lead which b the popular medium of exchange here 
as in Cliina> that should be declared equal to fi^^ 
of the old cash then "in circulation. The new cash 
Wing of ver}' inferior quality (it was composed of 
copper aud lead in the proportions of three to two, 
and its intrinsic value was less than two of the oW 
cash'». the Government looked to <jain a tidy sum 
uiK>n the trans:iolion — a profit which they subse- 
quently endeavoured to enhance by farming out the 
right to coin, or rather to cast (for the coins are 
moulded, not struck), this debased amalgam to native 
speculators. The results were threefold. The quality 
of the coin became steadily worse, brass beincr sub- 
stituted for copper, and sand for lead ; outside the 
capital and neighbourhood, where it was forced 
upon the people, traders absolutely declined to take 
it ; and the depreciation advanced so rapidly that 
prices rose, trade was seriously affected, and the 
money market was paralysed. In 1892 the Japanese 
7/en, or silver dollar (then equal to about 2*. lOJ.i, 


lich, at the firet institution of the tango«, or 5 cask 
PCM, represeutt'd 70 of llie latter, cir 350 nW ciish, 
u cqairaletit to as many as 651) ii&w ca^li, or 
250 of the fash in coiiimon c in- illation. The draw- 
tcks tun wvll aa ttie cumbersoracncsii of a currency so 
wiitutfil mi},'ht easily be conceiveti. 

lu this emergency the Japnnpse saw their oppor- 
itj. In 188S a OorcmmL'nt Mint had bt-en erected 
■•■lat al .S'fiil for the issue of a new silver currency 
^ on the Kuropean model, and a few specimen 
allart had been coined but never circulated. An 
t^iensive annexe was now. in 1891, added to the dis- 
•wl mint, and hea^-y machinery was importetl by a 
>panese syndicate, who, in return for a loan to the 
ing, obtained the concession to manufacture and 
sue a new silver and nickel currency of kindred 
fiiomination to the Japanese. No sooner, however, 
wl the machinery arrived than it was found that the 
«t of putting it up in Siiul and of importing the 
*tal wtmld render the speculation an unprofitable 
w. Accordingly it had to be carted back to 
hemulpo, on the coast, where anotlier mint, costing 
iO.UOO, was erected for its reception. Here a 
Jinber of new coins were at last struck off, con- 
!iinjr of a silver o n/o piece or i/en, equivalent to 
)0 caj>h, a silver lyn or 100 cash piei-e, a nit-kel 
> ca.«h piece, a copper 5 cash piece, and a brass 
ca>h piece, which, however, were found Id be so 
tMii.'ifacIory that it was rumoured they were all 
ing to Iw melted down and minted again. I^imul- 
ieou«ly it had been arranged to start a systtm of 

180 KOREA 

bank-notes, a few of which were printed in Tokio 
but never issued. At this stage it seems to have 
struck all parties that the experiment of keeping 
open a State Mint in Korea, to which all the metal 
required must be imported at ruinous cost, and where 
the machinery was not of first-rate quaUty, was 
absurd ; having indeed nothing but the gratification 
of national vanity to recommend it. Accordingly the 
only possible refuge was at last adopted ; and nego- 
tiations were entered into and a contract simed with 
the Japanese Government in 1893 to undertake the 
entire Korean currency in the excellent Imperial 
Mint at Osaka. Even so the experiment is really 
superfluous ; for since the Japanese yen and the 
Mexican dollar are made by treatv le<Tal tender for 
customs dues, and are everywhere freely accepted 
(except perhaps in the remote interior) in Korea, all 
that is really wanted is the issue of a stable cash 
coinage, the old debased currency being called i» 
and melted down or destroyed. This tale of cur- 
rency woe fills, however, a most characteristic p?.g^ 
of Korean history. 

Among other commercial ventures in Korea, the 
Japanese have also started branches of Japanese 
banks at Chemulpo and Soul, into one of 
which inter alia the Customs revenue is paKt, 
and whereat the Government account is permanently 
o\e] drawn ; and are said also to have contemplated, 
in connection with their new currencv, the institution 
of exchange offices, or banks in disguise, where the 
new coinage should be procurable in exchange for 


le old cop|»cr cash, wliioh it wof, fondly bul foolishly 
cpected wuultl thereby ilisappear from popular use. 
I will lie iiileresliiip to walch the fate of this experi- 
lent. Ill the meantime, with the view of placing 
^orenn finance in more experienct;<l hands, it hns 
een nuggested that a branch of the Hongkong and 
haiighaj Banking Corporation should l;e opened 
I Korea — a x'eutnre by which, if carried out, 
o one would profit more than the Korean Gorem- 

By an adniinitjtrntioii ko sorely embarrasfted and in 
icfa habitual financial straits as the Korean, one 
.^.j_ might expect, instead of emKirking 
J'X^ upon risky if not unsound financial trans- 
i^r^*" actions with adventurous outsiders, a reso- 
"""^ lute attempt would I>e made to develop the 
internal resources of the country, which a 
onsensus of opinion admits to be considerable. My 
mmeys in the inlfrior. restrict<'d as they were, con- 
inced me that there is a great future for Korean 
gricuhure; and this view is Ixirne out by those who 
ave travelled over a wider range. Indeed, in the 
"^ssession of an excellent climate, a soil of more than 
rdiiiary fertility, vast tracts of still virgin country, 
tul 1 robust rural jiopulutioii, Korea possesses the 
our (^ndilioris of agricultural pros]>erily. Already as 
rice and l»ean prmlucirig country she is rising into 
ommerrial importance, anil provides a valuable 
feder for the neighbouring islands of .Japan, 
imong the self-created obstacles thai stand between 
er and a full enjoyment of these advantages one 

182 KOREA 

stands out in discreditable prominence — V\z. the 
scandalous poverty of means of communication be- 
tween the producing and the consuming areas and 
between the interior and the coast. There are no 
roads in the country in any sense in which the word 
would be understood in Europe. The pack-roads are 
mere bridle-tracks, which frequently degenerate into 
rocky torrent-beds, or precarious footpaths across in- 
undated swamps. No one looks after them ; they 
are never repaired. Transport upon them is ven' 
costly, and on some occasions absolutely prohibitive. 
No means for conveying the surplus produce of any 
area to an available market in time of dearth are 
forthcoming ; and one district may be smitten with 
sore famine, while its neighbour, at no great distance, 
cannot get rid of its superfluous grain. Better roads 
would be followed at once by a better organised 
system of transport and by a rapid increase in the 
volume of exports. 

The same remarks apply to river and coast com- 
niuiiicatioiis. On two only of the five great navigable 
Kiver navi- ^iveFs of Korea ^ do steamboats attempt to 
nation pi^. Small native steamers run between 
Fusan and the mouth of the Naktong Eiyer, seven 
miles distant, and even ascend the stream for fifty 
miles as far as Miriang. On the Han River, wliich, if 
properly navigated, would almost convert the capital 
into a seaport, two small steamers started running 
from Chemulpo in 1880 ; one was wrecked, the 

^ The Yalu in the north, the Taidong or Pyong-yang River, the H*n« 
and its tributary tiie Iin-jiu-^ng, and the Kaktong. 


DtWr was iwiuilly a^'mimd. Vessels of lijjihu-r 
draught anil special build were required fur llic 
•hifiiiijf aiid shallow channel. By the energy of 
ihtf Chincfle ]ie!udciit a Cliitiese company was nt 
length (irgatiised in 1S92 to iindtTtake this veniurc. 
Two new steamers were placed upon the river, nin- 
niiig the fifty-four miles from (vlieintdpo to Kyou^-san, 
tliree miles from Siiitl (which it is proposed to connect 
by tramway with the landing-place): and by one of 
tlicw Mr. O'Cutior, the British Minister to Korea, 
ascended lo the capital, to present his letters of 
cre<lcnc« in 1803. 

Smiilsrly upon ihe coasts the supersession of the 
Korean junk, which is one of the least seaworthy 
c^ of crafts, by a line of small schooners riin- 
""'■*™ nin}.' from \¥iTi to port, would develop flie 
jirovincial trade to an enormous extent, and would 
(■hea]>en the cost of the necessaries of life. A Korean 
steamship company which charters foreign vessels 
lias for some little time been in existence, and has 
lately extended its voyages to Chef'-K> on tlie one side 
and Vladivostok on the other. Enjoying the moiio- 
jn>ly of the transport of tribute rice from the noii- 
treaiy [wrts to Chemulpo, it might e;isily become a 
mi»t lucrative concern ; thougli in competition with 
the two keenest mercantile nationalilic; of the Ea.*t. 
it can hardly l)e expected that eilher monopolies or 
liounties will ever galvanise an undcrlaking owned 
and worketl by such a people as the Konans, inlo 
permanent vitality. 

A concession was at one time applied for by fuuic 

184 KOREA 

American financiers for a short railway between 
Cliemulpo and Soul ; and it is said that the contract 
was about to be signed when it was vetoed 
^ ^*^ by the Chinese Eesident. In the present state 
of trade and traffic it is doubtful whether such a line 
— the physical obstacles to the construction of which 
are not great — would pay ; the more so, if the river 
na^'igation is successfully and cheaply conducted. 
Wild schemes for a network of railways throughout 
Korea are said to have been formulated in the brains 
of those who anticipate an early Bussian seizure of 
the entire peninsula ; but it will be worth while to 
wait till the Eussians are there before discussinir 
what they will do. 

The drawbacks which I have enumerated — viz. a 
debased currency ; dearth of communications by 
(jrowthof ^^^^^ and water; the consequent cost ^^'^ 
^**' "' transport ; the incubus of native monopolists 

who control the prices and evade the Treaties I)} 
fresh local likin or octroi-Awe^ in the interior; the 
apathy of the Korean producer, the poverty of tin* 
Korean consumer, and the lack of enterprise of the 
Korean merchant ; above all the inexperience ami 
niisjudgment of the Korean Government — are obsta- 
cles to any such heroic expansion of trade as wa^* 
once predicted by the optimists. Nevertheless, both 
in volume and value, Korean trade pursues, with 
occasional relapses, an upward career. In ISl^h 
which was the best year yet realised, the net value 
of the foreijzn trade was nearly 1,440,000/., and the 
total trade during the ten years since the opening ot 


the Treaty PorU is stated to have tweii JuO,000,000, 
B (i;jrure which, if the enoniious amount of gnui<^gliiig 
that gOL'fl ou bti taken into account, dofij not pro- 
bably represent more ihau two-thirda of ihe real value. 
The iraile is practically shared by the Chinese and 
Japaiicae, between whom tlie most i\cmW competition 
prevails. Tlie fonner have almost entirely monopo- 
lised the retail business, both in native produce 
and foreign imports. They penetrate everywhere, 
smI everywhere their stores and shops are to be 
found. The Japanese, on the other hand, have 
acquired the virtual coiumand of the export trade. 
over ninety per cent, of whifh is to Japan. The two 
great staples of Korean pri>duce are rice and beans, 
wliicli are increasingly demanded by her southern 
mighbour, as the population of Japan increases and 
more soil is surrendered to the cultivation of silk. 
Hence the intense Japanese irritation when, for 
reasons of internal policy, the Korean Government 
M-is fit to place even a temporary embargo upon the 
export of native grain. As regards imports, tlmugh 
there are no Uritish mercliaiits in tlie country — the 
(ivstcm of fliinese or Japanese brokers operating 
with sufficient success — over sixty per cent, of the 
Sinn total, an*! practically the whole of her trade in 
piece goods, hail from Great Britain, who may claim, 
even in remote Korea, to liave discovered one more 
market for Manchester.' 

' It is nearK- noO ypim nincc, in lIHM, the tirst lloyftl Ijoeiice ■ to 
Hiaravcr the Cciiintrjpi iif ('BlIiniK. Chinn, Jnpnn. Coreo. niiil (umbnia. 
anil to tmle silh the (iniple there.' wan iiu>iip<l l>_v •liiiiici I. t>i Sir 
Uwvd Micbelbome, fur the Eart loiUa Com[wiiv. In IbU E. Savxf 

186 KOREA 

Evidence of commercial expansion is also pro- 
vided by the increasing number of steamships that 
find it profitable to include the Korean ports 
in their published sailing lists. The well- 
known Japanese steamship company known as the 
Nippon Yusen Kaisha keeps up a service of three 
mail steamers fortnightly between Kobe and the 
Korean ports, besides sending outside steamers for 
the carrying trade direct from Osaka. Another 
Japanese company, the Osaka Shosen Kaisha, has 
lately appeared upon the scene, and runs boats at 
unstated intervals from the former port.* The year 
1891 also witnessed the introduction of a liberally- 
subsidised fortnightly Russian packet service be- 
tween Shanghai and Vladivostok, touching at the 
harbours of Fusan and Gensan on the wav. Thourfi 
this venture cannot as vet conceivably be attended 
with profit, it is characteristic of the energy with 
which the Russians advance their flag in Eastern 

was sent to Tiishiiia {i.e* Tsushima), but reported that * there was no 
hope of any j;«oJ to be done there or in Corea/ In 1618 Richani 
Cocks, the head of the Factory at Firando in Japan, on the occasion 
of one of the Tribute Missions from Korea, * endeavoured to pain 
8i)eech with the Aiubas<^dor, but was unsueoessfid, the King of 
Tushma being the cause, he fearing thai the English might procure 
trade if Cocks got acquainted with the ambassadors. The Japan 
Lords asked why lie souglit acquaintance with such barbarous people.' 
State Papers, East Indies Series, voL i. (1518-1616), Kos. 836, 699; 
vol. ii. (1617-1621), Na 273. From that day till the British Treaty in 
1883 there was no direct Anglo-Korean trade, although in 1702 the 
idea of a Korean Factory was reconsidered by the Directors of the 
Fast India Company (Bnice's Annals, vol. iii. p. 488). 

^ The Japanese have acquired such a command of the shipping, 
that out of a total tonnage of 391,000 in the Treaty Ports in 18i>2, 
328,000 were Japanese, as against 25,000 Hussian, 15,000 ChineM, 
and 8,000 Korean. 


wateni, and make an experimental anil i-ven espen- 
eive commerce sultsttrvt- Lirger poliliral i-iuls. It is 
uol for meroanlilu gain that the Hussian sub«iiUi*s 
are given, bill for the avowed object of providing a 
useful auxiliary marine, with well-orgaiiised comple- 
ment, ill time of war. 

In the nurture of Korean commerce too much 
e.redit caimot be given to the mi^mlivrijof the CHiinese 
c,,mm Imperial Customs Service, into whose hands 
*■■**" the predominant influence of tW enzerain 
power insured that the collection of Korean Customs 
should l>e committed when the Treaty Porta were 
firfet opened iu 1888. A number of Knropean officials 
have since been lent for the purpose from the admi- 
rably orfjanised Cliinese service under Sir Robert 
Ilarl. Tlieir salaries in Korea are only in part paid 
by the Korean Government, for they continue to 
remain on the Chinese list and to receive Chinese 
pay. It is rumouretl that the Viceroy Li Hung 
Chang would like to supersede Sir Robert Hart's 
service, which lie is said to regard with a jealous eye, 
by a privately organised Chinese service of his own. 
In tlie interests of Korea tliis would be a most 
unfortunate step, since it would mean the substitu- 
tion of universal jobbery and smuggling for a pure 
and efTicient administration. 

Were steps taken by the Korean Ooverinnenl to 
check the systematic smuggling th;it even now pre- 
vails all along the co;ist between the Tnaty 
■ <^n-t pypjg ^,Q ^iji,.h the jurisdiction of the 
European Customs officers is couriiied), much more 

188 KORBA 

business would pass through their hands. Opium, 
which is prohibited in the Foreign Treaties, is 
smuggled into the country, and ginseng out of it in 
great quantities. Of the enormous surreptitious 
traffic in gold-dust I shall speak presently. Under 
the terms of the Fishery Convention between Japan 
and Korea, the fishermen of the former country have 
hitherto been permitted to land and sell their fish 
wherever they please on the southern Korean coast. 
Each man does a little contraband business as well. 
It is the same with the Chinese junkmen on the 
west coast. Quite recently the King has been per- 
suaded to organise a small cruiser service, which 
may deal with this abuse, and may further in time 
develop into the nucleus of a small but effective 
Korean navy. For this purpose he has applied for 
the loan of two English officers, to give the requisite 
start to the undertaking. 

Though the symptoms of commercial develop- 
ment in Korea are thus encouraging, it is not believed 
Native that the trade has hitherto been very profit- 


point able to those engaged in it, mainly owing to 
the difficulties arising from a debased and fluctuatiiiL' 
medium of exchange ; whilst the natural apathy of 
the Koreans, which renders them irresponsive to any 
appeal that places an unaccustomed strain upon their 
energies or ])repossessions, has so far found an un- 
deniable stimulus in the fact that the advent of the 
foreigner cannot be said as yet to have brought 
much profit to them. The prices of everything in 
Korea have, since the opening of the country, shown 


a tendency to assiiniiaie iliL-insoIvt^N to ihosc cif 
Buirounding markets, wit!) the result tliai the 
necessaries of life havi: l)i.-t-utnc dcarur, anil tin- cost 
of food stu&s in parti'ular has been ;,'reatly aug- 
mented. None of the Cii>tomK revenue derived from 
increased trade goes into rho pocket of tbo Korean 
peasant, and he prob:i!ily has moments of acute 
though stolid disgust nt the (wasted regeneration of 
hifl country. 

Among the resounvs to which tlie attention of 
foreigners has long been drawn, eilhtfr as unrealised 
assets of national wealth or as a source of {lossiUu 
lucre to themselves, Kto. the minerals of Korea. It is 
known that {jold, lead, and silver (galena), copper, 
Mm«.iind '•"'1 'i^" ^^^^ '■"■^ found in some aburid- 
m.iwr*!. „„cp^ although liitlicrto worked in the most ■ 
spasmodic and clumsy of fashions. Some years ago 
the most roseate anticipations were indulged in of 
impending mineral prinluction ; and a financial 
authority was even found to assert that the currency 
])roI)l'-m of the world would be solved by the 
phenomenal output of the precious metals from 
Kurea. latterly tliere ha.s been a corrci^pondiiig 
recoil of opinion, which has led people to declare 
that the Korean mines are a fraud, and that the 
wealth-pro«lucing capacity of the peninsula will 
never be demonstrated in this direction. Those, 
however, who have the most intimate knowledL'i' of 
the interior agree in thinking that the minerals are 
there and are capable of being worked by Knrupran 
hands at an assured proGt. Should the Government 

190 KOREA 

consent to a concession on at all a liberal scale, and 
personally assist instead of obstructing its operations, 
the monev would be forthcoming to-morrow from 
more than one quarter, and it is inconceivable, vain 
though the Koreans are about treasures of which 
they know nothing, but which, because a few 
foreigners are running after them, tliey conceive 
must be unique in the world, that many more years 
can elapse before a serious attempt is made to open 
them up. Excellent coal, a soft anthracite, burning 
brightly and leaving little ash, is already procured 
by the most primitive methods from a mine near 
Tvontj-vanff, which is said to contain unlimited 
quantities. Nearly all the iron that is used in the 
country for agricultural and domestic purposes is 
aUo of native production, the ore being scratched 
out of shallow holes in the ground and smelted in 
charcoal furnaces. The Koreans have no conception 
cither of ventilation, drainage, blasting, or lighting. 
There is now a Mining Board among the Govern- 
ment Departments at Soul; but of its activity no 
evidence is as vet forthcoming. 

' ' The mineral, however, that has excited most 

interest abroad is gold, which, in the form of dust 

from river washings, has formed a notable 

C >\A 

item in the exports of Korea for many years. 
During the last decade *^8,000,000 of gold and gold- 
dust have passed through the hands of the Customs 
in export. But this does not in all probability repre- 
sent more than twenty per cent, of the real export, 
few Japanese or Cliinese leaving the country without 


smuggltDg out a little of the precious dust upon their 
persons ; while the fluctuations in the animal returns 
may be explained by tlie higher rate of n-agcs 
procurable from agriculture during years of good 
harvests, whereby labour is diverted from tho more 
precarious essay of the -.'oUlfields. Placer mining b 
probably best suited to Korean conditions; but the 
introduction of quartz <!riiAhing and of HcientiHc 
appliances might be expected to add largely to the 
annual production. Five years ago the Government 
did purchase foreign matliitteryt and en^^aged foreign 
miners to work the gold iniuea iu tiie Pyong-yang 
district, but the enterprise' was abandoned before it 
had had a fair trial. 

Anyhow, with mineral resources of undoubted 
value, even if of uncertain quantity, witli grain- 
Fmnre producing capacities that are susceptible of 
iifTsfxcu indefinite multiplicalioii, with ready markets 
and willinj: customers close at hand, Korea will only 
have to thank herself if she prefers to remain plunged 
in [Kjverty and squalor. The initiative must, of 
course, come from the Government. At pre.sent in 
K')rea, unhappily, as in Persia, iiiiicqiiid delirant reijes 
I'UitunlHr Ac/iii'i. But it is nut too late to hope for 
change. The first thing that the Government Iins to 
do is to abandon the idea that Korea is an Auialthea's 
horn, into which foreigners will pay enormous prices 
liu tlie shape of royalties or connuissii-n) fur ihe 
privilege of dipping their fingers. The next step is 
to realise that without foreign copital little can ht- 
done, and under native management nothing. At the 

192 KOREA 

same time a wary eye must be directed upon the not 
too dispassionate offers of financial assistance which 
are pressed upon the interesting debutante with such 
suspicious emulation by her astute neighbours. 

Owing to the so recent opening of the country 
and to the savage persecution by which Christianity 
Mis«ioaM7 had been practically exterminated a short 
KoPMu time before, the missionary question in Korea 
cutkoi is in a far less advanced state of development 
than it is in either of the neighbouring countries of 
Japan and China. Xot that the record of Christian 
missionar}' effort in the peninsula has been either 
slender or abortive. It is now a little more than 
100 years since the intercourse with Peking (where 
there was a flourishing Eoman Catholic Church), 
originating from the journeys to and fro of the annual 
Tribute Missions, was responsible for the first Korean 
convert to the faith of Christ. Since that date the 
infant Korean Church has shown a heroism, has 
endured sufferings, and has produced a martyr-roll, 
that will compare favourably with the missionary 
annals of less obscure countries and more forward 
peoples. From the start it was proscribed, hunted 
down, and delivered over to occasional spasms of 
fierce persecution. It was not till after half a century 
of disturbed and precarious existence, in which the 
flame was onlv kept alive bv the devotion of native 
or of Chinese converts, that in 183G M. Maubant, 
the second Papal nominee to the post of Vicar 
Apostolic of Korea, succeeded in getting across the 
frontier, the first European priest who had set foot in 


Korea since 1594. In 1837 the first Catholic bishop 
of Korea, 1J[&gr. Imbert, followed, only to lose his life 
in a violent persecution that immediately ensued. In 
spite of continued and relentless hostility on the part 
of the Oovemment, the native Christians are said in 
1859 to have numbered 17,000. After the usurpa; 
tion, however, of the Tw Wen Kun in 1864, the man 
with ' the bowels of iron and the heart of stone ' vrai 
content with no half-measures. A merciless war of 
extirpation was waged against the heretical sect ; the 
French expedition of 1866 that was sent to avenge 
these murders beat an inglorious retreat; and by 
1870, 8,000 native Cliristians were said to have paid 
the penalty with their lives. 

The end, however, was near at hand. The reign 
of iho hloTKlthirsty Itegent was now over ; more 
i T-u-n- l''*fal ideas animated the young Povi-rei^'ii ; 
"" and the warning clamour of the nations was 

heard soundin^r at the gates. Tlie earlier Treaties, it 
i> true, demanded nothing more than the free exereise 
()f their religion in the Treaty Ports for the subjects 
jf the signatory Powers ; nor to tliis day does any 
ariiele, expressly sanctioning missionary, 
ipjR-ar in any of the Treaties. The Frencii are said 
:o have lield out long for such a concession; liut 
tlie only sub^^titute for it wlilcli their Treaty, coii- 
'luiled in 1880, contains, is a clause permitting of 
lilt- employment of natives as h't-'i-'iti, inlerinclers, ui 
*. rvantj*, or in any otlier lawful capacity, by the 
French, and promising the latter every assistance in 
iheir Btudv ol the native language and institutions.' 


Whatever may have beeu the ulterior meaning of 
these words, the Korean Government, with repre- 
sentatives of all the great Powers of Europe stationed 
in its capital, and with the gunboats of their squadrons 
floating upon the neighbouring seas, is no longer in 
a position, even if it had the desire, to assume a 
hostile attitude; and missionaries are at liberty to 
come and go as they please, and to make converts 
where they can. There are said to be many thousand 
native Christians, Boman Catholics, in the coimtry. 
Their priests, many of whom are Koreans, live in 
their midst ; and every member of the flock, however 
remote his residence, is visited once in each year bv 
his spiritual father. The French Catholic Church and 
Establishment, occupying a natural elevation, are 
one of the most prominent objects in Soul ; and their 
earlier start has given them an advantage which the 
Protestants will not easily retrieve. 

In 1890 an English Protestant Bishop (whost- 
diocese is Korea and Shing-king, i.e. Manchuria) first 
English appeared upon the scene, and when I wa< 
Mission in Soul, the Mission establishment consisted, 
in addition, of several clergy, some lay-helpers, a 
doctor, and some sisters of St. Paul's, Kilbuni. 
Churches had been built in Soul and Chemulpo, 

* ^Vrticlc IX. nms as foHows : — * Lea autorit^ Francaises et K* 
Franvais en Cor^e pourront engager iles sujets Coreens A litre de lettn • 
d'interprete, de serviteiir, ou A tout autre litre licite, sans que 1^> 
autorites Cordennes pnissont y niettre obstacle. . . . Les Franv^^ 'I^' 
80 rondraient en Coree pour y c'tndier ou y professer la lan^e tVriti* 
ou parlt'c, les sciences, les lois et les arts, devront, en t^moignap' ^^ 
sentiments de bonne ainitie dont sont animees les Hautcs Tartir^ 
Coutractantes, recevoir toujours aide et assistance.* 


hospitals had been opened in both places, a printing- 
press had been established at Sijul, and the mission- 
aries were still engaged in acquiring the language 
before turning their energies either to evangelisa- 
tion or to the translation of the Prayer-book into 
Korean.* There was as yet neither Korean congre- 
gation nor Korean convert. Simultaneously, and 
even earlier, American, Canadian, and Australian 
Societies or Churches had deputed bands of ardent 
workers to enter the field ; and, all told, there were 
between thirty and forty Protestant ministers at work 
in Korea. 

What may be the future that lies before them it 
would be hazardous at tliis stage to predict. The 
N.i,.* Korean wolf lias not been converted straifrht 
-.o..m«i» ^^.^y^ ijy j|jg exlfj'encies of national weakness 
or outside pressure, into a lamb ; and a people at once 
•"O incurious, and so firmly wedded to Chinese ethics 
and ancestor- worship, may be expected in some 
places to oppose a stubborn front of resistance, in 
otliers to indulge in occasional outbursts of frantic 
ania;fonism. A few such cases have occurred even 
since the Treaties. la 1888 an outbreak look jilaoe 
in the streets of :>iiul, the ridiculous rumour (not 
unlike that which prereded the famous Tientsin 
massacres in 1870, as well as later outrages in China) 
liaviuf.' been spread that the Aiuericau missionaries 
had I«en stealiiifi and IfoiliuL' Korean liabies in order 

' The New TpHtaiiicnt win Irnnsliitvil intu Knnjiii nviT Iwilvc vriin 
•C.. t> IE«v. J. R.«» (.f Newchwant; ; aii.l in l.-wi llic liolitJoiis Trs.'t 
>oriM): pabluhed ui iiilrtxliicliun to it, atiil ii iMlii-bi^in >>f th>- vliicf 
lliUical ducUioH, ID Kor«ui. 

196 KOREA 

to manufacture chemicals for use in photography. 
Nine native officials who were alleged to have been 
concerned in the transaction were seized and decapi- 
tated by the mob ; ajid the crews of the foreign gun- 
boats at Chemulpo were marched up to the capital 
to protect the subjects of their several nationali- 
ties. More recently there has been a recrudescence 
of the same feeling. In 1892 a Catholic missionary 
was attacked and beaten at a town in the interior, 
and a threatening proclamation was posted on the 
missionary doors in Soul. Early in 1893 a politico- 
religious party, calling itself the Tokaguto, or Party 
of Oriental Learning, and appealing to the Conserva- 
tive instincts of the people, started into being and 
attuned menacing proportions both in the capital and 
in the provinces. Its leaders presented a petition to 
the Throne demanding the prohibition of all foreign 
religions and the expulsion of the merchants, in 
otlier words the abrogation of the Treaties. Xor wa--^ 
it till after the ringleaders had been arrested, ami 
foreign men-of-war had hurried from all quarters of 
the China Seas to Chemulpo — while the Japanese 
community in Sijul, who are always the first victim,' 
of attack, had organised a militia in their onii 
defence — that the peril subsided. Because tk 
Korean is ordinarily friendly to foreigners, it doe^ 
not follow that he has any genuine fondness for iis. 
still less for our creed. Instinctive in him is tin' 
Conservatism of a hide-bound stolidity; and H' 
suppose that the walls of the Korean Jericho are 
going to fall down flat at the first blast of i\K 


missionary trumpet, is to cherish a belief from which 
the future will in all likelihood provide some sharp 
awakenings. On the other hand, since in the 
dramatic history of Korean Christianity there is 
much cause for admiration, there is consequently 
pood ground for hope. 



BehoU, a people shall come from the north, and a great nation, 
and many kings shall be nuaed up from the consta of the earth. Tliej 
shall bold the bow and the lance : they are crael. ood will not shv* 
mercy ; their voice fiball roar like the sea, and they shall ride upon 
hor»e», every one put in armj-, like a man to the battle, against th^. 
Jebbmiah 1 41-2. 

Before leaving Korea I must devote a final chapter 
to a discussion of the subject to which all other 
AiioniftiouB Korean questions are subsidiary, and to find 
^utua'^f a clue to which I was attracted thither from 
"""^ afar — viz. the political future that awaits 
this shuttlecock among the nations. I use the phrasi- 
as accurately descriptive of the relation in whicl 
Korea stands to the various Powers who are repre- 
sented at her capital, who treat her from entireh" 
different and wholly irreconcilable standpoints, ai.'- 
cording to their own interests or prejudices, and at 
whose hands she is alternately — nay, even simul- 
taneously — patronised, cajoled, bullied, and caressed. 
A more anomalous political condition certainly doe- 
not exist in the world than that of a couatr)- whieli 
itself claims to be both independent and dependenir 
and can produce powerful evidence in support of 
either hypothesis ; and as to which outside Powers 


advance pretensions of suzerainty, control, protec- 
torate, alliance, most-favoured nation treatment, or 
technical equality, for all of which there is consider- 
able show of justification. This curious state of afiairs 
has arisen, in the first place, out of the peculiar 
geographical situation of Korea on a sort of political 
Tom Tiddler's ground between China, Bussia, and 
Japan ; and, secondly, out of the contradictory policy 
pursued by the first-named of these Powers in moments 
of calculation or of alarm at the attitude or encroach- 
ments of the others. By a survey of the respective 
positions occupied or claimed by this trio, who are 
the protagonists in the international drama for which 
Korea provides an involuntary stage, while the 
remaining nations are either cast for minor parts in 
the same piece, or sit as interested spectators in the 
auditorium, it may be possible to unravel the tangled 
skt'in which has here been woven bv the wits or the 
wiles of the stronger at the expense of the weak. 

Tli<)U<di Korea has been ruled bv successive 
dynasties of monarchs for centuries, there has scarcely 

< nrMMtion ^^'^^^ ^ U\\\e siucc tlic Commencement of the 
• ih A|«n (']j,.ij^(i.j,j (^.j-.j ^vhen it lias not acknowledged 

a greater or less dependence uju)!! either China or 
Japan. The claims of the latter Tower, which in the 
dcclininjr vears of tlie Shojzunate w*ere allowed to 
shrink into the backjjround — to the irreat reirret of 
Japanese patriots — were l)oth the earlier in origin 
an<l have been exercised over the longer space of 
time. It was as earlv as the third centurv, a.d., that 
a masculine Einpress-Kegent of Japan, bearing the 

200 KOREA 

appropriate iiaiiie of Jingo or Zingu, herself led aii 
expetlitioii against Korea and received the submission 
of that State. From that time down to tlie end of the 
fourteenth century, the relations between the two 
countries, though frequently disturbed, were, as a 
rule, those of Japanese ascendency and Korean 
allegiance. Tribute Missions constantly sailed from 
Ftisan to the Court of Mikado or Shogun ; and there 
grew up in Japanese minds the conviction, which ha* 
not yet been extirpated, that to surrender Korea 
would be as indelible a strain upon the national 
honour as Mary of England felt it to lose Calais. 
After 1392, however, when the Mings assisted the 
Ni dynasty to establish itself on the Korean throne, 
the influence of China became paramount, and the 
marks of deference to Japan dwindled, until in 14fi0 
the last Korean Embassy started for the Sliogun's 
Court at Kamakura. It was accordingly as much to 
punish a refractory vassal as it was to prosecuie 
loftier schemes of conquest against China herself. 
that Hideyoshi designed his famous Korean expedi- 
tions. This invasion, by which the peninsula wa^ 
desolated from end to end for six years (1592-S}. 
has permanently affected the relations between llie 
two countries. It has left a heritage of wounded 
pride and national antipathy in the breast of the 
Koreans, which three centuries have not availed lo 
erase ; while it has heightened the exasperation fell 
by Japan that the vassal whom she crushed so utterly 
should yet in the long run have managed to elude 
her clutch. 


The retreat of the Japanese for a tune suspended 
communications between the two States ; but in 
1G18 occurred the Korean Mission, to which I have 
already alluded in a foot-note ; and in 1623 lyemitsu 
Tribou demanded the revival of the tribute; and 
"'-^* from that date, in spite of the absolute 
submission of the Korean Throne to the Manchus 
from 1637 onwards, Missions continued to make their 
annual excursion to Tokio, entirely at the expense of 
the Japanese, and with no advantage to the latter 
beyond the barren compliment to their pride. Owing 
to the exorbitant cost of entertainment a change 
was effected in 1790, when the envoys, instead of 
crossiii^r to the Japanese mainland, were invited to 
proceed as far as Tsusliima only ; with which change 
the so-called tribute shrank still more into an annual 
exchan;re of presents with little or no admission of 
}Kilitical subordination. This incongruous condition 
of aflairs lasted till 1832, when the last complimentary 
mission upon a Shogun's accession was despatched 
from Korea to the Japanese Court. 

A new era now opened, in which Japan, by dint 
of her own political resuscitation, was to re-establish 
Fr^iion a powerful influence in Korea, althoUL^h at 
t^'- the cost of the fi'udatory relationship which 

f'>r so many centuries it had been her boastful pre- 
t#-n>ion to maintain. When the Korean (Government 
was threatened bv the French invasion in lS(i(i, it i< 
s.'iid to have renienib(*red its old connection, and to 
have M»licited the advice and aid of Japan. No nply 
U-ing returned to this request, it was not surprising 

that when in 1868 a Japanese embassy arrived in 
Soul to convey the formal announcement of the 
political revolution in Japan, and the resumption hy 
the Mikado of full sovereignty, and to invite from 
the Koreans a renewal of ancient friendship and 
vassalage, an insolent refusal was returned by the Tai 
"Wen Kun. In Japan the Samurai party were furious ; 
but the country was too poor and too much hampered 
by other complications to go to war ; although the 
Chauvinist spirit found angry vent in rebellion in 
Saga, and in an attempt upon the Hfe of the Japanese 
statesman Iwakura, who, on his return from Europe 
with Okubo in 1873, stoutly resisted a poUcy ot 
stronger measures. To satisfy these ardent spirits, 
two successive but bootless Japanese missions, con- 
ducted by Hanabusa and Moriyama, were sent lo 
Korea in 1873 and 1874, to re-establish Japanese 
authority by peaceful means, while the filibusteriuj; 
Formosan expedition was undertaken to keep the 
war-party employed in 1874. Nevertlieless, when in 
1875 a Japanese man-of-war, the Unyokan, had bei-n 
fired upon by the Koreans from the island of Kaii'.'- 
hwa on the Ilan, and after an appeal to Peking and 
the receipt of an assurance from the Chinese Govern- 
ment that all responsibiUty was disowned by them, 
the first Japanese Treaty of 187G was presented 'if 
an ultimatum and signed, the military party again 
brok<* forth into stormy discontent, and the great 
Sai^'o of Satsnma, splitting irrevocably with lln' 
Government, retired to his patrimony to plot the tt-r- 
rible civil war that commenced in the following year. 


The self-restraint and caution of the then race 
of Japanese statesmen were, however, amply re- 
B«jeoT«y warded. They wisely recognised that the 
«x». time for an aggressive policy was not then, 
i(«7« and that Japanese influence in Korea could 
only be recovered, not by sustained invasion or con- 
quest, but by the subtler movements of diplomatic 
finesse and commercial control. In this sagacious 
policy they were assisted by the weakness and indeci- 
sion of China. When the above-mentioned Treaty was 
concluded, in 1876, with Korea, the opening words 
in Article 1 contained the remarkable statement 
that * Chosen, being an independent State, enjoys the 
same sovereign rights as does Japan ' — an admission 
which was foolislilv winked at bv China from the mis- 
taken notion that, bv disavowinjz her connection witli 
Korea, she could escape the unpleasantness of being 
called to account for the delinquencies of her vassal. 

This preliminary advantage was more than doubled 
in value to Japan when, after the revolution in Soul 
vnnsfu. ^'^ 1^84, by which her diplomatic represen- 
T:i-"nilnin ^ativc was compelled to llee for the second 
^^* time from the Korean capital, she sent troops 

to avtMiire the insult and declined to remove them 
until China had made a similar concession with 
rej/ard to the Chinese irarrison, which had been 
maintained since the previous outbreak in ISSl! in 
tliat citv. Hv the ( 'onvention of Tientsin, wlilch was 
iietrotialed in IvSSo bv Count Ito with the Vi^'crov 
Li Hung Chang, Ixith parlies agreed to withdraw 
lh«-ir troops and not to send an armed foree to Korea 

204 ' KOREA 

at any future date to suppress rebellion or disturb- 
ance without giving previous intimation to the other. 
This document was a second diplom.atic triumph for 
Japan ; for, whilst it was safe to aver that neither 
Power would ever be seriously deterred thereby 
from hostile action, it yet involved the very admission 
of substantial equality of rights as regards Korea 
which Japan had all along been labouring to reassert, 
and which China, except in the moments when she 
had been caught napping, had as consistently repu- 
diated. Japan, therefore, if she had not recovered her 
former position, had at least re-established her cre- 
dit. It is, in my judgment, greatly to be regretted 
that in the present summer her Government, anxious 
to escape from domestic tangles by a spirited 
foreign polic)'', has abandoned this statesmanlike 
attitude, and has embarked upon a headlong course 
of aggression in Korea, for which there appears 
to have been no sufficient provocation, and the 
ulterior consequences of which it is impossible to 

So much for the political revindication of Japau. 
Simultaneously she has pursued with unflagging 
Commer- energy the policy of commercial and fiscal 
dency asceudeucy in Korea. Active and business- 
like as compared with the indolent Koreans, possessed 
of capital, and understanding how to make others 
pay through the nose for the loan of it, her colonists 
and merchants have gradually fastened a grip on to 
the weaker country which it will be exceedinL'lv 
difficult to shake off. The Japanese have got the 


mint and banks already. The Government is largely 
in tht-ir debt. Tliey are ddly pressing for conces- 
sions <>f every description. Their eye has long been 
fixed upon iht- Ciistonis. at present in the hands of 
their riv,il& the Cliin.--..'. and in a few years' time 
they hope to have obtained so commanding a hold 
upon the national resources of Korea as to render 
her political dependence upon China a constitutional 
fiction which the wisdom bom of accomplished facts 
may ultimately allow to expire. This policy is, of 
course, one of selfishness. But its success will not 
thereby be so much imperilled as it may be by the 
national race-hatred between Koreans and Japanese, 
that is one of the most striking phenomena in con- 
temporary Chosen, Civil and oblifiing in their own 
countn', the Japanese develop in Korea a faculty for 
bullying and bluster tliar is the result partly of 
national vanity, partly of the memories of the past. 
The lower orders illtrent the Koreans on every pos- 
sible opportunity, and .ire cordinlly detested by them 
in return. Indeed it is very aniusinfr to contrast tlie 
extreme sensitiveness of Japan towards the Treaty 
Powers in her own territories aiid lier indi<:iiant 
protest a^'.iinst the severity of the Treaties, with the 
domineering callousness wiili wliieh she, the first of 
tlie Treaiy Powers in Korea, treats the latter iinfor- 
lunate country berause of its weakness, and exacts 
everv ounee of flesh permitted by the Trcalits between 
them.' Such a relationship, which is in marked 

' \Vb«n Japan dicUU'il (be lirsi Korcnn Trcatv in IHTli. slii> (-opicil 
tlw ■lU«-teniU>rul cUusca alliiu*! rfrliitiin fruiu Articled IV. oiiil V. 

206 KOREA 

contrast with the amicable terms on which the 
Koreans and Chinese appear to subsist side by side, 
will not facilitate the issue which Japanese ambition 
has in view. 

A striking instance of this attitude was afforded 
during the past year. In the course of 1889 the 
ji^„t Korean Government, finding that the native- 
biQ.iOT grown beans were beiug bought up in great 
quantity by Japanese merchants for exportation to 
Japan, issued a temporary prohibition of export in 
two provinces. By this decree the purchasers, who 
had already made advances to the cultivators, alleged 
that they were the losers by nearly Jl'220,000, owing 
to their inability to recover their loans and to the 
non-delivery of the grain. Now by the Trade Regu- 
lations agreed upon between Korea and Japan in 
1S83, the former country has tlie right to prohibit 
the export of cereals in time of scarcity or emer- 
gency.' The Japanese, however, alleged that the 
emergency had not arisen in this case, and also that 
the stipulated month's notice had not been given in 
advance. The claim was pressed with greater or less 
insistence for four years, the Korean Goveniraent 
admitting a certain liability, but expressing its 
incapacity, owing to continued impoverishment, to 
pay more than 560,000 in compensation. At length 
the Radical and Jingo party in Japan became verv 
much excited at this insulting procrastination. As a 

of the Anglo-.InpiuiesB Treaty of 1858 ; and has never ahown any re- 
luctance tu set in operation iL);ainst Korea tlie provUiona of which ^ 
complnins bo bittcrlj «ben applied to herself. 


Bop to them the Japanese Minister to Soul was 
recalled, and a young Radical firebrand, who had 
recently published a book on Korea on the strength 
of a short visit there, was sent out to pursue a policy 
of brag. This individual, by presenting an ultimatum 
at the throat of the Korean Court, eventually com- 
pounded the dispute for tf 110,000 ; but, being totally 
destitute either of manners or of official training, he 
afironted the King and his Ministers to such an 
extent by his unseemly violation of all diplomatic 
etiquette in his interviews with them, that he was 
summarily recalled by the Japanese Government, 
retuminj* to Tokio to be made the recipient of a 
popular ovation. 

At that lime and till quite recently Count Ito 
and his (.-oUeagues were not Ijelieved to have anv 


ipathy with this intemperate and sm 

gering attitude towards the weaker State. 
They appeared to recognise that Japanese policy in 
Korea could only attain its ends by a friendly un- 
derstanding with Chuia ; that the effort to recover 
purely political ascendency in .Si'ul was incompatible 
with such an understanding ; and that every attempt 
to humiliate or terrorise over Korea was to play 
(liina's game, and to tighten the bonds that unili-d 
the vassal with the suzerain. At the same time no 
•lapanese minister could afford altogether to abandon 
ilie immemorial elaims of his country over the pettv 
adjacent kingdom ; while every Japanese ininifiter 
now to deal with a people — namely, Iiis own cuuniry- 
nien — who, when their so-called patriotic instincts 

208 KOREA 

are appealed to, are apt lo rt-spoml l>y going stark 


It is the latter jiheiioraenon, and the skilful 

but not too scrupulous use that has been made 

BcMiit of it, that are rer;]ioiisible for the events 
oomplU , . ,^ , 

eatkmi . occuiTmg in Korca as these pages go to 
press. Taking advantage of recent disturbances in 
the peninsula, which demonstrated with renewed 
clearness the impotence of the native Government to 
provide either a decent administration for its own 
subjects, or adequate protection to the interests of 
foreigners, and ingeniously profiting by the loophole 
left for future interference in the Tientsin Agreement 
of 1885, Japan has (in July 1894) landed a large 
military force, estimated at 10,000 men, in Korea, and 
is in armed occupation of the capital. Li Hung Cliang 
lias responded by the despatch of the Chinese fleet 
and of an expeditionary force, marching overland 
into the norttiern provinces. Both parties decline 
so far to retire ; China relying upon her genuine 
authority and influence, but feeling that she has been 
somewhat outwitted; Japan being resolved to atone 
for jjrevious blunders, and to reap a full advantage 
from her crafty but scarcely defensible diplomacy. 
War has not actually been declared ; but engagt- 
ments between the rival forces by land and sea 
have taken place, and the situation is scarcely dif- 
tingnishable therefrom. In the event of open ffsr 
Japan cannot, in my judgment, escape the blame of 
provocation, and will, in the long run, be the suf 
ferer bv the issue. 


1 turn next to the position of Cliinii. \]cr 
ascendency in Korea, whicli Iiaa far more natural 
, conditions in the 8li:i(n.' of common language, 
' customs, religion, and pliiloeopliy, as wdl aa 
i(?rritorial connection, to ret^ommend it than can bu 
advanced l>y Japan, praciically tlates from thu 
foundation of the prcsftut n^i^'niiig dyna'itj* of Korea 
OOO years aj.'o. It was under the patronaj^e of lh(» 
Ming Empejors that Xi Taijo. a soldier of fortune, 
raiaed bimsi^U' to the Koi-ean tluYine, and cetablishL'd 
a Court and capital .it Siul, which still faithfully 
repnxlnce the Chinese characterisUcui of that epodi. 
When ihe Japanese invadcnl (he peninsula frfim 1592 
to 1598, the Chinese defended it with as much encrjry 
as though it were part of their own territories, and 
ultimately expelled the intruders. Subsequently, 
i»\ their way to Oiina, the Maiichu con<iuen>rs 
devastated and exacted an even more liuniiliatiiig 
submission from Korea, whieh lias never since been 
surrendered, and is to this day enforced by tin- 
suzerain Power. While llaniel was in Korea, HiOo- 
Ifltlfi, he testifies to the constant visits of the re- 
pre«<'ntative of the Tlreat Cham." and to the coni- 
pli'te humility of the Korean Ciovernment. Annually 
a Tribute Mission wended its way by land frnni Siinl 
*•» I'ekinrf, conveying the specified tribute,' .nid 
•■^^i-eivirip in return the Calendar, whii-li it is Ilie 
^•nperial prerogative to prepare, and the mark of 
^"aN^alage to receive. In the succeeding century the 

' lu injrmlifnU kre oUtcd 1>,v Pallet (vol. i. p. i\ .) ; but it N |i>ti; 
^itcc tlicj wrre tcrupuloualy axMt«d. 

210 KOREA 

tribute "was gradually reduced, and lui- embassy 
appeared at times to dwindle into a ceremonial 
function, carrying presents in return for the per- 
mission to trade at the frontier, rather than tokens of 
political submission. Nevertheless, during this eiiocli 
a violent disturbance took place if there was the 
slightest omission of prescribed deference ; and one 
Korean monarch was smartly fined for his omission 
of some punctilio. From the time of the Manchu 
invasion to the present day every King and Queen 
of Korea have received their patent of royalty from 
tlie Court at Peking ; ' and the historical tutelar)' 
position of China continues to be vindicated in the 
following maimer. 

In addition to the Imperial investiture, and to 
the annual de.spatch of the Tribute Mission from 
EsbtinK Siiul, which is still maintained — altliough a 
«( Koiesu practical and mercantile aspect is now lent 
vaBimauB 1^ jjjg proceeding by its being utilised for 
the export to China by the Chung In of the King's 
red ijutseng — the uanie of the reigning monarch of 
Korea is also given to him by China, and the era 
specified in Korean Treaties is that of the accession, 
not of the King, but of his Suzerain the Emperor. 
The King of Korea is not allowed to wear the 
Imperial yellow. When the Imperial Commissioners 
arrive from Peking, he is required to proceed outside 
of his capital in order to receive them, the chief 

' M. Sclicr^er hua tranalateil into French and pabtished in Bf**tii 
d'llinerairf* et de Voijaget danii I'Atie Centrals el fettrfmeOnf^ 
(1878) the diorj of Ihe principal Chineiie ' r v was mdI bW 
Pekiug to ul^'est the pteBeut Queen of £o. in i 


Commiuioner tieing of higher rank in the Chiniise 
official hii^rarehy than hiDifiblf; and t have previously 
spoken of llie oraamental archway outside the west 
gate uf Silul, at which the vassal prince receivijs tlie 
envoys of \i\s Suzeruiti. Wlicn any notablu uvuuls 
(»cL>ur iu ihe t'ourl at Pekiii;.' they are comniunicaleti 
to thu vassiil Court, ami are the cause of a respf^ctful 
ineflsajie oitht^r of couduleiicu or of congratuhitiun 
from the latter. Similarly if any death occurs among 
the Inuling memhers of the Itiiyal Family at ftynl, 
an official iiiliiiiatiuu of the fact must be sent to 

■When ihe late Qavcn TJnwagcr nf Korea died in 
ISOO, the King deputed a mission at once to report 
iwih ni '''^ '"'"^^ '** *''^ Emperor ; and, in petitioiiin<; 
ifcTw!i^n7n '''^ latter to dispense witli tlie ordinary 
'"** ceremonial of a return mission to convey 

tlie foiidulences of the Suzerain, Ijecause of tlie 
difficulty that would be experienced by Korea i[i coii- 
»e<jneiire of her financial embarrassment in <'arryinjf 
out all the prescribed ceremonies — he made the follow- 
ing statement of his position ris-a-vis with China : — 

' Our country is a small kingdom and a vassal State of 
rhina, to which the Kmperor has shown his graciousiiesa 
from time imniemorial. Our Oovernmcnt was enabled tu 
Mrvive the political troubles uf IK62 and ]t^!*l through the 
UMktaoce received from the Throne, which secured fur our 
coaotry peace and trani|uillitr. Sinco His Majesty ha- tieen 
fTood enuDgh to confer these favours upou ux, weithoultl make 
komrn to him whatever we desire ; and whatever we wish we 
tmat that be may allow, aa to an infant conliding in the 
teoalrr mercies of its [Mrenta.' 

r 3 

212 KOREA 

These compliments, liowever, did not imluce Ihe 
Suzerain to forego one tittle of his traditional rights ; 
although he so far yielded to the Korean plea of 
poverty as to permit his Commissioners to travel by 
sea to Chemulpo, instead of overUuul, thereby greatly 
reducing the cost of their entertainment. An 
account of the minute and elaborate cenmonies 
observed on both sides has since been published with 
evident design by the Secretary to the Imperial - 
Commissioners.' The latter, it appears, amoiiL,' other 
marks of condescension, suggested the omisfetoii from 
the programme of the state banquets, music, and 
jugglery, with which it was usual lo entertain them. 
' Their motive for this suggestion was to show their 
consideration for Korean impecuniosity.' They also 
declined to receive parting presents from the King, 
at which the latter ' felt very grateful, and at ihe 
same time regretted the fact.' When all was over 
the King sent a memorial to the Emperor, thanking 
him for his graciousness, 'The sentiments of Ibis 
memorial — in their -sincerity and importance — are 
beyond expression in words, demonstrating that 
China's manifold graciousness towards her depen- 
dencies is increasing with the times. The Emperor's 
consideration for his vassal State, as evinced by W^ 
thoughtfulness in matters pertaining to the Mission, i* 
fathomless. How admirable and satisfactory ! Ano 
how glorious ! ' 

Such is the technical and official expression w 

' Notet on the Imperial Chineie iliition to Carta in 18"^ 
Stungliai, 1S92. 


the 8uiH>raiDty of Cliiiui which is oWrreil lo this 
(Uj; and such are the evidoDcea of the intliapuLable 
reality of that rt.-1ntioui(hip. Of even greater impor> 
tance is it to trace the exteut to wluch in recent 
years it has been occutapatiicd by practical dotnina- 
tinn of Korean statecrafl — a subject which brings us 
into immediate acquainloncc with the diplomatic 
imUfTuion 4>f China, as well na with her enormaiu 
Utent strength. 

Up to the time of tlie massacre of the Krench 
miasionarics in Kon>a in ISOO tlie cioim of Korean iu- 
nx^ii dependence bad never scnously licen nuide. 
Mi>T- At that date it was ailvanced, of all peijplo 
««b« ill till Morlil, l.y ttie Chiueic- llii'nisi'K.-.-, 
Anxious to escape responsibility for the act as well 
as the irksome duty of either paying an indemnity 
tlieraselves or extorting it from their vassal, when M. 
df liellonet, the French Charge dAffaires, inquired 
f)f the Tsuntrli Yamen what he was to do, the hitter 
disowned Korea altogether, and left tlie Frenchman 
to publish a ridiculous manifesto to Prince Kung, in 
which he took upon himself to announce in advance 
the deiKJsition of the Korean Sovereign. Similarly 
when, in 1871, the American Expedition, under 
Admiral Kodgers, proposed to sail against Kurea to 
demand reparation for the loss of the Mlencral 
i^liemiaii ' and the murder of its crew on Korean 
Miores in 1800, and to force a treaty upon tin- 
Korean C< rt, it was again with the connivance of 
ihe C'hinei I verinnent that the project w:i.s uiider- 
liken. F _', when in 1870 the Japanese, before 

sending' an expedition to Korea witli a similar objecl. 
applied for information to Peking in advance, a third 
time came the disclaimer of China, which is said ou 
this occasion to have even been committed to pajHT. 
This was a policy of Eepudialion, and was Chin.-i's 
first inconsistency. 

Discovering her mistake, and realising that ihf 
foreigner, having once been allowed to meddle witli 
a N'ca- Korea propria motu, could not be pernia- 
truUiahon jjgj^j|y excluded from closer relations, slie 
then tried to repair her error by encouraging tlie 
various Powers to enter into Treaty relations with 
Korea on an independent basis, hoping, apparenlly. 
that the mutual jealousies of all would preclude llic 
ascendency of any one. Commodore Shufeldt. an 
American naval officer, who in 1807 had been seui 
\ipon a futile mission to Korea after the loss oi 
the ' General Sherman,' being in Tientsin in ISM. 
was utilised by Li Hung Chang as the first iiislni- 
ment of this new policy. The American Treaty, in 
tended to serve as a pattern for its successors, issai'' 
to have been drafted by the Viceroy himself; and i' 
was with the escort of a Chinese squadron ihat i''^ 
Commodore presented himself at the mouth of tli^ 
Han. Simultaneously the Viceroy wrote a letter i" 
the Tai Wen Kun, strongly urging upon the Kore-w 
Government the signature of treaties with theforeigii 
Powers as the sole means of continued security w' 
hidependence for the threatened kingdom. VioM 
these conditions the American Treaty was signed ii 
1882, and the Treaties with Great Britain and Cei" 


many ia 1883 ; the first British draft Treaty, which 
was framed by Admiral Willes in 1882 on the model 
of the American, being superseded by the more 
liberal instrument negotiated with great ability and 
concluded by Sir Harry Parkes in the following year. 
Now the first article of the Japanese Treaty of 
1876 had opened with these words : — * Chosen, being 
T«nD« an independent State, enjoys the same 
TnHOiM sovereign rights as does Japan.' Conscious 
of the serious significance of this admission, China, 
in recommending the additional foreign Treaties, now 
sought to guard herself by a statement of her own 
position. The American Treaty, when first drafted, 
contained a clause which ran as follows : — * Korea has 
always been tril)Utarv to China, and this is admitted 
by the President of the United Slates;' but "The 
Treaty sliall l)e permanently regarded as having no- 
thinir to do therewith.' This absurd contradiction 
was of course expunged by the Wasliington Oovern- 
ment, who being invited to conclude a treaty 
with Korea, naturally insisted upon treating Korea as 
an independent State. Accordingly in the American, 
as in tin* British and subsequent foreign Treati(*s, tin* 
Kintr of Korea is throuiihout reL^anled (thon<jh not 
actually described) as an independent Sovereign: 
and provisions are mad(» for the customary diplo- 
matic representation, familiar in the case of Toweis 
negotiating upon an ecjual l)asis, of each of the Higli 
('ontra<*ting Tarties at the Court of the other Xi>t 
to Ik» circumvented, however, China insisted upon thr 
King of Korea sending the following despatch to the* 

216 KOREA 

President of the UiiiteJ Slates, prior to the actual 
conclusion of the 'treaty ; and facsimiles uf tht- same 
have since been transmitted to the Sovereigns of each 
of the remaining Treafy Powers at the cnrrcspdiuliiig 
j uncture : — ■ 

' The King of Korea acknowledges that Korea is a tri- 
butary of Cbiaa ; bnt in regard to both internal administra' 
tion and foreign intercourse it enjoys complete independence. 
Now, being about to establish Treaty relations between 
Korea and the United Statea of America on terms of 
equality, the King of Korea, as an independent monarch, 
distinctly undertakes to carry out the articles contained in 
the Treaty, irrespective of any matters aflfectiog the tributary 
relations subsisting between Korea and China, with which the 
United States of America have no concern. Having appointed 
officials to deliberate upon and settle the Treaty, the King 
of Korea considers it his duty to nddresa this des^patch to 
the President of the United Htates.' 

It will, I tlmik, be conceded that a more strictly 
illogical State-paper tlian the above was never 
l)enned, and that a more incongruous or contradic- 
tory position was never taken up. The King of 
Korea acknowledges his vassalage to China ; but in tlie 
same breath pronounces his complete independence 
l)oth in the administration of his own country ami 
in foreign relations. In what, then, we may ask, does 
his vassalage consist? lie describes himself simulta- 
neously as a tributary and as an independent monarch. 
^*a double-faced a portent, so complex a phenomenou, 
has neither parallel nor precedent in international 
hiw. If he is a vassal, he has no business to be 
making treaties, or to be sending and receiviii{| 


envoys on a f(K>ttng of equality. If he U itidcpeu- 
dent, why docs ht* declare Iiimsclf a feudatory :■' 

Such was the irrational position in vrhidi China, 
by lier policy of an att4>mpt4.-d neutraliftalion of 
Qi^tiMi iir Korea, landed both herself and the vassal 
'■""^* i^tate. Tlie full consequences of her attitud« 
■were clearly manifc«tfd when, a few years later, 
Korea proposed to carry out lier initial prerogative 
of tending duly accredited envoys to the foreign 
Conrts who were already represented at .Siitil. The 
Viceroy IJ, who had in the meantime sensibly tijrht 
ened the reins, wa» cousulted; and unee more Kceking 
to recov<?r the ground which lud been technically 
abandoned, he attached conditions to the proposed 
appointments which, etrictly regarded, were, if possi- 
ble, even more anomalous than tlie original parados. 
The Korean Envoy, on arrival at his destination, was 
to rejK>rt himself to the Chinese Representative there, 
and to be intro<luced by him to the Foreign Minister 
uf tlie State. On all public occasions he w:ls to yield 
precedence to the Chinese Minister, and he was in- 
variably to consult and take the advice of the latter. 
Ih-re was the same contradiction in terms in a more 
pronounced shape. If the King of Korea was a 
v:is.-al, he had no business to be sending represcnla- 
lives at all ; if he was an independent nion;ir(.li, riiina 
had no busines.s to interfere with him. Kitlu-r his 
envoys were private individuals or they were dijiio- 
tiiatic representatives. If they were the furnn.r, no 
*lufsiion of precedence could arise ; if they were the 
latter, they were subject to the normal regulations of 

diplomatic etiquette. For some weeks the President 
of the United States, naturally somewhat bewildered, 
kept the Korean Envoy at Wasliiiijrton waiting for 
his audience ; but when the common sense view of the 
question prevailed against the quibbles concocted in 
self-defence by the Chinese Government, and the 
Envoy was received, without any reference to the 
Chinese Minister, as the representative of an inde- 
pendent Sovereign, Li Hung Chang was very wroth 
with His Majesty of Korea, who for his part returned 
the stereotyped reply that the offending envoy had 
exceeded his instructions. However this might be, 
his brother-minister, who had been accredited to 
the Courts of Petersburg, Berlin, Paris, and London, 
never got beyond Hongkong ; so that the European 
Foreign Oflices were saved from a repetition of ihe 
same inconvenient wrangle. 

Hefore the dispute alwut the envoys arose, Chiia. 
not yet alive to the initial error that had led her '-o 
Oi«-ti..nof authorise the Treaties, had been tempted iiiii> 
«iiiii a repetition of the same weakness, on an even 

larger scale, by the Convention, already referred to 
as coiichided at Tientsin in 18So between herself ami 
Japan. If Chhia is the suzerain Power, she has tlie 
same right to marcli troops into Siiul, in the event i>f 
disturbance, as tlie Indian Government lias, for I'l- 
stance, to order Brilisli regiments in a similar emer- 
gency to Hyderabad — whilst Japan has no conv- 
sponding riglil whatsoever ; and any agreement by 
China with a second Power involving a surrender "i 
that right is to derogate from her own pretension*- 


If Cliitia is nni ilic htizt'min Power, how can she claim 
auy riybl. Imr ihal wlunb war conft-rs upuu any bel- 
ligerent strong enough to exercise it, to pcnd troopa 
lo Kon-a at all ? 

If. liowever, on thi' DeUl of iliidonuicy, where she 
is onliiifirily supiioscd to be so clever, hut where I 
■. pnctiai think I have shown that in the case of Korea 
•DTenripitT gjjg ijjjg always been tacking to and fro 
between opposite extremes, China has been more 
timid or less far-sighted than Japan, she has to a 
great extent atoned for her discordant policy by a 
very practical assertion of sovereignty in Siiul itself. 
When the rebellion broke out there in 1882, and the 
Killer ajipealed to U Hung Clianj: for helii. the latter 
resiioiidcd by at once sending a number of inmclads, 
and 4,0110 troops, tlie bulk of whom remained in a 
permanent camp outside the cily for nearly three 
years. He compelled tlic Korean Ooveriimeiit to 
ar<'ej)t tlie Japanese demaiidiS with a <|uiie nnnstial 
alacrity ; an<l effectively nipped all antagonism in the 
bud by instructing Ihe Chinese eommaiider, >Ia Kien 
Oiung, to invite the Tai Wen Kin to dinner, to pop 
iiiiii into a sedan-cliair, and earry him duwn ti) the 
I'oast, whence liewa** deported straight to (Iiina and 
inienied for three years. Again it was l.i Ihnig 
Chang whom the disconsolate King was uhli^ed to 
jH-lition for the restoration of his Ironlilesnme pannl. 
and who allowed the old intriguer to go liark. When 
ihe Treaty Ports were opened. Ihe same great slates- 
man look good care to reserve the CiisiDni- s,-i\ ier t"i>r 
Chinese hands ; and in the summer of \^'XZ the Itean 

question with Japan w:ts only settled by his interven- 
tion and by a Chinese loan to Korea, the security for 
which was to be the Customs lievenue — an ingenious 
frustration of one of the pet projects of Japan. Mlien 
in 1885 negotiations were opened with Great Britain 
about the evacuation of Port Hamilton, it was China, 
and not Korea, who took up the pen. Until 1893 the 
only overland telegraphic connection which the Vice- 
roy allowed to Korea outside of her own dominions 
M'aa a junction with the Chinese wire to Peking, and 
when the Eussian demand for a connection with 
Vladivostok could no longer be refused, he wisely 
backed it up by offering to construct and to officer 
the line with Chinese material and men. 

Finally, in Soul itself everj' one of the Foreign 
Diplomatic Corps, though he gaily proclaims himself 
The the representative of his Sovereign at an 

R<.»idei,t allied and equal Court, knows perfectly well 
who is the real master. The Chinese Eesident, who 
is a man of great energy and ability, named Yuan 
Shih Kai, is in the position of a Mayor of the Palace, 
without whose knowledge nothing, and withoul 
whose consent little, is done. Alone among the 
foreign representatives, he is entitled to sit when 
received in audience by the King. His establishment 
and guard and display in the streets are among the 
sights of Si'ml. Tlie various champions of tlif 
academic theory of Korean independence have one 
by one disappeared from the stage, but the Chini'Si' 
Eesident remains. Time after time he has beeu re- 
appointed, as was the Marquis Tseng in Eurojw; 


and even after his promotion to the Taotaiship of 
Weochow in Chiaa had Iieeti Ibnnally gazetlcil in 
1S9:J, il was s!il! rvlt tlial lit- could not be spared 
from S'ml, and bn stayed on. lie is one of ihe fiiw 
Chinese I have met who impressed me with fianknew 
ta well as with power. 

Tlie Kusceptibilitifs of the King, who can point, iu 
defence of bis own automimy, to Tr«.ities wliii-h he 
t-wiiiw of *"** allowfrd to make by the- suzerain Pitwer, 
tb*K>Bc jjpp n^,^ unnaturally sometimes affeeted by 
thiit situation ; and there is no n'Jison why they 
should not l>e treated with the utmcat res]>(.>rt by 
foreiffn Powers. But they do not conceal the reality 
<.f lb.- MHi.iliivL whi.'Ii U tlii^— thnr in tin- rv ,-it ..f 
real difficulty or danger it would be to China that 
be himself would turn, as he always has turned, 
ami that the two policies of repudiation and of 
neutralisation, enshrined though they be in Treaties, 
have until recent events been superseded by a vigo- 
rous and undisputed reassertion of Chinese control. 

Judged, therefore, by its results it mijjlit be said 
that the policy of Li Ilunjr Chang, however little 
ja>iifiminD shaped by the canons either of loL.'ii' or 
ci^ns of internal ional custom, was not unsm- 

ces»ful. Each logical faux pus was in the end 
retrieved by some practical a<lvanl.age. If he de- 
clineil to punish Korea in the first place for Iut 
attacks upon missionaries and foreigners, he ilierebv 
e9cai)ed resjionsibility for her cruelties. If he allowed 
Korea, a vas-sal State of China, to make Tivaiies 
with foreign Powers, he at the same time vitnliealed 

his right to appear as go-hetweeii — a c-apaciiy hi 
which Japan was most unxiuus to figure. By these 
means he might claim lo liave eiihsled tlie interest of 
foreign Powers as a sel-off to the only two rivals 
whom China seriously fe:irs in Korwi, viz. Japan ;mtl 
Russia. Finally, having surrenilered some of the 
technical symbols of suzerainty, he offered a verj- 
practical demonstration of the remainder at all 
moments of crisis ; and by judicious advances of 
money obtained a firm hold upon Korean ad- 
ministration. His policy, indeed, towards Korea 
might not inaptly be compared with that of Great 
Britain during the last decade towards Kgypt, where 
every species of technical anomaly has yet been tlie 
ultimate precursor of a vigorous and commanding 
control. It remains to be seen whether he ran cupe 
with the new situation. 

Upon this scene Russia, liaving been brou^'lit 
by the Chinese concessions of 1 858-1800 ' down 
Connection to tlic Eivcr TiuHien, and having thereby 
BuBsin become coterminous with Korean territorv 
on the north, appeared for the first time as an actor 
about thirty years ago. At her maritime harbour 
and base of Vladivostok she is but little removed from 

' MouravielT, the Russian Governor- General of Siberia, Ukiot 
advtintai^e of the absorption of China in her impending war with Great 
Uritain. and of the i^oss ignortinre of the Manchn fronlier officinb- 
persiiadt'il the Imter to eipn (he Trent;- of A i gun in 1858, ceding W 
Iltissia the Atiinr province. In IHGO, before the war was conclndrd 
and while the Emperor was still a fiiRilive, Ignatieff went to rtkinf- 
and by a further Treaty from the terriliei) Government got the Primant 
province (i.e. all the territory lying to the east of the Ussari. and ftt 
miles of sea-coast) as well. Never was a fine dominiou so cheapl}' <* 
luore cleverly wan. 


the Korenii fnmtiiT, across which her oflicr-rs and 
agt'iits Luve pursued their surveys far and widt> (the 
only dec-cnt map uf Korea being one that emanates 
frutu RuMtan sources), while the Koreans lta%-e ijeen 
^ncourajjed to develop a corresjKmding familiarity 
by inviialions to come and settle in Russian villages 
across the bonier. Here tlioy were utilised at first 
a& Bcgualters ami colonists in Ihe practically utiin- 
linbiled conntrj', later on as farmers and graziers 
and wfNxIculterit. In the tuwiiK labour was found for 
tbem and wliools were opened for iheir ehildrcn, in 
which the latter were brought up in the Hussian faith, 
BOpplying, as they grm- to manho(Ml, a native piist(>- 
rale to evangelise their fellow-countrymen. In 1880 
there were said to be 20,000 Koreans in Russian terri- 
tory, and the figures are probably now mucli higher. 
It was through the agency of tliese volunteer emi- 
grants and naturalised citizens that llussia first openeil 
her campaign of political intrigue in the peninsula. 

The general territorial acquisitiveness of Kussia 
at the expense of %vea :er neighbours, lier admitted 
Auin-jTi desire for a na marine in the racific, and 
''~*" the superior atl vantages possessed by Korean 
harbours over the mo northerly port of ^'ladi- 
vostok, which is icebound for four montiis in the 
year, as well as the diplomatic tactics adopted by hi'r 
representatives, have given universal credence in tlie 
East to the belief that Korea is regarded by Kussia 
with a more than covetous eye. There is consider- 
able evidence in support of this hypothesis. It was 
during th' dispute with China in IS60 that 

her unconcealed affection for the sheltered recesses 
of Port Lazareff (the plfins for the seizure and forti- 
fication of which are said to have been long prepared) 
was first made use of as a diplomatic menace, and is 
believed in consequence to have slill further im-liiit-i! 
the mind of Li Hung Chang towards the policy of 
the Korean Treaties. In 1S84, while France was at 
war with China and was anxious to enlist the sym- 
pathy and alliance of Japan, the question of the price 
to be paid to the latter soon brought matters to a 
deadlock, when it was discovered that Russia would 
not let the opportunity slip of also doing a stroke of 
business in Korean waters. In 1884 the Russians 
were said by many to have been at the bottom of 
the conspiracy and outbreak in Suul ; but I am 
not aware of tlie evidence upon which this is based 
About the same time rumours, not without solid 
foundation, were circulated of a secret agreement 
between Uiissia and Korea, negotiated by the German 
Adviser of the King, by which Hussia was to reoi;f.'a- I 
uise the Korean army and to support the Korean J 
claims to Tsushima,' while Korea in return was to cede I 

' Others saiil thnl Riisela wasto occupy TBushima herself— •roniW 
nliich the 'Xovoe VremvR ' urped upon the Government in » nw* 
unblusliin^ article, nn<l which possessed the charm of an historic*! [■*' 
cedent. For in ISI'rl the main island tvoa actually occupied for ■* 
months by the crew of the liuspian frif^te ' PoBSodnik,' wliohoisW^*^ 
litiNBian Hnf;, formed a Binall settlemtnt ashore, and cultivateil tbe <» 
•Sir It. Alcock. who was British Minister in Japan, eent Mr. LATTd"* 
Oliphnnt, tlien a nicmher of tlie Lepiition, to find out what wtaff''* 
on. Tlie liilti^r reported to Admiral Sir J. Hope, whoM-asincammX* 
uf t)ic nei^hlioiirinj^ sipiailron, anil who represented to the Bu*'* 
Aihuiral that he should be compelled to go to Tsiishiuift himself ux'" 
etny there aa long as did the llussians. The result was iiumMlii'* 


■iTi Hamilton ; and it was eometliin^' more thai 

imour of the tatter intention that induced the 

ritish Govorumcnt to anticipate ari impending 

u»covite seizure by hoislin-j; the British fli^ upon 

lOSC islands. In 188(1 a further pin', for placing 

orea uiidi-r Russian prntei-rmu was detected by the 

binese Besident. Four leading Korean officials were 

Tested and imprisoned, and subsequently admitted 

leir complicity by flight. In 1886, however, Cliina, 

mished with a golden opportunity by the will- 

gness of Great Britain to evacuate Port Hamilton, 

x>vided she could obtain guarantees that no other 

reign Power would occupy it, scored her first 

jnuine diplomatic triumph as rejiards K(»rca by 

:torting a distinct and official pledge from the 

issian Governnu'nt that tindor no cin-iiinstaiu'es 

uld Kiissia occupy Korean territory. This plcdL't* 

alhided to with some pride in the coiiversiition 

:h I enjoyed at Tientsin with the Vii-eroy Li 

.r (,'liarijr. Hut an Englishman who remeniljers 

fTicial pledges as to Samarkand, and Kliiva, and 

may In.' pardoned if he prefers an attitude of 

sreptiral reserve. This, however, is, for llic 

H'ir.g, llie cue in llnssiaii official argument 

ig Korea, and has been followed quite reeeiidy 

• N'lvoe \'reinya,' wliieli acts a-s a snri of'ii for thf schemes of llie IJussian fieneral 

I which has gone so far as to reason against 

tmii'xation of Korea on the ground that the 

Vi.h nn iirticlv liv I..OIii.liaiit in ni.irl.,,:...!, M.i.j.,^,,..: 


country is too thickly populated to admit of easy 
conquest, too different from Eussia to render assimi- 
lation posfflble, and too poor to make the experiment 
remunerative. There is much to be said for this 
view ; and undoubtedly it caiinol for some lime be to 
the interest of Eussia to involve herself in direct hos- 
tility with China, who would be bound to fight against 
a step that would give to her most formidable land- 
enemy the incalculable additional advantage of being 
able to blockade her northern coasts and to strike a 
swift blow at Peking. On the other hand Eussia can 
hardly desire to have as her immediate neighbour, 
within a few hours' sail of Vladivostok, so pugnacious 
and aspiring a Power as Young Japan. 

The Russian appetite, if it be inflamed either bv 
Korean at I factions or by Korean weakness, may there- 
Adinierim ^*^^^ rcquirc to mortify itself for some years 
I''""" to come. In the meantime the traditional 

methods of amicable influence can successfully be 
pursued. By a Commercial Convention concluded 
witli Korea in 1888, the Korean land-frontier was 
opened lo Russian traders ; a Korean market at thf 
mouth of the Tinmen River was opened to Russian 
trade ; a lower rate of Customs dues wag fixed fof 
Russian laud imports than for other foreign impon* 
by sea ; and Russia secured the right to have ^nlSi 
whatever that may mean, in the northern parts » 
Korea. She also makes her contiguous frontier ^ 
excuse for communicating with her representative ii 
Siiul overland. More recently, with a chamiiDg 
naiveti', she invited permission of the Korean Govem- 


mcnt to fouod a Uu&siuii agricultural colony, for 
seven years only, within the Korean border. Bussiaa 
drill- Instructors have more than onca boen offered 
to the Korean army — a, Ktep with which the histo- 
ries of liokhara, Khiva, and Persia have rendered 
ufl familiar. An overland telegraphic connection 
between Korea and Kussia was secured in 1893. A 
■tefttn tu.'r\'ice between Korean ports and N'ladivoHtok 
i* bein<; maintained by an ample subsidy from the 
Imperial Ooveniinent. A Hussiati Consul has been 
appointed at Fusun, where there are tto Bussiaa 
cubjccti>, and aa yet uejit to no Iliissian trade. These 
are the recojinised and ninru or k'ss legitimate 
svmptonis of Muscovite concern. In Korea itself an 
impression prevails that they are only the forerunners 
of a movement which will nut slacken till a Itussian 
fleet is moored in Port Lazareff, and the liussian flag 
vaves over Fusan ; and it must be admitted that the 
lessons of histor}' are not unfavourable to such an 

The position of the remaining Powers may be 
hriefly summarised. The primary interest of Great 
*'ui,d, Britain in Korea is as a market for an 
"•^ already considerable trade. Of far greater 
•Ooment, however, is the secondary and contingent 
**Were«l arising out of the political future. A country 
*^ well provided with harbours whicli could l)olh 
•*Jpply oi great flotillas, and so richlv 

**ldt)wed th u ty potential sources of wcallli, 
'flight inv ' menace to Britiiili conumice 

^*ul iuten the China seas, and even in 

the Pacific Ocean, if held by a hostile State. A 
Russian port and fleet, for instance, in the Gulf of 
Pechili would, in time of war, constitute as formidahle 
a danger to British shipping in the Yellow Sea as 
they would to the metropolitan province and the 
capital of China. Permanent Eassian squadrons at 
Port Lazareff" and Fusan would convert her into the 
greatest naval Power in the Pacific. Tlie balance of 
power in the Far East would be seriously jeopardised, 
if not absolutely overturned, by such a developmonl : 
and England is prohibited alike by her Imperial 
objects and her commercial needs from lending her 
sanction to any such issue. 

The temporarj' occupation of Port Hamilton, an 
almost uninhabited group of islets forty miles from 
Owuptttion '■^^^ southern coast of Korea, by the Britisli 
Hftmiiton ^^^t '•' 18Sf> was dictated b)' the poUtical 
in 1085 necessities of that time, being undertaken i" 
order to anticipate a Russian seizure, and as ao 
answer to the Russian aggression at Penjdeh, but was 
not subsequently persisted in — a retirement which, 
less for its own sake than for the possible use of 
continued occupation as a plea by others, was gladlv 
welcomed both by Cliina and Korea, and cementfll 
the friendly relations between Great Britain mw 
those States.' In the negotiations that passed b^ 

' rnrt Hamilton is formed by two large and one amaU idiutd, «D<' 
rcHpecticely Sodo, Sniiodo, and Chuwen, or Obwrvatory IsUdJ. ^ 
lonRini; to the Xmiliowgronp.thirty'OiRht miles from thenorth.cail*' 
(if yiielpart. When occujuecl by the British they were found to cso** 
n fen lillaRes and Korean otlicials. Jjord Granville, in vui 
the tempcirnry occupation to China, expressed his rettdineBt to 
an agreement with her on the mnlter, and to pa; yearly to EoiMMf 

I to «»(■*■ 
• EoM«r|^ 



t ween the respective Governments it was obvious, 
indeed, that what China shrank from, and what Korea 
dreaded, was not the establishment of a British naval 
or coaling station, or even of a British maritime 
fortress in the mouth of the Sea of Japan, but the 
chance of a corresponding Russian movement in some 
neighbouring quarter ; and both Powers have every 
reason to be grateful for a step which forced the 
hand of Russia, and compelled her to give a guaran- 
tee, which, even if it should prove to be waste paper 
on the approach or outbreak of war, has at any rate 
lent a renewed lease of life to the phantom of Korean 
integrity, and has saved the little kingdom from 
sudden or surreptitious deglutition in time of peace. 
The evacuation of Port Ilamilton has also shown that, 
while Great Britain is interested in keeping out 
others from this Xaboth's vinevard of the Far East, 
she has no reversionar}' desire for its pot^session her- 

re>eniies derived from the iiilaudtt. The Tkud^U Yiuuen, \%ho in the 
meantime had been threatened with corre8|)ondinK nioveincnlK huh by 
KoMiia and JajNin, declined, and instructed the Korean Government to 
prtitc«t~an action which Lord Granville endeavoured to meet bv 
tfffehnfT a yearly rent of 54X)0/. la the meantime tliree Britinh 
admiralfl aaccemiively reported that the port could not be safely held 
tmleaii i;reat exjiense were incurred in fortification, and that in war a 
pn»t«cting fuiua'lroa would be retjuired to prevent its Win;: t^helled 
frcHu without. After much correspondence Lord Kost-bery. in April 
1H45. oflered to retire upon a ^larantee being p\en by China a<;iiin8t 
the ijccupation of Port Ilamilton by afiy other i'ower, or upon tluf 
r«>i»cliiaion of an international agreement guaranteeing the integrity of 
Korea A combination of tliene HuggextionH was ultimately adopted ; 
and the ItuMuaa repretentative at IVking having given *a inoNt oxplicii 
l^naimniee ' that if the liritiah evacuatcni Port Hamilton * KuK>ia would 
mM oeeapy Korean territory under any rircuniHtanceH whatHoc\er.* the 
Britiah fla^ waa hauled down in Feb. 1^7. yVuU ( hiim, Nt>. 1. IhhT.i 
The Korean Government lias lately (1H04I reaH)$erted its authoritv over 
lb* iaUodfl by f nding there aa Governor an oflkial of aume dihtiuctiun. 

self, and is about as likely to seize or to annex Korea 
as she is to invade Belgium — a demonstration which 
will not merely have been grateful to China, but will 
also have been useful in allaying the phenomenal 
sensitiveness of Japan. 

The remaining Powers in Korea, according to 
their political predilections or objects, are disposed 
The other ^^ range themselves partly on the side of 
Powera those wlio proclaim, partly with those who 
discourage, the pretensions of Korean autonomy: 
their attitude being generally ascertainable from the 
character and title of the diplomatic representation 
which they maintain at the Korean Coiirt. France, 
of course, adopts the former line ami deputes ;t 
Consul and Commissaire, claiming precedence of the 
British and German Consuls. Eussia, her ally, is re- 
presented by a ChargS d Affaires. America appoints 
a Minister and vigorously encourages the dream 
of Korean independence, as best qualified to pro- 
vide employment for American dollars and brains. 
Germany sends a Consul and Commissioner. Great 
Britain is technically represented by a Minister Ple- 
nipotentiary, the Minister at Peking being simulta- 
neously accredited, in virtue of the Treaty of 188S, 
to the King of Korea. Till 1893, however, when 
Mr. O'Conor went up to Soul and presented his 
letters of credence to the King, no visit of a BritJ^ 
Minister had taken place since that date; and the 
Queen is ordinarily represented in Siiul by a Cooeol- 
General, whose relatively subordinate position ia tie 
source of not unnatural vexation on the part of the 


Korean GoTenunent, as well as of misuiulerstanding 
among the Diplomatic Rody. These absurd anonialies 
ant! disputes are a further but inevitable (^unsequeiure 
of the illogical policy of the Treaties. 

Surh IB the position that is occupied by Korea 
via-^i'vis vitli the more powerful nations with whom 
iWa«o» the march of events lias brought hex into 
•■•b* dim^t contact. She \& ronfrontt.'d with the 
iU-«upprcs8cd cupidity of Kusaia, the prodigious 
latest force of CliinA, the Jealous and valngtorinus 
tnierest of Japan. By herself she is quite incapable 
of gucccMful resistance to any one of these three, 
thongh her statesmen are not deficient in the skill 
required to play off each against the other. Her 
intrinsic weakness is in reahty her sole strength ; 
for were she powerful enough to render her own 
alliance an appreciable weight in the scale, she might 
be tempted to adopt a course of action that must 
infallibly result in final absorption. The foolish per- 
sons who, from interested motives, prale to her of 
independence are inviting her to sign her own dcitli- 
warrant. Alone she has no more strength than a 
child in arms; though, so long as her three great 
neighbours continued to regard eacli otlier from a 
watchful distance, Korea, which lies between, might 
escape the armaments of each. Now, however, thai 
the gage of battle has been tlirown down betwceu 
two of the three, her territorial integrity, tn which 
all three are virtually pledged, is vanishing into thin 
air, and will l*e difficult I<) re-establish. \i\ inttr- 
national guarantee has sometimes been suggrsttil as 

a stoji-gap ; but Bussia, we iii:iy be sure, would de- 
cline to move one step beyond her existing pledge, 
which she probably already regrets, while China 
could hardly be asked to guarantee her own vassal. 
My own conviction is that the only hope of continued 
national existence for Korea lies in the maintenance 
of her connection with China, which history, policy, 
and nature combine to recommend, and which offers, 
in addition, the sole guarantee for the recoverj- anil 
preservation of peace. Chiiia has kept her alive for 
500 years, and the shadow of China in the hack- 
ground has been the one stable element in the dis- 
solving view of her Lilliputian pohtics. 

That this is the opinion, nut merely of an outside 
English spectator, nor of China herself, but of tbe 
second most interested Asiatic Power, Japs"' 
there was, till lately, much reason to Iwliei't 
Both China and Japan, the one for historical priil* 
of sovereignty and empire, the other for popnlsf 
sentiment and tradition, have been compelled to &">■ 
tudinise somewhat in the matter of Korea. liotliSf 
in reolity looking over their shoulders at the re*) 
antagonist, Eussia. Both are equally concerniil * 
keeping her out. She would be not moit o<lioiJi"' 
the one in the Yellow Sea than to the other in i^ 
Sea of Japan. Both are secretly conscious iLalby* 
mutual understanding alone lietween them can ^^ 
object be secured. Such an understanding luaj'''' 
compromising to the legitimate suzerainty of Chii* 
and may be complicated by the sentimental clai'''' 
of Japan ; but each knows that whereas Russia «i* 

■f-t'P^-'!''^^' — ----NSivS: J:"^---. -('S-' 


the tacit acquiescence or the neutrality of the other 
might at any day * cast out her shoe ' over Korea, 
Bussia, threatened with the combined antagonism of 
both, must restrict her ambitions to the northern 
bank of the Tiumen. Of this common conviction 
there may be very little evidence in the external 
symptoms of Asiatic policy ; for the Chinese Govern- 
ment, with the best cards in its possession, has had 
no reason to prematurely show its hand ; while the 
Japanese Government, dealing with a newly con- 
stituted chamber and a newly enfranchised elec- 
torate, both of which are dominated by patriotic and 
Chauvinistic emotions, is engaged in playing to the 
gallery. That the truth, however, is manifest to 
the al)le statesmen who respectively guide their 
countries' destinies, to Count Ito and to the Viceroy 
Li Hung Cliang, is evident from the co-operation 
whicli at moments of genuine crisis the two Powers 
liave hitherto alwavs exhibited in Korea, and to the 
practi<*al agreement which, at some cost to tlie pride 
of lK>th, they succeeded in concluding in 1885. 
liecent events have complicated the situation, and 
may seem to presage the dawn of a new era. Never- 
theless, I adhere to the hope that sober sense may, 
trven at the eleventh hour, prevail with Japan as 
Well as with China. A continuation of this statesman- 
like tradition will be* the best means of proerving 
the inte<jritv of a countrv that is so essential to the 
Ssafetv of both. 


'And so he passed with his folk, and wan the Lond 
of Cathay, that is the Grettest Kjngdom of the World * 

Sib John Maundeville, Travels 




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^ Jife-'- 




travellers deplore the transition from Jajiaii to China 
as one from sweetness to squalor, from beauty to 
ugliness, from civilisation to barbarism, from warmlli 
of welcome to cheerless repulsion. And j^el I am 
not sure that a truer estlmale is not formed of the 
prodigious strength of Chinese character and custom 
by the ability to contrast them with the captivating 
external attributes of Japan ; whilst a check is placed 
upon the too indiscriminate laudation of the latest 
recruit to civiUsation by the spectacle of a people who 
have lived and would be content, if we permitted them, 
to go on living without any contact with the West 
at all, and who think what we call truth error, our 
progress weakness, and our fondest ideals an abomi- 
nalion. Perhaps as a stepping-stone between the two. 
akin to yet also profoundly dissimilar from either. 
Korea supplies a link that may at once break ami 
lend point to the abruptness of the contrast. 

The journey from the coast of the Gulf of Pecliili 

up to the capital seems to have won an undeserved 

reputation for painfulness in travellers' 


writings. It is true that tlie visitor may lie 
tossing for one, two, or more days on the mud-har 
outside the Taku forts at the mouth of the Peiho — 
in which position he may picture tlie plight of llie 
British gunboats, which on that fatal day in ISoi^ 
rolled lielplessly in precisely tlie same plight under 
the pitiless pounding of the enemy's guns. But. 
once landed, he may now avoid the furtlier delavs oi 
the serpentine river-course to Tientsin by taking llif 
railway train that runs thrice daily to that city; 


while the sights of Tientsin itself are, to any but 
those who have never before seen a great Chinese 
centre of popuktion, very rapidly exhausted. To 
the ordinary European traveller almost its sole 
interest lies in the fact that it was the scene of the 
famous massacre of 1870, an eloquent testimony 
to which still survives in the ruined towers and facade 
of the French Catholic Cathedral on the right bank 
of the Peiho. 

To all who have followed the course of Chinese 
histor}' during the last quarter of a century, Tientsin 
Yi^ yj^ will present the additional interest of being 
hJi!« ^^^ residence of* the foremost living Chinese 
^^"^^ statesman, the Viceroy Li Hung Cliang. First 
ma<l«* famous by his conduct and generalship during 
the Taiping Rebellion, his connection in which with 
the late General Gordon is well known, he succeeded 
Tseng Kwo Fan (the elder of the two Tsengs, and 
father of the ambassador) as Governor General of 
Kianjrsu in 1862, and became Viceroy of Kukuanu 
in 1SG7. In 1870 he settled at Tientsin, where he 
succeedeil the same eminent statesman as Viceroy of 
the metropolitan province of Chilili, and was entrusted 
with the delicate negotiations with England, arising 
out of the Margary murder, that resulted in the 
Chefoo Convention of 1876. Now for nearly twenty 
vean* the Senior Grand Secretary of State, the first 
Cliinese subject who has eyer been promoted to that 
dignity,* he also combines in his person tlie yiccrigal 

* The Grand Secretariat* or Nci Ko, which was the Suprcnu* Council. 
or Cabtxiet, of Uie Chinese Euipire uuUor thu Miug Jyuastx, it* the 


functions above mentioned, as well as tliose of Supor- 
inteiulent of the Northern Ports and Imperial Com- 
missioner for Foreign Trade. As such he not merely 
divides with the late Marquis Tseng the distinction of 
being the most remarkable figure whom his coontiy 
has produced during the last thirty years, but he 
remains to this day a sort of unofficial Foreign 
itinister and confidential adviser to his Soverei"n, 
without whose IcTiowledge nothing, However unia 
portant, takes place, and without whose adri 
nothing important is done. His Chinese cstrat 
and his commanding position have somelimos sag- 
gested to others the hypothesis of a rising ajrainst tlie 
Manchu occupants of the throne, and of a netr 
Cliinese d\-nasty, founded by Li HungChanjr himself: 
and it is even said that he has at different tjmes,J^ 

senior of the Iwo bodies which inWirene between the 
the Ad niini strati ve Departments in the Chinese rr^me, moi g 
theoretically of two Manchu and two Chineeo Qrantl S 
their lusistants and BtafTi!. It now forms the ImperioJ Clu 
Court of Arcbives, and ttdiuission to one of its 8up«rior prm 
the hifjliest distinction attainable by a Chinese ofticial, aiOi 
tuiling httle more tlian nominal duties. For purposes of ■ 
iniiiislriLtioD it has been auperaeded hy the second body, vis, H 
Chi Chu, or Uraud Council, which is the acting Privy C 
Sovf'rei^, in whose presence its menib«r8 dn.ily tnuisaet IhAl 
nf Stute, in a hull of the Imp«riiil Palace nt Peking, nt the Inea 
hour of 4 o'clock in the morning. It is a Cabinet couipoBod a 
ten iu the capital holding other substantive offices. Tbslr n 
iiniletermined, but for many years pnst has not esceedad I 
Presidential chair, which was siiccoasivel.v occnpiei) by Prinetfl 
und Prioce Chnn. and is now filled by Prince Li, is |)nKti«alI<r m 
to llln post of Prime Ministflr. Two or three tni-iubi^ni oT tl 
YnnieTi, or Foreij^i Board, Rcnerally hold seals Jii ttuN Coi 
fill itsmemberBenjoythelechnieiJ right of audioiKre with Um» [ 
i-'ur K ] [Hire minute account of the tlieoreticnl orgunisaiioii m 
of ihe two Cuiinviln. vide Prof. It. K. Douglas' eic^vat I 
published work, .S'oriWy in Ckinii. 


mblesomc crises. Wen soundetl upon the matu 

th by Em/Iiind and by France. There has never 

wever, been any reason to suspect his loyally, 

lich, if tempted, hsA not been seriously impugned ; 

fl he reinauu to this day the strongest pillar of tho 

iperial throne. Many times has the Viceroy, who 

now seventy-one years of age, petitioned to be 

lievod from the responsibilities, oflieial and auper- 

jnerary, of his great position, but ou each occasion 

a appeared an Imperial Itescript, commanding him 

compUmeutary ternui to continue the discliarge of 

iries from vhich he could not be spared. Perhap« 

•t the least evidence of his ability lies in the fact 

Kt whilst he lias U^en justly celebrated for his 

era! sentiment*, and is nutinly rcs^ponsible for 

atever of Western experience, invention, or know- 

;;e China has seen fit to adopt, he has never 

promised the deeply grounded instincts of the 

>nal character, or forfeited the admiring confi- 

e of his own fellow-countrymen. 

t Tientsin I was hooouretl by the Viceroy witii 

er\"iew, to which I look back with the greatest 

pleasure. The Viceregal Yamen is a building 

in the official quarters of which, at any rale, 

■ neither distinction nor beauty. Carried in 

'alanquins to the gate, we there descended 

ed through one or more din<ry anterior courts, 

uatid, and coarsely painted, to an inner room, 

its had been placed round a long table. Tlu' 

ntered, a tall and commanding figure, coii- 

■jver sii feet in height, dressed in a long 

grey silk robe, with a black silk cape over Lis 
shoulders. Takinjj his seat at the bead of the table, 
the Viceroy, with the aid of a competent interpreter, 
commenced a discussion, mainly upon contemporary 
politics, which lasted for over an hour. He con- 
tinually put the most searching and ingenious ques- 
tions; being renowned, indeed, for his faculty of 
' pumping ' others about what he desires to ascertain, 
without emitting the least corresponding drop of 
moisture himself. While speaking or listening his 
smaU, black, restless eyes follow keenly every move- 
ment of the features. A big moustache overhangs 
and partially conceals his mouth, and a sparse Chinese 
beard adorns his chin. His hair is quite grey and is 
turning white. Speaking of England, he wished par- 
ticularly to know whether the recent cliange of 
Government involved a change in foreign policy, or 
whether Mr. Gladstone might be expected to pursue 
the same line as Lord SaUsbury. Upon this point the 
nomination of Lord Eosebery as Foreign Secretary ens- 
bled me to give the Viceroy consolatory assurances. 
Discussing the tortuous policy which had been fol- 
lowed in relation to the Chinese vassal State which 1 
had just left, he admitted that Korea had been ill- 
advised, and even allowed that ' there had been ill- 
advisers in China also.' The Pamirs and Lhasa were 
the remaining subjects of our conversation, and the 
Viceroy produced one of the Royal Geographical 
Society's small maps of the former region. 

From Tientsin the traveller has the choice of 
covering the distance that separates him from Peking 


either by an agreeable two clays' ride of eighty miles,^ 
or by a house-boat on the river, which, by alternate 
jooriMT sailing, poling, rowing, and tracking, should 
^ ^•^"^ convey him to his destination in something 
between two and three days.* 

The scenery, consisting as it does of a vast expanse 
of alluvial mud, not uncommonly under water, and 
relieved only by mud villages of greater or 

^ lesB size, may strike the new-comer as repul- 
«ive. But a little deeper insight will show him in 
these selfsame villages, and in the wide tilled plains 
About them— countless replicas of which I have seen 
daring both my visits to China — ^the evidences of an 
agricultural contentment and prosperity that contrast 
favourably with the more picturesque surroundings 
of village life in neighbouring countries. The main 
street of each villajre is frequently sunk considerably 
Ix'low the level of the houses, and is apt to be filled 
with the ebb of an unexhausted inundation. The 
houses are humble, but neither small nor poverty- 
stricken. Artificial privies, made of reeds, are fre- 
quently erected outside, with a view to economise all 
available manure. The villajre threshinu-floor, rolled 
to a compact and level hardness, lies near by. The 
shops exhibit at least as many conmiodities as in an 

' Fint day — three hours* ride to Ynn^iiun (inn), 20 miles; ditto 
to Hoh-Ilii-wu (inn), *20 iniJes. Seo<»nd dav -three ht>ur»' ride tohalf- 
wftj villjMpe, Hsin-ho (inn), *20 miles; ditto to Peking, 20 miles. 
Total HO uiile«. 

' It i« bent, of course, to ride up and to sail down ; since the upward 
ioTumey hy river sometimes, with an unfavounihlu wind. o<*cu]>ies from 
io^ir to five days. The return journey can he shortened hy riding from 
Peking M fiur AS Matou, 28 miles, and picking up the houseboat there. 

K 2 

244 CHINA 

English village of corresponding size. Women and 
children abound, the former neatly dressed and 
coiffured, the latter dirty but cheerful. Upon a wa<:e 
of less than 5a. a month the men can find adequate 
subsistence. A great variety of animals in gorxl 
condition — mules, donkeys, ponies, and oxen — are 
employed either for tillage or burden. The eating- 
houses and tea-shops are filled with noisy crowds, 
and the inns are frequent and commodious. The 
people inhabiting such a locality are liable to occa- 
sional and appalling visitations of flood, pestilence, 
or famine. But, these risks excepted, their lives are 
probably as happy, their condition as prosperous, 
and their contentment as well assured as those of the 
rural population in any European countrj-. The 
taxation imposed upon them is only nominal. The 
obligations which they stupidly incur to pawnshops 
or usurers, in pursuit either of the national vice of 
gambling or of other forms of extravagance, are a 
greater burden upon them than is the liand of the 
State. So little fear is there of disturbance that the 
force behind the provincial government is in mos' 
cases ridiculously small. In China there are n*' 
police except the unpaid hangers-on of the yamftis, 
assisted, in the event of a riot, by any soldiery in the 
neighbourhood. Life may be uneventful ; but so ii 
is to the peasant in every land. He usually demaiui' 
little be}oud the means of livelihood, freedom froi" 
exaction, and the peaceful enjoyment of his niodeJi 

From such surroundings, which, however respect- 


able, are too unlovely to be idyllic, the stranger rides 
into the din and dust, the filth and foulness, the vene- 
rable and measureless bewilderment of Pe- 


to Peking king.* Unique, and of its kind unequalled, 
is the impression produced by this great city of over 
three-quarters of a million souls - upon even the sea- 
soned traveller. He may have seen the drab squalor 
of Bokhara and Damascus, have tasted the odours of 
Canton and Soul, and heard the babel uproar of 
Baghdad and Isfahan ; but he has never seen dirt, 
piled in mountains of dust in the summer, spread in 
oozing quagmires of mud after the rains, like that of 
Peking ; his nostrils have never been assailed by 
such nivriad and assorted effluvia ; and the drums of 
his ears have never cracked beneath such a remorse- 
less and dissonant concussion of sound. These are 
the first impressions of the stranger ; they appear, in 
a great many cases, to be the abiding association of 
the resident. If, however, a man can succeed in 
detaching himself from the sensuous medium upon 
which such constant and violent attacks are made from 
without, he will find in Peking much both to excite 
his astonishment and to arrest his concern. In the 
mighty walls, insome parts fifty feet high and well-nigh 
as broad, covering a rectangular circumference of 

* Peking i» writt<?n and pronounced l>y the Chinese Pei-ching. 
and •lenities Nortliern Capital, just na Nun-king signifies Southern 

■ This •eems to he the most reasonable estinnite, the |H)pulAtion 
halving greatly dwindled in modern times. In the seventeenth century 
the Jesuit Grimaldi e«timated the total at ll'>,(MM),000 ! l>u Ualde 
rrrkoned 8.0U0,(KX), which numborB were also given to Lord Macartney 
III 1793. Klaproth named 1,800,000. 

twenty-one miles,' and rising skywards with colossal 
symmetn" of outline, save where their vertical profile is 
broken by huge projecting bastions, or their horizontal 
edge is interrupted by enormous castellated keeps 
or gate-towers, he observes a sight without parallel in 
the modern world — one which, more than any relic of 
tlie past that 1 have ever seen, recalls that Babylou 
whose stupendous battlements were the wonder of 
antiquity, the mystery of our childhood, and the 
battleground of our academic days. Shrouded 
behind these monumental defences, the gates of 
which are still opened and closed with the sun, just 
as they were in the Cambalucof Marco Polo, of which 
this modem Peking is both the lineal heir and tbe 
faithful reproduction,' the fourfold city — Chinese, 

' The nalh of the Moncbii or Tartar cit^ (called bj the Chin«w 
Nei-chen;;, i.e. Inner City) in their present condition date from ibe 
titne of the Ming Emperors, i.e. from the beginning of tbe Gfteenili 
century onwards. They are from forty to fifty feet in height, and nit]' 
feet wide at the base, consisting of a stone foundation and two wmlla ot 
immense bricks, the space between vrbich is filled in with mnd sod 
paved with bricks at tbe top. The Tartar city is over fourteen mil« 
in circumference and is entered by nine gates, six in the outer vH 
and three iu the inner or south wall, which is also the north wall of lb« 
Chinese city. The latter, or OuterCity, Wai-cheng.isaiDemilesiDeii'- 
cumrerence, excluding tbe northern or coouuon wall, &nd ita waUi V 
from twenty-five to thirty feet high, and twenty-five feet wideat tbetaM. 
Tbey are entered by seven outer and three inner gates (the latter b«ii< 
identical with those already named). The grand total of gates is tbm- 
fore sixteen, of which thirteen are in the outer wall. In the embnsB** 
of the gate-towers are fixed boards upon which are painted tha nouk* 
of imaginary cannons — an innocent device which ia mppoeed bolti >> 
terrify the advancing enemy and to deceive the war god Koan-ti, *^ 
as he looks down from heaven, is overjoyed to see the city in ■ *(•>* o* 
such splendid defence. In deference to the misogyniatprejndiOMOf'''' 
same deity, women are not allowed upon tbe walls. 

' Yen -king, the capital of the Kin Tartars, which was Bitaat*d a iiU'* 
to the south of the present Peking, was captured by Jinghis Kbao>^ 


Tartar, Imperial, and Forbidden — is at once an histo- 
rical monument, carrying us back to the age of Kublai 
Khan; a vast stationary camp of nomads, pouring 
down from Mongolian deserts and Tartar steppes ; 
the capital of an empire that is to Eastern Asia what 
Byzantium was to Eastern Europe ; the sanctuary of 
a religion that is more manifold than that of Athens 
and more obstinate than that of Borne ; and the resi- 
dence of a monarch who is still the Son of Heaven to 
350,000,000 of human beings, whom a bare score of 
living foreigners have ever seen, :and who at the end 
of the nineteenth century continues to lead an exist- 
ence that might better befit either the Veiled Prophet 
of Khorasan or the Dalai Lama of Tibet. 

The ground-plan of Pekinjr, which dates directly 
from the time of the Mongol Kiil^lai Khan, and was 
iirr^od. practi(!ally a reproduction in brick and 
'*^ mortar of a military camp, is exceedingly 

>imple ; and its principal landmarks are so promi- 
nently placed, that in spite of its vast size and the 
sameness of its disgusting streets, a stranjrer very 
jvon learns his wav about. The walls of the Tartar 
city frame an immense quadran^^le, almost a square, 
facing the points of the compass, and on the southern 
Ride suUended and slightly overlapped by the more 
elongated parallelogram of the Chim^st* city. It 

lil5. Hit grandjion Knblai Khan (ihc' piitron of Marco Polo) rebuilt 
the rapiul on a rather more northerly Rito in 1204 7, aiul callod it in 
(*hine«« Tain or Taidu, i.r. Great Court. It wan al^) called Khan-bali^h, 
i.#. ritj of the Khan, the Caiubaluc of Marco Polo, and covered ap- 
pruitwatelj ihe iiaine nte an the modem Tartar city, beyond which, how* 
«Tcr, tta walL which tlill exists, extended about two miles on the north. 

should be added tliat this ethnographical distinctioQ 
of inhabitants, which was enforced for expediency's 
sake at the time of the Maiichu conquest in 1644, has 
since been almost entirely effaced, the Tartar element 
having been in the main absorbed, and the Chinese 
having overflowed into the quarters that were at first 
reserved for the conquering race. Within the walls of 
the Tartar city is a second walled quadrftngle, con- 
stituting the Huang-cheng, or Imperial city, about 
seven miles in circuit, containing the public offices, 
barracks, and many temples and residences of 
princes, nobles, and officials ; and in the centre of 
the Imperial city is the final and innermoBt walled 
enclosure of the Tzu-chin-cheng, or Pink Forbidden 
city, a succession of magnificent yellow-tiled halls, of 
palaces, kiosques, lakes, and gardens, where, behind 
the protection of pale pink rampart and wide moat, the 
Lord of this great domain, the master of 360,000,000 
human beings, and the Vicegerent of Heaven, himself 
all but a god, lives a prisoner's Ufe. On the northern 
side of the Palace rises the Ching-shan, or Prospect 
Hill, whose wooded sides and five summits, crowned 
with kiosques or temples, are the moat conspicuous 
object in the city as seen from the Tartar wall. 
Tradition relates that this elevation is made of coaL 
and was artificially raised by the Ming Emperors as » 
provision against the hardships of a prolonged siege ; 
it is therefore also called Mei-shan, or Coal Hill- 
But I am not aware that this hypothesis has ever 
been tested by driving a shaft into the interior ; and 
the hill, which seems to be absolutely identical with 


the one described by Marco Folo as having been 
thrown up by the Mongols, is more likely to have 
been raised as a screen to the Imperial dwelling on 
its northern side, in deference to the popular super- 
stition of the fengahui. There is something imposing 
and hieratic in the mysterious symbolism of the 
ground-plan of Peking, in the conception of these 
concentric defences successively protecting and 
shielding from mundane contact the central sanc- 
tuary, the o/i^aXo$ yqs, where the representative of 
Heaven, as it were in a Holy of Holies, resides. 

From another point of view there may be said to be 
three Pekings, — ^the exterior Peking as seen from the 
Th.' thrM ^^^y walls, which is a delicious wilderness of 
^''k^*' green trees, in the depths of which tlie dust 
and nastiness are submerged, and from whose leafy 
t^urface rise only the curled roofs of yellow-tiled 
palaces and temples, an occasional pagoda, a distant 
tower; the interior Peking, or the Peking of the 
streets, tumultuous, kaleidoscopic, pestilential, shrill ; 
and the innermost Peking, or the mysteries hidden 
behind the pink and yellow walls that conceal so 
hermetically from the alien eye the penetmlii lx)th 
of secular and spiritual adoration. The first of these 
is the only aspect in which the charm is unshattered 
by jarring associations ; althouj/h, when we descend 
into it we wonder where the shade and tlie verdure 
have gone to, so completely do they seem to have 
disap{)eared. To the second, however, a few more 
words may be devoted, inasmuch as it is the Peking 
of every-day life. 

250 CHINA 

As we go ftirlh into it for every excursion, either 
of duty or pleasure, we have to settle our meaus of 
PanoTMii* locomotion. Shall they be ponies, whose 
stneta lesst moveiHent will envelop us in an acrid 
whirlwind of dust, or the Peking rart, that strange 
and springless wooden vehicle of which it is doubtful 
whether it was first invented to resist the chasms and 

crevasses and moraines of the streets of Peking, or 
■whether they were devised to harmonise with its 
primitive and barbaric structure ? Or, rejecting the 
two sole means of assisted locomotion — for no other 
animal and no other vehicle are available, chairs 
being reserved for very high officials in tlie capital, 
and Europeans preferring for etiquette's sake not to 


use them — shall we proceed on foot, and pick our 
way cautiously from peak to peak amid the archipel- 
ago of universal ordure? Presently we emerge on 
to a main street. Its great breadth is successfully 
concealed by the two lines of booths that have 
sprung up in the kind of ditch that extends on either 
side of the elevated central roadway ; but through 
the dust we may discern a long vista, the parallel 
walls of which present a line of fantastic poles, gilded 
signboards, carved woodwork, and waving streamers 
and lanterns — the insignia and advertisement of the 
shops that open below. Down this avenue streams 
and jostles a perpetual crowd of blue-clad, long- 
queued, close-shaven, brazen-lunged men ; Cliinese 
women hobbling feebly on their mutilated stumps : 
thickly-rouged Tartar wives, blushinfr (artificially) 
beneath a head-dress of smooth black hair, parted in 
several places on the crown, and plastered tightly 
over a projecting comb that stands out like a Ioiil' 
paper-cutter at right angles to the head ; a sparsely 
bearded mandarin seen nodding behind his s:iucer- 
like spectacles in a screened sedan : long strings of 
splendid two-humped camels, parading a magnificent 
winter coat, and blinking a supercilious eye as they 
stalk along to the heavy cadence of the leader's bell, 
hiden with sacks of lime or coal from the hills ; 
Mongolians in shaggj* caps bestriding shaggier 
pcmies; half-naked coolies wheeling casks of oil or 
buckets of manure on creaking barrows; boys 
|>erche<l on the tails of minute donkeys ; ramshackle 
wagons drawn by mixed teams of mules, asses. 

252 cniyA 

ponies, and oxen yoked together by a complicated 
entanglement of rope traces passing throiigli an iroa 
ring ; abominable and liairy black pigs running in 
and out of the animals' legs ; good-looking but 
cowardly dogs that bark and skedaddle ; and above 
all the crush and roar of the ubiquitous Peking cart, 
thundering with its studded wheels over the stone 
bridges and crashing into the deep ruts, drawn by 
the most majestic mules in Asia, cruelly bitted with 
a wire across the upper gum. 

This is the panorama of the central aisle. In the 
side aisles or alleys all the more stationary purveyors 
Native of the amusements or necessities of life are 
tionerB jammed up together; barbers shaving with- 
out soap the foreheads of stolid customers seated 
upon stools, dentists and chiropodists proclaiming 
their extraordinary skill, auctioneers screaming the 
glories of second-hand blouses and pantaloons, cob- 
blers puncturing the thick sole of the native shoe, 
gamblers shaking spills or playing dominoes, or back- 
ing against all comers a well-nurtured fighting 
cricket, pedlars and hucksters with their wares 
extended on improvised stalls or outspread upon the 
ground, curio-dealers offering carved jade snuff- 
bottles or porcelain bowls, vendors of the opium-pipe 
and the water-pipe, charm-sellers and quacks with 
trays of strange powders and nauseating drugs, 
acrobats performing feats of agility, sword-players 
slashing the air with huge naked blades, storv-tellers 
enchaining an open-mouthed crowd, itinerant musi- 
cians tweaking a single-stringed guitar, country folk 


vemlitiy iiniiu-iiH- wliite cabbatjee or ruddy red 
pereimmotiij, soldiers with bow» mill arrows behind 
their banks going nut to practise, coolies drawing 
water from iIil* deeply prooved marble copiiig of 
immemorial wells, and men and Iwys of every age 
carrying binU in cagcA or a 8ingin<; chaffinch 
attached by a siring to a stick. A more than 
urdiimr}' shouting will herald the approach, though 
it will hardly elear a way, for a bridal prcjceasion, in 
which the bride, rtgliily locked in an embroidered 
red palanquin.' follows after a train of l>oyB bearing 
lant«ni8 ami men blowing portentous trumpets or 
tapping Garganiiiaii drums; or of a funeral cortege, 
in which the corpse, preceded by umbrellas and 
tablets, rests upon a gigantic red catafalque or bier. 
with difficulty borne upon the shoulders of several 
score of men.- In curious contrast with the caco- 
phonous roar of this many-tongued cro%vd a melo- 
dious whirring sings in the air, and is produced by 
whistles attached to the tails of domestic pigeons. 

Such is the street Ufe of Peking, a phantas- 
magoria of excruciating incident, too bewildering' to 
Tw grasp, too aggressive to acquiesce in, loo 

p^C* absorbing to escape. If we turn from it to 

■ B«d ia tbe fntive colour in Chink. The bridal rliur is first cnrri 
\a tb« brida'R home. Accuiupnnied by music. lantcrnH, and Ir.i^-^ 
■ ■■■liiiMli There «he enl^n, and, preopded bv her Udy's ninids n 
loUowd bj one of ber brolhen, a conveyed to ibe bridefn'uomV liun 
bailiff *o bermeticall.v shitt up in tbo sedan thai HoiiiiMiiiip.i in tli<> 1 
MnuDer wsMlher the is taken ont fointini.', and orcaHionally eieii ili'^ 

* Tba DDiuber uf Iwurcn rouRei fniiu 1<> to 12S according; t>i t 
nuik of the deceAaet). U-l bein^; a i 

the Peking of sanctuaries, palaces, and shrines, we 
are in a very different atmosphere at once. For just 
as everything in tlie otlier Peking is jiublic and 
indecent, so here everything is clandestine, veiled, 
and sealed. The kej-note to tlie remainder i-; struck 
by the enclosure within enclosure, the Forbidden 
city inside the Imperial city, where the Lord of 
countless millions, so well described as the * solitary 
man,' resides. In former days, indeed as tate as 
1887, parts of the Palace-grounds, the lakes and 
gardens and marble bridges, were accessible to 
foreigners ; photographs can be purchased that 
reveal their features, and the majority of resident 
Europeans can speak from recollection of the site. 
Now all is closed ; and from the exterior nothing can 
be seen but the yellow roofs of the great lialls and 
the elegant pavilions that crown the higher elevations. 
To the innermost enceinte or Palace no man is ad- 
mitted. There the Imperial person and harem are 
surrounded by a vast botly of eunuchs, estimated at 
from 8,000 to 10,000. When the Emperor goes oof 
to worship at any of the temples, or to visit tis 
palaces in the vicinity, no one is allowed in the 
streets, which are swept clear of all stalls and booths, 
and are very likely paved for the occasion, while the 
houses are barricaded or closed with mats. Only in 
the country, where such precautions are impossible, 
can the Imperial person be seen, borne swiftly by 
scores of retainers in a magnificent sedan. 

Of the disposition and tastes of a monarch thus 
shrouded from human gaze but little can be known. 


His Imperial .Majt-sly. wiio?c- niUn^' tille is Kuang 
Hsu, is now twenty-three years of age, and succeeded 
T w _ hi* cousin, the EmjMiror Tun(? Chih, nineteen 
TsnuOiih years ago, under circumstances that ihrow 
nn intercBting light upon the inner mysteries of Court 
exuteuce in Peking. Tung Chih also was a child 
when he succeeded his fatiier, Hsieu Feng, the 
fugitive of the Anglo-French campaign, in 1801. 
Duriii'j luH minority ilio fMivfrniiii'Mt w;i< virtually 
in the handa of two ladies, one of whom, the Empress 
of the Eastern Palace, had been the principal wife 
and finpress of Hsien Feng, while the other, who, 
though the mother of Tung Chih, had not been 
Empress, was in consideration of the accession of her 
eon named Empress Mother and Empress of the 
Western Palace. Seizing the reins of Government 
by a bold cimp dilat, in which they were assisted by 
one of Hsien Feng's brothers, well known to Euro- 
peans as Prince Kung, these ladies administered the 
State as Regents, with Prince Kung as Chief Minister, 
nntil in 1873 Tung Chih attained his majority and 
shortly afterwards married. The young wife then 
became Empress, and the two elder ladies retired 
nominally into the background. 

Tung Chih, however, was adiUcled to dissipation, 
and very soon gave signs of a failing constitution. 
Tkt» During his illness a decree was issuetl. no 
B««Mt doubt at their initiative, in which the 
Emperor, passing over hia own wife, invited them to 
resume their former functions until his resturatinn to 
health. By this clever step the two ladies, who I'nre- 

2E6 cnmA 

saw a second and not less agreeable lease of iwwer 
during the minority of a second infant, found thtm- 
selves in the highest place, when, in January 1S7j. 
the Emperor Tung Chih died childless, but leaving .i 
widow who expected before long to become a mo- 
ther. They were now in a position to manipulate 
the succession according to their own desires. The 
natural course, following the ordinary practice of 
Imperial succession, would have been to wait for the 
birth of the deceased Emperor's posthumous child, 
and in the event of its being stillborn, or a girl, to 
select from among the members of the Imperial 
family a child who should be adopted as his son, and 
during whose minority the widowed Empress should 
rule as Eegent. This, however, was not at all to the 
taste of the two ex-Empresses Eegent. Of these the 
one who was mother to the late Emperor had a 
sister married to Prince Chun, the younger brother 
of Prince Kung, the child of which union was there- 
fore twice over a nephew of the Emperor Hsien Fen^ 
and cousin of Tung Chih. Ignoring the pregnancy 
of the Empress Ah-lu-ta, and passing over the sons of 
Prince Cliung's elder brothers, ' they selected this 
infant, whose name was Tsaitien, and who having 
only been born in August 1871, would insure them 

' Prince Kung was willing to aubmit to this, because it aaaaml bin 
a renewed lease of power as First Minister, which, according to ChiW 
views of parental dignit;, woiild not Lave been possible h&d bis on 
son become Emperor. The latter, moreover, had alread; pasaJ ^ 
adoption into the family of a ^'0im[>er brother of the Emperor Ha" 
Feng. Prince Chnng, however, \-iolated all precedent later on ^ 
sen'ing hia own son, the reigning Emperor, in the same cafisriiv nM^ 
his death in 18P1. 



a second long spell of Regency. He was adopted as 
a son to Hsien Feng, thus ensuring to them a con- 
tinuation of their functions as dowagers, and was 
cdevated with the ruling title of Kuang Hsu (Glorious 
Continuity) to the Dragon Throne; the Regents 
further prcnlucing what purported to be a noinina- 
tion of the child by the late Tung Chih as his heir. 
The only step that remained to complete the success 
of the arrangement was the disappearance of the 
young widowed Empress of Tung Chili before the 
birth of her child could upset the plot ; and Chinese 
opinion can have been little surprised when the early 
annouiu^ement of her death was made, the cata- 
stroplie being generally explained by the poi)ular 
r'hinese practice of suicide, thouuli whisj)ers were 
not larking of a more sinister doom. It will l)e seen 
from the above account that there wa^ ((uite a clus- 
ter of irretrularities, to use no strontrer term, in the 
nomination of the rei<;ninir S)venMi:n. But, accordin"^ 
to Chinese ideas, the main flaw in his title consists in 
his iK'longing to the same generation as the Kniperoi- 
Tung Chill, and in his conse([uent dis(jualiti('ation 
from j)erforming the sacriiiers tliat are ihie Ironi a 
deM-eiidant to his Imperial pre(leet'<>(>r, wliox* Iriral 
surcessor therefore he cannot be. It was tlii^ iniur\ 
done to the memorv of TniejChih tliat fornuMl \\w 
protest of the censor Wu-ko-tu, who connnittcd 
suicide during one of tli<* Iin])<'rial vi^iis t<> ihc 
an<-e>tral tomlx, in order to aitrart piihlic :itttniion 
to the scandal. 

The second Uej/encv lasted loi- louriccn vr.ns, until 

in 18S9 the young Emperor assumed the rt'lns of 
power and married his cousin Yeh-ho-na-la. Provi- 
TUaEm- dencE lias not yet favoured him with an heir. 

preis Dow- 
ager although, according to the Chinese practice, 

several appointments liave already been madi- to ilie 
titular office of Guardiaa to the Heir Apparent. 
The senior of the two Begents, the Empress 
Dowager of Hsien Teng, had died in 1881, but the 
second, or mother of Tung Chih, the Empress 
Tzu Hsi, continued and continues to survive, and, in 
spite of her nominal withdrawal from public life, still 
wields a predominant influence iu the government of 
the Empire. In November of the present year(1894} 
she attains her sixtieth year, and great are the 
celebrations and rejoicings in honour of this auspi- 
cious event. The Emperor has paid her the supreme 
compliment of adding two more ideographs to her 
already elongated title, which now runs as follows : 
kung-chin-hsien-chung-hsi.' A recent issue of the 
' Peking Gazette ' also contained the following emi- 
nently filial announcement : — 

' The superlative goodness of the moat August Empress 
Dowager is brifrlitly manifest, an<l Her comprehensive fore- 
sight benefits the whole race. By ceaseless diligence wilhi" 
Her Pnlace she seciirt-s the peace of the entire realm, Sin« 
Our accession to the Throne We have in respectful attewl- 
ance constantly received Her admirable instri)ctions. Willi 
great gladness We perceive Her gracious ilajesty in robos 
health and cheei-f ill spirits. In the year 1 80 1 Her Majeslr 
will happily attain the illustrious age of sixty years, and it 
will be Our duty at the head of the officials and peoplf 



of the whole Empire to testify onr delight and to pray for 

It is a curious coincidence — in contradiction of 
the popular theories concerning the Eastern subjec- 
tion of women — that both in China and Korea I 
should have found the de facto sovereign belonging 
to the female sex. 

Upon no bed of roses, however, can the Em- 
peror of China lie. The ceremonial functions of his 
TiieEra. life, whcthcr as Supreme Ruler or as Pon- 
ang H«o tifex Maximus of his people, are manifold 
and engrossing. His education, both in the native 
classics and in such departments of foreign learning 
as mav be tliou<?ht desirable, is not neLrlected ; and 
the present Emperor, who is known to take a deep 
interest in evervthin<? Enfrlish, receives dailv iMij/lish 
lessons, at a ver\' early hour in the morning, l)etore 
^Mving audience to his ministers, from two Chinese 
students of the Tun«r Wen Kuan, or Foreiirn ('olle<je 
at Peking, who, unlike the Ministers, are allowt^l to 
sit in the Imperial presence. As an instance of the 
vount? ruler's keen concern in his KnLflish studies, I 
mav mention that when he received a co])v of tlie 
• Life of the Prince Consort \as a present from Ilcr 
Majesty the (iueen, he sent it down at once to tlie 
Tunjr Wen Kuan to be translated, and was impatient 
until he had received it l)ack.^ In \\\v still hours 

' Th»* fullowinmlcHcriplion of lii** iHTMwml mj>jw iiran* <• wa^ ;:iv» n by 
an rye-uitrje**!! of the Amlience of IM'.U : • His ;iir is .iw ..t • xijMilitj^' 
inlfUijff'fire ami j^'enllt»nt*sH, s<>iiie\v))at frij^'iit* nnl, iin<l ni« 1 
looktnic. Hi* fiwe in pftk*. ami thou^'h it is (li-iiii;jui'>luMl l.\ itiint in. nt 
an«i i|uifi di^uty, it han none uf ihe I'uico »•! hi-, iiiiiriuil ajic -^tcrs. 

ol' the night, when no sound but the walchmaii* 
rythmical lap intrudes upon the silence, palaiKjuini 
may be seen wending their way to the Palace-gal«; 
and there, at 3 and 4 a.m., long before suurise, 
custom prescribes that the young monarch shall <py^ 
audience to such of his Ministers as have acress lo 
his person, and shall give or refuse to the documents 
which they present the crowning sanction of the ve^ 
milion seal. 

What with the necessary but dolorous routine of 
his official existence on the one hand, rigidly pre- 
PBioeewu- scribed by an adamantine and puncliliouseli- 
*'""' quette, and with the temptations of the harem 

on the other, it is rarely that an Emperor of CTiina— 
usually an infant, and selected because of his infanrT 
in the first place, and exposed through the temlw 
ye.'vrs of his youth to these twofold preoccupatiotis- 
can develop any force of character, or leant tbf ro- 
dimentary lessons of statecraft. The safety of i^f 
dynasty and the sanctity of the Imperial title »f 
supposed to be summed up in the unswerving im"' 
tcnance of this colossal Imperial nightmare at PfiiB? 
Were it to be dissipated or shattered by the appt*" 
ance of a strong Sovereign, who to the ascendencj'*' 
personal authority added an emancipation from '''| 

ntithiiig coiiiuiaiL(luif{ or inipi^rions. btit is alto^ther 
t»d, and kiud. Ho is eflsentiall.v Manchu in fentiirei; bi* •''f J 
ElTUii;,'ely pnllid in hii« : bia face is oval-Ehapcd nitb ■ 
narrow chin, aud a aeiisitive inoutU with thiii nervous lip*; 1^9 
in wrll-Hliuped aad Btmight, hii^ eyebrows re^ur Mid Itlf^^ 
whilo the eyes are iiniiBiinlly lartEe and eorrowfol in cxplt w* J 
furebend is well-sliHpi'i.1 luid Lruinl. and the hcnd is l»rg» fc 


I)elrified traditions of the Palace, the phantom of 
Imperial power would, it is commonly said, sufler 
irretrievable collapse. But at least the spectacle, or 
the experiment, would be one of surpassing interest ; 
nor do I see anv very clear reason whv a present or 
a future Emperor should not take that more public 
part which was filled only a century ago by the 
Emperor Kieng Lung, and a century earlier by the 
Emperor Kang Hsi. 

Profound, however, as is the obscurity attaching 
to the Palace life, a scarcely less, and a far more 
Th* exasperating, mystery has in the last few 

Temple of 

Htittven years been allowed to gather about the 

various sacred enclosures within tlie citv, which are 

I he j^oal to wliich the traveller's <razr has bt-en turned 

from afar. Till witliin the last fourteen vears most of 

thf'ije were easilv accessible, and old residents rcrord 

Viow they hav(» played at cricket in the ])ark (»f tlie 

lVin[)leof Heaven, and explc>rcd llu* TcnipK'^ of \\iv\- 

cultiire, the Sun, and Moon. In projjorlion, Jiowcvcr, 

a-'*the meniorv of the war of h^r»(l lias nMnHlt-d. and the 

I>o\vcr for menace of the foreiirnrr l»crn diniinislied, 

^^ has the arro)ian<-e of the ('liinese L'r(>wn; and 

Hothin^r now ^qves them ^^reater pleasure than the 

sullen and sometimes insolent rejection <»t' the 

'<»reij/n devil ' from the door> to which lie once 

^'^^HumI undisturbed entrv. In the case «»t' the Ini- 

l**'^ial Temples or enclosures there i< the turihtr 

"^*'Use. that wluTeas durin;j the loii;^ ininniiTit-- ot' the 

P^^^sent and the j)receding Mnij)er<>r, they were not 

"^hI for worsiiip, and were con<e([uently iieL'lccied, 

their aauctity has now been vindicated and revived. 
I know of no foreigner, accordingly, who has been 
admitted to the Temple of Heaven for nine years; 
although, having cUmljed, not without judicious 
briberj', the southern wall of the Chinese city, which 
immediately overlooks the sacred enclosure, I could 
with ease observe from thence the vast roofless allar, 
three stages high, of glittering white marble, where- 
upon, at tlie summer and winter solstice, at two 
hours before sunrise, the Emperor makes burnt-offer, 
ing and sacrifice on behalf of his people to the 
Supreme Lord of Heaven ; could recognise the Hall 
of Fasting, where he remains in solitary medilalioii 
during the night; the southern circular Temple of 
the Tablets ; the three great red poles, from whicli 
are hung lanterns to illumine the ceremony ; 
and the scaffi)lding surrounding the site of the 
renowned triple-roofed, blue-tiled temple above the 
northern altar, the chief glory of the entire enclosui?, 
which was burned to the ground a few years ago-W 
is now in course of a snail's pace reconstruction.' 

It is still quite possible to pass the outer wallnl 
the entire enclosure, which is a parallelogram alou' 
nifflcuitr three miles in circumference, for ihe das' 
"oo has blown up against it in a manner ffbidi 

renders it easy to clamber on to the coping and tt*" 
to drop down the other side. Here, however, the 

' It was Htruck by lightniiiR in 1890. T)ie contract fv>r il- n<w 
Btructidii was l.ODO.OOO taels labout 'llO.OOOi.), and l\\e ntv. Iwlurj* 
to be complete in lUm. Attlie time that I was in rekins iNoi. i*^' 
the workmen hail strui^k for higlier pay, oltliou^li rec^iiiDg 'it- 
B wage in Chinu. 


■^AWi^nff^M. ^^ ^ct •*■ «>^ ■ 


visitor merely finds himself in the wooded park where 
the sacrificial animals are kept ; and though he may 
succeed in taking the guards by surprise and m 
rushing one of the doorways that lead into the inner 
enclosures, he is hardly likely to repeat the suc- 
cess sufficiently often to conduct him to the inner- 
most enceinte where are the altars. In former days 
nothing but a little dash to start with, and a subse- 
quent douceur^ were required to overcome the scru- 
ples of the custodians ; but such a venture, it is 
generally thought, might in the present state of 
native feeling be provocative of violence. 

Fascinating, indeed, would be the experience of 
the man who, by whatever device, succeeded in wit- 
Tiv*' nessing the great annual observance of De- 

Annaal " , 

s^nftce cember 21 ; when, m the glimmer of the 
breaking dawn, the Emperor, who has passed the 
night in solitary prayer in the Hall of Fasting, comes 
forth and dons the sacrificial robe of blue ; when he 
leaves on his left hand the northern altar and the 
circular temple upon it, with its curving azure roof, 
like unto a threefold outspread parasol; when he 
moves along the marble causeway l)etween tlie cypress 
groves, and beneath the jhiilinns or arclies of 8(*ulp- 
tured marble; when he passes the single-peaked 
Circular Hall of the Tablets, whence the tablets of 
^ihang-ti, tlie Supreme Ix)rd, and of the eight deilieil 
Manchu Emperors have already been transferred to 
their temporar}' resting-pla<'es on the r(H)th*ss south- 
ern altar ; when to the niusu* of over 200 musi- 
cians, and to tlie mystic movements of a company <»f 

dancers, lie approaches the marble mount, and ascends 
the triple flight of nine steps each, from the ground 
to the lower, and from tlie lower to the central tier, 
whereon are disposed the tablets of the Sun, Moon, 
and Stars, and of the Spirits of the Air and Water ; 
when, finally, from the central he mounts to the 
uppermost terrace, where, under the open vault, a 

l)avili(ni of j-ellow silk overshadows the tablets of tlw 
ileificd iluiperors and of SIiaiij.'-ti, the Supreme Ixml 
Tlicre arrivt'd, ho kneels ; there he burns incense 
.'ind offers libations on behalf of his people before llic 
sai red ta])]cls ; tliere. nine limes, he bows and strike^ 
Tilt- marbif phitforni wiili his Imperial forehead, in 
obeisance to tlie God of Heaven. 


While in Peking I saw the sights or buildings 
which are still accessible to the foreigner, though in 
The Ob- some cases not without difficulty, and in few 
•crraiory ^'ithout loug parleying at the wicket, and 
tlie gift of an exorbitant bribe. Of these, perhaps, 
the best known is the Kuan-H8iang-tai,or Observatory, 
originally founded in 127?) by Kublai Khan, to con- 
tain the instruments of his famous Astronomer Koyal, 
Ko-chow-tsing. Four hundred years later the Mongol 
instruments were pronounced out of date by Ferdi- 
nando Verbiest, the Jesuit father, w^ho was President 
of the Board of Works at the Court of the Manchu 
Eraperor Kang Hsi, and were superse<led by a new 
set of instruments, manufactured under Verbiest's 
directions at Peking, or (as in the case of the azinuitli 
dial, presented by Louis XIV. to the Chinese Sove- 
i(9i|pi) imported from Europe. The Mint: instruments, 

of bronze, and polished to a Ldassy smoothness l)y 
exposure to the dust-diargtMl air ot' Peking, are 
under the open ^ky, on an elevated Ijastion 
above the sunnnit of tlie e;ist Tartar wall, 
wbich, however, is onlv aecessihle throUL^h a wickt^t 
and courtyard at tlie base. < M' far L^reater interest, to 
my mind, than these olijeets, which consist of a sex- 
tant, a quadrant, an armillary s])here, a L^reat ctlestial 
glol>f' adorned with gilt constellations, and other in- 
^'iruments, are the older and discarded tahrieaiions ot* 
the Mongols, which repose under the shadow ot' trers 
in the ^Ta^sv eourtvard below. lit- re are two arinillarv 
Spheres, great intertwined eirelrs or ho(>ps nt* l»rnn/«', 
on .stands supported by chiselled dragons rampant. 

Here, also, shut up in two dusty compartments of an 
adjoining building, are two objects which no modern 
traveller, whose writings I have seen, appears U) have 
noticed. One is a de]->s>/di-<i, or water-clock, probablv 
dating from tlie Mongol era, and composed of tlin-e 
great bronze jars, placed in tiers one above the other, 
so that a measured quantity of the water overflowed 
within a given space of time. Attached to them in 
former times was a figure holding an arrow, on which 
the hours were marked, and which rested on a vessel 
floating in one of the cisterns, and changing its ele- 
vation as the water rose or fell. This, I think, most 
be the disused water-clock, which the early Jesuit 
missionaries describe as having formerly been placed 
in the Ku-lou, or Drum Tower. The remaining in- 
strument is a gnomon, or long table of bronze, aloni' 
which, down the middle, is marked a meridian of 
fifteen feet, divided by transverse lines. L'pon ihis 
the sun's rays struck, passing by an aperture in the 
wall, the horizon being formed of two pieces of copper 
suspended in the air. The instrument hasnowfallen 
to pieces, and no one seems ever to notice it. 

Among other places which are usually visited 
within the Tartar city is the Kao Chang, or Exainini- 
Eiiiuma- tion Building, which lies below and is eisiij' 
int! visible from the Observatory Platform. !■ 

consists, like tlie corresponding structures in th« 
provincial capitals of China, of long parallel rowsd 
many thousand cells or pens, in which, once every 
three years, the candidates for the second and thiid 
degrees of literary promotion ai-e immured for several 



days and nights, while they are composing the jejune 
though flowery disquisitions that are to turn the 
successful competitors into the higher class of man- 
darins. It is the apotheosis— -or shall I not rather say 
the reduciio ad absxirdum ?— -of the system, from whose 
premonitory symptoms our own countrj% a tardy 
convert to Celestial ideas, is already beginning to 

In the northern part of the city beyond Prospect 
Hill are the Ku-lou, or Drum Tower, containing an 
Drum and inuueuse drum, which is beaten to announce 
^^ the watches of the night, and the Chung-lou. 
or Bell Tower, erected by the Emperor Kien Lung in 
1740 to shelter one of the five great hells that were 
cast by the Emperor Yung Lo at the beginning of the 
fifteenth centurv. Both these towers are innnenselv 
lofty structures, quite 100 feet high, j)ierred below 
by a wide arch. 

Everyone also goes to see tlie Temple of Confucius, 
a vast and dusty hall, of the familiar Chinese pattern, 
Tempieof Taiscd upoii a stone terrace, and containing 
cwocm. nothing inside but the dull red pillars that 
support the lofty timbered roof, the tablet of the sage 
standing in the centre in a wooden shrine, with llie 
tablets of the four next most eminent sa^^res, two on 
either side, and those of another dozen a little lower 
down. The Emperor is suppost^l to visit and worsliip 
at this temple twice in every year : but at the tiuu* 
of my visit the reigning monarch wa^ reported not 
vet to liavebeen at all. In an a(ljoinin<' court are tin- 
i5r>-called stone drums, black cheese-sliai)e(l bhuks oi 

268 CniSA 

graniteinscribed with slanzas in an aiiL-ient character, 
that are supposed to refer to a hunting expedition of 
the Emperor Siuen in the eighth century b.c. Oh the 
opposite side of the s;ime gateway are the replitas 
that were made of tht-iii by llie Emperor Kien Liiii^', 
A neighbouring enclosure contains the commemo- 
rative tablets, like the carved letters in the Upper 
School at Eton, that display the names of all the 
learned doctors who have taken the highest literarj- 
degree, or Chin-shih, since the days of the Mongol. 

Adjoining again is the Kuo-tzu-chien, or Imperial 
Academy of Learning, an educational establishment 
Hall of the ^^ich exists only in respect of habitation 
cim«cb j^i^jI ^j£ naijjg . and in the centre of this enclo- 
sure stands the Pi-yung-kung, or Hall of the Classics, 
where, upon a raised throne, the Emperor is supposeil 
to, but, I believe, does not read an address to the 
liternii. On the sides of a court in tlie Kuo-tzii-ohien 
are also placed under cover the 200 tablets con- 
taining the graven text of the Confucian classics. 
About all these fabrics, and tlieir silent and deserted 
courts, there is an air of academic and iiniiieii>^ 

No such inijiression is derived from a visit to llif 
Yung-ho-kung, or great Lama temple, which standi 
cmit close to the last-mentioned enclosure in llii* 
T.."n>ir north-east corner of the city. Its Lit"^' 
ilongolian inmates, presided over by a Gejieii. 
or Living IJuddlia, are celebrated for their vicious 
habits and ofl'ensive manners. It was considered .i 
stroke of I'are good fortune that, with the aid I'f ;in 


exi>erieiiced Cliinese scholar, I obtained entrance to 
the monastery; although our small party did not 
esc*ape from the clutch of its filthy and insolent 
inhabitants without being heavily mulcted at the 
gate of each court and sanctuary, which were barred 
against us one after the other, and being subjected 
at intervals to rough usage as well. I retain a vivid 
recollection of the main temple, with its three seated 
Buddhas and two standing figures, one on either side 
of the central image ; with the eighteen Lohans, or 
disciples, along the sides ; and with a unique collec- 
tion of old cloisfmne and gilt bronze vessels, censers, 
and utensils, the gifts of emperors, on the various 
altars. The furniture of tliis temple is the finest that 
I have iietn\ in China, and reflects a sumptuous anti- 
quity befitting a sanctuary of such hifrli repute. 
I^'hind the main temple is tlie Prayer Hall, filled 
with rows of low forms or stools, facing east and 
west and divided by mats. As the hour for evenson^^ 
was approachinjr we were unceremoniously hus- 
tle<l out of this buildinjr l>v the assembling/ monks. 
Ik-yond again is a temple coiuainin<i a hujre Lnlt 
\vrx)den imajre of Maitreya, the Hiiddha To Come, not 
•seated but standing, and with his h(»ad toueliinjr the 
roof seventy feet al>ove. It is ])ossible t»» climl) up 
to the top by wcxxlen stairs h^adinL^ to two ui)pt r 
storevs, where are innumerable small l)ra>s Huddha'- 
di*iiK)sed in shrines and niches. Tlw Lamas dtM-limMl 
to part with any of these t-xct pt at an exorbitani 
price; but I have one in my pnsses.sion wliich was 
»ubwf<|uently broujfht to the Kmbassy b\ a monk 

270 CHINA 

less pious or mure pliable ihan bis fellows. At the 
back is anotber altar with a number of porcelain 
Btiddhas, resembling Luca della Robbia ware. We 
next saw a dilapidatec] building containing' tlie ter- 
raced structure or tbrone, on the top ol' whicli the 
Emperor Kien Lung is said to have fasted for a night 
prior to his initiation into the Church. In another part 
is the temple of Kuan-ti, the God of War, crowded 
with hideous painted and grinning images, and witli 
figures of warriors in hebnets and armour. Here 
also are the wooden models of two hippopotami with 
their young, which are said to have been killed bj 
Kien Lung while hunting at Kirin in Manchuria. On 
our way out we saw the monks and their pupils, 
many hundreds in number, engaged at evensong in 
the various chapels. Loud rang the deep, base 
monotone of their voices, shouting with irreverent 
iteration the responses of the Tibetan liturg}-. .Vll 
wore yellow mantles, and in front of each upon the 
bench was bis yellow tufted felt helmet, exactly like 
the headpiece of a Hellenic or Roman warrior. The 
Lamas of higher grade, in purple and crimson 
mantles, wore these upon their heads as they walkwl 
to and fro between the benches, conducting the 
service. The appearance of a group of Europeans 
excited indignant protests from these individuals; 
and we had a long wait, in hope of a crowning bribe, 
before we were permitted to leave the final gate and 
quit this nest of profligate scoundrels. However, the 
experience was well worthy of the time and trial to 
temper involved, and is thought by the best resident 


authorities to be the most singular of the now avail- 
able sights of Peking. 

Very gratifying is it to turn one's back upon this 
city, where all that is worth seeing is so difficult, and 
Outside where such savage inroads are made upon 
xhm waiu equanimity, patience, and every human sense, 
and to make a trip to some of the well-known sites 
that lie within a range of forty to sixty miles of the 
northern gates. Here, outside the Tartar wall, but 
within the mud rampart of the MongoUan Kambalu, 
is the Huang-ssu, another Lama monastery, commonly 
called the Yellow Temple. It consists of a series of 
great enclosures with tranquil courts, old trees, 
shrines covering memorial tablets, and vast temple- 
halls. The largest of these possesses one of the most 
impressive interiors that I have ever seen. Three 
great solemn seated Buddhas are raised aloft, and 
peer down with the inscrutable serenity of the fami- 
liar features and the ruddv glimmer of l)urnished 
gold. The adjacent figures of Lohans, the colourtHl 
fresco of Buddhistic scenes, the lofty timbered roof, 
the splendid altars and censers, are all features seen 
elsewhere; but the majestic stature of the images, 
the sumptuous though faded coloiniiig of the })illars 
and walls, and the deep gloom in wliieh tlie hall i> 
lounged, compel a reverence which is ahnost wiilnmt 
alloy. In a neighbouring court is the t/^h/^'/o/^ or 
white marble toml), erected l)y tlie Mnn)t*rnr Kitii 
Lwjvj to the Teshu Lama of Til)et,' who, while (»n a 

' The Te**hu I^iiia. or baiijin rn-ml»utcli!i. i-. thr -^t'oor..! Ji^mumiv 
in the I5a«l<lhi«l hierarchv of Tibet, and r«»si(U-» jit Shi^.it/r. 

272 ClIIXA 

visit to Peking, died there of smallpox in 1780, The 
shape of tlie monument is ugly, but the sculptures 
on its eifjht sides, which represent scenes in the 
history of the deceased Lama, are fine and humoruus 
in their fidelity to life. 

At a short distance to the north-west, the larjrest 
of the five bells of Yung-Lo, which was cast about 
TheGrsftt ^^ Y^ar 1406, 18 Suspended in a temple 
^" that was erected 170 years later. The dimen- 

sions ordinarily given are 14 feet in height, 34 
feet in circumference at the brim, 9 inches in thick- 
ness, 120,000 lbs. in weight. More remarkable is 
the fact that the surface of the monster, both inside 
and outside, is covered with thousands of Cliiiiese 
characters, representing extracts from two of the 
Buddhist classics. 

One of the bitterest of the many disappointnienis 
of modern Peking is the inability, also of receiii 
Tiie origin, to see the grounds or ruins of llif' 

pniacii celebrated Summer Palace that was de- 
molished by the Allies in i860. Of this act I ob- 
serve that it has become in recent years the fashion 
among travellers, who have probably never read a 
line of the history of the war itself, to say that it ffi* 
a thoughtless or intemperate act of vandalism appro- 
priately committed by the son of that Lord Elgi" 
who had ])erpetrated a corresponding deed of violencf 
by wresting from the rock of the Acropolis ihf 
marble treasures of Athens. Both criticisms arr 
equally ignorant and empty. For though we tii:'} 
regret that the modern Acropolis, now for the lir^' 


time tended and cared for, does not contain the 
scrulptures that once formed its chief glory, and 
tliough we may deplore the loss to the world of 
architecture and art of the splendid fabrics and the 
priceless treasures of the Chinese Versailles ; yet in 
the one case it must be remembered that but for 
the first Lord Elgin's intervention, the marbles which 
liear his name would probably not now be existing 
at all ; and in the other that the second Lord Elgin's 
act was a deliberate and righteous measure of retribu- 
tion for the barbarous cruelties and torture that had 
been practised for days and nights in the courts of 
that very Palace upon British prisoners of war ; that 
more than any other possible step, short of the sack 
of tlie Imperial Palace at Peking, it signified tin* 
humiliation and discomfiture of a throne dainiin*' ;i 
prerogative almost divine; and that the reason for 
which the suburban instead of the urban resideiuo 
of the Emperor was selected for destruction was tin* 
niereiful desire to save the inhabitants of the eai)!!;!! 
from a retribution which was felt to have hwn 
*»|HTially, if not solely, provoked by the insolenre 

and ireacherv of the Court. Twentv-seven years 

• • • 

later the Marquis Tseng, writing in the j)ages ot' an 
Knglish magazine,^ admitted that it was tliis siej», nr 
* MUffeing of the evebrows of China,' as hr flailed it, 
that first caused her to awake from her long slttfp, 
and to realise that she was not invulnerable Sc.) tar 
from eherishing an undving gruclire against tin* KniKh 

* ABiafic Quartrrly I{cvuu\ Jan. l-SHT. 


274 CHIKA 

oi- English for the act, as is also commonly represpnted 
by travellers, the Chinese themselves, who have a 
wonderful faculty for oblivion, have invented the 
fiction that the Summer Palace was looted by robbers : 
and this is now the popular belief. 

The term Summer Palace is strictly a[>yjlifil lo 
the Yuan-ming-yuan, i.e. Garden of Perfect Clearness, 
Tom- * lai^e enclosure surrounded by a high wall 
n^g-roM f^m- and a half miles in circuit about seven 
miles to the nortli-west nf Pt-king. Here the Kni|>t-ror 
Yung Ching in tlie first half of the eighteenth cenlurv 
first built a palace and laid out the grounds — a work of 
twent}' years ; and here it was that a series of magni- 
ficent buildings, designed upon the model of Versailles, 
and framed in a landscape gardening that was a 
similar reminiscence of France, were raised for tlie 
Emperor Kien Lung by the Jesuit missionaries in 
his service. Of these, Pere Benoist undertook the 
liydraulics in 1747-50; and the descriptions br 
IV're Attiret, who was the Emperor's Court Painter, 
and by P^tc Bourgeois, which are to be found in ihe 
'Letlres folifiantes,' give a most interesting accouni 
of tlie manner and success of their undertaking. To 
llio average European sitting at home it is probably 
new.s to learn that the Summer Palace, of which he 
li;is heard so much, was a series not of fantastic 
porcelain pagodas or Chinese pavilions, but of senii- 
Europcan halls and palaces adorned with the florid 
si)l('iidour of the Court of the Grand Monarrjue. The 
greater part of these were wrecked in 18G0, but for 
the last twenty vears (he work of restoration has been i 


slowly proceeded with, and no foreigner can now 
gain access to the interior. 

Till lately this prohibition did not apply to the 
Wan-shou-shan, i.e. Hill of Ten Thousand Ages, 
wan.»hoa. ^ similar Imperial Pleasaunce about three- 
■**" quarters of a mile to the south-east ; and many 

are the Europeans who have visited and described 
its beautiful lake and island connected with the shore 
by a white marble balustraded bridge with sixty 
marble lions on the parapet ; the marble boat that lies 
in the water ; the bronze cow reposing on a stone 
pedestal ; and the great hill rising from the lake's 
edge, ascended by a lofty staircase upon both sides 
of a colossal terrace of stone, and crowned bv ele- 
gant temples and pavilions. Ihe bulk of these too 
succumbed to the bayonet and the torch ; but on 
attempting to enter the great gates, where are the 
bronze lions, I found the whole place alive with 
movement. Thousands of masons and coolies were at 
work, rebuilding the ruins as a palace for the Eniprt'>s 
Dowager. Entrance was strictly prohibited, and only 
from one of the neighbouring mounds was it possil)li* 
to obtain a view of the interior. 

No visit to Peking is accounted complete witli- 
out an expedition to the (treat Wall and the T(>nil)> 
TKr(ir«»i of the Ming Emperors; and thouL'h I >li;i!l 
^ refrain from descril)ing an excursion that 

is so Well known, 1 mav remark that neither >(*( 
tion of it should be omitted bv the traveller. '\\\v 
Wall is most easilv and coininonlv visited at one of 
two places, either at Tataling, the far exit o{ the 

T '2 



Nankow Pass, forty miles from Peking, or at Ku-pei- 
kow, nearly double that distance on the road to the 
Emperor's Mongolian hunting-lodge at Jehol. The 
first-named point is in the Inner Wall, the second in 
the Outer.^ This great monument of human labour, 
that still, with some interruptions, pursues its aerial 
climb over 2,000 miles of peak and ravine, almost 
invariably excites the enlightened abuse of the 
foreigner, who can see in it nothing but a blindfold 
conception and misdirected human power.* To me, I 
confess, it appears as a work not merely amazing in 
plan, but of great practical wisdom (in its day) in 
execution. To this date the Mongol tribes regard 
the Great Wall as the natural limit of their pastures; 

' As most persons know, tliere are two Great AValls of China, the 

main or Outer Wall, called W'an-li-cbang-cheng, ue. the Ten Thonsind 

Li Wall, which runs from Shan-hai-kuan on the Gulf of Pechili, in* 

westerly direction along the northern frontier of China Proper f* 

1,500 miles; and the Inner Wall, which branches off from the liretto 

the west of Ku-pei-kow, and describes the arc of a circle round lb* 

north-west extremity of the province of Chihli, dividing it from Sh«n**t 

for a total distance of 500 miles. The Outer Wall is attributed w 

the Emperor Tsin-shi-huang-ti in 214-204 B.C. ; but of the ori^ 

structure it is supposed that very little now remains. Near the «•** 

is made of imhewn stones ; in the greater part of its course it i« ^^ 

with largo bricks resting upon a stone foundation, and is from 15 1« 

80 feet in height and 15 to 25 feet in thickness ; in its western J*^ 

it is commonly only a mud or gravel mound, over which horseflW*' 

can ride without dismounting. In parts it has entirely disapT^tf^ 

The Inner Wall is attributed to the Wei dynasty in a.d. 543; boti" 

its present state it is almost entirely the work of the Ming Emperor 

Their part of the wall is built of stone, and is from 25 loSOfe*** 

height, including the outer parapet, and has a paved walk alonir ti* 

smnmit 14 feet in width, passing through frequent and more elex^ 

towers with embrasured stone walls 9 feet in thickness. At ^ 

I*ataling Gate it is a very imposing structure. 

^ Dr. Williams, for instance, inhis3/tV/<//r Xtn^e/omfSpeakKofif 
an * evidence of the energy, industry, and perseverance of its build*^ 
as well as of their unwisdom and waste.* 



nd ibough it could not liave been expPfrled :it any 
me to runder tht; Erapiro or Ihe capital absolutely 
icure rroin invasion, yet in day^^ when men fought 
oly with Ijows and arrows, and indulged in guerilla 
iidn of irregular liorse, times without iiuiiil)L-r its 
iiUeu Imrrit-r arrestetl tlie passa^'e of predatory 
ands, caused the examination of passports, and pre- 
ented the illicit entry of goods. Because we do not 
ow, in days of artillery, encircle an empire any 
lore than a city with a wall, it by no meant) follows 
lat 6uch a defence may not once have been as 
seful to a kingdom as it was to a town. 

Of the Sfaih-san-ling, or Thirteen Tombs of the 
ling Emperors, which at UDec^ual distances, each 
b> Mini '" '** O'KXi. wooded enclosure, surround a 
""^ wide bay or amphitheatre in the hills, thirty 
liles nearly due north of Peking, I will merely 
bserve that the famous avenue of stone animals 
irough which one enters the valley from the south 
\ to my mind grotesque without being impressive, 
:ie images being low, stunted, and without pedestals ; 
[lat the Great Hall of Yung Lo, which contains his 
iblet, in in design, dimensions, and extreme simpli- 
ily, one of the most imposing of Chinese sacred 
iructures ; that, like tlie Egj'ptian kings in the 
'jTamids of Ghizeh and in the subterranean gal- 
Ties of Thebes, and the Persian kings in tlie rock- 
fpulchres of Persepoils, the object of the Cliincse 
overeigns appears to have been either to conceal the 
icact spot in which the royal corpse was deposited, 
r at least to render it impossible of access ; and that 


a visitor should be recommendeil to compare the 
Ming Tombs with the Mausolea of the mguing 
dynasty, which are situated in two localitips known 
as the Tung-ling and Usi-ling, to the east and west 
of Peking (while the ancestors of the Imperial 
family were interred in Southern Manchuria), and 
are reported to be of great beauty and splen- 
dour ; though no European would stand a chance of 
being admitted to their inner temples or halls. 

These and similar ezeursions to the delightful 
monastic retreats in the western hills, or rides in the 
B^^^ Nan-hai-tzu, a great Imperial park three miles 
^*'^"' to the south of the Chinese city, surrounded 
by a wall and containing some very peculiar deer,' 
are an agreeable relief to the risitor, who soon tires 
of the dirt and confusion of Peking. Even such 
relaxations, however, are found to pall upon the 
resident ; and he is apt to turn from the surfeit of 
desagrements in the streets to the repose of the walled 
compounds within which the various Foreign lega- 
tions reside, and where life, though confined, is ai 
least cleanly and free. Of these by far the ino?i 
imposing is the. British Legation, au enclosure cf 
three acres inside the Tartar city, once the palace of 
an Imperial prince, whose entrance-archways ami 
■ halls have been skilfully adapted to the needs of 

' This is the Ssii-pii-hBianf' (lit. Four. Parts. Unlike, becsnw ^'■ 
various parts of the body resemble those of different oniiuals), at Tut 
deer, called after its first discoverer Cerviii Davidianut. Tt ha; w 
immense tail, over a foot in length, and fii^ntic antlers, somc^'hs' 
resembling those of a reindeer. The species has never been fuu"'' 
wild, and is not known to exist anywhere in the world except in tb^ 


Europt^an life, where tlie members of the stafl' are 
accommodated in sepuratc buiigaluws, wliere tlie 
means of study and recreation alike exist,' and where 
a generous and uniform hospitality prevails. 

' Tlw fCKmiwt of tbo Ilritlsh L«Ration inclmlo th* &Iini*it«r'« 
n««pUon-nKi»a uid roHdmoc in tbo quotuiam polMc. iwpBnilc bomwa 
for Uw Pirri nnd 8«*cind Swntarin, houM of (^iiim* SocrotariM, 
Plijrtieiaii, anil AocoimtAnt, Ibo ChMi««U«ry, ISbnry, StnileDl Inler- 
pniMV* laarWn and maw, Dinpon *«-}', Pir« Eiii^uio, Annoorj, L«wn 
TenniB umI Fiim CoutU, uul Bowling AIt<-<r. «itli a liinlygiuvrd ol Inu 



LaBciate ogni eperania, voi ch' eiiiraip. 

Dakte. Tn/rmi>, Canlu IL 

At no capital in the world are relations between the 
Government of the country and the representatives 
Reutiona of Foreign Powers conducted under circuro- 
Chinese Stances so profoundly dissatisfactory as at 
i«,ii.H Peking. There is absolutely no intercourse 
between the native officials and foreigners. Fewol 
the latter Ij^ve ever been, except for a purely cere- 
monious visit, inside a Chinese Minister's house, ^o 
official of any standing would spontaneously associaie 
M'itli a European. Even the Chinese employes of ih* 
various Legations would lose ' face ' if obsenw' 
speaking with their masters in the streets. Superior 
force has installed the alien in the Celestial capital: 
but he is made to feel very clearly that he is a 
stranger and a sojourner in the land ; that admission 
does not signify intercourse ; and that no approach^? 
however friendly, will ever be rewarded with intimacT. 
This attiltule is more particularly reflected in ih^ 
official relations that subsist between the Diploraali*' 
Corps and the Foreign Office at Peking. 

C///.V.I A.VD T//S POWEHS 381 

That office, if tt can be said so niucli as to exist« 

an ofStce without either recognised chief or depart- 

menlal organisation. After the war of 18G0, 

■M a board namcil the Tsuu}.di Ynnicii was in- 

nled in 1861 by Prince Kiing. who became its 

Bt IVesident — a titutnr po&t which he held till hi« 

i in lfi84 — in order lo lake the place of a ForeJga 

Hcc, and lo conduct dealing»i with the Ministers of 

e I'owera who insisted oti forcing Llieir unwelcome 

BMDce upon Peking. Up till that time all foreign 

ion had b<%n conducted hy the T^i Yan Yuen, or 

ilonial Office, a department of llie Ministry of Ititej, 

lich dealt with the dependent and tributary nations, 

il t In^p'for*' — sincp, nccordirij: t*' tlic ' 'li!iics*> iIk-'HV, 

( whole exterior universe fell into that categorj* — 

h all foreign peoples. The war, however, showed 

cluaively that Europe did not appreciate this sort 

ogic ; and some deference required to be paid 

Tuples that had just been so inconveniently en- 

d. The new Board consisted at the start of three 

Sers only: Prince Kung; Kuei Liang, senior 

1 Secretary ; and Wen Hsiang, Vice-President 

Board of War. In the following year, 1802, 

idditional members were appointed, and by 

uccessive additions had brought the number 

ten. In recent years the total has ranged 

rlit to twelve, with a preponderance, as a rule, 

ese. But it [wssessetl, from the start, this 

ble idiosyncrasy, that its members did not 

e a separate deparlment in any Ifgliimate 

the term, being mainly selected from the . 

282 CHIKA 

Other Ministries,' witliout any special aptitudes for or 
■knowledge of foreign affairs. For many years past 
it has been closel}' identified with the Grand Council, 
a majority of the members of the latter Board beina; 
also members of the Yaraen. It is much as thougli 
the Board of Admiralty at Whitehall were composed 
of the Home, Indian, and Colonial Secretaries, with 
perhaps the President of the Board of Trade and the 
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster tlirown in. 
This is the scratch body that takes the place of a 
Foreign Minister, and acts as an intermediary between 
the foreign representatives and the Imperial Govern- 
ment in Peking. A number of its members, ranging, 
maybe, from three to a dozen, sit round a table 
covered with sweetmeats to receive the diplomat and 
listen to his representations. No privacy is possible, 
since the conversation must in any case be conducted 
through interpreters, and there are plenty of hangers- 
on standing about as well.' While Prince Kung was 
President, all correspondence was carried on in his 
own name. But since the appointment of PriDce 
Ching in 1884, official communications are drawn up 

' Tliese nre tlie Ministries of fl) Civil Affklra ajid Appointment*, v 
TreaBury, (2) Revenne and Finance, or Eicbequer, (8) Rites and C«»- 
monies, (4) \Vur, (5) Public Works, (6) Criminal Jurisdiclion « 
I'lmishuients. Vide Prof. R. K. Douglas' Society in China, pp. W-i'' 

' In the eiceilent recently published Life of Sir Harry Parkfi, 1"? 
Mr. H. LanC'l'oule, there are several extracts from his corresponddK*- 
desoribing witli characteristic candour hia impreaaiona of the TtoD^ 
Yatncn. He Bpeaka of * goinR to the Vamen and having » discns^i" 
with eight or ten men, who all like to speak at once, and who. vb" 
refuted, just repeat all the.v have said before. In some reapeols it it > 
»luc9tion of physicul endurance; and, if you are not in good conditii* 
the struggle is trying.' Vol. ii. p. 889 ; comp&re pp. 386, S94. 

ji^.&^isr..-::: -xs'vr -,- 


in the names of himself and his colleagues conjointly. 
The Prince, though unknown in Europe, is a typical 
specimen of the Manchu gentleman, and a states- 
man of great ability, with a wide grasp of foreign 

It may be imagined that, whatever the knowledge 
or the ability of the President, business can with 
A Boani difficulty be conducted with a body so con- 
of DcUy stituted. Their lack of individual experience 
insures irresolution ; their freedom from all responsi 
bility, ineptitude ; and their excessive numbers, para- 
lysis. With whom the decision ultimately rests no 
one appears to know. The Board is in reality a 
Board of Delay. Its object is to palaver, and gloze, 
and promise, and do nothing — an attitude which has 
been in great favour ever since its notable success after 
the Tientsin massacres of 1870, when the Chinese, by 
dint of shilly-shallying for several months, till the 
French were hard pressed in the Franco-German war, 
escaped very much more lightly than they would 
otherwise have done. Sir Ilarrv Parkes said that to 
get a decision from the TsungliYamen was like trying 
to draw water from a well with a bottomless bucket. 
So long as the result is procrastination, and China is 
not compelled to act, except as she herself may desire, 
the Tsungli Yamen has served its purpose. As a 
matter of fact any important business between tlu» 
British Minister and the Chinese Government is far 
more likely to be successfully eonchided in London, 
where, although no Chinese representative, wiili tlic 
exception of the Marquis Tseng, has so far had any 

S84 cmxA 

knowledge of Euglish, the assistance of Sir Halliday 
Macartney, the accomplished Councillor and English 
Secretary of the Chinese Legation, gives to his chief 
an advantage which is not enjoyed by the official 
superiors of the latter in Peking. 

This dilatory attitude on the part of the Tsuiigli 
Yamen is encouraged by the discovery, ivhich the 
chinesB Chinese have made long since, that the 
dipiomeey Po^efs, whosc joint action would still ba 
almost irresistible, are sundered by irremediable 
diiferences, and can be played off one against the 
other. The}- know that an allied French and Uritisli 
array is in the last degree unHkely ever again 'o 
march up to Peking and sack another Summer Palace. 
Other hostile combinations are almost equally im- 
probable. Herein lies their opportunity. Past masters 
in every trick of diplomacy, they picture it in the 
liglit of a balance-sheet, with credit and debit accouni. 
in which no expenditure must be entered without a 
more than compensating receipt, China never volun- 
tarily makes a concession without securing a sub- 
stantial quid pro quo ; and the tactics that recovered 
Kulja would have done credit to Cavour. Wii!» 
equal ability have they recently pressed upon tht 
British Government their somewhat shadowj' preten- 
sions on the confines of Kashmir, Burma, and Siaia- 
The Tibetan negotiations, that, after going on for 
years, have just reached an apparent conclusion, havt 
been conducted in precisely the same spirit. With 
such a people the only system to adopt is to borrow 
a leaf from their own book, to act remorselessly upoQ 


the Do ut des principle, to pursue a waiting game, 
and to demand a concession, not solely when it is 
wanted, but rather when they want something else. 
In this way will the transaction present the aspect of 
a mercantile bargain so dear to the Oriental mind. 

The one question of foreign politics at Peking 
which equally affects the representatives of every 
Th« foreijfn Power, is the Eight of Audience ; of 

Aodiene* which, as it fills a most important and a 
thoroughly characteristic page of Sino-European 
history, I will give some accoimt. The Emperors of 
China do not appear at any time to have taken up 
the position that their own person was so supremely 
sacred as to render audience with a foreigner an in- 
dignity. On the contrar}', in olden days, when tlie 
Imperial state and prestige were immeasurably <:reater 
than thev now are, audience was freelv granted, and 
the person of the Sovereign was less hernietieally 
concealed than is now the fashion. Two questions, 
however, have successively been made uppermost in 
the settlement of the matter, viz. the character of 
ol>eisance made bv the forei^rner admitted to tlie 
interview, and the nature and loealitv of tlie l)iiil(linL' 
in which it took place. As re;iards the former tlie 
favoured individual was expected to comply witli the 
Cliinese usage by performing the kotriofr, i,r. kneeliiiLr 
thrice and knocking his forehead nine times upon tlie 
irround. The theorv of Chinese sovereiL^ntvl)einir tliat 
the Emperor is the de jure monarch of the whole earth, 
of which China is the ' Middle Kiii^/dom/ all (»tlu'r 
nations, therefore, must be either his tributaries or 

bis subjects ; wlience tlie exaction of this mark of 
deference from their envoys. As regards the site of 
audience, the practice of emphasising Hm lowliness of 
the stranger in presence of the Son of Heaven by fixiug 
the audience in a building that carries with it some 
implication of inferiority, appears to have been tbe 
growth only of the last fifty years, if not more recently. 
In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries both 
the Jesuit Fathers who were in the service of (he 
Empei^r and the envoys of European Courts 
or Companies, who came to Peking for 
complimentary purposes or to secure facUitiea for 
trade, performed the kototow without apparent 
compunction. One Russian official, however, who 
arrived at Peking in the reign of the first Manehu 
Emperor Shun Chih (1644-1661) was refused an 
audience because he declined to kowtow. In those 
days tlie audience commonly took place in one or 
otlier of the great Ceremonial Halls of the Imperial 
Palace in the heart of the Forbidden City, where no 
European is now permitted to enter. Here stands 
the Tai Ho Tien, or Hall of Supreme Harmony, a 
magnificent structure, 110 feet in height, erected upon 
a terrace of marble 20 feet high, with projecling 
wings, ascended from the outer court by flights of 
steps. The Great Audience Hall on tlie summit of 
the platform is a vast pavilion, in design not unhke 
the Memorial Temple of Yung Lo at the Ming Tomb?, 
200 feet in length by 90 feet in depth, sustained hy 
72 immense columns of painted teak. In this Hall 
the Emperor held and still holds the splendid animal 


ievim al the Winter Solstice, at tbe New Year, and 
n his own btnhdajr. As in the Audience Hall which 
have |)rf>vious]y dcwritK^d at Si'ml, and as in that 
'hich I ahall afterwards describe at Hui-— both of 
rhich, being erected for the I^evi-es of tribiitarj- 
Drereigns, were exactly modelled upon the Cliinese 
attcrn — so here in the Tai Ho Tien the Emperor 
ikes his seat upon a raised throne in the centre. A 
?w Manchua of exalted rank alone are admitted to 
he building. Outside jind l>eh>w the marble baUis- 
rades are ranged the nobility aiid oflicials in eighteen 
.ouble rows, the civil officers on the east side, and 
he inihtary officerB on the west, their respective 
inks :i(ii! ji' '-Iti.'ii-; ht'uv^ luarki'd by low roInDuis. 
"ere at the given signal they kneel, and nine times 
rike their foreheads upon the ground in homage to 
e Son of Heaven, dimly seen, if at all, through 
luda of incense, in the solemn gloom of the pil- 
ed hall. The earliest picture published in 
■ope of an Imperial Audience, which was granted 
Dutch Embassy in 1656, represents it as having 
n place in the Tai Ho Tien.' The second Hall 
nd this in tlie series of successsive pavilions, of 
h the ceremonial portion of the Palace consists, 
! Pao Ho Tien, or Hall of Precious Harmony, 
raised upon a marble terrace, wherein the 
-or confers the highest triennial degrees, and 
■ner days gave olTicial banquets to foreign 
(notably to the Mongol princes and to the 

lion if fAmlaiiiuir dr la Cumpagnie Uotlauitnnt rrrt 
IT dt la Chiiu. ruis, 10G9. 

Korean and Liiichiu envoys if in Peking) on the 
day preceding the New Year. Here also we read of 
a Dutch ambassador, one Van Braam, as ha^inp 
been received by the Emperor Kien Lung in 17^5.' 
Both these ambassadors kowtowed. So also had 
done a Eussian envoy in 1719, in whose company 
travelled John Bell of Antermony, a Scotch doclorr 
and a Portuguese Envoy, Metello de Sousa Menezes. 
in 1727. 

The first English Plenipotentiary admitted to an 
audience with a Chinese Emperor was Lord Macart- 
Engiish ney in 1793. He was twice received by the 

Jehol, in Mongolia, and afterwards at the jrreat 
Birthday Levee in Peking. Tliere were long disputes 
beforehand as to the exact nature of the obeisance 
which the Plenipotentiary should perform ; and in bis 
desire to be agreeable, the latter carried complacency 
so far as to offer to kowtow on condition that a Giinese 
official of corresponding rank did the same before s 
picture of George III., which he had brought with 
him. This offer was refused, and liOrd ilacartnoy 
is said to have only knelt upon one knee on the 

' Voyage de V Amhaeaade de la Compagnie dr» Tndfi Qrirnfiil'' 
Hotlandaite vers I'Etnpereurde la Chine. 2 vols. Philadelphia, 1"9J- 

' Jaumeij from St. Pelcrthurg to Divert Parlt of Atia, in'fi '■ 
Emhanaij from H.I.M. Peter L. by John Bell. 2 vols. GlasRow. ITi* 
The excellent iicotchinan did not at all like having to gii throui;h ifai< 
Ecrvilc o]icriitio]i. But at the iLiidieace he says : ' Tlie iiiastf rt of i^ 
ceremonies then ordered all the company to kneel and make oU'L'^'* 
nine times to the Emperor. At every third time \re Blood Dp "^ 
kneeled i^i^mn. Great pains were taken to avoid thJB piece of hcnm^- 
but without I 


ps of the Imperial throne as he presented his 
dentials.' Wliatever he actually did, the Chinese 
?r afterwards insisted that he had koxctoxced ; and 
thermore took advantage of the British noble- 
.n's ignorance of the Chinese language to fix 
>ve the boat that brought him up the Peiko Biver, 
1 on the vehicle that took him to Jehol, a Bag 
iring the inscription, ' Ambassador bearing tribute 
m the Country of England ' — an incident which 
n itself a highly condensed epitome of the national 

The next British Envoy, Lord Amherst, in 1816 

raped, it is true, the kowtow^ but he never saw the* 

i Sovereign at all. While at Tientsin and during 

'!• his journey up the river, prolonged daily cou- 

nces took place between himself and the Chinese 

ials, who insisted that Lord Macartney had hnc- 

i, and demanded the same deference from liini. 

Amherst not merely repeated his predecessor's 

^fler, with equal lack of success, but he even 

nted to kowtoic^ if the next Chinese Ambassador 

(land would do the same to the Prince Refrent. 

roposal also was scouted ; and Ix)rd Amherst 

proceeded upon the understandinj/ that instead 

touring, {,e, kneeling on both knees tliree 

md knocking the ground nine times, lie 

neel on one knee three times, and make a 

nine times. Upon his arrival, however, at 

ler Palace, where the Emperor Chia Clung 

(tr Account of the EmbasJiy from //w King of Great 
he Kmpcror of China, Taken from the {mpers of the 
tnej l>> Sir O. Staunton. 2 vols. London, 1798. 


was then staying, lie was bidden by the latter, who 
was either devoured witli curiosity or was bent 
upon a rupture, to an immediate audience, before 
his baggage had arrived, and consequently before 
he could either cleanse himself after the jouniev. ur 
don bis uniform, or prepare his presents. Lord 
Amherst, suspecting in this inordinate haste some 
intentional slur upon the Sovereign whom he repre- 
sented, begged to be excused the honour of the inter- 
view, and was bundled unceremoniously out of the 
Palace the same evening. Thus abruptly ended his 

No other British representative was admitted to 

the Imperial presence up till the war in 1860 ; and 

the rijfht of audience upon the terms that 

Interval . , . 1 ,. . 

prevail m every other foreign Court was one 
of the first advantages exacted by the conqueror?. 
Article III. of the English Treaty of 1860, withoul 
actually claiming the right, inferred it by stipulaliiur 
that the British representative ' shall not be ciUpi 
upon to perform any ceremony derogatory to him is 
representing the Sovereign of an independent nation 
on a footing of equality with that of China.' Mtei 
the conclusion of the war no audience was possibi'' 
in the reign of Hsien Feng, because he was a fugitii^ 
and an exile from his capital till his death in ISII; 
nor, during the minority of Tung Chili, in whicli 
int'Tval the Duke of Edinburgh visited Pekinj.' '" 
1869 without the question being raised, could tbf 

' Jourjial of I'rorcciliiiga of the late S mhauy lo China, hy 
Ellia, Third Conimissioiit-r. Loiiilon, 1617. 


demand be put forward. As soon, however, as Tung 
Chih assumed the reins of government in 1873, the 
foreign Ministers in Peking addressed to him a col- 
lective note, in which they asked to be permitted to 
present their congratulations in person. 

The days had long passed when the Chinese 
authorities could insist upon the kowtow, June 29, 
Aodionce 1^73, at a very early hour of the morning 
Jjjj^y^ (Lord Macartney had been received at day- 
"'^ break) was fixed for the collective audience. 

Compelled to evacuate their original redoubt, how- 
ever, the Chinese, with characteristic strategy, fell 
back upon an inner and unsuspected line of defence, 
endeavouring to safeguard the dignity of their own 
Soverei<rn and to humiliate the forei<nier by selecting' 
for the site of audience a building in the outskirts of 
the Palace enclosure known as the Tzii Kuang Ko, 
which stands on the western shore of the bii^ lake. 
In this Hall, which is hung with pictures of combats 
and of eminent Chinese generals, many of tliem 
painted by the Jesuits, it is the habit to entertain the 
envoys from tributary or dependent States, such as 
Mongolia and Korea — and in former days also tlu* 
Liurhiu Islands, Xepal, and Annum — at tlie fistival 
of the New Year; and the objei't wliicli was directly 
servetl by the Hag upon Lord Macartney's boat in 
ITlKi could, it struck the crafty Chinaman, be now in- 
directly secured liv a(lmittin<^ the foreitrners to au- 
dience in a building that possessed to Cliinese minds a 
tributary significance. Tlie audience, at wliicli (ireat 
Britain was represented by Sir Thomas Wade, t(M)k 

I '2 

place ; but considerable irritation was caused by tlie 
official announcement of the event in the ' Peking 
Gazette,' which described the foreign Ministers by an 
incorrect and inferior title, and represented them as 
having * supplicated ' for an interview. The objec- 
tions, however, to the building were, it is said, not 
shared in their entirety by some eminent authorities, 
including Dr. Williams, who was present at the au- 
dience, and Sir Thomas Wade himself. 

In 1875 the Emperor Tung Chih died, and was 
succeeded by a minor. It was not, therefore, till 
AndiflDce after the assumption of government by the 
KnangHan Empcior Kuang Hsu in 18S9 that the ques- 
'" tion again arose. This time, however, the 

Emperor (or rather the Empress Dowager, inspirini! 
him) himself took the initiative by issuing on IV- 
ceraber 12, 1890, the following Proclamation, wliioh 
testified to a common sense or a conversion on tlif 
part of the Government, which was in either case 
remarkable ; — 

' I bave now been in charge of the Government for two 
years. The Ministers of Foreign Powers ought to be received 
by me at an audience ; and I hereby decree that theaudienw 
to be held be in accordance with that of the twelfth year rt 
Tung Chih (1873). It is also hereby decreed that a day be 
fixed every year for an audience, in order to show my desire 
to treat with honour all the Mioisters of the Foreign Po«ef* 
resident in Peking.' 

These sentiments were eminently laudable, I'll 
by reviving the precedent of Tung Chih, they offered 
no solace to the spirits that had been outraged by 


ption in the Tzu Kuang Ko. Here finally, in 
a good deal of preliminary grumbling, the 
i again took place on March 5, 1891. Six 
s and their staffs were received by the Em- 
ho sat upon a dais with a table draped in 
ilk in front of him ; the Ministers being first 

s(»parately, in the order of their length of 
e in Peking ; and the united staffs being 
eutly introduced en masse. Each Minister, 
teriiig, marched up the hall, bowing at stated 
;, and paused at the Dragon Pillar, where 
iding his letter of credence, and hearing it 
<1 by the interpreter, he handed the docu- 
thc President of the Tsungli Yamen. The 
:i(ed it on the yellow table in front of the 
% and subsequently knelt to receive the 
reply, written in Manchu, which, after 
n;r t)ie dais, he repeated in Cliinese to the 

tlirou^ih his interpreter. Some of the re- 
tivi'S are said to have been dissatisfied with 
ig(*nients, and the foreign press re-echoed and 
(I tlu* <Ty. It was perhaps not surprising after 

ilie ( Vsarevitcl), in his tour round the world 
inie yt\ir, should have been successfully kept 
•ni IVkin»j, both by the Chinese, who dreaded 
Isory surnMuler, and by the Tsar, who could 
.•iv<' brooked anything approximating to an 

- th^* audience of 1891, the Doyen of the 
ti<- T'orps gave becoming expression to the 
iction of his colleagues, among whom the 

French and Russians have always taken the leail, hy 
applying to the Tsungh Yanien for reception on a 
sabaeqneDt fiture ocoasion, not outside the Palane, and 
"^^'*' in a tril>iitary building, but, as in old days, 
inside the actual precincts of llie Imperial residence. 
A sort of half compliance with this request was made, 
first by the promise to erect a new building for the 
ceremony, and afterwards by the offer of another 
hall. This is the Chang Kuang Tien, a building 
dating from Mongol times, which appears to have no 
pecuhar significance or application, and stands on the 
eastern aide of the marble bridge across the orna- 
mental lake. It is not one of the ceremonial halls of 
the Palace proper, but, on the other hand, its use con- 
veys no slur. Acting upon this opinion, the Austro- 
Hungarian Minister was the first of the Foreij;n 
Diplomatic Corps to be received here in 1891 ; and 
here also Mr. O'Conor, Her Majesty's present repre- 
sentative in Peking, was granted an audience upon 
his arrival in December 1892, and Herr von Brand', 
the retiring German Minister, upon his departure in 
1893: a more honorific character having in tlie?t; 
latter cases been lent to the reception of the envoy 
by his introduction through the main or Porcelain 
Gate, Instead of a side gate of the Palace. So the 
matter now stands ; though France and Russia, who 
have adopted throughout an attitude of a most mi- 
reasonable 71071 possnmiis, still hold out. 

It will be observed from this historical suniman' 
that since Lord Macartney's audience at Jehol jusi 
] 00 years ago, the following points have been gained' 



Not merely does a Special Plenipotentiary enjoy the 
right to an audience with the Sovereign, but to 
sinmmMxj every foreign Minister accredited to the 
"^ Chinese Court is this prerogative now con- 

ceded, both upon his arrival and departure, 
or when presenting any communication from his 
Sovereign ; and, if the terms of the Imperial Procla- 
mation of 1890 be carried out, once every year in 
addition. The kowtow has disappeared, not merely 
from foreign practice, but even from discussion. Its 
place has been taken by a ceremonial not essentially 
different from that with which a new Member of Parlia- 
ment is introduced to the British House of Commons. 
These are considerable advances. On the other liand 
the diplomats have not yet won their way back to 
one of the great Audience Halls in the main body of 
the Palace, to which it appears to me that precedent 
and equity alike entitle them to advance a claim. 
Perhaps the recovery of the Tai IIo Tien is one of 
the triumphs that is reserved for the diplomacy <>f tlie 
ensuing century. 

Englishmen, living freely in a democratic country, 
where the Fountain of Honour is inaccessible to few, 
Tni««iir- ^^^^ where humility has never In^en con- 
mftn»n«. fQnmJed with humiliation, may not be ablt* to 
<i«iMit« comprehend all this pother about tlie nature 
of a l)ow, and the significance of a building. To the 
Chinese they are all-important ; and just as the Greek 
Timajroras was condenuied to death bv the lilu-rtv- 
loving Athenians 2,2C0 years ago, because he had 
kowUfwed at Susa to Artaxerxes Mnemon, the Great 

King, so have Britisli rcpreseutatives — instriicteiA to 
maintain the equal pverogative of tlieir Sovereign, 
in face of tlie inadmissible pretensions of a majesty 
that was supremely ignorant of its own limitations — 
been justified in figliling strenuously for whal to 
Europe may seem a shadow, but in Asia is the sub- 
stance. When Lord Macartney took out a beautiful 
coach with glass panels as a present from George III. 
to the Emperor Kien Lung, the Chinese officials 
were horrified at a structure which would place the 
coachman on a higher level than the monarch, and 
promptly cut away the box-seat. 

Such and so imperfect being the status of foreign 
diplomats, and the methods of diplomatic intercourse 
F..rpif(n at Peking, we may next inquire what are the 
ciiLim main objects for which their intervention i- 
required ? In other words, what is the foreign policy 
of China, in so far at least as concerns our own 
country ? We have not here, at any rate for tlit- 
present, any demand similar to that which we have 
noticed in Japan, for the revision or abrogation of 
tlie Treaties under which Europeans are admitted to 
trade or residence in certain ports on the sea-coast, 
and in cities in the interior.^ China has not, like her 
neighbours, an}- judicial system, nominally bas"! 
upon a European model, to offer in substitution for 
the consular courts of llie foreigner. She is far more 
dependent upon the latter for her wealth, particularly 

' A Biiiijle cscepliiin iiiiiBt be noted in the person of the presf"' 
Clii[icBc Minister in England, who, when Taotaiat Ning-po, Bome y«iir' 
fti;o, wrote a serios of essaj-s on tliis and kindred subjects, wliicli hiv( 
ii]ipL-ared in book form. 


as derived from the Imperial Customs, which, under 
the extremely capable management of an Englishman, 
Sir Robert Hart — ^who enjoys the unique distinction 
of having resigned the appointment of British Mmister 
in order to remain Inspector-General, a post which he 
has now held for thirty years — ^have poured a large 
and annually increasing revenue into her exchequer.^ 
The foreign element itself is both much more 
numerous and more powerful than it is in Japan.' 
Moreover, the Chinese temperament is naturally 
disposed to acquiesce in established facts, and is 
wrapped in a complacency too absorbing to feel the 
perpetual smart of foreign intrusion. Such a move- 
ment may rise into view later on ; but at present it is 
lielow the horizon. 

The foreign policy of China chiefly coucems 
Englishmen in its relation to St. Petersburg and to 
Atiitoae Downincf Street. The successive advances 

made by Russia, largely at China's own 
expense, have taught her to regard that Power as her 
real enemy, whom, however, she fears far more than 
fche abhors. It is Russia who threatens her frontiers 
in Cliinese Turkestan and on the Pamirs ; Russia 
who is always nibbling, in scientific disguise, at 
Til>et ; Russia who has designs on Manchuria ; Russia 
whose shadow overhangs Korea ; Russia who is 
building a great Transcontinental railway that will 

' The Castomii* Kevenae derived from the Forei^i Trade of Cliiiia 
in 18U2 WM 4,^00,000/. 

* In IHW theniunberof forei^ers residing in Uie twenty-f<nir Treaty 
PorU, including Japanese, was close iii>on 10,(X)0. Of ihvse noirlv 4.000 
were BHtkh ; Americm came next witli 1,800 ; then France with les^ 
than 000, and Oemunjr with 750. 

enable her to pour troops into China at any point 
along 3,500 miles of contiguous border. All this she 
knows well enougli, and when the Cesarevitcb passed 
through Asia lie was, as I have pointed out, neither 
invited to nor liimself proposed to visit Peking; but 
the knowledge, so far from instigating China to any 
definite policy of self-defence, except in the isolated 
case of the proposed Manchurian Eailway, fills her 
with an- alarm that is only equalled by her suspicion 
of the counsels of any other Power. 

China pretends, for instance, to be interested in the 
Pamirs, but she cannot be reckoned upon to move a 
Chin* single battalion in their defence, particularly 
pamiTB if it is whispered in her ear that she is thereby 
helping to pull somebody else's chestnuts out of the 
fire. We read in the newspapers mysterious para- 
graphs about the activity of Chinese diplomats at 
St, Petersburg, and of Kussian diplomats at Peking; 
and the world is invited to believe that China is as 
soHcitous of her Turkestan frontier as Great Brit-iin 
is, for instance, about the Hindu Kush. We hear ol' 
garrisons being reinforced in Kashgaria, and of tli»' 
telegraph wires being pushed westwards over the 
Mongolian desert. All this is intended to give, ami 
perhaps succeeds in giving, a general impression ol 
abounding activity ; and so far as mere diplomacy i; 
concerned, China will no doubt fight as stubbornly ii> 
retain her precarious foothold on the Roof of the Worlil 
as s!ie did to recover Kulja. But no greater mistake, 
in my judgment, can be committed than to suppoj*" 
that this mixture of diplomatic finesse and bravado 


nasks either any intention to fight seriously for the 

erritories in question, or the possession of any 

naterials to fight with. During the fracas on the 

[^amirs in 1892, when small detachments of Russians 

narched about fiUbustering and annexing whatever 

hey could, the Chinese outposts at Soma Tash and 

ik Tash skedaddled with headlong rapidity at the 

irst glimpse of a Cossack ; and an English traveller 

bund the Chinese authority, which claims to be 

mramount over the entire eastern half of the Pamirs, 

-epresented by less than a dozen soldiers. And yet 

:here exists a large corps of writers who never cease 

:o press upon the public acceptance an implicit 

)elief in the strength and resolution of Cliina in 

""entral Asia. I prefer to accept the opinion of 

General Prjevalski, Colonel Bell, Captain Young- 

usband, Mr. Carey, and every authority (so far as I 

low) who has visited the Cliinese frontier donii- 

^ns, that however long Eussia may find it politic 

{lostpone a forward move, her advance, when 

illy made across the outlying western portions of 

Chinese Empire, inhabited as they are by a 

vsulman population who have no loyalty towards 

r present masters, will be a military promenade, 

ided by little fighting and by no risk. Meaii- 

S the golden hour in which China might make 

If strong if she either had the will or could 

e upon the way, is aUowed to slip l)y ; and a 

?r which might, with certain moilifications, be 

•ed almost invulnerable, continues bv its osten- 

; helplessness to invite the enemy's a^ssault. 

300 CHINA 

The very condiLioiis that render Russia the 
natural enemy of China would appear to constitute 
Attitude C^^eat Britain her natural friend. China de- 
o!^' sires to keep the Russian army out of Korea 
"^"' and the Riissian navy away from the Yellow 
Sea. We are similarly interested in both objects. 
China wants to retain Yarkund and Kashgar, and 
therefore requires a defensible and defended frontier 
on the Pamirs. We also are anxious to avoid 
Russian contiguity with ourselves at the Hindu Kusb 
or the Karakoram. China attaches a high value to 
her suzerainty over Tibet, which Russia notoriously 
covets. England does not quarrel with the former, 
but could hardly welcome the latter status. If the 
Trans-Siberian railway will be a menace to Chinese 
territorial integrity, it will also generate a sharp 
competition with British Asiatic trade. Farther to 
the south the recent apparitioD of France as an 
aggressive factor upon the confines of Siam and 
Burma is a source of no slight annoyance to Cliina. 
already exasperated by the theft of Tongking. It is 
not more acceptable to ourselves, who have no desin- 
for France as a next-door neighbour on the borders 
of our Indian Empire. There are therefore ibf 
strongest a priori reasons in favour of a close and 
sympathetic understanding between China and Great 
Britain in tlie Far East. Nor, though Chinese arma- 
ments are, in their present state, a delusion and 
China's military strength a farce, can anyone deny 
tliat lier prodigious numbers, her vast extent, her 
obstinate and tenacious character, and her calculating 

C///.V.I AXD TIIF !'OWf:i;.< r.OI 

diplomacy render her an ally in Central and Eastern 
Asia of the highest value ; just as it would appear 
that the prestige and power of Great Britain in the 
same regions might be of corresponding and even 
greater service to her. Were It not that China is so 
absurdly suspicious of interested counsels, and so 
well (u:quainted with the weak joints of our Parlia- 
mentary aminur, surh an alHaiu-tt would already 
have sprung into definite esiatencf. A greater con- 
fidence in the honesty of Great Itriiain than in that 
of ber rivals undoubtedly exists in the breast of 
Chinese statesmen, and is largely due to the integrity 
of our commercial relations, and to belief in the 
ftraightness of British character ; whilst no efTorts 
have been spared by recent Hritish Governments to 
conciliate Cliinese scruples in every point where the 
concession could be ntadc without sacrifice of prin- 
ciple. I incline myself to the belii-f that time, with 
its Iru'viiaMr- (l*'V('ln|nii.'iits, will :n!d greatly to ihe 
strength of this unwritten concordat, and that when 
Chinese suspicions have become less morbidly acute, 
whilst Chinese needs have grown more pressing, the 
remaining obstacles to a hearty co-operation will dis- 

Unfortunately the relations of the two countries 
are liable from time to time to be imperilletl by out- 
Awia- side circumstances, which play n lar^'e part 
Ttmia in determining the character of their oltici:il 
intercoiuie. I do not allude to the question of Trade. 
which is the principal ground of meeting between the 
two coimtries, because a commerce which enriches 

both is unlikely to be seriously risked by either, and 
because the wider the sphere of mercantile relationfi 
between them (and it must expand instead of shrink- 
ing) the less rather than the greater are the sources 
of friction likely to become. Already Anglo-Chinese 
Trade has attained dimensions that, at the time of the 
first war, fifty years ago, would have been laughed 
at as an idle dream. At that time China sent to 
England less than half a million sterling of goods in 
the year. Now the total foreign trade of the Em- 
pire amounts to 47,550,000;., of which 27,050,000/. 
are imports and 20,500,000^ are exports ; and of 
tliis enormous total Great Britain and her colo- 
nies (including Hongkong) claim CO per cent., or 
28,500,000/.; and Great Britain alone 8,000,000/.. 
over three- fourths of wliich are expended bv China 
in imports from this country. If we take the returns 
of shipping, the British preponderance is even more 
clearly marked ; for out of a total of 29,500,000 toii>. 
that entered and cleared from the Treaty Ports in 
1892, 05 per cent., or nearly 19,500,000 tons, w-re 
British vessels; Germany, the next European com- 
petitor, liaving only 1,500,000.' Taught by us, i^^ 
Chinese themselves now absorb no inconsiderable pari 
of the Treaty Port trade ; but tlie vessels wliicl' 
Chinese niercliants own and run are comniandetl l'}" 
British olBcers, and are guided into the rivers :ii"l 
harbours by British pilots. 

' The Itetume for 1803 ahowed llint llie total \aliie of Cliiof* 
Foreign Trnde Iwd increase.i by 6.000,000i. Tilt llritiBh share ut ^ 
total was 5C per cent,, and of the Bliipping 65 per eeul. 


Nor is this trade, immense though it seems to be 
in relation to the time within which it has been deve- 
loped, more than a fraction of what, under more 
favourable conditions, may be expected in the future. 
When we reflect that to supply the needs of a popu- 
lation of 350,000,000 there are only twenty-four ports 
at which foreign commerce is allowed in the first place 
to enter ; * that river navigation by steam, except upon 
the Yangtse, can scarcely be said to exist ; that vast 
markets are hidden away in the far interior which are 
practically under prevailing conditions inaccessible ; 
that the paucity and misery of communications are 
a by-word ; that every form of native enterprise is 
strangled unless powerful officials have a personal in- 
terest at stake; that officialism operates everywhere 
by a mathematical progression of squeezes; that the 
multiplication of inland Hkin or twtroi stations swells 
the cost of foreign commodities to famine prices 
l>4'fore they are offered for sale in the inland markets ; 
that Cliina is deliberatelv throwing awav her sta])le 
source of wealth, the tea-trade, by failure to adapt it 
to the altered requirements of consumers ; tliat in 
the same period in which slie has doul)Ied lier trade 
Japan has trebled hers; and that with 00,000,000 

^ Tlie Treaty PortH, opened by various Treaties or Conventions 
with IJreat lirilain, France, and Cierniany, since llie Nanking' rnaly 
in 1M2, are om fdllowB : Canton (willi Customs station-^ ai l\<'\\l.ron 
and Ijippa), Ainoy, Fooch(»w, Nin^'jio, Sh.ini^liai, Nankinj?. Funtsin, 
NewchwaiiK, Chef(K>, Swatow, Kiunm'lu)w (in Hainan », Tani'-ui antl 
Tainan, with their dept'iidencies Kehm^s Takow, ami Aiipin^* \\\ 
Fonnt»sA. (')iinkian^, Kiukianj^, Hankow, Irhant,', Wuhu. WHuh.'u, 
Fakhoi, C)iun)(kin};. The French, by a TrmU* Convention m lN?7, 
wl^o traxle overland with Lungchow, Miiigtse, and Manghao. 

30i CIIIIfA 

more mouths to feed ami bodies to clothe, her lolal 
commerce is yet 80,000,000/. less per amium than 
that of India : when all these facts are remembered, 
it cannot be doubled compared with what luigli' 
be, and some day will be done, we are only standing 
on the threshold of Chinese commercial expansion. 

Neither, in speaking of the occasional sources of 
friction between China and ourselves, do I allude to 
Opium the Opium Question, which in the haDds 
QnBition ^f enthuslastlc or prejudiced ignorance in 
London has been presented to English audiences in 
a guise that excites a smile in every Treaty Port in 
China. There, at least, everybody knows that the 
helpless Celestial is neither being forced nor befooled 
by an insidious and immoral Government at Calcutta ; 
that if not an ounce of Indian opium ever again 
passed through a Chinese custom-house, Cliinanieii 
would go on smoking their own inferior drug as 
keenly as ever ; ' and that the pretence that China is 
hostile to the British people or to Christian mission 
because we introduced to her the opium habit (wliicb 
she had already practised for centuries), is about as 
rational as to say that the national soreness ilia^ 
sometimes arises between England and France is Ju* 
to our resentment at having to cross the Cliannel li"' 
our best brandy. In any case, long before our 
domestic Puritans have purged the national consfienrt 
of what they style this great sin, the Opium Qiiesiion 
will have settled itself by the rapid decline of ili* 

of the population. 

it 13. Inilinn opiam ie only smoked by nbout 2 in ev#ry \S^ 
)p Illation. 


idian import and the acceptance by China herself 
f the undivided responsibility for her own moral 

There remains the Missionary movement in China, 
'hich, next to, perhaps even more than, the mer- 
iMkmiy chants, compels the attention of the British 
''*^^^ Foreign Office, and will here be treated only 
1 so far as it affects the international relations 
etween the two countries. The missionary himself 
esolutely declines to regard it from this standpoint, 
[e conceives himself to be there in obedience to a 
ivine summons, and to be pursuing the noblest of 
uman callings. A friend of my own, an eminent 
ivine in the English Church, speaking at Exeter 
[all in answer to some observations which I had 
lade in the columns of the * Times ' upon Christian 
lissions in Cliina, thus stated the case from the 
'hurch's point of view : — 

'The gain (»r loss to civilisatiou from Christian missions 
( not the question for the missiimary. He is subject to a 
[aster higher than any statesman or diplomatist of this 
•urld. It is not the missionary who has to reckon with the 
iplomatist, but the diplomatist with the niissionar}/ 

A variation of the same reply is that which I 
ave in many lands received from the lips of mis- 
ionaries, and which in their judgment appears to 
ut the ground away from all critiiisiiu and to render 
rjzument superfluous. This is a repetition of the 
livine injunction which closes the Gospel of ."t^i. 
iatthew : * Go ye therefore, andteadi all nations, l)ap- 
isinjf them in the name of the Father, and of the i'^on, 


306 CHINA 

and of the Holy Ghost.' ' Obedience to this supreme 
command is the sole final test to which the missionary 
is wUliiig to submit his action. He is the unworthy 
but chosen instrument of God himself. It is useless, 
as I have experienced, to point out to him that tie 
selection of a single passage from the preaching of 
the founder of one faith, as the sanction of a move- 
ment against all other faiths, is a dangerous experi- 
ment. If, for instance, the disciple of Confucius were 
to quote an aphorism of that philosopher that justi- 
fied the persecution of Chtistian missionaries, as tbe 
sponsors of a mischievous innovaUon, what value 
would the Christian missionary attach to such a fcn^ 
of Chinese exculpation ? Equally useless is it to 
remind him that Christ himself seems to have con- 
templated the likelihood of an unsuccessful or inoppor- 
tune propaganda when he said : ' When they persecute 
)ou in this city, flee ye into another ; ' - and £^ain : 
' Whosoever shall not receive you nor hear you, 
when ye depart thence, shake off the dust under your 
feet for a testimony against them.' ' The authoritj" 
which the missioiiary enthusiast is willing to attach 
to the ukase that accredits his enthusiasm, he ignore 
or deprecates when it appears to qualify its sauction. 
To him the course is clear, and has been mapped out 
in advance by a higlter hand. That govemniecii 
should fight, or that international relations should b* 
imperilled over his wrecked house or insulted person. 
would strike him as but a feather's weight in tt' 
scale compared with the great final issue at stake-" 
' Matt, sxviii. 19. ' Matt. i. 21. ' Mark 


\ spiritual regeneration of a vast country and 
ty population plunged in heathenism and sin« 
owever, as the statesman is firequently called 
> correct the fighting general's plan of campaign 
light of diplomatic possibilities, so the im- 
observer must submit even the impassioned 
a of the Christian evangelist to the cold test 
ical and practical analysis, 
endeavouring to arrive at an opinion upon so 
a question, the risks, even after a careful 
study upon two separate occasions on the 
spot, of involuntary ignorance or unconscious 
e so great that it will perhaps be wisest to 
16 case pro and con. with as much fulness as 
rill permit, leaving the reader to form his own 
lion. The facts are these. Whilst the Jesuit 
aries have been in China for centuries, and in 
ases have done splendid work, the Protestant 
s (of whom alone I desire to speak) in the 
late their institution from the Treaties that 
the first China war fifty years ago,* and the 
in 1858-60. Whereas in 1844 there were but 
Protestant missionaries in China, their nume- 
rength in 1890 was 1,300, and has consider- 
creased since. Every year America, Canada, 
ia, Sweden, and in a not inferior degree 
i, pour fresh recruits into the field, and the 
that is subscribed for their support and that 

fint Protestant misaionary in China was the Rev. H. Morrison, 
\ to Canton in 1807, and {mblifthed his famous dictionary and 
a of the Bible in 1823. But this was all the more remarkable 
an isolated effort. 

X 2 

of their propaganda excels the reveimt- of maiiv 
States. The question is, How do the soldiers of ihi? 
costly crusade acquit tliemselves ? 

The points that will universally be conceded in 
their favour are as follows : Tlie devotion ami ^elf- 
Their good sacrifice of many of their lives (particularly 
'*™'" of those who in native dress visit or inhabit 
the far interior), and the example of pious fortitude 
set to those among whom they labour ; the influence 
of the education and culture thus diffused in kindhng 
the softer virtues and in ameliorating the conditionsof 
life ; the slow but certain spread of Western know- 
ledge ; the visible products of organised philanthropy 
in the shape of hospitals, medical dispensaries. 
orphanages, relief distribution, and schools; ilie 
occasional winning of genuine and noble-hearted con- 
verts from the enemy's fold ; ' the exalted characier 
of the spiritual sanction claimed by the missionaries^: 
the plausibility of the analogy drawn by them from 
the tardy inception of Christian lalxjur in other 
countries and earlier times ; the excellent work done 
by missionaries in writing learned, though often 
unreadable, essays about the country and people. 

I should be the last person to claim that even thi> 
tabulated statement contained a complete record of ib<' 
good work done by tlie missionaries. Jluch of iliei' ; 

' A hostile critic mislit retort that the leniler of the Tftipins T-> 
bellion, uhii was n Chriatinn comert, And as Riich was haileJ by m'"' 
of the uuHiiionarLeH as the herald of a new di9[>ensntion. Hurre^d^' '~ 
iiolliiiigbetter thnniiidevBfitatiuK tliirteenotit of the eighteen iirovir.-'' 
ofChinn. and in sacrificing t)ie hves (at the lowest cjmpQi»ii''n "■ 
:10,000,000 men. 


labour is necessarily devoid of immediate result, and 
is incapable of being scientifically registered in a 
g^,,^i^4i^ memorandum. They sow the seed; and if 
••^ it does not fructify in their day or before 

our eyes, it may well be germinating for a future 
eartime. No fair critic would withhold from the 
Christian missions in China the credit of any prospec- 
tive harvest that may be reaped by their successors 
when they have gone. 

On the other hand it would be foolish to deny 
that in China their operations evoke a criticism, even 
obMctioM at the hands of their own countrymen, of 

which Exeter Hall very likely has no inkling, 
but which in China itself, where Exeter Hall has 
never l)een heard of, is not to be despised ; and that 
there are features in their conduct of the campaign 
whicli may be said, not altogether unwarrantably, to 
furnish the enemy with cause to blaspheme. The 
alleged drawbacks to the work, or at least to the 
modiis operandi of the missionaries, fall under three 
heads: (1) religious and doctrinal; (2) political; 
and (3) practical; with each of which I will deal in 

With rare exceptions, more liberal-minded than 
their fellows, the missionaries adopt an attitude of 
implacable hostility to all native religions 
5»«r^ and ethics, ignoring alike their virtuous 
S^ib^^ aspects and influem^e, the all-powerful liold 
•uu« which they have acquired upon Chinese 
character, and the sanction lent to them bv a vene- 
rable antiquity. Particularly is this the case with 

regard to ancestor worship, with which ihey decline 
all parley; althougli a rare retort would appear to 
be open to a Chinatiiau in England who accidenlally 
found his way into Weslminster Abbey or St. Pauls. 
In 1790 the young Christian Church in Korea, rerv 
much exercised about this question, sent to the 
Boman Catholic bishop at Peking to inquire what its 
members ought to do. The response came that 
ancestor worship of any kind or in any degree was 
incompatible with Christianity, and that no Korean 
could be a Christian who worshipped or burned 
incense before the family tablets. What the French 
bishop then answered, his co-religionists have always 
answered ; and the same reply was from the earliest 
period returned by the Protestant missions also. I 
am not here concerned with the doctrinal justice of 
this decision, which is a matter for theologians rather 
than for the lay mind. I am interested only in pointini' 
out the inevitable consequences of such an attitude. 
The Chinaman, who is entirely content with his owu 
religion, and only asks to be left alone, is assailed by 
a propaganda that commences with an attack upon 
all that he holds most dear. To him the ethics of 
Confucius sum up the whole duty of man to the 
family and the State ; while the pa}Tnent of homap; 
to the higher powers is provided for by the poly- 
tiieistic conceptions of the Buddhist cult. He hears 
the former disparaged, the latter derided. He is 
invited to become a convert at the cost of ceasing 
to be a citizen ; to tear up the sheet-anchor of ail 
morality as the first condition of moral regeneration. 


Small wonder that a propagauda, which thus lays 
the axe to the very root of the tree, should encounter 
the stubborn resistance of all those who have been 
accustomed to seek shelter under its branches.' If 
the evangelists of some new faith were to appear in 
England, drawn from a race whom we hated and 
despised, and were to commence their preaching by 
denouncing the Bible, and crying Anathema Mara- 
natha upon the Apostles' Creed, what sort of reception 
would they meet with? Moreover this attitude on 
the part of the missionaries incurs the risk of defeat- 
ing its own object ; for such iconoclasm, in the eyes 
of many critics, could only, even if successful, lead 
to two results, both equally to be deplored — the 
complete disintegration of the Chinesi* social fabric, 
and the collapse of Chinese morality. 

While thus warring with the most cherished beliefs 
of their hoped-for converts, the missionaries have not 
Din^t^AM agreed among themselves as to the Chinese 

to nAtne or 1 • 1 TV • 1 1 

th* Deity word to express the single Deity whom they 
preach, and for whom the Jesuits, the Americans, 
and the English have each coined or employ a 
different title, with the result of complete bewilder- 
ment to the native understandintr, ill able to cope 
with the subtleties of theolo<rical l()<romachv. The 
first-named adopt the title Tien Chu, i.e. Lonl of 
Heaven. Tlie Ameri*cans prefer the more impalpable 

' It in eqaally l>oginnin^ at the Mrniijr eml t*) adopt llie luetlUss 
•ab«en'ience to native superHtitions that in in m>^uo at koiiu' of tht* 
Catholic efttablishmentu ; e.g. in the* I^i/arist Orphana^'t' at Kiukiai^;:. 
wherr the feet of forln are di'foriued in urdtT to conciliiito natiNo 

Chen Shen, i.e. True Spirit. The English Prolestants 
adopt the Chinese Shang-ti, or Supreme Ixjrd, the 
Deity whose worship (a survival of the primitivi- 
nature worship) I have described upon the Allar of 
Heaven at Peking. Indeed, I have heard of an 
Knglish missionaty who, in the old days when the 
latter enclosure was accessible to foreigners, is s^d 
to have conducted a service of the Church of England 
on the summit of the marble altar. 

Still less do the foreign teachers coincide upon 
the form of religion itself, which is promulgated by 
ABtothe the divines of a score of different schools, 
religion each claiming the sole custody of the oracles 
of God. To a Chinaman a separate sect is indis- 
tinguishable from a separate creed ; and between 
Jesuits, Lazarists, Trappists, Russian Greeks, Fri>- 
testants. Churches of England, Sootland, Canada. 
and America, Baptists, Presbyterians, Methodist-. 
CongregationaHsts, Episcopalians, Free Cliristiaiis. 
and all the self-accredited polyonymous missionary 
societies, he finds it hard to determine who are the 
true and who the false prophets, or whether any an- 
true at all. Again, conceive the parallel case in our 
own country. Suppose the apostles of some iieff 
manifestation to reach our shores with a creed in 
their pockets that claimed a supernatural origin and 
a divine authority; and suppose these pioneers to !>■ 
presently succeeded by others, not in one batch only, 
or in half a dozen, or in a dozen, but in a scort 
of detachments, each proclaiming the fallibility or 
spuriousness of the others, and its own superior 


authentication — what should we say to these bearers 
of the heavenly message, who could not even agree 
together upon its terras ? 

Another cause for stumbling is supplied by the 
unedited and ill-revised translations of the Bible, and 
Unrrvi«ed particularly of the Old Testament, that are 
xwnmot printed off by the million, and scattered 

ih« Scrip. 

tare* broadcast through the country. It never 
seems to occur to the missionary societies that the 
Holy Scriptures, which require in places some ex- 
planation, if not some expurgation, for ourselves, 
may stand in still greater need of editing for a com- 
munity who care nothing about the customs or pre- 
possessions of the ancient Jews, but who are invited 
to accept the entire volume as a revelation from on 
high. I am aware of a so-called English missionary 
who rampages about Central Asia with the funds 
supplied by societies at home, and who, taking with 
him a portmanteau full of Bibles, thinks that by 
dropping its contents here and there, he is winning 
recruits to the fold of Christ. What is the educated 
Cliinaman likely to think, for instance, of Samuel 
hewing Agag in pieces before the Lord, or of David 
setting Uriah in the forefront of the battle, and 
<*ommissioning Solomon to slay Shiniei, whose life he 
had himself sworn to spare, or of Solomon exchanging 
love-lvrics with the Shulamite woman? Iwen in tln^ 
New Testament the bidding to forsake father ami 
mother for the sake of Christ nnist to the Chinanians 
eyes be the height of profanity, whilst if he ran 
follow the logic of St. Paul, he accomplishes tliat 

wliich is beyond the power of many educated 
Christians. To the Chinese people, who have greal 
faith but httle hope in their own creeds, a simple 
statement of tlie teaching of Christ might be a 
glorious and welcome revelation. But the texi of 
the Scriptures, unsoftened and unexplained, has no 
such necessary effect, and is capable, in ingenious 
hands (as the Hunan pubUcations sufSciently showed), 
of being converted into an argument against that 
which it is intended to support. 

If the text of the Bible is thus wrested into a 
cause of offence, neither is the intrinsic abstruseness 
chriatian o^ ^h^ dogma which it inculcates easy of 
dog™ interpretation in a manner that convers 
enlightenment to the Chinese intellect. The mysteries, 
for instance, attaching to the Christian theogony, and 
to the doctrine of the Trinity, whilst to the believer 
they only supply welcome material for faith, are to 
the unbeliever excellent ground for suspicion. 

Finally, the religion whose vehicles of diffusion I 
have discussed is disseminated in many cases by a 
iiTfflpo..Bi- number of irresponsible itinerants, each of 
raiicy whom is a law unto himself, many of whom 

disown communion with any Church, and whose 
single-niinded fervour is dearly purchased at the cost 
of the doctrinal confusion entailed. Some of my own 
schoolfellows had felt the call, and had spontaneously 
given to China what was meant for mankind. Upon 
inquiry as to their whereabouts and doings, I learned 
that more than one had severed his connection with 
any denomination, and was proceeding against the 


upon his own plan of campaign. This may be 
ficent, but it is not scientific warfare, 
le political drawbacks to the missionaries' work 
S8 exclusively matters of their own creation. 
China can never forget that, unlike the 
Christians in early Borne, in early Gaul, or 
[y Britain, they owe their admission here to no 
icquiescence on her own part, much less to any 
(sed desire ; but solely to the coercion of a 
or and victorious strength. Each station is a 
lie reminder to them that they have been made 
8 under the Caudine Forks. Nay, it is more ; 
is a reminder of the duplicity as well as of the 

of the conqueror ; seeing that the right of 
lice in the interior of China is only enjoyed by 
ritish and other missionaries in virtue of the 
'avoured nation clause in our own Treaty, taking 
tage of a spurious paragraph introduced by a 
li missionary into the Chinese text of the French 
• of 18G0, and either not discovered by the 
>e, or not repudiated by them until it was too 

Let me briefly recapitulate the histor}- of 
urious and not altogether creditable page of 

e only passage in Lord Elgin's Treaty of Tien- 
1858, relating directly to the missionaries, is that 
commonlv known as the Toleration Clause, 
which was copied without substantial altera- 
rom the treaties alreadv concluded bv China 
iussia and the United States. Article \11I. of 
iglish Treaty runs as follows : — 

316 CHINA 

'Tlie Christi:iii religion, as professed by IVtteslants auJ 
Roman Catholics, inculcates the practice of viriue, ;vad 
teaches mau to do as he would be done by. Persons te-acliinit 
or professing it, therefore, shall alike be entitled to lb*' 
protection of the Chinese authorities ; nor shall any sucIl 
peaceably pursuing their calling, and not offending againsi 
the law, be persecuted or interfered with,' 

A later clause in the same treaty (Article Xn.) was 
subsequently appealed to as giving English mission- 
aries the right to rent or own land and buildings in 
the interior : — 

' British snbjecta, whether at the ports or at othar platet. 
desiring to build or open honses, warehonses, churches, 
hospitals, or burial-grounds, shall make their agreement for 
the land or buildings they require at the rates prevailinfr 
among the people, equitably and without exactions on eithiT 

But it was llien explained, and has always been 
lield by the British Government, that the words, ' a' 
other places,' upon which alone the pretension rested, 
liad never been intended to confer, and could not V 
construed as conferring such a right,Lord Elgin having' 
only introduced them in order to cover the case of 
places such as Whanipoa, Woosung, and Taku, whicli 
are situated respectively at the distance of a few inile> 
below Canton, Shanghai, and Tientsin, and where it 
might be found desirable, instead of or in addition U' 
the Treaty I'orls, to establish foreign settlement? 
Indeed, if the words had meant places in the interior 
promiscuously, there would obviously have been do 
necessity for subsequent treaties opening fresh Treaty 
Ports, which concessions have only been procured a-- 


a coini)en8atioii for outrage, or witli immense difTi- 

The British Treaties, accordingly, while they 
secure to the missionary full protection ever}'where 
in the pursuit of his calling, and in the possession of 
house and church property in the Treaty Ports, do 
not give him the right either of residence or of 
o^Tiership in the interior. It was reserved for the 
French to supply the deficiency. 

Alreadv in the French Treat v of 1858, the 
privileges above mentioned had been definitely 
sruaranteed. Article XIII. savs, in terms not unlike 
those of the English Treaty : — 

*The Christian religion having for its essential object the 
leading of men to virtue, the ineml)ers of all Christian 
communities shall enjoy entire security for their persons and 
property, and the fn»e exercise of their religion ; and efficient 
protection shall be given to missionaries who travel peaceably 
in the interior, funiished with passports as provided for in 
Article VIII. No hindrance shall be offered bv the authorities 
of the Chinese Empire to the recognised right of every 
individual in China to embrace, if he so phrase. Christianity. 
and to follow its practices with<>ut bting lial*le to any punish- 
ment therefor/ 

Two vears later, after the ra])tiire (►f IVkinir and 
the sackinjr of the SinnmtM* Palace hv the allied 
forces, both Enjrland and France exacted supplenuii- 
tar\' Conventions which were siLHied at l*ekin^' in 
1800. Article VI. of the French i'onveiition sti- 
|)ulate(l for the restoration to them of the relJLMous 
and philanthropic estahlisluneiits, the ccnut cries, 
and other dependencies which liad been c«>n!iscatcil 

during the persecutions. At this juncture ami in this 
section of the treaty it was that a French missionair, 
acting as interpreter for the Frencli mission, intro- 
duced the following clause into the Cliinese test, 
while the document was being transcribed : — 

* It ie, in addition, permitted to French missionaries to 
rent and pnrchose land in all the provinces and to erect build- 
ings thereon at pleasare.' 

Now by Article DI. of the previous Treaty of 
Tientsin (1858) it had already been agreed that the 
French text should be considered the authoritatire 
version ; and therefore this clause, thus surrepti- 
tiously interpolated into the Chinese text only, and 
not to be found in the French text, was invahd oi 
initio. The Chinese, however, did not at once delect 
the fraud ; and when they did, were either too proud 
or too fearful of the consequences to contest the 
point. The British Government professed its readi- 
ness to retire from a position which had no solid or 
legitimate foundation. But as the claim was comisi- 
ently vindicated by the French, without serious pro- 
test from the Chinese, so the British tacitly acquired 
the right also ; and to it is owing the privileged status 
which the missionaries now enjoy, and which is not 
shared by a single other class of their countrymen. 

Though the Chinese did not repudiate the inter- 
polated clause, there was nevertheless some dis- 
pute and correspondence thereupon ; which culmi- 
nated, about 1865, in an understanding between the 
Tsungli Yamen and the then French Minister, as to 
the exact interpretation that was to be placed upon 


mong other things it was agreed that property 
*ed by French missionaries in the interior should 
be registered in the name, not of individual 
missionaries or converts, but of the parent 
society. Other stipulations provided for due 
to the local authorities of the intention to ac- 
property, &c., in the interior. As a matter of 
lese conditions are not always observed by the 
$tant missionaries, much of the property ac- 
1 by them being registered and held in the 
of converts, and made over by private agree- 
to the foreign missionary, 
the diplomatic complications arising out of the 
nar}" massacres at Wuhu and Wuhsueh in 
1891, the combined pressure of the foreign 
representatives, reinforced by gunboats, 
i to extract from the Chinese Government an 
ial Edict, which was published in the * Peking 
:e' of June 13, 1891, and was ordered to 
sted in the principal cities of the Empire — an 
which, it is needless to add, the Provincial 
nors, wherever they conveniently could, dis- 
1. To this decree the Christian missionaries 
)w disposed to look as the charter of their 
es, confirming and to some extent superseding 
xt of the Treaties. After directing the civil 
ilitarj* authorities in the disturbed provinces to 
and try the principal criminals, and to con- 
the guilty to death, the Emperor j)roceeded 
this general statement of the missionaries' 

320 CIllXA 

' The right of forcnga misaioiiaries to pi'omaljpUtf thrir 
religions in China is provided for by Treaty and by Edicii 
which wei-e previously issued ; the authorities of all tie pro- 
vinces were commanded to afford them protection as circum- 
stances required . , , The religions of the West have fur 
their object the inculcation of virtue, and though people 
become converts ihey still remain Chinese subjects, ami 
continue to be anaenahle to the jurisdiction of the local 
authorities. There is no reason why there Bhoald not be 
harmony between t!ie ordinary people and the adherents of 
foreign religions ; ami the wlinte trouble arises from lawless 
ruffians fabricating baseless stories and making an oppor- 
tunity for creating disturbance. These bad characters enst 
everywhere. We command the Maachn Generals-in-Cbief, 
the Viceroys and Governors in all the provinces, to issat 
proclamations clearly explaining to the people that they most 
on no account give a ready ear to such idle tales and 
wantonly cause trouble. Let all who post anonjinoDi 
placards and spread false rumours, inflaming the minds of tlif 
people, be at once arrested and severely punished. The local 
authorities are bound to afford due protection at all times lo 
the persons and property of foreign merchants and foreign 
missionaries, and must not allow them to be injured cr 
molested by evil characters. Should the precautionarv 
measures be lacking in stringency, and trouble be tb^' 
result, we command that the local authorities be severely 
denounced.' ' 

This decree may perhaps be said to cover and 
condone any previously existing flaw in the mission- 
aiies' position, and to lend a direct Imperial sanciion 
to their presence and propaganda in the interior 
Extracted as it was, however, by sheer compulsion 
from llie Chinese Government, and in the maiiiili^'- 
tated by the foreign Ministers, it represeut? "" 

' ParUameniarij Blue Bool; China, Xo. 1. IBO-.;. 


ontaneous change of attitude on the part of the 
rmer ; whilst it is to be feared that its practical 
fluence will be very small. 

Such is the history of the circumstances under 
hich the Christian missionaries have gained a foot- 
hold in the interior of the Chinese Empire. 
If the Chinese, with their ingrained disposi- 
[>n to accept facts, have forgotten alike the dupli- 
tv of the foreigner and their own humiliation, 
*vertheless the presence of the missionaries is a 
«timonv to the continued ascendency of an alien 
awer, s'till maintained, as it was originally intro- 
iice<U by force. As such the Chinese, who dislike 
1 foreigners, regard the missionaries in partiinilar 
th an intense aversion, considering them the agents 
a policy which has l>een and is forced u{)on them 
fipposition both to the interests of the Government, 
sentiments of the Uternti^ and the convictions of 
|M»ople. A converse illustration, minus the sti- 
us of the (ulium thetilofficumy is supplied by the 
station with which the Chinese immigrant is 
elf elsewhere retrardeil bv the white man, bv 
\ustralian in Svdncv, or the American in iSan 

>r is this impression diminisheil by the attitude 

e missionaries themselves, many of whom, 

x\ though thev buckle on their armour a^ the 

soldiers of Christ, rememWr oulv in times 

that they are citizens of this or that empin» 

blic, and clamour tor a gunboat with whi<*h 

e respeOt for the rto^-pel. To this tiK) ready 


322 CHINA 

appeal to the pliysiral sanction of a national Am 
there are many honourable exceptions — men who 
carry their lives in their hands, and uncomplainingir 
submit to indignities which they have undertaken to 
endure in a higher cause than that of their nationality. 
NevertheK'sa the presence of the missionary bodit's as 
a whole in the country is a constant anxiety to tlie 
Legations, by whom in the* last resort their interest?, 
resting as they do upon treaties, must be defended: 
and is equally distasteful to the Chinese Govemmeni. 
which frequently finds itself called upon to reprimand 
a native official or to punish a local commuuity at tiie 
cost of great odium to itself. This is the explanation 
of the extreme reluctance exhibited, as a rule, by lie 
central authority in bringing to justice the notorious 
authors of calumny or outrage. The secret syni- 
pathies of the people are behind the malefactor: am'- 
the Government feels that it may be straining a hom! 
of allegiance, which already, in the case of manyoi 
ihe outlying provinces, is stretched almost to llif 
point of rupture. 

In some districts the unpopularity of the mis- 
sionaries has been increased by the special priviW'' 
pm-ucKps which they are disposed to claim on behali 
tonveri- of native converts engaged in litigation w 
other disputes; and by their interference in the civil 
allalrs of the neighbourhood in which they resiJi' 
Just as in Southern India, many a native becoiiiff ^ 
fhristian in order to get a situation as a servant o" 
clerk, so in China it not infrequently happens thai i 
shady character will suddenly find salvation fortU 


sake of the material advantages or protection which it 
may be expected to confer upon hira. 

But to tlie thoughtful Chinaman's eye, penetrating 
a little below the surface, the real political danger is 
An •mp«. more deeply rooted than any such superficial 
•mpeno svmptoms might appear to suggest, lie sees 
in missionary enterprise the existence of an insidious 
imperium in imperio^ of a secret society hostile to 
the commonwealth, of damage and detriment to the 
State. He remembers that the most frightful visita- 
tion which China has suffered in modern times, the 
Taiping rebellion, by which over 20,000,000 of her 
people perished, was in its inception a Christian 
movement, led by a Christian convert, and [)r()ject€Hl 
to Christianise his countrymen; and with these ex- 
|>eriences before him he may well feel qualms at 
anv siijns of increasing' missionarv iiiHuence. In the 
rase of the French missions, with whom as Roman 
Catholics I have not here been dealiuLS there is an 
additional ground for mistrust ; for the Chint'se see 
that the French Government is here eu'^awd in 
forcing u[)on them the very men and the selfsame 
religion whom it has sought to expel from its own 
land — an act of duplicity which in their minds can 
only mask some dark political cabal. 

It is sometimes said, by missionary champion^, 
that of the recurring outbreaks against them, the 
pi#^of missionaries, though the victims, are eoni- 
AiTitAtioo monlv not the cause ; the movement beint: 
in reality a deep-seated plot coneinned by political 
malcontents to embroil either the provincial with the 

T '2 

324 ciiiyi 

Imperial Government, or tlie latter with foreign 
Powers. How far this is the case there exist few 
means of accurately iletenniniiif.'. But the plea is 
believed by those who know best (o be destimte of 
validity ; though there are obvious reasons for its 
encouragement by the Tsungli Yamen, who can 
thereby plead internal disorder as an excuse for 
their own responsibility. 

Finally, there are the practical charges brought 
against the work, arising partly from the mission- 
aries' own conduct, partly from the gross super- 
B.PracticJ. stitions of the people. Of the former 

Mission *^ "^ 

lite character are the allegations that are so 

frequently made, not without apparent justification, 
about the personnel and surroundings of the missions, 
particularly in the Treaty Ports ; about the lack of 
personal aptitudes, inseparable from a career iliai 
has already in some cases, especially in that of the 
American missionaries, come to be regarded as a 
profession ; and about the well-appointed houses, tin* 
(.'omfortable manner of living, the sunuuer extxlu- 
to tlie hills, the domestic engrossments and lar^v 
familios, which, strange to say, are encouraged by a 
liberal subsidy from the parent society for each new 
arrival in the missionary nursery. 

Another source of misunderstanding is tlie con- 
stantly increasing employment of women, and paniru- 
liinrioy- larly of unmarried women, by the mi^siotian" 
v.r.m.11 bodies. A steamer rarely sails from tk 
American shores for Yokohama without carrviiiij a 
bevy of voung girls, fresh from the schoolroom or 


^minaiy, who, with the impulsive innocence of 

[i, are about to devote their young lives and 

pes to what they conceive to be the noblest of 

OSes in Japan or China. A scarcely inferior 

m of female recruitment flows in from the 

^ Kingdom and the (Colonies. ^ Now I do not 

that the work of the female missionary is 

irn away, or that there may not be cases in 

h her devotion reaps an ample harvest. Neither 

presume for one moment to question the honest 

acrifice of the act ; but I do say that in a country 

China — where, on the one hand, very different 

ms of the emancipation of women prevail from 

\ to which we are accustomed, and on the other 

an element of almost brutal coarseness enters 

y into the composition of the native character 

institution of sisterhoods, planted alongside 

le establishments, the spectacle of unmarried 

? of both sexes residing and working together, 

I public and in private, and of girls making 

iirneys into the interior without responsible 

ire sources of a misunderstanding at which 

vminded may afford to scoff, but which in 

ses has more to do with anti-missionarv 


China than any amount of national hostility 

lal antagonism. Only last year, at the 

land town of Kuei hwa-cheng, a friend of 

altered a missionary community consisting 

^OO I>ot«€Unt miMionariet in China in IHIK), m many 
Uiau half, were women ; and of theae S16 were un- 

of one male and of twenty Swedish pirls. The propa- 
ganda of the latter consisted in parading the streels 
and singing hymns to the strumming of tamhourines 
and guitars. The societ)- that had committed the 
outrage of sending out these innocent girls only 
allowed them 5200, or 271. 10s. a year apiece, for 
board, lodging, and clothing. As a consequence thev 
were destitute of the smallest comforts of life, and 
could not even perform their toilette without ibe 
impertinent eyes of Chinamen being directed upon 
them through the paper screens. Can anything more 
futile than such an enterprise be conceived, or more 
culpable ? 

To the same class of preventible sources of 
mischief belong the cliarges of arrogance and tad- 

situntinn Icssness that are sometimes levelled ajrain^' 
»f l^uiM- ...... . 

iiiB» tlie missionaries in their selections ol siti- 

for churches or private dwellings. To the European 

an elevation or commanding site is always, both fur 

picturesque and sanitary reasons, preferable to a lowf r 

position ; while for purposes of privacy or protection. 

a high enclosure wall is superior to a low one, hut 

to the Chinaman, with his extraordinary ideas abinit 

the fengshui, or Spirits of Air and Water, and liij 

geomantic superstitions, a building in an elevatnl 

situation appears to have an effect like tlie 'evil eye,' 

and is a source of genuine suspicion and alarm: 

while anything appertaining to secrecy suggests to 

iiis depraved imagination the ambiguous character ol 

Kleusinian mysteries. It is strange that missionarii'^ 

of all sects and creeds seem to be quite uuahla 


t these easily sum tited temptations. At 
ti Japan, the most c tnanding edifice in the 
ity is the Russian Cathedral that crowns one 
mbered heights. At Canton the twin towers 
French Gothic Cathedral, erected under cir- 
ces that should bring a blush to every 
n's cheek, may be seen for miles across the 
intry. At Peking, one of the French Cathe- 
e Peitang, actually overlooked the sacrosanct 
e of the Forbidden City ; until at length, 
olongcd negotiations, and the gift of a 
site elsewhere, the French authorities were 
?d to acquiesce in its removal. 
her source of friction between the mission- 
d the Cliiiiese is the refusal of the native 
converts made by the former to contribute 
to the expenses of the numerous semi- 
\ festivals that form such an important factor 
social life of China. A certain quota is 
•d from every Chinese family towards these 
lil ceremonies ; and the more converts there 
le town or localitv, the more the unconverted 
pay. The exemption of the Christian pro- 
from claims of this kind has been more or 
►gnised by the Chinese Government ; but no 
auction can avert the social ostracism that is 
il penalty of refusal. Tlie name of the 
r is removed from the family rejrister, and 
barred from participating in all the advan- 
>nferred by the institution of clan life in 

328 CUIXA 

Furtliermore I lie missionaries are uiiirem^ 
credited by Ilie people with a power of witclicraft. 
Belief in essentially similar in kind to the beliefs that 
witchcr^t y^^i jp prevail widely in Eiiylaitd, Jiiul an- 
still not altogether extirpated, as to tlie inai.'ii-'nl 
powers of individual jjersons, commonly old women, 
supposed to be in intimate alliance with the devil 
himself. If there is a drought, or a flood, or aiiy 
sudden visitation in China, it is frequently attributed 
to missionary incantations. If sickness or death 
assails a house contiguous to the missionary's abode, 
it is equally ascribed to the malevolent influence ol" 
the foreigner. 

More fantastic in appearance, but also nioiv 
sinister in operation, are the alximinable and di*- 
Hwrihio c'^^''"o charges that are freely brouL'li: 
''""''"'■' against the missionaries by the liteniti— 
charges of grosi personal immorality and of kiil- 
napping and mutilation of children, which, howtvir 
monstrous and malevolent, are not the less, but lU- 
more serious, because they are firmly belie\eil liy 
the ignorant audiences to whom they are atldres?e<i 
The mystery of the Feast of the Holy Sacrament, llif 
]niva<;y of the Confessional, may be to the Cliristiiin 
among the most idolised and sacred of his religiouj 
associations. The foul-minded Chinese critic see; 
in them only a hypocritical mask for indecency .iinl 
wrong-doing. The hospitals and orphanages of il.i 
Christian societies have sonietimes been recruited for 
with a not too judicious avidity by their philantlm^pii" 
patrons; while they receive many miserable imnat" 


whom an early death overtakes in the natural course 
of things. It is firmly believed by the masses in China 
that foundlings are taken in, and that sick women 
and children are enticed to these institutions to be 
murdered by the missionaries for the sake of the 
therapeutic or chemical properties attaching to their 
viscera, or eyes, or brains. 

It must be remembered that in the Chinese 
pharmacopoeia anthropophagous remedies are held in 
the highest esteem ; and that particular parts of the 
human body, administered in powders or decoctions, 
are recommended as a sovereicrn remedv. A son 
who thus sacrifices some portion of his flesh for a 
sirk parent, or a wife for an invalid husband, is 
regarded as having performed the most meritorious 
of acts, and is sometimes rewarded by the provincial 
(tovernment with ^ pailow^ or commemorative arch. 
The medicines distributed in the mission dispensary, 
the chemicals employed in the scientific processes, 
such as photography, to which the foreign magician 
is prone, have undoubtedly, in the eyes of the igno- 
rant masses, been obtained !)V these metliods. It was 
to such a belief that the famous Tientsin massaiMcs 
in 1870, and the Wuhsueh murders in ISIU, wen* 
mainly due ; and when these horrible charges an* 
reinforced by every variety of pamphlet and leailet 
and filthy caricature and obscene lampoon, issued 
with the secret connivance of the local authoritv, as 
in the publications of the notorious Chow Han in 1 Sl> 1 , 
in the province of Hunan, it may readily be c<»n- 
ceived what a terrible and almost insurmountable 

weight of prejudice is excited. To iuteUigent persons 
all this may sound senseless and irrational enough ; but 
again I am compelled to remind my readers that to 
this day there are many parts of Europe where jire- 
cisely analogous superstitions prevail aiLong the 
ignorant peasantry, against the Jews in particular; 
and that the last decade alone has witnessed a longer 
list of murdftrs and outrages in Christian Europe, 
due to an almost, identical cause, than has been con- 
tributed in the same period by the whole of pagan 

Such, briefly summarised, is a list of the main 
drawbacks, or in some cases failings, by which the 
Summing Protcstant missionary movement in China is 
"'' retarded. I refrain from indicating any 

personal acceptance of their trutli, since it may Ix- 
said that my opportunities for forming a trustwurihy 
judgment have not, in spite of two visits to the 
country, been sufficient ; but I state them as 1 havf 
derived them orally from numerous resident authori- 
ties, as well as from the study of newspapers pnliHsheil 
ill China, of official reports, and of the writings ai.^l 
speeches of the missionaries themselves.' I havt- no 
other desire tiian to enable my readers, firstly, to st-t 
tliat there are two sides to the missionary (piestion. 
and secondly, before making up their own niiinl> 

' For the study of the quefltion luay be recommende'l, Thr .Ir'; 
Foreign lUota in China in 1891, ropublished (roui the .\V>r(A fni'M 
Hcrn/i/iitSlianshai; The I'arliamentarg Blue Bookl,VbAnayii.lA!r>fl- 
No. '2. IHihi; and abuve nJltwo excellent brochiireB entitled .UtMrV^ii'Tiri 
ill China, and China and Chrialianity, by Mr. K. Miohie of Tientsin. 
iin niilhoriiy whose writinpa on all stibjects connected with Chius m 
dietiuguiahcd both by remarkable insight and great literary abibiy. 


upon it, to form some idea of what those sides 

Whatever the proportion of truth or falseliood in 
this presentment of the case, there seems, at least to 
my mind, to be small doubt that the cause 
of Christianity is not advancing in China 
with a rapidity in the least commensurate to the 
proiligious outlay of money, self-sacrifice, and hu- 
man ix)wer. To many it appears to be receding. 
Such, of course, is not the impression that will be 
derived from missionary publications. But, if we 
accept their own figures, which in the year 1890 
showed a total of 1,300 Protestant missionaries 
(women included) and only o7,300 native converts, 
or a fold of less than 30 to each shepherd, and a 
proiK)rtion of only one in every 10,000 of tljc Chinest* 
jR)pulation, it must be admitted that the harvest of 
half a centurv's labour is not larL^e.^ Meanwhih* 
the temper of the native peoples may be jrathcivd 
from the incidents of contemi)orary history. ] )uring 
the short time that I was in the China iSeas in 189"J, 
three fresh cases were recorded of aixjiravatcd assault 
ujK)n missionaries and their wives. Since tlien two 
unoflendin<r Swedish missionaries have been brutallv 
murdered at Sungpu. This does not look as tliough 
tlie reign of peace had yet dawned. 

* A few yenrs Ago the Hoiiian Catliolics j>ublishp4l tlio ti^mrt"* nf 
their tuiiwions in (liina, which wtTc hh fi»lln\v8 : Hishops 11, Kuro|»«aii 
l«nf^tii C04, Native pncstii rir»9, Collej^i^s JJ4, ConvMils H4. Njiii\f ton- 
\(*ru 1,(>II2,M18. Ihui fur one-half the* nuiiih*rt)f Kurojx'an mi'^^ionuru s 
tliev hjive thirty times the nutnber of diKciplcs. On the utht-r hand 
Umtj have the advantage of a much older etitabli^hmcut. 

332 CHINA 

Here, however, I am only conrerned witli the 
danger that a movement exposed, whether justlv or 
Tho right unjustly, to these attacks must tutail ujkhi 
l^peU the general interests of foreign Poners in 
Tre«ti«a China. Those interests are not po1o!v co- 
extensive with the work of evangelisation. Tliev 
embrace the entire field of international relationship 
upon which peoples meet and hold intercourse ; and 
it should be the first object of diplomacy to remove 
from this arena, or at least to minimise upon its 
surface, all possible sources of complication. The 
Qiristian missions are in China; they were intro- 
duced there by ourselves ; they were accepted or 
at least submitted to by the Chinese Government : 
there we have hitherto maintained them ; there 
undoubtedly they will remain. However miicli ilie 
unfriendly critic might welcome their whole.-iale ih- 
portatioii, no such solution is practicable. SoIohl' 
as the Treaties are not rescinded, their obligation 
can neither be evaded by foreign Governments n'T 
trampled on with impunity by the Cliinese. M'heiln-r 
it was wise or not to introduce missionaries in iIh' 
first place, China, having undertaken to protect tlnir 
persons and to tolerate their faith, must fulfil liii" 
pledge, and cannot be permitted to combine a men' 
lip respect for tlie engagement with secret connivaini' 
at its violation. Still less must the idea be allows! 
to i)revail that a mere money compensation will 
suflice to expiate any or ever}' outrage. The e.x- 
action of blood-money is at the best but a poor fon;; 
of diplomatic amends ; but blood-money in return 


for the lives of innocent men, whose protection has 
been guaranteed by treaty, and who have been 
brutally done to death, is almost an aggravation of 
the offence. The Chinese themselves will be the last 
to feel surprise at an attitude of resolution on the 
part of the foreigner. Firmness is the only policy 
for which they entertain any respect. It would of 
course be best if in all cases of outrage or crime, 
whether happening to an Englishman, a Frenchman, 
or an American, joint action were taken by all the 
Powers. Such united pressure it would be almost 
impc^sible to resist. Unfortunately international 
jealousies or differences render such a co-operation 
difficult of attainment ; and the steps in that direction 
which were taken, at Lonl Salisbury's initiative, after 
the murders of 1891, and which assumed the form of 
a collective note addressed bv the Powers to the 
Tsungli Yamen, failed in their olyect, owinj; to the 
withdrawal of the United States from the concert. 

Nevertheless while the primary canon of political 
action should be the adequate fulfilment of admitted 

ohlijrations, statesmanship has other and 
pr«-*o. supplementarj' duties to perform. It should 

aim ai a cautious ti^^htenin;/ of the reins, 
wherebv the causes of offence mav be abridi/cd, tlu* 
vajraries of indiscreet enthusiasm kept in <licck, 
and the j)olitical aspects of missionary enttrpriM* 
contracted within the smalh»st pt»s<ilile diuuiisions. 
There are some who recommend that the missionaries 
should dispenf?e with foreijrn pn»tcction alloL't»thcr, 
and, proceeding without passports, should live as 


334 CiriSA 

Chinese subjects under Chinese laws, Sunh a solution 
is probably more Quixotic than feasible, ami miisht 
lead to worse disaster. A very strict revision, how- 
ever, of the coDditioiis of travel and residence in ilie 
interior is much to be desired. Some limiiaiion ou^hl 
to be placed upon the irresponsible vagrancy of 
European subjects over remote and fanatical parts of 
the Chinese dominions. Passports should be abso- 
lutely refused at the discretion of the Minister, 
exercised with regard to the character both of the 
locality and the applicant. When granted, they 
might specify the name of the province, district, or 
town to whicb, and to which only, the bearer is 
accredited. Already they give a general sketch of 
the route which he proposes to follow. TTpon Lis 
arrival he might be compelled to report himself lo 
tlie local magistracy, and to notify liis future niovc- 
nients to the latter. Such a demand has, I Ix'lievo, 
more than once been made by the Chinese Govern- 
ment, but has been steadily refused. The relation? 
between tlie civil authorities and the Chrislians in 
matters pertaining to the acquisition and tenure oi 
land should be clearly defined and a.-^similated as hT 
as possible to native custom. The opening of all 
mission establishments to the inspection of Coveni- 
ment officials is recommended by some as an antidote 
to the horrible prevalent superstitions. Of more avuil 
would it be to curtail within the narrowest limits liie 
institutions, such as orphanages and sisterhoods, llisi 
give currency to these odious beliefs. The employ- 
ment of hundreds of young unmarried foreign girli 


in various branches of missionary work, though 
the most popular current phase of the movement, 
is greatly to be deprecated, as giving rise to the 
very pardonable misinterpretations of which I have 
spoken ; and ought to be curtailed by educated 
opinion at home. 

In the last resort more will depend upon the 
character and conduct of the missionaries themselves 

cb<Hr«oi ^'^^^ upon the checks devised by even a 
"*^"^ friendly diplomacy. Impulsive virtue and 
raw enthusiasm are not necessarily the best credentials 
for a missionary career. The sensational appeal from 
the platform of Exeter Hall, and the despatch of the 
heterogeneous company that respond to the summons, 
like a draft of voufig volunteer recruits to the theatre 
of war, are fraught with infinite danger. It behoves 
the parent societies, both in Great Britain and America, 
bv a more careful choice of the men whom thev send 
forth, and the emissaries themselves, by an anxious 
regulation of their own conduct, to anticipate and, if 
it may be, to avert the danger which, under existing 
conditions, confronts alike the interests of the count rv 
under whose flag they march, and the sublime cause 
to which they have devoted their lives. 



Idem aemper erit, qaoni&m semper fait id«m. 
Non alium videre patrea aliumve nepotea 
Aspicieat. Deiu est qui non mntatur in kvo. 

Masiuus, Attron. L S2B^B0. 

Seven years aigo the Western, and I dare say the 
Eastern world also, in so far as it was made aware of 
u CTiina '■^^ ^^^^> ^®^ Startled by the appearance in 
u«akt? jjjg pageg of an English majrazine of an arlicle 
by the foremost Chinaman then living, a trietl siate?- 
in;in and a successful ambassador, in whicli, wiili a 
skilfulness that was to be expected of liis ahilili^^ 
and with an emancipation of sentiment that was sur- 
prising in his nationality, he advanced the prop<iri- 
tions tliat China had at length been aroused from lier 
age-long sleep, and, with the same energj' that slir 
had for so many centuries pursued and idealised tlie 
immobile, was about to enter into the turbultir 
competition of modern progress.' No doubt \he 
Manjuis Tseng sincerely beUeved in liis own asfiir- 
ances ; unquestionably they proved palatable to tl;f 
large class of European readers who cannot conct'ivi 

' ' China, the SIpep and the Awnkcning,' by the Marquis Tm^:- 
Asialic Quarterly Jievirw, Jan. 18«7. 


^f anv standard of life, either for an individual or a 
latioii, except that which prevails in the country of 
which they themseh^es are citizens, who bisect man- 
kind into two camps, the civilised and the barbarian, 
md hold it to be both the destinv and the dutv of 
he latter to wear the former's {.yves. Had China, 
It last, the most arrogant of the rebels, the most 
V>rmidable of the barljarians, been driven to capitu- 
ate ? Was the Celestial about to sit a chastened 
•onvert at the feet of Western doctors? So blessed 
I proclamation had not for long been spread abroad 
ipon the earth ; and loud were the Hosannas that 
vent up from chapel and conventicle, from platform 
md pulpit and pres?^, at these glad tidings of great 
()V. It mav be worth our while, who are neither, like 
lie Manjuis Tseng, diplomats whose interest it is to 
onciliate, nor prophets who are ahead of our times, 
r> examine how far it is true that China has reallv 
wakened from her ancestral sleep, or whether she 
lav not merelv have risen to sloi) the rattlin<5 ot' 
window-sash, or the creaking of a shuttt^r, tlla^ 
iterferes with her quietude, with the fixetl intention 
f scuttling down once more to the (Mijoyment of an 
iiabashed rej)ose. 

For now more than liftv vears has the eomliined 
»r<'e of the Western nations, exereised eonunonlv 
, bv diulomar'V, lVe(|uenilv 1)V threats, and sonn-- 
in.u.ier tiiiH'S by open war, been direeted against tliit 
iiunense and solid wall of conservative resistanrr, 
ke the <-ily walls of their own eapital, wliich tlit* 
'hinese oppose to any [)ressure from the outside. 

338 ClflXA 

In parts an openin;j has been elTectetl by the su]M?ripr 
strength of the foreigner, backed up by gunboats or 
cannon. Of such a character are the com-essions 
as regards missionaries and trade, which fall more 
properly under t!ie heading of China's external ilinn 
of her internal relations, and, as such, have been 
tjealt with in the previous chapter. In what respecls, 
however, may she be said to have yielded, or to 
be even now abating her stubborn opposition, in 
deference to no exterior compulsion, but of her own 
free will ? The answer, whether we look at the 
introduction of the electric telegraph and railways, 
at the adoption of foreign mechanical appliances in 
arsenals, dockyards, and workshops, at the institution 
nf a native press, at the development of internal 
resources, or at the encouragement of domt-siii 
enterprise — the familiar first lessons of the Wes: I'l 
llie East— will teach us that it is with no lighthearlcil 
or spontaneous step, but from tlie keenest instiucl^c' 
self- preservation alone, that China has descemltii 
from her pinnacle of supercilious self-sufficiencv. ai.J 
has consented to graduate in Western acadeinit*. 
One might think that in the contemplation of il;^ 
magnificent wharves and streets and bnildinL'* *'' 
Shanghai, which worlliily claims to be the Calouiu 
of the Far East ; of the spacious and orderly ioMp 
settlement of Tientsin, contrasted with the filtli '-i 
the native city adjoining ; or of the crowded d'H'k- 
yards and shipping of Hongkong — the Chinese woiiM 
li.Tve found at once a reproach to their own \w^ 
wardness and a stimulus to competition, li '' 


doul>tful whether any such impression has ever been 
prtxhiced upon the Celestial mind. What suits the 
foreigner's taste is not necessarily required by his. 
If the foreigner prefers to be comfortable, he is 
content to be squalid. If space and grandeur are 
essential to the one, they have for centuries been 
dis|>ensed with, and are, therefore, not necessary to 
the other. Were it not that experience has shown 
h>eyond possibility of cavil that, in the struggle with 
the foreigner to which the march of events has 
committed her, China is herself handicapped by the 
absence of those appliances which have rendered 
her antagonists so formidable, slie would not have 
made the smallest concession to a pressure wliicli slie 
8till despises, even wliile yielding to it. In a word, 
her surrender is the olFspring, not of admiration, 
hut of fear. It is based upon expediency, not upon 

No more striking illustration of this th(*sis can be 
furnished than the enterprise which will seem to the 
-, , superficial observer the evidence of its vcrv 

mchm* opposite, viz. the introduction of railways 
into China. When I first visited the ('liincso Knipirc 
in 1S87, there was not a mile of railroad in the 
4-uuntrv. The little abortive railwav from Woosung 
to Shanghai, which had been constructed in iNTii 
bv Enj/lish merchants, and had been coinnulsorilv 
acquired and torn up by the provincial authorities 
in 1877, was onlv a memorv and a warnin«j. N<»w, 
however, the stranger can travel in an Mnglish-built 
carriage upon ICnglish steel rails from the station of 

z 2 

340 CItlXA 

Tongku, near tlie Taku forts at tlie momh of ihe 
Peiho liiver, over the 27 miles that separate tiini 
from Tientsin ; while from Tongku the main lint is 
.already prolonged for 67 nules to the Tungshan ai'-J 
Kaiping coalfields, and thence as far as Shaii-Iiai-kuaiu 
at the seaward tenninua of the Great Wall, in the 
direction of Mancharia beyond. 

The reason of these several extensions has been 
as follows : Of the first (which was begun in 1887), 
M«ncha. the alarm produced by the French war iii 
R«iw«y 1884 ; of the second, the necessity, in the 
event of a future campaign, of possessing oatire 
coalfields, instead of being dependent upon foreigo 
supply — as well as the interests of a speculation in 
ivhich the Viceroy Li Hung Chang is personally con- 
cerned ; of tlie third, the fear of Russian aggre'i^ii'ii o;i 
the north ; — self-interest or apprehension liaving Itei-ii. 
tlierefore, in each case the motive power. In t^ibrr 
words, the introduction of these railways has Im'H -i 
compnlsory operation, not undertaken of free will 
or inclination, but forced from the outbide. Al one [v- 
ritid the works were stopped by tlie resurgence of oM- 
fashioned and superstitious ideas,' and by tlie wfiL'li'"' 
I'alace intrigue. But the influence of Li Hung Clia"- 
lias triumphed ; and the line, tliough nominally mrr- 

' \\'lien it ivfts (iimoimced that a liriincli line was tn lie c^ui^tniftry 
fnim M.mkileii to XewtliwniiK, tile THrlar General of the fi.niierrl"^- 
ivliri liid lint wnnt it nt all. cousultei! ihe Reouinnccrs. wlio ri-i-'rv-l 
lliiil Ihe vertelirif of tlie arftjion eiieir.-liliK tlie hL.l\ city of M..«k,ic: 
w»M iiifuUilil.v be smulereil bv ilriviti<; the lollK nuils of ihr rail".' 
i-leepers into tbcm. Aceur.Iin-l.v he ailvorate.1 tlie reii.,.v;il ..! ili.' 1.-' 
fnim Tlie spiidil cor.l of the .IraHOii was «vi-f-' 
h\ shiftiiiij the rails a low liiuidrcil ycirJa. 


cantile in its inception, has now become in reality a 
strategical railway, which is being steadily pushed 
forward in the direction of Kirin. Its total length will 
then be just short of 650 miles. The first 94 miles 
were constructed by a company, the Cliina Railway 
Company ; the remainder is a State railway. But 
inasmuch as both undertakinj^s are controlled bv 
the Viceroy, and as the former is in no sense a 
commercial speculation, the sliareholders being all 
oflicials, and no accounts being published, the entire 
project may be considered as one scheme. At the 
present rate of advance, 40 to 50 miles are being laid 
yearly, a sum of 400,000/ being allocated for the 
purpose. This leaves a gap of several years before 
Kirin is expected to he reached; but it is calculated 
that, owing to the paucity of physical obstacles, and 
the ability of the Chinese navvies in throwing up 
earthworks, the whole line could, at a pinch, be 
completed in two years. Meanwhile in the present 
year further progress has been for a while susptMuled, 
in order that the fiuuls so released niav be devoted 
to the celebrations of the sixtieth birtlulav of the 
Empress Dowager — a proceeding profoundly Chinese. 
Branch lines are also contemplated from Moukden 
to the treaty port of Xewehwang, a distance* of 
110 miles; and from Newchwantr to the naval dock- 
vanlof Port Arthur, l)Oth stratetrical in desi<rn. Tlie 
entire scheme, in fact, is China's reply to tlu» Trans- 
i^il>erian Railway of Itussia to Vladivostok — I lie pn>- 
digious effect of which upon the future of Asia, at 
present but scantily realised in this country, is clearly 

appreciated by a few Chinese statesmen — .iikI U a 
warning to the Tsar that China does not mean to 
let Manchuria and the Sungari River slip from ber 
grasp quite as easily as she did the Amur and I'ssuri 
channels, and the provinces upon their northt-rii .lod 
eastern banks. 

It was originally contemplated to run a line 
from Tientsin to Tuiigchow, the river port thirleeu 
Line to ™iles distant from Peking — a project whidi 
Peking would have been of great service both to tbe 
Chinese inhabitants of the capital, who find the prices 
of the necessaries of Hfe swollen to exorbitant fijrures 
by the difficulty of communications in winter, an J to 
the Europeans who by the same conditions are cut 
off for niontlis every year from the outer world. Bu! 
Chinese conservatism could not stomach any siuli 
aflVont to the footstool of Royalty, while the ari'ii- 
iiient that a railroad to the capital would only av;iil 
to transport an invader all the more quickty, is om 
tliat possessed peculiar fascination for Celestial ears 
Accordingly, the direct connection of Peknig with ilif 
coast will probably be postponed for some time longi'f- 
although I entertain no doubt that it will uttimatfly 
be accomplished. Many more foreigners will tlui: 
visit the Chinese capital, hotels will spring up, ai.<\ 
the curio-deaters will rejoice. In practice the faiiiili:ir 
(ibjection to railways in China that they will oflin'' 
the /etu/sfitii, or Spirit Powers, and disturl) the re- 
l)ose of the dead, is found to be less serious iLm 
the contention, which there is no school of jKiIili'^'l 
economy in China to controvert, that the displacemen: 


of lalx)iir caused thereby will throw so many hundreds 
or thousands of coolies or junkmen or cartmen out 
of employment. This is a line of reasoning that h:ts 
already been successfully employed for years to 
resist the opening of the Upper Yangtse to steam 
navi^ration, and that will be repeated ad nauseam 
against every proposal for railway extension for many 
years to come. 

There are of course statesmen in China who, like 
\a Ilung Chang, are superior to the fallacies or the 
<;r*A4 superstitions of their countrymen. It will 
Uu« be remembered that a few years a^'o the 

Emperor, or rather the Em press- Dowager, who w:us 
still Hegent, issued an interrogation to the principal 
j)rovin<ial Governors and Oovernors-Oeneral, inviting 
their counsel upon the subject of railway extension 
in the Empire. Their replies, which were published, 
f-ontained several expressions of very sensible opinion. 
One <r<>vernor recommended not nurelv the Mamhu- 
rian Railway, but a second line in a north-wester!v 
direction through Shansi and Kansu to Hi, and a 
third as far as remote Kashgar, assigning thrsc 
ri'XSi »ns ; — 

• WVfthall thereby Ije able to senil troops, money, t^c, any- 
where in our Kmpire within ten clays ; and moreover, we shall 
lie aV>le to found prof^perous colonies in those outlyinj; n-LMons 
of people who in China proper are only a star\in^ proUtariat, 
and a source of trouble to the (ioveniment, but whn, <.iir»' 
t ran?* plan ted thither, will l>e able t<> find a fruitful field t»'r 
their new unemployed lal our, and will turn the desert into a 

344 C///X1 

But the most slalwart of tliese atlvocAles wss the 
celebrated Chan Chili Tung. Viceroy of the Tffo 
Kuangs, who pressed for the ronstruclion of a preal 
Trunk Eailway ronnecting I'ekinj; with Hankow, lu 
be commenced simultaneoiifly at l.iolh ends. Xot tlic 
moat conservative of Chinamen could deny that such 
a line at least was BuflSciently removed from the coasi 
to be of little assistance to an invader. In ISSit 
appeared an Imperial Proclamation authorising the 
execution of this only half-considered scheme, and 
Chang Chih Tung was sent as Viceroy to Hankow to 
carry it out. Subsequent reflection appears to have 
convinced him that it must not be undertaken except 
with Cliinese capital, and with steel rails manufactum! 
ill Cliinese furnaces from Chinese metal — a (leois.ion 
«-hi('h looks very much like a postponement to iIk- 
Creek Kalends. Until the Chinese have realise<liluit 
llioy are incapable of constructing a great lineexaiit 
liy foreign assistance, and (unless they are jirepaml 
to pledge the Imperial Exchequer to the undertakiiiL'i 
to some extent by foreign capital, it is safe to preiliii 
that the great Uaukow-Peking egg will never hf 
hatched at all. 

In the meantime the Viceroy is eneruet it-ally 
pursuing the first part of his curtailed scheme hy 
ii„.k,,«- erecting iron and steel works (in addition 
i,iii..ri..- to already existing cotton, brick, ami lilf 
fictories in the neighbourhood) at Ilanvang, iiMi 
Ihuikow, while lie can flatter himself that lie ha> a 
railway all liis own in the shape of a short line of llu' 
standard gauge, seventeen miles long, which he hn> 


constructed from Shih-hin-yao on the banks of the 
Yangtse, seventy miles below Hankow, to the iron 
mines of Tien-shan-pu, whence his ore is to be derived. 
Branch lines are also contemplated to the neighbour- 
ing collieries of Wang-san-shih and Ma-an-shan. In 
Wuchang a laboratory has been established since 
1891 for the analysis of the various local minerals* 
Simultaneouuly, but even more leisurely, the second 
part of the scheme is being advanced by the despatch 
of a number of Chinese to Europe, to acquire the 
necessar}' mechanical and engineering experience. 
Tliese are the resorts, cumbersome, dilatory, and 
infinitely costly, to which China is impelled by an 
imperishable confidence in herself and a corres|)oiul- 
ing dislike of external assistance* 

The onlv other railwav in the Chinese dominions 
is a line in the north of the island of Formosa, 
Formm^ Originally commenced with the torn-up 
K*>i»*y Woosung rails, by one of the most enter- 
prising of Chinese statesmen, Liu Ming Chuan, who, 
liaving gained great credit for his skilful defence 
<if Kelung against the French fleet, under Admiral 
Courliet. in 1884, was recently rep<irted, in con- 
w*quenre of scares upon the Taniirs, to be alK>ut to 
proceed a^4 military commander to Chinese Turkestan. 
The idea of the Formosa Railwav was to connct^t the 
j>ort of Kelung, on the north-east coast of the island, 
with that of Tainan on the west. Alxmt fiftv \m\v> 
of this railroad have alreadv been laid; but recent 
reports speak of its probable abandonment fri»m 
shortness of funds. 

346 CinXA 

Tliis sliort sketch of tlie uiL-fptioii of railroail 
enterprise in China will show that whilst the aihice 
Other of a promiiieiit statesman here, or (lie 
pftiiona influence of an energetic governor tbere, 
may result in the conimenceiiient of i.-soIaieJ iiniliT- 
takings, which are recommended by particular 
exigencies of policy or speculation, the Chinese 
Government is far from having realised the over- 
whekning importance, not merely to the economiL' 
and industrial development, but to the contiiiueil 
national existence of the Empire, of a ■wide-reachinj! 
and promptly executed system of railways. Tlie 
prediction may safely be hazarded that without rail- 
roads Chinese Turkestan and Western Mongolia, .i* 
well as other outlying parts of the Empire, cannot 
be i)ermanently held. There is not the slightest px"! 
in manufacturing Krupp, and Hotchkiss, and Gailin^'. 
and Winchester, and Martini-Henry iniplt-nK'nts ti 
war by the thousand, if there exist no means oi 
<-onveying the troops who are to use them (o lb'- 
scene of action. In railroads and telegraphs 111"' 
latter were stoutly resisted at the start by the pn>- 
vincial governors because of the restraints whiili 
would thereby lie placed upon their independein'f^ 
lies the sole hope that China possesses .of re!ni;i 
ing her territorial integrity. And yet so perverjt-K 
ignorant is the Government of this elenieiiian 
axiom, that commuiii<'ationB of any kind are ire.iiid 
by it with undeviating neglect. The military rclirf'^ 
are compelled to trudge to their stations ovrr 
t}iou.sands of miles of execrable track. Even the iVn" 


military roads that have been constructed near the 
coast are allowed to fall out of repair. Simul* 
taneously, with the most magnificent rivers in Asia 
running through her territories, and inviting cheap 
and rapid communication with the populous cities of 
the interior, it is only, so to speak, at the bayonet's 
point that assent can be gained to the extension of 
river navigation by steam ; and whole populations 
must be starved in order that small communities of 
boatmen or raft men may live. 

Similar reflections are suggested by an examina- 
tion of the military equi}iment and resources of 
Miiiury China, which have fonned the subject of 
rrform niuch pfcmaturc congratulation. It is true 
tliat, particularly since the French war in 18S4-0, 
which, in spite of the comparative failure of the 
French, and the pretensions to victory that have 
since been advanced bv the Chinese, vet tau;iht the 
latter a great many well-needed lessons, millions have 
lieen s|K'nt in providing the Empire with the mecha- 
nical appliances that shall enable it successfully to 
resist the foreigner. At Kirin, Tientsin, Shanghai, 
Nanking, Foochow, and Canton, are factories or 
anw'uals, capable of turning out gunpowder, car- 
tridges, repeating rifles, field and mountain artillery, 
pn)jec*tiles, and machine guns of the most a|)pn)ve(l 
and recent pattern. The majority, if not all of 
thc-se, were established in the first place, and for a 
long time supervised, by foreigners. It is true also 
that a militarv school for olHcers has been founded 
at Peking, and schools of gunner}-, musketry, and 


engineering, under the patronage of Li Hung Chai^, 
at Tientsin. Simultaneously, a large number of 
foreign ofEcers or instructors, principally Germans, 
have been engaged to instruct the Chinese in the 
manufacture or use of these scientific appliances. 
Tlius equipped, tlie Chinese Army is on paper a forre 
not merely numerically strong, but mechanically 
powerful. A more minute and searching scrutinv. 
however, is needed before we can accept these 
exterior symptoms as irrefutable evideuce of a re- 
formed military system. Let me briefly exaniiiie 
both the constitution of the Army as a whole, kv\ 
the opinions that are entertained of its efficiency 
by competent observers.' 

The milltarj' organisation of China is little less 
antique and no less rigid than its civil counterpart 
TiioMnn- It lias not Varied siuce the Manchu invasion 
"^'"it.^'li 'iiJO years ago. The descendants of ilii- 
conquerors, with a certain admixture d 
Mon<folians and Chinese, still form the Army of ili- 
Eight Banners," from which the garrisons of Peking' 
and other great provincial capitals are drai\ii: 
constituting a sort of hereditarj' profession or ca^ii 
maintained at the expense of the Crown, and. like 

' I am indebted for fiorne portions of the following infonuniion i ■ 
tlie PonrteHy of Karon S])eck von Sternbnrg, Secretary to the (iennsi 
LcKBtion ftt Peking, ivlio has niftde a close personal study of the luililai' 
resonrces of China. 

' Stricllyspeakins, the Eif;lit Banners ftreBiibdivided,etLnolojn«>li.'' 
into three <.'roiip8nfeiKht corfis eaeh — Mnncbus. MoncoU, and Cbiii(4i 
the two latter beinft descendants of the troops which took \i&n ir > r 
nsnJKted the Itfiuichn invasion. Intermarriage if compulsory aiui'i^- 
the iwenty-four Uauner Corpa. 


the Roman legionaries in the outlying provinces of 
the Empire, ovming military lands. The nominal 
strength of the Eight Banners is variously returned as 
from 280,000 to 330,000 men ; but of these con* 
siderably less than 100,000, perhaps not 80,000, are 
in any sense of the term upon a war footing. The 
best of them, amounting to an army corps 37,000 
strong, are stationed in Manchuria itself, where, face 
to face with the dreaded enemy, Bussia, large garri- 
sons are maintained at Moukden, Kirin, and along the 
Ussuri. The Imperial Guard in Peking, which is drawn 
from the Banner Army, consists of eight regiments, 
or 4,000 to 6,000 men. Side by side with them is 
the Ying Ping, or National Army, called in contradis- 
tinction the Greeir Flags, or Five Camps (five being 
the unit of subdivision), and constituting a territorial 
army, frequently designated as * Braves.' Of this 
anny there are eighteen corps, one for earh province 
uf the Empire, under the orders of the local Governor 
ur Governor General. Their nominal stren'/tli is 
given by different authorities as l)et\veen o4(),()00 and 
000,000 men,* of whom from 170,(100 to 2oO,(M)U are 
vari(»usly reported to be avaihible for war. The 
National Army is in fact better described as a militia, 
about one-third of whom are usually called (»ut, and 
tlie whole of whom are never or^ranised, and are 
probably incapable of bein^^ organised, for war. 
To this force must l)e added the mercenary troops, 
raised in emergencies, and datinir from the time ot' 
the Taiping Kebellion : and some irregulars, con>ist- 

* TIm; Chines© Anuy Lint ^ive* 051.607 men and 7.107 urtJci-r*. 

SfiO CllIXA 

ill).' i>f Mmij/oliaii aiul other cavalry, nominillT 
20U,UOO in number, in reality less than 20,000, and t>f 
no niilitaiy value. The only eerious nr fomiidabli; 
contingent of the National Array is the Tienlsinanuy 
corps, called Lien Chun, or drilled troops, wliich was 
first started with European ollicers after ihe war of 
1860, and acquired its cohesion iu the suppression of 
the Taiping EebelUoji, since which it has been main- 
tained in a state of comparative efficiency by the 
Viceroy Li Hung Chang, its organisation and instruc- 
tion being based on the Prussian model. Nominally 
this division is 100,000 strong, but its mobilised 
strength is not more than 35,000, or a full army corps, 
which is employed to garrison the Takuand Peitanj.' 
Forts, the city of Tientsin, and Port Arthur. It 
is sometimes called the Black Flag Army, and 
is etinipped with modern fire-arms, breecli-loadiiiL' 
Krupp jruns, and Snider, Hotchkiss, Remington, am! 
Mauser rifles. The pay is also superior to thai of 
the Banner Army ; for whereas in the latter n 
ca%alry soldier receives only UU. a month and fora^'f 
allowance, ami the foot soldier la. a monlli ami 
rations, the Tientsin private receives 15?, a nionih. 
If any real business requires to be done in the nietn- 
politan province or neighbourhood, it is to ilie 
Tientsin contingent tb^t recourse is made. This is 
the total land army of China — on a peace fooiini; 
not more than 300,000, on a war footin" aNmi 
1,000,000 men — that is called upon to garrison ami 
defend an Kmpire whose area is one-third of t!ie 
wliole of Asia and half as large again as Europe, ami 


whose iK)pulation is half of the total of Asia and 
eijuivalent to the whole of Europe. 

So much for the men, numerically considered. It 
is when we approach the question of their discipline, 
training, and persivmel^ still more when we 
examine their officers and leading, that tlie 
true value of the Cliinese army emerges. Tlie Cliina- 
inan has many excellent quahties as a soldier, viz. a 
splendid physique, natural docility and sobriety, con- 
siderable intelligence, and great powers of endurance. 
The sum total of these acquirements does not, how- 
ever, necessarilv make a first-rate fi<;htin<r-machine. 
Indifference to death is bv no means identical with 
real bravery ; animal ferocitv is a verv different thinu 
from moral courage. Of discipline in the higliest sensf 
the ( have none; and no arms in the world, 
shudled out from the arsenal upui the declanition of 
war, like cards from a pack, and placed in untrained 
hands, can make them follow leaders who are nin- 
compoops, or resist an enemy whose tactics, except 
when it comes to getting behind a mud rampart, 
themselves, thev do not understand. Thev have no 
idea of marching or skirmishing, or of Ixiyouet or 
musketry practice. The only recruiting test is the 
lifting to the full stretch of the arms al>ove tlie 
hea<l of an iron bar, from the ends of which are liung 
two stones, weighing OJ stone the pair. 'i'heir drill 
is a sort of gj'mnastic perfonnanee, and their ordinary 
weapons are tuftt^d lances, spears, battle-axes, tridmts, 
and Vk)WS and arrows, with an anq)le acconipaniint'nt 
of banners and gongs. Rifles of obsolete pattern, 

^52 CIIJyA 

bought second-hand or Ihird-hanil in Europe, are dealt 
out to those who are on active service. These and 
their ammunition are mostly worthless from age. 
The weapon of the majority is, however, an ancienl 
matchlock, of which the most fiimiliar partem is ihe 
jingal, which requires two men to fire it. On almost 
any day in Peking the Manchu garrison may be 
seen engaged in archery practice under the walls, or 
shooting with the same weapon, while at full gallop, 
at a straw doll stuck up in a ditch. In war there 
is no unity, either of administration or armament. 
There is no organised transport service or commis- 
sariat column. A medical or ambulance service is 
also unknown. In the fighting against the Frencti in 
Toiigkiiig the men of the same regiment had diflerent 
rifles, and an even larger confusion of tMrInili.'e;- 
To a Cliinaman all cartridges are alike ; and what 
with those that were too large and those that wt-rc 
too small, and those that jammed and could not be 
extracted, it may be judged what amount of siicccj? 
attended the firing. 

Ail these drawbacks or delinquencies, however. 
shrink into nothingness when compared with tlir 
xntive crowning handicap of the native ollioer. 
""''"'' lu many parts of Asia I have had occa- 
sion to observe and to comment upon the slrarip' 
theory of the science of war (confined ap[).i- 
rently to the East), which regards the }-a-s--iiml 
of an army as wholly independent of its leailini.'- 
In China tliere is a special reason for tliis phe- 
nomenon. There, where all distinction is idi-iiu- 


fied with familiarity with the classics, and depends 
upon success in a competitive examination, the 
military profession, which requires no such training, 
is looked upon with contempt, and attracts only 
inferior men. In the bulk of the army (I except the 
Tientsin army corps) an officer still only requires to 
ciualify by passing a standard in archery, in fencing 
with swords, and in certain gymnastic exercises. To 
the same deeply embedded fallacy must be attributed 
the collateral opinion that a civilian must be much 
better fitted to command a battalion than a military 
man, because he is supposed in the course of his 
studies to have read something of the art of war. 
And when we examine what this art, in its literary 
presentation, is, we find that the standard military 
works in China are some 3,000 years old ; and that 
the authority in highest repute, Sun-tse by name, 
solemnlv recommends such manoeuvres as these : 
* Spread in the camp of the enemy voluptuous 
musical airs, so as to soften his heart' — a dictum 
which might have commended itself to Plato, but 
would hardly satisfy Von Moltke. The British army 
could not l>e worse, nay, it would be far better led, 
were the Commander-in-Chief compelled to be a 
Senior Wrangler, and the Generals of division drawn 
from Senior Classics. It cannot be considered sur- 
prising that the Chinese oHieers so recruited and 
thus taught, destitute of the slenderest elements, 
either of military knowledge or scientific training, 
should earn the contempt of their followers. Their 
posts are usually acquired either by favouritism 

A A 

or purchase. When it is added that they arc al*o. 
as a rule, both corrupt and cowanlly ; that lliey 
stint the men's rations and pilfer their pay; and 
that when an eiijzageraent takes place they commonlr 
misdirect it from a sedan-chair in the rear, we !ia'>> 
the best of reasons for expecting uniform and syste- 
matic disaster. The General officer is seldom (there 
have, of course, been remarkable exceptions) anv 
better than his subordinate ; in warfare there is no 
fiingle moving spirit or plan of campaign ; and on 
the field of battle each commander acts with Irre- 
sponsible light-heartedness for himself, and yearns 
for the inglorious security of the rear. 

It may, however, be thought that in the occa- 
sional eraployment of European officers some sort of 
European guarantee is provided against the univer-al 
nffi™" prevalence of this huge scandal. It is wi!) 
no such intention that China hires the brain or llr 
experience of the foreigner. She is ready enough tn 
enlist and to pay for them, perhaps at a high rale, in 
tlie initial stages of a policy of military or ii-ival 
reconstruction ; but she is too jealous to give liim 
the power or the chance to which he is entitled; ami. 
like a sucked orange, she throws him away as sixm ^ 
she has drained him drj". In such a manner lias slir 
treated bolli the English officer, Captain I^ng, who 
provided her with the nucleus of a powerful re- 
organised fleet, and the German officer, Captain von 
Ilanneken, wlio has for years been engaged in iV'rti- 
fying Iier coasts and reconstituting her arsenals 
She kva-totcs to the foreigner as long as she has 


something to gain from him ; but her inordinate 
conceit presently reasserts itself, and a Chinaman is 
appointed to continue, one might rather say to take 
to pieces, the laborious efforts of his predecessor. 

To these details must be added the fact that the 
annual military expenditure, or perhaps I should 
rather say waste, of China, is estimated at 
l)etween 15,000,000/. and 20,000,000/. 
But it may be said, is it not the case that on 
several occasions during the last thirty years, e.g. in 
Aikc«d ^^® suppression of the Mohammedan revolt 
■OLLDMri j^^ Yunnan, in the recovery of Kashgar, and 
in the Franco-Chinese war, China showed a military 
capacity which would render her anywhere a formid- 
able adversary? Such, not unnaturally, is her own 
conclusion. But there are qualifying considerations 
that must be borne in mind. The Mussulman up- 
rising, it is true, was quelled, but this was mainly due 
to the deplorable tactics of the insurgents. Ivistern 
Turkestan was won back ; but only because, after 
Yakub Beg had been got rid of by treachery and 
poison, the life and soul of the rebelliim were extinct. 
In the French war, which is claimed as a victorv bv 
lioth parties, the Chin€*se pride themselves gn^atly on 
having successfully resisted the ridiculous Freiu h 
demands for an indemnity of 1(>,(K)0,1)II0/., on havinjr 
repulscil the attack on Formosa, and on having made 
peace after I^angson, i.e, in the hour of temporary 
triumph. Everyone knows, however, that had China 
liecn able to continue the strugjrle, she would Iuiv<» 
done so ; and that she eagerly seized the opportunity 

A A 1' 


356 CHIXA 

for cuminjr to terras. The French coiumitled everr 
conceivable blunder. Instead of striking at Peking, 
which is the only way to bring the Cliinese Hoveni- 
merit quickly to its knees, they conducted a foolish 
campaign in Tongking, under a deadly cliniale, with 
a vastly inferior force, and in a country utterly 
unsuited to European warfare, namely, rice-fields 
intersected with qanals, or hills covered with dense 
covert. The campaign afforded little or no criterion 
of the newly equipped and foreign-drilled armamenii 
of China ; for these can hardly be said to have been 
engaged. Had the Chinese Army really been worth 
what is claimed for it, the French would scarcely 
now be comfortably installed in the Bed Eiver 

Ijet me fortify my opinion, however — wliicli iiiu?r 
in itself be valueless — of the Chinese army, by I'iiiiig 
(ieiicrBi the verdict of three European offirers. pro- 
oiiiiiion bably better qualified from their perulixir 
experience to judge than any three otlier men duriiiir 
the last quarter of a century. When war was ov. 
tlie eve of breaking out between Eussia and t'hiiia 
iu 1880, over tlie aflair of Kulja, the late Gent-nl 
fJordon was invited to Peking to give his advice to 
tlie Imperial Government. In a characteristic an! 
outspoken memorandum to his old fellow-ofiicer, ib^ 
Viceroy Li, he exposed the utter rottenness of ibe 
Chinese military organisation, and strongly adviseii 
them to give up playing the game of scieiuiDi' 
warfare with foreigners, in which they were !«ure tolf 
beaten, and to adhere to the traditional irregular wi.'- 


fare for which their aptitudes especially fitted them. 
Skirmishes as against battles, breech-loading rifles as 
against big guns, this was his motto of adviceJ 

Tlie late General Prjevalski, the famous Russian 
explorer, who spent many years of his life on the 
cjeiu^nj confines of the Cliinese Empire, and made a 
pr)«T*iiiki profound study of its military resources, thus 
summed up, only six years ago, a long and interesting 
essay upon the Celestial Army : — 

^ China, under its present conditions, and for many a long 
day, cannot possibly hope to create an array at all similar to 
tbo6e of European States. She lacks both the material and 
the spirit. Let Europeans supply the Chinese with as many 
arms as they please, let them strive to train the Chinese sol- 
diers, let them even supply lead<Ts — and the Chinese army 
will nevertheless never l)e more than an artificiallv crewteil, 
mechanically united, unstable organism. Subject it but once 
to the serious trial of war, and speedy dissolution will over- 
take it.' 

Thirdly, I quote the opinion of Colonel Mark Bell, 
V.C, one of the greatest, though the most modest, of 
coionri living English travellers ; who, after covering 
***" the prodigious journey, o,000 miles in lenirth, 

from Peking to Kashgar, thus summed up his impres- 
sions of the Chinese armv : — 

* A study of China's interests, pisition. and material 
strength, all along her Russian border, wlietlier iu Kasli^raria, 
or Mongolia, or Manchuria, has led me to conclude that slie 
has no military sti'ength, and must be valut^less to i>-i a< a 
military allv durini^ the next several decades.' 

* Thi« memoraiulimi is roprotluiv»l in A. G. Hakt's St* ry (/ 
CkitUMe Gordon, p. 87U. London, 18b 4. 

358 CUJKA 

Statistics differ as lo the exact strength of llie 
Chinese Navy; but its history and equipment afford 
Tha an almost precise parallel lo those of lie 

N»Ty Army. Just as the disasters of the war >i 
1860 heralded the summons of European oir!i-.T> 
to Peking, and a complete scheme of militarj- re- 
organisation, BO does the modern Chinese Navy date 
from the same epoch and events. In 1862, Mr. U. 
N. Lay, who had been appointed Inspector of the 
Imperial Customs at Shanghai before the war, was 
entrusted with the commission to purchase a fieet 
of small gunboats in England. Nominally these 
vessels were to be employed for the protectioo of 
the Treaty Ports and the suppression of piracv. 
iliey were really intended for use against the re!)eU 
who had not yet been subdued. Seven gunboai'^ 
and one store-ship were bought in England ami 
taken out. But upon tlieir arrival a dispute arose 
between Mr. Lay and Captain Sherard Osboni iwlio 
had been offered the command) on the one hand, ami 
the Chinese authorities on the otiier, as to ilic 
appointment of a Cliinese colleague, and a.« to ili«' 
source, whether provincial or Imperial, from wliiili 
orders were to be received. So long was the squahblf 
protracted that the ships were never used at all, .linl 
were finally sent back to Bombay, where they wvtv 
sold at a loss of half a million sterling, Mr. 1j}' 
having in the meantime left the Chinese servia 
Tliis unfortunate misunderstanding greatly rolanW 
the naval advance of China, and was thus alluded to. 
twenty-five years later, by the Marquis Tseng : — 


Tirice since 1860 China has had to kment this as a 
>nal misfortune, for twice since then she has had to sub- 
to occapations of her territory, which the development of 
fleet would have rendered difficult, if not impossible.' 

Since those days, however, and more particularly 
e the war with France, China has bestirred her- 
in the matter of naval equipment. The first 
It of the French war was the addition, in 1885, 
Ministry for the Nav)', or Board of Admiralty, to 
seven existing administrative departments. At 
chow. Port Li, Tientsin, Wei Hai Wei, Canton, 
ighai, and Port Arthur (Lu Shun Kou),^ have been 
blished powerful arsenals or dockyards, the last- 
ed place being the naval base of defence for 
n}i. Four naval colleges for the education of 
its have been started at Wei Hai Wei, Tientsin, 
inipoa, and Nanking. There is a torpedo-school 
IT a German at Canton. Sir W. Armstrong at 
ick has built for them fast cruisers ; Herr Krupp 
•Issen has turned out the best ironclads. The 
Chinese fleet, divided into four squadrons, the 
ran;?, or north coast squadron, and the fleets of 
how, Shan<^hai (called the Xanyang squadron). 
Canton, comprises about 05 vessels of war, 
ly built abroad, and including 4 ironclads, 
•ruisers, and 17 gunboats, as well as over 30 
Hlo-lx)ats, and G floating batteries. The tonnage 

!*he dockyard at Port .\rthur, now the principal naval ttation of 
npire, wat only couiiuenced in 1HH7, the French, in virtue of a 
in their Treaty of IHH.'), having; »t»cure<l the ct>ntract. It wa.i 
L*t4Hl in 1H90, and iH ilefended hy heavily armed fortii, with a 
>n of 7,000 men and IS tor^iedo bo*U. 

360 CHINA 

of the combined fleets is about 65.000 tons, Ibe 
armament 490 guns, and the complement of men 
7,000. The usual experiment of a European com- 
mander was tried, witli the usual result, expulsion. 
The fleet is now oflicered and manned by Chine-''. 
foreigners being retained only for iostruction in 
gunnery, electricity, torpedo-practice, &c. No doubt 
the fleet, like the army, is, on paper, a fighting force 
of no mean capacity. The question is, whether 
under native commanders it is not likely to prove a 
greater source of weakness than of strength, and by 
falling a prey to the first European force that seriously 
engages it, to lend no inconsiderable increment of 
strength to the latter. A further element of present 
weakness is the total lack of administrative centrali- 
sation. The Navy is not properly an Imperial or even 
a National force. The four fleets are Provincial 
squadrons, raised, equipped, and maintained by ili*' 
viceroys or governors of the maritime provinces tn 
which they are attached. Each acts independently 
in its own area, though they are mobilised for com- 
mon evolutions every autumn. For instance, whm 
in 1885 the French blockaded Formosa, they were 
not opposed by the combined Chinese fleet, but only 
liy the Foochow squadron ; and when this had bee:i 
annihilated, by the Nanyang squadron, which took ii^ 
place, no idea of concerted action being entertained. 
There is, fuially, in the Na^*}", as in the Army, a !o;u! 
want of a competent stafl". 

Two reflections are sujigested by this review (■; 
tlie jnihtary and naval reforms of modern China. Tlif 


first is this. Unaware that her sole genuine danger 
lies upon her land frontiers, she thinks only of 
The faiM ffunboats and maritime defences, and spends 

millions in fortifying her coasts. Because 
England and France once landed their troops at 
Canton and Tientsin, she appears to think that no 
European enemy can ever attack her except in ships. 
Because the great Powers of Europe are represented 
in the Far East by naval flotillas, she must have an 
equivalent or superior flotilla, in order to simulate 
the idea of being a great maritime Power also. 
Meanwhile, on the one hand no steps are taken to 
combat or excise the canker of official corruption 
that preys upon the vitals of both services. On tlie 
other hand, in full view of the bewitched prey, the 
toils are being spread, and from tlie Pamirs and 
Turkestan and the Trans-Amur ' will flow into Kash- 
garia, Mongolia, Sungaria, and Manchuria the tide 
that will overwhelm her outlying provinces, and may 
possibly not be arrested till it has attained the capital 
itself. Truly Quern Deua vuH perdere^ prius dementat. 
Nevertheless, disrespectful to purely Chinese sus- 
ceptibilities as these remarks may appear to have been, 
TWmw. it must not be forTOtten that in her vast 

r«fiAri«tt of 

Eoroi» empire Cliina, however ill she may utilise it, 
possesses an inexhaustible supply of the very finest 
raw material, so far as mere manhood is concerned, 
in the East; and that what she is too blind or tcx> 

' CbinA hm« by Treaty an equal right to navii^ate the Amur with 
the Ro^tiana. But abe haa not placed a single gnnUtat on the river, 
iV ^M iyh ita right bank ia tiill mainly Chineee. 

363 CIin-A 

obstinate to do for herself, otliers, with a superior fore- 
sight and strengtli, may insist upon doing for tliem* 
selves. In other words, the Chinaman, who now fights 
for the Tartar just as he once fought for ihe Mongol, 
may one day be persuaded to fight for the Russian 
also. If tlie mandarin with spectacles on his nose and 
a cane in his hand cannot make a soldier of him, per- 
haps the European tlrill-sergeant will. Under good 
leadership he can fight sufficiently well, as was shown 
by Giordon's men. Valueless, therefore, as under 
existing conditions and management we may believe 
Chinese armaments to be, their potential value in the 
hands of another Power must not be lost sight of. It 
is conceivable that, so organised and directed, the 
Chinese Army and Navy may yet have a good deal lo 
say ill determining the destinies of the Far East. 

Some writers have pointed to the tentative in- 
stitution of a native Press in China as evidence cf 
Till' Press ^" internal fermentation sjiionymous %vitli 
inciiiim reform. No such inference can with juslitr 
be drawn. Outside of Peking, where the 'IVkiiij: 
Gazette ' is a strictly edited Court journal and Govt-ni- 
ment record and nothing more,' the native journals are 

' Tlie Peking Gazette, wbich is the oldest newsiiaper in tbo irotiJ. 
its orifjin being attributed to tlie bung dvnaBty, wbich ended iu l.Stki J.^ . 
in not nctiiftlly nn official publieation, like the London Gatelte, bill i^ 
ft sort of tniniBteriftl or Goverunjent orgiin, the issue of Bhich i' 
nutliuri^ed hy the Government, who also Bupply tlie greattr |>iirl "' 
the iiinteriul. As such it is indirectly official nud is absiOiil':.' 
(lutlientie. Therein are contained all the Iiiiper'ikl acts, prt)m<iti->"- 
decrees and sentences, petitions from provincial Rovemora, prorliu!*- 
tions id' the censors, .^c, without any editorial comments or \fM£ 
firliele. It is published daily, and is read and discuesed with «iiii:t? 
by educated Cbinese in everj- part of tlie Empire. In the proiim*' 


only or mostly to be found in the Treaty Ports. They 
are utterly unlike the native Press as it is rapidly 
becoming developed in Japan, as it has already been 
developed in India. Free criticism, the formation or 
reflection of public opinion, an independent attitude 
— for these it is vain to search them, and hazardous 
in China would be the experiment. Politically their 
editors are sufficiently wise to tender a general sup- 
port to the Government, while the advantages of 
public encomium are sufficiently recognised by the 
local officials to induce in some cases a liberal pay* 
ment for complimentary mention. Outside of this 
harmless diversion, they serve a useful purpose in 
acquiring telegraphic information, in circulating 
general news, and in calling attention to visitations 
such as floods, &c., which might otherwise be ij^niored 
by the official eye.* The total absence of party politics 

thotisands of persons are employed in copying and abridging iu contents 
for those who cannot afford to purchase the complete edition. It is 
printed by means of wooden movable types of willow or poplar wood. 
An average Oaietie consists of ten to twelve leaves of thin brownish 
papar, measuring 7^ by 8} inches, and enclosed between leaves, front 
and back, of bright yeUow paper, to form a species of binding. The 
whole is roughly attached or stitched together. The inside leaves, 
being folded double in the usual Chinese fashion, give sinnv twenty 
or more small pages of matter, each page being divided by red lines 
into seven columns. Each column contains fourteen characters from 
top to bottom, with a blank space at the top. 

' The first native newspaper appeared at Shanghai a little over 
thirty years ago, and was followed by two others at Tientsin and Canton, 
which were nominaUy started by Kuro])eans, in order to esea{H>(t(>vern- 
tuent inquisition, but were really owntnl and conducted by C^hinese 
mandarins. There are now several Chinese newspa]>erK at Hongkong ; 
three at Canton, with a daily circulation of 5,000 each ; and one has 
recently be«n started at Hankow. The best native or^'iin is thu 
Shamyhai Setet, a daily pa(>er (with a weekly illustrateil Kuppleiuent), 
cUimtng a circulation of over 12,000. It usually contain^i a leaiUng 

364 CniXA 

in China is itself a discouragement to the radslenC* 
of an organised Press. On the other hand, the 
absence of such a Press is a welcome preventive lo 
the dissemination of novel or revohitionary ideas, or 
to the spread of any propaganda at which the 
Government would look askance. 

China is a country of immense, probably of un- 
equalled, natural resources. Her mineral wealth is 
N»tive believed to be greater than that of any other 
enterpnse (.Qy^tpy Jq Asla. Her ports receive or 
diffuse a trade that employs thousands of keels, and 
pours wealth into the pockets of half the nations of 
Europe. Her people are gifted with infinite per- 
severance, industry, and sobriety. Under tlies^ 
circumstances, one might expect to find native enter- 
prise everywhere active and triumphant, and to ser 
the resources of the country profitably exploited by 
her own citizens. The very reverse is tlie speotaili' 
before us. Of the many well-stocked mines, only 
the coal-mines near Tientsin are successfullv worked 
by a native company (under foreign managenieni . 
Among the hundreds of merchant steamers carrying 
loaded bottoms from port to port, only thirtv (ainl 
those officered and engineered by foreigners) fly t!iv 
flag of a native company worth mentioning, tliai I'l 
the China Merchants. And in both these cases tin? 

artitle, onp or two political and social reviews, copieo of offioiHl dfVTW! 
nml repiirtu, police ncwR, tlie telegrftuis of Europenn nsrencies. I -il 
iutollisenco, and aJ vert iaei lie nts. On the other hand the Tientsin ?«[*-■ 
has proved a failure. The people like gossip and Ecandal, which uv 
iinsiife, and their own claflsies, which are iinsuited for publication ; b:i 
in general news they take little interest. 


exception b merely due to the fact that official 
patronage is concerned in promoting the venture, and 
that the money of eminent mandarins is at stake. 
The Viceroy Li Hung Chang is reported to be behind 
the Kaiping Coal Mining Company. He it was who 
secured for the China merchants an Imperial subsidy 
and an assured revenue in the freight of the tribute 
rice. Quite lately a fresh bounty was given to them 
in the shape of a remission of import duties to native 
merchants shipping by their vessels, and of customs 
examination to native officials travelling in them ; 
but the discovery being made that these exemptions 
constituted a breach of Article HI. of the Commer- 
cial Treaty concluded between China and the United 
States in 1880, they were rescinded as the result of a 
protest from the British Minister. Yet in the rases of 
both these companies I have heard that the profits 
are not what they might be, and that shareholders 
complain of scant accounts and of infrequent and 
arbitrary dividends. In fact, as a commercial specu- 
lation, the China Merchants' Company is said to be a 
failure.^ What, then, is the secret of this paralysis 
that would seem to have overcome the ener^jries of 
China just at the very moment and in the very direc- 
tion where they might be employed to such obvious 
advantage ? 

The answer lies in the immemorial curse of 
Oriental countries, the trail of the serpent that is 

* It i« very different with the China morchAiits of Hoiiijkon^. who. 
free to invest and develop their capital without the piTil i>f Ciovt'riiiiunt 
interference or squeeze, run large shipn to Manila and liaiaMu, to 
SaigOD, Singapore, &nd BiDigkok. 

found everywhere from Stamboiil to Peking — ilie 

vicious incubus of oiTicialisra, paramount, selBsli, 

The oniM domineeriuc. and corrupt. Distrust of private 
ofoffld*!. . ? , ■ 1 ■ , -1 

iuu enterprise is rooted m the mind tramal up 

to believe that the Government is everytiii!)? ami 
the individual nothing. The bough may rot and iis 
fruit may never be garnered sooner than that the 
spoil should fall into any but official hands. So it 
has always been, and so it must continue to be. 
Were all Viceroys far-sighted and all mandarins 
liberal-minded, there would be less cause for reproach. 
But a system that has prevailed for twenty centuries 
does not easily relax the rigour of its bonds or admit 
of converts from its own ranks ; and those who liave 
been bred and nurtured in a satisfied twilight do not 
relisli the sensation of a sudden introduction to ilie 
noontide blaze. Let me give an illustration of the 
manner in which this system affects the developnier.i 
of the national resources. Near toKehing in Foniios.! 
are some coal-mines. They were opened in the fir^i 
place and worked by private individuals. Then the 
Provincial Government marched in, shut up all tlu' 
private mines, and thusprocured for itself a moiiopoU", 
which it proceeded to develop by sending for Euro- 
pean plant and European engineers. The next sirp 
was to appoint a Chinese superintendent as coUeagiK- 
to the foreign engineer ; with the normal result of 1 1 ■ 
friction, (2) dismissal of the foreigner, (3) resuniplio:! 
of the mine by the natives, (4) complete collapse a;i'! 
closure of the pits. Later on a foreign fiiiam'ia: 
svndicate offered to take over the mines on favourable 


terms. Taught by adversity, the Provincial Goveni- 
ment gladly accepted; but this time the Central 
Government refused. So the mines lie idle ; and 
this is the way in which things are done in China. 

In reality, therefore, the institution of which China 
is most proud, viz. a lettered bureaucracy, is the 
TheMfto. source of her greatest weakness. Edu- 
***'*°*** cated upon a system which has not varied 
for ages, stuffed with senseless and impracticable 
precepts, discharging the ceremonial duties of his 
office with a mechanical and servile accuracy, the 
victim of incredible superstitions and sorceries, but 
arrogant with a pride beyond human conception, 
furnished with an insufficient salarv, and therefore 
compelled to peculate and plunder, the Chinese 
mandarin is China's worst enemy. All private enter- 
prise is kille<l by official strangulation ; all ])ul)Iic 
spirit is extinguished by official greed. Nor, as it is 
the ambition and is within the scope of everylxxly, 
whatever his class, to become an offirial himself, is 
there anv order to which we can look for siun-ess- 
ful protest. The entire governing class, itself n*- 
cruited from the mass of the people, is interested in 
the preservation of the status f/uo. The forces (inli- 
narilv enlisted on the side of chan<:e, those of th*» 
literati or student class, are more reactionary in 
China than any other, seeing that, unlike Hu>sia — 
where they are trampled upon and ignored — and 
unlike India — where they eomplain of inade(|uate 
rau'je for their aml)ition — thev already, l)v virtue of 
their degrees, hold the keys of power. Neither can 

it be supposed that, with a people so obstinate and 
80 vain, there is the smallest iucliuation amoug the 
lower strata of society to move where their leailcrs 
decline to advance. Both find an equal charm in 

What the foreigner realises only dimly and by 
slow degrees is that the Chinaman has not the 
ThB slightest desire to be reformed by him ; thai 

•taDdpoint he disputes in toto that reform is reform ; and 
that no demonstration in the world will convince 
him of the existeuce of a flaw in his own theory of 
national perfection. He points to a Govemmenl 
infinitely more stable than that of any European State, 
to order observed, and to justice effectively, if roughly, 
administered (the fact that rebellion simmers in some 
provinces, where official embezzlement intinies of hard- 
ship reduces the people to semi-starvation, not U-iriL' 
of sufficiently wide application to disturb the genvnl 
proposition) ; he claims a civilisation that was al- 
ready at a high pitch when Britons were wanderiiij; 
painted in the woods; he boasts of a code of ethic? 
equal in wisdom and amplitude to our own ; hr 
observes a religion which, while it touches the fs- 
tremes of purity in doctrine and of degradation in 
practice, is yet accommodated to every situation in 
life, and enables him, subject only to the test of duii- 
fid observance, to pass with confidence into a fiilure 
world. And he turns round to us, and, with .1 
l>ardonable self-confidence, asks what we have to give 
him compared with these. 

This i-s one aspect of the question — namely, lU 


convinced and embittered resistance of all classes to 
reform, and the fear that reform, if forced upon 
tim them, may dislodge some of the foundation- 

picion^ of 

Stones of that fabric of which they are so 

exorbitantly proud. On the other hand, must not 
some weight be attached to the consideration — ^which 
to the European mind appears so irresistible — that the 
first tentative steps have been taken in a forward 
direction, that the awakening trumpet has sounded 
in C^iina*s ears, and that once embarked on the path 
of progress, she is already launched upon an in* 
clined plane where it will be impossible for her to 
stop ? This is a plausible and a pretty picture, and 
even its approximate realisation might enable the 
Chinese — a nation superbly gifted and possessing 
unique advantages of character, country, and clime — 
once again to repeat the historj- of the ages and to 
overrun the world. Is this the future that awaits 
them ? Is this the fate that threatens us? 

I must have argued feebly if I have not already 
shown that in my judgment this consummation is 
TiH»rf*iity not either to be expected or to be feared, 
uai Keforni, it is true, cannot altogether be 

huhtled out of the door. Its force is like the wind 
that bloweth where it listeth, and can penetrate even 
throujrhthe cliinks and crannies. Doubtless in time, 
as from different quarters foreign railways touch the 
<»onfines of China, native railwavs will be made to 
meet them. A dav will come when mines will 1k» c»x- 
ploited, a decent currency adopted, and rivers will 
be navigated by steam. Neither, though China may 

370 CHIXA 

be overrun, and may even, as she has often done 
before, accept a change of masters, is she likely lo 
be submerged. She is for ever proof against sufh a 
fate by reason of her mor;\l character, her swarniing 
millions, and her territorial extent. The continued na- 
tional existence of the Yellow Race may be regarded 
as assured. But that the Empire which in the last fifty 
years has lost Siam, Burma, Annam, Tongking, and 
part of Manchuria, and has already seen a foreign 
army in Peking ; whose standard of civil and political 
perfection is summed up in the stationary idea: 
which after half a century of intercourse with minis- 
ters, missionaries, and merchants, regards all these 
as intolerable nuisances, and one of the number witli 
peculiar aversion ; which only adopts the lessons llni 
tliey have taught her when the surrender is dictated !>y 
her necessities or her fears ; and which after a t\r(-!;iy 
years' observation of the neighbouring exampU- '^i 
Japan, looks with increasing contempt upon a fniiliv -<> 
feeble and impetuous — that this Empire is likeh :•• 
falsify the whole course of its history and to ^vrein''; 
round the bent of its own deep-seated inrlinaiii'iis 
siiiiply because the shriek of the steam-whislle ur '^^^■ 
roar of cannon is heard at its gates — is a hypollie-i- 
that ignores the accumulated lessons of politi''*' 
science and postulates a revival of the age of uiinKv- 
I have narrated tlie stages of China's tardy ad\:ir.'- 
and I have shown how far she has condesremlui ■■ 
reform. But it remains a mechanical and in': -i 
moral advance, it is an artificial and not an orpv-' 
reform. She may still continue to play an im]M>ri;i^' 


part ill the development of the Asiatic world. Her 
hardy colonists may sail to every quarter of the 
Eastern hemisphere, and by their frugal toil may 
enrich themselves, while they fail to aggrandise her. 
Kut, politically speaking, her star is a waning and 
not a rising orb. Sedet ceternumtjue sedebit is the 
limit of China's own aspirations. It may even turn 
out to be beyond the limit of her ])ower8.^ 

' This problem is further discassed in chapter xii. 

B B J 




Is a previous chapter I have said something aboui 
Buddhism in Korea, where it ia the discredited Imi 
Chinese "Ot wholly disavowed survival of a once 
Buddhism jQjninant creed. I propose in this cliapit^r 
to deal with Buddhism in China, where. llimiL'!; 
decadent, it is still dominant, and wliere the explana- 
tion of its influence provides a clue to nianvofilif 
dark riddles of the national cliaracter. Buddhism in 
Cliina is indeed a curious mixture of perisliinj: ritn 
and popular superstitions. There is probably n" 
country wliere there are fewer evidences of faiili '•' 
devotion, or where, on the other band, an appaRiiiij 
doomed system dies so hard. From the squalid .wi 
dilapidated condition of the temples, from the iiuli'- 
ference and irreverence with which the worsliipprr-" 
enact their artificial parts, and from the mi^eni'!' 
status of the priesthood, it might be inferred that li.- 
days of Buddhism were numbered, and that a rivi. 
system was driving it from dishonoured sliriii^- 
Such, however, would be a most superficial vit-">' 


the case. This mysterious religion, which has sur- 
vived the varied competition of Bationalism, C!on- 
fueianism, and Ceremonialism, and which has an 
antiquity not far short of two thousand years in 
China, is yet the favourite creed of a community 
numbering 350,000,000; and despised and degene- 
rate though it be, it will still lift its head and smile 
its serene Buddha-smile long after its purer and 
prouder and more splendid counterpart in Japan has 
crumbled into the dust. 

The explanation of this strange anomaly is that 
the popular faith has witli rare discretion intertwined 
lUMpcr- itself with the popular superstitions. Partly 
creating and partly accommodating itself to 

them. Buddhism, involved in the sacred ties of 
Ancestor Worship, and claiming to dispense the 
portions of another life, has wrapped itself in a 
covering of triple brass, and can afford to laugli at 
its enemies. It has found the key to the inner bcinjr 
of this inscrutable people, and, in secure command 
of the lock, takes good care that none others shall 
tamper with the wards. It may safely be contenck*d 
that, were it not for the uneasv anxieties of i\w 
Chinese about their souls, and the universal aiul 
cherished cult of the Family Tree, and for the part 
played in relation to both by the Buddhist prifst- 
hood, Chinese Buddhism would long ere now havo 
languished and disappeared. I>i){nnas, tenets, rituaU 
and liturgy in themselves are of small im|)ort to tlu* 
Celestials. The statelv ceremonial of the offi( ial 
creed, the intellectual axioms of Confucius, the 

374 CHINA 

painted image-worship of the Buddhist temple, the 
mysticism of the Eationalists, or sect of Lao-tzu, 
produce little permanent effect upon their stolid 
imaginations. The beautiful teaching enshrined in 
the sacred writings as they came from India, the 
precepts that made white lives and brought tear- 
less deaths, that almost Christianised idolatry, and 
might have redeemed a world, have long ago died 
down into frigid calculations, tabulating in opposite 
columns with mathematical nicety the credit and 
debit accounts of the orthodox disciple. Tims on 
the one hand the people are plunged in gloomy dread 
of a hereafter, determined by the exact laws of moral 
retribution ; on the other, deeply embedded in the 
springs of their nature, is a fanatical attachment to 
their Lares and Penates, and to the worship of tlie 
dead ; and hence it comes about that the religion 
which, whatever its shortcomings and disqualifica- 
tions, ministers to their requirements in both these 
respects, is simultaneous!}'^ derided and advocated, 
neglected and espoused. 

No better illustration of this anomalous state oi 
aflairs can be given than the condition and public 
Contra- estiuiatiou of the Buddhist monks. A 
opin'ionof stranger will at first be puzzled by the 
opposite verdicts which he hears passed 
upon this class of men. He will liear them denounctni 
as contemptible outcasts, as pariahs from society, 
who have forfeited all the sympathies of humanity 
bv cutting themselves adrift from all human ties. 
And this is a sentence which to some extent finds its 


corroboration in their forlorn and decrepit appear- 
ance, in their cheerless mode of life, and in their 
divorce from the haunts and homes of men. On the 
other hand he will find these despised exiles supported 
by popular contributions, recruited by voluntary 
adherents, and engaged in the discharge of essential 
rites at the most solemn moments of life and death, 
and in the service to the dead. A grosser seeming 
contradiction can scarcely be imagined. 

And yet it is an identical feeling which is partly 
responsible for both attitudes, and which prepares 
itaes. ^^^ these unhappy creatures this opposite 
^"'*~*^ mixture of toleration and contempt. The 
peculiar sanctity of the family relations is one cause 
lx>th of their ostracism and of their employment. 
They are needed to discharge on behalf of others the 
very obligations which they have renounced them- 
selves. Expelled from the world because they have 
ignored the family, they are brought back into it to 
testify that the family is the first of all earthly ties, 
(•an anything more strange be conceived? It is a 
creed whose apostates are enlisted as its prophets, 
and whose perverts become its priests. 

When Sakvamuni first instituted the monastic 
onler, like St. Anthony he did not contemplate the 
oncimd ^'reation of a priestly office, or the rise of a 
^y^^^UJj^ hierarchy. The clerical profession had no 
'**^*" special connection in his mind with monkish 
life. The first Buddhist monks, like those of t4rypt, 
were pious men who, in pursuit of their master's 
teaching that worldly and carnal ties were the source 

of all evil, and tlie main obstacle to thai serene alti- 
tude of contemplal ion by which absorption into the 
higher life at length became possible, several them- 
eelves from their fellow-creatures, and sought remote 
and unfriended retreats for purposes of s}>irilual 
exercise and self-mortification. They were primarily 
recluses and seccMidarily preachers, but in no resort 
priests. It was otily in later times, as the first pattern 
was forgotten, and accretions developed by other 
countries and circumstances grew up, that the mani- 
fold accessories of sacerdotalisn, particularly amonir 
the peoples of the north, environed and obscured the 
original ideal. 

The logical carrying out of Buddha's precepts, 
however, brought the anchorite into earlv collision 
itfliiiver. ■with the most idolised beliefs of Chinese lilV. 
"™ The essence of monasticism, viz. the R'- 

pudiation of all earthly connections, the lifeloiii' 
abandonment of father, mother, brothers, and sisters. 
the surrender of the covenant of wedlock and ilit- 
hopes of paternity, above all the ulter severann' 
of the limb from the ancestral trunk, is the very 
antipodes of the highest conception of duty Ihat a 
Chinese can entertain. Hence arose the dishonour 
in which the monkish order has long been held, au'l 
from which it has only rescued its existence !')' 
abandoning its traditions. The monastery has in fact 
become the very converse of wliat Buddha eviT 
intended that it should be. The secular ha.« put ou 
the religious, and the monk has saved himself by 
turning priest. 


We have seen how indispensable are his ministra* 
oils in the worship of the dead, and in expediting 
ttriritmd ^^® happy transmigration of the departed 
•'*'*'^ soul. There the mummeries of the temple 
re enlisted to fill up the incomplete credentials of 
le deceased, and to visi his passport, so to speak, to 
nether world. To the more pious or superstitious 
here is no distinction between the two classes in 
hina) they are not less obligatory as a policy of 
piritual insurance, to be taken out with precaution- 
ry object during lifetime. The Chinaman is a firm 
eliever in the doctrine of justification by works ; he 
cp3Ct9 a return in the next life exactly proportionate 
) the labour and money he has spent or caused to 
e spent in deserving it in this. Every mumbled 
rayer, every tap of the drum, or clash of the cymbal 
y the paid hierophant whom he has engaged, will 
e rewarded by so much tangible gain in the next 
age of existence. Metempsychosis may bring him 
worse or a better lot ; he may groan in poverty or 
►11 in wealth ; he may sink to hell or rise to the 
?me of paradisal felicity in a future state. The 
uddhist monks are the established mediums through 
hom his merits may be demonstrated and made 
riown in heaven; and from whose hands he looks 
> receive his official diploma of celestial promotion. 

The isolation of the novice from all the ties and 
nisolations of life may well conflict with (liinese 
trMnnn prcjudices ; for it is ghastly in its complete- 
««i*r ness. Not only, as has been said, dcK's he 
►nounce all relationships and take vows of celiba(*y. 

S78 CHtA'A 

but lie casts aside even the ultimate symlwl of 
identity, his own name. From the hour thai he 
passes the convent threshold, he is known only hr a 
religious appellation, in the very grandiloquenct- of 
which there is something pitiful and absurd. IKtice- 
forward he must shave his head, eat no animal food, 
drink no strong drink, and wear no skin or woollen 
garment, but only the prescribed vestments of his 
order. His life is mapped out before him in a'sterJIe 
and dolorous routine. And not only has he ceased 
to be a member of domestic society, but as a unit 
in the civil community he can scarcely be said to 
exist. For he acknowledges no real allegiance to tlie 
Emperor, albeit tlie latter is of the family of llie 
Gods ; yielding a discretionary obedience to the civil 
authorities, with whom he rarely comes in coiit.i'i- 
but concentrating all capacity for duty in a slavish 
obedience to the jurisdiction of his abbot or relijiiou- 

Tlie terrible exclusiveness of this discipline, re- 
pellent though it is to Chinese ideas, would noi U 
PoiiDiar sufficient to account for the odium in wliiili 
"^""" the monastery is held, were it not for i!i'' 
suspicion that its stringency is a sham, and that tin- 
cowl is often either assumed as an escape from j ustiiv 
or worn as a cloak of hypocrisy. It is difficult, for 
(rbvious reasons, to discover how far the charge l!i:r 
fugitives from the clutch of the law shelter thenist-Ut- 
within the monastery walls is a true one, though i: i^ 
certain that when once admitted the culprit is j;i1i' 
from the bloodhounds of official retribution. I Iiavt 


even heard it argued, by way of repudiation of this 
charge, that it is only the most abandoned characters, 
fleeing from the penalties of a capital offence, who 
will take advantage of a refuge so discredited as the 
cloister; though to contend that a society is not 
criminaUy recruited because only criminak of the 
deepest dye can be persuaded to attach themselves 
to it, does not seem to me a very happy method of 
exculpation. I am reminded by it of an incident 
which I came across while travelling in Greece some 
years ago. The public executioner in that country 
was a character held in such general detestation that he 
was forced to live apart, strictly guarded, on a little 
island in the harbour of Nauplia. And not only 
that ; but such difficulty was experienced in filling the 
place, that the selected candidate was, as a rule, taken 
from the criminal class itself — a bandit being par- 
doned in order that he might be utilised to cut off 
the heads of other bandits. At the time of mv visit 
one of these worthies had just completed the term of 
his office, but whether owing to the unpopularity he 
had contracted by its discharge, or to the distrust he 
had inspired by his previous habits of life, he con- 
sidered himself in so much danger that he solved the 
problem of his future mode of exi8ten(*e by entering 
a monastery and assuming the cowl. In China he 
would presumably have taken this step at an earlier 
stage in his career. 

Whatever be the truth about the Huddhist 
monasteries in China as Cities of Kefuge, and whether 
the slur cast upon them by that suspicion be just or 

not, there is less room for doubt that the pattern of 
ascetic life to Trhich the monk is unders-iood to 
Common aspirs. '8 One to which he most iiifre- 
impostnre qugntiy fonfonus. His celibacy and his 
vegetarianism are freely impugned. It is ptTliaps 
only natural that the theory that drinking-water and 
vegetables are teeming with animalcules or with the 
germs of animal life, should be one which he in- 
dignantly rejects, seeing that were he to accept it be 
would be hard put to subsist at all, with any regard 
at least to the precepts of the Buddhistic canon. 
But, alas, he is the victim of more substantiai 
charges. It is whispered that the odour of meat and 
fish, and the tell-tale fragrance of the opium-pipe, are 
]io strangers to the recluse's cell. With greater 
certainty he is accused of being dirty, degraded, ami 
ignorant, of subsisting on alms which he does noiliiu.:: 
to merit, and of prostituting his worship into a 
mummery which he does not himself compreliemi 
If even a fraction of these charges be true, tliere can 
be small surprise that the monastic profession is Iield in 
so httle repute among a people who are by no nlean^ 
deficient in their standards of the sober moral Tirliic;. 
It may be wondered how a society held in smli 
sli^dit esteem, and offering so few advantages, save 
Difforent to tlic stupid or iudoleut, can continuallv 

iListws of '^ 

recruits replenish its ranks. The means of Ao'inii i" 
are, Iiowever, many and varied, even if we reject ''i'' 
criminal hypothesis to wliich I have alluded.' li; 

' It is scarcely poBsilile to clo bo, in the fnce of the eviileiu't oisvt^ 
an nutliority and eye-witness as the late .\rcLdeacon Gray, wlio.i" i^' 


some cases the children are bought at an early age 
from their parents; though so strong is the family 
feeling in China that it is only under pressure of the 
direst necessity that the average paterfamilias will 
consent, even for a price, to part with his offspring, 
particularly of the male sex. Sometimes the young 
children are kidnapped and sold to the priests ; this 
profession being, however, a dangerous one, as if 
detected it is punishable by death. More commonly 
young lads are voluntarily dedicated by their parents 
in fulfilment of some vow, or for the sake of spiritual 
gain, the transfer being effected with all the formali- 
ties of a mercantile transaction. It is forbidden, 
however, bv law to surrender the entire male stock 
of a familv to the cloister ; and in the event of there 
being two sons, the younger only may lx» sacrificed. 
A second class of adherents will be those who, from 
satiety of the world, or pecuniary collapse, or official 
failure, or material disappointment in some form or 
other, have decided to abandon the thorny paths of 
life, and to seek a safe retreat from its multitudinous 
cares. Lastly, there will be some, even in China 
and in the nineteenth centurv, to whom a life 
of joyless penance and austerity will appeal with 
irresistible force, as an expiation for the sins of the 
flesh, and a plank of passage into the world to come 
— sad, sorrowful wretches, after the pattern of 

mork on China^ eiubodying the c>x|H'n(iice of a lonj* life, H^ii.i (vol, i. 
clxap. iv.) thAt he hiiunelf ftaw at ditTerciit tinioH in ItuddhiHt inoiia^tt ri« h 
ao encaped murderer, a brothel -Iioum* kce{KT. and a condemned n U 1, 
whi> had been (gratefully adnntted beciiiiHe he pO!ii»e8sed a little uiuiii \, 
which went to rw^ell the coq>orate funds. 

St. Simeon, who live apart in isolated cells, ijerrr>rm- 
ing acts of cruel self-torture, and mumbliiiL' in 
solitude the accents of an unintelligible ritual. 

Their means of subsistence are as varied as the 
ranks from which their disciples are drawn. The 
HwuiBoi large monasteries possess endownieiii- of 
enoe property, principally in land, from which 

they derive an income, either in rent or in the profits 
of the cultivation of their own hands. Voluntarj' 
donations are also made to their funds by those who, 
while despising the monastery, cannot dispense with 
the services of the monk. The sale of joss-sticks 
and incense, of gilt paper and tapers, and the fees 
for services, ceremonies, and prayers, are also a 
considerable source of emolument. And when ali 
these fail, tliere is always begging to fall back up':i- 
tlie ultimate resort of all creeds in all ages. Tiir 
IJuddhist priests are no amaJeurs in the art vi 
mendicancy. Sometimes large bands of them iiny 
be seen patrolling the streets, and by the disconlaiit 
clamour of a gong calling attention to the unniiv 
takablc character of tlie errand which ha.'^ brmii'li 
them down into the thoroughfares of men. liy ilirsi' 
different methods they manage to scrape alone : ili-^r 
buildings and temples just saved from dilai/nhuiui: ; 
their persons and costumes in the last stage i.>i M'ttli 
ness and decay ; their piety an illusion, llifir pif- 
tensions a fraud ; themselves at once the saviuur- 
and the outcasts of soci(?ty, its courted ami \'' 

I have visited manv Buddhist monastcrit-s aiiu 


temples in China ; and have usually found that they 
correspond to the following description. Three 
ifmuutic buildings are ranged one behind the other 
^^^'^ on terraces, and approached by a series of 
paved courts and rows of granite steps. There is 
something solemn and unposing in this succession of 
structures, each one properly exceeding its prede- 
cessor in magnificence, and leading on the imagina- 
tion from what it has already seen to what is yet to 
come. It is an architectural device that we know 
was familiar to the Jews and £^[yptians, and that 
appears to be common to all Oriental religions. It 
is nowhere employed with greater effect than in the 
splendid Buddhist sanctuaries and royal mausoleums 
of Japan. 

The entrance gateway, which is of the nature of 
an open temple, sometimes contains a colossal gilt 
£iiirmnc« ^^^^ ^" ^^c Centre, representing Maitreya 
«*^*y Buddha (in Chinese Mili Fo), or Buddha To 
Come ; and on either side are the four diabolical- 
looking monsters, with painted faces and flaming 
eyeballs, who represent the deified warriors appointed 
to keep guard over the shrines of Buddha, and who 
svmbolise an absolute command over all the forces 
of earth and heaven. They are identical with the 
Maharajahs, or Great Kings, of Hindu mythology, 
who, attended by a host of spiritual beings, march 
hither and thither to the protection of devout dis- 
ciples and the execution of Buddha's will over the 
four quarters of the universe. In China they are 
known as the Tien Wong. One of them, with a 

white face, holds an umbrella, the circumference of 
which, when opened, overshadows the whole earth, 
and is lord of the forces of thunder and rain. 
Another, with a red face, controls the elemeiils of 
fire, water, and air, and plays ;i species of sirinji't-d 
instrument, the vibrations of whose chords shake the 
foundations of the world. The third, with a green 
face, brandishing a sword, and tlie fourth with a blue 
face, clasping a serpent, are typical of supreme 
dominion over nature and man. In these figures, 
which are common throughout China, and are 
uniform in design and monstrosity, the artist lias 
combined the hideous and the grotesque in ven~ 
equal proportions. But little skill seems ever to 
have been expended upon their construction. 

This gateway leads into a spacious paved court, 
at the upper end of which, on a granite plalfonn. 
j,„i„ rises the fabric of the main temple. A liu;.-- 

temple high-pitched tile roof almost eclipses dif 
front and side walls, which are commonly destitiiied 
ornamentation. The interior consists of a big par- 
allelogram, divided by circular painted columns imo 
thiee main and two side aisles. Fronting the prin- 
cipal avenues are the three familiar figures called iIk- 
Sanjjr Po, or Precious Ones, which are ahvavs fouinl 
in the churches of Buddhist monasteries, and wlii 'H 
are incarnations respectively of the past, the pre- 
sent, and the future Buddha ; or, to give them llnir 
correct titles, of Sakyamuni, Kwanyin, and Mailreu.' 

' Siuiittiiiips ill the iiiitin hall of Buddhist temples in Chins i!-' ' 
triiiLly rcproaents SokyamuDi in the centre, with tn-o of his must £tu>)-> 


These idols are made of clay, thickly gilt, and 
highly burnished. Their faces wear that expression 
of ineffable self-complacency which is common to 
the Buddha all over the East, but which, while in 
Japan it is always sublime, in China is apt to 
overslip the razor's edge into the ridiculous. The 
bodies are seated^ and rise from the calyx of a 
lotus-flower. Below the images are altars laden with 
weighty bronzes, with big candelabra, and with 
censers, a thin smoke curUng upwards from the 
slow combustion of blocks of sandalwood, or from 
sheaves of smouldering joss-sticks standing in a 
vase. On either side of the lateral aisles are ranged 
along a recess in the wall the smaller gilt figures of 
the Eighteen Lohans or Disciples of Buddha, whose 
features exaggerate the silliness, while they alto- 
gether miss the serenity depicted in the countenance 
of their illustrious master. The prevailing colours 
in the surface decorations of the columns and rafters, 
which are rudely painted, are everywhere red and 

When service is going on, the aisles are laid out 
with rows of long, low, sloping stools, upon which at 
intervals rest circular straw hassocks. Behind these 
stand the monks intoning the words of the prescribed 
liturg}'. The service is le<l by one of their numlx^r. 

di«eipl«s, KjubiApA, the fint patriarch, represented m an old man. 
on one aide, and Ananda, the second patriarch, as a young man. on the 
other. Sometimes the two iupportem are Ik>dhiaattwas, or pro8]xctiNe 
BoddhAs, who, in the evolution of their italvation, have renchcd tho 
penultimate stage; and of whom the best known is the jovial iiimst* of 
Maitieya, the Buddha To Come. 

who officiates at an isolated mat before the great 
altar. Their dresses are cut after one pattern, antl 
are dingy in the extreme, consisting of 
loose cotton robes of two colours — yellow 
and an ashen-grey — with turn-down collars, and a 
clasp in front. No monk is allowed, according to 
the strict regulation of the canon, to possess more 
than one set of garments, and this he is com- 
pelled to wear both day and night. Their heatls 
are clean shaven, a ceremonial which is performed 
about twice a mouth. Here and there on the bald 
craniums one may note small disc-like cicatrices, or 
scars, burnt in by the hand of the abbot alone, as a 
badge of their sacred calling, or in fiilfilin'-nt nf iumf 
particular vow. Their hands are piously folded in 
front of them, and the nails have been suflered lo 
grow to inordinate dimensions. 

The expression of their features is usually one of 
blank and idiotic absorption ; which is, perhaps, iio: 
VoxH surprising, considering that of the words 
>UM which they intone scarcely one syllable do 
they themselves understand. The mass-book is a 
dead letter to them, for it is written in Sanskrit or 
Pali, which they can no more decipher than fly. Tbr 
words that they chant are merely the equivalent 
in sound of the original sentences, rendered into 
Chinese characters, and are therefore totally devoid 
of sense. To this stale shibboleth, or ignorant repeti- 
tion of unmeaning sounds, they attribute a vital im 
portance.' It is, they point out, the sacred languai.''' 
' Compare Maithew vi. 7 : ' But when ye pray, use not viin :■■ 


of Fan (the birthplace of Buddha), and is therefore of 
divine origin and eflBcacy. The * blessed word Meso- 
potamia ' was not more fraught with consolation to 
the incurious Christian than is this stupid jargon to 
the Chinese bonze. Or let me give a more practical 
illustration. The case would be a similar one if the 
responses in an English church were to be uttered in 
the Oreek tongue, transcribed into English spelling 
and gabbled out by illiterate rustics — an absurdity 
of which, as a matter of fact, our chant-books are 
not altogether guiltless, seeing that the responses to 
the Commandments in the Conmiunion Service are 
always described in their pi^es as Kyrie Eleison, a 
phrase which must be gibberish to nine out of every 
ten choristers who read it. The effect upon a service 
so conducted, and still more upon the ministrants, is 
obvious. No sincerity can be expected of a purely 
phonetic devotion. It is vox et prceterea nihil. 

And yet we must not be too severe upon these 
benighted disciples of Buddha in the uplands of 
Tenant, the Celestial Empire. Other churches and 
htmmm Other crecds have been guilty of the same 
pretence, and have found a saving virtue in the 
use of an unknown tongue. Jew and Gentile, 
CTiristian and heretic, Catholic and Moslem, have jill 
acted upon the principle that the more restricted tlie 
understanding the more implicit the acceptance, and 
have imparted the secrets of salvation in accents that 
kept them secrets still, to be interpreted not l)y the 

peticioni, as the heathen do; for they think that they shall be heard 
for ihmr mach speaking.* 

V c J 

ear of sense, but by that of laitli. To this liny how 
many of the singers in the choir of a Catholio church 
understand even a. fraction of the Latin litany which 
they intone ? 

The murmur of the chant is accompanied by 
intermittent music from such instruments as the 
Oriental loves. An acolyte from time to 
time strikes a drum, the framework of which 
is of wood, carved and painted to represent a huge 
pot-bellied fish. Another tinkles a bell in the back- 
ground, and now and then breaks in the dissonant 
clangour of a gong. After a while a fresh note is 
struck ; and at the signal the priests separate into two 
companies, and proceed for a long time to wind in and 
out of the lines of stools in a slow and solemn pro- 
cession. Backwards and forwards, in ami out, triiii 
measured tread and even steps they pace along, their 
hands clasped, their heads bowed, their lips still mur- 
muring the same unintelligible refrain, in which may 
be distinguished the sounds Omito Fo (Aniitablia 
Buddha), the repetition of which many tliousands ol' 
times is pregnant with salvation. 

Behind and beyond the Main Temple extends :i 

second paved quadrangle, a further temple at ihr- 

upper end of which very frequentiv contain^ 

Reliquary J ^ . 

a marble dagoba, or sculptural reliquarv, wiili 
altars and shrines. Here is concealed some peculiarly 
sacred object, very possibly a tooth of the gre:v 
Buddha himself. Even devotees have been somi- 
what staggered by the number of these well-authenii- 
eated relics that are scattered througliout the E;isieni j 


world; and an early Chinese geographer, visiting 
Ceylon, and being everywhere shown tooth after 
tooth, ended by solemnly remarking of his master, 
^ He was bom with an excessive number of teeth.' 

At the rear and sides of the temples are the do- 
mestic premises of the monks ; the kitchen, where the 
Domestic daily rice is boiled in a huge earthenware vat ; 
i»r«miM» ^1^^ refectory, where on hard tables and harder 
benches it is consumed in silence under the super- 
vision of the abbot ; the guest-chambers reserved for 
the not too enervating entertainment of guests ; and the 
sleeping apartments beyond these, which can rarely, 
save by a euphemism, be so leniently described. 

The bodies of the monks themselves are in the 
greater part of China burned and not buried after 
death ; although in the north this is a privi- 
lege that is reserved for the Fang-chang, 
or head-priests. Contrary to the custom in Japan, 
where cremation is universal among the common 
people, in China it is only the prerogative or the 
peculiarity of the religious order. Each monastery 
contains its crematorium^ and its anripo saniOy where 
are deposited the ashes of the dead. Tlie body is 
placed in a sitting position in an open plank coffin, 
and is carried out to the furnace, which is of the sim- 
plest description, consisting merely of a small brick 
chamber or tower, standing by itself in a detached 
situation. There the corpse is placed upon the ground, 
surrounded and supported by fagots; the attendant 
nionks intone a chant; and tlie mortal remains of 
their departed brother are speedily reduced to ashes. 

while the smoke from the pyre escapes through a 
single orifice in the roof. Thus, unpretentiously and 
with scant attempt at decorum, the mortal coil is 
shuffled off, and its discharged inmate goes on his way 
to solve the great mystery. 


* To regere imperio popolos, Bomane, memento ! 
H» tibi erunt aries, pacisque imponere morem, 
Parcere sobjeotis, et debellare Buperbos ' 

ViBOiL, ^ntid VI. 851-8 



Prndens fiitari temporis exitmn 
Cali^oM noete premit Dens, 
Ridetqae d mortalU tilira 

Fas trepidat. Qaod adest, memeato 
Componere lequtis. 

Horace, Carm. III. 20. 

he two remaining chapters I propose briefly to 
I up the conclusions to which I have endeavoured 
to lead the readers of this book, and, in so 
far as they appear to justify so venturesome 
enteri)rise, to cast the horoscope of the future, 
•sire also to indicate the part that is now beinjj 
red, or is likely hereafter to be played, on the 
(*stic stage to which I have invited attention, by 
ffovemment and the citizens of mv own countrv. 
his first portion of my study of the kingdoms of 
Far Rist I have dealt with three States alone — 
an, Korea, and Cliina. Of these, Japan and 
iia are powerful Empires (though in ver}' different 
fes of the term) whose orbit in the firmament 
fiations mav claim a certain fixitv, and whose 
onal existence, in spite of tlie fact that their 


political boundaries are liable tu modification, is 
not likely at any time to be submerged. Korea, hh 
the contrary, belongs to a class of States of whom 
future fixity is the last attribute to be predicated, 
and before whom an aimous course of vicissitudes 
opens. Though nominally independent, her terri- 
tories are overrun by the armies of her jealous neigli- 
bours; though actually feudatory, she lacks the 
moral strength usually imparted by that tie. 

The superficial features of Japanese character 
and politics are known to all. Her nimble-witted 
The fatore *°*1 light-hearted people, the romantic 
Qt Japan environment of her past, and the astonish- 
ing rapidity with which she is assimilating all tba; 
the West has to teach her, have been praised wid. 
an indiscriminate prwligality that has already bei'i;:- 
to pall, and has not been without its bad effec;; 
upon herself. I conceive that no worse servii> 
could have been rendered to Japan than the pubi: 
cation of the last work in English which has bei-: 
dedicated to her charms by a well-known Eii^'H;- 
writer and poet. These overloaded enconiiunis H"' 
merely cloy the palate; they foster a growing ran:,' 
against which the Japanese require to be upon th^r 
guard, and which may, unless abated, both provot 
and deserve tlie chastisement of some smart rebut 
Japan is sure enough of a distinguished and evrc 
brilbant future, without being told that die U' 
exhausted the sum of all human excellences in '^ 
present. Moreover, a time of internal fermeniaii' 
lies before her in the attempt to graft a pur^-; 


democratic product on to a stem from which the 
feudal sap has not been entirely expunged, and to 
reconcile the widest aspirations of constitutional 
liberty with the relics of a theocratic rigime. This 
struggle will require the fullest measure of sense 
and self-control, and may, perhaps, not be tided 
over without crisis and suffering. From such a 
trial the patriotism of her people and the liberal 
sentiments of her statesmen are capable of bringing 
her forth, if not unscarred, at least with vitality 
unexhausted; and that in the course of the next 
quarter of a century she will take her place on a 
level of technical equality with the great Powers of 
the West may be accepted as certain. The Revision 
of the Treaties, effected just as these pages pass into 
the printer's hands, will free her from all artificial 
trammels, and while ratifying will also test her right 
to international autonomy. 

Japan has been blamed for squandering too 
much money upon armaments, military and naval, 
TiMGfmi ^^^ ^^^ neglecting the requirements of 
22?^'^ industrial and commercial expansion. It 
^^^■^ is true that her resources are capable of 

very considerable development, and that a prudent 
finance, already in part inaugurated, will greatly 
increase both the numbers and the prosperity of her 
people. But the critics to whom I allude lose sight 
of the part which Japan aspires to play in the Far 
East, and to which her present policy of expenditure 
and organisation is strictly subordinated. That part 
is determined l)y her geographical situation. Placed 


at a maritime coign of vantage iii>on the flauk of 
Asia, precisely analogous to tliat orcupied by Great 
Britain on the flank of Europe, esereising a power- 
ful influence over the adjoining continent, but no! 
necessarily involved in its responsiliilities. she seis 
before herself the aupreme ambition of becoming, on 
a smaller scale, the Britain of the Far East. By 
means of an army strong enough to defend our 
shores, and to render invasion unlikely, and stilt 
more of a navy sufficiently powerful to sweep the 
seas, she sees that England has retained that unique 
and commanding position in the West which was 
won for us by the industry and force of character 
of our people, by the mineral wealth of these islands, 
by the stability of our Government, and by the 
colonising genius of our sons. By sijiiilar nu-thoils 
Japan hopes to arrive at a more modest edition of 
the same result in the East. Like tlie English, her 
people are stubborn fighters and born sailors. If 
she can but intimidate any would-be enemy from 
attempting a landing upon her shoves, and can tij 
an unchallenged flag over the surrounding water*. 
■\vliile from her own resources she provides occup 
tion, sustenance, clothing, and wages for her people, 
she will fulfil her rule in the international politics ol 
the future. 

And how important a one this may be tl"^ 
who consider her ])osition in relation both to tii^ 
Tacific Ocean and to the neighbouring mainlai"' 
of Asia, in the light tliat is cast upon it by ib^ 
ambition of rival Powers, will easily be able 'f 


judge. The opening of the Canadian Pacific Ilail 
way and Trans-Pacific route on the eastern side; 
the ultimate completion of the Nicaragua or some 
other interoceanic Canal farther to the south; the 
maritime ambitions of Russia, already dissatisfied with 
her base at Vladivostok and thirsting for a Pacific 
commerce and a Pacific armament ; the impetus that 
will be lent to these desires and the revolution that will 
be produced in Northern Asia by the Siberian Kail- 
way ; the emulous zeal with which foreign Powers, 
England, America, France, and Germany, are snap- 
ping up the isles and islets of Oceania ; the connec- 
tion (certain to increase as time advances) between 
Japan and the British Colonies of the Australasian 
group — may in the course of the coming century 
develop a Pacific Question, the existence of which 
is now not so much as suspected, and the outlines 
of which can at present be only dimly foreseen. In 
the solution of such a question Japan, by virtue of 
her situation, should be capable of playing a con- 
siderable part. That she should be free to do so, 
mnd should develop the requisite moral force and 
strength (in both of which she is at present lacking), 
it is necessar}* that she should hold herself aloof 
from foreign entanglements, and, al)Ove all, that she 
should not come into sustained collision with her old 
mnd hereditary antagonist, China. Whatever might Ix* 
the issues of such a struggle — whether, as some aver, 
the superior ecjuipment of the smaller Power would 
J>revail against the administrative rottenness of tlie 
•, or whether, as more think, the mighty 

398 THE l-nOSPECr 

millions of the Yellow liace would roll back the 
stnaU island population into the sea — it is pn> 
foundly to be desired, in the interests of humauitr, 
that no Buch conflict should occur. That the tnie 
pohcy for Japan, ignoring tradition and historr and 
burying national antipathies, is a friendly onder- 
standing with China, interested like herself in keep- 
ing at a distance the single conunon peril — namely, 
the advance of the Muscovite from the north- 
appears to me self-evident, and is, I believe, appre- 
ciated by her own statesmen. Such a solidaritv, 
without taking the form of an offensive and defen- 
sive alliance, would be strong enough to preserve 
the balance of power in the Far East and to prepare 
the way by which Japan may attain to that high 
place which she yearns to fill among the nations of 
the world. 

To the existence of such a compact, Korea, upon 
which both parties look with an interested and 
Future ot jcalous Bye, is somewhat, as recent expe- 
^""'^ rience shows, in the nature of an obstacle. 
That that petty kingdom cannot expect for long to 
retain any real independence, the description which I 
have given will have shown. A palace intrigue, the 
death of a king or a queen, an internal rebellion, my 
at any moment produce an emeute or imbroglio, such 
as has already invited outside interference, and can 
only end in a diminution or abrogation of the natiouil 
claims to autonomy. The friends of Korea do wronj:l.T. 
in my opinion, in encouraging the latter pretensioi 
A country that is too weak to stand alone gain* 


nothing by an aflected indiflerence to external 
support. If Korea is not to collapse irretrievably, 
she must lean upon a stronger Power; and every 
consideration of policy points towards maintaining 
China in the position of protector which she has 
hitherto filled. After aU, Japan would sooner see 
* Korea a recognised vassal of the Middle Kingdom than 
she would see her under the heel of Bussia, or gaze 
upon St. Andrew's Cross fluttering in the harbour of 

The future of China is a problem the very 
inverse of that involved in the future of Japan. 
Fniiir«of "^^ ^^^ ^ ^ country intoxicated with the 
^^^ modem spirit, and requiring above all 
things the stamina to understand the shock of too 
sudden an upheaval of ancient ideas and plunge 
into the unknown. The other is a country stupefied 
with the pride of the past, and standing in need of 
the very impulse to which its neiglibour too incon- 
tinently yields. Japan is eager to bury the past; 
China worships its embalmed and still life-like corpse. 
Japan wants to be reformed out of all likeness to 
herself. China declines to be reformed at all. She 
is a monstrous but mighty anachronism, defiantly 
planted on the fringe of a world to whose contact 
she is indiflerent and whose influence she abhors; 
much as the stones of Solomon's Temple look dLovm 
upon an alley in modern Jerusalem, or as the Column 
of Trajan rears its head in the heart of nineteenth- 
century Bome. 

In the foregoing pages I have depicted in their 


own country ami capital the characteristics of this 
unlovely but admirable people. But I am uoi. sure 
The that tliey are not even more wonderful 

uoiieiu when seen outside their native laud. At 
Hongkong, Hanoi, Cholen, Singapore, Penang, Bang- 
kok, as also at Rangoon and Mandalay on the one 
side, and at Batavia and Manila on the other, thev 
have established great communities, living con- 
tentedly under alien laws, and drawing into their 
fingers the reins of a multiform and lucrative com- 
merce. Not merely do they absorb and freqoentlr 
monopolise the retail trades, but they farm the State 
monopolies ; they run big steamships and own im- 
mense mills ; they float companies with large capital : 
they own and work productive mines. Under 
British protection 200,000 of them live sereneh' i:. 
the city of Hongkong, and 180,000 on the island of 
Singapore. In the adjoining native State of Jobom 
210,000 out of a total population of 300,000 ar. j 
Chinese. Throughout the Malay States thev far 
outnumber the Malays. InSiam there are said to It 
between two and three millions of the Yellow Kace. or 
nearly one-third of the entire population. Freed Iron; 
the exactions and inquisition of their own Governrati);. 
they develop on foreign soil, and for the edification of 
foreign commerce, the very qualities which if applif' 
to the regeneration of their own country might mii'' 
her once again tlie mistress of the Eastern world. 

It is sometimes questioned whether this evi-; 
increasing flood of Chinese emigration mav noi ii- 
stitule an ultimate danger to the countries wliic!.; 


overruns, and whether the invasion of the hordes of 
Jinghiz Khan is not capable of a milder twentieth- 
xhe century reproduction. These apprehensions 

chi^7f^L hsLve recently received a fresh and fonnidable 
impetus from the encouragement given to 
them in the scholarly and remarkable work of the late 
Mr, Pearson.* Therein, supported by much learn- 
ing, confirmed by ingenious analogies, and rendered 
attractive by a luminous and agreeable style, may be 
found developed at length the dismal thesis that the 
future of Eastern Asia, if not of parts of Central Asia 
also, is not for the White but for the Yellow Race ; 
and that neither Great Britain, nor France, nor Russia, 
but China, is the Power into whose hands will pass 
the predestined sceptre of the Far East. With l)oth 
the premises and the conclusions of Mr. Pearson's 
fascinating but melancholy argument I find myself 
in total disagreement. Before explaining, however, 
the points and grounds of difference between us, let 
me summarise Mr. Pearson's propositions as far as 
possible in his own words. 

With the view of sustaining his main and uliimate 

induction, Mr. Pearson first marshals tlie eviden(*t*s, 

ifr. Pmf. ^ '^^ conceives them to be, of the powtT 

m^nu^ a"^l vitality of China. lie points to her 

recoveiy of the revolted province of ('liiiu*se 

Turkestan or Kashgaria from Yakub Beg in 1874-7; 

lie savs she dominates K(^rea; and he nniinds 

Us that she succeeded in finally stam})ing out the 

' Satiomal Life and Chatitctrr^ a Forecast, by C. H. Pearson. 


Mohammedan rebellion in Yunnan. These are the 
testimonies to her internal orgiiiiisalioii and slrenpih. 
Casting his eyes over a wider range, lie next oV 
servea the phenomena to which I have alreaily 
alluded. He sees (_'hinameii iloodin^i; Singapore aul 
the Malay Peninsula, beginning to settle in Bometi 
and Sumatra, encroaching upon the labour markets 
of California and Australia, and already supplantin<; 
the natives in Hawaii and other islands of the Pacific. 
He draws attention to the flexibility and versatiliiv 
of the Chinese character, to their easy adaptation lo 
extremes of climate, to their excellence as labourers, 
their industry as merchants, and their dociUty a? 
colonists. Finally, he contemplates the actiuisition 
by the Power thus endowed by nature, of the n' 
sources of modern invention, of a network uf niii 
ways connecting the great cities of the Empire ui;! 
each other and with adjoining countries, of telegra[':.; 
and steamers, of the use of foreign capital, of br^'f 
armies drilled and equipped on the European nuxLC 
of artillery and scientific implements of war. aT;i!. j 
above all, of tlie leadersliip of a really great iiiai- 
Xav, intoxicated by the enchantment of I lie picrur 
lie is actually willing to dispense witli the hist-iia:i.i' 
advantage : — 

'Tbe Cliinese do not need even the accident of a 
genius to develop tlieir magnificent future. Ordinary 
mansliip, adoptinji the improvements of Europe. witl(>=' j 
ofTendinjT the custmus and prejudices of the peopK-, may n«3 I 
them a State which no Power in fhirope will dare to ili-r- I 
f,'iird ; with an army which could march by fixed stages a 


Asia, and a fleet which ooald hold ite own against any that 
the strongest of European Powers oonld aflbrd to keep per- 
manently in Chinese waters.' ' 


Sucli being the grounds of his confidence in the 

future of China, Mr. Pearson next proceeds to iudi- 

Hm mw ^^^ what in his opinion she may be expected 

JnS^ to do. • On three sides of her lie countries 

**'**^ that she may easily seize, over which very 

often she has some old claim, and in the climate of 

which her people can live. It is more than probable 

that some of these will pass under Chinese rule.* 

Borneo will certainly be hers. * Expansion towanls 

the south and south-west seems most probable ; but 

?he is not debarred either towanls the north and 

rest.' Nepal might be wrested from England, parts 

f Turkestan from Russia, and the Amur Province 

Dm the same Power. The danger of this military 

vance would be still further accentuated if China 

:'ame a Mohammedan Power. 

Finally Mr. Pearson sums up his presentment 

the triple future that awaits his protege^ as a 

„£ colonising Power, a military Power, and a 

^""* trading Power, ar.d the rorres|)onding de- 

that threatens the Caucasian stock, in the 

s\\\\l lau'aia^e : — 

n t)u' whole it ^eems difficult to doubt that the black 

How belt, which always encircles the globe lh*twi^*n 

>pics. will extend its area and deepen its colour with 

The work of the white man in thent^ latitudes is 

introduce order and an acquaintance with the be.nt 

• Sat tonal Character^ p. lltL 

D D 2 


industrial methods of tlie AVeat. The countries belong to tiieir 
autochthonous races ; (mi these, though they may in pan* 
accept the white mun ns a conqueror and organiser, irill 
gradaally become too strong and unwieldy for him to con- 
trol ; or, if they retain him, will do it only with the condition 
that he assimilates himself to the inferior race. , . , Tiie 
citizens of the black and yellow races «ill then l>e takeu up 
into the social relations of the white races, will throng the 
EugUah tnrf or the sa'ons of Paris, and will be admitted to 
intermarriage. . . . D^a anyone doubt that the day is at 
hand when China will have cheap fuel from her coal-mines, 
cheap transport by railways and steamers, and will htn 
founded technical schools to develop her icdasbnes ? When- 
ever that day comes, she may wrest the control of the worid'a 
markets, especially Ihronghont Asia, from England sal 
(■ermany. ... A hundred years hence, when the Chinese, 
Hindus, and negroes, who are now as 2 to 1 to the higher raw*. 
shall be as 3 to 1 ; when they have borrowed the ■icience-!' 
Kiirope and developed their still virgin worlds, tlif Iln^'-^;re 
of their competition upon the white man will be trre>i?til'^ 
Hi" will be driven from every neutral market, and forced p 
confine himself within his on-n. . . . With civilisalioti e-inalij 
diftused, the most populous country must ultimately be ti^ 
most powerful; and the preponderance of China over a=^ 
rival — even over the United States of America — is liboh ^' 
be dverwhi'lming.' 

It will be conceded that Mr, Pearson has m'! 
ciTt'd on the side of timidity in this forecast, at onrt 
oi>i,.,tiiii. ^^ compliiiientary to China and so lugtibrinia 
i^ioTn^'" for ourselves, and that the colours of hi* 
palette are applied with no hesitatitii: -t 
|)ieceineal brusii. One objection alone he atln^t* 
and that in order lo refute it. Tlie theorv of f^ 
tiiiued Chinese expansion outside Cliina propermii'J' 
seein to be qualified by the enormous unoccup-^^ 


area at her disposal within. Equivalent in size to 
twenty-two, or, as others say, to twenty-six Englands, 
she could maintain a population of 650,000,000 or 
750,000,000; i.e. she might increase for fifty years 
before requiring relief by exodus. In fact, from her 
superior fertility, China could support more in- 
habitants than England to the square mile, and 
might duplicate her numbers before she needed to 
trouble her neighbours. To which considerations 
might be added the conservative genius of Chinese 
government, and the discouragement offered to native 
emigration. This line of reasoning Mr. Pearson 
answers by pointing out that though the Taipin<r 
Bebellion forty years ago, which lasted for fourieon 
years, cost China from twenty to fifty million lives, 
and though between 1842 and 1882 the nation is 
calculated to have decreased by thirty millions, yet 
it was during this very period that she continued to 
pour her colonists into Siam, Malaysia, the Straits 
Settlements, America, Peru, and Australia. 

I have now summeil up, I hope with fairness, 

Mr. Pear8on*s argument, and will proceed to sIidw 

, why, in my opinion, it is for the most part 

^^Uf. unsound. I am conscious, of course, of t lie 

extreme fallibility of any individual specula- 

Itions as to the future ; and am quite prepared to 

1>elieve that a priori my own forecast is more likely 

be invalidated than one proceeding from so ac- 

plished a scholar as Mr. Pearson. Hut if \\w 

ter writer had, as I l>elieve, never been in China, 

Ibot only studied the Chinese (question from the 


academic dislauce of ;m Australian study ; and if, 
further, I can show his premises to be of questionablt; 
validity and authority, there will be some reason for 
regarding his conclusions with suspicion : the more 
so that they are, to the best of my knowledge, sliantl 
by no contemporary authority who either knows or 
has resided in China itself. 

I will follow Mr. Pearson's reasoning in the order 
in which he has himself displayed it, premising that 
Alleged much of it has already been answered iu 
of China anticipation in the pages of this work. The 
suppression by China of the rebellions in Kashgar 
and Yunnan justifies no such complimentary inference 
;is Mr. Pearson has drawn. The former depended 
only upon the personality of a single individual. 
Y;ikub ]ieg, appealing to religious fanaticism aii'l 
inking advantage of llie military weakness of Cliim 
at a distance of 3,500 miles from lier base. Wi:!i 
llic removal by poison of the usurper, the niovviuti.i. 
almost witliout fighliiig, collapsed. Similarlv il*- 
Taijiing and Mohammedan rebellions, so far fna 
testifying to the might of China, denumstrateil ilf 
t'nll measure of her weakness; for the resource; I'l' 
llie Empire were strained almost to breakiiiLT ]>'-■'"■' 
hi cope with the double peril, which not les> tli-i!"- 
twenly-five yenrs of fighting were recjuired Iu ^up■ 
])re-s. Jly account of the situation in Korea «:- 
h;iv<' shown tJiat however creditalile to iheasinie.'K^' 
(if llie suzerain Power, China's authorilv there I'l^ 
.sciircely be cited as an evidence of niatt>ri:ii 
military strength. 


I next turn to the argument based upon the 
colonising genius of China, as illustrated in the 
Thi» maritime countries and islands of the Far 


qo«*tion East, as well as in more distant lands 
possessing a frontage on the Pacific Ocean. It is 
assumed that the steady infiltration of Chinese 
emigrants into these regions, and the control of the 
lal>our market which they so rapidly acquire, are 
the inevitable precursors of a complete political 
and commercial domination. These anticipations I 
do not share. Chinese emigration I believe to l)e 
dictated by the animal interests of self-maintenance, 
and l)y the craving of masculine labour to find an 
outlet, which is denied to it bv the selfish and 
rapacious tyranny of the Chinese administrative and 
economic svstem at home ; * and to be divorced 

* Since writing these words I have met with a curious confinna- 
tion of their accuracy in the report of a Chinese official, who waa sent 
by his Govemiiient as Consul-General to Singapore in 1898, to report 
U)x>n the reasons which induced so many thousand Chinamen to 
ruluntarily expatriate themselves under foreign dominion. He wrote : 
• When asked why they do not take the opportunity of returning and 
settling in their native land, their knitted brows and h-owning coun- 
tenances might be observed, and the following complaints were 
generally made: They said that they feared the 8<i-ciilled ** investiga- 
tions" of their local mandarins; the oppression of the f/*imr«-under- 
ling^ ; and the extortions of their clansmen and neighbiturs, inHtaiices 
of which could be given without number. They complained that 
those who happened to return home had been maliciously nccusetl as 
pirates and robbers; as purchasers of contraband in anns and ammu- 
nition in order to supply sea pirates; and as bu>erH and kidimppirs 
of coolie slaves for the purpose of supplying foreign niffiniiH. St»uie 
of them ha<l had their baggnge and beb»iiginj:s - the savings t»f vears - 
forcibly taken away from them and partitioned nmongst local nittiaiis ; 
antl some hail had their hou^^es pulled down and were forhitMtii to 
build o\\ the land uf tlieir liu\iiig. .\l«»ne niul unpn)t«*cl«'d. toiiHitUri il 
to be strangem and aliens amongst tiuir own kindred, to \%honi could 
they apply for help, surrounded as they were on all sides by rapacious 


from any ulterior intent of conquest or dominion. 
The Marquis TsPiig, in his famous article,' wrote as 
follows : — 

'The Chinese have never been an aggressive rotif. His- 
tory shows them to have always beea a peacffal [lenple. ami 
there is no reason why they should V' otherwi^i- in ihe 
future, China lias noneof that laad-hunger so cbaracU'rifelic 
of other nations, and, contrary to what is ifeneraUy bi-Jifv«i 
in Europe, she is under no necessity of finding in other land* 
an outlet for a eurplns population. Considerable nunilvrx of 
Chinese have at different times been forced to k-avi- ihi-ir 
lioines, and push their fortunes in Cuba, Pern, Iht- I'nitMj 
States, aud the British Colonies; but this must bt- imput-d 
rather to the poverty mid ruin in which they were invoUni 
by the Taiping and Mohammedan rebellions, than to lie 
difficulty of finding the means of subsistence under ordinary 
conditions.* In her wide dominions there is n)oni and t ■ 
spare for all her teeming population. What China naiUs i; 

hawks, of high and low degree? Hence, having taken a lesson fr-n 
experience, none of the wealtliier Chinese in foreign conmries can J 
to return to the land of tlieir onctslorB. Those who did rq to Chuii 
to trade or travel, wenl either aa British or Dutch subjects- under :;• 
jirototlion of ii foreign Government.' A further coiilirmation o( lb- 
Biinic opinion is ftirnished by a recent lecture of a well-knonn Piit-t 
I'rofessur, Dr. de GrooC, of Lejden, wlioee countrjuien in ihf Fjh 
Indies apjiear to have been seized with a similar panic to Mr. re»r«':. 
Jle arj,'Ties in reply that these fears are either baseless or ptwi^> 
cxagKerlited, and must be traced in the main to palpable i^orv.rt 
regarding the chief caupes of Chinese emigration, which he limil* '- 
the two protinces of Kunngtiing and Fnkien. Thene causes lie dewni'': 
as the absence of irrigntiou and dearth of rain, the priniilive c 
iif Hgricultiire, the disconragenjent and non-eiistence of nativi 
tries, the snperabnndance of da^' labourers, and (lie tow rate o 

' ' China, the Sleep and the Awakening," -i»ia(ic Qnarterly Krr'n 
.Tnnnary 1H87. 

' This Blatcnient ciinnot be hiiplicitl.v accepted, seeing 1 
emigralion of Chinauieii to the jKirts and islands of llie Ki^mt: 
Arcliipclngo, and to Aiislrnlia and America, had begun long bcfi>r«n» 
Taiping or Mnhamiuedan rebellions ; and was the natural con^^o'^ 
of poverty acting upon an overcrowded population. 


not emigration, but a proper organisation for the equable 
(listribution of the population. In China proper much land 
has gone out of cultivation, whilst in Manchuria, Mongolia, 
and Chinese Turkestan there are immense tracts of country 
which have never felt the touch of the husbandman.' 

This reasoning is for the most part true, though 
it is to be regretted that neither ihe Marquis Tseng 
nor any other Chinese statesman seems to have 
persuaded his Government to deduce from it the 
only practical lesson, viz. that public works in China 
would provide that very occupation and outlet for 
lack of which expatriation is forced upon her 

An examination of the Chinese emigrant com- 
munities in British, French, Dutch, or Spanish 
chanu-w territories, leads to the same conclusion iw 

of Chinese , -i • t-* 

coionuu to their character and objects, ror, on 
the one hand, the Cliinese are by nature tractable, 
orderly, and content to be governed. They fully 
appreciate the benefits of a just and organised 
administration. In a petition which was being 
signed while I was in Singapore, praying for a 
continuation of the term of office of the retiring 
Governor, Sir Cecil Smith, the Chinese population 
of the colony mentioned among other grounds of 
his popularity and of their gratitude, his suppression 
a few years before of the Chinese Secret Societies, 
which were as much a curse to themselves as tliev 
were a danger to others. On the other hand, tlie 
Chinese population in the above-mentioned places 
is of a two-fold character. Either it is comi)osed of 


a floating element who come down from Cliina to 
make money for themselves, because there are a better 
opening and higher wages than at home, but wlio 
contemplate as speedy a return as possible to their 
native country ; or it consists of a sedentary p<ipu- 
lation, who never mean to go back at all, because 
they prefer the cily of their adoption, and liav>r 
married the women of the country. Ugly as is the 
Chinaman to the European eye, he possesses the gift, 
unique in the world, of making himself acceptable 
as a husband to the women of half-a-acore of different 
races. He weds, with equal readiness and satisfac- 
tion to both parties, the Korean, the Annamite, the 
Cambogian, the Siamese. (With the Malays, wlu 
are Mohammedans, it is, of course, different.) Xlii; 
connubial facility is an element on the side of onit-r 
jind iiood conduct, for it establishes him, not merely 
as a wanderer, but as a contented citizen in ibr 
laud of Moab. At the same time it severs him. h' 
lo speak, from the parent stock; for he loses ih; 
coiiiicction with the mother country which a Cliiiu-v' 
spouse and connections would fortify, while ilf 
ensiling generation is hybrid both in origin an-i 
synipalhy, I doubt, indeed, whether emigrants liav 
ever anywhere established a permanent doiuiiiio!.. 
wh<i did not bring their wives along with them. 

Passing from thence lo the arginneut that rt-j'j 
upon llie <'apal)Ilities of China as a great^' 
Power, I have said enough in ])revious pages of ti.> 
liook lo show tliat in my judgment any sucli <-:■ 
niatL' is a delusion. Many European writers app.i'' 


to think that because China has so many millions 
of stalwart and tough-limbed sons, she must there- 
Miiiunr fore possess so many hundred thousands of 
of Chin* excellent fighting soldiers ; and that because 
she has arsenals, where, under European eyes, she 
turns out European cannons, projectiles, rifles, car- 
tridges, and powder, she has therefore an organised 
force capable of being placed in the field against, 
and of giving serious trouble to, a European army. 
No such opinion has, I believe, ever been entertained 
or advanced by a competent critic. There is no 
country in the world where the military profession 
is of smaller account, or where the science of war- 
fare is less intelligently studied than in China. The 
phrase cedant arma togce is there no aspiration for 
honourable peace, no sigh of satisfaction over the 
conclusion of a successful campaign, but is the con- 
fession of an abiding contempt for the art that 
prefers the sword to the pen. The Chinese army, 
under Chinese officers, even with muskets in its 
hands and cartridges in its pouclies, is an undisci- 
plined rabble of tramps, alx)ut as well (|ualified to 
withstand a P^uropean force as a body of Hyde Park 
processionists would be to repel a charge of the Life 
Guards. Whatever the Chinese rank and filt* have 
already shown themselves capable of doing under 
Eurojiean lead, whatever they mijjlit do wwv siu li 
lead repeated in the future,* they are, viewed as a 

' I All) not here tliHCusKinj; the c«»ntinj;i*ncy, which I htiM' ilst-- 
where contemplated, of the Cliinese forces beinj; uiilistul for |>ur|)«i**e-» 
of defence, or even ultiniiitely of offence, by an ahen Toutr either in 
complete or in partial occupation of the country, or placed (in virtue 


national aiiuy, a relatively inferior mJUtAry instni- 
raent to the weakest contingent in the force of the 
feeblest European State. 

Under these conditions, which might be prediclwl, 
in a scarcely less degree, of the naval as well as of 
chiiwH the military forces of China, to talk, a.s Mr. 
impoaBibis i'earson does, of a Chmese army marching 
by fixed stages across Asia, or even confining itstlf 
to the more humble operation of recovering the 
adjoining countries which once acknowledged ilie 
sovereignty of Peking, appears to me the wildest 
freak of fancy. No one who had the least acquaint- 
ance with the state of the frontier garrisons in 
Kashgaria, or with the feelings of the Mohamme- 
dan popidation of those regions, could ever sp^ak 
seriously of Cliina wresting from liussia any poriiim 
of Eastern Turkestan. The idea of her nian-liini: 
through Tibet, and across the Himalayas, to rt-covr: 
Nepal from Great Britain, is scarcely less fani:i>li''; 
while, on the day when Russia is compelled \<) 
military or diplomatic repulse to hand bark to lirr 
tlie Amur Province, it will no longer be possible :» 
return a negative answer to the question of il^ 
American poet — 

Is civilisation a failure, 

And is the Caucasian plaved out ? 

rif H coinpnct with (lie Chinese GovemmentJ in control of the iiiiii-A-' 
iiiid nnval forces of the Empire. Such a use of the Chine*i' «.ii.v 
which is not bo utterly improbable in the far future as to be unwi'ii^.^ 
of cons iJeml ion, lui^'ht invest Cliina with a defensive st^eD^■Ih >• 
present undrennied of; nnd might even (though this is loss liUh 
fiURRest ideas of e:ipanBion. But it is obvioiia, ex hypotheti, th«i i^ 
Biilhority bo extended would not be that of Chinese sovereij,'ntv. »t^' 
is the particular point raised by Mr. Pearsoa's arfftiiiient. 


To an even more nebulous future, into which not 
even the charms of an unfettered imagination will 
The drfwn scducc mc, belongs the epoch when, accord- 

of bocia] 

apoihwww ing to Mr. Pearson, Chinese gentlemen will 
throng the salons of Paris and the clubs of Pall 
Mall; when a Chinese patron of the turf will lead 
back to the weighing-room a winner of the English 
Derby ; and when the problem of superfluous woman- 
hood will be solved by the apparition at Christian 
altars of eligible Chinese husbands. 

What Mr. Pearson appears to have lost sight of, 
in casting his political horoscope for China, is on the 
infloenr« ouc hand thc influence that must inevitably 

of n*tioruU . • t i r i 

chArmcter be cxcrciscd upon It by the faults as well as 
the virtues of the national character, by the moraU 
of Chinese officialdom, and by the quality of Chinese 
administration ; on the other hand the lessons of 
history, which are written in characters so large that 
he who runs mav read. He omits from consideration 
the Chinese system of government — short-sighted, 
extortionate, universally corrupt — and the temper of 
the people, averse from national enterprise, untrained 
to conquest, devoid of patriotic ardour, content to 
stagnate. In the face of these obstacles not even the 
exemplary sobriety of Chinamen, their industrial 
energy, or their genius for accumulation, can turn 
that which is a stationarv if not a recedin*', into a 
dynamic and aggressive force. 

We are led by the teachings of history to the 
same conclusion. 80 iixv from takin*; naturallv to a 
career of conquest, it is rather in her power of assimi- 


lating tliose by wliora she has herself been con- 
quered, that China has displayed her greatest Gtrcii^lli. 
LesaoDiof T^o and a half centuries ago the millions 
*«tt«j pC pijJu^ succumbed easily to the assault nf 
a few hundred thousand Tartars, whose ynlte ificv 
have ever since contentedly borne. Four centuries 
earlier they had in similar fashion accepted a Mon- 
gol master. What the Mongols did, and what the 
Manchus did, I fail to see why others should not do 
after them, whose power, as compared with theirs, is 
in the same ratio as a field-gun to a Boman catapult, 
or a repeating rifle to the cross-bow. Nay, the work 
of detrition has already begun and proceeds apacf; 
nor is it the least peculiar feature of Mr. Pearson'^ 
daring forecast that it should have been framed in 
an epoch which, so far from revealing any spnptom- 
of recovered or expanding strength, has on tlie con- 
trary witnessed a steady and still unarrested derliiiv 
I( is entirely during the last half, and mainly dunii;.' 
the last quarter, of a century that Tongking. Aiiuaui. 
and Cochin China have been wrested from the prnfp 
of China by France, that Siam has repudiate*! Vr 
ancient allegiance, that Burma, once a vassal, hi- 
been absorbed into the British system, tliat i!:'' 
Liiichiu Islands, also a tributary State, have Urn 
allowed to pass tacitly into the liands of Japan.' dia: 
Korea has become a pl.iyground for the je.ilO"j 
rivalry of foreigners, that the Amur and I'sjun 

' Tlif ftnncxntion by Jnpan of (he Liuchiu Islands, whioh hjJt' 
centuries necepted the overlordship of Chinn. and had aeni an taxai 
Tnbiitc Mifision to I'ekini;. was the outconie of the Fonnosan ExptJi^i'i 
ill 187-1. Tlie Chinese behaved feebly in the matter; andihe Japacf^ 
who swaggered and assumed the offensive, won. 


Provinces have been pusillanimously ceded to Russia. 
And yet, in face of this unbroken record of con- 
traction, against which there is nothing to set but 
the recovery of Kulja,^ we are invited to believe that 
the Power which has suffered this continuous diminu- 
tion is on the threshold of a mighty revival, and is 
predestined to overrun the universe. 

Another danger which Mr. Pearson has over- 
looked, and which, though it need not seriously affect 
1^,,,^^^^ the national existence of China, must yet 
r^btUioii cripple her power of external advance, is the 
chance of internal disruption. The items that com- 
pose the vast congeries of peoples and communities 
still acknowledging the Chinese sway, are but loosely 
strung together. Even if we omit from consideration 
the Tibetans, the Mongolians, and the enormous mass 
of Turki and Mussulman subjei^ts, ever hovering on 
the brink of revolt, there is in China proper little or 
none of that cohesion which is essential to national 
strength. Each province is an independent unit, 
with its own government and army, capable in times 
of convulsion of breaking away without difficulty 
from the central fabric. No real bond of union con- 
nects the northern with the southern portions of the 
Empire, whose peoples cannot even understand earh 
other's dialect. In some of the outlying provinces 
the lower orders, though lijihtly taxed, are plun^'fd 

' rhiiui has i^ceived aii even f^paU*r credit than she tlesenois f<»r 
Ihiii arhievement, which was a pc^nK^nal triumph for tho dtploiimrv of 
th« Mar(|ui* Taeoff. In cuntentin^ to the retroco»»ion. which waM, 
after all. the fhltilment of a aolenin comiiact, UuMia ti»ok very c«imI 
care to f^et her quid pro quo, which there wai nothing in the compact 


in chronic penury. The authority of the dynasty is 
maintained by its sacrosanct associations, by a highlr 
organised and interested official hierarchy, and bv the 
prestige of Peking. But were the capital ocriipieJ 
by an enemy, as it could be wiih very litllf dilliruliy 
(particularly by an enemy advancing from the north), 
the Emperor expelled, and the dj-nasty overturned, 
it is doubtful whether China would peraevere in any 
protracted resistance, or initiate a policy of revenge. 
The various elements of disorder scattered throughout 
the Empire would each find its local focus, aud a 
reign of emulous anarchy and universal dislocation 
might be expected to ensue. 

What then, it may be asked, it this picture of a 
resuscitated and conquering China be rejected as a 
tii.t™i brilliant extravaganza of the imagiiKiiion. i- 
J'B'ii'j ^j,g aUeriiative future that mav be anii^v 
[Kited for this extraordinary people? As re.iranls il/-- 
physical diffusion of the Yellow Kace, Mr. Pe:ir>"r. 
is possibly right. Borneo and Sumatra and Xe^r 
Oninea will be the industrial spoil of her friL'a' 
colonists. She may completely swamp the M;ilai; 
ill Malaysia ; she may gain a firmer foothold in ?^iaiu. 
Her intrepid sons may cross the ocean and knook at 
new and unsuspected portals. Whether a ilancli: 
luiiperor handles the vermilion pencil in the hall*"' 
tlie Forbidden City, or whether for the prodaniatior- 
of the Son of Heaven is substituted tlie uk;u-^e I'fa 
^Muscovite Tsar, tliat expansion, like tlie swelhtii"-: 
llie sap within the rind, will continue. But extfti^i''': 
of race is not the same thing as extension of eiupir't 


and physical multiplication may even be a symptom 
of political decline. The extinction of Cliina is im- 
possible and absurd. A population of 350,000,000 
human souls cannot be extirpated or bodily trans- 
ferred. On the contrary, I believe it will increase, 
and swell, and continue to overflow. But in this 
movement I detect no s«ed of empire, and I foresee 
no ultimate peril for the White Race. 

On the contrary, I think it may be argued that 
European administration and protection are essential 
iuc« and conditions for the continuance of that very 
••tnpire progress which is supposed to constitute 
their peril. It is in British communities and under 
the security of British rule that the expansion of 
Chiner?^ energies has hitherto attained its maximum 
development. ^Vhy is the Yellow Race to turn round 
and rend its benefactors? Why is it to destroy the 
very system to secure which it acquiesces in expa- 
triation from its own country, and to erect a repro- 
clurtion of that from which it has fled? To mo it 
appears no more improbable tliat Cliinamen should 
4'ontinue to accept European domination, in any 
rountry to which the overflow of population may 
propel the emigrant stream, than is the spectacle of 
their present condition in Hongkong or Singaport*. 
The Yellow belt in the Far ICast mav ron(*(ival)lv 
snatch from tlie White the Imlk of tlic spoils ot* coni- 
nierce, and the best of the wages of toil ; but 
it will ever seriouslv clutch at the krvs of i*nn)irr, 
or rhallenge tlu* racial dominion of the Wot. I am 
<|nite unable to believe. 

i: K 




Urhve mother ot tnajeatic works. 

From her isle-altar giueing du»n, 
Who. God-like, pvsps the u\\Ae forkii. 

And, kiiig-like, wears tJie rrowii. 


Perhaps the most gratifying reflection surrgested by 
these observations on the more distant kingdoms >.'\ 
Ther.;/c the Asiatic continent is the part thai rau>i 
BrLtttLn Inevitablv be ])layed in their future bv thi> 
country. The inhabitants of a small island on the 
face of the northern seas, we exercise, owing to llir 
valour of our ancestors and the intrepid spirit of 
our merchants, a conlrolling suffrage in tlie deslinif! 
of the Far East. That influence may, fortunately. 
be employed in the undivided interests of peace. 
Friendlv relations between ourselves and Japan will 
assist her in that mercantile and industrial develo[>- 
ment, in which she is following in our own footstep^ 
at the same time that it will confirm to us the 
continued command of the ocean routes. A simibr 
attitude towards China will strengthen her in -i 
resistance, fur which there is yet time, against ilr 


only enemy whom she has real cause to fear, and 
will facilitate our own commercial access to her 
territories by land. Warfare with Bussia need only 
ensue from attacks made upon British interests or 
British territory elsewhere, and assuredly will not be 
provoked by ourselves. The possibilities of dispute 
with France, with which I shall deal in my next 
volume, are dependent upon her own action, which, 
if it is confined to the regions at present under her 
sway, and respects the liberties of intervening States, 
need awake no protest from England. Whatever 
the future may bring forth, to this country it cannot 
fail to be a matter of capital importance, seeing that 
the Empire of Great Britain, though a European, 
a Canadian, and an Australian, is before all else an 
Asiatic dominion. We still are, and have it in our 
hands to remain, the first Power in the East. Just 
as De Tocqueville remarked that the conquest and 
government of India are really the achievements 
which have given to England her place in the 
opinion of the world, so it is the prestige and the 
wealth arising from her Asiatic position that are the 
foundation stones of the British Empire. There, in 
the heart of the old Asian continent, she sits vi\yo\\ 
the throne that has alwavs ruled the East. Wvv 
sceptre is outstretched over land and sea. * God- 
like,' she * grasps the triple forks, and, king like, 
wears the crown.' 

But not onlv are we noliticallv concerned in 
the evolution of these complex problems by reason 
of our Imperial situation in Hindustan: our own 

K K '2 


fellow-citizens are personal actors in the drama which 

I have described, and the reflex action which it 

exercises upon them is a sidijfct <<f study 
'n^M^** "°'' ^^^^ intei-L'slinnr than the part whirh they 
EngUDd pi^y^ Qj. jj^pg capable of playin<.'. thomselvcs. 
Englishmen and English influence Jiavf bf-tri takeii 
to the Far East by one of three purposes — commerce, 
the diffnsion of the faith of Christ, or the responsi- 
bilities of empire. In the first categorj- we are ibe 
lieirs of the Portuguese and the Dutch, of whom 
the former survive only at the dilapidated port of 
Macao, while the latter, in their island possessions, 
lie outside of the track which I have been examining!. 
From the former, too, we inherited the self-ini|)Oj*tl 
duty of carrying the cross which has sent our 
missionaries into all lands, and which, if it iri-pirr* 
the enthusiasui of Exeter Hall, is a source i>f w\ 
inferior anxiety to Downing Street. In the domnin 
of empire the conquest of India has carried us for- 
ward on a tide of inevitable advance that leaves us 
knocking at the inland door of China and over- 
lapping the northern frontier of Siam. Tlie wars 
at the end of the last century and in the rir-i 
lialf of this, which were part of that Expansion <A 
Enjfland which has been so ably portravcd hy s 
contemporary historian, gave us Singapore, wliich. 
lying nil tlie ocean higliway from West to Ea?!. i^ 
the greatest coaling station of the Orient, and lloiiiT- 
kong, which is the second port of the British Kmpin- 

II lias not bfcn without war that we have won i'Vi''i 
a mercautile entry into those countries at wli^f^ 


Treaty Ports our flag is now in the ascendant, and 
which have benefited by our intercourse with them 
not less than we ourselves. 

I have shown by figures in the course of this 
lK)ok, in the cases both of Japan and China, that 
commer. the commcrcial supremacy of Great Britain 
»iyT" in the Far Eastern seas, though sharply 
Bnuin assailed by an ever-increasing competition, 
has not as yet been seriously shaken. When we 
leani that out of the 8,840 vessels that passed 
through the Suez Canal in 1898, no fewer than 
2,400 were British, while next on the list came the 
Germans with 270, the French with 11)0, and the 
Dutch with 180, we may form some idea of the 
extent to wliich that ascendency is still pushe<l in 
Eastern waters. How vital is its maintenance, not 
merely for the sake of our Empire, but for the 
sustenance of our people, no arguments are needcnl 
to prove. It is only in the East, and especially in 
the Far East, that we may still hope to keep and 
to create open markets for British matmfactures. 
Every port, ever}- town, and every village that 
passes into French or Russian hands, is an outlet 
lost to Man<*hester, Bradford, or liombay. 

In the commercial competition of the Far I^ist, 

Germany, as the above returns indicate, ronu-s 

second, and never loses jxround. Franre is 

Obt rival* 

a doubtful third, llie real rivalrv, how- 
ever, is rather between Europeans of whatt*v(*r 
nationality and the Chinese, whost* unrivalled busi- 
ness capacities now seek the widest fields, and. 


backed up by immeiise capital and untiring energy, 
daily steal more ground from beneath the feft of 
the West. The English merchants complain iii 
some places that their interests are insuflirieully 
cared for and pushed Ijy iheir consuls or diplomaii- 
representatives ; and I have heard of cases in which 
systematic dilatoriuess or contemptuous indifiereuce 
IE high places has seemed to justify some measure 
of exasperation ; although the reply of the impugned 
authorities is not without force — viz. that they are 
sent out not to act as touts in behalf of this or 
that particular enterprise, but to secure fair play to 
all ; and that the prestige acquired with the native 
functionaries by an attitude of vigilant impartiality 
in their country's interest is forfeited upon suspicion 
of acting even as patriotic partisans. The coiuplaim 
seems, in China at any rate, to have been partly 
prompted by the success that attended the tarly 
efforts of a recent German Minister at Peking i" 
securing contracts for his countrymen, and by alami 
at tlie projected operations of some large financial 
syndicates who swooped down a few years ago upcn 
Tientsin. These have now retired re fi-ope in/fd-r. 
and I do not myself think that over the whole fieW 
of action the charge of neglect of British interest- i- 
one that lias any serious foundation.' 

' \\1ien I first published an analogous statement to Ihu in lin 
pBRcs of an Eiiglish review, I was anawereil liv a llritish nifrrhwi- 
ihnt what liiR class complained of was not that British represenlaii'" 
or consuls declined to act as touts for them, but thai Uiey iliii "'^ 
prevent the representatives of other foreisn Towtrs in the Fit Fj-J 
from actiiiR in a similar rapaoity for their couiitr.Miien. This is. 1 
think, expect infi a little too much of diplomatic or consular iniw'" 


At the same time, it is evident that business 
competition is much keener now than it ever was 
cootne. before. Large fortunes are made with 

tioB of 

bofliMM difficulty ; the merchant princes and magni- 
ficent hongs of an earlier day have disappeared; 
Messrs. Jardine, Matheson & Co. remain almost 
alone among the great houses whose establishments 
and operations a generation ago were the talk of 
the East. Men do not now expect fortunes; they 
are content with competencies. Wealth is more 
evenly distributed, and is dislocated by slighter 
shocks. It may be for this reason that speculation 
is more indulged in than of yore, and that the 
share-and-stock market of Hongkong has so many 
tales of woe to tell. Everywhere the traveller finds 
the British merchants banded together in a powerful 
confederacy, possessing strong views, and a very 
outspoken articulation in the local English press, 
reganling matters from a somewhat narrow but a 
very intelligible and a forcibly argued standpoint, 
and occupied in slowly accumulating the where- 
withal which shall enable them some day to return 
home. The struggles and the interests of these men, 

tioa. He farther complained of the * peruetent attitude of con- 
l«iiipiiiotie indiflbrence diepUyed by Pariianient towards all com- 
mercial matters,* and of the absence of discussions uiH>n qtiestions 
allBCting British Empire and Trade in the Far EaaL If only my 
correspondent knew how ignorant is the House of Commons of those 
aiil»ieeis, and how perilous is its interfifrence when it U'tnns to dabble 
in matters which it does not tmderHtaiul, hv would hardly depluro an 
indillerence which is at least preferable to partisanship or stupidity. 
Paritament never did much to help, and will pn>bably, bef«irc it 
csases, have done a good deal to injure, the Kastem Empire of Great 


who bear the heat and burden of the day iu 
lands, and whose gains, if they are their own, are 
also their country's, deserre a warmer sjiupalliy 
than they commonly receive. 

As regards the Christian missions, I luav -snni i;p 
my former argument. They are no monopoly either 
chriatiu. °f ^^ Protestant Church or of the Englisli 
"""'"" people. In Japan, in Korea, in China, iu 
Tongking, in Annam, in Siam, Roman Catholic 
missionaries, French or Spanish, but chiefly llie 
former, have been long established, have drami 
around themselves native communities among:i 
whom they reside, and have acquired a numerical 
hold unquestionably greater than that of tieir 
Protestant successors. Among these the English. 
aftt-r the China Wars and the Treaties, look ili'' 
lead. But an even greater activity is nuw heln^ 
displayed by the Americans, who are flooding li*- 
F;ir East with their emissaries, male and female, am! 
are yearly pouring thousands of pounds' worth oi" 
human labour into China and Japan. The Kii^i-li 
missionaries appear on the whole to be more i.:m 
fully Kt'lected and to belong to a superior typx 
The good done by tliese men, in the secular a-pi-'' 
of their work, in the slow but sure spread of filiK:i- 
lioti. in the difl"iision of ungrudging charily, am! i:. 
the example of pure lives, cannot be gainsaid. '''■ 
the other hand, it is impossible to ignore the f;ti> 
tliat iheir mission is a source of political nnrt->t ai:! 
frequently of international trouble; that it is mi'- 
versive of the national institutions of the counirv i:. 


which they reside, because, while inculcating the 
Christian virtue of self-respect, it tends to destroy 
that respect for others which is the foundation of 
civil society; that the number of converts is woe- 
fully disproportionate to the outlay in money, brain 
power, and life ; and that, from whatever cause, the 
missionaries as a class are rarely popular with their 
own countrymen. Indeed, one of the most striking 
phenomena of English-speaking society in the 
countries to which I have referred is the absolute 
severance of its two main component items, the 
missionaries and the merchants, neither of whom 
think or speak over favourably of the other, and 
who are rarely seen at each other's table. The 
missionary is offended at what he regards as the 
mere selfish quest of lucre ; the merchant sneers at 
work which is apt to parade a very sanctimonious 
expression, and sometimes results in nothing at all. 
I have come to the conclusion that it is futile either 
to apportion the blame between the two parties (»r 
to hope that any argument can effect a reconcilia- 
tion. There are. of course, mav cases where no 
8uch divergence exists, and where a harmony of 
interest and intercourse prevails: but I have iu»t 
found them sufficiently numerous to invalidate the 
general proposition. What may be the future of 
missionary effort it is impossible to predict ; but it 
would be a serviee of international value eould >nme 
means be devised, not of arresting or divert inL', but 
of controlling its oj)erati()iis, which are at present a^ 
random as the winds of heaven sinHihane(»u>lv lit 

426 THE l-kOSJ'ECT 

loose from the ^k)liis-bag of all the Hiurchee iu 

Everywhere that I hare been I have fouiul 
English life retaining ils essential characteristic's. 
EngUiJi The Englisliman expatriates himself with- 
Fiu-En«t out a jiigh in the pursuit of livelihtxxl, 
adventure, health, or duty. He is too robust to be 
homesick, too busy to repine. But he keeps up a 
constant and unbroken conmiunicatiou with home, 
and is familiar with all that is passmg there. Kor 
Parliament, perhaps, he cares little, because the 
debates are over and forgotten long before ibpy 
reach him, and because with the bulk of the vote 
he has no concern ; but for the national Flag be 
cares a great deal. Loyalty is his passion ; and tbt 
toast of ' The Queen ' is drunk with as boisterous ^ 
fervour in Far Kathay as at a Unionist banquet 11 
St. James's Hall. Mr. Gladstone would not liavv 
been complimented had he been inforraed uf ibe 
result of a voluntary poll that was taken anK'iii' 
the readers of the principal newspapers, at the time 
of the last General Election, in Yokohama, Hon.'- 
kong, and Singapore. In business matters ih^ 
nificliant works on, looks forward, and save; for 
his decennial holiday ; but he means to spend !:;> 
declining years nowhere else than on his naiivr 
soil. In the meantime he sustains a perpelual ami 
innoi-ent illusion by an importation of all iti-- 
adjuncts, and a repetition of most of the habit?.'' 
lionie life. Magnificent club-houses afford a meeiiiL' 
ground for tillin in the middle of the dav. for 


billiards and smoking when the day's work is over. 
Some of these institutions, as at Shanghai, Hong- 
kong, and Singapore, are as well furnished with 
English newspapers and periodicals as any of the 
palaces of Fall Mall. In his passion for games, 
which keeps him healthiest of all the foreign settlers 
in the East, while the German grows fat, and the 
Frenchman withers, the Englishman plays lawn- 
tennis under a tropical sun; he has laid out golf 
links at Hongkong and Chefoo ; cricket matches are 
as frequent and excite as keen an interest as the 
doings of a county team at home ; nay, I have even 
heard of football and hockey at Singapore, within 
seventy miles of the Equator. A racecourse must 
be constructed outside every town where there is a 
sufficient settlement; the annual race meeting, hi 
which the owner frequently buys or breetls, trains, 
and rides his own ponies, is one of the events of 
the year; and the winner of the Hongkong or 
^^hanghai * Derby' enjoys a more than e})henieral 
renown. On festive occasions dances reunite the 
sexes; and, where it is not too hot, riding is a 
favourite recreation. 

Tliroughout the Far East excellent and well- 
informed newspapers are owned and edited by Eng- 
lishmen ; and among them *The Japan l>aily 
Mail,' the * North China Pailv News/ and the 
* Straits Times,' as well as several others, would he a 
credit to the Press of any European country. Their 
telegraphic information is scanty and bad ; but that 
is the fault of the telegraphic agency upon whom 


they one and all depend, ami whose shortcomings, 
are a byword throughout the East. If these paper* 
frequently attack the local representatives of Brilish 
government, it must be remembered that Englisbmet 
like to grumble, and that the Press is commonly tin- 
mouthpiece of the non-official and mercantile com- 
munity, who enjoy picking a bone with the salaried 
servants of Government. 

The domestic environments of life are not le^^ 
reminiscent of the old country. The exterior of ibc 
Dororatio I'ouse conforms to climatic needs, and spreads 
'"* itself out in airy verandahs ; but the furniture 

is not seldom imported direct from home. Tht- 
national love for neatness and decorum appears in 
the private grounds, the bunds, and public L'anle;:- 
of the cities where the English are in the asconda:^:; 
and, were every other mark of IJritish influn'ii"- 
erased to-moriow, it would always remain a niarvd 
how from a scorching rock had been evolved il-- 
Elysian graces of Hongkong. 

Everywhere, too, I have found the Englislim:)'. 
enjoying that reputation for integrity and superitiritv 
Eii-ii-h "^ chicanery, corruption, or intrigue, wliii I 
tiiarutwr j^j^^ given him his commanding po-iK' ^ 
in the world. Tlie officials are of a higher np' 
than those by wliom other Powers are reprt-scn inl- 
and are frequently drawn from services spoi'i;ilI> 
organised and recruited. Nothing, indeed, is n.o:' 
striking in travel than tlie character and per?oiKi!:;y 
of the men Avho are sustaining in positions of vani 
trust tlie interests uf (ircat Hritain in far lands. T!.'- 


larger atmosphere of life and the sense of responsi- 
bility seem to free them from the pettinesses of a 
liome existence that is too apt to be consumed in 
party conflict, and to suggest broader views of men 
and things. The same high tone exists through the 
various strata of society and employment, and the 
<*Ierk behind the counter of the English bank will be 
no less a gentleman both in birth and education than 
the Governor in his palace or the Minister in his 
Legation. I do not think that the same can be said 
of the Germans, or of the French, or of the Dutch. 
Commerce has not yet become popular among the 
upper classes of German society. In France promo- 
tion is too frequently the reward of political fidelity, 
of journalistic service, or of successful Chauvinism, 
to admit of a continuous evolution of useful public 
servants, llow uianv of the blumlers made bv that 
people in Tongking have l)een due to the character 
of the men who in times past have been appointed to 
positions of importance without the faintest know- 
ledge of the f'ountry or qualifications for the j)ost, it 
would be hard to conjecture. 

Similarly, though our rivals and antajronists in- 
variably ascril>e our political success and our wide- 
Britidb spread Empire to a more than ordinary 
aipiocDAcy Juplicity, I have not found that lliis im- 
pression is anywhere shared by the luisterii Towers 
with whom, bv virtue of our coniniandiuir (uunnien-ial 
position and the multiplieity of our interests, we are 
brought into fre(iueiit, and scHuetimes contenticMis, 
contact. On the contrary, it appears that Kiiirlisli 


Gktvemmente compose their disputes, settle ilieir 
boundaries, and conclude their treaties, with a 
greater facility than other Powers, and that English 
consuls are looked up to as the leading men by evf-rr 
section of the community in which thej' residf. and 
are frequently appealed to by others as arbiters in 
matters lying outside their official ken. Though, too, 
we are credited by France with being the most ag- 
gressive of peoples, this accusation does not seem to 
tally with the voluntary evacuation of Fort Hamilton, 
in deference to the susceptibiUties of China and 
Korea, nor with our conduct in disposing of the vast 
heritage that came into our hands upon the annexa- 
tion of Upper Burma ; whilst it comes with ill grace 
from a people who have recently perpetrated the 
indefensible outrage upon Siam. Similarly, thoui'li 
it lias frequently appeared in print, particularly i:t 
America, that Great Britain alone stands in the way 
of Treaty Revision in Japan, the facts which I havt- 
elsewhere displayed will have shown the baseles^uf;^- 
(if tlie charge, which none know better than the 
Japanese statesmen themselves. 

Tliere are certain points in connection with our 
diplomatic representation in the Far East to which ii 
»riti~ii may not be out of place to call attention. 
tins The Foreign Office has sometimes appe:m'il 

to regard certain of tliese posts as of only secondan 
importance, and as refuges for failures elsewlieri'. or 
at least for persons possessing no peculiar qtialifioa- 
tions. To my mind, there are few niore importer!: 
appointments tlian those to the Courts of Japan am: 


of China, and, in a somewhat less degree, of Siam ; 
and yet it has in times past occurred that gentlemen 
have been appointed to these posts who have no 
personal acquaintance with the East or knowledge of 
the problem with which they may require to deal. 
The reception accorded to Mr. O'Conor, on his nomi- 
nation to the Britisb Legation at Peking in 1892, 
suflSciently indicated the rejoicing of the British 
community in the Far East at the appointment of a 
man who really knew both the country to which he 
was accredited and the business which he would 
have to transact. There appears to be still an im- 
mense opening in the Far East for a diplomatic 
career. We maintain at Tokio, at Peking, and at 
Bangkok, a number of so-calleil Student Interpreters, 
who, after passing a preliminary examination at 
home, go out to the East, undergo a steady course of 
instruction in the language of the country in which 
they will pass so much of their lives, and thence are 
drafted into the Consular Service. Froiu their ranks 
have sprung such men as the late Sir Harry Parkes, 
whose name is as familiar a household word in Japan 
and in China as is that of his 8till-survivin<r name- 
sake in Austraha ; Mr. Satow, the present British 
Minister at Tangier ; and others whose names will 
occur to the memory. There is just as }:reat scope 
for the production of such men, and even {greater 
need for their services now than in bvt'one davs. 
Tlie Far East demands a knowledge that can only he 
acquired after years, and a statesmanship that must 
have been in part nurtured in a local atmosphere. 


The great position attained by tlie late Sir William 
"White at Cunstantinople, starting from a similar 
■origin, may be emulated in countries where also then- 
is an Eastern Question not much less important than 
the control of the Bosphorus or the ownership of 
St. Sophia. I would fain hope that among the risin); 
generation may be found some who will be worrliy 
heirs of these great traditions. 

In another respect the Foreign Office appears to 
me to have neglected an elementary part of diploma- 
suKKMted t'c education, and an indispensable adjiinri 
IpS'"' to the smooth working of the diplomatic 
re erence jQ^chine. One would surely expect to find 
in the British Legation in every foreign counin-, 
most of all in the East, a compact, well-chosen. auJ 
serviceable library of the best books relating to tlir 
<-auTitry in (question, and the political problems wliMi 
it i.s likely to suggest. Such libraries were iti ].ar' 
collected many years ago. I found the fragrat'titsui 
such a one at Peking, just as I remember routini: uui 
fi'Din a (lusty closet the debris of another at Telieraii. 
At Jlcshed I could not discover a single publicatii^!; 
on till! Afghan Frontier Question. ^^inlilarlv, ;i; 
llaiigkok there was not one volume relating to !!;■- 
fiunlier between Burma, Siam, and China, \\\'-\\p 
a MLiall Ijiit excellent literature exists upon :!;■ 
siiliji'd. and might at any moment be reeiuirL-il :■'■ 
ii|]i<'ial [■(■fcri'iice. My impression is that al Toi:'' 
\\\vw. U a >iniilar absence. What is wantnl :'■ 
(.'aril cast,' is, noi a library of general rofer-i;'-. 
hill a inllf'ction of aiillioritalive work:>, \viil;i!i ■ 


llmitecl range, to which recourse can be had at 
anv moment. As soon as the nucleus of such a 
collection had been formed, a few pounds a year 
would amplj suffice for the necessar}* increment, 
which should be carefullv selected and sent out from 
home. The India Office has sometimes extended 
such a patronage to useful publications, purchasing 
a certain number of copies, and distributing them 
among the localities concerned ; but I have never 
heard of the Foreign Office exercising a similarly 
wise generosity. 

Other diplomatic anomalies, easily removable, if 
deemed of sufficient importance, have come under 

mv notice while travelling in the Far East. 

At Peking it might be well were the diplo- 
matic staff of Great Britain to include an Indian officer 
or attache^ so many are the purely Indian ciuestions 
that come up for discussion with the Tsungli Yamen, 
opon which there is no one on the spot to throw the 
necessar}' light. An even greater desideratum is the 
appointment of a commercial attuche (similar to one 
or two analogous officials in Europe), who should 
travel about from post to post in the Far East, an<l 
visit the inland districts ; and who should rejxirt 
apon the changing taste and style of the native 
marketa and upon the economic products of tlie 
countr\% as well as collect anv information that 
might be of service to British merchants. In davs 
of such acute competition, when the rc*presentativt*s 
of foreign Powers resort to a more than diplomatic 
Strategy in the interests of their countrymen, no 

F F 


le^timate step should be neglected for the proteclion 
and extension of British trade. To the uninsixucittl 
eye it further seems a stran;Je anomaly that whiUt 
Japan, China, and Piam are under the Foreign Office. 
Hongkong, wliifih all but touches the Chinese la.iin- 
land, and the Straits Settlements, which actually touch 
Siam, should be under the Colonial Office; while 
Burma again, which touches both Siam and China, 
is under the India Office. Perhaps some dar we 
shall arrive at a more rational concentratioD of 
interests, possibly even, as has been suggested, at the 
creation of a new department which shall deal with 
the British affairs of the Asiatic continent. 

Great as is the position which I have depicted as 
being enjoyed by Great Britain in the Far Easl. 1 
Fiitnreof believe that it \yill be greater still. The ii;:- 
BfLtlin provement of existing and the creation tf 
FiirEnat new means of communication are rapidly 
developing a solidarity between the E.ast ami il-- 
West which our grandparents would have deeiui-i! 
impossible. Fusion and not disintegration will W 
tlie keynote of the progress of the coniing centuri. 
Tliere remain now but few countries to which acct-ss 
lias not already been gained ; though there art- 
several whose political stability is precarious, ^r 
whose political boundaries are not determined. A- 
soon, however, as fixity can be predicated of eiihiT 
of tln'sc departments — much more, if of U-iih— 
eiiuiinercial exploitation will begin. For this o^ji.'' 
Britisli energy, British capital, and British cxperitr.'.: 
will be required. The Power which has been Ioni;t>' 


in the field, which enjoys the best }:eo<xraphiral 
|K>sition for the distribution of its rominercr, or 
the dissemination of its influence, and which can 
command the lar<rest resources, must infaUibly 
triumph in any such competition. Our {K)sition in 
India gives us the certain command of the mainland- 
routes and railroads that will lay open tlie Far Kast 
in the not distant future. Our ix)sition upon thn 
ocean, if duly safeguarded, should Ji^sure to us thc^ 
control of the maritime highway.* Furthermore, thf 
country which has scattered millions in propping up 
the n>tten Republics of tlie New Worhl may very 
well repay its age-long debt to the Okl by a isimilar^ 
even if a tardv, service. 

Al>ove all will this task be facilitated by thr in 
creasing diffusion of the English tongue. Already 
Tb* spoken in everv store from Yokolmma to 

ui>«tia«« Kaniroon ; alreiidv tautrhl \n the nnliiarv 
and naval colle^jes of China, and in tlie 8<*h<»ols 
of Japan and of »Siam ; already employed in the 

* I intrcMlnpe thi« qMalificAtion bwaimt' thi» naN'al KtrmiutH of < I nut 
BritAin in the Far Kast, ^Jt. in llic watfrw ImIuci'M Sini;jt|x»TC' «n*i 
VUwlivostok. when r(inipar«*d with \\w rmnhiixMi \\vv\n «»f Kninro utul 
RajwiA, can Rcarcely bt* said to {hiS8i«« that Inconte-tAhh* pn tloniinnMrr 
wilhcmt which w^urity cannot W* prnlicAteW. In Af^J I him tin* 
British sipiaclron in the Far Kawt conxiHti^l of *i m>nrlui|'4 'ai:i:r»*^r4niij» 
ll.l.'iO Iohh), ti() nnariiuiureil vi»»j^Ih. ctniifiriMn^' 7 cnii»«ri >iii<l 7 
ipinlxiats ; and 6 toriM-ilu-lM»atH (au's^'ri'u'atin;: 'i'.'.HVO^j ; ..i i i. inl 
tonnat^e of 41.(XK), with a coniphiiifni ^f H.40<| www. \t th -^ jm* 
period the Fn-nch ri»*<*t (>«iii'*i'»itMl «»f 'J ir>>i)rlt%<l«« iri..'i.'»4) i«»n»"t. I rnii*** r. 
and 'iO Hiaaller \eRM-lM. niainl\ i;iiiili..4i!!*. uh w.ll a»* 11 ri\»r 4i« unt }• . 
with a total tonnai.*** Mf 14,.'J70. «»r. i \rlu«hrij; tin* n\« r -ti'sm* r-. 
12,0'j0. and a coniphimut *>i 'l.'t^^ iik-ii. Thi« iiii>«<>i.(n - i inir >ti 
roimtJited of 11 xe^iM*!**. \i/. 1 rniiM*r. ."> ^!«K»p*i. iiii<i .'• i^'uiJto.iti.. unh 
A total tonna:;e of 1 .'«..'> 10. .'in«l >i c't>:iiplf>incnt ot l,ti.'f() nun. 


telegraphir. services of Japan, (liina. riml Kurca. 
and stamped upon tlu' silver c-oiiis lliat issue fnmi 
the mintB of Osaka and Canton ; already usc-d by 
Chinamen themselves as a means of communicatiofi 
between subjects from diircniil ]iroviiir<'S of tlnir 
mighty Empire — it is destined with absolute certainly 
to be the language of the Far East. Its sound will 
go out into all lands, and its words unto the ends "i 
the world. That this splendid future is no idle dream 
of fancy, but is capable of realisalion at no indefinile 
period, none who have travelled widely in Eastern 
Asia will doubt. Moral failure alone can shatter tht- 
I)rospect that awaits this country- in (he impending 
task of regeneration. 

^Ve sailccl wherever sltip could ^a\\. 

AVe founded many n miplitv State; 
Pray God our greatness may not tail 

TliroHgh craven fears of being great I 


Au orK. Sir K.. 224 

AiiiericiiiiM in Korea, 160, 176, 177, 

11)5, 21«, 21), 2ao 
Arahentt. Lord, 289 
Amur, Th«, 220, 3tK), 408, 415 
Ancentor Wonliip in Cliina, 810, 

— — in Korea, 110 
Aoki, Vi^ount, 69 
Aoiiiori, 15 
Ariiiv, .TapAtiese, Korean, Chinese. 

I'tJr 9uh those titles. 
Ahia, FiiMcinaiioii of, 10 
A 1 1« Hence C^uestiou at Peking, 

•^S5 290 

liAKRow, Col. K. G.. 46 
l(<<aconH in Korea, 124 5 

— (ol. Miirk, -299, 857 
IkUi.nft. M. tie, 218 
llrinkley, dipt., 19 
linKifrhton l^ti^\ 91 
l»rou$;hton. Capt. \V. R., 91 
itii<M))a. 1. 875 0,»H8 
liiuiiihiHni in ( hina, 872 890 

— in Japan, 57 

in K(»ri'a. Vide tub Monks; 
and Korean Keli^oiu 

Campkkll. C. W..H7. 100 1, 106 

iariUin, JM7. 859, 80:^ 480 

Carle*, \V. H.,h7. 100 

( "cAanv itch in Cliina, The, 298, 29H 

Chiint; An Sa, 118 

Chan^ (hih Tuiiij, Vicorov, ;i44 

<heuiij|po. H7, 92 8, 15;J, J79, 1»0, 

1^2. 195 6, 212 
Chia CliiiiK, Kniptrar, 2.S9 90 

China, Emperor oi; 240, 248. 254- 
255, 257. 259-61, 878 

— Knipresn Dowager of^ 255 9, 
275. 292, 848 

— Future of, 899 417 

Chinese A<1 ministration, 289 40, 
808, 800 8, 418 

— Ajfriculture, 245, 248 

— Arniv. 847 57,411 2 

— Character, 287 8. 84W. 410 

— Colonists, 400, 402, 407 10 

— Foreij^n Policy, 296 801 

— In Japan, 27 

— In Korea. VuU tub Korea. 

— Navv, 8^*8-60 

— Ne\VHpa|H»r8, 802 8 

— Population, 245. 248, 417 

— lielii^ion, 872 IK) 
Chini:. Prince, 282 
Chow Han, 829 

Chrintijuuty in Korea, 192 7, .'51'K 

Viiie Huh Mi»isioniiries. 
Chun, Prince, 240. 250 
Chun J?, Prince. 2.*»6 
ClHn-i,'»>vi'riunent in Japan. .'J5 7 
CUniati* « { the Fjir F.aj^t. h 
Coal-mines in Ciiina, 251, :(((). 


— in Korea, UK) 
Connnerce. Vid*- nub Tra«h'. 
Confuciajiinni in China, 207 


in Korea, 110. 142. 154 
Constittition, Japanese. 1 r/ 

Cu'^toiiiH Service, ('hiiU"»«\ 1^7. 

219. 297 

Dallkt. P.'rf. 8i;. l.',H. 2n9 
l>a\elti\, K\tt|ue, 'JO 


> ti h 

IKet. Japanese. ViifciufiJapiuieae. 
"Doncliu-, Frof- B. K., 240. 281! 
l)u Hnlde. 24S 
Dutch in EoKK. 85-6 

East Ikdia Cchpaxt, 7, ITS. ISfl 
Elgin, Earl of. C2, 272 8. 31(1 
Emperor of Cbinii. tVWcitufi China. 

— of JapBn. I'iilr lub Japan. 
E»);lish in the Far Kast. 4IH-UG 

— Lttni^iage ill tbu Far Eaat. 

Enomolo, Viseoiiiil, 72 
Exti-H-teiritorialilv in Japan, 61, 

F/:.ycsi:ri. 24fi. 82fi, 842 
Foreignerit in China, 907 

— in Japan, 6fi, 77 
Fonnuaa, 8, 845, SCO 

France in tbe For East, 10, El, 

Franco.ChineEe War (ISSi). »4i>, 

352, ass. 3SU, 800 
Fru/pr, J. G.. 16H 
Wnch in China, 2'J7. 316-B, 327. 


— in Korea. 124. 198-4, 201, 213, 


Fusiui, 87-90, 200, 227 

11i;nsas,67, Iin 1. 121 
ll.nimiis in Korea. 170. 177, 280 
Uimriifl. 174. IH8. 210 
(iold in Koreu. 1K8. 190-1 
(iur.l"n. Omeral C. G., 239, 356, 

(IrnjiviHe, Earl. 228 
'lirL-Hi Jnprtn Ciiiim.' 33, 7S 
GriliiB. "\V. K.. 86. !)0, 152, 1GB 
Grinmldi. ^4.'. 
V.n-ol. Dr. tit, 408 

Ilinin-l, Hcniink, S.'i. 07, 100, 120, 

14,-,, li;,-,. iilKI 
Hiiin-lLiLiiir. ll.-i 
Hnii llivcr, H2. 1^7 8, 138. 174, 

HuabuM. ISS. SOS 
HanufWn. Oapt. vua. 8M 
Han, Sir Rohcrt. 187. tSf! 
Hid«voBhi, 84. He.tni.XIO 
Killier, W. C. 1I18 
HougkoDir. 803. Sfia. «I0. 428 
Hook Sal Mnn. 142 :t 
Hope, Sir J., i'li 
UouBe of llrprcscnuiivcr in 
Jaliaii. Viitf tub JapnnrM V'tti. 

HBieu Fciiii. Euipvror. 'iM, 290 

IKVA9U. an 

Itiistieff. nciiemi, ±12 

Inihert. Megr.. IWS 

Imperial Itcuu-ipu. Jnpnime. 30. 

In<iia. InipOTtancF ut. ui, 10-11. 

lutmvp. CoiinI,24. 26, Ci 
111., Count. 24 5, 27, 82. M.T.. i^. 

4a. 45, 72. eil, 208, 207, 233 


— Fiilore of. 894 8 

— Newspapers in. 19 
Jajianosv AilniiniBlralidn. 'li 


— Annv, 17, 46-8, KV, 

— Character, 53-8, 394 5 

— Const it utio[i, as. 27. 30. 31. ■ 

— Diet 17-24, 27-3.i.«C, 41 < »' 

73 4 


— Land-tax. 2H, 1,4 

— Law and Law C.mrts. Ifi.fiJ ' 
^ MsDiifHCturen. 51 

— Ministerii, 18-19.28 
; — Natioual Debt. 4D 

■ — Navv, 17. 29, 8C. 43. S06 

— ReliKinDE. 57-U 
~ SiilarieB. 20. 21) 

— Trade, 00 2 

Jnnliiie. Malheaon & lo.. 4i' 

.lehol. 2711. 288 

Jiiigliii Kiiuii. 2, 246, 401 



Jinticn or Inchiiin, 92 
Jivuto Tartv, 29 

Kaishinto Pabty, 5M) 

Kang Hsi, Emperor, 261, 265 

Kiiiihf?Ar, 848. 855 

K«uin Kang San, 108, 107, 118 

Kien Lung, Emperor, 261, 267, 

270. 271. 274. 288 
Ktiu Ok Kiun, 154 
Kioto. 15. 57 
Kirin. 270, 841, 847, 840 
Kiaproth, 245 
Kobe, 15. 61 

Korea, x. 11, 287 8, 894. 406 
Brilish Policy towards, 227-80 

- Chinese in. 80, 91,98. 117, 121, 
12S, 141, 185, 190, 209 222 

— Chineae Hesident in, 129, 166, 
176. 188, 184, 220 1 

8u7oraintv of. 122, 148, 146, 
174. 209 22. 281-8 
" ( rown l*rince of, 148, 155, 
iri7 8. 168, 168 9 

— Future of. 894, 898-9 

- Japanese Policy towards, 56, 
1911 208. 282r 8,899 

Kink' of. 110, 118, 126, 140, 141, 
145. 150. 151-2, 154 6, 158, 160, 
162 8. 167-9, 172, 174, 188, 
210 2. 217 8, 219 

Name of, 88 

i^een of. 162. 156-7 
Korean Administration, 159, 171- 
178. 176 

— Airriculture. 115. 181 

— ArisUicracy. 100. 162. 178 

— Annv. 187, 148. 164 70. 227 

— Character. 98-9. 196. 204 
Currency. 178-81. 188 

— Ihincinggirls, 188 

— Dress, 98 4, 180-2 

- Education. 177 

— Harbours, 88-98 
Hats. 184-7 

— Houses. 115, 129-80 

— Inns, 110 

— I^nf?uaf(e. 97 

— Minerals. 189 91 

- Ministers, 161. KU'i 

~ Monarchy, 146, ir>.>, i:>8 9 
Mourners, 185-6 
Pap©r, 188 

Korean Population, 96, 125 

— Race, 17 

— RebeUions, 147, 152, 154, 208, 
219, 224 

— Religion, 104-10 

— Revenue, 174 

— Roads, 111, 182 

— Scenery, 98, 108-4, 128 

— Splrit-worship, 109-10 

— Sport, 112-8 

— St one- throwing, 189 

— Telegraphs, 220, 227 

— Temples. 141-2 

— Travel, 101 2, 111-2, 118 9 

— Women, 95 6, 181-8 
Huang Hsu, Emperor, 257-61 
KubUi Khan, 247, 265 
Kulja, 228, 284, 298. 856, 415 
Kung, Prince, 240, 255, 281-2 

Lang. Captain, 854 

Lay, H.N. ,858 

Li Hung Chang, Vicerov, 158, 

176. 187, 208, 208, 214. 217. 

218. 219. 221, 224 5, 288, 289 

242, 840, 848, 848, 850. 856. 

Liuchiu Islands, 291, 414 
Lowell, P.. 87 

Macao, 420 

Mflcartnev, Earl of. 245. 288 9. 
291. 296 

— Sir H., 284 
Maitreva. 884-5 

Malay Peninsula, 7,400. 405. 40M. 

Mapu. 92 

Marco Polo. 247, 249 
Maubant. M., 192 
Michie. A., 880 
Mikado. Vide tub Ja|Min, Km- 

i)eror of. 
MiHsionaries in China, SO.") H.'», 

424 5 

— in .Japan, 57 9 

— in Korea, 85. 192-7. 213 
Mitford. A. H., 48 

Mixini Residence in .Tapan, 7.'> 7, 

Monasteries and Monks in Chiiut, 


440 J.y 

UoDMteries and Monks in EoreB, 

lOS-a, 110, 186, 141, 144 
MorriBon, Rev. R.. 807 
Motikden. 840, 849 
Mouravieff, General, 222 
Mutsu, Mr., 26, 88 

NAOA9AKI, 16, 61 

Kaktong River, 182 
Kam San, 124-6 
Newchwang, 840-1 
NiTaijo, 121,200 
Niigata, SI 

O'CoNOR, N. R., 188, 280, 2114. 

Okubo, 202 

Okuma, Count, 26, 20, 67- » 
Ubphant, L., 224 
Opimu Question, 804 
Oppert, E., 96 
Oanka, Gl, 180, 486 

P.UK-TU-SAS. 106 

I'Hiiiirs. CliiiifSK and the. WH W 

I'lirkeu, Hir Horrv, TO, W. 21^. 
282-3, 431 

IV;, C. H.. 401 17 

i'c'diili, tiii!fof,'ia8, 238 

IViho Ifiver, U88 9 

IVkiiig. Vli. 140, 192, '209.210-11, 
■214, 220, 220, 237, 240, 24a, 
•i4-j-7'.l, 327, 342, 347, 866, 416, 

— J;riiis!i Lo^'nli.m. 278-0 

— I'Liuii mill Hill T.iwers. 267 
l^N^tiiiiimtiuu liiiiiaii.s,2C6-7 

- H«ll ..!■ tiK- VlHssics. 208 

— I.ntii]i, IViiiplfs. 268-70, 271 

- lH.s,rMili.iv. 2(li) 

- l'nl.u't-. -liH, ■i.-,H-4. 260. 273 

— P.>|>iil.iti,m. 240. 217, 417 


-T.iiipleofCmifnciiif;. 2( 

- <.ine:iv..t.. 2(11 4 
- Willis, 24t> 7 


— lj«arutT,91.22<, 227 
r-xik-hoQ, 124.144 
rijevalBkJ, UenenJ. 2W. 357 
Pjoag.jKOS, 83. 174. i'S± IW, 191 

Railwat. SiBEniAX. »\it. S41..'^ 
Railn-ay» in China. 2^. :»9 13 

— in Japan. 15- 16 

— in Keren, IM 
Iloseberv, F.orl i.f. 22J. 212 
Ross, R^v. J., 86, 1'.'.-, 
Russian Policv tunnnJi Chioi. 

Buseiajis in Eorfa, ll:.. I(f6 T, 

222-7, 230 
Rjung-san, 174.183 

Sagealik. S 

Hak Wans Sa. 107, 121 
ijniii K»k Sail. 124. 144 
bntow, E. M.. 08, 4B1 
Salsnua Reb«lhon, Uii, 4« 
Schenter. M.. 210 
ShnnRhai. 1811. 338. 347, s:,:>. 
8hiinR-M,263. aia 
Shan-hai-knaii. 340 
BhimonoBeki, 16. 4t'.. 61 
Shiifeldt. Cutnmmlure. 214 
bliuu Chih. Eiup*-r.)r. 2«41 
Singapore, 400, 402, 407. 4i>-., 

420, 427 
Shieo, Emppmr, 2r.H 
tioshi, .IniHDii'si'. :^t 
bcml. !i2. 110, 117. 1-iii 7". 

19.j, 207, 230 
— liij; Bell. 139 

n<\ I'll 

. Hon' 

- rrtsiida. 141 

- I'liiiici-s. 129. 14.-. .'.1. Iti 

- ropuliition, 12.'i (i 

- Hoviil I'r.K'esM,)ii ill. 11-- 

- Streets. ]2H. l;sil 1, lUT 



Stcnjlmrtr. lUron Speck von, 848 

Tah'INo Ui:bkluon, HOB, 828, 840, 

44K'). 406. 44)8 
Tai Wen Knn, The, 140. 14G, 152, 

i:»7. lim. 202. 214 
Tnkii. 2;^, aitt, }U0, 850 
Tnntf lU*f(>nn in Japan, 61, 64 5 
TuntHii. 214, 288, 241 2, 838, 

840, 842, 847, 850, 859, 868. 


— Tonvention (1885), 208, 208, 
21H. 2H« 

MaBwiores (1870), 195, 289, 

288. 82'J 
Tijjers, Kt>it»an, 118 
Tinmen Hiver, 222, 226, 288 
T.>kft*riito. \^ 
Tokio, i:» 16. 56, 58, 61 
Trade. British, in the Far East, 7, 

50. 421 8, 484 

— witli China, 802 
with Korea, 185, 227 

Frencii, in the Far East, 61, 
802. 421 

(feriniiii, in the Far East, 51, 
802. 421 
- Japanese^, 50-2 

Korean. 184 8 
TreaticK, briti»h, with China, 290, 
815 7 

~ with Korea, 70, 174, 175, 
186. 215 

— French, with China, 815, 817- 

— Japanese, with Korea, 89, 175, 
•202. 2(W. 205, 215 

— with Mexico, 76 

— Hussian, with Korea, 175, 226 

Treaty Ports of China, 802 8, 824, 

868, 421 

of Japan, 61, 77 

of Korea, 87 98, 174, 186 

— Revision in Ja(>an, 26, 82, 58, 

60 80, 895, 481 
Tseng, Marquim 220. 240, 278, 

288, 886 7, 858, 408, 415 
Tsungli Yamen, 229, 240, 281-4, 

818, 824, 888, 488 
Tsushima Islands, 87, 89, 186, 

201, 224 . 
Tunj? Chih, Emperor, 255 8, 290 
Tung Chow, 842 

Varat, Ch^ 96 
Verbiest, F., 265 

VlmiivoHtok. 56, 87. 91, 188, 18G, 
220,222 8,841,897 

Wade, Sir T., 291 2 
Wei Hai Wei. 859 
Welter vree, J., 85 
Whampoa, 316. 859 
Williams, Dr. W.. 276, 292 
Woosun^, 816, 339 
Wuhsueh Massacres. 819, 329 

Yakub Beo, a.'iS. 401, 406 
Yalu Hiver, 106, 118, 1H2 
YamajjiUa, Oinnt. 26, 69 
Yanghwa-chin, 138, 174 
Yezo, 75 

Yokohama, 15, 61 
Younghushand, Capt G. J.. 4H 
Yung Lo, Emperor, 267, 272, 277, 

Yumuui liebellion. 355, 406. 40H 

rnivTrr^ nr 

• l*OTT»ir0ODE AX1> < O.. KKH •THKIT •stCAEB 


Claeeifieb Catalogue 











HoMTKi.T List iir Nkw WoiiKh A>n t. Lai 

NaW t-DITIONil. I 


Thi:i.i \V,-i 

CATALObli: I1F Mt,l>l 

CAL Works. 


. -, — ai-ii ■ - 

, . — (sr.; 

Bkll U- T., 
'Buing-Gould (S 

BMufan (Dake of)- 
8etker (Ptotl - - 
BclltMn. Huebl - 
Bent (J. TbHidiHC)- 

(Lord I ■ - 

Bwyiai IH. A.I 
Buckle (H. T.) 
BnUlT.) - - - 
Burrows (MonUgu) 

B^ei (e"aT- - 
CempbcH-Widttr (A.) 
Catie (W.D.I- - 
Cicero - - - 
Cluke (R. F.) - 
Clerkc (Ainu M.) - 
Ctodd (Edinrd) 

CoBinEton (John) - 
Conybnre (W .1.) Howie 
Cm (Hirding) 

Crump (A.) - - 
Cdiiod (Hon. G. N.) 
CulrtlE.l..) - - 

De S^li (Mn.) 

Devu {C. S.) - 
DaufiU It,) - 
Domll (S.) ■ 
Doyle (A. Cdbid 

PtlnntriAtW, J.)- 

PmndalPrucii) - 
FruieiUH. R.) 
Fteenun (Edwird A.) 

FimetBi (W.) 
CenUner (Sunnel Rev 
GllkM(A.H.)- - 
GI*lK(G, R.| - . 
Ooeflie ■ - 
Onhin |Q. P.) 
OreovlUe (Huittl, 
Oiam<]l. PJ- 

1 1 Lodec (H. C.) - 
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1 I L™gm.n it. W.1 
. Lul^lilSiiJohiil 

, Lwion (E«l oil 
< M>c>ul>y ILord) 
r Macr>:reD (Sir G. 

(G.I - 
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tUcLibi vjahil 

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(tog« IJtAo U-ill 


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Pembroke (Eul of) 
Pertinf (Sir P,) 

4 Solly (j.m=. - - 

Id Sutfacritnd lAki. u 

■4 SuIliKilOiffievoai 

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: ToyDbee(A.I . ■ 
i TievTlyinlSiiC.Ol 

' WelfotdlMn.1 

I Win«Khek{Rj - 

t Walker (J enc K.' - 

' Wilpolc (Speacerl - 

I WiJunctuni (L«*t 

I WallerU.) 

I Webb (Sidne>'»d Be 

Vehb (T. E.) 

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17 Wiutely (Aidikkbw* ' 

■» -—IE. J.) 

il sliSii!*^' : 

i,io Wilhth (C. Uj . 

S Wil«Mi (A.J.I- - 

9 Wi,h.n|Q^ - . 

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Al llltiKs i WilKKs I'! I\l 1 I Kl Ni I . J«i 

story, Politics, Polity, Political Memoirs, &c. 

A IIisi IKY Of (iKiiAi-.. Hy i Besant- l>ii. !Iiviimi\ oi I.omhin. 

AiiHoTi. M.A.. I.I-.I). ■ \V:th 71 Iliiisuaii'iii».. CmuM ^vo.. i«.. -iJ, 

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SvM^MS Dpi K\ii\i is 1iii\mi. Freeman. Im l!i«»i«i:'v: (11 ■ ■^%»ln 

c Inva«>ion «»f Mciirv the Second to i-i I'ikmii . H\ I i^\%»^^i' A I » ! m^s. 

}n <ii72-i.-^>ii. Hy the Kl lloi. J. H CI... I-I- P- W'tli f'> Mji|". .• noN. 


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