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Full text of "Proceedings First Series"

' 



s 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 

'' OF LONDON. 



VOL. I. 




PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



' 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 



OF 



LONDON. 



VOL. I. 

FROM APRIL 1843 TO APRIL 1849. 









\ / r s V 

A f. . 

LONDON: 

PRINTED BY J. B. NICHOLS AND SON, FOE 

THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES, 

SOMERSET HOUSE 
1849. 



DA 

2o 



i 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 
OF LONDON. 



THE Council of the Society of Antiquaries of London, having 
taken into consideration the advantages which have accrued to 
many Societies, at home and abroad, from the practice of cir- 
culating amongst their Members, at short intervals, con- 
densed abstracts of their Proceedings, have thought it expe- 
dient to adopt a similar course, from the date of the last anni- 
versary. With this view they issue this, the first number 
of the Minutes, prepared under the immediate superintend- 
ence of the Director of the Society; and the Council have 
every reason to believe, that by thus opening the door to 
a more easy and frequent communication with the Members 
generally, and more particularly with those residing at a distance 
from London, they are doing that which will be equally bene- 
ficial to the interests of the Society, and conducive to the more 
extended encouragement of those archaeological pursuits, for the 
promotion of which the Society was formed, and to which the 
joint labours of its Members have already so largely contri- 
buted. 

Somerset House, 

January 11, 1844. 



THE PRESENT COUNCIL, 

ELECTED APRIL 24, 1843. 



GEORGE, EARL OF ABERDEEN, K.T., F.R.S., PRESIDENT. 

John Yonge Akcrman, Esq. 

Thomas Amyot, Esq., F.R.S., M.R.I.A., TREASURER. 

Edward Blore, Esq., D.C.L. 

John Bruce, Esq. 

The Very Rev. George Butler, D.D., F.R.S., Dean of Peterborough. 

Nicholas Carlisle, Esq., K.H., D.C.L., F.R.S., M.R.I.A., SECRETARY. 

Sir Henry Ellis, Knt, K.H., B.C.L., F.R.S., SECRETARY, Hon. 

M.R.I.A., and Corresponding Member of the Royal Society of 

Antiquaries of France. 

Hudmn Gurney, Esq., F.R.S., VICE PRESIDENT. 
Henry Hallam, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., VICE PRESIDENT. 
William Richard Hamilton, Esq., F.R.S., VICE PRESIDENT. 
Edward Hawkins, Esq., F.R.S. 
Rev. Joseph Hunter. 

Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart., LL.D., F.R.S. 
Philip Viscount Mahon, VICE PRESIDENT. 
Thomas-Spring Lord Monteagle, F.R.S. 
Capt. William H. Smyth, R.N., K.S.F., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Thomas Stapleton, Esq. 
William John Thorns, Esq. 
Albert Way, Esq., M.A., DIRECTOR. 
Sir Charlea George Young, Knt., Garter King of Arms. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 
OF LONDON. 

1843. No. 1. 

Monday, April 24, 1843. 
HUDSON GURNEY, ESQ., Vice-president, in the Chair. 

St. George's day, appointed by the Statutes for the meeting of the 
Society in order to elect a President, Council, and Officers for the 
year ensuing, having fallen this year on the Sunday, the usual meeting 
was held on this, the ensuing day. John Noble, Esq., and George 
Godwin, Esq., having been appointed Scrutators, by the customary pro- 
ceeding of drawing lots, the Fellows present proceeded to the election 
by ballot, according to established usage. The result having been 
formally declared, an announcement was made that the following pub- 
lication of the Society was ready for distribution to the Fellows of the 
Society : Vetusta Monumenta, Vol. VI. plates XXVI. to XXXIX. These 
plates represent the paintings discovered in the Painted Chamber in 
the ancient Palace at Westminster, and they are accompanied by the 
illustrative text and description prepared by the late Director, John Gage 
Rokewode, Esq. 

In consequence of the death of His Royal Highness the Duke of 
Sussex, the Anniversary Festival of the Society, usually celebrated at 
the Freemasons' Tavern, on St. George's day, was postponed. 

Thursday, May 11, 1843. 
r>sf[jn jn' 

THOMAS AMYOT, Esq., Treasurer, in the Chair. 
lo ./: ;l 

Lord Albert Conyngham, F.S.A., exhibited a bronze patera, disco- 
vered by him in opening some graves formed in the chalk, upon the 
property of Sir Brook Bridges, near Wingham, Kent, and supposed to 
be of the Anglo-Saxon period: also an Egyptian vessel of bronxf, 
supposed to have been used for sacrificial purposes, the surface of which 
is covered with designs and hieroglyphics engraved with the burin. 
It was purchased by Lord Castlereagh, at Thebes, in 1842. 

A portion of a paper was read, entitled, Observations on the condi- 
tion of the English Peasantry during the Middle Ages. By Thomas 
Wright, Esq., F.S.A. The remainder of Mr. Wright's paper was read 
at the two ensuing meetings. 

B 2 



In the fmrlier ages of the Germanic tribes society consisted of two 
, l.i -. tr. i :n. H an.! -i.i\r> the former the jM)s>r-x>rs, tin- hitter the 
cultivator* of the toil. The German peasants, or serfs, answered to 
the CO/OKI of the Romans, except that the latter were more largely pro- 
tectad by the law, particularly under the Christian emperors. After 
& Mttloncni of the German invaders in the Roman provinces, the 
coUmi became ierfii on the same footing as in their own country. In 
England, under the Anglo-Saxons, the most common name for a 
peasant or serf was theow. The condition of the peasants or theows in 
England before the Norman Conquest, its gradual amelioration, and the 
fftqotno of manumission, are shown hy the Anglo-Saxon laws, charters 
of manumission, and other documents. The Norman lords came in 
with much harsher feelings towards the peasantry than those enter- 
tained by the Anglo-Saxon landholders, and the condition of the pea- 
santry, tor some ages after the Conquest, was most deplorable. Manu- 
mission was much less common than under the Anglo-Saxons. The 
state of the |>easantry at this period is to be learned from the Anglo- 
Norman laws, and from charters, as well as from the popular writers of 
the thirteenth century. The French and Anglo-Norman poets, who 
were in the pay of the Anglo-Norman barons, speak of this part of 
the population with the greatest contempt. The reforming spirit spread 
abroad in the fourteenth century was exceedingly active among the pea- 
santry, who associated together to obtain freedom even by actions in 
courts of law, and who appear to have been backed and assisted by 
some in a higher station of society. The opposition to their claims, 
and some acts of oppression, drove them into open rebellion in the 
reign of Richard II.; but the charters of freedom which they had 
obtained were cancelled as soon as they were reduced to quietness. 
Their final emancipation only took place at a later period slavery 
among the agricultural population expired with the feudal system. 
I'mlrr the Anglo-Normans the peasants were designated by the name 
of riUan* (nY/mii), and the last trace of the contempt with which they 
were regarded by their masters is found in the modern form and signi- 
fication of the word ri/lnin. 



Thursday, May 18, 1843. 
THOMAS AMYOT, Esq., Treasurer, in the Chair. 

It was announced to the Society, that the first part of vol. XXX. of 
thr Arrh*ologia was ready for delivery to the Fellows. 

(lowing books were presented to the Society. By the Statis- 

Soaety of Ixmdon, their Journal, vol. VI. part II. 1843. Bv 

/Til? J pembloux, Histoire Monetaire et Philologique 

!Jcrry,4to, 1840; Lettre au General Bory de St. Vincent, 8 vo., 

l 4 Bi^ 

r 



Mr. John George Pfister exhibited au ancient money-horn, and a sil- 
ver figure of a Bishop, described as a Florentine work of the sixteenth 
century. The honi, supposed to be of the ninth century, and intended as 
a receptacle for money, to be worn as a personal appendage, is formed of 
stag's horn, with ornaments engraved thereon, and mounted with silver. 
When found in Switzerland, buried under a stone, near the ruined cas- 
tle of Griineck in the Grisons, it contained silver coins of the Empe- 
ror Louis I., of Charles II. as King, of Berengarius and Lambert, Kings 
of Italy, being all of the ninth century. 

The reading of Mr. Wright's Observations on the condition of the 
English Peasantry was resumed. 



Thursday, May 25, 1843. 
VISCOUNT MAHON, Vice- President, in the Chair. 

Thomas Lott, Esq. of Bow-lane, London, was balloted for, and duly 
elected a Fellow of the Society. 

Captain William H. Smyth, R.N., F.S.A., one of the Auditofe, 
appointed March 16, 1843, to examine the Accounts of the Treasurei 
for the year ending December 31, 1842, reported the examination of 
the same, and submitted the following abstract of the Receipts and 
Disbursements for the information of the Society : 



s. d. 

Balance of the last year's 
account .... 1058 16 llj 

Receipts in the Year 1842. 
By Annual Sub- 
scriptions . 1051 11 



By Admission Fees 
By one Year's Di- 
vidend on ^7,500 
Consols 
By Sale of Books 
and Prints 
By Stamp Duty on 
Bonds given on 
admission . 

By Compositions 
in lieu of Annual 
Subscriptions . 


168 

221 
52 

18 




14 

S 






5 

11 





Disbursements in tke Year 1842. 

t. d. 

To Artists and in Publications . 843 1 10 
For Taxes ..... 39 9 8 
For Salaries ..... 447 10 



1511 8 10 



294 



,2864 5 9i 



For Tradesmen's Bills 

For Insurance . . . 

For the Anniversary Dinner 

For Petty Cash, Postage, &c. 

For Bookbinding ... 

For Preparing a Catalogue of To- 
pographical Prints and Draw- 
ings in the possession of the So- 
ciety ...... 

For Cabinet, for the suitable pre- 
servation of that Collection . 

For Collecting Subscriptions . 

For Bond Stamps . . . 



137 15 
22 11 
28 5 



64 18 6 
22 



23 12 6 

97 10 6 

51 17 9 

27 



1805 12 4 

Balance in the hands of the 
Treasurer, on Jan. 1, 1843 1058 13 54 






Stock in the 3 per Cent. 
Consols j?7,500. 

Witness our hands, 
April 12, 1843. EDWARD BLORE, 
W. H. SMYTH. 

Auditors. 

The produce of the sale of the Anglo-Saxon works, published by the 
Society, was reported to amount, during the last year, to 23 0*. lid. 

These works are, the Metrical Anglo-Saxon paraphrase of parts of the 
Holy Scripture by Caedmon ; edited from the MS. of the tenth century 
in the Bodleian, by Benjamin Thorpe, Esq., F.S.A., 8vo. 1832. Price 
to Fellows, 10*., to the public, 1 6s. Fifty engravings from illuminations in 





h debcriptiu- ndtlCe b\ Sir II.-nr\ Ellis. Secretary. Price 7.y. 
(These f.rm plates MI. CIV.* of ArcWologia, vol. XXIV.) Codex 
! . a ell. .-tion of Anglo-Saxon poetry; edited from the MS. 

in the Chapter Library at Exeter by Benjamin Thorpe, Esq., F.S.A., 
Sro, is !_. Price to Fellows, 15*., to the public, 20*. The following 
works are also on sale at the Society's rooms, Somerset House. Cony- 
bearc's Illustrations of Anglo-Saxon Poetry, Lond. 8vo. 1826. Price to 
Fellows, lOjr. 6</., to the public, 18*. Magni rotuli Scaccarii Nor- 
inannia sub rrgibus Anglia3, rolls of the times of Hen. II. and Rich. I., 
edited by 'Hi., mas Stapleton, Esq. F.S.A, 8vo. 1840, vol. I. Price to 
Fellows, I2.., to the public, 16*. 

The following books were presented to the Society : By the Trustees 
of the British Museum, Additions to the British Museum ; Manu- 
scripts, 1836-40; Natural History, &c. 1836-39; 8vo. 1843. I3y the 
Royal Academy of Sciences at Lisbon, Historia e Memorias, Tom. 
\1L. partr II. 4to. J839 : Discurso lido por J. J. de Costa de Macedo, 
*to. 1M43. By the Rev. L. Vernon Harcourt, eight drawings, executed 
by .Mrs. Vernon Harcourt, representing vessels of earthen-ware and 
uxl bronze bracelets, discovered at Chilgrove, Sussex ; accom- 
panied by a descriptive memoir. The bodies near which they were 
found had been interred, not burned, and were found under a down 
upon which an embankment is to be noticed. 

^ The reading of Mr. Wright's Observations on the condition of the 
English Peasantry was concluded. 



Thursday, June 1, 1843. 
HUDSON GURNEY, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Henry Charles Harford, Esq. of Clifton, Gloucestershire, was balloted 
for, and duly elected a Fellow of the Society. 

'Hie following books were presented to the Society: By the Rev 
W. J. Recs, F.S.A., Transactions of the Cvmmrodorion, or Metrono* 
Un (..mbni.n Society Vol. H. part IV. 8vo. 1843. By the Editor" 
ihe Athenamn,, No. 185. By J. B. Nichols, Esq., RS. A ., Gentle 
mans Magazine. Juno 1H43 R,, ^,, t<~ :i V. fT, ' , oenue 



8vo. 1843 : not published. 
Karl of Ennwkilleii eihibited a brass pot, standing on three 
t found I , a bog on the cast side of Mount Joy Forest, i 









Mission to the Council of Constance, A.D. 1416, who dying there was 
interred at the foot of the steps leading up to the high altar in the 
cathedral. The rubbing was communicated by Mr. R. Pearsall, of 
Carlsruhe, with a descriptive account, and an extract from the Chronicle 
of Ulrick von Reichenthal, " Consiliumvon Costnitz, 1483," in which it 
is recorded that this prelate died suddenly in the fortress of Gotlieben, 
near Constance, and was interred in the choir of the cathedral with great 
state, accompanied by all the dignitaries assembled on that occasion. 
The figure is represented in full pontificals; its length is 49 inches ; it 
is placed under a richly ornamented arch, supported by tabernacle work 
at the sides, composed of niches in which are placed figures of cherubim. 
Two escutcheons are placed over the figure ; one with the arms of 
France and England, quarterly, surrounded by the garter ; the other is 
defaced. It is asserted traditionally, that this curious brass was brought 
to Constance from England ; and in the character of the design and 
execution, it closely resembles the numerous brasses of the period now 
extant in England, but it is wholly unlike any such memorial hitherto 
noticed on the Continent. On a narrow fillet of brass, which runs round 
the verge of the tomb, is the following inscription : 

-|-Subjacet hie stratus Robert Hallum vocitatus, 
Quondam prelatus Sarum sub honore creatus. 
Hie decretorum doctor, pacis que creator, 
Nobilis Anglorum Regis fuit ambaciator. 
Festo Cuchberti Septembris . . e vigebat, 
In quo Roberti mortem Constantia flebat, 
Anno Milleno, tricenteno, octuageno, 
Sex cum ter deno : cum Christo vivat ameno. 

The Patent, dated 20 Oct. 2 Hen. V. 1414, whereby Nicholas 
Bishop of Bath and Wells, Robert Bishop of Salisbury, Richard Earl 
of Warwick, the Abbot of Westminster, and other persons, were con- 
stituted by Henry V. as his " ambassiatores, oratores, veros et indubi- 
tatos procuratores, et nuncios speciales," to attend the Council of Con- 
stance, has been printed in Rymer, IX. 167. It is doubtless in conse- 
quence of this authority specially delegated to Bishop Hallam by the 
sovereign, that the royal arms, and the garter, appear amongst the 
decorations of his memorial. The translation of St. Cuthbert is Sept 4. 

A communication was read from William Chaffers, Esq., to Charles 
Roach Smith, Esq. F.S.A., describing the discoveries recently made in 
Blackfriars, in forming sewers ; especially a portion of a Roman sepul- 
chral memorial, which bears the name of Celsus, speculator of the 
second legion ; vestiges of the Church of the Black Friars, and a portion 
of the Old London wall, which had been demolished, A.D. 1296, to 
make way for the foundation of the monastery and church, as appears 
by the charter of Edw. I. A drawing, which represents the sculptured 
monument and inscription, accompanied this paper. 

The Rev. Richard Garnett communicated observations on the Eastern 
Terminus of the Wall of Antoninus, in support of the suggestion of 
Horsley, that Kinneil was the real terminus of the wall, contrary to the 
common opinion, .which places it at Carriden, where vestiges of a Roman 
fort may be seen. An interpolated passage in the Durham MSS, of 



Nenntus states that it was called by the Britons Pen Gaaul, in Gaelic 

I, in Knjrlish <a< Brdf likewise states) Peneltuu. 
The Society then adjourned over the Whitsuntide recess, to meet 
again on June 15. 

Thursday, June 15, 1843. 

HENRY HALLAM, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 
The following books were presented to the Society. By John Gough 
Nirhols, Esq. F.S.A., The Topographer and Genealogist, part ^11. 8vo. 
1H43. By the Zoological Society, Proceedings, part X. pp. 15 210. By 
the Royal Geographical Society, Journal of Proceedings, vol. XII. part 
II. 8vo*. 1842. 

Charles Roach Smith, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited coloured drawings, com- 
municated by Monsieur de Rheims, of Calais, and representing paintings 
discovered July, 1840, on the walls and pillars of the Church of the 
B. V. Mary in that town. The subjects are, the Virgin and Child, 
SainU, several armorial bearings, among which occurs the coat of Wode- 
housc, with the legend " Orate pro anima Thome Wodehouse ;" the 
device of a club or knotted staff, with a twining branch around it, and 
the motto 4< Le jour viendra," are also frequently repeated. 

Mr. Smith also communicated a narrative by the Baron Clement 
Augustus de Bode of the opening of a tumulus, in 1841, 12 miles N.E. 
of Asterabad, on the eastern shores of the Caspian, accompanied by 
sketches. The objects discovered, and sent to the Shah by the local 
authorities, were, a golden goblet, with figures rudely embossed upon it, 
weighing thirty-six ounces ; a golden lamp, as it is supposed, weighing 
seventy ounces, ornamented with figures of animals ; a golden urn, and 
two small trumpets, with sculptured female figures, vases of a reddish 
stone, and other objects. The tumulus was known as The Mound of 
the Pheasant, and a passage was accidentally discovered leading to a 
subterranean chamber, in which these objects were found. The monu- 
ment appears to bear some analogy with the account given by Herodotus 
of the interments of the Scythian Kings ; and it was reported that Royal 
insignia were found with these vessels of gold. 

Alfred J. Kempe, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited, by permission of Mrs. 
Stackpole, of I^augharne, a bronze vessel, described as a thurible, found 
At Kyn Gadel, Caermarthenshire, a pass in the Cliffs about two miles W. 
of l^augharne ; it contained coins of Carausius, Carus, Tetricus, and 
Allectus. The* name Kyn Gadel has been explained as signifying the 
frontier defence, and may have been taken from the fortress of which 
vestiges are still seen on Corgan Hill, where the discovery was made ; 
many vestiges of ancient occupation have been found in the vicinity. 
The thurible, described as being of the close of the third century, had 
apparently been plated with silver : it is in the form of a bowl, the 
diameter being eight inches, with a handle like a skillet, a second bowl 
being fitted into it, the bottom of which is perforated with numerous small 
holes like a strainer ; this last has a flat cover pierced in open work. A 
representation may be seen in Gent Mag. Nov. 1842, p. 473. 
^ The Society adjourned over the summer vacation, to meet again on 
November 16. 



Thursday, November 16, 1843. 
THOMAS AMYOT, Esq., Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The Board of Ordnance presented to the Society one of the stone shot 
recently discovered in the Moat of the Tower of London : it is formed 
of compact stone rudely fashioned, and the diameter is about 7 J inches. 

The following books were presented to the Society : By John Bowyer 
Nichols, Esq., F.S.A., the Gentleman's Magazine, from July to Novem- 
ber, 1843. By the editor, The Athenaeum, parts 186 to 190; 1843. 
By the Numismatic Society, Numismatic Chronicle, parts 21, 22 ; 1843. 
By Dr. Goodfellow, the London Physiological Journal, No. 1. 8vo. 
1843. By Mr. M. T. S. llaimbach, Memoirs and Recollections of the 
late Abraham Raimbach, engraver, 4to. 1843. By John Adolphus, 
Esq., The History of England, from the accession to the decease of 
George III. vol. VI. 8vo. 1843. By Henri, Comte Krasinski, Bataille 
de Kirholm, Roman Historique, 2 vols. 8vo. 1836. By Monsieur 
Edouard Frere, De ITmprimerie, et de la Librairie a Rouen, 1483 a 
1550, 8vo. 1843. By Professor Charles Christian Rafn. Memoires de 
la Societe Royale des Antiquaires du Nord, 1840 1843, 8vo. By Dr. 
Leemans, Director of the Leyden Museum, ^Egyptische Monumenten, 
representations of Egyptian antiquities preserved there; pi. 11 48, 
fol. : Papyri Graeci, torn. i. 4to. 1843. By the Archaeological Insti- 
tute of Rome, Monument! Inediti, per 1'anno 1843: plates 37 48, 
fol.; Annales, torn. 13, 14, 8vo. 1841; Bullettini, per 1'anno 1842, 
8vo. By the Shakespeare Society, The Chester Plays, edited by 
Thomas Wright, Esq. 8vo. 1843 : The Alleyne Papers, edited by J. 
P. Collier, Esq. 8vo. 1843. By Charles H. Cooper, Esq., Annals 
of the University and Town of Cambridge, parts 13 16, 8vo. 1843. 
By the Committee of the Art Union of London, Seventh Annual 
Report, 1843. By the Royal Irish Academy, Proceedings for the 
year 1841-2, part VI. 8vo. 1843. By the Royal Geographical 
Society of London, Address delivered at the Anniversary Meeting, 22 
May, 1843, by William R. Hamilton, Esq. President. By the Statistical 
Society of London, Journal, vol. VI. part III. 8vo. 1843. By the 
Philosophical Society of Manchester, Memoirs, vol. VIII. part 1. 8vo. 
1843. By Dawson Turner, Esq. F.S.A., Descriptive Index of the 
Contents of five MS. volumes Illustrative of the History of Great Bri- 
tain, in his library, 8vo. 1843. By Dr. J. de Wai, Bijdragen tot de 
Geschiedenis en Oudheden van Drenthe, contributions to the history 
of the Antiquities of Drenthe, Groningen, 8vo. 1842. By the London 
Institution, Catalogue of the Library, systematically classed, vol. III. 
8vo. 1843. By the American Philosophical Society at Philadelphia, 
Transactions, vol. VIII. parts, 2, 3, 4to. 1842-43 : Proceedings, vol. II. 
Nos. 24, 25, 8vo. 1842-43. By Beriah Botfield, Esq., M.P., F.S.A., 
Stemmata Botevilliana, 8vo. 1843. By William Robinson, Esq. LL.D., 
A collection of Broad-sides, and Reprints of Small Tracts, with Maps of 
the Parishes of Edmonton, Hackney, and Tottenham. By Monsieur 
Marion du Mersan, Histoire du Cabinet des Medailles, &c. avec une 
notice sur la Bibliotheque Royale, Paris, 8vo. 1838 : with several minor 
dissertations on Medals and Antiquities. By the Rev. J. S. Henslow, 



10 

Account of the Roman Antiquities found at Kougham, Sept. 1843, 8vo. 
H\ K.lw. Hall, Esq. Observations on the Propriety of Style, particu- 
larly \\ith reference to the Modern Adaptation of Gothic Architecture, 
8vo By George Moore, Esq. F.S. A., Essay on those Powers of the Mind 
which have reference to Architectural Study and Design, 4to. 1843. 
Bv the publisher, Mr. Van Voorst, Illustrations of Baptismal Fonts, 

^ I. and II. 8vo. 1843. 

Sir Henry Ellis exhibited a cast from an unpublished seal of Henry 
\ III. found by Mr. John Doubleday among the Archives of Durham 
Cathedral. The Sovereign is represented enthroned, holding in his 
rijrht-hand a sword, and the orb in his left ; on the dexter side in an 
UPJHT compartment is a figure of Justice, and another on the sinister 
sid> which appears to represent Prudence. On the dexter side are the 
lords spiritual, mitred ; two of them holding cross-staves, kneel before 
the throne; the temporal peers, wearing robes and coronets, are seen on 
the side opposite. Before the footstep of the throne is a scutcheon of 
the arms of England, surmounted by the crown, and encircled by the 
Garter. The following portion of the legend is preserved : s . HEN. . . . 

....HIS POS. DEVM ECCLESIE ANGL. SVPREMI CAPITIS 

TIC AS. . . (ad cavsas ecclesiasticas ?) The seal, which is of bright red 
wax, measures in diameter 4 in. and there is no appearance of any counter- 
seal. Henry VIII. upon his accession, in accordance with the example 
of several other Sovereigns, adopted the seal of his predecessor, with 
some distinctive alterations, and the addition of a rose and a fleur-de- 
l\ - <m the counter-seal. Sandford has described two great seals, the 
earlier of Gothic design, the later in the revived classical style of deco- 
rntion: on the former the title FIDEI DEFENSOR, conferred on Henry 
VIII. in 1521, first appears. A new seal appears to have been made in 
_>. Hymer, xiv. p. 439. The second seal described by Sandford, 
and of which he has given a representation, appears, by the addition 
of the title IIIBERNIE REX, to have been made subsequently to 1541, 
when Henry was proclaimed King of Ireland. 



Thursday, November 23, 1843. 
THOMAS AMYOT, Esq., Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The following books and engravings were presented to the Society, 
A. Lower, Esq.: English Surnames, 2nd. edit. 8vo, 1843. 
ward \\.Brayley, Esq., F.S. A., Topographical History of Sur- 
rey, VoL II. parts 1, 2, 4to. 1843. By George JBodwin, Esq., State- 
"..-nt ol ( .he , hum. f Sir Page Dick, Bart., 4to. By ThomasVindus, 
!' "i * ! ltho * ra P hic representation of the Sarcophagus in 
which the BftrbtfU vase was discovered. B v R ev . D. Durell, a litho ff ra- 
representation of the Sculptures on" the Font in St. Nicholas' 
i^hton, which apparently were intended to pourtray the 
Bapn.u, ot the Saviour in the River Jordan, and the Institution of he 
,an.t ,w.th two subjects possibly from the legendary history of St! 
Choi... th, patron ot the church. An Engraving which represents 
.hi, font may be found m Antiqu. Hep. IN'. 185. Compare the sub- 



II 

jocts from the History of St. Nicholas, formerly in the windows of 
Eaton Socou Church, Bedfordshire, Cough's Sep. Mon. II. 213. 

Sir Henry Ellis communicated a letter from Captain Evan Nepean, 
R.N., to Samuel Birch, Esq., containing some remarks on his report upon 
the collection of vases and antiquities discovered by Capt. Nepean in 
the Island of Sacrificios, in the gulph of Mexico. In the report, printed 
in ArchaBol. vol. XXX. 139, Mr. Birch describes these as relics of the 
Aztecks, or Mexicans of the period of the Conquest by Cortez ; but 
from the geological formation of the island, and the situation in which 
the objects were found, Capt. Nepean considers that they ought to be 
assigned to an earlier period, and at least regarded as the works of the 
Toltesks, who, according to Humboldt, possessed Mexico 500 years 
previously to the arrival of the Aztecks. The collection has recently 
been deposited in the British Museum. 

A letter from Robert Porrett, Esq. F.S.A., addressed to Nicholas 
Carlisle, Esq. Secretary, was read, describing the stone shot recently 
found in the moat on the south side of the Tower of London, which 
has been converted into a dry ditch. See page 9, ante. They are formed 
of Kentish rag-stone, probably from the Maidstone quarries, and very 
rudely fashioned ; their diameters vary from 10 in. to 4^ in., the size of 
the largest nearly corresponding with those now termed 84-pounder, 
and of the smallest with 12-pounder. The use of stone shot appears 
to have been discontinued after the reign of Elizabeth, and they appear 
to have been much improved in form, being described as " stone shotte, 
polished," in a document dated 1575, preserved in the Tower. From 
the rude formation of these shot, the position where they were found 
heaped together, and their fractured state, Mr. Porrett supposes 
them to have been projected against the Tower, when held by Lord 
Scales on behalf of Henry VI. in 1460, against the Yorkist forces under 
the Earl of Salisbury, Lord Cobham, and Sir John Wenlocke ; 
artillery being planted on the opposite side of the Thames, to the great 
annoyance of the besieged. See extracts from the chronicles of 38 
Hen. VI., in Bayley's Hist, of the Tower. Some other specimens of 
this kind of projectile are preserved in the Tower, where two of large 
dimension, one of 2 ft. in diam., and the other 18 in., are placed on 
pedestals at the entrance of the Horse Armoury. 

John Yonge Akerman, Esq. F.S.A., communicated a letter from 
John Sydenham, Esq., giving a general account of Barrows in South 
Dorset, and remarks on their distinct character, as compared with 
tumuli in Kent, and other parts of England. One exception occurs 
amongst the Kentish barrows, in the neighbourhood of Canterbury, 
which in its formation and contents closely resembles those in Dorset. 
See Archaeol. XXX. 57. The Dorset tumuli, from the rude and simple 
character of their contents, appear to be of a very early period ; they 
exhibit indications of various modes of interment in the same barrow, and 
of combustion and inhumation apparently in use at the same time. The 
utensils and personal appliances discovered consist of coarsely fabricated 
urns, implements or weapons of bone, stone, or flint, beads of clay, bone, 
or shells, deers' antlers, c. Rarely is any implement or ornament of 
bronze found in them. A detailed report was also given of discoveries 
made in twenty-five barrows opened by Mr. Sydenharn near Dorchester, 



in the vicinity of Maiden Castle, and on Chesilbourne Down, with 
ketrhes of urns found in them, containing burned bones. Two bronze 
daggers were found in one barrow, of which one was chased and gilded. 
These harrows, all of which arc within twelve miles of the coast, appear, 
according to Mr. Sydenham, to be of a class almost distinct, and of 
earlier date than those which occur towards the N. E. parts of the 
. and the Wiltshire tumuli described by Sir R. Hoare. They 
may be attributed to the earliest tribes that peopled Britain, which, as 
they advanced into the interior, gradually improved in art and refine- 
ment, as is indicated by the character of the contents of the more inland 
tumuli. 



Thursday, November 30, 1843. 

WILLIAM RICHARD HAMILTON, Esq., Vice-President, in 
the Chair. 

The Rev. Francis Robert Raines, Incumbent of Milnrow, in Roch- 
dale, Lancashire, Anthony Plow, Esq., of Queen's College, Cambridge, 
and the Rev. John Papillon, B.A. Rector of Lexden, near Colchester, 
were severally balloted for, and duly elected Fellows of the Society. 

The following works were presented to the Society. By John Bow- 
\er Nichols, Esq., F.S.A., the Gentleman's Magazine, Dec. 1843. By 
John Y. Akerman, Esq., F.S.A., Coins of the Romans, relating to 
Britain, 2d. ed. 8vo. 1844. By Mr. Van Voorst, the Publisher, Baptismal 
Fonts, part III. 

Sir Henry Ellis, Secretary, communicated a Discourse presented to 
James I. by Richard Hodsor, regarding the ancient division of Ireland 
into provinces before the Conquest by Henry II., its subsequent divi- 
sions, and other circumstances concerning the history and government of 
the country at that period : setting forth the great charge incurred by 
the Crown in consequence of rebellions in Ireland, and shewing some 
means for its more peaceable government. 



Thursday, December 7, 1843. 
VISCOUNT MAHON, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following works were presented to the Society. By T. J. Petti- 
prrw. Esq., F.S.A., On Superstitions connected with the History and 
Practice of Medicine and Surgery, 8vo. 1844. By George Godwin, 
E*q., Ancient Structures in Winchester and Romsey, 8vo. By the Sta' 
tistical Society, Journal, Vol. VI. part IV. 8vo. 1843. By the Royal 
Coll,^. of Physicians, Catalogue of the Fellows, Candidates, and Licen- 
tiates, 1843. By Thomas Wright, Esq. F.S.A., St. Patrick's PurgaC, 
ovo. 1 H4>. 

John Yonge Akerman, Esq. F.S.A., exhibited some ornaments dis- 

! ?r ST , ^ n ttoundwa y Down > near Devizes, on the 

property ot h.h.l olston, Lsq. Some particulars regarding the discovery 

ommumcated by the Rev. J. B. Hughes of Marlborough. ThI 

had been made on the natural surface of the chalk, the corpse 



Ml 

inclosed in a wooden, iron-bound cist ; it lay N. and S. the head to 
the North. Near the neck were found several ornaments of gold, of 
various sizes and forms, which apparently had formed a necklace. The 
gems are roughly polished garnets, the diameter of the largest measures 
five-eighths in. ; the setting is simple, each being adapted for sus- 
pension by a small ring ; the fashion is similar to that of the ornaments 
found in Kent, and represented in Douglas's Nenia, pi. 5, 21, and 22. 
Two gold pins, set with small garnets, were also found, united by a 
chain, in the centre of which was a small vitrified paste engraved, bearing a 
cruciform ornament, with a kind of knot or interlacement chased upon the 
reverse of the setting. At the feet was found (as it was supposed) a 
helmet, formed of about twenty triangular-shaped thin pieces of brass, fast- 
ened together by rivets and two thin hoops of brass ; this shortly fell to pieces 
on admission of the air. There were also portions of small earthen cups ; 
four small holes were observed at the cardinal points, in two of which 
were portions of small earthen cups ; bones of animals were scattered 
about. Mr. Akerman considered the interment to be of the Vlth or 
Vllth century, and observed that similar pins connected by chains, but 
of base metal, had been discovered in Kent, which he attributed to that 
period. The necklace appears to prove that the person interred was a 
female, and it is much to be regretted that the portions preserved of the 
supposed helmet were insufficient to permit any positive opinion to be 
formed as to the nature of the object, but it seems highly probable that 
it was a brass-bound vessel, in the form of a pail, similar to one repre- 
sented by Douglas, plate 12, which was likewise ornamented with trian- 
gular plates and bands of brass. It may be supposed that it was 
intended to contain implements or orna'ments of female use, as was the 
box of similar form represented in the Nenia, pi. 18. 

A paper was read, communicated by Samuel Birch, Esq. entitled, 
Observations on a Vase representing the Arcadian tradition of the con- 
test of Hercules and Juno, at Pylos, preserved in the British Museum. 
It was described as an Etruscan work, curious both as a specimen in 
style and fabric between the vases termed Corinthian, Nolan, Egyptian, 
or Phenician, and the Tyrrhenian styles, and also on account of the sub- 
ject represented, which, if not novel, has not been elsewhere clearly exhi- 
bited. 



Thursday, December 14, 1843. 
WILLIAM R. HAMILTON, Esq., Vice- President, in the Chair. 

William Dickson, Esq., of Alnwick, Clerk of the Peace for the 
county of Northumberland, and Attorney at Law, was balloted for, and 
duly elected a Fellow of the Society. 

The following books were presented to the Society. By the pub- 
lisher, Ancient and Modern Architecture, by Mons. Jules Gailhabaud, 
4to. By W. V. Pickett, Esq., Address to the Royal Academy. By 
the Editor, Athenaeum, No. 191. By the Royal Asiatic Society, Jour- 
nal, vol. VII. 8vo. 1843. By the Shakespeare Society, Honour Trium- 
phant, and a Line of Life, two tracts by John Forde, 8vo. By the 



Historical and An lia-oK.gu-al Society of Geneva, Memoires et Docu- 
ment*, vols. I. and 11. Stu. 184 I , l-^-i:}. B\ Mi.u-ieur Adrien de Longpe- 
rirr. honorary IVllow of tin- Soeiety, Dissertations on unpublished 
medal- "t' 1 \\namis, Queen of Pnntus, and a medal of Lycia. 

Jabci Alii 1 1>.A., exhibited a portion of a bronze ornament, 
described as a torques, formed of twenty small pieces curiously twisted 
and tooled, alternating with pieces fashioned like a small pulley ; these 
are all of bronze, incrusted with a tine highly polished patina, and strung 
upon a strong iron wire. It was discovered about 2 feet deep in a 
gravel bed at Perdeswell, in the parish of Claincs, about 2 miles from 
:-ee>ier. Sec Mr. Allies' Notice of ancient British, Roman, and 
Saxon Antiquities in Worcestershire, 8vo. 1840, p. 55. 

A letter was read from Studley Martin, Esq., of Liverpool, addressed 
t.. Hudson (iurney, Esq., V.P., describing a sepulchral urn, recently dis- 
covered by him under a cairn on Worsthorn Moor, east of Burnley, on 
the boundaries of Lancashire and Yorkshire. It contained ashes and 
burned bones, and was covered by a stone. A circle surrounding the 
spot i3 still discernible, varying in diameter from 60 to 80 yards. 

Philip Howard, Esq., F.S.A., communicated an account of the exa- 
mination of vaults in the chancel of Framlingham Church, Suffolk, on 
Easter Tuesday 1841, and of the discovery of remains, supposed to be 
those of one of the Dukes of Norfolk, and of Henry, Duke of Rich- 
mond and Somerset, natural son of Henry VIII. by Elizabeth Blount ; 
he died 1535, and was buried at Framlingham. The tomb of the duke, 
traditionally described as having been removed from Thetford Priory at 
the dissolution, is on the south side of the altar, and the effigies placed 
upon it are described by Mr. Howard, as representing Thomas Howard, 
third Duke of Norfolk, who died 1554, and his wife Anne Plantagenet, 
third daughter of Edward IV., whose effigy is on that account placed at 
the right-hand of that of the duke. See Memorials of the Howard 
family, by Henry Howard, Esq. p. 114. Thomas, second Duke, who 
died \:>'2'2, was buried at Thetford Priory; and Blomefield states, that 
his remains were removed to Framlingham, but it is more probable that 
they weie deposited at Lambeth, in the chapel founded by him. 

(it-urge Stephens, Esq. of Stockholm, presented to the Society, a 
translation of the Anglo-Saxon lay of the Phoanix, into the metre and 
alliteration of the original, supposed to have been written during the 
tenth or eleventh century, and preserved in the MS. presented to Exeter 
Cathedral by Bishop Leofric, A. D. 1050, and first published entire, 
as stated by Mr. Stephens, by Grundtvig at Copenhagen, 1840, 8vo. 
Tho version is divided into seven cantos, and consists of 1353 lines; 
Mr. Stephens has appended critical remarks, and a glossary, with a 
list of Anglo-Saxon words contained in the song, which are not found 
in vocabularies of that language, or have not been fully explained. A 
upecimen taken from this Poem, described as a paraphrase of the Latin 
original attributed to Lactantius, has been given by the Rev. J. Cony- 
bear^ Archieologia, XVII. 193 ; and more fully in his Illustrations of 
Anglo-Saxon lW, rv , 1826, p. 224. The lay was printed with an English 

won I, .., Thorpe, F.S.A., in the Codex Exoniensis, pub- 

lished 1.x ill, Sm-u-ty, 1842, p. 197. 



1.-) 



Thursday, December 21, 184:J. 
WILLIAM H. HAMILTON, Esq., Vice-Presidcnt, in the Chair. 

The Rev. William Goode, M.A., of Charter-House Square, London, 
was balloted for, and duly elected a Fellow of the Society. 

Charles Roach Smith, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited some Roman remains, 
recently discovered in the suburbs of Boulogne-sur-Mer, at a spot 
which from the character of the numerous antiquities there found 
may be identified as the burial-place of the inhabitants of Gessoriacum. 
They consist of sepulchral urns and lamps of clay, small glass vessels, 
a large ring of highly polished jet or cannel coal, bracelets, and minor 
ornaments formed of bronze ; some of these are plated with silver, 
various other specimens of the same artificial process having been found 
in the northern parts of France ; also a fibula incrusted with coloured 
vitreous pastes arranged in ornamental designs in cavities chiseled in the 
metal, the prototype of enamelling. Mr. Smith exhibited also a singu- 
lar object, described as a slab for grinding colours, or possibly for 
sharpening tools ; it is a small oblong piece of dark grey stone, resem- 
bling slate ; hollowed in the centre, as if from grinding the pigment 
thereon, with a case of bronze fitted to it. In this cemetery urns 
containing burned bones were also found, and skeletons. The coins dis- 
covered are of Claudius, Nero, Vespasian, Domitian, Gordianus, Pius, 
Postumus, and Tetricus. 

Albert Way, Esq., Director, exhibited, by permission of Mr. W. G. 
Rogers, of Great Newport Street, a covered drinking cup, formed ap- 
parently of beech-wood, and ornamented with various heraldic devices, 
impressed by means of a heated iron. It is of English workmanship, 
and measures in height 10 in., or with the cover and pomel thereon 
14 in. and in diam. 5^ in. On the cover are branded the porcupine, 
chained and collared, and the crowned salamander in flames (crest of 
Douglas ?). The former is placed like a crest on a wreath ; also an 
elephant, and a crouching gryphon. The two first are the devices of 
Louis XII. and Francis I., kings of France, but the whole are probably 
introduced here as personal devices or crests of English families. On 
the cup are four animals, placed like crests upon torses: 1. A stag 
statant, with the date 1620 (Cavendish ?) ; 2. An ostrich erect, holding 
in the beak a horseshoe (Digby, or Fraser?); 3. An unicorn; 4. A 
wivern, the wings displayed, holding in the mouth a human hand, couped 
(Herbert?). Around the foot runs, in two concentric lines, the follow- 
ing inscription, the abrupt commencement of which is not readily to be 
explained, " + Are in Great Danger of that fearfull sentence Which 
saith Departe vnto eternal fire Ye curssed that haue followed vayne 
desire : Such as loue Pleasures more then they loue God shall feele his 
wrath & heauy scurging rod." The sign of the cross is also found on 
the reverse of the foot under the word Ye, the commencement of the 
second line. Examples of moral precepts thus inscribed on ancient 
drinking- vessels of ordinary use are numerous. The use of drin king- 
cups formed of wood was prevalent in England amongst all classes ; 
they were formed of knotty wood of maple or other trees, and termed 
mazers, ciphi murrei, from a supposed resemblance to the ancient Myr- 



16 

rhene vase*. The Irish mether is a vessel of a similar nature. Ma/ers 
were hooped and mounted with silver, and are named in inventories 
with the most precious objects. Physical properties were attributed 
to various kinds of wood, and hence the general use of such drink- 
ing vessels; the wood of the ash was esteemed for its efficacy 
pin || the cold gout." Heywood, in the Drunkard opened, 1635, 
gives a long list of the wooden drinking- vessels then in use ; see 
also Brand's Popular Antiquities. Until the heraldic devices on the cup 
submitted to the Society by Mr. Rogers are appropriated, no satisfactory 
conjecture can be formed as to its intention ; they may be memorials of 
the family connexions of the proprietor, or possibly of the members com- 
posing a "social fraternity. It is said that a cup of similar fashion and 
material, decorated with the royal arms, was in the collection of H.R.H. 
the late Duke of Sussex. 

Jabez Allies, Esq., F.S.A., communicated an account of antiquities 
discovered near Scarborough, and preserved in the Museum of that town ; 
especially a small rudely formed earthen vase, about three inches in 
diameter and two inches high, with perforations or longitudinal slits all 
round, so as to form a kind of rude basket. It was found in a tumulus at 
('"inboots, or Camp-butts, near Hackness ; and appears to be one of the 
third class of sepulchral urns, as arranged by Sir Richard Hoare, An- 
cient Wilts, Introduction, p. 25, to which he has given the name of 
incense-cups, supposing that they were intended to contain fragrant sub- 
stances, and to be suspended over the funeral pile. The specimens 
found in the tumuli in Wiltshire exhibit great variety of fashion ; they 
are considered by Sir Richard as relics of the Celtic and first colonists 
of the island, or of the colony of Belgae, who subsequently invaded it. 
Ancient Wilts, plates XI. XII. XIII. XXIV. XXV. A drawing of the 
Scarborough vase was exhibited. A larger urn, and flint arrow-heads 
were discovered in the same tumulus ; and in another nearly adjacent a 
fine gold torques was recently found, which much resembles the Irish 
torques represented in Vetusta Monum. V. pi. 29. It is in the posses- 
sion of Timothy Hardcastle, Esq., of Scalby; it measures in length 
thirty-five inches, exclusive of the hooks at each end, which measure 
1} in., and the weight is 2 oz. 1 dwt. Similar objects of gold disco- 
vered in Wales, are noticed Archajologia, XVIII. p. 448 ; XXI. p. 557. 
A torques of gold, valued at 152, was found in 1700, near Pattingham 
Church, Staffordshire, as described by Shaw, vol. I. 32 ; II. 279 ; and 
an account of another found at Guiseley, West Riding, is given by 
Whitaker, Loidis, I. 212. Numerous vestiges of ancient occupation 
occur along the eastern coast of Yorkshire ; and the Scarborough Mu- 
seum contains a variety of stone weapons, and many objects of interest 
discovered in the vicinity. 

The Society adjourned over the Christmas recess, to meet affain on 
January II, 1844. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 
OF LONDON. 



18431844. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 
OF LONDON. 



1844. 



No. 2. 



Thursday, January 11, 1844. 
HENRY HALLAM, ESQ., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Charles Baily, Esq., of Gracechurch Street, London, Architect, was 
balloted for, and duly elected a Fellow of the Society. 

The following books were presented to the Society : By the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, a list of the early printed books in the Archiepis- 
copal Library at Lambeth, 8vo. ; not printed for sale. By the President 
and Council of the Royal Society of Literature, Transactions, second 
series, vol. I. 8vo.; Proceedings, vol. I. No. 13, 8vo. ; Annual Report, 
1843, 8vo. By J. B. Nichols, Esq., F.S.A., The Gentleman's Maga- 
zine, January, 1844, 8vo. By the Editor, Athenaeum, Part 192, 4to. By 
the Rev. G. H. Dash wood, Vicecomites Norfolciae, 4to. 1843 ; privately 
printed, only 36 copies taken off. By the Numismatic Society, The 
Numismatic Chronicle, No. 23, 8vo. By the Society of Arts, Trans- 
actions, vol. L1V. 8vo. By the Publisher, The Monthly Review, No. 
1, 1844, 8vo. By James Yates, Esq., Textrinum Antiquorum, an ac- 
count of the Art of Weaving among the Ancients : Part 1, On the 
raw materials used in weaving, 8vo. 

Albert Way, Esq., Director, exhibited to the Society an impression 
from a sepulchral brass recently brought to this country from Flanders ; 
it was originally placed in the chapel of a castle situated between Liege 
and Aix. This fine example measures 6ft. 8in. by 3ft. 6in., being com- 
posed, like the Flemish brasses in St. Margaret's, Lynn, and other spe- 
cimens at Newark, Newcastle, St. Alban's, and St. Mary-Key, Ipswich, 
of several plates forming one unbroken surface of incised metal ; the 
field is diapered, and was originally filled in with colour. This brass is 
the memorial of Lodewyc, Lord of Cortewille, who died 1504, repre- 
sented in armour, and his wife, who died 1496. Escutcheons of striking 
heraldic design are placed over the figures. It has recently been pur- 
chased for the national collection at the Museum of Economic Geology, 
6, Craig's Court, Charing Cross. 

Sir Henry Ellis, Secretary, exhibited the silver matrices of the seal of 
King Charles II. for the Chancery for the counties of Caermarthen, Car- 
digan, and Pembroke, communicated by Mr. John Doubleday. The 
sovereign is represented in complete armour, on horseback, bearing a 
shield with the arms of the realm on his left arm. On the reverse, 



18 

under an imperial crown, is a shield with the same bearings : 1 and 4, 
France and England, quarterly : 2, Scotland : 3, Ireland. Dexter sup- 
porter, a dragon ; sinister, an heraldic species of spotted antelope, 
t mlrnu-ath is the plume of feathers, with ICH DIEN on a scroll. 
Tin- Hrnd runs thus, S1G- PRO- CANCELLAlUA- PRO- COMI- 

llliV.s i AHMKKTHEN- CARDIGAN- ET- PEMBROCK- 
Diameter, 4in. and two-eighths. This reverse bears much resemblance 
to that of the seal of Charles I. for the Court of Great Sessions for the 
same counties, an impression of which was exhibited to the Society by 
Sir Samuel Meyrick, and an engraving given, Archaeologia, XXII. p. 
417. Sir Henry Ellis exhibited also a cast from the counter-seal of the 
Hospital of St. Margaret, Canterbury, founded, according to Tanner, for 
aged priests, before the year 1243 ; the site is now occupied by the city 
Bridewell. This seal presents the head of a priest, which has the appear- 
ance of being intended as a portrait, with the legend, S' MAG'RI 
SIMONIS DE LANG ETON. This appears to have been the per- 
sonal seal of Simon de Langeton, brother of the Archbishop, and Arch- 
deacon of Canterbury, 1235. He founded the Hospital above mentioned, 
and died 1248. The matrices of the Seal of Charles II. have been pur- 
chased for the national collection at the Museum of Economic Geology, 
as interesting illustrations of the metallurgical series. 

Charles Roach Smith, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited two elaborate coloured 
drawings by Mr. William Beck, which represent Roman tesselated pave- 
ments; one of these was discovered in Lord Bathurst's park, near 
Cirencester, in 1824 ; and the other is preserved in the garden of Mr. 
Brewin, Quern's Lane, Cirencester. Mr. Smith also exhibited a leaden 
ornament, described as a kind of brooch, found at Abbeville, in the river 
Somme, bearing a full-faced human head, with the legend, -\- GCCE : 
S1NGNVM: FACIEI : BEATI : IOHIS : BAPTISTE. This ex- 
hibition was accompanied by some observations from John Yonge Aker- 
man, Esq., F.S.A., in reference to the types of the Irish coins of John, 
whose penny bears a full-faced crowned head, with a crescent surmounted 
by a star on the reverse, which appears likewise on the farthing, and on 
the halfpenny appears a full face, like the moon. Mr. D. Haigh, in a 
notice of these coins, Numismatic Chron. II. 187, remarks that the de- 

M are possibly typical of the office of the Baptist, and suggests 
the conjecture that King John was born on the Feast of that Saint. 
An entry on the Rolls of Parliament during his reign, describes the 
crescent and star as the livery of John, worn by his household. Mr. 
Akennan referred to the curious work of Dr. Rigolot, on the " Mon- 
naies des Eveques des Innocens," in which are represented many leaden 
tokens, and false monies of lead, bearing close resemblance to the leaden 
ornament exhibited, and suggested the explanation of the devices on the 
coin* of John, as typical of the Baptist, styled in Scripture a " burning 
and shining light." 

Sir Henry Ellis, Secretary, communicated an extract from one of the 
Clarendon MSS. in the British Museum, (Add. MS. 4789, f. 40,) re- 
garding the examination of Thomas Heth, a concealed Jesuit, brother to 
the Archbishop of York, who was Chancellor during the reign of Mary. 
He was apprehended in Rochester in 1568, and put to the question by 



11) 

Bishop Edmond Gest. He had sought preferment from the Dean of 
Rochester, and, being appointed to preach in the cathedral, accidentally 
let fall a letter addressed to a well-known Jesuit, whereby suspicion was 
excited. He denied knowledge of the letter, which was addressed to ano- 
ther name, but search was made at his lodgings, and his licence to preach, 
given by the Jesuits, and confirmed by papal bull, was found ; finally he 
was placed in the pillory, branded, his ears cut off, and his nose slit, so 
that soon after he died in jail. Strype, in his Annals, alludes to this 
occurrence, as a remarkable instance of the diligence of the Jesuits at 
this period. 

Some sentences were then read from a transcript of a curious English 
Medical MS. in prose and verse, communicated by George Stephens, 
Esq. ; the original is preserved in the Royal Library at Stockholm. 



Thursday, January 18, 1844. 

VISCOUNT MAHON, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

John Brodripp Bergne, Esq. of Hans Place, Chelsea, Clerk in the 
Foreign Office, was balloted for, and duly elected a Fellow of the 
Society. 

Albert Way, Esq. Director, presented to the Society Promptorium 
Parvulorum, the first English- Latin Dictionary, compiled about A.D. 
1440, by one of the Friars Preachers at Lynn, Norfolk ; newly edited 
from the existing MSS. by him, for the Camden Society. Part I. 
A L. 4to. 1843. Mr. Way also exhibited a representation of deco- 
rative tiles, composed of wood-cuts executed for the series of Encaustic 
Tiles, published by Messrs. Nichols, and arranged so as to exhibit the 
effect of their application to the purpose of supplying the place of wains- 
cot. Each tile measures 9 in. by 7 ; the series is composed of five, ar- 
ranged in longitudinal bands, and decorated with sacred and armorial 
devices, and tabernacle work, the full effect of which can only be seen 
when several bands are united. These tiles formerly served as a facing 
for the interior walls of the eastern part of Great Malvern Priory 
Church, as described by Habingdon, and other writers, forming an 
unique specimen of such an application of fictile ornament, they have, 
however, been displaced, and for want of arrangement their curious 
effect is lost. The date anno regni Regis Henrici vj. xxxvj. (1457) is 
inscribed upon one of them. 

A letter was then read from Mr. Way, addressed to Sir Henry Ellis, 
in reference to Mr. Akerman's observations on the ornament bearing 
the head of St. John, exhibited at the previous meeting. It is very pro- 
bable that King John regarded the Saint, whose name he bore, as his 
special guardian ; but the supposition that he assumed the crescent and 
star, or sun, as his device, in allusion to St. John, seema scarcely ten- 
able, when it is considered that it had been used by his predecessor, 
King Richard, and appears on both his great seals, although not found on 
those of John, either as Count of Mortaigne, or as King. The star or 
sun is seen on the great seal of Stephen. The conjecture that Richard 
assumed it in the Holy Land, with some allusion to the star of Bethlehem, 

c 2 



20 

as dominant over the Mahometan crescent, is also questionable, for 
the device appears on Richard's earlier seal, designed previously to the 
( i u*ade. The true origin of this device appears, however, to have been 
Oriental ; it occurs very frequently on the ancient Asiatic engraved signets, 
and Mr. John Doubleday states, that it is found on certain Burmese me- 
morials of conveyances of land, tokening that the grant should hold good 
as long as sun and moon shall endure. By comparison with some of the 
tokens represented in Dr. Rigolot's work referred to previously, the de- 
sign of Mr. Smith's singular leaden ornament may be ascertained, 
although now much defaced. In the centre is represented an ecclesi- 
astic holding up to view the head of St. John, placed apparently in a 
charger, or large dish, and an acolyte on either side he Ids a lighted 
taper. The legend on these tokens is the same as that seen on the 
ornament, and they are all, most probably, memorials distributed to pil- 
grims to the shrine at Amiens, where the head of the Baptist is still 
exhibited, or purchased by them, possibly with some notion of talismanic 
efficacy. The mediation of St. John was supposed to have signal virtue 
against the dreaded disease of epilepsy, or the falling evil, thence called 
Morbus Sancti Johannis, Le Mai Saint Jean. Paciaudi, in his Dissertation 
on the reverence shewn towards the Baptist, gives a relation of the extra- 
ordinary resort of pilgrims, on the feast of his Nativity, to the Church 
of Creteil, near Paris. The leaden ornaments dispensed by the Feretrar 
to the pilgrims at Amiens were probably attached to the cap or the 
hood, a purpose for which the example exhibited appears to have been 
formed, and worn habitually as a preservative charm, such as the " Ver- 
nicle," or true portraiture of the Saviour, worn by the Pardoner upon his 
cap, as described in the Canterbury Tales. Bishop Claude de Seyssel, 
in his life of Louis XI. of France, appended to the Memoirs of Ph. de 
Comines, describes the singular superstition of that King, who wore his 
cap stuck full of images of lead or pewter, which, on receiving any news, 
good or bad, he was accustomed to kiss with reverence. 

William H. Hamilton, Esq. Vice- President, exhibited some interesting 
objects communicated by William Roots, Esq., of Kingston-on-Thames, 
and recently discovered near his residence by the ballast-heavers em- 
ployed in raising gravel out of the bed of the Thames, between Kingston 
and Hampton Court. In the course of such operations on the Middlesex 
side of the river, many relics, consisting chiefly of weapons of war, have 
been found, at a depth of about seven feet below a bed of gravel, and 
resting about two feet deep in a bed of blue clay: several similar objects 
found in the same vicinity are in the possession of Edward Jesse, Esq. 
of Windsor. The large number of these weapons, discovered almost 
invariably on the Middlesex side, and immediately above Kingston, 
appears to indicate, as Mr. Roots observes, the spot where a serious con- 
flict had occurred ; and, in accordance with the opinion of Horsley, he 
supposes this to have been the part of the Thames where Caesar effected 

is passage, in opposition to the troops of Cassivelaunus, B.C. 54. It 
is possible, indeed, that a part of the army might have crossed somewhat 
higher up the- river, or at the Coway Stakes near Oatlands, as Camden 
f opposed, but the old Moreford," or great ford of the river, immediately 

tove Kingston, is the spot where it is probable that the principal scene 



21 

of the contest for the passage occurred, designated in Caesar's Commen- 
taries as the part where the Thames was fordable on foot, although with 
some difficulty. The question of the passage at the Coway Stakes has 
been discussed by Samuel Gale, Archaeologia, vol. I. 189, and Daines 
Barrington, vol. II. 142. The objects exhibited by Mr. Roots were, 
an iron hatchet, remarkable for its perfect preservation, having been im- 
bedded in clay, as stated above ; two bronze celts, which lay within a 
few feet of the hatchet ; the blade of a sword of mixed yellow metal, 
measuring 19 in. in length ; two iron spear-heads ; and a fibula of yellow 
metal. Mr. Hamilton, in reference to the discovery of celts, cited the ob- 
servations of Dr. Lort, Archaeologia, vol. V. where numerous representa- 
tions are given, alluding also to the supposition, adopted by Mr. Roots, 
that they were missile hatchets, such as are mentioned by Sidonius, in his 
description of the equipment of Sigimer ; Epist. 20, lib. iv. Sir Sa- 
muel Meyrick considers these weapons of bronze to have been manu- 
factured by the Phoenicians, in imitation of the original stone axes of the 
Britons. See Skelton's Illustrations of the Goodrich Court Armoury, 
vol. I. pi. 47. 

Thomas Wright, Esq., F.S.A., communicated observations on Anti- 
quarian Excavations and Researches in the Middle Ages, especially in 
regard to antique gems and cameos, and the talismanic qualities with 
which they were supposed to be endowed. Inventories of gems, with the 
enumeration of the virtues attributed to them according to the figures 
they bore, occur as early as the twelfth century : curious examples of 
such lists may be consulted in Harl. MS. 80, f. 105, and Arund. MS. 
342, f. 342. A gem representing Pegasus or Bellerophon is there 
declared to be good for warriors ; one with the figure of Andromeda 
to have the power of conciliating love ; the figure of Mercury rendered 
its possessor wise and persuasive ; that of Hercules was a singular 
defence to combatants ; a stone bearing the figure of a hare was a de- 
fence against the devil ; and that of a Syren, sculptured in hyacinth, 
rendered the bearer invisible. At an early period the relics of Roman 
occupation had been made available for the purposes of the time, as in 
the case of the materials of Verulamium, which were employed in the 
construction of the church of St. Alban's ; and excavations were also 
made in search for hidden treasures. It is probable that barrows were 
frequently opened with this intention ; the romance of Beowulf, and 
other early poems, speak of cups, ornaments, and weapons thus rescued 
from oblivion ; and the Rituals comprise a Benediction of vessels dis- 
covered in ancient places, praying the Almighty to cleanse these vases 
fabricated by the art of the Gentiles, that they may be used by be- 
lievers in peace. The earliest excavations in England, of which we have 
a definite account, were those made by the abbots of St. Alban's, in the 
earlier part of the eleventh century, as related by M. Paris ; and the 
precious gems which are enumerated in the inventories of the Treasury 
of St. Alban's, given in Cott. MSS. Nero D. I., and Claudius E. iv., 
were probably derived from these researches. M. Paris gives a drawing 
of a remarkable cameo, supposed to be gifted with singular virtue for 
women in child-birth. The personal counter-seals of persons of rank 



wwv MTV iVi-iiiu-ntlv antique intaglios, numerous examples of which 
un.mgst the srols engraved in the Vetusta Monumenta, vol. I. 

Thursday, January, 25, 1844. 
HENRY HALLAM, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Monsieur L6chaud6 d'Anisy, of Caen, author, jointly with the late 

.te de Sainte-Marie, of the " Recherches sur le Domesday, Caen, 

1 - iiV and Monsieur Edouard Frere, of Rouen, author of the History 

1'ypography at Rouen, from 1483 to 1550, and publisher of numerous 

works connected with Anglo-Norman Antiquities, were balloted for, 

and duly elected Honorary Fellows of the Society. 

Ttu- following books were presented to the Society : By the Ameri- 
can Philosophical Society at Philadelphia, Proceedings of the Society, 
vol. II. No. 26, 8vo. 1848; Proceedings on the celebration of the 
hundredth Anniversary of the Society, 25 May, 1843, vol. II. No. 
27, 8vo. 

Albert Way, Esq. Director, exhibited an Etruscan bronze implement, 
fashioned as a pair of tongs, mounted upon small wheels ; and a piece of 
Flemish carving in oak, communicated by Mr. W. G. Rogers, of Great 
Newport Street. Its date is about 1470, and it affords interesting ex- 
amples of symbolical representations of Saints ; the six small seated figures, 
which form the chief feature of ornament, are as follows : 1 . St. Victor, 
represented in armour covered by a mantle, a vi sored salade on his 
head, in his right hand a drawn sword, and in the left a windmill, in allu- 
sion to his martyrdom at Marseilles, in the times of Maximian, by 
being crushed to death between two mill-stones ; he was also regarded 
in Flanders as the Patron Saint of Millers. 2. A young saint, holding 
a palm branch in the right hand, and an arrow in the left ; a veiled 
female kneels at his side, as if entreating his intercession. 3. St. Eliza- 
beth of Hungary, with the veil and barbe, or cloth covering the chin ; in 
her right hand she bears three crowns, in allusion to her perfect life as 
virgin, matron, and widow. 4. St. Augustine, wearing the episcopal 
mitre, in his left hand an open book, in the right an heart. 5. The 
Blessed Virgin, the hair long and dishevelled, a crown on her head ; her 
mantle overspreads a number of small female figures on either side, in 
allusion to her protection of those who follow her virtuous example, and 
solicit her intercession. 6. St. John Baptist, pointing to the Holy 
Lamb, and vested in the camel's-hair garment; the head of the animal 
is seen hanging between his legs. 

M ; . Way exhibited also an impression of a drawing on stone, printed 
at Paris in colours, by the process termed Chromolithic, being a fac- 
simile of the remarkable enamelled plate preserved in the Museum at 
! Mans, and formerly in the cathedral of that town, representing, as it 

s U p,M)sed Geoffrey Plantagenet, called le Bel, Duke of Normandy, 
The plate measures 19 in. by 10-f ; a reduced repre- 
sentation has been given by Stothard in his Monumental Effigies. 
Almack, Esq. F.S.A., communicated an original counterpart 



:>:* 

lease from Francis, Earl of Bedford, to Sir William Cccill, principal 
sir ivtary. afterwards Lord Treasurer Burghley, and bearing the signature 
of that statesman. The document is dated Sept. 7, 12 Eliz., 1570, and, 
for the good will that the Earl bore to him, devises, in consideration of 
a yearly rent of five shillings, a parcel of ground lying in the East end, 
and part of the enclosure or pasture commonly called Covent Garden, 
which of late years he had occupied by sufferance of the Earl, being 
divided from the rest of the inclosure called Covent Garden, on the 
west, " with certayne stulpes and rayles of wood ; and is fensed with a 
wall of mudde or earth on the east, next unto the comune high waye 
that leadeth from Stronde to St. Gyles in the fyeldes ; and on the west 
end towardes the south is fensed with the orcharde wall of the said S r 
"William Cecyll; and on the south end with a certayne fence wall of mudde, 
or earthe, beinge therbye devyded from certayne gardens belonginge to 
the Inne called the Whyte Heart, and other tenementes situate in the 
high streate of Westm*", comunly called the Stronde." 

Sir Henry Ellis, Secretary, communicated three documents relating to 
matters ecclesiastical, during the XVIth century. The first (Lansd. 
MS. 55, art. 30) was a particular note of the charitable good uses per- 
formed by the corporate bodies of London out of the rents of Chantry 
lands purchased from King Edw. VI., consisting of pensions to decayed 
brothers, exhibitions to scholars, and alms. The Chantries were dis- 
solved in 1547, and the purchases in question from the Crown, amount- 
ing to 18,714, 11*. 2d. still afford a large portion of the bounty an- 
nually bestowed by the civic companies for the like benevolent uses. 
The second was a letter to the Earl of Arundel, from William Benet, 
priest, dated 23 June, 1588, pleading apology for having, whilst under- 
going the punishment of the rack in the Tower, falsely accused the Earl 
of having directed him to say a mass of the Holy Ghost, for the success 
of the Spanish fleet. (Lansd. MS. 94, art. 39.) The third related to 
the state of affairs ecclesiastical in Guernsey and Jersey, from the Reform- 
ation to the time of James I. (Lansd. MS. 1 16, art. 19.) The object 
of this memorial was to obtain the re-erection of a deanery, with juris- 
diction to be derived from the Bishop of Winchester, and the restoration 
of the general use of the English Liturgy. This suit having been 
favourably received by James I., the Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction was 
established in 1624 by royal assent, as still existing. See Fuller's Ac- 
count of Jersey, Lond. 1694. 

Thursday, February 1, 1844. 
THOMAS AMYOT, Esq. Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The following books were presented to the Society : By John Bowyer 
Nichols, Esq. F.S.A. the Gentleman's Magazine, February, 1844. By 
the Publisher, John Henry Parker, Oxford, A Guide to the Architec- 
tural Antiquities in the neighbourhood of Oxford, Part II. 8vo. 1844, 
Deanery of Woodstock ; illustrated by numerous woodcuts : published 
for the Oxford Society for Promoting the Study of Gothic Architecture. 
By the Publisher, the Colonial Magazine, No. 1. 8vo. 

Albert Way, Esq. Director, exhibited a specimen of the work now 



SJ4 

] in-paring for publication in Paris, which vill contain representations 
of every known combination of Egyptian Hieroglyphic Symbols, pro- 
duced by means of separate types, arranged in moyeable cartouches. 
The punches are executed from the designs of Monsieur Louis Dubois, 
ous-Conservateur of the Louvre. The Series comprises 1430 cha- 
racters. Mr. Way also exhibited a rubbing from the sepulchral brass 
of Andrewe Evyngar, citizen and salter, of London, and Ellyn his 
wife : date about 1585. This memorial is placed in the central aisle 
of Allhallows-Barking Church, in the city of London, and has been 
concealed from notice by the benches and matting placed over it ; it 
represents the citizen and his family placed under a canopy of taber- 
nacle work, in which is introduced a figure of the Blessed Virgin, sup- 
porting on her knees the body of Christ. The back-ground, repre- 
senting a tapestry-hanging, and the armorial bearings, were originally 
filled with colour, but whether by means of coarse enamels, which were 
frequently used for the purpose, or some hard resinous composition, it 
is now difficult to ascertain from the small traces which still exist. This 
interesting specimen, which is possibly of Flemish execution, forms the 
subject of a plate in Waller's Series of Monumental Brasses. 

Charles James Richardson, Esq. F.S.A., exhibited a sketch repre- 
senting the font at Yatesbury, Wiltshire ; it is of massive circular form, 
and enriched with two bands of foliage, one of which elegantly surrounds 
the base of the bowl : it is apparently of late Norman date. Also a plan 
and elevation of the stone rood-screen at Compton Bassett, Wiltshire ; 
it is of very rich design, date late Perpendicular, and is ornamented with 
twelve small canopied niches, probably intended to receive small figures 
of the Apostles. Rood screens of stone are by no means common, espe- 
cially in parish churches of so late a period ; several screens of oak, of 
rich character, occur in the same neighbourhood. In the same church 
is preserved an interesting example of the hour-glass, with its frame 
much decorated, and attached to the pulpit. A sketch of this was exhibited. 
William Bromet, Esq. M.D., F.S.A., exhibited three views and a 
ground plan of the remains of Newarke Priory, in Surrey, now the 
property of Lord Lovelace, together with some small articles of curiosity 
discovered in its vicinity. These consist of an inscribed brass ring, the 
matrix of a small seal, on which is a scutcheon, charged with two trumpets 
ronvcrping towards the base point, and surrounded by the legend S' 
RICARDI LE TRVMPVIE (trumpvte?). Also two small enamelled 
ornaments of quatre-foiled form, intended for suspension, possibly as deco- 
rations of a shrine, or some sacred appliance : such were appended to 
the stem of the consecrated Rose, presented by the Pope to one of the 
counts of Neufchatel, and recently exhibited in London by Colonel 
heubet On those found at Newarke are scutcheons ; the one, placed 
n a key and a sword, is charged with a cross flory or patee 
possibly intended for the bearing attributed to Edward the Confessor. 
the other is the bearing Argent, three fusils in fesse gules (Mon- 
gue) ; the site of the Priory came into the possession of that family 
immediately after the Dissolution, but the enamelled ornament appears to 
of earlier date. Numerous ancient relics have been found at Newarke, 
as coins, tokens, decorative tiles, and ornaments of costume. 



25 

Charles lloach Smith, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited a sketch communicated 
by Henry Harvey, Esq. of Hayle, in Cornwall, representing an inscribed 
monumental slab of granite, recently discovered in digging a trench on 
the Cliff at Carnsew, and supposed to be of the fifth or sixth century. 

Sir Henry Ellis, Secretary, communicated several curious extracts 
from the Council Books of 32 and 33 Hen. VIII. Cotton. MS. Titus, 
B. i. f. 191. Several warrants, and other documents, are described as 
passed under the " stampe," or wood- cut signature, affixed by the Privy 
Council by Royal authority, in place of the sign manual. One of the 
orders describes minutely the apparel of the serving men and retainers 
of the Court ; it is dated Hampton Court, February 27, 1540. Several 
documents, thus executed by the impression of a wood-cut, are preserved 
in the British Museum ; the practice of substituting the stamped signa- 
ture in place of the Royal autograph was likewise adopted in the reign 
of Edward VI., and that of Mary. In recent times, recourse was had 
to the same expedient, on the authority of these precedents, during the 
illness of his late Majesty, George IV. 

Thursday, February 8, 1844. 
WILLIAM R. HAMILTON, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

John Ratcliff, Esq., of Edgbaston, near Birmingham, was balloted 
for, and duly elected a Fellow of the Society. 

Monsieur Anatole Chabouillet, one of the officers of the Department 
of Medals and Antiquities, at the King's Library, Paris, was balloted 
for, and duly elected an Honorary Fellow of the Society. 

The following books were presented to the Society : By the Regis- 
trar General, the Fifth Annual Report of Births, Deaths, and Mar- 
riages in England, fol. 1843. By the Editor, the Athenaeum, part 193, 
1844. 

Lord Albert Conyngham, F.S.A., exhibited an ancient object of bronze, 
recently found in Ireland, similar to some which are preserved in the 
Museum of the Royal Irish Academy, in Dublin ; it apparently 
formed part of the adjustment of harness, or trappings of a horse. 

Sir Henry Ellis, Secretary, communicated extracts from the Privy 
Council Book of 1 Elizabeth (1558) from a transcript, Harl. MS. 
169. They relate to the Proclamations, and various occurrences at the 
interesting period of that Queen's Accession, with minutes of letters 
addressed by the Council to persons in authority, in various parts of 
the realm. 



Thursday, February 15, 1844. 
VISCOUNT MAHON, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following books were presented to the Society : By Edward 
Richardson, Esq., Sculptor, The Monumental Effigies of the Temple 
Church, with an account of their restoration, executed by him in 1842 ; 



illu>tratrd by lithographic drawings, fol. 1843. By Dawson Turner, Esq., 
\ , Catalogue of the Emblems of Saints, by which they may be 
diMiiis:iiishrd in anrii>nt works of art, 8vo., compiled by Rev. Richard 
Hart, Vicar of Catton, Norfolk : privately printed. By Alfred Bartho- 
lomew, Esq. F.S.A., The Builder, vol. II. Part 1, fol. 1844. 

Albert Way. Esq., Director, exhibited rubbings from two comme- 
morative incised slabs, now preserved in one of the chapels in the Royal 
Catacombs at St. Denis. They represent St. Louis, King of France, and 
bis Serjeants-at-arms, and were placed as a memorial of the foundation 
of the monastery of Ste. Catherine du Val, at Paris, in pursuance of the 
vow made by those officers at the battle of Bovines, A.D. 1214. At 
the Revolution these curious slabs were removed, and placed in the 
Muse des Monuments Fran^ais ; a description and representation of 
them may be found in Lenoir's detailed catalogue of that collection, 
tome I. p. 189; the Histoire de la Milice Fran^aise, by the Pere 
Daniel, tome II. p. 93 ; and Willemin's Monumens Inedits. They are 
now richly gilded and painted, and are preserved with other memorials 
of St. Louis and his family. Although of much later date than the 
period to which they have been usually attributed, yet, as they exhibit in 
a very curious manner the peculiarities of costume at the commencement 
of the fifteenth century, they are not undeserving of attention. 

William D. Haggard, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited four ornaments of gold, 
which were shipped at the Port of Islay, in South America. They 
were supposed to be of great antiquity ; "two, called Topars, appear to 
have been ornaments of female attire, probably hair-pins : they measure 
in length 12fin. ; and terminate in a singular form, like a shovel or flat 
spoon, in diameter 24 in., being pointed at the other extremity. The 
weight of the most massive is 22dwts. 6grs. The others are flat arm- 
lets, of 3in. diani., and in length 6in., the heaviest weighing 15dwts. 
gin. It has been conjectured that these ornaments may be of the kind 
occasionally used as money. 

Alfred J. Kempe, Esq., F.S. A., exhibited several sketches, and objects 
of antiquity, recently brought from Italy, and communicated by Albin 
Martin, Esq. They comprise the head of the bearded Bacchus, de- 
scribed as sculptured in the material called rosso antico, and found at 
the Temple of Apollo, at Cumae, near Naples ; a bronze vase of elegant 
form from Pompeii ; also sketches of the Temple of Venus at Baiae ; 
of fresco paintings discovered at Herculaneum and Pompeii, and other 
subjects of interest. 

Charles Roach Smith, Esq., F.S.A., communicated from Mr. Thomas 
Bateman, jun., of Bakewell, an account of discoveries made in barrows 
Derbyshire, opened by him in 1843, accompanied by drawings of the 
principal objects. They consist of urns of various forms, one of which, 
hntod as if for suspension, appears to belong to the class termed by 
Richard Hoare thuribles, or incense-cups ; also arrow-heads, spear- 
ids, and axes formed of flint, and a remarkable necklace, which was 
in a barrow called Galley, or Callidge-Lowe, on Brassington 
\ which several interments were discovered. It is formed of 
naments of pure gold, get with uncut garnets, and three of gold 
in general fashiou and arrangement closely resembles the neck- 



27 

lace found near Devizes, exhibited to the Society by Mr. Akermun, De- 
cember 7, 1843. In some instances the skeletons were found in cists, 
rudely formed with stones set edge-wise ; layers of rats' bones were re- 
peatedly met with, as also teeth of horses and other animals, portions 
of stags' horns, the skull of a pole-cat, whetstones, and in one instance 
pieces of ruddle. 

Sir Henry Ellis, Secretary, communicated an extract from Cott. MS. 
Vespas. C. xiv., f. 344, relating to the state of the metropolis on the 
North- Western side, as regarded the sewerage, with suggestions for the 
improvement of the same, by Sir Robert Johnston, dated 1605. In- 
formation is also to be obtained from this document in relation to the 
provision of water for the uses of the metropolis, and the position of some 
of the principal wells and conduits ; it was also proposed to form a reser- 
voir upon some natural eminence for a more ample supply. 

Thursday, February 22, 1844. 
HENRY HALLAM, ESQ., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following books were presented to the Society : By Charles 
Roach Smith, Esq., F.S.A., Collectanea Antiqua, etchings of ancient re- 
mains, such as coins, bronze ornaments, vessels of glass and clay, and 
other objects illustrative of the habits, customs, and history of past ages ; 
No. I. III., 8vo. 1843. By the Royal Geographical Society of Lon- 
don, Journal of the Society, vol. XIII. part 1, 8vo. 1843. By Richard 
Saint li ill, Esq., of Topsham, Devon, An Olla Podrida, or Scraps, Numis- 
matic, Antiquarian, and Literary, especially a catalogue of the coins of 
the mint of Exeter, 8vo. 1844 ; printed for private distribution only. 
William Twemlow, Esq., of Wilton Cottage, Cheshire, presented two 
proof impressions of a portrait of himself : and Charles James Richard- 
son, Esq., F.S.A., presented five impressions of a representation of the 
Middle Temple Hall. 

Albert Way, Esq., Director, exhibited an ancient impression, in white 
wax, of the seal of the Hospital of St. Giles, at Norwich. It is of the 
pointed-oval form, and represents St. Giles, clad in the monastic habit ; 
he is seated, a tree appears near him, indicating that the scene is in a 
forest, and he caresses a crouching doe, which leans agains his knees for 
protection. The legend around the verge is as follows : + S'* MAG'RI 
ET FR'M- HOSPITA ... SCI- EGIDII DE- NORWIC'. 
Beneath is seen a sort of cross surmounted apparently by a mitre. St. 
Giles, whose name is still retained in the Calendar, Sept, 1, was Abbot 
of a monastery in Languedoc, founded by him, and called after his 
name. It is related that he was an Athenian, who took refuge in the 
forest district in the South of France, near Nismes, and was nourished in 
solitude, according to the Golden Legend, by a doe, which supplied him 
with her milk. A prince of the country pursuing the animal in the 
chase, discovered the saint's retreat, whither the wounded doe had fled, 
to seek shelter at his feet ; and hence the usual symbolical representation, 
of which this seal is an example. 

William Staunton, Esq., of Longbridge House, Warwickshire, com- 



iminicnti'tl, thn.nrh Sir Henry Kills, the Patent of the Appointment of 
the Duke of Somerset, as Governor of the person of Edward VI., and 
Protector of his dominions during his minority. It came into the pos- 
sewion of Mr. Staunton by gift from the late Thomas Samwell, Esq., 
who had received it from Mr. Hungerford, of Dingley Hall, Northamp- 
tonshire, a seat formerly the property of the family of Sir Edward 
Grvffyn, whose name appears as a subscribing witness to the Patent. 

John Gough Nichols, Esq. F.S.A., communicated observations on an 
Amity formed between the companies of Fishmongers and Goldsmiths of 
London, and a consequent participation of their coat-armour. The text 
of this paper is the following passage of Stowe's Survey : " Thus much 
have I thought good to note of the Fishmongers, men ignorant of their 
Antiquities, not able to shew a reason why, or when, they were ioyned 
in amity with the Goldsmithes, do give part of their armes, &c." Abun- 
dant evidence may be adduced to shew that the alliance here mentioned 
subsisted through several centuries ; but with respect to the latter state- 
ment, " do give part of their armes," it may be suspected that Stowe 
himself, copying some earlier authority, did not really understand it, inas- 
much as there is no community in the armorial bearings of the two com- 
panies, except that in one instance, on the roof of St. Paul's Cathedral, 
they were impaled, the Fishmongers' arms on the dexter side. Mr. J. G. 
Nichols has discovered that the union of the fish and leopard's heads 
really took place in the personal shields of several eminent Fishmongers, 
about the reign of Edward II. The names of the coats so formed are 
Gloucester (sheriff in 1346), Ely, Bryan, Sewynton, Ostrich, Porte, and 
Hadresham or Hathersam, connected with which are some others now 
anonymous, all partaking more or less of the same charges, viz. fish, 
leopard's heads, garbs, crescents, and crosslets. 



Thursday, February 29, 1844. 

THOMAS AMYOT, Esq., Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The following books were presented to the Society : By John Buck- 
ler, Esq. F.S.A., Remarks upon Wayside Chapels, with observations on 
the architecture and present state of the Chantry on Wakefield Bridge, 
bv Job! Chessell Buckler, and Charles Buckler, architects, 8vo., 1843 
illustrated with wood-cuts. By the Editor, the Athenaeum, part 194,' 
Uo. By John Bowyer Nichols, Esq. F.S.A., The Gentleman's Maga- 

Bartholomew > Es - RS - A -> The 



Charles Roach Smith, Esq. F.S.A., communicated an account of some 

con remains recently discovered at Stowting, situate on the 

The Back-bone of Kent," and about a mile from the line 

Roman road leading from Canterbury to Lymne. The discovery was 

in the course of the formation of a new road, adjoining the more 

ah ", Jr*"* than ^^^ interments were found, the bodies 

n placed m graves of various dimensions excavated in the 

capons, iron bosses of shields, and ornaments, were found by 



-29 

the sides of some of them, beads being discovered with others. The 
weapons comprise double-edged swords, 36 in. long, spear-heads, vary- 
ing in length from 12 to 20 in., and knives, from 4 to 12 in. Buckles 
of bronze were also found, with one remarkable specimen formed of a 
heavy mixed metal, of white colour, which, according to analysis, 
obligingly made under the direction of Sir Henry de la Beche, at the 
Museum of Economic Geology, Craig's Court, is composed of copper and 
tin, in about the proportion employed for speculum metal ; with traces 
of iron and lead, probably due to impurities in the other metals. Beads 
of glass, clay, and amber, of various designs, silver-gilt brooches, set 
with coloured glass placed over tissue, as some of the ornaments dis- 
covered near Tournai, in the tomb attributed to Childeric, are disposed, 
were also discovered ; also bronze armlets, a basin which measures 
10 in. diam., and in depth 5 in., an earthen urn, and coins of Anto- 
ninus Pius, Plautilla, and Valens, with a remarkable thin brass coin 
plated with gold, apparently an imitation of the Merovingian or the 
Byzantine gold coins. Several of these curious remains, with careful 
drawings of the remainder, were sent for exhibition by Rev. Frederick 
Wrench, Rector of Stowting. Mr. Smith considers these objects to 
be Saxon, and their date about the Vlth century. Weapons, and 
other relics of very similar fashion, discovered in South- Eastern Kent, 
are represented by Douglas, in the Nenia. The weapons are all of 
iron ; some of the bosses of shields have the summit of the umbo 
plated with silver, and were attached to the wooden shield by silver- 
headed rivets, or studs. A few similar instances have occurred in other 
parts of England, but the curious fact, that the art of plating silver 
upon iron was known at a very early period, has never been noticed as 
it deserves. 

Thomas Joseph Pettigrew, Esq. F.S.A., communicated observations in 
illustration of the English Medical Treatise, of which extracts were 
read on a previous occasion. The curious MS., which formed the sub- 
ject of this notice, preserved in the Royal Library at Stockholm, was 
brought under the notice of the Society by George Stephens, Esq. 

Mr. Pettigrew considers the MS. to be of the later part of the 14th 
century, and referred to several MS. collections of medical receipts, of 
somewhat similar character, preserved in the British Museum, none of 
which, however, are identical with the Stockholm Treatise. All these 
appear to have been founded on the ancient poem, supposed to have 
been composed by John of Milan, in the 1 1th century, on occasion of 
the visit of Robert, Duke of Normandy, to Salerno, to be healed of an 
envenomed wound, and entitled " Regimen Sanitatis," or " Schola Saler- 
nitana." Its doctrines may be traced to the writings of Hippocrates, 
Galen, and Pliny. The chief authority, in regard to the uses of plants, 
was the work of the physician Odo, better known by the name of 
^Emilius Macer, quoted in the Stockholm MS. The doctrine of good 
and evil days, which had been prevalent in the Anglo-Saxon times, often 
appears, as also the belief in particular or magical virtues of plants 
gathered at particular periods ; frequent notice occurs of the doctrine 
of odd numbers, and their efficacy, and a curious magical word is given 



a* curt- for ihe falling sickness, numeU. mM*ttf*i Allusion is 
made to the ancient opinion of the vermiform origin of diseases, 
and numerous charms are Driven, as in all similar compilations of the 
period. 



Thursday, March 7, 1844. 
THOMAS AMYOT, Esq., Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The following books were presented to the Society : By J, Walker 
Ord, Esq., History of Cleveland, part 1, 4to. By William Dickson, 
Esq., Chronica Monasterii de Alnewyke, 4to. 1840. By Mr. G. P. 
Harding, Ancient Historical Pictures, No. 1, fol. 

Dr. John Lee, F.S.A., communicated a letter from John W T alker Ord, 
Esq., which accompanied the exhibition of some relics, described as 
ancient British. They were discovered in 1827, near Guisborough, at 
a depth of about a " spade's-graft " beneath the surface, and comprise a 
celt, with a weapon of curved or hooked form, described as a small sword. 
The district abounds in early remains, and various discoveries have been 
recorded by Mr. Ord in his History of Cleveland. Between Rosebury 
and Highcliffe an extensive British town may be noticed, consisting of 
caves, which appear to have been roofed over, and thatched. Mr. Ord 
described also several camps in the vicinity, as also memorials of later 
date, stone crosses, and other remains. 

Sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas, K.G.M.G., communicated, in a letter to 
Hudson Gurney, Esq., Vice-President, Observations on the Order of the 
Garter, and the Origin of that illustrious Fraternity. The paucity of 
contemporary information has left even the cause and precise period of 
its foundation in obscurity, Froissart being the only chronicler of the 
period who mentions the institution, and his narrative, adopted by Mr. 
Belt/, in his Memoirs of the Order, after examination of the various 
conjectures on the subject, is unquestionably erroneous. The period 
fixed in these Memoirs is the 18th Edw. III., 1344, in agreement with 
Selden and Anstis. Several wardrobe accounts have subsequently been 
discovered in the office of the Queen's Remembrancer, of which a portion 
has been noticed already in the History of the Orders of Knighthood, by 
Sir H. Nicolas. Of the importance of these documents, as throwing light 
on History, Antiquities, and Biography, a remarkable proof is afforded by 
the fact, that the only authentic information now extant respecting the in- 
stitution of the renowned Order of the Garter is to be found in the accounts 
of the King's tailor, therein preserved. Edward III. having determined, 
in imitation of King Arthur, to hold a Round Table at Windsor, invited 
knights from all countries to assemble at Windsor, January 19, 1344, as 
appears by the letters of safe-conduct issued on the occasion. Froissart 
has preserved a graphic description of the jousts and gallant deeds then 
performed ; he must however have received his information from others, 
as be was only seven years old in 1344, and he erroneously mixes up in 
his narrative two distinct transactions, connecting this occurrence with 



31 

the institution of the Order and confraternity of St. George. Accord- 
ing to the Wardrobe Accounts the Garter does not appear to have been 
worn at this Feast of the Round Table (nor even at that held in 1345), 
and there is not the slightest evidence that the Order was instituted on 
this occasion. Arguments of a very conclusive nature tend to prove 
that it was not formed previously to the invasion of France, July, 1346, 
and strong negative evidence is afforded by the Wardrobe Accounts to 
shew that it was not established until after April 23, 1348. During 
that year hastiludes were held in several places in the realm, and these 
Accounts supply detailed information respecting the splendid display of 
costume on those occasions. These entries are followed by various 
items relating to the King's chamber, standards, and pennoncels for the 
King's ships. Then occurs the earliest notice yet discovered of the 
Garter, in the charge for two streamers with arms, and one white pale 
powdered with blue garters, also a bed of blue taffeta for the King, pow- 
dered with garters containing the motto Hony soit, &c., a cloak, super- 
tunic, tunic, and hood for the King, of blue cloth powdered with garters 
of silver gilt, and a jupon of taffeta of like fashion. The most important 
item is the charge for making 12 blue garters embroidered with gold, 
and bearing the motto, which were prepared for the hastilude at Eltham, 
21 Edw. III. From these, and other evidences afforded by these Ac- 
counts, it may be concluded that a Garter with the motto had been 
adopted, as a device or badge, towards the end of the year 1347, 
some time before it became the ensign of a knightly order. 

Thursday, March 14, 1844. 
VISCOUNT MAHON, Vice- President, in the Chair. 

John Barnett, Esq., M.D., of Chesham Place, Belgrave Square; 
James Dearden, Esq., of the Orchard, Rochdale, Lancashire, Barrister- 
at-Law ; the Rev. Abraham Hume, B.A., of Trinity College, Dublin, 
Honorary LL.D., of Glasgow, and of the Collegiate Institution, Liver- 
pool ; and James Nicholson, Esq., of Thelwall Hall, Warrington, were 
severally balloted for, and duly elected Fellows of the Society. 

It was announced to the Society that the second volume of the 
" Magni Rotuli Scaccarii Normanniae sub Regibus Angliae," edited by 
Thomas Stapleton, Esq., F.S.A., was ready for delivery. Price to the 
Fellows 12*., to the public 16*. 

William H. Rosser, Esq., F.S.A., communicated a letter from E. B. 
Price, Esq. which accompanied the exhibition of rubbings of two monu- 
mental brasses. One of them is preserved in Saltwood Church, near 
Hythe, and commemorates the deposit of the * bowelles " of Dame Anne 
Muston, who died in 1497, a late instance of the curious practice of such 
separate interment; the other, chiefly remarkable as exhibiting the mode 
of fastening the shroud, exists in Leigh church, near Penshurst. 

Alfred J. Kempe, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited a collection of lamps and 
glass lachrymatories, communicated by Albin Martin, Esq., and found 
in a tomb in the Elysian Fields, on the shores of the Mare Mortuum, 
about 8 miles from Naples. Also several sketches in oil, representing 

D 



th.- \ill;i of Lncullus, in tho Bay of Naples, Pozzuoli, the plain in 
which Pompeii was situated, and the ancient Stabia, where Pliny the elder 
was suffocated by exhalations from Vesuvius. 

Th.' reading of the Observations of Sir N. Harris Nicolas, on the 
Origin of tho Order of the Garter, commenced at the previous meeting, 
was then resumed. It is remarkable that several of the most distinguished 
peers and knights of the period were not selected as original Knights of 
the Garter, and it is probable that the " Society of the Garter " arose 
nut of some celebrated hastilude, and that it consisted of the King and 
his twelve knights, and of the Prince and his knights, who tilted on the 
occasion, each wearing a garter on the knee, and robes powdered with 
garters, during the subsequent festivities, according to the items which 
occur in the Wardrobe Accounts. Many facts concur in fixing Windsor 
as the scene, and June 24, 1348, as the date of this hastilude, as also to 
prove that the society was established previously to August in that year, 
when St. George's chapel was founded. It appears indeed that garters 
with the motto were worn at the jousts at Eltham, towards the end of 
1347, or early in 1348, but that the name of the society, thence taken, 
originated at the hastilude of Windsor in June 1348, when the device 
was again worn. The origin of this remarkable badge and motto, (which, 
properly rendered, signifies, Dishonour, or shame, to him that thinks 
evil of it,) is exceedingly obscure, and no information can be drawn from 
the chronicles of the time, or public records. The popular account of 
the incident, which is supposed to have led to the adoption of this sym- 
bol, has been treated with contempt by several writers, but it is in cha- 
racter with the manners and feelings of the time, and very likely to have 
occurred. A curious passage occurs in the Chronicle of Polydore Virgil, 
which shews that the tale is certainly as old as the reign of Henry VII. 



Thursday, March 21, 1844. 
THOMAS AMYOT, Esq., Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The following books were presented to the Society : By Dr. L. Puttrick, 
Monuments of the Middle Ages, comprising specimens of Architecture 
in Saxony, 2 vols. fol. Leipsic, 18361843. By the Leeds Philoso- 
phical Society, the Twenty-third Report of the Council, 8vo. 1843. 

Edward Blore, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited two drawings which represent 

the Refectory of Great Malvem Priory, Worcestershire, an interesting 

example of d6mestic architecture, which was totally demolished in 1841. 

John Arthur Cahusac, F.S.A., exhibited some ancient remains com- 

mnicated by Hon. and Rev. G. C. Percival, Rector of Calverton, Bucks., 

and recently discovered near Stoney Stratford. They consist of spurs, 

an arrow-head, and coins, which were found with numerous fragments of 

pottery, described as Roman. 

H.-ury Charles Harford, Esq., F.S.A., communicated an account of 

tis of a Roman villa discovered in 1842, in the parish of Preston, 

mouth. Foundations about forty feet square, and surrounded 

"uu-r court covering thirty-nine square roods, were found about 

t under the surface. Nearly 300 Roman coins, boar's tusks, 



33 

antlers of deer, fragments of pottery, arrow-heads, and other relics, were 
discovered ; also portions of Doric columns, but no remains of tesselated 
pavements. At the SE. corner of the building was an oblong pit, mea- 
suring about four feet by three feet, and thirteen feet deep : it was en- 
tirely filled with wood-ashes, burnt clay and stones, and at the depth of 
six feet were layers of flat stones, between each of which was found a 
Roman coin, .and a quantity of bones of birds and mice. Near the 
bottom were discovered a massive iron cross, three feet four inches long, 
with a cross-bar measuring ten inches, the remains of an iron sword, two 
vessels of earthen-ware, a bronze fibula, and an implement fashioned 
like a crosier. Deposits of large quantities of bones of birds and small 
animals have been found in several places, such as that which was noticed 
by Gustavus Brander, in a cavity amongst the ruins of Christ-church 
Priory ; but no satisfactory explanation of the fact has been offered. 

John Gough Nichols, Esq., F.S.A., communicated observations on 
the second Patent appointing Edward Duke of Somerset Governor of 
the person of King Edward the Sixth, Protector of the Realm, and 
Lieutenant and Captain-general of the wars : the original document, 
belonging to William Staunton, Esq., of Longbridge House, near War- 
wick, was exhibited on a previous evening to the Society. It bears 
the sign manual of the King at the head of the first line, and the 
signatures of sixty- two peers, privy councillors, judges, &c. The 
appointment of a Protector was not contemplated by the will of Henry 
the Eighth. The Duke of Somerset (then Earl of Hertford) was so 
designated by royal word of mouth at the first council held by the 
young King in the Tower of London, 1 Feb. 1546-7. Political events, 
and particularly the exclusion of the chancellor Wriothesley from the 
government, made a Patent for the office of Protector desirable. It 
was dated the 12th March, 1546-7, but was attested by seven council- 
lors only besides Somerset himself. On the llth August following he 
received another Patent appointing him Captain and Lieutenant-general 
of the wars. On the assembling of Parliament, the sanction of still 
fuller authority was sought by the patent now brought forward. The 
Protector, delivering up both the former patents to be cancelled, was to 
receive the conjoined offices by this new patent. There is, however, this 
remarkable difference in the tenure assigned, that, whereas by the for- 
mer patent the Protectorship was to last during the whole minority of 
the King, it was now terminable at the King's pleasure, to be declared 
by writing under the great seal. The instrument appears to have 
received the signatures of the peers, in some haste, on the last day of 
the session before Christmas, Dec. 24, 1547, and never to have received 
(at least in this copy) the great seal. It is, however, enrolled on the 
patent roll of the second year of the King's reign, owing to which cir- 
cumstance it is erroneously assigned by Dugdale in his Baronage to that 
year : and from the same cause the patent of the llth August is erro- 
neously assigned by Rymer and by Rapin to the second year. Neither 
of the patents for the Protectorship are given by Rymer, but the first is 
printed by Burnet. The patent now exhibited is slightly and inaccu- 
rately noticed by Burnet, who has entirely mistaken its import and over- 
looked its importance, and it has been neglected by all other historians. 



34 

Thursday, March 28, 1844. 
HENRY HALLAM, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Samuel Birch, Esq., Assistant Keeper of the Antiquities in the 
Hriti>h Muslim, and one of the Secretaries to the English Section of 
Archaeological Institute at Rome, was balloted for, and duly elected 
,.\v <>t' the Society. 

James Dearden, Esq., F.S.A,, presented two impressions of a repre- 
sentation of an ancient British ornament, described as a collar, disco- 
vered in Lancashire in 1831. It measures in diameter 5 in., the weight 
is 1 lb., 4$ oz. ; one half is of square form, enriched with zigzag lines, 
the other is formed of a number of twisted and engraved ornaments, 
separated from each other by small rings, precisely similar in construc- 
tion and design to the bronze ornament found in Worcestershire, and 
exhibited by Jabez Allies, Esq., F.S.A., on December 14, 1843. This 
last is evidently the half of an ornament identical in design and pur- 
pose with that discovered in Lancashire. A representation will be given 
in the forthcoming volume of the Archaeologia. 

The Lord Stanley of Alderley, F.S.A., exhibited an ancient orna- 
ment, apparently intended as a kind of necklace, formed of several 
pieces of jet or cannel coal, discovered near Holyhead Mountain, in 
Anglesea, in 1928. It is formed of several pieces, gradually narrowing 
towards the two extremities, attached together by means of numerous 
small holes drilled through the inner edges, and entirely through the 
breadth of some pieces. The portions of greatest width, towards the 
centre of the necklace, measure 2 in. by about five-eighths in breadth, 
and two-fifths in thickness. A representation of a similar ornament, 
formed of amber, and found in a barrow at Kington Deverill in Wilt- 
shire, is given by Sir Richard Colt Hoare, Ancient Wilts, vol. I. pi. 3, 
p. 46. The necklace now exhibited was accompanied by another, formed 
of oblong beads, of a form slightly tapering from the middle, and mea- 
suring in length from f- in. to 1J in.; also a small conical button, 
similar in form to some of bone which are represented in Sir Richard 
Hoare's work, vol. I. pi. 12, p. 103; and a small triangular orna- 
ment, all formed of the same light and slightly inflammable substance, 
either coal or jet. Some portions of these neck-ornaments appear to be 
deficient, and the entire length cannot be ascertained. They were de- 
posited in a cavity of the rock, probably sepulchral, in which two urns 
were found, which on exposure to the air fell quickly to pieces. 

Hnrles Roach Smith, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited a jug, communicated 
\>\ Thomas Neale, Esq., being a specimen of Flemish ware, of a greyish 
white colour, stamped with ornamental designs, and of elegant fashion, 
found at Butley Priory, Norfolk, and is now preserved in the 
/}> Imsford and Essex Museum. Its date is of the close of the XVIth 
century. A representation drawn by John Adey Repton, Esq., F.S.A., 
accompanied this exhibition. 

t Mr. B. Hertz, of Great Marlborough-street, exhibited a series of an- 
rrned of bronze, some of which bear a remarkable resem- 
the ring-keys and patented inventions of modern times. 

Albert \\ ay, Esq., Director, exhibited a variety of antiquities com- 
raumcafcd by Mr. W. G. Rogers, of Great Newport Street, consisting 



85 

of German carvings in oak, forming various groups illustrative of the 
" ViaOucis;" an Italian holy-water vessel of bronze; and a candle- 
stick of copper, elaborately enriched with silver ornaments, described as 
h.i \ing been brought from the Alhambra, and similar to one which was 
formerly at Strawberry Hill. 

Notice was given from the Chair, that, the usual time for auditing 
the accounts of the Society approaching, the President has nominated 
as Auditors for the year terminating December 31, 1843, the following 
gentlemen : 

Charles Frederick Barnwell, Esq., M.A. 

Beriah Botfield, Esq., M.P. 

Richard, Lord Braybrooke. 

The Rev. Samuel Roffey Maitland, M.A. 

Notice was also given that, in pursuance of the Statutes, the Anni- 
versary Election of the President, Council, and Officers of the Society, 
will take place on St. George's Day, April 23, 1844 ; the ballot to 
open at two o'clock ; also that, by an order of Council, no Fellow shall 
be capable of giving a vote at such Election who is in arrear of more 
than twelve months of his annual contribution. 

The Society then adjourned over the Easter recess, to meet again on 
April 18. 



Thursday, April 18, 1844. 
WILLIAM R. HAMILTON, Esq. Vice-President, in the Chair. 

John Barrow, Esq., of the Admiralty, author of Travels in Norway 
and Iceland, &c., was balloted for, and duly elected a Fellow of the 
Society. 

The following books were presented to the Society. By the Minister 
of Public Instruction in France, Bulletin Archeologique, published by 
the Comite Historique des Arts et Monuments, being a detailed account 
of its proceedings, vol. II., No. 1 9, Paris, 1842, 8vo. Instructions 
published by the order of the King, forming part of the Collection de 
Documents inedits sur 1'Histoire de France, and issued to the members 
and correspondents of the Comite des Arts et Monuments, Architecture 
Militaire, drawn up by MM. Merimee and Albert Lenoir; Icono- 
graphie Chretienne, Histoire de Dieu, by M. Didron, Paris, 1843, 4to. 
The last work forms the commencement of an elaborate treatise illus- 
trative of the Symbolism of Christian Art, and exhibits the varieties of 
distinctive conventional representation adopted by the artists of the 
middle ages, in regard to each of the three persons of the Trinity. 
These Instructions are profusely illustrated with wood-cuts. By Albert 
Way, Esq., Director, The Archaeological Journal, published un ler the 
direction of the Central Committee of the British Archaeological Asso- 
ciation for the encouragement and prosecution of researches into the 
arts and monuments of the early and middle ages ; No. 1, March, 1844, 
8vo., to be continued quarterly. By the Rev. Robert Willis, Jacksonian 
Professor in the University of Cambridge, Architectural Nomenclature 
of the Middle Ages, being No. IX. of the publications of the Cambridge 



36 

Antiquarian Society; 1844, 4to. By Monsieur Anatole Chabouillet, 
,,f tlu Department of Antiquities in the King's Library at Pans, 
Honorary Fellow, Observations on two Medals of Commodus ; Notice 
of Coins of Cugnon in the Duchy of Luxembourg; Notices of 
unpublished Coins of the Counts of Desana, and of a piece struck in 
.nont under the French dominion; 8vo. By Dr. J. G. Fliigel, 
Literarische Sympathien, 8vo. 1843. By John Bowyer Nichols, Esq., 
F.S.A., The Gentleman's Magazine, April, 1844. By the Royal Irish 
Academy, Proceedings, No. 36, 8vo., 1842. By the Numismatic Society, 
Thr Numismatic Chronicle, No. 24, 8vo. 1844. By the Editor, The 
Athenseum, part 195. By Alfred Bartholomew, Esq., F.S.A., The 
Builder, vol. II. part 3, fol. By the Society of Antiquaries of New- 
castle-upon-Tyne, Archaeologia ^Eliana, vol. III. part 3, 4to. 1844. By 
James Orchard Halliwell, Esq., F.S.A., Tarlton's Jests, and News out 
of Purgatory, 8vo. 1844, edited for the Shakespeare Society. Charles 
J. Richardson, Esq., F.S.A., presented an impression of a lithographic 
drawing representing an old English Charter Horn, which belonged to 
a family named Pickard, and is now in the possession of Thomas Baylis, 
Esq., F.S.A., Prior's Bank, Fulham. By Monsieur J. B. Leclerc, 
Archeologie Celto-Romaine de 1'Arrondissement de Chatillon-sur-Seine, 
part 1, 4 to. 1843. 

The Lord Stanley of Alderley, F.S.A., exhibited a British Sepulchral 
Urn, containing fragments of burned bones, found in digging for gravel, 
in the township of Over Alderley, Cheshire, near the Macclesfield road, 
and adjacent to a supposed ancient line of communication. The form is 
remarkable, on account of the small perforated handles or ears, which 
are placed at intervals around the upper part, as if for suspension. 
Another urn, found near the same spot, is represented in Ormerod's 
History of Cheshire. 

Albert Way, Esq., Director, exhibited various Roman remains, com- 
municated by the Central Committee of the British Archaeological Asso- 
ciation. They were found on an elevated spot, about three miles south 
of Chesterford, and submitted for examination by Mr. Joseph Clarke, of 
Saffron Walden. They consist of paterae and small vessels of red ware, 
some of which are plain, and others ornamented with foliage ; the potter's 
mark appears upon one of them, OF VEKI- (officind Veri.) Also 
a remarkable vessel of thin glass, 4J in. high, and 2J- wide, which holds 
about half a pint, and is embossed on the surface, so as to resemble the 
cone of the fir ; a glass lachrymatory ; ornaments of bronze, fashioned 
like lions' faces, and apparently intended as the heads of nails ; portions 
of various glass vessels, and of a very large amphora ; with a coin of 
Trajan. Numerous fragments of pottery and glass were found in 
different parts of the hill. 

Charles Roach Smith, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited a circular leaden fibula, 
purchased in London by Mr. B. Nightingale, and resembling at first 
sight the Roman medallions which occasionally are found mounted in 
gold borders. It measures in diameter two inches ; a bust with a rudely 
shaped and crested helmet appears on the obverse, and the remains of 
tunings on the inner side shew that it was destined to be used as a 

ooch. Adjoining the bust are seen certain letters, explained by Mr. 
Snnth a* indicating the name of Vitaliamis, the Gothic chieftain, who 



37 

at the head of 60,000 barbarians waged war during six years with 
Anastasius. 

Sir Gore Ouseley, Bart., F.S.A., communicated, in a letter to the 
President, observations on the identity of the Fitz-Robert, one of the 
Barons who compelled King John to sign Magna Charta, suggesting 
that, according to the practice of adopting a surname formed by pre- 
fixing Fitz to the Christian name of the father, he was probably the 
John Fitz-Robert, son of Robert Fitz- Roger, whose chief seat was at 
Clavering, in Essex. A pedigree was annexed, shewing the descent, 
drawn from the Close Rolls, and Baker's History of Northamptonshire, 
parish of Aynhoe. 

Evelyn Philip Shirley, Esq., M.P., communicated, by the hands of Sir 
Frederic Madden, F.S.A., a charter of the Xllth century, preserved 
amongst the muniments of the Lechmere family, being a confirmation 
from Ralph de Mortuo Mari of a grant of land in Wribbenhall, co. 
Worcester. The peculiarities consist in its being signed with a cross by 
each of the persons who make and confirm the grant, a practice of rare 
occurrence, and in the mode of appending the seal by a thin label, not 
from the foot, as usual, but from the middle of the charter. No similar 
instance of this mode of attaching the seal has hitherto been noticed in 
England ; an example in some degree similar occurs in the collection of 
charters at the Hotel de Soubise, Paris. 

John Bidwell, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited a curious signet ring of fine gold, 
found at Thetford, in Suffolk, in 1823, accompanied by some observations 
in a letter from Albert Way, Esq., Director. The ring bears, as the chief 
device, an eagle displayed ; on the inner side is engraved a bird, with the 
wings closed, and intended, as Mr. Hudson Gurney supposed, to represent 
a raven ; a conjecture which, with various other considerations, led him to 
appropriate the ring to Sir Rhys ap Thomas, the adherent of Henry VII. 
This device may however represent a falcon ; a ducal crown is placed 
over the head of the bird, and, from the design of this ornament, and 
general fashion of the ring, Mr. Way is disposed to consider it a relic of 
the earlier part of the XVth century. It is very similar to inscribed 
signet rings discovered on the field of Cressy. No satisfactory appro- 
priation of these devices, which appear to be heraldic, has been hitherto 
proposed. The ring was evidently a love-token, as appears by the 
legend inscribed externally and on the inner side, DEUS ME OUROYE 

DE VOUS SEUIR A GREE COM MOUN COUER DESIRE, God Work for 

me to make my suit welcome to you, as my heart desires. Ovroye is the 
optative either of ovrer, corrupted from operari, or of ouvrir, aperire ; 
the word occurs often in either sense in early tales of romance. The 
verb sevir, written by Joinville sivre, signifies to follow, as in Anglo- 
Norman sever or sevyr, to sue ; but it may also imply to render service. 
This interesting ring weighs 5 dwt., 10 gr., and appears to have been 
partially enamelled. 

Albert Way, Esq., Director, communicated a letter from Charles 
Tucker, Esq., of Harpford, Devon, descriptive of the curious cathedral 
of Albi, department of Tarn, in the south of France, according to ob- 
servations made during a recent journey. This noble structure is little 
known ; it lies remote from any great route, about 9 posts north of 
Toulouse. It is constructed with brick ; the first stone was laid by Bp. 



M 

uard, August 15, 1282, and the church was consecrated in 1480. 

t0WW * UM west end was elevated by Louis d'Amboise, in 1475, to 

;.. i.jht of -'.<) feet, and its i-onst ruction is remarkable. In the inte- 

i.e ehurrh the elaborate screen and enclosure of the choir are 

richly sculptured, hut the most strikin.tr feature of interest consists in 

:''i-c fusion of paintings in fresco, which decorate the walls of the ca- 

Iral, and by their freshness of colouring afford a striking proof of the 

ability of that kind of decoration. The earliest are of the XlVth 

urv." The stone- work of the choir, constructed under Cardinal 

Louis d'Amboise, by a company of itinerant masons from Strasburg, is 

most elaborate, and enriched with a profusion of statues and delicate 

tabernacle work. This cathedral was condemned by the Directory, and 

preserved by stratagem, being one of the few existing monuments of 

architecture which escaped with comparatively little injury, although the 

painted glass, the numerous and splendid sepulchral brasses, the rich 

us of iron-work, and other decorations, were destroyed. 
Kduard Blore, Esq., F.S.A., communicated some observations in 
illustration of his sketches of the Ancient Refectory of Great Mal- 
vern Priory, now wholly demolished. These sketches were made 
in 1837. The exterior had been much disguised by recent repairs, 
and the building, on account of its unattractive external aspect, had 
l)odi little noticed ; it had the ordinary appearance of a barn, and 
was usually filled with the produce of the farm to which it was at- 
tached. The chief feature of interest was the beautiful roof, as 
shewn in the interior view, which formed a very interesting illustration of 
the domestic architecture of the XlVth century. Two years subse- 
quently the whole building was wantonly destroyed, merely to make way 
for a poultry- yard and some out- buildings ; and these sketches are now, 
perhaps, the only memorials of its curious construction. It consisted of 
a hall, with the usual partition and two doors at one extremity, adjoin- 
ing the butteries ; the general character of the construction and orna- 
ments shewed that it was built in the early part of the reign of Edward 
III. It was constructed entirely of timber, which appeared in a very 
sound state ; the hall was divided into four bays, by three principals, 
with intermediate subordinate principals to give support to the purlins. 
In each bay, except in that which contained a plain door of entrance, 
two tiers of square-headed traceried windows, the pattern of the 
tracery being varied, as usual in works of that period. Mr. Blore took 
occasion to remark that the loss of this interesting specimen by need- 
less demolition, in wanton disregard and ignorance of its value, is 
another evidence of the urgent necessity of prompt and judicious 
measures to rescue, as far as possible, ancient remains from injury ; and 
i hi- exertions of intelligent antiquaries should be zealously directed to 
illusion of a more intelligent taste for such objects, as the best 
means of securing tin ir preservation, whilst they keep a vigilant eye 
upon any act which may threaten their existence. 

1 ! notices given at the previous meeting, respecting the nomination 
Auditors, and the anniversary Election of the President, Council, and 
Officers, on April 23, were then announced a second time from the 
chair. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 
OF LONDON. 

1844. No. 3. 

Tuesday, April 23, 1844. 
THOMAS AMYOT, Esq., Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The usual meeting of the Society took place on this day, being the 
Festival of St. George, in order to elect the President, Council, and 
Officers for the year ensuing, in accordance with the Statutes, and 
Charter of Incorporation. The names of Fellows deceased during the 
previous year, twenty-two in number, as also of sixteen ordinary and three 
honorary Fellows elected, and of those who had withdrawn from the 
Society, during the same period, were announced ; the Treasurer, in the 
Chair, then proceeded to draw lots. William Horton Lloyd, Esq., and 
William John Thorns, Esq., having thus been appointed Scrutators, 
the Fellows proceeded to the election by ballot. The following result was 
formally announced : 

GEORGE, EARL OF ABERDEEN, K.T., F.R.S., PRESIDENT. 

Thomas Amyot, Esq., F.R.S., M.R.I.A., TREASURER. 

Charles Frederick Barnwell, Esq., F.R.S. 

Beriah Botfield, Esq., M.P., F.R.S. 

Richard, Lord Braybrooke. 

William Bromet, Esq., M.D. 

Nicholas Carlisle, Esq., K.H., D.C.L., F.R.S., M.R.I.A., SECRETARY. 

Lord Albert Denison Conyngham, K.C.H. 

Sir Henry Ellis, Knt, K.H., F.R.S., M.R.I.A., SECRETARY. 

Sir Stephen R. Glynne, Bart., M.P. 

Hudson Gurney, Esq., F.R.S., VICE-PRESIDENT. 

Henry Hallam, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., VICE-PRESIDENT. 

William Richard Hamilton, Esq., F.R.S., VICE-PRESIDENT. 

Thomas William King, Esq., Rouge-Dragon Pursuivant. 

Philip, Viscount Mahon, VICE-PRESIDENT. 

Rev. Samuel Roffey Maitland, F.R.S. 

Thomas Joseph Pettigrew, Esq., F.R.S. 

Charles Roach Smith, Esq. 

Capt. William H. Smyth, R.N., K.S.F., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Thomas Stapleton, Esq. 

Albert Way, Esq., M.A., DIRECTOR. 



40 

It was announced that the second part of vol. XXX. of the Archaeologia 
would shortly be ready for delivery to the Fellows. 

The Society then adjourned, to moot ayain on May 2. The customary 

Festival of the Society took place on this day, according to annual 

usage, at the Freemasons' Tavern, Great Queen Street. The chair was 

taken by the Viscount Mahon, Vice- President. ^ 

/ k ij 1 A. 

Thursday, May 2, 1844. 
VISCOUNT MAHON, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

' The following books were presented to the Society, and thanks were . 
dinrtod to be returned for the same. By John Bowyer Nichols, Esq., 
F.S.A., Gentleman's Magazine, May, 1844. By Barron Field, Esq., 
The true Tragedy of Richard III., 8vo. 1844. By John Payne Collier, 
Esq., F.S.A., The Ghost of Richard III., 8vo. 1844. By Thomas 
Wi Moment, Esq., F.S.A., An Account of the recent restorations of the 
Collegiate Chapel of St. George, Windsor, 4to. 1844. By Alfred 
Bartholomew, Esq., F.S.A., The Builder, Vol. II. Part IV.fol. 1844. 
By John Yonge Akerman, Esq., F.S.A., Ancient Coins of Cities and 
Princes, geographically arranged and described, No. I. 8vo. 1844. By 
the Institute of France, M6moires presentes a 1'Academie Royale des 
Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres de 1'Institut de France ; deuxieme Serie : 
Tome 1., deuxieme partie, 4to. 1843. Notices et Extraits des Manu- 
- de la Bibliotheque du Roi, &c. Tome XIV. premiere partie, 4to. 
1843. 

Thomas William King, Esq., F.S.A., Rotige-dragon Pursuivant/ 
communicated Remarks on some of the armorial Stall-plates of the : 
Knights of the Garter, which are, or have been, affixed to their stalls 
in St. George's. Chapel, Windsor. The Statutes of the Order, in the 
time of Henry V., decreed that after the decease of each Knight an 
escocheon of his arms should be affixed to the stall which he had occu- 
pied, and subsequently it became usual to place the plate of arms at the 
time of installation, or shortly afterwards. It is very doubtful whether 
;m\ of, the existing plates are of earlier date than the reign of Henry VI. 
( )f these memorials many have been destroyed or stolen, especially during 
the civil wars, and some have been put up or restored at a later period 
than the lifetime of the personages thus commemorated, and are not to 
be rogarded as authentic contemporary evidence.* They serve to de- 
termine the period when the Garter was introduced as surrounding the 
escocheon, . as also when certain other heraldic distinctions and orna- 
inents were adopted. The earliest instance of the arms within the 
Garter is supplied by the plate of Charles, Duke of Burgundy, who was 
invested 1469, and died 1477 ; and tho first examples, in the case of the 

In the Library of the College of Arms a valuable collection of tracings from 
tin Stall-plates is preserved : it \yas formed under the direction of Anstis, in order 
to illustrate bis History of th Order, and was purchased by Stephen M. Leake, 
Esq., Garter, 1757, whose collections have served as the authority for Mr. King's 
t>b~nrati<ms. 



41 

firms of a Knight subject, arc the plates of I'ranris, Viscount Lovdl, 
who died 1487, and Thomas Lord Stanley, afterwards Earl of Derby, 
who died 1504; botli of these Knights were elected 1 Richard 111. 
During the reign of Henry VII. it appears that the usage of encircling 
the arms with the Garter became more prevalent, and it was constantly 
adopted from an early period in the succeeding reign. Instances, how- 
ever, occur in which the Garter appears to have been subsequently 
added, and it may "be conjectured that, at first, it was at the pleasure of 
the Knight whether this distinction should be introduced or not. The 
arms of the Sovereign are not surrounded by the Garter on the great 
seals previously to thereign of Henry VIII., but a record in the Qu< 
RemembVancer's office mentions streamers decorated with the quartered 
arms of the King within the Garter, as early as 1351. The arms of 
Thomas, Lord Camoys, K,G., on his sepulchral brass at Trotton, 
'Sussex, arc within a garter: he died 1419. The arms of Sir John 
'Fastolf appear thus encircled, as sculptured at his Castle of Caistor, 
in Norfolk, in the time of Henry VI. Various other distinctions and 
exterior ornaments, which are to be observed on the stall-plates, deserve 
notice. The helmets on all the plates (those of- princes of the blood 
and foreign princes excepted), till the close of the reign of Elizabeth, 
are in profile, having the visors close, like the helmet now used to de- 
signate an esquire. The latest instances of this close helmet on the 
.garter-plates of Peers are those of William Stanley, Earl of Derby,- in 1 - 
stalled 13 Elizabeth, and of the Earls of Southampton and Marr,"lwth 
installed 1 James I. The barred helmet, in profile, appears on the plated 
of Peers in 1589, and soon after was constantly introduced on the stall- 
plates of the nobility above the degree of Barons. The first instance on 
the plate of a Baron is that of Lord Knolles, 1615. It appears, there- 
fore, that the side-standing barred helmet came to be uniformly used, as 
denoting nobility, in the reign of James I., and no difference of helmet 
appears in these plates as marking different degrees of peerage. The 
crest and lambrequin, or mantling, appear to have been used at all times, 
but the wreath beneath the crest was a later introduction, for the "-cap- 
peline mantling " was of one piece with the crest. Coronets were not 
commonly introduced until the reign of Elizabeth, but a few instances 
occur during that of Henry VIII. The earliest authentic example of 
supporters is supplied by the plate of John, Lord Dynham, 1 Henry VII. 
They occur also on some plates of the time of Henry VIII., during 
'whose reign they appear to have become the distinguishing accessories 
of the heraldic achievements of Peers and Krtlghts of the order. 
- 



ot _,, . *.. 70 

Thursday, May 9, 1844. 

WILLIAM R. HAMILTON, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 



The following books were presented to the Society, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned for the same. By the American Philosophical 
Society, Transactions, vol. IX. part 1, 4to. 1644. By the Editor, the 

E 2 



42 

AthenaMim, part l!Hi, 4to. 1844. By Charles Roach Smith, Esq., F.S.A., 
.ctanea Antiqua, Etchings of Ancient Remains, illustrative of the 
ts, customs, and history of past ages, No. IV. 8vo. 1843. 

William Richard Hamilton, Esq., Vice-President, communicated a 
second letter from William Roots, Esq., of Kingston- on-Thames, regard- 
ing ancient relics which have been found by the ballast- heavers in the 
bed of the river near that place ; and exhibited a portion of a small 
tword, or dagger, with a pocket-piece of Charles I. and Henrietta Maria, 
which were found about two feet below the present bed of the river, 
within a quarter of a mile from Surbiton Common. On this common 
the last conflict between the Royal and Parliamentary forces took place, 
when Lord Holland was beaten ; the Royalists were compelled to cross 
the river in the best way they could, the bridge being in the possession 
of their opponents, and many perished in the Thames on that occasion. 

George Godwin, Esq., F.S.A., communicated an account of the re- 
mains ascribed to the Druidical period in Furness, North Lancashire, 
according to the researches made by Charles M. Jopling, Esq., of 29, 
Wiuipqle Street, whose letter was accompanied by an illustrative Map 
and several Drawings. The whole of these remains, as hitherto noticed, 
are found in a narrow district, about twenty miles in length and three in 
breadth, in a Northerly direction from the Castle of Gleaston, situate on 
the shore of the Bay of Morecambre, in Low Furness, to the South of 
Ulverston. They comprise five circular enclosures, usually denominated 
Druidical Temples, several large cairns, two large and several small 
tumuli, two camps, and numerous cromlechs, sepulchres in the rocks, and 
beacons. The drawings exhibited by Mr. Jopling represent the remark- 
able enclosures formed with stone walls, situated about a quarter of a 
mile Westward of the church of Urswick. In the centre of one of these 
enclosures is to be seen a cromlech. The second has in the centre a 
small circle, like the nave of a wheel, from which proceed lines of wall 
which meet the circumference, so as to resemble the spokes : this enclo- 
sure measures 350 feet in diameter at its longest, and 315 at its shortest 
axis. The exterior wall measures nearly ten feet in thickness ; it is 
formed with long stones fixed endways into the ground, as a rude outer 
and interior facing to the wall, the intervening space being filled in with 
smaller fragments. Another enclosure is of an irregularly quadrangular 
form, measuring about 215 feet square, within which is a cromlech. It 
is stated that the enclosure walls, in the two last instances, were formerly 
of considerable height, but were demolished about thirty years since. 
About two miles Eastward are to be seen the circles called Sunbrick, 
situated on the brow of a hill named Birkrigg : one of these measures 
90 feet in diameter, and is composed of 19 or 20 stones ; the other mea- 
sures 30 feet. On the same eminence is Appleby Slack, supposed to 
have been a British Camp. On Kirkby Moor is to be noticed the circle 
called the Kirk, composed of a bank of earth and stones ; a row of large 
stones formerly stood upon the bank, but they have been removed. Tra- 
Ktion still affirms that this was anciently a place for worship, and in later 
times the lord of the manor was accustomed to resort with all his tenants 
to this spot on Easter Monday, when wrestling and rural games were 



43 

practised. Near this place is a cairn, 90 feet in diameter, in the centre of 
which a tomb, or cist, was found by Mr. Jopling. It contained frag- 
ments of calcined bones. Many other cairns and tumuli occur in the 
district ; and some of these interments have been examined ; stone axes 
and a fragment of a stone ring are the only objects which have been dis- 
covered. 

The reading of Mr. King's Remarks on some of the Stall-plates of 
the Knights of the Garter was then concluded. 



Thursday, May 16, 1844. 
HENRY HALLAM, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Charles Tucker, Esq., of Harpsfield, Devon, Major John Arthur 
Moore, of Queen Ann Street, and Frederick William Fairholt, Esq., 
of Grosvenor Cottage, Regent Villas, Regent's Park, were severally 
balloted for, and duly elected Fellows of the Society. 

Alfred Bartholomew, Esq., F.S.A., presented to the Society a proof 
impression of an engraving which represents an ancient piece of iron- 
work found at Norwich. It is a portion of tabernacle-work, of rich 
flamboyant character. 

William Richard Hamilton, Esq., Vice-President, exhibited to the 
Society a brazen spear-head of unusually large size, and a weapon 
described as a missile hatchet, or celt. These remains were recently found 
in the bed of the Thames just above Kingston, and were communicated 
by William Roots, Esq., M.D., of that place. 

Richard Porrett, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited a miniature of Mary Stuart, 
Queen of Scotland, set in a golden ring. It is now the property of 
Richard Baker Aldersey, Esq., of Chigwell Row, Essex, who states that 
it was formerly preserved by a noble family in Scotland. 

Dawson Turner, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited five drawings of objects 
lately discovered in the neighbourhood of Great Yarmouth ; they repre- 
sent an urn, found at the ancient Roman station of Burgh ; a Roman 
sacrificial instrument, formed of brass ; a pax, from the village of Burgh ; 
a gun of wrought iron ; and a wooden shield. 

Richard Almack, Esq., F.S.A., communicated an original letter from 
Sir Thomas Stanhope, touching the funeral of his mother, Anne, widow 
of Sir Michael Stanhope, dated April 6, 1588, and addressed to the 
Lord Treasurer Burghley. It is in acknowledgment of a letter received 
from him, in regard to the livery coats which should be distributed to 
Lady Stanhope's servants at her funeral, and the alms to be dispensed to 
the townships adjacent to the place of her burial, which Sir Thomas de- 
sired should be done suitably to her estate and rank. He declares his 
readiness to bear the charges himself, if his brother Michael, who had 
been left Executor, refused to allow them. For his own part, he had 
provided three-score black coats for his own men attending at the 
funeral, and expresses anxiety that the poor, who should resort to his 



M 

on tint occasion, should not depart empty-handed, considering- 
his ninthrr'.s \\rll-kno\\ii charity, and "for that my selfdoo releve t\v\-r 
the Mio-r part iMM) att my gates, besydes comers uppou 

..ives uliiche custome, thoughe it beganne chefely in the dere 
MMV. \ tr i- it not leafbe, but is the more borne with because of the mul- 
tytudo of the power that goo abrode." Sir Thomas writes from Stratford,. 
iii Nottinghamshire, a dis-olved monastery which had been granted by 
H< nr\ VI 1 1. to his father. The scarcity to which allusion is made 
occurred in the previous year, in consequence of many successive bad 
seasons, and had occasioned a Proclamation to be published by Elizabeth, 
and orders to the Justices for the relief of the poor. 

Edward Hailstone, Esq., F.S.A., communicated Extracts from the 
Order-Book of Major-General Lambert, as Commander -in-Chief of the 
VPS in. the Northern Association, with the Proceedings of the Council 
of War, during a part of the year 1647. They relate to the decisions of 
the Council in regard to various crimes and misdemeanours committed 
by the soldiery, the reduction of the army in consequence of the Parlia- 
ment's resolutions, January 1647, the orders set down and agreed upon 
by the Commander-in-Chief, and the Council, for repressing the dis- 
orders committed by the troops, and quartering them in equal proportion 
upon each town and part of the country, by a regular assessment. They 
also forbid the exaction of monies by the soldiers, in addition to the 
fixed rate of allowance, as set forth by the Council, in cases where towns 
or parishes should prefer to pay in money in lieu of providing quarters. 
Those Extracts shew also the part taken by the army in the North in 
r<'vj>ect to the Remonstrance presented to the Parliament, concerning the 
state of affairs in the realm, and the Declaration made to General Fair- 
fax by the officers of Lambert's Brigade, complaining of the proceedings 
of Parliament, and the critical position of the country. 

._JOV K III J'J.< ,1 

,.? ,..m 

Thursday, May 23, 1844. 
WILLIAM I!. HAMILTON, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

i'hd following books and prints were presented to the Society ; and 

thanks were ordered to be returned for the same. By Dr. John Lee, 

S.A., Catalogue of Oriental Manuscripts, purchased in Turkey, 4to. 

1840. By Monsieur P. C. Van der Meersch, Kecherches sur quelqucs 

ImpriuuMirs Bulges, 8vo. 1844. By Alfred Bartholomew, Esq., F.S.A., 

three proof impressions of the following engravings ; A View of St. Olave's 

Church, Southwark, subsequently to the fire ; A reduced copy of the 

Ogwal section of St. Olave's Church; A representation of a chair, 

lormerly m Horace Walpole's collection, at Strawberry Hill. 

alter Hawkins, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited to the Society a sword, now 

his possession, which was discovered in the bed of the Thames in 

KM ring the progress of excavations in order to form the piers of 

U lueasures 5 ft. 6 in. and three quarters in 
lent'th. 









Man, 1 .-xbibiti,! a nuHU-1 of circular 



4.5 

Norman font, decorated with remarkable sculptures in low relict'. 
formerly in the- church of Hampstead Norris, Berkshire. It hns 
recently been placed, by Mr. Akcrman, in the parish church of Stone, 
Buckinghamshire. This model was made by the Rev. J. B. Reade, 
Vicar of Stone, by a ingenious adaptation of the process frequently cm- 
ployed for making- impressions from coins with tin foil. A circular 
wooden box being formed, of the dimensions of the font, the leaves 
of tin, which, by means of pressure, had been made to represent the 
ornaments sculptured in relief, were fastened thereon. These sculptures 
are of somewhat unusual character, and consist of interlaced squares 
and circles, with various animals and devices introduced in tho interven- 
ing spaces. Two human figures holding swords, represent, according to 
Mr. Reade's explanatory remarks, the principle of good, as triumphant 
over the evil principle, figured as a dragon. The ancient cup-shaped 
Norman font, formerly in the church of Stone, had been destroyed about 
20 years since ; the fabric has recently been restored, and the modern 
font which had been substituted has given place to the curious example 
of Norman sculpture preserved by Mr. Akerman, which has here found 
a suitable position. 

The Rev. John Webb, F.S.A., Rector of Tretire, in Herefordshire, 
communicated notes upon a Preceptory of the Templars at Garway, in 
that county, with plans, copies of inscriptions, and illustrations of a 
building erected by the Hospitallers at that place. It is situated on the 
southern edge of the county, in a remote and romantic spot, nearly half 
a mile from the river Monnow, and about seven north-west, of Mon- 
mouth. The history of the possessions of the Templars is very obscure ; 
most of the transcripts even of their documents perished at the suppres- 
sion of the Order. The compilation of John Stillingfleet, in 1433, after 
a great part of their possessions had passed . to the Hospitallers, gives, 
amongst those which were granted by Henry II. to the Templars, 
" totam terram de lange Carewey," which, there can be little doubt, 
implies Llan Garway. It is not mentioned by Leland, or any other 
ancient writer ; and Silas Taylor, who wrote his collections for a history 
of the county during the Protectorate, states that there were, at that 
time, stately ruins there of a religious house. Garway was always denomi- 
nated a Preceptory, both under the Templars and Hospitallers ; this 
term denoted a Cell to the principal house in London, and those of the 
latter Order were more commonly styled Commanderies. Each Preceptory 
had the management of several farms, and was the residence qf at least 
one knight, who was the preceptor, and with him certain serving men : 
they had a chaplain who administered in sacramentals to the parishioners, 
the advow?on being also in the possession of the Order. The last 
Preceptor of the Templars at Garway was Philip de Mewes, who figures 
in the tragic history of the Dissolution, in 1310. His signature imme- 
diately follows that of Thomas de la More, Master of the Temple, in 
the noble profession and appeal presented to the papal inquisitors ; but 
he finally submitted, and was reconciled to the church. John de Stoke, 
chaplain of the order, and treasurer of the temple, was at Garway, when 
it was visited by James de Molay, grand master in England, about 1*21)3. 



46 

Bring put to tin- question, (luring the unjust proceedings which ended 
in the suppression of the Order, he calumniated de Molay, declaring that 
during his visit to Garway he had compelled him to abjure his Saviour. 
I ! made his recantation at the west door of St. Paul's, and was absolved. 
The order of Knights of the Temple having been finally suppressed in 
1813, their lands were bestowed by Edward II. upon the Hospitallers, 
who appear, not many years after, to have been in possession of Garway, 
and probably restored those buildings which had fallen into decay, 
adding also such as were requisite for their establishment. About this 
period was erected the remarkable dovecote, of ample size and peculiar 
construction, which is still standing, and has been recently repaired by 
the proprietor, Lord Southwell. An inscription on the tympanum of 
the arched doorway, although much defaced by time and weather, may 
be read as follows : Anno Domini Millesimo trecentesimo vicesimo sexto 

tact inn fuit istud columbare per fratrem Ricardum The interior 

of this curious structure presents to view twenty rows of pigeon-holes, 
in number upwards of six hundred, ingeniously contrived so as to save 
space, and to be readily reached by the hand. It is arched over with 
stone, leaving a central aperture for the exit of the birds, and in the 
middle of the floor was formed a cistern. In a lease of Garway by the 
Hospitallers to Richard Mynors, Esq. dated 1512, amongst the various 
buildings which are enumerated occurs " columbare bene et sufficienter 
reparatum." Cott. MS. Claud. E. vi. f. 106, b. 

The Society adjourned over the Whitsuntide recess, to meet again on 
Thursday, June 6. 



Thursday, June 6, 1844. 
WILLIAM R. HAMILTON, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

It was announced to the Society, that the second part of vol. XXX. 
of the Archaeologia was ready for delivery to the Fellows. Price, to the 
public, 1 1*. Price of the whole volume, 2 2*. 

The Rev. George Henry Dashwood, of Stow Bardolph, in Norfolk, 
Author of the work entitled " Vice-Comites Norfolciae," was balloted 
for, and duly elected a Fellow of the Society. 

The following books and prints were presented to the Society, and 
thanks were ordered to be returned for the same. By Alfred Bartho- 
lomew, Esq., F.S.A., The Builder, vol. II. part V.fol. 1844. By John 
B. Nichols, Esq., F.S.A., The Gentleman's Magazine, June, 1844. By 
the Editor, The Athenaeum, part 197, 4to. 1844. By Miss Frances 
Lambert, Needlework of the Fourteenth Century : two impressions, fol. 
By Dawson Turner, Esq., F.S.A., Guide to the Historian, towards the 
verification of Manuscripts : specimen sheet, 8vo. By Alexander Wat- 
ford, Esq., A Roman Urn, dug up at Melbourne, Cambridgeshire. By 
Monsieur Ballin, Precis analytique des travaux del' Academic Royale de 
pendant 1'annee 1843, 8vo. 1844. 

The Rev. Richard E. Kerrich, F.S.A., presented to the Society two 



47 

original portraits. One of them represents William Paulet, Marquess 
of Winchester; it is painted on panel, and measures 16 inches by 13. 
This striking portrait is in excellent preservation, and bears the following 
inscription.: SYR WILLIAM PAVLET OF THE HONORABLE ORDER OF 

THE GARTER KNIGHT MARQVES OF WYNCHESTER AND HIGH THREA- 

SOROER OF ENGLAND. He wears the flat round cap, a small forked 
beard, forming a peak from the chin, without moustaches, a small ruff- 
band, and the collar and jewel of the order of the garter around his neck. 
In the left hand he holds a white official wand, and a gold signet-ring is 
conspicuously shewn on his fore-finger, having an escocheon of his arms 
with six quarterings, under a coronet, emblazoned (but incorrectly) in 
heraldic colours. Sir William Paulet, treasurer of the household to 
Henry VIII., was made by that monarch K.G., and Lord St. John of 
Basing. He was lord high treasurer, and master of the household to 
Edward VI., President! of the Council, was created Earl of Wiltshire in 
1550, and Marquess of Winchester in 1551. He retained the dignity 
of high treasurer under Mary and Elizabeth, and died at the age of 
87, in 1571. This interesting portrait bears much resemblance, with 
the exception of certain minor details, to the original by Holbein, in the 
collection of the Duke of Northumberland. See Lodge's Portraits, vol. 
II. The second portrait presented by Mr. Kerrich is one of Lieut.- 
General Fleetwood, son-in-law of Cromwell, Lord Deputy of Ireland, 
and Commander in Chief, 1659. It may be attributed to Walker, and 
seems to be identical in design with the painting formerly " in the posses- 
sion of Thomas Cook, Esq.," which was engraved by Houbraken amongst 
the Illustrious Heads. These two portraits have been suspended in the 
meeting-room of the Society, with the valuable collection of twenty-six 
ancient pictures bequeathed to the Society by Mr. Kerrich's father, the 
late Rev. Thomas Kerrich, F.S.A., Principal Librarian to the University 
of Cambridge, of which a Catalogue is given in Archasologia, XXII. 448. 
The Very Rev. the Dean of Hereford, F.S.A.., exhibited two episcopal 
rings of gold discovered during the recent restoration of Hereford Cathe- 
dral. One was found in the burial-place of Bishop Stanbury, beneath 
a beautiful alabaster tomb, the removal of which was requisite in order 
to remedy the defective foundation of the adjoining piers. Some remains 
of silken robes were exposed to view, with the ring, bearing the inscrip- 
tion en con an. Bishop Stanbury succeeded in 1453, and died about 
1474. The other ring was found in the tomb of Bishop Mayo, a beau- 
tiful canopied monument under the first Norman arch on the south of 
the choir. It is set with an uncut ruby, on each side of which is 
engraved a T with a small bell appended to it, and on the inside aue 
tnaria, the lines in both instances being filled up with a light green 
enamel. This ring was found at the side of the remains ; very small 
portions of the boneL were still to be seen, but fragments of the episcopal 
robes and of the orphrays were observable, and the leathern shoes re- 
mained in a perfect state, the stitches only having decayed. The wooden 
staff of the crosier lay in a diagonal direction from the left shoulder to 
the right foot ; it terminated in a knob at the lower extremity ; the 
pomel to which the head or crook had been attached was elegantly 



48 

formed, but the head itsdf, which, as it was conjectured, had been of 
jfcfc,. , disappeared. On the right side, nearer the wall 

d the grave, was a slender wand, apparently of hazel, a 
i-le and two oyster shells. Similar wands have been found in other 
places of interment in Hereford Cathedral, and were probably thus de- 
posited in token of a pilgrimage performed. In the ancient Rule or 
Consuetudines of Hereford the rules respecting Pilgrimage are pre- 
served : no member of the body was allowed to perform more than one 
beyond seas, but three were permitted within the realm of England. 
Jikhard May hew, or Mayo, was appointed Bishop in 1504, and died in 
1 5 1 6. He was employed by Henry VIII. in the mission to bring 
Katharine of Arragon to England, and, possibly, took occasion at that 
time to make a pilgrimage to the shrine of St. James, at Compostella. 
Thomas Crofton Croker, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited an ancient charter- 
horn, which formerly belonged to the Pickard family, and is now in the 
rol lection of Thomas Baylis, Esq., F.S.A., Prior's Bank, Fulham. A 
lithographic representation of this ancient relic had been presented to 
the Society by Charles J. Richardson, Esq., F.S.A., at a previous meet- 
ing (March 28). 

John Arthur Cahusac, Esq., F.S.A., brought before the Society an 
account of the present state of Bradwell Priory, in Berkshire, by John 
Virtue, Esq. All writers who have mentioned this priory, with the 
exception of Browne Willis, concur in stating that no remains of it exist, 
the? site being occupied by a farm-house. Browne Willis, indeed, affirms 
that the only ancient building here existing is a chapel built at the time 
of the Reformation, out of the materials of the suppressed Monastery, 
but his report seems to be erroneous. The little structure in question, 
measuring about 18 feet by 9, seems to be of Early English date, and it 
is very probable that it is the little chapel without the church which is 
mentioned in a survey, taken at the time of the Dissolution, in which 
chapel offerings were made to our Lady of Bradewell. A niche in the 
North side of the East wall, still existing, may have served formerly to 
receive the image. There is also a piscina. The ancient boundary walls 
Mill exist, and enclose about four acres; the Priory barn, the* bake- 
house, and other buildings, are also to be seen, which formed part of the 
ancient monastic structure ; the chapel has been turned into a stable. 

John Nicholl, Esq., F.S.A., communicated some particulars relative to 
the early part of the life of Isaak Walton, extracted from the Records of 
the Ironmongers' Company. Sir Harris Nicolas, in his Life of Walton, 
states, that he was apprenticed, at an early age, to Henry Walton, a 
haberdasher in Whitechapel, and a distant relation. It appears that 
young Isaak was made free of the Ironmongers' Company in 1617-18, 
by Thomas Grinsell, to whom it is possible that he had been turned 
r for the completion of his time, and who in his last will, dated 1640, 
names Isaak Walton, citizen and ironmonger, as one of his overseers. 
In 1637 Isaak Walton was chosen Warden of the Yeomanry, or free- 
men of the Company, and in 1639 paid over the balance left after dis- 
rliai^ini: th. duties of that office. He is again mentioned in 1641, when 
a contribution was exacted by Act of Parliament, for the important 



4'J 

aUdir* of tin- kingdom, and his proportion is stated to liavo been 3, 
being described as of St. Dunstan's in the West. 

Mr. Nicholl also exhibited a Pedigree of the Family of Lloyd, of 
Cownwy, Montgomeryshire, compiled by John Cain of Oswestry, in 
1033, and preserved in the family of Lloyd until the present time. 

John Britton, Esq., F.S.A., communicated Remarks on the Porches 
of Malmsbury Abbey Church, and the Church of St. Mary Redcliffe, 
Bristol, and exhibited several drawings of these and other Porches. 

Albert Way, Esq. Director, communicated a detailed account of Se- 
pulchral Monuments of the Howard family, drawn up by Rev. George 
Munford. It supplied an accurate statement of the present condition of 
the Church of East Winch, Norfolk, as compared with the description 
given by Weever, in 1631. The ancient Howard Chapel, on the South 
side of the Chancel, had fallen into decay in W T eever's time, but it was 
repaired by the Earl of Arundel ; at a subsequent time, as described by 
Parkin, its ruin was complete, and it became an habitation for paupers. 
The memorials of the noble house have perished ; the curiously carved 
and painted cover of the font, of which Weever has preserved a repre- 
sentation, is no more to be seen ; the painted glass and sepulchral brasses 
have also been totally destroyed. The wood-cuts given in the Sepul- 
chral Monuments, p. 842, orig. edit., appear to have been taken from the 
designs of Sir Henry Spelman. 

Thursday, June 13, 1844. 

WILLIAM R. HAMILTON, ESQ., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

James Wallis Pycroft, Esq., of Great College Street, Westminster, 
and the Rev. David James, Incumbent of St. Mary's, Kirkdale, Liver- 
pool, author of " The Patriarchal Religion of Britain ; or, a com- 
plete Manual of ancient British Druidism," and of other works, were 
severally balloted for, and duly elected Fellows of the Society. 

The following books were presented to the Society, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned for the same. By John Hogg, Esq., Letters 
from abroad, 8vo. 1844. By the Statistical Society of London, 
Journal of the Society, Vol. VII. part 2, 8vo. 1844. By Professor C. 
Molbech, Honorary Fellow, Historical Journal, published by the 
Danish Historical Society, 3 vols. 8vo. 1841, .1842, 1843. By Wil- 
liam Wansey, Esq., F.S.A., The Fishmongers' Pageant, on Lord 
Mayor's Day, 1616, delineated from the original roll in the possession 
of the Company by Henry Shaw, F.S.A., and described by John Gough 
Nichols, F.&A., fol. 1844. 

Dawson Turner, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited a collection of drawings, 
which represent various ancient objects in the Churches of Catfield, 
Cawston, Martham, Ling, and Ranworth, in Norfolk. 

Albert Way, Esq., Director, exhibited an original document bearing 
the signature and seal of Sir Rhys ap Thomas, Knight, Privy Coun- 
cillor to Henry VII., and favourite of Henry VIII., communicated by 
George Grant Francis, Esq., Keeper of the Medals, Royal Institution 



50 

of South Wales, at Swansea, in reference to the gold signet-ring re- 
hibit.'d to tin- Society by John Bidwell, Esq., F.S.A. It is a 
of quittance addressed by Sir Rhys to the tenants of his step-son 
and ward, Edward Stradling, Esq., in his estates of St. Donett's, Est 
Orchard, Lanfey, and Merthyr Mawr," Glamorganshire, " Halsijwey and 
Cwm Hawey," in Somersetshire, which were brought to the Strad- 
Impt by marriage with the heiress of Sir Thomas Hawey, in the reign 
of Edward I. Sir Rhys directs them to " attorne tenn'ts to my seid 
son," and pay their rents to him, releasing all that appertained to him- 
self in Edward Stradling's lands by reson of his nowne age." Dated 
nerdyn, 6 Aug. 9 Henry VI. (1494.) The Seal is of red wax, the 
il,-\ire tH'injr a raven, with the letter R over it ; it is attached in an 
unusual manner, not being appended, but fastened to a slip of parch- 
ment formed by cutting two longitudinal slips at the foot of the deed, 
so that the slip is not cut or disunited at either of its ends ; and the 
wax, being of soft consistency, was affixed by moulding it around 
this slip ; by this means the seal might be folded up securely, and 
protected from injury. 

The reading of the Extracts from the Order-Book of Major-General 
Lambert, communicated by Edward Hailstone, Esq., was then con- 
cluded. 

Thursday, June 20, 1844. 
HENRY HALLAM, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Richard Yates, Esq., of St. Andrew's Hill, Doctors' Commons, was 
balloted for, and duly elected a Fellow of the Society. 

The following books and prints were presented, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned for the same, By Mrs. Stackhouse Acton, A 
lithographic representation of an ancient Manor House at Millichope, in 
Shropshire, and six views of Stoke Say Castle, in the same county. By 
George Smith, Esq., F.S.A., The Religion of Ancient Britain, 8vo., 
1844. By William Herbert, Esq., " A Fac-simile of the original 
Shakespearian Relic, The Bore's Hedde, Estchepe, 1566." 

By Alfred Bartholomew, Esq., F.S.A., Proof impressions of the fol- 
lowing plates : Exterior view of the Portal of Montague House ; Inte- 
rior view of the same : Interior view of the Dutch Church, Austin 
Friars: and a View of the entrance of Barber- Surgeons' Hall, next 
Monkwell street. 

Sir Henry Ellis, Secretary, exhibited an Italian Nautical Instrument, 
of the time of Queen Elizabeth, communicated by John Benjamin 
I!iath, Esq., the Sardinian Consul General. It is of an oblong square 
form, like a small box, with a ring at the top by which it might be sus- 
pended ; when it is opened, a mariner's compass appears, with a dial- 
plate below, and at one end is a moveable tongue, within which is a pend- 
ant. The tongue serves as a gnomon to the dial. Within the lid is 
rilM-d Fiatorium V.S. 1587. In its centre is another dial-plate, 
with the figures of the hours surrounding a Volvelle ; and in an inner 






51 

circle this inscription : ffabetur flora Italic(a) si xxiiii ponns 
super Horam occasus. On the outside of the lid is a table of latitudes, 
chiefly of places in Europe. Fiatorium seems to be a corruption of 
viatorium, an instrument which is noticed by Herman. He says, 
" there be jorney rynges, and instruments lyke an hangynge pyler, with 
a tunge lyllyng oute, to knowe what tyme of the day. Sunt Viatoria 
horologia, partim circularia, partim pensilia, cylindracea specie ct lingua 
exetra." Vulgaria, ed. 1520. This little instrument has been deposited 
in the collection of Antiquities at the British Museum. 

Samuel Shepherd, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited sketches of Bodiam Castle, 
in Sussex, and of various objects of interest there, communicated by Mr. 
John Cullum. One of these drawings represents some ancient painted 
glass, which was removed from the church during the progress of 
repairs, and is now in the possession of the keeper of the castle. 

John Brown, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited a small golden idol, formerly in 
the possession of H. R. H. the Duke of Sussex, which was found near 
the margin of the Lake Guativite, on the summit of a mountain ridge 
about eight leagues from Santa Fe de Bogota, in the Republic of Co- 
lumbia. This lake had been accounted sacred by the Aborigines previ- 
ously to the conquest by the Spaniards, and into it, at certain seasons, 
they were accustomed to throw treasures and offerings to their deities. 
Many precious objects have been found, and a company has been formed 
for the purpose of draining the lake. 

Thomas Windus, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited a cup, described as of Danish 
or Anglo-Saxon workmanship ; and also an ivory tankard, which, as it 
has been conjectured by armorial bearings engraved upon it, formerly 
belonged to Mathias Corvinus, King of Hungary, about the year 1457. 

Charles Roach Smith, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited a coloured drawing, ex- 
ecuted by Mr. John Alfred Barton, which represents a painting recently 
discovered on the walls of Godshill Church, in the Isle of Wight. The 
subject is the Crucifix, the cross being figured by a tree with three 
branches. Mr. Smith also exhibited a coloured drawing, communicated 
by Mr. Robert Elliott, and representing a mural painting recently brought 
to light in a house in Chichester, the property of Mr. Mason. A draw- 
ing by John Adey Repton, Esq., F.S.A., was likewise brought before 
the Society, which represents an earthen vessel, found in digging the 
foundations of the Savings' Bank at Chelmsford. It appears to be of the 
manufacture of the sixteenth century. 

Mr. Smith also submitted to the inspection of the Society a small 
Runic Almanac, formed of wood, the property of Mr. William C rafter, 
of the Royal Engineers' office, at Gravesend. It is formed of eleven 
thin slips apparently of hazel wood, which measure four inches and three 
quarters by two ; they are numbered by notches at one end, and rudely 
bound together like a book by a thong, which passes through two holes 
in each leaf. It forms a calendar for the whole year, resembling the 
wooden almanac used in the Island of CEsel, of which a representation 
is given in Gent. Mag. 82, part 1, p. 625. In the Ashmolean Museum, 
at Oxford, a wooden almanac is preserved which is formed like this in 
small detached leaves, but the characters and symbols engraved upon it 
are wholly different. 



( hnrles Spcncc, Esq., of the Na%y I'ay office, Dovonport, exhibited 
. ir ul.hin" rftfcl Sepulchral BrtWr W Margery Ariindol, ancestress of 
Ku-hard Carew, the author of the Survey of Cornwall. It is preserved 
in Anthony Church, near Devonport. 

Alfred John Kempe, Esq., F.8.A., communicated Notes m illustration 
of the oriiriual Portrait of the Cardinal John Kempe, Archbishop of Cai.- 
rv who died 1453, formerly in the collection at Strawberry Hill, 
and now in that of the Duke of Sutherland. Mr. Kempe exhibited a 
copy of this curious painting, executed by Albin Martin, Esq. Walpoley 
in the Description of his Collection, states that this portrait, with three. 
other paintings of like dimension, forming the doors which closed over :m 
altar-piece, had originally been placed in the church of St. Edmund's 
Bury, and were purchased by him at the sale of Ives' collection. He 
caused the panels to be sawn in two, so as to form four subjects. The 
paintings on the outside panels were, according to Walpole's account, 
the portraits of Cardinals Kempe and Beaufort ; those on the interior; 
represented Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, and a personage kneeling 
in adoration, possibly the donor of the altar-piece ; and the arms of Tate, 
impaling Boleyn (?), appeared on an escocheon above the figure. These 
arms have been attributed to Sir Robert Tate, Lord Mayor of London, 
J488. Mr. Martin, having minutely examined these paintings, con- 
siders the portraits of the two Cardinals as the work of the same artist, 
but is of opinion that the other two panels are by a different hand, and 
do not correspond either in style of painting or fitting of the panels to 
each other ; it is now difficult to ascertain what division was effected 1 
by the saw, according to Walpole's account. It seems probable that the 
subject of the principal composition was the Offering of the Magi ; that 
the central group, consisting of the Blessed Virgin and the infant Saviour, 
is wanting, and that on the right-hand side was placed the representation 
of Joseph, being the panel marked with the bearings of Tate, and on 
the other the figure supposed to be the portrait of Duke Humphrey. 
The portrait which, according to Walpole's statement, represents Cardinal 
Kempe, exhibits a prelate, vested in the cope, wearing a mitre, and 
bearing a cross-staff in his right hand ; he holds in the left ah open 
book, and from the fore-finger depends a whip composed of three lashes. 
In the back-ground appears a landscape, with a church and other 
buildings. These remarkable paintings have been noticed, with some 
critical observations on the appropriation of the supposed portraits of 
Archbishop Kempe and Duke Humphrey, in Gent. Mag. N.S. XVIII. 
pp. 17, -J4, 156. It has been suggested that these paintings may repre- 
sent certain Saints, and are not portraits, according to Walpole's suppo- 
sition. It is very probable that the figure which has been regarded as 
a portrait of Cardinal Kempe, may be a representation of St. Ambrose* 
who is recognised in ancient works of art by the conventional symbol 
>urnv, in reference, as it is said, to the penance which he im- 
posed on the Emperor Theodosius, on the occasion of the cruel massacre 
at Thensalonica. 

The Society then adjourned over the Summer recess, to meet again 
on November L! 1 . 



53 



, 

Thursday, November 21, 1844. 

WILLIAM RICHARD HAMILTON, Esq., Vice- President, in 

the Chair. 

The Rev. Samuel Roffey Maitland, one of the Auditors appointed 
March 28, 1844, to audit the Treasurer's Accounts for the year ending 
December 31, 1843, reported, that having examined and approved the 
said Accounts, they had prepared the following Abstract of Receipts 
and Disbursements for the information of the Society : 



*. d. 

Balance of the last year's 
account .... 1058 13 5$ 

'"Receipts in the Tear 1843. 

By Annual Sub- 
scriptions . 1072 1 

By Admission Fees 142 16 

By Dividends on 
Stock . . . 109 4 5 

By Sale of Books 
and Prints . 43 9 8 

By Stamp Duty on 
Bonds . 12 

By Dividends on 
"Stock . . . 101 18 9 



By Sale of ^500 
Stock . 

By Compositions 
in lieu of Annual 
Subscriptions . 



1481 9 10 
482 13 6 

336 



.3358 16 94 



Disbursement! in the Year 1843. 



To Artists, and in Publications 

For Taxes .... 

For Salaries .... 

For Tradesmen's Bills . 

For Insurance 

For Advertisements, Postage, &c 

For Bookbinding . 

For Catalogue ot Prints and Draw 
ings in the possession of the So 
ciety, and for repairing and ar 
ranging the same 

For Collecting Subscriptions 

For Bond Stamps . 



For Solicitor's Bill 



. 



*. d. 

1594 10 7 

33 2 11 

447 10 

167 16 84 

22 11 

67 13 

16 10 



35 S 6 

52 16 3 

900 

1 6 8 



2448 74 

Balance in the hands of the 
Treasurer, Jan. 1, 1844 . 910 16 2 



^3358 16 94 



Stock in the 3 per Cent. 
Consols .7,000. 



Witness our hands, 

July 16, 1844. BERIAH BOTFIELD, 

S. R. MAITLAND, 
81{M J: Auditors. 

The Treasurer reported to the Auditors that the payments made on 
the separate account for defraying the charges of Publication of Anglo- 
Saxon works, have amounted to the sum of ,736. 2s. le?., at the close of 
the year 1843, and that the produce of the sale of these works, during 
that year, had not exceeded 25.3$. lie?. The actual balance, there- 
fore, on December 31, 1843, after deducting the deficiency of the Anglo- 
Saxon fund, was reduced to 212. 12s. The account of disbursements 
thus made, under the direction of the Anglo-Saxon Committee, will be 
laid before that body at the close of the present year, and duly reported 
to the Society. 

An enumeration of the publications which have appeared under the 
direction of the Anglo-Saxon Committee, may be found at page 5 of 
these Proceedings, with the prices of the same. 

It was announced to the Society that the Index to the fifteen volumes 
of the Archaeologia, from Vol. XVI. to Vol. XXX. inclusive, is now 
ready for delivery to the Fellows. Price to the public, '15*. The 
former part, being the Index of the first fifteen volumes, may also be 
purchased at the Society's rooms, price 15*. 



54 

The following recommendation of the Council to the Society was 
then read from the Chair : 

At a Council holden on Tuesday, November 19, 1844, 

VISCOUNT MAHON, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

In the motion of Thomas Joseph Pettigrew, Esq., seconded by Albert 
Way, Esq., That it be recommended by the Council to the Society, 
according to the precedent of 1809, when the former Index to the 
Archseologia was prepared, that their Treasurer should be directed 
to pay to Nicholas Carlisle, Esq., Resident Secretary, the sum of 
Three hundred pounds, as a remuneration for the great labour he 
has had in making another Index to the second series of fifteen 
volumes of the Archa3ologia ; and also, for his trouble in super- 
intending the press, in the publication of the same. 

Ordered, 

That the above recommendation be suspended in the Meeting-Room, 
according to the Statutes ; and that it be put to the Ballot, on 
Thursday, the 28th inst. 

The Rev. John- William Mackie, M.A., Student of Christ-church, 
Oxford, of Siddons House, Upper Baker Street, was balloted for, and 
duly elected a Fellow of the Society. 

The following books were presented, and thanks were ordered to be 
returned for the same. By John B. Nichols, Esq., F.S.A., The Gentle- 
man's Magazine, July to November, inclusive, 1844. By the Editor, 
The Atheneum, Parts 198202 ; 1844. By William Chappell, Esq. 
F.S.A., The first Book of Songs, composed by John Dowland ; scored 
from the first edition, printed in 1597 ; with a life of the composer, 
fol. 1844 : printed for the Members of the Musical Antiquarian Society. 
By the Council of the United Service Museum, Quarterly Reports of 
Donations to the Museum and Library, Nos. 1 7, 8vo. 1843-4. By 
the Zoological Society of London, Transactions, Vol. III. Parts 2 and 
3, 4to. 1843-4. Proceedings, Nos. 120130, 8vo. 1843. By the Numis- 
matic Society, The Numismatic Chronicle, No. 25, 8vo. 1844. By the 
Statistical Society of London, Journal, Vol. VII. Part 3, 8vo. 1844. By 
the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Journal, No. 15, 
Part 1, 8vo. 1844. By the Royal Geographical Society of London, 
Journal, Vol. XIV. 8vo. 1844. By the American Philosophical So- 
ciety at Philadelphia, Proceedings, Vol. IV. Nos. 28, 29, 8vo. 1843-4. 
By Thomas Stephens Davies, Esq., F.S.A., An Analytical Discussion 
of Dr. Matthew Stewart's General Theorems, 4to. 1844. By W. 
Durrant Cooper, Esq., F.S.A., Seven Letters written by Sterne and his 
Friends, hitherto unpublished, 8vo. 1844, printed for private circulation. 
By the Council of the Shakespeare Society, The Shakespeare Society's 
Papers, Vol. I. 8vo. 1844. Sir Thomas More, a Play, edited by the 
. A. Dyce, 8vo. 1844. By Thomas Wright, Esq., F.S.A., Anec- 
dota Literaria, a collection of Short Poems in English, Latin, and French, 

.tt i 



55 

illustrative of the Literature and History of England in the thirteenth 
Century, 8vo. 1844. By Charles Roach Smith, Esq., F.S.A., Collec- 
tanea Antiqua, No. V. 8vo. 1844. By M. le Comte de Clarac, Hono- 
rary Fellow, Catalogue des Artistes de 1'Antiquite, 12mo. Paris, 1844. 
By 1' Academic d'Archeologie de Belgiqne, Bulletin et Annales, Tome I. 
livraison 1, 8vo. 1843. 

r riie Rev. Charles Henry Hartshorne, F.S.A., exhibited twenty plans 
of Caernarvon Castle, two of Beaumaris Castle, and one of Harlech 
Castle, illustrative of the peculiar features of military architecture during 
the reign of Edward I. 

Alan Gardner Cornwall, Esq., exhibited drawings of paintings, de- 
scribed as executed in fresco, recently discovered on the walls of the 
Church of Beverstone, Gloucestershire. One of them exhibits the 
literal transubstantiation of the wafer into the body of Christ, which 
appears on the altar, in place of the host. The figure of the Roman 
Pontiff, represented as kneeling before the. altar, seems to be intended 
to pourtray Pope Gregory the Great ; it is related that the miracle thus 
depicted was wrought by his prayers, in order to remove the disbelief of 
a Roman matron in Transubstantiation. Joh. Diacon. Vita S. Gregorii, 
P.P. c. 4. A representation of this miracle exists in the Savage Chapel, 
Macclesfield, over the sepulchral brass of Roger Leghe, 1506. 

A selection of extracts from the Municipal Archives of Canterbury 
were then read, with observations by Thomas Wright, Esq., F.S.A., 
communicated to the Society by the Council of the British Archaeolo- 
gical Association. This paper was read in the Historical Section, at 
the recent meeting of the Association at Canterbury, on Sept. 13. The 
valuable municipal records in that city, although carefully preserved, are 
unarranged. Besides the charters from the Crown, the books of accounts 
of the chamberlains, which are preserved in regular succession from the 
year 1393, present a mass of information on manners and customs : the 
judicial records of the courts of sessions, and the registers of wills, are 
scarcely less valuable. Amongst the numerous curious entries noticed 
by Mr. Wright, are several which relate to the pageant of the martyr- 
dom of St. Thomas of Canterbury, to minstrels and players, local cus- 
toms, and events of public interest. The name of an artist, " Floraunce 
the paynter," occurs in these extracts : he received in 1521, for his 
labour bestowed on the decoration of the market cross, 58*. 8c?. The 
municipal records of Canterbury have recently been removed from a 
damp cellar to a place of security in the upper part of the town-hall, 
where they may freely be consulted by all intelligent inquirers. 



Thursday, November 28, 1844. 

The recommendation of the Council to the Society, regarding the 
remuneration of the Resident Secretary, for making the Index to the 

F 



VISCOUNT MAHON, Vice-President, in the Chair. 



56 

second Series of tit torn volumes of the Archaeologia, was read a second 
tiinr from the (/hair. Whereupon a ballot being taken, it passed in the 
aftiniuitixr. 

Tin- Council of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society pre- 
sented to the Society their Twenty-Fourth Report, for 1843-4, 8vo. 
Thanks were ordered to be returned for the same. 

Thomas J.Pettigrew, Esq., F.S.A., communicated an account of a Bilin- 
guar inscription, taken from a vase in the Treasury at St. Mark's, Venice. 
The inscription is expressed in the arrow-headed and the Egyptian 
hieroglyphic characters, and the latter gives the name of Artaxerxes, 
reading phonetically Ard-kho-scho. Its importance is to be found in 
the assistance which a name so satisfactorily gives in the interpretation 
of the cuneiform characters. One other bilingual inscription of the kind 
only is known, in which the late M. Champollion read the name of 
Xerxes (Khschearscha). In both the inscriptions the name is followed 
by hieroglyphics, which Mr. Pettigrew reads Erfer (Great). Some 
observations on this inscribed Vase were also communicated by Samuel 
Birch, Esq., F.S.A., Assistant Keeper of the Antiquities in the British 
Museum. Mr. Birch agrees with Mr. Pettigrew in regard to the im- 
portance of the inscription as decyphering the cuneiform character, and 
as illustrative of the influence which the conquest of Egypt exercised 
over its Persian rulers. Upon the vase of Xerxes Mr. Birch reads 
phonetically Kha-sha-irsha, and upon that of Artaxerxes, Art-kh-sh-sha, 
or Artekshsesha. 

' iJri' 

73 id-BJl >.D ' '' ''"'-" 

Thursday, December 5, 1844. 
No meeting. 

In consequence of the decease of Her Royal Highness the Princess 
Sophia Matilda of Gloucester, the meetings of the Society were adjourned 
until after the Funeral of Her Royal Highness. 

ot Ji 

Thursday, December 12, 1844. 
THOMAS AMYOT, Esq., Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The following books were presented to the Society, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned for the same. By John B. Nichols, Esq., F.S.A., 
I iu- (nntleman's Magazine, December, 1844. By the Editor, The 
nanim, part 203, 4to. 1844. By the Antiquarian Society of Glas- 
gow, and the West of Scotland, recently established, Proposed Statutes 
and Regulations, 1844. By the Rev. Richard Hart, The Antiquities of 
>lk, a Lecture delivered at the Norfolk and Norwich Museum, 8vo., 
ich, II 44. By the Government of the Netherlands, by the hands 
1 hr, ( . Leemans, Honorary Fellow of the Society, and Director of 
v? uiticS at Le 7 den > Aegyptische Monumenten van 
Museum, &c., Egyptian Antiquities preserved in the 






57 

Museum at Loyden ; engraved ind published by the order of the Go- 
vernment, part VI. consisting of 12 plates, folio. By the Council of 
the Sh;ikc<])c;irc Society, The old Taming of a Shrew, edited by Thomas 
Amyot, Esq., Treas. S.A., 8vo. 1844. By the Committee of the Art- 
Union of London, Eighth Annual Report, 8vo. 1844. By the Trustees 
of the British Museum, Select Papyri in the Hieratic Character, part 

III. plates 99 168, folio. By the Chevalier Octave Delapierre, Precis 
Analytiquc des Documents que renferme le depot des Archives de la 
Flandre Occidentale a Bruges, four parts, 1840-43, 8vo. 

Charles Roach Smith, Esq., F.S.A., communicated an account of a 
leaden coffin, recently discovered by some workmen in the employ of Mr. 
Forster, near the old ford over the river at Stratford le Bow, illustrated 
by a coloured drawing executed by Mr. E. Stock, of Poplar. The coffin, 
in form a parallelogram, is made of a sheet of lead, 5 ft. 6 inches in 
length, bent upwards, with a square piece soldered on at each end. The 
lid, which in parts is much decomposed, laps over the sides about 2 
inches, and is ornamented with a sort of cable moulding down the sides, 
and across the centre in diamonds. The coffin contained the remains of 
a skeleton of a young person, and a large quantity of lime : its construc- 
tion resembles that of some which are without doubt of the Romano- 
British period, as for example two which were discovered at Southfleet, 
and are described in Archaeologia, XIV. p. 38. Another analogous speci- 
men was found during the last year in Mansell Street, Whitechapel, on the 
site of an extensive burial-ground of the Romans, and on the same level 
with Roman urns, coins, and ornaments. Several leaden coffins, appa- 
rently Roman, have been found in Normandy, and in the burial-place 
near Boulogne. Memoirs of the Society of Antiquaries of Normandy, 

IV. 236 : and of that of Antiqu. de 1'Ouest, II. 177. The spot where 
the coffin, described by Mr. Smith, was found, is adjacent to the village 
of Old-ford, where several Roman urns were found some years since, 
and Roman coins and other remains have been discovered in profusion 
in the vicinity. Mr. Smith supposes that this locality was the site of a 
Romano-British burial-place, and thinks it probable that the coffin may 
be assigned to the fourth or fifth century. 

Samuel Birch, Esq., F.S.A., Assistant Keeper of the Antiquities in 
the British Museum, communicated a description, accompanied by a 
drawing, of a vase of red Roman ware, discovered in September last, in 
digging a potato trench at Chester Field, near Sandy, nine miles from 
Bedford. It is now in the British Museum. It is a deep calix or pocu- 
lum, ornamented with a broad architectural moulding, formed of ante- 
fixal ornaments and helices, having a bird in each pattern ; above, is an 
egg and tongue moulding below a running corded pattern. The vase 
had been anciently fractured, and repaired by means of leaden rivets. 
Other specimens exist which have been thus repaired. This peculiar 
red ware, commonly termed Samian, is found in abundance in all places 
occupied by the Romans. Fabroni, in his History of the ancient Aretine 
vases, has lately sought to prove that this was the kind of ware which 
was fabricated at Aretiura, and of which mention is made by Virgil, 



58 

Pmius, Martial and Pliny. I>idore of Seville, who wrote in the seventh 
r\ , speaks of tin* rod ware as being the manufacture of Aretium, 
and cites Seduliua, a poet who flourished before the Christian era, in 
confirmation of the statement. Vases of this description have been 
found in abundance near Arezzo, and Francesco Rossi, who formed a 
collection of thi< kind of ware, and made careful researches respecting 
the manufacture, discovered, in the neighbourhood of that town, the 
furnaces and implements of the potter's art. Numerous potters' marks 
are to be noticed upon the specimens there found ; these marks differ in 
certain particularities from those which occur on specimens found in 
England : the style of these Aretine vases seems to be more delicate, 
and is probably the original which subsequently served as a model for 
the fictile manufactures of the Provinces. 

Mr. Birch also communicated Observations on the figure of Anacreon, 
which is to be seen on some fictile Greek vases, preserved in the British 
Museum. The Graeco-Italian vases are decorated with subjects, the in- 
terest of which is chiefly mythological, and if the legends of the Iliad, 
and the traditions of the Poets of the Epic Cycle be placed without the 
pale of History, there are few vases which represent subjects of an his- 
torical character. Such representations are highly to be valued, and may 
be regarded as supplying fixed points in the history of Art, as having 
been executed at a time when the persons who are pourtrayed were in 
the meridian of their fame. Such are the Phcenician vase, made by Ta- 
leides, which represents Arcesilaus III., who flourished B.C., 530, and 
the vases upon which are to be seen the figures of AlcaBUs, Sappho, and 
Anacreon, who lived about the same period. The Poet appears with a 
harp in his hands, probably the barbitos, of which he is supposed to have 
been the inventor. On one of the vases, noticed by Mr. Birch, a littfe 
dog is seen following the poet, a circumstance which has led to the ap- 
propriation of the subject, which appears to bear an allusion to the 
history of Anacreon's faithful dog, given by Tzetzes. This dog having 
followed the poet, and a slave who accompanied him, to the market, died 
after watching for several days near a purse which the slave had dropped. 
Two of these vases were formerly in the Durand Collection ; the other 
two form part of the series of one hundred, which were acquired from 
the Princess of Cauino, by the instrumentality of the Marquess of 
Northampton. 



Thursday, December 19, 1844. 
WILLIAM II. IIAMILTON,E a q.,Vice.President,mtheChair. 

William Roots, Esq., M.D., of Kingston-upon-Thames, was balloted 
for, and duly elected a Fellow of the Society. 

I* following books were presented to the Society, and thanks were 

e returned for the same. By the Royal Asiatic Society of 

tt Britain and Ireland, Journal, No. XV., Part 2, 8vo. 1844. By 



N 

Edward Wcdlake Braylcy, Esq., F.S.A. The History of Surrey, Vol. 
III. Part 1, and Vol. IV. Part 1, 4to. 1844. By the Societe d'Histoire 
et d'Archeologie do Geneve, Memoires et Documents, Tome III. 8vo. 
1844. By the Societe des Antiquaires de Normandie, Memoires, 2 e 
Series, Vol. III. 4to. 1844. 

Thomas Lott, Esq., F.S. A., communicated an account of some vaulted 
chambers and architectural remains which exist under the houses on the 
western side of the church-yard of St. Mary -le- Bow. The buildings, 
of which these are the vestiges, appear to have extended as far as Cheap- 
side ; Stowe mentions a Grammar School which was built in Bow 
Church-yard, by order of Henry VI., but Mr. Lott thinks that these 
remains formed part of some other building ; possibly they may indicate 
the site of the fair stone building, which, according to Stowe's account, 
was built by Edward III., as a place from whence he might, with his 
court, conveniently behold the joustings and other shows, and it continued 
to be used for that purpose, even at as late a period as the reign of 
Henry VIII. It was strongly built of stone, and is described by Stowe 
as a lofty erection, which darkened the windows of Bow Church on that 
side. This building was termed silda, a shed, or the crown silde. Mr. 
Lott also exhibited two Grants from Henry VI II., by Letters Patent, 
with the Great Seals attached, which were communicated to him by Mr. 
Naylor, the Steward of a large portion of the property adjacent to St. 
Mary-le-Bow. One of these, dated 29 Hen. VIII., 1537, in considera- 
tion of good service rendered " per dilectum servientem nostrum Williel- 
mum Lok, unum generosorum hostiariorum camere nostre," grants to 
him a tenement in " hosyar lane, alias Bowe lane nuper Hospital! 
Beate Marie de Elsyng infra Crepulgate, vulgariter nuncupate Elsyng 
Spyttelle T pertinens." A drawing with the pen in the initial letter 
represents Henry, enthroned under a cloth of estate; the seal is in 
good preservation, the legend is in Roman Capitals, but there are some 
traces of Gothic character in the style of the decorations. Sandford de- 
scribes this as the first of the Great Seals of Henry VIII., which had 
come to his knowledge ; the style FIDEI DEFENSOR, which occurs 
in the legend, shews that the seal was not in use before 1521, and the 
design is an early evidence of the decline of the Gothic style of ornamen- 
tation, towards that period. The second document is a grant to Thomas 
Nortone, citizen and grocer, of a messuage called the Sonne, in the 
parish of St. Mary Wolnothe, in Lumbarde Strete, lately part of the 
possessions of the dissolved Monastery of Stradforthe Langthorne, in 
Essex ; also of the Rectory and Church of Stretley, alias Stretely, in 
Bedfordshire, which had belonged to the Monastery of Markeyate, in 
that county. This grant, dated 24 Sept. 36 Hen. VIII., 1544, is at- 
tested by Queen Katharine, as Regent during the King's absence in 
France, a few days only before his return on the surrender of Boulogne. 
In the initial letter is a curious limning in colours and gold, which re- 
presents the King attended by his court. The Great Seal is the same 
of which the design is to be seen in Sandford's plate, p. 457, and which 



was IH..I 1>\ H.Mirv subsequently to 1541, when he was proclaimed 
KiiiL r <>t' hvi.-uid. 

Mr. Lmt exhibited, at the same time, the silver matrix of the Paro- 
chial Seal of Bow Church, which is thus inscribed, SIGILLUM ECCL'I;E 
BEAT.* MARINE DE ARCVBV8 LONDiNi 1580. It represents the upper 
part of the tower of the church, as it anciently appeared, with the sin- 
irularly constructed arches by which it was surmounted. An engraving 
..ft his seal is given in the Gent. Mag. for April 1823, vol. XCIII. 
i. 305. 

Albert Way, Esq., Director, exhibited two ancient rings, communi- 
cated by the Rev. Thomas Haslam, of St. Perran-zabuloe, in Cornwall. 
One of these is of silver, and seems to be a rude representation of a 
serpent : it was found on a skeleton which had been interred almost on 
a level with the ancient church of St. Piran, near Truro, as related by 
Mr. Haslam in his recently published account of Perran-zabuloe, p. 146. 
The other is of gold, partially enamelled, of very elegant workmanship, 
and it is set with a ruby. This ring, which appears to be of the time of 
Elizabeth, was found near the site of the Friary in Kenwyn Street, 
Truro. 

Mr. Way also exhibited several drawings, executed by Thomas Old- 
ham, Esq., of Dublin, which represent the remarkable sculptured cross 
existing at Arboe, on the western shore of Lough Neagh, in the county 
of Tyrone. It is ornamented on all sides with representations of various 
incidents in Scriptural History sculptured in low relief. 

An account of Roman Potteries, recently discovered in Northampton- 
shire, by Edmund T. Artis, Esq., F.S.A., was then read : this paper was 
brought before the meeting of the British Archaeological Association at 
Canterbury, in September last, and has been communicated to the 
Society by the Council of the Association. The formation of a drain, 
in the progress of the works connected with the Railway, at Sibson near 
Wansford, brought to light three mutilated statues of large dimension, 
supposed to represent Hercules, Apollo, and Minerva. The material, of 
which they are formed, appears to have been taken from a neighbouring 
quarry. Mr. Artis, having made excavations with the hope of reco- 
reriDg the heads and other portions of these curious figures, met with 
the remains of some kilns of the Roman period, one of which had 
apparently been used for firing the blue or slate -coloured vases for do- 
mestic and other uses, which are found commonly in the vicinity. Mr 
Artis had previously formed the opinion that this colour had been given 
by suffocating the fire of the kiln, at the time when the ware within it 
had been sufficiently heated ; and the supposition appears to him to be 
confirmed by this discovery. He notices the peculiar quality of the 
bricks employed in the construction of this kiln ; they were made of 
:lay mixed with a third part of rye in the chaff, and the grain having been 

isumed, the bricks were left exceedingly porous, and full of cavities. A 
etailed account was given of the construction of the kilns, and the mode in 

ich they appear to have been packed with the ware previously to firing. 



61 

Various experiments have been made by Mr. Artis, in order to ascer- 
tain the mode by which the peculiar blue colour was given to the ware : 
none of the clays found in the neighbourhood assume that colour when 
fired in the usual manner, and the blue colour of the ancient ware dis- 
appears if re-burnt in the common kiln. It is also to be observed that 
the colour appeared, in the case of the " Smother kiln " discovered at 
Sibson, to have been imparted to the bricks which had served in its 
formation, as also to the wrappers or coatings of clay which had been 
used in packing the ware. Mr. Artis exhibited specimens of the blue 
ware, and the glazed ware with ornaments laid on in relief ; models of 
furnaces, and portions of the furnace-bricks and clay coatings coloured 
by the smothering process, with samples of various substances found near 
the kilns, which had, as it is supposed, served for the processes of the 
manufacture. Portions of the ordinary kind of ware found in the 
neighbourhood were exhibited by Mr. Artis, upon which are seen orna- 
ments laid on in relief after the vessel had been formed in the lathe, 
and, in some instances, subsequently to its receiving the superficial glaze. 
These oniaments represent human figures, field-sports, or animals, laid 
on in slip of thick consistency, so as to give a high degree of relief. 
Mr. Artis has given further information on the peculiarities of the 
ancient fictile manufactures of this locality, in his work entitled, Duro- 
brivae identified. 

The Society then adjourned over the Christmas recess, to meet again 
on Thursday, January 9, 1845. 






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PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 
OF LONDON, 

1845. No. 4 

Thursday, January 9, 1845. 
HENRY HALLAM, ESQ., Vice- President, in the Chair. 

The Rev. Newenham Travers, of Medstead, Alresford, Hampshire, 
was balloted for, and duly elected a Fellow of the Society. 

The following books were presented to the Society, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned for the same : By John B. Nichols, Esq., F.S. A., 
The Gentleman's Magazine, January, 1845. By the Committee of the 
Association for Promoting the Relief of Destitution in the Metropolis, 
their First Annual Report, 8vo., 1844. By the Editor, The Athenaeum, 
Part 204, 4to. 1844. By the Oxford Architectural Society, Guide to 
the Architectural Antiquities in the neighbourhood of Oxford, Part III , 
Deanery of Cuddesden, 8vo., 1844 : Elevations, Sections, and Details 
of St. Peter's Church, Wilcote, Oxfordshire, of the Chapel of St. 
Bartholomew, near Oxford, and of St. John the Baptist's Church, at 
Shottesbrook, Berkshire; three Parts, fol., 1844. By John Henry 
Parker, Esq., Design for a Church in the Decorated Style, by Stephen 
Lewin, Architect, forming Part I. of Designs for Churches and Chapels 
in the Norman and Gothic Styles, fol. 1844. By Thomas Wright, Esq., 
F.S.A., The Archaeological Album, No. I., 4to. 1845. By Dr. J. H. 
Schroder, Initia Monetae Suecanae, 4to. 1844. 

The Secretary read a translation of a letter addressed to him by Mon- 
sieur de Caumont, of Caen, Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries of 
Normandy, and Honorary F.S. A., announcing that the inhabitants of 
Falaise are about to erect an Equestrian Statue to the memory of Wil- 
liam the Conqueror, requesting Subscriptions from the Members of 
the Society, and authorising William Bromet, Esq., M.D., F.S.A., to 
receive any Subscriptions which may be offered. Monsieur de Caumont 
also announced that the French Society for the Preservation of Historical 
Monuments, of which he is the Director, would hold an Archaeological 
Congress during the second week of the month of June next, at Lille, 
and invited the Fellows of the Society of Antiquaries to give their at- 
tendance on that occasion. 

Albert Way, Esq. Director, exhibited two ancient embroidered hang- 
ings, probably the frontal and super-frontal of an altar. They are now 
preserved in the church of Steeple- Aston, Oxfordshire. The dimensions 
of the frontal are 9 feet 3 inches by 2 feet 6 inches ; the subjects repre- 
sented upon it are the martyrdoms of St. James, and St. James the less ; 
of St. Barnabas, St. Thomas, St. Paul, and St. Katharine, each being 

G 



in. losed in a panel Mirn.inuli-.l with a trailing foliated ornament ; lions 
statant gardant are introduced in the intervening spaces. On either side 
is a border ornamented with figures of angels mounted upon horses, and 
playing on musical instruments. The dimensions of the other hanging 
are 5 feet 3 inches by 4 feet 3 inches ; it is decorated with subjects 
arranged in like manner as those already described. At the lower part 
is seen the Saviour bearing the cross, and in the centre appears the 
crucifixion, with the Virgin Mary and St. John standing near the cross : 
over this appears the Intercession of the Blessed Virgin, who is repre- 
sented enthroned at the right hand of the Saviour. The Holy Lamb, 
bearing the cross with a streamer appended to it, had been introduced 
between these figures subsequently to the original arrangement. The 
subjects on the dexter side consist of the martyrdoms of St. Andrew, 
St. Laurence, and St. Bartholomew ; on the other side are represented 
the sufferings of St. Peter, St. Stephen, and St. Margaret. This 
remarkable specimen of embroidery appears to be a work of the time of 
Edward III. or Richard II. 

Edward Richardson, Esq., exhibited a series of drawings representing 
several curious coffins discovered during the excavations recently made 
in the ancient circular church at the Temple, in order to strengthen the 
foundations of the piers, which had become decayed by time and the 
objectionable practice of interring corpses under the pavement of the build- 
ing. Mr. Richardson communicated also, in a letter to Albert Way, 
Esq., Director, a detailed account of this discovery, which had been in 
part announced to the Society on a previous occasion by L. N. Cotting- 
ham, Esq., F.S.A., at the period when the coffins were found, March 18, 
1841 ; casts, taken from the elegant ornaments with which some of 
the coffin-lids were decorated, were exhibited at that time. Mr. Richard- 
son's observations were illustrated by a ground-plan, exhibiting the ar- 
rangement and position of the various interments. Coffins both of stone 
and lead were found, the former being deposited a little beneath the level 
of the ancient pavement, whilst those which were formed of lead lay 
about a foot or eighteen inches deeper. The stone coffins had evidently 
been broken open at some previous time, but the leaden ones appeared to 
have been left uninjured, although surrounded by numerous coffins of 
later date which were wedged in above and around them. According to 
early fashion the breadth was found to be greater at the head than at 
the feet, and one of the leaden coffins was shaped to the general form of 
the head and shoulders. Ornamental bands disposed lengthwise and 
transversely appeared upon them, which seemed to represent the cross 
embroidered upon the pall. The dimensions were in length from six feet 
six inches to six feet ten inches ; two of these leaden coffins were inclosed 
in small graves formed with masonry, and an interment was found on the 
north side in a grave formed in the solid rubble foundation. The bones 
which remained in the leaden coffins were sound, and wrapped in coarse 
brown linen cloth, but they soon fell to dust : eight interments were found 
arranged in a line from north to south across the area of the round 
church, several other coffins were also brought to light near the western 
door and in other parts of the fabric. The remains of the bishop, whose 
placed at the south-eastern angle of the church, were found 



wrapped in a sheet of lead, phuvd within a cist of Purbeck marl>l< 
described by Mr. Jekyll, in 1811. The elegant bands of trailing- or 
foliated design which ornamented the leaden coffins were formed in the 
operation of casting- the sheets of metal, and appeared to be of the style 
prevalent during the reign of Henry III. The stone coffins were possi- 
bly of rather earlier date. 

W. H. Hatcher, Esq., communicated a Memoir on Old Sarum, in 
illustration of a model of that ancient fortress, formed on a scale of two 
chains to an inch, which had been exhibited at the Annual Meeting of 
the British Archaeological Association, at Canterbury, Sept. 11, 1844. 
The particulars contained in this communication were derived chiefly 
from the detailed researches of Mr. Hatcher's father, his " History 
of Old and New Sarum," and observations made during the drought in 
the autumn of the year 1834 : at that time the foundations of the ancient 
Cathedral, erected by Bishop Osmund, and used for the services of the 
church until A.D. 1331, had been accurately surveyed. 

The first portion of a dissertation was then read, entitled, Observa- 
tions on the succession to the Barony of William of Arques, during the 
period between the Conquest and the reign of John ; by Thomas Staple- 
ton, Esq., F.S.A. This paper was brought before the meeting of the 
British Archological Association at Canterbury, in September last, 
and had been communicated to the Society by the Central Committee 
of the Association. It related to certain facts which had hitherto been 
left unnoticed by the historians of Kent. William of Arques, son of 
Godfridus, Vicomte of Arques, a Norman baron, who derived his appel- 
lation from the bourg and Vicomte of that name, near Dieppe, is named 
in Domesday as tenant of Fulchestan, in Kent, and of the manors of 
Clopton and Brandeston, in Suffolk. It may also be presumed that the 
William, son of Godfridus, named in Domesday as the tenant of certain 
messuages at Dovor, is identical with the William, baron of Folkstone. 
William de Arcis, according to the Norman historians, left an only 
daughter, Matildis, wife of William the Chamberlain, surnamed also de 
Tancarville, from his castle at that place. From contemporary evidence, 
however, it appears that he had a second daughter, Emma, who married, 
first, Nigel de Monville, and secondly, Manasses, Count of Guinea, 
and that on the decease of William de Arcis, early in the reign of 
Willjam Rufus, the honour of Folkstone, with all the lands of his fief in 
England, became the inheritance of Emma and her issue, whilst the 
Norman barony devolved on her sister, Matildis, and her descendants. 
In the year 1095, Nigel de Munevilla and his wife Emma, with consent 
of Archbishop Anselm, founded the Priory of Folkstone, as a cell to the 
Abbey of Lonlay in Normandy. At the period of the death of Rufus, 
A.D. 1100, Nigel was living; the precise time of his decease has not 
been ascertained, but in the brief addressed by Henry I. to the Bishop of 
Thetford (Herbert de Lozinga, 1091-1119), respecting the grant by 
Emma to the nuns of Radyngfield, she is styled " Comitissa de Gennes." 
From documents given by Duchesne, in the history of the Counts 
of Guines, it appears that Count Manasses and Emma his wife 
founded at Guines, about A.D. 1117, a monastery of nuns, in honor 
of St. Leonard, to which they gave the church of Newington, near 



96 

Ihtlu-, uith lands and tithes thereto belonging, having obtained the 
sanction ..f William, Archbishop of Canterbury, who succeeded A.D. 
1 123. This property appears in the taxation of Pope Nicolas (A.D. 
1 ) to have been still in the possession of the nuns of Guines. The 
manor of Newington had been comprised in the dower of Beatrix, wife 
of William de Arcis, a portion of whose lands, as it would appear, 
remained, after the death of Nigel de Munevilla, with Emma his relict, 
and in her right were held by her second husband during the reign 
of Henry I. The castle of Folkstone, and the daughter and heiress of 
Nigel, as a ward of the King, were kept in his custody. Manasses, 
Count of Guines, succeeded to Baldwin his father, A.D. 1091, and is 
named with Emma, and their daughter Rosa, in a grant to the church of 
St. Sauveur, at Andres, made by him before the year 1106. He died 
about A.D. 1139 in the monastery at Andres, according to the 
chronicle of that house, Emma his countess surviving him. Rosa, his 
only daughter, wife of Henry, Castellan of Bourbourg, had died in her 
father's life-time, after giving birth to a daughter, Beatrice, who espoused 
Alberic de Ver, eldest son of Alberic, the King's Chamberlain, termed 
by the French historians " Albertus Aper," and " Albericus Aper," 
probably because the Latin words aper and verres, a wild boar, were 
taken as synonymous. It may be supposed that it had been by the 
mediation of her grandmother, the Countess Emma, who dwelt much in 
England, that the heiress of the Count of Guines was thus married. 
Lambert of Ardres relates that, on the death of Count Manasses, Henry 
Castellan of Bourbourg sent to his son-in-law, Albertus Aper, intimat- 
ing his apprehension that the lands of Guines might be treacherously 
seized, unless he should come over from England, and obtain investi- 
ture. Albert accordingly crossed the seas, and, rendering homage to 
Theodoric Count of Flanders, was invested with the Comte of Guines ; 
upon which, leaving his wife with her father, he returned to England. 
Dugdale had erroneously supposed, that Alberic was created an Earl in 
England by the Empress Maud, because he was addressed by her as 
Conies, in a charter, the date of which must be subsequent to 1 141. Ey 
this document, the fact of his marriage at its date with the heiress of 
the Barony of Arques, as well as of the Comte of Guines, appears 
from the following clause : 

u I give and grant to him all the land of William de Abrincis, without 



it, for his service, together with the inheritance and right which he 
claims on the part of his wife, as William de Archis ever held the same." 
Albert continued to use the title of Count of Guines, but never 
returned to that country ; and Beatrice, thus deserted by her husband, 
having obtained a divorce, re-married Baldwin, lord of Ardres, who 
claimed in her right the Comte of Guines, and was invested therewith 
by the Suzerain, the Count of Flanders. The claim of Baldwin was, 
however, contested by Arnold, the son of the Castellan of Gand, and 
nephew of the Count Manasses ; but the decease of Beatrice, shortly 
after her second marriage, put an end to the dispute, and the sovereignty 
of Guines became the right of Arnold, upon whom, as heir-general and 
next of kin, the succession of Manasses both in France and in England 
devolved. Arnold died at his manor of Newington, in Kent, and his 



07 

son Baldwin, Count of Guines, held that place in the reign of Richard 
I., A.D. 1191. In that year Simon de Abrincis, baron of Folkstone, 
and right heir to the entire succession of William de Arcis in England, 
gave 100 marks to have trial at law for certain lands in Kent whereof 
he had been disseized by the Count of Guines ; and so late as the third 
year of King John this Simon appears to have been a debtor for a palfrey, 
"pro habendo recto versus Comitem de Gisnes, de Niweton." Simon 
was the descendant of Rualon de Abrincis, supposed to be the same as 
Rualon, the Sheriff, to whom, as baron of Folkstone, 10s. are stated in 
the Pipe Roll of 31 Hen. I., 1 130, to hare been remitted. He appears to 
have espoused Matildis, who is designated in her grant to the church of 
St. Andrew, Northampton, in the reign of Stephen, as " de Mundevilla," 
heiress of Nigel de Monville, the first husband of Emma de Arcis, 
before mentioned, and he was succeeded in the barony of Folkstone by 
his son William de Abrincis, before A.D. 1141. 



Thursday, January 16, 1845. 
WILLIAM R. HAMILTON, ESQ., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Frederick Lowry Barnwell, Esq., of Gray's Inn ; George Grant Francis, 
Esq., of Swansea, Glamorganshire, Honorary Librarian of the Royal 
Institution of South Wales, and Keeper of the Coins and Medals ; John 
Kitto, Esq. of Woking, Surrey ; and William Cobham, jun., Esq., of Ware, 
Hertfordshire, were severally balloted for, and duly elected Fellows of 
the Society. 

The Council of the Art-Union of London presented to the Society 
their Almanack for the year 1 845. Thanks were ordered to be returned 
for the same. 

William Roots, Esq., M.D., F.S.A., exhibited a sepulchral urn, with 
a small earthen vessel, recently found at a spot adjacent to the Roman 
encampment on Kingston Hill, and a bronze celt which was discovered 
near Caesar's Camp, in the vicinity of Coombe Wood. The spot where 
these remains were found was perfectly level, and no appearance of any 
tumulus could be perceived in the neighbourhood ; several other urns 
were discovered at the same time, ranged nearly in a row, about 2 ft. 
under the gravel, and embedded in a layer of black mould, which covered 
the natural gravelly soil. The workmen broke them, in the hope of 
finding money, but no coins were to be seen, and one or two of the urns 
contained charred wheat, the grains of which were perfectly preserved ; 
the others were half filled with ashes. The urn exhibited measured in 
height 5 in., the circumference just below the neck, which was some- 
what contracted, I3| in. and the mouth 3 in. and five-eighths in diameter. 
It was formed of coarse brown gritty clay, rudely shaped, without any 
scorings or ornament, and was half-filled with ashes. The smaller vessel 
was shaped like a straight-sided cup, and measured only one inch and 
three- eighths in height; the diameter at top was one inch and seven- 
eighths, being considerably less at the bottom. Eight little knobs were 
formed around it at irregular intervals, and it appeared to have been 
placed either on the top of the larger urn or within it. Several small 



VeaseU trnm-d by Sir Richard Ilo.nv thuribles, and destined, as he 
panotad, tMb,. Mi'-j.ciulrd oM-rtlu- 1'uiirral pilr as receptacles for iingui'iits, 
have been found in barrows in Wiltshire and other parts of England. 
They vary much in form, and none appears to have been found precisely 
similar to the cup exhibited by Dr. Roots. Representations of such 
cups may be seen in the Ancient Wiltshire, Vol. I., pi. 11, 12, 13, 22, 

J5, and 30 ; as also in the Archajologia, Vol. VIII. pi. i., and IX. pi, 
ix. Tlu- o-lt waa discovered in the gravel near to the spot where the 
were found ; it resembled closely in form the specimens discovered 
in the north of England, of which Mr. Lort has given representations in 
the Archax>logia, Vol. V. pi. viii. figs. 4, 6, and those preserved in the 
Goodrich Court Armoury, considered by Sir Samuel Meyrick as battle- 
axes formed on an improved principle. Skelton has given representa- 

a of these weapons, and of the mode whereby, according to Sir 
Samuel Meyrick's supposition, they were adjusted to wooden hafts, in the 
Illustrations of Arms and Armour at Goodrich Court, Vol. I. pi. 47, 
figs. 2, 3. 

Albert Way, Esq., Director, exhibited fac-similes (rubbings made 
with heel-ball upon calico) of two sepulchral brasses preserved in the 
church of Trotton, near Midhurst, Sussex, and communicated by Edward 
Richardson, Esq. The more ancient of these memorials represents 
Margaret, wife of Sir John Camoys, who died 5 Edw. I., and daughter 
and heiress of Sir Thomas Gatesden. She was formally released by her 
husband to Sir William Paynel, with whom she went to live, and sub- 
sequently married him. She died, as Dugdale states, 4 Edward II., 
1310. The figure measures in length 5 ft. 3 in., the robe was curiously 
adorned with small escutcheons, parsemes, or arranged in diagonal rows. 
These were probably enamelled, and, being formed of separate pieces of 
metal, have been picked out, and the casements only are now to be seen 
which were made in the brass to receive them. Another illustration of 
this fashion is supplied by the effigy of a lady now placed under Prince 
Arthur's chantry in Worcester Cathedral; representations have been 
given by Upton (de studio militari) and Hollis. It seems to have been 
more prevalent in France than in our country. An interesting example 
of the armorial surcoat seme with escutcheons in a similar manner, 
exists in Westminster Abbey ; it is the effigy of William de Valence, 
who died A. D. 1296. The following inscription, in large uncial cha* 
meters, runs round the slab, QQSRGSR6T6 : D6 : CffCEOYS : GIST : 
IC1 : D6VS : D : SS : SLODG : GIT : OQ6RCI : SCDGN. The second 
brass commemorated Sir Thomas Camoys, K.G., who died 28 March, 
1419, and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Edmund Mortimer, Earl of 
March, and relict of Sir Henry Perry, called Hotspur. Dugdale states, 
however, that she was daughter and heiress of William de Lonches ; her 
arms, aa here seen impaled, appear to have been those of Mortimer. A good 
engraving of this fine brass has been given in Dallaway's Rape of Chi- 
chester, p. 224. The knight and his lady are represented with their hands 
united ; he wears the garter, and it also encircles the escutcheon of his 

u'-ir mg . an CaHy exalll llt> of the use of the Barter in that manner. 
Ul11 ' Eiq-. U-l> I S.A., exhibited a fac-simile taken 

'' -n limed comnslab found at Hi-lsiup-h Priory, Yorkshire, and now 



69 

placed, with other remains, in the front wall of a farm house recently 
erected on the site. The slab presents the outline of a large sword, and 
a fleur de lys below its point ; it is supposed to have been the memorial 
of Sir Robert de Cockfield, who was buried at Helaugh during the reign 
of Edward I., and whose armorial bearings, according to Glover, were, 
gules, a fleur de lys ermines. He married, as Burton states, in his 
Monasticon Eboracense, the great grand- daughter of Bertram Haget, 
who founded Helaugh Priory, A.D. 1203. 

Sir Samuel Rush Meyrick, F.S.A. communicated observations on a 
cross-legged monumental effigy, supposed by him to represent Sir 
Robert de Mauley, formerly in the north aisle of the choir of York 
Minster. It had been broken to pieces by the fall of timbers during the 
fire in 1829, and the fragments, which were subsequently placed in a 
garden at York, have been removed to Goodrich Court. They suffice 
to show a remarkable peculiarity in the mode of representing mail ; 
proving that a defence a double mcti/le, or double-chain mail, differed 
from single mail. The armour in this instance consists of the coiffe de 
mailles, camail, hauberk, and chausses, with genouilleres and a long 
surcoat. The coiffe, and upper portion of the camail, which would have 
been covered by the heaume, supplying an additional protection, is re- 
presented as composed of mail in rows of single rings. The lower portion 
of the camail, from the chin downwards, the hauberk, and the chausses 
are of double mail, the rings being represented as interlaced in pairs, 
thus rendering the armour a more sure defence where it was most 
required, whilst the inconvenience which would have arisen from the 
weight of mail upon the scull was obviated. No similar example has 
been noticed in the sculptured details of monumental effigies ; on the 
figure of a knight of the De Lisle family in Rampton Church, Cam- 
bridgeshire, of which Stothard has given representations, one row of 
such interlaced double rings may be seen in the camail, at the right side 
of the head. In this instance the details were expressed by painting, of 
which a few portions still remain. Armour "a maille duble" is men- 
tioned in the Tournoiement d'Antechrist, as also in the Chron. of 
Flanders. The tomb of Sir Robert de Mauley was formerly in the 
nave, near one of the southern piers which support the tower, as marked 
m Drake's plan, given in the Eboracum : a drawing of the effigy is pre- 
served in Dugdale's collection of Yorkshire monuments, at the College 
of Arms. Upon the shield which covers the left arm appears the 
bearing of Mauley (de Malo loco, or lacu), a bend charged with three 
eagles displayed, and on the cushions beneath the head of the knight 
were escutcheons of the arms of Fossard ; those of Mulgrave (or, a bend 
sable), assumed by Mauley on marriage with the heiress of Mulgrave, and 
the same with various differences. Sir Samuel, on examination of Vin- 
cent's pedigree, in his collections at the College of Arms, compared 
with the facts recorded concerning the family of Mauley, concludes that 
the effigy was intended to represent Sir Robert, one of the sons of Sir Peter 
de Mauley, who died 7 Edw. I., and brother of Sir Edmund, seneschal of 
the household of Edward II., and governor of the castles of Bridgnorth 
and Bristol, slain at Bannocksbuni. Sir Robert was engaged in the 
Scotish wars during the time of Edward I., and appears to have held 



70 

the office of sheriff nt Roxburgh in the 34th year of that reign ; he died 
in the ivi-.n ,.f IMw.int II. His arms are thus given in the Roll. t. 
Edw. II., edited by Sir H. Nicolas, " Sire Robert de Maulee, de or, a 
une bende de sable, en la bende iij. egles de argent :" the bearing of 
Mauley, with the bend thus differenced, is attributed to Sir Robert in 
other heraldic collections. The true appropriation of this curious effigy 
appears thus to be clearly ascertained. 

The Rev. J. Geary exhibited, by the hands of W. H. Lloyd, Esq., 
1 BJL, a silver ring, found in digging a grave in the churchyard at 
Bolnhurst, Bedfordshire, in 1844. Two figures, supposed to represent 
St. Peter and St. Paul, appeared upon it, and a spiral ornament was 
wrought upon the hoop, a small trace of black enamel being apparent. 
Its date may be assigned to the fifteenth century 

Thursday, January 23, 1845. 
VISCOUNT MAHON, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following presents were offered td the Society, and thanks were 
ordered to oe returned for the same. By Samuel Birch, Esq., F.S.A., 
A Chinese plan of the City of Pekin ; on four sheets. By Merrik 
Hoare, Esq., The History of Modern Wiltshire ; two parts, containing 
the Hundreds of Alderbury and Frustfield ; fol 1845. 

Albert Way, Esq., Director, exhibited a sepulchral Brass, from the 
Church of Banwell, Somerset, communicated by Mr. John G. Waller. 
It represented an ecclesiastic, vested in a cope, and was singular in this 
respect that the clerical tonsure was omitted. By the inscription placed 
beneath the figure, it appeared to have been the memorial of Master John 
Martok, physician, who died A.D. 1503. Traces of colour appeared in 
the incised lines, and the plate appeared to have been cast, not rolled out. 

Charles Stokes, Esq., F.S A., exhibited two singular figures sculptured in 
alalia>ter, of rude and grotesque design ; one of them was discovered in an 
ancient tomb near the town of Naxos, with some marble saucers of various 
sizes, in diam. from 3 to 6 in., containing red paint, and an ivory muller. 
The other was found in a tomb in the small island of Nusa, now called 
Skiuousa, to the southward of Naxos. Figures of this kind have been 
sometimes designated by the term xigillaria 9 and a brief notice of them 
maybe seen in Walpole*s Memoirs relating to Turkey, 2d. edit. 1818, 
. They are supposed to have been symbolic of some deity reve- 
rencvd by the early inhabitants ; some are of very small size, suitable for 
irried about as talismans. Walpole has given an engraved repre- 
sentation of a specimen discovered by Lord Aberdeen in a tomb in 
Attica, and observed that it appeared to belong to a period anterior to 
the times of Daedalus of Sicyon, about 600 B.C. The sigillaria exhi- 
bited were brought from Greece by Capt. Graves. 

The reading of Mr. Suipleton's Memoir on the Succession of William 
"t \rques was resumed. 

The Vice-Preident then gave notice from the Chair, that Thursday 
"i:. -January 30, being the Anniversary of the Martyrdom of King 
Uiei the hrst, according to customary usage, no Meeting of the Society 
would In- held on (be evening of that day. 



71 



Thursday, February 6, 1845 
WILLIAM H. HAMILTON, Esq., Vice- President, in the Chair. 

The following' hooks were presented to the Society, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned for the same. By John B. Nichols, Esq., F.S. A., 
The Gentleman's Magazine, February, 1845. By the Editor, The 
Athenaeum, Part 205. By the Committee of the Society for the En- 
couragement of Arts, Transactions of the Society, Vol. LV., 8vo. 1845. 

Sir William Betham, F.S.A., exhibited several rubbings from Sepul- 
chral Brasses preserved in the Churches of Yoxford and Theberton, 
Suffolk, being memorials of the following families : Tendring, Sydney, 
Hopton, Brooke, Fox, and Pays. 

Charles R. Smith, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited a cast from a fragment of 
antique sculpture, supposed to be of Roman workmanship. It is a hand, 
somewhat larger than the natural size, grasping a patera ; it was found 
at Sibson, near Wansford, Northamptonshire, where portions of several 
large statues of Roman sculpture have been recently discovered by Ed- 
mund T. Artis, Esq., F.S. A., as stated in his communication to the 
Society respecting the Roman potteries, of which remains have been 
brought to light in Northamptonshire, read at the meeting on December 
19. (See page 6(X) The fragment was found by Mr Artis in the 
possession of a clergyman resident near Caistor, and probably is portion 
ef some other statue not yet discovered. It was formed of the stone which 
was quarried on the spot. 

Richard Hollier, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited a bust of a bacchante, formed 
of lead, cased with bronze ; it was of Roman workmanship, very ele- 
gantly designed, destined probably to be used as the weight of .a steel- 
yard, and was discovered recently at Nurseling, near Southampton. The 
weight was exactly 83 oz. or eight Roman pounds ; the eyes were of 
silver, the lips and nipples of copper. 

The Rev. S. Isaacson communicated an account of discoveries of Ro- 
man urns and other remains, at Dymchurch, in Romney Marsh, Kent, 
during the spring of the year 1844 ; illustrated by numerous sketches. 
This paper was read at the meeting of the British Archaeological Asso- 
ciation at Canterbury, Sept. 9, 1844. These remains afford the first 
indication of the existence of any permanent Roman settlement in Rom- 
ney Marsh, a fact which had not been noticed by the Kentish historians; 
there, however, as Mr. Isaacson conjectures, the descent of the Romans, 
according to the account given by Caesar, may possibly have taken place, 
and the first Roman standard have been planted in Britain. The dis- 
covery occurred in consequence of certain changes in the direction of the 
sea-wall, which had become indispensable on account of the encroach- 
ments of the sea towards the western boundaries of Dymchurch. In digging 
soil for these purposes, large quantities of pottery were found, comprising 
beautiful specimens of the ware called " Samian." Objects of domestic 
use, such as querns, mortars, whetstones, and other remains, were likewise 
brought to light. With these occurred some articles of the workmanship 
of later times, especially the haft of a knife, curiously inlaid with silver, 
supposed to be of Saxon workmanship ; and a small enamelled escutcheon, 



7-2 

(date, the twelfth or thirteenth century) intended probably to be ap- 
pended to the trappings of horses. On this appeared the bearing Azure, 
a lion rampant billete or; Mr. Isaacson stated that an escutcheon of 
rather larger size, and of similar workmanship, had recently been found 
at Postling : it was charged with a peacock displayed, the body being of 
white enamel. It appears probable that an ancient pottery existed at 
Dymchurch ; masses of burnt clay, moulds, and articles apparently con- 
IMVNH! with the manufacture of earthenware, were found; the fine 
blue clay found in the neighbourhood was well adapted for such purpose. 
Within a short distance may be seen a bank in which coins were con- 
tinually discovered during many years, and still known as " the Money 
bank." It is singular that amongst the Dymchurch remains have been 
found immense masses of clay pellets, similar to those noticed by Mr. 
Lukis in his Observations on the Primeval Antiquities of the Channel 
Islands. They are small rolls of clay, measuring in length from 3 in. to 
6 in., fashioned with the hand, and flattened at the extremities. See 
Archawl. Journal, I. p. 149. 

William Bromet, Esq., M.D., F.S.A., exhibited a rubbing taken from 
the incised slab of marble, now preserved at the Museum of Avignon, 
and originally placed as the sepulchral memorial of Raimond, Comte de 
Beaufort, called the " fleau de Provence :" he died A.D. 1420. Over 
the armour is represented the armorial tabard, the sword hanging dia- 
gonally behind the figure ; and the dagger at the right side. The hands 
are crossed upon the breast, instead of being joined together in the ges- 
ture of supplication as usually seen in English monumental effigies. 

The reading of Mr. Stapleton's Memoir on the Succession of William 
of Arques was then concluded. 



Thursday, February 13, 1845. 
HENRY HALLAM, Esq., Vice-president, in the Chain 

The following books and prints were presented to the Society, and 
thanks were ordered to be returned for the same: By the Royal 
Academy of Sciences at Rouen, Precis Analytique de ses travaux 
pendant 1'annee 1844, 8vo. By Thomas Windus, Esq., F.S.A., Four 
coloured representations of the Portland Vase. By George Graham, 
Esq., Registrar-General, The Sixth Annual Report of Births, Deaths, 
and Marriages in England, fol. 1844. 

Samuel Birch, Esq , F.S.A., communicated a note on a vase of fine 

ware, with red figures upon a black ground, purchased from the Princess 

de Canino by the Trustees of the British Museum. On one side is 

represented a youth leading a horse in each hand ; over the figure is 

inscribed, in Greek characters, Plexippus ; and as the subject does not 

Nrd with any of the myths relative to the two Plexippi, Mr. Birch 

iders it to represent Pelops, with the epithet Plexippus, the driver, 

him by Homer. The allusion, as Mr. Birch remarked, appears 

to the contest of Pelops with (Enomaus ; and although it is 

MMDv represented as having taken place with quadriga, there are 

sons tor supposing that, according to another tradition, the 



race was performed in a biga, and that the horses portrayed upon this 
vase may be regarded as the celebrated steeds bestowed upon Pelops by 
1'osoidon. 

The Very Rev. the Dean of Hereford, F.S.A., communicated a 
description of the remains of a Roman Villa discovered at Acton Scott, 
near Church Stretton, in Shropshire, by Mrs. Frances Stackhouse Acton, 
with a series of sketches and ground-plans designed by her, in illustra- 
tion of her descriptive remarks. The spot is situated about three 
quarters of a mile eastward of the Watling-street, leading from Wroxe- 
ter to Leintwardirie and Kenchester. Another line of Roman road is 
described by Mr. Hartshorne in the " Salopia Antiqua," as leading from 
Nordy Bank to Wroxeter, which at Wall passes within four miles of 
Acton Scott to the westward. The nearest Roman station was at Norton 
Camp, adjoining to the Watling-street, about six miles to the south of 
Acton Scott. The first discovery of Roman remains took place in 1817, 
in changing the course of the parish road which led from the Watling- 
street to Wall ; a floor formed of concrete, 2 feet in thickness, 
covered with flags, as also some foundations, were at that time brought 
to light. During the month of July, 1844, excavations were made 
which led to further discoveries, and several small chambers were traced, 
the floors of which had been formed with tiles laid upon brick piers, 
according to the usual mode of constructing a hypocaust. The arrange- 
ment of some parts of the flues was also ascertained. Portions of 
plaster were found, on which appeared traces of the decorative painting 
of the walls, the colours being red and dingy purple ; fragments of pot- 
tery, bones, oyster shells, and a number of tiles were also discovered ; some 
tiles had both sides recurved on one of their faces, similar to those which 
were noticed by Gen. Roy as having been found at Netherby. On some 
of the fragments of tile there appeared impressions from the feet of 
animals, and from caligcs thickly studded with nails. The foundation 
walls were formed of the sand-stone of the district, their height being 
about 20 in., the thickness from 18 in. to 2 ft. 3 in., and they were level at 
top. There were no indications to shew the nature of the superstructure ; 
a large quantity of travertine, with mortar attached to it, and fragments 
of tile, was found in the soil. A key, spur, portion of a horse-shoe, 
and some trifling objects were brought to light, with the following small 
brass coins - One of Neapolis, two of Smyrna, one of Andros in the 
^Egean Sea, an Egyptian coin of Antiochus VIII. and his mother 
Cleopatra, and one of Parium in Lycia. Great doubt has been enter- 
tained in regard to the fact of the discovery of such coins in England, 
but Mrs. Scott is persuaded that in this instance no imposition was 
practised. 

An account of the Church of East Wickham, Kent, was then read, 
supplied by George B. Wollaston, Esq. It is a building of small di- 
mensions, the earlier portions of which were erected, as Mr. Wollaston 
conjectured, by Robert Burnett, bishop of Bath and Wells, who pos- 
sessed the manor during the reign of Edward I. The whole of the 
interior had been elaborately decorated with mural paintings, of the 
period at which the erection is conjectured to have taken place, about the 
close of the thirteenth century. The subjects were taken chiefly from 



74 

the life of our Saviour, and were designed with considerable ability ; the 
colouring in muny parts being still remarkably vivid. They comprised 
the Salutation, the Flight into Egypt, the Holy Family, Our Saviour 
before Caiaphas, St. Michael, and other subjects unknown, painted either 
on a red or a blue ground. The white-wash which concealed these curious 
paintings was removed by Mr. Wollaston, and careful drawings made, 
which were exhibited at the meeting of the Archaeological Association 
at Canterbury, September 1 1, 1844. Endeavours were subsequently 
made for their preservation, and the Ven. Archdeacon Burney, having 
taken an interest in the matter, addressed a letter on the subject to the 
Bi-hop of Rochester, who in consequence visited the church, accom- 
panied by the Archdeacon. The paintings, which were in a very imper- 
fect state of preservation, were however ultimately destroyed ; the draw- 
ings executed by Mr. Wollaston, and exhibited to the Society of Anti- 
quaries on this occasion, form the only memorial of theif design. There 
are a few sepulchral remains and brasses in East Wickham Church, 
amongst which a cross flory may deserve notice ; it encircles busts of a 
man and his wife, with the inscription JOHAN D BLADIGDONA 
6T CHAVD SVA CONIVX. 



Thursday, February 20, 1845* 
WILLIAM R. HAMILTON, Esq. Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following books were presented to the Society, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned for the same. By Jabez Allies, Esq. F.S.A., 
The Jovial Hunter of Bromsgrove, 8vo. 1845. By Monsieur Ed. Lam- 
bert, Essai sur la Numismatique Gauloise du Nord-Ouest de la France, 
4to. 1844. 

Charles Roach Smith, Esq. F.S.A.> exhibited a drawing of a remark- 
able Roman vessel of glass, recently discovered near Shefford, Bedford- 
shire, communicated by John Hervey, Esq. of Ickwell, with descriptive 
remarks by Mr. Thomas Inskip. The vase is of very elegant form, with 
a long narrow neck, a handle on one side, and is of the colour of pale port 
wine. It was discovered with two other glass vessels at the side of two 
skeletons, deposited in the church field, Northill, about one furlong from 
the residence or Mr. Hervey. Mr. Smith also exhibited four Saxon 
fibulae of bronze, discovered at Badby, Northamptonshire, by the Rev. 
E. G. Walford, Rector of Chipping Warden. Several skeletons were 
disinterred at the spot where these ornaments were found ; they were 
placed north and south ; swords, spear-heads, bosses of shields and other 
small objects had been deposited with these remains, but search was 
made in vain for coins, to indicate their date. Some of these relics 
were subsequently in the collection of Northamptonshire Antiquities 
formed by George Baker, Esq. 

-mith communicated also a letterfrom Mr. Joseph Fairless, of Hex- 
ham, in relation to a stone altar which still exists in the Abbey Church 

that place ; it stands at the eastern end of an oratory ; the slab which 

'!" t.,p ,,f the altar is marked with five crosses; the front is 

julptured with a figure of St. James the less; near this, in a cavity or 






75 

niehe, appears on one side an ape, making a gesture of derision, and on 
the opposite ?idr u hurr. Over the altar are three painted panels, mea- 
suring 3 ft. 10 in. by 18 in. ; the subjects of these decorations are, in the 
centre, St. Andrew, in whose honour the church was dedicated, St. Peter, 
and St. Paul. Beneath these is placed a long panel 5 ft. by 2 ft. divided 
into three compartments, in which are portrayed the Saviour, as the 
Man of Sorrows, and the symbols of the Passion. On the ceiling of 
the chantry, in which this altar is preserved, appears an escutcheon 
charged with a cross formed by the letters $ t a device which is to 
be seen in several parts of the Abbey .church. 

Samuel Shepherd, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited rubbings of several sepul- 
chral brasses preserved in the Abbey church at St. Alban's, which 
exhibit the monastic habits of the Benedictine Order. One of them 
appeared to have been the memorial of Robert Beauner, cook to the 
monastery. 

Mr. W. G. Rogers sent for the inspection of the Society an elaborate 
specimen of English iron work : it had been attached to one of the doors 
at Hampton Court Palace, and was so contrived as to enable a person 
to see from within the person who demanded entrance. A mixture of 
Italianised ornament, or of the style termed of the renaissance, appears 
even in these minor decorations of the period when this structure was 
erected by Cardinal Wolsey, about the year 1515. Mr. Rogers sent 
also a small medallion of box wood exquisitely carved, representing the 
portrait of a German divine; date about A.D. 1510. 

Samuel Birch, Esq., communicated some observations on the historical 
monument of Amenophis III., preserved in the Louvre at Paris. It is 
the pedestal of a monolith colossal statue, and is formed of rose-coloured 
or syenitic granate ; the feet of the figure still remain upon the upper 
face of the block, and the inscription shows that it represented Ameno- 
phis, whose name and titles appear immediately before the feet. Around 
the pedestal are figures of several nations and tribes, twenty-six in 
number, inimical to the Egyptians, and inhabitants of the regions on the 
southern frontier. Their names differ from the monuments hitherto 
published recording the conquests of Amenophis. They appear to have 
been exclusively negroes, and are represented as captives, forming two 
files, each of which faces the centre of the pedestal. This monument 
supplies a considerable addition to the list of the tribes of ./Ethiopia, 
over which the conquests of that prince extended; it is during his 
reign that the first evidences are found relating to the princes of Kesh, 
or ^Ethiopia, the Cush of Scripture, appointed as viceroys, and possibly of 
native extraction. 

Samuel Solly, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited a coloured drawing of a sword, 
discovered in a barrow near Bere Regis, Dorsetshire. 

It was then moved by John Lee, Esq., LL.D., and seconded by W. D. 
Saull, Esq., that " An ordinary meeting of the Antiquarian Society of 
London having been suspended on the evening of January 30 last, in 
consequence of the celebration of the Fast of the death of King 
Charles I. on that day, and as no statute or bye-law of the Society has 
reference to this subject, no meeting of the Antiquarian Society of 
London be suspended in future, on January 30, out of deference to the 



76 

event." ThU motion lm\inir 1,,.,-n formally mid from 
tlu- I 'hair, it was ordered that the ballot thereupon be taken on Thursday, 
27th iii>tant. 

Thursday, February 27, 1845. 
THOMAS AMYOT, Esq., Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The Treasurer read for the second time (visitors not being admitted) 
the motion of which notice had been given at the previous meeting by 
John Lee, Esq., LL.D. ; whereupon after some discussion the said 
motion was ultimately withdrawn by Dr. Lee, and recommended by 
him to the consideration of the Council. It was subsequently determined 
by the Council, in consideration that the Royal Society no longer 
observe the custom of holding no meeting on January 30, when that 
day falls on a Thursday, that henceforth the ordinary meetings of the 
Society of Antiquaries shall not be interrupted on that occasion. 

The following books were presented to the Society, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned for the same: By Sir John Herschel, Bart., 
Memoirs of Francis Baily, Esq., 8vo. 1845. By C. H. Cooper, Esq., 
Annals of the University and Town of Cambridge ; Parts 16 24 ; 8vo. 
By Mons. Lecointre-Dupont, Memoires de la Societe des Antiquaries 
de 1'Oueat, 8vo. 1842, 1843. Essai sur les Monnaies du Poitou ; 8vo. 
1840. By the Society of Antiquaries of Picardy, Bulletin de la So- 
ci6te des Antiquaries de Picardie, No. 1, 8vo. 1844. By the Royal 
Agricultural Society of England, their Journal, Vol. V., Part 2, 8vo., 
1845. By John Evan Thomas, Esq., Pedigree and Arms of Sir Peter 
Gunter ; Printed for private distribution. By Edward Vernon Utter- 
son, Esq., F.S.A., eleven volumes, consisting of reprints of rare pieces of 
old English poetry, several of them being from unique copies ; Zepheria, 
4to. 1594; Cynthia, and the Legend of Cassandra, 8vo. 1595; Chris- 
toleros, Seven Books of Epigrams, written by T. B., 8vo. 1598 ; Looke 
to it, for Tie stabbe ye, 4to. 1604; A Knave of Clubbs, 4to. 1611 ; 
The Knave of Hearts, 4to. 1613; The Melancholic Knight, 4to. 1615 ; 
Certain Elegies, done by sundrie excellent Wits, with Satyrs and 
Epigrams, 8vo. 1620; The Night Raven, by S. R., 4to. 1620; Good 
Newes and Bad Newes, by S. R., 4to. 1622*; More Knaves yet? The 
Knaves of Spades and Diamonds, 4to. 

Lord Albert Conyngham, F.S.A., exhibited a curiously ornamented 
gun-lock recently purchased by him. There was a device introduced 
amongst the decorations which bore a close resemblance to the givre of 
the Visconti family, as displayed on the surcoat of the equestrian statue 
of Bernabo Visconti, at Milan, of which a representation is given in 
ArcluBologia, Vol. XVIII. 

George Bowyer, Esq., F.S.A., sent for exhibition a sculptured stone 
hand, recently discovered in the course of excavations for sewerage in 
Chancery Lane, It appears to grasp the hilt of a sword, and probably 
WM part of some colossal figure. It is now in the possession of the 
Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn. 



77 



Thursday, March 6, 1845. 
WILLIAM R. HAMILTON, Esq. Vice- President, in the Chair. 

Henry Vint, Esq., of St. Mary's Lodge, Colchester, was balloted for, 
and duly elected a Fellow of the Society. 

The following books were presented to the Society, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned for the same : By the Editor, The Athenaeum, 
Part 206. By George Godwin, Esq., F.S.A., The Builder, Vol. III. 
Part 2, fol. 1845. By George Stephens, Esq., The Legend of St. 
George and the Dragon, in old Swedish verse, composed about A. D. 
1430; 8vo. 1844. 

Richard Almack, Esq., F.S.A., presented a rubbing from a brass in 
the Church of Lordsborough, Yorkshire, commemorative of Margaret, 
daughter and heiress of Henry Lord Bromflet and Vescy, widow of John 
the " black faced," or " butcher," Lord Clifford, who slaughtered the 
Yorkists, and stabbed, as it is said, the young Earl of Rutland after the 
battle of Wakefield. She re-married Sir Lancelot Threlkeld, and from 
her, through the Cliffords and Boyles, the Duke of Devonshire, to whom 
Lordsborough now belongs, is descended. 

The Rev. Thomas Peyton Slapp, of Attleburgh, Norfolk, presented a 
lithographic representation of celts and implements of bronze found at 
Carlton Rode, Norfolk, March 12, 1844. The discovery was remark- 
able on this account, that with the implements usually termed celts, were 
found, in this instance, bronze chisels, pointed tools, gouges, and in- 
struments evidently formed for mechanical use. A few fragments of 
celts cut into pieces, as if for greater facility in melting the metal, were 
discovered at the same time. 

Albert Way, Esq., Director, exhibited a fac-simile representation of an 
incised slab, existing in the chancel of the church of Avenbury, near 
Bromyard, Worcestershire. It represents a warrior armed in the hau- 
berk and chausses of mail, with a plain shield on his left arm, and cross- 
legged. The slab is of gritty sandstone, and the design is in consequence 
rudely expressed. Possibly this effigy may commemorate Walter de 
Avenbury, who held a fee in the manor, under the Earl of Hereford, as 
stated in the Testa de Nevill. No other cross-legged effigy incised on a 
slab of stone had hitherto been noticed, with the exception of the memo- 
rial discovered in 1826 at Bitton, near Bath, which is partially sculptured 
in low relief. Sepulchral memorials of this nature have been scarcely 
noticed, although numerous examples of various periods exist in England ; 
and the Avenbury figure deserves' notice as an early specimen of incised 
tombs, especially on account of the cross-legged attitude of the figure. 
Cross-legged effigies of wood or stone sculptured in high relief are com- 
mon in England, although in Scotland and on the Continent no such 
figure has been noticed : In Ireland two crossed-legged effigies are known 
to exist, as likewise three at Cashel which represent females. A cross- 
legged female figure was also formerly preserved in a chapel adjoining 
the Church of Howden, Yorkshire. Six sepulchral Brasses, representing 
knights in the cross-legged attitude, have been noticed as still existing, 
and six more were formerly to be seen in Norfolk and the neighbouring 



76 



rountirs. Th- rurioux -roxs-U'ggfd figure at Bitton, discovered by the 
i; v . II. Kliacombe. F.S.A., is supposed by him to be the portraiture of 
Sir Walter de Bitton. who died 12 Hen. III. (1227-8) father of Thomas 
de Bitton. Hi shop of Exeter. The head, shield, and portions of the upper 
part of this effigy, are in very low relief, the lower limbs being expressed 
by incised lines. The shield is charged with the bearing of Bitton, a 
plain fess, and is laid upon the body of the figure, the right hand being 
brought over it. Mr. Way noticed numerous other incised slabs which 
are to be found in various parts of England, forming a series from the 
thirteenth century, coeval with the introduction of Sepulchral Brasses, 
until the time when tombs of that description ceased to be in fashion. 
Incised memorials, both of metal or stone, were probably executed by the 
same artificers, and examples of either kind exhibit much similarity in the 
general style of design and decoration. 

Robert Porrett, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited a series of specimens illustra- 
tive of progressive improvements in the construction of gun-locks, ac- 
companied by explanatory observations. The earliest portable fire-arms, 
or hand-cannon, mounted on rude stocks, were invented about A.D. 
1430, and discharged by a burning match held in the hand; some of these 
primitive pieces are preserved in the armouries at the Tower and Good- 
rich Court, The inconveniences arising from this method occasioned the 
invention of the match-lock, about fifty years subsequently ; this contri- 
vance consisted of a curved lock, or serpentine, in which the burning 
match was held, and by means of a trigger brought into contact with the 
priming. It was not until the close of the reign of Charles II. that the 
use of the match-lock was partially superseded by any improved invention, 
in the English Infantry ; during the reign of William III. the change was 
completed. Match-locks are still used by the Chinese and some of the 
native Indian troops. About A.D. 1520 the wheel-lock was invented, and 
brought into use in England : this contrivance dispensed with the lighted 
match, producing fire by the friction of a grooved wheel of steel against 
a piece of pyrites, which, was held in place by a cock or dog. On ac- 
count of the more costly and complicated nature of the mechanism it 
appears that the wheel-lock was never generally used in the army ; it was 
universally adopted by sportsmen, by the gentry, and afterwards by Cavalry 
Troopers. Occasionally locks thus contrived were made with two cocks, 
so as to bring a second piece of pyrites into action, in case of the failure 
of the first. The gun-lock exhibited by Lord Albert Conyngham at the 
previous meeting was of this construction. To the wheel-lock succeeded 
the snaphance, or flint-lock, about the year 1630, an invention illustrated 
by a numerous series of specimens exhibited by Mr. Porrett : in some of 
these the pan was covered by a slide, a contrivance superseded by the 
more modern invention which needs no description ; occasionally the 
snaphance and match-lock are found united, as in a specimen exhibited, 
of the times of James II. The percussion lock, used at the present time 
for naval service, closed the interesting series exhibited by Mr. Porrett. 

William Bromet, Esq., M.D., exhibited rubbings from Sepulchral 
Brasses, illustrative of armour worn during the sixteenth century ; and 
one from a memorial of the same kind existing in the Abbey Church at 
St. A I ban's. 



Richard II. Alln:itt, K>(|.. M.I)., F.S.A., exhibited an ancient sword, 
recently found, as it was stated, at Wallingford, Berks. The back of this 
weapon is serrated, the point two-edged, the blade bears the date A.I). 
1603, and it was probably a pioneer's foraging sword of the times of 
Charles I. No serrated swords of this kind, and of so early a date, 
exist in the Tower Armoury, and Mr. Porrett stated that he was not 
aware of the existence of weapons of this nature at that period. Dr. 
Allnatt exhibited also a weapon discovered at Pangbourn, Berks, during 
the progress of the cuttings for the railway. It was found in a grave 
containing human bones, pottery, and Roman coins ; and was contrived, 
as he conjectured, for cutting the reins of the British charioteers. 

Captain W. H. Smyth, R.N., F.S.A., communicated an account of 
numerous Roman remains discovered at Kirkby Thore, near Appleby, 
Westmoreland, and exhibited several objects of curiosity found at that 
place. Few particulars of the military transactions of the Romans in 
Cumberland and Westmoreland are known; those parts of Britain were 
occupied by the Brigantes, a tribe which was the last to submit to the 
invaders, and the Roman power was not established in that district until 
the Brigantes were subdued by Petilius Cerealis, in the time of Vespasian, 
about A.D. 71. In order to promote civilization in the conquered coun- 
try, one of the first means employed by the Romans was the formation 
of lines of communication ; and on that which extended from Carlisle to 
Appleby, the station situated at Kirkby Thore was a post of great 
importance. At that place the ancient track called the Maiden Way 
commenced, crossing the Fells towards Carvorran ; its name, as it is sup- 
posed, was derived from a temple dedicated to Thor there situated. 
Camden supposed Kirkby Thore to have been the ancie'nt Gallagum, but 
Horsley has shewn good evidence for believing it to have been Brovo- 
nacae. The station was placed on an eminence near the river Eden, ad- 
mirably selected, and commanding a ferry ; it appears to have been 
capable of containing from 600 to 1000 men. On the side sloping- 
towards the stream was a village, on the site of which have been disco,- 
vered many remains, such as altars, inscriptions, pavements, coins, and 
pottery. Mr. Machel communicated to the Royal Society some disco- 
veries made there in 1684, as detailed in their Transactions, No. 158. 
In 1838 the ill-constructed bridge over the Troutbeck at Kirkby Thore 
was removed, and in its foundations was discovered a compact mass of 
Roman coins, lares, fibulae, and various ornaments, in large quantities, 
so that the notion has been entertained that this singular conglomerate 
had been formed of the contents of a magazine of such objects, or of an 
artizan's workshop. The coins were mostly of the period between Ves- 
pasian and Alexander Severus, comprising the Britannias of Hadrian and 
Antoninus Pius, and some other coins of great interest Several of the 
lares were of superior workmanship, and the ornaments exhibited great 
variety of form. Of these some specimens were exhibited to the Society 
by Capt. Smyth, especially a fibula in the form of a mounted warrior, 
decorated with enamel. These objects were found in masses of conglo- 
merate, firmly compacted by the oxidation of iron tools and weapons which 
happened to have been intermixed with them. They are now chiefly 



si 



in tin- j.o>srion !' Sir Ge.nye Mu^-ravf, Bart., Miss Atkinson of 
Temple Sowerbv. and Mr. Crosby. 

\\illiam .!. Thorns, Esq., F.S. A., communicated some Observations on 
tin- White Horse of Berkshire, which he proved, by an extract from the 
,:!. i\ ..t' Ahiugdon, to have been in existence as early as the reign 
of II, -s 'the First. Mr. Thorns endeavoured to establish that this 
monument, instead of being, as Mr. Wise supposed, a memorial of a 
great victory obtained by Alfred over the Danes in A.D. 871, was 
rather commemorative of the ancient religion of the county, and of the 
worship of the horse formerly common to the Celtic, Germanic, 
and Sclavonic tribes. In his opinion it is a Saxon monument ; and this 
he sought to prove by reference to the mythological poems of the North, 
and to the well-known passage in the Germania, in which Tacitus de- 
scribes the white horses kept by the Germans in their consecrated groves, 
an account which is fully confirmed by quotations from the Saga of Olaf 
Trygvesson, ^d a remarkable narrative given by Bede in his Church 
History. Mr. Thorns then showed that the extensive downs on which 
this figure is still to be seen were formerly remarkable for groves of ash 
trees with which they were covered, the ash being by the Saxons 
reckoned amongst sacred trees. From these circumstances he drew the 
conclusion that the figure in question was a memorial, formed by the 
Saxons at the time of their conversion to Christianity, of the sacred White 
Horse which there formerly depastured in the sacred grove of ashes. 

This communication was accompanied by a letter from John Yonge 
Akerman, Esq., F.S.A., in which he forwarded to Mr. Thorns a very 
accurate drawing of the White Horse, and expressed his opinion, founded 
upon the frequent occurrence of a similar figure as a type on British 
and Gaulish coins, that it is of Celtic origin; and stated that the 
Marquis de Largy has published a coin of the Belindi, a people of 
Aquitaine, on the reverse of which is a horse, not galloping as on the 
coins alluded to, but standing within a distyle temple, which the Marquis 
supposed to represent the goddess Epona mentioned by Apuleius ; at 
all events it seems to prove that the Gauls worshipped some divinity 
under that form, a fact of which the coin in question is the sole authentic 
evidence. 

Thursday, March 13, 1845. 
HENRY HALLAM, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

In consequence of the sudden death of John Frederick Daniell, Esq., 

Vofessor of Chemistry in King's College, and Foreign Secretary of the 

xaety, whilst attending the Council of that Society, previously 

the ordinary weekly meeting, no communications were read this even- 

ing, in testimony of respect to the Royal Society on the occasion of the 

melancholy loss of such a distinguished member. 

James Cove Jones, ESQ., of the Middle Temple, was balloted for, and 
duly elected a Fellow of the Society. 

Howing hooks were presented to the Society, and thanks were 
1 to be returned for the same : By the Statistical Society of Lon- 



si 

don, Journal oft!). Soei,-t\, Vol. VIII., Part J,Hvo., LS45. By Messrs. 
Madden and Co., Miseellam-a .Kgyptiat a, anno 1842, 4to. 

Notice was then given from the Chair, that the usual time for audit- 
ing 1 the accounts of the Society approaching, the President had nominated 
as Auditors for the year terminating December 31, 1844, the following 
gentlemen : 

Edward, Lord Bishop of Llandaff. 

Algernon, Lord Prudhoe. 

Sir John Rennie, K.nt. 

Sydney Smirke, Esq. 

The Society then adjourned over the Easter recess, to meet again on 
Thursday, April 3. 

Thursday, April 3, 1845. 
THOMAS AMYOT, Esq., Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The following books were presented to the Society, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned for the same : By John B. Nichols, Esq., F S.A., 
The Gentleman's Magazine, April, 1845. By Albert Way, Esq., Di- 
rector, The Archaeological Journal, published under the direction of the 
Central Committee of the British Archaeological Association, No. 5, 
8vo. 1845. By Mr. Alfred John Dunkin, A Report of the substance 
of the several Speeches at the Special General Meeting of the Archaeolo- 
gical Association, March 5, 8vo. 1845. By C. R. Smith, Esq., F.S.A., 
A verbatim Report of the Proceedings at the Special General Meeting 
of the Members of the Archaeological Association, March 5, 8vo. 1845. 
By Dr. Conrad Leemans, Honorary Fellow of the Society, Director of 
the Museum at Leyden, ^Egyptische Monumenten, representations of 
Egyptian Antiquities preserved in the Leyden Collection, Livr. VII. fol. 
By W. D. Saull, Esq., F.S.A., Notitia Britanniae, 8vo., 1845. By the 
Rev. S. R. Maitland, F.S.A., An Index of the English Books printed 
before the year 1600, now preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at 
Lambeth, 8vo., 1845. By John Adolphus, Esq., F.S A., The History 
of England, from the Accession to the death of George III., Vol. VII., 
8vo. 1845. By the Royal Geographical Society of London, Journal of 
the Society, Vol. XIII., Part 2, and Vol. XIV., Part 2, 8vo. By the Rev. 
Richard Hart, The Antiquities of Norfolk, 8vo., 1844. By Thomas 
Wright, Esq., The Archaeological Album, Part 2. 

Edward Hailstone, Esq., F.S. A., communicated a letter addressed to 
him by Samuel Colls, Esq., relating to some early remains noticed 
in Yorkshire, during the progress of the Ordnance Survey; accom- 
panied by a map of the locality, with illustrative plans and sketches of 
the antiquities discovered. This notice related to a range of hills on the 
north-western side of Bradford, which separates the valleys of the Wharfe 
and A ire, formerly peopled by the Brigantes. On these heights are 
found earth-works similar in their general character to those of southern 
Britain, but they differ in certain peculiarities of form, and deserve 
careful examination. A part of this tract of mountain country is known 
by the name of Romald's or Rombald's Moor, suitable by natural position 
either for a strong-hold, or high plaw of sacrifice. To the southward i* 



ft 

the isolated elevation of Haildou Common, in the nami 1 of which a 
tradition may possibly IN- traced of the Beltan fires: upon this hill and 
in the neighbourhood several earth-works are to be noticed, consisting of 
parallel lines of embankment, at intervals of from 50 to 80 feet, inter- 
vd by other similar banks. Here is also seen a circular work, the 
diameter being about 50 feet; near the centre of this Mr. Colls found, 
at a depth of 2 feet below the surface, a rudely fashioned urn filled with 
calcined bones, and a considerable deposit of peat-ashes covered by 
call i.i nl boulders. He noticed also the remains of another similar circle, 
several cairns or heaps of stones, and entrenchments. In a second circle 
in this district, where excavations were made, similar discoveries of bones 
and urns occurred, clearly proving the sepulchral nature of these embank- 
ments. In one urn was found a flint arrow-head. Some larger circles 
were also described, measuring about 93 feet in diameter, and having an 
entrance on either side opposite to each other : an ancient line of road 
passes close to them. Numerous remains of this kind have been left un- 
examined in this part of Yorkshire, the careful investigation of which 
might supply valuable facts for the comparison of the usages of the 
primeval northern and southern tribes. 

George Grant Francis, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited an illuminated Roll, or 
Descent of the Sovereigns of England, embellished with medallion portraits 
from the time of the Conqueror to the reign of Elizabeth, and heraldic 
escutcheons. It measured in length 11 feet 6 inches by 16 inches, and is 
thus entitled, The Geneology of the Kinges of England, Beginningo 
with William, sonne to Robert, Duke of Normandye." The whole is 
arranged as a rose-tree with twining branches ; each portrait is elaborately 
executed on a blue ground, and the name of the limner or herald- painter 
appear* at the foot of the roll, ' John Johnson fecit." 

Sir Henry Ellis, Secretary, laid before the Society a cast from a seal 
of Queen Elizabeth, hitherto undescribed, being the Judicial Seal for the 
Counties of Caermarthen, Glamorgan, and Pembroke, communicated bv 
Mr. John Doubleday. It measures in diameter 2 inches and 8-10ths*; 
on the obverse is represented a figure of the Queen on horseback, seated 
ide-uays on a kind of pillion, so that her person faces the spectator. 

e holds the bridle with her right hand, and bears a sceptre in her left, 
l*e mid, in the field of the seal appears a portcullis crowned. The 
, ..iTSf ' nsm P tion runs round t^ margin, ELIZABETHA : DEI : 

Mm nSV ANCIE ; ET: HIBERNIE: REGINA : 

>LI : DEtENSOR. On the reverse is a shield surmounted by an 

al crown, and charged with the bearings of France and England, 

quarterly, supported on the dexter side by a dragon, and on the sinister 

nde by an animal with recurved horns like a goat. Beneath is seen the 

nple plume, w,th the motto 1C : DIEN:, and this inscription surrounds 

M%'ATMU * : , ?J^ E : DOMIN E : REGINE : PRO : CO- 
JA1IBVS : CAMERTHEX : GLAMORGAN : & : PEM- 
15KUK. 



Alfred J. Kempe Esq F.S.A., exhibited rubbings of two sepulchral 

vTV r g '^ C ChUrCh f Herne ' near Cantertmrv, communicated 

1 ** "t Mnn was the memorial of John barley, curate of 

'"'"'I -,."/,". Wckwoins to imply ^degree of a bachelor. 



The otln-r recorded I ho death of Elizabeth, \\ife of John l ; \neu\ ; vlie died 
2'2d August, 1539. These memorials were described as having been 
overlooked by the Topographers of Kent. 

William H. Rosser, K<q.. F.S.A., exhibited an instrument contrived, 
as he conjectured, for protecting the touch-powder on the top of the gun- 
barrel, and having a sharp end to be fixed into the stock behind thr 
breech. The guard or cover was secured by a powerful spring, and when 
this was removed, the match was applied by the hand. The earliest 
hand-guns had the touch-hole not at the side of the barrel, but placed as 
it is in cannon ; the iron hand-cannon, of the times of Henry VI., pre- 
served in the Goodrich Court Armoury, is thus constructed. Tin- 
powder thus placed was liable to be blown away or shaken out, and to 
obviate this inconvenience the touch-hole was formed at the side, with a 
Email pan under it. This pan was at first unprotected by any cover. 
Mr. Rosser exhibited also a wheel-lock pistol, with three locks attached 
one before the other to one barrel, so that three charges must have been 
rammed into the barrel, separated only by the wadding. 

Samuel Ware, Esq., F.S.A., communicated a notice of the recent 
discovery of nineteen bronze battle-axe heads, by some labourers employed 
in a stone pit on his property, at Postlingford Hall, near Clare, Suffolk ; 
they were of various sizes, the largest weighed 1-^lb., and the smallest 
rather less than lib. Several of them were ornamented with engraved 
lines, punctures, and the zigzag pattern which frequently is seen on the 
more ancient sepulchral urns. In form they bore some resemblance to the 
specimen represented in Archaeol. V. pi. VIII. fig. 14, and described by 
Mr. Lort, not being furnished with any socket or ring for the purpose of 
attachment to the haft, but formed at one extremity with a broad cutting 
odgr, like an axe, and tapering off at the other extremity, which terminates 
in the shape of a round-edged chisel. Mr. Ware has subsequently pre- 
sented several of these curious weapons to the British Museum. 



Thursday, April 10, 1845. 
VISCOUNT MAHON, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following Resolution of the Council was read by the Secretary. 
At a Council holden on Thursday, April 10, 1845, at 3 p.m., llenrx 
Hallam, Esq., V.P., in the Chair : 

The subject of the arrears due from several Fellows of the Society of 
Antiquaries of London having been taken into consideration, inasmuch 
as letters have been repeatedly written to the defaulters, which have 
either remained unanswered, or have been met by evasions or refusals of 
payment, so that the said arrears may be considered as irrecoverable, 

Resolved, 

That it be proposed, at the Ordinary Meeting of the Society tlii^ 
evening, that a ballot or ballots be taken next Thursday, April 17, 
for the expulsion of all those whose names have been suspended in 
the Meeting-Room since April 18, 1844, unless their arrears shall 
have been paid before that day. 

Ordered, 

That a copy of this Resolution he suspended in the Meeting-Room of 
the Society. 



I. CUM II. .1. T.nma. IV-M-- A>*i>tant Director of the I'nited Service 
Institution. Whitehall Yard, \va- balloted for, anil duly elected a Fellow 
Socieu. 

following books were presented to the Society, and thanks were 
rdered to In- returned for the same: By the Editor, The Athenaeum, 
15\ the Archaeological Institute at Rome, Bulletino per 
1'aiuio 1S-UJ. < s \<>.; Annali, \'ol. XV. 8vo. ; Monument! Inediti, per 
i ;lll , |,l. 4960, fol. completing the Tliird Volume. By the 

:oty of Antiquaries of Zurich, Mittheihmgen der Antiquarischen 
Gesellschaft in Ziirich ; /writer Band, 4to. 1844 ; Transactions of the 
Society, with numerous plates. By M. Ferdinand Keller, Bauriss des 
Klo- i .alien, a fac-simile of the large ground-plan of the Monas- 

tery of St. Gall. taken in the year 820, with explanatory text by <Fi 
Keller. 4to. Xurich, 1844. By Charles Henry Cooper, Esq. Annals of 
the I'niversity and Town of Cambridge, Parts XXIII XXV. 8vo. By 
W. W. Lloyd, Esq., Xanthian Marbles, the Harpy Monument, a dis- 
quisitional Essay, 8vo. 1S44. tammm 
William Whincopp, Esq. of Woodbridge, Suffolk, exhibited numerous 
ornaments, formed of bronze and other materials, of early British and 
Roman workmanship, discovered in Colchester and various parts of the 
of Essex and Suffolk; also a series of coloured drawings, exe- 
cuted by Henry Aldrich, Esq., which represent urns and specimens of 
pottery of various periods, with implements, and ornaments, the whole 
of which are in Mr. Whincopp's possession. MM i.;n : i^ra 
William Bromet, Esq., M D , F.S.A., exhibited a rubbing taken from 
an incised sepulchral slab, recently discovered in the Abbey Church of 
Selby, Yorkshire. It represents Abbot John Barwic, vested in ponti- 
ficals, his hands united in supplication, and a crosier placed at his right 
side. Around the verge of the slab is the following inscription : '- 
Fato Ingefero jacet hie tellure Johannes 
Dompnus Barwicus opere valde bonus ; 
Bis binis annis pastor laudabile cunctis 
Prabuit exemplum, sic penetratque polum. 

Qui obiit ij. kal. Aprilis, anno domini M.D. xxvj. oujus anime propi- 
cietur Dens. 

The name of this Abbot is given by Dugdale as Bermich, and by 
Burton as Bedwick, on the authority of Cardinal Wolsey's Register. 

John Virtue, Esq., sent for exhibition a wheel -lock gun, of German 
manufacture; the stock was elaborately carved, the barrel and lock 
inlaid witli gold and silver. 

W. W. Lloyd, Esq., communicated an Essay upon the Nereid Monu- 
ment, one of the Xanthian Marbles recently brought into this country by 
Sir Charles Fellowes, a portion of which being read, the remainder *was 
postponed to a future meeting. 

Notice was given from the Chair, that, in pursuance of the Statutes, 
the Anniversary Election of ihr President, Council, and Officers of the 
Society, would take place on St. George's Day, April 23, 1645, the ballot 
to open at two o'clock ; also that, by order of Council, no Fellow should 
living a vote at such Election who was in arrear of more 
than twelve months of his animal contribution. 



Thursday, April 17, 184,3. ;.(! , 
HENRY HALLAM, Esq., Vice-President, in the C'h.-iir. 

The following books were presented to the Society, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned for the same. By the Chancellor am! Council of 
the Duchy of Lancaster, The Charters of tin- Duchy of Lauea-ter, 
translated and edited by William Hardy, Esq., F.S.A., 8vo., 184, r >. By 'I'. 
F. Triebner, Esq., F.S.A., A Letter on sonic Variations from the more 
ancient Liturgies, etc., 8vo., 1844. By J. O. Ilalluvell, Esq., F.S.A.,| 
Illustrations of the Fairy Mythology of A Midsummer's Night's Dream, 
8vo., 1845. Shakspeare's Play of King Henry the Fourth, printed from 
a contemporary Manuscript, 8vo. 1845. By John Gough Nichols, Esq., 
F.S.A., Examples of Encaustic Tiles, Part IV , completing the series, 
4to. 1845. By Charles James Richardson, Esq. F.S.A., The Builder, 
Vol. III. Partl4,fol., 1845. 

The Secretary then read, a second time, the Resolution of the Council, 
and the proposition of the same at the Meeting of the Society on Thurs- 
day Evening, April 10, 1845, relating to the expulsion of those Fellows 
whose names had been suspended in the Meeting Room as Defaulters, 
since April 18, 1844, and whose arrears did not appear to have been 
paid. 

Whereupon the Ballot being taken, it passed in the affirmative, the 
name of the Rev. Thomas Frognall Dibdin, D.D., for whom a separate 
Ballot was demanded, not being included. Ayes 36, Noes 5. 

The following list shewed the Names of the Defaulters so expelled, and 
the extent of their arrears of annual contribution due to the Society, 
when the said list had been first suspended in April, 1844. 

Years. Years. 

William J. A. Abington, Esq. 3 Rev. Robert R. Knott, M.A. 8 
Robert Allen, Esq., M. A. . 13 David Laing, Esq. OT*W . go 
Samuel James Arnold, Esq. . 12 George Landmann, Esq. T i n <8' 
Rev. Francis V. J. Arundel . 28 William W. Mansell, Esq. . 7 
Hervey Robert Addison, Esq. (".fr'^/John Murray, Esq. inf^d . 19 
Henry William Beechey, Esq. 17 James V. Millingen, Esq. . 25 
Charles Tilstone Beke, Esq. . 9 George, Lord Nugent 1 * 2 '*' . 18 
Robert Bigsby, Esq. ni.fo/Tjg'rTj *i Robert Pashley, Esq., M.A. ; . !>1 fl 
William Henry Brooke, Esq. . :6- iRev. William Phelps . K*.'W 
John Bayley, Esq. . . 16 Rev. Edward R. Poole . . 16 

Col. John Blagrave ^aiifl ^ffo .T>'4 Peter Fred. Robinson, Esq. . 9 
Thomas Cooke, Esqjffi lyric l$ anflrfi .Henry B. Richardson, Esq. . 4 
Dudley Costello, Esq^x^Jai If VT ..Joseph J. Skelfon, Esq.,M.D. Ifr 
John James F. Coindet, Esq. 14 George G. Sigmoiid, Esq.,M. D. ''# 
Rev. John Allen Giles, LL,D. 5 James Sampson, Esqyi^'U^ ^ . 7 
Sheffield Grace, Esq., LL.D. . 15 Edmund Turton, Esq'.i"V I .21 
Thomas Havers, jun., Esq. . 3 Major Richard H. Tolson . 19 
John Sympson Jessopp, Esq. . 15 Rev. Thomas Valentine . 30 

Henry Wm. Imvood, Esq. . 4 Willis John Webb, Esq. . 14 
William Jerdan, Esq. . . 16 Rev. Harry B. Wilson, D.D. . 14 
Christopher Irving, Esq.,LL.D. 22 Benjamin Wyatt Esq. . . 14 

The question being then put, That the name of the Rev. Thomas 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 

Some Account of the Collegiate Chapel of St. Stephen, Westminster. By John 
Topham, Esq. F.R.S. with Plans, Elevations, Sections, and Specimens of Architec- 
ture and Ornaments of such parts of it as are now remaining. Additional Plates of 
St. Stephen's Chapel, with descriptive letter-press. By Sir H. C. Englefield, Bart. 
President Price 2/ 

Some Account of the Cathedral Church of Exeter, illustrated by Plans, Eleva- 
tions, and Sections of that Edifice. Price I/. 10*. 

Some Account of the Abbey Church of Bath, illustrated by Plans, Elevations, 
and Sections of that Building. Price I/. I0.v. 

Some Account of the Cathedral Church of Durham, illustrated by Plans, Eleva- 
tions, and Sections of that Edifice. Price 21. 

Some Account of the Cathedral Church of Gloucester, illustrated by Plans, Eleva- 
tions, and Sections of that Building. Price 21. 10.v. 

Some Account of the Abbey Church of St. Alban's, illustrated by Plans, Eleva- 
tions, and Sections of that Edifice. Price 31. 

Magni Rotuli Scaccarii Normannise sub Regibus Anglise ; the Norman Rolls of the 
times of Henry II. and Richard I. Edited by Thomas Stapleton, Esq. F.S.A. 
Octavo. Two Volumes, 1840 44. Price 15*. 

ANGLO-SAXON PUBLICATIONS. 

Metrical Anglo-Saxon paraphrase of parts of the Holy Scriptures, by Caedmon ; 
edited, from a MS. of the tenth Century in the Bodleian Library, by Benjamin 
Thorpe, Esq. F.S.A. Octavo, 1832. Price 6*. 

Fifty Engravings from the MS. of Csedmon's paraphrase, in the Bodleian 
Library, with descriptive Notices by Sir Henry Ellis. Price 5*. This series is 
composed of Plates LII CIV. of the Arcbseologia, Vol. XXIV. 

Codex Exoniensis, a collection of Anglo-Saxon Poetry ; edited from the MS. in 
the Chapter Library at Exeter, by Benjamin Thorpe, Esq. F.S.A. Octavo, 1842. 
Price 8*. 

Conybeare's Illustrations of Anglo-Saxon Poetry. Octavo, 1826. Price 6*. 

PRINTS. 

Le Champ du drop d'or, or the Interview of Henry VIII. and Francis I. 
between Guinea and Ardres, in the year 1520. Price II. 

Francis I.'s attempt to invade England, 1545 ; from a Painting formerly existing 
at Cowdrey in Sussex. Price 12*. 6d. 

The Embarkation of Henry Henry VIII. at'Dover, May 31, 1520, preparatory to 
his interview with the French King, Francis I ; from the original picture preserved 
at Windsor Castle. Price 15*. 

The Procession of Edward VI. from the Tower of London to Westmin- 
ster ; from an ancient Painting formerly at Cowdrey House, Sussex. 

The Departure of Henry VIII. from Calais, July 25, 1844. II. 10*. 

The Encampment of Henry VIII. at Marquison, July, 1544. 

The Siege of Boulogne by Henry VIII. 1544. 

*** To these belong Five Historical Dissertations. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS OF THE VETUSTA MONUMENTA 

VOLUME I. 
The Title and Table of Plates. 

V ^??**, ^ mp ' fcund at St ' Leonard's Hill, near Windsor. 
2. Ulphus's Horn, preserved in York Minster 

Krt t ^j^e.'scjmr C h,w^ 

of Richard II. from an ancient picture formerly in the choir of West- 
T Abbey, and now preserved in the Jerusalem Chamber 



LIST OF PRICES TO THE FEU, OWN. 

5. Three ancient Seals, with their reverses ; the first of Cottingham Abbey, in 

Yorkshire ; the second of Clare Hall, in Cambridge; and the third the Chapter- 
seal of the Church of St. Etheldred, at Ely. 

6. The ruins of Walsingham Priory, in Norfolk. 

7. Waltham Cross. 

8. A Plan of the remaining Walls and City of Verulam, as they were traced in 

1721, by Stukeley. 

9 12. Four Views of the Ruins of Fountains Abbey, in Yorkshire. 
13, 14. Three Views of the Gate of St. Bennet's Abbey, at Holm, in Norfolk. 

15. The Tomb of Robert Colles and Cecily his wife, at Foulsham, in Norfolk. 

16. The Shrine of Edward the Confessor, in Westminster Abbey. 

17. The North Front of the Old Gate at Whitehall, supposed to have been designed 

by Holbein. 

18. The North Front of King-street Gate, Westminster, demolished 1723. 

19. Plans of the two preceding Gates. 

20. Medals of Henry VIII., Edward VI., and James I. Also two medallion For- 

traits of Queen Elizabeth, partially enamelled, one of which, formerly in Sir 

Hans Sloane's collection, is now in the Medal Room at the British Museum. 
2126. The Tournament of King Henry VIII., Feb. 12, 1510; from an ancient 

roll in the Heralds' College. 

27. The Ruins of Furness Abbey in Lancashire, as they appeared in 1727. 
2833. The Barons' Letter in the reign of Edward' I., Feb. 12, 1300, to Pope 

Boniface VIII., with the Seals appendant. 

34. An antique bronze colossal Head, dug up at Bath in 1727. 

35, 36. Three Views of Colchester Castle, in Essex, with the Ground-plot, 1732. 
37, 38. Tables of English gold and silver Coins, showing the several pieces coined 

in each reign. 

39. Tutbury Castle, Staffordshire. 

40. Melbourn Castle, Derbyshire. 

41. Lancaster Castle. 

42. Pontefract Castle, Yorkshire, demolished 1648. 

These four curious views were copied from drawings, taken during the reign of 
Elizabeth, preserved in the Duchy of Lancaster Office. They represent 
these castles in their perfect state. 

43. A gold Seal, or bulla, of Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, son of Henry III., as 

King of Sicily, formerly appended to the Bull of Pope Alexander IV., by 
which the kingdoms of Sicily and Apulia were confirmed to that Prince. 
Gold and silver Coins struck in France and Flanders, relating to the history of 
England. 

44. Knaresborough Castle, in Yorkshire, from a drawing in the Duchy of Lancaster 

Office. 

45. A Portrait of Dr. Tanner, Bishop of St. Asaph. 

46. Tickhill Castle, in Yorkshire, from a drawing in the Duchy of Lancaster Office. 

47. A Map of Roman Roads in Yorkshire, by Francis Drake. 

48. A Roman Tessellated Pavement, found near Cotterstock, in Northamptonshire. 

1736. 

49. St Magdalen's Chapel, adjoining to the Bishop's Palace at Hereford, with a 

plan of the Crypt, 1737. 

5052. Three Roman Tessellated Pavements, found at Wellow, near Bath, 1737. 
53, 54. Ancient Seals of Richard, Constable of Chester, Abingdon Abbey, &c., from 

the Duchy of Lancaster Office. 

55. Gold and Silver Medals of Mary Queen of Scots and Lord Darnley, with others 

of Prince Henry, Charles I., and Queen Anne. 

56. Gold and Silver Coins of several English Kings, Prince Edward, and Queen 

Elizabeth. 

57. A Roman Sudatory, found at Lincoln, 1740. 

5860. Ancient Seals, from the Duchy of Lancaster Office. 

61. Winchester Cross, 1741. 

62. The Decree of the University of Oxford in 1534, against the jurisdiction of the 

Pope in England. 

63. A Plan of the Tower Liberties, from a Survey made in 1597. 

64. Chichester Cross. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 

65. Three representations of Roman Rctiarii, one of which is a sculptured slab, 
found... i;:^ n.-ar Chester. 



found in !.> near v^nesicr. 

66-68 Portrait of Sir Robert Cotton, Bart., with two Plates of fragments of an 
ancient illuminated Greek MS. of the Book of Genesis, and an historical dis- 
sertation thereon. 

69 The Standard of ancient weights and measures, from a Table m the Exchequer. 

70. A View of the Court of Wards and Liveries, as sitting ; with a brief historical 
account of that Court. 

Price of the FIRST Volume of the VETUSTA MONUMENTA, in Sheets, 21. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME II. 

The Title and Table of Plates. 
1, 2. Plans for re-building the City of London, after the great fire in 1666. 

3. A Portrait of Mr. Holmes, Deputy Keeper of the Records in the Tower. 

4. Ancient Deeds and Seals. 

5. A View of the Savoy from the river Thames, 1736. 

6. The Warrant for beheading King Charles I. 

7. An ancient wooden Church at Greensted in Essex, 1748 ; the Shrine of St. Ed- 

mund the King and Martyr, as represented in one of the Harl. MSS. ; and 
the Seal of the Abbot of St. Edmund's Bury, in Suffolk. 

8. Gloucester Cross, 1750. now destroyed. 

9. Three Roman Tessellated Pavements, found at Winterton, in Lincolnshire, 1747, 

with one at Roxby, in the same county. 

10. Doncaster Cross. 

11. Sandal Castle, in Yorkshire, from a drawing taken in the time of Elizabeth. 

12. The Savoy Hospital, in the Strand, with the Chapel. 

13. Clithero Castle, in Yorkshire, from a drawing taken in the time of Elizabeth. 

14. A Plan of the Ground and Buildings in the Savoy, 1736. 

15. 16. A View of the Cathedral Church and Priory of Benedictines, in Canterbury, 

with the effigies of Eadwin, a Monk of that Convent, between the years 1130 
and 1174, both drawn by himself; preserved in a MS. at Trinity Coll. Cam- 
bridge, with a printed account of the said drawings. 

17. An ancient Lamp, two Views; a Vase, and two Bells, all of bronze. 

18. Silenus and a Lamp. 

19. Third Seal of Canterbury Cathedral, and a Mantel-piece at Saffron Walden. 

20. Bronze Trumpets, and other instruments, found in Ireland ; a Buckler fur- 

nished with a central spike, found at Hendinas, in Shropshire ; with an 
explanatory account. 

21. 22. An antique bronze Figure, from the collection of the late Mr. Hollis ; with 

an explanation. 
23, 24. Two Views of the old Palace at Richmond ; with an account thereof. 

25. View of the Palace of Placentia, at Greenwich ; with an account thereof. 

26. The Painted Glass in the East Window of St. Margaret's church, Westminster. 
'. View of the old Palace at Hampton Court. 

27*. View of the old Palace at Hampton Court from the Thames. 
28. Portrait of Dr. Lyttelton, Bishop of Carlisle, mezzotinto. 

Seven Plates of ancient Monuments in Westminster Abbey, viz. : 

29. Front of the Monument of Aveline, Countess of Lancaster. 

30. The recumbent figure of Aveline. 

31. The undervaulting and ornaments of the tomb. 

32. The north front of the Sedilia, commonly called King Sebert's Monument, 

on the south side of the Altar. 

33. The Figures supposed to represent Sebert and Henry III. 

34. Heads and ornaments on Sebert's Monument. 

35. The Tomb of Ann of Cleves. 

36. The Monument of Raherus, in St. Bartholomew's church, West Smithfield. 

37. Specimen* of Architecture in the said church ; with an account thereof. 



LIST OF PRICES TO THE FELLOW s. 

38. Fountain at Rouen, erected on the spot where the Maid of Orleans was burnt. 

39, 40. Font in Winchester cathedral. 

41, 42. Two Views of the Palace of Beaulieu, or New Hall, in Essex, built by 
Henry VIII. 

43. Roman Pavements found in Pittmead, near Warminster, 1786. 

44. Roman Pavements found at Cirencester and Woodchester. 

45. Monument of Cardinal Beaufort in Winchester cathedral. 

46. Monument of Bishop Wainflete in Winchester cathedral. 

47. Figures of Cardinal Beaufort and Bishop Wainflete, on their monuments; 

48. 49. Parts and Ornaments of the Monuments of Cardinal Beaufort, Bishop 

Wainflete, and Bishop Fox. 

50. Monument of Bishop Fox in Winchester cathedral. 

51, 52. Two Views of an Enamelled Reliquary of Limoges work, formerly in the 

possession of Thomas Astle, Esq. 

53. Monument of Henry Bourgchier, the first Earl of Essex of that family, and 

of Isabel Plantagenet, his wife, in the church of Little Easton, Essex. 

54, 55. Ruthvel Cross, in Annandale. 

Price of the SECOND Volume of the VETUSTA MONUMEXTA, in Sheets, 2/. 10*. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME III. 

.rnkl/-. /Tudno'K/-U>1o wufo.'iyl rul) 1o eoJull vjiiTT .81 
Title and Table of Plates. 

1, 2, 3. Three Views of St. Magdalen's chapel, near Winchester, the mural 
paintings, &c., taken 1788, with an historical account. It has since been 
demolished. Antiquities and Urns found near Winchester, 1789. 
4, 5. Chancel and Sedilia of Chatham church, Kent ; Sedilia in Tiltey church, 
Kent, and in the choir of Rochester cathedral. 

6. View of Wainflete's School, Lincolnshire, and monument of Richard Patten, 

father of Bishop Wainflete. 

7. The Vault and Body of Edward IV. at Windsor, opened in 1789; with an 

account by Mr. Emlyn and Dr. Lind. 

8. Monument of Edward IV. at Windsor. 

9. Plan and Elevation of the Rood-loft in St. George's Chapel at Windsor, taken 

down 1789. 

10. 11. Elevations and Plans of the west front of Lincoln Minster. 
12 17. Six Plates of Crosses erected in memory of Queen Eleanor. 

12, 13. Queen's Cross, near Northampton, with Figures and Ornaments 

on it. 

14, 15. Geddington Cross, with Figures and Ornaments on it. 
16, 17. Waltham Cross, with Figures and Ornaments on it. 

1824. The Funeral Procession of Queen Elizabeth, from a drawing by W. Cam- 
den, now in the British Museum. 

All the above Plates are accompanied with descriptions. 
25. Fonts at Ufford and Sudbury, Suffolk ; with their richly carved covers of 

shrine- work. 
26 30. Five Plates of Seals of Kings, Magnates, and Royal Boroughs of Scotland ; 

with an account by Mr. Astle. 
3132. Two Plates of "Holy Sepulchres" at Northwold and Heckington, with 

descriptions. 
.33 37. Five Plates, containing six Views of Cowdrey House, with an aceount. 

38. Chimney-piece in the Episcopal Palace at Exeter, erected by Bishop Peter 

Courtenay, 1486. 

39. Tessellated Pavement discovered 1794, at Colchester, with a description. 
4044. Five Plates of Hedingham Castle, Essex, with an account of the same. 

Price of the THIRD Volume of the VETUSTA MOXUMEXTA, in Sheets, 3/., or the 
three Volumes together, in Sheets, with an Index, fi/. 6. 



PUBLIC -XII. \< <U TIM MUriKTV OF ANTIQUARIES. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME IV. 

Title and Table of Plates. 

1, 2, 3, 4. Figures of an antique Helmet, a Mask of bronze, and other Antiquities, 
discovered at Ribchester, in Lancashire ; with an account thereof, by 
Charles Towneley, Esq. 
5, 6, 7. Hieroglyphic, Egyptian, and Greek Inscriptions on the Rosetta Stone, now 

in the British Museum. 

Professor Person's Emendation of the Rosetta Inscription. 

8, 9. Figures of ancient enamelled Basins, or Dishes, coloured after the originals, 
formerly in the possession of Francis Douce, Esq., and now in Sir Samuel 
Meyrick's collection at Goodrich Court, with descriptions. 
10. Plan of Cesar's Camp at Holwood, in Kent, surveyed 1790. 
11 15. Five Plates of an antique Statue of bronze, discovered in Suffolk, formerly 
in the possession of the Earl of Ashburnham, aud now in the British 
Museum. 

16 20. Five Plates, representing the Death and Obsequies of John Islip, Abbot of 
Westmiuster, who died 1532, taken from a Mortuary Roll, or Titulus ; 
with an account thereof. 
2123. Three Plates of the Porta Honoris (one of the entrances to Caius College), 

erected 1573 ; with an account thereof. 

2427. Four Plates of Wo Iterton Manor-house, Norfolk, with an account thereof. 
28 35. Eight Plates of the Remains of Glastonbury Abbey, and the George Inn 

there. 

36 38. Three Plates of the Kitchen of Glastonbury Abbey. 
3952. Plans, Views, Elevations, and Sections of the Tower of London. 

Price of the FOURTH Volume of the VETUSTA. MONUMENT A, in Sheets, 3. 10*. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME V. 

19. Plan, Elevations, and Sections of Malinsbury Abbey Church. 

1018. Plans, Elevations, and Sections of the Castle of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

25. Plans, Elevations, Sections, &c. of the Temple Church, London. 
2632. Four Views of a Roman Helmet found near Tring, Hertfordshire; a gold 

Breast-plate, two gold Torques, and a gold Bracelet, found in Ireland ; 

an ivory Diptych now in the British Museum ; and four views of a gold 

Ornament found in Mexico. 
3346. Plans, Elevations, and Sections of the Abbey Church of Tewkesbury ; with 

a description, by Thomas Amyot, Esq. 

47. Plan of the ancient Palace of Westminster ; with description. 

48, 49. Obelisk at Forres, in North Britain ; with description. 

50. Ancient Swords of State belonging to the Earldom of Chester, now in the 

British Museum ; with descriptions by George Ormerod, Esq 
5160. Plan, Views, and Ornaments of the Abbey of St. Mary, at York; with a 

description by the Rev. Charles Wellbeloved. 
61-65. Plan, and Views of the Church of St. Mary-le-Bow, with descriptive 

observation* by George Gwilt, Esq. 

PUn and Section of the Chancel and Crypt at St. Peter's in the East, Oxford. 
69. Plan and Views of Remains discovered amongst the Ruins of the Abbey of 

Evwham ; with a memoir by Edward John Rudge, Esq. 
Price of the Firm Volume of the V.TUSTA MONUMBNTA, in Sheets, 3/. 



LIST OF PKICE* TO THE FELLOWS. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME VI. 



117. The Tapestry preserved at Bayeux, drawn by Charles Stothard, 
and coloured according to the original 

uncoloured 

1825. The Louterel Psalter; with an account of the MS. and illumi- 
nations therein contained ; by John Gage Rokewode, Esq. 
2639. The Painted Chamber at Westminster ; representations of the 
mural paintings, now destroyed, taken from drawings by 
Charles Stothard ; with description and remarks on the art of 
painting in early times ; by John Gage Rokewode, Esq. - 



Price. 

. d. 

300 
1 10 

15 



200 



PRINTS ENGRAVED BY VERTUE, 

NOW THE PROPERTY OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 

A Plan of London in Queen Elizabeth's time, copied by Vertue, 1748, 

in 8 Plates . 

View of St. Thomas's Chapel on London Bridge, 2 Plates . . \ 

Survey of the Streets of London after the Fire, 2 Plates . . j 

Two Views of old St. Martin's Church, in the Strand, with the Ground ' 

Plot, 1730 . . . . . . ( 

Roman Pavement formerly to be seen at Stunsfield, in Oxfordshire . \ 
Two Views of Mr. Lethieullier's Mummy . . ; 

The First Set of VERTUE'S Historical Prints; with Descriptions 

Henry VII. and his Queen; Henry VIII. and Lady Jane Seymour . \ 

Procession of Queen Elizabeth to Hunsdon House 

The Cenotaph of Lord Darnley ; with James I. when a child, and the 

Earl and Countess of Lennox, praying by it 
The Battle of Carberry Hill, and Surrender of Mary Queen of Scots, 

1567 ; from a picture at Kensington Palace 

The Second Set, consisting of the Five following Prints : 

The Children of Henry VII. Prince Arthur, Prince Henry, and the 

Princess Margaret ... 

Charles Brandon Duke of Suffolk, and Mary Queen of France 
Frances Duchess of Suffolk, and Adrian Stoke her second husband . 
Lady Jane Grey ..... 

Edward VI. granting the Palace of Bridewell for an Hospital 

Charles I. and his Queen, from a painting by Vandyck 

Plan and Elevation of the Minor Canons* Houses at Windsor, built 

in the form of a fetterlock 

Lincoln's Inn Chapel, with the Ambulatory, erected by Inigo Jones 
Plan of Whitehall, 1680 . ... 

Chichester Cross . . . . . , . 

The View of the assemblage of Charity Children in the Strand upon 
the 7th of July, 1713, being the Day appointed by Queen Anne for 
a public Thanksgiving for the Peace ; when both Houses of Parlia- 
ment made a solemn Procession to the Cathedral of St. Paul. Two 
Sheets . 

Portrait of Sir John Hawkwood, from the figure by Paul Uccelli, 1436 
Four Views of the Ruins of the Chapel and Kitchen at Stanton liar- 
court, Oxfordshire ; drawn in 1760 , . . *^ . 



10 



050 



1 



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026 

1 
026 
020 
020 



036 
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London: J. B. Nichols and Son, Printers, 25, Parliament Street. 



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PROCEEDINGS 

THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 
OF LONDON. 

1845. No. 5. 

Wednesday, April 23, 1845, 
THOMAS AMYOT, ESQ., Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The Society met on this day, being the Festival of St. George, in 
accordance with the statutes, in order to elect a President, Council, and 
Officers for the year ensuing. The names of the following Fellows, 
deceased during the previous year, twenty-four in number, were an- 
nounced : 



Thos. Andrews, Esq., Serjeant-at-Law. 
Alfred Bartholomew, Esq. 
Rev. William Frederick Baylay. 
Rev. Henry Card, D.D. 
Gen. Robert Browne Clayton. 
Henry Corbould, Esq. 
Lieut. -Col. Samuel Dales. 
Jama* Dawk ins, Esq. 
Edward \V. A. Drmmnond Hay, Esq. 
Reinhold Thomas Forster, Esq. 
Rev. Lawrence Gardner, D.D. 
William Illingworth, Esq. 



Henry William In wood, Esq. 
James Johnson, Esq. 
Bertram Mitford, Esq. 
George, Earl of Mountnorris. 
Rt. Hon. Sir Gore Ouseley, Bart. 
Granville Penn, K><\. 
Thomas Phillips, Esq., R.A. 
Rev. Josiah Pratt, B.D. 
Robert Smirke, Esq., R.A. 
Reader Wainewright, Esq. 
Sir Charles F. Williams, Knt. 
George Woodfoll, Esq. 



The names of seventeen Fellows, elected in the course of the previous 
year, were then announced, and likewise those of eight Fellows who had 
withdrawn from the Society, during the same period : 



The Earl of Suffolk and Berkshire. 
Isaac D'Israeli, Esq. 
Samuel Weller Singer, Esq. 
Edward Polhill, Esq. 



Charles Parker, Esq. 
Matthew Davenport Hill, Esq. 
Henry Charles Harford, Eq. 
Rev. George C. Tomlinson. 



The Treasurer, in the Chair, then proceeded to draw lots. John 
Noble, Esq. and William Wansey, Esq., having been thus appointed 
Scrutators, the Fellows proceeded to the election by ballot : after which 
the following result was formally announced I- 
GEORGE, EARL OF ABERDEEN, K.T., F.R.S., PRESIDENT. 
Thomas Amyot, Esq., TREASURER. 
Nicholas Carlisle, Esq., K.H., D.C.L., F.R.S., SECRETARY. 
John Payne Collier, Esq. 
John Disney, Esq. 

i 






Sir Ilenrv Elli*. Km.. F* SKCHBTA.IY. 

HudMMi (Jnrm-v, Esq., F.R.S., VICE-PRESIDENT. 

llonrv Ilaliam: E>q., F.K.S., VICE-PRESIDENT. 

William Kirhanl Hamilton, Esq., F.R.S., VICE-PRESIDENT. 

j*kfi*>, K-.i..LL.i>.. I-.R.S. -, 10 YT3I308 

-non, Esq. 

Edward, Lord Bishop of Llaiidatf. 
Philip, Viscount Mahon, VICE-PRESIDENT. 
Robert Porrctt. Esq. 
Algernon, Lord Prudhoe, F.R.S. 
Sir Johu Reuuie, Knt,, F.R.S. 
Svdm-v Smirkc, Esq. 

Capt- William Henry Smyth, K.NVK.S.F.. 
Thomas Stapleton, Esq. 
Albert Way! Esq., M.A., DiRRcro*. 
Sir Richard Westmacott. Knt., R.A. 

1? \n fj./ii-V'f 'Jt flfirJ ,vi.i .-.. ui) if< font vtei'jtX irt 1 

The Treasurer then announced that the first part of Vol. XXXI. of 
the Archaeologia was ready for delivery. 

The Society then adjourned, to meet again on Thursday, May 1. 
The Annual Festival of the Society took place on this day at the Free- 
masons' Tavern, Great Queen Stjveet, according to custom. The chair 
was taken by Henry Ilaliam, Esq., Vice-President . 

' - ' ' ' 



KR.S. 



Thursday, May 1, 1845. 
WILLIAM II. HAMILTON, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Monsieur Marion du Mersau, Joint Keeper of the C'abinet of Medals 
in the Bibliotheque Royalc, at Paris,- and Monsieur Octave Delepierre, 
of HrusseU, attaqheto the Belgian Legation at the. Court of London, were 
severally bvilloted for, and duly elected Honorary Fellows of the Society. 

The following books were presented to the Society, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned for the same. By the American Philosophical 
Society at Philadelphia, Discourse in commemoration of their late 
-ident. Dr. Peter S. du Ponceau, by Dr. Dunglison, 8vo. 1844; 
Proceedings of the Society, vol. III., Nos. 3Q, 31, 8vo. By Thomas 
Wrijrht, E<q., F,S.A., The' Archaeological Album, No. III., 4to. By 
M. Fialin de Ptrigii\, DC la Destination et de l'Utilit permanent des 
Pyramides d'Ejrypte'et de Nubie, 8vo. 1845. By the Committee of 
the Athenreum Club, A Catalogue of the Library of the AthenaBum, 
TO, 1845. By George Godwin, Esq., F.8.A., The Builder, vol. III., 
part IV.i'ol. By Johu B. Nichols, Esq., F.S.A., The Gentleman's Ma- 
gazine, May. 184o. By Charles R. Smith, Esq., 1 ; .S.A., The Journal 
if the British Archwologica) Association, No. 1. Svo. l4o. By Lea 
Wilson, Esq., F.S.A., Catalogue of his collection of Bibles, Testaments, 
Psalms, and other books of the Holy Scriptures in English, 4to , 
184iS. George Knoules, Esq., presented a view of Athens and frh* 
Acropolis, from the Porte Plraidse, tor vrhich thanks were likewise 
rt-iurned. 

Mr John Doubleday exhibited to the Society a coloured drawing of 



the frac-ments of the Portland, or Barhorini Va?o. deposited in the 
British Museum, and broken on February 7, nit. 

Tin- Kev. Ferdinand Keller, President' of the Society of Antiqu. 
<(' /urich, communicated, in a letter to Sir Henry Ellis sunn- remarks 
on an obscure passage in Shakspeare's Hamlet, Act V. Sc. 1. He 
observed, that in almost all accounts of the opening* of Pagan sepulchres 
and tumuli, mention is made of the discovery of fragments of pottery 
strewn in the soil, which appear to be portions of vessels similar to such 
as are often found by the side of the human remains interred in these 
tombs, and consist of earthen ware not baked in a kiln, but imperfectly 
hardened by a fire. These potsherds are found in sepulchres whew 
there are no urns, and are almost always fragments of several different 
vessels. Archaeologists have considered them to be the relics of the lyke- 
wake held at the funeral. Kleeman observes that it was customary to 
bring the corpse to the place of burial clad in festive garments, and to 
show it to the friends ; a banquet then commenced, and a share was 
offered to the deceased. The revelry must have been of a very lively 
character, from the quantity of broken pottery which is found in these 
tombs. See the Hand Book of German Antiquities, Dresden, IH'W, 
p. 94. Another remarkable circumstance in connexion with Pagan places 
of burial, is the discovery of flints, which are found in all parts of the 
tumulus, but chiefly over the skeleton, varying considerably in size. 
This fact has been little noticed by antiquaries, who do not appear to 
have recognised the observance of a heathen custom; and have not 
ascertained whether it may be regarded as characteristic of the customs 
of Celtic or Germanic tribes. These traces of ancient usages appear to 
throw light on a passage in Hamlet, hitherto unexplained. At the 
burial of -Ophelia, Hamlet, remarking that the usual rites were not 
observed, supposes that the deceased had perished by her own hand. 
Upon this Laertes inquires with what rites the corpse is to be interred, 
and the priest replies that her death had been doubtful ; that but for the 
command that her obsequies should be otherwise ordered, the corpse 
should have rested in unconsecrated soil, and "for charitable prayers, 
shards, flints, and pebbles should be thrown on her." Mr. Keller sup- 
posed that Shakspeare had in view some ancient usage, retained possibly 
in some parts of England, in accordance with which those, who like 
Pagans had laid violent hands upon themselves, were buried with 
ceremonies peculiar to the heathens. Amongst such sepulchral usage*, 
that of scattering flints and pot-sherds over the corpse, as shown by the 
examination of tumuli in Switzerland and Southern Germany, appeal's to 
have been observed. Mr. Keller remarked, that if English Archaeologists 
succeed in determining to which of the two ancient races of their Island 
tnr customs recorded in this passage of Shakspeare maybe ascribed, 
some light might thereby be thrown on the origin of these sepulchral 
remains on the continent which had given rise to so much dispute. 

Mr. Keller communicated also observations on the symbol of the cock, 
ivpre-ented on ( iallic coins discovered at Zurich. French antiquaries have 
occupied themselves in the endeavour to ase.Ttaiu what had been the special 
symbol of the Gallic nation ; some decided on the cock, others preferred the 
boar (s us Gallicm). De la Saussaye states, however, that the cock is never 

I 2 



90 

found on the nvdal- of Gaul, Imt that the -ymbol of the boar is repre- 
ioch of IMT coinage in the provinces of Gaul, and 

all lho>e ronniVu- \\heiv slu- had maintained permanent establishments 

\mni<matiqu', 1840, p. 24G). Another writer, J.Lelcwel, \vlu. 

. -. d much attention to the Gallic coinage, has in no instance dis- 

iiihol of the cock. Mr. Keller announced the discovrry oi' 

Gallic coins in large quantities at /nrich and in the neighbourhood 

Ix-aring this device; they had frequently been found for more than a 

urj pa>t in the canton, part of the territory of the ancient llelvetii, 
who af described by Caesar as the most valiant tribe of the Gauls; but 
i h. - coins had hceii disregarded, and classed amongst the nummi larlari. 
They arc of pale-coloured gold; on one side appears a head encircled by 
a diadem, and resembling the heads seen on Grecian coins, on the other 
appear* a mounted warrior, beneath are five Greek letters, 1ITF1O, and 
IK -i \\tvn the horse and this insciiption is seen a cock. Such a coin was 

iily found in a Celtic tomb, with bracelets, rings, clasps, and other 
01 nanieiits of gold, silver, and bronze, including a gem, on which was cut 
the de\iceof a boar. It seems probable that these coins may have been 
Gaulish imitations of those of Philip of Macedon, and that the letters 

ibed by Mr. Keller may be regarded as a portion of the name 



Thursday, May 8, 1845. 
WILLIAM R. HAMILTON, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Tin- following books were presented to the Society, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned for the same. By Charles R. Smith, Esq., F.S. A., 
Collectanea Antiqna, No. VI. 8vo. 18.45. By the Editor, The Athe- 
n;eum. Part 2<)S. liy George Godwin, Esq., F.S.A., The liuilder, VoL 
III. Part V. Hy Sharon Turner, Esq., F.S.A., Richard the Third, a 
Pm-iii, Hvo. 1845. 

Edward Hailstone, Esq., F.S. A., exhibited a cope, formed of crimson 
vehet, richly ornamented with embroidery on the hood and bordures, 
representing apostles and saints in tabernacle work. Around the heads 
me of the figures are nimbi, set with garnets or artificial gems. 
Thi-- ancient vestment appeared to be of Flemish workmanship, and to 
hav,- been wrought in the later part of the fifteenth century. 

Mr. .Inhn G. Waller sent for exhibition a facsimile of a singular 
pUmpest" sepulchral brass, existing in Waterpery Church, Oxford- 
Shire. It represent* Walter Cur/on, who died 1527, and his lady. 
The figure in armour was formed, with the exception of the head and 
Maiden, from an earlier brass, the chief features of distinction briny 
pnlUi> at tin- shoulders, cuffed gauntlets, and the long skirt of taces, 
eh eharaetvmc the costume of the fifteenth century. To effect the 
'In- engraver added a new-fashioned head, gave to the 
' erlappino |,l a trs of the arniour escalloped edges, and converted 
s mto tmllrs. with a skirt of mail. The sharp toes were rounded 
i '.union of the later period. The upper portion of the female 
* waa new, the lower half being portion of an older memorial, and 



91 

worked over in parts in accordance with the style and fashions of the later 
period. It is said that, on tin- reverse of the plates \vhieh form the inscrip- 
tion is engraved another legend of rarli-r date. The eaiiier figure, an the 
features of inilitarv rostumr, resembles closely the memorial of Sir 
John Harpendon, in Westminster Ahbey, who died 1457 ; and the later 
work correspond- with that of Sir Thomas Brooke, in Cobhain Church, 
Kent, who died 1529. Mr. Waller exhibited facsimiles of these two 
brasses, for the purpose of comparison; in several instances the pnictire 
of reversing 1 the plate and engraving a new figure on the other side had 
!) en noticed, but no example similar to the sepulchral brass at Water- 
pery had hitherto been described. A representation of it has been gi \en 
in illustration of the account of Waterpery Church, published by tho 
Oxford Architectural Society ; but the singular details, noticed by Mr. 
Waller, are not distinctly marked or described. (Guide to the Architec- 
tural Antiquities in the neighbourhood of Oxford, Part III., p. 253.) 

William Broniet, Esq., M.D., F.S.A., communicated a copy 
of an Historical Document, being the articles of Capitulation 
of the Town of St. Jean d'Angely, dated August 5, 1351, 
preserved in the archives of that town, and transcribed by the Abbe 
Lacurie, Secretary of the Archaeological Society at Saiutes. This 
convention had been noticed very slightly by Froissart, who states that 
the English, after five years' occupation, delivered up the town in the 
month of September, for want of provisions. Holinshed gives a short 
account of the siege to the like effect. The treaty was concluded 
between Charles de la Cerda Comte d'Engolesme, Constable of France, 
and Raymond Guilhem, lord of Copanne, with certain Esquires, on the 
part of the King of England and the Garrison of St. Jean, covenanting 
to render up the town to the King of France, in default of succour before 
the close of the current month of August, and to abstain from all 
pillage or trespass during the intervening time. It was also stipulated 
that the besieged should neither depart from the town nor bring into it 
either men or provisions during that time, and should receive into the 
garrison two French knights, to whom the precise state thereof should 
be made known. Hostages were delivered to the constable, who pledged 
himself to conduct the garrison to Tours in safety, in the event of no 
succour arriving before sunset on August 30, when the town and castle 
were without fail to be rendered up. 

William Bromet, Esq., M. D., also called the attention of 
the meeting to a passage in the Chronicon de Lanercost, relating 
to the curious proposition, made A.D. 1340, by Edward III., during 
the siege of Tournai. He invited Philippe, King of France, to 
bring the quarrel which had arisen between them respecting the succes- 



sion of the realm of France to an issue, either by single combat between 
SB, or by selection of an hundred of the more valiant knights, 
amongst whom the two rival sovereigns should be numbered, for the 



sake of avoiding the sacrifice of Christian lives ; or else to fix a certain 
day on which the contending forces might meet under the walls of 
Tournai, and engage in decisive conflict ; so that Providence might 
show to which side the right belonged. The French king, however 
declined making choice of cither of these alternatives, on the ground 



that Edward had not addressed thi> letter to him as king of Franc.'. 

lie wrote to the kiiui <f Knirland in reply, that, as he had umvason- 

i ,;.,. 1 rnu-li realm, and arisen against the sovereign to whom 

he had done homage, it was his resolution to expel him by force. In the 

mean time, however, hy the mediation of the Papal legates, a truce was 

concluded .ir,"and Edward hastened home to England. The 

Lanercost Chronicle forms one of the publications of the Bannatym- 

Club. 

.Mr. John Whichcord, Jun., communicated some observations on de- 
corative colouring, employed as an accessory to architecture, during tin- 
middle ages, termed by some Polychromy. This mode of decoration 
appears to have been generally in use from the earliest period, and 
during all the >tyles which successively prevailed, even as late as the 
time of Charles I. Traces of its adoption may be found in the small 
village church as well as in the cathedral ; the object being to give 
greater value to archrtectural forms, either by producing more complete 
subordination of parts than could be effected by light and shade alone, 
or by supplying certain deficiencies, and connecting the more ornamental 
with the less enriched portions of the design. During the prevalence 
of the Saxon and Norman styles, colouring was applied in a rude manner, 
being frequently limited to mere red and yellow washes, with red and 
black bands. A singular example is supplied by the colouring on the 
Norman arches in the north transept at Winchester Cathedral ; and 
Mr. Whichcord remarked that the whole of the Norman work in that 
building had been coloured. During the former part of the early 
English period, little progress appears to have been made in the stylo of 
decorative painting : colours were used in masses, without distinction of 
details. The encouragement given to the arts during the reign of 
Henry III., and the introduction of foreign artists, contributed mate, 
rially to the refinement of taste and increase of practical skill. The 
practice of adorning the walls of buildings with pictorial embellishments 
was extended to the decoration of rooms and galleries ; colour was also 
applied both to heighten the effect of sculptured forms, and diapered or 
arabesque designs were employed to diversify plain surfaces. Bright 
colours were used in masses, the ground being covered with elegant 
compositions of foliage, combined with representations of birds, animals 
or human beings. Beautiful examples exist at Rochester, in the crypt of 
athedral, and the chapel of St. William. Occasionally medallions 
were introduced in such designs, as on the ceiling of Adam de Orleton's 
chantry, at Winchester. The perfection of polychromatic decoration 
e ascribed to the fifteenth century ; the designs of that period do 
not, indeed, present the striking and original character of earlier works, 
it exhibit art acting under the influence of willed laws, with greater 
irtainty of effect, and they are marked by great advance in mechanical 
I and elaborate variety. A striking difference is apparent in t In- 
forms of diaper, during- fhe Perjxjndicular period ; they become more 
LHI than the forms of the previous times, and more 
I m colouring. At no period does it appear to have been coii- 
i.U- that the whole, or any particular part of a building, 
* coloured. The colours were few and simple, and in pictorial 



03 

rompoMtion-< only \\MV r(ini]>i)Uinl and neutral tint< rinploicd. i- 
doubtful whether the procov- of paintin- in fresco, properly <o railed, 
ii-.ed I iy in. dieval arti-i !< oils ami r^ins. 

appears to have hi on much u<ed as a medii'in, and a coiiii '. tion 

of medieval painti.ii: was c\, rated \\itli turpenth: .. The useof 

nil seems to have been -vneral diirir.;.' the later part of the ioii:-ti"-'ith, 
and in the succeeding century, and distemper painling \\as very ooov 
inonly employed in building's of minor impoi lance. Mr. Whiehcord 
exhibited, in illustration of his remarks, a representation of a portion of 
the canopy over the tomb of Prior Wotton. in Maidstone church, 
executed early in tin- tH'ieenth century. This tomb affords a striking 
example of the harmonious effect produced by contrasting- colours, whilst 
no tint appears to have an undue preponderance. 

The Society then adjourned over the Whitsuntide recess, to meet again 
on Thursday, May '2~2. 



Thursday, May '22, 184o. 
WILLIAM It. HAMILTON, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following books, drawings, and ancient object?, were presented to 
the Society, and thanks were ordered to be returned for Hie same. By 
Hudson Gurney, Esq., V.P.S.A., History of ihc Religious Orders and 
Communities of Norwich, compiled by John Kirkpatrick in 1725, Bvo. 
184-). By Professor O. Gerhard, II Vaso dell' Archemoro, Description 
of a Vase preserved in the Museo Borbonico. Bv the Royal Irish Aca- 
demy, Transactions, vol. XX. 4to. 1845. By the Exeter Diocesan Ar- 
chitectural Society, Annual Report, 1845, 4to. ; Transactions, vol. I. and 
vol. II., Part I. 4to. By Thomas Grissell, Esq., F.vS.A., Three Sketches 
of the Crypt of St. Stephen's Chapel; a small capital of one of th* 
columns, and an ancient key of singular shape. 

William Roots, Esq., M.D., F.S.A.. sent for the inspection of the 
Society several ancient spoons, formed of white metal, found in dredging 
p-nivel in the bed of the Thames, near Kingston, not far from the spof 
where several relics ftf early date have been discovered, somp of which 
had been exhibited by him on a pre\ ious occasion. None of the objects 
now produced appeared to be of earlier date than the sixteenth centary. 

William Bromet. Esq., M.D.. F.S. A., then handed in to the chair the 
following draft of a new statute, viz. 

(; The Council shall meet for the despatch of business at three o'clock, 
on the lirst Tuesday of every month, (except during- the months of 
September a* 10 " October;) and such meetings shall not be adjourned, 
unless by the votes of a majority of two-thirds of the Council present." 

William Wansey, Esq., E.S.A., Prime Warden of the Fishmongers* 
Company, exhibited a funeral pall of most beautiful and elaborate 
workmanship, formed of cloth of gold richly embroidered. This in- 
teresting relic has been preserved in the possession i 
Company, having doubtless been originally used at the interments of its 
moie distinguished members. No accguiit of the acquisition of this fine 
specimen of decoration, or of the precise period vrhen it was executed, 
hag been preserved, and the earlier records of the Company were 



destroyed in the tiro of London ; its date may be attributed to the 

. r part f the -.ivt.-rntli. or the Hose of the previous century. The 
designs which de. -oral.- the head and foot of the pall are precisely similar, 
and tlu- tw. -i.l's likewise correspond exactly in design. On the former 
is represented St. JVter, the patron of fishermen, receiving from the 

our the koy> of heaven and hell ; the embroideries on the two sides 
represent St. Peter enthroned, crowned with the tiara, with angels kneel- 
ing onr on either side, throwing their censers towards him. On ea h 

of (his subject is introduced an escutcheon of the arms of the Com- 
pany, with supporters. Nothing can exceed the delicacy of execution 
displayed in this remarkable specimen of needle-work ; the countenance 
are full of expression, and the colours are generally remarkable for 
freshness and brilliancy. Another funeral pall of great beauty is in 
the possession of the Saddlers' Company, and has been accurately repre- 
sented in Mr. Shaw's Dresses and Decorations. Mr. Wansey exhibited 
al^o to the Society the dagger, preserved by the Fishmongers' Com- 
pany, with the tradition that it had been presented by Sir William de 
\V;iJ worth, who was a member of the Company, and supposed to be the 
identical weapon with which he slew Wat Tyler. Knighton states that 
the valiant citizen, called by him John de Walworth, killed the rebel 
with a basillard. 

John Barnett, Esq., M.D., F.S.A., communicated some account of 
the Cistercian Priory of Tetbury, Gloucestershire, accompanied by 
several sketches taken by Mr. Relton, of Tetbury, representing the 
remains, as supposed, of the conventual buildings. The monastery, 
founded by William de Berkeley, A.D. 1139, at Kingswood, had been 
supplied with monks from Tintern Abbey, but during the wars of the 
time of Stephen they had removed to Hasilden, near llodmarton, where 
they had purchased a site from John de St. John, grantee of King 
Stephen's. At the close of the war the original owner, Reginald de St. 
Watery, resumed possession, and ejected the monks; but finally, by 
injunction from the Pope, an adjustment of this difference was made, 
and the monks at length removed to Tetbury. That place, situated ou 
the ridge of the Cotswold Hills, proved very inconvenient, owing to the 
deficiency of water and fuel; and about A.D. 1170 the monks again 
removed to Mereford, near Kingswood, where they erected a new 

The ancient building, which Dr. Barnett considered to mark the 
original site of the monastery at Tetbury, is mentioned by Rudder as 
"an old building in the Chipping." Atkyns and Fosbroke do not 
illude to it, and Rudder supposed the original Priory to have stood at 
P Vicarage, or on the spot where a modern mansion stands now, called 
thr Priory, which appears, however, to have been known formerly as 
the .Manor House. 

The Secretary read a portion of the Essay on the Nereid Monument, 
communicated by W. W. Lloyd, Esq., of which the reading had been 
commenced at a previous meeting. 



H 

Thursday, May 29, 1845. 
HENRY HALLAM, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Th' Kcv. Henry Ollanl, of Did^lmrv College, m-ar .Manchester, was 
balloted tor, and duly elected a Fellow of tin- Sonet v. 

The following drawings, pamphlet, and prints, \\eiv presented, and 
thanks were ordered to be returned for the same. By William P. Grif- 
fith, l.-i|.. I.S.A., two lithographic representations of a design for the 
proposed restoration of the Gate of St. JohnV Cleikenwell. By Thomas 
WiUement, Esq., F.S.A., representations of an Obituary Window in Christ 
I 'hmvh, Westminster, and of a Memorial Window in Trinity Chapel, 
Springfield, Esse\. By the Very Hev. the Dean of Hereford, F.S.A., 
Correspondence relating to the British Archaeological Association, 8vo. 
By Charles Stokes, Esq., F.S.A., three drawings representing the 
Sigillaria recently exhibited to the Society, which had been brought from 
Greece by Capt. Graves, and some other objects connected with them. 

The draft of a new statute, proposed by William Bromet, Esq., M.D., 
at the previous meeting, was then read from the chair, and it was or- 
dered, that a copy of this draft be suspended in the Society's Meeting 
Room ; and that the ballot be taken on the same, on Thursday evening, 
June .5, 1845. 

William Bromet, Esq., M.D., communicated some remarks on the 
letter from the Rev. Ferdinand Keller, of Zurich, which had been sub- 
mitted to the Society at a previous meeting, relating to a passage in 
Shakspeare's description of the rites observed at the burial of Ophelia. 
He stated, that after careful investigation of the accounts of the contents 
of British sepulchral tumuli, as recorded by Douglas, Gough, Sir 
Richard lloarc, and other writers, he had found no record of the dis- 
covery of " shards," or fragments of earthen vessels, or of flints of 
various sizes, described by the learned antiquary of Zurich as found 
strewn immediately over the remains of the deceased, in certain barrows 
in Switzerland and Germany. Dr. Bromet observed that no account 
had been given by Olaus Magnus, Wonmus, or other writers on Danish 
antiquities, of the custom to which M. Keller had alluded, in regard to 
the interment of the bodies of persons who had committed suicide. He 
had found no trace of any such usage in England, and was disposed to 
conclude that no heathen ceremonies had been observed on an occasion 
of this nature during primeval times ; still less could he suppose that 
they had been retained, so as to have made Shakspeare's allusion (as M. 
Keller had conjectured) at all familiar to his audience. 

The Secretory then resumed the reading of the Dissertation on the 
Xanthian Marbles, by Mr. Lloyd, which had been commenced on a 
previous occasion. 

Thursday, June 5, 1845. 

WILLIAM R. HAMILTON, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The Vice- President, in the Chair, read the case which had been sub- 
mitted to the Solicitor-General and Sir Thomas Wilde, upon the con- 
struction of the first clause of the Statutes of the. Society, as it bear* 



96 



.iire to their charter, and the opinion given upon the rase in 
regard to the proposition of a new law at any one of the ordinary 

nigs of tin- S>eii-i\. The opinion of counsel was to the effect 
thai it is competent for any Fellow to propose a new law, or the alter- 
ation of any existing- law, without previously submitting the proposition 
to the President ami Council ; the power of making hye-law> being- 
vested in the majority of the Fellows, at a meeting consisting of more 
than twenty-one Fellows, the President, or his deputy, being present. 
The Vice-President then read the following minute of a resolution of 



'imcil of the Society : 

' It was moved, and unanimously resolved, that the former custom of 
having regular monthly meetings of the Council during the session of 
the Society, from November to June, both inclusive, and so much 
oftener as may he required by the business of the Society, be forthwith 
resumed and strictly adhered to." 

The draft of a new statute, as proposed by William Bromet. !,-<]. 
M.U., at the meeting of May 22, was again read ; and, the ballot being 
taken thereupon, it was negatived. 

The following books were presented to the Society, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned for the same. By John B. Nichols, Esq., F.S.A., 
The Gentleman's Magazine for June, 1845. By the Editor, The 
Athcna-um, Part CCIX. By John Yonge Akerman, Esq., F.S.A., The 
Numismatic Chronicle, No. XXVII, 1845. By S. G. Drake, Esq., The 
Book of the Indians, ninth edition, 8vo. 1845. By the Statistical 
Society of London. Journal, Vol. VIII. Part II. 1845. By George 
Godwin, Esq., F.S.A., The Builder, Vol. III. Part V. By Thomas 
J. Pettigrew, Esq., F.S.A., Letter to the Dean of Hereford relative to 
the affairs of the British Archaeological Association, Bvo. 1845. 

Edward Hailstone, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited to the Society two speci- 
mens of the enamelled work of Limoges (Opus d<> Limogia), of two 
different periods : the more ancient being a crucifix, exhibiting some fea- 
tures of Byzantine design, an example of the champ leve process of ena- 
melling, as practised during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries ; th^ 
second, a work of the sixteenth century, the 1 enamel wholly covering the 
metallic ground. The subject represented on this object, which had 
been used as a pax, was the crucifixion. 

Hugh W. Diamond, Esq., F.S.A., communicated a description of the. 
hieroglyphics which appeared on the case* of ;i mummy, opened by Mr. 
Birch and himself, in 1843, accompanied by drawings. The upper sur- 
faces of both cases had been destroyed, but tho other parts, as well as 
the mummy itself, were in remarkably good preservation. It was con- 
sidered by Mr. Birch to be of the. period of the Psammctici. Mr. 
Diamond remarked that the bandages had evidently been formed of new 
material, torn in widths of six inches in width, and measuring 2 1 feet in 
length, with the remarkable peculiarity of a blue border at one end, the 
other terminating w ith a well-made fringe, being evidently from a fabric 
mantrfactured for the purpose, and not, as generally asserted, of old 
material--. These bandages weighed upwards of 32 pounds. II. <tated 
his belief tli.it the great secret of preservation, in the proee^ of em- 
balming, watf giccation, and that by that means alone animal matter might 






b<> pre-ened. Tin 1 dr;t\\in<rs exhibited by Mr. 1 )iamond afforded inter- 
1 illustrations of the subjects selected for tlie decoration of every 
part of the case-, internally and externally; they represented the various 
deities of Egypt, whose protection \va< invoked in favor of the decea-ed. 
The Kev. William J. Hers < r nt for the inspection of the Society a 
facsimile of an inscription which exists in the church-yard at Llanavan 
Vawr, Brecknockshire. It had been noticed by Mr. Theophilus Jone-, 
in his History of the county, but the description given by that author 
is inaccurate. The correct reading of the inscription appears to be 
me IACKT SANCTVS AVANVS Kpiscopvs. The Rev. llice Kees, 
in his Essay on the Welsh Saints, makes mention of this memorial, 
and considers it probable that St. Avanus was the third Bishop of 
Llanbaduni, at some time between the years A.D. 500 and A.D. 542. The 
church of Llanavan Vawr, and that of Llanavan-y-Trawsgoed, in Cardi- 
ganshire, are situate in the district which may be assigned to the diocese 
of Llanbadarn. 



Thursday, June 12, 1845. 
VIS( 01 NT MAHON, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Charles James Richardson, Esq., F.S.A., presented to the Society an 
engraving representing the interior of the great chamber, decorated with 
carvings, at Great Campden House, Kensington ; thanks were ordered to 
be returned for the same. 

Sampson Hodgkinson, Esq., of East Acton, sent for exhibition to the 
Society a small coffer or reliquary formed of oak, ornamented with beau- 
tifully designed tracery. It was purchased at Eu, in Normandy, and is 
supposed to have belonged to the conventual church of St. Laurence in 
that town. Its date appeared to be about the commencement of the 
fourteenth century. 

John Winter Jones, Esq., communicated, in a letter addressed to Sir 
Henry Ellis, Secretary, a notice of two rare specimens of early typo- 
graphy preserved in the British Museum; the first entitled " Medita- 
cious sur les Sept Pseaulmes Penitenciaulx," the other a French version 
of the u Cordiale, sive de quatuor Novissimis." A striking resemblance 
appears between the types with which they are printed and those 
used by Caxton, and Mr. Jones had been led to conclude that they were 
the production of his press. These tracts had been overlooked by 
bibliographers ; their extreme rarity would render them objects of 
curiosity ; and they become highly interesting when viewed as claiming a 
place among our own typographical antiquities. Mr. Jones considered 
the type used in printing the " Meditacions " to be identical with that of 
the French and English " Recueil of the Histories of Troy," and the 
first edition of " The (lame of Chess." He stated the consideration 
which had induced him to include those works, contrary to the opinion of 
some bibliographers, amongst the productions of Caxton's press. In the 
introduction to the second edition, Caxton relates that having found the 
Treatise on Chess whilst he resided at Bruges, he had translated it and 
printed a certain number, which had quickly been sold ; wherefore he 



98 

had lft -rmiiml t<> pur it forth anew. The " Hecueil " is printed in the 
same character, and Mr. Jones considered this evidence sufficient to war- 
rant the inference tli;it both these pieces, as likewise the " Mcditacions," 
issued fnnii I'aMon'x press. 'I'he second tract noticed by Mr. Jones is 
printed in the >;iine I ype as the second edition of the " Game of Chess," 
and other works by Caxton. In addition to the remarks which he had 
found occasion to make during a careful comparison of these volumes, 
Mr. Jones gave a detailed description and collation of the two tracts which 
had led to the inquiry, accompanied by an account of the treatises, and 
the authors to whom they had been ascribed. lie supposed that they 
\\ere printed hy Caxton before he established his press at Westminster, 
about the year 1474. The water-marks are those which occur in books 
printed in the Low Countries. 

Another portion of Mr. Lloyd's Dissertation on the Xanthian Mar- 
bles was then read, and the continuation was reserved for a future 
occasion. 



Thursday June 19, 1845. 
THOMAS AMYOT, Esq., Treasurer, in the Chair. 

Sydney Smirkc, Esq., one of the Auditors appointed March 13, 1845, 
to examine the Accounts of the Treasurer for the year ending December 
31, 1844, reported, that having examined and approved the said accounts, 
together with the vouchers relating thereto, the Auditors had prepared 
the following Abstract of Receipts and Disbursements, to be submitted 
to the Society : 



Balance of the last year's 
account - 



Disbursements in the year 1844. 



Receipt t in the year 1844. 



'I 



By Annual Sub- 

scriptions - - 1034 5 
My Admission Fees 184 6 
U\ Dividend on 

j7000 Stock - 203 17 6 
By Sale of Books 

nii-l Prints - 78 9 4 

By Stamp Duty on 

Bonds. - - 19 10 

M\ ( ^impositions 
in In n of Annual 
I'tyments 



To Artists, and in Publications 
For Taxes .... 
For Salaries, viz. : 
Resident Secretary 200 
Joint Secretary - 157 10 
Clerk - - - 60 
Porter - - - 30 



t. d. 

593 12 2 

13 12 9 





For Tradesmen's Bills - 


*/ 1U U 

147 5 




For Insurance 


2*2 11 




For Advertisements, &c. 


69 2 5 




For Bookbinding - 


10 10 


1520 17 10 
378 


For Collecting Subscriptions 
For Bond Stamps - 
For Anniversary Dinner - 
For Catalogue and Arrangement 
of Prints and Drawings 


51 5 9 

JS 4 
26 2 

33 12 






1439 7 2 



j2809 14 



Balance in the Trea 
surer's hands on 
Jan. 1, 1845 - 



1370 6 10 



Stock in the 3 per Cent. 
Consols ^7,000. 

Witness our hands, 
June 5, 1845. 

E. LLANDAFF, 

SMIUKF, 
Auditors, 



90 

The Treasurer reported to the Auditors, that the payments made on 
the separate account, under the .-auction of the vote of the Society, 
March :J1, 1H41, for defraying the charges of the publication of Anglo- 
Saxon works, amounted, at the end of the year 1844, to '1135 l.v. 6rf., 
and thai the receipts from the sale of those works, up to that period, 
amounted only to .712 7.v. I.V., leaving a deficiency on that account of 
4'2'2 I4.v. 4d. The actual balance 1 , therefore, in the Treasurer's hands, 
was reduced from .fl:*70 6*. lOrf. to 947 12*. 6d. As no further 
payments are intended or required, to be made on the Anglo-Saxon 
account, there is good reason to expect that the balances of succeeding 
years will become considerably more favourable. 

The thanks of the Society were then given to the Auditors for their 
kind attention on this occasion, and to the Treasurer for his good and 
faithful services. 

The following presents were then made to the Society, and thanks 
were ordered to be returned for the same : By C. 11. Smith, Esq., 
F.S.A., an engraved representation of the New Church at Homertou. 
By the Royal Society of Antiquaries of France, Memoires sur les Anti- 
quites, Tome VII. 8vo. 1845. 

The reading of Mr. Lloyd's Essay on one of the Xanthiun Marbles, 
called the Nereid Monument, was then concluded. 

The Society then adjourned over the Summer recess, to meet again on 
Thursday, November 20. 



Thursday, November 20, 1845. 
VISCOUNT MAHON, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following books were presented to the Society, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned for the same. By John B.Nichols, Esq., F.S.A., 
The Gentleman's Magazine, June to November, 1845. By the Editor, 
The Athenaeum, Nos. 210 214. By Thomas Wright, Esq., F.S.A., 
The Arch;eological Album, Part IV. By the Statistical Society of 
London, Journal, Vol. VIII., Part III. By Monsieur Mauduit, Emploi 
de 1'Airain u defaut du For, 8vo. 1844 ; Defense de feu le Chevalier, 
autcur du Voyage de la Troade, 8vo. 184o. By John Lindsay, Esq., 
a View of the Coinage of Scotland, 4to. 1845. By the British Archaeo- 
logical Association, Journal, Nos. 2, 3, 8vo. 1845. By the Syro- 
Egyptian Society of London, Hieroglyphic Inscriptions, fol. ; Report of 
the Council and Auditors for 1844, 8vo. By the Zoological Society of 
London, Journal, Vol. XV. Part VIII. 8vo. 1845. By the Royal Agri- 
cultural Society of England, Journal, Vol. VI. Part I. 8vo. 1845. By 
the Shakspeare Society, Papers, Vol. II. 8vo. 1845; Diary of Philip 
Henslowe, edited by J. P. Collier, Esq. 8vo. 1845. By the Royal 
Society of Emulation at Abbeville, Memoires, 5 vols. 8vo. 18331843. 
By the Chevalier J. Boucher de Perthes, a complete collection of hi> 
works, 15 vols. 8vo. with a Portrait of the Author. By the Society of 
Antiquaries of Picardy, Memoires, Tome I. VII. with plates and 
supplements, 8vo, 1838* 184-1; Bulletins, Tome I, 1841 1844, and 



100 

1846, No. I. Rvo. : \otiee siir nno Fenille do Diptiqno d'lvoire repre- 
entnm !> !',npi,Mne do Clovi^. par M. J. JJiirollot, J832; Coutumes lo- 
cales dti Baillia<re d'AmieiH. en M07, Tome I. Ito. 181.) ; Catalogue 
descriptif et raisonne des Manuscrits de la BibUothfeqtu! Communalo do 
la Ville d'Annen>. par J. (larnior, Hvo. : with these- printed works was 
presented also a silver medal, struck by the Society of Antiquaries of 
Picardy. By the Society of Antiquaries of Zurich, Transactions, Part 
IX. 4to. 1845. By John Edward Lee, Esq., Delineations of Roman 
Antiquities, found at Caerleon and its neighbourhood, 4to. 1845. By 
John Eisenberg, Surgical and Practical Observations on the Diseases of 
the Foot, 4to. 1845. By the Board of Management of the Saffron 
Walden Museum, Catalogue of the Museum, 8vo. By Monsieur F. 
Von Leber, an Account of the Ancient Castles of llau.heneck, Schar- 
feneck, and Kauhenstein, in the neighbourhood of Vienna, 8vo. 1S4-4. 
By Dr. F. H. Schroder, Glossarii Latino- Suethici specimen vetus- 
tum, from a MS. in the Library at Upsala, 4to. 1845. By Daw- 
son Turner, Esq., F.S.A., Ancient Documents in the possession of 
the Rev. D. Kolfe, 8vo. By Dr. C. T. Beke, F.S.A., Abyssinia, 8vo. 
1845, The Language and Dialects of Abyssinia, and the Countries of 
the South, 8vo. 1840. By Robert 11. Tighe, Esq., a Letter to the Earl 
of Lincoln, on the Parks and Thoroughfares of Windsor, fol. 1845, 
printed for presentation only. By Thomas Windus, Esq., F.S.A., a 
new Elucidation of the Portland Vase, fol. 1845. By William Petit 
Griffith, Esq. The Natural System of Architecture, as opposed to the 
artificial system of the present day, 4to. 1845. Thomas Lott, Esq., 
F.S.A., presented ail early impression of a Medal, which he had 
directed to be struck for the City of London School, as a prize. 

Samuel Shepherd, Esq., F.S.A., sent for the inspection of the Society 
representations of some decorative pavement tiles, which had been dug up 
at St. Margaret's, Stanstead, Hertfordshire, in a garden adjoining to the 
old chapel of the monastic establishment which existed at that place, now 
used as a parish church. The designs were chiefly heraldic, or mon- 
strous animals, dragons, antelopes, c. One of these examples resem- 
bled the tiles found at St. Alban's Abbey, to which the foundation at 
Stanstead had been subordinate. Mr. Shepherd exhibited also a. fac- 
simile of the inscription on the tomb of Shakspoare. He took occasion 
to allude to the labours of the Society of Antiquaries, which had now 
existed for more than 120 years, and numbered many distinguished 
names ou the list of its Fellows, ex pressing the hope that the members of 
the Society at the present time might be induced to imitate the example 
of industry and zealous pursuit of science which had been shown in 
previous years. .Mr. Shepherd earnestly solicited the co-operation of 
tlte junior Follows of the Society, in carrying into effect the object for 
which it had been instit-ited namely, the recnrdini: of all discoveries 
which, from time to time, may In- nude in Archaeology, and by sucli 
effort- to augment both the interest of the proceeding and the value of 
the publications of the Society. 

-I-, F.S.A., presented to the Society two 
"u a sepulchral brass, representing Matthew Johnes, who 
! his wife. They were interred in the church of Llanea- 



101 

velach, Glamorganshire. Mention of this person occurs in the Glamor- 
ganshire Pedigrees, recently published by Sir Thomas Phillipps. Bart. 
The thanks of the Societv v.viv ordered to be returned. 

John Lee, Esq., LL.l).. F.S.A., brought for tin- inspection of tin- 
Society two vessels of mrtliemvare, communicated by the Rev. J. B. 
Ueade. They wen* apparently of Oriental manufacture, but were de- 
>criled as having been recently dn^r up in Bonner's Fields, Hackney; 
and it was stated that the very curious matrix of the seal of Boxgrave 
Priory, in Sussex, described by Sir Frederick Madden in Archaeologia, 
xxvii. p. 375, and discovered in the same locality, had been deposited in 
a similar earthen vessel. It had also l>oen purchased by Mr. J, 1 
from the same person who had sold to him the vessels now exhibited. 
Dr. Lee laid before the Society, at the same time, a fragment of an 
antique head, sculptured in marble, recently received by him from 
Egypt. 

The Central Committee of the Archaeological Institute, by permis- 
sion of the proprietor, R. II. Sedgwick, Esq., communicated for the 
inspection of the Society a bronze collar, of British workmanship, dis- 
covered near Embsay, about three miles fiom Skipton, Yorkshire. It had 
been deposited between two upright slabs of stone, which supported a 
third slab laid upon them, like a transom. It was formed in two por- 
tions, connected together by means of pins, or tenons, so that the collar 
might readily be removed from the wearer's neck. 

The Central Committee of the Archaeological Institute communicated 
also, by permission of Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart., a contemporary 
account of the ceremonial observed at the nuptials of the Princess 
Margaret, A. D. 1468, from a MS. in his possession, and read by him 
at a meeting of the Historical Section, during the annual meeting of 
the Institute at Winchester, September 1-3. A portion of this narrative 
having been read, the remainder was postponed to a future occasion. 

Thursday, November 27, 1845. 
WILLIAM R. HAMILTON, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following books were presented to the Society, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned for the same. By Monsieur Edouard le Heri- 
cher, Secretary of the Archaeological Society of Avranches, Avranchin 
Monumental et Historique, 8vo. 184.>. By Charles Henry Cooper, 
Esq., Annals of the University and Town of Cambridge, Parts XXVI. 
XX VII., 8vo. By the Trustees of the British Museum, Ancient Mar- 
bles in the British Museum, Part X., 4to. By Thomas Thomson, Esq., 
F.S.A., Compota Camerariorum Scotia?, Tom. I. III. 4to. 18J7. 

Henry Vint, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited to the Society two antique 
bronze heads, and a small bronze pedestal for a bust or statue. They 
were found in the month of October last in digging a trench on the 
Eastern Counties KaiKvny, about half a mile east of the Colchester 
terminus, and north of the town of Colchester. Fragments of red 
pottery, bronze, and lead, were dug up near the spot ; and at about 
six feet distant were found a human skull and some horses' teeth, Th 
discovery was made at the depth of about five feet. 



102 



A description of these remains by Mr. Charles Newton was read. He 
considered that one of these bronzes, an aged head bound with ivy, with 
pointed ear- ami a beard arranged in spiral curls, probably represented 
the tvpe <>t' Silenns. This head appears to have ornamented a large 
tbe loop with which it is surmounted having formed the place 
of insertion of a handle attached. Though much mutilated, it is a 
iH-aiitiful example of ancient art, remarkable for the boldness of the 
d.-i-ii. and the >harpness and delicacy with which the hair and foliage 
are wrought. With this bronze was found a bust of the Emperor 
I alimila. In the features may be recognized an expression of cruelty, 
di>-imulation, and fear, corresponding to the character of this Emperor and 
the description of his countenance as given by Suetonius. This bust is 
modelled with the greatest care and knowledge, and the original surface, 
where it remains, is of the most exquisite finish. The small bronze stand 
found with these heads is inlaid with a floral ornament in silver. Many 
of the bronzes found at Pompeii are placed on stands similarly decorated. 

The Kev. Joseph Hunter, F.S.A., laid before the Society an original 
letter, the autograph of Sir Harry e*Stradl ing, communicated by the 
Kev. John M. Traherne, Chancellor of Llandaff Cathedral, and accSin- 
panied by a modernised version and notes. It was addressed to his wife 
Elizabeth, sister of William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, dated from 
Rome, the last day of March, the year not being stated. It appears, 
however, to have been written in 1456, as allusion is made to the fatal 
battle between the King of Hungary and the Turks at Belgrade, which 
occurred in that year. Sir Harry gives an account of the dangers 
encountered on his journey, by way of Calais, of his arrival at Rome 
on Good Friday, and the exhibition of the " vernicle," or handkerchief, 
on which the features of the Saviour were miraculously pourtrayed. He 
had been assoiled by the Pope, and put to great cost to obtain absolution 
for his wife, under lead, namely, the Papal Bull, which he sent to her by 
a messenger. He announced his intended journey to Venice, having 
obtained his licence from the Pope. In the Stradliug Pedigree, given in 
Mey rick's Glamorganshire Antiquities, 1578, printed by Sir Thomas 
Phi'llipps, Bart,, it is stated that Sir Harry went to Jerusalem in 16 
Kduard IN'. (1476-77), and there received tho Order of the Holy 
Sepulchre, as his father and grandfather had done ; that he died in the 
Island of Cyprus, on his way home, and that his book is yet to be seen, 
with a letter which his man brought from him to his wife. This letter, 
evidently the same as the autograph communicated by Mr. Traherne, is 
again noticed in Lloyd's History of Cambria, 1584, p. 139. Possibly 
H I lurry made two pilgrimages. It does not clearly appear, however, 
from the letter, that his projected journey at that time was to so great a 
durance as the Holy I^nd : he observes that if he found that he might 
safety, liis return might be expected as soon as "All hallow 



t\d. i Nov. 1 ), and otherwise by Midsummer. In 1720 it appears that 
US. was in the possession of Sir Edward Stradling, and when the 
\ Itecame extinct in 1738 his library and papers were dispersed. 
I -\tr document is now in the possession of George Grant 

Francis, 94., F.S.A., of Swansea. 



Thursday. December 4, 1845. 
WILLIAM R. HAMILTON, Esq., Vice-Prosidcnt, in the Chair. 

The following books and prints were presented to the Society, and 
thanks were ordered to be returned for the same. By John B. Nichols, 
Esq., F.S.A., The Gentleman's Magazine, December, 1845. By the 
Editor, The Athenaeum, Part CCXV. By Patrick Chalmers, Esq., 
two Lithographic Drawings, representing a sculptured monument of 
early date, and an ancient font, existing at Auldbar, near Brechin. 

The Central Committee of the Archaeological Institute of Great 
Britain and Ireland exhibited three matrices of ancient seals, one of 
which had recently been presented to the Institute, namely, the Seal of 
the Chantry founded by Thomas de Brembre, at Wimborne, Dorset ; 
also the Seal of William Graindehorge (13th century), recently found 
at Flasby, near Gargrave, Yorkshire, where the family of Grain-dorge, 
or de Grano-hordei, were settled as early as the reign of Stephen ; and 
that of the Sub-Dean of Chichester, found in Hampshire, near to the 
parish of Amport, which is a living belonging to the Chapter of Chi- 
chester. It bears the legend S' SVBDECANI CICESTRIE, and a 
figure of St. Peter, the patron Saint of the Cathedral. Date, 13th 
century. The Committee of the Institute communicated also for the 
inspection of the Society a large salver of pewter, ornamented in the 
centre with a roundel of enamelled work, being the Arms of King 
Charles I. 

John Adey Repton, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited some specimens of 
" Kimmeridge coal money," found in Dorsetshire. 

The Rev. John Gunn, Rector of Instead, Norfolk, communicated for 
exhibition a series of drawings representing the rich decorations of the 
lower part of the screen in Tunstead Church, Norfolk. They consist of 
figures of Apostles and Saints, elaborately coloured, the backgrounds 
being diapered. On the southern side of the screen are pourtrayed 
St. Peter, St. Andrew, St. James the Less, and St. John; on the 
northern side, St. Augustine, St. Ambrose, St. Matthew, St. Bartholo- 
mew, St. Simon, St. Jude, distinguished by the symbol of a ship, held in 
his hand, St. Thomas and St. Paul. These paintings appear to be pro- 
ductions of Flemish art, during the fifteenth century; several highly 
curious examples still exist in various churches in Norfolk, which might 
supply valuable materials for the history of the progress of art in Eng- 
land during the middle ages. 

The reading of the narrative communicated by the Committee of the 
ArchaBological Institute, being an account of the circumstances which 
occurred on the marriage of the Duke of Burgundy with Margaret 
sister of Edward IV., as related by an eye witness, was then concluded. 
The Princess left London on June 18, 1468 ; having made her offering 
at St. Paul's, she mounted her horse, being seated on a pillion behind the 
Earl of Warwick, and thus rode through the city with a splendid retinue. 
The Mayor presented to her a pair of basons, containing one hundred 
pounds in gold. Thence she proceeded to the shrine of St. Thomas of 
Canterbury, accompanied by the King, and on Friday next after the 
.Nativity of St. John Baptist, embarked at Margate, with the Duchess of 



104 

Norfolk Lord Scale*, her presenter, Lord Dacre and others. She- 
landed next day at Sluys, in Flanders, and was received very honour- 
il.lv with pageants representing subjects of scriptural history, and 
UmniBttfeM. 'On the morrow the old Duchess of Burgundy visited 
her - on the Monday following the Duke came privately to see his bride, 
and 'expressed great admiration at her beauty. They were then pub- 
liclv affianced to one another by the Bishop of Salisbury. During the 
week she received repeated visits from the Duchess and other great 
estates, and on the Saturday removed to the Damme. The nuptials 
were solemnised between five and six o'clock on the Sunday morning, 
the Bishops of Salisbury and Tournay officiating on the occasion, and the 
bride then made her entry into Bruges in a litter, richly apparelled, and 
was received by the inhabitants, troops of various nations, and merchants, 
with solemn rejoicings. Divers singular pageants were exhibited, and a 
grand entertainment succeeded, of which and of the justs which ensued, 
continuing during nine successive days, a curious and minute description 
was given. The prize of the tournament was won by Sir John Wid- 
ville, brother to Elizabeth, Queen of England. The volume in which 
this relation is preserved, now in the possession of Sir Thomas Phillipps, 
formerly belonged to one of the Wriothesleys, afterwards Garter King 
of Arms, and was also in the Library of the late Sir George Nayler. 
It comprises historical and heraldic collections, written towards the latter 
part of the fifteenth century, 

Ofiio? rlird'.'[/o .c-A.^/l ,. oL 

Thursday, December 11, 1845. 

VISCOUNT MAHON, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following presents were received, and thanks were ordered to be 
returned for the same : By Mr. W. J. Taylor, a bronze medal, struck 
to commemorate the second annual congress of the British Archaeolo- 
gical Association at Winchester. By the Statistical Society of London, 
Journal, Vol. VIII. Part II. 8vo. 1845. By the National "institute for 
the Promotion of Science, at Washington, third bulletin of their pro- 
ceedings, 8vo. 1845. By the Royal Geographical Society of London, 
Journal, Vol. XV. Part II. 8vo. 1845. 

Gideon Algernon Mantell, Esq., LL.D., communicated some remarks 
on the discovery of the remains of the Earl Warren, with those of his 
wife Gundrada, and various ancient objects which have been found 
among the ruins of Lewes Priory. That splendid establishment was 
founded A.D. 1077, by the Earl William, whose place of sepulture has 
recently been brought to light during the formation of a railway, and its 
destruction quickly followed on the dissolution of the Religious Houses, 
as shown by the letter of Portmari to Cromwell, printed by Browne 
Willis, which at once conveys an idea of the magnificence of the original 
structure, and the pains taken in converting its materials to the greatest 
profit. Fifty years since, however, considerable portions of the Great 
Gateway, and walla of the Refectory, still remained : the curious Dove- 
cote, built in the form of a cross, was demolished within Dr. Mantell's 
recollection. Representations of the ruins, as they appeared in 1780, 



105 

have been preserved by Watson, in his Memoirs of the Earls Warren. 
From time to time portions had been pulled down for the sake of the 
materials, and the remains of the gate, with its clustered columns of 
Sussex marble, was sacrificed, not many years since, in order to widen 
the road. The historical associations connected with this gate should 
have sufficed to secure it from destruction : thence had the gallant force 
under Henry III. and Prince Edward issued forth to meet the patriot 
forces assembled on Plumpton Plain by De M ontfort ; and thither had 
the defeated sovereign fled for refuge. Many attempts had been made 
by Dr. Mantell, and other persons, to ascertain the precise site of the 
Conventual Church, and Chapter House, but in vain. On October 18, 
the progress of the railway cuttings brought to light the vestiges of the 
church ; at a depth of several feet beneath the turf, several compart- 
ments were found, formed by low walls, which had once supported a 
pavement, and two of these cells were covered over by large slabs. In 
these were found two leaden coffers, measuring about three feet by one 
foot in width, inscribed with the names WILLELM' and GUNDR AD A, 
and containing the bones of the earl and his countess, in very perfect 
preservation. It is clear that these small coffers had been formed to 
receive their remains long after the first interment, in consequence of the 
decay of the original coffins ; and Dr. Mantell conjectured that this dis- 
interment had taken place during the reign of Henry II., when a new 
church was erected. The fine monumental slab, inscribed with the name 
of Gundrada, and discovered in Isfield Church, was probably sculptured 
about the same period ; and its dimensions are too small to have been 
destined for a tomb of ordinary size. Besides the leaden cists, the 
recent excavations have brought to light remains of several skeletons, 
and a leaden vessel enclosing an earthen jar, in which had been depo- 
sited the viscera of a human being, possibly, as it has been conjectured, 
the remains of the third Earl William, who went to the Holy Land, 
A.D. 1147, and was there slain. Some sculptured fragments have also 
been found, but inferior in interest to those formerly in Dr. Mantell's 
possession, and now in the British Museum. The only monument 
of the labours of the monks of St. Pancras, now remaining, is the 
Mount Calvary, which has been left uninjured, the railway running close 
to its base. Amongst minor objects of interest discovered on the site 
of the Priory are numerous fragments of Decorative Tiles, which have 
been carefully preserved ; many vestiges of pavements of such tiles had 
been dug up by Dr. Mantell several years since, chiefly in the neigh- 
bourhood of the spot where the leaden cists were found. Some speci- 
mens were sent for the inspection of the Society : a considerable 
number of curious tiles, brought to light during Dr. Mantell's researches 
at Lewes, are now preserved in the British Museum. 

The Central Committee of the Archaeological Institute communicated, 
by permission of George Bowyer, Esq., F.S.A., notices of the Castillion 
family, settled in Berkshire, collected by him, and brought before the 
Historical Section at the recent annual meeting of the Institute at Win- 
chester. The Castillion family was of Milanese origin, and derived 
their descent from Baldassar "Castiglionp, author of " II Cortegiano," 
and eulogised bv Tasso. The great actions of other distinguished mem- 

K2 



106 

bers of this noble race have been detailed in the Elogi Historici," 
printed at Mantua, 1606. Baldassar, by Hippolyta his wife, daughter 
of Count Guido Torelli, left a son, Count Baldassar, who espoused Ka- 
therina, daughter of the Marquess of Malaspina; their son Peter was father 
of John Baptist Castillion of Benham Valence, in Berkshire, who was in 
the service of Henry VIII., and afterwards of the Privy Chamber in the 
reign of Elizabeth. He married Margaret, heiress of B. Campagne, by 
whom he had several children ; Douglas, his fifth son, was father 
of John Castillion, who had one daughter, Mary, married to Herbert 
Randolph, Esq., Recorder of Rochester, from whom descended John 
Randolph, Bishop of London, who died in 1813. The monumental 
effigies of John Baptist de Castillion, and of Dame Elizabeth, wife of his 
son Sir Francis, exist in the church of Speen, Berkshire. 



Thursday, December 18, 1845. 
WILLIAM R. HAMILTON, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following books were presented to the Society, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned for the same. By Edward Wedlake Brayley, 
Esq., F.S.A. The History of Surrey, Vol. IV. Part II. 4to. By Messrs. 
Firniin Didot, Ancient and Modern Architecture, Parts XXXIX. XL. 
4to, 1845. By George Grant Francis, Esq., F.S.A., Some Account of 
Sir Hugh Johnys, 8vo. 1845. 

George Grant Francis, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited a small volume, the 
binding of which was stamped with the Rose and Crown, and the initials 
M. T., being a MS. of a metrical paraphrase of the New Testament, 
apparently written early in the seventeenth century. Mr. Francis com- 
municated also for the inspection of the Society several bronze celts, a 
stone axe of unusual form, with a bronze sword found in Glamorganshire, 
and preserved in the Museum of the Royal Institution of South Wales. 
Also a shoemaker's rule or measure, bearing the date 1664, one 
extremity being curiously carved in the form of the high-heeled shoe, 
according to the fashion introduced from France, during the reign of 
Charles I. 

Gideon Mantell, Esq., LL.D., exhibited two small bronze vessels, or 
pyxes, supposed to have been intended to hold the chrism or consecrated 
oils ; they were found amongst the remains of Lewes Priory. 

Dr. Mantell communicated also a notice of the memorial of Sir Walter 
Mauntell, preserved in Lower Heyford Church, Northamptonshire, 
accompanied by a rubbing from the sepulchral brass which represents 
him and Elizabeth his wife. The name of Mantell occurs in the roll of 
Battle Abbey. The family were settled at Roade, in Northamptonshire, 
from the reign of Henry I., until that of Henry VIII. In the chancel 
at Lower Heyford two monuments exist, one bearing the arms of 
Mauntell and Heyford, and an inscription in the French language, being 
the memorial of John Mauntell and Elizabeth his wife, date about A.D. 
>. On the other are represented Sir Walter and his wife, co-heiress 
')hn Abbott; their hands aro conjoined, and the details of armour 
and costume are curious. Sir Walter died A.D. 1487. 



107 

Sir Henry Ellis, Secretary, communicated a Memoir preserved in 
Harl. M.S. 168, fol. 110, entitled, An Advice of suche mennes as are 
considered to be fitte to putt the forces of the Realme of England in 
order to withstand an invation pretended by the King of Spain," dated 
30 Elizabeth, 1587. It contains numerous comments upon the several 
points where it was supposed that the Spaniards might be able to land ; 
the most proper arrangements for combating with them ; the proportion 
of men to be prepared to serve to that end, especially as regarded the 
border towards Scotland. It appears to have been the result of the 
deliberation of Arthur Lord Gray, Sir Francis Knolles, Sir Walter 
Ralegh, and other experienced officers. The increase of the military 
force, and the holding of general assemblies for the purpose of training, 
were recommended ; also that provision be made of bills, being weapons 
that the realm could furnish, complaint being made of the scarcity of 
armour, on which account it was considered fitting to unite with the 
armed men a certain number of bill-men not provided with armour. 
The letters to which reference is made as Original Despatches, in various 
accounts of the defeat of the Spanish Armada, were a fabrication by 
the authors of the Athenian Letters ; many documents still remain in 
the public repositories which have not yet been examined, tending to 
explain the circumstances relating to the formation and defeat of the 
Armada. 

The Central Committee of the Archaeological Institute communicated 
a notice of various antiquities discovered at Woodpury, Oxfordshire, by 
Rev. John Wilson, F.S.A., accompanied by the exhibition of a number 
of objects of curiosity, fragments of Samian ware, implements of bronze 
and iron, some of them of Roman workmanship, whilst others appeared 
to belong to the early British period. The neighbourhood of Woodpury 
abounds in Roman remains. The line of the great Roman road between 
Eboracum and Clausentum ran at the distance of about half a mile ; no 
Roman remains, however, had been discovered at Woodpury, until the 
search was commenced with the view of ascertaining the site of a church 
and village, supposed to have existed there, and to have been destroyed 
by fire. The foundations of the church and numerous buildings were, 
in consequence, brought to light, amongst which were found many 
evidences of Roman occupation, and remains of Roman construction, 
which had been worked up as materials for buildings of a later period. 
The tradition of the existence of a town at this place is noticed by 
Hearne in one of his Diaries, dated 1732, and he states that a vase had 
been found there, in which was a silver piece, supposed by him to have 
been a denarius. An abundant variety of fragments of pottery has been 
subsequently disinterred, but scarcely any perfect specimens, and at a 
distance of a mile from the site some similar remains were found by the 
late Sir Alexander Cooke, in a wood called the New Wood. Coins of 
Domitian, Hadrian, Maximianus, Constantine, and Claudius Gothicus have 
been found at Woodpury ; numerous remains of hypocausts have been 
noticed, and the slag refuse of an iron foundry is of frequent occurrence ; 
this kind of slag may also be observed at Drunshill, near Woodeaton, 
in the neighbourhood. 

The Society then adjourned over the Christmas recess, to meet again 
on Thursdav, Januarv 8, 1846. 






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ERRATA. 

Page 77, lines 10 and 16, for Lordsborough, read Londsborough. 

Page 81, lines 21 and 24, for Archaeological, read British Archaeological. 

Page 85, in the list of Defaulters, the name of Charles Tilstone Beke, Esq., had 

been erroneously retained, the arrears of his annual contribution having been 

paid previously to the ballot on April 17. 



io 






,S8 



PROCEEDINGS 

OK 

THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 
OF LONDON. 



1846. No. 6. 



Thursday, January 8, 1846. 
HENRY HALLAM, ESQ., Vice- President, in the Chair. 

William Downing Bruce, Esq., Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries 
of Scotland, residing at No. 18, Charles-street, St. James's, and John 
Hopton Russell Chichester, Esq., of Wimpole-street and Lincoln's Inn, 
Barrister-at-Law, were severally balloted for, and duly elected Fellows of 
the Society. 

The following books were presented to the Society, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned for the same. By William D'Oyly Bayley, Esq., 
History of the House of D'Oyly, Part I. 8vo. By the Editors, Archaeo- 
logia Cambrensis, a Record of the Antiquities, Historical, Genealogical, 
Topographical, and Architectural, of Wales and its Marches, Part I. 
8vo. 1846. By the Editor, The Athenaeum, Part 216. By J. B. 
Nichols, Esq., F.S.A., The Gentleman's Magazine, January, 1846. 

George Grant Francis, Esq., F.S.A., communicated an original 
Charter from Oliver Cromwell, confirming the letters patent, dated 
26 February, 1655, whereby it had been granted that the town of 
Swansea should be a free town and borough, and that the Portreeve, 
Aldermen, and Burgesses should form a body corporate. At their desire 
the Lord Protector, by the present document, ratified the said patent, 
and further granted to* them one representative in Parliament. Dated, 
3 May, 1658. Mr. Francis laid before the Society, at the same time, 
some documents preserved amongst the collections of the Royal Institu- 
tion of South Wales ; one of them, dated at Paris, June 1 286, related to 
the title of Edward I. to certain possessions in Agenois ; another, dated 
at Paris, June 1315, was a remission of exactions levied by royal man- 
date, in the times of Louis X. Another document, interesting on account 
of an unique impression of the Seal of St. David's Hospital at Swansea, 
appended to it, was a bond between Richard Rawlynges, Warden of the 
Hospital, and the burgesses and " comyns of the Towne of Sweynsey," 
concerning the title to certain lands in the neighbourhood of that town. 
.On the seal, of pointed oval form, appeared a figure of an Archbishop, 
under a canopy of shrine-work, with the inscription SIGILLVM CO'E 
DO ... REN . . . DAVID DE swEYNESE. Dated, 3 September, 
'2 Edward VI. 

John Adey Repton, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited several portraits on panel, 



the property of Ashurst Maji'iulio, Esq., of Castle Hedingham, Essex, 
apparently copies executed, towards the rlose of the sixteenth century, 
from authentic originals. They represented the Emperor Maximilian ; 
Albert, Archduke of Austria ; Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, and 
Marguerite, his Duchess ; John, Sans-Peur, Duke of Burgundy, and 
Marguerite de Bourbon, his Duchess ; Philip II. King of Spain, and 
Johanna, daughter of Ferdinand of Aragon, and wife of Philip le Bel. 

Monsieur Octave Delepierre, Honorary F.S.A., Secretary of the 
Belgian Legation, communicated a document found by him in the course 
of researches amongst the Records of West Flanders, which comprise 
numerous evidences relating to the connexion of that country with Eng- 
land. It related to a dispute which had arisen at Bruges, in the year 
1441, between a Scotch merchant, named William Carebis, John Craw- 
fort, a monk of Melrose Abbey, and Cornelius de Aeltre, citizen and 
master of the art of carpentry of Bruges, who had contracted to supply 
certain sedilia or stalls, and to erect them in the Abbey Church of Mel- 
rose, after the fashion of the stalls in the choir of the Abbey Church of 
Dunis in Flanders, with carving similar to those existing in the church 
of Thosan near Bruges. The stipulated price had been paid, and the 
master carpenter was called to account for delaying to complete the work ; 
whereupon he pleaded various excuses, stating that the work had been 
impeded by popular commotions at Bruges, during which he had been 
deserted by his workmen, and suffered severe losses. It was finally agreed 
that the representatives of the Abbot of Melrose should pay to the Friars 
Minors of Bruges, in whose refectory the stall work in question had for 
some years been standing, to their inconvenience, four livres de gros ; 
that they should bear the charge of its transport to the town of Sluys, 
and embarkation there for Scotland, and make some allowance to Corne- 
lius, towards his journey to Melrose. That they should, moreover, give 
to him and his chief carver ("formiscissori") a safe-conduct for their jour- 
ney and return. Dated 7th October,. 1441. 

An original relation, preserved amongst the Records of the Corpora- 
tion of London, and communicated by Thomas Lott, Esq., F.S.A., was 
then read. It was entitled " the true order, conduvt, and cawse of the 
muster which was made before the most high, noble,*and puyssant Prince, 
Kynge Henry the VIII. by the cytezens of London," the 8th May, in 
the 31st year of his reign, 1539. This muster was occasioned by in- 
formation that the Pope had, by means of Reginald Pole, incited the 
Princes of Christendom to invade the realm, whereupon the King had in 
person visited the coasts, caused block-houses and fortifications to be 
made, put the navy in readiness at Portsmouth, under the Great Admiral 
of England, the Earl of Southampton, and issued commissions to all the 
realm for the muster of the people and view of harness and weapons. 
Amongst these a commission was directed to the Lord Mayor, Sir William 
Forman, and the Aldermen, requiring them to certify the names of all 
men within the city between the ages of 16 and GO, with the number and 
kinds of harness and weapons. Whereupon, after careful inspection in 
the several wards, and selection of the most able men, the Mayor was 
informed by Cromwell that Henry was disposed to inspect in person the 
muster of the citizens. This announcement greatly excited their zeal 



and loyalty; consultations wnv held for ordering the array in the most 
becoming manner ; those persons only who had white harness were per- 
mitted to take part, to the exclusion of such as were armed only with 
jacks, brigandines, or coats of fence. A kind of uniform of white coats, 
hats, and hose was prescribed, and every man of substance hastened to 
provide himself with a coat of silk, costly ornaments, arms, and armour ; 
most of this sort had also chains of gold. A detailed description was 
given of the armour and apparel of the constables, the Mayor and aldermen, 
the "wyffelers," minstrels and standard-bearers, which had been fully 
abstracted by Hall in his Chronicles. Then followed a description of 
the assembly of the army, the divisions into " battayls," the disposition 
of the ordnance, the order observed on the march, the rich array of the 
Lord Mayor, his officials and attendants, as also of the Recorder, Sir 
Roger Cholmeley, the Sheriffs, and many curious details, only briefly 
noticed by Hall, or omitted altogether. The citizens assembled early 
on the morning of May 8, in the common field between Mile End and 
Whitechapel, and entering by Aldgate passed through the city in warlike 
fashion, till they came to Westminster, where the King and nobility stood 
to behold the muster. The great guns and hand guns fired very terribly ; 
the loyal citizens moved forward through the Great Sanctuary at West- 
minster, and about St. James's Park, to a great field before the same, 
where Henry might conveniently inspect them from his Gate House, at 
Westminster. About five in the afternoon they reached Leadenhall, on 
their return, and the muster, which had commenced at nine in the fore- 
noon, dispersed. The most perfect order was observed in this remarkable 
display of the alacrity with which the citizens responded to the call of 
the Sovereign, and evinced the prevalent feeling of the times in oppo- 
sition to any Papal influence. 

Thursday, January 15, 1846. 
WILLIAM R. HAMILTON, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following presents were received, and the thanks of the Society 
were ordered to be returned for the same. By the Society of Anti- 
quaries of Picardy, Bulletin for the year 1845, No. 3, 8vo. By Mon- 
sieur Achille Deville, Honorary F.S.A , Lettre a M. Auguste le Prevost 
sur le Co3ur de St. Louis. By the Ministre de 1'Instruction Publique 
in France, Collection de Documents Inedits sur 1'Histoire de France, 
publics par ordre du Roi; Paris, 45 vols., 4to., with three large Atlases. 
By William D. Haggard, Esq., F. S. A., a medallion portrait of Nicholas 
Carlisle, Esq., executed in wax, by Mr. Archer, of Tavistock-street. 

William Debonaire Haggard, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited a silver medal 
of the sixteenth century, of very rude execution. A letter was read, 
addressed to Sir Henry Ellis by Thomas Burgon, Esq., of the British 
Museum, who supposed that this piece was a blundered copy from a coin 
of Hadrian, with the mixture of Greek letters in the inscriptions. That 
which appeared on the obverse seemed to be a barbarous imitation of the 
usual legend on many large brass coins of that emperor HADRI- 
AN VS. AVG. COS. III. P.P. 



114 

The Very Rev. the Ueiu of Hereford, 1 ; .S. A., presented to the $o- 
c*t) ;i --;i>t from the inscription carved on a piece of oak, formerly part 
of the rood-screen in the church of Llanvair-Waterdine, Radnorshire, 
which, as he ol>M-rved, had excited considerable interest, and had not 
hitherto been satisfactorily deciphered. The late character of the 
mouldings, as shown by this cast, appeared to shew that this inscription 
is not more ancient than the latter part of the fifteenth century. The 
Dean, at the same time, informed the Society that a Committee had been 
formed for the restoration of the remarkable Norman church of Kilpec, 
in Herefordshire, under Mr. Cottingham's direction, and requested 
information in regard to the construction of the original covering of the 
curious apse, which had been removed not many years since. 

Alfred J. Kempe, Esq., F.S.A., communicated some observations 
on the ancient encampment, situated at the south-western angle of 
Wimbledon Common ; it was described by Lysons, and had been con- 
sidered by Camden to be a vestige of the battle between Ceawlin, king 
of the West Saxons, and Ethelbert, king of Kent, which occurred, 
according to the Saxon Chronicle, at a place called W T ibbandun, A.D. 568. 
Mr. Kempe, however, was disposed to think that the work had been 
constructed by the Britons ; he observed, that places, the names of which 
contained the Celtic term Dinas, or Dunum often changed into ton, or 
tune had generally a British origin. In the Itineraries many such 
names are found, as Londinium, Sobiordunum, Camalodunnm, &c. The 
British dunes were the oppida described by Cassar ; they were placed 
on elevated spots, often surrounded by woods, and commonly near 
springs of water. Such was the position of the camp at Wimbledon. 
The prefix was, perhaps, derived from some Saxon proprietor, Wimbald, 
into whose possession the British dune had, at length, passed. The 
entrenchment is of circular form, and has an inner vallum, foss, and 
outer vallum, forming a covered way which runs round the exterior line 
of the foss; by this arrangement an assaulting force would be met 
by a double line of defenders, and be exposed to a double discharge of 
missiles. 

A portion of a communication from Samuel Birch, Esq., F.S.A., was 
then read, being a Memoir on a fictile cylix found at Vulci, now preserved 
in the British Museum. 



Thursday, January 22, 1846. 
THOMAS AMYOT, Esq., Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The following books were presented to the Society, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned for the same, By Monsieur Edouard le Hericher, 
Suite du Premier Volume sur 1'Avranchin, pp. 401 653, 8vo. By 
the Royal Academy of Sciences and Bclles-Lettres of Brussels, Nou- 
veaux Memoires, torn. X. XVIII., 4to. ; Memoires Couronnes par 
I' Academic Royale, torn. XII^ XV., 4to. ; Memoires Couronnes, et 

Memoires des SaVants etranpers, torn. XVI XVIII., 4to.; Bulletins, 

torn. XL, XII., 8vo. ; Des Moyens de soustraire 1'exploitation des 



Mines de Houille aux chances dVxplosion, 8\o. ; Annuaire, 1844,1845, 
Nvo. 

Lord Albert Conyngham, F.S.A., exhibited the original in-cribed rail 
of oak, formerly portion of a screen in the church of Llanvair- Water- 
dine, near Knighton, of which a cast had been presented to the Society 
at the previous meeting by the Dean of Hereford. He referred to the 
supposition of Sir Samuel Meyrick, that the characters belong to a 
system of musical notation, as stated in a paper previously communi- 
cated to the Society. 

George Godwin, Esq., Jim., F.S.A., exhibited an ancient spear head 
of bronze, found recently during excavations in the Fulham road, nearly 
opposite to the gate of the West London Cemetery. It was of unusually 
large dimensions, measuring in length 16 inches, and the width of the 
blade, in the broadest part, was 2 inches. The central rib was hollow 
throughout nearly the whole length of the blade. It was found about 
four feet and a half beneath the surface, embedded in the solid clay. 

The reading of Mr. Birch's Memoir on a vase from Vulci, being one 
of the hundred vases selected from the Prince of Canino's collection, 
and purchased by the Trustees of the British Museum, was then con- 
cluded. This vase is of the most flourishing period of Hellenic fictile 
art ; the figures are red upon a black ground, and are designed with the 
utmost delicacy. In the interior of the cylix is represented Peleus 
leading Thetis, after her capture, to Chiron. On the outer sides of the 
vase are pourtrayed a subject, explained by Mr. Birch as the quarrel of 
Achilles and Agamemnon ; and a second group, which he considered to 
be of the highest interest as an illustration of the Attic dramatists, 
representing the judgment of Orestes before the Areopagus. Mr. B : rch 
described various remarkable representations of this myth, occurring 
upon other vases, and exhibited tracings from two, which had been found 
likewise at Vulci. 



Thursday, January 29, 1846. 
WILLIAM R. HAMILTON, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

" John Comport, Esq., of Rochester, Solicitor, was balloted for, and 
duly elected a Fellow of the Society. 

The Royal Agricultural Society of England presented their Journal, 
Vol. 'VI. Part II. The thanks of the Society were ordered to be re- 
turned. 

Lord Albert Conyngham, F.S.A., exhibited four vessels of terra 
cotta, recently brought from South America. Their forms were of sin- 
gularly grotesque character. 

W. Whincopp, Esq., exhibited a remarkable object, supposed to be of 
Roman workmanship, discovered in the neighbourhood of the Roman 
remains at Breteuil, near Beauvais, and subsequently in the collection of 
M. Mansard, of that place. It was a circular piece of jasper, measuring 
in diameter two inches and three-eighths, in form precisely similar to 
the flat pomel of a medieval sword, with bevelled edges, and perforated 
as if for adjustment to the upper end of the blade of such a weapon, 



116 

On one side uas rut u laureated imperial head, apparently antique, and 
around the edge of the stone, the legend ANTOOINVS AYS PIVS 
IT TR P COS III, which seemed to be a more modern addition. A 
similar pomcl, found near Athens, but without any ornament, is in Lord 
Strangford's po-se->ion. and a third exists amongst Payne Knight's collec- 
tions in the British Museum. Mr. Whincopp also exhibited a stone maul 
or battle-axe, of unusual size and form, found at Shropham, in Norfolk. 

Edward Hailstone, Esq., F.S.A., communicated some supplementary 
remarks on the account of the sepulchral memorial of Robert Hallum, 
Bishop of Salisbury, given by Mr. Pearsall, and published in the thir- 
tieth volume of the Archaeologia, with a plate representing the Monu- 
mental Brass still to be seen in Constance Cathedral. Mr. Pearsall had 
cited the relation given in a work, entitled " Concilium von Costnitz," 
and noticed, as a singular circumstance, that no offering was made in 
the Cathedral at the funeral of the Bishop. Mr. Hailstone, however, on 
comparing the account thus quoted, with that given in an edition of the 
same History of the Proceedings at the Council of Constance, printed 
at Augsburg by Heinrich Steyner, in 1536, and entitled "Das 
Concilium zu Constantz," remarked certain circumstances, which 
had escaped the notice of Mr. Pearsall. It appeared that the usual 
custom of making an offering had not been wholly omitted, but had been 
deferred on the occasion of the interment of the Bishop, which took 
place on September 5, being the day after his decease ; on September 
13, however, the offering and funeral obsequies were celebrated with 
suitable sfrite, and all the princes and dignitaries, temporal and spiritual, 
were present on the occasion. A detailed recital of the circumstances 
attending this ceremony is found in the Augsburg edition, consulted by 
Mr. Hailstone. A full account is also given of the arrival of Bishop 
Hallum at the Council, of his suite, and the discourse delivered by him 
in the Cathedral on some solemn occasion, when he selected as his text, 
Luke i. 1 5. The armorial bearings of the prelate, which had been wholly 
defaced on his sepulchral brass, occur twice amongst the curious wood- 
cuts which illustrate the volume. The bearing is an engrailed cross 
ermines, with a crescent in the dexter chief. The escutcheon is sur- 
mounted by a mitre, placed between a cross-staff and a crosier, the 
former being probably in allusion to his dignity of Cardinal. 

The first portion of a communication from Sir Nicholas Harris Nico- 
las, entitled, Observations on the Origin and History of the Badge of 
Edward Prince of Wales, was read, and the sequel reserved for a future 
occasion. 



Thursday, February 5, 1846. 

THOMAS AMYOT, Esq., Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The following presents were received, and thanks were ordered to be 

returned. By the British Archaeological Association, Journal, No. IV. 

46. By the Editor, The Athenaeum, Part CCXVII. By John B. 

Nichols, Esq., F.S.A., The Gentleman's Magazine, February, 1846. 

< M.'luin, K-I., F.S.A., The Builder, Vol. IV. Part I. 
UtU1:!l " liihite.l a gold ornament, supposed to have 



117 

Inru an cur- ring, dixjoveivd in Suffolk, and a silver cur-ring, iuurd in 
the neighbourhood of Bury St. Edmund's, both supposed to be of 
Saxon workmanship. The gold ring was formed with several round 
wires curiously twisted, like a rope tapering towards the cxtren. 
which were united together, forming a sort of loop, to which a smaller 
ring or hook might be adjusted, for suspension to the ear. The weight 
of this ornament, however, (12 dwt. 14 gr.) appeared too great to have 
allowed of its being thus worn. This curious ornament presents some 
analogy in its character to that of the torques discovered, with coins 
<>t Canute, on Halton Moor, Lancashire. Archaeologia, XVIII. pi. 18. 

Gideon Algernon Mantell, Esq., LL.D., exhibited another gold orna- 
ment, similar in its general fashion to the ring found in Suffolk, but 
formed of two massive square wires twisted together, and decreasing 
gradually in size towards the extremities, which were connected together 
so as to form a ring, measuring in diameter about an inch and a quarter. 
It was ploughed up on the Sussex downs, near Palmer, and was presented 
to Dr. Mantell by the late Earl of Chichester. 

The reading of the Observations on the Origin of the Badge of 
Edward Prince of Wales, by Sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas, was then 
resumed. The popular account of the adoption of the ostrich feathers 
and motto by the Black Prince at the battle of Cressy is first men- 
tioned by Camden in his " Remains ;" the first edition erroneously 
giving Poictiers, instead of Cressy, as the field where those insignia 
were won. Sandford repeats the statement that they were taken from 
the King of Bohemia, who fell at Cressy, citing Walsingham, who, 
however, makes no allusion either to the feathers or motto; and no 
contemporary authority for the popular history is known to exist. In a 
careful examination of the Wardrobe Accounts, made for the History of 
the Order of the Garter, the attention of Sir Harris Nicolas had been 
constantly directed to these and other badges or mottoes. The first 
mention of the feathers which had been found in any record, is in an 
indenture, not hitherto known, relating to a delivery of plate by the 
keeper of the King's wardrobe, subsequently to 43 Edward III. 1369. 
In the enumeration of the Queen's plate, every article of which, if 
marked, bore her arms or initial, a large dish for alms is described, ena- 
melled at the bottom with a black escutcheon with ostrich feathers ; 
there is no mention of its having been a gift to her from the Black 
Prince, or any other person, and Sir Harris was led to the inference 
that the feathers in a sable field belonged to Philippa, either as a badge 
of her family, or as anus borne in right of some territory appertaining 
to her house. The next notice of the feathers is in the will of the 
Black Prince, dated 1376 ; they are described as his badge, and it is 
manifest that they were never used as his crest. In further refutation 
of the tradition regarding the King of Bohemia, it is material to observe 
that his crest was two wings of a vulture, and not an ostrich 
plume, as shown on his seals, given by Oliver Vredius. The only other 
contemporary evidences of the usage of the feathers are supplied by 
seals. They do not occur upon the great seals of Edward III. or of his 
consort, but are introduced on a seal of that monarch, " pro lanis et 
corcis liberandis," of which a cast exists in the British Museum. Sir 



118 

Harris described eight different seals of the Black Prince, on some of 
whit li the feathers are omitted ; they may be seen on his great seal for the 
Duchy of Aquitaine, represented in Samlford's History. It appears that 
Munr of the other sons of Edward III., if not all of them, bore the same 
Imd'jr. with a slight difference, as proved by their seals and other authentic 
evidences. It was likewise home by Richard II., Henry IV., Henry 
V., and Henry VI. An ostrich feather was the badge of the younger 
sons of Henry IV.; it was also used by the House of York. On the seal 
of Prince Edward, afterwards Edward V., it occurs in a novel manner, 
being fixed on his horse's head, as well as introduced in the diapering. 
After the reign of Henry VII., the feathers seem to have been consi- 
dered to belong exclusively to the Sovereign's eldest son ; they were 
used by Prince Edward, afterwards Edward VI., with the label and motto, 
and surmounted by a coronet. Subsequently to the reign of James I. 
they have usually been borne as a plume encircled by a coronet ; and, 
from ignorance of the real character of this ancient and beautiful badge, 
it has sometimes been considered as the crest of the Princes of Wales. 
Sir Harris concluded by stating his opinion that there is no truth in the 
tradition which assigns the origin of the ostrich feathers to Cressy or 
Poictiers ; and that it was derived, as well as the mottoes, from the 
house of Hainault, possibly from the Comte of Ostrevant, which formed 
the appanage of the eldest sons of the counts of that province. 



Thursday, February 12, 1846. 
HENRY HALLAM, ESQ., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Nathaniel Gould, Esq., of Tavistock-square, was balloted for, and 
duly elected a Fellow of the Society. 

The following books were presented to the Society, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned for the same. By the Numismatic Society, the 
Numismatic Chronicle, No. XXIX. 1846. By Joseph Walter King 
Eyton, Esq., F.S.A., Gardyne's Garden of Grave and Godlie Flowers, 
4to. 1845 ; printed for the Abbotsford Club. By the SociSte des Anti- 
quaires de I'Ouest, Memoires, Tom. I. XIII., 8vo. ; Poitiers, 1836-45 ; 
Bulletins, 1845. By the Societe Fran9aise pour la Conservation des 
Monuments, Seances Generates tenues en 1845, 8vo. Caen. 

The Kev. H. T. Ellacombe, F.S.A. sent for the inspection of the 
Society a cast of a singular bronze collar, discovered at Wraxall in 
Somersetshire, near the residence of Mr. Coathupe, as noticed in the 
Archaeologia, XXX. p. 521. It appeared to have been adorned with 
pearls or precious stones, and was formed in two portions, which were 
united, as it was supposed, by means of pins, fitting into sockets at the 
extremities of either moiety of this curious ornament. 

Thomas Wright, Esq., F.S.A., communicated three inedited letters 

from Henrietta Maria to Cardinal Mazarin and the Duke of York, and 

three from Oliver Cromwell to Mazarin, copied from the originals, 

are preserved in the Archives of the Ministere des Affaires 

ngcres at Paris. The letters of the Quoen throw some light on the 

tendons of the exiled family during the time immediately following 



119 

the battle of Worcester, which seemed to have destroyed their hopes. 
It appears, however, from these documents that the eyes of the Stuarts 
were still fixed upon Scotland, and that as late as 1653 Charles II. had 
resolved to return to that country. The first of these letters, dated 
April 19, 1652, was a mere request to the Cardinal to give employment 
to the Duke of York in the service of the French King. In the next, 
addressed to the Duke from Chaillot, December 15, 1652, she expressed 
her grief at the determination of Charles II. to quit France ; this 
appears to have been written on the occasion of the embassy of M. de 
Bordeaux to England, which was naturally regarded by the ex-queen as 
a virtual recognition of the Commonwealth. It seems, however, that 
her confidence in the good intentions of the French court was quickly 
n-stored ; and in the third letter, addressed to Mazarin in 1653, she 
alludes to the intended departure of her son for Scotland, to raise a new 
insurrection against the Parliament, and solicits the Cardinal's assistance. 
No aid was, however, supplied, and Cromwell was in secret correspond- 
ence himself with Mazarin, as appears by a complimentary letter 
addressed to him from Westminster in June, 1653. In the following 
year, Monsieur de Baas was despatched by Mazarin to congratulate 
Cromwell on his elevation to the Protectorate, and Cromwell's letter in 
acknowledgment has been preserved. The envoy appears to have 
remained in England as the accredited agent of the French court, and 
having intrigued with the royalists, and engaged in a formidable plot, he 
was expelled from the country. The letter from Cromwell on this 
occasion, written in Latin, possibly, as Mr. Wright observed, by Milton, 
expresses the most friendly feelings both towards the French govern- 
ment and the Cardinal ; the friendship between Mazarin and Cromwell 
appears indeed to have continued to the end of their lives without 
interruption. 

Thursday, February 19, 1846. 
WILLIAM R. HAMILTON, Esq., Vice- President, in the Chair. 

James Pilbrow, Esq., of No. 8, Bloomsbury-square, and of Totten- 
ham, Middlesex, Civil Engineer, was balloted for, and duly elected a 
Fellow of the Society. 

The following books were presented, and thanks were ordered to be 
returned for the same. By the American Philosophical Society at 
Philadelphia, Transactions, Vol. IX. Part II. 1845; Proceedings, Nos. 
XXXII. XXXIII. 1845; Transactions of the Historical and Literary 
Committee, Vol. HI. Part I. By the Royal Asiatic Society, Journal, 
No. XVI. Part II. 1846. 

William Henry Blaauw, Esq., exhibited the lid of the leaden cist, 
inscribed with the name of GVNDRADA, Countess de Warenne, 
recently found on the site of the Priory Church at Lewes, and various 
objects which had been brought to light during excavations at that place. 
Dr. Mantell had previously communicated to the Society some notices of 
these discoveries, at the meeting on llth December last. It is obvimi 
that the remains of William de Warenne and his wife had been trans- 



f'envd from their original sepultures to those small cists ; the time when 
this occurred h;ul not been recorded, but it was, probably, as Mr. Blaauw 
remarked, on the completion of the chapter-house, in which they were 
finally interred. William the second Earl Warenne, in his second 
charter, alluded to the gradual progress of the buildings, and dedication 
of the church, which appears to have taken place between the years 1091 
and 1097. The chapter-house, mentioned by Orderic, must have been 
built within the next fifty years ; the church was not fully completed 
until nearly the close of that period, for the second dedication appears to 
have occurred between the years 1136 and 1147, as mentioned in a 
charter of the third Earl. Mr. Blaauw remarked, that in all the older 
documents the name of the Countess is invariably written Gundrada or 
Gondrada. He noticed the occurrence of fragments amongst the 
remains at Lewes, belonging to the period of early- English architecture. 
From this fact it appears that some buildings were erected there during 
the thirteenth century ; but whether these later works rendered the 
removal of the remains of the founders requisite must remain uncertain. 
Mr. Blaauw thought it most probable that their transfer to the leaden 
cists took place about the time of the second dedication, and about 
sixty years after the first interment. 

A portion of a communication from the Rev. James Graves, of Boms 
in Ossory, relating to the Irish earth-works termed Raths and Duns, 
was then read, and the remainder reserved for a future occasion. 

The Vice- President, in the Chair, then announced to the meeting 
that the Council, at their last meeting, had come to the decision, that it 
might conduce to the prosperity of the Society, and be agreeable to the 
members, that the Chairman of the evening, at the termination of the 
reading of such communications as might be made to the Society at their 
weekly meetings, should invite the members present to make any obser- 
vations which might occur to them on the subject of the papers which 
had been read, or the objects laid on the table for their inspection. 



Thursday, February 26, 1846. 
THOMAS AMYOT, Esq., Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The following books were presented to the Society, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned for the same. By William Downing Bruce, Esq., 
F.S.A., Magna Carta, and ancient statutes, 12mo., printed by Pynson, 
1615 ; and a MS. entitled, De rebus Physicis, secundum Cartesium, con- 
sisting of extracts from Aristotle, Des Cartes, and other writers, formerly, 
as appeared by an inscription on the first page, in the possession of Peter 
le Neve, 1678. By Thomas Wright, Esq., F.S.A., Essays on sub- 
jects connected with the Literature of England in the Middle Ages 
2 vols. 8vo. 1846. 

Edward Tyrrell Artis, Esq., F.S. A., exhibited a small bronze casket, 
described as having been found inclosed in an earthen vase, and 
containing various Roman coins, of early and late periods. It was 
brought to light in the course of excavations for the line of railway 
between Northampton and Peterborough ; but the exact site had not 
beeu ascertained. It is now in the possession of the Earl Fitzwilliam. 



The Rev. George II. Da.-hwood submitted to the inspection of the 
Soru'ty a scries of drawings, representing ancient seals attached to 
documents preserved in the muniment room of Sir Thomas Hare, Bart., 
at Stow Hall, Norfolk, and relating chiefly to lands in the Hundred of 
Clackclose. These seals are mostly those of private persons, from the 
reign of Henry III. downwards, with some few Abbey seals. Mr. 
Dashwood noticed, especially, as an early instance of impalement, the 
seal used by Gilbert de Ethol, Rector of Westbrigge, 3 Edward III., 
and, as an example of dimidiation, the seal of Katharine de Essex, in the 
same reign. The seal of Bartholomew Elys, of Great Yarmouth, 
17 Richard II., is remarkable as giving the family arms, with the sub- 
stitution of his merchant's mark, in place of the cinqfoil in base. 
Amongst numerous seals of the Bardolphs, that of John Bardolph of 
Frettenham, t. Edward III., is singular, as exhibiting five cinqfoils, 
whereas the bearing of that family usually displays only three. 

Sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas communicated some further observations 
relating specially to the origin of the mottoes ICH DIEN, and HOU- 
MOUT. It is particularly deserving of notice, that although the Black 
Prince does not mention the former in his will, expressly directing that 
HOUMOUT should be inscribed over all the escutcheons on his tomb 
at Canterbury, yet it is found only over those which contain his arms, 
and that over the shields with ostrich feathers ICH DIENE is placed, 
and repeated on an escroll upon the quill of each feather. A remarkable 
piece of evidence, preserved in the Tower, and hitherto unpublished, 
supplies the proof that the Prince actually used both mottoes ; it is a 
warrant from the Black Prince, dated April 25, 1370, with the extra- 
ordinary signature, probably by his own hand, as here represented. 
This is the more remark- 
able, as being the only known 
instance of a document signed 
by the Prince ; and because 
no other example has been 
noticed of a motto thus used. 
Ich dien are German, and not, 
as Camden suggests, old English words ; the Prince appears to have at- 
tached more importance to his other motto, houmout, or homout, which has 
sometimes been erroneously printed houmont, and supposed to be French. 
Sir Harris, however, believed that it is formed of the two old German 
words, hoogh moed, hoo moed, or hoogh-moe, signifying magnanimous, 
high-spirited, and expressive of the predominant quality of the Prince's 
mind, as the motto Ich dien, I serve, indicated his position and sense 
of duty. That Queen Philippa used German mottoes is shewn by the 
record of presents given to her by Edward III., in 1361, ornamented 
with her motto, * Myn biddenye," and the words, " ich wrude much." 
Sir Harris was impressed with the belief that the mottoes used by Prince 
Edward were derived from his maternal house of Hainault, and that the 
popular notion of the origin of the motto Ich dien, as having been taken 
from the King of Bohemia, is unfounded. 

Alfred J. Kempe, Esq. F.S.A., communicated some remarks on the 
memorial of Gundrada, Countess Warren, at Lewes, and the discoveries 




188 

recently made there. The sculptured slab, inscribed in uncial cha- 
r, now deposited in the church of St. Mary, Southover, in all 
probability covered the stone coffin wherein her remains had been 
first deposited, on her decease, A.D. 1085; the foliated ornaments carved 
upon it resemble various examples, assigned to the twelfth century, of 
which Mr. Kempe exhibited representations. The leaden cist, recently 
found, he was disposed to regard as having been fabricated about half 
a century after the demise of the Countess ; and he considered the 
remarkable fretty ornament of corded work, which decorates it, as 
derived from the Roman times. It appears on a Roman sepulchral urn, 
discovered by Mr. Kempe, at Holwood Hill ; on a Roman stone coffin 
found near the Watling-street Way, at Dartford, in Kent : it decorates 
the Roman mile-stone, which stood on the same ancient road, at South- 
fleet, and was preserved in the grounds of the rectory at that place ; and 
is found on one of the ancient sepulchral stones in the church of 
Llanvihangel-aber-cowin, in Caermarthen shire, popularly known as " the 
Pilgrim's stones." 

The reading of the Memoir on the Raths and Duns, in Ireland, by 
the Rev. James Graves, was then concluded. The earth-works de- 
signated by these appellations are to be seen in every part of that 
country. They vary in dimensions and shape, the majority being cir- 
cular ; but some are of elliptical, or rectangular form. In some districts 
they are known by the name lis, or moat, some descriptive epithet being 
frequently conjoined, as Rathmore, Lismore, Dunmore, all signifying 
the Great Fort; in many cases the name of some person distinguished 
in history forms part of the appellation, by which such a fortress, for- 
merly his usual place of habitation, is still known. Some antiquaries, 
as Mr. Graves observed, had considered these remains as of Danish 
rather than Irish origin ; and he entered into a critical discussion of the 
statements of the Abbe Mac-Geoghehan, Ware, Ledwich, and other 
authors who have written upon this subject. These fortresses occur in 
positions known to have been the sites of the dwellings of ancient Irish 
kings or chieftains : they are not found exclusively or in greater num- 
bers in the neighbourhood of places where the Danes had settlements, and 
they may be seen in fastnesses into which it is probable that the Danes 
never penetrated. The greater number of these Raths were undoubtedly 
erected for purposes of defence; but Mr. Graves considered that 
some of them had been connected with religious usages. He proposed 
to divide the military works of this nature into two classes the resi- 
dences of kings and toparchs ; and those belonging to the petty chiefs of 
a district. The former appear to have consisted of one or more earthen 
ramparts, within which were erected buildings for various purposes, 
probably of a very rude and temporary construction : the second class 
seem to have been generally dwellings formed with wattles, or other sim- 
ple materials ; but they frequently had communication with subterranean 
< h.'imbers, some of which are still to be seen in various parts of the 
country. Mr. Graves described several of these remains, and cited 
numerous passages in the more ancient writers, which tend to throw 
light upon this curious subject. 



Thursday, March .">, 1816. 
WILLIAM R. HAMILTON, Esq., Yin- President, in the Chair. 

The Vice- President, in the Chair, proposed for election the Right 
Rev. Samuel Wilberforce, D.D., F.R.S., Lord Bishop of Oxford, who, 
as a Peer of the realm, was entitled to have the ballot for his election 
taken immediately ; whereupon he balloted for, and was declared duly 
elected a fellow of the Society. 

The following presents were received, and thanks were ordered to be 
returned for the same : By the Royal College of Physicians of London, 
Catalogue of the Fellows and Licentiates, 8vo. 1845. By John B. 
Nichols, Esq., F.S.A., The Gentleman's Magazine, March, 1846. 

William Bromet, Esq., M.D., F.S.A., exhibited rubbings from an 
incised memorial in Bottesford Church, originally at Belvoir Priory, 
and a sepulchral brass in the chapel of Eton College. The first 
is a slab, commemorative of Robert de Roos, of Hamlake, who died 
1285, and Isabella de Albini, his wife, heiress of Belvoir, who died 
1301. It was removed to Bottesford at the dissolution of the neigh- 
bouring Priory. The inscription, into the text of which three armorial 
escutcheons are introduced in a singular manner, records the interment 
of the heart of de Roos ; the heraldic peculiarities exhibited by these 
escutcheons are remarkable ; the bearings are I, de Roos impaling de 
Albini ; 2, de Albini dimidiated with de Roos ; 3, de Roos quartering 
Badlesmere, with a blank impalement. Robert de Roos left a son, 
William, who had livery of his father's lands, but, as Dr. Bromet was 
disposed to conclude, did not become possessed of the honours and 
lands of Belvoir until the death of his mother. He was succeeded, in 
1316, by his son William, who received immediate livery of the whole 
inheritance, and married Margery, sister and co-heir of Giles de Badles- 
mere. Dr. Bromet supposed that their great-grandson, John de Roos, 
who succeeded in 1384 and died in 1393 without issue, caused this 
memorial to his ancestors to be placed in the church of Belvoir. He 
noticed the singular .marshalling of the bearing of Isabella, on the 
dexter side of the second escutcheon, which may have arisen from her 
having retained possession of the honours of her parental barony of 
Belvoir, after the decease of her husband, as shewn by various docu- 
ments cited by Dr. Bromet. That barony was also much more important 
than that of de Roos, and the bearing may on this account have been 
placed on the more honourable side of the escutcheon. The third escut- 
cheon with the blank impalement may possibly be regarded as a shield 
of expectation (according to the term used in Spain), and attributed to 
John de Roos, who does not appear to have been married ; it is 
obviously to be assigned to a date later than the demise of Margery 
de Badlesmere, in 1363, as until that event her arms could not with 
propriety have been quartered with those of de Roos. 

The sepulchral brass at Eton is a figure of a young man in armour, 
representing, as appears by the inscription, " Richard Grey, Lord Grey 
Cotenore, Wylton, Ruthyn, and on of the heyrs apparant to Richard, 
Erll of Kent, sone of Edmond Lord Grey, broder and hey re to George 



124 

Lord Grey, and Thomas Lord Grey, and hcncheman to our Severn in 
Lord King Henry llu- VIII." He died October 28, 1521. Dr. Bromet 
noticed this memorial as shewing the union of these titles, which are 
generally supposed to have been separate long previous to that date. 

Samuel Birch, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited drawings representing two 
heads, specimens of Assyrian sculpture, brought from Mossul, and now 
in the possession of Sir Robert Peel. 

Richard Greene, Esq., F.S.A., communicated some particulars relating 
to the discovery of a tomb and effigy on the north side of the chancel 
in St. Michael's Church, Lichfield, supposed to be those of the founder. 
In the course of the recent restoration, a recessed tomb was brought to 
light ; it had been walled up, concealed by plaister, and the recumbent 
figure, as well as the arch under which it lay, wilfully mutilated, the 
crocketed dripstone of the latter having been destroyed, even with the 
surface of the wall, and one side of the effigy cut away to the thickness 
of a brick, for the purpose of facing up the opening of the arch. On 
removing the figure, the tomb was found beneath ; it had been constructed 
in the thickness of the foundation wall : the body was deposited therein 
in an oak coffin, and the remains appeared to be those of a person in 
the prime of life. The effigy is sculptured in fine grit stone, known in 
Staffordshire as Wharton stone, and exhibits some peculiar features of 
costume, from which Mr. Edward Richardson, to whom the restoration 
of this interesting figure has been entrusted, is disposed to consider it 
as a work of the time of Edward III., or Richard II. They consist 
chiefly of a close fitting skull-cap, covering the back of the head and 
ears, whilst the front hair and a roll of curls on each side are exposed, 
in a fashion similar to that exhibited by the effigy of De Ros, in the 
Temple Church; the hood and tippet, the long sleeves of the outer 
robe, and the close fitting sleeves of the under garment, buttoned on the 
arm. The building in which this memorial has been found is of earlv- 
English character, with plain lancet windows. Mr. Greene, regarding 
the costume as appropriate to a civilian of the classes inferior in rank 
to the aristocracy, conjectured that it might be the tomb of William de 
Waltone, who, by a document dated at Lichfield, 18 Edward III. 1344, 
gave certain lands to find a light to burn in the church of St. Michael, 
and provide for the celebration of a mass therein, for the benefit of his 
soul and that of his wife. These observations were accompanied by a 
letter from Sydney Smirke, Esq., F.S.A., under whose direction the dis- 
closure of the tomb had taken place ; he remarked that the remains 
appeared to have been disturbed at some earlier period, and that the 
walls of the chancel are of various dates, the original structure appearing 
to have been in the early pointed style, but there were windows of the 
fourteenth century, and portions of still later date. The arched recess 
appeared to be of Decorated character, which may corroborate Mr. 
Greene's conjecture in regard to the appropriation of the tomb. 

William J. Thorns, Esq., F.S.A., communicated some observations 
on the custom of wearing a leek upon Saint David's day. It is singular 
that in Brand's Popular Antiquities, although the antiquity of this 
practice is strongly asserted, no authority is cited in proof, nor even any 
allusion to it quoted, which is of earlier date than the seventeenth century. 



The well-known passage in Shakspeare's Henry the Fifth, Act V. sc-ei:e I , 
wherein this custom is designated as "an ancient tradition," appears to 
have been passed over without note or observation by commentators. 
This play, according" to Mr. Collier, wns produced in the summer of 
1599, and no previous mention of the leek appears to have been noticed. 
In Owen's Cambrian Biography, indeed, it is asserted that the title by 
which St. David has been dignified as patron saint of Wales is scarcely- 
known amongst the people of the Principality, having originated in the 
romances of the Middle Ages, which created the Seven Champions of 
Christendom, and that it had been received from England by the Welsh in 
comparatively modern times. The writer in that work states, even, that 
he had never heard of such a patron saint, nor of the leek as his symbol, 
until he became acquainted therewith in London. Mr. Thorns suggested 
that the custom still observed by the Welsh was probably derived from 
Scandinavia, and introduced into Britain by Saxon or Danish invaders. 
In corroboration of this view he cited passages from the Edda of 
Saemund the W T ise, and the Volsunga Saga, describing the return of the 
chief Sigmund from battle, when, meeting his infant son, he bore to him 
a noble gift, the leek, and therewith gave him the name of Helga. It is 
not clear whether the king thus bore a leek as a returning conqueror, or 
because it was a custom to wear it at a name-giving ; but we learn from 
the Edda that it was regarded as a sacred plant, as it had been likewise 
amongst the Egyptians. 

Sir Henry Ellis, Secretary, then read two documents, the originals 
being preserved in the British Museum ; the first was a letter from John 
Clerk, Bishop of Bath and Wells, addressed to Secretary Cromwell, in 
favour of Master Claxton, his chaplain, who had been summoned by 
Cromwell to make answer to certain charges, of which this was one, 
that when preaching he had neglected to exhort the people to pray for 
the King's Highness, the Queen's Grace, and the Lady Princess, by- 
name. The second document was a memorial to Lord Burghley, re- 
specting the decay of the walls of Chichester, in the year 1596. 

Notice was then given from the Chair, that, the usual time for auditing 
the accounts of the Society approaching, the President had nominated as 
Auditors for the year terminating December 31, 1845, the following 
gentlemen : 

George Bowyer, Esq., D.C.L. 

Richard Lord Braybrooke. 

Peter Levesque, Esq. 

Sir Charles George Young, Knt. Garter. 



Thursday, March 12, 184G. 
HENRY HALLAM, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

William D'Oyly Bayley, Esq., of Queen's College, Cambridge, and 
Stockton-upon-Tees, Author of the History of the House of D'Oyly, 
was balloted for, and duly elected a Fellow of the Society. 

The following presents were received, and thanks were ordered to be 
returned for the same. By the Statistical Society of London, Journal, 



\.l. IX. Part I.. Svo. 184G. IK the Hditor, tin- Atlu-n:emn, Part L>13. 
H\ .l:ilf/ . \llirs, KMJ., 1 ; .S.A., Essay on the Ignis Faluns, or Will-o'- 
tli'i- \\ i>|>, and the Fairies, 8vo. 184(>. 

Gideon Algernon Mantell, Esq., LL.D., exhibited a view of the 
ancient dovecote of Lewes Priory, now totally demolished. This building 
was remarkable on account of its large dimensions, and the cruciform 
plan of its construction. The material employed was the hard chalk 
of the Sussex Downs ; the recesses for the pigeons were formed in 
like manner as in the circular dovecote at the Preceptory of Garway, 
described in the Archaeologia, vol. XXXI. They were arranged in 
parallel rows, and extended over the whole interior surface of each 
wall of the building; the entrances for the birds were under the roof, in 
each of the four gables, and the number of pigeon- holes was reckoned 
by Dr. Mantell as between three and four thousand. No representation 
of this singular building, which existed until recent times, had been pub- 
lished. The date of its erection is uncertain. 

The Rev. Edward Harries, Vicar of Llandysilio, Pembrokeshire, 
exhibited several ancient relics discovered in South Wales ; one of them 
being described as a seal, in the form of a cross, with four faces ; it was 
found in the parish of Llandewy, in an ancient entrenchment. Also a 
singular object, formed of bronze, a polyhedron, composed of twelve pen- 
tagons ; it was hollow, and had a circular aperture on each side ; the 
diameter measured about three inches. It was found in an old building 
near Fishguard, Pembrokeshire. 

Mr. William Rogers submitted for inspection a small coffer of wood, 
beautifully carved, and exhibiting some curiously designed subjects and 
inscriptions. Date, the fifteenth century. 

Arthur H. Holdsworth, Esq., communicated an account of a singular 
place of interment, found in Kingswear Church, Devon, according to the 
relation made to him by the Rev. John Smart, incumbent of the parish. 
This church belonged to Torr Abbey ; and it has been supposed that the 
priest, who was appointed by that Monastery, made his abode in the 
church tower, as there is a fire-place in the chamber on the first story. 
The fabric having fallen into decay, the principal parts of the church had 
lately been rebuilt. During the demolition of the south wall a grave was 
found in the south-east corner of the chancel, adjoining to the wall ; it 
measured seven feet by four, extending in depth a few feet below the 
foundation of the wall. Some bones of large size were found in it, and a 
piece of leather, large enough to give the impression that the remains had 
been wrapped in that material. When this grave had been cleared out, a 
passage, sufficiently large to allow a man to creep through, appeared in 
its side, leading into a cavity in the natural soil beneath the foundation 
wall. In this receptacle, measuring about three feet in diameter, were 
found the bones of ten or twelve infant children, which apparently had 
been buried in quick-lime. Access to this singular place of concealment 
could only be had through the grave first mentioned, and the interment 
of a corpse therein made might serve to preclude any suspicion of the de- 
posit secreted within. 

Alfred J. Kempe, E*q., communicated transcripts of several original 
letters, existing in her Majesty's State Paper Office, relating to the death 



of the celebrated Kdw.ird t'ourtenay, Marl of l)e\ on^hire, at Padua, in 
the year 15.56. After the attainder and execution f lii< t'aiiier the 
Marquess of I-Aeter, he had been imprisoned in the- Tower, and \\.is 
liberated by Queen Mary, at the instance of Philip her husband. 
Courtenay resolved to travel in order to avert all suspicion that he was 
meddling with political intrigues. King Philip gave him an introduction 
to his father, Charles the Fifth, whose court was then at Brussels. 
Courtenay was graciously received by the Emperor ; on quitting Brus- 
sels he proceeded to Venice, where he took up his residence ; and the 
English ambassador, Mr. Peter Vanncs, appears to have had instructions 
to watch his movements, and report to the Queen with great particularity. 
Vaunes, however, soon had to relate to Mary the circumstances of the 
death of this unfortunate nobleman. HP had gone to take the diversion 
of hawking on the island of Lio, about six miles from Venice, where he 
was surprised by a storm, and, in consequence of exposure to the rain, 
was seized with a burning ague. He repaired to Padua, in a " certain 
uneasy kind of waggon called a coche," and there died, according to Mr. 
Vannes' report, on September 18, 1556. Dugdale erroneously states 
that his death occurred in October. The Earl was interred in the 
church of St. Anthony, at Padua, where his monument still exists. A 
suspicion that he was poisoned had been entertained, which seems to be 
altogether removed by the correspondence now produced by Mr. Kempe, 
which affords an interesting illustration of the manners of the times in 
which Courtenay lived, and minutely records the circumstances of the 
close of his unfortunate life. 

Thursday, March 19, 1846. 
THOMAS AMYOT, Esq., Treasurer, in the Chair. 

Samuel Solly, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited a golden gorget, found on the 
estates of the Drapers' Company, in the county of Derry. These 
curious ornaments have been found almost exclusively in Ireland, and 
representations of several, varying slightly in form or ornament, may 
be found in Archaeologia, Vol. II. pi. ii : Vol. XXX. pi. xii. ; Cough's 
Camden, Vol. IV. pi. x. ; a specimen also, discovered near Penzance, 
is represented in Lysons's History of Cornwall. 

The Archaeological Association exhibited two illuminated drawings, 
executed by Mr. H. F. Sprague. 

Thomas W. King, Esq., F.S.A., communicated some observations on 
the monumental inscription to the memory of Richard Lord Grey de 
Wilton, in Eton College Chapel, accompanied by a pedigree, in illustra- 
tion of the fac-simile exhibited by Dr. Bromet on March 5. Richard 
Grey died in 1521, a minor and without issue; it is not easy to explain 
why* he should be styled "one of the heyrs apparant to Richard Erll 
of Kent ;" both were descended from John Lord Grey de Wilton, who 
died 17 Edward II., but the Earl had a brother living in 1521, who 
succeeded him. It is equally inexplicable why Richard Grey should be 
styled " Lord Grey Cotenore, Wylton, Ruthyr," as these baronies never 
merged in one individual. The barony of Grey de Codnor fell into 
abeyance in 1496, among the aunts of Henry, the last lord ; and had 

M 



it b.vn a barony limited to heirs male of the first baron, the Greys of 
Bart. in, a family r\i>ting at the time of Richard's death, would have 
had a prior rlaim. As regards the style of Ruthyn, Mr. King remarked 
that Kichard's grandfather married the daughter of Edmund Lord Grey 
dr Ruthyn; but his descent, thus deduced from that family, could in no 
wise have entitled him to the designation of that barony. Richard 
Karl of Kent died within three years after the decease of Richard Lord 
Grey de Wilton, and it seems probable, from the expression " one of the 
heyrs apparant," that the monument at Eton was erected soon after ; the 
insertion of the style " Lord Grey Cotenore, Wylton, Ruthyn," may 
possibly have been intended merely to indicate his connexion with the 
other ennobled branches of his ancient family. 

Samuel Birch, Esq., F.S.A., communicated observations on two bas- 
reliefs of Assyrian sculpture, brought from Khorsabad, and in the 
possession of Sir Robert Peel. 

The Secretary then read the following Resolutions of the Council, 
viz.: 

At a Council holden on Tuesday, March 17, 1846, at 3 P.M. 

VISCOUNT MAHON, Vice- President, in the Chair: 

Resolved, 

That, in consequence of the advanced time of life, and protracted 
illness of Mr. Carlisle, and the frequent recurrence of a state of 
indisposition, in which his infirmities render him unable adequately 
to discharge the duties of Secretary, the Council, whilst they are 
anxious to express their deep regret at this suspension of his long 
and valuable services, feel it indispensable to proceed forthwith to 
the nomination of some Fellow of the Society, to assist him in the 
execution of the duties of his office. 

That such Fellow, on agreeing to accept this appointment, be paid 
at the rate of .150 a year, and that he be entitled Assistant 
Secretary. 

That this appointment be valid only till the ensuing Anniversary of 
the Society, namely, the 23d of next month. 

That Mr. William John Thorns, Fellow of the Society, be invited to 
accept the office of Assistant-Secretary, for the purpose and on 
the terms above specified. 

That these Resolutions be communicated to the Society at the next 
ordinary meeting. 

That Captain Smyth be requested to act as Provisional Secretary to 
the end of the present meeting of the Council. 

Whereupon, after an address by T. J. Pettigrew, Esq. tending to 
show that these Resolutions were contrary to the Charter, and not 
justified by the Bye-laws or Statutes, they were referred back to the 
Council. 

The Rev. Joseph Hunter moved. That it be an instruction to the 
Council and Secretaries, that no list of persons to form the Council for 
the ensuing year be laid upon the table of the Society at the ensuing 
annual Meeting. 

An amendment was moved by William Ayrton, Esq., and seconded 



m 

by T. J. Pettigrew, Esq., That, the house list of Officers and Council 
for the ensuing year be printed and transmitted to -a< -h Frll.m, along 
with the list of Fellows and usual summons for the Anniversu \ Meeting. 
After which the Society adjourned, upon a motion made by the Mar- 
quis of Northampton, That the question be adjourned over to the next 
meeting. 



Thursday, March 26, 1846. 

VISCOUNT MAHON, Vice-President, in the Chair. 
The Secretary read the following letter from the Earl of Aberdeen : , 

" Foreign Office, 24th March, 1846. 
"My DEAR SIR, 

" For a considerable time past my various avocations have prevented 
me from attending to the general business of the Society of Antiquaries, 
and even from being present at the weekly meetings of the Society. 

" I should feel unwilling to resign a situation which I have filled for 
so many years, did I not perceive that the present state of the Society 
requires from its President a degree of personal attention much greater 
than it would be possible for me to afford ; but under these circum- 
stances I must hope that, at the approaching election on St. George's 
day, a choice will be made of some person as President, who may bo 
more capable than myself of promoting the welfare of the Society, by 
devoting more of his time to its interests. 

" You will have the goodness to make this letter known to the mem- 
bers of the Society at their weekly meeting on Thursday next. 
" I have the honour to be, 
" My dear Sir, 

" Very tiuly yours, 
" Nicholas Carlisle, Esq. " ABERDEEN." 

Whereupon it was moved by T. J. Pettigrew, Esq., seconded by 
Alfred J. Kempe, Esq. and unanimously Resolved, 

That, in acknowledging the receipt of the Earl of Aberdeen's commu- 
nication, desiring not to be put in nomination on St. George's day 
for the office of President of the Society of Antiquaries, the meeting 
cannot but express its deep regret, feeling most sensible of the ad- 
vantages the Society has received for a great number of years by 
the attention of his lordship to its interests, and the influence derived 
from his high and distinguished name and character. 
The Vice-President then read from the chair the following Rcsolu- 
tions of the Council, viz. : 

At a Special Council holden on Wednesday, March 25, 1846, at 2 P.M. 
VISCOUNT MAHON, Vice-President, in the Chair: 

Resolved, 
That the Council which met this day have, in accordance with the 

desire expressed at the last meeting of the Society, reconsidered 

their Resolutions passed on the 17th inst. 

That it does not appear to them that in these Resolutions they have 

M 2 



130 

in any degree exceeded their due authority of expenditure by the Sta- 
tutes, since Chapter XIII. reserves to them powers of incurring ex- 
penses not "exceeding the sum of one hundred pounds," and since 
the -alary proposed to be given to the Assistant Secretary, although 
at the late of 150 per annum, was only proposed until the 23rd 
of next month, being the Anniversary Meeting, and would there- 
fore have fallen far below the specified sum. 

That, however, since the proposal appears to have encountered consi- 
derable objection at the last meeting, and since certain doubts have 
been expressed whether such Resolutions are in accordance with the 
Charter and Statutes of the Society, these Resolutions be withdrawn. 
Kr-olved, 

That for the present and ensuing years, the house list of Officers and 
Council be printed and transmitted to each Fellow, together with list 
of Fellows and usual summons for the Anniversary Meeting. 
Notice was then given from the Chair, that, in pursuance of the 
Statutes, the anniversary election of the President, Council, and Officers 
of the Society would take place on Thursday, April 23, being St. 
George's day, the ballot to open at two o'clock : also that, by order of 
Council, no Fellow should be capable of giving a vote at such election 
who was in arrear of more than twelve months of his annual contri- 
bution. 

Thursday, April 2, 1846. 

HENRY HALLAM, Esq., Vice- President, in the Chair. 
The Secretary read the following letter from the Earl of Aberdeen : 

"Argyll House, 2 April, 1846. 
"My DEAR SIR, 

" I have had the honour to receive the Resolution of the Society of 
Antiquaries, as well as that of the Council, expressive of their regret, 
in consequence of my request not to be again put in nomination on St. 
George's day, for the office of President. 

" I am sensible of the kind feelings which have dictated these Reso- 
lutions, and which I beg very sincerely to acknowledge. Having now 
tilled the office of President of the Society for near five-and-thirty 
\< -.irs, I cannot be indifferent to its future welfare and prosperity. It is 
my earnest desire that my successor, by his personal attention to the 
interests of the Society, may be enabled successfully to maintain its 
character and to preserve its peace. 

** I have the honour to be, 

" My dear Sir, 

" Very truly yours, 
4 Nicholas Carlisle, Esq." ABERDEEN." 

William Sandys Wright Vaux, Esq., M.A., of the department of 
Antiquities in the British Museum, and of Balliol College, Oxford, was 
balloted for, and duly elected a Fellow of the Society. 

The following books were presented to the Society, and thanks were 



10] 

ordered to be returned for tin- same. By the Rev. .1. M. Tnilieme, 
F.S.A., Extracts from the Beaufort Progresses, 1084, 8vo. By J. B. 
Nichols, Esq., F.S.A., The Gentleman's Magazine, April, 184b. By 
Monsieur Auguste le Prevost, Honorary Fellow, Pouilles du Diocese 
de Lizieux, 4to. By Monsieur Ballin, Precis Analytique des Travaux 
de 1' Academic Royale de Rouen, pendant 1'annee 1845, 8vo. By 
Monsieur Marion du Mersan, Honorary Fellow, Description des 
Medailles Cistophores du Cabinet de France, 8vo. 

William Bromet, Esq., M.D., F.S.A., exhibited representations of 
two celts, preserved in the Museum at Douai, in France ; one of them 
is formed of gneiss, and was found at Cantin, near Douai ; it is deeply 
engraved with rude lines, portraying a human head with a conical cap, 
from each side of which hangs a broad label. The other is of a striated 
green jasper ; it was found at Izel-les-Equerchin, near Arras, and bears 
a representation of a human head with a conical cap, sculptured in 
relief. 

The reading of observations on two bas-reliefs of Assyrian sculpture, 
brought from Khorsabad, communicated by Samuel Birch, Esq., was 
then concluded. They represent heads of heroic size : they form a 
portion of the recent discoveries of M. Botta, at Khorsabad, and 
were sent by the British Consul at Mossul to Sir Stratford Canning, 
by whom they were presented to Sir Robert Peel. One of these 
sculptures represents a warrior, wearing a kind of turban ; the adjustment 
of the hair much resembles that of Persian figures at Persepolis. The 
other is the head of one of the figures attendant upon the monarch ; 
the hair is gathered up in undulating curls, and bound by a fillet, upon 
which appear traces of colour. In the ear appears an ear-ring, resembling 
the Egyptian symbol of life. Two complete figures, with heads of similar 
character, have been found by M. Botta. Mr. Birch related the circum- 
stances under which M. Botta's discoveries have been made, at the vil- 
lage of Khorsabad, a short distance to the north-east of Mossul, after 
fruitless researches on the supposed site of the ancient Nineveh. He 
brought to light a pyramidal or conical structure, possibly a tomb, con- 
structed upon a foundation formed of inscribed bricks. The interior 
walls were partly covered with glazed bricks, of white and yellow colour, 
disposed so as to form an architectural decoration, and other bricks 
bearing white cuneiform characters on a green ground; the cornice was 
also of terra-cotta. On the exterior were bold sculptures, apparently 
representing the capture of a city, and the triumph of an Assyrian 
monarch ; these works throw a new light upon the arts of the Assyro- 
Chaldeans, which appear to have advanced to a high degree of perfec- 
tion. Representations of these remarkable remains have been pub- 
lished in France, in the " Journal Asiatique." 

The Society then adjourned over the Easter recess, to meet again on 
Thursday, April 23, being St. George's day, and the Anniversary of the 
Society. 



132 



Thursday, April 23, 1846. 

HENRY HALLAM, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Tin- Society met on this day, being the festival of St. George, in 
accordance \vith the statutes, in order to elect a President, Council, and 
Officers for the year ensuing. The names of the following Fellows, 
deceased during the previous year, fifteen in number, were an- 
nounced : 



David F. Atcherley, Esq., Serjt.-at-Law. 

George Basevi, Junior, Esq. 

George Henry, Lord Bishop of Bath 

and Wells. 

Right Hon. John Hookham Frere. 
Rev. William Stanley Goddard, D.D. 
Richard Halliwell, Esq. 
Joseph Hawker, Esq. 



John Leonard Knapp, Esq. 
Henry Gaily Knight, Esq. 
Sir Gregory A. Lewin, Knt. 
Thomas Moore, Esq. 
Robert Medcalf, Esq. 
Charles Pilgrim, Esq. 
George Shum Storey, Esq. 
Rev. Henry John Todd, M.A. 



The names of ten Ordinary and two Honorary Fellows, elected in the 
course of the previous year, were then announced, and likewise those of 
two Fellows who had withdrawn from the Society during the same 
period. 

John Adamson, Esq. | Sir Frederick Madden, Knight. 

The Vice-President, in the Chair, then proceeded to draw lots. Tho- 
mas William King, Esq., and John Noble, Esq., having been thus 
appointed Scrutators, the Fellows proceeded to the election by ballot ; 
and, on a retuni of the ballot being made, 

I'niLii', VISCOUNT MAHON, was declared to be elected PRESIDENT; 

and the following noblemen and gentlemen were declared to be the 
Council and Officers for the year ensuing : 

Thomas Amyot, Esq., F.R.S., TREASURER. 

John Barrow, Esq. 

Samuel Birch, Esq. 

RcV. Philip Bliss, D.C.L. 

< icorge Bowyer, Esq., D.C.L. 

Itichard, Lord Braybrooke. 

Nicholas Carlisle, Esq., K.H., D.C.L., F.R.S., SECRETARY. 

John Payne Collier, Esq. 

Sir Henry Ellis, Knt., F.R.S., SECRETARY. 

ll.-i.ry Hallnin, Esq., F.R.S. 
William Richard Hamilton, Esq., F.R.S. 
Sir Robert Harry Inglis, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Hubert I .] i ion. Esq. 
r Levesque, Esq. 

Spnicer J. Alwyne, Marquis of Northampton, Pies, R.S. 
William Salt, Esq. 
Thomas Stapleton, Esq. 
All., it \V,i\, Eq., M.A., DIRECTOR. 
Kit-hard Westmacott, Knt., R.A. 

(iuorge Young, Knt. Garter. 



133 

The Vice- President then announced that the second part of Vol. 
XXXI. of the Archaeologia would be ready for delivery to the Fellows 
in the course of the following fortnight. 

The Society then adjourned, to meet again on Thursday, April 30. 

The Annual Festival of the Society took place, according to custom, 
at the Freemasons' Tavern, Great Queen Street. The Chair was taken 
on this occasion by the President. 



Thursday, April 30, 1846. 
VISCOUNT MAHON, President, in the Chair. 

The Secretary read the following document : 

" I, Philip, Viscount Mahon, President of the Society of Antiquaries 
of London, do, by virtue of the powers and authorities vested in me by 
the Letters Patent, hereby nominate Henry Hallam, Esq., William 
Richard Hamilton, Esq., Sir Robert Harry Inglis, Bart., and Thomas 
Stapleton, Esq., being four of the modern and present Council of the 
said Society, to be Deputies, and each and every of them severally to be 
a Deputy, to me, the President of the said Society ; with full power and 
authority to them, each and every of them, in my absence to supply my 
place of President, and to do all acts concerning the said Society, and the 
business of the same, which I, by virtue of my office, might do, if I 
myself were actually present, according to the true intent and meaning of 
his Majesty's Letters Patent. In witness whereof, I have hereunto set 
my hand and seal, this twenty-seventh day of April, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-six. 

(Signed) MAHON." 

" Witnesses : 

" HUGH STARK, 
"C. IRVIN." 

Sir Charles George Young, Garter, one of the Auditors appointed by 
the Society, on the 5th of March, 1846, to audit the Accounts of their 
Treasurer, for the year ending December 31, 1845, then reported, that 
having examined the said Accounts, together with the vouchers relating 
thereto, the Auditors had found the same to be just and true ; and that 
they had prepared the following Abstract of Receipts and Disburse- 
ments, for the information of the Society : 



m 



* I ' tUe SoctKTY of 

,.,,,liii R December 31, 1845: 



I-OM, for the year 



Balance of the last year's 
Account - 

Receipt* iit the year 1845. 

By Annual Sub- 
scriptions - - 1088 17 

B\ Admission Fees 58 16 

By Dividend on 
j7000 Stock 

By Sale of Books 
and Prints - 

By Stamp Duty on 
Bonds- 

P,\ Dividend on 
j?6500 Stock 

By Sale of y. 500 
Stock - 

By Compositions 
in lieu of Annual 
Payments - 



Stock in the 3 per Cent, 

Consols jee.seo. 



f. d. 
1370 6 VO 



Disbursements in t/te yenr 1845. 




To Artists, and in Publications 

For Taxes - 

For Salaries, viz. : 
Resident Secretary 200 
Joint Secretary - 157 10 
Clerk - - - 60 
Porter - - - 30 



*. 

870 7 

35 14 



1944 4 6 



84 



11 4 



For Tradesmen's Bills - r - 

For Insurance 

For Advertisements, Postage, &c. 

For Hookl>inding - 

For Collecting Subscriptions 

For Bond Stamps - 

For Anniversary Dinner - 

For Catalogue and Arrangement 

of Prints and Drawings 
For making Index to Archieo- 

logia, vol. XV. to vol. XXX. 

inclusive ..... 



447 10 
114 10 5 
22 11 
68 10 11 
12 15 
53 12 
900 
27 16 



19 19 



300 



Balance in the Trea- 
surer's hands on 
Jan. 1, 1846 - 



2002 5 11 

1396 5 5 
rf-3398 11 * 



Witness our hands, this 25th day of April, 1846. 
BRAYBROORK. 
PETER LEVESQUK. 
GEORGE BOWYER. 
C. G. YOUNG. 



The Auditors likewise reported that, having examined the subscription 
lists due from the Members of the Society, they find the arrears for the 
years 1844 and 1845 amount to 255 12s. 

The thanks of the Society were then given to the Auditors for their 
kind attention and trouble upon this occasion, and also to the Treasurer, 
for his good and faithful services. 

Thomas Joseph Pettigrew, Esq., after some preliminary observations, 
delivered the following Minute to the President, by whom it was read to 
the Society, viz. : 

That whereas the balance of account in the hands of the Treasurer on 

the 1st of January, 1846, appears to be ,1396 5*. 5rf., but, as no 

notice is taken of the receipts and expenditure in respect of the 

Anglo-Saxon publications, the Council be requested to desire the 

Treasurer to furnish them with a detailed statement of the receipts 

and disbursements of the Anglo-Saxon publications, that the same 

may be communicated to the Society at large, for their information ; 

and, more especially as, at the Audit on the 19th of June, 1845, the 

i surer reported to the Auditors that no further payments were 

intended or required to be made on the Anglo-Saxon Accounts. 

Mr. Pettigrew also delivered the following Minute to the President, by 

whom it wag read to the Society, and unanimously approved, viz. : 

That the thanks of the Society are due, and are hereby given, to 

Hudson Gurney, Esq., for the attention he has paid to the in- 

ts of the Society, during a period of twenty-four years, as one 



cl' the Vice-l'n sidents. Tin- Society cannot but euihraee this oppor- 
tunity of expressing their deep regret that the stale of his health 
should have rendered his resignation of a seat iu their Council neee<- 
sary, and they hasten to record the estimation in which they hold his 
pa*t services, always rendered with the greatest urbanity, and ac- 
companied by distinguished liberality in the promotion of every object 
for which the Society was instituted. 

The following books were received, and thanks were ordered to be 
returned for the same. By the Editor, The Athenaeum, Part 219. By 
John Hubback, Esq., A Treatise on the Evidence of Succession, 8vo. 
1844. By Messrs. Didot, Ancient and Modern Architecture, views, plans, 
&c., chronologically arranged by Jules Gailhabaud ; second series, 4to., 
1846. By the Royal Academy of Brussels, Bulletins, tome XII. 2 de 
Partie, 8vo. 1845. ' Annuaire, 1846, 8vo. By J. B. Nichols, Esq., 
The Gentleman's Magazine, iMay, 1846. By G. Beaumont, Esq., On 
the Selection of Projected Lines of Railway, 8vo. By Nathaniel 
Gould, Esq., Historical Notices of the Commercial Docks, fol. 1844. 

Thursday, May 7, 1846. 

WILLIAM R. HAMILTON, Esq., Vice- President, in the Chair. 
The Secretary read the following Resolutions of tbe Council, viz. : 
At a Council holden on Thuisday, May 7, 1846, 

VISCOUNT MAHON, President, in tbe Chair : 

The President and Council Resolved, That, in future, the Report of 
the Auditors shall be laid on the table at least one week before the 
Anniversary of the Society, on St. George's Day, and be publicly 
read on that occasion. 

To afford further time, if required, for tbe transaction of any 
financial or general business which may arise, it is intended, that the 
Anniversary Dinner shall, in future, take place at six o'clock, instead 
of half-past five. 

It is also conceived by the Council, that much inconvenience and 
delay to the Fellows on St. George's Day may be avoided, by 
substituting one list for ballot, with three compartments, instead 
of three separate lists and three separate boxes. With this view an 
alteration of the Statutes, chapter vii., section 4, will be proposed 
at tbe next meeting, which proposed alteration will be, according 
to the rules of the Society, read at three following meetings of 
the Society, and a copy of it be forwarded to every Fellow residing 
in or near London. After which, a ballot for its adoption or re- 
jection by the Society will be taken. 

The following letter from Hudson Gurney, Esq., was likewise read : 

" St. James's-square, 4th May, 1846. 
" MY DEAR SIR, 

" I have received your letter, inclosing me the highly flattering vote 
of the Society of Antiquaries, of Thursday last. 

" I feel that they have conferred on me an honour to which I am by 
no means entitled. 



136 

" But I have to request you to convey to them my best thanks for 
the great indulgence with which they have been pleased to overlook the 
many deficiencies on my part, which may have occurred during the years 
in which I had acted as a Vice-President of the Society. 

" I beg to express my most earnest wishes for their prosperity, as 
well as to offer my sincere congratulations on their having the posi- 
tion, which I had the honour to occupy, filled by those so much better 
qualified. 

" I am, my dear Sir, 

" Yours, most truly, 

" Nicholas Carlisle, Esq. HUDSON GURNEY." 

The following books were presented, and thanks were ordered to be 
returned for the same : By Dawson Turner, Esq., F.S.A., Narrative of 
the Visit of Charles II. to Norwich, in 1671, 8vo. By the British 
Archaeological Association, Journal, No. V., 8vo. 1846. By George 
Godwin, Esq., F.S.A., The Builder, Vol. IV., Part V. By Abbott Day, 
Esq. M.D., Catalogue of Egyptian Antiquities in his possession, 8vo. 

Charles R. Smith, Esq., F.S.A., by permission of Edward O'Mally, 
Esq., exhibited to the Society a bronze statuette of Venus, of fine work- 
manship, discovered at Mogla, in Asia Minor, the site of the ancient 
Stratonice. Also, a bacchanalian group in rosso antico, from the collec- 
tion of the Marchese Grimaldi. 

The Central Committee of the Archaeological Institute exhibited a 
bronze collar, or torque, with a bronze bowl, in which the collar had 
been deposited. They were found in cutting turf in Socher Moss, 
Dumfriesshire, placed upon three square hewn stones. This moss appears 
to have been, at some remote period, a forest, and the trunks of large 
trees are frequently found in the peat : it is only a few feet above the 
level of the Solway Firth, and numerous ancient relics of various 
periods have, from time to time, been brought to light, comprising 
Roman coins, and other remains. The collar resembled, in general 
character, those of which representations have been given in the Arch- 
aeologia, Vol. XXX. p. 554; XXXL p. 517. Another similar orna- 
ment is in the possession of James Dearden, Esq., F.S.A. ; but the de- 
sign of ornament differs in each of these examples. 

Benjamin Williams, Esq., exhibited a copy of the portrait of Christine 
de Pise, existing in a MS. preserved in the King's library at Paris, 
which, as Monsieur Paulin Paris supposes, was written by her own 
hand. This curious limning supplies evidence, that John Castel, son of 
Christine, was not, as several French writers have erroneously stated, a 
monk ; most probably confounding him with another person of the same 
name, who was Abbot of St. Maur. The son of Christine, portrayed 
in the MS. at Paris, passed three years in England, in the suite of the 
Earl of Salisbury, the devoted adherent of Richard II. 

Albert Way, Esq., Director, communicated a note relating to some 
remarkable antique vases, which had been sent by John Bidwell, Esq., 
F.S.A., for the inspection of the Society, at the previous meeting. 
The\ \M M ,.t (iivek fabrication, and were discovered, with various 
ancient remains, at Br-npazi. in Barhary, on the sea shore, at the en- 
tramv of the (m-atcr Syrtis, in the dominions of the Pasha of Tripoli. 



137 

Bengazi is supposed to occupy the site of the Berenice of the Ptolemies, 
and Hesperis of more ancient times. One of the vases in Mr. Bid- 
well's possession bears the potter's name inscribed upon the neck, 
AITCTAPXO APllTilNOS, Aristarchus, the son of Aristo. These 
interesting specimens were collected, about the year 1838, by Mr. Wood, 
British Consul at Bengazi, and presented by him to Mr. Bidwell. 

Dr. Bromet exhibited an earthen vase, found amongst the ruins of an 
ancient Mexican Temple, communicated, for the inspection of the Society, 
by Mr. Dillman Engleheart. It was of most grotesque form, represent- 
ing some monstrous animal, and fabricated without the aid of a lathe. 
It consisted of two portions, moulded separately, and afterwards united 
together. 

Charles T. Beke, Esq., Ph. D., F.S.A., communicated an account of 
the ruined church of Martula Mariam, in Abyssinia, originally built by 
the Empress Helena, early in the sixteenth century, and restored by the 
Portuguese Jesuits in the century succeeding. The district of Enabisie, 
a division of the province of Godjam, in which these remains are situated, 
had not been visited by any European traveller since the expulsion of the 
Jesuits in 1633, until the recent journies by Dr. Beke, of which a record 
has been published by the Geographical Society. The province is almost 
surrounded by the Abai, the Nile of the Portuguese and of Bruce, 
which makes a singular curve shortly after its exit from the Lake Tsana. 
The church of Martula Mariam (the Tabernacle of Mary) appears to 
have been the most celebrated ecclesiastical structure in Abyssinia, and 
a detailed account of it has been given by Father Balthezar Tellez, in 
his history of that country. Helena appears to have long survived her 
consort, Beda Mariam, Emperor of Abyssinia, who left her large posses- 
sions in the province of Godjam ; the structure founded by her was rect- 
angular, and stood in a walled enclosure in the form of a square, contrary 
to usual practice, most of the Abyssinian churches being circular. 
The walls were richly decorated with sculpture ; the ornaments and vessels 
of gold and silver were of the most splendid description. The interior 
had, however, one great deficiency, namely, of light, according to the 
usage of the country, and the roof was thatched with straw. This church 
was plundered and destroyed by fire during the invasion of Ahmed Gran, 
King of Adal, A.D. 1528, and another structure was raised upon its 
ruins by the Missionary Bruno Bruni, about the year 1627, under the 
sanction of the Emperor Seltam Segued, who bestowed upon it two 
costly altar slabs of solid gold, which had been preserved from the ori- 
ginal fabric, and were valued at 14,000 dollars. The church erected by 
Father Bruno, who was of Rome, is described as having had three 
naves, three chapels, and a sacristy, according to the usages of the 
Catholic Church. Within the last few years the principal parts have 
been demolished in order to build a native church of circular form. The 
eastern portion, however, still remains, consisting of five apartments, the 
central and principal one being a quadrangular chapel, separated at tin- 
western extremity by a screen ; the floor is raised, and the circular 
arched doorways leading to it from the nave, lateral chapels, and tran- 
septs, are richly ornamented with sculpture, as are also the cornices and 
architect ural decorations of the interior. They are executed in the st\ I- 



prevalent in Spain about the close of the fifteenth century, but some 
parts resemble more modern ornaments, such as were in vogue in France 
during the eighteenth century. Scarcely any remains of the nave, or 
body of the church, exist, and the local tradition that this ruined struc- 
ture is the same which had been defaced by the Mahommedan con- 
queror, Ahmed, appears wholly erroneous : few, if any, portions now 
remaining can be attributed to the age of the first fabric raised by the 
munificent Empress Helena. 



Thursday, May 14, 1846. 
SIR ROBERT H. INGLIS, Bart,, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The Secretary read the following draft of a Resolution, as proposed 
by the President and Council, for altering Chapter VII of the Statutes, 
which provides for the election of the President, Council, and Officers 
of the Society, viz. : 

That the last six Clauses of Chapter VII. of the Statutes be hereby 
repealed, and the following eleven Clauses be substituted for the same. 

I. At the two ordinary meetings of the Society, next preceding the 
day of the Anniversary election, the President shall give notice of the 
time of the said election ; and declare how much it imports the good of 
the Society, that such persons be chosen into the Council out of whom 
there may be made the best choice of the President and other officers ; 
and that no Fellow, who is in arrear of more than twelve months of his 
annual contribution, is capable of giving a vote at such election. 

II. Every Fellow of the Society, in or near London, shall be called 
to the said Anniversary Meeting by a particular summons from the 
President, which shall be delivered to every such person, or left at his 
residence, a week at least before the said day, together with a printed 
list of the names of the Fellows of the Society ; and the mode of ballot- 
ing, together with the time of opening the ballot and of closing the 
same, shall be printed in the said summons. 

III. The Council for the ensuing year, out of which shall be chosen 
the President, Treasurer, Director, and Secretaries, shall consist of 
eleven members of the existing Council, and of ten Fellows who are not 
members of the existing Couucil. 

IV. The President and Council shall, previous to the Anniversary 
Meeting, nominate eleven members of the existing Council, and also ten 
Fellows not members of the existing Council, whom they recommend to 
the Society for election into the Council for the ensuing year. The 
President and Council shall, also, in like manner nominate out of the 
proposed Council the persons whom they recommend to the Society for 
election to the offices of President, Treasurer, Director, and Secretaries 
for the ensuing year. 

V. At the ordinary meeting of the Society preceding the Anniversary 
Meeting, the names of such persons so recommended for election as 
( 'o'liicil and Officers for the ensuing year shall be announced from the 
Chair. 

VI. Balloting lists, with the names of the Fellows recommended by 
the President and Council, and having a blank column opposite for such 



rate 

alterations as any Follow may wish to make, shall be prepared and 
forwarded, together with the summons, for the use of the Fellows, one 
week before the day of election. 

VII. Two Scrutators shall be nominated by the President or Vice- 
President in the Chair at the Anniversary, with the approbation of the 
Society, to assist the Secretaries in examining the list-. 

VIII. Each Fellow voting shall deliver his list, folded up, to one of 
the Secretaries or Scrutators ; and the name of each Fellow who shall 
so deliver in his list, shall be noted by one of the Secretaries. 

IX. The Scrutators, after examining the lists with the Secretaries, 
shall report to the Society the names of those having the majority of 
votes for composing the Council, and filling the offices of President, 
Treasurer, Director, and Secretaries ; the names of which persons shall 
be announced from the Chair. 

X. For electing any officer by the Society, upon such vacancies as 
shall happen in the intervals of the Anniversary elections, the summons 
for such election, and the proceedings in it, shall be after the same 
manner as is directed for the Anniversary election. 

XI. Upon any vacancy of the President's place occurring in the 
intervals of the Anniversary elections, one of the Secretaries shall cause 
the Council to be summoned for the election of a new President ; and 
the Council meeting thereupon in the usual place, or any eleven or more 
of them, shall proceed to the said election, and not separate until the 
major part of them shall have agreed upon a new President. 

MAHON, P. 

The Rev. Joseph Hunter, at the same time, proposed, 
That, at the Annual Meeting of the Society, the list for the Council 
shall be first presented to the Scrutators, and the persons elected 
be declared ; and that then, by a second vote of the Society, the 
President, Treasurer, Director, and Secretaries shall be elected out 
of the said Council. 

The following books were presented, and thanks were ordered to be 
returned for the same: By William D'Oyly Bayley, Esq., History of 
the House of D'Oyly, Part II., 8vo. By the Editor, The Athenaeum, 
Part 220. By H. Merrik Hoare, Esq., The History of Modern 
Wiltshire, by Sir Richard Colt Hoare, Bart. Old and New Sarum, fol. 
1843. 

Robert Porrett, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited a beautiful shield, recently 
purchased by the Board of Ordnance, for the Armouries at the Tower. 
The subject represented upon it appeared to be a procession of knights 
on their way to a tournament ; the ornaments were of engraved work, 
and their character seemed to fix the time of Edward VI. as the date of 
the shield. 

Nathaniel Gould, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited three ancient vessels of 
earthenware, all bearing considerable resemblance in fashion to the 
South American vase exhibited by Dr. Bromet at the previous meeting. 
One of them, supposed to be Roman, had been found by the excavators 
on the Eastern Counties Railway in the year 1843, at a depth of about 
nine feet, near the " Five Kings' Brook," in Essex ; it was nearly filled 
with reddish sand. The second was dug up at Cusco, the ancient 



capital of Peru ; and it exhibited in its form a fair representation of 
the puma, or South American lion. It appeared to have been used for 
heating liquids, and for drinking, in the Spanish manner, by pouring a 
continuous stream into the throat, the ears being contrived so as to 
afford facility in holding the vessel. Near the spot where this vessel 
was found, various similar remains had been disinterred, with whistles 
and several human sculls, which had been presented to the museum at 
Leeds. The third vase was brought from an ancient place of sepulture 
in Chili, and represented two fruits, resembling lemons, united together 
by a handle ; on one appeared a short long-necked bird, from the other 
arose a long tube, and by blowing thereinto a shrill whistle was produced. 
This grotesque specimen of the ancient unbaked pottery of America 
was of a pale yellow colour, ornamented with red stripes. 

Thomas Windus, Esq., F.S.A., brought for the inspection of the 
Society some specimens of French ornamental ware, of the sixteenth 
century, described as productions of Bernard Palissy. 

The Viscount Mahon, President, communicated to the Society the 
desire of the Prince Alexander Labanoff to ascertain the opinion of the 
best English antiquaries respecting the alleged residence of Mary, the 
Queen of Scots, at Hardwick Hall. The Prince stated that, in 1839, 
some doubts were expressed to him by the Rev. Joseph Hunter whether 
Mary had ever visited Hardwick. At that time the Prince did not 
concur in those doubts, but further consideration had convinced him that 
they were well founded. After long research, he felt bound to acknow- 
ledge that no trace exists of any visit of Mary to Hardwick Hall. The 
President remarked that, considering the interest excited by every par- 
ticular in her life, and the minuteness of the local traditions which assert 
her residence at Hardwick, the question, thus brought forward by the 
accomplished editor of Queen Mary's correspondence, is by no means 
undeserving the attention and research of any British antiquary conver- 
sant in the history of the period. 

The Secretary then concluded the reading of the Remarks on the 
ancient Church in Abyssinia, founded by the Empress Helena, commu- 
nicated by Dr. Beke, of which a portion had been read at the previous 
meeting. 

Thursday, May 21, 1846. 
VISCOUNT MAHON, President, in the Chair. 

The draft of the Resolution, as proposed by the President and Council, 
for altering the Chapter of the Statutes which provides for the Annual 
!< ion of the President, Council, and officers; as also the proposition 
of the Rev. Joseph Hunter for altering the same, were read for the 
second time. 

The President then read the following Proposition, viz. 
It being found, on inspection, that a very large proportion of the 
library of the Society remains unbound, and that many of the 
volumes require re-binding and mending, in order to place the li- 
brary in such a state as may render it more accessible and o-enerally 
useful to the Society at large ; 



Ill 

it is proposed by the President uml Colllu-il. lli;tt lh,- MUM ,!' three- 

rumdred pounds. b now appropi -,. utf -4 

libnirv Committee, which has been appoint?*! by tht- Council) tor 

the purpose of binding ami repairing the books in the librarv. 

T. J. M. Forster, Esq., present eel to the SorieH hi- work entitled 

Philosophia Musarum. Tbanki were ordered to be returned tor thr saint-. 

___ mdT ,-iM fiisl 51 . 

Thursday, May 28,.l.84(i. 
HKXUV IIAU.A.M. 1^.. Vice-president, in thr Chair. 



The draft of the Resolution, as proposed by the President and Council 
for the alteration of Chapter VII. of the Statutes*. ha\iu- been read for 
the third time, the ballot was taken ; whereupon there being- only two 
negatives, it passed in the affirmative. 

The proposition of the Rev. Joseph I Iiinter \\a< thru read for the third 
time, and the ballot taken ; whereupon, then- he.iun- -2~ Ayes and *J7 
Noes, the Vice- President in the Chair gave the casting vote in the 
negative. 

The Secretary then read a second time the proportion of the Piv-i- 
dent and Council, for appropriating the sum of .300 for the purpose of 
binding and repairing the books in the Library. \\ hereupon the bailor 
was taken, when, there being 40 A\e< and 2i } Noes, it passed in the 
affirmative. 

Thomas J. Pettigrew, Esq. then handed the folluuini: inli.utr to the 
Vice- President in the Chair, viz. : 

That the printed books contained in the library of the Society be 
circulated for the use of the Fellows, subject to such exception* 
and conditions as shall appear to the Council neo-ssarv for their 
preservation and safety ; and, 

That, upon special Order of the Council, the hooks so exceptfd. and 
'* { > the manuscripts, may also be permitted to be taken out of the 
library. 

\Vhereupon the ballot was taken, \vhen, thrre being 48 Ayes and lU 
Noes, it passed in the affirmative. 

'- The- following communication of the Council* accompanying the srene- 
ral statement of the Anglo-Saxon account, was then read, viz. : 

The Council, on laying before the Society, according to the Resolution 
passed on the 30th of April last, the general account of the Anglo- Saxon 
publications, have to express their regret that the sale of these wo'rks ha* 
not been such as was hoped at the time they were undertaken, and that 
a considerable balance remains against the Society, viz. 812 12.v. lit/. 

The Council, however, beg leave to assure the Society that no further 
expense whatever beyond the settlement of a few accounts, especially 
those of Sir Frederick Madden, on the completion of Layamon, and the 
printing of the Glossary, will be henceforth incurred. 

The Council likewise lay before the Society an account of the re- 
maining copies, by which it will appear that the number bein^ con- 
siderably less than the number of Fellows, it would not be practicable to 
comply with the suggestion of a gratuitous distribution of one i-opv ty 
each Fellow. 

* 



STATEMENT OV DISBURSEMENTS AND RECEIPTS ON 

OF ANGLO- 

DISBURSEMKNTS. 

*. d. 

1831 Sept. 15 Paid Mr. Thorpe, on account, for editing Caedmon's 

Paraphrase 50 

NOT. 14 Paid ditto, for ditto - 25 

15 Paid Sir F. Madden, for transcript of Layamon - 25 

1832 Jan. 7 Paid Mr. Thorpe, on account of Csedmon 25 
Feb. 22 Paid ditto, for ditto 80 00 
July 30 p a jd Sir F. Madden, for transcript of Layamon 25 
Aug. 11 Paid Mr. Thorpe, on account of Csedmon 15 
Nov. 26 Paid Sir F. Madden, for transcript of Layamon - 30 

1888 Jan. 16 Paid Mr. Thorpe, last instalment, for Caedmon - 500 

March 28 Paid for Advertisements - - 2 12 

June 20 Paid for Account Book - 016 

22 Paid Mr. Thorpe, on account, for Exeter Book 20 

Aug. 3 Paid ditto, for ditto 20 

Oct. 7 Paid ditto, for ditto 20 

1834 Feb. 10 Paid Mr. Brooke, for Wood-cut for Title-page - 220 
July 7 Paid Mr. Thorpe, on account, for Exeter Book 25 

1835 Jan. 9 Paid Mr. R. Taylor, for printing Caedmon - 120 9 
Dec. 25 Set off, at Mr. Thorpe's request, three years' contribu- 
tions as F.S.A. 12 12 

1836 June 4 Paid Mr. Thorpe, on account of Exeter Book 30 

1837 May 26 Paid Mr. R. Taylor, on account, for printing Layamon 100 

1838 Jan. 26 Paid Mr. Thorpe, on account, for Exeter Book 25 
May 13 Paid Lepard, Smith, and Co. for Paper - 31 10 
Oct. 30 Paid Mr. Thorpe, on account, for Exeter Book - 20 

1839 Jan. 15 Paid Sir F. Madden, on account, for editing Layamon 100 
Feb. 22 Paid Mr. R. Taylor, on account, for Printing * 100 
March 26 Paid Mr. Thorpe, on account, for Exeter Book 25 
July 13 Paid Lepard, Smith, and Co. for Paper - 50 11 
Aug. 8 Paid Mr. Thorpe, on account, for Exeter Book - 25 

1840 Jan. 10 Paid Mr. R. Taylor, on account, for Printing - 150 
Dec. 25 Allowed Mr. Thorpe, for six years' contributions as 

F.S.A., due this day - 25 4 

1841 Dec. 24 Paid Mr. R. Taylor, for Exeter Book 100 

1842 July 16 Paid Lepard, Smith, and Co. for Paper - 78 4 6 

1843 Aug. 4 Paid Mr. R. Taylor, for Printing 150 

: .siv ,{>>! u-iiff *// .fiiiio-nu ffOXfte-ofgif/i 
~!l tdl >J liflilno :n .v*i-*ofc -.ill -nrifcd gr 

. , 



jfcl.463. 



15 i '! unit' 



U:J 



ACCOUNT OF TIIK FUND FOR TIIK PUBLICA TION 
SAXON WORKS. 

RECEIPTS. 

L s. <L 

1831 Sept. 4 By Mr. Hudson Ourney 's Subscription 100 
Doc. 21-r-BytheEarlof Aberdeeh8 ditto lo:, o 

1832 April 5 By Ix>rdBokJeyV ditto - 10 u o 

23 By Uev. Dr. Niblock's ditto - 1 1 o 

May 1 By Sir John Swinburne's ditto - 5 

Nov. 3 By Mr. Carlisle's ditto - 501) 

1833 March 28 By Sale of 34 copies of Cacdmon at the Society's apart- 

ments, at 10*. 6d. each, and of a 4to. copy of Cony- 

beare's work, 'at II. 1*. IS 18 0' 

May 2 By Mr. Gurnoy's Subscription for Exeter Book, paid 
to the Treasurer in addition to 60. paid by him to 

Mr. Thorpe on the same account - 60 

June 4 By Sale of Cajdmon, and Conybeare's work - 1> 1 . 

Oct. 7 By ditto - 3 13 6 

Dec. 31 By ditto - - 3 2 6 

1834 April 10 By ditto - 330 
May 31 By ditto - 5 5 
June ,2 By Mr. Gurney's further Subscription - 150 
Sept. 29 By Sale of Caedmon, and Conybeare's work - 406' 
Dec. 31 By ditto '2 18 0, 

1835 Jan. 9 By Mr. R. Taylor's Subscription 1000 
March 11 By Sale of Caedmon, and Conybeare's work - 1 11 6 
April 11 By Messrs. Black, Young, and Co., for copies sold by 

thorn - 05 4 -2: 

Dec. 31 By Sale of a copy Of Conybeare's work - f>.<y{\m W. 1 1 

1836 March 14 By Messrs. Black and Co. for copies sold - 113 
Oct. 12 By Sale of Ctedmon, and Conybeare's work, at the 

Society's apartments - 296 

1837 April 10 By ditto - 219 
Oct. 9^-By ditto - 110 

1838 Oct. 31 By ditto - 1 11 i 

1839 Jan. 8 -By ditto 1 1 

1840 July 2-By ditto - -110 
Mil Jan. 8-By ditto - - - 1 7 6 

1842 April 25 By ditto - 17 t> 
July 6 By ditto - - - IS 12 11 
0-t'. 7 By ditto 2 15 6 

1843 Jan. 6 By ditto - 15 
June 20 By ditto - 250 

1844 Feb. 13 By ditto - 120 
June 29 By ditto - - - 070 

1845 June 27 By ditto 015 
Oct. 14 By Mr. Pickering, for copies sold by him 45 1 

By Balance due, December 31, 1845, from the Anglo- 

"Saxon Fund to the Society of Antiquaries - 812 12 11 



11,463 6 

There remain, in stock, 200 copies of the Metrical Paraphrase of parts 
of the Iluly Scriptures, by Csedmon, and 220 copies of the Codex 
Exonicnsis. 



144 

1 In- following book.- were presented to the Society, and thanks were 
ordered to bi' returned for the same : By the Exeter Diocesan Archi- 
tectural Society. Transactions, Vol. II Part II., 4to. 1846. By the 
Numismatic Society, the Numismatic Chronicle, No, XXXI., and a list 
of the members, 1846, 8\-o. 

John Nicholl, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited two paintings, brought to this 
country from the port of Shanghae, in China, by Captain Heaton, of the 
ship Carib, to whom they had been presented by a merchant of that 
place ; they were described as having been painted in the interior of the 
country, and as of an uncommon description. They appeared to repre- 
sent subjects of Oriental Mythology. 

The Rev. Joseph Hunter, F.S.A., communicated observations on 
various opinions which have prevailed in regard to the site of the station 
Cambodunum, or Camulodunum, of Antonine's Itinerary ; and a piece of 
evidence, lately discovered by him, which seems to go far towards 
determining this long doubtful question. The road which passed by 
that station extended through the whole of our island. On the part by 
which Eboracum, or York, is connected with Mamucium (by many 
antiquaries supposed to be Manchester), two other stations occur in the 
Itinerary, namely Calcaria, nine miles distant from York, the distance of 
the modern town of Tadcaster, and Cambodunum. This is placed at the 
distance of 20 miles from Calcaria, and 18 from Mamucium. The 
actual distance, however, between Tadcaster and Manchester, by any 
practicable line, cannot be less than 50 miles. Horsley had suggested 
that the reading of the Iter might be erroneous, and proposed the cor- 
rection of 30 miles, instead of 20, in the first-mentioned distance. Mr. 
Leman conjectured that an intermediate station might have been 
omitted ; but neither of these suppositions, as shewn by Mr. Hunter, 
could be regarded as a satisfactory solution of the difficulty. He alluded 
to the controversy regarding the supposed identity of Cambodunum with 
a place mentioned by Bede, as Campodunum; to the endeavours of 
Camden to fix its site, and his conclusion that it was to be found at 
Almonbury, in the West Riding. This opinion had been first contro- 
verted by Horsley, who shewed that the works at that place were not 
Roman, and, following a clue supplied by Camden, who had recorded 
the discovery of a Roman altar in the district of Greteland, in the 
parish of Halifax, brought together various arguments to prove that the 
site of Cambodunum should be fixed near the village of Elland. After 
the death of Horsley, fresh evidences were collected by the Rev. John 
Watson, respecting Roman remains in the district of the parish of 
Halifax, called Stainland ; numerous indicia of Roman occupation were 
found at a place called Slack, near the southern border of the parish, but 
actually within the parish of Huddersfield. These facts were com- 
municated to Whitaker, the historian of Manchester, and the result 
was the conclusion, that the true site of the Cambodunum of Antonine 
had at length been established at Slack. Mr. Hunter adverted to the 
researches of Mr. Percival, of Royton ; the remarks of the commentator 
on the Itinerary, in the Translation of Richard of Cirencester ; and the 
statements of Dr. Whitaker, in his survey of the parish of Halifax. That 
writer appears to have questioned the validity of the claim asserted, in 



145 

regard to Slack, in consequence- of Mr. Watson's observations. Mr. 
Wellbeloved, in his Eburacum, hesitates to pronounce derisively in favour 
of either opinion respecting the site of Cambodunum. In the course of 
this controversy antiquaries appear to have undervalued, as Mr. Hunter 
remarked, the authority of Camden, as a conscientious recorder of facts ; 
his intimacy, moreover, with the Saviles of Bradley, in Stainland, 
afforded him the best opportunities of obtaining information in that dis- 
trict. A striking evidence in corroboration of his assertion regarding 
the altar found in Greteland, is supplied by an entry in a volume 
amongst Dods worth's MSS. in the Bodleian, comprising collections for 
the history of the Manor of Wakefield, by an officer of the Manor 
under the Saviles, John Hanson, of Woodhouse in Elland. He has 
therein recorded the fact of the discovery of the altar, in the year 1597, 
with foundations, Roman coins, and other remains, at the ground called 
11 Thick Hollins, lying upon the height near the Clay House, near unto 
the Linwell." He gives a representation of the altar, which completely 
identifies it with the one described by Camden, and mentions the visit of 
Camden to the neighbourhood, in 1599. Mr. Hunter submitted, in con- 
clusion, that the discovery of a Roman altar and remains near the spot 
on which Horsley conjectured that the Romans had formed a camp, is 
undeniable ; and that the site of Cambodunum ought henceforth to be 
regarded as fixed at Greteland, the claim asserted by Watson and the 
W T hitakers in favour of Slack being untenable. 

The Society then adjourned over the Whitsuntide vacation, to meet 
again on Thursday, June 1 1 . 

Thursday, June 11, 1846. 
VISCOUNT MAHON, President, in the Chair. 

The Secretary read the following Resolution of the Council, viz. : 
At a Council holden on the 9th of June, 1846, at 3 P.M. 

VISCOUNT MAHON, President, in the Chair, 

Resolved, 

That, in compliance with the wish expressed by several Fellows of 
this Society, it shall, from November next, be the practice, so far 
as possible, to announce from the Chair at each ordinary Meeting 
the names and subjects of such communications as it is intended 
should be read at the next. 

It is obvious, however, that this plan cannot be carried into effect, 
unless the Secretary shall be provided in sufficient time to make 
his arrangements with an adequate supply of Papers; and the 
President and Council beg leave, therefore, to express their hope 
that the Fellows of this Society will have the kindness, in the 
course of the ensuing summer, to prepare and forward Papers 
to the Secretary, thus still further promoting the interests of this 
Society, and of antiquarian science. 

That a copy of this Resolution be transmitted to each Fellow of the 
Society residing in the United Kingdom. 

MAHON, P. 
N 2 



146 

Horace Burkitt, Esq., of Clapliam Ri<c, was balloted for, 
and duly elected a Fellow of the Society. 

The flowing books were presented, and thanks were ordered to be 
returned tor the same. By the Statistical Society of London, Journal, 
Vol. IX., Tart II., 8vo. 1846. By the Editor, The Athcnanun, Part 
XI. By John Henry Parker, Esq., A Guide to the Architectural 
Antiquities in the neighbourhood of Oxford, Part IV., 8vo. 1846. By 
J. 1> Nichols, Esq., F.S.A., The Gentleman's Magazine, June, 18-4(5. 
rollectum-a Topographica et Genealogica, Parts XIV., XV., 8vo. 1836. 
i'.\ ( harles Sandys, Esq., A Critical Dissertation on Professor Willis' 
Architectural History of Canterbury Cathedral, 8vo. 1846. By Cap- 
tain G rover, The Bokhara Victims, second edition, 8vo. 1845 : Lord 
Aberdeen and the Ameer of Bokhara, sixth edition, 8vo. 1845. 

William Hoots, Esq., M.D., F.S.A., communicated for inspection 
two iron spear-heads, and a short sword, or dagger, found in the bed 
of the Thames, at Kingston; they were considered by him to be Ro- 
inan, and noticed as substantiating his supposition that Caesar crossed 
the Thames at that place. Sir Samuel Meyrick considered these re- 
mnins as more appertaining to the Roman period than the bron/e 
weapons found at Kingston, and exhibited on previous occasions by 
Dr. Roots. 

Alfred J. Kcmpe, Esq., F.S.A., communicated a notice of Roman 
remains, near Blechingly, in Surrey. The district occupied by the 
Rrgni, in West Kent, Surrey, Sussex, and Hampshire, presents many 
vestiges of Roman occupation. The researches made at Holwood Hill, 
in 1828, had tended to confirm the opinion that the Noviomagus of 
Ptolemy, the chief station of the Regni, was there situated. Seven 
miles southward is found the .elevated range of downs, forming the 
northern boundary of the valley of Holraesdale, upon which numerous 
Fortresses are to be found, probably of Roman origin ; and similar strong 
holds appear on the Kentish hills, eastward, towards Ightham and 
Wrotham. It would be easy to shew that the Holmesdale, throughout 
its extent, was guarded by a continuous chain of ancient forts, amongst 
which Blechingly and Ryegate castles, subsequently occupied by the 
Saxons and Normans, may be included. On a bold eminence, called 
White Hill, near the former place, on the estate of J. Perkins, Esq., of 
Pendhill, Mr. Kempe had recently noticed indications of a Roman build- 
ing, on the north side of a bye-road, leading to Merstham. The spot 
is protected by the downs to the northward, in accordance with the usual 
care of the Romans in the selection of sheltered sites for their villas. 
The building may now be traced by a hollow in the surface, about 40 ft. 
in length, and 24 ft. in breadth : the northern end appears to have been 
ci'vular, and there are remains of a party- wall ; numerous fragments of 
roofing and flue tiles, and other Roman materials, are scattered over the 
surface of the ground. The country people consider these to be the re- 
mains of a bath, which might have been readily supplied by the 
numerous springs arising in the adjacent hills. A crop of wheat grow- 
ing in the field was an obstacle to the prosecution of any detailed exa- 
mination at the present time. 

The President stated that he cpuld fully corroborate the statement 



1-17 

made by Mr. Kempe, in regard to tlio existence of ancient earth-work-, 
towards the eastern extremity of the Ilolmesdale; having had frequeht 
occasion to notice such evidences of ancient occupation in the neighbour- 
hood of his paternal estates, at ( 'In-veiling. 

The Dean of Hereford, F.S.A., communicated a notice of the burial- 
place of Joanna de Bohun, on the north side of the Lady Chapel, at 
Hereford Cathedral, recently disclosed to view during the progress of 
the restoration of that decayed fabric. In an arched recess in the 
wall is seen a recumbent effigy, under which a wooden coffin had been 
deposited in a grave, half the depth of which only was below the level 
of the chapel. The lid had been covered with linen of fine texture, 
upon which had been sewn three large crosses patees, anid eight smaller 
ones, formed of white satin : three similar crosses appeared also on each 
side of the coffin, and four large iron rings at each side and end. The 
remains had been wrapped in cloth, apparently woollen, fastened with 
strong packthread : the bones were much decayed, as is usually the case 
in interments in the Cathedral ; but the flowing hair remained perfect, de- 
tached from the cranium, like a wig. It was of a yellowish red colour, and 
so profuse in quantity, that the prevalent notion of the growth of thd hair 
after death, which, as the Dean remarked, had been entertained by him from 
previous observations, appeared to be confirmed. 'This lady had been heiress 
of Kilpec, in Herefordshire, and espoused one of the Bbhun family; in the 
year 1327, she gave the church of Lugwardine, with the chapels of Llan- 
garrew, St. Waynard's, and Hentland, to the Dean and Chapter of Here- 
ford ; and this donation was subsequently applied to the service of the 
Blessed Virgin, for which, previously, no sufficient provision had been 
made in the church of Hereford. It appears by the Obits, that she died 
in the same year, 1 Edward III. The foundations and circular apse of 
the original chapel, succeeded by the beautiful specimen of early English 
architecture, to which her bequest contributed, had recently been brought 
to light ; the Dean remarked that, in the ante-chapel of this portion of 
the Cathedral, certain details partaking of Norman character appeared, 
which are not to be traced in the parts more eastward ; and these last, 
as he supposed, had been constructed subsequently to the gift of the 
la<ly of Kilpec. During the necessary repairs towards the west end 
of the Lady Chapel, several interments were disclosed, and amongst 
them six ancient graves were found, cut through at about the middle of 
their length, in order to form the west wall of the crypt of the chapel, 
a moiety of each corpse being left in its original resting-place. In 
another grave a lulla was found, and near to it a slab, inscribed with 
the name of " Magister Thomas de Torrington." 

The Marquis of Northampton exhibited a small coffer, or forcer, of 
wood, beautifully carved, purchased by him at Constance. It was of 
German workmanship, some portions of the ornament being of archi- 
tectural character, and presenting features of the style termed jflnm- 
Lni/nnt. Its date appeared to be the latter part of the fifteenth century. 

William Downing Bruce, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited a remarkable ori- 
ginal document, being the Covenant of the Scottish Parliament, in 
renumiation of Popery, dated August. 1641, and bearing the autographs 
of the peers and representatives. It was found in the charter-el KM 



148 

of Major Kit-hard Leslie Bruce Dundas, of Blair Castle, county of 

P.-rth.' 

The Kev. Charles H. Hartshorne communicated a description of a 
statue of Minerva Custos, and other Koman antiquities, recently dis- 
covered at Sibson, and Bedford Purlieus, Northamptonshire. A portion 
of this paper having been read, the remainder was reserved for the next 
nurting. 

Thursday, June 18, 1846. 
THOMAS STAPLETON, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Charles Sandys, Esq., of Canterbury, was balloted for, and duly 
elected a Fellow of the Society. 

The following books were presented, and thanks were ordered to be 
returned for the same. By the Archaeological Institute of Home, Mo- 
numenti Inediti, Vol. IV. Parts 1 12. fol. Bullettini, 8vo. 1845. 
Annali, Vol. XVI. 8vo. 1845. 

J. R. Planche, Esq., F.S.A., communicated some remarks in further 
illustration of the origin of the badge and motto of the Prince of Wales, 
in reference to the interesting notices by Sir N. Harris Nicolas. Mr. 
Planche had been the first to draw public attention to the absence of all 
contemporaneous authority for the notion commonly received, that they 
were the personal insignia of the King of Bohemia. He observed that 
the motto HOUMOUT is rather a Flemish, than a German word, as 
stated by Sir Harris ; that it is a noun substantive, and not an adjective. 
Hoochmoet, or Hoomoet, signifies " magnanimite de courage, courage 
hautain," according to Mellema, in his Promptuaire Fran^ois-Flameng. 
Instead of regarding this word and ICH DIEN, as two separate 
mottoes, he was inclined, from the evidence adduced by Sir Harris, to 
consider them as forming one complete motto, as written in full by 
Edward himself, in the remarkable signature of which a fac-simile has 
been given. He suggested the following interpretation of the whole 
motto, " High spirit I serve," or, less literally, " I obey the dictates of 
magnanimity." This conjecture may serve to explain the apparent con- 
tradiction in the prince's will, which makes no mention of ICH DIEN, 
for, the escutcheons being arranged on his tomb in alternate order, the 
motto was merely divided, and HOUMOUT ICH DIEN may be read 
thrice in succession, above the six escutcheons on either side. Mr. 
Planche cited, as analogous examples, the Percy motto, " Esperance en 
Dieu," popularly known as ESPERANCE; the motto or posy of 
Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, on his second marriage, " Aultre 
n'auray, Dame Isabeau, tant que vivray," usually given as simply 
AVLTRE N'AVRAY; or the war-cry of Crequy, which occurs ab- 
breviated in like manner. In point of construction, he remarked that 
the prince's motto has its parallel in that of the earls of Pembroke, 
" Ung je servirai." He considered the suggestion made by Sir Harris, 
that the feathers were possibly derived from the county of Ostrevant, as 
very valuable, and conjectured that some supposed resemblance between 
the words Ostruce and Ostrevant might have led to the selection of 



149 

ostrich feathers as the symbol of that province, the arms of which have 
not been recorded. 

John Britton, Esq., F.S.A., sent for exhibition two volumes contain- 
ing sketches of Cathedrals, churches, architectural remains, costume, and 
antiquities, being portions of a series of thirty-seven volumes of draw- 
ings made by the late John Carter, between the years 1764 and 1817, 
each volume comprising the sketches of a year. Mr. Britton also exhi- 
bited nineteen sketches by the same artist, representing monuments in 
1 lereford Cathedral. 

Sir Henry Ellis communicated, in a letter to the President, illustrative 
remarks on a gold ornament, forwarded for exhibition to the Society by 
Miss Gurney. It is an ornament composed of an ancient cast from a 
gold coin of the Emperor Maurice, rudely set in gold, with a loop for 
suspension, and portions of red glass or stone set in a double row around 
the coin. The diameter of this medallion measures an inch and a half; 
it was found upon the breach of the Norfolk coast, between Bacton and 
Mundesley, in January last. Three looped ornaments are preserved in 
the British Museum ; one exhibits a genuine coin of the elder Philip, 
A.D. 244, another is set with a coin of Posthumus; these have loops 
behind, and seem to have been used as fastenings, or fibulae. The third 
had been a pendant jewel, and is ornamented with a cast of a coin of 
Valens, and a border of portions of glass, in like manner as the medal- 
lion found in Norfolk. Similar ornaments, formed with Roman coins, 
are to be seen in the Cabinet of Medals at Paris. The specimens pre- 
served in the British Museum may be ascribed to the sixth or seventh 
century. Miss Gurney remarked that the Danes had the practice of 
imitating Byzantine medals, as shewn by the curious ornaments repre- 
sented in the publications of the Royal Society of Archaeology at Copen- 
hagen ; these, however, although used for the same purpose, are very 
different in character when compared with the medallions in question. 
Whilst engaged in this inquiry, Sir Henry had conversed with Mr. 
Worsaae, the eminent antiquary of Copenhagen, who informed him that 
some Roman gold coins, set within ornamented circles of the same 
metal, exist there, but that the greater number of such ornaments are of 
the bracteate kind, ornamented with rude figures, or Byzantine coins, 
ranging from the last half of the fifth century to the middle of the 
eighth. In the account of the Vaeringers, or body-guard of north- 
men in the service of the Emperors at Constantinople, as given by Mr. 
Laing, in his version of the Heimskringla, some curious information is 
given regarding the discoveries of coins of the Greek emperors, Cufic 
coins and gold ornaments, apparently of Eastern workmanship, dis- 
covered in Norway, and supposed to be the hidden treasures of the 
Vaeringers. Mr. Worsaae's notices of ancient Northern ornaments, 
given in his work entitled " Danemarks Vorzeit," throw further light 
upon this curious subject. He describes gold rings for the neck adorned 
with plates inlaid with coloured glass, or hung round with gold bracteates, 
or thin plates stamped on one side with the imitation of some foreign coin. 
Runic legends occasionally are found in the margin. The gold bracteates 
have been found varying in dimension from half an inch to twelve inches 
in diameter. The medallion exhibited to the Society by Miss Gurney has 



150 

been present, d by her to ihc British Museum, .iml will lie deposited in tin- 
collection of National Antiquities, which is in the course of formation. 

Tin- ll.-v. ,!.>seph Hunter. l-'.S A., communicated some Observations 
on tin- claisii of llardwiek Hall, Derbyshire, to have been one of the 
I of the captive Mary Queen of Scots; in reference to the 
inquiry of Prince Labanoff, which had been brought before the Society 
by the President, on a recent occasion. Ilardwick, one of the seats of 
the Duke of Devonshire, is situate about eighteen miles from Chats- 
worth, and the same distance from Sheffield, places where much of 
the time of Mary's captivity was spent. The house exhibits one of 
the most perfect existing specimens of the residences of the nobility of 
the times of Elizabeth, and printed books, as well as local tradition, 
have uniformly asserted the fact of the Queen's residence there, which 
had been regarded by the Prince Labanoff as questionable. Mary 
landed on the shores of Cumberland, May 16, 1568, and proceeded 
through Cockermouth and Carlisle to Bolton Castle, where she remained 
until January 26, 1569. It was determined that she should be given 
in charge to the Earl of Shrewsbury, a decision which appears by the 
private correspondence of the Talbot family to have been taken as early 
as the previous month of October. On quitting Bolton, Mary, who 
was in feeble health, travelled slowly, and letters exist written by her at 
almost every stage of her journey. On February 3, she reached Tut- 
bury, where the Earl and Countess of Shrewsbury were ready to receive 
her ; and up to that time it is manifest that she could not have been at 
Hardwick. She was, however, then committed to the charge of persons 
to whom Hardwick, its estates, and whatever mansion might then exist, 
at that time, or soon after, belonged. The Countess was a daughter of 
John Hardwiek*- and, on the death of her brother, succeeded to the 
estate. The subsequent residence of Mary at Winfield-Manor, about 
ten miles distant from Hardwick Hall, until September 21, is clearly 
ascertained by her letters ; she might have visited that place in some 
excursion on horseback, but the apprehension of attempts for her re- 
lease at this period must have occasioned rigid restraint and constant 
vigilance ; and Winfield appearing not sufficiently secure, the Queen was 
removed to Tutbury and Coventry. At the request of the Earl, she 
was removed to his mansion at Chats worth, recently erected. Hence, 
on November 28, 1570, she departed to his castle at Sheffield, the deci- 
sion of the court being that she should no longer be permitted to move 
from one place to another, but that some house of the Earl's should be 
named as the future place of her continual abode. Sheffield Castle had 
the preference, as secure against surprise or escape ; and therein were 
the next fourteen years of her captivity passed, so long as she remained 
in Shrewsbury's custody : her train .was reduced, and constant guard 
was maintained. Her excursions on horseback were limited to short dis- 
tances, and the Earl was required to be constantly in attendance, 
There is scarcely a probability that, during this period, Mary could have 
been a resident, or even a visitor, at Ilardwick ; her temporary removal 
to the lodge in Sheffield park, during some changes in her apartments, 
was noticed by the jealous Elizabeth as an .infringement of the rules 
prescribed; no one was allowed to visit the captive, and even the KaiT* 



1,51 

son stated that for many years he had not seen her. By the mediation 
of the French ambassador, she was permitted to pay short visits to 
Buxton and Chatsworth, and these temporary removal* are generally 
ascertained by the dates of her letters. In 1583, she was allowed to 
visit Worksop, seventeen miles distant, an excursion which excited the 
displeasure of Elizabeth, and in the following year the charge of Mary 
\v;is transferred from the Earl to Sir Ralph Sadler. She quitted 
Sheffield on September 3, remained at Winfield until January, 158.5, 
removed to Tutbury, thence to Chartley, and finally, on September 25, 
to Fotheringhay. There is nothing, as Mr. Hunter observed, amongst 
the numerous written memorials of her time that can be construed into 
a recognition that Mary visited Hardwick, and the strictness with which 
she was confined renders it highly improbable that she could ever have- 
been there. The tradition of the house alone is in favour of such a 
notion ; but even this cannot be traced for much more than a century. 
There is even every probability that the present house was not in exist- 
ence during Mary's life-time, but was erected by the Countess of 
Shrewsbury subsequently to her widowhood in 1590. The date 1599 
is even inscribed on the door of one of the rooms supposed to have 
been inhabited by the Queen. Some, indeed, have supposed that it was 
in the older mansion still remaining, in which Mary resided ; but this is 
very improbable. Hardwick Hall, although it seems to have no claim 
to be regarded as one of her residences, may still serve as an example 
of what the houses were (now destroyed) in which her captivity was 
passed. Of Sheffield Castle nothing now remains ; Sheffield Manor 
and Winfield Manor exist in ruins; and the house at Chatsworth 
which received her has been replaced by a more magnificent fabric. 

The reading of Mr. Hartshorne's description of Roman remains, 
discovered in Northamptonshire on the estates of the Duke of Bedford, 
and communicated to the Society by his Grace's permission, was then 
concluded. During the spring of 1844, the first discovery occurred at 
a spot between Wansford and King's Cliffe, upon the western side of a 
wood called Bedford Purlieus, near to a road which may not improbably 
be considered as a vicinal way communicating with the Ermine Street, 
and in the neighbourhood of Castor, Chesterton, and other places of 
Roman occupation. Two small statues were found, deprived of the 
heads and feet ; both were in the same attitude, holding whips, and clad in 
short tunics. They were formed of a compact shelly oolite, apparently 
the material found near the place, known by the name of Barnack-rag. 
With these were disinterred a large globular earthen vase, designated by 
Mr. Hartshorne as an obrendarium, used for sepulchral purposes. It 
contained human bones, and numerous fragments of glass and pottery, 
with two elegant patera of Samian ware ; one of those small glass vessels 
usually called lachrymatories ; another glass vessel of unusual form, 
being a simpulum ; and a fictile vase decorated with figures in relief. 
This remarkable specimen of earthenware was formed of the clay of 
the district ; the ground was of a black colour ; the subjects represented 
upon it were combats with animals, most elaborately wrought. The 
whole of these curious remains formed, as Mr. Hartshorne supposed, a 
portion of a Roman busturn. The two statues might have been 



1,52 

intended to represent the propitiatory 7)ii inferi, or possibly Tisiphono 
and Iltvate; he was, however, disposed to iv^anl them as emblematical 
decorations of the tomb, figures of the Social Manes, destined to be 
plnird on either side of the sepulchral amphora. Mr. Hartshorne pro- 
ceeded to notice the Roman remains found at Sibson, now called the 
\Vansford Station, in the spring of 1845. They consisted of a muti- 
lated statue of Hercules rather above the natural bize, a torso of Apollo, 
and a statue of Minerva Gustos, of the size of nature ; the Gorgon's 
head decorated her breast, a circular shield appeared at her side, on which 
her left hand rested, whilst with the right she grasped a sceptre. These 
statues, as well as the pair discovered at Bedford Purlieus, were formed 
of the Baruack-rag, the stone of the district ; they are specially inte- 
resting as being the only examples of Roman sculpture, of the kind, 
hitherto found in Britain. The fact that these works were executed on 
the spot is likewise important, and supplies a valuable addition to our 
knowledge of the progress and state of Roman art in one of its most 
important colonies. 

The Society then adjourned over the summer vacation, to meet again 
on Thursday, November 19. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 
OF LONDON. 



1847. No. 7. 



Thursday, November 19, 1846. 
VISCOUNT MAHON, President, in the Chair. 

The President read the following Letter addressed to His Lordship 
by Albert Way, Esq. 

" Wonham, Reigate, 9th Nov. 1846. 
" My LORD, 

" On a former occasion I made known to your Lordship my appre- 
hension that it would become impracticable for me to discharge properly 
the duties of the office of Director, which I have had the honour to 
hold. The Society will shortly resume their meetings, and I feel it 
incumbent upon me to tender my resignation of this honourable post. 
I have ceased to reside in London, and it will be wholly out of my 
power to attend the evening meetings. There may have been times 
when the regular attendance of each officer of the Society of Antiquaries 
may have been dispensed with, but I have too sincere a desire for the 
welfare of the Society not to feel, that, at the present moment, every 
officer ought to be constantly at his post ; I cannot, therefore, conscien- 
tiously continue to occupy a position to the duties of which it will not 
henceforth be in my power to attend, and must request your Lordship 
to accept my resignation. 

" I have the honour to be, 

" My Lord, 
" Your obliged and obedient Servant, 

" ALBERT WAY. 
" The Viscount Mahon." 

The Rev. John Edmund Cox, of St. Dunstan's, Stepney, was 
balloted for and duly elected a Fellow of the Society. 

The following Books were presented to the Society. By J. B. 
Nichols, Esq., The Gentleman's Magazine, from July to November, 
1846. By George Godwin, Esq., The Builder, Vol. IV. Parts 6 9, 
fol. 1846. By the Editor, The Athenaeum, Parts 222226, 4to. 
1846. By the British Archaeological Association, Transactions of the 
Association at Winchester in August 1845, 8vo. and their Journal, 
No. 7. 8vo. is-Ki. By the Editors, Moniteur des Arts, No. 29, 4to. 



154 

1846. By Dr. C. F. Bcke, A Statement of Facts, 2d edit. 8vo. 1846. 
By the Trustees of the British Museum, the Alexandrian Codex, a 
complete Copy, with the exception of Tome I. Part I. and the Notes to 
Part I. which had been previously received : also the Description of 
the Ancient Marbles in the British Museum, Parts V VIII. 1. p. By 
Dr. Leemans of Leyden, Honorary Fellow, The Eighth Livraison of 
Egyptian .Moimmt'iits in the NYtherland Museum, fol. By the Archaeo- 
logical Institute of Rome, Monuments Inedits : Cahier 2, pi. 13 24, fol. 
max. 1841 ; Annales, Vol. II. Part 17. 8vo. 1845 ; Bulletin! per 1' anno 

1845, 8vo. By the Zoological Society, their Proceedings from 10th June 
1845 to 14th April 1846, 8vo. By the Royal Geographical Society, 
their Journal, Vol. XVI. Part I. 8vo. By the Royal Asiatic Society of 
Great Britain and Ireland, their Journal, No. 17, Part I. 8vo. By the 
Maitland Club, Liber Collegii Nostre Domine : Registrum Ecclesie 
B. V. Marie et S. Anne infra Muros Civitatis Glasguensis MDXLIX. 
Accedunt Munimenta Fratrum Predicatorum de Glasgu. 4to. Glasg. 1846. 
By the Corporation of London, An alphabetical Index to the Catalogue of 
their Library, 8vo. 1846. By the Publishers, Monthly Prize Essays, 
Vol. I. No i. 8vo. 1846. By the Right Hon. Henry Hobhouse, Copies 
of Mr. Bruce *s Reports on Internal Defence and on Conjunct Expeditions. 
By the Royal Agricultural Society of England, their Journal Vol. VII. 
Part i. Hvo. 1846. By the Leeds Philosophical Society, the Twenty-fifth 
Report of their Council, 8vo. 1844-5. By M. Lecointre-Dupont, 
Lettres sur T Histoire Monetaire de la Normandie et du Perche, 8vo. 

1846. Bulletins do la Societe des Antiquaires de 1'Ouest, 8vo. 1845-6. 
By Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Home Depart- 
ment, Modus tenendi Parliamentum : Edited by T. D. Hardy, 8vo. 1846. 
By George Grant Francis, Esq., Charter of Confirmation to the 
Borough of Swansea, by Oliver Cromwell, 8vo. 1846. Original Charters 
and Materials for a History of Neath and its Abbey, 8vo. 1845. Not 
published. By the Swansea Philosophical and Literary Institution, their 
Proceedings, 8vo. 1838. By George Burton Esq. the Chronology of 
Stamford, 8vo. 1846. By the Numismatic Society, the Numismatic 
Chronicle for. July 1846, No. 33, 8vo. By the Royal Society of Northern 
Antiquaries at Copenhagen, Memoires, 8vo. 1844; Bulletin, 8vo. 1843 ; 
Annales, 8vo. 1844-5 ; Americus, 8vo. 1845; Memoire sur la Decouverte 
de 1' Amerique, second tirage, 8vo. 1843. By the Camden Society, twenty- 
one Volumes of their Publications, 4to. By the Registrar-General, the 
Seventh Annual Report of Births, Deaths, and Marriages in England, 
8vo. 1846. By the Statistical Society of London, their Journal, Vol. IX. 
Part 3, 8vo. 1846. By the Royal Asiatic Society, their Journal, Vol. X. 
Part I. 8vo. 1846. By Dr. Gideon A. Mantell, A Day's Ramble in and 
about the Ancient Town of Lewes, 8vo. 1846. By Sir Roderick Impey 
Murchison, his Address to the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science at Southampton, 10th Sept. 1846, 8vo. By Sir Samuel Rush 
Meyrick, Heraldic Visitations of Wales and part of the Marches, 2 
vol. fol. 1846. By the Committee of the Archaeological Institute, their 
Archaeological Journal, Vols. I. II. 8vo. 1845-6. Proceedings of the 

into at Winchester, in Sept. 1845, 8vo. By George Bowyer, Esq. 
Commentaries on the Constitutional Law of England, 2d Edit. 8vo. 1846. 






155 

By M. Eliacin Carmoly, Muuioirc sur une Medaille on 1'honncur dr 
Louis le Debonnaire, 8vo. 1834. Relation d'Eldad le Daiiitr, Vovaurur 
du IX Siecle, 8vo. 1838. By the Krv. Lancelot Sluirpe, Anaptvxis Biblira. 
8vo. 1846. By Dr. J. 11. Schroder of Upsal, Lc^rnda Suet ana Vetusta 
S. Helenai, hactenus inedita, 8vo. 184o. JSkirners l ; iird f'ran I>land.>kcn 
ofversatt, 1 Del. 8vo. 1843. llistoirede la Societe Royale des Sciences 
d' Upsal, 4to. 184G. 

Dawson Turner, Esq. F.S.A. presented two impressions from the Seal 
of the Abbey of St. Mary of Talley, in Caermarthenshire. from a round 
matrix found at Wymoudham in Norfolk, at present in the possession of 
Mr. W. Kent of Norwich. In the area, the small half-length figure of an 
Abbot, mitred, bearing his crozier, is represented within a gothic arch, 
the words flU Did Vtii over his head ; and above, of larger size, the 
figure of the Lamb and banner. A plant in a flower-pot stands on each 
side of the gothic arch. The circumscription in black letter, * ' 

afit'ti* # rottbrnt 9 fft marie Ire taUrp. 

Edward Foss, Esq. F.S.A. communicated a Memoir on the Lord 
Chancellors and Keepers of the Seal in the reign of John. 

Scarcely two writers, he observed, agree either in the names or the 
succession of the Lord Chancellors of this reign ; the earlier compilers 
of the lists of those officers having to rely either on the historians, who 
were often mistaken, or on their own examination of original documents, 
which was necessarily limited and unsatisfactory. Since the publica- 
tions by the Record Commission have been given to the world, the 
means of arriving at correctness have been materially increased, and 
recent authors must be presumed to have used them. Much allowance 
is therefore to be made for the errors of the former, while the assertions 
of the latter become a fair subject for critical inquiry ; the more espe- 
cially in John's reign, most of the records of which have been published 
in extenso. 

Mr. Foss next referred to the principal writers who have treated of 
the Lord Chancellors of this period, namely, Thynne, in his continuation 
of Holinshed's Chronicle ; Philipot, in his Catalogue of the Chancellors 
of England, 1636, mostly taken from Thynne's Collections ; Spelman, 
whose " Series" in his Glossary is mainly extracted from Thynne's 
Lists ; Dugdale, in the " Chronica Series " appended to his " Origines 
Juridiciales," 1666 ; Oldmixon, in his "Lives of all the Lord Chancellors, 
by an impartial hand," 1 708 ; and Mr. T. D. Hardy in the " Catalogue 
of Lord Chancellors, Keepers of the Seal, &c." and the Lives of the 
Chancellors recently published by Lord Campbell. 

The general impression has been, that when a Charter is authenticated 
by the words " Data per manum A. B. or C. D." the person so subscribing 
was either Chancellor, or Keeper of the Seal, or Vice-Chancellor. This 
mode of authentication we are assured has occasioned the discrepancy 
in the various lists hitherto published: some authors designating as 
Chancellors persons whom others call Keepers, or Vice-Chancellors. 

The endeavour of this paper was to remove the confusion thus arising, 
by fixing with greater certainty the names and order of the Chancellors, 
and by considering the real character borne by those who have been 
thus, called Keepers or Vice-Chancellors. 



156 

Mr nil-mini tint throughout the reign of John there are com- 

paratively lew Charters thus authenticated by the Chancellors them- 
selves ; that it was not their positive duty, even when present, to atlix 
their names in this form; and that in almost every case, where the 
name of a kumvn Chancellor appears, his title is distinctly added: while 
in the case of those who have been denominated Keepers, no addition to 
their names is found beyond the clerical dignity which they happened to 
hold at the time. 

Mr. Foss next pursued his inquiry into the official character of the 
persons who thus authenticated the Charters, to whose names the desig- 
nation of Chancellors was not added, and whether they have been pro- 
perly designated as Keepers or Vice- Chancellors. In addition to other 
objections it appears that two, three, and sometimes four individuals are 
found performing the duty of attesting the Charters at the same period 
of time, and no document exists evidencing any appointment of Keeper 
or Vice- Chancellor. He thence inferred that, the Great Seal being 
frequently if not usually deposited in the Treasury of the Exchequer, 
under the care of its officers, who were answerable for its safe custody, 
and when it was required to be used would be in ^ attendance for the 
purpose of producing it, some of them were in daily attendance on 
the Chancellor: and that these persons were no more than his sub- 
ordinate officers, either Clerks of the Chamber of the Exchequer, or 
Clerks of the Chancery. 

Mr. Foss next proceeded to his Proofs : enumerating no fewer than 
five several persons as attesting Charters during the Chancellorship of 
Hubert de Walter from 1109 to 1205; in one instance, two of them 
affixing their signatures upon the same day. He then shewed the 
alternation of the attendance of several of them during different months 
in the 5th and 6th year of Hubert's Chancellorship. 

The Succession of Chancellors during the rest of John's reign was 
next drawn out, excluding Hugh de Wells and Ralph de Neville, who 
have been hitherto comprehended in the List ; and removing Richard de 
Marisco from the position usually assigned to him, and placing him at 
the end of the reign. It also introduces a new Chancellor in Peter de 
Rupibus, Bishop of Winchester, who has heretofore been entirely omitted. 
The order in which the 'Lord Chancellors succeeded each other was also 
shewn in a Table at the end of the Communication ; followed by another 
Table of Officers authenticating the Charters, by some called Keepers 
or Vice- Chancellors, as far as they could be gathered on the Charter 
Rolls from the 1st to the 15th John, A.D. 1199 1203. 



Thursday, November 26, 1846. 
WILLIAM RICHARD HAMILTON, Esq. V. P. in the Chair. 

Sir Thomas Cartwright, of 36, Albemarle-street, was balloted for, 
and duly elected a Fellow of the Society. 

William Downing Bruce, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited an original Charter 
and SMI, dated 1281, of Margaret de Ros, daughter arid co-heiress of 



157 

the last Pot or <le Biu>, Lord of Skelton, in Yorkshire, relating to certain 
lands in the Barony of Kendal, in Westmoreland. 

Walter Hawkins, Esq., F.S. A., communicated to the Society a Memoir 
on the use of the Stingy a warlike Weapon among the Ancients, accom- 
panying a Present to the Society of a leaden Pellet, or Sliujr-bullet, 
inscribed with Greek characters, found lodged in the Cyclopian Walls of 
Same, in Cephalonia. The Pellet was inclosed in a Box constructed of 
the wood of that redoubtable ship, the Temeraire. 

The date of this Pellet, Mr. Hawkins observed, must depend on the 
decree of probability attached to the supposition that it was deposited 
there by one of the hundred Achaean slingers from JEgium, PatraB, and 
Dyme, in the army with which the Roman Consul, M. Fulvius, reduced 
that place, after a siege of four months, B.C. 189. In shape it resembles 
an almond; and the characters upon it present the word 4>AIMi or 
<&AINE, the concluding letters being slightly defaced ; tyaivy, or in the 
Ionic dialect ^atvew, signifying " appear," " show yourself." 

The importance of Missiles in the military operations of the Ancients 
was next adverted to ; Mr. Hawkins observing that it was not to be 
estimated by that which they have attained to in modern warfare. The 
issue of a battle, in ordinary cases, then depending chiefly on the con- 
flict between the oTrAireu or heavy-armed soldiers. The -JsiXyrat or light 
troops, whose office it was to discharge stones, arrows, and darts, never- 
theless, rendered important service, whether as skirmishers in driving 
the enemy from his battlements, in discomfiting the wavering phalanx, or 
in dealing death against the fugitives. In this last capacity they con- 
stituted in some measure a substitute for cavalry, a description of troops 
in which the ancients were very deficient. But they afforded most 
effectual aid in rugged and mountainous places, where the regular troops, 
being unable to act, were destroyed, without the means of retaliating, by 
the slingers and archers on the surrounding heights. 

Mr. Hawkins's next consideration was the relative rank of slingers, 
with respect to their comrades in arms. One cause of the undue 
depreciation, he observed, of missile warfare amongst the Greeks, and of 
the disasters which its neglect entailed upon some of the finest armies, 
may be recognised in the pride of wealth or of valour which taught the 
citizen soldier to regard the rank of the heavy-armed as the more 
honourable, either on account of his more costly equipment, or of his 
more perilous post. The low estimation in which slingers were held is 
evinced by the fact that Generals who wished to degrade or deteriorate 
a conquered people, not unf requently armed them with slings, and forbad 
them the use of any other weapon. This policy was adopted by Cyrus 
the Great (about B.C. 540) towards the Phrygians and Lydians. And 
Xenophon remarks, that Cyrus considered the Sling to be of all weapons 
the most dishonourable and servile. 

In tracing the use of the Sling historically, Mr. Hawkins found 
some difficulty, from the circumstance that under the name of "litrht 
troops" several distinct classes of soldiers were comprehended ; nanu-ly. 
the slingers, the bow-men, the javelin-men, and the st> . ami 

that the Greek historians more frequently use the general term than the 



158 



denomination.-. Notwithstanding however, without professing to 
nplete liistory of the Sling, in the remainder of his Memoir, In- 
pointed out its chief epochs, and detailed the accounts of some of the 
important Campaigns in which it was employed, together wiih HMIK- 
not'u-es by ancient historians of its peculiar excellencies and deficiencies 
as an engine of warfare. 

The earliest historical notice of the Sling is about the date B.C. 1406, 
found in the Book of Judges, ch. xx, v. 16, where it is related that in the 
army of the Benjamites were 700 men, left-handed, " every one of whom 
could sling stones at an hair-breadth." The next allusion to it is in the 
account of the death of the Philistine champion Goliath. From these, 
and other passages, the Slingers appear to have occupied a far more 
honourable position in the Israelite armies, than in those of the Greeks 
and Romans. 

After referring to two Homeric passages, in which the use of the 
Sling is mentioned, of a date supposed to be B.C. 1184, Mr. Hawkins 
traced the employment of it through various periods of Greek and 
Koi nan History. 

Toward the close of the Fifth Century before Christ, it appears the 
use of sling-stones began to be superseded by that of leaden bullets, and 
from this period downwards, the latter missiles are frequently mentioned 
both by Greek and Roman historians. The Greeks called them 
poXvfibtbes, noXvfibaivat, and trtyaipai poXvfibivai, leaden bullets; and 
the Romans glandes, from their shape. They were ornamented with 
some device, or with inscriptions, as in the instance of the bullet which 
gave rise to the present Memoir. They were sometimes of considerable 
weight, as much as an Attic pound, but the usual weight of extant 
specimens is from an ounce and a half to three ounces and a half : and 
specimens have been found in the plains of Marathon, in Cephalonia, 
Ithaca, and Corcyra ; at Athens, and in the channel of the Ilissus. 

Specimens of Sling-bullets with Roman characters are far more scarce 
than those with Greek letters. The largest number have been found at 
Florence, where, as is conjectured, there was formerly a Roman arsenal. 
Amongst the devices in Roman characters, may be mentioned " Feri," 
strike. " Fugitivi peritis," ye perish in your flight, &c. Among the 
ruins of Eryx, to the eastward of Trapani (the ancient Drepanum), 
many leaden bullets for slings are found, some of which, as we are told 
in Captain Smyth's description ot " Sicily and its Islands," are inscribed 
with imprecations. 

Mr. Hawkins concluded his observations with the remark that the 
Sling had often been assigned to the ancient Britons ; but there appears 
to be no adequate foundation for such a supposition. The Saxons, how- 
ever, were celebrated for their skill in the use of this weapon, and the 
Anglo-Norman army seems always to have included an organized body 
of slingers. But the use of the Sling gradually became obsolete, though 
it was retained for a long time as a means of amusement and exercise. 
We have however evidence of its employment in war as late as the end 
of the fourteenth century, in the hallad entitled " A Tale of King 
Kdssaid and the Shepherd," and at the commencement of the fifteenth 



159 

century, in the following passage from a Poem called u Knyirhthodt' :md 
Bntayl* 1 ." quoted by Stniti in his <* Sports and Pastimes." ' 

" Kiss vk the cast of stone, with >!in^ ur liotulr ; 
It falleth ofte, yf other shot there nonr is, 
Men harneysed in steel may not withstonde 
The multitude and mighty cast of stonys : 
And stonys in effect are every where, 
And slynges are not noyous tor to bear." 



Thursday, December 3, 1846. 
VISCOUNT MAHON, President, in the Chair. 

The following books were presented to the Society. By J. B. 
Nichols, Esq., The Gentleman's Magazine for December, 1846, 8vo. 
I'y the Leeds Philosophical Society, their Twenty-sixth Report for 
1845-6, 8vo. By Henry Butterworth, Esq., a Catalogue of Lord 
Chancellors, &c. by T. D. Hardy, 8vo. 

Dr. G. A. Mantell, F.S.A. presented to the Society Two Drawings 
of a perfect glass Roman Vessel, dug up at a considerable depth, in 
making the foundation of the Hospital at Colchester. 

The Secretary read " Remarks on Matilda, Queen of William the 
Conqueror, and her daughter Gundrada," communicated by W. H. 
Blaauw, Esq., F.S.A. 

This Memoir was in answer to a Paper printed in the Archaeological 
Journal for March, 1846, by Thomas Stapleton, Esq., V.P. Soc. Antiq., 
entitled, " Observations in disproof of the pretended Marriage of Wil- 
liam de Warren, Earl of Surrey, with a daughter begotten of Matildis, 
daughter of Baldwin Comte of Flanders, by William the Conqueror, and 
illustrative of the Origin and early History of the Family in Normandy." 

Mr. Stapleton' s Inquiry had led him to the conclusion that Queen 
Matilda, previous to her marriage with William then Duke of Nor- 
mandy, was the divorced wife of one Gherbodo, and the mother of three 
children, Gherbod, Frederic, and Gundrada ; Gundrada having at a later 
period become the wife of William de Warren. Such former marriage, 
however, divorce, and issue of Matilda by Gherbodo were denied by Mr. 
Blaauw, who stated that in all the authorities he had been able to consult, 
he could find no proof, direct or indirect, to give Mr. Stapleton's hypo- 
thesis support. Mr. Blaauw contended that the Chronicle of Tours, 
which Mr. Stapleton had relied on, warranted no more than the mere 
fact of the marriage of Matilda with William in 1053; and that the 
mention of her as a damsel (puella) was of itself inconsistent with the 
imputed previous marriage. Mr. Blaauw then went into the circum- 
stances of Matilda's marriage with William, their affinity, and the con- 
sequent Papal excommunication : drawing a further inference from the 
details, that so far from an anterior union having taken place, she had 
never left her home previous to her marriage with William. The Nor- 
man Chroniclers, he maintained, without exception, refer either to affinity 
or consanguinity as having caused a delay of Matilda's marriage with 
William, but that none had dropped the slightest hint of any previous 



160 

hu.-kuul or children, nor consequently of any divorce. Mr. Blaauw cited 
various passages from the Norman historians, upon the uniform autho- 
rities of whom he rejected the marriage with Gherbodo, while on the 
other hand he considered the idea of Matilda having had illegitimate 
children as utterly precluded both by her station and character, being in 
the words of Malmesbury " the woman in our time an especial mirror 
of prudence, the perfection of modesty." Since William de Warenne, 
he added, terms Matilda, in his charter to Lewes Priory, " the mother 
of his wife," Gundrada, the only inference left is, that William the 
Conqueror was Gundrada's father. Warenne, he continued, does not 
indeed in his charter so designate King William as he might have done, 
but as that document was written under the reign of William Rufus, he 
preferred to distinguish the first King William from the second, as him 
who first brought me into England, and by whose licence I brought 
over the monks ;" a description more apposite to the purpose of the 
charter, and not requiring more details of family pedigree at a time when 
the single marriage of Queen Matilda with William must have been so 
notorious to the world that it was quite superfluous to state expressly 
who was the father of her children. 

A mutilated Charter from William the Conqueror, preserved in the 
Cottonian Volume Vespasian F. in. fol. 1, granting the manor of 
Walton in Norfolk to Lewes Priory was next commented upon, in the 
reading of parts of which there is considerable variation between Mr. 
Stapleton and Mr. Blaauw, particularly as to the words " filie mee," in 
an early line, in the room of which Mr. Stapleton conceived he saw the 
words " pro me." 

No two Chroniclers, Mr. Blaauw observed, agree in the Lists of the 
Conqueror's daughters, and the omission of Gundrada from them he con- 
sidered as only one of several instances of females being forgotten or left 
thus unrecorded. Even William of Malmesbury, though living in the 
times, says in his account of the king's daughters, after mentioning 
Cecilia, Constantia, and Adela, " the names of two others have escaped 
my memory." 

The remainder of Mr. Blaauw's Remarks related to the assumed dates 
for the births of William and Matilda's children; to the errors of 
Orderic Vitalis in his details of the royal Pedigree ; to the origin of the 
Norman family of Warenne; and to the founding of the Priory of 
Lewes by William de Warenne, Gundrada's husband, 



Thursday, December 10, 1846. 
THOMAS STAPLETON, Esq. V.P. in the Chair. 

Benjamin Williams, Esq. residing at Rouen, was balloted for, and 
duly elected a Fellow of the Society. 

The following Books were presented to the Society, and Thanks for 
them were directed to be returned. By Thomas Wright, Esq. Reliquiae 
Autiquaj, Numbers V. VI. XII. and XIII. 8vo. 1840-3: with the 
icologUt, No. V X. 8vo. 1842. 



161 

The President and Council exhibited to the Society, at the roqw^t <t 
John Adey Repton, Esq. F.S.A. a Collection of Drawings from their 
Portfolios, ten in number, consisting of Elevations, Plans, Sections, ;iml 
Details of Norwich Cathedral. They were purchased by the Society in 
1806, of William Wilkins, Esq. senior, of Norwich, for the sum of 
150/., for whom they had been previously made by Mr. Repton. A 
short Communication from Mr. Repton to Sir Henry Ellis was at tin- 
same time read, explanatory of the changes which the fabric of t he- 
Cathedral had undergone since the Drawings were made. 

Mr. M. Percy Hart exhibited to the Society a Mould made from a 
brass Tablet, apparently of Russo-Greek workmanship, discovered a few 
months ago, in digging a Grave in the burying-ground of Christ-Church. 
Spitalfields. 

Thomas Lott, Esq. F.S.A. communicated to the Society a copy of 
" A Direccion takyn for the receyving of the Corps of the most Noble 
Princes Queen Elizabeth, 16 th Feb. 18 th Hen. VII." from the Archives 
of the City of London. 

The President and Council gave notice that the Ballot for the Offices 
of a Member of the Council and of Director, vacant by the resignation 
of Albert Way, Esq. will take place at the Meeting of the Society on 
Thursday the 7th of January, 1847 : and that in pursuance of tin- 
Statute, chap. v. sect. 5 and 11, the President and Council had 
nominated and recommended to the Society for election, as a Member of 
the Council and Director, Capt. William Henry Smyth, R.N., F.R.S. 



Thursday, December 17, 1846. 
WILLIAM AYRTON, Esq. (the senior Member present) in the Chair. 

The following Presents were received, and the Thanks of the Society 
were directed to be returned for the same. By Richard Brooke, Esq., 
Observations upon the Accounts of the Battle of Stoke Field in 1487, 
8vo. 182,5. By the Royal Society, Catalogue of Miscellaneous Litera- 
ture in their Library, 8vo. 1841. By the Royal College of Physicians of 
London, a Catalogue of the Fellows and Licentiates in 1846/8vo. By 
W. D. Bruce, Esq., The Newleafe Discourses on the Fine Art Archi- 
tecture, by Robert Kerr, 8vo. 

Frederick Nash, Esq. exhibited to the Society, by the hands of Sir 
Henry Ellis, a Series of finished Drawings, seventeen in number, re- 
cently made by him, of Cowdray House in Sussex. 

The Reverend Joseph Hunter, F.S.A., laid upon the table a Manu- 
script from his own Collection, which had been prepared with great 
care, for the especial use of King Charles the First, soon after his 
accession to the Throne. 

It contained an account of what had been done up to that period, in the 
attempt to establish what is called an Academ Royal ; being an Associa- 
tion of learned men formed for the purpose of prosecuting inquiries 
chiefly Historical and Antiquarian, to the Members of which were to be 
granted by special charter from the Sovereign peculiar privileges, rank, 
and insignia. 

Q 



162 

The exhibition of this Manuscript was accompanied by an Account of 
this D.-iirn from tin- first conception of it. The author was Mr. 
Kihimml Bohon, an eminent scholar and antiquary, the author of An-n, 
Cce*< /////*>/ 'a ////, and many other works. This person had 

observed with regret the fall of the old Society of Antiquaries, and 
mined to make an olfort to restore it. He attributed the fall in a 
to ir> being an Association purely voluntary, having no 
bond such as a I barter would give, and no dependance on the State, 
which a Charter would secure. He set out therefore with the principle 
that it was above all things desirable to obtain the Royal Patronage, 
and to place the Academy in fact in close alliance with the Sovereign 
power. And, having laid down this first principle, and having his mind 
strongly imbued with a sense of what he conceived to be the dignity of 
the Literary Character, and its importance as an element of National 
&, he conceived that it would be possible so to frame the con- 
stitution and charter of the Academy that the Members of it in all 
time to come should form an Order of Literary Men. His scheme 
indeed in this particular of the most magnificent description. The 
Academy was to be united with the Order of the Garter ; the members 
of it were to wear the Ribband and Jewel which are figured in Mr. 
Hunter's Manuscript, and he even speculated on the possibility that 
Windsor Castle might be assigned to the Members as the place in which 
to hold their Chapters, or, as he expresses it, to be turned into an English 
( )lympus. The scheme now appears wild and extravagant ; but it was 
not at once dismissed as a vain and foolish design. The reputation of 
Bolton gave to it some authority. ~'HeT was a gentleman by birth, had 
studied at Cambridge, and in the Inns of Court, was the intimate friend 
of Camden, and well known to all the principal Antiquaries and other 
men of learning of his time, and he stood in the position of a kinsman 
to the Duke of Buckingham. The Duke looked favourably upon the 
design, mentioned it in Parliament, where it was well received, and intro- 
duced the author of it to King James. The King appears to have 
expressed in general terms his approbation of the design. 

This was as early as from 1617 to 1621, but the design did not ad- 
vance so rapidly as its sanguine projector seems to have expected. He 
however kept steady to his purpose; he brought the scheme into definite 
order : and selected the persons who were to be the original Members of 
the Academy. There were to be three Classes of Members, whom he 
called the Tutelarie*, the Auxiliaries, and the Essential*. The Tuter 
laries were to be the Knights of the Garter, the Lord Chancellor, and 
the Chancellors of the two Universities. The Auxiliaries were to be 
lords and others selected out of the flower of the nobility, and councils 
of war, and of the New Plantations. The Essentials, on whom the 
weight of the business was to lie, were to be laymen, most famous in 
and Literature. The manuscript contains a list of the Essentials, 
A ere in nuinb.-r ei-hty-ibur. There appear in the list the names 
of the most eminent poets, antiuuaru's, and heralds of the time, with 
many other persons whose pretensions were of a ditfemit kind. Among 
n-kable nui. .sir Thoma< Ayie>bury, Mr. George 

Chapman. Sir Edward Coke, Sir Robert Cotton, Sir Kene.hu D, 



163 

Sir Dudley Di<jure>. Mr. Michael Drayton, Mr. Benjamin Johnston, Mr. 
Inigo Jones, Sir Thomas Lake, Mr. Endymion Porter. Sir William 
Seagar, Sir Richard Saint George, Mr. John Selden, Sir Henry Spel- 
maii, and Sir Henry \Votton. 

All that was now wanting was the Royal Fiat ; and this Bolton ap- 
pears, from liis own account, to have been very near obtaining. In 
August 1624 he was introduced again to the Kjng, who was then at 
Rufford ; and in a long conference, he went through all the particulars 
of the design as it had heen finally settled ; and received, as he thought, 
the Kind's final approval; his Majesty suggesting only a few trifling 
alterations. But before any thing was actually done, the King died ; and 
the new Sovereign, who had been present at the interview between the 
King and Bolton, and had made the remark that " it was too good for 
the times," looked less favourably upon it. The scheme at last wa> 
wholly laid aside ; nor was it till after the Restoration of King Charles 
the Second that the less magnificent but probably not less useful design 
of the Royal Society established by Royal Charter was brought to bear. 

Mr. Hunter's Communication contained more particular details of the 
plan. He also gave some account of Bolton himself, the author of the 
design, and slight notices of nearly all the original Members, sufficient 
to indicate the ground of their pretensions to seats in the Academy. 

In consequence of the Christmas Holidays the Meetings of the Society 
adjourned to Thursday evening the 7th of January, 1847, at the usual 
hour. 

Thursday, January 7, 1847. 
THOMAS STAPLETON, Esq. V. P. in the Chair. 

Arthur Ashfield, Esq., of Crown-court, Old Broad-street, was 
balloted for, and duly elected a Fellow of the Society. 

His Highness Prince Alexander Labanoff, of Petersburgh, the 
Editor of Queen Mary of Scots Letters ; M. Paul Grimblot, of Paris ; 
and M. Eliacan Carmoly, of Brussells, were also balloted for as Hono- 
rary Members, and duly elected. 

The following Presents were received, and the Thanks of the Society 
were ordered to be returned for them. By J. B. Nichols, Esq., The 
Gentleman's Magazine for January 1847, 8vo. By J. Murray, Esq., 
English Etymologies, by H. Fox Talbot, 8vo. 1847. By the Council of 
the Art Union of London, their Almanac for 1 847 ; Tenth Report of 
the Committee of Management, 8vo. 1846. By C. H. Cooper, Esq., 
Annals of the University and Town of Cambridge, Parts 29 31, 8vo. 
By Sir John Rennie, An Outline of the Progress of Civil Engineering 
in Great Britain since the time of Smeaton, 4to. 1846. By the Editor, 
the Athenaeum, Part 228, 4to. 1846. By Dr. J. H. Schroder, of Upsal, 
Glossarii Latino- Suethici Specimen Vetustum, 4to. ; Histoire de la 
Societe Royale des Sciences d'Upsal, 4to. 1846; Inscriptiones Goth- 
landenses Medii ^Evi, 4to. 1836. By the Council of the Architectural 
College of the Free Masons, their Proceedings, Part I. 8vo. 1846. 

Robert Porrett, Esq. F.S.A., exhibited to the Society four curious 
Shields recently purchased from a dealer by the Board of Ordnance for 



164 

the Armories in the Tower. No particulars respecting them were 
obtainable from the seller, but a general Description was supplied by 
Mr. Porrett. 

" The largest of the shields represents on the boss St. George and 
the Dragon ; on three of the compartments the subjects relate to the 
Siege of Troy, and the fourth compartment represents two Knights 
tilting against each other. This shield appears to be of about the time 
of Henry the Eighth. 

" The shield next in size is of very elaborate workmanship ; the conical 
boss and the border are divided into ten compartments, all of them 
representing subjects from the Old Testament Adam and Eve in the 
Garden of Eden ; the entrance into the Ark ; the sacrifice of Isaac ; 
Moses striking the rock, &c. &c. From the style of ornament, I con- 
clude that this shield is of the time of James the First. 

" The next in point of size is a Scotch shield, representing six armed 
horsemen in outline formed by indentations effected by a punch ; they 
are very well designed, and I presume not older than the time of Charles 
the First. 

" The last shield is a beautiful specimen of Italian work, representing 
Scotch Kings and chiefs in eight compartments, and belonged probably 
to some noble family of that country.'* 

The Society then proceeded to ballot for the election of a Member of 
the Council and of the Director in the room of Albert Way, Esq. 
resigned, when Captain William Henry Smyth, Esq. R.N., F.R.S., 
was unanimously elected a Member of the Council and Director of the 
Society, until the next Anniversary on the 23rd April, 1 847. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OK 

THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 
OF LONDON. 



1847. No. 8. 



Thursday, January 14, 1847. 
SIR ROBERT II. INGLIS, Bart. V.P. in the Chair. 

Arthur Ashpitel, Esq. was admitted a Fellow of the Society, and John 
Wimbridge, Esq. was duly elected a Fellow. 

The following Presents were received, and the Thanks of the Society 
were ordered to be returned for the same : By the Archa?ological Insti- 
tute, The Archaeological Journal, Number XII. By the Society of 
Antiquaries of the Morina?, Memoirs, Vol. I VI., with an Atlas. By 
W. D. Haggard, Esq. F.S.A., Observations on the Standard of Value. 
second edition, 1847. 

Mr. Haggard presented at the same time an original Double Pro- 
tractor (registered}. It has the property of constructing angles, and 
measuring distances at the same time ; raising perpendicular*, and form- 
ing circles ; and will save much time to those who may have occasion 
for its use. 

Sir Henry Ellis, Sec. S.A. was enabled, by the kindness of Mr. John 
Doubleday, to lay before the Society casts from the two Seals of 
Richard, Earl of Cornwall, the brother of Henry III. One of 
them is his Seal as Earl of Cornwall and Poictou ; the other, of larger 
spread, is his Seal as King of the Romans, a mutilated impression of 
which was engraved on wood, for the last edition of Dugdale's Monas- 
ticon. Richard, the youngest son of King John, was made Earl of 
Cornwall in 1226 ; elected King of the Romans in 1257 ; and died in 
1272. The impression of the seal is very perfect: on one side is a 
shield of arms representing a lion rampant crowned, within a bordure 
charged with roundels ; circumscribed SIGILLVM RICAKDI COMFTIS 
CORNVBIE. On the other side the Earl is represented in mail armour, 
with surcoat, his left arm bearing a shield, on horseback ; the right arm 
and hand extended, wielding a sword ; the inscription SIGILLVM IUCARDI 

COMITIS P1CTAVIE. 

Charles Spence, Esq. exhibited to the Society a Ring found among 
the ruins of the Priory of Frithelstoke, near Great Torrington, in tin* 
county of Devon. Various figures are OUUTJIVOU upon it, representim- 
the Virgin and Child on one side, and the martyrdom of St. ThuiiKi- . 
Becket on the other, whilst a tref oiled recess containing an equilaterally- 
cut diamond in each section, may be considered as emblematic of the 



16fi 

Trinity. The rinjy is of Hl, and, from the stylo of the workmanship, 
inav be'tttributed to the reign of Kiujr Edward IV. or Henry VII. 

W. D. Bruce, Esq. F.S.A., exhibited to the Society a section of the 
Tower of York Minster, measured and drawn by him in 1840. 

G. SU'innun Slrinman, Esq. F.S.A., exhibited 10 tlie Society a sketch of 
the Tomb nvrte.l in the Collegiate and Parochial Church of Notre Dame 
at Bruges, to the memory of the celebrated Louis de Bruges, Seigneur de 
(Jmthuvse and Earl of Winchester ; and of Mary de Borssele his wife ; 
which interesting memorial was destroyed by the French Revolutionists 
in 1797. The sketch was copied from an original drawing in India n- 
ink, which was discovered by Mr. Stcinman in a very valuable manuscript 
volume preserved in the Bibliotheque Publique of Bruges ; in this book 
are described all the funereal memorials of that city from 1698 to 1707, 
and then from 1789 up to the present time. Other works have also 
treated of this tomb, but more or less imperfectly. M. Van Praet, in 
his Researches printed in 1831, says that it was nine feet in length, of 
black marble, and adorned with figures of bronze. In his letter to Sir 
Henry Ellis, Mr. Steinman also communicates notices of several other 
remarkable tombs, from the same volume, of especial interest to English 
heraldry. 

Sir Henry Ellis, Sec. S.A., communicated to the Society the copy of 
a letter written from an English traveller at Rome to his father, in the 
year 1721, giving a graphic account of the Pretender and his family, as 
well as of their domestic habits. The gentleman describes the reluctance 
he had to being introduced to a Jacobite family ; but, accident having 
brought them together, he received many kindnesses, of which lie thus 
speaks : 

" We were admitted without ceremonies ; y c Pretender entertaiu'd us on the sub- 
ject of our families, as knowingly as if lie had been all his lifetime iu England. He 
told me some passages of my grandfather; of his being a constant follower of K. 
Charles y e first and 2d. ; and added, S r . had you been of an age before my grand- 
father's death to learn his principles, there had been little danger of yo r taking part 
against the rights of a Stewart. He then observed how farr the prejudices of edu- 
cation, and wrong notions of infancy, are apt to carry people from the paths of their 
ancestors. He discoursed as pertinently of several of our neighbouring families as 
I could do, upon which I told him I was surprised at his so perfect a knowledge of 
our families in Eng (l . His answer was, that from his infancy he had made it his 
business to acquire the knowledge of y c laws, customs, and families of his countrey ; 
so as he might not be reputed a stranger when y c Almighty pleas'd to call him 
thither. These and the like discourses continued, till word was brought dinner was 
serv'd. We endeavoured all we could to withdraw, but there was no possibility for 
it, after he had made us y e complim 1 . ' I assure you, gentlemen, I shall never.be 
for constraining any man's inclinations ; however, our grandfathers were worthy 
people, and dined often together, and I hope there can be no fault found y l we do 
y same.' 

" There is every day a regular table of 10 or 12 covers well served, unto w* h some 
of y* qualified persons of his court, or travellers, are invited. It's supplyedwith 
English and French cookery, French and Italian wines ; but I took notice the 
Pretender eat only of the English dishes, and made his dinner of roast beef and 
what we call Devonshire pye. He also prefers our March beer, which he has from 
Leghorn, to y c best wines. At y e desert he drank his glass of champaigne very 
keartily. and, to do him justice, he is as free and cheerful at his table as any man 1 
know. He spoke much in favour of our English ladies, and said he was iperswaded 
he had not many enemies among them ; then he carried a health to them ; y e Prin- 



167 

.vith ;i smiling countenance took up the matter, and said, ' I think then, S r . it 
will be but just that I drink to y c ea\aln-i>.' Sometime :ilt. -r, V Pretender drank 
a health to y 1 ' prosperity of all friends in I'ji'jl.uid ; \\ hieh he addre^',1 to m< I 
took y'' freedom to repl\e, \' as 1 pivMim'd lie meant his os\n friend-, he \\oiiUl not 
take it ill that I meant mine. ' I assure you, S r / said he, ' y 1 the friend> \ou 
mean can have no great share of prosperity till tin \ beeme mine ; therefore here's 
prosperity to yours and mine.' After y 1 we had eat and drank heartily, the Prin- 
cess told us \ve mu.-t ^o ami sue her MHI, v, Inch could not be refus'd. lie i- reall\ 
a fine promising child, and is attended by English women, mostly 1'rutestants, w 
the Princess observ'd to us, saying y 1 as she believed he was .to live and dye amongst 
Protestants she thought fitt to have him bred up by their hands ; and that in the 
country where she was born there was no other distinction but of that of hone.-t and 
dishonest. Their women, and particularly two Londoners, kept such a racket 
about us to make us kiss y c young Pretender's hand, y 1 to get clear of them as 
soon as we could, we were forced to coniplye. The. Princess laughed very heartily, 
and told us she did not question but the day would come that we should not be 
sorry we had made so early acquaintance with her son. 1 thought my self under 
the necessity of making her the coraplim 1 that being her's he could not miss being 
good and happy. 

" On the next post day we went, as commonly y t- English gentlemen here doe, to j f 
Pretender's house for news, lie had rec u a great many letters, and after having 
perus'd them, he told us that there was no great prospect of amendment iu the 
affairs of England ; y 1 the secret comittee, and a great many other honest men, were 
taking abundance of pains to find out the cause of the nation's destruction, w ch 
knowledge, when attain'd to, will avail only to give the more concern to y e publick, 
without procuring relief; for that the authors would find means to be above y e reach 
of y c common course of justice. He beiuoan'd the misfortune of England, groaning 
under a load of debts, and the several hardships contracted and impos'd to support 
foreign interest. He lamented the ill treatm 1 and disregard for the ancient nobility, 
and said it gave him great trouble to see the interest of the nation abandon'd to y* 
direction of a new sett of people, who must at any rate enrich themselves by the 
spoil of honest dealers, labourers, and manufacturers. ' Some may ianagine,' 
continued he, ' that these calamities are not displeasing to me, because they may in 
some measure turn to my advantage. I renounce all such unworthy thoughts ; the 
love of my country is the first principle of all my worldly wishes, and my heart 
bleeds to see so brave and honest a people distracted and misled by a few wicked 
men, and plung'd into miseries almost irretrievable.' " 



Thursday, January 21, 1847. 
VISCOUNT MAHON, President, in the Chair. 

Dr. W. Bromet, M.D., F.S.A. communicated an account of several 
bronze helmets and celts discovered in forming a new road at Mattiw. 
tin- ancient Mattrej him, between Innsbruck and Brixen. Twelve of these 
helmets are in the Imperial Cabinet of Medals at Vienna ; and near the 
margin of one of them is an inscription in the so-called Phoenician cha- 
racters, but which Dr. Bromet thinks very like what arc deemed Archaic 
Greek. Another of these is preserved at Salzburg, of which a drawing 
accompanied this communication ; it had cheek-pieces, but no vizor, 
whilst its horned crest and rude style of ornament appear to be Celtic, 
resembling some in the British Museum. The design, consisting prin- 
cipally of small indentations, or dots, would indicate an Etruscan origin ; 
and, according to Pliny, the ancient inhabitants of Brixen Cftme from 
Ktruria. "I must venture to suppose," says Dr. Bromet, "that tin- 
ancient Brixenses improved on their Etruscan form of helmet ; unle 
iudeed from the circumstance of finding several instruments called 



168 

tells with tlu-r h.-lim-ts \ve may conclude Oiat the inhabitants of Mat- 
tivjium In-longed to some Celtic-Etrurian tribe, of whom we Iwe only 
a slight record ; and that, from the number and good condition in which 
these celts and helmets were found, they had never previously issued 
from the spot where they had been manufactured." 

Thomas Wright, Esq., F.S.A., communicated a Memoir on the 
Existence of Municipal Privileges under the Anglo-Saxons ; in a letter 
addressed to Captain W. H. Smyth, Director of the Society. A por- 
tion of this paper having been read, the remainder was postponed to the 
next Meeting. 



Thursday, January 28, 1847. 
HENRY HAL LAM, Esq., V.P., in the Chair. 

Edward Frederick Smyth Pigott, Esq., and Thomas Mee Lowndes, 
Esq. were duly elected Fellows of the Society. 

The following Presents were received, and the Thanks of the Society 
were ordered to be returned for the same : By the Royal Geographical 
Society, The Geographical Journal, Vol. XVI. Part II. By Henry 
Stothard, Esq., F.S.A., a cast in plaster of a figure in wood, found among 
the numerous relics discovered in the bed of the river Thames, in the pro- 
gress of the operations connected with the building of New London Bridge. 

Mr. C. R. Smith, F.S.A., who forwarded the above figure, made a 
communication respecting it, in a letter to the Director. He thinks it 
was probably from the chapel built upon the Old London Bridge by 
Peter of Colechurch, and dedicated to Thomas a Becket. The figure 
represents God the Father personified as a Pope ; at his feet is the 
globe, the symbol of universal power ; the head is crowned with the 
Papal tiara ; and the hands probably held in front a representation of 
Christ crucified. In confirmation of this supposition, Mr. Smith sent 
the impression of a curious seal belonging to Dr. J. W. Nicholl Carne, 
of Cowbridge, Glamorganshire, in which the Almighty is thus holding a 
crucifix : the inscription is 



A Papal type of the Almighty was common in [taly during the 
middle ages ; but it was rare in England, and in Germany the imperial 
form was preferred, whilst the French chose the regal, to which they 
attached the highest veneration. In Spain, it seems, God was as often 
exhibited in the insignia of Pope as in that of King. Mr. Smith observes 
that both the figure before us, and one of an ecclesiastic in his possession, 
discovered at the same time, and place, seem to be of Flemish work- 
manship. 

Benjamin Williams, Esq., of Cowley Grove, Uxbridge, exhibited to 
the Society an e.vtoc, or thrust-sword, found in the river Seine, at Rouen, 
which he describes as apparently of the fifteenth century. The shape of 
the guard is not very common, and the remarkable weight of the balance- 
shell proves that the blade must have been very much longer." 

Senor II. Tullez do Lazen presented, through Sir Henry Ellis, three 



h," 

|ii>iv.'b:-i l)iv k< fVcun the saloons of the Alhambra of Granada, which, 
in his opinion, are more than 600 years old. 

\Y. Downing Bruce, !><[.. I'.S.A., -xhihitod a plan of the Saxon 
crypt at Lastingham, in Yorkshire ; a drawing of one of the capitals be- 
hind York Minster ; and a sketch of Genezzano at Rome. 

The Secretary then concluded the reading of Mr. Wright's memoir 
on the Existence of Municipal Privileges under the Anglo-Saxons. The 
author observes, that in the old towns such privileges were not obtained 
from the Crown, but preserved to the burghers by their fortifications 
enabling them to stand long sieges, and dictate terms of accommodation. 
This was evidently the case on the continent ; and there is every appear- 
ance of similar results having obtained in England, by the gradual 
intermixture of the Saxons with the Romans. The unusual circumstance 
of a city being taken by storm, was generally followed by its total 
destruction and abandonment ; so that wherever a modern town occupies 
the site of an ancient one, we may infer that its existence has been unin- 
terrupted. Both in the Roman municipia and in the medieval cities, 
the members of the Curia were mostly so by inheritance, and election 
into this body was rare. All the magistrates but one were chosen by 
themselves out of this body ; the exception being the defensor civitatis, 
a plebeian named by the people. Even the several trades chose their 
patrons from among the curiales. On the decay of Imperial power, the 
Roman cities are thus seen to have become complete oligarchies, till 
personal feuds led to their subversion. Renouard has admirably traced 
the present magistrates on the continent, through the mediaeval ages, to 
those of ancient Rome ; and we can also discern the municipia in our 
boroughs the curiales in our burgesses the duumviri in our bailiffs 
and the principales in our aldermen. 

Canterbury offers a strong instance of gradual transition, for, when 
it became the Saxon capital of East Kent, the new inhabitants buried 
their dead, and finally built churches, on the spots used by the Romans 
for interment. It was a prefect who granted lands to the monks there 
in the year 805 ; and a distinction is made in the document between the 
villa and the civita.v. 

Ethelrcd, in consequence of a dispute with the Bishop of Rochester, 
laid siege to that city, and was foiled ; though the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury had to pacify him afterwards with a sum of money. A proof of 
municipal privilege occurred at Dover in the reign of Edward the Con- 
fessor, when his French brother-in-law attempted to seize lodgings by 
violence. Not only did the town's-men take up arms against him, but 
Earl Godwin sided with them, even to marching against Edward, who 
was inclined to favour the intruder. The Saxon Chronicles furnish 
numerous examples of cities resisting and defeating the Danes " while 
the King and his Earls, with the forces of the counties, were not able to 
make a successful stand." London seems never to have been ravaged 
by the Saxons, though towards the end of the sixth century it became 
the capital of the East Saxons, and Ethelbert, King of Kent, nominated 
its bishop. Yet the King of Mercia appointed ;i bishop in the year 635 ; 
whence it appears that London did not wholly belong to either of those 



170 

, hut wa< a free trading town, Indeed then- was the Kino- ,,f 
<--reeve, to sec that tin- Kentish men wrre fairly dealt with in 
their purchases. The Anglo-Saxon code confirms the independence of 
London in tin- ninth century, by detailing its power to ride after a thief 
through the snrronmlinu districts, and demand aid to slay him and " those 
who stand with him." In 994, the Danes attacked London with 94 
>hips ; hut they sustained a signal defeat, " with more harm and evil 
than they ever imagined that any buruhwaru (burgesses) would be able 
to do unto them." The town's-men of London are frequently praised in 
hronicles of these times, as brave and experienced warriors; yet 
like the citizens of the Roman municip'mm they were not liable to be 
called upon to fight out of their own walls, and the royal power over 
them was very small. Even Cnut, fearing a contest with them in 1012, 
when he wanted them to cede the body of the murdered Archbishop 
Alfey to the monks of Canterbury, as a martyr, condescended to obtain 
the treasure by stratagem. 

It was not only towns founded by the Romans that enjoyed municipal 
privileges, for the example was followed by the Saxons, and then by the 
Ecclesiastics, of which especial instances are given by Mr. Wright. That 
our municipal corporations were not created by the Normans, is evident 
from the existence in the Saxon a9ra of a prtepositus regis, or King's 
reeve, to collect the royal dues ; from the officious and often oppressive 
conduct of this official, many of the municipalities were induced to compound 
for the taxes by a yearly payment of a stipulated sum of money, and for 
the smaller towns to buy their exemption for ever by fee-farm security. 
After the Conquest, although the privileges and constitution of the 
cities and towns were in principle untouched, in practice they were fre- 
quently trespassed upon. " A new race of feudal lords had entered 
upon the land, who were ignorant of the customs of the people over whom 
they had intruded themselves, and who had little respect for any customs 
whicn stood as obstacles in the gratification of their views of aggrandise- 
ment. This must have led to continual riots and disturbances in the 
old Saxon towns, and to infringement of their privileges where they had 
little power to obtain permanent redress. After undergoing all these 
vexations during a few years, they saw the advantages, or we may per- 
haps better say the necessity, of purchasing from the King written 
charters confirming their old rights, which became an effective protection 
in a court of law. Thus originated municipal charters, which are rather 
to be considered as a proof of the antiquity, than of the novelty of the 
privileges which they grant. They were granted most abundantly under 
Henry II. and his sons, when it became the policy of the English 
raonarchs to seek ihe support of the independent burghers against a tur- 
bulent feudal aristocracy." 

After the reading of this Memoir, Mr. Ilallam announced that the 
publication of Layainon v,a> completed at the press; and that, in con- 
formity to the Council's resolution of 1st of March, 1831, "Copies of 
this Vl ,,rk l, r old to the 1'ellows of the Society at the price of I/, l.v. 
and to the public at :'/. L'.V. ; it bring understood that each Fellow of 
ln <' *" '!! be t iititled to take but one copy at the lower price." 



171 



Thursday, 4th February, 1847. 
VISCOUNT .MAI10N, President, in the Chair. 

The following presents were received, and the thanks of tin- 
were ordered to be returned for the same: By .1. 1>. Nichols, Esq. The 
Gentleman's Magazine for February, 1847. By the Editor, The Athe- 
naeum, No. 229. 

An aceonnt of sonic successful excavations in the autumn of 1845, by 
the lion. R. C. Neville, within a Roman encampment in the " Borough 
Field" at Chesterford, was communicated by C. R. Smith, Esq. F.S.A. 
Although the site had been partly ransacked before, about half an acre 
had remained untouched, and gave good promise. Workmen were em- 
ployed to trench this ground. Circular holes to the depth of 20 or 30 
feet abounded, and these invariably contained fragments of pottery. 
Coins too were found abundantly scattered over the surface, principally 
third-brass, and not in good preservation. One, however, of Cunobeline, 
deserves especial mention, from bearing TASC. FIL. which is decisive 
as to his parentage. No fewer than 20 vases were disinterred ; but the 
most interesting relic there discovered was a terra-cotta thuribulwn, in 
shape so strongly resembling the Saxon and Norman fonts as to render 
it probable that some such heathen prototype served as a model for 
Christian artists. Bronze and iron styli, fibula?, rings, pins, bracelets, 
and other relics were found on this very productive spot. 

Last summer, Mr. Neville was also induced to excavate among some 
ancient foundations at Hadstock, and his exertions were attended with 
success. A mass of tesselated pavement was soon disclosed in high 
colour and excellent condition, and coins, vases, pins, needles, and 
numerous fragments of pottery were scattered around. 

Mr. Neville also opened five tumuli on Triplow Heath, in Cambridge- 
shire, attributed to the Anglo-Saxons, but there was little to reward his 
zeal beside bones, fragments of glass and pottery, and a coin of Valen- 
tinian I. 

Mr. Neville's paper was accompanied by a folio of splendid drawings 
of all the Chesterford pottery and the Hadstock pavement, every one of 
which bore strong evidence of the skill and fidelity of the artist. There 
was also a detailed list of the coins, by which it appeared that there were 
found 9 of silver, 12 of large-brass, 24 of middle-brass, and 331 of 
small-brass. 

Richard Almack, Esq. F.S.A. communicated the " Renewinge of 
certaine Orders devised by the speciall comma'dement of the Queenes 
Maistie for the relief and staye of the present dearthe of graine within 
the Realme, in the yeare of our Lord 1586. Nowe to bee againe 
executed this present yeare 1 594, upon lycke occasions as were scene 
the former yeare, wth an addition of some other particuler orders for 
reformation of the great abuses in ale houses and suche licke." Mr. 
Almack remarks that thi. MS. appears to ha\e been printed in 1594, 
but he doubts whether a copy could now be found. 



172 

By tin.- stringent order, the sheriff and justices of the peace of each 
county are desired severally to take some of the hundreds, rapes, or 
wapentakes, respectively into their charge, to summon the most sub- 
stantial inhabitants, and administer an oath that they will search what 
number of persons there be in each house to feed, and what stock in 
their barns; also what land is about to be sowed with grain, as well as 
\\ hat sales or purchases they have made in that line, to whom and from 
whom. Item what carriers of corn there be, where from and where 
to, their names and licences. Item what maltsters, brewers, or tiplerx, 
and bakers, with the amount of their trade. Item who are the great 
luivrrs of com, and who have bought or sold it on the ground, and at 
what price. And if any person refuse to declare the full truth, he shall 
be brought up before the justices and punished as they think fit, even to 
he sent to jail without bail, or bound in a good sum of money. The 
.-aid justices shall in the case of any persons who possess more grain 
than they require for their families' food and drink till the next harvest, 
and for sewing their land send to the market to be sold retail a certain 
portion of the surplus ; nor was any unsold surplus allowed to be taken 
away. No corn dealer was allowed to purchase grain, but obliged to 
inform the justices if he did not sow, or use in his family the corn he 
was allowed to reserve. Strict supervision was to be kept on the brewers 
and bakers as to regulated price, weight, and assize of rye, barley, pease, 
and beans, for the poor ; and no grain-meat to be wasted upon dogs or 
other beasts, " nether that aiiyc be spente in makiuge stuffe called 
starche, as of late theire hathe bene discovered great quantitie expended 
in that vaine matter." The millers to be restricted to grinding corn, 
and not allowed to deal in it ; and no corn to be embarked in the ports 
or creeks for exportation. Moreover, the strict execution of these orders 
is to be certified to the sheriffs every month, and they are to make 
faithful report to the Privy Council every forty days : so that if any 
justices fail in their duty without sufficient cause, they may be displaced, 
and their room supplied with others. 

To the former orders are annexed the following conditions : that the 
justices of the peace shall take note of all the ale-houses, victualling- 
houses, and tippling-houses within their respective jurisdictions, and 
discharge all such as they deem superfluous and unmeet. Those that 
continue are to bind themselves to be of honest conversation, to allow of 
no gaming on their premises, and to conform rigidly to her Majesty's 
orders. The brewers are also bound to serve no beer but at such rate 
and price as the justices shall fix. And no victualler, tippler, or ale- 
house keeper shall permit any persons to lodge in his house more than a 
il.iy and a night, unless he can answer for them as the statutes require. 
This or any other disorder shall be inquired into and reported every 
fortnight by the constables or principal officers, in defect of which 
meeter persons shall be appointed.* 

* A copy of Queen Elizabeth's proclamation concerning the scarcity of grain in 
ill be found in the Archseologia, Vol. XIV. p 



173 

Thursday, February 11, 1847. 
SIR ROBERT H. INGLIS, Bart. V.P. in the Chair. 

Major Thomas Henry Shadwell Clerke, and Richard Brook< 
were balloted for, and duly elected Fellows of the Society. 

The following presents were received, and the thanks of the Society 
were ordered to be returned for the same : By the British Archaeological 
Association, Journal, No. VIII. By the Numismatic Society, Numis- 
matic Chronicle, No. XXXIV. By M. Adrian de Longperier, Notice 
siir une Inscription Latine inedite Bellerophon. By the publisher, 
Tracts for the Last Days, Numbers 1 17. By W. 1). Bruce, Esq. 
Chronological Tables. By George Godwin, Esq. The Builder Vol. V. 
Parti. 

J. Y. Akerman, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited a silver ring found near Bifrons, 
and presented to him by the Dowager Marchioness of Conyngham. It 
is, he observes in his letter to Sir Henry Ellis, of the Anglo-Saxon 
period, and, doubtless, as late as the last half of the tenth century. It 
bears a cluster of globes in the form of a cross, and resembles one found 
in a barrow at Sibertswold in 1772, which is engraved in Douglas's 
Nenia Britannica, Plate XXII. No 4. Mr. Akerman also exhibited, at 
the request of Mr. Diamond, a gold ecclesiastical ring set with an uncut 
sapphire, found in the Castle dike at Norwich a few years since. 

W. D. Bruce, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited a quantity of flint and metal celts 
discovered at various times in the neighbourhood of Fornham All Saints, 
Suffolk. 

Charles Baily, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited, through the Director, part of a 
priest's embroidered chasuble of the fifteenth or sixteenth century, which 
he procured at Cologne, and forwarded as illustrative of the views ex- 
pressed by Mr. C. R. Smith respecting the symbolical representations 
of the Trinity. In the upper part of the cross is a seated figure of God 
the Father as a Pope, beneath is the Dove, and in the lower part is the 
crucified Saviour. 

George Bowyer, Esq. D.C.L. F.S.A. in a letter to Sir Henry Ellis, alludes 
to a parchment roll of 1629 entitled The Standard of all the Gamesters 
of the Game of Swannes uppon the River Colney, &c." and he gives a 
summary of the old laws respecting that bird.* By these the swan is 
not included in thefera natura. In the twenty-third year of Queen 
Elizabeth there were 500 swans in an estuary near the Isle of Portland, 
some of which were valued at 2*. 6d. each, and 400 of them, not being 
marked, were seized for the Crown. Upon this the owners pleaded their 
title to them, as derived from the Abbots of Abbotsbury, who made no 
mark except cutting the pinion of one wing of those intended for the 
kitchen : the lawyers, however, decided in favour of the Crown, the 
water being public, and the swan a royal fowl as whales and sturgeons 
are royal fish. Coke mentions a tradition of the punishment for stealing 
a marked swan being, for the thief to forfeit a heap of corn high enough 

* Ordinances respecting swans and swan-marks will be found in the Archaeologia, 
Vol. XVI. pp. 153163. 



174 



lo hide the liinl \\hen hung up by the bill. His lordship also quotes a 
case of the young cygnets being shared between the owner of the cock 
and the owner of tin- hen. because of their fidelity to each other, whilst, 
in other animals, the young belong wholly to the owner of the mother. 
This Utter is accompanied by a curious black-letter pamphlet containing 
the ancient >tatutes and customs of England regarding offences against 
ilie -wan laws; it is intituled " The Order for Swannes." Respecting 
the u>e. of the aspirate which has converted swan-upping into swan- 
hopping, Mr. Bowyer remarks that on p. 2 of this pamphlet " you will 
find mention made of the upping-daies ; and at p. 3 this expression the 
^UKUt'fjrttff of the Duchie of Lancaster shall up no swanne, &c." 
The privilege of a cigninota, or swan-mark, was only obtainable by 
royal grant. 

Sir Henry Ellis, Sec. S.A. communicated, in a letter to Lord Mahon, 

an account of a lost city near the coast of Pomerania, said to have been 

overwhelmed by the sea in the eleventh century. Sir Henry says, 

*' Among the foreign letters addressed to Sir Joseph Banks, and be- 

queathed by him to the British Museum, is one from a Mr. Churchman, 

the larger portion of which scarcely belongs to the objects of the Society 

of Antiquaries, but which, in one or two of its paragraphs, calls attention 

to a curious fact, for the most part long since forgotten, and but slightly 

recorded in history." Churchman's * letter was written in 1804, and insists 

that there is manifest evidence of the sea's having been retreating from 

some of the shores of Russia for ages past, and encroaching upon others. 

Among the instances already adduced, he mentions that a " boat made of 

oak, together with several human skeletons, was found some years ago in 

digging a small canal at Strelna, the seat of the Grand Duke Constan- 

tine." And in 1803 was published " a short account of a vessel laden 

with marble, lately found in the dominions of his Prussian Majesty, not 

far from the Baltic :" as this vessel was said to be covered with earth, it 

is concluded that this was occasioned by the sediment of the water in 

which she was immersed. But the sea gains on the land in other parts 

of the Baltic : " In most of the charts of that sea, the ruins of the 

famous city of Vineta are represented under water. Antiquaries believe 

its name to be derived from the nation called the Vineti. These ruins 

lie between the Danish island of Bornholm and the island of Rugen, op- 

posite to Swedish Pomerania. It seems that the streets have been laid 

out, like Babylon, at right angles. According to Lubeccius, alderman 

of Triptow, this ruined city, situate on level ground, was visited by tra- 

vellers with attention about the year 1564 ; among other visitors was the 

then Duke of Brunswick, and his chaplain. A vessel had come from 

Gothland, and took away all the marble and metal then to be found. 

Among other things were d pair of very large city-gates made of metal, 

concerning which there existed a popular song. President Keffenbrink 

tells us that on the 14th of August 1771, two Dutch vessels were ship- 

wrecked on the ruins of this city. There were then standing several 

* John Churchman was a native of America, who published by subscription in 
Ixmdou, Tlw Magnetic Atlas, or Variation Chart* of the whole Terraqueous Globe. 
4 to. 1794. 



175 

pillars of white marble, or al Tin- Counsellor M. Jordan went 

thither with Commodore Baarts from Swimiemiuid, who endeavoured to 
save the vessels: as llie weather \v;i< fine, all llie cmnpan\ went on board 
and inspected the jiillars, one of which by the shock was brought from 
its vertical position. Some old men declared, that they had formerly 
seen these white pillars above water. A certain master of a vessel ,it 
Swinnemund said that, eleven years before that time, an English ship 
was lost on the ruins of Vim-fa, and on that occasion he went thither to 
assist the vessel in distress. He said he had discerned two walls of 
brick, which he supposed were about four feet thick, and 60 or 70 feet 
distant from each other, but only some parts of them reached so high as 
the water's edge." 

Sir Henry adds, that the oldest map on which he has as yet found 
the site of Wineta or Vineta laid down, is that in C. de Jode's Speculum 
Orbis Terrartim, 1593 : and in 1650, it was described as Wineta 
emporium olim celeberrimum aquarum cestu absorptum. In Zedler's 
great Lexicon, 1748, there is a full account of this "principal and most 
ancient town.*' Its origin is derived from the Phoenicians, and it appears 
to have attained to great wealth and importance in 470 ; but intestine 
broils induced them to call in the Swedes and Danes, who are stated to 
have ruined this fine city aboiit A.D. 796, or thereabouts. 

On the termination of this paper, the Vice-President announced, that 
the usual time for auditing the Society's annual accounts being now 
near at hand, the President had nominated as Auditors Lord Monteagle ; 
Octavius Morgan, Esq. M.P. ; Sir Charles George Young, Garter ; and 
Peter Levesque, Esq. The following statement was made : 

" It will be perceived from the list, that contrary, not indeed to any rule of the 
Society, but to its previous usage, the President has prevailed upon two of the gen- 
tlemen who were on the Audit last year to be Auditors again this year. 

" The President is anxious to explain to the Society his motive for this unusual 
course, of which he trusts they will approve. 

41 He has been led to think, from his recent investigation into the financial state 
of the Society, that such an innovation might be in any year a desirable improvement 
upon the former course ; but at present there is a strong and special reason for it. 

" For several months there has been in progress, chiefly by means of Members 
of the last Board of Audit, a thorough investigation into the whole financial state 
of the Society, of which the important results will appear to the Society in the 
nrxt Report of Audit. Hut, to render this Report as clear and comprehensive as 
possible, it seems essential that the continuity of proceedings should not be broken ; 
a id that two of the Members of the former Audit should be continued on the next, 
s > as to explain to their new colleagues the former steps of inquiry, and discuss 
with them the intended measures of improvement." 



Thursday, February 18, 1847. 
THOMAS ST APLETON, Esq. V.P. in the Chain 

Thomas Mee Lowndes, Esq. lately elected, having subscribed the 
obligations required by the Statutes, was admitted a Fellow of tho 
Society. 

The following present was received, and the thanks of the Society 



wore ontere.l t. he n turned tor the s;mie : By AIous. Octave 1 )rle- 
pierre, Anglo-S;\>niana. 8vo. 

C. R. Smith, Esq. F.S.A., in a letter to Captain W. H. Smyth, com- 
municated his remarks upon some of the ancient British coins recently 
found by the Hon. R. C. Neville ; and he exhibited casts of them which 
had been forwarded to him. They were five in number, and thus 
classed : 

I. Obv. CVNOBEL . . . Galeated head and bust, to the left. 

Rev. TASC . FIL. A hog on its haunches, apparently eating a plant. 
II. Obv. CVNOBELINVS REX. Head to the right. 
Rev. TASC (?) A Bull butting. 

III. Obv. Head to the right. 

Rev. A hog walking to the right : a lunette or part of a circle above : a 
pearled star of five points below. 

IV. Obv. . . VER. Head to the left. 

Rev. A goat standing to the left. In the field stars and a circle. 
V. (As Ruding, Plate v. fig. 34.) 

" Of these coins," observes Mr. Smith, " Nos. I. and II. are well- 
known to numismatists. They have gained additional interest from the 
interpretation given by Mr. Birch (see the Numismatic Chronicle, vol. 
iii. p. 78) to the hitherto puzzling word Tascio or Tascia, which, for 
a couple of centuries, furnished a theme for discussion and controversy, 
and brought into the field of literary disputation much learning and 
research to no satisfactory purpose. It remained for Mr. Birch to apply 
to the stubborn word the simple test of comparison, when it immediately 
resolved itself into Tasciovanus ; the F, or FIL. became Films; and 
when these two words were found in conjunction with that of Cunobelin, 
the entire legend naturally became Cunobelinus Filius Tasciovani ; 
suggested, no doubt, by the formula " Caesar Divi F." on the coins of 
Augustus, which, together with the Consular coins, in many instances 
furnished designs for the British currency." " No. IV. is altogether 
new. The letters upon it appear to be VER, but as the piece of metal 
has not covered the entire surface of the die, only a portion of the in- 
scription appears. It may belong to the word Verulamium, often occur- 
ring upon the coins of Tasciovanus. The head is apparently that of 
Hercules, copied from a Consular coin ; the goat is probably derived 
from the same source. I need not dwell upon the importance of these 
monuments, almost coeval with the earliest historical account of Britain. 
They are indeed almost the only works of art which we can point to and 
pronounce exclusively British. Weapons and ornaments, funereal urns, 
and the mounds which covered them, may be disputed, but coins and their 
inscriptions admit of no doubt of correct appropriation. The new 
varieties which are constantly occurring (as in the little collection before 
us) should stimulate us to use every effort to secure those which may 
be brought to light in excavations, or by other means, for careful exami- 
nation. Essex, as you are aware, was included in the kingdom of Cuno- 
belin, and consequently in this county wo find his coins in the greatest 
abundance. Some time since, I am informed, a considerable number 
were dug up in the vicinity of Colchester, and passed into the hands of 
a London dealer, by whom they were disposed of without any regard to 



177 

ilio purposes of -imtiiic inquiry to which they might have been made 
available." 

( ieorge Bowyer, Esq., D.C.L., F.S.A., in a letter to Sir Henry Ellis 
Sec. S.A. communicates the result of his researches into some legal 
antiquities, and particularly refers to the history of the degree of Doctor 
of Laws. The earliest occurrence of it is in the Code of the Emperor 
Julian De Professoribus. About the middle of the xiith century, 
however, when the school of Bologna was fully established, the doctor- 
ship was first conferred as a degree ; and Savigny conjectures that the 
jurisdiction granted by the Emperor Frederic I. to professors of the 
school of law contributed to bring about this change. Some time after, 
mention is made of Doctors of the Canon Law ; and in the xiiith century 
of Doctors of Medicine, and other arts. A remarkable point in the early 
history of the Civil Law degree is, that its origin is essentially academi- 
cal. The candidate was first honoured with the degree of Licentiatus, 
and afterwards by a solemn assembly in the cathedral the university 
proceeded to confer the degree of Doctor. Panzirolus describes the 
robe, scarlet cap, and furred hood, as having been derived from the 
ecclesiastical vestments ; and he traces the origin of bestowing the ring, 
to the Roman knights. The epithet Judex was sometimes confounded 
with Doctor, as both indicated magistracy. 

\V. D. Saull, Esq. F.S.A., communicated his observations on some 
British, Celtic, and Roman stations in the vicinity of Dunstable, in 
Bedfordshire ; and his paper was accompanied by a drawing of Totterhoe 
Castle, a British earth- work ; together with a ground-plan of the British 
and Roman stations and roads in the vicinity of Dunstable. Mr. Saull 
mentions that he found abundant traces of the ancient inhabitants of the 
vicinity ; and that the intersection of two British track-ways which 
afterwards became the Watling and Icknield streets of the Roman aera 
was visible. His examination of the site leads him to conclude that 
Durocobriva3 was not on the precise site of Dunstable, but a mile and a 
half to the westward, where a parallelogram of about four aero- i~ 
strongly marked by its vallum and fosse on the three sides, the fourth 
being a natural escarpment of the hill. 



Thursday, February 25, 1847. 
HENRY HALLAM, Esq. V. P., in the Chair. 

Richard Brooke, Esq. and the Rev. John Edmund Cox, were admitted 
as Fellows of the Society. 

The following presents were received, and the thanks of the Society 
were ordered to be returned for the same : By William Dickson, Esq. 
Wood's Magazine, No. 38. By Mons. Ballin, Precis analytique des 
Travaux de I'Academie Royale des Sciences, de Rouen, pendant 1'ann. 
1846. By the Camdon Society, A Relation of the Island of England 
about the year 1500. 

Sir Walter James exhibited, by the hands of the President, drawings 
representing various ancient buildings at Cashmere) Lahore, etc., lo- 



178 

ralities which, as Lord Malmn obsrrvrd in liis letter acnmipanyinjr them, 
"have so Ion-.: been -A terra //ir<>-n//(i, to the artist."^ These views are 
brautifiilly exemted by tin- I Ion. Charles IlardiniiV. 

The Marquis of Northampton, F.S.A., obligingly exhibited a small 
terra-rotta tiunre of Eros, or Cupid, which was found m a tomb in the 
Mciniu of Naples. 

K. i'orreti. Esq. F.S. A., exhibited to the meeting a steel shield of the 
xvitli century- intended for the armouries in the Tower of London, in 
addition to the four which he recently laid before the Society. 

George Bowyer, Esq. D.C.L , F.S. A., in a second letter to Sir Henry 
Ellis, discussed the history of the degree of Serjeant-at-Law. Coke, 
alluding to times before the Conquest, regards Serjeants as being an- 
teriorly called Narratores Counteors, because of the count or declara- 
tion ; a view for which he has the authority of the " Mirror of Justices," 
a work reckoned coeval with Edward I. or II. The learned Serjeant 
Wynne, however, refers the degree to the period of the Conquest, since 
great numbers of the inferior clergy followed King William hither, and 
were called by writ to this degree, in order to expound the Norman 
laws. Under Henry III. the King's Serjeant-at-Law prosecuted pleas of 
the Crown ; and in the time of Edward I. we read of the Serjeant 
Counter, a dignity next in degree to that of a knight ; and to the 
present day, this officer, becoming a peer, still continues a Serjeant. For 
want of authors of legal authority in those days, Mr. Bowyer quotes 
Chaucer on this topic ; and the Serjeant's chusing a pillar at St. Paul's 
may mean, like the money-changers in the Temple, that there " they 
used to hear their clients, and take notes on their knee." The old 
poet dilates on the power and stateliness of the Serjeants, and assigns 
to them a capacity which no modern lawyer can claim : 

" 4lid every statute could he plane by rote." 

If the Serjeant-at-Law had not the same quasi-judicial character as the 
Doctor, still no one could be made a Judge who was not first a Serjeant. 
This state and dignity were held to be requisite to counter-balance the 
heavy expense of their installation, amounting to 260/. and upwards ; 
for they were expected to hold a sumptuous feast of seven days' con- 
tinuance, to present gold rings to stated individuals, and to give liveries 
of cloth to their inferiors, as a " tokyne of the creacion." Mr. Bowyer 
then describes the ceremonials observed on such occasions principally 
from Dugdale, Wynne, and Fortescue, and concludes by saying " this 
account of the venerable degree of Serjeant-at-Law has rather a me- 
lancholy interest to antiquaries, as its privileges are now abolished in 
the Court of Common Pleas, by statute 9 and 10 Victoria, ch. 54 ; and 
there will in future be no Serjeants created except as a preparation for 
the Bench." 



Thursday, 4tli March. |SJ7. 
\ ISCOl NT MAMON. President, in the Chair. 



The Pre-ident anuomued t, the Society that cnpio ,,f 1 .ayniuon are 
now upon delivery to the Ivllous. ai the term* proj>osed to the meeting 
of the 28th of ,Juim,ir\ . 

'Mu- i'ollo\vinn- pivsrnt* \vere received. and tin- thanks of the Society- 
were ordered to IK- returned tor the -ame : By J. 13. Nichols, Esq. F.S.A. 
The (ieiitlcniau's .Mau'a/ine lor March. IS-17. By the Royal Asiatic 
Society, their Journal, No. 17, part 2. By the Editor, The Athenaeum, 
No. '230, By E. P. Colquhoun, Esq. Topography of the Harbours, &c. 
of Athens. By (i. (lo<lwin, Esq. The Builder, vol. v. part 2. 

W. D. Bruce, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited a square piece of lead curiously 
engraved, and probably the matrix for impressing the consecrated water. 

J. Y. Akerman, Esq. F.S.A. in a letter to the Director, described the 
cromlech commonly called Wayland Smith's Cave, at Ashbury, in Berk- 
shire. It stands about a mile and a half west of the famous White Horse 
cut in the chalk of the downs at Uffington, and within a hundred yards 
of an ancient road called the " Uidgeway." The stones once composing 
the cave of this invisible smith are called scirsens or " grey wethers ;" 
they are lying in disorder about the spot, and are of the same quality as 
those at Abury and Stonehenge. The vault or cave was formed as 
usual in these sepulchres by upright stones covered by large slabs at the 
top. Of the latter but one remains ; a large quantity of stone having 
been taken from this place some time since for the purpose of building a 
barn. " It will be observed," says Mr. Akerman, " in this cromlech 
that there are two lateral chambers, or transepts, giving to the entire 
ground plan the form of a cross. These chambers would alone be 
sufficient to negative the absurd idea of these stones having been raised 
as altars for human sacrifices a supposition indulged in by the specu- 
lative antiquaries of this and other countries." The explanation offered 
of these gigantic monuments is, that the several chambers held the 
remains of great men ; and that in the earth heaped over them to form 
the tumulus inferior people were interred. The description was ac- 
companied by drawings of Wayland Smith's Cave, and one of the 
Cromlech du Tus, in Guernsey. 

B. Williams, Esq. F.S.A. communicated to the Society a description 
of the literary curiosities in the public library of Rouen ; accompanied 
by an early Calendar, and an initial portrait, presumed to be of our 
Archbishop Anselm. The Calendar was written between A.D. 978 and 
A.D. 1097, a date ascertained by the saints which it enumerates, and by 
a comparison with other calendars. It is from an elegant Anglo-Saxon 
Missal of the eleventh century, which appears to have been taken from 
England by Robert Archbishop of Canterbury, when he fled on the 
Queen Mother's account from Edward the Confessor. 

Sir Henry Ellis, Sec. S.A. addressed a letter to Lord Mahon, com- 
municating a transcript of a Paper in one of the old Royal Manuscripts 
in the British Museum ; probably the only perfect copy now in ex- 



180 

isteiuv, nnil n< <urh is both an historical and typographical curiosity. It 
misivllaneous piece, and was printed by Mnchlinia, the cotomporary 
; \tuii. not in quarto, as described by Ames, but in folio. The con- 
tents are The Promesse of Matrimonie The Lettre of annuelle Port 
The Obligation of Nisi Th' Articles of the Convencion betweenethe 
Frenssh King and the Due of Austrice, late called Due of Burgoyne. 
" The greatest interest, however, attaching to this paper," says * Sir 
Henry, " is that it preserves the terms and circumstances under which 
an early marriage was proposed for Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of 
Kdward the Fourth, with the Dauphin of France." It will be recollected 
that this princess was intended by her father for George Neville, Duke of 
Bedford ; she was afterwards promised to the Dauphin, so that there 
might be no more " warre, batailles, and hostilities," between the English 
and French ; was next wooed by her uncle Richard the Third ; and 
finally married to Henry the Seventh. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 
OF LONDON. 



1847. No. 9. 



Thursday, llth March, 1847. 
THOMAS STAPLETON, Esq. V.P. in the Chair. 

The following books were presented to the Society, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned for the same. By Mons. de Gerville, Recherches 
sur les Isles du Cotentin, &c. By Mons. J. Bouchier de Perthes, Du 
Patronage, ou 1'Influence par la Charite. By the Royal Irish Academy, 
their Transactions, Vol. XXI. Part I ; and Proceedings for 1844, 
5, 6. By the Statistical Society of London, their Journal, Vol. X. 
Part. I. By John Bidwell, Esq. F.S.A. a short Vocabulary in the 
Arabic, Ghadames, and Tuaric Languages. This vocabulary is ex- 
tracted from a MS. Report of a Tour in Northern Africa by Mr. James 
Richardson in the years 1845 and 1846 ; and was privately printed 
under the superintendence of Mr. Norris of the Asiatic Society, and Mr. 
Richardson. 

H. T. Prinsep, Esq. exhibited to the Society, through the medium of 
the President, some very remarkable plates of Asiatic Inscriptions, and 
other curious objects ; the former obtained in 1839, from an excavation 
at Baroda, in the province of Gujerat. By a translation printed at the 
Bishop's College Press, Calcutta, their date appears to correspond with 
the year 812 of the Christian era. 

Dr. Bromet, M.D. F.S.A. in a letter to the Director, remarks, that 
having called attention to the somewhat exaggerated views of a cromlech 
and obelisk in Britanny, presented some years ago to the Society by the 
Rev. Bathurst Deane, he now exhibits another drawing of this crom- 
lech, or dolmen, as it is called in its neighbourhood ; and also a drawing 
of the interior of the cavern under the tumulus Gaur' Innis. The upper, 
or table-stone of the cromlech, according to Dr. Bromet's own measure- 
ment, is 21 feet long, 12 broad, and 4 deep ; it is supported by three ver- 
tical stones which are between 5 and 6 feet above ground : and there is 
another and shorter vertical stone, which, although not a supporter, was 
evidently erected for the purpose of its becoming so, should either of the 
three other uprights fail, a provision observed in similar antiquities in 
Cornwall. The obelisk, or menhir, has long been in a fallen and frac- 
tured state ; it consists of four pieces, altogether more than 70 feet long, 
and, at its largest end, 14 feet broad, with an estimated weight of 250 
tons. 

Samuel Shepherd, Esq. F.S.A., communicated to the Society, through 
Sir Henry Ellis, an extract from a published lecture on ancient remains 

s 



182 

in Britain, with a view of its throwing some light upon Mr. Akerman's 
paper on Wayland Smith's Cave. He also forwarded an excerpt of a 
printed letter from Francis Wise, B.D. to Dr. Mead, J 738, on the same 
subject. 

Thomas Wright, Esq. F.S.A., in a letter to Lord Mahon, communi- 
cated a few remarks on the legend of Weland, the Smith ; which, he 
observes, though not possessing much novelty, have not hitherto been 
placed before the English reader in a connected form. He regrets the 
degradation of our older traditions into mere nursery tales, as instanced 
by " the mighty deeds of the God Thor against the Giants of Jotenheim, 
being transformed into the exploits of Jack the Giant-killer." When 
John Leland made his antiquarian tours in the reign of Henry VIII. 
these local legends appear to have been extremely numerous : thus, 
speaking of Corbridge in Northumberland, he says : " By this broke, 
as among the ruines of the olde town, is a place caulled Colecester, wher 
hath beene a forteres or castelle. The people there say that ther dwellid 
yn it one Yoton, whom they fable to have been a gygant." The giant 
race of the Northern and Teutonic mythology were termed Jotens or 
Yotens, in Anglo-Saxon Eotenas ; and Layamon says, " There dwelt 
Eotens, or giants, very strong, in Albion." The schoolmaster, observes 
Mr. Wright, is the great enemy of legendary lore. 

The story of Weland, which bears a close analogy to that of the 
Grecian Itycuoros, is found at some length in the Edda ; from which it 
eeems that he was the son of the giant Wade ; that he obtained from the 
mountain dwergr, or dwarfs, the art of working metals by fire ; that he 
excelled in making arms and armour ; that he fell into the hands of King 
Nidung, who, to ensure his remaining at his forge, had him ham- 
strung, and the tendons of his feet cut ; that he avenged himself by 
killing the king's two sons and outraging his daughter ; and that he 
finally flew away with wings which he had constructed. Mr. Wright 
cites numerous allusions to this legend in the early romances and poems, 
and traces the deeds of the mythic smith through the literature of the 
different people of Western Europe. On the whole he has no doubt but 
that the hamstrung smith, Weland, was the same personage as the classic 
Vulcan, who was also lame, made arms and armour, and worked iron 
similarly, if the price of the labour were left with the metal. 



Thursday, 18 March, 1847. 
THOMAS AMYOT, Esq. Treasurer, in the Chair. 

Sir Charles George Young, Garter, one of the Auditors of the Trea- 
surer's accounts for the year ending on the 31st day of December, 1846, 
reported that the Auditors, having duly examined the said Accounts, 
together with the respective vouchers relating thereto, find the same 
to be just and true ; and that they had prepared from the said Accounts 



an Abstract of the Receipts and Disbursements, together with a state- 
ment of the financial state of the Society, for the information of the 

Hows. 

This Report was accordingly read ; and it was resolved that it be 



183 

received, printed, and circulated. It was then moved and seconded that 
the Auditors' Report be taken into consideration on Thursday evening-, 
the 15th of April, 1847. 

Thursday, March 25, 1847. 
VISCOUNT MAHON, President, in the Chair. 

His Excellency George Bancroft, Esq. the American Minister at the 
Court of St. James's, was duly elected an Honorary Member of the 
Society; and the Hon. Richard Cornwallis Neville, Sir Fortmiatus 
Dwarris, and Albert William Woods, Esq. were elected Fellows. 

The following books were presented to the Society, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned for the same. By the Philosophical Society of 
Manchester, their Memoirs, Vol. VII. Part II. By the Zoological 
Society of London, their Transactions, Vol. III. Part IV. By 
W. D. Bruce, Esq. F.S.A. Historical Sketch of the Sovereign Order 
of St. John of Jerusalem, 1839. By the Royal Agricultural Society 
of England, their Journal, Vol. VII. Part II. By James Richardson, 
Esq. a Vocabulary of the Arabic, Ghadames, and Tuarick languages. 
By Douglas Guest, Esq. A new System combining inventions and 
improvements as appertaining to Floating Bodies. By M. Arwidson, 
Royal Librarian at Stockholm, A miscellaneous collection of Swedish 
Annals, Early Songs, Early Swedish Literature, Royal Letters, and 
Lives of the Swedish Governors ; together with a large collection of 
engravings, in three folio volumes, with an index. 

The Marquis of Northampton, F.S.A. communicated to the Society, 
Observations upon a Greek Vase which was placed on the table 
discovered in Etruria, now in his Lordship's possession, bearing the 
name of the fabricator, Nicosthenes. His Lordship first remarks on the 
significance of the various objects depicted on the shields of divinities 
and heroes : he then alludes to the form of the vase now exhibited, 
which had a long narrow neck, and two broad but very thin flat handles, 
as being so uncommon that he only knows of five others. Some of these 
bear figures and some do not; but each has the name NIKOS9ENES 
EIIOIE2EN, who appears to have been one of the earliest manufacturers, 
and all his paintings are black and white on a red ground. In the 
present specimen a duel is represented on both sides, but between one 
pair of warriors there lies a dead body. On one shield is a serpent, 
but only the inside is seen of that opposed to it. On one of the other 
pair there is a tripod. From the unity of subject observed on some 
vases, it is probable that the simple duel represents the death of Hector ; 
and the other, the combat over the body of Antilochus. Thus Achilles 
would be an actor in each, in confirmation of which view it is remarkable 
that below the figures is a pair of cocks fighting, superscribed AIKAIA, 
which, read from right to left, gives us ^Ecides, the patronymic of Achilles. 
On a vase at Munich, we see a cock upon the shield of Hector. 

The noble author gave a detailed view of the various devices or 
emblems which the Greeks bore upon their shields, and concluded by 
inviting others to investigate the subject. Some beautiful drawings were 
exhibited in illustration of the description. 

s 2 



184 

Charles Roach Smith, Esq. F.8. A. exhibited to the meeting a valuable 
collection of Celtic, Roman, and Saxon weapons of war, and a circular 
bronze shield, discovered in the bed of the Thames opposite London. 
For the sake of comparison he also placed on the table specimens of 
Roman and Saxon weapons found in Berkshire. Mr. Smith entered 
into a description of the various implements, and was followed by M. 
Worsaae, of Copenhagen, in the elucidations. 

The President then gave notice that, in pursuance of the Statutes, the 
Anniversary Election of the Officers and Council of the Society will be 
on Friday, the 23rd of April, being on St. George's Day : also that on 
account of Passion Week and the Easter Holidays, the meetings of the 
Society would be adjourned to Thursday evening, the 15th of April. 

8. d. 
By Balance in hand 31st December 1845 1396 5 5 

RECEIPTS, 1846. 



758 2 



212 2 
92 2 
^^ 126 

By Sale of Books and Prints 78 1 10 

By Dividend on 6,500 3 per cent. Consols, due Janu- 
ary 5th, 1846 " .'' ' . 97 10 

Income Tax . . 2 16 10 

94 13 2 

By Ditto, due July '. 94 13 2 

189 6 4 

By Sale of 600 Stock at 95f . . . . '. 4 ' . . 574 10 

Expenses . . . . 1 19 

572 11 



8. d. 

By 19 Annual (Old) Subscriptions for 1845, at 2 2*. . . . 39 18 
By 163 Annual Subscriptions for 1845, at 4 4* 684 12 
By portions of Subscription, T.M. Alsager.Esq., deceased, 
and Mr. Bacon withdrawn 440 
By 7 Subscriptions in advance for 1846 29 8 


By Arrears of Subscription 1838 to 1843 
By ditto ditto 1843 


42 
31 10 


By ditto ditto 1844 


138 12 













3424 10 7 
Amount of Stock 31st Deer. 1846 5,900. 

Witness our hands, 8 March 1847. MONTEAGLE. 

OCTAVIUS MORGAN. 
CHAS. GEO. YOUNG, Garter. 
PETER LEVESQUE. 



185 

Thursday, April 15, 1847. 
VISCOUNT MAHON, President, in the Chair. 

Lord Redesdale and Sir Fortunatus Dwarris, having been duly 
elected, were severally admitted Fellows of the Society. 

Sir Robert Inglis proposed, and Mr. Stapleton seconded, a Motion, 
that the Auditors' Report be received, which was carried : 

" WE, the Auditors, appointed by the Society of Antiquaries of Lon- 
don, on the llth day of February, 1847, to Audit the Accounts of their 
Treasurer during the year ending the 31st day of December, 1846, 
having examined the said Accounts, together with the respective 
vouchers relating thereto, do find the same to be just and true, and we 
have prepared from the said accounts the following Abstract : 

t. d. 
DISBURSEMENTS. 

By discharge of the Anglo-Saxon debt 8121211 

By further payments on account of Layamon ...... 72 6 

By payment to Mr. Lemon on account of Vote for Library .... 209 11 6 



For Salaries, N. Carlisle, Esq 200 
Less Income Tax . . 4 10 4 

10K 


9 8 

17 10 


13 4 


16 


584 
22 

80 
238 
26 
6 
37 
81 

40 
5 


16 
11 

1 
1 
14 
10 

2 

17 


10 


10 


11 

7 
6 

9 

i 

4 

u 


Sir Henry Ellis 11 


17 10 
4 12 2 
152 


Less Income Tax 


Mr. Martin 


. 100 


Compensation from April 1845, ) 
by order of Council, in lieu of fees . j 
Holtzer, Porter 
Mr. Long, assistance in the Library, 152 
days, to 30 Sept. 1846 . 


. 26 

. 30 

. 79 


13 


11 








j4,000 Stock in Cellar .... 


9 


Taxes, Assessed 
Property 
Do. On Salaries 




. 17 
3 
9 


5 
14 
2 


3 
1 
7 




















Collecting Subscriptions (Mr. Martin) .... 
Porterage, Parcels, Advertisements, and Petty Cash 
Incidental Expenses, viz. Book Duty, Shipping Presents, ) 
Moving Stock, Purchase of Copper-plates . j 


. 


. 


Balance in the hands of the Treasurer on the 1st of Ja- 






3364 
59 


13 
17 


B 

2 








3424 


10 


7 






Witness our hands, 8th March, 1847. MONTEAGLE. 

OCTAVIUS MORGAN. 
CHAS. GEO. YOUNG, Garter. 
PETER LEVESQUE. 



186 



(AUDITORS' REPORT, continued.) 

" THE Accounts of the Society of Antiquaries for the year 1846 appear- 
ing to embrace a Receipt and Expenditure far exceeding the usual 
average amount, the Auditors feel called upon to close their duties by a 
special Report for the information of the Council and the Fellows. 

The Report of the Auditors last year announced to the Society a 
balance in the hands of the Treasurer on the 31st December* 1845, 
amounting to 1,396 5$. 5d. 

By the accounts now presented, it will be seen that at the close of the 
year 1846, after exhausting the whole of the usual income, this balance 
was reduced to .59 17*. 2rf. 

So striking a change in the financial state of the Society could not 
fail to attract the attention of the Auditors, more particularly as during 
the examination of the accounts it appeared that a sum of 600 of the 
capital stock of the Society had been sold out last year, together with a 
further sum of 800, which, as they are informed, has also been sold 
out during the present year, in order to liquidate the liabilities of the 
Society up to the 31st December last. 

The Auditors, conceiving that under such circumstances some expla- 
nation was not only due to the Society, but would justly be expected at 
their hands, have inquired into the causes which in so short a period 
have produced a material change in the state of the finances. Without 
entering into minute and unnecessary details, they submit facts as they 
present themselves to the Auditors. 

It appears that the Noble President had no sooner been elected than, 
with a view to the advancement of the interests of the Society, he applied 
himself to a consideration of its condition, the management and expendi- 
ture of its income, and the general state of its funds. 

That such inquiry might be rendered effectual, the President sought 
the aid of the Council in the formation of Committees ; and one for the 
investigation of the finances, and other subjects connected therewith, was 
appointed immediately after the last audit. 

By direction of the President and Council the Reports of this Com- 
mittee have been submitted to the Auditor's ; and it appears that upon 
examination of the accounts, the Committee found that of the reported 
balance of the previous year, a sum of & 1 2 was absorbed by expenses 
on account of the Anglo-Saxon Publications, incurred under a vote of 
the Fellows in March 1831 ; and that other debts and liabilities of the 
Society, not brought before the Auditors of last year, though then out- 
standing, amounted to a further sum of not less than .1200. 

This amount, upon closer examination, was augmented by the disco- 
very of other demands still outstanding ; and, when considered in con- 
nection with the estimated amount of the ordinary expenses of the year, 
a sum little short of 4000 may be said to have been required for the 
lull liquidation of all claims to the close of the year. 

Of a portion of this debt, amounting to 812, the Fellows of the 



187 

Society have, it appears to your Auditors, not been ignorant. Although 
it had not been especially alluded to by the Treasurer at the last annual 
audit, it was in former reports stated as a charge upon the Treasurer's 
balance, and was certainly in the year 1842 reported on as exceeding at 
that period ^6600. The Auditors therefore, finding this to have been a 
standing debt of some years, proceeded to ascertain how the remaining 
portion had reached so considerable an amount. 

It seems from the Report of the Committee, that there has long 
existed in this Society a system of including the whole receipts of the 
year on the credit side of the treasurer's account, whilst at the same 
time the liabilities of the same period were never considered ; in fact, the 
treasurer's account has been one simply of receipts and payments, and 
has never included the gross amount of the tradesmen's bills of the year 
in which the audit purports to close the account. The annual accounts, 
including only the income and expenditure between the months of 
January and December preceding, omitted all consideration of the 
liabilities incurred during that period, or the bills left outstanding. 
The annual income of the Society having therefore been applied to the 
discharge of certain current expenses of the year, and of a portion of the 
bills of the preceding year only, there has been constantly an accumu- 
lating arrear, which by gradual increase has placed the finances of the 
Society in their recent position. 

This state of facts having been brought under the consideration of the 
President and Council, they came promptly, and as it appears to the 
Auditors most judiciously, to the decision of liquidating forthwith all 
the debts and liabilities of the Society, as a step necessary, as well as 
one affording the most certain means of restoring the Society to freedom 
of action, and enabling the Council to proceed unfettered in the pro- 
secution of such measures as may for the future be found requisite ; by 
this course the Council will be enabled henceforth to apply the income 
of the year solely to that year's expenditure ; and by the adoption of a 
new system, and strict adherence to rule, the Auditors trust that a 
recurrence of such a state of affairs as they have described will be 
avoided. 

Of these rules, that which appears the most essential is, that, with the 
annual accounts a statement should be invariably furnished of all bills 
and liabilities then outstanding, so far as the same can be ascertained and 
made up ; and that these outstanding demands should be at all times 
confined strictly within the narrowest limits. 

This hope is expressed with every degree of confidence, because the 
Auditors find that the whole subject, including the introduction of a more 
regular system of account, is now under the deliberate consideration of 
the Council, who have already passed a resolution directing that as large 
a portion as may be practicable of the compositions shall in future be 
funded. The Auditors are likewise informed that arrangements are in 
progress for reducing the expenditure, and keeping it within the legiti- 
mate income of the Society ; and that resolutions have been adopted by 
which a special control will be exercised over the expenditure, and a 
mode of payment enforced which, whilst it is intended to effect a con- 
siderable saving, will be otherwise highly advantageous to the Society. 



188 

The Auditors have ventured to impress upon the Council their opinion 
that the resolution proposed for funding the compositions should not be 
relaxed at any time, since it appears to them that the numerical strength 
of the Society has within the last few years decreased. To convert the 
capital of the Society into the means of meeting the annual expenditure 
would, under such circumstances, be inconsistent with all prudential 
administration. 11 

The arrears and subscriptions due to the Society at the close of the 
year 1845 amount to .300 6*. b 

From the reports of the Finance Committee, your Auditors find that 
their inquiries have extended into the state of the stock, the control 
exercised over it, the sale of the publications, and other matters con- 
nected with those subjects. The various suggestions and remedial 
measures submitted by that Committee to the Council are under its con- 
sideration ; and, as some time must elapse before the future arrangements 
can be fully matured, your Auditors think it unnecessary to say more 
upon the subject, feeling confident that these matters will be most wisely 
confided to the judgment of the Council. 

The Auditors, in remarking upon the expenditure of the past year, 
think it but fair to call the attention of the Society to the fact that by 
resolutions adopted by the Council the whole of the Society's liabilities 
will be liquidated up to the 31st December last, and that it should be 
borne in mind that there is included in that expenditure a sum of ^219, 
part of a special vote on account of the Library, which has undergone a 
re-arrangement, and thereby rendered of more convenient access to the 
Fellows, and a further sum of ^6100 as a consequent disbursement on 
the employment of an additional clerk required for the purpose, and 
forming a catalogue of the Prints. 

The arrangement of the Library was confided to Mr. Lemon with the 
assistance of a library committee, and the Society is indebted to that 
gentleman for the care and labour which he has bestowed upon the 
undertaking, which had become necessary in consequence of the vote of 
the Society in May last authorising the circulation of the printed books 
amongst the Fellows. 

The present state of the Society is 562, viz. : 

Compounders 330 

Fellows at 2 2* 19 

4 4 213 

562 

The admissions during the year 1846 were 11, the average of the last three years 
being 9 per annum, whilst the five preceding years were 21 per annum. The with- 
drawals during the last two years have been 9. 

1842 ... 1 4 

1843 42 

1844 67 4 

1845 .... 186 18 



300 6 



189 

The entire debt incurred by the Society for the Anglo-Saxon pub- 
lications, computed at not less than 1,100, will be included in the final 
discharge of the debts to the close of the year. 

The last of these works, Layamon's Translation of Wace's Brut, a 
work of considerable value to the philological antiquary, has just been 
completed under the editorship of Sir Frederick Madden. 

The expenditure on this account, however, the Auditors think may 
be in part only temporary, should the Council of the Society be aided 
by the Fellows in the disposal of the copies. 

MONTEAGLE OF BRANDON. CHAs. Gfio. YOUNG, Garter. 
OCTAVIUS MORGAN. PETER LEVESQUE. 



It was proposed by Mr. Pettigrew, and seconded by Mr. Dodd, that 
the warmest thanks of this meeting be given to the Auditors for their 
excellent and able Report ; which was carried unanimously. 

It was subsequently proposed by Mr. Pettigrew and seconded by Mr. 
Saull, that the House-List circulated by the President and Council for 
the ensuing Election, be referred back to the Council for re-considera- 
tion and re-construction, requesting the Council to place upon its List 
such Members as have proved themselves most active in promoting the 
objects of the Society. A ballot was taken upon the same, when it was 
found that the Ayes were 38 in number, the Noes 36, whereupon the 
Resolution was declared to be carried. 

The President then gave notice a second time that the Anniversary 
Election of the Society's Officers and Council would be on St. George's 
Day, and he announced the names of the Fellows recommended, in con- 
formity with ch. vii. sec. 6, of the Statutes, by the President and Council 
for election. 




Friday, 23rd April, 1847. (St. Georges Day.) 
VISCOUNT MAHON, President, in the Chair. 

The Society meeting this day, the Anniversary, in pursuance of the 
Statutes and Charter of Incorporation, in order to elect a President, 
Council, and Officers of the Society, for the year ensuing, the Clauses in 
the Statutes describing the method of proceeding in anniversary elections 
were read ; after which, the deaths of such Members as happened within 
the year, and the names of such as were elected Fellows, or had with- 
drawn their names within the same period, were announced as follow : 

DEATHS. 

Thomas Massa Alsager, Esq. John Norris, Esq. 

Alexander Annand, Esq. Hugh, Duke of Northumberland. 

Colonel Benjamin Ansley. Edward Rudge, Esq. 

Rev. Robert Peter Buddicomb. Rev. Thomas Shelford. 

William Durant, Esq. Richard Simmons, Esq. 

Rt. Hon. Thomas Grenville. Henry Stothard, Esq. 

Hon. Col. F. Greville Howard. John Henry, Viscount Templetowu. 

Alfred John Kempe, Esq. Peregrine E. Towneley, Esq. 

William Knight, Esq. Sharon Turner, Esq. 

Rev. Abel Lendon. William Williams, Esq. 

Thomas Murdoch, Esq. Charles Godfrey Wolff, Baron H.R.E. 



190 



Thomas Bacon, Esq. 



WITHDRAWN. 

Rev. William Henry Neale. 



Thomas Mee Lowndes, Esq. 

Richard Brooke, Esq. 

The Hon. Richard Corawallis Neville. 

Sir Fortunatus Dwarris. 

Albert William Woods, Esq. 



ELECTIONS. 

Alexander Horace Burkitt, Esq. Edward F. Smyth Pigott, Esq 

Charles Sandys, Esq. 
Rev. John Edmund Cox. 
Sir Thomas Cartwright. 
Benjamin Williams, Esq. 
Arthur Ashpitel, Esq. 
John Wimbridge, Esq. 

HONORARY MEMBERS ELECTED. 

His Highness Prince Alex. Labanoff. M. Eliacen Carmoly. 

M. Paul Greinblot. H. E. the Hon. George Bancroft. 

The President, in the Chair, then proceeded to draw lots, and William 
Ayrton, Esq. and William Salt, Esq. being thereby appointed Scrutators, 
one of the Secretaries marked down the names of the several Members, 
as they gave in their lists on the ballot for the election of the President, 
Council, and officers of the Society for the year ensuing. On examining 
these lists after the ballot had duly taken place, the following names 
were announced as having a majority of the votes : 



From the Old Council. 
Viscount Mahon, President. 
Henry Hallam, Esq. V.P. 
William R. Hamilton, Esq. V.P. 
Sir Robert H. Inglis, Bart. V.P. 
Thomas Stapleton, Esq. V.P. 
John Payne Collier, Esq. Treasurer. 
Captain W. H. Smyth, R.N.Director. 



Members of the New Council. 
Sir Stephen R. Glynne, Bart. 
Edward Hawkins, Esq. 
Rev. Joseph Hunter. 
Lord Monteagle, of Brandon. 
Octavius S. Morgan, Esq. 
John Yonge Akerman, Esq. 
Thomas Joseph Pettigrew, Esq* 
James Pulman, Esq. 
Sydney Smirke, Esq. 
Lord Viscount Strangford. 



Nicholas Carlisle, Esq. Secretary. 
Sir Henry Ellis, Secretary. 
Thomas Amyot, Esq. 
Sir Charles George Young, Garter. 

After this announcement, the thanks of the Society were returned to 
the two Scrutators, for their kind attention and trouble on this occasion. 

It was then proposed by T. J. Pettigrew, Esq. seconded by the Mar- 
quess of Northampton, and carried unanimously, that the thanks of the 
Society be given to Mr. Amyot, for his long and faithful services as 
Treasurer. 

It was announced from the Chair, that the first part of the thirty- 
second volume of the Archaeologia would be ready for general delivery 
to the Members in the course of the week ; and that No. 8 of the " Pro- 
ceedings" was then ready. 

The Society afterwards dined together at the Freemasons' Tavern, 
according to annual custom, when the Chair was taken by Viscount 
Mahon, the President. 



Thursday, 29th April, 1847. 
HENRY HALLAM, Esq. V. P. in the Chair. 

J. P. Collier, Esq. Treasurer, proposed for election into the Society, 
Francis Earl of Ellesmere, who, as a Peer of the Realm, was entitled 
to have the ballot for his election proceeded upon immediately ; where- 



191 

upon a ballot was taken, and his Lordship was declared duly elected a 
Fellow. 

The following presents were received, and the thanks of the Society 
were ordered to be returned for the same : viz., by Mrs. Rudge, a litho- 
graphic portrait of her late husband, Edward Rudge, Esq. By the 
executors of the late Comte de Clarac, of Paris, Musique de Sculpture, 
antique et moderne, 13 Livraison, fol. 1846. By M. Guioth, Histoire 
Numismatique de la Revolution Beige, 2 vols. fol. 1845. By George 
Godwin, Esq. F.S.A. The Builder, vol v. part iii. 1847. By the Editor, 
The Athenaeum, parts ccxxxi. and ccxxxii. By J. B* Nichols, Esq. 
F.S.A. The Gentleman's Magazine for April, 1847. By Benjamin 
Williams, Esq. F.S.A. Chronicque de la traison et mort de Richart 
deux, Roy d'Engleterre, 8vo. By Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart. F.S.A. 
Glamorganshire Pedigrees, fol. 1845. By the Camden Society, Docu- 
ments relating to the foundation and antiquities of the Collegiate Church 
of Middlehamj 4to. 1847. By the American Philosophical Society at 
Philadelphia, Transactions, vol. ix. part iii. 4to. 1846 ; and Nos. 34 and 
35 of the Proceedings, 8vo. By the Royal Asiatic Society, Journal, vol. x 
part ii. 8vo. 1847. By John Britton, Esq. F.S.A. Memoirs of the life, 
writings, and character of Henry Hatcher, 8vo. 1847. By William 
Watkiss Lloyd, Esq. Artemis Elaphebolos, an Archaeological Essay, 
8vo. 1847, not published. By Thomas Wright, Esq F.S.A. The Can- 
terbury Tales of Geoffrey Chaucer, vol. i. 8vo. 1847. By the Archae- 
ological Institute of Rome, Bullettifii, 8vo. 1846; Annali, 8vo. 1846 j 
Monumenti, pi. XX V XXX Vl.fol. max. ; Notice sur 1' Institut, 8vo. 1 846. 

J. G. Teed, Esq. Q.C* exhibited to the Society an ancient manuscript 
of Domestic Recipes, of about the year 1377. 

George Grant Francis, Esq* F.S.A. exhibited the moulds and casts of 
three Roman inscriptions on a stone discovered lately at Port Talbot, 
near Aberavon, in Glamorganshire. The most legible of these bears the 
following, in uncial characters i 

i M P c 

M A G O K 

D I A N V S 

A V G 

{Imperator Casar Marcus Antonius Gordianus Augustus.) 

Dr* Bromet, F.S.A. communicated a further explanation of the monu- 
ment at Gavr' Innis, in Brittany, together with some rubbings from 
those of its sculptured stones which he considered the most interesting. 
A remarkable peculiarity in this monument consists in the interior faces of 
several of its component stones being engraved with concentric curves re- 
sembling eels or serpents ; and others with those instruments called celts, 
or small ovals pointed at one end, but so placed as to give an appearance 
of their being hieroglyphic characters. There are only two other instances 
of the kind on record, viz., one formerly near Gavr' Innis called the 
Pierres Plates, now destroyed, and the one at New-Grange, in Ire- 
land. Another distinctive feature is a sort of staple made in the stone at 
about three feet from the ground, by three holes communicating with 



192 

each other at the back, and indicating much friction by the internal 
smoothness, as if by the action of ropes passed through. 

Sir Thomas JPhillipps, Bart. F.S.A. communicated, from his Collect- 
tion of Records, a new notice of Shakspeare, being- a copy of the will of 
Thomas Whyttington, husbandman, dated the 25th of March, 1601, by 
which, among other bequests, he gives to the poor of Stratford 40*. then 
in the hands of Anne Shaxspere, " wyf of Wyllyam Shaxspere," and 
due to him. Among numerous other small bequests we meet, " Item, 
1 give to Thomas Hathaway, sonne to the late decessed, Margret Hath- 
way, late of Old Stratford, I2d." It will be recollected that the mar- 
riage bond of Shakspeare, and the autograph signature of Thomas Lucy, 
the well-known magistrate, are in the same collection of records. 

The Hon. R. C. Neville, F.S.A. communicated an account of the ex- 
amination of a group of barrows, five in number, in the county of Cam- 
bridge, and situated at the distance of a mile and a half from Royston : 
this was accompanied with illustrative drawings. These barrows give a 
name to the locality, the spot where they stand being called Five Hill 
Field; and from commanding an extensive view, they have been con- 
sidered by some as originally intended for beacons. But the researches 
of Mr. Neville prove that they were decidedly of a funereal character ; 
and cinerary vases, remains of men and animals, fragments of charcoal, 
the iron head of a pike, and a beautifully preserved large brass coin of 
Marcus Aurelius, were brought to light by excavation. These labours, 
says Mr. Neville, " fully establish in my mind an idea I have long held 
with regard to British barrows, that cutting through at once to the centre 
will, in general, prove inefficacious, though it may be accidentally success- 
ful. From the position of the remains in those we have been consider- 
ing, it is more than probable that had this plan been adopted, the exca- 
vators, owing to the magnitude of the mounds, would have missed the 
articles ; and even had they driven horizontal shafts in different direc- 
tions from the centre, it is fair to conjecture that the result would have 
been the same." 

The Rev. H. T. Ellacombe, F.S.A. communicated the copy of a brief, 
relating to the tower of Keynsham church, in the county of Somerset ; 
and a very detailed copy of the churchwardens' accounts, shewing the 
several suras collected under the said brief, and the monies laid out in 
the rebuilding of the said tower from the 14th of January, 1632, to 1640. 
The brief sets forth that the " fayre, large, and substantial!" church was 
" most lamentably ruinated by reason of a most disasterous misfortune by 
tempestuous weather upon the 13th day of January, 1632. Which con- 
tinued in a most fearefull manner, being intermixed with hideous clapps 
of thunder and flashes of lightning, about sixe of the clocke in the after- 
noone of the same day ; and by reason of the force thereof, in a moment 
threw down the steeple or spire of the tower, which, with the fall thereof, 
crushed down likewise the greatest and principallest parte of the body 
of the said church, chancell, vestry, pulpit, and seates, and defaced the 
pavement also ; and the tower being rased from the top to the founda- 
tion." This manuscript was accompanied with a plan and views of 
Keynsham church. 



193 

Thursday, May 6th, 1847. 
THOMAS STAPLETON, Esq. Vice- President, in the Chair. 

Albert W. Woods, Esq. and Philip H. Howard, Esq. lately elected, 
now attending, having compounded for their annual payments, and 
subscribed the obligation required by the Statutes, were severally ad- 
mitted Fellows of this Society ; and His Excellency the Hon. G. Ban- 
croft, Minister Plenipotentiary from the United States of America, was 
admitted an Honorary Member. 

The following communication to the Society was made from the Council : 

" Society of Antiquaries. 

" At a Council held on Tuesday the 4th of May, 1847, the President in the Chair, 
it was resolved that the following communication be made to the Society at their 
two next Evening Meetings ; be suspended in the meeting room ; and be forwarded 
in print to each Fellow resident in the United Kingdom : 

" ' The President and Council have to announce to the Society that Mr. Carlisle 
has tendered to them the resignation of his office as Resident Secretary, in considera- 
tion of bis advanced age and infirmities. 

" * The President and Council, though not insensible to the financial situation 
which the last Report of Audit has fully laid before the Society, are convinced that 
the Society will join them in the wish to show a substantial mark of respect, after 
forty years' service, to so old and faithful an officer, and to secure the comfort of his 
declining years. 

" ' It is obvious, however, from the amount of the pension now to be proposed, 
that it would be wholly impracticable, while that pension is continued, to appoint a 
second salaried Secretary on the present footing ; but it may be observed, that 
during the first period of the Society, for a term of several years, there appears 
to have been only a single Secretary. With this precedent before them, the Pre- 
sident and Council conceive that by a temporary arrangement some person being 
employed as second or joint clerk they could make efficient provision at present 
for the requisite duties, including proper care and use of the library. 

" ' Accordingly, it is hereby announced, that three ballots will be taken at the 
Evening Meeting of Thursday, May 20th, on the following proposals : I. That in 
consideration of the advanced age and infirmities of Mr. Carlisle, his resignation of 
the office of Resident Secretary be now accepted. II. That in consideration of his 
long and faithful services during forty years, a yearly pension of j150, to com- 
mence when his salary shall cease on the next quarter day, be granted to that 
gentleman, together with the use of his present official apartments during life, or 
his pleasure ; all expenses connected therewith to be defrayed by Mr. Carlisle. 
III. That the vacancy in the office of Secretary be not at present filled up, but that 
the Council be empowered, by the employment of an additional clerk, to make 
temporary provision for the requisite duties.' 

" MAHON, President. 

" On the evening appointed for these ballots no visitors will be admitted/' 

The following presents were received, and thanks were ordered to be 
returned for the same; viz. By George Godwin, Esq. F.S.A. The 
Builder, vol. v. part 4, fol. 1847. By the Archaeological Association, 
their Journal, No. IX. By M le Dr. Rigollot, Memoires sur de 
nouvelles Decouvertes de monnaies Picardes. 8vo. Amiens, 1846. 
By George Smith, Esq. F.S.A. The Patriarchal Age, 8vo. 1847. 
By John Reid, Esq. Suggestions on a Reform in the Laws of Copy- 
right, 8vo. 1847. By J. B. Nichols, Esq. F.S.A. The Gentleman's 
Magazine for May, 1847. By J. J. A. Worsaae, Esq. Hon. Mem. S.A. 
The Antiquities of Ireland and Denmark, 8vo. Dublin, 1846. 



194 

Dr. Bromet, F.S.A. exhibited some rubbings illustrative of his paper 
read at the last meeting, on the cromlech at Gavr' Innis, in Brittany. 

John Britton, Esq. F.S.A. addressed a letter to the President " On 
Cromlechs and Kistvaens," accompanied by the exhibition of numerous 
drawings of each class of such Celtic monuments. The object of this paper 
was to show that both the cromlech and the kistvaen were sepulchral 
in their origin, with this difference between them : the former consists of 
the largest blocks, which are put further apart from each other, without 
any attempt to fill the interstices ; are placed on high ground in open 
view, instead of being immersed in a barrow, and the lid or roof is one 
large and prominent block, instead of being made of several pieces. The 
kistvaen, or stone chest, is an inclosure of stones smaller than those 
of the cromlech, placed in an upright position, almost or quite touching 
each other, enclosing a bottom of rock or stones ; it is completed by a 
covering of several flat stones, and closely surrounded by a mound of 
earth. They are found not only throughout our own empire, but also in 
France, Spain, Scandinavia, Russia, and even in North and South 
America. They have therefore excited great discussion ; and while 
Norden, Camden, Aubrey, Stukeley, Borlase, and Pennant advocate their 
funereal appropriation, Toland, Rowland, Pegge, and King maintain 
that they were altars for the sacrifice of human victims, as alluded to 
by Caesar, Tacitus, Strabo, and others. Whitaker thought that to 
consider a cromlech an altar for the oblation of sacrifices, was burying 
good sense in a quagmire of learning. 

Mr. Britton quotes a long list of writers on this question, and deci- 
sively concludes that the true purpose of these monuments is sepulchral ; 
and from the whole argument it can be reasonably inferred, that the 
British cromlech and kistvaen might be considered as rude representa- 
tives of the classic mausoleum and sarcophagus. 

Thursday, May 13th, 1847. 
VISCOUNT MAHON, President, in the Chair. 

The following presents were received, and the thanks of the Society 
vrere ordered to be returned for the same, viz., From the Hon. R. C. 
Neville, F.S.A. Antiqua Explorata : being the result of excavations 
made during the winters of 1845 and 1846, and the spring of 1847, in 
and about the Roman Station at Chesterford, and other spots in the 
vicinity of Audley-end. 8vo. Saffron Walden, 1847. From the Council 
of the Numismatic Society, their Chronicle, No. 37, 8vo. From Beriah 
Botfield, Esq. M.P. F.S.A. The Buke of the Order of Knighthood, 
translated from the French by Sir Gilbert Hay, Knt., from the MS. in 
the library at Abbotsford, 4to. Edinb., 1847, privately printed. 

Sir John M. Brackenbury, who formerly resided for many years as 
the British Consul at Cadiz, exhibited by the hands of Sir Henry Ellis, 
a gold ring set with an intaglio, found in a Roman tomb at Cadiz during 
Sir John's residence there, about mid-way between the city and the 
fortress of Puntales, in the Bay of Cadiz. Within the tomb were three 
urns ; one was of baked earth ; another of metal ; and the third, in 
which this with four other rings were found, was of a semi-transparent 



195 

substance, which had the appearance of alabaster. These urns were 
immediately broken by the youths who discovered them, in the hope of 
obtaining something of value from within. Of the rings, one held a 
cameo, which was subsequently broken ; an unpolished emerald orna- 
mented the second ; and two others had a scorpion rudely engraven upon 
the gold. The ring now exhibited, the fifth of these, is exactly, both as to 
ring and the intaglio it holds, in the state in which it was discovered. The 
intaglio represents an urn, ornamented with a small figure of Victory in 
a biga, trampling upon a warrior who has fallen upon one knee. Above 
the handles of the urn are two figures of Atlas, bearing globes on their 
shoulders. 

Seth William Stevenson, Esq. of Norwich, F.S.A. exhibited an ivory 
caeket of considerable size, ornamented with bas-reliefs, probably not of 
later date than the fourteenth century, and believed to be of continental 
workmanship. Mr. Stevenson describes it as one of those ivory caskets 
adorned with carvings which, though varying in form, size, and in 
artistic design, have yet various features of remarkable similarity that 
strongly mark them as emanating from a common origin, inasmuch as 
they graphically exhibit representations of subjects bearing reference 
to certain popular legends and favourite romances of the middle ages. An 
ivory chest formerly belonging to the Rev. Mr. Bowles, of Idminster in 
Wiltshire, and afterwards to Gustavus Brander, Esq. very similar 
in size and general description to the present casket, was engraved by 
Carter in his " Specimens of Ancient Sculpture and Painting." The 
agreement, however, of this with Mr. Stevenson's casket is general only 
as to subjects : several points of difference are so material as fully to 
shew that they are two distinct pieces of workmanship, and that one is 
not a copy of the other. Mr. Stevenson's letter was accompanied by a 
descriptive account of the basso-relievos on the front, back, ends, and lid 
of his casket, the reading of which was deferred to a future evening. 

A letter from Sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas to Sir Henry Ellis was read, 
dated Torrington Square, 12th May, 1847, supplementary to the Me- 
moir communicated by him last year, on the Origin and History of the 
Badge of Edward, Prince of Wales. Sir Harris Nicolas then stated 
that there was no contemporary authority for the popular idea that the 
Ostrich Feathers were derived from the crest of the King of Bohemia, 
who was slain at Crecy, and that it could not be traced to any earlier 
writer than Camden. Subsequent inquiry having convinced him that he 
was mistaken, he has lost no time in submitting to the Society what he 
has further discovered on the subject. 

Towards the end of the anonymous historian of the reign of King 
Edward the Third, printed by Hearne, Sir Harris observes, that indefa- 
tigable antiquary quotes a remarkable passage from the medical treatise 
of the celebrated physician John de Ardern ; and as Ardern attended all 
the eminent persons of the court of Edward, he was likely to have known 
the origin of the Prince of Wales's Badge. There are several copies of 
Ardern's treatise in the British Museum, in most of which the passage 
alluded to is omitted : but it occurs in two manuscripts, both of which 
were certainly written towards the close of the fourteenth century. 

In the chapter on Hemorrhoids, Ardern says, that he has depicted on 



196 



a previous folio a nastere (a species of clyster-pipe), and a feather of the 
Prince of \\ ales, adding " Et nota quod talem pennam albam porta- 
bat Edwardus primogenitus filius Edwardi Regis Anglice super cres- 
tam suam, et il lam pennam conquisivit de Rege Boemice quern inter- 
fecit apud Crease in Francia ; et sic assumpsit sibi illam pennam 
qua dicitur Ostrich Fether quamprius dictus Rex nobilis&imus porta- 
bat super crestam. Et eodem anno quo dictus strenuus et bellicosus 
Princeps migravit ad dominum, scripsi libellum istum manu propria, 
videlicet anno Domini 1376, et dictus Edwardus Princeps obiit vi 
idus Junii, videlicet die Sanctce Trinitatis apud Westmonasterium in 
magno Parliamento, quern Deus absolvat, quiafuitfios milicue mundi 
fine pare." 

In the margin of these manuscripts representations are given of the 
prince's feather, labelled. We have therefore a contemporary statement 
in point : but Sir Harris Nicolas confesses that, although Ardern's 
opinion is entitled to great weight, he does not feel quite convinced of its 
accuracy ; and he still expects that proof will some day be found, that 
the ostrich feather and the mottoes Ich dien and Houmout were derived 
from the prince's maternal House of Hainault. But it is a truly remark- 
able fact, that the only con temporary evidence of the institution of the Order 
of the Garter is to be found in a tailor's account ; and that the only 
contemporary notice of the Prince of Wales's badge should occur in a 
memorandum in a treatise on Hemorrhoids ! 

Sir Henry Ellis laid before the Society, as a reading only, a letter 
which he had received last year from the Rev. Dr. Oliver, of St. Ni- 
cholas's Priory at Exeter. It contained the substance of a very curious 
roll of the year 1326, preserved among the archives of Exeter Cathe- 
dral : the inventory of the personal goods and chattels of Walter de 
Stapledon, Bishop of Exeter ; who, upon the sudden return of Isabel, 
Queen of Edward the Second, to England, was beheaded with two of his 
servants at the Standard in Cheap, on the 15th of October that year, 
by the citizens, or rather by the mob, of London, " because," says Stow, 
" as the saying was, he had gathered a great army to withstand the 
Queen." The property was divided into the following heads : I. Church 
Ornaments; II. Books; III. Chamber; IV. Wardrobe; V. Hall; 
VI. Cellar; VII. Bakehouse ; VIII. Kitchen; IX. Larder; X. Plate 
(vasa argentea): followed by the enumeration and value of the live 
and dead stock on the estates belonging to the see of Exeter, in the 
several counties in which the Bishop had property. 

The thanks of the Society were severally ordered to be returned for 
these communications. 



PROCEEDINGS 



THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 
OF LONDON. 

1847. No. 10. 

Thursday, May 20, 1847. 
VISCOUNT MAHON, President, in the Chair. 

The Lord Bishop of Oxford, elected at a former meeting, now attend- 
ing, having signed the obligation required by the Statutes, was admitted 
a Fellow of the Society. 

The following presents were received, and the thanks of the Society 
for them ordered to be returned : viz. From Charles Purton Cooper, Esq. 
Rules for the guidance of Members of Parliament, in the management 
of Select Committees and the preparation of Reports. 8vo. 1837, not 
published. From Dr. Ducoux of Blois, the author, a tract intituled The 
Mineral Waters and Vapour-baths of Cransac. 8vo. London, 1847. 

The draft of Resolution proposed to the Society by the President 
and Council, on May 4th, was then read from the Chair : whereupon 
the ballot was severally taken upon the three propositions therein com- 
prised, namely 

I. " That in consideration of the advanced age and infirmities of Mr. Carlisle, his 
resignation of the office of Resident Secretary be now accepted." 

The same was carried in the affirmative ; the ayes being 53 the 
noes 3. 

II. " That in consideration of his long and faithful services during forty years, a 
yearly pension of j150 to commence when his salary shall cease on the next 
quarter day be granted to that gentleman, together with the use of his present 
official apartments during life, or his pleasure ; all expenses connected therewith to be 
defrayed by Mr. Carlisle." 

The ballot being taken upon this proposition, the same was carried in 
the affirmative ; the ayes being 58 the noes 6. 

III. " That the vacancy in the office of Secretary be uot at present filled up, but 
that the Council be empowered, by the employment of an additional clerk, to make 
temporary provision for the requisite duties." 

This proposition was likewise carried; the ayes being 62 noes 1. 

The President then laid before the meeting a printed copy of the 
" Catalogue of Antiquities, Coins, Pictures, and other miscellaneous 
objects in the Society's possession," recently prepared by Mr. Way, and 
which will in a few days be ready for delivery; when it was resolved 

41 That the cordial thanks of the Society be returned to the late Director, Albert 
Way, Esq. for the great care and pains he has taken, and the great zeal for the 
interests of the Society he has shown, in preparing a catalogue of the principal 
objects of curiosity belonging to the Society." 

T 



198 

And it was ordered that Sir Henry Ellis be requested to transmit the 
foregoing resolution to Mr. Way. 

Charles Desborough Bedford, Esq. of Montagu Street, Portman 
Square, exhibited, by the hands of Sir Charles George Young, Garter, 
the Cloghorda, or Golden Bell, a curious relic, supposed to be an 
ancient altar-bell. Tradition asserts that it belonged to Saint Senanus, 
who, in the sixth century, founded a monastery at Inniscattery, on 
the river Shannon ; at the dissolution of which, in 1,583, the relic came 
into the possession of the family of Keane, of Ross, on the western coast 
of county Clare, where it is still preserved. The bell itself, if such it 
really is, appears to be of brass, and of the Saxon period, covered on 
three sides with plates of silver, which have been gilt ; this outer casing, 
from its engraved ornaments, being apparently of the close of the 
thirteenth century. 

The President then gave notice that the further account of the bas- 
reliefs on Mr. Stevenson's Ivory Casket, exhibited at the last meeting, and 
also the first part of a dissertation on the Bretwaldas, a class of reguli 
among the Anglo-Saxons, by Henry Hallam, Esq. V.P. would be read 
on the 3d of June. Likewise, that in consequence of Whitsuntide, the 
meetings of the Society were adjourned to the same day, at the usual hour. 



Thursday, June 3, 1847. 
Sir R. H. INGLIS, Bart. Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Charles Thomas, Lord Bishop of Ripon, and Edward Craven Haw- 
trey, D.D. formerly elected, now attending, having compounded for 
their annual payments, and subscribed the obligation required by the 
Statutes, were severally admitted Fellows of this Society. 

The following letter from Nicholas Carlisle, Esq. to Sir Henry Ellis, 
Secretary, dated Somerset Place, 22nd May, 1847, was read from the 
chair : 

" I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your kind letter, communicating to me a 
copy of the minutes of the Society on the evening of the 20th instant, relating to my 
resignation of the office of Resident Secretary, and the yearly pension granted to me, 
together with the use of the official apartments during my life or pleasure. 

" It would be difficult to express the extent of my respect and gratitude to the 
President and Council for their liberal propositions, and for the gratifying cordiality 
with which the Society at large have been pleased to confirm them, if I were not 
fully sensible that it will afford them sufficient satisfaction to be assured that they 
have made an old and faithful officer happy and contented. And that, although age 
and infirmity press upon me, I still hope that I may be spared to continue my most 
sincere good wishes for the increased prosperity and honour of the Society of 
Antiquaries of London. 

"1 cannot, however, conclude without the expression of my deep regret on 
parting from the distinguished colleagues with whom I have so long been associated 
in the most friendly terms, in the performance of our common duties." 

The Vice-President in the Chair then announced, that a new List 
of the Society, prepared by the Director, was ready for delivery to the 
Fellows ; and proposed, " That the thanks of the Society be returned 
to Captain Smyth for the great improvement lie has effected, and the 



199 

advantage he has conferred, in the newly arranged and carefully cor- 
rected List of Members ;" when the same was carried unanimously 

The following presents were received, and thanks for the same 
ordered to be returned ; viz. Memoir of the Family of French, by John 
D' Alton, Esq. presented by the Author. The Annual Report of the 
Athenaeum Club for 1846, from the Committee. The Gentleman's 
Magazine for June, 1847, by J. B. Nichols, Esq. F.S.A. The 
Athenaeum, Part 233, by the Editor. The Cavalier Luigi Canina's 
Decrizione della antica Citta di Veii, fol. Roma, 1847, presented by 
Her Majesty Maria Christina, Queen Dowager of Sardinia. 

The Very Reverend the Dean of Hereford- exhibited a Chalice and 
Paten of silver, gilt, from Bactire, a small and very retired parish in 
Herefordshire : this curious relic was believed to be of a date some- 
where about A.D. 1500, and is of neat workmanship. 

The Secretary then read a descriptive account of the bassi-relievi on 
the front, back, two ends, and lid of the Ivory Casket exhibited at the 
Meeting of May the 20th. On the right-hand end is a young and 
comely knight, with chain-armour, a long straight sword, and other 
characteristics of the Norman period. He is, with " beaver up," accost- 
ing a venerable monk, holding a large key, to whose right hand he 
joins his own, whilst holding up his left in courteous salutation ; they 
stand near a castellated edifice, and in the back ground is the knight's 
steed, also in chain-armour, standing under a tree. The back is 
divided into four compartments, each exhibiting a different subject: 
the first represents an armed knight with vizor closed, and sword ex- 
tended, defending himself against a lion : the second division shows 
the same hero crossing a fosse on " all fours" along his own sword, 
with boisterous waves below him, and spear-heads and sword-blades 
pointing at him from a cloud above: in the third division, the knight 
appears reposing on a four-wheeled vehicle, with small bells under it ; 
but the mysterious sword-blades still haunt him : in the fourth com- 
partment are three young females, elegantly attired, regarding the 
scene of the sleeping knight with interest and admiration. The end 
to the left hand is occupied by two distinct subjects : in the first a 
togated youth is seen sitting with a bird on his finger, directing a 
damsel's attention from the dog on her lap to two crowned heads, one 
on the surface of some water, the other among the trees. The second 
group discovers a female of rank, seated beneath foliage, holding a circlet, 
and resting her left hand upon a unicorn, which has been transfixed by a 
spear from a man standing by.* The front of the box or casket is 
similarly divided with the back, and bears, in the first compartment, 
an aged sage discussing a weighty book on a reading-desk, with a 
crowned youth : in the next design the sage is seen nearly on all fours, 
with a bridle in his mouth, bearing a voluptuous maiden on his back, to 
the amusement of the youthful king whom he was before instructing, 
and who is peeping from the window of a tower ; an evident allusion to 
the Troubadour tale of Alexander and his Tutor, or Love superior to 

* It will be recollected that unicorns were asserted to be so fond of spotless 
purity that they would repose their heads on virgins' laps, and suffer themselves to 
be taken and killed rather than leave them. 

T2 * 



200 

Philosophy : the group of the third division has a dwarfish old man 
with a girl riding on his shoulders, followed by another bearded ancient, 
who is pushed along by an old woman : the fourth subject represents 
four damsels bathing at a sculptured fountain. 

The lid, the chef d'ceuvre of the casket, is adorned with four 
subjects, of which the first shews a knight in front of a strong fortress, 
shooting flower-headed shafts up at the battlements, from whence roses 
are hurled at him, and in the corresponding compartment the knight is 
scaling the castle despite of the bunches of flowers with which the 
battlements are defended ; between these compartments, the two central 
divisions represent a sequel to the same subject, namely, a tournament; 
two armed knights on barbed steeds are crossing their spears, the crest 
of one a bird, of the other a rose, and above, in an elegant gallery, are 
six figures, among whom the two " ladye-loves " shine pre-eminent. 
The casket is in excellent preservation, and on the whole forms a fine 
specimen of that branch of mediaeval art, although the ornaments are not 
of extreme rarity. 

This description was followed by a dissertation, in a letter from 
Henry Hallam, Esq. V.P. addressed to Sir Henry Ellis, the Secretary, 
on the nature and extent of the authority pertaining to certain sovereigns 
mentioned in the Saxon Chronicle under the name of Bretwaldas ; a 
portion of which paper having been read, the remainder was postponed 
till the next Meeting. 

The Vice President gave notice from the Chair that, at the next 
Meeting, would also be read, * Remarks on the Literary History of 
Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Britons," by Thomas Wright, 
Esq. F.S.A. 



Thursday, June 10, 1847. 
HENRY HALLAM, Esq. Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Sir Charles Morgan Robinson Morgan, Bart. F.R.S. formerly elected, 
now attending, having compounded for his annual payments, and signed 
the obligation required by the Statutes, was admitted a Fellow of this 
Society. 

The following presents were received, and the thanks of the Society 
were ordered to be returned for the same. From William Cotton, Esq. 
F.S.A. the supplemental portion of a Descriptive Catalogue of Pic- 
tures, Books, &c. collected by Charles Rogers, Esq. and now in Mr. 
Cotton's possession at the Priory, Letherhead, 8vo. From George 
Godwin, Esq. F.S.A. The Builder, Vol. V. Part V. fol. 

Dr. Bromet exhibited the rubbing from a Brass in Eton College 
Chapel, commemorative of " Rychard Lord Grey Cotenore Wylton 
Ruthyn," illustrating the communications made to the Society on March 
5th and 19th, 1846, respecting the misappropriation of these titles to 
some individual personage, and tending to prove that the evidence of 
sepulchral monuments, in genealogical inquiries, should not always be 
depended on. 

Also a representation of an inscribed Roman Tablet in commemo- 



201 

ration of an honourable gift of torques and armillee, on which tablet are 
likewise depicted three Roman standards. The original is in the public 
Gallery of Antiquities at Dresden ; and it is believed that it has not 
been published. 

Dr. Broraet likewise exhibited two architectural prints of the Abbeys 
of Altenberg and Heisterbach, from Boissaree's great work on the Lower 
Rhine, showing the occasional employment of hexafoil windows. 

The Secretary then read the remainder of Mr. Hallam's Dissertation 
on the Bretwaldas of the Saxon Chronicle. In turning his attention 
lately to some parts of our Anglo-Saxon history, the learned author was 
struck by the obscurity attending the character and power pertaining to 
those shadowy sovereigns called Bretwaldas. The venerable Bede is the 
only witness for the seven monarchs who enjoyed preponderance over 
the Anglo-Saxons, south of the Humber: ' qui cunctis Australibus 
gentis Anglorum provinciis^ qua Humbrce fluvio et contiguis ei ter- 
minis sequestrantur a borealibus, imperdrunt" The text of the 
Saxon Chronicle is copied from Bede, with a little abridgement, and with 
the addition of this remarkable appellation, which occurs nowhere else. 
Bretwalda, from the Saxon verb waldan, to rule, can only mean the 
king or ruler of the Britons ; or, perhaps, of Britain. Bret, however, 
though it was supposed to refer expressly to the Britons, by being often 
written Bryten, may be considered as an additional compliment only, 
meaning powerful. 

Of the seven sovereigns thus designated by Bede, the first is the 
celebrated ^Ella, who it seems was not only the most potent of the small 
Anglo-Saxon chieftains at the beginning of the sixth century, but was 
looked up to by the rest. Ceawlin, of Wessex, is the second, after an 
interval of almost a century ; and he appears by the Chronicle to have 
been a successful prince both against the Britons and his countrymen. 
The third name is that of Ethelbert, of Kent, the first Christian king. 
His reign was long and prosperous ; but of the two charters wherein he 
is denominated " Rex Anglorum" one is considered by Mr. Kemble an 
unquestionable forgery, and the other is doubtful. The fourth of Bede's 
rulers is Redwald, king of East Anglia, who gained a great victory over 
Edelfrid, which placed Edwin on the throne of Northumbria. Thus, 
before the middle of the seventh century, four kings, from four Anglo- 
Saxon kingdoms, had, at intervals of time, become superior to the rest ; 
excepting, however, the Northumbrians, whom Bede distinguishes, and 
whose subjection to a southern prince is not by any means probable. 
None therefore of these four could properly have been called Bretwalda, 
or Ruler of the Britons, since not even his own countrymen were wholly 
under his sway. Redwald's decisive victory gave him more claim to 
figure on Bede's list than any substantial dominion over the south. We 
now come to three Northumbrian kings, Edwin, Oswald, and Oswin, who 
ruled with greater power than the preceding, over all the inhabitants of 
Britain, both English and British, with the sole exception of the men of 
Kent. This the venerable historian repeats in another place, with 
respect to Edwin, the first Northumbrian convert to Christianity. Edwin 
was succeeded by Oswald, who is styled by Cuminius, a contemporary 
writer, ' totius Britannia imperator" which is probably a distinct recog-. 



202 

nition of the Saxon word Bretwalda. Both Edwin and Oswald lost 
their lives in great defeats by Penda, of Mercia ; and the kingdom of 
Northumbria rapidly declined after the death of Oswy, who conquered 
Penda. Even before Bede finished his history, in 731, Ethelbald, king 
of Mercia, had become paramount over the states south of the Humber. 

From these facts it is clear that some of the Britons were inimical to 
authority, and others not in any permanent subjection : the name there- 
fore of Bretwaldas, as applied to these three kings, though not so absurd 
as to render the supposition incredible that they assumed it, asserts an 
untruth. " It is, however, at all events plain from history," says Mr. 
Hallam, " that they obtained their superiority by force ; and we may reason- 
ably believe the same of the four earlier kings enumerated by Bede. An 
elective dignity, such as is now sometimes supposed, cannot be presumed 
in the absence of every semblance of evidence, and against manifest proba- 
bility. What appearance do we find of a federal union among the kites 
and crows, as Milton calls them, of the Heptarchy ? What but the law of 
the strongest could have kept those rapacious and restless warriors from 
tearing the vitals of their common country ? The influence of Christi- 
anity in effecting a comparative civilization, by producing a sense of 
political as well as religious unity, had not yet been felt." 

Ethelbald certainly wielded more power than any of the first four who 
are dignified " with the pompous fiction of Bretwalda ;" and when he 
presided at the synod of Clovesho, A.D. 742, we find the Archbishop of 
Canterbury and several English bishops attending. What could be 
more like dominion than this ? Moreover, in some charters of Ethel- 
bald, he styles himself " Non solum Mercensium sed et universarum 
provinciarum quce communi vocabulo dicuntur Suthangli divina 
largiente gratia rex." He lost this ascendancy before his death. But 
Offa recovered it, at least in great part, and in his charters calls himself 
sometimes " Rex Anglorum," sometimes " Rex Merciorum, simulque 
aliarum circum quaque nationum." 

Egbert, or Ecbryht, was the eighth Bretwalda according to the 
Saxon Chronicle, anno 827 ; but the word was perhaps expressive of 
his power, rather than used as an official epithet. It is clear that in his 
enumeration Bede aimed at exalting the character and command of his 
early kings ; and it is as clear that they were surpassed by the three 
Northumbrian chiefs alluded to, who are recorded to have been successful 
over the Strathcluyd Britons, and the Scots beyond the Forth. Henry 
of Huntingdon, in one place, sub A.D. 560, copies the words of Bede as 
to the seven kings, and adds Egbert, whom he calls " Rex et Monarcha 
Britannia" subjoining Alfred and Edgar as ninth and tenth, from his 
own notions of history. Strange that Edward the Elder, Athelstan, or 
Edred, should find no place in such a list of the " fortissimoruvri' who 
reigned in England. " Who would take any fact as a clear truth on the 
credit of so loose a writer ?" 

Hapin appears to be the first historian who broached the notion of a 
federal union among the kingdoms of the Heptarchy, in which the 
Saxons, Jutes, and Angles, looked upon themselves, as they did in Ger- 
many, to be one and the same people. This theory seems very little 
founded on anything we have learnt, either as to the state of Germany 



before the Saxon invasion, or that of England afterwards. No authority 
is quoted by Rapin, but he must have had before him the primary text 
of Bede, and the echoes of it in the Latin historians after the Conquest. 
Hume slightly alludes to the supremacy of some kings during the Hep- 
tarchy ; and Henry is silent about it. The word Bretwalda was first 
perhaps dragged to light by the diligent Mr. Sharon Turner, who, how- 
ever, plainly acknowledges his ignorance of its proper meaning. Dr. 
Lingard gives it a greater prominence, and announces the seven kings of 
Bede as BRETWALDA THE FIRST, BRETWALDA THE SECOND, and so 
on, as if this a?rtt Xeyo/iei'ov had all possible testimony of coins and 
charters. Sir Francis Palgrave has gone still further, in thinking that 
the Britons as well as English were subject to a common sovereign, but 
rests on very ambiguous evidence, and has built a " fair and specious 
structure, pleasing to the eye, but defective, I fear, in the utility of its 
foundation." Lastly, Dr. Lappenberg, though not concurring in all Sir 
Francis Palgrave's speculations, is equally convinced that England had 
its seven or eight Bretwaldas, ruling, by the consent and choice of their 
fellow countrymen, the various inhabitants of our large island. Mr. 
Hallam rejects, as unwarranted by any evidence, and improbable in itself, 
the hypothesis of a voluntary subjection of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms 
to a chosen head, like that of German electors to an Emperor. " Intes- 
tine war and perpetual aggression," he perorates, " mark the annals of 
this barbarous period ; and, even if the Anglo-Saxons had been more 
strictly of one race than they were, it is to be remembered that the 
resistance of the Mercians to the introduction of Christianity, and the 
fierce Pagan spirit of such kings as Penda, drew for a time a broad line 
of demarcation between them and the newly converted principalities of 
Kent and Northumbria. A voluntary submission to Edwin or Oswald, 
still more an union in a common confederacy, could not have existed so 
long as they did not worship at the same altar." 

The reading of Mr. Hallam's Paper was followed by that of Mr. 
Wright's Memoir on the Literary History of Geoffrey of Monmouth's 
History of the Britons, and of the Romantic Cycle of King Arthur. 
The history of Britain, during the latter years of its existence as a 
Roman province, is that of a series of rebellious usurpations in opposi- 
tion or rivalry to the wearer of the imperial purple at Rome ; and the 
manner in which these usurpations were carried on, proves not only how 
the Romano-British population of this island had become essentially 
Roman in its character, but that the imperial power was fast drawing 
towards an end. About the middle of the fifth century, as the commu- 
nications with Rome were cut off by the inroads and conquests of the 
barbarians in the other provinces, another race, of whom we are in the 
habit of speaking collectively as the Saxons, who had certainly been 
settled on the eastern coasts of Britain for years, and who had joined in 
supporting the Romano-British usurpers, began to contend for mastery 
on their own account in the island. In the dim cloud that envelopes 
the subsequent history, we can just trace the faint outlines of civil 
contention, until, in the course of the latter half of the fifth century, the 
different tribes of Germanic invaders had established their power over 
the greater part of what is now England. 



204 

In authentic details the story of this period is nearly a blank ; and Mr. 
Wright finds reason to doubt the testimony of " a very suspicious cha- 
racter who passes under the name of Gildas," whose work appears, by 
internal evidence, to be a forgery by some Saxon ecclesiastic of the seventh 
century. For instance, he has preserved a traditional relation, which 
cannot be correct in its details, that when the usurper Maximus, towards 
the end of the fourth century, had carried away the insular legions to war 
against the legitimate Emperor in Gaul, the Romano-British population, 
without defensive troops, were exposed to the ravages of the Picts and 
Scots of the North. In this dilemma they humbled themselves to 
Rome, and petitioned for help. They were twice assisted ; but towards 
the middle of the fifth century the Roman troops were finally withdrawn, 
when a new irruption of those enemies reduced them to the utmost dis- 
tresses. A last and touching appeal to Italy having been made in vain, 
a ruler called Gurthrigernus by Gildas, and by later writers Vortigern, 
invited the Saxons from Germany to his assistance, and thus brought 
over Hengist and Horsa, who from allies soon became enemies, and per- 
secuted the natives even more savagely than the Picts and Scots had 
done ; until they were defeated by Aurelius Ambrosius, one of the 
Romans of rank who had been left in the island. From that time, the 
suppositions Gildas tells us, till the battle of Mount Badon (Bath?}, 
followed a long series of conflicts, of which the success was alternate. 
He subsequently declaims against the wickedness and profligacy of five 
British chieftains, his contemporaries, whose names resemble some found 
on the late Roman inscriptions in this island. 

Mr. Wright deems it unnecessary, for the present purpose, to show 
that this history must have been in a great measure legendary ; it is 
adopted by Bede, and repeated by Ordericus Vitalis. William of 
Malmesbury, whose history of the English Kings appeared towards the 
end of the reign of Henry I., is the first writer who adds anything to 
the previous outline of the earlier narrations of the island. He gives us 
the story of Vortigern and Rowena ; and, besides some other slight 
additions to the former records of the wars between the Britons and 
Saxons, he relates Hengist's fatal " parliament," and makes direct allusion 
to the prowess of a British King named Arthur, which is evidently derived 
from the Historia Britonum, since ascribed to Nennius. That this book is 
an absolute forgery, no one who has given it a careful perusal can doubt, 
although it would be difficult even to conjecture where it was forged, when, 
and for what especial purpose. It is a strange jumble of indigested mate- 
rials, commencing with inaccurate biblical chronological details, followed 
by the fabulous history of the first inhabitants of Britain. These are 
stated to have been some of the Trojans led to Italy by ^neas, the 
wife of whose grandson Silvius being pregnant, it was foretold by the 
soothsayers that she would bear a son who should slay his parents, and 
become an object of aversion to his countrymen. This child was named 
Bruto ; his mother died in childbirth, and he subsequently shot his 
father with an arrow by accident. Bruto and his companions were 
obliged to leave Italy, and, after various adventures, reached Britain, 
where they founded a new kingdom. Equally fabulous accounts of the 
origin of the Picts, Scots, and Irish, follow. These stories were founded 



205 

on the common ethnological speculations of the day, filled up by means 
of imaginary derivations of names and a perversion of the fables of anti- 
quity. The legend of the birth of Brutus is found elsewhere told of 
other persons, and under a variety of different forms ; it was during the 
middle ages a popular legend, as well among the Christians of the West, 
as among the Mahommedans of the East, who had the same tendence to 
a belief in fatalism ; but its prototype is at once recognised in the classic 
story of CEdipus. 

Mr. Wright then traces the several sources from which the pretended 
Nennius pilfered his various narratives, and shews how he made altera- 
tions in them as he proceeded, in order to conceal his thefts. From 
certain evidences he concludes that the book was written in France : " most 
of the earlier manuscripts of the pseudo Nennius," he says, "belong to the 
latter half of the twelfth century ; two only are of an earlier date, but I 
believe that their antiquity has been much over-rated, and that they are 
probably not much older than the beginning of the twelfth century. But 
the most remarkable fact connected with these two early manuscripts is, 
that they appear to have been written abroad, and in fact never to have 
been in England, until one of them was bought a little more than a century 
ago for the library of the Earl of Oxford. This manuscript had formerly 
been in the library of the monastery of Montauban in Quercy, not far 
from Toulouse : the other early manuscript is now preserved in the 
Vatican, and had formerly belonged to the monastery of St. Germain at 
Paris. Everything, in fact, seems to shew that this book was new in 
England when it fell into the hands of William of Malmesbury and 
Henry of Huntingdon." 

It appears to have been in the autumn of 1147 that Geoffrey of 
Monmouth completed his Historia Britonum, a far more remarkable 
book than that of Nennius ; and here the author appears in his own 
character, and makes a statement relating to his undertaking. He says 
that he had often wondered why Gildas and Bede had handed down to 
posterity no account of the kings who reigned in Britain before the 
Christian era, or of Arthur and the various British sovereigns of the 
subsequent period, whose glorious deeds were nevertheless traditionally 
celebrated a multis populis. While occupied with these thoughts, his 
friend Walter Calenius, archdeacon of Oxford, showed him a very old 
book in the Breton language, which contained the deeds of all the sove- 
reigns, from Brutus first king of the Britons to Cadwalader the son of 
Cadwalon. At his friend's request, and struck with the interest of this 
volume, he undertook to translate it into Latin ; and he pretends that his 
own history is a translation of the Breton book. At the conclusion he 
speaks jeeringly of William of Malmesbury and Henry of Huntingdon, 
" whom I command not to write on the kings of the Britons, since they 
have not that book in the Breton language which Walter archdeacon 
of Oxford brought over from Britany." It therefore seems clear, that 
before Geoffrey wrote, nothing further was known in England relating 
to these pretended British monarchs than the brief unsatisfactory account 
which had been furnished by the pseudo Nennius. Geoffrey distinctly 
refers his materials to Britany, where Arthur had already been the 



206 

subject of fables. The manner in which the new history was received 
marks the novelty which characterized it, and it was too romantic not to 
be widely popular as it became known. It seems to have produced an 
extraordinary sensation everywhere, and copies were rapidly multiplied 
and spread abroad ; and it was so much sought after that, besides nume- 
rous copies being made, it was epitomized, translated, and twice " done " 
into Anglo-Norman verse, by the troveres Gaimar and Wace. 

But while Geoffrey was thus gaining upon the surprise and credulity 
of the many, there were others who looked upon the work in a very 
different light ; and who, though few in number, are important by their 
character. William of Newbury accuses him of drawing upon the old 
tales of the Bretons, increased from his own imagination, and moreover 
alludes to his petulant and impudent lies. Giraldus Cambrensis bears 
testimony that the Historia is not supported by Welsh traditions, and 
stigmatizes it as fabulous. The author is persuaded that the account of 
the wanderings of Brutus is a fiction of Geoffrey's, founded upon Nennius, 
and filled with an uncouth medley of classical names, taken mostly from 
Virgil : in one instance the cited authority is Homer ! The first book 
ends with the foundation of Brutus's capital, named by him New Troy, 
but since better known by the name of London. With an affectation of 
chronological knowledge, Geoffrey records that when London was built, 
Heli ruled in Judaea, and the Ark of the Testament was taken by the 
Philistines ; the sons of Hector reigned in Troy, after having driven 
out the descendants of Antenor ; and Silvius, the son of ^neas, reigned 
in Italy. Brutus is represented as having had numerous descendants ; 
and their biography is perseveringly followed out, so as to botch up an 
etymology for a great many of our towns and rivers. The wings of 
Daedalus ; the story of the building of Carthage in a hide boundary ; the 
ecclesiastical legends of the eleven thousand virgins ; Lear and his 
daughters ; and the Molmutine laws, are all pressed into his service ; and 
Mr. Wright makes a summary review of the contents and bearing of his 
several chapters, shewing that, as a whole, it could not be translated 
from any book in the Breton language. What indeed could Breton 
minstrels know about Anglo-Saxon laws and King Alfred's translations, 
or localities of Leicester, Bath, and Billingsgate ? 

The earliest translation of Geoffrey's History now extant is Wace's 
Roman de Brut, in Anglo-Norman verse, completed in the year 1155 ; 
this version is a close copy of the original, with the mere poetical ampli- 
fications that any other rhymer would have made. In the story of 
Arthur, whose name was cherished by the Bretons of Armorica, Wace 
appears less fettered than upon the historical points ; and we learn 
from him the fact that the Romances of the Round Table were then 
current among those people : 

Fist Artus la Roonde Table, 
Dont Breton dient mainte fable : 
Hoc seoient li vassal 
Tot chievalment et tot ingal ; 
A la table ingalment seoient 
Et ingalraent servi estoient. 

Roman de Brut, 1. 9998. 



207 

Mr. Wright then dwells upon the fabulous relations of that period, and 
on the cycle of the Round Table in the twelfth century ; and concludes : 
" \Ve might pursue the literary history of this cycle of romances, and 
show how it gradually enlarged and extended in the different hands 
through which it passed during another century. The old feeling that 
it originated in Britany still prevailed. But Geoffrey of Monmouth's 
History remained as an insulated romance : it received no addition or 
explanation from the increased knowledge of the romances to which its 
great hero, Arthur, belonged. No documents or authentic traditions 
confirmed it. And it seems only to have received amplification from 
the English monk Layamon, who worked up into his English version a 
few more of those local legends (such as that of the destruction of Ciren- 
cester by the agency of sparrows), of which Geoffrey himself had already 
made use." 

The thanks of the Society were ordered to be returned for these com- 
munications. 



Thursday, June 17, 1847. 
THOMAS STAPLETON, Esq. Vice- President, in the Chair. 

The Vice- President read from the Chair the following Resolutions of 
the Council : 

" At a Councilor the Society of Antiquaries, held on Tuesday, June 15th 1847, 
the President in the Chair, 

" Resolved, ' That it be announced at the next Meeting of the Society from the 
Chair, that the copies of the Catalogue of the Society's Museum are ready for 
delivery to the Members, and can be sent for at the same time as the Archseologia.' 
It was also 

" Resolved, ' That the following announcement be read from the Chair at the 
next Meeting, and be printed and circulated by the Director in the next number of 
the Proceedings : 

'"The President and Council have directed an investigation into the present 
state of the stock of the Society, of which they find very large and inconvenient 
accumulations at particular periods, arising from the want of some limit of time, 
such as prevails at other Societies, beyond which the Fellows should not be 
entitled to demand copies of the publications. 

" 'The limit of time fixed by the Royal Society is two years ; but the President 
and Council propose to adopt a term of three years for this Society. 

" ' They therefore give notice, that any Fellows desiring to have supplied to 
them, so far as the stock admits, copies of the earlier publications of the Society, 
should make their applications previous to the first of January, 1848, from which 
day no Fellow will be held entitled to copies of an earlier date than three years, 
reckoning from the date of application. 

" ' The President and Council also desire to announce, that they can in no case 
consider the Society bound to afford copies of publications to the representatives of 
such Fellows as have omitted to claim them during life.' " 

Alexander John Beresford Hope, Esq. and Edward Hall, Esq. having 
paid their admission fees, and subscribed the obligation required by the 
Statutes, were severally admitted Fellows of this Society. 

The following presents were received, and the thanks of the Society 
for them were ordered to be returned : From the Netherland Govern- 
ment, by the hands of Dr. Leemans, the Ninth Fasciculus of the Descrip- 
tion of the Egyptian Monuments in the Museum at Loyden. From Dr. 



208 

Brumet, F.S.A. six views of Halnaker House, near Chichester, in Sussex, 
taken by him, and described in his letter to Sir Henry Ellis, in the 
twenty-ninth volume of the Archaeologia, pp. 380 2. 

Dr. Bromet took this opportunity of stating, as he proposes to himself 
a somewhat lengthened residence on the Continent, that he intends, 
either by gift or bequest, to present to the Society several other draw- 
ings &c. representing certain antiquities of this and other countries, as 
well as a few printed books with marginal remarks and illustrations, 
and some church notes made in England and on the Continent. 

William Downing Bruce, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited a drawn elevation 
of the Bell Gate of Skelton church, near York. 

The Rev. John Montgomery Traherne, F.S.A. exhibited a drawing 
of the Monument of Lady Catherine Gordon in the chancel of Fyfield 
church, near Abingdon, in Berkshire. Mr. Traherne subsequently 
communicated the substance of the following account : Lady Catherine 
Gordon, the widow of Perkin Warbeck, married secondly Sir Matthew 
Cradock, knight, of the Place House, Swansea, in Glamorganshire. In 
the Cradock chapel, St. Mary's church, Swansea, is a touchstone tomb, 
erected, as it should seem, in the lifetime of Sir Matthew, with recumbent 
figures of himself and his lady, and the legend " Here lieth Sir Matthie 
Cradock, &c. &c. &c. and my Ladie Katerin his wife." The intentions 
of Sir Matthew were not carried out, for the personal charms of his 
widow attracted other admirers. She married thirdly James Strangways, 
Esq. whom she survived, and married fourthly Christopher Ashton, Esq. 
of Fyfield. Her will bears date 12th of October, 1537, proved 5th 
November, 1537. She desires that her " bodie be buried in the parishe 
church of Fifield aforesaid, in such place as shall be thought necessarie 
and mete by the discretion of my said dearly beloved husband" (Chris- 
topher Ashton). The monument consists of a richly-ornamented arch 
in the perpendicular style ; portions of the painting and gilding remain. 
The brasses, which probably represented Ashton and his wife, with their 
armorial bearings, have disappeared long ago. Ashmole notices this 
tomb in his Antiquities of Berkshire, vol. i. p. 99. " On the north side 
of the chancel," he says, " is a large hollow square cut in the wall, 
arched at the top, and in the middle is a ledge of stone. The pillars on 
either side, as also the arch, are wrought with ancient tabernacle work, 
being all painted with a deep blue colour, and gilt. This is called the 
Lady Gordon's monument." An engraving of this tomb will be found 
in the " Historical Notices of Sir M. Cradock, by the Rev. J. M. 
Traherne ;" and Mr. Derrick, the architect who furnished Mr. Traherne 
with the drawing, says " It is a piece of masterly executed masonry, 
worked with the greatest care and finish, and was originally painted in 
party colours, and richly gilt. The brasses, which contained the ar- 
morial bearings and inscriptions, have been removed many years. I have 
indicated the exact forms of the sinkings which contained the brasses, and 
from the outlines I think they were figures in the attitude of prayer, 
with labels containing inscriptions ; these are indicated by the forms in 
the lower part of the back of the recess." 

Samuel Shepherd, Esq. F.S.A, communicated in a letter to Sir Henry 
Ellis an account of a singular Picture painted on walnut-wood panel, lately 



209 

discovered at Chelsea, in the roof of an old house known by the name of 
" Box Farm," and having the said name and date, 1686, inscribed on a 
small stone tablet in front. The painting is five feet four inches in length, 
and two feet six inches high, representing, in several compartments, the 
life, death, and funeral of Sir Henry Unton, Ambassador-Leiger of 
Queen Elizabeth, who died in 1596. This communication was accom- 
panied by the exhibition of three tracings from the picture. In one division 
there is a nurse with an infant and attendants ; in another, a festive 
scene, with mummers and musicians ; in another, a part of Oxford ; and 
in others, scenes from the story of his life abroad ; and then his death 
forms a different portion, the body brought over in a barge, then 
carried towards its last resting place, a splendid funeral, and a represen- 
tation of the monument now in Farringdon Church. In the centre is 
the portrait of Sir Henry, very richly attired ; on one side is a figure of 
Death with an hour-glass ; on the other Fame with her trumpet, and a 
coronet. The whole picture is very highly finished, and seems to be 
the work of Nicholas Hilliard, a painter in the style of Holbein, who 
flourished during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. It is now in the 
possession of Thomas Clater, Esq. of Whitehead's Grove, Chelsea. Sir 
Henry Unton was knighted for his bravery at the siege of Zutphen. 
He was twice Ambassador to the Court of France, where he distin- 
guished himself by sending a spirited challenge to the Duke of Guise, 
for speaking disrespectfully of his royal Mistress. 

The Secretary then read a dissertation " On some Ancient Modes of 
Trial, especially those on which Appeal was made to the Divine Judg- 
ment through the Ordeals of Water, Fire, and other Judicia Dei" by 
William Sydney Gibson, Esq. F.S.A. Barrister-at-Law. 

More than forty years ago the late Mr. Studley Vidal communicated 
to the Society some remarks on the different kinds of trial by ordeal 
which formerly prevailed in England. These remarks were published 
in the fifteenth volume of the Archologia, pp. 192-197. In them Mr. 
Vidal intimated that the various notes he had collected on this subject 
would be laid before the public under the title of " An Inquiry con- 
cerning the Forms and Ceremonies used in some of the more ancient 
Modes of Trial in England, particularly in the Fire and Water Ordeals, 
the Coronal, the Judicial Combat, and other Judicia Dei;" but it does 
not appear that this intention was ever carried out, although it may 
exist in manuscript. Mr. Gibson therefore undertakes to elucidate the 
subject as an important item in the history of our venerable laws. " It 
is in this age," he observes, " startling to be told that there was a time 
in Christian England when civil controversies were frequently referred 
to decision by the sword in personal combat, wherein he who prevailed 
over his adversary was afterwards adjudged by the law to have the better 
right ; and when criminal accusations were in many cases tried by the 
same method, or more frequently by a sort of divination through the 
medium of water or of fire, in which trials the accused person was 
adjudged guilty in whose favour the Judge of all men did not miracu- 
lously interpose. And yet such customs prevailed in this country during 
some centuries, for the trials by ordeal were long recognised by the 
Jaws under the Anglo-Saxon princes, and were not abolished until the 



210 

reign of Henry III.; while the trial by combat, first ordained in England 
by the Normans, having been long resorted to by nations of Scandinavian 
origin, continued to be known to the law even down to a late period in 
the reign of George III." 

Mr. Gibson regrets that our modern artificial system of jurisprudence 
has substituted more numerous and perhaps less innocent enactments, 
on the remains of expired and forgotten laws, that had fallen before the 
rigour of modern legislation ; and " the 'tangled meshes which, in these 
prolific days of statute-making, the legislative spiders have produced." 
It was certainly a relief to semi-barbarous chiefs to throw off responsi- 
bility, in difficult and doubtful cases, from themselves to the Supreme 
Being, and high antiquity had consecrated the custom. Thus, in the 
Book of Numbers, the "water of malediction" is inferred to detect 
adultery ; and in the Antigone of Sophocles a suspected man offers to 
stand trie test of fire. The Hindoos carried this superstition, perhaps, 
to greater extremes than any other people. There were many forms of 
ordeal, and they were apportioned to the rank of the person, and to the 
nature or degree of the alleged offence. To enforce due attention and 
formality, the owner of stolen property was obliged to be present at the 
trial of the man whom he accused, or incur the penalty of a heavy fine, 
as well as the loss of his suit ; while the accused was trained under 
severe and awful penance during several previous days. He was then 
to take the Sacrament, and solemnly swear to his innocence, and all 
parties were to meet fasting on the crisis. The author mentions, how- 
ever, certain enactments, especially in the fire ordeal, to which only the 
great and the rich were subjected, which raise a suspicion as to their 
impartiality. Some of the ordeals might be suffered by deputy, although 
the primary was accountable, and had to stand by .the result. The 
principal of these judicial trials were personal battle, hot iron, boiling 
water, cold water, corsned or choke bread, touching a corpse, judicium 
Crucis, and some minor ones, which are all and severally described 
by Mr. Gibson. 

It would seem that the trial by battle, as practised in England, was 
conducted in a much more simple manner than it was under the govern- 
ments of Europe in ancient times. If there were several plaintiffs or 
accusers, one was selected to prosecute the affair ; before the combat, 
the relatives of the combatants were warned to retire and the people to 
be silent ; the civil officers guarded the lists. When, in capital cases, 
the combat was fought by champions, the parties concerned were placed 
where they could not behold the conflict, and each was bound with the 
cord that was to be used in his execution if his champion should be 
overcome. The nobleman fought with all his arms of attack and defence ; 
the plebeian on foot with his club and target. The same were the 
weapons of the champions to whom women and ecclesiastics were per- 
mitted to entrust their rights. If the combat was intended to ascertain 
a civil right, the vanquished party not only forfeited his claim, but paid 
a fine. If he fought by proxy, his champion was liable to have his 
hand struck off, a regulation which may have been necessary to obviate 
the corruption of hired defenders. In criminal cases the defendant 
suffered, on defeat, the punishment which the law awarded to his offence. 



, 



211 

Among the rules for governing these trials, we find oaths and regula- 
tions which indicate that the notion of spells and enchantments was 
prevalent ; for if one of the two parties was discovered to have any herbs 
fit for incantation about him, the judge was to order them to be taken 
from him. In his conclusion Mr. Gibson remarks, "That, although 
some of these appeals to the judgment of Heaven were presumptuous in 
the highest degree, and founded on superstitious notions, even such 
customs as these may be supposed to be less mischievous to society than 
a state of opinion which practically denies the interference and control of 
the Judge of all men in the troubled affairs of the world." 

Thanks were then returned for these communications ; and notice was 
given from the Chair, that, on account of the Summer Vacation, the 
Meetings of the Society were adjourned to Thursday evening, November 
the 18th. 



THE LIBRARY. 

In carrying out the several arrangements directed by the Society, 
under the able superintendance of Robert Lemon, Esq., more than 1000 
volumes have been bound, repaired, or lettered ; and the classification of 
the books has been extended, and more strictly defined. The classes 
consist of Theology Biography Topography and County History 
Architecture History and Public Records Philology Voyages and 
Travels Numismatics Medicine Prints and Drawings Irish, 
Scotch, French, Flemish, Italian, German, and Northern Literature 
Egyptian Antiquities and the Transactions of various Literary and 
Learned Societies. 

The following RULES proposed by the LIBRARY COMMITTEE, were 
adopted by the Council, June 29, 1847, for the government of the 
LIBRARY of the SOCIETY of ANTIQUARIES of LONDON : the Director 
being requested by the Council to circulate them with No. 10 of the 
PROCEEDINGS. 

1. That the Library be open every day in the week, Sundays excepted, 
from Ten in the morning till Four in the afternoon, except during the 
time of the meetings of the Council, or Committees appointed by the 
Council, and also except on Good Friday, Easter Eve, and in the 
Easter, Whitsun, and Christmas weeks ; and that it be closed one 
month in the year, viz. from the 1 st to the 30th of September. 

2. That during the month of September the Library shall be thoroughly 
cleaned, and every book taken down and dusted, and carefully re- 
placed, under the direction of the resident Secretary, or other person 
in charge of the Library. 

3. That every Fellow of the Society have the right of borrowing any 
number of printed volumes, not exceeding four at any one time, on 
application to the resident Secretary, or attendant in the Library. 



4 That the title of each work borrowed by any Fellow from the Li- 
brary be entered in the Delivery-book, to which entry the borrower 
shall sign his name ; and that no book be delivered out without having 
the stamp of the Society, and the reference to its place in the Library 
marked upon it. 

5. That no work shall be retained by any Fellow for a longer period 
than three months ; but at the end of that time, or sooner, the same 
shall be returned to the Library, and may then be re-delivered out to 
him if required, upon re-entry, provided that no application shall have 
been made in the mean time for the same by any other Fellow. 

6. That in, all cases every volume be returned to the Library, free of ex- 
pense, on or before the 31st August in each year ; and that due notice 
to that effect be given to every Fellow who shall have in his posses- 
sion any volume belonging to the Society. 

7. That, in case of loss or damage of any volume, the Fellow borrowing 
the same shall be considered as bound to make good the set to which 
such volume belongs. 

8. That no Minute-book, nor any other manuscript or manuscripts, nor 
any drawings or books of prints, be taken or lent out of the Library 
by any person whatsoever, without an express order of the Council, 
upon an application in writing. 

^. That, inasmuch as a few printed works in this Library are peculiarly 
scarce and valuable, and it would be difficult to replace them, it is 
therefore expedient that the same should not be taken out of the 
Library without an express order of Council ; and that a list of such 
reserved works be kept in the Library, to be added to, or altered, from 
time to time, as the Council shall direct. 

10. That no book or pamphlet be lent out before the presentation of the 
same to the Society shall have been announced, or before they are 
bound in a volume, if periodical works. 

1 1 . That no stranger be admitted to the Library of the Society, except 
by the personal introduction of a Fellow, who must remain with the 
visitor during the whole time of his stay in the Library. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OP 

THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 
OF LONDON. 

1847. No. 11. 

Thursday, November 18, 1847. 
VISCOUNT MAHON, President, in the Chair. 

The President announced from the Chair, that he had received with 
great regret a letter from William Richard Hamilton, Esq. who, on 
account of advancing years, had resigned his office as one of the Vice 
Presidents of the Society. 

His Lordship then read the following Resolution, passed at a Council 
of the Society, held on Tuesday the 16th of November 1847 : 

"The President and Council have much concern in announcing to the Society 
the demise of Nicholas Carlisle, Esq. who had, during upwards of forty years, 
honourably filled the office of Joint- Secretary. 

' It must, however, be a source of satisfaction to the Society, to reflect that by 
the provision which they had secured to him by their Resolution of the 20th of May 
last, they had made, according to Mr. Carlisle's own words, as read to the Society 
in his Letter of the 22nd of the same month, ' an old and faithful officer happy and 
contented.' 

" On the same 20th of May, it was also further resolved by the Society, ' That 
the vacancy of Secretary be not at present filled up ; but that the Council be em- 
powered, by the employment of an additional Clerk, to make temporary provision 
for the requisite duties.' The Council have accordingly engaged Mr. Long as an 
additional Clerk for one year certain, that is, until June next.** 

James Wallace Pycroft, Esq. and Joseph Arden, Esq. lately elected, 
now attending, having paid their admission fees, and subscribed the obli- 
gation required by the Statutes, were severally admitted Fellows of this 
Society. 

The Secretary then read the following extract from the will of the 
late Rev. J. W. Mackie, F.R.S., dated June 28th 1847 : "I give to 
the Society of Antiquaries the unique bronze plate found at Tours, of 
the dedication of the Chapel of St. Eloy, described in the Archaeologia." 
The plate of gilt bronze was upon the Society's table, and bears the date 
1446. Mr. Mackie's own account of it is to be found in the Appendix 
to the 23d volume of the Archaeologia, accompanied by an engraving in 
fac-simile. 

The following presents were received, and the thanks of the Society 
were ordered to be returned for them : 

Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, Vol. VIII. Part 1, 8vo. 
London, 1847. Presented by the Society. 

The Numismatic Chronicle, and the Journal of the Numismatic Society, Nos. 37 
and 38, 8vo. 1847. Presented by the Society. 

U 



214 

Transactions of the Exeter Diocesan Architectural Society, Vol. II. Part 3, 4to. 
Exeter, 1847. Presented by the Society. 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, from 12th January to 22d June, 
1847, 8vo. Report of the Council and Auditors of the Zoological Society of Lon- 
don, 8vo. 1847. List of Fellows of the Zoological Society, June 1847, 8vo. 
Presented by the Society. 

Observations on the Principle of Vital Affinity, Part 2, by William Pultney 
Alison, M.D. F.R.S.E. 4to. Edinb. 1847. Presented by the Author. 

Two Letters from Athens on certain Anomalies in the Construction of the Par- 
thenon, &c. 4to. 1846, by F. C. Penrose, Esq. Presented by the Society of 
Dilettanti. 

Collectanea Antique, No. 9, by C. R. Smith, Esq. F.S.A. 8vo. Lond. 1847. 
Presented by the Author. 

Catalogue of Books, Tracts, and Papers belonging to the Gaelic Society of Lon- 
don, sm. 8vo. Lond. 1840 : and a Brief Sketch of the Concealment of the Scottish 
Regalia in the Kirk of Kinneff, sm. 8vo. Presented by James Logan, Esq. 

Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, by W. D. Bruce, F.S.A. sm. 8vo. 
Presented by the Author. 

Archseologia vEHana, Vol. IV. Part I. 4to. 1846. Presented by the Society of 
Antiquaries of Newcastle upon Tyne. 

The Vindication, a Romance of Real Life, by Chas. Sandys, F.S.A. 8vo. Lond. 
1847. Presented by the Author. 

The Touarick Alphabet, with corresponding Arabic and English Letters, by 
James Richardson, Esq. folio. Presented by the Author. 

Further Papers on the Ghadamsee and Touarik Languages, folio. Presented by 
John Bidwell, Esq. F.S.A. 

The Natural History of Wiltshire, by John Aubrey, F.R.S. edited and elucidated 
by Notes, by John Britton, F.S.A. 4to. 1847. Presented by the Wiltshire Topo- 
graphical Society. 

Cartularium ex rotulo origin, pergamen. penes W. D. Bruce de Ripon Com. 
Ebor. A.D. 1841, Abbatiae de Fontanis, folio. Presented by W. D. Bruce, Esq. 

Sepulchri a Romanis constructi infra Ecclesiam Sti. Wilfridi in Civitate Ripo- 
nensi. W.D.Bruce. 8vo. 1841. Presented by the Author. 

Four drawn Views of the White Horse Hill, near Ashdown in Berkshire. Pre- 
sented by General Sir Thomas Hammond. 

G. H. Bonn's Catalogue of Books, vol. I. 8vo. 1847. Presented by G. H. Bohn. 

Title Page and Additional Sheets to the " Antiquitates Americana," edited by 
Charles Christian Rafn. Presented by the Editor. 

A Commentary of the Services and Charges of William Lord Grey of Wilton, 
K.G. by his son Arthur Lord Grey of Wilton. Edited by Sir Philip Malpas de 
Grey Egerton, Bart. 4to. Lond. 1847. Presented by the President and Council 
of the Camden Society. 

An Essay on the Nile and its Tributaries, by Charles T. Beke, Doctor in Philo- 
sophy, F.S.A. 8vo. Lond. 1847. Presented by the Author. 

History of the Conquest of Peru, with a Preliminary View of the Civilization of 
the Incas, by William H. Prescott. 2 vols. 8vo. Lond. 1847. Presented by the 
Author. 

Materials for a History of Oil Painting, by C. L. Eastlake, Esq. R.A. F.S.A. 
8vo. Lond. 1847. Presented by the Author. 

The Learned Societies and Printing Clubs of the United Kingdom. 8vo. Lond. 
1847. By the Rev. Dr. Hume, F.S.A. Presented by the Author. 

The Archaeological Journal of the Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and 
Ireland for September 1847, 8vo. Presented by the Archaeological Institute. 

The Builder; for the months from May to October 1847. 4to. London. Pre- 
sented by George Godwin, Esq. jun. F.S.A. 

The Athenaeum, from June to October 1847. 4to. London. Presented by the 
Editor. 

The Gentleman's Magazine, for the months from July to November 1847. Pre- 
sented by John Bowyer Nichols, Esq. F.S.A. 

The Camden Miscellany, Vol. I. 4to. 1847. Presented by the President and 
Council of the Camden Society. 



21,5 

Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, Vol. XVI 1. Part 1, 8vo. 
Lond. 1847. Presented by the Society. 

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. X. Part 3, 8vo. Lond. 1847. Pre- 
sented by the Society. 

Communications of the Society of Antiquaries of Zurich, Vols. III. and IV. 
Presented by the President and Council of the Society. 

A Catalogue of the principal British and French MSS. in the Royal Library 
at Stockholm. In Swedish. By George Stephens, Esq. 8vo. Stockholm, 1847. 
Presented by the Author. 

" Samlingar Utgifne af Svenska Fornskrift-Sallskapet ;" i. e. Collections pub- 
lished by the Swedish Archaeological Society. The Fourth Part, 8vo. Stockholm, 
1847. Also presented by George Stephens, Esq. of Stockholm. 

Letter to Dawson Turner, Esq. on Norwich and the Venta Icenorum, 8vo. Nor- 
wich. Presented by the Author, Hudson Gurney, Esq. 

Bulletin de 1'Acade'mie Royale des Sciences de Belgique, Tome XIII. Nos. 1 
to 6, and Tome XIV. Nos. 1 to 12, 8vo. 1846-7. M^moires de 1' Academic Royale 
de Belgique, Tomes XIX. XX. and XXI, Part 1, 4to. 1847. Annuaire de 1'Aca- 
demie Royale de Belgique, 8vo. 1846-7. Presented by the Royal Academy of 
Sciences of Belgium. 

Biographic de Fontenelle, par M. A. Charma. 2d edit. 8vo. Paris, 1846. Essai 
sur le Langage, par M. A. Charma. 2d edit. 8vo. and, Sur la Liberte de 1'En- 
seignement, 8vo. Paris, 1 840. Presented by the Author. 

Nummorum Anglo - Saxonicorum Centuria Selecta, e Museo Academico de- 
prompta, digests, et illustrata a Joh. Henr. Schroder. 8vo. Upsalise, 1847. Pre- 
sented by the Author. 

Musee de Sculpture Antique et Moderne. Douzieme Livraison. Par M. le Comte 
de Clarac. 4to. Paris. Presented by the Representatives of the late Author. 

Me"moires de la Societe Royale des Antiquaires dti Nord, 2 Tomes, 8vo, 1844 
1847 ; and, Annaler for Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historic, 8vo. Copenhagen, 1846. 
Presented by the Society of Antiquaries of the North. 

AperQu de TAncienne Geographic des Regions Arctiques de I'AmeVique, par 
Charles Chr. Rafn, 8vo. Copenhagen, 1847. Presented by the Author. 

Diccionario Manual Para el Estudio i'ue Antiquedades, por Don Felix Ponzoa 
Cebrian et D. Joaquin M. Bover de Rxfeselld, 8vo. Palma, 1846. Presented by the 
Authors. 

Memoires de la Socie'te' des Antiquaires de 1'Ouest, Annee 1845, 8vo. Poitiera, 
1847. Bulletins de la Societe des Antiquaires de 1'Ouest. 6 Livraisons, 8vo. Pre- 
sented by the Society. 

Songs and Carols, now first printed from a MS. of the fifteenth Century. Edited 
by Thos. Wright, Esq. Presented by the Editor. 

The Canterbury Tales of Geoffrey Chaucer, a new Text, with illustrative Notes. 
Edited by Thomas Wright, Esq. Vol. II. Also presented by the Editor. 

Notices of an English Traveller during a two days' sojourn at Ober-Wesel on the 
Rhine, 1847, 8vo. Presented by the Rev. Joseph Hunter. 

An Engraving of an old French Clock, supported by figures, supposed to repre- 
sent the Elements, in bronze, of the best Florentine period ; and two Engravings, 
one in outline, the other in aqua-tint, of the Bronze Lamp given by the Prince 
Regent to the Royal Academy in 1812. Presented by Benj. Lewis Vulliamy, Esq. 

The History and Antiquities of Norwich Castle, by the late Samuel Woodward, 
F.G.S., edited by his Son, 4to. Norwich, 1847. Presented by Hudson Gurney, esq. 

A Map of British and Roman Yorkshire, by Charles Newton, Esq. ; and Part 1 , 
of Memoirs illustrative of the History and Antiquities of the City and County of 
York. Presented by the Committee of the Archaeological Institute. 

Mr. Ball, of High Holborn, presented to the Society three bottles, 
apparently Dutch, found in the marshes on the Essex Coast, on this side 
of.Gray's ; a cast of the patella of a large animal discovered near Tilbury 
Fort ; a cast of a gigantic oyster discovered at Folkestone ; and a small 
vessel discovered in digging a vault at St. Bride's Church in Fleet-street. 

William Downing Bruce, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited a drawing of part of 
the church of St. Michael, in the citv of York. 

' u 2 



-216 

Sir Henry Ellis laid before the Society casts of the two sides of a 
leaden seal or bulla, purchased at the sale of Walter Wilson, Esq. July 
26th, 1847; English, and apparently of the Saxon period. The lead is 
somewhat oxidized, and the seal appears to have been attached to some 
instrument, in the manner of the seals appended both in early and later 
times to the papal bulls. This seal is said to have been brought from 
Italy, and had formerly been successively preserved in the Torlonia, the 
Caprinesi, and Troubetzkoy Collections. It was brought to London in 
May last. It seems to have been the seal of Coenwulf , King of Mercia, 
who reigned from the year 796 to the year 818. It is valuable as being 
probably unique ; and it is now deposited in the British Museum. It 
bears on one side the inscription ffc COENVVLFI REGIS ; and on the other 
MERCIORVM. 

Benjamin Williams, Esq. F.S.A. communicated to the Society, in a 
letter to Sir Henry Ellis, an Agreement, from a MS. in the State Paper 
Office, between King Henry the Fourth and Archibald Earl of Douglas, 
dated Mortlake, J9th June 1408, by which the Earl of Douglas was 
permitted to revisit Scotland till Easter following, leaving hostages for 
his security. This " Endenture " appears in the eighth volume of 
Holmes's edition of Rymer's Foedera, p. 536 ; but Mr. Williams pre- 
faced his communication of it with some remarks upon its philological 
structure, which renders it interesting as being one of the last links be- 
tween the French and English languages. He cites a number of words 
contained in the Agreement of French origin and accentuation, which 
had been adopted in it as English terms ; although a petition to the 
House of Commons, from Thomas Painfield, in the year 1414, scarcely 
contains a French word ; and, with the exception of the Saxon termination 
of the verbs, and the obsolete spelling, is very little removed from the 
language of the nineteenth century. Mr. Williams says, '* In proof that 
* entree,' * contrie,' and * seurte,' were accented on the second syllable, 
I would mention that the first of the final vowels in ' entree ' is accented 
in the MS. with the same mark as was then used over the y when used 
as a vowel ; and that in the following couplets of Lydgate, the metre 
evidently requires that the two words beaute ' and * comynat6 ' should 
have their final vowels accented : 

1 This Richard )>anne regnid' sone 
Aftir his Belsire as was to done. 
At x yere of age crownid was he ; 
He was a man of great beaut. 
In his time the comynat of Kent 
Upp a risen, and to London went, 
And Savay h-i brent I' it ilke place 
Which the Duke of Lancastres was.' " 

A letter was read from William Roots, M.D., F.S.A , to Sir Henry 
Ellis, containing some remarks upon the letter from the late Alfred John 
Kempe, Esq. printed in the second part of the 31st volume of the 
Archaeologia, relative to an entrenched camp still visible on the South- 
West angle of Wimbledon Common, closely adjacent to the hill of 
Kingston. 

Dr. Roots stated, that from his earliest days he had been in the habit 
of visiting this spot, sometimes alone with Caesar's Commentaries in his 



217 

hands, and sometimes with friends ; and had as often enjoyed the anti- 
quarian reverie of believing that he was standing on the very spot where 
Caesar once stood, calculating on his best means, prior to the hazardous 
attempt of crossing the Thames in the valley below. And that this, he 
had no doubt, was the spot alluded to by Caesar, after his march of 80 
miles from the Kentish Coast, as the " uno omnino loco, quo Flumen 
transiri potest." Dr. Roots adds, that it is well known and generally 
accorded, that this was the first and only part of the Thames, from its 
estuary, that was fordable. He next criticised Mr. Kempe's belief, ex- 
pressed in his letter before alluded to, that " There is no decided ground 
for supposing that the Romans often deviated from the square form of 
castrametation which their military writers have described." The camp 
at Wimbledon being circular, it was left in doubt by Mr. Kempe whether 
it might not have been originally British. Dr. Roots quotes Hyginus, 
who lived in Augustus's time, and who states that the Romans had long 
departed from their ancient system of castrametation as described by Po- 
lybius, and were in the habit of making their camps sometimes rectan- 
gular, sometimes triangular, sometimes circular, and frequently oval ; 
and, in short, contrary to their former and accustomed square regula- 
rity, they adapted them to the form which circumstances and localities 
rendered most advantageous at the moment. Lastly, Dr. Roots referred 
to the great number of Roman relics, and particularly of a warlike cha- 
racter, that have been so frequently taken up on the actual spot, or in close 
contiguity to it, as an additional corroborative proof of the certain pre- 
sence there, at some time or other, of a Roman army ; the sword- 
blades, spear-heads, and missile hatchets found in the bed of the river 
too at Kingston, give additional strength to his belief that the camp in 
question was closely connected with the conflict which ensued on Caesar's 
passage of the Thames. 



Thursday, November 25th, 1847. 

Sir ROBERT HARRY INGLIS, Bart. V.P. in the Chair. 

John Dickinson, Esq having paid his admission fee, and subscribed the 
obligation required by the Statutes, was admitted a Fellow of the Society. 

The following presents were received, and thanks for them ordered to 
be returned ; from Sir Fortunatus Dwarris, F.S. A. a " General Treatise 
on Statutes their rules of construction, and the proper boundaries of Le- 
gislation. By Sir Fortunatus Dwarris, assisted by W. H. Amyot, Esq. 
8vo. London, 1847." From the Royal Society of Antiquaries of France, 
their " Memoires," vol. XVIII. 8vo. Paris, 1846. From M. Bror Emil 
Hildebrand, " Kongl. Vitterhet's Historic och Antiquitals Academicus 
Handlingar. Aderlonda delen." 8vo. Stockholm, 1846 : also " Monnaies 
Anglosaxonner du Cabinet Royal de Stockholm toutes trouvees en Suede : 
classees et descrites par B. E. Hildebrand, Directeur Royal des M6- 
dailles et des Antiquites de Suede." 4to. Stockholm, 1846. From the 
President and Council of the Royal Society, " Philosophical Transac- 
tions," from Part. II. 1842 to Part I. 1847 : the Addresses of the Presi- 
dent to the Society at the Anniversary Meetings in 1844 and 1846 : the 



218 

'' Proceedings " of the Royal Society, Nos. 55 68 ; and the Statutes of 
the Royal Society, 8 vo. 1847. From Edward Wedlake Brayley, Esq. 
F.S.A. the second part of volume III. and the first part of volume V. of 
his History of Surrey. 

A letter was then read from Hugh Welch Diamond, Esq. F.S.A. ad- 
dressed to Edward Hawkins, Esq. F.R.S. and S. A. giving an account of 
a recent discovery at Ewell, in Surrey, of some wells, or pits, containing 
Roman remains : accompanied by the exhibition of numerous drawings in 
illustration of the letter, and of various specimens of the remains disco- 
vered. The following were the chief facts contained in this communica- 
tion : 

A workman employed by a Mr. Brown was digging chalk, when at the 
depth of about twenty feet from the surface, he found an urn or vessel, 
which he forthwith broke, in hopes that its contents might prove of value ; 
but to his chagrin he found it held nothing but mould mixed with char- 
coal. This being mentioned to Mr. Brown, he consulted with Sir George 
L. Glyn, the proprietor of the land ; and on the following day, a further 
investigation was instituted. The shaft or pit of mould, for such it was 
discovered to be, in which the urn had been deposited, was thoroughly 
searched ; and several others, which had been previously covered over, 
were strictly examined. These were situated on what has been the 
slope of a hill, with an aspect towards the west ; they are sunk in the 
solid rock chalk, and vary in depth and width ; being from 12 to 37 
feet deep ; and from 2 to 4 feet in diameter. They were filled com- 
pactly with mould ; and the imbedded contents of all are stated to have 
been similarly arranged. The cavities, commencing at the mouth, and 
proceeding downwards, contained : 

I. Large bones of animals, such as are used for food, as the heifer, sheep, stag, 
and hog. 

II. Roman ware of various patterns, of the kind called Samian, some perfect, 
others were scattered fragments. A few of these bear the potters' marks, and 
several were mended with lead. 

III. Oyster, muscle, and snail-shells in fine mould; also the bones of a cock, of 
a rabbit or hare, and the entire skeleton of a large dog, the head of which is 
severed, and placed about a foot from it. In the corresponding layer in the 
other pits, as well as the dog's bones were placed nbulse, bits of glass, and 
portions of decayed bronze trappings. 

IV. Fragments of amphoree and other vessels, of light-coloured ware, some of 
them such as were used at the Epvlte Funebrex. 

V. Vessels of dark-coloured ware, several of which were perfect. Large portions 
of charcoal and scoriae from an intense fire were mixed with the earth, in which 
they were imbedded ; and in every pit about an equal quantity of iron nails, 
and minute bones of mice, frogs, and toads. 

In one of these pits was found, quite at the bottom, an iron rod 
2 feet 8 inches in length ; and a piece of iron having a cavity resem- 
bling a modern pipe. The centre of another pit contained several flint 
stones, one of which had evidently been reduced to roundness. An iron 
hammer was also found, and two pieces of oak about 18 inches long, 
sharpened at each end. Among the black ware were a few portions of 
human bones burnt, other animal bones being all unburnt. One of the 
vases was so remarkable, that Mr. Diamond was desirous of calling the 
attention of the Society especially to it. It was of true Roman form, com- 



219 

posed of a thin material of a bright green colour, with stripes of white or 
pale yellow, perfectly glazed inside and out. Its antiquity, however, is 
incontestible ; at least, as coeval with the other remains. Mr. Diamond 
himself took it with his own hands from the soil, in which it was firmly 
impacted at the depth of about 18 feet from the surface of the earth, 
after working for a long time upon the spot. The vase is described in a 
note from Dr. Faraday, to whom it was referred, as coated with a lead 
glaze. 

Having given the detail of the articles found, Mr. Diamond next 
proceeded to consider the object and use of these pits. The discovery of 
similar receptacles in England, he observed, was not novel : but he felt 
that the various designations bestowed on them were unsatisfactory, and 
that no adequate explanation of them has yet been assigned. Having 
stated his objections to the popular names for these shafts, he noticed 
the customs of the Romans in respect of their dead. The rich were 
interred with vain and costly ceremonies ; but the poor, the prodigal, and 
the malefactor, were all consigned to one common place, their bodies not 
being always subjected to the process of cremation, but interred in 
puticuli. He then hazards a conjecture, that the remains of foreigners 
were often sent home to their relations in urns or coffers, and that such 
urns were placed in some appropriate spot in the neighbourhood, where 
the vessels consecrated to the solemn ceremonial of cremation were 
afterwards designedly broken and deposited in places especially prepared, 
and carefully protected from the chances of desecration. Such places, 
he believes, are those now under consideration. 

On inspecting the various vessels discovered, of which a small selec- 
tion only were placed before the meeting, it will be found that they were 
not only broken, but had evidently been smashed with violence. Mr. 
Diamond considers this breaking of vessels to have been an especial 
mark of humility, and frequent allusion is made to it in various passages 
of the Scriptures ; particularly in the 23d chapter of Ezekiel. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for Mr. Diamond's communica- 
tion. The interesting relics, the exhibition of which accompanied the 
reading of his Paper, are intended to enrich the Collections of the British 
Museum. 

The Secretary then proceeded to read a communication from Thomas 
Stapleton, Esq. V.P. intituled, " Details of the Life of Richard de 
Emeldon, Burgess and Mayor of Newcastle upon Tyne, in the county of 
Northumberland, in the several reigns of the three Kings Edward; 
after whose decease in the month of October, in the seventh year of 
Edward III. A.D. 1333, Richard de Bury, Bishop of Durham, Chan- 
cellor and Treasurer, ordained a Chantry in the Church of St. Nicholas, 
in the same town, to be attached to the altar of the Saints John the 
Baptist, and the Apostle and Evangelist, in the year of our Lord 1335, 
for the soul of the same Richard, and for the souls of his parents, wives, 
brothers, sisters, kindred, and all the faithful deceased." 

The surname of the Emeldon family, is derived from a parish an- 
ciently named Emildon, and now Embleton, in Bamborough Ward, 
south division, in the Diocese of Durham, Archdeaconry of Northum- 
berland, Deanery of Alnwick. In this county of Northumberland, the 
great tenants in chief of the Crown are always described as holding 



2-20 

their capital manor as a barony ; and from that of Emeldon was due the 
service of three knights' fees. The first Barons, from Odard having 
been Sheriff of the County two years in the reign of King Henry the 
First, retained the surname of Viscount in that line. Of this Barony a 
release was made by Hereward des Marais and Ramet the daughter and 
heiress of John le Viscount, to Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, 
his heirs and assigns ; which was confirmed by King Henry the Third 
to the same Earl in 1257 ; and in the following year the same Earl had 
a grant of market and fair at Emeldon. After his rebellion, which 
ended with the battle of Evesham, where he was slain, all his posses- 
sions escheated to the Crown; and in the year 1269, King Henry 
granted to Edmund his younger son all the lands which he, the said 
Simon, held of the Barony of John le Viscount in Northumberland. 
Edmund died at Bayonne in Gascony, in May 1296 ; and in the calen- 
dar of inquisitions post mortem 24 Edw. I. the manors of Stamford and 
Emeldon, and the two townships of Dunstan and Shipley, are mentioned 
in the county of Northumberland ; where he also built the castle of 
Dunstanborough, long the most magnificent structure in the North, but 
now a ruin. His son and heir, Thomas Earl of Lancaster, succeeded to 
all his possessions. 

In the Parliamentary and other Writs, is an alphabetical digest of 
persons mentioned in the text, as follows : A.D. 1303, Richard de 
Emeldon was returned for Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and summoned to a 
special convention of merchants held before the Council in the Exche- 
quer of York, on the morrow of St. John the Baptist, 31 Edw. I. In 
1311 he was one of the Burgesses returned for Newcastle to the Parlia- 
ment at London ; and he obtained a writ of expenses for attendance at 
the same in 1314, as well as for attending the Parliament at York, from 
the 9th to the 27th of September 1315. In the same year, as Mer- 
chant and Burgess of Newcastle, he obtained a special passport for his 
servants, whom he had sent to parts beyond the seas, for the purpose of 
purchasing corn and other victual ; tested at Westminster 6th May, 
8th Edw. II. In 1318 he was one of the Justices assigned in the county 
of Northumberland, pursuant to the award in Parliament for the settle- 
ment of damages sustained by the subjects of the Count of Flanders ; 
also one of the Conservators of the Peace in the said county. In 1322 
he, as superior Guardian of the town of Newcastle, was instructed to 
obey the commands of the Earl of Athol, the chief Warden of the 
Northumberland Marches. Moreover he was made Guardian of the 
town by letters patent, tested at Newcastle 22d September, 16 Edw. II. 
Also, as Mayor, and being about to send his vessel called La Margerie 
to parts beyond the seas to purchase corn, he obtained a 'general passport 
or protection, tested at Yarmouth 8th October, same year. In 1323 he 
was one of the Collectors in the port of Newcastle and its members, of 
the customs upon wines, &c. granted by the Merchants Strangers. In 
1324 he was again returned for the town to the Parliament assembled 
at Westminster, his name being entered on the pawn or roll of attendance 
for three weeks of the Purification, 17 Edw. II. ; and he held the same 
offices during the several years following, till 1333. 

In the new edition of the Treaties, Letters, and Public Acts, which 



221 

Rymer and Sanderson first printed in the reign of Queen Anne, and in 
the second volume, we find these references to Richard de Emeldon. By 
letters patent from King Edward II. 1318, addressed to him, William 
Rydel, and Stephen le Blount, they were ordered to assign forty casks of 
wine to those knights and others of Northumberland, " who, through the 
incursions of the Scots, our enemies, are so destroyed that they have not 
the necessaries of life ; and to distribute them circumspectly, so as we 
may commend your provident diligence, having previously sent word to 
our Receiver of Victuals at Newcastle-upon-Tyne to deliver to you the 
aforesaid casks." In 1321, Richard was ordered to aid John de Pen- 
reth, Constable of the Castle of Harbottle, in destroying it. In 1322, 
this writ was thus addressed : " The King, to whom, &c. greeting. Know 
ye, that we have committed to our beloved Richard de Emeldon to hold 
the custody of all the castles, lands, and tenements, which had been those 
of Thomas Earl of Lancaster, and of others our enemies and rebels ; 
and moreover of others in the county of Northumberland, and in the 
bishoprick of Durham : and which, by the forfeiture of our said enemies, 
and from some other causes, are in our hand, or which may happen to 
fall to our hands, together with all goods and chattels existing in the 
same, as long as it shall be our pleasure : so that he may depute others 
under him in the custody of the castles, lands, and tenements aforesaid, 
for whom, if they may not be sufficient, he may answer for them ; and 
that he shall answer- to us in our Chamber of the issues coming forth 
from the same by a certain receiver by us deputed on this behalf, and 
thereof to be employed by the aforesaid Richard. In which Witness, 
the King at Pontefract, 24th day of March. By the King himself." 
Other writs follow, relating to the aforesaid possessions, signed as above, 
one of which is dated two days after the Earl of Lancaster was beheaded 
near Pontefract. There is also a stringent order to inviolably observe 
and maintain discipline during the thirteen years of peace which were to 
follow, " as a suspension of the war and truce have been begun and 
ratified between us and Robert de Brus, and his accomplices and sup- 
porters ;" and full authority is given to castigate and punish the trans- 
gressors of the same. And there is a special clause, directing that 
those who, on account of their want or other urgent necessity, had joined 
the Scots, to be received again, provided they were of good fame. 

This portion, detailing the biographical particulars of the Emeldon 
family, having been read, the remainder was postponed to another 
meeting. 



Thursday, December 2d, 1847. 
THOMAS STAPLETON, Esq. V.P. in the Chair. 

After the Minutes of the last Meeting were read and confirmed, the 
Secretary read the fo 1 lowing document : 

" I, Philip Henry, Viscount Mahon, President of the Society of Antiquaries of 
London, do by virtue of the powers and authorities vested in me by the Letters 
Patent, hereby nominate Thomas Amyot, Esq. being one of the modern and present 



2*2 

CouDcil of the said Society, to be a Deputy to me the President of the said Society, 
with full power and authority to him in my absence to supply my place as President, 
and to do all acts concerning the said Society, and the business of the same, which I 
by virtue of my office might do, if I myself were actually present ; according to the 
true intent and meaning of his Majesty's Letters Patent. In witness whereof, I 
have hereunto set my hand and seal, this 27th day of November, in the year of our 
Lord 1847. 
" Witness, HENRY DAVIS. (L.S.) MAHON 

The recommendatory testimonial of the Chevalier Bun sen, as a 
Foreign Member, having hung up the limited time, was balloted for, 
whereupon he was declared duly elected an honorary Member of this 
Society. 

The following presents were received, and thanks for the same were 
ordered to be returned, viz. from J. C. Buckler, Esq. a History of the 
Abbey Church of St. Alban, with especial reference to the Norman 
Structure, by J. C. Buckler and C. A. Buckler, 8vo. London, 1847. 
From J. B. Nichols, Esq. F.S.A. the Gentleman's Magazine for Decem- 
ber 1847. From the Editor of the Athenaeum, Part CCXXXIX. for 
the month of November 1847. From George Godwin, jun. Esq. F.S.A. 
The Builder, Vol. V. Part xi. 

Sir Charles Young, Garter, F.S.A. exhibited to the Society the 
matrix, accompanied by a splendid impression, of the Seal of the Free 
Grammar School of Queen Elizabeth at Ashbourne, in the county of 
Derby, founded by Letters Patent dated 15th of July, 1585, 27th Eliz. 
An account of this School will be found in Carlisle's Endowed Gram- 
mar Schools; and in the History and Topography of Ashbourne, 8vo. 
1839. The seal is the property of Mr. Thatcher, who purchased it. 

William Devonshire Saull, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited a sculptured female 
head, surrounded by a rose-fillet, apparently of the thirteenth century, 
found upon the spot where the house of the Friars Eremites of St. 
Augustine formerly stood in the city of York. Its site was upon the 
bank of the Ouse, near the bridge. Speed, in his Catalogue of Religious 
Houses, mentions it to have been founded by the Lord Scrope, but 
when, or of what value, he omits to say. Tanner asserts, that it is 
mentioned as early as A.D. 1278. It was surrendered by the Prior and 
Brethren to the King's Commissioners, in the 30th year of Henry VIII. 
Mr. Saull thinks it probable, that this head is the only fragment of the 
Monastery in question now remaining. 

The Secretary then proceeded to the further reading of Mr. Staple - 
ton's " Details of the Life of Richard de Emeldon." The most im- 
portant portion of this part of the Paper, consisted in the identification 
of an Alien Priory in the county of Northumberland, which appears to 
have continued, if not till the Dissolution of Monasteries, certainly till 
within a hundred years of that time; but its existence was unknown 
both to Dugdale when compiling his Monasticon, arid to his Editors at a 
later time. Bishop Tanner, in the Notitia Monastica, is the only 
author who has heretofore mentioned it. He says " GWYSNES, or 
GYSNES ; NUNS. In the Lincoln Taxation, amongst the Temporalities, 
there is * Priorissa de Gwysnea in archidiaconatu Northumbrian, Ixx 11 . iv d . 
and Cart. 35 Edw. I. n. 35. Rex confirmat Abbati et Conventui de 
Alnwico communiam in tota mora et pastura de Edelingham, ad omnia 



223 

averia sua, tarn de domo de Alnwyk et grangiis suis, quam tie domo de 
GYSNES.' But more of this House I cannot learn." 

Mr. Stapleton explains its history. This Priory was situated in 
Brainshaugh, an extra-parochial district, in the east division of Coquet- 
dale ward, and in the Deanery of Alnwick. It took its name from 
Guisnes, in the Pas de Calais, where a house of Nuns, to which it was 
subordinate, had been founded by Mapasses, Count of Guisnes, and his 
Countess, in 1 129. He also finds further notice of the Northumber- 
land Nuns of Guisnes in the Wardrobe Accounts of King Edward the 
Second, from 1321 to 1324, in a manuscript formerly in the library of 
Thomas Astle, Esq. where, in one of these years, among entries of the 
King's alms to different religious houses, we find several to the Nuns of 
Guisnes. One of them is a remarkable entry, namely, " To the Prioress 
and Nuns of Gysnes, of the alms of the Lord the King, in aid of recom- 
pense of the losses which they had sustained by the arrival of the Welsh 
forces there in their progress to the wars with Scotland, by the hand of 
Mariote, Prioress of the same house : at Felton the 8th day of August," 
Mr. Stapleton quotes other authentic records which show the continuance 
of its existence. 

That the foreign house of Guisnes continued in possession of the pro- 
perty of this Nunnery in the middle of the fifteenth century, is evident 
from a charter of King Henry the Sixth to John Archbishop of York ; 
which recites that the advowson and rectory of the church of Newington, 
near Hythe, in Kent, together with the grange of Bransete, and the 
lands of Newington and Promehull, had been held by Katharine late 
Abbess of Gwynes, in Artois beyond sea, "on the day on which she died. 
Mr. Stapleton then describes the site of this Priory as on the north 
bank of the river Coquet, between the parishes of Felton and Shilbottle ; 
adding that, according to Lewis's Topographical Dictionary, the town- 
ship of Guyson now parishes to the latter. 

The further reading of this communication was postponed to the next 
meeting. 



Thursday, December 9th, 1847. 
HENRY HALLAM, Esq. V.P. in the Chair. 

The following present was received from the Author, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned for the same : The Antiquities found at Hog- 
lake in Cheshire; described by A. Hume, LL.D., F.S.A. 8vo. Lon- 
don 1847. 

John Gough Nichols, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited to the Society an ivory 
diptych, or tabernacle, of very beautiful workmanship, now belonging to 
a lady resident in London. The two leaves of which it consists mea- 
sure each seven inches and a half in height, by three inches in width, 
and are united by silver hinges. The carvings are in high and bold 
relief, and are divided into four compartments, although their subjects 
are more than four in number. Among them are elaborate representa- 
tions of the Annunciation, of the meeting of Mary and Elizabeth, of 



224 

the Virgin carrying the infant Saviour, of the Virgin and St. Joseph, of 
the visit of Mary Magdalen and the Apostles to the Sepulchre, and of 
the Crucifixion. The upper subject of the second leaf is more difficult 
of explanation. It is divided by a trefoil arch, on the summit of which 
is seated a male figure, his breast partially exposed, but with a robe 
covering his left shoulder and arm. His right hand is extended for- 
ward, and his left raised and expanded, as if receiving the instruments of 
the Passion, which are represented by the two figures standing on either 
hand. The age assigned to this diptych was the middle of the four- 
teenth century. 

Mr. Nichols accompanied this curious relic with the exhibition of 
another ivory carving, belonging to his father, John Bowyer Nichols, 
Esq. F.S.A. representing in larger size a subject conjectured to be 
what was of old called The Coronation of our Lady. In an ancient 
inventory of the Church of Salisbury occurs this passage, " Item. One 
tabernacle of ivory, with two leaves, gemmels, and locks of silver, con- 
taining the Coronation of our Lady." 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for the exhibition of these carv- 
ings ; and the Secretary then proceeded to the further reading of u De- 
tails of the Life of Richard de Emeldon." 

Mr. Stapleton observes, that in the Chronicle of Lanercost, in the 
year 1333, we have an account of a victory won in the vicinity of Ber- 
wick, by King Edward the Third and his brother John of Eltham, over 
the forces of the Scots, on Monday the 12th of July, the eve of St. Mar- 
garet the Virgin, called the Battle of Haledon Hill ; and the 1 9th of 
July, the Monday following, Berwick was surrendered. On this occa- 
sion Richard de Emeldon, then Mayor of Newcastle, and Escheator ex 
ojficio, was appointed one of the three Justices who were to inquire dili- 
gently what English had been disinherited there, and restore to them 
their houses and lands. An exposition then follows, which treats upon 
the claims and title of various property in those parts, with authorities 
duly cited. Previous to this office, in one of the Rolls called Originalia, 
in the 20th year of Edward the Second, is this entry : " The King to 
Roger de Mowbray, Constable of the Castle of Prudhoe, greeting. We 
send you word, that you cause to be applied in the repair and restoration 
of the castle aforesaid, moreover in the construction of a certain peel 
beyond the gates of the same castle, for the greater safety of the same 
castle, up to the sum of twenty marks of the issues of your Bailiwick, 
through the view and testimony of Richard de Emeldon, Mayor of New- 
castle upon Tyne." 

In the seventh year of the reign of King Edward the Third, 1332, 
the Mayor and Burgesses of Newcastle represented, that, as they were 
greatly impoverished and damnified by the wars of Scotland before these 
times, and about the rescue of the same town against the assaults of the 
Scots had incurred great charges and expenses, and were then suffering 
from the extortions of the escheators, they supplicate the King for remedy 
of these complaints. In the following year, the King assigned Richard 
de Emeldon and Robert de Roughhall to levy and collect one-fifteenth 
of all goods, &c. in the county of Northumberland ; and the citizens and 
burgesses of cities and boroughs in other counties specified, were also to 



225 

pay tithes, &c. The writ then cited runs thus : " Edward, by the 
grace of God, King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Aqui- 
taine, to all those who shall see or hear these writings, greeting. 
Know you that we, for the good and laudable service so manifoldly 
bestowed to us and our progenitors by our beloved Richard de Emeldon, 
now Mayor of our town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and the other Bur- 
gesses of the same town, of the assent of our Prelates, Earls, Barons, 
and others now present in our Parliament, have granted, and by this 
our charter confirmed to the same Burgesses, their heirs, and successors, 
that the Mayor of the town aforesaid, who shall be in office at the 
time, be our Escheator, and of our heirs, in the same town and liberty 
of the same." This document was witnessed by Walter, Archbishop 
of York, Primate of England; John, Bishop of Winchester; William, 
Bishop of Norwich ; Thomas, Earl of Norfolk, Marshal of England ; 
John de Warren, Earl of Surrey ; William de Hoos ; William de Moun- 
tague ; Ralph de Nevill, Seneschal of the Royal Household, and others ; 
and it was signed by the King at York, on the 20th of January, in the 
same year. 

This portion of the Paper having been read, the remainder was post- 
poned till the next meeting. 



Thursday, December 16th, 1847. 
VISCOUNT MAHON, President, in the Chair. 

The concluding portion of Mr. Stapleton's Paper, containing " De- 
tails of the Life of Richard de Emeldon," was read; it principally 
related to the proceedings which occurred on the demise of the said 
functionary, in pursuance of the following writ of Diem clausit extre- 
mum, isssued by King Edward the Third. 

" Edward, by the grace of God, King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of 
Aquitaine, to his beloved and faithful John de Lowther, his Escheator in the coun- 
ties of York, Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmoreland, greeting. As 
Richard de Emeldon, who had held of Us in chief, has closed his last day, as We 
have learnt, We send you word that thou diligently take into Our hand, all the 
lands and tenements of which the said Richard has been seized in his demesne as of 
fee in your Bailiwick on the day on which he died, and cause them to be kept in 
safe custody until We shall give Our precept thereof. And by the oath of faithful 
and law-worthy men of your Bailiwick, by whom the truth may be better known, 
do thou diligently inquire how much land the said Richard held of Us in chief in 
your Bailiwick on the day on which he died, and how much of others, and by what 
services, and how much these lands are worth annually, in all issues, and who is 
his next heir, and of what age. And do thou diligently send to Me the inquisition 
thereof, made distinctly and openly under your seal and the seals of those by whom 
it shall have been made, with this writ. Witness Myself at Waltham, on the 12th 
day of October, in the seventh year of Our reign. A. D. 1333.'* 

The proceedings consequent upon this writ, and the means and circum- 
stances of Richard's heirs and successors, were very fully detailed, toge- 
ther with the Instrument for founding the chantry in the Church of St. 
Nicholas, and the Ordination made by the Bishop of Durham for regu- 
lating the ceremonies there for the soul of Richard de Emeldon, and " all 
the faithful deceased, by two priests who were to celebrate masses there 



226 

each single day, of whom one to wit to be also named perpetual guardian of 
this sort of altar or chantrey, and the other a temporal priest, to be 
assumed and also to be removed according to the free will of him the 
guardian." This document was confirmed by King Edward III. in the 
10th year of his reign, A.D. 1336. The advowson of the chantry was 
vested in the successive Mayors of Newcastle upon Tyne, under the 
counsel and assent of the fraternity of the guild of the Blessed Trinity 
of that town, who were to present to the successive Bishops of Durham, 
or the Prior and Chapter of Durham, the see being vacant an able 
priest within a month from the vacancy. 

John Yonge Akerman, Esq. F.S A. communicated to the Society a 
letter which he had received from Richard Falkner, Esq. dated Devizes, 
25th of September, 1847, descriptive of a group of Tumuli on Berk- 
hampton Down, not hitherto, as Mr. Falkner believed, sufficiently 
noticed by the antiquary. Referring to the Ordnance Map of Wilt- 
shire, Sheet XIV. he says, " The Barrows I am about to describe will 
be found in the triangle made by the old road from Bath, approaching 
the present turnpike road from Devizes to Marlborough ; Wansdyke 
forming the base. They are placed in a line passing from the S. W. 
to the N. E. and surrounded by a fosse of a very unusual shape, 20 
feet across and 3 in depth. The ground covered by them is 80 yards 
in length and 47 yards broad in the widest part. The Tumulus at the 
S. E. end of the inclosure is the largest, the diameter of the base being 
63 feet, and its height 10 feet. The one at the other end is not so 
high, but, as it slopes into the fosse, its base is not many feet less." 
Between them is a Barrow of much smaller dimensions, and the three 
are connected together by slight bands of earth, with a fosse on each 
side, running a short distance up the Barrows. Mr. Falkner's commu- 
nication to Mr. Akerman was illustrated by a drawn sketch taken from 
the south, a ground plan, and some sections. The singular arrange- 
ment of these mounds, their difference in size, and other circumstances, 
led Mr. Falkner to the conclusion that this spot was the resting-place of 
three members of a Celtic family, who perhaps fell together in some 
hostile attack, or otherwise died about the same time : and it would seem 
they were persons of distinction, whose place of sepulture was in after 
times visited with ceremony, there being an approach to the ground 260 
yards in length, formed of a vallum and fosse, still quite perfect, com- 
manding a fine view of the Barrows throughout its course. This letter 
was accompanied by short notices of two other groups of Tumuli : one 
about a mile to the east of the triple Barrow just described, close to the 
turnpike road ; the other situated in one of the deep hollows of the 
Chalk Downs, not far from Silbury Hill, and remarkable from the length 
of the approaches. 

A second communication from Mr. Falkner to Mr. Akerman was 
read, accompanying a drawing of what has been either part of a 
Torques, or one of the coils of an Armilla, or Armlet, found in the 
autumn of 1844 on St. Ann's Hill, near Devizes. . The sketch was the 
actual size and shape of the original ; the material of which was fine 
gold, weighing rather more than 2 ounces troy. In form and charac- 
ter of workmanship it strongly resembled one of the gold biacelets found 



227 

near Egerton Hall, in Cheshire, in 1831 ; and which is engraved in the 
27th volume of the Archaeologia, p. 401. 

The Secretary then read a notice by Thomas Wright, Esq. F.S.A. on 
some early Latin Stories imitated at a late period by Chaucer and 
Shakespeare. 

The Mediaeval Ages were so rich in popular metrical tales or fabliaux, 
as sung or recited by the minstrels and jongleurs, that although it is 
probable that many were never written down, and innumerable manuscripts 
have been destroyed, there is yet in England a rich harvest to be 
culled. These are extremely interesting, not merely from the stories 
themselves, but from their tendency to reveal the former affinity or inter- 
course of races which have since become widely separated ; and in other 
instances to reduce the presumed originality of more modern authors to its 
true limits. On this head Mr. Wright observes, " There are many ob- 
scure nooks and corners in the wide field of antiquarian research, which 
must be carefully explored, if we would make ourselves thoroughly 
acquainted with the history, or the literature and science, or the archaeo- 
logy of the Middle Ages. We shall find facts in the history of science 
and art among the heavy folios of the scholastic writers, which seem at 
first sight to forbid all attempt at perusal. Historical events are often 
cleared up from what has been looked upon as the refuse of manuscript 
collections, and hardly to be distinguished from the dust in which it has 
so long lain buried. Manners and customs of private life receive the 
most interesting illustration from the bills of butlers and cooks, from the 
parish register, or from the local court book." The author then pro- 
ceeds to name some of the earliest collections of the mediaeval stories of 
Western Europe, and recites a fabliau from a manuscript in the British 
Museum (MS. Cott. Cleopatra D. vm. fol \34.J strongly resem- 
bling Chaucer's Frere's Tale, at which our forefathers may have wagged 
the beard when they were " merry in hall." And he also brings to 
light an early and very curious version of the incident of the pound of 
flesh which forms so important a part of the plot of Shakespeare's 
Merchant of Venice. This story is found in a variety of forms, and 
occurs in the literature of the East. Shakespeare is generally supposed 
to have taken it from the English version of the Anglo-Latin Gesta 
Romanorum. In a collection of Latin stories for preachers, in a 
manuscript written in England (MS. Harl. No. 7322.J early in the 
fourteenth century, he finds a tale, of which the following is his 
version : 

"There was, we are told, in Denmark, a roan who had two sons, one of whom, 
the elder, was malicious and covetous, while the younger was not only generous 
but prodigal. Now when the younger had spent all his money in hospitality, it 
happened that two men came to ask a lodging of him. He no longer possessed 
anything wherewith to receive them with due respectability, yet he was ashamed to 
refuse. All he had left, in fact, was a cow, which he killed for meat, and he went 
to his brother to ask for bread and drink. The brother replied flatly, that he would 
give him nothing unless he bought and paid for it. The younger brother protested 
that he was utterly destitute, and had nothing to give in exchange for the necessary 
articles of life. ' Yes,' said the elder brother, ' you have your flesh ; sell me the 
breadth of my hand of your flesh, in whatever part, and when I may choose to take 
it.' The junior thoughtlessly agreed to the bargain, which WHS made before the 
necessary witnesses. When the guests of the young man were departed, and the 



228 

food was all eaten, the elder brother demanded the fulfilment of their agreement, 
which the younger one refused. The matter was brought for trial before the King, 
and the younger brother was condemned to be carried to the place of execution, 
where the elder brother was to cut as much flesh as he had bargained for, either 
from the head or from the breast. But the populace having pity upon the young 
man, because they knew he was so generous, went and told the King's son what the 
agreement was and why it had been made, who also moved with pity dressed himself, 
mounted his palfrey, and hurried to the place of execution, and the crowd, when 
they saw him, made way for him to approach. Then the King's son said to the cruel 
elder brother, ' What claim have you upon this man ? ' He replied, ' This was our 
agreement, that in exchange for victuals he would give me so much of his flesh ; 
and he is condemned to stand by his agreement by your father the King.' The 
King's son then said, ' Do you ask nothing but the flesh ?' * Nothing.' Then said 
he, ' But there is blood in his flesh:' and he said to the condemned man, ' Give your 
blood to me,' which he did with all the due formality of a grant. Then said the 
King's son to the elder brother, ' Now take the flesh wherever you will, but take 
notice that the blood is mine, and if you shed the least drop of it, you shall die.' 
The elder brother, seeing that he was thus caught in his own trap, retreated in con - 
fusion, and the young man was liberated." 

Thanks were severally ordered to be returned for these communica- 
tions ; and the President announced from the Chair, that on account of 
the Christmas holidays, the Meetings of the Society were adjourned to 
the 6th of January, at the usual hour. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 
OF LONDON. 



1848. No. 12. 



Thursday, January 6th, 1848. 
VISCOUNT MAHON, President, in the Chair. 

The following presents were received, and the thanks of the Society 
for them ordered to be returned : viz. 

From Mr. R. C. Lucas, Sculptor, a plaster bust of John Gage Rokewode, Esq., 
late Director of the Society. From the Society of Antiquaries of Picardy, their 
Memoires, tome VIII. 8vo. Amiens : with their Bulletins. From the Royal Agri- 
cultural Society of England, their Journal, Vol. VIII. Part 2, December 1847. 
From John Bowyer Nichols, Esq. F.S.A. the Gentleman's Magazine for January 
1848. From Dawson Turner, Esq. F.S.A. a list of Norfolk Benefices, continued 
from Blomefield's Norfolk to the present time, 8vo. 1847 : together with four litho- 
graphic plates 1. of a Torques and Armilla, the one found at Foulsham, the other 
at Downham, in Norfolk ; 2. of a figure from the Rood-loft Screen in the church of 
Randworth, Norfolk ; 3. of a processional cross found under the chancel floor at 
Beckenham St. Nicholas, Norfolk; 4. of a representation of the Martyrdom of St. 
Erasmus, found under the same chancel floor. And, from Charles Roach Smith, 
Esq. F.S.A. Collectanea Antiqua, No. X. From the Editor, the Athenaeum, Part 
CCXL. for December 1847. From George Godwin, jun. Esq. F.S.A. the Builder, 
Part 12, Vol. V. From the Rev. Mackenzie Walcott, his History of the Parish 
Church of St. Margaret, in Westminster, 8vo. 1847. From the Royal College of 
Physicians, their Catalogue of the Fellows and Licentiates of the College for 1847. 
From the Committee of the Athenaeum, their Rules and Regulations, Lists of Mem- 
bers, and of Donations to the Library in 1846 ; with a Supplement for 1847. 

John Adey Repton, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited drawings of two pieces of 
Ancient Tapestry in his possession. lt One of these," he observes in a 
letter to C. R. Smith, Esq. " has already been exhibited about ten or 
twelve years ago ;" but it was again introduced to assist in fixing the 
date of the other. Mr. Repton gave it as his opinion, derived from the 
costume of the figures, and more particularly from the style of the head- 
dresses, that both these pieces of tapestry had been executed about the 
early part of the reign of Henry VIII. or in the latter end of that of 
Henry VII. In ancient tapestries, the chief attention in the design was 
bestowed on the splendid dresses of the figures ; and, if there be any 
landscape, it is kept subdued ; as we do not find any bright clouds, or 
water, to disturb our attention from the general composition of the groups. 

Robert Porrett, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited an ancient pair of shoes, studded 
with steel rivets, so as to form a species of defensive armour for the 
feet ; supposed to be Maltese, and recently purchased for the Armoury 
in the Tower. The rivets are ornamentally disposed, so as to represent 
a horse on each shoe, the name of the wearer Joseph Ptumpf, an Earl's 
coronet, and several Maltese crosses. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these exhibitions. 

x 



230 

The Secretary then read a communication from Thomas William 
King, Esq. Rouge Dragon, F.S.A. addressed to Charles John Palmer, 
Esq. It stated that some years ago, in making researches respecting 
the ancient customs of the borough of Great Yarmouth in Norfolk, a 
series of original papers had fallen under his notice relating to the former 
co-jurisdiction of the Barons of the Cinque Ports with the magistrates 
of that town, during the free-fair connected with the herring fisheries. 
This concurrent jurisdiction, it appears, was of very ancient date, the 
public records of the kingdom, as early as the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries, exhibiting many occasions of strifes and disputes between the 
" Men of Yarmouth " and the " Men of the Cinque Ports." 

The Barons of the Cinque Ports originally deputed one or two persons 
from each of those towns, and from the adjacent ones of Rye and 
Winchelsea, at a Brotherhood usually holden at Romney ; but, in the 
reign of Elizabeth, two only, as a deputation from the whole, were 
authorised to administer " royal justice " with the bailiffs of Yarmouth 
during the free-fair, that is, from Michaelmas to Martinmas. The per- 
sons so nominated and deputed were called the " Bailiffs of the Barons 
of the Cinque Ports to Yarmouth," and this judicial privilege naturally 
occasioned jealousy in the breasts of the Yarmouth magistrates. This cor- 
poration, even when the bailiffs were sent thither from the Cinque Ports, 
was possessed of very extraordinary privileges, some of which were 
superior to those enjoyed by the Cinque Ports themselves in their sepa- 
rate local or municipal jurisdictions ; the borough of Yarmouth being 
possessed of a capital jurisdiction by charter of the 9th Henry VII. 
And they had also a Court of Admiralty enjoying full powers, exempt 
from the jurisdiction of the Admiralty of England, by charter of the 1st 
of Elizabeth. The Barons of the Cinque Ports were naturally jealous 
of any infringement of their ancient rights ; and they attached great 
importance to their deputed bailiffs in their instructions to support their 
dignity, as appears by the imposition of heavy fines upon them for every 
neglect in the discharge of their commission. 

From this circumstance, and the care which they took on several oc- 
casions to record the minutiae of the ancient visits of their Commissioners 
to Yarmouth, Mr. King was induced to select the account, or " relation " 
as it was technically called, of that of John Conye and John Tooke, in 
the second of James I., 1604, here communicated.^ 

The details of the first Court held by this concurrent jurisdiction 
on the 29th of September, having been read, the proceedings of the 
remaining Courts were reserved for a future reading. 



Thursday, January 13th, 1848. 

THOMAS STAPLETON, Esq. Vice-President, in the Chair. 
Henry Butterworth, Esq. lately elected, now attending, having paid 
his admission-fee, and subscribed the obligation required by the Statutes, 
was admitted a Fellow of this Society. 

The following presents were received, and the thanks of the Society 
for them ordered to be returned : namely, From William Petit Griffiths, 



231 

Esq. F.S.A. the Laws of the College of the Freemasons of the Church, 
Part II. 8vo. 1847 ; the Address delivered on the sixth anniversary of 
the College by George Russell Smith, Esq. 1847 ; and Chapters and 
Lectures (a table) for 1848. From the Numismatic Society, their 
" Chronicle and Journal " for January, 1848. From the Editor, John 
Kitto, D.D., F.S.A. the Journal of Sacred Literature, No. 1, for 
January, 1848. From John Gough Nichols, Esq. F.S.A. the To- 
pographer and Genealogist, Parts 3 to 10 inclusive. 

Benjamin Williams, Esq. F.S.A. communicated in a letter to Captain 
W. H. Smyth, Director, a copy of some satirical rhymes on the defeat 
of the Flemings, and their raising the Siege of Calais, in 1436, inserted 
in a very fine copy of the Brut or English Chronicle ending that year, 
in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, No. VI. The preamble is in 
these terms : 

"And on thiswise Philip Due of Burgoyn and the Flemmyng dep'ted from 
Caleis and be Picardes from J>e castel of Guynes \v l gret sheme and gret diswurship 
and w l gret losse. Wherfore amonges Englisshmen were made many rymes of J*e 
Flemmynges, among the which one is here sette for a remembrance." 

In order to explain the point of the verses, Mr. Williams remarked 
that Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, who for twenty years had 
been the ally of the English, and whose sister was married to the Duke 
of Bedford, had shortly after that Duke's decease in 1435 concluded a 
treaty of peace with Charles the |jeventh of France, at Arras, thereby 
terminating the unhappy dissensions of that kingdom. An alienation be- 
tween the English and the Duke of Burgundy was the natural consequence ; 
and in 1436 the Duke proposed to besiege Calais, which, as he affirmed, 
belonged to his comte of Artois. Some of his council thinking that to 
be a strange and arduous undertaking, told him he had better desist 
from it. But he was urged on by others less experienced. He ac- 
cordingly assembled a considerable force of the men of Ghent and 
Bruges, and other places, who made such a fine appearance when mustered, 
that he was anxious to shew his force to his brother-in-law the Count of 
Richemont. They brought with them cannon, culverins, and cross- 
bows. The Duke commenced operations by erecting a lofty wooden 
bastile, or tower, to command the gate of the city, as he had done before 
in 1411. This was, however, quickly taken " before the beard" of the 
Duke by the people of Calais, who put its garrison, consisting of 800 
Flemings, to the sword (in revenge for the murder of some Englishmen), 
and took a great many of the rest prisoners. At length, on the 25th 
of June, the succours that the Duke had been awaiting by sea, arrived, 
and he immediately caused several of the largest vessels, which had been 
filled with masonry and iron anchors, to be sunk in the port, in order to 
prevent the approach of an expected fleet from England ; but, when the 
tide receded, they were left on the beach, and the people of Calais, as 
well men as women, issuing out of the city, demolished them, in spite of 
a continued fire from the Flemish camp, of which they made no account, 
carrying some of the wood into the town, and burning the hulls : 
" Remembres how ye drowned att full see for be nones 
With shippes Caleis haven massoned w l stones, 
And, how that be Calisers hem brake the next day 
When it was lowe watir, and bare hem clene n\vav t 



Every stikke and stone, and lafte ther not one log. 
Remembres eke on Goby, the water-bailiffs dog, 
How he scarmysshed w l you twyes upon the say, 
And among you on \>e sandes made many a fraye." 

The Duke, thereupon, fearing the arrival of the Duke of Gloucester, 
suddenly took his departure, leaving behind him an immense quantity of 
goods, both of merchandize and engines of war, and, says the Burgundian 
Chronicler, " fut ce fortune le plus sinistre que le Due de Burgougne 
eut oncques." The poet pointedly taunts the discomfited enemy : 

" Remembres now ye Flemyng, upon youre own shame, 
When ye laide seege to Caleis ye wer right full to blame. 
For more of reputacion ben Englisshmen )>en ye, 
And comen of more gentill bloode, of olde antiquitie. 
For Flemyng com of flemed* men, ye shall well understand, 
For flamed men and banished men enhabit first youre land. 
Thus prove I J>at Flemyng is but a flamed man, 
And Flaunders of Flemyng the name first began. 
And )>erefore ye flemyngs, that Flemyng ben named, 
To compare w l Englisshmen, ye aught to be ashamed. 
Ye be nothing elles worth but g el wordes to camp, 
Sette ye still and bith in pees, God gyve you quadercramp." 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for this communication ; and the 
Secretary then continued the reading of Mr. King's paper on the Juris- 
diction of Great Yarmouth in Norfolk. 

The second Court was assembled on Monday, the 8th of October, 2nd 
Jac. I. ; but, in order to meet the prayer of the jury, it was adjourned to 
the 15th. The deputies of the Cinque Ports employed the interim in 
examining the affairs of the port ; and in the report of Messrs. Conye 
and Tooke it is entered " Uppon Tweisdaie the ixth of October, wee 
spent the greater part of the forenoone in walkinge on the Key to foresee 
and prevent disorders, for that by reason of the foulnes of the weather 
the whole flette of fishermen were in the harbour. Uppon the same 
daye, the com'on crier of the towne cried oysters to be sold without 
our consent, for which we reprehended him, and sent to the p'tie that 
made sale thereof, that he might not lawfully doe yt without our con- 
sent, who thereuppon sent vnto vs a peck of the said oysters for a tast, 
and prayed our allowance to sell the residue, to the which we assented. 
Uppon Wensdaie the xth of October, came unto us one William Mace, 
of Corby in the Howton, in the countie of Essex, and enformed us that 
he had oysters to sell at the Key neare the Bridge, and desyred our al- 
lowance, to the which we assented, but required him to send vnto vs, 
before he made sale thereof, some part thereof for a tast, as of a right 
belonging unto vs, which he performed accordingly.'! On the same day 
they heard that " certen of the men of warre of Holland did lye at or 
near the haven's mouth with musketts and other munition in a small 
boate, and likewise on the heads of the said (sic orig.J peere on land, to 
the intent to take a certen man of Dunkyrke which did lye in the haven, 
at his comynge out. And because the manner of the lying of the said 
Hollanders were contrary to his Ma to . peace, and to the perill of others 
his Ma ts . subiects, and especially the fishermen, wee offered to ioyne 
with the bayliffes of Yarmouth to examyne the same offence, and to 

* Pieman, fugitivus. (Cole's Eng. Lat. Diet. 1707.) 



233 

punish the offenders: but because none complayiicd, they seemed un- 
willinge to doe any thinge therein." 

Various particulars were then detailed respecting the Courts held, the 
presentments, the trials, and the sentences, which appear to have been 
recorded rather for the establishment of the Cinque Ports' right, than 
for their importance ; which portion having been read, the conclusion 
was postponed to the next meeting. 



Thursday, January 20th, 1848. 
THOMAS AMYOT, Esq. Vice-president, in the Chair. 

After the Minutes of the last Meeting were read, Edward Solly, Esq. 
lately elected, was formally admitted a Fellow of this Society. 

The following presents were received, and the thanks of the Society 
ordered to be returned for the same : From the Committee . of the 
London Library, the second edition of their Catalogue, 8vo. 1847. 
From the Editor, Charles John Palmer, Esq. F.S.A. a " Booke of the 
Foundacion and Antiquityc of the Towne of Great Yarmouth;" from the 
original MS. written in the time of Queen Elizabeth, 4to, London, 1 847. 

Thomas Joseph Pettigrew, Esq. F.S.A. handed to the Vice- President 
the following draft of a proposed Resolution, which was read from the 
Chair, viz. 

" That, in the event of the Society proceeding to the election of a second Secre- 
tary, the Statutes Nos. V. and XI. Chapter VII. be suspended as far as regards the 
recommendation on the part of the President and Council of any Fellow to fill that 
office." 

The Resolution proposed was ordered, in conformity with the Statutes, 
to be put to the ballot on Thursday the 3rd of February. 

The Secretary then read the remaining portion of Mr. King's commu- 
nication. 'After giving some further details respecting the co-jurisdiction 
of the barons of the Cinque Ports with the magistrates of Great Yar- 
mouth, during the Free Fair connected with the herring fisheries, 
"Such," observes Mr. King, " were the ceremonies, the judicial forms, 
and the hospitalities observed in the discharge of these duties by the ma- 
gistrates of Yarmouth and co-adjutors during the Free Fair ; and it is 
very probable that in very early times, and from the importance of the 
herring fishery in later periods, these annual visits of the bailiffs of the 
Cinque Ports were acknowledged by the people with due reverence, as 
the visits of itinerant magistrates to control the local courts in the admi- 
nistration of civil and criminal justice. The bailiffs of Yarmouth, who 
were the chief magistrates of that borough, were perhaps, in many 
cases, too personally interested in the determination of such civil actions 
between the fishermen of distant ports and those of their native town, to 
be considered as impartial judges ; and thus the authority of the bailiffs 
of the Cinque Ports was supported and continued so long as the adminis- 
tration of justice required their attention and co-operation, especially at 
a period of tbe year when the interest of the coast- towns engaged in the 
fisheries were materially affected." 

Under these circumstances, we need not wonder that jealousies fre- 
quently arose between the members of this mixed juridical commission, 



234 . f 

approaching even to personal violence ; and this observation is corrobo- 
rated by several extracts from these fishery records of later dates, in 
1606, in 1612, and in 1616. Ten years after this last, in the 2nd of 
Charles the First, it appears that a brotherhood should have been holden 
in 1625, but was deferred, and wholly discontinued, by common consent, 
by reason of the infection and danger of the plague. 

In a few years subsequent to the event just mentioned, Mr. King ob- 
serves that the changeableness which pervades all sublunary matters 
began to influence the observance of this co-judicial authority over the 
Free Fair. After the constant and annual visits of the bailiffs of the 
Cinque Ports to Yarmouth, which had been made during a period of 
about five centuries, we find that at a Court held at New Romney in 
1639 it was ordered, " That suit shall be made to his Majesty and 
Privy Council, that the ports and towns be discharged of the great 
charge and fruitless service of the bayliffs to Great Yarmouth, as the 
Ports Counsell shall ordain." It does not appear, however, that any 
immediate steps were taken to effect this resolution ; for, although the 
entries in the records are rather irregularly kept during the troublesome 
period of the Commonwealth, yet it is recorded that in 1657, at a 
special brotherhood holden at Hythe, the deputed bailiffs were fined for 
not fully executing their authority. In 1663, also, another instance 
recurred of the brotherhood inflicting a penalty on Thomas Delves, one 
of the bailiffs, for "not going the journey;" and they accepted the 
" relation " of his appointed co*adjutor, Stephen Brett, of his proceedings 
at Yarmouth on the occasion of his visit in the previous year. 

At the brotherhood holden at Sandwich on the 21st of July, 1663, 
the following important resolution was agreed to : " It is thought fitt, 
and so ordered by this house, that the yearly service of the Cinque 
Ports and two ancient townes to the towne of Great Yarmouth be 
suspended for a time (after this yeres service), in case our counsell 
shall advise the same not to be prejudicial to the commonwealth, or to 
the damage of the Cinque Ports, two ancient townes, and their mem- 
bers." The two bailiffs were nominated as usual at this brotherhood ; 
but it does not appear that they came to Yarmouth ; and Swinden says 
that the bailiffs of the Cinque Ports ceased their visits after the year 
1662. The next brotherhood appears to have been holden on the 21st 
of July, 1668 (20 Car. II.), at New Romney, when on the petition of 
Thomas Delves to be relieved touching a fine set on him at the last 
brotherhood for his neglect of Yarmouth, he was not relieved." It is, 
therefore, clear from these entries, that the privilege of the Cinque 
Ports in exercising their concurrent jurisdiction with the bailiffs of Yar- 
mouth during the Free Fair there was continued up to and ceased with 
the visit in 1 662, when Stephen Brett was the solitary representative of 
the ancient judicial authority of the Cinque Ports in the town of Yar- 
mouth, and the last whose name stands recorded as performing that 
service. 

John Yonge Akerman, Esq. F.S.A. laid before the Society drawings 
of two very perfect specimens in bronze of torques, and of a pair of 
armillae, the whole recently discovered during the progress of railway 
excavations in the West of England. These were accompanied by a 



23.5 

letter to Sir Henry Ellis, in which Mr. Akernuui s-tatrd that he was so 
ill supplied with details, that he could do no more than announce the 
simple fact of their discovery; but that he considered these objects highly 
interesting from the circumstance of such being rarely found in England 
of bronze. He also exhibited a drawing of the fragment of a gold 
torques of a pattern which has often been engraved, kindly transmitted 
to him by Mr. Richard Falkner of Devizes, found in the neighbourhood 
of that town in the autumn of 1844. " It is all but a hopeless task," 
observes Mr. Akerman, " to attempt to illustrate the history of a people 
who, like their neighbours the Gauls, had no written annals : the anti- 
quary, therefore, clings with fondness to the relics which time has 
spared, which perplex while they interest." That the torques was a 
Persian ornament or decoration is known, not only from the Mosaic dis- 
covered at Pompeii in 1831 (Mus. Borbon. viii.), but also from the 
noted passage in Quintus Curtius (lib. iii. c. 8). Mr. Akerman remarks 
the use of this ornament by the Celtic tribes, of which we have the 
best existing examples, coupled with the historical notices of Livy and 
other writers, may be regarded as one of many proofs that the human 
tide, in the earlier ages, flowed from East to West. That the Greeks 
hellenized, and that the Romans latinized, every nation with which they 
came in contact, is illustrated by two great antiquarian instances : first, 
the imitation of Greek coins by barbarian and semi-barbarian states, even 
as far as the Punjaub, after the conquests of Alexander the Great ; and, 
secondly, the Roman, or rather Byzantine character of the workmanship 
of objects discovered in Europe, within limits extending from this island 
as far as the shores of the Black Sea. From these and other facts, he 
is led to infer that the more costly and elegant objects of personal orna- 
ment discovered in this island are not the production of native workmen, 
but that they are of exotic origin. 

Mr. Akerman gives a word in conclusion on the mode of wearing 
the torques for the neck. It is seen encircling the throat of one of the 
most interesting, because the most real, of the statues of antiquity, the 
dying gladiator. The spare but athletic figure, so well adapted to the 
bloody sports of the arena, is destitute of clothing of any kind, and his 
hair is cropped so close that it could not be clutched by his adversary ; 
yet he wears the torques, which if grasped with a resolute hand would 
give his antagonist an obvious advantage. There is reason to believe 
that the use of this once celebrated badge continued down to the last 
period of Paganism among the Romans and their allies. 

Major Charles Ker Macdonald, a visiter, exhibited to the Society, 
through Mr. Saull, a collection of antiquities of different kinds, partly 
found by him during his travels in the Desert of Arabia Petraea, Pales- 
tine, and Egypt, accompanied by some memoranda in illustration. 
Among these were a number of spear and arrow-heads of flint found on 
the top of a mountain to the north-west of Mount Sinai ; Egyptian 
beads, porcelain, fragments of pottery, iron rings, and a bronze chain ; 
with a number of leaden pellets or sling-bullets from Sicily. Major 
Macdonald, among his memoranda, detailed the circumstances attending 
a permission which he obtained to dig in a garden belonging to a Jew's 
house in Jerusalem, where, the earth suddenly giving way, he found 



236 , 

himself in a subterranean cavern, resembling a cloister, supported by 
marble columns. Here his Arab workmen deserted him, and the 
entrance was soon choked up by rubbish, so that he was unable to 
complete an examination thereof. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these communications, and 
the meeting adjourned. 



Thursday, January 27th, 1848. 
HENRY HALLAM, Esq. Vice- President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the last Meeting having been read, the following 
presents were received and thanks for them were ordered to be re- 
turned : From Dawson Turner, Esq. F.S. A. a letter from Sir Philip 
Stapleton to Oliver Cromwell, and four letters from Oliver Cromwell 
himself; communicated to the Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological 
Society. 8vo. 1848. From John Yonge Akerman, Esq. F.S.A. (the 
author) an Archaeological Index to Remains of Antiquity of the Celtic, 
Romano-British, and Anglo-Saxon Periods. 8vo. 1847. 

The Secretary stated that he had, on the previous evening, received a 
note from J. B. Bunning, Esq. dated Guildhall, 26th of January, 1848, 
acquainting him that a Roman hypocaust, and other remains, had been 
discovered in the excavations now making for the foundations of the new 
Coal Exchange opposite Billingsgate Market ; and that he, Mr. Bunning, 
would be most happy to afford every facility to such members of the 
Society and Council who might be desirous of visiting them. 

The Secretary then entered upon the reading of a description of the 
Monument discovered by Sir Charles Fellows at Xanthus ; by Benjamin 
Gibson, Esq. Sculptor, of Rome. This communication was placed 
before the Society of Antiquaries by the Council of the British Archaeolo- 
gical Association, through Charles Roach Smith, Esq. F.S.A. 

In a few introductory sentences, Mr. Gibson compliments the age we 
live in, not only as distinguished by the researches of men of high classic 
learning, but by the discoveries of zealous and enterprising travellers, all 
whose efforts have tended to enlighten us, and add to our stock of 
knowledge, so as to bring into closer connection, and to lay open to our 
view the manners and customs of ages almost obliterated and swept from 
the records of time. By the labours of these enlightened men we have 
been able to obtain a just and correct knowledge of the religion, 
legends, and traditions of various and distant people ; and we are 
enabled to trace the connection of one with another, so as from the 
remotest branch to follow it up to its primeval and original source ; 
means by which many obscure passages have been cleared up, and many 
historical events of which few or very slight records remain, have been 
satisfactorily explained. And it has been found that many facts recorded 
by the earliest historians, and which the changes of ideas and customs 
in modern ages have condemned as fictitious, have been discovered to be 
perfectly true. 

Among the late discoveries of this description Mr. Gibson classes the 
monument recently discovered in Lycia by Sir Charles Fellows, a 



237 

monument in itself of the highest importance as regards the sculptures 
with which it is adorned, and the remote and interesting historical events 
which its basso-relievos clearly hand down to us. " We cannot but 
admire," he observes, " the zeal and perseverance with which our in- 
telligent countryman followed up his discoveries, and conducted his ex- 
cavations, so as to give to the world a relic which had been lost for so 
many ages. This monument is truly important in illustrating an event 
recorded by the great Father of History HERODOTUS, namely, the 
conquest of the country of the Lycians by the Persians and lonians 
united. That this is the subject of these sculptures, Mr. Gibson en- 
deavours to shew from a review of the historic facts, and from analogy, 
as proved by its being the custom of the Greeks, as well as of other 
nations, to hand down to posterity their conquests and warlike exploits 
by similar monuments. 

The form of this building was that of a parallelogram of thirty-three 
feet in length by twenty -two in breadth, and it was placed upon the edge 
of a cliff thirty feet high, situated nearly a mile from Xanthus. The 
base of this structure is of the stone of the country, but the superstruc- 
ture is of white marble. This was adorned with two series of bas-reliefs ; 
the lower and larger one representing a general battle of horse and foot, 
and the upper one presenting all the incidents consequent to the siege 
and capture of a town. Upon this superstructure was placed a peristy- 
lium of four pillars in front, and five on each side, of the Ionic order, 
which was surmounted by its pediment and roof. Between these pillars 
were placed several female statues in light draperies, with various 
emblems at their feet. On the apex of the pediment were two male 
statues holding up a boy ; and the frieze of the cella, within the peristyle, 
was ornamented with bas-reliefs representing funereal ceremonies. In 
all the relievos people of distinct nations were represented, as appears 
manifest from the different costumes. 

To ascertain who these relievi represent, Mr. Gibson passes in 
review the history of Lycia and of the neighbouring people. He first 
touches on the mythological adventures of Bellerophon, which he con- 
siders as nothing more than the covert details of a military expedition ; 
and, having thus divested that hero of his mythical embellishments, and 
brought him within the bounds of rational annals, proceeds with the 
history of Lycia, leading to those events which gave rise to the erection 
of this unique monument. 

Lycia was the ancient Mylias, on the north bounded by Phrygia, on 
the east by Pamphylia, on the west by Caria, and on the south by the 
Mediterranean sea. Xanthus, on the banks of a river of that name, was 
its capital city. Formerly this region was overspread with many cities, 
of which thirty-six were reckoned in Lycia in Pliny's time ; and prior to 
that period they amounted to a still greater number. The most ancient 
notice of the people is furnished to us by Homer and Herodotus, who 
speak of them as courageous and valiant warriors, especially renowned 
for their dexterity in throwing the dart, and handling their other arms. 
The former, in his fifth book, records the deeds of Sarpedon King of 
Lycia, and of Glaucus, who went to the assistance of the Trojans, 
"bringing with him numerous squadrons from a great distance, from 



238 

Lycia and the winding Xanthus." Herodotus tells us that the city of 
Xanthus was in the beginning peopled by the Cretans, who, according to 
the common tradition, founded a small kingdom under the government 
of Sarpedon. Lycus, the son of Pandion, being driven from Athens by 
his brother ^Egeus, subsequently joined Sarpedon, and after him became 
king. From him the country was called Lycia. 

Mr. Gibson next adverts to the conquest of Lycia by Croesus King 
of Lydia, who, in turn, being overcome by Cyrus King of Persia, was 
taken prisoner about the year 550 before Christ. After the fall of 
Croesus, and the conquest of Lydia by Cyrus, the lonians and ^olians, 
alarmed for their safety, dispatched ambassadors to Sardis to tender 
their submission to the conqueror, requesting to be received under pro- 
tection on the same terms as they had previously enjoyed under Croesus. 
This was refused : and the lonians determined to fortify their cities, and 
to send for foreign assistance. Cyrus, on this, turning his attention to 
Asia Minor, sent his Lieutenant Mazares to subdue them, who, dying 
in the expedition, was succeeded by Harpagus. Harpagus began his 
operations by blockading their towns, and throwing up intrenchments. 
Phocaea was the first Ionian city which fell into his hands : the rest of 
the lonians met Harpagus in the field, where they fought with valour 
and patriotism, but ineffectually, and were thus a second time reduced 
to servitude. Terrified by the fall of their brethren on the continent, 
those lonians who inhabited the islands without resistance placed them- 
selves under the authority of Harpagus; who, having incorporated the 
lonians and ^olians with his forces, marched against the Carians, over 
whom he also gained an easy victory. 

The army of Harpagus, thus increased by his allies, marched to the 
plains of Lycia, which had not before been conquered, and proceeded to 
Xanthus. Herodotus says, When Harpagus moved his army to the 
plain of Xanthus, the Lycians drew out their forces, few against the 
many, and gave proof of the greatest valour, but, being overcome in 
battle and driven back into the city, they collected into the citadel their 
wives, children, servants, and treasures, then setting fire to the citadel 
the whole were consumed : this done, they bound themselves by the 
most solemn oaths; when, sallying forth and fighting valiantly, all the 
Xanthians were cut to pieces. The Lycians who at the present time 
claim to be Xanthians are all foreigners, except eighty families, who at 
that time happened to be abroad, and so they survived. Thus Harpagus 
gained possession of Lycia, and in a similar manner he possessed himself 
of Cannus, as the Cannians, for the greater part, imitated the Lycians." 

With this luminous description before us, Mr. Gibson observes, we 
may turn our eyes to the monument itself, and we shall find that it sin- 
gularly corresponds with every incident therein mentioned ; thus con- 
firming the veracity of the historian, and becoming a monument of the 
greatest value to literature and the arts : to the arts, as showing the 
capability of sculpture, unaided by any inscription whatever, of preserving 
and transmitting to the latest posterity events which, had it not been for 
this source, might have long lain in oblivion, or been altogether unknown. 

Mr. Gibson then goes on to the sculptures on the monument ; first to 
the lower and larger, then to the upper or second series of bas-reliefs, 



289 

showing how closely the representations of these figures assimilate with 
the text of Herodotus, as already quoted. 

Having described and discussed the bas-reliefs, he proceeds to speak 
of the statues which adorned the peristylium, placed in the intercolum- 
niations. He repudiates the notion that they represent the Nereids, and 
considers that, as the fall of Xanthus and the consequent conquest of 
Lycia is represented on the bas-reliefs, so the statues of the peristylium 
were subservient and relative to the same event. These statues, he ob- 
serves, have each a distinct and separate emblem at their feet, such as a 
fish, a dolphin, a crab, a dove, a snake, a shell, &c. which gives them at 
once a positive and definite character. Guided by these attributes, he 
considers them as personifications of the cities and people of Ionia and 
.fliolia who furnished the contingents to augment the Persian army, 
conjointly with whom Harpagus conquered the Xanthians. In confir- 
mation of this view, he appeals to the coins of those people as the 
genuine and true source from which we may obtain information, quoting 
Zoega, who says " When direct information fails us, we turn to nu- 
mismatics as a true and unfailing source to obtain it." 

The further reading of this communication was postponed to the next 
meeting. 

Thursday, February 3rd, 1848. 
VISCOUNT MAHON, President, in the Chair. 

In consequence of Mr. Pettigrew's notice of motion, no strangers were 
admitted. William Chaffers, Esq. and Herbert Norman Evans, Esq. 
lately elected and now attending, having paid their admission fees and 
subscribed the obligation required by the Statutes, were severally ad- 
mitted Fellows of this Society. 

The following presents were received, and the thanks of the Society 
for them ordered to be returned, viz. : From J. B. Nichols, Esq. F.S.A. 
the Gentleman's Magazine for February, 1848. From the President 
and Council of the Royal Geographical Society, their Journal, Vol. 
XVII. Part II. From the Editor, the Athenaeum for January, 1848. 
From Samuel Carter Hall, Esq. F.S.A. the Art Union for 1847, with 
Nos. 115 and 116, for January and February, 1848. From the Societe 
d'Emulation de Rouen, their Transactions, Vol. II. Second Series, 
8vo. 1847. From Herbert Norman Evans, Esq. a Manual for the 
Study of Ornamental Brasses, with a descriptive Catalogue of 450 
rubbings in the possession of the Oxford Architectural Society, 8vo. 
Oxford, 1848. From Samuel Birch, Esq. F.S.A. Observations on the 
Statistical Tablet of Karnak, from the Transactions of the Royal So- 
ciety of Literature. 

William Richard Hamilton, Esq. F.S.A. on the part of Robert Hay, 
Esq. presented to the Society's Museum a bulla, or leaden seal, of Pope 
Boniface the Ninth, found several years ago by Mr. Hay's father, the 
Rev. George Hay Drummond, in the vicarage garden at Doncaster. 
Thanks were ordered to be returned for the present. 

A short communication was read from J. B. Bunning, Esq. dated 
Office of Works, Guildhall, 3rd February, 1848, accompanied by a 



240 

plan explanatory of the ground-plot and dimensions, as far as is laid 
open, of the Roman apartment lately discovered in Lower Thames 
Street, the announcement of which was made to the Society at their last 
meeting. This relic is 77^ feet from the north front of the Custom 
House, 10 feet 2 inches below the pavement, and 1 foot above the high- 
water mark. The length of the main room from north to south in the 
clear of the walls is 23 feet ; its width had riot been ascertained, the 
excavation having only extended 8 feet eastwards at the north end, and 
5 feet at the south end. The floor is of plain red tessera?, and the 
walls are built with long red flat tiles, an inch and a quarter in thickness. 
Above the pavement was a structure bearing the appearance of a well, 
built on an elm kerb, the use of which had not been ascertained, nor was 
it thought to be a Roman work. 

Adjoining this apartment a bath or hypocaust has been discovered, 
measuring from north to south 10 feet 83 inches, and from east to west 
8 feet, with a semicircular recess at the western end 5 feet in depth.* 
The lower floor of this bath was composed of pounded mattoni, with a 
layer of coarser pieces on the surface. ' The upper floor was supported 
by 30 small columns made of tile. The air chamber, 22 inches in 
height, communicated with a double-mouthed flue, which was explored 
to the length of 12 feet. The upper floor was composed of large tiles, 
2 feet square, overlaid with concrete to the depth of 5 inches, in 
which it is supposed was imbedded a superior tessellated floor. 

A letter from J. Y. Akerman, Esq. F.S.A. to Captain W. H. Smyth, 
Director, was read, illustrative of the use of the enamelled vessel dis- 
covered some years ago in one of the Bartlow tumuli, and engraved 
in the 26th volume of the Archaeologia. Mr. Akerman accompanied it 
with the exhibition of drawings of three coins. The reverse of one in 
large brass, of Faustina the elder, in the cabinet of Dr. John Lee, repre- 
sents a female figure in the act of ottering a sacrifice of perfumes, in 
whose left hand is a vessel of globose shape with a rectangular handle, 
precisely similar to that alluded to, found in a Bartlow tumulus. The 
two other drawings were from gold coins in the cabinet of the British 
Museum, the reverses of which also incontcstably prove the identity of 
the same object. From the reverses of these coins Mr. Akerman finds 
the best reasons for concluding, that the Bartlow enamelled vessel was 
consecrated to the holding of incense used at the funeral of the individual 
whose ashes were discovered in the bustum, and, being thus used, was 
deposited as a precious relic with the remains. 

" It will be observed," he says, "that on the gold coin, figure 1 2, the altar is 
cylindrical and ornamented with a garland ; but in that represented on the brass 
coin, and in figure 3, the altar is of slight figure, as if adapted for removal from place 
to place, and therefore especially applicable to the ceremonies observed at interments. 
It seems probable that the word acerra, which originally signified a box or pyx for 
holding perfumes, was applied to these temporary or moveable altars only, on which 

incense was offered It is worthy of remark that this peculiarly shaped vessel 

appears for the first time on the coins of the Antonine family, and that on those of 
Hadrian and yKlius the female figure holds an acerra of a totally different shape, 

* See Captain Smyth's account of an ancient thermal bath discovered in the 
Island of Lipari, Archseologia, xxiii. p. 98 ; and also the model of it in the Society's 
Museum. 



241 

namely that of a cylindrical box, which is held up as if small and light, while thut 
of the later period is held in a totally different manner, and with apparent care." 

A coin of Hadrian, discovered in one of the Bartlow tumuli, proved 
that the interment was not earlier than the reign of that Emperor, while 
those of which drawings accompanied Mr. Akerman's letter seem to point 
to the reign of Antoninus Pius, or to that of his immediate successors, 
as the period of the raising of these tumuli. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these communications ; after 
which the President read the draft of the Resolution proposed to the 
Society on the 20th of January, by T. J. Pettigrew, Esq. viz. 

" That, in the event of the Society proceeding to the election of a second Secre- 
tary, the Statutes Nos. V. and XI. Chapter VII. be suspended as far as regards the 
recommendation on the part of the President and Council of any Fellow to fill that 
office." 

After various observations had been made, it was objected that, under 
their Statutes, it appeared that in Chapter I. there were powers given 
to alter or repeal any law or statute, but none to suspend ; whereupon 
the President proposed a previous question, namely, 

"Whether the proposal submitted by Mr. Pettigrew, for the suspension of the 
Statutes Nos. V. and XI. of Chapter VII. should be put to the ballot" 

The ballot was accordingly taken on the previous question, when, the 
Ayes being 23 in number, and the Noes 47, the draft of the Resolution 
proposed by Mr. Pettigrew was not submitted to the ballot. 

Thursday, February 10th, 1848. 
THOMAS AMYOT, Esq. Vice- President, in the Chair. 

The following presents were received, and thanks for them ordered to 
be returned: From John Buckler, Esq. F.S.A. a lithographed view of 
the Church of St. Peter and St. Paul at Cromer, in Norfolk. From the 
author, James Wardell, Esq. the Municipal History of the Borough of 
Leeds, in the County of York, 8vo. Leeds, 1847. From Joseph Bonomi, 
Esq. an engraved Map of Ancient Egypt under Antoninus Pius, by 
Samuel Sharpe, Esq. 

John Bruce, Esq. F.S.A. communicated a letter addressed to him by 
John Lycett, Esq. dated Minchinhampton, Jan. 13th, 1848, accompanied 
by the exhibition of an iron buckle, a brass fibula, and seventeen beads, 
some of them of rough amber, others of an amethystine quartz, all of 
which articles had been found in the month of November 1847, by a 
labourer employed to level a tumulus situated in a field called " Cha- 
venage Slait," in the parish of Avening, in Gloucestershire. The mound 
or tumulus was circular, elevated about six feet above the general level 
of the field, but so extensive as to occupy nearly a quarter of an acre. 
Upon breaking open the mound from the summit, and only half a yard 
beneath the surface, was a skeleton, tolerably perfect, not inclosed by 
any artificial defence, nor accompanied by any implement. Beneath, to 
the depth of another yard, many large flag-stones occurred, placed hori- 
zontally, on the removal of which the whole central area, to the extent 
of many square yards, exhibited evident marks of cremation, consisting 



242 

of an abundance of wood-ashes, half -burned human bones, and black 
earth, in one part to the thickness of four or five inches. Beyond the 
central area, and forming the entire circumference of the tumulus, were 
seven graves, each composed of large rough flag-stones placed leaning 
against each Bother, like the roof of a house, three or four forming the 
side of a grave. Each of these contained an adult skeleton, except one, 
which had two skeletons, placed with the head of one to the feet of the 
other. One skeleton had the right fore-arm raised against the side of 
the grave, and rested against a spear-head. The grave contained several 
other iron spear-heads, from five to seven inches in length, but much 
decayed, six or seven iron buckles, and a single small iron basin. One 
skeleton had about the neck a number of beads, from which those ex- 
hibited to the Society were selected. The same grave contained two 
ear-rings of silver. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for this communication ; after 
which the Secretary proceeded to the further reading of Mr. Gibson's 
description of the Xanthian Monument. 

This portion of Mr. Gibson's memoir contains the descriptions of the 
coins of the cities and people of lona and JEolia, whose emblems appear 
to accord with similar attributes above-named, and therefore presumed 
to personify the allies of Harpagus. The coins more especially referred 
to were those of Miletus, Phocea, Cos, Myrina ^Eolidis, Pyrnus, Cnidus, 
Ascalon, Troas, and Aphrodisias, the symbolical reverses of which more 
or less coincide with those upon the Xanthian sculptures. Of these, 
Phocea was the first of the Ionian cities which fell into the hands of 
Harpagus. It seems that the inhabitants, being hard pressed, yet re- 
solved to defend their liberties to the utmost, demanded a day to consider 
respecting their submission ; and, although Harpagus suspected their 
intentions, he granted it. The Phoceans thereupon fled by sea, leaving 
their town empty ; and they bound themselves by oath never to return, 
till a red-hot mass of iron which they threw into the sea should rise 
again. Notwithstanding this solemn act, however, the greater part of 
them were seized with such regret, during the voyage, at having left the 
residence of their fathers, that they returned to Phocea, and submitted to 
the powerful invader. They therefore, probably, were the first of these 
people who increased the army of Harpagus with their contingents. 

The reading of the remainder of Mr. Gibson's communication was re- 
served for the next meeting. 

Thursday, February 17th, 1848. 
VISCOUNT MAHON, President, in the Chair. 

After the reading of the Minutes of the last Meeting, the President 
announced that, the usual period for auditing the accounts of the Society 
being now near at hand, he had nominated as Auditors for the occasion, 
the Lord Bishop of Oxford; Octavius Morgan, Esq. M.P. ; John 
Bruce, Esq.; and Thomas Crofton Croker, Esq. His lordship also 
stated that 

" The President and Council announce to the Society that the office of Joint- 
Secretary, now vacant, will be filled by election on the next April anniversary, the 



248 

gentleman to be so elected, however, not to enter upon his duties, nor commence 
receiving his salary of jt'lOO per annum until the expiration of Mr. Long's engage- 
ment as Clerk, on the 24th of June. 

" The Secretary will be expected to reside in the Society 'a apartments allotted for 
his use. 

" It is to be understood, that there will be no perquisites of any kind ; and that 
the use of stationery will be confined to the purposes of the Society. 

" The further regulations connected with the duties of Secretary, as determined 
by the Council, may be learnt by any Fellow of the Society pn application to Sir 
Henry Ellis." 

Charles Roach Smith, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited a Roman statuette, ap- 
parently of a Cupid, recently discovered at Colchester, and now the pro- 
perty of William Wire, Esq. of that town. Thanks were ordered to be 
returned for this exhibition ; and the Secretary then read the remaining 
portion of Mr. Gibson's description of the Xanthian Monument. 

Having detailed the cities which sent their contingent forces to the 
army of Harpagus, and endeavoured to show from their coins the cor- 
respondence between them and the emblems at the feet of the statues of 
the peristylium, Mr. Gibson proceeded to speak of the pediment. In 
its centre are seen a god and goddess sitting opposite each other, with 
a remarkable difference in proportion as compared with the other figures 
near them, which, though from their dress and character they are clearly 
adults, are yet much less in size. In this is seen a mode of art adopted 
by the Greeks from the Egyptians, of representing the gods of a much 
larger size than mortals, and the latter, when in their presence, much 
less, so as to give an idea of the supernatural and more elevated nature 
of the gods. The author quotes a passage in the eighteenth book of 
the Iliad to support this observation, and refers to various Greek re- 
lievi long subsequent to Homer's time, to show the universality of such 
representative custom. 

Mr. Gibson determines the god and goddess to be Jupiter and Juno, 
the former of whom was universally worshipped by the Carians, upon 
whose coins he is also represented. Beneath the throne of Jupiter a dog 
appears sleeping ; another dog is placed in one angle of the pediment, 
and there is every probability that there must have been a corresponding 
one in the other angle. Now, if there was no other evidence, he adds, 
these dogs are alone quite sufficient to show that the edifice was erected 
by the Carians ; for Hesychius, Diogenianus, and Arnobius testify that 
it was the custom of the Carians to offer dogs in sacrifice, and hence 
they became proverbial among the Greeks as offering dogs instead of 
goats, &c. to their gods. On the right hand of Jupiter stands his 
priest, with his hand resting on the knee of the god ; the figure has 
lost its head, but can be recognised as a priest of Jove from one 
similarly dressed in Montfaucon. Close by him is the priestess of Juno, 
with both her hands on the knees of the goddess, in the act of thanks- 
giving ; for it was usual so to place the hands on the knees of the 
statues of the gods, when in the act of prayer, and of returning thanks 
for favours received. The figures in succession are the attendants of 
the priest and priestess ; the priestess has her head adorned with a si- 
milar diadem to that worn by the goddess ; for it was customary with 
the Greeks to dress and crown the priests and priestesses in the same 
manner as the deities whom they served. Thus, in the sacrifices of 



244 

Apollo, the priests were crowned with laurel ; the priestesses of Ceres 
with poppies and ears of corn ; and the priestess of Minerva bore the 
aegis, cuirass, and helmet. Consequently, Mr. Gibson says, the subject 
of the pediment is, the priestess of Juno and priest of the Carian Jupiter 
returning thanks for the victory obtained over the Lycians. 

Mr. Gibson next considers the three youthful statues on the apex of 
the pediment : these he determines to be Lydus, Misus, and Cares, the 
three reputed founders of the Carians ; and typifying that the use of this 
temple was granted to the descendants of those three brothers. The 
bas-reliefs which go round the cella appear to represent hunting scenes 
and funereal sacrifices ; and on one part of the frieze we see both the 
Persians and the Greeks bringing their offerings, those of the former 
consisting of tapestry, dresses, &c. while those of the latter are goats and 
kids. It was the custom for the soldier when he had finished his cam- 
paigns, or ended his earthly career, to make an offering and dedicate his 
arms to the god of war ; and those who spent their time in hunting 
also brought their tribute to the gods. The Greeks used to offer 
goats to Juno, on which account she was denominated Atyo^ayos "Hprj 
(goat-devourer). 

A cella being attached to this edifice, gives it the appearance of its 
being also a sepulchral heroum ; and the two cisterns found connected 
with it evidently for lustration tend to strengthen this idea. On 
comparing it with similar edifices erected by the Lydians and Persians, 
Mr. Gibson says, we shall find it will amount to more than presumptive 
evidence. Having quoted Herodotus's description of the sepulchre of 
Halyattes, the father of Croesus the sepulchre of Cyrus as described by 
Arrian that erected by Simon Macchabeus to his father and brethren 
the mausoleum at Halicarnassus and the tomb of the Horatii and 
Curiatii, he considers the cella of the Xanthian Monument as the 
heroum of Harpagus. He also submits reasons for supposing that it was 
built about 500 years B.C. and that it has stood through all the vicissi- 
tudes of Lycian history, until a late period of the Christian aera ; when 
it appears to have been thrown from its eminence by an earthquake, 
for the lead used in binding the marble blocks together was found 
entire. These regions of Asia were much affected by earthquakes, as has 
been variously recorded in books, coins, and inscriptions. Mr. Gibson 
concluded his observations thus : 

11 By the acquisition of these marbles the collection of the British Museum is 
unique, and superior to any other museum in Europe in its specimens of ancient 
relievos : and it will afford the student an opportunity of studying the progress of 
sculpture among the Greeks, from examples of the art produced before those of the 
Temple of Apollo at Phigaleia and the Parthenon ; and thus he may trace the grades 
of the improvements afterwards made in the style and proportions, until he arrives 
at the perfection of the Panathenaic Frieze. And the antiquarian will also find 
abundant scope in contemplating the manners and customs of by-gone ages." 

Thanks were ordered to be returned to the Council of the British 
Archaeological Association, for their communication of this interesting 
memoir. 



PROCEEDINGS 

THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 
OF LONDON. 

1848. No. 13. 



Thursday, February 24th, 1848. 
THOMAS AMYOT, Esq. Vice- President, in the Chair. 

Edmund Edward Antrobus, Esq. and Nathaniel Hollingsworth, Esq. 
lately elected, now attending, having paid their admission fees and sub- 
scribed to the obligation required by the statutes, were severally admitted 
Fellows of this Society. 

Charles Roach Smith, Esq. F.S.A. proposed for election into the 
Society Jacob Henry, Baron Hastings, who, as a peer of the realm, was 
entitled to have the ballot for his election proceeded upon immediately ; 
whereupon his Lordship was declared duly elected a Fellow. 

The following presents were received, and thanks for them ordered 
to be returned, namely: From William Pettit Griffith, Esq. F.S.A. 
his work entitled " Ancient Gothic Churches, their Proportions and 
Chromatics," 4to. 1847. From the Rev. H. M. Grover, Rector of 
Hitcham, Bucks, his work entitled " A Voice from Stone-henge," Part I. 
8vo. London, 1847. 

James Bunstone Bumiing, Esq. exhibited a model in wood, of the 
Roman remains recently found in Lower Thames Street. 

Sir Fortunatus Dwarris communicated to the Society, Observations 
upon the History of one of the old Cheshire Families, namely, the 
Breretons. Onnerod, in his History of Cheshire, mentions Grosvenor, 
Davenport, and Brereton, as " three grantees, who can be proved by 
ancient deeds to have existed at or near the Conquest, though unnotice'd 
in Domesday." Of these, the family least favoured by fortune in later 
times the peerage and baronetage in the Breretons having both become 
extinct, and the heirship in lands and manors having descended to 
females was, during the earliest centuries after the Conquest, among 
the most distinguished in the Palatinate. This state of the case, and a 
natural desire to uphold ancient valour and renown against the mere 
caprices of fortune, renders what can be collected of personal anecdotes 
or local traditions both interesting and useful. A portion of this Memoir, 
detailing the first coming of the Breretons into England, and their pro- 
gress and connections, having been read, the remainder was postponed 
to the next meeting. 

The Vice- President then gave notice a second time from the chair, 
that, the usual period for auditing the accompts being now near at hand, 
the President had nominated as auditors for the occasion, the Lord Bishop 
of Oxford; Octavius Morgan. Esq. M.P.; John Bruce, Esq.; and Thos. 
Crofton Croker, Esq. 

Y 



246 



Thursday, March 2nd, 1848. 
THOMAS AMYOT, Esq. Vice-President, in the Chair. 

William Richard Drake, Esq. and Frederic Ouvry, Esq. having paid 
their admission fees and subscribed the obligation required by the sta- 
tutes, and the latter having compounded for his annual payments, were 
severally admitted Fellows of this Society. 

The following presents were received, and thanks for the same were 
ordered to be returned, namely : From George Godwin, Esq. F.S. A. 
the Builder for February, 1848. From the Editor, the Athenaeum for 
the month of February. From the Editors, an Index to the Baker 
Manuscripts, by four members of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. 
From J. B. Nichols, Esq. F.S.A. the Gentleman's Magazine for March, 
1848. From John Britton, Esq. F.S.A. the History and Antiquities of 
the Cathedral Church of Wells, 8vo. 1847 ; a small tract, entitled The 
Cholera is coming ; and Photography, a popular treatise by an amateur, 
8vo. 1847. 

Charles Roach Smith, Esq. laid before the Society some short notes 
upon the station of Magiovintum, mentioned in the 2nd, 6th, and 8th 
iters of Antoninus's Itinerary, communicated to him by Edward Pretty, 
Esq. of Northampton. The concurrent opinion of our antiquaries appears 
to have placed the station of Magiovintum at or near Fenny Stratford, 
which Mr. Pretty considers to be confirmed by the numerous Roman 
coins and other Roman remains found in its vicinity, more particularly 
in certain fields adjoining to and in the neighbourhood of the White Hart 
inn. The summer camp to this station, Mr. Pretty observes, lies on the 
north-east, towards the Woburn Sands. This communication was accom- 
panied by two or three plans and small sketches ; one was of the figure 
of an eagle, discovered on a piece of land called Little Heach, adjoining 
one of the fields already mentioned. The coins enumerated consisted of 
one of Severus Alexander, and two of Gordianus Pius, in large brass ; 
and in small brass were coins of Posthumus, Tetricus, Valens, Claudius 
Gothicus, and Tacitus. 

The Secretary then proceeded to the continuation of Sir Fortunatus 
Dwarris's Observations upon the History of the Brereton Family of 
Cheshire. The first Lord Brereton of Leighlin, in the county of Car- 
low in Ireland, rebuilt the family seat at Brereton in Cheshire ; on which 
occasion Queen Elizabeth laid the first stone of the new baronial hall, 
and honoured the proprietor with another visit after its completion. A 
further portion of the career of the family having been read, the re- 
mainder was postponed to the next meeting. 



Thursday, March 9th, 1848. 

HENRY HALLAM, Esq. Vice-President, in the Chair. 
Joshua Whitchead Butterworth, Esq. lately elected, now attending, 
having paid his admission fee and subscribed the obligation required by 
the statutes, was admitted a Fellow of this Society. 

The following presents were received, and thanks for the same ordered 



247 

to be returned, viz. From the Council of the Leeds Philosophical and 
Literary Society, their Twenty- seventh Report, at the close of the Session 
1846-7. From Samuel Carter Hall, Esq. F.S.A. the Art- Union, 
monthly Journal of the Arts, for March, 1848. 

Thomas Wiudus, Esq. F.S.A. of Stamford Hill, exhibited to the 
Society an oval terra-cotta tablet, of considerable size, from Home. The 
subject represented Hercules in the garden of the Hesperides, having 
slain the dragon, which is hanging dead upon a tree ; and opposite to 
him is a female, supposed to be one of the Hesperides. Mr. Windus 
assumed the original sculpture to have been the work of Dioscorides ; 
Hercules to be a portrait of Augustus Caesar ; and the female figure to 
be a representation of his empress, Livia. 

The secretary then proceeded to the final reading of Sir Fortunatus 
Dwarris's Observations on the History of the Brereton Family of Cheshire. 
The peerage became extinct by the fifth lord dying childless ; and the 
estates passed by the female line to the Holts, and thence to the Brace- 
bridges, who sold Brereton Hall, the manor, and advowson. Numerous 
anecdotes then followed of the collateral branches of that ancient family ; 
and Sir Fortunatus concludes with a notice of the domestic poet, Hum- 
phrey Brereton, " the only writer among so many fighters." 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these communications ; after 
which William Wansey, Esq. handed to the Vice- President the following 
draft of a proposed Resolution, which was read from the chair, viz : 

11 1. That the statute ordering ' that the election of the President, Council, and 
other Officers of the Society shall be on the 23rd day of April, in case the same do 
not fall on a Sunday, in which case the election shall be on the next day,' be 
rescinded. 2. That such annual election this year, take place on the 2nd of May 
next of this year. 3. That for future years such statute be restored." 

The Resolution proposed was ordered, in conformity to the statutes, to 
be printed and circulated among the members, and to be balloted for on 
Thursday the 23rd of March. 

Thursday, March 16th, 1848. 
VISCOUNT MAHON, President, in the Chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting having been read and confirmed, the 
President announced to the Society that Thomas Amyot, Esq. had sig- 
nified to him his desire, considering the age he has now attained, of not 
continuing to hold the office of Vice- President beyond the next anniver- 
sary. His lordship also made the following announcement to the 
Society : 

" At a Council held at Somerset House, on Tuesday the 14th of March, the Pre- 
sident in the chair, it was resolved to submit to the Society for ballot the proposal 
that the statute, chap. vii. sect. 5, be altered, by making the following addition 
thereto : ' Provided nevertheless, that the President and Council shall be- at liberty 
to refrain from such nomination of any officer or officers, at their discretion.' " 

The ballot on this proposal was ordered for Thursday, the 30th of 
March ; when a ballot was also ordered to be taken on those Fellows who 
are in arrear of their subscriptions for three years and upwards, and have 
received repeated applications for the same ; it being recommended by 



248 

the Council, that unless their arrears be discharged previous to the anni- 
versary next ensuing, the gentlemen named be removed from the list of 
the Society, and held as no longer Fellows thereof. 

The following presents were received, and thanks for the same ordered 
to be returned, namely: From Benjamin Williams, Esq. F.S.A. an 
Anglo-Saxon Calendar of the early part of the Eleventh Century, from 
a Missal preserved in the public library of Rouen ; which Mr. Williams 
has since had printed for private circulation. From Dr. Charles Tilstone 
Beke, F.S.A. two tracts : 1 . Remarks on the Mats Hdfa Tomdr, or 
the Book of the Letter, an Ethiopic MS. in the library of the University 
of Tubingen ; 2. Christianity among the Gallas, from the British Maga- 
zine for December, 1847 : both 8vo. 

John Arthur Cahusac, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited a gold noble of Edward 
III. found with eleven others in a bronze urn, recently excavated at 
Brenkburn Priory, near Morpeth. in Northumberland, the seat of Major 
Hodgson Cadogan. 

Benjamin Gibson, Esq., of Home, communicated a short appendix to 
his memoir, read through several former meetings, upon the monument 
at Xanthus. It related to the peristylium of the temple, and to the notion 
of the statues upon it considered as forming a representation of the 
several cities which had furnished contingents to the army of Harpagus, 
in the conquest of Lycia. It will be remembered that the figures of 
the peristylium, as attributed by Mr. Gibson, are represented in moving 
attitudes. In this appendix, he says, an objection may be raised by some, 
that in general both provinces and cities are represented, as well on the 
marbles as on the coins of the Greeks and Romans, whether standing or 
sitting, always in a quiet posture : an objection which though in the 
main it may appear of some consideration upon closer inquiry will by 
no means be found to be invariable. On some coins, he says, we even 
see the same province or city represented in a quiet and reposing attitude, 
and those in a more warlike aspect, dressed differently. 

In attestation, Mr. Gibson quotes three coins, two of the Emperor 
Galba, and one of Hadrian. On the reverse of the latter Spain appears 
reclining in perfect repose, an olive branch in her hand, the emblem of 
peace, the other arm resting on a rock. Then on one of the coins of 
Galba she is seen in a totally different costume, dressed nearly as an 
Amazon, and extending her right arm to another figure ; which from the 
inscription in Gaul, and almost similar dress, indicates an alliance. 
On the third coin the same province is seen under a more warlike aspect ; 
in her right hand she holds ears of com, as an emblem of the fertility of 
the soil, and on her left arm she carries a round shield and two javelins, 
such as were used by the natives in war ; whilst she moves on with a 
rapid motion, her drapery flowing and agitated by the wind, in the 
same manner as is observable in the statues of the Xanthian marbles. 
Enlarged drawings of these coins accompanied the communication ; and, 
as a further proof that the Greeks did not always represent their 
cities quiet and not in motion, Mr. Gibson added a drawing of another 
coin of the Lydian city of Mostene, struck under the Emperor Lucius 
Verus, on which the genius of the city is represented by an Amazon 



wearing 1 a turret-crown, on horseback, the horse moving on. Now the 



city 
, th< 



249 

city to which this coin belongs was in Lydia, where Herodotus tells us 
the chief cities of the Ionian s who were engaged in the Lycian war were 
situated, and it is remarkable that they are mostly those cities named by 
Strabo, &c. as founded by Amazons, as was before alluded to in the 
notice of Myrina. 

The Secretary then read a memoir by the Rev. Joseph Hunter, F.S.A. 
entitled " Proofs of the early Use of Gunpowder in the English Army." 
The author observed, that in the course of the researches which had been 
instituted at home and abroad into the history of an invention which has 
had, in various ways, most extensive influences on the state of society, 
and in particular on its application to the art of war, reference had often 
been made to a passage in an old historian, Giovanni Villani, stating that 
instruments which could only have been cannon in the ordinary sense of 
the word were used by King Edward the Third at the battle of Cressy. 
It has not been discovered that the statement receives support from any 
of the English historians, and the utmost corroboration which it has 
obtained from our own records hitherto amounts only to this that 
persons named gunnarii occur in an account of the expenses of the siege 
of Calais, which ensued immediately after the battle of Cressy. This 
authority was first adduced by Camden in his Remains, and is presumed 
to be the same with that which is more punctually cited by Sir Henry 
Spelman in his Glossary, under the word bombarda, as an account of 
military and civil expenses of King Edward III. from the 21st of April 
1344 to the 24th of November 1347, where, under the head " Artificers 
and Workmen," to whom payments were made, were six gunners. 
This is undoubtedly a strong corroboration of the statement that guns 
were used, if not at the battle of Cressy, yet in the expedition of King 
Edward, of which that battle was the most memorable incident. 

The fact that gunners are found as a class of persons in the English 
army as early a the year 1346 does not seem to have gained the hold 
which it deserves in the minds of persons who have made this depart- 
ment of military antiquities the subject of their inquiries ; and that by 
the term gunners we are to understand persons who had the management 
of instruments of war, the effect of which depended on the explosive 
quality of the substance called gunpowder. Mr. Hunter trusted that he 
might not be doing an unacceptable service to the inquirers into this 
subject, in bringing before them new and stronger proof from our national 
records of the use of gunpowder in the army of King Edward in the 
year of the Cressy expedition. He shows that considerable quantities 
were made in England for the king's use, both before the army left the 
shores of Britain and while the king lay encamped before Calais. 

The dates which require to be particularly observed in reference 
to this subject are, first, that on July the first, 1346, the king was 
at Freshwater in the Isle of Wight, waiting for a favourable wind to 
transport his troops to France ; that on the 12th he landed at La Hogue 
in Normandy ; that after wandering about in that province committing 
great devastation, and advancing as near to Paris as Poissy he returned 
towards the northern coast, and met the French army in the Forest of 
Cressy ; that there the great battle was fought on Saturday the 26th of 
August ; that he then advanced upon Calais, where he arrived on the 



250 1 . 

4th of September, and was vigorously engaged in carrying on the siege 
for the remaining months of that year, and for several of the succeeding 
year, 1347. 

In a book of accounts of money paid out of the king's chamber, in the 
time of Robert de Barton, receiver of the moneys in the said chamber, 
from December 25th, 1344, to the 18th of October, 1347, deposited 
among the records of the Exchequer, are sundry payments to Thomas 
de Roldestou, the keeper of the king's privy wardrobe, for things pro- 
vided by him for the king's use. Amongst these is found " Eidem 
Thomae super facturam pitlvig pro ingeniis, et emendatione diversarum 
armaturarum xl. sol." Of this pulvis pro ingeniis Mr. Hunter 
remarks that when instruments of war are the subject it can scarcely be 
anything but gunpowder ; and when we find among the disbursements, 
that there was money paid to him for a tent which was intended specially 
for the king's own use, we can hardly doubt that, though the account 
extends over three years, 1344 to 1347, these payments to Roldeston 
were made before the departure of the expedition of 1346, and in con- 
templation of it. But in this we are not afterwards left to conjecture or 
inference : for, beside this account of issues from the king's chamber, we 
have the enrolment of another account, in which payments from another 
department to the same officer, at the same time and for the same service, 
are noted. 

The accountant in this instance is John Cook, the clerk of the king's 
wardrobe, who renders an account of moneys received and expended by 
him from the 22nd of December, 1345, to the 31st of January, 1349. 
In this detail we find the various issues stated with great particularity, 
and the dates usually given of the king's writs authorising and command- 
ing the payment. Here we find the sum paid to Thomas de Roldeston 
for wax used by him in making the king's tent, which was formed of 
cloth of Reynes ; and the date of the king's writ is the 4th of May, 
1346, a few weeks before the king actually sailed. In connection with 
this entry, as immediately following it in the account, is the following 
important and decisive passage " Et eidem Thomae, &c.," that is, " And 
to the same Thomas de Roldeston, by the hands of William de Stanes, 
for the king's use in his guns, 912 pounds of saltpetre and 886 pounds 
of quick sulphur, in pursuance of a writ of the king, bearing date the 
10th of May, 1346, by which the king commanded the said keeper to 
account with the said William de Stanes for the saltpetre and sulphur 
provided by him, and by the king's precept delivered by him to the 
aforesaid Thomas to the king's use, allowing a reasonable price to the 
said William for what he delivers to the said Thomas, as is contained in 
the indenture of Thomas, testifying the receipt of the said saltpetre and 
quick sulphur." , 

This can leave no doubt in the mind of any one that in the month of 
May, 1346, a few weeks before the king set out on his expedition to 
France, and three months before the battle of Cressy, the keeper of the 
lung's armour was employed by the royal command in preparing a powder 
of which the principal if not the sole ingredients were saltpetre and 
sulphur, to be used in the king's guns. The campaign of July and 
August, 1346, may therefore be safely assumed as being the time when 



251 

the explosive force of gunpowder was ti rat brought to bear in the military 
operations of the English nation. 

In the latter part of this paper, Mr. Hunter gives a journal of the few 
weeks of Edward the Third's campaign at this time, from an unpublished 
authority, more exact and precise than are the accounts of Edward's 
marches and countermarches in even the most minute of our historians. 
It is found in the journal of the king's kitchen for the period. 

Thanks were severally ordered to be returned for Mr. Gibson's and 
Mr. Hunter's communications. 



Thursday, March 23rd, 1848. 
VISCOUNT MAHON, President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the last meeting having been read and confirmed, the 
following presents were received, and the thanks of the Society for them 
ordered to be returned, namely : To Mr. Alfred Stothard, for a litho- 
graph of the Hypocaust discovered in excavating for the new Coal Ex- 
change, Lower Thames Street, in February, 1848. To the President 
and Council of the Camden Society for the Diary of Walter Youge, 
Esq. Justice of Peace, and M.P. for Honiton, from 1604 to 1628. To 
Mons. Ballen, Archiviste of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Rouen, 
for two volumes of " Precis Analytique des Travaux de 1' Academic, pen- 
dant les annees 1846, 1847." 

The draft of Resolution proposed to the Society by William Wansey, 
Esq. on the 9th instant, was then read from the Chair and discussed. 
Mr. Wansey withdrew the third proposition contained in the resolution, 
on its being objected to. Whereupon the Society proceeded to ballot 
severally for the two first counts of his proposal. Upon the first, the ayes 
were 42, and the noes 14 ; upon the second, the ayes were 47, and the 
noes 12. The two proposals were then declared to have been carried, 
namely : 

"1. That the- Statute ordering that 'the election of the President, Council, and 
other offices of the Society, shall be on the 23rd day of April, in case the same do 
not fall on a Sunday ; in which case the election shall be on the next day,' be re- 
scinded. 

" 2. That such annual election this year take place on the 2nd of May next of 
this year." 

In consequence of the time occupied on this proposition, no papers 
were read, and the meeting adjourned to March 30th. 



Thursday, March 30th, 1848. 
THOMAS AMYOT, Esq. Vice-President, in the Chair. 

John McCullum, Esq. and Major Charles Ker Macdonald, having 
paid their admission fees and subscribed the obligations required by the 
statutes, were severally admitted Fellows of this Society. 

The following presents were received, and thanks for them ordered to 
be returned, namely: To the Rev. George Henry Dashwood, F.S.A. 
for Sigilla Antiqua, Engravings from ancient Seals attached to Deeds 



252 , 

and Charters in the Muniment-room of Sir Thomas Hare, Bart., of 
Stow Bardolph, Fol. 1847. To the Editor of the Athenaeum, for Part 
CCXLIII. of that work, for the month of March, 1848. To Robert 
Lemon, Esq. F.S.A. for an impression of the Illuminated Kalendar, the 
production of the House of Messrs. Standidge and Co. Cornhill ; pre- 
sented as a specimen of the progress of the art of lithography, the whole 
being printed in colours on stone. 

The following letter from the President to Sir Henry Ellis was read, 
together with its enclosure : 

" Grosvenor Place, March 30th, 1848. 
" MY DEAR SIR HENRY, 

" I received yesterday afternoon the enclosed letter from Mr. Wright, which I 
request you will have the goodness to read to the Society of Antiquaries when it 
meets this evening. 

" You will perceive that Mr. Wright declines to he a candidate on the present 
occasion for the vacant office of Secretary, being desirous to avoid any dissensions 
or divisions in the Society, and to evince towards it his own feelings of conciliation 
and good-will. Such a motive for retirement is highly honourable to Mr. Wright's 
zeal for our ancient body, and cannot fail to be duly appreciated by all its members. 

"It is a great satisfaction to me to find from Mr. Wright's communication that 
we may continue to rely on his active co-operation and assistance in the objects of 
the Society objects which his well-known Antiquarian attainments and powers of 
learned research must always enable him in no slight measure to promote. 

" Had we in the Council been able to foresee the present occurrence, we should not 
have experienced doubt or difficulty in the recommendation which the Statutes re- 
quire us to make for the office of Secretary : nor should we have felt it necessary 
to submit to the Society that alteration in the Statutes which stands fixed for ballot 
this evening. Still, however, the alteration is merely permissive to the Council, 
and as other occasions of contest might arise, when the Council might be inclined 
to adopt it, and when its adoption might tend to general advantage, I still think 
that the Society will act wisely if by its vote this evening it should think fit to sanc- 
tion the alteration we proposed. 

"Believe me, My dear Sir Henry, 

" Very faithfully yours, 

"MAHON." 

The ballots upon the proposals submitted to the Society by the Pre- 
sident and Council on March 16th were then severally taken, namely, 

I. The proposed addition to the Statute Chap. VII. sect. 5, which 
shewing only three negatives, the same was declared to be carried. 

II. Upon this proposal 

" That whereas it appears that the following Fellows : 

Edward Nelson Alexander, Esq. Henry Francis Lockwood, Esq. 

Thomas Baylis, Esq. The Rev. James B. Mills. 

Thomas R. G. Braddyll, Esq. Edward Francis Uimbault, Esq. 

William Burge, Esq. George Ledwell Taylor, Esq. 

Harvey Eginton, Esq. Timothy F. Triebner, Esq. 

James Falconar, Esq. William Wallen, Esq. 

The Rev. Samuel Fox. James Walsh, Esq. 

Christopher Godmond, Esq. Lechmere W. Whitraore, Esq. 

George Perfect Harding, Esq. 

are in arrear of their subscriptions of three years and upwards, and have received 
repeated applications for the same, ' That unless their arrears be discharged pre- 
vious to the Anniversary next ensuing the gentlemen here named shall be removed 
from the list of the Society, and held as no longer Fellows thereof ; the question of 
recovering the arrears being remitted to the further consideration of the Council.' " 

The ballot upon this question being taken, there appeared two nega- 



253 

tives only ; whereupon the second proposition was also declared to be 
carried. 

The following communication from the President was then read, on 
two inscriptions in the choir of the Capuchin Convent at Seville, in a 
letter to the Secretary : 

"Grosvenor Place, February, 1848. 
" MY DEAR Si a HENRY, 

' The Capuchin Convent at Seville was well-known to every lover of art who 
visited that city, as containing several of the master-pieces of Murillo. At present, 
however, as we learn from Mr. Ford's and Count Raizynoki's descriptions, these 
pictures have been removed to the newly-founded Museum ; while the Convent 
itself has been dismantled, and in a great measure destroyed. Such a change has 
lately induced me to refer to some slight notes which I took of it in its former 
state, when travelling in Spain during the years 1827 and 1828. I find that there 
were then two inscriptions, now probably effaced, in the chapel-choir, which may 
be thought not undeserving of notice as a sample of monastic customs, and as a 
proof of the taste for rhyme in the Latinity of the Middle Ages. That taste in its 
less imperfect form shewed itself, as here, with the first inscription, in Leonine 
verse ; but sometimes, as here, with the second inscription only in rude lines, with- 
out any attempt at classic metre. These lines were evidently designed to reprove 
the monks for irregularity in their attendance on divine service. On the one side 
there stood 

ANOELVS IN CIIORO. 

SCRIBO PRAESENTES 
CANTANTES ATQVE LEGENTES 
VT SIC SINT DIONI 
SACRI SPIRAMINIS IGNI. 



On the other side 



DIABOf.VS IN CHORD. 



HIC SVM MISSV8 

CVM POEMA SCRIBERE IVSSVS 

ABSENTES, NON CANTANTES, 

TARDE VENIENTES 

ET CITO RECEDENTES. 

' So far as I am aware, these lines have not been transcribed, or publicly noticed 
before in any accounts of Seville ; and I therefore take the liberty to lay them before 
the Society of Antiquaries. I am not able, however, even to conjecture, what other 
members of the Society more deeply versed than I am in Ecclesiastical Antiquities 
could perhaps decide, whether or not Latin inscriptions of a similar import were 
commonly found in the choirs of monasteries, either in Spain or other countries. 
If they were, such a fact might, so far as it goes, have a tendency to disprove the 
charge of habitual ignorance of Latin which we see in various quarters urged against 
the monks of former times. For, since it is clear that these admonitions were 
intended to apply to the less learned or more worldly brethren, it can scarcely be 
supposed that they would be conveyed in any language not recognised at that 
period as familiar to them all. 

41 Believe me, My dear Sir Henry, 

11 Very faithfully yours, 

"MAHON." 

A letter from Richard Brooke, Esq. F.S.A. of Liverpool, to the 
Secretary, was then read, on the antiquity and nature of the Office of 
a Notary of England," the date of which, and the particulars of the 
appointment, appear hitherto to have been rarely much considered. This 
omission, Mr. Brooke thinks, has probably arisen from the duties of the 



254 j 

office in this country being of a description which do not bring the pos- 
sessor of it quite so prominently under the notice of the public as those 
of some other legal offices. Notaries appear to have existed from a 
period of remote antiquity, and to have been anciently Scribes, who 
took notes or minutes, and made drafts of writings and other instru- 
ments public and private Notaries, and also other officers, whose duties 
were of a nature somewhat similar, and who were called tabelliones, 
were employed during the period of the Roman empire ; and the differ- 
ence between the functions of the two classes of officers seems to have 
been, that the notarii procured the information and materials, and drew 
up rough drafts or notes, of the writings or instruments which were 
.transcribed and authenticated by the tabelliones, Both of these appel- 
lations were used during the Middle Ages, but it does not appear very 
clearly whether the duties of the two offices were then kept distinct, or 
whether they were blended together ; and the designations notary and 
tabellio, in comparatively modern times, were applied without distinc- 
tion to the same offices the latter name, however, is at present nearly 
gone into disuse. 

The earliest mention of a notary in England is that of Swardus, who, 
under the appellation of notarius, attests a charter from King Edward 
the Confessor to Westminster Abbey, in the middle of the eleventh cen- 
tury. There is reason to think, however, he adds, that the office after- 
wards fell for a time into disuse, at least in some districts, because it 
appears that in the year 1237 there were parts of England where they 
did not then exist ; and it is stated that there were not any tabelliones 
here at that period, or at least that they were very rare. But, however 
that may be, there cannot be any doubt that notaries existed, and were 
commonly employed in England in 1347, as they are more than once 
named in a petition in Norman French of the Commons of that year ; 
as well as in the Statute of Provisoes passed in 1353, and again in 
the Statute of Praemunire of the 16th Richard II. 1393. The author 
also enumerates several subsequent notices of them in the early and 
middle parts of the fifteenth century ; observing, that in the enumeration 
of the army of Edward IV. prepared for the invasion of France in 
1475, a doctor of laws and some notaries are mentioned as engaged 
to accompany the troops, probably intended to be employed in drawing 
up or authenticating treaties. 

Previously to the 25th Hen. VIII. 1533-4, notaries in England were 
appointed by the Pope ; but by the statute concerning Peter pence and 
dispensations of that year the papal authority in respect of faculties of 
various kinds, and in respect of other matters of importance, was 
abolished. The Archbishop of Canterbury, and his successors, were 
authorised under certain regulations by themselves, or by their com- 
missary or deputy, by instrument to grant and dispose of licences, dis- 
pensations, faculties, and other warrants. The Court of Faculties was 
established in pursuance of that act ; and the most ancient muniment 
book in the office contains many entries of the appointment of notaries 
in the reigns of Henry VIII. and Edward VI. There are not any 
entries during the reign of Queen Mary ; a circumstance which arose 
from the temporary re-introduction of the papal power in England. 



255 

In the reign of Elizabeth there are about 250 entries in the muniment 
book of the creation of notaries. 

After noticing the appointment and duties of notaries in England 
down to 1698, Mr. Brooke concludes with a few words on foreign nota- 
ries, and the following observation : " It was once observed by the late 
Lord Chief Justice Tenterden, that there is another part of the duty of 
notaries, and that is, to receive the affidavits of mariners and masters of 
ships, and then to draw up their protests, which is a matter requiring 
care, attention, and diligence. Besides that, many documents pass before 
notaries, under their notarial seal, which gives effect to them, and ren- 
ders them evidence in foreign courts." 

Thanks were severally ordered to be returned for these communica- 
tions. After which, the Lord Bishop of Oxford, one of the auditors 
appointed by the Society of Antiquaries of London, read the following 
Report : ( See page 256 .) 

Thursday, April 6th, 1848. 
THOMAS AMYOT, Esq. Vice- President, in the Chair. 

The following resolution was read, passed at a Council of the Society 
of Antiquaries held on Tuesday April 4th, Viscount Mahon, Pre- 
sident, then in the Chair : 

" The Council having taken into consideration the great extent to which the 
stock of the Society has accumulated, the inconvenience occasioned from the in- 
adequate accommodation of its store, and the injury arising to it in its place of 
deposit, the expense hitherto attending its preservation and insurance, and reflecting 
how very large a portion of it is defective, and consisting of letter-press without 
plates, have resolved that it would be for the advantage of the Society that the same 
should be disposed of, with the reservation only of such a number of perfect volumes 
as may, in the judgment of the Council, be deemed right to be kept to supply an 
occasional demand. 

" The Council, however, before such a step is carried into effect, have thought it 
right to intimate their intention to the Society." 

At the same Council the following Resolution was passed : 

" That with a view to the reduction of the number of copies of the publications 
of the Society previous to the year 1841, which remain in stock, any Fellow 
of the Society shall, during the next six months from the ensuing anniversary, be at 
liberty to purchase certain of the publications at very reduced prices, which may be 
ascertained by an application to Mr. Martin, the clerk, in the Library." 

James Bunstone Bunning, Esq. lately elected, now attending, having 
paid his admission-fee, and subscribed the obligation required by the 
Statutes, was duly admitted a Fellow of this Society. 

The following presents were received, and the thanks of the Society 
ordered to be returned for them : The Gentleman's Magazine for April 
1848 ; presented by John Bowyer Nichols, Esq. F.S.A. The Journal of 
Sacred Literature, No. 2, for April 1848, by John Kitto, D.D. F.S.A. ; 
presented by the Editor. Art Union of London and the Board of 
Trade : Correspondence relative to proposed interference with the So- 
ciety's plan; from George Godwin, Esq. jun., F.S.A. Catalogus libro- 
rum manuscriptorum in Bibliotheca Phillippica : pages 133 to 212, folio ; 
presented by Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart. 

The Secretary then read the first portion of a record of some anti- 



256 

quarian discoveries at Farley Heath, near Guildford ; communicated in 
a letter from Martin F. Tapper, Esq. D.C.L. to John Yonge Aker- 
man, Esq. F.S.A. In noticing the Roman and other ancient remains 
recently brought to light in that neighbourhood, Mr. Tupper premises, 
that as the excavations are still in progress, and every day produces new 
relics of antiquity, he cannot hope to do more than introduce the sub- 
ject ; adding, that, " from the length of a Celtic and a Roman occupancy, 
ranging over at least 500 years, and from the great extent of this 
enclosed camp or town-land, some hundred acres, we may fairly calculate 
that under the ancient soil of Farley-heath there exists a mine of anti- 
quarian interest well nigh inexhaustible." The site is an elevated por- 
tion of that large unreclaimed district in West Surrey, whereof Black- 

" WE, the Auditors appointed by the Society of Antiquaries of London, on 
the 24th of February, 1848, to Audit the Accounts of the Treasurer, from 
the 23rd of April to the 31st of December, 1847, having examined the said 

*. d. 
By Balance in hand 356 16 5 

RECEIPTS. 

*. d. 

By 9 Annual (Old) Subscriptions, at 2 2s. for 1846 . . . 18 18 
By 90 Annual Subscriptions, at 4 4*. for 1846 . . . . 378 

By portions of Subscriptions 12120 

By 5 Subscriptions in advance for 1847 17 17 

427 7 

By Arrears of Subscription 100 16 

By Admission of 7 Members 58 16 

By 4 Compositions . 168 

By Sale of Books and Prints 65 3 

By Sale of Anglo-Saxon Works , 4198 

By Sir Thomas PhiUipps's Subscription to Ditto . . . . ,20 

24 19 8 

By Sale of Norman Roll ; 1 10 

By Sale of Layamon 96 4 8 

By Dividend on 5,100 3 per Cent Consols, due 5th July 1847 . 76 10 

Less Income Tax 247 

74 5 5 



Amount of Stock 31st Deer. 1847, 5,100. 



1,373 15 5 



Witness our hands, this 25th day of March, 1848. 

S. OXON. 

OCTAVIUS MORGAN. 
T. CROFTON CROKER. 
JNO. BRUCE. 



-257 

heath, Albury-heath, the Hurtwood, Holmbury, and Leith-hill are 
distinguishing features. It lies about two miles to the south of the well- 
known landmark, St. Martha's Chapel, and some four to the East of 
Godalming. On this spot, after a considerable search, Mr. Tupper, in 
conjunction with Mr. Henry Drummond, the Lord of the Manor, has 
been able to hit upon the proper spot for a successful excavation ; and, 
besides culinary pottery, urns, Samian ware, and other relics in abund- 
ance, they were fortunate enough to recover about 400 coins of Nero, 
Vespasian, Domitian, Trajan, Hadrian, and the Antonines, together with 
those of most of their successors down to Arcadius and Honorius. 
The remainder of this communication was postponed to the next 
Meeting. 

Accounts from the 23rd of April to the 31st of December, 1847, together with 
the respective vouchers relating thereto, do find the same to be just and true, 
and we have prepared from the said accounts the following Abstract : 

*. d. 
DISBURSEMENTS. 

To Artists, and in Publications by the Society 348 2 6 

For Salaries: 

s. d. . s. d. 

Sir Henry Ellis 118 2 6 

Less Income Tax . . 390 

114 13 9 

Mr. Carlisle 50 

Less Income Tax . . 127 

48 17 5 

3 Months' Pension, less Income Tax . 36 9 

Mr. Martin 55 

Long 35 

Assistance in the Library 8150 

Holtzer, Porter 22 10 

321 5 2 

Taxes, Assessed 17 5 3 

Property 1 17 0$ 

Salaries 4 11 3 

23 13 

Tradesmen's Bills for House Expenses 217 10 

For Anniversary Dinner 23 13 

Bookbinding 16 10 

Collecting Subscriptions 

Stationery 

Petty Cash, Parcels, Postage, Advertisements, &c 

Power of Attorney 

, Porter's Livery ' * r 

Balance in the hands of the Treasurer, Jan. 1, 1848 . '. 

1,373 15 5 



258 

The Vice- President then gave notice from the Chair, that, in pursu- 
ance of the Statutes, the anniversary election of the President, Council, 
and other officers of the Society will be, this year, on Tuesday the 2nd 
of May, 1848, St. George's Day falling on Sunday, and the following 
day being Easter Monday ; the ballot to open at 2 of the clock, and to 
close at 8 ; and declared how much it importeth the welfare of the 
Society, that such persons be chosen of the Council out of whom there 
may be made the best choice of a President : and stated, that by an 
Order of Council of the 2nd of April 1799, it was directed to be read 
from the Chair, That no Fellow of this Society shall be capable of 
giving a vote at any election of a President, Officers, or Council who is 
in arrear of more than twelve months of his annual contribution ; and 
that a copy of the same be hung up in the Meeting Room and Library 
of the Society. 

Thursday, April 18th/ 1848. 
JOHN PAYNE COLLIER, Esq. Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The " Numismatic Chronicle, and Journal of the Numismatic So- 
ciety for April 1848, edited by John Yonge Akerman, Esq." was pre- 
sented by the President and Council of the Numismatic Society ; for 
which the thanks of the Society were ordered to be returned. 

The remaining portion of the letter communicated at the last meeting 
from Martin Farquhar Tupper, Esq. was read. Of the British coins 
found at Farley Heath, one of the most interesting bore on the obverse, a 
vittaed head., to the right, with the legend MRP ATI; and on the reverse 
a spread eagle treading on a serpent, with a circlet on the upper verge : 
" By this mite of silver," observes Mr. Tupper, " an ancient British 
prince of the era of Augustus has been restored to his place in 
history." 

The Secretary then read a communication from John Payne Collier, 
Esq. Treasurer, in a letter to Thomas Amyot, Esq. V.P. intituled, " Some 
unpublished particulars respecting Henry Algernon Percy, the sixth 
Earl of Northumberland of that family." 

The most important part of this communication consisted of a letter 
preserved in the library at Lambeth Palace, among what are known as 
the Shrewsbury Papers, respecting an interview between Henry the 
Eighth and the Countess of Northumberland. She was the daughter of 
George Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, who came to the title in 1473, and 
died in 1541. Her husband had made Henry the Eighth his heir, and 
left his widow unprovided for, as appears from the following letter to 
the King's secretary : 

" Maister Secretory, In my most hartye manner I comend me unto yowe, most 
hartly thankyn yow for all yowr kyndnes shewid unto me, for recompens whereof I 
am not able, but onely with my pore hart, of whych ye shal be assuryd duryng my 
lyfe, as I am most bounden. And where that I am visit contynewally withe syknes, 
and that my wyff and I ar not lykkly to come together, and, as ye knowe, yt hath 
Dleasid the Kynges Highnea, more of his goodnes than of my desertes, to gyff me 
lycenH (having non ysshewe of myn own body) to denomynate and make myne 
hnyr. whych of my blod I wyll (beryng the name of Percy), of all suche landes a bee 



259 

comprehendid in the indentures betwyxt his Magistie and me, perceyvyng the d- 
bylytery and unnaturalnes in those of my name, and for the grett and most gracious 
goodness that I have allways found in his Majestic, and for the naturall love that I 
here to his Grace (whyche I wolde he knew as well as God doth), beyng most un- 
worthy of his blod, have determynyd fynally (as ye shal perceyve by the copyes of 
my letters sent unto his Majistie at this tyme) to make his Grace myne hayr of all 
my landes afforesaid, I havyng non ysshewe of myne own body lawfully begotton. 
The occasyon of the hast herof is only by reason of my continewall sykknes, and 
that my wyff is a yong woman and lykkly to conteynewe, that if God shall call me 
shortly I myght be sewer his Grace shall prove my trew and stedfast hart ; and 
herinclosyd do not onely send unto yow my letters unto his Magistie, but also 
certen articles, and the copy of my said letters. Good master Secretory, as hyme to 
whom I accompt myselfe moste bounden next my master, doth in this caws comyt 
all thynges to yow and yowr order, whether yt shall pleas yow to take the delyvery 
of my letters with declaration of myue articles yowr selfe, or ells to appoynt Sir 
Thomas Wharton to fulfyll the same. And thus, master Secretory, as in hym whom 
restith my chief confydens, next the Kyng, I betake this, with all other my pore 
affayres, to the order of yow, as our Lord knowithe, who have yow ever in his kepyng 
with long lyff. At my loge of Topcleff, the second day of February. 
' ' Your own ever assuredly, 
" most bonden, 

" H. NORTHUMBERLAND." 

The preceding letter establishes, at all events, that the Earl's inten- 
tion to leave the great mass of his property away from his family was 
of some months' standing. The Countess being thus left without any 
dowry, it seems that her father, the Earl of Shrewsbury, induced her to 
make an appeal to the generosity of the King, who was now in posses- 
sion of all the great estates of the Percies. Accordingly she repaired to 
the Court, to present a petition or bill to his Majesty in person, and the 
letter preserved at Lambeth, here copied, addressed to the Earl of 
Shrewsbury by a person of the singular name of Swyfoe, narrates, no 
doubt mainly on the authority of the Countess, what had passed between 
her and the King at the interview. The following are the terms in 
which he writes : 

" Plesythe your Lordshype to be advertissed that of Mondaye thexvth day of Maye, 
my Lady of Northumberland exibyted her byll unto the Kynges Maiestie at his 
Graces cummynge to Grenewyche, with the wordes, ' I beseche your Majestic be 
gud and gracious lorde unto me, beynge a poore wydowe and wyff to the late Erie of 
Northumberland, whyche hath not hade, nor yet bathe, anye lyffenge of suche 
landes as were my late husbandes : wherfor T beseche your Maiestie, of your moste 
abundante gudnes, to tender this my humble sewyt conteynyd in my bill.' Who 
herde her ladyshype verey gcntyllye, and after the said wordes spoken, his Grace 
bowed downe upon his staff unto her, and said, ' Madame, howe can your ladyshipe 
dessire any lyffynge of your husbandes landes, seyinge your father gaffe no money 
to your husbande in marage with your ladyshype ; or what think yow that I should 
do herin ? ' And she answered, What shall pleasse your Grace.' He answered 
agane and said, ' Madame, I inervell gretly that my Lord, your father, beynge so 
gret a wyse man as he was, wolde see no dyrectyon taken in this mater in his tyme : 
howbeyt, Madame, we wolle be contented to refer the mater unto our Connoell.' 
After that his Grace loked behynde hyme and saw my Lord of Durhame and Sir 
Antonye Browne, and moved them to him with his hand, and spake with them 
softlye, that no man cowlde perceyve what his Grace said to them, a prety space, 
and delyverde the byll unto my Lord of Durhame ; and in his Grace's retorne 
from theym, my Lady besowght his Maiestie to be gude and gracious lord unto her. 
His Maiestie answered ' We wolle,' and so departed ; and further as yet ther is not 
preceded in this mater. * * * And wher your Lordshipp hath wryten me to sende 
worde downe shortlye whether it were requysyte that any shulde come up to wayt 



260 

upon my Lady of Northumberland her besynes, I can not asserten your Lordshyp 
nothyng thereof, unto suche tyme as my Lord of Durham and Mr. Browne be 
spoken with, whyche shalbe, God wyllynge, of Frydaye the xixth day of this present 
monthe." 

The above, observes Mr. Collier, dated from " London on Ascen- 
sion Day," gives a somewhat picturesque account of the manners of the 
King on the occasion ; and he concludes, that the interview took place on 
the 15th of May succeeding the death of the Earl of Northumberland, 
and when his widow would be still in mourning for him. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these communications ; after 
which the Treasurer read from the Chair, for the second time, the notice 
respecting the approaching anniversary election of the President, 
Council, and other Officers of the Society : and he also announced, that 
in conformity with Chap. VII. Sect. 6, of the statutes, the President 
and Council have nominated the following Members whom they recom- 
mend for election as Council and Officers for the year ensuing : namely, 



Eleven Members from tJie Old 

Council. 

Lord Mahon, President. 
Henry Hallam, Esq. V.P. 
Sir R. H. Inglis, Bart. V.P. 
Thomas Stapleton, Esq. V.P. 
J. P. Collier, Esq. Treasurer. 
Capt. W. H. Smyth, R.N. Director. 
Sir Henry Ellis, Secretary. 
J. Y. Akerman, Esq. Secretary. 
Thomas Amyot, Esq. 
Rev. Joseph Hunter. 
Octavius Morgan, Esq. M.P. 



Ten Members of the New Council. 
Samuel Birch, Esq. 
Lord Braybrooke. 
John Bruce, Esq. 
Thomas Crofton Cfroker, Esq. 
Robert Lemon, Esq. 
Thomas Lott, Esq. 
Samuel Lord Bishop of Oxford. 
J. R. Planche*, Esq. 
Sir Richard Westmacott. 
Thomas Wright, Esq. 



The Treasurer then gave notice, that, on account of Passion and 
Easter Weeks, the Meetings of the Society are now adjourned till the 
Anniversary, on Tuesday, May 2nd. 



Errata in No. 12. 

Page 230, line 1 ab imo,for Petit, read Pettit. 
Page 231, line 3, for Smith, read Roach. 






PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 
OF LONDON. 



1848. 



No. 14. 



Tuesday, May 2nd, 1848. 

Sir ROBERT HARRY INGLIS, Bart. V.P. in the Chair. 
The Society meeting this day in pursuance of the Statutes and Char- 
ter of Incorporation, in order to select a President, Council, and Officers 
for the year ensuing, the clauses in the Statutes prescribing the method 
of proceeding in Anniversary Elections were read; after which the 
deaths of such members as had happened within the year, and the names 
of such as had been elected, or who had withdrawn their names within 
the same period, were announced as follows : 

Death. 



Edmund Tyrell Artis, Esq. 

Sir James Annesley, Knt. 

John T. L. Baker, Esq. 

George Lane Blount, Esq. 

William Bridgman, Esq. 

Thomas Cowper Brown, Esq. 

John Crichton, Marquess of Bute. 

The Lord Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Nicholas Carlisle, Esq. Secretary. 

Charles Chad wick, Esq. 

Lewis N. Cottingham, Esq. 

John Crossley, Esq. 

Rev. William Davies, D.D. 

John Foster, Esq. 

William Gosling, Esq. 

Dudley, Earl of Harrowby. 

Elections 



Rev. Charles Hayward. 
Rev. Thomas Smart Hughes. 
Lieut. -Colonel Lewis. 
Rev. John W. Mackie. 
Sir Samuel Rush Meyrick, K.H. 
Major Edward Moor. 
Charles Okill, Esq. 
Charles T. Pearce, Esq. 
Thomas F. Savory, Esq. 
Rev. John Sleath, D.D. 
Samuel Solly, Esq. 
Richard Weekes, Esq. 
William A. A. White, Esq. 
Sir John Eardley Wilmot, Bart. 
Lea Wilson, Esq. 



William Chaffers, Jun. Esq. 
Edmund Edward Antrobus, Esq. 
Nathaniel Rollings worth, Esq. 
William R. Drake, Esq. 
Frederic Ouvry, Esq. 
James Startin, Esq. 
Jacob, Lord Hastings. 
Joshua W. Buttefworth, Esq. 
Major Charles K. Macdonald. 
James Bunstone Bunning, Esq. 



Francis, Earl of Ellesmere. 
Edward Fair, Esq. 
Edward Hall, Esq. 
Joseph Arden, Esq. 
John McCullom, Esq. 
Alexander J. B. Hope, Esq. 
John Dickinson, Esq. 
Rev. R. Parkinson, D.D. 
Edward Solly, Esq. 
Henry Butterworth, Esq. 
Herbert N. Evans, M.D. 

Honorary Members. 

Mr. J. J. A. Worsaae, of Copenhagen. 
Mons. Charles Lenormant, of Paris. 
William H. Prescott, Esq. of the United States. 
The Chevalier Bunsen, Prussian Ambassador. 
The Hon. Edward Everett, of the United States. 
Mr. Groen Van Prinsterer, of the Hague. 
Mons, Lecointre Dupont, of Poitiers. 

z 



262 

Withdrawn their Name*. 

The following eleven gentlemen having given notice of their desire to withdraw, 
their names were accordingly removed from the list of members by order of Council 
in May last ; but they have not paid their arrears, and are liable for them : 

William Hoskings, Esq. Rt-v. George Hull Bowers. 

James Savage, Esq. George R. Rowe, M.D. 

Henry Edward Kendal, Esq. Rev. C. H. Hartshorne. 

John Richards, Esq. Rev. B. Bandinel, D.D. 

Thomas G. Parry, Esq. Thomas O. Anderdon, Esq. 
William B. Call, Esq. 

The other withdrawal* have been 

Samuel Cooper Brown, Esq. John Holmes, Esq. 

Thomas Farmer Dukes, Esq. Henry Moreing, Esq. 

Thomas Garrard, Esq. Daniel Rowland, Esq. 

The Vice-President then proceeded to nominate Peter Levesque and 
John Noble, Esqrs. as Scrutators. On examining the lists after the 
ballot, it appeared that the Members recommended on the 13th of April 
for composing the Council and filling the offices of President, Treasurer, 
Director, and Secretary, had a majority of votes ; and their names were 
announced accordingly (see page 260). 

The thanks of the Society were then returned to the Scrutators for 
their attention and trouble on this occasion ; after which the Vice-Pre- 
sident announced that the Second Part of the XXXIInd Volume of the 
Archaeologia was ready for delivery. He then adjourned the Meetings 
of the Society to Thursday evening, May llth, at the usual hour. 

The Society afterwards held their customary annual dinner at the 
Freemasons' Tavern, Great Queen Street, Lord Viscount Mahon, Pre- 
sident, in the Chair. 



Thursday, May llth, 1848. 
VISCOUNT MAHON, President, in the Chair. 

After the Minutes of the last two Meetings had been read, the Earl 
of Ellesmere was duly admitted a Fellow of the Society. The Secretary 
then read the following document : 

" I, Philip Henry, Viscount Mahon, President of the Society of Antiquaries, do, 
by virtue of the powers and authorities vested in me by the letters patent, hereby 
nominate Samuelj Lord Bishop of Oxford, being one of the modern and present 
Council of the said Society, to be a deputy to me the President of the said Society, 
with full power and authority to him, in my absence, to supply rny place as Presi- 
dent, and to do all act* concerning the said Society, and the business of the same, 
which I, by virtue of my office might do, if I my self were actually present, according 
to the true intent and meaning of Her Majesty's letters patent. In witness whereof 
I have hereunto set my hand and seal, this 4th day of May, in the year of our Lord 
1848. 

(L.S.) MAHON. 

" Witness, Witham M. By water." 

The following presents were received, and the Society's thanks for 
them ordered to be returned : To Viscount Strangford, F.S.A. for 
eight lithographic prints, consisting of four views of Westenhauger House 
in Kent; two of monuments of Sir John and Sir Richard Smythe, in 



fla- church of Ashford in Kent; one of the monument of Sir Thoma* 

Simthr, in the church of Sutton ;it Iloii<>; ;ui<l one of tin- monument of 

Thomas Smytlii-. Esq. of OstenliAngw, T .1. B. llonoutfrr. l><j. f or 
,i small hron/c of a Numidian lion found by him amoog thfi ruins of 
Carthago. To (loorgc (iodwin, Ksq. ,liiu.' I-.S. \. f,,r " Tin- Builder " 
for April, 1848. To the Editor of the Ath. -IIMMIIII. for that -Inurnal for 
April, 1848. To Charles Roach Smith, Esq. F.S.A. for No. XI. of hi., 
" Collectanea Antiqua." To Dr. C. T. Beke, F.S.A. for his tract " On 
the Origin of the Gallas," 8vo. 1848. To John Bowyer Nichols, Esq. 
F.S.A. for the "Gentleman's Magazine" for May, 1848. To the 
Editor, for " Littoll's Living Age," No. 201, 8vo. Boston, U. S. To 
George Grant Francis, Esq. F.S.A. for a printed copy of the " Original 
Contract of Affiance between Edward, Prince of Wales, and Isabella, 
daughter of Philip the Fair, King of France, dated at Paris, A.D. 1803,'' 
Hvo. Manchester, 1848. To John Hogg, Esq. for his tract " On gome 
Grecian Antiquities observed in Sicily," 8vo. London, 1847. To Rich- 
ard Brooke, Esq. F.S.A. for the second edition of his ' Treatise on the 
Office and Practice of a Notary of England," 8vo. London, 1848. To 
the Society of Antiquaries of Picardy, for their " Bulletin " for 1847. 

The President exhibited to the Society four drawings of a large size, 
beautifully executed, by the Hon. Charles Stewart Hardingc, during his 
travels in the East. They were accompanied by the following memo- 
randum from Mr. Hardinge, which Lord Mahon himself read to the 
Meeting : 

" No. I. Sketch of the Temple of Martund, called also the Temple of the Sun, 
or Vishnu. It is situated in the South-Eastern extremity of the valley of Cashmere, 
and, with one other exception (the temple at Pandrenton), is the only specimen of 
Hindoo architecture in the valley. Vigne, Moorcroft, and other travellers who 
have visited it, do not agree in fixing the date of its structure, which is necessarily 
uncertain, from the obscurity in which that era of Hindoo history is involved ; but 
there is no reason for believing that the date can be traced back further than 300 or 
400 years B.C. The plan of the temple is curious, from its close resemblance to a 
Jewish temple, with its four entrances. The character of the architecture is not 
easily denned, for it may be said to be a mixture of Grecian, Roman, and Hindoo, 
of which the latter may be traced in the niches, which contain representations, cut in 
stone, of the Hindoo deities, principally of Vishnu, the preserving deity, to whom 
the Temple i* dedicated, of Siva and Parlute, the well-known deities of Hindoo 
mythology. The niches, which are carved one above another, from the foundations 
to the summit of the building, are constructed after this design. 

(Here a slight sketch was introduced.) 

" It is evident also, on examination, that the roof of the temple was originally of 
a corresponding character with the architecture of those niches. The arch, at the 
entrance, is not found in the other Hindoo temples which are extant in Hindostan, 
and the pillars at each entrance partake rather of a Grecian than a Hindoo character. 

(Here the sketch of one of the pillars was introduced.) 

" The temple, being built of a stone which does not stand exposure to the climate, 
is gradually falling in ruins, more especially as the greater proportion of the popu- 
lation of the valley are Mahoiuedans, and of course heedless of it* decay. 

" No. II. The Memnonium or Ramesium. The court-yard of this temple, whose 
breadth of 180 feet exceeding its length by nearly thirteen yards, was reduced to a 
more just proportion by the introduction of a double avenue of columns on cither 
side. In the foreground of the sketch is a large fragment of tin- Syenite sUtie of 
Rameses II., which was at the right of the entrance, but was thrown <tu\vn b> 
the fury of Cambyses. The columns against which the sculptured figures rest, are 

z 2 



264 

32 feet without the capital, and 21 feet in circumference. The figures represent the 
conquered kings ; and the columns, which supported the roof of the temple, were 
originally 48 in number. The great hall measures 100 feet by 133, and is bounded 
by 3 central and 6 lateral chambers. The hieroglyphics on the walls represent the 
campaigns of Menes and his successors ; and in one of the chambers is a representa- 
tion of a battle, where the use of the ladder and testudo throw considerable light on 
the mode of warfare at that early period. The temple is on the left bankof the TSile, 
and about half a mile from the Memnon statues. It was probably built in the reign 
of Rameses the Great, the supposed Sesostris, son of Osiris, B.C. 1355. 

" No. III. The great Temple at Luxor on the left bank of the river. Luxor oc- 
cupies part of the site of the ancient Diospolis ; its name signifies ' the Palaces,' from 
the temple erected by Amunoph III., a predecessor of Rameses the Great. The 
sister obelisk to that represented in the sketch, is now in the Place de la Concorde 
at Paris. The remaining one is 60 feet high, being one shaft, and its diameter at 
the base is about 7 feet. Behind the obelisk are two sitting statues of Rameses the 
Great, one on either side of the gateway. The area within is about 190 feet by 170, 
surrounded by a peristyle consisting of two rows of columns, and is succeeded by 
another area of 155 feet by 167, terminating in a covered portico of 32 columns, 57 
feet by 1 1 1 . The sanctuary of the temple, which had been destroyed by the Persians, 
was restored by Alexander. 

" No. IV. The two colossal statues of which the easternmost was once the wonder 
of the ancients. It is said to have been thrown down by the shock of an earthquake, 
Hence Juvenal says : 

' Dimidio magicse resonant ubi Memnone chorda.' 

" It was repaired, it is said, in the reign of Domitian. The height of either colos- 
sus is 47 feet, or 53 above the plain ; in the lap of the statue is a stone, which on 
being struck emits a metallic sound, which was probably made use of to deceive those 
who were predisposed to belief in its magical powers. The statues measure 18 feet 
across the shoulders, and about 19 feet from the knee to the sole of the foot. Three 
hundred feet behind these statues are the remains of another colossal statue, with 
four smaller female statues formed of one block. 

44 The proportions of the colossal statues are the same as the large statue of 
Rameses at the Memnonium ; and probably date as far back as that period. 

"C.S.H." 

The Secretary then read a short account, by the Dean of Hereford, 
of an ancient Bell, apparently of the Saxon period, recently found about 
18 feet below the surface of the ground, in cleaning out a pond in the 
parish of Marden, Herefordshire, and very nearly built on the spot 
where it is asserted the body of King Ethelbert was buried, after his 
murder at the instigation of the Queen of Offa. 

It has been asserted, the Dean observed, that Offa's palace stood 
where the vicarage house of Marden now stands, in the meadow adjoin- 
which this bell was found. Others allege that Offa's palace stood on 
the spot called Sutton Walls, about a mile distant, and which had been 
undoubtedly before in the occupation of the Romans. The question as 
to which was the site of Offa's palace has yet to be determined. 

In the church, dedicated to Saint Ethelbert, is a round hole in the 
pavement, said to mark the spot where, as tradition asserts, a miracu- 
lous spring arose on the contact of Saint Ethelbert's body ; and it is not 
unworthy of remark that the tithes and glebe (now rent-charge) were 
originally granted by King Offa to the Dean and Chapter of Hereford. 

The thanks of the Society were severally ordered to be returned for 
these communications. 



265 



Thursday, May 18th, 1848. 

THOMAS STAPLETON, Esq. Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the last Meeting being read, the following presents 
were received, and thanks for them ordered to be returned : To James 
Tulloch, Esq., F.S.A., for " A general Plan of the Public Sewers of the 
City of London and the Liberties thereof," completed in 1847 ; and for 
a " Map of Culloden Moor, and part of the adjacent country, on which 
are laid down the different roads leading to the site of the battle fought 
on the 16th of April, 1746 ; also ancient tumuli, Druidical stone circles, 
vitrified forts, and other objects of interest to strangers, by J. Gourie." 
And to the Hon. R. C. Neville, F.S.A., for his work " Sepulchra Ex- 
posita, or an account of the opening of some barrows ; with remarks 
upon miscellaneous antiquities discovered in the neighbourhood of 
Audley End, Essex," 8vo. Saffron Walden, 1848. 

Sir Fortunatus Dwarris communicated to the Society a sequel to his 
" Remarks upon one of the Old Cheshire Families" read at a former 
meeting ; the most important point in which was his discovery of the 
Grant of Creation to Sir William Brereton of the Barony of Brereton, 
&c. in which patent he found the descent of the Brereton family from 
the royal blood of Scotland expressly recited and recognised. 

A letter was read from John Yonge Akerman, Esq. Secretary, ad- 
dressed to Sir Henry Ellis, in illustration of the Mummy of a Peruvian 
Child, dug up on the plains of Arica, exhibited to the Society by Charles 
W. Steele, Esq. of Lewisham, accompanied by various articles of anti- 
quity which had been discovered with it, consisting of an urn of baked 
clay containing a quantity of female hair ; a comb of wood ; a copper 
instrument with a wooden handle, formed like a leather-cutter's knife ; 
two spatulae of copper ; an oblong pebble with each end attenuated ; an 
arrowhead of flint ; a small disc of baked clay ; a portion of a hollow 
reed ; a gourd ; and a small bag of Peruvian cloth. The body of the 
child, apparently about five years of age, had been deposited in a seated 
posture. 

The Secretary then read an account of some " Antiquarian Researches 
in the Ionian Islands in the year 1812," by John Lee, LL.D., F.R.S.* 
communicated by that gentleman in a letter to Capt. W. H. Smyth, 
R.N., Director ; and accompanied by the exhibition of numerous ancient 
articles, some of gold and silver of beautiful workmanship, the fruit of 
those researches, together with several illustrative drawings. 

This communication opens with a short notice of Dr. Lee's stay at 
Zante. On Dec. 14th, he took his passage on board a gun-boat for 
Cephalonia, and reached Argostoli on the following day, after which he 
examined the ruins still called La Fortes za Vecchia di Cranea. On 
the 22nd he set out on his journey to Samos, accompanied by another 
English gentleman, and on the following day crossed the Channel in two 
hours and a half to Ithaca. On the 24th, having called on Capt. 
Guiteira, the commandant of the island, and made known their wish 
to excavate, permission was politely granted. They first examined some 
small Roman tombs, but these had been already ransacked. On the 



28th, they began operations with more regularity, and by the evening 
were rewarded by discovering a gold chain, some articles in silver, others 
in bronze, also some terracottas, and a few medals of Corinth, Acarnania, 
and Istijea. On their return to tin* town, they imprudently exhibited all 
they had found, to gratify those who wished to see the result of their 
labour ; which, instead of satisfaction, created jealousy, and they were 
soon informed that the Primates had requested the Commandant, to stop 
their proceedings. Reports were spread that the government disap- 
proved of the conduct of those who had given assistance ; but still the 
party received no official notice of its disapprobation. On the morning 
of the 29th, they \veut to work again, but with only seven labourers ; 
and they had reason to believe that the others were prevented coming to 
their aid. 

Being thus opposed by some powerful influence, they were unable to 
make much progress, though they still found a few objects of interest 
and value. On the 30th, they paid off all their labourers, and divided 
their opimu spolia into five lots, each gentleman taking that portion 
which fell to his share ; although they afterwards effected several ex- 
changes amongst themselves. On the 31st, having been thus thwarted 
in their plans, the party dispersed : and Dr. Lee left Vathr, to visit the 
northern part of the island, kindly furnished with a recommendation 
from Lieut. Bibra to Captain Vretto, inspector of the militia, in the dis- 
trict of Oxoi, requesting him to furnish labourers if Dr. Lee should wish 
to excavate. 

January 1st, 181$, the inspector offered to supply some labourers, and 
courteously showed the ruins near Oxoi, which led Dr. Lee to consider 
where it would be most desirable to explore. The spot was called Paleo- 
castro, and belonged to two old men, who said they had never found 
more than two tombs there, with some bones hi them, and some small 
terra-cotta vases. After the middle of the day had passed, the party 
were respectfully informed by Captain Vretto, that he could not permit 
thm to excavate without orders from the government. " We were sur- 
prised " Dr. Lee says, " at this interruption thus suddenly breaking in 
upon the plans we had been led to form, and concluded he must have 
received some order to the effect from head quarters." A courier was 
in consequence dispatched to Vathi, requesting direction for Captain 
Vretto to permit the operations. About noon the messenger returned 
with a letter from the Commandant, informing Dr. Lee that the captain 
of the district had done his duty ; that he should be instructed to allow 
of any ocular observations, but that excavations could not be permitted 
without an order from tin* general government of the Ionian Islands. 
The Commandant and the President of the Council not only signed a 
letter of prohibition, but personally forbade further work. 

Before quitting Vathi to embark at Porto Phryges for Santa Maura, 
Dr. Lee wrote to General Airy, stating how repeatedly his researches 
had been thwarted, and intreatinii of him to issue directions that in future 
travellers should be allowed the same privileges in Ithaca as in the other 
Ionian islands, beinjr permitted to excavate where they might think 
eligible. On his return to Xante towards the end of January, he \va> 
gratified at leanmio -that (feneral Airy had sent orders to Ithaca that 



267 

travellers should not in future be prevented from excavating upon 
ancient sites, provided only that they previously obtained the consent 
of the proprietor of the land. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned severally for these communi- 
cations. 

Thursday, May 25th, 1848. 
Sir ROBERT HARRY INGLIS, Bart. V.P. in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the last Meeting having been read and confirmed, the 
following presents were announced, and the thanks of the Society for 
them were ordered to be returned : namely, to John Whichard, Esq. 
Jun. for his " History and Antiquities of All Saints, Maidstone," folio, 
London, 1845. To William Pettit Griffith, Esq. F.S.A. for the second 
part of his work, intituled " Ancient Gothic Churches, their Proportions 
and Chromatics," 4to, London, 1848. 

Octavius Morgan, Esq. M.P. F.S.A. exhibited a series of ancient 
Watches, with a memoir in illustration of their antiquity and history, to 
be read at a future meeting. Colonel Batty, late of the Grenadier 
Guards, exhibited a curious compound Solar Dial, bearing the date of 
1544 ; and Mr. Henry Graves, of Pall Mall, exhibited the drawing of 
an elegant plan for a clock designed by Hans Holbein for Sir Anthony 
Denny, intended as a new-year's gift to Henry VIII. These last were 
brought in illustration of the memoir about to be read. 

Joshua Whitehead Butterworth, Esq. F.S.A. also exhibited to the 
Society an antique Clock-watch of singular construction, which was once 
the property of Louis XIV. This beautiful specimen is in a massy rock- 
crystal case, with engraved silver-gilt mountings ; and was made by a 
German artist at Lubeck. It is constructed with a vertical escapement, 
and strikes the hours and half-hours on a bell neatly placed under the 
dial ; the number of blows struck being regulated by a locking wheel, 
which makes one revolution in twelve hours. That it was originally 
made with a pendulum spring is shewn by an appropriate stud and the 
regulator, technically termed the slide, which are evidently co-eval with 
the rest of the work. 

The Secretary then proceeded to read the description of an Astro- 
logical Clock belonging to the Society, in a letter from Captain W. H. 
Smyth, R.N. Director, to Lord Mahon, the President. 

Captain Smyth, on being appointed Director of the Society, considered 
it his duty to inspect the state and arrangement of its property, of which 
a detailed catalogue was in hand by Mr. Albert Way, his predecessor in 
office. In the course of his research he was struck with the fabric of an 
old Bohemian Clock in the Society's possession, which, on further in- 
quiry, seeming to be the earliest in original condition now in England, 
he thought himself called upon to lodge a description of it in the archives. 
Previous, however, to describing' the machine itself, he considered it 
requisite for the right understanding of the subject to throw together 
some preliminary remarks, correcting various contested points of horo- 
logical history. 

Captain Smyth first referred to a memoir in the Archoloeria. by the 



268 

Hon. Daines Barringtou, on the earliest introduction of clocks into 
Europe ; observing that the substantial value of the details of this paper 
had been proved by the quotations constantly made from it, and by its 
being wholly transcribed into the well-known " History of Inventions" 
by Professor Beckmaira : still, however, that a few lacunae in it required 
filling up. But, from various causes, the early history of clock-making 
is involved in such dense obscurity that it is now useless to search for 
any individual as the prime inventor, although several names have been 
proposed. On this point all must coincide in Ferdinand Berthoud's 
conclusion, that a clock, such as that which Henry de Wyk made for 
Charles the Wise, king of France, about the year 1364, is not the inven- 
tion of one man, but is an assemblage of successive inventions, each of 
them perhaps having been made by a different person, and probably all 
at different periods. 

The earliest English claims to distinction in this useful art are then 
examined in detail ; and the old clocks of Westminster, St. Alban's, 
Glastonbury, Exeter, Oxford, and Hampton Court, are severally noticed, 
as well as their " devisers." On the whole, the author considers it may 
be received that these ingenious machines were actually used in European 
monasteries about the eleventh century. The evidence, however, on 
which this assumption is based, he adds, also goes far to shew that it is 
probable Europe is not entitled to the honour of the invention, but that 
it is rather to be ascribed to the Saracens, a people to whom we are 
indebted for many of the choicest results of human ingenuity. Having 
thus dwelt upon our earliest specimens of horological art, Capt. Smyth's 
memoir returns to the particular history and structure of the astrological 
clock in the Society's possession, the reading of which was deferred to 
the following meeting. 



Thursday, June 1st, 1848. 
HENRY HALLAM, Esq. V.P. in the Chair. 

After the Minutes of the last Meeting were read and confirmed, Sir 
Thomas Cartwright, recently elected, having paid his admission-fee, and 
subscribed the obligation required by the Statutes, was admitted a Fellow 
of the Society. 

The following presents were received, and the thanks of the Society 
for them ordered to be returned : To John Bowyer Nichols, Esq. 
F.S.A. for the " Gentleman's Magazine" for June, 1848. To the Pre- 
sident and Council of the Camden Society, for the " Diary of Henry 
Machyn, Citizen and Merchant- Taylor of London, from A.D. 1550 to 
1563, ' 4to, London, 1847. To the Editor, for the " Athenaeum" for the 
month of May, 1848. To George Godwin, Esq. Jun. F.S.A. for Part 
.5 of vol. VI. of " The Builder." To the President and Council of the 
Zoological Society, for Part 5 vol. III. of their " Transactions," 4to ; 
and for a continuation of their " Proceedings," 8vo. To Edward 
Wedlake Brayley, Esq. F.S.A. for Part 2 vol. V. of his "History of 
Surrey." To Dr. J. G. Flugel, for three Tracts, viz. " Extra-Im- 
pression," or the Preface and Introduction to the doctor's Practical 
Dictionary of the English and German Languages, 8vo. London, 1848 ; 



269 

" Literarische Sympathien," 8vo. Leipsic, 1843 ; and " A Call for Re- 
dress in a matter of Piracy committed on Dr. Flugel's Dictionary," 8vo. 
1847. 

Dawson Turner, Esq. of Great Yarmouth, F.S.A. exhibited to the 
Society two sets of excellent drawings, illustrative of the fresco paintings 
and other ancient remains in the parish churches of Gateley and Crost- 
wight, in the county of Norfolk. 

Octavius Morgan, Esq. M.P. again laid upon the table his collection 
of Nuremberg eggs, together with an early Dutch clock, and another 
set of ancient watches, the property of the Clock-makers' Company : 
which last were exhibited by favour of Benjamin Lewis Vulliamy, Esq. 
F.R.A.S. Master of the Company. Mr. Butterworth's German watch 
was also on the table ; and the whole were brought together in illustration 
of Mr. Morgan's memoir on the History of Watches, about to be laid 
before the Society. 

Sir Henry Ellis then proceeded to read the continuation of Captain 
Smyth's letter to Lord Mahon, descriptive of the Society's Astrological 
Clock. This curious machine, it appears, was made by Jacob Zech in 
1525, for Sigismund king of Poland ; and from the impaled armorial 
bearings, with other evidence, it may be presumed that it was presented 
by him to Bona Sforza, his wife. From that time its story is unknown, 
until it fell into the hands of Mr. James Ferguson, the well-known as- 
tronomer, to whom it is said to have " been presented by a gentleman." ( 
On the sale of Ferguson's effects in 1777, it was purchased by Mr. 
Henry Peckitt, of Compton Street, Soho, by whom it was bequeathed to 
the Society of Antiquaries in the year 1808. 

The clock is inclosed in a circular case of gilt brass, measuring 9f 
inches in diameter by 5 inches in height. Both the design and work- 
manship of this box are in excellent taste ; and the bold foliated decora- 
tion around its sides is finely finished. Captain Smyth then entered 
very particularly into the construction and actual condition of this re- 
markable machine : and, being fully persuaded that the whole clock box, 
dial, hand, zodiac, train, bell, ornaments, and armorial bearings is now 
just as it issued from Jacob's shop, he was enabled to point out some of 
the nicest improvements in clock-work, which are usually cited as hav- 
ing been invented in more recent times. In proof of this, he dwelt 
especially on the balance, the escapement, the fuzee, and the going fuzee, 
the modified existence of which in 1525 is thus indisputable. The me- 
moir was closed with a technical description of the interior works and 
their structure, kindly furnished to the author by B. L. Vulliamy, Esq. 
a competent and acknowledged authority in these matters. 

The lateness of the hour prevented the reading of Mr. Morgan's 
paper on the History of Watches ; the title was, however, announced, 
and the reading postponed till the next evening meeting of the Society. 

Thursday, June 8th, 1848. 
The LORD BISHOP of OXFORD, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the last Meeting were read ; after which the follow- 
ing presents were received and acknowledged : From George Stephens, 



i>70 

\miiint of the British and Fronrh MS& preserved in the 
Rmal Library of Stockholm," translated from his own work published 
at Stockholm, but with large manuscript additions, folio. From J. Y. 
Akerman. Ksq., Secretary* his " Introduction to the study of Ancient 
and Modern Coins," 8vo. London. 1848. From Charles Roach Smith, 
Esq., F^S.A., No. of the " Journal of the Archaeological Association '' 
for July, 1846, 8vo. to make the Society's set of the Journal complete. 
From the St. Alban's Architectural Society, a " Description of the 
Roman Theatre of Venilam, by K. (trove Lowe, Esq." Hvo. London, 1848. 
Sir Henry Ellis, by the kindness of George Edward Anson, Esq., 
exhibited a Torquis of flue gold, picked up a few days ago in a wood 
belonging to the Queen, as Duchess of Lancaster, on Needwood Fore&t, 
in Staffordshire. A new fox-earth had been made just at the place, and 
the cubs appeared to have been sporting with the torquis, which) it is 
supposed, they had raked up. It was found in its present state by the 
keeper, at the mouth of the hole. Many collars of this kind, formed of 
a single wreath, have been exhibited in the Society's room ; but in form 
and character of workmanship, this, belonging to Her Majesty, is more 
curious and more splendid than any the Society have seen ; and it i3 
singularly remarkable in the number of Wreathe which compose it. Its 
weight is lib. loz. 7dwts. IGgrs;* or 5,590 grains. 



"The torquis," says Sir Henry, " is said to be of Gaulish origin, at least the 
earliest mention of it in the Roman history is in the story of Manlius, in the yeat- of 
Rdme 394, who, having torn One of gold from the neck of a vanquished Gaul, placed it 
upon his own> and thence received the appellation of Torquatus. Subsequently the 
torquis became a present of military merit to the Roman soldier, whence the phrase 
1 torquatus miles.' Aulus Gellius, it will be remembered, in his ttocte* Attica, de- 
scribes Lucius Siccius Dentatus, who was called the Raman Achilles, as having 
received the torquis no fewer than 83 times." 

John Bruce, Esq., F.S.A. of Hyde House* near Stroud, exhibited a 
bronze fibula recently found on Hyde Farm, in the parish of Minchin- 
hampton, in the county of Gloucester, and belonging to Mrs. Fairer, of 
Hyde Cottage. In the spring-hinge, and in the simple contrivance a. 
turn-over edge by which the pin is fastened^ Mr. Bruce says it resem- 
bles a fibula engraved in Captain Smyth v s account or" Sir (George Mus- 
ffraye's Collection of Antiquities, printed in the 31st volume of the 
Archa3ologia, page 85. 

A memoir from Octavius Morgan, Esq., M.P., was read, on the 
" History and Progress of the Art of Watch-making, from the earliest 
period to modern times ;" forming a sequel to Captain Smyth's paper on 
the Society's ancient clock. The reading was accompanied by tne exhi- 
bition of the collections of watches produced at the preceding Meeting. 

It is evident, Mr. Morgan observes, that in order to construct porta- 
ble clocks, a new moving power was required as a substitute for the 
weights which set in motion the wheel-work of the Axed clocks. It was 
necessary that this power should act of itself, independently of external 
forces, and irrespective of position, and that the source of it should be 
compact. Such a frovref i round irt the expansive force of a coifed 
spring. The precise period when this was discovered, as well as the 
individual and the country to whom the merit of the discovery is due, is 



271 

not certainly known. It seems, however, to have hem employed n, 
construction of portal >le docks* toward the end of the fifteenth century. 

The earliest allusion Mr. Moriran \\as able to find to portable clock-, 
is in a sonnet of Gaspar Visconti. a Milanese poet, written in 1494 ; on 
the authenticity of which rests the evidence that these were then known 
in Italy. The claim of Lorenzo de Vnlparia to have been the inventor 
of watches as brought forward by Domenico Maimi in his (Jninmcn- 
fnrfum de Flu re nt-ini.t inventis is next con-idercd ; but Mr. Morgan 
refutes the claim, assuming that the mat-bine upon which it was made 
was not a clock but an orrery, and itloreorer that it was not portable. 
But the ancient city of Nuremberg, so famous for the ingenuity of its 
mechanics, as well as the ability of its astronomers, has always claimed 
the merit of the invention of watches, or pocket-clocks, as they were 
called by the Germans ; and the fact of the early watches having been 
proverbially called Nuremberg eggs> is ptesnmptive evidence in their 
favour. It is certainly the earliest place at which we have any authentic 
information of their having been niade ; and Doppelmayer has cited 
Peter Hele as the Inventor. 

Mr. Morgan then pointed out how the art of Watchmaking advariced, 
and when the successive modifications were made ; referring for proofs 
immediately to the objects upon the Society's table, and closing his obser- 
vations with the last great improvement, namely, the application of jewels 
to diminish the friction of the pivots. Facio, a native of Geneva^ and 
partner of De Baafre, a French watchmaker established in London, is 
said to have first invented the application of jewels to watchwork, for 
this purpose, about 1700. There is, however, a watch made by Hug- 
gerford of London, before the use of the pendulum spring ; it belongs 
to the Clockmakers' Company [exhibited on the table}, and has a large 
amethyst mounted on the cock, which, if part of the original work, would 
shew that the experiment had been ma-de at an- earlier period. Some 
very curious particulars respecting the Clockmakers' Company con- 
cluded th memoir. 

A letter from the Rev. Joseph Hunter, F.S.A. to Sir Henry Elks, 
was next read ; it was a reply to some remarks verbally made by Mr. B. 
Williams, at a previous meeting of the Society, upon his paper fertery printed 
in the Archaeologia, entitled, " Proofs of the Early Use of Gunpowder 
in the English- Army." The statement was, that while Mr. Hunter 
regarded 1346, the year of the Cressy expedition, as the earliest period 
at which we have the testimony of contemporary records to the applica- 
tion by the English of gunpowder to the pin-poses of war, Sir Harri- 
Nicolas, in his recent History of the Royal Navy, had shewn from evi- 
dence of the same kind, that cannon and guns, and of course gunpow- 
der, were in use in the English navy as early as 1388 ; adding, as 
making the fact more striking, that Sir Harris had obtained his informs 
tion from records in Mr. Hunter's own charge. 

Mr. Hunter returns an answer to this allegation, and quote" the pas- 
sages alluded to in Sir Harris Nicolas'* work ; in one of which 
stated, that among th<* stores of the hulk, " Christopher of the Tower," 
in June 1338, there were three iron cannon with five chambers, a hand- 
gun, &c. with similar artillery in several other vessels ; and that in the 



272 

King's private wardrobe wore two great guns of copper. Referring to 
Sir Harris Nicolas's Appendix, however, where the two documents cited 
by him for this information are given, one, it appears, relates to trans- 
actions which at the earliest took place in 1363 ; and the other, which is 
cited by Sir Harris as of 1338, really belongs to the year 1411 ; so that, 
instead of being earlier than the Cressy epoch, this last is sixty-five 
years later. The document is dated in the twelfth year of a certain 
reign, without naming the king ; and Sir Harris Nicolas regarded it as of 
the twelfth Edward III. which would have corresponded to 1338, but it 
is really of the twelfth Henry IV. It is an indenture by which John 
Starlyng, Clerk of the Navy, when going out of office, passed certain 
stores to Leget his successor. The accompt of the receipt and expendi- 
ture of Starlyng' s office, to which this indenture was subsidiary, gives the 
name and date at length, " Anno regni regis Henrici Quarti duodecimo." 
The statement, therefore, in Sir Harris Nicolas's work, is indisputably 
shewn to be an error. The Author then remarks : 

" Sir Harris Nicolas will scarcely thank his over-zealous friend for 
having drawn attention to so capital an error in his work ; but it must 
be observed, that neither he nor any historical writer has yet the benefit 
of anything which approaches to the character of an English Fasti. 
Such a work, under the head of the clerks of the navy, would have 
shown him at once the true era both of Leget and Starlyng, neither of 
whom are found connected with public affairs till about the 32nd year of 
Edward the Third, when Leget appears, who afterwards held the oifice 
of constable of the Castle of Windsor, and other high appointments. 
The documents which he consulted are also only in the course of prepa- 
ration for public use, so that we are obliged, in respect of the classes not 
yet arranged, to which these belong, to give official notice to every 
person who uses them, that he must rely upon his own study of the 
document itself for everything respecting date and purport. This 
warning was given to Sir Harris Nicolas ; and those who use the un- 
arranged and unfinished documents without attending to this caution 
are greatly exposed to be misled themselves and to mislead others re- 
specting them. The task of determining dates where no date is ex- 
pressed is often a very difficult one. On our own first rough distribu- 
tion of these documents, we had ourselves placed the Indenture in the 
reign of Edward the Third, from which, in the revision and final arrange- 
ment, we should certainly have removed it. 

" I trust the Society will now be satisfied that this document, which, it 
is to be observed, is the only one on which Sir Harris Nicolas relies for 
the use of cannon in England in 1388, proves only that they were in use 
in English armaments in or a little before the year 1411. What the 
Scottish poet, Barbour, means by ' crakis of war ' is an old subject of 
controversy, but we are considering this curious and important question 
on the solid ground on which Sir Harris places it, of cotemporary evi- 
dence, With testimonies to the use by other nations I meddle not, for 
the reason given in the paper, and as to the proofs of the use of gun- 
powder in the latter years of Edward the Third and in the reign of King 
Richard the Second adduced by Mr. Williams, they are wholly beside 
this question. To assert peremptorily that no earlier proof of the appli- 



cation of gunpowder to the purposes of war or * for the king's guns * as 
the records cited by me express it, will ever be found, would be made 
only by one who was imperfectly acquainted with the state of the 
national records and the attention that has been given to them; but I may 
be permitted to observe that, having brought forward the proof loug wanted 
that gunpowder was made in England in the spring of 1346, the year of 
the Cressy Expedition, I assume as, according to our present knowledge 
and my own belief, that as this is the earliest notice that has been yet 
.discovered, so is it probably the earliest that will be discovered. If any 
one find earlier evidence I shall not be concerned at his success, wishing 
success to all diligent and honourable labourers, faithfully keeping in 
view, in all my inquiries, that the end is the establishment of the truth; 
and, having in them no other purpose or design whatever, I should have 
been very sorry if I had been the means of misleading the Society in 
such a point as this, interesting as it is in the history of art, and should 
be equally sorry if I had deprived Sir Harris Nicolas, or any other 
person, of any honour to which they may be justly entitled." 

The Secretary then read the following letter, containing " Notes on 
the Early Use of Fire-arms ; " it is addressed by Thomas Wright, Esq. 
F.S.A. to Captain W. H. Smyth, R.N. Director, and is chiefly in com- 
ment upon Mr. Hunter's paper already mentioned : 

Brompton, May 12th, 1848. 
MY DEAR SIR, 

I have just obtained a copy of the new half-volume of the Archseologia, and my 
attention was attracted to a paper by Mr. Hunter, entitled " Proofs of the early 
use of Gunpowder in the English Army," which contains some curious passages 
from English records relating to the use of fire-arms in the English army in the 
fourteenth century. But I confess that 1 was somewhat surprised to find Mr. 
Hunter arguing by implication and conjecture on a subject which has long enough 
been set at rest, so far as regards all the questions he discusses, by the most satis- 
factory documents. I unfortunately was not present when this paper was read 
before the Society, or I should have corrected Mr. Hunter's views on this subject ; 
but the circumstance of the paper having been printed leads me to think that a few 
remarks on the subject may not be unwelcome to some of the members of the 
Society, although the outline of the information may be found in so common a book 
as my Archaeological Album, published four years ago. 

As I understand Mr. Hunter, he supposes the epoch of the battle of Cressy to be 
the earliest known instance of the use of gunpowder in war in the West of Europe, 
and that even this is a matter which till now admitted of discussion. He then starts 
the question whether the use of gunpowder originated with the English, and was 
borrowed from them by other nations, and gives it as a common opinion that the 
invention did not become famous in Italy until about 1380. 

The question connected with the battle of Cressy is not, as Mr. Hunter supposes, 
one relating to the primary adoption of gunpowder and cannon, because we know 
perfectly well that they were in use years before, but it relates to a new development 
of the invention, to a use of these instruments of destruction in a manner in which 
they appear not to have been used before. 

Gunpowder, as a powerful projectile force, was first used to supply the place of 
the old complicated military machines, the balista, petraria, &c. which were em- 
ployed in the siege and defence of towns. Stones, darts, firebrands, and other 
things, were thrown from vessels perhaps resembling more our mortars than can- 
non ; and it is probable that this use of gunpowder was not unknown in the thir- 
teenth century. Different passages in the Spanish historians leave us little room to 
doubt that gunpowder was used in Spain as early as 1257 and 1272. The Christian 
King of Grenada employed gunpowder in the siege of Baeca in 1323. 

At this date it was certainly known in Italy. An Italian song writer in 



274 

speaks of a " bombarda," a word which might admit of more than one interpreta- 
tion. But M. Libri, in his History of Mathematics in Italy, produced a document from 
the archives of Florence, dated llth of February, 1320' (according to our mode of 
computation), relating to the appointment of officers in that city whose duty it was to 
see to the making of the iron bullets and of metal cannons for the defence of the 
castles and villages belonging to that republic. It may be observed, that this is not 
mentioned as if it were a new office, but the appointment is made as a matter of 
course. From this date the use of cannons is frequently mentioned in the Italian 
chronicles. 

From Italy these seem to have been introduced into France. In one of the num- 
ber* of the Bibliotheque de 1'Ecole des Chartes (for October, 1844), M. Lacabane- 
has contributed a paper on this subject, in which he has collected together the most 
important notices relating to cannons and gunpowder found in the French records. 
They are first mentioned at the beginning of the great struggle between Philippe de 
Valois and Edward III. of England. At the breaking out of the war, in the year 
1338, the French sent a fleet to the English coast, and took and burnt the town of 
Southampton. That gunpowder was used on this occasion is proved by a receipt, 
still perfect, with its seal attached, of which the following is a translation : 

" Know all that I William du Moulin of Boulogne, have had and received of 
Thomas Fouques, keeper of the close of the galleys of our Lord the King at Rouen, 
an iron pot to throw arrows with fire, forty-eight arrows with iron heads and fea- 
thered in two cases, a pound of saltpetre and half a pound of brimstone to make 
powder to throw the said arrows, of which things I hold myself well paid, and pro- 
mise to deliver them to our Lord the King, or to his command, whenever need shall 
be. Given at Leure, under my seal, the second day of July, in the year one thou- 
sand three hundred and thirty -eight." 

I will not enter into the question of the shape of the iron pot (pot-de-fer), and I 
will only make the passing remark that the frequent documents on this subject 
during the fourteenth century never speak of more than two of the ingredients of 
gunpowder, those which were most difficult to obtain, because the charcoal was an 
article which could be found ready at hand every where. Arrows and darts are also 
frequently mentioned in connection with cannons in subsequent documents. 

From a document quoted by Ducange, we learn that powder and cannon were used 
at the siege of Puy-Guillem, in the beginning of the year 1 339 (Ducange has mistaken 
the date and the name of the place). At the end of September, 1339, Edward III. 
commenced the siege of Cambrai, which after several attacks he was at length obliged 
to raise, and he retired towards St. Quentin. Documents are preserved which bear 
witness to the making of ten cannons (" five of iron, and five of metal") and to the 
purchasing of a large quantity of sulphur and saltpetre, for the defence of this city. 
As the expense of making the ten cannons amounted only to 25 livres 2 sols and 7 
derniers, they were evidently not of large dimensions. According to Froissart, the 
inhabitants of Quesnoy defended themselves against the French in 1340 with can- 
nons, and the same author informs us that the Scots used cannon in the capture of 
Stirling from the English in 1341 ; but, as Froissart wrote twenty years after those 
events, we cannot give him the full credit of a contemporary writer. A document 
from which extracts were printed in the fifth volume of the Mt'-nwircs de In Sodtti' 
de Antiquairen de la Morinic, in the year 1839, furnishes some most curious details 
relating to the cannons and gunpowder used by the garrison of Rihoult in Artois in 
1342, which, as it was but a small castle, shows that gunpowder must have been in 
very common use at that time. .From the registers of the town of Cahors we find 
that in 1346 no less than sixty pounds of gunpowder were made there, and in the 
year following twenty-four cannons were made in the same town. On the 'Jinh of 
April, 1345, two iron cannons, eight pounds of powder, and two hundred leaden 
balls, were sent from Toulouse for the garrison of the castle of Sompui, in the dio- 
cese of Auch. I need hardly say that every one who knows the social connection 
between France and England at this period is perfectly well aware that an invention 
of this kind could not be in use in France many months before it would be adopted 
in England. 

It will be seen from the foregoing facts that Mr. Hunter is in error if he suppooes 

that the battle of Cressy, fought on the 26th of April, 134G, was the point IV.. ui 

wl licit we must date the use of cannon and powder in European warfare. Still the 

lunui on that occasion had a remarkable character, the honour of which 



275 

appears to rest with the English. We have seen that previously they were only 
used in sieges now for the first time Edward III. carried them into a field of battle ,- 
and to this circumstance the decisire victory gained on that occasion is generally 
ascribed. The accounts of two contemporary historians leave us no room to doubt 
that the cannons were used in the battle of Creasy, and they speak of it as a re- 
markable circumstance, which led former writers to suppose that the ue of powder 
and cannons was then a novelty. John Villani, the historian of Florence, whose 
account is cited by Mr. Hunter, died in 1348, two years after the event he de- 
scribes. He says that the English fired from their cannons small iron balls. The 
other historian alluded to is the writer of this part of the Grand Chronicles of St. 
Denis, who says that the English brought into the field three cannons, with which 
they fired upon Hie Genoese bowmen, who formed the enemy's front ; and who, 
unused to face such weapons hi the field, turned their backs and fled. 

I think it unnecessary at present to give instances of the use of gunpowder in 
European warfare of a date subsequent to the battle of Cressy ; for after that event 
it became so common that within a year or two there was scarcely a little castle or 
fort in France which was not furnished with cannons. In 1348 Brioz-la-Gaillarde, 
in the Limousin, possessed five cannons, and from* 1349 to 1352 the town of Agen 
had cannons placed at its principal gates, and on all points where it was exposed to 
an attack. 

During this period we trace here and there attempts at improvement in the fabri- 
cation of this new artillery. A very curious entry in the registers of Tournay was 
printed in one of the volumes of the Academic Royale of Brussels, by which it appears 
that in Sept. 1346, a maker of tin pots named Pierre de Bruges, having made some 
new improvement in the construction of cannons for shooting against a town when 
besieged, the Council of Tournay had ordered him to make one, promising that if it 
answered his expectations they would employ him to make more. When Pierre 
had made his cannon he took it, by order of the Council, outside one of the principal 
gates into the fields, and there, to use the words of the document, " he put into it a 
dart, having at the end a piece of lead weighing two pounds, or thereabouts, and he 
fired off the engine, and directed it against a door in the wall ; which engine made 
so cruel a noise and so great that the dart went into the town," and, as it goes on 
to say, it so far exceeded the distance to which the cannon was expected to carry, 
that it passed through two parts of the town, into the place before the Monastery of 
St. Brice, where it struck a fuller named Jakemon de Raisse, on the head, and 
killed him. When Pierre de Bruges heard of this disastrous accident he ran away, 
and took shelter in a sanctuary ; the friends of Jakemon instituted proceedings 
against him, but after long and mature deliberation the Council, considering that it 
was by their orders that Pierre had fired off his cannon, that he had taken aim at a 
door in the wall, and had not intended to shoot into the town, and that he had never 
been known to bear any hatred to the said Jakemon, acquitted him of all evil intent, 
and pardoned him the death of the said Jakemon, of which he had thus been the 
involuntary cause. 

About six years after this unlucky experiment, a monk in Germany, named 
Berthold Schwartz, made so important an improvement in the construction of 
cannons, that the vague allusions to it induced many writers of a later period to 
suppose he was the original inventor of them. It is supposed that this improve- 
ment consisted in casting large cannons of copper or brass. A very curious passage 
relating to this invention was printed by M. Libri hi 1838, in the same work already 
quoted, from an official manuscript of the early part of the sixteenth century relating 
to the French mint, of which the following is a translation : 

" The seventeenth of May, 1354, our said Lord the King being informed of an 
invention of making artillery, found out in Germany by a monk named Berthold 
Schwartz, gave orders to the generals of the mints to make diligent inquiries what 
quantities of copper were in the said kingdom of France, as well to be provided 
with the means of making such artillery, as also to hinder it from being sold and 
transported out of the kingdom." 

After this period we hear frequent mention of large cannons, which was not the 
case before. 

We thus see that artillery, in the modern sense of the word, was in common use 
long before Mr. Hunter supposes. The documents in which we find it mentioned 
are of a kind which have perished much more extensively than the generality of his- 



276 

torical documents ; tliey are the loose records of individuals and of corporate bodies, 
and the fact that so many allusions to powder and cannon still exist, must be taken 
as a proof that such allusions in documents were once much more numerous. It is 
especially in the records of town corporations, who first used artillery to any 
extent, that we must look for information respecting it. Unfortunately in Eng- 
land the large mass of the earlier documents of this kind has been allowed to 
perish. I have myself found some very curious illustrations of the history of artil- 
lery in the fifteenth century in the records of Southampton and Canterbury, and I 
have no doubt that the records of other towns might be examined for materials on 
this subject with advantage. 

I remain, my dear Sir, 

Very faithfully yours, 

THOMAS WRIGHT. 

Thanks having been severally ordered for these communications, the 
chairman gave notice, that from this evening the meetings of the Society 
are adjourned to Thursday, the 16th of November; also, that the 
Library of the Society will be closed during the month of September. 



Errata in No. 13. 

Page 252, line 5 from the end of the President's letter, for " Still, however," 
read " Since, however." 

Page 253, second line of the second Latin inscription, for ' POEMA," read 

POENA." 






PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 
OF LONDON. 



1848. 



No. 15. 



Thursday, November 16th, 1848. 
Sir ROBERT HARRY INGLIS, Bart, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the last Meeting having been read and confirmed, 
Thomas Pryer, Esq. lately elected, now attending, having paid his admis- 
sion fee and subscribed the obligation required by the Statutes, was duly 
admitted a Fellow of the Society. The following extract from the pro- 
ceedings of the Council was then read : 

"At a Council held on Tuesday, June 6th, 1848, Viscount Mahon, President, 

in the Chair, 

" The Council, adverting to the item of 23 19*. in their accompts for the excess 
of expenditure in the anniversary dinner, and to a similar charge in former years, 
and conceiving that the funds of the Society cannot, with strict propriety, be so 
applied, have come to the unanimous decision that, in conformity with the practice 
of the Royal and other Societies, each Fellow present at the dinner, at all future 
anniversaries, shall pay his full share." 

The following books were presented to the Society, and thanks for the 
same ordered to be returned : 



By Henry Hallam, Esq. . > 

By the American Philosophical 
Society 

By John Britton, Esq. 

By Dr. Kitto . . . . 

By John Bowyer Nichols, Esq. 

By George Godwin, Esq. . . . 

By the Council of the Royal 
Geographical Society 

By the Editor .... 
By the Editor .... 

By W. King Eyton, Esq. . 

By the Royal Irish Academy 

By the Bedford Architectural and 
Archaeological Society. 



Supplemental Notes to the View of the State 
of Europe during the Middle Ages. 8vo. 

Their Proceedings. Vol. IV. Nos. 37 to 39. 
Their Transactions. Vol. X. New Series, 1847. 

The Authorship of the Letters of Junius eluci- 
dated. Royal 8vo. 1848. 

The Journal of Sacred Literature. Vol. I. 

Nos. III. and IV. 
The Gentleman's Magazine for July, August, 

September, October, 1848. 

The Builder. Vol. VI. Pts. VI. VII. VIII. IX. 

Their Journal. Pt. I. 1848. 

Bent's Monthly Advertiser. No. 530. 

The Athenaeum for June, July, August, Sep- 
tember, and October, 1848. 

A List of Interesting Works chiefly on Scottish 
History and Antiquities. 8vo. 

A Catalogue of his Library. 4to. 

Their Transactions. Vol. XXI. Pt. II. and their 
Proceedings. Vol. III. and Vol. IV. Pt. I. 

Their Proceedings at the first general meeting. 
8vo. 1848. 
2 A 



278 



La Societ^ des Antiquaires de 
1'Ouest. 

La Societd pour la Conservation 
des Monuments Historiques 

By M. Lecointre Dupont, hono- 
rary Fellow 



By The Royal Asiatic Society 
By the Earl of Ellesmere . 



By the Rev. George Hunt 

By the Royal Agricultural So- 
ciety 

By the Society of Northern An- 
tiquaries 

By Dawson Turner, Esq. . 



By the Archaeological Institute of 
Rome 



By Charles Roach Smith, Esq. , 
By John Yonge Akerman . , 

By the Literary and Philosophi- 
cal Society of Manchester 

By Wm. Watkiss Lloyd, Esq. . 
By J. H. Parker, Esq. 



By Beriah Botfield, Esq. . , . 

By the Royal Academy of Sci- 
ences of Belgium 



By the Society of Antiquaries of 
Picardy 



Their Memoires for the years 1846 and 1847, 
and their Bulletins for 1847 and 1848. 

Their Sceances Generates tenues en 1843. 



Essai sur les Monnaies frappe"es en Poictou. 

8vo. 1840. 

Essai sur Dom Rivet. 8vo. 
Rapport de la Commission charged d'examiner 

la Facade de 1'Eglise de N6tre Dame de Poic- 

tiers. 8vo. 

La Legende de St. Julien le Pauvre. 8vo. 
Notice sur un Denier de 1'Empereur Lothaire. 

8vo. 

Their Journal. Vol. IX. 

A Guide to Northern Archaeology, edited for 
the use of English Readers by the Earl of 
Ellesmere. 8vo. 

Himyaric Inscriptions of Hisn Ghorab. 8vo. 
Their Journal. Vol. IX. Pt. I. 8vo. 



Their Annals for 1847. Copenhagen. 8vo. 
Their Proceedings, 1846-7. Copenhagen. 8vo. 

A Guide to the Historian, the Biographer, the 
Antiquary, and the Collector of Autographs, 
etc. Royal 8vo. 

Sepulchral Reminiscences of a Market Town. 
8vo. 

Their Annali. Vol. XIX. 1847. 
Their Bulletino. Anno 1847. 
Their Monumenti. Plates 37 to 48. 

Collectanea Antiqua. Part XII. 

Ancient Coins of Cities and Princes. Hispania, 
Gallia, Britannia. 8vo. 

Their Memoirs. Vol. VIII. 

A Memoir on the Portland Vase. 8vo. 

An Attempt to discriminate the Styles of Archi- 
tecture in England. By the late Thomas 
Rickman. 8vo. 

Descriptive Notices of some of the Ancient 
Parochial and Collegiate Churches of Scot- 
land. 8vo. 

The Ecclesiastical and Architectural Topography 
of England. 8vo. 

English Mediaeval Embroidery. 1 Jm<>. 

Bibliotheca Herneiana. 4to. 

Their Bulletins, tome XIV. 2 e partie. 

tome XV. l e partie. 

Their Annuaire, XIV e Annee. 

Their Mdmoires, tomes XXI. and XXII., and 

Memoires Couronne"es, tome XXII. 

Their Bulletins, Annie 1847, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

Annee 1848, No. 1 ; also 

Their Memoires, tome IX*. 



279 

By Dr. J. Henry Schroder . Ostgotha Dialecten. 8vo. 

De Visitationibus Episcoporum Lincopensium 

oliin per Gothlandiam habitis. 4to. 
Andreas Johannis Episcopus Strengensis a 
MCDIX MCDXIX, ejusque sub schismate oc- 
cidental! cerumne. 4to. 

By Dr. Beke . . . . An Essay on the Sources of the Nile in the 

Mountains of the Moon. 8vo. 

By Edward Foss, Esq. , . The Judges of England, with Sketches of their 

Lives. 2 vols. 8vo. 

The President, by permission of Sir Edward Kerrison, exhibited to the 
Society a highly curious relic of antiquity a block of wood with an iron 
point imbedded therein lately discovered on that gentleman's estate in 
Suffolk ; together with the following explanatory memoir drawn up by 
a person on the spot : 

" The parish of Hoxne, in Suffolk, has always been remarkable as the place where 
Edmund, King of the East Angles, since he would not renounce his faith in Christ, 
was martyred by the Danes, who bound him to a tree, and shot him to death with 
arrows, A.D. 870. 

" A ehapel was erected near the spot where he was slain, which became afterwards 
a monastery of Benedictine Monks, attached to that of the same order at Norwich. 
It has lately been occupied as a farm-house on the estate of Lieutenant- General Sir 
Edward Kerrison, and goes by the name of the Abbey Farm, with the old walls, 
grotesque figures, and other relics still existing. 

" This abbey was dedicated to the martyred Saint, and he was buried there ; but 
his body was subsequently removed to Bury, thence, as is well known, called Bury 
St. Edmund's. 

"The oak to which, as tradition asserts, he was bound, fell only in September 
last (1848), apparently in the vigour of health and beauty : the excellence of its 
proportions rather seemed to diminish its size, but the trunk was 20 feet in circum- 
ference, the branches spreading over 48 yards ; and the tree contained 17 loads of 
timber. 

" A few days after the fall of this relic of antiquity, information was received from 
Bury that a number of wolves' bones had been dug up near King Edmund's grave; 
and this discovery leading to further inquiry connected with his martyrdom, it was 
requested that search might be made in the trunk of the fallen tree for the arrow 
that had shot the king. 

" Strange to say, the point of an arrow (for such it appears to be) was found, 
partly corroded, buried in the trunk, at the distance of five feet from the ground. 
This part of the tree had become decayed nearly two feet inwards, and had corroded 
all the part round the arrow ; but the wound was covered with rather more than a 
foot thick of sound wood. The annual ring, or layer, showed what may be pre- 
sumed to be the growth of a thousand years and upwards ! 

" The picturesque beauty and size of this oak, had long rendered it an object of 
attention to the neighbourhood, already filled with wondrous tales and legends of 
St. Edmund. Near the spot where the tree grew is a spring of water which, it is 
said, no occupier of the field has ever been able to divert from its course : and there 
are many other traditions still recounted and believed by some of the inhabitants of 
Hoxne village." % 

The thanks of the Society were ordered to be returned to Lieutenant- 
General Sir Edward Kerrison, and to the President, for this exhibition and 
communication. A letter from Lord Albert Conyngham to John Yonge 
Akerman, Esq. Secretary, was then read, accompanying the exhibition 
of several objects of antiquity discovered some time since by labourers 
employed on the railroad near the town of Amiens, in France. The men 
came to a leaden coffin of great thickness, which contained two skeletons, 
by the sides of which, within the coffin, these objects were found : con- 

2 A2 



280 

> 

sisting of a pair of gold ear-rings ; a gold ring set with an engraved cor- 
nelian ; a pair of slender gold-wire armillae of the plainest form ; a gold 
fibula ; a circular medallion of glass, to which is appended a small gold 
phallic figure ; a globular hollow ball of red earth ; fragments of three 
glass unguentaria ; a bronze pin ; a signet ring of bronze ; and a bronze 
fibula ornamented with birds. 

Benjamin Nightingale, Esq. exhibited to the Society drawings of the 
various objects of antiquity discovered at Farley Heath, near Guildford, 
and described by Martin Farquhar Tupper, Esq. last session. 

Mr. John Doubleday exhibited to the Society, by the hands of the 
Secretary, an ancient pair of scales found in the isle of Gigha, in the very 
furthest part of Scotland, in the spring of 1847, upon the top of a ridge 
of sandy ground, on a farm called Tarbert, just brought into cultiva- 
tion. The plough which discovered these scales also exhumed several 
other relics of former time, such as the fragment of an urn or earthern 
vessel, a small piece of the handle of an iron sword, a portion of a wooden 
cup, &c. 

Frederick W. Pott, Esq. of John Street, Bedford Row, and of Doc- 
tors' Commons, exhibited an ancient portrait, believed to be of Shakespeare, 
accompanied by a short account of the possessors of this picture previous 
to its falling into his hands. In a memorandum which accompanied the 
exhibition, Mr. Pott says " It is a well known and recorded fact that a 
portrait of Shakespeare, painted by Zucchero, upon a small piece of panel, 
formerly hung in the vestry room of St. Saviour's, Southwark, frequently 
but erroneously called St. Mary Overies. The picture is recorded to 
have been without a frame, and suspended by a piece of cord." He 
adds " It does not appear at what period the picture was lost sight of." 
William Weller, a stockbroker, the last possessor but one of the picture 
exhibited, was Mr. Pott's maternal grandfather, and from a slip of writing 
which lay upon this and two other paintings found with it, in the chest in 
which they had been deposited, it appears that the three were purchased 
at a sale of the effects of a Dr. Compton. William Compton, LL.D. 
was a civilian attached to the Ecclesiastical Courts, and at one time 
resided in the College of Advocates in Doctors' Commons. He was also 
Chancellor of Ely. As an advocate he had professional avocation at the 
Surrey Ecclesiastical Court, which was formerly held in the vestry room 
of St. Saviour's. Perplexity in his affairs, however, led him to pass many 
of the later years of his life on the Continent, acting in his office of 
Chancellor of Ely by proxy." Taking the above-mentioned facts in con- 
nection, Mr. Pott has always felt convinced that the portrait now exhi- 
bited to the Society, is the identical picture formerly suspended in the 
vestry room of St. Saviour s, Southwark. 

A letter from John Yonge Akerman, Esq. Secretary, addressed to 
John Payne Collier, Esq. Treasurer, on Gnostic Gems, was read; 
accompanied and illustrated by several impressions and drawings. 

Mr. Akerman says, " I think we shall not err much in assigning 
the origin of these amulets to Alexandria, the hotbed of Gnostic super- 
stion, and the birth-place of more than two leaders of that abominable 
sect. As far as we can judge from the style of their workmanship and 
the form of the characters, the greater part belong to a period later than 



281 

the days of the Antonines." What renders these objects the more inter- 
esting is, the great probability that they furnished to the Gentile defamers 
of the early Christians the grounds of much scandal and invective. It 
is well known that the idea that the God of the Jews was worshipped 
under the figure of an Ass prevailed so universally among- the Romans, 
that Pompey, when at Jerusalem, made strict search in the temple for 
such an idol. This belief, coupled with the appearance of the long- 
eared figure so often occurring on these amulets, must have tended 
greatly to extend the popular rumour against the Christians. * The 
figure in question,'* says Mr. Akerman, *' in all probability, was origi- 
nally that of the Anubis of the Romano-Egyptian Pantheon." The 
author illustrated this point by reference to the particular gems exhi- 
bited, and to a passage or two in the works of Tertullian. " It seems 
extremely probable," he adds, " that the adoption, and consequent fre- 
quent occurrence of Anubis on this class of engraved stones, may be 
explained by a passage in Tertullian (Ad Nationes, lib. ii. c. 3.) in which 
he shows that the worship of this divinity, who, it should be remembered, 
is not mentioned by Herodotus, originated in the Egyptian deification of 
the patriarch Joseph." The repute in which engraved stones were held 
as talismans in the middle ages has already been commented upon by 
Mr. Wright, in the 30th volume of the Archa3ologia, and is further 
illustrated by a remarkable example cited by Mr. Akerman, namely, 
the ring of an ecclesiastic, found on the finger of a skeleton disco- 
vered in Chichester Cathedral, and bearing the representation of a 
Gnostic figure, half man and half serpent. 

A letter was next read from William Durrant Cooper, Esq. F. S. A. 
to Sir Henry Ellis, Secretary, stating that Captain Smyth's paper on early 
Clocks had brought to his recollection, that one of the oldest, if not the 
oldest, clock at present in constant use in this country, is in the tower of 
Rye church, in Sussex. It is a clock with chimes for the quarter hours. 
It has recently undergone a full degree of cleaning ; and the cleaner states 
that a very large portion of the works is original, and that only im- 
material parts, such as the small wheels, have been renewed, but that a pen- 
dulum has been substituted for a balance. The charge for making the 
clockwork and dial as entered upon the churchwardens' accounts in 1515, 
was s>2. 6*. 8d. Other entries relating to it occur in 1561 ; but the 
accounts between 1570 and 1710 having been lost, there are no means 
of ascertaining when the pendulum was first applied.* 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these communications, and 
the Meeting adjourned. 

'Thursday, November 23d, 1848. 
The VISCOUNT MAHON, President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the last Meeting were read and confirmed. 

John Yonge Akerman, Esq. Secretary, exhibited to the Society a 

* In answer to a question from the Director, Mr. Cooper further states that there 
is a tradition at Rye that the communion-table and the ancient clock were taken 
from the Spanish Armada, and presented to the church by Queen Elizabeth. But 
he shews the story to be utterly erroneous ; and makes reference to Mr. Holloway's 
History of Rye, pp. 311 Sf 514, in support of his argument. 



282 

Fibula and a pair of Tweezers of bronze, stated to have been found at 
Silchester in Hampshire. 

A letter from Richard Brooke, Esq. F.S.A. to the President, was 
read, in illustration of a Brass Medal presented by him to the Society's 
Museum, struck in anticipation of the capture of Car thagen a in 1741. 
Mr. Brooke's medal, not in high preservation, bears, on one side, the 
figure of a person evidently intended for Admiral Vernon with his hat 
on, to whom another, meant for the Spanish Commander, kneeling on 
one knee, is presenting his sword, holding his hat in his left hand. A 
third figure represents Sir Chaloner Ogle. The circumscription of the 
obverse reads, " The pride of Spain humbled by Ad. Vernon and Sir 
Challoner Ogle." On the reverse a fleet of ships of war is represented 
advancing against Carthagena, with the words around, " They took 
Carthegena April 1741." Lord Mahon, in his History of England, 
from the Peace of Utrecht to the Peace of Aix la-Chapelle, mentions 
from Voltaire's History of the Age of Louis XVth the circumstance of 
such a medal having been struck. The medal described by Voltaire, 
however, appears to have exhibited on one side the port and environs of 
Carthagena, with the motto " II a pris Carthagena," and on the other 
Admiral Vernon, with the words " Au Vengeur de sa Patrie." Mr. 
Brooke says, " Voltaire, as an historian, was certainly frequently erro- 
neous ;" but adds, " It is possible that there were two medals of different 
kinds struck off representing the supposed capture of Carthagena." 

Thanks were ordered to be returned to Mr. Brooke for this communi- 
cation, and for his donation of the Medal to the Society's Museum. 

Robert Fox, Esq. exhibited to the Society a gold Armilla found upon 
his estate last year near Wendover in Buckinghamshire, accompanied by 
a letter from Albert Way, Esq. F.S.A. to Sir Henry Ellis, Secretary, 
explanatory of the discovery of this interesting relic, and of the history 
attaching to it as an ornament. It was turned up by the plough in a 
piece of ground which had been covered with wood until 1 845, when it 
was cleared and converted into arable. The wood was called the Ride- 
ings Coppice, and the field bears the name of the Riddings. There is 
no tumulus to be seen near the spot, nor any tradition or indication of 
ancient habitation. The Armilla is of pure gold, weighing four ounces 
twelve penny-weights, the intrinsic value being about twenty pounds. It 
is formed of two round bars or wires of considerable thickness, twisted 
together very compactly, and of two small wires, each likewise twisted, 
and turned between the large wires ; the entire four forming a tore, or 
compact cord. The locality where it was found is on the brow of a hill, 
on the west side of the valley of the Chiltern Range in which Wendover 
is situated. Many vestiges of ancient occupation are to be traced, Mr. 
Way says, in this part of Buckinghamshire, although none may occur 
immediately adjacent to the place of discovery on Mr. Fox's estate. That 
gentleman has suggested, he adds, and the notion appears well deserving 
of consideration, that a great conflict is supposed to have occurred not 
far from the spot, between the forces of the Britons and the Romans, 
when one of the sons of Cunobeline was slain. Great Kimble, about 
three miles distant, is inferred to have received its name from that Bri- 
tish chief, and ancient earthworks are pointed out, termed Belinus' 



Castle. The conjecture seems quite admissible, that this ornament may 
have been worn by some British chieftain, who took refuge in the woods 
of the Wendover Dean, in the retreat from the discomfiture of the Bri- 
tons on the occasion in question. 

The Armilla, Mr. Way observes, is certainly not of Roman character ; 
it belongs to the curious class of ornaments, chiefly of gold, of the 
twisted type, which most antiquaries seem to concur in regarding as 
Celtic. These tore ornaments vary very much, both in the fashion of 
the twist and in dimensions, ranging from the size of the splendid collar 
found in Staffordshire, exhibited to the Society by Her Most Gracious 
Majesty, to the tore rings of the size of finger rings. 

Having alluded to one or two specimens of ancient workmanship 
found in the neighbouring parts of England, at no great distance from 
the locality where Mr. Fox's Armilla was found, Mr. Way refers to one 
or two others, considered of the Roman Age, and particularly to the 
examples found about 1827 at Castlethorpe, in Buckinghamshire, together 
with coins of Nero, Vespasian, Antoninus Pius, and other emperors, 
represented in the Journal of the Archa?ological Institute. Mr. Way 
concludes with the remark, that " it is in Ireland that the greatest 
variety of ornaments of the tore type, and formed of gold, have been 
found. A careful comparison of specimens found in England with 
these Irish antiquities," he adds, " would be very desirable. The want 
of a national collection for such purposes of comparison is constantly to 
be felt in researches of this kind." He finally expresses his gratification 
at being permitted by Mr. Fox to state, that it is his generous intention 
to deposit the Armilla found upon his estate in the British Museum, as 
a contribution, and a very valuable one, towards the British series. 

Jabez Allies, Esq. F. S. A., exhibited to the Society an Arrow-head, 
which he was informed had been found in, and near the centre of, a log of 
mahogany from Honduras Bay, in the year 1844, as it was being sawed 
through. The log was between two feet two inches and three feet in 
diameter, and about seven yards long. The arrow-head laid parallel 
with the grain of the wood. 

Charles Weld, Esq. Assistant Secretary of the Royal Society, exhi- 
bited, by the hands of John Yonge Akerman, Esq. the original Matrix, 
with an impression, of the seal of William Neville, Lord Fawconberg. 
He was the third son of Richard Neville first Earl of Westmoreland, 
by Joan his wife, daughter of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, by Ka- 
tharine Swinford. W T illiam married Joan, daughter and heir of Thomas 
Lord Fawconberg (who died in 1370), and was summoned to Parlia- 
ment in right of his wife from 1429 to 1461, when he was created Earl 
of Kent. He had been made Knight of the Garter in 1 439. He died 
in the third of Edward IV. without male issue. His Earldom of Kent 
became extinct, and the Barony of Fawconberg fell into abeyance 
between his three daughters and co-heirs. He was buried in the Priory 
of Gisborough in Yorkshire. 

Thanks were severally ordered to be returned for these communi- 
cations. 



284 

Thursday, November 30th, 1848. 
HENRY HALLAM, Esq. V.P. in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the last Meeting were read. The recommendatory 
testimonial of Charles Bridger, Esq. having hung up the limited time 
was read, and his election balloted for, when he was declared duly 
elected a Fellow of this Society. 

The following presents were received, and thanks for them ordered to 
be returned, viz. : 

From James Pilbrow, Esq. . A New Method of Traction on Railways. Lon- 
don, 8vo. 
From the Editor . i . The Athenaeum for November. 

Dr. Bromet, in a letter to Captain W. H. Smyth, Director, dated 
Rome, 17th March, 1848, stated that he had availed himself of the 
return of his friend and brother antiquary, the Rev, J. M. Traherne, to 
send a fac-simile to the Society, of the characters engraved upon a 
Danish Prim-staff, now in the Kircherian Museum at the Collegio 
Romano. He regretted that in Rome he had no means of comparing it 
with the Calendar published by Plot, or that by Strutt, which has been 
called a Ploughman's Almanack, because of the relation of the Symbols 
on it to the labours of an Agriculturist. As the Calendar, the fac-simile 
of which was exhibited, refers only to the Festivals of certain Saints, 
Dr. Bromet thought it was probably drawn up for clerical purposes, 
and may therefore be of a kind never yet commented upon in England, 
The Staff itself, is formed of beech wood, and, with the exception of a 
few worm-holes, is in good condition. Its body is a rectangle, about 3^ 
feet long ; the larger faces being 2 inches, and the smaller one inch 
wide ; its upper end rounded into a handle about six inches long, the 
other end remaining of a rectangular form. On the two broad faces 
seven Runic characters occur, which, being repeated 52 times, evidently 
denote the days of the week ; while twelve of the series, surmounted by 
small triangles, mark the commencement of each month. From several 
of these letters, also, springs a line of hieroglyphical characters, referring 
to the chief festivals of the Romish Church, and to the days of certain 
Saints of greater notoriety apparently in Denmark than elsewhere ; a 
list of all of which Dr. Bromet has appended to the communication. 
To what passage, however, in the Lives of many of the Saints, the said 
hieroglyphics refer, Dr. Bromet felt unable to detail. 

G. Dittman, Esq. R.N. exhibited several fragments of Ancient 
Sculpture collected by him while serving on board H. M. ship Albion, 
in the Piraeus, found by private individuals whilst enlarging their cellars, 
digging for water, or clearing their wells. 

Read the following statement from Edward Hawkins, Esq. F.S.A., in 
illustration of the brass medal presented to the Society at the last 
Meeting by Mr. Brooke : 

"It will be recollected by the Fellows of this Society, that Admiral Vernon, who 
was strongly opposed to the ministry of the day, vaunted in the House of Commons 
that Porto Bello might be easily taken, and he professed his conviction that he could 
reduce it with six ships only. The ministry, not unwilling to remove to a distance a 
noisy, rough, and troublesome opponent, gave him a command in the West Indies, 
and afforded him an opportunity of accomplishing the achievement he had under- 



285 

taken. Porto Bello was consequently attacked ; and, after a very pusillanimous 
defence, taken, as promised, with six ships only. Vernon, as a strenuous opposer 
of the ministers, was made the idol of a party ; and this success, which was mag- 
nified very far beyond its merits, was the means of raising him still higher in estima- 
tion amongst the people. Addresses from both Houses of Parliament were made 
upon the occasion, and party spirit stimulated the populace to such exuberant ex- 
pressions of joy as were almost disgraceful to the nation. Not less than 95 pair of 
dies were used to supply the demand for medals commemorative of this exploit. 
They all vary in a greater or less degree from each other ; are all of extremely bad 
workmanship ; and could only have been intended for circulation amongst the popu- 
lace, who were elated with the victory. That hostility to the government of Sir 
Robert Walpole had much to do with the inordinate rejoicings upon the capture of 
Porto Bello is evident from some of these rude medals ; for upon the reverse of some 
that minister appears with a rope round his neck, conducted by a demon towards a 
pair of very ugly, gaping jaws, and exclaiming, ' Make room for Sir Robert.' 

"This conquest was accomplished in Nov. 1739. Vernon was the hero of the 
people, every extravagant praise was conferred upon him, and he was returned by 
two places as their representative in Parliament. Early in the year 1741 prepara- 
tions were made for effecting the conquest of Carthagena, and all arrangements 
being completed, an armament went forth under the command of Admiral Vernon 
conveying a considerable land force under the command of General Weutworth. In 
the middle of March the expedition arrived off Carthagena, and operations were 
commenced without delay, and with every expected success. The castles, forts, and 
batteries which commanded the water approaches to the town, successively fell into 
the hands of the troops, and Vernon was so confident of ultimate success, that on 
the first of April he despatched an express to the Duke of Newcastle with an account 
of his progress. No sooner had this been received than the Duke himself, and all 
the people of England, not conceiving it possible that any thing could arrest the 
career of their hero, gave way to the loudest expressions of exultation, and considered 
that to have been entirely accomplished, which was little more than commenced. 
This despatch reached England on the 18th of May, Medals to commemorate the 
success were immediately struck, and as these were of a most inferior description of 
workmanship, many were executed in a very short space of time, and not less than 
fifteen different ones were struck before the 19th of June, just one month, when 
another despatch from Admiral Vernon announced the failure of the expedition and 
the withdrawal of the armament. Some of these medals state the exact date of 
Vernon's despatch the ominous first of April ; and the progress of assertion in the 
legends of the medals is somewhat amusing. In the first, dated 1740-1, in refer- 
ring to events previous to 25 March, we have Vernon ' Viewing the town of Cartha- 
gena.' Then comes the assertion, corresponding with Vernon's despatch, that 'The 
forts of Carthagena were destroyed 1741.' Then follow medals dated 1 April 1741, 
announcing that he ' took Carthagena,' or conquered Carthagena ; ' and as a cor- 
roboration, Don Bias, the Spanish admiral, is represented on his knees surrendering 
his sword to his conquerors. It is true that the admiral's ship was taken, but he 
was not on board, and therefore escaped capture. 

" I send herewith twelve medals upon this expected conquest, and a button, as an 
additional proof of the frantic laudation conferred upon this blustering Admiral. 

ADMIRAL VERNON VIEWING THE TOWN OF CARTHAGANA . 1740: 1. 

THE FORTS OF CARTHAGENA DESTROYD BY ADM. VERNON 1741. 
ADMIRAL VERNON VIEWING THE TOWN OF CARTHAGENA. 

HE DESTROYD THE FORTS OF CARTHAGENA APRIL 1741. 
ADMIRAL VERNON THE PRESERVER OF HIS COUNTRY 

TOOK CARTHAGENA 1741. 
THE BRITISH GLORY REVIVD BY ADMIRAL VERNON. 

AD. VERNON GEN 1 OGLE TOOK CARTHAGENA BY SEA AND LAND Ap l 1 . 1741. 
ADM 1 VERNON AND S r CHALONER OGLE WE LOOK FOR DON BLASS. 

TOOK CARTHAGENA April 1741. 
I CAME I SAW I CONQUERED CARTHEGENA 

NONE MORE READY NONE MORE BRAVE April 1741 . DON BLA8S in a boat. 



286 



THE PRIDE OF SPAIN HUMBLED BY AD. VERNON AND S r CHA 1 OGLE DON BLASS 

surrendering. 

THEY TOOK CARTHAGENA APRIL 1741. DON BLASS in a boat. 

THB SPANISH PRIDE PULLD DOWN BY ADMIRAL VERNON . DON BLASS On his knCCS. 

TRUE BRITISH HEROES TOOK CARTHAGENA APRIL 1741. 
THK PRIDE OF SPAIN HUMBLED B? AD. VERNON . DON BLASS On hlS knCCS. 

HE TOOK CARTHAGENA APRIL 1 . 1741. 
ED. VERNON ESQ, VICE ADMIRAL OF THE BLUB 

VERNON CONQVRD CARTHAGENA APRIL 1 . 1741 
BRAVE VERNON OGLE & WENTWORTH 

Same reverse as last. 95 large. 

16 small. 
1 button." 

A letter from Robert Lemon, Esq. F.S.A. to J. Y. Akerman, Esq. 
Secretary, was read, respecting the exhibition at the last meeting of the 
fragment of St. Edmund's Oak, and the supposed arrow-head imbedded 
in it : 

" For this interesting exhibition the Society is indebted to its noble President, whose 
ready and active zeal in promoting the real interests of the Society, not only by 
encouraging the communications of others, but also by his own contributions, 
cannot fail to have the most beneficial effects upon the Society at large, and sets us 
an example most worthy to be followed. But, Sir, I conceive it to be as much the 
duty of the Society of Antiquaries to investigate as to receive communications. 
From the romantic nature of the legend of St. Edmund, the remoteness of its period 
of action, the age and size of the venerable tree, and the appearance of the frag- 
ment before us, no doubt many and various opinions will be formed as to what that 
substance really is which now claims our attention. 

" It is well known to all acquainted with agricultural habits, that it is an universal 
custom to immolate moles, stoats, hawks, rats, and other agrarian depredators, by 
nailing their bodies to any remarkable tree or other prominent object near farm 
buildings. This is not only universal in the present day, but it is a custom of 
extreme antiquity. I lately met with a remarkable illustration of the subject before 
us. In the course of last autumn I went for my health with part of my family to 
Herne Bay, and our chief amusement consisted in little excursions to the pretty 
village of Herne, about two miles distant on the Canterbury Road. Nicholas 
Ridley, the Bishop and martyr (and it is not unfitting that one martyr should illus- 
trate another), was Vicar of Herne, and he lived principally at a gentleman's house 
about a mile from the village, the farm buildings of which still remain, and are the 
objects of curiosity and interest to many a protestant pilgrim. 

" Parallel with the road is a level green, in the centre of which, but yet near the 
farm buildings, still stands a magnificent oak tree, in the full beauty and vigour of 
its existence, apparently about four centuries old. The diameter of the trunk 
appears to be (for I did not measure it) nearly two yards, and round it, at various 
heights, were nailed the bodies of many a rural transgressor, suspended there in 
terrorem, though I was unable to ascertain the moral effect of such an exhibition 
upon their companions in crime. One nail in particular, from which the body of 
the offender had dropped from decay, was far imbedded in the tree, indeed the bark 
was level, or rather beyond the head of the nail. I remarked to my children that in 
the course of a little time that nail would be completely overgrown by the bark, and 
in the lapse of another century would probably be found, far imbedded in the solid 
wood of the tree. 

" This was a circumstance bearing so remarkably upon the present subject that I 
could not forbear to communicate it, and in connexion with it to suggest that the 
permission of the proprietor of the fragment should be solicited to allow an investi- 
gation to take place, in order to ascertain what the object really is that now retains 
such a remarkable position. 

' Such an investigation must lead to a satisfactory result. If proved to be an 



287 

arrow-head, as suggested, its value as an antiquarian relic will be of the very highest 
estimation ; if proved to be any other or commoner instrument, it will still remain 
an object of great botanical curiosity. No antiquary would desire to remain under a 
delusion or a fiction, however pleasing such a fiction, and the legend connected with 
it might be. Our object is truth. The investigation here proposed might be made 
so as not to injure, disturb, or remove from its present position, the substance itself, 
and if no better operator may be found, I would willingly undertake to perform it, 
either by myself or in conjunction with some other gentleman, which would proba- 
bly be the most satisfactory arrangement." 

A letter was next read from Benjamin Williams, Esquire, F.S.A. to 
Sir Henry Ellis, upon the " Crakys," which Edward the Third took 
with him to Scotland in 1327, as referred to by C. D. Archibald, 
Esquire, in his memoir on the ancient Pieces of Ordnance found in the 
Island of Walney, in the 28th volume of the Archaeologia, and by the 
late Sir Harris Nicolas, in his second volume of the History of the 
Royal Navy, in the following quotation from Barbour's Life of Robert 
Bruce : 

" Twa noweltyis that day thai saw, 

That forouth in Scotland had been nane, 
Tymmeries for helmets war the t'ane, 
That thaime thoucht thane of gret bewte, 
And alsua wondyr for to se. 
The tothyr, crakys war off wer, 
That thai befor herd nevir er." 

Having quoted Jamieson's Etymological Scottish Dictionary and its 
Supplement, for the etymology of " Crack," Mr. Williams proceeded to 
remark that most of the early names of ordnance and guns were derived 
from the report made by their discharge ; as bombarde from /3o/u/3o$, a 
noise ; sclopetum from sclopus, described by Ducange as the noise made 
by puffing up the cheeks ; arquebuss from buse, in Flemish the pipe of a 
bellows, through which the air is forced, &c. Mr. Williams next quoted 
from Sir Harris Nicolas's History of the Navy (who found it in a MS. 
of the 14th century) a recipe for making powder " pour le krake." He 
further observes that guns were called canellae (tubes) by the Chaplain of 
Henry V. (MS. Cotton. Julius E. iv.) and saxivoma by Elmham and 
Titus Livius, and that the silence of our historians as to the use of 
cannon in England in the latter half of the fourteenth century may arise 
from their novelty having passed away. Mr. Williams adds, it is as 
remarkable that not one of our chroniclers has mentioned the fact that 
Richard II. took cannon with him in his second Irish expedition in 1399, 
and yet that the fact was proved by a writ of Privy Seal of the 1st 
Henry IV. remaining in the State Paper Office. 

Lastly, a letter was read from Sir Henry Ellis, Secretary, addressed 
to John Payne Collier, Esq. Treasurer, impugning the presumed 
originality of the picture recently exhibited as a portrait of Shake- 
speare : 

" For the last two evenings of the Society's Meeting a portrait has been exhibited, 
said to have been of Shakespeare, accompanied by a detail calculated to induce a 
belief that it is really an original. That the gentleman by whose kindness it has 
been laid before the Society sincerely believes it to be such, I have no question. 
But there are two or three points in the Memorandum which accompanied the 
exhibition, the correctness, or rather the probability, of which I hope I may be 
allowed to canvass without causing offence. 



288 

i 

" Mr. Pott begins his memorandum with this sentence, ' It is a well-known and 
recorded fact that a portrait of Shakespeare, painted by Zucchero upon a small 
piece of panel, formerly hung in the vestry room of St. Saviour's Southwark, 
frequently but erroneously called St. Mary Overies. The picture is recorded to 
have been without a frame, and suspended by a piece of cord. It does not appear 
at what period this picture was lost sight of.' These are Mr. Pott's words. 

" I will take the liberty, in the first instance, of asking where is it either a well- 
known or recorded fact that a portrait of Shakespeare, painted by Zucchero, was 
once preserved in the vestry room of St. Saviour's Southwark ? 

" I have made personal inquiry of a gentleman who has long been one of the 
clergymen of that church, and I have conversed with several very old inhabitants 
of the neighbourhood of St. Saviour's, and they know nothing of any tradition of 
such a picture. A very old member of this Society who, if not born within the 
parish, was, I believe, born within a few yards of it, and has lived through life there, 
never heard of any such picture hanging in the vestry of St. Saviour's. 

" In regard to its suspension there being recorded, I have carefully examined 
every printed authority within reach, and I find no record whatever of a picture of 
Shakespeare mentioned as having been deposited in the vestry of St. Saviour's, 
Southwark. ' The picture is recorded to have been without a frame, and suspended 
by a piece of cord.' There are two holes in Mr. Pott's picture, and at some time 
or other it was probably, from its appearance, suspended by a cord. 

" The authorities I have examined have been chiefly works relating to London, 
and its suburb of Southwark. Taking them in succession of date. I first looked at 
the New View of London by Hatton, 8vo. 1708 ; then at Strype's Stowe, of 1720, 
and at the later edition of 1754 ; after that at Morgan and Concanen's History and 
Antiquities of St. Saviour's, Southwark, 8vo. 1795 (a work devoted to the express 
enumeration of all that could interest the inhabitants) ; and, lastly, to Manning and 
Bray's History of Surrey, but in none of these works is there any mention whatever 
of a portrait of Shakespeare having been suspended in the vestry room : nor, as far 
as I can find, is there a notice of such a portrait in any life of Shakespeare prefixed 
to any printed edition of his works. 

"There is a passage in Manning and Bray's History of Surrey, vol. iii. p. 533, 
which says (and I think you have yourself also quoted it from the parish archives in 
your History of the Stage), that ' in 1598, the vestry of the parish of St. Saviour 
ordered that a petition should be made to the body of the council concerning the 
playhouse in that parish, wherein the enormities should be shewed that came thereby 
to the parish, and that in respect thereof they might be dismissed and put down 
from playing, and that four or five of the churchwardens should present the same.' 

" Is it likely that, after four or five of the churchwardens had been desired to 
present a petition to the Privy Council against the enormities which had come to 
the parish from the very existence of a theatre within its limits, a portrait of 
the chief actor, manager, or dramatist of that theatre, whichever you should consider 
him, although by Zucchero, should have been allowed to be suspended in their 
vestry ? 

" But this carries me to another point, namely, the painting of a portrait of 
Shakespeare by Zucchero. 

" Boaden, in his 'Inquiry into the authenticity of various Pictures and Prints 
which, from the decease of the Poet to our own Times, have been offered to the Pub- 
lic as Portraits of Shakespeare,' 4to. Lond. 1824, makes no mention of the portrait 
at St. Saviour's, Southwark ; but he mentions a portrait by Zucchero, said to have 
been an original picture, in the possession of Mr. Cosway. 

" ' The picture,' he says, ' exhibited a youthful poet, leaning with his face upon the 
right hand, the head stooped forward, in earnest meditation, with the evidences of 
composition lying before him. The age of the person whom Zucchero thus painted 
must have been verging upon thirty, because the beard was full, dark, and luxuriant ; 
the hair black, the eyes bright, and full of intelligence. But unfortunately Zucchero 
never could have painted Shakespeare. 

" * Having fled from Rome, in consequence of his satire upon some of the Pope's 
officers, he went first to Flanders, and in 1574 came to England. His stay in this 
country was certainly not long ; probably five or six years at most. If he left us in 
1580 Shakespeare was then only sixteen years old ; at his native Stratford ; paying 
bis court to fair Mistress Anne Hathaway ; and indubitably undistinguished by 



289 

dramatic talent. This portrait was an oval, life size, most delicately painted, but 
had not the slightest resemblance to the traditional complexion and established 
features of the great poet of England.' 

" Mr. Boaden spoke from a remembrance of five and twenty years. At the time 
he wrote, in 1824, it was not known what had become of this picture. 

' Something must now be said of Dr. Compton. William Compton, LL.D. was 
admitted in the Commons in 1763. Coote, in his Catalogue of English Civilians, 
published in 1804, says, ' After long practice he retired from the Commons, and 
passed many years on the Continent, acting by proxy as Chancellor of Ely. He 
retains in the decline of life the vivacity of youth.' 

" Whether the circumstance of his having professional avocations at the Surrey 
Ecclesiastical Court (held in St. Saviour's Vestry Room) induced a wish on his part 
to consider the picture stated to have hung there more attentively at home, does 
not appear on any other authority than what seems to be conjecture ; and the memo- 
randum stated to have been found with that and the two other pictures, merely says, 
' Bought at Dr. Compton's sale : ' but no mention of Shakespeare or of St. Saviour's 
vestry room. 

" What might be the date of Dr. Compton's sale I have no means of knowing. 
It must have been premature as far as his death was concerned. Coote has men- 
tioned him as alive in 1804 : in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1817, part ii. p. 631, 
in the Obituary, I find, ' At Clifton, Anne, wife of William Compton, Esq. D.C.L. 
and Chancellor of the Diocese of Ely.' From the term wife it is clear he was alive 
in 1817. 

" Upon the first sight of the portrait, the earrings and the straight collar, I was 
much inclined to think it Shakespeare ; but upon viewing it in different lights the 
portrait looks Spanish, it has an ecclesiastical appearance, and it may or it may not 
be a portrait of Shakespeare. 

" The Chandos picture of Shakespeare, after all, is the only one yet known which 
brings with it a fair pedigree." 

Thanks were severally ordered to be returned for these communica- 
tions, and the Meeting adjourned 

Thursday, December 7th, 1848. 
The VISCOUNT MAHON, President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the preceding Meeting were read and confirmed. 

The following Presents to the Society were announced : By the 
British Archaeological Association, their Journal, N XV. By Beriah Bot- 
field, Esq. a Catalogue of his Pictures at Norton Hall. By J. Bowyer 
Nichols, Esq. the Gentleman's Magazine for December. By the Council 
of the Art Union, their Report for 1848. 

Monsieur Francois Guizot, and the Chevalier Bunsen, formerly elected, 
being present, were admitted Honorary Members of the Society. 

James Startin, Esq. lately elected, now attending, having paid his 
admission fee and subscribed the obligation required by the Statutes, was 
admitted a Fellow of this Society. The recommendatory testimonial of 
John Whichcord, Esq. jun. of the County Surveyor's Office, Maidstone, 
Kent, having hung up the limited time, this gentleman was balloted for, 
whereupon he was declared duly elected a Fellow of this Society. 

The following Letter was then read from Dr. John Lee, F.S.A. 
addressed to the President and Fellows : 

" My Lord and Gentlemen, 

" I take leave to express to you the gratification which I feel from the mark of 
approbation received from the Members of your Council, who have honoured the 
humble description of my researches in Ithaca with insertion in the Archaeologia, 



290 

and also with the careful and exquisite engraving of the various articles thereby 
rescued from oblivion. I therefore have now much pleasure in offering most 
respectfully to the Society, for its acceptance, these relics, thus described and 
figured, with the exception of an ornament, No. 13, which is not in my possession ; 
and I hope that you will be pleased to permit them hereafter to occupy a place in 
your Museum. 

44 I feel persuaded that such articles will be better protected for the inspection of 
future archaeologists under your direction, and be of more use to the public than if 
retained in private hands. 

44 I have the honour to be, 

44 My Lord and Gentlemen, 

44 Your faithful humble servant, 

"JOHN LEE. 
44 Hartwell, near Aylesbury, December 6th, 1848." 

The thanks of the Society were immediately voted for this valuable 
donation, and Dr. Lee being present, the President expressed them to him 
in a short address. 

A Letter was next read from B. L. Vulliamy, Esq. addressed to the 
President, dated Pall Mall, Dec. 6th, 1848. It stated that Mr. Vulliamy 
was in possession of a Regulator made by his great-grandfather and 
grandfather (the former of whom was clockmaker to King George II.) ; 
that, observing the great interest the Society had taken in the clocks and 
watches exhibited before them last session, he was induced to ask the 
favour of his Lordship to accept this clock on the part of the Society, 
feeling sure that it will then be preserved as a monument of the talents 
of the makers for ages to come. The construction of the body of the 
clock and of the pendulum are that known by the appellation of Harri- 
son's. Mr. Vulliamy observed that it is too delicate and expensive for 
general use, and he entertained doubts whether the performance of a clock 
upon this principle was so good as that of one with Graham's escapement 
and mercurial pendulum. It is nevertheless an extremely curious and 
valuable clock. In closing his letter Mr. Vulliamy observed that the 
legitimate race of clock and watchmakers is fast passing away, and will soon 
merge into the class of the most ordinary manufacturers. This country, 
he remarks, holds its rank among the nations from its war-navy, and that 
navy, in its present state, is dependent on the assistance which navigation 
derives from chronometers. The state of ships of war upon foreign sta- 
tions, previous to the use of these instruments, cannot be better shewn than 
is done in Lord Anson's Voyage round the World. And now chronometers 
can neither be regulated or adjusted without the assistance of regulators. 

For this donation the thanks of the Society were also ordered to be 
returned. 

C. Havell, Esq. exhibited a military instrument called a carcass, 
anciently used for firing houses, found, at a depth of fifty feet, by labour- 
ers whilst digging chalk at Whitchurch in Oxfordshire. 

Richard Green, Esq. of Lichfield, exhibited to the Society, by the 
hands of Sir Henry Ellis, a gold Signet Ring, enamelled, bearing the 
arms of Scotland, once belonging to Mary Queen of Scots, as is evident 
from the letters M. R. upon the seal above the arms. Some remarks in 
illustration of the exhibition were promised for another Meeting. 

A short letter from Walter White, Esq. to John Yonge Akerman, 
Esq. Secretary, was read ; mentioning that in the last published Part of 



291 

the Archaeologia he had met with a phrase in which the Channel between 
England and France was distinguished as " the Sleeve." The term 
occurs in a Communication on the means for repelling the Spanish Inva- 
sion in 1587. Mr. White observed that this was a literal translation of 
the French name for this Channel, namely, " La Manche ;" and added, 
" The inquiry reminds me of a pasquinade, suggested by the French 
term, played off in Paris by some legitimist wags at the time of Napo- 
leon's abortive preparations for invading England. A caricature was 
published, representing a tailor helping the Emperor into a coat. One 
of the sleeves, however, baffles the imperial ruler's efforts to pass his 
arm through it ; whence the point of the epigraph, * II ne peut pas 
passer La Manche! " 

Thanks were severally ordered to be returned for these Exhibitions 
and Communications. After which the Secretary proceeded to read an 
" Inquiry as to the Site of Roman London," by Arthur Taylor, Esq. 
F.S.A., addressed in two Letters to Sir Henry Ellis. 

The first of these forms an Inquiry whether the original London may 
not be determinately fixed on a part of the present city. In the opening 
Mr. Taylor observes, that " Occurring as a Station in eight of the 
fifteen Journeys of the Imperial Itinerary, four times as a point of 
departure, three times as the terminus of a route, Londinium is a link of 
connexion with other Stations on the same lines of road, and its position 
a necessary preliminary to a correct knowledge of the roads themselves. 
Without claiming for London more than this relative importance in 
British Roman topography, it must therefore be very desirable to ascer- 
tain its original site and limits. 

" Londinium now placed on this side of the Thames, now on the 
other, has been left a moveable and uncertain point, to which the posi- 
tion, or the computed distance, of other Stations would have to be accom- 
modated, as one or another of the systems might happen to be adopted. 
By those whose attention has been directed to its present Site and 
Remains, Roman London has been regarded as the London of Constan- 
tine ; nor has it been attempted to realise any of the characteristics, which 
distinguished the first period in the history of a Roman settlement, and which 
are necessarily those of an age of conquest." On the scarcity of ancient 
military vestiges the author observes, ' As a city, the importance of Lon- 
dinium has, I think, been antedated. Whatever may have been its 
character and destiny in after times, there can be little doubt that it was at 
first nothing more than a military post covering the passage of the river, 
with such a garrison as would secure the means of transit, and serve to 
protect the camp. But the camp was a stationary one, and its garrison, 
if not large, yet permanent. We cannot then for a moment suppose that 
such a position, the key of the interior of the island, had no intrench- 
ments or works of defence. If these are found on the Humber and 
Severn, they were not wanting on the Thames. Whether fortified by 
walls, or simply by vallum and ditch, some regular defences must at all 
times have existed, in conformity with the practice and the recorded 
principles of the great masters of the art of war." The circumstances 
attending the march of Suetonius after the revolt of Boadicea, leads to 
the conclusion that Londinium was not then walled. 



292 

The Author therefore concludes, that such being the kind of station 
we should expect to find, and the existence of which, according to 
analogy and general observation, we have some right to assume, it will 
be the object of his dissertation to inquire, Istly, Whether this post, the 
original London, may not be determinately fixed on a part of the present 
city ; 2dly, Whether the form and limits of the first inclosure cannot 
even now be discovered. He then enters into a detail of certain pecu- 
liarities in the neighbourhood of Cannon Street and East Cheap, between 
Walbrook on the west, and for some way beyond London Bridge on the 
east ; the whole having a manifest relation to the course of the river. It 
is suggested with some confidence, that Cannon Street and East Cheap 
are to London that which a High Street is to other Roman towns of a 
quadrilateral design ; and it was under this impression that the present 
inquiry began. 

A portion of this first branch of the inquiry having been read, the 
remainder was postponed to the next Meeting. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 
OF LONDON. 



1848-9. No. 16. 



Thursday, December 14th, 1848. 
Sir ROBERT HARRY INGLIS, Bart. V.P. in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the preceding Meeting were read and confirmed. 
The following presents were received, and thanks for them ordered to 
be returned to the donors : 

By the Government of Holland . ^Egyptische Monumenten, 10' Livraison. folio. 
By Charles Sandys, Esq. F.S.A. A Letter to Messrs. Kingsford. 8vo. 1848. 

The Memorial of the Lay Clerks at Canter- 
bury. 8vo. 1848. 

By the Dean of Hereford . . Statement of the Condition, &c. of Hereford 

Cathedral. 8vo. 1848. 

The conclusion of Mr. Arthur Taylor's first letter to Sir Henry 
Ellis, with a portion of a second Letter of Inquiry as to the original 
Site of Roman London, were read. 

In the first letter, having adverted to some of the characteristics 
which would mark a first settlement on the Banks of the Thames, Mr. 
Taylor ventured upon the following conclusions : 

1st. That the station Londinium was on the north side of the river, 
and on the high ground east of the Wall-brook. 

2d. That it had two successive inclosures ; the first, that of a Cas- 
tellum or Camp, the latter, which encompassed the Roman city, being 
the lately existing wall of London. 

3d. That the Camp, though not at first, yet afterwards, was defended 
by a wall and gates. 

And it was suggested, as matter of further inquiry, that some indica- 
tions of the form and limits of the first station might possibly be found 
in this part of the city. 

These conclusions, it appears, in several particulars, have been since 
confirmed by the remarks of Mr. Tite, prefixed to a Catalogue of the 
Antiquities found in rebuilding the Royal Exchange, to which at the 
time Mr. Taylor wrote, he had no access. 

What might probably have been the exact circuit of the first Roman 
settlement was next considered, together with a notice of London Stone. 
The precise character of this singular monument, Mr. Taylor observes, 
has never been established by indubitable marks ; yet, by common con- 
sent, it has always passed for a Roman milliary stone ; and if its stand- 

2 B 



294 

ing in the line of the Watling Street be taken in confirmation of this 
opinion, the existence of such a stone must confirm our views with 
regard to the street in which it is placed. We are told that London 
Stone, like the Pillar of Augustus in the Roman Forum, was a central 
or radiating point from which the distances were measured on the 
several roads in every direction. Dr. Gale quotes Camden to this 
effect ; and they rely on what was in Camden's time the common 
belief of the learned as to the Roman Pillar, the use of which has 
never been brought in question. The slightest hint from the author 
of the Britannia may well be valued by those who indite histories 
of London; but his opinion in this case, though founded on the 
best knowledge of his age, is retailed by modern writers with a pro- 
found disregard of all more recent authorities, and of the discoveries 
of later times. At the end of the seventeenth century this subject was 
fully investigated and discussed by Lucas Holstenius and Fabretti ; and 
their conclusions, adopted by Ryckius and Pitiscus, led to the now 
general opinion that the Milliarium Aureum had a different use from 
that once ascribed to it ; that it was, in fact, a tabular index of roads 
and not a mile -stone ; and that the miles at Rome were measured not - 
from the Forum but from the ancient Gates of the City. By no ana- 
logy, therefore, is London Stone a central point for the purpose above 
described ; and for any purpose it was central only in relation to the 
Roman City in its full development under the later Roman Emperors. 
In connexion with the first inclosure, its use as a milliary stone is hardly 
apparent ; but, if it were really such, a position near one of the gates, 
and at the beginning of a line of road, would seem to be that which the 
supposition requires. The point selected by Mr. Taylor for the western 
limit of the presumed original settlement would not be inconsistent 
with this allocation. 

Mr. Taylor's next inquiry is whether London, at any time, had a wall 
on its river front ; the consideration of which introduced a notice of 
the ancient mansion of Cold Harbour as originally a watch-tower con- 
nected with the line of wall. 

Here the reading of this part of the second Letter ended ; the remain- 
ing portion being reserved till the next Meeting. 



Thursday, December 21st, 1848. 
JOHN PAYNE COLLIER, Esq. Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the previous Meeting were read and confirmed; 
after which, John Whichcord, Esq. junior, lately elected, now attending, 
having paid his admission fee and subscribed the obligation required 
by the Statutes, was admitted a Fellow of this Society. 

William Richard Drake, Esq. F.S.A. presented to the Society a pri- 
vately engraved Portrait of the present Lord Dacre, executed from a 
Daguerreotype in Mr. Drake's possession : for which the thanks of the 
Society were oidered to be returned. 

11. Barlow Gardiner, Esq. exhibited by the hands of Sir Charles 
Young a Drawing of a fine Specimen of Medieval Pottery, found at 
Ashford in Kent. 



295 

Benjamin Nightingale, Esq. exhibited an ancient Fibula formed in 
the shape of the letter S, found at Malton in Yorkshire in 1844 upon 
the old Roman Street between Norton and Sutton. It was accompanied 
by a drawn Plan of the Roman Military Station at Malton. 

Charles Havill, Esq. exhibited to the Society a small flat Bronze 
Figure of an Eagle, together with a Brass Ring, also bearing an engraving 
of an eagle, both found at Silchester. 

The Rev. William Grant exhibited Rubbings from several Monu- 
mental Brasses preserved in Churches in Kent, viz. 

Of Sir Roger de Horwood and Bona his Lady, from Minster in the 
Isle of Sheppey, 1330. 

Of John Strete, rector of Upper Hardros near Canterbury, 1405. 

Of Jane Keriel, at Ash near Canterbury. 

Of John Redbourn, Vicar of Faversham 1531, and 

Of Thomas Stoughton, of Ash near Sandwich, from St. Martin's 
Church, Canterbury, 1591. 

A short note from Sir Henry Ellis to John Yonge Akerman, Esq. 
was read, announcing the discovery a few days ago, near Southwell in 
Nottinghamshire, of a Roman Pig of Lead, bearing the following inscrip- 
tion in relief upon the upper part : 

C . 1VL . PROT . ARIT . LVT . EX . ARG. 

The weight of the pig, 184 pounds. 

The Secretary then proceeded to read the closing portion of Mr. 
Arthur Taylor's second letter to Sir Henry Ellis, on the Original Site 
of Roman London. It commences with the remark that some of his 
deductions as to the original Station Londinium. its two successive inclo- 
sures, and the subsequent additions of walls and gates, have been partly 
confirmed by local observations. The discovery of Roman sepulchral re- 
mains on the site of the Royal Exchange shewed that the ground on 
the north of Lombard Street was a place of burial. This, he observes, 
can only be assigned to the first period of the history of the settlement, 
and proves that it could not have reached beyond that street. The 
sewerage excavations at Tower Royal, and Little -St. Thomas Apostle, 
discovered the channel of the VVallbrook to be iM8 feet wide, the banks 
being covered with rank grass and weeds. Of the origin of ward 
divisions nothing appears to be known. The institution of parishes, in 
the province of Canterbury, is referred to the middle or latter end of 
the seventh century, and they probably were instituted in London at the 
same period. The antiquity of the parishes of the metropolis is indi- 
cated in the names of their churches, dedicated to their several saints; 
those of St. Clement and St. Martin are usually associated with founda- 
tions of the earliest date, and belong to the British, as well as the 
Saxon Church; while thoso of St. Leonard, St. Lawrence, St. Dionis, 
and St. Benet, bespeak also an early foundation. Jn the same district are 
likewise the names of Botolph, Dunstan, Edmund the King, and Swithun, 
all of which must be Saxon foundations. The erection of parishes is 
placed by Spelman at about 673, or 227 years from the abandonment of 
Britain by the Romans. This is a period which separates the works of the 
Empire from the institutions of Saxon Christianily, and from civil and 

S.B* 



296 

social arrangements never since disturbed. The successive burnings of 
London in 982, in 1087, and in 1135 probably obliterated Roman re- 
mains not destroyed in the renovation of the city by Alfred the Great 
in 886. In the seventh or eighth century there might still remain, in 
the condition of the ground, or the enduring qualities of Roman work, 
what would sensibly affect the shape and alignment of property, and 
consequently the limits ascribed to parish churches of this date. 

Thanks were severally ordered to be returned for these exhibitions 
and communications. The Treasurer then gave notice from the chair, 
that, on account of the Christmas Holidays, the Meetings of the Society 
were adjourned to Thursday evening the llth of January. 



Thursday, January llth, 1849. 
HENRY HALL AM, Esq. V.P. in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the last Meeting were read and confirmed, and the 
following presents were announced : 

By the Council of the Camden The Visitation of the County of Huntingdon. 

Society 4 to. London, 1849. 

By Dr. Kitto, F.S.A. . . The Journal of Sacred Literature. No. V. 
By the Agricultural Society . Their Journal. Vol. IX. Pt. II. 
By John Bowyer Nichols, Esq. The Gentleman's Magazine, January, 1849. 

F.S.A. 
By Dr. C. T. Beke, F.S.A. . Me"moire Justificatif, etc. des Peres Pierre Paez 

et Je'rome Labo, Missionaires en Abyssinie. 

By J. Henry Parker, Esq. . Memoirs illustrative of the History and Anti- 
quities of the County of York. Pt. II. 
By the same .... Journal of the Archaeological Association. Nos. 

1319. 

By the Editor . . . The Athenaeum. Pt. 252. December, 1848. 
By George Godwin, Esq. F.S.A. The Builder. Vol. VI. Pt. XII. 

Arthur Taylor, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited a conjectural Sketch of the 
surmised extent of the earliest Roman London, drawn out upon an 
engraved plan of London and South wark, taken immediately before the 
erection of New London Bridge ; intended for the illustration of his 
Memoir recently read to the Society. 

Thomas Doming Hibbert, Esq. of the Middle Temple, Barrister-at- 
Law, exhibited an autograph signature of John Bradshaw, who sat in 
judgment at the Trial of King Charles the First, affixed to a receipt 
for 50/. 

Major Ker M c Donald, F.S.A. exhibited 1. A Hebrew Manuscript, 
stated to be of the 13th century, containing prayers for every day in the 
year, with a portion of the Pentateuch, accompanied with Rabbinical 
Commentaries ; brought from Venice, 2. An ancient Silver Ring, of 
large size, found near Hastings, purporting, by several inscriptions upon 
it, to have belonged to Richard Earl of Cornwall, the brother of King 
Henry the Third ; but the modern form of some of the letters, to the eye 
of many of the Members, rendered the appropriation doubtful. 3. A 
Silver Chain of oriental manufacture, which Major M c Donald himself 
found, a few years ago, in the Island of Inchkenneth, one of the 
Hebrides belonging to his father, Colonel M c Donald. Major M c Donald 



297 

stated that, at the time of its discovery, he found with it a large assem- 
blage of coins of the Saxon period, principally of Edgar, Ethelred, 
Sihtric King of Dublin, and various unknown foreign coins, together 
with three large silver rings or armill, resembling oriental bangles. 

A letter from Captain W. H. Smyth, R.N. Director, dated llth 
January 1849, to Sir Henry Ellis, was read, in explanation of some 
casual observations made by him at the last Meeting upon the name of 
Cold Harbour: 

" From a conversation which I had yesterday with a worthy Fellow of our Society 
it seems that the very few words which I dropped at the last Meeting respecting 
Coal Harbour being confounded with the singular term Cold Harbour were mis- 
understood, and as a positive engagement will preclude my being at the apartments 
this evening, I forward you a Note on the subject. 

" My object in speaking, was not at all to comment upon Mr. Arthur Taylor's 
dissertation on ancient London, or to dispute that the particular place he men- 
tions was so called from its destination, in days of yore, to the landing and wharfage 
of coals. I merely dissented from the opinion, so strongly expressed in the meeting, 
as to all the sites thus designated having been coal-deposits ; and also from the 
assertion that cold was a colloquial corruption of coal, as well as that which declared 
harbour to be in allusion to a port in the early ages of London. The first of these 
terms cannot be drawn from kohle, carlo, it perpetually occurring as a prefix to 
many localities close upon Roman roads without reference to fuel as cold-blow, 
eoW-broche, coW-catnp, co/d-coinfort, cold-end, cold-ford, &c. ; the second seems 
at first sight to be of Saxon derivation, from hereberga, a host- watch on a hill, statio 
militaris. From this, says Johnson, came our old word harborough, lodging ; and 
from this usage of it, which obtained among the Germans also, the sense of it as an 
inn was adopted into several languages, as auberge by the French, albergo by the 
Italians, and herbery by the Dutch. Hence cold harbour has been thought to 
mean any dwelling in an exposed situation : but, from the great variety of sites on 
which these names are found, I cannot think that bleakness of situation is the whole 
cause of the designation. 

" The curious epiihet in question is of a far wider application than is usually ima- 
gined, for the known and recorded instances in England amount to several hundreds ; 
many of these are in valleys, and of ready access on the banks of rivers, though there 
are others close to bold escarpments on the summits of inland eminences. As 
specimens of the first class, those in the marshes near Kingston-upon-Hull, and in 
the valley of the Thames, may be instanced ; while the sites at Wrotham, in Kent 
Leith Hill, in Surrey Trowbridge, in Wiltshire and Marlow, in Buckinghamshire, 
illustrate the second. And thus near London, we have a Cold Harbour on the high 
ground above New Cross, at Deptford, and a Cold-Blow farm on the flats below it; 
and I think there are two or three others in that vicinity. A noted manor at Cam- 
berwell has been successively Colde-herbergh, Cold-abbey, and Cold-harbour : and 
there is another equally noted two miles north of Ware, in Hertfordshire. At 
Woolwich, a place by the Roman road is thus designated ; and a well-known house on 
the north bank of the river, opposite to Erith, has immemorially been Cold Harbour. 
Sometimes the so-called spot is on the margin of the water ; but even there it may 
only mark the trajectus, or ferry, as that on the turn of the great Ikenild Street, 
near Venta Belyarum, between Wherewell Woods and the Winchester Downs. 

" Now it is not a little remarkable, that, though these places are found recurring 
along the line of the Chilterns, the Cotswolds, and other ridges, yet they predomi- 
nate on or near the old Roman roads, sometimes where there is a rise in the ground, 
and often in the very angle where a turn in the direction becomes necessary, not 
only in the occasional and forced deviations of the main viaria, but also in those 
which were made for forming diverticula, or cross communications. May not these 
ascents and winding turns therefore have been named after the significant tortuosities 
of the coluber ? To be sure the wordjlejcus was used by the old geographers, and 
that in question is nearly confined to Great Britain; but it may strengthen so 
obvious a suggestion to mention, that I well remember a trackway among the 
Gallura mountains, in Sardinia, having been called Colivri. And our own Calleva, 
the capital of the Atrebatcs, by the allowable inversion of b and v almost coluber, 



298 

marks a diverticulum where no fewer than four Roman roads form a junction. But 
in throwing out this notion, or rather reviving it, for I have somewhere met the 
idea before, I am aware of the perils and delusions of etymology, and that a mere 
literal or phonetic resemblance in words is no real evidence of similarity of origin ; 
nor can any derivation be safely treated unless it can be at least probably traced to 
its source. The shade of probability is in favour of the conjecture ; but it certainly 
is against it, though not conclusively so, that the expression is not met with in the 
Peutinger Map, or in the Itinerary of Antoninus. Nor does Domesday Book 
approach it nearer than Colebei, Collebere, Colebi, and Collabera. 

" Having been lately on a visit at Bury Hill, near Dorking, my friend Mr. Barclay 
described an adjacent spot where many Roman and other relics had been found ; 
and it presents to the eye a well-defined camp. The site of this station is near a 
Cold Harbour on the opposite eminence of Box Hill, at a decided diverticulum of 
the old military causeway called Stane-street, which is traceable through the 
country at a much lower level. The term Bury or Berry is also exceedingly pre- 
valent, there being three principal ones in Surrey, besides many others, of which 
one may be cited near Andover, one close to Mansfield, and that at Bicester. Now 
herberya was a hill-watch, whence berga, burgh, bury, may have been meta- 
phorically used for watch-towers and stations on hills natural or artificial : thus 
Burgh Castle, on the brow of an elevated plateau in Suffolk, may be cited as one of 
the finest relics of Roman fortification in the kingdom. The terms before us are 
sometimes juxta-posed : thus there is a place called Cold Harbour four miles below 
Swindon, near the turn which leads to the village of Broad Blunsdon, in the imme- 
diate vicinity of which is an ancient camp called " Bury" Blunsdon. But there is 
no end of both designations, and they seem to admit of very semblable interpreta- 
tion : yet even if we admit to cull cold from kalda harbour from hepebepja and 
bury from bujlg there is still a plausible claim for the Colubrine derivative on 
the ground of priority. At all events, it is palpably manifest that the coal-paradox 
is utterly inadmissible.* 

" But, having once stepped over the hot ashes of conjecture, a wide field is pre- 
sented to the imagination. Although the Romans and Anglo-Romans may possibly have 
used the term coluber as we now apply the word serpentine to designate a peculiar 
deviation, I am inclined, for more reasons than I need now state, to think that a 
popular prevalence of the name, even then, would be only a mere vestige of the once 
almost universal Ophite worship, the accurate history of which still continues to be 
a desideratum in Archaeology. The theory may be vague and disputable ; but that 
this idolatry is of the highest antiquity, is proved by its being alluded to in the 
earlier Holy Scriptures ; and it is known to have prevailed among the Chaldees, the 
Persians, and the Egyptians, as emblematic of the Sun, and Time, and Eternity. 
From the Orientals it descended to the Greeks, and from them to the Romans, 
among whom it became a type of Victory, Prosperity, and Health : and the Latin 
damsel who offered food to a serpent which he declined partaking of, was branded 
as unchaste, and underwent the ban of society. Time, however, wrought changes, 
and the serpent lost its divinity ; but, though the actual system of worship fell off, 
the type and preatige remained, insomuch that the emblem appears constantly both 
in arts and letters. Thus Tristan, the amiable Sieur de St. Amand, indignant on 
finding the reptile figured so frequently on the reverses of Imperial coins and 
medals, sagely imputes the practice to the time when the Devil had established his 
empire over men's minds, and artfully biassed them in a blind adoration of the 
demoniac serpent, ' Et persuada aux Gentils qu'il estoit le Ge"nie de Felicite*, de 
Sante, Salut, et de Victoire, qui appellerent en suite ces demons detestables.' 

" Under such views, I cannot but think that the term ' Cold Harbour,' and the 
prevalence of its English application, merit a fuller consideration than they have yet 
received." 



* Nearly 60 years ago, one Nugaculus asked, in the Gentleman's Magazine, the 
meaning of the term Cold-Harbour ? Some time afterwards, July 4th, 1793, he was 
answered by Viator A, who informed him of a small post-town in Suabia, called 
Kalte Herberge, the literal translation of which being Cold Inn, he considered that 
the inference was evident. 



299 

Thanks were severally ordered to be returned for these exhibitions, 
and to Captain Smyth for his communication. 

The Secretary then read the first portion of " A Description of the 
Field of the Battle of Towton, with Remarks upon the old Historical 
Accounts of it, by Richard Brooke, Esq. F.S.A. communicated in a 
letter to the President, and accompanied by a small drawn Plan of the 
Field, explanatory of the several localities referred to. 

The battle was fought on Palm Sunday, the 29th March, 1461, and, 
terminating in the defeat of the Lancastrians, established Edward IV. 
in his first possession of the throne of England. The place where 
it was fought, Mr. Brooke says, is found without the least difficulty ; 
indeed, if there were no other mode of ascertaining it, the old chro- 
niclers and annalists mention the locality with sufficient precision. 
They inform us that it took place near Towton, partly in the township 
of Towton, and partly in that of Saxton, and between Towton and 
Saxton ; and, as the distance between the two villages so called is 
only one mile and a-half, it defines the exact locality clearly enough. 
The battle has been called by various names, such as the battle of 
" Towton," of " Saxton," " Palm-Sunday Field," " Sherburn," and 
in the act of attainder of the 1st of Edward IVth " Saxton Field," and 
" Towton Field." Mr. Brooke begins his account with a minute de- 
scription of the district in which the battle was fought, pointing out 
the spot near which Lord Clifford is supposed to have met his death the 
day before the fight. He then gives from observation what he con- 
siders to have been the probable positions of the two armies ; placing 
the Lancastrians to the southward of the village of Towton, the village 
itself being about a quarter of a mile in their rear : their line in- 
clining a trifle from the north-eastward to the south-westward. The 
Yorkists' left wing he places opposite the right of the Lancastrians on 
the south side of a meadow and valley, with their centre and right 
extending across ground now consisting of inclosed fields to the 
eastward. A farmer who rents a large extent of land upon the field 
pointed out to him the spot where Lord Dacre was slain ; the present 
tradition exactly corresponding with that recorded by Dunham Whitaker 
in his Loidis and Elmete, who states that when Glover made his Visita- 
tion of Yorkshire in 1583, he was tpld that Lord Dacre was shot by a 
boy out of a bur-tree, and that the place was called the North Acre ; 
whereupon the country people had this rhyme 

" The Lord Dacre 

Was slain in North Acre." 

The bur-tree, still in the provincial dialect called the aubury-tree, 
appears to have been. the elder-tree. The North Acre, now known as 
Nor-acre Field, appears to have been the spot where the fight raged 
most fiercely, and became subsequently the largest place for the inter- 
ment of the dead. Numbers of the slain are supposed to have been 
interred in Saxton church-yard, in a trench or pit on the north side of 
the church, where in making a vault, a few years ago, quantities of 
bones were exposed to view, about four feet below the surface. Mr. 
Brooke combats the opinion of Dr. Wbitaker, that the field of battle 



300 

was scarcely more than a mile long ; and that the line of the army could 
scarcely exceed 300U men. From a comparison of the eld accounts 
Mr. Brooke states the Lancastrians to have mustered 60,000 men, and 
the Yorkists 48,600. The number of the slain, he says, is given by 
the chroniclers as 136,776. This number, however, he thinks most 
probably included not only all who fell on both sides in the battle, but 
all who were slain in the pursuit, or were drowned in the river Cock ; 
and also all who fell in the engagements of Ferry-bridge and Dinting- 
dale on the day before. He then details the names of the principal 
persons slain ; closing this part of his Memoir with the notice of several 
particulars in which an inspection of the field of battle corroborates the 
older historical accounts. 

The reading of the remainder of this communication was postponed 
to the next Meeting. 



Thursday, January 18th, 1849. 
JOHN PAYNE COLLIER, Esq. Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the last Meeting were read and confirmed. 

George Milner, Esq. of Hull, lately elected, now attending, having 
paid his admission fee, and subscribed the obligation required by the 
Statutes, was admitted a Fellow of this Society. 

Hugh Welch Diamond, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited, and presented to the 
Society's Museum, two Shields of Arms, and an Armed Figure, fragments 
of sepulchral brasses, apparently of the XVth century, purchased by him, 
some years since, of a person who stated them to have been dredged 
from the bed of the river Thames. The armed figure was remarkable, 
as having the badge or device of an open crown placed on the left 
shoulder : his hands are in the usual attitude of prayer, and his feet rest 
on a lion couchant regardant. 

Charles R. Weld, Esq. presented to the Society the Matrix of the 
Seal of William Lord Fauconberge, Earl of Kent, recently exhibited by 
him at a previous Meeting. 

Benjamin Nightingale, Esq. exhibited a Roman Fibula of remarkable 
form, but was unable to give any particulars of its discovery. 

A Letter from George R. Corner, Esq. F.S.A. was read, accompa- 
nying the exhibition of Three Deeds ; not, he observes, on account of 
their antiquity, but thinking that they may be of some interest from their 
connection " with an old Antiquary of some celebrity in his day, hight 
Elias Ashmole :" . 

11 The first deed is dated 14th July, 1682 (34M Charles //.), and is a conveyance 
from Robert Siderfin of the Middle Temple, Gentleman, brother and heir of Thomas 
Siderfin, late of the Middle Temple, Esq deceased, to Elias Ashmole of the Middle 
Temple, Esq. of a moiety of a messuage or tenement, with the appurtenances, situate 
at South Lambeth, in the county of Surrey. 

" The other deeds are dated 25th and 26th of June 1686 (2nd James II.}, being a 
lease and release for effecting a post-nuptial settlement by Ashmole on his third wife, 
Elizabeth daughter of Sir William Dugdale. It comprises a tenement and garden, 
with au orchard adjoining, containing one acre ; and a close of land, with a barn or 
stable thereon, containing two acres and a half, called Smith's Close. Also a close 
of land called Forty-pence, containing one acre ; four acres of land lying in South 



301 

Lambeth Field ; a close of land, containing two acres and a half, called Part of Five 
Acres ; Thorp Close, containing nine acres ; all in Soutli Lambeth. 

" The trustees of this settlement are Hr John Dugdale of the City of Coventry, 
Kt. and William Tliursby of the Middle Temple, E.q. All the deeds are executed 
by Elias Ashmole, and bear his signature in a good and legible but rather quaint 
hand. It will be remembered that he lived during the latter part of his lite at South 
Lambeth, in the house of the Tradescants, the last of whom gave Ashmole a deed of 
gift of the property." 

The thanks of the Society were ordered to be returned for these 
several exhibitions and presents. The Secretary then proceeded to read 
the remainder of Mr. Brooke's communication descriptive of the Field 
of the Battle of Towton. 

Having referred to the probable movements of the Yorkists on the 
two days immediately preceding the battle, Mr. Brooke continues to 
comment on the statements of our older historians as to smaller circum- 
stances, some of which he thinks exaggerated, particularly as to the 
arrows shot at each other by the rival parties, and the influence which 
the exhaustion of the quivers of the Lancastrians, had upon the result 
of the battle. Mr. Brooke next criticises the policy of the Lancas- 
trians, with a superior force, standing on the defensive instead of being 
the attacking party. " They did not even," he says, " as far as we are 
informed, attempt to support Lord Clifford at Ferry-bridge, or to suc- 
cour him at Dintindale, where he was slain and his forces defeated, and 
nearly all destroyed." " It is, however," he adds, u very probable that 
the action at Dintindale was soon over; and if so, the Lancastrians 
may not have had sufficient time to have sent succour to Lord Clifford." 
Mr. Brooke, in this part of his Memoir, refers to the village of Saxton, 
where a great number of the slain were interred in a large trench or 
pit on the north of and close to the church. " The last time," he says, 
"that their bones were exposed to view was in June (1848), when 
making a vault for the interment of a son of John Kendall, Esq. of 
Towton Hall. The trench clearly runs from east to west, since about 
twelve years ago a vault was made nearer to the east than that of Mr. 
Kendall ; and the workmen found a similar deposit of bones about four 
feet below the surface, so that there can be no doubt that the bones of 
hundreds of men were buried in a continuous trench in that part of the 
churchyard." 

Mr. Brooke next describes the tomb of Lord Dacre, which he consi- 
ders very like the engraving of it given by Dr. Whitaker, who has, 
however, placed it in his inscription in Towton instead of Saxton Church. 
Some of the leaders, supposed to be Yorkists, he adds, were interred in 
the church ; and within the recollection of Mr. Kendall, some slabs, 
with black-letter inscriptions, were in existence there, which were said 
to have covered their remains. Several curious crosses, Mr. Brooke 
says, have been cut on the stones which formed the ancient tower of 
Saxton Church, evidently carved in memory of some of the slain who 
were buried there, and which have been carefully preserved, although 
the tower itself has been rebuilt. He gives two versions of the inscrip- 
tion on Lord Dacre's tomb, one as taken by Drake in 1 736 ; the other, 
supposed to be more correct, taken by Dr. Whitaker. From the men- 
lion of King Henry the Sixth in it, he surmises that the tomb was not 



302 

erected till after the death of Edward the Fourth. Drake, he says, 
mentions, that many years ago, this tomb was violently wrenched open 
(for it had been strongly cramped together with iron), in order to inter 
beneath it a Mr. Gascoyne, when the remains of Dacre's body were found 
in a standing posture ; but a fragment of the slab, and a material part of 
the inscription, were then broken off. The author concludes his Memoir 
with an extract from the third part of Shakespeare's Henry the Sixth, 
descriptive of one or two of the more cruel scenes of the battle of 
Towton. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for Mr. Brooke's communica- 
tion, and the Meeting adjourned. 

Thursday, January 25th, 1849. 
JOHN PAYNE COLLIER, Esq. Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the last Meeting were read and confirmed. 

A " Report of a Speech of King James I. in the Star Chamber, and 
the Charge to the Judges previous to their setting out on their Circuits, 
20th June 1616, taken at the time by Edward Wakeman, Esq. of the 
Middle Temple," 8vo. (privately printed), was presented by Thomas 
Wakeman, Esq. of Graig, near Monmouth, for which the thanks of the 
Society were ordered to be returned. 

A Communication from John Adey Repton, Esq. was read, preceded 
by a Letter to Sir Henry Ellis, in which Mr. Repton remarks, that it is 
now thirty- seven years since he had the honour of communicating a 
paper to the Society of Antiquaries, containing " Some Remarks to 
assist in ascertaining the Dates of Buildings ;" a subject at that time of 
little interest to the generality of members, though one which always 
appeared to him of importance. The great change which has taken 
place of late years in the feeling of the public on all subjects of cede- 
siastical architecture, leading, as he trusts it will, to a more correct 
taste in buildings hereafter dedicated to the service of God, will, Mr. 
Repton hopes, plead his excuse for again laying before the Society some 
observations, which, at the time they were made, might boast some 
little portion of originality, but which is now no longer the case. 

It is a common error, Mr. Repton observes, with those who have not 
entered into the subject of the architecture of this country, to pronounce 
the dates of buildings from the form of the arches only ; but a minute 
attention to the ornaments and details of buildings will enable us to per- 
ceive how little reliance can be placed on this commonly-received 
standard. 

It is generally supposed, that all round-headed arches (whether ellip- 
tical or semicircular) were erected during the time of the Saxons or 
Normans, '. e. from before the Conquest to about the reign of Stephen. 
It is also generally supposed, that in the first appearance of pointed 
arches they were of a very sharp pitch, and that by degrees they 
became more and more flat. These may be considered as general obser- 
vations, and in many cases are true ; but it remains to shew that this is 
not always to be depended upon. The semicircular (as well as the ellip- 
tical) arch commonly prevailed to the reign of Henry II. and is less 



303 

frequent from that period to Henry III. when it appears to have 
ceased entirely ; but it does not follow that all semicircular arches are to 
be attributed to those reigns, for a few may occasionally be found as late 
as the 14th, the 15th, and the 16th century. Mr. Kepton refers to 
instances of this late construction in the Cathedral and in St. Nicholas's 
Church in Gloucester, at the West-bere in Norfolk, in a door at Withy- 
ham Church in Sussex, at Knapton Church in Norfolk, and in the 
Gothic screen in the south transept of Norwich Cathedral. 

It is generally supposed that the next form is that of the pointed arches 
of a high pitch, considerably sharper than the equilateral triangle, these 
being considered as early specimens of Gothic arches introduced about 
the middle of the 1 2th century ; but these sharp-pointed arches may be 
found as late as the time of Henry VII. as in Bell Harry's steeple at 
Canterbury, the porch at North Leech church, Gloucestershire, the 
tracery in the windows of the west front of Peterborough Cathedral, &c. 

The next form of arches (the proportion of which is much admired) 
is that of an equilateral triangle, generally reckoned of about the date 
of Edward III., and it is supposed that arches became flatter and flatter 
afterwards, i. e. the two centres were brought nearer to each other, 
being within the aperture of the arch ; but arches more or less than the 
equilateral triangle may be found as early as the years 1 150, and 1200, 
and so late as 1500, of which examples are not uncommon. 

The flat arches, chiefly struck from two centres beneath the spring of 
the arch, may be found as early as Henry III. if not earlier, as at St. 
Mary Overy's in Southwark. The same may be found from 1270 to 
1050, as in Norwich Cathedral, &c., and as late as the end of the 15th 
century at Magdalen College, Oxford, &c., but these were not often 
used, except at the back of doors and dark passages, and especially in 
castles, or under bridges, where they are little seen. 

The next specimens are those struck from four centres, and are com- 
monly asserted to be of the dates from Henry IV. to the 17th century, 
but they may be found at an earlier period, as in the nine altars at 
Durham dedicated to Henry III., and in the great window of Trinity 
Chapel at Ely, of the date of Edward II. or III. 

The form of the arch alone not being an adequate standard to ascer- 
tain its date, Mr. Repton has recourse to other auxiliaries, which may be 
considered rather as the embellishments of edifices than as forming any 
part of their strength or construction. To elucidate this subject, he 
collected several specimens of arch-mouldings, with various capitals of 
columns, and arranged them according to their respective dates, with 
specimens of hood- mouldings, string-courses, and of the upper mould- 
ings of the capitals. These he exhibited in illustration of his paper in 
two drawings ; one, from fig. 1 to 32, containing sections of the several 
mouldings and string- courses suited to his remarks ; the other supplying 
specimens of capitals of columns arranged chronologically from the Con- 
quest to the reign of Henry VIII., shewing the different forms at different 
periods. These were accompanied by further explanatory remarks in 
details. 

Mr. Kepton concluded his remarks by observing that those nice dis- 
tinctions by which dates may be ascertained may also be extended to 



304 

other details of buildings, particularly the forms of windows and their 
tracery, the shape of pinnacles, and even the pedestals of niches, begin- 
ning with the massive square pedestals of the 18th century, as at Wells 
and Salisbury Cathedrals, and proceeding by degrees to the light octagon 
pedestals of the IGth century. 

With regard to the pinnacles, the earliest specimens seem to be those 
where the spires are plain and only ornamented at the top by a bunch of 
leaves. The pinnacles about the time of Edward II. and III. were 
ornamented with crockets, but much crowded together, and the gables 
at the bottom of the spires much pointed and overloaded ; but towards 
the 15th and 16th centuries, the crockets of the pinnacles become more 
detached, and the gables of the double-ogee shape. The favourite pin- 
nacles or turrets which began to prevail in the reign of Henry VI. and 
continued to that of Henry VIII. and Elizabeth, are those with domes, 
of which several fine specimens may be found in the kingdom, as in the 
choir of Winchester Cathedral, and more particularly in King's College 
Chapel Cambridge, Henry the Seventh's Chapel, Hampton Court, &c., 
but these domes did not supersede the straight pinnacles, which continued 
to as late as Henry VIII. 

A Letter from John Yonge Akerman, Esq. to Captain W. H. Smyth, 
Director, was read, accompanying the exhibition from C. R. Smith, Esq. 
of an impression from a seal in the possession of G. C. Rawlence, Esq. 
affording an example of the very common practice in the middle ages of 
inserting an antique intaglio in a rim or border of metal, and inscribing 
the latter with a legend. The legend of the seal is curious, namely 
VERBA SALVTIS AYE, bearing no reference to the subject of the Intaglio, 
which represents the two Nemeses, each holding a cornucopia, and join- 
ing hands over the figure of a griffin. Above are two minute heads, 
face to face. The same subject, Mr. Akerman observes, is treated in a 
precisely similar manner on a cornelian in his own possession, which/ 
however, being more clearly, though almost as rudely, engraved, shews 
that the griffin has his right paw on a wheel. The whole group, he 
says, denotes that these stones may be safely referred to Smyrna in the 
declining days of Rome. Mr. Akerman's cornelian was brought from 
that city, where it was found some years since. The Nemeses are often 
figured on the coins of Smyrna. Pausanias says that these dreaded 
divinities appeared to Alexander the Great in a dream, and commanded 
him to build the city ; and on a large medallion of Smyrna, struck in 
the reign of Marcus Aurelius, that hero is represented asleep under a 
tree with the two Nemeses standing near him. 

William Richard Drake, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited a Deed of the date of 
1400, bearing a seal, the matrix of which appears to have been formed 
in a similar manner to that just exhibited by Mr. C. Roach Smith, 
namely, by the insertion of an antique intaglio within a rim of metal, 
on which is the legend, IE SVY SEL PRIVE E LEL (i. e. I am the seal 
private and loyal.) The subject of the intaglio is a male figure 
naked, except the pallium, regarding a human head which he holds in 
his left hand. The intaglio itself, judging from analogy, was pre- 
sumed by Mr. Akerman to be of a date not later than the time of 
Hadrian. 



305 

Bernard Smith, Esq. exhibited a Dagger dredged from the bed of the 
Thames, stated to have been found thrust in a human skull. 

A Letter was then read from G. Steinman Steinman, Esq. F.S.A. to 
Sir Henry Ellis, giving a description of a Drawing preserved in the 
Public Library at Bruges, of the Monument of the Princess Gunilda, 
daughter of Canute, King of England and Denmark, apparently made 
between the years 1698 and 1707, a memoir upon which, by the late 
Mr. Beltz, was printed in the 25th volume of the Archaeologia. The 
reading of the Epitaph, as preserved at the back of this drawing, is 
stated by Mr. Steinman to differ in one or two readings both from Mr. 
Beltz 's copy, and from that previously given by Sanderus in his Flandria 
Illustrata. 

The thanks of the Society were severally ordered to be returned for 
these exhibitions and communications. 



Thursday, February 1st, 1849. 

The VISCOUNT MAHON, President, in the Chair. 
The Minutes of the last Meeting were read and confirmed. The 
recommendatory testimonial of Col. William Bolden Dundas, C.B. 
Superintendent of the Ordnance Department of Woolwich, having hung 
up the limited time, was read, and his Election balloted for, whereupon 
he was declared duly elected a Fellow of this Society. 

The following presents were received, and thanks for them ordered 
to be returned. 



From the Geographical Society 
From J. B. Nichols, Esq. 
From S. C. Hall, Esq. . 
From Geo. Godwin, junr. Esq. 



The 18th Volume of their Journal. 

The Gentleman's Magazine for February, 1849. 

The Art-Union Journal for 1848. 

The Builder, vol. VII. Pt. I. 



Robert W T heatley Lumley, Esq. exhibited to the Society, by the hands 
of the President, two Celts, found with numerous others about ten years 
since upon a farm belonging to W T illiam St. Quintin, Esq. of Scampton 
Hall in the East Riding of Yorkshire, not far from the spot where 
Harold is recorded to have defeated his brother Tosti in the year 1066. 
The battle is supposed to have occurred at a place called Staneford, on 
the river Derwent, where relics of arms and armour have been often 
found. 

Frederic Ouvry, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited a small circular Boss of silver 
finely engraved in high relief, which has been long in his family, and by 
them spoken of as the work of Benvenuto Cellini. He also exhibited 
two enamelled Miniatures, one described as Henrietta Maria, Queen of 
Charles I. ; the other, Queen Catharine of Braganza. On the back of 
the latter is written " Jean Petitot the King Charles "2. servant," and on 
the front of the picture the letter P. in gold. 

Mr. J. Barnett, a student in the School of Design, Somerset House, 
exhibited two sketches taken at Aberbrothwick Abbey in Forfarshire, 
Scotland. One represents an Angel, in a kneeling posture, a cross 
above the head, surrounded by a nimbus ; carved in oak ; the dimen- 
sions of the drawing about half the size of the original. The other 



306 

sketch represented the trunk of a statue, executed in a blueish sand- 
stone, believed to represent St. Thomas a Becket, the patron saint of 
the Abbev. The former of these drawings was accompanied by a note 
from John Yonge Akerman, Esq. Secretary, who considered the figure 
of the angel to represent Gabriel offering salutation to the Virgin. His 
chief remark, however, related to the peculiar feature which characte- 
rizes the nimbus around the angel's head, which, deviating from the 
well-known prototype, is depicted as an object altogether earthly, as a 
circular plate or disc studded with rivets, and in the centre a triplicated 
cross. The arch under which the figure is placed may, at first sight, 
appear to indicate that this carving should be referred to the period of the 
renaissance : but, on closer inspection, it will be perceived that it is 
taken from some Norman model, and not from a classical example. 
The work may probably be assigned to the latter half of the fifteenth 
century. 

Charles Roach Smith, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited a coloured drawing 
made by F.S. Baigent, Esq. from a mural painting, a representation of 
the Legend of St. Christopher, recently discovered upon the south-west 
wall of St. Lawrence church at Winchester, now destroyed. This is the 
only copy of it which was taken ; and the gigantic " bearer of Christ" is 
seen carrying the child Jesus upon his shoulders through the waters, 
which, by the dolphin-among other fishes, is shewn to be the sea. 

A Letter was read from John Payne Collier, Esq. Treasurer, to 
John Yonge Akerman, Esq. Secretary, accompanying the transcript of 
a document which he had found whilst turning over the portfolio of an 
intelligent friend, relating to no other as he apprehended than to John 
Leyland or Leland, the Antiquarius Regius to King Henry the 
Eighth, applying to an event, unrecorded by his biographers, namely, 
his Imprisonment in the King's Bench. It bears date on the 19th of 
January, but in what year is uncertain, excepting that it must have been 
anterior to the fall of Wolsey. It is in the form of a petitionary letter 
to the Cardinal, and is thus indorsed by the Cardinal himself, whose 
hand-writing is easily recognised : " A renewyng of an Information 
maad to the Kings Counsell by John Leylond, upon treason commytted, 
&c." The following is the letter : 

" To the most reverent Father in God, Lord Legate, Cardynall and Chauncelor 
off England. 

" Pleasyth your nobyll Grace (you mongest other most weyghtest and urgentest 
besynes for the commyn welth of thysmost nobyll realme of England, wheryn your 
Grace ys contynually occupyed) to call to remembrance where your faythfull and dayly 
orator John Leyland, now beying prisoner in the Kyn^es bench, off late was before 
your Grace and other nobyll lordysassystent unto your Hyghnes off the Kynges secreat 
Cownsell, and shewyd (as he was bowud) certeyn grevous poyntes off great treason 
comytted by a Knyght now yn England, namyd to your Grace at that tyme, and redy 
dayly to be shewyd, that hath dyrected lettres and men to Rychard Delapole in to 
Fraunce, and reternyd dyvers lettres from the same Rychard, for perturbance off 
the pease of thys most noblest realme, and agenst our most drade Soverayne Lord 
the Kyng, whych lettres and scales, as well of the said Knight as of the sayd 
Rychard Delapole, be in the handes of the messyuger off the sayd Knyght, whych 
messinger ys now abydyng in Cawnterbury, whose name yowr orator specyfyde 
unto yowr Grace, and ys redy so to do at soche tyme as shall please your Grace to 
coramaund yowr orator to be brought before your Hyghnes, wyth the names of 



307 

dyvers other (not of the porest) that be cowncelers of the same, and hynders the 
matter that yt comys not to the ly^ht before yowr Grace, as yt was appoynted that 
the sayd messynger wyth the lettres thold be send for by the Kynges command- 
ment and yowrs, and browght forth before thys tyme. Wherefore your faythfull 
orator (perceyving the crafty coloryng and hydyng off the sayd matter from yowr 
Grace, to put yowr llyghnes eftsonys in remembraunce, whos study and contynuall 
labour uorysshyth pease betwyxt all crysteu realmes) thys rudely wrytyth unto yowr 
Grace, and desyeryth the same, for the love of Allmyghty God, to be guod and gra- 
cyous Lord unto yowr sayd power orator, that he may come to hys lyberty, as yt 
was promysyd. Thus I do not otherwyse specify by wrytyng for lake of sure mes- 
synger, but yff yt please yowr nobyll Grace to have me before you, I shall shew 
yowr Grace more largely and specyfye the names, yf yt please yowr Grace, and shew 
the persons. Thys Allmyghty God long contynewyowr nobyll estate to the comfort 
off thys nobyll realme. Frotne the Kynges bench yn Suthwark, the sixth day off 
Januarye. 

" Your humble, faythful, anddayly orator, 

"JOHN LEYLAND." 

Being unacquainted with Leland's actual hand-writing, Mr. Collier in 
the latter part of his communication, conceiving that many specimens of 
it exist, especially among the manuscripts at Oxford used by Hearne, 
as well as in the British Museum, and other places, thinks a comparison 
might shew whether the above Letter were really by the great antiquary 
or by some member of his family. His father's name was also John, 
and, as in 1529 the son must have been comparatively a young man, it is 
not at all impossible that Wolsey's correspondent was the father. 

The Secretary then proceeded to read a transcript of the " Invento- 
ries of the personal properties of Letic.ia Countess of Leicester and of 
the Dowager Countess of Leicester, of Essex House, taken in January 
and February, 1635." Communicated from the original Roll, with 
Notes, by J. O. Halliwell, Esq. F.S.A. to the Council of the British 
Archa3ological Association, and by them obligingly communicated to 
the Society of Antiquaries : the vellum Roll from which it is tran- 
scribed being in the possession of John Henry Hearne, Esq. of New- 
port, Isle of Wight. Mr. Halliwell remarks, that such a document of 
household goods may become interesting to a later age in more ways 
than one. " It may retain notices of obsolete words, which, by their 
context or position, are frequently more readily explained than when 
they occur in narrative or essay. It may reveal the harder features 
of domestic economy, aud occasionally illustrate costume, manners, and 
customs. And, lastly, it may be interesting as a memorial of a cele- 
brated character or family." And he further adds " In a philological 
point of view more especially the value of relics of this kind is unques- 
tionable ; and it were to be wished that a large number were collected 
and published. At present very few have been printed entire, and 
those are not the most interesting that might have been selected. In 
fact, the only systematic attempt in this direction was made by Mr. 
J. G. Nichols, a few years since, by the publication of the " Unton 
Inventories," with the addition of a glossarial index : but several inven- 
tories of a far more interesting character are preserved in most of our 
public libraries ; and I would suggest to some one who has leisure for 
the task the propriety of forming a collection of them. It would con- 
stitute, in spite of unavoidable repetition in the articles particularised, a 
very valuable addition to our stock of antiquarian materials." 



308 

The " true and perfecte" Inventory of the goods of Lady Leticia is 
exceedingly detailed and methodical, having been " taken and prized" 
by four gentlemen specially appointed for that purpose. It commences 
with the " moneyes, ccccclxxxix u . xiij 8 . x d . ;" and then follows a list of 
wearing apparel in the wardrobe in custody of Clement Baldwyn, 
wherein a tuftajfity night-gown is mentioned, which Mr. Halliwell ex- 
plains as a tafhty left with a nap en it, like velvet. The articles in the 
" chamber beyond Lady Arbellaes lodginge" are next enumerated ; then 
the Jewells ; and the plate in the " clossett, the pantrey," and that be- 
longing to the kitchen. This is followed by the chattels in the Lady 
Arbellaes chamber ; in that of the " Lady Countesse ;" in a trunk next 
the canopy ; in the " sweete-meate clossett ;" in the " gentlewomen's 
chamber ;" in the " drawinge chamber ;" in the " best chamber;" in the 
" red bed-chamber;" in the Lady Gerrald's chamber ; in the hall ; in 
the parlour ; and in thg " Chapelein's chamber." 

This portion having -been read, the remainder was postponed to the 
next Meeting of the Society : and thanks were severally directed to be 
returned for the exhibitions and communications. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OP 

THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 
OF LONDON. 



1849. 



No. 17. 



Thursday, February 8th, 1849. 
The VISCOUNT MAHON, President, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the last Meeting were read and confirmed. 

The President proposed for election into the Society the Most 
Reverend His Grace the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, who being a 
Peer of the realm, was entitled to an immediate ballot ; whereupon, the 
ballot having been taken, His Grace was declared duly elected a Fellow 
of this Society. The recommendatory testimonial of Robert William 
Mylne, Esq. having hung up the limited time was read, and his election 
balloted for, whereupon he was declared duly elected a Fellow of this 
Society. 

The following presents were received, and thanks for the same 
ordered to be returned : 



From Mr. F. Somner Merry- 
weather 

From the Secretary of State for 
the Home Department. 

From John Whichcord, jun. Esq. 

From the British Archaeological 
Association. 

From the Editor 



Bibliomania in the Middle Ages. 12mo. 
Monumenta Historica Britanuica. Fol. Vol. I. 



Observations on the Sanitary Condition of 
Maidstone. 8vo. 

Their Journal. No. XVI. 



The Athenaeum. Pt. 253. 



From Charles Roach Smith, Esq. Casts in Plaster of an armilla in bronze, and a 

stone axe-head, found in Derbyshire. 

Thomas Windus, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited various specimens of chased 
works of art in gold, silver, and ivory belonging to himself and some 
of his friends, to which the several dates of 1530, 1620, 1640, and 
1660 were assigned ; that of 1530 was a pax, which, from the cognizance 
stamp, he considered to be an undoubted work of Benvenuto Cellini. 
He accompanied them with a descriptive letter addressed to Capt. W. H. 
Smyth, Director ; and a detailed catalogue of the several specimens was 
placed on the table. 

The Reverend Edward Wilton, of West Lavington, near Devizes, 
exhibited the drawing of a Copper Shield or Badge found near that 
place. It was accompanied by the following letter from Thomas 
William King, Esq. York Herald, addressed to John Yonge Akerman, 
Esq. dated Heralds' College, 8th February, 1849 : 

" I have examined the copper shield found in the locality of Market Lavington, 

2c 



310 

which our mutual friend Wilton communicated to you. It is certainly a very 
curious heraldic relic of antiquity. 

" The arms of England differenced with a label of three points, each charged with 
fleurs-de-lis, were borne by Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster, second son of 
King Henry III. and brother of Edward I. as appears by his seal given in Sandford. 

"Thomas Earl of Lancaster, second son of Edmund, also bore his father's coat 
and label ; but on one of his seals the label has five points. He was beheaded at 
Pontefract, 15th Edw. II. 1321. An original impression of his seal, containing the 
Arms of England with a label of three points, each charged with as many fleurs-de- 
lis, still remains attached to a deed in this college dated in 1320. A similar seal was 
also appended to the famous letter of the Barons to Pope Boniface VIII. 29 Edw. I. 
1300, of which seal there is a drawing amongst Vincent's Collections, also in the 
Library of the Heralds' College. Henry Earl of Lancaster, his brother, second son 
of Edmund Crouchback, used a bend over the arms of England. 

" Henry Earl of Lancaster, son of Henry just mentioned, bore the arms with the 
label of fleurs-de-lis as his uncle and grandfather had done. He was created Duke 
of Lancaster by Edward III. in 1353, and died in 1361. 

"Edmund Crouchback, his son Thomas, both Earls of Lancaster, and Henry 
Duke of Lancaster, seem to have been the only members of the royal house of 
Plantagenet who bore the label charged with fleurs-de-lis over the arms of England. 
I need not observe that the arms of France were not quartered with those of Eng- 
land by any of the princes of the house of Plantagenet, till by Edward III. and his 
descendants. 

"To whomsoever the copper shield, the immediate subject of these remarks, 
belonged, it possesses a peculiarity of which I never previously saw but one general 
instance. It will be observed that each file or point of the label contains only two 
fleurs-de-lis, and not three, the usual number when more than one charge occurs. 
The same remarkable deviation from what appears to have been a general practice 
happens in three royal shields in the roof of the magnificent church at Yarmouth 
in Norfolk, in which the arms of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, are differenced 
with a label of three points each charged with two ermine spots those of his brother 
Edmund of Langley, Duke of York, with a label, each point of which ia charged 
with two torteauxes and a shield containing the arms of the famous John Duke of 
Bedford, Regent of France, having a label of five points, the first three charged with 
two ermine spots, and the remaining two with two fleurs-de-lis. 

" In submitting these curious facts to the consideration of the Society, I cannot 
offer any reason to account for them. With reference to the arms in Yarmouth 
Church I could only briefly allude to the singularity of those labels in a paper 
which I had the honour to lay before the Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological 
Society; but the occurrence of the same peculiarity in the case of this shield as a 
coincidence would suggest that something more than mere irregularity from the 
general rule may be inferred; the seals, or drawings from them, of the princes whom 
I have mentioned universally representing the points of their respective labels with 
the ordinary number of three charges upon each point." 

Sir Henry Ellis communicated to the Society the transcript of a 
Letter preserved among the Harleian MSS. No. 4903, fol. 398, from 
Queen Elizabeth to Sir William Pelham, Knt. Lord Justice of Ireland, 
blaming him for negligence in its government, and warning him hereafter 
to look better to his dealings, and provide for the safety of the good 
subjects of that realm : 

44 Right trustie and welbeloved, we greete you well. As of late we did wright to 
you somewhat plainelie how we misliked some things there in the government, and 
namelie that we could not heare of the diminution of the great nombers of soldiers 
there in paye, the same being so great as never had bene there continued in so great 
a nomber since the beginning of our reigne, nor yet in any tyme of mannes memo- 
rye before, wherof we thinck you will have dewe regarde. So now, having newlie 
understande from our towne of Cork of the overrunning and spoyling of a great 
parte of our countreis in Monster, and speciallie of the spoiling, sacking, and burn- 
ing of our towne of Yowghall by the Earle of Desmond and his adherents (imedi- 



811 

atlye after you had published him a traytor, and that there was no resistaunce made 
against him), we cannot but enter into a great raislyking of this maner of govern- 
ment, that having so great nombers in pay within that realme, the saide should be 
first so sodenlye proclaymed a traytor without notice geven to us before therof, and, 
before convenient forces were in readines to prosequute him, provoked to enter into 
hostilitie and to joyne himself with his brethern the former traytor as he hathe done, 
and as you and every man of understanding ought to have looked for at hi* hands, 
and yet none order left (as experience dothe shewe) how to have withstande him. 
But, as we heare, yourselfe went awaye out of the province into Connaught and 
caried S r Nicholas Malbye also awaye with you; and, thougbe you did advertise us 
that you had committed the prosequution of the rebells to our cousin the Earle of 
Orniond, yet as we were enformed by Captayne Penton, whom you sent to us at your 
departure from Monster, the said Earle was forced to come to Waterford, and so to 
Kilkennye, to make provisions for that service ; whereby the countrey where the 
rebells remayned in their force was lefte without any principall person to direct 
anye service, either to prosequute or to make heade against them, and to defend our 
good subjects; and herby, to our greatest dishonor that ever happened unto us in 
that realme, a principall porte and walled towne (we meane our good towne of 
Youghall) was sacked and burned ; the people all slayue or carried awaye by the 
rebells as captives ; and what farther outrage is followed by this comfort of the 
rebells and discomfort of our good subjects, having no succor nor countenaunce 
geven them, we know not, but rather we have cause to doute bothe of more dishonor 
and losse of our good subjects, yea of the alienating of many of them from their 
dueties to occasion them to adjoyne themselfes to the rebells ; and therfore we can- 
not but imparte this our evell taking of the matter being so negligentlie lefte by you, 
which cannot be as we thinck excused by your so sudden departure, except the 
fault may be laide to the Earle of Ormond for his departure also thence ; which if it 
be true that he was not furnished for the charge, and that you did knowe bothe 
tberof and also of his going to Waterforde and Kilkenny, then he is excusable and 
you to blame to leave the countrey and to take awaye also Sir Nicholas Malbye, 
speciallye considering you had so freshlie and sodenlye, when you had not forces 
there readie to prosequute him, proclaymed him traytor, knowing therwith the 
greatnes of the forces which his brethern had in readines. Wherfore we will and 
charge you with all spede to employe yourselfe to make some amends for this 
matter, and, considering the great nombers you have in paye within that realme, we 
thinck it moost to purpose that all the forces which may be spared from other places 
be sent into Monster to prosequute that action against the rebells, and that there be 
twoe severall forces and armies appointed, wherof one to be under the charge of the 
Earle of Ormond, and a second under yourselfe ; or, if you cannot be spared from 
any other greater purpose of service, then under some other principall person, able to 
conduct suche a force as shalbe needfull, and so by meanes of those twoe severall 
forces to pursue the rebells from place to place, who otherwise being but followed by 
one company alone, shall have commoditie by flyeng from wood to woode, or from 
strengthe to strengthe, to escape and drawe out the warre at soche lengthe as may 
be more daungerous, besides the charge, then is to be thought of ; speciallye if the 
rebells by wynning of tyme this wynter shall rest unvanquished untUl the springe, 
and so our charges to continue unprofitable to us and profitable onelye to captaines 
aud men of warre. And therfore all is to be done that maye be to prosequute them 
in soche sorte as they may be nowe this winter tyme vanquished. And because we 
think it meete if yourself shall goe into Monster for this service, that our Englishe 
pale towards Ulster be garded from any daunger may come by Tyrlough Lenough, if 
he shall have mynde in your absence to offende those parts, we think it good that you 
doe consult with our cosen the Earle of Kildare, and counsellor, and others the 
nobilitie there, and committ the charge of the defence of our frontiers to him the 
said Earle, and others to be joyned with him, leaving also some nombers of our 
garrison and footemen in service there, and taking order to put in readines all other 
our forces of our countreis in our Englishe pale to serve for these purposes onelye 
for defence therof, whilst you shalbe absent with our forces in Monster. And never- 
thelesse you shall doe well by all other good meanes of treatie to procure Tirlough 
Lenough to live quietlie without geving him any just cause to attempt any forcible 
act uppon our good subjects. The lyke order we wishe you shall take for the stayeng 
of the countreys of Len and Offalye, and soche other countreis of the Irishe uppon 

2 c2 



312 

the borders that in your absence might offend our pale, or whilst these rebells in 
Monster shalbe prosequuted, that the same may be defended and garded as shalbe 
meete. And to conclude, we cannot but grentlie mislyke that we nor our counsell 
here have hearde from you since your departure from Monster, nor yet from our 
counsell att Dublyn since the coming away of our chauncellor there. Geven under 
our signet, at our manor of Grenwich, the 8 th daye of December, 1579." 

The Secretary then read a Memoir by Edward Foss, Esq. F.S.A. on 
the Justices of Trailbaston, a species of itinerant judges, whose office 
continued in this country from the 33rd Edward I. A.D. 1305, to 
the 16th Richard the Second, when the commissions appointing such 
justices were discontinued. An endeavour to discover the real meaning 
of the title of Trailbaston was the main object of Mr. Foss's inquiry. 
In the Annals of Worcester, under the year 1305, it is said that "hoc 
anno Justiciarii Domini Regis, qui vocantur Trail-baston, primo itine- 
raverunt." Thomas Trivet, in his Annals (page 404), says that this 
name was given to them by the people " ab hominibus popularibus 
vocati sunt de Traylebastoun ;" adding " quod sonat Trahe-baculum." 
Holinshed translates this last expression, " which signifieth traile or 
draw the staff ;" and Jacob, in his Law Dictionary, professing to quote 
from Holinshed, calls this staff " the staff of justice." Thus, out of 
Trivet's simple statement of a fact, " an hypothesis is framed for which 
his words give no authority, namely, that these justices were so styled 
from trailing the staff of justice." The author then traces the name, 
and the early practice of its office, in Mr. Wright's " Political Songs of 
England," (published by the Camden Society), and especially instances 
an extract from Peter Langtoft's Chronicle : 

" Respouns ount fet au reys geutz de been voyllance, 
Coment parmy la tere fet est grant grevaunce 
Par comune contekours, ke sunt par fiaunce 
Obligez ensemble k une purviaunce; 
Traylbastouns sunt nomez de eel retenaunce, 
En fayres et marchez se proferent fere convenaunce, 
Pur treys souz ou iiii. ou pur la valiaunce, 
Batre un prodomme ke unk fist nosaunce 
A cors Cristiene, par nuli temoygnaunce."* 

Mr. Wright's edition of a contemporary expression of hatred to the 
institution, " The Outlaw's Song of Traille-baston," is then quoted ; 
"except the King himself, may he have God's curse whoever first 
granted such a commission." After speaking of the two cruel justices, 
an angry verse follows, which is thus rendered by Mr. Lockhart : 

" I'll teach them well this noble game of Trail-baston to know ; 
On every chine I'd stamp the same, and every nape also ; 
On every inch in all their frame I'd make my cudgel go ; 
To lop their tongues I'd think no shame, nor yet their lips to ew." 

Thanks were severally ordered to be returned for these communica- 
tions, and the Meeting adjourned. 

* Mr. Wright translates this passage thus : " People of good will have made 
answer to the King, how a great grievance is made in the land by common 
squabblers, who are by oath obliged together to a purveyance; this company are 
called Trailebastons, they offer to make conventions at fairs and markets. for 
three or four shillings, or merely to shew their courage, to beat a good man, who 
neyer did hurt to any Christian body, by the testimony of no one." 



did 

Thursday, February 15th, 1849. 
HENRY HALLAM, Esq. V.P. in the Chair. 
The Minutes of the last Meeting were read and confirmed. 
The usual period for auditing the accounts of the Society being now 
near at hand, the President announced that he had nominated as 
Auditors on this occasion, Lord Kedesdale ; Sir Fortunatus Dwarris ; 
Thomas Crofton Croker, Esq. ; and Beriah Botfield, Esq. 

The following presents were' received, and thanks for them ordered to 
be returned : 

By Dawson Turner, Esq. . . " Thirteen Letters of Isaac Newton." STO 

1849. 
By Robert H. O. Byrne, Esq. The Representative History of Great Britain 

and Ireland. Part I. Bedfordshire. Part 

II. Berkshire. 

By Robert Phipps Dodd, Esq. " Birth and Worth," 12mo. 1849. 

By John Gough Nichols, Esq. The Topographer and Genealogist, Part XI. 

By Chalmers, Esq. The Ancient sculptured Monument* of the 

County of Angus. Folio. 

Robert Porrett, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited the Head of a Battle-Axe of 
bronze, found at Heathfield, in Sussex, in 1848, within the area of that 
locality which in 1066 formed the memorable field of Hastings. From 
the place where it was found, the impression might naturally be expected 
to arise that it was a relic of that great event ; but Mr. Porrett, in a 
short note which accompanied the exhibition, admitted that the form of 
this weapon did not exactly correspond with that of the battle-axes which 
appear in the hands of several combatants, and even of Harold himself, 
in the Bayeux Tapestry. The axe in question was of a square form, 
analogous to the instruments which go by the name of celts ; it has been 
recently purchased by the Board of Ordnance for the Armoury at the 
Tower. A drawing of this battle-axe, by Mr. Charles Corner, made 
for the occasion, was presented to the Society. 

The Reverend John Montgomery Traherne, F.S.A. exhibited a bronze 
Spear-head discovered in Coed-mawr, St. Fagan's, Glamorganshire, in 
August, 1847, in cutting the South Wales Railway. Several bronze 
celts were found near the same spot. 

John Payne Collier, Esq. Treasurer, exhibited the original of John 
Leyland's Letter, the copy of which was laid before the Society at their 
Meeting on the 1st instant, and recorded in their Minutes. 

Sir Henry Ellis communicated, from one of the Cottonian manu- 
scripts, a transcript of the Letter of displeasure which Queen Elizabeth 
wrote to her favourite Essex, from Nonesuch, 17th September, 1599, 
in consequence of his failure to fulfil his promises to her to carry on the 
war in Ireland against Tir-Oen. Her heaviest complaint against the 
Earl in this letter related to the conference which, as Lord Deputy, he 
had held with the rebel alone at the Ford of Balla-Clinch ; Essex even 
neglecting to acquaint her with what passed on either side : 

" ELIZABETH R. Right trustie and right welbeloved cousin and conncellor, we 
greet you well. By the letters and jonwll which we have receaved from you, we see 
a quicke end made of a slowe proceadinge for anie thinge which our forces shall 
undertake in those quarters which you pretended to visite. And therefore doubt 
not but before this time you have ended the charge of the last two thowsaud which 



314 

we yealded for other purposes, aud of the three hundred horse onely destined for 
Ulster services. It remaineth therefore that we return you somewhat of our con- 
ceipts uppon this late accident of your enterviewe with the rebels. We never 
doubted but that Tyrone, whersoever he saw anie force approache, ether himselfe, or 
anie of his principall partisans, wold instantly offer a parley, specially with our 
supreme gouvernor of that kingdome, having often don it to those who had but 
subalterne authority ; alwayes seaking these cessations with like wordes, like protesta- 
tions, and uppon such contingents, as we gather these will prove by your advertisment 
of his purpose to goe consult with Odonnell. Herein we must confesse to you that we 
are doubtfull least the successe wilbe suteable with your owne opinion heretofore, when 
the same rebels heald like coorse with others that preceaded you. And therefore, to 
come to some aunsweare for the present, it appeareth to us by your jornall, that 
you and the traitor spake together halfe an houre alone, and without anie bodyes 
hearinge ; wherein, though we that truste you with our kingdome are farre from mis- 
trusting you with a traitor, yet, both for comelines, example, and for your owne dis- 
charge, we mervaile you wolde cary it no better ; especially when you have seamed in 
all thinges since* your arrival! to be so precise to have good testimony for your actions, 
as whensoever there was anie thinge to be done to which our coimu an dement tyed you, 
it seamed sufficient warrant for you if your fellowe-councellors allowed better of 
other wayes, though your own reason caryed you to have pursued our directions 
against their opinions, to whose conduct, if we had meant that Irelande (after all the 
calamities in which they have wrapped it) should still have been abandoned (to whose 
courses never any could take more exceptions then yourself), then was it very 
superfluous to have sent over such a personage as you are, who had decyphered so 
well the errors of their proceedings, being still at hande with us and of our secreatest 
councell as it had been one good rule for you amongest others in moste thinges to 
have varyed from their resolutions, especially when you had our opinion and your 
owne to boote. Furthermore, we cannot but muse that you shoulde recite that 
circumstance of his beinge sometime uncouvered, as if that were much in a rebell 
when our person is so represented, or that you can thinke that ever anie parlee (as you 
call it) was uppon lesse termes of inequality then this when you came to him ; and 
he kept the depth of the brooke between him and you, in which sorte he proceaded 
not with other of our ministers, for he came over to them, so as never coulde anie 
man observe greater forme of greatenes then he hath done, nor more to our dishonour, 
that a traitor must be so farre from submission as he must first have a cessation 
granted, because he may have time to advise whether he shoulde goe further or no 
with us. And thus much for the forme; for you have dealt so sparingly with us in 
the substance, by advertiseing us onely at first of the halfe howres conference alone, 
but not what passed on ether side, by letting us also knowe you sent commissioners 
without shewing what they had in charge ; as we cannot tell but by divination what 
to thinke may be the issue of this proceadinge ; onely this we are sure of (for we see 
it in effect), that you have prospered so ill for us by your warfare as we cannot but 
be very jealous least you shoulde be as well overtaken by the treatie, for either they 
did not ill that had the like meetinges before you, or you have don ill to keepe 
them companie in their errors, for no actions can more resemble others that have 
been before condemned, then these proceadinges of yours at this time with the 
rebels. For you must consider that as we sent you into Irlande an extraordinary 
person, with an army exceading anie that ever was payde there by anie prince for so 
longe time out of this realme, and that you ever supposed that we were forced to all 
this by the weake proceedings even in this point of the treatise and pacification, so 
if this parlee shall not produce such a conclusion as this intolerable charge may 
receave present and Jarge abatement, then hath the managinge of our forces not 
onely proved dishonourable and wastefull, but that which followeth is like to prove 
perilous and contemptible. Consider then what is like to be the end and what wilbe 
fitte to builde on. To trust this traitor upon oath is to trust a divell uppon his 
religion. To trust him uppon pledges, is a meare illusorye, for what piety is there 
among them that can tye them to rule of honestie for it selfe, who are onely bound 
to their owne sensualityes, and respect onely private utility. And therefore whatso- 
ever order you shall take with him of laying aside of armes, banishinge of strangers, 
recognition of superiority to us, or renouncinge of rule over our vriaghes, promising 
restitution of spoyles, disclaiming from Onealeshippe, or ani other such like con- 
ditions, which were tollerable before he was in his overgrowen pride by his owne 



Ill 

successe against our power, which of former times waa terrible to him ; yet, unlesae 
he yeald to have garrisons planted in his owne countrye to master him, to deliver 
Oneales sonnes, whereof the detayning is most dishonourable, and to come over to us 
personally here, we shall doubte you doe but peece up a hollowe peace ; and so the 
end prove worse then the beginninge. And therefore, as we well approve your owne 
voluntary profession (wherein you assure us that you will conclude uothiuge till you 
have advertised us and heard our pleasure), so doe we absolutely commande you 
to continew and performe that resolution. Allowing well that you heare him what 
he proffers, draw him as high as you can, and advertise us what conditions you wolde 
advise us to afoorde him, and what he is like to receave ; yet not to passe your 
worde for his pardon ; nor make anie absolute contract for his conditions, till you 
doe particularly advertise us by writinge and receave our pleasure hereafter for your 
further warrant and authority in that behalf. For whatsoever we doe ought to be 
well weyed in such a tyme when the worlde will suspect that we are glad of anie 
thinge out of weakenes, or apt to pardon him out of mistrust of our power to take 
due revenge on him ; considering that all whiche nowe is yealded to on our parte 
succeadeth his victoryes and our disastres. In our letters of the fowrteenth of this 
month to you and that councell we have written those thinges that are fitte for them 
to aunsweare and understande; and therefore we will expect what they can say to all 
the partes of that letter, with which our pleasure is that they be fully acquainted, as 
well for your discharge an other time if you vary from their opinions (when we 
direct otherwise), as also because we wold be glad to receave their aunsweare as well 
as yours. Given under our signet at Nonsuch, the seventeenth day of September, 
1599, in the forty-first yeare of our reigne. 

" To our right trustie and right welbeloved 

cousin and councellor the Earle of Essex, 

our Lieutenant and Governor Generall of 

our realme of Irelande." 

It need hardly be added, that this letter led to the Earl of Essex's 
abandonment of Ireland. 

A Letter was next read from Hyde Clarke, Esq. to John Yonge 
Akerman, Esq. Secretary, in comment upon the 15th Chapter of the 
First, and on a portion of the 9th Chapter of the Fifth Book of Bede's 
Ecclesiastical History ; in illustration of the peopling of England by the 
Angles, consequent upon the invitation from the Britons to Vortigern 
and his followers ; connecting them with the Varini or Varinghi as a 
kindred tribe, who subsequently settled in Sclavonia. In illustrating the 
early migrations of the northern hordes, and more particularly as con- 
nected with the invasion of this country by Hengist and Horsa, Mr. 
Clarke endeavours to shew that the History of the English, as a people, 
is still to be written. 

The Secretary next read a short letter from Samuel Shepherd, Esq. 
F.8.A. in reference to Mr. Foss's paper read at the last Meeting, upon 
the Appointment of the Judges of Trail-baston, by King Edward I. 
referring as an illustration of the trail-baston to various passages in 
the Bible, particularly in the 30th Chapter of Isaiah, wherein mention 
is made of the grounded-staffs Bishop Lowth, in a note upon this, 
says No one has been able to make any tolerable sense of grounded- 
staff ;" and he proposes to read it the " staff of correction/' which is sup- 
ported by two ancient manuscripts. Mr. Shepherd, however, thinks H 
may be identified with the '* trail-baston." 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these communications. 



316 

Thursday, February 22nd, 1849. 
JOHN PAYNE COLLIER, Esq. Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the last Meeting were read and confirmed. Notice 
was given a second time from the Chair, that the usual period for 
auditing the Accounts of the Society approaching, the President had 
nominated as Auditors for the Accounts of the last year, Lord Redes- 
dale, Sir Fortunatus Dwarris, Thomas Crofton Croker, Esq. and Beriah 
Botfield, Esq. 

The following Minute communicated to the Society from the Council 
was read 

" At a Council of the Society held at Somerset Place, on Tuesday, Feb. 20th, 
1849, at 3 P. M. the President announced to the Council that, in compliance with 
what he understood to be the wish of many Members, he would propose, if such 
should be the opinion of the Council, that for the future an Address from the Chair 
should be delivered at theAnniversary, recapitulating the principal occurrences of 
the past year. 

" This proposition having met with the most hearty concurrence of the Council, 
it was resolved accordingly." 

The following presents were received, and thanks for them ordered 
to be returned : 

By the Author .... The History of Civilisation. By William Alex- 
ander Mackinnon, Esq. M.P., F.R.S., 2 vols. 
8vo. 1846. 

By the Author .... Origines Hibernicse, or a Brief Inquiry into the 

Source of Irish Christianity. By Nescio. 
Private impression. 8vo. Dublin, 1849. 

Hugh Welch Diamond, Esq. presented to the Society's Museum an 
Effigy and a Plate in brass to the Memory of Margaret, wife of Sir 
John Erneley, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, daughter of Edward 
Dawtrey, Esq. who died the 18th of August, 1518 : found in the 
Thames. The thanks of the Society were ordered to be returned. 

William Richard Drake, Esq. by permission of Colonel Reid, M.P., 
exhibited an ancient embossed Shield of middle-age work, of the cinque- 
cento period. 

Sir Henry Ellis laid before the Society an Impression from the 
Matrix of a Seal, recently picked up in Norfolk, which had been com- 
municated to him by Dawson Turner, Esq. of Great Yarmouth. It is 
of oval form, the centre filled by the figure of an abbot, beneath a 
gothic canopy, mitred, bearing a crozier in his left hand, his right hand 
uplifted in the act of benediction. A small full-length figure repre- 
sented in a niche below. The inscription round, si. OFICII. P'OR. 
LINCOLII. ORDI'S. sVi. AVGVsx'i. \. e. Sigillum Ojficii Prioris Lin- 
colii Ordlnis Sancti Augustini. It was the seal of the Augustin Friars 
of Lincoln. This house is mentioned in Pope Nicholas's Taxation, 
A.D. 1291. From a patent of the 43d of Edw. III. it appears that the 
house or mansion of these friars was then enlarged. The site, after 
the Dissolution, was granted to John Bellow and John Broxholra. 
Leland, in his Itinerary, mentions the ruins. 

A Letter was read from George R. Corner, Esq., F.S.A. to John Yonge 
Akerman, Esq. Secretary, dated Eltham, 19th February, 1849, accom- 



317 

panying the Description of a Monument placed over the Grave of 
Eric Menved and Queen Ingeborg of Denmark, in the church at Ring- 
sted, in the Island of Zeeland, translated by his friend Mr. Alfred 
Hansen, from Professor Werlauffs Memoir in the " Antiquariske An- 
naler," published at Copenhagen in 1821. Eric VIII. named Eric 
Menved, and his Queen Ingeborg, both died in 1319. This monument 
is stated to be the earliest memorial known for a Danish king bearing 
an inscription : it consists of a mass of stone work two feet high above 
the floor, and is surmounted by a slab of black marble, on which is a 
thick brass plate, bearing the engraven images of King Eric Menved 
and his royal consort, of the natural size, with elaborate accompani- 
ments. 

The Secretary then concluded the reading of the Inventories of the 
Countess of Leicester's Property at Essex House, in 1635, with Notes 
by J. O. Halliwell, Esq. communicated to the Society by the Council of 
the British Archaeological Association. 

Thanks were severally ordered to be returned for these communica- 
tions, and the Meeting adjourned. 

Thursday, March 1st, 1849. 
HENRY HALL AM, Esq. V.P. in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the last Meeting were read and confirmed : and, 
the following presents being received, thanks for them were ordered 
to be returned, viz : 

From John Bowyer Nichols, Esq. The Gentleman's Magazine for March. 
From George Godwin, Esq. Jun. . The Builder. Vol. VII. Pt. II. 

A Letter from John Bruce, Esq. F.S.A.to Sir Henry Ellis, was read, 
citing examples of the Crown Badge, as represented upon the sepul- 
chral brass lately given to the Society's Museum by Hugh Welch Dia- 
mond, Esq, and referring particularly to a brass in the church of St. 
Neot's in Huntingdonshire, as recorded by Gregory King, in his Visi- 
tation of that county in 1684, for Thomas Lynde, yeoman of the 
Crown. Mr. Bruce shewed the occurrence of the same badge in no less 
than five other known English brasses, still, however, leaving it in 
doubt whether the badge in question was specifically that of a yeoman 
of the Crown, or generally that of a servant of the Sovereign. 

Benjamin Nightingale, Esq. exhibited to the Society a drawing of a 
thin Strip of Bronze, sixteen inches in length, and one in breadth, which, 
from its still retaining a spiral form, was presumed to have been twisted 
round a wooden staff or sceptre. On this bronze a number of rude 
figures of animals were represented, intermixed with characters or letters, 
such as are seen upon some of the Anglo-Saxon sceattas engraved by 
Ruding. It was found among other antiquities, heretofore exhibited to 
the Society, on Farley Heath, in Surrey, in the summer of 1848. Mr. 
Nightingale also exhibited a Bronze Celt found by himself in the same 
neighbourhood at a later period of the year. Mr. Akermau accompa- 
nied this exhibition with a short note, suggesting that the slip of bronze 
had formed the ornament of the staff of an ecclesiastic, and was probably 



818 

of the date of the seventh or eighth century ; founding this belief on the 
analogy between some of the figures on the scroll, and those on some gold 
coins found on Bagshot Heath some years since, and described as well 
as figured in the Numismatic Chronicle. 

The Secretary then read a Letter from Thomas Crofton Croker, Esq. 
addressed to Viscount Mahon, the President, and accompanied by two 
drawipgs and the exhibition of two bosses of a brooch, a bronze fibula, two 
silyer buckles, and a ring. Mr. Croker called his lordship's attention 
to certain facts, shewing a cause for the popular belief in the existence of 
the mermaid as depicted by heralds ; and stated that, it was upon a 
chain of circumstantial evidence collected from accounts of recent anti- 
quarian discoveries that he ventured to base what might fairly be termed 
his speculation, that the mermaid of the College of Arms was identical 
with a Danish or Northern sailor of the tenth or eleventh century. 

The facts were these, that in the latter part of April, and the begin- 
ning of May, 1839, some ancient burial places were explored near Pier- 
o-wall, in Orkney, when five human skeletons were discovered, accom- 
panied by fragments of armour, weapons, ornaments (among which two, 
found near or little below the head of each, resembled large mussel 
shells), fibulae, combs, and miscellaneous articles. Eighteen months after 
these discoveries at Pier-o-wall, that is, in November, 1840, a human 
skeleton, accompanied with weapons, ornaments, &c. was found interred 
on the sea-shore in the vicinity of Larne, in the county of Antrim, and 
;n January, 1841, Mr. J. Huband Smith communicated the particulars 
of this discovery to the Royal Irish Academy, in the Proceedings of 
which body the spear, sword, fibula, and a comb which had been found 
were figured. A comparison of the two latter with the specimens found 
at Pier-o-wall, left no doubt in Mr. Croker's mind as to the correct 
attribution of both the Orkney and Irish interments to the same people, 
at least to people using the same fashions. Of four fragments of bone 
found at Larne, Mr. Smith said that three of them were portions of a 
comb, the back of which was slightly but not untastefully carved on both 
sides. 

This communication to the Royal Irish Academy did not come under 
Mr. Croker's notice until 1845, when the coincidence of a comb or 
combs and fibulae of the same character with the remains of iron wea- 
pons deposited with skeletons in the Orkneys and in the north of Ireland 
induced him to make further inquiries, particularly respecting the orna- 
ments described as resembling two large mussel shells. On the 31st of 
March, 1846, he received through the kindness of Mr. Anderson, the 
present member for the Orkneys and Shetland, a pair of these orna- 
ments, a fibula and a comb, from the Pier-o-wall interments, drawings 
of which accompanied the present communication. These ornaments 
were of copper or brass ; each had seven projecting points, to the convex 
surface of which small stones, or pieces of glass, had evidently been 
affixed. Within the concave side of each there was a bow or bar of 
iron ; and, from the situation in which they had been found, there could 
be no question as to their having formed part of the fastening for a cloak 
or mantle. 

Having mentioned one or two other similar remains found in the Isle 



319 

of Sangay, in the west of Scotland, Mr. Croker says, " Imperfectly o 
these antiquarian discoveries have been described, there ii nevertheless 
sufficient to establish that interments of a similar character have been 
found near the sea-shore of islands on the north and west of Scotland 
and on the main land of the north of Ireland." He then details a dis- 
covery of ancient remains at Kilmainham, near Dublin, accompanied by 
some remarks upon them by Mr. Worsaae, of Copenhagen, addressed to 
the Royal Irish Academy, in which they are considered as of Danish 
origin the weapons and ornaments of Norsemen. 

" After what has been stated," the author says, " it is to be presumed 
that no one can doubt the correct appropriation to the northern maritime 
adventurers of that period " (the tenth or eleventh century), " or their 
associates, of the interments described as having been found on the 
shores of the islands of Scotland and the north coast of Ireland. Let 
imagination supply the picture of these bold seamen hovering around the 
coast in their coracles or hide-boats. And is the popular imagination of 
a comparatively ignorant people, who crossed their rivers in canoes 
hollowed out of logs of wood, taxed too much when beholding an un- 
known sea-creature fearlessly moving along a stormy shore, braving its 
wild waves or triumphantly careering through its breakers, and guiding 
almost magically, with a slight double-bladed or rather disced oar, a 
frail but secure bark or shell, in believing that the part not submerged 
was a mirror ? especially when the hand unemployed in navigation was 
occupied, while going through the surf, in the adjustment of the hair." 
And next Mr. Croker says, " May it not be fairly presumed that the 
tail-like appearance of the stern of these northern hide-boats resembled 
that of the present ordinary Norwegian skiff, which must have been the 
primitive contrivance for steering or guiding the coracle by means of an 
oar when tide and wind were not in its favour." " Thus I think," he adds, 
" the incongruous combination of a fish's tail and a semi-human form, 
with a pair of hands occupied by a mirror and comb, can be fairly 
explained. But why, it may be asked, should these fierce northern 
pirates be transformed into mermaids 9 Why should they not be con- 
sidered as mermen 9 Their jewelled breasts, or the clasps of their cloaks, 
I humbly conceive, sufficiently account for this vulgar error." 

A few subsidiary sentences upon a couple" of brooches found foy a 
peasant in the Island of Inniscattery, and on the irruptions of the Danes 
into that island in the ninth and tenth centuries, formed the conclusion 
of Mr. Croker's letter. 

Thanks were severally ordered to be returned for these communica- 
tions. 



Thursday, March 8th, 1849. 
JOHN PAYNE COLLIER, Esq. Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the last Meeting were read and confirmed : and 
Robert William Mylne, Esq. lately elected, now attending, having paid 
his admission-fee, and subscribed the obligation required by the Statutes, 
was duly admitted a Fellow of this Society. 



The following presents were received, and thanks for them ordered 
to be returned : 

From Joseph Burnley Hume, Esq. His Abstract of Statement as Secretary of the 

Royal Commission of Enquiry upon the Mint. 
Folio. 

From the Central Committee of Their Journal. No. XX. for December, 1848. 
the Archaeological Institute. 

A communication from the Treasurer was read, addressed to Capt. 
W. H. Smyth, Director, on the Charge of the Ordinary and Extra- 
ordinary Service of the English Navy in the middle of the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth ; with a letter and report from Sir John Hawkins to 
Sir Walter Mildmay, on the subject of the needless expenditure of 
public money in 1583. The letter and reports were originals. 

In the biographies of Sir John Hawkins, Mr. Collier observes, he is 
called " Treasurer of the Navy," but in the documents in question he 
speaks of the " Treasurer of Ships," and that may have been his more 
proper designation, unless there were two distinct offices of nearly similar 
titles and duties : he does not, however, state that he filled the situation 
of " Treasurer of Ships," and it is said that he became " Treasurer of 
the Navy" in 1573, ten years anterior to the date of his letter. 

It appears that in 1 583 he was busily engaged in making investigations 
for the reduction of the expense of the navy, and he dates from Chatham 
on the 14th of March in that year, where it seems he had, as might be 
expected, met with some obstructions to his inquiries from the officers 
there employed, and whose emoluments very possibly would be cur- 
tailed by a reduction of the national expenditure. For about fifteen 
months the interested parties had " taken hardiness and courage to 
oppose themselves against him," but, nevertheless, he had prosecuted 
his investigations, and by uniting what were called the ordinary and 
extraordinary services of the navy together, he had managed to produce 
a saving of more than ^3,000 a-year, adding at the same time to 
the efficiency of the Queen's fleets. Thus, as in not a few more modern 
instances, the public money was spared, while the service was im- 
proved. 

The report was inclosed by Sir John Hawkins in a letter to Sir 
Walter Mildmay, Kt. one of her Majesty's privy " cownsell." From 
this document, it appears that the keeping and maintenance of Her 
Majesty's ships in harbour cost yearly 5,714. The extraordinary 
payments for carpentry only, upon an average of five years from 1573 
to 1579, cost ^3,231. 

The Secretary then read the transcript of a letter from John Clerk, 
Bishop of Bath and Wells, to Secretary Cromwell, in behalf of master 
Claxton, one of his chaplains, who was charged with neglecting to pray 
for King Henry VIII. his Queen, and the Princess, in the celebration 
of divine service ; probably written about 1536. Communicated by Sir 
Henry Ellis, Secretary, from the original preserved in the Cottonian 
MS. Cleopatra E. vi. fol. 249. 

" Right honorabyll and my syngular good master, Master Secretary. In my 
moost humbyll and hartyest raaner I recommend me unto yow, in lykewyse thankyng 
yow, that it lykyd yow to giff soche credite unto my poor letters, for the excuse of 



321 

master Carsley in his laat preachyng, for the whiche your goodnes I do recouae my- 
selff moche bownden unto yow, and shall owe vow my servyce therfor while I liff. 

' ' And beyng in lyke maner constraynyd at this present tyme to wright unto yow 
in the recommendacion of a chapleyn of myn, the berar heroff, callyd Master Clax- 
ton, for whom ye have now sent by your letter, I wyll not desir yow that my letter 
may be of soche effect totally for his excuse, as it lykyd yow to accept my former 
letter for the tother man, for I do nott know this mannys matter so well as I dydd 
the totheris ; but surly, Master Secretary, this man is a mervellouse honest man, and 
a mervellouse verteuse man, as I know any ; he hath been with me thees four or five 
yeres myn almoner ; he is a softe man, of small spryte, no medyllar in no matters, 
all giffyn to stody, except it be when I send him aboute my dioces a preachyng, as 
I do other my chapleyns, wheryn I have not hard that he hath spokyn any thyng 
that shold offend any manne, except it be soche as be suspectyd of noughty opyn- 
yons, agaynst whom as I understond in myn absens, when I was last at London, he 
hath spokyn somwhat ernestly, as it is now hyghe tyme, and very necessary that 
men shold speke, specially in som partis of this diocese. 

" Amongst other, he suspectith oon to be his accusar callyd Champneys, whiche 
is as fond a felowe, as maliciouse, and as sediciouse a person, as any in this shire ; 
he is a tenant of myn, and was of laate my servant, and for sedicion and bryges 
that he had with Syr John Saynctlo, and other jentyllmen here in the countre, I 
was fayn to cast hym of, and synse that tyme he hath gyffyn hymselff to idyll and 
evyll company, and is very farre gone as men thynkyth. This is he of whom I 
shewyd yow that apon Cristmas Day last past, he came solemply to the offeryng (I 
beyng ther present) and kyssyd the stoale in the pristes hand, and turnyd his bakke 
to the awter, and gaff his offeryng to a beggar whom he hadd causyd there to stond 
at hand, and to receiff it, unto whom he nevyr gaff halfpeny byfor in his liff, yett 
he dwellyth witbyn three howses of hym. 

" At this and many other lyke his lewd prankes his neyghbors (God be thankid) 
and many other wonderth and grodgith ther at also ; how be it, as yett hopyng styll 
off amendment, I have not said so moche unto hym, dwellyng within a flyght shott 
of me, as blakke is his iee, saffyng that I have giffyn hym secrett advertismentes by 
his frendis. Hec est pacientia nostra ut vincamus mundum. Butt he fearith the more 
byhynd, and thynkith that ther is moche more of his fondnes provyd then in deed 
ther is, and doughtles fearyng to be callyd to some reconnyng thynkith to stoppe it 
by theese meanys ; it weer great pitie he shold so do. 

" Butt to retorne to Master Claxton, whom I understond the said Champneys 
hath accusyd ; Master Secretary, this poor man (as farre as ever I cowd perceiff in 
hym) is a very honest man, softe, sadde, sobyr, circumspect, and as I said on my 
faith of soche integrite and perfection in his liffyng, so known in all this countre, 
and other placeis, where he hath dwelt, as I have not known many bettar, what 
reaport somevyr of hym hath ben unto yow maade to the contrary ; eyther ye shall 
fynd the thyng untrew, and spokyn of malice, or ellys doon apon soche occasions 
as I dowt nott butt that ye your selff wyll alowe the doyng ; my trust is therfor 
that he shall fynd at your hand as he hath deservyd, and so in my moost harty 
maner I requyre yow that he may. 

" Lykith yow forther to understond, that I now perceiff that part of the com- 
playnt maad agaynst Master Claxton is by cause he dyd not in his preachyng ex- 
hort the pepull to pray for the Kynges highnes, the Queenis grace, and my lady 
Prynces, by name ; wherapon I have examyned as well the said Master Claxton as 
other whicbe hath hard hym there, and also in other placeis ; and by my faith and 
trewth, by that that I have harde hym preache mysellf and by that that I heer off 
other men that hath hard hym also in sondry other placeis, I canne not heer but 
that he hath doon his part at all tymes right well in that behalff ; saffyng in thoos 
oon or two tymes when he preachyd at Chiew, wher he saith that in very deed he 
expressly namyd neyther the Kynges highness neyther the Queenys grace by name, 
ne noon other whiche he is accustomyd to name. 

"He saith the cause was, for they wer butt grosse and rud pepull unto whom he 
preachyd, disposid at that tyme to gamyn and passe tyme, and not to tarry long in 
the churche, for it was about shroftyde, and therfor for shortnes of tyme he neyther 
observyd that cerymony nor other solempnyte ; but, ex abrvplo, begynnyng with 
prayr, thowght it sufficient for that audience, for that tyme, shortly and breffly to 
exhort theym by generall wordis to pray for thoos quykke and dedde for whom 



822 

they wer accustomyd to pray, reconnyng that they knew well inowhe without rehersal 
who they werre. 

" He saitli he hath hard commuti preachars at some tyines do in lyke maner in 
great and solempne audienceis in London. In very deed the place wher he then 
preachyd is neyther markett toun nor yett good village ; my poor howshold whiche 
then lay there in a lityll poor hous of myn takyn away, he cowd have ther but a 
Smalle and symple audience. 

" Master Secretary, I dare boldly say that ther is no man lifFyng prayth moor 
hartly for the Kynges highnes and his then this poor man doth, as well in his ser- 
mons as ellys wher. God giff me no lenger grace to liff then I shall eyther do 
otherwyse myselff or wittyngly kepe any abowt me that shall do otherwise. I dare 
say that he prayd for theym in his hart, and reconnyd that his audience shold do 
the same, thowhe it was his chaunce at thoos tymes by som negligence upon the 
occasion aforesaid nott to expresse their names. 

41 I have repreeffyd hym therfor, and he she with hymselff very sory that it was 
his chaunce so to do, and hath promysid that he wyll nevyr moor offend in that 
behalff ; and I dare undertake that no more he shall ; and thus, Master Secretary, in 
my moost hartyest maner I shall eftsones requyr yow to be good master unto hym, 
and that this his labor, travell, charge, of his commyng upe and attendance upon 
yow, at this present tyme, and my poor displeasure (which he reconnyth hymselff, 
as in deed he hath, for his negligence to have incurryd) may be takyn in satisfac- 
tion of som part of his penaunce, deservyd as he hymselff doth confesse in this poynt 
of negligence oonly, but no more but in this poynt of negligence only, as I trust ye 
your selff wyll say when ye shall have examyned hym in the rest. 

" It is trowthe that we be all menne, and may erre. If any soche thyng have 
chaunced in hym, if his offence be not the greattar, for Goddis sake deall yow mer- 
cifully with hym, as my trust is that ye wyll, and that nevyr the latter apon myn so 
ernest a relation, testifyng unto yow his other good qualities, which surly I wold in 
no wise do if I supposyd theym not trew. Good Master Secretary, speed hym, for 
on my faith the man is poor, and hath not twenty markes by yere to liff on, and 
was fayn to make frendis and to borow for his commyng upe, as knowith the 
Almighty God, who have yow in his blyssyd tuytion. From Wellys the 5th day of 
Aprill." 

" Your beadman, 

"Jo: Eps Bat' Welle'. 
" To the right honorable and my singular 
good master, Master Secretarye." 

Thanks were severally ordered to be returned for these communica- 
tions. 



Thursday, March 15th, 1849. 
JOHN PAYNE COLLIER, Esq. Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The Most Reverend John Bird, Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, 
having paid his admission -fee, and subscribed the obligation required by 
the Statutes, was admitted a Fellow of this Society. 

The following presents were received, and thanks for them ordered to 
be returned : 

From the Council of the Camden The Obituary of Richard Smyth, Secondary of 
Society the Poultry Compter. Edited by Sir Henry 

Ellis. 4to. Lond. 1849. 

From W. R. Taylor, Esq. . . A Lithographic View of the Roman Tessellated 

Pavement found at Aid borough. 

From Thomas Williment, Esq. . A View of the Custom House and Castle of 

Dover, temp. Eliz. from a drawing in his 
possession. 



From the Editor .| . . Bent's Literary Advertiser for March, 1849. 
From George Richard Corner, Esq. Professor Werlauffs Account of the Tomb of 

King Eric Menvid, and his Queen Ingeborg. 

4to. 1815. 

Thomas Witidus, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited two Medallions, one was of 
the head of a slave in alabaster and verde antique, stated by him to 
have come from the baths of Nero, at Rome; the other, a bust of 
Minerva in serpentino antico, stated by Mr. Windus to have been found 
at Athens. 

Benjamin Williams, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited various Roman Antiquities 
recently found in a field near Takeley Church, in Essex ; consisting of 
a glass bottle of a faint green colour, about eight inches high, at present 
the property of Thomas Cocks, Esq. of Hatfield Broad Oak ; a glass 
basin of similar material ; two paterae of red ware, one bearing the 
maker's name of Pontius ; an unbaked urn of blue clay ; two cups of the 
same material ; and three copper coins of Vespasian. They were found 
disposed in a wooden box, about two feet long, and one foot deep, which 
fell to pieces on exposure to the air. It was secured by a brass hasp and 
fastening, which Mr. Williams forwarded for exhibition, together with a 
plan of the disposition of the articles in the box. A bottle, similar in 
size and material, but square, was found by Lord Maynard whilst search- 
ing the Bartlow Hills ; and was destroyed about twelve months ago by 
the fire at his lordship's seat. 

John Adey Repton, Esq. F.S.A., exhibited drawings of two pieces of 
Ancient Tapestry in his possession, one in outline, the other coloured, 
judged from the costume to be about the date of 1500. The figures 
have the duckbill shoes, which may be found as early as the reign of 
Henry VII. and which superseded the poulande of from Edward I. to 
Henry VI. - 

The Secretary then read a portion of a paper entitled " Observations 
on the Trial and Death of William Earl of Gowrie, A.D. 1584, and on 
their connection with the Gowrie Conspiracy, A.D. 1600." By John 
Bruce, Esq. F.S.A. In the portion of the paper now read, the author 
observed that in King James's narrative of the Gowry conspiracy of 
1600, as well as in Johnston's MS. History of Scotland, adopted as an 
authority by Mr. Tytler, and in the deposition of Andrew Henderson, 
and in the letters of the conspirators which came to light in 1609, the 
cause of their atrocious attempt, put forth by the Gowrie conspirators, 
was revenge for the death of William Earl of Gowrie. 

Mr. Bruce stated that his purpose in the present paper was to inquire 
what circumstances there were in the death of the Earl of Gowrie 
which could have kept alive in the tiiinds of his children, for a period of 
sixteen years, a feeling of hatred and desire of revenge against their 
sovereign. Mr. Bruce stated that he proposed to illustrate this ques- 
tion by certain papers in the Cottonian library, which he believed had 
never been printed. But, in order that the precise historical value and 
bearing of those papers might be clearly understood, it was desirable to 
preface them with a narrative which should exhibit the political position 
of the Gowrie family during the life of William Earl of Gowrie. 

The portion of the paper now read contained an outline of the chief 



324 

incidents in the political life of William Earl of Gowrie, from the mur- 
der of David Rizzio, in which he took part, together with his father 
Patrick Lord Ruthven, to the Raid of Ruthven, for the consummation 
of which the Earl of Gowrie gave the use of Ruthven Castle. In the 
course of this part of his paper, the author disputed the accuracy of the 
picture ; story derived by Mr. Tytler from Johnston's manuscript his- 
tory ; and also showed that the old fable, revived by Prince Alexander 
Labanoff, that Rizzio was murdered in the actual presence of Queen 
Mary, although probably asserted by the Queen herself, was contra- 
dicted by Lord Ruthven's narrative of the murder, and by all the other 
contemporary evidence. 

The continuation of Mr. Bruce's observations was reserved for the 
next Meeting. 



Thursday, March 22nd, 1849. 

The VISCOUNT MAHON, President, in the Chair. 
The Secretary read the following document. 

" I Philip Henry, Viscount Mahon, President of the Society of Antiquaries of 
London, do, by virtue of the powers and authorities vested in me by the letters pa- 
tent, hereby nominate John Payne Collier, Esq. being one of the modern and pre- 
sent Council of the said Society, to be a Deputy to me the President of the said 
Society, with full power and authority to him, in my absence, to supply my place as 
President, and to do all acts concerning the said Society, and the business of the same, 
which I, by virtue of my office might do if I myself were actually present, according 
to the true intent and meaning of His Majesty's letters patent. In witness whereof 
I have hereunto set my hand and seal, this 20th day of March, in the year of our 
Lord 1849." 

" Witness, HENRY DAVIS. (L.S.) " MAHON." 

The recommmendatory testimonials of Thomas Hughes, Esq. B.A. 
of Oriel College, Oxford, and of Mr. Charles Reed, of Bolt Court, Fleet 
Street, having hung up the usual time, were read, and their elections 
severally balloted for, whereupon they were declared duly elected Fellows 
of this Society. 

Thomas Windus, F S.A., exhibited a small bust, the head black, 
said to be Scipio Africanus. 

Three short Letters were read, the first from Benjamin Williams, Esq. 
to Capt. W. H. Smyth ; the second from J. L. Stoddart, Esq., to Sir 
Henry Ellis ; the third from Jabez Allies, Esq. to Capt. W. H. Smyth, 
upon the signification and various use of the term " Cold Harbour ;" 
upon the different and dissimilar situations in which the name occurs ; and 
shewing that harbour sometimes means an inn. Mr. Williams, on looking 
at the different passages in Layamon, where the word herebe^a or her- 
berwe occurs, considers Dr. Bosworth's interpretation of its meaning, 
" a station where the army rested on its march," to be borne out, 
although the word was also used for an inn or dwelling : he also remarks 
that the word caul is said to mean a dwelling in the voluminous Celtic 
dictionary published by Professor Bullet at Besanon in 1754-60 ; and 
caula is interpreted as a barrack, cabin, hut, park, stable, &c. Mr. Allies 
shows that t