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NOTICES 

or THK 

PEOCEEDINGS 
MEETINGS OF THE MEMBERS 

OF TH( 

Ko^al }ht£;tttutton ot #reat Brttatn 



ABSTRACTS OF THE DISCOURSES 

DBimOD AT 

THE EVENING MEETINGS 



VOLUME XVT 
1899—1901 




LONDON 

PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS. LIMITED 
1902 



-...T,0 C-^-. 



^''Tff005 



LIBRARIES 
STACKS 

OCT 1 7 i958 *a*r»"« 
, > I Viuslfiatttm anli l^onotacs Mtmbn. 

' VIA BOTAL HIOH1IX88 

THE PEINCE OF WALES, KG. G.C.V.O. LL.D. F.E.S. 



BIS MOST ESCKLLXNT MAJESTY 

KING EDWAED VII. 



Pr«<td«iit— Tmt DuKX or NoBTHDifBXBi.Ain>, E.O. D.CX. F.B.S. 
ZVeowrer— Sib Jaiixs OBiOHTON-BBOwm, M.D. LL.D. F.B.S. — V.1P. 
Honorary Seerekary — Sib Williah Gbookbs, F.B.S. — V.P. 



Manager!, 1902-1908. 

The Bigbt Hon. Loid AWentone, 

6.C.M.O. ILA. LL.D. 
8ir Jamea Blyth, Bart J.P. 
Sir Frederick Brunwell, Bart D.CL. 

LL.D. FJt.S. llIiMt.O.E. 
Thomas Buzzard, M.D. F.B.aF. 
Donald William Charles Hood, O.Y.O. 

M.D. F.B.O.P. 
Sir Francis Henrr Laking, K.C.y.O. 

M.D. 
George Hatthey, Esq. F.B.S. 
Ludwig Mond, Esq. Fh.D. F.B.S. 
Hugo W. Mnller, Esq. Fb.D. LL.D. 

F.B.S. 
Edward Pollock, Esq. FJS.0.8. 
Sir Owen Boberb, H.A. D.O.L. F.8JL 
Sir Felix Semon, M.D. F.B.O.P. 
The Bight Hon. Sir James Stirling, 

M.A. LL.D. F.B 8. 
Jolin Isfiao Thomvoroft, Esq. LLJ). 

F.B.8. BUnst-CE. 
James Wimsbnrst, Esq. F JI.& 



Fiitfors, 1902-1908. 

Henry E. Annstiong, Esq. Fh.D. LL D. 

F.B.8. 
Charles Edwaid BeeTOT,]f.D. F.B.C.P. 
John B. Bronn-Morison, Esq. J.P. D.L. 

F.8.A. 
Fiaocis Elgar, Esq. LL.D. F.B.S. 

M.InstC.E. 
Francis Oaskell, Esq. H.A. F.G.S. 
James Dnndas Giant, M.D. F.B.C.8. 
Lord Greenock, D.L. J.P. 
Manres Homer, Esq. J.P. F.B.A.S. 
Sir Henry Irving, Litt.D. LL.D. 
Wilson Noble, Esq. M.A. 
Winter Bandall Pidgeon, Esq. M.A. 
Axthnr Bigg, Esq. 
William Stevens Squire, Esq. Ph.D. 

F.ca 

Harold Swithinbank, Esq. J.F. F.B.G.S. 
Charles Wightman, Esq. 



Profeaor ofNatmvl FhUoiophy—Tbfd Bight Hon. Lobd Batuoor, M.A. D.C.L. 

LL.D. Sc.D. F.B.8. Ac. 
FuOerian Pro/euor of Chemittry—Jjuaa Dbwab, Esq. H.A. LL.D. D.So. 

F.B.S. fto. 
.FWIeruin Pr€/t$»or of Phy$iology—ALLXK Macfaotki, M.D. B.Sc. 



£<Mip«r of the Library and Auitlaid Seertlary — Mr. Henry Tonng. 
AuiUant in the Library — Mr. Balfb Cost. 

Auielantt in ihe Iiaboraioriee—Mx. B. N. Lennox, F.C.8. ; Mr. J. W. Heath, 
^.C-8. : s^d Mr. G. Goidon.. 




CONTENTS. 



Jttn. 20. — FsorEssoB Dewab — Liquid Hydrogen 

„ 27. — The Right Hon. Sir MouNXflTUABT E. Gbast 
Dvrr — Epitaphs .. 

Feb. 3. — VioTOB Hobslit, Esq. — The Roman Defences of 
8oatb-East Britain ., .. .. 

„ 6. — General Monthly Me<)ting .. 

„ 10. — Pbofebsob H. S. Hble-Shaw — The Motion of a 
Perfect Liquid 

„ 17. — RioHABD B. Holmeb, Esq. — George tho Third as 
a Collector .. .. .. .. .. .. 

„ 24. — PBorKBSoB Oliveb Lodoe — Coherers 

March 8. — Sib Fbxdxbiok Pollock, Bart. — King Alfred 

„ 6. — General Monthly Meeting .. 

„ 10. — Pbofxssob H. L. Callbicoab — Measuring Extreme 
Temperatures 

„ 17. — PsorissoB Fbascib Gotoh— The Electric Fish of 
the Nile 

^ 2i. — Tbk Bight Hon. Lord Batlxigh — Transparency 
and Opacity 

April 10. — General Monthly Meeting .. 

„ 14. — PBorESSOB A. W. Buoeeb — Earth Currents and 
Electric Traction .. 



65 
72 

75 
93 

97 

114 

116 
120 

124 



d 



18M. rAOB 

April 21. — ^Fbkdsriok Walesb Hott, K.P. — Stmctnre of the 

Brain in B«l«tion to its Fnnctiona ^ .. 125 

„ 28. — Fme^UBOK G. A. Camob Wilsoh — Some Featnres 

of the Eleotrio Induction Motor .. 135 

11*7 1. — Annnal Meeting .. .. .. 139 

„ 6. — WnxiAM Jamxb Bobskll, Esq. — Pictnres Produced 

on Photogi»phic Plates in the D»rk 140 

„ 8. — Ctoneral Monthly Meeting .. .. .. 147 

„ 12. — ^PBOvassoB Tbokas Pbkbtoh — Magnetic Pertnrha- 

tions of the Spectral Lines 151 

„ 19. — Thb Bioht Bkt. Thb Lobd Bmop or Bbiiiol 
— Bnnic and Ogam Characters and Inscriptions 
in the British Isles .. .. 164 

„ 22. — ^Adjourned General Meeting .. .. .. 188 

„ 26. — Snt WiLUAM Mabtin Conwat — Olimhs and Ex- 
plorations in the Andes .. .. .. .. 189 

Jane 6. — General Monthly Meeting .. 192 

Celebration of the Centenary of Foundation of the 
Boyai'lnstitntion, 1799-1899 197 

July 3. — General Monthly Meeting .. .. .. .. 219 

Not. 6. — General Monthly Meeting 223 

Deo. 4. — General Monthly Meeting '.. .. .. .. 229 



1900. 
1900. 
Jam 19. — Tax Bioht Hon. Lobd Batleioh — Flight 288 

„ 26. — Thb Hok. Chablxb A. Fabbonb — Motive power; 

High-Speed Navigation ; Steam Torbinee .. 236 

Feb. 2.— SiONOB G. Mabooni— Wireless Telegraphy .. 247 




0ONTXMT8. 



1900. 



Feb. 6. — General Monthly Meeting 



PASB 

267 



„ 9. — PiorBsaoB J. Rktnolds Gbkkn — Symbiosis and 

■Symbiotic Fermentation .. .. .. .. 261 

„ 16. — H. Wabihoton Sutth, Esq. — Life in Indo-Cbina 274 

« -28. — FBorissoB Johk H. PoTKmia — Recent Studies in 

GrariUtion 278 

Much 2. — Majob Ronald Ross — Malaria and Mosquitoes .. 295 

„ 6. — General Monthly Meeting ,. .. .. .. 814 

n 9. — ^PBorsBSOB Fbank Clowxb — Bacteria and Sewage 317 



16. — Sib Bbhjaioh Stone, M.F. — Pictorial Historic 
Records 

28. — Sib Andbkw Noble, K.G.B. — Some Modem Ex- 
pIonTos .. .. •• .. •• 

30. — PBorKssoB J. Abtbtjb Tboubon — Facts of In- 
heritance .. 



326 
829 



346 
860 
473 



April 2. — General Monthly Meeting .. 

„ 6. — PaorassoB Dxwab — Solid Hydrogen 

„ 27. — Thb Bight Hon. Lord Kblvw — Nineteenth 
Century Clouds over the Dynamical Theory of 

Heat and Light 363 

Mmj L — Annual Meeting .. .. .. 898 

„ 4.— Pbovbbsob T. E. Thobpb— Pottery and Plumbism 399 

„ 7. — General Monthly Meeting .. .. .. .. 412 

„ 11. — StonT Lkb, Esq.— Shakespeare and True Patriotism 416 

18.— Pbofissob J. A. Ewno— The Structure of Metals 419 

„ 26.— Fbanois Fox, Esq.— The Groat Alpine Tmmola .. 422 

Jane I. — Sm Hxnbt Roscoe — Btmsen .. •• 487 



OOHTXIITS. 



1900. 



I 



Jane 8. — Allan Maotasten, M.D. — The EflFect of Physical 
Agents on Bacterial Life .. 

„ 11. — General Monthly Meeting .. 

Jnly 2. — Qenerol Monthly Meeting .. 

Not. 5. — General Monthly Meeting .. 

Deo. 3. — General Monthly Meeting „ 



YAas 

448 
468 
461 
465 
470 



" 1901. 



1901. 




Jan. 18. — Pbofsssob Dxwab — Gases at the Beginning and 

End of the Century 730 

[In oonseqaence of the lamented death of Her Kijefty the 
Qneen, the Fatron of the Inititntlon, there ware no ETening 
Xeetisgt on Jannaiy 25 and Febraary 1.] 

Feb. 4. — General Monthly Meeting .. .. .. .. 481 

8. — Fbofkssob G. H. Bbyam — History and Progress of 

Aerial Locomotion ,, .. .. .. 487 

16. — Thx Bioht Bbv. Mossionob Gkbau) Mollot — 

Electric Waves 493 

„ 22.— SiB W. BoBKRTB-AuBTKK— Metals as Fuel .. 496 

March 1, — Hbnbt HABDnoB GcirraGHAMB, Esq. — Enamels .. 610 

4. — General Monthly Meeting .. .. .. .. 622 

8. — W. A. Shbnstokx, Esq. — Vitrified Qnartz .. 625 

16. — Majob Alfbed St. Hiu. Gibbons — Throngh the 
Heart of Africa from Soatfa to North 

22. — HoBACB T. Bbowm, E«q.— Some Becent Work on 
Diffosion .. ., ., .. ., 




CONTENTS . 



1901. 



March 29. — The Bioht Hok. Lobd Katleioh — Polish 

April 1. — General Monthly Meeting .. 

„ 19. — PBorassoB J. J. Thomson — The Existence of Bodies 
Smaller than Atoms .. .. „ .. 

„ 26. — Hans Gadow, Esq. — Colour in the Amphibia 

Hay 1. — Annual Meeting .. .. .. .. 

,, 3. — Chables Mkboibb, Esq. — Memory.. 

„ G. — General Monthly Meeting .. 

„ 10. — Pbofessob Jaoadis Chundeb Bobe — The Response 
of iDorganie Matter to Mechanical and Electrical 
Stimulus .. •• .. •• 

„ 17.— Eabl Pebot, M J*.— Turkish Kurdistan .. 

„ 24. — BiOHABD T. Glazebbook, Esq. — The Aims of the 
National Physical Laboratory 



Til 
PAGE 

663 
671 



31. — A. Hkhbt Sataoe Lamdob, Esq. — With the Allies 
in China .. 



K » 31 

I June 8. — General Monthly Meeting .. 

^H „ 7. — PBorsssoB Raphael Mbldola — Mimetic Insects 



HoooKiics Tbubt Essat, by Miss Agnes M. Clebki 
— Low Temperature Research at the Royal Insti- 
tution, 1893-1900 - 



July 1. — General Monthly Meeting .. 

Not. 4- — General Monthly Meeting .. 

Dte. 2. — General Monthly Meeting .. 
Index .. 



674 
587 
696 
696 
613 

616 
640 

666 

668 
689 
693 

699 
719 
722 
727 
739 



▼Ill 



PLATES. 



'PAOB 

The Motion of a Perfect Flnid 66 

Photomicrographs of Sections, showing Stmctore of the 
Brain 126,128,130,132 

Apparatus nsed in the Liquefaction of Hydrogen 216,471,476,478,737 

. The Viper .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 244 

Turbine Engines of the Fi^>er .. .. .. .. 244 

Microscopic Preparations, illnstrating Professor Olowes' paper 
on Bacteria and Sewage— Figs. 1-8 320, 821 

Illustrations, to Sir Andrew Noble's paper on Some Modem 
ExplosiTes— Plates I, U ; figs. 1-10 

830, 332, 334, 336, 888, 840, 342 

Simplon Tunnel— Plates I-Y 432, 434 



msi 



Uajtal Institution of ©rrat 56ritttMl^^ 

WEEKLY EVENING MEETING, 
Friday, January 20, IIJM, 

SiB FBra>KEiCK BfUMWBLL, Babt., D.CX. LL.D. F.R.S., Honorary 
Secretary and Vice-Presideut, in the CLivir. 

Pbofbssob Dewab, M.A. LL.D, F.R.S. M.B.I. 



k 



I 



Liquid Hydrogen, 

FsoM tbe year 1878, when the c-xijerimoiitB of Caillctot and Pictet 
were attracting the attention of tbe scientific world, it l>ecanje a 
oommun habit in text-books to sjieak of all the permanent gases, 
witbont any qnaliGeation, ns having been liqiietiod, whereas theso ox- 
perimentalists, by the production of un instautaneotiB mist in a glass 
tube of small bore, or a transitory liquid jet in a gas expanding under 
high compression into air, had only adduced evidenco that sooner or 
later the static liqnid fonu of all the known gases would be attained. 
Neither Pictet or Cailletet in their experinjents ever sncceeded in 
ooili'Cting any of the permanent ga^es in that liquid form fur scientific 
examination. Yet we meet continually in scientific literature with 
exjircssions which lend one to believe that they did. For instance, 
the following extract from the ' Proceedings ' of the Rfpyal Society, 
1878, illnstrntes this point very well : '■ This aword ("Davy Medal) 
it made to these distinguished men (Cuillctct and Pictet) for hnving 
independently and contemporaneously liquefied the whole of the 
gaaee hitherto calle<l permanent." Many other quotations of the 
aune kind may ho made. As a matter of fact six years elapsed, 
during which active investigation in this department was being 
proMOOted, before Wroblewski and Olszewski succeeded in obtain- 
ing oxygen aa a static liquid, and to collect liqnid hydrogen, which 
is • much more difficult problem, has taken just twenty years from 
tbe date of the Pictet and Cailletet experiments. 

Wroblewski made the first conclnsivo experiment on the liquefac- 
tion of hydrogen in January 1884. He found that the gas co<>lod in 
• capillary glues tube to the boiling point of oxygen, and expanded 
qnickly uom 100 to 1 atmosphere, showed the same nppciirnnce of 
•nddcu ebullition lasting for a fraction of a second, ns Ciiillotet had 
•cen in bis early oxygen experiments. No sooner had the announce- 
ment been maile, than Olszewski c<>ntirme<l the result by expanding 
li*dlOgon from 100 atmospheres, previously cooled to the temperature 
pvem by liquid oxygen and nitrogen evaporating under diti inished 
pmmra. Olaiewski, however, declared in 1884 that be saw colourless 

Vou XVL (No. 93.) B 



2 Frofetaor Dewar [Jan. 20, 

drops, and by partial expansion to 40 atmospheres, the liquid hydro- 
gen was seen by him running down the tube. WroblewsU could 
not confirm Olszewski's results, his hydrogen being always obtained 
in the form of what he called a " liquids dynamiqne," or the appear- 
ance of an instantaneous &oth. Olszewiski himself seven years later 
repeated his experiments of 1884 on a larger scale, confirming 
Wroblewski's results, thereby proving that the so-called liquid 
hydrogen of the earlier experiments must have been due to some 
impurity. The following extract from Wroblewski's paper states very 
clearly the results of his work on Hydrogen : — 

" L'hydrogdne soumis k la pression de 180 atra. jusqu'4 190 atm., 
refroidi par I'azote bouillant dans la vide (jk la temperature de sa 
solidification) et d6tendu brusquement sons la pression atmosphSriqne 
pr^sente une mousse bien visible. De la omleur grise de cette 
mousse, oh I'oeil ne pent distingner des gouttelettes incolores, on 
ne pent pas enoore deviner quelle apparence aurait I'hydrog^ne k 
r^tat de uquide statique et Ton est encore moins antoris^ k pr^ciser 
s'il a on non nne apparence metallique. J'ai pn placer dans cette 
mousse ma pile thermo-^lectrique, et j'ai obtenn suivant les pressions 
employ^ des temperatures de - 208° jnsqu'a - 211° G. Je ne penx 
pas encore dire dans quelle relation se trouvent ces nombres aveo la 
temperature reelle de la mousse on avec la temperature d'ebullition de 
I'hydrog^ne sous la pression atmospherique, puisqne je n'ai pas encore 
la certitude que la faible dnree de ce phenomene ait permis k la 
pile de se refroidir completement. Neaumoins, je crois aujonrd'hui 
de mon devoir de publier ces reiiultats, afin de {ireoiser I'etat actuel 
de la question de la liquefaction de I'hydrogene." * 

It is well to note that the lowest thermo-electric temperature 
recorded by Wroblewski during the adiabatic expansion of the hy- 
drogen (namely, - 211°) is really equivalent to a much lower tempera- 
ture on the gas-thermometer scale. The most probable value is 
- 280°, and this must be regarded as the highest temperature of the 
liquid state, or the critical point of hydrogen, according to his obser- 
vations. In a posthumous paper of Wroblewski's on ' The Ouropression 
of Hydrogen,' published in 1889, an aucount appears of farther 
attempts which he had made to liquefy hydrogen. The gas com- 
pressed to 110 atmospheres, was cooled by means of liquid nitrogen 
under exhaustion to —213*8°. By suddenly reducing the pressure, 
as low a temperature as — 223° on his scale was recorded, but with- 
out any signs of liquefaction. This expansion gives a theoretical 
temperatnie of about 15° absolute in the gas particles. The above 
methods having failed to produce static hydrogen, Wroblewski sug- 
gested that the result might be attained by the use of hydrogen gus 
as a cooling agent. From this time until his death in the year 1888, 
Wroblewski devoted his time to a laborious research on the iso- 



Couipl. Kcna. 1885, 100, y§i. 



I 



1899.] on Liquid Hydrogen. 8 

thermals of hTilrogen at low temperatnres. The data thus arrived at 
enabled bim, by the use of Van der Waal'B formulie, to calculate the 
critical constants, and also the boiling point of liquid hydrogen. 

OlszewBki returned to the subject in 1891, repeating and correct- 
ing hia old experiments of 1881, which VVroblcwski hod failed to 
confirm, nsing now a glass tube 7 mm. in diameter instead of one 
of 2 mm. as in the early trials. He suys : " On repeating my former 
experiments, I had no ho]>o of obt:tiniug a lower temperature by 
means of any cooling agent, but I hoped that the expansion of 
hydrogen would be more efficacious, on account of the larger scale 
on which the experiments were made." The results of those experi- 
ments Olssewski describes as follows : " Tho phenomenon of hydrogen 
ebullition, which was then obsorvud, wns much more marked and 
umch lunger than daring my former investigations in tho same direc- 
tion. But evf-n then I could not perceive any meniscus of liquid 
hydnjgen." Further, " The reason for tehich it hat not hitherto been 
fOmhUe to liq<u\fij hydrogen in a static stale, is that there exists no ijas 
Juuintf a densily U^liocen those of hydrogen and of nitrogen, and which 
might he for insUtw^ 7-10 (H =1). Such a gas could be liquefied 
by means of liquid oxygen or air as cooling agent, and be afterwards 
nsed as a frigorific menstrunni in the liquefAction of hydrogen." 

Professor Olszewski, in 1895, dotcrniined the tempuraturo reached 
in tho momentary adiabatic expansion of hvi1r<ir;on at low tempera- 
tores, just OS Wrobluwski had done in 1865, only he employed a 
pUtiuum-rasistauco thermometer instead of a tliermo-jiiuction. For 
this purpose lie nBC<l a small steol bottle of 20 or 30 cc. capacity, 
oonluniug a (ilatinum-resistance thermometer ; in this way, the tem- 
pemlures registered wore regarded as those of tho critical and boiliug 
puintti of liquid hydrogen, a substance which could not bo seen under 
the circumstance:) and wits only ussnmed to exist for a second or two 
during the expansion of tho gaseous hydrogen in tlie small steel 
bottle. 

Th« results arrived at by Wroblowski and Olzowski are given in 
tho following table, and it will be bhowu later on that Wrob- 
tuwaki's coustttuts aro noarest the truth. 

Wn.bk««Vtl, 01»w>w«kl, 
MKS. iitgs. 

("rilioJ U-iu|H;naur«i —240° -2Si° 

Biilliii; |wiiil -•iiy^f —243° 

fnticul pruMuru 13 aim. 20 utm. 



The aocuracy of Wrubluwbki'8 deductions regarding the chior 
otjusteobt uf liquid hydrogen fulluwing from a study of thu iso- 
thttnuals of tho gas is a signal triumph fur the tlicory of Van der 
Waals and a muiiumeut to thu guniua of thu Crauow physicist. 
From these pmiUh we may safely infer that supposing a gus is 
berukfta-r dc-i-ovurit'l in small quantity four times more volatile than 
liooid hyiit<.:ea. haviu^ u builiug point of about 5^ absolute, and 

B '2 



4 Profe$tor Dewar [Jan. 20, 

therefore incapable of direct liqnefaction by the ose of liquid hydro- 
gen, yet by a study of its isothermals we shall sncceed in finding 
out its most important liquid constants, although the isolation of the 
real liquid may for the time be impossible. 

In a paper published in the ' Philosophical Magazine,' September 
1884, " On the Liquefaction of Oxygen and the Critical Volumes of 
Fluids," the suggestion was made that the critical pressure of 
hydrogen was wrong, and that instead of being 99 atmospheres (as 
deduced by Sarran from Amagat's isothermals) the gas had probably 
an abnormally low value for this constant. This view was sub< 
stantially confirmed by Wrublewski finding the critical pressure of 
13*3 atmospheres, or about one-fourth of that of oxygen. The 
'Chemical News,' September 7, 1894, oontains an account of the 
stage the author's hydrogen experimentii had reached at that date. 
The object was to collect liquid hydrogen at its boiling point, in an 
open vacuum vessel, which is a much more difficult problem than 
seeing it in a glass tube under pressure and at a higher temperature. 
In order to raise the critical point of hydrogen to about —210°, 
from 2 to 6 per cent, of nitrogen or air was mixed with it. This is 
simply making an artificial gas containing a large proportion of 
hydrogen which is captAle of liquefaction by the use of {t^t<2 air^ 
The results are summed up in the following extract from the paper : 
" One thing can, however, be proved by the use of the gaseous 
mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen, namely that by subjecting it to a 
high compression at a temperature of —200° and expanding the 
resulting liquid into air, a much lower temperature than anything 
that has been recorded up to the present time can be reached. This 
is proved by the fact that such a mixed gas gives, under the condi- 
tiouB, a paste or jelly of solid nitrogen, evidently giving off hydrogen, 
because the gas coming off bums fiercely. Even when hydrogen 
containing only some 2 to 5 per cent of air is similarly treated, the 
result is a white solid matter (solid air) along with a clear liquid of 
low densitv, which is ao exceedingly volatile that no known device 
for collecting it has been successful." This was in all probability the 
first liquid hydrogen obtained, and the method is applicable to other 
difficultly liquefactible gases. 

Continuing the investigations during the winter of 1894, and the 
greater part of 1895, the author read a paper before the Chemical 
iSociety in December of that year entitled, " The Liquefaction of Air 
and Research at Low Temperatures," * in which occasion was taken to 
describe for the first time the mode of production and use of a Liquid 
Hydrogen Jet. At the same meeting Professor William Bamsay made 
an announcement of a sensational character, which amounted to stating 
that my hydrogen results had been not only anticipated but bettered. 
The statement made to the Society by I^ofessor Bamsay, reads as 



'Proceedings ' of the Chemical Society, No. 158, 1895. 



N 



^ 



k 



1899.] M Liquid Bydrogen. 5 

follows: " pTofeMor Oltzetatki had Bucceeded in lujuefylng hydrogen, and 
frmm unjmhlijihed information received from Cracow, he (Raintay) icaa 
ahU to rl'ile thai a fair amnunt of liquid had been obtained, not at a froth, 
t«i in a ilate of quiet ebuUition, by tiirrnundinij a tube containing com- 
frtMtd hydrogen hy another tuf>e also containing compressed hydrogen at 
tie temperature of oxygen boiling at a very lotO pressure^ On allowing 
the kgdrogen in the middle jacket suddenly to expand, the hydrogen in the 
i i uu i m otl tube liquefied, ofid teas seen to have a meniscus. Its critical 
point and its boiling point, under atjnoBpherie pretture, were determined 
Of tneant of a resislanct Ifiermometer." * 

This annonnoement of Professor Ramsay's had from its very 
specific and detailed esporimontal character the merit of the appear' 
anoe of being gcnaine, althoagh it was never sabstantiatod, cither 
by the production of the Cracow dncumont, or by any subiieqnent 

fiLblioatinn of such important results by Professor Olszewski himself. 
y utwervation at the time on Professor Ramsay's comumuicition 
was that quotations had been made in my paper from the moat 
noent publications of Professor Olszewski in which he made no 
mention of getting " Static Uydrngen or of seeing a meniscus " or of 
ffettimg as Professor Ramsay alleged " a fair amount of liquid, not as a 
froth, but in a slate of quiet ebullition" To achieve such a result would 
require a very dificrent scale of experiment from anything Professor 
Olssewiki had so for describccl. Naturally an early corroboration of 
the startling statement mode by Professor Bamsay as to this alleged 
soticipation was expected, but strange to say I'rofessor Olszewski 
pobliahed no confirmation of the experiments detailed by Professor 
Bamsay in scientific joiunals of date immediately preceding my paper 
or daring the following years 1896, 1897 or up to May 1898. The 
moment the annouucement was made by me to the Royal Society 
in May 1898 that, after years of labour, hydrogen had at last been 
obtaised as a static liquid, Profesaor Ramsay re[)catcd the story to 
tbe Bayal Society that Olseewski bad anticipated niy results (basing 
the sasertiou solely on the contents of the old letter received some 
two sod a half years before), in spite of the fact that during the , 
iaterral be, Professor Ramsay, must hivvo kuowu that Professor ' 
Olsseweki had never corroborated in any publication cither the form 
of the experiments he had so minutely described or the results which 
were mud to follow. Challongod by me at the Royal Society Meeting 
Od May 13, 1898, to produce Olszewski's letter of 189.5, he did not 
do wa, but at the next meeting of the Society, Professor Ramsay read 
a letter he had received during the interval from Professor Olszewski, 
denying that he bad ever stated that he hod succeeded in producing 
static liquid hydrogen. This oral communication of the contents of 
the new Olfirowski Totter (of which it is to be regretted there is no 
record in the published proceedings of the Royal Society) is the only 
kind of retraction Professor Ramsay has thought fit to make of hia 

• • PRMxadUlga' of the ChemiCnl Society, No, 196, 1887-1888. 



6 



Profe$ior Dewar 



[Jan. 2u, 



published miE-Btatements of fact. No Batisfactory explanation has yet 
been given by ProfesBor Ramsay of his twice-repeated categorical state- 
ments made before scientific bodies of the results of experiments 
which, in fact, had never been made by their alleged author. The 
publicity that has been given to this controversy makes it imperative 
that the matter should not be passed over, but once for all recorded. 
The report of a Friday Evening Discourse on " New Besearcbes 
on Liquid Air " * contains a drawing of the apparatus employed 




Fio. 1. 

for the production of a jet of hydrogen containing visible liquid. 
This is reproduced in Fig. 1. A represents one of the hydrogen 
cylinders ; B and C, vacuum vessels containing carbonic acid under 
exhaustion and liquid air respectively ; D is the coil, G the pin-hole 
nozzle, and F the valve. By means of this hydrogen jet, liquid air 
can be quickly transformed into a hard solid. It was shown that 

• ' Proceedings ' of the Boynl Institntion, 1896. 



1899.] on Liquid Hydrogen. 7 

raob a jet oonld be need to cool bodies below the temperatnre that it 
ia poemble to reach by the nse of liquid air, but all attempts to collect 
the liquid hydrogen from the jet in yacnum vessels &iled. No other 
inTestigator improved on my results,* or has indeed touched the 
subject daring the last three years. The type of appitratus used in 
these experiments worked well, so it was resolved to construct a much 
larger liquid-air plant, and to combine with it circuits and arrange- 
ments for the liquefaction of hydrogen. This apparatus took a year to 
build, and many months have been occupied in the testing and pre- 
liminary trials. The many failures and defeats need not be detailed. 
On liay 10, 1898, starting with hydrogen cooled to - 206°, and 
under a pressure of 180 atmospheres, escaping continuously from the 
noEiIe of a coil of pipe at the rate of about 10 to 15 cubic feet per 
minute, in a racuum vessel doubly silvered and of special construc- 
tion, all surrounded with a space kept below - 200°, liquid hydrogen 
commenced to drop from this vacuum vessel into another doubly 
isolated by being surrounded with, a third vacuum vessel. In about 
five minutes, 20 cc of liquid hydrogen were collected, when the 
hydrogen jet froze up, from the accumulation of air in the pipes 
frosen out from the impure hydrogen. Tbe yield of liquid was 
about 1 per cent, of the gas. The hydrogen in the liquid condition is 
clear and colourless, showing no absorption spectrum, and the menis- 
cus is as well defined as in the case of liquid air. The liquid must 
have a relatively high refractive index and dispersion, and the density 
appears at first sight to lie in excess of the theoretical density, 
namely 0*18 to 0* 12, which we deduce respectively from the atomic 
volume of organic compounds, and the limiting density found by 
Amagat for hydrogen gas under infinite compression. A preliminary 
attempt, however, tu weigh a small glass bulb in the liquid made 
the density only about 0-08, or half the theoreticaL My old experi- 
ments on the density of hydrogen in paUadium gave a value for the 
combined element of 0'H2. Not having arrangements at hand to 
determine the boiling point other than a thermo-j unction which gave 
entirely fallacions results, experiments were made to prove the ex- 
eenively low temperature of tbe boiling fluid. In the first place 
if a long piece of glass tubing, sealed at one end and open to the air 
at the other, is cooled by immersing the closed end in the liquid 
hydrogen, the tube immediately fills where it is cooled with solid air. 
A small glass tube filled with liquid oxygen when cooled in liquid ny^ 
drogen is transformed into a bluish white solid. This is a proof that 
the boiling point of hydrogen is much lower than any temperature pre- 
viously reached by the use of liquid nitrogen evaporating t'n vacuo, 
seeing oxygen always remains liquid under such conditions. A first 
trial of putting liquid hydrogen under exhaustion gave no appearance 
of transition into the solid state. When the vacuum tube containing 
liquid hydrogen is immersed in liquid air so that the external wall 

• 'Proceedings of the Chpiniftil Society* (No. 158), 1895. 



8 Professor Demur [Jan. 20, 

of the vacnnm yessel is maintained at abont — 190°, the hydrogen 
is found to evaporate at a rate not far removed from that of liquid 
air from a similar vacuam vessel under the ordinary conditions of 
temperature. This leads me to the conclusion that, with proper 
isolation, it will be possible to manipulate liquid hydrogen as easily as 
liquid air. 

The boiling point of liquid hydrogen at atmoBpherio pressure in 
the first instance was determined by a plalinum-resistance ikemumeter. 
This was constructed of pure metal and had a resistance of 6 * 3 ohms 
at 0° 0., which fell to abont 0*1 ohm when the thermometer was 
immersed in liquid hydrogen. The reduction of this resistance to 
normal air thermometer degrees gave the boiling points — 238-2° 
and —238 "9° respectively by two extrapolation methods, and —237" 
by a Dickson formula.* The boiling point of the liquid seems 
therefore to be — 238° C. or 35° absolute, and is thus about 5° higher 
than that obtained by Olszewski by the adiabatic expansion of the com- 
pressed gas, and about 8° higher than that deduced by Wroblewski 
from Van der Waal's equation. From these results it may be inferred 
that the critical point of hydrogen is about 50° absolute, and that 
the critical pressore will probably not exceed 15 atmospheres. 

If we assume the resistance reduced to zero, then the temperature 
registered by the electric thermometer ought to be — 244° C. At 
the boiling point of hydrogen, registered by the electric-resistance 
thermometer, if the law correlating resistance and temperature can be 
pressed to its limits, a lowering of the boiling point of hydrogen by 5° 
or 6° C. would therefore produce a condition of afiairs in which the 
platinum woold have no resistance, or would become a perfect con- 
ductor. Now we have every reason to believe that hydrogen, like 
other liquids, will boil at a lower temperature the lower the pres- 
sure under which it is volatilised. The question arises, how much 
lowering of the temperature can we practically anticipate ? For 
this purpose we have the boiling point given hy the hydrogen gas thermo- 
meter, and critical data available, from which we can calculate an 
approximate vapour pressure formula, accepting 22° absolute as about 
the boiling point, 33° absolute as the critical temperature, and 15*4 
atmospheres as the oritioal pressure ; then, as a first approximation — 

log. p = 6*410 =— mm. ... (1) 

If, instead of using the critical pressure in the calculation, we 
assume the molecular latent heat of hydrogen to be proportional to the 
absolute boiling point, then from a comparison with an expression of 
the same kind, which gives accurate results for oxygen tensions below 
one atmosphere, we can derive another expression for hydrogen vapour 

• See Phil. Mag., 45, 525, 1898. 



1899.1 



on Liquid Hfdrogen. 



preesnres, whicb ought to be applicable to boiling points nnder 

redooed pressure. 

The lesnltiog formala is — 

88 
log.j»= 7-0808-=; nun. .... (2) 

Now formnla (1) gives a boiling point of 14*2° absolute under a 
pressure of 25 mm., whereas the second equation (2) gives for the 
same pressure 15 * 4° absolate. As the abeolate boiling point nnder 
atmospheric pressure is about 22°, both expressions lead to the con- 
clusion that ebullition under 
26 mm. preseure ought to re- 
duce the boiling point some v^_^ 
7° 0. For some time experi- 
ments have been in progress 
with the object of determining 
the temperature of hydrogen 
boiling under about 25 mm. 
pressure, by the use of the 
platinum thermometer ; but 
the difficulties enconntered 
have been great, and repeated 
&ilures very exasperating. 
The troubles arise from the 
otmduction of heat by the 
leads ; the small latent heat of 
hydrogen volume for volume 
as compared with liquid air; 
the inefficiency of heat isola- 
tion ; and the strain on the 
thermometer brought about by 
solid air freezing on it and 
distorting the coil of wire. 
In many experiments, the re- 
sult has been that all the 
liqnid hydrogen has evaporated 
bcSbre the pressure was re- 
duced to 26 mm., or the ther- 
mometer was left imperfectly 
covered. The apparatus em- 
ployed will be understood from 
Fig. 2. The liquid hydrogen 
collected in the vacuum vessel 

A was suspended in a larger vessel of the same kind B, which is so con- 
structed that a spiral tube joins the inner and outer test-tubes of which 
B is made, thereby making an opening into the interior at C. The 
resistance thermometer D and leads E pass through a rubber cork F, 
and the exhaustion takes place through C. In this way the cold 




pumfr 



Fra. 



10 Profemor Dewar [Jan. 20, 

vapours are drawn over the outside of tbe hydrogen vaonum yessel, 
and this helps to isolate the liquid from the convectiye corrents of gas. 
To effect proper isolation, the whole apparatus ought to be immersed 
in liquid air under exhaustion. Arrangements of this kind add to the 
complication, so in the first instance the liquid was used as described. 
The liquid hydrogen evaporated quietly and steadily under a di- 
minished pressure of about 26 tnta. Naturally the liquid does not 
last long, so the resistance has to be taken quickly. Just before the 
rednctiou of pressure began, the resistance of the thermometer was 
0*131 ohm. This result compares favourably with the former obser- 
vation on the boiling point, which gave a resistance of 0' 129 ohm. On 
reducing the pre8suru,the resistance diminished to ' 114 ohm, aud kept 
steady for some time. The lowest reading of resistance was * 112 ohm. 
This value corresponds to — '239'1° C, or only one degree lower on 
its own scale, than the boiling point at atmospheric pressure, whereas 
the temperature ought to have been reduced at least 6° under the 
assumed exhaustion according to tbe gas thermometer scale. The 
position of the observation on the curve of the relation of tempera- 
ture and resistance for No. 7 thermometer is shown on the accom- 
panying diagram (Fig. 8). As a matter of fact, however, this platinum 
thermometer was, when placed in liquid hydrogen, cooled at starting 
below its own temperature of perfect conductivity, so that no exhaus- 
tion was needed to bring it to this point. The question arises then 
as to what is the explanatiim of this result ? Has Uie platinum resist- 
ance thermometer arrived at a limiting resistance about the boiling 
point of hydrogen, so that at a lower temperature its changes in re- 
sistance become relatively small — the curve having become practically 
asymptotic to the axis of temperature ? That is the most probable 
sapposition, and it further explains the fact that the temperature of 
boiung hydrogen obtained by tbe linear exti-apolation of the resistance 
temperature results in values that are not low enough. 

As the molecular latent heats of liquids are proportional to their 
absolute boiling points, the latent heat of liquid hydrogen will be 
about two-fifths that of liquid oxygen. It will be shown later, 
however, thai we can reach from 14° to 16° absolute by the evapo- 
ration of liquid hydrogen nader exhaustion. From analogy, it is 
probable that the practicable lowering of temperature to be obtained 
by evaporating liquid hydrogen under pressures of a few mm. cannot 
amount to more than 10° to 12° C, and it may be said with cer- 
tainty that, assuming the boiling point 35° absolute to be correct, no 
means are at present known for approaching nearer than 20° to 25° 
to the absolnt^ zero of temperature. The tme boiling point is in 
reality about — 252° C, in terma of the ga»-ihermometer scale, and the 
latent heat of the liquid is therefore about two-ninths that of an eomal 
volume of oxygen, or one-fourth that of liquid nitrogen. The 
platinum-resistance thermometer had a zero point of — 268 ■ 2 platinum 
degrees, and when immersed in boiling liquid hydrogen, indicated a 
temperature of — 266 * 8° on the same scale, or 6 * 4 platinum degrees 



1899.] 



o* L if m ii fl yi i oj t m . 



II 



from the point »t whidb the netol wimU ttMrtiu Pr 
perfect coDdoetor. The effeet of fnoHag p h li ii w w fion i&e hocEi^ 
point of liquid ozrgen to that a£ liquid h jdiu g m is to JJ™™ »* jam 
renatanee to ooe-elerendi. 

llie difScoldes in liqoefrii^ brinweB <saMe>i hnr tfe pif.«u. <rf 
•ir in the gas have been refen«d to,* aad ctter ex ytiimj — bu fw 
their object tb« reowTal of this froitfU aoKee ot toMbfe. TUa is 
by no means an eaoy ta-k, as quantities amoantiBg to «kIt a iw m tta i m 
uf one percent, accnmnlate in the solid aato. aad ewesitisi ily cfcote tfce 
noixle of the ^paratns, nrwwritatfng the abaadioaBaeeis ti tae ^ 




$ -ta& -iib -tie 

Pk. 3. 

tion. Later experiments enabled me to pru c m e a larger supply of 
liqnid hydrogen with tf hich the determination of certain pbrsiol eoo- 
Btants has been oontinned. The first obsenmtions made with a pore 
platinmn-resistanoe thermometer had giren — 238' as the lyiiling 
point. A new thermometer, contracted of platinam from a different 
•uaroe, gave practically the same raloe. As these rtsnlts mij^t be 
affected by amne constant error, the determination was checlud by 
employing a thermometer constrocted from an alloy of rhodinm and 



• • PmrteiHiM*.* JS!». M. IS-i. 



J*^ yeMor Dnonr [Jul 20, 

1 :i-..: --. .- ■ -_.-.: ur I T-r- eeni. of the {asmer. ADo^ bad been 
• ^ '- ' '->~ ' y.-.:_::.f uid liie ■ntbar to differ fton pnre 
- . r i: ^ : £.j-. u: iietMimiu: jierfnct eondaeton at tbe 
- '■>. . .: . ■ :-.:.. -. ri>-,-.:r-.. m.L l ruiIt of the i&odism-flatfailim 

:<^ « .M.. 9.. :. :. ^ :. : .':.ai^- i:. foiidnctrritT jnodneed bj cooling 
:. t . .'.- r V 'H.: o: Lqnid air is rrsolar aad aMy bo 
't 1- -.■•.-'. ,: .« k >:-..._-:: :::'«.. A» (itftemiiiied I7 tin ibodiinii' 
t.u.'.: ..-.: ■.-..-r-.. liiiic point of LTdraeiai «aa fooad to 

l". - : t.' .- >.-<-. ^ . .-.•:r uuu. tiit pktuinm tbetmooMBler gne. 
"In. ««..^> . ti-. .a..:.::; ii-.- i.xT-iiiaicy between the two Taloes 
m::;;-. -.-.'.. :.:"-..>-. j^-.-s * u'T ]<liiiaimi.. ijiLangb itc reoitaDee aaky 
iH •.■■.•.■•w. 1 i:.. . 7 >. s:r>>.j: : luit amiiia down to tbe aolidifying 
!■.>-.-.: .<: :..: ^:.v.^ $.j:^ ..: k dfimnoK friun TegnLuitr at aboat 
'•: > y. ::.: u: .'. :::: ."..-<-: :i:tT (•-? >nM apynptotic at lower te ai j ie i a* 
<!-.:^N \.>i. ::>-. .:*.-.- :.h:>l iin rvsisxanct- iif xLe rhodioBHflatinam 
k'.i. > .li:-... ■..:•: :t .-f^ -^;. -w 7 &: ;i>-.-ssc iowtc temiicxmtnrBE and iamadi 
i:i::<r :::h: \.:i>'. .•'. } '->. :^fc:^c!L imder auuilar oonditianai It 
!'. ;..'«>> ::.!.: ::.>. r-.^-.sii^..': i-^r*-:. zi. kll priiliabilitT. deviafae lea fan 
:. ii:~:i..j.:.: °.-.'.!: u:&: :^ t^'t JM$: v~:u. I'lttiimun. IStber eanae wimld 
t\: .i.:i. ;":;•. ...fl•.>.•...t<^ . i^-.T'ri. :•=: lilt l-.-wer boilini; point(— SI6" 
»•! :.'" klo. ■.::•.: f.-.r.f:." 1. :»: ill ruin jtrtii^Ue ae it agreed veiy 
'i.u'v'.r w .-.':. u.t ti.'-M i.c ;:: xi^iiic iKiiiit calcolatod bjtbeaatbor 
l'r,<v.. ^Vr.'lu■.'«^k. > rcsil:^ A» liit niK id other jnm metals or 
kl°..^s «ik» ii.<: : k-..'} •. ifot.: ;. Tu.ft MZifaarTarr resnlta, the praUcm 
lu.l ;. ••: fcHi.-if.: ::. ft L.f-.T-.i; v»t. iiuatJT. l.v looans <rf an "air* 

A r.rv: i.r:-.i:.:; Lus. ":•:-.:. nki: n jiteriLaiiM: tie bcdlingfoint bj 
K i.-.-"..>;ti.;-T,'.:-j:j. It Ar. ^i :. iL-.r:i'.-=.-HtT iriirkiiii: nsder dimiaiibed 
lr^^^•.:^t. Ti> li tr:: .i:.-.;-..'-. wL:.i ckT- lit K'ilinp point of o^gen 
h6 ?. I- ft;*.l::v. .: — l?:! ;'. pTi :':• iydK^tn 21" abaolatB « 
-•-'.'.'. T^e ilr-.-t :.-.;-.rL.iifce.£.s uaa hft^e beta made are tben ■• 
f'.Il.'ws: 1 x::jv j ■-*:£:.::::; rtsisa^K liijiDimtKT. S5' abaolate; 
':;;• :L-.«a.nL-jlfc;iirz: r-.-sisin.;* iltrsxcitfcT »~" aboolnte; (8) 
Lv'^rr-v-ti. :i»r:;i i:.-.kr, ill" ftiiSiI-:*. Fr.Tisa iLi* it appears thatue 
b-:j;Lg poiit of LTir.s-;= is i^»l> lowt? ti*= »»s anticipated, aad 
luu^t nxgt Mtwt't:^ 20' ar.i ^' ftlift.lst«. Fnrtber eiperiments 
wi]l U ii*i« witi tLeriLC'SLcMr* £lled w:tL hrdKigien prepared from 
d:C'.T<r:.t h'.'si'^i. A LTlrv-sia tr.eTtav»si<t»r rUt-d with the gas ob" 
tbi:.<j<i froui tLe eTiT^iv.iosTif the liqsii brdiv^ii itself most be 
ti:.jyl'<y<.'L 

'i i.« tk]i],i'jx:i:AU: d^z^itr of liqoid kjorc^n at its boiling point 
was foubd Lt r.'.'AABrtg tiie rolniae of the gas obtained by eTapo* 
ratiug 10 «' of th'; l:'i'-:4. Sid is slightlr l«s than 0-07, or abont 
oij'.-hiztfa that of ]\'i:A nuirs:.-gas, which is the lightest liquid 
kijouij. It its f-.ttiitjKAiA': that, with Sl> K>w a di.i:$:tT. liquid hrdiogcn 
ii! till '.aiiily k':<-ri, hsiK ho w:11 defined a ucuiscns. and can be so 
r<.-a<Jily <y,\hj:V<i aii'l u,iiui]>iAi,UA io Taccuin ressels. As liTdrogen 
o<;<:lu<i<.«l ill i«lla/liijni hut a 'jeusity of 0-6'2, it follows that it must 



18»9.] 



on Liquid Hydrogen, 



13 




1. 



be MiociAted with the metal in some other state than that of liqne- 
ftction. 

The atomic Tolnme of liquid hydrogen at its boiling point is 
^•bout 14"3, the atomic volnmes of liquid oxygen and nitrogen being 
Ms -7 and 16' 6 respectively at their boiling points. The weight of a 
I of hydrogen gas at the boiling point of the liquid is about the 
as that of air, at the ordiuiiry temperatnro. The ratio of the 
iy of hydrogen gas at the boiling point to that of the liquid is 
(xinuktely 1 : 60, as compared with a ratio of 1 : 253 in the case 
roxygen mider similar conditions. 
The specific hent of hydrogen in the gaseous state and in 
i^od palladium is 3-4, but may very probably be G'4 in 
I I substance. Such a liquid would be nnique in its pro- 
pertiua ; bat as the volome of one gramme of liquid hydrogen is about 
14-15 oc, the Pi)ecitic heat per unit volume must be nearly 0*5, 
' ill 'h is about that of liquid air. It is highly probable, therefore, 
lii^t the remarkable properties of liquid hydrogen predicted by theory 
ill prove to be less astonishing when they are compared with thoso 
^of liquid air, volume for volume, at corresponding temperatures. 

With hydrogen as a cooling agent we shall get to &om 13^ to 15° 
of the zero of absolute temperature, and its use will open up an 
catircly new field of scientific inquiry. Even so great a man as 
Jane* Clerk Maxwell had doubts as to the possibility of ever liquefy- 
ing hydrogen.* lie says: "Similar phenomena occur in all the 
^' ible gases. In otlior gases we are able to trace the existence 

etive force at ordinary pressures, though the compression has 
been carried so far as to show any repulsive force. lu 
en the repulsive force seems to prevail even at ordinary 
This gas has never been liquefied, and it is probable 
; it never will bo liquofiod, as the attractive force is so weak." In 
ouoeludiug his lectures on the non-metallic elements delivered at the 
Boyml Institution in 1852, and published the following year, Faraday 
nid f: " There is reason to believe we should derive much informa- 
to the intimate nature of these non-metaUtc elements, if we 
[niooeed in obtaining hydrogen and nitrogen in the liquid and 
form. Many gases have been liquofiod: the carbonic ncid gas 
been solidified, but hydrogen and nitrogen have resisted all our 
of the kind. Hydrogen in many of its relations acts as 
it were • metal : could it be ubtniued in a liquid or a solid 
lltion, tbo doubt might bo settled. This great problem, however, 
lUM jwi to be solved, nor should wo look with hopolegaiioss on this 
•oilman »bon wo reflect with wonder — and as I do almost with fear 
■ad tnOBkUng — on tho (towers of investigating the bidden qualities 
af Uaeae (dements — of quostioniug thom, making tbeui dtsolose their 
ad toll thoir tales — given by the Almiglity to man." 





• 8m 8eienUac Pupfln, 2, 412. 

f See Fnimday'* Leclaivi on the Nou-Mutallic Klcmvnta, pp. 21)2'3. 



14 Profeuor Dewar on Liquid Hydrogen. [Jan. 20, 

Faraday's expressed fikith in the potentialities of experimental 
inquiry in 1852 has been justified forty-six years afterwards by the 
production of liquid hydrogen in the very laboratory in which all his 
epoch-making researches were executed. The " doubt " has now been 
settled ; hydrogen does not possess in the liquid state the character- 
istics of a metal. No one can predict the properties of matter near 
the zero of temperature. Faraday liquefied chlorine in the year 
1828. Sixty years afterwards Wroblewski and Olszewski produced 
liquid air, and now, after a fifteen years' interval, the last of the old 
permanent gases, hydrogen, appears as a static liquid. Considering 
that the step from the liquefaction of air to that of hydrogen is 
relatively as great in the tbermodynamio sense as that from liquid 
chlorine to liquid air, the ftu:t that the former result has been achieved 
in one-fourth the time needed to accomplish the latter proves the 
greatly accelerated pace of scientific progress in our time. 

The efficient cultivation of this field of research depends on com- 
bination and assistance of an exceptional kind ; but in the first instance 
money must be available, and the members of the Buyal Institution 
deserve my especial gratitude for their handsome donations to the 
conduct of this research. Unfortonately its prosecution will demand 
a further large expenditure. It is my duty to acknowledge that at 
an early stage of the inquiry the Hon. Company of Goldsmiths helped 
low-temperature investigation by a generous donation to the Besearch 
Fund. 

Daring the whole course of the low-temperature work, carried out 
at the Boyal Institution, the invaluable aid of Mr. Bobert Lennox 
has been at my disposal, and it is not too much to say that, but for 
his engineering skill, manipulative ability and loyal perseverance, the 
present successful issue might have been indefinitely delayed. My 
thanks are also due to Mr. J. W. Heath for valuable assistance in the 
conduct of the exnerimenta. 

[J. D.] 



18)9.] Biyht Hon. Sir M. E. QraiU Duff on Epilajtlit. 



16 



WEEKLY EVENING MEETING, 
Friday, January 27, 1899. 

StB Jamks Coiohton-Buownk, M.D. LL.D. F.R.S., Treasurer 
and Vioe-Presideut, iu the Cbair. 

The Bight Hon. Sib Mountstuabt E. Gbamt Durr, Q.G.S.I. F.R.S. 

Epitaphs, 

WuM we remember that nearly all churches and churcliynrds conrain 
m greftt Tariety of epitaphs and that they were iu u<ie lung befuru 
eharabM or charchyards existed, wo loay well foci some surprise that 
•o extensive a department of literature has received such scant 
attention from competent critics. It is true that there are many 
oolloctiotis of epitaphs, but the most uncritical spirit has almost 
always guided those who have coUecteJ them. Now and then n great 
ha« produced an essay on the subject. Samuel Johnson, for 
loe, contributed one to the ' GcDtlcman's Maguziue,' which will 
fnand in his collect>.-<l works ; but it is fur indeed from being one 
it« author's more felicitous compositions, and is, sooth to say, a 
[•tngoLarly poor piece of work, only redeemed from iudiguiticaiico by 
*tb« praiae wlii<<.h it gives to the memorable epitaph of Zosime, then 
IcM IcDown, I presume, than it is now : — 

Zoiiue, ne'er mve in lier fle«b ii slave. 

E'en Fur her fleoli tindi freeUom in tliu grave. 

Wordsworth, too, wrote a paper upon epitaphs in the ' Friend,' 

\\int It 18 a very unsatisfying performance. The philosophical nud 

Icritiual port of it, iudcuii. is exoeoilingly jujuuo, although when the 

totbor forgets that he is a philosopher, and romeiubers only that he 

u a poet, he riaea very high. The following is surely a noble 

(•rugraph :— 

" As iu Billing upon the orb of this planet, a voyoge towards the 
necnia where the snn sets, condueti* gradually to the quarter where 
•ehave beeo aoeustomod to t>e)iold it come forth at its rising : and iu 
like BUHUier a Toyage towards the East, the birth-place iu our imngina- 
tioo of the morning, leads finally to the quarter where the sun is last 
•oea when ho de|>artK from our eyes ; so the contemplative suul, 
taiTelling in the direction of mortality, advances to the country of 
ererlaatiog life; and, in like manner, may she continue to explore 
iciMMKfal tnu.'ts. till hho is brouglit Inick, for her ailvmitago uud 
, to the lauJ ol iruuhitory things— of sorrow aud of tears." 



16 Bight Hon. Sir M. E. OratU Duff [Jan. 27, 

I need not say that I am not going to attempt a dissertation npon 
epitaphs when two snch eminent men have failed. All I shall 
attempt to do is to bring together as many quite first-rate epitaphs 
as time will permit, avoiding some of those which are best known, 
and connecting those I shall cite with each other as well as I can. 
If by that means I can give, to those who have honoured me by their 
presence, an agreeable hoar, my highest ambition will be satisfied. 

In most collections of epitaphs a great many pages are given to 
comic ones. Snch things are quite harmless when they are merely 
written to pass from mouth to month and with no intention of 
engraving them on a tomb, but those persons who spend their time 
in painfully collecting and carefully publishing in books the rubbish 
which is often to be found in country churchyards do a serious 
disservice to such of their fellow-creatures as have the misfortune to 
read them. They should be condemned to employ a sort of Old 
Mortality Beversed to go through the land chipping off the stones 
the trash which they have copied, paying all the fines their agent 
incurs in the process. 

Perhaps the most amusing of comic epitaphs is one which cir" 
onlates as that of Lady O'Looney, and is commonly said to have 
been copied from a tomb in Pewsey churchyard. That, however, is 
not the case, for in a work on epitaphs by Mr. Bavenshaw, who dates 
from Pewsey Bectory, I find that it is a version, mutilated for 
conversational purposes, of a long epitaph from St. George's burying 
ground in London on a certain Mrs. Jane Molony. The original is, 
Heaven knows, snfSciently absurd, and nearly all the current version 
has been picked out of it, but it contains a great deal of additional 
matter chiefly of a genealogical character. 

Lord Holland said to Mr. Charles Greville in 1830, that " there 
is hardly snch a thing in the world as a good house or a good epitaph, 
and yet mankind have been employed in building the former and 
writing the latter since the beginning almost." 

I propose to deal exclusively with those epitaphs which deserve 
to be covered by the word " hardly " in this judgment. 

When I determined to address you on this subject, my first 
endeavour was to find out whether the great ancient civilisations of 
Assyria, Babylonia or Egypt had bequeathed anything to us in the 
shape of epitaphs. After applying to the best authority I have not 
been able to find that the two first mentioned have done so. From 
a paper, however, published under the title of ' Egyptian Stela 
principally of the Eighteenth Dynasty,' by Mr. Budge of the British 
Museum, and kindly lent to me by him, I gather that " the custom of 
the Ancient Egyptians of erecting sepulchral ttelae in honour of their 
deceased kings, nobles, persons of rank, relatives and friends, has 
proved a most valuable aid to the modern student of the Egyptian 
language, and has enabled him to learn much of the social life of 
the Egyptian which would otherwise have passed away in oblivion." 

No doubt this is so, and the specimens which Mr. Budge gives are 



[1899.] 



on Ejiilajthe. 



17 



Very corioas; but althoagh a striking expression occurs here and 
t]i«r«, much of their language is, to the oar of a moderu, in the 
Ibigliest degree grotc^sqiie. Such phrases as " May his mouiorial abide 
lin iho eeat <>f Ett^mity," or " May ho bo granted the breath of the 
iKorth wind," seem appropriate enough on a funeral monument, but 
Inspirations like those to bo found iii the ninth and tenth paragraphs 
|«f tho first inscription quoted, " May 1 attain the field of peace, 
fg one come with jnga of beer and cakts, the cukes of the Lords 
'Ktt:mity," "May I receive many slices from the joint upon the 
Ulile of the great God," are less attractive. 

I do not remember that the Old Testament, filled though it is 
vith passages which have been and will be used as epitaphs, contains 
, anytLmg that was intended as such. I have met, however, with ouo 
lexoeedingly fine Phcenici&n epitaph which makes me doubt whether 
Itliere were none amongst tho inhabitants of Southern Palestine. It is 
loo a nrc<ipbagUK in the Lonvro, brought from Sidon, a place which, if 
wag as beautiful in early days as it is now, might well have made 
Dta of its rulers. 



In Uie nmnlh of Bui, the fourteenth year of my reign, I, King Asbmanezer, 

< (if Hie SidiiTiians, iud of Kin^ Tabniih, King of the Siilonians, spake King 

lutieu-r. King of the SiiJoiiiuns, Buying : " I have hceii Blolcn uway before my 

. aon of t <e IIivxJ uf iluyr. The whiloiu Qreat is dumb: tlie >iOn of Guds 

•lea>l. Ami I rest in tliin grave, even in this tomb, in the place whii-h I have 

My uaijutBtion tu all the Ruling Powers ami nil men : Let no one open 

jng plwc, nor scorch lor Irensun-, for Itwre is no treasure with Us ; and 

not bcir airuv the onuch of my lUtst, and not trouble Us iu this resliug 

I by (I -' ' 'ii- couch of my «lunibers. . . . F'or »11 men who should open 

tjie tomb r iinv mini «ho shi>tjl<l carry owiiy the couch of My rest, or 

Be wL t. _ . lue on this conch; L'ntii tiiem there shall be no rest with tho 

I : they sliull Dot be baried iu a gmve, and there slinll be to them neither 

' (ord. . . . There eliuU be tu them neither root below nor fruit above, nor 

' >uiou|{ tUu living under the sun. . . . 

To fliid many examples of anything really good done by the early 

world tu tills deiiartnient, ue niui>t, as is so often the case, turn to 

•ireeoo. There we shall tind ii rich harvest from which, however, 

Ui« limit wibely sot to your locturcs will allow mo only to glean a 

ITery few sjHMsinieus. Must of those Lave been treasured up for the 

rWbrld by the otlmirable persons who compiled the various editions of 

[tliii * Antholngia,' a work tu whiuh this century lias dune more jattico 

[Uian it* predecessor. Chesterfield's judgment of it is, uoxt to his low 

standard iu one branch of morality, the greatest blot on tho tamo of 

[iLiU wisu man. 

The briefest of selections from the epitaphs of which we have the 
lue to have ixci'lleut translations in English verse, is all I 
apt First thou may come the immortal distiuh on Leouidas 
1 Uireo hundred : — 

(ill Stranger and Ui LoeediBmoii lell 
That here, obeying her couimnmla wo fell. 
lYwi. XVI. (No. 98.) « 



18 Bight Hon. Sir M. E. Orant Duff [Jan. 27, 

We may next take that upon Aster, ascribed (scholars, I believe, 
think rightly) to Plato :— 

Thoa wert the morning Star among the liriog 

Ere thy fair light had fled ; 
Now haTing die<l, thoa art aa Hesperua giving 

New aplendonr to the dead. 

To Plato likewise is attributed the wondorfnlly touching epitaph 
on the Eretrians who wore transported to Ecbatana and died there. 
I have never seen a metrical translation of this which sncceeds in 
rendering the concentrated pathos of the original. Mr. Symonds' 
version runs : — 

We who once left the .Sgean's dfep-voioed shore. 
Lie 'neath Kobatana's champaign, where we feU. 

Farewell Eretria, tlion famed land of yore. 
And neighbour Athena, und loved sea, farewell. 

There is nothing to be said against this save that the gifted writer 
has not succeeded in performing an impossibilty, " Loved sea fare- 
well I " is of conrse perfectly literal, but the last three words of the 
orizinal xaifx OdXaaira <f>ikr} fall on the ear like a sigh, and those of the 
translation do not. 

Wo may pass to the epitaph on Plato himself, of which, as of his 
lines on Aster, we have a translation by no less a personage than 
Shelley:— 

Eagle I why soarest thna above thnt tomb? 
To what anblime and star-y-paven home 
Floetest thou ? 

I am the image of swift Plato's spirit, 
Ascending heaven : Athens does inherit 
His corse below. 

The next I shall cite is by Callimachus, supremely translated by 
the late Mr. Cory : — 

They told me, Heracleitns, they told me yon were dead ; 
They bronght me bitter news to hear and bitter tears to shed. 
I wept, aa I remembered, how often you and I 
Had tired the sun with talking and sent him down the sky. 

And now thnt thou art lying, ray dear old Carian guest, 
A handful of grey aslies, long, long ago at rest, 
Still are thv pleasant voices, thy nightingales, awake. 
For death, he tuketh all away, but them he cannot take. 

A very large number of the Greek epitaphs which have been pre- 
served deal, as might be expected, with the innumerable accidents 
incident to a seafaring life. Here, for instance, is one : — 

Ask not. Oh Sailor, what my name might be, 
But may Heaven grant to you a kinder Sea. 



1899.] M JfyUapkM. 19 

The following is said to have been taken from the tomb of an 
Athenian at Meroe on the Upper Nile : — 

Fear not in death fiu- fom thy hone to be^ 
Tis ooe — all one — Athau or Meroe. 
Sinoe from eaeh ooimtiy whataoe'er its name 
The wind that blows to Hade* is the aame. 

Althoogh it is upon a citjr, and not upon an indiridnal, I most not 
pass by the epitaph on Ck>rinth so happily translated by Goldwia 
Smith:— 

Where CcHinth, are thy glories now. 

Thy ancient wealth, thy castled brow. 

Thy solemn &nes, thy halls of state, 

Thy high-bOTD daines, thy crowded gate ? 

There's not a ruin left to tell 

Where Corinth stood, how Corintb felL 

The Nereids of thy donble sea 

AlcHie remain to wail for thee. 

No one disapproves more strongly than I do of the monstrous 
Ices of time involTed in setting boys and yonng men, most of whom 
■le abflolntely destitute of the alighteet poetical talent, to write Latin 
ud Greek Tersee ; bnt every now and then this atrocions cnstom leads 
to the prodnction of something of value, and I have always thought 
that the Greek epitaph oa the Admirable Cricbton, written by the late 
Hr. George Bntler, elder brother of the Master of Trinity, and pnb- 
lished in the ' Anthologia Oxoniensis,' deserved a place amongst the 
beet inscriptions of a similar kind by the writers of Ancient Greece. 

I am addressing, no donbt, a good many people who know vastly 
more abont Greek epigrams in general and Greek epitaphs in par- 
ticular, than I can pretend to do. To those, however, who do not 
chance to have given attention to these subjects, and have a mind 
to do so, I should like to recommend an excellent chapter in the 
volume on the Greek Poets by the late Mr. Symonds, and the not 
lees delightful book, by Mr. Mackail, pablished under the name of 
' Select Epigrams from the Greek Anthology.' It is high time, how- 
ever, to pass from what is, after all, only a section of my subject, and 
to turn from Greek to Latin. 

Although the language of Eome was destined to be pre-eminently 
that of epitaphs, and to supply the wants of the speakers of other 
tongues, in that behalf, for many generations, the earlier Latin 
epitaphs had no alliance with any of the mnses save that of history. 
Gradually they became a little more copious, and we find such ex- 
pressions as : " Bogo ut discedens terram mihi dices levem " — " I ask 
thee as thou departest to pray that the earth may lie lightly upon 
me." The four most remarkable early Boman epitaphs, in verse, 
are, I think, well known, but I am not nware that any of them was 
ever inscribed upon a monument. They are those of Nsvius, 
Pacuvins, Eonios and Plantus. The first three are said to have 

2 



20 Bight Hon. Sir M. E. Grant Buff [Jan. 27, 

been written by the poets themselves, the fourth apparently not by 
the great comedian but by an admirer: — 

Mnrtalis immortalU flcrn si foret fas, 
Flerent diva Canueim Naevium poetam. 
Ituque po8tqU'<m est Oroino traditus thesanro 
Oblitoi sunt Rouue loquier Lutiu& linguft. 

ir it were fitting that immortals should wrep for niurtals, 
The Musos thetuselTes would weep for Navius. 
For since he has gone to the Treasure House of Orcus 
Men hare forgotten at Borne to speak the Latin tongue. 

Adolesceiis, tamen etsi properas. hoc te snxam rogat, 
Vtt'i ad so aspicias : delude quod hcriptu'st legas : 
Hie sunt poeta Pacurei Maroei sita 
Osn, hoc volebam neacius ne esses, Tule. 

Youth, albeit thou art in haste, this stone entreats thee 

To Ifl<ik upon it and to read the words with which it is inscribed : 

Here lie tlie hours of Marcus Pacurioa the poet, 

I wislied tUee to know this, and so furewell. 

That of Ennius is finer, especially the two last lines : — 

Nemo me laciumis deouret nuc funeia fletu 
Faxit, cur, toUio rivu per era Tirum. 

Let no one weep or raise funeral lamentations for me. 
Why 7 Becaoae still alive I flit from mouth to mouth of men. 

The fourth, that on Flantos, regrets that after hie death Comely 
mourns, the sta^ is deserted, while Laughter, Jest and Verse all weep 
together. 

Poatqnam morte datu'st Planlos. comosJia Inget; 

Soena est deaerta, dein Risus, Lodn'. Jocusqoe ! 

Et unmet i innomeri aimnl omnes ouUacmmanmt. 

Groldwin Smith mentions a snggestion that the fataons elegy of 
PT0|>ertia8 upon Cornelia was intended to be inscribed upon her 
U>mb. I shoold much doubt this, but if it had been it certainly 
would hare been amongst the most remarkable epitaphs of the world. 
He ha£ translated it very well in his ' Bay Leaver,' and there is another 
Tersion even more beautiful in a small volume of poems by the late 
Sir Edmund Head. This last is indeed one of the best translations 
or {)*raphraaee in English of a Latin poem to be found anywhere. 

Morcelli cites two lines from another poem by Propertios which 
is, in edect, an epitaph and a very graceful one. 

Hie Tiburtinft jacet aoiea Cynthia teni : 
Acwssit lira bos AnK-ne tua. 

Here in theaoiluf Tibor lies the goM« Cynthia: 
Axuol a new hoooor has been adJed ti> thy banks. 

The oldest Christian epitaphs in the Catacombs are c^ the greatest 
8im{dieit7, bearing no trace uf the definite dogmatic beUefs which 
werv later imporied into insrrtpt><As of tliis kiitd. They are diieiy 
brief ontpovrings of natural a&ctioa or soch expresstoBs of mamr 



1899.] 



on Epilnj)hi>. 



91 






^ 



dogmatic ilerotion os: "In Paco," or " Vivas in Deo," or " Vivas in 
p*ce ct pete pro nobis " ; or in Greek, " Msyost thou live in tho Lord, 
and Pr«y for us." 

I>eBn Stnnlev, in his excellent ' Cliristian Institntions,' remarks — 
" In a well-known work of Strauss, entitled ' The Old and New Belief,' 
there is an elaborate attack on wlint the writer calls 'The OM Belief.' 
Of the rarions articles of that 'Old Belief which he onamerates, 
hardly one appears conspicuously in tho Cutacomb--. Of tho sjiecial 
form* of belief which appear in the CatacombR, hardly one is inon- 
tionwl in the catalogue of doctrines bo vefiemently assailed in that 
work." 

Wc may be permitted then to feel ourselves, if we so please, in 
fall communion with the Christians of at least the first two centuries 
— with the " Church in Ciecilia's Housu" as it is doBcribed in uu ex- 
qniKite chapter of Mr. Pater's book, 'Marius the Epicurean,' and 
nercrtheless fully to admit that Strauss was a very great man. Wo may 
agree, without receding from our position, that ho did a notable piece 
cif work for the world, althoush that work was diametrically oppngito 
in ita tendency to the equally valuable work for Knglaud which began 
at Oxford, just about the time when he first appeared upon the scene. 

I wonld almost venture to assert that more really fine opititphs 
have been produced in Latin since it became the language only of tho 
CLnrch and of tlie learned than wan the case while it was still the 
language of the civilised Western World. 

Assuredly in modem times Latin has been constantly used as the 
langtiage of epitaphs with the most brilliant success in every part of 
Eurvpt), and in commemoration of the most diverse characters. I may 
cit« first the epitaph of St. Benedict and his sister Santa Scbolastioa 
at Monte Camino. 

Ben^Iirtum et Soholnnticani 

Udo in lcrri> pnrtu edilo;, 

Vn4 in Deurii pictnU< cooln n^diton 

Utins hie cxcipit tiimiiliia 

Mortulia <K'p(«iti pro iiiimortalitate eoBtos I 

Benedict and Soliolnntica 

Rnro into lliig world iit the 8»me birth 

Keaton^d to Hraven )jy the aame piety towordit Ood 

This saiOH toiiili ret'^iTCH 

The (iuardian for immortality of a mortal deposit. 

Then wo may take one from Sonthern Spain which has a certain 
family loeemblance to the last, though in honour of a very different 
personage — Gonzalez of Cordova, tho Great Captain. 

Ocmali Fenianilez do OorJoTa, qui pmprii virtiite Mn^i Duoig nomen pro- 
■IM fecit, omh ptrpctiiiu Uiu<lciii luci reetitnendn huiciriterca loculo rrcditn 
it glorii minime (yiniie|>ullA. 
Tb« hotir* "f Fernandez nf Conlova. who by bis valonr won for himielf the 

ir.'"- - - ■■' 'In. (Jreat Captain, bone* to be one ilny restored to perpetual 

t .iiliine entrui^ted to this little niche — his glory being by no 

■ iieni. 



23 Bight Hon. Sir M. E. Grant Duff [Jan. 27, 

Excellent is the epitaph on Trivnlzio, General of Francis I^ and, 
for that matter, of many other lords : — 

Johannea TriTnkiQa, qui nonqaam qoierit, hio qnieacit. Taoe. 
Johannes TriTtUsias, wbo neTer rested, rests here. Be silent. 

Hardly less good is the epitaph on Mercy : — 

Sta viator heroem calcas. 

Stop, traveller, thou treadest on a hero. 

The modem Florentines miased their mark, by altogether over- 
shooting it, when they pnt on the tomb of Machiavelli, 

Tanto nomini nnllnin par eloginm. 

No enlogium is snfficient for so great a name. 

But the epitaph, if better deserved, would have been a grand one. 

Admirable is the epitaph on Sheffield, Doke of the Connty of 
Bnckinghsm, written by himself, and to be fonnd in Westminster Abbey. 
The stone originally bore twoadditional words " Ohristum adveneror," 
bnt the foolish bigotry of Atterbnry suppressed them. 

Dnbios aed non impiobns vixi ; 
Inoertns morior, non pertorbatiis. 
Homannm est nesdre et errate. 

Deo oonfldo 
Omnipotenti benevolentiBsiino : 
Bns entium, miserere mei. 

I lived a donbtfnl but not an evil life ; 

I die ancertain, bnt not dismayed. 

It is the lot of man to be ignorant and to err. 

I trust in God the Omnipotent, the moat Benevolent 

Being of Beings, have meroy upon me. 

The magnificent epitaph on Colin Maolanrin, Professor of Mathe- 
matics in Edinburgh, can be read at lengtii in Boswell's ' Johnson.' 
It was placed on the tomb by his son, not, as he sajrs, to provide for his 
father's fame, for it wants no snoh assistance, but in order that in this 
unhappy field where fear and sorrow reign, mortals should not be left 
absolutely without consolation, for turn over his writings and be sure 
that a mind capable of such things must outlast the perishable 
body: — 

Non nt nomini patemo oonsnlat. 
Nam tali anxilio nil eget ; 
Sed ut in hoc infelioi oampo, 
Ubi Inctns regnant et pavor, 
Mortelibns prorsns non absit solatium. 

Hujns enim soripta evolve, 
Mentemq^ue tantarnm remm capaoem, 
Coipon oadnoo gupeistitem crede. 



1899.] 



on Epitaph», 



SS 



The same modesty led Buffon's son to describe himself on his 
monamcnt tf) his father as the humble column of ft lofty tower: 
" ExceliOD tarris hnmilis colamua." 

So gracefal a turn of phrase ought liy itself to hnve prevented his 
baring been descril>ed as " le plus mauvais cbapitre de I'histoire 
natnrelle de son pere ! " 

One of the most delightful of all epitaphs, to my thinking, is in a 
plM« Tery familiar to me, the grey City of Aberdeen, but I learnt it 
first from Pennant, who, in hia tour last century, was fortunate enough 
to observe it 

Si fldon, St haniAnitoa 

Mnltoquc gratiu le}iore camlor 

Si Buornm amor nniicnruiu curittts 

Omniumqae bfiii-yolfntin 

Hpiriiuni reilucero [tossuiit 

Non bic eitiis cssi-t 

Jubaiiubs Uarnot a Elrirk. 

If fldelity, if bnmanily ftnd cnndoar. mnde pleasant 1<y on a1>uniinnco nf wit, 
^ if th« lore of liiit tcimlred, ttio afTeutiuiiate regard nf hia frictKid, aU'l the Idiidly 
foeling of all oould bring back tbo breatli — Joliu Burnet uf Klrick woald not tie 

e. 

There are two good epitaphs on dogs by Lord Grenvillo in the 
* Anthologia Oxoniensis ' — ouo of them extremely beautiful. Its last 
two lines are : — 

Jamqw vale I Elyati nifa«o loon Imta piorum 
Qun dat Pentcpbune maniljus esae oiinum. 

Acd DOW ! Farewell. I dejinrt to thoso bappy seats of the good which 
Pcneptione leacrvea for the maiu:$ of dogs. 

I may refer those who would like to see a reasoned defence of the 
dog's view of bis future, to a very remarkable passage in a most in- 
teresting book, the late Mr. Greg's ' Enigmas of Life.' 

One of the most happily conceived of epitaphs is the line of Ovid 
inceribod over the gate of the cemetery at Hichmond, where so many 
of tliose who fell on the southern side in the American Civil War are 



. . bariw} : — 

^ft Qoib 

^m Tbon 

^ They fi 



Qui bene pro patiii onm patri&que jacent. 

Those who lie here in honour having died for and with their country. 

They were more fortunate than the noble of the Eastern Empire, 
who died ahortly before the capture of Constantinople by the Turks, 
asd whose epitaph is thus translated by Bland. I do not know the 

origiiiaL 

Oh thou who slct'p'Bt in bmzen 8lnml)er, tell, 

—(Thy hi?U deseeiit and iiolilc niinie full well 

I know— Uyzautiiim rlaima tliy liirtli— ) but say ! 

" A deiith, 'unworthy of my high estiito — 

This Ihoujjht is keener thnn the stroke of fato, 

I bled not in the ranks of those who fell 

For i;lnriuus. falling Greece — nn mrjre— Farewell 1 "' 



24 SigU Hon. Sir M. E. Grant Duff [Jan. 27, 

An epitaph was repeated to me once by the late Mr. Charles 
Pearson, the anther of ' National Life and Character,' as having been 
placed or proposed to be placed on the tomb of one who was like 
himself a Fellow of Oriel, Mr. Charles Marriott, so well known in 
connection with the earlier part of the Oxford Movement. It seemed 
to me very striking in spite of its peculiar Latinity : — 

Ezatna morte 

Hio licet in ooddao oinero 

Aspicit enm 

Cajas Domen est Oriens. 
Freed from death 
Tlio' in ashea that vanish away, 
He looketh npon him 
Whose name is " the Bising." 

Very beantifnl and very characteristic of the man at his best, it 
the epitaph which Newman composed for himself: — 

Ex nmbrig et imaginibm in veritatem. 
Ont of shadows and images into the Tmth. 

Dr. Johnson, as is well known, had the most rooted objection to 
English epitaphs, and insisted, in spite of the respectfal remonstrances 
of a most distinguished gronp of friends, in writing the epitaph npon 
Goldsmith in Latin. His obstinacy in a bad canse had, however, the 
incidental effect of giving ns the happy phrase which many sappose 
to have come down from classical antiquity : — 
Nihil tetigit quod non ornavit 
He touched nothing whioh he did not adorn. 

To another writer of the last century, to Shenstone, we owe the 
equally famous words which formed part of the epitaph of a young 
lady: — 

O qnanto minus est 

Com aliis versari 

Quam tai meminisse. 

O how much less it is to live with others than to remember thee. 

Again, however, the clock warns me to pass to another branch of 
my subject, but before doing so I should like to say that I wish 
some one who had eyes, leisure and enthusiasm would go through 
Mommsen's inscriptions and the far less gigantic but still huge work 
of Morcelli, and Murray's handbooks (which have swept into their 
pages so much that is interesting and that cannot easily be found 
elsewhere), vith a view to giving us a small volume containing only 
the most beantifnl Latin epitaphs. 

We may turn now to our own language. The last Lord de Tabley, 
one of the most accomplished of men, used to remark on the extra- 
ordinary di£5culty of writing an epitaph in English about a conmion- 
place life," like those touching ones of commonplace life which, as he 
said, draw one's very heart ont in Latin in the first few centuries." 



1899.] 



OM Epitaphs. 



35 



I 



There are tnanj ToIameB containing hundreds of epitaphs nrhich seem 
tu bare been collected chiefly to prove the correctness of this remark. 
Tet English, when the life you liave to deal with is not common- 
plaoe. is far from being a bad lungiiage for epitaphs either in prose or 
Ter*e. I am indeed not at all sure that there is anj pocticnl epitaph 
in any langnnge superior to that wonderful " amende honorable " of 
Macaulay'g, the Epitaph on a Jacobite : — 

To my true king 1 offered, free from etain, 
Counij^ nnd fnitb — vain fnith and rnurBgc vnin. 
For liim I threw lands, bonoiirs, wcaltli awKy, 
And one ilenr hope that wiis more prized than they; 
For hiiii I laDguisheil in n foreign clime, 
Grey-hnired with sorrow in my uianhootl's prime ; 
Heard in Laveroia ScargiU'a whispering trees. 
And pined by Amo for my lovelier Tee« : 
Beheld eacli night my home, in fereicil sleep, 
Each morning Htarted from thftt dream to weep. 
Till God, who BMW me tried too sorely, j?»ve 
The re^tinR-plin'i' I a^'keii — an eiirly trnve. 
O Ihoii nhoni chance lends to this numeloiis stone. 
From that proud country which was once mine own. 
By those while cJilTs I never more must see. 
By thiit dear language which I sfialie like thee: 
Forget all feudt. and shed one English tear 
O'er English dust — ii broken heart lies here. 

Bomo of the best of English epitaphs are so well known, ae not to 
[ be worth quoting : such, for instance, as Shakespeare's, said to bave 
been written by himself, and ronch in the spirit of that of King 
Aahomneser, already mentioned, which assuredly ho never saw ; or 
Miltoo's upon his great predecessor ; or Pope's upon Sir Isaac Newton ; 
or, far cnpcrior to all of them put together, the linos usually attributed 
to B<m Jonson, but probably written by VVillinm Browne, lines which 
it is impoasible to avoid repeating whenever one thinks of them : — 

Underneath thi^ marble heane 
Lies the subject of all yerso, 
Sydney's sister. Pembrok>''8 mother. 
Iteatb I ere thou baet slain another 
Fair and learned an<l good as she 
Time shall throw a dirt at thee. 

I of the finest of English epitaphs is undoubtedly the famons 
t'tf Velrose, which is rarely quite correctly quoted, but of witich 
th* eorrect vendon runs as follows. Correct, I say, for 1 copied it from 

tb« stOB« : — 

The Earth goes on the Earth, 

Olist'ning like Gold, 
The Eiirth goj.w to the Earth 

Sooner than it wold; 
The Eiirlh huilds on the Fjirth 

Ou>t|c8 and lowers; 
The Kjirth says to the Earth 

All shall be ours. 



26 Bigkt Him. Sir M. E. OratU Duff [Jan. 27, 

Tbere is an exceedingly beantifal Greek veision of this in the 
* Anthulogia Oxoniensis ' from the pen, of Mr. James Biddell, the same 
who is described in Principal Sfaairp's far too-litttle-known poem on 
"The Balliol Scholars from 1840 to 184S," which contains snoh 
admirable sketches of Olongh, Matthew Arnold and Coleridge. 

This noble epitaph, or variants of it, are fonnd in several places, 
bnt, so &r as I ^ow, its original author has not been discovert. He 
was surely no mean poet. 

Ilerriok's epitaph is characteristically gracofol : — 

Weep for the dead, for they have lost this light. 
And weep for me, lost in an endless night. 
Or moum, or make a marble verse for me 
Who writ for many, Benedicite. 

On Shelley's grave in the new Protestant cemetery near the pyramid 
of Cains Cestins at Bome, Trelawney pnt the lines from Shake- 
speare: — 

Nothing of him that doth fade 

Bnt dout suffer a sea-change 

Into something rich and strange. 

On his monnment at Christchurch, in Hampshire, they have very 
appropriately pnt his own lines : — 

He hath oatsoar'd the shadow of our night ; 

Envy and calumny, and hnte and pain. 
And that nnrest which men miscall delight, 

Cun touch bim not, and tortnre not again. 

From the contagion of the world's slow stain 
He is secure, and now can never mourn 

A heart grown cold, a head grown grey in vain ; 
Nor, when the spirit's self has ceased to bom 
With sparkless ashes load an nnlamented van. 

On the monnment of the Wesleys in Westminster Abbey, Dean 
Stanley placed not loss appropriately the words "God bnries his 
workmen bnt carries on his work." 

Excellent too is a sort of general epitaph which he hnng np in 
the Great Abbey : — 

Here's an aere sown indeed. 
With the richest royallest seed. 
Which the earth did e'er sock in. 
Since the first man died for sin. 

Very good is the epitaph by Lord Hoaghton, in the same place, 
open Charles Bnller : — 

Here, amidst the memorials of matnrer greatnesa 
This tribute of private affection and public honour 
Becorils the talents, virtues, and eorlv death of 
The Bigl.t Honourable Charlm BuUer; 
Whr, as ao independent Member of Parliament 
And in the diarbatge of important offii-oe uf i^tate. 



1899.J OH Epitafha. 27 

United the deq)e>t homan iTmpathies, 
With wide and philosophic Tiem of goreniment and mankind. 

And punned the noDlest political and social objeota, 

AboTe party spirit and withont an enemy. 
His character was distingnished by sincerity and reaolotion. 

His mind by Tivacity and clearness of comprahension ; 

While the Tigoor of expreasian and singnlar wit. 
That nude him eminent in debate and delightful in society. 

Were tempered by a most gentle and generoos dispoeltifni. 

Earnest in friendship and Denerolent to all. 

The British Colonies will not forget the statesman 
Who so well appreciated their deures and their destinies. 
And his conntry, recalling what he was, deplores 
The ranished hope of all he might have become. 
He was bom Anguat 1806. He died Norember 29, 184& 

I tbink that tliis is &r the best long epitaph in the Abbey. Dean 
Stanley said to me, with much truth, that there were very few good 
ones there, either long or short. 

Two of the best English epitaphs which I hare come across, 
written in our times, are &om the hand of the Archbishop of Armagh. 
The first, which is in Derry Cathedral, is good throughout, and con- 
tains two specially good lines : — 

'Twaa but one step for thoae Tictorioos feet 
From their days' walk into the golden Street 

Excellent, too, is the other on a lady of the Nathalie Narischkin 
type:— 

Proudly as men heroic ashes claim 
We asked to bare thy fever-stricken frame 
And lay it in our grass bedde our foeun 
Till Cimst the Healer call his Healers home. 

An epitaph on Lord Hugh Seymour and his wife, quoted by 
Pettigrew (whose collection of English epitaphs, though containing 
many hundreds of no value, is much the best I have seen), is little 
known and worth quoting. He died on the Jamaica Station ; she in 
England, but they were buried together : — 

Parted once— the fair and brave. 
Meet again — but in their grave. 
She, was Nature's brightest flower. 
Struck before its drooping hour: — 
He, was Britain's Naval pride ; 
Totmg — but old in fame, he died. 
Love, but vrith a Patriot's tear 
Monms, and consecrates them here. 

On the same page, and by the same author, is to be found a long 
bat rather feeble epitaph on Lord CJomwallis. It would have been 
better to have placed on his monument the very striking paragraph 
by Sir James MaokintoBh. 

" He expired at (Hzeepore, in the province of Benares, on the 5th 



28 Bighi Hon. Sir M. E. Grant Duff [Jan. 27, 

of October, 1805, supported by the remembrance of his nrtae, and 
by the sentiments of piety which had actuated his whole life. His 
remains are interred on the spot where he died, on the banks of that 
fitmons river, which washes no country not either blessed by his 
GoTemment, or visited by his renown ; and in the heart of that 
province so long the chosen seat of religion and learning in India, 
which under the influence of his beneficial system, and under the 
administration of good men whom he had chosen, had risen from a 
state of decline and confusion to one of prosperity probably nnrivalled 
in the happiest times of its ancient princes. His body is buried in 
peace, and his name liveth for evermore." 

When I was passing through Bombay in the autumn of 1874 an 
epitaph was repeated to me which I thought extremely good. It 
was on Major U'Oyley, an artillery officer who died in the Mutiny, 
and ran as follows: — 

Here b'ee the body of Major D'Ovley of Tbe Bengal Arlilleiy 
Whose last wish : " When I am deed, pot 
A stone over me and write upon it that 
I died fighting my guns," is thus fulfilled. 

Later the exact words were sent to me, but ihey were not quite so 
few nor so good. 

Over CMnpbell in Westminster Abbey they put — they could not 
have done otherwise, his own line lines : — 

This spirit shall return to Him 

Who gave its beaTenly spark ; 
Yet, think not, son, it shall be dim 

When thou thyself art dark 1 
Ko I it shall live acain and shine 

In bliss nnknown to beams of thine. 
By Him recall'd to breath, 

Who captive led oaptivity. 
Who pobb'd the grave of victory 

And took the sting from dera. 

Not less happily inspired were those who wrote on the tomb of 
Mrs. Hemans in St. Ann's, Dublin. 

Calm in the hosom of thy God, 

Fair spirit rest thee now ; 
E'en while with ns thy footsteps trod. 

His seal was on thy brow. 
Dost to its narrow honse beneath, 

Sonl to its place on high I 
They that have seen thy look in death. 

No more may fear to die. 

They might have added the lines in which Wordsworth described 
the poetess who, somewhat overrated in her own time, has been quite 
absurdly underrated in ours, but who will probably have a return of 
fame when people get tired of the clotted nonsense or the harmonious 



1899.] 



on Ej>itap!i$. 



39 




words withoat any thunght at all, which at present diviile into two 
eqomlly deluded schools of poetry a large section of our contem- 
poraries : — 

EMuuru rotbor For that hnly Spirit 
I Sweet ail the Spring, an Ociiuii deep ; 

For Htr wLo, ero lier 8um!uer faded, 
Una »ank into a breotbleu sleep. 
Mrs. Henians «a4 only forty when she died. 
Among English epitaphs expressing nothing bat ti-ndor domestic 
<i^<ing, one of the best I have met with is in St. GIIus'k, Cripplcgato, 
in memory of a young lady belonging to the Lucy fuuiily. I will 
not qaot« it bcciiise by not doing so, I may conceivably lead some one 
in my audience t^i vixit that most lntere^ting church in which Cromwell 
was married and Milton buried. 

There is a very pretty epitaph, a little too long to quote, in 

Shepperton c)iun:hyard, wiiich has been published by Dr. Garnett, 

a, child iif Mr. Peacock, of Crochet Castle celebrity — a man of 

d stmngcly diverse gifts, novelist and nnvnl cuuslructor, 

:er of correspondence at the India 0£Bce and upunitic critic, 

poet in tlie most approved manner of tiio later eighteenth century, 

and in the most approved manner of the earlier niuctei'Uth century — 

eqtially euceesKfnl in cuch compositiiins as bis very btautiful ' Li>vo 

and Age,' and in describing a whitebait dinner at Ularkwall in 

Hiinioric Greek. I remember his once presenting mo with such a 

carinas t</tiT-(le-/orce. 

Very striking, and in the highest degree charactt ristic, is the 
epitaph to bo lead at Mentoue on the grave of Mr. Green the his* 
loriaii: — 

He died leamiug. 

It carries one's thoughts to the admirable motto cited, amongst 
many not leas good, by a man who, whatever we may think of his 
political activity, certainly lived up tu it— the Prussian General 
Uadowitz : — 

Disre ut aetnpcr vii-turus 

Vive ut cra^ uioiiturun. 

Luiru H8 if yuu were to live for ever, 
Live Id ir you wvie lo die to-morrow. 

of tbe best epitaphs of tbo perfectly simple kind which I 

ever chanced to light np<in i», or was a generation ogo, in a church- 
yard ailjuining the mined chnrch of Gumrie in the extreme uorth-east 
of Sc-otlaud. It wsH on one of those large slabs which were ouce nnich 
alfected by the wealthier i>ea8aiitry in that district and consisted of 
■imply two lines. At the top of the stone were the words :— 

The iiiglit ia fivr »pont, 
And at Uie bottom :— 

Tku day ia at band. 




^ 



30 Bight Hon. Sir M. E. Grant Duff [Jan. 27, 

Highly oharacteristio of a quite different frame of mind firom that 
which inscribed the stone I hare mentioned, was another, placed 
over some rough-handed, but fiiithfnl vassal, which was repeated to 
me many years ago : — 

111 to hia freen 

Wanr to hia foe 

True to his Maoker * 

lo weal or in woe. 

To the Jews we owe at least one epitaph, the " In Pace " of the 
Catacombs already alluded to, which was obviously suggested by the 
word " Shallum " or " PcRce," which seems to have been frequently 
placed on the graves of the early Jewish settlers in Rome. I do not 
know whether there are many remarkable modern ones. I have only 
chanced to meet with one. This was inscribed in memory of a man 
whom many I am addressing must have known, Mr. Deatsch of the 
British Museum. It seems to me extremely fine : — 

" Hpre is entombed the well-beloved whose heart was hnmiug with eood 
things, and whose pen was the pen of a ready writer. Menahem, Son of Abraham 
DeutMjh, whom the Lord preserve ! He was born at Neiese on the Ist Mashesli- 
wan 5590 A.M., anil departed from this world in Alexandria on Monday the 9th 
lyar In the year ' Arise, shine, for thy light is come.' May his sonl be bound 
up in the bond of life." 

Punning epitaphs, so common in English churchyards, are usually 
beneath contempt, but one is very nearly good — that proposed by 
Douglas Jerrold for the publisher Charles Knight — " Grood Night." 

An epitaph on a dog by the first Lord Lytton, may be remembered 
with Lord Grenville's, and with a very beautiful Greek one quoted 
in Mr. Mackail's book already mentioned : — 

Alas, poor Bean, 
Died February 28th, 1852. 
It Is bnt to a dog 
. That this stone is inscribed 
Tet what now remains 
In the House of thy Fathers, 
Oh I solitHry Master, 
Wliioh will sigh for thy departure. 
Or rejoice at thy return ? 

Some other rather striking English epitaphs, hardly, however, 
striking enough to quote, may be read in Pettigrew, such ae that on the 
great musician Furcell in Westminster Abbey, or one on Atterbnry 
by Pope in the form of a conversation between the Bishop and his 
^ughter, who died suddenly in the arms of her father, whom she had 
gone to visit in his exile. 

I might add those on Prior and Gay, which are, however, familiar 
to every one. 

* i.e. his feudal lord. 



1899.] 



on Ejiilajihs. 



ai 




I ImTe only tirao to cite two or tbroo striking French epitnpliB. 
Ono of tbese reached me from Rhodes and belongs to the twelfth 
ccnttuy ; — 

ri-pit tK-ghmit ct tt^s-puiraiiit Seigneur 

Bjiudiiin (1b F1 .nclre. C'l/iuto de Courtenay. 

Jhi oiiiie, j'ui pec-lie, j'ni winfTert. 

Ayez pilie' de moi, u mon Diuu. 

" D008 n't it," said tho giftod friend who fonnd and who Ecnt it to 
me, " resnmo all the anguish of mankind ? " 

Tho fuUou'iug was written fur himself by the first husband of 
Hadame de Main tenon : — 



PaasaoU. ne fs'tes pna de hntit, 
De cminte que je ne mVveille 
Cnr volla In )ireiiiu're niiit 
Que le paiivro Scanx>D noiumeille. 



Another of which I am fond is : 



Bi^ale h mon Aurnre 
Beule & mon oouduint 
Je suis seule eui'ore ici. 



I 

^^^^Hlt mav be remembered with the enigmatic ' MiKerrimus ' of Wor- 
^^Bker Cathedral 

Every one knows the epitaph which Piron, disgusted at his eiclu- 
■ion from the Academie Fraii(;«ise, wrote for his own muuomeut : — 

Ci-git riron qui ne fUt rien 
Fu memo A(^cmicien. 

lot not 80 many have met with tho incomparably snperior o[iitaph 
which hesnggested for the Marshal <lo BelleiBle when that cuaimatider, 
taking a far too favnarable view of his own merits, desired to 
be bnried close to Tnrenne : — 

Ci-git le glorieux K c&te' de la gloire t 

I miut spare five minutes for one or two German epitaphs. I re- 
memlwr having Ijcen particularly struck with one in tbo military 
Friedhof at Berlin. Over the entrance of a tomb, which when I saw 
it forty-five years ago looked appropriately forlorn, were the simple 
words: — 

Here ia rxtingtiUht>d tho old line of tlie Hoose of Araim Fretlorwaldc. 
ttiet erluelit die alte Linle dea Hiiusos Aniini FrciiiTwaMe. 

On the tomb of the great Alexander von Humboldt, they have 
\wi insoriptton to the effect that as he had learnt atid eoinpro- 

^Iftll that is to l>e seen in our upper air he had descended also 

bto {&« uight to continue his researches : — 

Da i>r allrs umfwnt uml crkannt was in Licht alch bcwp);t liivr, 
9tie|{ n mm auch in dii* Nnrlit weitrr zu forschcn liiimb. 



I 



32 Bight Hon. Sir M. E. Grant Duff [Jan. 27, 

Very different in character bat extremely beantifal in its simpli- 
city is one which was found by Mr. Hughes, an JSn^liah clergyman 
and yachtsman, in the Aland Isles and reproduced in a book which he 
published under the title of * The Log of the Pet' The epitaph pro- 
per consisted of seven words only : — 

Gott sei dir gnaJig, O meine Wonne. 
God be gracious to thee, uh my delight ! 

bnt nnder it were some verses which if they are as good in the ori- 
ginal as they are in Mr. Hughes' translation, must be well worth 
recovering : — 

Bright, bright vas tlie boft and tender light 
Of her eye. 
And her smile's vanescent play 
Like 8oii>e truont suubeam's ray. 
Flitting by. 

Clear, clear and passing sweet to hear 
Was the sonml 
When her laugh's light melody 
With qoict sparkling glee, 
Bang around. 

Fleet, fleet and oh ! too deadly sweet 

8ped the hour, 
When those locks I loved to twine, 
Flowed interlaced with mine 

In her bower. 

Fold, fold her tenderly around 

Tl ou tomb ! 
Cold, cold lies the dank and sodden groand 

Id the gloom. 

Boll, roil thy deep and solvmn swell 

Thou wave ! 
Toll, toll thy sad and endless knell 

O'er her grave. 

Admirably good was the epitaph by Ferdinand Gi^orovios npon 
a German historian who died iu Rome : — 

Hier roht dvr Oesobichtschreiber, 
Im Stanbe der Gescbichte. 

Here rests the Historian amid the dust of History. 

Longfellow's charming ' Hyperion ' has introduced to innumerable 
English and Americans the striking epitaph at St. Gilgen : — 

Look not monmfnlly into the Pa^t ; it comes not back again. Wisely improve 
the present It is thine. Go forth to meet the shadowy futore. Without fear 
and with a mauly heart 

Blicke nicht tranrend auf die Vergangenheit, 

Sie kommt nicht wieder : uutzu weise die Gegenwart ; 

8ie ist dein : der luftigen Zukunft 

Oeh' ohne Furrht mit mannlicber Sinne rnlgegeu. 



U899.] 



on Epilapht. 



b 



It woold bo liard to beat an epitnph in the groat cemetery at 
"iii, belonging to a religion which we do not generally associate 
121^ the gentler ▼irtnes : — 

liet DO rich nurble cover my grave 
This erua u sufficient oovering 
For the tomb of the i)Oi>r in spiritl 
The haoible, the tronsitory Jehanara 
The di»ciple of the bdly men of Chijest 
The daughter of the Emperor Shah Jehaa. 

Many of my hearers will remember that the Emperor Shah Jehan 
was the biiUder of tho Taj, beyond all comparison tho most beautiful 
nonnmont ever raised by the hand of the architect in memory of the 
depMied. The thoaght of it takes mo to Boury in Normandy, where 
most of those lie interred whose lives formed the siibject of the ' RSoit 
d'one Soeor,' the only literary monument to those who have passed 
away which qaite deserves to rank with the marvellous creation of the 
MogoL The epitaphs on those graves are not particularly striking, 
Boatly texts from the Yalgatc. Over all of them stands up the great 
■arble croM, erected by Princess Lapoukyn, who, strange to say, sur- 
nvod her daughter by abont a quarter of a century. It boars tho 
iBMription : — 

Jenseits iat meine Hoffnung. 

I do not know what epitai)h they have put in Paris over the 
grave of Ernest Renan, but they certainly could not havo put a more 
^propriate one than that wliich ho suggested for himself in the noble 
pMnge in which he expressed the wish that he could bo boried in 
tbe eloi«t«sra of the Cathedral of Tregnier : — 



Verilatem dilexi. 

ler whether before the year 2000 the Great Church will have 

to the conclusion that he was iiot so far wmng when ho Riiid, 

criticism had dono more to support religion than all the 

If sncb ideas are druams, they are at least agreeable 



^^^^laee, however, that the sands of my honr are nearly run out, and 
^^^^B^ ooDcIade with two epitaphs, tho one concentrating tho deepest 
^HII^OIM fooling, the other expressing tho most legitimate pride in 
—MBslled earthly achievement. 

Chutbrera, after publishing many volnmes of poems, summed np 

tb* exporicnoe of his long life, for he lived I think to over eighty, in 

hia cpitoph, still to be read in S. Giacomo at Savona. This was tho 

•piteph which so mnch struck Frederick Faber, who saw in it, I 

L^MHbend, a prophecy of his own later years, for when he determined 

^^^^■roto himself to the Church, Wordsworth wrote to him : " I cannot 

^^^^ftat you are wrong, bat England loses a poet." It runs as 

follows : — 

Vot. XVI. (No. 93.) B 



34 BL Hon. Sir M. E. Grant Duff on E^iapht. [Jan. 27, 

AmJoo, io TiTendo oereava oonfurto 
Nel Moate Pamaao ; 

Net CalVaria 

Friend, I when living sought for oomfort 
On Moont Pamssaoa ; 
Do yon, better ooiuuelled, seek Ua it 
On CalTBry. 

The other is in Spanish, the grand words on the tomb of tbo sou 
of Colnmbos in the Cathedral of Seville : — 

A Castilla 7 a Leon 
Hondo naeTO dio CJolon ! 

. To Caatile and to Leon 
Columbns gave a new world ! 



Mr. Victor Horsley on Bmnan De/ence$. 35 



WEEKLY EVENING MEETING, 
Friday, February 3, 1899. 

I&B Uknby Thompson, Babt., F.K.C.S. F.R.A.8., Vice-President, 




VicToB HoBBLET, Ebq., M.B. B.S. F.R.S. F.R.C.S. M.R.I. 
Roman Defence* of South-East Britain. 




It is stated, on the anthority of Dickens, that at Dr. Blimber's 
academy for young gentlemen, which was an establisbment upon 
the south coast, where, as Mrs. PipcLiu said, " there was nothiug 
Imt learning going on from morning to night," the Doctor, at the 
end of dinner, " Having taken a glass of port iiuil hemmed twice or 
thrioe, said: 'It is reiuarkahle, Mr. Feeder, that the llomaiis — ' At 
the mention of this terrible people, their implacable enemies, every 
luug gentleman fastened his gaze apon the Doctor with an ussniiip- 
in of the deepest interest." It is of these terrible people that I 
lire to speak to you to-night, and cspeoially with reference to their 
ces — the Boman camps on the south-east coast of Britain — 
ist the continual piratical attacks of their implacable uncmioK, the 
SeandiiiHvian and Germanic tribes living on the shores of the North 
Sm. The number of these sea-coast camps is considerable, and pos- 
not only au arcliteological interest, bnt is a practical examfde of 
~ political science ; and owing to tbeir being naval heiulijnartcrs, 
•re actually illustrative of the present position of ( 'outiticutul 
•o far as they aSect this country. For to use what is perhaps 
hackneyed phrase, the interest of these camjis lies in the 
of sea power and the command of the English Chauuol, as I 
tu show later in discussing the historical aspect of the subject. 
A* regards the occu])ation of Britain by the Humans, it is now of 
w«ll understood that Ceesar's invasions bud no lasting effects — 
in fact bis two expeditions were little more than reconnaissances 
ia foree. The permanent occupation of Britain was only effected by 
Agnool*, the able general of the Emperor Claudius, and his campaign 
fcrtanstely recorded for us by his son-in-law Tacitus. There 
M Bothing to show that at that time the Scandinavian and North 
OarawQ tribes who ultimately invaded England were cau»'iug any 
le trouble to the Romans, who had command of the seu, and 
had oonqnered the Continental coast as far as Frieslaud. 
I^nriug tht) oampaigns of Hadrian and Sovorus, walled towns had 
eonatmcted all over the country ; bnt about ^30 a.d. it became 
to re-organise the defence of the south-eastern coast against 
vu of the Ualtio tribes, and this the authorities proceeded 
Ivjftcl by enlarging and reconstructing the walled defences of the 

O 'i 



36 Mr. Victor Horsley [Feb. 8, 

camps and towns of the sonth-eastem third of EngUnd. At this date 
(about 230 aj>.) our present subject therefore practically commences, 
and only finishes trith the exodus of the Soman garrison in the year 
404 A.i>., in the time of the Emperor Honorius. 

We shall see how during this period of about 200 years, which 
corresponds to the second half of the Boman occupation of Great 
Britain, the fate of the kingdom entirely depended upon him who 
held the command of the sea. 

There is no doubt from evidence which I have not time to lay 
before yon, but which is quite conclusive in several of the instances, 
that each of the great walled camps that I am about to describe to 
you had as a precursor a Roman station of smaller dimensions. This 
is an entirely historical fact, and it is also reasonable that those 
towns on the coast which afforded the best harbours for the navigation 
of that period, of necessity became the chief channels of trade, and 
being consequently the chief centres for the mercantile population, 
called for an expansion of their boundaries and re-fortification. 

The outlines of the plan of the existing camps is worth noting, 
being for the most part square, but the conformation was occasionally 
altered to suit the ground. This is well shown at Lympne and Fevensey, 
and is indicated in the very early drawings which accompany the 
well-known texts of the Boman land surveyor Hyginus, which I here 
reproduce. 

Further, the masonry points to the present camps having been 
built in the third century, and it is of course certain that none of 
the original stationary camps (ctutra stativa) were built before the 
end of the first century, because there was no occupation of the 
country worthy of the name until the first campaign of the Emperor 
Claudius. 

The earliest thorough establishment of Roman walled fortifications 
in Britain, like so much of the organisation of the Boman Empire, was 
accomplidied by the Emperor Hadrian about the year 120 a.d. It is, 
by the way, universally agreed that it is to Hadrian we are indebted 
for mnoh of the construction of the great Northumbrian wall. 

The fortification of the sites of our south-eastern camps at this 
time was evidently efiisoted by the sailors or marines of the British 
squadron of the Boman Navy, for the tiles of the walls at Dover, of 
the original walls at Lympne and at Boulogne and Staples are 
marked with the stamp C L B B, which stands for either Classis 
Britannica or Classiarii Britannici : the former of course indicating 
the Fleet, the latter the men who manned it, but the first is doubtless 
the right reading, and harmonises with the military title in which 
the inscription is always of the legion itself and not of the men 
composing it. 

This question of the foundation of the camps has a special in- 
terest to me, because, like Mr. Roach Smith, I found in the area of 
the castrum, at Lympne, yellow tiles marked C L B B, but the tiles 
in the wall are red, or even darkly burnt, and are not stamped at 
all. Further, in the foundation of the chief gate an altar, erected 



I] on Roman Defences of South-Eagl Britain, 37 

by %n Adminl of the name of Aufidius Panters, was found built in, 
and, as can also be seen in the examination of the original at the 
British MoBConi, it is marked with bamaolcs, having been clearly 
at one time under the sea, the suggestion being that the original 
camp ( ? Hadrian's) was overwhelmed by an incursion of the sea over 
Romncy leveL 

All this points to the fact, that the original station — at any rate, 
as far as Lemanns was concerned — was destroyed early in the JKoman 
ooeupatiou of Kent, and that the present existing castrum was built 
later, when it became necessary, in the third century, to provide a 
series of forts to protect the coast from the Saxons. During the 
ooane of some excavations I curried out in 1893 at the Furtus 
Lemaiios, I obtaineil new confirmution of this fact and of the rela- 
tiTely late fuumlation of the present castrum. This consistiHl in the 
eridenoe of the coins discovered. I found in the concrete-boulder 
foundation of the south wall of Lyinpne a coin of Maxiininut:, who 
floarishod 237 a.d. This was the earliest coin I discovered, and tho 
only one actually in intimate relation with tho foundation. Situated, 
as it were, in chronological order, 1 fonnd at the foot of tho wall, on 
the inner side, a Graulish coin of Tetricus the older, of a date about 
960, and finally in tho block soil of the camp, i.e. in the most recent 
and sn)>erficial layers, numerous coins of the Constantine fanuly were 
broagfat to light. Thus we have a distinct series of dates which 
hannonise enUrely with the previous conclusion. 

The state of things at the opening of our story was as follows : — 
Walled towns or camps wore established by the Roman Imperial 
Goremment holding the sea at the following places along the coast, 
beginning with the harbour creeks of Southampton, and following the 
lilM of Snasex, Kent, Essex, Suffolk and Norfolk, round to tho Wash. 

Of these originally, Kichborougb was the chief, but on the French 
egael Oeasoriacnm, which, just at the period under discussion, was 
naluisteDed Bonooia, and is now called Boulogne, was, together with 
tt> S Mnbrican port (probably the modem Etaples), the headquarters 
fleet, according to M. Vaillant, our guide in tho localisation 
I squadrons of the Boman fleet, Tho following is a regume of 
' fortificationa : — 

OaoieDtinii .... Bittern^Soathnroplnn. 

Fbrtos Magiiu* Fnrtcbnter. 

7 .... KnvrlaiiHs Cutlc-StAnBteiul. 

Rfgnom Chicbeiter. 

Portoa Adnnii ... ? 

Andarida ..... Peveiincjr. 

f ..... Newendeii. 

rorini Lraunua (I'ortue Novud) Lyinpne. 

Ilobru ..... Doioi 

RaUipU Rlcliborough. 

U««ulbiam Itpi'iilver. 

Othiifui (Ithnn) I'hecter, 

ramulioliitiiim Culoliester. 

Oarrl'itiuiiiiiii [tiiTi;h Oistlo (Yormautb), 

Btaaaduauiu UmucMter. 



38 Mr. Victor ffordey [Feb. 8, 

We mnai now consider the fleet which occupied these fortified 
harbonrs. The British squadron was probably established by the 
Emperor Chindins, and was mentioned definitely in the year 70 
expedition. We know that it formed part of Agricola's expedition, 
and at that time made a circular tour of Ihe British Isles, in the 
year 83. It is not mentioned again until towards the end of the 
third centnry. The British fleet, however, does not actually appear 
prominently in history until it was re-organised by Canrausius, to- 
wards the end of the third century. 

Squadrons of the Boman Navy and their Stations : — 

Clasiiis AeKentensiam. 
„ Anderetianoram. 

„ Britaimica .... Boulogne and Sontli-Eaat 

Coast of Britain. 

„ Samarica Mouths of Somrae. 

„ Germanioa .... FriesUud Coast. 

„ Moesica Danubian Months. 

„ Fanuonica North Adriatic. 

When the Boman document, the ' notitia dignitatomm ' was com- 
piled, which is the Whitaker of the Boman Empire towards the end 
of the fourth century, it shows that during that century a further 
re-organisation of the fleet had occurred, and that it was divided into 
squadrons which, for the most part, consisted of what we should 
now call coast-defence vessels, and these were stationed in the great 
estuaries evidently to stop the special methods of attack adopted by 
the Vikings and the Baltic tribes, who penetrated the country, especi- 
ally the North of France, by ascending the rivers. 

The fleet was officered just as ours is with admirals, or, as they 
were called, prefects, and captains of the triremic battleships, who 
were called trierarchs. Of these officers, the Museum at Boulogne 
contains several epigraphs. The admirals seem to have been of much 
the same status as the admirals of our seventeenth century Common- 
wealth, for they were military as well as naval officers, and the whole 
force was under the command of an officer called the Comes or 
Count of the Saxon shore, whose head-quarters were at Boulogne or 
Bononia. 

Each of the walled castra stands at the head of a harbour creek. 
They are most of them of a quadrilateral figure, two being an excep- 
tion, viz. Anderida and Lemanus, in which instances the outline of 
the camp was traced so as to accommodate itself to the contour of the 
ground. Their foundation and general details of structure are re- 
markably alike in each case, and Uiese we will now consider. 

Structure. — These walled towns were almost all built close to the 
water, and in one case at least (Forchester) the sea washes the wall. 
The foundations were dug deeply, and were composed of solid concrete 
made of flints and cement, upon which, at the level of the ground, was 
laid the first set of masonry, consisting, as a rule, of a course of large, 
rough, flattened stones. On these were erected concrete walls, faced 



1899.] 



on Rotnan Defetteet of South- Eatt Britain. 



39 



with sqnare stones, and contaiDing bonding courst'g of tiles. In the 
bo8t bailt camps, e.g. KicLborongh, these bonding courses occurred at 
frequent intervals — e.g. in a wall 30 feet high there would be fdwr or 
fire, in the others there would be fewer. The tops of the walls all 
terminated in the samo way, viz. by a flat platform and a crcuullate<l 
pkrapet. 

The facing stones are smaller as we ascend the wall, and the 
pu»pet8 are constructed of qaite small stones. Roman para])et8 are, 
of oonrse, rare, because of the subsequent medieeral occupation of these 
c»stra, nor do the remarkable parapets at Pompeii, each wiih its little 
traverse, help to muke ns bettor acquainted with their aspect, becauso 
they are more of a modified Greek pattern ; bat on Trajan's column, 
in whic-i, of course, a style of architecture 100 years earlier is depicted, 
the battlements of a walled camp under construction are represented 
as being sqnare, and somewhat medisval in appearance. 1 would 
suggest that the crenellated intervals on the parapet at Portchestcr 
are the structural bases of the' Roman bnttlemout. The walls were 
supported at intervals by towers, which are in many respects inter- 
eating. Thus in the majority of the cases of the camps now niider 
cxwsideratiun the towers were solid — at any rate, they are sidid in the 
portions which still exist. In the case of Anderida and Riuhborung^', 
tbey were solid throughout, and fulfilled the function of buttresses, 
bat wbeie this cannot be absolutely establieliGd, as in the camjm men- 
tioned, it is possible that the plan frequently adopted by tho Human 
0>aj have been executed, vie. that the tower was solid up to the plut- 
iorm of the wall, and then had a chamber at the top, such as is seen 
at present in the main walls of Rome, which were built by Aurclion 
about 270 ajd., i.e. shortly after ours. In cross-sectiou tho towers 
»r<>, as a rale, round, btit may also be strongly U-shaped ; this is 
paxticidarly the case at Anderida and at Portchcster. Tho Houintis 
emidoyed such U-shaped towers for the pur^wse of better flanking the 
wall*, and on tbo solid platforms on the tops of the towers they placed 
eatapults and scorpions. 

Apropos of the artillery just referred to, it is worth noting that 
tho lUimans had both fortress artillery and field artillery, tho latter 
consisting of smoll balistie, or catapults and scorpions, for firing large 
datla,moautod on small carts and drawn by mules. As to the e£Sc-ucy 
of their we«i<ouB, you may remember the tngic fate of an officer of tlio 
Ootlis, who at tlic siege of Rome, when that city was defended by 
Bolisarinn, climhid a tree opposite tho gate to reconnoitre, but was 
tranKftsi.>d by a dnrt fired from a catapult on one of the towcix, and 
BailtH] to the tree thereby. 

I'hn rontid towers which are so remarkable at Anderida and Port- 
dM»t4T, are similar to thusu found in many Continental Roman caslnt. 
For inntttiiro, in Frauc-e the towers of the outtT wall of Carcassonne are 
of tho U-»hu|itd yoricty, even if iKU-haps but Visigothic copies of tlie 
(inginnl ; lho«ie of D«x nnd of Bourgos, are round, and so, too, those of 
JabUins, which last named costrum is in many particulars identical 



40 Mr. Victor Hartley [Feb. 8, 

with onr sonth-coaBt examples. In the remarkable town of TroesnuB, 
founded in the third century, near Trajan's wall at the month of the 
Danube, these U-shaped towers are particularly well seen. 

The arrangements within the tccdle. — These fortified towns, of 
course, enclose an area with numerous buildings, but so far very little 
systematic excavation has been made. I have found myself thai the 
arrangement depended very mnch on the condition of the outside 
wall ; and I may here digress for a moment to take up the question of 
apparent deficiencies in the outside wall, which have always excited 
much controversy among antiqoarians. Thus at Rntupius, Lemanns, 
Begulbium, Anderida, and Garriononum, one wall is wanting, bat as 
regards Begulbium, there is extant a seventeenth century map, which 
I BOW show you, exhibiting the fact that the castrum in question was 
a perfuct quadrangle, and the missing north wall has simply been 
washed away by the sea. At Butupia ruins of the wall have been 
found on the cliff. At Anderida the missing part is obviously just 
beneath the tnrf and has been proved to be there by excavation ; it 
may have been thrown down by the undermining processes of the 
mediaeval siege which the place underwent. At Garriononum also 
the foundations have been traced. We come then to the single in- 
stance of Lemanus. This castrum, the walls of which it is admitted 
on all hands have been dislocated and rained by a landslip, stands 
on the slope of a hill, and at its lower border, ie. the south side, 
there is a slightly elevated piece of ground which was taken by 
Mr. Boach Smith, who made the first excavation here, to be a portion 
of the landslip. Thinking one day that I could detect in the bank 
some of the flat foondation cross stones of an ordinary wall, I insti- 
tated a systematic excavation of this portion of the circnmferenoe of 
the camp, and found that so far from its being an elevation merely 
due to landslip, it was really a remarkably interesting example of a 
revetted harbour wall. It consisted of a mass of layers of boulders 
embedded in concrete, on the top of which the ordinary wall was 
boilt. At this particular point the concrete was carried backwards 
over the area of the camp for forty feet, so as to form a large and 
immovable platform. It seems to me that this was possibly the 
platform of a battery for defending the ships moored by the wall, as 
represented on one of Trajan's coins. 

To return to the question of the boildings within these castra ; 
as is shown in Trajan's column, there were numerous booses covered 
with pent-hoase roofs and the well-known roofing tiles with imbri- 
cated edges, such as are seen to be extensively used in many parts of 
this country, especially in East Anglia, and which we certainly owe 
to the Romans, as onr Belgic and Celtic forefathers roofed their hats 
with straw and thatch, such as may be also seen in many parts of the 
country, especially well exemplified again in East Anglia. 

There were, of coarse, a forum and pretorian building, the 
residence of the Governor, and barracks for the troops, basilica for 
the Court of Justice, and private houses, markets, baths, etc. All 



1899.] 



on Boman De/encei of South-Eait Britain. 



41 



these are ghown on excavation of the areas of these walled toivns and 
Mstra, aD<i are well exhibited in the plan (Daromberg's Encyclopedia) 
of the town of Troesmie. 

The baililings in the caetra now under conaidoration have only 

ito A slight degree been ascertained, and have moroover in three 
Btriking coses been confused by the erection of mediceval buildings 
M'ilhiu tlieto, Bucb as the Norman and later works in Portcbester, 
including not only the keep and allied buildings, but also, in 
the further comer of the castruin, o Norman church, at Povensey 
•gain a Norman keep, and buildings including a chnpel. At Rich- 
burongh there is the most remarkable formation in the centre, an 
enonuoufi platform of concrete, 30 fe«jt thick, with a cruciform block 
vt maconry in the middle, which was occupied by a chapel in modiieval 
tunes. This may have been preceded by an early Roman British 
ehnrch, or the platform may have f(>rmed the base of a lighthouse 
lower, analogous to the two which stood on each side of the valley at 
Domr, only one of which now remains next the churcli within Jhe 
aooessory * Roman (.'amp now included in the enceinte of the mediaeval 
OMtle. 

Yon may remark that the Church of Reculver stands within the 
caatrnm, and that the construction of its chancel arch with two 
Romao pillars shows the very early ongin at least of the Augustiuion 
•pocb, if not earlier. 

»At Lympne I found that the site of what apparently was the 
6"Vcmor's house, which bad already been discovered by Mr. Roach 
limith, exhibited round the outside wall an original cobble stone 
]iaviDg, which we may conclude was generally employed for the side 
■treeta in such walled castra. 

The some carap L^mpno also shows the foundations of some large 
buildings, which may be token to have been store-houRcs, and have 
been termed barracks, but do not resemble the barracks, glivdiatorial 
• otherwise, at Pompeii at oil, where a large number of rooms opoued 
to a oourt-yanl. The windows of such btiildiugs are extant at 
Lympne, being built into the wall of an out-house there. As Mr. 
Smith has shown, and other archteologists have shown, such 
were n>uuded at the top, with embrasured sides, and the 
eill bevc-Ued outwards us a rain drip. The walls were 
1, and then pointed in distemper. These buildiuga wore 
by the usual bypocuusts. 
Bccidoa thoae ofBcial buildings, there wore, of course, numerous 
null houaea and shops, which are set forth in the Troesmis plan, 
■ad are analogous to the buildings now being so carefully explored 
■I StlelKcter. 

We now oomo to the historical stories, which, so far as we know, 
kre eloaely aaaociated with these fortified stations, and, as I have 
•Iraady soggestod, the interest really begins towards the end of the 

because the walled town of DabriH lay below in the valley. 




42 Mt. Victor Honley [Feb. 3, 

third century, viz. 286 A.D. It viU be remembered that the then 
Emperor Diocletian (who like Hadrian was a great administrator) 
fonnd that the size of the Empire, and the very personal system of 
government of the Romans, rendered it necessary to subdivide the 
imperial power, and he therefore constituted a government of himself 
and Maximianus. The latter, having command of Ganl and Britain, 
appointed over the British fleet a Belgian named Caransins, who wbs 
already in the Roman Navy as a pilot or Gnbernator, a position which 
was analogous to the Master in a man-of-war in our own navy in the 
beginning of this century — an officer on whom great responsibility in 
navigation devolved. 

This man Canransius seems to have been a person of great indi- 
vidual energy and ability ; his headquarters were at Boulogne, the 
ancient Gessoriacum, but which we must now call Bononia. Finding 
that his reputation and influence were greatly increasing, he began to 
pave the way for seizing power over the fleet and Britain. 

For this purpose, he evidently sent over agents into Britain to 
work public feeling in his favour, and, to support it further, had 
coins struck with a portrait of himself on one side, and an inscription 
which said, " C!ome, oh expected one." Having thus cleared the ground, 
he duly came, and apparently made his headquarters for a time at 
Rutupia, and then at Clausentom. Having done this, he next inti- 
mated to Diocletian and Maximinius that he had assumed the imperial 
status, and the title of Augustus. Maximinius, upon whom the re- 
sponsibility of dealing with this insurrection devolved, found his 
hands were too full in Ganl and North Africa, and consequently with 
Diocletian, made a virtue of necessity and recognised him, upon which 
Caurausius, with a certain sense of humour, struck coins iu which he 
represented himself with a diadem and his colleagues without, and 
put an inscription, " Caurausius and his two brothers." When, how- 
ever, his hands were less hampered, his nearest brother Maximinius 
despatched a very able general named Constantine Chlorus, who 
forthwith opened the campaign against Caurausius by laying siege to 
Bononia, and ultimately capturing it. Caurausius bad withdrawn 
into Britain, and there was murdered, at one of these camps we are 
now discussing, by his chief subordinate in command, Alectns, who 
also set up a cJaim for imperial rank, and commenced a coinage, of 
which numerous examples are to be found in the south-eastern camps. 
Constantius sent against Alectus a general named Ascupnladorius, 
who secured the province to Rome by taking his attacking fleet over 
in two divisions, crossing under shelter of a fog, and defeating Alectns 
who was waiting to receive him. 

At this time the Saxons and North Germanic tribes increased 
their piratical incursions on both sides of the Cbannel, and the re- 
moval of Caurausius no doubt rendered their attacks much safer to 
them and more profitable. From this time, at any rate to the begin- 
ning of the fifth century, thei-e can be little doubt that the Saxons 
steadily increased in force, and the Picts and Scots combined to render 



1899.] oil Boman De/encei of South-Eatt Britain. 48 

the existenoe of the Romann-British people very hard. The best 
eTidenoe of this state of things is really given by the mannscript list 
of officers under the empire which is known as the Notitia dignato- 
tomm. This aocorapanying reproduction of the map of the Notitia, 
from HoTsley's ' Britannia Romana,' shows that the defences of the 
country had been gradually re-organised, and the troops concentrated 
along the line of the Boman wall and the camps in relation to it, and 
the remainder along the south-oast and south coast The second 
legion, for instance, which had been in the north 150 years, was 
brought down and posted in Richborongh. The sixth legion, which 
had been in England for 200 years, was taken to Rutupia and then 
removed altogether. The Notitia is an extremely valuable document, 
because it gives all the details of the staff-command of the South 
Eastern coast. The composition of the staff is very interesting, and 
the Count, as he was called, of the Saxon shore, seems to have always 
held a very prominent position. The last matter of interest and im- 
portance on this subject is the question of the fate of those fortifica- 
tions and, concurrently, the explanation why, as in some places, 
e.g. London, they remain as they are. All the southern part of 
England was studded over with Romau villas, and these always seum 
on excavation to have been burnt down and not inhabited afterwards, 
and woodland allowed to spring np around the ruins, in many cases 
burying them. The reason for this given by some is, that for 
a certain time the villas, having been inhabited by large families and 
resident subordinates, were built for comfort but not for defence, and 
after their destruction by the piratical and the superstitious Saxons, 
were believed to be occupied by the ghosts of their former owners. 
Terrible for this cause, and useless to a people needing fortresses 
nther than homes, they were left in undisturbed ruin. This does not 
appear to have been the case with walled towns, fur obvious reasons : 
these camps remained inhabited to a certain extent during the 
mediaeval period, but not for long, except in the case of Porchester, 
Itichburough, and the large towns like Dover, Ac, which have been 
continuously inhabited since their Roman construction. 

I should like to finish this sketch by showing you two examples 
illustrative of the period of which it treats : one of the fate of a large 
walled station such as we have been considering, and of which we 
have an actual record in a Saxon chronicio still existing ; the other of 
the destruction of a Roman dwelling house. 

The first example is the storming of Andcrida (Pevensey). Here 
we are told in the Saxon chronicle that the Saxons, who had landed in 
Portsmouth harbour, and who no doubt had already taken Portus 
Magnus (Porchester) and Clausentura, marched eastward along the 
Roman Road until they ultimately came to Anderida, which they 
besieged for a long time without any success. The Saxons wore not 
skilled in sieges, and it is especially noted that during the attack 
their lines of circumvallation were continually being assailed by tlio 
Britons moving out from tlio forest and falling upon the rear of iho 



44 Mr. Victor Hordey on Boman Defeneei. [Feb. 3, 

Saxon forces. Ultimately the place was carried by storm, and all 
its inhabitants massacred. 

The second example, that of the destruction of a villa, is remark- 
ably shown by the following instance, for which I have to thank 
Mr. Stony, the cnrator of the Cardiff Museum. This gentleman 
bad obserred in a field which was known in the neighbourhood as 
" the battlefield," that there was some indication of a Boman founda- 
tion in its centre, and on examining this found the customary rough 
masonry upon which the timber and plaster walls of a Boman villa 
were erected. On following up the passage, which was the first part 
of the villa opened into, he found it led into a large room with a good 
pavement, the tessera of which were broken and tiie surface indented 
with horses' hoofs. The floor was covered by numerous human 
skeletons and those of horses, while in the comer of the room were 
the skeletons of two children, and across, in front of them, that of a 
woman. Further, in three graves dug in the floor, were fonnd the 
skeletons of men of a larger and more powerful build than those 
whose remains were left unbnried where they fell. The evidence is 
circumstantial but complete. The whole story is told. The unfortified 
dwelling house, the attack by the stronger invaders, the retreat of the 
household along the passage to its inmost room, the last stand of the 
little garrison, the slaughter of the men, the murder of the woman, 
and last of all the massacre of the children, in front of whom she 
had thrown herself in a final desperate effort to save them from the 
inevitable destmction. There are those who find the study of old 
walls dull, and wonder that some can pore for hours over a jaw from 
a cave, a flint from a field, or a bit of Boman mortar, but these things 
are the keys to the unwritten history of man, and when we find how 
vivid a page can be restored to us from the floor of a single bonse, 
one's wonder should rather be that so much still remains uncared-for 
and unread. 

[V. H.] 



1899.] Oeneral Monthly Meeting. 46 



GENEEAL MONTHLY MEETING, 

Monday, Febmary 6, 1899. 

8b Jakbs Cbiohtor-Bbowhb, M.D. LL.D. F.B.S., Treasorer and 
Yice-Preeident, in the Chair. 

George C. Cathcart, Esq. M.A. M.B. CM. 

Hon. Alan de Tatton Egerton. M.F. 

Sir Francis Henry Evans, KG.M.G. M.P. 

John George Glover, Esq. 

John William Gordon, Esq. 

John Gretton, Esq. 

John Gretton, Esq., Jan. M.P. 

Charles Edward Groves, Esq. F.B.S. F.C.S. 

Alexander Bitchie, Esq. J. P. 

were elected Members of the Boyal Institution. 

The Special Thanks of the Members were retnmed for the follow- 
ing Donation to the Fund for the Promotion of Experimental Besearch 
at Low Temperatures : — 

Professor Dewar £100 

Professor Frank Clowes .. .. £10 10«. 

The following resolution was proposed from the chair by Sir 
James Crichton-Browne, M.D. F.R.S. the Treasurer, seconded by 
8ir Frederick Bramwell, Bart. F.B.S. the Honorary Secretary, and 
nnanimonsly adopted : — 

"The Members of the Boyal Inatitntion of Great Britain in General Meeting 
aiaembled deaire to express to his Grace the Dake of Xotthumberland their 
•jmpatby with Iiim and his family in the loss which they, aa well as the Boyal 
Institution and the country at large, have sustained by the death of his father, 
the late Duke. Thc-y desire also to record their grateful sense of the invalaable 
ierrices rendered to the Royal Institution by the late Duke during his member- 
■hip of 48 years' daratiou ; during seven terms of office as Visitor and Manager, 
and as Preiident fur 26 years ; by his active and unfailing interest in its affairs, 
and in the progress of science, which it is its object to pmmote; by bis generous 
benefactions to its funds; and by the true nobility of his character, which has 
lent distinction to ita proceedings during an eventful period of its history." 

The Special Thanks of the Members were returned to C. E. 
Helohers, Esq. for his donation of £50 for alterations in the Lecture 
Theatre. 



46 Oeneral MonOly Meeting. [Feb. 6, 

The PsmsKHTS leoeived siiioe {he last Meeting were laid on the 
table, and the thanks of the Members returned for the same, viz. : — 



The Seerelary of SUUhr India — ^Annual Progreas Beport of the Archaological 
Sarrey Circle, N.W. ProTinoei and Oudh, for year eading June 1898. fol. 
Arcbnological Surrey of India : 
The Mogul Architeotore of Fathpnr-Bikri. By E. W. Smith. Fart 3. 4to. 

1897. 
Monograph on Buddha Sakyamoni's Birthplace in the Nepaleae TeraL By 
A.Fuhrer. 4to. 1897. 
Accademia dei Lineei, BecUe, Roma — Claan di Soienze Morali, Storiche e Filo- 
logiche: Bendioonti. Serie Qninta, Yul. VII. Faac. 7-11. 8to. 1899. 
Atti, Serie Qninta : Bendioonti. Claaae di Bcienze Fiaiacfae, && 2° Semestre, 
Vol. Vn. Faac 10-12; 1* 8«mertro, Vol. VIII. Fuse 1. 8to. 1899. 
AgrieuUaraX Society of Bngland—3oana\, VoL IX. Part 4. 8to. 1898. 
American Geographiad Soetety— Bulletin, Vol. XXX. No. 5. 8vo. 1898. 
A$iatie Soeiety, Boyal — Journal for Jan. 1899. 8vo. 

Atlronomieal Soeiety, Awal— Monthly Notices, Vol. LIX. Kos. I, 2. 8Ta 1898. 
Bankert, ImtituU of— Joxanii, VoL XIX. Part 9; VoL XX. Part 1. 8vo. 

1898-99. 
Botton. U.S.A. PMie library— Monthly Bulletin of Bosks added to the Library, 

VoL Ul. No. 12. 8vo. 1898. . 
BritUh ArehitecU, Royal JmUtuie o/— JounaL VoL VL Nos. 3-6. 8to. 1898. 
Britith Attronomieal AaoeiaHon—Jovnul, Vol. IX Noe. 2, 3. 8va 1898. 
Browne, W. A. Eiq. M.A. Lit.D. (the Author}— The Money, Weights and Measorea 
of the Chief Commercial Nations in the World, with the British Eqaivalents. 
Stb edition. 8to. 1899. 
Cambridge Philomphieal Soeiety— Piooeedinga, VoL X. Part 1. Sto. 1899. 

TransactioDB, Vol. XVU. Part 2. 4to. 1899. 
Camera dvb — Journal for Deo. 1898 and Jan. 1899. 8to. 
Canada, Oeological Survey — Annual Report, Vol. IX. 8to. 1898. 
Canadian /ns<tii((«— Prooeedings, Vol. L Part 6. 8vo. 1898. 
Cliemieal InduUry, Soeiety o/— Journal, VoL XVIL Nos. 1 1, 12. 8vo. 1898. 
Chemical Soofety— Proceedings, Nos. 200-202. 8vo. 1898. 

Journal for Dea 1898 and Jan. 1899. 8vo. 
Cracovie, Academie de» Science! — Bulletin International, 1898, Nos. 9, 10. 8vo. 
Duka, Dr. Theodore, M.A. F.B.S. M.R.I, {the ^tiMor)— Kossuth and GorgeL 8to. 

1898. 
£Ui(or(— Aeronautical Journal for Jan. 1899. 8vo. 
American Journal of Science for Dec. 1898 and Jan. 1899. 8vo. 
Analyst fur Dec 1898 and Jan. 1899. 8to. 

Anthony's Pbotogiaphic Bulletin for Dec. 1898 and Jan. 1899. 8to. 
Astrophysical Journal for Dec. 1898. 8vo, 
Athenieum for Dec. 1898 and Jan. 1899. 4to. 
Author for Dec. 1898 and Jun. 1899. 
Bimetallist for OoL 1898 to Jan. 1899. 
Brewers' Journal for Deo. 1898 and Jan. 1899. 8to. 
Chemical News for Dec 1898 and Jan. 1899. 4to. 
Chemist and Druggist for Dec 1898 and Jan. 1899. 8to. 
Education for Deo. 1898 and Jan. 1899. 8to. 
Electrical Engineer for Dec. 1898 and Jan. 1899. fol. 
Electrical Engineering for Dec. 189K and Jan. 1899. 
Electrical BeWew for Dec. 1898 and Jan. 1899. 8Ta 
Engineer for Dec. 1898 and Jan. 1899. fol. 
Engineering for Dec. 1898 and Jan. 1899. foL 
Homoeopathic Beview for Dec 1898 and Jan. 1899. 
Horological Journal for Dec 1898 and Juu. 1899. 8to. 



1899.J 



General Montldy Meeting. 



47 



I 



I 



Baton — continued. 
IndoBtrics and Iron for Dec. 1898 and Jan. 1899. foL 
Inrention for Deo. 1898 and Jan. 1899. 8to. 
Journal of Physical Chemistry for NoT.-Dec. 1898. 8to. 
Juumal of 8Ute Medicine for Dec. 189S and Jun. 1899." 8tp. 
t«ir Journal for Deo. 1898 and Jan. 1899. 8to. 
Maehioeiy llorket for Dec. 1898 and Jan. 1899. 8to. 
Natuns for Dec. 1898 and Jan. 1899. 4to. 
New Church Magazine for Dec. 1898 and Jan. 1899. 8ro. 
KoOTO Cimiiito for Scpt.-Oct. 1898. 8to. 
PliTxSoal Keview for Nov.-Dco, 1898 and Jan. 1899. 8to. 
Pablic Health Engineer fur Deo. 1898 and Jan. 1899. 8vo. 
Bcience Abatneta, ToL I. Part 12. 8vo. 1898. 
Seieooe Siftinga for Deo. 1898 and Jan. 1899. 8to. 
Beienoe of Man for Not. 1898. 
Terreatrial Magnetiam for Deo. 1898. 8ro. 
Trarel for Dec. 1898 and Jan. 1899. 8vo. 
Tropical Agrirulturist for Dec. 1898 and Jan. 1899. 8to. 
Zoophilist for Dec. 1898 and Jan. 1899. 4to. 
BmigranUf Information Ojpee— Circnlars on Canada, the Anstrolasian and South 

A'^ - '■• inies, Jan. 1899. 8vo. 
Flrr- I ' >-a .VaciVm'ib Ceniralf— Bolletino, No«. 311-313. 8to. 1898. 

'rani j - :.;:(« — Journal for Dec. 1898 and Jan. 1899. 8vo. 

iphieai Soeitty, Soyal — Geographical Journal for Dec. 1898 and Jan. 1899. 
■»fo. 

Barvard CoOege Attronomieal Obtervaiory — Anoals, Vol. XXVIU. Part I ; 
Vol XXX. Parts 2. 4; Vol. XXXU. Part 1; Vol. XXXIV.: Vol. XL. 
ParU 2, 4, 5 ; Vol. XLI. Parts .H-5. 
aot1i<mUtiral Socirly, K>n/al—.JoUTTMl, Vol. XXII. Part 3. 8to. 1898. 
Imperial /ndi'fut.^— Imperial Institute Joomul for Dec. 1898 and Jau. 1899. 
Jnn and 8ted Inllitule— 3 o\an&\. 1898, No. 2. 8to. 
Japan. CoUtge of Science o/ the Imperial Univertily of Tokyo — Journal, Vol. IX. 

Part 2: Vol. XI. Part 1 ; Vol. XII. Parts 1, 2. 8vo. 1898. 
JiAnt Hojikini Unirerrity — American Chemical Journal for Dec. 1898 aud Jan. 
X1M. 8T0. 
Anariean Journal of Philology, Vol. XIX. Na 3. 8to. 1898. 
Onvctaity Ctrculara, Nus. 137, 138. 4to. 1898. 
fiteMy— Jounml, No. 172. 8to. 1898. 

Coumty Oonncil Technical Education Board — London Tvchnical Educa- 
ttoa (>axottc fnr Not.-Dcc 1898 and Jan. 1899. 8to. 
MmnAmIrr I.itrrary and Phihtophieal Society — Memoirs and Proceedings, 

Vol. XLII Part 5. 8to. 1898. 
Jhdienl and Chiiurgieal SoeUty, Soyal — Medioo-Chirurgioal Tronsaotious, Vol. 
LXXXL 8VO. 18:)8. 

jlaeMy, fioyo'—Metcorologicnl Record, No. 71. 8vn. IgQit. 
' OimtiJUM " AnUmio Attala" — Memorias y Heristaa, Tomo XI. 
Na«k»-I2. 8to. 1898. 
JKereaaoofaai Soeitty, lloyal—Jnuma\, 1898, Part 6. 8to. 
MattomalAaadaiM of Seitner; Wtuhinnlon—tAvtDiAn. Vol. VU. 4to. 1895. 
Aoiy Uagnt—tinrj League Journal for Uir. IK98 itud Jan. 1899. 4h). 
Sdtn^ >■• '^ Ft^. like vJWAor)— The I^tist Literary Boycott. A Uooloillcrs' 

S»o. 1»9S. 
A'<w I' my a^^Vfu-e»— Annals, Vol, X. ParU 1-12. Sro. 1898. 

A«w /^miami, liegiUraT-Qmeral o/— The Niw Zealand Official Year book, 1898. 

Satman. J. H Ef/. (Ote Authi>T)—T\\p World's Kxoliantfcs in 18!i8. 8vo. 1898. 
S'artk of Kngiinit Irutiluir ff Miniuri iind Michaniisil Enginecrt — 'rransactloMs, 

Vol XLVII. ParUfi, 7; Vol. XLVIII. Part I. 8vo. 1898. 
Snmiimatle ttoriXy— Chruntclu and Journal. 1898, Part 4. 8to. 



48 Oeneral Monthly Meeting. [Feb. 6, 

Odonttiogiecd Soaely of Gnat Sritotn— TraiuactionB, Vol. ZXXI. Nob. 1-8. 8to. 

1898. 
Tarit, SocUU FranjaUe de Phyfique — S&nces, 1898, Fasc. 2. 8to. 

BuUetin, Nog. 123-126. 8vo. 1^98. 
Phamaceulical Society of Gnat Britain — Journal for Deo. 1898 and Jan. 1899. 8vo. 

Calendar, for 1899. 8to. 
Philadelphia, Academy of Natural Scienae* — Proceedings, 1898, Fart 2. 8to. 
PhotograjAic Society of Great Britain, Boyal — The Photogrephio Journal for 

Nov. -Dec. 1898. 8to. 
Phyrical Society of London— Pioceedmea, Vol. XVI. Nob. 3, 4. 8vo. 1898-99. 
Pierce, Bdbert M. E$q. (the Author) — Prolbleins of Number and Measure. 8to. 1898. 
BadcUffe Library Trruleet — Catalogue of Books added to the Badcliffe Libiwy 

during 1898. 8to. 1898. 
Borne, Minlitry of PMia Iforfc*— Oiomale del G«nio Civile, 1898, Fasc. 8, 9. 

8vo. 1898. 
Boyal Irish ileademy— Proceedings, 3rd Serips, Vol. V. No. 1. 8vo. 1898. 
Bmal Society o/Xoncion— Philosophical Transactions, Vol. CXCI. A, Nos. 228, 229 ; 

Vol. 0X0. B. No. 167 : Vol. OXUIL A, Nog. 230, 231. 4to. 1898. 
Proceedings, Nos. 404-406. 8vo. 1898. 
St. Bartholometi^$ Hoapitol— Statistical Tables for 1897. 8vo. 1898. 
Salford Free Librariei Committee — Fifteeuth Annual Beport, 1897-98. 8vo. 
Sanitary Jtutitutc— Journal, Vol. XIX. Part 4. 8vo. 1899. 
Saxon Society ofSciencet, Boyal — 
Philologiidi-Hittorieche Claste — 

Berichte, 1898, No. 4. 8vo. 
Mathematisch-Phytitche Claste — 

Berichte, 1898, No. 5. 8vo. 
ScoUith Society of Arts, BouaJ— Transactions, Vol. XTV. Part 4. 8va 1898. 
SeCbome Sootety— Nature Notes for Dec. 1898 and Jan. 1899. 8vo. 
Society of >4r((— Journal for Dec. 1898 and Jan. 1899. Svo. 
Statistical Society, Boyal— Journal, Vol. LXI. Part 4. 8vo. 1898. 
Stevens, J. A. Esq. {the Author}— A Memoir of William Kelly, Librarian of the 

New York Historical Society. Svo. 1898. 
Taechini, Prof. P. Hon.Mem.B.I. {the .itii/ior)^Memorie della Society degli Spet- 

trosoopisti Italian!, Vol. XXVIL Disp. 9, 10. 4to. 1898. 
Teyler, Music, Haorlem— Archives, Serie II. Vol. VI. Part 2. 8to. 1898. 
United Service Inaitution, Boyal — Journal for Deo. 1898 and Jan. 1899. 8vo. 
United States Army, SurgeonOenen^s Office — Index Oatsilogue, Second Series, 

Vol. ni. 4to. 1898. 
United States Department of Agriculture — Beport of Secretary of Agrioolture, 

1898. Svo. 
Experiment Station Record, Vol. X. No. 4. 8vo. 1898. 
United States Geological Surrey— Bulletins, Nog. 88, 89, H9. Svo. 1897-98. 

Monographs, No. XXX. 4to. 1898. 
United Stales PatetU Oj?!ce— Official Gazette, VoL LXXXV. Nos. 9-12; VoL 

LXXXVI. Nob. 1, 2, 3. Svo. 1898. 
University of Toronto— Studies : Biological Series, No. 1 ; Psychological Series, 

No. 1. Svo. 1898. 
Verein tur BefSrderung det Geweiifleistes in Preutsen — Verbandlungen, 1898, 

Heft 9. 10. 4to. 
Vienna, Imperial Geological Institute — Verbandlungen, 1898, Nos. 14, liS. 8to. 
Wagner Free Institute of Science of Philadelphia — Innsactions, Vol. IIL Part 4. 

Svo. 1898. 
Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey — On the Instincts and Habits 

of the Solitary Wasps. By G. W. Peckham and S. O. Peokham. Svo. 1898. 

On the Forestry Conditions of Northern Wisconsin. By F. Both. Svo. 1898. 

Zoological Society o/ iondoiv— Transactions, Vol. XIV. Part 8; Vol. XV. Part 1. 

4to. 1898. 



1899.] 



The Motion of a Perfect Liquid. 



49 



* 



I 



WEEKLY EVENING MEETING, 
Friilay, Fobruary 10, 1893. 

Thi Hon. Sib Ja>ie8 Stiri-ino, M.A. LL.D., Vicc-PrcBidont, 
ill the CLa'r. 

Pb iFiBSOK n. S. HtvE-SuAw, LL.D. M. Inst C.E. 

The Motion of a Petfect Liquid. 

Ir wc lortk ftcroM tbe surface of a river, wo cannot fail to obserTo 
the difference of tbe luovomcut nt various points. Near one b-iiik 
tli« Telocity may bo mnclj less than near the other, and generally, 
though nut always, it is greater in tlie middle than near cither bank. 
If we oould look beneath tbe surface and see what was going on 
there, we should 6nd that the velocity was not so great near tlie 
Ixitttrm as at the top, and was scarcely tbe Fame nt any two points of 
the depth. The more wo stu'ly the matter, the ramx) cimiplex the 
in(>tion appears to bo; small floating bodies are not only carried 
down at different speeds and ncro«8 each other's paths, but nro 
«'birlc<l round and round in small whirlpools, smnotinies even disap- 
jjearing for a time beneath tho surface. By watching floating bodies 
«« can Botnctimcs realise tbcBo complex inoveinents, but they may 
l«ke place without giving tbe i-lightest evidence of their existence. 

Ton are now looking at water flowing tlirougb a channel of 
varying cross section, bnt there is very little evidence of any dis- 
turtriuico taking place. By admitting colour, altbougb its effect is at 
once vieible on tho water, it does not help us much to aiidcrstand the 
character of the flow. If, however, fine bubbles of air are admitted, 
wc at once perceive (Fig. 1) tbe tumultuous conditions under which 
the water is moving and tliat there is a strong whirlpool action. 
This may be intc^nsified by closing in two sides (Fig. 2), eo as to 
imitate the action of a sluice pato, through the nnrrow opening of 
which the water has all i» ]>iMa, tho presence of air making tho dis- 
torbetl behaviour of tho water veiy evident. 

Now you will readily admit that it is hopeless to begin to study 
the flow of the water u^idcr such conditions, and we naturally ask, are 
tlifire not casej in which the action is more simple ? Suolt would be 
the CMo if tho water flowed very slowly in a perfectly smooib and 
parallel river bed, when the ptirticlis would follow one another in 
lines called " stream^lines," and tho flow w. uld bo like tho march of 
■ diaciplined army, instead of like the movcnicut of a disorderly 
crowd, in which, free fights taking place at vjirious points may be 
■nppoied (o resemble the local disturbances of whirlpools or voitices. 

Vou XVr. (No. 93.) K 



60 



Professor H. 8. Hrle-Shaw 



[Feb. 10, 



The modol (Fig. 3) reprosonts on a large ecnle a section of tlic 
cbannel already shown, in which groups of particles of the water ore 
indicated hj round balls, lines in the direction of flow of tliese 
groups (which for conveniencu we may call particles) being coloured 
alternately. When I move these so that the lines are maintained, 
■we imitate "stream-line" motion, and when, at any given point of 
the pipe, the succeeding particles always move at exactly the same 
yelocity, we have what is understood as " steady motion." 





Fio. 1. 



Fi(i. 2. 



As long as all the particles move in tbo straight portion of the 
channel, their behaviour is eacij enough to nndcrstand. But as the 
eltannel widens out, it is clear that this model does not give as the 
pioj-er distribution. In the mixlel, tlie wider portions are not filled 
up, as they would be, with the natural fluid ; for it must be clearly 
iiudcrt^tood that the Btream-lines do not flow on as the balls oli>ng 
these wires, passing through a mass of dead water, but redistribute 
themselves so that every particle of writer takes part in the flow. 



I 



1 




1899.] 



on the Motion of a, Per/vet Liquid. 



51 



Perhaps yon raay think thnt if these nircs ncro removed, and the 

woodon balls »1li>wod to find their own po^itiuus, they would group 

tbrmaolres as with nn actunl liquid. This la not the case; and, fur 
I reoMOUS that yon will see presently, tin model of this kind would give 
I ns the rcitl conditinns of actual fluw. By means of a model, however, 

we ni.iy K; oblo to nnileistnnd why it is so absolutely e8~eiit!al ue 

•liunld realiRo the correct nature of the grou|iing which occurs. 

First UkiIc nt the two diagrams on thu wall ( l''ig!=. 4 and 5), wliich 
t jron will Fco represent chaimtls of similar form to the ex{ienmcnlal 
The same nnraber of pniticlcs 

BDtur and leave in each nnder ap- 
parently the same conditions, so that 

the idea may natnmlly arise in your 

niindjs that if the particles ulti* 
^ inately flow with the same speed 
' whatercr their grouping in the larger 

portion of the channel, it cannot 

mncb matter in wliat particular 

kind of formation they actually poss 

throDgh that wider portion. Tti 

nndmtand that is really ycrj im- 

porttnt. Let no consider a mo<IeI 
'(Fi;^. C) spce.ially made for tlio 
I pnrjio«o. You will see thot wo liavo 

two lines of particles wliich wo may 
[consider etreain-lines, tho.so on the 

loft Coloured white, and those on tho 
Lrijjiht coloured red. Tiie first and 

Iiwt are now exactly 18 inches apart, 
Ititere being eiglitucn balls of 1 inch 
fdiaiDoter in the row. If I move tlio 
jtcd ones npwaid, I cansc thorn to 
[enter a wider portion of tlie channel, 
[whfre they will have to arrange 

Ih'^raselves so as to l)o three abreast 
UFig. 7). It is quite clear to you, 
[tliat as I do this thoir speed in the 
[wider portion of the channel is only 

ene-tbird of that in the nnrrow portion, ns you will see from the 
[relative jio«ition8 of tho marked particles. Now, directly tho first 
I particle entered the wider channel, it commenced to move nt a re- 
[nucoil speed, with the result that tho particles immediately behind 
[it must hnve run up against it, exactly in the same way that yon have 
[often heard tho trucks in a goo<lB train run in succession upon tho 
[(ini« in front, when the speed of tho engine is re<lnced ; and you will 
fdoahtlefs have noticed that it was not necessary for (ho engine acta- 

llly to tXof in order that this might take place. Moreover, the force 
lof the impact depended largely upon the sudilenncss with which tho 
• E 2 




Fio. 3. 



53 



Frofetsor B. S. Ilele Skate 



[Feb. 10, 



speed of those in front was reduced. Applying this illiistrntion to 
the model, yon will see that the impact of these purtitlcs in the 
wider portion would nect'ss:irily involve a greater pressure in that 
part. Turning next to the wliito balls, I imitate, by means of the 
lel't-hand purtion, the flow which will occur in a channel six times as 
largu 08 the urigitial one, and ynu now sue (Fig. 7) that as the par- 
ticles have placed themselves six abreast, and tlieflrst and lust row are 
8 inches ajiart instead of 18 inches, the speed in tiie wider portion 
of the channel must h'lve been one-sixth of that in the narrow portion. 
Evidently, tlicruftire, the velocity of the particles has been reduced 
more rapidly than in the iircvions case, and thj prussare mast con- 
sequently be correspondingly greater. 




Fio. 4. 



Fia. 5. 



Wo may now take it as perfectly clear anil evident, that the pres- 
snre is greater iu the wider portion and loss in the narrower porti»n 
of the channel. Turuiug now to the two dirtgrams, wo see that the 
pressure is in each case greater in every row of pnrliek'H as in the 
wilier portiiins of the clutunel, but that instead of being suddenly 
increased, aa in the moilel, it is gradually increased. The width of 
thecolourcl bands, that is, ro.vs of particles, or width ajiort of strcara- 
Jines, is a mcaauro of the incionBod jiressnre. Tims you will now re- 
gard the width of the bands, or what is the same thing, the distance 
apart of the stream-lines, as a direct indication of pressure, and the 
narrowness or olosout'ss of tlie streum-liucs as a. direct indication of 
vclucity. 

Next notien the groat difference between the ttvo diftgrnms. In 
one diagmm (Fig. 4), the chuugc of width is uniform acroBs the entire 



res- I 



i 




1899.) 



on Ike Motion of a Perfect Liquid. 



sa 



section. In diagram (Fig. 5), bowover, tliia is nut tbo cum. In tlio 
uuToweat portion of tbe cbniinel in each diagram, thnro aio Roven 
e<>loar bands '>f little balls each coutiiniug three abreast, but wc find 
that in one diagmm (^Fig. 4) tboy are oqaully spocod in the wider purt 
six abrost thrun:;huat. In tbo other diagram (Fig. 5), the outer 
row 18 apaocd eight abreast, the second row ratlier more tlinn six, and 
the inner rows rather m<>re than four abreast, and the middle row 
Um than fonr abreast, making in all forty-two in a row, aa in the 
preTioiiB case. One diagram (Fig. 5), therefore, will roprenunt an 
entirely different condition to the state represented by the otlicr 
diagram (Fig. 4), the pressure in tho wide part of the latter varying 
from a maximum at tbe outside to a minimum in the middle, whilo 
the oorrasponding velocity is greatest in the middle and least at tbo 
Mtad» or borders. 

Nov, when we know the pressure at every poiut of a liquid, and 




I'lO. «. 



Fia. 7. 



uiat, 
^-aigh 



al«o the direction in which the particles are moving, together with 
their velocity at every point, wo really know all al>oiit its motion, 
and you will see how important tlio question of grouping is, and 
that, in fact, it really constitutes tbo whole point of my lecture to- 
ight. How then shall we Bscortain which of the two groupings 
~ig. 4 or 5) is correct, or whether possibly some grouping totally 
~ irent from either does not represent the real couditicms of flow ? 

Now, the model does not help us very far, bocnuso there seems to 
1m bo meoua of making the grouping follow any regular law which 
Bi(dit agree with fluid motion. In whatever way wo improve such a 
■odel, we can scarcely hope to imitate by mcroly raecbnnicnl nioaos 
IIm motion of an actual liquid, for reasons which I will now try to 
explain. 

In tbe first place, apart from the particles having no distinguishing 
chameteristicM, oilbcr when the liqud is opaque or trannparent, thoy 
attao aanll and their number is so great as to bo uliuosl bcyoud our 



54 rrofetsor H. S. Hele-Shaw [Feb. 10, 

powers of comprehenBion. Let me try, by means of a simple illnstra- 
tion, to give some idea of their number, as arrived at by perfectly well 
recognised methods of physical compotation. Lord Kelvin hns nsed 
the illustration that, snpposin;; a drop of water were magnified to the 
size of the earth, the lUtimate particles would appear to us between 
the size of cricket balls and footballs. I venture to put the samo 
fact, in another way, that may perhaps strike you more forcibly. 
This tumbler contains half a pint of water. I now close the top. 
Suppose that, by means of a fine hole, I allow one and a half billion 
particles to flow out por second — that is to say, an exodus equal tu 
about one thousand times the population of the world in each second, 
— the time required to empty the glass would be between (for of course 
wo con only give certain limits) seven million and forty-aeven million 
years. 

Ill the next place, we have the particles interfering with eaoh other's 
movements by what wo call " viscosity." 

Of course, the general idea of what is meant by a " viscous " fluid is 
familiar to everybo<ly, as that quality which treacle and tar possess 
in a markud degree, glycerine to a less extent, water to a less extent 
than glycerine, and alcohol and spirits least of olL In liquids, the 
property of viscosity resembles a certain positivo "stickiness" of 
the particles to thumsulvi-s and to other bodies ; and would be well 
represented in our model by coating over tho various balls with somo 
viscous material, or by tho clinging together, which might take plaoe 
by the individuals of a crowd, as contrasted with the absence of this 
ill tho case of no viscosity as represented by the evolutions of a body 
of soldiers. It may be accounted for, to a certain extent, by supposing 
tho particles to possess an irregular shape, or to constantly move across 
each other's paths, causing groups of particles to bo whirled round 
together. 

Whatever the real nature of viscosity is, it results in producing 
in water the eddying motion which would bo perfectly impossible 
if viscosity wero absent, and which makes tho problem of the motion 
of an imperfect liquid so diflScult and perplexing. 

Now, all scieutifio advance in discovering the laws of nature has 
been ma:lQ by first simplifying the problem and reducing it to certain 
ideal condition?, and this is what mathematicians have done in study- 
the motion of a liquid. 

We have already seen what almost countless millions of particles 
must exist in a very small space, and it does require a much greater 
slretuh of the imagination to consider thoir number altogether without 
limit. If we then assume that a liquid has no viscosity, and that it 
is incompressible, and that the number of particles is infinite, we 
arrive at a state of things which would be represented in the case of 
the model or the diagram on tho wall, when the little globes were 
perfectly smooth, perfectly round and perfectly hard, all of them in 
contact with each other, and with an unlimited number occupying the 
smallest part of one of the coloured or clear bands. 'J'his agrees with 



1899.] 



on the Motion of a Perfect Liquid. 



66 



» 



tbeniatbcniatical conception of a perfect liquid, oJthongh tbe matbeua- 
tician has in his mind the idea of Bomcthing of the natare of a jelly 
ctiDsiBting of such small particles, rather thau of the separate p>arti- 
cles themselves. The solution of tho probltitu of tbe grouping of the 
little particle*, upon which so much depends, and which may have at 
fiist seemed so simple a matter, really represents, though as yet applied 
to only a few simple coses, one of the most remarkable instances of 
the power of higher mathematics, and one of the greatest achieve- 
uents of mathematical geuiiis. 

You will be as glad as I am that it is not my business to-night to 
explain the mathematical processes by which the behaviour of a 
perfect liquid has been to a certain extcut investigated. You will 
also uudnrstand why such models as wo could actually make, or any 
analogy with the things with which we are familiar, would nut help 
ns very much in obtaining a mental picture of the behaviour of a 
perfect liquid. If, for instance, we try to make use of the idea of 
drilled soldiers, and move tho lines with that object in view, we tee 
that instead of the ordinary methods of drill, the middle rank soon 
gains on tho others, and enters again tho parallel portion of the 
channel in a very different relative position to the oppoHite lines, 
although the stream-linos would all have the same nclual velocity 
when once again in the parallel poition. Since, then, wo cannot use 
modclf! or any simple analogy with familiar things, or follow — at any 
rate this evening — the mathematical methods of dealing with tbe 
problem, what way of understanding the subject is left to us? 

If we take two sheets of glass, and bring them nearly close 
together, leaving only a space the thickness of a thin can! ur ])ioce of 
paper, and then by suitable means cause liquid to flow under pressure 
between them, the very property of Tiscosity, which as before noted, 
is tho cunse of the eddying motion in large bodies of water, in tho 
present case greatly limits tbe freedom of motion of the fluid between 
the t»'o sheets of glass, oud thus prevents not only eddying or whirl- 
ing motion, but also counteracts the effect of inertia. Every particle 
is then comi>olled by the pressure behind and around it to move 
onuards without wliirling motion, following tho (mth which corre- 
sponds exactly with the stream^lines in a perfect liquid. 

If we now, by a suitable means, allow distinguishing bands of 
coloured liquid to take part in the general flow, we are able to imitate 
exactly the conditions reprtsented in the diagrams (Figs. 4 and 6). 
Yuu are now looking at a projection on the screen (Fig. 8, Plate I.) 
of liquid, which, in flowing through the gradually enlarging aud con- 
tracting channel, is obeying tho conditions I have described. Such is 
(he steadiness of its motion, that it is scarcely possible to bcdieve at 
firfct that tho figure does not consist of fixed bands of colour pointed in 
perfectly smocitli curves. By varying the flow of the coloured liquid 
however, you will re«»lise at once that tho painting is done by nature 
and nut by the baud of a human artist. 

Kow you will notice that the bonds widen out as they approach the 



56 Frofeuor H. S. Hde-Shav [Feb. 10, 

wider portion of tlie channel, aflerwards contracting to tiicir original 
width ; but I have already prepared yon for the fact that they do not 
do this anifomily, and, in spite nf the fact that thoy were oil equally 
8| aced in the narrower portion of the pipe, they are very nneqnally 
spaaed in the wider portion — in this you will see the resemblance to 
the model, Fig. 8, and the case given in Fig. 5. 

You will not, I trust, now fall I'nto the very natural m'stake of 
thinking that the nature of the substance is more attenuated because 
the band has l)eoome wider, but will realise that thd particles are in 
the wider portion juEt as close together as in the narrower. I have 
already eXtilained that as more particles are required to fill the greater 
width, and can only be supplied from the snmo band behind, the band 
at that part cannot possibly be moving as fast as the narrow bonds at 
the same croFs-section, that is, on the Une drawn across at right angles 
to the central line of tho stream. 

This I will now prove to you by a very simple but oonclosive ex- 
periment, for by opening and closing the tap regulating the colour 
bunds, wo can start a fre>h supply exactly at the same instant in each 
of the hands — in tho same way as the starter attempts, though usually 
n<'t with the Slime surcef^s, to carry out his duties on the racecourse. 
(Fig. 9, Plate I.) shons tho different position of various colour band 
fronts which were all started in line, and gives a good idea of the 
relative changes of velocity. You will see that the sti-a'ght formation 
of the row is not maintained, even in the parallel portion of tho 
channel, the middle row gaining on the sides, which is not b(«au80 
of any resistance on the sides, hut because the influence of the enlarge- 
ment is felt before that is actually reached. Then, yon see, the middle 
portion slows down considerably, and, for an instant, of course, the 
portions which lag behind on the sides appear to he overtaking it ; 
they in turn, however, have to occupy so much more space on the 
sides, that they fall rapidly behind and the once straight row of par- 
ticles becomes, in leaving, more and more curved. This curve is so 
drawn out as to leave no doubt in your minds as to which band of 
particles wins the race ; and, although ultimately these particles are 
again flowing along the rarrow channel at the same velocity, whether 
in the middle or at the sides, the particles which stirtod at the 
middle, at the same time as the particles at the sides, have obtained 
the lead in finally entering the channel again. This lead they 
will continue to maintain, unless they should encounter an obstacle 
in the middle of tho channel, when, as I shall he able to show you 
in a subsequent experiment, tlieir positioi s may possibly be reversed. 

By now gradnally closing in the slides, so as to reprcduce conditions 
of a nnrrow diaphragm or channel with ordinary flow, insteiid of the 
turbulent or whirlpool motion which then resulted, the colour bands 
at once respond to the altered conditions (Fig. 10), and, like a perfectly 
drilled body of troops, perform the required evolutions immediately, 
even though the defile through which they are comfelled to pass in- 
volves almost incredibly rapid change of speed. So groat, indeed, is 







I 



^ 31 JAM 1 



1899] 



on the Motion of a Perfect Liquid. 



67 



tho confidtnce whiub we may placo upon tbelr liehaviour, tliat tlio on- 
Urgement from tlio original cliannel, FigR. 1 and 3, as yon sor, has 
been much cxnggcrated in order tn make tlie conditions as severe as 
p >t)eil)Ie, and intensify tbe effect. The greater pressure iu the wider 
|iurtion niny bo illustra'vd by tbe fuct, that wliile tlio plugs remain at 
rest in the middle, wbore tbe narrow linuds arc, thi-y are forctd out, 
when removed to tbe sides, by tbe greater pressure, which there acts on 
the ends. This is wbofe tbe bands were widest and the velocity slowest. 
This is quite contrary to what might linvo been expected, seeing that the 
liquid was forced so rapidly through the narrower channel, but it needs 
many illastnitions to bring home to as this apparent contradiction of 
our ordinary experience. Fig. 11 shows tlie liquid now flowing out 
through the new ohaunol thus made, as well as through the original 
place of exit. 

Bui at this stage you may resisoDably enquire bow it is that we are 
ablo to state, witb so much certainty, thut the artificial cauditions of 
flow with a viscous liquid are really giving us the Btrejim-lino motion 
of a p<Tf«ct one ; and this brings me to the results which mathema- 
ticians have obtained. 

Tho view now shown represents a body of circular cross-section, 
pof^ which a fluid of infinite extent is moving, and the lines arc plotted 
from m«theniaticnl investigation and repicsunt tho flow of particleii. 
This particular case gives us the menns of most elaborate comparison ; 
allhongh we cannot employ a fluid uf infinite extent, we can prepare 
the border of the clianrnd to correspond with any one of tho particular 
straim-lines, and measure tho exact |)csitioni< of the linos inmdc. 

By means of a second lanteii],the real flo'V of a viscous liquid for 
this case is shown upon tho second screeti, and you will koo that it 
agrees with the calculated flow round a siniiliir obstucle of a perfect 
liquid. Tho dingriim shown on the wall is the- octunl figure employed 
for compArison and upon which the cxperiniL'iital case was projected. 
By this means, it nae proved tliat the two wcru in absolute agreement. 
If no start the impubes, as before, in a row, wo at once see how tho 
middle particles lag behind the outer ones, ns indicated by tho width of 
the bands, showing that it is not ucceBgnrily tlic side stnam-litics that 
move more slowly. It may bo more interesting to you to so*, in addi- 
tion 1 1 tho foregoing case — iu whicli for convenience, and as quite 
•afBcicnt for measurement only, a scrai^yliudur was en)|i|i>ve<l — tho 
case of a complete cylinder, and this is now shown (Kig. 12, Plato I.). 
In this case two different cubiurs are used in alternnte bands, and these 
bunds arc sent in, not steadily but impulsively, in order to illustrato 
wliat I have just {M>intcd out. You will see how the greater width of 
tbe colour bands before and behind tho cylinder indicates an increase 
of pretauro in those regions. This iu a Bhi|i-shapo form accounts for 
the ttanding bow and stem waves, whereas tho narrowing of tho bands 
at tho aides ind cates an increase of velocity and reduction of pressure, 
and •ooounts for the depression of water level, with which you aro 
duabtleaa familiar at the corresponding part of a ship. 



68 



Prffator E. S. HeU-Skav 



[Feb. 10, 



I will now take a more striking Cftse. If. instcftd of a circular 
body, we had a flat plate, tfao turbalent nature of the flow is evidently 
▼ery great, as yon will see from the view (Fig. 13), which is a photo- 
graph of the actual flow onder these conditions, made Tisiblo by very 




Fig. 13. 



h 



fine air bubbles, and showiag water at rest in the clear space behind 
tho iiLstacle. 

Wo can, LoncTer, take steps to reduce this turbulence, and you now 
BOO on the second screen the flow by means of apparatus which time 




1899.] 



on the Motion of <i Perfect Liquid. 



89 



h 



» 



diiea Dot porniit ino to describe, bnt Mrhicli gives a alow and steady 
uiutiuD that it would be inijtossiblc tu improve upon in actual cot- 
ditiiiiis of I'Dicticc, or even, 1 ain inclined to t))iuk, by any experiiuentiil 
uiulbiKi. Instead of usiug air to make tbis flow clear, we now allow 
ciiloiirto streim behind tlie plate, and yoa will see (Fig 14, PliitoII.) 
that tlio water stili reluses to flow round to the bark, itnd Bprca<]8 on 
uitbcr sido, Wo have so slow a Telocity as nnt to induce vortex 
motion, but the inertia of the particles wbicli striko ihe flat plato 
causes tbem to be deflected to either side, ixoctly as tenuis balls in 
striking against a wall obliquely. The sheet of water is so thick, 
that is to tay, the parallel glnss plates are so fur ajKirt, that they do 
not enable the viscosity of the water to net as a sutScicut drag to 
prevent this taking plnce. 

To roaku the action of the water in front of the plate more visible, 
a different coloured liquid is allowed to enter from orifices in a nuall 
pilH) placed across the slide in the thick shott. You will now s e 
that the gem ral motion is steady enough to give n very clear idon of 
tiie ileflcctiug acti<in of the plutc, nnd streaks of colour sot thomsolvca 
in such a way as to indicate the behaviour of the individual particles. 
This <-ir<ct ii* practicjilly what is called " discontinuity," for, nlthoagh 
|iorfi'C'll_v discontinuous motion can only take place when there is no 
visuubity, the cftect of the gcneriil flow upon the nearly quiescent 
mass behind the ]>lntu is very slight. 

If we send the flow in impulsis, we produce vortex motion at tho 
edge, due to viscosity, as shown in Fig. lb. This takes place iu tho 
thick sheet directly the velocity is sufficieutly increased, though only 
at the edges of the plate, tho motion being otherwise the same. 

Uatheumticiaiis, however, ])redicted with absnliito certainty, that 
with £treiim-line motion the water should flow round and meet at tho 
hack, a (state of things that, however slow wo make the motirm in the 
pre»eut eiise, does not occur owing to the oflect of inertia, 'i'lu-y have 
drawn with ctjual coulidonce tho lines along which this shouhl tako 
]iliu:e. We could either otTect this result witli the oxperimitul you 
Lave just seen, by using a much more viscous liquid, such as treacle, 
or, what comes to the Name thing, bringing tho two sheets of glass 
nearly eluso together; and tho flow which you are now witnessing 
(Fig. IC, Pluto II.) shows the result of doing this. Tlie colour hands 
in fruDt of the platu no longer mix at all with tho gtneml body of 
flow, or are unsteady, as wiis the cn£0 in the Inst experiment, but flow 
round the plate ami flow so steadily, that, unless we jerk the flow of 
the coliiur bauds, it is impossible to tell iu which direction they are 
actaaily moving. 

A ntill more extraordinary case is that of a plato at an angle of 
45 degrees, the ccntial lino no longer striking the plate at the centre, 
\m certain (loint wh..ii, together with tlie actual curves of flow, 
Bn calcidutod and plotted by Professor I^anib. The calcula- 
f!u&( Iwing made for au infinite fluid, we require tho artificial border 
to b« pie]>arod, ooirosponding to tho ditloront stream-lines, and when 



60 Profenor H. 8. Heh-Skaw [Feb. 10, 

that is done, we find that the flow abwlately agrees mth that pre- 
dicted by Professor Lamb, t'.ie central line which meets the plate, 
leaving it exactly with the same form at a oonespondini; point on 
the back, the cnrres of each being hyperbolas. This efiect is, of 
conrse, prodnoed by the central line dividing on the plate, a portion 
floiving upwards and a portion downwards, reuniting at a oorreipond- 
ing point behind, from whence it flows away. 

Sach a state of thing) would be absolntely impossible to conoe've 
by most of as, bat by turning the plate at an angle in the lantern, we 
are able to approximately represent, even without artificial border lines, 
this condition of flow. You are thus able to see a striking example 
of the absolute aocnracy of mathematiciJ prediction, and to feel every 
cniidenoe, that the original experiment in the obannol, or indeed any 
others with thin viscous films, should give us indeed a correct picture 
of wliat we can never hopo to see, vis. the motion of a perfect liquiiL 

It is satisfactory to know that the principle of the thin films has 
been examined by probably the greatest authority on the subject, and 
as a result. Professor Sir G. Gabriel Stokes states, that " they afttrd a 
complete graphical solution, experimentally obtained, of a problem 
which, from its complexity, baffles the mathematician except in a few 
simple casea" 

Whilst I have been dealing with the stream-lines of a perfect 
liquid, your minds will doubtless have turned to the lines along 
which magnetic and electrical forces appear to act We are possibly 
further from realising the actual nature of these forces, than ftom a 
correct conception of the real nature of a liquid. We have long 
agreed to abandon the old ideas of the electrical and magnetic fluids 
flowing along these lines, and to substitute instead the idea, that those 
lines represent merely the directions in which the forces act. Now 
we can easily see that this conception is quite a reasonable one, for in 
the cose of the model it is not necessary to have the row of balls 
actually moving, in order that the effect may be transmitted along 
tlie diSuront lines they occupy. If I attempt to raise the plate upon 
which they rest, the pressure is instantly transmitted through the 
whole row to the top ball along each line, whatever curve the line may 
tako. In the same way, you will remember that it was not necessary 
to have the colour bands actually in motion, for, though apparently 
free to move in any direction, they retain their form for a considerable 
time, and the path along which they would iufluenoo each other as soon 
as the tap is opened, would be along those lines in which the liquid was 
flowing before it was brought to rest. Hence it is possible, with some 
suitable means, to cause a viscous liquid to raproduce exactly the lines 
of magnetic and electrical induction. In the cose of magnetism and 
electricity, it is of course possible, by means of a small magnetic 
nerdle or a galvanometer, by exploring the whole surface through 
which magnetic induction or electrical flow is acting, to plot the lines 
of force for iunumcruble coses, where wo can work in air or on the 
surface of the solid conductor. 



I 1899.] 
B^ Bill 



on the Motion of a Perfect Liquid. 



61 



But in th's bniUing it s.-ems catnrnl to take ns an example the 

first niW4l by the gruat mnn to whom the cuncuption of liucs of 
ftic force is duf, fur the first rcfureuco I hnvo boon able U* finij 
in »nch lines is in oneof Frtraila_v's earliust papers on the induction of 
floctric carronts,' in which he says, " By inagnotic curves I mean the 
lines of mn^nut'c furces, however modified by the juittt[>osition of 
poles, which would bo depicted by iron filingsi, or those to which a 
Tery unull magnetic noedln would form a tangent," 

Yon are all familiar with the wny in whicli iron filings sot them- 
Bclves, when shiiken over the North and Soutli poles of a magnet. 
The magnetic lines are then nearly, but not quite, circular curves 
between the two poles Now, the mathematics of the subject telln ns 
that if the p<iles could l)o rrgardud as points, the linos of force between 
them would bo pfrfcct circles. 

You are now looking (Fig. 17, Plato II.), at the colour bands, tlio 
edges— or indeed any jiortiuu — of whicli represent lines oblained by 
admitting coloun.-d liquid from a series of small hides ronnd a ceutnd 
fcmall orifice^ which ailmits clcAr liquid, and allows tVcm to escape 
throagh another small orifice (called respect vol v in hydiomoclinnics 
• aoareeaud nnifc), and I have it to you to Judge how far these curves 
deviate from the ideal form. 

My Bssistunt is now allowing the colnnr to flow, first steadily and 
then in a serios of inipnlisoB, and the tnttor gives us the conception 
of wkvos or impulses of magnetic force, though of coiirso tiio mag- 
netic transmission force would be ins tnutai icons. Regarded as a 
liquid, it is here again clear how nbsidiitely the truth of our views 
ciuoeming the slouor movement in the wider poition is verified by 
this experiment. 

A lust cx|)crimcnt (Fig. 18) shows the streams sdmitted, not from 
a aoaroe but from a row of orifices in what corresponds to the clowcst 
rouving {tortioD of the flow. The result is, that the wdoiir bands are 
mnch narrower, and altlmngh tiio circular forms of the ciirvos are, as 
in the previous oi[>criment, preserved, the lines are so liuo at the 
p(iint of exit, which, as before, corresponds to the South Polo, as to 
rually approxinmte to ideal stream-lines. 

'I'lic samj method enables us to tnico the lines of f<UTC through 
aotii] condnctoiv, for, as long as we confine ourselves to two dimcn- 
iiions of S|«co, we may have flat condnotoi-s of any shnpe uhiituver. 
Itot it dnca something more, for by m .king t)ie filui rather ducpt^r in 
■oinc placM than others, more particles arrange themselves there, 
■ad the lines of fliw will naturally tend in the direction of the 
ip^apcr p irtion. This will give the streitm lines identically the 
■kflM •iiiipo M the magnetic or electrical curvis which encounter in 
tlMiir piUbB a body of Ices resistance, for instance, a pani-magiietio 
body. 

If, on the other hand, at those points the film is made rather 

* * Es]icrimnitiil RcMsircbcs in Klertricity,' vol. i. p. 32. 



62 Profeaaor H. 8. Htle-Shav) [Feb. 10, 

thinner, leas particles will be able to (lispose of thomselycs in the 
sballow portion of the film, and hence the lines of flow will be 
pushed away frum this portion, giving ns exactly the same forms 
as magnetic lines of force in a magnetic field in proximity to a dia- 
magnetic body. 

Here, again, mathematical methods have enabled lines of actanl 
flow to be |>redicted, and yun may compare the actual flow for the 
case of a cylindrical para-magnetic body, which was worked ont some 
years ago. 

You will doubtless not be inclined to question the practical vnlae 
of stream-lines in the subject which we liave just been nomddering, 
because, unlike the flow of an actual liquid, magnetic lines of force 
can never be themselves seen, and because thero is no doubt as to 
the correspondence of the directions to the lines of a perfect liquid. 
It was the conception of tbef^e lines in the mind of Faraday, and moro 
particularly their being cut by a moving wire, that enabled him to 
realise the nature of tho subject more clearly than any other man at 
the time, and to do so much towards the rapid development of electrical 
science and its practical applications. 

When we come to consider the relation of the study of the motion 
of a perfect liquid with hyilromecbanics and naval architecture, it 
must be admitted that the matter is a difficult one. I'r ibably one of 
the most perplexing things in engineering science is the absence of 
all apparent connection between higher treatises on hydrodynamics 
and the vast array of works on practical hydraulics. The natural 
connection between the treatises of mathematicians and experimental 
researches of engineers would appear to be obvions, bnt very little, if 
any such connection exists in n-ality, and while at every step electrJQil 
applications owe much to the theories which are conrmon to electricity 
and hydromechanics, we look in vain for such applications in con- 
nection with the actual flow of water. 

Now the reoson for this appears to be tho immense difieronoe 
between the flow of an actual liquid and that of a perfect one owing 
to the property of viscosity. A comparison of the various experiments 
which you have seen to some extent indicates this. 

In the first place let us consider for a moment some of the things 
which would happen if water were a p«>rfcct liquid. In such a case, 
a ship would experience a very difierent amount of resistance, because, 
although waves would be raised, owing to the reasons which we have 
already seen, the ch'ef causes of resistance, viz. skin friction and 
eddying motion, would be entirely absent, and of courso a submarine 
boat at a certain depth would experience ni) resistance at all, since 
tho pressures fore and aft would be equal. On the other baud, 
there would be no waves raised by the action of the wind, and there 
would 1)0 no tidal flow, bnt to make up for this rivers would flow with 
incredible velocity, since there would bo no retarding forces owing to 
the friction of the banks. But the rivers themselves would soon 
cease to flow because there would bo no raiufall such as exists at 



1899.] 



on the Million nf a Perftet Liquid. 



6S 



I 



pnaent, since it is dne to viscosity thnt the rain is distribntel, instead 
of fWllinfii npon iho eftith in a solid mass wlien condengod. In a word, 
it may be said that the absonco of viRcosily in water would result in 
changes which it is impoesible to realiso. 

We may now briefly t-y to consi-ler the difference between 

fimctical hydraulics and the niathomati&d treatment of a perfect 
iqnid. The earliest attempts to invcstigivte in a scientific way the 
flow of water appears to have been made by a Runian engineer nbont 
1800 years ago, an effort being made to find the law for the flow of 
Water from an orifice. For more than 1500 years, however, even the 
iinplu principle of flow according to which the velocity of efflux varies 
M the sqniire of the head, or what is the sanio thing, the hci)iht of 
inrface above the orifice varies as the square of llio velocity, remained 
Unknown. Torricalli, who discovered this, did so as the result of 
baerving that a jet of water rose nearly to the height of the sarface 

the liody of water fr^im which it issued, and concluded therefore 
that it obeyed the then recently discovered law of nil falling bodies. 

Thnngh it was obvious that this law did not exactly hold, it was a 
long time before it was realised that it was the friction or viscosity of 
liquids that caused so marked a deviation from the siiuple theory. 
Since then problems in practical hydraulics, nhethcr in connection 
with the flov in rivers or pipes, or the resistance of ships, have largely 
iwnuristed in the determination of tbo amount of deviation from the 
foregoing simple law. 

About 100 years ago it was discovered that the rcs'stance of 
friction varies nearly in accordance with the simple law of Torricelli 
Mid klso— although for a totally different ronson — the resistances duo 
to a radden rontraction or enlargment of cross section of channel or 
to any sadden obstructions appear to follow nearly the ^arae law. 
Now it is extremely convenient for reasons wliich will bo understood 
by stndents of hydraulics, to treat all kinds of resistanoo as following 
the same law, viz square of velocity which tho variation of head or 
keight of surface has shown to do. But this is far from being exact, 
and an enormous amount of labour hns conrequently been expended 
in finding for all conceivable conditions in actual work tnl>les of 
co-cfficieuts or empirical expressions which are required for calcula- 
tions of various practical questions. Bucli dutk are continually btiing 
krcumnlattMl in connection with the flow of water in rivers and pipes, 
for hydrnnlic motors and naval architecture. This is the practical 
lido of the question. 

On the other hand, eminent mathematicians since tho days of 
Kcwton and the discovery of ibe methoil of tho calculus, have been 
parsning the investigation of the behaviour of a perfect liquid. The 
BMthematical methods which I have already alluded ti os being so 
■wonderfa', have however Fcircely been brought to bear with any 
■ppArent resnlt upon the behaviour of a viscous flnid. Indeed, the 
iMth«lDatician has not been really able to adopt the mothoil of the 
ptaetimi investigator, and dciil with ttseful fi>rmB uf bodies such as 



64 The Motion of a Perfect Liquid. [Feb. 10, 

those of aotnal ship!', or of liquid moving through orclinary channels 
of varying section, even for the case of a perfect liqnid, bnt he has 
hod to tiike those casep, and they arc very few indeed, that he has 
been able tu discover wh'ch fit in with his mathematical powers of 
treatment. 

This brief summary may possibly serve to indicate the nature of 
the di£5cnItio8 which 1 have pointed out, and will show you the vast 
field t}iere yet lies open for research in connection with the subject of 
hydriimechnnics, and the groat reception which awaits the discovery 
of a theoretical method of completely dealing with viscous liquids, 
instead of having recourse as at present principally to empirical 
formnia based on the simple law already alluded to. 

We may, however, console ourselves with the thoBglit, that in the 
application of the laws of motion themselvi s to anp terrestrial matters, 
the friction of bodies must always be taken into account, and renders it 
necessary, that we should commence by studying the ideal conditions. 
In this as in other matters the naval architect and engineer must always 
endeavour as fur as possible to base their considerations and work upon 
the secure fonndation of scientific knowledge, muking allowances for 
disturbing causes, which then cease to be the source of perplexity and 
confusion. From this point of view, the study of tlie beliavionr of a 
perfect liqnid, even when no such foim of matter appears to exist, has 
an interest for the practical man in spite of the deviation of actual 
liquids from such ideal conditions. If the truth must be told, it is 
such a deviation from the simple and ideal conditions that really con- 
stitute the work of a prufcssional man, and it is only practical egciifl- 
rience which, based upon sound technical knowledge, onHbles 60,000 
tons of stetd to be mode to spun the Firth of Forth, Niagara to be 
harnessed to do the work uf 100,000 borFes, or an ' Oceanic ' to be slid 
into the sea with as little misgiving as the lannoh of a fishing boat. 

1 have, I am afraid, brought yon only to the threshold uf a vast 
subject, and in doing so, have possibly employed reasoning of too 
elementary a kind. After all, I may plend that I have followed the 
dictum of F'oraday, who said, " If acsumptions must be made, it is 
better to assume as little as possible." It I have assamed too little 
knowledge on your part, it is becanso of the difBcnlties I have found 
in the subject myself. If I have left mora obscure than I have been 
able to make clear, it is consoling to think how many centuries wero 
required to discover even what is known at the present time, and we 
may well be forgiven if we cannot grasp at once rosnlts whidi ropre- 
sent the life-work of some of the greatest men. 



I899.J George Ae Tkird aa a CoOeeior. 65 

WEEKLY EVENING MEETING, 
Friday, Febniarjr 17, 1899. 

Sn Fkkdkbiok Bramwiu., Babt., D.CJi. LLJ). F.R.S^ Honoraiy 
Secretary and Yioe-Presideiit, in the Chair. 

BiOHABD B. HounB, Esq., M.V.O. F.S.A. 

George the Third aa a CoUeetor. 

Tbv sabject of this disoonrse I have chosen particnhu-Iy becanae 
it is one which has in most histories either been passed orer entirely, 
or treated with indifferenoe. It is generally disposed of in a few curt 
phrases taken frcMn the pages of contemporary di^nsts, repeated by 
every snhseqnent writer as containing everything necessary to be 
recorded of the King's tastes and epitomising his character with 
epigraniiaatic smartness, bnt seldom verified by examination or research. 
The stormy political qnarrels at home and the complication of events 
abroad have combined to cast into oblivion the early cnltivated tastes 
and pursuits of the King, as in later years the dark clouds of disease 
obscnred the finer workings of his brain. 

To appreciate fully Uie extent and value of the collections by 
which George III. has permanently enriched the posseeidons of the 
Crown, it is as well to consider briefly the condition in which His 
Majesty found the ancestral treasure of his Boyal house when he 
sacoeeded his grandfather on the throne. Spoliation and robbery 
had played sad havoc among them, and it is only wonderful that 
anything of value was left at all. The nation perhaps may be con- 
gratulated that, on the foundation of the British Mnsenm, the ancient 
library of the Kings of England was tranfsferred there by Greorge II., 
and so escaped the fate of many of the treasures of the Crown. In a 
note prefixed to a MS. catalogue of the pictures of Queen Anne by 
Horace Walpole, who once on-ned the volume, ho says : — 

" As several pictures mentioned in the following catalogue have 
not appeared in any of the palaces within my memory I imagine 
many were taken away 'by different persons between the death of 
Queen Anne and the arrival of George I. Henrietta Lady Suffolk 
told me that Queen Caroline never had any of Qnecn Anne's jewels 
but one pearl necklace. George I., who hated her and his son, might 
give what he found to the Duchess of Kendal. Her niece, Lady 
('bcKterfield, certainly had several large diamonds. Catherine of 
Hraganza, widow of Charles II., carried away several of the pictures 
of the Crown of PortugaL A Lord Chamberlain pawned the Vandyke 
hangings at Houghton to a banker, who, many years after, they not 

Vol. XVI. (No. 93.) w 



66 16-. Bichard B. Holmes [Fek 17, 

being redeemed, sold them to my father. . . . When all the stores at 
Somerset House were brought by order of George III. to Kensington 
that His Majesty might choose some to replace what he had taJcen 
from Windsor and Hampton Conrt for the Queen's house in St. James's 
Park, he gave the residue, as they said, to Earl Gower, Lord Chamber- 
lain, and bis deputy, Sir Bobert Wilmot, and the refuse they gave to 
Mr. Town, under-housekeeper at Kensington ; bat as l^e was servant 
to my sister. Lady Mary Churchill, then honsekeeper, and as I had the 
care of that palace during her absence in France, I said, ' Mr. Town, 
the Lord Chamberlain may take or give what he pleases, but you are 
under my sister, take none, leave them here,' and they were left." 

In another note Walpole goes on to say of one who has not 
generally been credited with much taste for art, " Frederick, Prinoe 
of Walea, was very desirous of reassembling all he could of the collec- 
tion of Charles I. He bought many fine pictures, particularly the 
principal, of Mr. Humphry Edwin's collection ; " and in mentioning 
the collections of G«orge III. he proceeds to say, " he inherited from 
his father Prince, Frederick's collection of miniatures, among which 
were Dr. Mead's admirable works of If:aao Oliver, namely, the whole- 
length of Sir Philip Sydney, and the heads of Queen Elizabeth, the 
Queen of Scots, Ben Jonson, and Oliver himself." 

This gossip of Horace Walpole's, which is dated from 1783, 1 have 
quoted as an introduction to my subject, and to give an idea of the 
chaotic condition in which the collections were at the beginning of 
the reign. 

When George IlL succeeded to the throne he was still yonng, and 
had been brought up in comparative seclusion by his mother, the 
widowed Princess of Wales. He was then entirely under her influence 
and that of Lord Bute, who, whatever may be said of his political 
conduct, was a man of no mean intellect or culture, being devoted to 
literature and the fine arts, and passionately fond of botany. He 
was the ooostant friend and companion of the young Prinoe of Wales, 
and by him the tastes of the future king were in a great measure 
formed. 

The dominant fashion of the time at the King's aoeession was the 
study of classical antiquity, led by the Society of Dilettanti, which 
had then been formed about a quarter of a century. George III. did not 
follow in the footsteps of this convivial club, though his agents secured 
for him a very important collection of works relating to antiquity, 
which will be mentioned later. His first thought was to form a 
library, which should replace the collection which, as I have already 
mentioned, his predecessor had given to the British Mtiseam. But 
even before he had formulated this project, he had enriched the 
National Museum by the gift of the Thomason Collection — a curious 
and unique assemblage of English literature printed during the period 
of the Civil War — containing about 33,000 separate articles published 
between 1640 and 1662, and bound in over 2000 volumes. The col- 
lection had been valued at some thousands, and after having been for 



1899.] <m Qeorge the Third as a CoUeetor. 67 

nJe for many yean, was bought by the King for the trifling sum of 
3001. and giTen to the British Maseain, where its contents are known 
as " the King's Tracts or Pamphlets." This seems to have been the 
first purchase made by the King, who now began to form that splendid 
collection which has nltimately foand its own resting place side by 
side with the earlier Boyal Library in the great storehouse in Great 
Bnssell Str^t. 

In 1762 the fine library of Consul Smith was bought for the King. 
Joseph Smith had settled in early Ufe at Venice as a merchant, but 
he was principally a buyer and seller of works of art. He was 
omniToTons in his tastes, and his library was a mass of liibliograph- 
ical treasures, which he had obtained by scouring all Italy in search 
of the rarest specimens of the early printers. For the collection 
G«orgo in. gave abuat 10,0001., and he then proceeded to build upon 
this foundation that collection which has hitherto remained as the 
finest private library ever brought together. 

In the preface to the Catalogue of the King's Library, my prede- 
oeasor. Sir Frederick Barnard, gives an account of the manner in 
whicii its increase was developed, and the sage advice which con- 
tributed to its welfare. " Dr. Samuel Johnson was one uf the earliest 
and most zealous promoters of its success ; his visits to the library 
were fireqnent, during which he appeared to take pleasure in instruct- 
ing youth and inexperience by friendly advice and useful information. 
At one of these visits he was surprised by tbc sudden and unexpected 
appearance of the King, and His Majesty was pleased to enter into a 
long conversation with him upon the library and various other sub- 
jects, which from recollection has been so frequently and minutely 
detailed that it is only necessary to add that the forcible impression 
which such a distinguished attention left upon his mind disposed him 
readily to embrace an opportunity of manifesting his zeal fur the 
accomplishment of the plan upon which His Majesty had done him 
the honour to consult him." A part of this plan was the despatch of 
Mr. Barnard to the Continent to acquire further books, and be re- 
ceived from Dr. Johnson an admirable letter, also printed in the same 
preface, which may be read with advantage by every librarian. 

In the half century which passed between the date of this letter 
and the death of the King, unremitting attention was paid to the in- 
crease of the library. Nor did the long indisposition of His Majesty 
sospend its progress ; many large and choice acquisitions were made 
for it abroad, but perhaps the most valuable was that of the superb 
aeries of examples of the press of Caxton, which was added to the 
shelves by gift, bequest, or purchase. They numbered in all thirty- 
nine, including one ' 'J 'he Doctrinal of Sapience,' at that time, and 
for many years after, the only book known printed by Caxton on 
vellum. This and some other volumes, personal gifts to the King, 
soeh as the sumptuous copy of tlie Mainz Psalter of 1437, the earliest 
printed book with a dato, are still preserved in the Boyal Library at 
Windsor. 

r 2 



68 Mr. Richard B. Holmea [Feb. 17, 

The total number of volumes in the library at the time of the 
King's decease was between eighty and ninety thousand, all fine, in 
good condition, and splendidly bound. It was feared at one time that 
the whole might leave the country, as overtures for its acquisition 
were made by a great foreign potentate ; but the wise counsels of the 
Ministry of ihe new Sovereign had their weight, and this noble col- 
lection is now worthily housed in the National Museum, where it is 
kept apart as the " King's Library." 

Under the same roof is also preserved the great Numismatic Cabinet 
formed by the King, and presented to the nation in 1823 by G^rge 1 Y. 
It contained specimens of Greek, Romau, English and foreign coins 
and medals, many of singular beauty, and of the greatest rarity. These 
are no longer kept by themselves in one collection, as in the case of 
the books, but have been dispersed through the varioos cabinets of 
the Museum, according to their projer classification, but each one 
has a special ticket with it, showing the sonice from which it came. 
The value of the whole must have been very great, amounting to at 
least sixty thousand poimds. 

At the same time that the King was laying the foundation of his 
library, he was making other and no less important additions to his 
treasures. In 1762, a gentleman writing from Borne says, " Nothing 
gives me more satisfaction than to find so many fine things purchased 
for His Majesty the King of Great Britain lately in Italy. He ia 
now master of the best collection of drawings in the world, having 
purchased two or three capital collections in Bome, the last belong- 
ing to Cardinal Albani, for 14,000 crowns, consisting of SCO large 
volumes, one-third of which are original drawings by the first Masters, 
the others, collections of the most capital engravings ; and lately there 
has been purchased for His Majesty all the museum of Mr. Smith, 
consisting of his library, prints, drawings, designs, &c. I think it is 
higlily probable that ^e Arte and Sciences will flourish in Great 
Britain under the protection and encouragement of a monarch who is 
himself an excellent judge of merit and taste in the vertn." Sir 
Horace Mann tells the same tale in one of his letters from Florence 
to Horace Walpole. " Have you heard what a quantity of things have 
been bought aud are buying for the King ? Cardinal Albani's col- 
lection of drawings and priute were paid 14,000 crowns (about three 
thousand guineas). Mr. Smith's whole collection and library has 
been purchased at the price of 20,000/. sterling, and Mr. Dalton is 
now in Venice packing it up. Many expensive things of that sort 
were lost in a ship that took fire at sea some months ago, the crew of 
which saved their lives by becoming prisoners to the Spaniards at 
Carthagena. In short, I believe that there is no ship departe from 
any port in Itely that has not something for the King." It was at 
that time a splendid opportunity for a collector ; the artistic treasures 
amassed in the seventeenth century by Princes and Cardinal nephews, 
by the Barberini, Giustiuiani, Odescalchi, aud others, were, owing to 
tlie increasing pecuniary embarrassments of the great families, being 
dispersed in every direction, though much, particularly of sculpture. 



1899.] <m George the Third at a ObUeetor. 69 

was aeenzed by the Papal agents for the nrasemns of Borne. Many 
marbles belonging to Cardinal Albani had gone to Dresden, but his 
collection of drawings was, by the agency of James Adam, one of the 
well-known brothers, secured for George IIL The collection had 
been started in the previoas century by the Oommendatore Cassiano 
del PoEzo, and among its treasures was a series of volumes of par- 
ticular value, as preserring at least, in the form of copies, many works 
of classic art which have since disappeared. Nine large volumes con- 
tain elaborate drawings of ancient bas-reliefs, and brides these are 
several volumes filled with the careful studies of Francesco and Pietro 
Santa BartolL Two volumes, also, are filled with drawings of the 
Christian Antiquities of Bume, including remains of mural paintings, 
and, what is of very mnch more value, careful drawings of the great 
moeaics of the charches, drawn with infinite elaboration before the 
time when these most valnable works were almost entirely rained by 
neglect or restoration. 

Valnable as these volumes are, the series of original drawings by 
old masters is far more precious, and with those which were already 
in the possession of the Grown, makes the Boyal Collection at Windsor 
one of the most important in Europe. In number they amonnt to 
considerably over 20,000, and comprise many of the finest works of 
the greatest men. 

Holbein was here already represented by the unique series of over 
eighty heads drawn by him from the life while he wtts painting at the 
Court of Henry VIIL ; but these must be passed over, as they form 
no part of the collection of George III. The same also may be said in 
part of the drawings and MSS. of Leonardi da Vinci, which ore the 
greatest pride of the Windsor Library, as these with the Holbeins 
had been nnearthed from a closet at Kensington by Queen Caroline, 
wife of George II., and by her were well-known and appreciated. 
These precious works of Leonardo were largely increased by George 
IIL, whether from the Albani Collection jnst mentioned, or from 
the Bonfigoli Collection, which formed part of that of Consul Smith, 
or from one of the namerous additions made from time to time by 
Dalton, there is no means of ascertaining. Thus augmented, the 
Bojal Library now eontaius far more of the work of the great master 
than the contents of all other collections put together. It is here a 
pleasore to note that these MSS. are now being published in facsimile, 
though some time must elapse before tho work is completed. 

The original number of volumes in which the mass of drawings 
of Old Masters was bound was about 250. Unfortunately fnr the 
present generation, whose taste is formed on di£fercnt models from 
those of a century ago, thirty-four of these volumes are filled by 
the studies of Domenichino, a highly respectable craftsman, some 
scores more contain an interminable series nf Masters of the 
Bulognese School, Caraccis, Guide, Gnereino and the like, but of 
these it is useless to enter into particulars. Of the earlier and of 
the more important masters, tho drawings have been removed from 
the volames in which they were cxpose<l to much injury by rubbing, 



70 Mr. Richard R. Holmet [Feb. 17, 

and by order of the late Prince Consort Lave been mounted ao as to 
ensure their safety, and are kept in portfolios. Among these are 
drawings by Angelioo, Pemgino, Pintoricchio, Signorelli, Mantegna, 
and Fra Baiiolommeo. The drawings by Baphael are nnmerons, and 
some may be classed among the finest specimens of his work now 
extant. 

Second only in importance to the nniqne collection of drawings 
by Leonardo oomes the series by Michael Angelo. In &ct it is no 
exaggeration to declare that until the student has seen these purchases 
of George III. he can haye no proper insight into the marvellous 
power of that extraordinary man, for in no other collection are to be 
found specimens so complete in design and of such minute and elaborate 
finish. 

Great artists of other countries snch as Dnrer, Claude, Ponssin, 
with many of the Dutch School, are also represented by choice 
examples. 

Of the pictures collected by or painted by order of the King, a 
large number remain in the Boyal Palaces ; the historical pictures 
painted by West for His Majesty commended themselves at the time 
to a few, but are now forgotten. The King's best bestowal of his 
patronage was upon the portrait painters who flourished during his 
reign, and were the money value of the portraits as they exist to be 
computed, the amount would be fabalous. The fall-length portraits 
by Beechoy and Beynolds are of great importance, supplemented by 
those by Bomney and Hoppner ; but the princijial treasures are the 
portraits by Gainsborough, which are of exquisite purity and freshness, 
the series of ovals of the King and Queen, and their children in a 
series, being almost matchless in charm of execution. 

Whilst encouraging the painters of his own day, George III., by 
his purchase from Consul Smith, enriched the galleries of the Crown 
by a number of the works of the Venetian painter Antonio Canal, 
commonly known as Canaletto. Those who only know this Master 
by his smaller works, have very little idea of the magnificent qualities 
which he could develop. Smith was the possessor of most of his 
finest pictures; he bought everything which came from the Master's 
easel. For the smnller works he seems to have had a ready sale, but 
the greater and finer pictures remained on his hands, and these came 
all into the possession of George III. Of the fifty pictures thus 
added, all are fine, but some twenty are of exceptional size, and of 
equal power and beauty. With the pictures came also a volume of 
drawings, 150 in number, many of them studies for these pictures. 

The King was also a great admirer of miniatures, and added to 
his collection many of the works of Cosway and Ozias Humphry, to 
whom he gave many commissions, and their works are not an un- 
worthy supplement to the great historical series which is one of the 
treasures of the library at Windsor. In the same room where these 
exquisite specimens of a lost art arc preserved, is stored the vast group 
of engravings also collected by the King. Few public museums, and 
perhaps uo privntc cabinet, can rival this in the number and value 



1899.] on Qeorgt III. at a CoOeOar. 71 

of itB enpnTod poitnite. In its portfolios the Kings and Qneens of 
the Bmpue, with their families, are represented by every known engrav- 
ing which conld be aoqoired, many of the ntmost rarity and 'ralue, 
some perhaps unique, and all specially selected for beauty of im- 
pression. After these come in dne onleT the Sovereigns of other 
Boyal houses ; nobles, statesmen and warriors, and others, all com- 
bine to swell this wonderfhl gallery, which embraces, or attempts to 
include, the likeness of every one of every conntiy whose features 
were considered worthy to be handed down to posterity. 

In addition to the engraved portraits, there was collected by His 
Majesty a vast number of engravings, which are ananged under the 
different schools of painters whose works they represent. Of these 
the most complete and important are the engravings by Hogarth, and 
ihoae after Sir Joshna Beynolds. There is also a nearly complete 
eolketion of the 3000 plates engraved by Hollar. 

This is a very hasty and imperfect list of the works of art which 
George HI. collected, and has left behind him among the treasures of 
the Crown, but it by no means exhausts the subjects in which he took 
a keen and practical interest ; such as his love of Botany, and the 
eooooragement he gave to Sir Joseph Banks ; his studies in scientific 
agriealtare ; and the introduction to this country of the breed of 
merino sheep. The foundation by him of the Royal Academy must 
on no account be omitted, nor the gift to it of over 5000i. from his 
privy purse, besides other grants and privileges. 

From what has been said it mast be aclmowledged that the man 
who could devote so much attention and energy to the collection of 
•0 vast an aocamolation of worthy objects, had tastes and aims of a 
high character ; and here it may be mentioned that that generally 
admirable work the Dictionary of National Biography has in its notice 
of the King made a notable departure from its asnal accuracy and 
impartiality in recording that "his taste was execrable." This 
sweeping condemnation is founded entirely on the report given by 
Hiss Barney of one of the earliest conversations which eiie held 
with the King, who was then, as it seems, endeavonring to draw out a 
lady who was shortly to be introdnoed into the personal household of 
his Queen. It must be said here that a better and more appreciative 
opinion is given of the King by an authority far higher, Dr. Johnson, 
who, after his first interview, said to Mr. Barnard, " Sir, they may talk 
of the Eling as they will, but be is the finest gentleman I have ever 
seen." He reiterated to his friends his admiration of the King's 
talents and charms, and his testimony is more worthy of respect than 
the hastily jotted down notes of an exceedingly self-conscious and 
somewhat spiteful spinster. It is only bare jnsiice to the memory of 
George III. that the fiwts which have been thus enumerated and not 
^ways remembered to his credit, should be even imperfectly put on 
leoord. L^- R- H.] 



72 troftuoT OUver Lodge [Feb. 24, 

WEEKLY EVENING MEETING, 

Friday, Febroary 24, 1899. 

Sib Williah Cbookxs, F.B.S., Yioe-President, in the Chair. 

PsonissoB OuTXB LoDOB, D.Sc. LL.D. F.B.S. 

Coheren. 

A ooHKBKB is an ingtmment which responds to electric waves 
somewhat in the same manner as a microphone responds to sound 
waves. 

A coherer is a light metallio oontact or series of contacts 
introdnced into an electric circuit of low voltage containing also a 
galvanometer or other signalling instmment. A steady current is 
normally unable to pass, or only very feebly, by reason of the high 
resistance of the bad joint, but under Uie influence of a sudden change 
of potential, or an electric jerk, the resistaoce of the joint suddenly 
diminishes, transmitting a considerable current, and signalling the 
arrival of the electric wave which may have caused the jerk. A 
slight shako or tap is sufficient to reduce the coherer to its former 
high resistance. 

All metals do not behave in the same way, but the majority thus 
show an increase of coherence under electric influence, and a sadden 
decrease under mechanical influence. A few met:tls (e.g. silver) 
appear to behave in an opposite direction. 

The earliest instances of electrical cohesion exhibited by the 
lecturer was the small vertical fountain issuing from a smooth 
orifice, which was fotmd by Loid Bayleigh to scatter its drops by 
mutual collision except when they were under the influence of an 
electric field such as that dne to a piece of sealing-wax held within a 
yard or two of the place where the jet breaks into drops. Another 
variety was the pair of horizontal jets, which, when they impinge, 
unite or rebound according as there is or is not a difference of 
potential between them of one or two volts. A pair of soap bubbles 
in contact were also shown by Mr. Boys to cohere and become one 
directly a stick of sealing-wax was produced in their neighbourhood. 

The two halves of a mercury globule on a flat surface, cut into 
two with a greasy knife, and the parts connected to the poles of a 
battery, were found by Lord Eayleigh and by Mr. Apployard to 
re-unite directly they were connected to the terminals of one or two 
Grove cells ; a slight delay in the union suggesting that a film of 
foreign matter was being squeezed out from between the globules 
under the force of electrostatic attraction. 



1899.] on Coherert. 73 

The electrified dast and smoke experiment, whereby a thick fog 
in a chamber can be cleared by the discharge from a point, as 
obeerred by Lodge and Clark in 1883, was also shown; and the 
lightning guard experiment with a coaple of Leyden jars and a 
gaJTanometer and two snrfaces in light contact, by which the lecturer 
obeerred electrical cohesion of metals in 1888, was exhibited, 
together with a conple of resonant Leyden jars, one of them charged 
and sparking, the other responding by closing the circuit of a local 
battery and ringing a bell ; which bell, by its vibration, could effect 
the tapping back. 

The discovery that this property of metals served as the best 
detector for Hertz waves was made by Monsieur Edouard Branly, 
Piafenor of Physics in the CathoUo Institute of Paris ; and some of 
MoDsiear Branly's original apparatus was exhibited, especially a 
piece of ebonite smeared over with porphyrised copper so as to form 
a high resistance, which fluctuated in value between certain limits 
nnder the influence of alternate electric sparks and tapping. A 
Brmnly filings-tube connected to a speaking galvanometer was shown 
reoeiviDg signals from a Hertz emitter at a distance, the coherer being 
tapped back automatically in one of many alternative ways. A 
recent experiment of Signor Tomasina, displaying the effect of 
dectric cohesion was projected on the screen : — A vertical wire about 
nine inches long had its end immersed in filings and was slowly 
niaed. If a sphere of suitable size were sparking in the neighbour- 
hood, between polished knobs, the electric jerks collected by the 
Tartical wire would give, as Hertz showed, minute perhaps ultra- 
microscopic S{>arks to anything brought close to its end. The filings 
aubjected to this action are found to cohere, and can be pulled up 
in a narrow string, of length depending on the steadiness of the 
movement. 

(M. Tomasina has recently repeated this experiment under liquid, 
and obtained chains of filings several inches long.) 

Another variety of the cohesion experiment under electrical in- 
fluence, was shown by the lecturer in a form which suggested that 
electrostatic attraction played a considerable part. A very fine 
platinnm wire was suspended in a glass box, with its lower end close 
to a flat and highly polished facet of a brass knob. On lucking at 
this wire under a microscope, it and its image in the polished face 
oonld both be seen, a slight distance apart ; or they could be projected 
with a strong lens upon a screen. Under the action of electric waves, 
the gap between the wire and its image sharply disappeared, and the 
wire was seen clinging to the knob until tapped back. A wire of 
this kind constitutes an extremely sensitive electroscopo, but for this 
purpose the coherence which sots in (unless silver or some such non- 
oohering metal is employed) is inconvenient. 

Finally a layer of filings on a horizontal glass surface, with tin 
foil electrodes, was projected on the screen, and subjected to strong 
electric infiacncc, under which they wore seen to move so as to closo 



74 Profeator Oliver Lodge <m Cokeren. [Feb. 24, 

op gaps, and were then found to Itave ooliei«:d ; for if the gnperflaons 
filings were then gently remoTed, a cuntinnons chain of irregnlar 
shape renuuned reaching from one terminal to the other. By 
saitably choosing the filings their motion when subjected to very 
slight electric sparks can rmdily thns be seen, and if subsequently a 
point be nsed to sweep them sideways, they are fonnd to be qnito in 
a different condition to ordinary unelectrified filings, for they are 
matted together into a sort of coherent mass just like the dust 
particles in a bell-jar under the influence of an electrified point, or 
somewhat like iron filings in a magnetic field. A stronger spark often 
destroys this cohesion, scattering the particles asunder, and produc- 
ing somewhat the same effect as a mechanical tap, thongh for a 
different reason. Filings thus electrically disorganised are not 
usually in a sensitive condition. A set of large brass shavings on a 
flat surface, with sparks sent through them, at first show lines of 
spark in all directions, but gradually under the cohering inflnenoe 
are able to close up and presently conduct the discharge without 
visible manifestation. 

Thus the process going on more or lees in coherers, either the 
single-point or the multiple point kind, can be made to some extent 
apparent to the eye. 

Some of the old apparatus used by the lecturer to send signals by 
Hertz waves and coherers over small distances (the now so-called 
wireless telegraphy) which had been exhibited to the Institution on 
Friday evening, June 1st, 1894, were once more exhibited, the re- 
ceiver being carried about into different parts of the room : but this 
method of signalling has become well known and developed under 
the auspices of Signor Marconi, who has succeeded in telegraphing 
by its means across the sea over distances op to twenty or thirty 
miles. 

[O.L.] 



1899.] Sir Frederick PoUock <m King Alfred. 75 

WEEKLY EVENING MEETING, 
Friday, Maicli 3, 1899. 

SiK Hkwbt Thokpsoh, Babt.. F.R.C.S. F.B.A.S., Yice-Fresident, 

in the Chair. 

SiB Fbkdkbick Poixock, Bart., M.A. LL.D. F.S.A. MM.L 

King Alfred. 

Thi position of King Alfred * in English history— one might almost 
say in European history — is unique. Ue is the first commanding 
figure in the roll of English princes after the Saxon conquest of 
South Britain, and after a thousand years there is stiU none greater. 
Other kings and statesmen hare worked on a larger scale, with more 
powerful instruments, and for more brilliant immediate results. But 
none has wrought more strenuously or more successfully with the 
means at his oommand. Others, such as Henry XL, have left the 
record of lives as full of activity and public zeal ; others, again, like 
Simon de Montfort and Edward L, have worked long and valiantly for 
aims which on the whole were noble, with judgment which on the 
whole was wise, and by means which, if not always or altogether 
lau'lable in themselves, were no worse, or indeed better, than those in 
common use and allowance at the time. But very few, if any, have 
remained so free as Alfred from any kind of censure, or have actually 
stood higher and not liiwer in the esteem of later generations as their 
circumstances came to be more fully understood. This can be said of 
Alfred, and said witliout reserve. A blameless life, if we mean there- 
by a life not chargeable with definite wrongs or vices, or with culpable 
incompetence, is not necessarily a matter for great praise in a private 
citizen. Often it imports little more than the absence of temptation ; 
sometimes nothing better than other men's usual ignorance of his 
intimate character and relations. It may even be the result of an 
unworthy shriuking from di£Scult or dangerous tasks which might have 
brought great temptations, but also great occasions, and in this case it 
may deserve only the faintest degree of external approbation, or rather 
should be ranked with the deceitful, so-called good works which have 

• Tl.e contemporary form " yElfred " is preserve*! even in Asser's Latin. Our 
D.odem literary form gives the correct pruDuuciatinn to njotlem renders, niid I we 
no rexDun for depurtiog from it ; though, if English spelling is ev»-r n formed, »e 
rrrtoinly ought to restore the Anglo-Saxon notation ' » ' for our peculiar short 
*"Wt 1, and uUo |) and ^ for tlie two distinct sounds expressed by ' th' (I am 
a»are that thi-y are untd indiiK-riminately in A.-8. writings). Ou the other l^and, 
1 preserve itthtlwulf, &c., because Ihoae mimes have no accepted foriiis in 
iu'4em English. 



76 Sir Frederick PoOoek [March 8, 

the nature of sin. Bat to live, work, and fight in the foil light of day, 
a rnler and leader of men ; to dare greatly for great ends, and accom- 
plish them ; and with all this to leave a fame so clear that no man 
dares lift a voice against it ; tliis is not only good and of laudable 
example, but an evident mark of greatness. And this is how it stands 
with onr King Alfred. He was tried in many ways and failed in none. 
He was neitLor a mere exemplar of negative virtaes like Edward the 
Confessor, nor a specolative reformer wiUi inopportune good intentions. 
Many things came to his band to do, and every one of them was well 
done. He is not chargeable, so far as we know, with any one serions 
error of judgment It is true that both the military and the ] olitical 
details of the time are in many ways obscure to us ; and it is certain 
that Alfred had to suffer one great reverse. But if there had been 
any ground for supposing that want of any possible precaution on the 
King's part contributed to it, we may be sure that some record or 
tradition of it would be preserved. Even the best of rulers must 
make some enemies if he does his duty without fear. Alfred's 
enemies could find nothing to say against him, or, at the very least, 
nothing that was plausible enough to be remembered. We can have 
no stronger proof that there was really nothing of the kind to be 
said. 

The bare chronicle and abridgment of King Alfred's deeds is much, 
but to see them in their full greatness we mast try to realise in what 
manner of world a King of the West-Saxons had to reign in the ninth 
century. It was a world of hardship and peril ; not occasional, but 
constant, such as had not been known in a great part of Europe within 
historical times. The old order of the Boman Empire had broken up. 
The new order of mcdiwval Christendom — itself to be swept away in 
the convulsions of religions wars when its work was done — was not 
yet come to the birth, and the new invasions of the heathen North- 
men threatened to bring a worse chaos than the first. Only the Church, 
with such remnants of Soman political and ofiScial tradition as it had 
been able to preserve, was a stable power making for civilisation, and 
saving learning from total extinction. Hobbes's great epigram on the 
Papney — " the ghost of the deceased Roman Empire sitting crowned 
U])0u the grave thereof " — is not fairly applicable to the early mediteval 
Church, which was really preserving the remnant of life till better 
times. The best that can be said on the whole for the dark ages, as 
tbey are commonly and justly called, is that there was still some light 
in the Church. But Hobbes's equally well-known description of what 
" is couseqnent to a time of war, where every man is enemy to every 
man," might be taken for a not highly exaggerated description of the 
dark ages at their worst : — 

" In such condition, there is no place for industry, because the frnit 
thereof is uncertain, and consequently no culture of the earth ; no 
navigation, nor use of tlie commodities that may bo imported by sea ; 
no commodious building ; no instruments of moving, and removing, 
such things as require much force ; no knowledge of the face of the 



IS99.] 



on King Alfred. 



T7 



|iiartur( 



(•krth : no aoooant of time ; do arts ; no letters ; no Bocicty ; and 
vhioli is wont of all, continual fear and danger of violent death ; and 
the life of man solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short." 

England was still parcelled out into several kingdoms, whoso 
dynastic intrigues and mutual jealousies blinded their rulers to tho 
eonuaon danger already growing upon them from the Northmen. 
Bona of then kingdoms had come out of heathendom at a time not 
▼ery far back. Two hundred years before Alfred's birth the most 
powerful prince in Britain was a heathen, Ponda of Mercia. This 
was, indeed, half a century after Augustine's mission to Kent. But 
Angnstine's work bad nut run smooth, and the final triumph of 
'anity came from the North. It was late in the seventh century 
I tho Churcli was definitely established in England, mainly by the 
rork of Theodore of Tarsus, under the supremacy of Borne. 

Little more than a hundred years passed when the nevv civilisation 
England was surrounded by fresh heathen enemies. In the sooond 
-of the ninth century a great Viking expedition, which had been 
by sundry smaller and inconclusive raids, conquered all the 
part of Ireland. The Northmen could not, indeed, retain a 
Bent hold on more tbau the maritime stations of Dublin, Water- 
1 and Limerick. But their power resting on these bases of opera- 
lioa waa formiduble for more than two centuries.* About the middle 
of tiw nmc century — soon after King Alfred's birth — there begun 
■ytonwtic attacks on the coasts of Western Europe, which continued 
Iknach a generation of alarm and disaster. The Vikings were 
ntdoa at tho mouths of the Rhine and the Scheldt ; they harried tho 
buids of the Seine and the Loire, and — until Alfred ordered things 
batter — bad fall command uf the Cbauuel and tbe North Sea. Warn- 
: had not been wanting, for successive raids, apparently in cousidcr- 
I force (834-837 I, were repulsed by Alfred's granilfather, Egberht 
Wiwei. But, in Alfred's infancy, tbe Danes began to settle down 
rialer qnarters in England. In 851 London was ruined ; in StiO 
-when Alired was old enough to hoar and understand the tale — 
[iSfibeiter was plundered, ^thelwulf, Alfred's father, wos a well- 
but feeble prince, it seems, a kind of pious founder born out 
time. He gave his thoughts to enlarging his offerings to tho 
Cborch when the question was whether the Danes would leave any 
gifts for tho Ring to otTor, or any churches to receive them, and he 
talked of remitting dues when the kingdom needed all its resources 
io men »nd wealth. At best those resources were barely adequate 
for tbe need. Population was scattered ; great parts of the country 
wete ettU covered with uncleared forests; communication by land 
•o sloir and precarious that tho rude navigation of those days 
better wherever it waa possible ; the warlike habits of the old 




Kimtj, *Th« Vikioin in Western Cbrifttvnrlum,' c. vi. Kveii after tlic 
I t>iHHli*<. a DanUli flwt from Irclmul did much duinnga on the South 
(bieli i* not ualy r\«<ir<led but C8tiiiiiktv<l in Douiniwliiy Book. 



78 Sir Frederick PoOoci [Haroh 8, 

English invaders were forgotten ; there was little skill and less disoi- 
pline, and every kind of antbority was weak. The Danish foemen, 
compact, mobile, seafaring, expert in the wars by which they lived, 
and trained by necessity to obey their chiefs at least in the day of 
battle, had the advantage at all points. It was Alfred's task tore&«aa 
the balance — a task demanding both genins and perseverance. 

In sach a world, in the year 841), as we are told,* Alfred was 
born, the yoangest son of his father i^tfaelwnlf. In his boyhood 
he was sent to Roine in great state, and some ceremony took place 
which was afterwards magnified into the Pope having anointed 
liim as king. As Alfred's claim to sncceed his father in Wessex 
was then qnite remote according to any known rule or custom, this 
cannot be accepted in its obvious meaning. Perhaps iEthelwolf 
meant him to be an nnder-king. The ofBcial Boman account was 
that Alfred was invested with the marks of consular rank. He 
may have been confirmed by the Pope at the same time. However 
this may be, Alfred was at Borne in 853, and again, this time with 
his father, in 855. ^thelwnlf's choice of a season when the Danes 
had been wintering in force at bheppey to make a pilgrimage to 
Borne seems to do more credit to his piety than to his judgment.f 

The incident, many times retold, which illustrates Al&ed's early 
love of learning, seems to come between these two jonmeys ; there 
is some mistake or confusion '^ which prevents us from being sore 
of the date, bnt the tale can hardly be a fiction. Alfred's memory 
was good, and he was fond of getting English ballads by heart, 
but he had no regular lessons in his early youth, as indeed few 

* Tlie difflcnltieg arising trom Alfred's mission to Borne as a yonng child, and 
from the apparent vant of a suitable date for the cimumstaiitial story of his 
learning to read, are veil known to students of the [leriod. They have led, on the 
one hand, to doubts as to the life by Asser being genuine. The text as we have 
it is certainly not in the bent oundition, and there may be diidocatiuns as well aa 
oorrupttoDS ; but the objections to any hypothesis of forgery ore greater than any 
relief that it would give. On the other hand, there is a. strong temptation to 
suppose a mistake of seven years in the date of Alfred's birth. If he were bom 
in i<42, the incidents would fall in very well. The Bishop of Oxford felt the 
temptation some years ago (Pref. to William of Malmeubnry's * Gesta Begum,' IL 
xli.), but resisted it; Sir James Bamsay (- Foundations of England,' i. 247) hsa 
yielded to it Asser's existing text makes various inconsistent statements, snd so 
far we might pick and choose. But tlie Parker MS. of the Chrunicle — represent- 
ing a. statement probably authorised by Alfred himself — says that Alfred waa 
twenty-three years old when he came to the throne, thus confirming the date 
given at the opening of Asser's narrative. The same reading is found in another 
early fragment. I do not see huw this can be got over without suppositions 
which, as much as that of forgery, would be a remedy more violent than the 
disease. 

t Sir James Bamsay, i. 234. 

X Asser, or an early oopyint, is more likely to have blundered in dates than to 
have spoken of Judith, jEltlielwulfs second wife, who was hardly older than 
Alfred's elder brothers, as Alfred's mother. Mater sua does nut mean atepmotber 
ill Ijfltin of any age. Neitiiercun we, in my opinion, believe thatOsburti, Alfred's 
own mother, was repudiated : sec below, p. 8U. 



1899.] <m King Alfred. 79 

Uymea then had. One d»j his mother was ahowing her aona a, 
hook of English verse — • MS. probably containing only a few 
short poems, or even one — and offered tiie book as a gift to the 
boy who would first learn its contents. Alfred was attracted by 
the ornamented initial letter of the MS., and thongh the yonngest, 
was the first to say, " Do yon really mean that the book is for the 
one who can soonest nnderstand and repeat it to yon ? " On being 
assured it was so, Alfred carried off the book to a teacher, lesmt 
the poem — perhaps also learnt tu read the words, hat this is nnoer- 
tain * — and could say it^ to his mother when he bronght the book to 
her again. It is a pretty story, but tells us nothing about the lat^r 
progress or extent of Alfred's learning. llie many duties and 
disteaetions of the king's ofiSce left him but little time to pursue 
letters for himself, though he did much to make them accessible 
to others ; much less, certainly, than he wished for. He preferred, 
it seems, to have some one to read to him if possible ; but this may 
be intended only of Latin, t There is nothing, so far as I know, to 
show that he could write with ease, or wrote much. He may have 
been but little bettor as a penman than Charles the Great. He 
learnt Latin, probably from Asser, in the later and more settled 
part of his reign ; but he cannot have known it like a trained clerk. 
Chir present Sovereign Lady, acting quite in the spirit of her great 
ancestor, is said to have attained a competent mastery of HindnstanL 
But Latin, apart from the difference of alphabet, is a much harder 
language than Hindustani, and the Queen, though her life is busy 
enough, is not called upon to administer all her departments and 
command her frontier expeditions in person. Let us imagine 
what chance a modem Prime Minister would have of learning Arabic or 
Bnssian during his tenure of office. Li the translations of l^tin books 
which bear Alfred's name, the English was, no doubt, largely dictated 
by him ; but, as I read his preface to the earliest of them, f he did not 
trust himself alone with the Latin. He got the sense — a " construe," 
in fact — from his learned men, and then put it into such English as he 
chose himself. Even if his own knowledge could have sufficed for 
the whole of the translator's business, his leisure wonld not We 
may believe that the king could follow the work of his bishops and 
priests with intelligence; but it wonld be absurd to think of him 



* MagUbrurn adiit et legit does not, in the Latin of the time, neeeaaRrilj imply 
that the learner read the text himself. Or be may have learnt u> follow tlioae 
partienlar words as one learos to recognise a few words io a foreign tongue rir 
elisncter. 

f Aster's statements are quite inconsistent with Alfred having ever been a 
perfect or ready scholar. Unlookily the passage wliich ought to contain the m<jst 
deeiaive informatiou is bo cormpt as to give no certain sense. It tells as that 
A\fnA was always sorry for not being able to do more, bat it is mere (tnemwork 
whether the point of his grievance was never having had time to learu t<> rcaii 
properly, or only not having enough time for rcadiug. 

J (Jrfgory's ' Cura Pastoralis.' 



80 Sir Frederick Pdloek [March 8, 

OS a scholar like Henry IL, who conld not only read bnt criticise 
Latin charters. On the other hand, the copions English additions, 
often characteristic, were beyond question made by Alfred's personal 
direction, and they may well be in his very words.* 

These details make no difference whatever to the greatness of the 
man. It matters comparatively little whether Alfred knew more or 
less Latin, or recovered more or fewer sqnare miles of territory in 
•his lifetime. What does matter is that he rescued the very existence 
of English civilisation from imminent danger, that he left after his 
day an England in which learning could take firm root, and an 
English nation so kuit together that when, only a few generations 
later, Danish kings did come to reign here, they had to reign and 
govern not as Danes bnt as Englisbmen. It is hardly needful to 
add that a mere cloistered scholar could not have done Alfred's 
work. His campaigns are evidence enough that he conld be a 
man of his hands; bnt we are expressly told that he was a great 
hunter. 

On the way back from Rome, in the summer of 856, Alfred and 
his father spent some time at Worms at the court of the Frankish 
King Charles the Bald. Ever since Charles the Great's time there 
had been friendly relations between the Frankish court, the most 
polished t in Western Europe, so that this was quite a natural stage 
in Alfred's education. Here he saw the leading statesmen and 
scholars of the day, such as Grimbald of Old Saxony and John tfao 
Scot, the most brilliant of the early schoolmen and first in the line 
of illustrious Irish divines and philosophers. Grimbald certainly, 
John the Scot probab}y4 came to Alfred in England later, ^thel- 
wulf took this occasion to marry as his second wife§ Charles' 
daughter Judith, a girl only twelve years old. Historians have 
spoken harshly of her, forgetting, I think, that at this time and for 
several years afterwards she can have hod no free choice of her own. 
Charles the Bald was an arbitrary father even according to mediaeval 
notions of parental power. {| When Judith did ultimately get a 
husband of her own choice, Baldwin of Flanders, she seems to have 
had no more adventures. Her son married a daughter of Alfred's, 
and was an ancestor of William the Conqueror's wife, and thus 

* Tho tianglation of Bede's ' Ecclesiastical History ' is now Rscertained to be 
AnglLiD, not West-Saxon, in its language. This appears to exclude, as to that 
work, Alfred's personal authorship. 

t Such terms are, of course, relative as applied to the Dark Ages. 

i See Mr. Poole's article " Scotus " in ' Diet. Nat. Bioe.' 

§ ^thelwulf was not, as sometimes represented, an old man ; be was probably 
between forty and fifty. Some historians suppose that Alfred's mother Osburh 
must have been alive, and therefore that if^thelwulf repudiated her : see Free- 
man's Hrticlo ".Wilfred" in 'Diet Nat. Biog.' As a conjectural remedy for 
chronological confusion, tliia seems much too desperate. The thing ia not im- 
jKtisibIc, liut it seems incredible, if it were so, that neither Asser nor any other 
chronicler shouUl mention it. 

II Keary, ' Vikings.' p. 368. 



1899.] m King Alfred. 81 

Alfred is among the lineal anoestors of the kings of England since 
the Gonqneat, It wonld be cnrions to know how Alfred liked finding 
BO yomig a stepmother crowned as his father's qneen, but we have no 
information whatever aboat their personal relations. There is no 
doubt tliat Alfred's elder brothers did not like it at all. After 
Athelwnlf s death Judith married — to the scandal of all good 
Christian men, and according to the ancient custom of the heathen 
Saxons * — ^hia eldest surviving son ^thelbald, whether willingly or not 
we do not know. She left England at his death in 860. 

There mnst have been supposed grounds of policy for ^thelwnlf s 
marriage with Judith, but Uio immediate effect was a risk of civil 
war at home, which iBthelwulf avoided only by subordinating himself 
to his son ^thelbald. This iEthelbald, seemingly a masterful and 
violent man, continued to reign over Weseex for two years after his 
fiiher's death ; he died in 860, and was succeeded by his brother 
Athelberht, who had already been under-king of Kent. In ^thel- 
berht's time the Danes took Winchester. The next brother, ^thelred, 
followed him as king in 866. 

Alfred was now a man, and fit to take his part in war and connscl. 
The conrae of events had brought him very near the throne. Just 
at this time the Danes — men of Denmark, not merely Northmen — 
established themselves in East Anglia, and made themselves masters 
of Northnmbria. In 868 ^thelred and Alfred helped the Mercians 
to drive an invading Danish host back upon its base at Nottingham. 
There the Danes could defy an enemy who knew nothing of fortifica- 
tion or siege works. Englishmen had — not for the last time — failed 
to follow the progress made in the art of war on the Continent. 
Peace was made, apparently without any terms of indemnity or 
security. In that same year Alfred married ; wo have no particular 
account of his wife, Ealhiswith, but we know that she was the mother 
of wise and valiant children. Meanwhile, we road of famine and 
sickness in Wessex. Next year the Danes rode— for great part 
of them were now mounted — to York ; tho year after they were at 
Thetford and overcame and slew Edmund, King of the East Angles, 
whose death won him a long postlmmons life of glory as a martyr 
and saint.t Another movable army made spoil of Croyland, Peter- 
borough and Ely. 

In 871 came the attack on Wessex, which ^thelred and Alfred 
mnst have been expecting. Early in the year the Danes seized tho 
stronghold of Beading, sent out plundering parties, and fortified 
themselves by mnning an earthwork across from the Thames to tho 
KenneL A foraging detachment was defeated at Englcfield, a few 
miles to the south-west. A few days afterwards ^thclrcd aud 

• Eemblp, * Saxons in England,' ii. 407. 

t What mtia it that made St. Efliimnd a popular hero, demanding, so to spoftk, 
pnmpt beatification ? Ono suspecti) sonicthing amminling to doliberato si'lf- 
■ehftw, for what immediate porpngo is nnknown. 

Vot. XVL (No. 93.) o 



82 Sir Frederick PoOoek [Haroh 8, 

Alfred eame np with the foil maeter of Weasex, and prepared to sit 
down before the Danish fort They cot off or drove in any stragglera 
left in the open, bnt had no other snooeaa. A forions sortie of tho 
Danes drove back the English after a hard-fonght combat, ^thel- 
wnlf, the earldorman of Berkshire, who had won the little fight of a 
few days before, was among the slain. 

The events of the next few days are obscure.* Bnt, whatever had 
been happening in the meantime, after those days we find both sides 
apparently in something like equal force, and the English in good 
order, on the part of ue Berkshire Downs called Ashdown, over- 
looking Wantage or perhaps Moolsford. The Danes, under two 
leaders of kingly rank and many earls, were on higher gromid ; they 
formed in two divisions, the kuigs leading one half j and the oaru 
the other. The English made their dispositions to meet them with 
a similar front, ^thelred against the kmgs and Alfired against the 
earls. It was to be a battle of hand-to-hand shock, the uield-wall 
of either line backed by a dense mass of men. Standing still on lower 
ground to receive the enemy's charge was an obvions disadvantagei. 
The heathen were moving, but King ^thelred was hearing mass in 
his tent, and would not let the office be interrupted. Al&ed was at 
his post, and took upon himself to order a counter-attack by the whole 
English power,^ without waiting for his brother. He led his men 
" as it were a wild boar," says Asser, perhaps echoing some song made 
in the camp. There was a stubborn fight, which raged mainly round 
a certain stunted thorn tree : the tree was shown to Asser when he 
visited the ground. The Danes gave way at last, and fled with heavy 
losses, a king and five earls, and an unknown number of lesser men ; 
and the English pursued through the night and all the next day. 
What was left of the Danish host took refuge in the fort at Beading. 
Tradition preserved the memory of the fight as the greatest slaughter 
known since the Saxon invasion of Britain. Tet the power of the 
Danes was checked, not broken. Fighting went on ul the year, 
once as far to the west as Wilton,§ and Asser counts eight battles in 
tho year besides untold skirmishes and onfalls. When the Ehiglish 
had the better, which they had not always, they still lost more than 
they could afford. The Danes had, no doubt, as many losses, or more ; 

* The earliest anthorities give no details, and thoee given by later writera are 
improbable. If the English hod retreated upon Windsbr, they oonld snraly not 
have been in force at Anhdown within fear days. The battle was someWhero 
on the Bidgeway, bnt the spot cannot be fixed. Probably it was towards the 
eastern end. The White Horse proves nothing. 

t Asser's " mediatn partem " = " dimidiam," like Pr. mi-. It. msuo. 

i So I read Asser. There would be nothing so remarkable if he had moved 
only his own division. I am glad to learn that Mr. Oman, in his chapter on 
" Alfred as Warrior," oontribnted to the volume published by the King Alfired 
Committee, takes the same view. Asser ascribes the victory as much to 
iEthelred's piety as to AlA^d's valour. 

§ It is said that Alfred could not be at this battle, where the English were 
defeated. 



1899.] 

^m bat tli( 
^H died 80 
^M oontrac 
■ Alfred 

" teooimi 



on King Alfred. 



83 



bat they were roinforcod from oversea. Meanwhile, /'Ethclred bad 
died Boon after Eastertide — possibly of wounds, possibly of sickness 
contracted in the campaign, but we know nothing of the canse. 
Alfred reigned alone over the whole of the aoathern kingdom. Long 
teoognised, it is said, as the ablest of ^thelwulfs sons, he now came 
to the height of opportunity, responsibility, and — as no distant time 
ma to show — of trial. 

His first act of policy was to make peace with the Danes, on the 
of Wcssoz being evacuatod. We do not know whether money 
or not ; it may be that those Danes already fonnd, as their 
did some years later, that there were more hard knocks 
■hillings to be got from Alfred's men.* Bat I fear the proba- 
bility ifl the other way. 

Wessez was not attacked again for a few years. The Danes 
eomplcted at leisure their work of mining the northern and eastern 
ooonties, formerly the centre of Anglo-Saxon civilisation. In 872 
their headquarters were at London. After being bought off by the 
Mercians for two years they subdued Mercia in 874. Leicester, 
Nottingham, Derby, Stamford, Lincoln — afterwards known as the 
Boroughs — were now Danish towns. In 875, starting from 
which had boon their winter qoarters, one column marched 
Northombria, while another, with Guthrom — a name to be 
remembered — as one of their kings, made for Cambridge. From this 
time dates the Danish settlement in North-Eastcrn England, marked 
by the Scandinavian ending of place-names in by, and others as 
coBrBcteristic, though less frequent, Meanwhile Alfred had put some 
dtipa in fighting order, met six or seven heathen ships,! and took one 
of Uiem. 

In 876 the host from Oambridge gained the coast, it seems nu- 
nbafTOii, and sailed round into the Channel and to Poolo. Thence 
IImj etteblishod themselves at Wareham in Dorsetshire, in an almost 
impfegDAble position. Bat Alfred was soon on the spot in such force 
■■ to be able to treat on better terms than before. This time the 
Danes ondertook to qnit Weesex forthwith, gave hostages at Alfred's 
diaentioD, and swore by their most binding oath, the holy bracelet, 
■■ mU M on Christian relics. But the treaty was never kept, for a 
lara» part of the army made a dash for Exeter, and wintered there, 
WM MOt oat an expedition to Mercia the next Bummer.^ 

* Kmtt, ' VUdnga,' p. 414. Neither Mr. Kenrj nor Sir Jomea Baniiay doubts 
that AlfrM bad to pay the Danci this time. 

t ThU ■qnadnm majr or may not have belonged to tho Danes in EiislBnd, 
Md aay or aoay sot have been aoting in concert with the land nrmy. It may 
«ili liMe eone bom Insleod. Auer's way of tnlkinR about senfnrini; niattcrB 
Moiada one of Monro'* hnmoroni Titupemtinn of Lnrhmnnn r5 a Berliner 
laaUabbar an a qoection about Catullns'B yacht. Tho good Wel»h bishop meant 
vril, bat ha dooa write like a landlubber — entirely nippronsing the voyage round 
to Poole, for inatanor, in the next following incident. 

S It ta not dear whether Ihij vu downright perfidy or only sharp practice. 
Buttr mliebt utill ■eeni West-Welsh rather than Weat-Snxon to those whoso 

o 2 



84 



Sir Frederick Pollock 



[March 3, 



In the course of 877 Alfred raised a fleet, and manned it with 
foreign adventurers, to stop the constant reinforcements which civmo 
to tlio Donee. At the same timo ho sat down before Exotor. A great 
DauisL fleet, a hundred and twenty sail, weakened by storms and foul 
weather, fell in with Alfred's ships and was destroyed vS Swanago. 
But such wore the enemy's nnnihers on land that this had no general 
efiect. The Danes loft Exeter for Gloucester, and then seized 
Chippenham in Wiltshire by Burprise, having made a forced march 
in mid-winter, soon after Christmas, Here they may have been 
reinforced from Mercia, now in complete subjection to them. About 
this time on independent expedition wos completely routed on the 
North Devon codst ; the place is supposed to he Konwith, near Bido- 
ford. This victory, again, though to all seomiug brilliant, was merely 
local. The main army of the heathen was in as great strength as ever, 
and met with no serious resistance inland. Apjtorently the English 
power in the heart of Wessex wos exhausted for the time. This 
collapse after a campaign in which the English nu the whole had 
the best of it remains somewhat obscure ; but there is no doubt that 
it was BO. 

Whatever the exact course of events may have been, the Danes 
were masters of the beat part of Wessex in tlio early part of 878. 
Alfred was driven to abandon open war for a eeason, and fall l)aok 
with a small personal following into the marshes of Somersetshiru. 
To this timo belongs the famous tale of Alfred biiming the loaves in 
the neatherd's cottage. It does not rest on the beet authority, but 
there is nothing incredible in it, and tbero is no obvious motive for 
invention. It does not require us to suppose that Alfred was in 
hiding, or flying for his life ; only that ho was for a short time alone 
in a house where the goodwifo did not know him by sight. This 
might be nccountetl for in various ways — a surjirise visit to outposts, 
for example. But the story of the king going to the Danish camp 
disguised as a harper is absurd. In the genuine account, as Freeman 
well says, there " is no forsaking and no hiding ; 2Blfred is reduced to 
extreme distress, but ho never lays down his arms." After Easter, 
however, Alfred entrenched himself at Athelney, an eyot (as the 
name denotes) in the fctiland at the junction of the Parrot and the 
Tone. Here the well-known " Alfred jewel," now in the Ashmolean 
Museum at Oxford, was found ; but porbape it is due to Alfred's later 
establishment of a monastery, of whioh wo have not room to speak, 
mther than to bis encamiimcnt. In May tlie king was able to 
summon the levies of Somerset, Wilts and Hampshire — these lost a 
mere remnant — to meet Lim on the eastern border of Selwood Forest, 
near Warminster. Within three days the English had occupied the 



inteieit it was to think ao. Tli« whnle story of tbete two years i« meagn 
lind eoufiuod. Aaaei scenifl to auy tliut thrro was a treochoruus alaugbler at 
M'ureliani. 



1899.] on King Alfred. 85 

hilU above Ethuidon, now called Heddington,* on the downs towards 
Chippenham, there ftced the Danes, completely defeated them, and 
•hut them np in their entrenched camp. After being beleaguered • 
fortnight, the Danes, cnt off from all help of their kinsfolk, and 
pressed by cold and hunger, came to terms. At last the terms give 
clear evidence of an English victory. Not only the Danes were to 
retire to their possessions in East Anglia — for there was no chance 
of reconqnest in that quarter — but Gnthmm, their king, and his 
followers were to receive baptism. That is, they pledged themselves 
to live side by side with the English as peaceable and lanr-abiding 
neighbours. It was as if in Indm, nine centnriee later, a Mahiatta 
horde, after a series of battles with the Hognl power, shonld have 
submitted to become Moslems. The treaty was not a surrender to 
Alfred on the Danish part, but it was a fruxk recognition that they 
could not deal with Wessex as they had dealt widi Mercia. Nay, 
more, a good part of Mercia itself was won back. The boundary 
between Uie English land and that of the Danes, the " Danelaw," as 
it was afterwards called, was dravm np the Thames, up the Lea 
from its junction with the Thames, then to Bedford, then np the 
Oaae to Watling Street (the great Soman road), by Watling Street 
to Chester.f English and Danish men of corresponding rank were 
to be counted of equal worth for the purposes of wergild and com- 
pensations. 

This time the covenant was well kept. Gnthmm and thirty of 
his chief men duly came to be baptised, and he took the name of 
iSthelstan. The ceremony of "chrism-loosing" and the attendant 
festivities were completed at Wedmore. Still it was two years before 
the Danes were fairly bock in East Anglia. It was no longer the march 
of a flying column, but a deliberate migration of settlers, carried out 
with only such delays as were natural. At length it was all done, 
and men could now, for the first time for many years, honestly say 
tliat there was good peace in Wessex. 

Not that Alfred had done with wars. More fighting was to come 
in later years, even bard fighting, and at least one breach of tlic treaty 
of Wedmore. But these were no longer fights for the life of tbo 
kingdom. That was assured when the East Anglian Danes became a 
defined and recognised State, owning that the king of the Wcst-Saxons 
wielded, in some sort, a paramount power. I purposely use vague 
terms ; there could be no talk in England, at this time, of definite 
feadal relations or commendation ; nor is it dear that Alfred could 
have enforced any formal submission. The later campaigns of 
Alfred's reign were not critical ; they are interesting partly as 

* 1 take it H8 tlie more likely view that AUdmI seized a comiuaiiding poi-ition, 
and fnrcnl the Danes to attack at a dlaad vantage. Detuila are n holly wanting: 
u to the identifleutiou of the place, see the nute at tho end of this pa|«r. 

t Tlie ttxt we have represents a later oonflmiation. It is possible that tiio 
t»Tni» of 87H were not so fuvnurablu to tho English. Green, ' Connm-st > f 
Kngland,' 151. 



Sir Frederick Pollock 



[March 3, 



flhowing how much ho had improved his military dispositions, partly 
aa indications of the still nnabatcd power of the Northmen on the 
Continent. These renewed incarsionB were really in the nataro of 
overflows to the English coast from far greater storm-waves, the last 
of tho plundering and desolating raids of the old Viking type, which 
now h^ their centres in Northern France and the Bhineland. So 
far as the present sketch is concerned, these episodes may be passed 
over with a rapid survey. 

In 884 a division &om the Danish host in France besiogod 
Bochester, but was driven off, leaving many slaves and horses ; they 
bod brought their own horses from the mainland. They must have 
received aid from East Anglia, for Alfred sent a fleet to make re- 
prisals on tho oast coast ; his sailors captured thirteen Danish ships 
at the mouth of the Stour (that is, hard by the modem Harwich),* 
but were afterwards beaten by a fresh squadron. On tho whole, 
Alfred was able to reassert his supremacy, as we shall presently see. 
In 892 the Vikings, who hod been signally defeated in Flanders, 
turned to England ; one fleet fell on tho south and made Appledoro 
their quartcrSit another went up the Thames under Hssten or Hasting, 
a renowned freebooter, and held Milton, near Sheppey. Now followed 
throe seasons of fighting up and down the conntry ; but this time 
Alfred commanded tho powers not only of Wessex, bnt of Meroiit 
outside the Danelaw, and even a North Welsh oontiugent Joined him. 
Alfred's son, Edward, afterwords his worthy successor, won his spurs 
(to use the phrase of cliivalry before its due time) by checking tbe 
host from Applodore at Famham in Surrey. Then tho East Anglian 
Danes became involved in the strife ; a Northumbrian fleet came 
against Exeter ; there wore many fights and a leagnor on the Severn. 
We hear of Hasting after this at Chester,^ in Wales and on the 
Lea. In 896 both sides hod sufiered much, but tho Danes more. 
Thoy found that on tho whole nothing was to be gained in England, 
and dispersed. Some of them remained as settlers in the Danelaw, 
while others sought adventures in Franco. Nothiug is recorded of 
any formal peaoc-making ; probably there w<i8 no permanent ruler to 
make a treaty with. Meanwhile, Alfred bad built ships of a new 
design, and larger than the Danish galleys, to keep the peace of the 
Bonthem coast. Their power was gained at tlto expenso of handincss, 
at least it seems so tiom the onlj account we have of their behaviour 



I 



* ABsnming that tboEait Aoeliaii and not tlii< Kcntuh Stonr ia mcnnt by tbo 
chronicler, which soems on the wLolo tho more likely view. 

t This .\pplcdore liea in Kent to the west of Buniney Marah, not lar from the 
boriierii of Sugaex. 

{ Tho (letsile are to be elucidated, if at nil, only by a specinl etodcnt of tbe 
mcdiuival art of war : and I collcrt from Mr. Oman's essay, alrendy mentinniid, 
timt he too has found tbeui obscure. Tlie chroniclcn r-xpcct iis to l)f!li<>vo lh»t 
Hnsting made his way acmes fmm tho Rovcm VnMcy t" bis xliipa in Esm'x, nnJ 
(lien bock agiUn across Morcin to Chctttor. Fur tbo dittcs I follow tho rocuivwl 
correction of tho cbrgniclo yran. 



I 



I 



in action, whon the king's now gfaips grounded with tho ebb tide ami 
ooald not got off with the flood in time to pursue tho lighter and 
nimbler Danes. Two Danish vessclB, however, wero cost ashore and 
their crows sent to Alfred. He hod them hanged as pirates, which, 
no doubt, thoy were. We may assnme that all pretence of regular 
warfare was at an end, even if these rovers ha<l been under any com- 
mand at all. This is tho only act of severity recordeil of Alfred iu 
tho whole of his reign, and it appears to have been justified both iu 
strict right and in policy. 

The vastly increased efiBciency of Alfred's forces in these latter 
campaigns is our best measure of his military reforms. Our direct 
ftoeoonts of them are not so clear as might be desired. But this 
much is certain, that he found mere tribul levies, which could be 
kept together only for a short time, and were useless for distant or 
prolonged operations, and left a system in which there wore distinct 
{KOTisioDS for a field army, garrisons and reserve. His personal 
staff aad retinue (in which military and civil functions were, no 
doabt, combined) wore also divided into throe sections, which took 
Um duty io turns, month by month.* 

We now return to a memorable deed of Alfred's, which we passed 
arret in its order of time rather than interpolate it among purely 
nilitary incidents. London, it will be remembered, had been plun- 
dered and wasted by the Danes iu the middle of the century. In 
886, the year in which Paris was besieged and nearly token by tho 
VOdnga, and they departed at last rather as victors than as van- 
qoiahed, Alfred, now free for works of peace, turned his thoughts to 
Lon do n. " He restored it with all honour, and caused men to dwell 
tltarain, aad gave it iu charge to his son-in-law, i^tholred. Earl of 
Mensia; and to him as their king all the Angles and Sasons who 
bad been acattcrod abroad, or had been led captive by the heathen, 
freely betook themselves and put themselves under his lordship " ; f 
tbat is, tbo scattered Elnglish of the northern and eastern parts camo 
and settled in London, now sure of Alfred's protection. Alfred could 
have no ooncoption of what London was to bo oven in later medinsval 
tiaBca, None the loss this was a mastor-stroko of policy. London, 
tlw Stat of Mercian cities, thus restored to her old estate, was a sign 
Un all men of the now power of Wossox, a bulwark of Mcrcia, and a 
■!» warden of the Thames valley against any future Danish invasions, 
Kttxt after Winchester, London ought of right to honour Alfred as 
bor second and greatest founder. This mnst have been very soon 
after the time when the Treaty of Wcdmore, perhaps with some 

• Chion. aa. 894 ; Aw-r. p. 65, wl. Wiie. There is an extremely obacuro 
doeaMOt, BOW klMio ' ' ' 'iin m tlio 'Tribal HMngc,' whicli nmy poaaihly 
!■«• le do with ■ nr i» of Alfrcd'8 time. TIk- suitKistion tliut this is 
iit Nal ifgaiftBtooB iv;..-.. ; ly rricml Prnf. F. Ynrk I'owcll. 

♦ Aawr, mA oaiw. Tim inmnirnu.uo Kommi ,lnminium—^i tli« liiiigunBO 
•iM •! being Hlaarinil milrnf ono foci Iho mbfortuao of Ansur having writUiu 
iaUlin. 



88 Sir Frederick PoUock [IMbrch 8, 

revision, was finsilly pnt on record.* Within six years events proved 
Alfred's wisdom. In 893 tiie Danes had a camp where Westminster 
now stands, but were kept in check by ^thelred and the garrison of 
London. In 894-5 Hasting was on the Lea, and held out against 
the men of London till Alfred came in person and baffled the Danes 
by diverting the coarse of the stream below their camp, and so cutting 
off their communications. But the old pirate had failed to gain any 
ground, whereas, if things had been as they were twenty years before, 
he might have worked his will far up the river. Alfred took care in 
other ways that good witness should not be lacking to the restoration 
of English power in Mercia. He put in exercise there an ancient 
and eminent attribute of sovereignty. We have coins of Alfred's 
bearing the name of Oxford, then a Mercian town. At this time of 
day one need hardly repeat that this is the only authentic connection 
of his name with Oxford. The story that he founded the University, 
or schools of any kind, at Oxford is a late and gross fiction, which it 
would be too polite to call a legend ; in its developed form it oannot 
boast even mediaval antiquity. 

To return to Alfred's improvements, it is more pardonable to 
speak of him as the founder, or one of the founders, of the English 
navy than as the founder of a university. But here (while we rejoice 
that the Admiralty has decided to name a first-class cruiser the " King 
Alfred ") we must beware of exaggeration. I do not mean merely that 
Alfred's ships were singly and collectively inferior to those of the 
smallest modem navy. They were as good as he could make them 
then, and it is quite possible that the warships of a century honoe 
may be as superior to ours as one of Nelson's frigates to the vessels 
of an Anglo-Saxon or Danish flotilla. Such comparisons are of no 
historical value. It might be more useful to consider how little the 
art of war on land had improved (if it had not gone back) since 
Agricola commanded in Britain. Probably one of his legions was 
mure formidable in every way than the whole muster of Christian 
and heathen men who fought at Ashdown. As to naval matters, what 
really has to be said is that Alfred had not, for aught that appears, 
nor can we see how he could have had, any conception of what we 
now mean by the command of the sea. Within two centuries 
William the Conqueror landed his army without opposition of any 
kind. One such fact is conclusive to show that, even if we could 
suppose Alfred to have had some inkling of a real naval policy, he 
did not succeed in leaving any sound doctrine on tho subject after his 
own day. Tho importance of sea power to England did not begin to 
bo realised till the time of Elizabeth, and it has been strangely 
possible to forget it even within living memory. The Anglo-Saxon 
and medieeval plan of a navy was merely to keep the narrow seas 

* Green, 'Conquest of Englimd,' 150 (but the mention of a "war of 886* 
is nn obvinug slip ; there was nu such wur in England); Bamsay, ' Foundations 
of England,' i. 255. 



1899.1 



on King Alfred. 



89 



agunst freebooters, so tbat tra'le might be tolerably safe in timo of 
pMoei As Chancer says of bis Morchaut : 

** He wolde the see wero kept for any thing 
BitwUe MidJleburgh aud OrcwoU." 

It was to b« a long time before Sir Woltor Raleigh made bia 
iiiagnific«Dt aod wholly justified boast that thtj Inviucible Armada 
of Spaiu liad not bnmt so much as one slioepcuto of this laud ; and 
longer still before we ourselves were to learn the secret of fiiigloud's 
grestuess over again, not from an Englishman born, but from one 
of oar Idn beyond the sea — Captain Mohan, of the United States 
Nary. 

Great reformers barrlly ever find their work run smooth, and we 
know tkat Alfred did not. Incompetence, jealousy, local and 
penooal, self-seeking, and — perhaps worst of all — tbo complacent 
iawtoeas of honest but stupid men who think what was good 
Mioagh for their fathers good enough for them, had to bo reckoned 
with then as now. Bishops, ealdormcn, king's thanes, and sheriffs, 
oven the beet of tliom, had to bo taught their duty, lectured, ordered 
abuat, rebuked, in the lost resort punished. The King wore himself 
out in woU-doing, and after all could not got many of his plans exe- 
«ated. Forts designed by him were never built, or were not finished 
in time, and those who had been in fault lamented too late that the 
Danes had taken their wives aud kimlred captives, harried their land, 
«od spoiled tlieir goods.* Bismarck is a for less uoblo and dignified 
figure than Alfre<l, thr)ngh he wrought on a greater sctdu ; but the 
pictnrt) now fresh before us of Bismarck striving for the union of 
Germany, and fretting under the pretensions of absurd princelets and 
the {Midantries of shallow politicians, vdW help us to realise Alfred's 
trottblua. If Alfred found a helper after his own heart it was bis snn- 
in-Uw, iBtfaolred of Mercia, whose wife i'Etlielfiied, the lady of tho 
Mereiftns as she came to be colled, stands out as tho most brilliant 
and heroie woman in our early history. 

Justice was among tho first of Alfred's cares when thoro was peace 
in Uw land. Here, too. tho difficulties wore immense. An Anglu- 
fisxoD county or hundred court nnist have been more like a disorderly 
public meeting than a modern court of any kind ; thero was no 
■Ecnrity for any one being learned, or knowing how to conduct busi- 
SM^vUess the bishop was present; aud there were no eflectual 
MMte of patting judgments in foroe-f The king and his Wittin 
could net an example: when the ordinary methods, cumlirous ami 
alow aa they were, had been exhausted, tho king coubl ot need 
oaapcl au ubt^tinutu wrongdoer to submit ; but tho king's wise men 
noi • ouurt of appeal. Indeed, thoro was no soeb thing as 

-,1 xy-'^ r- so, («). 
Itl' "f tlic i;llli <N ntury, oa wc lonrii Iriiii nrii.iuM, Ihero 

rr I'riu'ticttlly ivMitrnllcd the priH'i'i'iliii^'.-'. 'I'hu way have 

hcee (O ftvoi a macb carlii-r tioio; «€ do nut know Ihnt it wiu. 



90 Sir IVederiek PoUoek [Mu-oh 8, 

appeal firam a final jndgment in the modem sense. Alfred infonned 
hunself how jnstioe was administered ; he oonld reqoire his officers to 
give an account of the proceedings, and put pressnre on them, by the 
threat of dismissal, to qualify themselves for their duties and redeem 
themselves from the too coxamon reproach of being quite illiterate. 
Many of them set to work to learn to read, or at least get by heart, 
the rules recorded in the king's and his ancestors' dooms. But the 
time for direct over-riding royal interference, for the establishment of 
new courts and new procedure, was not yet. Al&ed oonld not do the 
work of Henry II. or Edward I.* There is a later legend to the 
effect that Alfi«d was not swift enough to restrain the oppressions of 
his great men in the early part of his reign, and that his reverses 
were a punishment for this fikultf A likely time, indeed, tax judicial 
reform, with the Danes holding Merda and barely out of Wessex, 
and the local magnates chafing under the most obviously needful 
measures taken to strengthen the king's authority, and lessen the evils 
of divided command 1 But no twelith-ceutury chronicler could be 
happy without a moraL 

King Alfred's laws are extant, the ' dooms ' which were set before 
his Witan and approved by them towards the end of his reign. 
Anglo-Saxon law is a technical and thorny snbjeot, and most of its 
actual contents are extremely remote from anything that is now 
administered as law in Engluid, though the spirit of publicity and 
fairness, rough as were its forms in early times, is notX Enough to 
say that Alfred, as a good son of the Church, prefixed to his dotnns 
considerable extracts from the Book of Exodus — it is conceived as an 
edifying specimen of " written reason " rather than as rules to be 
actually followed by Englishmen. When he comes to practical busi- 
ness he consolidates and amends, as we should now say, the customs 
recorded in various earlier dooms of West-Saxon, Kentish, and 
Mercian king^ and annexes a revised version of the laws of his 
ancestor, Ine of Wessex. There is a humane provision for securine 
a certain number of holidays to hired labourers, which we may well 
believe to be Alfred's own. His modest and sensible statement of his 
policy has been often quoted, but must be quoted again : — 

" Now I, King Alfred, gathered all this together and bade write 
it down : much of the dooms that our forerunners held by, such as 

* Asser, ed. Wise, pp. 69, 72, at the end of the Life. These rhetorical oom- 
ments of a Welshman writing latin aboat English cnstonu which be probably 
did not more than half onderetand are confused, and to a lawyer exaspeiating. 
But real faols most nnderlie them. After some doobt, I think the pnawBe 
genuine. A later addition would have been fuller and would have ascribed more 
power to the Uug. 

t In the intoixilation from the SL Neots Chronicle. Asaer, ed. Wise, p. 31. 

t See more in an article of mine on ** English Law before the Norman Oon- 
quest." ■ Law Quart. Rev.,' July 1898. A critical text of the Anglo-Saxon laws 
is being edited by Dr. F. Liebermann, of Berlin, for the Sarigny-Stif tnng : the 
first part (Halle a. S., Uax yiomeyer, 1898) oomos down to Eadmund's time, and 
therefore includes the whole of Alfred's and Ino's dooms. 



1899.] 



on King Alfred. 



il 



Kked me well ; and many of those wLich mislikod me I put away with 
ny Witan's adrioc, and bade men obeerre tfaom in other manner. For 
I dazed not pat much of my own in writing, for it was nnknown 
to BM bow much of that would be to the liking of those who came 
after na." 

Later storiea which ascribe the invention of modem legal institu- 
tions to Alfred — including trial by jury, which is distiactly of 
Anglo-Norman and not Anglo-Saxon origin — are merely fictitious. 

Alfred's loTO of learning and oncooragcment of letters and re- 
search have been more fnlly and more often described than any other 
part of his work. We see his court at Winchester frequented by 
clerks, nobles, and travellers of all nations, including those very Danes 
who had been fighting him a few years before. So in our own time the 
cluefo of wild frontier tribes throng to the durbar of a strong and 
popular political officer on the north-west marches of India. We can 
almost hear Ohthere, who dwelt northmost of all the Northmen, telling 
bia adTentoraa in pursuit of the horse-whales (walruses), who have 
right goodly bones in their teeth fit to bring to a king — yea, such as 
thia which he offers his lord Alfred for a token — and Alfred bidding 
Plegnmnd the Mercian, or John tho Monk of Old Saxony, set down 
the tale and work it into the English translation of Orosius' uui- 
TBTsal hiatory. Wo may note Alfred economising time, measuring his 
hoviB by fonr-honr candles of standard weight, and guarding them in 
bom Untema from tho draughts that ranged as tboy listed in the 
niaUi-oeiitarT palace. We see him investing his grandson, yEthelstau, 
tbe fntare victor in the great fight at timnanburh, with the weapons 
and garb of a man of war. We catch him walking with Asscr, the 
WeUunan invited from the uttermost west of Britain to bo his 
■eeretarj, learning what Latin he can from him, and delighting his 
i—e h or with a proposal to keep a note-book — (what would we give 
now fur that note-book?).* And with all this tbe king is still a 
■portaman, and looks with a master's eye to his hawks and his kennel. 
Sizangeet of all, this man of boundless and yot ordered activities has 
bcme np from his youth against a mysterious and harassing sickness 
— aoeording to modem conjecture, some form of epilepsy — from whicli 
Amst triua to extract edifying reflections. But these things, as I 
said, are familiar. 

Alfrod enjoyed some years of peaoo before tho end of his reign. 
He died, amording to tho common reckoning, in tho autumn of 901, 
but it aeema really in 900 f or 899 | ; by no means an old man as wo 
think of atatenuen nowadays, but having done enough to fill a long 
life. la this all? No, not even for the immediate future. The 



■ nakM a rar-fet«her1 and not over-courtly oomparimn nf t)iu kin^; to 
t thW, a* a lale enterer into the kingdom by good will ralliur tliau 
JociaM for it in tlut uext parnKrapb. 
t Buaaay, * r<mii(Utiond of EiiRland.' i. 2G7. 

; W. H. Bt«TimK>o in ■ AttiiDtuuiu,' July nntl August, 1R98. The clioioc turni 
m iniaU too Kioate lo diicaia berc, but 'Ml ia wrong in any case. 



92 Sir Frederick PoOoek [Much S, 

king had lived to see his son Edwatd a warrior, and his grandson 
^thelstan a promising boy. Bight well they both followed in 
Alfred's path as jost and valiant tongs, Edward in alliance with his 
no leas valiant sister ^thelflsd. Glorious among the women of 
onr race, the Lady of the Mercians drove back the Qane step by 
stop for eighteen years more. Tamworth, Stafford, and Warwick are 
her work; Derby and Leicester were her conqaests. Alfred and 
Ealhswith might well be prond of their children. 

The English kingdom might not last, indeed, in snch manner and 
form as Alfred established it. The Anglo-Saxon polity boro in it the 
seeds of decay. Danish conquest — but not heathen— was to come 
ouly a oentniy after the great king's death ; Norman oonqoeet — 
which may be called Danish at one romove— after thai English 
was transformed with travail and violence, but, in the long run, for 
the better. Alfred's work also was transformed, bat never broken. 
It lives still in his old England ; it lives and waxes in the growth of 
new English commonwealths round the world. 

NoTB on Elhandun (p. 85 clune). — The opinion repieaented in the text, namelv 
tbat the Danish head-qnarlera were still at Chippenham wlien Alfred marched 
from Selwood Foieiit, is that of almost all recent writeis. On this assomptioo, 
Hi'ddioKton (as it is now written), almost doe sonth of Calne, not the Eldington 
also in Wiltdiire, seems the likeliest representative of Ethandnn. Bnt there is 
another Edington in quite another direction, at the foot of the Polden Hill, near 
Bridgwater. Tlie late Bi&hop Clifford, of Clifton, maintamed in 1875 (< Pro- 
ceedings of Somersetshire Arehmological and Natural History Society,' zxi. I), 
that this Edington of Somerset is the real Ethandun, taking a quite different 
view of the campaign as a whole. His points, briefly somnnrised, are to this 
effect. 

1. The Danish land army was acting in concert with the fleet commanded 
by Ubbo or Hnbba. The fleet landed at the month of the Parret; Asser's 
" Cynwit " is tlie modem Combwich. Anything south of the Parret might then be 
called Devon. Guthrum's army from Chippenham joined these invaders. 

2. Alfrrd watolied the Danes from Athelney, and by feints and skirmishes led 
them to believe that he was collecting his strength on the left bank of the Parret, 
while he was really doing so on the bx side of Selwood, beyond the Danish means 
of observation. 

3. From Egbert's Stone (somewhere among the Brixtons, go. Whit-Strcet- 
Castlo ?) Alfred and his host doubled beck upon Polden Hill, and succeeded in 
capturing the key of the Danish position. 

4. The fort tio which the Danes fled was not Chippenham, but probably 
Bridgwater. If it was at or near Chippenham, why did not relief come to the 
Dunes from Mercia ? 

.5. As a minor point, .iEcf;lea or Igica, tlie pince of Alfred's halt on the maroh 
from Egbert's Stone to Ethandun, is identified with Edgarlea, formerly Kgerly, a 
hiunlct of Glnstonbnry close under Glastonbury Tor. The distances are about 
right, and there is no other plausible identification of the name. 

Tliis theory is worked out with great ingenuity — an ingenuity which is ex- 
ocsBiro in trying to fix definite interpretations on the language, not only of Asser 
and the English Chronicle, but of later writers who probably knew nothing of 
the country, and very little of war, and were quite indifferent to topographical 
accuracy. I am informed that some competent students, with opportunitips of 
examining the ground, are convinced that Bishop Clifford was right, but I am 
not aci|nflinto<l with any published criticism of his hy)x)tliceis, favourable or un- 
fuvuurable, and it has certainly not found any general acceptance; whether 



1899.] on Kittg Alfred. 93 

bectnte It baa been considered and lejeoted, or beoanae it baa remained unknown, 
I am not able to aay. The broad and obvions objection to it ia that it attribates 
ao improbable amoimt of skill in strategical oomlnnation to both parties at a time 
when the Unman art of war was foreotten in Western Europe, and the mediffival 
art of war was in its first infancy. The truth is that we have to deal with hope- 
leMly uncritical and nnmilitary narratives, written by men who not only had not 
oar modem apparatus of maps, gazetteers, and so forth, but cared for none of these 
tbinga, and were chiefly intent on edification, rhetoric, or personal anecdote ; and 
we cannot even assume that chroniclers not known to have been familiar with the 
places mentioned had endeavoured to form any clear notion of their sitnation or 
relative distances and bearings. If there was a eennine local tradition it is long 
since lost ; and, as we are r^uced to gaeas-work, the simplest guess consistent 
with soob fiKita as we have appears to be the safest On the whole I do not feel 
justified in departing firom the received account, though it is by no means free 
from difflenlty. 

Another poasible view of the earlier part of this campaign is that the main 
body of the Danes who seized Chippenham came not from Exeter bnt from Slereia, 
when they had spent the fint half of the winter season. 

[F. P.] 



GENERAL MONTHLY MEETING, 

Monday, March 6, 1899. 

Sn Jakes Cbiohtok-Bbownb, M.D. LL.D. F.B.S., Treasurer and 
Vice-President, in the Chair. 

W. Brace Bannennan, Esq. F.G.S. F.R.6.S. 

Arthur Bellin, Esq. F.R.G.S. 

Lady Cnrrie, 

Charles Henry Gatty, Esq. LL.D. F.RS.E. F.L.S. 

Arthur Christian Gibbons. Esq. B.A. 

Edward James Gibbons, Esq. M.A. 

Mrs. J. E. Home, 

Mrs. Edward E^raftmeier, 

Sir George Henry Lewis, 

Mrs. John List, 

Frederick James Longton, Esq. 

Oswell S. Macleay, Esq. 

Mrs. Parker, 

Herbert Pulford, Esq. M.A. M.B. 

Colonel Enston Sartorins, V.C. C.B. 

were elected Members of the Royal Listitution. 

The Special Thanks of the Members were returned to Sir Andrew 
Noble, K.C.B. for his donation of £100, and to Mr. Edward Kraft- 
meier for hia donation of £52 10<., to the Fund for the Promotion of 
E!xpcrimental Research at Low Temperatures. 

His Grace The Duke of Northumberland was elected President 
of the Royal Institution in the place of the late Duke his father. 



94 General Monthly Meeting. [March 6, 

The following letter from the Dnke of Northnmberland was read 
from the Chair : — 
" Dear Sir Frederick Bramwell, " Albwick Castu, laa Kbnuuy, isw . 

" I am deeply touched by the Benolation adopted bj the Memben of the 
Boyal Institution \rhlch you have been so good as to forward to me. The appi«> 
ciation exhibited by it of the late Duke of Northomberland's Derrioea to tiie 
loBtitntion, and the kindly sympathy expressed for me and for my family in the 
heavy bereeTement we have sustained, have afforded me great gmtiflcation, mora 
especially becanse I know how highly my father valued the work of the Institu- 
tion, and his connection with it as its Pieeident 

I am, dear Sir Frederick, 
The Honoiaiy Secretary, Toon tmly, 

Royal Institution. (Signed) NoBXHinniBi^irD.'' 

The FBxnirTS received since the last Meeting were laid on the 
table, and the thanks of the Members returned for the same, yix, : — 

racat 
The Secretary of State for India — A Manual of the Geology of India, 2nd ed. 
Part 1, Corundum. By T. H. Holland. 8to. 1898. 
Palseontolc^a Indica : Ser. XV. Himalayan Fossils, Vol. L Part a 4ta 1897. 
Aeeademia dk Lineei, BeaU. Soma — Olasse di Soienze Fisiche, Matraoatiehe e 
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18M.J 



WEEKLY EVENING MEETING, 
Friday, M&rch 10, 1899. 

Tb« Hon. Sib Jamkb Stibuno, M.A. LL.D., Vioe-ProBident, 
in tho Cbair. 



I 
I iUiutr 




PsornsoB H. L. Callkiij>a&, M.A. F.B.S. 

Meaturing Extreme Trmperatures. 

Tib meMOrement of extreme temperatnres ib a sabject of great 
theoretical interest, especially in couuectiou with the determination 
of the laws of radiation and of chemical dissociation and combination. 
The temperatore in each case is the factor of paramonnt importance, 
and without means of measnring tho temporatore there is no pos- 
•ibility of formulating any rational theories. The sabject possesses, 
in addition, a powerful fascination for the experimentalist, on account 
of the difiScnlty of the obserrations inTolved, and of the extremely 
amflicting nature of the results obtained by different obserrers and 
different methods of research. 

Attempts have frequently been made to estimate tho temperatures 
of the electric arc and of the son, which may be taken as examples of 
the most extreme temperatures known to Bcienco, and afford an 
illnstration of the difficulties to be eDcouutored, and of the methods 

liable for attacking these problems. A brief consideration and 

rmparison of the results will also serre to explain tho causes of the 

■kable discrepancies existing in the estimates of such temperatures 

difliarani observers and different methods. 

In the case of the sun it is at once obvious that no terrestrial 
thermometer can possibly bo directly applied. Tho only available 
method is (1) to measure the intensity of the solar radiation, and 
(2) to endeavour to deduce the temperature by determining the law of 
radiatioD at high temperatures. The measurement of the intensity 
of the solar radiation is in itself a snffioiontly intricate problem, 
cootaining many elements of donbt and difficulty ; liut by far the 
grwieat source of uncertainty lies in the solution of the second part 
of tho investigation, the determination of the law of radiation. The 
origin of the discrepancies th\i8 imported into the results may be 
■mnmed np in the word " Extra])olation." 

The method of investigation necessarily consists in taking a series 

observations at temperetnres within the laboratory range of ther- 

metry, from which to calculate an empirical formula representing 

eloeely as possible the results of experiment It is then assumed 

that the formula may bo " extrapolated," or used to estimate tho 

ifflMratnre of a radiating source of known intensibr hey<md the range 

' the observationB on which it was founded. This is a perfectly 

Vou XVI. (No. 93.) B 



11 smiiii 

Hf oi 

■mcI 



98 



* Profeuor H. L. Callendar 



[MaiohlO, 



justifiable method, and may lead to very good results if the empirical 
law happens to be correct ; but if the formnla happens to be unsoit- 
able, it may lead to the most remarkable conclnsions. 

The onrres shown in Fig. 1 illustrate some of the typical formnls 
which have either been proposed for the law of radiation, or been 



LAW or RAPrATlON ButtohlcymS? R mmc^ 




6' 2«V.,Le*W'=f <»°TD,P BOO"™t.'°''°' '"°" 

Fia. 1.— Fonnoln of Badiation. Ilxperimental lange. 

deduced from the resolts of modem experiments over the experi- 
mental range of the gas-thermometer, extending to 1200° C, to which 
trustworthy determinations of tomperatore on the theoretical scale are 
at present restricted. In order to obtain a comparison of the formnla9 
themselves, apart from otlier issues, the results of different obserrerB 
are reduced to a common hypothetical value, 10 watts per square 
centimetre, for the radiation from a black body at 1000° G. 

Excluding the law of Newton, which applies only to small 
differences of temperature, and also the law of Dnlong and Petit, 
which was founded on observations over a very limited range with 
mercury thermometers, and is obviously inapplicable at high tempe- 
ratures, there is a certain family resemblance between the remaining 
curves ; but the differences between them are still so considerable that, 
if sufficiently accurate measurements of temperature were available, 
it should be possible to decide with certainty which of the formnlss 
was the most correct. A fairly close ag^reement is seen to obtain 
between the formula proposed by Weber and the curves represent- 
ing the results of the recent experiments of Bottomley, Fasohen and 
Petavel. But, on the other hand, there is strong evidence, both 
experimental and theoretical, in favour of the fourth power law 
proposed by Stefan, which differs materially from that of Weber ; and 
many supporters may be found, especially among astronomers, for tho 
very different formula of Bosetti. 



1899.] 



o» Mecuuring Extreme Teaperaturet. 



99 



Tlie importanoe of choosing a oorreot fonnala is most easily 
naliaed by reference to Fig. 2, which represents the results of 
ezteapolation as applied to deducing the probable temperature of the 
sun. On the scale of Fig. 2, the dimensions of the experimental 
range of Fig. 1 are reduced to the thickness of tiie line at the lower 
left-hand oomer of the diagram. The line at the top represents the 
intensity of solar radiation, which is taken at 10,000 watts per square 
centimetre in round numbers. The points at which the various 
curres meet this line show the corresponding values of the solar 
tempera tore. 



EXTRAPOLATION 




«»-„„7JS 



1 -J- 



Fio. 2. — ^Tempeiatnre of the Sun by Extrapolation. 

The estimates of one million degrees and upwards, which were 
current in many of the older books on astronomy, wero deduced from 
the law of Newton, and are obviously out of the question. The 
celebrated formula of Dulong and Petit gives results between 1500° 
and 2000° C, according to the data assumed, and evidently errs too 
much in the other direction. At the same time, it must be observed 
that the recent formula of Weber gives a result which is very little 
higher. Paschen considered that his results lent support to Weber's 
formula, and disagreed entirely with Bottomley's. But, according to 
the writer's reductions, they agree very closely with Bottomley's, and 
axe best represented by the formula KI". The experiments of 
Petavel agree most nearly with a fifth power law. On the other 
hand, the experiments of Wilson and Gray, in which the temperature 
waa measured by the «spaiMton of a platinum strip, instead of by the 
increase of its electrical resistance, t^pear to be in exact confirmation 
of the fourth power law of Stefan, and give a much higher result for 
the solar temperature. The formula of Bosetti is approximately a 

H 2 



100 



Pn/e$$or H. L. CaUendar 



[Much 10, 



third power law at high tempetatares, and wonld not be admitted aa 
probable, at least by physicists, at the present time. 

The Tarions formnln above mentioned, together with the methods 
employed and the resnlts deduced, are summarised in the following 
table:— 

Tablk L — ^Law or Baoiatior. 



OlMerrsn and date. 



DoloDg and Petit/ 
(1817) \ 

RowUi(187S) ../ 

Stefan (1878) .. 
Schleiennaoher / 
(1885) \ 

Weber (1888) .. 

Bottomle7(1888)../ 

Poacben (1893) ..i 

Wilaon and Gray' 
(1897) 1 

Petavel (1898) ... 



Tonpenlan 



BadliUoo 
obMnredliT 



Heronry 
tbermometer 

Mercnry 
tbennometer 



Bate of oool-l 

ing in vac J 

TbermopUe 1 

8b-Bi 



No ezperiments made. 
Platinam I Heat Ion 
resistanoe { C*& in rao. 

No experiments made. 



Platinnm 
lesiatanoe 
Thenno-coaplel 
Pt-PtBh j 
Platinam 
expanaion 
Platinnm ] 
resiatanoe J 



Heatloea 
C!*K in vao. 

Bolometer 

Badio- 
micrometer 

Bolometer 



V^nnnlm 



:) 



E, 10077* 

E,T> (nearly) 
E,T« 

E,T1 -00043* 
E.T»' • 



Solir tnnph 



1900 

12,700 
6900 
6900 
2450 
4000 

4000 

6900 

4800 



* Formal* dednoed by the writer from the oboemttiona. 

The foregoing table is not intended to be ezhanstive, bat merely 
as a comparison of typical formnlse, reduced to a common standard. 
It does not contain the results of photometric investigations. 

The conclusion to be derived &om the above illustrations appears 
to be, that in order to arrive at any certain knowledge with regiod to 
the law of radiation, and the measurement of such extreme tempera- 
tures as those of the arc, and of the sun, the first step most be to 
secure a higher order of accuracy in the determination of the highest 
temperatures which can be observed and measured in the laboimtoxy 
with material thermometers. There are other difficulties whioh an 
peculiar to the determination of the law of radiation, but we an at 
present concerned primarily with those relating to the measurement 
of temperature. 

There are two comparatively independent lines along which 
research may proceed with advantage at the present time: (1) The 
direct comparison of different arbitrary methodJs ; (2) the extemsion of 
the range of the gas-thermometer. 

In order to secure consistency of statement and the redaction of tiie 
results of different observers to a common standard, it is in the first 
place desirable that the various methods available at the present time 
for the measurement of high temperatures in the laboratory should be 
directly compared inter le, through the greatest possible range. It ia 



1899.] 



tm Measuring Extreme Temperatures. 



101 



the ooitom at present for different obseryors to ledace their rcsalta 
indirectly to the rcale of the gas-thermometer by reference to certain 
•fisamcd valnee of the boiling and freezing points of varions substances. 
They generally assame different valaes for these fixed points, and 
, ftdopt different methods of calibration, which are undoubteidly respon- 
jsible for many of the discrepancies at present existing. 

To take an illnstration from the experiments already qnotod, the re- 
markable discrepancy between the experiments of Bottomloy, Paschen 
and Petavel, on the one hand, and those of Wilson and Gray and 
I Bchleiormachcr, on the other, in the determination of the intensity 
of rkdiation from polished platinnm, may be traced primarily to 
differenoea in the methods of measurement adopted. Bottomley and 
Petavel measured the electrical resistance of the radiating wire itself, 
and deduced the temperature by the usual formula for the platinum 
■oale. Paschen calibrated his thermo-couple by reference to numerous 
fnaiiig and boiling points. Wilson and Gray adopted the mcldnmetor 
metboda based on the expansion of platinum, which they fuuud to bo 
uiibna. The vacuum in iSchloiermacher's experiments could not be 
nMMored, and was probably vitiated by gas evolved from the heated 
pUtinnm. 

Tbeeo and similar discrepancies might be in a great measure 
romovod, so far as they depend on the measurement of temperature, 
by the direct comparison of the various metbods of measurement. 
The " platinum " methods are among the most important and the most 
caaily comparable by direct experiment. These methods are founded 
on the characteristic stability and infusibility of the metals of the 
platinum group, properties which are accom|>anied by an even more 
remarkable degree of constancy in their less obvious electrical 
attribatea. The two older methods, based on (1) the expansion and 
(2) the specific heat of platinnm, are of comparatively limited appli- 
catioii, but have given very good results in the able hands of Joly 
and YioUe. The more modem electrical methods have the advantage 
of much wider applicability and convenience. They are of two 
diatinct kinds : (3) the thermo-electric method, rcproscntod by the 
Pt-Pd thermo-couple of Becquerol the Pt-Ir thermo-couple of Barus, 
*od th« Pt-Rh thermo-couple of Le Chatelier, and (4) the platinum 
TCoatenco pyrometer of Siemens. The third mi^thod has been natu- 
nliaed in thia country, and brought to great perfection by the work 
of Sir William Roberts- Austen. The fourth method was that adopted 
by Bottomley, Schleiermaoher, and Petavel in the experiments obovo 
mentioned, and has been applied with great success by Heycock and 
Neville at high temperatures, and by Dowar and Fleming at tliu 
other extremity of the scale. 

The usual or indirect comparison of the foregoing methods by 
meaiifl of the fusing points of various metals is illustrated in the 
aaiwxcd table, which contains several of the most recent retiults. 
Tbfl nnnibers given in brackets are now published for the first time, 
and abuold be regarded as preliminary. 



102 Profeuor H. L. Callendar [March 10, 

TaBLB II. — FUBINQ POIMTB BT '* FUTINnU " METHODS. 



Hethod. 


Otaerraa. 


Stiver. 


Oold. 


Copper. 


diam. 


FUU- 
nnm. 


(1) Expanmon .. .. 


C.*E.(1899) .. 


(945) 


(1061) 


(1085) 
lOSl-^ 


(1640) 


(1980)° 


(2) Spec, beat .. .. 


VioUe(1879) .. 


957° 


1045° 


1500° 


1775' 




Beoqnerel (1863) 


960° 


1092° 


1224° 


, , 


.. 


(3) Tbenno- 
ooaples 


Barus (1892) .. 


985° 


1093° 


1097° 


1648° 


1855° 


» (1894) .. 


986° 


1091° 


1096° 


1586° 


1757° 


Holbom & Wien 














(1895) .. .. 


968° 


1072° 


1082° 


1587° 


1780° 


(4) BesUtance 


H. *N. (1895) .. 
0. &£.(1899) .. 


961° 


1061° 


1082° 

• • 


(1550) 


(1820) 



The resnltB above given for the expansion method (1) were 
obtained by assnming the expansion to be nniform, and talcing the 
F.P. of gold as 1061°. The results of Violle by the specifio heat 
method (2) were dedaced by assnming a linear fonnnla for the 
specific heat of platinnm. The discrepancies of the varioas resnlts 
obtained by the thermo-electric method (3) are partly dne to errors 
of observation, and partly to extrapolation, i.e. to difierences in the 
formulea of redaction. The high valne fonnd by Becqaerel for the 
F.F. of copper as compared with gold and silver is probably to be 
explained by the use of a much thicker wire in the case of copper. 
The very accurate and consistent experiments of Heycock and 
Neville leave little doubt that the F.P. of pure copper is at least 20° 
above that of gold. The much smaller di£ference of 4° to 6°, given 
by Bams, may possibly be explained by contamination with oxygen 
or other impurity. In the case of silver and gold, Messrs. Holbom 
and Wien adopted the Becqnerel method of observing the fusion of 
fine wires. In the case of copper, they adopted the much more 
accurate method of observing the freezing point of a large mass of 
metal in a crucible, which had been employed by the writer in 1892, 
and was used by Heycock and Neville throughout their researches, 
llie Becquerel method is very liable to give results which are too 
high. 

The determination of the higher fasing points of palladium and 
platinnm is necessarily attended with greater uncertainty because it 
involves extrapolation, and is therefore more dependent on the 
particular formula of reduction assumed, in addition to the experi- 
uiental di£ScultibB of the higher temperatures. Considering all the 
obstacles to be encountered, it would bo unreasonable to expect such 
different methods to give auy closer agreement at these points. 

Whatever the origin of these discrepancies, there can be no 
question that they greatly retard the progress of research and dis- 
covery at high temperatures. With the object of helping to remove 
these obstacies, the writer has recently boon engaged, in conjimction 



1899.] 



en Meaturing Extreme Temperatures. 



108 



I 

I 

|i 



with Mr. Enmorfopoolos, in a direct comparisoa of methods (1), (3) 
■od (4), which are simiilefit and most generally applicable. The ad- 
TUitages of the direct methotl of comparison are very great. (1) The 
oomparieon may be extended continnonsly throughout t)io Bcale, and 
is not confined to a few arbitrary selected points. (2) It is easy 
to apply the electric method of heating, which is of all methods the 
most easily regnlated. (3) It is easy to arrange the cxiierimcnts in 
■oeh a way that there can be no qnostion of difference of temperature 
between the thermometers nnder comparison, which is the most 
insidious sonrco of error in high temperature moosurcmeut. 

In the comparison of the scale of the expansion of platinum (1), 
with that of the platinum rosistanoe thermometer (4), it is simply 
neoeesary to observe simultaneously the expansion and the electric 
rasistance of a platinum strip, tube or wire maintained at a steady 
temperature by means of nn electric current. The expansion may be 
meacnred, as in the meldometer of Joly, by means of a micrometer 
oorew ; bat for lecture purposes it is preferable to adopt the method 
of the optical lover employed by Laplnco in his exjicrinicnts on 
ezpAosion a oentary ago. By employing a direct-reading ohmmuter 
to indicate the changes of electrical resistance, it is thus pussiblo to 
exhibit the difference between the two methods by the simultanoous 
advance of two spots of light on a single scale. If the two iustru- 
luents are adjusted to reaii correctly at 0° and 1000^ C, the resistance 
thermometer will be in advance at temperatures bolow 1000°, but 
will Iftg behind at liigher temiHirnturos, because the rate of expansion 
iooieaaes as the temperature rises, whereas the rate of change of 
nustanoe diminishes. As the result of these experiments, it appears 
thftt the two scales (1) and (4) differ from that of the gaa-tbormomotcr 
to a noftrly eqnal extent, but in opposite directions. 

The reeistonco of platinum at its melting point is more than six 
times M great as at 0*^ C, whereas the whole expansion amounts to 
only one-fiftietb part of the length. The electrical method is for 
this reason by far the most accurate and gonsitivo. It also possosses 
Id m rotj striking degre<! the merit of pliability and adaptability to 
the needs of each (larticnlar problem. For this reason the scale of 
the platinum resistance thcmiomotcr has come to be roganlcd as the 
platinum scale jxir excellence, and has been adoptod as the standard of 
reference in many recent researches. 

As an illustration of the facility of applying this method, tbe 
determination of the fusing ])oint of platintini on the platinum scale 
tuj.be taken. This is a difficult experiment to perform by any 
ihod. In performing the experiment by the measurement of 
ical resistance, it suffices to take a fine wire of which the 
electrical constants are accurately known, and to raise it gradually to 
it* malting point by steadily increasing the current. The observation 
of the resistance of the central portions of the wiie at the moment of 
fusion gives directly the temperature required on the ]i1atiunni seals. 
In attempting to perform tho same oxperimout by the oxpansiau 




104 Pro/e$$or H. L. OaUendar [Huoh 10, 

method, we are met by the difficulty that the phttinnm begins to 
soften and stratdi at a temperature oonsidetsbly below its melting 
point. Owing to the smallneas of the expansion, a very alight Tisooos 
extension prodnoes a relatively large error. In the resistanoe method 
it is not necessary to subject the wire to toision, and a small stzaia 
would in any ease produce an inappreciable enor on aooonitt of the 
▼ery large increase of resiBtanoe with temperature. To obtain an 
equal degree of aocuraoy by the calorimetrio method (2), or the 
thermo-electric method (3), it is necessary to nse a fumaoe in which 
relatively large quantities of platinum can be melted. This has beea 
done by YioUe for method (2), and by Bams and Holbom and Wien 
for method (8). The latter used a linear formula for extrapolation, 
although their gas-thermometer experiments appeared to indicate a 
cubic formula for temperatures below 1200° 0. 

The temperature of the melting point of platinum on the pla&mm 
scale by the resistance method (4) is approximately |>( = 18fi0°, and 
varies but slightly for different specimens of platinum. The result, 
when reduced to the scale of the gas-thermometer by assuming that 
the rate of increase of resistance diminishes uniformly with rise of 
temperature (according to the usual formula of platinum thermometry, 
which has been verified with great care at moderate temperatoiee^ 
gives a temperature of 1820° C. on the scale of the gas-thenncmeter. 
It is not improbable that platinum may deviate slightly from this 
formula at the extreme limit of the scale in the dose neighbourhood 
of its melting point, but the evidence for this result is at least a« 
good as that obtainable by any of the other methods. The observa- 
tions are very easy and accorate as compared with the calorimetric 
method, and it is not necessary to make any arbitrary assumptions 
with regard to the formula of reduction, as in the case of the thermo- 
electric method. 

As the accuracy of this formula has recently been called in ques- 
tion, on what appears to be insufSoient grounds, by certain German 
and French observers, it is the more interesting at the present time 
to show that it leads to a result which cannot be regarded as 
improbable at the extreme limit of the scale. A diffarent formula 
has recently been employed by Holbom and Wien, and supported by 
Dickson (PhiL Mag., December 1897). The writer has already given 
reasons ^hiL Mag., February 1899) for regarding this formula as 
inferior to the ori^nal, of which, however, it is a very close imitation. 
The above observations on the melting point of platinum, if reduced 
by Dickson's formula, would give a result 1=1636° C, which appeara 
to be undoubtedly too low as compared with the results of other 
methods, however great the margin of uncertainty we are prepared 
to admit in these difficult and debatable regions of temperature 
measurement. 

It should be observed that the results of Violle by method (2) 
are consistently lower than those given by the resistance method in 
the case of silver, gold and copper. We should, therefore, ezpeot a 



1899.] 



on Meatwriny Extreme Tempera turet. 



105 



difference in the eame direction at the F.P. of Ft as fonnd by method 
(i). And not a difference in the opposite direction as given by the 
thermo-electric method, on the arbitrary assomption of a different 
type of fonnnla for extrapolation at high temperatnrcs. It is a 
matter of some interest that the assumption of linear formnla for 
both the specific heat and the rate of change of resistance, should lead 
to reeolts so nearly consistent over so wide a range of temperature in 
the case of platinum. 

The chief difficulty and nncertainty encountered by Paschen in 
his experiments on radiatiuu, was that of arranging the thermo-oonple 
ao as to be at the same temperature as the radiating strip of platinum. 
It is better for this reason to measure the temperature of the strip 
itself by means of its eloctricAl resistance, the method adopted by 
Schleiermaclier, Bottumley and PetAvol. The same difficulty occurs 
in the direct comparison of the scales of the thormo-couplo and the 
platinum-resistance thermometer. The simplest method of avoiding 
this objection appears to be that recently Euiopted by the writer, of 
enclosing the thermo-couple completely in a thin tube of platinum, 
which itself forms the resistance thermometer. There can be no 
question of difference of temperature between the two, and the same 
tube may serve simultaneously for the expansion method and as a 
radiating source for bolometrio investigation of the law of radiation. 
The uniformity of temperature throughout the length of the tube 
can be tested at any time by means of potential leads, or by shifting 
the thermo-couple to different positions along its length. The method 
of electric heating is employed, and the central portion only of the 
tnbe is ntilised in the comparison. 

The methods of measurement, so far as considered, are in a certain 
•enae arbilrnry in so far as they depend on extrapolation of empirical 
funnnla. If all these methods could be reduced by direct comparison 
to perfect agreement with each other, a definite scale of temperature 
would bo attained to which all measurements could be referred, and 
which would leave notlilng to be desired from a purely practical 
point of view. It is probable that this scale would not differ much 
firam the theoretical or absolute scale of temperature. For tlieorotical 
iovestigations, however — without which no true scientific advance can 
be made— it is a matter of such fundamental importance to refer bverj 
maMBrament to the absolute scale, that no opportunity should bo 
Dcriooted of extending the possible range of accurate observation 
with the gas-thermometer, because this instrument affords at preseut 
the oloaest approximation to the absolute or theoretical scale. A 
OOBsiderAtion of the difficulties of the methods of gas-thormometry at 
proKnt ia use will lead naturally to the best methods of extending 
the range and accuracy of the instrument. 

In the ordinary method of gas-thermometry a bulb containing the 
gM te exposed to the temperature to be measured, and the observation 
aau ii t a ia doiermining either the expansion of volume or the incroaHe 
vi pnanire of the gas. The princijilo is very similar to that of the 



106 Profe$tor H. L. Cattendar [March 10, 

ordinary liquid in glass tbermometors, bat the apparatus is more 
cmubrons and difficult to nse on account of tbe necessity of observing 
both the volume and the pressure of the gas. This method is vary 
accurate at moderate temperatures, but the difficulties increase very 
rapidly above 1000° G. Above 1200° 0., it is doubtfal whether suoh 
measurements are of any greater value than those obtained by extia- 
polation. Apart from the difficulty (which is common to nearly all 
methods at high temperatures) of maintaining a uniform and steady 
temperature, the bulb-method of gas-tfaermomotry is liable to the 
following special sources of error : — 

(1) Changes in volume of the bulb. 

!2) Leakage and porosity. 
8) Occlusion or dissociation. 

In order to investigate these sources of error a special form of 
porcelain air-thermometer (Fig. 3) was designed by the writer, and 
was constructed in Paris, in December 1886, under the snpervision of 

PoRc^AiN Pyrometer 

C J* B 



C orD 





PUUumnv Wtrts ituidb 
Via. S. 

W. N. Shaw, F.B.S., of Emmanuel College, Cambridge. A figure 
and description of this instrument wore published in the Phil. Trans. 
A., 1887. The same form has since been adopted by MM. Holbom 
and Wien in their experiments on the measurement of high tempera- 
tures at the Beichsanstalt. Thick tubes of 3 sq. mm. cross section, 
marked ao, bd in Fig. 3, wore connected at each end of the cylindrical 
bulb BA. The length on could be directly observed at any time with 
reading microscopes, and the linear expansion of the bulb could be 
deduced. The volume of the bulb could also be gauged at any time 
with air, and the mean temperatures of the separate portions ab, ao, 
BD, could be determined by means of platinum wires extending along 
the axis of the instrument. This was a more essential part of the 
apparatus, as the wires afforded a moans of accurately reproducing 
any given set of conditions, and of testing the performance of the 



on Menturing Extreme Temperaturee. 



107 



gBA-thermomoter at high temperatnres in respect of all the varions 
Konrooe of error above mentioned. (1) It was observed that the 
▼olame of the bnlb underwent continnous changes, chiefly in the 

P direction of contraction, and that the shrinkage was not symmetrical, 
boiug apparently greater in the cLrcamference than in the length of 
Ibe cylinder. (2) To prevent leakage, and to close the pores of the 
material, it is necessary to have the porcelain bulb glazed both inside 
and oat. The glaze becomes sticky, and begins to run at a tempora- 
I tare below 1200° C, aad the bulb begins to yield slightly and con- 
tinuously to pressure above this point. (3) With some gases there 
appear to be slight traces of chemical action or occlusion of the gas 
by the walls of the bulb at high temperatures. It is for this reason 
prefinmble to use the inert gases nitrogen ur argon as the thermomctric 
material. In any case, the limit of high temperatnre measurement 
wonld be reach^ when either the gns, or the material of the bulb, 
began to dissociate or decompose. Dcvillo and Troost, employing 
CO, for filling the porcelain bulb, found the temperature of the B.P. 
of line nuarly 1.50^ liigher than with air or hydrogen. This they 
attributed to a partial dissociation of the CO^ at the temperature as 
low aa 930' G. Some experiments mode by the writer appeared, how- 
ever, to indicate that the effect was due to chemical action between 
the gas and the porcelain. 

For these and other reasons it appears very doubtful whether any 
improvement or extension of range con bo exijcctod firom the use of 
glazed porcelain. If an attempt is made to employ any of the more 
refractory kinds of fire-clay, there is the difSculty of finding a suit- 
able glaze, and of eliminating leakage and porosity. The writer 
Bnggwted the use of bulbs of fused silica some years ago (Proc. Iron 
and Steel Institute, 1892), and endeavoured to get such bulbs con- 
■troctod, but without success. This material possesses many of the 
reqaisito qualities, but is for this very reason extremely difficult to 
work. Metallic bulbs of platinum or platinum-iridium are by far 
the most perfect in resjKict of constancy of volume, regularity of 
expansion, and facility of accurate construction ; but unfortunately, 
aa Derville and Tror>st showed, they have such an inveterate tendency 
for ooolading or dissolving gases at high temperatures, that ttio use 
of metalltc bulbs has been practically discontinued, in spite of their 
obriona advantages in other respects. 

After making many vain experiments, the writer was forced to 
tbo conclusion that the ordinary bulb-metho<1s did not promise any 
■atis&ctory solution of the problem of extending the range of the 
gM-tharmometer, and that it was necessary to attempt a radically new 
ddpartnre. The optical method, depending on the measurcnient of 
the rcfmctivity of a gas at high temperatures, aad the acoustical 
mnthwl, depending on the observation of the wave-length of sound, 
nltliotigh of groat theoretical interest, did not appear to promise 
■ufficieul delicacy of measurement or facility of practical application. 
(lipcriments were therefore made on the methods of cfTutiiou oud 



108 Profeiaar H. L. CaOndar [Muoh W, 

transpiratioQ, which had been oocemonally snggested by prerkMi 
wr ten, bat have not as yet (bo fitr as the author ia aware) ba«a 
practically investigated as a means of measnring temperatnra oo ths 
absolote scale. The method of effusion consists in obaerring tha 
rosistanoe to the e£Sax of gas through a small hole or orifioe in a 
thin plate. In the method of transpiration the gas is made to pass 
through a fine tube instead of a small orifioe, and the resiattaaoe to iti 
passage is observed in a similar manner. These methods may ha 
called "resistance-methods" to distinguish them from the ordinaiy or 
" bulb-methods " of pyrometry. They are closely analogooa to dw 
now familar resistanoe-methcd of electrical pyrometry, and poaMi 
many of the advantages of that method in point of delioacj and 
facility of application. One very obvious and material advantagai 
osjiecially for high temperature work, is the smallneflB and aansitiw- 
ness of tiie instrument as compared with the bulb of an oidiiiaiy gMh 
thermometer. But the most important point of diffiarenoe, whieh lei 
the writer to the adoption of these methods, is that the mewnnmenti 
are practically unaffected by occlusion or evolution of gas hy As 
material of the tubes. There is a ctmUnuoits flow of gaa throng As 
apparatus. This flow is very large in proportion to amy poMibb 
leakage, and it is therefore possible to employ pUtinom tobei witt 
perfect safety. 

The method of effusion may be veiy simply illustrated hj msaiii 
of a fine hole in the side of a large and thin platinum tube whidi it 
heated by an electric current. The onrrent of air is heated ia its 
passage Uirough the tube before it effuses through the orifioe. The 
huated air expands in volnme, and the resiBtance to effusion is 
increased in proportion to the temperature to which the air ia heated. 
The increase of resistance may be shown by means of a gas-oaneiit 
indicator or " rheoscope," which consists of a delicately suspended 
vano deflected by a current of gaa A mirror is attached to the vane^ 
and the deflection is measured by the motion of a spot of light reflected 
on to a scale, exactly as in the case of the minor galvanometer when 
V 1 for indicating changes of electrical resistance. As a standard 
of comparison, to show £e changes of temperature of the tube, the 
changes of electrical resistance of the same tube are simultaneously 
shown by means of a suitable ohmmeter. 

The method of effusion is a beautifully simple method, and gives 
a nearly uniform scale ; but it has two disadvantages, which it shares 
with the thermo-electric method of measurement. (1) It neoessarily 
measures temperature at a point, namely at the point of effusion, aud 
cannot be easily arranged to give the mean temperature throughout a 
space. (2) It is di£&cult to make the effusion resistance sufficiently 
large for purposes of accurate measurement. A large rosistanoe 
means a very fine hole, and it is not easy to satisfy the theoretical 
conditions of the problem with sufficient accuracy and eliminate the 
effects of viscosity. 

The method of transpiration is more complicated, and does not 



1899.] 



<m Mtamring Extreme Temjperaturee. 



109 



give BO imifonn a Boale, or so simple a fonnnla. It has the great 
■dTantage^ howerer, that the theoretical oonditionB of flow maj be 
mlind with nnlimited accuracy, and that the transpiration resistance 
can be meaanred with a degree of precision verj little, if at all, 
inferior to the oorresponding electrical measoremeni 

The oomplioation of the transpiration problem arises from the 
ftfCt that the flow depends on the increase of the viscosity of the gas, 
M well aa on its expansion. The viscosity of liquids in general 
deenasea ferj oonsiderably with rise of temperatnre. That of water, 
for imtaiKW, is six times less at the boiling point than at the freezing 
poiat. If tiie viaoosity of gases diminished in a similar manner, it 
B%ht hi^vpen that the transpiration resistance would decrease with 
liae of temperature. Maxwell was the first to give a theoretical 
flKidanatian of the behaviour of gases in this respect. On certain 
■imple kinetic assumptions, he showed that the viscosity should 
inernase in direct proportion to the absolute temperature. Since the 
eqianaioii follows the same law, the transpiration resistance on 
Mazwall'i hypothesis should increase in proportion to the square of 
the temperature. This would give a fairly simple formula, and would 
maka the transpiration thermometer a very sensitive instrument, but 
the aoale wonld be very far from uniform. Maxwell made some 
experiments on the temperature variation of the viscosity between 0" 
and 100° 0., which appeared to give support to his mathematical 
■Mmnptions ; bnt his apparatus did not happen to be of a very suitable 
type for temperature measurement, and it is clear that he did not 
n^id this part of his experimental work with great confidence. 

The question of the viscosity of gases was next attacked with 
great vigour in Germany by a number of different physicists. They 
oltiniately succeeded in proving that the law was not quite so simple 
as ICaxwell had supposed, and that the rate of increase of viscosity 
was leaa than that of volume. A summary of some of the principid 
reaolta obtained, over the range 0° to 100° 0., is given in the following 



Tabus III. — Vabiatiom of Visoositt v with Tkhpkeattoz 
Formula, c/e, = (r/r,)'. 



Maxwell 

Meyer 

Poliy 

Obennejer 
Wiedenuum 

Wubmg 

„ and Knndt 

HolUMUl 



1866 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1876 
1876 
1876 



VkloM of Index n (0° to 100" a) 



Air. 

1000 
•61 - -83 
•47 - -65 

•76 

•73 
•74 - ^77 

•72 
•74 - ^80 



O,. 



•80 



•70 

•63 
•69 



OOj. 



•94 
•93 



110 Professor H. L. CaUendar [March 10, 

table, in which the rate of increase is expressed by finding the power 
n of the absolute temperature T to which the viscosity is most nearly 
proportionaL The most concordant resnlts were obtained by the 
method of transpiration, and gave an average of . '76 for the index « 
in the case of air. The more condensible gases gave larger values 
for the rata of increase, but the value for hydrogen appeared to be 
smaller. 

It will be observed that the results are not very concordant, but 
the experiments are much more difficult and liable to error than mi^t 
be supposed. The most accurate method was that employed by 
Holman, but even in this case the margin of uncertainty is considerable. 
It would evidently be impossible to employ the method of transpira- 
tion to any advantage for the determination of temperature, unless a 
far higher order of accuracy could be easily attained. After repeat- 
ing the majority of the more promising methods in detail, including 
the origin^ method of Maxwell, the writer came to the conclusion 
that they were entirely unsuitable for the purposes of thermometry, 
and would have abandoned the attempt entirely if he had not fortu- 
nately succeeded in finding a more perfect way. 

In studying the flow of electricity through conductors, which is 
in many respects analogous to that of a fluid through a fine tube, 
electricians have been compelled, from the intangible nature of the 
fluid with which they work, to elaborate the most delicate and power- 
ful methods of investigation. One of the most useful of these methods 
is generally known as the Wheatstone-bridge method, and is used for 
measuring the resistance of a conductor to the passage of an electric 
current. The method is equally applicable and equally exact for 
determining the resistance of a fine tube to the passage of a gaa. 
The writer was already very familiar with the application of this 
method in all its refinement of detail to electrical resistance thermo- 
metry. The suggestion for applying it to the closely analogous pro- 
blem of transpiration was supplied by the researches of W. N. Shaw, 
F.R.S., who had already applied it, in connection with certain experi- 
ments on ventilation, to the effusion of air through large orifices at 
ordinary temperatures. 

The apparatus used by Shaw (described in the Proc. Boy. Soa, 
vol. zlvii., 1890) consisted of boxes to represent rooms, with apertures 
about half a square inch in area to represent ventilators. Two of 
these apertures were made in the form of adjustable slits. The 
circulation of air through two rooms in parallel was maintained by a 
gas burner, and the slits were adjusted to make the pressure in the 
two rooms the same, as indicated by the absence of flow in a connect- 
ing tube, containing a pivoted needle and vane as a current detector. 
The balance was shown to be independent of the air-current when 
that was varied irom one to four cubic feet per minute. The effusion 
resistance of an aperture was also verified to be approximately 
proportional to the square of the reciprocal of the area, with apertures 
of similar shape. Tbis method of investigation was admirably adapted 



M 



on Measuring Extreme Temperatures. 



Ill 



I 



to problems in Tontilation, in which tho phononicna depend mainly on 
effnaion throngh relatively large aperturns. It would, however, bo 
difScolt to adapt to the problem of temperature measurement. It 
woald not be easy to moke an aperture which could be continuously 
Twied without changing its shape, and at the same time to measure 
the change of area with Bufficient accuracy, if the area were small 
enoogh to prevent appreciable cooling of tho thermometer by tho 
cnrrent of air flowing through it. There is also tho disadvantage 
that the pressure-difference varies as the square of the cnrrent ; so 
that, if very small currents are nscd, the effects of viscosity become 
more important, and the balanoo ceases to be independent of the 
carreot, nnless everything is symmetrical and at the same temperutore 
in corresponding parts. 

For these reasons it seems preferable, in applying the Wheatstone- 
bridge method to air-currents, to employ fine tubes as resistances, 
and to eliminote the effects of cfiiision as completely as possible, at 
looat in the resistance-moRsnring part of tho apparntue. With trans- 
piration n'sietancc-s the current is directly proportional to the prcssnro 
difference, the electrical analogy is much closer, and the theoretical 
crondition* con be very accurately realised. 

Tho Wheatstone-bridge method of measurement proved to be so 
exact, and so perfectly adapted to the problem of transpiration ther- 
mometry, that, after some preliminary experiments, the ^vritor had a 
Tory elaborate apparatus constructed, in the year 1893, which was in 
ewtrj detail the exact analogue of an electrical resistance thermometer. 
The floo wire resistances of tho electrical apparatus, in terms of 
which the change of resistance of the thermometer is measured, are 
replaced in the transpiration box by a graduated series of fine tubes, 
which csn be short-circuited by means of taps of relatively large bore, 
corresponding to the plugs of negligible resistance in the electrical 
tcsistanoe box. The galvanometer is replaced by a rhcoscope, con- 
Rtroctod after a pattern devised by Joule for a different purpose, 
which can be mode to rival in delicacy the best modern electrical 
inatrmnents. The pyrometer itself consists of a fine tube of platinum 
instead of a wire, and is fitted with " compenbatiug lends " to corre- 
spond with those of the electrical instrument. All the detail of the 
BStLuds of observation and calibration are faithfully copied from the 
■Iwitl ilisl apparatus, and the results, so far as tho nieasurement of 
trUMpastion resistance is concerned, are equally satisfactory. 

Fig. 4 is a diagram of a working model of the trnnspi ration 
lislaiioe, which was exhibited at the lecture. This model has a ver- 
tie*l peedla for index, and a pivoted mioa vane, which is deflected 
whtn m enrtcnt flowH through the bridge piece. It is constructed to 
«nork on the ordinary lighting-gas pressure, and to ^ivo its maximum 
dc4«eti«> for a 10 per cent, change of resistance with the gas about 
hmU oC With all tho tnps off, tho resistances on either side are equal, 
aad then it no deflection. In the diagram the balance is supposed 
U> hftVo boCB diatorbod by opening one of tho taps. The apparatus 



112 



ProfMMor H. L. CaUendar 



[Huoh 10, 



actually used for tempentnie measarement has sixteen taps and a 
mirror rheoscMpe, and is a thonsand times more sensitiTa 

In order to apply the meihod to the measarement of extrans 
temperatnres, it is not sufficient to be able to measnre resistanoe. It 
is also necessary to determine the law of the variation of visooeity 
with temperatnre. Here, again, recourse must be had to the method 
of extrapolation. Fortunately, in the present instance, the tempera- 
tnre can be measured ihrongh a very wide range, and the range of 
extrapolation, being limited by the melting point of platinuTn, is not 



GAS I OUTLET 




RATIO 



COILS . 



Fio. 4. — Disgram of Transpiration Balance. 



very great in comparison. It should be possible, therefore, by suffi- 
ciently varying the conditions of the experiments, and by comparing 
the behaviour of different gases throughout the whole range of tem- 
perature, to arrive at a very fair degree of certainty with regard to 
the essential nature of the phenomenon. Owing to want of leisure 
for the work, the author's experiments have not as yet extended over a 
sufficient range of temperatnre, except in the case of air, to warrant 
the publication of any general conclusions with regard to the law of 
variation of viscosity, or of any results at high temperatures obtained 
by the method of extrapolation. It may be stated, however, that the 
formula above quoted, according to which the viscosity varies as some 



1899.J <m Sbatwring Extreme Temperature: 118 

power « of the temperatoro, though UiAj exact over a moderate range 
of temperature, fiuls entirely when tested at higher points. The 
xeanlta of Obermajer appear to be the most aoonrate for the different 
gMes between 0° and 100° C, bat if the same furmnla is retained, the 
value of the index n diminishes as the temperature is raised. Taking 
tii0 average value between 0° and. 100° for air as being 0*76, the value 
ftlla to 0-70 between 100° and 45U°. A result of this nature was 
fbnnd b/ Wiedemann, but the rate of diminution which he gives 
appears to be far too great. He gives, for instance, the value n = - 67 
for air between 0° and 184°, which implies a rate of diminution of the 
index many times greater than that which actually occurs. It would 
be very difficult by the method which he employed to make sure of 
any deviation whatever from the formula over so small a range, and 
since the error of his determination is much greater than that of the 
fonnola, he can hardly be said to have disproved the index law. 

The problem is seriously compl-cated by the failure of the simple 
formola ; but since the measurements are capable of great exactitude, 
and amoe it is possible to obtain many independent checks by com- 
paring the results of the two methods of effusion and transpiration, 
and also by examining the behaviour of different gases, the author 
is confident of ultimate success. The method of experiment here 
described has already led to many promising and interesting results, 
and it is probable that the complete solntioa of the problem when 
attained, biesides leading to more accurate determinationB of extreme 
temperatnres, may also throw light ou dissociation and on many other 
points which are at present obscure in the theory of gases. 

[H. L. C] 



Vol. XVI. (No. 93.) 



114 Profator Franeia Ootch [Maidi 17, 



WEEKLY EVENING MEETING, 
Friday, March 17, 1899. 

Sib Jamss Cbichton-Bbownk, M.D. LL.D. F.B.S., Treasorer and 
Vioe>PresidenV in the Ohair. 

Fbovebbob Fbamois Gotoh, M.A. F.B.S. 

The EUetric Fish of the Nile. 

The lecture dealt almost exolasively with the formidable fish fonncl 
in the rivers of North and of West Africa, Malapterunu flectrieus. 

Photographs were shown of the drawings npon the interior of the 
tomb of Ti, showing that the fish was recognised as remarkable by the 
Egyptians five thousand years before the Christian era. Living 
specimens of the fish were also displayed, these having been given to 
the lecturer, for the pnrpose of illostrating the lecture, by the authori- 
ties of the Liverpool OOTpoiation Museum. 

The structure of the electrical organ was then described. It is 
situated in the skin enclosing the whole body of the fish, and has a 
beantiful and characteristic appearance when seen in mioroscopio 
sections. Each organ consists of rows of compartments, and each 
compartment has slung athwart it a peculiar protoplasmic diso 
shaped like a peltate leaf, with a projecting stalk on its caudal side. 
Nerves enter each compartment, and end, according to the recent work 
of Ballowitz, in the stalk uf each disc. By these nerves nervous 
impulses can reach the organ ; the arrival of such impulses at tho 
nerve terminations evokes a state of activity which is associated with 
the development of electromotive charges of considerable intensity 
constituting the organ shock. Tho shock is an intense current travers* 
iug the whole organ from head to tail and returning through the sur> 
roimdings ; it stnns small fish in the neighbourhood and can be felt 
by man when the hand is placed near the fish, as a smart shock reaching 
up the arms to the shoulders. 

Becent investigations mode by tho lecturer at Oxford in conjunct 
tion with Mr. G. J. Burch were next described. Those comprised 
a large scries of photographic records uf the displacement of the 
mercury of a capillary eloctrometor in consequence of tho electrical 
disturbance in tho organ which is " the organ shock." A number of 
these records were exhibited ; they showed tho time relations, mode 
of commencement and manner of subsidence of the shock, and demon- 
strated its similarity to the electrical changes known to exist in 
nervous tissue during the passage of a nervous impulse. A remark- 
fiblo feature of the organ shock as distinct from the phenomena of 



1899.] m ihe Eleclrie Fith of ihe NUe. 116 

nerre was then bronght forward. The shock even when evoked by a 
single stunnlns was shown to be rarely if ever a single one. Each 
effect consists of a rhythmical series of electrical changes occurring 
one after another in a perfectly regular manner at intervals of j}^" to 
3^", the rate depending upon the temperature. By special experiments 
it was shown that this rhythmical series is due to self excitation, 
each change prodnoing an electrical current of sufficient intensity to 
exoite the nerves of the tissue in which it was generated. It follows 
that only the initial member of the series need be evoked by nervous 
impulses descending the nerves, since the others must then ensue. 
The potency of the organ as a weapon to be wielded by the fish is 
thus enormously increased by its resemblance to a self-loading and 
self-discharging automatic gun. The total electromotive-force of the 
whole organ in a fish only eight inches long can reach the surprising 
mazimnm of 200 volts, at any rate in the case of the initial shock. 
The attainment of this mazimnm is due to the simultaneous develop- 
ment of perfectly similar electromotive changes in each of the two 
million discs of which the organ is composed. In a single disc the 
m^Timal electromotive-force only amounts to from * 04 to * 05 volt, 
and since in a small nerve an electrical change of * 03 to -04: volt 
has been observed, the large total effect is not due to any extra- 
ordinarily intense electrical disturbance in each tissue element, but 
to the tissue elements being so arranged that the effect in one 
angments those simultaneously produced in its neighbours. 

Finally, the remarkable characters of the nervous connections of 
the organ were described. Each lateral half of the organ, although 
it has a million plates receiving nerve branches, is innervated by 
one single nerve fibre and this is the offshoot of a single giaut nerve- 
cell situated at the cephalic end of the spinal cord, l^e structure 
of this nerve-oell was displayed by means of microscopic sections 
and by wax models made by G. Mann, of Oxford. As regards the 
nervous impulses which the fish can discharge through this nerve- 
coll, experimental results were described which show that the fish 
is incapable of sending a second nervous impulse after a preceding 
one until a period of y',y second has elapsed, and that this interval is 
rapidly lengthened by fatigue to as much as several seconds. The 
inability of the central nervous system to repeat the activity of the 
organ obviously presents disadvantages to the use of the shock as a 
weapon for attack or defenee, but such disadvantage is more than 
counterbalanced by the property of the organ alluded to in the 
earlier port of the lecture, viz. that of self-excitation, since a whole 
series of shocks continue to occur automatically in rapid succession 
provided that an initial one has been started by the arrival at the 
organ of a nervous impulse sent out from the central norve-coll. 

[F. G.] 
I 2 



116 Lord Baylagk [Maroh 24, 

WEEKLY EVENING MEETING, 

Friday, Mansh 24, 1899. 

Sib Fbxdebiok Bbamwkll, Babt., D.CX. LL.D. F.B.S., 
Honorary Secretary aod Vice-President, in the ChaiT. 

The Eight Hon. Loed Eatuhoh, M.A. D.CX. LL.D. F.B.S. JLB.7., 
Professor of Natural Philosophy, B.I. 

Transparency and Opacity. 

Onk kind of opacity is doe to absorption; bnt the leotnre dealt 
rather with that deficiency of transparency which depends npon 
irregular reflections and re&aotions. One of the best examples is 
that met with in Christiansen's experiment. Powdered glass, all 
from one piece and free from dirt, is placed in a bottle with parallel 
flat sides. In this state it is qnite opaque; bat if the interstioes 
between the fragments are filled up with a liquid mixture of bisulphide 
of carbon and benzole, carefully adjusted so as to be of equal refrao- 
tiyity with the glass, the mass becomes optically homogeneous, and 
therefore transparent. In consequence, however, of the different 
dispersive powers of the two substances, the adjustment is good for 
one part only of the spectrum, other parts being scattered in trana- 
mission much as if no liquid were employed, though, of course, in a 
less degree. The consequence is that a small source of light, backed 
preferably by a dark ground, is seen in its natural outlines bat strongly 
coloured. The colour depends upon the precise composition of the 
liquid, and further varieewith the temperature, a few degrees of warmth 
sufficing to cause a transition from red through yellow to green. 

The lecturer had long been aware that the light regularly trails 
nutted through a stratum from 15 to 20 mm. thick was of a high 
degree of purity, but it was only recently that he found to his 
astonishment, as the result of a more particular observation, that the 
^nge of refrangibility included was but two and a half times that 
embraced by the two D-lines. The poverty of general effect, when 
the darkness of the background is not attended to, was thus explained ; 
for the highly monochromatic and accordingly attenuated light trom 
jthe special source is then overlaid by diffused light of other colours. 

More precise determinations of the range of light transmitted 
were subsequently effected with thinner strata of glass powder con- 
tained in cells formed of parallel glass. The cell may be placed 
between the prisms of the spectroscope and the object-glass of the 
collimator. With the above mentioned liquids a stratum 6 mm, thick 
transmitted, without appreciable disturbance, a range of the spectrum 
pleasured by 11*3 times the interval of the D's. La another cel| of 



1899.] 



oti Trantparency attd Opacity. 



117 



I 



the same thicknoss no effort was made to reduce the difference of 
diapersivc powers. To this end the powder was of plate glass and 
the liquid oil of cedar-wood adjusted with a little bisulphide of carbon. 
The general transparency of this cell was the highest yet obscrvocl. 
When it was tested upon the spectrum, the range of refningibility 
transmitted was estimated at 34 timee the interval of the D's. 

As regards the substitution of other transpareut solid material 
for glass, the choice is restricted by tho presumed necessity of avoiding 
appreciable double refraction. Common suit is singly refracting, 
bat attempts to use it were not sucoesfful. Opaque patches always 
interfered. With the idea that these might be due to included mother 
liquor, the salt was heated to incipient redness, but with little advan- 
tage. Transparent rock-salt artificially broken may, however, be asod 
with good effect, but there is some difficulty in preventing the approxi- 
mately rectangular fragments from arranging themselves too closely. 
The principle of evanescent refraction may also be applied to the 
pe. Some twenty years ago, an instrument had been oon- 
npon this plan. Twelve 9(f prisms of Chance's " dense 
were cemented in a row upon a strip of glass (Fig. 1), and the 
whole was immersed in a liquid mixture of bisulphide of carbon with 
little benzole. The dispersive power of the liquid uxcoeds that of 
the solid, and the difference amounts to about threeniuarters of tho 





FlQ. 1. 

dieponrre power of Chance's " extra dense flint." Tho resolving 
power of lht< latter gloss is measured by the number of centimetres of 
•TsOable thickness, if we take the power required to resolve tho 
D-liaM M nnity. The compound Bp<>ctr(wcopo had an available 
tilicfcimiiB of 12 inches or 30 cm., so that its theoretical resolving 
powsr ^in the yellow region of the spectrum) would be ab<mt 22. 
With the aid of a reflector the prism could bo used twice over, and 
then the rmolving power is doubled. 

Ono of the objections to a spectroscope depending upon bi- 
iljphide vf carbon is the sensitiveness to temperature. In the 
' arrungeinctit of prisms tlie refracting edges ore vertical. If, 
happens, the upper part of a tluid prism is warmer than the 
krwsr, Ibu deliuitiun is ruined, one degree (Centigrade) of temporatoie 
irnVfrrff nine timc« as great a ditference of refraction as a passage 
froo D, lo D,. The objection is to a great extent obviated by so 
nottntiog the compound prism that tho refracting edges are horizontal, 
vhioii of ooiiri>e entails a horizuntal slit. The disturbance duo to a 
■tmitUd Icmpbniture ia then largely comiHinsated by a change of focus. 
In tile iuatrumout above described the disiiorsivo power is great — 




118 Lord Bayleigh [March 24, 

the D-Iines are seen widely separated with the naked eye — ^bat the 
aperture is inconveniently small (J^-inch). In the new instmment 
^hibited the prisms (supplied by Messrs. Watson) are larger, so that 
a line of ten prisms occnpies 20 inches. Thos, while the resolTing 
power is much greater, the dispersion is lees than before. 

In the course of the lecture the instmment was applied to show 
the duplicity of the reversed soda lines. The interval on the screen 
between the centres of the dark lines was about half an inch. 

It is instructive to compare the action of the glass powder with 
that of the spectroscope. In the latter the disposition of the prisms 
is regular, and in passing from one edge of the beam to the other 
there is complete substitution of liquid for glass over the whole 
length. For one kind of light there is no relative retardation ; and 
the resolving power depends upon the question of what change of 
wave length is required in order that its relative retardation may be 
altered from zero to the quarter wave length. All kinds of light for 
which the relative retardation is less than this remain mixed. In 
the case of the powder we have similar questions to consider. For 
one kind of light the medium is optically homogeneous, i.e. the re- 
tardation is the same along all rays. If we now suppose the quality 
of the light slightly varied, the retardation is no longer precisely the 
same along all rays ; but if the variation from the moan fitlls short of 
the quarter wave length it is without importance, and the medium 
still behaves practically as if it were homogeneous. The diJkrenoe 
between the action of the powder and that of the regular prisms in 
the spectroscope depends upon this, that in the latter there is com- 
plete substitution of glass for liquid along the extreme rays, while in 
the former the paths of all the rays lie partly through glass and 
partly through liquid in nearly the same proportions. The difference 
of retardations along various rays is thus a question of a deviation 
from an average. 

It is true that we may imagine a relative distribution of glass and 
liquid that would more nearly assimilate the two oases. If, for 
example, the glass consisted of equal spheres resting against one 
another in cubic order, some rays might pass entirely through glass 
and others entirely through liquid, and then the quarter wave length 
of relative retardation would enter at the same total thickness in both 
cases. But such an arrangement would be highly unstable ; and, if 
the spheres be packed in close order, the extreme relative retardation 
would bo much less. The latter arrangement, for which exact results 
could readily be calculated, represents the glass powder more nearly 
than does the cubic order. 

A simplified problem, in which the element of chance is retained, 
may be constructed by supposing the particles of glass replaced by 
thin parallel discs which are distributed entirely at random over a 
certain stratum. Wo may go further and imagine the discs limited to 
a particular plane. Each disc is sup]>o6od to exercise a minute re- 
tarding influence on the light which traverses it, and they aro sup- 



1899.] 



nn Trantparency and Opacity. 



lli> 



posed to be so ntunerona that it is improbable that a ray can puss the 
plane withont enconiiteriog a largo number. A certain number (m) of 
enoouoterB is more probable than any other, but if every ray on- 
oonotered the same number of discs, the retardation would be uniform 
and lead to no disturbance. 

It is a question of Probabilities tr» determine the chance of a itre- 
Bcribed nunilHT of encountci-s, or of n prescribed deviation from the 
mean. In the notation of the integral calcolua the chance of the 
ion from m lying between + r is * 







;'•-' 



I 



T = r/V(2»»), This is equal to -84 when t= I'O, or 
^ (2 m) ; so that the chanoo is comparatively siiiall of a doviatiun 
from m exceeding ± ^^(2 m). 

To represent the glass powder occupying a stratum of 2 cm, 
tUok, we may perhaps suppose that m = 72. There would thus be u 
Botlenic chanoe of a differonco of retardations equiil to, say, mie-fifth 
of tho eitrumu dififercnce corroB{>onding to a substitution of glass for 
liquid tliroughout the whole thickness. The range of wave lengths in 
the light regularly transmitted by the powder would thus bo about 
five times the range of wave lengths still unseparatcd in a spectroscope 
of eqnal (2 cm.) thickness. Of court>e, no calculation of this kind can 
give more than a rough idea of the action of the powder, whose dis- 
]>n«ition, though partly a matter of chance, is also iuduonoud by mc- 
■*f**''**' considerations ; but it appears, at any rate, that the character 
of tbo light regularly transmitted by the powder is such as may reason- 
ably be explained. 

Aa ro^rds the size of the grains of glass, it will be seen that as 
gnat or a greater degree of parity may bo obtained in a given thick- 
IM* Iram coarse grains as from fine ones, but the light not regularly 
tnasmittod is dispersed through smaller angles. Here again the 
eoniparison with the regularly disposed prisms of an actual spectro- 
teope ia nsefaL 

B^t the cloae of the lecture the failure of transparency which arises 
K the praaenoe of particles small compared to the wave lougth of 
Pl waa discnssed. The tints of the setting sun wore illustrated 
paaaing the light from the oloctric lamp through a liquid in wliich 
_ pmdpitato of sulphur was slowly forming. | Tbo lecturer gave 
reaaoDS for bis opinion that the blue of the sky is not wholly, or even 
principally, due to particles of foreign matter. The moleculos of 
air UiemselTes aro competent to disperse a light not greatly inferior 
ia bfiobtnoH to that which wo receive from the sky. 

[E.1 



• Bm ITill, *Cnir 1800, vol. xlrli. p. 251. t Op. cit. 1881, vol. xu. p. 9a 



120 General MontUy Meeting. [April 10, 



GENEEAL MONTHLY MEETING, 

Monday, April 10, 1899. 

His Grace the Dukk of Nobthtjhbebland, President, in the Chair. 

Mrs. Aston, 

Thomas Os^vald Belshaw, Esq. 

Wilfred HaU, Esq. 

Mrs. F. McClean, 

were elected Members of the Boyal Institution. 

The Special Thanks of the Members were returned for the follow- 
ing Donations to the Fund for the Promotion of Experimental Beaeaioh 
at Low Temperatures : — 

Sir Benjamin Baker, E.C.M.G £60 

Nobel's Explosives Company . . . . £106 

His Grace the Duke of Northumberland announced that the 
Hodgkins Medal, which was the first gold medal for scientific work 
ever given by the Smithsonian Institution, had been awarded to 
Professor Dewar in recognition of his discoveries in the liquefaction 
of air. In making the announcement His Grace congratulated Pro- 
fessor Dewar on the honour conferred on him, and also on the Boyml 
Institution, which he regarded as specially gratifying as a sympathetic 
recognition of scientific work and discovery in this country, coming 
from the great nation of our own blood on the other side of the 
Atlantic. 

The Prksknts received since the last Meeting were laid on the 
table, and the thanks of the Members returned for the same, viz. : — 

FBOM 

The Secretary of State for India — Progress Bt'port of the Arrbieological Sarvey 

of Western India fur the year ending June 1898. fol. 
r/ie iMrdt of the AdmiraUi/— The Nautical Almunac for 1902. 8to. 1899. 
The Britith Muteum (Natural if/tfory)— Catalogue of tlie Lepidoptura Phaltana, 
Vol. L Text and Plates. 8vo. 1898. 
Catalogue of Welwitscli's African Plants, Parts 2, 3. By W. P. Hiem. 
List of the Typen and figured fc^pecimens of Fossil Cephalopoda. 8vo. 1898. 
The Meteordlogieal 0/^oe— Report of the Meteorological Council to Boyal Society 

• for year ending March 31, 1898. 8vo. 1898. 
Accademia dei lAncei, Reale, lioma — Class© di Scienze Moruli, Storicbe e Filo- 
logiche: Rendiconti. Serio Quinta, Vol. VII. Kasc. 12. 8to. 1899. 
AttI, Serie Quintn: Rcndimnti. CInsse di Scienze Fisiohc, &o. l"Beme^re, 
Vol. VIII. Fiuw. 4, 5. 8vo. 1899. 



1899.] General Monthly Meeting. 121 

JyrieuUmral Sooiety of England— Jovavkl, Vol. X. Part 1. Sto. 1899. 
Ameriean Omgraphical &>nate— Bnlletin, VoL XXXL No. 1. 8va 1899. 
Annttnmg, Lord, C.B. P.RM. M.BJ. — Supplement to Lord Arnutrong's work 
on Elvctrio Movement in Air and Water. By Lord Aimatroog and H. Strond. 
foL 1899. 
A$iaUe Society, Royal (Bombay .Branei)— Jonnial, VoL XX. Na 54. 8td. 1898. 
Attronomieal Society, Boyol— Monthly Notioes, VoL LIX. No. 5. 8va 1899. 
Banker*, Ingtitute o/— Journal, Vol. XX. Part 3. 8vo. 1899. 
Boeton. V SJi., PuhUe Library— tiaathlj Bulletin of Books added to the Library, 

VoL IV. No. 3. 8va 1899. 
Bottom Society of Mrdioal Seienea—Jauruti, VoL IIL Noa. 2-7. 8Ta 1898-99. 
Briilol Mueeum and Be/erenee Library — Report of the Mnaenm Committee, 

189&-98. 8to. 1899. 
BritiMk Ardtiteete, Royal ImtituU o/'— Journal, VoL VI. Noe. 9, 10. 8to. 1899. 
Brititk Aitronomieal Attoeiaiioa—iomnai, Vol. IX. No. 5. 8to. 1899. 
CnMra dai— Jonmal for March, 1899. 8to. 

dumieal Induttry, Society of—Jouiaal, Vol. XVIIL Na 2. Sw. 1899. 
Chemieai AwMy— Piooeedings, Noh. 205, 206. 8Ta 1899. 

Joomal for March, 1899. 8to. 
CUea^o. Field Columbian JTiweum -Annual Report, 1897-98. 8vo. 1898. 
OoeMM, VAeadfmiei det &»eiMK(— Bulletin IntemationaL 1899, No. 2. 8fa 
CiOltr, R. JfJ).— Phonatiun. 8to. 1899. 
Ediimm — American Journal of Science for Marsh, 1899. 8to. 

Analyst for March, 1899. 8to. 

Anthiony's Photographic Bulletin for March, 1899. 8ro. 

AsbD|diysical Journal for Feb. 1899. 8to. 

Athenanm for March, 1899. 4ta 

Anthor for March, 1899. 

KmetaUiat for March, 1899. 

Brewen^ Journal for March, 1899. 8va 

Chemioal News for March, 1899. 4to. 

Ohemiat and Druggist for March, 1899. Sro. 

Ednoation fur March, 1899. 8to. 

Bectrieal Engineer for March, 1899. foL 

Electaical Kngineering for Majch, 1899. 8vo. 

Eleetriaal Bcriew for March, 18»9. Sro. 

Engineer for March, 1899. loL 

Engineering for March, 1899. foL 

Homoeopathic Review for March, 1899. 

Horologicai Journal for March, 1899. 8to, 

Industries and Iron for March. 1899. foL 

luTention for March, 1899. 8to. 

Journal of Physical Oliemistry for Feb. 1899. 8to. 

Journal of State Medicine for March, 1899. 8to. 

Law Journal for March, 1899. B\o. 

Machinery Market for March, 1899. 8to. 

Nature for Marcli, 1899. 4to. 

New Church Maj^izinc for March, 1893. 8vo. 

Phnical Review for Feb. 1899. 8vo. 

Public Health Engineer for March, 1899. 8vo. 

Science Abstracts, Vol. II. Parts 2, 3. 8vo. 1899. 

Science Sifting* for March, 1899. 8va 

Science of Man for Feb 1899. 

Terrestrial Magnetism for March, 1899. 8vo. 

Travel for March, 1899. 8vo. 

Tropical Agriculturist for March, 1899. 8vo. 

Zoophilist lor March, 1899. 4to. 
EUetrieal Ei^neert, /netUution o/— Journal, VoL XXVIL Noe. 137, 138. 8vo. 
1899. 



122 Omeral MontMs Meeting. [April 10, 

Florenee, Biblioteea Nazionale (>iUr<iI«— Bollettino, No. 316. 8ro. 1898. 
Florence, BeaUAecademiadeiGeorgofiU^Aiti, Vol XXL l}isp.S,i. Sra 1899. 
Franklin ImtUtUe — Journal for March, 1899. 8vo. 
Geographieal Sociehi, Royal — Geograpliical Journal for March, 1899. 8vo. 

Ytiur Book and Eecnrd, 1899. 8to. 
Ghew,A.B.Eaq.(fheAuiKor) — Beal Municipal Government for London. 8to. 1899. 
GladiUme, Dr. J. H. F.XJS. 3f.B.I.— Tijdachrift van het Kon. NederlandaBfa 

AardrijkBkondig Genootscliap. Tweeile Serle, Deel XIV. 8to. 1897. 
Odteborgt HSgtkola—Gotehorga Hogskolaa Arsskrift, Band IV. 8to. 1898. 
Harvard College— Anaual Beports of the President and the Treasurer, 1897-^ 

8vo. 1899. 
BorticuUural Society, Hoja7— Journal, Vol. XXII. Part 4. 8to. 1899. 
Imperial Zn<(t<u(e— Imperial Institute Journal for Marcli, 1899. 
Jahr, Emil, Eiq. (the ilutAor)— Die Urkraft. 8vo. 1899. 

Boitrag zur oliemiaohen Wirkung des Magnetismns. 4to. 1898. 
tjber die Gleichartigkeit gewliser chemiscber Wirknngen des dektrisohen 
Stromes and des Magnetismns anf Brouisilber-Gelatine-Trockenplatten. 
4to. 1899. 
Johm Hopkins Univertily — American Chemical Journal for Maroh, 1899. 8to. 

University Ciroulars, No. 139. 4to. 1899. 
London County Council Technical Education Board — London Technical EAaatf 

tion Gazette for Feb.-March, 1899. 8vo. 
Madrid, Beal Academia de Ciencias — Annario, 1899. 24mo. 
Mauachuiettt State Board of Health — Twenty-ninth Annual Report. 8vo. 1898. 
Menebrmgahe, O. Van der, Esq. (the Author)-— kinde sur I'in&ncnce uxercde par 
un cnamp £lectrique sur un mince jet d'ean. 8vo. 1899. 
L'air atmosph^que exen»-t-il une influence sur la hantenr d'nn minoe Jet 

d'eao? 
Prinoipes g^ndraux d'uno nouvelle th&>rie eapillaire. 8vo. 1899. 
8ar I'interpnStation du principe d'AichimMe fond^ sur la parfaite elaatieit^ des 

liquidee. 8to. 1898. 
Le principe d'Archimede et I't^galitd de Taction et de la roustion. 8to. 1898, 
Bur une r&istanoc spdeiale constate ii la surface des grands coura d'eau. 8vo. 

1898. 
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Sur los noiubrens effets do relnsticitd des liquidea 8vo. 1808. 
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National Academy of Sciencee, Wathimjton — Memoirs, Vol. VIII. 4lo. 1898. 

Report for 1898. 8vo. 1809. 
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Numitmatie Society — Chiunicle and Journal, 1899, Port 1. 8vo. 
Odontological Society of Great Britain — ^Transactions, Vol. XXXI. No. 4. Sva 

1899. 
Onnet, Prof. B. K. — Communications from the Physical Laboratory at the 

University of Leiden, Nos. 45, 46 and Supplement No. 1. 8vo. 1898-99. 
ParU, SoeiMi Fran<;a%»e de PAysioue— Bulletin, No. 129. 8to. 1899. 
PhamuKeutical Society of Great Britain — Journal for March, 1899. 8vo. 
Pliotographic Society of Great Britain, Royal — The PhotOjj;raphio Journal for 

Feb. 1899. 8vo. 
Queen's College, GaJioay— Calendar, 1808-09. 8vo. l.-OO. 
Some, Uinidry of Public TTorfcs— Giomale del Genio Civile, 1898, Fasc. 12. 8vo. 

1898. 
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Boyal Society of Edirburgh — Tninsuctions, Vol. XXXIX. Part 2. 4to. 1899. 

Proceedings, Vol. XX U. No. 3. 8vo. 1808. 
Boyal Soeieti/ of Xo;«io»»— Philosophical TranaactiouK, Vol. CXCII. A. No. 232. 
4to. 1899. 
Proceedings, Nos. 409, 410. 8vo. 1899. 



1899.] Oenend MmUkip MeHi»g. 12S 

filuM Boeitlf ^ Beienee*, Royal— 
lb/kewtati*ek-Pkf$itdta CZane— 

Beriobte, 1899, No. 1. 8to. 
SeaUuk Mienmsopieal Soeuty—PnceaixaeB, Vol. II. No. 3. 8to. 1897-98. 
SO k u m Ateiefy— Nature Notes for March, 1899. 8to. 
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CDding June, 1896. Sra 18g& 
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a<i«i>faal Society, Bomil-Joumal, Vol. LXK. Tart 1. 8to. 1899. 
roeektai. Pro/. P. Hon. JTom. It.1. (the Authory~M.emone della Societlt degli 

SDettitMcopirti Italian!. Vol. XXVIL Diap. 12. 4to. 1898. 
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Vmited Staiet Department of Agrieulture — Experimeat Station Record, VoL IX. 

Noa 6, 7; Vol. X. Noa. 3, 6. 8va 1898. 
KzpiTriinent Station Bulletin, Noa. 49, 54. 8vo. 1898. 
Vuited Staia Department of the Jnier/or— Eighteenth Annual Beport of the U.S. 

Geoloidcal SorTey, Vola. I.-V. 4to. 1897. 
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Ihilei Statm Patent aj^ieo— Official Oaiette, Vol. LXXXVI. Noe. 8-18. 8vo. 



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Heft 8. 4to. 
TeiUUrt PkHoeophieal iS<>eie(y— Annual Beport for 1898. 



124 Barik CunvnU and Eledrie Traction. [April 14, 



WEEKLY EVENING MEETING, 

Friday, April 14, 1899. 

Sib WnxiAH Cbookbb, F.R.8., Yioe-Preddent, in the Chair. 

PaorusoB A. W. BdouB, M.A. D.So. Sec.B.S. M.B.L 

Barik Owrrentg and EUdrie Traction. 

DiBonasDia the cause of the earth's magnetism, the lecturer said it 
might be dne to the existence of electric currents at a considerable 
distance below the surface or to the presence of magnetised material 
within the earth. He described tne magnetarinm constructed by 
Mr. Henry Wilde iu accordance with the latter hypothesis and the 
means by which he was able to reproduce on a suitably arranged 
geographical globe the magnetic condition of the earth as obserred 
in nature. He came to the conclusion, after an examination of tha 
di£Sculties involved, that the hypothesis must be admitted to be at 
least one that was not physically impossible. Turning next to the 
artificial surface currents such as resulted from electric railways, he 
pointed out how dangerous they were to magnetic observatories. 
This danger was first experienced in America, where rough methods 
of construction had produced great disturbances, the observatories at 
Washington and Toronto having been ruined from this cause. 
Doubtless construction both in England and America had greatly 
improved, but that did not end the matter, for it was not certain that 
the most careful construction could entirely prevent the evil. The 
engineers concerned in the various industrial enterprises had received 
those connected with the observations very kindly and had agreed to 
practice certain precautions, such as not putting currents to eartii 
and providing for insulated return wires. Still ^e next year or two 
must be an anxious time, since if these measures proved ine£Scient, 
the observatories would have to be moved, and a break be caused in 
the observations of which it was very important to preserve the con- 
tinuity. In conclusion he discussed the possibility of the ezistenoe 
of currents between earth and air. 



1899.] Strueture of tie Brain in Beiatim lo U$ Funetioit*. 125 



WEEKLY EVENING MEETINO, 

Friday, April 21, 1899. 

8iK jAMn CuoHTOR-BBovira, M.D. LL.D. F.B.8., Treasurer and 
Vioe-President, in the Chair. 

Fbdiuok Wauckb Mott, ILD. F.EJB. 

Simeiwre of Ae Brain in Bdation lo it$ Funeiioni. 

Wbat we know, eren what we believe we know, of the re]ati<m of the 
atmctnre of the brain to its f onctiong is oompaiatiTely small indeed 
to what we do not know. The history of the evolation of onr know- 
ledge at the Btmctnre of the nerrons syatem is foil of interest, bnt 
time will not permit me to mention more than the &ct that Descuies, 
althoni^ he was never able to see the stmctore of the nerrons system, 
yet considered the nerrons fibres to consist of little tnbes along which 
the " animal spirits " were conveyed from the brain to the muscles ; 
if we sabatitate the phrase " oervons impulse " for animal spirits, his 
conception was not so very &r behind our conception of this stmcture 
at the present time. 

At the banning of this oentnry the microscope demonstrated 
that the nerrons fibre was not a hollow tabe, bnt that it contained a 
oeotral solid axial core. A little later, microscopical research showed 
that the brain not only contained nerve fibre* bnt myriads of little 
maanon of protoplasm of a regular shape — nerve eeU*. These are 
the two essential elements of the nervous system of all animnl^i with 
a nervons system. At first, microscopical research was unable to 
deterxnine the relationship of the cells to the fibres in the bnun. 
All that was known was that the fibres were futud in the white 
matter, the cells in the grey matter ; where the fibres came &om and 
where they went to, was not known. Later on, I shall endeavour to 
show the enormous advance which has been made in onr knowledge 
of the minute structure of the nervous system, by the invention of 
instmmonts with which extremely thin slices of the brain can be 
cat; so that these delicate sections can be examined with the high 
magnifying powers of the microscope. These sections are stained 
withvarions chemical reagents so that dififorent stmctaral features in 
the nerve cells and fibres are seen by the affinity tliey possess fur 
oolonring with the reagents used. The brilliant amlino dyes are 
among tho most nsofnl uf these reagents. The investigation of the 



126 



Dr. Frederick Walker MoU 



[April 21, 



minate Btrnctnre of the biain is truly a ino«t elaborate microdiemioal 
study, and vre can test the condition of the tisanes of the body by 
their colonr reactions, on the same principle that the chemist tests 
fluids by colonr reactions in his test tube. 

Before proceeding farther, however, I feel that my remarks will 
bo more intelligible if I point ont some of the more important 
features in the general anatomy of the brain. 




Fio. 1. 

Diiifn^mraatic rcprcsentntion of tlio Cerebral Cortex, showing tUe nrnroncs 
n i(li their pruceiwoB, also Hciiaory iuguiug, motor outgoing, and oaaociatiou fibra; 
lifter Foster. 



If you look at a series of brains of vortobratos yon will obeerre 
that as you rise in tbe zoological scale the brain becomes more and 
more complex in structure, until in man it reaches its highest 
degree of complexity. Yet, architecturally speaking, these brains 
are all built on the same general plan, and at one time during its 
development the human brain was as simple in structure as that of a 
bird or fish. Moreover, the niicroscopioal nervous units wliich make 
up the strnctnro of the brain of all verfobiiitcp are coiiptrucfod on a 




J- 



Ifciuuil 



TifiKJirtr 



Fia. 



Irt.vT^.i.i. nf a Section of a. Dog'g Uinin, i-tniiicil by Cox'h mutliod. 
motor cillg wiiciiiig tlicir prowuM?* ii)i to tlie ^llrfo■■^3 hiyer 
I .:.l) liltrit), wliicli Serve to lirtng tlitiu iiilu rulnLiou with tbe 
ug liUn«. Mugiiifieil 100 iliam. 




fKV-r: 





Fio. 8a. SectioD of the Brain of a 
Healthy Man, killed euddcnly by b 
8tab in the heart. Shows layers of 
neurones of the cerebral cortex (grey 
mutter). Magnified ISO dium. 



Fio. 3ji. Seot'on of the Brain of », 
case of Juvenile General Pnr«ly»iso(| 
the InsaDc. from the Hunc tfjn"o ofi 
tlie brain. Hliowa great dim iu til ion and'' 
atrophy uf tin; nervous tltnunla in lli«' 
grey matter. Miignified ISU diaoi. 



•J 



1899.] o* Strueiure of Oe Braim in Belaiion to it$ FunetioM. 127 

similar pl«n, only in man they aie rolatiTely mora nnmerons, mora 
Tuied Mid more complex. 

If a bnin be diced into, it will be seen that the centre is whiter 
and that it has a mantle or rind of a greyish colonr. This grey 
mantle oonsiBts of oomitless millions of cells with their prooessea 
The photograph I am showing is of a tiny speck of grey snbstanoe of 
the brain highly magnified. Yon ohsrare the little pyramids of 
ptotqilasm with a nnolens in the middle sending out branches in all 
directions, these processes forming apparently a delicate network. 
The whole of the surface of the brain is covered by myriads of these 
little cells arranged in fire layers (Figs. 8a and 3b). Streaming in 
among these cells of the grey matter, and derived firom other cells in 
the deeper stru c tu res of the brain, are innumerable fibres, while a still 
larger number of fibres may be seen lower down, and these are in 
great part the fibres which stream out from the grey matter to form 
the white substance (Fig. 1). 

The nervous units are all of similar general structure in the 
brains of all vertebrates. 

I will describe now the structure of one of these simple nervous 
units. It consists of a little lump of protoplasm, the cell body ; in 
the centre of which, as in the centre of other cells, is a nucleus and 
nucleolus ; starting out from the cell in all directions are numbers of 
processes like the branches of a tree, these branching processes are 
termed protoplasmic processes ; they were once believed oidy to possess, 
like the roots of a tree, the power of absorbing nutrition and carrying 
the same to the cell to be utilised ; we now know, also, that they serve 
to conduct nervous currents. There is, however, only one process of 
the cell which becomes a nerve fibre and arises as a cone-like swelling 
at the centra of the base of the little pyramid. After a short distance 
this fibre becomes insulated by a sheath of fatty substance termed 
myelin. Nervous currents when transmitted along the nervous ele- 
ments are collected by the protoplasmic processes and transmitted to 
the cell, and thence oatwards by the process which will become the 
core of a nerve fibre, so that the direction of the molecular vibration 
is always the same. Although there are countless myriads of these 
nervous units which are termed neurones, forming an inextricable net- 
work, yet when stained by the chromate of silver method invented by 
Professor Golgi, the innumerable delicate processes of these nerve 
cells are found not to be in continuity. Like the trees of a forest, 
there is contiguity bat not continuity ; each one is independent, and 
has an independent life and structure (Fig. 2). 

The nervous system consists then of systems, groups, communities 
and clusters of these nervous elements called neurones, mingled with 
supporting tissue and blood vessels for their nutrition. The amount 
of blood in the grey matter is very much more abundant than in the 
white matter, indicating that the chemical changes incidental to vital 
activity take place there, rather than in the white matter. The 
pn>oiS8C8 of miud arc inseparably connected with the functional 



128 Dr. Frederick WaUcer Mott [April 21, 

activities oocnning in the cell bodies of the nervous nnits, bat wo 
know very little or nothing of the biochemical processes oocnrring in 
the nenrones when we think, and feel, and move, and have onr being. 
Some anthorities presame to know the biophysical processes which 
take place, and I shall speak of these later on. One fact we do 
know, is, that if blood for a few seconds fails to reach the mantle of 
grey matter which covers the snrface of the brain, there is loss of 
conscionsnesB, as in fainting. Conscionsness then depends upon the 
vital functions of these nervous elements in the grey rind or cortex 
of the brain. The physiologist Flonrens taught that all parts of 
this grey substance were of equal value as regards function. This 
doctrine, however, was oven worse than that of phrenology which it 
was directed against The grey cortex or rind in the human laain 
is, as you observe, thrown into a uumbor of folds by fissures (Fig. 4). 
These folds on the brain's surface become more numerous and oom- 
]>lex the higher we rise in the zoological scale, until in a oultnnd 
European it finds its greatest development Anatomically speaking, 
this increasing number of folds means an increase in numbor of tbe 
nervous units of the grey matter without an inconvenient increase in 
the size of the head. I hold up to you the brains of an idiot and a 
chimiMDzee, you will observe there is not much differenoo. It Ins 
been shown that the intellectual faculties are more developed in 
persons with complex convolutions, and this means increased nnmben 
of nervous units in the grey matter, especially in certain i^ons 
which I shall indicate to you later. With the death and disappear- 
ance of these nervous units paralysis of mind and body ensues. 

Intellectual processes depend not so much upon relative increase 
of brain weight as increase of the superficial area of tbe mantle of 
nerve cells of certain regions. Huw has it been ascertained that 
certain portions of the brain have definite functions? The first step 
in this direction was the observation that persons who snffisred with 
injury or disease of the left half of the brain were not only liable 
to paralysis of the right half of the body, but also to loss of speech. 
Subsequently Broca determined the exact portion of the brain which 
is connected with tbe function of articulate speech. Later it was 
shown that destruction of a certain region produced word deafness; 
a person would not understand the meaning of words although he 
could hear snnnds. Further back still, there is a portion of brain 
which, if destroyed, is followed by word blindness, a person so 
afiectcd would be able to converse, but would not bo able to read 
aloud, although ho is not blind. It is only written language which 
bos no moaning to him. It is probable, therefore, that all right- 
handed people use the left half of the brain much more than the 
riglit. llio whole uf the central portion of the brain has been found 
by experiments on animals, and by applying that knowledge to 
diseases in man, to bo tactile-motor in function — that is to say, it is 
the part uf the brain by which voluntary uiovomonts are diroctod and 
controlled ; it is also tbe part of the brain wbtrc suusatiuus coming 




Fro. i. 



DJAinttln itiowinK the various known Regions of Ibe Brain having *ppcii«l 
iioiM. It will Tm) observtKl that this is tlio K'rt lu'nii)i|>licre, «n<l thot the 
•ftrh ctnlre» htv rfprescnlcd, connoct«l tngcllier l>y line*, indicntinir 
inf tbe oaMK-intioti iiiipulecg. TliO jKirtiuu mnrkwl tjicrfh ia cullfxl 
Jatiaa, bikI is roimcrted willi urtirutatt spcccli, 



% 





f trCW 3l6"S *$^ O CIAT]rjH CEWTRC5 



l)i(ij;n>nig "f tlic Oiilcr nnd Inner Surface «if tbc Riglit Hemisphere of llM 
Ilraiii, sliowiiiK tlip imrts corrofjiomliDg tn Flirlisig'j ag»iH'iaUoii i>cntrcs. All IM 
|>orti»iis <lnlleil mid dark iiulio^itc llio ailiintitm of tlio jirojectioii nyHtem of nei^ 
ronp?. nfforent bikI ('(R'rciit. Ollif-r p ^rtillll.«, iirriir.liiig lo Floclisig, an eonceroM 
witli tlic liighor I'unclioiiij of niiiul ami tUi- siinplu pgycliicnl rcttoxei. 





^899.] on Structure of the Brain in RchUon tn its Functions. 129 

from the mnscles and the surface of the body are received and rise 
into oonacioagness. It was found by Fritsch and Uitzig that this 
portion of the brain is excitable by electrical stimolation, and they 
were able to map out in the dog the whole excitable surface of the 
brain into definite areas, each area when electrically excited causing 
» definite re[)resentativo moTement. Subsequently, Ferrier showed 
the aamc in the monkey, which being nearer to man made the oxperi- 
mcots of greater value. This discovery was of the greatest import- 
ance to the physiologist, physician and surgeon. It explained what 
Hugblings Jackson had previously observed and described, namely, 
the march of a fit due to local disease of this region of the brain. 
He had observed that from a definite focus of irritation the spread of 
the excitation as shown by the succession of definite movements that 
oocar in this furm of epilepsy always began in the same way, and 
gave rise to a definite series of niuvemeuts of the same order and 
character. If you look at the diagram you will understand how a fit 
starting from irritation in the arm area will spread to the face area 
below, and to the leg area above, cunsiug convulsive movements in 
the moBoles. You will ubs'-Tve that other areas of the brain have 
also been investigated, and we now know that the posterior part of 
the brain, especially the inner surfacn, is connected with sight, 
knother with hearing, and another with taste and smoll (Figs. 4 
Dd 5). In the dog the sense of smell is highly developed, and is 
bo main avenue of intellectual experiences, and the incitement to 
JTtjIitioual action ; therefore the area of this sense in its brain is 
kighly developed. In man, on the contrary, the senses of smell and 
which stand Uko Rontinols to guard the respiratory and 
IdimentAry systems, are little connected with intellectual facnlties, 
and therefore not much developed. There i«, however, yet a largo 
portioD of the brain, quite two-thirds in fact, to which I have 
allocated no special function. 

Flechsig, by studying the developrnt^nt of the structures of the 

bntD of the new bom child and of infants of various ages, has shown 

tWt osrtain parts of the brain are prepared for functional activity 

befan others. I will call your attention to the diagram Fig. 6, which 

npnaenta a slice through the brniu of a cliild at birth ; only certain 

Moaite systems of fibres are insulated by a myelin sheath, and 

tberafbre ready to conduct nervous currents. For only those fibres 

^^rhieb have a sheath of myelin are stained purple by his method, 

^■bd thin slices of the brain can thus bo made to roveal the 

^K|Ua which arc pn-ptirod for conduction. These are all tracts of 

^^■^1 which convey aensory impressions from the eye, skin, muscles, 

^^vm^ ooae and month to the very portions of the brain which I have 

already indicated to yon that experinaent and pathological observa- 

tiona li*v« shown to be connected with the special sense functions. 

Tbtae aenaory tracts developed first then, are tlie primary avenues of 

vaaMioaaiiaai and of all the higher functions of the mind. All the 

L_ Vot. XVI. (No. 'J3.) K 




130 Dr. Frederick Walker Mott [April 21, 

rest of the brain is uleep, waiting to be awakened by the sensory 
impressions from without. The base of the brain and its stalk, which 
is stained deeply pnrple, subserves the vegetative functions of life — 
breathing, circulation of the blood, swallowing, digesting, etc. The 
portions of the bndn indicated by dots in the diagram (Fig. 5) form 
receiving stations for all the nervous cnrrents subserving special and 
general sensibility ; but by the side of these receiving stations for 
ingoing cnrrents are developed transmitting stations for outgoing 
currents to the muscles, consequently we are not surprised to find 
in the diagram (Fig. 7) of a vertical dice of the brain of a chUd aged 
three months, evidence of the formation of this outgoing tract to the 
muscles. It is by this tract of fibres the infant commences to exercise 
volitional movements. Tou will see, moreover, that there are now 
developed fibres in the other regions of the brain ; these are for the 
purpose of linking together and coordinating all the different sensory 
areas — association fibres as they are called. Yon will, moreover, see 
that the greater part of the suiirace of the brain is made up of these 
association systems, and in these regions there are, according to 
Flechdg, no sensory and motor nervous elements. Flechsig terms 
these portions of the brain association centres. They are situated in 
the frontal region, the temporal, occipital, parietal, and a small lobe 
which lies at the back of the large sylvian fissure called the island. 
Flechsig states that it is in these association centres that eveiy 
sensation perceived leaves an ineffaceable imprint which constitutes 
memory. It is there in these higher centres that visual, auditory, 
tnctile-motor and other sensations meet and fuse together. It is 
there they are compared one with another and to previous sensa- 
tions. It is there the mind findti the indispensable elements for all 
the acts of intellectual or physical life. They form, in fact, the 
anatomical substratum of human experience, knowledge, language, 
sentiments and emotions. From the association centres nerve car- 
rents pass into the sensory sphere, controlling the lower centres of 
sensation and movement, it is generally believed that great develop- 
ment of the frontal region of the brain indicates high intellectual 
power. Observations have, however, been mado which would seem 
to point to the great posterior lobe being connected with the higher 
intellectual functions of the mind. The brains of eighteen very dis- 
tinguished men deceased were examined, and the essential features 
which were noted wore extraordinary convolutional complexity and 
development of the posterior lobe. Recently the skulls of Beethoven 
and Bach have been examined, and measurements indicate that this 
portion of their brains must have bad a great development. 

In the nervous system we have three systems of nervous units or 
neurones. I will call your attention to tho accompanying diagram 
(b'ig. 8) which shows these systems, namely — 1. Ingoing sensory; 
'2. Outgoing motor ; and 3. Association. The latter form the great 
bulk of the nervous units of the brain. You will observe that in the 





$t CtroilMBII»Wof Wi W BORIt CHIU) 



Fro. 0. 

Dtegtmm of Vertical fk-ction IIifoukU tbc Brain n( a Kew-burii Cliilil, atainod 
bf • aiiveuKl iuctho<l t-< show myulinulioii of Iho flitms. All tbc ptrts wliirli are 
■tele «uitt»in mrclinutol Ubrm. Attention u particulnrly utlkfl to the nitbL-r 
bint Jimtft •UitiiiiK ubout the ccritnil tisnure, which cornopuniU to the tnutiic 
muter mam It will he obsirved thut the asaociiitiori centres aru not uiydinatetl 
M in Fig. 7. 




^ 



L^ 



S £CTIWI ■ MMN » CHIIO WtiTi HOMTHy 



Fio. 7. 

Dinftrttiu uf Verlioul Section nf the Drain of n Child aged TIitoo Monlla 
'I'lio KKaltr )i:iit of tlio Itriiiii iit>w hIiowh by tlio staitiiiig niycliuntion of tiM 
wliilr umlur, sliOMiiig ilevclujiimnt uf tlie u«sociiiti<in centres. 



1899.] on Structure of the Brain in Belation to iti Fundiont. 181 

projection systems the nenrones are amv&ged in series, and that a 
sensation coming from the skin before it reaches the surface of the 
brain has to pass throngh a series of three nenrones which are in 
physiological connection with one another, and the consciongness of 
the skin perception depends upon the intensity of the stimnlns and 
the oondnoting capacity of the chain of nerroos elements. You will 



Association Sj't/rm 



Ctrf.SlriMt- 




'UrktsCol. 
vith afffrc, 
CtrvKciiartrart 



'Amt.am '" 



Af0tar\ 
End 
Ptult 



Fio. 8. 

T)ia!rrain t<i bIiow tlie Tlirco Syhlums nf Xfuroiirs, iilustrating tlic pnth of 
wnimrj- iinpnlscii t<) the C'«rt;brum and CereWllum, the pntli i>f ontgotng ini- 
liulwK from the Itraiii in a voluntary movement and tlie asmWalion of tlie 
affer<-nt and fffprent projection systcmB in the grey matter of tho Brain. Thin 
■liairnm ahm illtutrabts the path uf a simple spinal reflex and of a pHychioal 
reflfX. 



r^lxserro at right angles to the ingoing and outgoing fibres thcro are 
other fibrr;8 which join up these systems serving to coordinate tlio 
herroHH currents arriving at and leaving this area of the brain : those 
are asKociation fibres, so that if a skin sensation excites a conscious 
rulitional movement, this will be the path of the nervous current. 

If, however, we move our hand in response to some visual sensa- 
tion, it is obvious tliat long association systems of neurones must 

K 2 



132 Dr. Ihideriek Walker Matt [April 21, 

come into play to join np the visnal area with the centre of movement 
of the hand, that is to say, that impulses mnst pass from the back to 
the middle of the brain. These conscioos motor responses to sensory 
impressions are tmly psychical reflexes, becaose the nerroos current 
is bent back from the Eensory ingoing system down along the motor 
system to the muscles. 

I haye told yon there is r^kson to believe that every neurone 
is an independent unit, and although its processes appear to enter 
into an inextricable network, yet Qiere is really no continuity of 
structure. By inference we should believe this view to be correct, 
because if the whole of the nervous elements were connected together, 
diffusion of the nervous current through the whole snbstanoe of the 
brain wonld occur, and instead of orderly sequence, only confusion 
could arise in response to an external stimulus. If the neurones then 
are separate living units, can they by biochemical or biophysical pro- 
crsses promote or retard the transmission of cnrrents along systems 
or between clusters, groups and communities ? The method of contact 
between two neurones is always by the terminal arborisation of the 
nerve fibre process of one with the branching protoplasmic processes 
of another. Movements in the nerve cell of a minute aquatic animal 
having been observed under the microscope, it was conceived that 
the terminal twigs of the nerve fibre process might elongate, and 
come in better contact therefore with die protoplasmic processes of 
the next neurone of the series ; and it has also been thought that sleep 
aud unconsciousness from anaesthetics and narcotics, also trance and 
the hypnotic state, might be due to retraction of the terminal twigs 
of the sensory neurones on the surface of the brain so that contact 
is broken, and the transmission of nervous currents consequently 
interrupted. 

It has been attempted to found a theory of retraction of the 
terminal buds or points of contact of the branching processes of the 
dendrons, by fixing in varions fluids small pieces of the brain of 
animals which have been antesthetised with chloroform and other 
anesthetics and narcotics, and comparing the appearances presented 
by the dendrons with those presented by the brain of an animal killed 
suddenly. One set of observers finds retraction during narcosis, with 
the appearance of little moniliform swellings on the processes and 
disappearance of the gcmmules. Another set finds no retraction of 
the gemmnles, but retraction they say occurs when the brain is in 
activity; thus the facts are entirely opposed to one another. My 
observations, also those of my assistant Dr. Wright, who has given 
special attention to this subject, are opposed to the facts stated by 
the first set of observers (Figs. 2 and 9). 

The whole difficulty lies in the fact that we are looking not at 
living matter but dead matter; still the theory of association and 
dissociation of groups or systems of neurones subserving special 
functions is an attractive theory for explaining the problems of 




Fio. 9. 

[)h, Rliowiii); tbe ISmnchiDg Prooeiisea or the Dendmns of the 

i» nf the Ccrcbnil Cortex of n Do;; killt'il with chloroform; 

•II over witli litllo bmln, wliioh nune into conljict, b«it not cnnnwlion, 

UtK* at right Rngloa. Unfortunately tbe roprcHiactioii of the photograph 

Tj indUtioct. Magnified 200 Uiam. 






FlCS. 10 AND II. 

Plioioinicro<;rnpliB of two I'syclio-nvotor Tells frcjin tho Iliiiunn Cortex 



^ 



Vig. U>, hoiiltUy, bLows I1i« ci'll with iirncfSMs iiiid u iiiRhtic pnttorii, dn« to 
diflV'rvntiatioQ of llie prnt»|i|iiiim nf the ri'll iiiUi xtiiiiinMi- nnd uuslninnblc snb- 
stniiocp, f^eii ill the picture ngt dnrk nml li^ht part« roijpi.'c'livol)'. ^ 

Fig, 11 i!< a »iiiii]nr oell. trniii ii |iiitieiit wlin liatt (UihI in t^tfttuii epilenliciia^H 
T lie et'U ia awnlKii up, tlio inirh tis ta tunrly oxfrmlpd, nml tlierf ib no loiigpr 
niiy <iifli'rpriti.itiou iu tlie prolnplBsni of tlu> i-ell, i-liowlni; a profijutid bio-rbcmicftl 
clisogc due prubably to llie asphyxia. 




1899.] oil Structure of the Brain tn Belatim to its Functions. 133 

repose and activity of the brain. I am inclined to believe that 
Lngaro's view is the better one : that cerebral activity is associated 
with a catting off of the great majority of intemeoroniu connections, 
and the strengthening of the current traversing a few ; that during 
repose or under narcotics there is a general expansion of the gem- 
moles due to exhaustion of their contractility, and thus all the 
neurones being in contact, nervous currents are so diffused that they 
are not of sufficient intensity to rise into consciousness. 

A new method of staining has revealed a fact concerning the 
internal eonstitntion of the neurone. There are two biochemical 
substances entering into the formation of the neurone — a substance 
stainable by aniline dyes which exists in the body of the cell and upon 
the protoplasmio processes, and another nnstainable substance which 
tanom the framework of the cell, and consists of extremely delicate 
threads which pass into and form the processes. This latter is the 
rsBOiitisI oondnoting agent, and upon its integrity the life of a neurone 
depeodi. The stainable substance is probably a store of food or 
aneigy whidh is continually used up during functional activity, and 
raplaoed sad stored up daring rest from the surroundiug lymph (Figs. 
10 and 11). 

The tmngement of this colouring matter in the coll serves as a 
meaiis of distinguishing cells with different functions ; for example, 
ihe lacge motor oells of the brain, with a characteristic arrangement 
of tho sfaunkble substance, are found only in tho central regions of 
the eortez, and in the occipital lobe ; they do not exist in the associa- 
tioB centres. This is possibly a proof of relation of structure of the 
neurone to its function. 

Very little is known of the chemical composition of the nervous 
elements, only that they are among the most complex bodies on our 
planet. When they die they split up into simple bodies, and this 
fact has served a most useful purpose in following tho courge taken 
by nerve fibres ; e. g. if a motor nerve of tho brain is separated from 
its cell by injury or disease, the fibre below the injury undergoes 
degeneration which can be recognised by the chemical changes 
occurring in the fibre during its destruction. We can follow this 
dead fibre to its ultimate destination by the microchemical reactions 
of the products of degeneration even though they extend for more 
than a yard in length. Besides this thero is a change in the life of 
the cell body itself when the fibre is cut ; for the stainable substance 
disappears, and only reappears if a now fibre grows out from the 

cell. 

In this address I have attempted to give you a sketch of what wo 
know and what wo believe we know of the relation of the structure 
of the brain to its functions. The vast problems of mind still remain 
nnsolvod ; but the conception of the neurone as an independent unit, a 
microcosm within a macrocosm, has shed a flood of light upon the 
problems of disease of the nervous system, and if further evidence is 



134 Dr. MoU on Stntetwe of the Brain. [April 21, 

forthcoming to support the theory of association and dissociation of 
the nenrones either by biophysical or biochemical processes oconrring 
at the terminal twigs of their treO'Iike prooesses, then we may be on 
the ere of great discoTeries relating to the functions of the bndn aa 
an organ of mind. We mnst, however, not scoff at this theory 
because we cannot seo this process taking place in the brain, bat 
remember the phenomenal advances Chemistry made after the adop- 
tion of the atomic theory ; and yet the chemist never can see or even 
conceive what an atom is. 

[F. W. M.] 



1899.] Some FeaturtB of the Eleetrie Induction Motor. 135 

WEEKLY EVENING MEETING, 
Friday, April 28, 1899. 

Sib Edwabd Fhankland, K.C.B. D.C.L. LL.D. F.R.S., 
Vice-President, in tbe Cbuir. 

Pbofessob G. a. Cabcs Wilson, M.A. M.Inst.E.E. 
Some Features of the Electric Inditction Motor. 

Tbk action of a magnetic field npon a conductor carrying an alter- 
nating cnrrcnt might bo illnstrated in a siiaple manner by placing an 
incandescent lamp in the noighbourboodof an eloctro-magnct and con- 
necting the lamp to an alternating supply circuit. If tbe inagnctio 
field were uniform, tbe filament would vibrate in front of the nuigiiot, 
and if the Tibrations could be minutely studied tliey would be found 
to increase first of all to a maximum in one direction, then full to 
nothing, and then reach a maximum in tho other direction, following 
an harmonic law. The variations of the force on tbe filament were 
similar to those which took place in a steam engine, where the 
taming moment on tbe crank went through a complete cycle from a 
positive to a negative maximum, tlie law of variation being harmonic 
if tho steam pressure were constant and the connecting rod of infinite 
length. 

The conditions under which the conductor vibrated could be 

•hewn more perfectly if it were possible to attach a mirror to the 

eondactor and reflect a beam of light tliorefroiu. But in order tbiit 

tbe motion of thu conductor should give a true indication of the force 

Kting npon it, the rabving part must have a very Huiiill pi-rioilic time 

M>d bo jierfectly dcad-bvut. Tbcso conditions were fulfilled in a 

Kmarkable way in the (>scillogra[>b recently dcs gnid by Jlr. \V. 

Duiidell, who had kindly lent one of bis instruments for tln' purpose 

of illustration. In this instrument tho conductors wore metttl htiips 

■tKtched in a magnetic field; a minute mirror fixed to ttio strips 

"lected a sijot of light on to tho screen. Tlie delicacy of tho 

un&j^mcnt was such that the period of vibration of tbo mirror was 

"nly the two-thousandth part of a second. 

When an alternating current was passed through the strip, tbe 
^gnetic field being constant, the spot of light on tbe screen assumed 
•"op and down motion in a straight line. It was possible, however, 
» indicate tbe true nature of the law of motion by making tho beam 
"ligbt on its way to the screen strike on a mirror which moved to 
JJ^ fro synchronously with the variations of current in tho strip. 
*•* ipot then followed a wave-like courso, tracing out aii S-8hai)ed 



136 Profatw C. A. Canu Wilton [April 28, 

figure. If the spot moved qnickly enongb, the BacoeBsiTe imprearioni 
wonid remain on the eve for a sufficient length of time to give IIm 
effect of a continuous line of light. 

When examined in this wav, the force dne to a constant magnetia 
field and a variable current in the strip was seen to vary from nothing 
to a certain maximum, then to nothing again, then to change sign 
and increase to an eqnal negative maximnm, and finally to &11 to 
nothing. The strip was thns subjected to a series of eqdal impnlwi 
varying in sign so that the resultant impnlse was zero. 

To prevent the impulses from changing sign it was neoessazy to 
make the magnetism change sign at the same time as the cnrrent 
This could be done by exciting the magnet by an alternating cnirent 
in step with that in the strip. When this change was made, the spot 
of light was seen to finctnate np and down from a fixed line, instead 
of alternating as before, showing that the strip was now subject to a 
scries of fluctuating impulses. There were, however, dead-points it 
which the strip was not subject to any force. It appealed then 
possible to combine an alternating field with a conductor or con- 
ductors carrying an alternating current in such a way as to obtain s 
series of unidirectional impulses, and motors had been constmcted od 
this principle. Such motors had the disadvantage of dead-points, 
and uniform motion could be obtained only by making the moving 
parts of considerable weight, so that part of each impulse was stored 
up as kinetic energy, and the dead-points thus successfully passed 
over. 

The dead-points could be avoided in a manner often used in 
steam engines, where two separate cylinders were set so that when 
the action of one on the crank shaft was a minimum, the action of 
the other was a maximum. This principle could be carried out far 
more completely in an electric motor than in any other form of 
motor for the reason that while in a steam engine, for instance, the 
force of each one of the two cylinders varied according to an har- 
monic law, with uniform steam pressure, and two series of harmmio 
impulses at right angles did not give a uniform turning moment, 
with the electric motor, on the other liand, the law of force variation 
with synchronously varying field and current was not an harmonic 
law — as might be seen by the shape of the curves on the screen- 
but a law having the remarkable peculiarity that two such series of 
impulses at right angles gave a uniform impulse when acting 
together. It was thns possible to construct an alternating electrio 
motor in which the sum of the turning moments on the shaft was • 
constant quantity. The Induction Motor was such a motor. 

Taking the fixed coil A, shown in plan in the figure, to represent 
the magnetising coil used in former experiments, and the moving coil 
B to represent the conductor or strip, the condition of a unidirectional 
fluctuating impnlse from A to B was that the magnetism of A should 
be in step with the current in B. To produce the latter recourse 
might be hod to the principle of induction, by which currents could 



1899.] on Some Features of the Electric Induction Motor. 137 



be indooed in coils tlirough which an alternating magnetic field was 
•llowed to pass. 

Bv way of illustration, coils A and B were placed opposite and 

|iaT^II»l to one another, each being connected to a separate strip on 

oaoillograph, in which the magnetic field was kept constant. 

an iklternating corrent was pafsed through A, a current was 

laoed in B, and the two currents were shown on the screen in the 

I of two curves overlapping each other. The explanation of the 

rlApping was that the induced current in B was not in step with 

the BUigDetii-m produced bj A, but lagged behind it by an amount of 

time equal to a quarter of a period. 

This lagging of the induced current behind the inducing mag- 
had au important bearing on the motor problem, becauss it 
tbat it was not possible to make the magnetising coil A 




/— \ 



/-^ 



D 



~N 



G 



II 



J 



\^ 



c 



XI 



J 



in eoil B a current suitable for producing a unidirectional 
I of floctaating impulses, since the necessary condition was that 
tW enrrciit in B should be in step with the magnetism produced 
byA- 

If ft second magnetising coil C could bo used, in which the current 
. from that in A by a quarter of a period, it could be made to 
ooireats in B wliich were in step with the magnotiBm pro- 
bjr A. The intermediate coil B would then bo subject to the 
jnlhMnrfi of two coils A and C, of which the former produced an 
■Itgrnatiag magnetic field, and the latter on induced alternating 
flBTHil in step with tbat field, the two together giving a series of 
Balirecliotui] fluctuating impulses. 

Tlie nugnelising coil A exerted the greatest force on the coil B 

en the pUnee of the two coils were at right angles to each other, 

tlM roil C induced the greatest current in B when their planes 

I parallel. Hence it followed that the best oflFcct was obtained by 



138 Some Features of the Eleetrie InduetUm Iloiot. [April 28, 

placing the planes of the coils A and C at right angles to one another, 
and B at right angles to A, as in the figure. 

If a second intermediate coil D were placed across coil B, there 
would be currents induced in it by A, and a force exerted on it bj 
the field due to G, resulting in a series of impulses similar to those 
acting on B, bat differing from them by a qnartor of a period. The 
sum of the two sets of impulses on the intermediate condncting 
system was a uniform tn-isting moment. 

If the two coils B and D wore replaced by a continnons oao- 
ductor — such, for instance as a copper dram — this action ooald go « 
whUe the conducting system rotated. In the experiment shown, a 
coi>per drum was suspended in front of two coils placed at right 
angles, and excited by currents differing by one quarter of a period. 
When both coils were excited the drum rotated at a uniform speed. 

A striking feature in the Induction Motor was the rotating mag- 
netic field caused by the variations of magnetism in the different 
coUb. This was illustrated by an experiment in which a small 
permanent magnet carrying a mirror was centred upon a vibrating 
rod placed between two pairs of electromagnets. When two oppo- 
site magnets were excited the mirror vibrated between them and 
reflected a spot of light on to the screen, tracing out a vertical line. 
When the second pair of opposite magnets was excited the spot traced 
out a horizontal line of equal amplitude. Both sets were then excited 
together by currents in step with each other, with the result that the 
spot vibrated in a line making an angle 45^ with the former lines of 
vibration. When the exciting currents were made to differ by one 
quarter of a period, the spot of light reflected from the minor 
described a circle, showing that the magnetic field produced by two 
magnets set at right angles and excited by two currents differing by 
u quarter of a {)eriod is of uuiform intensity and rotates at a uniform 
rate. 

The action of the Induction Motor was based on principles which 
governed the action of the better known transformer, and for pnr- 
poscs of calculation it was convenient to regard the Induction Motor 
118 a transformer. One form only of t)io Induction Motor had been 
alluded to ; of other possible forms that in which three magnetising 
coils were used, with currents dilforing from one another by one-thira 
uf u period was the one most commonly employed in practice. 



1899.] 



.^iMiMiZ Meeting. 



189 



ANNUAL MEETING. 

Hond»y, Hay 1, 1899. 

Tn DcKB or NoBTHiniBKBi.AaD, F.S.A., Presideiit, in the Chair. 

The *"""*! Seport of the Committee of Tisiton for the rtmr 
1898, testifying to the continued prosperity and efficient managcnK'nt 
of the Institntion, was read and adopted, and the Beport on the Davy 
Fanday Beseareh Laboratory of the Boyal Institation, which accntn- 
panied it, was also read. 

Filty-eight new Members were elected in 1898. 

Sixty-ihiee Lectores and Nineteen Evening Disooimes were 
deliTered in 1898. 

The Books and Pamphlets presented in 1898 amounted to aboat 
271 Tolomes, making, with 657 volnmes (inclnding Periodicals bound i 
nuehased by the Managers, a total of 928 Tolumea added to the 
Library in die year. 

Thanks were voted to the President, Treasnrer, and the Honoimry 
Becretaiy, to the Committees of Managers and Visitors, and to tLe 
Professors, for their valoable serrices to the Institation daring the 
past year. 

The following Gentlemen were onanimonsly elected as Officers 
Cor the enaoing year : 

PBBsmurr— The Dake of Northomberland. F.S.A. 

Tbkuubsb — Sir James Crichton-Browne, M.D. LL.D. F.B..S. 

SsoaiTABT— Sir Frederick Bramwell, Bart. D.CX. LL.D. F.B.S. 
M.InstCE. 



Mamaoebs. 
tlNlcrick Abel, Bart. K.CB. b.C.L. LL.D. 

Mraium Crookc*. F.R.S. 

Doka of DeroBihire. K.G. M.A. D.C.L. 

.rxs. 

\ Bight Hoo. the Esrl of UaUburr, M.A. 
1L r.HJS. 
I WiUiuD Chutes Hood, M.D. F.R.C.P. 
I Edward Hughe*, F.«]. F.R.S. 
llicht Hon. Lord KeWia, G.C.V.O. D.C.L. 
~. F.R.S. 

I B. Kerope, F.iq. H.A. TreaM. R.S. 
lliMoard, E«q. M.Iott.C.E. 
drew Koble. K.CB. F.R.S. 
iKcht Hon. The Manjuia of Sali&burv, 
.M..\. D.C.L LI-D. F.R.S. 
ler Siemenii, Eaq. M. Iiut. C.E. 
{Woodd Smith, L.-<], r.K.A.S. F.S.A. 
I Hogh SjKittUwoode, Eaq. F.C.S. 
r TuoiDiwon, Bart. F.B.C.S. F.E.AJ>. 



YlSITOBS. 
William Henry Btnne::. ij... K.lL'.'j;. 
Henry Arthcr Blyta. L^i. J.P. 
Staaro Homer, i.s^. J.K F.EJI.S. 
Edward Kraftmeitr, ia-;. 
Lieut.-Colonel Litwt..ra VuA LoiZit**, 

F.K.G.S. 
Frank McCIeao, £^i. M.A. LL.D. r.h£. 

F.B.A.S. 
Henry Francis Maki&j, Lsq. F.R.O..S. 
T. Umbert Hears, E-^j. M.A. LLI^. 
Radol[.h Mesrfl, E*j. l':..lj. F.C.-j. 
Lacblan Maciiintosfa Kate, It/i. M.A. 
John Callander K(/i>, Esq. 
William James Kuitell, Lvj. P.-..;). F.ri.S. 
Alfred Gordon Salamo^ L... F.Cs. F.!.'.'. 
Sir James Vao^hao, B.A. J.}', 
John Jewell Veuy, Uq. F.KM.S. 



110 Br. William Jamet BuueU [May 5^ 

WEEKLY EVENING MEETING, 
Friday, May 5, 1899. 

Sib Fbkdxbick Bbamwbll, Babt., D.CL. LL.D. F.B.S., Honomy 
Secretary and Vice-President, in tho Chair. 

William James Edssbll, Esq., Ph.D. V.PJt.S. M.B.L 

Pictures Produced on Photographic Plates in the Dark. 

I THINK I nay fairly assume that every one in this theatre has U 
their photograph taken, and consequently must have some idea of tti 
nature of tho process employed. I have, therefore, only to add, witt 
regard to what is not visible in the process of taking the pictnTe^ fW 
tho photographic plate is a piece of glass or such like body, coated « 
one side by an adhesive paste which is acted on by light, and acted « 
in a very remarkable manner. No visible change is produced, and At 
picture might remain latent for years, but place thisacted-on platoiat 
solution, of, say pyrognllol, and tho picture appears. The anboeqanl 
treatment of the phitc with sodium hyi>osalphite is for another porpoH^ 
simply to prcveut the continuance of tho action when the plate ii 
brought into tho liglit. Now, what I purpose demonstrating to yon to* 
night is that thcro arc other ways of producing piclnrea on photo- 
graphic plates than by acting on them by light, and that by these otbv 
means a latent picture is formed, which is rendered visible in predn^ 
the same way as the light pictures are. 

The substances which produce on a photographic plate these nndtl 
so strongly resembling those produced by light, are, some of tbaa^ 
metallic, while others are of vegetable origin. At first it seemed my 
remarkable that bodies so difTcrent in character should act in the WW 
way on the photographic |ilate. Tho following metals — magneshn^ 
cadmium, zinc, nickel, aluminium, lead, bismuth, tin, cobalt, antimotf 
— arc all capable of acting on a photographic plate. Magnesium oat 
strongly, antimony but feebly, and other metals can also act in tl( 
same way, but only to a very slight extent. The action in genoral il. 
much slower than that of light, but under favourable conditionil 
picture may be produced in two or three seconds. 

Zinc is nearly as active as magnesium or cadmium, and is the naif; 
convenient metal to experiment with. In its ordinary dull ftate it ili 
without tho power of acting on a photograpliic plato, but scntik' 
it or scrape it, and it is easy to prove that tho bright metal is ulint'] 
I would say that all the pictures which I have to show yon, tf 
means of the lantern, are produced by the direct action of the meM 



uid you see where the zinc was m contact with the plate mnch 
1 has occnrred. In another case a bright zinc plate was used, 
Japwaeee stencil interposed between it and the photogTsphic 

•nd a very strong and sharp picture is the resolt. The time 
red to prodace these zinc pictures varies very much with the tern- 
ore. At ordinary temperature the exposure would have to be for 

two days, but if the temperature was, say, 55° 0., then half to 

rirtcra of an hour might be sufficient. Temperatures higher 
cannot be used except for very short times, as the photo- 
do plftte would be damaged. Contact between the zinc and 
igraphic plate is not necessary, as the action readily takes place 
igh considerable distances. Obviously, however, as yon increase 
istence between object and plate, so you decrease the sharpness 
e pictnre, as is shown by the following pictures, which were taken 
ntiTelT at a distance of 1 mm. and 3 mm. from the scratched zinc 
oei The appearance of the surfaces of different metals varies, 
thefbUowing slides show the surface of a plate of bismuth, a plate 
■d, and one of aluminium. On the next slide are the pictures pro- 
i ij similar pieces of pure nickel and col^alt, and it clearly shows 
mnch more active in this way nickel is than colialt. Many alloys, 
ae pewter, fusilde metal, Virass, etc., are active bodies, and in 
■ae of brass the amount of action which occurs is determined by 
unonnt of zinc present. Thus you will see that a brass with 30 
ent. of zinc produces hardly any action on the photographic plate, 
rhen 50 per cent, of zinc is present there is a fairly dark picture, 
when aa mnch as 70 per cent, is present a still darker picture is 
need. 

The second class of bodies which act in the same way on a photo- 
ihic plato are organic substances, and lielong essentially to the 
ipa of liodies known as terpenes. In trying to stop the action of 
lUic zinc, which I thought at the time might arise from vapour 
D off by the metal, copal varnish was used, but in place of stop- 




142 Dr.WmUmJammBameU \lbft, 

f 4diea. INpentiiie is icmarkaUy so ; in a voy diait time it gim % 
>.-kek picture, and if the action be eontiinied, the daA pietare 
awaj, and joa then hare a pharamenoB eomaponding to wbak 
gtaphen call lereraaL The atzong wnfTliiig bodioinunni ai 
tial oila,saeha8 ofl of bergamot, oQ of lavendei^ail of peppenunltdi 
of Ifwiniw, etc^ are all aetiye bodies, and all are known to 
Tarying qnantitiea difierent topenea; flierefise ocdinaiy 
active bodiea, and this ia shown hj the following pietnrea pnidnnlli 
can de Cologne, by cinnamon, by o^n, and by tea. Oertun m — 
also act in the same way : Santerae givea a tolerably daik pietan^ 
>>randy only a laint one. Other oils than these noannlial onet andai 
actire bodiea : linseed oil ia especially so ; olive oU ia active^ M Ml 
nearly as mnch so as linseed oil ; and mineral oila, anch aa 
are withont action on the photographic plate. 

Interesting results are obtuned wiUi bodies which ooataia MM 
of these active subetanoes ; for instance, wood will give its own 



as is shown by the following slides: the first is a aeetian of a yoiM 
spmoe tree, the next a piece of ordinary deal, and tim third of ■■«■ 
piece of mahogany. Again, the next slide yon will raoogniae as ttl 
pictnie of a peacock's feather. There is mnch interest in these pic 
of feathers, aa they distingnish the brilliant interference ooloim 
those produced by certain pigments ; the beantifal blue in Hw ayaflf 
tbe peacock's feather is without action on the photographie ibih 
Butterflies' wings, at least some of them, will diaw, as yon aea^ 
ovn pictures. Linseed oil, which is a oonstitaent of all printiagiri^ 
makes it an active body, and it can, like the zinc and other adift 
iKxlies, act through considerable distances. In the pictore hdbn 
you the ink was at a distance of one inch from the plate^ and tt( 
ni-xt slide shows what a remarkably clear and dark pictnre cndiaBiy 
printing can produce. As tbe composition of printing ink varia 
so does its activity, and here are pieces of three difierent new^spea 
which have acted under the same conditions on the same plate^ ui 
you see how different the pictures are in intensity. Printed pictanii 
of coar8c, act in the same way — here is a likeness of Sir H. Tito 
taken from " The Year's Art." The pictures and printing in PttA 
always print well ; so docs the yellow ticket for the Friday eveniBC 
lectures at the Bojal lostitution ; also the rude trade-mark on WiBn 
tobacco, and it is of interest because the red pigment prodncea a ittf 
dear picture, but the blue printing is without action on the plate. 

An interesting and important peculiarity of all these actioni ii 
that it is able to pass through certain media ; for instance, throng > 
thin sheet of gelatin. Iloro are two plates of zinc ; both have bsen 
scratched ]>y sand-paper ; one is laid directly on the photographit 
plate, and the other one has a sheet of gelatin, its colour is of M 
note, laid iKitwccn it and the sensitive plate ; the picture in this fliH 
is, of course, not so sharp as when no gelatin is present, bnt it ii > 
good and clear likonoss of the scratclics. 

Celluloid is also a body which allows the action to pass throng 



1899.] on PUluret Produced on Pholographic Plnteg in the Darlc. 143 




h, M is aeen in tbis picture of a piece of perforated ziuc, a pictare 
which was produced at ordinary temperaturefi. Gold-beaters' skin, 
albumen, collodion, giitta-percha, ore also bodies which arc transparent 
to the action of the zinc and the other nctivo bodies. On the other 
hand, many bodies do not allow the transmission of the action throu^'h 
them ; fur instance, paraffin does not, and among common substances 

" >g-ink does not, as is easily shown by placing ordinary paper 

writing on it between the active body and the photographic 

kte. I'he active body may conveniently be either a plate of zinc 

. card painted with copal varnish and allowed to dry, or a dish of 
ag oiL The picture of an ordinarily directed envelope shows 
this opaeily of ink well. It is a property long retained by the ink, 
at this picture of the direction of a letter, written in 1801, shows; 
also this letter of Or. Priestley's, dated 1795 ; and hero is also some 
wry &ded writing of 1810, which still gives a very good and clear 
pictare. Even if the writing be on parchment, the action passes 
throogh the parchment, but not through the ink, and hence a picture 
is formed. 

With bodies which are porous, such as most papers, for instance, 
tkft action passes gradually through the interstices, and impresses tlio 
|ilal« with a picture of the general structure of the intervening sub- 
itmt* ¥vT instance, the following pictures show the structure and 
tiM waier-mark of certain old and modern writing-papers. 8omo 
moitrn writing-papers are, however, quite opaque; but usually paper 
aU'iwv tho action to take, place through it, and combiniug this fact 
with the fact uf strong activity of tho printing-ink, the apparently 
OWlftlMH appennuico produced on obtaining a picture from paper with 
prnlilig on both sides is accounted for, as tho printing on the side 
■way &o(n the photographic pluto, as well as that next to it, prints 
liirMgh tbo p'4pvr, and is, of course, reversed. 

I hope 1 have now given you a clear idea how a picture can be 
prodaeed on a pbutographic \>\ate in tho dark, and the general character 
sad appcaranoo of such pictures. I iir>w pass on to tho important 
^ n srtioo of how they are jirodiieed. Moser suggested iifty years ago 
tkal tbora was " dark light," which gave rise to pictures on polished 
netellio pUtea, and lately it was sngg(eted that pictures were produced 
bjr Tspour given off by the metals themselTes ; the explanation, how- 

r, which I hove ii) offer you is, I think, simpler than either of these 
fur I bctlivvo that tho action on the photographic plato is due to 
the §aaoation of a well-known chemical compound, hydrogen peroxide, 
oodergoiug decomposition acts upon the plate and is the im- 
canae of the pictures furmed. Tho complicated changes 
•Uek Uke plaoe on tho sensitivo plato I have nothing to say about 
■• tfaa pnaent occasion, but I dcsiro to convince you, that this 
body, hydrogen poroxidM, is the direct cause of those pictures pro- 
in the dara. Indirect proof has to 1)0 resorted to. Water 
Daol be antii«ly excludcMl, for an absolutely dry photographio plate 
itld probably be porfoctly inactive, and as long as water is present 



144 Dr. William Jamet Buuett [Mtj S, 

peroxide of hydrogen may be there also. Bot what are the conditioni 
under which these pictures are formed? Only certain metah ace 
capable of producing them. This list of active metals which I haw 
mentioned to yon was determined solely by experiment, and when 
completed it was not evident what common property bonnd then 
together. Now, however, the explanation has come, for these an Ae 
very metals which most readily cause, when exposed to air sad 
moisture, the formation of this tmdy peroxide of hydrogen. SohSi* 
bein showed as loug ago as 1860 that when zinc turnings were shaka 
up in a bottle with a little water hydrogen peroxide was formed, sol 
the delicate tests which we now know for this body show that all Ae 
metals I named to you not only can in the presence of moiataie 
produce it, but that their power of doing so follows the same order 
as their power of acting on a photographic plate. Again, whit 
happened with regard to the organic bodies which act on the photo* 
graphic plates? I have already mentioned that in experimentiiig 
with the motals it was accidentally observed that copal varnish was an 
active substance producing a picture like that produced by vino, and 
that the action was traced to the turpentine present ; again a prooea 
very much like gropiug in the dark had to be carried on in order 
to determine which were active and which inactive organic bodiee^ 
and the result obtained was that the active substances essentially 
belonged to the class of bodies known to chemists as terpenes. Now 
a most characteristic property of this class of bodies is ihst in 
presence of moisture and air they canso the formation of hydrogen 
peroxide, so that whether a metal or on organic body bo used to pcD> 
ducc a picture, it is in both cases a body capable, under the oironm- 
stances, of causing the formation of hydrogen peroxide. PasBiBg 
now to cxperimcutol facts, which confirm this view of the action an 
sensitive i)latcB, I may at once say that every result obtained by a meld 
or by an organic body can be exactly imitated by using the peroxida 
itself. It is a body now made in considerable quantity, and sdd 
in solution in water. Even when in a very dilute condition it is 
extremely active. One part of the peroxide diluted with a millim 
parts of water is capable of giving a picture. It can, of conrae, be 
used in the glass dishes like any other liquid, but it is often con- 
venient not to have so much water present ; and then it is best to 
take white blotting paper, wet it in the solution of the peroxide, and 
lut it dry in the air. The paper remains active for about twenty-fbor 
hours ; or, what is still better, take ordinary plaster of Paris, wet it 
with the peroxide solution, and let it set " in a mould " so as to get 
a slab of it. This slab increiises in activity for the firat day or two 
after making, and retains its activity for a fortnight or more. Sndi 
a slab will give a good and dark picture iu three or four seconds. 

To show how similar the pictures produced by the peroxide and 
those by zinc are, pictures of a Japanese paper stencil, which had 
been paraffined to make it quite opaque, have been made by bofb 
])roccsscB, and are shown with other instances in which turpentine 



1899.] on Ptelwrei ProdM4sed on PhotograjMc Plata in Ike Dark. 145 

mm used in the follonring slides. It is miso Teiy easy to obtain good 
pictures with the peroxide alone of the stmctnre of paper, etc. ; see, 
tar instaooe, this one of a five-pound note and these of laoe. Again, 
the strict mmilarity between the action of the peroxide and tluit of 
the metals and organic bodies is farther shown by the &ct that its 
sfltion pssBCB throngh the same media as their action does ; and here 
an good pictures formed by the action of the peroxide after passing 
through a sheet of these substances. How this singular transmission 
eu be explained, I hare treated of elsewhere, and time does not 
•How of my discussing the matter to-night. 

There are many ways in which the bright, active zinc sor&oe can 
be modified. Draw your finger across it, press your thumb upon it, 
■od yon stop its activity, as is shown by the picture it will give. 
Lay a printed paper on the zinc, and let the contact continne for 
thne-qnarters of an hour, at a temperature of 55^ then bring the 
sine in contact with a sensitive plate, a pictnre of the printing is 
formed, but allow the contact biatween the zinc and printing to 
eontinoe for eighteen hours at the same temperature, and the picture 
then given by the zinc is the reverse of the former one. Where the 
ink has been is now less active than the rest of the plate. Here are 
•lidfis which show these positive and negative pictures. Another 
wmy of modifying the zinc surface is interesting. Yon have seen 
ihi^ the ordinary zinc surface which has been exposed to air and 
moistnra is qnite inactive, but if a bright piece of zinc be immersed 
in water for about twelve hours, the surface is acted on; oxide of 
zinc is formed, showing generally a curious pattern. Now, if the 
plate be dried, it will be found that this oxide is strongly active, and 
gives a good pictnre of the markings on the zina The oxide evi- 
dently holds, feebly combined or entangled in it, a considerable 
quantity of the hydrogen peroxide, and it requires long drying or 
bekting to a higher temperature to get rid of it. Also, if a zinc 
plate be attach^ by the hydrogen peroxide, the attacked parts be- 
eome more active than the bright metal. Thus place a stencil on a 
piece of bright zinc, and expose the plate to the action of an active 
plaster of Paris slab, or to active blotting-paper for a short time, 
then, on removing the stencil, the zinc plate will give a very good 
metnre of the stencil. Any inactive body — for instance, a piece of 
Bristol board or any ordinary soft paper— can be made active by 
szposing it above a solntion of peroxide, or, more slowly, by exposing 
it to a bnght zinc surface. If, for instance, a copper stencil be laid 
OB a piece of Bristol board, and a slab of active plaster of Paris be 
pboed on the stencil for a short time, the Bristol board will even, 
after it has been removed from the stencil for some time, give a good 
pietnre of the stencil. Drying oil and other organic bodies may be 
wed in the same way to change the paper. A curious case of this 
oeoimed in printing a coloured advertisement cut out of a magazine, for 
there appeared printing in the picture which was not in the original. 
This printing was ultimately traced to an advertisement on the opi>o- 

VoL. XVI. (No. 93.) I, 



146 Pidmra Proimeed om Phdograpkie Piate$ im Oe Dark. [HajS^ 

site p«ge, which had heen in contact with the one which wu naed ; 
thiu tfaia ghostly effect was produced. 

I believe, tuen, that it ia this active bodr, hydrogen peroxide^ 
which enables ns to produce pictures on a photographic plate in ths 
dark. There are many other cnrions and interesting eEecta which it 
can produce, and whicJi I should like to hare shown yon, had tima 
permitted. 

I would only add that this investigation has been carried <m in 
the Davy Faraday Laboratory of this Institution. 

[W. J. B.] 



Oaund JfralUy Meetrng. 147 



GENEBAL MONTHLY MEETING, 

Monday, May 8, 1899. 

His Giaoe The Dmn or NoBTHDiCBjua.AHD, President, in the Ghair. 

Alfred Cooper, Eaq. F,B.CA 
Alfred William Porter, Esq. B.Sc. 
S. Stephenson, Esq. 
Theodore Uzielli, Esq. 

were elected Membets of the Boyal Institntlon. 

The Special Thanks of the Members were retnmed to Mr. Hngh 
Dewar for his donation of £200, to Mr. Thomas H. Soverby for his 
donation of £6 5*., and to Mr. John H. Usmar for his donation of 
£50, to the Fnnd for the Promotion of Experimental Besearch at 
Low Temperatures. 

The Preaident referred to the death of Mr. Benjamin Vincent, for 
many years Assistant^Secretary to the Boyal Institution, and said 
that the Managers desired to express the high appreciation in which 
they held his services to the Instltation. 

The PanxNTS received since the last Meeting were laid on the 
table, and the thanks of the Members retnined for the same, vis. : — 



neZ«rd<o/U«^(lm{rai(y— Greenwich ObaerTBtiona for 1896. 4to. 1898. 
Graniwich Spectroaoopio and Photographic BeaOlta for 1896 and 1897. 4to. 

1898. 
Annals of Cape ObMrratory, Vol. I. 4to. 1898. 
Aeadtmf ^ Kaiural Seieneet, PhOadeiphia—^toceedingt, 1898, Part 3. 8to. 

1899. 
Jeeadewtitt dm Litieei, Seale, Soma — Clane di Scienze Fiaiche, Matematlche e 
NatumlL Atti. Serie Quinta : Bendiconti. 1<> Semeatre, Vol. VIIL Fasc. 
6. 7. 8vo. 1899. 
ifaMrimit Aeademf of ArU and Beienea — Proceedinga, Vol. XXXIV. Noa. &-14. 

Sm 189»-99. 
Mmmean PhOemhieal Awiefy— Ptoceedlnfta. No. 158. 8to. 1898. 
Atiatie Soeitty, jRoyal — Journal for April, 1899. 8to. 

Aibomomieal Society, Jtoyo^— Monthly Noticea, Vol. LIX. No. 6. 8to. 1899. 
Banktn, IiutUvte o/— Joomal, Vol. XX, Part 4. 8to. 1899. 
Batana, Magttetieal and Mettorologieal O&Krratory — ObaerTations, Vol. XX< 
18»7. 4U.. 1898. 
Bainfoll in the Eaat Indian Archipelago, Nineteenth Tear, 1897. 8to. 1898. 

L 2 



148 Oenent JfbiifUy Xeelimg. [May 8, 

Birt, Sir {TiUfam— Poppy Land. By C. Scott 8th edition. 8Ta 1899. 

Summer iu BroadUnd. By H. M. 'Doughty. 6th edition. Srn. 1889. 

Handbook to the Biven and Bnads of Norfolk and iJuffolk. By G. C. Dana. 
31it edition. 8vo. 181<9. 

East Coa^t Scenery. By W. J. Tate. Sro. 18.09. 

Vera in Poppy Land. By Mr. A. Bcrlyn. 8to. 

The Land of the Broada. ' By E. R. Safflinp. \ev edition. 8to. 

Bamblca in Eait Anglliu By H. BritUin. 3ri edition. Sra 1899. 

How to Ort^nLse a Cndiie on the Broails. By £. B. Snffling. 3id edition. 
8to. \8'j9. 
BotUm PMie ZriZirary— Montbl? Bulletin, Vol. IV. Xa 4. 8to. 1899. 
Britidi ArrhiUctt, Hoyal Inaitdte of—3oania.\, 3rd Seriea, Vol. VL No*. II, 11 

4to. 1899. 
California, Vnieerniy of — Various Pnblicatinnf. 1898. Sro, 
Camera Cluh — Journal for April. 1899. 8vo. 

Chemieal Induttry. Society o/— Journal. VoL XVIIL Xo. S. 8Ta 1899. 
Chemieat Society — Journal for April, 189;i. 8Ta 

PiooeedinfCB, Nog. 207, 208. 8to. 1899. 

Collective Index to Transactions, &e. 1873-1882. 8vo. 1899. 
Crarovie, VAeouUmie det Seieneet — Bulletin International, 1899, Ko. 3. Bra 
Ctt«I Engineat, Inttitulum o/— Minntes of Proceedings, Vol. CXXXV. 8fa 

1899. 
Culter, Dr. E— Pb..n«tion. 8vo. 1899. 
Cutter, Dr. E. and Cutter, J. A. Etq. — Fatty Ills and their Uaaqueradea. Sm 

1898. 
Dax. Sociele de .Borda— Bulletin, 1898, Quatri^me Trimestre. 8fo. 1898. 
DuWn Society, Aoyol -Transactions, Vol. VL Parts 14-16; Vol. VIL Fkrt I. 
410. 1898. 

Proceedings, Vol. VHI. Part 6. 8to. 1898. 
Eail India Atuoelation—Jonmal, Vol. XXX. No. 6. 8to. 1899. 
Editom — Aoronnutical Journal for April, 1899. 8vo. 

Analyst for April, 18'.>9. 8vo. 

Anth'my'H Pliotograpliic Bulletin for April, 1899. 8to. 

American Journal of Science for April, 1899. 810. 

Astrophyfical Journal for March, 1899. 

Atheneenm for April, 1899. 4to. 

Atithor for April, 1899. 8to. 

Bimetallist for April, 1899. 8to. 

Brewers' Jonmal for April, 1899. 8vo. 

Chemical New.s for AjhU, 1899. 4to. 

ChemiMt and Drugeist for April, 1899. Svo. 

Ednvation for April, 18D9. 

Electrical Engineer for .\pril, 1899. fol. 

Electrical En;;inecriiig for April, 1809. 8ro. 

Electrical Review for April, 1899. 8vo. 

Electricity for April, 1899. 8vo. 

Engineer for April, 1899. fol. 

KnKinecrinK for April, 1899. fol. 

Homoeopathic Ucview for April, 1899. 8vo. 

Horolo'iical Journal for April, 18!K). 8vo. 

Industries and Iron for April. 1899. fol. 

Invention for April, 1899. 

Journal of Physical Chemistry for Maroli, 1899. 8to. 

Jonmal of State Medicine for March and April, 1899. 8vA 

Law Jonmal for April, 1899. 8vo. 

Life Boat Journal for April, 1809. 8vo. 

Lightning for April. 1899. 8vo. 

London Techniciil Education Oazette for April, 1899. 

Machinery Market for April, 1899. 8to. 



1899.] General MmMg Mating. 149 

KiSon — eonliinMiL 

Katiire for April, 1899. 4to. 

New Chnrch lIag»zio« for April, 18991 Sra 

MooTO Cimento for JaiL-Feb. 1899. Sto. 

Photogispbio Newt for April. 1899. 8to. 

FhTMnl tteriew for March, 1899. 8Ta 

PnUic HeslUi Engineer for April, 189y. 8Ta 

Science AbetraeU, Vol. II. Part 4. 8to. 1899. 

Science of Man for March, 1899. 8to. 

Science Sifting* for April, 1899. 

Travel for April, 1899. 8to. 

Tropical Axricolturiiit for April, 1899. 

Zoophilia for Apoll, 1899. 4ta 
EUetriotd Rtaineen, ImMtUion of—Jtmnal, No. 139. Sro. 1899. 
noraux, BMioteea Naxiomalt CsntniJe— Bollettino, Noa. 319, 320. Stol 1899. 
FraMin Imtiitute — Jonmal for April, 1899. 8to. 
Geneva, SoeiAf da Phynque et cCHiitoire NaturdU — Memoirea, Tome XXXIII. 

Part 1. 8vo. 18a8. 
Otograpkieal Sneietf, Bogal — Oeogmpbiral Journal for April. 1899. 8Ta 
Imperial InMtitute — Imperial Institole Joaraal for April, 1899. 
Joluu Hopkifu Vnitenitji — ^American Jonmal of Philology, YoL XIX. Part 4. 
XTO. 1898. 

American Chemical Jonmal for April, 1899. 8to. 
Karkaria. B. P. Eiq. (tke ilaUor)— India : Forty Years of Progren and Beform. 

Sm 1896. 
Kern Obeerralory— Beport for 1898. 8ro. 1899. 
Lfaaeaa <i(KM<y— Journal, Noa. 173 : 23r,. 8to. 1899. 

ManeketUr GMogieal Sueuty— Tranaactiona, Vul. XXYI. Parta 1-3. Sm 1898. 
Jhtmtlogieal Soeieti/, Ao^— Quarterly JouroaL No. 109. Sm 1899. 
JUatiea, Soeiedad CienUJUsa '^Antonio A{«ite "— Memorias, Tomo XIL Noa. 1-9. 

8to. 1898. 
Mierotenpieal Society, Royal — Journal, 1899, Part 2. 8to. 
Middlaex if oapi'foJ— Reports fnr IS'.IT. 8vo. 1898. 
A'ary League — Navy LcaKue Journal for .\pril. 1899. 8to. 
A<ir South WaU», Agaui-Geueral for — A Statistical Account of the Seven Colonic* 

of Auatralaiiia, 1897-98. 8vo. 1898. 
A'enwm, /. H. Eiq. (the .4u<Aor)— Addenda to the World's Exchanges in 1898. 

8to. 
OdoiUologiral &e»rfy— Transactions, Vol. XXI. No. 5. 8to. 1899. 
Pari*, Soeiiti Frawaiee ile I'Uytique — Stances, 1898, Fuse. 3. 8va 

B"illetiii, \n«. 130, 131. 8to. 18 i». 
Pkarmaeeutieal Socitly itf Great Britain — Journal for April, 1899. 8to. 
Pkot'tgmpiiie Society, Royal — Photographic Journal fnr March, 1899. 8va 
RoAtKhtmart, La Soeieig Ir« Amit dti Scieaeee et Arte — Bulletin, Tome VIIL 

N.«. 4, 5. 8vo. 1898. 
SofoJ Engineert, Corpt of — Foreign Tianalatiou Series, ToL I. Paper 6. 8to. 

18U9. 
Soyal Iritk il'a//«nj/— Transactions, Vol. XXXI. Part 7. 4to. 1899. 
AmoI Society of London— Yaa Book. 18'.I9. Stm. 

PhiloaopUcal Transactions, Vol. CXCII. A, No. 233. 

Proceedings, .Voe. 41 1, 412. 8vo. 1899. 
Sattitarn /n«<i7ii<«— Jonmal, Vol. XX. Part 1. 8to. 1899. 
&UOB Society tit Seieneee, Royal — 

Xalktvtatitrh-PhyMitche Clatee — 
Berichte. 1899, No. 2. 8to. 

Abhandlnngen, Band XXV. Nos. 1, 2. 8to. 1899. 
BeOnne itoeiXy— A ature Notes for April, 1 99. 8vo. 

Aarp, GrantiUe. Eiq. {the JaMor)— -China, Anglo-America and oont. 8to. 
1899. 



160 Qenarcd mmtUy Meeting. [Hay 8, 

Sidgn(Me$, Bev. W. F.B.A£. (the ZNredior)— Stonyhnnt College Qbwrfa t oiji 

Beaults of Obaenrations, 1898. 8to. 
Smithsonian Inititulitm—A. Select Bibliography of OhemiitiT, 1492-1897. Etf 

H. C. Bolton. Fint Supplement. 8vo. 1899. (Smith. Miw. Coll. 117a) 
Society of Arts — Journal for April, 1899. 8to. 
St. Petergbourg, L'AoatUmie ImpiriaU da Soimeet — ^U^moires, Tome VI. Not, 9; 

11, 12,13; Tome VII. Nos. 1-a. ito. 1898. 
TaoAini, Prof. P. Hon. Mem. BJ. (the Juijkor)— Vemorifi dell» Boeietk deg^ 

Spettroscopisti Italiani, VoL XXYUI. Diap. 1. 4to. 1899. 
United Service /tutitufion, Soyol— Jonmal for April, 1899. 8va 
Vmted States Department of Agrieulture — Expwiment Station Record, VoL X 

Na7. 8Ta 1899. 
United States Patent Ofioe— Official GaMtte, YoL LZXXYIL Not. 1-4. Snx 

1899. 
Upiai,L'ObseTvatoire MMarologiqtiedeVDniversit^—BniloHnMeBuaiBl. VoLXXX 

4ta 1898-99 
Verein sur BefOrderung des Oetcerbfleisies m Preussen — ^Verha&dlnngen, IfBO. 

Heft 8. 8to. 
Vienna, Qealogieal InMnte, Impefiol— Jahrbnch. Band XLYIIL Heft 2. 8iQ, 

1898. 
Yerhandlnngen, 1899, Nos. 1-4. 8Ta 
ZocHogieaH Society of Londoiv— Proceedings, 1898, Part 4. Sto, 



1899.] Magnetic Perhuhatiotu of Me Spectral lAnee. 161 



WEEKLY EVENING MEETING, 

Friday, May 12, 1899. 

EBs Gnoe Tho Dckb of Nobthi7iibkbi.ahi>, E.G. F.SA., President, 

in ihe Chair. 

PBonasoB Thomas Pbxston, M.A. D.Sc TJEL8. 

Magnetic Perturbationa of the Sjpectrat Lines. 

Thx mtgeot which we are abont to consider this erening forms a 
connecting link between two of the most interesting branches of 
hoinao knowledge — namely, that which treats of magnetism and that 
which treats of light. Almost as soon as the properties of magnets 
became known, mere curiosity alone mnst have prompted philosophers 
to ascertain if any relation existed between magnetism and " the other 
forces of natnre," as they were generally termed. We are conseqnently 
led to expect, amongst the records of early experimental investiga- 
tions, some accounts which treat of the action of magnetism on light. 

When we seek for such acconnts, however, we find that they are 
almost wholly absent from the literature of science ; and this arises, I 
believe, from the great di£Bcnlty of the investigation and from the 
eircnmstance that only negative results were obtained, rather than 
that no such inquiry suggested itself or was undertaken. Even in 
quite recent times this inquiry has been prosecuted, but wittiont 
sacoesa, by physicists who have published no account of their experi- 
ments. We may take it, therefore, that the inquiry is in itself an 
old one, although it is only now that it has been carried to a sncoessful 
isBoe. 

The earliest recorded attempt to solve this problem with which 
we are acquainted, is that of a celebrated British physicist whose 
same must for ever shed Instro on the annals of the Boyal Institution 
— I speak of Michael Faraday. In order to understand the natnre of 
the investigation which Faraday took in hand, and which has led up 
to the discourse of this evening, it is best to consider briefly some 
elementary facts concerning magnetism and light. 

In the first place I shall assume that we know in a general way 
what the peculiarities of a body are which lead us to say that it is 
magnetised, or a magnet. These are that, when freely suspended, it 
sets itself in a definite direction over the earth's surface, as illustrated 
by tho compass needle, and that in the space around it there is 
" magnetic " force exerted on pieces of iron, and in a smaller degree 
on other substances. For this reason we say that a magnet is 
■nrronnded by a magnetic field of force. The field of force is simply 
the space surrounding the magnet, and it extends to infinity in all 
directions from the magnet. Near the magnet the force is strong. 



152 Profeuar Thomas Pretkm LMay 19, 

and far away from it the force is almost insensible ; and so we My 
that the field is strong at certain places near the magnet, and that it 
is weak at places far away from the magnet. The direction of the 
force at any point is the direction in which the north pole of another 
magnet would be urged if placed at that point, and the push 'whiok 
this pole experiences may be taken to represent the intensity or 
strength of the magnetic field at the point in qnestion. This il 
represented diagrammatically by these drawings [referring to figniM 
suspended before the audience], which show ronghly the natnze of 
the field of force surronnding an ordinary b«r magnet, a horse-akoe 
magnet, and the much more powerful form — the electro-magnet. It 
will be seen that the space outside the iron is filled with a system of 
carved lines running from the north pole to the south pole of the im 
core. Where the lines arc closest together there the magnetic fon» 
is strongest, and the direction of a line at any point is the dizeoticm 
of tho resultant magnetic force at that point — that is, the direction Id 
which a north pole would be urged if placed at that point. 

Faraday always pictured the magnetic field as filled with line* of 
force in this way, and the importance of the conception can aoaroaly 
be over-rated, for it leads us to view the magnetic action as being 
transmitted continuously through the inteirention of some medium 
filling all space, rather than by the nnintelligible process of direct 
action at a distance. This medium is called the ether; bat as to 
what it is that is actually going on in tho ether around a magnet, we 
cannot definitely say. It may be that there is a flow of ether alaig 
the lines of magnetic force, so that there is an out-flow at one end (■ 
tho magnet and on in-flow at the other, or it may be that the ether if 
spinning round tho lines of force in the magnetic field. For oar 
present purpose it is not a matter of very much importance what the 
exact condition of tho ether may bo in a magnetic field, for if tlie 
ether in a magnetic field is either in some peculiar condition of strain 
or of motion, and if light consists of an undulatory motion propagated 
through this same ether, thin it may bo naturally expected that anne 
action should take place when light is propagated through, or radiated 
in, a magnetic field of force. This is what Faraday suspected ; and 
in order that we may appreciate the problem with which he had to 
deal, let us place ourselves in his position and ask oursoWea the 
question : " In what manner can wo test experimentally if there is 
any magnetic action on light ? " 

In answer to this question, tho first thing that occurs to na is to 
pass a beam of ordinary light through tho magnetic field, in some 
chosen direction, and examine by all the means at our disposal if 
any action has taken place. When this is done we find that no 
observable efiiect is produced. But the scientific investigator does 
not rest satisfied with one negative result. Ho varies the conditions 
of tho experiment, and returns to tlie attack with renewed vigour and 
hopes. In our first trial we passed a beam of light through the air- 
fillod space around tho magnet, and wo may vary this experiment 



0* MagmeHe Perlmbati(m$ of ikt Spectral Li»e$. 158 

dthflr bf removing the air altogether, and so causing the beam to 
tiaTerse a Tacnnm, or we may replace the air by some dense trans- 
parent ■nbatance snch as ghus or water. Under these new conditions 
ve still fail to detect any influence of the magnetic field on a beam of 
oidinary light. This negatiTO resalt might arise from the field of 
faroe being too weak to produce an observable effect, or it might be 
that the effect (if any effect really does exist) may be of sach a cha- 
laetsr that it is impossible to detect it with ordinary light. In common 
light the vibrations take place indifferently in all directions around 
the ray, and follow no law or order as to their type. They possess 
no permanent relation to any direction around the ray, so that if the 
magnetic action should happen to be a twisting uf the vibrations 
roand the ray, it will be impossible to detect this twist in the case of 
oidinaiy light. 

Ajb a matter of £u:t it is a twist of this kind that actually happens, 
and this is probably what Faraday anticipated. In order to detect 
it, therefore, it is necessary to employ a beam of light in which the 
vibratinna are restricted to a single plane passing through the ray. 
Snch light is said to be plane-polansed, and may be obtained by 
transmitting common light through a doubly refracting crystaL 
Faraday foond that when a beam of this plane- polarised light is 
paaaed through the magnetic field, in the direction of the linee of 
foroe, a distinct effect tuee place, and that the effect is a twisting of 
fhfl plane of polarisation of the light vibrations as they pass throngh 
the magnetio field — or, to be more precise, as the light passes through 
the matter occapyin<> the field. 

This is the Faraday effect. Its magnitude depends on the strength 
of the fiehl and upon the nature of the matter, through which the 
light paaaoo in that field. This latter is an important fact that 
■honld not be lost si^ht of in reasoning upon the natnre of this effect. 
The presence of matter in the field appears to he necessary. The 
effiset is not observed in a vacnum, but becomes greater as the field 
becomes filled with matter of greater density. It is, therefore, not a 
direct action of the magnetio field on the light vibrations, but rather 
an iodireot action exerted through the intervention of the matter 
which occnpies the magnetic field. 

This action, as we have said, is a rotation of the plane of polarisa- 
tion of the beam of light, and it arises from the circumstance that, in 
passing throngh the magnetic field, vibrations which take place from 
right to left do not travel forward with the same velocity as those 
which take place from left to right. There is no change in the 
periods of the vibrations: it is essentially a change of velocity of 
propagation that occurs. If we examine the transmitted light with a 
spectroscope, we find that the wave-lengths are unaltered, but that 
the amount of rotation of the plane of polarisation is different for 
waves of different lengths. The law which governs the effect is that 
the rotation of the plane of polarisation varies inversely as the square 
of the wave-length of the light employed. 



154 Pro/ettor Thomas Proton [Hay IS, 

Yon will bave noticed that in the foregoing experiment the Boaree 
of light was placed quite ontsiJc the field of magnetic force, whib 
the beam of light was transmitted throngh the field for exammatioB. 
Now wo might place the sooroe of light itself in the magnetic field, 
and then examine if the light emitted by it is in any way affected I7 
the magnetic force. This variation of the experiment anggesta itsdf 
at once, and was indeed also tried by Faraday — ^in fikct it fanned hii 
last experimental research of 1862, bnt withont sncceaa. The auN 
experiment has been tried, no doubt, by many other physiciata, wiA 
the same negative resnlt. 

The first recorded sncoess, or at least partial saoceas, was I7 
M. Fievez in 1885. He placed the sonroe of light — a gaa flame 
impregnated with sodium vapour — between the pole-pieoea of a 
poworfnl electro-magnet. This being done, the light radiated by the 
flame was passed tlirongh the slit of a highly disperaive apectroaoopa 
and examined. What M. Fiovez observed was that the bright speotnl 
lines became broadened by the action of the magnetic field on tha 
radiating source. His account is, perhaps, Eomewhat confused, owing 
to his imperfect apprehension of the true nature of the phenomenal 
which he observed ; but, without doubt, he observed a true maguetia 
effect on the radiated light — namely, this broadening of the spectnl 
lines. But he did not convince the scientific world that he had made 
any new discovery, and so the matter foil into neglect until it wM 
revived again in 1897 by the now celebrated work of Or. P. Zeemu. 

The credit which attaches to Dr. Zeeman's work is that he not 
only, after prolonged effort, succeeded in obtaining this new magnetie 
effect, but he also convinced the world that the effect was a true one^ 
arising from the action of the magnetic field on the sonroe of light 
That Dr. Zeeman was able to do this was due, perhaps, as much to 
the present advanced state of our theoretical knowledge of this sab- 
ject as to his own skill and perseverance as an observer ; and this ii 
a striking example of the great ossistauce which well-founded theory 
affords to experimental investigation. The theory connects the faota 
already known in rc»sonabIo and harmonious sequence, predicts new 
results, and points out the channels through which they must be 
sought. Without such scientific theory this general systematic ad- 
vance would be impossible, and now results would be stumbled on 
only by accident. 

To see how this applies to our case, we revert to the fact deter- 
mined by Dr. Zeeman — namely, that when the source of light is 
placed in a strong magnetic field the B|)ectral lines become broadened. 
ISlidu shown here.] As soon as this was announced Professor 
Lorontz, and subsequently Dr. Larmor, examined the question from 
the theoretical point of view. They analysed the subject mathe- 
matically, and came to the conclusiuu that each spectral lino should 
be not merely broadened, but should bo actually split up into three 
— that is, each lino should become throe lines, or, as we shall say in 
future, a triplet. Thoy also arrived at the further most im|iortuik 



1899.] «• Magmetic Perturbattcmt of ike Sgettna Lima. 155 

■Dcl inlerasting conclusion, tu. tbat the enutitnent lines at this 
triplet miut be eaoh plane-polarised — the eentnl line of the triplet 
being polsriaed in one plane, while the aide lines are pcJarised in a 
perpendicnlar plane. In &ct the Tibimtions of the light fonning the 
eentnJ line are parallel to the lines of magnetic £aroe, wHIe the 
'vilnations in the side lines are perpendienlar to the lines of foree. 
This prediction of tripling and polarisatkm from tbeoretieal eoo- 
■deimtians may be re^rded as the key to the subsequent adTaoee 
Chat has been made in the inyestigation of this region of phrsicB. 
In order to anderstand it, let ns place ourselves in Dr. Zeeman's 
position when he found that the special lines became broadened by 
the magnetic field, and let us be informed that this hrMdening is in 
all probability a tripling of the lines accompanied by plane-polarisa- 
tion. The question now is, " How are we to determine if this is the 
ease?" 

It is clear that if the broadened line is really a triplet, then the 
flomponents of this triplet must be so dose together that they orer- 
1m each other, and so appear to the eye merely as one broad line, as 
iliastrated by the model which is here before yon. [Hodel illns- 
tnting the overlapping shown here] We know that the spednl 
lilies are not infinitely narrow lines, but are really narrow bands of 
li^t of finite width, and consequently we are quite prepared to 
legaid the magnetioally broadened line as an overlapping triplet ; bat 
we flsnnot remain satisfied until we have proved beyond all doatA, 
that it really is a triplet, and not merely a single broad line. To 
do tla% Dr. Zeeman made use of the second prediction of the theory 
— namely, that the constituents of the triplet must be plane-polariscxl. 
If this is so, then the outer edges of the broadened line must be plane- 
polarised, and therefore by introducing a Niool's prism into the path 
of the light it must be possible to torn the Niool so that the plane- 
polarised edges shall be cut ofi^ and the breadth of the line shall be 
rednoed to its normal amount. In fact, in this position of the Xiool 
the outside lines of the triplet axe extingnished, and the oentnd 
component alone remaina. This component is, of ooune, the ssuie 
in width as the original line, and consequently when the outer 
members of the triplet are extinguished all the magnetic broadening 
of the line is removed. When the Nicol is turned through a right 
angle the central component of the triplet is extinguijshed, while the 
aide lines remain ; and, if these side lines are sufSciently sepanted 
so that they do not overlap, then, when the central line is nrmoved, 
a narrow dark space wUl exist between the side components, whIcL 
ropro s on ts the space intervening between the outer members of the 
tnplet, as illustrated by this photograph., TSlide shown.' 

But even though we may be able to so increase the strength of 
the magnetic field that when the central component of the triplet is 
removed by a Niool the side lines stand ai«rt with a clearly defiiiod 
interval between them, yet this in itself does not aWjlutely satiKfy 
m that the broadened line is a triplet. It might be contended that 



156 Profeuor Thomas PretUm \Mmj li, 

the broadened line is not really a triplet, bat is merely a band of 
light polarised in one plane along its edges and in the perpendicular 
plane along its centre, and that increase of the magnetic field might 
never separate it into distinct constituents, but merely continue to 
broaden it This contention, howeTcr, might be disposed of I7 a 
carefnl study of the facts, even though we might not be able to piD- 
dnce a magnetic field strong euoagh to completely separate the 
constituent lines of the triplet. 

Bat clearly the thing to be arriTed at is to so arrange matters— in 
fact, to BO design onr electro-magnet and to plan the conditions of 
onr experiment — that the magnetic field acting on the soorce of light 
shall be strong enongh to completely separate the membera of the 
triplet, if such exist. Yon will understand that this is no easy thing 
to do when yon remember that it was only after repeated efforts and 
many failures that even a slight broadening of the spectral lines WM 
obtained. Neyertheless, in spite of the great difficulty which besets 
this inTcstigation, and which arises from our inability to obtain a 
magnetic field of nnlimited strength, yet, with a properly deaignad 
magnet and other properly arranged conditions, it is possible to 
obtain a magnetic field strong eni>agh to completely separate the 
constituents of the magnetic triplet, and thus to prove that the pre- 
diction of theory is verified by the actual facts. [Slide shown.] 

But with a magnetic field of groat strength the &cts as shown fay 
these slides [photographs shown hero] turn out to bo more com- 
plicated and more interesting than the simple theory led us to ezpeet 
For while some of the spectral lines are split up into triplets as indi- 
cated by theory, some on the other hand become resolved into sezteti, 
or octets, or other complex types. [Slides shown liere.] Thus, when 
the magnetic field becomes sufficiently intense, we realise to the foil 
all the theoretical predictions and mure. The reason of this surplus 
of realisation over expectation lies in the fact that the theory in its 
simplest form deals only with the simplest types of motion under the 
simplest conditions, and the conclusions arrived at are of course of 
curresponding siinplicity. When more complicated types of motioa 
are contemplateil, the theory famishes us with the dynamical ex- 
planation of the more complicated tyi)e8 of effect produced by the 
magnetic field. That tripling pure and simple should occur in the 
case of every sjioctral lino (as predicted by the simplest form of 
theory) is not a result which we should expect from a broader con- 
sideration of the problem. In fact, if we reflect on the snbject, ws 
are forced to the conclusion that deviations from the pure triplet 
type should be expected, and, as we have seen, such deviationi 
actually do occur. In this respect, therefore, the experimental ia- 
vestigation which yields more than the simple theory expected is not 
to be taken as in any way discordant with that theory, but, on the 
contrary, to be in harmony with it. 

In order that yon may form some idea as to what it is that the 
theory supposes to be in operation in the production of these pheno- 





1899.] on Magneiie Perturbaliont of Ihe Spetlral Linet. 157 

SMBs, I liftTe had this elliptic fromo oonstrnctcd [modal sliown], 
vbioh I «8k you for the present to consider as the orbit described by 
one uf iLuAc elements of matter which by their motions sot up waves 
in Ihn ether, and thereby emit what wo call light. This white ball, 
whioh alides on the elliptic frame, is supposed to represent the 
dement of matter. It is sometimes ciilled an ion, which name is 
Deed to imply that the element of matUir carries an electric charge 
inliinmllj aasociatcd with it. 

Mow, under ordinary oircamstances this ion revolving in its orbit 
with very great rapidity will continue to do so peacefully, nnlesi 
eoiAmMl forces come into play to disturb it. When external forces 
into action the orbit closes in general to bo the same as before, 
;Arbit becomes perturbed, and the external forces are termed per- 
,g forooa. But yon now ask. What is the character of the forces 
ttoed by the magnetic field when the ion is moving through it ? 
]u andwertsg tliis, we are to remember that the ion is supposed to be 
•a eleiaeot of matter charged with an i-lectric charge— or, if you like, 
•a eleetrio charge possessing inertia. Now, if a charged body moves 
s magnetic field, it is an experimental iact that it csperionces 
artviDg from the action of the magnetic field on tlio moving 
'". The direction of this force is at right angles both 
th< II of motion of the charged txxly and to the direction of 

Uis m>){nf' '" force in the field. The effect of this force in our case 
is to caoM the elliptic orbits uf the ious to rotate round the lines of 
'^^fi*^" force ; or to cause them to have a processional motion 
[illaskraled by model] instead of staying fixed in space, just as the 
pwtnrbing forces of the planets in the solar sjrstem cause the earth's 
oriit to hsve a processional motion. The angular velocity of this 
anoam'wual motion is proportional to the strength of the magnetio 
neU, and depends also, as yon would expect, on the electric charge 
and the inertia associated with the ion. 

This preoeesional motion of the orbit, combined with the motion 
of the iou around the orbit, gives the whole motion of the ion in 
■pftOB, and the result of this combined movement, of these two super- 
poasd freqoenoies — viz. the frequency of revolution of the ion in its 
flsUl, and the frequency of rotation of the orbit around the linos of 
Cmqs — is that, in the case of the light radiated across the linos of 
tont, saob period becomes associated with two new periods, or, in 
oikw woids, each spectral line becomes a triplet. A partial analogue 
to AiM, which may to some extent help you to understand the intro- 
dattiflO of the two new periods, occurs in the case of sound, although 
ths two phenomena at bnsis are quite different. The analogue (or 
qOMi-ttoalogne) is this. When two notes of given pitch, that is of 
givso frequency of vibration, are sounded together, their sujierposition 
pfodnoM two other notes of frequencies which are respectively the 
■aa and the difforonoo of the frequencies of the two given notes. 
These an known as the summation and the difference tones of the 
two giren notes. Corresponding to these are the two side lines of the 




158 Profe$aor Thomai PmiM [Htj "O, 

magnetic triplet. The freqnenqr of the Tibntion in one of Umm 
lines is the sum, and the frequency of the other is the diffiannoek cf 
the two frequencies mentioned before — namely, the frequency of the 
rcTolntion of the ion around its orbit, and the frequency of the pm- 
cessional reTolntion of the orbit round the lines of force. The oantn 
line of the triplet has the frequency of the original vibntion, sad 
this frequency disappears completely when the light is Tiewed algng 
tho lines of force — tibat is, through axial holes pierced in the pole- 
pieces. In this direction, too, a further peculiarity arises, for not 
only does the triplet drop its central member and become a doobMi 
but each member of this doublet is not plane-pdiarised, aa Ike 
members of tho triplet are. They ate each, on tiie contniy, dr* 
cularly polarised — that is, the yibration is ciionlar instead of being 
rectilmc&r. 

This all follows as the expectation of the simple theoiy whiok 
supposes that the ions are free to describe their elliptic orbits iindi>> 
tnrbed by any forces other than the magnetic field. Bat it is only to 
be expected that other perturbing forces must come into play in the 
assemblage of ions which build up incandescent matter of the aonroe 
of light. We know, for example, that tho other members of the solir 
system perturb the earth's motion, so that it deviates from the sinipls 
elliptic motion predicted by tho simple theory which did not taka 
these perturbing forces into account. Hence, if any such pertoiUag 
forces exist, and we should be surprised if they did not exist, tiw 
tripling pure and simple of the spectral lines will be departed froa, 
and other types will arise. From the character of these now typea 
wo may infer the nature of the perturbations which give rise to 
them, and hence by the study of those types we obtain a view of what 
is going on in matter when it is emitting light, which we should not 
possess if such perturbations did not occur. These deviations fron 
pure tripling are consequently of more importance almost, in xeffA 
to our future progress, than tho discovery of the tripling itseUL To 
give yon some idea of the influence of such perturbations in modi" 
fyiug the triplet form, I may mention that it follows from simple 
theoretical considerations, that if the perturbing forces canse the 
orbit to revolve in its own piano, or cause it to change its elliptiaty 
periodically, then each lino of the triplet produced by the magnetio 
field will be doubled, and a sextet will result, and other oscillatiaoi 
of the orbit will give rise to other modifications of the normal tripkt 
type. It is not quite easy to see at once, however, what the psF' 
turbing forces are exactly, for we do not know the way in which the 
ions are associated in matter ; but if we regard an ion as a charged 
element of matter describing an orbit, it will be analogous to a dosed 
circuit, or to a magnetic shell, and will be urged to set in eome 
definite way in the magnetic field. In coming into this position it 
may oscillate about tho position of equilibrium, and thus introduce 
an oscillation into tho preccssional motion of the orbit, which may 
have the cfibct of doubling or tripling the constituents of tho pure 
preccssional triplet. 



18S9.] on Magnetic Perturbalions of the Spectral Lines. 159 

Now, experimental investigation shows ns that all the spectral 
Unas do not become triplets when viewed across the lines of force 
ia a magnetic field, for some lines show as quartets, or sextets, or 
aetata, or in general as complex triplets derived from the normal 
by replacing each component by a doublet or a triplet. We 
iade, therefore, that the iuns which give rise to these complex 
•re not perfectly free in their motions throngh the magnetio 
i, bnt are constrained in some way by association with each other 
\ groape, or otherwise, while they move in the magnetic field. 
And now we come to a very important point in this inquiry, 
ling to the simple theory every spectral line, when viewed 
the lines of force, should beeomc a triplet in the magnetic 
J, and the differeDoe of the vibration frequency between the side 
I of the triplet should be the same for all the spectral lines of a 
sub«tance. In other words, the preoessional frequency should 
I the aame for all the ionic orbits, or the difference of wave-length 
rX between the lateral components of the magnetio triplet should 
vary inversely as the square of the wave-length of the spectral line 
Boder conHidcration. Now, when we examine this point by ex[ieri- 
BMOt, we find that this Bim]>le law is very far from being fulfilled. 
In foot, a Tery casual survey of the spectrum of any substance shows 
that the law does not hold even as a rough approximation ; for, while 
WAiMi apectral lines show a considerable resolution in the magnetic 
fi«Id, other lines of nearly the same wave-length, in the same sub- 
alinm. are scarcely affected at all. This deviation is most interest- 
ing to those who concern themselves with the ultimate structure of 
antter, for it shows that the mechanism which produces the spectral 
liBca of any given substance is not of the simplicity poatnlated in the 
eleneotaLry theory of this magnetic effect. 

previous knowledge of the line spectra of different substances 
^indeed have led us to suspect some such deviation as this from 
Ita predicted by the simple theory. For if we view the line 
of a given substance wo find that some of the lines are 
rp while others are nebulous or diffuse, and that some are long 
while others are short — in fact, tho lines exhibit characteristic 
difler«aoM which lead us to 8UR])ect that they are not all jirodnced 

S' the motion of a single nnconBtrained ion. On closer scrutiny 
*>j am seen to throw thomBelves into natural groups. For example, 
in the ease of the raouad metals (sodium, potassium, etc.), the spectral 
line* of each metal form three scries of natural pairs, and again, in 
the enae of the diad group (cadmium, zinc, etc.), the spectrum of each 
■hows two series of natural triplets, and so on. 

Thus, speaking gi.>uorally, tho lines which form the spectrum of a 



■ 



nftup whi 



^^ J BOS, sp 

^punelerirt 



rabstanoe may be arranged in groups which possess similar 
^^ terirtics as groups. Colling tho lines of those groups A,, B,, 
^D| . . H A„ B„ C] . . ., A3, B3, C3 . . . we may regard the suc- 
^(MtTe gronpe as repetitions of the first, so that the A's — that is 
A„ Aj, A], Ac. — are corresponding linos produced probably by tho 
100 ; while the B's — namely, B„ Bj, B,, &o. — correspond to one 



160 



Profetsor Thomas Preston 



[May 12, 



another and are prodaced by another ion, and eo on. This gronping 
of the spectral liuos has beuu noticed in the case of several rob- 
Btances, and it Ims been a subjuct of earnest inquiry amongst spectro- 
Bcopifits for some time post. All such grouping, however, op to the 
present, has hod to depend on the judgment of the observer >s to 
certain similarities in the general character and arrangement of the 
lines, and siraihiritit's which imloed may or may not have any Fpecififl 
relation to the mechanism by which the lines are produced. In fJMt, 
snch grouping has Ijcon eG'ectcd by guess-work, or by empirioaJ 
formnlie, and we need not bo surprised if it is found that the groDpi 
eo far obtained are more or less imperfect. 

I introduce this gronping of the spectral lines to your notice in 
order that we may attack the problem of reducing to order the so for 
apparently lawless magnetic effect. As I have already mentioned, 
the Lines in the spectrum of any given substance are nut all rciiolTn) 
into triplets by the magnetic 6uld, hut some are resolved into triplet! 
while others become sextets, etc. ; and further, the magnitude of thii 
resolution, that is the interval & A. between the lateral componenia 
does not appear at first sight to obey any simple law. 

According to the prediction of the simple theory the separatioa 
S k should be proportional to k'', aud although this law is not at all 
obeyed, if we take all the lines of the spectrum as a sinj^le groap, 
yet we find that it is obeyed for the diiferent groups if we divide the 
lines into a series of groups. In other words, the corresponding 
lines A,, A,, A3, etc. have the same value for the quantity e/m,' or, 
as we moy say, they are produced by the motion of the same ion. 
The other corresponding, linos, B,, B^, B3, etc. have another common 
value for e/m, and are produced therefore by a ditfereut ion, and so 
on. We are thus led by this magnetic eflfoet to arrange the lines of 1 
given spectrum into natural groups, and from the nature of the effect 
we are led to suspect that the corresponding linos of these gronpt are 
produced by the some ion, and therefore that the atom of any gives 
substance is reoUy a complex consisting of several different inns, 
each of which gives rise to certain spectral lines, and these ions an 
associated to form an atom in some peculiar way which stamps tba 
substance with itw own peculiar ]>rop€rtie8. 

In order to illufttrato the inuaiiing of this, let ns consider the 
spectmm of some such metal as zinc. The bright lines forming the 
spectmra of this metal arrange themselves to a large extent in seta of 
three — that is, they group themselves naturally in triplets. Denot- 
ing these triplets in ascending order of refrangibility by A, BpC,, 
A], B2, C], etc. we find that the lines A,, A^, etc. show the same mag- 
netic effect in character, and have the same value of e/m, so that they 
form a series obeying the theoretical law deduced by Lorenta ani 



* Tlic quantity e its the electric charge of the ion, and m ia it< inertia, ai 
the ratio e/m dctcrminFa the preceaaiunol freanency, or spin, of the iooie urbM 
round the lines nf mngnetic force in a given field. 



►•] 



I Magnetic Perturbation* of the Spectral Linen. 



IGl 



Ltnnor. In tho samo way the Udcb B,, B„ B,, etc., fonn another series 
klao obeys the theoretical law, and poRsess a common valno 
i qoaatity e/m, similarly for the lines C,, C„ Cj, etc. The value 
e/m for the A series differs from that possessed by the B series or 
C series, and this leads ns to infer that the atom of zinc is boilt 
ions which differ from each other in the value of tho quantity 
, and that each of these different ions is effective in prodncing a cor- 
series of lines in tho spectrum of the metal. When we examine 
I of cadmium, or of magnesium — that is, when we examine 
of other metals of tho same chemical group — we find that 
are the spectra homologous, not only do tho lines group 
Itos in similar groups, but we find in addition that the corrc- 
Bg linos of the different spectra are similarly affected by tho 
etio field. And further, not only is the character of the mag- 
efCact the same for tho corresponding lines of tho different 
of the same chemical group, but the actnal magnitude of 
olatioD as measured by the quantity e/m is the same for tho 
ondiog series of lines in the different spectra. This is illus- 
in the following table, and leads ns to believe, or at least to 



MaSDMie rfftcl. 



A: 

the A: 

Magwiam K ■ 

PnuMtiiinl (pin (nppmi.) 



NonpU or 

ootnpkx 

■riptatik 


Stxttt*. 


Triplola. 


HOST, 


4800 


4G78 


4811 


4722 


4680 


9184 


sns 


iilCT 


«/m = 5.'5 


«/m = 87 


r/m = 100 



I tbowB the pfTect for the tlirce lines which fnnn (he Hmt nntiiral 

, !■ the (pectmm or cadmium compured with the corruspon<ling lines in 

)nk nX zinc nnrl ma^niesinm. It will Ihj seen thnt the cnrn'sp'iiKlini; linra 

liflartnit spectra Btifler the same mairnetic cffvot hnth in character and 

Thou the oonwpoiiding; lines 4800, 4722, ^ITi ore ciieh resnlTcd 

, and the rate at whioh the ionio orhit i-i caiiscsl to precoss is the lutnio 

, (4ennted by »/m — 87 in the talile). Similnrly for the other oorro- 



that tho ion which pnxlucos the lines A,, A„ A,, etc., in the 
I of sine is the same as that which produces the corresponding 
»,, A„ A,, etc., in cadmium, ond the same for the corresponding 
tb« other tnetals of this chcmicnl group. In other words, wo 
• Ud to nupeot that not only is the atom a complex composod of an 
Wnewtion nf different ions, but that the atoms of those snbsianccs 
wlisdi lin in the aame chemical group are perhaps built np from the 
MUM kiwi of ton*, or at least from ions which possess the same ejm. 



Vm.. XVI. (S.r 



'.in 



) 



1G2 Profenor Thomas Prerton [May 12, 

and that the differences which exist in tho materials Uins constitnted 
nriiicfl more from the manner of association of the ions in the atom 
tliaii from differences in the fandamontal character of the ions which 
build up the atoms; or it may bo, indeed, that all ions arc fonda- 
mciitally tho same, aud that differences in the valae of e/m, or in the 
character of the ribratious emitted by them, or in the spectral lines 
produced by them, may really ariso from tho manner in which they 
are associated together in building up tho atom. 

Tliis may be an unjustified speculation, but there can be no doubt 
ns to tho fascination which enquiry of this kind has always exerted, 
and must continue to exert, OTcr the human mind. It is the specula- 
tion of the ignorant as well as of tho philosophic and trained sciontifie 
miud, and even though it should never be proved to rest on any sub- 
stantial basis of fact, it will continue to cast its charm over every 
investigator of nature. 

It is over the desire of tho human mind to see all the phenomena 
of nature bound by one connecting chain, and tho forging of this 
chain can be realised only gradually and after great labour in the 
lal)oi-atorics of science. From time to time the hope has been enter- 
tained that metals may be ti-nnsmntcd, and that one form may be 
converted into another; and although this hope has been more gene- 
rally nurtured by avarice and by ignorance rather than by knowledge, 
yet it is true that we never havo had any sufficient reason for totally 
abandoning that hope, and even though it may never bo realised that 
in practice we shall be able to convert one substance into another, 
even though tho {)liilosophcr'8 stone be for ever beyond our grasji, yet 
when the receut developments of science, cspRcially in tho region of 
spectrum analysis, are carefully considered, wo have, I think, reason- 
able ho]>o that tho time is fast approaching when intimate relations, 
if not identities, will be seen to exist between forms of matter which 
have heretofore been considered as quite distinct. Important spoctro- 
Boopiu iufurmatiuu pointing in this same direction has been gleaned 
through a long series of observations by Sir Norman Lockyer on the 
spectra of the fixed stars, and on the dilferent spectra yielded by the 
btimo substance at dillurent temperatures. These observations lend 
Homo support to the idea, so long entertained merely as a speculation, 
that all the various kinds of matter, all the various so-called chemical 
elements, may be bnilt up in some way of the samo fundamental sub- 
stance ; and it is probable that this prutylo theory will, in one fonn 
or another, continue to haunt the domains of scientific thought, and 
remain a useful aud important factor in our progress, for all time 
to come. 

Even though it may bo that a knowledge of the oltimato constitn- 
tion of matter must for ever remain a scaled book to our enquiries, 
yet, fram(>d as we are, we must for ever prosecute the extension of 
our knowledge in every direction ; and in pursuing knowledge it 
frequently liapptiiis that vast acquisitions are made through chanuck 
which at first seem most unlikely to lead us any further. It has 



1899.] <m Magnetic Perturhatuma of the ^ectral Linea. 163 

freqneatly Iiappened that small and obscure effects, obtained after 
much Iftbonr and difiScnlty, have led to results of the highest import- 
ance, while Tery pronounced and striking effects which have forced 
thonselTes on the attention of the observer have proved comparatively 
barren. It was by a determined effort of this kind, founded on a 
correct appreciation of the importance of small outstanding differ- 
ences — BO small as to be despised or passed over by all other 
obserrerB — that Lord Bayleigh discovered a new gas in our atmo- 
qthere, added argon to our list of elements, and initiated the attack 
iHiich led to the brilliant capture by Prof. Bamsay of several new 
tenestrial sabstanoes. 

Viewed from this standpoint I hope I am to some extent justified 
in occupying your attention this evening with the consideration of 
the action ot magnetism on light, for although the effect produced is 
■mall and not easy to observe, yet it is likely to prove an important 
instmment of research in the study of matter, and it is not inappro- 

griate that a pnblic account of what has been already achieved should 
a given in this Institution, in which tho enquiry was first begun by 
Iknday, and in which bis spirit still lives. 

IT. P.l 



M 2 



164 The Bithup of Bri$tol [Hay 19, 



WEEKLY EVENING MEETING, 
Friday, May 19, 1899. 

The Dcee or Nobtbg3ibkbi.aiid, E.G. F.S.A., President, 
in the Chair. 

Tho Right Bev. The Lobo Bishop of Bristol. 

Runie and Ogam Charaeter$ and Interiplion* in the BrUM Ua. 



I am frequently surprised by the ignorance which I find of tho 
exifitcnce of such a thinr; as an Ugam inscriptiun, and of the mewiiiig 
of the phrase " a Bnnic inscription." My basinoss this eToning is to 
givo some elementary information on both of these sabjeots. 

The Bnnic alphabet was the character in which onr earliert 
Anglian ancestors wrote their own langnago. Tho use of this ohk- 
meter practically died oat early, nnder tho inflnenco of the Latin and 
the Scottish missionaries, who wore ignorant of mues, and probably 
suspected them of paganism and sorcery. Bode refers to runes onoe, 
aud in that kind of connection. He tells ns that a prisoner who 
frequently contrived to get loose from his chains was aoenaed of 
having charms, lilerm aSittorim, which ^Ifrio translates " rone- 
staves." We have therefore but a limited nnmbcr of mnio inscrip- 
tions of the Anglian charoctir remaining in our island. I sty 
" Anglian " rather than " Saxon," because the inscriptions are almoat 
entirely confined to the parts of the island occupied by the Northnm- 
brian Angles, in whom I am accustomed to find the ancestors of our 
art and literature. The earliest piece of English literature in 
existence is found cut in doep large runic characters on the shaft of 
a cross in old Northumbria ; and the earliest and most beantifiil 
specimens of English art in sculptiiro and in draftsmanship are found 
on the remains of Nurthnmbrian cross-shoits and in the gospel-book 
of the Northumbrians. 

While tho Ogam symbols aro found only in these islands, Basel 
are found in connecti<m with Gothic remains in Europe of an earif 
date, and immense quantities of Bunic inscriptions aro fonnd is 
Scandinavia. The Ciothic runes aro practically tho same as the 
Anglian; tho Scandinavian runes sliow considerable disintegratioii 
from the earlier tyix). 

Several of the characters of the Bnnic alphabet are at onoe distin- 
guishable, from their likeness to our ordinary capital letters. Soeh 
are T, I, B, K. Inasmnch as our ordinary capital letters are Latiiii 
this means tliat some of the Bnnic chartustors have much resemblance 
to the Latin. But tho Latin alphabet is only one stage younger tfau 
tho Greek alphabet, with which in teveral Icttors its capitals an 



1899.] 



on Bunie and Ogam Characters, etc. 



1G5 



I 




identical. On which of these two alphabets was the Runic alj)babet 
baaed ? I fail to eee Bufiicient leugtb of time, or any geographical 
eonnectioD, to accouut fur thoir being based on the Latin. On the 
utfaer band, there are a siifiicicnt number of centuries and sufScieut 
geographical links to account for the mnos being based on a Greek 
alphabet ; not the ordinary Attic, but one more archaic in somo 
leading charactera. It is technically an error to spctik of a " Lutin 
alphabet " or a " Bunic alphabet." It is only the Greek that is 
properly called an alphabet, from its first two letters. The Latin is 
properly called the abccedarium, from its a b c, d, and the Kunic the 
futhork,/u th o r k. The Ogam alphabet is called in a similar way 
the betblaisnion, from the first letters h I (beth and lutg), pronounced 
baylnshneen. The English "alphabet" is wrongly so-callod ; it is 
properly "the abecee." 

I accept as conclusive Canon Isaac Taylor's theory as set forth 
in his Greeks and Goths, a preliminary portion of his great book on 
The Alphabet. He goes boldly to the time when the Ionian colonies 
in Thraco and abont the Block Sea wore cut off for over from thoir 
country by the Persian invasions of the sixth century before 
They were shut ofi" in that distant and dark laud for cen- 
with the alphabet of the mother country as it was at the 
their separation. What that alphabet was we know. In the 
of centuries a junction was efiected between the barbarians 
oar Mioeitora, living abont tlie Baltic, and the Greek traders from 
the Black Sea with their remains of an ancient oivilisatiou. Oar 
Gotiiic ancestors learned from the traders from the south to use their 
characters as a means of recording transactions. That is the simple 
theory. When you examine the table which I Lavo prepared (Fig. 1), 
of tho Ionian alphabet and the runes, yi>u wilt need only two 
fl4ber hinta to see the connection. Our Baltic aucestors kopt their 
lallicia by incisions on wood. Anyone who has cut his initials on a 
Isebocil bench or desk knows that boys with initials foiiucd of straight 
iatnkea ftre lucky as compared with boys whose initials are rounded. 
Ha knows also that a straight stroke itself can bo a nuisance if it 
jfoaa along the grain ; care is needed to prevent its splintering at 
IIm audi when he oudoavours to extract the pieco ho is cutting out. 
Tho diffarencc between the Ionian alphabet and the runes consists, 
' Ijr speaking, iu all rounded curves hcin;^ made into straight 
forming angles instead of curves, and in the removal by one 
or another of every horizontal lino ; there is not one horizontal 
the whole futhork. 
The Anglian runes identical with the Ionian letters aro B, I, L, 
8. The ranee for W and long O aro Ionian letters cut in straight 
lioea inalead of curves; E and T are only altered by horizuntul 
being replaced by t»'o lines ut an angle, cut against the grain ; 
' D aro the lunian gutturals Cb and G ; Ng is a double louiau 
G : Th is the Ionian D ; II bus its horiTiontal lino moAo sluutiu;.', as 
alau F ; If has iti* two middle linos cut through to tiio side lines, to 




166 



The Bishop of Briatol 



[May 19. 



distingoish it £rom tho E rune. D is tho Ionian Th cnt Bqnttre^ 
frith the horizontal lines remoTcd as nnneccssary and tronblesome. 

The Towel Bonnds, A, Ae, O, appear to 
be Bimple modifications of the loniin 
short £, a Terj nsefnl letter for cat- 
ting on wood. E and N have one ot 
thoir three strokes knooked off. I 
have now mentioned 22 of the 26 Ang- 
lian rnncs ; and of the remaining fonr, 
one is componnded of £ and A, and 
the others are so exceedingly rare u 
scarcely ever to meet the eye of tho 
investigator of Bonio insoriptiona. 

Many qnestions of great iniereak 
are raised by some of these ohangei 
and appropriations. I will only men- 
tion two. One is the nse of the Greek 
koppa, corresponding to the Hebrew 
koof, for the mno W. We are hr 
miliar with the medievnl use of ft 
for tr in such words as quhai for whaL 
Tho other is the nse of the Qreek Q 
for the rune U. Here again we aia 
familiar with tho forms guard and 
ward, guerre and toar. 

Tho earliest pieces of English 
literature in existenco are the inscrip- 
tions on tho shaft of a cross in the 
clinrchjard of Bowcastle, nine miles 
from Gilsland. It is 1^ feet high, 
and when tho head was on it stood 
17 feot high. It was erected in the 
yoar C70, as tho inscriptions show, and 
besidoB tho inscriptions now shown it 
bears tho names of Wulfhore, king of 
tho Mercians, his wife Eynesnitbs, 
and hor sister Eynbnmg. 

llic sculptures on this cross in 
clear relief are so striking as works 
of art that I have had a slide specially 
prepared to show tho figure of onr 
Lord in tho attitude of benediction ; a 
figure about i feet high, of marvollons 
dignity in its simplicity. Very diffi- 
cult questions are raised on the art 
side of this striking panel. For our runic purposes we note the 
inscription at tho head, Kn'sllus Gessus, which shows that our Anglian 
' ancoBtors pronounced thoir consouauts with special emphasis ; whoress 



6 X 

a 1 
U 1 


> 


CD 1 

< 1 
Z 1 


)0( 


H 1 ® 


-a. 


$ ! 


tk. 


=>!>>- 


cz 


H 


1- 




CO 


cc 


^ 


Ai 


c 


0-^ 


^ 


Q. 

O 


C 


11 

■h 


z 


z 


s 


z 


E 

L. _ 


_J 


^- 


— 


— 


— 


l" 


X 


JL 


o 


<v 


X 


u. 


u. 


i^ 


UJ 


ilLl. 


Z 


Q 


A 


z 


o 

CD 






< 


< 


ZL 



I 




z 


0) 


z 


< 


_i 


< 


_l 


CJ 


z 


CD 


z 


o 


z 
< 



1899.] on JBimtb cnui Ogam Characters, etc. 167 

the Britons probably followed the modem Welsh ralo, "pronounce 
the vowels." 

1 show on slides and in fnll-size facsimile diagrams portions of 
the following Bewcastle inscriptions : — 

(1) ** Fmman gear koninges ricses theses Ecgfrithn." 

(2) "lliis sigbekn thnn setton Hweetred Wothgar Olwfwolthn 
aft Alcfrithii ean kiining eao Oswinng. Gcbid heo sinna sowhula." 

(1^ "The first year of Ecg&ith king of this realm." 

(2) ** This slfnder token of Tictory Hweetred Wothgar and Olwlf- 
woltha set np in memory of Alchfrith formerly king and son of 
Oawy. Pmy for the high sin of his sonL" 

There is a similar shaft, rather longer, at Rnthwell, in Damfrics- 
ahire, which was ouder Anglian domination daring Ecgfrith's reign 
down to his death, in 685, when it passed away. No later period can 
be mentioned at which a great religions poem in early Anglo-Saxon 
ooald have been incised in early Anglian runes on a cross in that 
distrid Parts of the shaft, especially the upper pait which is 
socketed into the lower and may be a little earlier in character, are 
dnfaced, but most part of the lengthy inscription can be read with 
ease, it is the original poem which was afterwards doyclopod into 
the Dream of the Holy iiU>od, a poem of more than 300 lines fonnd 
in a manoscript of the ninth century at Vcrcelli. The Cross of 
Christ itself is made to speak and describe its agony in the jwrt it 
had to play. 

The portions of this great shaft which I show on slides and in 
facsimile diagrams contain the runes of tlio four following pussagus 
of the Dream of the Hood : — 

(1) *' (On}gered8a hince God almeottig tha he waldc on gnlgu 
gustige ...... ." 

(2) "Erist was on rodi hwethrfo thcr fussc fearriin kwomn 
sththiln ti lannm ic tha)t al bi(hca)l(l ^(aro) ic wtoa mith sorgiim 
gidne(fo)d " 

(S) "(Ahof) ic riicnm ctiningo licafunos hlafard hielda ic (n)i 
danitiB bisnuBncdn nngcct men bn oitgadrc " 

(4) "Mith strclum giwnudad alegdun bite hiiiiD limwoorigno 
gistinldnn him st h(is) (1) icics boaf((lu)m bilitaldiin hitu ther. . . ." 

(1) "Girded him God Almighty then ho would stoj) on thu 
gallows ..." 

(2) " Christ was on the Cross, but there in haste from far came 
they to their noble princa All this I saw, sorely wus I witli sorrows 
harrowed . . . ." 

(3) " I upraised the rich king the Lord of heaven. I dared not 
stoop, they scorned us both together . . . . " 

(1) " With miosilus wotmded tlioy laid him down limb-weary, 
stood by his head, there tlioy looked upon " 

Fig. 2 sliows the iuHcrijitionK (2) and (-1); (2) Ixsyins at tlio top 
and reails across thu top and down tbo right side ; (1) begins at tiio 
top of the loft side and reads down that side. The liguro is tiikuu 
from my bw.k on ' Thc«Kl..rc and Wilfrith ' (S.r.(\K.), p. 247. 



168 



ITie Biikop of Brirtcl 



[May 1», 



The rimes aie on two sides of the shaft. On the other aidea am 
panels representing scenes from the New Testament and one from 
earlj Church History. They are snrronnded by inaoriptknia chiefly 



m 



m 



HH 

wi 



mn 

rn 
fix 

ir 
nt 

HFH 

ffli 



tATTVUT NflBS 



PI 



< 
cri 



^5 



7^ 
@ 

Po 

ioiPiiisyini^^ 



m 
S 

3 
•^ 



Fio. 2. 



Fio. 3. 



from the Vulgato, in beautifully cut Latin capitals of groat J^ifo- 
graphical value. As au illustration, I show the complete iuscriptioii 
which surrounds tho kccuo of tho woman wijuug tho Lord's feot with 



•0 



on Bunic and Ogam Characters, tile. 



169 



k> hair of her head. Altulit alabaslrum unguenli capillis 

mitU *tii terijebal. Fig. 3 shows this iiiBcription and parts ot the 
Ed below ; tbe L in alabaatrum has lost or never had the horizontal 
■oka. The figure is taken from ' Theodore and Wilfrith,' p. 210. 
f Tbe ranio stone ghown next was fonnd a few years ago in the 
firraL It most be regarded aa having an error in the inscription. 
kroiB did occur, oven in thoae careful times. Even on the Ruthwell 
MB a letter was cut as E instead of U, and a bold stroke of the 
liaol corrected it, but left the correction evident. On one of the 
Olow-etoncs found under the heads of the early Anglo-Saxon nuus 
ag^^oemetery at Hartlepool, the rune-cutter omitted a letter, and 
^BDddiyth instead of Hilddigyth ; he remedied this by drilling a 
Beletwecn the t and the y, and above the line ho cut a g. This is 
kown ou a slide. The error in the Wirral stone seems to bo due to u 
■tfitaiou of the two words for " iu memory of," /ore and se/ter. It is 
JU, ahio, that there is a very irregular plural for folk. Thu iuscrip- 
l^hu in two lines, thus : 
^^K " Folkee arterdou bek [aa , . . 

^H [gob]iddath fote J2thelmaii[d . . 

^^B " The people erected a memorial . . . 

^H Pray fur iEthelinuud." 

^^■ere are at Thomhill, near Dewsbury, three pretty little runic 
^Hkuies, with interlacing patterns iii the upper part and the runes 
^^L The longest of the three inscriptions is thus : — " Gilsuith 
llRo aft Bcrhtsnithe bekun at bergi gebiddath thoir saulo," 
tCilauith erected in memory of Berhtauith a memorial at the gravo- 
I^Hd. Pray for the soul." Thus in three cases we have the word 
^^■r bukun for a memorial : it means " that which beckons to us, 
^Bva a sign, reminds ue." Another slide shows the whole of the 
^^M^iuscnptions on the Bewcastlo and Buthwoll shafts, about 630 
^^Hn all, 180 at Buwcastlo and 3S0 at Buthwell : but thcro were 
H^faioro on the Buthwell cross, now no longer legible. The re- 
aming inscriptions in Anglian runes now known iu England give 
iMft 400 runes. Tbe only mncs in the southern part of Eq gland 
^Hjp 8 lattcnof a name at Dover, and 8 at Samlwich. Thoie are 
HKs doxen lettera of Anglian runes in Wigtoushirc, at Whithorn 
U it! St. Ninian's cave. 

> Of runes Scandinavian iu character, we have in England two 
(dea iu Cumberland (uow practically ascertained to be forgeries 
the middle of the present century), and one in London. The 
heftd-atone uow iu the GuildhaU Museum iu London, shown on 
la, waa fonnd some twenty feet below the surface in St, Paul's 
ibymrd duriug the excavations fur Messrs. Cook's worehousos. 
ia an excellent cnet of it iu Messrs. Cook's counting-house, and 
iu the library at St. Paul's. The front of the stouu has a bold 
iuttBOtelj Soandiiiavinu roprcseu tatiou of the uuuicut Persiuu 
the outulopo looking over his shoulder at thu sun riiiiug 




170 



The Bishop of Bristol 



[Moy 19, 



among tho trees. On the edge the inscription is fonnd, in Scandi- 
navian runes boantifuUy cut, Kmin let hkia ttin thensi auk Tali, 
" Kona and Tuki caused lay this stone." Tnki was tho miuister of 
King Canute. Tho body stone bore on its edges tho name of the 
deceased ; portions of this stone ore in tlie British Museam. 

These runes have not digressed so widely from the Anglian type 
as is the case with the runes in the Isle of Minn (Fig. 4), where 
are about as many runic inscriptions as in England. At Kirk Braddan 
there are no less than five in tho churchyard. I select (Fig. 6) the 
inscription which occupies one edge of the shaft whoso other sides 
are covered with skilfully designed drajtons. The runes run thns : 
Thurlabr Neaki risti krus Ihono aft Fiak sun sin bruthur sun Eabrs, 
"Thurlabr Neaki erected this cross in memory of Fiak his sen, 
Eabr's nephew," probably but not certainly meaning that Thurlabr 
was nephew to Eabr or Eab. 





A 


B 


K 


E 


F 


H 


1 


L 


M 


N 





R 


S 


T 


U 


Til 


Anplian 


K 


^ 


h 


M 


K 


N 


1 


r 


M 


+ 


P 


fe 


H 


t 


X\ 


^ 


Manx 


W 


A 


K 


t 




t 






T 


h 


i 




i 


i 







Fig. 4. 

Kirkmichocl is still more rich in runes ; there are six in and near 
tlio churchyard. I select (Fig. 6) the great cross which stands on a 
poilcstal of several courses outside tho gate. The omomoutation is 
curious, haviug something in common with the PictiRh stones of 
the cast of Scotland. Tho inscripti<m is lunljir sunr Thurulfs hins 
rwtiha risti kru^ Ihono aft Friiha miithur sino, " lualfir son of Tliotolf 
tho lied erected this cross in memory of Fritha his mother." Another 
of tlio Kirkmichael Kunic inscriptions is the most interesting on tho 
island (Fig. 7). The cross is cut in rolief on an erect flat tombstone, 
as is usual in Maun and in Scotland, and has the specially Manx 
pattern, which is so near akin to patterns on tesselated pavements, 
and is so very seldom sc<>n ou sculptured stones out of Mann. The in- 
scription runs up the front of the slab, on one side of the cross : — 
Mail Brihti sunr Athihnns Smith misti krus Ihano fur salu sina sin 
hrnkuin kaut kirlhi ihnito auk ahi i Jlaun, " Mael Brikti, son of Atliakan, 
Smith, erected this cross for his soul. His — Gaut carved this and 
all in Mann." The meaning of hrukuin is uncertain ; suruty, tenant, 
friend, kiusman, and other iutL'ri)retations, have been ossigneil to 
the word. Gaut was clonrly a groat sculptor of crosses or incisor 
of rnncs. Ho had wrought all that up to that timo had been 
wrought in Mann. Wlicre ho l.aniol his art is a diflicult question, 
if the sculpture of the whole cross is meant, loss diflienlt if tbn 
riiiios only are meant. One ingc-nious writer remarks acutely that 
tho statement cannot 1h> true that (.iaut currcil all tho crosses in 
Mann, for some of tlieni arc much later than hi:> time. 



1899.] 



OR Bunic and Ogam Chareuiters, etc. 



171 



The origin of the Ogam symbols (Fig. 8) — for letters they cannot 
be called — is lost in an obscure past. In this respect they are in a 
pontion Tery different from that of Bnnes, where the only question 
u from which of two closely related classes of alphabet the actual 
Bnnic lottera are derived ; that is, the early Italian form or the early 







Fig. 5. 



Greek form of the Phoenician alphabet. It in usual to say of tlio 
Ogama that they have evidently been invented for the sake of case in 
cutting npou wood or stone. That view can scarcely be maintained 
in face of the facts that tlio letter t, which in the alphabets connectu<l 
with the Phoenician is as simple as a letter can be, is in t)ic Ogam 
icript one of the four most laborious symbols, tLo three which bhuro 



The Bishop of BrUtol 






Fiu. 7. 



Fia. C. 



/ 




on Runie an4 Ogam Characierg, etc. 



t this distinction being n, q, and r, thcso 
itters being as often ased in Ogam inocrip- 
as any other fonr letters which can bo 
1 ; and that the letter h, which is not in- 
itftbly present in any one of the largo 
V of Ogam inscriptions known to the pub- 
is existence at the present time, aii<l is 
Bt excessively rare, is one of the fotir least 
ons of the Ogam symbols, the three which 
with it this distinction being a, b, and m, 
g of rare oocarrence as compared with any 
f the fonr heariest symbols. Without 
ig aay assnmption as to the langungo for 
the Ogam symbols were originally used, 
fairly safe to say tliat in no known Ian- 
is the relative frequency of occurrence of 
Tend letters snch that it should be made 
iu«s as easy to cat the four letters a, b, 
IB to cnt the four i, n, q. r. In the Gaelic 
Vgef, while still in an inflectional stage, 
bleh we find the ogams autuiilly used, the 
re frequency points rather the other way, 
thing. 

lAt the Runes reached the state of develop- 
ia which we find them in the earlier 
la, by means of alterations in the rounded 
onred and horizontal linos of letters, with 
r to making them cosy to cut on wood 
i Barked grain, may be taken an certain. 
mlt acoonnts for and justifies tho change. 
MBTenienoe of cutting has not been tho ori- 
oaase of tho assignment of Ogam symbols. 
tball not enter upon the question, what is 
■ton for the order of the Ogams. It is in 
to I am assured, the actual order of tho 
■Iphabet. If tin's be so, the counection 
ioow eertain ; but which gave to the other 
Tder, and where the one which gave it to 
ther got it from, are pertinent questions. 
10 latter <|UU8tion, where tho order ori- 
j came from, I have — as I have said — no 
ion of entering. Tho porfonuances of tho 

Eia that field are not an encourago- 
hen. This much is certain ; it is nut 
fhieh grew up unawares, nor ia it nn 
which came from tho Semitic alphabet, 
)m any other known jirimitivo alphnbet 
y part of tho world. No early alphabet 



9 3 
C) 3 

><8 




174 TJie Bithop of BriHol [May 19, 

would put all tlio vowoIb togothor. That has cortainly baen the 
work of men who had studied language and the means of expres- 
sing articulate sounds. Why, we may ask, should men who cer- 
tainly must have been — I mean no play on the words — men of 
letters, so far as in those early times any man not of the two great 
nations uf civiUaation were, have devised an exceedingly cnmraons 
manner of writing the language and representing the letters of which 
they had at least some scientific knowledge ? To say that it was for 
convenience of cutting on stone or wood is — as I have pointed out— 
to disregard the facts ; that is to say, a very much more convenient 
arrangement of the system of notches could have boon made. I do 
not at all mean to imply that thoso who speak of convenienoe of 
cutting suggest that the idea of rapid work was present to the minda 
of those who devised the Ogam. The world was young then, and 
people were not striking for so much an hour, fiat I think the 
principle of least cifurt may be taken as having guided, on the whole^ 
the general conduct of men at all times, to their knowledge or not 
to tboir knowledge, and the principle of least cfifort was not present 
as tho fairy godmother at the birth of the Ogam script. 

In connection with tho runes and the relative labour of catting 
runes and ogams, I once took the trouble to count how many soores 
you must cut to make the Anglian runes which correspond to the 
20 ogam symbols. The result is curious. In each set of 6 letten 
you must cut in ogam the som of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 scores or notches. In 
tho first of these groups, 15 notches in ogam, b, I, /, «, n, in name, yoo 
must cut 15 scores in runes, exactly the same number. For the second 
group of 5 ognniB, that is of 15 notches, you must cut 13 scores in 
runes. For tho third 15, you have no si in runes; without it you 
cut 14 notches in rnucs, and with it you cut 15 in ogam. For the 
lust grou}), 16 in rune and 15 in ogam. That is, it costs yon 60 
notches to cut tho ogam bethluisnion straight through, and 58 to cot 
the corresponding runes less st, or 56 in ogam and 58 in rune omitting 
st in ogam. Of course this is the merest coincidence, but it has its 
bearing on the question of least effort expended on the whole alphabet^ 
as contrasted with the question of least ciTort in individual letters. 
If wo make a distinction between long notches and short ones, the 
runes take much less eifurt to cut, for 31 of tho 58 notches are short 
lu tho ogam only tho vowels are short ; and as the m group aro all of 
them more than twice tho ordinary length, the shortness of the voweli 
is more than compensated for. Indeed, if you tako an ogam score for 
6 of 3 inches in length as your normal length for ogants and rnnes 
alike, you will have to cut 216 inches of notch and 15 dots to make 
your oganls, and about 97 inches of notch to mako tho corresponding 
rnues. The fact that ho had carefully to fit together the varions 
notches which form a nmo would probably be more trying to an early 
Ktoue-cuttor than a much greater length of straight cutting in ogam 
would liavo boon. 

1 am driven to believe, either that tho ogam was invented of set 



1899.] on fiitnte and Ogam Characters, etc. 175 

pnrpnao as a ciyptio alphabet, a set of symbols to bo nsed on wood or 
OD atone instead of letters, on a system known only to a .few, or that 
the ogam was copied directly from some method of notation in which 
it was jast as easy to mark five as to mark one. The two, as yon will 
Ko, are not inconsistent, and the ogam may have come from some 
eiTptic system of notation in which it was abont equally easy to mark 
one, two, and np to five. 

Now the tradition is — thongh no ogams have been funnd which 
belong to the earlier stages of which the tradition tulls — that there 
were originally only 10 ogams; that they were then increased to 
12 ; then to 16 ; and finally to 20. That is to say, beginning with 
2 sets of 6 ogams, people went on to 3 sets of 4, then to 4 sets of 4, 
and at last to 4 sets of 6. And it is said that at one change of this 
kind the man who gnided the change ordered that the ogam should no 
longer be a secret. What can be the explonntion of the ringing uf 
the changes on 4 and 6, with apparently no extra difiScnlty of treat- 
meat ? And what hint can the story of the ogam ceasing to be socrut 
have for OB? 

My theory is this, that the ogams are mere copies of signs made 
with the fingers of one hand or the other, and that when the ogams 
were in gronps of 4, with 1, 2, 3, 4 notches for signs, the fingers only 
at each hand were nsed ; when they were in groups of 5, with 1, 2, 
3, 4, 5 notches for signs, the thumb of each htmd was used as well as 
the fingers. 

The ogams which we are accastomed to see, or which 1 hope my 
sheets of illnstrations are accnstoming yon to see, run along on a 
long line without discontinuity. But of course each could bo mado 
separately for practical purposes. Wo may suppose that tho 
original operator held up his left hand and applied tho point of one 
finger at right angles for one letter, two fingers for two letters, and 
so on np to five Now it really makes no difference, so far as trouble 
goes, whether yon hold out five fingers or one. Then the operator 
held np his right hand, and applied one, two, . . fingers of his left 
band. This accounts for ten lettors. Then one finger, t-vo, and so 
on, laid diagonally across the palm of the other hand, will give you 
five more. Finally, to apply the point of one finger, two, aud so on, 
to the palm of the left hand, will give you the dots for the vowels ; 
or laid from the middle to the side of tho palm, that is, short notches. 
Conceivably, the knuckles of the clenched fist were touched for vowl-Ir. 
The diphthongs are easy to make with the fingers. There is a curious 
hint of fingers in the cross-line diphthongs, especially in tho fact that 
there are crosses of one finger each, two fingers each, and four fingers 
each, none of three. The well-known difficulty of bringing up tiio 
third finger without the help of the second or fourth, seems an almost 
conclusive explanation of this phenomenon. 

My guess is that these finger-signs were used for incantation, or 
fur cryptic pnrijoscs, and tliat they wore for long unknown except to 
a few of tho initiated. They may well have come down from ex- 



176 The BitJiop of BrtBld [May 19, 

ccodingly carlj times, the times of Cnsar's Draids, for instamoe, snd 
earlier. I cannot at all think that they are a mere literary inrentkiii 
of Christian times. Passing through many stages they anived it 
length at the doTclopment in which we know Uiem. Christiaaitj 
rendered their use for cryptic purposes no longer applicable. Hw 
time for medicine-men had gone by. The abolition of the Dmidi 
abolished tho impionsness of writing down any Dmid secret. Hm 
ogams were then, for tho first time, nsed for sepniohral pnrpoaes^ jint 
at their fullest development, and jnst at the time of transitiom in 
religious beliefs, among the people who occupied the limited distrieto 
where tho surriTors of thoso who had cryptically nsed them dwelt; 
and in a very short time their use passed away for ever. The know- 
lerlge of the key did not die out, and wo have a few examples in 
Scotland probably quite as late as some of even the later mnea. 

Yon will of course have noticed that while our present finger 
alphabet for the deaf and dumb, which was only invented about 150 
years ago, reproduces as far as fingers can the shapes of the letters, 
so that anyone looking on can see what several of the letters are, the 
ogam entirely avoids that, and is quite inscrutable if yon do not Imow 
the key. 

In cutting the ogams on stono, one edge of the stone, or a pro- 
minent ridge on the stono, was token as the dividing line. In the 
following illustrations, which are taken by photography from my 
facsimile rubbings of the stones, the edge is not shown ; it is nsoally 
irregular, the inscriptions being cut on a rude pillar-stone. 

Fig. 9 shows tho inscription on a stono now in the Queen's College 
at Cork. The ogams are read from the bottom upwards, and they pass 
round tho top and down the other sida Tho inscription seems to be 
of comparatively lato date, judging by its grammatical form. It his 
after the first four letters a symbol in form of X, and to this Mr. Brash 
assigns the function of dividing two parts of the inscription. Bat 
such division is unknown elsewhere, and has in this case no meaning, 
indeed it destroys meaning. Tho symbol X is given in the Book d. 
Ballymote as representing the consonant ea, and Qiere seems no doubt 
that on this stone it stands for that or some other letter or oombina* 
tion of letters. 

The stono has been damaged at one end of the inscription since it 
wafi first found at Tinnahaliy farm, in tho parish of Eilorglin. The 
journey of 70 miles on rough roads from Kilorglin to Cork may wall 
have obscured tho earlier letters, which wore quite clear when it ma 
found. Thoy are fairly clear still. I read it anm teagamm mae 
deglenn. 

The usual form of the inscriptions in ognm characters is " A son 
of B." Tho words are all in the genitive, the word " the stone," or 
"the memorial," or "tho grave," or possibly "the body," being 
understood : — " tho monument of A son of B." 

This inscription has Mac, instead of the old genitive Macp. 
This looks OS if anm were a verb, with some such sense as requieteal. 



1899] 



on fiwwo ami Ogam Charaetera, ete. 



177 



ir Uejaeet. The ohm is %t present a pnszle, bat a puzzle that no 
lonbt will soon be oonolnnTcly Bolved. On the companion stone to 
Jiiz, which I desoribe next, it is a worse pnzzle, appearing in the form 
HUM. I show in illnstration of this word, slides from my rubbings 
if two atoDM at Lismore, with minnscide inscriptions (Fig. 10), 
mtdadtt/or afiw Martan, " a blessing for the rupose (or for the sonl) 
if Martiii," and (Fig; 11) bettdaehtfor anmain Colgen, " a prayer for 
he xvpose (or soul) of Colgan." In both of these cases the word 
ii^it well be imderstood as an adaptation of the Latin anima, the 
M, tm bendaekt for benediotio ; bat that use would give us no help 



^#"% 






Fio. 10. 



^ 



Fio. 'J. 




Fig. II. 



n the mae deglatn case, where " tho soul " must have been followed 
by the genitiTe maqi. It has been suggested that anm may l>o taken 
other as a Torb or as a substantive, so that wo might read " may 
reegann mae D^lann rest," and in the next case [" a prayer for] 
the rapoM of Fairan." 

Bnt it seems to me that these are relatively late idcap. The 
Linsoxe inscriptions which I have shown in illustration of the word 
■m or ansMtii are later than the dates assignable to Ogam in- 
nriptioiu. The Colgan (irreg. genitive Colgen) named in tho earlier 
if we two was an eminent ecclesiastic who died at Lismore in the 

Vou XVI. (Na 93.) » 



178 Tke Bishop of BriOcl [May 19, 

year 850. Martin (genitive Martan) is proliably Martin na Boichlieh, 
Abbat of Lismore, who according to the Foot Masters died in 878. 

The other Tinnabally stone (Fig. 12) is also in the cloister at tlia 
Queen's College, Cork. It, like its companion, is 7 feet 6 inches hi^, 
but it is less bulky, and the inscription is less clear. It has on it, in 
my jndgment, traces of another ogam inscription, which tend to con- 
fuso the inscription we are now considering. I am not qnite son 
that the puzzling and feeble c which thrusts itself in among At 
digits forming the anm may not be part of such other inscriptitm, jvt 



^''^ 



^ 

^ 



£ ^ 









Fio. 12. Fig. 13. 

BO for showing itself that the author of the inscription was obliged to 
leave it as a gap between bis n and m. 

I read the scores thus : — av{c)m furuddran maqi ctdigetm "[• 
prayer for the] repose (or the soul) of Farran, son of Colgen." TW 
name Furuddran is found in an Ogam inscription at Gortamaocueo 
in the same county of Kerry, in the form Furadran and Furadhniu 
Tho destructive effect of the letter h upon consonants which preoedt 
it in Irish words reduces tliis to Furaran and Forran. There an 
plenty of names similar to Culigoim ; for instance, Gooligan. 



I 



1899.] 



on Bunie and Ogam CJiaraelers, etc. 



179 



Sir 8. Fergnson reads annte instoad of aticm, bat his occonot 
n«ke8 me think that he had not really examined the stone and that 
lie ■ccidentallj transposed the c and the m ; certainly my own per- 
•ooaI inspection pnts the c before the m. Further, he reads doligeinn 
where I read crdigeinn, and he translates maqi do ligeinn as ' son of 
iMding,' Lo. scholar, or learned man. This would bo a stretch of 
imagination far beyond the reach of the ogam cutters. Mr. Bmsh reads 

cnlig enn ; 1, like Sir 8. Ferguson, felt fairly clear that there are 

nine Towel dots, divided into four and five, that is, e i. 

In the Museum of the Science and Art Department in Dublin, 
MBongthe collections of the Royal Irish Academy, is a stone (Fig. 13) 
firom • mde ancient clochan at Gortnagullanagh, co. Kerry. It 
has two inscriptions on the two edges of the same fuoe, both to bo 
read the same way ; probably both visible to persons entering the 
ftloohan The stone is about 4 feet 6 inches long, and 11 inches 
btoad. It has a Latin cross 8 inches by 6 inches, inscriltcd on the 
face. 

One of the inscriptions is very clear. It reads, as all agree, 
•Mf^' dteedda. The other is in roost of its letters clear ; all agree 
that it was maqqi caluf, except that Sir S. Ferguson prints catluf, 
donbt by accidental confusion with a stone at Corknboy. Tho 
'ning scores I think read ict or perhaps ice ; Mr. Brash roads 
tbem Meue ; Sir S. Ferguson, ic. My reading gives either 14 or 
IS aoores ; Mr. Brash's gives 14 ; Sir S. Ferguson's 9. I inclino to 
Oatmflee, for at Corkaboy in this same county there is an Ogam stone 
wliieh I have not seen, where Mr. Brash and Sir S. Ferguson agree in 
wiling Cattuffiq mnqi Ritte. Mr. Brash, reading maqqi Caiuf uc nc, 
Imialates ' son of Catuf, alas, alas.' But that translation is out of 
Ibe question. 

u each of these cases the inscription would seem to bo incomplete, 
llie aame of tho person not being given, only the name of hia father 
craonw descriptive word standing in the place of a fitthor's name or 
Ike nasw of a race. Bnt there are curious evidences which go to 
Aov that the Ogam inscriptions are in Ireland usually — it is said 
•baoator quite always — found in proximity to cillocns, uaid to bo tho 
IHDMDS of pagan cemeteries, used afterwards for the burial of nobap- 
lind children. It is quite conceivable that an Ogam inscription 
iboold luune the race or family whoso general burial place it was, 
•od not name any particular member of the race. We B{)cuk of " tho 
IWej Tanlt " in Westminstor Abbey, and we are familiar with tho 
apfiBaraDoe of a family aome on a stone in the floor of a chureli indi- 
wttag tlw entrance to a burial place. There is nothing distinctively 
Chriatiaa in this practice. 

The inscription Maqqi Deccdda has very wide rolotions. The 
Claa Uogadi or Degaid was a famous clan in very early times ; and 
IkiBgh other explanations are given, it may probably bo taken that 
Iha BUaerous imscriptions with this name in one form or anntlior 
kive to do with members of this clau. In that ease tho miuiqi is 

N 2 



180 The Bighop of Briatd [Hay 19, 



Qsed in its general sense for " of the race of," not in its limited i 
for " son of." I do not remember any Ogam inscription which ^ 
the better known formula for " of the racs of," Ua or 0', Le. " grand- 
son of." As far as I have been able to see, the difference in principle 
between the formation of a familv name from Mae and from the 
more distant O' would provide a very interesting subject of investiga- 
tion. It is probably not known to all English readers that O'Neill, 
for instance, is properly only used as the name of a man ; an Iriili 
woman in an English hospital is addressed by an Irish physician as 
Mary Nin Neill, in the feminine, not Mary O'Neill in the masculine. 
Other examples of the patronymic Decedda are as follows : In 
another Eeny inscription, maqi deccedda; at Dnnbel, Kilkenny, 
maqi decqnedda ; at Ballycrovane, co. Cork, maqi decco'lds ; at Bal- 
lintaggart, co. Kerry, maqi deccedda; at Killeen Connao, maqi 
ddecoMU ; these are all in Ogam script : at Penrhos Lygwy, in Latin 
characters, hie iacit maccn deceti; and at Bnckland Monaohorom, 
near Tavistock, Sarini fili macco decheti. 

The cross on this stone is, no doubt, a great deal later than the 
ogams. The ogams on the two arrises are both read the same way, 
instead of up one side and down the other. This is evidence that 
they are two separate inscriptions, not one continuous phrase ; and it 
suggests that the stone was originally in a horizontal position, per- 
haps as the lintel of a rude eutranoo to the pagan cilleen. 

Fortwilliam, co. Kerry. Fig. 14 is a stone in the vestibule of 
the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. It is in excellent preserva- 
tion, and the ogams are beautifully bold and regular and clear ; and 
yet it presents considerable difficulties. The Irish antiquarians 
appear to be agreed about the readings, and my rubbing and exam- 
iuation falls in with thuir view, though I have felt it necessary to 
mark two of the scores with a query. The chief difficulties are (1) 
that it is not easy to distinguish vowels from consonants, whether 
by size or by relative position ; and (2) that there are rows of vowel 
scores without spaces to separate them into thoir proper nnmben. 
My first Eooro is quite as largo as a cousouant, and yet, with the 
Tinnahally examples before us, we seem compelled to take it as the 
vowel a. This gives anm fedlliogtoi mactii eddoini. The patronymic 
eddoini need not give us any trouble, it is probably the same m 
Aedan. The/edll, again, need not trouble us ; there are other names 
of this character, as FeidhUmidh, or Fedhlimidh, our Fhelim. The 
oittoi, or to«tot, appears to bo too much for the science of interpre- 
tation. The only point on which I feel it possible in my ignorance 
to fasten is the group of four scores which is rendered st. There 
is no doubt that tlie Book of Ballymote assigns to it this value of it, 
though, so far as I know, it has not been found on any ogam stone. 
Considering the recoguised fact that cnre was not taken by the author 
of this inscription to separate his lines of dots into tiieir proper 
groups, I venture to suggest that we should read these four scores u 
two groups of two scores ; that is, as gg, not with the usual pitman- 



1899.] m Btmie emd Ogam Character$, etc. 181 



ng, which in the Book of BaUymote is represented by three 
Mona, but as a hard doable g. Wo shall then have, as the name of 
the person bnried, Fedlli(^, a name akin to Yelioo, which in one 
toon and another we find in very early times. 



r^ \ 



4 

1 



§ 

S 



Vm. 14. 




Knockonrane, oo. Cork (Cnoo-oran, the Hill of Song). This stone 
(Fig. 16) wu bonght by the late Mr. Windele, who intended to have 



182 The Bi$kcp of Briitd [May 19, 

it ofled as his own gnve-Btone. It was not nsed tax that parpsm, 
and it is now in the cloister at Qneen's College, Cork. It is remark- 
able for a large Maltese cross cut on its faoe, all bat interfering wiA 
the <^am scores. Either the cross was cat first, and the o0Hn> 
catter tamed the stone upside down and cat his ogam upwards; or 
the croBs-cntter foand an ogam stone and tamed it upside down to 
cot his cross at the tup. In the case of the Llywell stone, as we shall 
sec, it is certain that either the catter of the ogams or the ontter of 
the haman fignres, whichever came last, tamed his predeo oo so r' s 
work upside down. I do not hesitate to make the ogam-cutter the 
predecessor of the other. The catters of the Enockoorane cross and 
the Llywell human figures probably bad not the faintest idea of the 
meaning of the ogams or of the direction in which they most be read. 

The reading as given by my rubbing is annaccanni ma^ tdUr 
uatl(a)n. I am inclined to think that there are signs of an Ogam 
score below the first a. The second an is rather doubtful, and may 
be M. The q is unusual, running past the arris and appearingon the 
face of the stone ; but the scores do not slant, and I do not see how 
we can read it as r, still less how Sir S. Ferguson can make it stand 
for both q and r. I have omitted the a in the last syllable of the 
third word, and Sir S. Ferguson omitted it ; there is, however, eet- 
tainly a notch in the stone where the a ought to be if it ever wis 
there. Finally, the concluding scores slant decidedly, and the arris 
is nut well-defined. I should not resist the reading r, &ough lingoistie 
probabilities point to n. Sir S. Ferguson would seem not to have 
scon tho stone itself ; but the rubbing supplied to him was desr 
enough to warn him of difiScnlties nut present to the eye of Mr. 
Brash. Both names are well known. Hannagan is an Irish name 
still, and tho form Aenagan appears in the Four Masters as late ts 
the years 878, 893, 898. Tho other goes very far back ; the name of 
no less a person than the father of Ogma the sun-worshipper WM 
Ealladan. Sir S. Ferguson read AiUittr, by adding a notch betweeo 
tlie u and a ; but there is certainly no notch there now. He mads 
AiUittr mean " tho pilgrim." It should be noted that a rubbing of 
this stone seems to show ogam scores where in fact no scores exist. 

Tho stone at St. Uogmaol's Abbey (Fig. 16) near Cardigan, is of 
groat interest. It was the first ogam stono founa with an inscription in 
Latin letters : it is also bilingual. Before the discovery of this stone, 
it had been a matter of dispute whether the Book of Ballymote gate 
the correct key to tho Ogam script, the letters of the Irish inscrip- 
tions giving such curions words according to that key. It had, ho*- 
evor, bten acutely argued, that inasmuch as a certain group of fixn 
ogam scores occurred in so large a number of the inscriptions u to 
bo almost universal, this group of four probably represented the wori 
" son," coming between tho name of the dead man and the name d 
his fbther ; further, that as the name was probably in the genitive 
the words " the monument," or " tho memorial stone," or " the body, 
or " grave," being understood, tho word " sou " would also be in tlx 
genitive, and in the early times tho genitive would be infl 



1899.] 



M AiMO and Ogam Charaelen, etc. 



183 



■ad mae would become maqi or maq»i, the qH being regarded as one 
letter. This reaaoning made the inaoriptions fall in so far with the 
Ballymote key. The St. Dogmael's discoverj clenched the matter. 
Takmg the four letters », a, q, i, as ascertained before the disooyery, 
BO leM thftn deren oat of the twenty ogam acorea fonnd at St. 
Dogmael'B were already known. The test was at once applied ; the 



^ 




i 



Fio. IT 




Fio. 16. 



Fio. 18. 



!«& letters agreed with the ogam scores ; and the theoretical reason- 
ing was triumphantly proved to bo correct. The only difforonces are 
^Sagrani in the Latin is Sagramni in the Ogam, and Canotami is 
poaatamL The interchange of a very broad o and a very broad a 
UOietly what we might have expected ; and inasmuch as the name 
ngnmn is almost of necessity pronounced Sagran, the other difference 
'*<|<i>te natural. The Latin reads, Sagranifili Cunotami ; the Ogams 
"Md, beyond all question, Sagramni Mcu^i Cunatami ; " the memorial 
of Sigranm, son of Cnnatam." I think there can be at most very 



184 The BMop of Bri$ki \}l»jl9, 

little question that the date is not £ir off that of the departaie of 
the Romans, and the style of the Latin letters is firae firom WeUk 
and Irish infinenoe. 

The Gilgerran stone (Fig. 17) had sunk in the soft groimd flf 
the chorchyard when I visited it. Some years before it had been 
raised, and both of the inscriptions had been read in folL My dids 
shows each of the two Latin lines cat off : — 

Tron^nssi f 
Macntr 

and the Ogam appears to begin with agua or egut. The fall Lstia 
inscription is Trenegutn jUi maeutreni hie tacit. It is nsnally nid 
that this form of inscription, of which there are several in this island, 
is nngrammatical. I am not inclined to defend in all cases tiit 
grammar of the inhabitants of Wales, who coald inscribe on a mooo- 
ment Carausius hie iacit tn hoe eongeries lapidum, or Veraeitu hie iooi 
cum muUitiidinem fratrum, and conld very seldom indeed rise to tba 
nse of iaeet. Bnt my impression is that we may render the Cilgenia 
and other like inscriptions as " the memorial of Trenegos son of 
Macntren ; he lies here." The fall Ogam reads Treneguau magi Maf- 
treni, " the memorial of Trenegos son of Macitren." The Latin " Mi 
of Maoitren " seems to make it dear that the Ogam Maqitren is meut 
to be the patronymic, and that we are not to read it as wtagi maf 
Treni, grandson of Tren. This opens np some very wide qnestiona 

Fig. 18, ttom the left-hand gate post of the lane leading to tJN 
farm of Owm Gloyn on the high road from Cardigan to Neven, 
need not keep ns long. The Latin reads Vitaliani emerito, " tiie 
memorial of Vitalianus, emoritns," that is, we are told, a Bomia 
soldier with an hononrablo discharge. The Ogam is only one wori, 
Filaliani, " the memorial of Vitalianus." This seems to show that the 
ogam cnttor know the second Latin word to be no part of the man's 
name. The correspondence of the Ogam / with the Latin v may 
remind ns that there is soppoBed to bo no o in modern Welsh, / being 
properly always nsod where v is meant, and ff being nsed when the 
sound of our / is wanted. 

We now come to two stonos in the British Mnsenm, from Farddl 
in Devonshire (Fig. 19), and Llywell in Brecon (Fig. 20). Tbo 
Fardell stone and some very fine ogam stones from Ireland an 
in the room immediately on the left hand as yon first enter the 
Mnsenm ; the LlywoU stone is on the first floor, near the head of 
the stairs. 

The Fardell stone has its ogams nobly out. They are only 
mnch too clear, for they do not satisfy any ordinary expeiienoe or 
theory, except indeed, a theory of my own, which I will ptopoimd 
sliortly. The Latin reads clearly enough Fanoni Maquirini. Tbb 
ought to mean " the memorial of Fanon, son of Maqnirin " ; it seemi 
impossible to import a Gaelic maqui into the middle of a Latin 
inticription, and translate "the memorial of Fanon, son of Bin.' 
But it is not quite inconceivable that both the Latin letters and 



1899.] 



<m Aime and Ogam Oharaetera, etc. 



186 



Ae ogun soons repreaent a Gaelio inscription, and in tbat case 
tiie maq»ii rtm is properly taken as " son of Bin," or Bnn, the 
latter a rery well-known name. 

The ogams read only too dearly Sfaqquci Magi Qiei, and " the 
memorial of Sftqqoo, son of Qio " does not take ns into very intelli- 
giUe regions. 




7^ ^ 




4 



Fie. 19. 



^ 

% 




S 



Fio. 20. 

Mr tlieory is that wo have here an ogam cutter who was only half 
«fiMli«y with the ogam scores, and if he did his best, his best was 
lad. The labour he expended on making the scores nobly clear had 
•. have been spent on making them correct. The key to my ang- 
ia foimd m a zigzag scratch which comes before the F in 
^ and mnst represent an S. It is practically the same letter as 
the 8 of Sograiii which is found on the back of this same stone. This 



186 The Bishop of Brialol [Hay 19, 

giTes a cnrioiuly close Agreement between the finnu of tba two in* 
acriptionfl, if we suppose the fint n in Fanoni dnpliotted, 

Sfannoni maqoi Bini 

Sfaqqnci maqi Qici, 
and when we examine the differences, we find that they ate chiefly 
qncstionB of one side or other of the arriSb Thos if the ogam onttar 
had pat his two groups of fire scores each on the other aide of tht 
arris, we sbonld have had i^ann in both scripts. In two other cam 
he puts fonr scores on one side of the arris where the Latin script 
requires five on the other side. If we can suppose that he made then 
two mistakes of transplanting from one side to the other of the ditid- 
ing edge, and in one case stopped five scores at the edge instead tl 
mnning them through, each re})eated, we have 

Latin, Sfanoni msqni Bini, 

Ogam, Sfunnnni maqi Bini. 

It is clear that, phonetically, the difference between o and ■ ii 
almost nothing ; and if the o in the Latin script on this stone ii 
examined, it will be seen to have a good deal more of a a than an • 
in it. There is, perhaps, in the abstract a greater probability thU 
the cutter of the Latin letters mis-read some of the ogams, but tha 
names soom to point the other way. If my suggestion has anything 
in it, this stone is of very great interest, as marking a parting of tha 
ways between the two scripts. 

The stone from Llywell, in Brecon, now in the British Haaema, 
has on one side a mass of cnrions sculpture, about which a good deil 
might bo said if this were the place to say it. On the back (Fig. 90) 
there is a Latin cross, and it is here that the two inscriptions, in Latia 
and Ogam script, are found. The Latin reads Vacculreni Saligidui, 
" tho memorial of Vaccntren, son of Saligidun," or, inasmuch as the 
first letter is very near tho end of the stone, and the A is joined on to 
tho V, it may well have been M, and then we should read Maccutren. 
The Ogam settles tho point in favour of M; it reads Maqitrai 
Salicidni, " tho memorial of Maqitreu '(son of) Salicidn." It will be 
remembered that on tho stone at Cilgcrran, about 46 miles firon 
Llywell as the crows fly, there is a memorial of " the son of Macutren." 

I slionld give a warning to any one who attempts to follow tha 
readings on this stone with Sir Samuel Ferguson's volume of Bhind 
Lectures in his hand. The late Sir A. W. Franks told me that 
Sir S. Ferguson, a devoted observer and recorder of ogams, spent 
hours upon this stouc ; but his notes wuro so far from clear that liii 
ncMiunt ia niuot bufHin<;. Ho remarks tbat tlio Latin inscription ii 
Vaceutrcnii Maqi Saliijiduni. But the second t in the first wad 
is only the limb of tho incised Latin cross, and not a letter of dM 
Maqi is there at all. Sir Samuel clenches the error by remarking 
tliat this is the only example of a Latin Maqi ; and having read tba 
limb of a cross as a second t nt the cud of Maccutreni, he reads tha 
Ogam as Mu<iitrunii, thus inserting a whole row of five scores whid 
are certainly nut on the stone. 



1899.] 



on Bunk and Ogam CharacUrt, etc. 



187 



tThe eastemmoet of the English ogams, and from the place of its 
30Terj tbo most puzzling of all the ogams in these islands, was 
nd in B well at Silchester, incised on a Roman stone. It bears 
the word which has np to this time baffled eyery one, mucot. The 
inscription is Ebieali maqi vtucoi. 

In order not to omit any of our combined islands and parts of 

islftods from ogamio illustration, I show diagrams produced from 

rabbinga of stones in Maun and in Scotland. 

H At Arbory, in Mann, we have Cunamagli maq . . .," the memorial 

Bf Cnuamg!, the son of . . ." 'llio name is tho some as the Irish 

Oonmal and Ck)nmlial. 

On an irregular ronnded stone at Arbory there is an Ogam 
inacription which is evidently honest, but otherwise might have 
been supposed to be a trick not very skilfully played. It roads 
mnqUogu, the u being shown, as I believe, by the tips of the three 
short vowel strokes; others had not noticed this when I was there. 
The cnrions thing about it is, that Macloog, and its modem forms 
(after the Manx fashion of dropping all but tho last letter of Mac) 
Cleagne and Clagne, are and have long been local names in Arbory 
parish ; " Arbory " is " Kirk Cairbrc." The minuscule inscription at 
Beckermet, in C'mnborland, which has so long defied solution, has this 
year been read as Manx-Irish : it is the epitaph of Juan son lyf Cairbro. 
At Ballaqneeny, also in Mann, are two Ogam inscriptions of much 
interest, on account of an unusual genitive found on each of them. 
They are Dofaidona mnqi droata anfl Bi/aidonas mnqi mueoi Quna/a. 
The proper names are Dofaidn, Bifaidn, The former of the two is 
liclieved to mean " the meiuorial of Dofaidn, son of a Druid." K that 
is so, it is the only existing mention of the Druids in the epigraphy 
of these islands. It should be noted that Manx tradition and folk- 
lore attributes ovcrvthiug ancient t<> the Druids, so that Mann is tho 
moat likely of all places to have some mention of that elusive class 
of people. 

In Scotland I show the ogams and minnscnles upon tho famous 
Newton atone (Insch, Aberdeenshire), on which volumes are written. 
It ia rather a disgrace to us all that the minuscules are not as yet 
ooacl naively road. I do not pro]XKse to give any reading of either 
inaariptiou here. 

Too ogams on a sculptured stono found at Scoonio, in Fife, of 
^rhiob I MOW a complete facsimile, read Edurrnonn, a name which 
^■«>ald take us into very interesting questions if we wore dealing with 
Hpclosiastical history. 

^p The sculptured stono at Aboyne, of which also I show a comidote 

^fecaiimle, has a longer inscription, a good deal disputed. On my 

oatitneii robbing we may read on the left-hand line mnqqol talluorrh. 

Talorc and Talnorc, in various forms, is a well-known I'ictish name 

ia the lists of i'ictish kings. 



188 Adjotinud Oeneral luting. [May SB; 



ADJOUBNED GENERAL MEETINO, 

Monday, May 22, 1899. 

nis Grace The Duxc or Nobthumbbblahd, K.G. F.S.A., Pramdenii 

in the Chair. 

The following persons were nnanimoosly elected Hononiy 
Members of the Boyal Institution in Commemoration of the Cen- 
tenary of the Foundation of the Boyal Institntion : — 

Dr. Emile Ador (of Geneva). 

Professor Joseph S. Ames (of Baltimore). 

Professor Svante Arrhenius, F.C.S. (of Stockholm). 

Professor George F. Barker (of Philadelphia). 

Professor Carl Barns, Ph.D. (of Providence, n.S.A.). 

Professor Henri Becquerel, Ph.D. (of Paris). 

Dr. L. Bleekrodo (of The Hague). 

Professor Giacomo Lnigi Ciamician (of Bologna). 

Professor Nicolas Egorof (of St Petersburg). 

Professor Antoine Paul Nicolas Franchimont^ Ph.D. F.0& 

(of Leiden). 
Professor Armand Emile Gautier (of Paris). 
Professor Heinrich Gnstav Eayser, Ph.D. (of Bonn). 
Professor Wilhelm Komer, F.C.8. (of Milm). 
Mr. Samuel Pierpoint Longley, F.R.S. (of Washington). 
Dr. Oscar Liebreioh (of Berlin). 
Professor Gnstave Leonard Van der Mensbmgghe («f 

Ghent). 
Professor Albert A. Michelson (of Chicago). 
Professor Henri Moissan, F.C.S. (of Paris). 
Professor Baffaelo Nasini (of Padua). 
Professor Walther Nemst (of Gottingen). 
Professor Wilhelm Ostwald (of Leipzig). 
Mr. Ernest Solvay (of Brussels'). 
Professor Bobert H. Thurston (of Ithaca). 
Professor Emilio Villari (of Naples). 
Professor Jules Louis Yiolle (of Paris). 
Dr. William L. Wilson (of Washington). 



1899.] C!Umb$ and Ea^ploratwiu in the Andet. 189 

WEEKLY EVENING MEETINQ, 

Friday, May 26, 1899. 

Thb Biobt Hon. Th« Eabl of Halsbubt, M.A. D.C.L. F.R.S., 
Lord Chancellor, Manager, in the Chair. 

Sib Wiluam Mabtin Conwat, M.A. 

Clitabi and Explirations in the Andee. 

[Abstract ] 

Thb object of my jonmey to Soath America, made in the latter part 
of 1898, was to investigate the physical geography of the Cordillera 
Real in BoliTia. I was accompanied by two Alpine guides, Antoine 
fff«qmgii^« and Lonis Pellissier. The Cordillera Beal is a snowy 
nmge eighty mUea in length, culminating at its north end in Mount 
8<Hata and at the aonth in Illimani. It is not a volcanic range, nor 
were any signs of volcanic action met with at any part of its main 
axia. It consistB principally of a oore of crystalline rock, flaaked to 
th« westward by Silurian deposits and further out by Bed Sandstones 
and OonglomerateB, rising in low hills out of the plateau which 
■tretehea all along the foot of the range at an altitude of between 
1S,000 and 18,000 feet above the sea. This plateau was formerly 
the bed of a large inland sea, of which there only now remains the 
nbttTely small portion known as Lake Titicaca. 

The two great peaks, Illimani and Borata, were ascended, Illimani 
to its highest point, Sorata to within a couple of hundred feet or so 
from the top. At both ends the range is cut through by river valleys 
which drain to the eastward. That to the south is the valley of the 
La Paz Biver, which, rising on the slope of Mount Cacaaca, the 
midmost peak of the range, flows first to the south-east along 
the range, and then cuts right across it and flows into the Kiver Beni, 
a tributary of the Amazon. To the north the sources of the Mapiri 
Birer lie actually at the foot of Mount Sorata, and some of the snow- 
riopea, belonging properly to the western face of the mountain, drain 
into it But the actual cutting through of the range is not here 
complete. There still remaius a low ridge, about 2000 feet higher 
than LiAe Titicaca, which is not entirely cut through, though the 
«atiog-back process is goiog forward very rapidly, and the day is not 
fM* distant from a geologist's point of view when Lake Titicaca must 
be drained by this river. 

The eastern face of the range was not visited on this journey. 
On the west the line of great mountains is flanked by vast slopes of 
dArie, and here the signs of former glacial extension are easily 



190 Sir Fi7/iam Martin Cbmcay [Uay S^ 

perceived. At one time, when the waters of the inland aea waahed 
the foot of this side of the moantaina, the glaciers probably descended 
into it ; ani'., even since the drying np of this ancient sea, the glaeien 
hare descended several miles forther down than they now do. The 
high platean is bordered to the west by an irregolar ran^ of peali, 
chiefly of volcan'ic origin. 

Daring the coarse of the expedition the main range was ttiangD- 
lated, and a sketch sarrey was made of the western slopes and of the 
peaks l3ring between Sorata and Illimani. The northern half of the 
CordiUera Seal — the portion, that is to say, which lies between Mount! 
Sorata and Cscaaca — consists of a series of lofty snow monntaini, 
many of them of very pointed form, which stand one beside anothar 
in close proximity, so that the passes over this part of the langs 
seldom sink below the level of perpetual snow. South of Caoaaoa 
the character of the range is different ; the mountains are less pre- 
cipitons in form and there are wide openings between them, dropping 
to Ic-vels little above that of the plateau. The moantaina them- 
selves are uninhabited, but the platean bears a relatirely denn 
population of Aymara Indians, whilst in the two towns of la Ptf 
and Sorata the white population is considerable. La Pax is the 
commercial capital of Bolivia ; Sorata occnpics an important positiaB 
on the main route leading from the plateau to the rich valleys and 
india-rubber forests to the eastward. This route is of great antiqni^, 
for in the days of the Incas, and possibly long before tiiem, the gdo- 
bearing character of the river gravels in the valleys descending to 
the north-east and cast from Mount Sorata was known to the natives. 

Besides the collection of rock specimens made thronghont the 
range, which arc being examined by Professor Bonney, small oolleo- 
tions were likewise made of the high-level plants, insects and biidi, 
which have been sent to Kew and the British Musenm respectively. 
The only animals found at relatively high levels woro bizcacha% 
mountain deer and a few vicunas. The flora of the high levels is 
very sparse at the time when the mountains are accessible to a 
traveller, though probably after tho rainy season has set in there is 
a greater floral wealth than was observed by our expedition. 

Bolivia is known to be a country rich in mineral deposits, but few 
signs of mineral wealth were observed at very high altitudes. It ii 
not in the heart but on the flanks of the range that the chief mineral 
doposits have been discovered. Gold is foimd chiefly in the vaU^ 
running eastward from Mount Sorata, and in tlie La Paz valley and 
its branches. Important deposits of tin are known near Cacaaea; 
cobalt and antimony aro likewise found in the some neighbonrhoed, 
but I do not think that any copper has been discovered actually in 
tho Cordillera Keal. The chief copper mines are those about Goto- 
coro, whilst along tho route from La Paz to Antofagasta there is 
immense and largely undcveloiHid mineral wealth of all kinds. 

On leaving Bolivia, a brief visit was paid to the great monntaio, 
Aconcagua, near the Chilian-Argentine frontier, and one of iti 



1899.] OK Climbt md Exploratum m tht Audeg. 191 

nhainating points was climbed. It was ascended and thorongbly 

a^lored by the FitzGerald expedition in 1897. The only obseira* 

tiHu of any original importance there made by my expedition 

m« in respect to a peculiar formation of snow locally known as 

Smt$ Penitentea. Niete* Penitentet are named from a supposed 

meoiblance to a crowd of white-robed penitents. They are an 

■MnbUge of cones of snow, or rather they would better be de- 

■ribed as a field of snow whose surface consists of a multitude of 

nei in close proximity to one another, and varying in height from 

• few inches to a few feet, though at any moment the cones near 

together will probably all be of about the same height. It has been 

■nd to ascribe the formation of this many.con^ surface to the 

■tiOD of Tiolent winds, which are conceived of as causing the snow 

It eddy and whisk about and thus bnild itself up into these peculiar 

i|ini. Such, however, in my opinion, is not the true explanation. 

I b^n with, if winds were the cause, this conical formation of 

Mr surface shonld be found in windy places such as Greenland and 

[ Sptibergon, where, on the contrary, this form of surface is unknown. 

^Lbai never been noticed in the Alps or the Caucasus, nor, as far as 

: I know, in the northern regions of the Himalayas, but it is found in 

1 Ibnoo and in other parts of the Andes. The cones at the beginning 

trfthe warm season are very small; as the year advances they in- 

in size, by the deepening of the hollows between them, till 

become eight feet or more in height They are, in fact, 

' by some process of melting, not by any process of bnilding 

They never consist of new snow. A careful examination of 

I at many points about Aconcagua revealed the fact that they 

not of circular but elliptical section, and that they do not 

1 Tertically, but bend over towards the north. The major axis of 

I sllipae was in every case more or less east and west, sometimes 

'i one end or the other brought around somewhat to the north in 

where the site was sheltered by some neighbouring eminence 

from the morning or evening sun. A field of newly fallen 

may be regarded as having a fiat surface, but the accideots of 

iinietnro will in process of melting soon cause inequalities to 

These inequalities naturally take the form of pits and lumps, 

I when the snn is very nearly vertical at mid-day, it naturally pro- 

I more melting in the bottoms of the hollows than it does on the 

leading down to them. These hollows once formed tend to 

1 by melting, and the dcupcr they become, and the steeper the 

, ao mnch the more docs the deepening tendency increase. The 

ly round summits are sharpened by a similar process. The 

rmys remaining to the north of the zenith at mid-day, causes 

ikdlows to have a northward tilt. When the hollows have been 

' Iwpenod and widened that they nltimatcly run into one another, 

» remains stamiing between them a series of cones, and these are 

Wiatet PenitenUi of the Andes. Sometimes, where the snow bed 

ily • few feet deep, the hollows will be molted down to the sur- 



192 General MontUg Mading. [June 6, 

£ioe of the gruund beneath, and then the ooimb may be obMrrel 
Htanding upon the etouy bed like so many pawns on a oheaboaid. 
It is needless to observe that when these PenitenUa are serenl ftet 
high they form no slight impediment to the advance of a tiaTaUtt> 
Mr. Tines on Tnpongato had to climb over 2000 feet of them. 

After leaving the Aconcagua region the jonmey was oontinoed Ijf 
sea domi the seclnded and tempestnons Smyth's C3iannel, and a brief 
visit was paid to the snowy mountains of Tiena del Fnego. Tht 
ascent of Monnt Sarmiento was accomplished to the foot of the fiml 
crags, bat a violent storm then necessitated a hasty retreat. !%• 
glaciers of this sonthennost rei^on present many analogies iritk 
those of Spitsbergen and other pLtces in high latitudes. 



GENERAL MONTHLY MEETING, 

Monday, Jane 5, 1899. 

His Grace The Dckr of Nobthumberland, K.G. P.S.A., Prosidiiit, 

in the Chair. 

Sir Edward Conrtenay Boyle, K.C.B. 

Robert Macnamara Cowie, Esq. L.R.C.P. M.R.C.S. 

Henry Hardin ge Cnnyngliame, Esq. 

Mrs. Hardinge Canyug)iame, 

Henry Williams Grigg, Esq. 

O. J. Kilvin^ton, Esq. 

Thomas MatthewB, Esq. 

Mrs. T. Lambert Mears, 

William Beswick Myers-Beswick, Esii. 

Theodorti Charles Owen, E^q. 

Mrs. R. Palmer Thomas, 

Thomas Terrell, Esq. Q.C. 

Mrs. Twopeny, 

Rev. Charles Edward Wright, M.A. 

were elected Members of the Royal Institution. 

The Special Thanks of the Members were retamed to As 
Right Hon. Evelyn Ashley for bis present of a letter written Iff 



1899.] Omeral Mmlkb/ Meeting. 198 

GoDBt Bomford to Lady Palmenton. The following ue copies of 
Mr. Aahley'a letter and of Count Bnmford's letter : — 

l>Mt» gi(^ Batunuii^ Boiibt, Maf stt, lax. 

Looking over loffle old p*pen I hsTe crane across the encloaed — n&mely. 
a latter from Coant Bmnford to Lady Palmeraton, dated Feb. 2nd, 17!>9, and 
giviag a iketch ai the pn^xxed leheme for a " Bot&I lostitntion." It may 
pwlmn be of come interest to the FeUom on the occanon of their Centenaij, 
■■d I therefore offer it for their aoceptaaoe. 

Toots taithfoUy, 
(Signed) Etsltk Asblxt. 
Coont Bnmfbrd was a great friend of the Falmerstoiu of that day. I han 
■any letters, Ac., here from him. 



BtoanoK Kow, ixd Aft. l>*9. 

It woald be diffienlt for yon to form any just idea, my dwr friend, of the 
■laasnre I shoald hare to be able to pat the affairs of your little bat aaefnl 
uatitution on the most perfect fuoting immediaidj/, but that alas ! is not in my 
power. To its being the more extensively aseful it ma«t Le so arranged in all 
m part*, and more especialW in all its mtcha»iecU eonlritaneet to serre as a mndel 
Ibr yoor neighboarhood. Bat tlie model of that model is not yet quite finished, 
— nor are all the moulds made that most serre for the castings at the founders. 
Tbaae things are hoireTer all in hand, and the moment tliey shall be finishMl, 
■■d that I shall have instructed thorongbly any one workman ao that I can be 
tare that he will be able to execute the job without committing any fault. To 
shfBW yoo that I hare not been inattentire to the business I send you a drawing 
Cor yoor new kitchen which I made as soon as I got the plan of the buildings. 
I slioold hare sent yoo the materials for it, and the workman to pal them up, 
bad they been ready. 

I think if yon read my Steond Essay yoo will see that something may be 
done «■ otUndamL Your Hciusi-keeper may open a day school for children ; — and 
with the information yon will find in my third Essay and that published by the 
Society for bettering the oondition of the Poor, she may contrive to give them 
•Rfal employment, and a good warm soup for dinner to encourage their industry. 

I wish it were in my power to give you specific directions in writing for all 
the details of the management of your Establishments. But have I nut already 
aiplained these matters in my writings? 

I am just at tliLi moment engaged in a business that mav prevent my intended 
jsQliiey to America, or at leant determine to poatiione it. We are considering of 
aaehene for forming in London a Public Institution for diffusing the knowledge 
and {Militating the introdoetion of nt-efal mechanical improvements, and for 
ttadiing by means of regular coorses of Philosophical Lectures and Experiments 
the ^iplieation of Science to the common purposes of life. I shall depend on yoo, 
•ad on Lord Palmerston to give yoor support to this most useful and moat 
iatefesting scheme. 

It is propoB^-d to put the execution of the plan, and the sole managemeot of 
all a&irs or the Institution, into the hands of sersn Managers, one of whom to be 
— ^yoar most obedient Servant. As soon as the scheme shall be digested and 
properly drawn op in writing I shall not fail to send it to you. It is propose<l 
that the sabacribers of 50 guineas paid once for all should potisees /or ever all the 
property belonging to the Institution, and these shares to be tramsfirable by sale, 
gift, legacy, &o. Each such subscriber to have fiso tickets, tratuferabU, of admis* 
riOB to every part of the Institution — and also (wo tickets likewise traru/erabU of 
atobaioa to all Public and Private Lectures and Experiments. The choice of 
Mm Managers, and of a Committee of VisitOTS to be exclusively vested in Sub. 
leriber* or this /r«( class. Sobsciibers of the lecond class at 10 guineas, tu be 

Vol. XVI. (No. 93.) o 



194 Oeneral MonMy Meeting. [June 6, 

free of the Institution for life, and the third clao, at 2 gnineaa, to have the eoti^ 
for tmt year. Bnt the tickets of the second and third classes noltohe tran^entU, 

One very interesting part of the InHtitution vill be a grand ooUeotion of 
nsefnl machines — all at work, and a ooUection of models of uaefU meebanlesl 
Inventions, with Workshops for giving instmctioDs to Tradesmen and Hana- 
facturers; and a magnificent Laboratory for making Chemical and FhiloaqpUcsl 
Ezpcriments. 

I shall be a subroriber of the first class, and I am not tan bat I ibaU maks 
my daughters subscribe also. 

Tell me what yon think of this scheme. 

I am ever, as yon well know. 
For Yonia most fUthfnlly. 

Lady Palmerston. (Signed) BmnOEa 

The Special Thanks of the Members were returned to Vi. Hn^ 
Spottiswoode for hia valuable gift to the Boyal Institntion of mi 
father's collection of physical apparatus. 

The Special Thanks of the Members were returned to Mrs. Winn 
for her donation of £10 10s. and to Mr. Thomas A. Bogen for liit 
donation of £10 10s. to the Fund for the Promotion of Ej^erimental 
Besearch at Low Temperatures. 

The Pbkbknts received since the last Meeting were laid on thfl 
table, and the thanks of the Members returned for the same, vix. : — 

FBOX 

The Secretary of Slaie for India — ^Hemoin of the Geological Bnrvev of lodil^ 

Vol. XXVUL Part 1. 8vo. 1898. 
The Meteorological Office — Meteorological Observations at Stations of the Seeond 

Order for 189S. 4to. 18U9. 
Aecademia dd Lincei, ReaU, Uoma — Classe di Soienze FiMche, Matematiehss 

Katurali. Atti, Scric Quinta : Beudiconti. 1° Semestre, Vol. YIIL Fssa 

8, 9. 8vo. 18t»f>. 
Classe di Scienre Morali, etc. Vol. VIII. Fasc. 1, 2. 8vo. 1899. 
American Geographical Soriety — Bulletin, Vol. XXXI. No. 2. 8vo. 1899. 
AtiaUc Society of Bengal—Jom-aal, Vol. LXVII. Part 1, No. 4, Part 8, No. 1 

8vo. 1898-99. 
ProoecdingB, 1808, Noe. 9-11 ; 1899, Nos. 1-3. 8to. 
The Ka^mir»9abdamrta, Part 2. 8vo. 1899. 
Attrnnomieal Society, iioyaZ— Monthly Notices, Vol. LIX. No. 7. 8»o. 1899. 
Banken, JmtUvie o/— Journal, Vol. XX. Part 5. 8vo. 1899. 
JJerlin, Boyal Prrtttian Academy of Scieneee — Sitzungsberichte, 1899, Noi. l-tt, 

8vo. 
Britith Architects, Royal Lulitute o/— Journal, 8rd Series, Vol. VI. No, IS. 41a 

1899. 
Britith Attronomieal Auoeiaiion — Memoirs, Vol. VIII. Part I, Svo. 1899. 

Journal, Vol. IX. No. a 8vo. 1899. 
Cmnera CJuJ— Journal for Muy, 1899. 8vo. 

Canadian InititvU — Proceedings, Vol. II. Part 1, No. 7. 8vo. 1899. 
Oiemical Industry, Society o/— Journal, Vol. XVIII. No. 4. 8vo. 1899. 
Chemical Society— Joutnal for May, 1899, and Supplementary Number, IBM 

8vo. 
Proceedings, Nos. 209. 210. 8to. 1899. 
Chicago, John Crerar Library— BepoH for 1898. 8vo. 1899. 
Churchill, Meurt. J. & A.— A Treatise on Practical Chemistry and Qualitatii* 

Analysis. By F. Clowes. 7th cd. 8vo. 1899. 



1899.] Oeiural Monthly Meeting. 195 

Mlilon — Ameiicaa Jonnal of Seienoe for May, 1899. 8to. 

AMlytt for Hay, 1899. 8vo. 

Anthony's Pbotraiaphie Bnlletin for May, 1899. 8to. 

Athensom for May, 1^9. 4ta 

Aitiophyuoal Joamal for April, 1899. 

Author for May, 1899. Sra 

Bimetalliat for May, 1899. 8to. 

Brewen' Journal for May, 1899. Sto. 

Chemical News for May, 1899. 4to. 

Chemist and Dniggiat for May, 1899. 8to. 

Education tot May, 1899. 

Eleetrical Engineer for May, 1899. fol. 

Eleetrioal Engineering for May, 1899. 8vo. 

Eleetrical Beview for May, 1899. 8to. 

Electricity for May, 1899. 8to. 

Engineer for May, 1899. fol. 

Engineering for May, 1899. fol. 

HomoBOpathio Review for May, 1899. 8to. 

Hnroloincal Jonmal for May, 1899. Sto, 

Indostriee and Iron for May, 1899. foL 

Invention for May, 1899. 

Joanial of Pbyiical Chemistry for April, 1899. 8to. 

Joninal of State Medicine for May, 1899, 8vo. 

L*w Journal for May, 1899. Sto. 

Life-Boat Joamal for May, 1899. 

Lightning for May, 1899. Sto. 

London Inimical Edocation Gazette for May, 1899. 8to. 

Machinery Market for May, 1899. Sto. 

Natore for May, 1899. 4to. 

Kew Chnich Magazine for May, 1899. Sto. 

NaoTo Cimento for March and April, 1899. Sto. 

Photographic News for May, 1899. 8to. 

Phnieal Benew for April, 1899. 8to. 

Pnblio Health Engineer for May, 1899. 8to. 

Seienoe Abstracts, Vol. U. Part 5. 8to. 1899. 

Bdenoe Siflings for May, 1899. 

TraTel for May. 1899. Sto. 

Tropiaal Agricoltnrist for May, 1899. 

Zoophilist for May, 1899. 4to. 
niiKiMse,i>i&Ito(«<»A'azH>naIa Ontrob— Bolletino, Na32]. Sto, 1899. 
FnmiiiM iiu«(ii<<— Journal for May, 1899. Sto. 

Gtogravikieal Society, Royal — Geographical Journal for May, 1899. Sto, 
Omogieal Society— -Geological Literature added to Library daring 1898. 

Qoatterly Joamal, No. 218. Sto. 1899. 
Bmiem, Boeiiti U<Mandai*» du Seience* — ArchiTes N^rlandaises, S^rie II. 

Tome IL Lir. 5. 4to. 1899. 
IwHieHal Jndihdte — Imperial Institute Joamal for May, 1899. 
JfJau Hofkntt Univertity — American Chemical Journal for May, 1899. 8to. 
14/e-Boat Institution, Boyal Aattonol— Annual Beport for 1899. Sto. 
Mmtrk»drr, LUerary and Plalotophieal Society — Memoirs and Proceedings, 

VoL XUIL Part 1. Sto. 1898-99. 
Mamdmltr Steam V$en' Anociation — Boiler Explosions Acts : Beports 1037 to 

1120. Sra 
MamaekmiettM ImtituU of TecAnoIogy— Technology Quarterly for March, 1899. Sto. 
Jbdhaa/eo/ Engbteen, InUilution o/— Proceedings, 1898. No. 4. 8to. 
Umty Siver, The Acting Contervator — Beport on the Present State of tie NaTi- 

gatkn of the Mersey (1898). Sto. 1899. 
MmiUek, Boyal Bavarian Academy of Sciencet — Sitzunggberichte, 1899, Heft 1. 8to. 

Nsm Anoalea der K. Stemwarte in MUuchen, Band III. 4to. 1898. 

o 2 



196 Oeneral McmAly Meeting. [Jnae 5, 

A««y League— TSiTj Leagae Jonmal for Slay, 1899. Sra 

Aoea Beotimt IntlUuU of Saenee—Pioeee^gt tail TtmaaieiiaoM, Vol IZ. Fuk 4. 

Sra 1898. 
OdmUologieal £M((y— TnnnctioDa, Yol. XXXI. No. 6. Sro. 1899. 
Omnei, Pn^. H. h. — Commanicationt from tfae Phyticai Labonioiy >t th* 

UniTeraitT of Leiden. Xoa. 47. 48. 8ro. 18*^9. 
Pari*, Soriiti Fran<:aUe de P&y<Mii«— Bulletin, Xo«. 132, 133. 8to. 1898. 
PJuirmaamtieal Sodtiy of Great Britain — lonniaLl for May, 1899. 8m. 
Phatographie Society. Royal — Photographic Jonmal for April, 1 899. 8vo, 
Phyical BoHtly of LoncUjn—PTocetdiag*, YoL XVI. Fait 5. 8Ta 1899. 

Lint of Fellow*, et<r. 1899. 8to. 
QuektU Microiropieal Quft— Journal, Vol. VII. No. 44. Sro- 1899. 
Borne, Miiiitlry of Public Wurkt- -Giomale del Genio Civile, 1899, Faac. 1, 2. Snl 

And Dcaigni. fol. 
Boyal Society of AVfinturjk— Proceedings, VoL XXIL Na 4. 8Ta 1899. 
Boyal Society of London— Ptoeeedingt, Noa. 413, 414. 8to. 1899. 

Pbiloaopbical Trannactiona : A. Vol. CXCU. Noa. 234, 235; B. y<^ CXCI 
Noa. 108, 160. 4to. 1899. 
Sazon Society of Seieneet, Boyal — 
PhihAogiich-HittoriKhe CloMte — 
Abhandlungcn, Band XVllI. No. 4. 8vo. 1899. 
Schoolvuj, William, Etq. F.R.A.S. U.B.I. (fhe Ci>mm'{<r.— lowood'a TablM of 

Interest and Mortality. 25th ed. Edited by W. Schooling. 8to. 1899. 
Selbome &>ctefy— Nature Notes for May, 1899. 8to. 
Smithtonian Itutitulion — Smith^nian Report for 1897. 8n). 1898. 
Society of Arti — Journal for May, 1899. 8va 

Slreatham Public Librariet— Eighth Annual Beport, 1898. 8Ta 1899. 
Taeehini, Prof P. Hon. Mem. B.I. (the Autlu>r)—yiemotie dulla Bodetlii dc(^ 

i>pettroscopiiiti Italian!. Vol. XXVIII. Diap. 2*, S>. 4io. 1899. 
United Service Instilulion, Boyal — Journal for May, 1899. 8'ra 
United State* Department of AgrieuUure — Year Book of the Department of Agii- 
culture for 1898. 8to. 1899. 
Experiment Station Kecord, Vol. X. No 8. 8to. 1899. 
North American Fauna, No. 14. 8vo. 1899. 
Kzperiment Station Bulletin, No. 56. 8vo. 1899. 
United States Patent 0.^e<s— Ufficial Gazette, Vol. LXXXVII. Noa. 5-8. 8ia 

1899. 
Verein lur Befirderung dee Gewerbfleittee in Preuiten — ^Verhandlungea, 181^ 

Heft 4. 8vo. 
Vizagapatam, G- V. Juggarow Obtervafory — Beport for 1897. 8Ta 1899. 
WaAitujton, Academy ofSeiencei — Proceedings, Vol. I. pp 15-106. 8to. ISW 
Waihiiigton, KalUmal Academy of Seieneet — Memoirs, VoL VIII. Bui 3. 4to. 

1899. 
Zoological Society of London— Report for 1898. 8vo. 1899. 
Zurich, NaturfonJiende (TueUseAo/l— Vierteljabraachrift, Jahrg. XUIL H«ft& 
8to. 1899. 
Neajahrsblatt, 101 Sttlck. 4to. 1899. 



1899.] Cknlenary Commemoration, 1799-1899. 197 



CENTENARY OF FOUNDATION, 1799-1899. 



Mix Uie month of Jnoe, 1899, tbe Boyal Institntion of Great Britun 
B-oompleted one Landred years of its exietenoe, tbe first meeting of ita 
~ members in the building in Albemarle Street having been held on 
June 6, 1799. 

The President, Managers and Professors, having decided that this 
event, so interesting and memorable in the life of tbe Institntion, and 
in tbe history of Science in this country, should be duly celehmted, 
invited many eminent scientific representatives from other coantries 
to take part in the proceedings of the Centenary Celebration. 



MOKDAT, JUME 5, 1899. 
CENTENARY BANQUET 

TO TBC OCSBTS Or THE INSTITCTIOH. 



^V The gnest* were entertained by the President and Managers at a 
Cantenary Banquet, held in the hsU of the Merchant Taylors' 
Compuiy, kindly lent for the purpose, on Monday, June 5, and hod 
tbe honour of meeting His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, E.O., 
ViM^Patron of the Royal Institution of Great Britain. His Graoo 
the Doke of Northumberland, E.G., tbe President, in tbe Chair. 

There were also present His Royal Highness the Duke of 

Cambridge, E.G., the Earl of Halsbury (Lord Chancellor), the Earl 

of Roese, E.P., Lord Lister (Presiilent of the Royal Society), Lord 

Kelvin, Lord Ivoagh, M.P., Lord Strathcona and Mount Royal, Sir 

■^■te Lubbock, B<irt., MP., Professor A. Comu (of Paris), Sir George 

^^H^^tBB, Bart., Henry White, Esq. (Secretary American Embassy), 

^FBTP. Langley, Esq. (of Washington), Lord Amherst of Hackney, 

B Lord Blf tfaswood. Professor Oscar Liebrcich (tbe delegate from the 

OctHMD Chemical Society), George W. Barnard, Esq. (Master of the 

' M«rcbAnt Taylors' Company), The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of 

Briatol, Rcar-.^dmiral A. K. Wilson, Sir James Crichton-Browno, 

8ir Frederick Bramwell, Bart., Lord Rayleigh, Professor Dowar, and 

aboot two hundred other Gentlemen. 

The gallery behind the Chairman's seat was oocupied by lodiei 
throughout tbe evening. 

Tbe Duke or NoKTHrrMBESLAirD (the President of the Royal 
Institution), in proposine " Tbe Health of Her Majesty the Queen, 
Empreaa of India," remarked that it appealed in a peculiar manner to 
har Ksjeaty's subjects at the present moment, because we had just 
had the Mtisfaction of colebrating her eightieth year, and congratn- 
latiBg her npon the health and strength wbich Providence bad 



198 Centenary Commemoration, 1799-1899. \Jiim 5, 

bestowed upon ber, as well as recording onr seiue of tbe ftdminUe 
manner in wbicb, through so lengthened a period, she had mled ovar 
ns. That night they drank her health also as Patron of the Boyal 
Institntion. She, like many of her illnstrions predeoesaors, had ahom 
that she realised the importance of the work which the Inatitntioii 
was formed to carry ont, and how largely, either directly or indirectly, 
it tended to the welfare of her subjects. That welfare had ever ben 
the dearest thing to the heart of her Majesty to aeonre, and it had 
been tbe gniding principle of her public conduct ; and in addition to 
her private Tirtaes, the knowledge and the appreciation of that laet 
had endeared her to the hearts of her people. 

The toast baring been duly honoured. 

The DcKE or Nobthuhbeblakd (the President), again tisiiig, 
proposed " The Health of the Yice-Patron, the Piinoe of Walea, ^ 
Princess of Wales, and the rest of the Boyal Family." They wan 
much honoured, he said, by the presence of the Prince of Wain. 
The associations which bis Boyal Highness had with the Bapl 
Institution went back a considerable time, for he belieted ihat it ma 
in tbe year 1866 that the Prince first attended a lecture at the Boyal 
Institntion. It was one of those juvenile lectures which Prafieaaor 
Faraday so well knew how to deliver. They were unfortunate that 
night in losing the presence of tbe Duke of York, who had been a 
member of the Institution for so many years, but they were fortnnats 
in securing — in the capacity of a distinguished gueat — ^the preaenm 
of tbe Duke of Cambridge. 

The Pbinoe of Wales said, I am most grateful to the Duke of 
Northumberland for the kind terms in which he has proposed this 
toast, and to you for tho manner in which you have received it. I 
consider it a great privUogo, and a great honour, to toko part, as Vice- 
Patron of this Institution in the hundredth anniversary of its eristenoCL 
As tho Duke has said, I had an early acquaintance with the Boyal 
Institution. Though it is nearly half a century ago, I have not for- 
gotten that, as a boy, my brother, the Duke of Soxe-Cobnrg, and 
myflclf were sout by our father to Loudon, just after Christmoa, to 
attend those famous lectures, which wero then given by the gnat 
Professor Michael Faraday. I have not forgotten the interest which m 
took in those lectures, and tho clear way in which Professor Faraday 
explained to boys difficult scientific problems, and the beautiful way 
in which he showed us the chemical experiments which were then the 
order of the day. On an occasion of this description it ia Tery 
difficult to say anything now with regard to the Institution, or any- 
tiling that is not known by so distinguished and able an audience oi 
is asKcmbled here to-night. Wlicu one looks back, one recalls that 
ouo hundred years ago the Society was first formed by Sir Benjamin 
Thompson, who was better known, and who himself liked to be known, 
under tho name of Count liumford. It is remarkable, that the build- 
ing in Albemarle Street, though much changed in architecture, is tb« 
identical one in which tbe lectures wore given and the work mf 



1899.] 



Centenary Commemoration, 1799-1899. 



19» 



carried on. Of conne, this Society has gone through msnj i 
but fortunately many people assisted it in a pecuniary war, aad onljr 
as recently as three years ago we were indebted to the ubetmlity ti 
Dr. If ond for the Davy Faraday laboratory, at the opeoiag of whjdi, 
I myself had the pleasure of being present When out looks bade 
to the eminent men who have worked and lectnred at the laatitvtioo, 
one thinks first of the name of Thomas Yoong, and ol tk* gnat 
Humphry Davy — a man of whom all Eoglishmen are ftomi, flM OB* 
of whose most remarkable scientific diecoveriea, pfThM ? % wm ftal 
wonderful lamp which has saved the Uvea of ihoamnoi nt miamB, 
Then there is another name to which in this connection I mwt 
agkin refer, that of Professor Michael Faraday, whom 1 knew, aad 
whom I shall ever associate in my mind with the Boyal Tintltitrfw i ; 
I shoold also mention his distingnisbed soooeMor, Profnasor TjmlaiL 
There is another name, which at the present day otarjoim looks np to 
as one very remarkable in every branch of scignco that of Jjoti 
Rayleigh. The President of tho Boyal Institation, and many of as, 
I hope, will have tho plessore of listening to a lectore wldeh h« is to 
deliver to-morrow. As the Duke has kindly said, and I think very 
prop«rIy said, we are a large gathering. Still, on this occaaiuo, 
speeches should be short — I will therefore not detain yoa longer. I 
toftnk yoa once more for having kindly listened to the words whiehl 
bftve gftid ; and I assnre the Duke and the members of this iiatm' 
gniihed Society bow highly I appreciate the opportunity which has beea 
givan me to take part in this Centenary banquet, and how pleased we 
•re to see present so many distinguished foreign gentlemeo oonoeeted 
with Science. To the Duke of Northumberland it moat be especially 
giBtifying that he and members of his family now, for upwards of fifty 
years, with the exception of eight years, when Sir Henry Holland was 
pnsident, have occupied the chair as presidents of tho Boyal Insti- 
tation. In the name of the Princess of Wales and other membera of 
By &mi]y, I tender you my warmeat thanks for the manner in which 
yoa have receive<l this toast. 

The DxTKB or CAtrsBrDOE proposed "The Boyal Institution of 
Great Britain." He said the Prinoe of Wales had already pointed 
oot the salient points of the Institiation, and, therefore, all that he 
eoald really do was to back up what the Prinoe had said. They were 
mamemotating that night the Centenary of an Institution for diShs- 
ing knowledge, and facilitating tho general introduction of usefol 
BMchaaical inventions and improvements. Whilst during these one 
huodrad years the march of intellect had largely increased in every 
part at the world, and nowhere more than in this country, there had 
also been a change in scientific matters to an extent which, having him- 
ailf lived eighty years he could not have thought possible. In those 
oae hoadred years everything had changed, more or less, in every 
dtBartmeat of life, bnt nothing had gone forward more rapidly than 
MMDee, which was still progressing in a sound and useful direction 
aad which they of that Institution were helping to support and 



200 Centenarg Ccmwtemoratum, 1799-1899. [Jain 5, 

fnictifr. He thoaght tb« world wis gnt&j indebted to flM Liili- 
tvtion for the progresa ma-le, bat the membierB of tlie orguintiaB 
had alwajB made progress wiUi prudence and intelliKenoe, and witb- 
oat rashness. Nowadays, they saw new things introdnoed whidi «an 
not always carried ont with the jndicionsness they wonld desire; M 
their Institntion was sonnd to the core, becanse it had gone as 
continaonsly, without rashness and with all that intelligence whick 
was worthy of snch an important Soc-iety. They rejoiced to find tlirt 
their feelings were gradually becoming general thronghont the wodi 
There was reciprocity in science, and whilst they were delighted to 
sec the representatives of science of other nations, they, he hoped, 
were ready at all times to hear and appreciate the endeaToois midi 
in this country of those engaged in scientific work. That was ooe of 
those principles which should go to regulate the world in the fotan. 
ile was himself a soldier, and had been for years, and he felt th(j 
were greatly indebted as soldiers to that Institution for haring intm- 
dnced improvements which made wars, not impossible, bat very mock 
less likely than they used to be. At the same time, th^ ware haiit 
and soul loyal to the Crown, and loyal to themselves, and whoi thif 
had occasion to show that loyalty they were quite ready as hereto&n^ 
as sailors and soldiers, to do their duty. Scientists had made wu 
luuch less likely and much less possible, bnt ho sincerely hoped tfait 
every endeavour made at the Hague Conference to modify the miaariai 
of war by jadicious and prudent regulations wonld be crowned wilk 
the success that it deserved. The progress of the world was extrandj 
indcbto<l to a large number of the eminent and great scientifio mm 
who surrounded him that evening, and he was sore they wonld all 
join in a hearty welcome to the present Dnke of Northumberland, 
and would diink to the pro8i)erity and the extension of tlie nsefnlnew 
of that great body of men known as the Boyal Institution. He gne 
the toast of " the Prosperity of the Iloyal Institution," and coupled 
it with the name of the Duke of Northumberland, who had soe- 
cccdcd his distinguished father, the late Dnke of Northumberland, 
as President of the Institution. 

The DuKB OF NouTHUKBBBLAND, in acknowledgment of the toait, 
said that the appreciation expressed by his Royal Highness of tbt 
work of tho Institution and the reception of the toast were sigul 
proofs of tho esteem in which the work of tho Institution was held. 
It was a great honour that so many eminent representatives of foieigB 
science had honoured with their presence the Centenary of the Ion- 
tution. It was just one hundred years ago when the Institntios 
entered upon its present premises. A long roll of names had lent 
lustre to their labours. Davy, Faraday, Young, Tyndall — above eO 
thuy should remember their founder, Benjamin Thompson, Comt 
Jiuuiford, whom it was easy to criticise, but whose virtues had bee* 
]ii-<)dnctivc of great results. The work of the Institution had beenii 
liiff^c measure the carrying out of Count Knmford's ideas. It was said 



18990 



Centenary Commemoration, 1799-1899. 



aoi 




that he intended an inetitation of a more practical or indnstrial 
charactor than the Institution now was. Bat changes had tuken 
place. Facilities for commonicating now discoveries were one 
faondrcd years ago few ; competition was leas keen ; there was then 
maoh dislike of innovation and there was extreme jealousy with the 
working classes of any redaction of mauaal labour. It was thus 
ftry to popularise discoveries ; and that was the aim of their 

ider. Bat now every such discovery was soon heralded to the 
Popular magazines had now articles on the mannfactnre of 
air and other subjects of an abstmsc character. Towards this 
diffusion of science the Royal Institution had largely contri- 
buted. Their principal objects were research, for which their labora- 
lorieBgaTe such ample means and in respect of which Rpecial gratitude 
waa dne to Dr. Mond for his noble gift, and to Mr. Spottiswoodo for 
his collection. The second object was to bring the results of research 
to the knowledge of those who conld appreciate them, and these resnltg 
were expounded in the evening lectures of the Institution. Thirdly, 
this knowledge was popularised by the aftc-rnoon lectures ; and finally 
the rising generation were stimulated by the juvenile lectures to those 
who, it was hoped, were destined to take their part in future scientific 
iiiTestigation. They had an admirable library of the subjects which 
they Bonght especially to promote. They did not limit their interest 
to pare science, but literature and history had also been the subjects 
of admirable discouTBOs by acknowledged masters. Lastly, he would 
Tentore to say that nothing would be heard in the Institution which 
conld wound the most sensitive in the subjects of history, moral 
philosophy, or religion. Lord Kayleigh, Professor Dewar, and others 
had shown that the ordinary wants of mankind wore not foreign 
to their ]mrpo8es. Their gratitude on this occasion was due to the 
Merchant Taylors' Company for the use of their beautiful halL 

The toast of " The Guests " was proposed by the Loan Cbanoei/- 
UtB. who observed that he presumed the toast was entrosted to him as 
ama who had sat as a very diligent listener at the feet of some of those 
GanalicLs of science he saw around him. It was unnecessary for 
hin to add much to what had already been said by those taking part 
in the proceedings as to the importance of the Royal Institution, for 
all wofdd recognise the incalculable benefits it had conferred on all 
who came within the sphere of its influence. He had some difficulty 
in proposing the toast, because he was not certain as to how many 
■rwWBt belonged to the scientific family they designated the Boyid 
iMtitation ; bat be would couple the toast with the names of two of 
Ibair gacata who came from over the sea— Mr. S. P. Langley, Secre- 
Iai7 of the Smithsonian Institution, 'Washington, and Professor A. 
Corso, Officier do la Legion d'Honneur, Membre de I'lnstitnt, 
Tranoe. 

Mr. 8. P. LA.VOLKT said, I could wish that another, whose words 
carry more weight than mine, were bore to respond to theae 



2(r2 Centenary Commemaraliom, 1799^1899. [Juno 5, 

kic'ily cxp7<esEi:&3 in the name of roar gaeate, and especiilly of fhoH 
frjsi Ameri'S : bet I mar at least feel tliat no one can ipeak with 
core sinceritT of the pleaEnre those from the United States havB is 
being here b>iiight, and in tectifving to their grmtefdl remembiaDOt 
of all that American science owes to this, its mother-oonntry. 

We cannot forget that it was from the heart of the Engliik 
people that those earliest colonists of New England came, who is 
the last oentoTT, in token of their ancestry, prodnced a Franklin ani 
a Bomford, or forget that it is strictly trae that American Kienflik 
daring the generation that followed the foundation of this Institntiai, 
grew op ander almost exclosirely English influence. 

All your gnests, without distinction of conntry, appreciate at iti 
high Talne the example which this Institution has set, in nnitiiig 
original research of the rery greatest importance with the commimi- 
cation of its results in a form understanded of the people ; bnt wa is 
America are especially glad to remember that it was an BSngUsh mil 
of science, James Smithson, who, following your example of this tw<h 
fold purpose, left his fortune to the United States to, in his owa 
brief and pregnant words, found '* an establishment for the iiiuirsw 
and diffusion of knowledge among men." 

The American Government accepted the trust in a way without 
precedent, placing by organic law the President of the United Siatei 
at the head of the Institution, and giving the regency of its afhin 
to a board representing whatever is most eminent in the councils of the 
nation, under whose direction it has pursued the same doable olgeeli 
as your Institution, both of the increase of knowledge by origiml 
research, and its diffusion throughout the world. It has done thii 
with a faithful regard to the wishes of its founder, who died before 
the fruition of his large purpose, so that this modest man of science 
did not live to see in the Smithsonian Institution his work endnring 
in ait honoured name. 

Tho American founder of your great Institution was more fortu- 
nate, in seeing at least the beginning of his work, but evon of him it 
might be almost said that he " baildcd better than ho know," forwhik 
wo are glud to remember that Bumford has thus associated his name 
with your early history, we must agree that if the seed he planted had 
not been sown in so good a soil, his earlier plan would not have grown 
into what tho years have wrought, not only in bringing the most 
eminent contributions to the sum of human knowledge, but in theii 
imblication under royal patronage, for it is thus, in the worthiest 
BonKC that word may bear, continued under the gracious lady whoio 
birthday has just been celebrated with rejoicings on both sides of tbs 
Ocean, which hero, perhaps more than in any other land, has led all 
that is best in social life to take an interest in the exhibition of the 
results that such men as your Young, your Davy, your Faraday and 
your TyndiiU have wrought. 

It is known to all, on both sides of the Atlantic, that tho work of 
tlinso men is being continued by one who has added a new element 



Centenary Commemoration, 1799—1899. 



208 




atmosphere, uid has opened the way to others, and by another 
bo has just been near to the bnimdaries of warmth and life, to bring 
lok liquid hydrogen to yonr lecture table ; and such work is still 
■iag BO carried on, tliat in all yonr honoured years, none have been 
aant in results of world-wide interest than those which 
I yonr first century. 

I natoralist tells as tmly, that we can forecast the probable 
ion of the future life of any organic being from the time that it 
itMch adolescence, wo shall see in the huiidr(;i1tb year of such 
see and such promise, not age, but youtb, and the especta- 
growth to continue through centuries to como. 
at least, I think, is both the belief and the wish of your 
! kinsmen and guests, from beyond both the broad and narrow 
MM, and certainly of those present to-night, who return their thanks, 
_' my imperfect voice, for the hospitality which has enabled 
to bo present, under such auspices, on so memorable occasion. 
BSaoB CoBMC, D.C.L. F.R.S., said, C'est en frBn9ai8 que je vaia 
an nom des invites du Continent ; jo choisis lo fran9ai8 
■ae c'est la langue diplomatique : excellente raison ! i-Ilu uio 
i'tfu donner uno autre qni eerait pent etre encore meillcuro. 
jliistuire de la fondation do la Boyal Institution, que j'ai rclue cea 
I demiers, m'a fait une impression profonde. Nous conuaissions 
B«njamin Thompsdn, Comte de Bumford, comtnc un ]ihyBicion 
st, antenr d'importantes decoavcrtos aor la cbaleur et la lumiore ; 
le pri-cnrsenr des thtories modornes de I'energie, le premier 
; €mi dire devant la Soci^te Royale que la ehaleur ncpeut pan etre 
sftoM que du mouvement. Anssi la Societo Royale a-t-ello oon- 
i bi mentoire des fucondcs Etudes do Rumford par one medaille, 
I d«a plus hantes distinctions auxqncUcs Ics pbysicions pnissont 

Bs oonnaiasions {>galemcnt le Comte de Riunford comme an ami 
kde lliumauitc pauvre et souffrante. 

kvions qu'il avait fonde I'lnstitutinn Royale pour la diffusion 
lo porfectionnemont dc I'induBtrie et I'acoroissement da 
ondioit i» la Tie domestiqae. 

Mais j^gnorais, pour ma part, que sa pensee avait ete plus haute 
•aoro et qo'en r^lomant de ses cont'Omporains la fondation d'une 
Bfltttation utile k la prosp^rittS naticnale il s'etait elev^ h uno conccp- 
ioa aoM gnn^reose qne nouvelle de I'lnflaence do la science sur le 
troaria aooial. 

L EeoatejE MS belles paroles : 
, ** Bat, in ecitimating the probable nsefulness of this Institution, 
Inaat act forget the public advantages that will be derived from 
MBonl diffusion of a spirit of experimental investigation and 
at among the higher ranks of society. 
the rich shall take pleasure in comtemplating and en- 
; raoh mechanical improvements as are really iiBeful, good 
with ita inseparable companion, good murnls, will revive ; 



204 Centenary Commemoratum, 1799-1899. [Jmw 6. 

rational economy will become fashionable; indnstiy and iogennity 
vill be hononred and rewarded ; and the pnrsoits of iJl Tiriona ( * 
of Bocietj will then tend to promote the pnblio prosperity." * 

Heureuses les nations qui savent oomprendie cea g6n6r 
idces ! 

Heiirenses les nations qni sont capablee, comma la Gzands 
Bretagne, de fonder, de maintenir, et de faire prosp^rsr des teUei 
institntions ! 

Je crois Stre I'interpr^te de mes collignes da Continent en eqii- 
mant tonte notre admiration pour I'ceuTre r6T6e et acoomplie pv 
£umford et en bnvant a la prosp^rite ind6finiment s^cnlairedel'Iiiifr 
tntion Boyale, qui depuis on sieole, & travers tant d'6v&iementa init* 
tendns, a consorve, grace anx illustres savants qn'elle choiait^ toigoaii 
I'admirable esprit de son fondateur. 



TuiBDAT, June 6, 1899. 

H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, E.G., Vioe-F»troa, 
in the Chair. 

COMMEMORATION LBCTUBB, 

By the Eight Hon. Lobd Ratleioh, M.A; D.C.L. LLJ). F.B.B., 
Professor of Natural Philosophy SJ. 

There wore also present the Duke of Northumberland (PresideBt) 
the Duke of Dovonshiro, Lord Lister (Pros. R.S.) Lord Edvin, Lol 
Amherst, Sir John Lubbock, Bart. M.P., Sir John Dorington, But 
M.P., Sir Frederick Abel, Bart.. Sir Edward Frankland, Sir Andrmr 
Noble, Sir Henry Thompson, Bart., Sir William Crookes, Dt. J. H. 
Gladstone, Professor Silvanus P. Thompson, Sir James Griohtm- 
Browne, Sir Frederick Bramwell, Bart, Dr. Lndwig Mond, ui 
Professor Dewar. 

LoKD Ratleioh said that though his was intended to be a con- 
memoratiye lecture, the idea of commemorating all the work that hil 
been done at the Royal Institution was hopelosB. To do so he would 
require, not one lecture, but many courses of lectures, even thongb 
much of it bad been in chemistry, which did not fijl within at 
province. Remembering that on other occasions be had spoken is 
detail of the achievements of Faraday and Tyndall, he thongbtci 
this occasion he would do well to go still further back in the centnif 

* The Bnyal Institution : its Founder and its Fint PiofessoTs. By Dr. Bean 
Jones (1871), pdgc 147. 



1899.] Cmtonary Commemoration, 1799-1899. 205 

■ad speak of Dr. Thomu Ton&g, one of tho earliest professors of the 
laitittition. Young occupied a very high place in the estimation of 
BWB of science — higher, indeed, now than at the time when he did 
bit work. His " Lectures on Natural Philosophy," containing the 
■obstMice of courses delivered in the Institution, was a very remark- 
•ble book, which was not known as widely as it ought to be. Its ex- 
positions in some branches were unexcelled even now, and it contained 
Mveml things which, so far as he knew, were not to be found elsewhere. 
The eftrlier lectures dealt with elementary mechanics, and the reader 
would find as sound an exposition of that science as could be imagined. 
It was to Young that they owed the term energy, now in everybody's 
tnouth. Elastic resilience was better dealt with there Uian in any 
Other treatise he knew of, for Young discusscMl the subject with re- 
asarkable ingenaity, showing that the phenomena exhibited by two 
bodies coming into collision were comprehended under it. If the 
Telocity was moderate, all their motion might be taken up in them in 
the form of {lotential energy ; but if it oxcce<k-d a certain limit their 
integrity conld not be preserved. In tho case of a grain of sand pro- 
jected against a sheet of glass, another element, that of time, had to 
be oonsiderod, for it became a question of tho propagation of the wave 
set up by the impact, aurl if the region traversed by the wave during 
collision, and alone available as the seat of potential energy, were too 
small the glass was bound to break. Young again discussed the 
^^ problem of a ball supported on a column of air or water, and correctly 
^■•xplalned that it preserved its stability and did not full out of the 
^■■tream owing to centrifugal force. In the province of sound Young 
^P wms the originator of many of the meet important principles on which 
^^ the docrine was now esp)undod, but it was with optics that his name 
was most closely associated, for ho and Fresnol wore the builders 
of the great structure of the undulatory theory. This was a matter 
that was tolerably familiar. Lord llayleigh thought he could best 
Stiliae tho time at his disposal by mentioning some of the points in 
wbicb Young's good work had been overlooked. In his time a ques- 
tion of discussion was the change of the focua of the eye for vary- 
ing distances. One suggested explanation, that accommodation was 
s ff w4~* by an alteration in the external convexity of the eye. Young 
peered to be wrong by drowning his eye in water. This virtually 
eliminated the convexity, yet the power of accommodation remained ; 

»»ad he therefore concluded it was due to a muscular alteration in the 
internal lens of the eye. He also deHcribed the phenomenon of astig- 
fn^timn Mid showod his deep knowledge of optical theory by snggest- 
iog that its effects conld be counteracted by the uso of a slightly 
sloping lens. In the study of compound colours, or chromatics as it 
was then termed, Young's views were correct, though not universally 
I aecepted even yet. Lord Rayleigh showed a modification of the ex- 
BSfriflwat by which he proved that the combination of green and red 
Mf« yellow, and illustrated the fact by a further experiment, not 
' Tomg'a, but following his suggestions, which demonstrated to tho 



206 Cetttetianf Comrnemaratiam, 1799-1899. [June 6, 

audience that when the bine and yellow of the spectrnm were cat off 
bj solutions of litmus and bichromate of potash respectiTelj the oom- 
bination of the remaining red and green was obvionslj yellow. The 
lecturer next described Young's way of getting rid of the " false li^t," 
that interfered so greatly with the brilliance of the effects wfaeo 
Newton's rings were being obtained by means of two glaM plates 
pressed together, and by analysing the colours from such platM irith 
a prism he cxiiibited the original of a diagram in Young's book, 
which indicated the particular rays destroyed by interference. Yoaog 
was singularly successful in the tibeory of cohesion and oapillaii^, in 
which some of his earliest work was done, and he was the first to 
deduce an estimate of molecular dimensions from data afforded if 
that theory. The size of the molecule, according to his calenlatiao% 
wus not very different from that admitted at the present day. In tht 
theory of the tides he made great advances, and in explaining ibt 
circumstances which determine whether there shall be nigh or Imr 
water under the moon, he gave the general theory of forced TitatatiaUi 
His views of heat wore very interesting. He had the atmost eon- 
tempt for the idea widely prevalent in his time that it was a sepintt 
entity, and expressed the hope that before long philosophers migbt 
return to a true conception of its nature as motion. Lord Baylai^ 
in concluding his observations on Young, said that possibly he hid 
loft the impression that Young know everything. In fact, it «tt 
seldom that ho was wrong ; but just to show that he was, after til, 
human, a jiassage might be quoted from his book in which he de- 
clared there was no immediate connection between magnetism mi 
electricity ! Speaking of work which hod been done at the Institution 
by men who held no regular appointment in it, the lecturer noted thit 
Wedgwood, in conjunction with Davy, was the first to produce any- 
thing that could bo called a photograph, while instantaneous photo- 
graphy, such as was required for rapidly moving objects, was caniai 
out for the first time by Fox Talbot in the laboratory of the Institatiao. 
Slides were exhibited illustrative of flying bullets, splashing nulk,aol 
breaking soap films, all taken by the electric spark. Towards tbt 
close of the lecture Lord Baylcigh showed one famous experiment of 
Faraday's, the rotation of the piano of polarised light by magnetiiin, 
which he observed had acquired a now interest from the recent dii- 
covcrios of Ur. Zceman. In illustration of Tyndall's work, he instanced 
the discovery of sensitive flames and their application to acooatieil 
investigation. The analogue of a remarkable optical experiment, froB 
which it appears that there is a bright spot at the centre of the shadow 
of a circular disc, was exhibited. 

Sib Jaues Cricbton-Browke said, 

May it please your Koyal Highness, 

The Boyal Institution having resolved to mark its Centenary \>J 
adding to its roll of Honorary Members the names of some of the 
most eminent representatives of physical and phemical science on the 



99.] 



Centenary Commemoration, 1799-1899, 



207 



Continent and in America, I beg leave to present to you the gentle- 
men who have been selected fur that distinction and who have 
bononred us with their presence here to-day. 

All of them have done worthy and memorable work in the field of 

science, all of them are of world-wide reputation, and it is unneces- 

■ary therefore in an andieace like thii<, and it might be tedious and 

^Maburasaing to ttieiu that I should recount the offices, achievements, 

l^^^faktious and honours of each, and so I shall only present them 

^^^Bftlly in asking your Boyal Highness to admit them to the 

Honorary Membership. 

Tbo diplomas which have been prepared for them they will carry 
back with them to almost every country in Europe and to the United 
States of America — whence came the founder of the Royal Institution 
to Ibeso shores just one hundred and twenty-throe years ago — and wo 
fesl snre that these diplomas will have an enhanced interest and value 
for all of them because they ore bestowed by the hand of your lioyal 
Highness. 

Our conference here this afternoon accentuates the universal 
brotherhood of science, and so may perhaps do something to promote 
the oonoord of the nations. 

I have the honour to present the following gentlemen : — Dr. i^mile 
Ador (Geneva). Professor Joseph S. Amos (Baltimore), Professor 
Srante Arrhenius (Stockholm), Professor Georgo F. Barker (Phila- 
delphis), Professor Carl Barus (Providence, U.8 A,), Professor Henri 
Beoqnerel (Paris), Dr. L. Bleckrode (Tho Hague), Professor Giocomo 
i Ciamician (Bologna), Professor Nicolas Egorof (St. Petersburg), 
or Antoine Paul Nicolas Franchimont (Leiden), Professor 
Gnstav Eayser (Bonn), Professor Wilhelm Koruer (Milan), 
Samuel Pierpoint Langley (Washington), Professor OscAr Lie- 
(Borlin), Professor Gustavo Leonard Van der Mousbruggo 
(Ghent), Professor Albert A. Micholson (Chicago), Professor Henri 
Ifoissan (Paris), Professor Raffaelo Nasiui (Padua), Professor 
Walther Nemst (Gottingen), and Mr. Ernest Solvay (Brussels). The 
diploma of honorary membership will be forwarded to the following, 
who are unable to bo present : — Professor Armand ^mile Gautier 
(Paris), Professor Wilhehn Ostwald (Leipzig), Professor Robert H. 
Thurston (Ithaca), Professor EmLlio Villari (Naples), Professor Jules 
Lirais Violle (Paris), and Dr. William L. Wilson (Washington). 

Aa it was thought essential that the Centenary of the Royal 
Institution should bo celebrated in this place, its old, its first, and 
only home, it was found impossible from want of room to invito 
Mogptf trom universities, colleges, societies and academies, as the 
aUMkgers would otherwise have wished to do ; but notwithstanding 
that 00 invitations have been issued, two foreign learned societies 
have spontaneously sent addresses of congratulation. Tho German 
Chemical Society, and the German Society of Chemical Industry, 
felicitate tbo Royal Institution on the completion of one huudred 
Tears of its existence, generously acknowledge the splendid work it 




208 Centenary CommemoreUion, 1799-1899. [Jane 6, 

has acoompliBhed without CrOTernmental aid, and simply by prints 
enterprise and individaal effort, and hope for it a oontinoanoe of that 
beneficent activity which has never flagged from the daiys of Bomford 
down to those of Rayleigh and Dewar. 

The addresses are most gratefully received and will be pnblisbad 
in the Proceedings of the Institution. 

The Duke of Nobthumbebland moved a vote of thanks to iht 
Prince of Wales for presiding. 

The DuKK or Devomshtee, in seconding the motion, said that tht 
Royal Institution had contributed in no small degree to the extra- 
ordinary advance of science that the century had witnessed. It wii 
entirely in accordance with the principles that guided his Bojil 
Highness in public life that he should have taken a prominent put 
in the celebration of the Institution which had become a nationl 
one. It was obvious that such an Institution as that could not p«* 
form all the work of which it was capable unless it met with a Itigi 
share of public support, and no small element in obtaining thit 
support wus the countenance of his Royal Highness. 

The Pbinos or Wales said : I am deeply sensible of the kind wmdi 
which have fallen from the lips of the Duke of Northumberland and 
the Duke of Devonshire. I need hardly assure them, nor any of job 
ladies and gentlemen present, that I shall always look back with th« 
deepest pleasure and gratification on the fact that I have taken port 
in the Centenary of the Royal Institution. Having been acquainted 
with it from my earliest years, and having had the advantage of 
listening to many of the great scientific men who have given their 
lectures and sfaon'n their experiments in this room, I am glad to 
think that I have been present on this occasion to hear the interest- 
ing, able and exhaustive lecture which Lord Rayleigh has so kindly 
given us with his excellent ex|)criments. He has been able to go 
over much ground in a very limited space of time. The interest thit 
I take in this Institution, I assure you, will never be diminished. It 
has, as the Duke of Dovunshiro has said, become a national one. It 
is self-supporting, and during these hundred years has, no donbt, 
acquired an amount of scientific knowledge which has been appreciated 
not only by this country but by every part of the world. Amongit 
the most pleasant of my duties here to-day I count my having beoi 
asked to personally deliver the diplomas to the many distinguished 
gentlemen who come across the water to join with us in this Centen- 
ary Festival. As a Member and a Vice-Patron of the Institution, I 
beg to acknowledge our gratitude to thorn for having so kindly given 
us their cordial greetings and presence on this interesting occasion. 
I regret that I have not time for more. Let me again express mj 
sincere thanks to you. I leave here with feelings of the deepeit 
gratification at having been present on this occasion. 

A voto of thanks was passed to Lord Rayleigh on the motion of 
LoBD LisTiB, seconded by Lord Eklvim. 



t] 



Centenary Commemoration, 1799-1899. 



209 



lie following addresses and congratulations were received, to- 
with letters of congratulation from many eminent scientific 

7Van«2afion. 

German Chemical Society bogs to send its warmest and 
good wishes to tho Koyal Institution of Great Britain in 
ition of the hundredth year of its oxistouce. 
fe look bttck w^itb admiration on tho glorious history of this 
»n, which far-seeing men called into existence at a time when 
lilar Institution existed in any other country. True to its 
igibal deeigiL, the learned Members of the Institution, down to 
i prMont day, performed their task of advancing Science and 
ttolating the interest of educated people in it, thus promoting the 
U-baisg of the nation. May tho lofty position which the Koyal 
Mitatioo of Great Britain has won for itself during the hundred 
ira of its existence be fully maintained in future generations, for 
► good of Physical Science and the honour of the English nation. 

^^Hb H. Landolt, Pretidenl. 

^^^^^^B Febd. Tikhahh) 

&. IncriTTmoK, LoinMii. 

}ennan Physical Society sends its hearty congratulations 
Institution on the celebration of its Centenary, and in 
_ lis to mind the great forerunners Davy and Faraday, aa 
I tliifiir BiiooesBor, Lord Bayleigh. 

Warbubo. 



ASOLV PlNNBB ) 



Secretariet. 



Trartjilalion. 

Pk «8 U> m t akd Cohiuttek ok the 
BoTAL IssTiTUTiON Of Gbbat Bbitain, Lonsox. 

by feelings of pride and of gratification the Association for 
I of the Interests of the Chemical Industry in Germany 
to MBOciate itself with those who, from near and far, are 
j tLcir eongratulatioDS to the Royal Institution of Great Britain 
kit, its Jubilee day. 
JoBt •« England was the first among the civilised countries of 
I to exploit the growing achievements of scientific investign- 
Um nrtherance of the national prosperity, so also was the 
InadliUioii of Great Britain the first corporation to impart 
■igaificance to the beautiful thought that Science ia the 
poMMnon of the educated world. 
I {■ tfiM that other corporations have since followed in the path 
for the first time, but none has been able to realise the 
ToL XVL (No. 93.; p 



210 Centenary Commemoration, 1799-1899. \3vmi, 



thought in more adniirablo form than the Boyal Institation, 
methods and operations have served thronghont a whole oentnijil 
the model for all countries. 

Supported by the unexampled devotion of its Manbera, buoyad if 
by the genius of the great intellects who have been attriwited to ih' 
service, the Boyal Institution has succeeded not only in fostering Ihl 
love of Science among the educated, but also in extending gn^f' 
tbe scope of our knowledge. 

The places where a Davy, a Faraday and a Tyndall operated liD 
remain for aU time sacred, not only to the British people, bnt to il 
other civilised nations. An eager energetic spirit mnst for flS 
dwell in those hallowed halls. May the coming century, to 
we all look forward with such largo hopes, weave new laurels in Ai 
rich wreath of fame which to-day the departing century joyhl^' 
deposits at the feet of the Soyal Institution. 

Thk Committek of thv AssooiAnoBi roa 
Thx Pboxotion aw thk Chemical 
BnuK, 5(A Jvmt, 1899. Indubtbt nr GnuuiT. 



Acad£mie Botalb des Scizircxs, des Lrrm 

BT DE8 BBACX-ABT8 DK BKUnOOl^ 

BBDXELLE8, le 27 Moi, 1899l 
MONSIETTB LE Fr^SIDENT, 

J'ai llionnenr de porter & votre connaissanoe que rAcadtaa 

IlojRle de Belgiquc, desireuse de s'associer au contenaire de Ila- 
stitution lioyale do Londres, vient de d^l€guer M. le Profeaeo 
G. Van der Mensbrugghe de I'lTniversit^ de Gand, k I'effBt de k 
representor officicllement aux solennites des 6, 6 et 7 juin. 

Yeuillez agreer. Monsieur le President, roxpression de mes wnti- 
ments les plus distinguds. 

Le Secretaire Perpituel de VAcademie, 

(Signed) Lk Ghevalisk Mabchu. 

A. Monsieur le PststDENT de l'Institction 

BOYALE DE LA GbAMDB BuETAONE, X LoNDBEB. 

Sib Fbedebiok Brauwell, Honorart Secretabt, 

BoTAL Imstitution, Albemarle Street, W. 

La Society physique et ehimique mssc h P^tersbourg, gardintb 
m^moire des travaux illustres de Kumford, Davy, Faraday et de leu* 
dignes successenrs, s'empresse de faire parvenir k I'Institut Bojel 
de Londres ses felicitations a I'occasion de son centenaire et joint tK 
expressions de la plus profonde consideration ses voeux poor ■ 
avenir non moins glorieux. 

Seeritaire, GoRBorr. 

Preeident Bonoraire, Mbmdbuih'- 






B99.J Centenary Commemoratiim, 1799-1899. 211 

EtoTAi iRSTirnrioM ot Gbiat Bbitain, London. 

The Imperial Military AcMlemy of St. Petersburg offers its con- 
pitalations to the Boyal Institution of Great Britain on its hundred 
ftan anniTersaiy, wishing that the splendid activity of the Institu- 
am, glorious by great scientific discoveries, should continue for 
nany sncceeding ages to the honour of England and to the benbfit 
if oiaiikind. 

President, Pashutin. 

9b Fbedxbick Bbamwkli., Rotal Institittion, Loncon. 

Official duties prevent my accepting the invitation with which I 
iraa honoured by the Royal Institution ; may it prosper in the 
Mntnry to come, and retain the same prominent position in the 
idvanoement of science as in the past. 

(Signed) Mbnsobutein. 

Pbofbibob Dkwab, Rotai. iNSTiTtmoN, London. 

Most cordial congratulations with the Centenary of the Institution, 
to the glory of which you have added so much, and my best wishes 
tor the continaing of your splendid work. 

(Signed) Eameblinoh Onnxs. 



TrisDAT, June 6, 1899. 

RECEPTION AT THE MANSION HOUSE. 

The Bight Hon. the Lord Matob or London and the Ladt 
Matobbss gave a Reception to the Members and the guests of the 
Institution, in the evening, at the Mansion House, City. 



Wbdnbsdat, Junk 7, 1899. 

Ds. AHD Mbb. Mond gave a Gabden Pabt; in the afternoon to 
Ihegoesta of the Institution at the Poplars, 20 Avenue Koad, Regent's 
ftn, N.W. 



V a 



212 Centenary Commemoration, 1799-1899. [Jnne 7, 

Wkdnebdat, Junk 7, 1899. 

HiB Gbaoe thr Dckb or Nortrombkblanp, E.G., President 
in the Obair. 

COMMEMORATION LECTURE, 

By Peofesbob Dewar, M.A. LL.D. F.R.S. M.B.L, 
Follerian ProfcBsor of Chemistry B.I. 

There were also present, the Honorary Members, together wift 
Lord Kelvin, Lord Amherst, Sir George Stokes, Sir Andrew TioVitt, 
Dr. Lad wig Mond, Sir James Criohton- Browne, Sir Frederick 
Bramwell, Bart, Sir Frederick Abel, Bart, Sir William Grookai, 
and Lord Raylcigh. 

Pbofessob Dewab said : — 

My coUeagne, Lord Rayleigh, in his Commemoration Lectan, 
dealt so admirably aud exhaustively with some of the diBooveries tl 
our great predecessors in this Institution, that it will be nnneoeMuy 
to pursue further the lines of historical treatment in tbia leetDn. 
Instead of discoursing generally on the chemical side of the woik 
of Davy and Faraday and their successors, it has seemed to me mon 
appropriate to attempt some experimental demonstrations of tki 
latest modem developments in a field of inquiry opened out ts 
science by the labonrs of tlie two illnstrions chemists jost mentioiial 
With this object in view, my discourse this evening will bo confinal 
to the subject of liquid hydrogen. Davy said: "Nothing tends » 
much to the advancement of knowledge as the application of a nev 
inBtrumcut. The native intellectual powers of man in different timai 
are not so much the causes of the di£fercut success of their labomt 
us the peculiar nature of tho means and artificial resources in thnr 
pusscssion." Tho new instrument of research, which, for the fint 
time wo have to cx])eriment with before an audience, is the liqnil 
form of the old inflammable air of Cavendish. Lavoisier towards the 
end »f tiie last century had tho scientific acumen to declare that ia 
his opinion, "if the earth were suddenly transported into averyoold 
region, tlio air, or at luast some of the aeriform fluids which no* 
compose tho mass of our atmosphere, would doubtless lose tbeir 
elasticity for want of a sufficient temp(;raturo to retain them in that 
state. They would return to the liquid state of existence and ne* 
liquids would bo formed, of whoso properties we cannot at present 
form the most distant idea." Bluck, about the same time, in dii- 
cussing tho properties of hydrogen, makes the following snggestiM 
observations : " We may now further remark with regard to inSal^ 
mablu air, that it is at iirusoiit considered as one of the simple or 
elementary bodies in nature. I mean, however, the basis of it, cslM 
the Uydrogon by the French chemists ; for the inflammable air itaeU^ 
namely, hydrogen gas, is considered as a compound of that baoi 



Centenary Commemoration, 1799-1899. 



318 



natter of heat. Wbat appearance and properties that bads 
iTo, were it deprived of its lateut heat and elastic form, and 
orated from all other matter, tve cannot tell." The accaracj 
rophecy of Lavoisier hos been experimentally verified, but 
ontly we had no distinctive answer to the riddlo of Black, 
ct of this lecture will be an attempt to advance the solution 
oblem suggested by Clock a century ago. It is interesting to 
' confident Faraday was that hydrogen would ultimately be 
in the liquid and solid form. In the course of one of his 
delivered in the year 1852, ho said : " There is reason to 
re should derive much information as to the intimate nature 
non-metallic elements if we could succeed in obtaining 
I and nitrogen iu the li<[tiid or solid form. Many gases have 
lefied ; one carbonic acid gas has been solidified ; but hydrogen 
>gen have resisted all our efforts uf this kind. Ilydrogon, in 
its relation)!, acts aa thougli it wore a metal ; could it be 
in a liquid or solid condition, the doubt might be settled. 
»i problem, however, has yet to l)e solved ; nor should we 
I ho{)clee8nes8 on this solution ; when we reflect with wonder 
R I do, almost with fear and trembling, on the powers of 
,ttng the hidden qualities of these elements — of questioning 
aking them disclose their secrets and tell their tales — 
Um Almighty to man." It must be confessed, however, that 
'■iciBts and chemists were almost forced to conclude that the 
was a hopeless one. The full history of the liquefaction 
gen haa been dealt with in a Friday Evi^ning L)isconrso 
. in January of this year, so that all questions dealing with 
^k Other investigators may for the present be omitted in 
Bn time for the experimental illustrations. 
Iftrge spherical double-walled and silvered vacuum vessel 
ODO litre of liquid hydrogen. Yon observe it is lifted out 
) cylindrical vessel full of liquid air. In order to diminish 
>f evaporation it is necessary to surround the vessel in which 
Qgen is collected with liquid air. Under such conditions 
lity of evaporation is about the same as that of liquid air 
pt in a similar vessel in the ordinary way. In order to 
it hydrogen is present in the liquid form, the simplest ex- 
is to remove tlie cotton-wool plug which takes the place of 
ad insert a metallic wire, to the end of which is attached a 
ibestod for the purpose of ab<iorbing the liquid. On bring- 
ickly into the air and applying a light, it bums with the 
istic appearance of the hydrogen flame (Figure C, Plato III.). 
id can readily be poured from one variety of vacuum vessel 
ber, 80 that by means of this unsilvcred cylindrical form the 
oe of the liquid and other experiments may be projected on a 
'igure A, Plato III.) The liquid hydrogen appears in gentle 
I and 18 perfectly clear, only there is a white solid deposit in 
' the tube, which is really soiid air. This may be shown 



214 Centenary Commemoration, 1799-1699. [June?, 



by removing for an instant the cotton-wool stopper, when jron see • 
of Bolid air falling in the liqnid. It is easy to arrange a method d 
carrying liquid hydrogen in a small vacnum vessel in snch a way ■ 
to prevent the access of air. This is shown in Plate I., where ftt 
vacuum Tessel, after it has been filled by dipping it into the nyun 
supply by means of a supporting wire, is surrounded with a glia 
envelope, which becomes filled with an atmosphere of hydraga 
gas constantly maintained, thereby preventing the acoeea of kl 
That the density of tho liqnid is very small and is altc^alkK 
unlike liqnid air is shown by dropping small pieces of oori^ 
which float readily in the latter liquid, but sink instantly in Ai 
hydrogen (Figure B, Plate III.). The real density of the liquid il 
only one-fourteenth that of water, so that it is by far the lighlMl 
known liquid. This small density explains the rapidity with wldak 
the liqnid is cleared on the entrance of the air snow. The lelaiiTC 
sraalluess of the gas bubbles produced in the aotivelv-boiling liqnl 
which causes an appearance of opalescence, is really due to the bmII 
surface tension of the liquid hy<]rogen. The coefBoient of expanaiaB rf 
liquid hydrogen is some five times greater than that of liquid o^gea, 
and is comparable with that of carbonic acid, about 5° firom ill 
critical p«)int. Tho latent heat of evaporation is about 190 nnitib 
and the specific heat of the liquid is very high, and so far as my a* 
poriments go, leads me to the value 6. This is in very mufai 
contrast to the specific heat of liquid oxygen, which is about 0'& 
The extraordinary lowncss of its boiling point is at once apparent fay 
cooling a piece of metal in the liquid and then removing it into theaii^ 
when it will be seen to condense for a moment solid air on its sorfuB 
which B0(m melts and falls as a liquid air. This may be coUeetel 
in a small cup, and the production of oxygen demonstrated by tbt 
ignition of a red-hot splinter of wood after the chief portion of tlis 
nitrogen has evaporated. If a long piece of quill tubing sealed it 
one end, but open at the other, is placed in the liquid, then the part 
that is cooled rapidly tills with liquid air. On stopping any fiarthar 
entrance of air by closing the end of the tube, the liquid air qniek^ 
bocunies solid, showing iu tho interior a hollow spindle from eon- 
traction, in ])a8sing from tho liquid into the solid form (Figure K 
Plate III.). On bringing thu tube containing the solid from the liqud 
hydrogen bath into the air we observe liquid air running from tbt 
surface while the solid air inside is seen to melt (Figure D, Plate IU). 
Here is a tube into which liquid oxygen has been poured. On pladog 
it in liquid hydrogen it freezes to a clear blue ice. Liquid nitcogn 
under similar circumstances forms a colourless ice. If instead <f 
an open tube iu free air we emi)loy a closed vessel of about a litr* 
capacity to which the quill tubo is attached, then, on repeating tk> 
experiment, tho same results follow, only the volume of the Uqnl 
air formed agrees with the total quantity present in the veMi- 
This suggests that any air left in the closed vessel must have a vsi; 
small pressure. This is confirmed by attaching a mercurial gauge f 



I 



B09.] 



Centenary Commemoration, 1799-1899. 



215 



r wawil containing air, wben it will be seen tho Tacunm produced by 
en cooling is eqaal to that of a Torricellian vacnum (Plate II.). 
I reaoh snch a high oxhaufition the solid oxygen and nitrogen, at tho 
piling point of hydrogen must be practically non-volatile or have an 
edingly small vapour prcssore. If the ordinary air contains free 
en, Leliiuu, Ac. which are nou-condensablo in this way of work- 
ig, tbon the vacnnm would not be so high as with pure oxygen or 
;en. This method may be used to separate the incondensable 
from the air. Such air vacua when examined spectroscopi- 
Jly show the lines of hydrogen, heliiun and neon. We may now 
Bpkij this process to produce high vacua, and test their exhaustion 
tha obarMter of the electric discharge. Vacuum tubes which 
tre been prepared in this way show extraordinary resistance to the 
) of tho electric discharge ; they also show the marked phosphor- 
eoce of tho glass, characteristic of Crookos tubes (Figures F and 
), Plato III.). It is, however, the rapidity with which such high ex- 
ions can be attained that is so interesting. You will observe 
this large Gciselcr tube, previously exhausted to soine three 
bcs pressure, will, when the end part is immersed in liquid hydro- 
poM through aU the well-known changes in tho phases of 
ktion : tho glow on the poles ; the phosphorescence of the gloss ; 
the space of a fraction of a minute. From this it follows that 
etically we need not exhaust the air out of our duublc-walled 
el when L'quid hydrogen has to be stored or collected. This makes 
ildng contrast to the behaviour of liquid air under similar cir- 
kocce. The rapid exhaustion caused by tho solidiiication of the 
an the surfttco of a double-walled unexhausted test-tube, when 
~ hydrogen is placed in it, may be shown in another way. Leave 
mercury in the vessel containing air, just as if it had been 
am making a mercurial vacuom. Now we know mercury, in 
ich a vacuou), can easily be made to distil at the ordinary temperature 
we cool a part of the vessel with liquid air, so that we should 
> the mercury in the unexhausted test-tube to distil on to the 
cooled with tho liquid hydrogen. This actually takes place. 
, fovgli comparison of the relative temperatures of boiling hydrogen 
1 osygen may be made by placing two, nearly identical, hydrogen 
tmrmometcra operating at constant pressure side by side and 
oling each with one of the liquids (Plate IV.). It will bo seen 
I Uio contraction in the thermometer cooled with liquid hydrogen 
the liquid some six times higher than that of the correspond- 
_ }iud column of the thermometer placed in the liquid oxygen. 
coDDtaut volume hydrogen thermometer constructed as shown in 
Plate V. gave the boiling point of 21° absolute or —252° C, and a 
' ailar helium thermometer gave the some result. Tho critical tem- 
tare is about 32° absolute or —241° C, and tho critical pressure 
It 16 atmospheres. If a closed vessel is full of hydrogen gas at 
pheric pressure, then, unlike the air vessels, it shows no conden- 
whon a part of it is cooled in liquid hydrogen. To produce 



316 Centenary CommemoratiM, 1799-1899. [Jane 7, 

liqnefaction we must increue the pressure of the gM, or reduce tbe 
boiling point of the liquid hydrogen br exhaustion. Pnre hydn^ 
liquefied in a closed vessel is perfectly clear, showing no trtee of 
colonr or any appearance of absorption bands in the position of At 
spectmm liiies. Electric sparks passing in the liquid when examined 
with the spectroscope show the ordinary line spectmin without 117 
reversals. The Taponr of boiling hydrogen is about fifteen tinei 
denser than that of the ordinary gas, thns bringing it up to <b 
density of air. The liquid hydrogen, at its boiling point, is tboit 
sixty times denser than the 'vapour coming ofil In the case of oxyga 
the density of the liquid is 255 times that of the Taponr *t id 
boiling point. 

If a piece of cotton wool in the form of a little ball is attiebel 
to a thread, placed in liquid hydrogen, and then brought into the 
magnetic field, it is found to be strongly magnetic. This is simply 
due to the condensation of solid and liquid air in the pores of the 
wool. This substance we know is magnetic on aoconnt of the ozygoi 
it contains. Pure liquid hydrogen is not magnetic, but when the 
solid air snow is in suspension in the fluid, then the magnetis 
character of the latter becomes apparent when the vessel is plseei 
in the magnetic field. 

All the iihosphorescent efTects produced at low temperatuiee 
formerly deBcri1«d are intensified at the much lower tempentnre of 
iKtiling hydrogen. To stimulate phosphorescence at the tempentui 
of liquid air, ultra-violet light had to be employed, and then the mM 
body, organic or inorganic, allowed to rise in temperature. It mi 
during the rise of temperature that the marked luminous emission took 
place. Amongst inorganic bodies the platino-cyanide of anmionis ii 
very remarkable in this rcsi^ct, and generally the group in orguie 
chemistry known as the kotonic bodies. In the case of bodies cooled 
in liquid hydrogen, it appears that some show phosphorescence bj 
simple stimulation with the light coming from an ordinary carboo 
filament electric lamp. The light in this case coming through glue 
contains only, wc may say, the visible spectra, so that the nltra-violet 
rays are not now essential. It is strange to find photographic actioB 
still relatively considerable. At the boiling point of liquid air the 
pliotographic intensity is reduced by 80 per cent, of the value at the 
ordinary tompcratiire. The photographic oflFect on a sensitive film im- 
mersed in liquid hydrogen as compared with the same placed in liquid 
air is as one to two, so that 10 per cent, of the action at ordinary tem- 
peratures still remains. As every kind of chemical action so far ex- 
amined is non-existent at this extreme temperature, these expcrimente 
suggest that the causae of the photographic action may be essentially 
physical. No better illustration could be given of the rapid diminn- 
tiun of chemical action at low temperatures than to remind you thtt 
fluorine gas, the most active elementary hodj, under snch conditioni^ 
may bo liquefied and kept in glass vessels. 

The oflect of a temperature of 21' absolute on the electric w- 



Plate I. 



k 



/ 



/^?ci^3b\ 




Plate IM. 




I'LATK IV. 



r\: 



v_/ 



\J 



i? 




\^ 




LIQUID 
OXYGEN 



Plate V 



EXHAUST 



r~\ 



¥ 



i 





Centenary Commemoration, 1799-1899. 217 

be pure metals is a problem of great interest. In passing 
lelting point of ice to the boiling point of hydrogen, 
m loses resistance till only -^^ remains, and in the case of 
copper the remaining resistauce is only ^V of \vhat it was 

Snch resnlts saggest the approach to the condition, of 
I called relatively perfect electrio conductivity as the zero 
temperature is approached. 

lydrogen is a non-conductor of electricity, and as regards 
inlator for currents of high potential, it is comparable to 
id air. The properties of the liquid wo have witnessed 
oggest the metallic character that chemists like Faraday, 
Graham anticipated ; and, for the future, hydrogen must 
rith the nou-metallio elements. 

lefaction of hydrogen has been the consequence of some 
evotion to low temperature research. To many it may 
le results have been indeed costly in more ways than one. 
30 worker who prepares the way for future development 
of inquiry generally selects complicated methods, and is 

diverted into many by-paths of investigation. He may 
snccessors any credit that may be attached to cheapness 
production of the agent of research — results that must 
bllow. Liquid hydrogen is an agent of research which 
ns to examine into the properties of matter at the lowest- 
temperature over reached by man. Much work has still 
plished. One of the most fascinating problems of the study 
peratures has been materially advanced. The interval 
IS from the zero of absolute temperature has been reduced 
ly one-fourth the value that it stood at when liquid air 
ing agent. We can produce in pure Helium instantaucous 
« bringing ns still nearer the goal. Now wo can main- 
lerature within less than 16° of tliis zero, and the in- 
ho will make the further attempt to reduce this distance 
alent amount, thereby reaching a steady temperature of 
iolute, will indeed face a problem of almost insuperable 
Well, let us take comfort in an aphorism of Davy's : 
ly for the active and progressive nature of tho human 
experimental research is only a method of approximation 

ioeas of tho demonstration has been largely due to tho 
exertions of my chief aBsistant, Mr. Bobort Lennox, and 
ble aid given by Mr. J. W. Heath. 

XLTiN, in moving a vote of thanks to Professor Dewar for 
;, beautiful, and splendidly interesting lecture, said that if 
it wished to measure tho importance of the occasion, let 
what Count Eumford, or Davy, or Faraday would have 
lid they have been present. They could not have hoped 
entific dreams and prophecies to be so splendidly verified 



218 Centenary Commemoratum, 1799-1899. [Jane 7, 

witliin the century. The end of experiment in research at low tern- 
pcratnres bad by no means been reached, and perhaps in a few yem 
substances yet unknown and more refractory than hydrogen would 
have been found which would bring the experimenter to within fin 
degrees of the absolute zero. 

The vote was seconded by Sib Geobox Stokes and carried by 
acclamation. 

Fkofessob Dbwab, in reply, referred in appreciatiTe terms to tht 
part taken in the liquefaction of hydrogen by hia assistant, Mr. 
Lennox. For himself, his chief function had been to get the whe» 
withal to carry on the experiments, and without the assistance he 
had received from numerous friends they would have been absolatelj 
impossible. 

Diplomas of honorary membership were next presented to Pro- 
fessor Cornu and Professor Nowcomb. 

Sib Frbdkiiick Bbahwell proposed a vote of thanks to the Dab 
of Northumberland for the manner in which he had perfonned bii 
duties as President of the Institution. 

This was socouded by Dr. Mond and supported by PBomM 
Barkkb, on behalf of the guests from beyond the sea, who, he mii, 
had been royally entertained, listening to lectures such as the mM 
had never before heard, and witnessing experiments such as it bed 
never seen. 

The proceedings ended with the reply of the Dukx ot Non^ 

CHBKBLAMD. 



Pbofebsob and Mbs. Dewab gave a Beoeption after the lectnre 
in their rooms to the guests of the Institution. 



Thubsday, June 8, 1899. 

By invitation of the teachers of Natural Science in the UnivenitT 
of Oxford, the Guests of the Institution visited the University »M 
had Luncheon in Christ Church Hall. Upon five of the gae^ tha 
honorary degree of D.C.L., was conferred. 



General Monthly Meeting, 



319 



GENERAL MONTHLY MEETING, 

Monday, July 3, 1899. 

Jaxks Cbiohtos-Bbowse, M.D. LL.D. F.R.S. Treasurer and 
Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The Lord Einnaird, 
A. F. Lindemunn, Esq. 
Hon. W. J. Ward, 

i aleotttd Members of the Royal Institution. 

SpAcial Thanks of the Members were returned to Sir Henry 
Bpaon, Burt, for his donation of £25, and in Mr. Henry Vaughan 
^^^ donation of .£20, to the Fund for the Promotion of Experi- 
BeaeATcb at Low Temperatures. 

ke cordial thanks of the Members were returned to the Master 

TMtlens of the Merchant Tuylurs' Company ; to the Lord Mayor 

Mayoress ; to Dr. and Mrs. Mond ; to Dr. and Mrs. Dowor ; 

William Odling and to tlic Teachers of Natural Science 

for their Iiospitality to the Members and guests of the 

Institution during the recent Centenary Celebrations. The 

I reported that they hod received gratifying assurances from 

' goeata that the Centenary Celebrations, as a whole, were highly 

' and considered not unworthy of the past history of the 

InatitutioD, and of goo<l augury for that new century of scieu- 

to which it has now to apply itself. Thus Professor Comu, 

torn to Paris, reported to the French Academy of Sciences 



( 



^1* B'>Tal Inatitiition of Orent Britain, fnnde'e en 170!) par Benjnmin 
, (dilute de Uamfnnl, ft^tait lea 5, (J ami 7 juin, le Centeiiniro tie ea 
B. A. K. le Prim-e de Gnlles, Vice-Patron do I'liistitution, a 
at dwoaudd qn'on lui prcamtiit noa eonfrere* et leur a remis, duns 
> «i>inm<^nicinitivea, le diplome de membra honorairp di> I'lnutitu- 
I ■ ' I'-igli et M. Jiiines Uewar ont rappele, dans deux 
lioii Lectures, li'S principales di^iivertes fnitt-s duns 
i....,,;iiti'iii r(oyalu,par Thomas Young, 8ir Humphry Diivy, 
ay, John Trndull. 

■DOM les plug inturessantcs ont dt^ ex^cutees ; en pnrtionlier, 

rapi>ort«nt ii I'interferonoe den snng et it I'bydrogiine ii<)uida ont 

v^t»tile enthoosiiume. Nuns uvoni pu mesorer ninsi I'immenw 

depais nn si^le, gr&oe aux efforts dcployes dans cette belle 

I rOninnU^ d'Otford a conrie' tons lei nvsnt* strangers presocts k 
I k tiait« Ml oolt^eoi, plus de cinq fuU iteolaires, qui renlerment dos 
|4'na falanr iiwittinablo. 



I ^[Vi 



220 General Montldy Meeting. [July 8, 

"I.1C8 deox Univcrsitdi) de Cnmbridge et d'Oxfbrd ont t&noign<! k m 
ronfR-res k-ur Bcntimentg d'estime et coufnkteniit^ scicntiflques en lenr omifenat 
des titroB de iliicteur honoraire. 

" Xona rapportong done dc notre nojour ptirmi les Bavanti anglais non Milt- 
ment I'iinprersion de la plus oonliulu LoDpitulite, mais encore one Tcrittbh 
admiration pour la manir'rc dont ils cultivcnt et hoiiorent la science. L'biiUm 
de etti Univenate'g, ct particulieremcnt cellede I'liuititution Koyalede laGnnd^ 
Bretagne, offre un exuiuple bicn instriictif : on Toit par quelle methods ma 
nation, jalotise de H'c'Icver au premier rang da progres scientifique, d'eaooangs 
lu6 recborches elcve'es et d'cn fuire comprendre lea opplicationii, parrientaaMt 
qu'elle s'cst proitose. 

" Kill! rbuisit ii cbaque e'poquo lea aarants lea plus illoatres, lenr donnekk 
fois I'indopendaiico et lea moycna msitdricla nana lusquels aujonrd'hDi on M 
wiurait realiacr de grumlea decouvertca. 

" II y a ^ un aujet dc meditations ct d'l^tndca pour ceuz qtd ont I'bonnenrdi 
dinger le nioorement acioutifique et qui s'offoroeut de maiutenir voire (ays u 
rang elcvc que sea traditions lul impoaent." 

Tho Managers also reported that the Centenary CelebratioDB hid 
not affected the pocaniary resources of the Boyal Institution, u ill 
expenses in connection therewith had been defrayed by priTate oon- 
tribntions. A balance remaining over of the sams contribntid, 
amounting to £87, has been paid over to the Fund for the Fromoticn 
of Experimental Bescarch. 

The PsKBEMTS received since the last Meeting were laid on tha 
table, and the thanks of the Members returned for the same, tui. : — 
rsoM 

The Secretary of State for India — The Mogliul Architecture of Fathpor-Sikik 

By K. W. Smith. 4i«. lt<',t.S. 
The Lordt of the Admiralty — Bc|iort of tbo Aatrouomor Royal to Boaid of 

Vi«itorB, lS!i:». 4to. 
T7ifA;((«f/ro%icaIO_^Ve— Hourly Meana for 1805. 4to. 1890. 
The llritifh Muteum Trmlcet — Antiquities from the City ot Benin. By C. H. 

Bead. fol. 1899. 
Facaimilcs from Knyal, etr. Autogmphs. Edited hy G. F. Warner. foL 1898. 
CafciloKUG of Bronzes. By H. U. Walters. Svo. 1809. 
Cutidoguc of Greek Coins. By W. Wroth. 8vo. 1899. 
Accademia dei Lineei, Beide, Ttnma — Cluaao di Scienze Fiaielie, Matematiebe • 

Xaturali. Atti, Serio (^uinta : Rendicouti. lo Semeatre, Vol. VIU. FiM. 

10. 8vo. 1S99. 
American Amdemy <f Ari$ and Sciencef — Proceedings, Vol. XXXIV. Nns. 15-17. 

8vo. 1899. 
Aftronomical Sociefi/, Royal — MonthW Notices, Vol. LIX. No. 8. 8va 1899. 
Jianken, Inntitnle f/— Journal, Vol. XX. Part 6. 8vo. 1899. 
Bo-tun Society of Mediml ^c/encM— Journal, April and May, 1899. 8vo. 
British Arlronomiral Atxociation — Journal, Vol. IX. No. 7. 8vo. 1899. 
Broiigh, B. II. Etq. {the. Author)— Tbo Jubilee of the Austrian Society of 

Engineers. 8vo. 1899. 
Brymnir, iJouglae, Hrq. (the Arr-hivint) — Eeport on Canadian Archives, 1898. Sroi. 

1899. 
Camltridge FhilosofHiiral Society — Proceedings, Vol. X. Part 2. 8vo. IS99. 

Trun8aetion8.Vol. XVII. Parts!!, 1. 8vo. 1899. 
Camera Club — Journul for June, 1899. 8vo. 
<'inuida, Mrteiirological Service — licjiort of the Meteorological Service of Oanaia 

for 1896. 2 vols. 4U). 1898. 
'^hcmical Imbiitry, Society 0/— Journal. Vol. XVIII, No. H. 8vp. 1899. 



Ooueral Monthly Meelimj. 



221 



Ef/y — Jonrnal Tor Jane, 1899. 8vo. 
Jflg*, Nob. 211,212. 8vo. 1 8!t9. 
TAnuUmie da Scienea — Bulletin 



Intematiotml, 1899, Not. 4, 5. 



8 TO. 



8to. 



1.1. 



8vo. 



Ameriran .Tonrnal of Science for June, 1899. 
, for Jiinf. IK'.rti. «vo. 

j'» I'lioto^ni{iliic Bulletin for June, 1899. Sro. 
lyiiml Joiiniftl fnr May, 1899. 
•um for June, 1899. 4to. 
for June. l«nt. tivo. 
li«t for .Iun<-. IStrj. 8vo. 
)' JounukJ for Juno, 1899. 8to, 
*l New* fur June, 1899. 4to. 
t and Dnii;gii)t fur June, 1899. 
oa for June, 189*.). 
■J Engineer for June. 1899. fo 
gal Eogineeriuf; for June, 1899. 
ml Be>iew for June, 1899. Svo. 
My for June, 1899. 8vo. 
w for June, 18l«t. fol. 
-nnK far June, 1899. foL 
patliic Beview for June, 1899. 8to. 
riaal Journal for June, 1899. 8to. 
!•■ and Iron for Jane, 1899. fol. 
va for Jane, IK99. 

I of State Medicine for June, 1899. 8to. 
..r„.l (.,r June. 1899. 8vo. 
I uie. 1899. «T0. 
ivl Education Gazette for Jane, 1899. 
Bry Mi.rket for JmiK, IS'.W. Svo. 
ItacliluurT for June, 1899. 8vn. 
JttrJouni"' for June, 18',*9. Svo. 
fbr June, IH99. 4to. 
...r-i M—.'.n.. for June, 1899. 8vo. 
: .». 1899. Svo. 
r Juno, 1899. 8to. 
. l..f Mny. 1899. Svo. 
Monthly for June, 1899. Svo. 
. T for June. 1899. Svo. 
1. U. Pnrt 6. Svo. 1899. 
■ loe, IH'.fJ. 

> for June, 1899. Svo. 
Hvo. 
il A<ii<-uli(iiii!i for June, I89i*. 
tr June, lK;>;t. 4to. 

ii..(i7ij/.<.H "/—Jonrnal. Vo. 140. Svo. 1899. 
.VatiV.nufc (Vw/raJe— liollttUno, Noa. 322-324. 
Journal for Junt-, IH9U. Svo. 
. Jii/ynl — OtoKrapliioil Jnumul for June, 1899. 8to. 

F.H.S. MILL (the Authur)—'£he Ka«tom Margin of the 
Athmtie. ' Svo. 189{i. 
fMtl<w<4>— fmpcrial Institute Jooraal for Jone, 1899. 

■hi — American Cbt'inical Journal fur June, 1899. Svo. 
.Vo. 140. 4to. 1899. 
-"-r — Report from the Special Committee on Secret 

Bulletin. Vol II. No. 3. 8vo. 1899. 
tAirrary aitii fUiUitnjihieal Society — Memoirs unJ Proceedinga, Vol. 
', I'aita 2, X Svo. lb98-99. 



ri 




Svo. 1899. 



222 



General Monthly Meeting. 



\i^A\ 



Manrlutter Museum, Owen$ Coneje —General Qoide to the Natural Hutorr Cnllt 

tic.ns. 8vo. I89!>. 
Inilex to tliii"Sy9U'iiinXaturip "of Linnicus. By C. D. Shcrbom. 8»o. l* 
Notes from tlio Manchester Sluseam, No. 5. 8vo. 1899. 
Microtcojtioal Soriely, lim/al — .loiimBl, 1899, Part 3. 8vo. 
Mim'nq ami Mrelianieal Enqineert, North of England I>i$titutioH of — Timn« 

Vol. XLVIII. Piirts 2-4. 4to. 1898-99. 
Navy /yfOf/iKT— Navy Leasnie JonmQl for June, 1899. 8yo. 
Mfu) York Aeademii of Scienftt — Annals, Vol. XI. Part 3, 8vo. 1898. 
Neio Zenlanil, Reginlrar-OeiuTal — Stalislics of llio Colony of Now Z^alnod firl 

1897. fol. I,s98. 
Odontoliigical Society of Great Britain — Tranaactiona, Vol. XXX L No. 7. 

1S<(9. 
Parit, Soeirt^ Franfaise df. Phyrique — S&inoea, 185(8, Faae. 4. 8»o. 

Biillitin. No. 134. «vo. 1899. 
Phitrmaceiilical Society of Great Britain— .loiimal for Junp, 1899. 8Ta 
I'holiujraphic Sociily, Hoyal — Phutngraphio .Toiimal for May, 1899. 8T0. 
Phytiral .SWf/j/— ProceeilinjiK, Vol. XVI. Part G. 8vo. 1899. 
Queauland Government — CieolopicaJ Map of the Charters Towen GoM 

R sheets, fol. 1898. 
noynl IrUh .4«j<i»™y— Proceedinps, Third Scries, Vol. V No. 2. 8to. 189(1 
Royal Society of LoTidon — Philosophical Transactions, Vol. CXCII. A, N'l* 1 

237. 
Proceedings, No. 41.^. 8vo. 1899. 
Saxnn Society of Seienceg, Royal — 
Mathemalitch-yhytitehe Claue — 

Uerichte, 1899, No. 3. 8vo. 
Selhome Society — Nntnrn Notes for June, 1899. 8vo. 
Sutlurland, D. A. Etq. (the Authir) — The Putroleum Industry of Roiimaaii- (<* I 

1899. 
5ii!f(it»A Academy o/ Sc»en/-«, iZoi/ol—Ofversint, Band 35. 8to. 1899. 
Taechini, Prof. P. Bon. Mem. R.I. (the AiUlior)—Memone della Bocjrti *pj 

Spttrosoopisti Italiuni, Vol. XXVIII. Disp. 4. 4to. 1899. 
United Service Initilution, Royal — Journal for June, 1899. 8Ta 
United Statee Department of Agrieulturt — Experiment Station Beconl, Vd J 

Nob. 9. 10. 8vo. 1899. 
Farmers' Bulletin. No. 9.S. 8vp. 1899, 
United Slateti Geological Surrey — Eighteenth Annual Report, 1896-97,1 

4to. 1897-98. 
United Slate* Patent Oj^ee— Official Gazette. VoL LXXXVII. No*. »-lt 1 

1899. _ ' 

Vienna, Geoloqiciil Inttilute, Imperial — Verhandlungen, 1899, No*. 5-4 f'^ 
Whilly. Rer. J. I. {the ^i/fAor)— Palestine Exploration. 8to. 1899. 
Zoologiral Society of London — Proceedings, 1 8'.)9, Part 1. 8Ta <n n 

Zurich, Natvrforuhende Geielltcha/l — Vierteljahrsschrift, Jabrg. XUV. Hw '>» I 

8vo. 1899. 



General Monthly Meeting. 



223 



GENERAL MONTHLY MEETING, 

Monday, November 6, 1899. 

Hifl Grftc« The Dukk of Nobthchbeblard, E.G. President, 
in the Chair. 

II.H. The Tbakoro Sahib of Gondal, D.C.L. LL.D. 

Geoffrey Foster Barrett, Esq. 

John B. Bronn-MoriBon, Esq., F.8.A. 

A. Henry Savngo Landor, Esq. 

Thomaa Cunningham Porter, Esq., M.A. 

I elected Members of the Royal Institution. 

The Special Thanks of the Momliers were returned tu " A Lady 
ember" for her donation of £100, and to Mr. George Matthey, 
fJLS. fur liis donation of £100 to tho Fund for the Promotion of 
kpcrimental liescarch at Low Temperatures. 

The Special Thanks of the Members were returned to Mias Elinor 
and Miss Frances Busk, for a Portrait of Mr. George Busk, 
L, Troasnrer of the Royal Institution from 1873 to 1886. 

Tb« PaaBKNTa received since the last Meeting were laid on the 
liU*, and tho thanks of the Members returned for the same, viz. : — 



• LoH» of tk* .^dmiraUy— Bi port nf Cape Obscrratnry for 1898. fol. 18!I9. 
' ■ , at Day Nnmber* for IHOI at Cap« Ubwrvalory. 8to. lHy8. 
» On mmm Otninl e/ India — Geneml ]{o{)ort on Work of Geological Survey 
oflmli*. lW.m-'.ty. 8to. 1891). 
■y »/ Natural Stiene**, Philadelphia— Ftoc^ediags, 1809, Part 1. 8vo. 
M. 
»a <M Lineti, BtaU, Homa — CIsfise di Scienzo FUiche, Mutcmnliche e 
KataniU Atti. 8erie Qainta : Beiidicooti. 1<> Sumestre, Vol. Vlli. Face, 
II. I«; J" femoitrc. Vol. Vlll. Fo«o. 1-7. 8vo. 1809. 
Uwoi 6oric<y. Aoya{— Jounial. Vol. X. Partii 2, 3. 8vo. 1899. 
I AvJitmi of AtU and Sounee*— Proceedings, Vo). XXXIV. Nos. 18-23. 

1899. 
I Omanpkittil AbeMy— Biillplin, Vol. XXXI. No. 3. 8yo. 1899. 
)iiapw«M«I5s«My— Prooeodings, No. 169. 8to. 18!)9. 
■ Sxfij In the >r>-ealled Critieism and Analyaia nf Profcsaor Mcintosh 
•wlillK anii Travliu^ Invcstill^tinng. Svn. 1899 
kMm of fi«i«i{— Jnamal, Vol l.XVllI. Part 1, No. 1, extra No. 1 and 
FlatM: Part 2. Nn. I ; Part 3, No. 1. 8ru. 1890. 
liDft, 1K>9, Nos- 4-7. 8to. 



224 General Monthly Meeting. [Not. 6, 

AtUUie Soeiely, Royal — Journal for July-Oct. 1S09. 8vo. 

Atlronomiral Socinty, Royal — Monthly Xolivea, Vol. LIX. No. 9. Svo. 1899. 

Amlralaiian Attocialiim for the Advancemtnt of iSeienc» — Beport of Ihe SeiM- 

teenth Meetiug (Sydney, 1HH8). 8to. 
Auatraiian Muteum, Sydney — Report of Triist'es for 1898. 8to. 1899. 
Baukeri, liutituU o/— Journal, Vol. XX. Part 7. 8to. 1899. 
Bacarinn Academy of Seit7Ke$, Hnyal — Abbandluuj^n, Band LXIX. No. 3; 
Biuid LXXI. No. 1. 4t(i. 18!)i). 
Sitz.uMKsbericlite, 18'.»9, Heft 2. 8vo. 189«. 
Jiidicell, Shelford, Kfq. M.A. LL.U. P.lt.S. M.R.I, {the Ju<Jkor)— Cnrionlki rf 

Light and Sight. 8v-(>. 18!K). 
Boston I'Mk Lilirary -Kimtlily Bulletin, Vol. IV. Xob. 7-10. 8vo. 1899. 
A Delected liibliogiuphy of the Anthropology and Ethnology of Eorops. ^ 
Win. Z. Kiploy. 8vo. IS'.Kt. 
Boston SivMy of Medical Seieneet — Journal, Vol. III. No. 12. Svo. 1899. 
Huston isDciHit of Nutural History— Vtnxed'vaga, Vol. XXVII. page* 89-10(1 
Vol. XXVlIL No8. m-ili. Svo. 181)6-09. 
Memoira. Vol. V. Nog. 4, 5. 4to. 18i«. 
Botanic Society, Royal— Qaartorlj Record, Xos. 74-79. 8to. 1898-99. 
British Architects, lloyal Inslitute o/— Kalendar, 1899-1900. Svo. 

Journal, 3r<l Scries, Vol. VI. No». 16-20. 4to. 1899. 
British Astroiwmictil Association — Journal, Vol. IX. Noa. 8, 9. 8to. 1899. 
British Mttsetim (Natural HiUury) — Hand List of the Ocnem and SpeoiM of Biidi. 
By B. B. Sharpe. Vol. I. 8m 1899. 
The (icnira and Speciea of Blastoidea. By F. A. Bather. 8to. 1899. 
Catalogue uf thi< African Plants collected by U. V. Wol witach. Vol. IL FUt 1. 
By A. B. Rendle. Svo. 1899. 
British South Africa Company — Reports on the Admiuistration of Bboiluriii 
1897-98. Svo. 1899. 
Rhodesia. Svo. 1899. 
Buenos Aires, Museo Xacional — Annaltn, Tomo VI. Svo. 1899. 

C^oniunioaciones, Tomo I. No. 3. Svo. 18'.)9. 
Bureau IhiHiHjraphiiiiie. SatiniMl Anjentin — Bulletin De'mographique Argenlin, 

Annee I. Numkto 1. fol. 1X99. 
CainliriJge L'uieersity Library— lieimti of the Library Syndicate for 1898. 4ta 

I81«». 
Oiimra CVufc— Journal for Jiily-Oct. 1899. Svo. 
(iiiHiilian Inslilult — Proceidings, Vol. IE. Part '2, No. S. Svo. 1899. 
Cliiiiiicul Iiiilutlry, Soriely o/"— Jonrnal, Vol. XVIII. Nos. 0-9. Svo. 1899. 
Chemical So<-iety — Journal for Jiily-Oo.t. 1899. Svo. 
Chicaijo, .iitulimy of Si-ienci-f — Frirlioth Annual Report (for 18517). 8vo. 1898. 

(ieolof;i<'al anil Natural History Survey Bulletin, No. 2. Svo. 1897. 
Chicnqo, Fi'ld Cohtmiian Musfiim — Zoological Scries, Bulletin, Vol. I. No*. IJ-IS. 
Svo. 1S99. 
Geological Scries, Vol. I. Nos. 3-G. Svo. 1899. 
Publication.-., No. ;!9. Svo. 1899. 
City of /yonr/on (,'<.//f<7C— Calendar for 1899-1900. Svo. 1899. 
Cloires, Professor J-rank, M.H.I, (part Author) — Bacterial Treatment of Cnds 

Sewage. By F. Clowes and A. C. Holl^ton. 2 Parts, fol. 1898-99. 
CcUminl Institute, Tinyaf— Prooeediiig.s Vol. XXX. Svo. 1899. 
Oirumill Polytechnic Society, Royal — Sixty-sixth Annual Beport, 1898. Sva 
Cormcall, lloyal Institution o/— .loumal. Vol. XIII. Part 4. 8va 1898. 
Cotqreare, A. Esq. (Ihe Compiler) — A Contents Subject Index to Graeial arf 

■ IVrioilical LiUimture. PRrt.H 1-34, 1899. Svo. 
Crarovie, I'Academie des Scienrts — Bulletin International, 1899, No. 5. Sta 
(•»ri7 Engineers, Institution o/— Minutes of Proceedings, Vol. CXXXVL 8w. 

1899. 
Deirar, Professor, F.R.S. M R.I. — Uandbnch der organischen Chemie, Srf rf- 
Void. I." et seq. By F. Beilstein. 1893 et seq. 



1899.] General Monthly Meeting. 226 

DowHtng, A. M. W. Etq. M.A. D.Se. (the Author)— Vncewion Tables adapted to 
Newoomb's Valae of ilie Precegajonal Constant and redaoed to the Epoch 
1910-0. 4to. 1899. 
Ihuuink Obtervatory, Trinity College, DMin — Astronomical Observations and 

Rt-aearcbes made at Donsink, Parts 1, i, 4-8. 4to. 1890-99. 
Eiut India JsweiatiOfi— Journal, Vol. XXX. No. 17. 8vo. 1899. 
Siitar* — Aeronautical Journal for Joly-Oct. 1899. 8vo. 
Analyst for Jnly-Oot. 1899. 8ro. 

Anthony's Photonaphic Bulletin for Jnly-Oot. 1899. 8ro. 
American JoamaT of Science for Jaly-Oct. 1899. 87o. 
AstTophysJeal Journal fur June and August, 1899. 
AtheusBum for July-OcL 1899. 4to. 
Author for July-Oct 1899. 8to. 
Bimetallist for July-Oct. 1899. 8vo. 
Brewers' Journal for Joly-Oet. 1899. 8to. 
Chemical News for July-Oct. 1899. 4to. 
Chemist and Druggist for July-Oct. 1899. 8to. 
Electrical Engineer for Jnly-OcL 1899. fol. 
Eleetrieal Engineering for July-Oct. 1899. 8to. 
Electrical Beview for July-Oct 1899. 8ro. 
Electricity for July-Oct. 1899. 8ro. 
Engineer for July-Oct. 1899. fol. 
Engineering for July-Oct. 1899. fol. 
Homoeopathic Boriew for July-OcL 1899. 8ro. 
Hoiulogical Journal for July-Oot 1899. 8to. 
Industries and Iron for July-Oct. 1899. foL 
Inretition for Jnly-Oct. 1899. 

Joanal of Physical Chemistry for Hny-Oct. 1899. 8to. 
Jonnal of SUte Medicine for Jnly-Oct. 1899. 8ro. 
Law Journal for July-Out 1899. 8to. 
Life-Boat Journal for July-Oct 1899. 8vo. 
Lightning for July-Oct. 1899. 8to. 
London 'Teehnical Kdncatinn Oazette for July-Oct. 1899. 
Machinery Market for July-Oct. 1899. 8to. 
Modem Machinery for Jnly-Oct. 1899. 8vo. 
Mature for July-Oct 1899. 4to. 
New Church Magazine for July-Oct 1899. 8to. 
NooTo Cimento for July-Oct 1899. 8to. 
Photogra^ic News for July-Oct 1899. 8vo. 
Physical Review for Aug.-Oct. 1899. 8vo. 
Popalar Science Monthly for July-Oct 1899. 
Public Health Engineer fur July-Oct. 1899. 8vo. 
SeieDee Abstracts, Vol. II. ParU 7-10. 8vo. 1899. 
Boance of Man for Jnlv-Oct 1899. 8vo. 
Seianee Siftings for July-Oct. 1899. 
Terrestrial Magpotism for Jnly-Oct 1899. 8vo. 
Travel for Jnly-Oct 1899. 8vo. 
Tropical AgrimltDrist for July-Oct 1899. 
Zoophilist for July-Oct 1899. 4to. 
neetrwol Aiyineers, /lud'tuttono/— Journal, No. 141. 8to. 1899. 
Emfranle' Jn/onaation 0/|fee— Combined Circular, Oct. 1899. 8vo. 
Ftonuee, Siblioleea Natimale CentniZe— Bolletino, Nos. 327-331. 8vo. 1899. 
ntmiee, ReaU Aecadeiuia dei GeorgofiU—Mt\, Vol. XXII. Disp. 1*, 2>. 8vo. 

18»9. 
FraaJtlm /iu{t7ii<e— Journal for July-Oct 1899. 8ro. 

GtogratAieal Soei^y, Royal — Ciengraphical Journal for July-Oot. 1899. 8vo. 
GtJogCool &x»e<y— Quarterly JournnI, No. 219. 8vo. 1899. 
GtaMoKt, Dr. J. H. F.R.S. Jf.B.r.-Tiidschrift van het K. Nederlandsoh 
Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, Deel XV. 8vo. 1898. 
Vol. XVI. (No. 93.) Q 



226 General Monthly Meeting. [Not. 6 

(iretj, Bmry, Eiq. (the Author)— Tto^el, ChiMl anil Brash. 4th ed. 16mo. 189^ 
A Pocket EnoyrlnpnKlin of Uaefal Knowledge. New Qd. 16nio. 1899. 
A Bird'ii-cyo View of English Literatore. New ed. 16ina 1899. 
Ouarini-Foraio, Emile. Eiq. (tlte Anlhor) — TmnsmiBiiion de I'^eigie electrifot 

pnr un fll et saaa fll. Svn. 18!K). 
Tcle'graphie sans fil ; Be'petitcura, 1899. 8vo. 
Haarlem, SoeUti Ilollandniie dei Scienea — O^UTreit oompUtes de Ch. Hnjgenii 

Vol. VIII. 4to. 18!t». 
Archives Neerlnndnises, Sdrie II. Tome III. Ijvr. 1. Sva 1899. 
Bead, A. P. Era. {Joint JuWior)— Lake Superior Iron Ore Mines. By J. Vbai, 

M. Inst. E.E. and A. F. Head, M. iTist. K.E. 8vo. 1899. 
UorticuUuTal Soci^ly, iJoyaZ— Journal, Vol. XXIII. Part 1. 8vo. 1899. 
Imperial Imtilute — Imperial Institute Jnumal for July-OcL 1899. 
Internittional Arlntration Atiociation—A History of the Peace Cosferenee at tkl 

Hugno. 8to. IKiK). 
Iron and Steel Inntititte -Journal, 1890. No. 1. 8ro. 
Johne Hopkine UnicenHy — American Jouniiil of Philology, Vol. XX. Pkrtll|l 

8vo. 1899. 
American Chemical Jonmal for ,Tnly-Oct. 1899. 8to. 
University Circulan, No. 141. 4to. 1899. 
Univi-rsitv Studies, Series XVI. Nos. 6-12; Series XVIL ITos. 1^ 9n- 

1898-!>9. 
Junior Engineers, Tntfitution of — Kecord and Transactions, Vol. Vllt 8»o.' iMft 
Kerntler, Pram, Etq. (the Author) — Die Unltat des abaolnten Mfini iyttr" ■* 

Bezug anf magnrtische und elcktrische Giossen. 8to. 1899. 
Knox, II. T. C. Etq. Jtf.JZ. I. —Britain on and beyond the Sea. By C. H. CnAh 

16mo. imx 
LeiglUon, John. Etq. JIf.il./.— Journal of the Ex-Llhris Society, Vols. 1-VIB.i 

Vol IX. Parts 1-10. 4to. 1891-SI9. 
Linnean Society —JouttmI, Nos. 174. 175, 237, 238. 8to. 1899. 
Transactions: Zoology, Vol. VII. Parts 5-8; Botany, Vol. V. Parti 9, Ifc 

4t(). 18!t8-n9. 
Maephfrson, Mn. Breirrler (the Author) — Omnipotence belongs only to ft* 

Bcli>vcd. ICmo. 18!>6. 
Tlie Twelve Sonsliips in Jesns Christ. 8to. 1899. 
Mddrnt Goternment Mutenm — lieport on the Museum and Conneman PliUi« 

Library. Sto. 1898-!t9. 
ManeheMer Gro'oiti<-al itoriXu— Transactions, Vol. XXVI. Parts 7, 8. Sra H* 
Miindittter Miiiei'im. Oieent College— Ri'port for 1898-99. 8to. 1899\ 
Me. haniad Kwjin'ert. Tnilitution of — Proceeding.'i, 1899, Nos. 1, 2. to. 
lHeteriroUigic(d Soriety, Royal — Meteorological Kucord, No. 72. 8to. 1899. 

Quartorlv Journal, Nos. 110, 111. 8vo. 1899. 
Metropolitan .ityluiaH Bo'ird— AnnnnI Reimrt for 1898-99. 8to. 1899. 
Mrxie^t, Hoeiidad Citntiliea " Antitnio Altate" — Memorias, Tomo Xlt. Nos. 4-1 

Svo. 1899. 
Mieroinopical Society, Royal — Jonmal, 1 899, Parts 4, 5. 8to. 
Morimn, Alemitder, M.D. M.R.I, (the Autluir)— On the Relation of the NeW* 

System to Disea-se and Disorder in the Viscera. 8to. 1899. 
Hatal. Colony of — Report on the Mining Industry of Natal for 1898. fM. IW* 
Naty League — Navy League Journal for .Tuly-Oct. 1899. 8vo. 
New Jertey Geological Survey— Armxuk\ Report of the State Geologist for IW 

8vo. 1899. 
A'eio South Walet, The Agent-General /or— The Jenolan Caves and th* M* 

Mountains, 1799-1899. 8vo. 1899. 
New South Walrt, Royal Society o/— Journal, Vol. XXXII. 8vo. 1898. 
AVw York Academy of Srie.ncet — Annals, Vol. XII. Part 1. 8vo. 1899. 
Odontologieal SociXy— Tr.insactioii.s, Vol. XXXI. No. 8. 8to. 1899. 
Onnet, T'rof. D. JI. K. — Communications from the Physical Laboratory of W** 

University, No 49. 8vo. 189'.». 



f 



1899.] 



General Monthly Meeting, 



227 




8<ro. 



No». 
Ito. 



' Franrnite de Phytique — Stances, 1899, Faac. 1. 8vo. 
Ito, New. 135. 136. Syo. 1899. 

' :kieitty of Great Britain — Journal for July-Oot 1899. 8vo. 
, apkie Soeietv, Boyal — Pbotographic Junrnal Tor June-ScpL 1899. 8to. 
f*Boek, Sir frcderick, Bart. M.A. LL.D. IH.R.I.— The Complete Italian Maatur 
(Italian Gimmmar). Uy Stgnur VenerunL (Bound by Faraday.) Leglioni, 
1805. 

riam/. 7^« Agtal-General for — Quide to QueeDgland. By C. S. RutUdge. 
•T". ISIK*. 

Uf» OUmatvry, (Tc/onj— RadcUffu Obaorvationts VoL XLVIL 1890-91. 
«Tot 18;>;». 

\i»Janein\ Ohtnatorio — Annuarin, I8!i9. 8vo. 

Minutry of Public Wortf—Oioiunlti del Gcnio Civile, 1S99, Faac. 7. 
1899. 

' Oolteye of Surgtiont of England — Celendar, 1 X',i9. 8to. 
l&<iiV!<yo/iEain//»r(;/.— Proceedings, Vol. XXn. No. 5. 8vo. 1899. 
Soeit/y of Z/oni2<>n— Philonophiitil Tmnaactinnii, Vol. CXCI. b. 
170-177; Vol. CXCII. A. No. 238; Vol. CXCIII. A. Noi.. 239-213. 
1899. 
Proc«eding«, Noa. 11(M19. 8to. 1899. 
' i/iory /iu(i7ttl«— .lournuL VoL XX. Ports 2, 3. 8to. 18!K). 

Jtcman, Fraitntco J. Etq. (tin CumpiUr)—Ca.ita Geogmflca del deaierto i 
oofdUlm* de Alacania. 5 abccta. fol. 
I Socigly <>/ Hnau-a, Umjal — 

■, No. 4. 8to. 
Ui .1. Bnud XXV. No. 3. 8to. 1899. 

^hih/itM^t^:h- Ilitlftrifrhe Clnste — 
Iferioljl.. IK.W, No«. l-:i 8vo. 
Abhaadinnguti. Band XVIII. No. 5. 8ro. 1899. 
I &eu(y— Nature N»tp« for July-Oot. 1899. 8ro. 
IK JnMlHUon—ludex to the Literature of Tliallium, 1861-1896. By M. 

8ro. 1899. (SmitbiKinian Mincellaneoua CuUocliuus, 1171.) 
'.irt*— Journal for Jiilv-Oi-t. 1899. 8vo. 

ric'i /irrt/MVai— tSta'tntical 'I'i.bles for 1898. 8vo. 1899. 
Tg, L'Aradtnir ImiurinU de* ^'nfM- Bulletin, Tome VIIL No. S; 
I IX. N.>«. 1-5; Tomo X. Non. 1-4. 8vo. 1898-99. 

, Tome VII. No. 4; Time VIII. Noa, 1-5. 4to. 1898-99. 
»i <.^:.,., Tfoyoi— Journal. Vol. LXII. ParU 2. 3. 8vo. 1899. 

Scitneti, iinj/ri{— Uaudliogar, Baud XXXI. 4lo. 1896. 
BUtoTi . \IV. 8vo. 1S99. 

IhMlM, /'ft/, i'- Uun Mrm. R.l. (Ihf .4u/ftor)— Memorie della Sooiett degU 

BpattnMTopi.ti lUlinni. Vnl. XXVIIL Di'p. .V8. 4to. 1899. 
I(Vlirjra«f«m, iiiMirhrni— Arobives,Si<rie II. Vol. VI. Piirt3. 8to. 1899. 
Hbmmatima, T. Eto. Uhe AiUhor) — 8iir uii curieux phenoinuue d'udhi^rcuoe dM 

UnaQUa nietallique» sous I'nctinn <lu cnurant vlectrique. 4to. 1899. 
OyM&rvier Imttlution, Rmjal—JowmaX f<ir July-Jtept. 1899. 8vo. 
Wiftorf Ad/« Armij, flurgeoH-Ocntral't Ojjict — Index Catalogue, Second Seriei^ 

VoL IV. 4to. ISftlK 
DmUtd Stair* Dtrpartment of Agriculture — Experiment Station Beoord, Vol. X. 
No. 11. Kva 1899. 
Mbothly W.«thor K^riew for April-Jnly, 1899. 4to. 
WwUlar Bureau Ballcttin, No. 26. 8to. 1899. 
LlmMtwait Button Bnllain, No«. 28, 67. 8vo. 1899. 
^MU (Hata Otological Sumry — Atlas to Monograph No. XXXI. fol. 1898. 
Tliblaa of the Mineral ProducU of the United State*. 1888-1897. fol 



1896. 



tb Annnal Roport. ParU 1.4, e. 4to. 1898-99. 
pba, Noa. XXIX. XXXI. XXXV. 4lo, 1889. 



Q 2 



228 Qeneral Monthly Meeting. [Mer.K, 

Vnittd State* Patant Office— OfBoial Gazette, Vol. LXXXVIL Na U; W 

LXXXVUL ; Vol.liXXXIX. Not 1-4. Svo. 1898-99. 
17ntt»m<yo/ion<ton—CBlendar, 1899-1900. 8to. 1899. 
Vviai, Hoyal Society of Science*— Son Acta, Third Series, Vol. XVOI FikL 

4ta 1899. 
Verein sur Be/Ordening de* Oewerbflei**** in Pmiuen — VerhandloiucB, UBK 

Heft 5-7. 8vo. 
Victoria Jnsftfute— Journal, Kos. 121-124. 8vo. 1899. 
Vtetofia, TAe Agent-CencriU /or —Victoria, Its Mines and Mineral*, fid. IM 
Ftenna, Oeologteal Inititute, ZmpertaJ— jabrbuoh. Band XLIX. Heft 1. (K 

1899. 
Vlugt, Dr. W. Van der— Transvaal versos Great Britain. Sva 1899; 
Wi»eon*in iteodemy— Transactions, Vol. XII. Part 1. 8va 1898. 
Wright, Mestn. J. and Go.- The Medical AnnnU for 1899. 8vo. 
Yerket Obtervatory, CAuxmo— Bnlletin, Nos. &-11. 8vo. 1899. 
Zoological Society of Xomton— Proceedings, 1899, Parts 2, 3. 8to; 
TranBactions.Vol. XV. Parts2,3. 4to. 1899. 



General Monthly Meeting. 



229 



GENERAL MONTHLY MEETING, 
Monday, December 4th, 1899. 

James Cbiohtos-Bbowni, M.D. LL.D. F.R.S. TreoBurer and 
Vice-Presideut, iu the Chair. 

Professor Henry E. Armstrong, Ph.D. LL.D. F.R.S. ' 

John Herbert Bowman, Esq. 

John Storrs firookfield, Esq. B.A. M.D. 

John B. Corringtun, Esq. 

W. Brodrick Cloote, Esq. 

Lionel Leigh Smith, Esq. M.A. 

I sleoted Members of the Royal Listitntion. 

TL« following letter from the Clerk of the Goldsmiths' Company 
I Mill: — 

"OuLMHrtHt' Hall, Losiiok. E.C. 
XoTtmlier nth. IUDtt. 

"Iku Sir. — I am directed to inrorin you tlint flie atttnlion of the Court of 
OoldimiUM' CompaDT baving K-en drawa tn the fact thnt the Royal Institu- 
I of Qr«at Britain bai lately relebiated ito Centenary, tbcy have, in order to 
Ik Ibdr teoae of the importance of that event, been plcasifd to make to the 
Ittotloo Ui<< farther grant of £1000, for the continuation and development of 
fsti icaearab, and eaperially for the pmeoution of further inveHtigationB of 
Pn^crttea of matter at tcmperataiea approaching that of the absolute zero 
Ijoqwiatiire. 

I omIom a oheqae for this amount, and I shall feel obliged to you to 
■BwUdn the reedpt 



Bod. Scoratary. 



I am. dear Sir, 

Yonr obedient Servant, 
(Bigned) Waltsb B. Priobavz. 



) BcTsl laatitntion of Great Britain. 
The following Resolution was then passed : — 

*Tkat the Hembera of the Royal Institution of Great Britain, in General 
liag saiBtnMed, having been informed that the Court uf the Gxidsiuithii' 
have made a donation of £1000 to the Funds of the Royal Ingtitution 
■ofatioo of ita Centenary, and iu aid of the investigations which are 
K SMTtad on in ita Laboratorict into the properties of matter at low tvmpcra- 
I, dMire to exprm to the Court thtir profound and grateful appreciation of 
' muoiflcent manifestation of their practical interest in the work of 
ion— • manifestation which has been mode on this oocnaion at once 
of paat aenrioes to soieooe and prcsoiont of serrioea yet to oome." 

The PkisKiTB reoeived since the last Meeting were laid on the 
U, sad the thaoka of the Members returned for the same, viz. : — 



'Stmtarg i^BlaU/or /lulia— Annual Progreas Report of the ArahBologioal 
ftwray CittW, N.W.P. and Oudh, op to June .TO, 1899. foL 



230 General Monthly Meeting. [Dee. 4, 

3%e Meleorologieal Office — Meteorological Cbarta of the Sonthern OoMn betwetn 

the Cape of Good Hope and New Zealand, fol. 1899. 
Aeeademia del Lineei, Heale, Roma — Classe di Sdenze Firiche, Hatematiehe • 
Natural!. Atti, Serie Qainta: Bendioonti. 2« Bemestre, Vol. VIIX. Fue. 
8, 9. 8vo. 1899. 
American Academy of Arte and Sei'e«tee<— Prooeedings, VoL XXXV. No*. I-S. 

8vo. 1899. 
Ameriran (reographieal Society — Bulletin. Vol. XXXI. No. 4. Sva 1899. 
Am$terdam, Royal Academy of Seieneee — Jaarboek, 1898. 8vo. 1899. 

Verslag vau de Oewone VerRaileringen. Dc-el VIL 8to. 1899. 

Fnxvediiigd of the Section of Scieuceti, Vol. I. 8m. 1899. 

Verhandeliugen, Eerate Scotie, Deel VI. Nos. 6, 7 ; Tweede Sectie, Ded YL 
Nos. 3-8. 8vo. 1898-99. 
Aaronimical Society, ifoya/— Monthly Notioes, Vol. LIX. No. 10. 8to. 1899. 
Bankerr, liuliiuU u/~Joumal, Vol. XX. Part 8. 8to. 1899. 
Belgium, Royal Academy of Science* — Bulletins, XXXIV.-XXXVL Sm 
1897-98. 

Annuaire, 1898-99. 8to. 

Me'moircs Couronn(!s (in 8to) Tome XLVIII. Part 2 ; Tome LV. and LVIL 
8vo. 189S. 

Memoiras Cnuronnes (in 4to) Tomes LV. and LVI. 4tu. 1896-98. 

MemoireB, Tome LIII. 4to. 1895-98 

Tables Gene'rales des Bulletins, 1881-95. 8Tn. 1898. 

Tables Geiierales des Memoiro^, 1T72-I897. 8vo. 1898. 
Botton PMic Lfljmry— Bulletin for Nov. 1899. 8vo. 
Bolton Society of Medical Scieneet — Journal, Ort. 1899. 8ro. 
Britiilt ArchitecU, Royal InUiiute «/— Journal, Third Series, VoL VIL Nos. l,t 

4to. 1899. 
Britith Attronomiocd Attoeiation — Journal, Vol. X. No. 1. 8to. 1899. 
Buenoi Aires, Miaeo Nan'onal — Comunicatnones, Tome I. No. 4. 8?a 1899. 
Cambridge Philotophical Sorie/y— Proceedings, Vol. X. Part 3. 8to. 1899. 
Camera Club- Journal for Nov. 1899. 8vo. 
Canada, Royal .Sbcfeiy o/— Proceoilings and Transactions, Second Series, VoL IV. 

8to. 1898. 
Chemical Indmlry, Society o/— Journal. Vol. XVIII. No. 10. 8vo. 1899. 
Cliemical Society— Journal for Nov. 1899. 8vo. 

Proceedings, Nos. 213, 214. 8vo. 1899. 
Civil Kngineert, Jnttiiution o/— Proceedings. Vol. CXXXVIIL 8to. 1899. 
Cracovie, VAcadimie det Scieneet — Bullutin International, 1899, Nos. 6, 7. 

8vo. 
Dallmeyer, TItomai R. E»q. F.R.A.S. M.R.I. (the .4 u«Aor)— Telephotography. 8«- 

1899. 
DenmsAirsilMO'^'afion— Report and Transactions, Vol. XXXI. 8vo. 1899. 
Edilort — American Jonma! of Science for Nov. 1899. 8vo. 

Analyst for Nov. 1899. 8vo. 

Anthony's Photographic Bulletin for Nov. 1899. 8vo. 

Astrophysical Journnl for Oct. 1899. 

Athcneeum for Nov. 1899. 4to. 

Author for Nov. 1899. 8vo. 

Bimetallist for Nov. 1899. 8vo. 

Brewers' Journal for Nov. 1899. 8vo. 

Chemical News for Nov. 1899. 4to. 

Chemist and Druggist for Nov. 1899. 8vo. 

Education for Nov. 1899. 

Electrical Engineer for Nov. 1899. foL 

Electrical Engineering for Nov. 1899. 8vo. 

Electrical Beview for Nov. 1899. 8vo. 

Electricity for Nov. 1899. 8vo. 

Engineer for Nov. 1899. fol. 



1899.] 



General Monlhlj/ Meeting. 



231 



* Pn^llttu 



Uton — eotUiuued. 
Enffineering for Nov. 1899. fol. 
H/UDOBopethic Rcriev fir Nov. 1899. 8ro. 
Horolofiical Jonriinl for Nov. 1899. 8vo. 
lD(Ja?tries and Iron for Not. 1899. fol. 
Inreiilinn for Nov. lS9i». 

Jiiamal of State Medicine for Nor. 1S99. tiro. 
Uw Joornal for Nov. 1899. Rvo. 
Llfr-Bn«t Journal for Nov. 1899. 8to. 
I.itfhminif for Nov. 189!). 8vo. j 

aUchin«rv Market for Nov. 1809. 8vo. 
lllodiTii Mnchinery for Nov. 1H99. 8vo. 
rVotoT Car .Journal for Nov. 1899. 8vo. 
Natur* fur Nov. 1899. 4to. 
Mew Cburcli MaeaziDP for Nov. 1899. Svo. 
(Cimentor.r Oct. 1899. 8vo. 
»phin News for Nov. 1899. 8to. 
I Review for 0.t 1899. 8vo. 
Populur Science Monthly for Nov. 1899. 8vo. 
Pablic Health Engineer for Nov. 1899. 8vo. 
Science Abotrarta, Vol. IL Part U. 8to. 1899. 
ScitiDoe Siftiiigs for Nov. 1899. 
Tr*vol for Nov, 1899. 8vo. 
TiT>pic«l A^icuUnriat for Nov. 1899. 
ZoopbilUt for Nov. 1899. 4to. 
fitU ColMbian Mtutitm, Chiengo— The Birds of Eaatern North America, Part I, 

Bj C. B. Oory. 8vo. 1899. 
Pterene*, PMiateea Nationale On<ra2»— Bolletino, Nos. 331, 333. 8vo. 1899. 
fimmiUn Jtulitute— Journal for Nov. 1899. 8vo. 

Omfraphieal Soeifly, Bnynl — Oengraphical Journal for Nov. 1899, 8vo. 
O^Jogieal ^xnely— 4juarterly JonmaJ, No. 220. 8vo. 1899. 

Uut of FellowR, 1899. 8vo. 
Okugmt FkHomphical Sorifly—'Pioeeedusgi, Vol. XXV. 8vn. 1899. 

itl Society, hoynl — Tranaactions, New Series, Vol. XIII. 8vo. 1899. 
Index to Areheological Papcra in 1897. 8vo. 1898. 
VorWuJ/nral SoaXy, Aoyoj-Joarnal, Vol. XXIII. Part 2. 8vo. 1899. 
rinl /tutiluU — Imperial Institnto Journal for Nov. 1899. 
I Bop'-iru Unitmity — American Chemical Journal for Nov. 1899. 8vo, 
I fiwnWy— Journal, No*. 176, 239. 8vo. 1899. 
PneMdinKi, Nov. 1898 to June 1899. 8vo. 
JfiUraa Obaertatorv— Report for 1898-99. IbL 

MmmdutUr GeUomeal SooMy— Tranasctioni. Vol. XXVI. Part 9. Svn. 1899. 
Mtdieai and Chiruroieal Society, Buyal — MedicoCbirurgical Tranaoctiona, Vol. 

LXXXn. 8vo. 1899. 
MtM\ It, Bihlii'teta iVoctonal— EI Catoroede Koviembre, Laa Lluviaa de Leonidoa. 

Bij Manuel M. Minnda y IVlarron. 8vo. 1899. 
iftiiao, Soetttiad Oioflifiea "Antonio AUala " — Memorial, Tomo XII. Nos. 9, 10. 

l»ro. 189!>. 
A'ary L<iagutS»sj L^agne Journal for Nov. 1809. 8to. 
,V«aH>maii« &>ct<<y— Chronicle and Journal, 1899, Part 3. 8vo. 
^MtmlUtaipai Saeitly o/ Oraat Britain — Trensactiona, VoL XXXIL No. I. 8to. 

1890. 
Omtm, Pri'f ' '' ^' — Commnnioationa. No. 14. 8vo. 1894. 
JMa, &« "' ''' fAi/"!'/!!*— Seancea, 1899, Fa«o. 2. 8vo. 

noraoam!!.^ ; , ty of Or fit Briinin — Jonrnal for Nov. 1899. 8vo. 
PhattfropMe Society, Hoyal — Phologrnphic Journal fur Oct. 1899. 8vo. 
QufKmfnnrf. Agent-Oeneral for — International Catalogue of Scientifln Literature, 

QoeaiialMid Volume. By J. Sbirlev. fvo. 1899. 
jftmklU Mkreteopiral r/uft-Journal, Vol. VII. No. 16. 8to. 1899. 



232 General Monthlf Meeting. [Dec. 4, 1899. 

Bnyal Irlth Jeademy—'PToeeediaf», Third Sories, VoL Y. No. 3. 8*0. I8S9^ 
Boijal Soeitty of Literature— The Mirror of the Sinfiil SoviL, hy Queen Xuginl 
nf Xararrt!. Reprodurol in faraimile. Edited by P. W. Amee. Sra 1897. 
Index to Trdnsactiona to year 189'.l. 8to. 1899. 
Histnrv of the Itotal Society of Literature. Edited by E. W. Brabrook. 8*a 

I8it9. 
TranBactions. Vol. XVI. Part 2 : Vol. XVIL Parta 1, 2 ; Vol. XVHL Fkitil-4: 

Vol. XIX. Parts 1-4 ; Vol. XX. Parts 1-4. 8m 1894-99. 
Rpport, 1«!»9. 8vo. 
Royal Sf^iety of London— Philosophical Transactions, Vol. CXCIL B, Xoc 178, 
179. 
Proceedings, No. 420. 8to. 1899. 
Selborne Soeuly—'SntuK Xotes for Not. 1899. 8«). 
.S-. E. S. C. (the i4M/Aor)— Memoir of St<wart Clark. 8vo. 1898. 
TiiVaek, WiHiam, Ef/. (the ./4tifAor)-Keparatinn to the Injured. 8vo. 1899^ 
Teyler .Vweiim. ffdrfrm— Archives. S^rie II. Vol. VI. Part 4. 4to. 1899. 
Vttit^l tierviee Inrtilution, .Roj/a/— Journal for Oct -Not. 1899. 8vo. 
I'niled States Vepariuient of Agriculture — Monthly Weather Beriew for Angut 
1899. 8to. 
Experiment Stntim Recoril, Vol. XI. No. 2. 8to. 1899. 
Expt-rimrnt Stiiion Bnlletin, No. 69. 8to. 1899. 
United StaU$ Patent OJrc— Official Gazette, Vol. LXXXIX. Nos. 5-7. tn 

1899. 
renein tur Bi-fSrdervng det Gewerbfieinet in Preutten — ^Verhandlwigen, IM 

Heft 8. 8to. 
Vienna, Geological Intlitute, Imperial — Jahrbuch, Bond XLIX. Heft 1 tO' 
1899. 
Verhandlan<^n, 1899, Nos. 9. 10. 8ro. 
Vinrento, Profetmr 0. — Pamphlets on Univeraal Hand Phonography ud V>- 

versa! Syllnhic Phono-telcgtaphy. 
Wagner Free Irutitute of Science of Philaddphia — ^Transactions, Vol. TL tn. 
WJO. 




ion of (Bvcat Srilain. 



ENING MEETING, 
nuary 19, 1900. 

NoKTBCHBERLAMD, K.G., President, 
the Chair. 

YLEiGH, M.A. D.C.L. LL.D. F.R.S. M.B.I. 

raoraaso* or katckxl raiuMoruT a-i. 
Flight. 

aoH first conBidorod the qncstion what people generally 

a they spoke of a flying machine, and concluded that size 

, deal to do with their oonccptioD, which was usually of 

big enouf'h to carry a man by whom it could be con- 

kerwiso the flying machine had boen invented lung since 

■ I'ho main problem of the flying machine was the 
■he aeroplane. What were the forces that acted on a 
ftd to the wind ? This was also the vital problem of 
neb he mentioned some of the practical applications by 
ftrchibald, Boden-Powell, and others ; but kites were 
bored to the ground, and as soon as wo cast ourselves 
the ground the problem became essentially diflerent, for 
necessary to consider how maintenance in the air could 

I. Now some birds seemed to maintain themselves in the 
ttle effort. What was the nature of the " soaring " or 
ght" by which a big bird maintained himself with but 
ng of the nings? There ha<l hevn much discussion about 
flfton foolish because of uiiguiiderstandings between the 

■ However, the science of mechanics enabled it to be laid 
^rtainty that a bird could no more maintain himself 
tion of the wings in a uniform wind moving horizontnlly 

I at perfect rest. It was entirely a question of relative 
^then, a bird was seen to be maintaining himself without 
certain the air was not moving horizontally and 
3ut there might be rising currents of air upon which ho 
], and these were much more common than was often 
In other cases where it was difficult to imagine the 
f such currents, an explanation might be sought iu the 
nily of the wind. For example, it was mechanically 
r a bird just at the point of transition between two 
ata of wind to maintain its position by taking advantage 
■ent velocities. The albatross, he believed, did something 
L Langley, again, hod pointed out how the bird could 
mnt thn internal work of the wind by taking odvauiage 
inosa. Leaving this subject, the lecturer discussed the 
■tion of the action of the wind on an aeroplane. Ho first 
(No. 94.) B 



234 Bi-jhl Hon. Lord Rayleigk on Fligit. [Jan. 19, 

eliowed one or tiro experiments illastnting the cnrions effects tint 
migbt be obtained from a plane exposed obliqnely to wind. In one 
of these it was seen that a light piece of sheet brass, evenly piroted 
in, and nearly filling up, an aperture through which air was issuing 
nnder pressure, tended to set itself square to the aperture so as to 
block it as much as possible, but, if started, it continued to rotate in 
either direction, emitting a roaring sound. This phenomenon bid 
never been properly explained, nor had the somewhat analogou 
action of a piece of card, which, when dropped, reached the gronnd 
with a rotatory motion. As to the pressure of the wind on a luni- 
zontal plane surface, if the latter was falling vertioally at the I«t^ 
say, of four miles an hour, and also moving horizontally at, itj, 
20 miles an hour, did the horizontal motion make a difference to th> 
pressure that existed at its nnder surface ? It might be argued tbat 
it did r.ot ; but the argument was fiJlacions, and the truth was that 
the horizontal motion much increased the pressure nnder a verticallj 
fulling plane, a fact on which depended the possibility of flight, 
natural and artificial. Lord Rayleigh showed how this point migbt 
bo illustrated, and even investigated, by means of a simple variatiai 
of the ordinary windmill. This was a light wheel having six vane^ 
each of which could be set at any desired angle, and it was used bj 
setting four at a particular angle, and finding nt what angle tbe 
other two must be placed so as to compensate the rotation of thi 
wheel produced by the former when it was moved quickly thioo^ 
the air.* He next observed that not only was there prcssoie nndn- 
neath a bird's wing or an aeroplane, but that the suction above WH 
not an unimportant matter ; and he performed an experiment to shot 
the reality of this suction, about which ho said there hod been soiM 
scepticism. Turning to flight on a large scale, he remarked that it 
was a natural question to as-k, Was it possible for a man to rain 
himself from th<: gronnd by working a screw with his own mnseolar 
power only? The investigation was not difiicult, and the ansmr 
wus that it was quite impracticable for him to do so. ArtifieisI 
flight was a question of the speed of the horizontal motion. A biid 
did not use a revolving mechanism like a screw to propel itself, but 
ho had no doubt that a revolving mechanism was the most snitabl* 
for artificial flyinir-machincB. Whether the diflScnlties of then 
would bo surmounted ho did not know, but he was disposed to agnt 
witli Mr. Maxim tliat it was mainly a question of time and moeb 
money. Still, he did not think flight would ever be a safe mode d 
couvcyunco for those who were desirous of going out for a daj'i 
shopping, for it was hard to see how alighting on the gronnd oooU 
ever be rendered quite free from danger. But, as Mr. Maxim oM 
remarked, the first uso of flying-machines would be for milituy 
purposes, and they had not yet succeeded in making war quite ade. 

* This Apparatus was more fally described in the Wilde Iiecture (ManelMilff 
Memuirs, vol. zliv., Pnrt 4, pp. \-2ii\ whvre also some othur mattan ben reAot' 
to are treated in greater dotail. 



/ 



Hon. Chables A. Parsons, M.A. F.R.S. M. Inst. C.E. 

Hm Power — High-Speed Navigation Steam Turbinet. 

ries ago the political power of Greece was broken, 
D civiliEation had risen to its zenith. Rome was 
Qally stronger, and was rapidly gaining territory by 
er states. Egypt, older in civilisation than either 
Borne, fell, bat two centuries later, before the assault of 
^r states, and became a Roman province. Tier principal 
Js time was Alexandria, a great and prosperous city, the 
' iLe commerce of the world, the homo of students and of 
leu, its population the wealthiest and most civilised of the 
Irn worhl. 

moDg the relics of that ancient Egyptian civilisation that 

le first records of the early history of the steam engine. In 

the home of Euclid, and possibly cuntemporary with 

les. Hero wrote his ' Spiritalia sou Puuuniatica.' It is 

" Hero was the inventor of the contrivances and apparatus 

bis work; it is more probable that they were devices 

at the time. Nothing in the text, Lowovur, itrdicntes 

e several machines are to be ascribed. Two of these 

are of Fpecial interest. The first utilised the expansive 

in a closed vessel heated externally, the pneumatic force 

rlicd o|>on thn surface of water in other vessels, and the 

I foroe otilised for opening the doors of a Grecian temple 

big other paeudo-magic contrivances. 

after describing several forms of cylindrical boilers, and 

f the steam jot for accelerating combustion, be comes to the 

k ty{>e of steam engine, the steam turbine, which is the 




23C Hon. C. A. Panoiu [Jan. S6, 



issues tangcntially from the bent pipes, and by tlie reaction 
the pphere tu rotate. 

It seems uncertain whether thia machine was ever moretliaiia 
toy, or whether it was used by the Greek priests for producing motioi 
of apparatus in their temple ; but from our esperienoe within tbt 
last twenty years it appears that, with some improvements in denga 
and construction, it cunld have been applied to perform nsefol vntk 
at the date of Hero, and further that, when so improved, it might hat 
claimed a place among economical steam engines, even np to tht 
middle of the present century. 

A few years ago I had an engine constmoted to test the eapaliili- 
ties of this class of reaction steam turbine, the only difierenoe b»- 
tween this engine and Hero's being that the sphere was abolished 
as a useless incumbrance, the arms were made of thin steel tube of 
oval form, so as to offer the least resistance to their motion, and tin 
whole was enclosed in a cast-iron case which was connected to ■ 
condenser. When supplied with steam at a pressure of 100 Iba. per 
square inch, and a vacuum in the case of 27" of mercnry, a speed d 
&U00 revolutions per minute was attained, and an effective powv 
was realised of 20 horse, and the consumption of steam was ob^ 
40 lbs. per brake horse-power. By this very creditable performiiieek 
I was encouraged to further test the system, and constmcted a eoi- 
pound reaction engine, in which the steam was oansed to pass saoMi- 
sively through three pairs of arms on one hollow shaft, each VU 
being contained in a separate compartment through which the uift 
passed, suitable metallic packing preventing the passage of atesB 
from one compartment to the next. The performance of this engiat 
was, however, not superior to that of tlie single two-arm Hen'i 
engine, fur the simple reason that the excessive resistance to motiu 
of the arms in the denser steam of the compartments more tbn 
neutralised tlie gain from tlie compound form. The performance of tbii 
cn<;ine was, however, sufficiently good to have it placed on a par with 
many ordinary steam engines in the middle of the present centmj. 

The great barrier to the introduction of Hero's engine was ns- 
dou))tedly the excessive 8{)ecd of revolution necessary to obttii 
economical results, and with the crude state of mechanical enginev- 
iug at that time, it would have been a matter of some difficulty t* 
constract the turbine engine with sufficient accuracy of workman^ 
for satisfactory results, to say nothing of the necessary gearing ttt 
apjdying the power to ordinary useful pnrpcses. 

The next steam engine mentioned in history, which is oa|aU> 
of practical and useful development, is Bianca's in 1629. \ivtd 
the simplest form, a jet of steam from a steam boiler impinges CB* 
paddle- ivheel and blows it round. This form of engine bai n* 
1889 been developed by Dr. De Laval, of Stockholm, with p^ 
in<;enuity, and is extensively used for moderate powers (n tb 
Continent. The speed is, however, necessarily very high in m^ 
to obtain economy in steam, and spiral reduction gearing is and > 



1] 



on Eigh-Speed Naeigation Steam Tarhinet. 



237 



thkt the speed of revolntion may be redaced for the application 

' the power. Tiie improTements that have beea made in Biauca'a 

'^•teun turbine by De Laval arc firstly, the ordinary steam jet is re- 

pUoed by a diverging conical jut, which permits of the expansion of 

• Bieam before it emerges from the jet, and bo transforming the 

otontial energy of the high-pressaro steam into kinetic energy of 

elocity in the direction of flow. 

Seconilly, the crude padille-whcel of Bianca is replaced by a 
rbeel of the strongest steel, fringed runnd the periphery with little 
apped blades of steel, somewhat analogous to the buckets of a Pelton 
ftter-wbeel. 

Lastly, the steel wheel is mounted on a long and somewhat elastic 
baft, to allow of its easy and free motion, and on one extremity of 
118 shaft is mounted the pinion of the spiral redaction gear. 

The speeds of revolntion of the steam-wheels of Do Laval's 
■Iiine are from 10,000 to 30,000 revolutions per mioute, according 
th« size, involving peripheral speeds up to 1200 feot per second, 
»bout one-half the speed of the projectile from a modern cannon. 
ub speeds are necessary to obtain power ecnnomically from the 
^^-pressnre steam jet, issuing from 3000 to 6000 feut per second 
I calculated by Rankine. 

It is somewhat remarkable that not till a century after Bianca, 
be pL«ton or ordinary reciprocating engine made its first appearance, 
abont the year 1705, and has since become one of the chief factors 
the great mechanical and engineering growths of the last century. 
)iuiiig (his pcrio<l tho st(.-ara turbine seems to liavo been, practically 
Jng, neglected, which is somewhat remarkable in view of the 
kuaeious attempts of inventors to construct a rotary engine, attempts 
ridcb had no practical results. 

In tho rear lUSi, tho advent of tho dynamo-electnc itiachine, and 

be development of mechanical and electrical engineering, created an 

di-inand for a good high-speed engine. Engineers were 

Dg more accustomed to high speeds of revolution, for the 

of dynamos was at this time from 1000 to 2000 revolutions 

; minute, of centrifugal pumps from 300 to 1500, and wood -working 

""inery from 8000 to 5000; and Sir Charlos Whoatstono had 

tiny mirror revolve at a speed of 60,000 revolutions per 

late for a{i])arutn8 for measuring the velocity of light. The 

oblem then presented itself ()f constructing a steam turbine, or 

" rotary engine, capable of working with good economy of steam 

; a moderate speed of revolution, and suitable for driving dynamos 

l^ithoat the intervention of reduction gearing. To facditate the 

Iproblem, the dynamo was also considered with the view nf raising 

ed of revidution to the level of tho lowest permissible speed 

turbine engine. In other words, to secure a successful com- 

OQ, the turbine had to be run as slowly as possible, and the 

had to be raised as much as possible, and up to the 

, oa the turbine, to permit direct coupling. 



238 Htm. C. A. Paraoiu [Ju. it, 

In 1884 prelimiiuiry experimentB were oommenoed at Gmteafaead- 
on-Tyoe, with the view of ascertaining by actual trial, the oonditioos 
of working equilibriom and steady motion of shafts and bearingi at 
the very high speeds of rotation that appeared to be essential to the 
construction of an economical steam turbine of moderate sice. Trial 
shafts were run in bearings of different descriptions up to speedi of 
40,000 revolutions per minute ; these shafts were 1^ inches in di^ 
meter and 2 feet long, the bearings being about f inch in diameter. 
No difficulty was experienced in attaining this immense speed, po- 
yidcd that the bearings wore designed to have a certain small amomt 
of " give " or elasticity ; and after the trial of many devices to seeon 
these conditions, it was found that elasticity, combined with frictioul 
resistance to transverse motion of the bearing bush, gave the belt 
results, and tended to damp out vibrations in the revolving spindla 
This result was achieved by a simple arrangement ; the bearing is 
which the shaft revolved was a plain gun-metal bush with a oollir at 
one end and a nut at the other; on this bush were threaded tUn 
washers, each being alternately larger and smaller than its neighboar, 
the small series fitting the bush and the larger series fitting the faolfl 
in the Itearing block, these washers occupying the greater part of thi 
length of the bush. Lastly, a wide washer fitted both the bush tai 
block, forming a fulcrum on which the bush rested ; while a spinl 
spring between the washers and the nut on the bush pressed all the 
washers tightly against their neighbours. It will he seen now thai) 
should the rotating shaft bo slightly out of truth (which it is im- 
possible to avoid in practice), the oflfcct is to cause a slight laterd 
displacement of the bearing bush, which is resisted by the notiul 
sliding friction of each washer against its neighbour. The shaft 
itself b«iii<; slipLtly cdastio, tends to centre itself upon the fnlcmiB 
washer before uiotitioncd, under the gyrostatic forces brought into 
pliiy by tlio rapid revolutions of the shaft and influenced by the 
frictioniil rcsisttuice of the washer:^, and so the shaft tends to assoms 
a steady state of revolution about its principal axis, or the asia of 
the muss, without wabbling or vibratiim. Tliis form of bearing WM 
exclusively usC'l for some yeiirs in turbine engines aggregating some 
thousands of horso-power, but it has since been replaced by a simpltf 
furui fulfilling the same fnuctious. In this later form the gun-nietil 
busli is surrounded by several concentric tubes fitting easily within 
eacli other with a very slight lateral pluy ; in the interstices betweei 
the tubes the oil enters, and its great viscosity when spread into thin 
films has the result of producing great frictional resistance to a npi' 
lateral displacenu^ut of the bearing bush; the oil film has alio a 
centring action, and tends under vibration to assume a uniformity uf 
thickness around tlie axis, thus centring the shaft, and like a coahioa 
damping out viliratious arising from errors of balance. This fonn <^ 
bearing has been found to bo very durable and quite satisfactory nndf 
all conditions. 

Having t.e6tod the bearings u^) to speeds above those contemplated 



la] 



i High-Sjteeii Naeigation Steam Turbinea. 



239 



the steam tarbine, the next problem was the tarbiae itself. The 
regulating the floiv of steam being well known {which was not the 
in Hero's time), various forms of steam turbine wore considered, 
1 it appeared desirable to adopt in principle some typo that had 
both successful in the water turbine, and ako easily adapted to 
Bnltiple or compound formation, a coDBtruction in which the stenm 
Mid pass successively through a series of turbines one after the 
»r. 

The three best known of water turbines are the outwani flow, the 

imrd flow, and the parallel flow, and of these the latter appeared to j 

the best adapted for the multiple or compound steam turbine, for ' 

which will afterwards appear. 
The object in view being to obtain a good coefficient of efficiency . 
the steam with a moderate speed of revolution and diameter of] 
•bine wheel, it becomes essential that the steam shall be caused to 
M through a large number of successive turbiues, with a small 
of pressure urging it through each individual turbine of 
so that the velocity uf flow of the stoam may have the proper 
to the peripheral velocity of the turbine blades to secure the 
i degree of officicDcy from the steam, conditions analogous to 
ry for high efficiency in water turbines. A large J 
of turbine wheel, it is true, would secure a moderate speed ' 
ution, but this may be dismissed at once for the simple 
that the frictiooal resistance of such a disc revolviug at the 
iripheral velocity, in the exhaust steam, would make it a 
lent engine. 
In the year 18)^4, a compound steam turbine engine of 10 horse- 1 
and a modifievl high-speed dvuamo were designed and built ' 
• working speed of 18,U0O revolutions per minute. This machine 
to be practically successful, and subsequuntly ran fur some 
doing useful work, and is now in the South Kensington Museum. 
This turbine engine consisted of two groups of fifteen succuKsive 
ino wheels, or rows of blades, on one drum or shaft within a 
case on the right and left of the stcum inlet, the moving 
or Tanea being in circumferential rows projecting outwardly 
■haft, and ne^irly touching the case, and tlie fixed or guide 
bctog similarly formed and projecting inwardly from the case 
Ijr touching the shaft. A si^ies of turbine wheels on one 
thus constituted, each one complete in itself, like a paral- 
wster turbine, but unlike a water turbine, the steam nfter 
ingits work in each turbine passed ou to the ntxt, preserving 
[itadinal velocity without shock, gradually falling in pressure 
through each row of blades and gradually expanding, 
live row of blades was slightly larger in [Hissage-way 
preceding, to allow for the increasing bulk of the olaatio 
Tu, and thus its velocity of flow was reguluted so as to operate 
the greatest degree of efficiency on each turbine of the series 



240 Em. C. A. Panom [Jul 96, 

All end presBnre from the steam was balanced by the two eqoil 
series on each side of the inlet, and the reTolring uaft lay on its 
bearings reyolring freely without any impressed force except a steidj 
torque urging rotation, the aggregate of the multitude of minnts 
forces of the steam on each blade. It constituted an ideal rotuy 
engine ; but it had faults. The comparatively high speed of rotatian 
that was necessary for so small a size of engine as this first example, 
made it difficult to prevent, even with the bearings described, a 
certain spring or whipping of the massive steel shi^, so that cmh 
siderablo clearances were found necessary, and leakage and loa of 
efficiency resulted. It was, however, perceived that all these de&di 
would decrease as the size of the engine was increased, with a com- 
spending reduction of rotational velocity, and conseqnently effinti 
were made towards the construction of engines of larger siie, whick 



I 



' ', X 



V 



Fixed Blhoes. 
Fixto BliidkS. 



MoYin^Bt<ioe&.( ^^JJjHJj^ 




Fio. 1. — Fixed and Movino Blades or TuBnm. 

resulted, in 1888, in several turbo-alternators of 120 horse-pofti 
being supplied fur the generation of current in electric lighting sti- 
tiuuB, and at this period the total horse-power of , turbines atwoik 
reached in the aggregate about 4000, all of which were of the panlld 
flow type and uon-coudcnsiiig. 

In 1889, in couscqucuco of partnership difficulties and the tn* 
porary luss cf patents, the radial flow type of turbines was relnctantlj 
adopted. This type of turbine consists of a series of fixed discs irii 
interlocking flanges at the periphery, forming, when placed togetba 
coaxially, a cylindrical case, with inwardly projecting annular diita 
On tlio shaft are keyed a Kiniilar set of disct:, the faces of the fixed uii 
moving disc lie a short distance apart. From the faces of the ivA 
disc project the rows of guidc-bladcs which nearly touch the moling 
disc, and from the moving disc project the rows of moving blidai 
which nearly touch the fixed disc. 



1900.] 



on High-Speed Navigation Steam Turbines. 



241 



I law. J 

^B The steam is admitted into the case between the balance piston 

^^krthe left and the first fixed disc, and posses outwards through the 

^HHn of fixed and moviug bludes between the first fixed and moving 

dines; tlicn inwards touards the shaft at the back of the first moving 

disc, thi-'n again outwards between the second fixed and moving discs, 

and so on tu the exhaust ; the action being the same as in the parallel 

h4ow type. 

H| lu 189'2, this type was the first to be adapted to work in conjunction 

^nith a condenser. The first condensing turbine of the radial flow 

^■fype was of 200 horse-power, and at a speed of 4800 revolutions per 

binnto, drove an alternator of 1.^0 kilowatts output. It was tested 

by Professor Ewing, and the general result of the trials whs to 

demonstrate that the condensing steam turbine was an exceptionally 

economical beat engine. With a steam ])rcBsnro of 100 lbs., the 

being moderately superheated, and a vacuum of 28 inches of 

Btrcury, the oonsuniption was 27 lbs. per kilowatt hour, which is 

Itquivalont to about 16 lbs. of ste^im per indicated horse-power. Thin 

salt marked an era in the development of the steam turbine, and 

for it a wide field, including some of the chief applications of 

ative power from steam. At this jjeriod turbine alternators of the 

condensing type were placed in the Newcastle, Cambridge and Scar- 

boroagh Electric Supply Companies' Stations, and soon afterwards 

seTer&I of 600 horse-power of the non-condensing parallel flow type 

were set to work in the Metropolitan Companies' Stations, where the 

comparative absence of vibration was an important factor. Turbine 

alternators and turbine dynamos of 2500 horse-power arc now in 

coarse of construction in England and tho United States, and larger 

■taes are in prospect. 

A turbo-alternator manufactured at Heaton Works, Newcastle-on- 

Tyne, for the Corporation of Elbcrfeld in Germany, was tested a few 

days ago by a committee of experts from Germany, Professor Ewing 

being also present, with the following remarkable results. At the 

fall load of 1200 kilowatts, and with a steam pressure of 130 lbs. at 

Um engine, and 10^ C. of superheat, the engine driving its own air 

ips, the consumption of steam was found to be at the rate of 

l8-8 lbs. per kilowatt hour. To compare this figure with those 

3i-d with ordinary piston engines of the highest recorded 

encies, and assuming the highest record with which I am ao- 

~i of the ratio of electrical output to the power indicated in 

engine, namely 85 per cent., tho figure of 18*8 lbs. per 

»tt in the turbiue plant is equivalent to a consumption of 

Ll*9 lbs. per indicated horse-power, a resnlt surpassing the records 

fllie brat steam engines in tbe production of electricity from sti>am. 

Turbine engines are also used fur generating electrical current 

^tb© tratismission of power, the working of electrical tramways, 

rical piini|iing and coaling, and similar purposes. Thoy are also 

vaad for coupling directly to and driving fans for producing forced 

'i induced dnagbt for general ventilating purposes, also for driving 




242 Hon. C. A. Panotu [Jan. 26, 

centrifugal pumps for lifts up to 200 feet, and screw pumps for 
low lifts. 

The most important field, however, for the steam turbine if 
undoubtedly in the propulsion of ships. The large and increating 
amount of horse-power and the greater size and speed of the modem 
enginos tend towards some form which shall be light, capable of 
perfect balancing and economical in steam. The marine engine of 
the piston type does not entirely fulfil all these requirements, bat the 
compound turbine engine, as made in 1892, appeared to bd capable 
of doing so, and of becoming an ideal marine engine. On the otb«r 
hand, an element of uncertainty lay in the high speed of the turlHDt 
engine, and to couple it directly to a propeller of ordinary propa^ 
tions wonld have led to failure. 

In January 1894, a pioneer syudicate was formed to explore tiia 
problem, those chiefly associated in the undertaking being the Ead 
uf Rosse, Christopher Ley land, John Simpson, Campbell Swinton, 
Norman Cookson, the late George Clayton, H. C. Harvey, and GeiaU 
Stoney. It was deemed expedient, for reasons of economy and alia 
of time (as many alterations were anticipated), to build as small t 
Yuiisol as ])0S8ible, but not so small as to preclude the attainment 
of an unprecedented higli speed in the event of success. The TurbiM 
was constructed, her dimensions being 100 feet in length, 9 feet 
beam, 3 feet draught of hull, and 44 tons displacement. She mi 
fitted with a turbine engine of 2000 actual horse-power, with tB 
expansive ratio of a huudrcd-and-fifty-fold, also with a water-tube 
boiler of great power, of the express type, with small tubes. The 
turbine cii<;in(! was designed to drive one screw shaft at a speed 
of from 2000 to 3000 revulutions per minute. 

Many trials wore made with screw propellers of various sizes and 
proportions, but the best speeds were quite disappointing, and it »•• 
clear that some radical defect lay in the propellers. This was corrobs- 
rated by dyiianiouietric measurements. The excessive slip of the pro- 
])ellers beyond the calculated amount, and their inefficiency, indicated 
a want of suflicieut bUulo urea upon which the thrust necessary to 
drive the ship was distributed — in other words, the water was torn into 
cavities behind the bltiilcs. These cavities contained no air, but 
only vapour of water, and the greater portion of the power of the 
euji^ine was consumed in the forniatiou and maintenance of these 
cavities instead of tlie propulsion of the vessel. This phenomenon irM 
first notiwid in the trials of the torpedo-boat Daring, by Mesna 
Thomycroft and ^Ir. Barnaby, shortly before the commencement of 
the trials of the I'urbinia, and was named "cavitation" by Mr. B.B. 
Froude. 

This phenomenon has been investigated experimentally with pro- 
pellers of small size working inside an oval tank, so as to represent 
ai)proximiitely the conditions of slij) ratio customary in fast ships. To 
enable the propeller to cause cavitation more cosily the tank is oloaed 
and the atmospheric proiisurc removed from the surface of the vitec 



1900.] 



071 Uigh-Speed Navigation Steam Turbines. 



243 



kbove the pmpeHer hj an air pump. Gloss windows are fitted for ob- 
■BTTation and illumiuatioD. Under tLeae conditions tlio only forces 
Hadiog to bold the water together aud resist cavitation aru the Email 
^^Bof water above the propeller, and capillarity. The propeller is 
BHwes diaoietor and 3 inches pitch ; cavitation commeucos at about 
H200 rcTolntions and becomes very pronounced at ISOO revolutions. 
Bad the atmospheric pressure not been removed, speeds uf 12,000 and 
■6,0i>0 revolutions per minute would have been necessary, reuderiug 
bbeerratiuns mure difficult. 

I The arrangement wo have now was kindly suggested by Mr. Heath, 
■Bd is a decided improvement, the revolving disc with narrow slots 
nrneLronifliDg approximately with the revolutions of tho propeller. 
Whe propeller is now seen to rotate very slowly, it also permits of the 
■rojectiouof the phenomenon on the scrireu, which was nut possible 
with my previous arrangement. The permunonce of tho vortices be- 
piud the blades is very striking. The inference to be drawn from 
■hniin experiments seems to be that for fast speeds uf vessels, wi<le thin 
B^fe«> a coarse pitch ratio, and moderate slip, are desirable for tlie 
^^Kntiou of cavitation, and in order to obtain the best efficiency in 
HIBdsicn of tho vessel. 

■ To retom to the Turblnia, a radical alteration was deemed neces- 
kry. A new tnrbino engine was made, consisting of three separate 
kgines, high ]iru3snru, intermediate pressure, and low pressure, each 
■f which drove one screw shaft, the power of tho engine was dis- 
■ibnted ovf<r three shafts instead of concentrated on one, and 
^rue propellers were placed on each shaft. The result of those 
HAOges was marvellous. The vessel now nearly doubled her speed, 
Bp knota was soon reached, and finally 32J knots mean speed on the 
■awnnd mile aathenticuted, or the fastest speed then attained by any 
■Mael afloat. The economy of her engines was investigated by Fro- 
■hot £>»ing, at'sisted by Professor Uuukerly : the couBumptiou of 
^^^tp«r indicuteil horse-power f<ir all purposes at SI knots speed 
^^Insd to be 14.^ lbs., or in other words, with a good marine boiler 
fltcoal OonsomptioM would be considerably under 2 lbs. per indicated 
ImmMowct, a result better than is obtiiiuud in torpedo-buats or 
^^Hb-bo«t destroyers with ordinary triple expansion engines. 
HBB0 rwBcl's reversing turbine gave her an astern speed of C^ knots, 
■M Ao could bo brought to rest in 30 seconds when running at 30 
Ibota ({lovd, and from rest she could be brought up to 30 knots in 
ID •eounils. 

I The Turbinia cruised from the Tyno to the Naval Review at 
IbitliaaJ, where she steamed on tho day of tho Review at an ef'tiniated 
ift&i of 34^ knots. TLoPO results represent about 23U0 indicated 
bonA-powcr, and may be said to have been obtained without a very 
' performance as regards the boiler; its total heating surface 

illOO aqnare feet, and an evaporation of al>out 28 lbs. per 

|iioot ftt the speed of 34.^ knots. 

^eeds were not obtained by bottling up tho steam and 



i 



244 Hon. C. A. Partotu [Jao. 26, 

opening the regulating valve on coming to the measnred mile, but 
were maintained for many miles together with constant steam pressTin, 
and as long as the fires were clean. On the other htmd, the endnrasM 
of the engines themselves seems to be unlimited, all heavy pressnres, 
including the thruht of the propellers, that would in ordiuary engine* 
come on the bcnrings, being counterbalanced by the steam pressnn 
acting on the turbines. 

It seems clear that the resnlts obtained in the case of the Tuihinia 
were almost entirely due to the economy in steam of the tnrbiat 
engines, and the unusually small weight of the engines, shafting 
and propellers, in proportion to the power developed. 

It may also be said that generally speaking every part of tlit 
machinery was as substantial as in naval vessels of the torpedo-boat 
class, yet she developed 100 horse-power per ton of machinery, and 
£0 horse-power per ton of total weight of vessel in working order. 

The results of the Tu'rhinia having been found satisfactory, the 
original company which built her was merged into a large company 
under the same directorate for carrying on the work on a commercial 
scale. At Wallscnd-on-Tyne, the Parsons Marine Steam Tuibioe 
Company erected works, and in 1898 contracted with the Admiralty 
for a 3I-knot torpedo-boat destroyer, the Viper (Fig. 2), which is of 
the same diroensionfi as the usual 30-knot vessels of this class, vii. 
210 feet length, 21 feet beam, and about 350 tons displacement, bnt 
with machinery of much greater power than usual in vessels of this 
size ; they also contracted with Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth and 
Co. for mnchiiiery for one of their torpedo-boat destroyers. 

The turbine engines of these vessels are similar to those of the 
Tvrhinia, but are in duplicate, and consist of two distinct sets of 
engines on eacli side of the vessel. There are four screw shafts in 
all, entirely indopcndcnt of each other, the two on each side being 
driven by one high and one low-pressure turbine respectively of abont 
equal power; the two low-pressure turbines drive the two inner shafts, 
and to each a small reversing turbine is also permanently coupled, and 
revolves idly with tbem when going ahead. The screw shafts ai« 
carried by brackets as usual, and two proi)ellers are placed on each 
8)iaft, the foremost in each case having a slightly lesser pitch than the 
after one. The thrust from the screw shafts is entirely balanced bj 
the steam acting on the turbines, so that there is extremely little 
friction. 

The boilers, auxiliary machinery and condensers are of the nsnal 
type in such vessels, biit their size is somewhat increased to meet the 
much larger horsepower to be developed, and to compensate for the 
lesser weight of the main engines, shafting, propellers, as well as the 
lighter structure of the engine beds. Tlie boilers are of the Yarro» 
type, with a total heating snrfiice of 15,000 square feet, and grate 
surface of 272 square feet, and the condensers have a cooling surface 
of 8000 square foot. The hull and all fittings are of the usual 
design. 



.^} bt'-v 






«n High-Speed Navigation Steam Turbine*. 



346 



nsider the machinery on one side of the vessol only : the 
ke boilers is admitted directly through a regulating valve 
ressare turbine driving one shaft, it then posses to the 
-pressure tnrbino, driving its shnft iudopeuduntly, thence 
be oondcnsor, aud both the shafts then drivu the vessel 
wersing turbine revolves with the low-pressure shiift, and 
Deutly connected with the vacuum of the coiidensor no 
nsistance is offered to its motion under these conditions. 
the ahead steam vulve is closed and the astern valve 
itting the steam from the boilers to the reversing turbine, 
5 the direction of rotation of the inner screw shaft. 
;ber side of the vessel the arrangement is the same, and 
lO that she can be manoeuvred as an ordinary twin-screw 
ith great facility and quickness. 

second preliminary trial about throe weeks ago, the 
of fonr consecutive runs on the measnred mile roached 
ftnd the fastt^st run was at the speed of 35*503 knots, 
eved to bo considerably beyond the recorded speed of any 
to built. The vessel was scarcely comjileted at the time of 
1 it is anticipated thiit still higher spueils will be realised 
it and official trials.* The spi-ed of 35 • 5 knots, or nearly 
lilts, represents about ll.OUO indicated liorse-povrer in 
150 tons displacement, as coiripared with GOOD to (j500 
the SO-knot destroyers of similar dimensions and 310 toua 
t. 

tods there was very little vibratioo. Her speed Bstem is 
ft be 15^ knots. 

r has surpassed the Turbinia in speed, and is at the pre- 
I fastest vessel afloat. 

I to the general application of turbine machinery to large 
editions appear to be more favourable in the faster class 
Ich as cross-Channel boats, fust passenger vessels, liners, 
twltleships ; in all such vessels the reduction in weight 
', and the economy in the consumption of coal per horso- 
Inpurtant factors ; the absence of vibration is also a 
irat importance, securing the comfort of passengers, and, 
f bhipH of war, permitting of greater accuracy in sigliting 

d exhibited represents a proposed crofts-Channel boatf>r 
id Calais or N<<wbaven and Dieppe routes. Shu is 270 
IS ft'ct beam, 1000 tons displacement, and 8 feet 6 inches 
Ktor. 6he has spiteioiis accommodation for 600 passengers, 

einery developing 18,000 horse-power would have a sea 
30 knots as compared with the speed of 19 to 22 knots 
vt'Mcls of similar size and accommodation. 



k V 



p lui (intw atlaloed with full trial ireigbtt on bonrd a mean (peed 
[on • ont-lioar'* full-power trial, the bsteat rnni being at the rate 
r hour. 



246 Higl^^eed NaeigaUon SUam Tmbmta. [Jul X, 

It 18 perhaps interestiiig to examine poMibOities of meed Hot 
might be attained in a special nnannonied onuBer, a magniited torpedo- 
boat destroyer of light baild,with scanty aooommodatioii for her krgi 
crew, bat equipped with an armament of light gona and torpedoK 
Let ns assnme that her dimensions are abont double those of the SIK 
knot destroyers, or of the Viper, with plates of doaUe ttie thidmen 
and specially strengthened to correspond with the inereaaed aiae td 
speed ; length 420 feet, beam 42 feet, maximum draught 14 feet, d» 
placement 2800 tons, indicated horse-power 80,000. Thore would h 
two tiers of water-tube express boilers ; these, the engines and ml 
bunkers, would occnpy the whole of the lower portion of the tcwIi 
file crow's quarters and armaments would be on the upper deokk TkM 
would be eight propellers of 9 feet in diameter, roTolTing at iW 
400 revolutions per minute, and her speed would be 44 Imotfc &• 
could carry coal at this speed for about eight hours, and she wmU 
steam at from 10 to 14 knots, with a small section of the biiii0 
and supplemental machinery more economically than other vondi 
of similar size, and of ordinary type and power, and when reqsiiil 
all the boilers could be used, and full power exerted in about aH* 
hour. 

In the case of an Atlantic liner or a cruiser of large siaebluttM 
engines would effect a reduction in weight of machinery, and ■!■•!>■ 
creased economy in fuel, tending either to a saTing in ooal <m tiiaa* 
hand, or, if preferred, to some increase in speed on the ■■M«wl 
consumption per ▼oyage. 

In concluBion, it may be remarked that in the hisfany of (t" 
gineering progress, the laws of natural selection generally opentiii 
favour of those methods which are characterised by the greater 0* 
plicity and greater economy, whether these advantages be greet * 
small. 

The progress in this undertaking has perhaps been slow, bat muff 
difficulties were met with besides those of a mechanical natine,*B^ 
as is generally the case, the snccess so far attained has been lugetT 
due to devoted colleagues and staff, and in the marine developiMB'* 
to the onterprising and generous financial assistance. 

My tliauks are due to the ofiScials of this Institution for thekba 
assistance they have afforded me in the arrangement of the apptnt** 

[CA-P.] 



Wireleu Telegraphy. 



247 



WEEKLY EVENING MEETING, 
Friday, Febrnary 2, litOO. 

AutXANDEB Siemens, Esq., M. Inst. C.E., Yico-PreBident, 
iu the Chair. 

SiOHOB G. Mabgoni, M. Inst. C.E. 



Wireless Telegraphy. 

EKv Amp^ro threw nnt the Buggestion thnt the theory of a nniversal 
poflMesed of merely mechanical properties, might Bupply the 
for ezplaining electrical facts, which view was iiplu'lil liy 
Henry and Faraday, the veil of mystery which bail enveloped 
Ifctrioity began to lift. When Maxwell published, in 18Gi, hia 
1 dynamical theory of the clectro-maguetic field, an<l (vorkod 
icmaticully the theory of ether waves, and Hurtz had proved 
"ly the correctiioBS of Maxwell's hypothesis, we obtained, 
: the words of Professor Fleming, " the greatest insight 
rto tho liiddou mechanisms of nature which has yet been made by 
inUllect of man." 
century of progress such as this has made wirele.ss telegraphy 
bit!. Its basic principles aro established in the very nature of 
ricity itself. Its evolution has placed another great force of 

at oar di.Kposal. 
Wo cannot pay too high a tribute to the genius of Heinrich Hertz, 
*orked patiently and persistently in a new field of experimental 
and made what has been uvllod the greatest discovery in 
•cienoe in the latter half of the nineteenth century. He 
brought about a great triumph in the field of theoretical 
bat, by proving Maxwell's mathematical hypothesis, he 
ished a great triumph in the progress of our knowledge of 
•gents and physical laws. 
I ouuot forbear saying one word as to the eminent electrician 
'«o «iB placed in his last home as recently as Saturday last, for it is 
'^fttt tiiat Beveral years ago Professor Hughes was on the verge of 
CM diaoorexy, and, if ho had persevered in his experiments, it 
''■H probable that his name would have been closely connected 
'"k wiwless telegraphy as it is with so many branches of electrical 
^It. in which ho gained so much renown and such great dis- 

rlion. 
_ The rsperunental proof by Hertz, thirteen years ago, of the iden- 
*y of light and electricity, and the knowledge of how to produoo, 
^ how to detect these ether waves, the existence of which had been 
Ut nnkDOwa, nutde possible true wireless telegruphy. I think I 



248 



Signor 0. Marconi 



[Feb 8, 



may be justified in saying that for several years tlie fall iniportaoceof 
the discovery of Hertz was realised but by very few, and for liii 
reason the early development of its practical application was slow. 

TLe practical application of wireless telejjraphy at the jnnA 
time is many times as great as the predictions of five years ago ledti 
to expect in so shijrt a time. The development of the art daring tin 
past throe or four years, and its present state of progress, may perbi;i 
jiiKtify the interest which is now tiklsea in the subject. Yet onlp 
bf ginning has been made, and the possibilities of the future canujrt 
be only incompletely appreeiatod. All of you know that tlieidoiof 
communicating iutclligouco without visible means of cimnevtiua a 
almost as ( Jd as mankind. Wireless telegraphy by means of Hertiiu 
waves is, however, very yonng. I hope tliat if I pass over the itiry 
of tlio growth of this now art, as I have watched it, or do not uttco)]* 
to jirovo questions of priority, no one will take it fur granted th>t 
nothing is to ho said on these subjects, or that all that ha* been Mid 
is entirely correct. 

Tiie time allowed for this discourse is too short to permit dm to 
recount all the stops that have led up to the practical application* of 
to-day. I believe it will probably interest you more to hearof tbl 
problems which Lave lately been solved, and the very intcr«ftiiig 
deyelopmeuts which have taken place during the last few months. 

I find that a great element of the success of wireless telcgrtpbr 
is dopoudeut upon the use of a coherer such as I hove adopted, ll 
has been my experience, and that of other workers, that a coLep>T 
previously constructed— that is, a tube several inches long i>arti>Il7 
filled with filings enclosed by corks — was far too untrustworthy tu 
fulfil its purpose. I found, however, that if sjiecially prepand filingi 
were confined in a very smoll gap (about 1 mm.) between flat plug? of 
silver, the coherer, if properly constructed, became absolutely tna*- 
worthy. In its normal condition the resistance of a good coherer il 
iuQuitu, but when influenced by electrie waves the coherer instutiy 
becomes a conductor, its resistance falling to 100 or 500 obma. Thit 
conductivity is maintained until the tube is shaken or tapped. 

I noticed that by employing similar vertical and iusnlated roil 
at both stations it was impossible to detect the effects of electric mvM 
of high frequency, and in that way convoy the intelligible a1{)hBheti(«l 
Bignals, over distances far greater than had been believed to be puuiU* 
• few years ago. 

I had formerly asoertaiDod (see paper read before the Institirtial 
of Electrical Engineers by G. Marconi, March 1899) that the diitno 
over which it ie possible to signal with a giveu amount of energy 
varies approximately with the square of the hei^;ht of the vertiol 
wire, and with the square root of the capacity of a plate, dram, or 
other form of capacity area which may bo placed at the top of ikt 
wires. 

The law governing the relation of height and distance has almdy 
been proved correct up to a distance of 85 miles. Many moutLi if* 



1900.] 



on Wirelcu Telegraphy. 



249 



it WIS fonml poBnible to coramunicate from the North Haven, Poole, 
10 Alani Bay, Isle of Wight, with a height of 75 feet, the distance 
y>fhg 11^ miles. Later on t^o installntions with vertical wires of 
il.inl.]... ihnt lougth, i.e. 150 feet, wore erected at a distance of 85 miles 
»p«r!. and BJgiiulg were easily obtiinod between them. According to 
• rigiirmw application of the low, 72 miles ought to have been obtained 
initcad of 85 ; bm us I have previously stated, the law has been proved 
only to ho approximately correct, tlie tendency being always on what 
I might call the right side ; thus we obtain a greater diNtancc than 
tiM tnplication of the law would load us to believe. There is a 
Hnruble circumstance to be noted in the case of tho 85 miles sig- 
ning. At the Alum Ptay station the mast is on the cliff, and there 
Bo oorvature of the earth intervening between the two stations ; that 
lo wy, a stralitht line between the base of tho Haven and Alum Bay 
loiig would clear the surface of the men. But in the case of the 
milm the two stations were located on the sea-level, and between 
exiiits a hill of water, owinj; to the earth's curvoiure, amounting 
onr 1000 feet. If those waves travelled only in straight lines, or 
> tfliwt was noticeable only across open space, in a direct line, the 
SBkli would not have been recoiTod, except with a vertical wire 1000 
't hi|{h at both stations. 

Ufailo carrying out some experiments nearly throe years ago at 
tlilknry, ('a]>taiu Kennedy, U.K., and I tried numerous furms of 
ion coils wound in tho ordinary way, that is, with a great 
ib«r of turns of wire on the secondary circuit, with the object of 
ing, if possible, the distance or range of transmission; but in 
"ifj CAM we oboerrcd a very marked decrease in the distance obttvin- 
with the given amount of energy and height. Similar results 
obtained some months later, I am informed, in experiments 
>1 out by the General Post Office engineers at Dover. 
In all our al)ove-mentioned experiments the coils used were those 
*hich tho primary consisted of a smaller or larger numt>cr of turns 
coiuparutive thick wire, and tho secondory of several layers of 
inner wire. I believe I am right in saying that hundreds of these 
iU were tried, the result always being that by their employment the 
nbla distance of signalling was considerably diminished instead 
baing iooreaaed. We eventnally found an entirely new form of 
inotioD ootl that would work satisfactorily, and that began to 
thA distance of signalling. 

rMolts given by some of the new form of induction coils havo 

larkable. During tho naval manoeuvres I bad an opportunity 

Dg bow much they increased the range of signalling with a given 

I of energy and height. When working between tho cruisers 

and Enropa, I ascertained that when tho induction coil was 

tied from the receiver, the limit distance obtuiiiuUlo was seven miles, 

with an improved form of induction coil iucludtnl, a distance of 

sixty miles could be obtained with certainty. This demonstrated 

the ouilit I used at that time increased the possible distance nearly 

Vot. XVI. (No. 94.) a 



250 Signor O. Maremi [Febi % 

tenfold. I have now adopted these indnotion coils, or tnu(iBfoniHi%tk 

all onr permanent stations. 

A number of experiments have been carried ont to test howftr fla 
Wehnolt brake was applicable in snbstitation for the ordinary makt 
and brake of the induction coil at the transmitting station; bit 
althongh some excellent results have been obtained over a distance of 
forty miles of land, the amonnt of current used, and the liability of 
the brake getting fatigned or ont of order, have been obstacles whidi 
have so far prevented its general adoption. 

As is proba1)ly knovra to most of yon, the system has been it 
practical daily operation between the East Goodwin Lightship, sal 
the Sonth Foreland Lighthouse since December 24, 1898, and I haw 
good reason for believing that the officials of Trinity House are oap> 
vinccd of its great utility in connection with lightships and lighthonsMi 
It may be interesting to yon to know that, as specially arranged hj 
the authorities of Trinity House, althongh we maintain a skillil 
assistant on the lightship, he is not allowed to work the telegnfL 
The work is invariably done by one of the seamen on the lightdupk 
many of whom have been instructed in the use of the instnnneiit if 
one of my assistants. On five occasions assistance has been oalM 
for by the men on board the ship, and help obtained in time to avoid 
loss of life and property. Of these five calls for assistance, three mn 
for vessels run ashore on the sands near the lightship, one because te 
lightship herself had been run into by a steamer, and one to otU • 
boat to take off a member of the crow who was seriously ilL 

In the case of a French steamer which went ashore off the Good- 
wins, we have evidence, given in the Admiralty Court, that by mesia 
of one short wireless message, property to the amount of 52,5881. «u 
saved ; and of this amount, I am glad to say, the owners and eten 
of the lifeboats and tugs received 30001. This one saving alone if 
probably sufficient in amonnt to equip all the lightships round England 
with wireless telegraph apparatus more than ten times over. Thi 
sytitera has also been in constant use for the official communication 
between the Trinity House and the ship, and is also used daily by th* 
men for privato communication with their families, etc. 

It is difficult to believe that any person who knows that wiielM 
telegraphy has been in nso between this lightship and the South For*- 
luud day and night, in storm and sunshine, in fog and in gales of wind, 
without brcitking down on any sioglo occasion, can believe, or be justified 
in saying, that wireless telegraphy is untrustworthy or uncertain ia 
operation. The lightship installation is, be it remembered, in a mull 
damp ship, and under conditions which try the system to the ntmoil 
I hope tliat before long the necessary funds will be nt the disponl rf 
the Trinity House authorities, in order that communication may I* 
established between other liglitships and lighthouses and the sbOA 
by which millions of pounds' worth of property and thonsandi rf 
lives may be saved. 

At the end of March 1899, by arrangement with the Frai^ 



on Wireleu Telegraphy. 



251 



BoTemment, communication was established between the South Fore- 
Iftnd LighthooRe and Wimercux, near Boalogne, over a distance of 
hirty njiies, and Torioas interesting tests were made between these 
nations and French war ships. The maximum distance obtaine<l at 
hat time, with a height of about 100 feet on the shipB, was forty- 
iro miles. The commission of French naval and militnry oific4.'rs 
who were appointed to supenrise those experiments, and report to 
ptir gOTemmcnt, were in almost daily attendance on the one coast 
ir the other for sereral weeks. They became intensely interested 
B the operations, and I have good reasons to know made satisfactory 
kporta to their goremment. I cannot allow this opportunity to 
■M* without bearing willing testimony to the courtesy and attention 
tluefa characterised all the dealings of these French gentlemen with 
kjraelf and staff, 

[ Tbe most interesting and complete tests of the system at sea were, 
pwter, made during tbo l^ritish uaral mauoouvrcs. Three ships of 
B« "B" fleet were fitted up, the flagship Alexandra and the cniieors 
nta0 and Europa. I do not consider myiself quite at liberty to 
hnribe all the various tests to which the system was put, but I 
Uiero that never before were Hertzian waves given a more difficult 

■ raBponnble task. During these mana3Uvros I had the pleasure of 
■ing on board the Juno, my friend, Captain Jackson, K.N., who had 
iDne aooe very good irurk on the subject of wireless telegraphy 
■Bfore I had the pleasure of meeting him, bciug in command. With 
M Jmno there was usually a small squadron of cruisers, and all 
M«ra and communications were transmitted to the Juno from the 
iBgcliip, the Juno repeating them to the ships around her. This 
■labled evolutions to be carried out even wlien the flagship was out 

■ sight. This would have been impossible by means of flags or 
■■•pbores. The wireless installations on these battleships were 
Bpt going night and day, most important manocuvrcB being carried 
■Bt and valuable information telegraphed to tbo Admiral when 

I The greatest distance at which service messages were sent was 
10 nantical miles, between the Europa and the Juno, and 45 miles, 
nlWMli the Juno and the Alexundra. This was not the maximum 
j^^****" aotnally obtained, but the distance at which, under all 
pieoinsteBGea and conditions, the system could be relied upon for 
iHtalo Mid regular transmission of service messages. During tests 
■HMgea were obtained at no less than 74 nautical miles (85 land 

I As tn the opinion which naval experts have arrived at conccniing 
MIS oew method of communication, I need only refer to the letters 
nbliahed by naval officers and experts in the columns of * The Times ' 
laring anil after the perio<l of the autumn manoeuvres, and to tbo foot 
lut the Admiralty are taking steps to introduce the system into 
h n oe g al use in the tmvy. 
L Am jfoo will probably remember, victory was gained by tlio " B " 




253 8igm>r G. Manofi \tA.\ 

fleet, and jperlnpa I mnj venlnre to saggnt that the freOiW «liA 
Admizal Sir Compton DcmTJUe had of udng the winlni taiaga|l 
in all weathera, both by day and night, oontriboted to the 
of his operations. 

Commander Statham, B.N., has pnbUshed a yvrj i 
tion of the remits obtained in the ' Army and Na«j, illiiatniled,aaf I 
think it will be interesting if I read a short eztraot fram As ■!> 
mirable description he has pnblished : — 

» When the reserve fleet first assembled at Tor Bay, die Jwm «■ 
sent ont day by day to oommonicate at Tsrions distuieea wift ■»< 
flagship, and the range was speedily increased to ov«r 80 adil: 
nltim^ely reaching something Like 60 miles. At llOfotd Hinaiflii 
Enropa was fitted out, tho first step being the seonriog to the wM-' 
topmast head of a hastily prepared spar carrying a small gttttt ■pNtl^ 
to which was attached a wire, which was bronght down to the ite^ 
board side of the quarter-deck through an insulator and ioto a 
deck house on the lower after-bridge which ""»*»'"^ tha 
instruments. 

" When hostilities commenced the Enremi was the 1— Jw»g di4# 
a squadron of seren cruisers despatched to look for die eonvojilAvi 
rendesTous. The Juno was detached to act as a link when ^ 

and to scout for the enemy, and the flagship of oonise 
the slower battle sqaadron. The Europa was in direct 
tion with the flagship long after leaving Hilford HKf«^tte 
between reaching to 80 or 40 miles before she loat toooh 
steaming ahead at a fast speed. (This difference between the naf 
of commiinication on these ships was owing to the Juno havilg* 
higher mast than tho ^Zexandra.) 

" Beaching the convoy at fonr o'clock one aflemomi, and ksfi^ 
it and the several cruisers in charge of the senior captain, the Anf* 
hastened back towards another rendezvous, where the Admhal W 
intended remaining until he should hear whether the enemy i^ 
foim<I and captured the convoy ; but scarcely had she got wall ihal 
of the slow ships when the Juno called her up and annonnead A* 
Admiral coming to meet the convoy. The Juno was at this ta* 
fully 60 miles distant from the Europa. 

" Now imagine," says Commander Statham, " a chain of VMlk 
60 miles apart. Only five would be necessary to communieaia !)■* 
vital piece of intelligonce a distance of 800 miles, receive in nMi 
their instmctions, and act immediately all in the oonrse of half *-; 
hour or less. This ia pngsible already. Doubtless a vast dealaW 
will be done in a year or two or less, and meanwhile the anthoitvf ■• 
shoald be making all necessary arrangements for the anivensl If^ 
cation of wireless telegraphy in the navy." 

The most important results, from a teohnictd point tt fin 
obtained during the manceuvres were the proof of the great incmH^ 
distance obtained by employing the transformer in the recant,' 
already explained, and also that the curvature of the earth whidiiot* 



«.] 



on Wireless Telegraphy. 



253 



,howoTer great the distance attained, was apparently no obstacle 
tba transmissioD. The maximum height of the top of the wire 
bed to the inftminents above the wutur did Qr)t on any occasion 
170 feet, but it would have been geometrically ueccssury to 
kve had masts 700 feet high on each ship in order that a straight 
ne lictween their tops should clear the curveil sui-fuce of tlio sea 
rhen the ships were 60 nautical miles apart. This shows that the 
Icrtiian waves had cither to go over or round the dome of water 
BuO feet higher than the tops of the masts, or to pass through it, 
vhicL latter course I believe would bo impossible. 

Sume time after the naval manoeuvres, with a view to showing 

I foaiibility of communicating over oonsiderablo diutaiices on land, 

I n* dccidcil to erect two stations, one at Chelmsford and another 

1 HarnicI), the distance between them being 4.0 milos. Theso instal- 

tiuioiis have been working regularly since last September, and my 

Inperimcuts and improvements are continnally being carried out at 

^elmsford, Harwich, Alum Bay, and North Haven, Poole. 

In the month of September last, during the meetings of the 

Britiili Association in Dover and of the Association Fraui;aise pour 

fmiioement do Science in Boulogne, a temporary installation was 

1 in tlie Dover Town Hall, in order that members present should 

) the practical workin<{ of the system betwe<!n England and France. 

I were exchanged with case between Wimereux, near Boulogne, 

1 DoTor Town Hall. In this way it was possible for the members 

lof tb« two auociations to converse across the Cliannel, over a dis- 

|4uiee of 80 milui. 

Daring Professor Fleming's lecture on the ' Centenary of the 
IBtctrie Current,' messages were transmitted direct to and received 
fruto Fmuco, and cid the South Foreland Lighthouse to the East 
iCoodviD Lightship. An interesting point was that it was demou- 
iMattd that the great masses of the Castle Kock and South Foreland 
[oift lying belvreen the Town Hall, Dover, and the lighthouse did 
f M in the least degree interfere with the transmission of signals. 
[TU nsult wa/i, however, by no n)ean8 new. It only confirmeil the 
[Nnlts of mMiy previous experiments, all of them showing that rook 
I of very considerable size intervening between two stations do 
Mwilir. le«8t affect the free<lom of communication by ether wave 
' ■-'. (See ' >Juanialof the Institution of Electrical Eugiueerp,' 
\ p. 280.) 
it »u dnring these tests that it was found possible to commuui- 
[^4if«cl from Wimereux to Harwich or Chelmsford, the intervening 
[witHicn tieiDg 8.^ miles. This result was published in a letter froiu 
|2|(ftaar Fleming addressed to the ' Electrician ' on September 29. 
I***distsnce from AVimcroux to Harwich is opproximately b5 miles, 
I from Wimereux to Chelmsford also 85 milos, of which 30 miles 
I*"! OTv BM and 55 over land. The height of the poles at these 
iMMuia WM 150 foot, but if it had been necessary fur a line drawn 
|Ul«eea llw tops of the masts to clear the curvature of the earth thoy 



d 



4 



4 



251 Signor 0. Mareami \^A,% 

would have bad to bave been over 1000 feet high. I give thta 
results to show what satisfactory progress is being made wift tini 
system. 

In America, wireless telegraphy was nsed to report from it 
high seas the progress of the yachts in the International Tadit 
Race, and I think that occasion holds the record for work dentil 
a given time, over four thousand words being transmitted in Ai 
space of less than five hours on several different days. 

Some tests wore carried out for the United States Navy; Mt 
owing to insufficient apparatns, and to the fact that all the liM 
improvements had not been protected in the United States at thit 
time, it was impossible to give the authorities there snch a oompkii 
demonstration as was given to the British authorities during tti 
naval manosuvres. Messages were transmitted between the hsttl*- 
ship Mattachuaetts and the cruiser New York up to a distance of Sf 
miles. 

A few days previous to my departure from America the mt a 
South Africa broke out. Some of the officials of the Ameiiean IiM 
suggested that, as a permanent installation existed at the NeedlH^ 
Isle of Wight, it would be a great thing, if possible, to obtun At 
latest war news before our arrival on the St. Paul at Sonthamploa 
I readily consented to fit up my instruments on the 8L Pad, tad 
succeeded in calling up the Needles station at a distance of 66 nantJal 
miles. By means of wireless telegraphy, all the important nem VH 
transmitted to the St. Paul while she was under way, Bteumag 
twenty knots, and messages were despatched to serend places I7 
passengers on l)oard. News was collected and printed in a bbhU 
paper called the ' Transatlantic Times ' several honrs before our aninl 
at Southampton. 

This was, I believe, the first instance of the passengers of • 
stcamtr receiving news while several miles from land, and seems it 
point to a nut far distant prospect of passengers maintaining direct 
and regular communication with the land they are leaving and with 
the land they are approaching, by means of wireless telegraphy. 

At the tardy request of the War Office, wo sent out Mr. Bnllocb 
and five of our assistants to South Africa. It was the intention of 
the War Office that tbo wireless telegraxih should only be used »* 
the base and on the railways, but the officers on the spot reaUwd 
that it could only bo of any practical use at the front. They tb«e- 
fore asked Mr. BiiUockc whether he was willing to go to the finnt 
As the whole of the assistants volunteered to go anywhere vith 
Mr. Bulloc-ke, their services were accepted, and on December 11 they 
moved up to the camp at De Aar. Bat when they arrived at De Affi 
they found that no urrangonionts had been made to supply poles, kitei 
or balloons, which, as yuu all know, are an essential part of the 
apparatus, and none could be obtained on the spot. To get over dw 
difficulty, they maunfacturod some kites, and in this they hsd At 
hearty assistance of two officers, viz. Major Baden-Powell and Captu" 




1900.] on Wireless Telegrapliy. 255 

Htennedy, B.E., wbo have often helped me in mj experiments in 
'' EbgUnd. (Mojor Baden-Powell, it will be remembered, is a brother 
••tt Ihe gallant defender of Mafeking.) 

The results which thoy obtained were not nt first altogether satis- 
fy, bat this is accounted for bj the fact that the working was 
iptod without {)ole8 or proper kites, and afterwards with poles of 
Icient height, while the use of tbo kites was very difficult, the 
btes being manofactored on the spot with very deficient material. 
he wind being so variable, it often hik]ipcned that when a kite 
\ flying at one station there was not euough wind to fly a kite at 
other station with which they were attemjiting to communicate. 
It is therefore manifest that their partial failure was duo to the lack 
of proper preparation on the part of the local military authorities, 
■ad liaa no bearing on the practicability and utility of the system 
when carried ont under normal conditions. 

It wa« reported that the difficulty of getting through from one 
■tetion to another was due to the iron in the hills. If this hod not 
been cabled from South Africa, it would hardly be credible that any 
one ehoold have comuitteil himself to such a very unscientific opinion. 
A> a mattor of fact, iron would have no greater destructive ctlect on 
Hertzian waves thun any other metal, the rays apparently 
ing very easily round or over such obstacles. A fleet of thirty 
»Dclads did not affect the rays during the naval manoeuvres, and 
Bring the yacht race I was able to transmit my messnges with 
olate sncoess across the very high buildings of New York, the 
ppor stories of which are iron. 

However, on getting the kites np, they easily communicated from 
De Aar to Orange River, over a distance of some seventy miles. I 
■m elad to eay that, from later information received, they have been 

B|d obtain poles, which although not quite high enough for long 
gees are sufficiently useful. Wo have also sent a numlior of 
^ Badeu-Powell's kites, which aro the only ones I have found to 
qreal service, 
talions have been established at Moddor Hiver, Enslin, Belmont, 
ge Biver and De Aar, which work well and will bo invaluable in 
eaaa the field telegraph line conuectiug these positions should be cat 
by the entmy. 

It is also satisfactory to note that the military authorities have 
lately arranged to supply small balloons to my assistants for portable 
installations on service waggons. 

While I admire the determination of Mr. BuUocko and our 
aauatants in their endeavour to do the very best they oonld with 
aMXt ijnporfoct local moans, I think it only right to say that if I 
had been on the itpot myself I should have refused to open any station 
vntil the officers bad provided the means for elevating the wire, 
which, aa yon know, is essential to success. 

Ur. Bollocke and another of our assistants in South Africa has 
tnoBferrod with some of the apparatus to Natal to join General 




256 Wirdeu TAgnpkg. JTA-X 

Bailer's foroea, ud it is likely that Man the ounpeign ia ended irin- 
lesa telegraphy will have proved its utility in aotnal waiftm. Twod ^ 
our auistantB braToly Tolnnteeied to take an inatallation through Ai ' 
Boer linee into Eimberley ; hnt the militaiy authority did not tUik 
fit to grant them permiBsion, as it probably involved too great a ak 

Wat the bearing on the eampaign wonld have been if wnkiit 
installationB had been established in Ladysmith, Eimberley IH 
Mafeking, before they were besieged, I leave militaiy atiategnlits 
state. I am sure yon will agree with me that it ia mneit to k 
regretted that the system oonld not be got into theae towns priitti 
the oommenoement of hostilitiea. 

I find it hard to believe that the Boers poaseaa any woiUb 
instrmnents. Some instrumenta intended for them were asiaadlf 
the anthorities at Gape Town. Theae instrumenta tamed oat ti 
have been manufaotnred in Gkrmauy. Our assistanta, however, igoi 
that these instrnments were not workable. I need hardly add H^ 
as no apparatus has been supplied by us to any one, tha Boeca eaaMl 
possibly have obtained any of our instruments. 

I have spoken at great length about the things wldA IwtalMt 
acoomplished. I do not like to dwell upon what may, or wilt Is 
done in the immediate or more distant future, but there ia oas ttaf 
of which I am confident — vis. that the progress made thia yrarvii 
greatly surpass what has been aocomplisbed during Ae last taaN 
months ; and, speaking what I believe to be sober aenae, I say, ftil 
by means of the wireless telegraph, telegrams will be aa flgnM% 
and as much in daily use, on the sea as at present on land. 

[0.1t] 



I 



General Monihly Meeting. 



257 



GENERAL MONTHLY MEETING, 

Monday, February 5, 1900. 

Jajiks Cwohton-Bbownb, M.D. F.R.S., Treaeurer and 
Vioe-Preeident, in the Choir. 



I 



The Hon. Evelyn Ellis, 
The Hon. Everard Feilding, LL.B. 
The Hon. Francis Eobert Henley, 
Cecil Elsdale Newton, Esq. 
The Hon. Richard Oliver, 



lected Members of the Boyal Institution. 

lo Special Thanks of the Members were returned to Mr. Charles 
(ley for his Donation of £100, to Dr. Frank McCleau for his 
ion of £25, and to Sir Andrew Noble, K.C.B., for his Donation 
M) to tlio Fund for the Promotion Qi Experimental Eeaearch 
V Temperatures. 

w Chairman reported the decease of Professor David Edward 
Gt, F.K.S., a Manager of the Royal Institution, on the 22nd of 
ry last. The following Resolution was submitted : — 

olttcrf ; — That the Managera doBiro to expreiis to Mra. HuKbea their lioart- 
tpathy io her Mil bereavement, and the deep relict (>r thu Maaugen in 
1^ Uw! death of Profeuor Hughes, a most viiltied Colleague. 
kmat Hugbea became a Momlier of the RnyaJ Institution in 1882. He 
id a Diarounw no 'Tlieory or Mngnelisni ' (iilustr^itcd by cx|)oriiuuntd') on 
178th, 18X4- Asa Manager nnd Vice- President lie has rendered impor- 
Tioei to the IniititntioD, and hia neiciitilie retearehee, which have received 
ride reeognition, have done much to promote the objects of the lustitution. 

le PacsEKTS received since the last Meeting were laid on the 
ind the thanks of the Members returned for the same, viz. : — 

MM 

>y of Salural Seimt; f^i7a<fc/;>hi<i— Proceedings, 18JI9, Part 2. 8vo. 1899. 
»ia rfW Linmi. Health Uirma — CluMO di Scionze Fisiohe, Mntemiitiche e 
toralt Atti, Scrio Quiniu : Rondieontt 2 ' Seinestre, Vol. VIII. Kiiso. 10- 
OaaHdi iSeirnze Morali.Storiche.etc. Vol. VIII.Kasc.T-IU. 8vo. 1899. 
twai &ie<Wy, Aft.«n{— Journal, Vol. X. Pnrt 4. 8vo. 1899. 
1 imrfraijf '/ AH* and Beienoa — Piuccedinga, Vol. XXXIV. No. 1. 8vo. 
IB. 

M Omgnj'-"' ^—'•fi/— Bulletin. Vol. XXXI. No. ."i. Svo. 1899. 
lyjbdt" ''<' l]"n. Lord, M.n./.— Qunrterly StnUmeiit of the 

ImIIm Kii i' uiiii, 180U to 1899, and General Index, 18tiU to 1892. 

k. 
Cttr and Ibe Lan<). 8vn. 1892. 

By O. SchutnachBr. 8vo. 1898. 
I Ajltta. By G. Sohumaeber. 8to, 189(1. 



S68 OMeral MamiUf Mttliiig. \Kb^t, 

AmaHe Soeiety of Bmjwl— JomnsI, Vol. LXYIL But 8; Koa. 1, % 
The Kaoinlneftbdanirta: a Kacanire (inunmar in th« EhtMH^ 
Edited by O. A. Orierson. Fwt 1. 8va 1897. 
A$i<Uie SoeUtg, JIoya{— Jcranua for Jn. 1900. iro. 

ilfiaUefiM<^,fioya{(Bomia«Bniti(A)—Jotinwl, Not. 42,40^47. 8tcl UM4i 
•ittronoMMxri &et«^, Boyai~U.aal\k\j Notioee, VoL IX Ha S. Sfa UMl 
BanJlEtn. hulUvte of—iwmal, VoL XX. But 9; YoL XXL Bnt L •» 

1899. 
BeO <£ &M, JTenn. 6. (Oa P«Muk<r«)— Bial(^;ieia BxpatioMBtiliaa. "Bi ft 

B. W. Bichardwm. 8to. 1896. 
BmgaJL, JUetUencaU-Oovamor of— DieOxmuj ot the LepdiA LaagiHge. Qf fi. & 

Mainwuingand A. GranwedeL 4ta 1898. 
Btrlin, Boyal PrrutUm Aeademf of &!<eiuM— Biteimgriieriahteb 1898^ Nan Ml 

Svo. 
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BiMt^itcrm, S. £».— Annales de rObMrratoSie de Nioe^ Vmat Uk. 4ki. M 

Atlaa. foL 1899. 
Borgen, V. JSn.— Oatalogae of a CoUeotiou of Ban AJOamm and Una. ttt- 

1899. 
Boiton PuUie LOraty— Monthly Bnlletiii, YoL lY. Ka U; YoL Y. Ho. L •» 

1899. 
BotbmSoeSeli/ef MediedlSeieneet— Jaanai, YoL IV. Vot.% 9. 8«<i IM 
Borion Soeit^ tf Ifatural ZTutory— Froceedingi^ YoL XXIX. Han 1-& Ite 

1899. 
Boyi,C.r.Etq.F.BM.MMJ.(auiAMaory-So»ip1iabViM. Iflao. UML 
BtUUA JKiueuai aad Beferenee Library— Bepatt of Ommttteo te UHl Ik 

1900 
BriUA Ardiitteti, Bogal IniliMa of—Jaxaaal, Srd Beriea, YoL YIL Vaft M 

4to. 1899. 
BHtiA A$tronomietd AMioeiatum—Joanai, YoL X. Nou 8. 8*& IQOOl 
CambrM^t PkiZowptioal Society — Prooeedinga, YoL X. Put 4, Svo. UMl 
Camera CTu6— JonnuJ for Deo. 1899 and Jan. 1900. 8vo. 
Chemieal Industry, Society o/— Journal, VoL XVIII. Noa. 11, 12. Sn. IM 
Chemical Society— Pmceedingg, Nog. 215-217. Sro. 1899. 

Journal for Dec. 1899 and Jan. 1900. 8to. 
Clinical 5oc»e<y— TransactionB, VoL XXXII. 8to. 1899. 
Oracovie, V Academic dee Scieneet — Bollctin International, 1899, Noi. 8, 9. 9ia 
Vavie*, Frederick, Etq. F.S.A. (the .liitAor}— The Bomano-Biitiah Cttf ofV' 

Chester. Svo. 1898. 
Dax, Socitte de Bnrda—Ba]\eiin, 1899, ler Trimestre. 8to. 
Eatt India Auociation— J owma.1, VoL XXXI. No. 18. 8to. 1900. 
Editors — Aeronautical Journal for Jan. 1890. 8Ta 
American Journal of Science for Dea 1899 and Jan. 1900. Svo. 
Analyst for Dec. 1899. Svo. 

Anthony's Photographic Bulletin for Dec 1899 and Jan. 1900. 8v» 
Astropliysirsl Journal for Nov.-Deo. 1899. 8to. 
Atbenffium for Deo. 1899 and Jan. 1900. 4to. 
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Brewers' Journal for Deo. 1899 and Jiin. 1901). Sra 
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Chemist and Druggist for Dec. 1899 and Jan. 1900. 8Ta 
Electrical Engineer for Dec. 1899 and Jan. 1900. foL 
Electrical Engineering for Deo. 1899. Svo. 
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Engineer for Dec. 1899 and Jan. 1900. foL 
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Homoeopathic Beview for Dec 1899 and Jan. 1900. Sva 



I 




8vo, 
8vo. 



ilngical Jonma] for Dec. 18W and Jan. 1900. 

Ill Iron for Dit 1899 anrl Jan. I'JUO. foL 
IK'S. 18SH1 and Jun. 19i«». 

Ilie British Dental Ajgocintion for Jan. 191)0. 
>f Ststfj 5Ii-<liciDC for Deo. Ig'.W and Jan. 1900. 
rnsl for Dec. 1899 and Jan. 19<)l). 8vo. 
t Journal for Deo. iS'M and Jan. 1900. 8to. 
f for Dee, 1899 and Jan. 1900. 8vo. 

tWliiiioal Education (Gazette for Nor.-Deo. 1899 iwd Jan. 1900. 
7 Blarktt for Dt-e. 1899 and Jan. 1900. 8vo. 
ir Doe. 1899 and Jan. 1900. 4to. 
iroh Magazine for Dec. 1899 and Jan. 1900. 8to. 
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phie News for Deo. 1809 and Jan. 1900. 8to. 
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k,b«tract«. Vol. II. Part 12 ; Vol. IIL Part I. 8to. 1899-1900. 
f Man for Nov.-Deo. 1899. 8vf>. 
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• Mi^axine for Jan. 1900. 
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k<c 181t9 ond Jan. 1900. 8to. 

riculturiat for Deo. 1899. 8vo. 
■ Dec. 1899 and Jan. 19011. 4to. 

\aii'r„ah C<-ic*r.»/f— Dollettino, No. 337. 8vo. 1899. 
-Jniimal for Dw. isin and Jan. 1900. 8to. 
ty, Bogai — Qeographical Journal for Deo. 1899 and Jan. 1900. 

</M IIoHaiuhiiM dft Srteruxt — Aichivos Nc'erlandaiBes, Sehe II. 
IIL Llrr. 2. 8vo. IS-.Kl. 

alAii/r— Imperi.il Institute Jonmal for Dec. 1899 and Jan. 1900. 
" " 7M»/(7u(e— Joumnl, ISlKt, No. 2. 8vo. 
Tt U.O. iOie Aullior) — The earliest recorded Diacorery of Thermal 
8vo. 1899. 
Vnivmitji — Amerioan Journal of Fhilologj, Vol. XX. Part 3. 

I Chemical Jonmal for Dec. 1899 and Jan. 1900. 8vo. 

W. V. Etq. (tilt Author) — Xladiant Energy a Working Power in the 

llam of tlie Universe. 8ro. 1898. 

ito, Stq. Jf.£./.— Journal of the Ex-Libria Society for Deo. 1899 and 

m. 4to. 

pfy— ^Journal, Nos. 177, 179. 8to. 1899. 

(Itrnry awl h'hilitmiihirnl Soriely — Proceedincra, No. 53. 8to. 1899. 

'u liiUiCuU of Ttihtujlogij — Technology Quarterly, Vol. XII. No. 3. 

, iHttilHlion of— ProcoedinRB, 1899, No. 3. 8to. 
A'ni/a/— Meteorologioal Keoorti, No. 7b. 8»o. 1899. 
. 112. Hvo, 1899. 
■ ■'I "AnUmio Jttate" — Meinorioa, Tomo XIL Noa. II, 12. 




IfociWy. Aoyol— Jonmal, 1899, Part G. 8Tn. 
>Xavy Lea^e Journal for Dec 18!I9 and Jan. 1900. 8vo. 
\Ag«»t-Omerat /or— Tho New Zealand Utboial Year Book, 1899. 

Znr Kcnnlniis der Diaperaion im eleotriaoben Bpeotrum. Yon 
tiTo. 1898. 

I»— Tranaactiong, Vol XXXII. No. 2. 8to. 1899. 



360 Oaural MmdUg MMag. \Kb.l, 

Oium. Prof. D. B. £— Cmntranioathma fitm the Flmiail Lilwntay afUia i 

UnWenity, No*. 51, S2. 8m 1899. 
PoH*. &wiA^ fVtiiHain dc PAytwue— Balletin. Noa. 189, 140. 8f% UNl 
£kamaeKiiHeal Soeietj/ ofOnat Britain— Odendar for 1900. Sftk 

JonniBl for Dec. 18»9 and Jan. 1900. Sro. 
PhalogTajdiie Bociely, Royal — ^Phofawnphis Jonmal for Nor.-Dea 18B9L 8m 
Pkftionl Soeieiy— Piooeedinm, Vol. X.VL Hoc 7. & Sm 1898. 
Bmto^k, The mght Hon. Lord, F.B£. M.BJ. ((*« .^■aor)-8flieetifle Vim 

VoLL 4ta 1898. 
Sobtrtt, J. Eiq. DA. F.S.8. (Ote iliiUor)— Fhotographa of Stai% Star CMa 

aiMl Kehnln, Vol. II. 4to. 1899. 
JU)ekeAomrt,La8oeiMdeiAmadei8elenet$atJrU—Baaaaa,'am»yi^ 

Tome IX. No. 1. 8to. 1898-99. 
Bowu, MMOry of PMte Iforb— Oktmale del Genio QtII^ 1889, tm. ML 

Sto. 1899. 
JtraoZ Jridk ilMdony— Truuaotioni, YoL XXX. Fkrt 20. 4ta, 1880. 

GaimiDRbam Memoirs, Noa. 2, 3. 4, 9. 4to. 1886-94. 
Boyal SeaUiA Society of ArtM—TnamclUmt, Vol. XV. FUt 1. 8m IM 
JZoyol iSoeMty 0/ £(itn&uryJk— ProoeedinKB, Vol. XXII. No. 6. Sro. IW 
Boji<d Soeuiy of Xontion— Philosophical Xtatuactiona, VoL OXOIU. i. ■> 
244-251. 4ta 1899. 
FMoeetlinga, Noa. 421-423. 8to. 1899. 
SmitaTy I<M(i(iii«-^oamal, VoL XX. Fart 4. Sra 1898. 
Bazon Society of Science*, Boyal — 
MathematiteA-Phyiiehe Cuuie— 
Beriobte, 1899, No. 5. 8t0w 
AbhandlonKen, Band XXV. Koa. 4-7. Sro. 1898. 
PMoUtgiteh-Bitloriteke aaue— 
Berichte, 18U9, No. 4. 8to. 
BObonie Soeiety—Htirm Notea for Deo. 1899 and Jan. 1800. 8m .^ 

BmOAtoitian iiu(i<itiio»— The Yarietiea of the Hainan Spaoia*. I^ A W 
8to. 1894. 
An Index to the Genera and Species of the Foraminifwa. By C. D. ft*"* 
Fartl. 8to. 1893. _^ 

Index to the Literature of Zirooniom. By A. C. Langmnir and 0. BukeR"^ 
8vo. 1899. 
Bocietv of Artt—JouTDul for Dec. 1899 and Jan. 1900. 8vo. 
Slati»tical Soriely, Jioyal— Journal, Vol. LXII. Part 4. Svo. 1899. ^, 

Tacchini, Prof. P. Hon. Mem. B.I. (the Author)— Hemono delU BaiA ** 

Spettroscopisti Italian!, Vol. XXVIII. Diap. 10°. 4to. 1899. 
United Service Institution, Royal — Journal for Dae 1899 and Jan. 190ft S*- 
Vnited State* Department of .li^r'cuUure— Experiment Btatim Eteoocd, V* *• 
No. 12 : Vol. XI. Nog. 3, 4. 8to. 1899. 
Montlily Weather Review for Sept. 1899. 4to. _. . 

United States Patent O^ce— Official Gazette, Vol. LXXXIX No*. «-l*i "^ 
XC. Noe. 1-4. Svo. 1899-1900. 
Annual Boport of Commissioner of Patents for 1898. Svo. 1899. ^ 
Ferein tur Bef6rd«rung des Oacerbfleine* in Preuieen — VerhaodlaigMi '^ 

Heft 9-15. Svo. 

Vienna, Geological JmtitiUe, Imperial — Verhandlungen, 1899, Noa. 11->< L _ 

Vizagapatam, G. V. Jvggaroto Obtervatoiry — Notes on the Meteorology of WF 

putam, Part 2. Svo. 18!)9. ^ 

Waihington Academy of Science* — Proceedings, Vol. L pp. 161-251. 8** '^ 

vm). 

Weetem Auttralia, Agent-General for — Wc-Btern Austmlia. 8va ISJfc 
Zoological Society of Xondon — Pruoeedings, 1809, Parts 2, 3. 8to> 
Trauaoctions, VoL XV. Part i. 4to. I8U9. 




fd.'l Symhioti$ and SymLiolic Fermentation. 261 



WEEKLY EVENING MEETING, 

Friday, February 9, 1900. 

ALrBEO B. Ebmpx, Esq., M.A. F.E.S., Vice-President, 
in the Chair. 

PBornsoB J. Rktnoldb Gkeen, So.D. FJi.S. 

Symbio$i» and Symbiotic Fermentation. 

res of socialism are realised perhaps more fnlly in the 
lie world than in any other sphere of life. What we geno- 
fUj call a plant and think of as an iiidividuul maj with much 
Ion ippr<ipriatenc88 bo considered a colony, composed of units which 
il MHviitiully similar, which live together in enonuutm mimbors, 
M which divide up the work of the community among tliemsolvea 
litk the greatest completeness; securing thereby to the gruittcst 
^ lot possible the well-being of the colony, so that by this thorough 
ipenUiun of all its constituent members it comes to possess so 
led an individueJity that its composite character escapes our 

tion. 

With few wtceptions every plant is divided up into a number 
nritios of varying size and shape, limited by delicate mom- 
of varying thickness and texture. These chambers ore the 
places of the units of which 1 have sjioken, which may be 
by carefoi examinatiou to occupy them. The units are known 
fntoploMts ; each consists of a small piece of living substance 
tog a certain degree of structure or differentiation. Each is 
Couiffluuioation with its intermediate neighbours by very delicate 
te which extend through the separating walls, so that all the 
ipluts of a plant are in actual connection with etch otiier. 
Ahfe and disposition of the protoplast within its chitmbur varies 
Riul deal ; some 611 the whole space, others occupy only part of 
*0<1 iu the majority of cases they line the cell membrane as a 
tr^nspiiretit film, having a large cavity filled with water 
<W centre. 

lo ttndying the manner of the growth and development of almost 

■j pknt we fiod this view of its structure so placed before us 

V« cannot cscnpc the ouclnsinn with wJiich I started. Every 

which is developed sexually begins its career as a single proto- 

ilhout any colIwal4, and from this simple indiviilnul t)ie most 

^-r^ei plant-bcxly is gradually oonstraoted by the process of mnlti- 

F<=ktioii of proti^plasts. Tlie protoplasts from which various plants 

ilovelopment are not alike in all cases. In some of the 

t-needs we find them free-swimming bodies, making their 



263 Profmor J. BegmoUU Gmm \Kb.% 

my in the water by meuu of Tibntile filMnentB or dlkk Aftar* 
time they oome to rest, secrete for themaelTes ■ pr o toeiin g 
or oell-wkll, and then by repeated diTision form a long 
Each protoplast in this thread ia exactly like all the othua, boAii 
stmotore and in propertiea and poweia. In the highor phirii ttt 
first protoplast of the new indiTidnal or oolony ia not motiK <■' 
is endoaed in some kind of carity or reoeptaole, wluflk diflta h 
different groups of plants. Its behavioar is, howerar, aaikr to 
that of the one we have examinee!, and by repeated diraioa of ' 
and of those to which it giyea origin, the oomplex plant is < 

In the larger plants a great deal of snhseqnent ohange or 

tion takes place, which can be traced directly to Hu diTMSia tf .. 
labonr which the massiTe size of the organism neoesntatei. 

In nature this general principle of co-operation ii tomai t»iK_- 
more wide-spread than this. We find inter-relatjowa at tuykg!' 
degrees of complexity existing between distinet plants^ whatik mn\ 
operate to a greater or less extent with each other for fliair mMtti-.. 
adrantage. The relationship is not confined to any paitieukr ff^^- 
of plants, nor is any corresponding complexity of sbvotliM or <*9^ 
sation necessary for the establii^ment of such an asaoniation. Vil 
find examples of the co-opeiation of flowering plant ^th floMik|. 
plant, of fungus with fungus or alga, and of fiowwing plant lA\ 
either of the utter. 

The intimacy of the relationship is not the aama in iD 
indeed the benefidal character of the association miea yvf 
Sometimes it is almost all on one side ; sometimes eaoh 
organism benefits equally ; in many oases there is a prepandcBiM 
of advantage on one side or the other. 

In cases in which the advantages of the alliance are more or !(■ 
reciprocal we apply the term syvAiont to the association. ItisiB- 
portant to bear in mind this limitation, as there are many eaaai fl( 
the close association of two plants in which the advantages raipti 
by one are attended with diaid vantage and often serious ii^joy ts 
the other. This feature is chaiaoteristio of what is known aapMH 
tititm. 

There are also instances to be met with in which the dlnae bomm 
tion of the two plants is attended by almost negative resnlta, itsitW 
gaining much advantage from their association. Of this, an nh 
ample is afforded by a few cryptogamons plants, partionlarly Jaifh 
ceros and Azolla, and by certain phanerogams, e.g. Ounitn sal 
CyeoB, in cavities in the tissues of which particular Alga taki V 
their residence. In these cases neither organism appears to bentil 
by the association, except that the alga finds a shelter and a haa% 
protected hova. difiSculties incident to a watery environment. ThM 
is no establishment in these cases of any co-operation betweeo Ik* 
organisms, no formation of anything resembling a conjoint pini 
It is usual to apply the term comtmntdUtm to such an 
as this. 



*■! 



on Symbioti* and Symbiotic Fermentation. 



368 



Among the flowering plants a trne symbioBis is exhibited by a 
|ponp, the chief memberH of which are met with in the natural 
Ifinn Scrophulariacew and Santalaceaj. They are herbaceous platits 
ill size, which flourish in poHturos or other sitnatious where 
is a rich development of herbage. Some species are found 
freely in woods. Of these, the little plant known as 
huntifutum affords a typical example. It grows on rough 
nsnally among grass, and develops a fairly large root system, 
teD<1s to some depth in the soil. When t)ie branches of its 
come into oout:ict with the roota of other plants in tlie same 
1 httle swelling is dereloped on them at the point of contact, 
from this swelling certain outgrowths of the epidermal cells 
1, which penetrate into the tissues of the other root, estnblish- 
b: « very intimate relationship between them, so intimate in fact 
altimatoly the tissues of the two roots become indistingaisiinble 
tU tone common to both. Bj the relationship thus sot up, food 
isli elaborated by one of the symbionts can pass into the other, 
thu each can co-operate with tbe other for the common good. 
to which each partner benefits is not always the same, 
idationship proves to be mutually advautagoous. The asso- 
of the two always depends upi>n the root of the Thesium 
g npon that of some other plant. It never receives an 
lent in turn. The same thing is true of the members of the 
lalariacetc which have been alluded to, conspicuous among 
•n Bhinantltut, Melampt/rum, and Euphrasia. On account of 
what one-sided way of establishing tiio symbiosis, these 
are frequently spoken of as rootparasiles. It ia bettor 
not to employ that term, as the alliance appears to be 
■tittlly beneficial, at any rate to a conBiderable extent. 

An equally interesting instance of a similar relationship is pre- 
Mld by the mistletoe. This plant has boon generally somewhat 

C\j described as parasitic on the oak, the apple, the puplar, and 
trees. The degree of its parasitism has, however, been very much 
lOmted, if that term should be applied to the plant at all. The 
■wtoe always grows from seed which is carried from the parent 
M liy birds, and deposited upon a branch of one of these trees. 
MMmI flemmiates where it is dropped upon the branch, and a bulky 
IkMpbmcal radicle is pressed against the bark. This grows and 
Mais into a strouply-marked disc, from wliich a projection is put 
■1 wLirh {lenetmtes the soft tissue of the cortex and reaches the 
Lati-ml outgrowths from this projection t)r gitiker then prow 
li^ angles and barrow along the cortex of the tree. From these 
Aikcra again are sent down into the soft tissues. They grow 
'*ly, and as tbe branch which they penetrate becomes thicker by 
Ktivity of the cambium layer, the new wood thus formed sur- 
tbe sinkers, and the latter thas become embedded in it. A. 
iplste nnion of the tissnes of the mistletoe and the host is 
ed. Tbe mistletoe is a slow-growing plant, and the 



264 



Profe$»or J. BefmliB Qmm 



^H 



fbll development of this rebtionAip is oakj gndnllj ^Mm^ 
ftbont. 

The sdTsutages of the Bymlnans •ppewon the wbole tolM| 
on the ode of the mistletoe then on uutt of itt hoA 
longer portion of the yoer the letter is in fall fidjage^ snl 
the invader deriveB oonsidereble nntriment ftom it by tiw p«i 
the Utter into the sinkers from the paurenefayms end the iMt ( 
host It mast, moreover, drsw from the wood of Um latter Ai i 
and the mineral salts which it needs fbr the vrozking <if iil_( 
chlorophyll apparatus. The mistletoe, however, is aa ei _ 
while its host loses its leaves as antamn gives way to wintet 
advantage then becomes transferred to the host plant) whidi (' 
supplies of nutrient material from the mistletoe, the latter 1 
to elaborate it from the raw materialB it ahswbs m the one I 
the air, and on the other from the wood to which its ainkaa ti\ 
olosely connected. 

Instances of symbiotic association between members of ttsl 
and of the lower plants are not at all infrequent. One of As 1 
oorions reUttionshipB is exhibited by the young roots of a i 
our woody plants, some shrubs, and other trees. Amonff ^ 1 
we find iM-ge numbers of the HetUlu snd Bkododendrau, wmle ttsl 
are represented by the Fin, Oakt, Beeches, WiBomt sad P^fbn,i 
many others. The roots of these plants when talcen up ah *^ 
from the soil are found to be oovered with a dense feltwon off 
hyphaa, oonstituting, in some cases, a mantle of oonsidenUa i 
ness. The filaments of the fungus not only cover the outside d ' 
roots but pecetiate into the cortex and ramify at first betwa* i 
ceUs, later on entering tLem and branching copiously in their i 
terior. The thickness of the mantle varies a good deal in <"' 
cases, but its composition is mnch the same in aU. From it i 
threads or solitary hyphaa extend outwards and ramify 
particles of soil, appearing almost exactly like the long 
with which plauts are usually supplied. There is ■ constant i 
up of this symbiotic relationship going on in the soil ; as a 
root grows out it finds itself in mould which is permeated by 1 
threads or contains B{)ores which are ready to produce theoL 
young hypha makes its way into the young root, forcing itself 1 
tween certain of the cells, and once inside it ramifies neely, I 
nourished by the juices of the root. As long as the latter 
to grow or even to exist the mycelium accompanies it, 
larger and thicker during its development, and sometimes formiif ' 
considerable mass of hyphaa in which the root is enveloped. 

The symbiosis in this case is not at first apparent. The 
tages appear to he altogether on the side of the fungus, ' 
evidently thrives very luxuriautly at the expense of the no 
materials which it extracts from the cells of the cortex of the n 
into which we have seen it penetrating. The loss of this __ 
nutrient matter is, however, of very small relative importance. 




on Symbiotig and Symbiotic Fermenlalion. 



266 



fe u TigoronB, nsnally, indeed, in proportion to the development of 
ifongns, a fact which ehows that the advantages of the connection 
JH it any rate be mutual. 

' 0)iservatiun c>f thu structure of the yonog root shows us that 
liko normal terrestrial roots, it does not give rise to any root-hairs, 
""e mycelial mantle is prevented from developing, as may be done 
tivating a plant from seed by the method of water-culture, or 
fiiaguB is removed from a root on which it has become eetab- 
tho plant has no power of flonrishiiig and very speedily dies. 
mycelium i& suffered to play its part tliis neglect to produce 
t-h«irg is nut atteni?ed with any ill-results. In fact the mycelium 
H Dp the function of absorbing water which is discliargcd in 
itr terrestrial plants by the root-hairs. These filaments we have 
nnmify in the soil, coming in contact with its ultimate particles 
It H the root-hairs do ; they arc in commnuication also with the 
Itnor of certain cells of the cortex, in which they break np and 
n a kind of network. They thus serve for the i-npply of water 
I iliesolvcil mineral matter to the tree, which in turn suppiirts them 
the elaborated nutrient substances they derive from the cells in 
lb they end. 

A CMe of a more complete alliance is afforded by the great group of 

igtfflons plants known as the Lirh^na, the two constituents of 

I are of relatively equal systematic position, and which enter into 

eompoeition of the symbiont organism in almost equal amounts. 

The Lichens are of very wide distribution and show extraordinary 

cities of furm. Many of them ap|>ear as incrustations on stones 

ood, or the bark of trees, and resennble more diFcolorations of 

nrface ; others are thin and papery, somewhat resembling leaves 

eir texture, though not in their shape, the lattt^r being very 

Jy lohod and corrugated. Some ngain are of more sturdy 

leaembling miniature shrubs, while yet others are fleshy or 

itinons coshions of very irregular form. 

The thollns of a lichen, when cut, so as to show its section, is 
id to be composed of two constituents ; a green or sometimes 
hgreen alga, imbedded in the midst of a mingled mass of hyphal 
kl filaments. The order in which these two constituents are 
iged is very varied, the alj^a being sometimes fairly evenly dis- 
Ited throughout the thickness of the body or thollus, and in 
t oases confined to a particular region of it. There is a great 
Ity poisible in the species which form the lichou ; a [lorticular 
may eo-operate with diSerent fungi and a particular fungus with 
rent alg». 

bo giadnal formation of a lichen by the actual growing together 
t*o constituents can often be observed. The green cells of 
•tut which are found in such qaantity on the bark of elm 
forming a green dusty-looking surface over the brown bark, 
ucntly found attached by or associated with hyphal filaments 
fungus, which coil round and enclose them. As the algal 
•ou XVI. (No. 94.) I 




366 PnfmoT J. BepuHdM 0mm [Feb. 9, 

oella divide and mnltiply, the hyphs keep paee wrtli tbnm uiil tli* 
liohen is gndnslly formML Filamentmu ugn, tntsh as Scgtoiitm», 
enter into the oomposition of lichena in the mae «-ay. 

When onoe formed the lichen oui leprodoce iteelf in a mf 
which obviates the necessity for continnal reoonetrQctlnD. la tb» 
interior of the old thalliu, generally near one 6iirfitc«, partieolir 
groups of the two constitaents become separated frtim tde nut 
£«oh groap oongists of a few algal oeUs wiaj^ped runnd by hTpbal 
filaments. By the mptnre of the thallos these oollectiauj, kaim 
as toredia, are liberated and grow into fiesh liohen plants. 

When we consider the physiological pecnliaiities of thie teiociv 
tion we find there is a very complete and ■atisfactory dmsiDO d 
labour. The fnngos is able to condense aqneons vapour, which ii 
very necessary in the dry situations lichens occupy. It tbwt proTiitf 
a solvent for much of the dust and other debris of its resiLa<; pUta, 
and having effected its solution absorbs it into the hyplia aud e«> 
ducts it into the interior of the plsnt This solution aud aliscirptiM 
is facilitated by its power of excreting particular eobstanc^s, iuebal 
certain vegetable acids. It thus carries raw material tu tbe eoo* 
stmctive dgal cells of the interior. The fangos also secnras te 
adhesion of the thallns to the substratum. The alga, on the otbe 
hand, by nature of its chlorophyll or green oolonriug matttir, is tbU 
to construct food from the raw materials presented to it. It as 
absorb and decompose the carbon dioxide of the air, and wbea ii>|^ 
plied with water and dissolved mineral sabatanossi, furnished by m 
fungus in the way described, can build up carbobydrates bu^ k 
sugar. Both partners can no doubt take part in tbe pruut^gg^ ooft- 
nected with nitrogenous metabolism. 

It is noteworthy that in such an alliance the algal cells g:«* 
more vigorously and become larger than similar ones which )aM 
no symbiotic partner. 

A case of symbiosis which is more deeply interesting on ■ccoobI 
of its wide-reaching economical importance, is aSbrdod by ttinM 
plants belonging to the Leguminoma, the pea, bean and clovtr fuml;- 
In order to mt^e clear the special phenomena which these plu^ 
present, it is necessary to diverge for a few momenta to speak d * 
feature of vegetable protoplasm. 

The food of plants is derived eventually from cEtreraelr siKplt 
bodies, which undergo a process of construction into more cIiboDif 
ones in their tissues before they can serve aotDaUj as food. Tl' 
simple bodies absorbed are chiefly carbon dioxide from tho air, mis 
and various inorganic salts from the soil, the former being tukc-n |>P 
by the leaves aud other green parts, the latter by the rool-Min 
From these simple bodies complex ones, among which espeeiiilf h 
must be mentioned sugar and proteids, are formed in the celhs^Q 
the plant, conspicuoas among wUch are those containing ohkfq 
bodies or chloroplaste. Among the constituents of protsid M 
which is an absolutely essential part of the food of emj Si 



1900.] 



on Symhiotit and Symbiotic Fermentation. 



267 



prguiisi], whether vngetable or animal, is the gas nitrogen. The 
■onroe from whioh this element is derived by the plant has been 
pMert4Uied to be some compound present in the soil, either a nitrato 
■r nitrito, or a compound of ammonia. When we oongidor that the 
HBoaphere surrounding tlio leaves of a plant contains about 80 per 
■mt. of this gM, it seems snrprising that this vast Rtoro should not 
Be utilised. The most careful experiments have shown, however, 
■tat io the vast majority of instances atmospheric nitrogen is of no 
■K to a plant. 

I During the past 10 or 16 years, however, varioTis physiologists 
pave determined that in the case of the Icguminoun plants montioned 
Host now, more nitrogen can be found in the body of the plant in the 
BMMe of very careful quantitative CKperiments, than can have been 
^^fted from the medium in which it has boon cultivated. Soil, plant 
Hainaiiarial applications have been all most carefully analysod. The 
ksnlta have been so startling, and so contrary to received opinion, 
Ihat they have been very carefully checked by many dietinguiBhed 
MmrrerB, but their absolute accuracy has been found indispiitable. 
Elearly then, these leguminous plants can in some way appropriate 
Hie nitrogen of the atmosphere. A careful investigation of the phe- 
hkoinena presented by these plants during their growth, lal to the 
Mtaoorery of the existence of a form of Byrabiosis, to which the 
■Jbanomenon is due. All the details of it are not yet clear, and no 
Boobt mauh time will elapse before the steps of appropriation are 
fnlly known. When one of these plants, growing in ordinary soil, 
JB removed from the earth and its ruot-system is carefully washed, it 
■MMOte the appearance of muoh-branching roots, on which certain 
Palmiiiiilai oatgrowths are visible. These ocoar, both upon the main 
WKf root and upon the branches, and are present in considerable 
■■■beni, arifling nsoally in those parts of the root wlicro the root- 
Bnn oocor, 

■ A taberele cut across shows that its axial moss consists of large 
fcnljlmlial cells getting smaller towards the apex, where they form a 
MMB of rapidly-growing tisane. Several layers of compressed cells 
MM 1 1 III ml them. 

I In the formation of these bodies a tubular structure seems to 
heoetntA one of the ruot-bairs, and to make its way into the cells 
Bait under the snrfaoe of the root, in which it branches somewhat 
bmIj. It can be seen ramifying in the substance of the young 
iMbOTBle, the growth of which is apparently duo to a hypertrophy of 
■hs tjane oaosed by the stimulus of the irritation of its presence. 
Ba tb« large-oolled tissue the parasite becomes rampant, and indood, 
■fc* tsbM of which it at first consists, can be seen throughout the 
■■bMvla. In older tubercles the tabe can be seen to end, at first 
pyiadly, in the centre of the cells, and from the blunt end by repeated 
Kktmaehing and constriction of the branches, an enormous number of 
HStraoi*]^ amall bodies are cut off, which accumulate in the proto- 
IflMB of Um oella. Thoy arc of various tihnpcs, sometimes xtraight 

T 2 



268 Profettor J. Beynold$ 6rem [FeKS^ 

and rod-like, at others formed like a V or a Y. The latter have baa 
seen to arise from the branching of originally straight ones. Aitti 
tnbcrclti still grows, there goes on an enormous coincidezit denli^ 
mout of these minute bodica which, from their resemMimce to bacterid 
have been culled hacteroidt. \Vhcn the root perishes at the end of 
tlie snmmor, most of the plants being annuals, tliese bacteroida m 
liberated from the cells in which they are formed, the latter ieetjinf^ 
The soil, conscqacutly, in which tlicse plants have been growiagi 
contains theiu in large numbers. The original infection of tibe pliot 
is no doubt brought about by one of these organisms in the soil oomiig 
into contact with the root-hair, into which it makes its wayasalm^ 
described. 

We know but little so far of the steps by which the nitrogeD ii 
made to enter into combination. It depends upon the bacteioid ir 
the tubular structure to which it gives rise, for if the soil is omfUIy 
sterilised no such appropriation takes place. If such a soil is tfts^ 
wards watered with an extract of an uusterilised soil in which ion 
of the plants have been growing, the tubercles will be speedily pn* 
duced and the gain of nitrogen made evident. The same residt CB 
be obtained by inoculating a root with a bacteroid obtained firon ■ 
pure culture uf the organisms. 

There is sooio evidence which points to the fnngrns or 8du»> 
phyte as having the power to fix the nitrogen. In Bon« oaoM ftii 
appears to bo done in the sheath of the tube as it penetrates tki 
tissue of the root. In some cases these tubes have not been obsemi 
so that this cannot bo the only locality. It seems probable thatitijM 
on also in the colls which we have seen are filled with the bacteroidL 
In any case the appropriation seems to be done by the lowly partusr 
in the symbiosis, which thus provides valuable nutrient matter fortbi 
leguminous plant. The latter cannot independently fix the nitroga, 
whether it is in symbiosis or not. 

The advantages which the green plant affords to its fellow tjn- 
biont are such as have been described in other cases already. 

These cases of symbiosis are on the whole not very diffionlt to 
explain, and wo can trace more or less fully the influence of the OM 
plant uix>n the other. Associations of organisms are found also lover 
down iu the scale of life and their relations are much more obsema 
The symbiosis seems iu many cases to be shared by several organian^ 
but most probably in nearly all cases some of these are only caml 
intruders which have nothing to do with the true association of thi 
others. 

We find many instances of a relation of this kind among tki 
fungi and schizoniycctes which set up various fermentations. It >■ 
necessary here to deiiue carefully what we mean by the terms iJUr 
biosis and symbiotic ferineutatioii when used in connection with then 
organisms. The idi.'a (.f mutual co-operation for the common beDeft 
which has been tracoiiblu tlirou<;h all the relationships so far OW* 
sidered, cannot be seen so completely iu these cases, no doubt boai* 







m 5(yn&io«i« and Symbiotic Fermentalion. 



2G9 




l*»««pl 



metobolio processes are not at present nnderstood. Probably 
all is knonrn we shall find this is the result of the association, 
M *t prt'Sent it ainnot be said to be establiflhed. Wu must sub- 
Hitale for it in connection with fermentation thu idea of power in 
Mrticnlar diroctioas porsessed by the conjoint organisms, which is 
tui •xhibitO'l by either syiubiuut separatuly. 

Wo must guard ourselves still further. There are many ferraen- 
iT« processes carried on by microbes in whioli many such organisms 
part simultaneonsly or successively. Prominent among these 
hitTe the phenomena of j)ntrefaction. In this process many 
iwa take part, some decomposing the original material, for 
e, meat; others attacking the products of the activity of the 
and HO on. It is evident that there is hero a very great com- 
ity, and many of the organisms bene6t from, and are indeed 
apon the activity of the others. But thcru is at the same 
conspicuous indci)endenoo among tliom, and ninny uf them 
not be seriously mis«e<l if thoy shouM not happen to bo 
it. Wo may rather compare such a surios of actions with the 
le for existence which is exemplific<l by a number of plants 
>wing tigotbcr in a somewhat confined area, and competing there- 
for tlio advantages which the environment presents. 
^r doe* a true sjnnbiotic fermentation arise in the case of two 
which live togethi-r, one being fed by the materials which 
; produces. A curioas case is known in which three microbes 
bean found together, of which one. Bacillus ramoaut, deoom- 
protcid or gelatinous matters, setting free ammonia ; the second, 
rotomonru, cunvertK the ammonia into nitrites, or salts of nitrous 
the third, Nitrobacier, forms nitric acid or its compounds from 
'r\iK»! are consecutive fermentations and can only go on in 
I urder named, »o long as all three organisms are present. They 
Impuvntly dn not influence each other in any way ajmrt from making 
kfci ' ' nlar products; Nitrosomonas will make nitrous acid from 

111. it is supplied to it from any other source than the activity 

ihu l>.kcillu$, and is, therefore, not dependent upon the presence 
tUui latter as such. The Nitrobacter is to the same extent inde- 
I uf the Nitrosomonas. True symbiotic fermentation involves 
closer relationship between the organisms which take part 
tbfl general reactions incident to their ass(X!iated life are 
ore complex, the influence of one organism upon the other 
lifying considerably the conrse of action of each. 
'I'bc tirst of these case.<i of symbiosis which may be noticed is the 
itation set up by the so-called Kephir, which produces an 
beTorage largely used in the Caucasus. The Kephir exista 
bo form of, say, somewhat translucent lumps, which swell some- 
in water ; they are known as Kephir grains. 
iWhen examined carefully these lumps are found to be composed 
I leparato organisms which can, by the usual culture methods, 
" from each other. The first of these is kuoivu as Dis- 




270 



Fnfeuor J. Se/uMi Oram 



[Kki, 



para ; it is ft gelatmotu bMteriiiiii,oonButmg of mnab-eailadi 
wiih Btiangly nurked sheaths, vluoh foxm irfaftt is teduuMlhrl 

as a zoogloea. The gelatmoiu appeftraiioe of the gnin is i^ 

to this. The aeoond is the ordinarj baoterinm iriiieh i 
aoid £com nigar, and the third is ■ yeast These axe bott i 
by the ooilel filaments of the Diapoia, in whose Bariiee 

The Eephir sets np its fermentation in the milk of oo 
<a sheep. The yeast and the bftoteriom either jointly or i 
split np the lactose or milk sngar into two other mmn, gi 
and glnoose. The yeast then forms aloohol from tiielattgr, i 
baoterinm laotic aoid from the former. The aotion of tte ~ 
seems to be to change the casein of the milk, so thikk it ii asl 
oipitated or cnrdled by the laotio aoid. 

These general ontUnes only sketoh the probaUlitiee of Hm 
of action miioh has not so fur been definitely studied. Thm 
development and the fall fonotion of the sepftiato fhoton an 
known. 

Another organism, or rather association of anpudnM^ 
what is known as the ginger-beer plant It is ue agent of 
tation in the preparation cmT the so-oalled " atone gingsi^Mei^" 
is a favonrito beverage in the oonntry distiioti of ~ ~ ^ 
being a pleasing delosiun that it is nonralcohoUo. The 
" phmt is obsonre ; no one knows exactly where it oame 
it is preserved oatefally by the Yilkgers snd handed on iaiml 
one to another. 

This material is composed essentially of two organisms; cut 
yeast known as Saccharomycet pyri/ortnit, from ita being sam 
pear-shaped ; the other a baoterinm, to which the name AmA 
vermiforme has been given. In their association the baotoiom i 
long coiled filaments, in the meshes of which the yeast is 
As it occnrs iu use it is seldom pore, bnt is found to be 
by admirtare with other yeasts and sohiEomyoetee, which 
have nothing to do with the fermentation it sets up, their 
being acoidontal. As it is met with it fonns, like Kephir, 
lumps of a jelly-like consistenoy whioh are slightty 
water. 

The yeast appears to differ bnt little from the ordioaiy yiHlif 
beer. When it is isolated it sets np a fermentation nf fiann angwrf 
grape-sugar, which exhibits the usual features. 

The bacterium is a very interesting form, and when it is iiohki 
it can be made to grow in two different conditions :— ^1) In thslM 
of long rods, varying in number and invested by a oommon tMM 
Inoent, often wrinkled sheath. This is fonnd to bo capable of eaiGl| 
and twisting in very curious ways, and can form a oonvidated ttnw 
like gelatinous body. (2) The constituent microbes oan asoqpa fta 
the alieath and live and multiply freely without forming ooai 1 
many preparations the empty sheaths can frequently be fiMS^ MM 



ii» 



on Si/mbio*i$ and Si/mhiotic Fermentation. 



271 



I of great length and mnch convolated. This sheath is Dormally 

by the microbe, and the process can sometimes be watched. 

icterium sometimes partially escapes from the end as it is 

toing to form it, and so the sheath continually elongates ; the 

behind the organism remaining em[)ty. The conjoint organism 

Ui be synthesised from pure cnltures of the two symbionts, but it is 

>t very easy to make them come together, as the existence of the 

nplete etractnre is dependent on the activity of them both. 

The most efficient method is to prepare a glass vessol containing 

appropriate nutrient fluid, and to suspend inside it another vessel 

porouB porcelain, so that the walls of the two do not come into 

antact. This porcelain pot must contain the same nutritive solution. 

I yeast most then be sown iu the inner Tessel ami the bactorium in 

) outer one. In this condition the tnro organisms cannot come into 

t, but the products of their activity can mix by (lifi'u$iion through 

srcelain vessel. The whole apparatus must then bo kept im- 

in an atmosphere of carbou-(li<jxide, so that no oxygen may 

scceea to the microbes. After a time, when both are growing 

rigoronsly. a little of the yeast must be transferred to the outer vessel, 
rben the two will grow together into the conjoint form. 

Another metbwl, which does not, however, give such satisfactory 
Jlfl, is to prepare a ^ood growth of the yoast in a culturu-tliiid 
votaiuiug bouillon sud grspe-sugar, and while its activity is at its 
Bight to inoculate the culturo with some of the bacteria. 

la the condition of symbiosis both members are more active than 
rheci they exist separately. The cells of the yeast bud more actively 
ui the ooils of the baoterinm are formed more freely. More carbon- 
1« in evolved from the fermenting liquid. The details of the fur- 
ktion have not yet been examined, but certain points of interest 
^Um inter-action of the one with the other have been ostublishod. 
Tke Bhealhing form of the bacterium cnn only be produced when 
is roploced by carbon-dioxide. The advantages of the pro- 
ivo sheath to the microbe seem ap])nreiit. In the symbiotic 
eiation the yenst absorbs the oxygen, and during its ferueututlve 
tirity prtxluces carlion-dioxide, thus ]iroviding the necessary con- 
itions for the formation of the sheaths, that is, for the full develop- 
lent of the bacterium. When they are cultivated sojiamtoly, the 
at appears to form some substance or substunces which iuhiliit the 
»nn»tiuu of the sheaths. This does not occur when tho symbiosis 
»t»blit>hed. It moy bo connected perhaps with the relative 
kiuuitity of the two organisms present together in the free condition, 
with some variation of the vital prooeiisus under the dilTereut 
adiliona of cultivation, but the cause is at present obscure. The 
rittoi benefits by extractives or other substuuc-es excreted by 
ycsst, and the latter profits by the removal of these matters 
jb the agency of tiie former. 
A tinrd organism nhich must be olnssed with lx>lh these occurs in 
■ a curious gelatinous-looking substance found attacking 



272 ProfeBiar J. BtfgmMt Qnm [Akl^ 

the sagar-oane. In its external appeawnae it fwonot vxj «iD W- 
diBtingnished from either of the othna. It ooanata again of • ^t^h 
and a bacterium which are aMociated in the Mine my as an Ai.^ 




way 
organiama in the ginger-beer plank The yeaat is not tiba 
aa in the latter, and vm baeteriom di&n in aame ie au ecl % ti _. 
its stmotnre and mode of beharionr are very mnoh lika Aoa rf:' 
BaetenHim vermform». It is a sheathed oiganiam whiflh aaaM to' 
ha^e the power of casting the sheatlis in the Mine my ■■ 
described. 

The resnlt of the symbiotio fermentation is 
liquid of distinctly acid taste, which if the fermenlitum 
prolonged makes a very pleasant bererage. If the aotion ii aDoMl ' 
to go on for sereral weeks the peroeniiigB of the wnds beooM 
great that it is no longer possible to drink it 

The morphological features of the organism wa mMs to* 10 
large extent those of the ginger-beer plant A man detailei ow ' 
nation has been made of tibe prodaots of the fbrmantalKW fhaa in As 
former case, and certain featores of the BTmbiosia lum baaa tmm- 
toined. The organisms of which the plant oouuts «aii ead^ li : 
separated and independent cnltorea made of both, so tlikft the 
and coig'oint fermentations can be studied. 

The yeast, when onltivated alone, prodaoes aloohdl and of 
carbon-diotide, together with a little acetic and a little 
In these respects it appears to difRsr fery little from tin 
yeast of beer. 

The baoterinm can form no alcohol, bat it gives rise in the 
tion of mnoh larger quantities of both these acids. Besides thea^i if 
onltiyated in solntions of cane-sngar it prodnces a very large QMBtl^ 
of two hemicelluloses, which when in a certain excess, aink tn fli* 
bottom of the liquid and form a kind of gelatinous sedimmit. TUl 
▼iBcuns matter can be precipitated by alcohol from its watery B o l u ti M 
It appears to be the same material as the sheath of the organisms, nl 
it is noteworthy that when it is formed the organisms posMM M 
sheaths. The gelatinous substance is not the discarded sheaAs (f 
the bacterium, but seems to be formed in the cnltnre liquid at tkl 
expense of the sugar. It is in fiiot a viscoas fermentation fd A* 
latter. 

If we compare the products of the fermentation of the t«s 
organisms separately, those of the same two microbes when prenDt 
together in the same culture-fluid, but not in the symbiotic form, ud 
finally those of the conjoint organism, we find that there is eridaDM 
of some subtle influence exerted by the one npon the other when thaf 
are in complete symbiosis, though it is difficult to snggest in whatttit 
influence consists. 

Comparing cultures of them, both separately with one in wbieh 
both were present but independent, the nutrient medium being (i 
mixture of cane-sugar and fruit-sugar, less aoid was produced ii 
the latter oaso in the proportioq of 2^1 to 1175. The same qniih 



1900.] on Sgrnbiotit and Symbiolic Fermentation. 273 

tities of yeast and bacteria were employed in each experiment so that 
the resnlts might be comparable. With grape-sugar the ratio was 
117 to 112, which is a litde in the opposite direction. When they 
were conjoined symbiotically the amount of acid produced was 474 
compared with 224 when they wore together bat free, a mixture of 
«ane and frnit sngars being the culture medium. With grape-sugar 
the proportions were 196 to 112 ; with fruit-sugar alone they 
produced when symbiotic about one-eighth as much acid as when 
they were free and separate. 

Withont entering upon the question of the advantages or dis- 
■dmttages of the association, these figures show that the symbiotic 
relation greatly modified the progress and the resnlts of the fur- 
mentation. The bacterium when in symbiosis with the yeast forms 
its sheaths readily in the presence of 2 per cent, of alcohol. When 
free it produced no sheaths in less than 5-8 per cent., and then 
only in long standing under the spirit. In 2 per cent, or less it 
only brought about the viscous sediment which has been described. 

But little information has been gained as to the influence of tlie 
one on the other in the symbiosis. It is not one of the preparation 
of a suitable nutrient material for each other. The action of the 
bacterium being to form acid, if this were tlic case the yeast should 
be fonnd capable of flourishing in such acid as it produces. But the 
reverse is tiie case. In the absence of the bacterium so small a 
quantity as ■ 25 per cent, of acetic acid is distinctly deleterious to it. 

Conversely the alcohol which the yeast produces is not made use 
of by the bacterium in the production of the acid. It is utterly 
unlike Bacterium aceti, the so-called vinegar plant which oxidises 
alcohol to acetic acid. If alcohol is added to a fcrmcntutiou which 
i« conducted by the bacterium nlono, that alcohol can bo recovered 
unchanged when the fermentation has ceased. The source of the 
■cid appears to be the sugar, and a preliminary alcoholic fermentation 
takes no part in the transformation. 

There is presumably some phyfsiological influence excited by the 
cne organism upon the other, as the products of the fermentation 
are so different when the two are in the different relationships 
described ; but what is the nature of that influence there is at present 
no evidence to show. 

[J. 11. G.] 



274 Mr. H. Warington Sn^ftk [Feb. 16^ 

WEEKLY EVENING MEETING, 

Friday, Febrnaiy 16, 1900. 

Sib Fbxdibiok Bbamwell, Babt., D.CL. LL.D. F.B.S., Hononif 
Secretary and Vice-President, in the Chair. 

H. Wabington Smtth, Esq., M.A. LL.M. FJLG.S. 

Life in Indo-Ohina. 



Thv lectorer said that no apology was needed for directing i 
to the conditions which affect human life in one of the most impottut 
portions of Asia — the Indo-Chinese Peninsula. Situated midwi; 
between the two great Empires India and China, which in geogtapliieil 
extent, in population and wealth, as well as intelleotoal achisTHDUBt, 
had, notwithstanding their want of political cohesion, been •monglt 
the greatest that the world has seen ; this great peninsula has dnn 
its civilisation first from one and then from the other ; so mnek il 
this the case that wherever one travels in it, the best Uiat it hM ii 
invariably traceable to the iuflaence of Indian or Chinese modes t( 
thought. It has of itself prodaoed nothing of importance or of M^ 
ginality to the world. Its intellectual and moral life has come bom 
without. Cut off by tracts of mountainous forest country in tiie &r 
north-west and uortli-cast, but littlo communication was ever sbl* 
to take place directly overland with either empire ; thus the sea bH 
over been the front door of Indo-Chino. Tho causes nnderlying the 
distinctiveness of the Indo-Chinese races become but gradually appa- 
rent to tho traveller. In few portions uf tho world is ho soimpreited 
with tho eonso of tho predomination of the physical forces of naton. 
Mr. Warington Smyth then proceeded to speak of tho wonderful riven 
of the Imlo-Chinese Peninsula, describing tlicir features and scenery 
up to tlie mountains. He then went on to refer to tho other meanaH 
transport which ure available to tho inhabitants who live either bsek 
in the great plains away from navigable rivers, by streams which fo 
the greater part of the year arc navigable, or up in the mountains inl 
in the torrent valleys of the highlands. The animal most ntilised ia 
tho low country, whore for half tho year the tracts are under water, 
is the water buflivlo, which is well known in India and elsewhera 
Mr. Smyth mentioned as an interesting fact their deep-rooted avereios 
to the white man wliom they scctit afar off. On one occasion, wben 
riding with a dozen Shan dignitaries, who hod come out to meet him 
ou entering tho town, they had to gallop for their lives before a herd 
of so-called tamo butl'aloes who bad discovered his presence at half • 
milo distant. A respected and digiiifiod friend of his spent ten honit 
on the hottest day of tho year on the not very commodious samiiiit of 



1900.] 



on Life in Indo-Uhina. 



\ telegTsph pole awaiting the departure of a herd of bnfialoes which 
kited impatiently bolovr tlirougbont the daj. The bnfiali), when be 
I not too sulky, is used for ploughing, for treading out the padi, and 
br drawing the big buffalo carts. I3ut the ship of the jungle of 
ado-China is the elephant. He is to be found in every upland 
"age of the Lao country, swinging bis trnnk among the cocks and 
ena, or minding the baby in the back-yard. From the forest he 
lowly hauls the teak trees to the nearest river, or climbs patiently 
long the hill sides with his master's last crop of cotton or tobacco od 
ia back. Mr. Smyth went on to speak of the methods of capture and 
ling the elephants in different parts of the peninsula, and re- 
rked that it is a singular fact which cpcaks well for the intelligence 
nd humanity of the Asiatic, that not a single race which has come 
Bto contact with the elephant has failed to make use of his sagacity 
pd strength by domesticating him. It is interesting to note that the 
ioe of the elephant in most parts of Jndo-Chiua is about that of the 
in tliis country, but it varies greatly with his age and attnin- 
_ ata. In the teak districts, large sums amounting to over 200/. are 
p»id fur a good hauler. The lecturer briefly referred to the ponies 
•tul mules which are used for purposes of transport by the Muham- 
~ ~ traders of the north. 

He proceeded to refer to the people of Indo-China, and remarked 

ao conntry in the world proiuiuts so many different types, or 

>ridefl SDch an interesting field for the ethnologist. It was coin- 

iled by the perpetual warfare which has to our own times been 

ig<Mi between the various races with ever-changing fortunes since the 

dawn of their history, and which has prevented settled government 

^Asd has not given an opportunity for the development of peaceful 

Hbdastries. Mr. Warington Smyth passed over the scmi-L'hiuese 

Hbbabitants of Tong-Eing, the Annamites, the Cambodians, the 

Hjlalays, the Siamese and Burmons, and went on to spenk more 

^ptLrticnlarly of the Laos and the Shaus, and other tribes about which 

information is not so easily accessible. All the Lao people liad 

adopted Buddhism, but at the same time they retained a large ad- 

miztnre of spirit worship. Speaking of the tribe known as the 

Musar as the Lao call them, or IMusLo as the Burmoso ijhnns style 

them, the lecturer remarked that it was stated on good authority that 

Pavio, the French Commissioner, during the Anglo-FreuL'h Cora- 

kiflsion, was ready to claim the whole country on the ground that 

I were evidently French subjects, else they could not have been 

' by a name which was so evident!}' a corru)>tion for Monsieur 

tbeir neighbours. The badness of the pun was said by unkiud 

Dns to be equalled only by the quality of the claims made by 

ICO to this district. 

Going on to speak of the architecture of the Indo-Chinese Pcnin- 

a, Mr. Warington Smyth said that the traveller would notice two 

forms in all the Buddhist — and there was practically no oilier 

itectaro of Indo-China, the spLre-like pugodu, taking various 




276 Mr. H. Warmtlem Ba^ [Kk] 



abapea in dillerent parte of Am oooafaj, and fha 
or chief bailding, in which the ■taino of Baddbft ate Md^< 
ti*e in the cool lofty hei^t of the greni raoC. At can Ikt i 
ancient, the moat eztennve, and the swat magnifkwp^y t 
the bnildinga of Indo-China ai» flioae which oentn raud tti | 
mina of Aiiglkot Wat and extend met an ana of i 
aqnare milea in the immediate neidibouhood of tha gmftj 
of Cambodia. They consist of huf-a-donn maiii ^ 
of them many miles apart in the great Obmbodiaa 
which were, it appean, at one time moatly oonneetad hf limn 
ways which earned the roads shore die lood lerslaof ihaanM 
oonntry, the remains of which still exist and are mat iritt ill 
pected places in the jungle. These gronpaoonaisted of riHa^l 
and templea ; and were bnilt apparently between the aixlh i 
centnriea. The most remarkaUe and the moat peirleot of tlH 
the great temple of Angkor, or Nakawn, Wa^ whidi, fior die ( 
boldneas of its design, the parfeetion of ita w ont iaa iialrift i 
delicacy of ite detul, mi^ well take rank aa ono of tfw 
bnildiius of the world. Of the Kmer, of whoae hi^ aitisL 
and anmitectnral skill we have sneh remarkable eri&noe, my 1 
that is accurate is known, except that they came from Indisi,admMi|f J 
into the country apparently l.y Hatien <m the coast to tlie aoml' 
[where extensiTO finh oentnry mins still exist] and gradnaUly I , 
ing orer the country farther north even than Kocat [15° N. Lsk} J 
But the eTidenoe of the buildings themselTea goea to ahow thstts* 
wards the ninth century the decadence of the building race had satis 
and that the advance north of Eorat and into Anam ocourred dnring 
the period of decline. Originally professing Brahmanism, the evideaei 
shows that Buddhism was introduced probably in the period jast Al- 
lowing the culmination of its power. But what catastrophe aetnallf 
completed the ruin of the race, whether it was due to actnal eoi^pa^ 
or to gradual absorption and decay, are points on which a great dnl 
more light is wanted. Certainly, traTelling in Cambodia, it is difieslt 
to believe that the present dull-witted, unenterprising and essentially 
stupid Cambodians are the direct descendants of the mghly intellwaiit 
and tasteful building race which immigrated from India. Tnta 
buildings, it may be remurked, bear a distinct resemblance to tiw 
great remnins at Pagan in Upper Bnrmah, which were destroyed \f 
Kublai Ehau in the thirteenth century — ^though the latter codmI 
entirely of brickwork, while the best portions of the CambodiiB 
remains are magnificently fi.tted sandstone blocks. And the architeeli 
of Siam liave gone to Cambodia for tbeir models, as will be seen ia 
tbe grt«t brick towns and the finest of the Buddhist remains at the oU 
cities of Ayuthia, Sawankalok, and elsewhere. Bnt none have en> 
rivalled Angkor Wat in one feature — that of its wonderful atoai 
roofing ; which has preserved the building alike against the asMohi 
of the climate, and the insidious attacks of the roots of the peepal 
[fieu$ itidtca] and other destructive trees. 



1900.] OK Lift \* Indo China. 277 

In ooncloaon, the lectoier went on to speak of the mineral wealth 
flf the oonntry. He said that the coal deposits of Tong-Eing are 
Mrtaiiily extraordinary for the great thickness to which they attain, 
•ad recent trials go to show that Tong-Eing coal will soon have an 
■Mured position in the markets of toe llast, but these beds appear to 
ka the only ones of really workable character. Gk>ld occnrs in very 
§a» gnuns over wide areas in the alluvial sands of the great river 
qritems, but no systematic hydraulic work has ever been attempted on 
• luge scale. It is doubtful, he added, how far these deposits would 
mpny European methods of working in a country where transport of 
aaaehinety and commissariat is at present so expensive, and where the 
loM by sickness makes the labour question such a serious one. He 
•lao rsferred to the tin deposits in the Malay Feninsnla and in the 
idand of Jnnk-Geylon. Speaking of the latter, he said that the 
wbde island might be said to be one vast tin mine. Everybody talks 
vt tin, everything smells of tin, the valleys have all been turned up- 
side down for it, the mountains have been gashed into chasms which 
ean be seen many miles away, and the jungle has been felled and 
aJMirod, all tar the tin which underlies and pervades the whole. 

Want of time prevented the ruby and sapphire deposits being 
than touched upon by the lecturer. 

[H. W. S.] 



278 ProfenoT John H. Pognting [Fek K, 



WEEKLY EVENING MEETING. 
Friday, February 23, 1900. 

His Gbaox Thk Ddkk or Nobthuvbeblamo, E.O. F.SJL 
President, in the Chair. 

Pbofebbob John H. FomriNo, D.Sa F.B.S. 

Beeent Studies in Qravitation, 

Thk stndies in gravitation which I am to describe to yon thii 
evening will perhaps fall into bettor order if I rapidly mn over Ar 
well beaten track which leads to those stodies, the track first hU 
down by Newton, based on astronomical observations, and only tatit 
firmer and broader by every later observation. 

I may remind you, then, that the motion of the planets round thi 
sun in ellipses, each marking out the area of its orbit at a conitut 
rate, and each having a year proportional to the square root of tin 
cube of its mean distance from the sun, implies that there is a foM 
on each planet exactly proportioned to its mass, directed towiriii 
and inversely as the square of its distance from the sun. The hoM 
of force radiate out from the sun on all sides equally, md almjt 
grasp any matter with a force proportional to its mass, whatenr 
planet that matter belongs to. 

If wo assume that action and reaction are equal and opposite 
then each planet acts on the sun with a force proportional to itai own 
mass ; and if, further, wo suppose that those forces are merely the 
sum totals of tho forces due to every particle of matter in the bodiM 
acting, wo are led straight to tho law of gravitation, that the font 
between two masses M, Mj is always proportional to the product of 
tho masses divided by the square of the distance r between them, or 
is equal to 

G_X^M,x^j 

and tho constant multiplier G is the constant of gravitation. 

Since the force is always proportional to the mass acted on, ui 
produces the same change of velocity whatever that mass may be, tht 
change of velocity tells us nothing about the mass in which it tikM 
place, but only about the mass which is pulling. If, however, in 
compare the accelerations due to different pulling bodies, u fv 
instance that of the snn pulling the earth, with that of the earth 
pulling the moon, or if wo compare changes in motion due to thi 
different planets pulling each other, then we can compare thtir 
masses and weigh them, ono against another and each against tbt 



on Recent Sludiet in Gravitation. 



279 



to. But in this wcighiDg our standard weight is not the pound or 
llograimue of terrestrial weighings, bat the mass of the eun. 

For ingtano), from the fact that a body at the earth's surface, 
^3 mile«, on the average, from the mass of the earth, falls with a 
||locity increasing by 32 ft. / sec ^, while the earth itself falls towards 
|e nm. 92 million miles away, with a Telocity increasing by about 
inch / sec ', we can at once show that the mass of the sun is 300,000 
■a«s that of the earth. In other words, astronomical observation 
Ires OS only the ncccleration, the product of Q x mass acting, but 
fat not tell US the value of nor of the moss acting, in terms of our 
Irratrial 8tBu<1ards. 

To weigh the sun, the planets, or the earth, in pounds or kilo- 
tmmmes, or to find G, wo roust descend from the heavt^iily bodies to 
trtbly matt<:-r, and either compare the pull of a weighuble mass on 
tme body with the pull of the earth on it, or else choose two wuigh- 
|>le mnssf's and find the pull between them. 

All this was clearly seen by Newton, and was set forth in his 
Vatom of the World (third edition, page 41). 

He MW that a mountain mass might be used, and weighed against 
M eftith by finding how much it deflected the plumb line at its base. 
■Mdmsity of the munutain could bo found from specimens of the 
^^Bconposing it, and the distance of its parts from the plumb line 
^T Bnrrey. The deflection of the vertical would then give the 
IHB of the earth. 

Newton aJso considered the possibility of measuring the attrac- 
po between two weighable miissos, and ciilculntud how long it would 
tke A (|)bere a foot in diameter, of the earth's moan density, to draw 
■other equal sphere, with their Burfaces sopanittd by ;J-inch, through 
nt ^incb. But he made a very great mistake in his arithmetic, for 
Itile hia result gave about 1 month tlm actual time would only be 
■ogk 5) minntee. Hud his value been right, gravitational expori- 
Lnt* wonld have been beyond tlio power of even Professor Boys. 
MBo iluubt has been thrown on Newton's authorship of this mistake, 
pt I confess that there is something not altogether unplcastng in 
^ mistake even of a Newton. His faulty arithmetic showed that 
kere was one quality which ho shared with the rest of mankind. 
I Not long after Newton's death the mouutaiu experiment was 
Haaily tried, and in two ways. The honour of making these first 
iperiments on gravitation belongs to Bouguer, whose splendid work 
i tbna breaking now gronnd does not appear to me to have received 
U credit dne to it. 

One of his plans consisted in measuring the deflection of the 
plnmb lino due to Chimborazo, one of the Andes peaks, by finding 
distanro of a star on the meridian from the zenith, first at a 

tion on the south 8i<le of the mountain where the vertical was 
pfl<ct<^, and then at u station to the west, where the mountain 
r:tion was nearly inconsiderable, so that the octnal nearly 
aociJwl with the geographical vertical. The difference in zenith 



380 



Pnfmor Jtlkm K Pagalkg 



[Hki 



diatanoea gave <Im monntein defleotioii. It » not 

woikmg in sDowttanna at one atation, and in aamdatonaaat Aa< 

Bongner obtained a twj inoorract reaolt Bnt at loait ka i ' 

the poeaibility of aoeh woric, and ainoe hia time 

have been earned ont on hia lines nnder man &vg 

Now, however, I think it ia genendly zeoogniaad that the 

of eatimating the mass of a nMMintain firam man cniftea okoil 

insonnoantable, and it ia admitted that the experiment thoiii k 

toned the other way abont and regarded aa an attempt to i 

the maaa of the moontains from the density of the euth knoaa I 

other e^)erimentB. 

Theae other ezperimenta are on the line indioatad \nr Kewtoi i 
hia oalonlationa of the attraction of two spheorea. ^Nw finti 
earned <mt by Cavendiah. 




Fio. 1. — CavencUsh's Appustog. 

In the apparatoB (Fig. 1) he used two lead balk, B B, mAf* 
diameter. These were hung at the end of a horizontal rod 6* b4 
the torsion rod, and this was hniig np by a long wire from its V0t i 
point. Two large attracting spheres of lei^, W W, eadi If '* \ 
diameter, were brought close to the balls on opposite sides n ^ I 
their attractions on the balls conspired to twist the toraioa roi n*f 1 
the same way, and the anglo of twist was measured. Thef<net<i^ j 
be reckoned in terms of this angle by setting the rod vibrating !>■■ 1 
fro and finding the time of vibration, and the force came out (t kP | 
than 1/3U00 of a grain. Knowing Mj M, and r the distanoa UiW? 
thorn and the force 6 M,^M,/r^ of conrse Cavendish's result gM* 
or knowing the attraction of a big sphere on a ball, and knowilt 
the attraction of the earth on the same ball, that is its wsi^^ 



I 



ra Beeeid Studie$ m GratUaiiom. 



S81 



mflnt gires the mass of the earth in tenns of that of tlie Irig 
I, and so its mean density. This experiment has oReat been 
ed, bat I do not think it is too mnch to say that no advanoe 
■ds in exactness till we come to quite recent work. 
r fikr the most remarkable recent study in gravitation is 
■or Boyi* beantifal form of the GaTendish experiment, a 




Fig. 2. — Boys' Apparatus. 



reh which stands out as a model in beanty of design and in 
MSi of execution (Fig. 2). But as Professor Boys has described 
cpoiment already in this theatre * it is not necessary for me to 
tlMO refer to it. It is enough to say that he made the great 
nrj, obriooB perhaps when made, that the sensitiveness of the 
■tw ia increased by reducing its dimensions. He therefore 

* Pioe. B.L xir. part ii. 1894, p. 35S. 
Oft. XVI. (No. 94.) V 



232 Profetm Jok» H. PmpUing [Fdi.SS» 

deen«ecd the scale as ftr as was consiBtent wiih exact measanmtri 
of the parts of the apparatus, using a torsion rod, itself a mimt; 
only 2" long, gold balls, m m, only ^" in diameter, and attraetiiig ImI 
mat«efi, M )I. only i\" in diameter. The foroe to be meaBond WM Iw 
than 1 5 X 10' grain. 

The exactness of his work was increased by nsing as snipcBdiDg 
wire one of his quartz threads. It wonld be difficolt to OTorertimiti 
the serrioe he has rendered in the measorement of small foreei If 
the discovery of the remarkable properties of these threads. 

One of the chief difficnlties in the measurement of these bohII 
gravitational polls is the disturbances which are brought abont lif 
the air currents, which blow to and fro and up and down inside th 
apparatus, producing irregular motions in the torsion rod. Thea^ 
though much reduced, are not reduced in proportion to the diminB- 
tiou of the apparatus. 

A very interesting repetition of the Cavendish experiment hi 
lately been concluded by Dr. Brann * at Mariaachein in Bohemii, it 
which he has sought to get rid of these disturbing air cutrenti tj 
BUHpcnding his torsion rod in a receiver which was nearly exhautea, 
the pressure being reduced to about ^-J^ of an atmosphere. Tlv 
gales which have been the despair of other workers were thai 
reduced to such gentle breezes that their effect was hardly notieeiUfc 
His apparatus was nearly a mean proportional between that of 
Cavendish and Boys, his torsion rod being abont 9" long, the billi 
weighing 54 gms. — ^less than two ounces — and the attracting nusM 
eitlier 5 or 9 kgius. Uis work bears internal evidence of great are 
and accuracy, and he obtained almost exactly the same result u 
Professor Boys. 

Dr. Braun carried on his work &r from the usual labontOT 
facilities, far from workshops, und he had to make much of hu 
apparatus himself. His patience and persistence command our 
highest admiration. 

I am glad to say that ho is now repeating the experiment, aflBg 
as suspouiiion a quartz fibre supplied to him by Professor Bojs ii 
pliicc of the somewhat untrustworthy metal wire which he used ii 
the work already published. 

Prufessor Boys has almost indignantly disclaimed that he *M 
engaged ou any such purely local experiment as the determination d 
the mean density of the earth. He was working for the Universe, Mtk- 
ing the value of G, information which would be as usefol on IbiKir 
Jupiter or out in the stellar system as here on the eartL Bit 
perhaps we may this evening consent to be mote parochial in ov 
ideas, and express the results in terms of the moan density of A* 
earth; In such terms then both Boys and Braun find that dena^ 
5 - 527 times the density of water, agreeing therefore to 1 in 5OO0L 



* Donkschriften der Matb. Wisa. Classe der Eais. Akad. der Wiaieiueiiiflti 
Wieu. Ixiv. IS'JC. 



i9oa] 



ra SeeaU Slmiie* i% QravitatUm. 



283 



There is another mode of prooeeding which may be regarded as the 
Qnwidirii experiment tnmed fr(»n a horizontal into a vertical plane, 
tad in which the torsion balance is replaced by the common balance. 
VbM method occnrred aboat the same time to the late Professor U. 
Jolly and myself. The principle of my own experiment * will be 
nttoently indioated by Fig. S. A big bullion babmoe with a 4-foot 
I had two lead spheiee, A B, each about 50 lbs. in weight, hanging 




^ Via. 3. — Common Balance Experiment (Poynting). 

flram the two ends in place of the nsnal scale pans. A large lead 
■phen, M, 1' in diameter and weighing about 350 lbs., was brought 
int under one hanging weight, then under the other. The pull of 
fte lead apheie acted first on one side alone and then on the other so 
Alt die tut of the balance beam when the sphere was moved round 
Wm dne to twice the pull. By means of riders the tilt and therefore 
fhe poll ma measured directly as so much increase in weight. This 
iaensae, when the sphere was brought directly under the hanging 



* Phil. Tnwf. 182, 1891, A, p. 565. 



17 2 



SM Pnfei$or Mm B. 

«ai|^ widi r betnaeo Uweentrai, vwaboot } agOL IB ft 




of SO kom. or alMNiil in 100,000,00a If thnkaplkenaMiMl 
polla with 1/10* of tlte ewth't pall, the eaitb boag on Om 
30,000,000 &et awaj, it ia oaif to Me thKk tba onttTa 
wlnnlaMe in teranB vi the nuun of the iphen^ aad il» * 
at onoe deduced. The direct aim of thia ezparimoD:^ dm, M HI 
O, but the maae of the earth. 4: 

It is not a little Borpriaing that the halanoe could be vmktjii 
indicate each a anoall inczeaae in wof^t aa 1 in 100 millinn. " ' 
not only did it indicate, it meaannd the increaae, wifli vaa 
vaaallj well irithin 1% of the doable attraction, or to 1 in 
million of the whole weight, a diangB in waidit whidi woold oaav 
merely if one of the apherea were moved ^ meh nearer die entUl 



centra. Thia aoentacy ia only attained hj nerer lifting Ae km 
edgea and planea dnnng an eiperiment, thna keeping Oe bam it 
the aame atate of atnun thiongfaont, and, farther, bj takbg «■» 
that none of the meohaniam for moring the weif^ta or riden Ail 
be attached in any way to the balance or ita caae; two c cni BlM Bi 
which are aboolntely eawntial if we are to get the beat lOHlli d 
which the balance ia capable. 

Quito recently another common balance experiment haa baa 
bronght to a conolaaion by Frafeaaor Biobara and Dr. 'E^^ 
Ifensal* at Spandaa, near Berlin. Their method may be githnl 
from Fig. 4. A belance of 28 em., aay 9-inah beam, waa mmid 
aboTC a hoge lead pile abont 3 metrea cobe, and weighing 10(MIBI 
kgm. 

Two pans were supported from each end of the beam, ODe|* 
above, the other pan below the lead cnbe, the aiupending wires of te 
lower pans going throogh narrow vertical tubolar holes in the In^ 
Instead of moving the attracting mass, the attracted maaa waa atoni 
Masses of 1 kgm. each were put first, say, one in the nppa ri^tJorf 
pan, the other in the lower left-hand pan, when the poll of the ImI 
block made the right haad heavier and the left hand lighter. TIhb 
the weights were changed to the lower right hand and the npf* 
left hand, when the pulls of the lead pile were reveraed. Whaas* 
remember that in my experiment a lowering of the hanging ipho* 
by 1^ inches would give an effect as great as the pull I waa meaa 
it is evident that here the approach to and removal firom the 
by over 2 metres would produce very considerable changea in « . 
and, indeed, these changes masked tiie e£fect of the attraetkmcf A* 
lead. Preliminary experiments had, therefore, to be made bflfat A* 
lead pile was built up, to find the change in weight due to nM*a 
from upper to lower pan, and this change had to be allowed fiv. ^ 
quadruple attraction of the lead pile came out at 1*8664 mgo^■> 
the mean density of the earth at 5-506. 

* Anhant: zu den Abliandlua^n der KonigL PreoM. 
■eliaftra zu Berlin, 180& 



on Recent Studiei in Qravilalion. 



286 



This agr««8 nearly with my own reBtiltof 5* 49, and it is a canons 

idenee that tlie two most recent balance experiments agree very 

9y st, say 5 ' 5. and the t«r<i must recent Ouvendish expcrimente 

^ at. Eav 5 '53. But I confers I think it is merely a coiuciilonoe. 

Ce no duubt that the torsion experimout is tlic more exact, tlu>up;h 
biy an cxjHirimt'nt on dillureut lines was worth making. And I 
|uito content to accept the value 5-527 as the standard value for 
bre'ent. 

hnd BO the latest research has amply verified Newton's celebrated 
that " the qauutity of the whole matter of the Earth may he 
times greater than if it consisted all of water." 




'M] ^ ^ ^// //////// /////. 
////}/ffi/ttr// //' ,'////// '''' 

Kio. 4.— Common Balauce Experiiueot (Rioliorzaod Krigar-Monzel). 






torn to another line of gravitational research. When we 
g^Titation with other known forces (and those which have 
\ closely studied are electric and magnetic forces) we are at 
lad to inquire whether the lines of gravitative force are always 
^t linca radiating from or to the mass round which they centre, 
wtlior, like electric and magnetic Lines of force, they have a 
pranco for aome media and a distaste for others. Wo know, for 
iBplc, that if a magnetic sphere of iron or cobalt or manganese is 
in a prerioasly straight 6eld, its permeability is greater than 
it replaoea, and the lines of force crowd into it, as in Fig. 6. 
nftglMttio action is then stronger in the presence of the sphere 
Am aada of a diameter parallel to the original coarse of the lines 



Profet$or Jiim M. Poflhy 



{Akl 



of foioe, and the lines are dflfleoted. IfiheaplMnka 
water, eft copper, or bimaath, the pemualnlitj being 1 
air, there ia an opposite etteiA, aa in Fig. 6, ud the flali k 
at the end of a diameter pandlel to the linea of ftroo^ aad 
Unea axe defleoted. Similarly, a dieleotrio bodj niaaed in i 
field gsthers in the lines of force, and makai toe ndd wbmt 
enter and leaTe stronger than it was beffan. 

IS we en«jlose a magnet in a hollow box of aaft ixoii iteil 
nagnetio field, the lines of foroe are gathered into die inn and ' 
oleued away from the inside cavity, so that th« ni^piat is 
firam external action. 

Now, common experience might lead ns at amee (o aff 
is no Tery considerable eflbct of this kind witb gnnitHiflBi 
endance of ordinary weighings may, periiau, be w tf ee t ed, ' 
as botili sides will be eqnally aflboted as^ tne balaaoe h 
nsed. Bnt a spring balance uimild show if tbne is any 
when nsed in difEarent positiona aboTB difbrant media, or in 




Via. 5. — ParamaKiietio sphere placed 
in a previously straigUt field. 



Fio. 6.^ — ^Diamagnetio q>ben pheri 
in a preTioiuly sbai^t Mi. 



enclosnres. And the ordinary balance is nsed in certain experiiMik 
in which one weight is enspended beneath the balance case, aalii^ ' 
rounded, perhaps, by a metal case, or perhaps, by a water»balh. U| 
DO appreciable variation of weight on that ocoonnt has yet been vttL ] 
Kor does the direction of the vertical change rapidly from jitet^t | 
place, as it would with varying permeability of the ground babft I 
Bnt perhaps the agreement of pendulum results, whahiwt (bj 
block on which the pendulum ia placed, and whatever the osi* ^ I 
which it is contained, gives the beet evidence that there ia no fX^] 
gathering in, or opening out of the lines of the earth's tins If j 
different media. 

Still, a direct experiment on the attraction between two 
with different media interposed was well worthy of trial, and i 
experiment has lately been carried out in America by Messrs. 
and Thwing.* The effect to be looked for will be nnderstood CM I 
Fig. 7. If a medium more permeable to gravitation is intsipoiil 



• Physical Beview, v. 1897, p. 294. 



M Bec«nt Studtet in Gravitalion. 



287 



between two bodies, the linos of force will moTo into it from each 
(ide, and the gravitative pull on a body, near tlio interposed medium 
on the side away from the attracting body, will bo increased. 

The apparatos they used was a niodifie<I kind of Boys' apparatus 
(Fig. 8). Two small gold masses in the form of short vertical wires, 
each '4 gm. in weight, wore arranged at difi'oront levels at the ends 
liitnally of a torsion rod 8 mm. long. The attracting masses M, M^ 

EliMd, each about 1 kgm. ThcBe were first in the positions 
by black lines in the figure, and were then moved into the 
>U8 shown by dotted lines. The attraction wns measured first 
merely the air and the case of the instrument intervened, nnd 
then when vahoos slabs, each 3 cm. thick, 10 cm. wide and 2'J cm. 
high, were interposed. With screens of loud, zinc, morcnry, water. 
Aloobol or glycerine, the change in attraction was at the most about 
1 in 500, and this did not exceed the errors of experiment. That is, 
■bey fonod no evidence of a change id pull with change of medium. 

If Rich change exists, it is not of the 'order of the change of electrio 
mU with change of medium, but something far smaller. Perhaps, 
xt Mill remains just possible, that there are variations of gravitational 
kbility comparable with the variations of magnetic peruea- 
ily in media such as water and alcohol. 
Yttt another kind of effect might be suspected. In most crystal- 
mbstftnee* the physical properties are different along different 
ions in a crystal. They expand differently, they conduct beat 
Dtly, and they transmit light at different speeds in different 
ioD*. We might, then, imagine thnt the lines of gravitative 
■pnad out from, say a crystal sphere unequally in difTereat 
a*. Some yean ago. Dr. Mackenzie* made an experiment in 
loa in which he aonght for direct evidence of such unequal 
ribntion of the lines of furce. Ho used a form of apparatus like 
Ami of Professor Boys (Fig. 2), the attracting masses being calc 
•par ^iborw about 2 inches in diameter. The attracted masses in 
aspariffient were small lead spheres about ^ gm. each, and he 




Fio. 7. — Effect of intcrpoaition of more permeable 
medium ia nidiatiDg tleld of force. 



288 



Profeitor John E. Poynltng 



[Feb. 23, 



meflsnred the attraction between the crystals and the lead when th« 
axes of the crystals were set in various positions. Bat the variati'M 
in the attraction was merely of tbe order of error of ex[)erinicQt Is 
another experiment the attracted masses were small calc spar crrstaJ 
cylinders weighing a little more than ^ gm. each. Bat again tiiet» 
was no evidence of variation in the attraction with variation of uiil 
direction. 



f 




y-y 



iQ. I 



,M.., 



\ /7 




;. o,. 
•■ / • 
/ 


• 




1 ''■^> 




■ 4 


L -.~i 



Fio. 8. — Experiment on f^iritative permeabilitj 
(Austin and Thwing). 

Practically the same pn.blem was attacked in a different wjliJ 
Mr. Gray and myself.* Wo tried to find whether a qnartz crj** 
sphere hod any directive action on another quartz crystal sphere clo* 
to it, whether they tended to aet with their axes parallel or croaxd- 

It may easily be seen that this is the same problem by cot- 
sidering what must happen if there is any di£ference in the attnctoA 
between two such spheres when their axes arc parallel and whentbej 
are crossed. Suppose, for cxamjile, that the attraction is alnl* 
greater when their axes are parallel, and this seems a reaMoaw 
sapposition, inasmuch as in straightforward crystallisation sncccwn 
parts of tbe crystal are added to tbe existing crystal, all with tb«ir 
axes pnrallol. Begin, then, with two qnartz crystal sphere* o" 
each other with their axes in the same plane, but porpendiealtf " 



• PbU. Tians. 192, 1899, A, p. 245. 



il 



on Beeent Studiet in Oratitation. 



389 



ft other. RcmoTe one to a very great distance, doing work 
Ibftt their mutnal attractions. Then, when it ib qnitc ont of 
Bfi of appreciable nctinu, tnrn it ronnd till its axis is parallel to 
I of ttie fixed crystal. Tbis absorbs no work if done slowly. 
BD let it retom. The force on the return journey at every point 
pMtor tlian the force on tlie outgoing journey, and more work will 
got out than waa pat in. When the sphere is in its first position, 
B it round till the axes are again at right angles. Then work 
lit be done on taming it through this right angle to supply the 
wnnoe between the outgoing and incoming works. For if no work 
pt done in the turning, we could go through cycle after cycle, 
Inys getting a balance of energy over, and this would, I think, 
ily either a cooling of the crystals or a diminution in their weight, 
ither supposition being admissible. We are led, then, to say that 
|tiie attraction with parallel axes exceeds that with crossed axes, 
pn most be a directive action resisting the turn from the crossetl 
^e parallel positions. And conversely, a directive action implies 
U variation in gravitation. 

The straightforward mode of testing the existence of this direc- 
^ action would consist in hanging up one sphere by a wire or 
iad, and turning the other round into various positions, and 
prving whether the hanging sphere tended to twist out of posi- 
I- Bat the action, if it exists, is so minute, and the disturbances 
I to air currents oro so great, that it would bo extremely difiieult 
Hbserve its effect directly. It occurred to us that we might call 
■he aid of the principle of forced oscillations, by turning one 
■re ronnd and ronnd at a constant rate, so that the couple would 
Prat in one direction and then in the other, alternately, and so 
pbe hanging sphere vibrating to and fro. The nearer the com- 
fB Ume of vibration of the applied couple to the natural time of 
lotion of the hanging sphere, the greater would be the vibration 
l^p. This is well illustrated by moving the point of suspension 
^ pondulum to and fro in gradually decreasing periods, when the 
P>g gets longer and longer, till the period is that of the pendulum, 
• ttion docreaaes again. Or by the experiment of varying tho 
Cth of a jar resounding to a given fork, when tho sound suddenly 
tUi out 08 the length becomes that which would naturally give 
) nine note as the foik. Now, in looking for the conplo between 
tetystals, there are two possible cases. The most likely is that 
Rbich the couple acts in one way while tho turning sphere is 
ing from parallel to crossed, and in the opposite way during the 
I quarter turn from crossed to parallel. Tlmt is, tho couple 
Hivn four times during the revolution, and this we may term a 
ratilal couple. But it is just ))066ible thut a quartz crystal has 
lads like a magnet, and that like polos tend to like directions. 
I the couple will vanish only twice in a rcvoltition, and may bo 
IhI a semicircular conple. We looked for both, bat it is enough 
to oonaidor tho possibility of the quadrantal couple only. 



290 



Profeiuor John H. Pointing 



[Feb. 23, 



Onr mode of working will be seen from Fig. 9. Tlie hangia? 
sphoro, - 9 uru. in diameter and 1 gm. in weight, was placed in a light 
alumioium wire cage with a mirror on it, and suspended by « loog 




i, 



Jncilned. Mirror 



%m 






Fio. 9. — Experiment on diiectiTe action of one quartz cryalal oa anolli''' 

quartz fibre in a brass cose with a window in it opposite the niiK<^' 
and surrounded by a donblo-walled tinfoiled wood case. The p"* 
tion of the sphere was read iii the usuttl way by scale and tel«i*f 
The time of swing of this little sphere was 120 seconds. ^ 

A larger quartz sphere 6" 6 cm. diameter and weighing *^ 
gms., was fixed at the lower end of an axis which could be tntnw " 
any desired rate by a regulated motor. The centres of the «ph<*" 
were on the same level and 5' 9 cm apart. On the top of the (^ 
was a wheel with 20 equidistant marks on its rim, ono passing a i*^ 
point every 11 -5 seconds. 

It might be expected that the couple, if it existed, wnnU !•* 
the greatest effect if its period exactly coincided with the 120 tM^ 



OR SeeeiU 8tudie$ m OrtuikOum. 



391 



I of the hanging apbera— L e. if the larger sphere Terolved in 2iO 
if. Bat in the oonditiona of the experiment the fibrations of 
nail sphere were Tory much damped, and the forced oecillationii 
a monnt up as they wonid in a freer swing. The diatnrbanoea, 
1 were mostly of an impnlsiTe kind, oontinnally set the ti»nging 
B into large vibration, and these might easily be taken as doe 
t rerolving sphere. In tnet, loolong for the couple with 
ly coincident periods would be something like trying to find if 



1 



I'-y 




^X 


<-\ 


<^ 




/-v. 


A 


i 

A 


Time - 

J 

/ 


< 
eriod 


1. 


< 


'N-/ 
/^^ 


V 


y \ 

i 


1/ 

' P 


modi 


123 




•5 



Fio. 10. — Upper oorre a regular Tibration. Lower curve a 
dutorbance dyiog away. 

c nt the air in a resonating jar vibrating when a brass band was 
BgsU round it. It was necessary to make the couple period, 

a little different from the natural 120 second period, and, 
dingly, we revolved the large i^phere once in 230 seconds, when 
ipposed quadrantal couple would have a period of 115 seconds, 
igi. 10 and 11 may help to show how this enabled us to 
ittte the disturbances. Let the ordinates of the curves in 
10 represent vibrations set out to a horizontal time scale. The 
' earve is a reg;ular vibration of range + 3, the lower a dis- 
Dos beginning with range + 10. The first has period 1, the 
i period 1*25. Now cutting the curves into lengths equal to 
vied of the shorter time of vibration, and arranging the lengths 
Oder the other as in Fig. 11, it will be seen tibat the maxima 
be Ti''"''"»«- of the regular vibration always fall at the same 
1^ 10 that, taking 7 periods and adding up the ordinates, we 

times the range, viz. + 21. But in the disturbance the 
la and minima fall at different points, and even with 7 periods 
the range is from + 16 to — 13, or less than the range due to 
Idition ^ the moch smaller regular vibration. 



292 



ProftMor John H. Poynting 



[FeKlS, 



In our erperiment, the couple, if it exifted, would rery tow 
estnljliBb its vibration, wUich would always be there and would go 
tbrotigii all its valiiea in 115 sccouds. An observer, watc'iing tl* 
wheel at tlio top of the revolving axis, gave the time Bignalf eiery 
II '5 seconds, regulating tho speed, if necessary, and an obfenrer U 
the telescope gave the sculo reading at every signal, that is, 10 tioti 
during the period. Tho values were arranged in 10 columns, ««ci 
horizontal line giving the readings of n period. The experiment «• 
curried on for aliont 2 J hours at a time, covering, say, 80 periiJi 
On adding up the columns, tho maxima and minima of the enopl* 
effect would always fall in the same two columns, and so ttie addiiiai 
would givo 80 times the swing, while the maxima and mininw of tlw 






Fio. 11. — Hesnlts nf mporporition of Inn^hs of currea in Tig. 10 
equal to Lbe period of the regular one. 

natural swings due to disturbances would fall in different coInaA 
and BO, in the long run, neutralise each other. The rani* * 
difterent days' work might, of course, be added together. 

There always was a small outstanding effect such u would W 
produced by a qnndrantal couple, but its effect was not alwayt i".'^ 
eame columns, and tho net result of alwut 350 period oh 
was that there wns no 115 second vibration of more th«n 1 
arc, while tho disturbauces were sometimcB 50 times as great. 

Tlio semicircular couple required the taming sphere to rerolrt 
in 115 secouds. Here, want of symmetry in the apparstas "o"* 
come in with the same effect as the couple sought, and the oi'' 
standing result was, accordingly, a little larger. 



amicirciuar ooupie is not greaier man one wnicn woaia 
crossed to panllel position in 4j^ hoars, and it would 
bont that position in not less than 17 hours. 
the gravitation is less in the crossed than in the partllel 
imd in a constant ratio, the difference is less than 1 in 
the one case and lees than 1 in 2800 in the other. 
ay compare with these nnmbers the difference of rate of 
yellow light through a quartz crystal along the axis and 
liar to it. That difference is of quite another order. 
It 1 in 170. 

other possible qualities of gravitation, I shall only mention 
I indecisive experiments have been made to seek for an 

of mass on chemical combination,* and that at present 
10 reason to suppose that temperature affects gravitation. 
I to temperature effect, the agreement of weight methods 
le methods of measuring expansion with rise of tempera- 
Dd, as far as it goes, in d^owing that weight is independent 
ttnre. 

He the experiments to determine G are converging on the 
le^ the attempts to show that, under certain conditions, it 
e constant, have resulted so far in failure all along the line. 
on gravitation has succeeded in showing that it is related 
g but the masses of the attracting and the attracted bodies. 

to have no relation to physical or chemical condition of 

masses or to the intervening medium. 
m we have been led astray by false analogies in some of 
ions. Some of the qualities we have sought and failed to 
ties which characterise electric and magnetic forces, may 

the polarity, the -i- and — , which we ascribe to poles 
m, and which have no counterpart in mass. 
lis nnlikeness, this independence of gravitation of any 
t mass, bars the way to any explanation of its nature. 



SM 



SeeaU 



ONkVfl 



to Fandfty, an loading, I beliefs, to tibe identilloBtiaB of i 
tioii and chemical Beparation, to iba identifieatioii of elaalriii i 
ehemieal energy. 

But gravitation atill ataoda alone. The iaolatioa wUoh Ihnifj 
aoo^t to hfeak down ia atOl eoimdeta. Tet the wok I ha*a I 
deaoibnig ia not all fiulnre. We at leaat knov ao m el M i id 
Imowiog idiat qnalitiea giaTiiatioa does not poanaa, vad lAat ill 
time ahall oome for e^anatiwi all theaa hbmioai and, at Ml 
ai^t, naeleai eqperimenta will tain thair plaos in flw ftwHlatiW ] 
wmdi that earohmation will be bdlt. 

[X E I.] 



Malaria and Mo$qtiitoei. 



WEEKLY EVENING MEETING, 
Friday, March 2, 1900. 

GaAOK Thk Dckf. op Nobtbttubebljutd, ELG. F.S.A., 
President, in the Chair. 

Major Bonald Ross, D.P.H. M.B.C.S. 

Malaria and Mot^iloet, 

ttwledge of the disease called malarial fever first emerges 
■OS in the aeventeeDtb contnry, when, owing to the recent 
f of qninine, the great Italian physician, Torti, was able 
IBDtiate this malady from other fevers, and to describe its 
H with accoracy. Next century, Morton, Lancisi, Pringle 
|ts obaeired the connection of the disease with stagnant water 
f4yiog ground, and first emitted the theory — which in one 
WDOther has found general acceptance up to the present date 
be feT«r is due to a miasm which rises from the soil or water 
kioos localities. The next great advance was made in the 
the nineteenth century by Meckel, Virchow and Frerichs, 
ftined that the diBtiuguiabing pathological product of the 
a black substance, which is diBtributed in collections of 
111 -black or brown granules in the blood and organs of 
which is called the vuilarial pigment or melanin. This 
ch cnbuiuated in the great discovery of Lavemn in 1880 
kScct that the melanin is prodnccd within the bodies of vast 
If minate parasites which live in the red blood-corpuscles 

nkeeter had already opened the science of the parasitology 

d-corpusole by his discovery of Drepanidiiim ranarum in 

^t was at once apparent that tho parasites found by these two 

I somewhat nearly allied — that is, that Laveran's parasite 

' organism, and not a vegetable one like the pathogenetic 

itly discovered by Pasteur, Lister, Koch and many 

> our knowledge of the subject was quickly increased by 

r of similar biematozoa in certain species of reptiles, birds, 

bats, and in cattle, by Danilowsky, Kruso, LabbS, Koch, 

and Kilbome. In 1885 a further advance was made 

I ascertained that the hnuian parasites propagate within 

be host by means of ordinary asexual spore-formation : 

Irbutions of fever in a patient are coincident with the 

the cluHtcrs of spores produced by the organisms : and 

lit least throe varieties of the parasites in man in Italy, 



Italy. M 



296 Major Bonald Bon [Hudi i. 

These observations were confirmed and extended by ■ large nnmlMr 
of persons working in Tarious parts of the world — ^most promiiMol 
among whom are MarchiafaTa, Celli, Vandyke Carter, Graan, Oikr, 
Bignami, Antolisei, Councilman, Mannaberg, Bomanowsky, JjiM, 
Koch, Mansun, Thayer and MacCallam. In short, the work of all 
those observers, and of many others scarcely less meritoriona, hu not 
only absolutely established the fact that the paraaitea are the ena 
of malarial fever, but has given us a very thoroagh knowledge balk 
of the parasites themselves and of their pathological efieots, diitotnl 
indirect ; until the science of malaria — for it may almost be it' 
scribed as a science in itself — ^has become a brilliant exemplar of fti 
modem methods of research as regards the scienoe of diaeen ■ 
general. 

But I am not here concerned with qnestions of patholMj ■ 
malarial fever. At the conclusion of the labours to which lum 
just referred, we had, it is true, grasped the nature of the diiaw 
itself; but a question of the greatest moment still reqoind a 
answer. We had studied side by side the morbid process sad fki 
parasites which canse it ; but we had stiU to find out how imfeetiai 
is caused, how these parasites effect an entry. We had asoeitaintdfti 
life-history of the parasites within man, and of the kindred rmmit* 
within otlier animals ; but, even after all these investigatumi, te 
life-history of the parasites outside man and ouUids other TBitebnIi 
hosts remained to be discovered. Until this was done onr knoirialgl 
was not complete. It is now my privilege to describe the iiiliiiiisliiH 
theories and investigations whidt led to the solution of this great as 
difScnlt problem. 

The inqmrlanee of the problem need not be enlarged upon. In 
the British army in India during the year 1897, out of a total strenglk 
of 178,197 men, no less than 75,821 were admitted into hospital te 
malarial fever ! Fortunately the death-rate of the disease is low is 
most places ; but on the other hand the cases are so nomerons Ant 
in the ag<;rugate the mortality from malarial fever is very lugi 
indeed. For instance, in India alone, among the civil popnlstiiii 
(who do not take adequate treatment), the mortality from "fevers' 
during the single year 1897 amounted to the enormona totil <f 
5,026,725 — over five million deaths — being nearly ten times that dit 
to any other disease. Although undoubtedly thousands of deaths U* 
wrongly attributed to fever in those statistics, such figures can pant 
(inly to a very great mortality duo to malaria. Yet India on tba 
i\'h(>lo is not nearly so malarious as many localities — such, for in- 
stance, ns places nu the coasts of Africa. In short, next perlMi{ii to 
tuberculosis, malarial fever is admittedly the most importaDt i 
human diseases. 

But if the problem to which I refer was an important oaa, Hi 
Folution presented difficulties which I, for one, formerly thought ti 
be insuperable. It has been mentioned that Lancisi and 'Pm^ 
connectc<:l the disease with stagnant water; and their viem li*^ 



1900.1 



en Malaria and Mogguitoet. 



297 



I not I 



iflsiuit 



been genoniUj eodoracd by innnmerable observations made since their 
tinw — by tlie general experience of mankind, by statistics, and by 
the lact that malaria can often he sctnally banished by means of 
drainage of the soil. Bat Laveran had now sho^\-n the disease to be 
doe to a pantsite of the blool. Hotv reconcile these facts? There 
appeared to be bat one way of doing si} — namely, by BUfipDsing that 
the organism lives a free life in the water nr soil of malarious places, 
»ni which it enters man by the respiratory or digestive tract*. To 
art this it was necessary to discover it in the water or soil of 
ions places. Bnt how make this discovery? The organism 
; a bacterium, bnt an animal parasite. It cannot l>e taken from 
living blood and sown on the surface of a gelatine film. Expcri- 
ata have proved that it can be inoculated from man to man by the 
DtiBvenons injection of fresh infected blood ; but this is a very 
"" thing to cultivating it in an artificial mediiim. At all 

, experiments in this line have always failed, and are not in 
likely to succeed. The parasites simply pcri«h when taken 
I tbeir natural habitation, the blood. It was therefore extremely 
ely that we should ever be able to follow up their lifL-history 
' thia means — which has proved so succcssfnl as regards the bacteria. 
; mnained only to find them in the soil or water by direct search. 
how identify them among the host of Protozoa which live in 
ekmcnts? Certainly not by their form or appearance. As 
to OB at that time, they were simply minute amcebte ensconced 
I nd oorpnscles and accurately adapted for such a life. Now 
I eorpoacles do not exist in soil and water ; if the parasitoH live in 
latter, they must possess some other form to that which they 
in the blood, and the clue afforded by identity of appearanoo 
. The only remaining method open to us would have been 
apt to produce infection by each one in turn of the numerona 
» of Protozoa found in the water and »)il of malarious places — 
great magnitude, and one which we now know would have 
Indeed, it was actually attempted by several observers, and 
IJy did fail. 
8urh was the state of things up to the end of the year 1894. 
cing for myself, I can well remember the hopeless feelings with 
ich 1 then regarded the problem. Fortune, however, was to he 
to us than I hod dared believe. At this very moment the 
to the solution of the problem had already been indicated by 
Patrick Hanson. 

I have said that since the original discovery of Ray Liankester, 

hnmatozoa — or rather hoiroocytozoa — have been found in 

, mmI various animals. All these ore generally classed by zoolo- 

in Lenckart's order of the Sporozoa, and arc usually divided 

three groups — groups which are not very closely related, except 

' lh« liKt that all the organisms concerned are parasites of the red 

J«s of the blood. One KToup- — found in rejitilos — consists of 

I closely allied to the Oregariuidte, another is found in oxen, 

Vok XYL (No. 94.) z 



thai 



1^^ 



Jii^Bimddam {Mbtiit 



and is the c«iue of Tesu eatile-finar ; iha duid--4br liiijdil 
the name of Hanwincebids Waanelewaki — is foond ia 
iMtsand birds. It ia to thia third group the 
which we most now diraot onr attention, beoanaa it ineln 
paiasitea of malarial fever. There are at leaat two known 
found in birds, two in bata, one in monkeTB, and thna in naii 
homan paiasitea are those whioh respeotivBlycaiuetlwthna 
of malarial fever— quartan, tertian, and remittent or peraieioM: 
For these three spooies I adopt the names AasMMMi' 
(qoartan), Emmanueba viva* (tertian), and Bmwtomei 
(remittent fererY* According to Metcihnikoff the groop 
is allied, to the Coccidiidaa. All the speoies haTo a oloaa 
to each other, and all contain the typical molmin of malarial 
The yonngeet parasites are found ss minute aau>6*lB lifiag 
the red corpuscle and generally ocntaining grannies of this 
(which, indeed, is derived by the parasite from thelueino|^obi&( 
corpuscle within which it makes its abode). The ^-yf*— *» 
rafndly in sixe, until, after one or more days (aoeradingto As 
they reaoh maturity. At this point many of them beooms 
— that is, give rise to ordinary spores by vegetatiTs 
These spores presently attach themselves to ftesh 
fresh amoebulss, and so continue the life of the paraaltos 
within the vortobrate host. Others of the amoebnla, howvia^ 
of becoming sporocytes like the rest, beccmie gawtektegtm. 

Now it is to these gsmetocytes that an extreme intenat 
because it is to them, and to Manson's study of them, tiiat we OM 
Bolution of the malarial problem. Nomerona observers had 
them before Manson's time, but all had failed in arriving at a 
idea as to their function. It had been often observed thi^ they 
late in the blood of the vertebrate hosts without apparently 
ing any function at all. As soon, however, as they are drawn Dmb 
the circulation — as when the blood containing them is made istot 
fresh specimen for microscopic examination — they undergo theaMt 
remarkable changes. They swell up and liberate themselves fMi A* 
enclosing corpuscle ; and then some of them are suddenly sen i* 
emit a number of long motile fiUimenU. These filaments can atij 
he watched straggling violently, and may sometimes be soen to Irak 
from the parent cell and to dart away among the oorpnsoleai bsni 
the residue of the gametocyte, with its melanin, an inert and a^isii^ 
dead mass. 

Now it is not to be supposed that such an extraordinaiy phw* 
menon as this — which was observed by Laveran during hit W 
investigations — could be witnessed without exciting the liiaM 
curiosity. As a matter of fact a hot controversy rose regaidiaf it 
Laveran, Danilewsky and Mannaberg maintained that the phoiaBMBia 
is a vital one — that the motile filaments are living organism!, nli 

* Nataie, August 3, 1899. 



^] 



on Malaria and Motquiluei. 



299 




|«<>n8tit<ite a stage in the history of the parasite. Antolisei, Grassi, 
igiuMni, and others of the Italian school, fell back upon the olil theory 
-which wo aln-ays like to employ when wo ctinnot explain a pheno- 
DenoD — that it is a regressive pheuomenon, a disintegration of the 
site due to its death in vitro. Dcro, however, the controversy 
practically stayed. While the Italians, in conformity with their 
»ws, attached no signification to the motile filaments, Laverao, 
Bwaky and Mauoaberg, who held an opposite opinion, did not 
Ij or exactly state what their signification is. Maunubcrg, 
kA, held tliat they are meant to lead a saprophytic existence, but 
uot explain how they ooold escape from the bodj iu order to 

It was reaervod for Manson to detect the ultimate (though not the 
i l amed iate) function of these bodies. Ho asked why the escape of the 
^aotile filaments occurs only aftc-r the blood is abstracted from 
Bba bost (a fact agreed upon by many observers^. From his study of 
■liuiii filajnt-nts, of their form and their characteristic movements, he 
kjectod the Italian view that they are regressive forms; he was con- 
Mnced that they are living oloments. Hence he felt that the fact of 
Uttr Appearance only after abstraction of the blood (about fifteen 
■^htoa ftftenvards) must have some definite purpose in the life- 
^^^■a ef the parasites. What is that purpose ? It is evi<lont that 
^^B ptrantes like all others must pass from host to host ; all known 
^^■Btes ate capable not only of entering the host, bnt, either iu 
BMMelTea or their progeny, of leaving him. Manson hiuiself had 
■iMfdy poshed such methods of inductive reasoning to a brilliantly 
^^KpHfii] issue in discovering by their means the development of 
HHnia moriuma in the gnat. He now applied the same methods to 
Ka stody of the parasites of malaria. Why should the motile fi.Ia- 
H^^ appear only after abstraction of the blood ? There could bo 
^^KoDc (oiplanation. The phenomonon, though it is usually observed 
^^BMrrjmration fur the microscope, is really meant to occur icilhin the 
^^^pri caclly of tome tuclorial iHtect, and cojigtilules the JirsI step in the 
P^Slw<orjr of the paratite outside the vertebrate host. 
B It IS }M.'rhaps impossible for any one, except one who has spent 
■Mn in revolving this subject, to understand the full value and force 
mg ilija romarkablo induction. To my mind the reasoning is complete 
■rf aiiaeDt. It wiis from the first impossible to consider the subject 
B> tlM hl^t in which Manson placed it without feeling convinced that 
Bb* pacaahe requires a suctorial insect for its further develr>pment. 
Wktd Bohnqaent events have proved Munsou to have been right. 
I Tbe most evident reasoning — the connection betweeu nmlarinl 
Bbror and low-lying water-logged areas in worm countries — 8ug(;o8ted 
Kl oooe that the suctorial insect must be the gnat (culled mostjuito 
M the trnpicsj ; and this view was fortified by numerous Analogies 
fchteh maiit occur at once to any one who cousidcrs tbe subject at all 
bod which it is not uecossary tu discuss iu this place. 
I XeedlsM to say. since Manaon's theory was proved to be right, it 
I X 2 



800 Major BonaJd Sou [Muebi^ 

has been shown to be not entirely original Nattall, in bis atltniTiHti 
histoiy of the mosquito theory, demonstrates its antiquity. Ekm 
years before Manson wrote, King had already accnmnlated muh 
evidence, based on epidemiological data, in favonr of the theory. A 
year later (1884) Laveran himself briefly enanciated the same liim, 
on the analogy with Filaria nocturtM. Koch, and later, Bignami ni 
Ulendini, were also advocates of the theory — partly on epidemiologiMl 
grounds and partly because of a possible analogy with the protoml 
parasites of Texas cattle-fever which Smith and Kilbome had ifaom 
to be carried by a tick. Hence many obserrers had independaiilf 
arriyed at the same theory by different rontea But I fMl it moil 
necessary to point out here that there is a difference betweM t 
fortunate guess and a true scientific theory. Interesting and n^ 
gostive as were many of the hypotheses to which 1 have jnat rafonai, 
they were to my mind far from convincing. Filaria noetamo, ani 
even Apioaoma higeminum, are not in dose enough reI*tionahip iriik 
the Hsemamcebida) to admit of very forcible analogies in re^zd to 
the respective lifu-histories. The epidemiological arguments ot King 
and Bignami (some of which were also used by Manson) were k^o*^ 
solid enough to support by themselves a theory of any wei^t M 
these were hypotheses — little more : I can scarcely conceive a nw- 
tical man sitting down to laborious researches on the strengUi rf 
arguments like these. On the other hand, Manson's theory «■■ wW 
I have called it — an induction — a chain of reasoning from vhiek it 
was impossible to escape. 

I have wished to defend this work of Manson's because it hasbM 
much misunderstood and much misrepresented, and even (in t 
somewhat amusing manner) completely ignored by some who, thon^ 
they once strongly opposed his theory, now, as soon as it has iaut 
its work, wished to forgot it. It is true that he endeavoured ta 
predict tlie history of the parasites a little too far, and that ha «H 
in error (as will presently appear) regarding the immediate natoie d 
the motile filaments ; but the core of his theory was invaluable. I 
have no hesitation in saying that it was Manson's theory, and W 
other, which actually solved the problem ; and to be frank, I W 
equally certain that but for Manson's theory the problem wonU 
have remained unsolved at the present day. 

Dr. Lavoran's theory was unfortunately enunciated with gmt 
brevity ; but it appears to mo to have been really founded on lUtf 
if not all the arguments independently advanced by King and ICan 
To him wo owe not only the discovery which made all then i^ 
searches possible ; but also an early and correct prediction as to th> 
future life-history of the organisms with which his name will t* 
inseparably connected. 

To leave these interesting theories and to return to actual obssn^ 
tions — I should begin by remarking that Manson thought the motik 
filaments to be of the nature of zoospores — that is, motile qW 
which escape from the gamctocytes in the stomach cavity of the gM 



on Malaria and Motqititoe*. 



301 



eo occupy and infect the tissaea of the insect. In this he was 
I, t«ro jeus Uter, to have been wrong. The motile filamenU 
>t spores, but mierogamHe* — that is, bodies of the uature of 
ktosos. I have said that some of the amoebnlee in the blood- 
cles of the host becunio sporocytes, which produce asexual 
Cnomosporos) ; while other amoubulffi become gametocytes, 
have no function within the vertebrate host. As soon, how- 
18 these gametocytes are ingested by a suctorial insect they 
mce their proper functions. As their name indicates, they are 
cells — male and female. About fifteen minutes after ingestion 
ae species), the male gnmetocyte emits a variable number of 
jametes — the motile filaments — which presently escape and 
r in search of the female gametucytos. These contain a single 
^vmeie or ovum, which is now fertilised by one of the micro- 
B8, and becomes a tygote. We owe this beautiful discovery to 
*ect observation of MacCallum (1897), confirmed by Koch 
[archoui, and indirectly by Bignami. Mctchnikoff, Simond, 
diun and Siedlecki have also demonstrated what are practically 
, elements in some of the Coccidiida, Directly MacCallum's 
vry was announced Munson saw the important bearing of it on 
iisqaito theory. Admitting that the motile filaments themselves 
; infect the gnat, he at ouce observed that it was probably tlio 
im of the zygote to do so — and this time he was perfectly 

anst now turn to my own researches. Dr. Manson told me of 
sory at the end of 1884, and I than, undertook to investigate 
bject as far as possible. I began work in Secundcrabad, India, 
|A 1895 ; and should take the present opportunity for ac- 
pl|ing the continuous assistance which 1 received both from 
[iaoaon and from Dr. Lavuran, and later from the Govern- 
of India. Even with the aid of the induction, the tiksk so 
f oommonoed was, as a matter of tact, one of so arduous a 
I that we must attribute its accomplishment largely to good 
0. The method adopted — the only method which could be 
A — was to feed gnats of various species on persons whose blood 
ued the gametocytus, and then to examine the insects carefully 
) parasites which by hypothesis the gametocytes wore expected 
slop into. This required not only familiarity with the histology 
Its, but a laborious search for a minute organism throughout 
lole tissues of each individual insect examined — a work of at 
two or three hours for each gnat. But the actual labour 
ed was the smallest part of the difficulty. Both tho form and 
SDoe of the object which I was iu search of, and the species of 
at in which I might expect to find it, were absolutely unknown 
ties. Wo could make no attempt to predict the appearance 
the parasite would assume in the gnat ; while owing to the 
i distribution of malarial fever in India, the species of iuseot 
Bad in the propagation of the disease ootidd stiarcely be 



302 Major Bonald Bo$$ [Much 2, 

determined by a comparison of the prevalence of different Undi of 
gnat at different spots with the prevalence of fever at those spots. Ii 
short, I was forced to rely simply on the carefol examinaiioii of 
hundreds of gnats, first of one species and then of another, all fed n 
patients suffering from malarial fBver — in the hope of one day finfiig 
the clue I was in search of. Needless to say, nothing bat the mat 
convincing theory, such as Hanson's theory was, wonld have im- 
ported or justified so difScolt an enterprise. 

As a matter of fact, fur nearly two and a half years, my nnlk 
were almost entirely negative. I conld not obtain the eoiMt 
scientific names of the various species of gnats employed by mt ii 
these researches, and consequently used names of my own. 6nii><' 
the genus Culex f which abound almost everywhere in India) I nlled 
" grey " and " bnudlcd " mosquitoes ; and it was these insects wbiek 
I studied during the jwriod I refer to. At last, the pcrsistesilf 
nugatory results which had been obtained with gnats of thisgaoa 
determined me to try other methods. I went to a very maluiM 
locality, called tho Sigur Ghat, near Ootacamund, and examined tki 
mosquitoes there in the hope of finding within tiiem parasites lib 
thoEo of malaria in man. The results were practically wortUoi 
(except that I observed a new kind of mosquito with spotted wingi); 
and I saw that I mast return to the exact method laid down hj 
Manson. Tho experiments with the two commonest kinds tA Cil> 
were once more repeated — only to prove once more negativa U* 
insects, fed mostly on cases containing the crescentic gametooyteiif 
Iliemomcnag prtccnx, were exftmined cell by cell — not even tlnir 
excrement being neglected. Although they were known to b»* 
swallowiid living Ilainutmoebidie, no living pnrasitis like these eonH 
Im; detected in thuir tissues — the ingested Htemamaebide hsdinte' 
perished in the stumtich cavity of the insects. I began to •• 
whether after all there was not some flaw in Manson's indnctia; 
but no— I Ktill felt his conclusion to be an inevitable one. Ands 
was at this very niument that good fortune gave me what I wM ■ 
soiireh of. 

In u colIt'ct:ii>{ bottle full of larvro brought by a native from* 
unknown soiinM-, I found a number of newly-hatched mosquitoes lib 
those iirst observed by nio in tho Sigur Ghat — namely, mosqniW 
with tpittcd ic'niijn ami hdiit-shiped eg'js. Eight of these were fed ot» 
patient whoso blood coutiiinod crescentic gametocytcs. Unfortnnttev 
I dissecti^d t>ix of them cither prematurely or otlierwise unsatiifb' 
torily. Tho seventh was examined, on August 20, 1897, cell by cdli 
the tissues of the stoinnch (which was now empty owing to thenw 
of malarial blood taken by the insect four days previously bdif 
digested) were reserved to the last. On turning to this organ I •* 
struck by observing, scattered ou its outer surface, certain owl ■ 
round cells of about two to three times tho diameter of a red bloo* 
corpuscle — cells which I had never before seen in any of the hundiw 
of mosquitoes examined by me. My surprise was complete when! 




umiui ■■■amjw-~ 



BUAfwu mo — ujjBiut nv 



a matter of fact, the colls were the zygotes of the 

illent fever grnwing in the I'lMinet of the gnat; ttnd tbe 

spriltoil wings and b(iat-gLa{>ed ogg-i in which I bud found 

ged (as 1 sabseqnently ascertatued) to tbe genus Annphrles. 

it was impossible absolutely to prove at the time, uu the 

these two observations alone, that the cells found by nio 

to were indeed derivoil from UsDmaraa3bidie sucked up by 

io the blood of the patients on whom they had been fod— 

was obtained by subset^neut investigations of mine ; but, 

the presence of the ty])ical and almost unique inulauiu in 

'\, and by numerous other cirsumstnncos, I myself hud no 

tiie £set. The oloe was obtained ; it was necessary only to 

inp— an easy matter. 

preparations of the stomachs of the two Anopheles were 
wore afterwards examined by Drs. Smyth, Maustm, Thiu 
Sutton ; and an aoooant of the work, and of the obsorva- 
guntlemon, was published a little later. Unfortunately, 
^aow met with a serious interruption ; but not before I 
again in finding the zygotes in two other mnaqjuitoes 
species of Anopheles, also bred from the larva, and also 
containing crosoentio gamotocytos ; the other, a " grey 
l" {Cidei }'ipieru type), which had boon caught feeding on a 
,u fever, and which I now think had become previously 
a bird with Hwmamieha relicta. 
f in 1898, mainly though the influence of Dr. Munson, Sir 
lias and the United Planters' Association of Southern India, 
wod by the OoTcmment of India on special duty in Calcutta 
ne my investigations. Unablu to work with hiiiuua tnalnria 
t on aoooant of the plague scare in Calcutta — I turnivd my 
I to the HtemamoebidaD of birds. Birds have at least two 
t Hnmamcebidse. I subjected a number of birds containing 
i tea to the bites of varions species of 



M^BmMEm 




It will be evident tiMt this llMt WM the ami al test both u Ktitd 
the puHitic mitnie of theee eella taA. h regKda their derelopuMSl 
from the hmnooytoioe of the faiida; and it me not accepted hj 
without T8T7 oloee and labonooseiperiment. 

The Mtml reenlts obtained were aa fiOIows : Ont of 245 Oik 
faHgama fed on birda «vw»t«.imiig fl. nKeta, 178, or 72 p^ oe&L, 
taiaed "pij^ented odla." Bnt, ont of 41 Oidex ftUigan* fed on 
Bum oontaining ozeacentio gametooTtaa, 5 on a maa oontaiiiiiiB in 
matoie tertian paradteo, 164 on bins oontaining fll danileptiai, ' 
on healthy spamnra, and 24 on Iriids with immature H. relku»~* 
a total of 249 inaeots, all oozeftillj enmined — not one oontaiitad 1 
single <* pigmoited eelL" 

AnoQier experiment waa as fbllows : Thxae sparrows, ono 
taining no parasites, another oontaining a modorate number of £ 
reUela, and the third ecmtaining nnmarons H. rdicla, were pLtcod ia 
separate cages within three separate mosqnito ciirtainB. A mimbet 
of enUx fmgtau, all bred rimnlttneonsly ttaux h^vm m the 
breeding bottle, were now liberated on the same eTeniog pul^ 
within uie first moeqnito netting, partly within the second, a^ putlf 
within tlie third. Next morning many of these goats ware fonail ta 
have fed themselves on the birds daring tiie night. Ten of ewb bl 
of gnats were dissected after a fern days, with the following nnlt: 
The ten gnats fed on the healthy spanow oontained no " plgm»nt«i 
cells." The ten gnats fed on the spanow with a moderate niimbcT of 
parasites were found to contain altogether 29S " ptgmontad mIU"', 
or an average of twenty-nine in each gnat. The ten gnats fod mi Ik 
sparrow with namerona parasites, contained 1009 " pigmentadoelli": 
or an average of 100 cells in each g^t. Tfae.»e thirty apaciiMtif 
were sent to Manson in England, who made a similar count of tbs 
cells. 

I may mention one more ont of several experiments of the mid* 
kind : A stock of Culex fcUigans, all bred from tlio Itkrva, were fixl «a 
the same night partly on two sparrows contaiuing H. relieta, ui 
partly on a crow oontaining JE. datUlewMi (placed, of oourae, ondtr 
separate moeqaito-nettings). Ont of tweniy-threc of the foimdr H 
twenty-two were funnd tu have pigmented cells ; while out of eixtttt 
of the latter, none had them. 

Hence no donbt remained that the " pigmented ceUs," rotllf 
constitnte a developmental stage in the mosquito of these paragiio; 
and this view was accepted both by Laveran and Manson, to whea 
specimens had been sent. In June 1898, Mansou published an iilw- 
trated paper concerning my researches, and showed that the pigmeatt' 
cells must in fact be the zygotes resulting from the prooen ci 
fertilisation discovered by UacOallnm. 

It remained to follow out the life-history of Uta sygotsBi l<w 
this purpose it was immaterial whether I worked with the avin V 
the human parasites, since these are so extremely like eaofa oftaiv I 
elected to work with the avian species, chiefly beoaoao tba flsf*' 



1900.] 



M Malaria and Motqniloea. 



305 



iMars in Bengal still rendered observations with the hnmsn species 
lAlmoet impossible. By feeding Cvilex fatigans oa birds with H. relicta 
Ivod then examining the insects one, two, throe and more days 
I afterwards, it was easy to trace the gradual growth of the zygotes. 
I Their development briody is as fullows : After the fertiliHatiou of the 
■Bworogamete baa taken place iu the stomach-cavity of the gnat, the 
IfatiliMd parasite or zygote has the power of working its way through 
Bfcs OMM of blood contained in the stomach, of penetrating the wall 
Wtt the organ, and of affixing itself on, or just under, its outer coat. 
iHere it first appears about thirty-six hours after the insect was fed, 
kutd is found as a " pigmented coll " — that is, a little oval body, about 
Wie sice of a largo rod corpuscle or larger, and containing the granules 
H^BoLuiin possessed by the parent gametocyte from which tho mooro- 
^Hbte originally proceeded. In this position it shows no sign of 
ESvement, but begins to grow rapidly, to acquire a thickened capsule, 
Mod to project from tho outer wall of tho stomach, to which it is 
■Haohed, into the hodij cavitij of tho insect host. At the end of six 
■mi, if the temperature of the air be sufSuioutly high (about 80'^ P.), 
^^■^i*metcr of the zygote has increased to about eight times what it 
^^■•t first ; that is, to about 60 /t. If tho stomach of an infected 
■Hot be extracted at this stage, it can be sooti, by a lower power of 
lb* mieroaoope, to be studdi^d with a numbor of attiicbed spheres, 
nrhieb hare something of the appearance of warts on a finger. These 
■TB tiie Urge zygotes, which have now reached maturity and which 
htojeet prominently into the mosquito's body-cavity. 
r All this oonld be ascertained with facility by the method I have 
■MWitiiinod ; and it should be understood that gnats can bo kept alive 
Pbr Weeks or even mouths by feeding them every few days on blood — 
■r, aa Baaoroft does, on bauanas. But a most important point still 
panirwl stody. What happens after tho zygotes reach maturity ? 
B NMad litat each zygote as it increases in size divides into nu^rev, 
kih of vhioh uext becomes a blastophore, carrying a number of blnsts 
Mteehsd to its surface. Finally the blastophore vanishes, leaving the 
PUok capsnle of tho zygote packed witli thousands of tho blasts. The 
■nrals sow ruptures, and allows the blasts to e^icape into the budy 
■ntU of tbe inaoot. 

I TlwM blasts, when mature, are seen to bo minute filamentuns 
ndioa, about 1^16 fi in length, of extreme delicacy, and somewhat 
kiadla-sliaped — that is, tapering at each extremity. Just as the 
MpMos rvoall the shape of the Ooccidiida, so do these blasts recall 
mm "t^ltalorta bodies." Prof, lierdman and I have adopted this 
■VBrd " blast " for these bodies after careful consideration — but others 
■ndar other names. They are, of course, sporct, but spores which 
bvo baaa {irodaoed by a previous sexunl process — and are, in fact tho 
■■salt of a kind of polyeinhryony. Just as a fertilised ovum gives rise 
Ik Masts which produce the cluster of colls coustituting a multi- 
lilUUr asimai, so, in this cose tho fertilised ovum or 7,yg<)to gives 
psa lo blaats, eaoh of which, however, becomes a separate animal. 



80« 



Mty'or Bomtld Bom 



[ltmA% 



Prof. Bay Luikester miggMiB for tiie bkitai of Hha 
■imple term " filiform young." 

At this point the inyestigstioiu took ■ torn of 
•nd importance, soaroely Koond sfiea to iritat attaehad to ttel 
study of the aygotos. Since the blasts are endently tiia jfui jg mj t 
the sygotes, they most carry on the life-history of tna iiiiisHu 
farther stage. How do they do so? What is their fdnotiaif 
they escape from the mosqaito, and in some mannsr, diraot ar J 
direct, set up infection in healthy men and birds ¥ Or, if not^^ ' 
other purpose do they rabserre f It was erident that our I 
of the mode of infection in malarial foTor — aad perhaps etas 
prcTcntion of the disease — depended on a reply to tbese qnesKiiB 

As I have sidd, the sygotes become ripe si^ mptors aboat a i 
after the insect was first imeoted — aoattenng the blasts into tlw I 
cavity of the host What happens next? It was next bbsb tk 
some prooess, apparently owing to the oironlatioa of tiie 
body-fluids (fSar ttie blasts themieltres appear to be alnuMl 
movement), these little bodies find their way into every pait of 1 
mosquito — into the juices of its head, thorax, and even legs. 
this it was difficult to go. All theory— at least all theoiy «l 
felt I could depend upon — had been long left bebind, mak 1 1 
rely only on direct observation. Gnat after gnat was i 
the attempt to follow these bodies. At Isst, while eiaiaiBiagl 
head and thorax of one insect, I found a large gland ( 
central duct surrounded by large grape-like cells. My ( 
was great when I found that many of these cells were dosdy i 
with the blasts — (which I may add are not in the least like UJ 
normal structures in the mosqaito). Now I did not know at M 
time what this gland is. It was speedily found, however, to bt •' 
large racemose gland consisting of six lobes, three lying in eaek ait 
of tho insect's neck. The dacts of the lobes finally unite in aeoBMe 
channel which rans along the under surftoe of the head and aaUnt* 
middle stylet, or lancet, of the itueet'e prdboteU, 

It was impossible to avoid tho obvious conclusion. Oheumlili 
after obsorratiou always showed that the blasts ooUeot within A* 
colls of this gland. It is the lalivary or pouon gland of the iMMti 
similar to tho salivary gland found in many insects, the faiSlHw 
of which, in the gnat, hod already been discovered — althoa^I 
was not aware of tho fact. That function is to secrete Otefimi iHA 
it injected by the insect uhen it punctures the skin — the fluid wtH- 
causes the well-kaowu irritation of the puncture, and whidi is f*' 
bably meant to prevent either the contraction of the torn capilW' 
or the coagulation of the ingested blood. The position of m\' *" 
in the cells of this gland could have only one interpretstioi 
wonderful as tliat interpretation is. The blasts most evidentiy ] 
down the ducts of tho salivary gland into the wound made hj A* 
proboscis of tho insect, and thus causes infection in a fresh i 
host. 



t] 



on Malaria and Mosquitoes. 



307 



Th«t tbia acto&llj happens could, fortunately, be proved without 
117 difficulty. As I had now been studying the porasiteB of birds 
or some mouths, I potieeseed a number of birds of difiereul species, 
I bluod of which I hod examined from time to time (by pricking 
tucs with B fine needle). Some of them were infected, and some, 
' coarec, were not. Out of 111 wild sparrows examined by me in 
alcutta, I found H. reliela — the parasite which I had just culti- 
ited in Culrx fatlgant — -in 16, or 13'5 pur cent. As a rule, non- 
birds were released ; but I generally kept a few to use for 
control experiments mentioned above, and the blood of these 
I bad consequently been examined on several occasions, and had 
lw*jB been funnd free from parositeB. At the end of June I pos- 
fire of these healthy control birds — four sparrows and one 
ftver-bird. All of them were now carefully examined again and 
od to be healthy. They were placed in their cages within 
inito-nets, and at the same time a large stock of old infected 
koaqnitoflS were released within the same nets. By " old infc-ctcd 
laitoes" I mean mosquitoes which had been previously fed re- 
atediy on infected binlx, and many of which on dissection hnd been 
buwn to have very large numbers of blasts in thoir salivary glanda 
lext morning, numbers of these infected gnats were found gorged 
blood, proving that they had indeed bitten the healthy birds 
the night. The operation was repeated on several succeeding 
until each bird had probably been bitten by at least a dozen 
I mosquitoes. On July 9, the blood of the binb was examined 
I ccarccly cxpccte<l any result so complete and decisive. 
' coe of the five birds was now found to contain pirasites — and 
sly to contain them, but to possess such immense numbers of 
■• I had never before seon in any bird (with H. relicta') in 
While wild sparrows in Calcutta seldom contjtin more than 
fmrtunXe in every tield of tlio microscope, those which 1 had just 
in infecting contained, ten, fifteen, twcuty and even moro 
each field — a fact due jtrobuLly to the infecting gnats having been 
hooaly fed over and over again on infected birds, a thing which 
rarely happen in nature. 
The expcnmeut was repeated many times — gonernlly on two or 
bcallhy birds put together. But 1 now .improved on the 
IJaal experiment by alno employing controls in the following 
A stock of wild sparrows would bo examined, and the 
birds cliuiiuato<i. The remainder would then bo kept ajmrt, 
at night would be carefully secladed from the bites of gnats by 
ling placed within mosquito nets. These constituted my stock of 
'bjr birds. From time to time two or three of these would be 
ftted, examined again to enHuro their being absolutely free from 
itea, and then subjected to the bites of " old infected mosquitoes," 
,of flouTM, kept upurt afterwards for daily study. Thus my stock 
' bcallhy birds was iilsi;) my stock of control birls. Until they were 
IttfOU by gnats, I found that they never became infected (except in a 




single oue in whidli I Haak I bad ovwloolnd tlie parantes on tlie 
fint oooMum), althongh luge namban of IwelUij birds were kept in 
thia maimer. The nmUt m the oaae of tiw eparrows which wetc 
lolgeoted to the bitea of the infboted gnats waa difibi^nt indeed. Out 
of 38 of these, dealt widi £ram time to time, no less than 22, or 
79 per neolL, became infBOted in from five to eight da^s. And, ts ia 
the fint eiperiment, all tiw inftwted biids finally contaiiied -mj 
nnmeions parsaitea. 

It was most interesting to irvtoh tiie nadoal development of Ibt 
panudtb inTasion in these buds; and tida development pmeoM 
snoh constant chataoteis that, apart from othat reasons, it wae tiaitn 
impossiUe to doobt that the inHBetioii waa roalljr caas^d bv tiw 
mosqnitoes. The conzse of events was alwaya as follows ; The bM 
would remain entirely free from paiaaitea fbr four, fire, mx or ens 
seren days. Next day one or perhapa two parasites wouM l>e fonsJ 
in a whole speeimen. The followina day it was invariabl j ohiwmd 
that the nnmber of the organisms had largely increased ; and Dm 
increase oontinned nntil in afew daya immense nnmbers were pnacct 
— so Aat, finally,! often obserred aa manyaa aevea distinct pinuili* 
oontained within a single oorpnsolel Later on, m&nj of ^e hr^ 
died; and their orgsna were then finmd to be loaded with tk 
oharacteristio melanin of malarial fever. 

I also Boooeeded in infeeting on a aeeood trial one of dm ni 
sparrows which had esoaped the first ezperiment ; and also » crov 
and fonr vreaver-birds ; and lastly, gave a new and more wipat 
infection to four sparrows which had pravionaly eont&ined only i fixr 
parasites. 

Theee oxperimenta completed the original and fondsineiitil 
obeerrations on the life-biBtory of the Haamamoebidie in mosipituci' 
The parasites had been carried from the vertebrate host into Ite 
gnat ; had been followed in their development in the gnat ; uid bil 
finally been carried bock from the gnat to the vertebrate host. 'B» 
theories of King, Laveran, Koch and Bignami, and tbe gnit 
induction of Manson, were justified by the event ; and I have girai 
a detailed historical and critical account of theee theories, and of mj 
own difficolties and experiences, in the hope of bringiag connclioa 
to those who might, perhaps, otherwise think the story to be tM 
wonderful for credence. 

Bat work of great importance remained to be done. I iii 
intended, immediately after making this study of one of the paruitM 
of birds, to extend the investigation more fully to those of nuut-^ 
work which now presented no difficulty, since both the kind of 
mosquito hospitable to them (Anophelea) and the form of the panHld 
in the mosquito were well known to me. Uafortnnatelj I <•■* 
obliged to attend to other and less important duties, which kepdV 
fully occupied for several months — an interruption which practicall/ 
put an end to my own study of the mosquito-theoiT at a vsif 
interesting point No time, however, was really losL u ~ 



1900.] 



on STalarla and Motquiloet, 



309 



|R98, Dr. Daniels of the Malaria CommiBBion of the lioyal Society 

ad the Colonial Office, arrived in Calcutta to examine and report 

Ipon tnj results. After carefully repeating the various experiments 

be fully confirmed the statements made by me,* At the same 

gomcnt, the work was taken up with great brilliance and success by 

'r. Koch and by Prof. Grassi and Drs. Bignami and Bastiauelli, in 

Italy. I must now describe the investigations of these observers — 

liongh I have scarcely space to do so at the length they deserve. 

Ever since the discoveries of Laveran and Golgi, the Italian 

errers of the Roman school have done much impurtaut work on 

laria, facilitated by the well-known prevalence of the disease near 

(ome ; work, if not of mnch originality, yet full of careful detail. 

recently, however, this work had been practically arrested by 

• theory — whully gratuitous, but which they accepted as a dogma 

l*t the motile filaments are forms of disintegration in vitro. When 

kiiBon propounded his theory, Bignami, for instance, rejected it on 

biB ground. But at the same time he evolved a gnat-theory of his 

rn — a theory that malarial fuver is inoculated by gnats which carry 

parasite from marshy areas. The argumente ho used were the 

lemiological ones already advancc<l by Ring, and which can 

elj be said to amount to more than a plausible hypothesis : tho 

lly solid basis for the theory — that of Manson — was opposed by 

Later, however, the work of Simond, Schaudinn, Siedlccki, 

sCallam and myself, explained by Manson, rendered tho Italian 

tition crmceming tho motile filaments quite untenable ; and 

itMslli, Bignami and Grassi now undertook a study of the 

]vito-tbeory on sound principles. My own results, with descrip- 

I of the technique employed and with illustratioDS of tho zygotes, 

published from time to time ; a summary of them had been 

by Manson in June 1898, and another, including the infection 

he*lthy birds, before the British Medical Association, early in 

and there could therefore be no difficulty in following up 

Brvations therein recorded. In September, Grassi published 

paper in which he described certain investigations made in Italy 
rilJi a Tiew to osoertainiug the species of gnats which are associated 
tbe prevalence of malaria in that country. Such investigations 
not, I think, trustworthy ; and as a matter of fact two out of the 
I species of gnat then sclectc<l by Grassi as being malaria-bearing 
hsTo DOW been rejected by him. Tho third species was an 
(«/m, namely A. claviger, Fabr. 
At the same time Bignami resumed his study of the subject. 
I years previously, following his theory, he had endeavoured to 
, healthy persons by the bites of gnats brought from malarious 
He bad failed and aliandoned his efforts — and I believe that 
bod would of itself never had led to a solution of tho ]iroblem. 
•atnmn of 18'J8, however, he renewed his efforts ; but was 



• Nature, August 3, 18U9. 



810 Miyor Jbrnald Bam mmk%\ 

ftgun tmsooceasfnl until he naed » nnmber of AmitjUm <Uill|fcJ 
brought from a house oontuning infected pemooa. ThewwHi 
BQcoMsful, the gabject of the experiment beeoming infaetei i 
time. This important experiment gave the fint 



human malaria of my previomi inoonlation Mtperiaeoti wi& I 
malaria of birds; bat since other neeiea of gnati m «<B< 
A. darig«r had been employed, it fuled to fix soapiaioii 0D 



the latter. In order to obtain this remit, these ol 

obliged to zeeort to the correct method of H'"'y md 

namdj that of direct cultivation of the parasites in tliegiisl. 

was now immediate. The sygotes and Uaste of tfie 

found, exactly as preriouBly described \>ij laa, in 

A. danger ; and lastly, healthy persons were inftwrted l^ As 

these insects. Pushing forward with adminUe npidtty, tils 

observers next found that all three species of flie human H»— m 

are onltiTable in A. danger ; and not only in Ubia, bal ia 

Italian species of Anopkdn, while, like me, they lUIad In 

the parasites in Oulex. 

Almost simultaneously Eboh repeated and eo nfi rme d ' 
wei^t of bis authority most of the results which had basn 
as regards both the human and avian parasites. In Angost UM 
malanal expedition sent to Sierra Leone by the Idvarpool Mall 
Tropical Medicine (of which expedition I was a member)^ ImbI 
Lnman parasites in two species of Anophdti in that ookn^t ■ 
A. coatalia, Loew, and A.fune9tua, Giles. I hear alio that fl* 
roBult has been obtained with Anophelea in two other paiti a( 
world, BO tliat it would appear that something like nine speaBi<( 
Anopheles havo now been inculpated — while as yet every speein if 
Gulex which Las been tried has failed to give positive results. 

From this point it becomes impossible to follow in detail A* 
researches carried out in connection with the mosqnito tiMCCT il 
various parts of the world. The facts already collected wmdd fl 
a small volume ; and every month witnesses additional piihliisliiisi 
on the subject I shall tlierefore, in conolnsion, content myself wtt 
a brief reference to three points of leading importance. 

I shall first try to indicate how completely the recent di s a u wri* 
explain the well-known laws regarding the dififiision of malaria, tt 
mentioned at the beginning of this lecture, malarial fever has lag' 
been known to bo coiuiect(:!d with the presence of stagnant vriK 
That is to say, we generally, though not invariably, find Ast ft* 
disease is associated with low- lying flat areas, where water taadsli 
collect to a considerable extent. It was indeed the g«teral 
tion of this law which led to the old miasma-theuiy of tba 
the theory on which the word " malaria " was based. We 
that the poison is one which rises from marshy areas in the faokd: 
a mist, and which thence infects all living within a given diitrr 
Later, when the pathogenetic parasite was discovered in the blooi i 
fcbrioitouts, many observers, still clinging to this concepti(m, thos^ 



1900.] 



on Malaria and Motqitiloei. 



311 



ftt tb« parosito is an orgnnisin which in its free state dwells in snrh 
^Lioefl, and diffuses itself in snoh niists. It is interesting to note 
ne*r to the troth this almost instinctive conception took ns. It 
ifl richt in idea, nrong infect. It is not the parasite itself which 
>rinsrs from the marshy ground, but the carrier of the parnsite. 

TLis was one of the many interesting (loints made by King in his 
iaito-the<jry of seventeen years ago. But King fell into an error 
:1] cunld have been nsed as a powerful argument ajTainst his 
leais. He seemed to have assumed that all mosquitoes rise 
marshes. Hence, lie siiid, malaria oxistni in the presence of 
■b«8 ; hence it is a disease of the country, rather than of towns, 
so on. As a matter of frict, muscjuitoes as a rule do not rise from 
I At all ; they do not all even rise from pools of water on t)ie 
lod ; the commonest species, at least of those which habitually 
Qoy bnman beings, spring from tnbs and pots of water in t)ie 
initjr of honses, and are indeed more common in cities than in 
i>antrr places, at any rate in the tropics. Now it is nut the least 
stin^ feature of recent researches that they hnvo shown where 
\ mn\>r Uy. As soon a$ I have succeeded in cultivating tlie human 
ites in my " dupph»l-wingo<l mosquitoes," wliich were really 
mUb of the genus Anopheles, I began to study the ha1>its of these 
, and soon usucrtaine<l the remarkable fact that wliile gnats of 
Cutex gtn'.Tally breed, in India, in vessels of water round 
•Mrs, gnats of genus Anopheh's, which I had just connected with 
i*. breed in small pools of water on the riround. This ])oint was 
> subject of a special investigation by the recent expedition 
Leone ; and we foimd that tlie law holds good there as in 
While Oulex lorvie were to be seen in almost every vessel of 
or empty gourd or flower-pot in which a little rain-water 
1, in only one case did we find Anopheles larvie in such. On 
hand. Anopheles Inrvm occnrrod in about a hundred small 
les scattered through the city of Freetown — i)uddles mostly of a 
permanent descrijttion, kept tilled by the rain, and not liable 
■eonring out during heavy showers. AVhat was almost equally 
•*=-- int, the larvtB secrae<l to live chiefly on green water-weed. 
' follows that while Culex, the apparently innocuous genua 
jiiatK, are essentially, or at lenst often, domestic insects, Anopheles, 
iiml»ria-b«!aring genus, are essrntiully gnats which spring from 
L-xrtiAot water on the ground. And numerous other facts in the 
lii-torj of malaria can l)e cxplainel by the same discovery. It is 
ippoaed, for iiistiiiicfi, that malaria originates from frfshly-turnod 
' . ; uow we uctnall y noted examples where railway embankments 
like had produced Anopheles pools ; and it is cosy to see that 
Bce of the soil may often pri)duco depressions in the ground 
iim of holding a little rain-water suitable for tho larvie of these 
Again malarial fever often appears on board vessels which 
tnnrhcd at malarious (K)rt8 ; as an explanati(m of this we asoer- 
tltat Anophdes visit ships from the shore. In short, on study- 



813 Mt^etBmMaim [Mmk%] 



isg ihe iBAtter from evsrjr point of tisw, I miHl eonfai !• 1 
ignonnt of anr well-establiabed &Jt almiit maknal i*nr «UA I 
not ezj^luned by the moaqnito-tfaeory. 

Thu faringB me to the salgeot cftelgteHima to flie nMfB 
In Tiew of the exact and oqpiona mioroaei^pgaal and ex], 
evidence which has now been oolleoted in proof of tiie tiiaaij,lliil 
loDger penniasible to doubt the main fketa ; and fhs < " 
one still finds, both in the lay and tibe medical psoi _ 
baaed on a complete ignorance of these ihots, and naed mI i»i 
onssed here. But there is one objeolicn — ^fraqiunilj i ~ ~ 
of oonections as frequent, bj persons who zaside in vm 
— ^whioh deserres comment This i% tihat malazia exii 
aie no moaqnitoeB, and that so-and-so has had temt 
bitten br gnats at alL Genendly speaking we must alw^ya i 
that malanal fever is a disease in vdiibh zriapsea oooa 
years alter the first infection, and Aai it is tins Ifatt 
not the relapses which are due to the bite of AntipUm. Bill 
possible to suflbr from any number of attacks of fsrer witihoall 
bitten by AncgMet (except <m one ooeamau), and wilT 
dating me theory — a fust of which these who aigna ta i 
are generally ignorant. Again, it is well known tibal i 
bitt^ without perceiTing it ; that some penam am ilngalaity 
,Wly, t" 



to the punctures of these insects; and, lastly, that many 
TBiy limited powers of obeerration. I may say at onoa fttt,, 
ally, I cannot accept any statement to the aflbot that gnats at* 
in any locality in the tropics, until such a statement is maSa Ijf 
competent observer after direct search ; because I have never baHh 
any place in the tropics — and I have been in a large namT 
there were no gnats. On the other hand, I have often foimd i 
one gnats in localities where I was previously told there won 
I was once actually informed that there are no mosqnitoea in 
Leone I The fact ia that those who will trust the statements cf lis 
general public on such matters most be very oredulons. 

I torn lastly to the aU-important subject of|>recenfMHi, batesall 
no more than touch upon it here. Two methods suggested UmjiussIwI 
at once. I need not refer to that of guarding against the bitu if 
these insects by the use of mosquito-nets and so on — an obviooi a4 
I believe, an exceedingly useful measure, which may redoes thi 
chances of infection to a small fraction. Unfortunately such m efti fc . 
will never be employed on a large scale in the majority of maliiiosi 
localities; and we must resort to the degtruelum of maJarimhimi^ 
spectes of gnats. Early in 1892 I reported to the CkivammBat <■ 
India that it may be possible to exterminate ./InopAeZes in som« loeili* 
ties — especially some towns, cantonments and plantations — owisgii 
the habit the insects have (in some places) of breeding only ^ 
selected pools. Since then, a considerable literature has aliwll 
grown up round the subject. Beviewing this literature, it saaM 
probable that we may be able to exterminate Anophelea or at ki' 



1900.] OR Malaria and Moaquitoei. 813 

Hgely rodnoe their numbers, in towns where, owing to the confor- 
■ation of the ground, the low level of the sabsoil water or the small 
Mnfiill, snrfaoe pools suitable for the insects are oomparatively few. 
rha methods which can be adopted against the lame are numerons 
■ B ch ma broshing out the pools with a broom, draining them away, 
illing them np, or treating them with various ctdicides, snob as 
■zkffin and numerons other substances (recently investigated by 
Mli «nd Casagrandi). On tlie whole the most promising method 
rhioh suggests itself is the employment of some cheap solid material 
r powder which dissolves slowly, which kills the larvte without 
quring higher animals, and which renders small pools uninhabitable 
or the larm for some months. If, for instance, a cartload of snch 
material wonld suffice to extirpate the larvte for a square mile of a 
lalarioiu town, the result wonld be a large gain to its healthiness. 
>r. Fielding-Onld has lately reported faronrably on tar. Grillet 
Boemtly reports a case in France where a large district was rendered 
rae of nudari* by the extensive use of lime for agricultural purposes. 
1a»^iwte, or even common aaU, may be suggested. In short, though 
ba qoestion of the possibility of attacking these insects with success 
I still entirely in the experimental stage, we may reasonably hope 
hat the mosqnito-theory of malaria may some day prove to be as 
■efol to humanity as it certainly has proved interesting to the 
Indent of science. 

In conclusion, however, I should add that this result is not likely 
D be attained unless we, as a nation, determine to pay more attention 
O scientific discoveries in the field of tropical medicine than hitherto 
re have done. During the last fifty years discovery after discovery 
B this field has been made without finding any adequate reflex in 
sedical and sanitary practice in our tropical possessions. The dis- 
ovaries, for instance, of Ldsch, Davaine, Dubini, Bilharz, Bancroft, 
Cooh, liaveran, Manson, Garter and Giles, though nearly concerned 
vith the lives of thousands of human beings, have been generally 
raated either with scepticism or neglect — have been neither suffi- 
iantly followed in the laboratory nor sufficiently acted upon in the 
Mxoa of practical sanitation. 

[R. R.J 



Vol- XVI. (No. 94.) 



His Qnoe Tho "Dvkk of NoKTmrjrBBKLAiJD, K.G., Pwa 
in the Chair. 



Mrs. Francis Ernest Colcnso, ^^ 

Miss AnDio C. Colthnrst, 

Joseph David Everett, Esq. M.A. D.C.L. F.RS. 

Professor Percy Faraday Froukland, D.L. B.So. ] 

Alexander C. lonides, Esq. 

Mrs. Alfred B. Eempe, 

Alexander 6. Low, Esq. 

Colonel William Thomas Makins, 

Colonel Fairfax Khodcs, 

William Mudd Still, Esq. 

Major Frederick Richard Tronch-Gascoigne, 

Samnel West, M.D. F.K.C.P. 

Mrs. West, 

Miss Hilda Meadows White, 

were elected Members of the Boyal Institution. 



[i. B.So. ] 

I 



The Pbbskmth received since the last Meeting were I 
table, and the thanks of the Members returned for the Muni 



The Meleorologieal O/icw— Diurnal Range of Rain, 1871-90. Svo. II 
Aecademia dei Linen, BeaU, Soma — Clnue dl Scienze Fisiobe, Ma' 

NatnnlL Atti, Serie Qointa: Rondioonti. I' Bemectre, Vol 

I -3. 8vo. 1900. 
Ameriean Aeademg of Artt and Selenea — Prooeedinga, VoL X.XX'^ 

8to. 1899. 
American Oeo^aphiml Socfely — Bulletin, Vol. XXXI. No. 5. Svn. 
Aitronomical Sociely, Itoyal — .Monthly Notioeg, Vol. LX. No. 3. 8fO. 
Banker; Irulitutt o/— Journal. Vol. XXI. I'art 2. 8to. 1900. 
Baunerman, W Brucf. Ktq. M.li.I. (tfce Editor)— The Vuitations of 

of isurrev, 1530-162.3. (Uarleian Socirtv, Vol. XLIII.) 8vi 
Riflcfrtnn Prnfmrnnr A W Itlu 4iilhnr\—A f}»w Stitrv nf tha ftl 



Omunl MontUy Meeting. S16 

■AmeilMn Joonal of Seienee for Feb. 1900. Sro. 

It for Feb. 1900. 8to. 

of a Fbotogr>phic Balletin for Feb. 1900. 8to. 

byiiaal Jooinal for Feb. 1900. 

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Ml Engineer for Feb. 1900. fol. 

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lUPIm. 8to. 1900. 

Sir WiUi4im and Lady — An Atlaa of Bepreaentative Stellar Spectra from 

to 8800. (Pnblieationg of Sir William Hnegins' Observatory, Vol. I.) 

/iMiiMe— Imperial Institnte Joomal for Feb. 1900. 

pimu Unitertity — American Chemical Jonmal for Feb. 1900. Svo. 

VaUam Leitihton, Etq. U.R.I, (fhe iiutAor)— Astral Gravitation and the 

Law of Motion. 4to. 1S99. 

ofte, Pnfator O. Van dtr, Hon. Mem. B.I, (th» Author) — Le Centenaire 

butitation Boyale. Svo. 1900. 

«Ata m^caniqnea prodnita par I'^asticit^ de I'ean. Svo. 1899. 

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mUeal Soeiety of Oreat Brttoin— Journal for Feb. 1900. Svo. 

r. FM^ M.R.I. {the iiuUor)— The Biae, Piogreea and Decay of the Art 

inting in Greece. Svo. 1899. 

ndoD in Pre-Boman Times. Svo. 1896. 

« brly Settlers near Conway. 8to. 1899. 

T 2 



h 



General Monthly 



[MftrebS, 



Stoi 



1901] 



FhoiogTapliie SiK^et^, 7toi/al— PhotogtaphiQ Joirrnftl Tof Jan. 1900, 

Boyal Soeltiy of iJaitdim — Prooeedinm, Ha. 42'1. 8to. 1900. 

&&onie JSbefetu— Nature Noti3s tai Feb. 1900. 8to. 

BtoddaH. F. W. Enq. (tha Aathar')—A.n Improved 8ewa{;e Filter, tfo. 

Vnitfd Sereiof JntUtHlion, fiojaJ — JoutqbI for Feb 1900, e-vo, 

thtittd Slaif* Dcpartineat «/ J jriculfwre— Monthly Weatbar BeTiew foi OcL t| 

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Verein lur JSe/orderung de* Getnerb/leittei in Preumen — VerhaadlUBgai, IMfc ■ 

Heftl. 8vo. 
irMfttHjr&Mi, P&ao*of>&icaJ &ejdy o/— Bollatiii, T(il& XL XII. Btd. lS9i-aS> 



Bacleria and Sewage. 



317 



WEEKLY EVENING MEETING, 

Fridaj, March 9, 1900. 

Bib Wilmah Cbookes, F.B.S., Yioe-Presidont, in the Ohair. 

PBorMsoR Feank Clowks, D.Sc. F.C.S. M.B.I. 

Bacteria and Seteage. 

Ttn discovery made by Schwnmi, in 1839, that a patrefylug liquid 
iwkrmed with microscopic living organisms, gave occasion to a long 
leriea of remarkable iuvestigations as to the general nature and the 
dCfr-history of these organisms, and the chemical changes which they 
prodooed. 

Prominent amongst the names of those who prosccntod these in- 
raatigatioos stands that of Pasteur, who, in 1857, drew attention to 
the nature and causes of fermentative changes produced upon sugar 
lolatioD, of the putrefactive changes in liquids containing animal 
labstanoes, and of disease changes in the blood of the living animal, 
vhich were produced in the presence of Turious minute living 
organisms. Ho showed that, if these liquids were sterilised by heat, 
kod were then duly protected against receiving solid particles from 
the air, or from other sources, these changes did not occur ; and that 
eontaot with air which had passed through a rod-hot tube, or had 
^eOD filtered through a cotton-wool plug, was incompetent to intro- 
j^^tUB (VgkniBms and to start the above changes. 
HHhm reaetfohes drew attention to the important part played by 
Eeur as a vehicle of the organisms or of their spores, and wore 
tnpplemented by the researches of Tyndall (1876), who proved that 
ur, which had been allowed to remain at rest until its motes had 
mfaeided, was incompetent to produce putrefaction. Tyndall also 
proved that boiled sterilised broth, when opened in Alpine air, did 
not OBoally putrefy, and that the air near the earth's surface in 
itftrant localities, and even in the saoae locality at different times, 
MMeaaed infective power varying from nil to sometliing considerable. 
rbe inference is that the distribution of these organisms and of their 
^res varies very considerably in any horizontal plane near the 
■ith's sorfaoe. 

^ Percy Frankland (1866) determined the number of these living 
tnisms which could be developed from equal volumes of air col- 
ed at varying heights from the earth's surface. He made use of 
lulls and cathedral towers for the purpose of collecting his sam]ilea, 
tad Dutad a reguliir decrease in the number of the organisms which 
I in the air at greater and greater distances from the earth's surface. 




818 



Pnfemir linmk OUmm 



[MwdS. 



Thew typioal nanrdhes raote it endont tbat the orgaLQigms am) 
their apoiies, which ue prodooed at or new &e earth's stufuce, ut 
wafted I7 oatanJ afanoaphetie aaffflDMnta to Bome heigbt, but in 
oonatantly tending to Bahaide, and to lov the arganisois broadciiat ti 
theydeaoend. 

It has been shown Ij mora leoent baoterialogical inTeEtig»tiani 
that many of theae minate (aganiania are lunmuJly present in tbo 
living arganism, and niaike their appeaianoe in Itu-go umiibere ia ^ 
(Laje^ It is therefore not remaruUe tiiat aewi^o, which oontmu 
the dcgecta of men and animala, as well aa fiw wakings of c«BJlililI^ 
able road and other sorfMea, ahonld oontain micra-orgaiuaiiB itt4 
their spores in large nnmber. 

The &ot that animal dejeota and aewaga aie inoffeiiBiTcl; ui 
gradnaUy reaolTed into aim^ ohemioal oampotmils by ooutact *itii 
diffiwent kinds of soil has long been known, but this resoludon liu, 
nntil reoontly, been attributed to the pnrii^fiag actbn of tlie Mrtli 
itself, or of the organisms which it may contain. It is now abaoJ»iij 
prored that the lesolTing or pnrifying agents ore, in .the mtiii, tli 
mido-oraanisms which were originally preaent in the dejecta tW- 
Belves, althoagfa nndonbtedly organisma deriTed from the air, tad 
those already present in the scnl, ocmtribate to the change wto tL«f 
areputeeent. 

The experimental purification of sewage by letting it staud in 
tanks filled with flints, grayel, coal, coke or other miseral eubetauoa. 
provea that there is no special Tirtne in soiL Theae experiment^ 
originallj oommenoed by the State Board of Health, MassachnMtK 
in 1887, hare been repeated by many pnblic sanitary sathoritic^ tui 
the reenlts have been abundantly verified ; and in various localiti<t 
broken stone, broken slate, broken clay Teesels, " baUaat," or bnnit 
clay have been sncoeBsfnlly employed in the tanka in place of tk 
materials which were originally used. 

For the sncceesfol and inofiensive treatment of eewa^ hj thii 
means, a preliminary " priming " of the material is neceeeaty. Thi< 
is effeoted by allowing it to remain immersed in sewage for s^mil 
hours daily for a few weeks. Sewage, which is then ititrodiic«J ta^ 
allowed to remain for a few hours in the tank contaiiuBg the 
" primed " coke or other material, has the amount of its pn tie^ciblt 
dissolved matters considerably and rapidly reduced, while it« snH 
finely-divided faacal matter is brought into aolntion, and csased *> 
nndei^, in large measure, resolution into simple iuoffeuBiTe mO- 
pounds. 

In order that these changes may be completed inoffensiveh. it i> 
necessary that the " primed " coke sur&cee edtall be freqnonll j plwed 
in contact with air, and the process is therefore an intermittent oaa 
The coke-bed is first filled with sewage, which is then alloweil to 
flow out from the bottom and to draw air into the interstioea d tb 
coke. After the coke surfaces have been for several hourti in onottd 
with the air, the cycle of processes is repeated. The treatmooi <^ 



1 



cm Bacteria and Sewage. 



319 



frmh quADtities of sewkge in the eame coke-bed may apparently 
he oontinncd indefinitely. 

1 Tbe effluent from one coke-bed undergoes a considerable further 
irariiicatioD if it ie made to undergo similar treatment in a second 
•oke-bed ; and if this second contact with the coke surfaces is followed 
^^pUuaiy sand filtration, snch as is usaally applied to river-water 
^0ft ia to be nsed for drinking purposes, an effluent of extraordinary 
nonty is obtained. 

r Tbe oriprinal method introduced by the Massachusetts expori- 
■wmtiii and knouii as the intermittent aerobic treatment, is sometimes 
meeeded by a preliminary anaerobic treatment. This consiKta in 
Ulowing tbe sewage to remain quiescent in, or to flow very slowly 
Ihroagb. • large tank or channel. A thick, tough scum soon forms 
■pon Its surface, and protects tbe liquid from the air. Under those 
■oaditions many of the solid suspended particles of an organic nature 
MM into solution, and are thus rendered rapidly resolvablo by 
■■baeqnent aerobic intermittent treatment. 

I The above general description of tbe bacterial treatment of sewage 
Mi been subjected to modification as to details to suit the conditions 
kf particular localities. Thus the eewage is in some places sub- 
■irided by suitable mechanical arrangements into drops, and allowed 
P>£kU ooutinnously like rain upon the surface of the coke-bed. The 
■^■•vw becomes full of liquid, since when tbe sewage has trickled 
^^■1^ the ooke, and has been exposed to the coke surfaces and to 
^^■Metstitial air, it is at once allowed to flow away from the bottom 

F That these methods of purifying sewage are correctly describeil 
■■ bacterial has been placed beyond doubt. Any conditions which 
mtti aufaTourable to bacterial life at once retard the purification, 
vbiUi any treatment of tbe sewage which sterilises it arrestti the 
murification entirely. 

r Tbe bacteria in the sewage are considered to be the active agents, 
■■4 lo [wodnoe the changes either directly, or indirectly through 
■iMir |i>t>Jnct8 or enzymes. Bacteria and their spores are found tu be 
■Mamt in great numbers in sewage. London sewage has been shown 
Uf Dr. Houston and others to contain very large numbers of bacteria, 
btijiag from about three to six million per cubic centimetre. It 
Imhm yrrobable that many of these bacteria form iilros, or " swarming 
twaB^B," on the coke surfaces, similar to those which are produced 
rV tbcdr growth upon the surface of a gelatine film (Fig. 1); the 
I |>triod uf formation of these films may be assumed to be the period of 
I *|irimiog " already referred to. Probably the coke-bed aids bacterial 
MttiaB largely by furnishing surfaces of attachment to the baetcria, 
V*faa which they may alternately be exposed to air anil to the 
l>t««fb Tbe useful effect of solid surfaces in promoting Imctorial 
piioa in tii« oaso of other similar changes is well known, ond it may 
^•COBBaeted with tbeeflect which the surfaces exert in preventing the 
P^ttliag of the bacteria to the bottom of the liquid. 



820 Frof«uor Frank Chmea [Much 9, 



Femge oontaina many diffisrent spedet of baotaria, nne of wIiiA 
have been described and figured bv Dr. Hjonaton.* A» is seen ia. 
Figs. 2, 3, 4, Bome of these bacteria poaseaa motile tail-like flagella, 
and by the movement of these the minnta oreuiiima »»»««««*«■» a 
rapid progress through the liquid. Baoteri» iraioh sre dAioid of 
flagella and which cannot traTorse free paths in the liqnid ava ihowa 
in Figs. 6, 6, 7, 8. In Fig. 6 the spores of theae minnta YagetaUs 
organisms are seen interspersed among the ocgNiiama tboBaelTCa 
The organisms have two methods of mnltiplyin^ faj fiaBon and hj 
producing spores ; the spores have the power of vataioing vitditf 
nnder conditions which are fatal to the organiama tKiiniMl tm It ii 
fuund that none of these are selectively retuned 1^ a eoana eoke^xd 
during the treatment, but that all the speciea make their appnanmniTi 
only slightly diminished numbers in the purified effioent fttn fiw 
coke-bed. The average reduction in the number of the baoteria in ti» 
sewage by one treatment in a coarse ooke-bed amonnted to only 27'7 
per cent. It would therefore appear that the diflbrent species of 
bacteria assist one another in the purifying action, and by prodneiiig 
either contemporaneous or consecutive effects upon the aewage secon 
its purification: in bacteriological language, their action is either 
symbiotic or metabiotic, or possibly of both kinds. The oiganinH 
srem to establish and maintain a condition of equilibrium amongrt 
themselves in the coke-bed, since attempts to artificially increase ^ 
number of certain species have thus far failed. 

It appears that in the above processes there is no separation of the 
bacterial action which takes place in the presence of air from that 
which occurs only in the absence of air, and both processes probably 
proceed side by side in the open coke-bed. The anaerobic, or so- 
called " septic " treatment, during which collnlose is slowly resolved 
with separation of hydrogen and methane, is, however, sometioies 
made to prccodo the more truly aerobic treatment. 

One result of the anaerobic treatment is the liberation of larga 
volumes of combustiblo gas, and this gas bos been employed at sonH 
works for illuminating purposes on the incandescent principle. 

The general products from both processes of bacterial action an 
carbon dioxide, water, ammonia, nitrogen, hydrogen and methane: 
and in the aorobic changes the ammonia is subsequently oxidised into 
nitrite and nitrate. 

Tlie expericiico obtained from several years' experimentil 
bacterial treatmcut of the sewage from several of our largest citie* 
has recently l>een published. 

In 1893 the London County Council constructed an acre coke- 
bed about three feet in depth at the Barking Outfall of the Korth 

* The illtutnitire figures in (liis article have been selected from Beportiio 
' Tbe BiicU-rinlo^y of London Crude Sewage ' and on ' The BacterlHl TrestmoA 
of Crude Sewage.' by Dr. Clowes .ind Dr. Houston, isaaed by the London Comw 
Ciiuncil (F. P. King and Son), and were originally produced from microphoti* 
^graphs taken by Dr. Norman from Dr. Houston's cultivationa. 




1. — PnUvi ruJgiiri$. Iinprtfuioii jirejMiriition from "swarmiii;' islaiKlit" 
tm geUtine : 2U hour*' growth at '^0'' C. x :ii>Oii. (lluunton.) 




.X. — " Snia^ Proteii*." Miaruacopio pr<.-{Mrutiuii DtainiHl by V. Ermeiigiiu's 
rtltoH, irhawiiig oDc flagelluni nt tlie end of oucb rod; from n l'* lioiiin' 
•.growtli iKiir culture ut 'i(i° t', x loiwi. 



U' 




Klii. a. -U. mfMiiltririn. Sewnge vnriety E. Microsoopic prepareliiml 
I»v V. Eriuengem's melbod, showing numerous Uagella, from » '/Oj 
RJcar culture at 2)t° C. x Vmt. 




Kio. 4. — B. me$enleTieiu. Scwnjte vnricty I. >Iioroaoopic prepantion lUn 
bjr V. Emiengem'g method, showing numeroua flagella; from a " '"" 
nirnr pnllnro ut 2(1" C. x lOOU. 





\tidu ipongenet (Klein). Microscopic donble-ataineil prejismtion 
from B Bcrum culture, showing sports x 2000. 




./ 

*':'^. 
£■ 



,^" 







Fiu. 7. — B. (HUtiiMtmiu. Impresiion prepantion from • gektine phk 
cnltare x 1000. 




Kio. H.—h. mfKHlericuK. Sc-wage vaiioty E. Microscopic prepantioo fi* 
:iO hours' ngar culture at 20° C. x 1000. 



on Bacteria and Seuiage, 



321 



^n Sewage. This bed has been receiving screened and sedi- 
d MwagB op to the present time, tbe process of sedimontation 
; been assisted by the addition of a small proportion of 
ma of lime and of ferrous sulptiate. Two years ago tbe bed 
eepenod to about six fuct. ltt« purifying action, as measured 
) Amount of oxidisablo matter present in tbe raw sewage and 
I clear e£9uent, amounts to 92 per cent, and if tbe purification 
culated from the clear sewage and effluent, it amounts to 84 
int. More recent experiments have proved that tbo treatment 
w ronghlj-Bcreened sewage in such coke-beds is satisfactory, 
^1 tbe ' capacity of the bed becomes continuously reduced by 




Fio. ».— Proteiu mUgarit. x 1(1(10. 

itioD upon the coke of mineral matter from rond detritus, 
of straw, chaff and woody matter from the horse-traffic 
the wood pavements. It was, therefore, evident that these 
n must be deposited by sedimentation before the sewage was 
;ht into the coke-beds. A comparatively rapid process of sedi- 
ition suffices to remove these matters, since even the colloloao 
ra arrive in the sewage in a heavy and waterlogged condition. 
' was fonnd advantageous to use coke in comparatively large 
lente, about the size of walnuts, since this facilitated the rapid 
iug of the liquid from the coko, and at the same time increased 
)wago capacity of the bed and promoted its efficient aeration, 
depth of the betls has been augmented from 4 to 13 feet, and 
icreaae of depth seems to be attended with increase of efficiency. 



Ff^m 



JVodl CUmta 



•n*is4Mt i»a 




P 



long perioda ^tcb s pntrificvtion bm 

• at over 60 par cent. It has muntuiiai 

Off aeration, nnoe the kSr 4iHwn fitjis tk 

W SB mntage, 17 per cent, of oxjgen. 

Abat CO |wr «Mit of A* matter wbicb settles fiom the tenp 

^irlar ocdjany eonlitioBB is eomliiutible, and oottld, tboref«t«, fffj 

«cB W deslt wiA br » dntnwtor. 

Th> tKaitooj of tite eoke bacteria beds is nudonbtedlv to impnm 
m fitir iHtifjii^ po>wv witli ^ei, provided they ara not oT«r«riibi 
A Ind lAkk liad g i?i Ibr mom time a 50 per cent. pnri&xiiaB. 
^mdnUf iaammi ia. iJiiiiiiii) imtil ita panfyins effect rcadMd 
■Marty 70 per obbL Tk eOnai fen Ala bad onderweal « 
additioaal miriBeatina of 90 per oenL hf treetiaant in » 



The eflnant ban a kba^ eokB-bed woriked on the intenfiiliai 
principle waa oloair and iiiTiiiiiliiw. and mnainAd in thia condittra 
vben it waa kept in open or oloeed bottl«e in a wana labotstorr. b 
maiiilainied tbo lifia of gold-fish, roach, daoe, and pike Indefinitcir : it 
waa thendorB not onlj well aerated, but waa able to matstAio itt 
aetated oonditioa. Tliia prorea that it wae £tee iitnn tnj npi^J 
oijdieable matter. It was undoubtedly, bowever, nndergoiiig * 
gradoally farther porificatioQ by tbe actiuu of the bacteria whic&il 
oo&tained, and with the anirtaaoe of dissolved oxygen. Sorii *■ 
effla«it wonld be qnile amlalde for introdiiclion into the ti<J«l (*'' 
of the river, where the water is too salt and muddy to be nioi ^ 
drinking ptirpoeee. 

Bacteria are present in large nttmberB in the river-vatdi iln^ 
and undoubtedly exert a most nsefol porifying effect upon tlw f^ 
during its flow. The relation between the number pretent is ^ 
sewage and iu the water of the River Thames, below ai>d i^ 
locka, is shown by the following estimations made by Dr. B'^'^] 
The number of li<iuerying bacteria included in the total nea 
bacteria present iu one oubie centimetre and the number d i 
of bacteria, are also stated ; — 



Baw sewHge irom North London, Feb. to April 1898 . 
Bow Bcwago from Boutb Lcmdon, Feb. to April 1S<JS , 

May to Ang, 1898 ...... 

EfBae'iit rron coke-bed, South London, May to Aug. 

1888 

[Percentage rodnotion bj ptwriag tbrongh eoke-bed 
Lower Thatnei water, Grei-nbitUe, half ebb Ude, OeL 

1898 

Lower Tbames w«tor, Burking, low tide, Nov. 1898 . 
Dpper Thames w&tet', between Sunbuiy and Hampton, 

Not. 1808 ..,..,., 
Upper Thames water, Twickenham. Not. 1696 . 



fiuorii 






3,926.067 
6,110,000 

4,437,500 
[27-7] 

10,000 
34.400 

5,100 
9^000 



7«*'* 
[UtlPl 







on Bacteria and Setcage. 



The results obtained by the experimeotal bacterial treatment of 
al Manche«ter during the last two or three years bear out 
J those which have been obtained in London. The treat- 
it has differed in some details from that adopted in Loudon. The 
'clcB of coke constituting the coke-beds have been smaller. The 
'beds have been subjected to n larger number of intermittent 
per day ; and the preliminary treatment in an open anaerobic 
been carried out with advantageous results. Tlie scientific 
who have snggested and watched the experiments Btate their 
viction that bacterial treatment is the treatment which is most 
ible for Manchester sewage, but that in order to secure the most 
!tive purification, the coke-beds must have sufiieieutly frequent 
prolonged periods of rest, and must be fed with sewage as free 
Msible from suspended matter, and as uniform in quality as may 
Preliminary anaerobic treatment is referred to at) the best means 
Kcoriug nnifonnity in quality of the sewage, and of adapting it 
tapid subsequent aerobic purification. Foar fillings in twenty- 
boars have been found suitable, if one day's rest in seven is 
en to each coke-bed ; the number of fillings, however, may exceed 
I vitbont detriment to the bed or to the character of the eiHaent. 
Town sewvkge is found to arrive at the outfalls at an almost con- 
tX tempumtnre throughout the year. It rarely falls below 13° 0. 
A this temperature not only prevents the possibility of the coko- 
b lieing stopped by the freezing of the sewage, but olso secures to 
I bacteria one condition favourable to their notion. When a bed is 
> ft«uly aerated by the passage of frosty air constantly through the 
of the coke this favourable condition is, however, snrinusly 
with, and the bed may even become stopped by the freez- 
aewage. 

more recent experiments carried out in America by the 
of Health, Massachusetts, the tendency has been to use 
and to allow the eiUnent from the coke to pass throagh 
The passage of the liquid hos either been allowed to take 
ith tbe outflow widely opened, so thnt the bed never fills, or 
baa been allowed to fill the bed and to remain quiescent 
with the coke for a time, as in the English experiments. 
Insions arrived at seem to be that the degree of purification 
by the use of fine C':)ko and sand is very satisfactory, but 
the volume of sewage dealt with in a given time is smaller than 
T coke fragments are used, and the tendency seems to be 
the larger coke in order to expedite the more rapid drainage 
'J of tbe effluent. 

It will bo seen from what bos olreody been said that it is well 

to spoak of this system of treatment as one of filtration. Filtra- 

ordinarily implies a process of mechanical separation of material 

ndrd in a liquid. The fact that the coke-beds only commence 

purifying action after they have licen "primed" by repeated 

t with sewage, and tbat this purifying action keeps increasing 



parifymg I 
uapJMedi 



834 BaeUHamadSmmt^ Pnkl 

M the bad "mfttam." k ndBoiflnt to ahoir dnt llw Mtiaiiilf i 
mawM of « nwcliMiiml nsfaua. It wnU bewail, liHMfgia^ to ipa 
of it ee > ptooeei of beettriel twe ta w B^ end flna toiiidmtottilil| 
egente an baetoria, whioii am aatiiu 
' nndar oonditiooa &ToimUa to flia oevalopnait of I 
fbll aotiTitf. 

It would be xaah to aay that tbe methods of baotarial < 
have ae yet leaohed their Moat afbothe atoto; bat it ' 
thit tbeae medioda haTo aeoond eooTerta wheniffer diaif ham 1 
oareM and fur trial, and that thoae an flieir wamwa 
have had the widest eipetienoe of their woAiag. Iti 
tint farther impoTemente will be nade in flia mnaw of! 
aewaoB baeteriJUT ; bat it ia qoito oertun that the iKoeaaM at] 
aent m oae en able to aaenn Oe eeonom i eal and 
eation of ocdioaij town aewage. 



H 



Pk. 



r? 



Piciorial Hiiioric Be cords. 



325 




WEEKLY EVENING MEETING, 

Friday, March 16, 1900. 

Jutaa CaicBTON-BBowinE, M.D. LL.D. F.B.S., Treasurer 
and Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Sib Benjamin Stone, M.P. 

Pictorial Hiiioric Becordt. 

oricuT documents pictorial delineation of events is probably 
st valuable means of preserving the truest record of passing 
laging scenes. Many ancient drawings and engravings of the 
; character have been invaluable to the historian, as conveying 
£cnratoly to the mind the subjects of illastratiun than any 
t of literary description could do, and wo are indebted to artists 
ner times for presenting to us scenes which we could not 
y have re-createid from merely word description. 
is tme that imagination and artistic instincts have frequently 
itted to us exaggerated and distorted representations of what 
tnally seen, bnt, at the same time, it has not infrequently been 
■o that the most patient efforts have been concentrated on 
I details, which are most usefully instructive. In estimating 
oe of such work, it only provokes the regret that drawings of 
lis unfinished character are not more generally available, 
recent years the science of photography has come to the aid of 
torian, and this ready me«ns of record is now in evidence in 
actions. Since the discovery of permanent processes the value 
^graphic pictures has been increasingly apparent, and the need 
-directed efforts for securing reliable and trustworthy present- 
if objects and events becomes more and more apparent, especially 
0« aeeaaronnd such a wasteful expenditure of effort and realises 
id of Bystematic collection and preservation. 
i s few years since, labour and money devoted to the collection 
tographs for historical purposes — owing to their periehnble 
Bs — had a most disappointing return ; this is evidenced in 
ainor collections made for special reasons, in which the pictures 
D to be fading although possibly in careful keeping. 
IM been only recently that the reprciduction of photographs in 
, in platinotype and by mechanical printing processes, has 
i the hope and expectation of comparative permanency (tbat 
lermanent as the nature of the paper upon which the pictures 
oted will permit), and which would encourage expenditure in 
g an important collection. That public opinion is now in 
of making such collections is clearly shown from the interest 



326 Sir Benjamin Stone [Ibidi V, 

expressed on the subject in so many directions. The pnUio jnm 
generally bas accorded it support; local associations, archBolognl 
and photographic, have ezertod themselTes to form collediani rf 
local recoil ; and daring the past few years thousands of pietanl 
records of the greatest interest have be«i deposited in Ha and 
local authorities. 

One danger seems to threaten the vslne of such pictom^ jv- 
ticularly in the field of work known as "process reprodndiaa,' 
where, to suit tlio supposed demand of the public for &ithfid reenii 
of CTents which photography is considered to snpply, then ii i 
lamentable custom resorted to of tampering with photogiaiAs eittat 
in the negative or in the process reproduction, so as to insert Hfr 
ficial effects or to correct partial failures in the original negative^ Hi 
oftentimes embodying distinctly fraudulent effects. 

This degrading custom cannot be too much regretted, as &itiiiU 
historical records would become impossible, and the best pietn 
would bo valueless, if it were permitted for one moment to tain Kb*- 
tics of this character. 

It is bad enough for such historical pictures to have snftrad ftoi 
lens-distortion, which gives an exaggerated appearance and ftili k 
correctly record that which is actually seen by the eye. The hart 
lens makers have used their efforts to prodnce lenses which lU 
render scenes in the most faithful manner possible, but himdradi d 
views are daily taken and reproduced, in the pictorial nawwongead 
the day, which are grotesquely absurd in their aspects and ganail 
proportions, in consequence of this primary fault It will be appsntti 
therefore, that difficulties have to be dealt with in keeping up s hi^ 
standard of excellence needed for making a perfectly satisfietoij 
record of current history. 

The efforts made to formulate the nucleus of a national coUadMis 
for pri'serratiiiu in the British Museum, have certainly been in^a- 
p.itlK'tic accord with public opinion, for not only has there been • ooe- 
ticnsus of approval in all directions, but there has been a genena 
rcspont-c to appeals for suitable pictures to add to the collection. 

It would be impossible to refer in detail to the many contribntHW 
wliioh have been made, and I can only indifferently satisfy myself If 
making a brief reference to some of them, which, as for as they g), 
represent the idea that pictorial records are the most satisfying inaui 
for placing upon record the best representation of current hi^iy. 

It may be assumed that such pictures should have explansioT 
notes to make them intelligible, for, however good the pictures mj 
bo in themselves, they will be more valuable if used in conjnnetioi 
with literary mnttcr, condensed as much as possible, and of a perfectly 
reliablo character. 

This will bo more clearly understood if it is remembered tW 
photographic pictures, or engravings, or indeed any illnstratioDS-- 
whether artistic productions iu oil and water-colours, lithograpfai, ' 
other similar productions — have tenfold more interest when the ob- 
jects or scenes portrayed arc recognised and known, inasmuch as tha 
whole subject is at once illuminated by the recoUections of tboae 



'•] 



on Pictorial Historic Beeordi. 



327 



inspect them. So by comparison does an ordioaiy pictorial 

ttion witboQt a name, title or description, suffer in interest in 

inds of those who look npon it for the first time and who do 

meeea a clae to its history or associations. Or, to give another 

ion, how easy it is to create an interest in a most aninviting 

Bt if an appeal is made to the imagination to clothe it with 

[>rical intere-t, such for instance as views of the dungeons of the 

' of London, which cannot have picturesqneness or beauty, but 

inscriptions on the walls, connected as they are witli tragic 

1m of English history, at once give to them a pathetic and 

sing interest. 

It is true that only a very small numlKjr of such pictorial records, 

ooinparLiou with the vast numbers of suitable subjects available, 

yet been contributed to the cullcction, but it is satisfactory 

I know that a good beginning has been made, and that the work is 

ling in a marked manner. When one considers the possibili- 

of extension, it is almost bewildering to speculate upon what 

; bo accomplished. To begin with, there are i)os8iblo workers 

rwhero; few middle class houses or families are now-a-days 

tboot a cajnera, and the smallest contributions may possibly rank 

Bg iho most valuable gifts. Opportunities and subjects aboiud 

directions; it often happens that familiar objects near at hand 

I despised by the photographic worker, imagining that scones novel 

I tre bettor and more desirable subjects for selection. 
To those who live in towns, street Bceoos and the domestic life of 
inhabitants offer abnndant opportunities, for they disclose the 
Conditions of the people of to-day. How invalnuble would a 
isou be, if similar pictures were available of similar scenes in 
' days I 

proad of our progress and the well-to-do habitations of 
cluaes; would that we coidd compare them with the 
I streets, the overhanging bouscH, the half-timbered dwell- 
to my nothing of the quaint costumes and artistic surroundings 
' times ; for, with all our pride of modern self-importance, I 
we might possibly learn something from the days when Shake- 
, Lord Bacon, old John Stowe, and others, were living actors 



dwellers in the country there are limitless possibilities. 

is country life in all its phases, tlio old manor house, the 

de inn, perhaps a ruined castle, or the crumbling remains of an 

or monastery. The parish church alone may serve to engross 

; efforts : Norman work in the tower, mediaeval additions, the 

' aiid restoration, all mark events in ecclesiastical or political 



there are village costumes, many of them relics of the 
psat, in which again possibly the parish church plays a part ; 
l*^y the very tombstones in the churchyard offer fleeting 
worth noting, and which are irrecoverably perishing before 
•. The evolution of such monuments is a delightful study in 
elf, fr<^>m the early monolith and cromlech of pre-historic days to 



828 



Pictorial Historic Record*, 



[HiuchlS, 



the box tomb of our grandfathers' time, there is a progreaaire storj 
which ia clearly discernible in these churchj'ard memuriala. 

If remarkable or special objects are songht for, our ctthedul* 
and the maDBiooa of our old nobility provide endless matorial. A 
single cathedral may wholly occupy the attention of a devoted worker 
for years ; its architecture details, picturesque vistas, monamcDlil 
effigies, tombs and iusoriptions, old and modern alike, are worth notiw; 
whilst such noble sanctuaries as St. Paul's or Westminster Abbejin 
of surpassing interest and possess inexhaustible associations. 

In addition to these varied objects of interest, there are scAttetdi 
throughout the country a groat number of historical docnmeats, in 
the shape of transfer deeds, cliarters, manuscript letters, and otlxr 
records of national or local value. As all such precions evidence it 
liable to destruction by fire or other accidents, it is of the crea'f' 
value to duplicAte them by pbotographs. Such desirable work ofcn 
a largo field to those who have patience to undertake such labour. 

There are innumerable ancient State and Ecclesiastical recordisf 
historical interest sUivvbd away in the deed chests of private familM 
which have never been transcribed or copied ; to sny nothiug of 
stores poBsessod by csitlodral chapters, by church authoritief. ud 
various corporations, tho contents of which are absolutely uuknovn. 
These, by duplication, by photography, and circulation amongst iW 
who are interested in such matters, wuuld permit of their Uiaj 
carefully studied ponding publication, and would throw mucb ni- 
ditional light on passages of past history. 

Those observations would not bo complete without referaBOCl* 
the excellent photographic record work already done in several i«rt» 
of the United Kingdom. Tho efforts of the Warwickshire PhoW" 
graphic Survey Goimcil have resulted in making a fine ooUectioati' 
upwards of 2000 pictures of that county, which are now deposittd ii 
the Birmingham Befercnoe Library, and the names of Uli. JeroW 
Harrison, F.G.S., Mr. J. H. Picklmrd, Mr. E. C. Middleton, Mr. 
James Simkins, Mr. C. J. Fowlor, Mr. Harold Baker, and otben,*!* 
honourably associated with this &rst distinct effort to collect reeot^ 

The example of Warwickeliire has been followed in many ftftl 
of tho country, and local collections are now in progreH in 1^ 
hundred of Wirrall (Cheshire), in Yorkshire, in Worce«terthir^ i> 
the Borough of Scarborough, and indeed in many places. 

In conclusion, the National Record Association itself has reeei«' 
help and encouragement from the learned societies and manyaaM**' 
tious having historical or literary objects in view. It wooU kl 
invidious to mention tho names of those who have so far coDtriM'' 
to make the collection, but the services rendered by Mr. G«orp 
Scamel, the Honorary Secretary, deserve distinct reoognitioa. 

It is sufficient to say that a most promising oonunencement W 
been made towards forming a National Collection, and it ia 
much to expect or hope that at some future time this will be 
the most valued possessions of the Nation. 

[B.S.] 



S<rme Modern Exjilou'ves. 



329 



WEKKLY EVENING MEETING. 

Friday, March 23, 1900. 

Grace tuk Dukx or Northcmbgklajid, K.G. F.S.A., 
Prefiident, iu tbe Chair. 

It AvDUW NoBLs, K.C.B. F.R.S. M.Inst. C.E. M.R.I. 

Somi* Modern Erplotive*. 

thirty years ago, in the Royal Institution, I had the 

of describing the great advances which had then recently 

•do both in our knowledge of the iihenomena which attend 

omposition of gunpowder, and in its practical application to 

poies of artillery. 

Mcribed the uncertainty which up to tliat date had esiBtod 
le tension developed by its explosion ; the catiniatcs varying 
n/ily from tho 101,000 atmospheres (about GG2 tons on thu 
inch) of Count Rumford to the 1000 atmoapheres (6'G tons 
^^b inch) of Rubins, or, taking more modern estimates, 
Hm,000 atmospheres (158 tons per square inch) of Fiobert 
villi to the 4300 atmospheres (about 29 tons per square 
t BuMon and SchischkofiT. 

Mw uncertainties were, I think I may say, set to rest by certain 
Knta carrieil out both in guns and close vessels at Elswick, by 
Durs of tho Explosive C'ommittee api)oiuted by the War Office, 
leaearcbes conducted by Sir F. Abel and myself. TheRO 
tea were conducted on a large scale, with the view of ropro- 
•a nearly as poi>«ible in experiment the conditions that exist 
bure of a gun. You may judge of tho magnitude of t)ia 
tenia when I tell you that I have fired auil completely re- 
in one of my cylinders a charge of no less than 28 lbs. of 
J powder. 

I reault of the discussion of the whole series of experiments 
Ibe following conclusions : 

rbat tbe tension of the products of combustion at tho moment 
osion when the powder practically filled tho spoco in which 

til — that is, when tho density is about unity — is a little over 
on tho squaro inch, or about 6400 atmoHphercs. 
Itfaough changes in tho chemical composition of powder, and 
laagaa in the mode of ignition, cause a very considerable 
in tbe metamorphosis experience*! iu explosion — as evideucid 
portions uf tbe products, the quantity of heat generated, and 
ntity of permanent gases produced, lic-ing materially altore<l — 
■•what remarkable that tho tension of thu products in relation 
XVI. (No. 94.) Z 



330 



Sir AmJreu) Noble 



[Marcli!!3, 



to the gravimetric clensity is not nearly bo much aS'ecte<l as migbtU 
expoctod from the considerable alteration in the above factors. 

3. The work that gunpowder is capable of performing in eiptail- 
ing in the bore of a gun was determined both by actoal mengnreaint I 
and by calculation, and tho rcBults wore found to accord very cl"i«tl;. 

4. Tho total potential energy of exploded gunpowder gnpi**! 
to be fired at the density of unity was found to bo abont 33'2,0<i0 
gramme units per gramme, or 486 foot-tons per lb. of powder. 

I must confess that when I gave the lecture I have refemi to. | 
seeing the many centuries during which gunpowder had held il«"*ii 
as practically tho sole propelling agent for artillery purposes, sttiig 
also that gunpowder differs in certain important points froui tk« i 
explosives to which I shall presently call your attention, I M 
serious doubta as to whether it would be possible so far to Bodift 
those latter as to permit of their being used in largo charBW uA 
under tho varied couditione required in the Naval and Uiliti>7 
Services. 

Gunpowder is not like guncotton, cordite, nitro-glycerine, \jiii% I 
and other similar explosives, a definite chemical combinatiMi io • I 
state of unstahlo equililiriuni, but is merely an intimate miitiin< « 1 
nitre, sulphur and charcoal, in proportions which can bo v»n*ii * j 
A very considerable extent without striking differences in rwil*] 
These constituents do not, during tho manufacture of the po«<l<^>| 
Bufier any chemical change, and being a mixture it cannot be •• I 
under any condition truly to defunato. It deflagrates or biini««'w] 
great rapidity, varying very largely with the pressure and ollicreiJ' 
cumstttuces under which the explosion is taking place ; a trtio I 
that to which I set fire taking as you sue an appreciable 
burn, whilo in tho bore of the gun a similar Icngtb of charge i 
be consumed in less than the hundredth part of a second. 

Ton will further have observed tho heavy cloud of smoke wS 
has attended tho deflagration you have seen. Nearly six-teatt*! 
the weight of tho powder after explosion remains as a finely di*" 
Solid, giving rise to tho so-called smoke familiar to many otj 
and of which a good illustration is shown in this instanll 
photfvgraph. By way of comparison I bnm similar lengths i 
cotton iu tho form (1) of cotton, (2) of strand, (3) of rope; 
will observe the ditlorent rates at which these varied fonni < 
same material are consumed, the rate depending in this 
the greater aggregation and higher density, conseijnently li<g 
pressnre, of the successive samples. 

Although tlio names of cordite and ballistito are probably fc'W'i'' I 
to all of you, tho ap])cnrance moy not bo so fumiliar, and I b»»«ki»l 
on the table samples of the somewhat Prot<ian forms wbidi I 
explosives, or explosives of tho same nature, are made to tteoM. 

Here, for instance, are forms of cordite, tho explosive rf ' 
Service, for which wo are indebted to the labours of Sir F. .K\Mt 
Prof. Dawar. This, which is in the form of fine thread*, is *"' ' 



.] 



on Some Modern Explotitet. 



831 



1 arms ; and bcro are snccessiTe sizeB, adapted to Bacceseivo larger 
lives, nntil wo roach this size, which is that employed for the 

of the 12-incb 50-ton gnns. 
A couple of the smaller cords I bum, both for purposes of corn- 
son Slid to draw your attention to the entire absenco of smoke. 
The smoke of the gunpowder you see still floating near the ceiling ; 
' '"1e or no trace of smoke can bo seen from such explosives as 
' >n, cordite or ballistitc, their products of combustion being 
U r-j I y platoons. 
V< '<> y^ill haro obserred that in the combustion which you have just 
' re is no smoke, bat 1 must explain, and I shall shortly show 
>t this combustion is not quite the same as tlint which takes 
"itanco, in the cliimil)er tif a gun. Here the carbonic oxido 
! ' n, which are products of explosion, bum in the air, giving 

ipritb liic aid of a little free carbon, to the bright flame yuu seo, 
iue» hat increasing the rate of combustion. In a gun, however, 
chiody to pressure, the cordite is consumed in a very small 
iun of a second. 

In orfler to illustrate the effect of pressure upon the rate of com- 
i>. 1 vcutort) to show you a very beautiful experiment devised 
Ab«l. It bos been shown in this room before, but it will 



iKjtition. 



Id 



tbttt globe there is a length of cordite. I pnss a current through 

Tilstiuum wire ou which it is restiug, aud you see the cordite bums. 

Ijiow exhaust the air and repeat the experiment. The wire is red- 

, bnt Iba cordito will not bum. That tho failure to bum is not 

> to tits absence of oxygen is sliown by plunging lighted cordite 

jar of carbonic acid, where, nltbough a match is instantly put 

lb* rordite continues to burn — but observe ilio difference. 'I'here 

r any bright flame, although the cordite is being consumed 

luxme rate ns when burned in air ; and when a sntHcieut 

the CO.^ is displaced, I can make the inflammable gases 

burn ot the mouth of tho jar. 

kber illustration is also instructive. I have hero a stick of 

wrapped round with Alter paper; I dip it in water and light 

)d. Yon may note that at first you see tho bright flume ; but, as 

Tonrnboetion retreats under the wet filter paper, there appears a 

between the flame and the cordite, the flame tinally disajipears, 

' n-ith sparks of carbon alone showing, 

ir pretty experiment I show. I have here a stick of cor- 

I I light When fairly lighto<l I plunge it in this beaker 

tier. The oxporiment dues not always succeed at tho first 

t jron now see tho cordito burning under the water much 

iho jar of carbonic acid. Tho re<I fumes you obsorvo are 

the formation of nitric peroxide, caused by tho decomposi- 

bi) watt'r by the hciit. 

Ihu table samples of certain other smokeloss explosives 
lelus. Here is a balliMtitu used in Italy. Uei-c is some 

z 2 



332 



Sir Andrew Noble 



[MaKli23, 



Norwegian ballistit-e. Here, again, is balliBtite in tho tnbulw fono, 
find in tliese bottles it is seen in the fonn of cubes. Here ii »IM 
gclatia 160(1 giiiicotton in the tubular furm, and hero arc some intcmtiiig 
speeitueuB with wLich 1 Lave experimented, and wbich up to a certain 
pressure gave good results, but which exhibited somo tendency to vio- 
lence when that prei<8nre was exceeded. Here also are some eaniplM 
of tho French B.N. powder, consisting of nitrocelloloee partiiUj 
gelatinised and mixed with tannin, and with barium and potxtiain 
nitrates. Lastly, I show you lioro a sample of picric acid, a gub«l»iK« 
which has been used for many years as a colouring niatcritl, boJ 
which will be of interest to you, because it is used as the cipltiflw 
of Ijddito shell, couceming which I shall presently have more to ay; 
it difiers from all tho other explosives in being, in the crystallia* 
form, exceedingly difficult to light. I fuse, however, in this poiwlw 
crucible a small quantity. I pour a little on a slab, and on dropping 
a fragment into a red-hot test-tube you see with how much viuleno 
tho fragment explodes. I also bum a small quantity, and you iR 
observe that unlike guncotton , cordite and ballistite, it is not free frea 
smoke, the smoke in this cose being simply carbonaceous matter. Tifl 
will observe also bow much more slowly it burnsu 

The composition of these various explosives (although in the tu* 
of both cordite and ballistite I have experimented with etm^f* 
differing widely in the proportion of their ingredients) may be tli* 
stated. 

Tlie guncotton I employed was of Waltham Abbey mannftrtu'* 
and when dried consisted of 4*4 per cent, of soluble ooUon u» 
95 "G per cent, of insoluble — as used it contained 2*25 per «Bt» 
moisture. 

The service cordite consists of 37 per cent, trinitro-ccllnlofe, »'» 
a small proportion of soluble guncotton, 58 per cent, of ni»» 
glycerine and 5 per cent, of the hydro-carbon vaseline. 

Tho ballistite I priiicipftlJy used was composed of 50 per ««^ 
dinitro-celluloBo (collodion cuttim) and 50 per cent, of wn^ 
glycerine. The whole of the cellulose was soluble in ether ticM 
and tho ballistite was coated with graphite. 

Tho French B.N. powder consisted of nitro-ccllulose partly 
tiiiised and mixed with tannin, with barium and potassium 
The transfommtion experienced by somo of these explosives i« 
in Toble 1., while tlie pressures in relation to tho gravimetric 
ties of somo of the more important are shown in Fig. I. 

The decomposition esporieucud by these high explosive* on 
fired is of much greater simplicity than that experienced by tb* 
powders, and is, moreover, not subject to the considerable flucl 
in the ultimate products exhibited by them. 

The products of explosion of gun-cotton, cordite, ballistite, 
at the temperature of explosion entirely gaseous, consisting of 
anhydride, carbonic oxide, hydrogen, nitrogen and aqneuiw 
with generally a small quantity of marsh gas. 



H9NI 69 HSd StMU Nl 3VnS931W 

S S S ? j S S a R ffi g « 




HONI t)S USd SNOi. Nl aMowatM 



»•] 



OR Some Modem Explotivet. 



883 



rhfl water collected, after the ezplogion veasel was opened, always 
Ik— occagionally very strongly — of ammonia, and an appreciable 
ant was determined in the water. 

Table I. 



Contltaenu. 


OonUte. 


Bkllbtite. 


B.N. 


Lyddite; 




TOU. 


TOl«. 


vols. 


Toll. 


, 


20-5 


29-1 


211 


12-8 




23-3 


21-4 


24-2 


49-7 




16-5 


150 


16-4 


13-8 




14-6 


10-1 


12-6 


19-6 


a 


23-6 


24-4 


250 


8-8 


t, 


1-5 


trace 


0-6 


0-3 


■iitit7orjrMiDc.c. 
Nrgiamme .. ../ 


890-5 


807 


822 


960-4 


toofbeat .. .. 


1272 


1365 


1003 


856-3 



In examining the gaseons products of the explosion of various 
iples of gunpowder, it was noted that as the pressure under which 

•zploaion took place increased the quantity of carbonic anhydride 
3 increased, while that of carbonic oxide decreased. The same 
■liarity is exhibited by all the explosives with which I have 
wrimented. I show in Table II. the result of a vei-y complete 
its of a sample of gnncotton fired under varying pressures, and it 
1 be noted that the volumes of carbonic oxide and carbonic an- 
Iride are, between the highest and lowest pressures, nearly exactly 
9ned. 

Table II. 





Under Prnsare of Explosion, tons per squsre Inch. 


atona. 


8 tons. 


1 
12 tons. ' 18 tons. 


20 tons. 


4S tons. 


21-44 


25-06 


26-27 


27-21 


26-75 


28 13 


29-66 


26-31 


2S08 


25-24 


24-53 


23- 19 


15-92 


15-33 


16-03 


14-56 


14-77 


14-14 


13-63 


13-80 


13-22 


13- 13 


13-43 


12-99 


19-09 


19-09 


19-09 


19-09 


19-09 


lU-09 


•26 


-41 


-31 


■77 


1-47 


2-46 



60 tons. 



29-27 
22-31 
13-56 
13-07 
1909 
2-70 



liere are slight changes as regards the other products, but they 
>t compare in importance with that to which I have referred, 
lot before drawing your attention to other points of interest, it is 
able to give you an idea of the advances in ballistics which have 
made both by improvements in the mannfaotnre of the old 
an and by the introduction of the new. 




884 iSir AnJirm SAU 

On Fig. n. Are plkoed ihe nmlto m regards veloetlf of nios n 
plMivMi oommenoing with tiia BJLGi poiTder, whicb wu in nie ii 
the Utter pert of the fiftiea, end tenmnatiBg wtih tlie ooidite d Ik 
praeent omj. 

The ezperimsnta I am now idSBRiBg to were made in a gm 
lOOoelibtea in length, and wen bo ansnged that in & single mmi tit 
velooitiai oonld be meaaazed at 16 points of the bore. The cimira- 
Boope with which theae veloaitiea were taken has been alreadj d*- 
Boribed, and I will now only aay tiiat it is capable of ngiitenig 
time to the millionth of a aeomid with a probable enot of betvees tn 
and three milliontha. One eoriona fiuit coaneoted witb the mode of 
registration I may mention. In the mtlj experiments with ihb M 
powdera, where the vekxsitifla did not exceed 1500 or 1600 tot- 
aeconda, the arrangement for oaoaing the projectile to reoai«l tb« tini 
of its paaaing any paitienlar point was efibcted hy the ebot kncekm; 
down a email steel cnifb or trigger whieh projected aUghtl^r into <i* 
bore; bntwhen themnoh higher Telooities, with wbicb 1 Babeeqna^ 
experimented, were employej^ this nisn was found to be MomtiBki^i 
the steel trigger, instead of being immediately knocked down bj (^ 
shot, finqnently prefarred instead to ont a gtoovo in the ^ot, eou^ 
times nearly its whole length, befixre it aoted. Hence another 
ment for ontting the primary wires had to be adopted. 

The diagram I am now showing yon is, howeTer, both 
and instroptiTe. The intentitm, among other points, was to . 
for Tarioos calibres in length in a S-inch gun the Telodtiee 
energies that ooold be obtained, the maximnin pressures, wli«tl»' 
mean or wave, not exceeding abont 20 tons on the sqtiare incb. Tb 
horizontal line or axis of absoisBSB represents the travel of the abotii 
feet, the ordinates or perpendionlars from this line to the eum^S'*' i 
sento the velocity at that point. 

The lowest curve on the diagram givee, under the oanditiois I 
have mentioned, the velocities attainable wilii the powder wbieii ** 
used when rifled gnns were first introduced into the service; »i>ij^ 
will note that with this powder the velocity attained with 100 cali^ 
was only 1705 foot-seconds, while with 40 calibres it was 1533 fc^ 
seconds. Next on the diagram comes pebble powder, with a rcloii^ 
of 2190 foot-seconds ; next comes brown prismatic, with aTclocitf « 
2529 foot-seconds. 

The next powder is one of oonsideiable interest, and one wW 
might have arisen to importance had it not been superseded hj «<' 
plosives of a very different natnre. It is called Amide powder, i» 
in it ammonimn nitrate is snbstitated for a largo portion (aboTitifin 
of the potassinm nitrate, and there is oIbo aa absence of solpli''- 
You will observe the velocity in the 100 calibre gun is very giw- 
2566 foot-seconds. The pressure also was low, and free from nn 
action. It is naturally not smokeless, but tlie smoke is mocJ) ^ 
dense and disperses much more rapidly than does the sookt ^ 
ordinary powder. Its great advantage, however, was, Uiat ii a<^ 



ihaj 



t^ii3| 



1 



VELOCITY IN FEET PER SECOND 

1 8 i M .1 i § i i i f M i § 1 i i I i I § M 



ill 





; 5 s n ! i i i i 1 11 1 1 1 1 n 1 1 1 n 1 1 

VELOcrry in feet per second 




en Some Modern Explotlvet. 



335 



eiy mnoh lees tban any other powder with which I expcri- 

I, while its great disadvantage was dne to the dcliqaescent 

lies of amiuoniam nitrate nucossitating the koepiog of the 

gea in air-tight cases. 

ct on tho diagram comeii B.N. or Blanche NouTolIo powder, 

loeivo which, while free from wave action, is remarkable, as 

11 note if you foUow the curve, in developing a much higher 

f than the other powders in the first few feet of motion, and 

the later stages of expansion. 

D8, if yon compare this curve with the highest curve on the 

n, that of the four-tenths cordite, yon will note that the B.X. 

for the first eight feet of motion is tho higher, and that at 

ight feet the onrres cross, the B.N. giving a final velocity of 

wt-aecondB, or 500 foet below tho cordite curve. 

ftn follows ballistite, which, with much lower initial pressnre, 

Telocity of 2806 foot-seconds, or somewhat higher than that 
. Then follow three different sizes of cordite, the highest of 
gives a muzzle velocity of 3284 foot-seconds, or a velocity 
double that of the early K.L.6,, 

the somewhat formidable-looking table (Table III.) I have 
ou the wall, are exhibited the velocities and energies realised in a 
gun with the various explosives I have named, and the table, 
ition, shows the velocities and energies in guns of the same 

bat of 40, 50, and 75 calibres in length as well as in that 
calibres. 



I 



Table III. 
S-IxcH Ocx, 100 Caliubks Long. 

Yelucitics aud Energies realisi'd with IIii;h Explotiv 
Wcijjlit of I'roJMiilo lim lbs. 



idwdcktor 



in.(27-5Iba.) 
U in. (22 lbs.) 
Sin. (20lb«.) 
)'Siii. coba.r 

MSsiba.)*' 

mCiatbe.).. I 
D(501hii.).. I 
dct (SC lb«.; 
UliL) .. .. 



licagtli of Burr, 


L«n(tth • 


fn..r». 1 


40Uillbi». 


60 Collbm. 


Velaol9. 


Ea*ripr, 


Velocity. Enargy. 


f.». 


n.taii*. 


f. IL 


ft. ivnj. 


2794 


5413 


2940 


5!W4 


2J44 


4142 


2583 


4ti2(> 


2495 


43IS 


2032 


4804 


2416 


4047 


2.^37 


44S3 


2422 


40GS 


2530 


4438 


Tl'la 


8433 


2.-131 


97tt8 


-.ills 


3190 


2257 


3532 


18«3 


24i>4 


1980 


2718 


1633. 


lU.<iO 


1592 


1757 



Loiigih of tkircv 
7S C'kllbraik 



TelocUy Energy. 



r. ». 
316(1 
2798 
28-.il 

2713 

2700 
248G 
2435 
2110 
16G8 



a. tons. 

(5y50 
.V(29 
55J8 

5104 

5055 
4285 
4111 
3087 
1929 



LcncUi nf Rore, 
lOOCilUira. 



Velocity. Bnergy. 



f. n. 
3284 
2915 
2914 

28Ut> 

27K« 
2560 
2.')20 
2190 
1705 



ft. UiIU. 

7478 
5<<9'i 
6888 

5460 

5382 
45fl6 
4485 
3826 
2016 



yon compare the results shown in the highest and lowest lines 
tkble, that is, tho results given by the highest and lowest 



.-•>■■ -'' 



8M 



firJa*MiJMb 



[■Mil 




, yea vffl ns Out flia idoottf of fti 1 
M gMt as tlmt of tiw iBtter, wldb iti 
ctfMty fcr paaetntfioa « awriy far tiiBM m gwU 

I need hudty nmud aiiMt of yoa Oat iaattillaiTi 
tte BMTgy datalqped, not Ae -nUtiiy liaob, <hrt k of ^ifal i 
auBSh I TCBtara to ianst vpon thk poiiit, IweMae Kt flHOf fl( J 
wlw dcavB toiaatraet tte antboritin write m if Talosityiwil 
only point to be eonadend. In a given ^on with a gnen ckqii 
the wai^ of tha abot, wifliin leaaonaUe limHi^ be made to lajj 
ballutie adTaatage ia gnady on Aa rida of tbe beKnar ibo^aii 
three prinoqad naaooa : 

1. Mora eneigy ia obtained &om tbe ezploaive, 

9. Owing to Sa lower veloeity,tha Twairtancia of die i 
ndneed. 

S. Tbe beaner aboi baa greater taffttHj fi» 
redneed rwiiitawee. 

Yon win obaerre tbat on fliia vdodty djagnan, npoi ' 
ham kept yon ao long a time, ia diown, not omy the tmd ( 
shot in fleet, bnt tbe poaitian of tbe plnga iriiieh gave the ^ 
Further, on the higher and lower eorrea, the obawted ^ 
shown where it ia poaaible to do ao. Near the origin of i 
pointa are ao doee that it ia not poaeiUe to inaert uem wiflMtf 
faring the diagtam. 

At tbe risk of &tigning yoo, I ahow, in Fig. HI., emneai 
the preoame existing in the bore at all pointer tbeae ] 
deduced from the curvea of reloeiiy. 

Ton will note the point to which I drew yonr attentiOBi 
regard to the powder called BJ(f. Yon will remember, that it I 
early stages of motion it gave Telocity to the shot mnoh mora i 
than did the other powders. Yon seo the efifoot in the preasnni 
the maximnm being consideiably higher than any of the otba] 
sures, while the pressnre towards the mnxzle is, on the other I 
considerably below the average. 

I fear yon may think I have kept yon nnneoeesarily kmgi 
these somewhat dry details, bnt I have had reasons for so daing. 

In the first place, I desire to demonstiste to yon the ( 
advances which have been made in artillery by the introdnotiaB < 
the new explosiTes, and which we in a great measnre owe to the f 
tingnished chemists and phyricists who have oocnpied themseLTesi 
these important qnestiona 

Secondly, I desire to show yon Qiat the ezplocave whidh hail 
adopted by this oonntry, and which we chiefly owe to the 
Sir F. Abel and Prof. Dewar, is in ballistio efieot inferior to : 
of its competitors. I might go farther and say that it is ( 
superior. 

Lastly, at a time when the efficiency of all onr arms, and espeeiiOl 
our artillery, is a qnestion which has been deeply agitating ttl 
oonntiy, I may do some good by pointing out that ttie anthoritiei HI 



PRESSURE IN TONS PER SQ. INCH. 




4- 



-I — I — I — n 

•i «• » ■ • s 

PRESSURE IN TONS PER SQ. INCH. 



.] 



on Some Modem Eiplogives. 



337 



•ware tlmt anj practicable velocity or energy they may dcsiro 
Oioir guns is at their dispoeal. 

Tbey hnvo such guns— I mean guns with high velocity and high 
rgjr. Wljether they have enough of them, and whether they are 
lyg in the right place, is anqther matter, for which perliape tho 
tary authorities are not altogether rcsponsiblo. But velocity and 
gy is not the only thing that is required under all circnrastancos 
and I ask you to believe that if the War Office authorities 
I, for their field guns, fixed on a velocity very much below what 

ible, they have had sound and sufficient reasons for so doing. 
tfy firm and I, individually, have had much to do with the intro- 

on of the larger high velocity and quick-firing guns into our own 
other services, but as an old artillery officer, in no way rospoosible 
enr field guns, I may perhaps be aIlowc<l to say that, whether as 
ids wtateriel or pertonnel, our field artillery is inferior to none 

bore, and I venture to add that in tho present war it appears 

ive been handled in a way worthy of the reputation of the 

fe«r the canses of some of our military failures at the coramence- 
of the war, must bo looked for in other directions ; and the 
t unfortunate war will torn out to bo a blessing in disguise, if 
lold awaken the Empire to the necessity of correcting serious 
Bis in our organisation, possibly the natural result of our consti- 
and in that case the invalnablo lives that have been lost will 
ave been tacrificed in vain. 
DOW pass to points which have to be considered when weighing 

iporatiTO merits of explosives for their intended ends. 
on will easily understand that between explosives which are 
ided to be used for propelling purposes, and those which are in- 

HO be need, say for bursting shell, a wide diflurcnce may exist. 
be former case, facility of detonation would bo an insuperable 
n. In the latter, the more perfect the detonation the better ; 
special cases, to which I have not time to refer, excepted, 
rbere exists, I think, considerable diversity of opinion as to what 
, sod what does not, constitute true detonation. I find many 
NDS speak of a detonation, when I Bhoiild merely consider that a 
bigh pressure had been reached. This gun-cotton slab on tho 
sBbrds me, I think, a fair opportunity of explaining my 
ling. Were I to set fire to it, except for the large volume of 
•od the great amount of heat generated, wo in this room would 
Ter ; we shotdd probably experience more inconvenience did I 
atmilar slab of gunpowder, os detached burning portions would 
ibly bo projected to some distance. 

lot if I fired this same slab with two or three grammes of ful- 
of mercury, a detonation of eztromo violcuco would follow, 
detonation would bo capable of blowing a hole in a tolerably 
t iron plate, and would probably ptit an end to a considerable 
tftion of the Managers in the front row. 



338 



Sir Andrew Noble 



[Muck 33; 



I moutioitod to yon some time Bgo tbe time in which a chatp 
would be coDBumed in the c:haml>er of a gun — if a charge of 500 It* 
of these tlabs were effectively detonated, tliis charge would be 
verted into gas in Iobb than the 20,000th part of a second. 

No 8iich result would follow were 1 to try a similar expcrime&l 
witli a slub of compreBsed gunpowder of tlie same dimensions. I 
not say the experience would bo jileasant, but there would be 
of tbe instantaneous violeut action which marks tbe deoompooitioa 
the gaucotton. 

To give you an idea of tbe extraordinary violenc* which 
pauies detonation, I have fired, fur the purpose of this lecture, *i< 
fulminate of mercury, a charge of lyddite in a cast-iron shell, 
those who are suiScieutly near, can see for themselvea the result. Bf 
far tlio gretitor part of the cast-iron shell, weighing about 10 Ib8., 
reduced to duat, some of which is so tine that I assumed it to be d 
posited carbon until I had tested it with a magnet. I may add tbit 
indentation of the steel vessel by pieces of the iron which wen tn* 
reduced to powder would appear to indicate velocities of not Ic* 
than 1200 foot-seconds, and this velocity must have been commoni- 
catcd tu the fragments in a space of less than two inches. 

For the sake of comparison I place beside it a cast-iron ibitt 
burst by gunpowder. You will observe the extraordinary diflenoM 
I also have on the table two small steel shells exploded, a&» if 
a perfectly detonated the other by a partially detonated charge. I 
may remark that in the accounts of correspondents from theietia 
war, frefiuont mention is made of the groen smoke of lyddite. Tto 
appearance is probably due to imperfect detonation — to a 
in fact of the yellow picric with the black smoke. I do noi 
however that imperfect detonation is necessarily an evil. 

To another experiment I draw your attention. 

For certain purposes I caused to bo detonated, in the chanitw 
12-poundor, a steel shell charged with lyddite. Tbe detoDtlion 
not perfect, bat the base of the shell was projected with great violi 
Against the breech screw. You may judge of bow great that vi( 
was when I tell you that the base of the shell took a oom[' 
])re8Bion of the recess for the primer, developing great heat 
doing ; but, what was still more remarkable, the central portion of ii« 
base also sheared, passing into the central hole through wbici «t 
striker passes. This piece of shell is upon the table, and oj^ " 
your inspection. 

One other instance, to iJIostrate the difference- between oami 
and detonation , I trouble you with. Desiring to ascertain the 
if any, in the products of explosion between o<jmbngtion sod 
nation, I fired a charge of lyddite in such a manner that d 
did not follow. The lyd(lito merely deflagrated. But • 
charge differently fired shortly afterwards detonated with 
extreme violence as to destroy the vessel in which it vru ^ , 
The maunei in which the veesol failed I now show yon (Fig- ^T- 



338 

I 1 

would 

uf tbe 

verted 

Nc 

with a 

not sa 

of the 

the gu 

T< 

paniec 

fulmii 

those ' 

far tb 

roduci 

]H»)ite 

iuduu 

re<lac< 

than 

catud 

F. 

burst 

I als< 

a per 

may i 

war, 1 

upiioii 

iu fjK 

howc 
T 

F 
]-2-pc 
not J) 
ngiiiu 
W118 > 
])rC88 

doiu^ 
base 
Ktriki 
your 

and d 
if au 
uatio 
did : 
<^iar{ 
cxtre 
The 



I 



(brel-Iike form — that is, with the central diameter larger 
j the onds as Ehown in the diagram, Fig. V. — in this ex- 
bd in this only, was bulged close to the piston as you 
lid appear as if tbe blow was so suddenly given that the 
the metal next tbe piston endeavoured to escape in tbe 
[ least resistance, tbat being easier than to ovexcome tbe 
je lamince below. 

Bye effect of the new explosives is another point of first 
KDoe in an artillery point of view. Tbe cordite of tbe 
pt, if tbe effect be estimated in relation to tbe energy 
ID the projectiles, more erosive than, for example, brown 
iliioh was itself a very erosive powder ; but as we are 
lin, as yon have seen, very much higher energies with 
\ with brown prismatic, tbe erosion of tbe former is, for 
kber of rounds, materially higher. 

L however, one striking difference. By the kindness of 
pbridge, the Chief Superintendent of Ordnance Factorios, 
pd to show you a section of the barrel of a large gun 
137 rounds of gunpowder. Beside it is a barrel of a 
Ick-firlng gun eroded by 1087 rounds of gunpowder and 

fed by 1292 rounds of cordite. You will observe tbe 
n the former case the erosion much resembles a plough<id 
ke latter the ap[)caranoe is more as if tbo surl'ace were 
f by the flow of tbo highly heuted gases. 
fe it in what way you please, tbo heavy erosion of the 
i service, if fired with the maximum charges, is a very 
ler, as with the largo guns, accuracy, and in a smaller 
ky, are rapidly lost after a comparatively small number 
fie been fired. 

f«ras first pro<luced for use in small arms only, wheie, 
b small charges employed, the question of erosion is nut 
{importance as with large guns, but its employment, from 
knltfl obtained with it, was rapidly extended to artillery ; 



840 



iS«V Andrew Noble 



[MmcIiSs;' 



being Bnccessively in the proportions of 60, 50, 40, 30, 20 tod 
10 per ceut., and with each of tbeso cordites I determined the foUu«> 
iog points: 

1. The quantity of permanent gases generated. 

2. The auiciuut of nquoous vapour formed. 

3. The beat gencrat«d by the explosion. 

4. The erosive eflfect of the gases. 

5. The biillistic energy developed in a gun and the correspond* ' 
ing maximum pressure. 

6. The capacity of the cordite to resist detonation when fired \ 
a strong charge of fulminate of mercury. 

The results of these experiments were both interesting and tn- 
structive. 

To avoid wearying you with a crowd of figures, I have placed oo 
Fig. VI. the results of the first five series of experiments. 

On tbo axis of abscissie are placed the percentages of nitro- 
glyceriuo, while the ordinatcs show the quantities of the gaM* 
generated, the amount of heat developed, tiie erosive effect of iat 
explosive, the tiallistic energy exhibited in a gon, and the maxiiBna 
gaseous pressure. 

You will nuto that with the Bmallest proportion of nitro-glyceriat 
the volume of permanent gases is a maximum, and that the voIbim 
steadily decreases with the increase of nitro-glycerine. On the otk«r 
hand the heat generated as steadily increases with the nitro-glycerimk 
and if we take the product of the qoautity of heat and tlie qnutit; 
of gas, as an approximate measure of the potential energy of Ik* 
explosive, the higher proportion of nitro-glycerine has an andoabli4| 
advantage ; but in this case, as in the case of every other expla 
with which I have experimented, the potential energies differ 1« 
than might bo expected from the changes in transformation, as tL« 
cfibct of a large quantity of gas is to a great extent oompenEated by a ' 
great reduction in the quantity of heat generated. 

This efTect is, of course, easily explained, and was very strikiiifb I 
exhibited in the much more complicated transformation experieaatf | 
by gunpowders of different compositions, a long scries of which i 
very fully iuvestigatcid by Sir F. Abel and myself. 

Looking at this diagram you will have observed that the tatafj I 
developed in the gun is very much smaller with the smaller 
tiona of nitro-glycerine, but if you will look at th0*cor 
maximum-pressure curve you will note that the preesares have li^ 
creased nearly in like proportion. Hence it is probable that tW 
lower effect is mainly duo to a slower combustion of the cordite, o^ 
it follows that this effect may be, to a great extent, remedird 
increasing the rate of combustion by reducing the diamoier of I 
cordite to correspond with the reduction in the quantity of i 
glycerine. 

To test this point I caused to be mannfaotnred m second i 
cordites of the same composition, but with the diameters i 



Energy in Foot Tons 
Heat in Units 
Gas in C.C. 



t § § I § S 1 




Erosion in Inches 
PitessuftE IN Toms 






sb 
Fi 

ge 
ez 

g> 

ib 
■tf 
ba 
» 
of 
ex 
ad 
wi 
th 
efi 
gf 

ex 
by 
▼e 

de 
tic 
mi 
cr 
lo 
it 
in 

flO 

gi: 







1oD;t "^1,.-; 



00 



ENERGY IN FOOT TONS . 



_l 1 1 1 1 1 I I I III'! 



I - 



z 
m 

;e 

[o 
< 




t 



I I 



T 



r r I 



T 



7— r 



-I — I — r- 

^ w< 9> 



T — r 



I CD W o — f^ ««■ 

PRESSURE IN TONS 



on Some Modem Explotivet, 



341 



M by *03, as jon see with the samplee I hold, and this diagram 

Vll.) shows at a glanoe the resalt. Tbe energies yoo see are, 

ily, practicallj the same, bat if yoa look at the pressare carve 

bill observe that I have obtained a curve in which, on the 

b, the pressnres vary in the contrary direction, that is to say, in 

we tbe pressures increase as tbo nitro-glycerino diminishes. 

nking the two series into account, thoy show that by a proper 

Igement of amount of charge and diameter of cord, it wouki Ite 

Ue to obtain the same ballistics and approximately the same 

iue from any of the samples I have exhibited to yon. 

M I have to draw your attention to another point. From the 

1^ showing the quantities of heat yon will note that in passing 

|l0 per cent, nitro-glycerine to 60 per cent., the heat gonoratoil 

tcreased by about 60 per cent. But if you examine the curve 

Iting the corresponding amonnt of erosion, you will see that while 

■antity of heat is only greater by about GO per cent., the erosion 

IKter by nearly 500 per cent. 

heae experiments entirely confirm the conclnsion at which I 

'previouxly arrived, viz. that heat is the principal factor in 

tuning the amount of erosion. 

^ exjierimenting with a number of alloys of steel, the greatest 

$acti was shown by an alloy of steel with a small proportion 

tgston, but the ditforence between the whole of these alloys 

uied only to about llj per cent. 

pe whole of these cordites were, as T have mentioned, subjected 

bnation tests. None of them, so far as my experiments went, 

|ted any s{)ecial tendency in this direction. 

(rill now endeavour to describe to you a most interesting and 

(taut series of experiments which, I rogret to say, is still a long 

kuni oumpletion. 

pe objects of these experiments were (1) to ascertain the time 

Ird fur tbe combustion of charges of cordito in which the cordite 

if diiforent tliicknosses, varjring from 0*05 inch to 6 of on 

) (2) the rapidity with which the cxplngivcs part with their 

tthe vessel in which the charge is confined ; and (3) to ascer- 
poMible, by direct measurement, the t<.'inp('ratiiro of explosion 
1^ determine the relation between the pri'.>i8uro and tcmpierature 
tonres approximating to tliose which exist in tbo bore of a gxm, 
"'lich are, of coarse, greatly above any which have yet been 



I refmrds the first two objects I have named, I have had no 
ft (lilHcultics to contend with, but as rogardm the third, I huve so 
111 no botisfactory results, having been unable to use Sir W. 
{Is-Auston's beautiful instrument owing to the temperature at the 
pt of explosion being greatly too high, high enungb indeed to 
IDcl Tolatilise the wires of the thormo juticUnn. 
im, however, endeavouring to make an arrangement by which 



342 



Sir Andrew Noble 



[Mirch 23, 



I hope to be able to detormine tkege points when the tempenti 
so far redncod that the wires will no longer be fused. 

The appamtus I have nsed for those experiments is pliice<l nn tk 
table. The cylinder in which tlio explosives were made is too hoiij 
to transport here, bat this photograph will sufficiently expUin 1^ 
arrangement. The charge I used is a little more than a kUognmne, I 
aud it is fired in this cylinder in the usual manner. 

The tension of the gas acting on the piston compresses the sprn; 
and indicates the pressure on the scale here shown. Bat to obtain 
a permanent record the apparatus I have mentioDcd is employe>l. 

There is, yon see, a drum made to rotate by means of a tatH 
motor. Its rate of rotation is giyeu by a chronometer acticj! ou • I 
relay, and marking seoonds on the dram, while the magnitude uf (In 
pressure is registered by this pencil actuated by the preaeare gaoj,-* 
1 have just described. 

To obtain with sufficient accuracy the maximum pressure, *ad •!*' 
the time taken to gasify the explosive, two obeervatious, thai i* t«tj 
explosions, are necessary. 

If the piston be left free to move the instant of the comm«a»1 
ment of pressure, the outside limit of the time of complete eiploM« 
will be indicated, but on account of the inertia of the moving pwlij 
the pressure indicated will bo in excess of the true preasurs, and I 
excess will be, more or less, inversely as the time occupied by I' 
plosion. 

If we desire to know the true pressure, it is necessary to eoap 
the gauge beforehand to a point closely approximating to the < 
pressure, so that the inertia of the moving parts may be as mil i 
possible — the arrangement by which this is effected is not ifaowtj 
the diagram, but tlio gauge is retained at the desired prosMHtl 
wedge-shaped stop, held in its place by the pressure of the I 
and tq the stop a heavy weight is attached ; when the pnMBtl 
relieved by the explosion, the weight falls and leaves the epntf f 
to act. 

I have mode a largo nnmber of experiments with this to 
both with a variety of explosives and with explosives fired < 
difiercnt conditions. Time will not permit me to do more dwf 
show you on the screen three jiairs of cx|)oriment8 to illoatai*^ 
effect of exploding cordite of diffurent dimensions, bot of ; 
the same composition. 

I shall commence with rifle cordite. In this diagram (Fig. Ttn.) i 
the axis of abscissas has the time in seconds mnrked upon it. ''^'^ 
the ordinates denote the pressures, and I draw your attent!on t>' ^ | 
great difTerence, in the initial stage, between the red aii'l tho I 
curves. Yoa will notice that tho red curves show a maximum 
sure some 4^ tons higher than that shown by tho bhtc. carr%^ 
this pressure is not real. It is due to tho inertia of lb« ' 
parts. The red and blue carves in a very small fraction of* i 
come together and remain pmctically together for the rest of I 



















I " 




/ 


i 












































































■ 


























i 

1 


























I 






CURVES SHEWING RATE OF COOUNG. 
Oia of Cordite 0'05 














1 


















1 












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- HONi OS nd 8NQ1. Ni aMtissatu 



M}r.uter. 

•show yon (Fig. IX.) snmilar curves for coidite 0" 35 inch in 
or about fifty timos the riflo cordite Bcction. Here ynu see 
Smo taken to consnnio the charge is longer. Tlie effect of 
•till very marked, nlthongh much reduced. The true maxi- 
psore i8 a little over 8*5 tone, but after the first third of a 
p two curves ran so close together that they are indiBtiu- 
i. 

I yon see the pressure is reduced by one-half in four seconds, 
little more than twelve seconds again halved. 
k»i pair of curves I shall show you (Fig. X.) was obtained 
iite 0"6 inch in diameter, or nearly 150 times the section of 
tnrdite. With this cordite the combustion has been so slow 
^cctof inertia almost disappears, it is reduced to about half 
I square inch ; the maximum being nearly the same aa in the 
if experiments. The time of combustion indicuted I have 
i>w, but it is about '06 of a srcond, and tho wLoIo of the 
tota show a most remarkable regularity in their rate of cooling, 

E-es at the same distance of time from the esjiloston being 
I approximately the same, as indeed they ought to be, the 
ng the same and the explosive tho snmo, the only difieronco 
itime in which the decomposition is completed. 
bears to mo that, knowing from the exiiorimonta I have 
L tho volume of gas liberated, its composition, its density, 
■re, the qoontity of heat disengaged by tbe explosion, and 
Wu these points with very considerable accuracy, wo should 
from tlie study of the curves to which I have drawn your 
I and which can bo obtained from difTerout dousitius of gas, 
Considerable light upon tho kinetic theory of real, not ideal, 
jtempentturcs and pressures far removed from those which 

kthc subject of such careful aad accurate research by many 
lA ^lllTIOcilrtlL _^^_ 



S44 



Sir Andretr NMe 



[IbrobSS, 



Clausius, Clerk Maxwell, Lord Kelvin, and others IwiTe plmoed Ihe 
theory in a position analogous and equal to that held by the nndol** 
tory theory of light. 

The kinetic theory has, however, for ub artillerists a special chum, 
because it indicates that tlie velocity communicated to a projectile in 
the bore of a gnu is due to the bombardment of that prujoctilo hj 
myriads of small projectiles moving at enormous speeds, and putiij 
with the energy they possess by impact to the projectile. 

There are fetv minds which nrc not more or less affected hj ih» 
infinitely great and the infinitely little. 

It was said that the telescope which revealed to us infinite spim 
was balanced by the microscope which showed us the infinitely «m»ll ; 
but thu labours of the men to whom I have referred have introdand 
ne to magnitudes and weights infinitesimally smaller than anything 
that the microscope can show us, and to numbers which are infinite 
to our finite comprehension. 

Let me draw your attention to this diagram (Fig. 11.) showiag 
the velocity impressed upon the projectile, and let me endeavnnr b) 
describe tho nature of the forces which acted upon it to give it ib 
motion. I hold in my hand a cubic centimetre, a cube so small thtt 1 
daresay it is hardly viHiblo to those at a distance. Well, if this cube 
were filled with the gases produced by tho explosion at 0' C. •B'I 
atmospheric pressure, there would be something over seven trillioM, 
that is, Bovon followed by eighteen cyphers, of molecules. Large •» 
these numbers are, they occupy but a very small fraction of the eoa- 
tents of tho cubic centimetre, but yet their number is so great tli*) 
they would, if placed in lino touching one another, go round miny 
times tho circumference of the earth, a pretty fair illustrotiuii of 
Euclid's definition of a line. 

These molecules however are not at rest, but are moring, even li 
the low temperature I have named, with great velocity, the mulrcnli* 
of the different gases moving with different velocities dependeot iipi>a 
their molecular weight. Thus, the hydrogen molecules, which h»ti 
the highest velocity, move with about 5500 foot-seconds mean valo- 
city, while the slowest, the carbonic anhydride moleonles, bare mJj 
1160 foot-seconds mean velocity, or about the speed of sonnd. 

But in the particular gun under discussion, when the charge m 
oxplwled there were no loss than 20,500 cubic centimetres of g* 
and each centimetre at the density of explosion containc<l 580 tiiurt 
the tjuantity of gas, that is, 580 times the number of molecules, lh»l 
I mentioned. Hence the total number of molecules in the ciplcxitil 
charge is 8^ quadrillions, or lot us say approximately for th« Vti 
number eight followed by twenty-four cyphers. 

It is difficult fur the mind to appreciate what this f>T«Tw^tM* am- 
ber means, but it may convey a good idea if I tell yon that if a 
man were to count continuously at the rate of three m secuixl, il 
would take him 2G5 billions of years to perform tiie task of oooatiBg 
them. 



on Some Modem Explosives. 



345 



So macfa for the nambers ; now let mo tell you of tho velocities 
ith which, at the moment of explosion, the molecaleB were moving. 
r*kiDg first the high-velocity gas, the hydrogen, the molecules of 
"^e gas would strike the projectile with a mean velocity of about 
1,500 foot-seconds. You will observe I e»y mean velocity, and you 
mat note that the molecules movo with very variable velocities. 
llerk Maxwell was the first to calculate tho probable distribution of 
lie velocities. A little more than one-half will have tho moan 
locity or less, and about 98 per cent, will have 25,000 fout-seconda 
less. A very few, about one iii 100 millions, might reach the 
elocity of 50,000 foot-seconds. 

The mean energy of the molecules of difibrout gases at the same 

ipcrature being equal, it is easy from tho data I have given to 

klculate tho mean velocity of tho molecules of the slowest moving 

carbonic anhydride, which would bo about 2600 foot-seconds. 

I have detained you, I fear, ruther long over theso figures, but I 

llbkve dune so because I think they throw some light upon the extra- 

linary violence that some explosives exhibit when detonated. Take 

t>r instance the lyddite shell, exploded by detonation, I showed you 

Ii«r in the evening. I calculate that that charge was converted 

Lgas in less than tho one 60,000th part of a second, and it is not 

It to conceive the efibct that those gases of very high density 

ienly generated, the molecules of which are moving with tho 

locitiee 1 have indicated, would have upon the fragmeots of tho 

The difference between tho explosion of gunpowder fired in a close 

al, and that of gun-cotton or lyddito when detonated, is very 

riking. The former explosion is noiselusa, or nearly so. The 

er, even when placed in n bag, gives rise to an exceedingly sharp 

io ring, as if the vessel were struck a sharp blow with a steel 

■er. 

lot I must conclude. I began my lecture by recalling some of 
inrestigations I described in this place a great many years ago. 
fear I must conclude in much the same way as I then did, by 
liking you for the attention with which you have listened to li 
■ewb»t dry subject, and by regretting that the heavy calls ma<le 
my time during the last few months liave prevented my makiug 
lecture mure worthy of my subject and of my audience. 

[A. N.] 



346 Pro/aaor J. Artimr Tkommm [Much 30^ 



WEEKLY EVENING MEETING. 

Friday, llarcb 80, 1900. 

Altsid B. Euipb. Esq., M.A^ Tims. B.S., Yice-Prendent, 
in the Chair. 

Pkofesbok J. AsTBUB Tbombob, M.A. 
FaeU of Inheritance. 

Onb of lie disdnctiTe fcatares of the nineteenth oenttuy hu be(B a 
redaction in the namber of snppueed separate powers or entitiet— 
the nsc of William of Occam's razor, in &ct. " Caloric " wu me d 
the first to be eliminated, yielding to the modem interpretatioD of 
'- heat as a mode of motion ; " " Light " had to follow, when the ns- 
iluUtory theory of its natare was accepted ; a specific " Vital Force* 
is disowned even by the Xeo-Titalists ; " Force " itself has heoonea 
mere measure of motion ; and so on. In yiew of this progna 
towards greater precision of phraseology, it cannot be a matter tat 
surprise that a biologist should afiBrm that to speak of the " Principle 
of Heredity'' in organisms is like speaking of the "Frinoiple d 
Hfri'logity" in clocks. The sooner we get rid of snch verbiage tbe 
1 <.'tt<.r for char thiukiug, since heredity is certainly no power or fom^ 
<ir ]<riuciplc. but a convenient term for the relation of organic or 
•.'onotic i-< ntiuuity which binds generation to generation. Anceston, 
;.'ru:iJ|>ar<.'nts, }>areuts are real enough ; children and children's 
rl.ili.lrou ure also very real; heredity is a term for the relation of 
>:eiK'tic ci >iitiuuity which binds them together. As for snch a qnet- 
tinu a.-i tliis, "Is my grandfather's envirounient my heredity?" it 
is an (.ifTc-iiC" against Queen's English as much as against scientifie 
{ilirasc'ol'igy ; it should probably read, '* Have the stmctural cbasgH 
iuilucid by external stiuiulus uu my graudfather's body had any 
effect on my iuheritanco '? " 

Another tiistinctive feature in scientific progress has been the 
intro'luction of precise measuremeut. It is hardly too mnchtossj 
tliat iu the ilt.'Teloi>iiieiit of natural kuowlcdge, science begins when 
tueusnrt.nR-ut begins. Auil this is tlio cose iu regard to inheritance. 
As lung as we are content to say, " This child takes after his grand- 
father," " This pigeon shows a throw-back to its rock-dove anc^tiy," 
aud BO on, we may be making interesting remarks, but it is only 
when we ari: able to give procisi' measurements of the amounts *if 
resenjblauce or dilTerein-c that we make coutributions of real import- 
ance to that department of life-lore which deals with inheritance. 
(Jr, perliupfi, instead of meusurciucut, which may be taken in too 



1900.] 



an FacU of Inheritance. 



347 



I narrow a sense, I should s&j that precision of observation and record 
which admits of statistical, matbomatical, or some other exact forma- 
liition. While nothing can take the place of experiment — which is 
nrgently neodo<l fir the further development of our knowle<lgo of 
heredity — much has been gained by the application of Btatisticnl and 
mathematical metliods to biological resnlts — a new contact between 

I different disciplini-s — which we may particularly assiioiate with the 
I of Mr. Francis Cialton and Mr. Karl Pearson. 



I. The PnTstoAL Basis of iNncRirAHOB. 

What was for so long quite hidden from inquiring minds, or but 

I dimly discerned by a few, is now one of the most marvellous of 

biological oommonplaoes — that the individual life of the great majority 

I of plants and animals begins in the union of two minute elements — 

Ithe sperm-cell and the egg-oell. Those microscopic individualities 

ilBaite to form a new individuality, a potcutial offspring, which will 

by and by bec'<)me like to, and yet ditfc^rent from its parents. If we 

mean by iiiheritunce to include all that the living creature is or has 

lI» Bt*rt with in virtue of its genetic relation to its parents and 

Mneestors, then it is plain that the pliysical basis of inheritance is ia 

Ithe fertilised ovum. As regards )iropcrty, there is an obvious dis- 

[linctiou between the inheritance and tlie person who inherits, but 

I there is no snch distinction in biology. The fertilised egg-cell t« the 

' inberitMice, and is at the same time the potoutial inheritor. What 

nght bo compired to an inheritance of property as apart from the 

jorgsaiam itself is the store of food which may be inside the egg, or 

ad about it. 

An organic inheritance means so tnnch, even when we use the 

jio word potoutiality, that although we are quite sure that the 

fgerm-oells constitute the physical basis of inheritance, we may con- 

[•idor for a moment the difficulty which rises in the minds of many 

when they remember that the egg-coll is often microscopic, and the 

•perm-cell often only i-QuVnoth of the ovum's size. Can there be 

BO to speak, in these minute elements for tlie complexity of 

lisation supposed to be requisite? And the difficulty will be 

hI if the current opinion be accepted that only the nuclei 

the germ-cells are the true bearers of the hereditary qualities. 

in spoke of the ])inhend-like brain of the ant as the most 

cUous little piece of matter in the world, but must we not rank 

greater marvel the microscopic perm-cells which contained 

ntially all the inherited qualities of that ant, or of that man ? 

Nowhere more than in biology is one made to feel that a little 

sy go a loi g way. A microbic spore invisible even with a fairly 

niicroiseojK> may kill a man. From one microscopic egg of a 

rarvhin out into tiiree, Dolage reared three larvie. In another 

\ bo tsys that bo reared an embryo from a j'^th fraction of an egg. 



;4>> Profcttor J. Arthur Thornton [UftichSO, 

Wr ksrir ,:* tais knimals developed from one egg, but what iball 
« t MT ;i u.v qskdmpk-ts Wilson obtained by Bkoking apart the 
f.-.;r->: U >tai^i- ir. tie development of the lancelet, or of the ''leginn 
if t^tr.T.ii ■ w ■;.;/:; Marcbal liificrihes ns developing from a single 
» r-r:. ii a ;•<:•; -".iiir H.^ciincpterons insect Enci/rtiui f In development, 
■.:..-.:i'.".. k L:v'.: — av tn a* !^v J as a whole. 

Ir. r-.:\r::.of i.' tie difSonltv raised in some minds by the miirate- 
r:s> .: :':.:' : lysical Kisis. it may be recalled that the students uf 
] : r>'.:s^ u : . i..&kt iLt-.'-rii-s rt garding the sizes of atoms and molocolet, 
■o;.:.';. ii.-.r ': are -.Lrc-.-ii-J. ttjl ns that the image of a Great £««taa 
f. '.-.■.: '•>:;:. :ra:'-tu\rk as intricate a$ that of the daintiest watciiei 
.'. -.■!■ :.:', txs^i:- ra:i tiie pi>!s«:l>ilitii.s of mulecular complexity in » 
s>.:r.'.j;:. z >. :.. nL. se aotuai size may be less than the smallest dot on 
;:«• Ti;::.'s :ai-^-, Seoi-naiy. as we loaru from embryology that one 
SJ-. r o.: .1.1. v.s the ct-xi ar:.i that one structure grows out of another, 
■Hi ar-, :.■:■: f. rcivi t.> st.vk the microscopic germ-cells with more this 
'iMi'.jkt.Vij;. Thir'.lr. we must remember that the development ia^ 
t1'.i-> .v.: iv.tvTacf.i'n Ktwot-n the gro»ring organism and a ccmplei 
<::.v.r. :.:■. t-..: w :!hi';:t which the inheritance would remain unexpreued, 
:■.-...•. •.;-.a: ::.f :;-.'.i-i:r..w:-. v-rganism includes much that was not inherited 
at a'.'., lut :.^s Ut.:; aoquind na the result of nurture or eitemil 



l:.i- ivr-iral proMen of heredity is ta form some conception of 
w ;■..'.; T»e Lave called t:.e reLttion of genetic continuity between 
s".vij*-.Te gvr.enjtiosis ; tLe otutral probli-m of inheritance is to 
:. ;..s-.:r-, t; i riS'.-".Mi»r.ec!' .-inJ diflerences in the hereditary cliaracteis 
v': >■;.,; ^^.^^ c; '-v. r.i;;.^: s, aiii t> arrive, if possible, at some formnK 
..'.. V.-.".". s.::.-. v.r I e f.i>is. It is iiuxpedioiit to luyon theshoalJers 
^: :. . ^:.-..i; ".■.; .1 ;.iri-".ity tlio burden of problems, which arc not in 
..•.•.V >; ; , i-,1 St :.si i.:s l'::s:iu ss. It is no doubt interesting to ask how 
..•.. . :i;;."..;N-,;:,.:; sr.; ;^ soJ to beTtry complex, may Iw imagined to find 
] '. ;. >-..;»l l..i>is in a iLier-se-pie iien-.i-oell, but the same s»>rt of question 
:. .iy i-.- niisi.i ::i riirar.l t.-> a puiszii.'n-cell. It is not distinctively • 
ir-.'iu'.:i if i-.iri.rity. It is ii.tiivsting to inquire into the oplerly 
rt:-.,l ei>rr( '.ati i sijoeissii'U of events by which the fertilised e^-wU 
givis rise :>> a:i ii-.ilryo, b;i! this is the unsolved problem of phT.«i>- 
IviT'cal i::i!-ry.''.OLry. It rais.siiucstions distinct from thi>se of Lertdi^ 
a:.d i:.l.i:-i!;ii;»>. lUul ;ip:aiM:;ly much less soluble. 

lu tl.e jv. !\>r:t;:i;i.niist tl.eorios. which held sway in the sewn- 
toonth an.l eiuJ-.ttcnth centuries — theories which asserted the pi*- 
existence of tlii' oririnisjn anil nil its part-s in miniature, within tl" 
j;<rui — tlure w.is :i kernel of truth well eoneciled within a tli!» 
l.iisk «>f eiT.T. For wc nuiy still say, as the preformatioui-ls M 
that the fnture uririinism is inii'licit in the germ, and that tw 
germ contains not only the rii'iinuut «if the adult organism, but t» 
l)otiutiiility I'f succi.s>ive gcncratiiMis as well. But what Laffli^ii "' 
earlier investigators was ti:t> question how the germ-cell comet^ 
have this ready-made orgiiuisation, this marvellous potcnlis"?' 



1900.] 



on Fact* of Inheritance, 



319 



DiscoTering no natnrtil way of acconDting for this, tbo majority fell 
back npon ■ hypothesia of hyperphysical agencies, that is to say, tliey 
•bwiduiied the scientific method and drew cheques upon that bunk 
where credit is nulimited as long as credulity oudurcs. 

An attempt to solve the difficulty which confroutefl tho proforma- 
t ionirtH — the difficulty of accounting for the omplex urgaoif:ation 
prammed to exist in the gerin-cell — is expressed iu a theory which 
Mean to have occurre<l at iuterrals in the loug period between 
Dfioocritas and Darwin, tho tlicory of pangenesis. On this theory, 
ths cells of the body are supposed to give off characteristic and 
r opwo ntativo gemmnles : these iire supposed to find their way to the 
reproductive elements, which thus come to cnntiiiu, as it were, 
concentrated samples of the difierent components of the b<xly, and 
mn therefore able to develop into an offspring like tho ])arHnt, The 
theory involves many hypothoses, and is avowedly unvorifinble in 
direct aenae-experiouce, but the same might bo said about many 
iier theories. It is perhaps more to tho point to notice that thoro 
I another theory of here<lity which is, on the whole, simpler, which 
, on tho whole, to fit tho facts better, especially the fact that our 
Kperience does not warrant tho conclusion that the modifjcations or 
}airod oharocti^rs of tho body of the parent atlect in any specific 
and representative way the inheritance of the otTHpring. 
^^^^ is well known, tho view which many, if not most biologists 
^^^^■ke of the uniqueness of t)io germ-colls is rnther ditferent from 
titst of pangenesis. It is expressed in the phrase " germinal con- 
tinuity," and has been independently suggested by several thinkers, 
thengh Weiismann has the credit of working it out into a ttioory. 
Let BM rocall its purport. There is a sense, as Mr. Galton Bays, in 
vhtoh the child is as old as the parent, for when tho parent's body is 
Itfreloptag from the fertilised ovum, a residue of unnltcro'I germinal 
Bitt«rikl is kept apart to form the future roprinluctivo cells, one of 
wbieb may become the starting-point of a child. In many cases, 
•BBttarod through t)io animal kingdom, from w<irms to fishes, the 
bsginning of the lineage of gemi-coUs is demonstrable in very early 
wHMgta br.fore tho dificrcntiation of the body-cells has more than 
bagm. In the development of t)ic threadworm of tho liorse, 
•eoorcling to Boveri, the very first cleavage divides tho fertilisud 

FTtni into two cells, oue of which is the ancestor of all the Ixjd}'- 
lU, and the other tho ancestor of nil the germ-cells. In other 
ease*, particularly among ])lantH, tlic segregation of germ-cells is 
Out dt muurtruble until a relatively late stage. Woismann, generalis- 
ing front cases where it seems to be visibly demonstrable, maintains 
ilkftt in all casus tho germinal material which starts an offspring, 
its virtne to being materially continuous with tho gcnninal 
, from which the parent or parents arose. But it is not on a 
sons lineage of rerogniHalilo germ-cells that Weismann insists, 
is often unrecognisable, but on the continuity of tho gcrm- 
1 — that is of a epocific substance of definite chemical and 



850 



Profeuor J. Arthur Thornton 



[MKcb 30, 



molecular etructiire which is the bearer of the herediUry qtudidet. 
In developmeut a part of the geriu-plaHm, " couttiined in tiie panmt 
egg-oell, is n<it usod uj) in th« conBtructiou of the body of the uff- 
Bpring, but is reserved unchanged lor the formation of the germ-oeUi 
of the following generation." Thns the parent is rather the troatN 
of the germ-plasiu than the producer i^f the child. In a new t«vm, 
the child is a chip of Hie old Ulock. Karly segrcgntion of the gntto- 
cells is in many coses an observable fact — and doubtless tlie bet «f 
such CAses will bo added to — the conception of a germ-plaaa !• 
hypothotico), just as the conception of a specific living itnff « 
proti>plasin is hypothetical. Is the complex microcosm of the mU, 
we cannot jwtut to any one stuff and say " this is protojdasni " ; it 
may well be that vital activity depends npon several complex AaS» 
which, tike the morabors of a carefully constituted firm, are chtnc- 
teristically powerful only in their inter-relations. In the same «>y. 
it mu8t be clearly anderstood that we cannot demonstrate the garm- 
plaiim, even if wo luuy assnnio that it has its physical basis in tka 
Btainable noclear bodies or cLromosomes. The theory has to b 
judged, like all conceptual formulte, by its adequacy in fitting facta 

Let UB suppose that the fertilised ovum has certain qoalitici, 
a, h, c,. . .X, y, z ; it divides and re-divides, and a body is built up: 
the cells of tliis body exhiliit division of lalxjur and difTerentiativo. 
losing their likeness to the ovum and to the first results of its cleavigi- 
In some of the body-cells the qualities a, 6 find predominant exprw- 
eion, in others the qualities y, z, and so on. But if, meanwhile, tWe 
be certain gemi-oells which do not difTereutiate, which retaiii the 
qualities a, h, r,...x, y, z, unaltered, which keep up, as one ma/ 
tny figuratively, " the protoplasmic tradition," these will be in * 
positiuu by and by to develop into an organism like that which betn 
them. Similar material to start with, similar conditions in whidi U 
develop : there/ore, like tends to beget like. 

Muy we think for a moment of a baker who has a very preeioQi 
kind of leaven, and some less precious material ou which this atj 
work ; he uses Imtli in baking a large loaf ; but he so arranges mattim 
by a cl«ver contrivance tlint part of the original leaven is $iv»j* 
carried on unaltered, carefully prcnerved for the next baking. Nature 
is the baker, the loaf is a body, the leaven is tlie germ-plasm, and cadi 
baking is a generation. 



II. Dual Natcbk or Imueritajiok. 

A{iart from exceptional cnaes, the inheritance of a multioellokf 
animal or plant ia dual, part of it comes from the mother and part 
of it from the father: the beginning of the new individualitv U * 
fortiltBcd egg-coll. The exceptions referred to are cases of aaexail 
multiplication by buds or otherwise, as in the fre8bw«t«r Hydia; 
coses of partbeuogeuesis, as in the case of the unfortiliaed eggs wliic^ 



1900.] 



<m Facte of Inherilanee. 



dorelop into green flj in tlie summer ; and cases like liver-flukes, 
where an animal ie both mother aud father to its oSspring. Apart 
trotu these exceptions the inheritance dues at the start consist of 
maternal and paternal contributions in intimate and orderly union. 

Prof. E. B. V^ilsou states the general opinion of experts somewhat 

■s follows : — As the ovum is much the larger, it is believed to furnish 

I the initial capital — including it may be a legacy of food-yolk — for 

rly devfclopment of the embryo. From both parents aliko cumes 

I inherited organisation which has its seat (according to many) in- 

I readily stainable (chromatin) rods of the nuclei. From the father 

I a little body (the oontrosome) which orp;aiiise8 the machinery of 

by which the egg splits up, and distribctes tho dual iuhorit- 

I equally between the daughter-colls. 

Bicc«nt discoveries have shown that the paternal and miiternal 
[eootrilmtions which come together in fertilisation, are for sovoral 
aona at least exactly divided among the danghter colls, thus con- 
3g a prophecy which Huxley made in 1878 : " It is conceivable, 
indeed probable, that every part of the adult contains molecules 
Iderived both from the male and from tho female parent ; aud that, 
_ 08 a mass of molecules, the entire organism may bo cunipare<l 

a web of which the warp is derived from tho foniale and tho woof 
the male." "What has since been gained." Prof. Wilson soys, 
is the knowledge that this web is to be sought in tho chromatic 
ibatanoe of the nuclei, and that the CentroBome is the weaver at tho 

In regard to these conclusions I wish to make three remarks. (aS 
kltLuiigh iuhcritauco is dual, it in in quite as real a sun8e multiple, 
aucestiirs through parents, as we shall afterwards sec. (b) If 
is able to induce artificial parthenogenesis in sea-urchins' eggs 
for a couple of hours to sea-water to which some magnesium 
ide has been added ; if Delago is able to fertilise and to rear 
larvie from non-nucleated ovam-fragmonts of eoa-urcliin, worm 
idoIIdbc, we should bo chary of committing ourselves definitely to 
li« conclusion that the nuclei are the exclusivo bearers of tho lierodi- 
qoalitioe, or that both must bo present in all cases. Further- 
B, the fact that au ovum without any sperm-nucluus, or an oviiin- 
QOUt without any but a sperm-nucleus, cau doveloji into a normal 
irva points to tho conclusion, probable also on other groutids, tlmt 
ah gorra-ccll, whether ovimi or spermatozoon, beors o complete 
inipment of hcri.-ditary qualities, (i') It must be carefully ohsurTcd 
»toar second fact does not imply that the ittial nntorc of inheritance 
mat be patent in the full-grown offspring, for hereditary resemblance 
I often strangely unilateral, the characters of one parent being " pre- 
Dtent " as we say, over those of another. 



332 Profeuor J. Arthur Thtmuon [Uardi 30, 



III. Different Deobkes of Hxbeditart Besemblahoi. 

Before tlio middle of the century considerable attention km ptid 
to wbiit might be called the dcmonetration of the genenl &ct of 
inhcritsiuco. In a big treatise like that of Prosper Lacu (1847} 
many hundreds of pages are devoted to proving what we now tike ftr 
(iriiutcd — that the present is the child of the past, that oargtutin 
life is no haphazard affair, but is rigorously determined by oir 
parents and ancestors, that vortons peculiarities, normal anl iIk 
normal, physical and mental, may rc-appeor generation after genoi- 
tion, and so on. One step of progress during the Darwinian en hu 
been the recognition of inheritance as a fact of life which ret^nireiio 
farther proof. 

Yet this aspect of the study of heredity is by no means wafai 
out. Thus there are some characters, e.g. tendencies to oettiiii 
diseased conditions, which are more frequently transmitted tliu 
others, nnd we ought to have, in each case, precise statistics u to the 
probabilities of transmission. 

Agiiin, tliere are some subtle qualities whose heritability most not 
bo assumed without evidence. Thus it is of very great importuM 
to stndi-nts of orgiiuic evolution that Prof. Earl Pearson has reeoitlj 
supplied, for certain coses, definite proof of the inheritance of feenn- 
dity. fertility ond longevity. 

The familiar saying, " like begets like," should rather read, " lib 
ti nds to beget like," since variation is quite as important a &ct u 
e<iiiii>li.-te hireilitiiry ruscnil)lancc'. If it scorns to us that in mMJ 
i';is:.s the olVspring is priietically a iacsimilc reproduction of the 
liiir<iit, this may \w due to absence of variation, or, what comM 
almo.-t ti> tlie same tiling, to groat completeness of inheritance; baf 
it is iimri' likely to be due to our ignorance, to our inability to detect 
the iiliiisyncrasics. 

15ut it will be granted by all that the completeness with which 
the eliiir.u^ters uf nice, genus, species and stock arc repro<lnecd gene- 
ration after genenitiim, is one of the large facts of inheritance. Iti* 
obvious, liowevc.T, that this does not sum up our csporieuce, «nd w 
must face the task of cousiJcring what may be called the diffcrem 
degrees of hereditary resemblance. For these a confused classificiti*" 
and a troublesome terminology have boon suggested, to discuss which 
would be most uiiprolitalilo in the limits of a short lecture. 

I therefore projwse to restrict attention to three familiar cast* 
which are called blended, exclusive, and particulate inheritance, wd 
then to say a few words in regard to the phenomena known «s 
regression, reversion and atavism. 

A preliminary consideration must be attended to. It is a nitttw 
of observation that tli(Te are great differences in the degree in which 
offspring resemble their parents ; but it is surely a matter of conjec- 
ture that lack of resemblance is necessarily due to incompleteneo 



1900.] 



on Fact* of Inheritance. 



353 



the inheritance. Indeed, the fact tliat the rcsemLlance bo often 
(M-appeara in the third generation, makes it probable that the in- 
ipletenees is not in the inheritanuc, but simply in its expreEiBion. 
characters which seem to be aheent, to " ekip a generation," 
rm,j, are probably part of the inberitance, as usual. But they 
in latent, neutralised, silenced (we can only use metaphors) by 
[other characters, or else uocxpresscd because of the absence ot the 
lappDiprinte stimulus. 

We can imagine the son of a lavish millionaire reacting to plain 
kTing; we can imagine the superficial supposition that the money 
been lost ; and we can imagine the cumplute contradictiua of 
[this inference in the thir<l generation. 

(a) In blended inheritance, the characters of the two parents, e.g. 
to regard to a particnlar stmcture, such as the colour of the hair, may 
intimately combined in the offspring. This is particularly well 
en in some hybrids, where the oiT^priug seems like the mean of the 
ro parents ; it is probably the most frequent mo<le of inheritance. 

(li) In exclusive inheritance, the expression of maternal or of 

ktomal characters in relation to a given structure, such as eye-colour, 

suppressed. Sometimes the unilateral resemblance is very pro- 

If and we say that the boy is " the very imago of his father," or 

kogbter" her mother over again " ; though even more frequently 

nblanoe seems " crossed," the son taking after the mother, 

I danghter after the father. Our emphasis on the distinction 

inheritance and the expression of inheritance is surely 

ated by casoo on record where the young boy resembled the 

[mother and the girl the father ; but when they came nf age, the 

~ Iceoess was reversed, i.e. formerly obscure resemblances became 

ominant. 

(e) It isecms convenient to have a thinl category for cases where 
is neither blending nor exclnsiveness, but where in the ex- 
of a given character, part is wholly paternal and part wholly 
This is called jmrtictdate inhuritunce. Tbus, im English 
ilog may have a paternal eye on one side, and a tnatcmal eye 
other. Suppose the parents of a foal to bo markedly light 
i dark in colour ; if the foal is light brown the inheritance in that 
Mset is blended, if light or dark it is exclusive, if piebald it is 
[ particolatc. In the last case there is in the same character an ex- 
loaive inheritance from both parents. 

Tbd niimcruus cijicrimcnts on hybridisation made by botanists, 

laoologists, and more jiroctical people, have led us to expect one of 

i rOBolts when a crossing has a successful issne. (1) The hybrid 

bs intermediata between its parents, sometimes so exactly that 

r« may liken the blending, not merely to warp and woof, but to a 

nini^ling of two colours ; (2) the hybrid may show an exaggeration 

' Uic rliaracters of one ]>arent, often with little apparent realisation 

■ tbe peculiarities of the other. These correspond to blended and 

•xclnaiTe inheritance in ordinary cases of mating within the same 



J-r-mir- ,'. A-iL^r Thomuon [MudiSO, 

: 1. i::; i -riC'.L stfcT fclA.-' be veiT difEerent from eithcf 

■-- . 5»; ^-i:^ i^iiTiTs* »-Lj:i ».j'pi*r to he quite novel, or which oo 

■«- :; -— ii^i^t .1 i^-; SMi »; ":■* inerpK-ulile as the reassertion of 

. .jk~- ••::> .■ i >.^.v.:; ui>.!s:.:ir. la sh.>rt, it may shoireithera 

r 7^r;i.t .: •• 1 ri -:~S! <z. Tiif £xc«>:>r dicarv fact is th«t at htA 

: ;:•;* ^Ji-ir-.c" >.*:_» ajfcj- \<i. i'.'izixmo^ in one brood oriittei 

T:-: !«».> i.;. -: -ii:-.r7^-£ i -ifcr r* c>:-a$idered in another aspect, 

j.—;s .• T-:;u- -> -■il^rl ii«t C3fcl:rr ,.f rrejiotency, with which 

.1 ^ ;u" ;e- .: f .^ t j.a^ r-=ii aa.".r.aT. The term refers to the 

. ;:.K- :: i:t: .lu-r-.j.jo^x: ^f & cii&racter the paternal or- the 

.; .-:.i^ ; -a.; :-.<» ::.»'■ -.iTi-.'j.iT -Tifci:. as ia nneqnal blending whe» 

.~ a- r. ;i.i.-: -ft :> "•JivTirj. .c =. «xclnsive inheritance where th» 

:i; - .: >».>.-^-: i. l r-^ii character ia absdate. It seau 

: .."- V •.f.i.-.z \ : ^L^r :; u:":. ":t -*ing the word, since all the* 

i-:.-w •«■-:;.> uT: f.r '>. '.rzL iiii icst particles of intellectual fog; 

T :a^- T : ::f: ;. L. v- u. :» ur fM-: that in respect to oeitaia 

uTw'i.-v ;: :*-:TTikl ■.r.i'sr.itr.A- ^-^ems more potent than th» 

-:^. .1- r ■ -'.■■>■. Ti sf ".:. ::it:: alir fathi^r is usnally prepoteot 

::■■ z.ii-- r : t-iiTLT:.. ki.l :r-.*iijis giTe mauy instances *hen 

■::. :. i^-. ; ;.-• --.u. .■:.trfc;:.:r# .:' f.r£ or dam reappear persistently 

■f.>-.c.. ; ."r-.s-7itt:i.Ti .■: ;i-f raj-are of the other parent. 

1: >:-:■:..■* ::.k; . .■: .;' i;.'i witt? ii which the quality of pi^ 

■.:■:' :.:i- ;«; .\. <-j jcl -.* ":t ;u": rc<»iing. as Pruf. Ewiit and 

:-> :.i-: .-.ik..:^.-...-'. •• > c-'i r>.«-,iiT* say that they can pwdnw 

■•!.: > -. ;.■ :;-. : >. fi:vv ':j ■.-..•.i-VTi-cdms (inbreeding) that it 

. ■.-....•. > '. :.: : ■;•:; •.v^:-.-.; '■ : a:id there is much I'viJcncc 

? . : ; •..i.'^ . 'Sw :; : r:. >; ::.lir».-d — up to a certain limit 

> '. •..'. ; .::-: :';.; ir--...:-,r jr.dMouce on the offspring- 

.'.- ,..•.•. . .^ •..:.• ".•- :;;••.■.•,:.: i!i uataro. esjiecially anwng 

_•..-. .-. ". > :.•'. _r .-ys^..-. .: ;i< :: i',r.J!! Ui develop prepotency, 

.:>•.■ '. .■.".- . -T r.c-.v variations may hove b>?eii 

..:■>: .: •. - ■•.:..•. A:.,! ■.>«■■ can bi-ttor understand the 

.....:.•.;". ■; / . -....-.yr. :;; .t the ovulutiou of a human nrc 

...> &".":::..■. •- ii ■■r . "> .: .; •.i-.;:;ai:i iubrt-ediiig, and Jominint 

^^- :,.'.-• _ 1 ; •.•- 1 :--s-'. .•-■.; sziviS fixitv to oharactiT, the cro* 

- "..1 ^ ..v, :s "..J.: ■.- ,.y ..:..: i.:-:.-,;l4jts now variations which form 

r;.v :■.:.: z ...'. .: •. -^t.s#. T;.e Jews, ospocially in isol»t« 

:.■.-.>. :,...y s tt; : ..■.»::•.•.:. r-,rs:*tont iubroeding, which we may 

.;?•.■.-: '.v;:":. ;;•.•, ^ :::./.. \ i.r. si-lrtodiug at present conspicnonsu 



.x..t. 



l':.tii w. :..iT-. : . r; v:ni>c s^t.iti-tioal data in rejiard to hlenJei 
•: xclujiv.; . n:i 1 ji.i::: •.■..;;. ::.i-.':rit;iU(.v. wo cannot hope to siuiplifr''* 
ji.attrr with aijv s..>-:r:i.v. ]i;it j'orlia;i> a nuitied view will bofrtBM 
in ti.t; tiiv'iritioal c 'a'-ej'ti.':! of a gorniiiial strnggle in thearcaaan 
till; firtili^od iivniii— I ^^rllgglt• in which the maternal and patcnw 
cuntribntioiis may iilcnd and lianuuuiso, or may ncntralise i*' 
aiiuthcr, or in which one may conquer the other, or in which l** 



1900.] 



on Faelt of Inheritance. 



366 



may jK'rciet witliout combiuing. Wo have oxteudod the wide con- 

^Mptiuu of the stnigglo for existence in mnuy dircotious ; it mny bo 

^■Btween organisus nkia or not akin, between plants and animals, 

^between organisms and their inanimate enviromueut, between the 

sexes, bi4ween the dilfcrent parts of the boily, between the ova, 

between the spermatozoa, between the utu and the spermatozoa, and 

WeimuuiD has saggested that it may also be botnocn the constituents 

(the germ-plasm. 
IV. Rkobbsbion. 

^ We bave already referred to the fuct which stares iis in the face 
Bj^at there is a sensible stability of type from generation to genera- 
^■oD. "The large," Mr. Galton says, "do nut always beget the 
^^■VgCi nor the small the small ; but yot the observed proportion 
^Tetwecn the large and the small, in each degree of size and in every 
qnality, hardly varies from one generation to another." In other 
, there is a tendency to keep up a specific average. This may 
partly dne to the action of natural elimin»tinn, weeding out 
&litica, often before they are born. But it is to be primarily 
anted for by what Mr. Galton crIIs the fact of " filial regres- 
Let me take an instance frf)m Sir. Pearson's 'Grammar of 
Bi«nce.' Take fathers, of stature 7'2 inches, the mean height of their 
is 70-8, we have a regression towards the mean of the general 
jinlAtion. On the other band, fathers with it mean height of 
inches give a group of sous of mean height 68*3 inches, again 
the mean. "The father with a great excess of the character 
ttribotes eons with an excess, but a less excess of it; the father 
I ft great d)-fect of the character contributes sons with a defect ; 

1 of it" 

As Mr. Galton puts it, society moves os a vast fraternity. The 

~ ling of the ap<.-citic average is certainly not due to each iiuli- 

Icaring his like behind him, for wo all know that this is not 

It is dne to a regression which tomie to bring the otfupring 

f atraordiusry parents nearer the average i>f the stock. In other 

.children tend to di filer lens from niodiocrity than their parents. 

Tliis big average fact is to be accounted in terms of that genetic 

Btiuuity which makes an inheritance not dual, but multiple. " A 

says Mr. Pearson, " is not only the product of his father, but 

•11 his post ancestry, and unless very careful selection has takeu 

B, tbe mean of that auccstry is probublr not far from that of the 

~ popalstion. In the tenth generation a man has [tlienretically] 

tenth great-grandparents. He is evontunlly the product of a 

polatioo of this size, and their mean can hardly diffiT from that 

general population. It is tho heavy weight of this mediocre 

which causes the son of an exceptional father to regress 

tb« general population mean ; it is the balance of this sturdy 



':.:>{ P-.-'itii:'- J. Arthur I'h&mKm [Murch V^ 

r:ia:=i.c-li^nr':-sf Vii^i iSACIes tbe son of a degenento &tlier to 

iiSEi;': -^'i ^l-:'~ "::ritC :f 71* T«!«XiUl ill." 

J.- li.f T- .:; .c-t >1-:>'=1I iiscss reversion or atavism, but it ii 
ii^Tit-.-L.i^'.'- :..=i; il; i:- ca » ina basis of fact. I nse the tenn «■ 
Ti^s ■:. 1 .:■.-. ii-i ~.lks -Bitrf ilirc-iisb inheritance there re-tppeni 
'.~ 1.1 -^-i -1m1 $. .^.f fl^TfcCvcr vhich was not expressed in U> 
jiitma ':•-: vii;i ii; .■•.>;iriT; »= anc<i«:or. I say advisedly " thno^ 
-.i--r.-.iZ!:-s.' — ritr :•. ti;I::iv those cases where the nHkppe«i»Mi 
: Ii: :lkri. :•;■■;; .-Hi :* in;i;::^K>i for in some other way. The tew 
'.-:.* .:ioi-i 1* t T.::y -r.li v::e. aaJ not very fnrtonate, but it ii 
'...~ ; i_; : . r- : r. i . :. I •=*; i; to refer to abnurmal as well is nonoil 
, LiiTkr,'.:^ jT- :. ;.. il-:!:!-: ii.f K-apT>e4Tance of characters, the notBil 
•■.•:z^T-.z.-:-i :: -a":.;;! -.* v::i*:.ie of the limits of the nee altogctko; 
•-:. •-- s-c:-: :i7".-.v.;illy /.itr race. In other words, the chmrta 
Ti.iSr ri-iiTT' ^trk:..* :* v-j'-Ie-l a rtversion maybe found within di 
T.r.ia.'.i ii^....r. -r-.il;- ;ir brt*d, within the species, or eren ia» 
Tris:::=.-.-i i:..--;<-:ri'. f7'r';;-;>.* 

-_r '»; ;".".::?:t^i .i* .f reversion are furnished by hjbrik 
T-T.s -^ .:.-; .: i'r.f. C ss&r Ewan'ss experiments a pn» wl™ 
ikZ-ZJ^. :-::'s. r r. :. :» v".i-r*tab'iishcd bit-ed, which in coloorW 
Tr:"-.-i ::>.l: ::t:-.:i-_; cvtr a tl::e pouter, was matetl with • o* 
: r-.T-.. -.-.*> :_f..;i :-.;-«:: as owl aad an archangel, which wM» 
: . r-. . ;■ £.:: . -• 1 ili- as archaECt 1. The result was a conpk ■ 
:".-:*:".-.• •^ ".-.i- .": i-^;t". >;r:**is. oliC resembling the Shi-tUnd net- 
-. -.Ci- :.. SI.: -.ic :;.-.r \':.c- tl'.:o rivk of India. Not oply in wl"", 
:v.: ::. s;..s: ;. ;■.::■.:-.•.'•• *::1 r.:ovi:r.t"j;t3 there was an almost compl* 
Ti •.:>■, :, : :'. -. :' ::: •■\'.i.':. :# l-.r.ivo<l to be nnci-stral b) «U |" 
■ •...-:. -. ■.^■. .:.>. T:.. .:.".;.- •.-.•.irii-; difforonce was a slight »niiiig 
. : ;". ■ ;..•.;. >L:..:':.r :--.i".'.:s v.iro t:o: with fowls and rabbits. 

;' ■.: _■:•.,.: ■...:■. r'/.s-.r.? :* :'-.o.ss.iry in arguing from thcnsiilt*™ 
!.;.■'.::•.;-.•:: :.. :. :;.o*-. •.■• ..r,"i:;ary mating, and even if some of u* 
: '. •. ;. ::■.■,:.,. • : •. \v.'.-.-.s:vc !:.:.rr;;.;r.Cf stem to show reversion ti> » i"* 
..:.. ?:.r V,, ;.,,. i a Iril-.r l.isis of lact than we liave at iiK*!* 
': :" r- ^v v;-.:. :' ::..v.'.i:i- av.y la-.v. It is inii)ossible to roai u* 
T • : ; i ^.-.s-, s •.v;;:. ..••.: bcf -r.-.-in^ Ci-nvinced that many phi'Domei* 
:.r- 1.; ".i, 1 iiVr :!j:i.!:s ..n t!.o liimsiost oviJcuce. Thus the ottin- 
:i.:.e-. . i" a ryo;-!i;»:-. huiiiau monster with a median eye h«s l** 
call'.i :k r.vi.r>i- '1 %>■> the M>a-f quirt, and gout has been otlW' 
I'-T. rsiv:! t" ti.<.- iri.iilian ouudition of liver and kidneys. Ois* 

" I'r :■ ?- r K r. r-iir-n .':■ l!iu> a rtrfrfinn as "the full rcRiiptnPiix*'"' 
i^'llv'.'ir. 1 . ;" a ■.•:.:y ..•■.. r wi.ivli is ri'corili.l to luivo ocourrt-il in a (ffrfnift »'"'*' 
'if X'. 1- Jan..- r.i--. ." a-:.! nl irifiii as "a riturn of an inJiviilnal tii » rlismrtiTirt 
typical iiftiiv rfo at all, Iml loniid in allied racte :-npp<i«<.-<l tn In' n-l:it'il '»"'" 
<\Mlu!!-.na:y avci^^try I'f tin- jrivon r.nv." *• In ri-vorsion we are con>i-l'fl''?' 
Tfiriat:"!!, :iMrn..il • r al'iMTTiml, frmu tin' .-landiwint of htmlili/ in tk( itvUd^*'^ 
in ata\i-iii w ar.' r>.ii>.'li riiiL' an aliiioinial varintlun fruui tlio litamlpoiBt '•' 'r 
•iwiKlry <•/ '/.' r-i'-'." lint a? the two \v,.r<ls mviu to 1m> used by *jme oulhwjj 
tin rfiii\crbe «ay. or a.- ii|nivalriit, anl as it is surely iliffieult to define theS" 
o! siliijornml rnriation, 1 have adhered to the vider usage. 



t] 



on FacU of Inheritance. 



867 



is not the slightest attempt to discriminate between true 
ion (i.e. the re-expression of latent aucestral characters) and 
Iphenomena of arrested development, or of abaormalitics which 
been induced from without. Often, too, there has been no 
pie in naming or iuvooting the ancestor to whom the reversion is 
to occur, aUhongh evidence of the pedigree is awanting; 
[the vicious circle is not unknown of arguing to the supposed 
from the supposed reversion, and then justifying the term 
ion from its rosemblauce to the supposed ancestor. Little 
>WBnce has been made for coincidence, and the postulate of 
hancters remaining latent for millions of jeara is made as glibly as 
r it wure JQHt OS conceivable as a throw-back to a great-grandfather. 
r I do not see any way out of the theory that characters may lie 
Bt for a generation or for generations, or in other words that 
lin potentiabilities or initiatives which form part of the heritage 
remain UDCxpre8i>od for lack of the appropriate liberating 
ulna, or for other reasons, or may have their normal expression 
The drone bee has a mother, the queen, but no father, 
rtb« eggs which develop into drones are not fertilised, yet his 
lore differs from that of the queen in other points besides those 
liately related with sex, and he may in his torn bo the father 
queens and workers. At the same time it does not follow 
re-appearance of an ancestral character not seen in the 
lis neoessarily due to the ro-asscrtion of latent elements in 
itanoe. It may be a case of ordinary regression ; it maybe 
' of arrested development ; it may be an extreme variation 
resemblance to an ancestral characteristic is a coincidence ; 
Itay be an individually acquired modification, reproduced apart 
I itiberitancc, by a recurrence of snitable external conditions, and 
\ on. In short, what are called reversions are probably in many 
I misiutorpretations. 

V. Galtoh'b Law. 

[The most important general oonolnsion which has yet been 

~i iu regard to inheritance is formulated in Oalton's Law. Mr. 

BioQ was led to it by his stndics on the inheritance of human 

lities, and more particularly by a series of studies on Basset hounds. 

one of those general conclusions which have been reached 

stically, and I must refer for the evidence and also for its 

i formulation to the revised edition of Mr. Pearson's ' Grammar 

re have seen, it is useful to speak of a heritage as dual, half 

t from tlio father and half from the mother. But tlio heritable 

. handed on from each parent was also dual, being derived 

the grandparents. And so on, backwards. We thus rcanh the 

I that a heritage is not merely dual, but in a deeper sense multiple. 

I Though a comparison with the inheritance of property cannot be 



358 



Profestor J. Arthur Thornton 



[UuchSO;! 



exact, we tnaj fancj a yonth inheriting an estate, in regard to vhieb 
it migbt be said that half of it bad belonged tn his father, and bilf 
of it to his mother, yet one with a full knowledge of the family 
history and the gradual acquieition of the property, might be able to 
make the story of the heritage mnch more interesting by showing bo* 
this meadow was due to a grandmother and that forest to a great- 
grandfather. 

To appreciate the possible complexity of oiir mosaic inheritaoee 
we must recall the number of our ancestors. We have two parent*, 
lour grandpiirents, eight great-grandparents, about sixteen great-great- 
graudpuroata, and so on. '* If," as Prof. Milnes Marshall said, " wt 
allow throe generations to a century, there will have been twenty-fire 
since the Norman Inyagion, aud a man may be descended not merely 
from one ancestor who came over in 1066, bnt directly and eqaally 
from over sixteen million ancestors who lived at or about that datA." 
But on these tliouretiual lines the existence of one man to-day woald 
involve the existence of nearly seventy thoasand millions of millioai 
of ancestors at the commencement of the Christian era. Whicb \b 
absurd, for it overlooks the frequent occurrence of clooe inter- 
marriage, of cousins fur instauce. 

The problem of reduction in the number of ancestors baa beet 
very carefully diHcnssed by genealogists like Prof. Lorenz and Dr. F. 
T. KichtcT, but ne should soon lose ourselves in the discussion. W( 
must bo Content to take onoexam])le. Theoretically, Kaiser WillMilB 
II. miglit have had in the direct line the number of ancestors indiottei 
in the upper row of the following scheme ; the second row indicalM 
the number actually known, on to the twelfth generation ; the tbiirf 
row gives the number of thoso possible ancestors of whose exijieM* 
there is deficient record ; ami the fourth row gives the probable lotil- 



Generation*. I. II. 


in. 


rv. 


V. 


VI. 


vn. 


VIIL 


IX. 


X 


XI 


VI 


(1) Thwr ti- 1 „ . 
cnl Nunilter 


8 


ic 


32 


64 


128 


256 


512 


i(m 


2IH4 


m 


(2) Artuul 






















number 2 4 


8 


14 


24 


44 


74 


111 


162 


206 


223 


rt 


known 






















(3) ItindixniiitL'ly known 






, 




5 


IS 


50 


tlT 


ai 


(i) Prubiiblo total 


, 


. 








116 


1T7 


25«i 


542 


S9) 



According to Oalton's law, " the two parents between tliMB «■* 
tribute on the average one-bulf of each inherited faculty, seek f' 
tbom contributing one-quarter of it. The four grandparentu covin' 
bute between them one-quarter, or each of them one-sixteentb; •>• 
so on, the sum of the series. i-|-i + s + T'li+ ^'^'-i being eqii»l " 
1, ns it should \n-. It is a pro|icrty of this infinite series tliii*^ 
term is equal to the sum of all those that follow : thus ^ = | -f Ij 
■^ -f- etc. ; J = i + ,'j + etc., and so on. The propotiia*" 
Bnbpotenoies of partiiMilar ancestors, in any given pedjgrw. , 
eliminated by a law tliat deals only with acera^« coutributiuu, *>• 



1N8.3 



on Fads of Inheritance. 



359 



tho rarjing prepotencies of ses in respect to different qunlities are 
also presitniabl}' eliminated." 

This law of ancestral inheritance, which states that each parent 
contributes on an average one-quarter, each grandparent one-sixteenth 
and so ou, rests on rcsearclios on hnman statnre, etc., and on culour 
ill Basset hounds, but Prof. Earl Pearson trusts it oven more because 
uf its soooess in predicting results. He is very eatbuBiantic on the 
ibjeot, and Buisbes a paper on Galton's law with the following 
" It is highly probable that it is the simple descriptive 
atement which brings into a simple focus all the complex lines of 
litary influence. If Darwinian evolution bo natural selection 
ibined with heredity, then the single statement which embraces 
rhole field of heredity must prove almost as epoch-making to 
> biologist as the law of gravitatiou to the astronomer." * 
The aim of this lecture has been to present in brief compass a 
ateraent of the leading facts of inheritance, which Bhuuld be clear 
the minds of all. I hnvc said nothing in regard to the transmissi- 
lity of a«]airo<l cbaractori^, for this cannot bo ranked at present as 
established fact, and I have left some other doubtful points nn- 
itioned. Allow me in conclusion to make this simple remark, 
be study of inheritance leaves a fatalistic — almost paralysing — 
upreitfiitiu ou many minds, especially perhaps if it bo believed that 
tAoqoired results of experience and education — of "nurture," in 
cannot be entailo<l upon tho offsjiring. To some extont this 
ktaltstic impression is justified, but it is well that it should rest upon 
\ laund basis of fact and not on exaggerations. In a sense we can 
Ter get away from our inheritance. As Hoino said half bitterly, 
" ^ laogbingly, " A man shonld be very careful iu the soloction of his 
ilA." On the other hand, although the human organism changes 
flkwly in ita heritable organisation, it is very mmlifiable individu- 
Jtlly, and " nature " can be bettered by " nurture." If there is little 
lldMitific warrant for our being other than Bcu]itical at present as to 
fihi inboritance of acquired characters, tliis sccpticisni lends greater 
Bportjiucc tlian ever, un the one hand, to a good " nature " to secure 
'iuch for offsiiring is part of the problem of careful mating ; and, on 
■ other hand, to a good "nurture" to secure which for our children 
' children's children is one of tho most obvious of duties, the hope- 
I of the task resting upon tho fact that, unlike tho beasts that 
man lias a lasting external heritage, capable of endless modi- 
fur the better. 

[J. A. T.] 



• tittr-naee abould. bowaver, lie ni»di' t" Mr. Pennou'i recent pciper (P. Roy. 
lari . ISKM), pp. UO-ltit) on Tbo !»» of Ruvenion. 



8«0 



GMMralJGMll^ 



i^\ 



QENEBAL MONTHLY MBBTINQ^ 
Hooday, April 2, 1900. 

Sn jAim CsiOHToi-Bioinni, ILD. LKD. VJRA, I^Mtnra 
Vioe-Prandsnt, in the CDmht. 

Biduucd TeUey OlMebraok, S^. FJUL 

Hinm Stevens Ibxun, ma. 
Saltan W. Azmitrana Nobu^ En. 
William F. Snail, Eaq. B^ 
William John Tennant^. 

wara daoted Hemben of the Boyal Inatitatkm. 

The Ofaainnaa annoonoed thai llie Maaaeen liaAfldiAfi 
the Actonian FHae of One Hondted Chuneaa to SorimiiMr 
E.C.B. D.C.L. FAS. and haij Hoggina for fhair wtA, *l 
of BepreaentatiTe Stellar Speein.* 

The Speoial Thaoka of tiie Hanbcn mn ntmnad to ] 
and Mrs. F. Oolenao, for their present of a portrait of 1 
the late Sir Edward Frankland, E.C.B. D.C Ji. F.R8.. fttt0** 
Ghemietry at the Boyal Institution from 1863 to 1868. 

The FBisaNTB received since the last Meeting were liilf^j 
table, and the thanks of the Members returned for the ■a» n^^l 



The Lordt of the AdmiraUv—Tlie Nautical Almanao for 1903. 8m. 

The Meteorologiodl Oj^oa— Hoorly Means for 189dL 4to. 1899. 
Meteorological OMerrationa at Stations of the Second Older te UH ' 
1899. 

Aeeademia dei Lineei, Reale, Soma — Claiae di Soienae Fiiiobe, llalaai''' 
Nattuall. Atti, Serie Qointa : Bendioonti 1° SenMitie,VoLIX.A*2 
Classe di Scienze MomU, Btoriohe, etc Vol. YIIL Fan. IL U. M- ^ 
1900. ' , 

American Academy of Arte and Seienee* — ^ProoeedingL VoL ZZZT. I*' 
8vo. 1899. 

American Oeographieal Society — Balletin, Vol. XXXIL No. 1. 8ta U)^ 

Atiatie Society of Bengal— Piooeedioga, 1899, Noa. 8-11 ; 1900, Na L •» 
Journal, Vol. LXVIII. Fart 2, Nos. 2, 8. 8to. 1899-1900. 

Aitoeiationfor the Advancement of Medicine by Beieareh — EzpeximeBiia 
By 8. Paget 8vo. 1900. 

AUronomieal Society, Boyal — Monthly Kotioei, Vol. T.T No*. 4, & Sn 

Bankeri, InttiluU o/— Journal, VoL XXI. Part 3. Sro. 1900. 

Boafon PuUtb Library— Monthly Balletin, Vol. V. No. a 810. ISM 

Bo$ton Society of Medical SctenoM— Journal, Vol. IV. No. 6. 8ta> VKl^ 



Gmtenl MontUg Meeting. 861 

(sJIoyal/iiiWateo/— Jonn»l,3nlSer!ea,yoLYII.No.9. 4to. 

airal Anoa'ation — Jonrnnl, Vol. X. \o. 5. 8to. 19n0. 

ttnilf of — The Internaiional Comptttt oa for the Piiosbe Heant 

ml Plan for the Univenity of Culifornia. 4to. 18SI9. 

lonrnal for Bluroli, IIiOO. 8vo. 

eal Survei) ^— CoDtribatioiia to Canadian Palnantologr, VoL IV. 

0. I8!i9. 

ry, SoeiOii of—inamiiA, Vr I XIX. No. 2. 8to. 1900. 

r— Proot^diugj, Noa. 220, 221. 8to. I'JOO. 

[iirrb, lOOi). 8to. 

iaiie de* Seienee$ — Bnlletin Intematicnal, 1900, No. I. 8ro. 

F. Bart. — Conscription and Vuluntiiry EiiUatmeot, 1900. 8ro, 

can Jonmal of Science for Marcli, 19uO. Svo. 

[ansb. 1900. 8to. 

lotojciaphic Bnlletin for March, 1900. Svo. 

I Oaxette for March, 1900. 8ra 

r March, 1900. 4to. 

arrb. 1900. 8vo. 

It March, 1900. Sro. 

mal for March, 1900. Sro. 

ra tat March, 1900. 4to. 

Drnggist for March, 1900. Snt. 

gineer for March, 1900. foL 

(few for March, 1900. 8va 

r March, 1900. Sra 

Maieb, 1900. foL 

for March, 1900. fol. 

I Beview for March, 1900. 8to. 

oomal for March, 1900. 8to. 

i Iron for March, 1900. foL 

March, 1900. 

9 British Dental Association for March, IMO. Sro. 

>te Medicine for March, 1900. 8tow 

for March, 1900. 8to. 

r March, 1900. Sro. 

nical Eduaition Oozette for March, 1900. 

arket for March, 1900. Sro. 

arch, 1900. 4lo. 

Magazine for March, 1900. Sro. 

News for March, 1900. Sro. 
lew for Marcli, 1900. Sro. 
ice Monthly for March, 1900. 
1 Engineer for March, 1900. Sra 
acta. Vol. la Purt 3. Svo. 1900. 
igs for March, 1900. Sra 
agasine for Feb. 1900. 
ktcb, 1900. Svo. 

ionltnrist for Feb. and March 1900. Sro. 
' March, 1900. 4to. 

lesrf, Itulitulion o/— Journol, Vol. XXIX. No. 143. Svo. 1900. 
Uea A'ationale Crotrab— Bollettino, No. 311. Svo. 1900. 
Ue — Journal fur March, 1900. Svo. 
Kietf, Itt^ — Oeographical Journal for March, 1900. Sro. 
lit — Imperiul Institute .Touriiol for Miiroli, 1000. 

Vittvenily — American Juumal of Philology, Vol. XX. Fart 4. 

emieal Jonmal for March, 1900. Svo. 

Kia. ir.£.i.— Jonmal of the Ez-Ubris Society for Blarch, 1900. <Uk 

1. (No. 94.) 2 » 



263 



GzHiTjl M.nl}uy Meetinij. 



[Aptili, 



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lf.<o,^ ■.';'... .\.::. ■ -i J... ' .,.■/ .■,' .V."< ..c- ^— Mt-iu.vir.", \\.l. VIII. No. 1- '» 



^^r|•;//,^ .'/..--r.. J. .(• C... (.'.'■■ /'•..'.'.-.'.. r.) -Tl.i- M,..li.-..l .Viii.iuil for IOihI. sm 



On the Dj/nantical Theory of Heat and Light. 



3S3 



WEEKLY EVENING MEETING, 
Friday, April 27, 1900. 

8n Fbkuibick Bbamwell, Babt., D.C.L. LL.D. F.R.S., 
Vice-PresideDt, in tho Chair. 

The Right Hon. Lord Kblvik, Q.C.V.O. D.C.L. 
LL.D. F.R.S. M.B.I. 

Nineteenth Century Clouds over the Dynamical Theory of 
Heal and Light. 

present article, the enbstanco of the lecture is reproduced — 

additions, in which work commenced at the beginning of 

and continued after the lecture, during thirteen months up 

sent time, is described — with results coofirming the oon- 

and largely extending the illustrationa nhich were given in 

re. I desire to take this opportunity of expressing my 

s to Mr. William Anderson, my secretary and assistaut, for 

lematical tact and Bkill, tho accaracy of geometrical drawing, 

the unfailingly faithful perseTerance in the long-continue<l and 

ed series of drawings and algebraic and arithmetical calculations, 

bined in the following pages. The whole of this work, invoWing 

'determination of results due to more than fire thousand individual 

I, has been performed by Mr. Anderson. — K., Feb. 2, 1901,] 

|1. I'he beauty and clearness of the dynamical theory, which 
irt« heat and light to be modes of motion, is at present obscured 
o clouds. I. The first came into existence with the undulatory 
ry of liyht, and was di-alt with by Fresnel and Dr. Thonias Young ; 
toIvkI the question. How could the earth move through anelastio 
I, raoh as essentially is the luininiferous other ? II. The second 
iMaxwcll-Doltzmann doctrine regarding tho partition of energy. 
2. Cloud I. — Relative Motion of Etheu and Pondebable 
SDob as movable bodies at the earth's surface, stones, metals, 
, euet ; the atmosphere surrounding tho earth ; the earth itself 
whole ; meteorites, the moon, the sud, and other celestial bodies. 
night imagine the question satisfactorily answered, by supposing 
' to have practically perfect elasticity for the exceedingly rapid 
tiois, with exceedingly small extent of distortion, wliich constitute 
; while it behaves almost like a fluid of very small viscosity, 
^elds with exceedingly small resistaQce, practically no resistance, 
kdics tiiciving through it as slowly as even the most rapid of the 
iy bodies. There are, howerer, many very serious objectiooi 

2 B 2 



364 



Lord Kelvin 



[April J7, 



to tbis BappoBition ; among tbem one which haa been nioet notiwi, 
though perhaps not really the most sorioas, thnt it seems iocompstibl« 
Tritli the known phenomena of tho aberration of light. Refi-rriog to it, 
Frof-col, in his celebrntod letter * to Arngo, wrota as follows: 

" Mais il paniit iinpoFsiblo d'expliquer I'aberrntion des itoiles ' 
" clans cetto liypotbese ; jo n'ai pu jusqu'ii present du moins cnnccoir 
" nettcmcnt co phenanieno qu'on supposaut quo lether po^sc libremcrit 
" au travera du g1obo, et que la vitesso coramuniqa^o ii co flnide gnUJ 
"n'cEt qu'unc jKitito partio de celle de la terro ; n'ea esceJopiAla 
" centiSme, par cx'jmplc. 

" Quelque extraordinaire quo paraiFso cotte bypotb&se an premier 
"abord, cllo n'c-st point en contradiction, co lue scmblo, arec I'iilM 
" que Ics plus grands physicicns so sont faite de Textr^me porosite iks 
" corps." 

Tho same hypothesis was giren by Thomas Young, in ki$ ede- 
bratcd statement that ether passes tlirough among the molecnloaor 
atoms of material bodies like wind blowing through a grore cf 
trees. It is clear that neither FrcGncl nor Young had the id«« lb>t 
tho other of their undulntury theory of light, with its tT«n«»tr« 
vibrations, is essentially an clastic solid, that is to say, matter «h;ch 
resists change of shupo with permanent or sub-permanent fonr. 
If they had grasped this idea, they must hnvo noticed the eDormutx 
difficulty presented by tho laceration which the other mnst experieact 
if it moves through pores or interstices among the ntoms of nutter. 

§ 3. It has occurred to me that, without contravening anything ** 
know from observation of nature, wo may simply deny the echulKlio 
axiom that two portions of matter cannot jointly occupy the MU 
spnce, and may assert, as an admissible hypothesis, that ether tfoM 
occupy the same space as ponderable matter, and that ether is not 
displaced by ponderable bodies moving thron$;h space occupied Ij 
ether. But how then could matter act on ether, and ether act oa 
matter, to produce tho known phoDomena of light (ur radiant h«*s)< 
generated by the action of ponderable budics on ether, and actio; oa 
ponderable bodies to produce its visual, chemical, phosphorcMtA ^ 
thermal, and photographic effects? There is no difficulty io ao5wt^ < 
ing this question if, as it probably is, ether is a compressible 4»1 
dilatnblot solid. Wo have only to suppose that tho atom eietlifo.ti ^ 
on the ether, by which condensatioa or rarefaction is pnx' 
withia the space occupied by the atom. At present ^ I confine ia| 



* 'AnnalcBde Cbimtp.' 1818; qnotedin full by L.nrmor ia hii itcattak ' 
'iElher and Molter,' pp. 320-322. 

t Tu den; tbtB [impeity 18 to nttribate to ether infinit'Iy great miifcW* 
a^raiiiBt furco9 tending to oondcnae it or to dilate it — which aeeoi*, intntti,! 
isQnitely diffioult assuiDptinn. 

t Further developments of the angi^ested idea hnre Iv^d onntnlraird I 
Boyal Boriety of Edinburgh, ami to the Conni^i loteniatioiuii da Pb)i 
held in Paris in Aagnat. (Proo. B.S.E. July 1900 ; vuL of reportt, is 1 
the Oong. Inter. .- and Phil. Ma«.. Ang., Sept. 1900.) 



1900.] 



on tht Dynamical Theory of Heat and Light. 



866 




for the nke of Einiplicitj, to tho snggestion of a spherical atom pro- 
docin^r condennntion and rarefaction, with concentrtcsphericAl Bui-faccs 
of equal density, but the same total quantity of tther within its 
boaaJary os the quantity in an equal volume of free undisturbud 
ether. 

I $ 4. Consider now snch an atom given at rcBt aoywhoro in space 

Oocapicl by ether. Let force bo njiplied tii it to cause it to raovo in 

»ny direction, first with pradtially increasing epot'd, aud after thiit 

with nnifcirni speed. ]f this speed is anything less than tl;e Telocity 

f light, tlie force may be matlicmatically proved to become zero at 

uio churt time after the instant when tho vilo'sity of the atom lic- 

I uniform, and to remain zero for over thereafter. What takes 

is this : 

f 5. i)uiii)g all tho time in which the velocity of the atom is being 

tngnicntcd from zero, two sets of non-period io waves, one of them 

cqui-volamirial, the otiier irrotational (which is therefore coiidciisa- 

tiunal-rarefactional), are being sent out in nil directions tliroii(>h iho 

rroundiug etber. The rears of tho lost of tlieso waves leave tho 

tom, lit siirae time after its acccleriUioD ceases. This time, if the 

lotioii of t)ie ether outride tho atom, close boiide it, is infiititesimal, 

cqnnl to the time taken by tiie slDwer wave (which is the eqiii- 

^oliiiiiinal) to travel the diameter of tho atom, aud is tho short time 

ferred to in §4. AVlien tho reai-s of both waves have got clear 

tiio atom, the ether within it aud in the space arouud it, left clear 

ly both rears, has come to a steady state of motion relatively to the 

itum. This steady motion approxinintcs moro and muro nearly to 

biform motion in parallel lints, at greater and greater distances Irom 

•torn. At a distance of twenty diameters it differs exceedingly 

iu.'e fiom uniformity. 

i C. But it is only when tho velocity of tho atom is very small in 

porison niththo vtlucity of liglt, that the disturbance of tho ether 

ibc apace cIdsc round the atom is infinitesimal. Tho propositinns 

ricd in §4 and tho first sentence of § 5 nro true, however little 

u finiil velocity of tho atom fulls short of tiic velocity of light. If 

is uniform final velocity of the atom exceeds tho vchicity of tight, 

ever to little, a uon-pcriodic conic-al wave of eijui-volumiual 

lotion is produced, according to the same prioci|doBBtliat illustrated 

\,T Fonnd by Mach's bcantiful photographs of illumination by electric 

Ic, Kliowinj;, by changed refractivity, tlio ctindeiisational-raicfac- 

nal ilixtni Ikiuco priiduced in air by tho motion thriiu;;h it of a rifie 

lellct. Tho Bemi-vcrticiil angle of tho cone, wlioihcr in air or etbor, 

>■ rtjual to the angle whoso sine is tho ratio of tho wave velocity to 

vuhxity of tho moving body.* 



• On the tamp principle wc ice tliat a body moviDR stendily fand. witli llttia 

or, *c may tnj alao tbat ■ flah or nater-fuwl |imp.'liiiiK itwIT by fini or wpb- 

t) ttiroui^h culm water, either Hontiiig oi> tne earface or nlii'lly iDhnierKed at 

I Bodcnia dUtano* below the nufooe, prcxlaoei no vav* diituibaoca if il« 



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m of the sabject worked out since that time and communi- 
r the title, < On the Motion prodaccd in an Infinite Elastic 
he Motion through the Space occupied by it of a Body 
it only by Attraction or Bepnlaion,' to the Royal Society 
rgh on July 17, and to the Congres International de 
or its meeting at Paris in the beginning of August. 
lie other phenomena referred to in § 3 come naturally 
;[enenl dynamics of the undnlatory theory of light, and the 
ttion of them all is brought much nearer if we have a satis- 
damental relation between ether and matter, instead of the 
ible idea that atoms of matter displace ether from the space 
a, when they are in motion relatively to the ether around 

Lwe then suppose that the hypothesis which I have 
tn away the first of our two clouds ? It certainly would 
I "aberration of light" connected with the earth's motion 
her in a thoroughly satisfactory manner. It would allow 
o move with perfect freedom through space occupied by 
int displacing it. In passing through the earth the ether, 
wlid, would not be lacerated as it would bo according to 
lea of porosity and ether moving through the pores as if it 
id. Ether would move relatively to pondorablcs with the 
dom wanted for what wo know of aberration, instead of the 
reedom of air moving through a grove of trees suggested by 
Dnbg. According to it, and fur simplicity neglecting the 
ely very small component duo to the earth's rotation (only 
lometre per second at the equator where it is a maximum), 
ting the imporfoctly known motion of the solar system 
Moe towards the constellation Hercules, discovered by 
there would be at all points of tho earth's surface a flow 



388 Lard Edam [kgaitl, 

of etiier at the nte of 30 IdloinetRB per aeeand 3l Enei all pvilldti 
tlic tansont to the '^Rh'a orbit round the sm. Tba« is aoftiai 
ini;niiHi.-<t<>!ic -ritl: thia in all we know of she ormnrr poeDciieai i 
tr.rr fltriiil opti ;!i : bnt. alaa! there :a inconsuiteney wta ica^IoH'a 
ti':;:t otiicr in the eanii's atmnanhura :a mouunltiaa T^Iasvelj t) Ai 
m-'.h, <sAi>nii' <zl7 priv»il by an atimiroblu i!xa>iT-3ueaz lietS'^^tlf 
M:<-:>- Iron, anil otirrleil ont. with m-at aeorcii.n:! car; to secnei 
t.— .« V Ki.r rnsiil". by h!s:sel: aaJ Mjrlef.* I iaa.30C see aiy to 
e tii'tr in th» i<l-ta nr in tiie cxecntii.n of thia experizie=L l^Btt 
p JMiiiihty of •-acapin^z if.m the cicclosioa wu:ch it aecsteAtoxrm, 
oia/ liC fiiiin<* in a brill ant ssggearlon matie inlepcadcotly \f 
i itzcT'iralii ^ an I bj Lorentz ^ of Levden. to the d^ei tut the BOQBi 
fii ether tiironjh matter maj aligfatlj alter it» liaear dimeBWOii 
arnirriin:; to which if the atone alab conatitntxog the sole pbie of 
3Ii<-h.'ilaon fln:I Murloj'd apparatus has. in Tirtae of its nution throujk 
apncn oocnpied hj ether, its lineal dimensions ahortencd cm ca^ 
linridred-millionth '| in the directiim of m <tion. the result of tha(» 
pnrinMint wonM not disprove the &Ge motion of eth^r throngh qal 
occniiinl by the earth. 

$ 1 !• I am afraid we moat still regard Cloud Xa L ai ray 
den<ic. 

§ 12. CtorD n. — Waterston (in a commnnteation to the Bqal 
S'icibty, now famon.s which, after lying fortj-five reara buried ui 
almoAt forgotten in the archivt-a, waa reacned from bblivion by Lri 
lUylf;ir;b and pnbliahed. with an introductory notice of great intend 
nii'l irnpfirtancr-, in the Trarsactions of tie Roral Society fi)r 18!f3) 
<.ii'iiic!ntod t'.o following propos'tiun : "In mixed media the men 
*' hi|iiiiro miil'Xiilar Telocity is inrerscly proportional to the tpmfe 
" «■«•• jilit of ill': m ilf:C'ile. This ia the law of ti.e cqnilibrinm i>f TisTJn.' 
C jf til is iifOfiositiiji L'lfd Kaylcigh in a f lotnote ^ says, " This is tie M 
'• Kl:it<-iiieiit or' a very imporUint theorem (see also Brit. Assoc. Bffi 
" 1 is'il ). Tl:c dcmoDstr..tion, however, of § 10 c m hardly lie defenW 
"It )i<;iirs Kfimo rcFcmblunce to an argnment indicatod and expi^^ 
" liv I'r.if(!SHor Tiiit (Kd.nb >rEh Trans., vol. 33, p. 79, 1886). Thfl* 
" iH reason to tliiuk that this law is intimately connected with tin 
" MiixwcUiaTi distribution of Tclocitics of which Wateraton bad lo 
"knowIolK'" 

§ i:>. In Wntr.rRton's statement, tho "specific weight of a lI)ol^ 

f|iiiintilii'H. Till- jirojKr mntions of tlie fixed st-irs aa^ign to tlie npci »p«itiw 
uhii li niiiy Ik- iin\»li(:ii> in n iiariow zodc parallel to tlio Mi kywiy, aiid <X' 
tniiliiu -"" "» '"'t" Men of a point ofRl^ilit Asconaiuii 275° and lieflinttw 
+ ;tl . Tli<'iintl.i-iitiiMiic:in of IH vnlnc:) determined by the niet)ind< of Aig-;- 
Ian Icr or Airy nivcs '^7 1 ' nnd + 35° (Andre, ' Traile d Astrouomie SteUiiin '>'' 

• I'liil. Muj;, Dirniilicr lsS7. 

t riili'ii- I,e<tiir«H ill 'Iriully Collrge, Dublin. 

I VtrKiirli finer Thcoriu dur t-lectriacben und opliacben EtaebeinimgtB i> 
lK>wri»t<''i Kiiriiein. 

II Thin hi in;; the iiquaro of the ratio of the earth's velocity nmnd tb* ■> 
(SO kilniiietntH per itc.) to tlie velocity of light (300,000 kilometraa par Me.> 

^ Phil. Tram. A, 1892, p. I& 



1900.] 



on the Dynamical Theory of Heat and Light. 



369 



■lo" means wbat we now call Bimply tfae mnss of a molecule ; and 

'raolccalor velocity" means the translatiunnl velncity of a moleculo. 

"'riling on the tlieory of sound iu tbo I'liil. Mag. for 1868, ami 

"erriii!: to tlio theory developud in his buiied p.iiMjr,* Watcrston 

id, '' Thu tlieory .... assumes .... tliiit it' tliu impacts [mxluce 

' rtitattiry motiuii tiio vis yiva thus invested bunrs a coiisunt ratio to 

' Ihi; rccliliu' al vis viva." '1 his ai^iecs with ihu vurv important prin- 

i|<lo or ttiiisra given iiidnpcndciitly about the sanie time by Clausius 

tl>e clTout tliut t)io mcau eaurgy, kinetic and patent al, duo tit tbo 

Bl»tiTv motion of all tbo parts uf nny niokculo of a ^.is, bears a 

>aat int ratio to tho meau energy of the motion of its centre uf inertia 

rbcn the density and pressure are constant. 

§ 14. Witliiiut any knowIoJgu of what was ti be fnnml in Wator- 

1*6 bnriol paper, Maxwell, at tbo meeting of tbo Biitish Association 

Abt.rlren, in lH59t gave the following proposition regarding the 

aution and collisions ot jicrfuctly clastic spliotos: "Two systcnis of 

' {lartic'lcs muvo iu tho same vessel ; to prove that the moan vis viva 

'of ca<'b jiarticio will become tlio same in tho two systems." This is 

cly W'atetston's proposition rigiiriiin:^ tiio lav of partition of 

f, quoted iu § 12 above ; but Maxwell's ItJfiC proof was certainly 

) successful than Waterstoii's. Muxwull's IStiO pront lias 

I MCmod to me quite incimclusive, aiul mnny times I urr^cd uij 

iiguc, Professor Tait. to enter on the s ihjoet. Tiiia ho did. and 

^6 bo commnnicatud to the Koyal Hocioty tif Edinburgh a paver J 

foundations of tho kinetic tlieory of (^ases, which contained a 

il examination of MaxweH's 18G0 paper, highly appreciative 

I great originality and splendid value, fur the kinetic theory of 

I'f tho ideas and principles set forth in it ; htit hbuvving that the 

|ea>on«t ration of tho theorem of the partition of energy in a mixed 

BOjblage of particles of different masses was inconclusive, and 

'■fully substituting for it a conclusive demonstration. 

$ 15, Waterston, Maxwell, and Tait, all a^suuio that tho particles 

the two systems are thoroughly mixed (Tait, § 18), and their 

beorem is of fuodiimentnl importnuco in respect to the e[)ccific boats 

'' mixed gnses. But they do not, iu any of tho papers nlreaJy referred 

give any indication of a proof of the corresponding theorem, 

rding tlio partition of energy between two sets of equal pnrtiilos 

B(«rati:d by a membrane impermcablo to the molecules, while permit- 

furotss to act across it between tlie moleunles on its ttvo sides, || 



■ 



'On tho Pbriics of tiedin that aro Composed of Force and Porfix-tly 
llsalic Mnlrcnlrs in a Slate »r Moliun.' Phil. TruDt. A, 18112. p. 13. 

t ■ IMiittriitinnB ol the Uynainicul Thfory of Uoikm,' P>>il. Mug , January and 
loly IWX>, und collected works, vol. i. p. 378. 

{ Phil. 'I ran a. R S.U., 'Uii the Kound itioos of the Einetio Theory of Gaaei,' 
ay 14 and D«t ember (!, 1880, and January 7, 1887. 
I A very interettiDg itatement is given by Maxwell repirdin); thin tnbjert in 
Ititest paper regaidiDg the Bolizriiann-Maxwell dootrino. 'On Uolizmann't 
nroin on the Arwoge Distribution of Enrr^y in a System of Material Pointi,' 
sb. Pbil Tmna, May 6, 1878 ; ColleetMl Works, vol ii pp 713-7il. 



370 



Lord Kelvin 



[AprU 27 



which IB the simpIeBt illustration of the niolecniar djniniicx of 
Avogadro's law. It seoms to nic, liowcTcr, that Tail's deninnstratina 
of tlie \\ aterston-Maxwell law may possibly bo shi'vm to rirtiullr 
include, not only this vitally important Rnbji-ct, but also the Tcrv in- 
torostiiig, tliougli Comparatively iiuimpnrtant, case of nn afsemlilsg* of 
particles of equal innsBes with a siuglu particle of different miM 
moving about among tbem. 

§ 16. In §§ 12, 14, 15, " particle" has been taknn to mean wtat 
is commonly, not correctly, called an elastic sphere, but wluit i« ta 
reality a Boscovich atom acting on other atoms in lines exactly thniu^ 
its centre of inertia (so that no rotation is in any case priKiiiced \>f 
collisiong), with, as law of action between two atoms, no force ai AxtioM* 
greater than the mm of their radii, infinite force at exactly thi$ dittater. 
Mone of the di-monstrations, unsnuceasfiil or snccesFful, tu ^rhicli I hk<« 
referred would be esRentially altered if. inst,.'ad of ibis last conditiuu, we 
Bubstilnto a repulsion increasing with diminishing distance, acrordinj 
to any law for dietnuccs less than the ^nm of the radii, sul>ject otilrto 
the contlitiou tliat it would bo infinite l)cfore the distance became rt-ta 
In fiict the impact, oblique or direct, between two Boscvich at.iim« thai 
defined, has tlic etimu rusult after the collision is compleUwl (t)iat ii \o 
say, when their spiicres of action get outside one another) as colli«oa 
between two conventional elastic spheres, iiuagined to have radii 
dependent on tho lines and veloeities of approach before c»llin<* 
(the greater the relative velocity the smaller the uffoctivo radii); u4 
tho only assumption eseentially involved in those demonstrstioiii i«, 
that tlie radius of each sphere is very small in ooniporison iritli lk( 
average length of fiee i>ath. 

§ 17. But if the particles are Boscovich atoms, having centi* of 
inertia not coinciding with centre of force ; or quasi Boscovich atoins, 
of non-spherical figure ; or (a more acceptable 8up]iosition) if i-achp^f- 
ticleisacluster of twoormoreBoscovichatoms : rotations and chan^ 
of rotation would result from collisions. Watcrston's and Clawai' 
leading jirinciplo, quotod in § 13 above, must now l>e takes inia 
account, and Tail's demonstration is no hmgcr applicable. W»te»»»«« 
and C'laiisius, iu respect to rotation, both wisely abstained from ajing 
more than that tho average kinetic energy of rotation bears a coastaat 
ratio to the average kinetic energy of translation. With magoiSoflil 
boldness BoUzmanu and Mnxncll declared that the ratio iseqnalitv; 
Boltzmann having found what socmod to him a demonstration of ibi* 
remarkable proposition, and Maxwell liaving accepted the sniipOT' 
demonstration as valid. 

§18. Boltzmann wont further* and extended the theorem rf 
equality of mean kinetic energies to any system of a finite nnmliar<' 
material points (Boscovich atoms) acting ou cue another, acconlinn I* 
any law of force, and moving freely among one another ; ood fioaltfi 



* 'BtudipD fiber dan Gleirhgrcwiclit der lebendieen Kraft zwitelMl 
materiellen ruDktt^n.' Silzl), K Akad. Wicn., Octoix-r 8, 18<i!i 



1900] 



on the Dynamical Tlteory of Bent and Light. 



Maxwell * gave a demoDstration extending it to the generalised 
Lngrangian co-orditmtes of any Bystom wliatover, with a finite or 
iii6nitely grent number of degrees of freedom. The words in which 
lie enunciated his suppOHed theorem are as follows : 

" The only assumption which is necessary for the direct proof is 
'that the system, if left to itself in its actual stnte of motion, will, 
' sooner or later, pass [infinitely nearly t] throuf^h every phuse which is 
'consistent with the equation of energy ' (p. 714) iitid, again (p, 7161. 
It appears from the theorem, that in the ultiiiiiitt» stiito of the 
"system tlic average J kinetic energy of two portions of the system must 
' be in the ratio of the number of degrees of freedom of those portions. 
*• This, therefore, must be the condition of the ecjiiality of tem- 
' perature of the two portions of the systeiu." 

I have never seen validity in the demonstration || on which Max- 
roll founds this statomcfit, and it ha8 always sconied to roe exceed- 
agly improbable that it can bo true. If true, it would bo very 
ronderfal, and most inten^sting in pure mnthcmnticiil dynamics. 
laving been published by Boltzronnn and Maxwell it would be worthy 
tseriouH attention, even without con8iderati<m of its bearing on 
DO^ynamics. But, when we consider its bearing on thonno- 
licB, and in its first and moat obvious application wo find 
active of the kinetic theory of gases, of which Maxwell was 
I of the chief founders, we cannot see it otherwise than as a clond 
the dynamical theory of heat and light. 

$ 10. For the kinetic theory of gasos, let each molocnlo bo a cluster 

Boscovich atoms. This includes every possibility ("dynamical," 

' "electrical," or " physical," or " chcmicol ") regarding the uoture 

qualities of a molecule and of all its parts. The mutual forces 

tweea the constituent atoms must be such that the cluster is in 

lile eqailibrinni if given at rest ; which means, that if started from 



• 'Oo Boltimunn's Tlieorem on tbe Average Ditttrihaiinn of Energy in ft 
frtrtn 'if MkturiAl roinU.' Mnxwell's L'olleoti'd Fu|)<.-r!i, vol. ii. pp. 71^-741, 
, (.Jtmb Fliil. Trans. Mil)- C, 1878. 

t I h>TF iniiertcil llioc two word« M eertaialy belonging to Maxwell'i 

:— K 

Ttip ovrmKe liere laomt ia a time-aver.ige Ihrougli a BiifTlcipiilly long limp. 

I Thv mrxli' uf proof folluwul by Mnxwall, and ila oonnectloti uith nntiocilcDt 

'dervtiuni nf bi« own and of Bnltzniniin. imply, im ineltnipd iu the (^oncral 

rm, that tbe average kinetic cnert;y nf any one of throe rec'.anf^lnr cum- 

••ttU of thv motiiiD nf tbe c«ntro of in'^rtia of an iHo1nt<>d nygtem, Rot«i upon 

' ' by matual forres betnt^n it* parts is equal to the avcras^e kinetic inergy of 

I |C«a«rali<ed oomponent of motion relatively to the ceniro of imrtin. Cun- 

r.fer aample, ai " parts of the systini " two jiartii'leK of ma-iaea m and m' free 

» only in a ttxc-d straight line, and connected tn one another by a moMleu 

ing The BoltzniaTin Maxwell doctrine aeacrts that the average kinetic energy 

I unliim of the iDertinl centre in equal to the average kinetic energy of the 

rrUtive to the Im-rtial centre. This in included in the wording of 

til's itat^nieitt in tbe t<»xt if, but not nnless, m = m'. See footnote on 

'of My papT ' Oi) Komx Txst-Cnses fnr the Boltzmann-Mnxwell Doctrine 

', DislributioD nf Eni-rgy ■ Proc Roy, ISoc., June 11, 1891. 




873 



Iiord Kelvin 



[April 37, 



cqnillbrinm with its constitnents in any Btate of relatiTo motion, bo 
atom will fly awny from it, provided the tntnl kinetic energy of tka 
given initial niotinn does not excood somo definite limit. A gw is » 
vast aFBurab'iigc of moleculca thus defined, each moving freely through 
Bpacc, except when in cuUision with another cluster, and cneh rv:taiii> 
ing all its own cimstitiicnls nunltcrcd, or only aitorcd by iutcrcboogv 
of similar atoms between two cliistors in colliBion. 

§ JO. For simplicity wo way 8iippo>-e thut ench ntoni. A, ho* » 
definite ladius of activ.ty, a, nud that atoms of different kinds, A, A', 
have different radii of activity, a, a' ; such that A exorcises no f irce 00 
any other atom. A', A", when the distance between their centre* ii 
groiiter than a 4- (i' or a + a-"- We need not perplex our miuds «itli 
the iiiconcoivablo idea of " virtue," whether for force or for ioertia, 
re.siding in a mathematical point * the centre of tho atom ; and vitb- 
out mental strain we cnn distinctly believe that tho substance (the 
"substratum" of qualities) resides, not in a point, nor ranncl/ 
through all apace, but definitely in the spherical volnrao of »j>«« 
bounded by the spherical surfuce whoso ralins is tho radius </ 
activity of tho atom, and whoso centre is the centre of the atom. la 
our intorniolcculfti' forces thus defined, wo have no vicdatinn of the ell 
scholastic law, " JMattcr cannot act where it is not," but we cxplicillf 
viobito tlic other scholustie law, " Two portions of matter cAnnot simol- 
taneoiisly occupy the same space." We leave to gravitutiun, tad 
pttssitily to electricity (jTobably not to magnetism), tho at pretest 
very nn popular idea of action at a distance. 

§ 21. U e need not now (as in § 16, when we wished to keepH 
near as wo could to the old idea of colliding elastic glolies) suppoM 
the mutual f >rco t>i become iiifinito repulsion before the centmi of t*o 
atoms, approaching one aiioiLor, meet. Followin;j Boscovick, wi 
may assume tho force to vary according to any law of altcrwi* 
attraoliou and repulsion, but without supposing any infinittlr g**** 
force, whether of repulsion or attraction, at any particular diskuie*; 
but we must assume the force to be zero when th'j centres are e<>io- 
cident. We may even admit the idea of tho centres being absvilaielj 
coincident, in at all events some cases of n chuniic.il couibiuatiiio of 
1*0 or more atoms; although wo might consider it mure i ' 
that in uiuEt cases the choraical combination is a clnster, in v^ 
Volumes of the constituent atoms overlap without any two ccntM 
absolutely coinciding. 

§22. Tho word *' collision" used without definition in il9mij 
nnw, ill virtue of §§ 20, 21, bo unambiguously defined ibot: 
Tivo atoms are said to bo i a colttsion during all tlio time thcit 
volumes overlap after coming into contact. They necesainl/ N 
virtue of inertia separate again, unless somo third body istcrtoM* 
with action which causes them to remain overlapping ; that is lo»5. 



* Bee Math, and Pbjt. Papers, tqI. iii art xcra ' MolacuUr 
of Hatter,' § 14. 



1900.] on the Dynamical Tlieory of Heat and Light, 873 

feBC8 combination to rosalt from collision. Two clusters of atoms 
said to be in collisioa when, after boing scpnnito, somo atom or 
ms of one cluster como to overlnp Bntne atnm or atums of the otlior. 
In virtue of inei tia the collision must bo fullowcd either by tho t«o 
elnsUrs separ&tini;, as described iu tlio last sentciico of § 19, or hj 
•nme atom or ntnms of one or both systems being sent flying awity. 
This lAst snppositioD is a nmttcr-of-fuct Etatctuent belmi^iug to tho 
tnasnific-cnt theory of dissociation, discovered nnd worked out by 
Baintc-Clair Uoville without any guidanco from tho k'notic theory 
Hof cases. In gases approximately fulfilling the gasoous Jnvvs (Buyle's 
Hand Charles'), two clusters must in general fly asunder after collision. 
Two clusters could not possibly remain permanently in combination 

• without at least one atom being sent flying away after collision be- 
tween two clusters with no thirf body intervening.* 
S 2'i. Now for tho opplicatiun of the BoUzman-Maxwcll doctrlno 
to tho kinolie theory of gnsos : consider first n homogeneous single 

rgas. ihivtis, a vast assemblage of similar clnBtors of atoms moving and 
codidiiig as described in the last sentence of §19; tho nssomblagg 
Itoing BO sparse that the time during which each cluster is in culHsioa 
{■ very short in comparison with tbe time during vvi ich it is unacted 
on by other clusters, ond its centre of inertia, therefore, moves uni- 
formly in a striiight lino. If there are i atoms in each cluster, it 
1laa 3i freedoms to move, that is to say, freedoms in three rectangular 
liroctioDS for each atom. Tho Bultzman-Maswell doctrine asserts 
liat tho mean kinetic energies of these 3t motions ore all crgual, 
rhatover be the mutual forces between the atoms. From this, 
rhon tho durations of the collisions are not included in tiiu timo- 
tveragcs, it is easy to prove algebraically (with exceptions noted 
low) tbot the time-average of tho kinetic energy of tho component 
tnalntional velocity of the inertial contre, j in any direction, is equnl 
I any one of tho 8i mean kinetic energies asserted to be equal to ono 
Dotbor in tfao preccdiug statement. There are exceptions to tho 
jobraic proof corresponding to the particular exception roferrod 
in tho Liiit footnote to § 18 above ; but, uevcrtholcss, the general 
)-dizmaun-Maxwell doctrine includes the proposition, ovin in 
IjOM) oases in which it is not doduciblo algebraically from tho 
alily of the 3i energio.<:. Thus, without exception, tho average 
^nelic energy of any comjionont of tbo motion of the inertial ceutre 

>, according to the Boltzmann-Maxwoll doctrine, ct^ual to 3-. of tho 

01 

rholo average kinetic energy of tho system. This makes tho total 

age energy, potential and kinetic, of tho wliole motion of the 

sm, tnutalalionol and relative, to be Si (1 -{- P) times tho mean 

8r« Krivia's Hath, and Phys. Pnpen, vol. iii. art. xcvii. $ 33. In this 
■Br*, far ** icarot-ly " substitute " not." 

Thia expreasioii I lue for brevity to aienify tie kinetio energy of tbe wbola 
I iUealiy collertBd at tbe oeotie of inertia. 



874 Lmi EMm [AfAi 

kinatifl energy of cad w p oaent of flu Motioa of fhaiMrtiili 



when P deootee the latioof tiie meHi poteDtUtneigyof Aeii 
diBpleoemenU of the perte to the nem kisetie nmam of fte 
system. Now, aeooiding to Clauiq^ ^kndid waatmBij ] 
theoiem legwding the pertitiaii of taargj ia the IdnalH Ai 
gHee, the zatio of the diflaranee of the two themal oeMuitillt 
ooDStant-Tolnine themul oepeoity ia eqiial to the zatio of tmeei 
ematfoamt of the treneUtioiiil onargr to the total obbibi'. F 
Moordiiig to our nrael nototiom we oaoote the ntio of Ae < 
ospaoitj pteeraie-ooiiiteat to the thsiiBal eefooilif ^ 
it, we am, 

S 24. Ekaaipb 1. — For flnt and euBpleet OTMwpIo^ 
monatomio gee. We have t a 1, and aceoadiag to oar 
(the rappoeitioo generally, pethapa muTCnallj, node) 
atoms, we haTe F = 0. Heiioe^ i — 1 s f. 

This is mersly a fondamental theoran in the Imetia fta 
gases far the case of no mtational or Tibratiooal energy of the 
cole ; in which there is no seope either for ClanaiiM^ toeoiHi 
the Boltunanb-Haxwoll doottine. Itia beaatiftill/ jUiaiiifcii 
meroary vaponr, a monatomie gu aoeordin^ to **»*■'*-«■, te \ ' 
many years ago Knndt, in an admirably dengned ezparinaalbi 
i — 1 to be Tory approximately} ; and by the newly diasoivand 
argon, helium, and krypton, for which also i — 1 haa beta fN 
Lave approximately the same valne, by Baylcigh and Bamsay. BH 
each of these four gases has a large namber of speotrmn linait ni 
therefore a large nnmber of vibrational freedoms, and theraiiDi%it 
the Boltzmann-Maxweli doctrine were tme, k — 1 woold hate aai 
exceedingly small value, snch as that shown in the ideal exaapbrf 
§ '26 below. Un the other hand, Glansins' theortm preeenta no dlflsdln 
it merely asserts that 1; — 1 is necessarily less than fin eaehof thai 
four cases, as in every case in which there is any rotational or vihi- 
tloual energy whatever ; and proves, from the values fonnd tsfti- 
mentally fur it — 1 in the four gasee, that in each oaae the totil (f 
routional and vibra