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DO NOT REMOVE FROM LIBRARY 



PROCEEDINQS 



T 



OF THE 



AMERICAN SOCIETY 



OF 



CIVIL ENGINEERS 



VOL. XXXVIII— No. 8 



AMERICAN:!-) "prj 
SOCIETY OF """^ 

CIVIL 
kENGINEERS#!\^j \_^ 

. FOUNDEOi 

ENGiNEEh^^B Society 

WlL^ ' RSE 

October, 1912 



Published at the House of the Society, aao West Fifty-seventh Street, New York, 
the Fourth Wednesday of each Month, except June and July. 

Copyrigrhted 1913, by the American Society of Civil Enj^ineers. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter at the New York Cily Post Office, December 15th, 1896. 

Subscnption, $8 per annum. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



AMERICAN SOCIETY 



OF 



CIYIL ENGINEERS 

(INSTI'JUTED 1852) 



VOL. XXXVII I— N o . 8 

OCTOBER, 1912 



Edited by the Secretary, under the direction of the Committee on Publications. 

Reprints from this publication, which is copyrighted, may be made on condition that 
the full title of Paper, name of Author, page reference, and date 
of presentation to the Society, are given. 



CONTENTS 



Society Affairs Pages 549 to 610. 

Papers and Discussions Pages 1189 to 1346. 



NEW YOEK 1012 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1912, by the American Society of 
Civil Engineers, in the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



L 



^imkmx mckid 4 ^i^il l^nflineijrB 



OFFICERS FOR 1912 

President^ JOHN A. OCKERSON 

Vice-Presidents 
Term expires January, 1913 : Term expires January, 1911t : 

ALFRED P. BOLLER CHARLES S. CHURCHILL 

CHARLES L. STROBEL CHARLES D. MARX 

Secretary, CHARLES WARREN HUNT 
Treasurer, JOSEPH M. KNAP 

Directors 
Term expires January, Term expires January, Term expires January, 

1913: 191J,: 1915: 

WILLIAM E. BELKNAP GEORGE C. CLARKE LINCOLN BUSH 

HORACE LOOMIS CHARLES W. STANIFORD T. KENNARD THOMSON 

GEORGE A. KIMBALL JONATHAN P. SNOW EMIL GERBER 

PERCIVAL ROBERTS, jR. ROBERT RIDGWAY WILLIAM CAIN 

CHARLES F. LOWETH LEONARD W. RUNDLETT E. C. LEWIS 

ARTHUR DeWINT FOOTE WILLIAM H. COURTENAY W. A. CATTELL 



Assistant Secretary, T. J. McMINN 



Standing Committees 

(The President of the Society is ex-officio Member of all Committees) 
On Finance: On Publications: On Library: 

LINCOLN BUSH WILLIAM E. BELKNAP ALFRED P. BOLLER 

HORACE LOOMIS ROBERT RIDGWAY CHARLES D. MARX 

CHARLES W. STANIFORD CHARLES S. CHURCHILL EMIL GERBER 

GEORGE A. KIMBALL CHARLES L. STROBEL CHARLES F. LOWETH 

PERCIVAL ROBERTS. jR. JONATHAN P. SNOW CHAS. WARREN HUNT 



Special Committees 

On Concrete and Reinforced Concrete : Joseph R. Worcester, J. E. Greiner, 
W. K. Hatt, Olaf Hoff, Richard L. Humphrey, Robert W. Lesley, Emll Swensson, 
A. N. Talbot. 

On Engineering Education : Desmond FitzGerald, Onward Bates, D. W. Mead. 

On Steel Columns and Struts : Austin L. Bowman, Alfred P. Boiler, Emll 
Gerber, Charles F. Loweth, Ralph Modjeski, Frank C. Osborn, George H. Pegram, 
Lev/is D. Rights, George F. Swain, Emil Swensson, Joseph R. Worcester. 

On Bituminous Materials for Road Construction : W. W. Crosby, A. W. 
Dean, H. K. Bishop, A. H. Blanchard. 

On Valuation of Public Utilities : Frederic P. Stearns, H. M. Byllesby, 
Thomas H. Johnson, Leonard Metcalf, Alfred Noble, William G. Raymond, 
Jonathan P. Snow. 



The House of the Society is open from 9 a. m. to 10 p. m. every day, except 
Sundays, Fourth of July, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day. 

House of the Society — 220 West Fifty-seventh Street, New York. 

Telephone Number 5913 Columbus. 

Cable Address "Ceas, New York." 



Vol. XXXVIII. OCTOBER, 1912. No. 8. 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENaiNEERS 

INSTITUTED 18 52 



PROCEEDINGS 

This Society is not responsible for any statement made or opinion expressed 
in its publications 



\ 



SOCIETY AFFAIRS 

CONTENTS 

Minutes of Meetings: Page 

Of the Society. September I8th and October 2d, 1912 549 

Of the Board of Direction, October 1st, 1912 555 

Announcements : 

Hours during which the Society House is open 556 

Future Meetings 556 

List of Nominees for Offices to be flUed January l5th, 1913 556 

Searches in the Library 557 

Papers and Discussions 557 

Local Associations of Members of the American Society of Civil Engineers 558 

Privileges of Engineering Societies Extended to Members 559 

Accessions to the Library: 

Donations 561 

By purchase 562 

Membership (Additions, Changes of Address, Reinstatements, Resignations, Deaths). 564 

Recent Engineering Articles of Interest 576 



MINUTES OF MEETINGS 
OF THE SOCIETY 



September i8th, 1912. — The meeting was called to order at 8.30 
p. M. ; Director T. Kennard Thomson in the chair; Chas. Warren Hunt, 
Secretary; and present, also, 77 members and 6 guests. 

A paper by C. L. Annan, M. Am. Soc. C. E., entitled "Street 
Sprinkling in St. Paul, Minn.," was presented by the Secretary, who 
also read a communication on the subject from S. Whinery, M. Am. 
Soc. C. E. The paper was discussed orally by Arthur H. Blanchard, 
M. Am. Soc. C. E. 

The Secretary also presented a paper by W. C. Hammatt, M. Am. 
Soc. C. E., entitled "A Western Type of Movable Weir Dam," and 
the subject was discussed orally by T. C. Atwood, M. Am. Soc. C. E. 

The Secretary announced the following deaths: 

Benjamin Morgan Haurod (Past-President), elected Member, 
April 4th, 1877; died September 7th, 1912. 



550 MINUTES OF MEETINGS [Society Aftairs. 

Charles Lewis Harrison, elected Member, March 2d, 1898; died 
September 14th, 1912. 

Joseph Allen Powers, elected Junior, April 2d, 1884; Member, 
September 3d, 1890; died September 1st, 1912. 

Adjourned. 

October 2d, 1912.— The meeting was called to order at 8.30 P. M.; 
Nelson P. Lewis, M. Am. Soc. C. E., in the chair; Chas. Warren 
Hunt, Secretary; and present, also, 175 members and 30 guests. 

The minutes of the meeting of September 4th, 1912, were approved 
as printed in Proceedings for September, 1912. 

Messrs. Kenneth Allen, Albert H. Dakin, Jr.. and Albin G. 
Nicolaysen were appointed Tellers to canvass the ballot on the follow- 
ing proposed amendment to the Constitution : 

"Strike out Article VII and substitute the following: 

"ARTICLE VII. — Nomination and Election of Officers. 

"1. — The Board of Direction shall, from time to time, divide the 
territory occupied by the membership into seven geographical districts, 
to be designated by numbers. Distinct No. 1 shall be the territory 
within fifty miles of the Post Office in the City of New York. Each 
of the other districts shall be, as nearly as practicable, contiguous 
territory on State or Territorial lines; each shall contain, as nearly as 
practicable, an equal nimiber of members, and they shall be designated 
as Districts Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. The Board shall announce such 
division to the Society on or before the first day of March in each 
year. 

"2. — At the Annual Meeting of each year, seven Corporate Mem- 
bers, not officers of the Society, one from each of the geographical dis- 
tricts, shall be appointed by the meeting to serve for two years; who, 
with the seven members holding over and the five living last Past- 
Presidents of the Society, .shall be a committee to nominate officers 
for the Society. 

"The Board of Direction may prescribe the mode of procedure for 
appointing this committee, and fill any vacancies occurring. 

"This committee shall meet at the Annual Convention of the Society, 
or at a time and place to be agreed upon by a majority of its members, 
but said meeting shall not be later than the fifteenth day of July. 
At this meeting this committee shall elect from among its members 
a Chairman and a Secretary to serve for one year beginning on the 
first day of the following September. At all meetings of the com- 
mittee eight members shall constitute a quorum. If at any stated or 
called meeting of the committee there shall not be a quorum present, 
then such members as are present shall call an adjourned meeting for 
the transaction of the committee's business. This committee shall 
select nominees to fill the offices named in Article V, with the exception 
of the office of Secretary, so as to provide, with the officers holding 
over, a Vice-President and six Directors, residing in District No. 1, 
and twelve Directors divided equally, with regard to number and 
residence, among the remaining districts, Nos, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. 



October, 1912.] ' MINUTES OF MEETINGS 551 

In case any nominee or officer shall change his residence from one 
district to another, he shall continue to represent the district in which 
he resided when nominated. Nominations under this section shall be 
designated as 'Official Nominations.' 

"A list of the nominees selected for the offices to be filled at the next 
Annual Election shall be presented by this committee to the Board 
of Direction not later than the first day of August, and the Secretary 
shall thereupon immediately notify each nominee of his nomination 
and ascertain his acceptance or declination. 

"3. — Directly after the first day of October the aforesaid list of 
nominees shall be mailed to every Coi-porate Member whose address is 
known, provided that if any person shall be found by the Board of 
Direction to be ineligible for the office for which he is nominated, or 
should a nominee decline such nomination, his nanae shall not be sent 
out, but the Board shall substitute another name therefor, and further 
provided that in the event that the Nominating Committee fails to 
select a nominee for any office a.s above stipulated, the Board shall 
select a nominee therefor. The Board shall also fill any vacancies 
that may occur in this list of nominees up to the time the ballots are 
sent out. Vacancies shall be so filled as to preserve the geographical 
distribution of officers prescribed in Section 2 of this Article. 

"4. — Additional nominations complying with Section 2 of this Arti- 
cle regarding the distribution of nominees among the several districts 
may be made by declaration, provided such declaration is accompanied 
by an acceptance of the nomination signed by the nominee, and is 
filed with the Secretai-y before the first day of December, and further 
provided that each declaration shall be signed by at least twenty-five 
Corporate Members. Nominations made in accordance with this Sec- 
tion shall be known as 'Nominations by Declaration.' 

"5. — At least thirty days before the Annual Meeting there shall be 
mailed to every Corporate Member whose address is known a. letter- 
ballot with envelopes for voting. This ballot shall include the names 
and residences of all persons nominated in accordance with this 
Article, the grades of membership, and, in the case of nominees for 
Directors, the number of the district in which they reside. Under 
the names of the nominees for each office so printed there shall be 
provided a space for the use of the voter if he desires to substitute 
another name. Nominations by Declaration shall be distinguished 
from Official Nominations by some convenient mark or words. There 
shall also be printed on the ballot the names of the Nominating Com- 
mittee as created by Section 2 of this Article, with the numbers of the 
districts which the appointed members represent, and also in a separate 
list thereon the names and residences of the signers of each Nomina- 
tion by Declaration. 

"Voters may strike out the name of any nominee printed on the 
ballot for whom they do not wish to vote, and may substitute therefor, 
in writing or by paster, the name of any person eligible for the office; 
but the number of names voted for for any office shall not exceed the 
number of persons to be elected to such office. Ballots not complying 
with these provisions shall be rejected. 

"Directions in accordance with these provisions shall be issued with 
the ballots. 



L 



552 MINUTES OF MEETINGS [ Society Affairs. 

"6. — Ballots may be sent by mail to the Secretary, or may be pre- 
sented to him at the Society House. They should be enclosed in two 
sealed envelopes, and the outer envelope shall be endorsed by the 
voter's signature. 

"The Secretary shall make a list of the voters from whom ballots 
are received, which list shall be open to inspection by all Corporate 
Members. A voter may withdraw his ballot, and may substitute 
another, at any time before the polls close. 

"7. — The polls shall be closed at 9 a. m. on the first day of the 
Annual Meeting, and the ballots shall be canvassed publicly by tellers, 
who shall be appointed by the presiding officer. 

"The persons who receive the largest number of votes for each office 
to be filled shall be declared elected. 

"In case of a tie between two or more persons for the same office, 
the Annual ^Meeting shall elect the officer from among the persons 
so tied. 

•■J lie itresiding officer shall announce to the meeting the names of 
the officers elected." 

The Tellers reported as follows: 

Total number of ballots received 734 

Number of ballots received from Corporate Members 
not entitled to vote 19 

Total number of ballots to be counted 715 

Number of ballots in favor 680 

Number of ballots against 31 

Number of ballots blank 4 

Total 715 

Kenneth Allen, 
Albert H. Dakin, Jr., 
Albin G. Nicola ysen. 

The Cha.ir declared the amendment carried. 

A paper entitled "The Sixth Avenue Subway of the Hudson and 
Manhattan Eailroad," by H. G. Burrowes, M. Am. Soc. C. E., was 
presented by the author, and illustrated with lantern slides. The paper 
was discussed orally by Messrs. William J. Boucher, Lazarus White, 
H. L. Oestreich, ani the author. A written discussion by T. B. 
Whitney, Jr., M. Am. Soc. C. E., was presented by the Secretary. 

The Secretary announced the election of the following candidates 
on October 1st, 1912 : 

As Members 
George Lewis Bean, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Thomas Eupe Beeman, Beverly, Wash. 
Davenport Bromfield, San Mateo, Cal. 
Edward Emery Carpenter, Victoria, B. C, Canada 
George Thomas Eorsyth, Kansas City, Mo. 



October, 1912.] MINUTES OF MEETINGS 553 

James Josias Gaillard, Macon, Ga. 
Samuel Gourdin Gaillard, Philadelphia, Pa. 
William Herbert Gibson, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Simon Henry Harrison, Eagland, Ala. 
Joseph John Jessup, Berkeley, Cal. 
Eay Messinger Murray, Spokane, Wash. 
William Fullerton Peeves, New York City 
William James Shackelford, Greenville, Miss. 
Poland Aldrich Thayer, Greenville, S. C. 
DeBerniere Whitaker, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba 
Frederick Charles Wilson, Felton, Cuba 
Herbert Alva Wilson, Boston, Mass. 
James Albert Woodruff, Vicksburg, Miss. 
Charles Colt Yates-, Washington, D. C. 

As Associate Members 

William Frederick Alfred Anson, Rural Retreat, Va. 

Ernest Daniel Bean, Medina, N. Y. 

Robert Ernest Beaty, New York City 

Henry Crist Benson, Tallulah Falls, Ga. 

Gordon Byron Canaga, Manila, Philippine Islands 

Elbert Milam Chandler, Burbank, Wash. 

Jesse John Davy, Shakopee, Minn. 

Newbold Drayton, Sand Patch, Pa. 

Samuel Alexander Forter, Pratt, Ivans. 

William Strobridge Gelette, San Francisco, Cal. 

Harry J Hanmer, Gloversville, N. Y. 

George Stevens Hinckley, Redlands, Cal. 

Albert Harrison Hinkle, Columbus, Ohio 

Lewis Allen Jones, Washington, D. C. 

Stanley Albert Kerr, Helena, Mont. 

Jason Casimir LeDuke, Toledo, Ohio 

Andrew Lenderink, Kalamazoo, Mich. 

Walter Lawrence Lorah, Bourne, Mass. 

Kern Wilson McHose, Wilkinsburg, Pa. 

Charles William Martin, St. Louis, Mo. 

Ernest Edward Meier, St. Louis, Mo. 

Egmont Felix Mittmann, Wichita Falls, Tex. 

Charles Moser, Palo Alto, CaL 

Edwin Randolph Page, Ansted, W. Va. 

George Austin Quinlan, Chicago, 111. 

Joseph Warren Rogers, Shokan, N. Y. 

James Selden Shute, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Walter Pearce Stine, Aguadulce, Panama 

Robert August Strecker, Louisville, Ky. 



554 MINUTES OF MEETINGS [Society Affairs. 

Robert Summers Stronach, Westminster Junction, 

B. C, Canada 
James Hiram Sturdevant, Watertown, N, Y. 
Henry Taylor, Kenova, W. Va. 
John Edward Thornton, Waco, Tex. 
Arthur Carling Toner, Baltimore, ]\Id. 
Paul Page Whitham, Seattle, Wash. 
Leslie Bateman Woodruff, Camden, N. J. 

As Juniors 
Harold Edward Akerly, Rochester, N. Y. 
Earl Daniel Brown, Oakland, Cal. 
Clement Edwards Chase, Toledo, Ohio 
Clarence Westgate Cook, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Carl Crandall, Ithaca, N. Y. 
John Dubuis, Portland, Ore. 
Charles Fischer, Jr., New Paltz, N. Y, 
Ralph Edward Goodwin, New York City 
Russell Platt Hastings, Palo Alto, Cal. 
George Cleveland Haun, San Erancisco, Cal. 
Raymond Clark Hill, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Miles Cary Macon Johnston, Ithaca., N. Y. 
Walter Harlan Leckliter, Manila, Philippine Islands 
Gordon Grant MacLeish, Ithaca, N. Y. 
Searle Brown Nevius, Oakland, Cal. 
Elmer Alfred Porter, Salt Lake City, Utah 
AuGUSTiN Mitchell Prentiss, Manila, Philippine Islands 
Ralph Reginald Randell, Seattle, Wash. 
Earnest Conrad Rohde, Jr., Boulder, Colo. 
William Edward Rudolph, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
James Ralph Shields, Berkeley, Cal. 
Neil Thom, Jr., San Francisco, Cal. 
Lem Sec Tsang, Troy, N. Y. 
David Roswell Wylie, New York City 
The Secretary ani^ounced the transfer of the following candidates 
on October 1st, 1912: 

From Associate Member to Member 
William James Backes, Hartford, Conn. 

Howard Edward Boardman, Buenos Aires, Argentine Republic 
Henry Lilburn Gray, Olympia, Wash. 
Paul Evans Green, Chicago, 111. 
Alfred Hanson Hartman, Baltimore, Md. 
George Eber Stratton, Helena, Mont. 
Waldo Oilman Wildes, Rochester, N. Y. 
Andrew Alfred Woods, Vicksburg, Miss. 



October, 1!)]2.| ]\riNUTKS OF IMEETINGS 555 

From Junior to Associate Member 
Nathaniel Townsend Blackburn, Galveston, Tex. 
Kenneth Mackenzie Cameron, Ottawa, Out., Canada 
Lester Levi Carter, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Francis Stirling Crowell, Albany, N. Y. 
William Henry Dittoe, Columbus, Ohio 
James Calvin Foss, Jr., Kahului, Hawaii 
Robert Walter Gay, Agricultural College, Miss. 
Wilder Meloy Rich, Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Francis Rauch Schmid, New York City 
Alfred Lockwood Trowhriix;k, San Francisco, Cal. 
Earll Chase Weaver, Ashland, Ore. 
Clement Clarence Williams, Chicago, 111. 
David Leroy Yarnell, Washington, D. C. 

The Secretary announced the following deaths : 

James Dix Schuyler, elected Member, December 6th, 1882; died 
September 13th, 1912. 

Rowan Ayres, elected Associate Member, July 9th, 1912; died 
August 13th, 1912. 

Adjourned. 

OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTION 

(Abstract) 

October ist, 1912. — Director Loomis in the chair; Chas. Warren 
Hunt, Secretary; and present, also, Messrs. Bush, Clarke, Endicott, 
Gerber, Kimball, Knap, Ridgway, and Snow. 

Ballots for membership were canvassed, resulting in the election of 
19 Members, 36 Associate Members, and 24 Juniors, and the transfer 
of 13 Juniors to the grade of Associate Member. 

Eight Associate Members were transferred to the grade of Member. 

Applications were considered and other routine business transacted. 

Adjourned. 



556 ANNOUNCEMENTS [Society Affair9. 

ANNOUNCEMENTS 

The House of the Society is open from 9 A. M. to 10 P. M., 
every day, except Sundays, Fourth of July, Thanksgiving Day, and 
Christmas Day. 

FUTURE MEETINGS 

November 6th, 1912. — 8.30 P. M.— A regular business meeting 
will be held, and two papers will be presented for discussion, as 
follows: "The Flood of March 22d, 1912, at Pittsburgh, Pa.," by 
Kenneth C. Grant, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E.; and "State and National 
Water Laws, with Detailed Statement of the Oregon System of Water 
Titles," by John H. Lewis, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E. 

Mr. Grant's paper was printed in Proceedings for August, 1912, 
and Mr. Lewis' paper appeared in the September, 1912, Proceedings. 

November 20th, 1912.— 8.30 P. M. — At this meeting two papers 
will be presented for discussion, as follows : "The Sewickley Cantilever 
Bridge Over the Ohio River," by A. W. Buel, M. Am. Soc. C. E.; 
and "Ports of the Pacific," by H. M. Chittenden, M. Am. Soc. C. E., 
assisted by A. 0. Powell, M. Am. Soc. C. E. 

These papers were printed in Proceedings for September, 1912. 

December 4th, 1912.— 8.30 P. M. — This will be a regular business 
meeting. Two papers will be presented for discussion, as follows: 
"Tufa Cement, as Manufactured and Used on the Los Angeles 
Aqueduct," by J. B. Lippincott, M. Am. Soc. C. E.; and "The 
Economic Aspect of Seepage and Other Losses in Irrigation Systems," 
by E. G. Hopson, M. Am. Soc. C. E. 

These papers are printed in this number of Proceedings. 

LIST OF NOMINEES FOR THE OFFICES TO BE FILLED AT THE 
ANNUAL ELECTION, JANUARY 15th, 1913 

The following list of nominees for the offices to be filled at the 
Annual Meeting, January 15th, 1913, received from the Nominating 
Committee, was presented to the Board of Direction at its meeting 
on September 3d, 1912. The list has already been mailed to all 
Corporate Members: 

For President, to serve one year: 
George F. Swain, Cambridge, Mass. 

For Vice-Presidents, to serve two years: 
J. Waldo Smith, New York City. 
Charles H. Rust, Victoria, B. C, Canada. 

For Treasurer, to serve one year: 
John F. Wallace, New York City. 



Ootnhpr, 1012.] ANNOUNCEMENTS 557 

For Directors, to serve three years: 

Henry W. Hodge, New York City District No. 1 

James H. Edwards, Passaic, N. J District No. 1 

Leonard Metcalf, Boston, Mass District No. 2 

Henry K. Leonard, Philadelphia, Pa District No. 4 

Edward H. Connor, Leavenworth, Kans . . . District No. 5 
Samuel H. Hedoes, Seattle, Wash District No. 7 

SEARCHES IN THE LIBRARY 

In January, 1902, the Secretary was authorized to make searches 
in the Library, upon request, and to charge therefor the actual cost to 
the Society for the extra work required. Since that time many 
searches ha.ve been made, and bibliographies and other information on 
special subjects furnished. 

The resulting satisfaction, to the members who have made use of 
the resources of the Society in this manner, has been expressed fre- 
quently, and leaves little doubt that, if it were generally known to the 
membership that such work would be undertaken, many would avail 
themselves of it. 

The cost is trifling compared with the value of the time of an 
engineer who looks up such matters himself, and the work can be 
performed quite as well, and much more quickly, by persons familiar 
with the Library. 

In asking that such work be undertaken, members should specify 
clearly the subject to be covered, and whether references to general 
books only are desired, or whether a complete bibliography, involving 
search through periodical literature, is desired. 

In reference to this work, the Appendices* to the Annual Reports 
of the Board of Direction for the years ending December 31st, 1906, 
and December 31st, 1910, contain summaries of all searches made 
to date. 

PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS 

Members and others who take part in the oral discussions of the 
papers presented are urged, to revise their remarks promptly. Written 
communications from those who cannot attend the meetings should 
be sent in at the earliest possible date after the issue of a paper in 
Proceedings. 

All papers accepted by the Publication Committee are classified 
by the Committee with respect to their availability for discussion at 
meetings. 

Papers which, from the?r general nature, appear to be of a charac- 
ter suitable for oral discussion, will be published as heretofore in 

* Proceedings, Vol. XXXIII, p. 20 (January, 1907); Vol. XXXVII, p. 28 (January, 1911). 



558 ANNOUNCEMENTS [Society A mii is. 

Proceedings, and set down for presentation to a future meeting of the 
Society, and, on these oral discussions, as well as written communica- 
tions, will be solicited. 

All papers which do not come under this heading, that is to say, 
those which from their mathematical or technical nature, in the 
opinion of the Committee, are not adapted to oral discussion, will not 
be scheduled for presentation to any meeting. Such papers will be 
published in Proceedings in the same manner as those which are to 
be presented at meetings, but written discussions, only, will be re- 
quested for subsequent publication in Proceedings and with the paper 
in the voknnes of Transactions. 

LOCAL ASSOCIATIONS OF MEMBERS OF THE AMERICAN 

SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

San Francisco Association 

The San Francisco Association of Members of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers holds regular bi-monthly meetings, with 
banquet, and weekly informal luncheons. TJie former are held at 
6 p, M., at the Palace Hotel on the third Friday of February, April, 
June, August, October, and December, the last being the Annual 
Meeting of the Association. 

Informal luncheons are held a.t 12.15 p. m. every Wednesday, and 
the place of meeting may be ascertained by communicating with the 
Secretary of the Association, E. T. Thurston, Jr., M. Am. Soc. C. E., 
713 Mechanics' Institute, 57 Post Street. 

The by-laws of the Association provide for the extension of hospi- 
tality to any member of the Society who may be temporarily in San 
Francisco, and any such member will be gladly welcomed as a guest. 

Colorado Association 

The meetings of the Colorado Association of Members of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers are held on the second Saturday 
of each month, except July and August. The hour and place of meet- 
ing are not fixed, but this information will be furnished on applica- 
tion to the Secretaiy, Gavin N, Houston, M. Am. Soc. C. E., 409 
Equitable Building, Denver, Colo. The meetings are usually preceded 
by an informal dinner. Members of the American Society of Civil 
Engineers will be welcomed at these meetings. 

Weekly luncheons are held on Wednesdays, and, until further notice, 
will take place at the Colorado Traffic Club. 

Visiting members are urged to attend the meetings and luncheons. 

Atlanta Association 

On March 14th, 1912, the Atlanta Associati(jn of Members of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers Avas organized, with the following 
officers: Arthur Pew, President; William" A. Hansell, Jr., Secretary; 
and Messrs. James N. Hazlehurst and Alexander Bonnyman, Members 
of the Executive Committee. The Association will hold its meetings 
in the house of the University Club. 



October, 1912.] ANNOUNCKMKNTS 559 

PRIVILEGES OF ENGINEERING SOCIETIES 

EXTENDED TO MEMBERS OF THE 
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

Members of the American Society of Civil Engineers will be wel- 
comed by the following Engineering Societies, both to the use of their 
Reading Rooms and at all meetings : 

American Institute of Mining Engineers, 29 West Thirty-ninth Street, 

New York City. 
American Society of Meclianical Engineers, 21) West Thirty-ninth 

Street, New York City. 
Architekten-Verein zu Berlin, Wilhelmstrasse 92, Berlin W. 66, 

Germany. 
Associagao dos Engenheiros Civis Portuguezes, Lisbon, Portugal. 
Australasian Institute of Mining Engineers, Melbourne, Victoria, 

Australia. 
Boston Society of Civil Engineers, 715 Tremont Temple, Boston, 

Mass. 
Brooklyn Engineers' Club, 117 Remsen Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Canadian Society of Civil Engineers, 413 Dorchester Street, West, 

Montreal, Que., Canada. 
Civil Engineers' Society of St. Paul, St. Paul, Minn. 
Cleveland Engineering Society, Chamber of Commerce Building, 

Cleveland, Ohio. 
Cleveland Institute of Engineers, Middlesbrough, England. 
Dansk Ingeniorforening, Amaliegade 38, Copenhagen, Denmark. 
Engineers' and Architects' Club of Louisville, Ky., 303 Norton 

Building, Fourth and Jefferson Streets, Louisville, Ky. 
Engineers' Club of Baltimore, Baltimore, Md. 
Engineers' Club of Minneapolis, 17 South Sixth Street, Minneapolis, 

Minn. 
Engineers' Club of Philadelphia, 1317 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Engineers' Club of St. Louis, 3817 Olive Street, St. Louis, Mo. 
Engineers' Club of Toronto, 96 King Street, West, Toronto, Ont., 

Canada. 
Engineers' Society of Northeastern Pennsylvania, 302 Board of 

Trade Building, Scranton, Pa. 
Engineers' Society of Pennsylvania, 219 Market Street, Harrisburg, 

Pa. 
Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania, 2511 Oliver Building, 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Institute of Marine Engineers, 58 Romford Road, Stratford, Lon- 
don, E., England. 



b 



560 ANNOUNCEMENTS [Society Affairs. 

Institution of Engineers of the River Plate, Buenos Aires, Ar- 
gentine Republic. 

institution of Naval Architects, 5 Adelphi Terrace, London, W. C, 
England. 

Junior Institution of Engineers, 39 Victoria Street, Westminster, 
S. W., London, England. 

Koninklijk Instituut van Ingenieurs, The Hague, The Netherlands. 

Louisiana Engineering Society, 321 Hibernia Bank Building, New 
Orleans, La. 

Memphis Engineering Society, Memphis, Tenn. 

Midland Institute of Mining, Civil and Mechanical Engineers, 
Sheffield, England. 

Montana Society of Engineers, Butte, Mont. 

North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England. 

Oesterreichischer Ingenieur° und Architekten=Verein, Eschen- 
bachgasse 9, Vienna, Austria. 

Pacific Northwest Society of Engineers, 803 Central Building, Seat- 
tle, Wash. 

Rochester Engineering Society, Rochester, N. Y. 

Sachsischer Ingenieur- und Architekten-Verein, Dresden, Germany. 

Sociedad Colombiana de Ingenieros, Bogota, Colombia. 

Sociedad de Ingenieros del Peru, Lima, Peru. 

Societe des Ingenieurs Civils de France, 19 Rue Blanche, Paris, 
France. 

Society of Engineers, 17 Victoria Street, Westminster, S. W., 
London, England. 

Svenska Teknologforeningen, Brunkebergstorg 18, Stockholm, 
Sweden. 

Tekniske Forening, Vestre Boulevard 18-1, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Western Society of Engineers, 1737 Monadnock Block, Chicago, 111. 



October, 1912.] ACCESSIONS TO THE LIBRARY 561 

ACCESSIONS TO THE LIBRARY 

(From September 4th to October 3d, 1912) 
DONATIONS* 
ELEVATOR SHAFT CONSTRUCTION. 

Or, Practical Suggestions for the Installation of Electric Elevators 
in Buildings. By H. Robert Cullmer, Assisted by Albert Bauer. 
Cloth, 9| X 6| in., illus., 174 pp. New York, The William T. Comstock 
Company, 1912. $3.00. 

The principal purpose of this book, it is stated, is to emphasize the necessity 
of the co-operation of all parties connected with the work of elevator shaft con- 
struction and elevator installation, in order to produce the best results and the 
necessary economy. The subject-matter is said to cover every detail of elevator 
shaft construction, from the preparation of the drawings to the installation of 
the machinery, for elevators of various kinds. The articles on elevator shaft doors 
and machine rooms are said to contain information which will be especially useful 
to the architect in the preparation of plans, and, because of the difficulty of the 
problem involved, the article on the height of the elevator shaft bulkhead is detailed, 
I he plates used for illustration conforming to the requirements of existing municipal 
regulations. Two forms of specifications for elevator equipment, one a simple one 
for a single door and the other for cars suitable for office buildings, have been 
included. A chapter has been devoted to the rules and regulations in regard to 
elevator installations, of New York City, and the author has also made a compari- 
son with similar regulations in use in other cities. The Contents are : Elevator 
Shafts ; Specifications for Elevator Work ; Door Opening Devices and Elevator Car 
Gates; Elevator Signal Sy.stems and Special Appliances; Rules and Regulations 
Governing Elevator Installation in New York City ; Index. 

ARTISTIC BRIDGE DESIGN. 

A Systematic Treatise on the Design of Modern Bridges According 
to Aesthetic Principles. By Henry Grattan Tyrrell. With an In- 
troduction by Thomas Hastings. Cloth, 9| x 6| in., illus., 16 -|- 294 pp. 
Chicago, The Myron C. Clark Publishing Co., 1912. $3.00. 

In his preface the author states that very little attention has been given by 
American engineers to the artistic character of bridges, their proper proportions, 
and the selection of economic types. As far as the purely constructive features 
are concerned, almost all the problems have been solved, and it is hoped that the 
engineer of the Twentieth Century will insist upon and establish a higher standard 
of artistic treatment. This book, the subject-matter of which is a development 
of a series of articles on the subject first published in The xi.merican Architect, in 
1901, is said to be the first systematic attempt made in the United States to apply 
the economic to the artistic in bridge design. In it the author gives his reasons 
why bridges should be ornamental and why they are not. and shows by many illus- 
trations and descriptions how to construct them artistically, stating that as the lack 
of art in bridge design is due partly to the dearth of literature on the subject and 
the difficulty of securing good illustrations, he hopes the book will be of some help 
in producing better results in the future. The Chapter headings are: Importance 
of Bridges ; Reasons for Art in Bridges ; Standards of Art in Bridges ; Causes for 
Lack of Art ; Special Features of Bridges ; Principles of Design ; Ordinary Steel 
Structures ; Cantilever Bridges ; Metal Arches ; Suspension Bridges ; Masonry 
Bridges ; Illustrations and Descriptions ; Index. 

Gifts have also been received from the following : 

Am. Soc. of Mech. Engrs. 1 bound vol. Bureau of Ry. Economics. 1 bound vol. 

.\rizona-Corporation Comm. 1 pam. Chicago & North Western Ry. Co. 1 
Arnold, Bion J. 2 pam. pam. 

Assoc, of Transportation and Car Ac- Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville Ry. 

counting Officers. 1 vol. Co. 1 pam. 

Augusta, Ga. -Mayor. 1 vol. Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry. Co. 
Belzner, Theodore. 1 pam, 2 m&v^. 2 pam. 

Brazil Ry. Co. 1 pam. Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha 
Brooklyn, ' N. Y.-President of the Bor- Ry. Co. 1 pam. 

ough. 1 bound vol. Columbus, Ohio-Div. of Water. 1 pam. 

♦Unless otherwise specified, books in this list have been donated by the publishers. 



562 



ACCE.SSIONS TO TJIK I>1 BRAKY 



[Society Affairs. 



Congreso Cientifico 4th, Santiago de 

Chile. 1 vol. 
Connecticut Soc. of Civ. Eugrs. 1 vol. 
Cutter, William Parker. 1 pam. 
Danzig Kgl. Technische Hochschule. 1 

pam. 
Denver & Rio Grande R. R. Co. 1 pam. 
East Orange, N. J. -Board of Water 

Commrs. 1 pam. 
Essex County, N. J. -Mosquito Extermina- 
tion Comm. 4 pam. 
Fitchburg, Mass. -Sewage Disposal 

Commrs. 2 pam. 
Georgia-Geol. Survey. 1 bound vol., 1 

vol., 1 pam. 
Glasgow, & South Western Ry. Co. 1 

pam. 
Great Central Ry. Co. 1 pam. 
Griffith, W. F. R. 1 pam. 
Hanna, F. W- 2 vol. 
Hartford, Conn. -Water Commrs. 1 i)ain. 
Highland Ry. Co. 1 pam. 
Illinois-State Board of Equalization. 1 

bound vol. 
Illinois-State Geol. Survey. 1 bound vol. 
India-Public Works Dept. 1 pam. 
Indiana-State Board of Health. 1 bound 

vol. 
Inst, of Marine Engrs. 1 bound vol. 
Institution of Elec. Engrs. 1 pam. 
Inter. Ry. Fuel Assoc. 1 vol. 
Iowa-Executive Council. 1 pam. 
Iron and Steel Inst. 1 bound vol. 
Kentucky-R. R. Comm. 1 bound vol. 
Louisiana State Univ. 1 pam. 
Manchester Assoc, of Engrs. 1 bound 

vol. 
Maryland-State Mine Insp. 1 pam. 
Massachusetts-State Forester. 1 pam. 
Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie 

Ry. Co. 1 pam. 
Missouri-State Board of Equalization. 1 

bound vol. 
Missouri Pacific Ry. Co. 1 pam. 
New Jersey-State Board of Health. 1 

bound vol. 
New South Wales-Govt. Rys. 1 pam. 
New York City-Dept. of Water Supply, 

Gas and Electricity. 1 pam. 
New York State-Public Service Comm., 

First Dist. 2 pam. 
New York-State Comm. to Investigate 

Port Conditions and Pier Extensions 

in New York Harbor. 1 pam. 



New York-State Engr. and Surveyor. 1 

bound vol. 
New York City Record. 1 bound vol. 
New York, Ontario & Western Ry. Co. 

1 pam. 
New York Soc. of Archts. 1 bound vol. 
Norfolk & Western Ry. Co. 1 pam. 
North British Ry. Co. 1 pam. 
Ohio State Univ. 1 pam. 
Ontario, Canada-Bureau of Mines. 1 

vol. 
Philippine Islands-Weather Bureau. 1 

vol. 
Port of Para. 1 pam. 
Portland, Ore. -Water Board. 1 bound 

vol. 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. -Board of Public 

Works. 1 pam. 
Punjab, India-Irrig. Works. 1 bound 

vol. 
Reading, Pa. -Water Dept. 1 bound vol. 
Roadmasters and Maintenance of Way 

Assoc. 2 pam. 
Romer & Harrington. 1 pam. 
St. Louis, Mo. -Water Comm. 1 pam. 
Salt Lake City, Utah-Health Dept. 1 

pam. 
Seattle, Wash. -Lighting Dept. 1 vol. 
Sind, India-Dept. of Public Works. 1 

pam. 
Societe de I'lndustrie Minerale. 1 vol. 
Strong, Carlton. 1 pam. 
Svenska Teknologforeningen. 1 pam. 
Switzerland-Eidgenossisches Hydrometri- 

sches Bureau. 5 vol., 1 pam. 
Technischer Verein zu Riga. 1 pam. 
Toronto, Ont.-City Clerk. 1 pam. 
U. S. -Bureau of Labor. 2 pam. 
U. S. -Bureau of Mines. 1 vol. 
U. S. -Bureau of Statistics. 5 pam. 
U. S. -Bureau of the Census. 1 bound 

vol. 
U. S. -Coast and Geodetic Survey. 1 pam. 
U. S.-Dept. of the Interior. 1 pam. 
U. S. -Forest Service. 1 pam. 
U. S.-Geol. Survey. 1 bound vol., 2 vol., 

4 pam. 
Verein Deutscher Portland- Zement Fab- 

rikanten. 1 vol. 
Victoria, Australia-Ry. Constr. Branch. 

1 pam. 
Victoria, B. C.-Dept. of Public Works. 

1 pam. 
Wisconsin Univ. -Agri. Exper. Station. 1 

pam. 



BY PURCHASE 

Waterways versus -Railways. By Haiokl (J. JVIoulton. Houghton. 
Mifflin Company, Boston and Xew York, 1912. 

Primer of Scientific Management. By Frank B. Gilbreth. With 
an Introduction by Louis D. Biaiuh'is. T). Van Nostrand Company, 
New York, 1912. 

Mills' Irrigation Manual for Lawyers, Irrigation Officers, Engineers 
and Water Users : Being a Treatise on the Law of Irrigation, Together 
with tlie Statutes and Forms of Seventeen States and Territories. Bv J. 
Warner Mills. The Mills Publishing Co., Denver, 1907. 



Central Station Heating. By 

Ventilatiuii Magazine Co., New Yorl^ 



Bvron T. 

. 1912. 



Gifford. Heating and 



October. I!) 1 -J. I ACCKSSIOXS TO THE LIBHAKY 563 

A Text=Book of Rand Metallurgical Practice, Designed as a Work- 
ing Tool and Practical Guide for Metallurgists upon the Witwatersrand 
and Other Similar F'ields. By Ralph Stokes and others. Vol. 1. J. B. 
Lippincott, Philadelphia; Charles Griffin t!v: Co., Ltd., London, l!»ll. 

Reports of Decisions of the Public Service Commission, First Dis- 
trict of the State of New York. 2 Vol. v. 1, .lulv 1st, 1907-Sept. 1st, 
1909 ; V. 3, Feb. 1st, 1912 to Aug. 1st, 1912. Public Service Commis- 
sion, First District, New York, 1912. 

Proceedings of the Twenty=third Annual Convention of the 
National Association of Railway Commissioners : Digest of Decisions 
of the Federal and State Courts, Interstate Commerce Act, Safety Appli- 
ance Acts, Arbitration Act, etc.: Compilation of the Laws of the States 
Pertaining to Railways and Other Public Service Cor[)orations. ('omp. 
by Herman B. Me3'ers. Traffic Service Bureau, Chicago and Washing- 
ton, 1912. 

An Introduction to the Theory of Statistics. By G. Udny Yule. 
Second Edition, Revised. J. B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia; Charles 
Griffin and Co.. Ltd.. London, 1912. 

The Refrigerating Engineer's Pocket Manual. By Oswald Guetli. 
New York, 1908. 

Proceedings of the International Association for Testing Materials : 

Vol. 2, Nos. 11-12. Vienna, July, 1912. 

The Human Factor in Works Management. By James Ilartness. 
McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York and London, 1912. 



SUMMARY OF ACCESSIONS 

(From September 4th to October :U\. 1912.) 

Donations (including duplicates) 120 

By purchase 13 

Total 133 



564 MEMBEH.SHIP — ADDITIONS [Society Affairs. 

MEMBERSHIP 
ADDITIONS 

(From September Gtli to October 3d, 1912) 

MEAfBERS Date of 

Membership. 
liAKEK, Horace Singer. Asst. City Engr., (ifioT Perry St.. 

Chicago, 111 April 30, 1912 

Carlson, Carl Alexius. Lieut.; Civ. Engr., U. S. N.. Navy 

Dept., Washington, D. C April 30, 1912 

Dougherty, Richard Erwin. Dist. Engr., N. Y. | Jun. Jan. 6, 1903 

C. & H R. R. R., White Plains, N. Y j' M. Sept. 3. 1912 

Ferris, James Joseph. Supt. of Constr., F. M. ) 

Stillman Co.. 26 Exchange PL, Jersey City, [ -'^"'°^- -^"'^ ^^- ^^^~ 
^ J 6 ^ •" ( M. Sept. 3, 1912 

GoDDARD, William Buck. Jr. Structural Engr., M. C. R. R., 

Room 114, M. C. R. R. Station, Detroit, Mich Sept. 3, 1912 

Harding, Robert John. Supt. of Public ) Assoc. M. Nov. 4, 1908 
Works, Poughkeepsie, N. Y' f M. Sept. 3, 1912 

Honness, George Gill. Dept. Engr.. Reser- j Jun. Feb. 2. 1897 

voir Dept., Board of Water Supply, V Assoc. M. Sept. 4. 1901 
City of New York, Brown Station. N. Y. ) M. Sept. 3, 1912 

Hudson, Harold Walton. 02 West 71st St., ) Assoc. M. May 3, 1905 
New York City f M. Sept. 3, 1912 

HuRD, Charles Henry. Hydr. Engr., 113 Monument PI., 

Indianapolis, Ind Sept 3, 1912 

Hutchinson, George Weymouth. Chf. Engr.. Keystone 

Coal & Coke Co., Greensburg, Pa Sept. 3, 1912 

Knight, Frank Barr. Chicago Mgr.. and ) 

Engr., Lidgerwood Mfg. Co., 1917 Fisher i. ^'^°'^- ^^- ^^P^- 4. 1901 
Bldg., Chicago, 111 \ ^- Sept. 3, 1912 

Love, Andrew Cavitt. Love Abstiact Co.. ) Assoc. M. Feb. 6, 1907 
. Franklin, Tex [ M. Sept. 3. 1012 

Lowndes, Rawlins. Civ. Engr. and Contr.. Moose Jaw, 

Saskatchewan, Canada Sept. 3. 1912 

Meade, George Adee. Engr. for County Drain Commr. and 
Board of County Rd. Commrs., Genesee County, 1518 
North Saginaw St., Flint, Mich May 28, 1912 

Northrop, Albert Allen. Auditing Engr., ) 

Mississippi River Power Co., Keokuk, (. ^^^°''- ^^- ^^^^ ^' ^^^^ 
Iowa i M- Sept. 3, 1912 

Parsons, Charles Edward. Cons. Engr., Am- ) 

bursen Hydr. Constr. Co., 88 Pearl St., I ^''°^- ^^- ^^^ ^- ^^^^ 
Boston, Mass ) ^- Sept. .3. 1912 

Perkins, William Warr Cassidy. Res. Engr., Dept. of 
Highways, State of New York, Niagara Residency, 
512 Elderficld Bldg., Niagara Falls, N. Y Sept. 3, 1912 



October, 1912.] MEMBERSHIP — ADDITIONS 565 

MEMBERS (Continued) Date of 

Membership. 

Plumer, Harold Edward. Clif. Engr., Buffalo Branch, 
Turner Constr. Co., 312 Prudential Bids;.. Buffalo, 
N. Y Sept. 3, 1912 

RiNEHART, Roy Loftin. Secy, and Treas., Westlake Constr. 

Co., St. Louis, Mo Sept. 3, 1912 

Robertson, David. 423 Union St., Boonton, N. J Sept. 3, 1912 

Schmidt, Herman Henry. Chf. Engr., Bureau of High- 
ways, Borough of Brooklyn, Room 12, Municipal 
Bldg., Brooklyn, N. Y Sept. 3, 1912 

Slater, Joseph Mansfield. Prin. Asst. Engr., Wabash 

R. R., 828 Title Guaranty Bldg., St. Louis, Mo Sept. 3, 1912 

Stowitts, George Putnam. Chf. Draftsman, ^ 

N. Y. C. & H. R. R. R., Room 5140, i Assoc. M. June 3, 1908 

Grand Central Terminal (Res., 3168 j M. Sept. 3, 1912 

Decatur Ave. ) , New York City j 

) Jun. April 3, 1894 

Wallace, William McGehee. 1728 S St., ( ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^_ g ^90^ 

N. W., Washington, D. C J ^j- g^p^ 3^ 1912 

Wise, Albert Joseph. Cons. Engr. (Howe & Wise), 722 

First National Bank Bldg., Houston, Tex Sept. 3, 1912 

associate members 

Adams, William Henry. Cons. Engr. (Adams & Cum- 
mins), 1809 Ford Bldg., Detroit, Mich April 2, 1912 

Allison, Joseph Chester. Chf. Engr. and Asst. Gen. 
Mgr., The California Development Co., Calexico, 
Cal Sept. 3, 1912 

Andrade, Joaquim Gregoriano de. Civ. and Mech. Engr., 

Livraria Ferreira Penna, Manaos, Brazil April 30, 1912 

Brownell, William Smith, Jr. 16 Gibbs Ave., Newport, 

R. I April 2. 1912 

Chambers, John Taylor. (Chambers-Morris Co.), 607 

GodchaiLX Bldg., New Orleans, La Sept. 3, 1912 

CoLYER, Charles Irving. Structural Engr., Guarantee 
Constr. Co., 314 North Fullerton Ave., Montclair, 
N.J Sept. 3,1912 

Crawford, George Lenox. Cons. Engr., 315 Ideal Bldg., 

Denver, Colo Sept. 3, 1912 

Earl, Austin Willmott. Care, Shattuck- 

T71J- /-I -ic: rn A r\ 1 1 i ( JuU. DcC. 1, 1908 

Edmger Co., 15 Glen Ave., Oakland, * 



^1 I Assoc. M. Sept. 3, 1912 

Files, True Herbert. P. O. Box 127, Fairville, N. B., 

Canada Sept. 3, 1912 

Galvin, James Augustine. Archt. and "\ 

Constr. Engr., Remsen and Ontario y ' P • • 

oi /^ V, -NT V i Assoc. M. Sept. 3, 1912 

Sts., Cohoes, N. Y ) ' 



5G6 .M KM UKKSHIP— ADDITIONS [Society AfTairs. 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS (Continued) Date of 

Membership. 

Halsema, Eusebius Julius. Asst. Engr., Bureau of Public 

Works. Manila. Pliilippine Islands Sept. 3, 1912 

Howard, Clement John. Corpus Christi, ) Jun. Sept. 6, 1904 

Tex ^ Assoc. M. Sept. 3,1912 

Howe, James Vance. Kes. Engr.. Sandy Val. | Assoc. Nov. 30, 1909 

& Elkhorn Ry., Jenkins, Ky [ Assoc. M. Sept. 3, 1912 

Huber, William Thomas. Asst. Engr., Highway Dept.. 

State Engr., 873 Richmond Ave., Buffalo, N. Y.... April 30, 1912 
Jensen, John Arthur. Engr., Water-Works Dept., Eng. 

Dept., City Hall, Minneapolis, Minn Sept. 3, 1912 

La Du, Dwight B. Div. Engr., Dept. of State Engr. and 

Surv., State Hall, Albany, N. Y Sept. 3, 1912 

Large, Edwin Kirk. Cor., Myrtle and 3d St., Atlanta, Ga. Sept. 3, 1912 
LiNDSEY, Alfred Raymond. Priii. Asst. Engr., Franklin & 

Co., 906 Crozer Bldg.. Philadelphia, Pa Sept. 3, 1912 

McIntosh, Samuel Eraser. Engr. of Works, Am, Optical 

Co., Box 165, Southbridge, Mass Sept, 3, 1912 

Mandigo, Clark Rogers. Asst. City Engr., City Hall, 

(Res., 3610 Olive St.), Kansas City, Mo Sept. 3, 1912 

Pierce, Charles Henry. Asst. Engr.. U. S. Geological 

Survey, Washington, D. C April 30, 1912 

PiEZ, William. Ohio Dist. Mgr., Trussed Concrete Steel 

Co., 931 Columbus Savings & Trust Bldg., Columbus, 

Ohio April 30, 1912 

QuiNN, Matthew Francis. Asst. Engr., Dept. of Water 

Supply, Gas and Electricity, 540 West 165th St., 

New York City Sept. 3, 1912 

ScHROEDER, FRANK Charles. 220 Wadsworth Ave., New 

York City Sept. 3, 1912 

Scott, James Robinson, Jr. Bridge Engr., J 

Denver City Tramway Co., Room 700, v ' i . , 

rr ^^A T^ n\ C Assoc. M. Sept. 3, 1912 

Tramway Bldg., Denver, Colo ) ' 

Smith, Huntington. Div. Engr., N. Y., C. & St. L. 

R. R., Broadway Station (Res., 11312 Hesslor Rd.), 

Cleveland, Ohio July 9, 1912 

Spooner, Charles Willett. Asst. Engr,, ) ,, ^ ,„„„ 

' -c, T5- T> no^ T^T T? ( <Tun. Mar. 2, 1909 

Henry E. Riggs, Room 221, New En- y ^ ' „,„ 

• • T,,/ A A u TVT- 1, C Assoc. M. Sept. 3, 1912 

gineering Bldg., Ann Arbor, Mich ) ^ 

Standeven, Walter Ealon. Cons. Engr. (Bruce & Stand- 
even), 432 Bee Bldg., Omaha, Nebr Sept. 3, 1912 

Stark, Charles Wolcott. 80 Summit Ave., Noith Plain- 
field, N, J ■ Sept. 3, 1912 

Taylor, Howard Smith. Care, The Lake Superior Paper 

Co., Ltd., Sault Ste, Marie, Ont„ Canada Sept, 3, 1912 

Tolles, Frank Clifton, Eng, Dept,, Dept., ) Jun. May 31, 1910 

Public Service, Cincinnati, Ohio \ Assoc, M. Sept, 3, 1912 



October, 1912.] MEMBERSHIP — ADDITIONS 567 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS (Continued) MemlblrsWp. 

Tbuell, Karl Otto. 1116 Vermont Ave., Washington, D. C. Sept. 3, 1912 

Walker, Fred Bacon. Chf. Engr., Arizona Land & 

Irrig. Co., Prescott, Ariz Sept. 3, 1912 

Weston, Benjamin Thomas. Res. Engr., for W. G. Fargo, 
on Hydro-Elec. Developments, Au Sable River, Hale, 
Mich Sept. 3. 1912 

Wickline, George Grover. Bridge Engr., Southern Trac- 
tion Co., 806 North Harwood, Dallas, Tex Sept. 3, 1912 

Wright, Thomas Judsox, Jr. Asst. in Office 

of Chf. Engr., Piedmont & Northern ' '^'^"- "^"^^^ ^' ^^^^ 



Lines, 212 Trust Bldg., Charlotte, N. C. ) ^'"°'- ^- ^"P^" ^' ^^^^ 
Young, George Samuel. Civ. and Min. Engr., Box 114, 

Bend, Ore Sept. 3, 1912 



associates 

Houston, Hale. Prof, of Civ. Eng., Clemson Agri. Coll., 

Clemson College, S. C July 9, 1912 

JUNIORS 

Brown, Oliver Gilbert. Draftsman, U. S. Light-House 

Service, 314 Hogarth Ave., Detroit, Mich April 30, 1912 

Cadenas, Manuel Antonio. Supt. of Constr., Camaguey 

Dam and Power Plant. Apartado 53, Camaguey, Cuba. Sept. 3, 1912 

Davis, Harold Martin. Transitman. Boston Transit 

Comm., 26 Beals St., Brookline, Mass Sept. 3, 1912 

Durfee, Walter Hetherington. 416 North Highland Ave., 

Pittsburgh, Pa Sept. 3, 1912 

Gay, George Inness. Instr. in Civ. Eng., Univ. of Cali- 
fornia, Civ. Eng. Bldg., Univ. of California, Berke- 
ley, Cal Sept. 3, 1912 

Lowrey, Samuel MacElroy. Highland Apartments. Balti- 
more St. and Highland Ave.. Baltimore. Md Sept. 3, 1912 

MacKrell, Edvvin Allan. Transitman, C. P. Ry., Chap- 

leau, Ont., Canada Sept. 3, 1912 

Mayo, George. 2542 Durant Ave., Berkeley, Cal April 2, 1912 

Morrison, William Grover. 1113 High St., Des Moines, 

Iowa April 2, 1912 

Phalan, John Joseph Francis. Barge Canal Office, 211 

Paul Bldg., Utica, N. Y April 30, 1912 

Prentice, Edward Harper. 189 Second St., Troy, N. Y... April 30, 1912 

Stow, Frederic Stevens. 58 Summer St., Westerly, R. I. Sept. 3, 1912 

Tomlinson, William Sidney. Engr., Shand Eng. Co., 

Columbia, S. C Sept. 3, 1912 

WiLDisH, Frederic Newton. Care, Eng. Dept., C, B. «&. 

Q. R. R., Lincoln, Nebr Sept. 3, 1912 



568 MEMBERSHIP — CHANGES OF ADDRESS [Society Affairs. 

CHANGES OF ADDRESS 

MEMBERS 

Alden, John Ferris. Cons. Engr., P. 0. Box 93, Rochester, N. Y. 

Alderman, Charles Aldo. 281 Parkside Ave., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Arthur, Howard Elmer. 147 West 81st St., New York City. 

Baldwin, Ernest Howard. Project Engr., U. S. Reclamation Service, 

Elephant Butte, N. Mex. 
Blake, Carroll. Birmingham Mgr., Fred A. Jones Bldg. Co., 1619 Am. 

Trust and Savings Bank Bldg., Birmingham, Ala. 
Bloom, J George. Snpt. of Constr., John F. Stevens Constr. Co , Altmar, 

N. Y. 
Bonstow, Thomas Lacey. With S. Pearson & Son, 2a Puente de Alvarado 

33, City of Mexico, D. F., Mexico. 
Breed, Henry Eltinge. Cornwall, N. Y. 
Browne, William Lyon. Care, The Hibbard Co., Ltd., Fredericton, N. B., 

Canada. 
Carle, Nathaniel Allen. Chf. Engr., Public Service Elec. Co., Newark, 

N. J. 
Carroll, Charles Joseph. 323 York Ave., Towanda, Pa. 
Cellarius, Frederick Julius. 1001 Commercial Bldg., Dayton, Ohio. 
Coffin, Amory. Cons. Engr., Phcenixville, Pa. 
Cohen, Frederick William. Works Mgr. and Engr., Goldschmidt Thermit 

Co., 90 West St., New York City. 
Davis, Carleton Emerson. Chf., The Water Bureau, Dept. of Public 

Works, City Hall, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Farnum, Loring Nelson. 1 West 81st St., New York City. 
Fox, Stephenson Waters, Cons. Engi-., 902 Third National Bank Bldg., 

St. Louis, Mo. 
Freeland, Chester Shepard. Eugene, Ore. 
Gartensteig, Charles. Engr. of Design, Oilice of Pres., Borough of the 

Bronx, 177th St. and Third Ave. (Res., 70 West 89th St.), New York 

City. 
Gessner, Gustavus Adolphus, Jr. Cons. Engr., 344 Batavia St., Toledo, 

Ohio. 
Giddings, Frederick. Cons. Municipal Engr., 316 Godchaux Bldg., New 

Orleans, La. 
Grant, W^illiam. 1126 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, Mass. 
Gray, Edward. Ironmound, Ky. 
Hains, Peter Conover. Brig.-Gen., U. S. A. {Retired) ; Cons, and Civ. 

Engr., 818 Eighteenth St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 
Habtwell, Harry. Asst. to Viee-Pres., The Pearson Eng. Corporation, Ltd., 

115 Broadway, New York City. 
Hayes, Edward. Advisory Engr. to Supt. of Public Works, Albany, N. Y. 
HoTCHKiss, Charles Wilcox, Pres., Chicago Utilities Co., 39 South La 

Salle St., Chicago, 111. 
Jonas, Henry F. Asst. Engr., M. of W., Sunset Lines, Texas and Louisiana, 

Box 1173 Houston, Tex. 



October, ]!)]-2.] MEMBKHSIIIP CHANGES OF ADDRESS 569 

MEMBERS ( Continued ) 
King, Paul Sourin. Cons. Engr., Care, Charles McFadden, Jr., Room 402, 

Arcade Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Knox, Samuel Lippincott Griswold. Vice-Pres. and Gen. Mgr., Natomas 

Consolidated of California, Room 808, Alaska Commercial Bldg., San 

Francisco, Cal. 
Lathbury, Benjamin Brentnall. Cons. Engr.. Franklin Bank Bldg., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 
Lepper, Fred William. 300 Fourteenth St., S. W., Washington, D. C. 
LooMis, Thomas Hooker. Cons, and Contr. Engr., Steubenville, Ohio. 
LuTZ, Ulysses Stanislaus. Asst. Engr., Dept. of Finance, New York City; 

4260 Broadway, Apartment 603, New York City. 
Macdonald, Charles. (Past-President) . 115 Broadway, Room 1202, New 

York City. 
Mackenzie, Alexander. Retired Chf. of Engrs. and Ma j. -Gen., U. S. A., The 

Sterling, Washington, D. C. 
McDaniel, Allen Boyer. Asst. Prof, of Civ. Eng., Univ of Illinois, Eng. 

Hall, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 
Mathewson, Isaac. Apartado 124 Bis, City of Mexico, D. F., Mexico. 
Matthes, Gerard Hendrik. Prin. Asst. Engr., Am. Water-Works & Guar- 
antee Co., Hydro-Elec. Dept., First National Bank Bldg., Pittsburgh, 

Pa. 
Miner, Edward Fuller. Pres., Edward F. Miner Bldg. Co., 561 Main St., 

Worcester, Mass. 
Morris, Marshall, Jr. Care, Trinity Eng. & Constr. Co., East Commerce 

and Rusk Sts., San Antonio, Tex. 
Nyeboe, Marius I. Raadhusplads 37, Copenhagen, Denmark. 
PoLLEYS, William Vaughan. 147 Milk St., Boston, Mass. 
Randall, Henry Irwin. Oakridge, Ore. 
RiGGS, Henry Earle. Cons. Engr. (The Riggs & Sherman Co.), 613 Nasby 

Bldg., Toledo, Ohio (Res., 1319 Cambridge Rd., Ann Arbor, Mich.). 
Schlecht, Walter William. Care, U. S. Reclamation Service, Helena, 

Mont. 
Slifer, Hiram Joseph. P. 0. Box 760, Chicago, 111. 
Snow, Jonathan Parker. (Director) . Cons. Engr., 18 Tremont St., 

Room 1120, Boston, Mass. 
Stephens, Clinton F. Pres., St. Louis, Chester & Thebes Ry., 602 Roe 

Bldg., St. Louis, Mo. 
Strong, Carlton. Union Bank Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Stubbs, Linton Waddell. 665 Jourdan St., Shreveport, La. 
Thompson, Fred. Civ. Engr.. U. S. N., 1200 Taylor St., San Francisco, Cal. 
TowNSEND, Curtis McDonald. Col., Corps of Engrs., U. S. A., Room 428, 

Custom House, St. Louis, Mo. 
VosE, Richard Hampton. Care, Robert W. Hunt & Co., 1121 The Rookery, 

Chicago, 111. 
Woods, Robert Patterson. Clif. Engr., Kansas City Clay Co. & St. Jos. 

Ry., Box 945, Kansas City, Mo. 



570 ME.AIBERSHir — CHANGES OF ADDRESS [Society Affairs. 

MEMBERS {Continued) 
Weight, Augustine Washington. Cons. Engr., 2834 Sunset PI., Los An- 
geles, Cal. 
Young, Samuel McCain. (Guerin & Young), 1002 Perrin Bldg., New 
Orleans, La. 

associate members 

Alexander, Kay. 516 Pacific Bldg., Vancouver, B. C, Canada. 

Abn, William Godfrey. Asst. Engr., 111. Cent. R. R., Union Dept., Mem- 
phis, Tenn. 

Balch, Leland Bella. Neillsville, Wis. 

Barnard, Wilfred Keefer. 515 North Vega St., Alhambra, Cal. 

Babtlett, Charles Terrell. Civ. and Structural Engr. (Bartlett & Ran- 
ney), 807 Gibbs Bldg., San Antonio, Tex. 

Bassell, Guy Mannering. Bryson City, N. C. 

Batson, Charles Drevi'ry. 917 Goodrich Ave., St. Paul, Minn. 

Berry, Francis Rigdon. Care, St. Joseph Water Co., St. Joseph, Mo. 

BoRTiN, Harry. Asst. Engr., U. P. R. R. (Res., 2102 Lothrop St.), Omaha, 
Nebr. 

BoscHKE, Guy. 312 Merchants Exchange Bldg., San Francisco, Cal. 

Bourne, Thomas Johnstone. Chf. Engr., in China, for S. Pearson & Son, 
Ltd., Peking, China. 

Brooke, George Doswell. Supt., B. & 0. R. R., Winchester, Va. 

Bunker, Stephen Sans. 901 Oakwood Ave., Toledo, Ohio. 

Caro, Phillip. Engr., Am. Concrete Pile & Pipe Co., 1123 Peoples Gas 
Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

Carstarphen, Frederick Charles. Cons. Engr. and Mgr., Castle Peak 
Mine, Myton, Utah. 

Chadwick, Chester Robert. National Bridge Co. of Canada, Ltd., Mon- 
treal, Que., Canada. 

Comstock, Arthur Francis. Instr. in Ry. Civ. Eng., Univ. of Illinois, 
1110 Arbor St., Champaign, 111. 

Cooper, Kenneth Farra. 910 Ellicott Sq., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Cope, Erle Long. 284 Fifty-ninth St., Oakland, Cal. 

Corey, Ray Howard. Gen. Mgr., Coos Bay Water Co., Marshfield, Ore. 

Cornell, Douglas. Structural Engr., and Acting Commr., Bureau of Bldgs., 
Dept. of Public Works, 6 Municipal Bldg., Buffalo. N. Y. 

Cornell, John Wesley. Sub-Station No. 2, Saginaw, Mich. 

Cbary, Alexander Patton. Bridge Engr., Republic of Panama, P. 0. Box 
23, Ancon, Canal Zone, Panama. 

Dann, Alexander William. Fitler, Miss. 

Davis, George Jacob, Jr. Dean, Coll. of Eng., Univ. of Alabama, University 
P. 0., Tuscaloosa, Ala. 

Davoud, Vauram Yettvart. Elec. and Mech. Engr., Telluride Power Co., 
Box 1666, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Day, Edward Bliss. Pres., Federal Lumber Co., 922 Rogers Bldg., Van- 
couver. B. C, Canada. 

Dixon, George Gale. Dept. of Public Service, City Hall, Akron, Ohio. 



October, 1!)12.] :^rEj\[BEl^SH[l' CllANCiKSOF ADDKKSS 571 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS {Continued) 
DoRiss, Howard. Designing Engr., C. P. Ry.. Bldg. Constr. Dept., Windsor 

Station, Montreal, Que., Canada. 
Drowne, Henry Bernardin. Instr. in Highway Eng., Columbia Univ. j Prin. 

Asst. Engr. with Artliur H. Blanchard, Columbia Univ., New York 

City. 
Ely, John Stanton. Asst. Engr., Bureau of Water, City Hall, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 
EwALD, Robert Franklin. Care, Knoxville Power Co., Chilhowee, Tenn. 
Farrin, James Moore. Room 319, Fisher Bldg., Chicago, 111. 
Foster, Reginald Guy. Care, La Salle Eng. Co., 440 South Dearborn St., 

Chicago, 111. 
Ganser, Sylvan Earle. 204 West Springfield St., Boston, Mass. 
Gaylord, Laurence Timmerman. Gen. Supt., Southern Dist., Atlantic, Gulf 

& Pacific Co., 523 First National Bank Bldg., Houston, Tex. 
Grant, John Robert. 601 Rogers Bldg., Vancouver, B. C, Canada. 
Grant, Kenneth Crothers. 1808 Arrott Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Haldeman, Walter Stanley'. Chf. Engr., H. L. Stevens & Co., 501 Kemper 

Bldg., Kansas City, Mo. 
Hall, Louis Wells. Engr., U. S. Reclamation Service, Helena, Mont. 
Hammond, Lester Clark. Res. Engr., Barclay Parsons & Klapp, 101 Clyde 

Bldg., Hamilton, Out., Canada. 
Harrington, Allan Collins. Const, and Superv. Engr. (A. C. Harrington 

& Co.), 617 Stock Exchange Bldg., Chicago, 111. 
Habtung, Paul August. Care, Kansas City Bridge Co., Kansas City, Mo. 
Hasbrouck, Oscar. 581 Myrtle Ave., Albany, N. Y. 

Hewerdine, Thomas Sloan. Brown Hall, Ohio State Univ., Columbus, Ohio. 
HoAD, William Christian. Prof, of San. Eng., Univ. of Michigan, Ann 

Arbor, Mich. 
Hopkins, Albert Lloyd. Vice-Pres., Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry 

Dock Co., 30 Church St., Room 1801, New York City. 
HouSER, Shaler Charles. Prof, of Eng., Univ of Alabama, University, 

Ala. 
Howe, Walter Clark. Div. Engr., Div. V, California Highway Comm., 

Union National Bank Bldg., San Luis Obispo, Cal. 
Johnson, Maro. Asst. Engr. of Bridges, 111. Cent. R. R., 1507 East 66th St., 

Chicago, 111. 
Kast, Clarke Nightingale. Res. Engr., 0-W. R. R. & N. Co., North 

Yakima, W'ash. 
King, Roy Stevenson. EUendale, N. Dak. 

Knap, Edgar Day'. Cons. Engr., 49 Liberty St., New York City. 
Koss, George Walter. Contr. and Cons. Engr., 2818 Fifth St., Des Moines, 

Iowa. 
Larson, Clarence Melrose. Asst. Engr., Railroad and Tax Commissions, 

230 North Charter St., Madison, Wis. 
Leeds. Charles Tileston. Capt.. Corps of Engrs., U. S. A., Box 250, R. F. 

D. 1, Pasadena, Cal. 



572 MKMBKlISHIl OHANCKS OF ADDKKSS f Society Affairs. 

ASSOCIATE MEMBEHS (Contifiued) 

Leeuw, Henry Alexander. Care, Mrs. Stein, 4G East 7th .St., New York 
City. 

Macartney, Morton. City Engr., 2215 Maxwell Ave., Spokane, Wash. 

McConnell. Ira Welch. Care, Stone & Webster Eng. Corporation, 147 
Milk St., Boston, Mass. 

McDoNOUGH, Michael Joseph. Cnpt., Corps of Engrs., U. S. A., Fort 
Leavenworth, Kans. 

McMenimen, William Vincent. 5721 Rosalie Court, Chicago, 111. 

Mansfield, Royal John. 135 William St., New York City. 

Marquand, Philip. Panama Pacific International Exposition, San Fran 
Cisco; Cal. 

Martin, William Franklin. 1113 Al.Tska ( ommercial Bldg., San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

Matheson, Ernest George. P. O. Box 68, Coquitlam, B. C, Canada. 

Millard, William John. Care, Societe Internationale Miniere Forestiere 
du Congo, 4a rue Montagne du Pare, Bruxelles, Belgium. 

Miller, Hiram. Care, Alabama Interstate Power Co., Birmingham, Ala. 

Morton, Leon Lincoln. Care, Chf. Engr., L. & N. Ry., Louisville, Ky. 

Murphy, John Joseph. Asst. Engr., Dept. of Public Works, Borough of 
Manhattan, New York City (Res., 12 Amakassin, Yonkers, N. Y. ). 

Paige, Jason. 1411 Church St., Evanston, 111. 

PiLLSBURY, George Bigelow. Capt., Corps of Engrs., U. S. A., U. S. Engr. 
Office, New London, Conn. 

Polk, Armour Cantrell. Res. Engr., Alabama Interstate Power Co., R. F. 
D. No. 5, Clanton, Ala. 

Poole, Charles Arthur. Gen. Asst., Sewage Disposal, 1571 St. Paul St., 
Rochester, N. Y. 

Price, William Edmund. 4a Fulk Bldg., Little Rock, Ark. 

Prior, John Clinton. Asst. Engr., Dept, of Public Works, 78 Chittenden 
Ave., Columbus, Ohio. 

Ripley, Blair. Engr., Grade Separation, C. P. Ry., 260 Avenue Rd., 
Toronto, Ont., Canada. 

RoBBiNS, Hallet Rice. Civ. and Min. Engr., Polaris, Mont. 

Robinson, Robert Bruce. Asst. Engr., Ore. Short Line R. R., Pocatello, 
Idaho. 

Rosenberg, Friedrich. Cons. Engr., .361 Claremont Ave,, Montclair, N. J. 

Rosenthal, Joseph Jacob. 2253 Fulton St., Berkeley, Cal. 

Ruckes, Joseph John, Jr. Chf. Engr., Barrett Mfg. Co,, 1336 Bristow St.. 
New York City. 

Runyon, William Kerper. Care, Eddy-Peruvian Co., Banco Aleman Trans- 
atlantico, Lima, Peru. 

Sanb'ORD, Walter Edward. Care, Alabama Interstate Power Co.. Brown- 
Marx Bldg., Birmingham, Ala. 

Schmitt, Ewald. Cons. Architectural Engr., 900 M St., N. W., Washing- 
ton, D. C. 



October, 11)12.] MEiM J5KHSHI1' — CHANGES OF ADDRESS 573 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS (Continued) 

Searle, Charles Depew. Asst. Div. Engr., Public Service Coinni., First 
Dist., 526 West 113th St., New York City. 

Shepardson, John Eaton. Res. Engr., Carolina, Clinchfield & Ohio Ry. 
(Res., 500 East Wataugo Ave.), Johnson City, Tenn. 

Shertzer, Tyrrell Bradbury. Care, W. J. Rainey, Uniontown, Pa. 

Snyder, Frederic Antes. 17 West 42d St., New York City. 

Stiles, Otiio William. Asst. Engr.. C4ilbert C. White, General Delivery. 
Charlotte, N. C. 

VoGT, John Henry Leon. Const. Engr., Julian, Cal. 

Waldron, Albert Edwin. Capt., Corps of Engrs., U. S. A., The Portner, 
15th and U Sts., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Ward, Charles Clarence. Cashmere, Wash. 

Ware, Norton. Engr., Reclamation Dist. No. 1000, Forum Bldg., Sacra- 
mento, Cal. 

Webber, Ward Perry. Asst. Engr., U. S. Reclamation Service, East 1024 
Eighth Ave., Spokane, Wash. 

Westover, Henry Christopher. 420 Midland Bldg., Kansas City, Mo. 

Whitaker, Ralph Wallace. Designing and Cons. Engr., Room 543 
Spreckels Bldg., San Diego, Cal. 

White, David Miller. Room 7, Whiting Bldg., Albuquerque, N. Mex. 

WiCKES, Joseph Lee. Care, Mrs. Pickett, 16 East Lexington St., Balti- 
more, Md. 

Wilson, Harry Percival. Canadian Mgr., The Norcross Bros. Co., 98 Bay 
St., Toronto, Ont., Canada. 

associates 
Gilmore, Alvin Leroy. 512 Phelps Bank Bldg., Binghamton, N. Y. 
Green, Howard Burkhardt. Sales Agt., Lehigh Portland Cement Co.. 

Swarthmore, Pa. 
Hughes, Harold Lincoln. Care, United States Steel Products Co., 30 

Church St., New York City. 
Ray, David Heydorn. Cons. Engr., 27 West 33d St., New York City. 
Smith, Francis Vinton. 331 West 78th St., New York City. 
Smith, Walter Townsend. 452 Fifth Ave., Third Floor, New York City. 
Stilson, Minott Augur Osborn. 23 Roseland Ave., Waterbury, Conn. 
Struckmann, Holger. Chf. Engr. and Gen. Mgr., lola Portland Cement 

Co., 815 Commerce Bldg. (Res., 1618 Linwood Boulevard), Kansas 

City, Mo. 
Wrenn, James Francis. Vice-Pres. and Gen. Mgr., McGuire Constr. Co., 

P. 0. Box 272, Greensboro, N. C. 

juniors 
Alderman, Ernest Samuel. Care. U. S. Dept. of Agri.. Office of Public 

Rds., Washington, D. C. 
Battie, Herbert Scandlin. 332 Seventh Ave., S. W., Roanoke, Va. 
Beall, Pendleton. Instrumentman, N. Y. C. & H. R. R. R., Ravena, N. Y. 



574 MEMBERSHIP— CHANGES OF ADDRESS [Society Affairs. 

JUNiOKS (Continued) 
Catlin, Harold Burd. Draftsman, Bureau of Sewers, Brooklyn, 728 West 

181st St., New York City. 
Clift, William Brooks. Transitman, Tennessee Coal, Iron & R. R. Co., 

Ensley, Ala. 
Davis, Daniel Elias. 615 Lake St., Madison, Wis. 

DooLiTTLE, Frederick William. Asst. Prof, of Mechanics, Univ. of Wis- 
consin, 939 University Ave., Madison, Wis. 
Duff, Carl Mathias. 1061 Eleventh St., Boulder, Colo. 
EsTES, Lewis Alden. Res. Engr., Trussed Concrete Steel Co., Am. Trading 

Co., Agts., Care, F. C. Diaz, Caixa 1343, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 
Garnett, Benjamin Jay. Draftsman, City Engr.'s Office, S. 3327 Tekoa St., 

Spokane, Wash. 
Gibble, Isaac Oberiiolzer. With Trussed Concrete Steel Co., Detroit, Mich. 
GiLKisoN, Gordon Mercer. Care, Telluride Power Co., Newhouse Bldg.. 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Gill, Harold Earle. 25 Garden PL, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Graham, Guy Alexander. Care, Arthur McMullen & Hoff Co., 135th St. 

and Park Ave., New York City. 
Graham, Leo Daniel. 2226 Blake St., Berkeley, Cal. 
Grannis, James Kidwell. Engr., H. L. Stevens & Co., 602 Fourth St., Des 

Moines, Iowa. 
Harrington, Arthur William. Box 44, Potsdam, N. Y. 
Hastings, Hudson Bridge. Prof, of Mech. Drawing and Surveying, Reed 

Coll., Portland, Ore. 
Hazen, Ralph William. Care, U. S. Reclamation Service, Dodson, Mont. 
Holland, Howard Kingsbury. Asst. Engr. with Gardner S. Williams, 

Cornwell Blk., Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Howe, Clarence Decatur. Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, N. S., Canada. 
Howes, Donald Winthrop. Care, Cuban Eng. & Contr. Co., Box 669. 

Havana, Cuba. 
Kniskern, Lewis Thayer. 318 West 57th St., New York City. 
Manzanilla y Carbonell, Jose Justo. Care, Compania de Puertos de 

Cuba, Marina Alta 5, Santiago de Cuba, Oriente, Cuba. 
Mehben, Edward John. Managing Editor, Engineering Record, 239 West 

39th St., New Yoi>k City. 
Najjar, Simon Abraham. 258 Schermerhorn St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Nelson, Ernest Benjamin. 525 West Dayton St., Madison. Wis. 
Phillips, Clifford French. Associated with Hiram Phillips, Cons. Engr., 

422 Liggett Bldg., St. Louis, Mo. 
Potter, Edwin James. Care, B. F. Smith Const. Co., Amsterdam, N. Y. 
Russell, Alexander Stuart. El Segundo, Cal. 
Scholtz, Herman Fred. 34 Caroline Court, Nelson & Thurlow, Vancouver, 

B. C, Canada. 
Sharp, Homer J. 1308 Union Oil Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Spexgler. John Henry. Designer, Dept., Bridges and Bldgs., C, M. & St. 
P. Ry., 5118 Cornell Ave., Chicago, 111. 



October, 1912.] KEINSTATKMKNTS — RESIGNATIONS — DEATHS 575 

JUNIORS (Continued) 
Stevenson, Ervin Beecher. Deputy City Engr., 355 Clinton Ave., Albany, 

N. Y. 
Stewart, Walter Phelps. U. S. Engr. Office, 802 Couch Bldg., Portland, 

Ore. 
Swett, William Claude. Asst. Engr., Ore. Short Line R. R., 408 North 

6th Ave., Pocatello, Idaho. 
Wachtel, Louis. Romulus (Res., Gloversville), N. Y. 
Ward, Roy Elsen. With Am. Water-Works & Guarantee Co., 808 First 

National Bank Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Warnock, William Harold. Asst. Engr., Board of Water Supply, City of 

New York, 601 West 149th St., New York City. 
Whitman, William Satterwhite. 513^^ Woodland St., Nashville, Tenn. 
Wiley, Ralph Benjamin. Asst. Prof, of San. and Hydr. Eng., Purdue 

Univ., 1012 Seventh St., West Lafayette, Ind. 
Williams, Clement Clarence. Engr., C, M. & St. P. Ry., 1236 East 61st 

St., Chicago, 111. 
Willis, Albert Jones. Instr. in Civ. Eng.. Cooper Union, New York City. 
WiNANS, Lawrence Lewis. U. S. Office of Public Rds., Washington, D. C. 



REINSTATEMENTS 

juniors Reinstatement. 

Lake, Orloff Sept. 3, 1912 



RESIGNATIONS 

MEMBERS Refignatfon. 

Souther, Henry Sept. 3, 1912 



ASSOCIATES 

Anderson, Robert Sept. 3, 1912 

JUNIORS 

Borland, Bruce July 18, 1912 

Brown, Arthur Robert Sept. 3, 1912 



DEATHS 

Ayres. Rowan. Elected Associate Member. July 9th. 1912; died August 
13th, 1912. 

Harrison, Charles Lewis. Elected Member, March 2d, 1898; died Septem- 
ber 14th, 1912. 

Harrod, Benjamin Morgan. (Past-President) . Elected Member, April 4th, 
1877; died September 7th, 1912. 

Powers, Joseph Allen. Elected Junior, April 2d, 1884; Member, Septem- 
ber 3d, 1890; died September 1st, 1912. 

Schuyler, James Dix. Elected Member, December 6th, 1882; died Septem- 
ber 13th, 1912. 



Total Membership of the Society, October 3d, 1912, 
6671 



576 



CUKHENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE [Society Affairs. 



MONTHLY LIST OF RECENT ENQINEERINQ ARTICLES OF 

INTEREST 

(September Gth to October 2d, 1912) 

Note. — This list is published for the purpose of placing before the 
members of this Society, the titles of current engineering articles, 
which can be referred to in any available engineering library, or can be 
procured by addressing the publication directly, the address and price 
being given ivherever possible. 

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 

In the subjoined list of articles, references are given by the number 
prefixed to each journal in this list: 



(1 
(2 
(3 
(4 
(5 
(6 

(7 

(8 

(9 

(10 

(11 

(12 

(13 

(14 

(IS 

(16 

(17 

(18 

(19 

(20 
(21 

(22 

(23 

(24 

(25 

(26 

(27 



Boston, 



(28 
(29 
(30 



Journal, Assoc. Eng. Soc 
Mass., 30e. 

Proceedings, Engrs. Club of Phila., 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Journal, Franklin Inst., Philadel- 
phia, Pa., 50c. 

Joxirnal. Western Soc. of Engrs., 
Chicago, 111., 50c. 

Transactions, Can. Soc. C. E., 
Montreal, Que., Canada. 

School of Mines Quarterly, Co- 
lumbia Univ., New York City, 
50c. 

Gesundheits Ingoiieur, Miinchen, 
Germany. 

Stevens Institute Indicator, Ho- (34 
boken. N. J.. 50c. 

Engineering Magazine, New York (35 
City, 25c. 

Cassier's Magazine, New York City, 
25c. 

Engineerinq (London), W. H. 
Wiley, New York City, 25c. 

The Engineer (London), Inter- 
national News Co., New York 
City, 35c. 

Engineering Netos. New York City, 
i5c. 

The Engineering Record, New York 
City, 10c. 

Raihvaii Age Gazette, New York 
City, IScl 

Engineering and Mining Journal. 
New York City, 15c. 

Electric Railway Journal. New 
York City, 10c. 

Railioay and Engiit^ering Review, (45 
Chicago, HI., 15c. 

Scientific American Supplement. 
New York City, 10c. 

Iron Age, New York City, 20c. 

Railway Engineer, London, Eng- 
land, Is. 2d. 

Iron and Coal Trades Review, Lon- 
don, England, 6d. 

Bulletin, American Iron and Steel 
Assoc, Philadelphia; Pa. 

American Gas Light Journal, New 
York City, 10c. 

American Engineer, New York 
City, 20c. 

Electrical Review, London, Eng- 
land. 4d. 

Electrical World, New York City, 
10c. 



(31 
(32 
(53 



(36 

(37 
(38 



(39 
(40 
(41 

(42 
(43 

(44 



(46 

(47 

(48 

(49 

(50 

(51 
(52 
(53 



Journal, New England Water- 
Works Assoc, Boston, Mass.. $1. 

Journal, Royal Society of Arts, 
London, England, Hd. 

Annales des Travaux Publics de 
lielgique, Brussels, Belgium, 4 
fr. 

Annales de TAssoc. des lag. Sortis 
des Ecoles Speciales de Gand, 
Brussels, Belgium, 4 fr. 

Mimoires et Compte Rendu des 
Travaux, Soc. Ing. Civ. de 
France, Paris, France. 

Le Genie Civil, Paris, France, 1 
fr. 

Portefeuille Economiques des Ma- 
chines, Paris, France. 

Nouvelles Annales de la Construc- 
tion, Paris, France. 

Cornell Civil Engineer, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Revue de Mecanique, Paris, France. 

Revue G6n6rale des Chemins de 
Per et des Tramways, Paris, 
France. 

Technisches Gemeindeblatt, Berlin, 
Germany, 0,70 m. 

Zentralblatt der Bauvericaltung, 
Berlin, Germany. 60 pfg. 

Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift, Ber- 
lin, Germany. 

Proceedings. Am. Inst. Elec. Engrs., 
New York City, $1. 

Annales des Ponts et Chauss6es, 
Paris, France. 

Journal, Military Service Institu- 
tion, Governors Island, New York 
Harbor, 50c. 

Mines and Minerals, Scranton, Pa., 
25c 

Scientific American, New York City, 
15c. 

Mechanical Engineer, Manchester, 
England, 3d. 

Zeitschrift, Verein Deutscher In- 
genieure, Berlin, Germany, 1,60 
m. 

Zeitschrift fiir Bauwesen, Berlin, 
Germany. 

Stahl tind Eisen, Diisseldorf, Ger- 
many. 

Deutsche Bauzeitung, Berlin, Ger- 
many. 

Rigasche Industrie-Zeitung , Riga, 
Russia, 25 kop. 

Zeitschrift, Oesterreichischer In- 
genieur und Architekten Verein, 
Vienna, Austria, 70h. 



October, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 



577 



(54) Transactions, Am. Soc. C. E., New 
York City, $4. 

Transactions, Am. Soc. M. E., New 
York City, $10. 

Transactions, Am. Inst. Min. 
Engr-s., New York City, $6. 

Colliery G^iardian, London, Eng- 
land, 5d. 

Proceedings, Engrs.' Soc. W. Pa., 
803 Fulton Bldg., Pittsburgh. 
Pa., 50c. 

Proceedings. American Water 
Works Assoc, Troy, N. Y. 

Municipal Engineering, Indian- 
apolis, Ind., 25c. 

Proceedinas, Western Railway 
Club, 225 Dearborn St., Chicago, 
111., 25c. 

Industrial World, 59 Ninth St., 
Pittsburgh, Pa., 10c. 

Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., 
London, England. 

Power, New York City, 5c. 

Official Proceedings, New York 
Railroad Club, Brooklyn, N. Y., 
15c. 

Journal of Gas Lighting, London, 
England, 6d. 

Cement and Engineering News, 
Chicago, 111., 25c. 

Mining Journal, London, England, 
6d. 

Der Eisenbau, Leipzig. Germany. 

Enoineering Review, New York 
City, 10c. 

Journal, Iron and Steel Inst., Lon- 
don, England. 
(71a) Carnegie Scholarship Memoirs, 
Iron and Steel Inst., London, 
England. 

Electrician, London, England, 18c. 

Transactions, Inst, of Min. and 
Metal., London, England. 

Proceedings. Inst, of Mech. Engrs., 
London, England. 

Brick, Chicago, 111., 10c. 

Journal, Inst. Elec. Engrs., Lon- 
don, England, 5s. 

Beton und Eisen, Vienna, Austria, 
1,50m. 

Forscherarheiten. Vienna, Austria. 

Tonindustrie Zeitung, Berlin, Ger- 
many. 
(81) Zeitschrift fiir Architektur und In- 
genieurwesen, Wiesbaden, Ger- 
many. 



(55 
(56 
(57 
(58 

(59 
(60 
(61 



(62 
(63 



(64 

(65 



(66 
(67 



(68 



(69 
(70 



(71 



(73 

(74 

(75 

(76 

(77 

(78 

(79 
(80 



(83) Progressive Age, New York City, 
15c. 

84) Le Ciment, Paris, France. 

85) Proceedings, Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc, 

Chicago, 111. 

86) Engineering-Contracting, Chicago, 

111., 10c. 

87) Railway Engineering and Mainte- 

nance of Way, Chicago, 111., 10c. 

88) Bulletin of the International Ry. 

Congress Assoc, Brussels, Bel- 
gium. 

89) Proceedings, Am. Soc. for Testing 

Materials, Philadelphia. Pa., $5. 

90) Transactions, Inst. of Naval 

Archts., London, England. 

91) Transactions, Soc. Naval Archts. 

and Marine Engrs., New York 
City. 

92) Bulletin, Soc. d'Encouragement 

pour rindustrle Nationale, Paris, 
Prance. 

93) Revue de Metallurgie, Paris, 

France, 4 fr. 50. 

94) The Boiler Maker, New York City, 

10c. 

95) International Marine Engineering, 

New York City, 20c. 

96) Canadian Engineer, Toronto, Ont., 

Canada, 10c. 

98) Journal, Engrs. Soc. Pa., Harris- 

burg, Pa., 30c. 

99) Proceedings, Am. Soc. of Municipal 

Improvements, New York City, 
$2. 

100) Professional Memoirs, Corps of 

Engrs., U. S. A., Washington, 
D. C, 50c. 

101) Metal Worker, New York City, 10c. 

102) Organ fiir die Fortschritte des 

Eisenbahnwesens, Wiesbaden, 

Germany. 

103) Mining and Scientific Press, San 

Francisco, Cal., 10c. 

104) The Surveyor and Municipal and 

County Engineer, London, Eng- 
land, 6d. 

105) Metallurgical and Chemical En- 

gineering, New York City, 25c. 

106) Transactions, Inst. of Mining 

Engrs., London, England, 6s. 

107) Schweiiserische Bauzeitung, Ziirich, 

Switzerland. 

108) Southern Machinery, Atlanta, Ga., 

10c. 



LIST OF ARTICLES 
Bridgres. 

Report of Sub-Committee of the Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc, on Impact Tests.* (85) 

Vol. 12. Pt. 3. 
Report of Committee 7 of the Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc, on Wooden Bridges and 

Trestles.* (85) Vol. 12, Pt. 1; Vol. 13. 
The Design of Railway Bridge Abutments.* J. H. Prior. (Paper read before the 

Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc.) (85) Vol. 13. 
Specifications for the Erection of Railroad Bridges. (Report of Committee, Am. 

Ry. Eng. Assoc.) (85) Vol. 12, Pt. 3; Vol. 13. 
On the Greatest Bending Moment Produced by Cooper's E-40 Loading.* W. H. 

Schuerman. (85) Vol. 12, Pt. 3. 
Arch Design ; Specialization and Patents.* Daniel B. Luten. (4) Sept. 

•Illustrated. 



October, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 579 

Bridges— (Continued). 

Bridge Foundations in the Columbia and Willamette Rivers near Portland, Oregon. 

Ralph Modjeski, M. Am. Soc. C. E. (Paper read before the Oregon Soc. of 

Engrs.) (1) Sept. 
Notes on the Design of Girder and Truss Spans and Trestle Work in Structural 

Steel. P. W. Dencer. (Paper read before the Eng. Soc. of Valparaiso Univ.) 

(86) Sept. 4. 
Some Notes on the Oakville Viaduct and the Dynamiting of the Condemned Arch 

Ribs, August 12, 1912.* C. H. Cunningham. (96) Sept. 5. 
Decorative Treatment of a Bridge over a Chicago Boulevard.* (13) Sept. 5. 
Rebuilding a Bridge Pier in a Cofferdam.* (14) Sept. 7. 
The Calcutta-Howrah Floating Bridge.* (12) Sept. 13. 

Electrically Operated Bascule Bridges, the Heel Trunnion Type.* (19) Sept. 14. 
The Hemlocks Concrete Masonry Dam at Bridgeport, Connecticut.* (14) Sept. 14. 
A Temporary Bridge Over the Passaic River, Newark.* (14) Sept. 14. 
Method of Constructing the Center for a 230-ft. Masonry Arch Built at Con- 

stantine, Algeria. (86) Sept. 18. 
Highway Bridges and Culverts.* C. H. Hoyt. (Abstract of Bulletin J,3, U. S. 

Office of Public Roads.) (104) Sept. 20. 
Razing and Erecting Through Truss Bridges with an American Ditcher.* R. P. 

Black. (15) Sept. 20. 
An Automatic Bumper for Drawbridges.* (17) Sept. 21. 
Novel Bridge Erection in Santo Domingo.* (14) Sept. 21. 
A Temporary Single-Track Bascule Span.* (14) Sept. 21. 

Electrical Equipment for a Bascule Bridge.* C. H. Norwood. (15) Sept. 27. 
Note au Sujet de la Reconstruction du Pout de la Route Nationale No. 5 sur 

rOued-Harrach k Maisou-Carree.* Butavand. (43) July. 
Les Ponts de Constantine, Pont Suspendu de Sidi M'Cid.* Boisnier. (43) July. 
Etude de la Solidarite des Pieces de Pont.* Henry Lossier. (33) Aug. 24. 
La Ligne D'Andelot a la Cluse par Morez et Sainte-Claude (Jura).* Maurice 

Honore. (33) Sept. 14. 
Untersuchungen des Vereines deutscher Briicken- und Eisenbaufabriken mit Eisen- 

konstruktionen fiir den Briickenbau.* B. Stock. (48) July 13. 
Beitrage zur Berechnung von Bogendachern.* F. Kogler. (69) Aug. 
Die Bogenbriicke iiber den St. Croix-Fluss.* K. A. Mullenhoff. (69) Aug. 
Eisenbahnbriicke iiber den Stidarm des Sanagastromes in Deutsch-Kamerun.* F. 

Brunner. (69) Serial beginning Aug. 
Ueber Eisenbeton-Vorschriften (Bridges).* (107) Aug. 10. 
Der Briickenkanal des Grossschiffahrtweges Berlin- Stettin iiber der Berlin-Stettiner 

Eiseribahn.* Haesler. (40) Aug. 17. 
Tabellen fiir Strassenbriicken aus einbetonierten Walztragern.* Otto Kommerell. 

(40) Aug. 28. 

Electrical. 

Report of Committee 16 of the Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc, on Electricity.* (85) Vol. 13. 

High-Voltage Tests and Energy Losses in Insulating Materials.* E. H. Rayner. 
(77) July. 

The Supply and Transmission of Power in Self-Contained Road Vehicles and Loco- 
motives.* J. C. Macfarlane and H. Purge. (77) July. 

Tariffs for Electrical Energy with Particular Reference to Domestic Tariffs.* 
W. W. Lackie. (77) July. 

A Simple Graphical Construction for Determining the Efficiency of a Polyphase 
Asynchronous Motor from the Current (Circle) Diagram.* John Nicholson. 
(77) July. 

The Tungsten Filament Lamp on Alternating Current.* Lancelot W. Wild. (77) 
July. 

Power Station Working.* J. W. Jackson. (77) July. 

High-Tension Porcelain Line Insulators.* (77) July. 

A Portable Electrical Instrument for the Detection of Combustible Gases and 
Vapours in Air.* Louis J. Steele. (77) July. 

Street Lighting. J. M. Bryant and H. G. Hare. (From Bulletin, Eng. Exper. Station, 
Univ. of Illinois.) (10) Aug. 

Cost of Isolated Plant Power.* Paul A. Bancel. (98) Aug. 

120-Ton Electric Travelling Crane.* (12) Aug. 30. 

Electricity in Construction Work.* (73) Aug. 30. 

Transforming Stations of Niagara Electrochemical and Electrometallurgical In- 
dustries. A. J. Jones. (Paper read before the Am. Electrochemical Soc.) 
(73) Aug. 30. 

Electricity Supply in Sheffield.* (26) Serial beginning Aug. 30. 

New Electrical Generating Station at Britannia Works, Middlesbrough.* (12) 
Aug. 30. 

The Electrical Precipitation of Suspended Matter in Gases.* W. W. Strong. (3) 
Sept. 

Street Lighting in Toronto, Ontario.* K. L. Aitkeu. (27) Sept. 7. 

Keokuk-St. Louis Transmission Line.* (27) Sept. 7. 

♦Illustrated. 



October, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 581 

Electrical— (Continued). 

Radiant Efficiency of the Carbon Arc Lamp.* William H. Damon and William 

J. Enders. (27) Sept. 7. 
Control of Small Electric Furnaces. Charles Burton Thwing. (Paper read 

before the Inter. Congress for Applied Chemistry.) (lOS) Sept. 12. 
The Scientific Theory and Outstanding Problems of Wireless Telegraphy.* J. A. 

Fleming. (Paper read before the British Assoc.) (11) Sept. 13; (26) 

Sept. 13; (73) Sept. 13. 
The Production of Electrical Oscillations by Spark-Gaps Immersed in Running 

Liquids.* H. W. Eccles and A. J. Makower. (Paper read before the 

British Assoc.) (11) Sept. 13; (73) Sept. 13. 
Norwich Electricity Works and the Flood.* (26) Sept. 13. 
A Magnetic Shunt Vibration Galvanometer. Henry Tinsley. (73) Sept. 13. 
The Fery Bomb Calorimeter.* Robert S. Whipple. (Paper read before the 

British Assoc.) (73) Sept. 13; (11) Sept. 20. 
The Vibrations of Telephone Diaphragms.* Charles F. Meyer and J. B. White- 
head. (19) Serial beginning Sept. 14. 
Electrical Features of Some Chicago Office Buildings.* (27) Sept. 14. 
The Impedance of Telephone Receivers as Affected by the Motion of Their 

Diaphragms.* A. B. Kennelly and G. W. Pierce. (27) Sept. 14; 

(26) Sept. 13 ; (73) Sept. 13. 

The Hysteresis Loss in Iron Due to a Combined Pulsating and Rotating Magnetic 

Field.* Thomas F. Wall. (Paper read before the British Assoc.) (73) 

Sept. 20. 
The Quartz Mercury Vapor Lamp.* (73) Sept. 20. 
The Use of Mica in the Insulation of Electrical Apparatus. A. P. M. Fleming and 

R. Johnson. (26) Serial beginning Sept 20. 
Some Unique Electromagnets.* (From Electrical Review and Western Electrician.) 

(47) Sept. 20. 
Characteristics of Metal Filaments.* Daniel H. Ogley. (26) Sept. 20. 
Electricity in Harper Memorial Library.* (27) Sept. 21. 
Minimizing Sparking in Direct-Current Machinery. Jens Bache-Wug. (27) Sept. 

21. 
Reinforced Cement and Concrete Poles for Overhead Electric Lines. Alfred Still. 

(27) Sept. 28. 

The Crank Diagram for Representation of Electrical Power.* Albert A. Nlms. 

(27) Sept. 28. 
Farm Electric Lighting by Wind Power.* Putnam A. Bates. (46) Sept. 28. 
Tungsten Car Lighting by the Bay State Street Railway.* (17) Sept. 28. 
Resistance Electrique des Aciers Sp6claux.* O. Boudouard. (93) Apr. 
L'Olisthographe. G.-A. Andrault. (92) July. 
Belastungsausgleich in elektrischen Kraftwerken (Pufferung). A. Schwaiger. (41) 

Serial beginning Aug. 15. 
Die Verwendung von Warmespeichern und deren Konstruktion.* Ad. Rittershaus- 

sen. (41) Aug. 22. 
Das neue Fernsprech-Vermittlungsamt in Mainz.* Blohmer. (41) Serial begin- 

riinfi! Au*^ 22. 
Ueber eine neue Metalldampflampe mit weissen Licht.* M. Wolfke. (41) Sept. 5. 
Neuere Kabelschutzhiillen und Abdeckungen.* J. Schmidt. (14) Serial begin- 
ning Sept. 5. 
Ueber einen elektrolytischen Kondensator und seine Anwendung fiir funkenlosen 

Kontakt. Karl Siegl. (41) Sept. 5. 
Ueber die Verlegung unterseeischer Telegraphenkabel und das deutsche Kabel nach 

Sudamerika. Karl Willy Wagner. (40) Serial beginning Sept. 12. 
Ueber den Stand der Sicherungsfrage. Hundhausen. (41) Sept. 12. 
Versuche mit der autom. Vakuumschnellbremse auf der elektr. Montreux-Oberland- 

Bahn.* R. Zehnder Sporry. (107) Sept. 14. 
Die Kraftversorgung des Kleingewerbes. E. Vollhardt. (41) Sept. 19. 

Marine. 

Marine Use of Fuel Oil. J. H. Hopps. (55) Vol. 33. . „ , ., 

Electrical Equipment for the Propulsion of the U. S. A. Collier Jupiter. Eskil 

Berg. (From General Electric Review.) (73) Aug. 30. 
The German Motor-Driven Ship Monte Penedo. (11) Sept. 6; (12) Aug. 30. 
The Monte Penedo' s Engines.* (12) Sept. 6. 
The Imperial German Cruiser Goeben.* (12) Sept. 6. 

Electric-Propulsion Equipment of the U. S. Collier Jupiter.* (13) Sept. 12. 
Paint Tests on the U. S. Receiving Ship Hancock.* Henry Williams. (13) Sept. 

12 
Suction' Between Vessels. A. H. Gibson and J. Hannay Thompson. (Paper read 

before the British Assoc.) (12) Sept. 20. 
Marine Propulsion by Electric Transmission.* Henry A. Mavor. (Paper read 

before the British Assoc.) (26) Sept. 20; (11) Sept. 20; (12) Sept. 

20. 

♦Illustrated. 



October, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 583 

Marine— (Continued). 

Lifeboats on Ocean-Going Ships and Their Manipulation.* Axel Welin. (Paper 

read before the British Assoc.) (11) Sept. 20. 
Sulzer Diesel Engined Ship for New Yorlc-Rio Service.* J. Rendell Wilson. (95) 

Oct. 
City of Detroit 3 ; World's Largest Side Wheel Steamer.* (95) Oct. 
United States Battleships Wyoming and Arkansas.* Henderson B. Gregory. (95) 

Oct. 
Motor Ship Eavestone Fitted wth Carels Diesel Engines.* (95) Oct. 
Note sur I'Ecluse Bellot-Tancarville au Port du Havre.* Guiffart. (43) July. 
La Prevention des Collisions en Mer, par I'Emploi d'Ondes a, Basse Frequence 

Systeme de Sir Hiram Maxim.* (33) Sept. 7. 
Das Schiffshebewerk mit Seitenschwimmern, Zahnstagen und Riegeln.* Fr. Jebens. 

(81) 1912, Pt. 5. 
Die Einrichtung des neuen Schwimmdocks der Oesterreichisch-ungarischen Kriegs- 

marine.* R. Dub. (48) Serial begnning Aug. 3. 

Mechanical. 

Some Problems of the Cement Industry. Walter S. Landls. (55) Vol. 3C. 

The Edison Roll Crushers.* W. H. Mason. (55) Vol. 33. 

Power and Heat Distribution in Cement Mills. L. L. Griffiths. (55) Vol. 33. 

Discussion on Cement Manufacture. (55) Vol. 33. 

The Assembly of Small Interchangeable Parts.* John Calder. (55) Vol. 33. 

The Process of Assembling a Small and Intricate Machine.* Halcolm Ellis. (55) 

Vol. 33. 
Milling Cutters and Their Efficiency.* A. L. De Leeuw. (55) Vol. 33. 
Tests of a Sand-Blasting Machine.* Wm. T. Magruder. (55) Vol. 33. 
Die Castings.* Amasa Trowbridge. (55) Vol. 33. 
Variable-Speed Power Transmission.* George H. Barrus and Chas. M. Manly. 

(55) Vol. 33. 
Oil Engines.* H. R. Setz. (55) Vol. 33. 

Test of an 85-H. P. Oil Engine. Forrest M. Towl. (55) Vol. 33. 
Design Constants for Small Gasolene Engines.* William D. Ennis. (55) Vol. 33. 
Economy of 1 000 K. W. Natural Gas Engine, Tests, Construction and Working 

Costs.* Edwin D. Dreyfus and V. J. Hultquist. (55) Vol. 33. 
Some Experiences with the Pitot Tube on High and Low Air Velocities.* Frank 

H. Kneeland. (55) Vol. 33. 
Producer Gas from Crude Oil. E. C. Jones. (55) Vol. 33. 
Oil Fuel for Steam Boilers.* B. R. T. Collins. (55) Vol. 33. 
The Economic Importance of the Farm Tractor. L. W. Ellis. (55) Vol. 33. 
The Purchase of Coal. Dwight T. Randall. (55) Vol. 33. 
Energy and Pressure Drop in Compound Steam Turbines.* Forrest B. Cardullo. 

(55) Vol. 33. 
The Pressure-Temperature Relations of Saturated Steam.* Lionel S. Marks. (55) 

Vol. 33. 
Pressure-Recording Indicator for Punching Machinery.* Gardner C. Anthony. 

(55) Vol. 33. 
Tests of Large Boilers at the Detroit Edison Company.* D. S. Jacobus. (55) 

Vol. 33. 
Strain Measurements of Some Steam Boilers Under Hydrostatic Pressure.* James 

E. Howard. (55) Vol. 33. 
Herringbone Gears. Percy C. Day. (55) Vol. 33. 
The Dust Problem in Portland Cement Plants and Its Solution. Otto Schott. (55) 

Vol. 33. 
Electrical Power in Cement Plants. Frederick H. Lewis. (55) Vol. 33. 
The Core Room : Its Equipment and Management.* Henry M. Lane. (55) 

Vol. 33. 
Furnace Arrangement for Fuel Oil. C. R. Weymouth. (55) Vol. 33. 
Atomization of Oil. A. M. Hunt. (55) Vol. 33. 
Size of Stacks with Fuel Oil. K. G. Dunn. (55) Vol. 33. 
Commercial Application of the Turbine Turbo-Compressor.* Richard H. Rice. 

(55) Vol. 33. . T, * 

Power Forging, with Special Reference to Steam Hydraulic Forging Presses.* 

Barthold Gerdau and George Mesta. (55) Vol. 33. 
The Influence of Heat on Hardened Tool Steels, with Special Reference to the 

Heat Generated in Cutting Operations.* Edward G. Herbert. (71) Vol. 85. 
Note on the Welding Up of Blowholes and Cavities in Steel Ingots.* J. B. Stead. 

Steam Engines for Driving Reversing Rolling-Mills.* John W. Hall. (71) Vol. 85. 
Modern Rock-Crushing Machinery.* John S. Franklin. (10) Aug. 
Welding as a Caulking Process.* James Steelman. (10) Aug. 
Superheating.* C. R. D. Meier. (98) Aug. 

The Strength of Rotating Discs.* (11) Aug. 30. , , c.. c r, :, 
Formulce Connecting the Pressure and Temperature of Saturated Steam. S. God- 
beer. (11) Au g. 30. 

* Illustrated. 



October, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 585 

Mechanical— ( Continued) . 

Coking Practice in the South Wales District.* R. H. Greaves. (Paper read 

before the British Foundrymen's Assoc.) (47) Aug. 30. 
Steam Boiler Efficiency. Edward A. Vehling. (Abstract of paper read before the 

Am. Master Mechanics' Assoc.) (47) Aug. 30. 
Details of 30-Ton Electrically Operated Traverser with Revolving Table.* (11) 

Aug. 30. 
Superheating — Its Economy and the Design of Superheaters to Secure Adjustment 

and Control of Steam Temperature.* (94) Sept. 
A New Method of Testing Boilers.* A. L. Haas. (94) Sept. 
The Technique of Gas Manufacture. Alfred E. Forstall. (3) Sept. 
Electricity in the Portland Cement Industry. F. C. E. Burnett. (42) Sept. 
The Plant of the Crescent Portland Cement Company.* W. B. Ruggles. (67) 

Sept. 
Sand-Lime Brick: How Manufactured and Used.* (67) Sept. 
Notes on Producer Gas Power.* H. F. Smith. (4) Sept. 
Some Studies of Welds. E. F. Law, W. H. Merriott, and W. P. Digby. (From 

The Locomotive.) (108) Sept. 
Hydraulic Pipe Bending Machines.* A. L. Monrad. (108) Sept. 
Cost Questions and the Motor Truck.* R. W. Hutchinson, Jr. (76) Sept. 1. 
The Storage, Deterioration, and Spontaneous Combustion of Coal.* Almea. (66) 

Sept. 3. 
A Comparison of Efficiencies and Costs of Steam, Water, Gas and Oil Power Gen- 
eration.* Seth A. Moulton. (From Report, Maine State Water Storage Comm.) 
(86) Sept. 4. 
A Shoveling Machine for Loading and Handling Loose Material.* (13) Sept. 5. 
Combustion of Nitrogen in Coke-Oven Gas.* (11) Sept. 6. 
12 000 I. H. P. Vertical Rolling Mill Engines.* (12) Sept. 6. 
The Leskole Optical Pyrometer.* (20) Sept. 6. 
Producer Gas Investigations. R. H. Fernald and C. H. Smith. (From Bulletin 

No. 13, U. S. Bureau of Mines.) (47) Sept. 6; (10) Aug. 
Experience with Lignite in Texas Central Stations. (27) Sept. 7. 
Power Plant for a Large Industrial Establishment.* Charles F. Bowen. (14) 

Sept. 7. 
Automatic Street Lighting and Extinguishing.* George Keillor. (Paper read 

before the North Briti.sh Assoc.) (66) Sept. 10. 
Gas-Governors : Their Action and Application.* W. Carmichael Peebles. (Paper 

read before the North British Assoc.) (66) Sept. 10. 
Carbonization.* Harold G. Colman. (Paper read before the North British Assoc.) 

(66) Sept. 10. 
The Physical and Chemical Properties of Portland Cement. W. C. Relbling and 
F. D. Reyes. (Paper read before the Inter. Congress for Applied Chem- 
istry.) (105) Sept. 12. 
The Control of Dust in Portland Cement Manufacture by the Cottrell Precipitation 
Processes. Walter A. Schmidt. (Paper read before the Inter. Congress 
for Applied Chemistry.) (105) Sept. 12. 
The Edison Giant Crushing Roll, Details of an Installation at the National Lime- 
stone Company's Plant.* J. F. Springer. (20) Sept. 12. 
Note on the Gas-Turbine. Dugald Clark, M. Inst. C. E. (Paper read before the 
British Assoc.) (11) Sept. 13; (12) Sept. 20; (26) Sept. 20; (47) Sept. 
20; (66) Sept. 17; (73) Sept. 13. 
Manufacture of Seamless Steel Boiler Tubes.* J. Jay Dunn. (47) Sept. 13. 
Oil Engines for Marine and Land Purposes. C. Lakin-Smith, M. Inst. E. E. 

(Paper read before the Olympia Oil Industries Exhibition.) (47) Sept. 13. 
The Flying Boat and Its Possibilities.* Carl Dienstbach. (46) Sept. 14. 
The Gnome Rotary Engine.* Earle L. Ovington. (46) Sept. 14. 
Measurement of Natural Gas with Pitot Tubes.* C. Oliphant. (Paper read before 

the Natural Gas Assoc.) (83) Sept. 16. 
Some Phases of Present-Day Gas Lighting. C. H. Wiggers. (Paper read before 

the Wisconsin Gas Assoc.) (24) Sept. 16. 
Maintaining Service During Extreme Cold (Gas). D. E. Callender. (Paper read 

before the Wisconsin Gas Assoc.) (24) Sept. 16. 
Manufacture of Balloon Gas from Natural Gas.* F. F. Schauer. (Paper read 

before the Natural Gas Assoc.) (83) Sept. 16. 
Depreciation of Natural Gas Properties. V. A. Hays. (Paper read before the 

Natural Gas Assoc.) (83) Sept. 16. 
Efficiency of Gas Compressors.* P. F. Walker. (Paper read before the Natural 

Gas Assoc.) (83) Sept. 16. 
The New AUis-Chalmers Engine.* (64) Sept. 17. 
The Eyermann Steam Turbine.* Wilhelm H. Byermann. (From Kraftmaschinen- 

bau.) (64) Sept. 17. 
A Foundry Four Stories in Height.* (20) Sept. 19. 

Economies in Foundry Mixing and Melting.* Stuart Dean. (20) Serial beginning 
Sept. 19. 

♦Illustrated. 



October, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 587 

Mechanical— (ContinuedK 

Design and Construction of Smokestacks.* Henry V. Feder. (From Building 

Frogresa.) (96) Sept. 19. 
The Distribution of Pressure on Inclined Aero-Curves.* A. P. Thurston. (Paper 

read before the British Assoc.) (11) Sept. 20. 
Gain in Power Obtained by Using Jet Condenser with a Simple Engine. Guy L. 

Andrews. (Paper read before the Stationary Bngrs.) (62) Sept. 23. 
Limitations of Reducing Wheels.* Julian C. Smallwood. (64) Sept. 24. 
Before and After Taking in a Charge.* Cecil P. Poole. (64) Sept. 24. 
Increasing Steam Boiler Efficiency.* George H. Gibson. (20) Sept. 26. 
The Largest Testing Machine in the World.* Thorsten Y. Olsen. (14) Sept. 28. 
Operation of Argentina Tramway.* C. A. Tupper. (16) Sept. 28. 
Treating Tool Steel by Electricity. C. A. Shaffer. (Abstract of paper read before 

the Railway Tool Foremen's Assoc.) (62) Sept. 30. 
By-Products in Gas Manufacture.* Charles E. Munroe. (Paper read at the Cen- 
tenary Celebration.) (83) Oct. 1. 
High Pressure Gas Lighting. F. W. Goodenough, Oscar Klatte and R. N. Zeek. 

(Paper read before the Ilhuninatiug Eng. Soc.) (83) Oct. 1. 
The Electrical Separation of Tar from Coal Gas.* Alfred H. White. (Paper read 

before the Michigan Gas Assoc.) (83) Oct. 1. 
Steam Power Plant Piping Materials. Wm. F. Fischer. (64) Oct. 1. 
San Francisco Gas Rates. (83) Oct. 1. 
I..es Applications Electriques de la Metallisation Systeme Schoop.* F. Loppe. (93) 

Apr. 
L'Allumage Electrique des Moteurs a Explosions et ses Recents Progres. R. Ar- 

noux. (32) June. 
Observations sur la Communication de M. Rateau. G. Eiffel. (32) June. 
Le Comparateur Dixi.* Marre. (92) July. 

Technique Moderne de I'lndustrie du Gaz.* R. Masse. (92) July. 
Nouvelle Bombe Calorimetrique.* Ch. Fery. (92) July, 
lies Nouvelles Recherches Experimentales sur la Resistance de I'Air et I'Aviation 

faites aux Laboratoires du Champs de Mars et d'Auteuil.* G. Eiffel. (32) 

July. 
Appareil et Experiences d'Aerodynamique de 1909.* A. Rateau. (32) July. 
Les Methodes Experimentales Coucernant les Voilures et les Helices Aeriennes.* 

Rodolphe Soreau. (32) July. 
Examen de la Methode de M. J. -Paul Clayton pour I'Etude Experimentale de la 

Machine a Vapeur a Piston. V. Dwelshauvers-Dery. (37) Aug. 31. 
Phenomenes de Resonance dans la Conduite d'Aspiration des Compresseurs et des 

Moteurs a Gaz.* P. Voissel. (37) Aug. 31. 
Etude des Amortisseurs d'Automobiles.* N. Duaner. (3i) Aug. 31. 
Fours pour les Menus Travaux de Forge et d'Outillage.* (34) Serial beginning 

Sept. 
Considerations Generales sur I'lndustrie des Fours a Coke a Regeneration de 

Chaleur.* Eugene Lecocq. (93) Sept. 
Machines Soufflantes d'Acieries Construites par la Maison Leflaive et Cie.* Ch. 

Dantin. {33) Sept. 7. 
La Fabrication de Gaz Pauvre par Distillation Pyrogenee des Boues de Fosses 

Septiques. Lucien Cavil. (33) Sept .21. 
Chaudieres Aquatubulaires avec Foyers Automatiques a Propulsion Inferieure.* 

(33) Sept. 21. 
Maschinelle Aufbereitung des Formsaudes in Giessereien.* Eduard Miiller. (48) 

July 20. 
Neue Versuche iiber die Stickstoffverbrennung in Explodierenden Gasgemischen.* 

F. Hausser. (48) July 20. 
Die Kesselbekohlanlage der Zeche Zollern II der Gelsenkirchener Bergwerks-A.-G. 

A. Pietrkowski. (48) July 20. 
Stromungswiderstande in den Steuerungsventilen einer Kolbendampfmaschine.* E. 

Heinrich. (48) July 27. 
Krupp, 1812 bis 1912.* Conrad Matschoss. (48) Aug. 10. 
Ueber interessante Erscheinungen in Stahlblocken wahrend des Auswalzens.* Karl 

Neu. (50) Aug. 15. 
Pressgas oder Bogenlicht fiir Strassen-Beleuchtung (Cost). (41) Aug. 22. 
Neuere Roheisengiessmaschinen.* R. Schmid. (SO) Aug. 29. 
Die Seilschwebefahre der Cultuur Mij. Panggoonredjo iiber den Metro-ravyn bei 

Kepandjen auf Java.* (53) Aug. 30. 
Hangebahnen in Giiterschuppen.* (40) Aug. 31. 
Niederrheinische Braunkohle im Martinwerksbetrieb.* Oskar Simmersbach. (50) 

Sept. 5. 
Ueber rotierende Luftpumpen und rotierende Kondensatoren.* Emil Gutmann. (53) 

Serial beginning Sept. 6. 
Ausnutzung der Koksofengase zur Gewinnung von Salpetersaure aus dem Stick- 

stoff der Luft.* O. Dnbbelstein. (50) Sept. 19. 
Die Kraftversorgung des Kleingewerbes. E. Vollhardt. (41) Sept. 19. 
Einfluss des Dampfzustandes auf die Leistung und den Warmeverbrauch der 

Kolbenmaschinen.* Hybl. (53) Sept. 20. 

•Illustrated. 



October, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 589 

Metallurgical. 

Reciprocatiug Blast-Furnace Blowing Engines.* W. Trinks. (55) Vol. 33. 
Notes on a Bloom of Roman Iron Found at Corstopitum (Corbridge) .* Sir Hugh 

Bell. (71) Vol. 85. 
The Chemical and Mechanical Relations of Iron, Vanadium, and Carbon.* J. O. 

Arnold and A. A. Read. (71) Vol. 85. 
Notes on the Solubility of Cementite in Hardenite.* John Oliver Arnold and 

Leslie AitchLson. (71) Vol. 85. 
Improvements in Electric Furnaces and Their Application in the Manufacture of 

Steel. Hans Nathusius. (71) Vol. 85. 
Manufacture and Treatment of Steel for Guns.* L. Cubillo. (71) Vol. 85. 
Steels Made in the Electric Furnace.* E. F. Lake. (10) Aug. 
Experiments in the Reduction of Iron Ore at Herrang iu Sweden.* G. Grondal. 

(From Jernkontoret Annaler.) (22) Aug. 30. 
The Production of Black Nickel. (From the Brass World.) (47) Sept. 6. 
Electric Smelting of Iron Ore. E. F. Burchard. (103) Sept. 7. 
Malleable Casting Practice. Richard Moldenke. (Paper read before the Inter. 

Assoc, for Testing Materials.) (20) Sept. 12. 
Making Copper-Clad Steel Products.* (20) Sept. 12. 

Reduction of Iron Ores in the Electric Furnace. D. A. Lyon. (Paper read be- 
fore the Inter. Congress for Applied Chemistry.) (105) Sept. 12. 
Notes on Bag Filtration Plants.* Anton Filers. (Paper read before the Inter. 

Congress for Applied Chemistry.) (105) Sept. 12. 
The Development of the Reverberatory Furnace for Smelting Copper Ores. E. P. 

Mathewson. (Paper read before the Inter. Congress of Applied Chemistry.) 

(105) Sept. 12. 
The Sulphatizing Roasting of Copper Ores and Concentrates. Utiey Wedge. (Paper 

read before the Inter. Congress for Applied Chemistry.) (105) Sept. 12. 
Heat Losses in Electric Furnaces. F. A. J. FitzGerald. (Paper read before 

the Inter. Congress for Applied Chemistry.) (105) Sept. 12. 
Electric Heating and the Removal of Phosphorus from Iron. Albert E. Greene. 

(Paper read before the Inter. Congress for Applied Chemistry.) (105) 

Sept. 12. 
The Slag in Electric Steel Refining. Richard Amberg. (Paper read before 

the Inter. Congress for Applied Chemistry.) (105) Sept. 12. 
lola Cyanide Mill, Candor, N. C* Percy E. Barbour. (16) Sept. 14. 
Comparative Method of Screen Analysis. A. T. Tye. (103) Sept. 14. 
The Use of Vanadium in Steel Castings. Edwin F. Cone. (20) Sept. 19. 
Canvas Table Concentration in California.* A. H. Martin. (16) Sept. 21. 
Step-Bearing for Slime Agitator.* Douglas Waterman. (103) Sept. 21. 
New Mills at Algoma Steel Plant.* John A. Sommers. (20) Sept. 26. 
Lead Salts iu Cyanide Treatment. J. E. Clennell. (16) Sept. 28. 
Nouvelles Recherches sur le Point Critique des Alliages Cuivre-Zinc a 470°.* H. C. 

H. Carpenter. (93) Apr. 
Recentes Recherches sur les Laitons, un Nouveau Point Critique des Alliages 

Cuivre-Zinc son Interpretation et son Influence sur les Proprietes.* H. C. 

Carpenter et C. A. Edwards. (93) Apr. 
La Production de la Fonte au Four Electrique en Suede, Compte-Rendu des Ex- 
periences de Trollhattan.* Paul Nicou. (93) Apr. 
Experiences sur la Desaimantation des Aciers au Chauffage.* Felix Robin. (32) 

June. 
La Galvanoplastie du Nickel sous de Grandes Epaisseurs. M. A. Hollard. (92) 

July. 
Principes du Grillage de la Blende.* W. Hommel. (93) Sept. 
Das Gefiige des geharteten Stahls.* H. Hanemann. (50) Serial beginning 

Aug. 22. 
Neuere Ergebnisse der elektrischen Roheisenerzeugung auf dem Versuchswerk am 

Trollhattan.* B. Neumann. (50) Aug. 22. 
Die Bestimmung der Schlackeneinschliisse im Stahl. G. Mars. (50) Sept. 19. 
Die chemische Technologic des rauchschwachen Pulvers mit besonderer Beriick- 

sichtigung der modernen Jagdpulver. Richard Schnayder. (53) Sept. 20. 

Mlninj;. 

The Production of Petroleum on the Pacific Coast. Arthur F. L. Bell. (55) 

Vol. 33. 
Comparative Evaporative Values of Coal and Oil. C. F. Wieland. (55) Vol. 33. 
The Relative Value of Light Oil as Compared with Fuel Oil. Joseph Nisbet Le 

Conte. (55) Vol. 33. 
Safety-Devices in Connexion with Electrical Machinery and Apparatus for Coal- 

Mines.* David Bowen and Walter E. French, Assoc. M. Inst C. E. (106) 

Vol. 43, Pt. 5. 
A Rope-Driven Coal-Cutter.* Wilfrid L. Spence, Assoc. M. Inst. C. E. (106) 

Vol. 43, Pt. 5. 
Electricity in Stone Quarries and Gravel Pits.* (67) Sept. 

♦Illustrated. 



October, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 591 

Mining:— (Continued). 

Refraction of Light in Firedamp.* O. H. Hahn. (From Coal Age.) (57) Sept. 6. 

Caving System in Cliisholm District.* L. D. Davenport. (16) Serial beginning 
Sept. 7. 

A New Sulphur Operation in the South.* Richard H. Vail. (16) Sept. 7. 

Costs at the Erie Mine. S. H. Brockunier. (16) Sept. 7. 

Testing of Miners' Safety Lamps. (Report of the Departmental Committee.) (57) 
Sept. 13 : (20) Sept. 13. 

The Coalmining Industry in the Hokkaido. H. Wrenacre. (Abstract from Re- 
port to the Board of Trade.) (57) Sept. 13. 

Churn Drilling in New Mexico.* L J. Stauber. (16) Sept. 14. 

Gold-Dredging in the Boise Basin of Idaho.* John H. Miles. (103) Sept. 14. 

Crushing Plant and Sampling Mill of Reinforced Concrete.* K. B. Voorhes. (14) 
Sept. 14. 

Clay Mining Problem a Serious One.* Ellis Lovejoy. (76) Sept. 15. 

Clay Winning Problem in the East.* (Mining.) Allen E. Beals. (76) Sept. 15. 

Concrete Timbering for Mine Shafts.* E. R. Jones. (13) Sept. 19. 

Electric Winding Engines : A Comparison of Systems and the Influence of Drum 
Profile on the Performance Obtained.* A. B. du Pasquier. (Paper read 
before the South Wales Inst, of Engrs.) (22) Sept. 20; (57) Sept. 20. 

Further Notes on the Analyses of Mine Air Conducted at the Lewis Merthyr Con- 
solidated Collieries.* J. W. Hutchinson and Edgar G. Evans. (Paper read be- 
fore the South Wales Inst, of Engrs.) (57) Sept. 20; (22) Sept. 20. 

The Besshi Mine and Shisaka Smelter.* H. Foster Bain. (103) Sept. 21. 

Mining Problems at Santa Gertrudis.* W. G. Matteson. (16) Sept. 21. 

Detonator Troubles and Investigations on the Panama Canal. Arthur L. Robin- 
son. (Abstract of paper read before the Inter. Cong, of Applied Chemistry.) 
(14) Sept. 21. 

The Technical Problems of Coal Preparation. W. S. Ayres. (Paper read before 
the Inter. Cong, of Applied Chemistry.) (19) Sept. 28. 

Surface Improvements at Ajax Mine.* S. A. Worcester. (16) Sept. 28. 

Generating Energy at Coal Mines.* (27) Sept. 28. 

Miscellaneous. 

Report of Committee 19 of the Am. Ry. Eng Assoc, on Conservation of Natural 

Resources. (85) Vol. 12. Pt. 3, and Vol. 13. 
The Turret Equatorial Telescope ; A New Astronomical Observatory.* James Hart- 

ness. (55) Vol. 33. 
Specifications. Fred S. Sells. (77) July. 
La Thermometrie et la Pyrometrie Industrielles.* Eugfene Grandmnugin. (33) 

Serial beginning Sept. 7. 

Municipal. 

Some Notes on Road Maintenance in County Armagh. R. H. Dorman, M. Inst. 

C. E. (Paper read before the Inst, of Municipal and County Engrs.) (104) 

Aug. 30. 
Scottish Roads. Allan Stevenson. (Paper read before the Inst, of Municipal and 

County Engrs.) (104) Aug. 30. 
Practical Road Building.* John N. Edy, Jun. Am. Soc. C. E. (60) Sept. 
Minor Problems of Tarred Roads. Francis G. Wickware. (60) Sept. 
Methods of Road Construction and the Problem of Dust Suppression.* Frank B. 

Earl. (Paper read before the Am. Soc. of Eng. Contractors.) (96) Sept. 5. 
Methods of Te.sting Roadmaking Materials in European Countries. A Mesnager. 

(Paper read before the Inter. Assoc, for Testing Materials.) (86) Sept. 11. 
The Strength of Wood for Pavements. M. P. Labordere and M. F. Anstett. (Paper 

read before the Inter. Assoc, for Testing Materials.) (96) Sept. 12. 
The Lake Front Park Extension in Chicago.* (13) Sept. 12. 
Improving Street Traffic Conditions in Newark, N. J.* F. Van Z. Lane. (13) 

Sept. 12. . . ^ 

The Road Problem. Sir John H. A. Macdonald. (Paper read before the British 

Assoc.) (11) Sept. 20. 
Bitumen Content of Coarse Bituminous Aggregates. Prevost Hubbard. (14) Sept. 

21 ; (86) Sept. 4. 
Cost Data on State Aid Road in Alabama Constructed with Convict Labor.* R. P. 

Boyd. (86) Sept. 25. 
Some Maintenance Costs of English Roads. (86) Sept. 25. 
Progress Report on the Nelson Ave. Experimental Road of the State Highway 

Department of Ohio. (86) Sept. 25. 
Experimental Road Construction on Sandy Soil.* (86) Sept. 25. 
Life and Cost of Asphalt Pavements.* G. H. Norton, (13) Sept. 26. 
Some Important Street Improvements in Pittsburgh.* (13) Sept. 26; (86) 

Sept 25. 
Concrete Pavements ; Their Advantages and Disadvantages.* P. E. Green. (13) 

Sept. 26. 

♦Illustrated. 



October, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 593 

Municipal— (Continued). 

Work of New Jersey's State Department of Public Roads ; Organization Scheme 
and Experience with Various Types of Construction.* (14) Sept. 28. 

Recent Field Work of the Massachusetts Highway Commission.* (14) Sept. 28. 

Road Treatment with Asphalt Binder and Sand. (14) Sept. 28. 

Essai d'un Nouveau Mode de Compression des Rechargements GenSraux d'Em- 
pierreraents.* Van Volsom. (30) Aug. 

Nouveau Systeme Economique de Rechargement des Chaussees Empierrees. A. 
Salle. (35) Sept. 

Der Elbtunnel in Hamburg und sein Bau.* O. Stockhausen. (48) Serial begin- 
ning Aug. 17. 

Teer als Baumaterial fiir Stadtstrassen. D. Scheuerman. (39) Aug. 20. 

Railroads. 

Report of Committee 12 of the Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc, on Rules and Organization. 

(85) Vol. 12, Pt. 1. 
Report of Committee 10 of the Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc, on Signals and Interlocking. 

(85) Vol. 12, Pt. 1, and Vol. 13. 
Report of Committee 18 of the Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc, on Electricity.* (85) Vol. 

12, Pt. 1. 
Report of Special Committee of the Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc, on Brine Drippings from 

Refrigerator Cars. (85) Vol. 12, Pt. 1. 
Report of Committee 14 of the Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc, on Yards and Terminals.* 

(85) Vol. 12, Pt. 1, and Vol. 13. 
Report of Committee 16 of the Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc, on Economics of Railway Loca- 
tion. (85) Vol. 12, Pt. 1. 
Report of Committee 2 of the Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc, on Ballast. (85) Vol. 12, 

Pt. 1, and Vol. 13. 
Report of Committee 3 of the Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc, on Ties.* (85) Vol. 12, Pt. 

1, and Vol. 13. 
Report of Committee 5 of the Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc, on Track.* (85) Vol. 12, 

Pt. 1, and Vol. 13. 
Report of Committee 4 of the Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc, on Rails. (85) Vol. 12, Pt. 1 ; 

Vol. 12, Pt. 2, and Vol. 13. 
Drop Test of Rails, Deflection, Elongation and Compression of 85 Lb., Am. Soc. 

C. E., Open Hearth Rails in Drop Test.* C. S. Churchill. (85) Vol. 12. 

Pt. 2. 
Carbon and Deflection of Rails in Drop Test.* M. H. Wickhorst. (85) Vol. 12, 

Pt. 2. 
A Study of Forty Failed Rails.* W. C. Gushing. (85) Vol. 12, Pt. 2. 
A Study of Sixty-Eight Failed Rails.* W. C. Gushing. (85) Vol. 12. Pt. 2. 
Tests and Conclusions.* (On Rails). M. H. Wickhorst. (85) Vol. 12, Pt. 2. 
Ductility Tests of Rails under Specifications of the New York Central Lines.* P. 

H. Dudley. (85) Vol. 12, Pt. 2. 
Water Stations for Track Pans.* (Report of Committee, Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc.) 

(85) Vol. 12, Pt. 3. 
Description of One Pipe Circulation Method Track Pans as Installed by the Lake 

Shore and Michigan Southern Ry. Co., at Painesville, Ohio.* H. H. Ross. 

(85) Vol. 12, Pt. 3. ^. ^ ,„_^ 

Report of Committee 17 of the Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc, on Wood Preservation.* (85) 

Note on' the Strength of Ties Treated with Crude Oil. W. K. Hatt. (85) Vol. 
12, Pt. 3. 

The Electrical Resistance of Timber as Affected by Treatment with Preservatives. 
J. T. Butterfleld. (85) Vol. 12. Pt. 3. 

Report of Committee 9 of the Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc, on Signs, Fences and Cross- 
ings. (85) Vol. 12. Pt. 3, and Vol. 13. 

Report of Committee 1 of the Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc, on Roadway. (85) Vol. 12, 

Rail Failure"statistics for One Year Ending Oct. 31, 1910 and 1909.* (Report 
of Committee on Rails, Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc.) (85) Vol. 13 and Vol. 12, 

Pt 2 

Comparative Wear of Bessemer Open-Hearth and Nickel Steel Rails on Pennsyl- 
vania-Railroad. (Report of Committee on Rails, Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc.) (85) 

Segrat^on and Other Rail Properties as Influenced by Size of Ingot.* M. H. Wick- 
Tests °ot Rail Steel Ingots and Derivative Shapes Made at Watertown Arsenal.* 
Speciflcationr"for°'^Carbon Steel° Rail's. (Report of Committee, Am. Ry. Eng. 
A Study" of Seventeen °Good' Service Rails.* Robert Trimble and W. C. Gushing. 

Equat?rTonTiage Rating for Locomotives.* M. H. Wickhorst. (Paper read before 
the Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc.) (85) Vol. 13. 



♦Illustrated. 



October, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 595 

Railroads— (Continued). 

The Storage Battery in Railway Service. L. C. Fritch. (Paper read before the 

Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc.) (85) Vol. 13. 
travel Washing Plant of the Richmond, Fredericksburg, Potomac and Washington 

Southern Railways.* S. B. Rice. (85) Vol. 13. 
Depth of Stone Ballast.* (Report of General Manager's Committee, Pennsylvania 

R. R. Co., read before the Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc.) (85) Vol. 13. 
Gravel as Ballast.* C. B. Brauning. (85) Vol. 13. 
Ballast. George W. Vaughan. (85) Vol. 13. 
Influence of Rolling Temperature on the Properties of Bessemer Rails.* M. H. 

Wickhorst. (85) Vol. 13. 
The History, Development and Use of Rails by Railroad Companies of the United 

States from 1830 to date. P. H. Dudley. (Paper read before the Am. Ry. 

Eng. Assoc.) (85) Vol. 13. 
Steel Rails, Investigations by the American Society of Civil Engineers. Thos. H. 

Johnson. (Paper read before the Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc.) (85) Vol. 13. 
The Question of the Improvement of Rail Design and Specifications from 1893 to 

the Present Time. W. C. Gushing. (Paper read before the Am. Ry. Eng. 

Assoc.) (85) Vol. 13. 
Locomotive Practice in the Use of Fuel Oils.* Howard Stillman. (55) Vol. 33. 
Marshall's Fire-Box with Stayless Roof.* (11) Aug. 30. 
Atlantic Type Express Locomotive for the Chinese Government Railways.* (12) 

Aug. 30. 
New Locomotives for Italian State Railways. (12) Aug. 30. 

Balanced Compound Express Locomotive, Swiss Federal Railways.* (12) Aug 30 
Interlocking at Des Plaines, III., C. & N. W. Ry.* B. M. Meisel. (87) Sept. 
Engine House Equipment and Facilities. Ernest Cordeal. (25) Sept. 
Advantages and Disadvantages of Lead. J. F. Jennings. (Paper read before the 

Traveling Engrs.' Assoc.) (25) Sept. 
Solid End Main Rod.* C. D. Ashmore. (25) Sept. 
Bridge Warnings (for Trainmen).* (21) Sept. 
New Balanced Compound Locomotives of the Prussian State Railways.* (21) 

Sept. 
Alternate Safety Loop for Tumbler End of Brake Push Rods on Existing Private 

Owners' Wagons.* (21) Sept. 
Nutation and the Monorail Car.* Burt L. Newkirk. (3) Sept. 
Locomotive Fuel Consumption and the Speed Diagram. A. K. Shurtleff. (87) 

Sept. 
Kaw River Dike Crossing, Kansas City.* (87) Sept. 
New Experiments with Reinforced Concrete Sleepers.* BIoss. (From Elektrische 

Kraftbetriebe unci Bahnen.) (88) Sept. 
The Electrification of the Railways. Biedermann. (From Zcitung des Vereins- 

deutscher Eisenbahnverwaltungen.) (88) Sept. 
The Results of Working the Railways in France, in England and In Germany, 

during 1910. C. Colson. (From Revue politique et parlementaire.) (88) 

Sept. 
Rail Anchor or Anti-Creeping Device on the C, B. & Q. R. R.* (13) Sept. 5. 
New 100-Lb. Rail Section; C. & N. W. Ry.* (13) Sept. 5. 
Vertical Curves, Spirals, and Connecting Spirals for Meter-Gage Railways.* Lee 

Eraser. (13) Sept. 5. 
The Progress of Italian Railways.* (12) Sept. 6. 
Chemically Treated Water and Increased Locomotive Efficiency.* (Paper read by 

Committee of the Traveling Engrs. Assoc.) (15) Sept. 6; (25) Sept. 
The Relation of Mechanical Appliances to Fuel Economy. (Paper read by Com- 
mittee of the Traveling Engrs. Assoc.) (15) Sept. 6; (25) Sept. 
Handling Long Trains with Modern Air Brake Equipment. (Paper read by 

Committee of the Traveling Engrs. Assoc.) (15) Sept. 6; (25) Sept. 
Train Tonnage. J. M. Daly. (Paper read before the Traveling Engrs. Assoc.) 

(15) Sept. 6: (25) Sept. 
Testing Rails for Elongation and Ductility Under the Drop Testing Machine. P. H. 

Dudley. (Paper read before the Inter. Assoc, for Testing Materials.) (18) 

Sept. 7; (14) Sept. 21. 
Some Features of the American Rail Situation. J. P. Snow. (Paper read before 

the Inter Assoc, for Testing Materials.) (18) Sept. 7. 
American Research Work on Rails, Conducted Jointly by Railroads and Steel Manu- 
facturers M H. Wickhorst. (Paper read before the Inter. Assoc, for 

Testing Materials.) (18) Sept. 7; (20) Sept. 12; (14) Sept^^ 14. 
Notes on Features Associated with the Tests of Steel Rails. James E. Howard. 

(Paper read before the Inter. Assoc, for Testing Materials.) (18) Sept. 7. 
Reinforced Concrete Freight House, Chicago Great Western Ry., at Mason City, 

Iowa.* (18) Sept. 7. r, ^ -7 

A Railway Car Driven by Gas and Electricity.* (46) Sept. 7. 
Grading a Heavy Section of the New Pittsburgh-Cleveland Line.* (14) Sept. 7. 
Physical and Operating Features of the East St. Louis & Suburban Railway.* 

(17) S ept. 7. 

* Illustrated. 



October, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 597 

Railroads— (Continued) . 

Factors in Railway Electrification. C. O. Mailloux. (Paper read before the 

Turin Inter. Elec. Congress.) (17) Sept. 7. 
A Steel Car Substation with an Automatic Power-Input Control.* C. L. Cadle. 

(17) Sept. 7. 

New Railway Transshipment Terminal : Advanced Cargo-Handling Methods at 
Montgomery Terminal in New Jersey.* H. McL. Harding. (14) Sept. 7. 

Use of Air Dump-Cars on Railway Construction.* Maurice E. Davis. (Abstract of 
paper read before Am. Soc. of Eng. Contractors.) (62) Sept. 9. 

The Simmen System of Railway Signalling and Dispatching.* Paul J. Simmen. 
(96) Sept. 12. 

The Dessau-Bitterfeld Railway.* (26) Sept. 13. 

Electrification of Oakland Suburban Lines.* R. T. Guppy. (15) Sept. 13. 

Comparative Service Tests of Locomotives.* (15) Sept. 13. 

Mallet Locomotive for the Virginian Railway.* (12) Sept. 13. 

Garratt Locomotives for the Tasmanian Government Railways.* (11) Sept. 13. 

Wheel and Erecting Shops, Chicago & Northwestern Ry., Chicago.* (18) Sept. 14. 

Simple Mallet Locomotives on the Canadian Pacific and Pennsylvania Roads.* 

(18) Sept. 14. 

Centering Side Bearings.* (17) Sept. 14. 

Standards for and Cost of Reinforced Concrete Pipe Culverts, Great Northern Ry.* 

W. B. Irwin. (86) Sept. 18. 
Locomotives with Five and Six Coupled Axles.* (13) Sept. 19. 
Rail Plateways. C. Noble Fell, A. M. Inst. C. E. (Abstract of paper read before 

the Soc. of Engrs.) (96) Sept. 19: (47) Sept. 6. 
Development in Steel Rails.* P. H. Dudley. (15) Sept. 20. 
An Interesting Method of Renewing Three Turntables with the Minimum Delay 

to Traflic* (15) Sept. 20. 
Modern Crossing Design.* F. W. Rizer. (15) Sept. 20. 
Grading and Tracklaying with an American Ditcher.* (15) Sept. 20. 
Copper Zone vs. Nickel Zone as a Basis of Interurhan Rates. George Eberle. (17) 

Sept. 21. 
Data from Road Tests of Advanced Types of Locomotives.* (18) Sept. 21. 
New Freight Transfer Station Operating with Electric Trucks.* (14) Sept. 21. 
Cost of Constructing a Reinforced Concrete Wharf for the Panama R. R.* (86) 

Sept. 25. 
Notes on a Costly Brazilian Railway Line.* A. E. Hess. (13) Sept. 26. 
Mallet Locomotives for the Great Northern.* (15) Sept. 27. 
The Buckwalter Electric Baggage Truck.* (15) Sept. 27. 
Physical Testing of Broken-Stone Ballast.* A. T. Goldbeck and F. M. Jackson. 

(Paper read before the Inter. Assoc, for Testing Materials.) (18) Sept. 28. 
New Signal System of Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Railroad.* (17) 

Sept. 28. 
Three-Car Storage Battery Train.* (17) Sept. 28. 

Overhead Line Construction, Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Ry.* (18) Sept. 28. 
First Transcontinental Railroad in Australia.* C. O. Burge. (14) Sept. 28. 
Sur les Grues a Vapeur Employees dans les Accidents de Chemins de Fer.* A. 

Goupil. (43) July. 
Nouvelles Locomotives a Grande Vitesse a Quatre Cylindres, a Simple Expansion 

et Surchauffe, des Chemins de Fer de I'Etat francais.* L. Pierre-Guedon. 

(33) Aug. 24. 
Note sur le Chauffage par la Vapeur Applique aux Voitures des Chemins de Fer du 

Midi.* Bachellery. (38) Sept. 
Les Chemins de Fer de la Banlieue de Bruxelles et la Jonction Nord-Midi.* 

Lionel Wiener. (38) Sept. 
Die Leistungsfahigkeit von Ablaufanlagen auf Verschiebebahnhofen.* (40) 

Feb. 10. 
Storungen in Fernsprechleitungen durch Wechselstrombahnen.* Georg Stein. (41) 

Aug. 15. 
Gotthardbahn und Giovi-Linie ueber Berechungen und Messungen des Kraftbedarfs 

bei elektrischem Betrieb.* (107) Serial beginning Aug. 17. 
Ueber Gebirgsdruck.* E. Wiesmann. (107) Serial beginning Aug. 17. 
Signal- und Schaltanlage fiir elektrische Grubenbahnen mit Fahrdraht unter Tage.* 

M. Henke. (41) Aug. 22. 
Die Rutschungen in dem Abschnitte Ziersdorf-Eggenburg der Kaiser Franz Josef- 

Bahn (Hauptstrecke) .* Hans Raschka. (53) Sept. 6. 
Vom Bau der Bodensee-Toggenburgbahn.* (107) Serial beginning Sept. 21. 

Railroads, Street. 

A New Special-Work Layout for Street-Railway Track.* F. M. Johnson. (13) 

Sept. 5. 
Proposed Plans for an Independent Subway for the City of Chicago* (86) 

Sept. 18. 
How the Chicago and Cleveland Street Railway Settlements are Working Out. 

Delos F. Wilcox. (Abstract of paper read before the National Municipal 

League.) (13) Sept. 19. 

♦Illustrated. 



October, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 599 

Railroads, Street— (Continued). 

Sand on Electric Cars. W. H. Evans. (Abstract of paper read before the 

Illinois Elec. Ry. Assoc.) (17) Sept. 21. 
A New Center-Entrance Car for San Diego.* H. M'Nutt. (17) Sept. 21. 
Electric Railway Track Design and Construction in St. Louis.* (14) Sept. 21. 
Special Trackwork for City Electric Railways.* W. E. Turner. (From Applied 

Science.) (96) Sept. 26. 
Franklin Street Substation of the Metropolitan West Side Elevated Railway.* 

(17) Sept. 28. 
Brushes, an Analysis of the Requirements of the Satisfactory Brush for Railway 

Service. W. C. Kalb. (17) Sept. 28. 
Le Chemin de Fer de Hambourg.* Schimpff. (From Zeitung des Ver. deutsch 

Eisenbahnverwalt.) (43) July. 
Entwickelung, gegenwartiger Stand und Aussichten des elektrischen Vollbahn- 

wesens.* G. Soberski. (102) Serial beginning Aug. 15. 
Die Hamburger Hochbahn.* D. E. Gunthel. (51) Serial beginning Aug. 17. 

Sanitation. 

Waterwav for Culverts. (Report of Committee, Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc.) (85) Vol. 

12. Pt. 3. 
Rational Psychrometric Formula;, Their Relation to the Problems of Meteorology 

and of Air Conditioning.* Willis H. Carrier. (55) Vol. 33. 
Air-Conditioning Apparatus, Principles Governing Its Application and Operation. 

Willis H. Carrier and Frank L. Busey. (55) Vol. 33. 
The Physics of Air in Relation to Ventilation. A. Saxon Snell. (Paper read before 

the Royal Sanitary Inst. Congress.) (104) Serial beginning Aug. 30. 
Chemistry of Sewage Purification. Arthur Lederer. (4) Sept. 
Sewerage of Shelbyville, Ind.* (60) Sept. , 

The Method of Estimating the Sewage Flow for the New Intercepting Sewer and 

Disposal Works at Fitchburg, Mass. David A. Hartwell and Harrison P. 

Eddy. (Report of Sewage Disposal Comm. of Fitchburg, Mass.) (86) 

Sept. 4. 
New Sewer Work at St. Louis, Mo.* W. W. Horner. (13) Sept. 5. 
Standard Tests of the Efficiency of Sewage Treatment. C. B. Hoover. (13) 

Sept. 5. 
Extension of an Outfall Sewer.* John S. Brodie, M. Inst. C. B. (Paper read 

before the Royal Sanitary Inst.) (96) Sept. 5. 
Country House Sewage Purification. John B. Tuke. (Paper read before the 

Royal Sanitary Inst.) (104) Serial beginning Sept. 6. 
Intercepting Traps in House Drains. (Report of the Departmental Committee.) 

(104) Sept. 6. 
Combined Sewer and Bridge in Denver.* (14) Sept. 7. 
Sewage Disposal Results at Leeds. (14) Sept. 7. 
Laying a Long Submerged Sewer Outlet.* (14) Sept. 7. 

The Destructor System of Refuse Disposal Recommended for Newark, New Jer- 
sey : By-Products and Power Utilization. J. C. Hallock and F. O. Runyon. 

(86) Sept. 11. 
The Disposal of Sewage Sludge. Arthur Hindle and P. Holt Whitaker. (Paper 

read before the Royal San. Inst. Cong.) (96) Sept. 12. 
Salford Sewage Works. J. Corbett. (104) Sept. 13. 

Construction of Isolation Hospitals. H. Franklin Parsons. (104) Sept. 13. 
British Practice in Sewage Disposal. Arthur J. Martin, M. Inst. C. E. (Paper 

read before the Royal Inst, of Public Health.) (104) Sept. 13. 
Plumbing and Heating in Nurses' Home.* (101) Sept. 13. 
Deodorizing Sewer Air at Winnipeg.* (14) Sept. 14; (96) Sept. 26. 
Wilkes-Barre's District Heating System.* Donald M. Belcher, Assoc. M. Am. 

Soc. C. B. (14) Sept. 14. 
Sewage Disposal at Fort Logan.* (14) Sept. 14. 
Car Ventilation. William J. Fleming. (Paper read before the Keystone Ry. Club.) 

(17) Sept. 14. 
Street Cleaning Methods and Costs in Several Ohio Cities. (From Report, Ohio 

State Board of Health.) (86) Sept. 18. 
Two Examples of Recent English Practice in Repairing Old Brick Sewers, Sewer 

Flushing Practice.* O. E. Winter. (Paper read before the Inst, of Municipal 

and County Engrs.) (86) Sept. 18. 
Experiments to Determine the Effect of Size and Depth of Broken Stone in 

Sprinkling Filters.* Calvin W. Hendricks. (Report to the Baltimore Sewage 

Exper. Station.) (86) Sept. 18. 
Sewage Treatment at Mt. Vernon, N. Y.* Charles A. Hammond. (13) Sept. 19. 
A Complete Sewage Disposal Plant for a Public Institution.* T. Lowes and T. 

Aird Murray. (Paper read before the Canadian Public Health Assoc.) (96) 

Sept. 19. 
Large Submerged Sewer Outlet.* John F. Skinner. (From Municipal Journal of 

New York.) (96) Sept. 19. 

* Illustrated. 



October, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 601 

Sanitation — (Contin ued ) . 

An Experimental Investigation of the Transmission of Heat. Petavol and C. N. 

Lander. (Paper read before the British Assoc.) (11) Sept. 20. 
Heating and Ventilation of Small Theatre.* (101) Sept. 20. 
The Details of Designs of Culverts to Carry Surface Drainage from Gutter to 

Gutter Under Street Crowns at Street Intersections. Blair L. Boyle. (86) 

Sept. 25. 
Refuse Disposal Plants. J. C. Hallock and F. O. Runyon. (From Municipal 

Journal of New York.) (96) Sept. 26. 
An Electrolytic Sterilizing Plant.* (96) Sept. 26. 
Heat Transmission Through Metal Siding. (101) Sept. 27. 
Permissible Limits of Sewage Pollution as Related to New York Harbor. George 

A. Soper. (Paper read before the Am. Public Health Assoc.) (14) Sept. 28. 
Nouvelle Methode d'Aeration Naturelle des Habitations dite Aeration Differentielle. 

A. Knapen. (32) June. 
La Fabrication de Gaz Pauvre par Distillation Pyrogenee des Boues de Fosses 

Septiques. Lucien Cavil. (33) Sept. 21. 
Statistik iiber den technischen Energiebedarf in neueren Krankenanstalten. Lud- 

wig Dietz. (7) Serial beginning Aug. 10. 
Elektrische Kirchenheizung.* O. Ely. (41) Aug. 15. 
Praktische Versuche, betreffeud Liiftung von Geruchverschliissen an Abwasser- 

leitungeu. A. C. Karsten. (7) Aug. 17. 
Miillabfuhr unter Benutzung des Strassenbahnnetzes.* F. Zink. (39) Aug. 20. 
Zur Kenntnis der Schlamm-Messungen innerhalb der Vakuumtonne. K. Thimme. 

(7) Aug. 24. 
Mechanische Reinigung von Hiittenabwassern.* L. Kropf. (53) Aug. 31. 
Aus der Praxis des Strassenreinigungswesens. J. Bopp. (39) Sept. 5. 

Structural. 

Stresses in Tubes.* Reid T. Stewart. (55) Vol. 33. 

The Influence of Carbon on the Corrodibility of Iron.* C. Chappell. (71) 

Vol. 85. 
Note on the Investigation of Fractures.* F. Rogers. (71) Vol. 85. 
The Corrosion of Nickel, Chromium and Nickel-Chromium Steel.* J. Newton 

Friend, J. Lloyd Bentley and Walter West. (71) Vol. 85. 
The Mechanism of Corrosion. J. Newton Friend, Walter West and J. Lloyd 

Bentley. (71) Vol. 85. 
Report of Committee 8 of the Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc, on Masonry.* (85) Vol. 12, 

Pt. 1 ; Vol. 13. 
Report of Committee 6 of the Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc, on Buildings.* (85) Vol. 

12, Pt. 1, and Vol. 13. 
Report of Special Committee, Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc, on Grading and Inspection of 

Maintenance of Way Lumber.* (85) Vol. 12, Pt. 3; Vol. 13. 
Standard Specifications for Construction Oak Timbers. (Report of Committee, 

Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc.) (85) Vol. 12. Pt. 3. 
Report of Committee 17 of the Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc, on Wood Preservation.* 

(85) Vol. 13. 
Creosote in Treated Piles After Long Service.* (From Bulletin, U. S. Forest 

Service.) (87) Sept. 
Light Compression Members : Topical Discussion. (4) Sept. 

Autoclave Boiling Test for Cement. (Specification Used by the Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna & Western.) (67) Sept. 
Testing Sand for Use in Concrete and Cement Mortar. Cloyd M. Chapman, M. 

Am. Soc. M. E. (67) Sept. 
Investigations of Modified Cements and of Alkali Action on Concrete of the United 

States Reclamation Service. J. Y. Jewett. (Paper read before the Inter. 

Assoc, for Testing Materials.) (86) Sept. 4. 
Accelerated Tests for Constancy of Volume in Portland Cements. Max Gary. 

(Paper read before the Inter. Assoc, for Testing Materials.) (86) Sept. 4. 
Placing Concrete with a Movable Steel Tower.* (96) Sept. 5. 
The Calculation of Stresses in Trusses.* F. E. Turneaure. (13) Sept. 5. 
The Construction and Operation of a Model Municipal Comfort Station.* Burt 

A. Heinly. (13) Sept. 5. 
A Complicated Waterproofing Problem.* W. S. Lacher. (IS) Sept. 6. 
Practical Micrographical Observations for Testing Metals.* The Atelier des Essais 

de Metaux of the P. L. M. Railway. (Abstract of paper read before the In- 
ter. Assoc, for Testing Materials.) (20) Sept. 6. 
Construction of the New York Municipal Building.* (14) Sept. 7. 
Steel Sets in Inclined Shafts.* Walter Lyman Brown. (103) Sept. 7. 
Pressure of Coal on Storage Bin Walls, the Difference Between Anthracite and 

Bituminous.* (From Machinery.) (19) Sept. 7. 
Excavating Caissons Hydraulically at St. Louis.* (14) Sept. 7. 
Systemizing Formwork for Concrete Construction.* (14) Sept. 7. 
Driving Steel Piles near Insecure Foundations. (14) Sept. 7. 



♦Illustrated. 



October, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 603 

Structural - (Continued). 

Test Bars for Chillable Cast Irons.* Thomas D. West. (Paper read before the 
Inter. Assoc, for Testing Materials.) (20) Sept. 12; (62) Sept. 9. 

Defective Concrete Piles.* (13) Sept. 12. 

Investigation of Effect of Fire in a Large Reinforced Concrete Paper Mill.* (96) 
Sept. 12. 

Kates of Rusting of Iron and Steel. James Aston and Charles F. Burgess. (Paper 
read before the Inter. Congress for Applied Chemistry.) (105) Sept. 12. 

The Magnetic Properties of Dynamo Sheet Iron.* De Nolly and Veyret. (Paper 
read before the Inter. Assoc, for Testing Materials.) (20) Sept. 13. 

Five-Acre Flat Slab Concrete Building.* (14) Sept. 14. 

Moving, Turning and Lowering a Large Three-Story Brick Office Building.* (14) 
Sept. 14. 

Common Brick Stand Severe U. S. Test.* (76) Sept. 15. 

Fire Brick for Use in Lime Kilns. W. L. Hamilton. (Paper read before the 
National Lime Mfrs.' Assoc.) (76) Sept. 15. 

Experiments on the Weathering of Portland Stone. J. S. Owens, Assoc. M. Inst. 
C. E. (104) Sept. 20. 

New Method for Mechanical Tests on Cast Iron.* C. Fremont. (Abstract of 
paper read before the Inter. Assoc, for Testing Materials.) (22) Sept. 20. 

The Treatment and Finish of Passenger Car Concrete Floors.* Leo H. Nemzek. 
(Paper read before the Railway Master Painters Assoc.) (15) Sept. 20. 

Creosoted Wood Blocks for Purposes Other Than Street Pavement. B. A. Ster- 
ling. (15) Sept. 20. 

Substructure of the Union Central Life Insurance Building, Cincinnati.* (14) 
Sept. 21. 

Oil-Mixed Portland Cement Concrete.* Logan Waller Page. (Abstract from 
Bulletin 46 of the U. S. Dept. of Agri.) (19) Sept. 21. 

Pneumatic Caisson Foundations of the Adams Express Building, New York.* (14) 
Sept. 21. 

Wood Preserving Creosotes : Methods of Production, Properties, Quality, Price and 
Quantity Consumed in the United States. C. P. Winslow. (From Circular, 
U. S. Forest Service.) (86) Sept. 25. 

An Investigation of Relative Economy in Simple Roof Trusses.* Wm. Clyde Wil- 
lard. (13) Sept. 26. 

Failure of a Retaining Wall at the Kingshighway Viaduct, St. Louis, Mo.* (13) 
Sept. 26. 

The Design of Girder and Truss Spans and Trestle Work in Structural SteeL 
F. W. Dencer. (Paper read before the Eng. Soc. of Valparaiso University.) 
(96) Sept. 26. 

Cranston Carhouse of the Rhode Island Company.* (17) Sept. 28. 

Moments and Arch Action in Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams and Slabs.* 
Eli White. (14) Sept. 28. 

The Gale Tests on the Use of Titanium in Malleable Castings. C. H. Gale. (62) 
Sept. 30. 

Comparaison entre les Normes russes et allemandes relatives au Ciment Port- 
land. (84) Aug. 

Sur la Conservation des Ouvrages en Ciment en Contact avec I'Huile et les Corps 
Gras. Silvio Canevazzi. (84) Aug. 

lies Metaux Poreux.* H. I. Hannover. (93) Sept. 

Relations entre la Macrostructure et la Cristallisation de I'Acier.* N. T. Belaiew. 
(93) Sept. 

Les Effets de I'Electricite sur le Beton Arme, Recherches Faites a. I'Ecole Tech- 
nique de Darmstadt et a. I'Universite de Vermont.* ^33) Sept. 14. 

L'Injection des Poteaux et des Traverses par le Procede Riiping, a, Zernsdorf 
(Prusse).* (33) Sept. 21. 

Zeichnerische Ermittlung der Querschnittsabmessungen des doppeltbewehrten Beton- 
balkens.* Reinhold Neumann. (81) 1912, Pt. 2. 

Beitrag zur Theorie des ebenen Stabzuges mit raumlicher Stiitzung.* Henri Mar- 
cus. (81) 1912, Pt. 5. 

Die Wandelhalle auf der Insel Borkum.* Camillo Friederich. (51) Serial be- 
ginning Sup. 16. 

Rationelle Bc^timmung der zweckmassigsten Betonzusammensetzung mittels der "Re- 
form-Priifmaschine."* E. Farber. (51) Sup. No. 17. 

Tresoranlagen in Eisenbeton mit besonderer Panzerung.* S. Zipkes. (51) Serial 
beginning Sup. No. 18. 

Zwanzig Kesselbleche mit Rissbildung.* R. Baumann. (48) July 13. 

Der moderne Industriebau in technischer und asthetischer Beziehung. Karl Bern- 
hard. (48) Serial beginning July 20. 

Umschniirte Druckkorper aus Eisenbeton mit Hohlraumen. G. Barkhausen. (48) 
Aug. 3. 

Zur Ermittlung der Schwingungen in Wasserschloss. Ph. Forchheimer. (48) 
Aug. 10. 

Ein in Eisenbeton ausgefuhrter Erz- und Kalksteinsilo.* E. Elwitz. (50) Aug. 15. 



♦Illustrated. 



October, 1912.] CUERENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 605 

Structural— (Continued) . 

Versuche iiber den Einfluss der Breite bei Kerbschlagprobe.* R. Baumann. (48) 

Aug. 17. 
Zugversuche mit Staben, die Eindrehung besitzen.* R. Baumann. (48) Aug. 17. 
Probebelastung von Bauteilen.* Scheit. (80) Aug. 22. 
Die Verbundfrage im Eisenbetonbau und die neueren Vorschriften.* A. Kleinlogel. 

(53) Aug. 23. 
Kiihlturmbecken.* Kupfer. (80) Aug. 24. 
Fabrikschornstein aus Eisenbeton fur Herrn Max Hartmann, Danzig.* (78) 

Aug. 24. 
Neuanwendungen in Beton. (78) Aug. 24. 
Ein vereinfachtes Verfahren zur raschen Berechnung von Pfostenfachwerken.* 

H. Marcus. (40) Aug. 24. 
Ueber die Spanuuugsverteilung in zylindrischen Hangeboden bei unvoUkommener Ein- 

spannung.* Theodor Poschl. (53) Aug. 30. 
Schwimmende Fahrzeuge aus Eisenbeton.* Perrey. (80) Aug. 31. 
Kochprobe uud Raumbestandigkeit von Portlandzement bei trockener Lagerung. 

F. Schule. (80) Aug. 31. 
Zeichnerische Bestimmung der Stiitzenmomente eines Durchlaufenden Balkens auf 

Elastisch Senkbaren Stiitzen.* L. Geusen. (69) Sept. 
Giinstigste Lage des Gelenkpunktes von Gelenkpfetten bei Beriicksichtigung der 

Durchbiegung der Pfette.* Thomas Schwarz. (69) Sept. 
Die Eisenbauten des umgebauten Biihnenhauses vom Koniglichen Opernhaus in 

Berlin.* A. Fischer. (40) Sept. 7. 
Zur Kenntnis des Riidersdorfer Schlammtones. (80) Sept. 12. 
Kohlensilo von 100 000 m' Fassungsraum fiir die Stadt Hamburg, Gaswerk Gras- 

brook.* Josef Gaugusch. (78) Sept. 13. 
Untersuchung eines Stockwerkrahmens.* Hans Leitner. (78) Sept. 13. 
Ueber die voraussichtliche Lebensdauer impragnierter Holzmasten. Robert Nowotny. 

(41) Sept. 19. 
Billige feuersichere Decken. H. Grunwald. (80) Sept. 19. 
Inhaltsberechnung von Gewolben.* Otto Henkel. (80) Sept. 21. 

Water Supply. 

Water Tank Specifications.* (Report of Committee, Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc.) (85) 

Vol. 12, Ft. 3. 
Large Capacity Pumping Plant for Region with Limited Flow In Water Stratum.* 

C. A. Morse. (85) Vol. 12, Pt. 3. 
Report of Committee 13, Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc, on Water Service. (85) Vol. 12, 

Pt. 3, and Vol. 13. 
Efficiency in Water Filtration.* (10) Aug. 
Concrete Water Tanks (Chicago City Railways).* (67) Sept. 

Reinforced Concrete Tank at Sir Johns Run, W. Va.* A. M. Wolf. (87) Sept. 
Purification of Bath Water.* Frank C. Perkins. (60) Sept. 
The Conveyance of Irrigation Water ; Practice in British Columbia. B. A. Etche- 

verry. (From Report to Dept. of Agri., Province of British Columbia.) (86) 

Sept. 4. 
A Convenient and Economical Method of Subdividing Tracts of Irrigated Lands.* 

W. C. McNown. (13) Sept. 5. 
Four Alternate Designs of Hollow Concrete Dams for Stony River Dam, Grant Co., 

W. Va.* Edward Wegmann. (13) Sept. 5. 
Evaporation from Irrigated Soils.* Samuel Fortler. (13) Sept. 5. 
Leicester Water Supply from the Derwent Valley.* (12) Sept. 6. 
Sterilization of Water by Ultra-Violet Rays. (104) Sept. 6. 
Electric Deep-Well Pumping.* J. E. Bullard. (27) Sept. 7. 
Western Canada Power Company's System.* (27) Sept. 7. 
The Conservation of Snow : Its Dependence on Forests and Mountains.* J. E. 

Church. Jr. (19) Sept. 7. 
Operation of the Bangor Filters. (14) Sept. 7. 

Turbo Pumps in German Water Works.* Alfred Gradenwitz. (64) Sept. 10. 
Flood Prevention by Storage Reservoirs in Foreign Countries : General Costs. 

(86) Sept. 11. 
Enlargement and Improvement of the Main Canal, Sunnyside Unit, Yakima Project, 

Washington.* E. A. Moritz and H. W. Elder. (86) Sept. 11. 
The Awakening of Canadian Irrigationists.* Norman S. Rankin. (Report of the 

Western Canada Irrig. Assoc.) (96) Sept. 12. 
The New Pumping Installation of the City of Evansville, Ind.* (13) Sept. 12. 
Wells as Sources of Supplementary Water-Supplies. Myron L. Fuller. (13) Sept. 

12. 
The Commercial Economy of Turbine Pumps.* F. Zur Nedden and H. B. Maxwell. 

(Paper read before the South African Inst, of Engrs.) (47) Sept. 13; 

(22) Serial beginning Aug. 30. 
System of the Pacific Power & Light Co.* (27) Sept 14. 
A 6 000- Acre Irrigation Project on the Arroyo Hondo, New Mexico.* (14) Sept. 

14. 



♦Illustrated. 



October, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE G07 

Water Supply— (Continued). 

Hypochlorite Sterilization of Water Supplies. C. A. Jennings. (Abstract of paper 

read before the Inter. Cong, of Applied Chemistry.) (14) Sept. 14. 
The New Water-Works System of Cumberland, Maryland.* (14) Sept. 14. 
Hydroelectric Development on Big Creek, California.* (14) Sept. 14; (27) 

Sept. 7. 
Proposed Hetch Hetchy Water Supply, San Francisco. (14) Sept. 14. 
A New Principle in Centrifugal Pump and Condenser.* (62) Sept. 16. 
Algae and Their Relation to Public Water Supplies. L. H. Van Buskirk. (From 

Monthly Bulletin, Ohio State Board of Health.) (96) Sept. 19. 
The Adamello Hydro-Electric Plant, Lago D'Arno.* (12) Serial beginning Sept. 

20. 
Ashton-under-Lyne, Stalybridge, and Dukinfield Waterworks.* (12) Sept. 20. 
New Snake River Water-Power Plant of Idaho Falls, Idaho.* (27) Sept. 21. 
Water-Measuring Device.* R. G. Hosea. (14) Sept. 21. 
Enlargement of the Coquitlam-Buntzen Hydroelectric Power Development.* Chas. 

A. Lee. (14) Sept. 21. 
Concrete Construction Costs in Cuba.* Henry A. Young. (14) Sept. 21. 
Hydraulic Excavation at Panama.* Fred H. Calvin. (64) Sept. 24. 
The Causes of Breaks in Large Water Mains and Available Preventive Measures ; 

with Special Reference to the Detroit Water Works System. Gardner S. 

Williams. (86) Sept. 25. 
Units of Measurement of Irrigation Water and Methods of Measuring Water.* B. 

A. Etcheverry. (86) Sept. 25. 
How to Obtain EBlciency from Pressure Filters. H. W. Cowan. (Paper read before 

the Canadian Public Health Assoc. Congress.) (96) Sept. 26. 
The Purification of Water from Standpoints Other than the Hygienic Aspect.* 

George W. Fuller. (Paper read before the Inter. Cong, on Hygiene and 

Demography.) (96) Sept. 26. 
A Hydroelectric Power Plant in Chile.* E. H. Hatch. (14) Sept. 28. 
Failure of Navigable Pass Foundation, Ohio River Dam.* (19) Sept. 28. 
Centrifugal Pumps for Condensers.* Richard L. Strobridge. (64) Oct. 1. 
Flow of Water Through Check Valves.* James A. Donnelly. (Paper read before 

the Modern Science Club of Brooklyn.) (64) Oct. 1. 
L'Anti-Belier Pneumatique I'ldeal* Leon Masson. (92) July. 

Epuration des Eaux par la Permutite du Professeur Gans.* L. Clerc. (34) Sept. 
Constructions Diverses en Beton de Ciment Arme, Systeme Monnoyer.* (35) Sept. 
Das neue Wasserwerk der Stadt Hannover in Elze.* A. Bock. (81) 1912, Pt. 2. 
Das Wasserkraftwerk El Molmar am Jucar.* K. Meyer. (48) Serial beginning 

July 27. 
Ueber die Wahl der Wasserturbinengattung in zweifelhaften Fallen. F. Leubner. 

(48) Aug. 3. 
Eisenbetonkanal des Hauptwassersammlers zu Lichtenberg.* E. Schlotterer und 

Max Rudiger. (78) Aug. 24. 
Ueber die Kohlensauren Kalk angreifende Kohlensaure der natiirlichen Wasser. J. 

Tillmans und O. Heublin. (7) Aug. 24. . „. ^ , 

Absperrorgane durch den Auftrieb von Fliissigkeiten betatigt.* Josef Fichtl. (7) 

Sept. 7. 

Waterways. 

River Protection Work.* C. H. Miller. (85) Vol. 12, Pt. 3. 

Coast Erosion and Protection.* Ernest R. Matthews, A. M. Inst. C. B. (11) 

Serial beginning Aug. 30. ^ .,,. ^ ,^ 

The Levee System as a Means of Control of Flood Waters. Arsene PerriUiat. (Paper 

read before the Louisiana Eng. Soc.) (1) Sept. . . „. „,. 

Forestation and Its Relation to Flood Waters of the Lower Mississippi River. W. 

B Gregory. (Paper read before the Louisiana Eng. Soc.) (1) Sept. 
Flood Protection of New Orleans, Topography and Geology of the Mississippi River 

Valley. Sidney F. Lewis. (Paper read before the Louisiana Eng. Soc.) (1) 

Increased Wealth to be Derived from Efficient Control of Flood Waters of the 
Mississippi River. George H. Davis. (Paper read before the Louisiana Eng. 
Soc.) (1) Sept. ^ ^ „-L. ill /!-. 

Reservoir Systems and Their Relations to Flood Protection. C. O. Sherrlll. (Paper 
read before the Louisiana Eng. Soc.) (1) Sept. 

Possible Ultimate Height of Flood Waters Under the Levee System of Protection ; 
With Suggestions as to Typical Sections of Levees. Walstan E. Knobloch. 
(Paper read before the Louisiana Eng. Soc.) (1) Sept 

Operations of Dipper and Bucket Dredges Owned by the United States Govern- 
ment. (13) Sept. 5. . . ,,,. o * io 

Dredges Operated by Oil Engines.* (13) Sept 1^. 

Gaging Minnesota Streams in Winter.* W.G. Hoyt. (13) Sept. 12. 

Reinforced Concrete Barges for Sludge Pumps, Manchester Ship Canal.* (86) 

Sept. 18. 

♦Illustrated. 



October, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 609 

Waterways— (Continued ) . 

Methods and Cost of Damming the Hymella Crevasse in the Mississippi River.* 

(86) Sept. 18. 
Break in the New York State Barge Canal at the Irondequoit Creek Crossing.* 

(13) Sept. 19 ; (14) Sept. 28. 
River Improvement by Regulation and Dredging. Wm. W. Harts. (Abstract of 

paper read before the Inter. Congress on Navigation.) (96) Sept. 19. 
The Port and Harbor of Havre (France).* (13) Sept. 19. 
Cost of Dredging 32 000 000 cu. yds. of Material with Sea-Going Government 

Dredges in 1911. (86) Sept. 25. 
A Flood in the Caloosahatchee River Valley.* W. W. Fineren. (13) Sept. 26. 
Launching a Steel Dredge Hull.* Lewis H. Eddy. (16) Sept. 28. 
Fire Protection of Pier Sheds.* Sydney G. Koon. (95) Oct. 
Note sur les Types de Murs de Quai Adoptes k Bordeaux dans les Vingt-Cinq 

Derni&res Annees.* P. Barrillon. (43) July. 
Les Travaux d'Extension du Bief Intermediaire a Gand.* L. Bonnet. (30) Aug. 
Appareil 3, Soulevement Vertical pour Travaux a la Mer.* N. de Tedesco. (84) 

Aug. 
Travaux en Ciment Arm6 au Cap.* (From Concrete and Constructional Engineer- 
ing.) (84) Aug. 
Note sur les Presses Hydrauliques Frettees dcs Ascenseurs No. 2, 3 et 4 du Canal 

du Centre.* J. Kraft de la Saulx. (30) Aug. 
Les Dragues.* A. Baril. (37) Aug. 31. 
Zum Bau des Rhein-Herne Kanals.* (40) Apr. 27. 

•Illustrated. 



d 



Vol. XXXVIII. OCTOBER, 1912. No. 8. 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEEES 

INSTITUTED 1852 



PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS 

This Society is not responsible for any statement made or opinion expressed 
In Its publications. 



CONTENTS 

Papers : PAGE 

TufH Ceirent, as Manufactui-ed and Used on the Los Angreles Aqueduct. 

By J. B. LippiNcoTT, M. Am. Soc. C. E 1 191 

A Shortened Method in Arch Computation. 

By H. A. Sewell, Esq 1217 

The Economic Asnect of Seepage and Other Losses in Irrigation Systems. 

By E. G. HopsoN, M. Am. Soc. C. E 122H 

Specifications for Metal Railroad Bridges Movable in a Vertical Plane. 

By B. R. Leffler, M. Am. Soc. O. E 1243 

Theory of Roinfovced Concrete Joists. 

By John L. Hall, M. Am. Soc. C. E 1277 

Discussions : 

Notes on Bridgework. 

By William P. Parker, M. Am. Soc. C. E 1285 

The Strength of Columns. 

By Edward Godfrey, M. Am. Soc. C. E 1289 

Streei Sprinkling in St. Paul, Minn. 

By S. Whinrry, M. Am. Soc. C. E 1295 

Engineering Education in its Relation to Training for Engineering Work. 

By Messrs. Alexis Saurbrey, J. X. Cohen, Georoe F. Swain. William J. 
Boucher, Almon H. Fuller. Walter Hinds Allen, C. H. Stengel, 
Chakles Warrev Hunt, Arthur H. Blanch aro. Philip W. Henky, John 
C. L. RoGGE. Chakles H. Jtiiggins, Charles B. Buerger, and Ernest 
McCullough 1297 

Memoirs: 

Alfred Ellsworth Carter, M. Am. Soc. C. E 1343 

PLATES 

PAGE 

Plate XCVn. Cold Springs Reservoir, Oregon, and Jointing 46-Inch Concrete Pipe, 

Umatilla Project 1225 

Plate XC VIII. Mor'ar Lined Lat erals and Concrete Structures, Umatilla Pro.iect 1231 

Plate XCIX. Main Canal. Concrete Lined, Truckee Project; and Mortar-Lined 

Lateral, Umatilla Project 1237 

Plate C. Tieton Main Canal, Concrete Lined : and Typical Farmers' Lateral, 

Umatilla Project 1239 



For Index to all Papers, the discussiou of which is current in 
Proceedings, see the end of this number. 






Vol. XXXVIII. OCTOBER, 1912. No. 8. 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

INSTITUTED 1852 



PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS 

This Society is not responsible for any statement made or opinion expressed 
in its publications 



TUFA CEMENT, AS MANUFACTUEED AND USED 
ON THE LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT. 



By J. B. LippiNcoTT, M. Am. Soc. C. E. 
To BE Presented December 4th, 1912. 



Los Angeles is situated in a region where the annual rainfall 
is only 15 in., and where a water supply is requisite, not only for 
domestic necessities, but also for the beautification of grounds and all 
forms of intensive agriculture. The Federal census shows that the 
population of the city increased from 102 479 in 1900 to 319 198 in 
1910, or 211%, which is the greatest growth in any of the larger cities 
of the United States during this period. 

General Description of the Line. — The city relies on the Los 
Angeles River for its local water supply. This stream rises from the 
gravel beds of the San Fernando Valley, and is uniform in its flow. 
It has been completely diverted, and encroachments have begun on 
the underground waters of the neighborhood. What is known as a 
miner's inch in Southern California is equivalent to 13 000 gal. per day, 
or Jjy cu. ft. per sec. The right to a miner's inch of water of con- 
tinuous flow in this locality varies in value from $1 000 to $2 000, 
and is a measure of the scarcity of local water supplies. 

Instead of exercising its right of eminent domain, and attempting to 
condemn other streams in Southern California, which would result 
in the depletion of commercially tributary areas, the Board of Water 

Note. — These papers are issued before the date set for presentation and discus- 
sion. Correspondence is invited from those who cannot be present at the meeting, 
and may be sent by mail to the Secretary. Discussion, either oral or written, will 
be published in a subsequent number of Proceedings, and, when finally closed, the 
papers, with discussion in full, will be published in Transactions. 



1193 TUFA CEMENT ON THE LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT [Papers. 

Commissioners adopted the broad policy of going to some distant source 
for its new supply, where the minimum damage would be done to 
others, and where the maximum quantity of water would be obtained. 
As the value of water is increasing very rapidly throughout Cali- 
fornia, it was decided to construct as large an aqueduct as the city 
could afford. It was found that the most available supply could be 
obtained from the Owens River, which, for a distance of 120 miles, 
drains the eastern face of the Sierra Nevada. There are 40 peaks 
in this crest, the elevation of which rises above 13 000 ft., Mt. 
Whitney being the culmination of the range, with an elevation of 
14 600 ft. This is the source of the water supply. To the east are 
the Inyo Mountains, a lower range, blanketed by the high Sierra 
intervening between the Inyos and the Pacific Ocean, and barren of 
water crop. 

Owens River discharges into Owens Lake, having an area of 
64 000 acres, from which the annual evaporation loss is about 6.8 ft. 
The lake has no outlet and consequently is saline. The aqueduct 
is being built to deliver a continuous flow of 20 000 miners' inches, 
or 400 cu. ft. per sec, which is two-thirds of the evaporation loss from 
the lake. The diversion is made 35 miles above the lake, and the 
city has purchased 105 000 acres of land in Owens Valley, including 
both banks of the river from the diversion point to the lake. 

The precipitation on the crest of the Sierra Range varies from 
40 to 60 in., and is mostly in the form of snow occurring during the 
winter, the drifts accumulating in the high mountain gorges and 
melting with the approach of summer. These snowbanks, however, 
are of such extent that they last over from year to year and some of 
them have compacted into banks of ice. The high-water period 
occiTrs in June and July, low water extending from September through 
the fall and winter. The annual rainfall in the valley floor is only 
5 in. 

For the first 60 miles, the capacity of the aqueduct as designed 
is equal to the mean June flood of the river at the intake, or 900 cu. ft. 
per sec. This portion of the conduit discharges into the Haiwee 
Reservoir, which has a capacity of 63 000 acre-ft., with a maximum 
center height of dam of 91 ft. This Haiwee Reservoir will act as a 
regulator, from which a continuous flow of 420 cu. ft. per sec. will 
be drawn, In addition to the surface streams, a large Artesian basin 



Papers.] TUFA CEMENT ON THE LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT 1193 

has been discovered in Owens Valley, from which ground- waters 
can be extensively drawn during years of drouth. In case this sup- 
ply is insufficient, in the driest years and when the consumption of 
water approaches the full capacity of the aqueduct, the city can build 
the Long Valley Reservoir, which site it controls. This will have a 
capacity of 341 000 acre-ft., with a dam having a maximum height 
of 160 ft. 

For the first 20 miles in Owens Valley the conduit is a dredged 
earthen canal. This part of the line is in the moist bottom lands 
of Owens Valley, which are saturated with water, and where the 
aqueduct will gain water. All other portions of the aqueduct are 
being lined with concrete. The 40 miles of the aqueduct immediately 
north of the Haiwee Reservoir, because of its large size, is an un- 
covered, but lined, canal. With the exception of the first 60 miles 
previously described, all portions of the aqueduct are lined and 
covered. 

From the diversion point in Owens Valley, the line skirts the east- 
ern base of the Sierra Nevada as far south as the Town of Mojave. 
It then crosses the western edge of the Mojave Desert, passes under 
the Coast Range, in a tunnel 26 860 ft. long, and then has three drops 
aggregating 1 842 ft., where power plants are being installed. Imme- 
diately above and below the first two power sites, with drops of 1 516 ft., 
reservoirs are being constructed. 

The capacity of the aqueduct between these two power sites has 
been increased to 1 000 cu. ft. per sec, in order to provide for the 
variable power load. With these two reservoirs, it will be possible to 
increase the flow through the power plants during certain hours of 
the day to 1 000 cu. ft. per sec, and to regulate it back, below the 
power plants, to a continuous flow of 400 cu. ft. per sec. In other 
words, the power factor is taken at 40 per cent. Other large storage 
reservoirs are being built at the extreme southern end of the line. 

The total quantity of cement required for the construction of 
the aqueduct is estimated at 1 500 000 bbl. Table 1 is a summary 
of the different classifications of work. 

The conduit will deliver water at a point 25 miles north of the 
city, where the distribution system starts. On March 1st, 1912, 83% 
of the work was finished, and it is being completed within the esti- 
mated time and well within the estimated cost. 



1194 



TUFA CEMENT ON THE LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT [Papers. 



TABLE 1. — Lengths and Sections of Various Portions of the 
Los Angeles Aqueduct. 



Classification. 




Capacity, in 
second-feet. 



Ualineti canal 

Open, lined canal 

Haiwee by-pass 

Covered conduit 

Lined tunnels 

Concrete flumes 

Concrete pipe, 10 ft. diameter. 

Steel pipe 

Power tunnels 

Reservoirs . , 

Total length 



900 
900 
420 
420 
420 
420 
420 
420 
1000 



City Cement Plant. — The city has built a standard Portland 
cement plant on the Southern Pacific Railroad, near the center of 
the aqueduct line, at a place named Monolith, which is the brand name 
given to the cement. The mill has a capacity of 1 200 bbl. per day. 
The operation of the mill is successful, and the cost of producing the 
cement is reasonably low. 

There are six other Portland cement works in California, the 
products of which are reliable and satisfactory'. Apparently, however, 
there is a definite agreement among these manufacturers as to the 
selling price. It was not contended that the city could manufacture 
cement either cheaper or better than some of these larger plants; but 
the location of the city's cement plant on the line of the aqueduct 
eliminates 26 or 30 cents per bbl. in freight charges, and it was 
believed that the city could manufacture its cement on the line of 
the work at a price which probably would be lower than that for which 
manufacturers would sell their delivered product. Moreover, by hav- 
ing its own mill, the, city is assured of deliveries at the rate required. 

The Monolith cement mill is 14 miles from Mojave. A railroad 
has been built under contract with the city by the Southern Pacific 
Company, 140 miles long, northward from Mojave, along the line of 
the aqueduct; because of this special contract, however, freight rates 
on this new line are high, and amount to nearly 1 cent per barrel-mile. 

Three tufa cement-grinding plants have been established on the 
line of the aqueduct, namely, Haiwee, Fairmont, and Monolith, ex- 
tensive deposits existing at each of these points. Haiwee, where the 
northern tufa-grinding plant has been built, is 120 miles by rail 



Papers.] TUFA CEMENT ON THE LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT 



1195 



from Monolith, and 106 miles north from Mojave. The southern 
tufa-grinding plant, at Fairmont, is about 20 miles from the rail- 
road and southwest from Mojave. Transportation charges from Mono- 
lith to both Haiwce and Fairmont amount to 90 cents per bbl. 
As the tufa cement process converts 1 bbl. of standard cement into 
2 bbl. of tufa cement, there is saved in transportation charges alone 
about 45 cents per bbl. on the tufa cement product. 

Tuff or tufa is a volcanic, pumiceous rock composed of minute 
particles bearing indications of having been laid down in- water and 
partly consolidated. Sometimes tufa is a calcareous deposit, but 
that used for the manufacture of the cement described herein is of 
volcanic origin. It is of a grayish or creamy color and has a low 
specific gravity when in rock form; when pulverized, the powder has a 
specific gravity of 2.2. 

According to Dana's "Manual of Geology," puzzuolana is a light- 
colored tufa found near Rome and elsewhere in Italy, and is used 
for making hydraulic cement. Puzzuolana is a local name, and tufa 
or tuff is the geological term. Samples obtained from Italy through 
the Consular Service in Rome show the puzzuolana to be a light purple- 
colored fragmental material having somewhat the appearance of vol- 
canic ashes, and unconsolidated. Its analysis is given in Table 2. 
The tufa used on the Los Angeles aqueduct resembles the German 
trass, used in the manufacture of the German trass cements. 

TABLE 2. — Analysis Record of Various Tufas. 



No. 


Description. 


Date 

made, 

1912. 


O 

m 


* 

q 


o" 


q 

-5 


9 

o 


d 


O 

CO 


09 
O 


Total. 


220 


Mouolith tufa 


1/15 
1/29 

1/29 

2/5 

"i/is" 

3/25 
3/25 


35.34 
71.36 

70.06 
68.26 
69.46 
51.98 
42.36 
45.68 


11.89 
16.15 

17.11 
17.10 
13.89 
18.75 
28.35 
30.09 






41.05 
2.86 

1.81 
2.60 
1.80 
9.57 
9.15 
11.95 


3.04 
trace 


0.116 
0.035 


8.52 
3.22 

6.51 




229 


Fairmont tufa, 
middle of quarry 

Fairmont tufa, 
south side of 




230 








233 


Moiiolitti tufa 

Hawaiian lava 

Italian tufa 

" puzzuolana 








215 


2.52 
2.90 


11.37 
15.86 


2.95 
5.61 
0.54 
3.76 


0.429 


6.28 


4.T 


W^ 


0.56 
0.56 


13.68 
6.30 




^63 

















* R0O3 = Fe^Oa + AI2O3. 

All the tufa along the aqueduct occurs in beds 100 ft. or more in 
thickness, and shows distinct lines of stratification, indicating that 



1196 TUFA CEMENT ON THE LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT [Papers. 

it was laid down in water. The beds near Haiwee are in the imme- 
diate neighborhood of ancient volcanoes and lava flows. Ancient 
craters exist in the desert between Fairmont and Monolith. The 
Fairmont tufa is the purest of the three deposits. It is fine-grained 
or comminuted, and portions of the bed are entirely free from pebbles 
or other foreign matter. The Haiwee tufa is quite free from pebbles, 
but it contains some mica, which makes the grinding slower. The 
tufa rock at Monolith is more compact, and has a specific gravity 
of 1.97. It contains a good many pebbles of a flinty character, and 
occasionally granitic, which makes the grinding slower, but does not 
affect the quality of the product. The three tufas used on the aqueduct, 
when blended with cement, are much the same in strength, the average 
monthly tests showing greater strength first at one mill and then at 
another. 

Silica cement is a term applied to mixtures of cement and silica, 
usually in the form of sand, ground together in a dry state to a greater 
fineness than the Portland cement. This mixture is then used with 
sand and gravel, as in the ordinary method of preparing concrete. 
The proportion of pure cement is reduced without a corresponding 
reduction in the strength of the concrete. The voids in the sand are 
filled with the ground sand, the gradation of the concrete aggregates 
being thus carried one step farther. This silica is not soluble with 
lime, and the cement is improved by the regrinding. In 1899 the 
United States Geological Survey made investigations of sand cement 
along the upper portion of the Gila River, in Arizona. The tests 
were made by laboratory grinds and are shown in Table 3. The 
silica used was a rock known as pearlite, which is a form of rhyolite, 
from the Butte dam site, and also a quartzite from the San Carlos 
dam site. 

All the tests were made with the same sample of cement. The mix- 
tures were made by weight. It will be noted in Table 3 that, in the 
case of the silica cements ISTos. 1 and 2, all the cement used was 
passed through a 200-mesh screen. This was unfortunate, because it 
gave an abnormal fineness, and consequently an undue strength is 
shown; but, in the case of Nos. 5 and 6, the straight cement was 
treated in a similar manner, so that comparisons are possible. The 
sands used were standard in size, but were not standard testing sands. 



Papers.] TUFA CEMENT ON THE LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT 



1197 



Comparisons of Test No. 3 with Test No. 5 show the effect of fine 
grinding on standard centents. 

TABLE 3. — Eesults of Tests of Portland Sand Cement. 



No. 


Material. 


Sand. 


Portland 
cement 
to sand. 


Percentage 

fineness 


OF 


Per- 
cent- 
age of 
water. 


Strength, in 

POUNDS. 


50 

mesii. 


100 
mesh. 


200 
mesh. 


7 
days. 


28 
days. 


1 
2 

3 

4 
5 

6 

7 

8 


Colton and Butte 
Pearlite, 1 to 1 

Colton and San 
Carlos Quartzite, 1 
to 1 

Colton regular 

Colton regular 

Colton fine ground.. 

Colton fine ground. . 

Colton and Butte 
Pearlite, 1 to 1 

Colton and San 
Carlos Quartzite, 1 
to 1 


2 

2 
2 
3 

2 
3 

3 
3 


1 to 5 

1 to 5 
1 to 2 
1 to 3 
1 to 2 
1 to 3 

1 to 7 
1 to 7 


0.00 

0.00 
0.42 
0.42 
0.00 
0.00 

0.00 
0.00 


0.00 

0.00 
7.20 
7.20 
0.00 
0.00 

0.00 
0.00 


0.00 

0.00 

.33.20 

33.20 

* 

* 

0.00 
0.00 


10 

10 
10 
10 
12 
12 

10 
10 


80 

90 
170 
140 
.370 
170 

75 
55 


300 

345 
385 

240 
465 
260 

155 

185 



* Some left on 200-mesh screen. 

Since 1903 the writer, from time to time, has investigated the 
possibility of blending tufas with cement. He identified the Haiwee 
deposit of tufa, and shipped some of it to the laboratory at the Mono- 
lith cement mill. This led to the identification of the ledge of tufa 
in the immediate neighborhood of the mill and also to the discovery 
of the Fairmont deposit. The tufa was first ground with cement 
experimentally in the laboratory, and showed satisfactory tests. The 
experiment of mixing the ground tufa with slacked lime, without any 
cement, was also tried, and it was found that this would set under 
water and slowly become hard, but it checked in drying in the pats. 
This hydraulic property indicated the solubility of the tufa in hydrated 
lime and its power to combine with the excess lime in the cement. 
This does not occur with silica cement. 

A mill run was then made at Monolith, and a length of several 
hundred feet of canal was lined with tufa cement concrete, in order 
to observe its working conditions in the field. As this proved satis- 
factory, it was decided to build tufa regrinding mills at both Fairmont 
and Haiwee. 

The Fairmont mill consists of a Climax jaw crusher which breaks 
the tufa to about a li-in. size. It is then carried to a No. 8 Krupp 
ball mill, where it is ground to pass through a 20-mesh screen or 



1198 



TUFA CEMENT ON THE LOS ANGELICS AQUEDUCT [Papers. 



finer. This ground tufa is then blended in equal parts by volume with 
the standard cement. This blend is then conveyed to a Gates tube 
mill, G by 10 ft. in size, and the tufa and cement are ground together 
to a fineness of 90% or more, passing through a 200-mesh sieve. The 
cost of the plant was $27 000. The grinding is much freer during the 
dry summer months in California than during the wet winter weather. 
A little moisture in the tufa seriously reduces the product, as it coats 
the pebbles, thus lowering their grinding efficiency. At the Fair- 
mont mill it was found that, under natural conditions, from 1 200 to 
1 .nOO sacks, of tufa cement could be ground per 24 hours. By arrang- 
ing ci-ude drying devices and driving off the moisture in the tufa 
with a slow wood fire, this output was increased to from 1 800 to 2 000 
sacks per day. In both the Haiwee and Fairmont quarries, the 
capacity of the ball mill is 40% in excess of the capacity of the 
tube mill. 

STRENGTH-TIME CURVES FOR VARYING PROPORTIONS OF TUFA. 




-to 50 60 

Ag'e, inJDays 
Fig. 1. 

Table 2 shows the analysis of various tufas, including the Italian 
samples and Hawaiian lavas. Tests were made in the laboratory by 
mixing 4 lb. of tufa, 4 lb. of cement, and 1 lb. of slacked lime. This 
gave a result from 50 to 75 lb. per sq. in. stronger than when only 
tufa and cement were used. Subsequently, some mill runs were made 
with lime added in this manner, but they did not confirm the laboratory 
tests with lime, and the practice of adding the latter has not been con- 
tinued. Mill runs were made with varying proportions of tufa at the 
Fairmont plant, and the results, with different percentages of tufa, are 
given in Fig. 1. These tests are not fully sustained by later mill and 



Papers.] TUFA CEMENT ON THE LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT 



1199 



laboratory tests, in that the higher percentages of tufa at first shown 

were relatively too strong. Possibly the mill run was not long enough 

to establish thoroughly the various ratios in the output. Finely 

ground Monolith tufa mixed with thoroughly hyd rated lime in the 

ratio of 75% of lime to 25% of tufa was made into briquettes with 

sand in the ratio of 3 to 1. The briquettes were left in a damp closet 

for 28 days and then immersed in water, and gave the following 

strengths: 

7 days. 28 days. 3 months. 6 monttis. 

40 lb. 80 lb. 70 lb. 225 lb. 

The briquettes were softened on the surface by the action of the water. 
TABLE 4. — Typical Sand Briquette Tests, at Monolith, Cal. 



2^; 


a 

Q 


a 08 

CB O 


Tensile Strength. 


Brand. 


a s 

So 
Pi 


Fine- 
ness. 


Setting 
Time. 




2^ 


>> 

CO 


CO 

>> 




9! 

.a 

a 
o 
S 

eo 


CO 

a 
o 

s 

«5 




I 


8 


Initial. 


Final. 


w>5 

3-§ 




H. 


M. 


H. 


M. 


M 


20 ( 
Tests ( 

20 I 
Tests ) 


1910 
Nov. 

Dec. 


9 
9^ 


114 
104 


203 
160 


408 
363 


460 
460 


518 

477 


577 
511 


i Tufa 
- Monolith 
( Fairmont 

I Tufa 
< Mouolith 
( Haiwee 


(-50 
(52 


98 
98 


89 
91 


2 
3 


19 
00 


5 
6 


49 
12 


0. K. 
0. K. 



Table 4 shows typical tests of the regular mill runs of the tufa 
cements, as manufactured at Fairmont and Haiwee, and as used in 
the construction of the aqueduct. A feature to note is the constant 
growth in strength of the samples. They are occasionally below the 
standard of strength required by the American Society for Testing- 
Materials for 7 days (from 150 to 200 lb.), but are above the standard 
for 28 days (from 200 to 300 lb.). As far as tested, the tufa cements 
manufactured on the aqueduct uniformly show this growth in strength 
with age, and in this respect are superior to the tests for strength 
in straight cement, which often show a loss after 28 days. Tests 
made by the Santa Fe Railway indicate that this loss in strength of 
straight cement continues, as far as observed, through a 5-year period, 
in four out of five brands tested.* 

As tufa cements are high in silica, and as the silicates of lime 
are the more enduring but slower portion in the cements, this growing 



* Engineering News, March 14th, 1913. 



1200 



TUFA CEMENT ON THE LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT [Papers. 



strength in tufa cement is quite rational. Straight cements which 

are slow in hardening show the greatest ultimate strengths, and a 

high Y-day test is regarded with suspicion. 

Briquettes made of pure tufa cement without sand do not show 

as great strength as neat cement, but as cement is not used in practice 

in this form, it is relatively unimportant. The leaner the mixture 

in sand briquettes, the greater the superiority of the tufa cements 

is shown to be. Broadly speaking, sand briquettes containing 50% 

of tufa cement show marked superiority in ultimate strength over 

straight cement sand briquettes. 

TABLE 5. — Tufa Sakd Briquette Tests, with ^^ARYI]S(■i 
Proportions of Tufa. 



Su 


IB 

s 

* 

1 


11 

^^ 

CO gj 

II 

to 


Tensile Strength. 


Brand. 


M) 

Art 

V 


Fine- 
ness. 


Setting 
Time. 


'& -e 


ft 


-a 

CO 


05 

cS 




CO 

5 
a 


S 

CO 


5 
g 
g 

CD 


1 






Initial. 


Final. 


a 2 

"SCO 


H. 


M. 


H. 


M. 


n 




1911 


































Nov. 




(85 


2(10 


fm 


370 


330 


j Monolith 1 


















21 


28 


914 


210 


345 


370 


395 


J Monolith ( 
} tufa. J 


55 




91 


3 


00 


4 


20 


O.K. 




Dec. 
































23 




9J^ 


)30 
"135 


100 
100 


300 
310 


460 
435 


390 
385 


1 " 


60 




92 


3 


10 


5 


00 




23 




9^ 


i35 
|35 


90 
100 


250 
260 


350 
355 


330 
365 


1 
( 


70 




90 


2 


00 


4 


00 


'• 


24 




m 


\ 15 
"125 


75 
80 


210 
200 


300 

285 


325 
375 


1 


75 




90 


2 


10 


5 


10 


" 


25 




9>^ 


(15 
|20 


75 

80 


150 
160 


255 
235 


300 
305 


I 
( 


80 




90 


2 


50 


5 


00 


'• 


26 




934 


(15 
(SO 


70 
70 


90 
90 


140 
110 


230 
260 


i 
( 


85 




90 


3 


00 


6 


10 


" 



Table 5 shows a series of tufa cement laboratory tests with varying 
proportions of Monolith tufa with Monolith cement. This table is 
not in harmony with the mill-run tests shown in Fig. 1, but it ap- 
pears to be the more rational. It will be noted that there is far less 
difference in the strengths at the end of 3 months than at the end of 
7 days. Unfortunately, the results of the 1-year tests are not yet 
available. 

Table 6 shows the tests of a mill run of 75% Haiwee tufa. It 
will be noted that the 6-month tests show a fine increase in strength 
over the 28-day tests. 



Papers.] TUFA CEMENT ON THE LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT 



1301 



TABLE 6. — Sand Briquette Tests of 75% Monolith-Haiwee Tufa. 











Tensile 








Fineness. 


Setting Time. 


^, 








Strength. 














"> , 


^ u 


"S 


SB 

1 = 


















B " 




E 

Q 


CO 

OS 


1 


>> 


oi 

a 
o 
S 

m 


Brand. 


a 3 
tV o 


S 

s 


o 

o 


Initial. 


Final. 


ic3 

0"-° 










« 








eo 


l> 


S 










H. 


M. 


H. 


M. 






1911 






























15 














( Monolith 1 


















Tests 


Nov. 




52.8 


88 


201.6 


365 


-; Haiwee > 
( tufa ) 


75 


99 


91 


3 


00 


5 


35 


O.K. 



Fig. 2 shows graphically the average of all breaks of three tufa 
cements manufactured by the City of Los Angeles during Septem- 
ber, 1911. The standard Monolith cement is blended with 50% of 
tufa by volume. This is the standard practice on the aqueduct work. 
In making the test briquettes, the straight cement and tufa cement 
are mixed with standard sand in the ratio of 3 to 1 by weight, except 
in the one case shoM'n, where the mix is 3 to 1 by volume. The tufa 
cement weighs 83 lb. per cu. ft., and the straight cement 95 lb. 
Standard sand weighs 110 lb. per cu. ft. A mixture by weight, as com- 
pared with volume, between tufa cement and straight cement, there- 
fore, gives the former an advantage of 14% in the quantity of cement 
used. However, in mixing the tufa cement with sand by volume, and 
straight cement with sand by weight, and making the comparison, 
this is reversed, as the sand weighs 16% more than straight cement. 
In making concrete the field practice is to mix by volume, which, in 
the briquette, gives an idea of the strengths obtained in field practice 
with the tufa cements. Fig. 2 shows that the tufa cements are 
slower in getting their strength, usually attaining equal strength with 
the standard cement in from 6 to 10 days, but continuing to grow 
in strength, as far as observed, as shown in Fig. 3. All tests made 
in the aqueduct laboratories indicate this continued growth in strength 
of tufa cements. The standard cement, however, shows a loss in 
strength between 1 and 4 months, and then a slow recovery. Other 
California cement tested in the aqueduct laboratories shows similar 
loss. 

In addition to the laboratory tests of the strength of the tufa, 
the sands and gravels which are used along the line of the aqueduct, 
were made into concrete with the tufa cements, and cast into test 



1202 



TUFA CEMENT ON THE LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT [Papers. 



slabs, 6 ft. wide and 12 ft. 5| in. long, and loaded to destruction. 
These slabs were similar to those used in covering the aqueduct. Table 
7 shows the details of these tests. The slabs were reinforced as in- 
dicated, and in a manner similar to the reinforcement Tised in the con- 
struction of the aqueduct. The wire mesh used is manufactured by 




10 1-^ 14 16 
Time, in Daj's 
KiG. 2. 

the American Steel and Wire Company, being from 58 to 42 in. wide. 
The practice was to roll these bundles longitudinally along the roof 
of the aqueduct. The mesh is triangular, 4 in. on a side, with No. 12 
longitudinal and No. 14 diagonal wires. The concrete was made by 
hand, covered with a layer of earth and kept wet for 20 days, after 



rapcis.] TUFA CEMENT ON THE LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT 



1203 



which the slabs were dried until they were tested. The slabs were 
put over piers with a clear span of 11 ft. 51 in. A water load was 
used, a large canvas bag being put inside of a wooden frame. Tests 
were first made with earth loads, but the arching effect of the earth 
destroyed their value. Tufa cements of varying proportions were used, 
and, in these field tests, the 50% blend gave the most satisfactory 
results. The tufa cement concretes were stronger than the others. 
The tests with the straight cement slabs, unfortunately, were made 
with the reinforcing rods running straight across the bottom of the 
slab, instead of being bent up at the two sides, as was the case with 
the tufa cement slabs. In no case were the rods broken in the tests. 

LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT TUFA CEMENTS 
MIXTURES 50/4 BY VOLUME, LONG-TIME TESTS, 



j« iOO 




5 6 r 

Time,in Months 
Fig. 3. 

The tufa concrete had greater flexibility than the straight cement 
concrete. After having made this series of tests, the tufa cement 
was adopted for all classes of construction work on the aqueduct, 
including the concrete pipe. Five concrete pipes, 10 ft. in diameter, 
and having a 9-in. shell, reinforced with circular rods 4 in. apart, 
have now been made of tufa cement, the mixtures being 1:2:4. These 
pipes have been made for heads up to 75 ft. They have all been filled 
with water but one, which is necessarily empty until certain other con- 
necting work is completed. Where they have been tested, the pipes 
are tight, with one exception where a slight circular crack developed. 
When this pipe whs filled with water and soaked up, the crack closed 



1204 



TUFA CEMENT ON THE LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT [Papers. 



to 


"- 35 




OI 


.IX 


CO 


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Papers.] TLTA CEMENT ON THE LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT 1205 

and became tight. In no case have any longitudinal cracks developed, 
and it is believed that the entire water load is carried by the concrete 
alone. When concrete takes its set, it shrinks slightly and throvps 
the circular reinforcing steel under compression. Before the steel 
can carry the load, it must come under tension, and experience with 
concrete pipe elsewhere indicates that there is enough movement be- 
tween these two conditions of tension and compression of the steel 
to cause a longitudinal crack in the concrete unless it carries the 
entire load. As a practical working test, therefore, this pipe of tufa 
concrete demonstrates the quality of the material. 

The tufa concrete has also been used successfully in the lining 
of some tunnels in which the ground is exceedingly heavy, and where 
the sets in the tunnel, made of 10 by 10-in. timbers, spaced from 2 to 
3 ft. apart, were repeatedly crushed. The tunnel lining, which has 
a theoretical thickness between posts of 14 in., has not shown any 
failure. In the heaviest ground, however, 6-in. steel I-beams were 
placed and wedged up against the lagging, the wooden sets then be- 
ing taken out. This was done because in some instances the timbers 
were so close together that they reduced seriously the thickness of the 
concrete tunnel walls. The steel I-beams are left embedded in the 
concrete as a reinforcement. 

Laboratory tests of the tufa product are made continuously at all 
the tufa mills, and samples are also sent to the main laboratory at the 
Monolith cement plant. Figs. 2 and 3 represent an average of a 
month's breaks of briquettes made with equal parts by volume of 
straight cement and tufa mixed with three parts of standard sand. 
These are fairly typical of the average monthly mill runs, the tufa 
cements showing better results than the straight cements and also 
showing a continued hardening. In the case of the German trass 
cements, this hardening is known to continue for a period of five years. 
The lower line on Fig. 3 shows the average of a great number of 
breaks of various Portland cements at the Philadelphia Testing Labora- 
tories. 

A striking feature of the tufa cement is that, in all the four years 
in which it has been tested, there has never been a pat which failed 
under the boiling test. This indicates, further, that any free lime 
which may occur in the cement combines with the silicas in the 
tufa. Microscopic slides were made of some of the tufa cement and 



120G 



TUFA CEMENT ON THE LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT [Papers. 



sand briquettes. They were examined, but no satisfactory conclu- 
sion could be reached. 

Samples of tufa cement were seat to the Bureau of Standards 
of the United States Department of Commerce and Labor, and were 
tested in the Pittsburgh Laboratory. The following quotation is from 
a letter from this Bureau under date of March 29th, 1911 : 

<i* * -x- You desired particularly to know whether there was 
any chemical reaction between the tufa and the cement. The enclosed 
report shows that such has undoubtedly been the case. 

"The addition of tufa or puzzuolana to Portland cement undoubt- 
edly does not reduce the strength of the latter when in the form of a 
mortar or concrete, but there has always been a question as to whether 
this is due to purely chemical or chemical and physical phenomena. 
There has not been any doubt that there is a reaction between the 
cement and the tufa, but there always has been a doubt as to whether 
this reaction was sufficient to account for the usual strengths developed 
by such mixtures. 

"The tests were conducted as follows: Mixtures of two parts River- 
side cement with one part of tufa, and two parts Riverside cement 
with one part Ottawa Standard sand, ground 90% through a 200-mesh 
sieve, were made into briquettes and broken at the end of one-week, 
four-week, and thirteen-week periods. At the same time, a similar 
series, using Atlas cement, was carried on, and also the same mixtures 
used in connection with 1:3 sand briquettes. After breaking the 
thirteen-week period briquettes, they were dried, the outside surface 
completely removed, and the interior ground to pass 200 mesh, and used 
for determinations. By determining the amount of insoluble silica, in 
the cements and in the tufa and quartz, it is possible to calculate the 
amount of insoluble silica which should be in the dry briquettes (by 
dry, meaning the complete expulsion of water and CO, at 1 000 de- 
grees C). From the analyses of these residues, there was also obtained 
the insoluble silica actually present. The difference between these 
two gives the amouriit of silica rendered soluble during this period 
of thirteen weeks. The figures are given in the following table :* 

"The following results were obtained in breaking the briquettes: 



Riverside. 


8 Riverside, 1 tufa. 


3 Riverside, 1 quartz. 




0.53 
0.53 


80.97 
33.80 


34.03 
33.70 


SiO 2 insoluble, calculated. 
SiOo insoluble, determined. 




7.17 


1.26 


SiOa rendered soluble. 



* "Tests made at Monolith show 8.4% of Monolith tufa rendered soluble : of the Italian 
Puzzuolaoa, 1.6%, and of Italian Tufa, 3 per cent. The presence of this so called 'soluble 
silica' is what makes tufas preferable to sands for blending with Portland cements." 



Papers.l TUFA CEMENT ON THE LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT 



1307 



Atlas. 


2 Atlas, 1 tufa. 


2 Atlas, 1 quartz. 




0.59 
0.59 


30.80 
24.01 


33.89 
83.00 


SIO2 insoluble, calculated. 
SiOo insoluble, determined. 




6.71 


0.89 


SiOj rendered soluble. 



TABLE 8. — Los Angeles Aqueduct 
Silica Cement, 



Tufa Compared With 









1 week. 


4 weeks. 


13 weeks. 






1 
2 
3 


307 
303 
310 


870 
383 
394 


416 
413 






390 








307 


383 


408 










2 Riverside cement ) 

1 Tufa, 90% through 200 mesh ) 


1 
2 
3 


215 
211 

221 


373 
303 
341 


458 
585 
438 









215 


389 


457 


^ 










1 
2 
3 


310 
190 

188 


372 
286 
381 


386 




1 Quartz sand, 90% through 200 mesh. . . . "| 


286 
303 








196 


380 


292 










Tufa cement, 50% by volume j 

Tufa and Riverside cement j 


I 
3 


262 
269 
235 


488 
476 
466 


534 
561 

478 








255 


477 


524 












1 
2 
3 


357 
399 

281 


341 
351 
335 


454 

484 






469 








312 


842 


466 








■6 
a 


2 Atlas cement J 

1 Tufa, 90% through 200 mesh ) 


1 
2 
3 


312 
212 
200 


350 
398 
410 


462 
471 


CO 






208 


386 


466 












1 
2 
3 


205 
200 
200 


265 
283 
255 


314 




1 Quartz sand, 90% through 300 mesh.. . . 1 


362 
367 








203 


268 


348 









1208 TUFA CEMENT ON THE LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT [Papers. 

The neat briquettes made with tufa cement by the Bureau do not 
show as much strength as those made with straight cement. This 
is in harmony with tests made in the aqueduct laboratories. However, 
when cement is used in concrete, it is always blended with sand, and 
the sand briquettes tested correspond to practice in construction work. 
The tests made with the sand briquettes show that the tufa cements 
have as good or better strength than the straight cements, and that 
the blend made of equal iiarts of tufa and cement is stronger than 
that made with but 33% of tufa. They also show clearly that the tufa 
cement, when mixed with sand, gives much better strength than the 
silica cement, indicating that the tufa combines in a different manner 
from the silica. In the neat briquettes, however, the silica cements 
develop the greater strength. The characteristic of the tufa cement 
continuing to harden .substantially with age is indicated in these 
sand briquette tests. At the time the samples were sent to Pittsburgh, 
the Fairmont tufa was being blended with Riverside Portland cement. 
All other tests given of Los Angeles aqueduct tufas were made with 
the city's cement known as Monolith. 

A review of an elaborate series of tests of the German trass 
cement, is given in a recent engineering periodical.* These are 
the best available laboratory tests of tufa cements. The investiga- 
tions were carried on especially to determine the effect of sea water 
on cements of this class. They were made under the direction of 
the Prussian Minister of Public Works, and a committee consisting of 
representatives of the Royal Testing Laboratories, of the cement and 
trass industries, and Dr. Michaelis, cement specialist. The RoyaJ 
Testing Laboratories were placed in their charge. Cements of two 
classes were used, those rich in lime and those poor in lime, and 
also mortars to which' had been added trass and finely ground quartz 
sand, in order to determine whether trass only acts mechanically by 
increasing the density of the mortar, or chemically also. The tufas 
blend slightly better with the cements which are richer in lime. The 
results of these tests show that the addition of certain puzzuolana 
(tufa) materials to lean cement mortar is valuable in sea water. The 
detailed table (Table 9) is given because of the variety in the record, 

* Engineering Record, August 27th, 1910. 



Papers.] TUFA CEMENT ON THE LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT 1209 

the long period of the tests, and the excellence of the authority. The 
tests run over a period of five years.* 

This cement (Table 9) contained 65.80% of lime, and 23.74% of 
silica. The cements which have been blended with trass give as 
much tensile strength as the straight cement when made in sand 
briquettes, and the samples put in sea water show results of slightly 
less strength than when they are put in fresh water. The compressive 
strength of the concrete is less with the trass cements than with the 
straight cements. 

An additional tablef shows the strength of mortars and concrete 
made with a mixture of three parts of trass, two parts of hydrated lime, 
and one part of sand, giving tensile strengths of 216 lb. in 28 days, 
356 lb. in 1 year, and 400 lb. in 5 years. A mixture made of li of 
trass, 1 of hydrated lime, and 1 of sand gave a strength of 244 lb. in 
28 days, 383 lb. in 1 year, and 360 lb. in 5 years. 

It is noteworthy in Table 9 that the straight cement sand briquettes, 
in three out of four instances, show marked loss in tensile strength 
between 1 and 5 years, the first test alone showing constant strength, 
while the tufa (trass) combinations show gains in six out of eight 
cases during the same periods. The two tests showing loss are of 
samples in sea water. 

Dr. W. Michaelis:}: has written an interesting paper on "Portland 
Cement Reground with Oregon Puzzuolana," in which he enters into 
a discussion of the chemistry of the problem, and makes a demonstra- 
tion of the solubility of the tufa with the excess lime of the cement. 
He shows that puzzuolana (or tufa) will combine with hydrated 
lime. The series of tests given show the same general results as the 
tests with German trass cements (Table 9) — that, especially with the 
leaner mixtures, the tufa blends of equal parts are fully as strong 
in tension, or superior to, the straight cement mortars, and markedly 
better than the "silica cement." In the tests for compression in the 
leaner concretes (1:3:6), his tufas are as strong; but with a richer 
mixture (1:2:4), they are about 20% less strong than concrete made of 
straight cement with the same aggregates. 



* The results have appeared in a report of the Royal Testing Laboratory under the 
title, " Mitteilungen aus dem Kgl. Materialpriifungsamt." 
t Engineering Record, August 27th, 1910. 
t Cement and Engineering News, November, 1911. 



1310 



TUFA CEMENT ON THE LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT [I'apers. 





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Papers.] TUFA CEMENT ON THE LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT 1211 

Dr. Michaelis gives tlie following explanation of the chemical reac- 
tions that occur when the tufa combines with the cement : 

"These desired hydrates of silica, alumina and iron oxide are found 
in nature in the form of puzzuolanas, or tufas, volcanic products 
created by the action of water or steam upon basaltic or granitelike 
molten formations. They can be artificially obtained by running molten 
blast furnace slag into water. In both cases the original compounds 
of the basalt, granite or slag are completely decomposed into their 
constituents and, furthermore, transformed into comparatively loose 
material which can easily be crushed. The most valuable part of 
the various chemical ingredients to be found in a natural or artificial 
puzzuolana is the silica hydrate, so-called 'soluble' silica which, in 
distinction from quartz silica, powdered quartz, is soluble in a 10 
per cent, solution of sodium carbonate. Such silica combines readily 
with calcium hydrate and forms an excellent hydraulic cement. To 
what extent the alumina hydrate and iron hydrate combine with 
calcium hydrate has not been definitely ascertained. However, from 
recent researches it appears that especially the alumina hydrate is 
able to combine with a very large percentage of hydrated lime." 

Cost to Manufacture. — The average cost of blending 1 bbl. of 
straight cement so as to produce 2 bbl. of tufa cement with the small 
mills installed on the Los Angeles aqueduct is about 74 cents, dis- 
tributed as follows : 

Cost per barrel 
of blend. 
General expense — labor, live stock, etc $0.04 

Electric power, at 1.85 cents per kw-hr 0.105 

Quarrying 0.025 

Mill operations 0.20 

Net milling cost $0.37 

The process of blending 1 bbl. of straight cement with an equal 
part by volume of tufa gives a resulting product of approximately 
10% in volume in excess of 2 bbl. of tufa cement. For this reason, a 
little more than 1 cu. ft. of tufa cement is put in a sack, A sack 
of tufa cement weighs 83 lb. The cost of milling tufa cement will 
vary with the density of the rock. This cost of 37 cents per bbl. 
of tufa cement applies to all three of the tufa-grinding plants. The 
tufa at Monolith is denser and slower to grind; but, as this tufa mill 
is a part of a larger plant, the milling costs are no greater than at 
the other two places. 



1212 TUFA CEMENT ON THE LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT [Papers. 

Action of Tufa Cement in Field WorJc. — Tufa cement is more 
sensitive and requires greater care in curing than straight cement, 
because it is slower in reaching its final hardness. As a rule, Los 
Angeles aqueduct tufa cements will show as great strength in 7 days 
as the straight cements, and after that period the tufa cement gains 
in strength faster than the straight cement. (See Fig. 2.) The tufa 
cement has to be kept wet longer in hot weather to attain full strength, 
• and is subject to frost longer in cold weather. In slab work, where 
it is supported by forms, the forms should be left in two or three 
days longer with tufa cement than with straight cement. When the 
aqueduct roof slab (which has a span of 11 ft. 5 in.) is made of tufa 
cement, the forms are stripped in 6 days, in moderate weather. The 
particular places for which tufa cement is adapted is in massive work, 
foundations, and in wet places. It is not claimed that it is suit- 
able for high, thin walls exposed to the dry air of arid regions. It 
may be, but this has not yet been demonstrated on this work. 

Gaugings made in arid America show that the greater portion 
of irrigation water diverted in earthen canals is lost by seepage before 
it reaches the fields. A lean tufa cement containing 75% of tufa 
could be used for earthen canal linings, and would be fully as dense 
as concrete made with straight cement. It would have sufficient 
strength to stand up on 1:1 slopes, and it can be given as smooth 
a surface as ordinary concrete. A length of several hundred feet of 
open canal lining of this kind has been put in the open flood section 
of the Los Angeles aqueduct, with 75% tufa. The concrete does not 
show up as hard in the field as the 50% tufa concrete, but it is 
satisfactory. Tufa cement, in being more finely ground, adheres 
somewhat more to the forms than concrete made with straight cement, 
which is a slight disadvantage. In places along the aqueduct where 
50% tufa concrete joins concrete made with straight cement, both 
being a year old or more, no difference can be detected in the quality 
of the concrete by picking into it. Plaster made of tufa cement is 
smoother, and the laborers, after they get used to it, prefer it to straight 
cement plaster. 

Prejudice Against New Cement. — Some cement manufacturers 
take a stand against tufa cement for two reasons: because it is a 
clipjippr i)roduct, with which they would have to compete; and because, 



Papers.] TUFA CEMENT ON THE LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT 1313 

having established a business for a standard Portland cement, any- 
thing which might be considered an adulteration would possibly 
mitigate against the reputation of all cements. This active opposi- 
tion has already been encountered among the cement manufacturers in 
Southern California, who opposed the proposed building ordinance of Los 
Angeles containing a provision permitting the use of tufa cements. 
If, however, a product can be furnished which is cheaper in cost 
and as good in quality, the consumer should have the benefit of it, 
and undoubtedly will ultimately derive this benefit. 

Some foremen and superintendents are also prejudiced against 
the use of a new product. This is true generally in various branches 
of industry, and it applies to tufa cement. On the Los Angeles aque- 
duct, it was found that some of the foremen at first endeavored 
to avoid the use of tufa cement, but now, after the lapse of two or 
three years, and having had some practical experience with it, they are 
willing to accept either that or straight cement from the city mills 
without any hesitation for all classes of work. 

Other Combinations. — Diatomaceous earths are found at various 
places along the Pacific Coast. Their analysis is similar to the tufas, 
which they resemble somewhat in appearance and in physical character- 
istics. A test made with a diatomaceous earth found near Santa 
Barbara gave the following results: 

Monolith cement. 14 Monolith and 

1 to 3 sand. 14 diatomaceous earth. 

3 days 100 210 

7 days 200 300 

28 days 310 370 

3 months 330 620 

The briquettes were made as provided for in specifications for 
testing cements. Only one set of tests was made, and this table is 
not given as conclusive evideiwe. 

In the Hawaiian Islands, the volcanic rocks prevail. As far as 
the writer's knowledge of that country extends, there are no lime de- 
posits suitable for the manufacture of cement. The black basaltic 
lava has been analyzed by the branch of the Department of Agri- 
culture located on the islands, and the following contents determined: 

SiO. TiOo Fe„03 MnjO, K.,0 Na^O CaO MgO FeO Alj,0, 

51.98 1.50 2.90 0.92 0.97 2.70 9.57 5.61 6.84 15.85 



1314 TUFA CEMENT ON THE LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT [Papers. 

It is difficult to grind this lava in the mills. There is another form 
of volcanic material, locally called red clinker, which resembles some- 
what in appearance a cement clinker. Experiments were made in 
grinding with Santa Cruz cement both the basaltic lava and the 
red clinker in a local tube mill. The results are given in Table 10. 
After making the first three tests, 1^% of gypsum was added, which 
improved the strength of the material. All these tests were made with 
mixtures of one part of the cement indicated to three parts of standard 
sand. While the results did not seem to be as satisfactory as those 
obtained with the Southern California tufas, nevertheless, enough 
strength was developed to indicate the possibility of blending these 
la,vas with cement in such a way as to result in an economy. 

It will be noted that the chemical analysis of the lava quite closely 
resembles the analysis of tufa, and it is this resemblance of chemical 
properties which suggested the experiments with the lavas. There 
is a marked difference in their physical characteristics as compared 
with the tufas. They have not been comminuted by contact with water 
as the tufas have, a process which is considered important, if not 
essential. 

Conclusions. — The following conclusions are drawn for tufa or 
puzzuolana cements: 

1st. — The tufa, when finely groimd with cement and used in con- 
crete, combines both chemically and mechanically. Blends of 50%, 
when mixed with sand, give greater tensile strength after 10 days than 
straight cement mixed with the same proportion of sand. The leaner 
the mixture, the greater the relative superiority of the tufa cement. 
In compression, the tufa cement concrete is less strong (20%) in 
rich mixtures (1:2:4), and as strong in leaner mixtures (1:3:6). 

2d. — Tufa cements', in tension, of blends from 30 to 80% show a 
continued growth in strength with age, as far as tested, up to 5 years, 
and in this respect are superior to straight cements which usually 
show declining strengths. 

3d. — The tufa concretes must be handled with greater care with 
reference to both cold and drying, and forms should be left in place 
about one-third longer. In massive work this feature is negligible. 

4th. — From the fact that the tufa cement is more finely ground 
and, in part, combines mechanically with other aggregates, carrying 



Papers.] TUFA CEMENT ON THE LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT 



1215 



the gradation of fineness one step farther, it makes a denser and more 
impervious concrete. 

5th. — Where cements are high priced, a substantial economy may 
be effected if deposits of tufa are available. These conditions occur 
in portions of Western America. The milling cost of producing the 
extra barrel of tufa cement in small plants should not exceed 75 cents. 

TABLE 1(). — Sand Briquette Tests Made with Hawaiian Lavas. 



1911 

Nov. 



Dec. 



1912 
Jan. 



10^ 

10^ 
10^ 
lOJ^ 
10)4 
10}^ 
10J4 
101/s 
10^ 

1014 



10^ 
10^ 
10^ 



Tensile 
Strength. 



(145 
1135 

I 55 
'( 105 

(110 
"( 75 
I .% 
\ 35 

(125 
"I 130 

(100 
1 110 

(125 
1130 

(145 
(145 

(120 
1 120 

(135 
1140 

J 120 
1140 

) 145 
1140 

(130 
1140 

( 55 
1 55 

j 80 
I 80 

j 60 
1 65 



250 

280 

165 
175 

140 
150 

100 
110 

200 
210 

200 
200 

190 
200 

190 
200 

215 

230 

200 
200 

195 

200 

245 
255 

220 i 
225 

120' 
125i 

135i 
150 

1.50 
160 



Brand. 



Santa Cruz cement | 
and sand ) 



Red clinker and sand. 



Lava basalt. 



Red clinker Santa I 
Cruz ( 

Red clinker, 114% I 
gypsum added . . . f 

I Red clinker, 1}4% ( 
'' gypsum added... f 

Red clinker, 114% I 
gypsum added . . . ( 

Red clinker. 1)4% I 
gypsum added. .. f 

Red clinker, 1]4% ' 
gypsum added.. . f 

Red clinker, 1)4% | 
gypsum added. . . f 

, Ked clinker, iys% \ 
f gypsum added... ( 

Red clinker, 1)4% | 
gypsum added... (' 

Red clinker, 1 i.i% ) 
gypsum added . . . ( 

Blue lava 



500/0 
500/0 

50% 
500/0 
500/0 

50% 
500/0 
500/0 
500/0 
500/0 
500/0 
500/0 



50% 



500/0 



Fineness. 



92 



Setting 
Time. 



£13 S 



W g 



O.K. 



The development of the tufa cement on the a.queduct, as is usually 
the case with affairs of this kind, is the result of the co-operation of 
a number of different parties. Mr. E. Duryee, Cement Chemist for 



1316 TUFA CEMENT ON THE LOS ANGELES AQUEDUCT [Papers. 

the aqueduct at that time, conducted the preliminary experiments. 
Mr. G. M. Andrews, who succeeded Mr. Duryee as Cement Chemist, 
has done a great deal in investigating these cements. The cement 
plant is under the direction of Mr. Eoderick MacKay, Mechanical 
Constructor, and William Mulholland, M. Am. Soc. C. E., is Chief 
Engineer in general charge of the work on the aqueduct. The writer 
has been Assistant Chief Engineer since the beginning of the work. 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

INSTITUTED 1852 



PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS 

This Society is not responsible for any statement made or opinion expressed 
in its publications. 



A SHOKTENED METHOD IN ARCH COMPUTATION.* 



By H. a. Sewell, EsQ.f 



In the design of elastic arches, as given by William Cain, M. Am. 

Soc. C. E., the method of single loads is more accurate than that of 

resultant moment polygon, because it computes the moment and thrust 

for each load separately, while the latter computes these quantities 

for all the loads together. Thus, in computing 

:^ (hh) S (y) 
2 {mh' y) = — ^^-^ — ^O'^'' y)^ 

the two quantities in the right member of the equality are so nearly 
equal in the latter method that they must be multiplied out by long 
hand, hence multiplying errors; while in the former the quanti- 
ties dealt with are so much smaller that an ordinary slide-rule will 
usually suffice, thus eliminating false accuracy. 

On the other hand the polygon method requires the computation 
of, at most, only six polygons, corresponding to different positions of 
the live load; while the method of single loads requires as many 
polygons as there are loads to the left of the crown, although these lat- 
ter are somewhat easier to compute. 

Because of its greater accuracy, and because it determines the exact 
position of the live load for maximum moment at any given section, 
rather than assumes its arbitrary position for maximum moments, 
the single-load method, doubtless, would be much more widely used, 

* This paper will not be presented at any meeting, but written communications on the 
subject are invited for publication with it in Transactions. 

t Instructor in Elementary Mathematics, State College of Washington. 



SHORTENED AUCH COMPUTATIONS 




Papers.] 



SHORTENED ARCH COMPUTATIONS 



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1220 SHORTENED ARCH COMPUTATIONS [Papers. 

especially for very flat or verj^ high arches, were it not for the much 
greater labor involved. However, in the following method, the compu- 
tations are greatly reduced, while, at the same time, a check is 
introduced, which cuts the labor of computing moments again by 
making the computations self-checking. 

The summations, 2 (y), 2 (y-), 2 (z), and 2 (z-), having been 
computed for the arch ring by the usual method, the quantities, 
2 (hh), 2 (hhf z), and 2 {Wi' y), should next be obtained for each of 
the trial polygons corresponding to loads unity and horizontal thrusts 
unity at each of the load points, P„. 

The force polygon for load unity and horizontal thrust unity 
is taken so that the pole point is one unit horizontally to the left 
of the lower extremity of the load vector unity, thus making the 
right component of each trial-moment polygon horizontal and the left 
component inclined downward at an angle of 45 degrees. By reference 
to Fig. 1, the following relations are discovered : 

2"' ^'^'') = ^" ' (^^'^ + ('' - ^> (Pn-l'(„-l)) + (Pn-^ + ^«) 



(hk' y) =^ 



O'h' z) + (IV- 








1 

{hJ,' II) + o>„ 









..) 



.). 



in which: 

L = span of the neutral axis; 

y = ordinate at a of arch from horizontal through spring, 00'; 

z = distance of a to left of crown, G ; 

p = distance of load considered from left spring, ; 

n = number of load considered from left; 
hh = ordinate of polygon from horizontal, HH\ 
Thus, each summation is made to depend on the one preceding it 

and the quantities Qj„ — 2hn-o) and /^p„ +■'<;„)• The work ot 

these coDiputations on a hypotlietical flat arcli is shown in Table 1. 



Papers.] SHORTENED ARCH COMPUTATIONS 1221 

In order to make the use of the formulas clear, a case is taken, P^ == P^, 
from Table 1. Then for Pr„ - i) = P^^ ^ (l>h) = 12.77, 2 (bh' z) 
= 504.0, and '2 (hh' y) = '.in.lA; and, by adding the values of z f„ _ j) 

n_l 

= z.^, and y („_i) = y.2 to tlie last totals, we obtain ^^ (z) = 72.77 

■^™" o 

n-1 

and '^ (v/) = 6.9.3. Multiply these latter quantities by the value 

^^^ o 

^t (Pti — P (n - i)) = '^-^'^ ^^^'^ place the products under the values of 
2 (hh' z) and 2 (hh' y) given above; and multiply (p^ — P(n-i)) by 
(n — 1) = 2, placing the result under 2 (hh). Next obtain 

(Pn — y + ^») = ~^« — (-^ —P"} = ^•^'^''- ^'"^ 1^^^^^ i* "^ *^^^ ^ C^'O 

column : then multiply it by z^ = 28.13 and y^ = 4.95, placing the 
results in the 2 (bh' z) and 2 (bh' y) columns. Finally, add the 
(juantities below the last addition, in order to obtain the totals, 2 (bh) 
= 21.49, 2 (bh' z) = 807.7, and 2 (hh' y) = 68.42. 

The check on the totals is shown by 2 (%) being equally distant 
from 2 (bh) for the loads, P^^ and P^^. Likewise, 2 (z^) should be 
midway between 2 (hh' z) for the loads P^^ and P^g. No check was 
discovered for 2 (hh' y) except to compute 2 (hh' y) for Point P^^ 
independently by the usual method. 2 (z) and 2 (y) are checked by 
direct addition. Checking the totals for P^^, checks all the others, 
because they are all carried forward in making the totals. All the 
multiplications may be made with an ordinary slide-rule. 

These summations being obtained, the work is carried forward in 
the usual manner as outlined by Professor Cain. 



i 



AMEEIOAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

INSTITUTED 1 852 



PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS 

This Society is not responsible for any statement made or opinion expressed 
In Its publications. 



THE ECONOMIC ASPECT OF SEEPAGE 
AND OTHEE LOSSES IN IRRIGATION SYSTEMS. 



By E. G. Hopson, M. Am. Soc. C. E. 
To BE Presented December 4th, 1912. 



In a report to the Comptroller of New York City, made by Jolm 
K. Freeman, M. Am. Soc. C. E., in 1900, on the New York water 
supply, attention was drawn in a very clear and forceful manner to 
the enormous proportion of waste incident to the operation of a great 
city water-works system. The subject had been dealt with before by 
other engineers, and has been handled in a very comprehensive way 
by others since, but the writer did not recall at the time ever having 
seen the subject dealt with so comprehensively as in Mr. Freeman's 
report. 

On page 38 of that report there is an interesting diagram show- 
ing the consumption of Croton water hour by hour during a typical 
week. By an ingenious interpretation of related, but more or less 
disjointed, bits of evidence, it was shown that of a daily delivery of 
115 gal. to each inhabitant of the city, only about 40 gal. were really 
used and about 76 were wasted, that is, the proportion of use to waste 
was about 1 : 2. 

It was further deduced that of the 75 gal. wasted, 65 was in all 
probability needless waste, and could be stopped by the adoption of 
proper measures. Naturally, the question arose as to whether it was 
worth while for a city to continue to lavish vast sums in the con- 

NoTE. — These papers are Issued before the date set for presentation and discus- 
sion. Correspondence is invited from those who cannot be present at the meeting, 
and may be sent by mail to the Secretary. Discussion, either oral or written, will 
be published in a subsequent number of Proceedings, and, when finally closed, the 
papers, with discussion in full, will be published in Transactions. 

* Read at the Annual Convention of the Society, Seattle, Wash., June 3~th, 1912. 



1224 SEEPAGE AND OTHER LOSSES IN IRRIGATION SYSTEMS [Papers. 

struction of new works, the greater part of the product of which 
would flow into the sea without benefit to any one, or whether it 
would not be better policy to devote some of this money to internal im- 
provements in works already built, whereby savings equivalent in their 
effect to extensions of the supply system could be effected. Since the 
Freeman report was made much additional information has been gained 
on waste and its prevention in city water-works systems, and it has 
been shown that the amount of what was termed by Mr. Freeman 
needless waste is not quite so great as has been supposed. The ques- 
tion as to- whether enforced economy in use is better policy than in- 
creasing the capacity of the system is still, to a large extent, a debat- 
able one. 

The reasons in favor of moderate consumption and avoidance of 
waste apply with even greater force to an irrigation system than to 
a city water-works system, in spite of the fact that the cost of the 
latter is relatively much higher than that of irrigation works. In 
a great city the cost of water-works is a comparatively light burden 
to the community, the expense to the individual of an unrestricted 
supply of pure water being one of the smallest items in his annual 
expense account. On the other hand, anything in the nature of re- 
striction in use directly affects the personal convenience of each 
inhabitant, and is resented; he often prefers paying an extra trifle 
in order to enjoy not only a sufficiency but an excess. 

With an irrigation system conditions are different. Usually, the 
supply is limited in quantity, and a waste in one direction is imme- 
diately reflected by straitened conditions in another. A system of 
irrigation work is designed to supply a definite quantity of water to 
each acre of land. The engineer makes certain allowances for waste 
and losses by seepage .and evaporation. If his calculations are correct, 
the land receives a. supply considered by him as sufficient, but not 
excessive. If, however, through some unexpected cause, the waste 
or losses are greater than were anticipated, less land can be brought 
under cultivation than had been contemplated, or farmers are com- 
pelled to get along with less water than had been considered necessary; 
hence the results are felt immediately and directly. 

In the case of irrigation, as with a water-works system, losses can 
be classed as curable and incurable, and it is the writer's purpose 
to consider briefly those classes, as illustrated by works constructed 



PLATE XCVII. 

PAPERS, AM. SOC. C. E. 

OCTOBER, 1912. 

HOPSON ON 

SEEPAGE LOSSES IN IRRIGATION SYSTEMS. 




Fig. 1. — Cold Springs Reservoir, Oregon. 




Fig. 2. — Jointing 46-Inch Concrete Pipe, Umatilla Project. 



Papers.] SEEPAGE AND OTHER LOSSES IN IRRIGATION- SYSTEMS 1225 

by the Government in the JSTorthwest during the last five or six years. 

Roughly speaking, incurable losses in irrigation systems result 
directly through water lost by absorption in the beds of reservoirs and 
evaporated into the air. Curable loss lies almost wholly in that 
absorbed in the beds of canals and other conduits. 

In the great storage reservoirs required for irrigation works it is 
obviously an economic impossibility to accomplish anything in the 
way of preventing absorption or seepage losses in their beds. What- 
ever losses result through this cause must be accepted as unavoidable. 
The engineer, however, must be prepared to accept responsibility for 
results, as his advice or decision on the all-important question of select- 
ing or approving a reservoir site is the only safeguard against what 
may be disastrous loss if his judgment is ill-advised. For this reason 
the writer is illustrating the fundamental differences in conditions 
and results in four typical irrigation reservoirs built in the North- 
west by the United States Government. 

The East Park Reservoir is strictly a storage reservoir, built on 
a branch of Stony Creek, one of the Coast Range feeders of the 
Sacramento River. The dam site is a good one, being a notch in 
a great conglomerate dike or ridge that runs through the country 
in a north and south direction, and the dam is a solid masonry struc- 
ture of the gravity type on an arched plan. The bed of the reservoir 
is practically wholly in the typical California shale. The dam was 
completed in 1910, and water was first stored in the winter and spring 
of 1910 and 1911. Weekly measurements are taken of the influent 
and efl3.uent, the storage, and the rates of evaporation. 

The maximum capacity of the reservoir is 45 000 acre-ft., and 
the maximum area of water surface is 1 690 acres. Table 1 shows 
the results in the season of 1910-11, the season being from November 
1st to November 1st, in this and all the following cases. 

TABLE 1.— East Park Keservoir, 1910-11. 



Percentage of 
influent. 



Influent 

Effluent and losses : 

Evaporation 

Use, waste and surplus. 

♦Seepage 




* No appreciable seepage loss. 



1226 SEEPAGE AND OTHER LOSSES IN IRRIGATION SYSTEMS [Papers. 

This reservoir represents the highest condition of efficiency of 
any of the four described. The records fail to show any seepage 
loss, the only appreciable loss being that by evaporation; thus nearly 
90% of the water entering this reservoir is available for use. 

The Cold Si)rings Reservoir of the Umatilla Project, in Oregon, 
is a good average reservoir, from a Western standpoint. In the 
East it would probably not be regarded as a site of special promise. 
The dam is an earthen one, nearly 4 000 ft. long, of a maximum 
height of nearly 100 ft. The general structure of the country is 
volcanic, ' with vast overlying beds of stratified sands, gravels, and 
hardpan. The valley constituting the reservoir site is the outlet of 
some 200 sq. miles of drainage area with little or no ordinary run-off. 
The reservoir is supplied by a feed canal, some 25 miles long, divert- 
ing from the Umatilla River at times when the latter has available 
water. The capacity of the reservoir is 50 000 acre-ft., and its 
maximum area is 1 550 acres. 

This reservoir was first placed in commission in the spring of 
1908, and has been operated ever since. There are, therefore, four 
yearly records of results. In this ease measurements were obtained 
with unusual accuracy, as practically all the inflow passed over a 
sharp-crested weir at the lower end of the feed canal, and the effluent 
was also carefully measured over another weir below the outlet gates. 
This reservoir shows losses ranging from 34 to 24% of the influent 
during the four-year period. Judging by the record of the past two 
years, it would appear that a fair condition of stability has been at- 
tained in the regimen, in which about one-fourth of the water enter- 
ing this reservoir is subject to unavoidable loss through seepage and 
evaporation. Table 2 gives a summarized tabulation of the results. 

The Clear Lake Reservoir, in California, situated just south of the 
California-Oregon line, is a feature of the Klamath Project. It occu- 
pies a great natural depression or sink, some 25 000 acres in extent, 
at the reservoir flow line. About one-half of the bed consists of a 
natural sink of alkaline water known as Clear Lake which for ages 
has received and evaporated the surplus waters of Willow Creek. This 
reservoir was built by the Government jirincipally for the purpose of 
holding back the waters of Willow Creek, in order to facilitate the un- 
watering of lands marginal to Tule Lake, a body of water into which 
Willow Creek ultimately discharges. The reservoir was intended to 



Papers.] SEEPAGE AND OTIlEl! LOSSES IN' IRRIGATIOX SVSTE:\rS 1227 



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1228 SEEPAGE AND OTHER LOSSES IN IRRIGATION SYSTEMS [Papers. 



TABLE 2. — Cold Springs Reservoir, Oregon. 
Percentage of Losses Expressed in Terms of the Influent. 





1908. 


1908-09. 


1909-10. 


1910-11. 




i 

< 


a 

<D 

u 
IS 


■91 


Ph 


o 


to 

a 
<u 
o 

Ph 


<5 


<U 
Ph 




20 366 

2 400 
4 515 
13 451 


12 
22 
66 


42 820 

4 295 
*4 021 
34 504 


10 
9 

81 


61526 

5 333 

*10 461 

45 732 


9 
17 

74 


72 273 

6 252 
10 878 
55 163 




Effluent and losses : 

Evaporation 


9 




15 


G se, waste, and surplus. 


76 


*Return flow 






865 




508 




182 









combine the purposes of a great evaporating pan and a regulator of 
the diversion cliannel that diverts the discharge of Lost River from 
Tule Lake into Klamath River. More recent plans, however, have 
considered its possibilities as a source of irrigation supply. The 
capacity of the reservoir is enormous as compared with the available 
water supply, being 450 000 acre-ft., with an area of 25 000 acres. 
The dam on Willow Creek is a rock fill structure some 30 ft. high, 
which was completed in 1909. There are two years' records of the 
action of this reservoir, as given in Table 3. 

TABLE 3. — Clear Lake Reservoir. 





1909-10. 


1910-11. 




Acre-feet. 


Percentage. 


Acre-feet. 


Percentage. 




141 000 

mm) 

48 OOi) 
13 OOU 


57 
34 
9 


225 000 
88 000 




Effluent and losses : 

Evaporation 


39 




34 000 11 




113 000 50 









The rate of evaporation in this vicinity has been estimated at a 
little more than 4 ft. in an average year. It will be noted that 
evaporation is the principal loss in the Clear Lake Reservoir, as had 
been anticipated. The seepage losses during the first year were heavy, 
but, apparently, the marginal lands have filled up so that the losses 
in 1911 were comparatively moderate. It is important to note that 
in a year of copious run-off, like 1910-11, as much as 50% of the 



Papers.] SEEPAGE AND OTHER LOSSES IN IRRIGATION SYSTEMS 1239 




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1230 SEEPAGE AND OTIIKH LOSSES IX IliRIGATION SYSTEMS [I'apers. 



supply was subject to unavoidable loss or waste, which, in this case, 
was intentional, the principal purpose of the reservoir being the 
disposition of suri^lus water, rather than its conservation for use. 

The Deer Flat Reservoir, a feature of the Boise Project, in Idaho, 
presents different natural conditions from the three preceding types. 
It does not occupy a natural drainage valley or sink, but, on the 
contrary, is situated on a tint saddle between the hills, the lower ends 
of which are closed by two earthen dams. It has a maximum area at 
high-water line of 9 250 acres, with a maximum capacity of 186 000 
acre-ft. The reservoir derives its supply, as in the case of the Cold 
Springs Reservoir, through a feeder canal, known as the New York 
Canal, diverting from the Boise River some 10 miles southeast of 
Boise. The reservoir was first placed in commission in 1909, and has 
been in operation ever since. The bed consists in large part of silts, 
sands, and gravels, with a covering of from 3 to 5 ft. of soil. Seepage 
losses in this case have been ijronounced from the outset, and con- 
stitute the bulk of a.ll losses. When the reservoir was first placed in 
commission almost 90% of the water entering it was lost by absorp- 
tion in the reservoir bed. In that year, however, the reservoir was 
only filled to one-tenth of its capacity. During the next two seasons 
larger and larger quantities of water were introduced, and the propor- 
tion of losses has fallen appreciably, bvit still remains exceedingly 
high. During the last season about two-thirds of the water entering 
this reservoir was subject to loss through evaporation and seepage. It 
may be expected that conditions will improve at this point as the 
adjacent and underlying strata of the reservoir gradually become 
filled by the constant application of water, but the extent and period of 
these ameliorating conditions are quite uncertain. A summarized 
tabulation of results ,is given in Table 4. 

TABLE 4. — Deer Flat Reservoik. 





1909. 


1909-10. 


1910-11. 




Acre- 
feet. 


Percentage. 


Acre- 
feet. 


Percentage. 


Acre- 
feet. 


Percentage. 




64 000 

4 000 
55 000 

5 000 


80 
8 


130 000 

18 000 
80 000 

32 000 


14 
34 


230 000 

20 000 
140 000 

70 000 




Effluent : 


9 




61 


Use, waste, and sur- 


30 







PLATE XCVIII. 

PAPERS, AM. SOC. C. E. 

OCTOBER, 1912. 

HOPSON ON 

SEEPAGE LOSSES IN IRRIGATION SYSTEMS. 




-mortar-llned laterals and concrete structures, 
Umatilla Project. 




Fig. 2. — Mor.TAK-Li.xiiD Lateral, Umatilla Project. 



Papers.] SEEPAGE AND OTHER LOSSES IN IRRIGATION SYSTEMS 1331 

The foregoing records, while incomplete and faulty in many re- 
spects, are among the best obtainable in a new country, and in any 
event are instructive. The general problem of reservoir losses is 
often given less attention by engineers than its importance warrants. 
In many cases the dam site is apt to monopolize attention, and an 
engineer accustomed to deal with reservoir sites in Eastern river val- 
leys, where the adjacent water-tables are high and the losses are 
generally confined to evaporation, may be led to the commission of 
grave mistakes. A great deal has been said and written about return 
flow. One of the writers earliest recollections jn connection with 
reservoir studies was the discussions in the Transactions of the Society 
between J\'ressrs. FitzGerald, Stearns, Fteley, and others, on ground- 
water storage of certain reservoirs in the East. Mr. FitzGerald's 
conclusions as to the general inadvisability of giving credit to the in- 
visible storage of a reservoir are wise. Save under exceptional condi- 
tions, the writer doubts whether much, if any, additional draft can be 
made from Western reservoirs in excess of the visible storage. During 
the past four years the Cold Springs Reservoir has absorbed some 
30 000 acre-ft. of water in its bed; it has apparently yielded back 
only about 1 500 acre-ft. The Deer Flat Reservoir has absorbed 
apparently 270 000 acre-ft., with little or no return. 

It is important to note that in a reasonably good, representative, 
irrigation reservoir, such as Cold Springs, one-quarter of the water 
turned into it is lost, and that, apparently, under the most favorable 
circumstances, as at East Park, 10% will be lost. 

The main lesson to be derived from these few illustrations is that 
the geologic structure of the site should be given the most careful 
consideration, as it is vital to determine in advance, as nearly as 
may be, the amount of reservoir losses, and whether they are likely 
to be of a permanent character. 

On the Umatilla Project, the cost of the irrigation works per acre 
of irrigable land is from $60 to $70; on the Truckee-Carson Project, 
about $40; on the Orland Project, about $50; on the Tieton, about 
$90; on the Sunnyside, about $50; and on the Klamath, from $30 
to $40; say, an average of about $55. This is a fair indication of the 
general run of costs in large irrigation work in that part of the 
country, and is probably lower than the average costs on newer 
projects, either Government or private. 



1232 SEEPAGE AXD OTHER LOSSES IX IIMiKiATIOX SYSTEMS [Papers. 

The various losses in the water-supply system, as expressed in 
percentages of water diverted, are as shown in Table 5. 
TABLE 5. — Percentages of Losses. 





Reservoir. 


Canal losses. 


Totals. 


Umatilla 


20 

8 





33 
41 
23 
48 
24 
27 


52 


Truckee-Carson 


41 


Orland 


31 


Klamath 


48 


Tieton 


V4 


Sunnyside 


27 







These losses, running from one-fourth to upwards of one-half 
of the whole supply, are, unfortunately, not all. They include only the 
losses from the diversions down to the end of the regular lateral 
systems operated by the Government; but below these are the ramifica- 
tions of the small ditches built by the farmers to distribute water to 
their farms. These farm ditches are usually small earthen trenches, 
in which heavy seepage occurs before the water actually reaches the 
crop. In some cases farmers use water-tight flumes and pipes for 
their local distribution, but the proportion of these cases is as yet 
comparatively small, although on the increase. It has been estimated 
that seepage losses in the farmers' ditches on many projects is not less 
than 50% of the losses in the main canal and lateral systems. Allow- 
ing for the losses in the farmers' ditches not included in Table 5, 
the latter might be revised as shown in Table 6, it being understood 
that the losses in the farmers' ditches are merely the expression of 
individual opinion, not of actual measurement. 

TABLE 6. — Percentages of Losses. 





Reservoir. 


Canal 


Losses. 


Totals. 


• 


Canals and 
laterals. 


Farmers' 
ditches. 


Umatilla 


20 

S 





32 
41 
23 
48 
34 
27 


15 

Ill 
l.'i 

H 
7 


67 


Truckee-Carson 


56 




41 




63 


Tieton 


33 




34 







Seepage losses on the Umatilla Project early assumed serious pro- 
portions owing to the sandy character of the soil and the gravelly 
substrata. With the unlined earthen ditches, as originally con- 
structed, only about one-third of the water diverted reached its proper 



Papers.] SEEPAGE AND OTIIEII LOSSES IN IRRIGATION SYSTEMS 1233 



1907.8 



1 908.9 



1909.10 



1910.11 









:\Iax.\Vntcr in .;; 
Kfsnvi.ir ^ 

I - W i-i 111 i 














^^^^^^ 








t*$;^^>$^^^-^*^ 


Kvaiiiiratioii 



100 



25 



EAST PARK RESERVOIR, CAL. 




COLD SPRINGS RESERVOIR, ORE. 







J^/ ^^\ 


Wasto ami Sill |>lus - 






V////////' ■ 


>■<'' ' 








'^^"^--^^ 






Evapc 


ration 



100 



50 S 



25 



CLEAR LAKE RESERVOIR, CAL. 




DEER FLAT RESERVOIR, IDAHO 
Fig. 3. 



1234 SEEPAGE AND OTHER LOSSES IN IRRIGATION SYSTEMS [l^tpors. 



destination. The works were costly, and the quantity of the supply 
was limited. Unless means could be found to lessen these losses, it 
was evident that the entire area could not be irrigated, and the build- 
ing costs would not be wholly repaid. 




Apr. 



Apr. 



May June July Aug. Sept. 

SUNNYSIDE PROJECT, WASH. 





To(;|I J)iv,.rc;i, , , .. 

/ ^ "iU^iiii Kivi !■ and Kescivoir 


100 


^ 


' ' : Lusttsii. Car.ltjst™ . ■ 


;=:^'=^..-~-.^^C.-Ft , 



June July Aug. 

ORLAND PROJECT, CAL. 




Apr. Jlay June July Aug. Sept. Oct. 

TRUCKEE-CAR30N PROJECT, NEV. 
Fig. 4. 

About equally severe proportional losses were found on the Truckec- 
Carson Project, in Nevada, and on the Klamath Project, in Oregon, 
but in both these projects there is more elasticity, due to their greater 



Piipc'is.] SEEPAGE AND OTHER LOSSES INT IRRIGATION SYSTEMS 1235 

available supplies, and, in the case of the Klamath Project, to the 
small aggregate quantity used. 

Losses on the Tieton and Sunnj-side Projects are probably much 
more satisfactory than in the average well-constructed project in that 




May 



June 



Ju!y 



KLAMATH PROJECT, ORE. -CAL. 




Apr 



iliiy June July 

UMATILLA PROJECT, ORE. 



Aug. 



Sept. 



.otal^}X5£!i2ili?Sra5i, 



May June July Aug-. 

TIETON PROJECT, WASH. 
Note;-Practically no losses in Main Canal 
Fig. 5. 




Sept. 



2G0r 



lOO 



vicinity, due, in the first case, to the complete concrete lining of the 
main canal and the tight character of the substrata of the irrigated 
lands. In the Sunnyside Project, the relatively small canal losses 
are due mainly to the fine texture of the soils. 



1236 SEEPAGE AND OTHER LOSSES IN IRRIGATION SYSTEMS [Papers. 

It is probably a fact that in the average project from 40 to 50% 
of the supply is lost by seepage in the beds of channels before it 
reaches the actual point of application. As the farmer is paying from 
$30 to $90 per acre for this water, the loss is very appreciable. 

In Southern California valuable orchard lands have been under 
irrigation for a generation. Crop values have been very high, and, 
in many cases, the water supply has been so limited that effective 
measures toward conservation have been enforced. On many projects 
in that region the distributing channels are lined with concrete, or 
pipe is used^ liberally. The high values of lands and the scanty water 
supply have rendered these measures not only desirable but necessary. 
Strict economy in use has also been enforced, for the same reason, 
but, in the newer projects in the Northwest, where crops of lower 
values obtain, it has not hitherto been seriously regarded as feasible 
to resort to such expensive treatment. Conditions, however, have 
changed materially with regard to crop values, and many of the water 
supplies which appeared to be inexhaustible a few years ago are being 
rapidly fully appropriated, so that reasons for economy and waste 
prevention are becoming more and more cogent. 

Some interesting experiments ca.rried out under the auspices of 
the College of Agriculture of the University of California, in 1906, 
by B. A. Etcheverry, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E., on various kinds 
of canal lining, including concrete, clay puddle, and oiled surfaces, 
are worthy of consideration. The object of these experiments was to 
determine relative costs and efficiencies of different classes of lining 
in reducing seepage and preventing the growth of vegetation. Without 
attempting to enter into the details of these experiments,* the general 
results showed that the concrete lining alone, although the most 
expensive, gave assured .results. The oiling, as would be expected, is 
very much cheaper than any other treatment, costing only about one- 
quarter as much per square foot as concrete. During the first 
year it appears to be of some value in reducing seepage losses, measure- 
ments showing that the losses, as compared with those in an untreated 
earthen canal, are only about 40% of the latter. The oil seemed to be 
principally valuable in preventing a growth of vegetation. The clay 
puddle lining gave somewhat better results in preventing seepage 

* " Lining: of Ditches and Reservoirs to Prevent Seepage 'Losses,'\Bullethi No. 188, Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station. University of California. 



PLATE XCIX. 

PAPERS, AM. SOC. C. E. 

OCTOBER, 1912. 

HOPSON ON 

SEEPAGE LOSSES IN IRRIGATION SYSTEMS. 




Fig. 1. — Main Canal, Truckee Project, Concrete Lined. 




Fig. 2. — Mortar-Lined Lateral, Umatilla Project. 



Papers.] SEEPAGE AND OTHER LOSSES IN IRRIGATION SYSTEMS 1337 

than the oiled surface. The mortar and concrete linings, however, 
prevented from two-thirds to nine-tenths of the total losses, and, of 
course, entirely stopped the growth of vegetation. 

Apparently, the effect of the oil treatment is only temporary, 
and a year or two afterward, a re-examination of the canals in which 
the experiments were made showed that the growth of vegetation 
in the oil-treated canals was equal to that in those untreated, and 
in all probability the seepage losses were also as great. 

In 1910 and 1911, a lateral on the Umatilla Project was lined with 
mortar, 1 in. thick, and careful measurements were made to de- 
termine the losses. The lateral had been selected for lining on ac- 
count of the very porous character of its bed and in order to reduce 
seepage loss. With the lateral closed at the ends by dams, measurements 
showed that the water surface lowered about 0.1 ft. each day in the 
lined ditch, and by applying this rate of loss to the canal system 
as a whole, making due allowance for velocity of flow, it was computed 
that the aggregate seepage loss in the project, if all the canals were 
lined, would be about 5% of the supply. With the unlined system 
the loss is close to 50 per cent. Subsequent measurements have 
confirmed the above, and, from these and other data, the conclusion 
has been reached, that seepage losses can be kept down to less 
than 10% of the amount diverted, if good linings are placed. 

During the past two years much canal and ditch lining has been 
placed on Government projects in the Northwest. These linings are 
from 1 to 1 in. thick, depending on the size of the canal and the con- 
ditions. The heavy linings are of regular sand and gravel concrete hav- 
ing about 1 part of cement to 8 parts of sand and gravel. They are 
generally placed without forms, the sides of the channel being trued 
up and a rather dry mix being used. The cost has usually been 
about $6 per yd. The great bulk of the ditch lining, however, has not 
been of regular gravel concrete but of mortar, which is usually com- 
posed of 1 part of cement to 4 parts of sand. Before placing the mortar 
the ditches are carefully trued up by running a movable form or 
templet along their courses, and wetting and tamping the earth 
around the form. Immediately after the form is removed, the mortar 
is pla.ced and kept damp until it has set well. It is jointed usually at 
about 4-ft. intervals in order to take care of temperature shrinkage. This 



I'ioH SEEPAGE AND OTHER LOSSES IN IlUiKiATiON SYSTEMS [Papers. 

lining is done with much rapidity by experienced gangs. The ma- 
terials are mixed in small portable gasoline-driven mixers, and the 
completed canals are kept full of water. The costs of work of this 
kind, carried out on a fairly large scale, for lining 1^ in. thick, rein- 
forced at the top by an extra heavy curbing, run from 55 to 60 cents 
per sq. yd., inclusive of all administrative and engineering charges 
and of the earthwork. In general, the cost of the earthwork is about 
one-third of the entire cost. 

Take, for example, a small lateral of the Umatilla Project lined 
in this way during 1911: The length was 12 400 ft.; the ditch di- 
mensions were 4 ft. wide at the bottom, and 4 ft. deep, with side 
slopes of 1^ to 1; the entire cost of the work averaged $1.05 per ft. 
Comparing a small ditch thus lined with an unlined one, the former 
will cost from three to four times more than the unlined ditch, but 
one of the economic advantages which the lined ditch possesses is the 
greater velocity of flow possible and the consequently smaller cross- 
sectional area of the channel. Another important advantage in lined 
ditches is the avoidance of drop structures. It is surprising what 
a large proportion of the total cost of ditch building goes into drop 
structures which are necessary in order to keep velocities below the 
eroding point in tin earthen channel. With lined channels high 
velocities are not only possible, but desirable, in order to keep the 
channel clean. 

As an illustration of what proportion the cost of structures in a 
distribution system bears to the entire expense of the latter, figures 
taken from the Orland Project in California are given. This terri- 
tory is notably free from topographic irregularities, and the earth is 
firm and good for building purposes. The proportion of cost of struc- 
tures, therefore, would 'be expected to be small. 

The lateral system covers 14 000 acres, and includes 54 miles of 
ditches ranging in capacity from 12 to Y5 sec-ft. Very little ditch 
lining has been placed, but the .structures are all of concrete, the 
cheapest building nuiterinl. Tb.e cost totals are as follows: 

Excavation work $64 376 

Structures 57 632 

Total $122 008 



PLATE C. 

PAPERS, AM. SOC. C. E. 

OCTOBER, 1912. 

HOPSON ON 

SEEPAGE LOSSES IN IRRIGATION SYSTEMS. 




Fig. 1. — TiETON Main Canal, Concrete Lined. 




Fig. 2. — Typical Farmers' Lateral, Umatilla Project. 



Papers.] SEEPAGE x\.ND OTHER LOSSES IN IRRIGATION SVSTEiUS 1339 

The structures included in these cost totals comprise the following- 
types : 

Checks and drops $20 885 

Turn-outs 12 901 

Bridges 9 972 

Railroad crossings 6 924 

Special structures 5 805 

vSpillways 1 143 

Checks, drops, and turn-outs total Jj-"!;} TSO, or 2S<;/; of the entire 
cost of the lateral system. All this cost could not be obviated by lin- 
ing the system, but certainly a very large proportion could. 

With a smaller cross-sectional area, the saving in drop structures, 
and the more direct and economical location possible in the lined 
ditches, the actual difference in cost per acre of land served by lined 
or unlincd canals is comparatively small. It will generally be found 
to be less than $10 per acre, in many cases less than $5. If one takes 
into consideration the operating economies, the lined laterals have a 
distinct advantage by their freedom from breaks, seeped banks, and 
growth of vegetation in the channel.s, all of which should admit of 
a material reduction in operating costs. If these latter savings could 
be calculated from an investment standpoint and capitalized, any 
advantage in first cost of the unlined ditches would probably dis- 
appear, and a substantial margin be shown on the other side. 

While considering canal lining, it would be well to give a little 
attention to the merits of pipe work in a distributing system. Large 
quantities of pipe have been used in the distributing systems of the 
Umatilla, Tieton, and Sunnyside Projects. The great bulk of this 
pipe is of concrete, both reinforced and plain, in sizes running from 
54 in. down to 12 in. in diameter. The sizes below 24 in. have been 
usually made by the dry process, the reinforcement consisting of 
outside wire winding under tension. The larger diameters have 
usually been wet mixed, the pipe being manufactured in yards and 
hauled and laid like cast-iron pipe. Some of these lines of pipe are of 
great length and work under heads running up to 110 ft. They have 
always given satisfaction, from every standpoint. A distribution 
system consisting wholly of concrete pipe would be undoubtedly the 
most satisfactory from an operating standpoint, and although the 



1340 SEEPAGE AND OTHER LOSSES IN IRRIGATION SYSTEMS [Papers. 

first cost would be comparatively high, it might in the end prove to 
be more truly economical than the open-ditch system. With con- 
crete pipe seepage losses are practically negligible. A number of 
tests of different lines of -1-ft. pipe, under operating conditions, show 
the following, all this pipe having a shell 3 in. thick : 

Length. Head. Average seepage per mile. 

1 4 700 ft. 39 ft. 0.07 sq. ft. 

2 5 400 " 28 " 0.05 " " 

3 3 600 " 19 " 0.04 " " 

4 9 800 " 85 " 0.20 " " 

Apparently, the loss per mile in pipe of this size is nearly directly 
proportional to the head, and averages about 0.02 sec-ft. per mile for 
each 10-ft. head carried on the pipe. A pipe-distributing system of 
concrete throughout, under an average pressure head of 50 ft., with 
delivery to each 40-acre subdivision, would thus only lose about 1%, 
which is practically negligible. 

Taking the average of the six projects quoted, the average cost 
of the irrigation works would be $55 per acre with an average com- 
bined loss in reservoirs and canals of about 50% of the entire water 
supply. Of the latter, about 6% is practically incurable reservoir loss; 
the remaining 44% has been classed as curable, that is, the great 
bulk of it can be cured or i)revented if economical conditions render 
such action wise. 

Should the ditch systems of these projects be wholly lined with 
concrete or pipe, the losses might be reduced from 44% to 10%, or 
less, a net saving of 34%, or, say, one-third of the whole supply. It 
is evident, therefore, that either the systems could be extended to 
cover about one-third more area, or if such land is not available, 
the works might be instructed of smaller dimensions and at less 
cost. In the case of works already built, the latter alternative is 
inapplicable, and is merely illustrative of what might have been 
done, but cannot be helped now. The lesson, however, should be ap- 
plied to new work. In cases where new lands can l)e taken in under 
existing works, consideration should be given to the possibilities of 
extension by lining the present systems. 

Suppose, for example, a project of 20 000 acres costing $55 per 
acre, or a total of $1100 000; if, by lining the ditches, the irrigable 



Papers.] SEEPAGE AND OTHER LOSSES IN IRRIGATION SYSTEMS 1241 

area can he increased to 27 000 acres, there will be first an addi- 
tional cost for the new laterals with lining, which has been found to 
be about $18 per acre in a fairly difficult country, or, for the 7 000 
acres, an additional construction cost of $126 000 will be necessary. 
Secondly, there will be the cost of lining the present ditch system, cover- 
ing 20 000 acres, which, taken at $12 per acre, would mean an added 
charge of $224 000. The gross cost of the extended project, therefore, 
would be $1 450 000, or an average cost of $54 per acre. This, ap- 
parently, does not result in a material reduction in the acreage cost, 
but the great advantage lies in rendering available for profitable use 
the larger areas of land, the conservation of the water supply, and 
the avoidance of drainage evils referred to later. As a matter of fact, 
the process of extending a project already constructed with unlined 
earth canals, by the subsequent lining of ditches, is always much more 
expensive than if constructed de novo with the entire system lined. 

In the case of a proposed large extension of the Umatilla Project, 
it is planned to line the entire canal system from the head-works 
down to the minor ramifications of the distribution system delivering 
to each 40-acre subdivision. At no point in the system will the water 
be exposed to avoidable seepage loss, and when the head-gates at the 
reser^'oir are opened, the Government will have the assurance that 
more than 90% of the supply will actually reach the cultivated 
fields. 

Closely connected with the question of canal losses is the drainage 
problem. On nearly every irrigation project large and frequently 
increasing areas will be found subject to the rise of ground-water. 
The principal contributing influence in most cases is the seepage loss 
from the lateral systems, although a proportion, of course, is due to 
over-irrigation of the fields. On the Sunnyside Project, in Washing- 
ton, some 4 000 or 5 000 acres of the best land was seriously affected 
a few years ago, large areas having been practically forced out of 
cultivation. In this case the Government was compelled to build a 
deep channel at a cost of some $340 000, mainly for the purpose of 
affording an outlet to the surplus water. On the Minidoka Project, 
in Idaho, the drainage feature is one of the most serious problems. 
At Umatilla the seepage water accumulating below the project in 
the Umatilla River has increased the summer flow some 100 sec-ft.. 
and has rendered necessary the excavation of extensive drainage 



l'^4,^ «KEi'AGE AND O'l'IfKR LOSSES IN llIUKiATlO.V SYSTEMS Ifapers. 

ditches through the lower huuls. At Khimath some $40 000 has been 
expended during the past three years on this account, and, on the 
Truckee-Carson Project, it is planned to expend not less than $400 000 
in addition to the large sums already disbursed. There is no ques- 
tion that much relief from this increasing danger will be experienced 
by eliminating from the ground-water accumulations the bulk of the 
canal seepage. It is the writer's belief that, as time goes on, it may 
even be found necessary- for legislatures to require canal systems to be 
lined or otherwise protected from seepage loss, not only in the in- 
terests of ^the investor and water user, but as a reasonable measure 
of conservation when water supplies arc limited. As an engineering 
and business policy, it is well in the front rank, and should be con- 
sidered by all who are building new works or operating and extending 
those already constructed. 



1245 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

INSTITUTED 1852 



PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS 

This Society is not responsible for any statement made or opinion expressed 
in its publications. 



SlM](MFIC^ATr()NS FOR METAL RAILROAD BRIDGES 
MOVAIJLE IN A VERTICAL PLANE.* 



By B. R. Leffler, M. Am. Soc. C. E. 



The excellent paper and specifications for movable bridges by C. C. 
Sclmeider, Past-President. Am. Soc. C. E.,t though (juite general, 
pertained mostly to the connnon swing bridge, or one which rotates 
about a vertical axis. The writer has felt the need of specifications 
covering railroad bridges movable in a vertical plane, which necessity 
was created by the thii'd and fourth track work in jirogress on the 
railroad with which he is connected. The common swing bridge is 
not well adapted to more than two tracks. The writer knows of only 
two four-track swing bridges in operation. 

There seems to be a real necessity among engineers for specifications 
covering movable bridges of this class. The engineer who has not 
given long and special study to this class, which is mostly handled 
by patentees, cannot give adequate consideration to the various designs 
presented to him under intense competitive conditions. These speci- 
fications are intended as an aid to his judgment. 

It is not considered wise, at this time, to enter into a discussion 
of the relative merits of the various patented bridges, the purpose of the 
specifications being to aid in producing a first-class structure for any 
style which may be adopted. 

Some unsettled technical questions are considered, such as stresses 
in wire ropes bent over a sheave, the rating and testing of electric 

*This paper will not be presented at any meeting, but written communications 
on the subject are invited for publication with it in Transactions. 
iTrausactions, Am. Soc. C. E., Vol. LX, p. 258. 



"'i'Si'-i'-J: , SPEClFlC.VriOXS roi; .MOWVIJLE ItAlLliOAD BISIDGKS [Papers. 

motors, the character of the grooves for the lubrication of trunnions 
carrying heavy loads, the designing of keys and key-ways, etc. 

The writer anticipates that the average mechanical engineer will 
not agree witli the views on stresses in wire ropes. lie believes that 
mechanical engineers use methods which are too loose (under the guise 
of so-called practical experience) in designing machinery parts. As 
generally used, wire rope is much over-stressed, principally by being 
bent over sheaves which are too small. Such practice may do where 
the rope is readily inspected and easily replaced, but wire rope for 
supporting counterweights in lift bridges should be designed by formu- 
las which take into account the leading factors affecting the life and 
strength of the rope. A large factor of safety should then be used. 

The rating of electric motors is that adopted by the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers, in June, 1907. Some engineers specify 
a half-hour rating, which usually means a motor of the crane type. 
Motors for mill work are now being made, and are superior to any other 
type for strength and ruggedness ; these are tested on the one-hour 
rating, and are suitable for bridge work. 

Considerable care should be devoted to the design and workman- 
ship of grooves in large trunnions for lubrication. The grooves should 
be large and allow of being cleaned. Compression grease cups should 
be used. 

The design and workmanship of keys and key-ways do not usually 
receive enough attention, as keys come loose and cause damage and 
delay in the operation of bridges. Erectors sometimes use offset keys, 
made in the field, for adjusting the relative position of machine parts; 
but such keys are very objectionable. A key of minimum size, based 
on the diameter of the shaft and low unit stresses, has been specified. 

Cut gear teeth ard specified for wheels transmitting considerable 
power. This is somewhat unusual ; but as most railroad bridges 
are not hand-operated, the resulting smoothness in the running of the 
machinery is desirable. Cut gears add a very small percentage to 
the total cost of a structure. The cutting of cast gears sometimes 
reveals defects which otherwise would remain hidden. 

Two formulas are presented for the strength of shafting, axles, 
etc. This subject is not treated very clearly in works on machine de- 
sign. The use of the term "equivalent twisting moment" is confus- 



Papcrs.J SPECIFICATIONS TOi; :\IOVABLE RAILKUAD BRIDGES 1245 

ing. The formulas conform to the practice in structural designing 
of giving a value for tension or compression, and one for shear, 
respectively. 

The writer believes that bridge engineers often specify too high 
a wind pressure. As usually specified for stationary structures, this 
includes an allowance for unknown lateral forces which are caused 
by a train moving over a bridge. Obviously, a smaller wind pressure 
should be specified for a bridge in motion. A pressure of 10 lb. per 
sq. ft. means, according to the formula, P = 0.0032 V'^, a velocity of 
56 miles per hour. The machinery should be able to hold the structure 
for a pressure of 15 lb. The wind pressure on a long bascule bridge is 
a large item. 

Designers are sometimes too careless in their methods of designing 
machinery, relying mostly on rules-of-thumb or so-called experience. 
All resistance should be separately (and finally in their totality) con- 
sidered. Coefiicients should be adopted for the various sliding and 
rolling surfaces. The resistance of the moving span and attached 
parts should be reduced to a single force acting at the rack or in the 
operating cable. The motor torque for overcoming this resistance, and 
the machinery resistance, should be shown for all positions of the mov- 
ing structure. The best method is to plot curves showing the torques, 
etc.; the time of opening, in 5- or 10-sec. intervals, should be plotted 
as abscissas, and the motor torque, resistance at rack, etc., as ordinates. 

A moving structure is subject to some impact stresses due to its 
own motion, the magnitude of which cannot be found. The coefficients 
given simply express the writer's opinion. 

No claim of originality is made for all parts of the specifications. 
The writer is largely indebted to Mr. Schneider's paper; to J. A, L. 
Waddell and J. L. Harrington, Members, Am. Soc. C. E., for workman- 
ship and material for wire rope and attachments; and to others. To 
some extent his labors have been those of a compiler. 

There is scarcely any first-class technical literature in the United 
States on the bending of wire rope.* 

The writer has endeavored to make the specifications complete, but, 
of course, this was impossible. Some points are not covered, for in- 
stance, a specification should be framed to cover the design of segmental 



♦Attention is called to the article by Chapman, in the Engineering Review, hondon, 
October, 1908. 



]-^4(i 



s I'KC I FJ CATIONS I'OK .\1()\ A I'.I.K KAILKOAI) liUlDGJiS [Papers. 



and track girders in rolling bridges, with special reference to taking 
care of the heavy concentrated load. 

A rough test of the power required to open a double-track trunnion 
bridge of 159-ft. span, weighing, for parls in motion: 

Machinery 156 877 lb. 

(Steel) Counterweight.... 538 31. '5 '^ Counterweight truss-link plate. 

Span 7!»7 001) " Operating struts. 

Concrete 2 570 000 '- 







5 062 199 lb. = 


Test of IPower: 






Controller 






notches. 


Volts. 


Amperes 


1 


212 


150 


2 


210 


200 


3 


210 


200 


4 


210 


250 


5 


210 


200 


6 


210 


190 


7 


201 


350 


8 


201 


225 


9 


201 


375 


10 


201 


300 


1 


219 


60 


2 


219 


60 


3 


219 


60 


4 


219 


75 


5 


219 


75 





219 


75 




205 


250 


8 


205 


225 


n 


205 


200 


10 


205 


200 


Average of^ 


205 


240 


readings of ,- 






auothcrtest. ) 


21() 


'.).■') 



Time required to open 
2 mill. 20 sec. 



Time required to close 
2 min. 



( Time required to open 
} 2 mill. 15 sec. 

( Time required to close 
I 2 mill. 



l*ajjei-: 



SI'EClKiOA rloXS Kolt M()\A15LK ItAll.liOA I) BK'IDGES 



12-t^ 



SPECIFICATIONS FOR BRIDGES MOVABLE IN A 
VERTICAL PLANE. 

1. — These specitieations are intended to cover bascule bridges, which 
are such as rotate about a horizontal axis; and vertical lifts, which 
are those in which successive positions are parallel. 

2. — The specifications of The New York Central Lines for Steel 
Railroad Bridges, for 1910, shall apply to movable bridges, except 
as noted herein. 

Manner of Bidding. 

3. — Drums, cylinders, eccentrics, trunnions and their cast sup- 
ports, shafting, pistons, gear wheels, racks, boxings, bearings, coup- 
lings, disks, cast sheaves and wheels, worm gearing, valves, pins about 
the axis of which the connecting members rotate, whistles, ram screws, 
end bridge locks, rail locks, indicators, cranks, axles, hooks, wrenches, 
and similar parts of maehineiy which require machine-shop work, shall 
be classified as machinery and be paid for at a common price per 
pound. Electric motors are not classified as machinery. 

4. — The large sheaves of vertical lift bridges, the webs and dia- 
phragms of which are built up with plates, angles, and rivets, shall be 
paid for at a separate price per pound of finished weight including 
casings and fastenings to trunnions. 

5. — Air compressor tanks and steam boilers shall be paid for at a 
separate price. 

6. — Wire ropes and cables shall be paid for at a separate price per 
pound. 

7. — The sockets, ])ins, equalizing levers, and cable attachments to 
the trusses and counterweights shall be paid for at a separate price 
per pound. 

8. — Structural steel supporting the machinery proper, counterweight 
frames, counterweight trusses, towers, and links shall be classified as 
structural steel and be paid for at the same price per pound as for 
the span itself. 

9. — Structural steel which can be fabricated by the common shop 
methods as punching, reaming, drilling, shearing, planing, etc., as is 
usually done for stationary structures, shall be classified as structural 
steel and be paid for at the same price per pound as for the span itself. 

10. — Segmental girders in rolling bascule bridges and the horizontal 
girders on which they roll shall be paid for at a separate price per 
pound. This does not include any bracing, floor system, or other 
structural members which may be attached. 

11. — Electric equipment, such as wiring, switch-boards, controllers, 
lights, blow-outs, cut-offs, solenoids, switches, motors, etc., shall be paid 
for on a lump-sum basis. 



Scope. 



Parti? 

Classified 

as Machinery. 



Sheaves. 



Air 

Compressor 

Boilers. 

Wire Ropes 
and Cables. 



Sockets, Pins, 
I severs, etc. 



Structural 
Steel Parts. 



Segmental 
(lirdeis. 



Electric 
Equipment. 



1348 



Sl'KCIFl CATIONS FOK AKMABLE RAILROAD BRIDGES U'apei'S. 



Extra Parts, 
etc. 



Self-Centering 
Devices. 



Rail Locks. 



Air Buffers. 



Counter- 
weights. 



Stairways. 



Girders in 
Rolling 
Bridges. 



Coeflflcients of 

Friction for 

Moving Span 

and Attached 

Parts. 



Losses in 
Operating 
Machinery. 



Time to Open. 



12. — Cast-iron parts ii.sed in covmterweights shall be paid for at a 
separate price per pound. 

13. — Concrete in counterweights shall be paid for at a price per 
cubic yard in place. 

14. — It is to be understood that if any extra parts are needed, 
or any question arises, all difficulties shall be settled on the pound 
price basis as quoted and accepted for the parts in question. 

General Details of Designing. 

15. — Self-centering and seating devices shall be used on the free 
ends of the moving span. Holding and forcing-down devices shall be 
used for the free ends of each truss. 

16. — Designs for bridging the gap between the shore rails and mov- 
ing rails shall be furnished by the Railroad Company. Loose rails 
will not be allowed. 

17. — Air buffers shall be furnished at the free ends of the moving 
span. 

18. — The counterweights shall be easily adjustable. Usually, this 
shall be done by adding or taking away cast-iron parts, or small con- 
crete blocks. 

19. — Metal stairways, with l^-in. hand-rail, shall be provided, for 
access to the machinery, trunnions, and counterweights. 

20. — The reinforcements of webs in the segmental girders and 
track girders of rolling bridges shall be symmetrical about the center 
planes of the webs. The center planes of the segmental webs shall 
coincide with the corresponding center planes of the webs of the track 
girders. 

21. — In calculating the r&sistances to be overcome by the machinery, 
the resisting forces shall be reduced to a single force acting between the 
pinion and operating rack, or in the operating cable. In determining 
this force, the following coefficients shall be used in starting the span, 
and, except for the stiffness in cables, shall be reduced one-half after 
motion is begun : 

For friction on trunnions ^ 

For rolling friction of rolling bridges ^^ 

For stiffness in cal)les ^i^ 

22. — In figuring the machinery losses between the operating rack or 
operating cable and the motor, the following coefficients shall be 
used: for the efficiency of any pair of gears, 0.94; for journal friction, 
COY. The losses of any worm gear shall be taken at 30% for an angle 
of thread 20° or more. 

23. — The time to open the bridge after the ends are released shall 
be as specified on the proposed drawing. 



Papers.] SPECIFICATIONS FOll MOVABLE RAILROAD BRIDGES 



1249 



24. — The force necessary to overcome the inertia and produce ac- 
celeration and retardation for the time of opening shall be con- 
sidered. The machinery shall be capable of stopping the bridge in 
6 sec; for this purpose, the coefficient of friction in the friction brake 
shall be taken at not less than 25 per cent. 

25. — In calculating the dead-load stresses in the moving structural 
parts, for the various positions of the open bridge, such stresses shall 
be increased 25% as allowance for impact. For stationary structural 
parts (as towers, and supporting girders in rolling bridges), to which 
moving parts are attached, or on which sl^ch parts roll, 15% of the 
static load shall be added as impact. 

26. — In structural steel parts, where a percentage of the dead load 
or static load is added for impact, the unit stresses for stationary 
structures shall be used; the impact percentages are an allowance 
similar to that provided by an impact formula for stationary railroad 
bridges. 

27. — The allowance for impact in trunnions, cables, cable attach- 
ments, and machinery parts is taken care of by lowered unit stresses. 

28. — The least wind pressure to be assumed in proportioning the 
machinery or moving parts shall be 15 lb. per sq. ft. on the exposed 
surfaces of the moving parts as projected on any vertical plane. The 
machinery shall be strong enough to hold the moving parts in any 
position for this pressure, and be capable of opening the bridge in 
the specified time at 10 lb. per sq. ft. wind pressure. 

28a. — On the ordinary open-floor bridge with ties, the exposed sur- 
face to wind shall be taken equal to 80% of a full quadrilateral the 
width of which is the distance from center to center of trusses and 
the length of which is that of the moving span. 

29. — The Contractor shall make complete detailed drawings of the 
machinery, so that any other shop can take them and duplicate the 
machinery. No reference to patterns or individual shop practices will 
be considered in lieu of the complete drawings. These drawings shall 
show a general outline of the assembled machinery. The drawings 
shall be made on tracing cloth, each sheet 24 by 36 in. in outside 
dimensions. These drawings shall become the property of the Rail- 
road Company on the completion of the job. 

30. — The Contractor shall furnish an outline drawing of the ma- 
chinery, on which are shown the forces acting on the gear teeth, the 
twisting moment and bending moment on shafts, and other necessary 
information for checking the strength of the machine parts. A tabula- 
tion of the formulas and methods of calculation shall be shown com- 
plete enough to allow them to be checked. 

31.- — The Contractor shall show by a drawing of curves the torque 
to be exerted by the motor or prime mover, as follows : 



Inertia. 



Impact in 

Structural 

Parts. 



Impact for 
Machinery 
Parts, etc. 

Wind 
Pressure. 



Detailed 
Drawings. 



Outline 
Drawing of 
Machinery. 



Torque 
Curves. 



1250 



siM':<'l I'lcATloxs I'oi; 



.\l()\ \i;i.l'; KAIIJIOAI) l51!lD(iKS 1 1'apors. 



Center of 
(jiavity. 



Hand 
Operation. 



Kind of 
Material. 



1. A torque curve for acceleration and retardation; 

2. A torque curve for the frictional resistances; 

3. A torque curve for any inibalanced condition of the structure; 

4. A torqne curve for the wind load ; 

5. A torcjuc curve showing the great*>st combination of resistances 

acting at any one time. 

In figuring the friction at starting (this being twice the running fric- 
tion), no acceleration of the moving mass shall be considered. This 
friction shall be considered as reduced to the running friction in the 
first second after the power is applied. 

32. — The Contractor shall check the location of the center of gravity 
of the moving span, including all parts attached thereto, and also the 
location of the center of gravity of the counterweight, including 
counterweight girders and trusses, by computations based on accurate 
weights calculated from shop plans. He shall submit duplicate 
sketches and copies of these computations accompanied by weight bills 
to the Railroad Company for approval. 

33. — All bridges shall be equipped with hand-operating mechanism. 
The number of men and the time required to operate shall be esti- 
mated on the assumption that the force one man can exert on a lever 
is 40 lb. with a speed of 160 ft. per min. developing about i h.p. For 
calculating the strength of the machinery, the power of one man shall 
be assumed as 125 lb., but 1.50 lb. shall be the minimum used and 
applied to the extreme end of a lever. 

Operating Machinery. 

34. — The parts shall be simple in design, and easily erected, in- 
spected, adjusted, and taken apart. The fastenings shall hold the 
parts in place securely after they have been set. 

35. — Rolled or forged steel shall be used for bolts, nuts, keys, 
cotters, pins, a.\>s, screws, worms, piston rods, trunnions, and crane 
hooks, if any. 

36. — Trunnions, pins, and shafting more than 3i in. in diameter 
shall be of forged structural steel. Shafting 3^- in. or less in diameter 
may be of cold-rolled 'steel. 

37. — Forged or cast steel shall be used for levers, cranks, and con- 
necting rods. 

38. — Cast steel, or forged steel, shall be used for couplings, end 
shoes, racks, toothed wheels, brake wheels, drums, sheaves, and hangers 
where the supported weight will cause tensile stresses. Large sheaves 
may be built of structural steel. 

39. — Pinions shall bo made of forged steel, and cut from the solid 

metal. 

39f,. — Pinions shall have not less than fifteen teeth. 



I'ilpciv 



Sl'KCIFICATIOXS FOi; MOVABLE UAILUOAD BUIDGKS 



1251 



40. — Sockets used for holding the ends of wire ropes shall be 
forged without welds, from the solid steel. 

41. — Cast iron may be used in boxes for shafts 2 in. or less in 
diameter, and which obviously carry light loads. Other boxes shall 
be of cast steel. 

42. — Cast iron may be used in eccentrics, cylinders, pistons, fly 
wheels, and parts of motors which are usually made of cast iron. Cast 
iron shall not be used for any trunnion or axle support. 

43. — Phosphor-bronze, brass, and Babbitt metal shall be used for 
the bushing or lining of journal bearings and other rotating or sliding 
surfaces, to prevent seizing. 

44. — Phosphor-bronze, only, shall be used for bushing for the trun- 
nions of bascule and lift bridges, or in any large bearing carrying 
heavy loads. 

45. — The bushings for large bearings, such as for trunnions and 
similar parts, shall be held from rotating in their casings. The 
force tending to cause rotation shall be taken as one-eighth of the load 
on the trunnion or bearing and as acting tangent to the surface be- 
tween the back of the bushing and casing. It shall be practicable 
to take out the bushing when the trunnion is slightly lifted. 

46. — Castings which are to be attached to rough unfinished sur- 
faces shall be provided with chipping strips. The outer unfinished 
edges of ribs, bases, etc., shall be rounded off, and inside corners 
filleted. 

47. — Bolts and nuts, up to IJ in. in diameter, shall have U. S. 
Standard V-threads. Nuts and exposed bolt heads shall be hexagonal 
in shape, and each nut shall be provided with a washer. If the nut 
will come on an inclined surface, a special seat, the top surface of 
which is at right angles to the bolt, shall be cast or built up to re- 
ceive the nut. Bolt heads which are countersunk in castings shall hv 
square. 

48. — Nuts which are subject to vibration and frequent changes of 
load shall have locking arrangements to prevent the gradual unscrew- 
ing of the same. If double nuts are used for that purpose, each nut 
shall be of the standard thickness. Nuts shall be secured by split 
pins put through the bolt. 

49. — Screws which transmit motion shall have square threads. 

50. — Tap-bolts and stud-bolts shall not be used, except by special 
permission. 

51. — Set-screws shall not be used for transmitting torsion to shafts 
or axles. They shall be used for holding keys, or other light parts, 
in place. 



Cast Iron. 



Metal for 
Bushingrs. 



Castings. 



Bolts and 
Nuts. 



Screws. 

Tap-Bolts, 

Set-Screws, 
etc. 



1352 



SPECIFICATIONS FOR MOVABLE RAILROAD BRIDGES [Papers. 



Collars. 



Shaft 
Couplings. 



Keys. 



52. — Collars shall be used wherever necessary to hold the shaft 
from moving horizontally. Each collar shall have at least two set-screws 
at an angle of 120 degrees. 

53. — Shaft couplings, unless of the flexible kind, shall be of the 
flange type, or split muff with bolt heads and nuts countersunk. 

54. — Couplings shall be keyed to shaft. 

55. — Gib-head or hooked keys shall be used for keying machinery 
parts to shafts, except where otherwise shown. The keys shall have 
the proportions shown in Fig. 1, in which d is the diameter of the 
shaft 




Fig. 1. 

4 B is a mid-section of the tapered length. The sides shall be 
parallel. 

56. — If the foregoing shape of key gives unit stresses in shear or 
bearing exceeding those in the table of allowable unit stresses, its sec- 
tion must be increased. 

57. — The key shall be sunk in grooves in both hub and shaft. The 
finish of the grooves and key shall be such as to give a full bearing 
on all four sides, except as taper of key will not allow. 

58. — If practicable, the groove in the shaft shall be made long 
enough to allow the key to be inserted without moving the wheel side- 
wise. After the key is firmly seated, the groove shall extend beyond 

:i a 
the point of the key a distance not less than — - to allow for future 

tightening; the clear distance between hub and hook of key shall 

d 
not be less than v-. 

59. — The depth of ■ the o-roove in the shaft shall be --— , measured 
° 40 

at the side of the groove. 

60. — In the case of large shafts carrying heavy parts, two or more 
keys of special design shall be used. In such cases, the matter shall 
be taken up with the Engineer, for special study. 

61. — The foregoing requirements for keys and key-ways are for 
major machinery parts, the use of which is intended to develop the full 
torsional strength of the shaft, Eor minor parts, the keys and key-ways 
shall be proportioned for that size of shaft in which torsional 
strength would be developed by the minor parts. 



rapeis.l SPKCinCATIONS 1-OR MOVABLE RAILROAD BRIDGES 



1353 



62. — Keys shall be held in place by set-screws. 

63. — If practicable, the length of the hub shall be not less than 

d 



2d. Its thickness sliall br not less tlian 



The liul) sliall have a 



Set- Screws 

for Keys. 

Hub. 



light driving fit. 

64. — The groove in the hub shall be made on the center line of 
an arm. 

65. — Hubs shall be bored truly at the center of the wheel. 

66. — For trunnions and similar parts, which are designed chiefly for 
bending and bearing, the keys, key-ways, and bolts shall be designed to 
hold the trunnion from rotating. The force tending to cause rotation 
shall be taken at one-fourth the load on the trunnion, and shall be 
taken as acting at the circumference of the trunnion. 

6Y. — Journals shall be proportioned to resist, not only the various 
stresses to which they are subjected, without exceeding the permissible 
fiber and bearing stresses, but also to prevent a tendency to heat and 
seize. 

68. — Steel bearings carrying steel shafts or journals shall be lined 
with bronze or brass. If shafts are 3 in. or less in diameter and 
of a slow motion. Babbitt metal may be used. Bearings of steel on steel 
for moving surfaces will not be allowed. 

68a. — Divided journal and trunnion bearings shall be used, and 
the cap shall be fastened to the base with turned bolts recessed into 
the base. The nuts and heads shall bear on finished bosses cast on the 
bearing. 

69. — In cast-iron boxes carrying light shafts, no lining is needed. 

70. — The bearings of shafts shall be placed as near to the points 
of loading as possible. 

Yl.- — The foot-steps of vertical shafts shall he of axle or tool steel, 
and shall run on bronze disks. 

72. — Provision shall be made for the effective lubrication of journals, 
or any other sliding svirfaces. Closed oil or compression grease cups 
shall be used. Grooves shall be cut in the surface of the trunnion 
to provide for the proper distribution of grease or oil. 

73. — The grooves in large trunnions shall approximate to a U shape; 
the size shall be 8uch that a wire yV i^^- i" diameter may lie wholly 
within the groove. The edge of the U shall be rounded to a radius 
of ^ in. 

74. — The grooves shall be straight, running parallel to the axis of 
the trunnion. They shall be not less than three in number, and 
located so that all parts of the bearing surface of the bushing will 
be swept by the contained lubricant in an opening, and in a closing 
of the bridge. The grooves must allow of being cleaned with a wire. 

75. — ^In any trunnion bearing, or similar heavy bearings, strong 
compression grease cups shall be used for the grooves. 



Keys in 
Trunnions. 



Journals. 



Bushings. 



Boxes. 



Lubrication. 



Grease 
Grooves. 



Grease Cups. 



l^^rA 



.sria'iFicA'rioNs vou monap.i.I': iimi.K'oau BuiixiK.s Ll'apers. 



Dust Covers. 



Shaft Supports 
aud Couplings. 



Equalizing 
Uears . 

Unsupported 

Length of 

Shafts. 



Ffrrmulas 
for Shafts. 



Effect of 

Key- Ways in 

Shafts. 



Distance 

Between Shaft 

Supports. 

Style of 

Gear Teetli. 



76. — Oil and grease ducts sliall be located so that the lubricant will 
flow by gravity toward the bearing' surface. 

77. — Dust covers shall b(^ provided for principal bearings, in par- 
ticular for trunnions. 

78. — Line shafts, extending from the center of the bridge to the 
end, shall not be continuous, but shall be connected with claw coup- 
lings. Each length of shafting shall rest in not more than two bearings, 
with the couplings close to the bearings. 

79. — If shaft supports are connected to the lloor-beams, in bridges 
having long- panels, intermediate supports shall be used; these shall 
be adjustable, and are intended merely to prevent the shaft from 
sagging. 

80. — Equalizing gears or devices shall be used to insure equal ac- 
tion at the pinions and operating racks. 

81. — Tln' unsupported length of shafts shall not exceed i = 80v fZ'^ 
for shafts supporting their own weight only ; L = 50 v cZ'^ for shafts 
carrying- pulleys, gearing, etc., where L = length of shaft between 
center of bearings, in inches; and d = diameter of shaft, in inches. 

82. — Line shafts connecting machinery at the center to that at the 
ends shall run at fairly high speed. The speed reduction shall be made 
in the machinery near the end. 

83. — In designing- circular shafting, trunnions, and axles, the 
greatest unit fiber stress in tension or compression due to bending 
shall be calculated by the following formula: 

32 / 3 5 f \ 

Ttd^ \. S S \l J 

84. — The maximum unit shear shall be calculated by the following 
formula : 



S 



= ^»si- 



+ T^ 



85. — In these formulas, f = unit fiber stress in tension or com- 
pression; S = unit shear; d = diameter of shaft; M = the simple 
bending moment, and T = the simple twisting moment. 

86. — If a shaft, trunnion, or axle has one key-way cut, / and S shall 
be increased by one-sixth; if two key-ways are cut, increase by one- 
fourth. If the shaft, etc., is enlarged through the hub, this does not 
apply. 

87. — In calculating the bending moment on shafts, trunnions, and 
journals, the distance from center to center of bearings shall be taken. 

88. — Gear teeth shall be of the involute type, with an angle of 
obliquity of 20 degrees. ■ The roots below the clearance line shall be 
filleted. 

89. — The width of the teeth may be as great as four times the 
pitch, but not more, except for wheels running at a very high velocity, 
as in motors where abrasion is to be considered. 



Papers.J ,Sl'ECli<'lCATiUx\,S Koi; MOVABLE IJAILKOAL) i;i;il)(li;s 



pilch Sli-pngth 
of BevelP'l 



Worm 
(i Oil ring. 



•W. — In estimating the strength of teeth in l)evel wlicels, 
at tlie middle section shall he taken. Gear Teeth 

91.— For the purpose of setting gear teeth accurately in the field Pitch Cird. 
erection, the pitch circle shall he scribed on the ends of tlie teetli. 

92. — Worm gearing, for traaismitting power, shall liavc an angle 
of thread not less than 20 degrees. The worm shall run in oil. A 
bronze or brass collar shall be used at the end of the worm and at tlic 
end of the wheel axle, to take care of the end thrust. The wheel 
shall be of bronze. If a nut engages the worm, the nut shall be of 
bronze. 

92a. — Worm wheels shall have not less than twenty-eight teetli. 

93. — Worms which are to be used for actuating signals, indicators, 
or other minor parts may have an angle of thread less than 20 degrees. 

93a. — Safety guards shall be provided around gears and other mov- 
ing parts where it is necessary for workmen to be while the machinery 
is in motion. 



COUNTERBALAXCIXG, OPERATING RoPES, AND ATTACHMENTS. 

94. — Wire rope shall he made by some manufacturer appmvcd by 
the Engineer. 

95. — The counterbalance ropes shall be of plow-steel wire, and 
shall consist of six strands, of nineteen wires each, laid aro\nid a Ikmiip 
center. 

96. — Ropes shall be laid up in the best manner, and shall be 
thoroughly soaked in an approved lubricant during the process of 
manufacture. 

97. — The counterbalance ropes shall be made from wire which has 
been tested in the presence of an inspector, designated by the Engineer, 
and which, for sizes from 0.76 to 0.150 in. in diameter (the limiting 
values used in counterbalance ropes), exhibits the following physical 
properties : 

a. — The tensile strength shall be not less than 225 000 lb. per S(\. in. 

for wire from 0.150 to 0.126 in., nor less than 230 000 lb. for 

wire from 0.125 to 0.101 in. in diameter; nor less than 235 00!) 

lb. for wire from 0.100 to 0.076 in. in diameter. 

b. — The total ultimate elongation, measured on a piece 12 in. long. 

shall be not less than 2.4 per cent. 
c. — The number of times a piece 6 in. long can be twisted around 
its longitudinal axis without rupture shall be not less than 1.4 
divided by the diameter, in inches. 
d. — The number of times the wire can be bent 90° alternately to 
the right and to the left, over a radius equal to twice its 
diameter, without fracture shall be not less than six. This 
test shall be made in a mechanical bender constructed so thai 
the wire actually conforms to the radius of the jaws and is 
subjected to as little tensile stress as possible. 



Wire Ropes 
and Cables. 



1356 SPECIFICATIONS FOR MOVABLE RAILROAD BRIDGES [Papers. 

Ultimate 98. — The rope shall be made in one piece, if possible. Its breaking 

'^'^Cables^^ strength, as determined by the test described in Paragraph 101, shall 
be not less than 

4 900 lb. if j ill. in diameter. 

11800 " " i " " " 

20 600 " " i " " " 

32 400 " " i " " " 

45 000 " " I " " 

70 200 " " I " " " 

79 200 " " 1 " " 

100 800 " " 11 " " 

120 600 " " 1^ " " " 

148 000 " " If " " 

173 000 " " 1^ " " 

200 000 " " li " " " 

230 000 " " If " " 

264 000 " " li " " 

297 000 " " 2 '' " " 

325 000 " " 2i '' " " 

374 000 " " 21 " " " 

465 000 " " 2i " " 

99. — In case the breaking strength of the rope falls below the values 
cited above, the entire length from which the test pieces were taken 
shall be replaced by the manufacturer with a new length, the strength 
and physical qualities of which come up to the specifications. 

100. — Sockets used in connection with this rope shall be forged, 
without welds, from solid steel. In every case the dimensions shall 
be such that no part vmder tension shall be loaded higher than 65 OOQ lb. 
per sq. in. when the rope is stressed to its ultimate strength, as named 
above. The sockets must be attached to the rope by a method which is 
absolutely reliable and will not permit the rope to slip in its attach- 
ment to the socket. 

101. — In order to show the strength of the rope and fastenings, a 
number of test pieces, not more than 10% of the total number of 
finished lengths wh-ich will be ultimately made, nor less than two 
from each original long length, and not more than 12 ft. long, shall 
be cut, and shall have sockets, selected at random from those which 
are to be used in filling the order, attached to each end. These test 
pieces are to be stressed to destruction in a suitable testing machine. 
Under this stress the rope must develop the ultimate strength given 
in Paragraph 98. 

102. — The sockets must be fastened to the rope so that there is 
no slipping of the rope in the basket. If slipping should occur, then 
the method must be changed until one is found whereby slipping can 



Papers.] SPECIFICATIONS FOR MOVABLE RAILROAD BRIDGES 



135? 



be entirely avoided. The sockets themselves shall be stronger than 
the rope with which they are used; if one should break during the 
test, then two others shall be selected and attached to another piece 
of rope and the test repeated; and this process shall be continued until 
the inspector is satisfied of their reliability, in which case the lot shall 
be accepted. If, however, 10% or more of all the sockets tested break 
at a load less than the minimum ultimate strength of the rope given 
in Paragraph 98, then the entire lot shall be rejected and new ones 
shall be made of stronger material. 

103. — The length of each rope, from inside of bearing to inside of 
bearing of sockets, shall be determined, and a metal tag having the said 
length stamped thereon shall be securely attached to the rope. 

104.— The purchaser reserves the right to test each wire rope con- 
nection, after its attachment is made, up to one-half of the ultimate 
strength of the rope, and, if it shows the least sign of weakness, it 
shall be rejected and replaced. 

105, — The manufacturer shall provide proper facilities for making 
the tests, and shall make at his own expense all the tests required. 
Tests shall be made in the presence of an inspector who represents 
and is paid by the Engineer. 

106. — Ropes shall be shipped in coils the minimum diameter of 
which is at least thirty times that of the ropes, and they shall be un- 
coiled for use by revolving the coil, not by pulling the rope away from 
the stationary coil. 

107. — The equalizing levers connecting the ropes to the counter- 
weights and their pins more than 3J in. in diameter shall be of forged 
steel; pins 3^ in. in diameter or less shall be of rolled machinery steel. 
The levers shall be neatly finished, and shall conform to the dimensions 
shown on the drawings. 

Workmanship. 



Length of 
Rope. 



Facilities for 
Testing Rope. 



Shipment of 
Rope in Coils. 



Equalizing 
Levers. 



lOS. — For the parts of the operating machinery of movable bridges 
which are usually exposed to the weather, the finish shall be confined 
to the bearing, rotating, and sliding surfaces, and wherever it is re- 
quired to produce accurate fits and precise dimensions. 

109. — Castings shall be cleaned, and seams and other blemishes 
removed. 

110. — Drainage holes, not less than | in. in diameter, shall be drilled 
in places where water is likely to collect. 

111. — Unfinished bolts may have a play of ^ in. in the bolt holes. 
Turned bolts must have the diameter of the shank at least yV in. larger 
than the diameter of the threaded portion, and must have a driving 
fit in the bolt hole. 

112. — The backs of racks and contact surfaces shall be planed. 



Play in 

Uuflnished 

Bolts. 



Racks and 
Contact 
Surfaces. 



1^58 SPKCUaCATlONS KOI; 3I()\AI?1>K iiAlLUUAD BUIUGES Li'apers. 

Tread Plates. 113. — The top and bottom of the tread plates and contact surfaces 

in rolHng bridges shall be planed to fit. A full bearing must be made. 

114. — The periijhery and the ends of teeth which mesh with a 
shrouded pinion shall be planed, and the pitch line scribed thereon. 

115a. — The joints between the caps and bases of journal and trun- 
nion bearings shall be planed. The ends of the basi's and surfaces in 
contact with the supports shall be planed. Bolt holes for holding the 
c;ip to the base and for holding the base to its support shall be drilled. 
Finishing f>f^ 115. — Journals and trunnions shall be turned with a fillet at each 
end and at points where the section changes. Trunnions and journals 
8 in. and more in diameter shall have a hole, l^ in. in diameter, bored 
through on the longitudinal axis. Journals, trunnions, and bushings 
must be polished after being turned. The use of a cutter which 
trembles or chatters will not be allowed. 
Grooves. 116. — The grooves in the surfaces of trunnions or similar large 

bearings shall be machine cut. Chipping and tiling will be allowed 
oidy for removing small inecpialitics. The grooves shall be smooth, 
especially the rounded corners. 
Hubs. 117. — Hubs of wheels, pulleys, couplings, etc., shall be bored to fit 

close on the shaft axle. If the hub performs the function of a collar, 
the end next to the bearing shall be faced. Holes in hubs of toothed 
gear wheels shall be concentric with the pitch circle. 
Uiit Gears, etc. 118. — The periphery of gear wheels shall be turned. Gear wheels 
which are part of the train which actuates the moving span, or the 
bridge locks, or tlie rail locks, shall be cut. Machine-moulded teeth 
may be used for actuating signals or small parts. 
Beveled (Jears. 119. — Beveled gears shall be cut. The cutting shall be done by a 
planer having a rectilinear motion to and from the apex of the cone. 
Rotating milling cutters shall not be used. 
Grooves in 120. — The grooves in the circumference of sheaves carrying wire 

ropes shall be turned to a radius which will lit the rope. This is to 
be done after the sheave is completely assembled and permanently 
riveted up. 

121. — At the juncture of the shrouding and teeth in pinions, clean- 
ing, chipping, or other means shall be used to insure the meshing of 
the pinion teeth and rack teeth. 

122. — Threads on worms, and the teeth of worm wheels shall be 
cut and shall fit accurately. Point contact shall be avoided. 

123. — Any two surfaces which slide, roll, or ])ear on each other 
shall be planed. 
Assembling of 124. — Machinery parts shall be assembled on the supporting mem- 

Machioery. ^_^^^.^ .^^ ^j^^ ^^^^p^ ^^^^1 gj^^^ ^^ aligned and fitted, with holes in the sup- 
ports drilled, and with the members in correct relative position. The 
members shall be match-marked both to the supports and to each 



P;ll)0is.l Sl'KCI FIC A I'loNS FOl; :\I(n' A1!LK RATLROAD BTUDOKS 



1259 



other, and re-erected in the same rehitive position; or, if not assembled 
in the shop, connecting lioles in tlie snpports shall he drilled in the 
field. 

125. — The holes in the girders and columns for the bolts connecting 
the main sheave bearings to their supporting girders shall be drilled 
from the .solid through ca.st-iron or steel templets on which the bear- 
ings were set and accurately lined when the holes in the bearing were 
bored. The bolt holes and the bolts shall be turned to the same diameter 
and the bolts driven to place without injiiry to them, the bearings, 
or the girders or columns. 

126. — If trunnions rotate in fixed pedestal bearings, such as the 
sheave trunnions in vertical lift bridges or similar bearings, the 
l)edestals shall be firmly mounted in the shop, the trunnions placed 
therein and covers bolted, the whole, when assembled, shall simulate 
the assemblage in the field as nearly as practicable. The maximum 

W r 

toHjiU' in inch-pounds rt^piircd to rotate the trunnion shall be . 

where W equals the weight of the trunnion, in pounds, and ?• equals 

the radius of the trunnion, in inches. If large structural parts rotate 

about the axis of the trunnion, the trunnion shall be inserted in its 

bushing in the structural part and rotated. If the shop position of 

the structural part is fiat, which is the usual case, the axis of the 

trunnion will be vertical, and there will be no load on the bearing; 

in this case the maximum torque reqiiired to rotate the trunnion 

W r 
sliall lie . At least four complete rotations of the trunnion nuist Ik- 

made. If any grinding or hard turning is found, it must be remedied. 
These trunnion tests shall be made in the presence of the Railway 
Company's in.spector and with such apparatus as will readily determine 
the torque. 

127. — Faces of flange and split nuitf couplings shall be planed to 
fit. The couplings shall be keyed to the shaft. 

128. — A special effort to secure good workmanship on keys and 
key-ways shall be made. 

129. — Machined surfaces shall have a coating of white lead applied 
to them. 

130.- — Machinery which is of the regular standard manufactured 
type, such as steam, gasoline, electric motors, pumps, air compressors, 
etc.. shall be guaranteed by the manufacturer as to efficiency, and shall 
be subject to the approval of the Engineer. Motors shall be tested to 
prove that they fulfill the specified requirements and develop the de- 
sired speed, power, and torque. 

131. — The rating of a motor shall be the horse-power determined 
by the brake test. 



Holes for 
Sheaves for 
Vertical Lift 

Bridges. 



Shop Test on 
TiMinuions. 



Facing of 
Couplings. 



Coating of 
Surfaces. 



Brake Test 
of Motors. 



1260 



SPECIFICATIONS FOIf MOVABLE RAILROAD BRIDGES [Papers. 



A. L E. E. 
Rules. 



Reversal of 
Stresses. 



132. — The electric equipment shall conform to the Standardization 
Rules of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, as approved 
June 21st, 1907. (See "Standard Hand Book for Electrical Engineers," 
3d Edition, Sect. 19.) 

133. — The unit stresses per square inch, to be used for parts in 
which main stresses are not increased by impact, shall be as follows : 



Stresses in One Direction, in Pounds per Square Inch. 

MateriaL 

/, 

11000 ('.200 



Tension. Compression. Fixed Beariny. Shear. 

Machinery steel 400 400 — 40 



Structural steel 



Steel castinsis . 



S 500 8 500 — 36 
7 000 S 000 — 35 



5 600 

5 000 

4 600 
•', 000 



Phosphor-bronze 6 600 

Cast iron :', 000 S 000 

Shear on keys 4 i)00 lb. 

Bearing on keys 8 800 " 

134. — The maximum unit tension in plow-steel cables shall be 
one-sixth of the ultimate. The maximum unit tension is equal to the 
direct unit stress plus the extreme fiber unit stress in the individual 
wire due to bending over the sheave. 

135. — For stresses which are reversed at the rate of five or more 
times per minute, use one-half of the above unit stresses. 

136.^ — If wire rope is bent over a sheave, the bending stress and 
permissible load on the rope shall be calculated as follows : 

Let P = the total pull or permissible load, on the rope, in pounds ; 
K = extreme unit fiber stress in the greatest individual wire; 
E = modulus of elasticity = 28 500 000 ; 
a = cross-sectional area of rope, in square inches; 
d = diametei; of thickest wire, in inches; 
D = diameter of sheave to center of rope, in inches ; 
S = greatest unit tension allowable; 
a = angle of helical wire with axis of strand; 
fS = angle of helical strand with axis of rope; 
r ^= diameter of rope. 

Ed co.§.^ a cos.'^ f3 



Then K = 



= a (S — 



B 

Ed cos} a cos.'^ /3^ 



(1) 



(2) 



Papers.] SPECIFICATIONS FOR MOVABLE RAILROAD BRIDGES 1261 

For rope having six strands of nineteen equal wires each, 

P=«(S- '~' ) (3) 

because cos.'- a cos.' f5 = 0.9o, d = — —-• 

10 



c 
l;57. — For haulage rope, six strands of seven wires each, take */ = — -. 

138. — If a rope is in contact with a sheave over a small arc, the 
actual radius of curs^ature may be greater than that of the sheave. 
(Fig. 2.) 

Let R = the actual radius of curvature; 

$ = the angle between the directions of the rope; 
W = pull on individual wire, equal to P divided by the number 
of wires if all wires are of equal diameter. 




Fig. 2. 



4^ 



Then B=_ ^ ^ ,^ 

4 COS. - 

139. — If R is greater than the radius of the sheaves, 2R should be 

used in place of D in Formulas 1, 2, and 3. The formula is only valid 

for between 110 and 180 degrees. 

140. — The strength of cut gear teeth shall conform to the following strengrthof 
, , , , . Gear Teeth, 

formula, one tooth only takmg pressure: 



= fpb{o 



0.912 X 600 . .., 

lo4 — I —■, m which 

n /600+F' 



P = pressure on tooth, in pounds; 
f = permissible unit stress = 17 000 lb. ; 
p = pitch, in inches; 
h = face or breadth of tooth, in inches; 
n = number of teeth in gear; 
V = velocity on pitch circle, in feet per minute. 

141. — The strength of machine-moulded teeth shall be calculated 
by the foregoing formula, taking f = 15 000 lb, 

142. — The strength of shrouded teeth shall be computed as for uncut 
teeth, the purpose of the shrouding being to provide for future wear of 
pinions. 



]3()2 SPECTFTCATIOXS FOI? :\rOVABLE RAILROAD BRIDOES [Papers. 

143. — The foregoing formula is for involvite teeth having an angle 
of obliquity equal to 20 degrees. 
Pressure on 144. — The pressure, in pounds jjcr linear inch, on rollers at rest 

shall be, for rolled and cast steel, 600 d, where d equals the diameter 
of the roller, in inches. 

IJjvit Sthkssks fou Bearing on Rotating and Sliding Surfaces. 

145. — The maximum bearing values for rotating and sliding sur- 
faces, in i)oun(ls per square inch, shall be as follows: 

Vov l)earings on which the speed is slow and intermittent: 

Pounds 
per 

square 
inch. 

140. — Pivots for swing bridges : Hardened tool steel on spe.2ial 

phosphor-bronze 3 000 

147. — Trunnion bearings on bascule bridges: Axle steel on 

phosphor-bronze, average 1 500 

and never greater than 1 700 lb. for maximum bearing 
for any position of the bridge. 

148. — Wedges: Cast steel on cast steel or structural steel. .. . 500 

149. — Screws which transmit motion on projected area of 

thread 200 

150. — For ordinary cases, parts moving at moderate speeds: 

Hardened steel on hardened steel 2 000 

Hardened steel on bronze 1 500 

Tool steel (not hardened) on bronze 900 

Structural steel on bronze 600 

Cast iron on structural steel 400 

Cast iron on cast iron 400 

On cross-head slides, speed not exceeding GOO ft. per min . 50 

151. — In order to prevent heating and seizing at higher speeds, the 
pressure on pivots or foot-step bearings for vertical shafts and journals 
shall not exceed: 

40 000 

( )n iiivots ri = per square inch. 

n a 

300 000 

On journals jf> = per square inch. 

n a 

Where n = number' of revolutions per minute, 
and d. = diameter of journal or pivot, in inches. 

152. — For crank pins and similar joints with alternating motion, 
lhe limiting bearing values given in the above foi'mula may be doubled. 



Papers.l SPECIFICATTOXS FOR MOVABLE RAILROAD BRTOOKS 



1263 



153. — The permissible pressures, in pounds per linear inch of roller 
in motion, shall be as follows: 

For cast iron ?> = 200d 

For steel castings P = 4:00d 

For axle steel P = 500d 

For tool steel p = 800d 

For hardened tool steel p = l OOOcZ 

Where p = pressure per linear inch of roller, 
and d = diameter of roller, in inches. 

154. — The foregoing values are for rollers and bearing surfaces of 
the same material; if rollers and bearing surfaces are of ditferent 
materials, the lower value shall be used. 

Motors. 

155. — The kind of motor best adapted to any particular case de- 
pends on local conditions, and should be left to the judgment of the 
Engineer. 

156. — If the bridge is operated by mechanical power, the motor shall 
be of ample capacity to move or turn the bridge at the required speed. 
All machinery parts shall be designed with sufficient strength to resist 
the greatest pressure which can be exerted by the motor. No matter 
what mechanical power is used, all bridges shall also be provided with 
hand-power operating machinery. 

157. — Friction brakes, to be operated by hand or foot, shall be pro- 
vided where the motor is located in the operator's house. They shall 
be attached to the secondary shaft of the motors wdiich connect to 
the moving gear, and shall have sufficient capacity to stop or hold 
the moving span in any position, under all conditions. 

158. — If mechanical power of any kind is to be used for operating 
a movable bridge, a suitable house shall be provided for the operator. 
The house shall be of such dimensions as required for the purpose for 
which it is to be used. It shall be placed in a position where the operator 
can observe the signals and see the approaching vessels and trains, and 
with enough windows of sufficient size, so that this view will not be 
obstructed. If the operator's house is above or below the floor of the 
bridge, suitable steel or iron stairs with railings shall be provided 
to lead from the floor of the bridge to the floor of the operating house. 
The house shall be of fire-proof construction, consisting of a steel 
frame, steel floor- joists and a fire-proof floor. If the house contains 
motors and machinery, the floor shall preferably consist of steel plates, 
but, if the motors are located elsewhere, the floor between the joists 
may be of concrete construction. The sides and roof shall be of metal, 
concrete or any other non-combustible material. The hand-rail for 
stairways and other plates shall be of l^-in. gas pipe. 



stresses on 
Rollers. 



Mechanical 
Power. 



Friction 
Brakes. 



Operator'! 
House. 



1264 



SPECIFICATIONS FOP. :\roVABLK RAILROAD BRIDGES [Papers. 



Heating of 

Operator's 

House. 



Steam Engine. 



Steam 
Separator. 



Boilers. 



Flues of 

Boilers. 

Horse-Power 

of Boilers. 



Equipment of 
Engine-Room 



159. — Whenever the climatic conditions require it, provision shall 
be made for heating the operator's house. If steam power is used, the 
house shall be heated by a steam coil or radiator fed from the boiler. 
If electric power is used, the heat may be supplied by electricity. If 
gasoline is used, or any other power which cannot be utilized for heat- 
ing, a coal, wood, petroleum, or gas stove, as directed by the Engi- 
neer, shall be provided. 

160. — If a steam engine is used, it shall consist of a double-cylinder, 
reversing engine, the piston speed of which shall not exceed 200 ft. 
per min. ; it shall develop the desired power and speed with a steam 
pressure of 50 lb. per sq. in. The engine shall be connected to the 
operating machinery by an approved friction clutch, arranged so that 
the moving and locking machinery can be operated alternately or 
stopped without stopping the engine. 

161. — In the steam supply pipe, and close to the steam chest, shall 
be placed a steam separator. This separator, under test with quality 
of steam as low as 66%, shall show an average efficiency of 85% in 
five tests. 

162. — The steam shall be generated by one or two upright, tubular 
boilers, each of which shall have twice the capacity of the engine. 
The boilers shall be designed for a steam pressure of 150 lb. per sq. in., 
and shall be adapted to the kind of fuel specified by the Engineer ; they 
shall be of open-hearth steel in accordance with the specifications for 
boiler plates. Paragraphs 246 to 251, inclusive. They shall be en- 
cased in asbestos and covered with Russia iron. 

163. — The boilers shall also be in accordance with the specifications 
of the Mechanical Departnient of the Railway Company, and shall 
conform to the civil laws. 

164. — Vertical boilers shall have submerged flues at the top. 

165.- — The total horse-power of the boilers shall be twice that of the 
engine, and shall be computed by the following rule: Calculate the 
inside area of the tubes, the area of tube sheet next to the fire, and the 
sides of the fire-box where this is in contact with the fire. Take the 
sum of these areas In square feet and divide by fifteen. The intention is 
to allow 15 sq. ft. of 'heating surface per horse-power. At least J sq. ft. 
of grate surface shall be provided per horse-power. 

166. — The engine-room shall be provided with a steel water tank 
of sufficient capacity; a duplex, steam feed-pump; and an injector for 
each boiler, with necessary pipes and connections for feeding boilers 
separately or together; steam water-lifters with necessary strainers, 
flexible hose, and piping to lift the water from the river into the tank ; 
a coal hoist and a steel coal-bin of sufficient capacity. The engine- 
room shall be provided with a suitable indicator for recording the posi- 
tions of the moving span in turning and locking. A work-bench with 



Papers.] SPECIFICATIONS FOH MOVABLE RAILROAD BRIDGES 



1365 



a full set of machinist's tools shall be provided, such as a vise, 
wrenches, chisels, hammers, files, oilers, oil-cans, and oil-tank. 

167.- — A whistle having a bell 5 in. in diameter and 12 in. long, 
shall be installed complete. If operated by air, the compressor and air 
tank shall conform to ' the following specifications : The compressor 
shall be motor driven, the motor and compressor being on one frame, 
and geared. All working parts shall be completely enclosed, and self- 
lubricating. The compressor shall have a piston displacement of from 
25 to 30 cu. ft. per min. when working against a tank pressure of 
90 lb. per sq. in. The compressor shall be provided with strainer, 
and automatic governor and switch, in order that the compressor may 
start and stop automatically at any predetermined tank pressure. The 
air receiving tank shall be 36 in. in diameter and 8 ft. long, or of equal 
capacity. The tank shall be galvanized, and good for a working pres- 
sure of 100 lb. per sq. in. It shall be provided with pressure gauge 
and pigtail, pop-valves and drain cock, and have standard flanges bushed 
for IJ-in. pipe. The Contrator shall furnish all pipe, pipe fittings, and 
valves, and all shall withstand a working pressure of 100 lb. per sq. in. 

168. — If a gasoline motor or other internal-combustion motor is 
used, a low-speed engine of the most substantial kind shall be selected, 
the maximum piston speed of which shall not exceed 350 ft. per min. 
The engine shall have a reversing gear provided with approved friction 
clutches, to be operated by a hand-wheel. The countershaft connecting 
the engine with the operating machinery shall be provided with disen- 
gaging couplings, arranged so that the moving and locking machinery 
can be operated alternately and in either direction without stopping 
the engine. Motors of 10 h.p. and more shall be started by compressed 
air. The engine-room shall be provided with a water tank of sufiicient 
capacity. The gasoline tank shall be located outside of the engine- 
house. The engine-room shall be provided with indicators for record- 
ing the positions of the moving span, and lifting and locking ap- 
paratus. A work -bench with a full set of machinist's tools, etc., shall 
be provided, the same as specified for steam engines. 

169. — Electric motors and generators, if for direct current, shall be 
of the railway series, interpole type, water-proof, with slotted-drum 
armature, and form-wound armature coils. They shall be a standard 
commercial type in common use. 

170. — The coils shall be impregnated. 

171. — Motors, generators, automatic circuit breakers, solenoids, 
brakes, and other electric mechanism shall be tested at the factory by 
the manufacturer in the presence of the Eailway Company's inspector. 

172. — The rating of a direct-current motor is the horse-power output 
at the armature shaft which gives a rise of temperature above the sur- 
rounding air (referred to a room temperature of 25° cent.) not exceeding 



Gasoline 
Motor. 



Klectric 
Motors. 



Testing of 
Motor. 



isfin 



SPErTFTOATIOXS FOT,' :\rOV AIU.K li'AUJJOAD BRIDGES [Papers. 



Toi que of 
Motor. 



Spare Motor 
Parts. 



Mounting 
Motors. 



Controllers. 



90° cent, at the commutator and 75° cent, at any other part after one 
hour's continuous run at its rated voltage (and frequency in the case 
of an alternating'-current motor) on a stand with the motor covers 
removed and with natural ventilation. The rise in temperature is 
to be determined by thermometer, but the resistance of no electric cir- 
cuit in the motor shall increase more than 40% during the test. 

173. — Direct-current motors shall be capable of carrying a load of 
200% for 3 min. with the same temperature rise and momentarily of 
400% without injury, starting cold in each instance. 

174. — The motors under test shall develop the required horse-power 
and torque at the armature shaft. Characteristic curves showing the 
results of the test shall be furnished by the manufacturer. 

175. — The motor frame shall have two bearings for the countershaft 
and shall have a forged-steel cut pinion, out of one piece, keyed to 
the end of the armature shaft and secured by a lock-nut. 

I75a. — If the motor is enclosed in a case, as mill motors are, small 
openings of sufficient size shall be provided in the case for the inspec- 
tion, removal, and replacing of brushes. 

176. — One cast-steel cut gear, bored and key-seated for attachment 
to the countershaft, shall be furnished with the motor. The gear and 
pinion shall be covered by a sheet-steel or malleable-iron split gear 
case, supported by the motor frame and completely covering the gear 
and pinion. An opening, with a hinged cover, shall be provided in the 
gear case for inspection and oiling. The gear ratio shall be such 
that the full speed of the countershaft will not be more than 125 rev. 
per min. 

177. — For each size of motor furnished, the Contractor shall supply 
the following spare parts : One armature, one field coil, one pinion, ona 
gear, and one' set of brushes. These parts shall be finished and fitted 
in such a manner as to admit of being installed in their respective 
places without further fitting or adjustment. 

178. — The motors shall be mounted in such a manner as to admit 
of easy access for inspection and repairs; they shall be supported se- 
curely by brackets or suitable foundations. 

179. — If the machinery and motors are on the moving span, they 
shall be capable of being operated satisfactorily in any position of the 
span. 

180. — The controllers for motors shall be located in the operating- 
house. The controllers shall be of the reversing drum type, with 
magnetic blow-ovit, and shall be capable of varying and maintaining 
the speed of the motors throughout the entire range desired, without 
injurious sparking, and without shock due to sudden variation in 
speed. The controllers shall be capable of doing their work for the 
usual loads, and excess loads, that may come upon the motors, with 
a temperature rise not exceeding that specified for the motors. 



Pitpins.] srECIFICATIONS FOR MO\ABLE KAILROAD BRIDGES 



1267 



ISl. — One controller with the necessary resistances shall be fur- 
nished for controlling: the operation of each main operating motor. 
They shall be connected so that the motors may be operated together. 
182.— The controllers shall be of the series-parallel type; or of the 
type in which the field is varied, as may be done for the interpole type 
of motor. 

ISo. — One controller for direct-current motors shall be furnished for 
the operation of the rail locks, and one for bridge locks. These con- 
trollers shall be designed so that the operation of any motor can be cut 
out by pulling a switch on the switch-board, without affecting the opera- 
tion of any of the other motors. 

184. — An automatic cut-off or short-circuiting device shall be pro- 
vided which will throw out the circuit breakers, cut off the current 
from the operating motors and set their brakes when the bridge is 
5° from its open position, and its closed position. Spring switches 
shall be provided which, if closed and held closed, will put the cut-oft's 
out of commission and thus enable the bridge tender to fully close 
or open the bridge. 

185. — The end lock motor shall be stopped and its brake set auto- 
matically at each end of its travel. 

186. — Resistances shall be of the cast-grid type, and of such capacity 
that the motor can be operated continuously at any point of the con- 
troller when developing full-load torque, or for 10 min. when develop- 
ing 50% over-load torque, without sufficient rise in temperature of the 
resistance to cause deterioration of any part. The resistances shall be 
mounted so as to admit of free ventilation and be without injurious 
vibration. 

187. — The main operating motors, rail lock motors, and bridge lock 
motors shall be provided with approved post brakes which are held in 
set position by a spring with such force as to overcome not less than 
50% of the maximum torque required. The friction surfaces are to 
be of materials not affected by moisture. The brakes are to be release:! 
by solenoids of ample power and heating capacity whenever the motors 
are taking current, and are to be automatically set whenever the cur- 
rent fails or is cut off from the motors. Weather-proof motors shall 
be provided with weather-jiroof solenoids. Brakes shall be provided 
with a foot-switch release for coasting purposes. Means shall be pro- 
vided for mechanically releasing the brakes when the bridge is to be 
operated by hand or other equipment. 

188. — An additional emergency brake shall be provided and applied 
to the main operating machinery. Th's shall be released by means of a 
motor-ojierated mechanism furnished by the Eectrical Contractor, which 
shall hold the brake in release as long as the current is applied to the 
brake motor. Cutting off the current from this brake motor, or any 
failure of current, will result in the instantaneous application of the 



Type of 
Controllers. 



Controllers, 
Where Needed. 



Automatic 
Cut-Ofls. 



Resistances. 



Electric 
Brakes. 



Emergency 
Brakes. 



12G8 



Sl'ECIFlCATIONS FOK MOVABLE RAILROAD BRIDGES [Papers. 



Current 
Supply. 



Submarine 
Cables. 



Qualities of 
Wire and 
Insulation. 



Conduits and 

Minimum 
Size of Wire. 



Condulets and 
Factory Ells. 



Wiring, etc., 

to Conform 

to Codes. 



Minimum 

Stranded 

Wire. 

Wires to be 
Tagged. 



brake. This brake will be normally set, but will be released by the 
operator before starting the bridge, and be held in release during the 
entire operation unless an emergency condition arises requiring brake 
power in excess of that offered by the motor brakes, in which case it 
may be instantly applied by the operator. After the bridge has been 
closed and traffic has been resumed, this brake will again be applied. 
This portion of the equipment shall be designed so that it will not be 
injured if left in release indefinitely. Proper means shall be provided 
for releasing the brake mechanically when the bridge is to be operated 
by hand or emergency-power equipment. 

189. — The emergency brake motor circuit is to be independent of 
the general interlocking system, and there shall be a mechanical in- 
terlocking device which will prevent the main leaf motors and the 
emergency brake from being used one against the other. 

190. — The emergency brake switch shall be attached to the con- 
troller stand within easy reach of the operator and proper labels shall 
be placed back of the switch handle to indicate "Set" and "Released" 
positions of the brake. 

191. — Unless the current supply is taken from more than one source, 
it shall be conducted to the switch-board in two independent conductors, 
one for the supply, and one for the return current. 

192. — Submarine cables, if needed, will be furnished and laid by 
the Railway Company. 

193. — The wiring from the collector rings for the electrical equip- 
ment of the bridge shall be furnished by the Contractor. 

194. — The quality of all wires and insulation shall conform to the 
specifications of the Railway Signal Association, as revised and adopted 
in October, 1911, and contained in Volume 8 of the Proceedings of 
that Association. 

195. — If wires are to be placed in conduits, the conduits shall be 
of ample size, sherardized, and loricated on the inside. No wire less 
than No. 12, B. & S. gauge, shall be used. 

196. — Conduits shall be of sufficient size to allow the wires to be 
easily drawn in. No joints are to be made inside of a conduit. Con- 
dulets and factory ells shall be used. Condulets, ells, and conduits 
shall be sherardized, and loricated inside. 

197. — The wiring, motor installation, and the whole electric equip- 
ment must conform to the underwriter's code, and to the city code, if 
the bridge is subject to city authority. 

198. — Enclosed fuses shall be used. 

199. — No wire smaller than No. 10, B. & S. gauge, stranded wire shall 
be used. 

200. — Wires when installed shall be permanently tagged and num- 
bered so that any wire can be traced from the switch-board to the 
motors, and to the source of power. 



Papers.] SPECIFICATIONS FOI! MOVABLE RAILROAD BRIDGES 



1269 



201. — Ground connections of ample area shall be provided. 

202. — A switch, of the quick-break type, shall be provided for each 
supply wire. Each motor circuit and each light, signal, indicator, or 
other circuit shall be provided with switches which are approved by 
the Eailway Company's Engineer. The switches shall be mounted on 
an enameled slate panel switch-board (not less than 1^ in. thick, 
and free from metallic veins, or flaws) in the operator's house. The 
switch-board shall be large enough to carry the meters, switches, cut- 
outs, fuses, etc. Switches, cut-outs, buttons, etc., shall be provided 
with plates designating their use. 

203. — An automatic circuit breaker shall be placed on the switch- 
board in the operating motor circuit of the bridge. Each line to the 
motor, ea.ch line to the electric brakes, and each lighting, signal, in- 
dicator, or other circuit, shall be protected by enclosed fuses. 

204. — Any circuit whatsoever shall be protected by fuses, circuit 
breakers, or equivalent devices, which will insure the excessive cur- 
rent being cut off before any parts are damaged. 

205. — The feeders shall be protected by a pole-switch fuse and 
lightning arrester mounted on a non-combustible and non-absorbent in- 
sulating base. 

206. — Lightning arresters shall be placed as near as practicable to 
the parts to be protected, and away from combustible material. A 
No. 4, B. & S. gauge, wire should be used for the connection; this 
wire should run in a straight line to a ground plate, and not be con- 
nected to any structural parts. To avoid inductive resistances, the 
wire should not run through a conduit. If a choke-coil is used, it should 
be thoroughly insulated from the ground and other conductors. 

207. — The connections of parts in contact with track shall be such 
as to allow no short circuiting of track signals. 

208. — Electric contacts shall be protected from the weather or ac- 
cumulations of dirt. 

209. — Motors must be housed in weather-proof metal housing. This 
housing must be large enough to allow the inspection and oiling of the 
motor. It must be readily removable so that access to the motor may 
be obtained. Ko metal in this housing shall be less than No. 16, 
U. S. Standard, gauge; it shall bo galvanized. 

210. — Solenoids and electrically-operated brakes shall be housed. 

211. — The Contractor shall provide and install electric light indi- 
cators for the purpose of showing the operator the various positions 
of the bridge, especially the fully open, entirely closed, nearly open, 
and nearly closed positions of the bridge, and the fully open and fully 
closed positions of the rail lock and bridge locks. 

212.— A volt meter, ammeter, and watt meter shall be provided on 
the switch-board. The use of external multiple shunts will not be 
permitted. 



Ground 

(Jonnections. 

Quick Brake 

Switch and 

Switch-Board. 



Automatic 
tJircuit 
Breaker. 



Lightning 
Arrester. 



Short 
Circuiting. 

Protection 
of Electric 
Contacts. 

Housing 
ot Motors. 



Housing of 

Solenoids, etc. 

Indicator 

Lights. 



Volt 
Meter, etc. 



13TU SPECIFIC ATIOXS I'UU MOVABLI': KAILKUAD BKiDUES H^apers. 



Ground 
Detector. 



Lamps for 
Lighting. 



Channel 
Lights. 



Alternating 
Current 

Motors. 



Control of 
Motors. 



Railway Signal 
System. 



213. — The switch-board shall be furnished with one 2-c. p. lamp 
for detecting- grovuid. and a 2-c. p. lamp for illuminating the ammeter 
and volt meter scales. 

214. — In the operator's house shall be placed ten 10-c. p. lights, and 
additional lights about the machinery and such other lights as the 
Engineer may direct. For all lights in the house above ten in num- 
ber, the Railway Company will pay the regular market price or furnish 
them to the Contractor. 

215. — Lights of 10-c. p. shall be placed outside at the head and foot 
of stairways or similar paths. All lights in the house shall have 
tungsten filaments. 

216. — The Contractor shall furnish warning and channel lights 
and signals, in accordance with the U. S. Government requirements, 
or other harbor requirements. 

217. — Alternating motors shall be of the three-phase induction type 
with slip-rings, rotor-wound, 25 cycles and 220 voltage, unless other- 
wise specified. The resistances for varying the speed shall be in series 
with the rotor circuit, and shall be such as to affect evenly all three 
phases. Motors of 5 h.p. or less may be of the squirrel-cage type. 

218. — The methods of testing outlined for the direct-current motors 
shall apply to the altei'nating motor. 

219. — The control of motors shall be electrically interlocked with 
each other and with the signal system, and the bridge shall be con- 
trolled in such a way that the end locks or wedges cannot be released 
until the signals have gone to the danger position and the derails are 
set, or the bridge motor started until the end locks and wedges have 
actually been released. In closing the bridge, the control shall be such 
as to make it impossible for the operator to move the end locks or 
wedges until the bridge has been completely closed or to set the signals 
at safety until the bridge has been closed and the end locks and wedges 
are in place. 

220. — The company will furnish and install the railway signal sys- 
tem, also the master lever and all necessary devices controlling the 
interlock between this signal system and the bridge as a whole. The 
Contractor shall furnish and install the necessary devices for inter- 
locking the various' parts of the bridge with each other and for con- 
nection to the Company's master lever. 



Qualities of 

Machinery 

Steel. 



Specifications for Special Metals Used for Machinery Parts. 

221. — Steel for castings may be made by the open-hearth or crucible 
process. 

222. — All castings shall be annealed unless otherwise specified. 

223. — Phosphorus 0.05% maximum. 

Sulphur 0.05% maximum. 



Papers.] SPECIFICATIONS FOR MOVABLE RAILROAD BRIDGES 



1271 



224. — Minimum physical qualities, as determined on a standard test 
specimen, of J in. diameter and 2 in. gauged length : 

Tensile strength, in pounds per square inch 70 000 

Elongation : percentage in 2 in 18 

Contraction of area : percentage 25 

225. — A test to destruction may be substituted for the tensile test, 
in the case of small or unimportant castings, by selecting three cast- 
ings from a lot. This test shall show the material to be ductile, free 
from injurious defects, and suitable for the purpose intended. A lot 
shall consist of all castings from the same melt or blow, annealed 
in the same furnace charge. 

226. — Castings shall be true to pattern, free from blemishes, flaws, Flaws in 
or shrinkage cracks. When the bearing surface of any steel casting is Castings, 
finished there shall be no blow-holes visible, exceeding 1 in. in any 
direction, nor exceeding ^ sq. in, in area. The length of blow-holes 
cut by any straight line laid in any direction shall never exceed 1 in. 
in any 1 ft. 

227. — No blow-hole exceeding one-half the above dimension and area Blow-Holes in 
will be allowed in any gear tooth, or in the rim at the root of the teeth. ^^^ ^^^' 

228. — The correction of defects in castings, by welding electrically Electric 
by thermit or by similar processes, will not be allowed. ^ '°^' 

229. — Large castings shall be suspended and hammered all over. Testing of 
No cracks, flaws, defects, or weakness shall appear after such treatment, castings 

230. — A specimen (1 in. by i in.) shall bend, cold, around a diameter 
of 1 in., through an angle of 90°, without fracture on the outside of 
the bent portion. 

231. — The number of standard test specimens shall depend on the 
character and importance of the castings. A test piece shall be cut, cold, 
from a coupon to be moulded and cast on some portion of one or more 
castings from each melt or blow, or from the sink -heads (in case heads 
of sufBcient size are used). The coupon or sink-head must receive 
the same treatment as the casting or castings, before the specimen is 
cut out, and before the coupon or sink-head is removed from the casting. 

232. — Turnings from the tensile specimen, or drillings from the 
bending specimen, or drillings from the small test ingot, if preferred 
by the inspector, shall be used to determine whether or not the steel 
is within the limits in phosphorus and sulphur specified in Paragraph 
223 concerning chemical properties. 

Steel Forgings. 

233. — Steel forgings may be made by the open-hearth or crucible Qualities of 
process. steel Forgings. 

234. — Phosphorus 0.04% maximum. 

Sulphur 0.05% maximum. 



1272 81M;cIF1CATIOXW KOI; .MONABLK KAILK-OAD UUlDCiES [Papers. 

235. — Miiiiinuin physioa.! properties as determined on a standard 
turned test specimen of 2 in. diameter and 2 in. gauged length: 

Tensile strength, in pounds jx'r square inch, 55 000 to 65 000 
Elongation : percentage in 2 in 28 

236. — A specimen (1 in. by 2 in.) shall bend, cold, 180°, around a 
diameter of i in., without fracture on the outside of the bent portion. 
The bending may be effected by pressure or by blows. 

237. — The number and location of the test specimens to be taken 
. from a melt, blow, or forging shall depend on their character and im- 
portance, and, therefore, must be regulated by individual cases. The 
test specimen shall be cut, cold, from the forging, or full-sized pro- 
longation of the same, parallel to the axis of the forging and half way 
between the center and the outside; the specimens shall be longitudinal, 
i. e.,, the lenglh of the specimen shall correspond with the direction 
in which the metal is most drawn out or worked. When forgings have 
large ends or collars, the test specimens shall be taken from a prolonga- 
tion of the same diameter or section as that of the forging back of 
the large end or collar. In the case of hollow shafting, either forged 
or bored, the specimen shall be taken within the finished" section pro- 
longed, half way between the inner and outer surfaces of the wall of 
the forging. 

238. — Turnings from the tensile specimen, or drillings from the 
bending specimen, or drillings from the small test ingot, if preferred 
by the inspector, shall be used to determine whether or not the steel 
is within the limits in chemical composition specified in Paragraph 234. 

239. — Forgings shall be free from cracks, flaws, seams, or other 
injurious imperfections, and shall conform to the dimensions shown on 
the drawings furnished by the purchaser, and shall be made and finished 
in a workmanlike manner. 

240. — All forgings shall be annealed. 

Axle Steel. 

Qualities of 241. — Axle steel may be made by the open-hearth or crucible process. 

242. — Phosphorvis' 0.05% maximum. 

Sulphur 0.05% maximum. 

243. — Minimum physical properties, as determined on a standard 
turned test specimen of i in. diameter and 2 in. gauged length: 

Tensile strength, in pounds per square inch 80 000 

Elongation : percentage in 2 in 20 

244. — A specimen (1 in. by J in.) shall bend, cold, 180°, around a 
diameter of IJ in., without fracture on the outside of the bent por- 
tion. The bending tests may be made by pressure or by blows. 



rapt'is.l SPECIFICATIONS KOI; :\1()VABLE UAILROAD BRIDGES 1273 

245. — Turnings from the tensile test specimen, or drillings from the 
small test ingot, if preferred by the inspector, shall be used to deter- 
mine whether the melt is within the limits in chemical composition 
specified in Paragraph 242. 

Boiler Plates. 

24(3. — The steel used for boilers and fire-boxes shall be made by the Qualities of 
, ,, '^ Boilerplate 

open-hearth process. steel. 

247. — Phosphorus 0.04% maximum. 

Sulphur 0.04% maximum. 

248. — The physical properties required shall be as follows : 

Tensile strength desired, in pounds per square inch, 60 000. 

T.1 f • • . • <. • 1 500 000 

Elongation : nunnnum i)ercentage ni 8 m. 



Ultimate strength. 

Character of ^fracture Silky. 

Cold bends, without fracture 180° flat. 

249. — The ultimate strength shall come within 4 000 lb. of that 
desired. 

250. — Chemical determinations of the percentage of carbon, phos- 
phorus, sulphur, and manganese, shall be made by the manufacturer 
from a test ingot taken at the time of the pouring of each melt of 
steel, and a correct copy of such analysis shall be fvirnished to the 
Engineer or his inspector. A check analysis shall be made from the 
finished material, if called for by the purchaser, in which case an ex- 
cess of 25% above the required limits will be allowed. 

251.— Specimens for tensile and bending tests for plates shall be 
made by cutting coupons from the finished product, which shall have 
both faces rolled, and both edges milled to the usual form of the 
standard test specimen, IJ in. wide on a gauged length of at least 
9 in.; or with both edges parallel. 

Nickel Steel for Machine Parts. 

252. — Nickel steel shall be made by the open-hearth process. Qualities of 

Nickel Steel. 
Plates, shapes Rivets, 

and bars. 

253.— Phosphorus shall not exceed 0.04% 0.04% 

Sulphur " " '' 0.05% 0.04%, 

Nickel, not less than 3.00% 3.25% 

254. — The physical properties required shall be as follows: 

Plates, shapes, bars, and Rivets, 

forgings, pounds 
per square inch. 
Miuimum. 

Tensile strength 80 000 60 000 to 70 000 

Elastic limit 50 000 40 000 minimum 



1274 SPECIFICATIONS FOR MOVABLE RAILROAD BRIDGES [Papers. 

Elongation, percentage in 8 in., for plates, shapes, bars, and 

1 600 000 . . 

for<?ings ; and also for rivets = -— — — = mnninum. 

° ° ' Ultimate strength 

Elongation, percentage in 2 in., for forgings = 25. 
255. — Specimens cut from forgings (1 in. by 4 in.) shall bend, cold, 
180°, around a diameter of 1 in,, without fracture on the outside of 
the bent portion. 

256. — Specimens cut from plates, shapes, and bars shall bend, cold, 
180°, around a diameter of three times their thickness, without frac- 
■ ture on the outside of the bent portion. 

257.— Each rivet rod shall bend 180°, flat, on itself, without frac- 
ture on the outside of the bent portion. 

258. — Rivet rods shall be tested as rolled. 

259. — The fracture of all tension tests shall show a fine silky texture, 
of a uniform bluish gray or dove color, free from black or brilliant 
specks, and shall show no sign of crystallization. 

260. — All nickel-steel forgings shall be properly annealed. 
261. — Annealed eye-bars and similar members, when full-sized pieces 
are tested, shall comply with the following requirements: 
Minimum ultimate tensile strength, in pounds per 

square inch T5 000 

Minimum elastic limit, in pounds per square inch. 45 000 
Minimum elongation in 10 ft., including fracture. 12% 
The fracture shall be mostly silky, and free from 

crystals. 
Full-sized pieces shall bend, cold, 180°, around 
a diameter of twice their thickness, without 
fracture. 

Tool Steel. 

Qualities of 262. — This steel is generally used for parts which require harden- 

ing or oil tempering, such as pivots, friction rollers, ball-bearings, and 
springs. 

263. — Tool steel shall be made by the open-hearth or crucible process. 

264. — Carbon 1.00% minimum. 

Phosphorus 0.04% maximum. 

Sulphur 0.04% 

Manganese 0.50% " 

Phosphor-Bronze. 
Qualities of 265. — Special phosphor-bronze shall be used for high pressures and 

Phosphor- , , 

Bronze. slow speed. 

266. — The metal shall have a minimum elastic limit in compression 
of 2Y 000 lb. per sq. in. The permanent set at 100 000 shall not exceed 
To in. 



Papers.] SPECIFICATIONS FOR MOVABLE RAILROAD BRIDGES 1275 

267. — A test piece shall be cut from a coupon to be moulded and 
cast on some portion of each casting. Test pieces shall be 1-in. cubes, 
finished. 

268. — Phosphor-bronze composed of the following ingredients and 
of the following proportions has given satisfactory results: 

Copper 79.7 per cent. 

Tin 10. " " 

Lead 9.5 " " 

Phosphorus 0.8 '' " 

BabUtt Metal. 
269. — Babbitt metal composed of the following ingredients and of Qualities of 
the following proportions has given satisfactory results and a low co- MetaL* 
efficient of friction (0.03 to 0.04) : 

Copper 3.6 per cent. 

Tin 89.3 " '' 

Antimony 7.1 " " 

270. — It is the purpose of these specifications to provide a first-class Purpose of tiie 
structure. They are intended as an aid in designing and fabrication. "■ ''^''' 
The subject of machine design is so great and varied that no single work 
of this character can cover all points. As a further aid in securing a 
first-class structure, the following works will be considered authorita- 
tive in the order named : 

1. Unwin's Machine Design, Part I, Ed. 1909. 
Unwin's Machine Design, Part II, Ed. 1902. 

2. A Manual of Machine Design, etc., by Low and Bevis, 11th 

Impression. 

3. Eeuleaux's Constructor, Translated by Suplee. 

4. Kent's Pocket Book, 8th Ed. 

271. — Machine parts shall be designed, if practicable, by the methods 
of applied mechanics, but such designs shall be viewed in the light of 
experience. It should be borne in mind that machine design is not 
based on the precise methods in vogue for statical structures. 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

INSTITUTED 1853 



PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS 

This Society is not responsible for any statement made or opinion expressed 
in its publications. 



THEORY OF REINFORCED CONCRETE JOISTS.* 



By John L. Hall, M. Am. Soc. C. E. 



In computing the strength of reinforced concrete floor slabs, it is 
usual to disregard the tensile resistance of the concrete. That portion 
of the concrete on the tensile side of the neutral pla,ne is considered 
only useful for covering the steel, for helping to resist shear, and for 
forming a ceiling. A small part of this concrete would ordinarily be 
sufficient to cover the steel and furnish the necessary resistance to 
shear. The remainder is a heavy and somewhat expensive material for 
a ceiling. Particularly is this true in the case of long spans which 
require thick slabs. 

By keeping the reinforced steel in large units, a series of parallel 
concrete joists may be formed, instead of a flat slab. With a thin 
slab over the top, lightly reinforced transversely, the joists become a 
system of small T-beams. The expensive form work of such a system 
is one objection to it, and the preference for a flat ceiling is another. 
To obviate these objections, burned clay hollow tile with plaster ceil- 
ing, or sheet-metal tile with metal lath and plaster ceiling, has 
been used. I , ■ : Aii 

The purpose of this paper is not to discuss the relative merit or 
economy of these several methods of construction, but rather to 
discuss the things which should be considered in computing the strength 
of such a system of joists. Various claims are made as to the work 
performed by clay tile in combination with concrete joists. It is not 

*This paper will not be presented at any meeting, but written communications 
on the subject are invited for publication with it in Transactions. 



1378 



THEORY OF REINFORCED CONCRETE JOISTS 



[Papers. 



the intention to discuss this matter at present. The spaces between 
joists, therefore, will be assumed to be voids. Fig. 1 shows how such 
a system was used in a recent design, Fig. 2 is a section through the 
joists, and Fig. 3 is a section through the beams. Fig. 4, illustrating 
the mode of bending in a beam with fixed ends, is introduced for the 
purpope of reference in what follows. 



Fig. 1. 



I ,i> if l« jR 



F 0,1 !;p, V 



W I 



Fig. 3. 



1^0 



I" 



Fig. 4. 





21 8 Span 

Moment at a(Fig.3) =4540 ft.-lb. 



Reaction R 


= 1C40 lb. 


Moment at b 


=-7900 ft. -It. 


1 "„ " <s 


=-11000" •• 


23 10 Span 




Moment at a 


=5400 ft.-lb. 


Reaction R 


= 1790 lbs. 


Moment at b 


=-9100 ft.-lb. 


•• c 


=-13700" " 



Round Rods are indicated thufi (tj)) 
Square, Cold-twisted Bars are 
indicated thu6(» 



: i^^f tor XI B O] 
^ Extra Bar j-jj(^-|. ■• 23' lO" 



% i> for 21 8 Span 
23' 10" 



-Finished Floor 



i^^^ 



^ 



-^^: 



m^Extra Bar.l-^ iji for 2!'lo'Span V ( ^^ for Zl'S'Span I F 



Span (2l'8 skown.) 



i Fig. 5. 

TYPICAL DETAIL OF FLOOR JOIST 

The bending moment of a. simple beam resting freely on end 
supports is determined solely by the amount and distribution of the 
load (including the weight of the beam itself), entirely regardless of 
its sectional shape or materials. 

In a continuous beam, however, the bending moment depends on 
the amount and distribution of loads and also on the elastic curve 
or deflection of the beam. The elastic curve is influenced by the 
shape and composition of the beam. What the actual bending 
moments are in reinforced concrete, therefore, is not known. It is 
a matter of much difference of opinion among engineers, as shown 



Papers.] TTTEORY OF REINFORCED CONCRETE JOISTS 1279 

by the discussion before this Society following the Progress Report 
of the Special Committee on Concrete and Reinforced Concrete. 

As commonly given in books on mechanics, the bending moments 
and reactions for continuous beams are calculated for the ideal case 
of hom.ogeneous beams of uniform sections resting freely on level sup- 
ports evenly spaced. Such cases do not occur in building construc- 
tion. After many tests of actual construction, the formulas given 
in the building laws, although based on the ideal case, are recognized 
as safe, and are in general use; yet it is well to remember always that 
these formulas are only approximations. The nearer a design ap- 
proaches the ideal case referred to, the more nearly do the formulas 
approach the truth. Any material deviation in design from the or- 
dinary approximation to the ideal condition presents a case for special 
study and determination. 

It is thought that the laws of deflection and the amount of de- 
flection under working loads are much the same in reinforced and 
in plain concrete. Certainly, the small deflections in reinforced con- 
crete, as compared with those in structural steel, show that in the 
former the concrete is more of a controlling factor in deflections 
than the steel. This theory is consistent also with calculated deflections 
using the moment of inertia of sections containing usual percentages 
of steel. It would seem, therefore, that the reinforced steel has very 
little influence on the elastic curve of the kind of construction under 
investigation, except in so far as it prevents tensional rupture and 
thereby permits higher stresses. In this view of the subject it is 
apparent that the reinforcing steel should be placed so as to resist 
rupture where it would be most likely to occur in the concrete. 

Looking at the floor construction of Figs. 1, 2, and 3, if it be 
assumed that this construction is essentially a continuous flat slab, 
and that the maximum bending moment is at the center line of sup- 
porting beams, then the maximum stress both in compression and 
tension will be along this center line, and the stresses will diminish, 
according to some law, to zero at the line of contraflexure. Sup- 
pose, now, that a large part of the concrete on the compression side 
of the slab be removed at some place between the center line of the 
supporting beam and the line of contraflexure; a plane of weakness 
is introduced which may cause failure where the moment is con- 
siderably less than the maximum. This is inconsistent with the 



1280 THEORY OK L'ETXFOIK'Kn CONCRETE .lOISTS ll'^iu'is. 

premises, and shows that the width of the 12-in. flanges of the 
beams must be considered in calculating the strength of the floor 
slab so-called. 

If it is asvsumed, however, that the con.struction consists of a 
series of joists or small T-beams with one or both ends fixed, then the 
danger section of a joist occurs at a fixed end, where it joins a beam, 
and the analysis becomes straightforward and consistent. It is 
thought, therefore, that the joists should be designed for fixed ends, 
in accordance with actual conditions. 

An objection which might be made to this procedure is that 
the beam flanges, into which the ends of the joists are said to be 
fixed, are themselves capable of deflection, so that the ends of the joists 
are inclined slightly instead of level. This deflection at the edge of 
the flanges, however, must necessarily be very small, being estimated 
according to the I'espective moments of inertia, and is only 40% 
of what it would be at same line if the joist section ran without 
change to the center of the beams. 

The effect of this slight inclination of the supports would be to 
increase slightly the positive moment at the center of the joists and 
to reduce slightly the negative moment at the fixed ends. This reduc- 
tion of negative moment would cause the calculated negative moment 
to err on the side of safety, and the slightly increased positive center 
moment would utilize more economically the excess strength provided 
at the center. 

The negative bending moment along the center line of the beams 
is the sum of the moments of the distributed loads out to the line of 
contrafiexure, and of the concentrated loads along the latter line. 
Any change in design that tends to move the line of contrafiexure 
away from the supports and toward the center of the span, would tend 
to increase the negative moment at the center of the supports. It 
is conceivable, therefore, that the negative moment in the case under 

W L 

discussion mi^lit he somewhat more than — — — . If so, additional 

steel should be i)r()vided in the top of the slab across the beams. 

W L 

The formula, — — — , expresses tlie bending monu'nt at eitlier end 

of a beam of constant section vmiformly loaded and having fixed ends. 
The ])oints of contrafiexure, (Fig. 4), are located 0.211L from the 



Papers.] THEORY OF RPHNFORCEn CONCRETE JOISTS 1281 

ends. The central portion, 0-0, may be considered as a simple 
beam, uniformly loaded. The end portion, a-0, may be considered as 
a cantilever uniformly loaded from a to and supporting at the 
reaction from 0-0. From these conditions the shear and bending 
moment can be readily computed for any section in the length of the 
beam. 

In similar manner, a continuous beam is restrained by bending 
moments at the supports. The points of contraflexure, however, from 
which the moments may be computed, are not located as easily. Their 
position is affected by the number and the relative length of the spans 
and by the distribution of the live loads, whether on some or all of 
the spans, and by other considerations. In order to simplify the 
computations, the building laws authorize the use of the formula, 

WL WL 

, for interior spans, and, - — , for end spans. This method of 

12 ^ '10 ^ 

calculating is only approximately correct. Its error is usually, al- 
though not always, on the side of safety. The formula for interior 
spans is the same as that for beams with both ends fixed. For end 
spans, the formula indicates one fixed end and one partly fixed. 

When applicable, the theorem of three moments permits the ac- 
curate determination of moments and shears for actual conditions ; and, 
if all the conditions are actually considered, it affords a more scientific 
method of calculation than the approximate formulas previously 
stated. The building law recognizes the validity of scientific analysis, 
and caution would seem to require such analysis, if attainable, when- 
ever the design varies materially from ordinary conditions of con- 
tinuity, as, for example, when the spans are very unequal in length, 
or when the conditions of constant section and free support are 
deviated from in any marked degree. 

The features of this design, which vary from usual conditions 
of continuity, are: (1) the massive character of the supporting beams; 
and (2) the sudden change in section where the joists join the 
flanges of the beams. 

The joists in interior spans were assumed to have fixed ends, 
and an attempt was made to determine the location of the points of 
contraflexure. Investigations by F. E. Turneaure, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. 
C. E., indicate that, within ordinary working stresses and percentages 
of steel, the elastic curve of a concrete beam is not greatly influenced 



1282 TH]!:ORY OF REINFORCED CONCRETE JOISTS [Papers. 

by the position of the reinforcement. It appears to be desirable, there- 
fore, to ascertain the natural elastic curve of the concrete joists 
and place the steel where it is needed in conformity thereto. 

Two assumptions were tested: (1) That the ends of the joists 
are fixed at the face of the beam web; (2) that they are fixed at the 
edge of the beam flanges. The location of the points, 0, was calculated 
for both conditions, on the basis of a constant section. 

The position, 0^, Fig. 3, obtained by the first calculation would be 
correct if the flange, F, were as flexible as the joist, J, while the posi- 
tion, 0.,, would be correct if the flange, F, were perfectly rigid. As 
the flexibility of F is intermediate between these assumptions, the 
true position, 0^, must lie between 0-^ and 0,, and closer to the 
one derived from that assumption, which is nearer the truth. 

A beam of the section, F, it was estimated, would deflect four- 
tenths as much under a given load and span as one of the section J. 
It is then more nearly a rigid beam than one of the same flexibility 
as J. The point, 0^, therefore, lies nearer 0.^ and is four-tenths of 
the way from 0^ toward 0^. 

Having fixed the position of the points, 0, the remaining calcula- 
tions are very simple. The typical detail of the joist. Fig. 5, is de- 
signed in accordance with the actual conditions as understood, and 
the necessary resistance is provided. The moments and shears are 
stated on that figure. 

In view of the fact that the moment at the center of the span 

W L 

of a beam with fixed ends is only one-half of , it may be asked 

why this formula is required by law generally for the center of 
continuous interior spans, and whether such requirement would be 
justified in the present instance. Analysis of the spans under con- 
sideration by the ordinary theory of continuous beams showed that 
if only one span be fully loaded, the other spans having dead load 
only, the fully loaded span will have a moment at the center about 

W L 

two-thirds of -- . If tlie live load on one span only were greatly 

increased over the dead load, the moment at the center of the span 
would be increased in a larger ratio; but, in the absence of those con- 
ditions, there appears to be nothing gained by increasing the rein- 
forcement at the center of the span. 



Papers.] 



THEORY OF KEINFORCED CONCRETE JOISTS 



1283 



Again, the theory of continuous beams does not take into ac- 
count the torsional stiffness of the supporting beams, which, in the 
present case, is very considerable. Manifestly, the more nearly we 
approach the ideal condition of fixed end supports for the joists, the 
less influence will be exerted by conditions outside the particular 
span considered, so that the probable maximum moment at the center 

W L 

of the span of the joists will always be less than two-thirds of -— — , 

in this particular design. 

In the detail herewith submitted, Fig. 6, the reinforcing steel is 
disposed in accordance with the foregoing statement of theory. 




Fig. 6. 

TYPICAL FLOOR FRAMING PLAN 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

INSTITUTED 185 2 



PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS 

This Society is not responsible for any statement made or opinion expressed 
in its publications. 



NOTES ON p»kidgp:work. 

Discussion.* 



By William P. Parker, M. Am. Soc. C. E. 



William P. Parker, M. Am. Soc. C. E. (by letter). — The author's Mr. 
treatment is on the assumption that a continuous beam on three 
points of support can be dealt with as two separate beams fixed at 
the middle point and simply supported at the ends. 

This assumption is incorrect, as a load on either span affects the 
reactions on all three supports. 

For any load, W (Fig. 4), the sum of the reactions at 1 and 2 is 
greater than W, while the reaction at 3 is negative. The three re- 
actions, B^ -\- R., + R.^, of course, are equal to W . 

The purpose of the investigation seems to be primarily to find the 
reactions at R^, the intermediate support, for any load or series of loads. 
By the method in the paper, the results give a much less reaction than 
the correct one. The writer, for his work in reinforced concrete de- 
sign, uses the curves in Fig. 4. which give directly the reaction at 
all three points of support for a concentrated load in any position and 
the results from a series of loads can be combined arithmetically to 
give the resultant reactions. With the reactions found, it is easy to 
ascertain the bending moment and shear at any point on the beam, 
and locate points of contraflexure. 

Using the notation on Fig. 4 : From the theorem of three moments, 
for any load in the span, 1-2, TV produces: 
Moment M^ = 
Moment if, = — i "'^ {a—w') 
Moment M^ = 

Taking the center of moments at the diiferent supports, and ex- 
pressing the given moment, the algebraic sum of the reaction and loads 
* Continued from August, 1912, Proceedings 



1286 



DISCUSSION : NOTES ON BRIDGEWORK 



[Papers. 



Mr. 
Parker. 



CONTINUOUS GIRDER OVER 3 POINTS OF SUPPORT 




M.i=-}>i wl {a-a''^) 

Diagram gives reactions at Supports R^^Ri ft" -B3 for a Load 
" W at distance "a" from Support Ej. Lower horizontal line 
represents different values of "a". Where vertical from given 
value intersects the different curves will give directly fo of ''W" 
which goes to each of the Supports. 

For check R^+R.j\-R^=100fo 

ilOO 



90 



80 



60 



50 



40 



30 



20 



90 


\ 














>:p- 






80 
70 

60 

a 
§50 

<D 

cu 

40 


\ 












/ 


















/ 
















\ 




















>i 


\ 


















/ 


K 












30 

20 












\ 






















\ 








10 


^y 






















/ 


-Fs 














3 N. 


^ 



30 . 40 50 60 70 

Values of "a" = ri o£ Span'7" 

Fig. 4. 



80 



90 



100 



Papers.] DISCUSSION : NOTES ON liKIDUEWOIiK 1287 

multiplied by the arms gives three equations. These, together with Mr. 
the equation, B^ -\- R^ -{- B^ = W, make it possible to solve for the p*'"'^®'"- 
values of the reaction, as f oIIovfs : 

R^ ^= -{- wh — i IV (a — a") 

R^ = -]- wh -{- i w (a — a^) 

-B3 = — ■ i to (a — a'') 

These three equations were used in laying out the curves in fig. 4. 
The results from the use of the curves are readily checked, for, 
having found the reactions for a given W, R^ -]- R^ -\- R„ ^^ W. 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

INSTITUTED 185 2 



PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS 

This Society is not responsible for any statement made or opinion expressed 
in its publications. 



THE STRENGTH OF COLUMNS.* 
Discussion.* 



By Edward Godfrey, M. Am. Soc. C. E. 



Edward Godfrey, M. Am. Soc. C. E. (by letter). — This paper Mr. 
is timely and important, not so much because it adds complexity to ° '^®^' 
the already overburdened subject of the theoretical strength of 
columns, but because it affords an opportunity for a skeptical examina- 
tion of the basis of all these column formulas, and particularly be- 
cause any adverse criticism of the basic formulas will no doubt find 
a worthy champion in the able author. 

In the technical press, the writer has repeatedly assailed both the 
Gordon-Rankine and the Euler formulas for columns. A paper on 
this subject, which if not denied ought to have revolutionized the sub- 
ject, he had difficulty in finding a publisher to accept. It was not 
controverted when published, and it has not revolutionized the sub- 
ject; the writer expected nothing of the sort; "what ought to be" and 
"what is" are separate and distinct things. It takes many years to 
pry accepted standards loose from a body of professional men, even 
though these standards are clearly proven false. In the meantime the 
writer has observed and demonstrated in his practice and reading that 
confidence in the Euler and Gordon-Rankine formulas has resulted in 
failure, as the error is so great. 

When the writer was a student he swallowed the arguments of his 
textbooks largely because of the authority behind them. Since he has 
"put away childish things" he appreciates the fact that the highest 
authorities may err, and that error may be in the very subject that 
they know best. He accepted the apparent logic of the derivation of 
these formulas in those days, just as he would now probably accept 
what the textbooks state regarding the supposed strength of presumably 

♦This discussion (of the paper by W. E. Lilly, Esq., published in Auguft. 1912, Pro- 
ceedings, but not presented at any meeting), is printed in Proceedings in order that the 
views expressed may be brought before all members for further discussion. 



1290 DISCUSSION ON STRENGTH OF COLUMNS [Papers. 

Mr. reinforced concrete columns, which are constantly proving, by failing 

° '®^' under a fraction of that strength, that such textbooks are wrong. Now, 

in reviewing his textbooks, he fails to discover any logical basis for 

either the Euler or the Gordon-Rankine formula.s. If there is such 

basis, it is not stated in these books. 

Textbooks say of the Euler load that "under this load the column 
just begins to deflect, and will under a constant load retain any 
deflection which may be given to it, within the elastic limit of the 
material." The writer can find no logical proof of this in the deriva- 
tion of the Euler formula in these same books. It happens that the 
Euler load is one that will double any initial bow in a column. 
If an end load adds 100% to the initial bow of a round-ended column 
(more properly, one with knife-edge bearings), it will, by reason of 
this added bow, add another like amount because of that added deflec- 
tion, and again another and another, and so on ad infinitum, or until 
the column fails. So that, whatever initial bow the column has to start 
with, it will fail at the Euler load. A column may be perfectly straight, 
that is, have an initial bow of infinitesimal amount: it will fail at the 
Euler load, and will not carry any more load than at its first measur- 
able deflection. A similar column may have an initial bow of, say, 
I in.; it will continue to deflect, but will not fail until the load is 
twice that which gives a total deflection of i in. Both columns will sus- 
tain the same ultimate load (assuming that they are slender columns), 
though the originally imperfect one will deflect much more before 
reaching its ultimate capacity. These facts can be proven by the 
theory of flexure. They show one of the anomalies of the theory of 
columns. The writer believes that one would have to search through 
engineering literature a long time before he would find any statement 
of these facts, and yet they have a tremendously important bearing 
on the subject of the strength of columns. 

The Euler load is independent of the tensile or compressive strength 
of the steel, depending only on the modulus of elasticity, which is prac- 
tically the same for all grades of steel. The Euler load is the abso- 
lute maximum that any column can take, no matter how high the 
elastic limit or the ultimate strength of the steel may be, and two 
slender columns, of the hardest and of the softest steel, respectively, 
will have practically the same ultimate strength. These are also 
anomalies, and are very difficult to find in engineering literature. 
They also have an important bearing on the subject of the strength 
of columns. 

While the Euler load is the greatest that any column could take, it 
has practical application only to slender columns. Short columns, by 
reason of the limiting compressive strength of the metal, cannot sus- 
tain loads approaching the Euler load, but will fail by crushing or 



Papers.] DISCUSSION ON STKENGTH OF COLUMNS 1291 

buckling. Hence some other formula must be used for shorter columns. Mr. 
None can be correct, however, that shows greater ultimate strength ^°^*^^y- 
for any column than that shown by the Euler formula, and herein 
is where the Gordon-l\ankine formula is in error, at least, in its 
application in American books. Eankine does not point out this 
limitation in his derivation of the formula.* His statement: "The 
greatest deflection [of a rectangular column] consistent with safety 
is directly as the square of the length, and inversely as the thickness," 
is not sufiiciently full. The deflection which counts is not the initial 
bow, which might be conceded to be constant for similar columns, 
but the resulting bow after the load is applied and equilibrium is 
established. There is no relation between this deflection and the di- 
mensions of the column, for it is a function of the load itself. Any 
treatment that fails to recognize this is incomplete and is likely to 
result in error. 

Dr. Lilly, in effect, ties up his Gordon-Iiankine formula with the 
Euler formula when he recognizes that the deflection or curvature 
in the column will limit its carrying capacity. His values of p cannot 
exceed the Euler unit stress. The constant of his Gordon-Rankine 
formula is thus deduced from purely theoretical reasoning. This 
is eminently better than empirical determination of the constant as 
the latter has worked out. 

A common value for the constant of the Gordon-Eankine formula 

for round-ended columns is . This, with a value of oO 000 

18 000 

for fj gives, for the ultimate strength of a column having a ratio 
of slenderness of 240, a tmit stress of 11 910 lb. per sq. in. (Hand- 
books work this out for the busy user.) The Euler load for this 
column is only 5 140 lb. per sq. in. This is the absolute maximum 
load that any column could take, and yet a formula in general use 
appears to show that it can take 132% more than this. Here is the 
count which the writer would urge against the Gordon-Rankine 
formula, and he has known failure to result from confidence in this 
same formula with the constants commonly used. 

The writer believes that the Gordon-Rankine formula fails to 
meet the needs of the practical design of columns, and that a straight- 
line formula is far superior. It gives results .closer to those obtained 
from experiments, and there are several reasons why it should. 

Columns, as commercially manufactured, are imperfect, of neces- 
sity, and a formula for their design should take into account this 
fact. They are not in true alignment, and their end connections 
are not always central. The writer has shownf that, if proportionate 

* "Applied Mechanics,"' p. 361. 

t Railicay Age Gazette, July 2cl, 1909. 



1293 DISCUSSION ON STItKNGTII OF COLUMNS [Papers. 

Mr. imperfections are assumed in coliinms, a purely theoretical formula 
** '^^^' can be deduced, which, though very complex, gives a locus which is 
almost straight for a large part of its length and agrees closely 
with the commonly used straight-line column formulas. 

The ultimate strengths of test columns fall away rapidly after the 
range of very short columns is passed. This is probably because of 
local crimping or buckling of the metal, but it is a fact which must 
be dealt with in the treatment of columns. The Gordon-Kankine 
curve does not take this shape, hence it fails to meet this condition. 
The straight-line formula does meet this condition, for the locus falls 
away from the start. 

The straight-line formula has the further advantage that it dis- 
courages the use of slender columns. Slender compression members 
may be weak by reason of their own weight, or, if in a vertical posi- 
tion, an accidental blow may cause them to fail. 

In the writer's opinion the whole subject of columns in engineer- 
ing textbooks should be re-written, and its theoretical treatment simpli- 
fied, instead of being rendered more complex. A large part of the 
engineering literature on this subject could be expunged with resulting 
benefit. 

It is manifestly impossible to evolve a formula which will show close 
agreement with any comprehensive series of tests, for the reason that 
similar columns show discordant results. The exact strength of struc- 
tural steel columns cannot be predicted, because imperfections of manu- 
facture enter so largely in the results. Approximate results are all 
that can be expected, and simple theory answers this purpose just 
as well as the most complex theory ever devised. 

In this re-casting of column literature, the importance of the 
Euler load should be emphasized, not as a load which the column can 
hold in equilibrium, conveying the idea that there is surplus strength 
in the column, but as the extreme limit of its carrying capacity. 

Another fact of great importance which should be emphasized 
is that slender columns of all grades of steel are of practically equal 
strength. Working formulas should recognize this, and values should 
converge for long cokunns in low and high steels. Nickel steel struts 
of light dimensions are not economical, because their strength is 
practically the same as for soft steel, though they cost much more. 

The converging of the strengths of columns of different grades of 
steel as the lengths increase has been illustrated by some tests* made 
by J. A. L. Waddell, M. Am. Soc. C. E. With similar columns of 

I 
carbon steel and nickel steel in which was 27, tlie averaije strencjtli 

/• 

* Transactions, Am. Soc. C. E , Vol. LXFII, p. 230. 



Papers.] 



DISCUSSION ON STRENGTH OF COLUMNS 



1293 



of the latter was 75% greater than that of the former; with others, Mr. 



I 



Godfrey. 



in which was 81, the nickel steel columns averaged only 47% 

stronger. This indicates clearly the convergence to equality that theory 
proves must exist in slender columns of high and low steel. 

On the Continent of Europe the Euler formula seems to be the 
standard for the design of columns. This is a grave error which 
American engineers do not commit. The Euler formula has no applica- 
tion whatever to columns of ordinary lengths, as used in bridges and 
buildings, for the values increase as short lengths are approached, and 
it would require steel of almost unlimited strength to satisfy the 
formula and hold up under the compression. 

A short time ago, a gas-holder post, in a structure in Germany, 
failed, with disastrous results. The column was designed by the 
Euler formula, which was one of the errors made by the designers, 
for it was not (as considered by them) a slender column. The gravest 
error made in the design was the use of batten-plates instead of lattice. 
Another woful lack in the theoretical treatment of columns is that 
of emphasis on the extreme importance of some means of carrying 



o o I _----' ' 19_?] 1 q_ o ~__~~^~z~r-_-^-j5L 9- 



shear in both rectangular directions in the column. Batten-plates 
will not do this in any adequate degree. This column was made up 
of two 5-in. channels held together by a few pairs of small tie-plates. 
As the writer has pointed out,* these tie-plates, or batten-plates, can- 
not prevent the channels from bowing and acting practically as sepa- 
rate slender columns. Fig. 5 shows this column and how and why 
it could fail as a slender column. It is surprising that a high 
European authority, instead of condemning this flimsy construction, 
on the basis of common sense and theory, delivered the following: 

"The use of tie-plated columns, when the section is assumed to be 
integral, may lead to constructions which do not afford adequate 
security under loading of unusual character." 

Much is said of the impracticability of securing true hinged or 
pin ends on columns in testing them, and the idea is prevalent that 
most compression members are in fact practically fixed-ended in 
structures. This is more of the misinformation of engineering litera- 
ture. It is much easier to get a practically pin-ended member in a 

* Engineering News, July 27tli, and September 28th, 1911. 



1294 



DISCUSSION ON STlfENOTII OF COLUMNS 



Papers. 



Mr. 
Godfrey. 



structure than in a testing machine. In the latter, the rigid heads 
and friction on the pins hold the member under test almost rigid at 
the ends. In a bridge, the compression members are only insecurely 
held by other members as weak as, or weaker than, themselves. 

A case which came under the writer's notice is that of the strut 
of a jib crane shown in Fig. fi. The designer considered this as 
fixed-ended, and proportioned it by the Grordon-Rankine formula. 
It is no wonder that failure occurred. The writer considered the strut 
as of the slenderness of one of the channels, and pin-ended. This 
is the only reasonable way to treat it. It could fail by the bowing 
of the two channels, as indicated. The single pair of batten-plates 
could offer but little resistance. The gusset-plates, to which the ends 
are attached, are more nearly like ideal pin-ended comiections than 
pins would be, for there is practically no resistance against rotation. 





m 






Fig. 6. 

These are some of the things that could be written into the sub- 
ject of columns to replace a vast amount of meaningless mathematics. 

The subject of reinforced concrete columns has sprung up with 
a rank growth of mathematical nonsense which every great reinforced 
concrete disaster disproves. Tests are interpreted as applying to con- 
struction, while they do not embody the essential features necessary 
to safe construction. Columns utterly lacking in toughness are tested 
with infinite care (in testing) in order to preserve their evanescent 
strength; then such columns are built into a structure where tough- 
ness is an essential characteristic. Is it any wonder that the Engineer- 
ing Profession is degraded by periodic wrecks, when its leaders show 
such lack of common sense? 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

INSTITUTED 1852 



PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS 

This Society is not respousible for any statement made or opinion expressed 
in Its publications. 



STKEET SPRINKLING IN ST. PAUL, MINN. 

Discussion.* 



By S. Whinery, M. Am. Soc. C. E. 



S. Whikery, M. Am. Soc. C. E. (by letter).— This paper is so in- Mr. 
teresting and valuable that the reader reaches its end hungry for more ^^^i^^ry. 
information. 

It is so seldom that this branch of municipal work receives, from 
city engineers and city officials, anj'thing like the attention it de- 
serves or that is given to other departments of city work of no greater 
importance, that any one who takes an interest in the matter must 
welcome this account of an intelligent and efficient organization for 
street sprinkling in St. Paul. It is sincerely to be hoped that the 
author will favor the Society with another paper dealing with ex- 
periences and results. It would be very interesting to know about 
the practical working of the system, the efficiency attained, as com- 
pared with the usual unsati.sfactory organization — or lack of organiza- 
tion — and the degree in which the service is successful in abating 
the dust nuisance and in meeting the reasonable demands of the 
public. 

Particularly would engineers be glad to know the detailed cost of 
the service, reduced to units readily comparable with results in other 
cities. 

The writer would suggest, as the most simple and satisfactory 
unit of quantity, 1 000 sq. yd. of street sprinkled once, and that all 
other elements of cost and service be based on this unit. The units 
commonly used (where statistics are reported at all) are often so 
indefinite or general as to be of little use for comparison. Thus, 
the number of miles of street sprinkled through the season is of little 

* This discussion (of the paper by C. L. Annan, M. Am. Soc. C. E., published in Pro- 
ceedings for May, 1912, and presented at the meeting of September 18th, 1912), is priotad in 
Proceedings in order that the views expressed may be brought before all members for 
further discussion. 



1296 DISCUSSION ON STK'KKl' Sl'K'INKLIVG M'^IKTS. 

Mr. value unless one knows the widths of the streets and the number of 
inery. ^jjjjgg ^.j-jgy gj.g sprinkled daily, or rather the number of times they are 
sprinkled during the season. 

The method described for assessing the cost of the service on 
abutting property owners seems to indicate that the width of the 
street is not taken into consideration. It seems proper that this should 
be done. Those owning property on a wide street certainly receive 
more service than those on a narrow street; and as property on a 
wide street is usually more valuable than that on a narrow street, the 
owners might justly be required to pay in the ratio of the work done, 
that is, the area of the street. To provide for this, of course, would 
introduce another factor into the computation of the assessments, 
but if the widths (or half widths) of the streets are known, the actual 
work of computation would not be increased greatly, though the unit 
on which the assessment is based would be changed from front feet 
to square feet, or square yards. 

It is not stated how street intersections are dealt with in assessing 
the cost, though the inference that the cost of sprinkling intersections 
is taxed on the property owners seems to be warranted; nor is it 
stated how comer lots, sprinkled on two sides, are assessed. 

As it is stated that street oiling is used to some extent, it would 
be interesting to know the relative cost, efficiency, and general merits 
of oiling and sprinkling in St. Paul. 

It is not only in St. Paul that stand-pipes for supplying sprinkling 
wagons are regarded as nuisances. Their unsightliness might be over- 
come in most locations by using a valve and connection placed under 
the edge of the sidewalk and covered by a hinged plate. The chief 
source of dissatisfaction is usually the "sloppiness" around these 
stand-pipes. This is chargeable largely to the carelessness of drivers 
in allowing the tanks to overflow, and, where the hose is permanently 
connected to the tank, in allowing the water contained in it to waste 
on the street after it is disconnected. In this form of connection the 
trouble would be largely overcome if a valve were placed at the rear 
end of the hose, and closed before the hose is disconnected from the 
hydrant. Certainly this trouble can be overcome by the use of appro- 
priate devices and reasonable care on the part of the driver. 

While in most cities the municipality svipplies, free of charge, 
the water used for sprinkling, and its value is not charged to the 
account, it is very desirable that the approximate quantity and cost 
should be reported, in order that a complete statement of cost per 
unit area may be deduced. 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

INSTITUTED 185 2 



PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS 

This Society is not responsible for any statement made or opinion expressed 
in its publications. 



ENGINEERING EDUCATION IN ITS RELATION TO 
TRAINING FOR ENGINEERING WORK. 

Discussion.* 



By Messrs. Alexis Saurbrey^ J. X. Cohen, George F. Swain, 
William J. Boucher, Almon H. Fuller, Walter Hinds Allen, 
C. H. Stengel, Charles Warren Hunt, Arthur H. Blanchard, 
Philip W. Henry, John C. L. Eogge, Charles H. Higgins, 
Charles B. Buerger, and Ernest McCuLLOUGH.f 



Alexis Saurbrey, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E. (by letter). — It is Mr. 
very important to distinguisli between "Engineering Education" and ^^^ '^^' 
"Engineering Training." As to the first, education is, or sliould be, 
the common property of all civilized men, and the engineering school 
should not waste its time on the hopeless task of instilling true educa- 
tion, where home, environment, associates, and natural disposition have 
failed. Schools, colleges, and universities a.re struggling in vain 
when they attempt to "teach" taste, good manners, and gentlemanly 
behavior, if these qualities are not planted in the average boy at home, 
or, in many cases, acquired by less happy boys through natural dis- 
position. "The well-read man is generally able to pose as a 'cultured' 
man," Mr, McCullough will have us believe. The writer denies this 
proposition, as well as the desirability of teaching young engineers 
to "pose." Certainly, it is a pleasure to meet a cultured, well-balanced, 
considerate man, and we cannot have too many engineers of that kind; 
but if an engineer is not so well-equipped, let him by all means avoid 
the deceit and shame of "posing." 

The writer, therefore, thinks that the sole problem of the college 
is to train. It cannot hope to train for the exceptional position at 

* Continued from August, 1918, Proceedings. 
t Author's closure. 



1298 DISCUSSION ON ENGINEERING EDUCATION [Papers. 

Mr. the top of the Profession, but it can, and should, train for usefulness 
Saur rey. |^^ ^j^^ common, average case. The young engineer leaving college 
should be able to do correctly vphat Mr. McCullough properly refers 
to as the clerical work of engineering: Compute quantities, calculate 
stresses and strains, use the level, tape, and transit, and so forth. 
When, as a matter of fact, he cannot do that, the colleges are not 
solely to blame, for the preparatory school should have taught pre- 
cision in algebra and arithmetic, which it does not do. Any really efficient 
reform movement in engineering education must begin with the home, 
and must fully consider the public school. With this attended to, 
the college will automatically adjust itself, and produce better engi- 
neers from the better raw material. 

Nevertheless, some of the criticisms of the colleges are justified. 
No doubt the very broad training leads to neglect of details, and to 
superficial study. The remedy lies in an extension of the time for 
the purely engineering training, and in a curtailment of the volume 
taught, especially a reduction in the introductory studies of the first 
two years, whereby more time might be gained for the real engineering 
subjects. Such items as chemistry, physics, descriptive geometry, 
geology, and higher mathematics might, profitably, be reduced in 
volume, with the proviso that the subjects taught be really and thor- 
oughly assimilated by the student, especially the simpler problems in 
analytic geometry and calculus. 

The course in civil engineering, properly speaking, should certainly 
not be less than 2^ years (better 3 years), after the completion of 
the introductory studies referred to. All this time should be devoted 
to a most thorough drilling in fundamentals, with very little attention 
to generalities. The use of mathematics should be reduced to an abso- 
lute minimum, all complications being carefully avoided; understand- 
ing should be the goal aimed at, that is, intelligent application of 
thoroughly understood principles. Only a very few branches of civil 
engineering are on a truly scientific basis, and this fact might be 
taken advantage of, and engineering taught rather as an empirical 
profession than as a science; in other words, do not bother too much 
with the mathematical proofs of propositions which are, in reality, 
proved only by experience and experiment. The impossibility of 
transmitting telegrams across the Atlantic, the impossibility of flying, 
have been proved time and again mathematically, and yet the pos- 
sibility was proved the next day in practice. 

Without dovibt, many teachers are trying to do just what is sug- 
gested here, and, if so, the writer feels that they are on the right track, 
and wishes that they would go still further. Many colleges, also, dur- 
ing the last few years, have given additional attention to the commer- 



Papers.] DISCUSSION O.V ENGINEERING EDUCATION 1399 

cial side of the question, and correctly so. While the writer certainly Mr. 
would be the last to excuse rank commercialism in anybody, he ^"'^ '^^^' 
recognizes the fact that the engineer's principal purpose as an en- 
gineer is that of increasing values with as little expenditure as pos- 
sible. The engineer is a wheel in a great commercial machine; as 
soon as he emerges from the modest initial incubator stage, he deals 
almost exclusively with business men; and the one question he has to 
answer is "what does it cost?" If, in addition, he cannot show that 
he himself is a fairly good investment, he will assuredly lose his job 
to the one who can. As it is, it takes a good while for the young 
engineer to satisfy himself and others that he is really worth his 
salary, and that is not right. It will be different when the graduate 
has been taught the immediately useful facts and formulas, and when 
he has ability to discriminate between extravagant and economical 
design of simple structures. 

It is not necessary to state that the college should teach its students 
the rudiments of bookkeeping and cost keeping. Instead, it seems 
that scientific management has been taken up. If hereby is meant 
"motion study" and such matters, incalcvilable damage will be done, 
for men are not machines, and should not be treated as such. More- 
over, the writer believes that this fad will be a thing of the past 
in a few years, and the college should be very conservative in introduc- 
ing such matters. 

Mr. McCullough's paper, as well as his recent book "Engineering 
as a Vocation," are most valuable and interesting. They disclose 
in a clear, concise, and wholly unprejudiced manner the very 
foundation for that dissatisfaction so common among recent graduates, 
and so often expressed by them in the engineering press. It is not 
only a question of pay, for engineers are as well paid as attorneys 
and doctors, and much better than teachers or ministers, all of whom 
have to put as much time on their training. It is mainly a question 
of competency, of ability to render service in the world as it is — 
the engineer seeing the great opportunity he has for service while 
the public does not; but the public will. The engineer of to-day is a 
pioneer who must clear the forest of misunderstanding, indifference, 
and inertia, and that takes time. In addition, the fields opened by the 
modern testing machine, indeed, by the modern spirit of research, have 
not been properly explored, and we still suffer from many "ifs" and 
"buts" to be solved in the future. The problem of writing good text- 
books is no easy one, when new research makes old truth obsolete over 
night, and, as long as the teacher must study the changes in the funda- 
mental theory, he is greatly handicapped as a teacher. For this very 
reason, reading knowledge of foreign languages is almost indispen- 
sable to an engineer who wishes to be up to date in his specialty; but 



1300 DISCUSSION ON ENGINEERING EDUCATION [Papers. 

Mr. they should be taught in the preparatory school, and along practical 
lines, not in the college. 

On the surface, the problem raised by Mr. McCullough seems 
possible of satisfactory solution; but in reality it is one closely con- 
nected with the home and the public school, and, therefore, with 
the community at large. The battle-cry of to-day is reform, the 
enthusiasm behind the guns is dissatisfaction. One question, indeed, 
suggests itself strongly: Is not the failure of the weak, and the survival 
of the fittest, a principle against which we are battling in vain? one 
that will exist even if the most ideal vocational training were given ? 
Surely those who are now dissatisfied engineers would otherwise be 
dissatisfied mechanics, and no happier than they are at present. 
Mr. J. X. Cohen, Jun. Am, Soc. C. E. (by letter). — The author aims 

^°' in the proper direction. He seeks to serve the student first and then 
his future employer. The sound, fundamental, non-specialized tech- 
nical course which the author recommends makes the student broad and 
receptive, rather than narrow and exclusive. 

It is encouraging to note that the course outlined emphasizes so 
greatly the study and the value of English. By English is not meant 
the polished literary language of the library, but the sturdy style of 
the coimcil chamber and the business office. To the great detriment 
of the engineer, his English course has usually been made a minor 
one, and very often neglected at that. That is a very serious situa- 
tion, and calls for rapid remedial measures. Certainly, engineers 
should first know how to handle materials, but what more valuable 
materials are there than men, and what means of communication 
between men exists, other than language? Even when engineers 
deal with each other directly, what matters it how well their minds 
may operate if the thoughts cannot be transferred clearly and cor- 
rectly? We all know men who have good ideas and excellent thoughts 
which are hardly ever realized, solely because they are not plainly 
stated. The ultimate significance of the idea cannot be quickly made 
clear to others, and it dies before it develops. 

The author consi(Jers that course in engineering most beneficial 
which permits of alternation between class-room and field, between 
school and shop. The writer, having received such a training, and hav- 
ing further observed the comparative effects of the older method of 
training, heartily endorses the newer. 

There are several technical high schools in New York City, the 
graduates of which are equipped for entering either the engineering 
school for advanced studies or the engineering office for practical 
work. It may be of interest to state that a very large percentage of 
these graduates goes immediately into actual work rather than into 



Papers.] DISCUSSION OX ENGINEERING EDUCATION 1301 

college, without, however, having abandoned the idea of a higher Mr. 
technical education. Cohen. 

Having secured a position which their technical high-school train- 
ing qualifies them to hold, they next enroll in the evening engineering 
course of the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, 
or some similar institution, of which there are also several in New 
York City. Here they spend their evenings for a good many years — 
five years at Cooper Union — in hard, arduous, and comprehensive study, 
supplementing the practice followed during the day with the knowledge 
gained at night. 

This method of study makes for the greatest good. The co-ordina- 
tion of class and field produces results which are harmonious and 
well-balanced. Studies are pursued with the greatest interest; their 
immediate application in practice is either actual or plainly dis- 
cernible, and their utility needs no emphasis by the instructor. Very 
often the problems arising during the day may be worked out in the 
laboratory or class-room during the evening. This produces im- 
pressions which are vivid and knowledge which is secured. At times 
the pace in the class-room would appear to the regular day school 
instructor to be extraordinary. This combination method makes speedy 
and successful studying possible. 

Such a combination course helps a man financially in several 
ways. For one thing, he is self-supporting throughout all the period 
of study, despite the fact that such a course may take a longer time 
than the so-called regular one. He is employed constantly, and not 
only during school vacations. This surmounting of the financial 
barrier is valuable to the Profession, for otherwise many good men 
would find it hard to prepare properly for practice. For another thing, 
the combined day worker and evening student finds that as his tech- 
nical knowledge increases his employers correspondingly increase his 
compensation. As he observes his Increasing pay, he notes the effect 
of his spare-time study on it, and, as a result, the incentive for further 
and more concentrated study is greatly strengthened. Better than a 
good report card is a larger pay check, for while the first predestines 
the other as an eventuality, the second is the actuality. Not all men. 
especially in engineering, work for gain, but the stimulating and 
encouraging influence of tangible recognition is highly beneficial. 
Finally, a man is helped financially — as well as in numerous other 
ways — by being kept so busy that he finds no time to get into mischief. 

The graduate of the combination course, when he receives his 
degree, is handed a certificate which shows that he has demonstrated 
his capacity for hard, continuous, single-centered work. If he had not 
possessed this ability at the beginning of the course, he would never 
have reached its end, except through the inculcation of that faculty 



1302 DISCUSSION ON KNGINEERIXG EDUCATION [Papers. 

Mr. in him by the example of hi.s fellow-students. If for nothing else, such 
a course is of value as a demonstration of the true capability of 
the man to do diligent work and his real capacity for conscientious, 
continual toil. Too few men realize until very late in life the 
enormous amount of work that can be accomplished without undue 
fatigue by strict adherence to a carefully planned programme. Further, 
the utilization of spare time for self-improvement is taught in an 
unforgettable manner, and a.s the graduate must necessarily be a 
student after graduation, by pursuing the combination course he 
learns how and when and what to study after his college days are 
over. The waste of spare time prevalent among many young engi- 
neers is great, and it is a waste which is a direct result of the lack 
of early training in spare-time study. The student of Cooper Union 
learns to work even when traveling on trains, unconsciously following 
the example of the most eminent consulting engineers in active prac- 
tice. He who learns how to utilize all his available time efficiently 
has a splendid start in the race toward professional success, which 
ordinarily can only be attained by continual concentrated application; 
and to this type of application the graduate of the combination course 
is no longer a stranger. 

The student who is engaged simultaneously in the study of en- 
gineering and its practice enjoys a great privilege. He can ascertain 
whether he has that aptitude and inclination for engineering, which, 
to a great extent, is vital to success long before he has invested much 
money in his course or much of the even more valuable time in its 
study. He has the advantage of being able to decide whether engi- 
neering appeals to him as a life work at a much earlier stage than -the 
regular school student. The number of students who are graduated 
from the regular course, and fitted by training for engineers, is now 
very large, but of these only a fair percentage is fitted for it by natural 
talent, inclination, and equipment. Many realize this some years 
after graduation, but then it is too late, from their viewpoint. Hav- 
ing spent so many years in preparation, they fear to see all their 
efforts go to apparent waste. They also greatly fear the possible 
ridicule of their friends at their early recognition of and submission 
to failure in their chosen calling. Such motives as these keep many 
men in the ranks until, by force of circumsta.nces, they are forced 
out or forced up. For a long time, however, they encumber the lower 
rungs of the ladder, making it harder and harder for themselves as 
their numbers grow, and also more difficult for the young engineer 
of future merit to obtain a foothold ; but whether or not they stay 
in the Profession, they have suffered a grave economic loss. In this 
loss the community at large is also a participant, and it is to relieve 



Papers.] DISCUSSION OX ENGINEERING EDUCATION 1303 

the public and the prospective engineering student from as large Mr. 
a measure as is possible of this partly preventable loss that the com- 
bination course is advocated by the vpriter. 

The Profession is benefited directly by the combination course. 
Few but the strong, the steady, and the persistent complete such a 
course, so that the process of weeding out starts at once and has just 
that much longer to operate. It is an effective block to the lazy, un- 
ambitious young man, who would stand but a slight chance were he 
to enter active practice. If time were available, the writer would 
like to discuss the role of the engineering teacher in the school at- 
tended by students who are at the same time in active practice, but 
suffice it to say that these tea.chers must be mentally alert, on the very 
qui vive for the latest and best information and methods of its presenta- 
tion, and altogether on a high plane, in order to maintain the neces- 
sary leadership over their students. Otherwise, they will find them- 
selves being taught by their own men, who, in some details, may be 
better acquainted with the subject. To the Profession, the value 
of such a high teaching tone need hardly be pointed out. Furthermore, 
the student working at some branch of engineering, as he nears the 
end of his course, can decide for himself whether he prefers that 
particular branch as his future specialty. He can then begin to sup- 
plement his training in the engineering fundamentals by a course of 
study in his chosen specialty. Siich an early decision as to the 
choice of a life work, if made carefully and discriminately, makes 
available more time for the attainment of that greater knowledge 
and understanding of a .subject which produces the real specialist. 
Finally, it starts the student under auspices which will operate for 
his individual betterment and for the benefit of the Profession. 

It may be urged that the grind of the combination course leaves 
the student no time to attend social functions. In a measure this 
is true, and hence beneficial, as previously pointed out, but it is not 
altogether true. The writer's experience and observations lead him 
to believe that all necessary social functions can be attended without 
hampering seriously the work at office or school. The course is not 
one grueling grind, for it is interspersed with a number of holidays 
and a long summer vacation. By careful and far-sighted planning, a 
time for almost everything that is reasonable can be found. Of 
course, numerous social activities, which make up a part of the col- 
lege life and take up an appreciable part of the student's time, are 
necessarily curtailed or completely eliminated. The advantages to 
the student of such comparative freedom from the disturbing and, at 
times, harassing influences of many social engagements need hardly 
be pointed out. The impression, however, should not be gathered 
that the combination-course student is a "grind" simply because he 



1304 DISCUSSION ox ENGIXEKRING EDUCATION [Papers. 

Mr. lives the concentrated life demanded in large part by modem in- 
■ dustrial conditions. His lot is not a hard one, and, being always 
busy, he is in general always happy. 

Mr. George F. Swain, M. Am. Soc. C. E. — The speaker is always very 

' glad to read a paper on education by a practicing engineer, and always 

derives some good from it. This is true of Mr. McCullough's paper, 

but, at the same time, there are certain points in it with which he 

does not agree. 

Mr. McCullough states that we must distinguish between engineers 
and engineering teachers. As Professor Constant has pointed out, 
the majority of engineering teachers at the present time are or have been 
engineers. Many of them are practicing and teaching at the same 
time; and, as Professor Constant states, the younger men who take up 
teaching are drawn generally from the ranks of practicing engineers. 
These teachers know probably better than any one else how a cur- 
riculum should be drawn up, because they know, not only what the 
practicing engineer wants, but also what it is practicable for the 
school to do. It is impossible for a man who has not tried to teach 
to draw up a curriculum which will work well ; he almost always for- 
gets that the problem of engineering education, or of education in 
general, is not an engineering problem, but a human problem. We 
talk about the teaching of engineering, but we probably forget what 
we were, or what the ordinary boy is, at eighteen or nineteen, and we 
cannot very well theorize unless those things are kept in mind. 

One of the most important things to remember is this: Mr. Mc- 
Cullough speaks about the engineer drawing up a specification of 
what he w^ants in a man, and the schools filling that specification. The 
speaker does not think that an engineer can draw up a specification 
of what he wants, and if he can, the schools cannot fill it, or at least 
they cannot guarantee to fill it, because they can only teach the 
student what he can do for himself. The teacher does not give the 
student knowledge, he shows him how to get it; and if the student 
does not want to accomplish anything himself, the teacher cannot 
force him to do it. 

The manufactui'e'r, who, for instance, wants to make a spoke of a 
wheel, can take a piece of wood and fashion it into the proper shape. 
Now, it may be said that the teacher's raw material is the student, 
and though the teacher knows what he wants to make of him, he can- 
not control his raw material; he cannot cut away here and add there, 
he can simply show the student what he can do for himself. The most 
important thing in teachiug, therefore, is not what shall be taught, 
but how it shall be taught. That is a truism, a platitude, but it is 
what we must keep in mind. The important thing is to have 
the proper atmosphere in the school, in order to make the young men 



Papers.] DISCUSSION ON ENGINEERING EDUCATION 1305 

realize that they have great opportunities before them, and that they Mr. 
are being ofiFered a chance to gain physical, mental, and moral qualities "'^'"' 
which will fit thein to meet the problems of life. 

When the employer of engineers asks for an assistant, he does not 
care very much what the young man knows; that is of the least 
importance. He wants a man who is faithful, who is of good character, 
conscientious, who can think straight, who will not be anxious to stop 
work as soon as the bell rings, who will be loyal to his employer, 
who has "gumption," and who can meet emergencies. The amount 
of knowledge he wants in the young man at the start could be given 
to him in a very short time. It is the other qualities which are im- 
portant. The school, therefore, should pay particular attention to 
the cultivation of the proper atmosphere. 

The speaker, of course, has his ideas in regard to what engineering 
schools should be, and they are very simple. The trouble with the schools 
is that they try to carry their technical instruction too far; they are 
narrow; they do not realize that the young man, in starting his career, 
will not need much knowledge, and if he has the little that is needed, 
and the other qualities which have been mentioned — the ability to 
think straight and to take up a new subject and master it — he will 
be ready for his job, and for promotion, whenever the chance comes. 
The majority of schools, therefore, should pay more attention to funda- 
mental principles, and not ti*y to carry details quite so far in par- 
ticular branches. There ought to be a few schools for post-graduate 
instruction for men who are qualified and can take the time for a 
more thorough education ; and with such an arrangement and the 
proper kind of instruction, engineering schools should be able to 
turn out men who will be satisfactory to employers. 

The engineering schools are turning out good men to-day, but, 
like everything else, they can be improved. The schools realize this, 
and each is trying to remedy its defects as far as possible. One trouble 
is that parents do not co-operate sufficiently with the schools, the pre- 
vailing tendency being to throw everything on the latter. Parents 
should earnestly co-operate with the school in making the students 
realize the great opportunities offered them, and the fact that they 
must work hard; this does not mean to work all the time, but to 
work hard and endeavor to utilize their time to the best advantage. 

Mr. McCullough and one of those who discuss his paper refer to 
the fact that there are numerous instances in which a man finds 
himself in after life practicing a different branch of his profession 
from the one he studied in college, the inference seeming to be that 
this is a very bad thing. The speaker has never been able to con- 
sider it so. The main thing is to follow a line of study in college 
which will give a man the qualities which he needs to enable him 
to meet the problems of life. The speaker has had engineering 



1306 DISCUSSION ox ENGIXEERIXG EDUCATION [Papers. 

Mr. students who subsequently became ministers ; others who became 
^*'°' lawyers; some who became artists; one or two who have become 
economists; and others who have gone into business. He has talked 
to many of these men, and has yet to meet one who has regretted his 
engineering education. They all admit that such a training gave 
them what was more valuable than anything else, namely, the ability 
to concentrate, to work hard, and to get results. 

In fact, the speaker has almost come to feel that the study of 
engineering is about the best training for a young man, no matter 
■what his future career is to be; and if he had a son, whether he was 
going into business, into the law, or into anything else, he would select 
such a training for him, because he thinks it would give him, better 
than any other, those powers which he would desire him to acquire. 
Besides, he would be dealing with every-day things. Engineering is 
practical, and engineers are dealing continually with electricity and 
with mechanics. If these views are correct, we should not be sur- 
prised to find many men taking courses in civil engineering and after- 
ward practicing as mechanical or electrical engineers, or vice versa. 
There are very few men who, when they enter college, can feel sure 
that they are fitted for any specific branch of the Profession. They 
may know that they like engineering, but their future career is very 
likely to be determined by some trivial accident. If a man has a good 
training to .start with, and the character and the power that he ought 
to get at school, he will succeed, and he ought not to be the subject 
of criticism because he takes up some other branch of work. 

With reference to the usefulness of modern languages to the engi- 
neer, Mr. Boucher and the author think that modern languages ought 
not to be required in engineering education. In regard to that the 
speaker disagrees with them entirely. Recently, he attended the Sixth 
Congress of the International Association for Testing Materials held 
in New York City. There were several hundred men at that Con- 
gress from all over the world, including the most prominent representa- 
tives of that branch of the Profession from almost every country 
of Europe, one from China, and one from Japan. Almost all those 
men could speak En^glish; most of them could speak two modern 
languages. Mr. Henry M. Howe, one of the most distinguished of Ameri- 
can engineers, the President of the Association, made his address of 
welcome in six languages, though the speaker does not suppose that 
he speaks each of these six languages fluently. 

Now, if it is believed that the engineer should occupy a high posi- 
tion among men, not merely that he should be able to do his engi- 
neering work properly — building his bridge, laying out his road, or 
designing his power station — but that he should occupy a high posi- 
tion among men, it appears that a knowledge of such things as modern 
languages should be encouraged. It is, of course, perfectly true that a 



Papers.! DISCUSSION ON KX(i IXKEKING EDUCATION 1307 

man can become just as good an engineer, in a purely technical sense, ^ Mr. 
without knowing anything of modern languages, of economics, or of a 
great many other things, but a very" high standard for the Engineering- 
Profession should be demanded and maintained, not simply in engi- 
neering, but among cultured men, and if that is done, a knowledge 
of at least one modern language, and preferably of two, should be 
encouraged. Therefore, a student who is graduated and takes a degree 
from an engineering school should have at least a good reading knowl- 
edge of one modern language. The man who cannot get that, can 
take a special course and get through technical instruction, but the 
colleges and professional men of to-day aim for something broader 
than mere technical training, 

William J. Boucher, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E. — This paper is Mr. 
both interesting and timely. Changes have occurred and are occurring 
in all lines of business, including engineering, and why should not 
corresponding changes take place in preparation for business and engi- 
neering practice. The speaker agrees with the author that schools 
and professors should aim to fit their graduates more closely for the 
work to be undertaken immediately after commencement. Very clearly 
does the speaker remember his first days in engineering work — at 
the very bottom — and the many very ordinary things he did not know. 

The author expresses the belief that engineering schools of the 
future will require a minimum of six years' work, of which two years 
will be spent in the preparatoi-y school, but adding two years to the 
entire time required in preparation for the life work. The speaker 
believes that such a lengthening of the course would be a mistake. 
The average age of entering students has increased steadily, due to the 
increased entrance requirements, until it is now generally about 19 years, 
which, with a four years' course, makes the graduate 23 years of age; 
it does seem that this is old enough to start life's practical work, with- 
out requiring an additional two years, making him 25 years, or possibly 
24 years, if he has been fortunate enough to finish the course in three 
years. Very few men would be able to do this, for a variety of rea- 
sons, chief of which would be the financial one, and those who had 
their tuition paid by parents or others would hardly feel the stimulus 
to do it in less than the prescribed time. The speaker was graduated 
at the age of 21 years from one of the best known mechanical en- 
gineering schools, after 14 years of continuous study, and felt 
and still feels that that was quite late enough to go out into the 
world. The following advertisement, copied from a recent issue of one 
of the leading engineering weeklies, appears to emphasize this latter 
point: 

"Position wanted by graduate civil engineer, 25 years, one year's 
graduate study, open for permanent position in any line of profession. 



1308 DISCUSSION ox ENGINKKRINO EDUCATION I Pa pels. 

Mr. locality immaterial, experience in reinforced concrete construction and 
Boucher. ^^^^^ design." 

Doubtless, that advertisement will be read by several prospective 
employers who would much prefer that the applicant should have three 
or six months' practical experience, rather than a year's graduate study. 

Mention is made of the fact that colleges admit all who apply and 
can pass the entrance examinations. This is true, and, as a result, 
many young men enter engineering courses who are unfitted mentally 
and temperamentally for that line of work. It seems to be such a 
waste of good time and effort to instruct young men in technical lines 
when they would make better mechanics, carpenters, clerks, or farmers. 
Before applying for admission, a young man should be made familiar, 
by parents or teachers, with the qualities essential to success in engi- 
neering; he should be observed and questioned as to his liking for and 
ability to solve mathematical problems, and, by various tests, his quali- 
fications should be known to those who would be in a position to ad- 
vise him in regard to his life work; for, although the engineering 
and technical studies will not harm him, and in certain ways will pre- 
pare him for any work, it would surely be much better for those who 
do wish to follow engineering as a life work if the classes contained 
only those and were not overcrowded with many who belong more prop- 
erly in academic courses and do not care for the engineering train- 
ing or propose to follow that Profession. This leads very naturally 
to the observation that so many graduates of engineering courses are 
found in lines of work in no way related to their training, and it 
would be largely eliminated if advice and thought were given to the 
future of the graduate, rather than to the haphazard method, so fre- 
quently pursued by parents, of sending their sons to attend an engi- 
neering school, because it "seems to be the proper place," or "the 
proper thing to do." 

In a recent address, Alexander C. Humphreys, M. Am. Soc. C. E., 
President of Stevens Institute, said : 

"Many fathers and mothers come to me and tell me that their boys 
have a natural bent for engineering. Why? Well, they show great 
aptitude for making electric bell connections, or they are very skillful 
at the lathe. I generally tell them this: Will your boy apply himself 
to the hard study, perhaps, to him, the drudgery of mathematics and 
science? Otherwise, turn your attention to making your boy a good 
mechanic. The boy must have capacity for mental application besides 
manual dexterity." 

In regard to lengthening the course beyond four years. Dr. Hum- 
phreys says in no uncertain language: 

"If the course is to be lengthened, who shall determine its dura- 
tion; if five, six or seven years are needed, then why not seventy, for 



Papei-s.J ULSci'ssiox ().\ i:\(;i.\i:i:i;i.\(: i:i)Icai'1ox 1309 

a genuine student can always learn. One of the disadvantages of Mr. 
a college training, which must be offset by the greater advantages, is Boucher, 
that students get to relying too much on their college training." 

Further, technical schools are seldom endowed as liberally as the 
older and better-known universities, and it is a well-known fact that 
the cost of a student's education is more to the institution than the 
latter receives in tuition, consequently, the larger the classes the more 
the institution runs behind in operating expenses, and, for that reason, 
if for no other, as many students as possible should be deflected into 
those colleges giving cultural or academic courses. Another very good 
reason for keeping the classes small, is that, by so doing, the professors 
come into closer contact with their students, which is always a great 
advantage to the latter. 

On page 647,* the author gives a list, more or less complete, 
containing his ideas of entrance requirements. This list contains 
almost the identical subjects required for entrance to Stevens In- 
stitute in 1892, in addition to geography (political and physical). 
United States history, rhetoric, composition, and — probably most im- 
portant of all — arithmetic. This last, for some obscure reason, the 
author seems to have overlooked. To the speaker, however, it is a 
most important subject, one which is constantly used, and in which 
proficiency and accuracy are most essential, and its use should not 
be subordinated to the slide-rule or "guessing stick." 

As for foreign languages, the speaker is in, accord with the 
author; they should not be required during the course, in spite of 
the view of one very much respected professor, who held the opinion 
that the study of foreign languages gives relaxation after the hour 
of mathematics or physics. A reading knowledge of modern lan- 
guages is certainly an advantage to the engineer. It should be 
acquired in the high school, however, and, in order to keep up the 
practice, reviews of certain foreign technical papers might be re- 
quired sufRciently often to insure that the student was not losing 
what he already had. The difficulty in after life is that language 
studies, probably not any too thoroughly taught in college, are 
completed (so-called) one or two years before graduation, and, when 
the latter occurs, the graduate is so "rusty" in his languages that 
the reading, being anything but easy, is consequently neglected and 
soon dropped completely; for the busy engineer in practice has all 
he can do to read a portion — a very small portion — of American 
technical literature, which each week and month is demanding his 
attention. 

The course in engineering should be made pre-eminently prac- 
tical. Its use in the future should be kept constantly in view, and 
^Proceedings, Am. Soc. C. E., May, 1912. 



1310 DISCISSION ox h:.\(:i.\i;i:i;i.\(i kdication [Papers. 

Mr. those subjects which will make the fresh graduate useful to his first 
ouc er. gjjupiQygj. should be elaborated — drafting- and drafting-room methods 
should be insisted on and required. For five seasons the speaker 
was instructor in a New York City evening school, teaching mechan- 
ical drawing. He aimed to make the course useful and practical, 
devoting only a short time to mere drawing, but advancing the 
students rapidly to sketching from objects, then drawing the same 
in a neat and accurate manner, and finally tracing in ink; and, 
though a season's course lasted only six months, he has the satis- 
faction of knowing that several of the students, who had never be- 
fore been in a drafting-room, obtained employment as tracers or 
junior draftsmen after their one season's course. 

The author outlines a course of general engineering study cov- 
ering four years and designed to produce graduates who shall be 
well educated on broad lines and acquainted with much that is 
actually required in their future work. The speaker finds very 
little to criticize in the work outlined. For several years, Stevens 
Institute has required, as a part of the course, attendance at lec- 
tures and recitations on "business practice," in which attention is 
given to accounting, depreciation, analysis of cost, specifications, 
estimates, contracts, and appraisals. 

There is probably a diversity of opinion in regard to thesis work, 
but when properly conducted, and not consuming too much time, 
some good results may be achieved, for instance, in carrying out 
a test of a power station at a distance from the college, where the 
students must rely almost wholly on themselves. 

In closing, the speaker desires to mention an incident, which 
occurred at almost the beginning of his practical experience. Ap- 
plication had been made to a rather prominent consulting and con- 
tracting engineer of 1897, who is still in practice, to enter his em- 
ploy in a minor capacity. The answer, in letter form and preserved 
as a memento, reads as follows : 

"There exists at present no vacancy in my office, but my experience 
with college graduates has been such that I do not care to repeat that 
experience." 

Fortunately, this attitude is rare, and will become rarer as the 
products of our colleges and technical schools prove their worth by 
being immediately useful after graduation. 

In conclusion, the speaker desires to make this criticism of all 
the discussion by professors — that they seem to overlook or ignore 
the ultimate object of all the teaching, namely, to enable the grad- 
uate to secure a position in engineering work promptly after gradu- 
ation, for that is what 99% of the graduates need. Professors are 
much inclined to require a too highly finished product, rather than 



l^apeis.l DISCISSION ON EXOINKKKING EDUCATION 1311 

a working knowledge of essentials. Engineers in practice know what Mr. 
they lacked when they started out in the world; they also know of 
the hours spent on work required in college, which has never been 
hinted at or needed in practice — work which can properly only come 
after years of experience in the active practice of the Profession 
and is only entrusted to those who have obtained standing and 
reputation by their years of experience; hence it does seem that 
engineers are very distinctly qualified to have a voice in the making 
of the curriculum which is planned for the education of their future 
assistants. 

Almon H. Fuller, M. Am. Soc. C. E. — Mr. McCullough ha.s stated Mr. 

■ Fuller 

that engineering teachers should get together and standardize the 

courses of instruction. That sounds well, but he seems to have over- 
lool^ed the fact that each man will have to deal with the situation 
as he finds it in his respective college, especially in other de]jartnients, 
such as physics, mathematics, and chemistry; and even though they 
should agree on a standard, there would be difliculty in taking it home 
and applying it. It is possible that some progress could be made in 
that way, but the conditions which exist would cause considerable dif- 
ficulty in effecting a uniform change. 

The author also suggests a sequence of the various subjects which 
differs entirely from that visually followed. By this he hopes to give a 
certain amount of practical work the first year in subjects which will 
permit the students to do certain work during the summer, with the 
thought that if a man stayed by it without coming back to school per- 
haps the entire Profession would be the gainer. There has been much 
discussion on the proper sequence of subjects in an engineering cur- 
riculum. The usual order is to give much of the so-called cultural 
work first. Perhaps many would agree that this should be distributed 
throughout each year. 

In talking with some of his own students, the speaker has noticed a 
greater inclination to take general work in the latter part of the 
curriculum than in the first. If given in the first part, it is thrust 
upon them; if available later, many will take it willingly. The speaker 
has heard practicing engineers suggest such an arrangement. Whether 
or not this is the better plan seems to depend largely on the spirit 
that can be instilled in the students at various times. 

Mr. Green has well said: 

"Just what subjects are studied by the one being educated is a 
secondary matter; the chief concern is that the study shall be inspired 
and directed in such a way as to develop qualities which further 
happiness, efficiency, and capacity for social service."' 

When every instructor recognizes this, and realizes that it includes 
fundamental training for general resourcefulness — -culture if you 



1312 UllSCUSSlUX ox EXCilXEEliiNU KDUCATIOX | I'apers. 

Mr. please — much progress will have been made. This is of greater 
Fuller, importance than the particular arrangement proposed by the author. 

Mr. McCullough suggests that a specification for engineering edu- 
cation be written by engineers. Professor Swain thinks that would 
not be practicable. Perhaps it would not be. The speaker can see 
many objections to it. However, as an engineering teacher, he would 
like to see the specification. He would welcome the opportunity 
of examining it, of comparing it with the present curricula, and 
of attempting to adapt it to the conditions that exist in the institu- 
tion with which he is connected. If a representative committee of 
engineers would take the trouble to write such a specification they 
would deserve the thanks and possibly receive the approbation of the 
teachers. As Professor Swain has said, unless the men who write it 
were very closely in touch with the engineering colleges, it might not 
be very useful, but it seems to be entirely possible that it might 
bring out many points which engineering instructors could adopt 
with splendid advantage. 

Ofiice atmosphere may well be kept in mind in conducting courses 
in drawing and design. At the same time, it will not do to lose sight 
of the fact that, in the office, the intent is to mould the entire force into 
a smoothly working machine which will produce the greatest output; 
while, in college, the purpose is the development of the individual. 
Mr. Walter Hinds Allen, M. Am. Soc. C. E. — In the first part of the 

^°* Nineteenth Century the young man who desired to become a la.vpyer 
secured his professional training by going into some law office where 
he would read law for several years. Later, law schools were founded, 
and, by attending one of these, a much better legal education was 
possible. These methods, however, did not afford a broad education, 
and, nowadays, the majority of law students first acquire a general 
college education, waiting to get their technical education until the 
age of twenty-two or later, when the mind of the young man is so 
much better able to comprehend and master the more intricate tech- 
nical problems. Some of the modern law schools will admit only 
students who have received a Bachelor of Arts degree or the eqviivalent. 
These schools recognize, the fact that general education is essential 
in order to produce the best lawyers and citizens; and that the man 
of twenty is not able, in most cases, to get the full benefit of his pro- 
fessional study. 

This same condition is true to some extent in the study of medi- 
cine. Of course, there are and always must be schools of law and 
of medicine which admit students whose education has not advanced 
beyond the high school. Not all young men are able to afford the 
time or money necessary for a college course, and it would be most 
unjust to deprive them of an opportunity of entering these pro- 



Papers. I DISCCSSION ON ENCilN EEKINti EDUCATION 1313 

fessions. It is generally recognized, however, that such a course is Mr. 
a desirable preparation for professional study. ^''^°" 

At present the engineering schools of the country are at that former 
stage of the law and medical schools, when a previous college educa- 
tion was not a requisite for admission. The Engineering Profession 
is behind its sister professions in this respect, for a good general 
education is just as essential a preparation for engineering study and 
to produce the best engineers as for any other profession. Such gen- 
eral education need not be exactly the same for all professions. For 
one who intends to study engineering, much preliminary scientific 
study may be undertaken in mathematics, physics, and chemistry; but 
history, economics, literature, modern languages, and rhetoric should 
receive considerable attention. These subjects will prove of value, not 
only to the engineer in practice, and particularly as he attains more 
prominence in his profession, but they add to his culture and ability 
to stand well among his fellow men. They increase his power of 
enjoying the higher things of life. 

An undergraduate college course is completed ordinarily at the age 
of twenty-two, at which time the young student, having reached the 
more serious period of life, is ready to take up the technical prepara- 
tion for his life work. If he has finished his studies in pure mathe- 
matics and other elementary subjects, he can get a thorough engineer- 
ing education with two or three additional years of study. 

In another respect, the engineer may well profit by the example 
of the lawyer or doctor. After graduation it is a very common thing 
for these men to enter law offices or hospitals and work for one or two 
years with little or no compensation. They do not so much consider the 
financial side as the opportunity afforded to observe the best practice 
and to supplement their study at the professional schools. In the 
speaker's opinion, it is entirely wrong to assume the attitude that the 
man who has just completed his technical school course should begin 
immediately to earn good pay. He is not yet of any great value in 
his profession; the man who has not had the opportunity for educa- 
tion, but has started his practice at an early age, is, for a number of 
years, of much greater value to his employer. The trained man, however, 
has far greater possibilities in him, and nine times out of ten becomes 
the better engineer after he has had some years of practical experience. 
He himself should realize this and be content in his first years to make 
monetary compensation a consideration secondary to securing the best 
experience. 

The speaker had occasion last winter to investigate the opportu- 
nities offered for certain young men, technically trained, and gradu- 
ates of an engineering school, who had had two years of practical ex- 
perience, to take a course of study that would give them a broad civil 
engineering education. These men were about twenty-five years of 



1314 DISCUSSION ox KNGIXEEKING EDUCATION [Papers. 

Mr. age, good students and well eq\iipped in mathematics and some branches 
Allen. q£ civil, mechanical, and electrical engineering. As far as the in- 
vestigation disclosed, there is only one Eastern university or engineer- 
ing school which has a regularly organized graduate school of engi- 
neering. This has been started recently, and marks, in the speaker's 
opinion, an epoch in engineering education in the United States. 
The number of young men who take up the study of engineering in a 
graduate course, after obtaining a general college education, is steadily 
increasing, and the opening of this graduate school is an index of 
the trend of engineering education. 

It is a good omen, too, that this and other engineering societies 
are taking interest in the education of those who later will become 
engineers. The members of the Profession by their advice and in- 
terest can exercise a strong influence in securing the best training 
for their successors. This cannot be done effectively by bringing 
pressure on the schools themselves and by trying to dictate what 
they shall teach. The schools will furnish that kind of education 
for which there is a strong demand from the students themselves. 

Outside engineers can do Far more good by using their influence 
with young men who are intending to become engineers, by inducing 
them to secure a good general education first, and to pursue their tech- 
nical studies afterward. The practicing engineer should encourage 
the beginner to take a broad view of his profession, to look to the 
future, and to map out his early training and practice with a view 
not so much to immediate financial success as to attaining ultimately 
the top of his profession. 
Mr. C. H. Stengel, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E. — In order to substantiate 

^^^^ ' some of the facts brought out by Professor Swain, pertaining to the 
statement that engineers should be graduated at the age of twenty- 
one in preference to a more advanced age, to give them an early start 
in the Profession, the speaker would state that he has had in his service 
a number of young graduate engineers, and, after careful observation, 
has found that their intellects are at a more advanced stage of de- 
velopment, their work more accurate, and themselves better men on 
the average, at the ages of from twenty-three to twenty-five than at 
twenty-one. The more mature the mind of the student at the time he 
is laying the foundation of his career, the greater are his intellectual 
powers, principally in absorbing and retaining the knowledge he is 
gaining, to develop his logic and reasoning. 

When the young man enters college intending to take up Engi- 
neering, his course should consist in mastering thoroughly and con- 
scientiously the fundamental principles which form the basis of the 
Profession in all its branches; then, with his power of application, he 
should be able to fit himself for any of its branches, and his rise 



Papers.] DISCUSSION ON ENGIKEERIXG EDUCATION 1315 

will soon be assured, if his energies, resourcefulness, and ambition Mr. 
are applied to his work. s^tengel. 

As stated, it is the personality and self-reliance of a young man 
entering the engineering world, together with the thoroughness in 
which his mind is developed in not only the fundamental principles 
underlying his Profession, but in careful analysis and accuracy in 
the performance of any work he may pursue, that mean success; and 
to accomplish this he should have the full confidence of his tutors 
and the co-operation of his parents (as stated by Professor Swain) 
in the moulding of his career. 

Charles Warren Hunt, M. Am. Soc. C. E.— The general subject Mr. 
of the education of the engineer is of great interest to the speaker, 
inasmuch as, for more than twenty years, he has been in a position ' 
which has enabled him to form an opinion of the results of modern 
technical training. 

Professor Swain has stated certain logical, broad, and proper basic 
principles on which engineering education should be founded, neverthe- 
less, in the speaker's opinion, the tendency of the modern technical 
school is to become more and more narrow. 

A boy who wishes to become an engineer must decide, practically 
upon matriculation, which special branch of this great Profession 
he will follow : Civil, Mechanical, Electrical, or some other. During 
the course in whichever specialty he chooses, he is forced to spend 
many hours in working out details of that specialty (in many cases 
without even a suggestion of a study of modern languages, history, 
literature, or in fact of any of the humanities), and, after four years 
of hard grinding, is graduated as the particular type of engineer 
indicated by the title of the course pursued. He must then secure 
a position for which that preparation is supposed to have fitted him — 
he has no other option — and then follows a period of years during 
which, in the struggle for existence, his nose is kept so close to the 
grindstone that he has no time even to look about him for broadening 
influences; so that, when he reaches the age at which he should be 
most productive and efficient, he is not fitted to take and keep the 
position, in the social, political, or business life of the community in 
which he lives, to which his intellectual attainments and constructive 
skill entitle him. 

It is trite, but true, to say that the engineer is the pioneer of all 
civilization, as well as one of the most important factors in its advance- 
ment; and it is then most natural to inquire why his position among 
his fellows is not commensurate with his achievements. In the speaker's 
opinion, it is because he is not enough of an all-around man ; he is not 
broad, not capable of thinking clearly and quickly along any other lines 



1316 niSCL'.SSION ox engineering education [Papers. 

Mr. than those to which he has given up all his formative years. He does 
■ not, therefore, succeed in impressing his personality on his fellow- 
man, although he has not the slightest difficulty in so doing on his 
fellow engineer. 

The speaker believes that the modern system of engineering educa- 
tion is, speaking broadly, responsible for this condition. He does 
not know enough to attempt to discuss any of the details of curricula 
or class-room, but would like to go on record as believing that the 
specification for a properly equipped technical graduate should not be 
that he should be able immediately on leaving school to be valuable 
to an employer in any specialty, but that first of all he should be full 
to repletion with knowledge of the fundamental laws and principles 
of the exact sciences on which the sound practice of engineering 
in all its branches must be based ; and, in addition to this, his attain- 
ments outside of technical matters should be broad enough and funda- 
mental enough to enable him to become a man of the world. It is 
time enough for him to specialize when he has found out what he 
is best fitted for, and what his opportunities are. To be successful, 
an engineer must not only be able to do the technical work which comes 
his way, but he must be able to get it, and his ability to hold his own 
with men of other professions and in the world of business must 
ultimately decide whether he shall be in fact, as well as in name, a 
professional leader in the community, or continue to be regarded by 
the general public as a sort of an upper class mechanic. 
Mr. Arthur H. Blanchard, M. Am. Soc. C. E. — It is not the speaker's 

Blanchard. j^tention to discuss Mr. MeCullough's paper from all standpoints, but 
to call attention briefly to certain phases of the subject which might 
not be treated in the general discussion. 

The speaker wishes to emphasize the author's recommendation that 
advanced specialized work can be taken profitably by graduate en- 
gineers, provided the period of attendance and other details are ar- 
ranged satisfactorily. Up to this date, very few examples of educa- 
tional work conducted along these lines are at hand. One case, how- 
ever, which is conducted on the plan proposed, is that of the graduate 
courses in Highway Engineering at Columbia University. The period 
in which these courses are offered is from December 1st to April 
1st. Hence an engineer desiring to take all the graduate courses 
in highway engineering and allied subjects, which fulfill the re- 
quirements for the Master's Degree, will necessarily be in attendance 
for two winter periods, the equivalent of one collegiate year. Al- 
though candidacy for the Master's Degree requires as a prerequisite a 
Bachelor's Degree, nevertheless, mature men are admitted to any 
courses for which they are qualified, and may take any number of 
courses. 



Papers. I DISCTSSloN ()\ KNG [NKKUING EDUCATION 1317 

As this plan is somewhat of an innovation in engineering educa- Mr. 
tion, it may be of interest to cite certain facts in connection with *°*^ *'' • 
the attendance during the winter period of 1911-12, which was the 
first period under this plan. Although the graduate courses were not 
brought to the attention of engineers until November, 1911, there 
were in attendance fifteen men affiliated with highway work, thirteen 
of whom registered as candidates for the Master's Degree. It is of 
interest to note that this group included men connected with State 
highway departments, contractors' organizations, municipal depart- 
ments, engineering-sales departments of manufacturing companies, 
county highway departments, and consulting engineers' offices. The 
experience of these men ranged from one to twelve years. They came 
from widely distributed localities, Massachusetts, New York, Penn- 
sylvania, Maryland, North Carolina, Alabama. Panama, and British 
Columbia being represented. 

The idea, as suggested by Mr. McCullough, that men taking ad- 
vanced courses should work on special problems is followed out at 
Columbia, and it is of interest to note that the founding of several 
research fellowships by various manufacturing companies is under 
consideration. The research workers holding these fellowships will 
investigate problems of particular interest and value to the manu- 
facturing concerns founding them. It is expected that many problems 
of wide interest to those engaged in highway work will be thoroughly 
investigated through this medium. 

The speaker hopes that the author will elucidate his remarks 
relative to the injection of an office atmosphere into the classroom. 
Does the following plan, adopted in connection with the graduate 
courses in highway engineering at Columbia, approach Mr. McCullough's 
ideal? This plan consists in the employment of a large number of 
experts in various fields connected with highway work to act as Non- 
Resident Lecturers in Highway Engineering. These lecturers cover 
certain subjects with which they are particularly familiar and their 
topics form an integral part of the various courses. Although the 
regular officers of instruction are actively connected with highway 
work or allied subjects, it was thought that lectures, based on the 
plan outlined, would tend to broaden the viewpoint of the graduate 
students, besides bringing them in contact with men of the highest 
standing in this branch of the Profession. 

Mr. McCullough evidently doas not fully appreciate the value of 
a training in French and German. He considers this subject from 
two standpoints: first, ability to converse in a foreign language; and, 
second, ability to read foreign literature. The speaker thoroughly 
agrees with the author in his implied criticism of the time wasted, 
both in preparatory and technical schools, in the attempt to acquire 



Mr. 



1318 DISCUSSION ON ENGINEERING EDUCATION L Papers. 

the ability to converse in French and German. He feels, however, 
Blanchard. ^-^at an entirely wrong impression is given when it is intimated that, 
for those who have never taken French or German, only a few 
weeks' work is necessary with a phonograph or in special schools in 
order to acquire ability to transact business or discuss engineering 
problems with those speaking a foreign language. Based on the 
speaker's experience with the use of foreign languages in Europe, 
and his knowledge of the methods used in teaching French and Ger- 
man in preparatory and technical schools, the following recommenda- 
tion is offered for consideration : In all foreign language courses for 
engineers the entire time should be devoted to a thorough study of 
grammar and to translations. The time now devoted to the reading 
of French and German in the original is generally wasted. In many 
cases the pronunciation used by American teachers is poor, and hence 
those who attempt later to converse in foreign languages must forget 
the faulty pronunciation acquired previously. An engineer who is 
called on to use French or German in Europe will find it profitable, 
after mastering the vocabulary covering his particular field of work, 
to devote the requisite time to association with a French or German 
teacher and to living with a family where only the foreign language 
is vised, in order to acquire the native pronunciation and have an oppor- 
tunity to converse in the foreign language. 

The author uses the common argument that "everything of value 
appearing in the foreign papers is quickly translated." Naturally, 
the deduction is that engineering literature of value to American 
engineers is translated and reprinted as it appears in the foreign press. 
In the field of highway engineering, such is certainly not the case. 
Before devoting a year to the investigation of the construction and 
maintenance of roads and pavements in foreign countries, the speaker 
attempted to review thoroughly the practice of the leading countries 
of Europe. It was found, however, that the so-called translations 
referred to gave a very inadequate idea of current practice in foreign 
countries. The result of the speaker's investigations showed that 
European engineers had adopted many methods, in connection with the 
construction and maintenance of highways, with which American 
engineers were not familiar, and likewise that the few references to 
this practice in the English press gave a perverted view of foreign 
practice. That American engineers in many fields may profit ma- 
terially by thorough study of foreign practice does not require extended 
argument. Many instances in highway engineering have occurred in 
which both failures and successes of foreign engineers have been du- 
plicated as experimental work in the United States where such work 
would not have been undertaken if the experimenters had been familiar 
with the results of foreign practice. The speaker has in mind an 



Paiicis.J DISCUSSION ON ENGINEERING EDUCATION 1319 

experiment described by an American engineer, and labeled as a Mr. 
new invention, which had been in use for a number of yei'rs in Great 
Britain, Germany, Austria, and France, and had been described in 
foreign periodicals. The practice in highway engineering in English 
speaking countries is very well covered by the technical press of the 
United States, Canada, and Eng^land, but it is the exception to tind 
the best articles printed in the Annales des Fonts ei Chaussees, Annales 
des Cltcmins Vicinaux, and Le Genie Civil, of France; the Annales dos 
Travanx Publics de Belgique; the Zeitschrift fiir Transycrtwesen und 
Slrassenhau, and Der Strassenhau, of Germany, translated and re- 
printed or abstracted in the technical press of America. 

Philip W. Henry, M. Am. Soc. C. E. — More or less has been ^Mn 
said about education in different branches of engineering, as if 
it made considerable difference in a man's career whether he takes 
a course in mechanical, niining, electrical, or civil engineering. 
It is difficult to differentiate these courses, and the speaker does 
not think it is necessary to do so. It is the quality of instruction 
that counts, rather than the subject. A course in mining engineer- 
ing, properly given, will better fit a man to be a mechanical en- 
gineer, than a course in mechanical engineering improperly given. 
The degree which a man obtains on Commencement Day does not 
make him an engineer, but indicates, or should indicate, that he 
knows how to work intelligently on any engineering problem which 
is set before him. In the class-room he has been compelled, every 
day of his four years' course, to concentrate his attention on a 
definite problem, and demonstrate its solution on the blackboard 
or in some other concrete way. When, after graduation, he takes 
a position, no matter how humble or in what branch of engineering, 
he still finds that there is a daily problem to solve, and that, through 
his training in proper methods of application, he is able to solve 
it more easily, and thus advance more rapidly than a man, who, 
with the same mental endowments, has not had the advantage of the 
same kind of training. In addition to this mental training, good 
for any kind of business — dry goods or otherwise — the graduate 
engineer has the advantage of knowing where to go for any de- 
tailed technical information bearing on the subject in hand. 

Many students in engineering schools have only sufficient naeans 
to carry them through the course, and, of necessity, must accept the 
first position open to them. If, therefore, a man who has taken 
the course of mechanical engineering finds that the only opening 
is in the office of an engineer whose specialty is sewer construction, 
he should not despair, but should take that or ajiy other position 
which may offer advancement, feeling confident that his training 
will come into use and that he will have the advantage over all 



1320 DISCUSSION ox ENGINEERING EDUCATION [Papers. 

Mr. his competitors in his ability to work thoroughly and intelligently. 
Henry, -g^ steady application and by taking an interest in his daily task, 
he will find advancement sure, even though it may not be in that 
branch of engineering for which he originally prepared himself. 

Mr. John C. L. Eogge, M. Am. Soc. C. E. — Professor Swain has stated 

"^^^' that when one is studying engineering, he cannot tell what business 
he will follow ultimately. The speaker would like to say a word or two 
in reference to engineers engaged in lines of business other than 
engineering, and to show how circumstances alter cases, using his own 
career as an example. 

He was educated as an engineer and followed the Profession for 
about twelve years. During part of this time he was employed in 
one of the New York City Departments where he rose to be Chief 
Engineer. While thus employed, he was so impressed with the success 
of various contractors who worked under his supervision and who 
had little or no education, that when the opportunity came, he resigned 
his position and entered the business world. The venture was a suc- 
cess, and he has never regretted the change. 

While a man's environment, opportunity, and temperament are 
always large factors in his success, the speaker believes that an engi- 
neering education would not be found to be a handicap in any busi- 
ness or profession, because it trains one to reason, to plan, to be keen 
in observing, to be able to make quick and accurate decisions, and 
not to take anything for granted, all of which are valuable to one who 
is in commercial life. A prominent New York lawyer, who was gradu- 
ated from Stevens Institute as a mechanical engineer and subse- 
quently took up law as a profession, informed the speaker recently 
that his engineering education had been of great benefit to him in 
the study of law. 

A man who has followed the Engineering Profession for a con- 
siderable length of time, however, is apt to be timid as compared 
with the every-day business man, because of the extreme accuracy 
demanded by engineering work; but if he will follow engineering just 
long enough to learn to apply what he has studied in practice, he will 
then be ready to take up any other line of work or business which 
may suit him better, or in which there are more financial returns. 

To young men studying engineering the speaker would say that 
there are many opportunities in the commercial woidd where an en- 
gineering education can be used with profit. 

Mr. Charles H. Higgins, M. Am. Soc. C. E. (by letter) .—This paper 

Higgins. -g ygj.y interesting, expressing as it does, a natural and not uncommon 
point of view toward this vitally important subject. 

The author appears to take for his premises the following: "The 
engineer should merely give to the teacher his specifications for a good 



Papers.] DISCUSSION ON ENGINEERING EDUCATION 1321 

assistant, and the teacher should try to follow the specifications." For Mr. 
those who accept the foregoing, it can only be a matter of deep regret '^^'°^- 
that the author did not furnish a sample copy of the specifications, 
including a form of contract and a notice to bidders. The brief de- 
scription contained in the paper, can, in no wise, alleviate the dis- 
appointment felt in not finding the proposed specifications for the 
finished product. 

The author states that "it should not be a difficult matter for 
teachers to standardize a course of instruction in engineering"; but 
is it not a little too much to expect of those "whose sole function in 
life is to prepare assistants for the engineer, and train those who in 
the future will be engineers," before they receive copies of "a specifica- 
tion for a good assistant" and know the conditions to be imposed by 
the contract? To illustrate: Some forms of contract contain a clause 
providing for liquidated damages to the amount of $100 per day for 
failure to complete the work within the specified time, in full accord- 
ance with the specifications. The contracting teacher would have to 
take such a clause into account in preparing his bid and planning 
his future course. In all fairness, a copy of the specifications should 
be sent before the method of carrying on the contract is required. 

Discipline and specialization, of'course, are good, but is it not a 
little severe to prescribe, even for teachers, a "sole function in life"? 
The writer would not be quite so severe; he thinks that he would allow 
the exercising of at least one more function, even in the case of a 
hardened offender. 

Many engineers not only receive their assistants from colleges, but 
they send their sons to them, and that gives another point of view. 

There is much in the latter part of the paper which the writer 
would like to endorse heartily, particularly the advantage to be gained 
in arranging the course so that a man will have obtained some train- 
ing that will serve to recommend him for a position in engineering 
work during the summer vacation following the freshman year. Also, 
the recognition, in the reference to 6 universities and 200 technical 
schools, of the fact that there may be a distinction; and, above all, 
the emphasis laid on the importance of a training in English, includ- 
ing public speaking, and in economics. 

Perhaps engineers expect too much as assistants, of young men 
just out of college. Professors of engineering probably know the dif- 
ficulties of training in college, just as practicing engineers do of con- 
tinuing that training later in the office. Should the student be trained 
in details as suggested, it may very well be that he will not detail any 
steelvp^ork for several years after leaving college; meanwhile, methods 
of detailing vnll have changed, or he will find that the office he enters 
has methods which he must leam to follow. 



1333 DISCUSSION ON ENGINEERING EDUCATION [Papers. 

Mr. Is it the function of the college to take the place of office and 

iggins. ^^1^ training? The writer thinks not. What it can do is to educate 
its students in the underlying principles of Nature, and broadly, in 
the methods of their application, for the use and convenience of Man; 
and make him more receptive to experiences and capable of interpreting 
them in the light of the knovm laws of Nature. 

After all, there are distinctions between skill, knowledge, and educa- 
tion. The training which makes the best assistant during the first 
year out of college is not by any means of necessity the best for the 
recipient. The college may owe something to the practicing engineer, 
but it certainly owes vastly more to the students and their parents. 
The human, element will always remain. After all is said and done, 
engineering is for men and not men for engineering. 
Mr. Charles B. Buerger, Assoc. M. Am. Soo. C. E. (by letter.) — 

ueigei. -jy^^_ Green has stated that the aim of immediate usefulness to the 
future employer may properly be made a secondary consideration in 
the determination of the curriculum; and it is quite likely that this 
aim of early usefulness would fail. A course, or a student's electives, 
may be intended to fit him for a particular position, such as assistant 
to a consulting engineer, and such position he may never have occa- 
sion to fill. Outside of domestic servants, the employe in a subor- 
dinate capacity is far from being a free agent, with "liberty" to 
contract, the Court of Appeals notwithstanding, his occupation being 
rather a matter of accident than of his wishes or qualifications. 

The best curriculum is the broadest one; one which of itself will 
fit the student for no special position, but will give him the capacity 
to learn most readily the duties of any one of many possible posi- 
tions; and his practical education will be obtained, as Mr. Green points 
out, after he has left school. 

Mr. McCullough has not dwelt on the method of teaching, and that 
is a feature which a teacher should be best qualified to decide; but 
any one who has been a student has a right to a small voice in the 
matter. As a rule, the teaching system now comprises 8 months of 
study per year, 20 hours per week, the time being divided approxi- 
mately between lectures, quizzes, and the laboratory, the last including 
shop, field, experimental, testing, and drafting work. In addition, 
students are expected to put in from 4 to 5 hours each day in private 
study. The writer would substitute a school year of 50 weeks, with 
44 hours of study per week, say 8 hours each for 5 days, and 4 hours on 
Saturday. He would abolish all lectures and all quizzes, leaving only 
the laboratory work and the examinations of the present system. 

Of the college men with whom the writer came in contact during 
their student days, numbering, perhaps, 500, four-fifths went through 
the prescribed courses in a perfunctory way, regarding them as neces- 
sary evils, the solace being the shortness of the school hours, and the 



Papers.] DISCUSSION ON ENGINEERING EDUCATION 1323 

time available for other things. Friends of these students in the Mr. 
commercial world were spoken of as being at work; the students 'merger, 
themselves were at college, never at work in college. These are only 
words, but they represent correctly the student's point of view. 

The boy of 16 who goes into the business world puts in 8 hours 
at his daily task, and be he clerk, mill hand, or rivet boy, he takes 
this length of time a.s a matter of course. It does not occur to his 
employer that the boy should work 4 hours a day at his shop, or ofBce, 
and do the additional 4 hours' work at his own home, should it be 
work that could be done at home. If the employer did this, he would 
get exactly as much done in the 4 hours at home as the college 
student does in his home study. Nor could this boy get 4 months' 
vacation a year, even without pay, for the employer would consider 
steadiness of application a primary qualification. 

This lengthening of school hours and elimination of home study 
has not the same meaning as the recent changes in the New York 
public school system, which have eliminated in effect any study of any 
kind on the part of the pupil. It is, in fact, the reverse. The study 
time is moved into the school hours, and these school hours are doubled 
thereby. The study time is made an essential part of the course; 
it is even made the only essential, and replaces entirely all lectures 
and quizzes which, at present, occupy the greater part of the school 
hours. 

This teaching method, then, consists of, say, 32 hours of study 
per week under supervision, and 12 hours of the various courses 
belonging under what has been called laboratory work. 

The ordinary school lecture is an abomination. In the Stone 
Age, it was no doubt a proper means of teaching; now there is no 
excvise for it. It is true that many instructors cannot find books 
which they consider suitable. With their judgment, the writer will 
not quarrel; but, even then, they question the value of their lectures 
by giving the students the substance in mimeographed sheets. 

The ordinary quiz is a useful means of teaching the instructor 
what the student knows, but it is no help in teaching the student what 
he does not know, and that is what he is after, always granted that 
there are some capable teachers who make a success of these methods. 

Studying under supervision means necessarily individual instruc- 
tion. This would mean a larger number of instructors, except that 
it is entirely feasible to use the more efficient students as aids to the 
instructor to assist the less efiicient ones. It would be better, also, 
to change the terms to correspond to the change in method, and say 
that the student instructs himself from his printed matter and that 
he has a supervisor to render necessary aid. 

The writer thinks that further elaboration is unnecessary; it can 
be expressed in two sentences : 



1324 DISCUSSION ON ENGINEERING EDUCATION [Papers. 

Mr. 1. — Make the student put in a full day's work every day, and 

Buerger, ^gj^^h him SO that he does it. 

2. — Apply correspondence-school methods to the college, with the 
additional advantage of personal contact and personal help. 

Such a system will make the student, not a passive receiver, but 
an active studier, and when he is that, there will be little complaint as 
to his curriculum. 
Mr. Ernest McCullough, M. Am. Soc. C. E. (by letter.) — As a teacher, 

'lough ^^^'- Garver feels that the writer has presented a paper criticizing 
teachers, whereas the intention was to assist them in engineering 
schools by giving suggestions for the better preparation of embryo 
engineers. ,The attitude of mind often warps judgment, and, as Mr. 
Garver read things into the paper that were not there, the writer would 
suggest that he read it again. For his information, it may be stated 
that in the Michigan Mining College, Houghton, Mich., the University 
of Chicago, Chicago, 111., and Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Ind., 
the system of 12-week terms, with new classes in every subject begin- 
ning with each term, has been in use for many years. The writer fails 
to see that these schools have a larger proportion of teachers to 
students than other schools. The professors have to work a little 
harder than the majority of professors, almost as hard, in fact, as 
the majority of engineers in active practice, when the latter are fortu- 
nate enough to ha,ve a job. The writer understands that a number 
of private schools also have their doors open throughout the year, 
and the proportion of teachers to pupils is about the average. 

Captain Pillsbury is a graduate of, and has been a teacher in, the 
finest vocational school in the world. The students are selected after 
a very careful and severe physical examination followed by a no less 
severe mental examination. Their conduct is rigidly guided through- 
out four years of as strenuous work as men can do and survive. This 
training, however, is in preparation for a position guaranteed to all 
graduates. A man is even paid while learning. A few years after 
he has reached his prime, and long before he has outlived his use- 
fulness, he is retired on a pension which, to many engineers in private 
life, looks like affluence. _ Criticism made by a man trained under such 
a .system is not as valuable as it might be, for he knows nothing of 
the trials and tribulations of the average engineer, so long and humor- 
ously referred to as a "job chaser." The average student of technical 
schools has to go through school on very short allowance, and many 
have to earn the money. On his graduation, no kind Government 
engages his services. He must strive hard to get a position, and 
must compete with men having less schooling and more practical ex- 
perience. The competition is becoming more keen each year. The fol- 
lowing* illustrates this point : 

* Extract from an article by Edgar Marburg, M. Am. Soc. C. E., entitled, " Engineering 
Graduates and the World," Engineering News, July 4th, 1912. 



Papers.] DISCUSSION ON ENGINEERING EDUCATION 1325 

"It may be of interest to add, that of the total number of graduates, Mr. 
1 258, beginning with the class of 1873, more than one-half have gradu- McC"'- 
ated since 1904." ^ 

The graduates referred to are from the Engineering Department of the 
University of Pennsylvania. The writer has obtained printed matter 
from other schools, and a study of the subject shows that the fore- 
going fact is true of the majority of engineering schools. There is 
no reason for such an increase except widespread advertising, and, 
in the paper, an endeavor was made to point out a way of altering 
the present sequence of studies, in order that there might be a con- 
tinuous elimination of the unfit, beginning with the first year in 
school. The writer is sorry he failed to make his meaning clear. 

The writer also fails to understand where his critics gain the 
impression that he advocates less mathematics than the present 
curricula provide. He said "Either mathematics should be taught in 
a manner that will provide the student with a iiseful tool, or the time 
should be given to some other subject." He did not decry the value 
of a rigorous course in pure mathematics, but he did criticize the 
slipshod manner in which the subject is taught in too many schools. 
However, as the question has been raised, it may be said that many 
eminent educators have stated lately that too much emphasis has been 
laid on the value of mathematics as a cultural study. That study 
develops only the mathematical portion of the brain. It does not 
tend to broaden the mind, and therefore, should be taught rigorously 
only to those persons who may be apt to require it in later life. It 
is more difiicult to remember than language, and for those who ha.ve 
no mathematical bent it is time wasted to teach anything more than 
high school mathematics, purely for cultural purposes. The writer 
fails to see why a "practical" course cannot be "rigorous," and would 
recommend to his critic a perusal of the book referred to in the paper. 

Mr. Constant's discussion meets with the writer's approval. He 
has evidently read the paper carefully, and it is thought that he must 
have been in far better touch with actual conditions than the majority 
of teachers in engineering schools. He goes to the heart of the matter 
in the following paragraph: 

"After all, however, it is not so much the precise nature of the 
curriculum as the manner in which the subjects and the students are 
handled that is important. How to bring out the very best in every 
man, to stimulate his interest and devotion to his work, and, at the 
same time, to eliminate the lifeless and the small group of de- 
ficients always to be found at the lower limit, who, by sheer per- 
sistence, in point of time, finally get through, no more fit, perhaps, 
a.t the end than at the beginning — this is the real problem of the 
engineering school." 

Compare the foregoing with the last three lines of the second para- 
graph of the paper. 



1326 DISCUSSION ON ENGINEERING EDUCATION [Papers. 

Mr. For many years the writer tried to get into teaching work, but 

lough' f 01" three reasons was unable to do so : First, he had never been a 
teacher in a school of university grade; second, he might have re- 
ceived minor appointments carrying considerably less pay than he 
could average in practice; third, he was voted against by the faculty 
in four institutions because the professors said their experience with 
teachers having many years of practical experience was as a rule 
unhappy. The man of more than ten years' practical experience does 
not mix well with the average faculty man. The result is an emulsion 
rather than a mixture. 

Consequently, the writer has been compelled to satisfy his desire 
to teacli, in part, by conducting classes in vocational subjects in insti- 
tutions to Ibe found in most large cities. 

Few teachers in engineering schools are there from deliberate 
choice. Too many have entered the work because a teaching position 
was open at a time when they were out of a job. They took the low 
pay of an instructor to tide them over a winter, and ended by staying 
permanently. A large part of a teacher's work consists of lecturing, 
and few men are harder to listen to than the average teacher in an 
engineering school. A friend once said of a widely advertised pro- 
fessor, "I never listened to a nifin so reluctant to part with his con- 
versation." The students who had to sit in his classes said of him 
that he lacked tact, and was so difficult to follow that they failed to see 
why he was kept year after year. The writer believes there is a far 
larger proportion of unfit teachers than of unfit men in any industry. 
Is it any wonder that a man like Mr. Taylor should prepare a paper 
entitled "Why Manufacturers Dislike College Graduates?" The writer 
thanks Mr. Constant for his conscientious discussion. 

Mr. Green's discussion reads like a high school thesis, and does 
not contain a single original thought. All he wrote has been written 
before, and the writer has read such things in discussions on engi- 
neering education printed two or more generations ago. This is not 
a new discussion, by any means, neither can any one put forth really 
original ideas on the subject. He can only voice the ideas of groups 
he voluntarily seeks to reiJresent, to the end that there may be improve- 
ment. "Qualities make up education, not knowledge." How often 
that idea is expressed in different words. Lately, some big business 
man said "I find it is not so much what a man knows, as how he 
knows it, and character coupled with opportunity, rather than knowl- 
edge, determines success and failure." Life is one-half opportunity, 
one-third ability, and one-sixth technical knowledge as Mr. Green and 
other young men graduated as engineers will discover sooner or later. 
It is easily possible to give too much scientific and technical instruc- 
tion to some young men who would have been served if sent out earlier 
with somewhat less education, as education is defined in the usua.1 



Papers.] DISCUSSION ON ENGINEERING EDUCATION 1327 

academic sense. Mr. Green insists on the duty of the employer to Mr. 
educate the engineers he employs. Does he not know that this is lough.' 
precisely what every employer does; and it is also very costly educa- 
tion. The ultimate consumer pays for it. The writer insists, as the 
result of twenty-five years' experience since leaving school, that the 
main object of the majority of engineering schools is to train young 
men to be competent assistants, and, if blessed by opportunity and 
backed by ability, they may develop into engineers. First, we must 
deime an engineer, and an attempt to do this was made in the opening 
paragraph of the paper. 

The writer has interviewed every man whom he found willing to 
talk, and in this way has obtained the opinions and ideas of many 
hundreds. The majority took up engineering because they wanted 
a college education, and their parents were willing to give if to 
them provided they studied engineering, which popularly is supposed to 
be very lucrative. The prevailing opinion is shown by the effect the 
Panama Canal had on the enrollment in engineering schools in 
1900, many people tiying to have their boys graduated in time to 
secure a position on that work when it. would start, in 1903 or 1904. 
The writer has been told by forty-seven young engineers who were 
graduated about that time that this was their sole reason for study- 
ing engineering. Contractors and other employers do not take engi- 
neers fresh from the schools; they take minor assistants. In fact, 
the fresh graduates usually have a hard time securing employment, few 
men caring to give them the necessary experience. They must take 
clerical work, or anything they can get, and then depend on their 
native ability to go up. They are, in effect, educated by the em- 
ployer; not as the bricklayer is trained, because there are few brick- 
laying schools. When trade schools become as relatively plentiful as 
engineering schools, the large employers will discontinue whatever 
instructional courses they are now presumed to have, although, in 
his knowledge of such courses, it is admitted that Mr. Green seems to 
possess more infoi'mation than the writer. The writer asks Mr. Green 
to read carefully the title of the paper and the third page. Engi- 
neering education was not therein dealt with as a training in pure 
or applied science. The title is "Engineering Education in its Rela- 
tion to Training for Engineering Work," therefore, education was 
discussed purely frona the vocational standpoint. 

Mr. Saurbrey, in his opening paragraph, takes occasion to mention 
the difference between "Engineering Education" and "Engineering 
Training." A teacher of business once said "When writing a tele- 
gram, use no punctuation marks. Hand it to a stranger to read, 
and if he gets your meaning then send it. If he does not get your 
meaning, re-write it; but remember, no punctuation." One often 
neglects to write so clearly that he can be free from criticism by men 



1328 DISCUSSION ON ENGINEERING EDUCATION [Papers. 

Mr. who split hairs and hold rigorously to definitions. Mr. Saurbrey 
'^oiSh! objects to the use of the word "pose." As he understands that word, 
the writer was unfortunate in using it, and perhaps might ha.ve said: 
"The well-read man is generally able to pass as a cultured man." To 
some, the use of the word "pass," in this connection, still bears too 
strong a resemblance to a game of poker, therefore is again "pose." 
Mr. Saurbrey has dilated too much on the unfortunate selection of 
that word. The writer meant to say that the man who reads de- 
liberately from choice, instead of having manufactured learning stuffed 
into him by teachers, generally makes the best impression on people 
who look on the possession of real knowledge as being an evidence of 
culture. The "poser" was the last man in his mind when he penned 
the unfortunate sentence. Mr. Saurbrey goes afield, however, in leav- 
ing the technical school and going back to the home and the common 
schools. The writer insists that the technical and engineering schools 
take the raw material as it is delivered, and, from the first day of 
school, begin to put in motion a proper law of selection; that and 
nothing more. His curriculum is practically that of all technical 
schools of to-day. His arrangement, however, departs from the com- 
mon one for the purpose of assisting in the early elimination of the 
unfit, and the dilation of the sense of perception on the part of those 
who took up the work ignorantly and have in them the germs of 
engineering ability. A liberal offering of electives gives every man 
full opportunity to travel as far as he likes in the paths of the scholar, 
nay, even in the path of the dilettante in matters bookish. Those who 
like more mathematics than is required can indulge their taste. Those 
who hanker for the ability to read foreign languages can have their 
hankerings sa.tisfied. 

Mr. Cohen has made a real contribution to the discussion, and is 
pretty well in accord with the writer in his ideas on the subject, as 
specifically dealt with according to the title of the paper. Mr. Stengel 
seemingly has some difficulty in getting at fundamentals. The writer 
believes that, when a young man is shown how to do a thing and 
then, in the course of his studies, is given the reason, he is far more 
likely to take an interest in his work than if he is given a two years' 
dose of "why" before 'getting at the "how." The writer, in handling 
his classes, obtains the best results by training men in doing things, 
and then giving the reasons when some curiosity is excited. Take the 
planimeter for example: It was required by a higher instructor that 
the pupils give the mathematical theory of the planimeter in an ex- 
amination. The writer first taught the use of the planimeter, and areas 
were found by it. Then he bent a wire before the class and made 
a hatchet planimeter. With this crude instrument areas were measured 
with an accuracy that was surprising. After this preliminary treat- 
ment, the elucidation of the theory and the presentation of the funda- 



Papers.] DISCUSSION ON ENGINEERING EDUCATION 1329 

mental equations involved no work, but vpas attacked with zest. How- Mr. 
ever, to this day, the writer cannot see what difierence it made, for ^^g^^" 
the instrument is a commercial product and no engineer is going to 
make one, unless it be the hatchet planimeter in its crudest form; 
and then he does not have to know the theory. 

The writer is pleased to learn of the work being done at Colum- 
bia University, as described by Mr. Blanchard. The injection of an 
office atmosphere in graduate courses is well attended to by the method 
adopted by Mr. Blanchard when it is considered that every man taking 
the course has had undergraduate instruction, and, subsequently, con- 
siderable practical experience. Such men, however, do not require the 
office atmosphere, because they understand the conditions of engi- 
neering life. They really are after the academic side. The office 
atmosphere mentioned by the writer is something which the under- 
graduate should breathe from the first, in an engineering school. It 
cannot be imparted properly when "inbreeding" is the rule in selecting 
members of the faculty. No man should be employed as an instructor 
in an engineering school until he has had not less than five years' 
practical experience of a good character. No graduate of the school 
should be appointed an instructor, for there are plenty of engineering 
schools turning out fit men. A man should not be an assistant pro- 
fessor until he has served some time as an instructor; and a graduate 
of the school can be appointed as an assistant professor, provided he 
has had not less than five years' practical experience and has also 
served some years as an instructor in some other school. 

Willingness to accept a teaching position should not count so 
much as a proven ability to teach. An engineering teacher should 
be a fluent and not a hesitating talker, as so many are. He should 
be interested in his work and in his students. The writer knows some 
professors who have nothing to do with their students outside the class- 
room, and these professors are not men of high standing, it being 
his observation that the higher standing the teacher has as a man 
the more of a connnon man he is with his students. Given teachers 
with practical experience who know the ups and downs of the "job 
chaser," the proper tinge of office and works atmosphere can properly 
be left to them. The writer knows what he would do had he the 
opportunity to conduct an engineering school, but cannot go into de- 
tails in a paper such as he presented nor in any discussion. If the 
teacher cannot eliminate a proper amount of academic atmosphere and 
substitute a wholesome aniount of office and works atmosphere, then 
he belongs in the liberal arts department rather than the engineering 
department of the school in which he holds a position on the teaching 
staff. 

Mr. Blanchard does not fully understand the writer in his remarks 
on the teaching of languages. His criticism of language teaching was 



1330 DISCUSSION ON ENGINEERING EDUCATION [Papers. 

Mr. similar to his criticism of the teaching of mathematics in the average 
^ough! school. The writer had the usual high school Latin and Greek. 
He also studied German years ago and later French. Some years 
after leaving school he obtained a position where a knowledge of 
Spanish was necessary, so he added that language to his stock. Of 
all this language work he retains practically nothing, for he has 
had no occasion in late years to make use of it. He can read articles 
in any three of the modern languages mentioned, by keeping a diction- 
ary close to his elbow, and he does a little reading in this way occa- 
sionally. Of conversation he is wholly incapable, except that when 
going home in the street cars he occasionally enjoys family gossip 
retailed by Germans who imagine no one in their vicinity under- 
stands the tongue. Even his meager knowledge of modern foreign 
languages is superior to that of 90% of the engineers with whom 
he comes in contact, hence his criticism of the manner of teaching 
languages in engineering schools, and his suggestion that this study 
be elective. The engineers who will really profit by it will take up 
this work; the "ninety and nine" who go at engineering as a voca- 
tion, and not with any idea of the study of engineering as a cultural 
matter, nor with the idea of being teachers, nor with any idea of 
doing research work, will not study foreign languages at school from 
choice, unless the credits gained thereby are more easily obtained 
than by any other method. The writer's criticism did not extend 
solely to the waste of time in attempting to get a conversational knowl- 
edge of a foreign tongue, but to the very poor way in which, as a rule, 
the study of foreign languages is taught in the majority of schools 
to first- and second-year students, who are obliged to take the work. 
It is really a device for piling up credits. 

To a certain extent, the writer agrees with Mr. Boucher on the 
subject of the 6-year course in engineering schools. He stated in his 
paper a belief that engineering schools of the future in the United 
States will probably call for a minimum of 6 years' work. The reason 
for this belief is that there is a widespread demand on the part of 
teachers that this be accomplished. The tendency in this direction is 
so strong that no power on earth can prevent it from being tried. 
Much of the elementary work now being performed in technical 
schools of college grade will be attended to in technical high schools, 
so that in the future we shall have the Trade, the Vocation, the Busi- 
ness, and the Profession of Engineering, all recognized and taken care 
of in schools ranging from trade and high schools to the largest 
universities. The greater number of teachers will come from schools 
where the professional ideal is held, that is, these higher schools will 
train teachers, many of whom it is to be hoped will have considerable 
active practice in earning a living as vocational men before taking 
up teaching. The writer, in his papei-, took the vocational school, 



Papers.] DISCUSSION ON ENGINEERING EDUCATION 1331 

corresponding to the present technical schools, as the one in which Mr. 

ItfcCiil- 

engineers should be most interested. The present 5- and 6-year courses, lough. 
however, give very little, if any more, than the 4-year course in some 
schools, for the latter require from the students more hours per week 
than schools with the longer courses. 

Mr. Boucher also referred to the writer's neglect to include arith- 
metic as an entrance subject. The writer has taught much in evening 
schools, and, as a result of his experience, can say that arithmetic is 
taught so badly in the ordinary American school that it will be better 
to omit it as an entrance subject, assuming that it was completed be- 
fore the student entered the high school. His experience as an in- 
structor in evening schools, and also as an employer of office assistants 
and draftsmen, compels him to say that the schools of America have 
much to learn from the schools of Europe in teaching arithmetic. It 
is stated in the paper that in the first year students should devote one 
hour each day to going through the examples in Sanborn's "Mechanics' 
Problems." This will give them drill in arithmetic. He mentioned 
also that the second-year students should be drilled on problems apt 
to arise every day in actual woi'k, these problems all being arith- 
metical rather than algebraic. 

In reply to Mr. Hunt the writer will say that it is a fact that 
the ''tendency of the modem technical school is to become more and 
more narrow." This the writer wishes to counteract by his proposed 
arrangement of the curriculum. It will be noticed that he adheres 
closely to essentials throughout, merely changing the order of their 
introduction, with the object of broadening the minds of the men 
taking the work. The young man is interested in the practical rather 
than the ideal. He studies engineering in order that he may be enabled 
to earn a living. It is a mistake to cram his sciences, economics, 
psychology, etc., down his throat during the years when he does 
not and cannot appreciate them. He should be given at first the 
things which will make him most immediately useful to his prospective 
employer, to the end that the narrow-minded and undeveloped boys 
will be worked off by stages, leaving those whose minds develop with 
the school work. The humanities, therefore, come at a time when the 
student is maturing and the topics of the day begin to interest him. 
The young boy is intensely egoistic, albeit without knowing himself to be 
so. At about the time he reaches the age when he can vote, the problems 
of society begin to interest him ; also, at this age, he is, as a rule, un- 
selfish and gregarious. If he now takes up the subjects that interest men 
and women of standing, they will make an impression on his mind 
which can never be effaced, and, later, when he achieves success, he 
will not be considered a sort of upper-class mechanic. 

Mr. Henry states that the quality of the instruction counts, rather 
than the instruction. It is precisely this point that the writer sought 



1332 DISCUSSION ON ENGINEERING EDUCATION [Papers. 

Mr. to bring out. He believes that the quality of instruction in the 
^ough' majority of engineering schools can be vastly improved. The essentials 
have been pretty vpell settled by a century of teaching. The order 
and the manner in which these essentials shall be imparted are now 
matters requiring settlement, bearing in mind that 99% of the students 
in engineering schools attend these schools for vocational training. 
When a man is drilled enough in mathematical, physical, and chemical 
sciences to read intelligently along the lines of his calling, he has 
obtained a great deal. It has been stated* that "a technical education 
can do nothing more beneficial for a man than to make him familiar 
with the best and most authoritative engineering literature." Granting 
that technical education gives him this much, let us add certain 
other broadening studies of a general nature, so that the graduate of 
the engineering school will be a good assistant, a well-read man, a 
good citizen. Those who leave before graduation will be good minor 
assistants, whose further development will depend on their inheritance 
of mentality and family environment. 

Mr. Allen will find on investigation that a comparison between engi- 
neering, law, and medical schools is not at all unfavorable to engineer- 
ing schools. He says "nowadays, the majority of law students first 
acquire a general college education, etc." It would be interesting to 
know where he obtained the data on which to base this assertion. A 
majority of the men admitted to practice as attorneys are not graduates 
of law schools, even to-day. A majority of graduates take courses, 
of two years in some States and three years in others, in schools run 
for profit, many of them being schools having evening sessions only. 
A very small percentage is graduated from schools requiring a college 
degree for entrance, there being less than half a dozen such schools in the 
United States, and these have small classes. Eminent lawyers are en- 
deavoring to have entrance requirements stiffened, with a view to 
eliminating competition. Less than half a dozen medical schools re- 
quire the completion of a college education before entrance, and perhaps 
a dozen call for two years of college work after high school. A few 
years ago there were 176 medical schools in the United States, but last 
year only 116 were reported, the recent campaign against medical 
schools run for proi&t having resulted in good. Medical men, however, 
are divided on the question of too severe entrance requirements. 
Eminent physicians and surgeons give long lists of names of men 
who were instrumental in advancing medical knowledge, and would 
never ha.ve entered the medical profession had they been compelled 
to complete a 4 years' college course before studying medicine. It has 
been stated also that few discoveries of importance have been made by 
men not pressed by poverty, for the temptations to ease are hard to 
resist when men have the means to gratify their inclinations to loaf. 

* Engineering News, November 17th, 1910. 



Papers.] DISCUSSION ON ENGINEERING EDUCATION 1333 

The argument is that only men backed by families of means can take Mr. 
a medical course if the entrance requirements are very severe. lough.' 

The movement to require longer preparation before studying law or 
medicine is inspired by the desire to cut down the number of practi- 
tioners. ^It is felt by some that, while this may eliminate a few 
good men, the resulting good to the profession in the improvement 
of the quality of the majority secured, will compensate for such 
possible loss. Opponents of the proposition point out that the loss pos- 
sibly of another Jenner, or Harvey, or Lister is a large price to pay 
for securing an increased number of men fitted to shine socially, 
for the additional education required is not medical or surgical, but 
merely cultural, to the end that the members of the profession may 
make a good showing at "pink teas." Similar ideas prevail among 
men in the Engineering Profession. Some hope to have 6-year courses 
common, because, "there are too many engineers." Some wish to have 
two additional years for the purpose of enabling engineers to shine 
to better advantage socially. Some want a 4-year college course com- 
pleted before beginning the study of engineering, for the same reason. 
At all events, it is seldom that the additional 2, 3, or 4 years are 
presumed to be spent on engineering subjects. It is pretty well settled 
that 3 or 4 years will suffice for the vocational studies connected with 
engineering, and the additional years are to be spent on the study of 
subjects of general interest. The writer proposes a. re-adjustment of 
the curriculum, so that the general subjects may well come in the 
final years, the student being put at the vocational work as soon as 
possible. 

Mr. Allen says "the schools will furnish that kind of education for 
which there is a strong demand from the students themselves." This 
is very pretty, but the truth is that few, if any, students entering 
engineering schools know what they need, still less what they want. 
Skilful advertising can make them believe they want anything the 
advertising department of the school presents for their attention. 
The students, that is, the undergraduates, should have nothing to 
say about what they want. Those who go in for vocational studies 
should get them. Those who can afford to wait until the completion of 
a college course can do so, but the fact remains that whatever road they 
take to obtain a degree in engineering, on graduation they must "hunt 
a job." The training offered at an engineering school should be such 
that the graduates will be enabled to fit in quickly, wherever em- 
ployed. It is known that graduates of engineering schools may look 
confidently forward to salaried employment shortly after graduation, 
whereas graduates of law and medical schools generally contemplate 
going into business for themselves. Their training is of an emi- 
nently practical nature. The law schools have moot courts and also 
require a certain amount of time to be spent in court, in the search 



1334 DISCUSSION ON ENGINEERING EDUCATION [Papers. 

Mr. for precedents, and the study of famous cases in libraries. The lectur- 
^ough! srs are nearly all eminent attorneys who lecture on their specialties. 
Such lectures are not as technical as lectures of engineers and are 
usually a guide to the critical study of some text. Medical students 
begin early on dissection of bodies, and from the first attend clinics 
in the college and assist in operations. The lecturers in the medical 
schools are also surgeons and physicians of standing, whose lectures 
are expository and non-technical guides to the critical study of texts. 
Lawyers, physicians, and surgeons, as well as ministers of the Gospel 
(whose divinity schools are vocational schools of an extreme type) 
are considered to be well educated, cultured men because they mingle 
daily with people who are well read and cultured, and cannot fail to 
obtain ascertain degree of polish. They also have plenty of time to 
do considerable reading of a general character, and can discuss in- 
telligently the questions of the day. 

Law and medical students are not ignorant of conditions to be 
encountered in the practice of their respective professions. They go 
valiantly into the fight for existence, hoping to succeed and willing 
to stay as long as they have any staying powers. Engineering students 
as a rule are inexpressibly shocked after graduation when they come 
fa.ce to face with conditions of employment and compensation. They 
believe, on entering school, that the Profession is most remunerative. 
They find after graduation that steady positions are the exception, 
and that pay does not invariably increase with years of experience and 
increased ability. They cannot go into private practice until near 
middle age and after the acquirement of considerable general ex- 
perience. The variety of work performed by engineers during 20 
years is remarkable when one makes a study of the lives of engineers, 
as shown by the biographies printed in the Transactions of this 
Society. Their training as engineers is received after leaving school. 
The training in school is to enable them to acquire quickly, and with 
certainty, much that they might acquire in a practical way in ofiices, 
with the expenditure of considerably more time and energy. That is, 
school training for engineers is an efiiciency proposition, to enable 
them early to be of service to their employers and of value to them- 
selves, to the end that they may sooner mount the lower steps on the 
ladder of success and be engaged on work of high grade while still young 
and full of energy — not yet discouraged and weary because of the hard 
battle of life. If the application of their studies to the practical 
problems of their life work is taught them early at school many will 
secure positions with the start given in the first one or two years 
in school and not remain to be graduated, while others will certainly 
stay to get more at school. 

The writer is not opposed to embryo engineers remaining 10 years 
in school if they wish, nor to engineers stringing an alphabet of honors 



Papers.] DISCUSSION ON ENGINEERING EDUCATION 1335 

after their names, representing degrees conferred in course. He will Mr. 
gladly welcome the day when the general public looks on engineers \q^J^ ' 
as being at least as well educated as men belonging to what have 
heretofore been termed "the learned professions." In fact, he is not 
certain that the day has not arrived, for engineering at present is 
popularly supposed to be most desirable as a profession and business, 
the average man looking on engineers as men who have pursued a 
hard course of study in school, practical, but scientific. The writer, 
however, is opposed to the idea that all engineering students must re- 
ceive their education in the same way, and in the same number of 
years, regardless of ability, or inherited, or acquired characteristics. 
The true engineer is a student all his life, the technical school giv- 
ing him merely a start. We cannot compare methods in schools 
for other vocations with methods in engineering schools, for in law, 
medicine, and theology, one path in each must be followed, while engi- 
neering is a profession to which many distinct trades contribute. 

Mr. Rogge well illustrates one point the writer might have brought 
out. The tendency among too many engineers is to magnify unduly 
the scientific and the clerical, or, as they term it, the technical, side 
of the work. Mr. Rogge saw that greater opportunities existed for 
him in getting into the business side of engineering, success following 
very quickly. He utilized his engineering education. It is more than 
likely that if he had spent several yea,rs more in school his sense of 
proportion would have been altered, and he would have stayed with the 
office instead of going out into the field as a business man. 

The writer has a good friend, a consulting engineer of wide reputa- 
tion, who is termed, by envious engineers, "a bluffer." There is not 
the slightest doubt that he would fail signally as an engineer, in the 
sense considered by the majority of the men contributing to this 
discussion, but, as an adviser on engineering matters, he is good. He 
was asked how he came to be so successful and said : 

"The school I attended treated me badly in the way of an educa- 
tion, and I figured after a couple of years' work that I was doomed 
to be a failure in the designing end, so I took a job as timekeeper 
and gradually worked up \uitil I got into business for myself as 
a contractor. When I failed, and failed so big that my case attracted 
the attention of newspapers, I found myself in demand as a practical 
man to advise on big construction matters, and now I am a consulting 
engineer and making more money than any man in my class." 

The writer knows another man who also failed to get at school 
what he had hoped for, but who, by self study, has finally acquired 
all that other men received in technical schools. His success has not 
been marked, because he looked too much on the clerical end of 
engineering as the main thing, instead of looking on his education 
as being merely preparatory to his entrance on life. 



1336 DISCUSSION ON ENGINEERING EDUCATION [Papers. 

Mr. Some time ago, the writer received a visit from a friend who lately 

'^ough! resigned a position, in which he received a good salary, in order that 
he might go into private practice. He now regrets the action. On being 
asked why he left, he replied that his employers kept crowding so 
much of their general work on him that he had no time to attend 
to his engineering duties, and had to leave them to young assistants. 
He was disgusted at having to take up many legal points and at 
having to bother with contractors and their troubles. His idea of 
engineering was to design structures. The tendency is marked among 
men who put many years in school to assume just this attitude, and 
the logical place for such men is the school room as teachers, after 
they have obtained some practical experience. The writer believes, and 
has many times expressed in writing his belief, that an engineering 
course is the modern ideal in education, as opposed to the classical 
course. It will hurt no one to take such a course, provided he can 
always understand that every man who takes it should not do so 
with the idea of being a professional engineer. As a preliminary 
training for business life, it ranks with a legal education. The 
writer likes Mr. Rogge's discussion. 

In regard to the remarks of Mr. Higgins, the writer feels it 
necessary again to call attention to the fact that he merely pro- 
posed a re-arrangement of the curricula of technical schools so that 
boys with low ideals might sooner be fit to leave and go to work. Let 
each student feel each year that he is a little better prepared to earn 
a living, and if he stops going to school before he has done all the 
work required for a degree, he may be doing the best thing for him- 
self and the best thing for the Profession. When the ups and downs 
of engineers are as well known to the general public as are the trials 
and tribulations of lawyers, medical men, and ministers, so that all 
young men who go to engineering schools face their future with wide 
open eyes, such discussions as this will be out of date. The writer 
distinctly referred to the fact that his paper is intended to deal with 
the technical schools of the present day, not the university engineering 
schools of the future, when what is exceptional knowledge now will 
then be common knowledge. It is fascinating to think of what our 
great-grandchildren may have to master before they will be con- 
sidered fit to practice a profession, or even earn a living. 

Whatever Professor Swain writes is good to read, and the writer 
is flattered that he took time to discuss the paper. The writer does 
not by any means consider it a bad thing that men educated in 
technical schools often turn to other lines of work, and regrets that 
it was possible for any one reading his paper to get that impression. 
He does regret that the courses of study are arranged so that students 
seldom get to the practical side of their work until the last couple 
of years, this forcing them to stay in the Profession merely be- 



Papers.] DISCUSSION ON ENGINEERING EDUCATION 1337 

cause they feel that their long training would be wasted. Parents Mr. 
who pay the bills always feel that way, so the courses of study lough. 
might be arranged to give the young men practical training from 
the start. It has been asked what specifications an engineer might 
propose. They have been pretty well stated by Professor Swain : 
"He wants a man who is faithful, who is of good character, con- 
scientious, who can think straight, who will not be anxious to stop 
work as soon as the bell rings, who will be loyal to his employer, who 
has 'gumption,' and who can meet emergencies." He might add that 
the school should also take considerable pains to make the students 
understand the actual conditions attached to engineering employment 
and the compensation therefor, the importance of living on half the 
pay when earning, to understand that employers have nothing against 
young graduates as such, but because few of them are worth their 
small pay for several months after leaving school, some not for a year 
or more. Employers also want men skilled in common arithmetical 
computation and with the ability to make neat drawings and do 
decent lettering; these, in addition to all the qualities of manhood 
mentioned by Professor Swain and necessary as well in other lines of 
business. Young men are not intrusted with important work, so their 
education should fit them to do well the small and comparatively un- 
important things their employers put them at. A careful reader of 
the paper should see that the writer lays considerable stress on the 
studies enabling men to mix well with the world. 

A high standard for the Engineering Profession is very well, and 
the writer is as keen for it as any engineer, but the paper he presented 
was from the point of view of the more than 90% of students who 
take engineering courses for their purely vocational, and not for 
their cultural, value. These green young men and boys enter a 
school to study engineering with the intention of earning a living 
at engineering work, and do not know what it implies or what the real 
opportunities are. At the end of the freshman year they must select 
some specialty, still ignorant, for the freshman year is merely an 
extension of high school and there is seemingly no tie in it to the 
life of an engineer. A month ago a young man called on the writer 
for advice as to his future. He entered a State university for a college 
course and met a boy who persuaded him to enter the college of 
engineering. This was the first time he knew that engineering did not 
necessarily mean the running of an engine. He remarked that he 
could see little difference between the freshman work and the senior 
year in high school, and drifted along unthinkingly until spring 
when he was suddenly made aware of the fact that the university gave 
eleven distinct engineering courses, and he must make a selection of 
a specialty. He still knew no more about the calling of the engineer 
than he did on leaving high school. His parents could not help 



1338 DISCUSSION ON ENGINEERING EDUCATION [Papers. 

Mr. him, hut his indecision was settled by a series of social events of the 
'lough! eleven engineering societies, who were engaged in "rushing" freshmen. 
The raining society gave what he called the "swellest" reception and 
entertainment and had the best floats in the annual college parade. 
The career of John Hays Hammond was at that time attracting con- 
siderable newspaper and magazine attention, so the boy entered the 
mining school. This may sound far fetched, but he states as a fact 
that he took the sophomore and junior work in the mining depart- 
meJit without seeing a mine. A requirement of the school is that 
students must spend not less than 3 months in some vacation in actual 
mining work, in order to be eligible to enter the senior class and obtain 
the degree in mining. In his first vacation he helped the county 
surveyor near home. In the second vacation he was a. draftsman in 
the office of a structural engineer. This past summer he had to do 
mining work or be unable to register this fall as a senior, so he went 
into a mining district to seek employment. He worked for 3 months, 
but to the last day was unable to rid himself of a disagreeable feeling 
in the pit of his stomach when going down a shaft. He was always 
impressed with a feeling of insecurity when in the workings, and the 
number of accidents he witnessed were not reassuring. On top of 
the ground he is all right, but he hates to think of spending his life in 
mines. He was advised to complete his course of study and get rid of 
the feeling tha.t since he studied mining engineering he must of neces- 
sity follow that as a profession. His training in surveying, drafting, 
mathematics, physics, and chemistry will enable him to be a good assist- 
ant in the office of an engineer or manufacturer, which, after all, is the 
most that a technical school should expect to give, the technical 
school, it must be remembered, being something different from a 
high-grade engineering school attached to a university and headed 
by men like Professor Swain. 

Professor Swain says: "It is impossible for a man who has not 
tried to teach to draw up a curriculum which will work well; he almost 
always forgets that the problem of engineering education, or of educa- 
tion in general, is not an engineering problem, but a human problem." 
The writer begs to state that he has not only tried to teach, but is rated 
as a successful teacher. He has taken classes abandoned by professional 
teachers, and greatly increased them in number because he understood 
the men with whom he was dealing, their problems encountered in 
trying to earn a living, their object in stvidying at night after work- 
ing all day, the best methods of handling them so as to inspire interest 
in the subject and hold it to the completion of the work. He has also 
been successful in coaching young men unable to follow intelligently 
their paid teachers in college and technical schools, boys who would 
otherwise have been "flunkers." In his paper he endeavored to deal with 
the problem of engineering education as a human problem, the sub- 



Papers.] DISCUSSION ON ENGINEERING EDUCATION 1339 

ject being discussed as a vocational, and not a purely educational Mr. 
proposition. He has tried to suggest that the instruction be imparted lough. 
somewhat more practically in the first two years, in a human and 
humane manner. The writer must remind Professor Swain, as he 
has other men who have presented discussions, that he has merely 
changed the order of studies and not proposed a brand new 
curriculum. 

In reply to Messrs. Fuller and Buerger, the writer must call their 
attention — as he has called the attention of others preceding them in 
the discussion — to the papei*. He fails to find anything in it to lead 
any one to believe that he advocates a narrow training or that he 
decries education of the proper kind. He simply attempts to rearrange 
the curriculum, omitting nothing of value, adding much of value, 
and postponing to the reasoning years subjects deemed "cultural"; 
leaving the study of economics, history, literature, sociology, etc., 
to minds capable of reasoning. 

Teachers uniformly resent suggestions from practicing engineers 
and from employers of engineering graduates, claiming that such 
suggestions have a narrowing tendency, and that men not teachers do 
not put the proper "cultural" value of education to the front. This 
is not borne out by the facts. A study of discussions on engineering 
education, from the time such discussions commenced, will show that 
the practicing engineer has been more instrumental than the teaching 
engineer in ha.ving more attention paid to general subjects. The 
practicing engineer laughs at the long array of specialities listed in 
catalogues of engineering schools, and knows, as the result of actual 
experience in winning a living, that a few fundamental things well 
taught are sufficient; but they must be well taught. The teachers, 
each one anxious to magnify his importance in the facvdty and gain 
glory and higher pay, are the men responsible for the narrowing of 
the curriculum. Teachers, by pushing special courses, which the be- 
wildered freshman must consider, stultify their remarks about general 
education and the cultural value of education. Professor Fuller says : 

"In talking with some of his own students the speaker has noticed 
a greater inclination to take general work in the latter part of the cur- 
riculum than in the first. If given in the first part, it is thrust vipon 
them ; if available later, many will take it willingly. The speaker 
has heard practicing engineers suggest such an arrangement." 

If this be so, then why not try it? 

Without wishing to appear to be a critic of teachers, for he also 
teaches, because he likes it and teaches a class of men who come 
voluntarily to get the work, the writer must say that no class of men 
is less tolerant of suggestion and apparent criticism, than teachers, 
beginning with the kindergarten grade. This is for the reason that 
teaching is a vast organized profession, fettered with precedent and 



1340 DISCUSSION ON ENGINEERING EDUCATION [Papers. 

Mr. liampered by tradition. These remarks must be softened by the state- 

IVIcCul" 

lough, ment, that with all the criticism of the teaching class indulged in by 
people who must employ the product turned out of institutions of learn- 
ing, the greatest changes and improvements in teaching methods have 
come from the ranks of the teachers. However, there is a deadening 
influence at work tending to weaken those who teach continuously 
many years. For this reason, the writer is greatly in favor of teachers 
in technical schools being employed on practical work, and thinks 
there should be a greater amount of practical work demanded of them. 
Gfood teachers should be given leave of absence at stated times, under 
full pay, so that they may go into the ranks of engineers, to the end 
that the dfeadly monotony, inherent in all large organizations and 
classes, shall not stunt their minds. 

Professor Fuller asks, with others, for a specification for the 
preparation of engineers' assistants. It has been given already in this 
closure, as well as in the paper. The writer nowhere stated, nor did 
he imply, that the product of the "engineer factories" should be 
guaranteed, as some of the gentlemen who have discussed the paper 
facetiously remarked. A reference again to the paper is suggested. 
The reason for asking that the wishes of the employer be more 
carefully considered has been sufficiently dealt with in the paper and 
in this closure. 

The writer agrees with Mr. Buerger that the best training is the 
most broad, and that a division into specialties is to be deplored, as 
far as undergraduates are concerned. Employers, however, are not 
willing to give all the practical training so essential. There are too 
many thousands of graduates turned out annually from technical 
schools to compel the employer to waste much time with the unfit 
and incompletely trained. A three-line advertisement in the Sunday 
edition of any good daily paper will suffice to fill the mail box to 
overflowing with applications for work. Short shrift is given those 
who do not take hold quickly. Many who might otherwise have been 
successful are doomed to wander for many years from job to job, 
because of the false view of life obtained in the institutions supposed 
to be created for the purpose of supplying the demand of the industrial 
world for trained workers. The technical school is assumed to exist 
for a particular purpose, and it does not fulfill its mission if the 
majority of graduates fail to meet with as much success as the 
average man. 

The writer endorses most heartily all that Mr. Buerger says, be- 
ginning with the words, ' "The ordinary school lecture is an abomina- 
tion," and continuing to the end of his discussion, which should be 
taken to heart by every teacher, every practicing engineer, and every 
employer of the product of engineering schools. Make the boys work 
hard from the start. Teach a smaller number of subjects at one time if 



Papers.] DISCUSSION ON ENGINEERING EDUCATION 1341 

necessary, to carry out the ideas expressed in his two sentences relating Mr. 
to methods of teaching. The employment of older students to assist ^'^^] 
the teacher is excellent, as the writer has found in his own teaching 
experience, for it helps every one. A man learns best when he has 
to teach, and the student is inspired when he works with his teacher, 
instead of trying to do what he is told to do, with occasional guidance 
from one who assumes a superior attitude. 

A fitting end to this discussion is the following:* 

"Educating the Educators. — -The University of Cincinnati was one 
of the first in this country to apply continuation school methods — 
giving a pupil shop practice under actual commercial conditions, along 
with textual instruction. Dean Schneider, of the engineering college, 
has made some interesting confessions of the reflex action upon the 
university faculty of this practical shop training. He says : 

" 'We learned the first year, and have had it verified each year since, 
tha.t the shop will spot a yellow streak in a man before the university 
even suspects it. An attempt to sneak through spoiled work is never 
a great success there. We, at the college end, soon found our work 
under scrutiny and criticism from a source that does not hesitate to 
scrutinize and criticise. We are brought face to face with the failure 
of a university department as we never are in our four-year courses. 
A student, let us say, has finished successfully his work in physics. 
Some day he does a fool thing in the shop which indicates that he 
knows very little about the subject. When you confront him with the 
fool thing, and with the fact that he should have known better because 
he had been taught the theory governing it, you find his grasp upon 
the theory to be very feeble.' 

"Practical education will teach the teachers. We imagine it would 
not be a bad thing in every university if pupils and instructors, 
pleasantly loafing through their four-year literary courses, were 
periodically checked up by some hard-and-fast test drawn from actual 
life outside the campus, whereby they could discover exactly how 
efficient their processes were." 

* Editorial from The Saturday Evening Post, October 5th, 1913. 



Memoirs.] MEMOIR OF ALFRED ELLSWORTH CARTER 1343 

MEMOIKS OF DECEASED MEMBERS. 

Note.— Memoirs will be reproduced in the volumes of Transactions. Any information 
which will amplify the records as here printed, or correct any errors, should be forwarded 
to the Secretary prior to the final publication. 



ALFRED ELLSWORTH CARTER, M. Am. Soc. C. E.* 



Died June 11th, 1912. 



Alfred Ellsworth Carter was born at Blair, Nebr., on April 19th, 
1867, of American parents, his ancestry dating back through several 
generations of pioneer stock. His early education was obtained at 
the public schools of his home town, and, later, at the University of 
Nebraska, from which he received the degree of Bachelor of Science, 
in 1900. In 1902 he entered Columbia University, New York City, 
and was graduated in 1904 with the degree of Civil Engineer. 

Mr. Carter's early experience was gained while earning his way 
through college. In the the early Nineties he was in the employ of 
the Chicago and Northwestern Railway Company, in Fremont, Elk- 
horn and Missouri Valley Railroad activities, holding successively the 
positions of Chainman, Rodman, and Transitman, on miscellaneous 
surveys in Nebraska and the Black Hills of South Dakota. From 
August, 1897, to March, 1899, he was Assistant Engineer on the con- 
struction of a hydro-electric power dam at Divide, Mont., an impound- 
ing reservoir dam adjacent to Butte, Mont., and one of the first wood 
stave and riveted steel pipe lines for the Montana Power Company. 

Following the Spanish-American War, from October, 1900, to 
October, 1902, Mr. Carter was Assistant Engineer in charge of de- 
tailed designing of sewers and pumping stations for two sections of 
the marginal sewer system of Havana, Cuba, being associated with 
Samuel M. Gray, M. Am. Soc. C. E., Consulting Engineer, the work 
being done by the Department of Sewers, under Military Government, 
William M. Black, M. Am. Soc. C. E., Colonel, Corps of Engineers, 
U. S. A., being in general charge at Havana. 

From January, 1905, to the time of his death, Mr. Carter was in 
the employ of the Rapid Transit Subway Construction Company, Con- 
tractors, of New York City, as Assistant Engineer, until 1908, in charge 
of tunnel alignment, check surveys, track-laying, and driving rein- 
forced concrete piles, on the construction of the East River Tunnel of 
the Rapid Transit Railroad; then Resident Engineer in charge of con- 
struction of the Bowling Green Shuttle Station, and the Subway 
station extensions at the Fulton Street, Wall Street, Bowling Green, 
Borough Hall, and Atlantic Avenue Stations of the Interborough 

* Memoir prepared by George H. Pegram, M. Am. Soc. C. E. 



1344 MEMOIR OF ALFRED ELLSWORTH CARTER [Memoirs. 

Rapid Transit Company. He was also engaged in reporting on extra 
claims of the Sub-contractor on the East River Tunnel. 

At the time Mr. Carter became engaged on the work of the East 
River Tunnel, the Brooklyn tubes were just entering the river sec- 
tion and the Manhattan tubes had not emerged from the rock. He 
was employed continuously on this work until its completion in Janu- 
ary, 1908. It has been described as one of the most difficult pieces of 
engineering work ever accomplished. Mr. Carter's position as Assistant 
Engineer imposed great responsibilities on him. He was in charge of 
the delicate operations of sinking piles through the bottom of the tubes 
to rock. The character of the work and the financial failure of the 
Sub-contractor, during the construction of the tunnel, made the 
accounting unusually complicated. The patience and fidelity with 
which Mr. Carter worked in checking the claims of the Sub-contractor 
and the skill and judgment evinced in his reports are remarkable. 
It was a work of great labor and uncongenial to an Engineer, but his 
familiarity with the construction forced it on him. His engineering 
work had been above criticism, but this work was almost above praise. 

Subsequently, Mr. Carter was put in charge, as Resident Engineer, 
of the construction of Bowling Green Shuttle Station and the length- 
ening of the Subway stations from Eulton Street, Manhattan, to x\t- 
lantic Avenue, Brooklyn. Like his East River Tunnel experience, 
this work was of the most difficult character. The continuous opera- 
tion of trains, the congested street traffic, the numerous sub-surface 
structures which interfered with the work, such as sewers, water pipes, 
electric subways, and the foundations of buildings, made it always 
a delicate task. 

The work of extending the Borough Hall Station in Brooklyn, 
for which Mr. Carter designed the shoring and directed the work for 
the Construction Company, was especially difficult. This station was 
built of reinforced concrete which was exceptionally difficult to remove. 
At this point there are three tracks in the Subway, with cross-overs, 
and on the surface of the street there is a junction of two tracks in 
Court Street and two ^ tracks in Fulton Street. Both side-walls of 
the Subway, for a length of 135 ft., were entirely removed, and its 
roof with 7 ft. of cover, together with street structures, etc., was sup- 
ported on timber. Three columns of the Elevated Railroad in Brook- 
lyn were temporarily supported over the work and the foundations 
renewed ; the cast-iron pipes and the gate-chambers of the high-pressure 
water mains were supported and reconstructed at an especial menace 
to the work. In addition, the portico of the County Court House, 
weighing more than 1 000 tons, a structure with four large granite 
columns, thus having little transverse stiffness, was temporarily sup- 
ported, and the foundations were carried 12 ft. deeper by masonry 



Memoirs.] MEMOIR OF ALFRED ELLSWORTH CARTER 1345 

underpinning. This was done without the slightest show of crack 
or any measurable settlement of the portico. All this work was in 
sand and Mr. Carter was continually obliged to render it safe against 
the breakage of water pipes or the unusual flood of storm-water. 

This work was about completed at the time of his death, which 
occurred suddenly at his home in New York City on June 11th, 1912, 
from cerebral hemorrhage. 

Mr. Carter was a man of sterling integrity, with the ability for 
doing hard work well, and accepting and fulfilling growing respon- 
sibilities with quietness and efficiency; the consideration he gave to 
all matters, large or small, entrusted to his care, had won for him the 
respect of his associates and those who worked under his direction. 

In 1904 Mr. Carter was married to Miss Ida C. Messer, of Cleve- 
land, Ohio, who survives him. She is a lady of unusual educational 
attainments and was able to assist him in his professional work. 

He was a Member of Columbia Chapter (Kappa) of the Society 
of the Sigma Xi, and a Member of Washington Lodge No. 21, F. & 
A. M., of Blair, Nebr. 

Mr. Carter was elected an Associate Member of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers, on June 4th, 1902, and a Member on 
April 4th, 1911. 



INDEX 

PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS CURRENT IN PROCEEDINGS 



' Eng^ineering: Education in its Relation to Training for Engineering Worlc." 

Ernest McCullough May, 1912 

Discussion. (Author's Closure) Sept., Oct., " 

' Street Sprinkling in St. Paul, Minn." C. L. Annan May, 

Discussion Oct., " 

' A Western Type of Movable Weir Dam." W. C. Hammatt May, " 

• Notes on Bridgework." S. Vilar y Boy Aug., " 

Discussion Sept., Oct., " 

' The Sixth Avenue Subway of the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad." 

H. G. BURROWES Aug., '■ 

' The Strength of Columns." W.E.Lilly Aug., " 

Discussion Oct., '" 

'Maximum Stresses in Bascule Trusses." "W. "Watters Pagon Aug., " 

' A Brief Description of a Modern Street Railway Track Construction." 

A. C. Folk Aug., " 

' Construction of a High Service Reservoir at Baltimore, Md." P. A. BEATTY.Aug., '• 
'The Flood of March 22d, ipi2, at Pittsburgh, Pa." Kenneth C. Grant. 

(To be presented Nov. 6th, 1913.) Aug., 

' State and National Water Laws, with Detailed Statement of the Oregon 

System of Water Titles." John H. Lewis. (To be presented 

Nov. 6th, 1912.) Sept., 

'The Sewickley Cantilever Bridge Over the Ohio River." A. W. Buel. 

(To be presented Nov. 20th, 1912.) Sept., 

' Ports of the Pacific." H.M.Chittenden. (To be presented Nov. 20tli, 1913 ) .Sept., " 
Tufa Cement, as Manufactured and Used on the Los Angeles Aqueduct." 

J. B. Lippincott. (To be presented Dec. 4th, 1913.) Oct., 

' A Shortened Method in Arch Computation." H. A. Sewbll Oct., " 

' The Economic Aspect of Seepage and Other Losses in Irrigation Systems." 

E. G. HopsoN. (To be presented Dec. 4th, 1912 ) Oct., 

' Specifications for Metal Railroad Bridges Movable in a Vertical Plane." 

B. K. Leffler Oct., " 

' Theory of Reinforced Concrete Joists." John L. Hall Oct., " 



PROCEEDINGS 



T 



OF THE 



AMERICAN SOCIETY 



OF 



CIVIL ENGINEERS 



VOL. XXXVIII— No. 9 



AMERICAN 
SOCIETY OF 

civit I ■ Vi L 

I ENGINEERS A ' * ' '^ 



November, 1912 



Published at the House of the Society, 220 West Fifty-seventh Street, New York, 
the Fourth Wednesday of each Month, except June and July. 

Copvriclitecl 1913, by the American Society of Civil Engineers. 

Kntered as Secbnrl-Class flatter at the New York Oily Post OiTiee, December 15tli, 1S9(!. 

Subscription. .'$8 per annum. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



AMERICAN SOCIETY 



OF 



CIYIL ENGMNEEKS 

(INSTITUTED 1852) 



VOL. XXXVII I— N o . 9 

NOVEMBER, 1912 



Edited by the Secretary, under the direction of the Committee on Publications. 

Reprints from this publication, which is copyrighted, may be made on condition that 
the full title of Paper, name of Author, page reference, and date 
of presentation to the Society, are given. 



CONTENTS 



Society Affairs Pages 611 to 678. 

Papers and Discussions Pages 1347 to 1658. 



NEW YORK 1912 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1912, by the American Society of 
Civil Engineers, in the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



i 






mmcm 




i |iml |ngi 



ngtnms 



OFFICERS FOR 1912 

President, JOHN A. OCKERSON 



Vice-Presidents 



Term expires January, 1913. 
ALFRED P. BOLLER 
CHARLES L. STROBEL 



Term expires January, 191Jf : 

CHARLES S. CHURCHILL 
CHARLES D. MARX 



Secretary, CHARLES WARREN HUNT 
Treasurer, JOSEPH M. KNAP 



Term expires January, 
1913 : 
WILLIAM E. BELKNAP 
HORACE LOOMIS 
GEORGE A. KIMBALL 
PERCIVAL ROBERTS, Jr. 
CHARLES F. LOWETH 
ARTHUR DeWINT FOOTE 



Directors 
Term expires January, Term expires January, 

tOlJf: 1915: 

GEORGE C. CLARKE LINCOLN BUSH 

CHARLES W. STANIFORD T. KENNARD THOMSON 

JONATHAN P. SNOW EMIL GERBER 

ROBERT RIDGWAY WILLIAM CAIN 

LEONARD W. RUNDLETT E. C. LEWIS 

WILLIAM H. COURTENAY W. A. CATTELL 



Assistant Secretary, T. J. McMINN 



Standing Comniittees 

(The President of the Society is cx-officio Member of all Committees) 
On Finance: On Puhlications : On Library. 

LINCOLN BUSH WILLIAM E. BELKNAP ALFRED P. BOLLER 

HORACE LOOMIS ROBERT RIDGWAY CHARLES D. MARX 

CHARLES W. STANIFORD CHARLES S. CHURCHILL EMIL GERBER 

GEORGE A. KIMBALL CHARLES L. STROBEL CHARLES F. LOWETH 

PERCIVAL ROBERTS, Jr. JONATHAN P. SNOW CHAS. WARREN HUNT 



Special Committoos 

On Concrete and Reinforced Concrete : Joseph R. Worcester, J. E. Greiner, 
W. K. Hatt, Olaf Hoff, Richard L. Humphrey, Robert W. Lesley, Emil Swensson, 
A. N. Talbot. 

On Engineering Education : Desmond FltzGerald, Onward Bates, D. W. Mead. 

On Steel Columns and Struts : Austin L. Bowman. Alfred P. Boiler, Emil 
Gerber, Charles F. Loweih, Ralph Modjeski, Frank C. Osborn, George H. Pegram, 
Lewis D. Rights, George F. Swain, Emil Swensson, Joseph R. Worcester. 

On Bituminous Materials for Road Construction : W. W. Crosby, A. W. 
Dean, H. K. Bishop, A. H. Blanchard. 

On Valuation of Public Utilities : Frederic P. Stearns, H. M. Byllesby, 
Thomas H. Johnson, Leonard Metcalf, Alfred Noble, William G. Raymond, 
Jonathan P. Snow. 



The House of the Society is open from 9 a. m. to 10 p. m. every day, except 
Sundays, Fourth of July, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day. 

House of the Society — 220 West Fifty-seventh Street, New York. 

Telephone Number 5913 Columbus. 

Cable Address "Ceas, New York." 



Vol. XXXVIII. NOVEMBER, 1912. No. 9. 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

INSTITUTED 1852 



PROCEEDINGS 



This Society is not responsible for any statement made or opinion expressed 
in its publications 



SOCIETY AFFAIRS 

CONTENTS 

Minutes of Meetings: Page 

Of the Society, October 16th, and November 6th, 1912 611 

Of the Board of Direction, October 29th, 1912 615 

A.nnouncements: 

Hours during which the Society House is open 616 

Future Meetings 616 

Annual Meeting 616 

Special Meetings for Topical Discussion 616 

Additional Medal and Prize 616 

Searches in the Library 618 

Papers and Discussions 618 

Local Associations of Members of the American Society of Civil Engineers 619 

Privileges of Engineering Societies Extended to Members 621 

Accessions to the Library: 

Donations 623 

By pu rciiase 628 

Membership (Additions, Changes of Address, Resignations, Deaths) 630 

Recent Engineering Articles of Interest 645 



MINUTES OF MEETINGS 
OF THE SOCIETY 



October i6th, 191 2. — The meeting was called to order at 8.30 P. M.; 
William E. Belknap, Director, in the chair; Chas. Warren Hunt, 
Secretary; and present, also, 99 members and 9 guests. 

A paper by A. C. Polk, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E., entitled "A 
Brief Description of a Modern Street Railway Track Construction," 
was presented by the Secretary, who also read communications on the 
subject from Messrs. E. E. R. Tratman and Walter C. Howe. The 
paper was discussed orally by Messrs. W. J. Boucher and E. W. Lewis. 

A paper by P. A. Beatty, M. Am. Soc. C. E., entitled "Construction 
of a High- Service Reservoir at Baltimore, Md.," was also presented by 
the Secretary. 



612 • MINUTES OF MEETINGS [Society Affairs. 

The Secretary announced the following deaths: 

James Hugh Wise, elected Associate Member, February 6th, 
1907; died September 16th, 1912. 

Stephen Holman, elected Fellow, June 29th, 1872; died October 
13th, 1912. 

Adjourned. 

November 6th, 1912.— The meeting was~^called to ^order at 8.30 
p. M.; Director T. Kennard Thomson in the chair; Chas. Warren 
Hunt, Secretary ; and present, also, 98 members and 10 guests. 

The minutes of the meetings of September 18th and October 2d, 
1912, were> approved as printed in Proceedings for October, 1912. 

The following resolution was presented by the Secretary in behalf 
of Robert A. Cummings, M. Am. Soc. C. E. : 

"Eesolved: That a Special Committee of seven be appointed by 
the Board of Direction to codify present practice on the bearing value 
of soils for foundations, and report upon the physical characteristics 
of soils in their relations to engineering structures." 

The resolution, being duly seconded, was adopted and referred to 
the Board of Direction by a vote of more than 25 Corporate Members. 

Kenneth C. Grant, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E., presented a paper 
entitled "The Flood of March 22d, 1912, at Pittsburgh, Pa." The 
Secretary read communications on the subject from Messrs. L. J. 
Le Conte and William R. Copeland, and the paper was further dis- 
cussed by Messrs. Jean de Pulligny, L. D. Rights, J. Waldo Smith, 
William R. Copeland, Morris Knowles, and the author. 

A paper entitled "State and National Water Laws, with Detailed 
Statement of the Oregon System of Water Titles," by John H. Lewis, 
Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E., was presented by title. The Secretary 
read communications on the subject from Messrs. George L. Dillman, 
L. J. Le Conte, W. E. Moore, Clarence T. Johnston, Morris Bien, and 
Horace W. Sheley, and the paper was discussed orally by Messrs. 
Morris Knowles and Kenneth C. Grant. 

The Secretary announced the establishment of two additional 
prizes: The J. James R. Croes Medal and the James Laurie Prize.* 

The Secretary announced that the Forty-fifth Annual Convention 
of the Society will be held at Ottawa, Ont., Canada. 

The Secretary announced the election of the following candidates 
on October 29th, 1912: 

As Members 

Dan John Albertson, Kalamazoo, Mich. 
Horace Holmes Chase, Brockton, Mass. 
David Gutman, New York City 
Horace Theophilus Herrick, Keokuk, Iowa 



* For details, see page 610. 



November, 1912.] MINUTES OF MEETINGS 613 

Frederick Spencer Janes, Appleton, Wis. 
George Mattis, San Luis Obispo, Cal. 
Joseph Ogier Whittemore, Hoboken, N. J. 
George David Williams, Goshen, N. Y. 

As Associate Members 

Carl Bowers Andrews, Honolulu, Hawaii 

Ora Grover Baxter, Little Eock, Ark. 

George Eay Boyd, Wilson, N. C. 

Joseph Charles Bovd, Sacramento, Cal. 

Olaf John Sverdrop Ellingson, Sherman, Tex. 

Waveland Sinclair Fitzsimons, Georgetown, S. C. 

Ingwald Edward Flaa, San Francisco, Cal. 

Walter Whitfield George, New Philadelphia, Ohio 

Clinton Raymond Goodrich, Houston, Tex. 

Joseph Vincent Hogan, Medina, IST. Y. 

Clifford Milburn Holland, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Raleigh Hortenstine, Dallas, Tex. 

Paul Henry Keppel, Sagua la Grande, Cuba 

Angus Robert Mackay, Wickenburg, Ariz. 

Grover John Meyer, Sultan, Wash. 

Manley Peroe Northam, St. George, N. Y. 

Harold Coe Ogden, Holly, Colo. 

George Alfred Peabody, Cleveland, Ohio 

Tracy Irwin Phelps, Thistle, Utah 

Francis Benjamin Plant, San Francisco, Cal. 

Curtis Charles Saner, Evanston, 111. 

Henry Andrew Sherman, Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. 

Fred Charles Smith, Sioux City, Iowa 

Ira Otis Thorley, Denver, Colo. 

William Horace Williams, New Orleans, La. 

As Associate 
Frederick Hugh Parry, Kingston, Pa. 

As Juniors 

Albert Asa Baker, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
George Allyne Belden, Upper Montclair, N. J. 
Francis Clarence Boerner, New York City 
Joseph Dydeme Guillemette, Wilkinsburg, Pa. 
Alvin Arthur Horwege, San Francisco, Cal. 
Hugh Ambrose Kelly, Jersey City, N. J. 
MuRTLAND KiNCAiD, New York City 
Charles Scott Patterson, Waco, Tex. 
Frederick Williams, New London, Conn. 
Mark Stevens Woodin, Olympia, Wash. 



614 MINUTES OF MEETINGS [Society Affairs. 

The Secretary announced the transfer of the following candidates 
on October 29th, 1912: 

From Associate Member to Member 

Algernon Brown Alderson, Hartford, Conn, 
Arthur Benjamin Farnham, Pittsfield, Mass. 
Norman Roosevelt McLure, Phcenixville, Pa. 
Charles Andrew Pohl, New York City 
Augustus Valentine Sapii, Berkeley, Cal. 

From Junior to Associate Member 

Lowrey Wallace Anderson, Pecos, Tex. 
James Eamsey Baldridge, New York City 
William Joshua Barney, New York City 
David Harell Brown, Yonkers, N. Y. 
Edwin Leroy Driggs, Manila, Philippine Islands 
Howard Kingsbury Holland, Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Hope Richard Messer, Richmond, Va. 
Oswald Procter Shelley, San Francisco, Cal. 
Charles Edward Stilson, Fairfax, N. C. 
AsAiiEL Clark Toll, Bayamon, Porto Rico 
William Harold Warnock, New York City 

The Secretary announced the following deaths : 

Carl Waldemar Buchholz, elected Member, September 1st, 1886; 
died October 20th, 1912. 

Edward Mohun, elected Member, April 6th, 1892; died October 
23d, 1912. 

Henry Fisher White, elected Member, January 2d, 1890; date of 
death unknown. 

Adjourned. 



November, 1912.] MINUTES OF MEETINGS 615 

OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTION 

(Abstract) 

October 29th, 1912.— President Ockersou in the chair; Chas. 
Warren Hunt, Secretary; and present, also, Messrs. Belknap, Bush, 
Churchill, Clarke, Endicott, Gerber, Kimball, Knap, Loomis, Ridgway, 
Snow, Staniford, Strobel, and Thomson. 

The following resolution was adopted : 

"Resolved: That hereafter mileage shall be paid to each member 
of the Nominating Committee who attends the one annual meeting 
of that Committee at the place determined upon by its members, in 
accordance with and as prescribed in the Constitution, at the rate 
of three cents per mile each way by the shortest practicable route from 
the place of residence of such members to place of meeting, when said 
meeting is held within Continental North America." 

It was determined that the next Annual Convention of the 
Society be held at Ottawa, Ont., Canada. 
The following resolutions were adopted : 

"Resolved: That it is the sense of the Board of Direction that it is 
advisable to hold each year one or more of the regular meetings of 
the Society other than the Annual Convention away from Head- 
quarters." 

"Resolved: That the mid-month meeting of October, 1913, be held 
in New Orleans, La." 

Special Meetings of the Society for the discussion of Construction 
and Maintenance of Roads and Pavements on Friday and Saturday, 
January 17th and 18th, 1913, were authorized. 

Ballots for membership were canvassed, resulting in the election 
of 8 Members, 25 Associate Members, 1 Associate, and 10 Juniors, 
and the transfer of 11 Juniors to the grade of Associate Member. 

Five Associate Members were transferred to the grade of Member. 

Applications were considered and other routine business transacted. 

Adjourned. 



61G ANNOUNCEMENTS [Society Affairs. 

ANNOUNCEMENTS 

The House of the Society is open from 9 A. M. to 10 P. M., 
every day, except Sundays, Fourth of July, Thanksgiving Day, and 
Christmas Day. 

FUTURE MEETINGS 

December 4th, 1 912. —8.30 P. M.— This will be a regular business 
meeting. Two papers will be presented for discussion, as follows : 
"Tufa Cement, as Manufactured and Used on the Los Angeles 
Aqueduct," by J. B. Lippincott, M, Am. Soc. C. E.; and "The 
Economic Aspect of Seepage and other Losses in Irrigation Systems," 
by E. G. Hopson, M. Am. Soc. C. E. 

These papers were printed in Proceedings for October, 1912. 

December i8th, 1912.— 8.30 P. M.— At this meeting two papers 
will be presented for discussion, as follows: "Prevention of Mosquito 
Breeding," by Spencer Miller, M. Am. Soc. C. E. ; and "The Sanitation 
of Construction Camps," by Ha.rold Earnsworth Gray, Jun. Am. 
Soc. C. E. 

These papers are published in this number of Proceedings. 

January ist, 1913. — 8.30 P. M. — A regular business meeting will 
be held, and a paper by H. T. Cory, M. Am. Soc. C. E., entitled "Irriga- 
tion and River Control in the Colorado River Delta," will be pre- 
sented for discussion. 

This paper is printed in this number of Proceedings. 

ANNUAL MEETING 

The Sixtieth Annual Meeting will be held at the Society House, 
on Wednesday and Thursday, January 15th and 16th, 1913. The Busi- 
ness Meeting will be called to order at 10 o'clock on Wednesday morning. 
The Annual Reports will be presented, officers for the ensuing year 
elected, members of the Nominating Committee appointed, Reports of 
Special Cormnittees presented for discussion, and other business 
transacted. 

SPECIAL MEETINGS FOR TOPICAL DISCUSSION 

Meetings for the discussion of "Road Construction and Mainte- 
nance" will be held on Friday and Saturday, January 17th and 18th, 
1913 (the days following the close of the Annual Meeting of the 
Society). 

As soon as arrangements are completed, the hours for holding these 
meetings, topics for discussion, names of speakers, etc., will be 
published. 

ADDITIONAL MEDAL AND PRIZE 

At the present time there are two prizes which may be awarded 
annually for papers published in the Transactions of the Society. They 



November, 1912.] ANNOUNCEMENTS 617 

are the Norman Medal, which was instituted and endowed in 1873 by 
the late George H. ISTorman, M. Am. Soc. C. E.; the Thomas Fitch 
Eowland Prize, instituted by the Society at the Annual Meeting of 
1882, and subsequently endowed in 1884 by the late Thomas Fitch 
Eowland, Hon. M. Am. Soc. C. E.; and the Collingwood Prize for 
Juniors, instituted and endowed by the late Francis Collingwood, 
M. Am. Soc. C. E. The rules governing the award of these prizes will 
be found in the List of Members for 1912, page 24. 

Thirty-four awards of the ISTorman Medal, twenty-nine awards of 
the Thomas Fitch Rowland Prize, and eleven awards of the Colling- 
wood Prize for Juniors, have been made to date. 

For some time the Board of Direction has had under considera- 
tion the advisability of the establishment of one or more additional 
prizes. It has several times happened that it has been difficult for 
the Committee to decide which of two papers was entitled to one of the 
prizes, and there has been a great increase in the number of papers 
published annually. 

In the establishment of these additional prizes, it was the idea of 
the Board that they should be so arranged as not to detract in any way 
from the value or desirability of the prizes which have been so long in 
existence. 

It was therefore decided to establish an additional medal to be 
awarded each year, which will be secondary to the Norman Medal, 
and one prize which will be secondary to the Thomas Fitch Rowland 
Prize. The first of these will be known as the "J. James R. Croes 
Medal," in honor of the first recipient of the Norman Medal, and the 
second will be known as the "James Laurie Prize," in honor of the 
first President of the Society. 

Owing to an error, the action covering the establishment of these 
prizes by the Board of Direction at its meeting of October 1st, 1912, 
was omitted from the minutes as printed, and the resolutions are there- 
fore reproduced here for the information of the membership. 

Resolutions Adopted by the Board of Direction, October 1st, 1912: 

"Resolved: That this Society shall and it does hereby institute 
two prizes for papers published in the Transactions of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers, to be awarded annually beginning with the 
papers publi-shed in the Transactions during the year ending July 31st, 
1913, as follows : One of such prizes to be a medal, of the value of $40, to 
be known as the J. James R. Croes Medal, in honor of the first re- 
cipient of the Norman Medal, and may be awarded in any year, under 
the rules governing the award of the Norman Medal, to such paper 
as may be judged to be worthy of the award and to be next in order 
of merit to the paper to which the Norman Medal is awarded, or, if 
the Norman Medal is not awarded, then to a paper, if any, which shall 
be judged worthy of the award of this prize for its merit as a contribu- 
tion to engineering science. 



618 ANNOUNCEMENTS [Society Affairs. 

"The other of such prizes to consist of $40 in cash, with an engraved 
certificate signed by the President and Secretary of the Society, to be 
known as the James Laurie Prize, in honor of the first President of 
the Society, and to be awarded under the rules governing the award of 
the Thomas Fitch Rowland Prize to such paper as may be judged to 
be worthy of the award and to be next in order of merit to the paper to 
which the Thomas Pitch Rowland Prize is awarded, or, if the Thomas 
Fitch Rowland Prize is not awarded, then to a paper, if any, which shall 
be judged worthy of the award of this prize for its merit as a, contribu- 
tion to engineering science, and, be it further 

"Resolved: That the Secretary and Treasurer of the Society 
be and they are hereby authorized to pay annually out of the funds 
of the Society such amounts as may be necessary to cover the award 
of the prices hereby instituted." 

SEARCHES IN THE LIBRARY 

In January, 1902, the Secretary was authorized to make searches 
in the Library, upon request, and to charge therefor the actual cost to 
the Society for the extra work required. Since that time m^any 
searches have been made, and bibliographies and other information on 
special subjects furnished. 

The resulting satisfaction, to the members who have made use of 
the resources of the Society in this manner, has been expressed fre- 
quently, and leaves little doubt that, if it were generally known to the 
membership that such work would be undertaken, many would avail 
themselves of it. 

The cost is trifling compared with the value of the time of an 
engineer who looks up such matters himself, and the work can be 
performed quite as well, and much more quickly, by persons familiar 
with the Library. 

In asking that such work be undertaken, members should specify 
clearly the subject to be covered, and whether references to general 
books only are desired, or whether a complete bibliography, involving 
search through periodical literature, is desired. 

In reference to this work, the Appendices* to the Annual Reports 
of the Board of Direction for the years ending December 31st, 1906, 
and December 31st, '1910, contain summaries of all searches made 
to date. 

PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS 

Members and others who take part in the oral discussions of the 
papers presented are urged to revise their remarks promptly. Written 
communications from those who cannot attend the meetings should 
be sent in at the earliest possible date after the issue of a paper in 
Proceedings. 

* Proceedings, Vol. XXXIII, p. 20 (January, 1907) ; Vol. XXXVII, p. 28 (January, 1911). 



November, 1912.] ANNOUNCEMENTS 619 

All papers accepted by the Publication Committee are classified 
by the Committee with respect to their availability for discussion at 
meetings. 

Papers which, from their general nature, appear to be of a charac- 
ter suitable for oral discussion, will be published as heretofore in 
Proceedings, and set down for presentation to a future meeting of the 
Society, and, on these oral discussions, as well as written communica- 
tions, will be solicited. 

All papers which do not come imder this heading, that is to say, 
those which from their mathematical or technical nature, in the 
opinion of the Committee, are not adapted to oral discussion, will not 
be scheduled for presentation to any meeting. Such papers will be 
published in Proceedings in the same manner as those which are to 
be presented at meetings, but written discussions, only, will be re- 
quested for subsequent publication in Proceedings and with the paper 
in the volumes of Transactions. 



LOCAL ASSOCIATIONS OF MEMBERS OF THE AMERICAN 

SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

San Francisco Association 

The San Francisco Association of Members of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers holds regular bi-monthly meetings, with 
banquet, and weekly informal luncheons. The former are held at 
6 p. M., at the Palace Hotel on the third Friday of February, April, 
June, August, October, and December, the last being the Annual 
Meeting of the Association. 

Informal luncheons are held at 12.15 p. m. every Wednesday, and 
the place of meeting may be ascertained by communicating with the 
Secretary of the Association, E. T. Thurston, Jr., M. Am. Soc. C. E., 
713 Mechanics' Institute, 57 Post Street. 

The by-laws of the Association provide for the extension of hospi- 
tality to any member of the Society who may be temporarily in San 
Francisco, and any such member will be gladly welcomed as a guest. 

(Abstract of Minutes of Meetings) 

August 2ist, 1912.— The meeting was called to order ; President 
Grunsky in the chair; E. T. Thurston, Jr., Secretary; and present, 
also, 68 members and 4 guests. 

An invitation from the Pacific Coast Steel Company to visit its 
new steel plant was accepted.* 

Messrs. Eogue and Martin addressed the meeting, the latter giving 
an extended and comprehensive description of engineering problems 
and progress in the Hawaiian Islands. 

A. IT. Markwart, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E., read a paper on "The 
Design and Construction of the New Swing Bridge of the Northern 



*This visit was made on August 30th, 1912, when about forty persons were the guests of 
the Company. 



620 ANNOUNCEMENTS [Society Affairs. 

Electric Railway Company, Across the Sacramento River at M Street, 
Sacramento, Cal.," ilhistrating his remarks with stereopticon views. The 
subject was discussed by Messr.s. J. D. Galloway, A. L. Bobbs, H. J. 
Brunnier, C. E. Grunsky, S. A. Jubb, J. B, Leonard, and F. H. Tibbetts. 
Adjourned. 

October i8th, 1912. — The meeting was called to order; President 
Grunsky in the chair; E. T. Thurston, Jr., Secretary; and present, 
also, 57 members and g'uests. 

The reports of the Committees appointed to prepare obituary notices 
and resolutions of sympathy in memory of the late James Dix Schuyler, 
M. Am. Soc. C. E., and James Hugh Wise, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E., 
were read by President Grunsky. The resolutions and obituary notices 
were ordered spread on the minutes of the Association and copies of 
the resolutions sent to Mrs. Schuyler and Mrs. Wise, respectively. 

President Grunsky read a communication from Charles Derleth, Jr., 
M. Am. Soc. C. E., Secretary of the Pacific Association of Consulting 
Engineers, in regard to action on the proposed amendment to the 
California Code of Civil Procedure, looking to improvement in the 
method of selecting experts as witnesses in cases requiring professional 
and technical knowledge. After discussion, the amendment was ordered 
printed and distributed to the members of the Association, with a 
request for suggestions and expressions for or against, the result to be 
transmitted to the Pacific Association of Consulting Engineers. 

W. C. Hammatt, M. Am. Soc. C. E., addressed the meeting on the 
proposed system of public roads to be constructed in connection with 
the development of the Hetch-Hetchy water system for San Francisco, 
illustrating his remarks with stereopticon views. 

Adjourned. 

Colorado Association 

The meetings of the Colorado Association of Members of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers are held on the second Saturday 
of each month, except July and August. The hour and place of meet- 
ing are not fixed, but this information will be furnished on application 
to the Secretary, Gavin K Houston, M. Am. Soc. C. E., 409 Equitable 
Building, Denver, Colo. The meetings are usually preceded by an 
informal dinner. Members of the American Society of Civil Engineers 
will be welcomed at these meetings. 

Weekly luncheons are held on Wednesdays, and, until further notice, 
will take place at the Colorado Traffic Club. 

Visiting members are urged to attend the meetings and luncheons. 

Atlanta Association 

On March 14th, 1912, the Atlanta Association of Members of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers was organized, with the following 
officers: Arthur Pew, President; William A. Hansell, Jr., Secretary; 
and Messrs. James N. Hazlehurst and Alexander Bonnyman, Members 
of the Executive Committee. The Association will hold its meetings 
in the house of the University Club. 



November, 1912.] ANNOUNCEMENTS G31 

PRIVILEGES OF ENGINEERING SOCIETIES 

EXTENDED TO MEMBERS OF THE 
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

Members of the American Society of Civil Engineers will be wel- 
comed by the following Engineering Societies, both to the use of their 
Keading Rooms and at all meetings : 

American Institute of Mining Engineers, 29 West Thirty-ninth Street, 

New York City. 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 29 West Thirty-ninth 

Street, New York City. 
Architelcten-Verein zu Berlin, Wilhelmstrasse 92, Berlin W. 66, 

Germany. 
Associagao dos Engenheiros Civis Portuguezes, Lisbon, Portugal. 
Australasian Institute of Mining Engineers, Melbourne, Victoria, 

Australia. 
Boston Society of Civil Engineers, 715 Tremont Temple, Boston, 

Mass. 
Brooklyn Engineers* Club, 117 Kemsen Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Canadian Society of Civil Engineers, 413 Dorchester Street, West, 

Montreal, Que., Canada. 
Civil Engineers' Society of St. Paul, St. Paul, Minn. 
Cleveland Engineering Society, Chamber of Commerce Building, 

Cleveland, Ohio. 
Cleveland Institute of Engineers, Middlesbrough, England. 
Dansk Ingeniorforening, Amaliegade .38, Copenhagen, Denmark. 
Engineers' and Architects' Club of Louisville, Ky., 303 Norton 

Building, Fourth and Jefferson Streets, Louisville, Ky. 
Engineers' Club of Baltimore, Baltimore, Md. 
Engineers' Club of Minneapolis, 17 South Sixth Street, Minneapolis, 

Minn. 
Engineers' Club of Philadelphia, 1317 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Engineers' Club of St. Louis, 3817 Olive Street, St. Louis, Mo. 
Engineers' Club of Toronto, 96 King Street, West, Toronto, Out., 

Canada. 
Engineers' Society of Northeastern Pennsylvania, 302 Board of 

Trade Building, Scranton, Pa. 
Engineers' Society of Pennsylvania, 219 Market Street, Harrisburg, 

Pa. 
Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania, 2511 Oliver Building, 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Institute of Marine Engineers, 58 Romford Road, Stratford, Lon- 
don, E., England. 



G22 ANNOUNCEMENTS [Society Affairs. 

Institution of Engineers of the River Plate, Buenos Aires, Ar- 
gentine Republic. 
institution of Naval Arctiitects, 5 Adelphi Terrace, London, W. C, 

England. 
Junior Institution of Engineers, 3*J Victoria Street, Westminster, 

S. W., London, England. 
Koninklijk Instituut van Ingenieurs, The Hague, The Netherlands. 
Louisiana Engineering Society, 321 Hibernia Bank Building, New 

Orleans, La. 
Memphis Engineering Society, Memphis, Tenu. 
Midland Institute of Mining, Civil and Mechanical Engineers, 

Shetfield, England. 
Montana Society of Engineers, Butte, Mont. 
North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England. 
Oesterreichischer Ingenieur^ und Architekten=Verein, Eschen- 

bachgasse 9, Vienna, Austria. 
Pacific Northwest Society of Engineers, 803 Central Building, Seat- 
tle, Wash. 
Rochester Engineering Society, Rochester, N. Y. 
Sachsischer Ingenieur- und Architekten-Verein, Dresden, Germany. 
Sociedad Colombiana de In^enieros, Bogota, Colombia. 
Sociedad de Ingenieros del Peru, Lima, Peru. 
Societe des Ingenieurs Civils de France, 19 Rue Blanche, Paris, 

France. 
Society of Engineers, 17 Victoria Street, Westminster, S. W., 

London, England. 
Svenska Teknologforeningen, Brunkebergstorg 18, Stockholm, 

Sweden. 
Tekniske Forening, Vestre Boulevard 18-1, Copenhagen, Denmark. 
Western Society of Engineers, 1737 Monadnock Block, Chicago, 111. 



November, 1912.] ACCESSION'S TO THE LIBRARY G23 

ACCESSIONS TO THE LIBRARY 

(From October 4th to November 5th, 1912) 

DONATIONS* 
A TREATISE ON HYDRAULICS. 

By William Cawthorne IJnwin. Second Edition. Cloth, 8| x 5^ 

in., illus., 114-339 pp. London, Adam and Charles Black; New 

York, The Macmillan Company, 1912. $4.25. (Donated by The 

Macmillan Company.) 

The first edition of this work was issued iu September, 1907. In the preface to 
that edition, the author states that in dealing with the practical problems of 
hydraulics tlie engineer has recourse to simple mechanical principles and simplified 
assumptions which furnish rough formulas. At present, it is stated, there are great 
numbers of these experimental formulas and data which are of varying trust- 
worthiness and importance and on which the engineer has to rely in deciding ques- 
tions which arise in many branches of his work. In any treatise of these experi- 
mental data, the author states that it seems to be difficult to give a sufl[icient account 
of them to enable the student to realize their limitations ; in his book, therefore, 
full references are said to have been given to the primary sources in original 
memoirs, in order that the student may supplement the brief statements in the 
text. The author states that, in using this book, it is important that the problems 
concerning the flow of incompressible fluids and the closely related problems deal- 
ing with compressible fluids should be treated together. Numerical examples, 
selected from those set by the author for his students, have been added to most 
chapters of the book. In the present edition, some corrections are said to have been 
made, and a short summary of more recent researches is given in an appendix. 
The Chapter headings are: Units of Measurement; Properties of Fluids: Distribu- 
tion of Pressure in a Liquid Varying with the Level; Principles of Hydraulics; 
Discharge from Orifices ; Notches and Weirs ; Statics and Dynamics of Compressible 
Fluids; Fluid Friction; Flow in Pipes; Distribution of Water by Pipes; Later 
Investigations of Flow in Pipes : Flow of Compressible Fluids in Pipes ; Uniform 
Flow of Water in Canals and Conduits ; Gauging of Streams ; Impact and Reaction 
of Fluids ; Appendix and Tables : Index. 

MODERN ILLUMINATION THEORY AND PRACTICE. 

By Henry C. Horstmann and Victor H. Tousley. Leather, 7 x 4| 
in., illus., 273 pp. Chicago, Frederick J. Drake & Company, 1912. 
$2.00. 

The authors' aim has been to provide, in this book, a thorough and practical 
guide containing all the information necessary to the successful installation of good 
illumination for users, architects, contractors, and electricians. Only as much of 
the theory as is necessary to a thorough comprehension of the underlying principles 
of the subject is given, the work being intended, it is stated, for the practical 
workman rather than the student. The arrangement and treatment of the various 
sources of illumination are said to be systematic, and attention is called to the 
chapter dealing with the preparation of plans and specifications for wiring and 
illuminating and also to that entitled "Practical Considerations" which the authors 
state should be consulted freely by persons planning illuminations. The Chapter 
headings are : Light ; Principles of Vision ; Reflection, Refraction, and Diffusion ; 
Photometry; Calculation of Flux from Photometric Curves; Illumination Calcula- 
tions ; Characteristics of Electric Illuminants ; Shades and Reflectors ; Location and 
Height of Lamps ; Color of Light ; Choice of Lamps ; Choice of Fixtures ; Indirect 
Lighting ; Practical Considerations ; Table of Intensities in Foot Candle for Various 
Classes of Service; Plans and Specifications; Illumination Tables; Incandescent 
Light Wiring and Other Tables ; Glossary of Terms and Phrases ; Tables of Square 
Roots and Standard Symbols ; Index. 

A TEXT=BOOK OF PHYSICS. 

Edited bv A. Wilmer Duff. (Blakiston's Science Series.) Third 
Edition, EeVised. Cloth, 8i x 5i in., illus., 16 -f 686 pp. Phila- 
delphia, P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 1912. 

This book represents, it is stated, the attempt of seven experienced teachers of 
college physics to prepare a text-book on the subject which will be satisfactory to 

♦Unless otherwise specified, books in this list have been donated by the publishers. 



624 ACCESSIONS TO Till-: LIBRARY [Society Affairs. 

them and to other teachers. In th's, the third, edition, extensive changes are stated 
to have been made in the subject-matter of all the parts, while the sections relating 
to Heat and Electricity and Magnetism are entirely new. The order of subjects 
has also been changed somewhat, and, to facilitate reference, a list of tables of 
constants has been included. At the end of each part, a list of references to books 
relating to the subject is given as well as problems on the subjects and their answers. 
The Contents are: Mechanics and the Properties of Matter, by A. Wilmer Duff; 
Wave Motion, by E. Percival Lewis; Heat, by Charles E. Mendenhall ; Electricity 
and Magnetism, by Albert P. Carman ; Conduction of Electricity Through Gases and 
Radio-Activity, by R. K. McClung ; Sound, by William Hallock ; Light, by E. 
Percival Lewis ; Index to Names ; Index to Subjects. 

TEXT-BOOK ON THE STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 

By S. E. Slocum and E. L. Hancock. Revised Edition. Cloth, 
9i X 6| in., illus.. 36 + 372 pp. Boston, New York, Chicago and 
London, Ginn and Company, 1911. $3.00. 

The first edition of this work was published in 1906, and in order to utilize 
the numerous suggestions for its improvement received by the authors since that 
time from various sources, the subject-matter, it is stated, has been thoroughly 
revised, the object being to keep it abreast of the most recent practical develop- 
ments of the subject and to simplify the method of its presentation. In Part I a set 
of tables has been added and placed at the beginning of the work to facilitate the 
numerical calculation. There are also, it is stated, new articles on the design of 
reinforced concrete beams, shrinkage, and forced fits, the design of eccentrically 
loaded columns, etc., including the derivation and application of the Frankel formula 
for the bending deflection of beams and also a simple general formula for the 
shearing deflection of beams never before published. Original problems to the 
number of about 150 have also been added to Part I, many of them being practical 
shop problems which have been selected, it is stated, for the purpose of emphasizing 
the practical importance of the subject and extending the range of its application as 
widely as possible. In Part II, it is stated, the recent advances In the manufacture 
of steel have been given special attention, including the properties of vanadium, 
manganese, and high-speed steels. The chapter on reinforced concrete is said to 
have" been thoroughly revised and modernized, and this is also true of the chapter 
on timber, considerable new material on preservative processes having been added 
to the latter. The Contents are: Part I, Mechanics of Materials: Elastic Proper- 
ties of Materials ; Fundamental Relations Between Stress and Deformation ; Analy- 
sis of Stress in Beams ; Flexure of Beams ; Columns and Struts ; Torsion ; Spheres 
and Cylinders Under Uniform Pressure; Flat Plates; Curved Pieces; Hooks. Links, 
and Snrings ; Arches and Arched Ribs ; Foundations and Retaining Walls. Part II, 
Physical Properties of Materials : Iron and Steel ; Lime. Cement, and Concrete ; 
Reinforced Concrete ; Brick and Building Stone ; Timber ; Rope, Wire, and Belting ; 
Answers to Problems ; Index. 

GAS-ENGINE PRINCIPLES. 

By Roger B. Whitman. Cloth, 7f x 5 in., illus., 15 + 248 pp. New 
York and London, D. Appleton and Company, 1912. $1.50. 

In a secondary title, the author states that this book contains "explanations of 
the operations, parts. Installation, handling, care, and maintenance of the small 
stationary and marine engine and chapters on the effect, location, remedy, and pre- 
vention of engine troubles." The preface further states that the author's purpose 
has been to explain the use of such engines in a practical and simple manner, 
instruction in engine design and comparison of merits of different types being pur- 
poselv omitted. The Contents are: Gas-Bngine Principles; Engine Types; Engine 
Part=- Valves and Valve Mechanism; Carburetion ; Ignition and Electrical Princi- 
ples • Electric Generators ; .Make-and-Break Systems ; Jump Spark Ignition System ; 
Lubrication and Cooling; Power, Care, and Maintenance; Causes of Trouble; Effects 
of Trouble ; Testing for Trouble ; Index. 

REINFORCED CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION. 

Vol. 1, Fundamental Principles, Licluding Numerous Tables and 
Diagrams' to Facilitate the Calculation and Design of Reinforced 
Concrete Structures. By George A. Hool. (Engineering Education 
Series.) Cloth, 94 x 6^ in., illus., 10 + 254 pp. New York and 
London, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1912. $2.50. 

The preface states that this volume forms the first part of the regular course 
on Reinforced Concrete Construction offered by the Extension Division of the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin. The author presupposes a knowledge of the elements of 
structures on the part of the student, and while the book has been written primarily 



November, 1912.] ACCESSION'S TO niE LIBRARY 635 

for a study of tbe subject by correspondence, he states that it may be used for other 
purposes, the text being intended to be supplemented with such other material as 
IS suited to the special needs of the individual student. The text, as stated in the 
title, relates chiefly to the fundamental principles of the subject and is divided into 
two parts, namely. Properties of the Material, and the Theory and Design of Slabs, 
Beams, and Columns. At the end of each chapter problems relating to the subject 
discussed in that chapter are appended, and numerous tables and diagrams are 
also included. The Contents are : Part I, Properties of the Material : Concrete ; 
Steel ; Concrete and Steel in Combination. Part II, The Theory and Design of 
Slabs, Beams, and Columns : Rectangular Beams ; Slabs, Cross-Beams, and Girders ; 
Columns ; Slab, Beam, and Column Tables ; Slab, Beam, and Column Diagrams ; 
Bending and Direct Stress Tables ; Diagrams ; Index. 

THE DESIGN OF STEEL MILL BUILDINGS 

And the Calculation of Stresses in Framed Structures. By Mile 
S. Ketchum, M. Am. Soc. C. E. Third Edition, Enlarged. Cloth, 
9 X 6i in., illus., 16 + 478 + 78 pp. New York and London, McGraw- 
Hill Book Company, 1912. $4.00. 

In this edition of this work many revisions and additions have been made, it is 
stated, several chapters having been rewritten and enlarged and many of the cuts 
redrawn. The mere important additions are Appendix II. Two Problems in Graphic 
Statics, and Appendix III, Structural Drawings, Estimates and Designs, which, it is 
said, furnish data and tables not readily available elsewhere. The book is intended 
to provide a short course in the calculation of stresses in framed structures and 
to give a brief discussion of mill building construction, and while it is concerned 
chiefly with mill buildings, the subject-matter will also apply, it is stated, to all 
classes of steel frame construction. The book is divided into four parts and appen- 
dices : Part I, Loads, which relates to the various loads, dead loads, snow loads, 
wind loads, etc., to be provided for in designing a mill building. Part II, Stresses, 
in which part both the algebraic and graphic methods of calculating stresses are 
fully described and analyzed. This part relates mainly to the design of mill build- 
ings, but it is said to contain also a number of problems only indirectly related 
to that subject. In Part III, Design of Mill Buildings, the methods of construc- 
tion, and the material used are described, together with a brief treatment of mill 
building design and the making of estimates of weight and cost, the idea being to 
give methods, data, and details not ordinarily available and to discuss the matter 
presented in a manner which will be helpful to the engineer and the detailer. 
Part IV, Miscellaneous Structures, contains descriptions of hotels, locomotive shops, 
roundhouses, etc., with loads, stresses, etc.. for each. Appendix I contains spei ifica- 
tions for steel frame buildings. Appendix II, problems in graphic statics and the 
calculation of stresses, and the Index, and Appendix III, structural drawings, esti- 
mates, and designs, the latter being entirely new. 

TRANSMISSION LINE CONSTRUCTION: 

Methods and Costs. By E. A. Lundquist. Cloth, 9 J x 6 J in., illus., 
8 + 295 pp. New York and London, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 
1912. $3.00. 

The author's aim, in this book, has been, it is stated, to supply detailed 
material of value to the man engaged in laying out and building a modern high- 
tension line, by setting forth the merits of the various types and the methods 
commonly used in their construction. No attempt has been made, it is stated, to 
cover the electrical and mechanical calculations involved, the treatment being from 
the standpoint of the construction man rather than that of the ofBce engineer. Con- 
siderable attention has been given, it is stated, to cost data and to all conditions 
which may affect costs, and an effort has been made to make such data as definite, 
reliable and useful as possible. The Appendices contain specifications for various 
materials used in the construction of transmission lines. The Contents are: Pre- 
liminary Work ; Location of Line — Surveys and Engineering ; Types of Construction ; 
Wooden Pole Construction ; Steel Pole Construction ; Steel Tower Construction ; 
Reinforced Concrete Construction ; Special Structures ; Cross-Arms, Hardware. Pins. 
and Insulators; Guying; Stringing Wire; Cost Data of Typical Transmission Lines; 
Organization and Tools ; Appendices ; Index. 

THE CITY THAT WAS. 

By Stephen Smith. Cloth, 8 x 5^ in., illu.s., 211 pp. New York, 
Frank Allaben, 1911. $1.25. 

In a note by the publisher this work is stated to be the history of a great life- 
saving social revolution, in which the author lays bare the New York of 1864. It 
is said to be the story of the awakening of the citizens of New York to the need 



626 



ACCESSIONS TO THE LIBIIAUV 



[Society Affairs. 



for better sanitary conditions after the Civil War, and what was done to obtain 
such conditions, by one of the chief actors of the event, Dr. Smith, an investigator 
of the conditions described. The Contents are : A Blind Metropolis and Her Dying 
Children ; A Great Awakening ; The Awakening in America ; New York the Unclean ; 
Victory : The Legal Work of Dorman Bridgeman Eaton ; The Occult Power of Filth ; 
A Closing Word. 

(iit'ts have also hccii ri'ceivt'd t'roiii tlu' lollowiii^: 



Alexander & Dowell. 1 pam. 

Am. Ceramic Soc. 1 vol. 

Am. Iron and Steel Assoc. 1 pam. 

Am. Soc. of Heating and Ventilating 

Engrs. 1 bound vol. 
Appletou, Thomas. 5 pam. 
Architectural Record Co. 1 bound vol. 
Arnold, Bion J. 1 pam. 
Assoc, of Am. Portland Cement Mfrs. 1 

pam. 
Assoc, of Rf. Telegraph Supts. 1 pam. 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. Co. 

1 pam. 
Atlanta & West Point R. R. Co. 5 pam. 
Attleborough, Mass. -Town Clerk. 15 vol. 
Australia-Bureau of Census and Statis- 
tics. 1 bound vol. 
Baker, I. O. 1 pam. 
Baltimore, Md. -Harbor Board. 1 pam. 
Bangor & Aroostook R. R. Co. 1 pam. 
Binghamton, N. Y.-City Engr. 3 bound 

vol. 
Bloomington, 111. -City Clerk. 2 vol. 
Boston, Mass. -Fire Commr. 12 bound 

vol., 10 vol. 
Boston, Mass. -Statistics Dept. 3 vol. 
Boston & Maine R. R. Co. 1 pam. 
Bradford. Pa.-City Clerk. 2 vol. 
Buffalo, N. Y. -Mayor. 13 pam. 
Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh Ry. Co. 

3 pam. 
Burlington, Iowa-City Clerk. 4 pam. 
Bush Terminal Co. 6 pam. 
Cambridge, Mass. -Water Board. 1 pam. 
Camden, N. .J.-Chf. Engr. 1 pam. 
Canada-Dept. of Mines. 4 vol., 2 pam. 
Canton, Ohio-City Auditor. 4 pam. 
Carnegie Steel Co. 2 bound vol., 2 pam. 
Central of Georgia Ry. Co. 1 pam. 
Central R. R. Co. of New Jersey. 2 

pam. 
Central Vermont Ry. Co. 1 pam. 
Chattanooga, Tenn. -Mayor. 7 pam. 
Chelsea, Mass. -City Clerk. 5 bound vol. 
Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. Co. 1 pam. 
Chicago, 111. -Harbor and Subway Comm. 

1 pam. 
Chicago & Eastern Illinois R. R. Co. 2 

pam. 
Chicago, Burlington & Quipcy R. R. Go. 

1 pam. 
Chicago Great Western R. R. Co. 2 pam. 
Chicago Junction Rys. & Union Stock 

Yards Co. 5 pam. 
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Ry. Co. 

1 pam. 
Cincinnati. New Orleans & Texas Pa- 
cific Ry. Co. 4 pam. 
Cleveland, Ohio-City Clerk. 4 bound vol. 
Cleveland, Akron & Cincinnati Ry. Co. 

1 pam. 
Cleveland, Akron & Columbus Ry. Co. 4 

pam. 
Colorado-Agri. Exper. Station. 1 pam. 
Colorado & Southern Ry. Co. 3 pam. 
Colorado School of Mines. 1 pam. 



Colorado, Univ. of. 1 pam. 

Cripple Creek Central Ry. Co. 2 pam. 

Detroit United Ry. Co. 10 pam. 

Duluth. Minn. -City Clerk. 9 vol. 

East Orange, N. J. -City Council. 2 vol. 

Elmira, N. Y.-City Clerk. 1 vol. 

Engrs. Soc. of Western Pennsylvania. 1 

pam. 
Erie, Pa.-City Clerk. 3 pam. 
Erie & Pittsburgh R. R. Co. 4 pam. 
Erie R. R. Co. 1 pam. 
Evanston, 111. -City Clerk. 11 pam. 
Fall River, Mass. -City Clerk. 17 bound 

vol. 
Fall River, Mass. -City Engr. 3 pam. 
Fitchburg, Mass. -Water Commrs. 1 pam. 
Florida-State Board of Health. 1 vol. 
Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville R. R. 

Co. 1 pam. 
Force, H. .1. 2 pam. 
Freeman, John R. 1 bound vol. 
Fudge, Edward. 11 pam. 
Georgia-R. R. Comm. 1 vol. 
Germany-Preussische Landesanstalt fiir 

Gewiisserkimde. 7 pam. 
Goltra, W. F. 1 pam. 
Grand Rapids, Mich. -City Engr. 8 pam. 
Graves, Walter H. 1 pam. 
Great Northern Ry. Co. 1 pam. 
Greenalch, Wallace. 10 bound vol. 
Griffith, W. F. R. 1 map. 
Hamilton, Ont.-City Engr. 3 bound vol., 

1 pam. 
Harrisburg. Pa.-City Clerk. 1 vol. 
Hawaii-Commr. of Agri. and Forestry. 2 

pam. 
Hering, , Rudolph. 2 pam. 
Hocking Valley Ry. Co. 1 pam. 

Houston, Tex. -City Clerk. 1 vol. 

Hudson & Manhattan R. R. Co. 2 pam. 

Huntingdon & Broad Top Mountain R. R. 
& Coal Co. 4 pam. 

Illinois Central R. R. Co. 1 pam. 

Illinois, Univ. of. 1 vol. 

Illuminating Eng. Soc. 1 pam. 

Institution of Civ. Engrs. 2 bound vol. 

Institution of Elec. Engrs. 1 vol. 

Institution of Naval Archts. 1 bound vol. 

Iowa State Coll. of Agri. and Mechanic 
Arts-Eng. Exper. Station. 1 pam. 

Jersey City, N. J. -Board of Street and 
Water Commrs. 1 pam. 

Joliet, 111. -City Clerk. 1 pam. 

Kansas City Southern Ry. Co. 5 pam. 

Keene, N. H.-City Clerk. 9 bound vol., 
4 vol. 

I ackawanna Steel Co. 1 pam. 

Lanagan, Frank R. 2 pam. 

1 ebanon. N. H. -Water Commrs. 9 pam. 

Leeds, England-Sewerage Engr. 1 pam. 

T ehigh & Hudson River Ry. Co. 1 pam. 

Lehigh Coal & Navigation Co. 3 pam. 

London, England-Met. Water Board. 1 
pam. 

Los Angeles, Cal.-City Auditor. 2 bound 
vol., 1 pam. 



November, 1912.] 



ACCESSIONS TO THE LIBRARY 



637 



Louisville & Nashville R. R. Co. 1 pam. 
Louisville, Henderson & St. Louis Ry. 

Co. 8 pam. 
Lowell, Mass. -Board of Health. 4 pam. 
Lynchburg, Va.-City Clerk. 1 pam. 
McBean, Duncan D. 1 pam. 
Madras, India-Public Works Dept. 1 

bound vol. 
Mahoning Coal R. R. Co. 5 pam. 
Maine Central R. R. Co. 1 pam. 
Maiden, Mass. -Street and Water Commr. 

4 pam. 
Maryland-State Board of Health. 1 vol. 
Maryland, Delaware & Virginia Ry. Co. 

4 pam. 
Massachusetts-Tax Commr. 1 vol. 
Massachusetts Inst, of Tech. 1 pam. 
Melrose, Mass.-Supt. of Public Works. .3 

pam. 
Mexican International R. R. Co. 1 pam. 
Mexican Ry. Co., Ltd. 2 pam. 
Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie 

Ry. Co. 5 pam. 
Mississippi-State Board of Health. 1 vol. 
Mississippi River Power Co. 1 pam. 
Missouri, Kansas & Texas Ry. Co. 8 pam. 
Mobile & Ohio R. R. Co. 4 pam. 
Moline, 111. -City Engr. 1 pam. 
Montclair, N. J. -Town Clerk. 3 pam. 
Montreal, Que. -Road Dept. 7 pam. 
New Orleans & North-Eastern R. R. Co. 

21 pam. 
New York City-Board of Estimate and 

Apportionment. 1 bound vol. 
New York City-Bureau of Economy and 

Efficiency. 1 pam. 
New York City-Met. Sewerage Comm. 1 

bound vol. 
New York City-Municipal Civ. Service 

Comm. 2 pam. 
New York City-Tenement House Dept. 

2 bound vol. 
New York-Commrs. of State Reservation 

at Niagara. 1 pam. 
New York State-Public Service Comm., 

Second Dist. 2 bound vol. 
New York-State Comm. of Highways. 1 

bound vol. 
New York City Record. 1 bound vol. 
New York, New Haven & Hartford 

R. R. Co. 1 pam. 
New York, Susquehanna & Western 

R. R. Co. 3 pam. 
Newark, N. J. -Board of Street and Water 

Commrs. 2 vol. 
Newark, N. J. -Dept. of Public Works. 1 

pam. 
Newton, Mass. -Street Commr. 9 pam. 
North Adams, Mass.-City Clerk. 9 bound 

vol. 
North Carolina-Corporation Comm. 1 

bound vol. 
North Carolina-Geol. and Economic Sur- 
vey. 2 pam. 
North of England Inst, of Min. and Mech. 

Engrs. 1 pam. 
Northern Central Ry. Co. 5 pam. 
Northern Pacific Ry. Co. 1 pam. 
Nova Scotian Inst, of Science. 1 pam. 
Ohio-State Highway Dept. 2 pam. 
Old Colony R. R. Co. 5 pam. 
Ontario, Canada-Temiskaming & North- 
ern Ontario Ry. Comm. 8 pam. 
Pacific Coast Co. 5 pam. 
Pacific Mail Steamship Co. 7 pam. 



Passaic, N. J. -City Clerk. 7 bound vol., 

2 pam. 
Pennsylvania-Senate Librarian. 1 bound 

vol. 
Pennsylvania Co. 4 pam. 
Philadelphia, Baltimore & Washington 

R. R. Co. 3 pam. 
Philippine Soc. of Engrs. 1 pam. 
Pittsburgh & Lake Erie R. R. Co. 5 

pam. 
Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. 

Louis Ry. Co. 4 pam. 
Princeton Eng. Assoc. 1 pam. 
Quebec Central Ry. Co. 1 pam. 
Queensland-Commr. for Rys. 1 vol. 
Reading Co. 1 pam. 
Richmond, Va. -Health Dept. 2 pam. 
Richmond, Va.-Supt. of Water-Works. 2 

pam. 
Rio Grande Southern R. R. Co. 15 pam. 
Rock Island Co. 5 pam. 
Rourke, L. K. 2 pam. 
St. Joseph & Grand Island Ry. Co. 12 

pam. 
St. Louis, Mo. -Public Service Comm. 1 

pam. 
St. Louis & San Francisco R. R. Co. 4 

pam. 
St. Louis, Rocky Mountain & Pacific Co. 

1 pam. 
St. Louis Southwestern Ry. Co. 1 pam. 
Seaboard Air Line Ry. Co. 3 pam. 
Shankland, E. C. 5 pam. 
Smithsonian Institution. 6 pam. 
Southern Ry. Co. 5 pam. 
Staniford, C. W. 1 pam. 
Sydney Univ. Eng. Soc. 1 bound vol. 
Toledo & Ohio Central Ry. Co. 2 pam. 
Toledo, Peoria & Western Ry. Co. 1 

pam. 
Tonopah & Goldfleld R. R. Co. 7 pam. 
Toronto, Ont. -Bureau of Mines. 1 bound 

vol. 
Toronto, Ont. -Commr. of Works. 1 bound 

vol. 
Ulster & Delaware R. R. Co. 9 pam. 
Union of South Africa-Mines Dept. 1 

vol. 
U. S. -Bureau of Mines. 5 pam. 
U. S. -Bureau of the Census. 1 vol. 
U. S. -Coast and Geodetic Survey. 2 pam. 
U. S. -Corps of Engrs. 1 pam. 
U. S.-Dept. of Commerce and Labor. 1 

vol. 
U. S.-Geol. Survey. 1 map. 
U. S. -Isthmian Canal Comm. 1 bound 

vol. 
U. S. -Supervising Archt. 1 bound vol. 
Vandalia R. R. Co. 5 pam. 
Vermont-Public Service Comm. 1 pam. 
Vicksburg. Shreveport & Pacific Ry. Co. 

5 pam. 
Virginia-State Corporation Comm. 1 

bound vol. 
Virginian Ry. Co. 1 pam. 
Wabash R. R. Co. 1 pam. 
West Shore & Seashore R. R. Co. 3 pam. 
Western Australia-Dept. of Mines. 1 vol. 
Western Ry. Co. 1 bound vol. 
Western Ry. Co. of Alabama. 9 pam. 
Whitney, F. O. 3 bound vol. 
Williams, William F. 10 pam. 
Wisconsin-R. R. Comm. 1 bound voL 
Woburn, Mass. -Water Dept. 1 pam. 
Yale Univ. 1 pam. 



638 ACCESSIONS TO THE LIBUARY [Society Affairs. 

BY PURCHASE 

Principles and Practice of Harbour Construction. By William Shield. 
Lono-nians, Green and Co.. Xew York and London, 1910. 

Fire Prevention and Fire Protection as Applied to Bnilding Construc- 
tion : A Handbook of Theory and Practice. By Joseph Kendall Freitag. 
Assoc. M.Am. Soc. C. E. John Wiley i*t Sons, Xew York ; Chapman 
& Hall, Ltd., London. 1912. 

Forestry in New England : A Handbook of Eastern Forest Manage- 
ment. By Ralph Chipnian Hawley and Anstin Foster Hawes. John 
AViley I'v: Sons. Xew York; Chapman iS: Hall. Ltd.. London, 1912. 

Identification of the Economic Woods of the United States, Includ- 
ing a Dispussion of the Structural and Physical Properties of Wood. By 
Samuel J. Record. John Wiley i*v: Sons, New Y^ork ; Chapman & Hall, 
Ltd., London, 1912. 

Mitteilungen liber Forschungsarbeiten auf dem Gebiete des In- 
genieurwesens,insl)esondere ausden Laboratorieu der technischen Hoch- 
schulen. Heransgeoeben voni A^erein deutscher Ingenieure. Heft 120. 
Julius Springer, Berlin, 1912. 

Index of Mining Engineering Literature, Comprisiiig an Index of 
Mining, Metallurgical, Civil, Mechanical, Electrical and Chemical Engi- 
neering Subjects as Related to Mining Engineering, also Costs of Mining 
and Metallurgical Operations, etc. By Walter R. Crane. Second Volume. 
John Wiley & Sons, New York ; Chapman & Hall, Ltd., London, 1912. 

The Sewerage of Sea Coast Towns. By Henry C. Adams. I). \'an 
Nostrand Co., New York ; Crosby Lockwood and Son, London, 1911. 

Proceedings of the American Society for Testing Materials; Yol. 12. 
University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, l\i.. 1912. 

Proceedings of the International Association for Testing Materials ; 

Vol. 2, No. 13. Vienna, August Gth, 1912. 

Machine Design : Hoists, Derricks, Cranes. By H. D. Hess. J. B. 
Lippincott Co., Philadelphia and London, 1912. 

Forscherarbeiten auf dem Oebiete des Eisenbetons: Beitrag zur 
Theorie des l^isenbetons. Von A. Fruchthilndler. Wilhelm Ernst & 
Sohn, Berlin, 1912. 

Cours de Ponts Metalliques Professd a L' ficole Nationale des Ponts et 
Chaussees : Tome 2, Premier Fasicule. Ponts Suspendus. Par Jean 
R(5sal. Ch. Beranger, Paris and Lit^ge, 1912. 

Handbuch der Ingenieurwissenschaften : Erster Teil. Strassenbau 
einschl. der Strassenbahnen. Von Max Dietrich und F. von Laissle. 
Vierter Band, Vierte, vermehrte AuHage. Wilhelm Engelmann, Leip- 
zig, 1912. 

Handbuch der Ingenieurwissenschaften: Drifter Teil. Der Hafenbau. 
Von F. Franzius and others. p]lfter Band, Vierte, vermehrte Autlage. 
Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig, 1912. 



November, 1912.] ACCESSIONS TO THE LIBRARY 629 

American Machinist Grinding Book: Modern Machines and Appli- 
ances. Methods and IJesults. V,y Fred II. C'olvin and Frank A. Stanley. 
:\Ie(Jra\v-IIill IJook Co., New York and London, 1912. 

Tlie Hydrometallurgy of Copper. By William E. Greenawalt. Part 
1, Roasting-. Part 2, Ilydronietallurgical Process. McGraw-Hill Book 
Co.. New York and London, 1!)12. 

Commercial Engineering for Central Stations : A Compilation of 
Pajx'rs Dealing witli Snltjects of Particular Interest to Those Engaged in 
Central Station Commercial Engineering Work. By Arthur WilHams 
and Edmund F. Tweedy. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York and 
London, 11»12. 

Modern Road Construction : A Practical Treatise for the Use of 

Engineers. Students. ]Memhers of Local Authorities, etc. By Francis 
AVood. J. B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia ; Charles Griftin and Co., 
Ltd., London, 11)12. 

The Main Drainage of Towns. By F. Noel Taylor. J. B. Lippincott 
Co.. Philadelphia ; Charles Gritlin and Co., Ltd., London, l!)12. 

Railroad Finance. By Frederick A. Cleveland and Fred Wilhur 
Powell. I). Ai)pleton and Co., New York and London, P.I12. 

Propellers. By Cecil H. Peabody. John Wiiev & Sons, New Y'ork ; 
Chapman & Hall,"Ltd., London, 1912. 

Diesel Engines for Land and Marine Work. By A. P. Chalkley, 
AVith an Introductory Chapter liy Dr. Pudolf Diesel. I). Van Nostrand 
Co., New York. 1912. 

Beton=Kalender, 1913: Taschenbuch fiir Beton u. Eisenbetonbau, 
sowie die verwandten Facher. I'nter Mitwirkung hervorragender Fach- 
mjinner, herausgegeben von der Zeitschrift Beton n. Eisen. YIII 
neubearbeiteter Jahrgang. 2 Vol. Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn, Berlin, 1912. 

SUMMARY OF ACCESSIONS 

(From October 4th to November oth, 1912) 

Donations ( including 40 duplicates ) 688 

By purchase 24 

Total 712 



630 MEMBERSHIP — ADDITIONS [Society Affairs. 

MEMBERSHIP 

ADDITIONS 

(From October 4th to November 7tb, 1912) 

^lEMBERS Mem%*ersMp. 

Albertson, Dan John. 305 East Main St., Kalamazoo, 

Mich Oct. 29, 1912 

Alderson, Algernon Brown. 49 Pearl St., ) Assoc. M. Oct. 2, 1907 

Hartford, Conn f M. Oct. 29, 1912 

Backes, William James. Clif. Engr., Central ^ Jun. May 31, 1904 

New England R. R., 59 Spruce St., I Assoc. M. July 9, 1906 

Hartford, Conn ) M. Oct. 1, 1912 

Beeman, Thomas Rupe. Dist. Engr., ('., M. & P. S. Ry., 

Beverly, Wash Oct. 1, 1912 

Carpenter, Edward Emery. Clif. Engr., Panama-Pacific 

International Exposition Co., Exposition Bldg., San 

Francisco, Cal Oct. 1, 1912 

Carty, John Edward. Asst. Designing Engr., Public 

Works Dept., Room 60, City Hall, Boston, Mass May 28, 1912 

Chase, Horace Holmes. Prin. Asst. Engr., F. A. Barbour, 

17 Nye St., Brockton, Mass Oct. 29, 1912 

Farnham, Arthur Benjamin. Engr., Boards , ,, t ^ -.^r.-, 

, ' ,,. „, - „., ^°,' „.,, Assoc. M. Jan. 2,1907 

of Public Works, City Hall, Pitts- l ^ ^^^ ^g 1919 

field. Mass ) ' ' ' ' 

Forsyth, George Thomas. Contr. Engr., Union Bridge & 

Constr. Co., 903 Sharp Bldg., Kansas City, Mo Oct. 1, 1912 

Gaillard, Samuel Gourdin. Cons. Engr. and Vice-Pres., 

The Mack Mfg. Co., 138 Highland Ave., Chestnut 

Hill, Philadelphia, Pa Oct. 1, 1912 

Gibson, William Herbert. Cons. Engr., 1110 Harrison 

Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa Oct. 1, 1912 

Gray, Henry Lilburn. Chf. Engr., Public ) . t,t t i 1 ^nn,^ 

' . ^ „ ,„ , . ' , . / Assoc. M. July 1, 1909 

Service Comm. of Washington, Olympia, V ,, „ , , imn 

^ , , ° ' -^ ^ f M. Oct. 1, 1912 

Wash j 

Green, Paul Evans. Cons. Civ. and San. S . ,^ ,. , ,„ ,„„„ 

U . ^ ^ V ,►, ^x ,, f Assoc. M. July 10, 190^ 

Engr. (Aetna Eng. Bureau), 17 North V Oct 1 1912 
La Salle St., Suite 700, Chicago, 111 . . . . ) ' 

GuTMAN, David. Chf. Structural Engr., F. M. Andrews & 

Co., 22d Floor, Metropolitan Tower, New York City. Oct. 29, 1912 

Harrison, Simon Henry. 226 Bushkill St., Easton, Pa... Oct. 1, 1912 

Hartman, Alfred Hanson. Div. Engr., Balti- ^ Jun. Dec. 6, 1904 

more Sewerage Comm., 807 Am. Bldg., \. Assoc. M. Dec. 5, 1900 

Baltimore, Md . . . ) M. Oct. 1, 1912 

Hautmann, Andrew Philip. Chf. Engr., Bronx Val. Sewer 

Coinm., 63 William St., New York City Sept. 3, 1912 

Herrick, Horace Theophilus. Supt. of Constr., Missis- 
sippi River Power Co., 82(i Orleans St.. Keokuk, 

Iowa Oct. 29, 1912 



1, 


1912 


6, 


1906 


4, 


1908 


29, 


1912 


1, 


1912 


2, 


1907 


29, 


1912 



November, 1!) 12.] MEMBEUSIIIP — ADDITIONS ' 631 

MEMDERS {Continued) Date of 

Membership. 

Janes, Feedekick Spenceu. Engr., Ceoige F. Hardy, 432 

Eldorado St., Appleton, Wis Oct. 29, 1912 

Jess UP, Joseph John. City Engr., 2(i20 Cedar St., 

Berkeley, Ctil Oct. 

McLuRE, Norman Roosevelt. Prin. Asst. ^ Jun. Feb. 

Engr., Phoenix Iron Co., Phoenixville, v Assoc. M. Nov. 

Pa ) M. Oct. 

Murray, Ray Messinger. Coutr. Engr. (Murray & 

Burnette), 709 Hutton Bldg., Spokane, Wash Oct. 

PoiiL, Charles Andrew. Cons. Engr. (Bogart | Assoc. M. Oct. 

& Pohl), 141 Broadway, New York City. [ M. Oct. 

Reeves, William Fullekton. Engr. in Chg., Legal Eng. 

Work, I. R. T. Co., 165 Broadway, Room 2609, New 

York City Oct. 1, 1912 

Shackelford, William James. Chf. Engr., Board of 

Mississippi Levee Comnirs., Greenville, Miss Oct. 1, 1912 

Stkatton, George Eber. Engr., U. S. Recla- ) Assoc. M. Jan. 8, 1902 

mation Service, Helena, Mont [ M. Oct. 1, 1912 

Thayer, Roland Aldrich. Dist. Engr., Lockwood, Greene 

& Co., 616 Rhodes Bldg., Atlanta, Ga Oct. 1, 1912 

Whitaker, DeBernieee. Vice-Pres. and Gen. Mgr., 

Juragua Iron Co., Box 195, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba . 
Wildes, Waldo Oilman. Res. Engr., State ^ Jun. 

Engr.'s Office, Triangle Bldg., Rochester, (. Assoc. M. 

N. Y ) M. 

Williams, George David. 129 South Cluirch St., Goshen, 

N. Y Oct. 29, 1912 

Wilson, Frederick Charles. Asst. Supt., The Spanish- 
Am. Iron Co., Felton, Cuba Oct. 1, 1912 

Wilson, Herbert Alva. Cons. Engr., 6 Beacon St., Room 

1019, Boston, Mass Oct. 1, 1912 

Woodruff, James Albert. Maj., Corps of Engrs., U. S. A., 

Vicksburg, Miss Oct. 1, 1912 

Woods, Andrew Alfred. Res Engr., Alabama ^ ^^^^^_ ^ ^^ ^^^^ 

& Vicksburg Ry. and Vicksburg, Shreve- y "^ i 1019 

port & Pacific Ry., Vicksburg, Miss ....]' " ' 

Yates, Charles Colt. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 

Washington, D. C Oct. 1, 1912 

associate members 

Anson, William Frederick Alfred. Res. Engr., Virginia 

State Highway Comm., Rural Retreat, Va Oct. 1, 1!)12 

Barney, William Joshua. Second Deputy ) 

„ -r. , , f,, , J TP • r Jun. April 5, 1910 

Commr., Dept. of Docks and Ferries, v ' 

,io^ T • I A TvT V 1 r<-. C Assoc. M. Oct. 29, 1912 

1187 Lexington Ave., New York City.. ) 



Oct. 


1, 


1912 


Feb. 


3, 


1903 


Jan. 


2, 


1907 


Oct. 


1, 


1912 



r Assoc. M. Oct. 1 



632 MEJMBP^RSiriP — ADDITIONS [Society Aflfaiis. 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS (Continued) Date of 

Membership. 

Baxtek, Oua Grover. 530 Soutliein Trust Bldg., Little 

Rock, Arlt Oct. 29 

Bean, Ernest Daniel. Supt. with Banally & Ingersoll, 

West Ave., Medina, N. Y Oct. 1 

Benson, Henry Crist. Engr., Nortliern Contr. Co., Tal- 

lulah Falls, Ga Oct. 1 

Blackburn, Nathaniel Townsend. U. S. ) 

Junior Engr., U. S. Engr. Office, I '^^'^- ^^^P^' ^ 

Galveston, Tex J Assoc. M. Oct. 1 

Boyd, George Ray. Vice-Pres. and Chf. Engr., Brett Eng. 

& Contr. Co., -mison, N. C Oct. 29 

Bradley, William Littell. Div. Engr., A., T. & S. F. Ry., 

816 T St., Fresno, Cal May 28 

Carter, Lester Levi. Div. Engr., General ] 

Pipe Line Co., 409 Higgins Bldg., Los ' '^""* ^^P^* ^ 

Angeles, Cal 

Chandler, Elberi Milam. Receiver, Burbank Power & 

Water Co., Burbank, Wash Oct 

Crowell, Francis Stirling. Asst. Engr., 

Barge Canal Terminals, Terminal 

Engr.'s Office, Lyon Blk., Albany, N. Y. 
Dittoe, W'illiam Henry. Chf. Engr., Ohio 

State Board of Health, 303 Hartman 

Bldg., Columbus, Ohio 

Drayton, Nevs^bold. R. D. No. 4, Altmar, N. Y 
Franklin, Charles Miller. 214 West 82d St., New York 

City July 9 

Friesell, Frank McClaren. Asst. Engr., Dept. of Public 

Works, Honolulu, Hawaii Sept. 3 

Gay, Robert Walter. Prof, of Civ. Eng., ^ 

Mississippi Agri. and Mech. Coll., Agri- y 

1^ 1 n n TVT- i Assoc. M. Oct. 1 

cultural College, Miss j 

George, Walter Whitfield. Box 117, New Philadelphia, 

Ohio Oct. 29 

Handeyside, Charles Augustus. Res. Engr., Kansas 
City Terminal Efy. (Res., 514 East 26th St.), Kansas 
City, Mo May 28 

HiNKLE, Albert Harrison. Deputy Highway Commr., 28 

Thirteenth Ave., Columbus, Ohio Oct. 1 

Holland, Howard Kingsbury. Asst. Engr. \ 

with Gardner S. Williams, Cornwell I ,""' , ^^^^ 
_,, . . , ,,. , I Assoc. M. Oct. 29 

Blk., Ann Arbor, Mich ) 

Hunter, Walter Gladden. Engr. and Contr., 219 East 

Flora St., Stockton, Cal April 30 

Jones, Lewis Allen. 20 Burton Ave., Montgomery, Ala.. Oct. 1 



/ Jun. 

r Assoc. M. 


Feb. 
Oct. 


6 

1 


/ Jun. 

r Assoc. M. 


May 
Oct. 


3 

1 




Oct. 


1 



November, 1012.] MEMBEKSIIir — ADDITIONS 633 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS (Continued) Date of 

Membership. 

Kerr, Stanley Albert. Asst. Engr., U. S. Reclamation 

Seivice, Browning, Mont Oct. 1, 1912 

Klei.x, Samuel. (Lieberman & Klein), 79 West Monroe 

St., Room 1204, Chicago, 111 May 28, 1912 

Le Duke, Jason Casimik. Engr. and Asst. to Mgr., Dono- 
van ^^'ire & Iron Co., 2343 Parkwood Ave., Toledo, 
Ohio Oct. 1, 1912 

J.ENDKUixK, Andrew. City Engr., 1118 Jefferson Ave., 

Kalamazoo, Mich Oct. 1, 1912 

J-uuAii, Walter Lawrence. Asst. Engr., Cape Cod Constr. 

Co., Bourne, Mass Oct. 1, 1912 

MuIIosE, I'Cern Wilson. 911 Trenton Ave., Wilkinsburg, 

Pa Oct. 1,1912 

Martin, Charles William. Engr., Board of Public 
Impvts., City of St. Louis, 6173 Berlin Ave., St. 
Louis, Mo Oct. 1, 1912 

Meier, Ernest Edward. Dist. Engr., Corrugated Bar Co., 
1409 National Bank of Commerce Bldg., St. Louis, 
Mo Oct. 1,1912 

Messer, Hope Richard. State San. Engr., ^ 

Virginia Dept. of Health, 1110 Capitol v ' ' ' 

o^ -D- 1 \i TT V Assoc. M. Oct. 29, 1912 

St., Richmond, Va ) 

MosER, Charles. 651 Homer Ave., Palo Alto, Cal Oct. 1, 1912 

Northam, Manley Peroe. Asst. Div. Engr., B. & 0. R. R., 

St. George, N. Y Oct. 29, 1912 

QuiNLAN, George Austin. Eng. Contr., 1321 East 53d 

St., Chicago, 111 Oct. 1, 1912 

Rich, Wilder Meloy. U. S. Junior Engr., ) Jun. Sept. 3, 1907 

503 Murray Bldg., Grand Rapids, Mich. \ Assoc. M. Oct. 1, 1912 
Rogers, Joseph Warren. Asst. Engr., Board of Water 

Supply, Shokan, N. Y Oct. 1, 1912 

Saner, Curtis Charles. Deputy Commr. of Public Works, 

Evanston, 111 Oct. 29, 1912 

Sanford, Lester Morse. Works Mgr., General Motors 

Co., Care, J. E. Lambie, 136 Long Acre, London, 

W. C, England Sept. 3, 1912 

Schmid, Francis Rauch. 4037 Grand Cen- | Jun. Oct. 6, 1903 

tral Terminal, New York City f Assoc. M. Oct. 1, 1912 

Shute, James Selden. Constr. Engr. for E. E. Smith 

Contr. Co., 476 Seventy-fifth St., Brooklyn, K Y... Oct. 1, 1912 

Simpson, Charles Randolph. Pres., Simpson- ) ^ „, ^ „ 

Corbm Co., 220 Broadway, New York V ,, „ ' ^,„ 

^.^ C Assoc. M. Sept. 3, 1912 

City ) 

Smith, Fred Charles. City Engr., City Hall, Sioux City, 

Iowa Oct. 29, 1912 



634 MEMBERSHIP — ADDITIONS [Society Affairs. 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS iCo7ltinued) „ ^1*® °if- 

^ Membership. 

Strecker, Robert August. U. S. Junior Engr., 429 West 

Broadway, Louisville, Ky Oct. 1, 1912 

Stronach, Robert Summers. Res. Inspecting Engr., 
Coquitlam Dam, Westminster Junction, B. C, 
Canada Oct. 1, 1912 

Sturdevant, James Hiram. Div. Engr., State Highway 

Dept., Watertown, N. Y Oct. 1, 1912 

Swan, John Simeon. Asst. Engr., U. S. Reclamation 

Service, Helena, Mont Sept. 3, 1912 

Taylor, Henry. Res. Engr., Am. Bridge Co. of N. Y., 

Box 51, Kenova, W. Va Oct. 1, 1912 

Thornton, John Edward. Div. Engr., M., K. & T. Ry., 

Waco, Tex Oct. 1, 1912 

Toner, Arthur Carling. Res. Engr. in dig., Constr., 
Sewerage Comm., City of Baltimore, 606 Dolphin 
St., Baltimore, Md Oct, 1, 1912 

Travers-Ewell, Andrew. Cambridge, Md May 28, 1912 

Trowbridge, Alfred Lockwood. Field Engr., \ q t 'i 1007 

Pacific Gas & Elec. Co., 445 Sutter St., (• .""' ,^ _^? " ' ' «,« 
^ „ . ^ , C Assoc. M. Oct. 1, 1912 

San Francisco, Cal ) 

Walton, Harry Collins. Asst. Contr. Engr., 1 ^ , _ ,„„„ 

McClintic-Marshall Constr. Co., 21 v . ' ^^ „ ' „' „,' 
^ , _ ,.. ,. , ^.. { Assoc. M. Sept. 3, 1912 

Park Row, New York City ) ^ 

Weaver, Earll Chase. Res. Mgr., Clayton j Jim. Mar. 31, 1908 

Orchards, Ashland, Ore ( Assoc. M. Oct. 1, 1912 

Williams, Clement Cl.\rence. Asst. Prof, of ) j j , ^nnq 

Civ. Eng., Univ. of Colorado, 955 Tenth V . ' ^_ ^ , ■, ■,n,^r, 
'' ' ^ , ( Assoc. M. Oct. 1, 1912 

St., Boulder, Colo ) 

Williams, William Horace. Engr. and Gen. Contr. 
(Doullut & Williams), 1029 Maison Blanche Bldg., 
New Orleans, La Oct. 29, 1912 

Woodruff, Leslie Bateman. Div. Engr., Public Service 

Ry., 350 Newton Ave. Car House, Camden, N. J Oct. 1. 1912 

Yarnell, David Leroy. Drainage Engr., U. S. ) ^ a i - mm 

^ , ^ » • ^^ ^ W^ ■ \l c^ / Jun. April y. 1910 

Dept. of Agri., Office of Experiment bta- v. , ^^ ^ , , ,rvm 

. „ , . , ^ ^ C Assoc. M. Oct. 1, 1912 

tions, Washington, D. C j 

juniors 
Akerly', Harold Edward. 13 Amherst St., Rochester, 

N. Y Oct. 1,1912 

Benedict, Ralph Robert. Engr. of Constr., Board of Park 

Commrs., Kansas City, Mo May 28, 1912 

G'Affall, Geoffrey Arthur. 5726 Center Ave., Pitts- 

' '-'■ burgh. Pa Sept. 3, 1912 

Cook, Clarence Westgate. Instr. in Civ. Eng., Univ. of 
y,(ys Southern California, 5932 Woodlawn Ave., Los 

Angeles, Cal Oct. 1, 1912 



November, 1912.] MEMBERSIIir — CHANGES OF ADDRESS 635 

JUNIORS {Continued) Date of 

Membership. 

Ckandall, Carl. Civ. Engr. and Surv., 316 Hector St., 

Ithaca, N. Y Oct. 1, 1912 

DuBuis, John. Engr., Warner Lake Irrig. Co., 23 U. S. 

National Bank Bldg., Portland, Ore '. . Oct. 1, 1912 

Fischer, Charles, Jr. Rodman, Board of Water Supply, 

New Paltz, N. Y Oct. 1, 1912 

Goodwin, Ralph Edward. 40 West S4th St., New York 

City Oct. 1,1912 

GcNDLACH, George Christian. Asst. Engr. and Instru- 
mentman, River des Peres Foul Water Sewer, 4675 
Louisiana Ave., St. Louis, Mo Sept. 3, 1912 

Hastings, Russell Platt. 1112 Ramona St., Palo Alto, 

Cal Oct. 1, 1912 

Haun, George Cleveland. Computer and Draftsman, 
Edward L. Soule, 313 Twenty-eighth St., San 
Francisco, Cal Oct. 1, 1912 

Hawes, George Rayjcond. Bridge Engr., Spokane Termi- 
nals, C, M. & P. S. Ry., 808 Realty Bldg. (Res., 
40 West 3d Ave.), Spokane, Wash. . : May 28, 1912 

Kincaid, Murtland. Draftsman, N. Y. C. & H. R. R. R., 

144 West 105th St., New York City Oct. 29, 1912 

Kornfeld, Harry. Draftsman, Mississippi River Power 

Co., 503 North 3d St., Keokuk, Iowa Sept. 3, 1912 

MacLeish, Gordon Grant. 016 Kingslcy Drive, Los 

Angeles, Cal Oct. 1, 1912 

Nevius, Searle Brown. Structural Steel Draftsman, 
Galloway & Maikwart, 1818 Harrison St., Oakland, 
Cal Oct. 1,1912 

Packard, John Cunningham. P. 0. Box 92, Baltimore, 

Md April 30, 1912 

Plump, Erich Moore. 401 Stuyvesant Ave., Brooklyn, 

N. Y April 30, 1912 

Randell, Ralph Reginald. Junior Engr., U. S. Geologi- 
cal Survey, 2414 Jackson St., Seattle, Wash Oct. 1, 1912 

Rudolph, William Edward. Junior Engr., Public Service 

Comm., First Dist., 399 Hancock St., Brooklyn, N. Y. Oct. 1, 1912 

Thom, Neil, Jr. Draftsman, Duryea, Haehl & Gilman, 

1315 Humboldt Bank Bldg., San Francisco, Cal Oct. 1. 1912 

Tsang, Lem Sec. 419 West 115th St., New York City Oct. 1, 1912 

Vaughn, Romney Leigh. Stanford University, Cal Sept. 3, 1912 

CHANGES OF ADDRESS 

MEMBERS 

Abbott, Elizub Tavarro. Civ. Engr. and Surv. (Abbott & Budd), 425 

Kasota Blk., Minneapolis, Minn. 
Alber, Hermann. 6500 Sunset Boulevard, Hollywood, Cal. 



636 MEMBERSHIP — CHANGES OP ADDRESS [Society Affairs. 

MEMBERS (Contimied) 

Allard, Thomas Tiirop. Chf. Engr. with Champion & Pascual, Contrs. and 

Engrs., Maximo Gomez, Matanzas, Cuba. 
Anderson, George Gray. Cons. Engr., 624 First National Bank Bldg., 

Denver, Colo. 
AucHiNCLOSS, William S. 17 East 11th St., New York City. 
Baskervill, George Booth, Jr. Engr.-Constructor (Baskervill & Co.), 

Title Guarantee Bldg. (Res., 1616 Avenue J), Birmingham, Ala. 
Bellinger, Lyle Frederick. Civ. Engr., U. S. N., U. S. Naval Station, 

Newport, R. I. 
Black, Alexander Leslie. With Ford, Bacon & Davis, 921 Canal St., New 

Orleans, La. 
Blake, Carroll. Birmingham Mgr., Fred A. Jones Bldg. Co., 1618 Am. 

Trust Bldg., Birmingham, Ala. 
Brunner, John. Asst. Inspecting Engr., Illinois Steel Co., Commercial 

National Bank Bldg., Chicago, 111. 
Campion, Horace Thomas. Cons. Engr., 1420 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, 

Pa. 
Carpenter, Allan Wadsworth. Engr. of Structures, N. Y. C. & H. R. R. R., 

50th St. and Lexington Ave., New York City (Res., 68 Arthur St., 

Yonkers, N. Y.). 
Choate, Joseph Kittredge. Morristown, N. J. 
Coffin, Amory. Cons. Engr., 2,33 Fourth Ave., Phcenixville, Pa. 
Couchot, Maurice Charles. French Bank Bldg., San Francisco, Cal. 
Crosby, Walter Wilson. Chf. Engr., Md. Geological and Economic Survey; 

Cons. Engr., 1431 Munsey Bldg., Baltimore, Md. 
Curtis, Loren Bradley. Box 274, Provo, Utah. 
Dean, Bertram Dodd. Vice-Pres., Stratford Bridge & Iron Works Co., Ltd., 

Stratford, Ont., Canada. 
FiLLEY, Oliver Dwight. Cons. Engr., Manila, Philippine Islands. 
Fitch, Asa Betts. 7087 Franklin Ave., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Fulton, James Edward. Civ. and Mech. Engr., Royal Exchange Bldg., 

Custom House Quay, Wellington, New Zealand. 
Gaut, Robert Eugene. Cons. Engr., 122 South Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Gideon, Abraham. Chf. of Dept. of Sewer and Water-Works Constr., 

Manila, Philippine Islands. 
Giles, Robert. Engr. and Contr. (Giles & Clark), 30 Church St., New 

York City. 
Gould, William Tillotson. R. F. D. No. 5, Easton, Pa. 
Greene, Robert Maxson. 285 Twenty-fourth St., Detroit, Mich. 
Haines, Henry Stevens. Villa Gascoyne, Alassio, Italy. 
Harahan, William Jojinson. Pres., Seaboard A. L. Ry., National Bank 

of Commerce Bldg., Norfolk, Va. 
Harlow, George Richardson. Gen. Mgr., The Havre de Grace Elec. Co., 

Havre de Grace, Md. 
Hawley, Ralph Stevenson. 2336 Ashby Ave., Berkeley, Cal. 
Horns, Henry Webster. U. S. Asst. Engr., Box 293, Portland, Me. 



I 



November, 1912.] MEMBERSHIP — CHANGES OF ADDRESS G37 

MEMBERS (Continued) 

Hodges, Gilbert. Cons. Engr., 230 South Main St., Franklin, N. H. 
HONNESS, George Gill. Dept. Engr., Reservoir Dept., Board of Water 

Supply, City of New York, Brown Station, N. Y. 
Howe, Wilson Tyler. Greenville, Tenn. 
HuGGiNS, William. Chf. Engr, and Representative, South American Ry. 

Constr. Co., Caixa 48, Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil. 
Jaques, William Henry. Counselling Engr.; Pres., Hampton Water- Works 

Co., Hotel Puritan, Commonwealth Ave., Boston, Mass. 
Kendrick, John William. Ill Broadway, New York City. 
KiERSTED, Wynkoop. Cous. Hydr. and San. Engr., Suite 640, Midland 

Bldg., Kansas City, Mo. 
KiRKPATRiCK, Walter Gill. City Engr., 1610 Beech St., Birmingham, Ala. 
Knighton, John Albert. Engr. in Chg. of Bridges, Boroughs of Brooklyn, 

Queens, and Richmond, 179 Washington St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Knowlton, Theodore Ely. Cons. Engr., 80 Maiden Lane, New York City. 
Lahmer, John Aloysius. 2165 Second St., San Diego, Cal. 
Lall, Chiranji. Asst. Prin., Govt. Eng. Coll., Rasul, Dist. Gujrat, Punjab, 

India. 
Latey, Harry Nelson. Care, Ry. Dept., Gen. Elec. Co., 30 Church St., 

New York City. 
Lavis, Fred. Chf. Engr., Argentine Ry., 281 Calle Reconquista, Buenos 

Aires, Argentine Republic. 
Leonard, James Augustus. Chf. Engr., Bangor Power Co., Veazie, Me. 
Mackenzie, Alexander. Retired Chf. of Engrs. and Maj.-Gen., U. S. A., 

The Sterling, 1915 Calvert St., Washington, D. C. 
McCoy, Laurence Francis. Div. Engr., Canadian Northern Ontario Ry., 

Care, E. T. Agate, Sudbury, Ont., Canada. 
Martin, James William. Supt. of Irrig., U. S. Indian Service, 602 Wright 

and Callender Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Melliss, David Ernest. Cons. Civ. and Min. Engr., P. 0. Box V, Mill 

Valley, Cal. 
Millard, Charles Sterling. Siipt., "Big Four" Ry., Wabash, Ind. 
Moore, Charles Gillingham. 25 Imson St., Buffalo, N. Y. 
Morton, Walter Scott. 2 Rector St., Room 405, New York City. 
Oestreich, Henry LEwas. Senior Asst. Div. Engr., Public Service Comm., 

23 Flatbush Ave. (Res., 429 Sixteenth St.), Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Parker, Charles Frederick. 385 Orange St., New Haven, Conn. 
Phillips, William Renton. 225 Pine St., Portland, Ore. 
QuiMBY, Charles Henry, Jr. Room 625, First National Bank Bldg., Oak- 
land, Cal. 
Reed, Wendell Monroe. Chf. Engr., V. S. Indian Irrig. Service, Care, "The 

Ontario," Washington, D. C. 
Rich, Isaac. 36 Walnut St., Somerville, Mass. 
Sapp, Edward Howard. Civ. Engr., New York Shipbuilding Co., Camden 

(Res., Sewell), N. J. 



638 MEMBERSHIP — CHANGES OF ADDRESS [Society Affairs. 

MEMBEKS ( Contmucd ) 

Seyfert, Edgar Ernest. Contr. Engr., Pittsburgh Steel Products Co., 1406 

Candler Bldg., Atlanta, Ga. 
Shaw, Arthur Monroe. Engr. and Res. Mgr., Phillips Land Co., 422 

Hibernia Bank Bldg., New Orleans, La. 
Shedd, Frank Edson. Vice-Pres. and Chf. Engr., Lockwood, Greene & Co., 

CO Federal St., Boston, Mass. 
Snyder, Christopher Henry. Designing and Cons. Engr., 251 Kearny St., 

San Francisco, Cal. 
Stowitts, George Putnam. Chf. Draftsman, N. Y. C. & H. R. R. R., Room 

5140, Grand Central Terminal, New York City (Res., 29 Albemarle 

Pl,^ Nepperhan Heights, Yonkers, N. Y.). 
Thayer, Russell. 1934 Market St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Thomas, Benjamin Franklin. U. S. Prin. Asst. Engr., U. S. Engr. Office, 

Frankfort, Ky. 
Thomes, Edwin Howard. Asst. Engr., Bureau of Highways, Borough of 

Queens, New York City; Res., 130 Park Ave., Jamaica, N. Y. 
Thompson, Sanford Eleazer. Cons. Engr., Odd Fellows Bldg., Newton 

Highlands, Mass. 
Value, Beverly Reid. With H. S. Kerbaugh, Inc., 6 Church St., New York 

City. 
Williams, Charles Page. Project Engr., U. S. Reclamation Service, Helena, 

Mont. 
Woermann, Frederick Christian. 5146 Gates Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 
ZooK, Morris Alexander. Cons. Engr., 325 Franklin PI., Plainfield, N. J. 

associate members 

Adams, Charles Robert. Asst. Engr., U. S. Geological Survey, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Allan, Alexander George. Cons. Engr., 1340 Garfield St., Denver, Colo. 

Amburn, William Wesley. Locating Engr., G. N. Ry., Chouteau, Mont. 

Ames, George Marshall. With Hauser-Owen-Ames Co., 441 Crescent St., 
N. E., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Archer, Augustus Rowley. Gen. Mgr., Philadelphia Steel & Wire Co., 
Camden, N. J. 

Bake, William Sibso;^. Div. Engr., P. M. R. R., Traverse City, Mich. 

Barnes, Frank William, Jr. Box 357, Shelburne Falls, Mass. 

Becker, Elvin Jay. 23 Mynduse St., Schenectady, N. Y. 

Biggs, Carroll Addison. 1103 East Genesee St., Syracuse, N. Y. 

Boardman, Howard Edward. Oficina del Subterraneo, Ferro Carril de Oeste, 
Estacion Once, Buenos Aires, Argentine Republic. 

BowEN, Edmund Ignatius. 35 Court St., Rochester, N. Y. 

Bruning, Henry Diedrich. Acting Prof., Civ. Eng., Ohio State Univ., 95 
West 1st Ave., Columbus, Ohio. 

Collins, Arthur Lee. Cons. Engr., 112 Market St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Collins, Francis Winfield. Cons. Engr., 50 Church St., New York City. 



November, 1912.] MEMBERSHIP — CHANGES OE ADDRESS G39 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS (Continued) 

Cook, Paul Darwin. 25 Gilman Terrace, Sioux City, Iowa. 

Cotton, Frank. Pres. and Treas., Terrell Land & Development Co., Rerdell 
(via Terrell), Fla. 

Davis, William Russell. Cons. Engr., 44 State St., Room 5, Albany, N. Y. 

Day, Edward Bliss. Pres., Federal Lumber Co., 922 Rogers Bldg., Van- 
couver, B. C, Canada. 

Derby, Chester Cawthorne. Structural Engr., Xorthboro, Mass. 

Dow, William Grear. 222 South Grant St., Denver, Colo. 

Duncan, Dorsey Berry. 422 South Jefferson St., Springfield, Mo. 

DuNLOP, Samuel Campbell. Poultney, Vt. 

Ebashi, Teiji. p. O. Box 12, Ambridge, Pa. 

Edmondson, Ralph Selden. Asst. Engr., Board of Water Supply, City of 
New York, 417 West TiOth St., New York City. 

Edwards, Llewellyn Nathaniel. P. 0. Box 23, Toronto, Ont., Canada. 

Ellendt, John Godfrey. 436 Monroe Ave., Rochester, N. Y. 

Ellsworth, Eber J. Plant Chf., Central Dist. & Printing Telegraph Co., 
Fairmont, W. Va. 

Farnham, Charles Henry. Supt.. Mac Arthur Bros. Co., 18 Cedar St., 
Beverly, Mass. 

Ford, Harry Clifford. 821 West ITSth St.. New York City. 

Ford, Robert Henry Persse. Engr., Track Elevation, Rock Island Lines, 
La Salle St. Station (Res., 4401 Dover St.), Chicago, 111. 

Fruit, John Clyde. Pres., The Jolict Bridge & Iron Co., Joliet, 111. 

FuciK, Edward James. Engr., Great Lakes Dredge & Dock Co., 3831 North 
Hamlin Ave., Chicago, Til. 

Gardner, Archibald. Supt. of Constr., Anibursen Hydr. Constr. Co. of 
Canada, Ltd., Donnacona, Cap Sante, Que., Canada. 

Gass, Elmer John. 719 Central Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. 

GiFFORD, Lester Robinson. 521 Frisco Bldg., St. Louis. Mo. 

Glover, Philip Holden. Orono, Me. 

Goodman, Joseph. Asst. Engr., Dept., Water Supply, Gas, and Electricity, 
Borough of Brooklyn, 562 West 148th St., New York City. 

Gravell, William Henry. Cons. Engr., 1420 Chestnut St., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

Gray, Harry Woy. La Crescenta, Cal. 

Griffin, Arthur James. Engr. of Constr., Bureau of Sewers, 40 Downing 
St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Haldeman, Walter Stanley. Chf. Engr., H. L. Stevens & Co., 501 Kemper 
Bldg., Kansas City, Mo. 

Harris, George Henry. Div. Engr., M. C. R. R., Detroit, Mich. 

Hartung, Paul August. Muscotah, Kans. 

Haynes, George Albert. Engr. and Gen. Mgr., Stone City Steel Constr. 
Co., 207 McCall St., Waukesha, Wis. 

Hoffmakk, Richard Frederick. Supt., Guthrie McDougall Co., Coahnont, 
B. C, Canada. 



640 MEMBERSHIP — CHANGES OF ADDRESS [Society Affairs. 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS (Continued) 

HoGLUND, Carl August. Brodhead, Wis. 

Holland, Howard Kingsbury. Asst. Engr. with Gardner S. Williams, Corn- 
well Blk., Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Holt, Lester Morton. Irrig. Engr., U. S. Indian Service, North Yakima, 
Wash. 

HoNEYMAN, Bruce Ritchie. 801 Dominion Trust Bldg., Vancouver, B. C, 
Canada. 

Howard, Oliver Zell. 356 West 145th St., New York City. 
■ Jenkins, James Edgar. Constr. Engr., Grant Smith & Co. & Locher, 25 
West 42d St. (Res., 571 West 139th St.), New York City. 

Jewett, Thomas Edward. Vice-Pres., Trinity Eng. & Constr. Co., 617 
Chronicle Bldg., Houston, Tex. 

Jones, Sidney Gardner. Locating Engr., M., St. P. & S. Ste. M. Ry., Soo 
Line; Care, C. N. Kalk, Chf. Engr., 317 Second Ave., South, Minne- 
apolis, Minn. 

Justin, Joel DeWitt. Board of Public Works, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Kastenhuber, Edwin Gustav, Jr. Beverly, N. J. 

Lane, Edwin Grant. "Royalton," Maryland and North Avenues, Balti- 
more, Md. 

Lineberger, Walter Franklin. Cons. Engr., 1931 Pinehurst Rd., Los An- 
geles, Cal. 

Macartney, Morton. City Engr., 2215 Maxwell Ave., Spokane, Wash. 

McDermith, Oro. Asst. Engr., U. S. Reclamation Service, Phoenix, Ariz. 

Markwart, Arthur Hermann. (Galloway & Markwart), 723 First Na- 
tional Bank Bldg., San Francisco, Cal. 

Marquand, Philip. Panama-Pacific International Exposition, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

Mawson, George Thomas. Gen. Mgr., Marsland, Price & Co., Ltd., Watson's 
Annex Chambers, Bombay, India. 

Moody, Clare Joseph. Asst. Engr., U. S. Reclamation Service, Poplar, 
Mont. 

MoRiTZ, Ernest Anthony. Engr., U. S. Reclamation Service, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

NiCHOL, Henry Schell. 802 Cook St., Victoria, B. C, Canada. 

Palm, Thomas Jefferson. Care, Lock Site No. 8, Waco, Tex. 

Peck, Charles Franklin. Structural Engr., 1116 Jefferson Ave., Kala- 
mazoo, Mich. 

Perring, Henry Garfield. Heard Bldg., Jacksonville, Fla. 

Phillips, John Carleton. U. S. Junior Engr., P. 0. Box 1809, Seattle, 
Wash. 

Phillips, Theodore Clifford. Civ. and Hydr. Engr., 6711 Stewart Ave., 
Chicago, 111. 

Price, William Edmund. Gen. Contr., 4" Fulk Bldg., Little Rock, Ark. 

Reedy, Oliver Thomas. Supt., Royal Basin Min. & Milling Co., Max- 
ville, Mont. 



November, 1912.] MEMBERSHIP — CHANGES OF ADDRESS 641 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS (Continued) 

RoBB, Louis Adams. 71 Lincoln Park, Newark, N. J. 

Bobbins, Hallet Rice. Civ. and Min. Engr., P. 0. Box 51, Seattle, Wash. 

KocKENBACH, Samuel Dickerson. Capt., 12th Cavalry, U. S. A., Dodge, Ga. 

RuscH, Henri. G038 Delmar Boulevard, St. Louis, Mo. 

Sanborn, James Forrest. Div. Engr., Board of Water Supply, Cornwall- 

on-Hudson, N. Y. 
Saucedo, Vicente. Cons. Engr., 2* Hidalgo 37, Saltillo, Coah., Mexico. 
Sawyer, Howard Lewden. Asst. Engr., The Harbor and Subway Coram, of 

Chicago, 7400 Normal Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Sawyer, Wilbur Cyrus. Draftsman, City Engr.'s Office, 626 South Hope 

St.. Los Angeles, Cal. 
Schuyler, Philip. Contr. Engr., 811 First National Bank Bldg., Oak- 
land, Cal. 
Shafer, James Charles Forsythe. 1877 East 65th St., Cleveland, Ohio. 
Shaw, William Thomas. R. F. D. No. 1, Middleboro, Mass. 
Sheffield, Edward Newton. Civ. Engr. and Surv., 415 West 2d St., Trini- 
dad, Colo. 
Shepperd, Thomas Shackelford. Cons. Engr., Littleton, Colo. 
Shoemaker, Harry' Ives. Div. Engr., Manila Ry. Co., Ltd., Care, Manila 

R. R., Manila, Philippine Islands. 
Smith, Charles Vernon. 5630 Rural St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Spitzeb, Felix Henry. Care, Wilder & Wight, First National Bank, 4th 

Floor, Kansas City, Mo. 
Stanton, Wilbor Dickens. Junior Engr., Isthmian Canal Comm., Empire, 

Canal Zone, Panama. 
Stellhorn, Adolf. Civ. Engr., War Dept., U. S. A., 704 South 4th St., 

Leavenworth, Kans. 
Stevens, Perley Egbert. Mgr., Morgan T. Jones & Co., 523 Monadnock 

Blk., Chicago, 111. 
Strong, Archibald McClure. Min. and Civ. Engr., 530 Union Oil Bldg., 

Los Angeles, Cal. 
Tallman, Paul Bertram. Engr. for Warren & Wetmore, 16 East 47th 

St., New York City. 
Thomson, Warren Brown. Room 514, Perry Payne Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio. 
Tilmont, Paul Alphonse Gaillard. Track and Ballast Engr., N. P. Ry., 

Steilacoom, Wash. 
Travell, Warren Bertram. Greeneville, Tenn. 
Truell, Karl Otto. 1352 Parkwood PI., Washington, D. C. 
Tucker, Herman Franklin. Cons. Engr., 432 Pioneer Bldg., Seattle, Wash. 
Van Vleck, James Brackett. Engr., John Nickerson, Jr., 405 Olive St., 

St. Louis, Mo. 
Vogt, John Henry Leon. Const. Engr., Julian, Cal. 
VON Siller, Alfred. 4411 Racine Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Werbin, Israel Vernon. Care, Public Service Comm., 157 East 72d St., 

New York City. 



642 MEMBERSHIP — CHANGES OF ADDRESS [Society Affairs. 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS {Continued) 

WiiiTSiT, Lyle Antrim. Care, Aluminum Co. of America, 2402 Oliver 

Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Wild, Herbert Joseph. Prof, of Eng., Pennsylvania Military Coll., Chester, 

Pa. 
Williams, Roger Butler, Jr. Care, The New York, Auburn & Lansing 

R. P., Ithaca, N. Y. 
Wills, Arthur John. 106 Kenmore Bldg., Winnipeg, Man., Canada. 

ASSOCIATES 

Douglass, Anthony Chileon. 1020 Lexington Ave., New Y^ork City. 
GiLMORE, Alvin Leroy. 512 Phelps Bank Bldg., Binghamton, N. Y. 
KoRNFELD,' Alfred Ephraim. Vice-Pres., Engineering Neics, 41 Park Row, 

New Y^ork City. 
Morris, Davis Harrington. 170.3 Oak St., Columbus, Ohio. 
TowNSEND, Frederick Eugene. 530 West 11.3th St., New Y^ork City. 

JUNIORS 

x\ppel, Harris Arkush. Care, C, M. & St. P. Ry., Tama, Iowa. 

Baldwin, Thomas Abbott. 70 Kilby St., Boston, Mass. 

Battie, Herbert Scandlin. Box 01, Roanoke, Va. 

Bergman, Harry Montifiore. Supt., Godwin Constr. Co., 251 Fourth Ave. 

(Res., G15 West 14.3d St.) New York City. 
Bigelow, William Walter. With J. R. Worcester & Co., 624 State St., 

Springfield, Mass. 
Billwiller, Ernest Oswald. 242 East Main St., Stockton, Cal. 
Bilyeu, Charles Smith. 114 West 79th St., New Y^ork City. 
Blakeslee, Harold Law. 501 George St., New Haven, Conn. 
Blight, Arthur Frederick. Care, Stone & Webster Constr. Co., Big Creek, 

Cal. 
Bringhurst, John Henry. Care. Russel \\'heel & Foundry Co., Detroit, 

Mich. 
Cater, Walter Day. 211 Thirtieth St., Newport News, Va. 
Clift, William Brooks. Concrete Insp., Northern Contr. Co., Mathis, Ga. 
Cunningham, Pinkney Edward. U. S. Junior Engr., P. 0. Box 404, Vicks- 

burg. Miss. 
Davenport, Royal WilLiam. Junior Engr., U. S. Geological Survey, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 
Day, Warren Ellis. Care, Telluride Power Co., New House Bldg., Salt 

Lake City, Utah. 
DoDDS, David Metheny. 3935 Belleview Ave., Kansas City, Mo. 
Eberly, Virgil Allen. Care, Constr. Dept., United Fruit Co., Virginia 

Farm, via Puerto Barrios, Guatemala. 
Field, Clesson Herbert. With Lackawanna Steel Co., 424 Winslow Ave., 

Buffalo, N. Y. 
Franklin, Philip Augustus. 1208 Hoge Bldg., Seattle, Wash. 



November, 1912.] MEMBERSHIP — CHANGES OF ADDRESS 643 

JUNIORS ( Con tinned ) 

FkamvLix, William Hawley. Engr., Franklin Eng. Co., 1208 Hoge Bldg., 

Seattle, Wash. 
Graham, John William. Dist. Engr., Bureau of Public Works, Manila, 

Philippine Islands. 
Jones, Charles Hyland. Res. Engr., Erie R. R., Disko, Ind. 
Jordan, Myron Kendall. 1624 South 21st St., Kansas City, Kans. 
King, Arthur Caswell. Asst. Engr., Water Dept. (Res., 34 Foster St.), 

Springfield, Mass. 
King, Tao. Asst. Engr., Nan Hsun Ry., Kiukiang, China. 
KiTTRiDGE, Frank Alvah. Cloverdale, Cal. 
LowRY, John, Jr. Builder, 235 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
Morgan, William Richard. 178 Lafayette Ave., Passaic, N. J. 
Morrison, Christopher George. Asst. Engr., Stone & Webster Constr. Co., 

Big Creek, Cal. 
NiTCHiE, Francis Raymond. Berkeley Divinity School, Middletown, Conn. 
Phalan, John Joseph Francis. 611 Church St., Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Reynolds, Leon Benedict. Chapman, Kans. 

Riblet, Harry Gaillard. 1010 Fifth St.. N. E., Calgary, Alberta, Canada. 
RoBERG, Ralph Mason. Supt. of Constr., H. L. Stevens & Co., 219 Hisjgins 

Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Segur, Asa Bertrand. Care, Civil Service Comm., 1006 City Hall, Chi- 
cago, 111. 
Shaw, Walter Farnsby. 5 Stone St., Oneida, N. Y. 
Smith, Clarence Urling. Res. Engr., C, M. & St. P. Ry., P. 0. Box 23, 

Chanhassen, Minn. 
Smith, Lewis Ruffner, Jr. 645 West 11th St., Long Beach, Cal. 
Smith, Shaler Gordon. Care, St. Clair County Gas & Elec. Co., East St. 

Louis, 111. 
Spengler, John Henry. Designer, Dept. of Bridges and Bldgs., C, M. & 

St. P. Ry., 5118 Cornell Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Stewart, Charles Sumner. Draftsman, Mineral Point Zinc Co., P. 0. 

Box 165, Depue, 111. 
Stilson, Charles Edward. 336 Brunswick Ave., Toronto, Ont., Canada. 
Sweetland, Harold Anthony. Care, The Pierson Eng. & Constr. Co., 868 

Main St., Hartford, Conn. 
Thomson, Fred Morton. Care, Supt., H. & T. C. R. R., Funis. Tex. 
Thomssen, Edgar Louis. Care, Am. Bridge Co., 1304 Union Trust Bldg., 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Veatch, Nathan Thomas, Jr. 126 North 4th St.. Keokuk, Iowa. 
Wachtel, Louis. 48 Fremont St., Gloversville, N. Y^. 

Wetherell, Dwight Nelson. With Am. Bridge Co., Box 87, Ambridge, Pa. 
Whitman, William Satterwhite. 946 South 2d St., Louisville, Ky. 
WniTTEMORE, Leslie Clifford. Res. Engr., San Dist. of Chicago, Am. Trust 

Bldg., Chicago, 111. 



644 MEMBERSHIP — RESIGNATIONS — DEATHS [Society Affairs. 

RESIGNATIONS 



JUNIORS 



Date of 
Resignation. 

Bates, Lindon, Jr Oct, 29, 1912 



DtJATMS 

BuCHHOLz, Carl Waldemar. Elected IVIember, September 1st, 1886; died 

October 20th, 1912, 
HoLMAN, Stephen. Elected Fellow, June 29th, 1872; died October 

13th, 1912. 
MoHUN, Edward. Elected Member, April 6th, 1892; died October 23d, 1912. 
White, Henry Fisher. Elected Member, January 2d, 1890; date of death 

unknown. 
Wise, James Hugh. Elected Associate Member, February 6th, 1907; died 

September 16th, 1912. 



Total Membership of the Society, November jth, 1912, 
6748 



November, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 



645 



MONTHLY LIST OF RECENT ENQINEERINQ ARTICLES OF 

INTEREST 

(October 2d to November 5th, 1912) 

Note. — This list is published for the purpose of placing before the 
members of this Society, the titles of current engineering articles, 
which can be referred to in any available engineering library, or can be 
procured by addressing the publication directly, the address and price 
being given wherever possible. 

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 

In the subjoined list of articles, references are given by the number 
prefixed to each journal in this list: 



(1) Journal. Assoc. Eng. Soc. Boston, 

MasP., 30c. 

(2) Proceedings, Engrs. Club of Pliila., 

Philadelphia. Pa. 

(3) Journal, Franklin Inst., Philadel- 

phia. Pa., 50c. 

(4) Journal, Western Soc. of Engrs., 

Chicago, III., 50c. 

(5) Transactions, Can. Soc. C. E., 

Montreal, Que., Canada. 

(6) School of Mines Quarterlu, Co- 

lumbia Univ., New York City, 
50c. 

(7) Gesundheits Ingenieur, Munehen, 

Germany. 

(8) Stevens Institute Indicator, Ho- 

boken. N. J.. 50c. 

(9) Engineering Magazine, New York 

City, 25c. 

(10) Cassier's Magazine, New York City, 

25c. 

(11) Enaineerina (London), W. H. 

Wiley, New York City, 25c. 

(12) The Engineer (London), Inter- 

national News Co., New York 
City, 35c. 

(13) Engineering News, New York City, 

iSc. 

(14) The Engineering Record, New York 

City," 10c. 

(15) Raihvav Age Gazette, New York 

City, 15c. 

(16) Engineering and Mining Journal, 

New York City, 15c. 

(17) Electric Railway Journal, New 

York City, 10c. 

(18) Railioay and Engineering Review, 

Chicago, 111., 15c. 

(19) Scientific American Supplement, 

New York City. 10c. 

(20) Iron Age, New York City, 20c. 

(21) Railway Engineer, London, Eng- 

land. Is. 2d. 

(22) Iron and Coal Trades Review, Lon- 

don. England, 6d. 

(23) Bulletin, American Iron and Steel 

Assoc, Philadelphia, Pa. 

(24) American Gas Light Journal, New 

York City, 10c. 

(25) American Engineer, New York 

City, 20c. 

(26) Electrical Review, London, Eng- 

land, 4d. 

(27) Electrical World, New York City, 

10c. 



(28) Journal, New England Water- 

Works Assoc, Boston, Mass., $1. 

(29) Journal, Royal Society of Arts, 

London, England, 6d. 

(30) Annates des Travaux Publics de 

Belgique, Brussels, Belgium, 4 fr. 

(31) Annates de I'Assoc des Ing. Sortis 

des Ecoles Speciales de Gand, 
Brussels, Belgium, 4 fr. 

(32) Memoires et Compte Rendu des 

Travaux, Soc. Ing. Civ. de 
France, Paris, France. 
{33) Le Genie Civil, Paris. France, 1 fr. 

(34) Portefetiille Economiques des Ma- 

chines, Paris, France, 

(35) Nouvelles Annates de la Construc- 

tion, Paris, France. 

(36) Cornell Civil Engineer. Ithaca, N. Y. 

(37) Revue de Mecanique, Paris, France. 

(38) Revue Generate des Chemins de 

Per et des Tramways, Paris, 
France. 

(39) Technisches Gemeindeblatt, Berlin. 

Germany, 0, 70m. 

(40) Zentralblatt der Bauverwaltung, 

Berlin, Germany, 60 pfg. 

(41) Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift, Ber- 

lin, Germany. 

(42) Proceedings. Am. Inst. Elec. Engrs., 

New York City, $1. 

(43) Annates des Ponts et Chaussees, 

Paris, France. 

(44) Journal, Military Service Institu- 

tion. Governors Island, New York 
Harbor, 50c. 

(45) Mines and Minerals, Scranton, Pa., 

25c 

(46) Scientific American, New York City, 

15c. 

(47) Mechanical Engineer, Manchester, 

England, 3d. 

(48) Zeitschrift, Verein Deutscher In- 

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(49) Zeitschrift fiir Bauwesen, Berlin, 

Germany. 

(50) Stahl und Eisen, Diisseldorf, Ger- 

many. 

(51) Deutsche Bauzeitung, Berlin, Ger- 

many. 

(52) Rioasche Industrie-Zeitung, Riga, 

Russia, 25 kop. 

(53) Zeitschrift, Oesterreichischer In- 

genieur und Architekten Verein, 
Vienna, Austria, 70h. 



646 



CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE [Society Affairs. 



(54) Transactions, Am. Soc. C. E., New 

York City, $4. 

(55) Transactions, Am. Soc. M. E., New 

York City, $10. 

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Engrs., New York City, $6. 

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land, 5d. 

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803 Fulton Bldg., Pittsburgh, 
Pa., 50c. 

(59) Proceedings, American Water- 

Works Assoc, Troy, N. Y. 

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apolis, Ind., 25c. 

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England, 6d. 

(67) Cement and Engineering News, 

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6d. 

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City, 10c. 

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Metal., London, England. 

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many. 

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(88) Bulletin of the International Ry. 

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(89) Proceedings, Am. Soc for Testing 

Materials, Philadelphia, Pa., $5. 

(90) Transactions, Inst. of Naval 

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(91) Transactions, Soc. Naval Archts. 

and Marine Engrs., New York 
City. 

(92) Bulletin, Soc. d'Encouragement 

pour rindustrie Nationale, Paris, 
France. 

(93) Revue de Metallurgie, Paris, 

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(107) Scluoeiaerische Bauzeitung, Zurich. 

Switzerland. 

(108) Southern Machiueni. Atlanta, Ga., 

10c. 



LIST OF ARTICLES 
Bridges. 

Standard Specifications for Structural Steel for Bridges.* (Am. Soc. for Testing 

Materials.) (89) Vol. 12. 
Standard Specifications for Yellow-Pine Bridge and Trestle Timbers. (Am. Soc. 

for Testing Materials.) (89) Vol. 12. 
The Little Salmon River Viaduct.* (12) Sept. 27. 
Outline History of Railway Bridge Building in the U. S.* J. G. Van Zandt. (18) 

Oct. 
Guard Rails for Bridges.* (21) Oct. 
Mohawk River Bridge, Schenectady, N. Y.* (18) Oct. 

Independence Boulevard Bridge, B. & O. C. T. R. R.* A. M. Wolf. (18) Oct. 
Seventh Street Viaduct at Des Moines, Iowa* (15) Oct. 4. 
Massena Center Suspension Bridge, a 400-Foot Span with Twisted Cable Strands 

and Saw-Tooth Anchorage Footing.* John Berg. (14) Oct. 5. 

♦Illustrated. 



November, 1912.] CUKRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 647 

Bridges— (Continued). 

Sewickley Bridge across the Ohio, a 750-Foot Cantilever Span for Highway, 

Electric Car and Pedestrian Traffic* (14) Oct. 5. 
Reconstruction of the Canadian Pacific Bridge over the St. Lawrence.* (15) 

Oct. 11. 
Yardley Bridge across the Delaware River, Series of Fourteen Concrete Arches 

with Cantilevered Pier Sections.* (14) Oct. 12. 
Complicated Railway Bridge Movement.* (14) Oct. 12. 
North Side Point Bridge, Pittsburgh.* (13) Oct. 17. 
Reinforced Concrete Arch, North Toronto.* E. A. James. (96) Oct. 17. 
Painters' Rolling Scaffold for the East River Bridges. (14) Oct. 19. 
Cylinder-Pier Bridges, C. & N. W. Ry.* W. H. Finley. (13) Oct. 24. 
Reinforced Concrete Slab Bridge.* (15) Oct. 25. 
Four-Track Columbus Avenue Viaduct, Skew Bridge with Square Spans and 

Irregular Auxiliary Column Bents.* (14) Oct. 26. 
Concrete Trestle near Copenhagen.* Francis P. Mann. (14) Oct. 26. 
The Construction of the South Main Pier of the Quebec Bridge.* H. P. Borden. 

(96) Oct. 31. 
Reconstruction of Cumberland River Bridge.* Frank R. Judd. (15) Nov. 1. 
Superstructure and Erection of the Massena Center Bridge.* (14) Nov. 2. 
Les Ponts a Transbordeur Frangais.* F. Zanen et L. Descans et J. Rimbaut. 

(30) Oct. 
Pont Route Construit sur la Save a Krainburg (Autriche).* (35) Oct. 
Le Pout en Beton de I'lle Stvanice, sur la Moldau a Prague.* Frangois Mencl. 

(33) Oct. 5. 
Die Anwendung von Differdiuger I-Walzeisen als Fiillungsglieder bei Fach- 

werkbrucken.* E. Franck. (51) Sept. 25. 
Die neuen Eisenbauwerkstatten der American Bridge Co.* (69) Oct. 
Eisenbetonbriicken im Bayerischen Wald.* C. F. Miiller. (78) Serial begin- 
ning Oct. 21. 

Electrical. 

On the Power Factor and Conductivity of Dielectrics when Tested with Alter- 
nating Electric Currents of Telephonic Frequency at Various Temperatures.* 

J. A. Fleming and G. B. Dyke. (77) Sept. 
The Behaviour of Direct-Current Watt-Hour Meters, More Especially in Rela- 
tion to Traction Loads, with Notes on Erection and Testing.* S. W. Melsom. 

(77) Sept. 
Electrical Meters on Variable Loads.* David Robertson. (77) Sept. 
Weight Efficiency of Electric Motors and of Prime Movers.* W. B. Hird. (77) 

Sept. 
Induction Motor Design. J. K. Catterson Smith. (77) Sept. 
Overhead Traveling Cranes. Joseph Horner. ( 10) Sept. 
The Operation and Testing of Polyphase Synchronous Motors.* J. W. Rogers. 

(10) Sept. 
On Certain Phenomena Accompanying the Propagation of Electric Waves Over the 

Surface of the Globe. W. H. Eccles. (Paper read before the British Assoc.) 

(73) Sept. 27. 
Small Electric Furnace with Heating Element of Ductile Tungsten or Ductile 

Molybdenum.* R. Winne and C. Dantsizen. (Abstract of paper read before 

the Am. Electrochemical Soc.) (73) Sept. 27. 
Electric Winding Plant at Kippax.* (26) Sept. 27. 
New Signal System of Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Railroad.* (17) 

Sept. 28. 
The Use of Reactance in Transformers.* W. S. Moody. (42) Oct. 
Properties of the Wehnelt Cathode Rays.* C. T. Knipp. (42) Oct. 
The Effect of Temperature Upon the Hysteresis Loss in Sheet Steel.* Malcolm 

Maclaren. (42) Oct. 
The Practical Aspects of the Propagation of High-Frequency Electric Waves Along 

Wires.* John Stone Stone. (3) Oct. 
The Design of High-Tension Electric Transmission Lines. John Greenhalgh. (9) 

Oct. 
Depreciation and Replacement of Growing Telephone Plants. Burke Smith. (4) 

Oct. 
The Electrical Measurement of Wind Velocity.* J. T. Morris. (Paper read before 

the British Assoc.) (73) Oct. 4. 
The Siemens-Schuckert Three-Phase Commutator Motors.* M. Schenkel. (Paper 

read before the Elektrotechnischer Verein.) (73) Serial beginning Oct. 4. 
Report of the British Association Committee on Experiments for Improving the 

Construction of Practical Standards for Electrical Measurements. (73) Oct. 4. 
A New Machine for Alternating Load Tests.* B. P. Haigh. (Abstract of paper 

read before the British Assoc.) (73) Oct. 4. 
Three Wire Direct Current Generators. A. M. Bennett. (64) Oct. 8. 

*Illustrate(l. 



November, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 649 

Electrical—l Continued) . 

Report of Committee on Power Generation. (Abstract of paper read before Am. 

Elee. Ry. Eng. Assoc.) (17) Oct. 10. 
A New System of Illumination to Avoid Glare by Diffusion.* Hans K. Ritter, Assoc. 
M. Am. Inst. Blec. Engrs. (Paper read before the Illuminating Eng. Soc.) 
(96) Oct. 10. 
Electricity Supply at Bradford.* (73) Oct. 11 ; (26) Oct. 18. 
Utilization of Both Waves Emitted from Closely Coupled Transmitters in Radio- 
telegraphy.* W. Torikata and E. Tokoyama. (73) Oct. 11. 
A Model Fire-Alarm Station.* (26) Oct. 11. • 

Street Lighting Rates. J. R. Cravath. (27) Oct. 12. 
New Street Lighting in Chicago.* (27) Serial beginning Oct. 12. 
Cost of Pole-Line Construction. S. B. Hood. (Paper read before the Canadian 

Elec. Assoc.) (27) Oct. 12. 
Conduit Versus Openwork in Places Subject to Moisture, Corrosive Fumes, Steam, 
etc.* (Methods of Wiring.) F. G. Waldenfels. (27) Serial beginning Oct. 12. 
Cost and Efficiency of Alternating Versus Direct Current Motors for Steel Mill 
Auxiliaries. B. R. Shover and E. J. Cheney. (Abstract from General Electric 
Review.) (73) Oct. 18. 
Recent Developments in Wireless Telegraphy ; with Special Reference to Ship Instal- 
lation. H. Bredow. (Abstract from Jalirtucli der Schiffbautechniker Gesell- 
schaft.) (26) Serial beginning Oct. 18. 
Design of a Radio-Telegraph Station. Shunkichi Kimura. (73) Serial beginning 

Oct. 18. 
Foucault and Eddy Currents Put to Service.* (12) Oct. 18. 

Economics of Power Transmission Lines. Alfred Still. (From Western Engineer- 
ing.) (96) Oct. 24. 
Electric Lighting and the Conversion of Three-Phase Into Single-Phase Currents 
of Triple Frequency.* F. Spinelli. (Translation from L'Elettricista.) (73) 
Oct. 25. 
Starting Devices for Alternating-Current Motors.* William E. Kampf (27) 

Oct. 26. 
The LTse of Electric Power in Steel Mills. Stewart C. Coey. (Paper read before 

the Am. Iron and Steel Inst.) (20) Oct. 31. 
Some Features of the Outdoor Electrical Installation.* F. C. Green. (42) Nov. 
Practical Installation of Relays on Alternating-Current Circuits.* C. E. Freeman. 

(27) Nov. 2. 
Electric Service in Coal Regions.* (27) Nov. 2. 
Street Lighting in Alameda, Cal.* (27) Nov. 2. 

I;es Travaux d'Assainissement de Wenduyne.* J. Soete. (30) Oct. 
La Telegraphie sans Fils sans Etincelles.* G. Duparc. (33) Oct. 12. 
Die Ursache der zusatzlichen Eisenverluste in umlaufenden glatten Ringankern, 

Beitrag zur Frage der drehenden Hysterese.* J. Wild. (48) Sept. 7. 
Einschaltstrome von Transformatoren, besonders von solchen mit legierten Blechen.* 

T. D. Yensen. (41) Sept. 26. 
Schaltapparate mit konstanter hoher Isolation fiir Schwachstromanlagen.* A. Ebeling 

und R. Deibel. (41) Sept. 26. 
Bisenbeton-Beleuchtungsmaste. Rimler u. Trocynski. (78) Oct. 2. 
Die Funkentelegraphie an Bord von Handelsschiffen.* H. Thurn. (41) Serial 

beginning Oct. 3. 
Das Elektrizitatswerk Arniberg bel Amsteg.* (107) Serial beginning Oct. 5. 
Zellenschalter mit Hilfszellen.* C. Kjar. (41) Oct. 10. 
Eine neue Maschine zur Kompensation der Phasenverschiebung von Ein- oder Mehr- 

phasen-Induktionsmotoren.* Arthur Scherbius. (41) Oct. 17. 
Drehstromkabel fiir 30 000 Volt.* W. Pfannkuch. (41) Serial beginning Oct. 24. 
Zur Theorie der Stromwendung. Karl Pichelmayer. (41) Serial beginning Oct. 24. 

Marine. 

Standard Specifications for Structural Steel for Ships.* (Am. Soc. for Testing 

Materials.) (89) Vol. 12. 
The New HamlDurg-American Oil Engine Ship Christian X. (13) Oct. 3. 
The Largest Side-Wheel Passenger Steamers on the Great Lakes.* (13) Oct. 17. 
Shallow Draft, Tunnel Stern Steamer Thousand Islander.* (95) Nov. 
Radeaux en Ciment Arme.* (84) Sept. 
Les Dreadnoughts de la Marine Frangaise, le Cuirasse Paris.* M. Honore. (33) 

Oct. 5. 
Der Doppelschraubendampfer Cap Finisterre der Hamburg-Siidamerikanlschen 

Dampfschiffahrts-Gesellschaft, erbaut von Blohm & Voss in Hamburg.* E. 

Foerster. (48) Serial beginning Aug. 24. 
Umsteuerschrauben fiir grosse Leistungen.* W. Helling. (48) Sept. 14. 
Die Maschinen des Diesel-Schiffes Monte Penedo.* (48) Sept. 21 ; (53) Oct. 4. 
Unsere Schlachtschiff-Neubauten und einige Zukunfts-Ueberschlaehtschiffe.* Viktor 

Lazarus. (53) Oct. 11. 



♦Illustrated. 



November, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 651 

Mechanical. 

Manufacturers' Standard Specifications for Boiler Steel.* (Assoc, of Am. Steel 

Manufacturers.) (89) Vol. 12. 
Standard Specifications for Gray-Iron Castings.* (Am. Soc. for Testing Materials.) 

(89) Vol. 12. 
Standard Specifications for Malleable Castings. (Am. Soc. for Testing Materials.) 

(89) Vol. 12. 
Standard Specifications for Heat-Treated Carbon-Steel Axles, Shafts,' and Similar 

Objects.* (Am. Soc. for Testing Materials.) (89) Vol. 12. 
Practice Recommended for Annealing Miscellaneous Rolled and Forged Carbon-Steel 

Objects. (Am. Soc. for Testing Materials.) (89) Vol. 12. 
Standard Specifications for Engine-Bolt Iron. (Am. Soc. for Testing Materials.) 

(89) Vol. 12. 
Standard Specifications for Automobile Carbon and Alloy Steels.* (Am. Soc. 

for Testing Materials.) (89) Vol. 12. 
Standard Specifications for Foundry Pig Iron. (Am. Soc. for Testing Materials.) 

(89) Vol. 12. 
Standard Specifications for Boiler and Firebox Steel.* (Am. Soc. for Testing 

Materials.) (89) Vol. 12. 
Standard Specifications for Boiler Rivet Steel.* (Am. Soc. for Testing Materials.) 

(89) Vol. 12. 
Proposed Standard Specifications for Cold-Rolled Steel Axles.* (Am. Soc. for 

Testing Materials.) (89) Vol. 12. 
The Diesel Oil-Engine and its Industrial Importance, Particularly for Great Britain.* 

Rudolph Diesel. (75) Jan. 
The Diesel Oil-Engine.* Herbert S. Pursey. (75) Jan. 
The Transmission of Heat Into Steam Boilers. Henry Kreisinger and Walter T. 

Ray. (From Bulletin, U. S. Bureau of Mines.) (10) Sept. 
The Diesel Engine from the User's Standpoint. Wm. J. U. Sowter. (77) Sept. 
Zuider Gas-Works.* (66) Sept. 24. 
A New Strache Gas Calorimeter.* Albert Breisig. (From Journal fiir Gas- 

beleuchtung.) (66) Sept. 24. 
Coal-Handling Plant at the Wigan Electricity Works.* (26) Sept. 27. 
Notes on the Necessity of Measuring Gas in Connection with By-Product Recovery 

Ovens. K. Huessener. (22) Sept. 27. 
The Acceleration of a Motor Car.* H. E. Wimperis. (12) Sept. 27. 
Oxy- Acetylene Welding for Ordinary Operation.* James Steelman. (10) Oct. 
Waste Heat Coke Ovens.* Sim Reynolds. (45) Oct. 
A Large Gravel Washing Plant.* (67) Oct. 

An Outline of the Theory of Ballooning.* Samuel Reber. (3) Oct. 
The Power Required for Refrigeration. John J. Smith. (105) Oct. 
Alumina, Hydrochloric Acid, Caustic Alkalis and a White Hydraulic Cement by a 

New Process from Salt, Clay and Lime.* Alfred H. Cowles. (Abstract of 

paper read before the Inter. Congress on Applied Chemistry.) (105) Oct. 
The Electric Steel Furnace in Foundry Practice.* Paul Girod. (1()5) Oct. 
American Steel Manufacturers' Revised Boiler Steel Specifications. (94) Oct. 
Coarse Crystallization Produced by Annealing Low-Carbon Steel. R. H. Sherry. 

(105) Oct. 
Recovery of Cyanogen.* (From Coal Gas.) A. E. Broadberry. (Paper read before 

the Eastern Counties Gas Managers' Assoc.) (66) Oct. 1. 
Repairs to a Leaky Gasholder Tank.* Octavius Thomas. (Paper read before the 

Wales and Monmouthshire Institution of Gas Engrs. and Managers.) (66) 

Oct. 1. 
Sixty Million Paving Block a Year, Making of Vitrified Block Compared to Bread 

Making.* (76) Oct. 1. 
Bolt and Nut Making at Gary, Indiana.* (20) Oct. 3. 
Heat Flow in Gas Engine Cylinders. (13) Oct. 3. 

The Manufacture of Tool Steel.* Edward K. Hammond. (20) Oct. 3. 
Moulding a Water-Jacketed Cylinder for a Vertical Gas Engine.* J. G. Robinson. 

(Paper read before the British Foundrymen's Assoc.) (47) Oct. 4. 
Heavy Oil Engines.* H. Riall Sankey, M. Inst. C. E. (29) Serial beginning 

Oct. 4. 
Interesting Boiler-House Installation at a French Colliery.* (57) Oct. 4. 
A Chapter in Industrial Sanitation. Vacuum Cleaning Applied to Machinery in 

Textile Mills.* J. B. C. Kershaw. (19) Oct. 5. 
About Sherardizing. Thomas Liggett. (Abstract of paper read before the Am. 

Foundrymen's Assoc.) (62) Oct. 7. 
Modern Gas Engines from an Economic Standpoint.* (621 Oct. 7. 
Deterioration of Gas Lighting Units in Service.* R. F. Pierce. (Paper read be- 
fore the Illuminating Eng. Soc.) (24) Oct. 7. 
Retorts, Which is the Better Type?* A. J. Robus. (24) Oct. 7. 
Variation in Heat Units in Condensing and Scrubbing Coal Gas.* A. I. Snyder. 

(Paper read before the Michigan Gas Assoc.) (24) Oct. 7; (83) Oct. 15. 
Cost of Making Ice in Small Plants. (64) Oct. 8. 
Altitude and Power Plant Economy.* A. G. Christie. (64) Oct. 8. 

•Illustrated. 



November, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 653 

Mechanical— (Continued) . 

Method of Handling Cement Shipped in Bulk on a Concrete Wall and Bin Con- 
struction Job.* Gordon Wilson. (86) Oct. 9; (62) Nov. 4. 

Machining a Segmental Flywheel.* John Fredette. (72) Oct. 10. 

Some Examples of Vertical Milling.* A. J. Baker. (72) Oct. 10. 

Tensile Tests of Belts and Splices.* A. H. Miller. (72) Oct. 10. 

Oxyacetylene Welding and Cutting. M. S. Plumley. (Abstract of paper read be- 
fore the Am. Soc. of Steel and Iron Elec. Engrs.) (72) Oct. 10; (13) 
Oct. 24. 

Mistakes in Testing Steam Boilers. Albert A. Gary. (20) Serial beginning 
Oct. 10. 

Boiler Settings. L. P. Crecelius. (Paper read before the Am. Elec. Ry. Eng. 
Assoc.) (17) Oct. 10. 

A New Machine for Alternating Load Tests. B. P. Haigh. (Abstract of paper 
read before the British Assoc.) (47) Oct. 11. 

Effects of Superheated Steam on Cast-Iron Pipe. W. Campbell and J. Glassford. 
(Paper read before the Inter. Congress for Testing Materials.) (47) Oct. 11. 

Sun-Power Pumping Installation in Egypt.* (12) Oct. 11. 

Dust Preventive Measures for Mechanical Drills.* (22) Oct. 11. 

Gravel Washing and Crushing Plant.* (14) Oct. 12. 

The Motor Truck in Manufacturing.* Harold Whiting Slauson. (19) Oct. 12. 

Harvesting Ice by Electric Power.* Putnam A. Bates. (46) Oct. 12. 

Labor-saving Devices that Produce Automobiles.* Theodore M. R. von Keler. 
(46) Oct. 12. 

Domestic Fuels and Smoke Problem. Warren S. Blauvelt. (Paper read before 
the Inter. Assoc, for the Prevention of Smoke.) (62) Oct. 14. 

Squaring and Otherwise Deforming the Circle (a Cross-Section of a Cast-Iron Gas 
Pipe) in New York City.* C. C. Simpson, Jr. (24) Oct. 14. 

Air Compressor Efficiencies.* E. M. Ivens. (64) Oct. 15. 

Some Details of the Cooper Gas Engine.* (64) Oct. 15. 

The Continuous Purification of Coal Gas with Weak Ammonia Liquor.* J. G. 
O'Neill. (83) Oct. 15. 

Depreciation in Gas Works. Fleck. (From Journal fiir Gasbeleuchtung.) (83) 
Oct. 15. 

The Baird Machine Company's New Shops.* (20) Oct. 17. 

Time to Heat Up Carburizing Materials.* J. H. Nead and J. N. Bourg. (20) 
Oct. 17. 

Gas Friction and a New Principle for Air Pumps, the Molecular Pump.* W. 
Gaede. (Abstract of translation from Verliandlungen of German Physical So- 
ciety.) (73) Oct. 18. 

The Smoke Investigation of the Industrial Research Department of the University 
of Pittsburgh. Raymond C. Benuer. (62) Oct. 21. 

All-Geared Speed and Feed Radial Drilling Machines.* (62) Oct. 21. 

Chamber Carbonization for Gas Production.* G. Stanley Cooper. (66) Oct. 22. 

The Bunsen Burner. Henry O'Connor, Assoc. M. Inst. C. E. (Paper read before 
the Scottish Junior Gas Assoc.) (66) Oct. 22. 

Determination of Nitrogen in Ferrocyanides and Sulphocyanides in Purifying Mate- 
rial.* Oscar Knublauch. (Abstract translation from Journal fiir Gasbeleuch- 
tung.) (66) Oct. 22. 

Operation of Wisconsin's Capitol Plant.* (64) Oct. 22. 

Burning Natural Gas Under Boilers. Leon B. Lent. (64) Oct. 22. 

Mixed Pressure Turbine Installations. John S. Leese. (64) Oct. 22. 

Making a Concrete Engine Foundation.* H. S. Strong. (64) Oct. 22. 

A Theory for Air Resistance of Flat Planes.* E. F. Verplanck. (13) Oct. 24. 

Sources of Energy Available for Power. H. S. Hele-Shaw. (Paper read before 
the Assoc, of Engrs. -in-Charge.) (73) Oct. 25. 

Manufacturing Copper-Clad Steel Products.* (Duplex Metal Co.) (101) Oct. 25. 

Engineering Features of a Large Southern Lumbering Development, Including a 
Logging Railroad Through a Dense Swamp, Heavy Skidding Cableways, and 
an Industrial Town Improved with Sanitary Works.* (14) Oct. 26. 

Calorimetry (and gas testing). Walter H. Hinman. (Paper read before the Gas 
Meeters.) (24) Oct. 28. 

A New Variable Speed Hydraulic Power Transmission Device Applied to a Motor 
Truck.* (13) Oct. 31. 

Making Automatic Drill Chucks.* Ethan Viall. (72) Oct. 31. 

Power Requirements of Rolling Mills.* Wilfred Sykes. (42) Nov. 

How and Why Smoke Is Injurious.* Raymond C. Benner. (105) Nov. 

Commercial Sampling of Coal. C. E. Scott. (45) Nov. 

Coal Washing and Briquetting, the Plant of the Alstaden Colliery Co., Ltd., at No. 
2 Hibernia Mine, Germany.* (45) Nov. 

Modern Methods in Manufacturing Stoves.* (101) Nov. 1. 

Welding of High Pressure Pipe Lines.* Leon B. Jones. (Paper read before the 

Pacific Coast Gas Assoc.) (83) Nov. 1: (24) Oct. 14. 
Calorific Value of Oil Gas. F. S. Wade. (Paper read before the Pacific Coast 
Gas Assoc.) (83) Nov. 1; (24) Oct. 28. 

•Illustrated. 



November, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 655 

Mechanical— (Continued;. 

Fire Brick for Use in Oil Gas Generators.* D. J. Young. (Paper read before 

the Pacific Coast Gas Assoc.) (83) Nov. 1. 
Installation of Coal Gas Benches at Detroit, Mich.* (83) Nov. 1. 
Furnace Arrangement for Burning Oil.* (27) Nov. 2. 
The Corliss Engine.* F. R. Low. (19) Nov. 2. 

The Dounet-Leveque Hydro-Aeroplane.* John Jay Ide. (19) Nov. 2. 
Scope and Usefulness of the Storage Battery Truck.* (62) Nov. 4. , . , 
Reasonable Gas Rates and Their Determination. C. L. Cory. (Paper read before 

the Pacific Coast Gas Assoc.) (24) Serial beginning Nov. 4. 
Losses in the Steam Cylinder.* R. C. H. Heck. (64) Nov. 5. 
Producing Gasoline from Natural Gas. Frank P. Peterson. (64) Nov. 5. 
Raw Water Can Ice Making Systems. Samuel Sydney. (64) Nov. 5. 
Les Nouveaux Appontements de Saint-Louis du Senegal.* Alfred Jacobson. {33) 

Sept. 28. 
Grues Titan de 200 et 250 Tonnes, Construites par la Deutsche Maschinenfabrik.* 

(33) Sept. 28. 
Le Moteur a Combustion Interne, SystSme Diesel.* Norbert Lallie. (34) Serial 

beginning Oct. 
Eiserne Kohlenbunker.* Richard Blumenfeld. (48) Sept. 7. 
Untersuchungen an elektrisch und mlt Dampf betriebenen Fordermaschinen.* Bob- 

bert. (48) Sept. 7. 
Anwendung der Kinematographie zur Ermittlung der Stosskraft bei Schlagver- 

suchen.* Walter Honiger. (48) Sept. 14. 
Zur Berechnung der Ladepumpen der Korting Zweltaktgasmaschine.* W. Borth. 

(48) Sept. 14. 
Entwicklung, Aufgaben and Portschritte des praktischen Messens der hohl- und 

vollzylindrischen Maschinenteile.* Friedrich Ruppert. (48) Sept. 14. 
Motorlastwagen im Dienst der Industrie. The. Wolff-Friedenau. (52) Serial be- 
ginning Sept. 15. 
Transportmittel im Giessereibetrieb.* Martin Pape. (SO) Sept. 26. 
Kontinuierliche Stabstrasse bei Jones and Laughlin, Pittsburgh, Pa.* Fr. Trappiel. 

(50) Oct. 10. 
Neuere Giesswagen.* (50) Oct. 17. 

Metallurgical. 

Standard Specifications for Spelter. (Am. See. for Testing Materials.) (89) Vol. 12. 
Standard Specifications for Manganese Bronze Ingots.* (Am. Soc. for Testing 

Materials.) (89) Vol. 12. 
Standard Specifications for Steel Forgings.* (Am. Soc. for Testing Materials.) 

(89) Vol. 12. 
Standard Specifications for Steel Castings.* (Am. Soc. for Testing Materials.) 

(89) Vol. 12. 
The Development of the American Steel Industry.* W. A. Day. (10) Sept. 
Electric Induction-Furnace for Cast Steel. C. H. Vom Baur. (Abstract of paper 

read before the Am. Foundrymen's Assoc.) (47) Sept. 27. 
The Solidification of Metals from the Liquid State.* G. T. Beilby. (Paper read 

before the Inst, of Metals.) (11) Sept. 27. 
The Joining of Metals. Alex. E. Tucker. (Abstract of paper read before the Inst. 

of Metals.) (22) Sept. 27; (47) Oct. 4; (101) Oct. 18. 
Sampling and Assaying of Silver Ores Containing Cobalt, Nickel and Arsenic. 

James Otis Handy. (Paper read before the Inter. Congress of Applied Chem- 
istry.) (105) Oct. 
The Influence of Pouring Temperature on Manganese Bronze. H. W. Gillett. 

(Paper read before the Am. Inst, of Metals.) (108) Oct. 
The Methods of the United States Steel Corporation for the Commercial Sampling 

and Analysis of Pig Iron.* J. M. Camp. (Paper read before the Inter. 

Congress of Applied Chemistry.) (105) Oct. 
The Making of Wootz or Indian Steel.* A. R. Roy. (20) Oct. 3. 
Slag Inclosures in Steel Ingots.* Walter Rosenhain. (Paper read before the 

Inter. Congress for Testing Materials.) (20) Oct. 3. 
The Hardinge Conical Mill for Fine Grinding.* H. W. Hardinge. (Abstract of 

paper read before the Canadian Min. Inst.) (96) Oct. 3. 
Modern Developments in the Electro-Deposition of Metals and Alloys.* Geo. P. 

Lee. (Abstract of paper from Trans., Inst, of Marine Engrs.) (47) Oct. 4. 
Cyanidation of Concentrate. Robert Linton. (From Journal, Chem. Met. & Min. 

Soc. of S. A.) (103) Oct. 5. 
Settling Slimes at the Tigre Mill.* R. T. Mishler. (16) Oct. 5. 
Notes on Bag Filtration Plants. Anton Filers. (Paper read before the Inter. 

Congress of Applied Chemistry.) (16) Oct. 5; (103) Oct. 5. 
Utilization of Blast Furnace Gas. Everard Brown. (64) Oct. 8. 
The Principles of Blende Roasting. O. H. Hahn. (Translation from article in 

MetQllurgie by W. Hommel.) (16) Serial beginning Oct. 12. 

Mexican Mill, Virginia City, Nev.* Whitman Symmes. (16) Oct. 12. 



The 



♦Illustrated. 



November, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 657 

JMetallurgical— (Continued) . 

Iron in Mill Pulp. A. McA. Johnston. (Abstract from paper read before the Chem. 

Met. & Min. Soc. of S. A.) (103) Oct. 12. 
Fire Assay Charges. D. C. Livingston. (103) Oct. 12. 

A Four-Pass Central Combustion Stove.* (For Blast Furnace.) (20) Oct. 17. 
Air-Granulation of Molten Slag.* (22) Oct. 18. 
The Influence of Impurities in Tough-Pitch Copper.* Frederick Johnson. (Paper 

read before the Inst, of Metals.) (47) Oct. 18. 
Ahmeek Mill, Hubbell, Mich.* Walter R. Hodge. (16) Oct. 19. 
The West Process for Sintering Flue Dust.* James G. West. (20) Oct. 24. 
Autogenous Welding of Aluminum-Copper and its Alloys.* F. Carnevali. (Paper 

read before the Inst, of Metals.) (47) Serial beginning Oct. 25. 
Open-Hearth Furnace Design and Manipulation.* John Plcehn. (Paper read before 

the Am. Foundrymen's Assoc.) (22) Oct. 25. 
A Sixty Thousand Horse-Power Blast Furnace Gas Engine Plant.* C. A. Tupper. 

(19) Oct. 26. 
Heat-Treating Furnaces. Metallurgical Laboratory of Carnegie Institute of Tech- 
nology, Pittsburgh.* James A. K. Knapp. (62) Oct. 28; (20) Oct. 17. 
Use of Mayari Iron in Foundry Mixtures.* Quincy Bent. (Paper read before the 

Am. Iron and Steel Inst.) (20) Oct. 31. 
Progress in the Preparation of Iron Ores. J. W. H. Hamilton. (Paper read before 

the Am. Iron and Steel Inst.) (20) Oct. 31. 
The Thermal Conductivity of Carburizing Materials. J. H. Nead and J. N. Bourg. 

(13) Oct. 31. 

Economic Efficiency in Lead Concentration.* R. S. Handy. (45) Nov. 

Causes of the Practical Non-Success of Electric Furnaces in Treating Zinc Ores. 

Francis Louvrier. (105) Nov. 
Jigging Unsized Ores.* Edward T. Wright. (105) Nov. 
Iron Ore Concentration in Minnesota.* (105) Nov. 

Cyanidation in the Cobalt District.* Herbert A. Megraw. (16) Nov. 2. 
Epuration, des Gaz de Hauts-Fourneaux.* A. Gouvy. (93) Oct. 
Dosage d'u Carbone Total des Aciers et des Ferroalliages par Combustion sous 

Pression d'Oxygene.* P. Mahler et E. Goutal. (93) Oct. 
Quelques Mots sur I'Analyse du Mineral de Platine. E. V. Koukline. (93) Oct. 
Ueber verschiedene Arten von Schlackeneinschliissen im Stahl, ihre mutmassliche 

Herkunft uud ihre Verminderung.* Fr. Pacher. (50) Oct. 3. 
Ueber die Verwendung von Kohlenstoffsteinen im Hochofenbetrieb.* C. Geiger. 

(50) Oct. 10. 
Ueber Silikasteine fiir Martinofen.* Otto Lange. (50) Oct. 17. 

Military. 

Smokeless Powders and Explosives for Military Use. Odus C. Horney. (2) Oct. 
A Triple Mirror for Secret Signaling.* C. H. Claudy. (46) Oct. 26. 
Ordnance Manufacture at South Bethlehem. E. G. Grace. (Paper read before 

the Am. Iron and Steel Inst.) (20) Oct. 31. 
Mortar Fire, A System for Attacking the Decks of Battleships.* Charles A. 

Junken. (46) Nov. 2. 

Mining. 

The New Haldane Portable Apparatus for Firedamp Estimations.* (57) 

Sept. 27. 
Ferro-Concrete Lining to Mine Shafts. (29) Sept. 27. 

Gold Dredging on the Seward Peninsula.* Charles Janin. (103) Sept. 28. 
Asbestos.* J. F. Springer. (10) Oct. 
The Control of Fire in Mines. George S. Rice. (From Report, U. S. Bureau of 

Mines.) (10) Serial beginning Oct. 
Moistening Mine Ventilating Currents. A. A. Steel. (45) Oct. 
Revival of Mining at Red Cliff.* A. J. Hoskin. (45) Oct. 
Buckner No. 2 Mine.* Warren Roberts and Oscar Cartlidge. (45) Oct. 
Fireproof Shaft, Vermillion Mine.* A. F. Allard. (45) Oct. 
Recent Rotk-House Practice in the Copper Country.* Tenney C. De Seller. 

(Paper read before the Lake Superior Mln. Inst.) (105) Oct. 
Rock-House Practice at Copper Range Properties.* H. T. Mercer. (Paper read 

before the Lake Superior Min. Inst.) (105) Oct. 
Geology, Mining and Preparation of Anthracite.* H. H. Stock. (4) Oct. 
Tennessee Phosphate Practice. James Allen Barr. (45) Oct. 
Brakpan Mines, Limited. H. S. Gilser. (45) Oct. 

Some Costs of Operating an Electric Hoist for a Mine Shaft.* (86) Oct. 2. 
Method of Raising a Shaft 621 Feet Through Rock.* Edward N. Cory. (Paper 

read before the Lake Superior Min. Inst.) (86) Oct. 2. 
The Relative Inflammability of Coal Dusts.* (Report of Explosions in Mines 

Committee of Great Britain.) (57) Serial beginning Oct. 11. 
Using Channelers for Cutting Condenser Well Trenches.* (From Mine and Quarry.) 

(14) Oct. 12. 

♦Illustrated. 



November, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 659 

Mining— (Continued). 

Rock-Crushers at Kalgoorlie.* M. W. von Bernewitz. (103) Oct. 12. 

Iron Mining on the Mesabi Range.* A. L. Gerry. (16) Oct. 12. 

Method of Loading Explosives for a Big Blast.* (15) Oct. 18. 

An Electric Hoist with Automatic Control.* Frank C. Perkins. (103) Oct. 19. 

Washing, Coking and By-Product Recovery Plant at the Old Silkstone Collieries.* 

(22) Oct. 25. 
Concrete and Steel Coal Washery.* (14) Oct. 26. 

Operating Costs of California Mines.* Charles Janin. (103) Oct. 26. 
Development Methods at Mineville.* Guy C. Stolz. (16) Oct. 26. 
The Ore Deposits of Goldfield. Augustus Locke. (16) Serial beginning Oct. 26. 
South African Shaft Sinking Practice. (45) Nov. 
Air-Balanced Hoisting Engine.* R. H. Corbett. (45) Nov. 
The Lathrop Coal Co., a Description of the New Plant at Panther, W. Va., and the 

Method Employed in Mining.* J. Harvey Williams. (45) Nov. 
Determining Coal Values. E. G. Bailey. (45) Nov. 
Results of Deep Mining in California.* Al. H. Martin. (45) Nov. 

Miscellaneous. 

Methods of Procedure Under the Wisconsin Utility Law, Benefits and Restrictions of 

the Law. C. B. Salmon. (Paper read before the Central States Water-Works 

Assoc.) (86) Oct. 16; (14) Oct. 26. 
Methods of Determining Life of Public Utilities. Halford Erickson. (Abstract of 

paper read before the Central States Water-Works Assoc.) (86) Serial 

beginning Oct. 23. 
The Use of Depreciation Data in Rate Making and Appraisal Problems. Halbert 

P. Gillette. (86) Oct. 30 ; (27) Nov. 2. 
Practical Determination of the Magnifying Power of Telescopes.* William F. 

Endress. (10) Nov. 
Ueber tiefe Temperaturen und ihre industrielle Verwertung, Wasserstoffverfahren 

Linde-Frank-Carc* F. PoUitzer. (48) Sept. 21. 

Municipal. 

Standard Abrasion Test for Road Material. (Am. Soc. for Testing Materials.) (89) 
Vol. 12. .,,.-, ^ 

Standard Toughness Test for Macadam Rock. (Am. Soc. for Testing Materials.) 
(89) Vol. 12. 

Provisional Method for the Determination of Soluble Bitumen. (Am. Soc. for 
Testing Materials.) (89) Vol.12. 

Provisional Method for the Determination of the Penetration of Bitumen. (Am. 
Soc. for Testing Materials.) (89) Vol. 12. 

Provisional Method for the Determination of the Loss on Heating of Oil and 
Asphaltic Compounds. (Am. Soc. for Testing Materials.) (89) Vol. 12. 

The Construction of Concrete Pavements. A. M. Compton. (67) Oct. 

English Suggestions for Standard Specifications for Bituminous Bound Road Sur- 
facing. John S. Brodie, M. Inst. C. E. (Paper read before the British 
Institution of Mun. and County Engrs.) (86) Oct. 2. 

Effect of Diameter of Bitumen Holder on the Penetration Tests. (86) Oct. 2. 

Methods of Constructing Concrete Alley Pavement at Billings, Mont.* John N. 
Edy. (86) Oct. 9. 

Making a Highway in Two Days.* Samuel H. Lea. (13) Oct. 10. 

Town Planning from an Engineering Aspect.* Ernest R. Matthews, Assoc. M. 
Inst. C. E. (Paper read before the Soc. of Engrs.) (104) Oct. 11. 

Methods of Surface Oiling and Constructing Oil Macadam at Oakland, Cal. Wm. 
J. Baccus. (Paper read before the League of California Municipalities.) 
(86) Oct. 16; (96) Oct. 31. 

Field Surveys for Road Construction. E. L. Griggs. (Paper read before the 
American Road Congress.) (86) Oct. 16; (96) Oct. 31. 

Surface Treatment for Highways Under Special Conditions. Wm. H. Connell. 
(Paper read before the Am. Road Congress ) (86) Oct. 16. 

Methods of Sand-Clay Road Construction in the South. W. S. Keller. (Paper 
read before the Am. Road Congress.) (86) Oct. 16. 

Cost of Leveling Ground with an Electric Drag Scraper (Street Leveling).* 
James C. Bennett. (13) Oct. 17. 

Comparative Costs of Various Methods of Paying for Repairing in New York 
City. Nelson P. Lewis. (Report to the Board of Estimate and Appor- 
tionment.) (86) Oct. 23. 

Specifications for Asphaltic Concrete and for Sheet Asphalt Pavements, Van- 
couver, B. C. (13) Oct. 24, 

Construction of Surfaces with Bituminous Materials. Arthur H. Blanchard, M. 
Am. Soc. C. E. (Paper read before the Am. Road Congress.) (96) Oct. 24; 
(14) Nov. 2. 

♦Illustrated. 



November, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 661 

Municipal— (Continued). 

Brick Roads. Material, Construction and Maintenance.* Theodore A. Randall. 

(Abstract of paper read before the Am. Road Congress.) (96) Oct. 24. 
Concrete Guard Rail for Highways.* (14) Oct. 26; (13) Oct. 17. 
The Paris Fire Department; Its Latest Equipment.* (19) Oct. 26. 

Railroads. 

Manufacturers' Standard Specifications for Bessemer Steel Rails. (Assoc, of Am. 
Steel Manufacturers.) (89) Vol. 12. 

Standard Specifications for Bessemer and Open-Hearth Steel Rails. (United States 
Steel Products Company.) (89) Vol. 12. 

Standard Specifications for Locomotive Cylinders. (Am. Soc. for Testing Mate- 
rials.) (89) Vol. 12. 

Standard Specifications for Cast-Iron Car Wheels. (Am. Soc. for Testing Ma- 
terials.) (89) Vol. 12. 

Standard Specifications for Bessemer Steel Rails. (Am. Soc. for Testing Ma- 
terials.) (89) Vol. 12. 

Standard Specifications for Open-Hearth Steel Rails. (Am. Soc. for Testing 
Materials.) (89) Vol. 12. 

Standard Specifications for Open-Hearth Steel Girder and High Tee Rails. (Am. 
Soc. for Testing Materials.) (89) Vol. 12. 

Standard Specifications for Steel Axles.* (Car and Engine.) (Am. Soc. for 
Testing Materials.) (89) Vol. 12. 

Standard Specifications for Forged and Rolled, Forged, or Rolled Solid Carbon- 
Steel Wheels for Engine-Truck, Tender and Passenger Service. (Am. Soc. 
for Testing Materials.) (89) Vol. 12. 

Standard Specifications for Forged and Rolled, Forged, or Rolled Solid Carbon- 
Steel Wheels for Freight-Car Service. (Am. Soc. for Testing Materials.) 
(89) Vol. 12. 

Standard Specifications for Steel Tires.* (Am. Soc. for Testing Materials.) (89) 
Vol. 12. 

Standard Specifications for Locomotive Materials.* (Am. Soc. for Testing Mate- 
rials.) (89) Vol. 12. 

The Accelerometer and Its Application to Railway Traction Problems.* Harry 
Egerton Wimperis. (63) Vol. 188. 

The Concorde Tunnel of the Paris Metropolitan Railway.* Paul Seurot. (63) 
Vol. 188. 

The Corrugation of Rails.* Alfred Schwartz and R. G. Cunliffe. (77) Sept. 

The Railways of South America. R. Renewal. (10) Serial beginning Sept. 

The Electrical Equipment of Railroad Shops.* Geo. W. Cravens. (61) Sept. 17. 

The Belgian Method of Testing Locomotives While Running.* Strahl. (88) Oct. 

Memorandum Concerning the Electrification of the Berlin Metropolitan, Circle and 
Suburban Railways.* Minister of Public Works of Prussia. (From Elek- 
trischc Kraftbctriebe unci Bahncn.) (88) Oct. 

Comparative Service Tests of Locomotive Road Trials on the B., R. & P. to Deter- 
mine the Eflaciency of the Superheater and Brick Arch. (25) Oct. 

Compound Locomotive with Equal-Sized Cylinders.* C. R. K. (21) Oct. 

The American Locomotive Company's Engine, No. 50 000.* (21) Oct. 

Proviso Terminal, C. & N. W. Ry.* (18) Oct. 

Locomotive Boiler Troubles. J. W. Harkom. (Abstract of paper read before the 
Canadian Ry. Club.) (94) Oct. 

The Future of Locomotive Construction.* Leopold Kliment. (From Die Loko- 
motive.) (88) Oct. 

Tunnel Inspection Car of the Saarbrucken Railway Directorate. Spiro. (From 
Elektrische Kraftbetriebe und Bahnen.) (88) Oct. 

The Relation of Locomotive Boiler Design to Efficiency, Maintenance and Safety.* 
A. W. Whiteford. (65) Oct. 

Improvements in Superheaters; Midland Railway.* (21) Oct. 

New Box, Stock and Refrigerator Car.* (25) Oct; (15) Oct. 4. 

New Motive Power on the Santa Fe.* (25) Oct. 

Maintenance of Locomotive Boilers.* Walter R. Hedeman. (25) Oct. 

Notes on Heavy American Freight Locomotives. (21) Oct. 

Caille Feed-Water Heater.* (For Locomotives.) H. H. Parker. (25) Oct. 

Comparative Tests of Freight Locomotives, Records of Mikado and Consoli- 
dation Engines in Regular Road Service on the Lackawanna. (25) Oct. ; 
(15) Oct. 4; (18) Oct. 26. 

Theory and Practice of the Painting of the Modern Steel Passenger Car. J. W. 
Lawrie. (Paper read before the Inter. Congress of Applied Chemistry.) (13) 

Aspects of- Steam Railway Electrification. C. L. De Muralt, M. Am. Soc. C. E. 

(15) Oct. 4. 
Electro-Pneumatic Switch Operation at Pitcairn Yard, P. R. R.* (18) Oct. 5. 
Four-Tracking at Two Tunnels While Maintaining Heavy Traffic* (14) Oct. 5. 
Southern Pacific Electric Locomotives.* (17) Oct. 5. 



•Illustrated. 



I 



November, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 663 

Railroads— (Continued). 

Electric Interurban Lines Serving the City of Chicago.* (17) Oct. 5. 

The Westport Wreck on the New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R.* (13) 

Oct. 10. 
The Continuous Rail. R. P. Kelker. (Abstract of paper read before the Am. Elec. 

Ry. Eng. Assoc.) (17) Oct. 11. 
Superheater Engines for the Indian State Railways.* (12) Oct. 11. 
The Rail Situation in the United States.* (12) Oct. 11. 
Comparison of Chemical Constituents of Steel Rails from 1870 to Date. Paul 

M. La Bach. (15) Oct. 11. 
Fuel Economy on the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh. (15) Oct. 11. 
Culvert Waterways in Eastern Kansas.* W. C. Hoad. (Abstract of paper read 

before the Kansas Eng. Soc.) (14) Oct. 12. 
Narrow-Gauge Locomotives for a Brazilian Road. (18) Oct. 12. 
Gravel Washing and Crushing Plant.* (14) Oct. 12. 
Types of Defective Rails and Some Methods Used in Detaching Them.* Robert 

Job. (Paper read before the Inter. Soc. for Testing Materials.) (13) Oct. 

17; (15) Nov. 1. 
Concrete Coaling Stations.* C. P. Ross. (15) Oct. 18. 
Steel Ties on the Bessemer & Lake Erie.* (15) Oct. 18. 
The Broken Rail in the West Lebanon Wreck, Wabash R. R.* James E. Howard. 

(Report to the Interstate Commerce Comm.) (18) Oct. 19. 
Increased Tonnage per Locomotive Mile.* W. M. Baxter. (Paper read before 

Illinois Central R. R. Officials.) (18) Oct. 19. 
Hartford Trackwork of the Connecticut Company.* (17) Oct. 19. 
Gas-Electric Train for Pittsburgh Suburban Service.* (17) Oct. 19; (18) 

Oct. 26. 
Replacing Steel Tower of the Duquesne Inclined Plane, Pittsburgh.* (14) Oct. 19. 
Notes on the Economics of Design and the Cost of Structures for Grade Separation. 

H. N. Rodenbaugh. (Abstract of paper read before the Eng. Assoc, of the 

South.) (86) Oct. 23. 
Some Notes from Experience with Reinforced Concrete Pipe Culverts for Rail- 
ways. (Abstract of Report made to Committee of the Assoc, of Ry. Superin- 
tendents of Bridges and Bldgs.) (86) Oct. 23. 
Rectangular Engine House with Ladder Track Connection.* (13) Oct. 24. 
Special 110-lb. Rails for Heavy Curves and Grades; Lehigh Valley R. R.* (13) 

Oct. 24. 
Mirror Devices for Inspecting Rails in the Track.* (13) Oct. 24. 
Motor Car Service on the Pittsburgh & Lake Erie.* (15) Oct. 25. 
Construction of the Rock Island Short Lines.* (15) Oct. 25. 
Testing Hardness of Rails by Ball Pressures.* (15) Oct. 25. 
Driving a Double-Track Tunnel in Japan.* (14) Oct. 26. 
Test of the Gollos Automatic Train Stop, C. G. W. Ry. (18) Oct. 26. 
New Electric Locomotives for the Southern Pacific Co.* (18) Oct. 26. 
Norristown Extension of Philadelphia & Western Railway.* (17) Oct. 26. 
British Investigation of Rail Corrugation. (From Report of the Municipal Tram- 
ways Assoc, of Great Britain.) (17) Oct. 26. 
Design of Turntables for Heavy Locomotives. C. E. Smith. (Abstract of Report 

to Am. Ry. Bridge and Building Assoc.) (14) Oct. 26. 
Engineering Features of a Large Southern Lumbering Development, Including a 

Logging Railroad Through a Dense Swamp. Heavy Skidding Cableways, and an 

Industrial Town Improved with Sanitary Works. (14) Oct. 26. 
Santa Pe Yard Improvements at Barstow, California. (14) Oct. 26. 
Elimination of Black Smoke from the Stacks of Locomotives. D. R. MacBain. 

(Paper read before the Inter. Assoc, for Prevention of Smoke.) (62) Oct. 

28; (IS) Oct. 11. 
Freight House Design and Operation. W. G. Arn. (13) Oct. 31. 
Rebuilt Antung-Mukden Ry., China.* J. L. Dobbins. (13) Oct. 31. 
Track Maintenance Account on Electric Railways.* (13) Oct. 31. 
Winter Troubles on Electric Railways. Charles J. Jones. (Abstract of paper read 

before the Illinois Elec. Rys. Assoc.) (96) Oct. 31. 
Steel Cast Locomotive Frames.* Edwin F. Cone. (20) Oct. 31. 
Railway Trunk Line Electrification.* N. W. Storer. (15) Nov. 1. 
High-Speed Service Between Allentown and Philadelphia.* (17) Nov. 2. 
Steel Freight Car Equipment, Pennsylvania R. R.* (18) Nov. 2. 
Shops of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Ry., Beech Grove, Ind.* 

(18) Nov. 2. 
Etude sur les Locomotives de Montagne et Particulierement la Locomotive Compound 

Articulee, Systeme Mallet.* A. Mallet. (32) Aug. 
Garniture et Ecrou a Couronne pour Traverses de Chemins de Fer.* (35) Serial 

beginning Oct. 
Nouvelle Locomotive Mallet du Virginian Railway.* (33) Oct. 12. 
Les Chemins de Fer du Massif du Mont-Blanc, le Chemin de Fer a Cremaillere du 

Montenvers (de Chamonix k la Mer de Glace).* P. Dalimier. (33) Serial 

beginning Oct. 19. 

♦Illustrated. 



November, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 665 

Railroads— (Continued) . 

Die Wengernalpbalin.* Otto Miiller. (48) Aug. 31. 

Ein neues Ablauf signal auf den preussisch-hessischen Staatsbahnen.* Hentzen. 
(40) Sept. 14. 

Anlagen ziir Bekohlung von Lokomotiven (Costs).* L. Othegraven. (102) Sept. 15. 

Schwebebahnen oder feste Seilbahnen. Hans Wettich. (53) Serial beginning 
Sept. 27. 

Gleisbremsen an Ablaufanlagen.* Sammet. (102) Oct. 1. 

Kesselanlage fiir Verfeuerung von Lokomotivlosche in der Hauptwerkstatte Reck- 
linghausen.* Rutkowski. (102) Oct. 1. 

Formanderungen am schwebenden Schienenstosse.* H. Sailer. (102) Oct. 15. 

Wechselstromlokomotive fur 1 500 P S der Ateliers de Constructions Electriques 
de Jeumont fiir die franzosische Siidbahn.* R. van Cauwenberghe. (41) 
Oct. 17. 

Die Personenlokomotiven der europaischen Staaten.* Richard Baecker. (53) Se- 
rial beginning Oct. 18. 

Railroads, Street. 

Rail-Less Electric Traction in Dundee.* (73) Sept. 27. 

Mechanical and Electric Traction on the Paris Streets.* Jacques Boyer. (9) 
Oct. 

Municipal Subway System for Chicago.* (13) Oct. 3. 

Ilkeston Tramways and Electricity Supply. Harry P. Stokes. (Paper read be- 
fore the Institution of Mun. and County Engrs.) (104) Serial beginning 
Oct. 4. 

New Truck Designed by Bay State Street Railway.* (17) Oct. 5. 

One-Man Prepayment Cars for Lockport, N. Y.* (17) Oct. 5. 

Two-Car Train Operation in Newark.* (17) Oct. 5. 

The Boston Articulated Car.* (17) Oct. 5. 

Central Station Power for Electric Railways in Chicago.* Henry H. Norris. (17) 
Oct. 5 ; (27) Oct. 5. 

Transportation Conditions in Chicago.* (17) Oct. 5. 

Track and Overhead Construction in Chicago.* (17) Oct. 5. 

Power Generation for Electric Railways in Chicago.* (17) Oct. 5. 

Study of Electrification of Railway Terminals in Chicago. (17) Oct. 5. 

Chicago Freight Subway.* (17) Oct. 5. 

Intangible Values of Electric Railways and Their Determination from Accounts. 
William J. Hagenah. (Abstract of paper read before the Am. Elec. Ry. Ac- 
countants' Assoc.) (17) Oct. 7. 

Report of Joint Committee on Block Signals for Electric Railways. (Abstract of 
paper read before the Am. Elec. Ry. Eng. and Transportation and Traffic Assoc.) 
(17) Oct. 9. 

Winter Troubles on Electric Railways. Charles J. Jones. (Abstract of paper 
read before the 111. Elec. Rys. Assoc.) (13) Oct. 10. 

One-Man Prepayment Car Operation.* S. R. Inch. (Abstract of paper read be- 
fore the Am. Elec. Ry. Transportation and Traffic Assoc.) (17) Oct. 11. 

Report of the Committee on Equipment (Am. Elec. Ry. Eng. Assoc). (17) 
Oct 12. 

Transportation in San Francisco. Bion J. Arnold. (14) Oct. 12; (17) Oct. 5. 

Rotherham Trolley Buses.* (26) Oct. 25. 

The Northwest Power Station Railway of the Commonwealth Edison Company.* 
(17) Nov. 2. 

Report on Cincinnati Traffic. R. W. Harris. (17) Nov. 2. 

Removing a Concrete Base in Street Railway Construction.* (14) Nov. 2. 

Sanitation. 

The Central Heating- and Power-Plant of McGill University, Montreal.* Richard 
John Durley. (63) Vol. 188. 

The Ventilation of Sewers. T. De Courcy Meade, M. Inst. C. E. (Paper read be- 
fore the Royal Inst, of Public Health in Berlin.) (104) Sept. 27; (96) 
Oct. 24. 

The Municipal Works of Grays. Arthur C. James, Assoc. M. Inst. C. E. (Paper 
read before the Inst, of Mun. and County Engrs.) (104) Sept. 27. 

Cost of Making Cement Drain Tile. (67) Oct. 

The Problem of Sewage Sludge in Natural Water-Courses, Measures of Prevention 
and Relief. Langdon Pearse. (Paper read before the Am. Public Health 
Assoc.) (86) Oct. 2. 

Blower Heating in Bank Building.* (101) Oct. 4. 

Sewage Disposal by Oxidation Methods. John Duncan Watson, M. Inst. C. E. 
(Paper read before the International Congress on Hygiene and Demography.) 
(104) Oct. 4; (13) Oct. 10. 

New Sewage Disposal Works at Ilkeston.* (12) Oct. 4; (104) Oct. 4. 

The Skilled Supervision of Sewage Purification Works. F. Herbert Snow. (Ab- 
stract of paper read before the Am. Public Health Assoc.) (13) Oct. 10. 

•Illustrated. 



November, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 667 

Sanitation— (Continued) . 

A New Type of Sewer Pipe.* (96) Oct. 10. 

Unusual Type of Factory Plumbing.* (101) Oct. 11. 

Heating and Ventilation of a Large Store.* (101) Oct. 11. 

Sewage Disposal by Oxidation Methods. Gilbert J. Fowler. (Paper read before 

the International Congress on Hygiene and Demography.) (104) Oct. 11. 
The Discharge of Effluents into Tidal Streams. D. Roberts. (Paper read before 

the Royal Sanitary Inst.) (104) Oct. 11. 
Sewage Disposal at Barnsley. J. Henry Taylor, M. Inst. C. E. (Paper read before 

the Assoc, of Managers of Sewage Disposal Works.) (104) Oct. 11. 
Sludge Accumulations at Sewer Outfalls. Langdon Pearse. (Abstract of paper 

read before the Am. Public Health Assoc.) (14) Oct. 12. 
Heating and Ventilating Northwestern University Buildings.* J. M. Stannard. 

(Abstract of paper read before the Am. See. of Heating and Ventilating Engrs.) 

(64) Oct. 15. 
Steam vs. Hot Water Heating at Northwestern University. Ira N. Evans. (64) 

Oct. 15. 
The Hygienic Aspects of Gas for Heating and Lighting in Home, School and 

Workshop. Vivian B. Lewes. (Paper read before the British Commercial Gas 

Assoc.) (66) Oct. 15 
Operating Results of the Imhoff Sewage Tank at Winters, Cal. Fred H. Tibbetts. 

(Paper read before the League of California Municipalities.) (86) Oct. 16 ; 

(96) Oct. 31. 
Sewage Treatment versus Sewage Purification. George C. Whipple. (Paper read 

before the Am. Public Health Assoc.) (96) Oct. 17; (86) Oct. 23. 
Electrolytic Disposition of Sewage. F. C. Caldwell. (From Bulletin, Ohio State 

University.) (96) Oct. 17. 
The Influence of Town Planning Upon the Public Health. W. Louis Carr. (Paper 

read before the Inst, of Mun. Engrs.) (104) Oct. 18. 
The Local Government Report on the Intercepting Trap. H. C. H. Shenton. (Paper 

read before the Inst, of Mun. Engrs.) (104) Oct. 18. 
Rules and Legislation Regarding Compressed Air Work. Henry Japp. (Abstract 

of paper read before the Inter. Cong, of Hygiene and Demography.) (14) 

Oct. 19. 
Plans of the Metropolitan Sewerage Commission. (14) Oct. 19. 
Sewage Disposal by Oxidation. Robert Spurr Weston. (Paper read before the 

Inter. Cong, on Hygiene and Demography.) (14) Oct. 19. 
Vapor Disposal System in a Dyehouse.* (14) Oct. 19. 
The Solution of Hydraulic Problems Relating to Tile Drainage.* Louis Schmeer. 

(86) Oct. 23. 
Methods of Sludge Disposal.* Karl Imhoff. (Paper read before the Inter. Cong. 

on Hygiene and Demography.) (13) Oct. 24. 
Hot- Water Heating of Small Greenhouse.* (101) Oct. 25. 
Elementary Theory and Principles of Street Cleaning. S. Whinery. (Abstract of 

paper read before the Am. Public Health Assoc.) (14) Oct. 26. 
Sewage Disposal at an Ohio Institution. Protecting the Scioto River from Pollution 

by the Wastes from an Industrial Home.* R. Winthrop Pratt. (14) Oct. 26. 
Gas versus Coal for Water Heating Appliances. D. W. Allman. (Paper read before 

the Michigan Gas Assoc.) (24) Oct. 28. 
Heat Transmission Through Corrugated Iron.* A. H. Blackburn. (64) Oct. 29 ; 

(14) Oct. 12; (96) Oct. 31. 
The Application of Engineering Practice and Principles for Controlling Municipal 

Activities, as Illustrated by the Work of the Street Cleaning Bureau, Borough 

of Richmond, New York City. George Cromwell. (Report to the Board of 

Estimate and Apportionment.) (86) Oct. 30. 
Design and Construction of the O. K. Creeli Sewer, Kansas City, Missouri ; Diversion 

into a Large Concrete Sewer of a Stream Meandering Through the Site of the 

New Union Passenger Terminal.* (14) Nov. 2. 
Conference on Pollution of Lakes and Waterways. (14) Nov. 2; (13) Oct. 31. 
British Practice in Sewage Disposal. Arthur J. Martin. (Paper read before the 

Royal Inst, of Public Health.) (14) Nov. 2. 
Les Travaux d'Assainissement de Wenduyne.* J. Soete. (30) Oct. 
Sind die Berechnungsmethoden der Zentralheizungstechnik verbesserungsbediirftig?* 

Otto Ginsberg. (7) Serial beginning Sept. 14. 
Vereinfachte Transmissionsberechnungen. R. Meisterhaus. (7) Sept. 21. 
Untersuchungen iiber Wetterfuhrung mittels Lutten.* Willy Arlt. (48) Serial 

beginning Sept. 28. 

Structural. 

Standard Specifications for Hard-Drawn Copper Wire.* (Am. Soc. for Testing 

Materials.) (89) Vol. 12. 

Standard Specifications for Soft or Annealed Copper Wire. (Am. Soc. for Testing 

Materials.) (89) Vol. 12. 

Standard Specifications for Copper-Wire Bars, Cakes, Slabs, Billets, Ingots, and 

Ingot Bars. (Am. Soc. for Testing Materials.) (89) Vol. 12. 

♦Illustrated. 



November, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 669 

Structural— (Continued) . 

Standard ClassificatioQ of Structural Timber.* (Am. Soc. for Testing Materials.) 

(89) Vol. 12. 
Standard Methods of Testing. (Am. Soc. for Testing Materials.) (89) Vol. 12. 
Standard Specifications for Cement.* (Am. Soc. for Testing Materials.) (89) 

Vol. 12. 
Standard Test for Fireproof Floor Construction. (Am. Soc. for Testing Materials.) 

(89) Vol. 12. 
Standard Test for Fireproof Partition Construction. (Am. Soc. for Testing Mate- 
rials.) (89) Vol. 12. 
Standard Specifications for Steel Reinforcing Bars. (Am. Soc. for Testing Mate- 
rials.) (89) Vol. 12. 
Standard Specifications for Structural Steel for Buildings.* (Am. Soc. for Testing 

Materials.) (89) Vol. 12. 
Manufacturers' Standard Specifications for Structural Steel.* (Assoc, of Am. 

Steel Manufacturers.) (89) Vol. 12. 
Standard Specifications for Steel Splice Bars. (Am. Soc. for Testing Materials.) 

(89) Vol. 12. 
Standard Specifications for Structural Nickel Steel.* (Am. Soc. for Testing Mate- 
rials.) (89) Vol. 12. 
Standard Specifications for Steel : Report of Committee A-1. (Am. Soc. for Testing 

Materials.) (89) Vol. 12. 
Standard Specifications for Wrought Iron : Report of Committee A-2. (Am. Soc. 

for Testing Materials.) (89) Vol. 12. 
Standard Magnetic Tests of Iron and Steel. (Am. Soc. for Testing Materials.) 

(89) Vol. 12. 
Standard Specifications for Refined Wrought-Iron Bars. (Am. Soc. for Testing 

Materials.) (89) Vol. 12. 
Final Report of the Special Committee of the American Society of Civil Engineers 

on Uniform Tests of Cement. (89) Vol. 12. 
Experiments on the Strength and Fatigue Properties of Welded Joints in Iron 

and Steel.* Thomas Ernest Stanton and John Robert Pannell. (63) 

Vol. 188. 
The Direct Experimental Determination of the Stresses in the Steel and in the Con- 
crete of Reinforced Concrete Columns.* William Charles Popplewell. (63) 

Vol. 188. 
Composite Columns of Concrete and Steel.* William Hubert Burr. (63) Vol. 188. 
The Effect of Temperature on Tensile Tests of Metals. A. K. Huntington. 

(Paper read before the Inst, of Metals.) (11) Sept. 27; (47) Oct. 11. 
The Influence of Oxygen on the Properties of Metals and Alloys.* E. F. Law. 

(Paper read before the Inst, of Metals.) (11) Sept. 27; (47) Oct. 11. 
A Modern Factory Extension of the Works of Siemens Bros, and Co., Woolwich.* 

F. Southey. (12) Sept. 27. 
Machine Shop for Engine Building.* (14) ' Sept. 28. 
Field Inspection and Tests of Concrete. G. H. Bayles. (67) Oct. 
The Design and Construction of a Seven-Story Reinforced Concrete Mercantile 

Building.* E. I. Silver. (67) Oct. 
The Significance of the Middle Third. John C. Trautwine, Jr. (2) Oct. 
The Hard Pan Test at the New Cook County Hospital.* Frank A. Randall. (4) 

Oct. 
The Bearing Power of Moist Blue Clay. Edwin Hancock. (4) Oct. 
Lateral Pressure in Clay from Superimposed Loads.* Walter L. Cowles. (4) 

Oct. 
The Effect of Pigments Upon the Constants of Linseed Oil. Henry A. Gardner. (3) 

Oct. 
Reinforced Concrete for Station Platform Roofing.* F. B. (21) Oct. 
Proposed Specifications for Hollow Clay Tile Building Blocks ; End Construction. 

Virgil G. Marani. (13) Oct. 3. 
Heat Transmission Through Building Walls of Corrugated Iron.* (13) Oct. 3. 
Fire-Tests and Warm-Air Furnace Piping. (Report of Associated Metal Lath 

Manufacturers.) (101) Oct. 4. 
Influence of Moisture on the Expansion and Contraction of Concrete. Logan Waller 

Page. (Abstract of paper read before the Ohio State Eng. Soc.) (14) 

Oct. 5. 
New Grain Elevator for the Montreal Harbor Commissioners ; Concrete Structure 

with a Capacity of 2 622 000 Bushels.* (14) Oct. 5; (96) Oct. 3. 
Tests for Constancy of Volume in Portland Cements. (14) Oct. 5. 
Failure of Newly Constructed Floors in Kansas City.* (14) Oct. 5. 
New Type of Concrete Floor Construction.* (14) Oct. 5. 
Designing Brick and Steel Chimneys. Everard Brown. (64) Oct. 8. 
Cost of Driving Steel Sheet Piling by a Novel Method.* J. R. Wemlinger. (86) 

Oct. 9. 
Report of Committee on Buildings and Structures.* (Abstract of paper read be- 
fore the Am. Elec. Ry. Eng. Assoc.) (17) Oct. 10. 

•Illustrated. 



November, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 671 

Structural — (Continued). 

Importance of Testing Sands. Cloyd M. Chapman. (14) Oct. 12. 

The Fatigue Failure of Metals.* G. B. Upton and G. W. Lewis. (72) Serial 

beginning Oct. 17. 
Typical Uses of Cast Iron. John J. Porter. (Paper read before the Inter. Congress 

for Testing Materials.) (47) Oct. 18. 
Development and Status of the Wood Preserving Industry in America. E. A. 

Sterling. (Paper read before the Inter. Congress of Applied Chemistry.) 
(15) Oct. 18. 
Steel Framework of the Union Central Life Insurance Building.* (14) Oct. 19. 
Foundations of the Kinney Building, Newark, N. J.* (14) Oct. 19. 
Concrete Warehouse of Modified Flat Slab Design.* (14) Oct. 19. 
Concrete Beams with Double Reinforcement.* Fred G. Heuchling. (14) Oct. 19. 
Cost of Railv/ay Buildings of Concrete and Brick.* (Abstract of Report of Com- 
mittee, Am. Ry. Bridge and BIdg. Assoc.) (86) Oct. 23. 
Tests of Linseed Oil Substitutes. Henry Williams. (13) Oct. 24. 
The Santa Fe Oil Storage Plant.* J. F. Whiteford. (72) Oct. 24. 
Steelwork of the Palace Theater, New York.* (14) Oct. 26. 
Absorption of Creosote by the Cell Walls of Wood.* Clyde H. Teesdale. (From 

Circular, Forest Products Laboratory Series.) (18) Oct. 26. 
Method of Constructing a Reinforced Concrete Roof for a Dry Kiln.* F. M. Hill. 

(86) Oct. 30. 
Fire Shutters for Skyscrapers.* David H. Ray. (13) Oct. 31. 
Collapse of Building in Kansas City ; Wreck Caused by Failure of Reinforced Con- 
crete and Tile Roof.* Robert S. Beard. (14) Nov. 2. 
Methods of Estimating Construction Costs, Accompanied by Diagram for Designing 

Concrete Floors. Donald B. Fegles. (14) Nov. 2. 
Fire Tests on Building Partition Walls in Cleveland. (14) Nov. 2. 
Cahier des Charges du Gouvernement des Etats-Unis Relatif au Ciment Portland. 

(84) Sept. 
Arrete Ministeriel Concernant les Fournitures de Ciments et de Chaux Hydrauliques. 

(84) Sept. 
Schwemmstein et Coakstein, Brlque de Neuwied, Brique Poreuse de Welkenraedt, 

Assechement des Maconneries par la Ventilation.* M. H. Grandjean. (30) 

Oct. 
La Construction des Nouveaux Batiments des Magasins "Les Galerles Lafayette" 

a Paris.* Robert Altermann. (33) Oct. 19. 
Der Erzsilo Pierrevillers.* Max Mayer. (51) Serial beginning Sup. No. 19. 
Versuche uber den Wert verschiedener Normalbewehrungen in Eisenbetonbalken.* 

R. Saliger. (51) Serial beginning Sup. No. 19. 
Beitrage zur Theorie kontinuierlicher Eisenbetonkonstruktionen, besonders der mehr- 

stockigen Rahmen und durchgehenden Balken mit veranderlichem Tragheits- 

moment.* A. Strassner. (79) Vol. IS. 
Ueber neuere Versuche mit umschniirtem Beton (Spiralumwickelte und Ringebewehrte 

Saulen).* A. Kleinlogel. (79) Vol. 19. 
Beitrag zur Theorie des Eisenbetons.* A. Fruchthandler. (79) Vol. 20. 
Versuche liber die Spannungsverminderung durch die Ausrundung scharfer Ecken.* 

E. Preuss. (48) Aug. 24. 
Anwendung von Beton zu Maschinenfundamenten.* (48) Sept. 21. 
Die neu erbaute Schwimm- und Badehalle in Aachen.* Laurent. (51) Serial 

beginning Sept. 25. 
Betonbau bei Frost. (80) Sept. 28. 
Ueber den Knickwiderstand der Druckgurte vollwandiger Balkentrager.* Job. E. 

Brik. (69) Oct. 
Beitrag zur Berechnung von Vierendeeltragern.* A. Ostenfeld. (69) Oct. 
Sandstrahlgeblase und deren Anwendung zur Reinigung von Elsenkonstruktionen 

und sonstigen Bauwerken. W. Eckler. (69) Oct. 
Die Eisenbetonkuppel in Sanct Blasien.* A. Kleinlogel. (78) Oct. 2. 
Beitrag zur Theorie der im Eisenbetonbau gebrauchlichen Form der Rippenkuppel.* 

K. W. Mautner. (78) Oct. 2. 
Ausbildung verbundsicherer Eisenbetonbalken.* E. Elwitz. (78) Oct. 2. 
Das stadtische Gaswerk in Helsingfors (Finnland).* J. Castren. (78) Oct. 2. 
Die transportable hydraulische Presse im Materialpriifungswesen.* Ernst Gebauer. 

(80) Oct. 3. 
Muss bei der Berechnung der Standsicherheit von Pfeilern der Auftrieb des Wassers 

beriicksichtigt werden?* (40) Oct. 5. 
Seesand und Bruchsteinmortel im Meereswasser.* (80) Oct. 19. 
Die neuen Kasernen in Tolmein.* Hans Wyss. (78) Oct. 21. 
Kaminkiihleranlage und Aschensilo der Kraftstation Wilmersdorf.* A. Boesig. (78) 

Oct. 21. 

Topographical. 

The Bear Creek Hydrographic Survey, British Columbia.* Francis Robert Johnson. 
(63) Vol. 188. 

♦Illustrated. 



November, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 673 

Topographical— (Continued). 

A Stadia in Georgian Bay, District of Parry Sound. A. G. Ardagh. (Paper read 
before the Assoc, of Ontario Land Surveyors.) (96) Oct. 10. 

Field Surveys for Road Construction. E. L. Griggs. (Paper read before the 
American Road Congress.) (86) Oct. 16; (96) Oct. 31. 

The Survey of Pemba. J. E. E. Craster. (From The Royal Engineers' Journal.) 
(100) Nov. 

Water Supply. 

Standard Specifications for Cast-iron Pipe and Special Castings.* (Am. Soc. for 
Testing Materials.) (89) Vol. 12. 

The Water-Supply of the Witwatersrand. Donald Calder Leitch. (63) Vol. 188. 

Investigations Relating to the Yield of a Catchment Area in Cape Colony.* Edward 
Cecil Bartlett. (63) Vol. 188. 

The Evolution and Present Development of the Turbine-Pump.* Edward Hopkinson 
and Alan E. L. Charlton. (75) Jan. 

The Llwyn-on Reservoir. Chas. H. Priestley, M. Inst. C. E. (Paper read before 
the Institution of Water Engrs.) (104) Sept. 27. 

The Necessity for State Development of Water Power. F. H. Macy, Jun. Am. 
Soc. C. E. (36) Oct. 

Automatic Sprinkler Protection for Industrial Plants.* F. P. Walther. (9) Se- 
rial beginning Oct. 

The Queen Lane Filtration Plant.* S. M. Swaab. (2) Oct. 

Cement Pipe Destroyed by Alkali. Will L. Brown. (76) Oct. 1. 

A Comparative Study of the Four Principal Methods of Appraising the Value of 
Public Utilities, with Special Reference to the Valuation of the Freeport (111.) 
Water-Works Properties.* John W. Alvord, F. E. Turneaure and A. Marston. 
(Report made to the Freeport Water Company.) (86) Serial beginning Oct. 2. 

The Present Quality of the Water in the Great Lakes for Domestic Supply, with 
Special Reference to Lake Erie at Cleveland. J. C. Beardsley. (Paper read 
before the Central States Water- Works Assoc.) (86) Oct. 2. 

An Irrigation Pumping Plant with Three Lifts for the Snow-Moody Development 
Co., Payette, Idaho.* G. T. Ingersoll. (86) Oct. 2. 

The Use of Small Pumping Plants for Irrigation in British Columbia, (86) Oct. 2. 

Methods of Testing Pumps for Slippage and a Diagram for Pump Slippage.* W. 
G. Kirchoffer. (86) Oct. 2; (64) Oct. 8. 

Power Plant of Mount Hood Company. (96) Oct. 3. 

Preliminary Treatment of Water for Slow Sand Filtration at Pittsburgh, Penn.* 
George A. Johnson. (13) Oct. 3. 

A New Water Purification Plant. (96) Oct. 3. 

The Booster Pump Supplied the Great Western Railway Works at Swindon.* (96) 
Oct. 3. 

Testing New Cast-Iron Water Pipe Lines for Leakage. E. G. Bradbury. (Paper 
read before the Ohio Eng. Soc.) (96) Oct. 3. 

Water Supply, Ilkeston.* Henry J. Kilford. (Paper read before the Institution 
of Mun. and County Engrs.) (104) Oct. 4. 

Wasteway at Belle Fourche Dam, 3 000-Foot Channel of Earth and Concrete 
Terminating in a Cippoletti Weir.* A. W. Walker. (14) Oct. 5. 

Submerged Water Pipes with Strong Joints. (14) Oct. 5. 

Application of Hydroelectric Energy to Irrigation Pumping In Southern Idaho.* 
E. A. Wilcox. (27) Oct. 5. 

A 7 500 Horse-Power Pelton Waterwheel.* (46) Oct. 5. 

New Roseland Pumping Station.* Edward K. Hammond. (64) Oct. 8. 

Bridlington Water Works and Supply. Sidney Charlesworth. (Paper read before 
the Institution of Mun. and County Engrs.) (66) Oct. 8. 

Extension of Lake Intake vs. Filtration at Evanston, 111.. Comparative Cost of 
Steam Turbine and Electric Pumping, General Conclusions and Recommenda- 
tions. Langdon Pearse and Walter W. Jackson. (Abstract of Report made 
to Evanston Water Committee.) (86) Oct. 9; (14) Oct. 5. 

Some Economic Considerations Affecting the Choice of Power, Pumps and Reser- 
voirs for Booster Service, Automatic Control. H. E. Cole. (Paper read be- 
fore the Central States Water- Works Assoc.) (86) Oct. 9. 

Method of Constructing Two Concrete Dams in Quick Time; Medina Valley Irriga- 
tion Works.* E. H. Kearny. (86) Oct. 9. 

Results of Seepage Measurements on the Irrigation Canals of the Twin Falls 
Tract, Idaho.* Elias Nelson. (From Bulletin, Univ. of Idaho Agri. Exper. 
Station.) (86) Oct. 9. 

Preliminary Project for a Water Power Installation at Duck Creek Chain of the 
Rock Island Rapids of Mississippi River.* Charles W. Durham. (86) 
Oct. 9. 

Costs of Mortar Lining on Irrigation Canals. Herbert D. Newell. (13) Oct. 10. 

Construction of Santa Maria Lake Dam, Hydraulic-Fill Dam Built from a Series 
of Flumes Placed near the Slopes as They Were Built Up.* (14) Oct. 12; 
(13) Oct. 10. 

♦Illustrated. 



November, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 675 

Water Supply— (Continued). 

The Jordan River Power Development.* (27) Serial beginning Oct. 12; (14) 

Oct. 19. 
Dams and Pressure Tunnel ; Big Bend Water Power Development of the Feather 

River in California.* H. P. Rust. (Paper read before the Brooklyn Engrs. 

Club.) (86) Oct. 16. 
Water Disinfection by Chemical Methods. Samuel Rideal. (Abstract of paper 

read before the Inter. Cong, on Hygiene and Demography.) (13) Oct. 17. 
Water Purification Viewed from the Hygienic Standpoint. Allen Hazen. (Paper 

re^d before the Inter. Cong, on Hygiene and Demography.) (96) Oct. 17. 
Ashton-.ndei-Lyne, Stalybridgt and Dukinfield Waterworks.* (104) Oct. 18. 
Regulating Water Pressure at Fire Hydrants.* (14) Oct. 19. 
Progress on the Ashokan Reservoir and Adjacent Works.* (14) Oct. 19. 
Regulating Devices for Filters. F. B. Leopold. (Abstract of paper read before 

the Central Water- Works Assoc.) (14) Oct. 19. 
Construction of the La Boquilla Dam, Mexico.* (14) Oct. 19. 
New Water Supply Intake at Denver.* (14) Oct. 19. 
The Design of and the Methods and Cost of Constructing a Water Filtration Plant 

at Niles, Ohio.* R. A. Boothe. (86) Oct. 23. 
Breaks in Detroit Water Mains. (13) Oct. 24. 

Paying for Privilege for Using Water in Automatic Sprinklers. (14) Oct. 26. 
Rock River Hydroelectric Development.* (27) Oct. 26. 
High Service Producer Gas Pumping Station at Reading.* Emll L. Nuebling. (14) 

Oct. 26. 
Water Hammer Experiments, Effect of Surge Tanks Connected to Pipe Lines.* M. 

R. Lott. (14) Oct. 26. 
Methods and Cost of Constructing a 48-ineh Wood Stave Pipe Line Across Marsh 

Land, Atlantic City, N. J.* George L. Watson. (From Journal, Am. Soc. of 

Eng. Contractors.) (86) Oct. 30. 
Some Comparative Costs of Furnishing Filtered and Unflltered Water. Philip Bur- 
gess, M. Am. Soc. C. E. (Paper read before the Central States Water-Works 

Assoc.) (86) Oct. 30. 
Methods and Costs of Constructing the Municipal Water Tunnel at Santa Barbara, 

Cal. Lee M. Hyde. (Paper read before the League of California Municipali- 
ties.) (86) Oct. 30. 
Electric Power in Building the World's Greatest Aqueduct.* J. M. Matthews. (9) 

Nov. 
Hydroelectric Developments on the Presumpscot River.* Henry W. Foster. (Ab- 
stract of paper read before the Maine Soc. Civ. Engrs.) (14) Nov. 2. 
State and Federal Co-operation in Irrigation and Power. John H. Lewis. (Abstract 

of paper read before the National Irrig. Cong.) (14) Nov. 2. 
Increasing the Duty of Water. B. A. Etcheverry. (Paper read before the National 

Irrig. Cong.) (14) Nov. 2. 
Corrosion of Lead Pipe. (14) Nov. 2. 

Electricity and Spray Irrigation.* Putnam A. Bates. (46) Nov. 2. 
Les Travaux d'Assainissement de Wenduyne.* J. Soete. (30) Oct.. 
Automatisches Ueberfallwehr.* K. Bohm. (53) Sept. 27. 
Zur Frage der Grundwasserenteisenung in geschlossenen Systemen. Fr. Bamberg. 

(7) Sept. 28. 
Die Gesetze der Fliissigkeitsstromung bei Beriicksichtigung der Fliissigkeits- und 

Wandreibung.* Victor Kaplan. (48) Sept. 28. 
Das Elektrizitatswerk Arniberg bei Amsteg.* (107) Serial beginning Oct. 5. 
Das Elektroflutwerk Husum.* Emil F. G. Pein. (41) Serial beginning Oct. 17. 

Waterways. 

Reinforced Concrete Wharves and Warehouses at Lower Pootung, Shanghai.* 

Somers Howe Ellis. (63) Vol. 188. 
Extension of the Old Pier at Hartlepool.* John Drysdale Hawkins. (63) Vol. 188. 
Conservation of State's Water Resources.* Morris Knowles. (98) Sept. 
Ten Days on the Panama Canal in April, 1912.* G. W. Eves, M. Inst. C. E. 

(11) Serial beginning Sept. 27. 
Waterway Improvements. Lewis M. Haupt. (3) Oct. 
The Extent and Volume of Earth Slides at Culebra Cut, Panama Canal, and the 

Remedy Being Employed.* (86) Oct. 2. 
Repairing the Break in the Irondequoit Embankment on the Erie Canal.* (13) 

Oct. 3. 
The Montreal Floating Dock DuTce of Connauglit* (96) Oct. 3. 
Reclaiming 2 Miles of East St. Louis Shore Line with Central-Station Energy.* 

(27) Oct. 5. 
Types of Cofferdams on the New York Barge Canal.* (14) Oct. 5. 
Methods of Submarine Rock Drilling with Drill Boats, with Records of Performance, 

Detroit River Improvement.* C. J. Levey. (From Mine and Quarry.) (86) 

Oct. 9. 

♦Illustrated. 



November, 1912.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 677 

Waterways— (Continued ). 

Cost of Dredging 20 000 000 cu. yds. of Material in 1911, with 39 Hydraulic Pipe 

Line Dredges.* (From Reports, U. S. Chf. of Engrs.) (86) Oct. 9. 
Design of Harbor Works at Portland, Ore.* C. W. Staniford, E. P. Goodrich and 

W. J. Barney. (13) Oct. 10. 
Protection of Levees during Floods.* Arthur Hider. (13) Oct. 10. 
The Protection of Railway Embankments.* A. M. Van Auken. (IS) Oct. 11. 
Repairing Break on New York Barge Canal.* (14) Oct. 12. 
Gatun Lake Water Supply. (14) Oct. 12. 
Culvert Waterways in Eastern Kansas.* W. C. Hood. (Abstract of paper read 

before the Kansas Eng. Soc.) (14) Oct. 12. 
Deforestation and Stream Flow with Special Reference to the Upper Mississippi 

River and Two of its Navigable Tributaries, the St. Croix and the Chippewa. 

Charles W. Durham. (86) Oct. 16. 
Cost of Excavating 4 151 000 cu. yds. of Material with 51 Dipper and Bucket 

Dredges in 1911. (From Reports, U. S. Chf. of Engrs.) (86) Oct. 16. 
A Discussion of Embankments Which are Intended to Sustain a Head of Water.* 

Harlan D. Miller. (86) Oct. 23. 
A Current Meter Rating Station* (for Stream Measurement). F. H. Peters. 

(Paper read before the Canadian Soc. of C. E.) (96) Oct. 24. 
Flood Control of the Mississippi River. C. McD. Townsend. (Paper read before 

the Interstate Levee Assoc.) (14) Oct. 26; (13) Oct. 31. 
Spillway Caisson Dam at Panama.* (62) Oct. 28. 
Prevention of Percolation Through the White Oak Levee, Mississippi River, by 

Dove-Tailed Sheet Piling.* (86) Oct. 30. 
The United States Red River Hydraulic Dredge Waterway.* (95) Nov. 
Water Transportation, Rail Rates and the Interstate Commerce Commission. 

John Ruddle. (95) Nov. 
River and Harbor Notes from Foreign Lands.* (From Report of the Hungarian 

State Water Survey at the Permanent Inter. Assoc, of Navigation Con- 
gresses.) (100) Nov. 
Economic Material for Boat and Barge Construction.* A. E. Hageboeck. (Paper 

read before the Am. Wood Preservers' Assoc.) (100) Nov. 
The Development of Regulation Works and the Use of Concrete in the Improve- 
ment of the Missouri River.* Edward H. Schulz. (100) Nov. 
Hydraulic Dredges and Dredging on the Improvement of the Upper Mississippi 

River.* James Dick Du Shane. (100) Nov. 
L'Amelioration de la Navigation du Rhone k Propos du Concours d'Avant-Projet 

de Canal Lateral au Rhone ou d'Amenagement du Rhone Ouvert par I'Offlce 

des Transports des Chambres de Commerce du Sud-Est. Barlatier de Mas. 

(33) Serial beginning Sept. 28. 
Recapitulations Annuelles et Decennales des Observations de Marees Faites dans 

le Service Special de I'Escaut Maritime et de ses Affluents Soumis a la 

Maree, Pendant la Periode 1901-1910.* L. van Brabandt. (30) Oct. 
Versuche iiber den Reibungswiderstand zwischen stromendem Wasser und Bettsohle. 

Leiner. (40) Sept. 18. 
Versuche iiber den Reibungswiderstand zwischen stromendem Wasser und Bettsohle 

zur Erforschung der Geschiebe- und Sinkstoffbewegungen. Leiner. (40) 

Sept. 18. 
Die Sicherungsarbeiten an den Isarsteilhangen bei Miinchen. Bosch. (78) 

Oct. 21. 

•Illustrated. 



Vol. XXXVIII. NOVEMBER, 1912. No. 9. 



AMEEICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

INSTITUTED 1852 



PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS 

This Society is not responsible for any statement made or opinion expressed 
In its publications. 



CONTENTS 

Papers: page 

Irrigcation and River Control in the Colorado River Delta. 

By H. T. Cory, M. Am. See. C. E 1349 

Prevention of Mosquito Breediner. 

By Spencer Miller, M. Am. Soc. C. E 1567 

The Sanitation of Construction Camps. 

By Harold Farnsworth Gray, Jdn. Am. Soc. C. E 1575 

Discussions : 

Street Sprinkling in St. Paul. Minn. 

By A. H. Blanchard, M. Am. Soc. C. E 1587 

A Western Type of Movable Weir Dam. 

By Thomas C. Atwood, M. Am. Soc. C. E 1589 

The Sixth Avenue Subway of the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad. 

By Messrs. T. B. Whitney, Jr.. William J. Boucher. Lazarus White, and 

H. L. Oestreich 1591 

A Brief Description of a Modern Street Railway Track Construction. 

By Messrs. E. E. R. Tratman, Walter C. Howe, and Louis A. Mitchell 1599 

The Flood of March 22d, 1912, at Pittsburgh, Pa. 

By Messrs. L. J. Le Conte and William R. Copeland 1607 

State and National Water Laws, with Detailed Statement of the Oregon System 
of Water Titles. 

By Messrs. Clarence T. Johnston, L. J. Le Conte. George L. Dillman, W. E. 

Moore, Morris Bien, Horace W. Sheley, and Morris Knowles 1613 

A Shortened Method in Arch Computation. 

By William Cain, M. Am. Soc. C. E. 1641 

Memoirs: 

Benjamin Morgan Harrod, Past-President, Am. Soc. C. E 1649 

Thomas Moore Jackson, M. Am. Soc. C. E 1651 

William Frederick Lockwood, M. Am. Soc. C. E 1653 

Edward MoHUN. M. Am. Soc. C. K, 1654 

William Madison Myers, Assoc. M Am. Soc. C. E 1655 

PLATES 

Plates CI to CXXIX. Illustrations of " Irrigation and River Control in 

the Colorado River Delta." Pages 1359 to 1539 

Plates CXXX and CXXXI. Illustrations of "The Sanitation of Construction 

Camps." Pages 1581 and 1583 

Plates CXXXII and CXXXIII. Illustrations of Asphalt Pavements Adjoining Car 

Tracks, Oakland, Cal Pages 1601 and 1603 



For Index to all Papers, the discussion of which is current in 
Proceedings, see the end of this number. 



Vol. XXXVIII. NOVEMBER, 1912. No. 9. 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

INSTITUTED 1852 



PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS 



IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL 

IN THE 

COLORADO RIVER DELTA. 



By H. T. Cory, M. Am. Soc. C. E. 
To BE Presented January 1st, 1913. 



From almost every point of view, the Lower Colorado River, and 
particularly the Colorado Delta, is extremely interesting. Ever since 
its examination and description by members of Lieut. Williamson's 
exploration party in 1850, the various features, geological, geographical, 
anthropological, engineering, and otherwise, have been written about. 
In 1905 the diversion of the Colorado River into the Salton Sea and 
the events which followed it were so spectacular as to result in world- 
wide notoriety. 

While engaged in re-diverting the river, the writer became im- 
pressed with the fact that the experience and information obtained 
should be made available to the Engineering Profession, and since 
then he has constantly been gathering data to that end. In February, 
1907, a general paper on the subject* was contributed to this Society 
by C. E. Grunsky, M. Am. Soc. C. E., then Consulting Engineer to 
the Secretary of the Interior in United States Reclamation Service 
matters; so that, before giving detailed information, it seemed best 
to wait until time should have revealed the strong and weak points 

Note. — These papers are issued before the date set for presentation and discus- 
sion. Correspondence is invited from those who cannot be present at the meeting, 
and may be sent by mail to the Secretary. Discussion, either oral or written, will 
be published in a subsequent number of Proceedings, and, when finally closed, the 
papers, with discussion in full, will be published in Transactions. 

*"The Lower Colorado River and the Salton Basin," Transactions, Am. Soc C E 
Vol. LIX, p. 1. 



1350 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

of construction and methods. Since then, experience with the control 
of the Lower Colorado River, and as local executive head of the 
immense irrigation project of the Imperial Valley, has brought the 
conclusion that the various possible vicissitudes of irrigation enter- 
prises in the United States have been so well exemplified in the region 
as to justify setting forth such experience in considerable detail. 

Ordinarily, more information is secured from failure than from 
success; consequently, no apology should be due for pointing out 
failures as well as successes in a paper, the functions of which are 
primarily to furnish useful engineering information. 

The Colorado River. 

The United States Geological Survey has observed the discharge 
of the Colorado and its several tributaries since 1895, and the results 
are to be found in its Annual Reports and later in the Water Supply 
and Irrigation Papers, especially Nos. 249 and 269, on the Colorado 
River Basin. At various times 169 gauging stations have been main- 
tained, and there are Y6 at present. 

General Discharge Characteristics. — From the data obtained at 
these stations, the discharge characteristics of the tributaries and main 
Colorado River are pretty well determined. The discharge records 
of the Green River, at Green River, Utah, the lowest ga,uging station 
above its mouth, and where the drainage area above it is 38 200 sq. 
miles, indicate a maximum flow of about Y5 000 sec-ft., a minimum 
flow of about 700 sec-ft., and an average annual run-off of about 
5 000 000 acre-f t. The greatest discharge is in June, averaging about 
1 600 000 acre-f t. ; the annual rise starts about April 1st, reaches its 
peak in the middle of June, and has passed by August 1st. 

The data obtained on the Grand River indicate a proportionately 
great run-off and vejy much the same distribution throughout the 
year. The records, taken at Turley, N. Mex., on the San Juan River 
until December, 1908, and since then at Blanco, indicate an ordinary 
flood maximum of about 15 000 sec-ft., a minimum of 75 sec-ft., and 
an average annual discharge of 1 000 000 acre-ft., but with a much 
longer period of summer flood than in the Green and Grand. 

The maximum flood discharge of the Little Colorado when it enters 
the Colorado River is not known, but is probably about 50 000 sec-ft. The 
floods are short and violent, and carry large quantities of silt in 



Papers.] IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1351 




Fig. 1. 



1352 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

suspension, in which regard the stream is similar to the Gila and Salt 
Rivers. 

The Gila at Yuma is often dry, and has a maximum flashy flood 
discharge of probably 185 000 sec-ft. with a total average annual run- 
off of 2 750 000 acre-ft. Flashy floods have been known to occur in 
every month of the year except May, June, and July, at which times 
the Colorado has its maximum flow. 

Power. — Excellent reservoir sites have been found on the head- 
waters and along the main channels of the various tributaries, by 
utilizing which a considerable portion of the flow could be stored for 
power and irrigation. Such storage would equalize the discharge, 
that for power having the greater relative influence. There are at 
present no water-power plants of any importance whatever in the 
whole drainage area of the Green River. A total of approximately 
40 000 h.p. has been developed in the Grand, 7 000 in the San Juan, 
and 20 000 in the Gila Basin, in connection with irrigation construc- 
tion. No data seem to be available as to the amount of energy which 
it is commercially practicable to develop under existing conditions 
on these various streams — it is obvious that there must be a vast 
difference between the figures for theoretically possible and for com- 
mercially feasible developments. 

Irrigation. — The water of the streams making up the Colorado is 
already utilized for irrigation to a considerable extent. The oldest 
and largest development in the basin is perhaps that on the upper 
Green River, in Wyoming. Recently, large irrigation systems have 
been constructed in the Duchesne River Basin, and there is consider- 
able irrigation around Vernal, and also Green River, Utah. Along 
the White and Yampa Rivers, in Colorado, meadow irrigation is 
extensively practiced, and projects are on foot for the irrigation of 
from 200 000 to 300 00() acres in this section. 

Similarly, in the Grand^ Basin, there are extensive meadow lands 
in the upper part, and a half dozen small projects in contemplation for 
the Middle Basin which together would irrigate about 35 000 acres. 
In the Lower Basin is the Grand Valley Project, covering an irrigable 
area of 70 000 acres, and the Uncompahgre Valley Project, which, 
when completed, will irrigate about 150 000 acres, both by the United 
States Reclamation Service. Under other schemes, from 40 000 to 
50 000 acres more will be irrigated. 



Papers.] IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1353 

Quite a little land along the San Juan, Animas, Pine, Florida, 
and La Plata Rivers, and the small tributaries of the San Juan, 
in Colorado, is now under cultivation, and also several thousand acres 
of valley land in 'New Mexico, but, as yet, irrigation has largely been 
confined to the bottom lands. The greatest probability of future irri- 
gation development in this basin is in San Juan County, New Mexico, 
where it is said that probably 1 000 000 acres of fertile lands are excel- 
lently adapted for irrigation, for which the water supply is ample, 
the average annual run-off at Turley dam site being probably more 
than 1 000 000 acre-ft., and the reservoir at that point having a 
capacity of 1 500 000 acre-ft. 

In the Little Colorado River Basin there are scattered a few 
relatively unimportant patches of irrigated land, while the U. S. 
Reclamation Service has investigated and found feasible the irriga- 
tion of approximately YO 000 acres in the vicinity of Holbrook, by 
constructing storage reservoirs at St. John's and Woodruff, Ariz. 

There are also irrigation possibilities in the Virgin River and Bill 
Williams Fork Basins, but their total area is relatively unimportant, 
as far as concerns their effect on floods, or the irrigation of lower lands. 

There are excellent opportunities for irrigation in the Gila River 
Basin, chief of which are the projects examined by the U. S. Reclama- 
tion Service in the vicinity of Alma and Lordsburgh, N. Mex. At the 
latter point there are 250 000 acres of almost unbroken and very 
fertile land which could be irrigated by the stored water of the Gila 
River, although at considerable expense. Other good storage sites exist 
at San Carlos on the Gila, and at Roosevelt on the Salt, the latter hav- 
ing already been utilized by the U. S. Reclamation Service by build- 
ing the famous Roosevelt Dam, behind which can be stored 1 100 000 
acre-ft. of water. With this water, about 200 000 acres of land will 
be irrigated directly, and power will be generated for pumping water 
to nearly 60 000 acres more. In addition, there is an excellent reservoir 
site on the Verde River above McDowell, and large tracts of land on 
the Gila River in the vicinity of Solomonville and of Florence, Ariz., 
are now irrigated. 

Along the Colorado River itself there are storage sites at Bull- 
head Point and at another point about 6 miles above the Laguna Dam 
near Yuma, while there are irrigable lands between Mohave and Yuma 
aggregating some 400 000 acres. 



1354 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 



Table 1 is a summary of the areas above Yuma which are now 
irrigated, in a technical sense, although much of this territory, no 
doubt, is watered in a very unsatisfactory manner. 

TABLE 1. 



District. 


Acres. 


Acres. 


Colorado River direct 


19 000 

255 000 

305 000 

16 000 

57 000 

12 000 

16 000 

230 000 

7 500 




Green River and tributaries 




Grand River and tributaries 




Fremont River 




San Juan River and tributaries 




Little Colorado River and tributaries 




Virgin River 




Gila River and tributaries 




Scattering (other tributaries) 


917 500 







Additional Irrigable Lands above the Yuma Valley. 



Above the Grand Cafion 

Colorado River Valley below Mohave. 
The Gila Drainage Basin 



450 000 
400 000 
400 000 



1 250 000 



Irrigable Lands in the Delta. 



Yuma Project 

Imperial Valley in the United States 

Imperial Valley in Mexico 

Other lands in Mexico— east of the Colorado. 



90 000 
600 000 
300 000 
200 000 



1 190 000 



Grand total 



3 357 500 acres. 



TABLE 2. — Approximate Storage Possibilities of the Basin. 





Acrefeet. 




3 000 000 


Grand River, including the Kremmling Reservoir site 


3 000 000 


Little Colorado 


50 000 


Bill Williams Fork 


100 000 


San Juan 


1 500 000 


Virgin River 




Gila River 


2 500 000 


Colorado, below Mohave and above Yuma 








Total 


10 150 000 + 





It must be borne in mind that all the figures in Tables 1 and 2 
are for developments which are theoretically possible, and they would 
have to be more or less seriously reduced to be correct for commercially 



Papers.] irrigation AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1355 

feasible developments, on account of the excessive cost and the 
formidable character of the silt problem. 

Discharge at Yuma. — Observations of the gauge heights of the 
Colorado Kiver have been made by the Southern Pacific Company 
on its bridge at Yuma since 1878. The U. S. Geological Survey has 
maintained a gauging station at this point since 1895, using rating 
curves for discharge reductions until 1902, since which time careful 
current-meter observations have been made every 3 or 4 days. Table 
3 contains the data thus collected for the 18-year period, 1894 to 
1911, reduced to averages. 



TABLE 3.— Annual Discharge of Colorado Eiver 
FROM 1894 TO 1911, Inclusive. 



Year. 


Mean, in cubic feet 
per second. 


Total 
acre-feet. 


1894 


7 400 
9900 
9000 

12 400 
9 100 

12 300 
9 400 

11 700 

8 400 
15 600 

13 900 
27 300 
26 800 
35 100 

18 800 
35 800 

19 700 
24 600 


5 390 000 


1895 


7 163 000 


1896 

1897 


6 515 000 
9 039 000 


1898 


6 581 000 


1899 


8 870 000 


1900 


6 798 000 


1901 


8 495 OOO 


1902 


6 127 000 


1903 


11 333 000 


3904 


10 119 000 


1905 


19 710 000 


1906 


19 475 000 


1907 


25 500 000 


1908 


13 700 000 


1909 


26 000 000 


1910 


14 335 000 


1911 


17 839 000 




17 070 


12 388 000 







The minimum annual discharge vpas observed in 1894, and the 
maximum in 1909. The discharge has been strikingly greater since 
1902 than for previous years, but too much dependence should not 
be placed on the data obtained prior to 1902, at which time very 
frequent current-meter observations were commenced. The lowest dis- 
charge was probably 2 400 sec-ft. in January, 1894, the average for that 
month being only 2 510 sec-ft. ; the greatest was 149 500 sec-ft. on June 
24th, 1909. The smallest total discharge for one month was 154 100 
acre-ft. in January, 1894, and the greatest was 6 250 000 a,cre-ft. in 
June, 1909. 



1356 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 



TABLE 4. — Mean Monthly Discharge of Colorado Eiver, 
1894 TO 1911, Inclusive. 



Month. 



Cubic feet per 
second. 



TotaL mean monthly. 
In acre-feet. 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

.August 

September 

October 

November 

December. .^ 

Totals 



7 340 

8 370 
13 830 
16 380 
34 280 
50 500 
29 630 
13 560 

9 880 
8 460 
'6 660 

7 060 



450 400 
466 900 
787 800 
973 200 

2 104 200 

3 000 000 
1 819 200 

8.32 700 
586 900 
519 000 
395 900 
433 200 



17 080 



12 369 400 



The record for 1908 is given by months in Table 5 as typical 
of the monthly variation. The lesser disturbances caused by the floods 
from the Gila in the autumn are very well shovpii; in this case, the 
maximum discharge from this source occurs in December, instead 
of from the Colorado in June. 

TABLE 5. — Monthly Discharge of Colorado Eiver 

AT Yuma, Arizona, for 1908. 

(Drainage area, 260 000 sq. miles.) 





Discharge, in Second-Feet. 


Run- Off. 


Month. 


Maximum. 


Minimum. 


Mean. 


Per square 
mile. 


Depth, in 

inches, on Total, in 
drainage acre-feet, 
area. 




7 400 
45 000 
33 000 

35 000 
33 000 
61 700 ' 
53 800 

36 100 

19 300 

20 eoo 

10 200 
72 500 


5 600 

6 300 
10 100 
12 900 
23 000 
30 000 
18 900 
18 600 

7 000 
6 600 
6 000 
6 000 


6 320 

14 200 

16 100 

17 800 
27 200 
43 900 
32 600 
24 300 
11 400 

9 510 
8 090 

15 900 


0.028 
0.063 
0.073 
0.079 
0.131 
0.191 
0.145 
0.107 
0.0.01 
0.042 
0.036 
0.071 


03 1 389 000 


February 


07 817 000 


March 


08 1 990 000 




0.09 1 060 000 


May 


14 1 670 000 


June 


21 2 550 000 


July 


17 3 000 000 




13 1 490 000 


September 

October 


o!06 678 000 
05 585 000 


November 


0.04 1 481 000 
0.08 978 000 








72 500 


5 600 


18 900 


0.084 


1.14 


13 700 000 







Necessity for Storage. — The figures for the discharge at Yuma shovs^ 
that, in an ordinary dry year, the Colorado, without regulation, will 



Papers.] IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1357 

serve not more than 500 000 acres. On- the other hand, in an or- 
dinary dry year, with fairly complete regulation — that is, with 2 000 000 
acre-ft. of water storage — this river will serve 1 500 000 acres, and 
any supply held over from wet to dry years would add to the reserve. It 
is conservative to assume at present that no reservoir site on the 
Colorado below the Grand Caiion can be utilized, on account of the 
apparent absence of rock foundations for dams in the river, while, 
even if other things were favorable, the tremendous quantity of silt 
in the water means a heavy reduction in the reservoir capacity which 
could be obtained. Indeed, it has been seriously suggested that by 
the construction of a series of such dams, the silting up would in 
time create large areas of excellent land, one above the other. 

Above the Grand Canon, the Kremmling Reservoir site, on the 
Grand River, and the Brown Park Reservoir site, on the Green River, 
would together store approximately 4 500 000 acre-ft., and thereby 
add much more than 1 000 000 acres to the irrigable lands of the 
Arid West. When it is considered that the present irrigated area of 
Southern California, exclusive of the Imperial Valley, is less than 
300 000 acres, the potentiality of storage along the Colorado is startling. 

Another very important feature of water storage along the river 
is the marked effect it would have in decreasing the difficulty of 
controlling the Lower Colorado River. Levee construction and bank 
protection must obviously be designed to guard against maximum 
floods, and it is these which the storage basins would affect to the 
greatest degree. The completion of the Roosevelt Dam, which will 
hold back 1 100 000 aere-ft. on the Salt River, will in future un- 
doubtedly reduce the dreaded floods from the Gila River. 

Rise of the Bed at Yuma. — If the measured discharge of the river 
at various heights is used in making a rating curve, and this curve 
is extended back, by means of the gauge readings, to 1878, the results 
would indicate that the quantity of water formerly passing Yuma 
was materially less than at present. As a matter of fact, the average 
low-water plane has constantly risen, and a comparison of the gauge 
heights by 10-year periods beginning with 18Y8 shows the following 
average elevations : 

1878 to 1889 114.5 ft. 

1890 " 1899 116.6 " 

1900 " 1909 117.4 *' 



1358 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 



The low-water plane at the end of 1909, however, was 3^ ft. lower 
than during any of the six preceding years, which included the period 
of diversion into the Salton Sea. Indeed, it was lower, by more 
than IJ ft., than 20 years ago, and only 0.8 ft. higher than during 
1878-79. The reasons for this interesting condition of affairs will be 
considered later. 

Following conventional practice, the endeavor was made for a 
long time to establish a rating curve for the Yuma gauging station, 
but this was found to be impossible. The reason is that the bed is 
eroded during high water and silted up during lower stages, thus 
fundamentally changing the cross-section, not only for different gauge 
heights, but for the same gauge heights at the beginning and end of 




4 5 6 7 

Miles by U.S.R.S. Levee 
Fig. 2. 

a high-water period. The reason for the exaggerated extent of such 
action is as follows: The Colorado at all times carries considerable 
silt, the quantity and character, of course, depending on the velocity 
of the water. Assuming a given discharge, and conditions of equi- 
librium, the bed of the river will have a given slope, the water will 
have a certain velocity, and will carry a certain quantity of sediment, 
none of which will exceed a definite size or specific gravity. If 
the volume of water increases, the water section and hydraulic radius 
will increase, and will result in greater velocity, which will give 
greater silt-ca,rrying capacity. Conditions at the outfall or mouth 
are determined and temporarily unchangeable, therefore, it follows 
that the grade of the river will automatically tend to flatten itself by 



PLATE CI. 

PAPERS, AM. SOC. C. E. 

NOVEMBER, 1912. 

CORY ON 

IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, 

COLORADO RIVER DELTA. 




Discharg-es, in Second-Feet 



Papers.] irrigation AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1359 

picking up additional quantities of silt and carrying them along. 
When the volume of water decreases, the velocity will slacken, re- 
sulting in carrying less silt, and the bottom will rise with increasing 
slope until equilibrium is again established. This condition of af- 
fairs results in surprisingly great changes at Yuma during long periods 
of high water. In 1907 and again in 1909 it was found that for an 
increase of 10 ft. in the gauge height there was a lowering of the bed 
of approximately 30 ft., making the total increase in depth of water 
almost 40 ft. In other words, the grade line drawn from the bottom 
of the channel at Yuma to the average water surface in the Gulf of 
California had 30 ft. more fall, from Yuma down, at the beginning 
of the summer floods of 1907 and 1909, than when the peaks had just 
been passed. A few weeks after the first of these floods had entirely 
passed, the bed of the river had been restored to its usual low-water 
position. 

When flashy floods occur, there is not sufiicient time for this 
action to take place to a marked degree, and therefore the flashy 
rise of November 28th, 1905, having an estimated discharge of only 
115 000 sec-ft., reached a gauge height of 31.3 ft., whereas the maxi- 
mum discharge in the summer flood of 1909 was 149 500 sec-ft. and 
the gauge height was only 29.2 ft. In other words, the flashy floods 
do not have time to render the river channel more efficient before 
the maximum demand is made on it. 

The increase in the gauge height of the low-water plane is due 
to the same general action. As the river builds the delta farther 
and farther into the Gulf of California, the bed must rise all along 
the line, of course, taking averages of considerable periods of time. 
According to Capt. J. H. Mellon, of Yuma, Ariz., who for a great 
many years navigated the Lower Colorado, the delta fan has ex- 
tended out into the Gulf more than 6 miles in the past 40 years. 
Assuming the fall of the river in the lower reaches at 1.2 ft. per mile, 
the rise in the bed should average 1.2 ft. in 6| years, or approximately 
0.2 ft. per year. These figures are about what the hydrographs seem 
to show, namely, 2 ft. per 10-year period. 

Ejfect of 1909 Flood. — The fact has been mentioned that the low- 
water plane at the end of 1909 was only 0.8 ft. higher than during 
1879, and this becomes much more striking when the general eleva- 
tions for the entire period are shown by a curve. There were two 



1360 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

factors which tended to produce such a result : first, the diversion of 
the river through the Abejas to the west during the summer flood of 
1908, and the lowering of the river bed at that point; and second, the 
effect of the Laguna Weir basin, which existed as such for the first 
time that year. 

It seems very probable that the Abejas diversion was the smaller 
influence, in spite of the fact that at the time it was generally 
considered to be the only factor of importance. Undoubtedly, the 
bed of the river, and consequently the surface of the water, lowered 
rapidly while the diversion was becoming an accomplished fact. The 
amount of such lowering could not have been more than a very 
few feet at most, although it probably seemed much greater to 
nervous and frightened observers. 

Doubtless it was an important factor that the Laguna Weir had 
been completed just before the beginning of that year's summer flood, 
and created a reservoir having a capacity of perhaps 20 000 acre-ft. 
The waters of the Colorado, heavily laden with silt, were here stilled 
and their contents deposited. The large volume of water which passed 
over the dam — the greatest ever recorded on the river itself — contained 
little more silt than it would ordinarily during low-water stages. Con- 
sequently, it picked up and carried along the silt to an unprecedented 
extent. As the waters receded, the bed was built back to a very 
much less extent, because there was still an extraordinarily small 
quantity of silt in the water. Indeed, during this one season, the 
basin formed by the Laguna Weir was completely filled and some 
20 000 acre-ft. of mud were deposited out of the Colorado at this 
point instead of being spread along the river bed thence to the Gulf. 

Unfortunately, no sediment observations were made at Yuma dur- 
ing this flood period. Had this been done, the influence of the 
Laguna Basin on the low-water plane would doubtless have been 
approximately ascertainable. In any event, the gauge heights at 
Yuma, for discharges of 30 000 and 10 000 sec-f t., respectively, platted 
as ordinates, with the times as abscissas, as in Fig. 3,* for the period 
of 1902 to 1912, show very clearly that there has been no serious 
grade recession at Yuma due to the Abejas diversion, 

* This method of platting seems to be the only one possible to show much relation, if 
any at all, between gauge height, discharge, and time at the Yuma gauging station. 



Papers.] irrigation AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1361 



Heights on Yuma Gauge 

JO to 




Heights on Yuma Gauge 



1362 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

Silt. — Professor C. B. Collingwood, of the University of Arizona 
Agricultural Experiment Station, examined the silt contents of the 
Colorado Eiver water at Yuma for a period of 7 months, beginning 
with August, 1892. One pint of water was taken each day and 
evaporated, and the sum of the daily residues for each month was 
then weighed and analyzed. The results varied from a minimum 
of 1 part of sediment to 618 paxts of water in January, 1893, to a 
maximum of 1 to 97 in October, 1902, and an average of 1 to 388, 
the ratio of dry material to weight of water being 1 to 277. The 
corresponding ratio in the Mississippi is 1 to 1500; the Nile, 1 to 
1900; the' Danube, 1 to 3 060, The average value of the fertilizing 
material was computed at $3.22 per acre-ft.* 

Later, January 1st to December 31st, 1904, Professor E. H. Forbes, 
now Director of the same Experiment Station, made a. careful study 
of the quantity of silt,t and the relation of irrigating sediments to 
field crops.:}: It was found that the quantity of silt varied from 84 
to 3 263 parts per 100 000 by weight, and from 250 to 9 800 parts per 

100 000 by volume, or roughly — — -r to „^ part by weight, and that 
-J 5 =" -^ 1 200 30 

1 acre-ft. of river water contained from a minimum of 1.14 tons to 
a maximum of 44.42 tons, and an average of 9.62 tons, of silt. Obvi- 
ously, the total quantity of sedimental material cannot be obtained 
by multiplying the average sedimental contents by the total annual 
discharge, but the investigations were carried out in such detail that it 
was possible to compute the quantity of solid material from the dis- 
charge at the time, and in this way it was found that the total solid 
material carried past Yuma that year was 120 961 000 tons. The total 
discharge of the river during that year was 10 119 000 acre-ft., while 
the annual average for 1894 to 1911, inclusive, was 12 388 000 acre-ft. 
It would seem conservative to estimate that the average quantity of 
material would be as much larger than that delivered in 1904 as the 
discharge, on which basis the result would be 120 961 000 -^ 10 119 000 
X 12 388 000 = 148 084 000 tons. The specific gravity of the Colorado 
sediment is 2.65 and the weight of dry soil is 93 lb. per cu. ft., so 
that this quantity of material would make approximately 71 800 
acre-ft. or 112 sq. mile-ft. of equivalent dry alluvial soil. 

* These results are given in Bulletin No. 6 of the Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station. 
t Bulletin No. 44. 
t Bulletin!No.«53. 



Papers.] IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1363 

Navigability. — In a technical sense, the Colorado Eiver is navigable 
from its mouth up to Laguna Dam, and again from there to The 
Needles. This navigability was recognized when Mexico and the 
United States entered into the treaty of 1848 regarding the Inter- 
national Boundary Line. By the provisions of this treaty, neither 
country was to permit works which would interfere with navigation 
throughout that part of the river which is a common boundary. In 
a subsequent treaty (1853) this provision was abrogated, but the 
United States guaranteed in lieu thereof a free and uninterrupted 
passage of vessels and citizens as far as the river forms a common 
boundary. As a matter of fact, the swift, shoal waters and the shallow 
depth over bars in the river itself, together with a tidal bore at the 
mouth, where the range of tide exceeds 30 ft., has resulted in prac- 
tically no commerce on the river below Yuma since the Southern 
Pacific Railroad completed its track in 1876. At various times the 
U. S. Army engineers have investigated the situation, but have al- 
ways reported that the navigation interests were not sufficient to 
justify any expenditure for river improvement. 

An Act approved April 21st, 1904, authorized the Secretary of 
the Interior to divert water from the Lower Colorado River for irri- 
gation purposes and to construct a diverting weir across the river 
at The Potholes, or Laguna, in which no provision whatever is made 
for navigation. 

Delta of the Colorado. 

The Delta of the Colorado River of the West, at the head of the 
Gulf of California, lies approximately between the parallels of 32° 
and 33° N. and the meridians 114° 30' and 115° W. It is partly 
north of the International Boundary Line between the United States 
and Mexico, and in larger part south of that line. Its area, including 
the Pattie Basin and the Cocopah Mountains, is approximately 6 000 
sq. miles. It extends practically from the mouth of the Gila River, 
at Yuma, westward to the rocky walls of the San Jacinto Mountains 
and south to tide water of the Gulf, while on the north it blends 
with the depressed area below the sea-level, from which the ocean 
has been cut oif by the deposits of the stream. Its general deltoid form 
is shown on Fig. 4, together with the course of the main stream and 
principal branches, sloughs, and overflow channels. 



13G4 IRRIGATION' AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 




Papers.] irrigation AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1365 



The Lower Colorado River. — The Lower Colorado River may be 
considered as that portion lying below the last narrows, at what is 
known as The Potholes — the location of the Laguna Dam, of the 
United States Reclamation Service. At this point the river debouches 




MAP 

O F T H E 

YU MA PROJ ECT 

O F T H E 

UNITED STATES 
RECLAMATION SERVICE 

Canals ^^^^-^^^""~" 

Levees 

Levees with Railroad Traek * 

Railroads 

Drainage Canals 



%k 



Fig. 5. 
upon the plain, and the valley on each side is bounded by diverging 
mesas. About 13 miles below, and just above Yuma, the Gila River 
joins it. The present location of this portion of the river is shown 
on Fig. 5. 

Alignment. — Below The Potholes there are two controlling points: 
one is a peculiar knob of indurated clay at Yuma through the center 



13G6 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

of which the river channel has passed since the first advent of the 
whites; the other is the granite hill known as Pilot Knob. The small 
eminence at Yuma covers about 40 acres, and reaches a height of not 
more than 100 ft. above the general level of the delta plain. A similar 
though much smaller knob lies on the east bank of the river, about 
1 000 yd. below and just to the south of the Southern Pacific Eailroad 
Company's line and bridge, and is occupied by the reservoir and 
settling basins of that company. These peculiar topographical features 
control the river, with respect to its location at Yuma, and at 
Andrade, at the International Boundary Line, 8 miles farther down. 

Grade.— The course of the river is quite winding, like every flashy, 
silt-bearing stream with a relatively steep grade. The elevation at 
The Potholes is approximately 140 ft. above sea level, and the distance 
by the river is about 100 miles to the head of tide-water and 114 
miles to the mouth at the Gulf. Thus the general average fall is ap- 
proximately 1.3 ft. per mile. 

Remarkable Yegetation.—Miei\i\on must be called to the dense 
and varied vegetation throughout the region subject to the river's 
overflow. Arrow weed grows in nearly impenetrable jungles; mesquite 
and screw-bean trees occur in forests of varying density on older 
established soil, while freshly deposited mud flats and banks are almost 
immediately covered with seedling willows which quickly grow into 
heavy timber. Por instance. Professor Forbes counted on an area 
5 ft. square 1 500 willow sprouts up to 20 in. high, and in another older 
growth 90 young willow trees 20 ft. high.* Cottonwoods occur, but 
are not abundant. Along the river banks and sloughs there are 
dense thickets of common wild cane, which the Mexicans call carrizo, 
with a densely matted root stock which affords great resistance to 
erosion of the soil because the plant spreads both by means of these 
root stocks and by seilding long slender stems or runners across the 
mud flats to distances of 20 or even 30 ft., and these strike root at 
every point, thus rapidly establishing the plant on newly made ground. 
In marshy locations are found great fields of a plant with an immense 
edible bulb used by the Cocopah Indians as a food, locally known as 
tule. In addition there is the sesbania, or so-called wild hemp, which is 
limited strictly to ground subject to overflow. It comes up from seed 

* " The Lower Courses of the Colorado," R. H. Forbes, in The Great Southwest, Yuma, 
Ariz., Vol. 1, Oct., 1906, p. 2. 



Papers.] irrigation AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1367 

annually after the subsidence of the summer floods, stands in dense 
thickets from 5 to 20 ft. high, and is often square miles in area. 
This plant is also of interest because of its industrial possibilities. 
In general, the vegetation of the delta is remarkable for the manner 
in which plants of a kind mass together in areas almost to the exclu- 
sion of other species, and for the remarkable density and immense 
areas occurring in continuous bodies, strips, and patches, particularly 
of willow, arrow weed, wild hemp, and carrizo. 

Line Changes. — The entire Colorado Eiver Delta has been said to 
consist of alluvial silt. When the river is low the water wanders in a 
devious way, along a very wide shallow bed in many places, and is 
everywhere confined by banks seldom exceeding 10 or 12 ft. high. 
During high stages these banks are overflowed at many points, and 
in the case of severe floods such overflow is practically general. The 
banks are thus wet and softened, and, when the river falls, caving 
and side-cutting proceed wherever the current is thrown at an angle 
against the confining banks, and often with startling rapidity. At 
the same time, the overflow water, being very heavily charged with 
silt, is checked by the dense, matted growth, and at once deposits its 
heavier particles, the smaller sizes being dropped a little farther down 
stream, and so on. Thus the country is built up most rapidly at the 
banks, and the land slopes away from the river at a constantly de- 
creasing rate. Indeed, the theoretical cross-section of the land sur- 
face away from the stream is a hyperbola. Of course, these slopes are 
not identical at any two points along the river, but instrumental 
data at present available show the general average fall to be about 
14 ft. in the first 100 ft. ; 3 ft. in the first 300 ft., and from 5 to 8 ft. 
in the first 3 000 ft. 

Although the coarser silt deposits are thus found immediately at 
the river bank, there are several reasons why this has little prac- 
tical significance. The overflow water gathers in little channels which 
follow the line of greatest slope and in general approximately away 
from and down stream, the direction being the resultant of the gen- 
eral grade parallel to the river, and of the slope locally from the 
river's banks to the abeyment on either side. Such overflow channels 
build up their miniature beds and banks exactly like the main channel; 
they join to form overflow creeks, and these in turn form the over- 
flow rivers. 



1308 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

As the level of the river rises higher and higher by such overbank 
deposition, it is obviously only a question of time until an unusual 
flood will produce sufficiently high velocities in some of these overflow 
channels to cause a recession of their grades extending through the 
river bank, thus diverting a portion of the water through the new 
route. Ordinarily, as the flood recedes, such breaks are clogged with 
drift and sediment, but sometimes the clogging action is not rapid 
enough to counteract the opposing forces successfully, and in this way 
I'adical and extensive changes of the river's course throughout the 
delta occur. Usually, these changes are in the nature of cutting off 
bends and thus shortening the channel. 

At first thought it would seem that a diversion to the west would 
be a very probable occurrence during any great flood, because, with 
the constant extension of the delta southward, the gradient in that 
direction has become less, and to the west, more, until the fall toward 
the Gulf is much less than half as great per mile as that along former 
courses to the Salton Basin. As a matter of fact, however, though 
the overflow waters go down these channels with considerable rapidity, 
the cross-sections for many miles from the river are exceedingly in- 
efficient, due to the dense vegetation, drift in the water, and occasion- 
ally, no doubt, to beaver dams. 

In addition to the foregoing, there is another factor of importance: 
The bed of the main stream for quite a distance on each side of the 
International Boundary Line is excessively eroded during flood periods 
and filled up during lower water stages, as has been fully explained, 
so that, with a given flood discharge in the river, the water going 
over bank constantly decreases in quantity, in depth, and in velocity, 
and it is only the overbank flow which is important in connection with 
the overflow channels. 

Character of Local- Silt Deposits. — These various actions result in 
the formation of numerous little pockets throughout the inundated 
areas, in which water is left standing after the recession of each flood. 
Wherever this occurs the very finest of the silt settles out and, on 
becoming dry, cracks in large, somewhat hexagonal, irregular cakes. 
If the deposit is very thin, these cakes curl up when thoroughly dried 
and are broken up and carried away as dust by the wind ; but when very 
thick the cracks are sometimes 6 in. and even more in width at the 
top and extend down 4 or 5 ft. Dust and vegetation accumulate in 



PLATE CM. 

PAPERS, AM. SOC. C. E. 

NOVEMBER, 1912. 

CORY ON 

IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, 

COLORADO RIVER DELTA. 




Fig. 1. — Typical Surface of Cracked Adobe Soil. 




Fig. 2. — Typical Subsurface of Cracked Adobe Material. The Bottom of 
THE Rod is 5.3 Feet Below the Surface. 



Papers.] irrigation AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1369 



such gaping cracks, and the next flood deposits another layer of sedi- 
ment. Then, the heavier materials having settled first, the result is 
that the pockets are arched over, thus producing underground in- 
terstices vphich must be carefully guarded against in levee and other 
earth construction for holding back vpater. 

The character of such deposits depends on the nature of the silt 
carried in the overflow water, and thus it happens that it is usually 
possible by examination to determine whether a deposit was made by 
a flood from the Colorado, or from the Gila proper, or from the Salt 
River. 





Ground surface 




Einesand 
and silt 




TYPICAL SECTION 


Wff 


OF MATERIAL UNDERLYING 

GROUND SURFACE ON WHICH 

LEVEES ARE BUILT 


{ 


w 


Adobe or slickens 
dried and cracked 


J_^ 




Fine saud 
and silt 


ill 41 


Adobe or slickens 


'iiu 


dried and cracked 




Fine sand Level of permanent moisture 






and silt 



Fig. 6. 
The rate of such local deposition is sometimes startling. One in- 
stance the writer observed was due to the flood of 1905 which caused 
the diversion of the river into the Salton Sea. This filled in the 
ground on the left-hand side of the break about 3 000 ft. from the 
old river bank over quite an area to a depth of 6 ft., or almost to 
the roof of an Indian's ramada. In this manner the Colorado Eiver. 



1370 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

from its exit from the Grand Canon near The Needles, Cal., to about 
3 miles south of Yuma, Ariz., has wandered about between its eastern 
and western abeyments, and, where these were any distance apart, has 
built up alluvial valley stretches which are practically level transversely. 

The Principal Overflow Channels. — The overbank flow of the Colo- 
rado on the east side does not gather into channels of importance be- 
cause the eastern abeyment is near by, except far down the stream, 
where there is what is known as the Santa Clara Slough. This, 
doubtless, at one time was the river's main channel, and during the 
severe summer flood of 1907 it carried so large a volume of water 
that for a time it seemed probable it would again become the main 
outlet of the river to the Gulf. This slough is about 40 miles long, 
and empties into the Gulf about 20 miles southeastward from the 
present mouth. This and the other smaller high-water channels on 
the east side are of no material importance in the engineering opera- 
tions along the river. 

By far the greater portion of the delta cone lies on the west side, 
where there are five inundation channels of considerable importance. 
These are shown on Fig. 4. In their order down stream from Andrade, 
they are known as the Alamo, New Paredones, Abejas, and Pescadero 
Rivers. Without a thorough knowledge of them and their relation- 
ship to the Colorado flood-waters, no satisfactory understanding of 
the problems of the Lower Colorado, and the endeavors to handle them, 
is possible. 

The Alamo River, which was formerly often called the Salton or 
Carter's River, has its gathering ground in the northerly edge of the 
delta cone immediately south of Andrade. It follows somewhat closely 
the southern end of the sand hills, at times in a well-defined chaimel 
and again spreading out in broad swamp sections, known locally as 
lagunas. About 40 miles west of the Colorado it crosses the Inter- 
national Boundary Line, and occasionally its waters were doubtless 
carried clear into the Salton Sink. The swamp areas. Las Lagunas, 
were also drained in part by the Quail River, which emptied into the 
Paredones. Farther down the Alamo there is a low area to the south 
and west through which the overflow waters from the great flood of 
February, 1891, broke over from the Alamo into the New River, the 
main point being at what is known as Beltran's Slough. The latter 
runs into the low region between the Paredones and the Alamo, and 



Papers.] irrigation AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1371 

this drains into New River through the Garza Slough. It seems 
probable that in 1891, for the first time in many years, the overflow 
waters reached the New River channel directly via the Alamo, rather 
than via Volcano Lake. During this flood from the Gila and the 
later annual summer flood of the Colorado, sufficient water reached 
the Salton Sea via the Alamo and the New Rivers to cover approxi- 
mately 100 000 acres in the bottom of Salton Sink to a depth of 
about 6 ft., and it is estimated that the discharge of both these 
rivers aggregated 17 000 sec-ft. for a period of several weeks. Well- 
deflned channels in the soft alluvial soil were cut out by both these 
streams, and since then the New River has carried some water every 
flood season, as it did occasionally before.* In July, 1903, it reached 
a maximum of only about 4 000 sec-ft., which was then the largest 
since 1891. 

New River really heads in Volcano Lake, and probably is what 
remains of an overflow channel through which the ancient inland lake. 
Lake Cahuilla, emptied into the Gulf of California. At present its 
grade is to the north and into the Salton Basin, and from the lake's 
edge it follows for some miles the base of the Cocopah Mountains until 
it reaches about the + 10-ft. contour, where the mountains turn 
rather sharply to the west. The river continues in a general north- 
westerly direction and crosses the International Boundary Line at 
Calexico, where, until the recent tremendous erosion due to the diver- 
sion of the Colorado River into the Salton Sea, it followed a gentle 
depression down the lowest median line into the Salton Sink. At a 
few places in its course it spread out into broad channels, a few feet 
in depth, and formed occasional ponds or lakes, the most important 
of which were the Cameron Lake, near Calexico, Blue Lake, a few 
miles farther northwest, and Pelican Lake, a few miles farther on. It 
is now a great barranca, averaging from 40 to 80 ft. in depth and 1 000 
ft. in width, from a point about 6 miles southeast of Calexico to the 
Salton Sea. 

The Paredones is the flrst drainage channel on the southerly slope 
of the delta cone, and within quite recent years had direct connection 
with the Colorado River, This connection was automatically reduced 

* Old settlers in the vicinity agree in saying that in 1840, 1849, 1852, 1859, 1862, and 1867 
large quantities of water reached the Salton Sea. In 1862 that body of water attained 
unusual size, and the flow in New River that summer was so great that it stopped the mail 
stage-line service between Yuma and San Diego for several weeks, and a flatboat was 
built to ferry across it. 



1372 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

to the very small channel which existed in 1906, when the levee con- 
struction then done fundamentally changed overflow conditions. The 
Paredones gathers the overflow water from a large area, and a few 
miles from the river becomes a channel of considerable width and 
depth, following thence along down an element of the delta cone. 
During the extraordinary conditions existing in 1905-06, it carried 
a very large quantity of drift, which, with the assistance of some 
beaver dams, accumulated aboiat 7 miles above Volcano Lake, and 
resulted in enlarging the branches leading toward the south. The 
overflow water of this river gathers to the south in the Pescadero, and 
to the north joins with the similar water from the Alamo and runs in 
part to Volcano Lake and in part through Garza Slough to New 
River. 

The Abejas River drains the overflow from the region immediately 
south of the Paredones, and empties into the western side of Volcano 
Lake. Since the summer flood of 1908, this channel has been carrying 
the entire low-water flow of the Colorado and the gi'eater portion of 
the flood flow, which is the condition to-day. The reasons for this 
diversion and the efforts to stop it will be considered at length later. 

The Pescadero, another important overflow channel, drains the 
region immediately below that unwatered by the Abejas. It empties 
into a network of channels which conduct the water from that part 
of the delta cone and including Volcano Lake, finally gathering into 
Hardy's Colorado and emptying into the Gulf. 

Volcano Lake may be another remnant of the waterway through 
which the ancient Salton Sea drained to the Gulf. It is a flat basin, 
the bottom of which is about 22 ft. above sea level, and its high- 
water stage is about 35 ft. At stich a stage it extends about 10 miles 
northwest and southeast, and is about 6 miles wide. It is fed by the 
Paredones and Abejas .Rivers, the latter since 1908 being the course 
of the Colorado proper, and by the system of sloughs which form the 
Pescadero network and also serve as an outlet. It is on the summit 
of the low, flat divide between the Salton Basin on the north and the 
Gulf on the south, and thus its discharge is both toward the north 
and the south. From the size of the outlet channels it is obvious that 
the greatest discharge has in recent times been southward. Since 1908 
a line of levees has prevented any water from passing into the New 
River and thence into Salton Sea; the lake's waters, therefore, go to 



Papers.] IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1373 

the Gxilf through Hardy's Colorado, which is an important channel, 
averaging perhaps 500 ft. wide and 20 ft. deep at maximum stages, with 
a fall varying with the stage in the lake from less than 15 to more than 
30 ft. in a distance of from 45 to 50 miles. 

The engineering operations which resulted in the irrigation of the 
Imperial Valley and its threatened destruction by inundation at vari- 
ous times since, have in very large measure been concerned with the 
overflow channels just described. 

Diversion to the West. — Regardless of the tendencies for and 
against a fundamental diversion toward the west, the Colorado con- 
tinued to flow in its regular bed to the Gulf until 1905. There can be 
no doubt that the operations of the California Development Company, 
and particularly in making an artificial cut from the Colorado River 
into the Alamo Channel and the utilization of that channel as a main 
canal, rendered the diversion to the west at that point, when it broke 
through in 1905, very much easier and more probable of immediate 
occurrence. Nevertheless, the behavior of the river since that time 
indicates pretty clearly that a diversion to the west somewhere within 
the first 25 miles below Pilot Knob was just about due, under natural 
forces alone. The conditions of equilibrium had become unstable to 
a degree, and this is the condition in which they are to-day. 

Mesa and Delta. — The high mesa land which forms the eastern 
abeyment below Yuma extends therefrom almost south and into 
Mexico. The river turns, crossing the valley almost from east to west 
for about 5 miles, until it reaches the foot-hills forming the west 
abeyment; then it turns more than a right angle, hugging these hills, 
to the International Line; and thence it flows for 80 miles, in a 
remarkably direct general line, but little west of south, to the Gulf. 
On the west side of the valley the foot-hills end at Pilot Knob, a small 
mountain at the International Boundary Line, and the low mesa 
begins. The edge of the latter runs southwest for 4 miles; then it 
turns sharply directly west for 25 miles; then again it turns sharply 
to a little west of north for 50 miles — the latter edge forming the east 
side of the cut-off portion of the Gulf, Lake Cahuilla. 

It is thus in a sense almost proper to say that the Colorado Delta 
begins practically at the International Boundary Line between Cali- 
fornia and Lower California, and that, for the first 14 miles below that 
line, the river is running on the very edge of the divide of the delta 



1374 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

cones, on one side sloping northwest to the Salton Sea and on the other 
to the Gulf. Furthermore, from that point the river (until 1908) was 
in a ridge of its own making, which it was raising constantly, and 
which is quite close to the eastern abeyment. 

Pilot Knoh. — Pilot Knob is a small, detached, and relatively abrupt 
mountain lying just above the International Boundary Line on the 
west bank of the river, and is one of the landmarks of the region. One 
of its rocky arms extends almost to the present west bank of the river. 
Fifty years ago the river had a pronounced bend, shown by the dotted 
line on the map. Fig. 5, and hugged this rocky point until passing it. 
The time when the shift of the river took place is not definitely known, 
but, very fortunately, at present the alignment here for several miles is 
almost straight. 

It is quite significant that Pilot Knob is the lowest point along the 
river where a canal can be taken out for the diversion of water, with 
the diverting structure resting on solid rock. For this reason, it has 
been considered as a strategic factor in the irrigation of the Imperial 
Valley, but, in the writer's opinion, quite erroneously. The engineer- 
ing fetish of a solid rock foundation for structures for irrigation and 
other purposes confining water, has resulted in needlessly spending 
amounts of money in the United States alone which must aggregate 
a tremendous sum. Perhaps no case is more spectacular than that of 
Pilot Knob and its relation to the irrigation system of Imperial Valley. 

Early Suggestions Regarding Salton Sea. — Almost the very first 
explorers were interested in the Salton Basin and its various possibili- 
ties. The ability to create an inland sea by diverting into it the water 
of the Colorado attracted much attention, and it was very seriously 
suggested because of a supposed advantageous effect that it might have 
on the climate of the entire region. On the other hand, the possi- 
bilities of irrigating the Colorado Desert by the waters of the Colorado, 
which has since been accomplished, were not overlooked, work having 
been done on many more or less serious propositions at various times. 

Later Irrigation Projects. 

In 1891 and 1892, the Colorado River Irrigation Company was 
formed. Mr. C. R. Rockwood was placed in charge of the engineering 
work, and, under his direction, the entire problem of irrigating the 
Colorado River Delta was carefully examined and the important 



Papers.] IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1375 



features fully worked out. The financial stringency of 1893 put an 
end to the operations of this corporation, and in 1894 Mr. Rockwood, 
was forced to sue the company for his unpaid salary. In partial 
satisfaction of the judgment which he obtained, the engineering rec- 
ords and data were taken over by Mr. Kockwood, and the Colorado 
River Irrigation Company ceased to exist. Nevertheless, it is interest- 
ing to consider the plans then evolved by that corporation, or, more 
properly speaking, by its engineer, Mr. Rockwood. 




Fig. 7. 
Plans of the Colorado River Irrigation Company. — These plans 
are outlined diagrammatically in Fig. 7, and show what is probably 
the ideal system of diversion and canals for watering all the land 
irrigable by gravity with the waters of the Lower Colorado. Events, 
however, shaped themselves so that the water for Imperial Valley has 
been, and is now being, diverted at Pilot Knob; while the U. S. Recla- 
mation Service has built a diversion weir at The Potholes or Laguna 
to put water by gravity on all except the mesa lands in the so-called 



1376 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

Yuma Valley. Mr. Rockwood contemplated taking water out at The 
Potholes and installing in the main canal near Pilot Knob a sluice- 
way with which he intended to flush out the silt in the canal above, 
which escaped being deposited in and removed by hydraulic dredges from 
a short enlarged section of the main canal immediately below the diver- 
sion point, where the velocity of the water would be reduced. The 
dredges were to be operated by electricity generated at the sluice-way. 
The maps showing the detailed surveys of these canals are now in the 
files of the California Development Company at its Calexico 
headquarters. 

The Calif ornia Development Company. — Mr. Rockwood, being thor- 
oughly imbued with the practicability and advantages of the project 
to irrigate the Imperial Valley with the waters of the Colorado, under- 
took to carry it through, and finally did so by means of the California 
Development Company. At the present time it is only important to 
say that, because of financial considerations, the engineering features 
were radically modified to diverting the water at Pilot Knob and utiliz- 
ing a large part of the Alamo overflow channel as a main canal to 
carry the water around to the Imperial Valley, essentially as suggested 
by Lieut. Bergland in 1875-76. In this way the diversion work at The 
Potholes was eliminated, and a very cheap and quick method of getting 
water into the valley was arranged. By this decision the inclusion of 
the Yuma Valley as a part of the project was abandoned. 

The Yuma Project, U. S. Reclamation Service. — As early as 1895 
the Hydrographic Branch of the United States Geological Survey 
began stream gauging in California, starting with an allotment of 
$5 000. More recently, the California Legislature has aided in the 
work on the basis of appropriating sums equal to those set apart by 
the United States. At the present time daily discharge observations 
are made on about fifty typical streams. Hydrographic investigations 
throughout the Western States, not only helped to prepare the way for 
national irrigation, but resulted in acquiring such hydrographic data 
that when the Reclamation Act was passed, in 1902, the best opportuni- 
ties for national irrigation projects were pretty generally outlined. 
On account of legal and social complications elsewhere throughout 
California, the Yuma Project was finally selected as the first to be 
commenced by the Reclamation Service in that State. On April 8th, 
1904, a board of seven engineers recommended this project; on April 



Papers.] irrigATION^ AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1377 

21st, Congress authorized the Reclamation Service to take water from 
the Colorado and divert it by a weir which would close it to naviga- 
tion permanently above Yuma. On May 10th, 1904, the Secretary of 
the Interior gave his approval, and an allotment of $3 000 000 was 
made. 

There are approximately 75 000 acres of irrigable land under this 
project in Arizona, and 15 000 in California. Of this area, 98% is 
subject to the provisions of the Reclamation Act, the owners of private 
lands having signed the necessary agreements to limit their holdings 
to the size of the farm unit to be determined, and otherwise to con- 
form to the regulations required by the Service. A Water Users' 
Association, consisting of the land owners of the project, handles 
the affairs of the district, from the farmers' point of view, and has 
contracted with the Secretary of the Interior to accept and use the 
water under the usual conditions fixed in such cases by the Government. 
The Imperial Valley should logically have been included as a part 
of this project, particularly from an engineering point of view. How- 
ever, water had been delivered into the Imperial Valley for almost 
3 years when the Secretary of the Interior approved of the Yuma 
Project. In addition, there were complications^argely over-estimated 
and far more apparent than real — due to the fact that it is prac- 
tically imperative to go through Mexican territory with canals to 
serve the American Imperial Valley. The project, therefore, was 
limited, for the present at least, to the irrigation of the Yuma Valley. 

Fig. 6 is a map of the restricted Yuma Project. As it occupies 
a position on the river above that of the California Development Com- 
pany's constructions, and for that reason in many ways has had a 
very important influence on the whole irrigation of the Colorado delta 
proper and related engineering problems, its essential features will 
be briefly described first. These are a diversion weir, and the levee, 
canal, and drainage systems. The diversion is by an overflow weir of 
the type developed by British engineers in their irrigation work in 
India, and improved and used later on the Nile. It is of loose rock, 
rests on a bed of river silt, is almost a mile long, very wide, quite 
low, and is in general an exceptionally interesting and expensive 
construction. 

The next most unusual and interesting feature is the necessity 
for about 74 miles of levees to protect, from the overflow waters of 



1378 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

the river, the greater part of the land to be irrigated. The canal 
system, with the exception of the siphon under the Colorado, is noth- 
ing out of the ordinary, and the same is true of the drainage system. 

The project has proved very much more expensive than was origin- 
ally contemplated, the estimated cost being $3 000 000, whereas, the 
construction expenditures up to June 30th, 1910, were $3 617 472.71,* 
exclusive of maintenance and operation charges and $100 000 of the 
preliminary survey costs more properly chargeable to general investi- 
gations along the Colorado River than to the Yuma Project itself. 
Work on the project was reported as 80.8% complete, but this estimate 
was revised in April, 1911, and changed from 81.6 to 52.4%, making 
the proper percentage completed on June 30th, 1910, about 51.8. On 
this basis, the total cost will be $6 964 233, or approximately $77.25 
per acre of irrigable land. 

Laguna Weir. — The location and general design of this noted 
structure were determined by the character of the bluffs on each side 
of the last narrow point of the Colorado Valley, where they were 
almost a mile apart, and the fact that borings disclosed no bed-rock 
at reasonable deptlis in the river bed. Accordingly, it was decided 
to build a low, wide diversion weir of the so-called "Indian" type. 
The original design, as shown by Plate CIII, was constructed with 
practically only one modification, namely, the interchange of the prin- 
cipal diversion from the Arizona to the California side. 

Purpose. — The purpose of this structure, primarily, was "to provide 
for silting out the heavier particles carried by the river, during flood 
periods especially, where such deposits could be sluiced out from time 
to time and in such a way that river floods would certainly carry 
them down stream. 

Consideration will be given later to the silt problem, but it may 
be said that the only way of keeping the large, heavy, valueless 
particles of silt from getting into the distribution system, and clogging 
it, is to provide a settling basin where the water for a short time will 
either be practically still or the velocity reduced to not more than 
0.5 ft. per sec, with freedom from eddy currents. Such deposits may 
be removed either by sluicing out with large volumes of water at a 
high velocity, or by using pumps, dredges, or some other kind of 
machinery. It was estimated that in the main canal, originally de- 
* Ninth Annual Report, U. S. Reclamation Service, Washington, 1911, p. 81. 



PLATE cm. 

PAPERS, AM. 800. C. E. 

NOVEMBER, 1912. 

CORY ON 

IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, 

COLORADO RIVER DELTA. 



">\ s 



LAGUNA DAM 

YUMA PROJECT.ARIZONA-CALIFORN'IA 




MAXIMUM SECTION ON A.B 




^eat Abutmeut 



Papers.] irrigation AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1379 

signed to carry 1 600 sec-ft., the volume of wet silt to be removed 
therefrom daily was approximately 17 000 cu. yd. The sluice-way 
method of doing this means a higher initial cost and certainty of 
success, as compared with the very much lower cost, greater main- 
tenance and operation charges, and somewhat less certainty of opera- 
tion, for removal by machinery. The Laguna Dam (or rather weir) 
consists essentially of sluice-ways at each end of the structure, with a 
barrier between to hold up the water and afiord a head for sluicing. 

Sluice-ways. — The sluice-ways are controlled at their lower ends 
by large, vertical, steel-plate gates which are raised and lowered by 
electric machinery. The method of operation is to close the gates 
and cause the water in the sluice-ways above them to become practically 
still. The water thus held back quickly drops its heavier silt, while 
the canals are supplied through flash-board regulator gates in the outer 
sides of the sluice-ways, these gates being so long that a thin stream 
of water running over the tops siiffices, and no water from near the 
bottom, where the sediment is greatest, is ever taken. From time to 
time, as may be necessary — and this varies greatly, depending on the 
stage of the river and the quantity of heavier silt particles carried — 
the gates are rapidly raised, and, with a fall of about 10 ft., the water 
rushes through the sluice-ways carrying away the silt deposits and 
dropping them a short distance below. During the annual and other 
floods, these deposits are taken up by the river and carried down 
stream. These sluice-ways are built through rock, their floor eleva- 
tions being 13 ft. below the crest of the weir. They are lined and 
paved with concrete, and constitute a very massive and beautiful piece 
of work. 

The Weir. — Between these sluice-ways the weir is built, the slope 
of the face being very flat, only 1 to 12, and capped with a concrete 
pavement, 18 in. thick, except a small portion which is paved with 
rough stones from 2 to 3 ft. thick. The crest was 10 ft. above the low- 
water mark at the dam when the structure was started,* and the top 
of the down-stream wall is 3 ft. below; thus the total fall of the face 
is 13 ft. 

The weir was constructed simultaneously from each end, and a gap 
of 800 ft. was left in the center of the river channel. The original 

* See discussion of variation in elevation of river bed at different times and different 
seasons, and the consequent low-water mark. 



1380 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

plan for completing this gap was by building upper and lower coffer- 
dams with piling, brush, and sand bags, but this was changed and finally 
the barrier rock fill dam, developed by the operations of closing the 
first and second breaks described later, was utilized. Before the central 
section was filled in, the sluice-way had been excavated and completed, 
the total capacity being more than enough to carry the low-water 
flow of the river. Kock was obtained in part from the excavation of 
the sluice-ways, and in part from the hills on each side; it was loaded 
on cars with derricks and steam shovels, and hauled by dinky loco- 
motives to the various portions of the work. Coffer-dams made of 
quarry spoil were extended out into the stream, and inside these large 
pumps were used to clear of water. As much excavation as possible 
was done with teams and scrapers, and the remainder was taken out 
by suction dredges and pumps. Sheet-piling and the parallel con- 
crete walls were then built, and the rock filling between was put in, 
followed up by the concrete surfacing. The actual quantities used 
exceeded the original estimates considerably; they are given in 

^^^^^ '■ TABLE 6. 

Rock excavation 444 640 C5u. yd., or about 146% of estimates 

Earth excavation 346 980 " " " " 123o/o " 

Roclc in dam 375 018 " " " " l23o/o " 

Concrete * 76 066 " " " " 280% " 

Sheet-pilinK 82 779 lin. ft. " " 156o/o " 

Rock pavement Insignificant— decrease. 100% " 

* In place of rock paving, the concrete surface was substituted. 

On March 15th, 1905, bids for the construction of the Laguna 
Weir were opened, but those submitted were rejected and the work 
was re-advertised. Proposals were again opened on June 5th, and on 
July 6th, 1905, the contract was awarded at the following prices : 

Rock excavation $1.30 per cu. yd. 

Earth excavation 0.30 " " " 

Eock in dam 0.35 " " " 

Concrete 4.00 " " " 

Sheet -piling 0.40 " lin. ft. 

Laying pavement 1.00 " sq. yd. 

The contract required the work to be finished within 2 years, which 
would mean just at the time of the peak of the summer flood of 1907. 
These prices, on the estimated quantities, made the bid amount to 



Papers.] IRRIGATION AND RIVEK CONTROL, COLOUAUO RIVER 1381 

$797 050. There were seven other bidders, whose figures ranged up to 
$1 030 117.50. The Reclamation Service, under the specifications, sup- 
plied the cement to be used. On February 28th, 1906, the same firm 
was awarded the contract for furnishing and erecting the sluice-gates, 
regulator-gates, and operating machinery for the main sluice-ways 
and head-gates, the bid being $05 900. The contractors began work on 
July 19th, 1905, and a year later had completed 26.4% of the work. 

As the quality of the rock obtained was much poorer than had been 
anticipated, the Board of Engineers of the Reclamation Service modi- 
fied some requirements in the specifications and contract which re- 
sulted in increasing the contract price by $331 486, or to $1 129 136, 
and extended the specified time for completing the structure from 
July 19th, 1907, to January 19th. 1908. On January 23d, 1907, when 
about 34% had been completed, the work was taken over by the Recla- 
mation Service direct. On July 1st, 1907, 52% of the work had been 
finished, a year later 77% was done; and it was practically completed 
in March, 1909, just before the summer flood of that year began. 

The Reclamation Service gives the following costs* of the Laguna 
Dam and the sluice and regulator works : 

Laguna Dam $1 672 168.20 

Sluice and regulator works 345 295.92 

Other recent operations along the river have shown that a structure 
serving every purpose of the Laguna Weir could have been built by 
methods now well known at far less cost. The building of rock fill 
dams in the bed of such a stream as the Lower Colorado was con- 
sidered impracticable until the work of re-diverting the river developed 
such method. However, it is now evident that it would have been 
far simpler, quicker, and cheaper to have developed rock quarries, 
thrown trestles across the bed of the stream, and dumped rock there- 
from to form a wide rock fill dam, without any concrete walls whatever, 
and covered the top with concrete. There would be no difiiculty in 
beginning the construction of such a dam in the center of the stream 
and causing the river itself to excavate its bed opposite the rock fill 
as the latter should be built forward. In this way the excavation 
would have been made to a little greater depth than the bottom of the 
concrete walls actually put in. The rock for such a purpose would by 

* Ninth Annual Report, United States Reclamation Service, Washington, 1911, p. 82. 



1382 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

preference be graded, so that quarry spoil would in no way be objection- 
able, and rock material obtainable in the adjoining hills could be 
blasted out in large quantities, loaded with steam shovels, and conse- 
quently obtained and handled very cheaply. A structure having essen- 
tially the same top dimensions and surface covering, and extending 
deeper into the river bed than the existing one, would in this way 
have cost far less and be even more secure from failure. There would 
be practically no seepage through or under such a dam or weir, as the 
similar constructions, very much thinner and sustaining much greater 
heads, which closed the first and second breaks, seem to be absolutely 
water-tiglit. 

To the cost figures should be added the proportional share of the 
total administrative and general expenses. Such administration figures 
are given as $179 021.43, to which should properly be added at least 
$75 000 of the item : "Preliminary surveys previous to selection of 
project— $174 735.83," or a total of $254 021.43. These are probably 
the approximate general expenses to be distributed over expenditures 
totaling $3 717 472.71, or 6.89 per cent. On this basis, there should 
be added to the cost, for general expenses, $114 243.24, or a total for 
the Laguna Dam proper of $1 786 411.44, and to the sluice and regu- 
lator works $23 583.71, making their total $368 879.63, or a total of 
$2 155 291.07, not including the loss of $400 000 said to have been sus- 
tained by the contractor, which would raise the total to $2 555 291.07. 

The result is a magnificent and permanent head-works for taking 
water from the Colorado to irrigate by gravity about 75 000 acres of 
land in the Yuma Valley; and, at some future time, this structure 
may serve as well for diverting water to irrigate the entire Colorado 
Delta. Its very gi*eat cost, however, raises the question as to whether 
the silt problem could not have been solved in a more economical 
and equally satisfactory manner by pumping depositions thereof, in 
an enlarged section of the canal, back into the river, with suction 
dredges. This question cannot be determined until the maintenance 
costs of the sluice-ways and diversion weir are shown by experience, 
and the total costs and results of handling the silt with dredges, as 
is now being done at the California Development Company's head- 
works, have been ascertained for a considerable period. 

Levee System of the Yuma Project. — Practically all the valley 
lands in the Yuma Project are subject to overfiow, so that a general 



Papers.] irrigation AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1383 

and comprehensive system of levee protection is necessary. Fig. 5 
shows this system, practically all of which has been completed. In 
general, the designs were for dikes 4 000 ft. apart along the Colorado 
and 3 200 ft. apart along the Gila, with a height of from 4 to 5 ft. 
above the high-water marks; as constructed, however, there are long 
stretches along the Colorado where the levees are only from 1 600 to 
1 800 ft. apart. 

The first levee construction was in accordance with the usual 
Mississippi River practice. The ground was cleared, stumps and roots 
were grubbed out, the base was plowed, and the levee was built with 
earth taken from borrow-pits on the river side. These borrow-pits were 
about 400 ft. long in the direction of the levee, with cleared traverses be- 
tween about 12 ft. wide; 40-ft. berms; allowable depths of pits, 2i ft. at 
the side nearest the levee and 3| ft. at the farther side; levee top width, 
8 ft; side slopes, 3 to 1 on the river side and 2J to 1 on the land side. 
No muck-ditching was done. 

The first stretch of levee constructed was 10 miles long, extending 
south from Yuma along the eastern bank of the river. In this section 
the current along the levee face was generally as little as would be 
expected anywhere on the project. Nevertheless, experience soon 
showed the desirability of an elaborate system of brush abatis work, 
a sample of what was put in here being shown by Fig. 1, Plate CIV. 
At many points where any considerable quantity of water had come 
against the face of the levee the borrow-pits had cut together, the 
traverses having quickly been cut through and the breach widened 
more or less seriously. As it was expected that the river would fill 
up these borrow-pits with silt in the first few floods, such a result was 
disappointing. 

It seems that no trouble was caused by the absence of muck-ditch 
protection under the levee. This must have been due to the fact that 
the ground where the levee was located was uniformly favorable. In 
the fall of 1906, however, the levee system of the project was extended 
some miles southward along the river, and the flood which occurred 
on December 7th, 1906 — which got under the newly constructed dikes 
on the west side of the river in many places and resulted in the second 
break or crevasse to the west — caused several breaks in this new sec- 
tion, due to the lack of muck-ditches in unfavorable ground. 

Experience ^ith the levees, including the effect of this last- 



1384 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

mentioned flood on the levee system of the project and on the levee 
work done on the other side of the river, caused a fundamental change 
in the design. In January, 1907, a Consulting Board of Engineers 
from the U. S. Reclamation Service was appointed to consider the 
matter of levee construction being done with money advanced by the 
Harriman interests on the west side of the river, and its recommenda- 
tions are given later. Up to that date, 21 miles of levees had been 
constructed on the Yuma Project, extending from Yuma southward 
15 miles and eastward along the south bank of the Gila 6 miles. 
All construction thereafter has been in accordance with the recom- 
mendations of this Consulting Board for the levees of the west 
side of the river, the essential features of which are "interruf)ted or 
checker-board borrow-pits" on the water side of the dikes, muck- 
ditches wherever test-pits show the necessity, and a large quantity of 
brush abatis work. 

In 1907, a railroad track was laid in large part on the levee, from 
the Laguna Weir to Yuma on the California side of the river, chiefly 
for the purpose of hauling materials and supplies to and from the 
Laguna Weir. The Southern Pacific Company owns and operates this 
track as a branch line, thus serving an area which will be under 
intensive cultivation very soon, and greatly facilitating levee mainte- 
nance and repairs. Over this track a very large quantity of quarry 
spoil was hauled from the Laguna Weir construction work and used 
to blanket the river side of this levee to a point below where the swift- 
est water along its face is to be expected. None of the other levees 
of the project has any blanketing or any track on top. 

Canal System of the Yuma Project. — Fig. 5 shows the general lay- 
out of the canal system of the Yuma Project as it is planned at pres- 
ent and in considerable measure constructed. The principal main 
canal is on the Califoi'nia side, and has a capacity of 1 700 sec-ft. The 
main canal on the Arizona side will irrigate only the land north of 
the Gila River. Water for irrigating the land lying east and south 
of the Colorado and below the Gila is to be carried under the river 
at Yuma in an inverted siphon, 1 000 ft. long, 14 ft. in diameter, 
about 50 ft. below the bed of that stream, and having an estimated 
capacity of 1 400 sec-ft. This siphon is now under construction. The 
original plan was to serve this territory with water taken from the 
Arizona end of the dam and carried across the Gila River in four rein- 



PLATE CIV. 

PAPERS, AM. SOC. C. E. 

NOVEMBER, 1912. 

CORY ON 

IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, 

COLORADO RIVER DELTA. 




Fig. 1. — Typical Abatis Wokx on Levees of Yuma Project, U. S. Reclama- 
tion Service. 




Fig. 2. — Original Intake (Chaffey) Gath, Imperial Canal, Completed 

IN 1901. 



Papers.] IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1385 

forced concrete tubes with a combined capacity of 1 300 sec-ft. and 
laid 3 ft. below the river bed. This crossing was abandoned because 
the difficulty of holding the Gila Eiver banks at the ends of the under- 
ground siphon was considered too great. There is practically no 
danger of this kind in crossing the Colorado with the siphon, because 
of the little eminences of quite hard material which control the loca- 
tion of the river at this point. 

The design of this siphon, the investigations of the material in 
which it is located, the first methods of construction used, the diffi- 
culties encountered, the changes in plans and methods, with the rea- 
sons therefor, the methods of doing the work finally adopted, and the 
time and cost figures, are all interesting in the extreme, but will not 
be given here for several reasons, chief of which is that, on the com- 
pletion of the Yuma Project, it is hoped the work will be described 
at length in a paper by the Project Engineer, F. L. Sellew, M. Am. Soc. 
C. E., or some other engineer of the Reclamation Service. Only such 
general description is here given as seems desirable to make quite clear 
the effect of the project itself directly and indirectly on the irrigation 
of the delta. 

The total acreage which will ultimately be irrigated by the Yuma 
Project is given in the reports of the Reclamation Service as 90 160. 
This includes 17 000 acres of mesa lands which lie too high to be 
reached by gravity from the principal canal system. It is intended to 
develop 1 000 h.p. at the drop in the main canal, and with this to 
operate pumps to raise water for the higher distribution systems. 

At present the main canal from the Laguna Weir on the California 
side down to the California shaft of the river crossing at Yuma 
is under construction, and quite a little main and some lateral canals 
lying between these points and behind the line of the levees on 
the west side of the river have been completed and are in use. Such 
canal construction, and particularly the checks, head-gates, etc., 
are models of their kind, being of concrete and of the latest and 
most approved type. Up to the end of 1907, there were no canals 
on the California side of the river; indeed, practically all the 
area was contained in the Yuma Indian Reservation, which has 
since then in part been apportioned to individual Indians and in part, 
6 500 acres, on March 1st, 1910, opened to entry and quickly taken up 
by white settlers. Two weeks later water was turned into the reserva- 



1386 IHKIOATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

tion canals, and rapid progress is being made in developing the region. 
On the east side of the river below Yuma about 8 000 acres are being 
irrigated through small canal systems which have been in operation 
for a long time and were taken over by the Reclamation Service since 
the creation of the project. The total acreage of the project to which 
water could have been supplied was about 16 000 acres, while about 
10 000 acres were actually irrigated during the season of 1911. 

Drainage System of the Yuma Project. — As has been said, a 
large acreage of the Yuma Project is subject to annual overflow, and 
lies behind the levees. The water-table throughout practically the entire 
region rises and falls with surprising rapidity during all floods which 
are long in passing. Thus it is that during May, June, July, and 
August particularly, the water-table rises so near the surface as to 
result in rather high alkalinity in the soil. The river water which 
will be applied for irrigation also carries a considerable, though not 
serious, quantity of soluble salts. Evaporation takes place from 
land surfaces very rapidly in such a hot country, and when water is 
on the surface, or approaches so near it that capillarity makes con- 
nection between the water-table and the surface of the ground, the 
quantity evaporated is excessive, and the salts contained are left 
behind, largely in the top layers. Therefore, efficient drainage is very 
important. It is made even more necessary because the rainfall is 
really inappreciable, having been less than 3 in. per annum for the 
past 15 years, and causes very little leaching and washing away of 
alkaline depositions. In passing, it is important to say that, very for- 
tunately, the alkali of the valley lands is peculiarly a surface accumu- 
lation, often being confined to the very upper layers, usually to the 
first 2 ft. in depth, and seldom being found at depths exceeding 6 ft. 

The Yuma Project,, therefore, includes plans for an elaborate and 
efficient system of drainage canals which will be doing the maximum 
amount of work during the annual summer floods of the Colorado. It 
is planned, where necessary, to pump such drainage water over the 
levees and back into the river. This drainage system has not been 
constructed, and indeed the detailed plans may not yet have been 
worked out, but it is desired to state here that arrangements have been 
made for drainage in the Yuma Project, and results along that line 
must be obtained in the Imperial Valley sooner or later. 



Papers.] irrigation AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1387 

Imperial Valley Irrigation Project. 

In 1893, Mr. Eockwood found himself in possession of mucli 
engineering and other information regarding the irrigation of the 
Colorado Desert with the water of the Colorado River, in lieu of salary 
for a considerable time as Chief Engineer of the Colorado River Irri- 
gation Company, and had a firm conviction of the project's possibili- 
ties. For more than 7 years he endeavored to finance the work, both 
in the United States and abroad. Many people have suggested the 
irrigation of the Colorado Desert, as already mentioned, but Mr. 
Rockwood and associates actually brought it about. The very inter- 
esting history of the enterprise,* unfortunately, is accessible to rela- 
tively few people. In spite of his later mistakes, Mr. Rockwood is 
certainly entitled to much credit and reward for his efforts, which, 
practically speaking, were finally crowned with complete success. 

Engineering Features. — The engineering features of irrigating the 
Imperial Valley from the Colorado River can now be much better 
understood than was possible in 1900. The experience of 10 years is 
always of value, and was particularly so in this case. The fall of the 
ground was known, and to divert the water and conduct it to the 
broad, ideally lying tracts of land to the west of the sand hills was 
obviously practicable. There were, however, two especially serious 
problems: the danger of diverting water from a wide, erratic stream 
flowing through a shifting channel along the top of a ridge of loose 
alluvial silt; and the difficulty of keeping open canals which carried 
water so heavily charged with silt. 

Diversion. — The impossibility of properly financing the enterprise ab- 
solutely forced the abandonment of the idea of diversion at The Pot- 
holes, with its opportunities for settling basins and sluice-ways to care for 
the silt en route, and made the diversion at the rocky point of Pilot Knob 
practically unavoidable. It was always the idea to have a head-gate 
founded on solid rock. At the last, it was found impossible to obtain 
the money, even for this construction, but the diversion point was 
located there, with the intention of utilizing this rocky point of Pilot 
Knob for head-works, in the very near future, when the financial status 
of the company might permit. 

* " Born of the Desert," by C. R. Rockwood, in the Second Annual Magazine Edition, 
Calexico Chronicle, Calexico, Cal., May, 1909. 



1388 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

Flood Protection. — It does not seem to have been realized, at the 
time, or indeed by any one until the diversion into the Salton Sea 
was actually an accomplished fact in 1905, that there was any really 
appreciable danger to the Imperial Valley by flood-waters from the 
Colorado. The writer hopes especially, that the discussion will bring 
out any contradiction of this statement which may be successfully 
maintained. Of course, it was known that large quantities of water 
had been carried through the New and Alamo Rivers into the Salton 
Sea in 1891, and also by the New River earlier, especially in 1862, 
but the channels had not eroded to any marked degree at the gathering 
ground along the Colorado River bank, but, on the contrary, had auto- 
matically closed. Instrumental data regarding that portion of the 
delta cone which is subject to overflow were entirely lacking, and 
indeed, little other reliable information about the region was avail- 
able. It was planned to build levees along the river side of the 
canal with the material taken from the latter, but the purpose of 
these levees was to protect the canal itself from danger, and not to 
keep the flood-waters which might enter this waterway from enlarging 
it to a dangerous degree. Of course, any risk of the river being 
diverted into the Salton Sink, and soon inundating the entire Imperial 
Valley, involves the same risk to the irrigation project as such. Other- 
wise, such risk should obviously not affect an irrigation company in 
any way, unless its operations and constructions have an appreciable 
effect on such river diversion. 

Silt. — With this means of diversion it was necessary to let the 
silt-laden river water enter the canals directly, and depend on keep- 
ing them open by dredging, erosion, etc. The chief difficulty obviously 
must occur in the first stretches of the waterway, due to the rapid 
deposition of the heavier or sandy particles of silt which the river 
water carries during, flood stages of excessively high currents, and 
which drops down almost at once when the velocity decreases to, say, 
3J ft. per sec. After such clarification, it is possible to design and 
operate canals in the Colorado Delta, as well as in India and else- 
where, so as to insure the carriage of the remaining finer silt into the 
smaller laterals and to the irrigated land. The first mile of the canal, 
therefore, was designed with a large cross-section so as to secure the 
deposition of this heavier silt there, where it could be removed by 
dredges. 



Papers.] irrigation AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1389 

AlJcaline Lands. — From a farming point of view, a difficulty which 
was not given very serious consideration was the relatively high 
alkalinity in the upper layers of the soil throughout practically all the 
Imperial Valley. Wherever water came in contact with the ground, it 
was observed that vegetation at once sprang up like magic, and it 
was assumed, from this and from the obvious methods of its occurrence, 
that the soil must be exceedingly fertile and admirably adapted for 
general agricultural purposes. In one sense, a very serious mistake 
in this way was not made, for agriculture of almost unparalleled suc- 
cess has been followed for the past 10 years, with only at rare intervals 
a very slight thinning of crops indicating the need for proper drainage 
and the reduction of the excess of alkalinity. 

In 1893 the Director of the Agricultural Experiment Station at the 
University of California was asked to investigate the agricultural 
possibilities of the land in the Imperial Valley. At that time it was 
proposed to provide an expedition properly equipped in order that the 
Director, Professor E. W. Hilgard, the great American authority on 
soils, might explore the region personally. The financial difficulties 
of the Company prevented carrying out the plan at the time, but a 
few samples of water from the lakes and of soil taken superficially, 
proved that the latter were very similar to that of the immediate 
bottom of the Colorado River, which previous analyses had shown to be 
of extraordinary intrinsic fertility.* In 1896 and 1897, some addi- 
tional samples of soil and water were sent for examination. These 
corroborated the previous conclusions, but showed that a considerable 
quantity of alkali salts was present in the soils as well as in the waters, 
and thus indicated the desirability of a thorough examination of 
the region, from the soil standpoint. The subsequent soil investiga- 
tions in the Imperial Valley and their effect on the fortunes of the 
region will be considered later. 

Drainage. — While the country as a whole lies ideally for irrigation 
and ordinary irrigation water drainage, the natural waterways are 
so far apart and so small and ill defined as to make the construction 
of an efficient, comprehensive drainage system almost as difficult and 
expensive as the irrigation canal. In the engineer's report to the 
Colorado River Irrigation Company, it was stated that the construc- 
tion of a drainage system (while almost as expensive as the proposed 
* Report, Agricultural Experiment Station, University of California, 1882. 



1390 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

irrigation system) was essential, but some years later, when the work 
to be done was trimmed to the lowest practical minimum, it was 
decided that a general drainage system was not immediately necessary 
and possibly might never be required. This latter opinion was not 
as radical as might at first be assumed, because, even to-day, there are 
probably not more than 5 miles of drainage ditches in the valley. 
It is being realized in a general way that at some time provision for 
drainage must be begun, and within the next few decades doubtless a 
fairly comprehensive plan will be developed. The diversion of the 
Colorado into the Salton Se^ in 1905-06 resulted in eroding the beds 
of the Alamo and New Rivers into deep wide channels which will be 
the controlling features in the design of the ultimate drainage system 
for the valley, and thus produce a benefit which in the end must 
certainly exceed the total damages resulting from such diversion. 

Climate. — The climate of the region, with its long, hot, dry sum- 
mers, is peculiarly favorable to agricultural luxuriance. Thus it is 
that here the very earliest grapes, fruits, and vegetables are produced 
for the United States market, with the consequent advantage of 
commanding the highest prices. This is notably true of the Imperial 
Valley cantaloupe, now famous all over this country, and of the early 
grapes, asparagus, etc. On account of the very low humidity and 
gentle winds which blow much of the time in hot weather, the sensible 
temperature — which is indicated by the wet-bulb readings and gives 
the measure of heat felt by the human body- — is much less than the 
actual temperature as measured by the dry bulb. It is conservative 
to say that a temperature of 110° in Imperial Valley is not more un- 
comfortable than 95° in Los Angeles or 85° in the more humid sections 
of the Eastern States. Furthermore, the nights are always cool, the 
low humidity resulting in rapid and large daily temperature variations. 

At the same time, the heat in the Colorado Desert and at Yuma 
was proverbial, and one of the difficulties which the project had to en- 
counter was the supposedly frightfully hot summers ; indeed, the project 
would otherwise have been financed very much earlier. Since the con- 
trol of the diversion canal was lost in 1905, the impression has become 
general that the project of irrigating this region was rejected by capi- 
talists as involving too great engineering risks. As a matter of fact, 
the chief difficulty was the fear that the torrid climate would render 
colonization very difficult. 



Papers.] IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1391 

The International Boundary Line at the Sand Hills. — Perhaps, 
everything considered, the location of the International Boundary 
Line and the Sand Hills which lie to the west of Pilot Knob and 
overlap into Mexico for several miles, constitute the most important 
features of the irrigation, and protection from inundation, of the 
Imperial Valley. It is this which makes it impossible for the people 
of American Imperial Valley to organize to protect themselves under 
the laws of California. The menace is entirely on Mexican territory, 
and, apart from the difficulty of dealing with the problem as one of 
engineering and statecraft, is the worst feature of all, namely, the 
seeming injustice of compelling American citizens to protect their 
homes against a menace originating entirely on foreign soil. 

Aside from the danger of the diversion of the Colorado to the west 
and into the Salton Basin, the important result of the present loca- 
tion of the International Boundary Line is that, practically speaking, 
water cannot be taken from the Colorado River and carried in canals 
lying wholly on American soil to the areas in American Imperial 
Valley susceptible of irrigation by gravity. It could be done, but it 
would require approximately 12 miles of a closed conduit running 
under the sand hills and costing at least $10 000 000, a sum practically 
prohibitive. 

Water Rights. — Due to the divided authority of the National and 
State Governments with respect to permission for taking water from 
the Colorado River as a navigable stream, water appropriation notices 
then, as now, had to be posted and filed, under the laws of the State 
of California, and arrangements had to be made with the United States 
War Department as well, if such diversion interfered with naviga- 
tion. It appears that no attempt was made to obtain permission from 
the War Department for taking water from the river, because it was 
almost impossible to cause any "interference with navigation." This 
failure to secure permission from the Wax Department, however, had 
a very serious result later. 

Ideal Plans. — The ideal way to carry such a project through is now 
quite obvious. All the engineering features should have been carefully 
worked out, elaborate soil surveys should have been made by well- 
recognized authorities, and experimental farms should have been 
established. The irrigation system should have been built in sections 
and colonized before additional areas were covered by canals. Water 



1392 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

rights, entirely free from any possibility of attack, should have been 
obtained. In the light of experience, the writer believes that, by all 
means, these should have been obtained from the Mexican Government, 
and the diversion should have been made on Mexican soil, or the de- 
velopment should have b"een made under the Carey Act. 

Dealings with Mexico would have meant the abandonment of the 
idea of diversion works founded on solid rock, but a structure with a 
wooden caisson foundation extending under the gates proper and the 
wing-walls would have been just as safe as the concrete head-gate 
actually put in later, and would have cost little more money, if indeed 
as much^ 

The ownership of all private interests in the Salton Sink ought to 
have been acquired, and such permission obtained from proper Govern- 
ment authorities that this naturally depressed basin would ever be avail- 
able without question as a receptacle for the seepage, drainage, and 
waste water from the irrigated lands and canals. Data as to silt 
deposition and the cost of removing it from canals and intakes should 
have been obtained from experiments carried out on a commercial 
scale. Various details of the project, in short, should have been 
worked out very carefully and adhered to. 

However, as in many irrigation and other projects in the 
West, the garment had to be cut according to the cloth. The sum 
total of events resulted in carrying out the project along lines which 
were far from ideal, but which later proved to be possible of execu- 
tion with a remarkably small amount of money, everything considered. 

The California Development Company. 

The first practical step toward the actual irrigation of Imperial 
Valley was the incorporation of the California Development Com- 
pany, under the laws -of New Jersey, on April 26th, 1896. After two 
years of vain endeavor to obtain permission from the Mexican Govern- 
ment for the American corporation to hold land and acquire rights 
of way for the main canals into American Imperial Valley, it was 
found necessary to form also a Mexican corporation. The California 
Development Company has a capital stock of $1 250 000, divided into 
12 500 shares of $100 each ; the Mexican Company — La Sociedad de 
Biego y Terrenos de la Baja California, Sociedad Anonima — has a 
capital stock of $62 500, all of which is owned by the California De- 



Pa2)crs.] irrigation AND KIVEK CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1393 

velopmont Company. Hereafter in this paper the California Develop- 
ment Company will be referred to as the C. D. Co., and the subsidiary 
Mexican corporation as the Mexican Co. 

The general practice throughout the West was, and still is, the sale 
of the "water right" to settlers at a definite price per acre — usually 
the right to buy water thereafter at specified prices. The arrangement 
adopted in this case was the formation of mutual water companies 
which would receive water wholesale and distribute it to their stock- 
holders, the capital stock of such mutual companies constituting the 
water right. 

Organization Under the Carey Act. — It would undoubtedly have 
been much better if the desert land in the United States had been 
segregated, and if the project, as far as American territory was 
concerned, had been carried out under the Carey Act. This Act, how- 
ever, had not been passed when the original investigations were made, 
and, when financial arrangements were concluded, the California 
Legislature had adjourned and would not meet for nearly two years. 
Such delay was deemed too great. 

Water Appropriations. — Water filings were made on April 25th, 
1899, on the right bank of the Colorado Kiver about 3 000 ft. above 
the International Boundary Line, by Mr. C. N. Perry, on behalf of 
the C. D. Co., appropriating 10 000 sec-ft., of the flow of the Colorado 
Kiver to be used for the irrigation of American lands in the Imperial 
Valley. No serious attempt was made to obtain water rights in Mex- 
ico — in Mexican territory there was no chance to found diversion 
works on rock, and money for the first work of promotion would have 
been difficiilt to obtain with a projected intake in that country. 

Rights of Way. — The C. D. Co. purchased 316 acres of patented 
land along the river just north of the International Boundary Line, 
and these included the rocky point of Pilot Knob; and the Mexican 
Co. acquired 10 000 acres in Mexico, belonging to Gen. Guillermo 
Andrade, and lying generally south of the Boundary Line, as shown 
in Pig. 7, together with the bed of the Alamo River, which extended 
beyond the boundaries of this tract. In the American Imperial Valley 
(all the land belonging to the Government) rights of way could not 
be purchased outright, but easements therefor were easily obtained as 
at present by application to the Secretary of the Interior, accompanied 
by maps and descriptions of the proposed constructions. All rights 



1394 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

of way and property required for the construction of the project were 
thus arranged. 

Contractual Relation of the C. D. Co. and the Mexican Go. — 
The two companies entered into a contract by the terms of which 
the C. D. Co. turned over to the Mexican Co. all the water to be 
diverted from the Colorado River by the former where the canal 
crosses the International Boundary Line at Algodones; the Mexican 
Co. agreed to deliver water to water users in Mexican territory as 
required and the remainder of the supply — the larger part by far — 
to the American water users at points on the International Boundary 
Line from 40 to 50 miles west of the river, and, from the water users 
of both countries, to collect for the water furnished, on a quantity 
basis; the C. D. Co. agreed to build, maintain, and operate all the 
Mexican Co.'s irrigation construction in Mexico; the Mexican Co., 
in consideration thereof, agreed to pay the C. D. Co. all sums received 
by the former for water rights, water stock, and water rentals from 
water users in the United States. These agreements were limited to 
water for lands which were irrigable by gravity from the system of 
canals beginning at the head-works constructed. It was stipulated, fur- 
ther, that no contract should be entered into with the Mexican Co. giv- 
ing any person or corporation superior right over any other water user 
by reason of priority in date of contract or otherwise, and that the 
C. D. Co. should not be responsible for failure to deliver water to the 
Mexican Co. from any cause beyond its control, although admitting 
obligation to use due diligence in protecting canals and maintaining 
the flow of water therein. 

By this arrangement, the Mexican Co. retains the money received 
from the water delivered to Mexican water users, and is put to no 
construction, maintenance, or operation expense whatever. This 
arrangement, however, is not as advantageous as at first appears, 
because the gross annual water rentals from Mexican water users did 
not amount to $10 000 gold per annum until the beginning of the 
ninth year, while the right of way contains at least 2 500 acres of land 
and includes 50 miles of the Alamo River channel, which is utilized 
as a main canal. It will be a number of years yet before the receipts 
of the Mexican Co. will be sufiiciently large to make the contract an 
unusually profitable one. 

Mutual Water Companies. — Next to the general plan of arranging 



Papers.] irrigation AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1395 

to require the purchase by settlers of the water right usual in such 
cases, the fundamental idea was delivery of water to mutual water 
companies instead of individuals, the mutual companies to be operated 
by the holders of stock, namely, the farmers in their respective dis- 
tricts. The various mutual companies thus run their own local affairs 
and join together, through the C. D. Co. and the Mexican Co., in a 
community main canal leading from the river to the settlement west 
of the Sand Hills. 

Triparty Contracts. — The mutual water companies required the 
construction of a distribution system, and ought or ought not to have 
paid a bonus for the contract to receive water at the International 
Boundary Line, depending entirely on the conditions under which 
the water should be delivered and the price to be paid for it. A tri- 
party contract was entered into between the Mexican Co., the C. D. Co., 
and each of the mutual water companies, under the terms of which 
the Mexican Co. agreed to supply water to the mutual water compa- 
nies "on demand" and at definite points on the International Bound- 
ary Line in the Imperial Valley for 50 cents per acre-ft., to be used 
only on lands within the respective districts; provided, however, that 
the aggregate quantity of water necessary to deliver under the con- 
tract should not exceed four times the number of acre-feet per annum 
that there were shares of capital stock in the mutual company; the 
mutual company agreed to order and pay for at least 1 acre-ft. of water 
each year for each share of its stock sold and located, regardless of its 
use by the mutual company or by its stockholders; the C. D. Co. 
agreed to build the distribution system of the mutual company and 
to maintain certain definite portions of the canal thereof perpetually, 
reserving the right to develop and use the water-power that might be 
obtained from the waters running through any of the canals, including 
those of the mutual company; a provision was made that at the end 
of 3 years the loss of water to the C. D. Co. in evaporation from 
the canals of the mutual company should be determined, and such 
an extra allowance of water be supplied, as so determined, to the end 
that only the net quantity reaching each half section of land should 
be paid for; and the mutual water company turned over all its capi- 
tal stock to the C. D. Co. and agreed to locate such stock on any 
lands within the exterior boundary lines of its district on order of 
the C. D. Co. The C. D. Co. sold the capital stock of these vari- 



1396 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

ous mutual companies to the settlers, and with the proceeds built 
the main canals in the United States, the canal system in Mexico 
which belongs to the Mexican Co., and the distribution systems which 
became the properties of the various mutual water companies. 

There were eight of these triparty contracts; they were essentially 
similar, though no two were exactly alike in every detail. The con- 
tract between the Mexican Co. and the C. D. Co., and the triparty 
contract as just outlined, together with the by-laws of the mutual 
companies, show the contractual relation of the water user to the 
organizations on which he depends for water. These by-laws, in 
general, provide that each share of stock shall represent the right to 
purchase water for the irrigation of 1 acre of land; that stock issued 
shall have written on its face a description of the land on which it 
is located; that no stock shall be located on any lands outside those 
described in the articles of incorporation; that one share and no more 
shall be located on each acre of land which can be served by the ditches 
of the company; that owners of stock issued but not located shall not 
be entitled to receive any water represented thereby, but shall, never- 
theless, be liable for all assessments, the same as other outstanding 
stock of the company; that the shares may be transferred; and that 
acceptance by any stockholder of a certificate of stock shall be con- 
sidered as a ratification by him of any and all contracts between the 
mutual company in question and the C. D. Co. 

The inter-relations of the water users and the various corporations 
have been given in detail because of a general impression that the plan 
was devised for the purpose of taking advantage of the settlers. In 
its operations it has resulted in no unfairness of any importance to 
any of the parties concerned. Considering all the circumstances, the 
prices charged for water rights were very low — $8.75 at the beginning, 
up to $20 at present, ^nd averaging $12 per acre as the total cost to 
the settler, on easy terms — and the total annual water rental from the 
water users in the valley will not sufiice to pay maintenance, opera- 
tion, and general expenses, properly figured, until such time as about 
700 000 acre-ft. of water are sold annually. At the end of 9 years 
the sales have not yet reached that figure. Fig. 4 shows the boundaries 
of the lands of the various mutual water companies in the valley and 
under whose distribution systems lie all the lands which are as yet 
irrigated. 



Papers,] iRRIGATIOISr AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 



1397 



TABLE 7. — Comparative Statement of Earnings and Expenses 

OF THE California Development Company, for November, 1909. 

(Property on a seriously deteriorating basis.) 



November, 
1909. 



5 months, 

ending 
November 
30th, 1909. 



Earnings : 

Water sales 

Water-power royalties 

Rent, buildings and other property. 
Miscellaneous earnings 



$13 906.20 

418.90 

83.05 

66.45 



$93 236.75 

1 772.80 

488.51 

420.68 



Gross earnings from operation. 



$14 473.60 



i 918.74 



Operating Expenses : 
Maintenance, canals and structures : 

Superintendence 

Maintenance and cleaning canals. . . 

Bridges 

Canal st ructures 

Buildings, fixtures and grounds 



$163.83 

10 588.76 

223.04 

901.70 

824.81 



$641.63 

47 130.74 

408.88 

2 444.57 

3 192.44 



Total. 



$12 702.14 



$53 818.26 



Maintenance of levees : 

Superintendence 

Patrohng 

Roadway and track 

Telephone and telegraph lines. . . 
Buildings, fixtures and grounds. 



$102.55 
126.12 

84.87 



$210.00 
377.87 

1 034.01 

217.04 

44.37 



Total. 



Maintenance of equipment : 

Vehicles 

Grading implements 

Corrals 

Machinery 

Shops 

Automobile 

Motor cars 

Dredges 



$313.54 



$85.23 
"29!6i' 



34.71 
135.36 

83.34 
281.42 



$1 883.29 



$576.47 

14.23 

525.56 

.533.45 

155.25 

1 115.04 
154.46 
938.18 



Total. 



$649.07 



$4 012.64 



Distribution of ivater: 

Superintendence 

Zan jeros 

Calibration and water measurement. 

Telephone and telegraph lines 

Damages 



SI 63. 70 

760.00 

21.52 

163.40 



$997.22 

3 858.63 

365.00 

815.53 

50.00 



Total . 



General expense : 
Salaries and expenses, general offices. 

Office expenses 

Law expenses 

Stationery and printing 

Other expenses 



Total. 



$1 108.62 



$2 981.66 
332.37 
618.28 
132.36 
107.40 



$4 172.07 



$15 444.09 

1 515.04 

3 899.92 

684.86 

459.67 



$22 003.58 



Total operating expenses. 



$18 945.44 



$87 804.15 



Net earnings. 



Taxes. 



$kk71.8U 
$197.76 



$8 114.59 
$1 134.88 



1398 iniilGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

Operation of Triparty Contract. — For 3^ years the writer was 
General Manager for both the C. D. Co. and the Mexican Co., and 
handled all matters between these companies and the various mutual 
water companies. During the latter portion of that time, the pro- 
tection of the Imperial Valley from inundation by the Colorado had 
become quite as important as its irrigation, and, for this protection, of 
course, no provision was contemplated in these contracts. Except for 
that, the arrangement proved to be very satisfactory, and produced 
a smooth and comfortable relationship unusual in irrigation enter- 
prises. As a result of litigation, however, the Supreme Court of Cali- 
fornia has just declared the whole scheme practically illegal, the text 
of the decision not yet being available. The Imperial Irrigation Dis- 
trict was created several months ago, and the directors thereof have 
decided to take over only the functions which the C. D. Co. and the 
Mexican Co. now perform, and will not interfere in any way with the 
mutual water company plan of organization, or the water companies 
themselves. 

TABLE 8. — Statement of Earnings and Expenses 
OP La Sociedad de Irrigacion y Terrenos de la Baja California. 



Gross Earnings 

Operating Expenses: 
Distribution of water 

General expense : 
Salaries and expenses, general officers and clerks 

Office expenses 

Law expenses 

Stationery and printing 

Inspection fund (Mexican Government) 

Other expenses 

Total 

Total operating expenses 

Net earnings 



November 5th, 
1909. 



$641.20 



0.00 



5 months, 
ending: Novem- 
ber30th,1909. 



127. £ 



0.00 



421.54 


2 073.85 


64.07 


341.32 


233.99 


696.64 


39.55 


101.21 


150.00 


750.00 


231.25 


663.47 



$1 130.40 



$4 626.49 



$1 130.40 



$4 626.49 



$500.90 



Imperial Land Company. — The parties who were induced to back 
the enterprise financially were afraid of the colonization end, and 
would have nothing whatever to do with it. Accordingly, it was neces- 



Papers.] IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1399 

sary to form a colonization company — the Imperial Land Company — 
which was incorporated under the laws of California in March, 1900, 
and consisted in part of some of the promoters of the C. D. Co. and in 
part of other people. This corporation contracted to do all advertising 
and colonizing and sell all water stock in consideration of having the 
exclusive privilege of town sites and a commission of 25% on water 
stock sales. By using Government land scrip, this company obtained 
immediate ownership in fee simple of tracts of land in various parts 
of the valley and subdivided them into town sites. These town sites 
were covered with water stock in order to obtain water for domestic and 
municipal use through the assistance of the mutual companies, because 
no wells, except some very deep and unsatisfactory ones quite recently 
sunk on the east side of Imperial Valley, have ever been possible for 
domestic supply. The Imperial Land Company thus established the 
town sites of Mexicali, in Mexico, and Calexico, Heber, Imperial, and 
Brawley, in California. The other town sites — El Centre, the county 
seat, Holtville, Seeley, Dixieland, and several smaller places were plat- 
ted and put on the market by other parties. 

TABLE 9. — Operating Expenses of California Development Co., 
January 1st, 1908, to March 31st, 1909. 



Maintenance, canals and structures 

Maintenance, levee 

Maintenance, equipment 

Distribution of water 

General expense* 

Construction of canals 

Construction of levees 

Totals 



1908, 
12 months. 



$71 419.91 
10 360. .35 
18 528.69 
15 613.42 
75 162.82 
73 765.12 
32 303.09 



$297 053.43 



1909, 

January, 

February, and 

March. 



518 177.32 
647.24 
4 182.21 
4 559.10 
12 277.76 
27 3.59.47 
32 297.84 



$99 500.94 



* Of this sum, $30 665.28 was litigation expenses and costs. 

During 1911 the total net deliveries of water to the mutual water companies in the 
United States were 597 178 acre-ft., or $298 490.98. 

This colonization company in general was successful, but not to the 
extent which would be expected, considering the unprecedentedly rapid 
settlement of the region, and the contract was certainly a fair one to 
the C. D. Co., up to the time of its abrogation in 1906. Water stock 
was sold to the settlers for small cash payments and notes payable in 



1400 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

five yearly settlements at 6% interest, such notes being secured by a 
mortgage on the water stock purchased. Many of the settlers had scant 
means and only a filing right on the land, so that the water stock was 
not made appurtenant to the land, but left as personal property. The 
initial payment went to the Imperial Land Company, and was by it 
used for advertising and other essential purposes, the collateral notes 
and mortgages secured by the water stock being taken by the C. D. Co. 

TABLE 10. — Average Diversion and Deliveries of Water by the 
Canal Systems of the C. D. Co. and the Mexican Co. for the 
Week, Ending January 19th, 1912. 



Gauge at Yuma 15-3 ft- 

Gauge opposite intake 105.9 

Elevation of bottom of diversion gate 98.0 " 

Average tlow of Colorado River at Yuma 4 000 sec-f t. 

Diversion from Colorado River at Andrade 1 559 " " 

Used in Mexico 37 sec-ft. 

Used in United States 894.6 " " 

♦Wasted at Rositas waste-gate 331.3 " " 

Total 1 252.9 sec-ft. 

Total loss, Andrade to Sharps 306.1 sec-ft. 

* 171.1 sec-ft. of this passed through the plant of the Holton Power Company en route 
to this waste-gate for developing electrical energy. 

This loss equals 19.6% in ahout 46 miles of main canal, chiefly the bed ot the old Alamo 
River, or 0.43% per mile on the average— an extremely low figure. 

Management of the C. B. Co. — Delta Investment Company. — 
Until the water rentals became of importance, these collateral notes 
and mortgages constituted the only receipts of the C. D. Co., and 
these assets were looked on with considerable suspicion by the finan- 
cial institutions of Los Angeles. Nevertheless, they were taken as col- 
lateral at about 25 cents on the dollar until the merit of the entire 
enterprise was rendered questionable in various ways, as explained 
later. When this OQCurred the Delta Investment Company was 
formed — in the fall of 1901 — with assets consisting solely of C. D. Co. 
and Imperial Land Company stock contributed by the wealthier people 
of the enterprise, whose confidence was waning. This company was 
given a contract to take over all the C. D. Co.'s bonds at 50 cents 
on the dollar; and all its collateral notes and mortgages at the same 
discount. By this arrangement, the Delta Investment Company fac- 
tion absolutely controlled the C. D. Co., although the amount of the 
C. D, Co. stock held by it was much less than a majority. 



Papers.] IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1401 



WATER DELIVERED 

BY 

THE CALIFORNIA DEVELOPMENT CO. 

TO LANDS IN THE UNITED STATES 

DURING THE PERIOD, 1 905 TO 1911. 




Fig. 8. 



1403 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

TABLE 11. — Annual Expenditures 
OF Imperial Water Company No. 1 for 1911. 

Capital stock = 100 000 shares, all of which have been sold, and 
are located on 100 000 acres of land. Total length of canals- = 373.25 
miles. 

Maintenance : 

Superintendence 8" 000.00 

Engineering 1 600.00 

Corral 3 805. 11 

Automobile 500. (X) 

Sliops 2 463.13 

Materials and supplies 32 046.11 

Labor, men and teams 75 887.41 

Damages 645.91 

Muskrats, bounty at $1 each 492.00 

$114 439.67 

Operation : 

Superintendence $3 815.74 

Engineering 168.81 

Zan.ieros 32 609.02 

Corral 3 193.36 

Automobile 476.39 

Materials and supplies 1 892.98 

Telephone 260.16 

Water meters 260 .47 

32 675.93 

General Expense : 

Salaries $6 410.02 

General expenses 2 971.13 

Printing and stationery 439.94 

Taxes and insurance 956.59 

Furniture and fixtures 520.45 

Legal expenses 10 889.38 

22 187.51 

Imperial Water Company No. 1, expense $169 303.11 

Water Bought (from the C. D. Co.) 305183 acre-ft., less 10% allowance for 
seepage and evaporation, at 50 cents per acre-ft., on net amounts 137 332.50 

Total expenditures* $306 635.61 

*The expenses of the company were almost exactly $1.70 per acre, and the water rent- 
als paid to the C. D. Co. $1 .37 per acre. The total cost to the farmers, therefore, averaged 
$3.05 divided by 2.747, or $1.11 per acre-ft.— a very low figure for water in California, where 
the " water right " averages $12 per acre, or indeed much more. 

It must be admitted that the Delta Investment Company took over 
such securities at a larger price than could have been obtained from 
any other source. Nevertheless, the securities were really good, every- 
thing considered, and. quite a few large and apparently strange and 
dishonest transactions were made between the two corporations result- 
ing to the great benefit of one faction of the C. D. Co. at the expense 
of the other. Money was forthcoming for construction purposes, but 
was costing the C. D. Co. $2 for every $1 obtained. The result was 
that in a couple of months serious dissensions arose, and in February, 
1902, an adjustment was made cancelling the contract with the Delta 
Investment Company and eliminating the original financial backers 
from further connection with the enterprise. March 1st, 1902, there- 



Papers.] IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1403 

fore, found the C. D. Co. with all its bonds gone, its collateral notes 
and mortgages largely depleted, no money in the treasury, and deeply 
in debt. Shortly afterward actual results from farming under the 
project were so reassuring that the company was able to borrow $25 000 
from the First National Bank of Los Angeles and begin afresh. 

The contract with the Delta Investment Company was a serious 
thing for the C. D. Co., but, to be perfectly fair in presentation, it 
must be borne in mind that the financial interests backing the enter- 
prise had their confidence in the project so violently shaken by ad- 
vance rumors of an adverse Government soil report (to be discussed 
later) that they felt justified in trying to get back all that might 
be possible from the wreckage. 

With the exception of the arrangement with the Delta Investment 
Company, no proper criticism can be made of the handling of the 
finances of the whole irrigation project, as far as any of the promoters 
of the irrigation company are concerned. The writer has had oppor- 
tunity and occasion to investigate thoroughly the relationship of all 
the corporations, and in common fairness must state that, while the 
deals back and forth were many and diverse, they were otherwise 
with very few exceptions reasonable and fair, when the circumstances 
and reasons which produced them are given the proper weight. Further- 
more, the general aims and plans which the company practically suc- 
ceeded in carrying out do not merit any more criticism than those of 
the average Western irrigation project, if indeed as much. Had the 
break in the Colorado River never been allowed to get beyond control — 
and it never would have happened, in spite of all obstacles, had the 
loan of the Southern Pacific Company (referred to later) been ar- 
ranged 6 months earlier than it was — the C. D. Co. would undoubtedly 
have proved to be one of the most successful private irrigation en- 
terprises throughout the entire land. 

Colorado River Land Company. — It is well at this time to mention 
the Colorado Eiver Land Company and the New Liverpool Salt Com- 
pany. The former is a corporation consisting principally of Southern 
California stockholders, incorporated under the laws of Mexico, and 
owning about 1 000 000 acres south of the International Boundary 
Line and west of the Colorado River. It owns all the Colorado River 
Delta west of the river in Mexico except 162 000 acres, the location of 
these holdings and those of other important Mexican land owners 



1404 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

being shown on Fig. 4. The existence and operation of this corpora- 
tion have lately become important as being the agency through which 
the United States Government has handled the river control work 
recently done by it. The company will hereafter be referred to as the 
C. M. Co., as it is locally called. 

The New Liverpool Salt Company. — This corporation was organized 
many years ago for the purpose of obtaining salt from the deposits 
in the bottom of the Salton Sink, and began operations in 1884. In 
1904 its plant was reasonably satisfactory in its details and had a 
capacity of 1 200 tons of salt per month. The actual value of the 
plant arid the salt beds, taking into consideration the excellent quality 
of the salt,* the conditions under which the Company operated, and 
the competition it had to meet, is of course impossible to determine 
without access to the company's records. It appears, however, that 
negotiations at that time were pending for its sale, the figures being 
$150 000 asked and $100 000 offered. When the water began to come 
into the sink in large quantities, negotiations were dropped, and the 
entire plant was soon buried by the Salton Sea. 

Operations of the Californl\ Development Company. 

When the C. D. Co. was ready to begin operations, there was on 
the lower river a dipper dredge with a 4-yd. bucket which had been 
built and equipped by Hon. Eugene S. Ives, of Yuma, Ariz., and his 
associates, for digging irrigating canals near Yuma. This dredge 
was bought by the company in exchange for guaranteed bonds, floated 
down the river, and, in August, 1900, set to work excavating a canal 
along the lines marked "Original Intake" in Fig. 9 and then follow- 
ing the old Alamo overflow channel to a point 8 miles below. From 
that point the Alamo channel, with a little diking here and there, 
had sufficient capacity to carry for some time the water needed. 

About 500 ft. above the Boundary Line a temporary wooden head- 
gate. Fig. 2, Plate CIV, known locally as the "Chaffey" gate, was put 

*The published analyses of the deposit give the following average : 

Sodium chloride 96.15 

Sodium sulphate 0.70 

Calcium sulphate 0.60 

Magnesium sulphate 1.60 

Insoluble 0.10 

Water 0.85 



100.00 



The California State Mineralogist reports the value as $1 per ton. 



Papers.] IRRIGATION" AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 



1405 




SHOWING LOCATION OF WORK ON 

A HEADGATE AND THE FOURTH 

ATTEMPT TO CLOSE BREAK 



Fig. 12 



MAP SHOWING VARIOUS INTAKES OF THE 

CANAL TO IMPERIAL VALLEY AND LOCATION OF 

THE FIRST ATTEMPT TO CLOSE THE LOWER ONE 

Fig. 9 



140G IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

in. This was a well-designed and well-built wooden, A-frame, flash- 
board gate, 70 ft. long, 15 ft. high, with a plank floor, and founded on 
piling. When it was built* nothing was known or even suspected with 
reference to the rapid and large variation in elevation of the river 
bed at varying flood stages and otherwise, and it is not surprising, 
therefore, that the floor was not put as low as it should have been, 
but, even so, it was not as deep by 5 ft. as planned by Mr. Eockwood, 
who, by the way, from April, 1900, to February, 1902, was not in charge 
of the engineering side of the enterprise, Messrs. George and Andrew 
Chaffey, now of Los Angeles, handling the property. The structure 
was made ho larger, not because of cost, but because it seemed certain 
that when more water than the gate's capacity should be required, 
that fact would mean such revenues as to permit building the permanent 
concrete and steel diversion works at Pilot Knob, regardless of all other 
considerations. In passing, it may be said that the construction and 
design of this temporary head-gate was fully equal to that of any 
throughout the West, even to-day. The floor, however, was quite too 
high. 

At what is known as Sharp's Heading, the Alamo channel was 
abandoned as the main canal, and the controlling works for the valley 
end were put in. These consisted of a wooden, A-frame, flash-board 
gate in the continuation of the Alamo, a similar gate at the head 
of the Encina or West Side Main canal, and a combined gate and 
drop, known as Sharp's Head-gate, from which leads off the Central 
Main, the chief canal in the valley. 

This last structure is well worth describing in some detail. In 
the first place, it is a most vital part of the system, because, being 
a combination of a drop and regulating gate, were it to fail, the water 
in the Alamo or Main Canal above it would immediately be lowered 
far too much to permit taking out any whatever for the East and 
West Side Mains. To realize the consequences of this, it must be re- 
membered that irrigation water is needed every day in the year, and 
that no stock and domestic water for the entire region, except for 
the Town of Holtville, can be had, except from the irrigation system 
and by being brought in by the railroad in water cars. In the second 
place, for several months consecutively, in each year since 1905, it has 

* Nothing really was known about the changes in elevation of the river bed until 1907. 



PLATE CV. 

PAPERS, AM. SOC. C. E, 

NOVEMBER, 1912. 

CORY ON 

IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, 

COLORADO RIVER DELTA. 



SHARP'S HEAD-GATE IN CENTRAL MAIN CANAL 
All floor and wall planks are 3 x 13"batteaed with l"x 4" 
All piles. Joists, caps, and spreaders, 8 x 8" 
Posts and girts of wings, 8'x 10" 

All sbeet-piling has penetration of 11 feet. Double lines represent sheet-piling 
Joists rest on caps which in turn are on b"x S'piles 
.Brush wings are supported "by 8'x 8"piles and girts and lap ( 



wooden aprons. 




SIDE ELEVATION 



Papers.] irrigation AND R1VI3R CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1407 

been taxed beyond the capacity for which it was designed, without 
developing any serious weakness. Furthermore, at intervals of about 
18 months, since it was put in service in 1903, the canal above it has 
been emptied for periods of not more than 60 hours to permit of in- 
spection and light repairs, but the very first overhauling or extensive 
repairs were begun on January 5th, 1912. 

The writer confesses to a predilection for permanent structures of 
masonry, concrete, or steel, and this gate and the Alamo Waste-gate, 
built in 1905, were nightmares to him while in charge of the prop- 
erties. It would seem that a large part of this was worry wasted, 
however. 

Sharp's Head-gate was designed by, and built under the direc- 
tion of, Mr. C. N. Periy, then Resident Engineer of both companies, 
the fundamental idea being to cut up the foundation into a number of 
water-tight compartments. Plates CV and CVI show this construction. 

Where Beltran's Slough leaves the Alamo channel, a wooden, flash- 
board gate was built to waste water through Beltran's and Garza's 
Sloughs into the New River, but about 3 months after being put 
in service it failed, due to back currents below it. 

The original plan for supplying the territory to the east of the 
Alamo was to utilize the Alamo channel from Sharp's Heading to 
Holtville, an earthen dam being used to bring the water to the surface 
of the land at that point. This dam soon failed, and the canal from 
there was connected with the Alamo at a point about 1^ miles above 
Sharp's, such connection being made in record time, with a cross- 
section only large enough for the demand. The idea was that erosion 
would enlarge it, which in general has been the case, although some 
blasting was required to assist the action. Originally known as No. 5 
Main, the canal is generally called the East Side Main. It, as well as the 
West Side Main, is occasionally broken in places by the severe rain- 
storms — almost cloudbursts — which occur at infrequent intervals in the 
region. To provide absolute protection against such damage would 
be very expensive, and neither No. 5, which owns the exposed portion 
of the East Side Main, nor the C. D. Co., which owns all the West 
Side Main, has done so. Otherwise they, as well as the Central Main, 
are quite satisfactory. 

Main canals were constructed from Sharp's to serve the territory 
between the New and Alamo Rivers (the Central Main) ; a second, the 



1408 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

West Side Main, crossed New River to serve territory west of that 
waterway, and a third, the East Side Main, to serve the territory 
east of the Alamo. In 11 months, or in June, 1909, delivery of water 
was begun through the Boundary Canal as far west as Calexico, and 
the Central Main was put into service in March, 1902, or in 19 months. 

Imperial Water Companies Nos. 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 were formed, 
and triparty contracts were entered into with each. The C. D. Co. 
constructed the distributing systems for these districts, with the ex- 
ception of that of Imperial Water Co. No. 7.* The total length of 
canals in all these distributing systems was approximately 700 miles 
on January 1st, 1905, and there were also about 80 miles of canal 
belonging to the C. D. Co. and the Mexican Co., making the total 
about 780 miles. During 1905 and 1906 relatively little canal building 
was done, because the river got beyond control; and, from 1907 to 
1911, inclusive, the increase has been less than 20% on account of 
excessive litigation following the vast expenditures for controlling 
the river, and because the canals existing on January 1st, 1905, covered 
85% of the territory now under ditches. 

With the exception of a permanent diversion gate at the river, 
two permanent structures replacing temporary ones in the valley, the 
building of the Alamo Waste-gate (Fig. 1, Plate CXIV), just above 
Sharp's Heading (June 25th to August 17th, 1905), and another in 
the Central Main at Station 134 (November 13th, 1904, to January 
12th, 1905), that portion of the canal system completed on January 
1st, 1905, has not been essentially changed or enlarged, and, with few 
exceptions, the original structures are still being used. There is a 
marked tendency on the part of the mutual water companies to replace 
wooden structures with permanent ones of reinforced concrete, but 
otherwise in general the canal systems are as satisfactory as any 
which could be devised. 

The irrigation service afforded to farmers in Imperial Valley is 
the best of which the writer has ever heard. This has been the case 
with the exception of three short periods : the winter of 1904, 1 month 

* The water rights for all the land south and east of the district of Imperial Water 
Co. No. 5 which could be irrigated by gravity from what was known as the Holt Heading— 
where the East Side Main heads— approximately 18 000 acres, were sold for $50 000. the 
purchaser, Mr. W. F. Holt, from Mutual Water Company No. 7, constructing the distribution 
system and selling for his own benefit all the capital stock of this company. The fact that 
this deal was made at the rate of S3 per acre, including the consideration for the propor- 
tional cost of the controlling works in the valley and of the main canal thereto from the 
Colorado River, for one of the very richest sections of land, shows plainly the financial 
straits of the company at that time. 



PLATE CVI. 

PAPERS, AM. SOC. C. E. 

NOVEMBER, 1912. 

CORY ON 

IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, 

COLORADO RIVER DELTA. 








Double liueb rvprwrat •h«i-pilin« ( x 12*Toogned aod Oroovei. 
Aprons »r©2 x.l2 Ooonn^ restint; on pilu foQmluiiuui.outvrodtfe depsw^il £fiMl' 



Papers.] IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1409 

(November) in 1906, and a total of 2 months in 1910, when there 
were shortages of water. Indeed, so accustomed are the water users 
of this region to obtaining all the water they want whenever they 
want it, that a suggestion of delivery in rotation — which is done in 
almost all irrigation projects — would doubtless meet violent opposition. 

A preliminary summary, issued on December 15th, 1911, by the 
U. S. Census Bureau, states that, in 1909, 2 664 104* acres of land 
were irrigated in California, of which 220 000 acres, or one-twelfth, 
were in Imperial Valley. The percentage irrigated of the whole num- 
ber of farms was 44.6, or 39 352 acres. The area included in projects 
completed and under construction was 5 490 360 acres, or slightly 
more than double the present irrigated area. Probably there will soon 
be 450 000 acres under the Imperial Valley canals, or just about the 
same proportion of one-twelfth. Of the acreage irrigated in 1909, 
there were 400 acres (0.01%) under the canals of the U. S. Eeclama- 
tion Service; 3 490 acres (0.1%) under the U. S. Indian Service 
canals: 173 793 acres (6.5%) under canals of irrigation districts; 
779 020 acres (29.2%) co-operative enterprises; 746 265 acres (28%) 
commercial enterprises; and 961136 acres (36.1%) individual or part- 
nership enterprises. Of tlie irrigated acreage in 1909, 71% was 
watered by works controlled by the water users. Of the remaining 
29%, almost one-third is under the canals of the C. D. Co. Aside 
from the very large area covered by the canals of this project, its rela- 
tive importance is vastly increased by the vital necessity for continu- 
ous service every day in the year, which has no counterpart of which 
the writer knows, and the minimum daily demand in winter is one- 
fourth of the maximum. 

Obstacles Encountered hy the C. D. Co. — The settlement of Im- 
perial Valleyf took place more rapidly than any of the men interested 
in the project had even hoped, and constituted the most marvelous 
achievement of irrigation in the West, up to that date at least, and 
probably to the present time. On January 1st, 1901, with the excep- 

* Undoubtedly, the greater part of this total is irrigated only after a fashion, so that 
the relative importance of the irrigated area in Imperial Valley is much greater than the 
figures indicate. 

t The Imperial Land Company decided to use the name "Imperial Valley," for the 
region to be covered by the irrigation canals, instead of "Colorado Desert "or " Salton 
Basin," partly to distingiush between the reclaimed and unreclaimed areas, but chiefly for 
the effect of the name on readers of the colonization literature put out by the company. 
The name, " Imperial Valley," is firmly established as referring to the cultivated portion 
of the Colorado Delta west of the river, whether north or south of the International 
Boundary Line. 



1410 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

tion of a party of surveyors, not a single white man lived in the whole 
region; by January 1st, 1903, 2 000 people had come in; by January 
1st, 1904, probably 7 000 people had made their homes in the new 
district, and by January 1st, 1905, the population was between 12 000 
and 14 000. As early as 1904 there was a branch railroad through the 
district from the Southern Pacific main line at Old Beach, since 
called Imperial Junction, and, at the beginning of 1905, there were 
seven towns, with stores, banks, etc., Y80 miles of canals, about 120 000 
acres of land under actual cultivation, and 200 000 acres covered by 
water stock. 

This unprecedented and unexpectedly rapid development over- 
taxed the resources of the 0. D. Co., and, in addition, there were 
several untoward factors which accentuated the difficulty. These were 
serious complications in the United States Government Land Survey 
of the region, an extremely unfavorable soil report by the United 
States Agricultural Department, agitation for the United States Recla- 
mation Service to supplant the irrigation system of the valley, a ques- 
tion as to the right to divert water from the Colorado River, and 
troubles at the intake by silt depositions. 

United States Land Surveys in the Imperial Valley. — That portion 
of the Imperial Valley north of the 4tli standard parallel was sup- 
posed to have been surveyed in 1854-56. The maps and notes for it 
were accepted, but there is at least some question whether the survey 
was ever actually made in the field. Later, in 1880, after the Interna- 
tional Boundary Commission had surveyed the Boundary Line between 
the United States and Mexico and marked it continuously with perma- 
nent monuments, the area south of the 4th standard parallel was sur- 
veyed, this being locally known as the "Brunt" survey. The coloniza- 
tion company, in April, 1900, put out surveying parties under the 
direction of Mr. Perry, now County Surveyor of Imperial County, 
to re-run the Government lines and establish corners so that settlers 
might have proper descriptions for the tracts of land they wished to 
file on, and also that the distribution systems of the various mutual 
companies might be located along the Government subdivision lines, 
as the topography of the land is such that this ideal canal location is 
generally feasible. Mr. Perry found nearly all the corners of the 
Brunt survey, and used the notes showing certain connections made 
with the survey of 1856 along the 4th standard parallel. In this way 



PLATE evil. 

PAPERS, AM. 800. C. E. 

NOVEMBER, 1912. 

CORr ON 

IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, 

COLORADO RIVER DELTA. 



MPERIAL COUNTY 

CALIFORNIA 

JNDARY OF IMPERIAL IRRIGATION DISTRICT 
T5ras"lV!R\ INDICATED BY HEAVY BORDER 

Scale of Miles 




Papers.] IRRIGATION" AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1411 

the lines to the north were retraced, but, some time later, when the 
survey had extended farther and the work of retracing the lines east 
of the Alamo Eiver was commenced, it was discovered, by encounter- 
ing natural features given by the notes of the 1856 survey, 2 miles or 
more out of correspondence, that there were serious errors. Exhaustive 
search was then made for the 1854-56 survey stakes, but in an area of 
thirty townships only five corners were discovered which seemed to 
be authentic. These were widely scattered, and showed great errors. 
Between the 3d and 4th parallels the actual distance was found to 
be 25^ miles, or an error of 11 miles in a 24-mile north and south line. 
East and west the error was approximately 2 miles in 30. 

Throughout the territory. Sections 16 and 36, the school sections, 
had been given to the State of California by the United States Gov- 
ernment for the benefit of the State school fund, the remainder of the 
land belonged to the United States, and this dual ownership increased 
the difficulty of making any adjustment. In June, 1902, the president 
of the colonization company and the chief engineer of the C. D. Co. 
went to Washington, explained the situation, and, on the advice of 
the General Land Office, an Act was prepared and passed in July, 
1902, authorizing a resurvey of twenty townships of the land in Im- 
perial Valley. The outside lines of these townships were re-run in 
1903 and are known locally as the "Henderson" survey. It was more 
than 6 years, however, before the interior lines in these townships 
were re-run and the work was completed and approved. 

In the mean time, it was impossible for the Land Office to issue 
patents to the settlers, and thus men practically owning from 160 acres 
to two and three times that area of extraordinarily fertile land, with 
a selling value of from $60 to $100 per acre, could oifer no secvirity for 
a loan with which to make permanent improvements. The United 
States land laws are extremely strict and severe with reference to a 
settler borrowing money with which to make final proof. Under such 
circumstances, the interest rate was naturally from 10 to 12% per 
annum, while the interest on deferred payments for the water stock 
was only 6%, so that the C. D. Co. suffered severely. However, it 
was not until 1909, more than 3 years after the control of the com- 
pany was taken over by the So^^thern Pacific interests, that any suits 
were entered to foreclose on the collateral notes and mortgages secured 
by the water stock. 



1412 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

Soil Surveys of the Imperial Valley. — In the fall of 1901 the 
Bureau of Soils, United States Department of Agriculture, made a 
soil survey of Imperial Valley. On January 10th, 1902, a preliminary 
report, "Circular No. 9," was issued covering the 169 sq. miles of terri- 
tory which had been examined.* The report doubtless presented the 
only possible conclusions, according to the information at that time 
extant regarding alkaline soils of such depth as are found in the 
Imperial Valley. It was very unfavorable, however, and calculated 
to deter sensible people from settling in the region. For example, 
one statement was as follows: 

"One hundred and twenty-five thousand acres of land have 
already been taken up by prospective settlers, many of whom talk of 
planting crops which it will be absolutely impossible to grow. They 
must early find that it is useless to attempt their growth. * * •» 
No doubt the best thing to do is to raise crops such as the sugar beet, 
sorgum, and date palm (if the climate will permit), that are 
suited to such alkaline conditions, ajid abandon as worthless the land 
which contains too much alkali to grow those crops." 

The warning was reiterated in a subsequent report.f It seems 
certain that, had the territory not been already settled in very large 
measure when these reports were sent out. Imperial Valley would yet 
be unreclaimed. 

Agitation in Favor of a Reclamation Service Project. — When the 
United States Eeclamation Service Act was passed, in June, 1902, 
the crops produced in the Imperial Valley were causing a return 
of confidence in the region, and the extraordinarily rapid development 
was being resumed. The irrigation possibilities on the Colorado River 
had already been examined by the United States Geological Survey, 
and in 1903 plans for the Yuma Project were outlined. The engineers 
of the Service were convinced that no diversion from the Colorado for 
irrigation could be perinanently successful where provisions were not 
made for preventing the heavy silt from entering the canals — that 
it would take an impractically large amount of dredging to keep 
canals leading directly from the river open for reasonably satisfactory 
delivery of water. The cost of the Laguna Weir, borne by the land 
owners of Imperial Valley alone, constitutes a serious burden, but, if 

* -'Field Operations of the Bureau of Soils, U. S.|Department of Agriculture, 1901, p. 587." 
t " Soil Survey of the Imperial Area, California (Extending the Survey of 1901), 
Advance Sheet of Field Operations of the Bureau of Soils, 1903." 



Papers.] IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1413 

borne by all the irrigible land in both valleys, the cost per acre 
would be reduced to approximately one-fourth. Mr. William E. Smythe, 
of San Diego, who has been very prominent in the work of the National 
Irrigation Congress, and has written extensively on irrigation gen- 
erally, urged the people of Imperial Valley to join with the Yuma 
Project; that the enterprise would then be backed by the Government 
with unlimited funds; that they would be required to pay to the 
Government only a small portion of the money they were obliged 
in one way and another to pay the C. D. Co., and that they would 
eventually acquire the laudable desire of owning and operating their 
own system. The Imperial Water Users' Association was accordingly 
formed with Mr. W. F, Holt, of Eedlands, Cal., as its President, 
and negotiations were at once instituted with the C. D. Co. to ac- 
quire its canal system. Mr. A. H. Heber, President of the C. D. Co., 
who acted for it in the matter, knew that the estimates of the Reclama- 
tion Service for the canal line into Imperial Valley, lying entirely on 
American soil, were at least $10 000 000, on account of the sand hills. 
He believed that the Alamo River for 40 miles was a very satisfactory 
main canal, and that by owning the 100 000-acre tract of the Mexican 
Co., building another waterway through Mexican territory would re- 
quire the consent of the Mexican Co. ; consequently, his idea regarding 
the values of the property were excessively high. 

As a natural feature of these negotiations, and with a view to tem- 
pering such ideas as to price, the right of the C. D. Co. to take water 
from the Colorado was challenged. The navigability of that stream 
suddenly assumed serious commercial, national, and international im- 
portance. As usual in such cases, these questionings were carried to 
unfortunate extremes. 

In the course of events, at a mass meeting of the farmers in 
Imperial on July 30th, 1904, Mr. Heber offered to have the price fixed 
by arbitration, one man to be appointed by him, one by the Imperial 
Water Users' Association, and a third to be selected by these two. 
This was not done, but instead, the engineers of the Reclamation 
Service estimated the value of the plant of the C. D. Co. and the 
Mexican Co., making a report to the Secretary of the Interior on 
October 1st, 1904, a copy of which the writer has not yet succeeded in 
obtaining. On being advised by the Secretary of the Interior of the 
conclusion of such report, the Imperial Water Users' Association ap- 



1414 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

pointed a committee, headed by Mr. Holt, to negotiate with Mr. Heber, 
which was done, and a price of $3 000 000 was mutually agreed on. 
A petition was addressed to the Secretary of the Interior setting forth 
such action, and the committee of the Water Users' Association, to- 
gether with Mr. Heber, as the duly authorized agent of the C. D. Co., 
went together to Washington to arrange matters accordingly. Soon 
after reaching Washington, however, the committee, without intimat- 
ing to Mr. Heber in any way that it had changed its opinion, agreed 
with the Reclamation Service authorities against buying the property 
on such a basis. 

With such unpardonable bad faith on the part of the committee, 
it is not surprising that the conference ended with relations between 
Mr. Heber and the Reclamation Service so strained that further nego- 
tiations were impossible. At that time it was announced by the Service 
that its legal department had concluded that no law existed whereby 
it could deal with the problem of carrying water through Mexico. 

The effect of the entire incident was to render the people of the 
valley antagonistic to the company, and at the same time split them 
into several factions. More important, however, was the effect of the 
severe criticisms of the plant and water rights of the C. D. Co., which 
had been given wide publicity. The company's credit, which had 
slowly but steadily improved since 1902, was again destroyed in South- 
ern California and in the larger financial markets of the United 
States. Consequently, early in 1905, when these negotiations ended, 
the company was almost on the rocks. 

Water Rights Attached.- — Because of the attacks on the right to 
take water from the Colorado, then well under way, a bill was intro- 
duced into the House of Representatives in January, 1904, at the re- 
quest of the C. D. Co., declaring: 

"That the water of the Colorado River for the irrigation of the 
arid land that may be irrigated therefrom is hereby declared to be of 
greater public use and benefit than for navigation, and the diversion 
of the water from said river, heretofore made and that which may in 
future be made, for irrigation purposes, in accordance with the laws 
of the respective States and Territories in which such diversion has 
been or may be made, is hereby legalized and made lawful. 

"Section 2. That any person, firm, or corporation be, and is hereby, 
authorized to divert, take, and appropriate water from the Colorado 
River for the purpose of irrigation, in such quantity, subject to and 



Papers.] IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1415 

under the State appropriation of" the State of California, as now in 
force under the laws of said State." (H. E. 13 627, 58th Congress, 2d 
Session.) 

The U. S. Reclamation Service had filed on some of the flood-waters 
of the Colorado in order to fill four large reservoirs between The 
Needles and Yuma, then under contemplation, and such filings were 
practically second only to those of the C. D. Co., so that the effect 
of this proposed legislation, other than on the C. D. Co., was null. 
The bill was bitterly opposed by Mr. Smythe, as representing the major- 
ity of the settlers in Imperial Valley. No attempt was made to 
amend the bill with a view of protecting all interests in a fair and 
equitable manner, but instead, under date of April 8th, 1904, the Act- 
ing Attorney General, Mr. Hoyt, in an opinion addressed to the Com- 
mittee on Irrigation on Arid Lands, to which the bill had been referred, 
said: 

"In view of these provisions [from the Treaty of Guadalupe- 
Hidalgo, February 2d, 1848 ; of the Gadsden Purchase, December 30th, 
1853; and the Boundary Treaty of November 12th, 1884, between 
Mexico and the United States] and of the important irrigation projects 
now and hereafter to be carried on by the United States Government, 
I seriously doubt the wisdom of a surrender by Congress at this time 
of all control over the waters of the Colorado River." 

Accordingly, the Committee reported* requesting the Secretary of 
the Interior to investigate and report to Congress on the various ques- 
tions involved in the use of the waters of the Lower Colorado River, 
with a view to determining their availability for irrigation, and recom- 
mend any legislation which might be necessary. This resolution failed 
to pass. 

Mexican Concession Secured. — Failing to secure an adjustment of 
water rights at the hands of Congress, Mr, Heber went at once to 
Mexico and quickly obtained a concession from President Diaz, which 
was ratified by the Mexican Congress on June Yth, 1904. 

This concession authorized the Mexican Co. to carry, through its 
canal system in Mexico, 284 cu. m. per sec. (approximately 10 000 
sec-ft.), to be diverted from the Colorado River in United States ter- 
ritory by the C. D. Co. and turned over to the Me^tican Co. at the 
boundary line; to construct an intake on Mexican territory, and con- 
necting with the said canal system, and divert through such intake 
* House Joint Resolution No. 147. 



1416 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

284 cu. m. per sec, to be used in the irrigation of lands in Mexico and 
in the United States, but with the proviso, "without injuring the 
rights of any third party nor tlie navigation as long as the river is 
destined for navigation"; that, of the water carried in the canal, 
enough should be used to irrigate the lands in Mexico susceptible of 
irrigation by gravity to an amount not exceeding one-half the total 
volume; that the Mexican Co. should begin surveys within 6 months, 
and within 12 months file, with the Secretary of Development, maps 
ill duplicate of the proposed extensions and betterments, together with 
a descriptive report, and entirely complete the same within 7 years; 
that the company should pay into the Inspection Fund, as is custom- 
ary in all concessions granted by the Mexican Government, a sum, 
in this case $300 (Mexican money), per month, and should be subject 
to inspection by an engineer appointed by the Secretary of Develop- 
ment; granting the company the right of eminent domain over private 
property and defining the process by which condemnation could be 
carried out — incidentally with minimum possible difiiculty — and per- 
mitting importation once for all, free of customs or duty, all equip- 
ment and apparatus necessary for the construction of the proposed 
extensions and betterments, together with freedom from all taxes, 
except stamp tax, for a period of 10 years; stipulating that under no 
circumstances should the company sell or mortgage the concession to 
any government or foreign state, nor admit it in partnership ; that the 
company should be subject to the laws and rulings now in force, and 
which in future may be enacted, for the supervision and use of waters; 
particularly specifying that the company and its assigns shall always 
be considered as Mexican corporations, though all or any of its stock- 
holders should be foreigners; that the corporation should be subject 
to the jurisdiction of the Courts of the Republic in all affairs emanat- 
ing within Mexican territory, and that such stockholders should never 
be able to allege the rights of foreigners under any circumstances, but 
have the rights and the methods of establishing the same as the laws 
of the Republic grant to Mexican citizens, so that, in any matters, 
diplomatic or foreign agents should not have any interference. 

Condition op Plant in the Summer of 1904. 

From the first, there was a great deal of trouble with the Chaffey 
Head-gate, chiefly because its floor was not down to the bottom grade 



Papers.] IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1417 

line of the canal, as originally planned. As has been explained, this 
gate was a temporary structure, but well and substantially built. Just 
as it was being covered up by the oijerations of the dredge. Alpha, 
cutting the main canal into the permanent concrete head-gate from 
below, in 1906, the writer examined it carefully and found it in an 
excellent state of preservation. The floor was so high, however, that 
it was necessary, during the low-water seasons of 1902-03 and 1903-04, 
to cut a by-pass around the gate, and close it on the approach of the 
summer floods. Wlien the Mexican concession was obtained, the first 
Mexican intake was cut from the river to the main canal, as shown 
in Fig. 9. 

In the winter of 1902-03 there had been shortages of water in the 
valley, due to the fact that the main canal had not been completed 
to its final depth; and, with the apparatus and available funds on 
hand, it was impossible to keep the water supply up to the demands 
when the river fell exceedingly low. In the winter and early spring 
of 1904, another water shortage caused considerable damage in the 
valley, and claims amounting to $500 000 were presented to the com- 
pany. Every one of these was settled out of Court, however, in 1905 
and the early part of 1906, with a payment of less than $35 000, taken 
entirely in water and water stock, and the writer believes that every 
claim was fairly settled, at least as far as the settlers were concerned. 

Below the intake the first 4 miles of the Main Canal caused much 
worry, due to the extent to which it silted up during floods, but, with 
this exception, the plant of the C. D. Co. was in quite satisfactory 
condition. The canals were generally well located and in fair condi- 
tion, and the structures, while of redwood and not concrete, were sub- 
stantially built according to good design, and were in excellent condi- 
tion. The canals in the distribution systems of the mutual water 
companies were silting up constantly, on account of the muddy water. 
In part, this was unavoidable, but was largely due to uneconomical 
methods of water deliveries when dealing with muddy water, particu- 
larly in serving any settler on his demand, regardless of the very low 
velocity, if no one else wanted water from the lateral during the same 
time. The silt problem in the distribution systems of these companies, 
however, is as simple as it will ever be for any lands irrigated along 
the Lower Colorado. The financial status of the various mutual com- 



I 



1418 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

panies was quite good, and they had generally established a small but 
satisfactory credit with the local banks. 

To avoid excessive silt depositions in the first 4 miles of the canal, 
In February and March, 1904, the Best Waste-gate, so-called, was put 
in 8 miles below the intake, where water could be wasted from the 
Alamo channel through the Quail River into the Paredones River and 
thence into Volcano Lake. This was a wooden A-frame, flash-board 
gate, 60 ft. long, but it was carried away in June, 1906, by the side- 
cutting of the banks while the Alamo channel was being enlarged by 
that year's summer flood. The idea was to divert a large quantity 
of water during the flood season of 1904, waste it through the Best 
Gate, and in this way scour out the upper portion of the canal. At 
first the action was as expected, and some 2 ft. in the bottom were 
carried away. When the river reached its maximum height during 
the summer flood of 1904, however, and carried an excessive silt con- 
tent, particularly of the heavier and sandy type, this scouring action 
was entirely overcome, and the bottom of this stretch was raised 
approximately 1 ft. higher than during the previous year. 

The Silt Problem. — This action accentuated, and properly impressed 
on the engineers of the C. D. Co., the seriousness of the silt problem 
in diverting the Colorado River water. Generally speaking, during 
flood stages, the water carries all the silt it can transport, and the 
faster the current the larger the particles it picks up and carries along. 
It is certainly desirable, and probably essential, to provide settling 
basins at or immediately below the diversion point, in which water 
can be practically stilled and thus insure the deposition of the heavier 
silt having very slight fertilizing value, and the admission of only such 
partly clarified water into the canals. Unless some provision is made, as 
at the Laguna Weir, the diversion canal immediately below the head- 
gate must act as a settling basin, which is just what happened from 
the very beginning in the canals of the C. D. Co. 

The results of such excessive silting were obviated in various ways, 
largely by the construction of new intakes, until the diversion of the 
entire river occurred, and the permanent head-gate was put in service 
in 1907. The clam-shell dredge, Delta, was utilized intermittently to 
remove the deposits until 1910, then a submerged weir was built 
across the river, to raise the water at the intake; and lastly large suction 
dredges were operated just below and just ahove the regulating gates. 



I 



Papers.] irrigation AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1419 

Kather carefully kept records indicated that the bed of the canal 
at the Lower Heading was raised a little more than 5 ft. between 
March 1st, 1907, and March 1st, 1910, most of this taking place in 
the first 6 months. The bed of the Alamo near Sharp's Heading 
was raised approximately 2 ft. in the same time, and there is constant 
deterioration all along between these points on the Alamo channel. 
The reduction of capacity in the larger canals has been noteworthy, 
but the maximum effect is shown in the smaller laterals constituting 
the distribution systems of the various mutual water companies. 

Mr. Eobert G. Kennedy states* that on the Bari Doab Canal from 
the Punjab River, the canals in Sind from the Indus and Shwebo, 
and the Mandalay canals in Burmah, it appears that in a non-silting 
and non-scouring channel the mean velocity is independent of the 
width, but increases with the depth of the channel, according to the 
equation: F^ = 0.84 d«•^ 

in which Fq = the mean velocity of a non-eroding, non-depositing 
current; and d = the depth for fine sand-silt, the constants varying 
slightly with the kind of silt. 

He also points out the exceedingly important deduction that during 
flood stages in the river, the diversion of large quantities of water in an 
effort to scour away silt depositions in the upper reaches of canals 
will have the opposite result, because of the excessive silt contents of 
the water diverted. 

The same rule probably applies fully in the case of canals carrying 
Colorado River water when they are free of vegetation. In point of 
fact, however, rank growths of tules and willows spring up on the 
banks and berms and along the edges out into the water with such 
rapidity as to increase tremendously the deterioration of carrying 
capacity, particularly in the smaller canals. Furthermore, the rate of 
deterioration in these laterals increases with the decrease in channel 
efficiency. The maintenance of the district distribution systems, there- 
fore, consists, in large part, in keeping down and removing the brush 
and tules. 

The various distribution systems were ordinarily designed and built 
on the basis of a capacity of 1 sec-ft. per 120 acres of land there- 

* " The Prevention of Silting in Irrigation Canals," Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C E., 
Vol. CXIX, 1895, pp. 281-290. 



1420 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

under, although in some cases the ratio was decreased to 1 see-ft. per 
93 acres (8 in. vertical depth of water in a month). It would have 
been just as well, indeed considerably better, and of course cheaper, 
to have made the canals much smaller, for they were put into service 
when only a small percentage of the land was in cultivation, and, 
as they carried only a fraction of their capacity, they very soon silted 
up badly. Removing the silt deposition and the accompanying tule 
growths is fully as expensive as the excavation of the original section. 

This needlessly large excavation was required by the contract pro- 
visions under which the C. D. Co. built the distribution systems of 
the various mutual water companies, and such provisions at the time 
were necessary to assure colonists that the water supply would be 
ample. In the construction of the first lateral canals built, however, 
the leaving of inside berms was a defect which should have been 
avoided. These flat stretches, usually kept damp and seldom deeply 
submerged, afford ideal conditions for tule growths, and should be 
studiously avoided in this region. 

Canal Maintenance. — In general, the best method of clearing away 
the brush tules and deposited silt in the smallest canals has been 
found to be by Mexican or Indian hand labor. The presence of checks 
and other canal structures at relatively close intervals makes the use 
of machinery of questionable economy. For the large canals, "V's", 
dragged by horses or traction engines, portable floating dipper-dredges, 
Lidgerwood cross-drags, portable clam-shell dredges, and a number of 
devices designed by local inventive geniuses have been tried with vary- 
ing success. The results in all cases depend so greatly on the efli- 
ciency with which they are handled and the local conditions under 
which they work that it will not be profitable to attempt to give 
any cost figures — indeed, with the exception of Imperial Water Com- 
pany No. 1, no cost-keeping worthy of the name has been attempted. 

Perhaps the most satisfactory appliance for cleaning canals too 
small for floating dredges is a clam-shell bucket arranged on wheels 
so that it may follow along the bank. (Fig. 1, Plate CVIII.) The 
C. D. Co. has two of these machines, manufactured by the Stockton 
Iron Works, Stockton, Cal., which cost $5 000 each, f. o. b. factory. 
These consist of a clam-shell bucket having a capacity of 15 cu. ft., 
with a 40-ft. steel boom carried on an all-steel frame. The maximum 
width is 14 ft. The power is supplied by a 15 h.p. Atlas gasoline 



PLATE CVIII. 

PAPERS, AM. SOC. C. E. 

NOVEMBER, 1912. 

CORY ON 

IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, 

COLORADO RIVER DELTA. 




£. -^ « . "^ 



. :iif-iiiii'si>t<aBB 



Fig. 1. — Stockton Clam-Shell Dredge Cleaning Canals in Impeeial Valley. 




Fig. 2.- 



-Third Attempt to Close Break at Lower Mexican Intake, 
1st, 1905. 



June 



Papers.! IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1421 

engine, manufactured in San Francisco, and the machine is self- 
propelling, with two speeds forward and one reverse. No definite fig- 
ures, including deterioration and cost of moving from one job to 
another, are available, but it is understood that the cost of handling 
material with these machines is about 13 cents per cu. yd. 

For handling silt in the upper reaches of the Main Canal along the 
river, the large 4-yd. dipper dredge, Alpha j used in the original con- 
struction, was perhaps the most efiicient of all agencies for the first 
few years until the waste banks along the canal became too high to 
permit of its further use; it handled material for about 6 cents per 
cvi. yd. A suction dredge, the Beta, equipped with a 12-in. Kroh centri- 
fugal pump — manufactured in San Francisco — was tried very soon 
after the canals were put into service, but too much difficulty was 
caused by roots clogging the pipes and machinery. Mr. H. W. Blaisdell, 
of Los Angeles, one of the principal stockholders of the C D. Co., 
devised a rotary cutter for i;se at the end of the suction pipe, but it 
was not successful. This dredge was vised at the Lower Heading, in 
the construction of the Rockwood Gate, and in the subsequent diver- 
sion work until June, 1907, when it was dismantled. 

In the central main in the valley, and also in the Alamo channel 
just above Sharp's Heading, a 2-cu. yd. dipper dredge. Gamma, has 
been used almost continuously since it was put in operation in 1904, 
removing material at about 5 cents per cu. yd. 

The clam-shell dredge. Delta, described in some detail later, has 
done excellent service in silt removal and incidental levee building, as 
well as in channel straightening, since its arrival on the work in 
November, 1906. It is now engaged in building cut-offs and making 
general channel improvements, rather than removing the silt deposits 
direct. 

In the summer of 1910 an arrangement was entered into between 
the various mutual water companies combined and the Receiver of 
the C. D. Co. whereby the former was to furnish the money and build 
a suction dredge and rent it to the latter for 10% annually on its first 
cost. This dredge was built just below the concrete head-gate, and its 
operation is confined to the American side of the line, the contract 
being entered into with the North American Dredging Company, of 
Los Angeles, on December 10th, 1910, for the construction and equip- 
ment of an exact duplicate of one of the latter company's dredges in 



1422 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

San Pedro Harbor, for $57 300. After being put into service it was 
found necessary to remodel the upper deck, in order to make the 
quarters of the crew suitable for the climatic conditions, at a cost of 
$950, and a bonus of $2 200 was paid for completion 11 days ahead 
of the contract time— 4 months— making the total cost $60 450, exclu- 
sive of engineering, inspection, and legal expenses, which brought the 
grand total cost up to approximately $63 600. This dredge, the 
Imperial, has a hull 105 ft. long, 55 ft. wide, and 8 ft. deep, and is 
equipped with a 15 by 60-in. Kroh centrifugal pump driven by a 
vertical compound engine, steam being supplied by a 250-h.p. marine- 
type boiler. This dredge handles the silt deposits in the enlarged 
section of the canal below the head-gate at the rate of about 200 cu. yd. 
per hour lifted to an average height of 35 ft., at a cost of from 5 to 7 
cents per cu. yd., exclusive of interest, taxes, and depreciation, using 
crude oil fuel at $1.40 per bbl., equivalent to coal at $5.60 per ton. 

The Imperial was equipped with a cutter for stirring up the mate- 
rial, but this was foiind to be unnecessary for handling the silt deposits 
just below the head-gate, and the cutter engine, of vertical compound 
type, with 8 by 15 by 10-in. cylinder, was installed on the barge, 
8ilas J. Lewis, mentioned later, in the canal above the head-gate to 
run the 10-in. Kroh pump formerly on the Beta, the resulting dredge 
being known as the El Centra. Under like conditions, the cost of 
handling material with the El Centra is approximately the same as with 
the Imperial. 

With these two suction dredges, it is claimed that the bed of the 
Main Canal has been lowered approximately 5 ft. above and at the 
head-gate and for a distance of 3i miles below, diminishing gradually 
to nothing throughout the next 2i miles. If future experience con- 
firms such results, it would seem that the periodic dredging of silt 
depositions from a settling basin near the intake, at a cost of from 
$30 000 to $40 000 per annum, will solve the silt problem in the Im- 
perial Valley canal system, except for the very fine silt which cannot 
be gotten rid of except by allowing the water to be quiescent for some 
time. 

The following general cost figures on maintaining the 373.25 miles 
of canals of the distribution system of Imperial Water Company No. 1 
during 1911 are taken from the annual report of the Superintendent, 
E. S. Carberry, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E. 



Papers.] irrigation AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1423 

Cleaning 465 miles of canal cost $60.64 per mile. The figures in 
1910 are 562 miles at $43.81 per mile, and the average cost for the 
last 6 months of 1909 was $73.16. Clearing on 194 miles of canal 
cost $35.39 per mile. Cutting brush on 392 miles cost $20.71 per mile. 
The figures in 1910 were 346 miles at $43.47 per mile, and $60.65 per 
mile for the last 6 months of 1909. 

In this report it is stated that canal "V'ing" is the best method 
for cleaning canals, generally speaking, and the company owns three 
"V's", each costing about $600, and three caterpillar traction engines 
to operate them, each costing $4 200. During the year, 363.8 miles 
of canal were "Vd" at $58.91 per mile, as compared with 362 miles 
in 1910 at $60.74 per mile, the details being as follows: 

"V'ing" $16.76 

Repairs to engines 16.29 

Eepairs to "V's" 5.00 

Fuel and oil 5.96 

Mexican labor following "V's" 14.80 

Total average cost per mile $58.91 

During the year, 1 415 miles of canal were worked on, so that the 
whole system was covered in various ways nearly four times during 
the year. A small portion of the system was not worked on at all, so 
that this statement gives some idea of the difficulty in maintaining the 
system. 

The cost of building 117 new structures was $6 278.76, and the 
cost of repairing old structures was $4 145.05, making the total cost 
of structure maintenance and renewal $10 423.80. The average num- 
ber of men employed per day (300 working days per year) was 162, 
or 0.43 man per mile of canal per day, in addition to teams and mach- 
inery. The bottom width of the canals constituting this system varies 
from 20 to 5 ft. 

Canal Operation. — The mutual water companies have never con- 
sidered delivering water to stockholders in rotation, but instead, with- 
out exception, supply any water user on demand, even though he may 
be at the very end of a long lateral and the only person desiring water 
from that lateral at the time. Thus, naturally, exceedingly small 
quantities of water are carried occasionally in every canal except the 



1424 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

very largest laterals, and the result is low velocities and heavy silt 
deposition and canal deterioration. The feeling seems to be general 
that the additional cost of maintaining the various distribution sys- 
tems is more than offset by the advantages or convenience of the water 
users in obtaining irrigation water at all times on 24 hours' notice. 
The amount which the maintenance cost of canals could be cut by 
adopting a rotation system of delivery is problematical, but must be 
between 35 and 65 per cent. This fact should be borne in mind in 
making comparisons with the cost data just given. 

The Fourth or Lower Intake. 

This is such a very important matter that the reasons for digging 
the lower Mexican intake and the method of handling it when com- 
pleted are given by quoting from Mr. Rockwood,* the man who did it. 

"As soon as the summer flood (1904) dropped and I discovered that 
instead of the bottom being lower it was approximately 1 ft. above that 
of the year previous, we adopted the only means at our command to 
attempt to deepen the channel. 

"Knowing the character of the material to be removed, we knew that 
with the dredging tools which we had (4-yd. dipper dredge Alpha and 
12-in. suction dredge Beta), it would be impossible to dredge out this 
4 miles of canal in sufficient time for the uses of the valley, providing 
the water in the river should drop as low as it had the previous year. 
The dredges were brought back, however, and put at work, but the 
result proved, as I had anticipated, that it would take practically all 
winter to dredge the canals; that is, it would take all winter to provide 
new machinery, even if we had the money; and in hopes, then, that it 
might possibly prove effective, I employed the steamer Cochan, and, 
placing a heavy drag behind it, ran it up and down the canal in hopes 
that by stirring up the bottom there would be sufficient velocity in the 
canal itself to move the silt deposits on below the 4-mile stretch to a 
point where I knew the water had sufficient velocity to keep the silt 
moving. A month's .work, however, with the steamer proved that the 
work being done by it was inadequate. 

"The Gpeat Problem. — We were confronted then with the proposi- 
tion of doing one of two things, either cutting a new heading from the 
canal to the river below the silted 4-mile section of the canal, or else 
allowing the valley to pass through another winter with an insufficient 
water supply. The latter proposition we could not face for the reason 
that the people of the Imperial Valley had an absolute right to demand 

* " Born of the Desert— Imperial Valley In Its Making Not A Dream— A Brief History 
of the California Development Company." By C. R. Rockwood. Second Annual Magazine 
Edition, Calexico Chronide, Calexico, Cal., May, 1909. 



Papers.] irrigation" AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1425 

that water should be furnished them, and it was questionable in our 
minds as to whether we would be able to keep out of bankruptcy if we 
were to be confronted by another period of shortage in this coming 
season of 1904-1905. 

"The cutting of the lower intake, after mature deliberation, and 
upon the insistence of several of the leading men of the valley, was 
decided upon. We hesitated about making this cut, not so much be- 
cause we believed we were incurring danger of the river's breaking 
through as from the fact that we had been unable to obtain the consent 
of the Government of Mexico to make it, and we believed that we were 
jeopardizing our Mexican rights should the cut be made without the 
consent of the Government. On a telegraphic communication, however, 
from our attorney in the City of Mexico, to go ahead and make the cut, 
we did so under the presumption that he had obtained the necessary 
l)ermit from the Mexican authorities. It was some time after this, in 
fact after the cut was made to the river, before we discovered that he 
had been unable to obtain the formal permit, but had simply obtained 
the promise of certain officials that we would not be interfered with, 
providing that plans were at once submitted for the necessary con- 
trolling structures to be placed in this heading. 

"Reasons Why.- — This lower intake was constructed, not, as is gen- 
erally supposed, because there was a greater grade from the river 
through to the Main Canal at this point. The grade through the cut 
and the grade of the Main Canal above the cut were approximately the 
same, but the cut was made at this point for the reason that the Main 
Canal below the point where the lower intake joined it, was approxi- 
mately 4 ft. deeper than the Main Canal through the 4 miles above this 
junction to the Chaffey gate, consequently giving us greater water 
capacity. In cutting from the Main Canal to the river at this point, we 
had to dredge a distance of 3 300 ft. only, through easy material to 
remove, while an attempt to dredge out the Main Canal above would 
have meant the dredging of 4 miles of very difficult material. We 
began the cut the latter end of September and completed it in about 3 
weeks. 

"As soon as the cut was decided upon, elaborate plans for a controlling 
gate were immediately started and, when completed early in November, 
were immediately forwarded to the City of Mexico for the approval of 
the engineers of the Mexican Government, without whose approval we 
had no authority or right to construct the gate. Notwithstanding the 
insistence of our attorney in the City of Mexico and various tele- 
graphic communications insisting vipon this approval being hurried, we 
were unable to obtain it until 12 months afterward, namely, the month 
of December, 1905. 

"Unprecedented River Conditions. — In the meantime serious trouble 
had begun. We have since been accused of gross negligence and crimi- 



1426 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

nal carelessness in making this cut, but I doubt as to whether any one 
should be accused of negligence or carelessness in failing to foresee that 
which had never happened before. We had before us, at the time, the 
history of the river as shown by the daily rod readings kept at Yuma 
for a period of twenty-seven years. In the twenty-seven years there 
had been but three winter floods. In no year of the twenty-seven had 
there been two winter floods. It was not probable, then, in the winter 
of 1905, that there would be any winter flood to enlarge the cut made 
by us, and without doubt, as it seemed to us, we would be able to close 
the cut before the approach of the summer flood by the same means 
that we had used in closing the cut for three successive years around 
the ChafPey gate at the head of the canal. 

"During this year of 1905, however, we had more than one winter 
flood. The first heavy flood came, I believe, about the first of February, 
but did not enlarge the lower intake. On the contrary, it cavised such 
a silt deposit in the lower intake that I found it necessary, after the 
flood had passed, to put the dredge through in order to deepen the 
channel sufficiently to allow enough water to come into the valley for 
the use of the people. 

"This was followed shortly by another heavy flood that did not erode 
the banks of the intake, but, on the contrary, the same as the first, 
caused a deposit of silt and a necessary dredging. We were not alarmed 
by these floods, as it was still very early in the season. No damage had 
been done by them, and we still believed that there would be no diffi- 
culty whatever in closing the intake before the approach of the summer 
flood, which was the only one we feared. However, the first two floods 
were followed by a third, coming some time in March, and this was 
sufficient notice to us that we were up against a very unusual season, 
something unknown in the history of the river as far back as we were 
able to reach; and, as it was now approaching the season of the year 
when we might reasonably expect the river surface to remain at an 
elevation that would allow sufficient water for the uses of the valley 
to be gotten through the upper intake, we decided to close the lower. 

"Five Floods in One Season. — Work was immediately begun upon a 
dam similar to the ones heretofore successfully used in closing the cut 
around the Chaffey gate. The dam was very nearly completed, when 
a fourth flood coming down the river swept it out. Work was imme- 
diately begun on another dam which was swept away by the fifth flood 
coming down during this winter season." 

These closings of the by-passes or cuts around the Chaffey Gate 
were effected by throwing a barrier of brush across the cut and drag- 
ging earth over it with Fresno scrapers, pushing it into the water on 
the up-stream side, thus gradually rendering the barrier impermeable 
and then building it up as an earthen dam. In attempting to make 



Papers.] irrigation AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1437 

the closure here mentioned, in March a small pile-driver was rigged 
up on the end of the Alpha and one line of 8 by 8-in. pine timbers, 
3 ft. apart, was driven across the opening about 3 000 ft. west of the 
river bank, and an 8 by 8-in. waling was bolted to each pile above 
the water surface. Brush fascines were then made up, and all the 
sand bags available — about 10 000 — -were filled in readiness. Simul- 
taneously from each side, brush fascines with the brush ends up 
stream, were piled above the piling and weighted down with sand bags, 
making alternate layers of fascines and bags, until the water was 
confined to a 30-ft. channel in the center. This barrier was about 
20 ft. thick up and down stream. The opening was then spanned with 
long Cottonwood timbers and a similar brush-sand-bag construction 
was built upon them. The supporting timbers were then shattered 
with dynamite, letting the mass drop into the opening. At the same 
time a large quantity of brush was thrown in above and allowed to 
float into the opening to help close it. In this way the barrier across 
the opening was built above water and teams passed over it dragging 
in dirt from both sides, the flow being reduced so greatly that the 
dredge below it nearly went aground. With a few thoTisand more 
sacks of earth to place along the upper toe of the barrier, the work 
would have been successful. As it was, the structure was undermined, 
settled down, and eventually failed entirely. 

In this attempt 10 000 sacks were used, 8 days' time with the 
dredge at $100 per day, and 225 men-days time of Indian labor at 
$1.50 per day. This makes the total cost of closing about $1 800. 

Instructions were then given to move the dredge up close to the 
river bank, where the soil was thought to be better, and make another 
attempt. The current through the break, however, was too swift, and 
instructions were given to go up the old Main Canal to the upper 
Mexican intake to stop it, which was done, using the method which had 
failed below. 

A similar method was used to throw the water through the Alamo 
Waste-gate on its completion in June, 1905, 3 months later, 30 000 
sacks of earth being filled in readiness and every one used. This 
barrier dam was thrown across the channel carrying 2 500 sec-ft. of 
water and with a total or final head of 10 ft. This has always seemed 
to the writer to have been a most remarkable achievement, the only 
equipment at hand being a skid pile-driver and Fresno scraper teams. 



1428 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

To resume Mr. Rockwood's narrative: 

"About this time, I left for the East and at the earnest solicita- 
tion of the Imperial Water Company No. 1, which agreed to advance 
$5 000 for the effort, a third attempt to close the break was made 
under the direction of Mr. C. N. Perry and the superintendent of 
Imperial Water Company No. 1, Mr. Thomas Beach. On my return 
from the East, on the 17th of June, I found them heroically attempt- 
ing to stop the break, with the waters so high in the Colorado that all 
of the banks and surrounding lands were flooded, and I immediately 
stopped the work as we realized fully that nothing could be done until 
after the summer flood had passed. 

"The Golorado on a Rampage. — At this time, the lower intake had 
been enlarged from a width of about 60 ft., as originally cut with the 
dredger, to a width of possibly 150 ft., and it did not then seem 
probable that the Colorado River would turn its entire flow through 
the cut, but as the waters of the river began to fall, the banks of the 
intake began to cave and run into the canal, the banks of the canal 
below the intake fell in and, as known by most of the residents of 
the valley, the entire river began running through the canal and into 
the Salton Sea in the month of August of this year of 1905." 

Plate CIX shows the discharge at Yuma to have been an un- 
precedented sequence of floods from the Gila water-shed. Indeed, the 
precipitation throughout all that region traversed by the Southern 
Pacific line from Yuma to very near El Paso during this period was 
quite without precedent. Track ballasted with local material, which 
had always proved satisfactory, was during this year the despair of 
the entire Maintenance of Way Department, and for months trains 
were allowed to go over it only at half speed and with lurchings of 
the coaches and Pullman sleepers like ships at sea. 

Mr. Rockwood's statement gives a very fair presentation of the 
matter as he viewed it. The writer is perhaps as well aware as any 
one that the river was diverted through this cut into the Salton Sea, 
and when he first inspected the situation in August, 1905, he felt, like 
practically all other engineers who gave the matter cursory considera- 
tion, that making this cut was a blunder so serious as to be "practically 
criminal." After 4 years of more or less bitter experience with the 
region, he is perfectly convinced that, matters having gotten into such 
condition, making the cut was absolutely imperative and by all means 
should have been done. The difiiculty had not been any tendency 
whatever to divert the entire river, but — very much to the contrary — 



PLATE CIX. 

PAPERS, AM. 80C. C. E. 

NOVEMBER, 1912. 

CORY ON 

IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, 

COLORADO RIVER DELTA. 




l<^OZ.Q'^U,S.^:^^>^<^oS.Q<^^^^^>^>'^^^0&Q^Ui&<'^>^'S,< 



m O 2; Q H, tq S <■ 



-^M02Q^faS-i;S-^'^^cno;z;c 



Papers.] IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1429 

to induce enough water to go that way. Up to that time, a head-gate 
to prevent too great a quantity of water from entering the canals was 
of far less importance than some means of maintaining their carrying 
capacity. That a head-gate should have been provided- is, of course, 
self-evident. It would have been utter folly, however, to have put a 
flash-board gate of any type directly in the diverting channel, because 
of the drift which would have accumulated against it. Nothing less 
than a structure containing immense openings could have been used 
without insuring that the cut would be choked up. This type of con- 
struction was practically unused in western irrigation works at the 
time, and would have cost a great deal of money, therefore, consider- 
ing the financial condition of the C. D. Co., it is plain that the only 
practical thing would have been a gate, not in the cut itself, but in 
a by-pass, and built with the idea of closing the by-pass on the ap- 
proach of the summer floods and using this gate as much as possible. 
It was not alone the straitened financial condition of the C. D. Co. 
and the situation generally in which it found itself which resulted 
in there being no permanent diversion works put in; two other im- 
portant factors entered. The first was the practical change of manage- 
ment, from a construction point of view especially, to the Chaffeys 
in the summer of 1900; back to Mr. Kockwood in February, 1902, 
and internal difiiculties in the C. D. Co. late in 1904. The second — 
indirectly connected with the first — ^was the hesitancy of the manage- 
ment to provide permanent head-works before the technical men in the 
corporation had agreed as to what the situation demanded. The real 
mistakes was not in "putting all the eggs in one basket," but in 
not "then watching that basket." Obviously, no one could be respon- 
sible for doing such a thing without realizing the need for watching 
it most carefully and being fully prepared to take most aggressive 
action should occasion arise. 

Southern Pacific Loan. — Early in January, 1905, it occurred to the 
management of the C. D. Co. that the phenomenal development of 
traffic furnished to the Southern Pacific Eailroad by the Imperial 
Valley warranted the hope of financial assistance from that corpora- 
tion. Mr. Julius Kruttschnitt, Director of Maintenance and Opera- 
tion of the Harriman Lines, declined to consider the proposition, but 
Mr. Harriman, on being approached, was at once interested and ordered 
an investigation and report. As a final result, the Southern Pacific 



1430 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

Company agreed to loan $200 000 on condition that 6 300 shares of the 
capital stock be placed in the haxids of a trustee to be named by the 
Southern Pacific Company until the loan should be repaid, and taking 
over the management of the property until that time. Accepting a loan 
under such conditions was seriously objected to by a large part of 
the company's stockholders, but at the annual meeting in Jersey City, 
in May, a board was elected pledged to the arrangement. On June 
20th, 1905, the Southern Pacific Company took over the management 
of the property, with Mr. Epes Eandolph, President of the Asso- 
ciated Harriman Lines in Arizona and Mexico, as President, and 
Mr. W. J. Doran, of Los Angeles, as the trustee mentioned in the 
contract. Both these gentlemen are still acting in these respective 
capacities. When the loan was arranged, and even when it was 
finally consummated, the railroad officials in San Francisco and the East 
did not consider the conditions along the river worthy of serious concern. 
Mr. Rockwood was retained temporarily as Assistant General 
Manager and Chief Engineer, as members of the Southern Pacific 
management were entirely unfamiliar with the affairs of the C. D. Co. 

Fourth Attempt to Close the Break. 

As soon as the summer flood of 1905 began to recede, work was 
started. Immediately opposite the lower intake was an island, later 
dubbed Disaster Island, about § mile long and i mile wide, consisting 
really of a sand bar on which quite a growth of cottonwood and arrow 
weed had accumulated. A line of piling, 12 ft. from center to center, 
was driven from the upper end of this island to the Mexican shore, as 
shown in Fig. 12, and between this piling was woven barbed wire and 
brush. The theory behind this work was that, by spreading over a great 
width the water passing down the west channel and into the lower intake, 
a sand bar would be created, thus choking off the flow and gradually 
forcing all the water into the east channel. On July 15th about one- 
third of the river flow was going down the old channel and two-thirds 
toward the Salton Sea, and the result of this endeavor was still prob- 
lematical. By August 1st a bar, approximately 2 800 ft. long, had been 
formed, but there was an opening, approximately 125 ft. long, through 
which the rush of water was too great to be controlled with the means 
at hand, and the work was abandoned. Up to this date, about $30 000 
had been expended on the four endeavors to close the break. 



Papers.] irrigation AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1431 

Various Suggestions for Handling the Situation. — At this time it 
was evident to all that the low-water flow of the Colorado would be 
entirely diverted into the old Alamo overflow channel and thence to the 
Salton Sea. The elevation of the water surface at the head of Disaster 
Island, with a flow in the river of 10 000 sec-ft., was approximately 
100 ft., while the bottom of the Salton Sea is approximately — 287 ft., 
making the total fall in that direction 387 ft. The distance was about 
95 miles by the watercourses, so that the average fall was 4.01 ft. per 
mile. Toward the Gulf the fall was 100 ft., and the distance to 
tide-water was approximately 80 miles, or a fall of 1.25 ft. per mile. 
The continually diminishing quantity of silty water going down the 
old channel as the summer flood receded was constantly raising the 
bed along that direction, the action being rapid enough to be notice- 
able almost daily. In all probability there were about 6 months ahead 
during which the flow of the water would be low, and before this period 
should elapse the river must be re-diverted or the consequences would 
be most serious. 

The plant and the salt deposits of the New Liverpool Salt Com- 
pany in the bed of the Salton Sea were already entirely submerged, 
the water covering about 100 000 acres, with a maximum depth of about 
16 ft. Except for the increase of depth and the consequent increase 
in the length of time this property would be shut down, no additional 
damage was really being done at this point. Indeed, 14 years earlier, 
this property was covered to a depth of 6 ft. by the great flood of 
February, 1891, and the summer flood following, and in all probability 
a similar and greater inundation would have resulted from the ex- 
cessive floods during the spring and summer of 1905 had the C. D. Co. 
never constructed any works along the river. The rising waters of the 
Salton Sea were threatening the tracks of the Sot;thern Pacific Rail- 
road along the east side of the sink, and the officials of the Los Angeles 
Division were clamoring for aggressive action. The higher officials 
of the company, however, were not yet very much perturbed. On the 
other hand, the Alamo channel was being enlarged and deepened, to 
the very great benefit of the C. D. Co., and the irrigation system of 
Imperial Valley, because the insufficient carrying capacity of this chan- 
nel and the heavy silt deposits therein constituted a serious menace to 
the entire project. 

To close the lower intake entirely meant obtaining all the water 



1433 IRRIGATIOiN^ AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

reqiiired for the irrigation of Imperial Valley througli the 4 miles of 
badly silted Main Canal lying between it and the upper intakes, and 
this was out of the question. Even with large sums of money, which 
might be obtainable from the Southern Pacific interests, machinery 
could not have been bought, assembled, and put into operation in time 
to have permitted the delivery of more than enough water to supply 
the inhabitants and live stock of the valley with drinking water if the 
river flow should be reduced to 6 000 or 7 000 sec-f t. Imperial Valley 
at that time consisted of at least 125 000 acres under cultivation, five 
towns with an aggregate population of 2 500 people, and a rural popu- 
lation of approximately three times that number. There were, perhaps, 
100 000 head of hogs, 50 000 head of cattle, and other live stock in 
proportion. 

Many plans were suggested, from this time, August 1st, 1905, until 
the break was finally closed in 1907. Many of these, of course, were 
thoroughly absurd, and came from cranks and people who had not the 
faintest conception of the conditions. Indeed, almost the only people 
who appeared to be able to see that the problem was not merely one of 
shutting off the lower intake were the engineers of the C. D. Co. and 
a few of the well-informed men in Imperial Valley. Representatives 
of the New Liverpool Salt Company, the Southern Pacific Company, 
various departments of the United States and Mexican Governments, 
and the general public, all joined in demanding aggressive action to 
stop the menace of a new Salton Sea. 

Such suggestions were addressed to Mr. Harriman and to nearly 
every other ofiicial of the Southern Pacific interests, and to Mr. 
Randolph and other authorities of the C. D. Co. Ultimately, most of 
these found their way to the writer; they constitute a most interesting 
collection. It is not profitable to mention more than four of these 
suggestions, which may be designated the Laguna Weir Plan, the 
Concrete Head-gate Plan, the Rockwood Head-gate Plan, and the 
Barrier Dam Plan. Edwin Duryea, Jr., M. Am. Soc. C. E., also offered 
to close the break according to a plan, which, however, he declined to 
outline. 

The Laguna Weir Plan. — The Laguna Weir Plan consisted in aban- 
doning operations for the time being at the scene of the break; con- 
centrating all efforts on the completion, at the earliest possible date, 
of the Laguna Weir, which was being built by the U. S. Reclamation 



Papers.] IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1433 

Service; building a canal thence passing Pilot Knob and intersecting 
the break from i to | mile west of the Colorado River, this canal to 
have a capacity equal to the low- water flow of the river; then diverting 
all the river water through this canal; finally, to build a dam across 
the intake between the canal junction and the river bank in still water. 
The Laguna Weir was actually completed in the early spring of 1909, 
just before the annual record flood of that year. It is not clear just 
how its completion could have been essentially hurried. Had this 
plan been followed, the Colorado would have emptied into the Salton 
Sea for 3 years longer than it actually did, and during this time 
55 000 000 acre-ft. of water went by Yuma, only a very small portion 
of which would have gone down the old channel to the Gulf. This 
would have raised the water in the Salton Sea to the 180-ft. contour, 
with the effect of drowning out a large area of cultivated land in the 
Coachella Valley and forcing the abandonment of 60 miles of main 
line track by the Southern Pacific Railroad. 

These effects, however, would have been of relatively minor im- 
portance. The irrigation system of Imperial Valley would have been 
strained far beyond the breaking point in several places, while the 
cutting back in New River would unquestionably have reached the 
Alamo channel and lowered the water therein far beyond the point 
where any could have been gotten into the Imperial Valley by gravity. 
This, of course, would have meant the depopulation of that region, an 
appalling result, without parallel in history. 

The Laguna Weir Plan is thus seen to have been impracticable, 
and no one actually connected with the work gave it serious considera- 
tion. Nevertheless, it was urged on Mr. Harriman by Mr. C. D. 
Walcott, then Director of the United States Geological Survey and of the 
Eeclamation Service, and Mr. Harriman considered it for quite a time. 

Concrete Head-gate Plan. — The Concrete Head-gate Plan was put 
forward by the late James D. Schuyler, M. Am. Soc. C. E., who acted 
as Consulting Engineer of the C. D. Co. from July, 1905, to June, 1906. 
It consisted essentially of building a reinforced concrete and steel 
head-gate on the Pilot I\Jiob site, where solid rock foundation could 
be secvired, such gate to be able to carry the low- water fiow of the river; 
and then, from this head-gate down to its junction with the crevasse, 
to enlarge the canal to a similar capacity. This, it was considered, 
would permit the diversion of all the water through the head-gate and 



1434 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

canal, leaving the river below, and consequently the break itself, dry. 
The underlying idea was somewhat similar to that of the Laguna Weir 
Plan, except that it contemplated only 4 miles of canal enlargement 
and a diversion structure which could be completed in 3 or 4 months, 
instead of 3 years. 

This plan involved the construction of permanent head-gates on 
rock foundation at Pilot Knob, so long contemplated; and the con- 
struction and equipment of a dredge with which the requisite 4 miles 
of canal could be dug economically and quickly. The idea was adopted 
in a tentative way in September, 1905, approximately 90 days after 
the Southern Pacific Company undertook the management of the 
C. D. Co., and Mr. Schuyler was instructed to proceed with the prepara- 
tion of plans for the head-gate, while Mr. F. S. Edinger, under whose 
direction the Edinger Dam was built, arranged for the dredge. At 
the suggestion of the Golden State and Miners Iron Works, of San 
Francisco, the clam-shell type, with 150-ft. boom and 5-cu. yd. bucket, 
was selected. Work was begun on the concrete head-gate on December 
15th, 1905, and contracts for the clam-shell dredge were arranged a few 
weeks later. 

One of the chief recommendations of this plan was that the con- 
structions, in large measure, would be permanent. It was assumed that, 
while perhaps the maximum quantity of water which would have to 
be diverted for the irrigation of Imperial Valley would never ex- 
ceed 5 000 sec-ft., a gate twice as large would not have any particular 
disadvantages in its maintenance or operation. It was urged, further, 
that this arrangement of diverting structure and large canal would 
be available in case of future breaks, should any ever occur. 

The difficulty about the plan was that, regardless of the size of the 
gate, enlarging the 4 miles of canal to carry 10 000 sec-ft. within 
sufficient time to afford reasonable relief was a very serious problem, 
while the capacity of this canal would be reduced so quickly by silt 
deposition that its use in case of future breaks would be out of the 
question. Furthermore, to insure the diversion of all the water in the 
river, required a canal cut considerably below the water-table in the 
ground through which it would have to pass, and large patches of 
quicksand occur so frequently in this region that it would be folly 
to hope to miss all of them. Such patches would cause the inflow of 
material from the sides and the bottom to a serious extent. 



Papers.] IRRIGATION AND KIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1435 

ilfr. Rochwood's Plan. — Mr. Rockwood urged the necessity of a 
rapid re-diversion, not so much because of the effect on the Southerly 
Pacific tracks along the Salton Basin as because he understood the criti- 
cal condition at a number of points in the irrigation system of Imperial 
Valley, and that the severe strain could not be withstood successfully 
for very many months. His suggestion, made in August, 1905, was 
to put in, immediately beside the break, a wooden A-frame, flash- 
board head-gate, capable of passing the low-water flow of the river; 
with dredges to dig channels from the break to the gate both above 
and below ; divert the water through this by-pass and gate with a piling- 
brush-sandbag barrier dam; complete the dam as an earth fill across 
the break, and build levees both up and down stream as far as might 
be necessary; then close the gate to such an extent as would admit 
only enough water to supply the irrigation needs. This plan was ap- 
proved, and work was started on September 20th. It was abandoned 
completely 3 weeks later ; was again approved on December 15th, 1905 ; 
and was carried out until the gate construction failed, in October, 
1906. It was daring only in its size and the foundation of so 
important a structure on alluvial soil, and it would have resulted in 
permanent diversion works on Mexican soil — where, by all means, they 
should have been, originally, and as contemplated in the Mexican con- 
cession, granted in 1904. 

'The Barrier Dam Plan. — The Barrier Dam Plan consisted in 
throwing a barrier dam of some sort across the crevasse and raising the 
water surface above it sufficiently high to throw all the discharge of 
the river down the old channel to the Gulf. The usual type of dam 
was suggested, of piling and brush mattresses of fascines weighted 
down by sandbags. This method seemed to its proponents to afford 
opportunity for decreasing the quantity of water diverted in the mini- 
mum time, and neglected that side of the problem which required the 
furnishing of water for the Imperial Valley. The best plan for a 
structure of this type was that put forward by Mr. Edinger, and 
worked on under his direction from early in October until its destruc- 
tion by the great flood of November 29th, 1905. 

PiFTH Attempt to Close the Crevasse. 
Mr. Rockwood presented his plan to Mr. Randolph and Mr. Schuyler, 
and they, as well as several engineers of the Southern Pacific Company, 
approved of its trial. Plans were hurriedly worked out for a wooden 



143G IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

""frame, flash-board gate, 120 ft. long, with a concrete floor, and 
founded on piles. Eush orders for materials were placed, and the first 
shipments left Los Angeles on August 7th. It was fully expected to 
have the structure completed by November 15th. 

The original intention was to construct the gate in a by-pass to be 
excavated by the dredge Alpha on the south side of the intake, but 
examination showed an unfavorable foundation, as the ground slid 
into the cut so rapidly that the dredge was almost caught and held by 
iti The plans, therefore, were changed, and it was decided to construct 
a by-pass on the other side of the break; force all the water through 
this by -pass; and then build the structure where the intake had been, 
thus saving both time and money in the excavation. The break at this 
point was about 300 ft. wide — just about the length of excavation re- 
quired for rapid and successful construction. The dredge was put to 
work on this by-pass, and no difiiculty whatever was found in making 
the 700-ft. cut required. The plan worked very well, and a large part 
of the water began to go that way at once. Work was begun on the 
up-stream side of the coffer-dam, the idea being that, when all the 
water was diverted through the by-pass, another earthen dike would 
be thrown in, about 250 ft. below the first, and thus make the coffer- 
dam for the gate construction. In this way, the second dam would be 
built in still water and in very short order with the dredge. 

At this time — about September 15th — it became evident to Mr. 
Rockwood that he could not attend to the business affairs of the com- 
pany properly and remain in personal charge of the work along the 
river. It seemed easier to find some one capable of completing the gate 
in accordance with the plans outlined than to find any one qualified to 
handle the corporation's affairs. Mr. Edinger was selected, as he, until 
June, 1905, had been for many years Superintendent of Bridges of the 
Southern Pacific System, and had had very large experience in coffer- 
dam work. About 3 months previously he had left the Southern 
Pacific Company and entered the contracting firm of Shattuck and 
Desmond, of Los Angeles and San Francisco. About September 20th, 
Mr. Edinger and Mr. Rockwood went over the ground and the plans 
together, and Mr. Edinger commenced the work. 

The records show that, about October 1st, the river usually rises 2 
or 3 ft., principally due to rains on the water-shed of the Gila River 
and Bill Williams Fork. This year was no exception, and the slight rise 



PLATE ex. 

PAPERS, AM. SOC. C. E. 

NOVEMBER, 1912. 

CORY ON 

IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, 

COLORADO RIVER DELTA. 




Fig. 1. — RocKwooD Head-Gate, October 6th, 1906, Passing 
12 000 Second-Feet. 




Fig. 2. — Edinger Dam, November 8th, 1905. Brush and "Wire Mat in 
Foreground, Ready to be Placed. 



Papers.] IRRIGATION" AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1437 

about October 1st shook Mr. Edinger's confidence in the plan. He 
quickly outlined a barrier dam plan to Mr. Randolph, who approved 
of it, and work was shifted to it at once. This plan consisted of con- 
structing a piling and brush dam across the west channel between the 
head of Disaster Island and the Mexican shore, a distance of about 600 
ft., and it was expected that the river would all be turned down the 
east channel before a gate could even be put in. All material was at 
once removed from the gate site, and work was rushed on the construc- 
tion of what is locally known as the Edinger Dam. 

This plan of handling the situation, in addition to shutting off all 
water flowing into the Imperial Valley through the lower intake, was 
seriously defective in that even a short flood sufficiently great to send 
any water overbank in the immediate vicinity of the dam— and that 
would require much less water than usual on account of the silted-up 
condition of the whole river bed below the break — would in a few 
hours result in cutting the channel around the end of the structure 
and entirely shunting it. Indeed, such a re-diversion was exactly what 
took place a little more than a year later, when the waters broke under 
the levee, J mile south of the Hind Dam, in December, 1906. Had the 
Edinger Dam been entirely successful and completed on November 
15th, such re-diversion would have been caused by the terrific flood of 
November 28th, and so on ; the hydrograph, Plate CIX, shows a number 
of floods sufficiently great to have done this. Indeed, at this time, no one 
seems to have realized that a large, deep, and efficient channel had been 
created from the Lower Heading westward for many miles, and that 
future safety demanded, not only closing the intake, but an elaborate 
system of levees reaching miles both up and down stream. 

The plan of the Edinger Dam consisted in driving rows of piling and 
filling the interstices with brush mattresses and fascines. The idea 
behind it was essentially similar to that of the work abandoned about 
August 1st. To have been successful, the construction would have had 
to withstand a head of from 8 to 10 ft. However, on November 29th, 
when a head of 35 in. had been obtained, a terrific flood came down from 
the Gila, reaching a gauge height of 31.3 ft. at Yuma and a discharge of 
115 000 sec-ft. Large quantities of drift were carried by the flood- 
waters. This drift collected against the Edinger Dam in great quanti- 
ties, and a large volume of water went down the east side of the island 
and the old channel. Before the flood had reached its peak, the dam 



1438 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

started to give way, and in an incredibly short time was practically 
destroyed. When the river had again fallen, the old channel was silted 
up higher than before, the new channel was scoured still deeper, and 
when the flow of the river had decreased to 17 500 sec-f t. all the water 
was again going toward the Salton Sea. 

The flood not only wrecked the dam, but carried away practically 
all the material on the ground, and, after it receded, side-cutting along 
the west side of Disaster Island began to take it away rapidly. It 
was soon obvious that it would be folly to resume work at that location, 
and it was decided that the piling-brush-sandbag barrier dam method 
was not to be given further consideration. 

So much water went through the break to the valley, at the failure 
of this dam, that the Alpha was sent to the Quail River and put to 
work cutting a channel southward in the hope of diverting a large part 
of the flow into the Paredones and thence via Volcano Lake into the 
Gulf. It was an endeavor to divert a large part of the water from 
an old overflow channel on the north side of the delta cone into an 
overflow channel on the south side thereof. It had little result, how- 
ever, and the Quail River cut soon closed itself. 

On October 15th there were 20 white men and 25 Indians at work 
on the Edinger Dam; on November 1st, 42 white men and 50 Indians; 
on November 10th, 106 white men and 65 Indians, and on November 
29th, 250 white men and 80 Indians. Two steamboats with barges at- 
tached, and the relatively large barge Silas J. Lewis, with their crews, 
were also at work. 

On the books of the company, the cost of the Edinger Dam is not 
thoroughly segregated from the expense incurred in the head-gate work 
up to the time of its abandonment for the barrier dam plan. The 
expenditures on it, however, were about $60 000, and the grand total 
to December 1st, 1905', was about $100 000. 

Concrete Head-gate. — The location of this interesting structure is 
shown on Fig. 14, where the granite point of Pilot Knob is near the 
right bank of the river. The general design was outlined by Mr. 
Schuyler, and the principles used, dimensions, elevations of flow, etc., 
were submitted to Messrs. Rockwood and Randolph, and approved by 
them. George S. Binckley, M. Am. Soc. C. E., then worked out the 
details and prepared the working drawings. Contracts for the struc- 
tural steel and ironwork were let to the Llewellyn Iron Works, of Los 



Papers.] irrigation AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1439 




SIXTH AND SUCCESSFUL 
ATTEMPT TO CLOSE THE BREAK 
OCT. 12 TO NOV. 4, 1906 
FiG.15 



// 

FIFTH ATTEMPT TO CLOSE THE BREAK- 
JULY1, TO OCT. 11, 1906 
AFTER SUMMER FLOOD 
Fig .14 



1440 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

Angeles, and for the construction work to Mr. Carl Leonardt, also 
of Los Angeles, on November 25th, 1905. Time was made the essence 
of the contract, and Mr. Leonardt hurried the necessary equipment to 
the ground and began actual work 2 weeks later. Although it was ex- 
pected to complete the gate ready for use within 90 days, the entire job 
was not finished until June 28th, 1906. 

Type and Size. — The intake gate is doubtless the largest and most 
expensive irrigation canal head-gate in America. The design is a modi- 
fication of the Taintor or radial-gate type, which has been used for 
many years for irrigation constructions in the Western States. This style 
of structure was adopted in order to obtain openings of maximum area 
easily and quickly opened or closed by one man. It had probably not 
been used in Calfornia, although a large wooden radial-gate had 
been built some years before at the head of the so-called Peoria 
Canal from the Gila River, near Gila Bend, Ariz. It was about 25 ft. 
high and 30 ft. wide, which is nearing the extreme for construction 
of that class. This wooden gate, however, was never used, as the dam 
across the Gila River was destroyed by flood soon after its completion. 
The maximum height of radial-gates and canal head-works in Idaho 
at the time was about 11 ft., and the water was not expected to rise 
to the top of the gates, the river level being controlled by other means. 

Here, however, the extreme flood level is 19 ft. higher than the low- 
water level, so that gates at high flood time are subjected to great pres- 
sure. Sufiiciently large vertical lifting gates would have required 
very heavy and massive piers, and the gate would have been very large 
and disproportionately high as compared with the width. These con- 
siderations caused the adoption of culvert openings between the piers 
for supporting a cellular structure of reinforced concrete, and thus 
admitting of loading the constrtiction with gravel filling in the cells 
in order to get the required stability and weight at minimum cost. 
The gates were thus required to close culvert openings of minimum 
size, being in fact no larger than with the head at a uniform low-water 
height, although, of course, much heavier and stronger on account of 
the increased pressure at flood stages. There are eleven such culverts, 
each 10 ft. high and 12 ft. wide. In addition, there is a "navigation 
pass," the purpose of which was to permit passing a small gasoline 
launch through the gate. This navigation pass is practically useless 
because the mill race through it, when the difference in water level 



Papers.] IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1441 

above and below the gate exceeds 1 ft., precludes the idea of dragging 
a boat through it; indeed, no attempt has ever been made to use it. 
The floor of the gate is 98 ft. above sea level, according to the C. D. Co. 
datum, and 100.9 ft. according to the U. S. Eeclamation Service 
datum. At the time, and until after the summer flood of 1909, the 
average low-water surface in the river was about 108 ft. The elevation 
of the flow line at the gate, therefore, was fixed so that the culverts 
would run full at low-water stage. The present low-water surface is 
about 105 ft. 

The area of the eleven culverts in 1 320 sq. ft., and, with the water 
1 ft. higher on the up-stream than on the down-stream side of the 
gate, their combined discharge would be 8 500 sec-ft. In addition, a 
large quantity of water would go through the navigation pass, which 
is 10 ft. 3 in. wide. When the water is 10 ft. above the top of the 
culverts, it is necessary to close the gates within 3.8 ft. of the bottom 
to hold the discharge through them down to 10 000 sec-ft., when the 
carrying capacity of the canal below is great enough to allow the water 
to get away. 

The gate was designed to pass the entire low-water flow of the 
river — which it was assumed would certainly not exceed 10 000 sec-ft. — 
without any diverting dam in the river opposite it. 

Cost of Structure. — Table 12 gives the cost of this structure, with 
the contract prices for excavation, concrete work, etc. 

The cost of the gate, however, was considerably more, because 
Contractor Leonardt presented a claim insisting that the prices for 
earth and rock excavation named in his contract were agreed to by him 
on certain assurances made by Mr. Eockwood as to the character 
of the excavation which proved more difficult than expected. This 
claim was made as soon as Mr. Leonardt's representatives reached the 
ground, and Mr. Eandolph permitted a change to a force account basis 
because of his desire to hurry the construction in every possible way. 
The earth excavation in this way cost 64 cents per cu. yd. and the 
rock $2.06, thus increasing the figures by $10 813, making a grand 
total of $55 221.08. 

Careful accounts were kept, and it was ascertained that the con- 
tractor made a profit of $2 700 on the concrete, and $741.50 on erecting 
the gates. What the earth and rock excavation should have cost is a 
matter of some, though slight, interest to the Profession, as these 



1443 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 



would necessarily vary according to local conditions. As a matter of 
fact, with a good pumping plant, a mining nozzle or giant, a hydraulic 
elevator, and some pipe, the earth excavation could probably have been 
handled for 20 cents per cu. yd., and possibly less. Much of the rock 
was fairly soft, and could have been worked easily and cheaply, so 
that, had the contractor put in power drills and one or two long- 
boom derricks to handle the rock out of the cut, it is probable that 
the cost of such excavation would not have exceeded the contract price. 
The quantity of water entering the coffer-dam, or rather excavation 
pit, was surprisingly small. 

TABLE 12. 



Gate Structure. 




Earth excavation, 12 637.1 cu. yd. at $0 25 


$3 159.28 


Rock excavation, 5 TOO. si cu. yd. at $1.00 


5 700.81 


Cement, furnished by company, 1 335 bbl. (Olsen, Gillingham, 


4 432.25 


Concrete, labor, forms, sand, gravel, and rock, 1 204.83 cu. yd. 
at $9.00 


10 843.47 




1 965.16 


Expanded metal for gate facings 791 lb at 4 cents 


3L64 




102.50 


Extras 


807.07 








$27 042.18 
271.70 








$26 770.48 






Iron and Steel Work for Gate. 




Llewellyn Iron Works' original contract for twelve radial gates 

and one slide-gate (in navigation pass) f. o. b. Los Angeles.. . 

Freight to Yuma, on 213 184 lb. metal in aforesaid gates at $1.25 


$12 000.00 
132.60 


Regulating levers, shaft, and gear (subsequent contract ) 

Erection of gates (Leonardt's contract) 


580.00 
1 500.00 








$14 812.60 
2 825 00 








Total cost of head-works 


$44 408.08 





Fig. 10 gives a plan and elevation of this gate, and Figs. 1 and 2, 
Plate CXI, are views of the structure. 

Purpose. — At the time this gate was designed, the money available 
for construction, through the Southern Pacific's connection and the 
loan of $200 000, justified the immediate construction of permanent 



PLATE CXI. 

PAPERS, AM. SOC. C. E. 

NOVEMBER, 1912. 

CORY ON 

IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, 

COLORADO RIVER DELTA. 




Fig. 1. — Concrete Head-Gate, July 10th, 1906, Showing Details of Gates, 
Navigation Pass, and Gate and Abutment at River End. 




Pig. 2. — Gate Raising Mechanism of Concrete Head-Gate. 



Papers.] irrigation AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1443 



head-works, indeed, building this and the Alamo Waste-gate were the 
chief items for which the loan was made. Furthermore, the entire 
diversion of the river at the lower intake had shown the folly of 
trying to get along without them. The gate, while intended as a 
permanent diverting structure, was, nevertheless, primarily designed 
for use in endeavoring to re-divert the river; otherwise, of course, it 
would have been made much less than half as large. Actually, it 
played no part at any time in diverting the stream. 

CONCRETE HEAD-GATE 

AT ANDRADE, GAL. 
I73'll^ 



C.L.of Shaft on which operati ng cables wind 



'[C.L. ^^f Sha^t on wljich gifes revo|lve 



■ »-12'-> 



'll'O" io'S" '^2'8" 



ELEVATION 




Ways 




evolve 



C.L.of Shaft o n whic h operating cables wind 



/ 



ID 01 [J H' 

1 

PLAK 

Fio. 16. 



\ 



Operation. — The gate was actually put into operation on Novem- 
ber 1st, 1906, when the water going through the break had been re- 
duced to a quantity too small for the requirements of the valley. About 
6 weeks later, the flood which caused the second break occurred, and 
resulted in an accumulation of drift on the up-stream side of the 
gate which choked up the underground culverts and practically put it 
out of commission. From that date to this the troubles caused by 
drift in the river, particularly at high-water periods, have been serious 
and often acute. Gates of this type, for head-works on a river 
carrying any drift to speak of, let alone as much as the Colorado 
often has, should be avoided. After considerable experience it is 
obvious that if permanent diversion of the water for the irrigation 
of the valley is not made on Mexican territory, then, whenever enough 



1444 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 



money is available, it will be best to abandon the structure entirely 
and make diversion through gates similar to those in the sluice-ways 
of the Laguna Weir. 

Aside from the type of gate for such a locality and stream, three 
unfortunate features in design became manifest. Chief of these was 
the fault that the drums on which the wire cables for raising the 
gates are wound are much too small. The gates themselves were de- 
signed for minimum weight with the necessary strength, and are not 
stiff enough, so that they tend to wedge unless exceedingly great care 
is taken. The net result is many broken cables. At one time only 



ft > Cl 




y. X m bolt 



4'\ 8 bolt, loose 
.Washer 



G"Gate 
Walk 



3«K'from 
bearing surface 
of angle to face~ 
of pedestal 



2x8 O.P. stem 
dressed to pass through 
roller hanger 



2"x 4"R.W. 
^Cleat 



^ 



© I yl'y. V/j bolt, 
; washer both 



2 X 12 R.W 
Gate Board 



GATES FOR 

RACK AND PINION 

LIFTER 



> ^"x 4"bolt countersunk 
i'^'in stem. Washers. I ® 
' Theselbolts to be pla'ced 
• p^] so that they I® ; , 
ill not interfere with rack 

: hr-T . (— : — t-l— 



boltb if an addition,al . 
^ sectfon is necessary ®j I 



■H 



I 



carriage bolt 
countersunk 
with Washer 



Hack to be placed 
so that dog will 
catch last tooth 
when gate is down 



Fig. 17. 
two of the eleven gates were in operation, some being clear down, some 
clear up, and some impossible to close entirely on account of driftwood 
under them. Fortunately, the Delta was near by and was used to 
raise the gates, so that new and strong plow-steel cables could be 
installed, replacing the original ones of Tobin bronze, f in. in diameter, 
19 wires to the strand. These plain steel cables corrode badly, of 
course, but still are much better than any galvanized iron ones of 
usable diameter. 

Another bad feature of the design is the form of abutment built 
on the outer end of the gate. The writer has always been fearful 



Papers.] IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1445 

that water would find its way through the 10-ft. tongue of puddled 
earth which is the only barrier preventing water from getting around 
the end and shunting the gate entirely. 

In September, 1906, a canal, from the river to the head-gate, was 
excavated by teams and Fresno scrapers. This intake was made 
100 ft. wide at the bottom, with 2^ to 1 side slopes down as low as the 
underground water-table would permit. At about the same time the Alpha 
reached the Upper Heading and cut into the concrete gate excavation 
from the Main Canal below. The upper connection was wide enough, 
but the bottom was at least 6 ft. above the floor of the head-gate, and the 
down-stream connection was about 3 ft. above the floor of the gate 
and much narrower. These connections were widened and deepened 
to their present capacity by erosion, dredging, and blasting, as ex- 
plained later. 

The Dredge, Delta. — The other element in the concrete head-gate 
plan of re-diversion was a canal from the head-gate to the break, a dis- 
tance of approximately 4 miles. It was to be of sufficient size to carry 
the probable minimum flow of the river, 10 000 sec-ft. As it was obvi- 
ous that this stretch of canal would have to be lower than the bed of 
the river all along the line, in order to permit of taking the entire low- 
water flow without a diversion dam in the river opposite the head- 
gate, a very large part of the cross-section to be excavated would be 
below the permanent water-table of the region. Therefore, some kind 
of excavating machinery which could handle large quantities of ma- 
terial under water had to be provided. It was taken for granted that 
the cheapest and quickest method of providing this waterway was to 
enlarge the existing Main Canal, although the writer thinks this was 
erroneous. The dipper dredge, Alpha, by almost continuous operation 
in this part of the course, had built up levees on both banks so high 
as practically to limit its future operation without flattening down 
these levees with teams and scrapers. Largely on the advice of Mr. 
Edinger, it was decided to construct a clam-shell dredge of the type 
used almost exclusively for levee building along the Sacramento River. 
Accordingly, a contract for machinery, and for plans, bills of mate- 
rials, etc., of the hull, was entered into with the Golden State and 
Miners Iron Works, of San Francisco, which makes a specialty of 
clam-shell dredge machinery, construction, and even operation, on the 
Pacific Coast. This contract was closed on January 10th, 1906. The 



1446 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

320 000 ft. of Oregon pine lumber and other materials for the hull 
were bought through the purchasing department of the Southern 
Pacific Company, and the tmusually large timbers required were ob- 
tained in Oregon and sent directly to Yuma. In the purchase of both 
hull material and machinery, time was considered as of the essence 
of the contracts. 

A dredge with a 150-ft. boom, carrying a 5-cu. yd. bucket was 
decided on, and a hull 120 ft. long, 54 ft. wide, and 11 ft. deep. This 
width was 2 ft. greater than had ever been built on the Coast, although 
the tendency is to increase the dimensions, and one is now building 
in San Francisco, 70 by 140-ft. hull, 205-ft. boom, and 6-cu. yd. 
bucket. The machinery is a 150-h.p., internally-fired, circular, fire- 
tube boiler, and a 20 by 24-in. engine on each side. It was decided to 
build the hull and erect the machinery at Yuma, and float the com- 
pleted dredge down the river to the intake. 

Lumber for the hull began arriving in Yuma late in January, and 
early in March the company was notified that all the machinery was 
ready at San Francisco for shipment. Mr. Edinger's connection with 
the company had ceased soon after the destruction of the Edinger Dam, 
and Mr. Rockwood had very little confidence in the feasibility of the 
concrete head-gate plan, or in the desirability or need for the clam- 
shell dredge, and felt that the great cost thereof would deplete seri- 
ously the $200 000 loaned by the Southern Pacific Company. There- 
fore, practically nothing was done in the matter, and so it came about 
that the great conflagration in San Francisco, following the earth- 
quake of April 18th, 1906, destroyed the plant of the Golden State and 
Miners Iron Works, in which all the machinery for this dredge was 
stored ready for shipment. Fortunately, the damage sustained by the 
apparatus was not extensive, and by May 15th, 1906, all the machinery 
had reached Yuma. • 

Mr. J. W. Brown, a member of the Golden State and Miners Iron 
Works Corporation, agreed to take charge of building the hull, and 
reached Yuma about May 1st, bringing with him a complete crew of 
mechanics and ship builders. Work was hurried, and with such suc- 
cess that the hull was launched about August 15th, the machinery 
was in place by the end of October, and the dredge weighed anchor 
and started down the river. At this time the river was getting low 
and some difficulty was encountered, but on November 26th, 1906, the 




CLAM-SHELL DREDGE "DELTA" 



CALIFORNIA DEVELOPMENT CO. 

GOLDEN STATE AND MINERS IRON WORKS, BUILDERa 



Papers.] irrigation AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1447 

clam-shell arrived at the mouth of the American intake. The total 
cost of the dredge, ready to start down the river, was almost $80 000, 
the cost of the machinery being $34 000, f, o. b. San Francisco. The 
weight of the craft is about 850 tons. 

This dredge, Plate CXII, has been an invaluable piece of machinery 
to the C. D. Co. Had it been ready for use in August, 1905, the cost 
of doing the earthwork in the Hind Dam would have been wonder- 
fully reduced. As it was, the dredge, after doing a little work in 
enlarging the intake above the concrete head-gate, was floated down 
and cut its way into the Main Canal following the upper Mexican 
intake. It was engaged on this work when the second break occurred, 
and continued thereon as though this latter event had not happened. 
Like the concrete head-gate, it played no part whatsoever in the re- 
diversion of the river. 

For the information of those who are not familiar with the results 
and cost of clam-shell dredge operation,, the following data are given : 

Operatives. 



1 Captain at 


$125 to $150 per 


month, an 


3 Levermen " 


85 '^ 




2 Firemen " 


60 " 




2 Deckhands " 


■ 50 " 




1 Cook 


50 " 




1 Blacksmith " 


90 " 




1 Eoustabout '^ 


40 " 





Three shifts give a total of 22 hours actual work daily. The average 
time in operation, when proper repair work is done, is 28 days per 
month. When in good groiind, and with side swings averaging Y0° on 
each side, the time per bucketful is 40 sec. The quantity handled 
(varying according to the material) is from 3 to 8 cu. yd. as ordinary 
extremes. On the Sacramento River, under good conditions, 150 000 
cu. yd. per month are handled. 

Monthly expense. 

Maintenance and operation $2 500 

Interest on investment at 6% 400 

Taxes and insurance 200 

Deterioration 700 



Sometimes as low as $3 gOO 



1448 IIUIIGATION AND EIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

Ordinarily, the monthly expense in Mexico is $5 000. The average 
cost is 2i cents per cu. yd. The average cost of the work done by the 
Delta in Mexico is from 4 to 6 cents per cu. yd. 

The Eockwood Head-Gate. 

As already explained, it was decided to follow both Mr. Schuyler's 
and Mr. Eockwood's plans for diverting the river, and so, for the 
second time, on December 15th, 1905, Mr. Eockwood was authorized 
to proceed with the construction of a wooden head-gate beside the 
lower intake. The heavy flood of November 29th and its receding 
waters had widened the intake from 300 to approximately 600 ft., 
and, after considering the conditions, it was decided to build the gate 
directly in the old canal about 200 ft. north of the intake channel, 
in order to reduce the time and the quantity of excavation required, 
and to divert the relatively small quantity of water in the old canal 
around the gate with a by-pass to be dug by the Alpha. The gate, 
started and abandoned three months before, was originally planned for 
a width of 80 ft.; this was increased to 120 ft. in order to carry 
a maximum of 9 000 sec-ft. As the gate could not be completed until 
the spring of 1906, the length was extended to 200 ft. The over-all 
dimensions, including the wooden aprons, became 240 by 100 ft. The 
entire space, of course, had to be inclosed in a coffer-dam and the ex- 
cavation made inside of it. The plans are shown on Plate CXIII. 

As far as the writer has ever heard, this is the largest and most dar- 
ing design ever made for a wooden A-frame, flash-board head-gate. 
Pile-driving was begun on January 7th, and the gate was completed 
on April 18th, 1906; the work was rushed day and night for the 
greater part of the time, and no real difiiculties whatever were en- 
countered. As in the case of the concrete head-gate, 4 miles above, 
the quantity of water seeping into the excavation was surprisingly 
small. The various items of the cost of this structure were not 
segregated, so that the details cannot be given, but the grand total 
expense of the gate proper, exclusive of the by-pass, was approximately 
$122 500. 

The discharge of the river by April 10th, was 32 200 sec-ft., and 
showed that the annual flood had begun, therefore all idea of attempt- 
ing to divert the water through the gate by damming the crevasse 
itself before the summer flood should have been passed, was abandoned. 



PLATE CXKI. 

PAPERS, AM. 80C. C. E. 

NOVEMBER, 1912. 

CORY ON 

IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROU 

COLORADO RIVER DELTA. 




FRONT ELEVATION 



SECTION ON A-B 



Papers.] IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1449 

Change in Engineering Stajf. — On May 15th, 1905, the writer was 
transferred from the Southern Pacitic Company in San Francisco 
to the Associated Harriman Lines in Arizona, with the title of As- 
sistant to the President of those properties. About 5 weeks later Mr. 
Kandolph's duties were increased by being put in charge of the C. D. Co. 
and the Mexican Co., and shortly thereafter the officials of the Southern 
District of the Southern Pacific Company urged on him the very 
serious fact that the track beside the Salton Sea would soon be under 
wa.ter, and insisted that aggressive action be taken to close the break 
on the river. About the middle of July Mr. Eandolph sent the writer 
to the river to confer with Mr. Rockwood, and a day was spent together 
examining the situation. About August 1st a second trip was made, 
and after the disastrous flood of November 28th, 1905, a third visit. 
Toward the end of January Mr. Randolph again sent the writer to 
the Lower Heading to assist Mr. Rockwood in hurrying the con- 
struction of the wooden head-gate. As this work neared completion, 
Mr. Rockwood suggested that he had found it impossible to handle 
things in accordance with his own ideas; he believed that the best 
interests of all concerned pointed to his resignation, and urged that 
the writer take up the work. After considerable discussion it was 
agreed that, if Mr. Randolph also desired the arrangement, there would 
be no objection offered. Shortly afterward these gentlemen met in Los 
Angeles and agreed to the change, and on April 19th, Mr. Rockwood 
resigned as Assistant General Manager and Chief Engineer, and 
was appointed Consulting Engineer, and the writer was appointed 
General Manager and Chief Engineer. Mr. Rockwood continued to 
act as Consulting Engineer until October 1st, 1906, when he severed 
his official connection with the company. 

The San Francisco Fire. — On April 18th had occurred the earth- 
quake which resulted in the great San Francisco conflagration, and 
exaggerated rumors as to the extent of the disaster made it seem certain 
that the machinery for the Delta was utterly destroyed; but that was 
the least important result, as far as the C. D. Co. was concerned. 
It appeared that the key city to the Harriman Lines was practically in 
ruins, and the Southern Pacific Company, as a railroad organization, 
was very seriously hurt. 

Mr. Randolph hurried to San Francisco to join with the other of- 
ficials in the West in conferring with Mr. Harriman, who had at once 



1450 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

started for the scene. There, in the bustle and confusion of temporary 
ofBces, with the ruins of San Francisco still smoking, with the facilities 
of the road to carry people away from the stricken city taxed to the 
very utmost, with the wonderful railway system which constituted 
Mr. Harriman's life work crippled to an unknown extent, and with 
the financial demands resulting from the disaster impossible to de- 
termine, Mr. Randolph succeeded in inducing Mr. Harriman to ad- 
vance an additional $250 000 for controlling the Colorado River and 
protecting Imperial Valley. It has always seemed to the writer that 
this was really the most remarkable thing in the whole chain of 
extraordinary happenings. 

The Situation. — The wooden head-gate was completed, and the up- 
per and lower by-passes connecting it with the break had been fairly 
well started with the dredges, Alpha and Beta; the concrete head-gate 
was well under way; the material for the hull of the Delta was in 
Yuma, and the machinery seriously damaged in San Francisco; the 
tracks of the Southern Pacific Railroad along the Salton Basin were 
nearly awash for a considerable length; the annual summer flood of 
1906 had begun, and, from the Weather Bureau reports from the 
drainage basin, would be a very large one; the irrigation system of 
Imperial Valley was already threatened at several vital points by the 
excessive quantity of water going down the Alamo channel or Main 
Canal; and friction between the old C. D. Co. stockholders and the 
. new management had commenced. 

No very great degree of reliance could be placed on the wooden 
head-gate, considering the character of its foundations; and the failure 
or serious weakness of that structure meant the failure and abandon- 
ment of the Rockwood plan for re-diversion. The difficulties of the 
Concrete Gate Plan, under the most favorable circumstances, became 
more apparent with further investigation, and were very greatly accen- 
tuated by the delay in getting the Delta into commission. The proba- 
bility of the withdrawal of financial support at any time through the 
discouragement of the Southern Pacific oflScials as to the ultimate suc- 
cess of the work was a serious factor. Transportation facilities from 
Yuma were very inadequate, consisting of the steamers. Searchlight, 
St. Yallier, Cochan, and the barge, Silas J. Lewis, all of sufficiently 
light draft to navigate through the shoals and sand bars of the Colo- 
rado. There were large quantities of willow brush suitable for fas- 



Papers.] irrigation AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1451 

cines and mattress work near the break, but no timber suitable for 
piling. The nearest point where piles and heavy timber were obtain- 
able was Los Angeles; from there they came by rail to Yuma, from 
which point they could be floated down the river only at considerable 
risk, so that it was cheaper to load them on barges and bring them 
down with steamboats. 

Experience thus far had indicated the practical impossibility of 
closing the break with a piiing-brush-sand bag barrier dam, and there 
were no quarries for many miles either west or east along the rail- 
road, and none, of course, available except with railroad facilities for 
loading and transportation. Further, rock would require to be trans- 
ferred to barges at Yuma and be brought thence by river to the scene 
of operations. 

Practically every engineer — and they included many of established 
national and international reputation — who had visited the break 
considered a rock fill barrier dam as entirely unworthy of consider- 
ation, for two reasons : 

First, it was believed that rock would sink into the soft alluvial 
silt bottom and keep on going down indefinitely, even if more and 
more slowly. Old river men quoted numerous instances of wrecked 
river craft. They cited a dredge, bought a few years before by the 
C. D. Co., which had sunk on its way from Yuma to the upper intake, 
gradually settling entirely out of sight in a few months. The con- 
sensus of opinion, therefore, was that any rock fill would certainly 
settle out of sight unless built on a very strong brush mattress foun- 
dation, and the probabilities were great that such a mattress would 
break under the load and fail of its purpose. 

The second vital objection urged against a rock fill barrier dam 
was that the water going over it while building would dislodge some 
portion of the fill or some one rock at the top, thereby increasing the 
overpour at this point, which would dislodge more rock and in this 
way quickly result in a breach which could not be closed. 

It was thought that these considerations not only quite precluded 
the idea of a barrier dam, should the wooden gate fail, but rendered 
very doubtful the construction of a diversion dam or obstruction in 
the channel opposite the gate which would cause a difference in head, 
above and below it, great enough to throw all the water through the 
by-pass and gate. This head was variously estimated at from 3 to 6 ft. 



1452 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

— the head on the finished dam would be about 15 ft. at low-water 
stage. 

On one point there seemed to be accord, namely, that the situation 
was a desperate one and without engineering parallel, and that there 
seemed to be little more than a fighting chance of controlling the river. 
No two of the nearly fifty eminent engineers, who visited the scene 
and examined into the situation more or less carefully, agreed on any 
one plan as offering the greatest chances of success, but pointed out 
fundamental weaknesses in practically all other methods suggested. 
This feature was so marked that when the writer suggested to Presi- 
dent Randolph that the immensity of the interests dependent for their 
safety on the re-diversion of the river seemed to render advisable a 
Board of Engineers, he answered that he would regard 100 ft. of good 
strong brush mattress in place on the river's bottom as more valuable 
than the report of any Board of Engineers which could be gotten to- 
gether. 

The immediate menace, however, was from the summer flood in 
passing through the Imperial Valley to the Salton Sea. The Weather 
Bureau's reports from the upper drainage basin then indicated a very 
great total discharge, and a peak perhaps as high as 100 000 sec-ft. 
The crevasse had now enlarged, and the old channel below had filled up, 
so that practically all this water — several times as much as had ever 
yet entered the valley — must go the new way. 

Summer Flood of 1906. — Plate CIX shows that, compared with 
recent floods, the summer flood of 1906 was very large, although it 
has been greatly exceeded since then, notably in 1907 and 1909. The 
increased fall down the Alamo River channel resulted by August 1st 
in lowering the river at the diversion point approximately 4 ft., but 
it silted up as the flood receded, leaving a net lowering of between 2 
and 3 ft. (Fig. 3.) 

It widened the break from 600 to almost 2 YOO ft., and rendered 
far more expensive, in time, equipment, and money, the task of putting 
the wooden head-gate into commission. The most important effect, 
however, was the danger it caused in various ways in the Imperial 
Valley proper. 

Such a vast quantity of water going down the Alamo channel was, 
of course, never contemplated in designing the new waste-gates near 
Sharp's Heading discharging down the Alamo River (built June to 



Papers.] IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1453 

August, 1905), and at Station 134 on the Central Main, and they 
were taxed to their absolute limits. So much passed the Alamo Waste- 
gate that it caused a recession of the grade in that channel below, so 
that the structure was, figuratively speaking, on stilts. Twice the chute 
below the structure had been extended, the last time in February and 
March, 1906, when the equipment was removed just as the water began 
to go over the top of the gates. 

By a peculiar and most fortunate coincidence, when the Alamo 
Waste-gate was discharging approximately 3 500 sec-ft. and Sharp's 
and the Encina Head-gates were being utilized to the capacity of the 
canals below them, the water in the Alamo above this point spread over- 
bank for miles, going to the west and south sufficiently deep to save the 
situation. Thus it happened that when the peak of the flood was 
reached, and approximately 75 000 sec-ft. were going down the Alamo 
channel toward the Salton Sea, all but about 5 000 sec-ft. were going 
overbank to the south and west. Had not this most fortunate condition 
existed, the Imperial Valley irrigation system would early have been 
broken into the deep channel of the Alamo below the waste-gate, and 
at once cut the water out of every canal. 

Most of this overbank flow to the south and west collected in the 
various sloughs and low lands, particularly Beltran's and Garza's 
Sloughs, and flowed into the New River. The small channel of this 
watercourse was overtopped, of course, and the water spread out, just 
south of the Boundary Line near Calexico, for a maximum width of 
about 10 miles. Some of the water overtopped the divide of the delta 
cone, gained the Paredones channel, and thence ultimately reached the 
Gulf. 

The most critical points were where the New River channel crossed 
the Boundary Line, and a little farther down along the Central Main. 
At Calexico and Mexicali this broad sheet of water rose until it cov- 
ered the ground about 4 ft. in depth. (Figs. 2 and 3, Plate CXIV.) 
The danger was not appreciated in time to throw levees to the west of 
the railroad track and thus protect that property. The disposition of 
the towns and the railroads was to wait for the C. D. Co. to build pro- 
tective levees, in spite of that company's announced intention of doing 
nothing of the sort.'^ When the situation was finally realized, about 5 

* This was because the company's attorney advised that it was not responsible legally 
for damages caused in the United States by operations of the Mexican Company in Mexico, 
and to avoid carefully any action which might be considered as an admission of responsi- 
bility by the company. 



1454: IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

miles of levee — maximum height 5 ft. — encircling the two towns 
and connecting at the north and east with higher ground, was hurriedly 
built. Strong winds blow in the spring for two and three days at a 
time, and when such storms swept over a wide stretch, even ihough the 
ground had a considerable quantity of brush, waves were caused which 
made the maintenance of these levees at times very critical. They 
were held successfully, however, until the recession of the New River 
grade made them no longer necessary. 

Along the Central Main, from near the branch railroad crossing 
west to beyond the "Five Gates" (where the canal turns to the north), 
the water rose so high during the last days of February that it over- 
topped the south bank of the canal, and only by the most desperate 
work was it prevented from overtopping the north bank and sending 
water northeastward across the country to the Mesquite Lake Basin 
and the Alamo channel. Had this occurred, the Town of Imperial 
would have been most seriously threatened, perhaps destroyed, and the 
New River and Alamo chasms would have been joined by a third one, 
about 25 miles long, diagonally across the valley northeast and south- 
west. The C. D. Co. then greatly strengthened this north bank and 
raised it 4 ft. for a distance of nearly 3 miles. When the situation was 
most threatening the citizens of Calexico and Mexicali were called out 
to help hold the levees, while the people of Imperial rushed down to 
aid in the fight along the Central Main. 

Both the Alamo and New River channels cut back, owing to the 
large quantity of water flowing in them, and the Salton Sea began to 
rise at the rate of approximately 7 in. per day. The Southern Pacific 
main line there was being shifted from time to time, by means of 
"shooflies." Along the branch line from Imperial Junction to Calexico 
the trouble at the crossing of the Alamo channel was far greater than 
should have been permitted. At no time was more than 3 500 sec-f t. 
going down the Alamo, yet this small quantity was permitted to eat 
away approximately 300 acres of land, in a semi-circular form, from 
the right bank of the channel where it is crossed by the branch rail- 
road into the valley, and caused the railroad to "shoofly" its tracks five 
times. The alluvial soil of the Imperial Valley is very easily eroded, 
especially on the concave side of river bends, but it should have been 
possible to control at reasonable cost a stream of 3 500 sec-ft., with a 
velocity never exceeding 7 ft. per sec. 



PLATE CXIV. 

PAPERS, AM. SOC. C. E. 

NOVEMBER, 1912. 

CORY ON 

IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, 

COLORADO RIVER DELTA. 




Fig. 1. — Alamo Waste-Gate, November 17th, 1906. About 30 Feet Head 

Against Gate. 










- frnt^i^ III IiIIiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimibimIII 



^M. d m. 



Fig. 2. — Portion of 4-Mile Levee Protecting Calexico and Mexicali, 
IN Flood of June, 1906. 




Fig. 3. — Overflow Against West and South Banks of Main Canal Near Five 
Gates, 2i Miles Northwest of Calexico. 



Papers.] IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1455 

The Liter-California Eailroad from Calexico toward Yuma had 
been constructed as far as Cocopah and practically all of this was 
under water. The Holtville Interurban Railroad, crossing the Alamo 
River, was cut out from time to time, the channel at that point being 
lowered more than 30 ft. This caused serious trouble with the dis- 
charge pipe of the Holton Power Company, the plant being left 
rather high, and considerable work was required to keep it from being 
undermined by side cutting. The head available, however, was in- 
creased by 30 ft. 

When the grade of New River had receded to a point about 3 miles 
above the International Boundary Line, a large area of adobe forma- 
tion was encountered, and the fingers of the stream began to eat away 
in various directions and threatened to tear up the country throughout 
that region in a frightful way. The rate of recession was also greatly 
slackened. Long before the peak of the flood had been reached, it was 
evident that the situation along the Central Main and at Calexico 
was very serious and must become much more so, until grade recession 
might give relief. It was decided, therefore, to use dynamite liberally 
in an endeavor to localize the New River's grade recession and to 
facilitate its progress. 

From observations and soil and other data at the time available 
the probability seemed slight of such recession extending more than 
6 or 7 miles beyond Calexico, or far enough to endanger lowering 
the water surface in the Alamo above the controlling works and so 
menacing the water supply of the valley before the summer flood of 1908. 
It was known that very large areas of adobe soil existed in the Garza's 
and Beltran's Slough country, so that the cutting there would be 
very much slower. There thus seemed to be considerable leeway, 
while the strain on the irrigation system of the valley was so severe 
at several critical points that it was utter nonsense to think it could 
be held through another flood season. 

In this dynamiting, from eight to sixteen ^-Ib. sticks of dynamite 
were tied in a bundle about a fulminating cap connected with from 
8 to 12 in. of water-proof fuse. The fuse was then lit and the bundle 
tossed into the water. A little practice and careful observation 
enabled one to become quite proficient in estimating how far the bundle 
of dynamite would be washed down stream by the current before the 
cap exploded the charge, and in placing the charge to get maximum 



1456 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

results. Undoubtedly, the course of . the grade recession was con- 
siderably checked and bad erosion somewhat mitigated by this work, 
but it is very doubtful whether the time of the grade recession's 
passing Calexico and Mexicali was markedly accelerated. 

When this occurred the results were spectacular in the extreme, 
the rate of cutting back at this point being fairly uniform at 1 ft. 
per min. The side cutting of the east bank of the wide, deep barranca 
for several days threatened Cajexico, and carried away a considerable 
part of Mexicali, including the railroad station, brick hotel, and a 
number of smaller buildings. The actual damage sustained was about 
$15 000 in Calexico and $75 000 in Mexicali. 

For a short distance past Mexicali the cutting back followed the 
borrow-pits of the Inter-California Railroad, utterly destroying it and 
carrying away much of the track and trestle material. About a mile 
out of town, the grade rose slightly above the flood-waters, but farther 
on, for several miles again, the roadbed was practically destroyed, 
although no more track material was lost. 

These flood-waters covered about 6 000 acres of cultivated farms, 
of course, utterly ruining the crops. Greater damage, however, oc- 
curred as the grade receded and the water rushed from each side 
toward the newly-made channel, resulting in cutting back fingers or 
side canons from the main stream to distances and depths depending 
on the length of time required to drain off the contributory water. 
Some of these side canons extended back from 2 000 to 2 500 ft. It thus 
happened that about 3 000 acres of improved and 10 000 acres of un- 
improved land were eroded to such an extent as to be practically 
ruined for agricultural or any other purposes. Of this area, about 
7 000 acres were public land. The area occupied by the New and Alamo 
channels themselves was increased by about 7 000 acres. 

The greatest damkgo in the Imperial Valley proper, however, was 
caused by the destruction of the flumes in the West Side Main over 
New River in Mexico and the Central Main over New River north- 
west of Imperial, leaving Mutual Water Companies 6 and 8 without 
water until January, 1908. These two districts contained about 30 000 
acres in actual cultivation, and were rendered practically uninhabita- 
ble and absolutely waterless for about li years. 

Except as noted, agricultural operations in the valley were facili- 
tated by the flood, there being at all times plenty of water in the 



Papers.] irrigation AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1457 

canals. Prospective settlers, of course, were kept away almost entirely, 
but the inhabitants of the valley displayed a remarkable confidence 
that the trouble would be overcome, and business was not affected 
very seriously. Indeed, during these very times, the new and inde- 
pendent town site of El Centre was the scene of really wonderful 
building activity, and the Holton Power Company, directly and in- 
directly, practically doubled its plant and holdings in the valley. 

The effect of this flood, in a geological way, was of extraordinary 
interest and very spectacular. In 9 months the runaway waters of 
the Colorado had eroded from the ISTew and Alamo River channels 
and carried down into the Salton Sea a yardage almost four times 
as great as that of the entire Panama Canal. The combined length 
of the channels cut out was almost 43 miles, the average width being 
1000 ft., and the depth 50 ft. To this total of from 400 000 000 to 
450 000 000 cu. yd. must be added almost 10% more for side caiions, 
surface land erosions, etc. Very rarely, if ever before, has it been 
possible to see a geological agency effect in a few months a change 
which usually requires centuries. 

Preparation for Diversion Work, 

All measures to prevent avoidable damage to the irrigation system 
in the valley from the flood-waters having been arranged, operations 
were resumed on the river. The break opposite the wooden head-gate 
had been widened during the flood from 600 ft. to more than J mile, 
and necessitated work on a far larger scale than had ever been suggested. 
The opinions to the contrary notwithstanding, the ability to get rock 
in large quantities and rapidly seemed to the writer to be so essential, 
and it was so obvious that much better transportation facilities were 
required, that it was decided to build a branch railroad from the 
Southern Pacific main line at a point 7 miles west of Yuma (now 
known as Hanlon's Junction) to the break. 

The located line of the Inter-California Railroad, construction of 
which had been stopped by the overflow waters at Cocopah, ran only 
a few hundred yards west of the wooden head-gate and 150 ft. west 
of the concrete head-gate. This Inter-California Railroad is a Mexi- 
can subsidiary of the Southern Pacific Company, and it was not difli- 
cult to arrange a change in its alignment to cross the Alamo where 
the best location for the diversion dam could be found and to build 



1458 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

at once that portion from the break north to the concrete head-gate. 
Thence northward the permanent alignment was expensive and would 
require considerable time to construct, therefore it was decided to 
make a temporary connection of about 6 000 ft. from Hanlon's Junc- 
tion to the concrete head-gate. It was arranged that the Southern 
Pacific should build the entire branch line and charge the total cost, 
on a force account basis, to the C. D. Co., and when later, if ever, 
the Inter-California Eailroad should be completed, all that portion 
of the branch which could be incorporated with the permanent 
alignment of the road would be taken over by it at such a figure as 
it would ' cost at that time. The stretch from Hanlon's Junction to 
the western line of the lands of the C. D. Co. is in the Yuma Indian 
Reservation, and, according to the rules and regulation of the Interior 
Department, it would have taken some time to acquire a right of way 
for this portion. As it was feared that special permission might not 
be quickly obtainable, nothing whatever was said, but the line was 
simply built. Such a course was deemed justifiable, considering the 
gravity of the situation, the necessity for haste, and the very small 
discretionary powers given to Government officials in such cases. As 
soon as the existence of this track was no longer absolutely vital, 
permission was requested in the usual way and in due course was 
obtained. Construction of this branch line was begun on July 1st, and 
on August 15th the first train load of materials passed over it to the 
Lower Heading. 

Quarry. — The granite point of rock on which the concrete head-gate 
was founded seemed favorable for quickly developing a quarry where a 
large quantity of rock might be obtained, and instructions were given 
to do the best possible with it. The rock is a second-class granite, and, 
before the first closing was completed, a quarry had been developed 
with a 600-ft, face averaging 40 ft. in height. The development of 
this quarry and track room for outfit cars, locomotives, etc., called for 
the building of a large yard of sidings and spurs. This quarry was 
entirely on C. D. Co. land — that bought from Hall Hanlon at the very 
beginning. 

Clay Pit. — Between the quarry and the Boundary Line, and about i 
mile west of the branch railroad, there was an opportunity to develop 
rapidly a clay pit. Advantage was taken of this, and by the 
time the first closing was completed, there was a steam shovel face, 600 



Papers.] IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1459 

ft. long and averaging 60 ft. in height. The clay in this bed is rather 
hard and requires some blasting, but it melts down in water, and when 
mixed in about equal proportions with the cement gravel from the 
Mammoth gravel pit makes a very impervious material for dam 
construction. 

The Mammoth Gravel Pit. — This pit is on the Southern Pacific 
Railroad 41.08 miles west of Hanlon's Junction. It had been thor- 
oughly developed at that time and had been used for ballasting the 
main line for more than 100 miles in each direction. It is the property 
of the railroad, and the material obtained there is fairly high in clay, 
the result being essentially a cementing gravel, which makes the surface 
of the track almost impervious. 

Other Quarries Available. — At Declez, a point on the Southern 
Pacific Railroad 195 miles west of Hanlon's Junction and 49 miles east 
of Los Angeles, there is a large, well-equipped quarry of very good 
granite, from which material for the construction of the breakwater at 
San Pedro Harbor, 19 miles southwest of Los Angeles, is obtained. 
The output of this quarry is very large, the rock running up to 12 tons. 

Near Ogilby, 7 miles west, a large area is covered with lava "nigger- 
head" rock, essentially one- or two-man size, which had been in part 
denuded to furnish rip-rap around the railroad bridge over the Colorado 
at Yuma. The tracks, however, had been torn up, and no stone had 
been obtained therefrom in years. 

At Tacna, 52 miles east of Hanlon's Junction, there was a quarry 
formerly used by the railroad but abandoned because the rock there- 
from was small and of poor quality. 

At Patagonia, on the branch line south from Bunson toward 
Nogales, and 370 miles east of Hanlon's Junction, there was a well- 
equipped quarry controlled by the Southern Pacific. Its output was a 
reddish limestone, considerably smaller than that at Declez, but yet 
frequently turning out 10-ton rock. 

These four sources of supply constituted the utmost possibilities, 
aside from the quarry which might be developed at Andrade.* 

Brush. — By no means all the area contiguous to the Colorado is 
covered with willow brush, but it occurs in spots, often of very large 
extent. Such areas on the west bank of the river near the Edinger 

* Aadrade is the name of the Inter-California railroad station on the American side of 
the Boundary Line, Al^odones being on the Mexican side. 



14G0 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

Dam had been cleared away, and west of the old Main Canal there was 
an old shallow lake which, though now drained, was practically barren. 
All brush, therefore, had to be obtained from the south side of the 
break, and with an average wagon haul of about 1 mile. The growths, 
ranging from 6 to IS ft. in height, were ideal for fascines and mattress 
work. Main and branch roads were cut by Indian labor in order to get 
this material to the front rapidly. 

Dredges.— The dipper dredge, Alpha, and the suction dredge. Beta, 
were in reasonably good condition, but the former could not be used 
in the sand bar left exposed in the bottom of the break when the waters 
receded, because the material slipped down to such a flat slope that it 
would have imprisoned the craft. After doing all it could in the by- 
pass and more solid ground, it was started to deepening the old Main 
Canal toward Algodones. Dams were built behind it from time to time, 
and water was pumped into the canal at the upper intake to keep the 
machine afloat. The quantity of water required indicated a sur- 
prisingly small seepage loss from this old canal into the surrounding 
covxntry, and this is in accord with the unexpected experience with the 
coffer-dams of the wooden and concrete head-gates. 

Steamers and Barges. — During the latter part of 1905 the Mexican 
Co. purchased the steamer, Sear'chlight, 91 ft. long, 18 ft. wide, and 
drawing, without load, 18 in. of water. It had a barge, about 55 
ft. long and 25 ft. wide, on which most of its load was carried. The 
steamer, Cochan, 135 ft. long and 31 ft. wide, the largest on the 
river, belonged to Yuma parties, and as it had been leased by J. G. 
White and Company for hauling materials and supplies to the Laguna 
Weir, it was not available. There was another steamer on the river, 
the St. Valliers, 75 ft. long, which was a little smaller than the Search- 
light and in very poor condition. In addition to these there was the 
barge Silas J. Lewis, 115 ft. long and 35 ft. wide, which was fitted with 
a donkey engine with which it was pulled up stream. This barge was 
rented for $15 per day, and its deck was cleared for mattress weav- 
ing. 

Grading Outfits. — The Southern District of the Southern Pacific 
Company — from Santa Barbara and Fresno, Cal., to El Paso, Tex. — 
has enough reconstruction and betterment work to keep two or three 
grading contractors' outfits at work except during the very hot season. 
An arrangement was made with one of these, Shattuck and Desmond, 



Papers.] irrigation AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1461 

to supply an outfit on the force account schedule paid by the railroad, 
with provisions for the payment of all duties and for all stock dying 
from heat. This firm secured, fed, and boarded its own laborers. 
Inasmuch as there was no very definite plan as to the work which 
would be required, no contracts were feasible, hence the force ac- 
count arrangement. At one time about 800 head of this firm's stock, 
with complete camp equipment, Fresno scrapers, plows, etc., were 
on the work. 

Materials and Stores. — ^Arrangements were made with the Southern 
Pacific for equipment, materials, and stores on the basis of cost plus 
10%, and for freight charges of 0.5 cent per ton-mile, until the pro- 
visions of the Interstate Commerce Commission prohibiting such 
freight arrangement went into effect. Two steam shovels were brought 
in for quarry work and one for the clay pit. Complete work trains 
were requisitioned from time to time until a maximum of ten was 
reached. A roundhouse foreman and an assistant master car repairer 
were sent by the railroad company, and temporary, but effective, plants 
were installed at Andrade. Three carloads of repair parts and stores 
for engine, car and air-brake repairs were sent out, used from, and 
returned when the work ended. All requisition blanks, rules, and other 
organization methods of the railroad were continued. 

When the Southern Pacific built the Liicin Cut-off, consisting of 
a long trestle bridge and an immense fill across Great Salt Lake, in 
Utah, there were bought a large number of steel side-dump cars, of 
45 cu. yd. capacity, locally known as "battleships," weighing approx- 
imately 20 tons, and having a capacity of 100 000 lb. with a permissible 
10% overload. These cars were frequently loaded to 125 000 lb. on 
this work, as the trip between the Andrade quarry and the break did 
not exceed 4 miles. At first 80 of these cars were secured, and more 
and more were sent until about 300 were finally in service. Such a 
quantity of railroad equipment necessitated rather extensive terminal 
facilities, and these were provided on the American side of the line 
because of the customs regulations of the Mexican Government. 

The railroad from Hanlon's Junction to the Lower Heading, the 
quarry, clay pit, steam shovels, etc., were under Mr. Eulogio Carrillo, 
Assistant Engineer of the Southern Pacific Construction Department, 
from June 1st, 1906, to July 21st, 1907, as a superintendent of the 
C. D. Co., from which he received his salary, the railroad giving him 



14G3 ■ IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

leave of absence for that period. All the men under his direction, 
however, were carried on the Southern Pacific payrolls, and bills were 
rendered later by that corporation to cover this expenditure. 

There were two reasons for having the railroad company supply so 
great a quantity of labor, equipment, materials, and supplies. First, 
it afforded an opportunity to assemble quickly a thoroughly organized 
and efficient force of men ; the advantage of obtaining materials and 
supplies at low prices by the purchasing department of the Harriraan 
systems; immediate shipment of repair parts not kept on band, thus 
reducing delays to the minimum; and the ability to increase or de- 
crease rapidly the force and equipment without confusion. The sec- 
ond reason was that no immediate cash was required, and as bills of all 
kinds were not usually presented and approved in less than about 6 
months, approximately 3% in interest was saved. All bills were ren- 
dered at actual cost plus 10%, which thus meant really cost plus 7% — 
a very low figure for superintendence, etc. 

Whenever any train, equipment, or men left the main line and 
came on the branch line they reported to and were under the jurisdic- 
tion of Mr. Carrillo, who in turn reported to and was under the sole 
jurisdiction of the writer. In this way no misunderstanding arose, 
and the entire force obeyed instructions issued as quickly and fully 
as though there were absolutely no connection between them and the 
Southern Pacific. 

Storehouse at Lower Heading. — Duty had to be paid on everything 
taken into Mexico, but, nevertheless, a very complete storehouse of 
repair parts, small tools, etc., was established at the Lower Heading. 
No requisition system was put in, however, because it was felt that 
the losses which would thus occur would amount to much less than the 
delay due to any form of red tape, whatsoever. Everything received 
was charged to the work, and at its closing down an inventory was 
made and the work was credited with the value of the material left. 

Climatic Conditions. — From about June 1st to the middle of Sep- 
tember or October 1st, the temperature of this region is so high that 
until 10 years ago it was not considered advisable to continue large con- 
struction work during that season. There can be no doubt that 
ordinary labor is only from one-third to two-thirds as efficient in siicb 
heat, and during this particular year the general average seemed to be 
about one-half. There is little wind during this period, and the 



Papers.] irriCxATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 14G3 

humidity is ordinarily very low, though occasionally it is quite high 
for periods of two or three days. 

Mosquitoes are frequently a terrible pest, very often driving even 
cattle out of regions near stagnant water. There is relatively little 
vegetation about Andrade, and at the Lower Heading a large camp 
compound was entirely cleared and the stagnant pools in the vicinity 
drained at a slight cost, so that the mosquitoes, while annoying, were 
by no means serious. 

Brush and arrow weed growths are so dense that white men, no mat- 
ter how well acclimated, cannot work very hard in cutting them down. 
Men from the central part of Mexico were imported, but they could 
stand it little better. Indian labor is the only kind for that sort of 
work. 

Labor Conditions. — The work of rehabilitating San Francisco after 
its disastrous conflagration drew there an immense amount of shifting 
labor. To the south Los Angeles was growing in every direction. The 
Harriman Lines, under President Randolph, was employing large 
numbers of men constructing the West Coast Railroad from Guaymas 
toward Mazatlan and Guadalajara. Much betterment work was in 
progress on the lines from Los Angeles to El Paso, and large forces 
were required for building "shooflies" and shifting track along the 
Salton Sea. J. G. White and Company were rushing work on the 
LagiTna Weir, and the Reclamation Service was building the Roosevelt 
Dam near Phoenix. Thus the labor situation in California as a whole, 
and in this part of California in particular, was acute. The immi- 
gration laws of the United States prevented the importation of Mex- 
icans, except in a very small way, but here the work was in Mexico. 
It was decided, therefore, to obtain laborers from Central Mexico, ship 
them from El Paso to Yuma in bond, and back into Mexico at the 
Lower Heading. Arrangements were made with the Labor Agent 
for the Southern Pacific, Southern District, Mr. Ben Heney, of Tucson, 
to ship 500 men. This plan was an utter failure, for two reasons. 
The Mexican officials did their best to prevent Mr, Heney's agents 
from getting men started, and the 75 men who arrived were unable 
to stand the climate. 

Attention was then turned toward getting Indians in large num- 
bers, and arrangements were made with Mr. C. E. Dagenette, Indian 
Outing Agent, with the result that, by the time work was in full 



1464 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

swing, practically all the men, women, and children of six Indian 
tribes were on the work — the Pimas, Papagoes, Maricopas, and Yumas, 
from Arizona; and the Cocopahs and Dieguenos, from Mexico. These 
six tribes fraternized and got along together without any difficulties 
whatever, and constituted a separate camp of about 2 000 people. 
About 400 workmen could be depended on from this collection. They 
were paid 20 cents an hour, and every 9 men received in addition one 
man's pay to go to a squaw for cooking their food. The Indians 
bought their own supplies, and to avoid duty built their camps on the 
Arizona bank, crossing the dry channel below the break to and from work. 

Indian labor was very satisfactory, and, indeed, just what other 
arrangement could have been made is very problematical. Under in- 
telligent foremen who understand their peculiarities, chief of which 
is lack of assurance and consequent timidity in going ahead with 
work, they are quite satisfactory. They must be paid weekly, and 
very few can ever be induced to work on Sunday or to put in over- 
time, regardless of how critical the stage of work may be when the 
whistle blows. 

Very fortunately, indeed, an unexpectedly large amount of float- 
ing labor came in from every part of the United States, men who are 
attracted to any work which has achieved notoriety for any reason. 
Once on the ground these men did not work any great length of time. 
A work train ran into Yuma every night for provisions and supplies, 
returning early in the morning, and it always carried a considerable 
number of cheerful capitalists out and sadder and wiser men in. 
Yuma at that time was "wide open," with all sorts of Jures which few 
of these floaters could resist. To what extent the work would have 
suffered had Yuma then been a closed town, as it is now, is a question. 

The general wages paid were: 

Pile-driver foreman 50 cents per hour. 

Pile-driver donkey runner 43| " " " 

Good pile-driver helpers 3U to 374 " 

Ordinary labor 27* to 30 " " " 

Work from 8 to 10 hours per day. 
Board deduction, $22.50 per month. 

Commissary and Camp Plans. — The usual outfit cars were provided 
for all men carried on the rolls of the railroad, and many were boarded 



Papers.] IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1465 

in the dining cars, which were a part of Mr. Carrillo's permanent con- 
struction outfit. The remainder of the men were boarded by Mr, M. 
C. Threlkeld, of San Francisco, who had and still has a contract with 
the railroad to board all gangs engaged in maintenance of way and 
betterment work on its lines. Mr. Threlkeld took an essentially similar 
contract for feeding the white laborers of the C. D. Co., the first contract 
being for 25 cents per meal in the United States and 40 cents in Mexico, 
the contractor to pay all customs duties on material and supplies. 
After the second break, and when the work was continued at President 
Koosevelt's request, it was deemed probable that the Mexican Govern- 
ment would refund duties on provisions thereafter, so that the con- 
tract was changed on January 1st, 1907, to 25 cents per meal and the 
Mexican Co., to pay the duties. This contract covered meals for all 
white laborers, including men on dredges, on the steamer Searchlight, 
etc., and gave Mr. Threlkeld the exclusive selling of clothing, tobacco, 
notions, etc., to the laborers. The Indians bought relatively little from 
him, however, preferring to deal with Yuma merchants with whom the 
local Indians were very well acquainted. 

Excellent board for the men was insisted on and furnished. It was 
believed that good board, especially with lots of fresh vegetables, would 
be a large factor in keeping men on the work, and this was found to 
be the case. Large numbers of mosquitoes were feared, in spite of 
precautions taken, so bunk houses were built, with brush ramada roofs, 
and carefully and effectively screened all round. These precautions were 
not exactly necessary, but were nevertheless well worth their cost. 

Policing of Camps.- — The many different classes of laborers on the 
same job and under Mexican laws made it essential to have effective 
police arrangements, and bar liquor from the camp absolutely. The 
Yuma Indian Reservation extends to the line, and, in addition was then 
and until 1908, a part of San Diego County, and a "dry" region. Across 
the river in Arizona is "wet," but the United States laws against selling 
liquor to Indians are rigorously enforced. In Lower California, how- 
ever, the idea of liquor control has not even germinated, and it 
was necessary to promise to prevent American Indians from getting 
liquor in Mexico before permission could be obtained to take them out 
of the United States — and this was quite proper. Accordingly, 
arrangements were made with the Mexican authorities to put the entire 
region under martial law, and send a force of rurales with a military 



1466 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

commandant at their head to police the camps. This proved extremely 
eiEcient and satisfactory, and there was absolutely no disorder at any 
time. 

Customs and Duties. — Except for the operations of the C. D. Co , 
there was no development in Mexico along the river, therefore, until 
1908, the nearest custom house in Lower California was at Mexicali. 
A garrita was maintained at Algodones, however, where material go- 
ing down the river to land in Mexico was passed. During the construc- 
tion of the Edinger Dam, all camps and supplies were kept on Disaster 
Island in the middle of the river, so that there were no customs charges. 
When the construction of the wooden head-gate was begun, endeavors 
were made to get the Mexican Government to establish a customs office 
at Algodones temporarily, but without success. Accordingly, all bills 
of material to be passed had to be sent to the custom house in Mexi- 
cali ; there the charges were assessed, and the manifest was returned 
to Algodones before the goods could be taken over, which was very 
cumbersome and slow. 

Another method of getting goods across the line was taken advan- 
tage of, namely, by boletas. The Mexican Government permits each 
individual, on payment of duties, daily to take across $20 (Mexican) 
worth of dutiable stuff without manifest, and the authorities agreed to 
permit goods to be passed at the Algodones garrita by this boleta 
method, having individual employees of the company sign the boletas. 
In this way emergency stuff was passed. 

Under the conce.ssion of the Mexican Co., machinery and materials 
for permanent construction was to be admitted without duty, bvit the 
intention of this provision was plainly for the company to make out 
a list of what would be required once for all, and that such freedom 
from duties would apply to the original entry of the machinery and 
material, and not to subsequent repair parts, etc. Obviously, it did not 
contemplate the refund of customs charges in such a case as closing 
the crevasse. Nevertheless, it seemed probable that the customs charges 
for material and supplies other than provisions would be refunded, 
because the Mexican Government itself was vitally interested in stop- 
ping the break. Tentative negotiations toward this end were started, 
but the procedure for securing such permission is a long one, and it 
was advised that the work be prosecuted and the request for refund 
made after its completion. It was also made plain that no refund 



Papers.] ilTxIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1467 

would be given for duties on provisions, as it was impossible to deter- 
mine that the provisions passed were all actually used on the work. 
When the work was completed a request for a refund was made, and, 
021 President Diaz's recommendation, the National Congress, by vote, 
refunded approximately 75% of all duties paid, amounting to more than 
$40 000. 

The chief objection, therefore, was the red tape involved in passing 
goods, and the delays which followed any slight technical mistake in 
classification. As an illustration: an inspector investigated the cus- 
toms transactions of the period about a year later, and assessed a fine 
against the company for $3 000 for utilizing the boleta method of 
passing emergency materials and supplies. On proper presentation of 
the facts, however, this fine was remitted. Stock with harness and 
grading equipment was permitted to be passed into Mexico under bond 
for a period of 6 months, as also was machinery, which provision 
assisted very greatly in the work. 

All payrolls, time checks, receipts, and legal papers require stamps 
to be affixed and cancelled, inspectors from time to time visiting all 
corporations and checking the books. If any irregularities are found 
in the books or papers for the 6 months immediately preceding, such 
inspector is then permitted to go back to the period of 6 montlis imme- 
diately preceding that, etc. If, however, everything is regular for the 
first 6 months preceding, that operates to prohibit inspection prior to 
that time. These inspectors get a considerable percentage of fines 
assessed and collected, and are consequently quite zealous, so that it is 
profitable to obey the stamp law scrupuloiisly. 

Necessity for Mexican Corporation Doing Work. — On taking 
charge of the affairs of the Mexican Co., the writer found that up 
to that time work done in Mexico had been paid for on the American 
side of the line through the C. D. Co., and in this way no Mexican 
stamps were required for payrolls, time checks, etc. In other words, 
the C. D. Co. had its forces go over into Mexico and do work on the 
canals of the Mexican Co. directly. As this was obviously contrary 
to the spirit of the Mexican laws on the subject, arrangements were 
made at once whereby the Mexican Co. did all work in Mexico and 
billed the C. D. Co. therefor at actual cost, the C. D. Co. turning 
over all materials and supplies required on the Mexican side of the 
Line at its expense. 



1468 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

Mr. A. F. Andrade, now Depositario for the Mexican Co., and As- 
sistant General Manager of the Inter-California, was made General 
Agent of the Mexican Co., and was in charge of all negotiations 
between that corporation and the Mexican Government, and to his 
tact, energy, and ability is attributed the relatively small amount of 
irritation and delay encountered. 

Occasionally, rules and regulations had to be disregarded, and this 
was done when it was deemed quite necessary, knowing that the local 
officers would report such infractions of the laws, but that the higher 
officials would view such infractions very sensibly when sooner or later 
brought to their notice with full explanations. For example, before 
permission was given to run trains into and out of Mexico after 
dark, a serious situation developed just at sundown, immediately re- 
quiring rock at the Lower Heading, and the Mexican officials at the 
Boundary Line would not permit trains to pass. Their protests were 
disregarded, for while the officials under the circumstances could not 
act otherwise, it would have been folly not to have disregarded their 
orders, considering the urgency of the matter. Proper explanations 
were at once made, and the company was not criticized in any way 
for the action. 

Difficulties in doing work in Mexico are largely due to ignorance of 
Mexican conditions, customs laws, and personal characteristics, and 
doubtless are no greater than a Mexican would encounter in doing 
work in the United States. It is very desirable for the highest officer 
in charge of work to speak Spanish well, as minor Mexican officials 
are far more impressed with a statement coming from him than from 
any subordinate officer. 

Methods of Diversion of 'River Through Eockwood Head-Gate. 

The triangular space between the two faces of the A-frame and 
the horizontal cross-bracing of the wooden head-gate was made into 
a long pyramid, by flooring the bottom and sides, which was filled with 
sand taken in by wheel-barrows, in order to give additional weight to the 
gate in resisting the buoyant effect of the water. 

By August 5th the discharge of the river had fallen to 24 500 
sec-ft., and directly beside the Eockwood Head-gate the receding 
waters had exposed sand bars on each side of the main channel — the 
situation being as represented by Fig. 15. When these sand bars had 



Papers.] irrigation AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1469 

dried sufficiently, teams were used in throwing up an embankment on 
the line of the diversion dam. Brush jetties were also used to nar- 
row the channel, the Beta assisting. In a little more than a week the 
stream was narrowed to 600 ft., the river gradually falling. Work 
was then begun on weaving a brush mattress, 100 ft. wide up and 
down stream, and sinking it on the bottom of the river. The decks 
of the barge, Silas J. Lewis, were cleared and skids were rigged 
thereon; ^-in. steel cables, 8 ft. apart, were anchored to "dead men" 
in the north bank and unwound from spools beneath the skids, such 
cables constituting the longitudinal strength of the mattress; and to 
these were fastened brush fascines averaging 18 in. in diameter and 
100 ft. in length. These fascines were built up between vertical pins at 
the upper end of the skids and bound with baling wire, and as they 
were completed they were pushed down to the last one in the mattress 
and sewed to it and to the supporting cables with f-in., 9-strand, 
galvanized-iron cable and cable clamps. Fig. 1, Plate CXV, shows 
the method of sewing and fastening. When a length of mattress 6qual 
to the width of the barge was completed, the barge was slowly pulled 
from under it, and it caught the silt and at once settled heavily to 
the bottom. No kind of weighting whatsoever was required. An- 
other barge width of mattress was then woven and sunk, and so on. 
Figs. 1 and 2, Plate CXV, show the method of constructing the mat- 
tress and the number of men employed. 

It required 20 working days, with two shifts, to weave and sink 
two mattresses, one on top of the other, across the bed of the stream, 
or a total of 1 300 ft. ; thus the average rate was 65 lin. ft. or 6 500 sq. 
ft. daily. The work went ahead without interruption or difficulty ex- 
cept that once the anchor lines controlling the barge were not handled 
with sufficient care and the first layer of mattress was not sunk across 
in a straight line, but curved do^\Ti stream in the middle perhaps 20 
ft. at the maximum point. This, however, was not important. 

The prevailing idea as to the necessity for such bottom protection 
in the river may be better realized from the fact that several en- 
gineers with the longest experience on the river joined in urging that 
a solid canvas back be sewed on the vmder side of the mattress. It 
was feared that the water might start a wash through a break in the 
mattress, that such a stream would carry the sand from below, cause 
a depression for the mattress to span, and result in breaking it when 



1470 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

weight should be put on above. This, however, was deemed un- 
necessary. 

While the mattress work was being completed, a 4-pile railroad 
trestle with 10-ft. bents was started across the center line of this 
foundation, decked, and a railroad track built thereon. This trestle 
was driven from both ends, and was ready for the passage of trains 
on September 14th, 6 days after the completion of the mattress. In 
the meaji time, the earthwork across the north sand bar had progressed 
•sufficiently to connect the rails, so that trains could run out on the 
trestle. On the south side, the jetty work and the Beta had built up a 
sand bar on which a frame trestle on mud-sills was erected, connecting 
the earth embankment on the south sand bar to the trestle, thus 
affording tail room for trains. This frame trestle was filled in with 
material from the clay pit at Andrade. 

At this stage, brush fascines were put in between the bents of the 
trestle over the channel, laid longitudinally with the stream, and 
sunk by rock from the quarry at Andrade. The rock was loaded 
into ''battleships" with a steam shovel, hauled down, and dumped from 
the trestle. In this way a difference of 6 ft. in water elevation above 
and below this diversion dam was attained with no difficulty what- 
soever. 

Meanwhile the by-pass in which the Rockwood head-gate stood was 
being enlarged in several ways. The Alpha had cut a small channel 
from the crevasse to the gate from above and from below, through the 
solid ground, and the Beta had enlarged these cuts until it was taken 
over to assist in the jetty work on the south side of the river. A small 
ditch was cut with teams and scrapers a.cross the sand bar, as an 
extension of the down-stream end of the by-pass. This channel was 
excavated to the water-table with Fresno scrapers, and made as narrow 
as possible, reliance being placed on enlarging it by the erosion of 
the water. In two or three places adobe deposits of considerable 
extent were found, and in these dynamite was used, as already ex- 
plained. 

The steamer, Searchlight, was anchored in the upper by-pass for 
two or three days with its rear end against the bank and the stern 
wheel kept going as fast as possible. This greatly hurried the erosion. 
The increasing head on the diversion dam aided these methods of 
enlarging the capacity of the by-pass until on October 10th only 



PLATE CXV. 

PAPERS, AM. SOC. C. E. 

NOVEMBER, 1912. 

CORY ON 

IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, 

COLORADO RIVER DELTA. 




Fig. 1. — Weaving Brush Mattress. 




Fig. 2. — Down-Stream End of Brush Mattress Above Water Because 
OF Silting Action. 



Papers.] irrigation AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1471 

about 1 450 sec-ft. of the river's total discharge of 14 300 sec-ft. was 
not going through the gate. 

The alignment of the by-pass was unfortunate, as it had quite a 
sharp curve, and the upper end left the river at a sharp angle. At 
this point cutting began, and to prevent it a small brush mattress was 
woven and weighted down with rock. 

It was soon seen that, with the 4-ft. openings between them, the 
A-frames of the gate caught the drift in the water very badly. An- 
ticipating this, cables had been stretched across the entrance of the 
by-pass and fitted with grab-hooks, like fish hooks on a trout line. 
These grab-hooks were of f-in. wrought iron fastened with from 6- 
to 8-ft. lengths of sewing cable to the cable spans at intervals of about 
8 ft. It was hoped that these would catch drift where it could easily 
be removed, and prevent trouble at the gate. However, they did very 
little good. 

When the current through the gate increased to 6 or 8 ft. per 
sec, a scour developed both above and below. Soundings showed 
that the scour below the gate was not at all serious, but was really 
far less than had been anticipated. The eddies at the ends of the 
gate caused side-cutting, as is always the case, but really nothing 
alarming. The scour above the gate, however, was surprisingly great; 
some was expected, but not nearly as much as occurred. Brush and 
rock extension of the apron, as shown on the plans, had not been put 
in as it had been the intention to use rock from Andrade in lieu 
thereof. When soundings, which were taken frequently, showed that 
the by-pass bed was eroded to the level of the floor of the gate, approxi- 
mately 1 000 cu. yd. of rock were loaded on a barge which was swung 
in front of the gate and held by cables until unloaded. 

Failure of Wooden Head-Gate. 

On October 3d a serious settlement of the earth filling in the 
north abutment suddenly occurred. Excavation was at once made to 
ascertain the cause, and some small leaks in the end wall on the 
up-stream side of the A-frame were found. These were stopped up, 
and the earth was leveled to only a few feet above the water surface 
on the outside. Two days later the lower wing-wall in this same 
abutment spread out at the bottom on the west side, as shown in Fig. 
1, Plate CXXII. The gate itseK buckled up about 0.3 ft,, about one- 



1472 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

third of its length from the abutment, such buckling apparently 
occurring very slowly within 24 hours, ending on October 5th. These 
signs of weakness were accompanied by the tearing up of the up- 
stream apron in relatively small sections, which were at once thrown 
against the A-frames by the current. With great diificulty these 
were taken out piecemeal, and then only in part. These, together with 
the drift which accumulated, caused a head of 4.4 ft. on the gate on 
October 11th. At this time the discharge through the gate was about 
12 000 sec-f t. ; the maximum discharge through it was about 13 000 
sec-ft. on October 8th. 

These indications of weakness showed that it would not be safe 
to use the gate after closing the break, and that it would be very 
fortunate if it held until this could be accomplished. Furthermore, 
the drift made it very difficult, if not impossible, to set the flash- 
boards. Accordingly, on October 5th, a pile bridge was begun just 
above the gate and connected with the track to the south by a frame 
bent trestle supported on mud-sills — the same construction as had 
been utilized on the south side of the channel. This trestle was fin- 
ished in the morning of October 11th, and it was intended to dump 
rock from it and fill up the gate in this way and not attempt to use 
the flash-boards. 

Wlien the first rock train was slowly pushed over the trestle, at 11 
A. M., three bents of the frame trestle settled and wrecked the train, 
fortunately injuring no one seriously. Just why construction which 
on apparently worst ground on the south side of the main channel was 
entirely satisfactory should have failed here, is not known — things 
happened thereafter too rapidly to find out. At any rate, had the 
trestle stood and had the large number of loaded "battleships" held 
ready been dumped, the writer has always believed that the head-gate 
would not have failed utterly. Be that as it may, at 2: 30 p. M., with- 
out any warning, the gate suddenly buckled up at a point about one- 
third of the way from the south abutment, and the larger portion — 
from there to the other abutment — floated down stream about 200 ft., 
where it lodged. The remainder of the gate stayed in place, although 
it settled in the central end. When the gate went out, the 4.4-ft. 
head above it caused a destructive wave of water, carrying large quan- 
tities of drift and debris from the wrecked gate against the railroad 
trestle crossing the by-pass about 300 ft. below. In about 6 min. this 



PLATE CXVI. 

PAPERS, AM. SOC. C. E. 

NOVEMBER, 1912. 

CORY ON 

IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, 

COLORADO RIVER DELTA. 




Pig. 1. — Grade Recession in New River Near Calexico. Maximum Rate of 
Recession, 1 Foot Per Minute. Drop, 28 Feet. June, 1906. 




Fig. 2. — The Hind Dam, Passing 7 000 Second-Feet. Head, 10 Feet. 



Papers.] IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1473 

damaged the trestle seriously, and would have marooned a locomotive 
and train standing on the south side of the by-pass had not the en- 
gineer taken chances and pulled across before the piling began to 
go out. 

The pond above the diversion dam extended some distance up 
stream and contained a large quantity of water which had to run out 
before the flow through the by-pass was reduced to the discharge of the 
river. By the time this occurred, considerable inroad had been made 
at the point where the upper by-pass left the river — which had been 
protected by a small brush mattress — and for a time it threatened 
to work down to and through the earth portion of the dam. Aggressive 
work was centered there, and such action was finally arrested. 

Closing the Break with Eock Fill Barrier Dams in Series. 

The lowering of the water above the diversion dam left it dry, 
except for a surprisingly small quantity of leakage, and enabled ex- 
amination of the rock fill which had been produced by an ever-in- 
creasing proportion of rock with respect to brush. This condition of 
affairs seemed to indicate that the reasons urged why a rock fill dam 
of considerable height could not be built in a running stream were 
not altogether strong, and suggested the possibility of very quickly 
controlling the situation with a series of rock fill dams, each of which 
should sustain a head of not more than 4 ft. This particular dam 
had stood successfully a head of 6 ft. without any of the troubles 
prophesied for constructing rock fill dams in streams. Furthermore, 
the tracks of the Southern Pacific Company on the Salton Sea were in 
an extremely critical condition, and the southern transcontinental 
line would soon be interrupted, at an estimated cost of $1 000 000 a 
month. It was obvious that, if this were to be prevented, very quick 
action was necessary, and if hope should be abandoned, withdrawal 
of financial support in controlling the river was almost a certainty. 
Furthermore, other plans of controlling the situation possessed most 
serious difficulties, as already explained. 

As a matter of insurance, however, a rush order was wired for 
additional sewing cable for building a diversion dam across the Colo- 
rado directly opposite the concrete head-gate, exactly as had been 
done successfully opposite the wooden head-gate to divert the river 
through the former structure, and as had been done with the other. 



1474 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

trusting to dynamiting, dredging, erosion, etc., for enlarging the 4 
miles of Main Canal thence to the break. This done, the trestles across 
the by-pass, above and below where the wooden head-gate had been, 
were repaired, and a third trestle, 30 ft. above the lower one, was 
hurriedly thrown across this stream, which was carrying the entire flow 
of the river, the waterway through the opening of the gate being only 
120 ft. wide. 

Such method of closing the break and forcing the river down the 
old channel by three rock fill barrier dams in series was therefore 
considered problematical only because there was no mattress under 
any of them, and the brush mattress idea had always been regarded as 
essential. The branch railroad from Hanlon's Junction to the Lower 
Heading was now in excellent condition, and the Andrade quarry was 
sufficiently developed to permit the use of the two steam shovels, pro- 
ducing about 5 000 cu. yd. of rock daily, by working night and 
day. It was felt that with these facilities, together with the rock which 
could be obtained from quarries within a distance of 400 miles to 
the east and west, rock could be put into the stream faster than the 
water could carry it away. 

As a matter of fact, these three dams were built up so rapidly 
and successfully that only 10% of the water was going through the 
by-pass by October 29th, most of the remainder — 8 600 sec-ft. — going 
over the diversion dam with the mattress foundation. Here, a sec- 
ondary trestle, with 4-pile bents, 15 ft. apart, parallel to and 30 ft. up 
stream from the first, had been rushed, and from the two a rock fill 
dam was completed, turning all the water^ — 9 270 sec-ft. — down the old 
channel and actually closing the break on November 4th. That is, 
after working on other lines continuously for 15 months, the stream 
was controlled by a rock fill dam in 24 days. In other words, the 
rock fill barrier dam. plan, which had not been advocated, or indeed 
seriously considered, by a single man, proved to be a very simple and 
efficient, though expensive, method of re-diverting the river. The fact 
that there was a very substantial brush mattress foundation, however, 
was deemed by many as of vital importance. 

Leakage through the structure was stopped by dumping "battle- 
ship" trainloads of gravel from the Mammoth gravel pit and clay 
from the clay pit, the whole being puddled with fire streams. The 
Beta, which was kept above the diversion dam in order to be taken up 



PLATE CXVII. 

PAPERS, AM. SOC. C. E. 

NOVEMBER, 1912. 

CORY ON 

IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, 

COLORADO RIVER DELTA. 




Fig. 1. — Sealing the Hind Dam with Gravel and Clay by Hydraulic Jets, 
November, 1906. Note Slope of Down-Stream Side of Rock Fill Dam. 




Fig. 2. — General View of the Second Break, January 20th, 1907. 



i 



J 



Papers.] IERIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1475 

the river and used in the intake above the concrete gate, was used in 
widening the np-stream toe of the dams. 

A week and a half after the failure of the wooden head-gate, the 
success of the series rock fill dam plan seemed assured. The Alpha 
had finished its trip up the Main Canal and cut into the excavation 
in which the concrete head-gate had been built. The intake from the 
river to the concrete head-gate was completed, and by October 29th 
the river at this point had been raised approximately 4 ft. by opera- 
tions at the break. The dam holding out the river here, and those 
which had been left by the Alpha on its way up, were blown out, and 
water commenced to flow through the concrete head-gate and Main 
Canal into the Alamo channel below the diversion operations. The 
initial discharge was about 150 sec-ft., and had increased but little 
when the river re-diversion was complete. At that time (November 
4th) the water height at various points was as follows (C. D. Co. 

datum) : ^^^^^ the dam 113.0 ft. 

Below the dam 97.3 " 

Opposite concrete head-gate. .. .114.5 " 
Floor of concrete gate 98.0 " 

By November 15th only 300 sec-ft. were flowing in the Main Canal, 
the fall of 17 ft. in these 4 miles not having resulted in much erosion, 
because of several stretches of adobe deposits, though the cvirrent was 
quite strong. Dynamite was used liberally, and by December 5th 
the grade recession was within 1 mile of the head-gate. In this way 
continuity of supply into the valley was kept up, and the water users 
suffered relatively little inconvenience. 

In making the first closing, rock was unloaded from the three 
trestles across the by-pass and two trestles over the main channel. 
Records were kept daily of car loads of rock from Andrade and from 
the distant quarries unloaded from each trestle, but this record, un- 
fortunately, has been misplaced, and the totals obviously signify 
nothing. As the quantities of various materials used during the entire 
period from August 1st to November 4th may be of interest, they are 
^iven in Table 13. 

Completing the Hind Dam. 

The dams across the break and the by-pass were hurried to com- 
pletion with material from the Mammoth gravel pit and the clay 



1476 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL. COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

pit at Andrade, It was decided that the structure should have a top 
elevation of 124, and that meant increasing its height fully 8 ft. The 
tracks over the trestles were raised so rapidly that no attempt was 
made to recover the stringers or caps. 

TABLE 1.3. — Approximate Data of Constructing 
Diversion Work on Colorado River. 

2 290 cords of brush and 40 miles of steel cable used in mattresses and shore protection. 

a 800 ft. of railway trestle. 

15 200 ft. of 8 by 17-in. Oregon pine stringers. 

1 100 piles. 

1 690 cars ( 50 000 cu. yd.) of rock (90% used from October 11th to November 4th). 

841 cars (32 000 cu. yd.) of gravel. 

80H cars (33 000 cu. yd.) of clay. 

200 000 cu. yd. of earth, placed by teams. 

200 000 cu. yd. of earth, placed by dredges. 

200 to 5u0 head of mules and horses working from July to November 20th. 

200 men in June, increasing to 1 OOO men on November 4th. 

Discharge of river, June 27th, 99 200 sec-ft. 

Discharge of river when actual work of constructing channel was begun, August 6th, 

24 400 sec ft. 
Discharge of river on November 4th, when final closing was made, 9 275 sec-ft. 
Elevation of water above dam, 113.1 ft. above sea level (C. D. Co. datum). 
Elevation of water surface below dam, 97.30 ft above sea level (0. D. Co. datum). 
Total head on closing, 15.8 ft. 

Elevation of water surface above dam one week after closing, 112.60 ft. above sea level. 
Elevation of water surface below dam one week after closing, 95.85 ft. above sea level. 
Total head on dam, November 11th, 16.75 ft. 



The tracks were gradually pulled together to a final 13 ft. between 
center lines, which helped somewhat, but the proper side slopes were 
chiefly obtained with fire streams, five 1^-in. nozzles, each throw- 
ing about 225 gal. per min., being used. The mixed materials as 
dumped assumed a slope "of about li to 1, as a rough average, and 
these were very quickly and cheaply flattened down hydra ulically to 
about 2| to 1 on the river side and 2 to 1 on the land side. Fur- 
thermore, the slopes were really well finished with very slight addi- 
tional care and expense. 

In its final form the dam has about 400 ft. of 15° curve at the 
north end, and 2 275 ft. of tangent; the dam is connected at each end 
with the levees extending along the river. At the north end there 
are 200 ft. of high dam with a rock fill core to within 8 ft. of the top 
■ — where it crossed the by-pass. A little more than half way toward 
the other end there is 600 ft. of another high stretch with a rock 
core on brush mattress foundation; the remainder is from 16 to 20 
ft. high. This is known as the Hind Dam, so called after Mr. T. J. 
Hind, Superintendent of the work at the Lower Heading after June 
1st, 1906, to distinguish it from the Clarke Dam, closing the second 



PLATE CXVIII. 

PAPERS, AM. 80C. I 

N0VEM8ER, 191! 




I 



Papers.] irrigation AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1477 

break, so called after Mr. C. K. Clarke, Superintendent of the second 
closing, December 20th, 1906, to February 20th, 1907. About 80% of 
this dam was complete on December 7th, 1906. 

Levee Construction. 

The original plans had been to connect the north abutment of the 
wooden head-gate with the embankment along the river side of the 
Main Canal, and to build a short section of levee to the south to pre- 
vent a flank movement of the river around the diverting dam. The 
enormous channel which the summer flood of 1906 created in the old 
Alamo made it obvious that, not oulj must the break be closed, but 
that, by a rather elaborate levee system, all overflow water must be 
kept from getting around into the Alamo. Surveys and examinations 
showed the necessity of an additional levee from the wooden head- 
gate to the concrete head-gate, and a levee from the diversion dam 
south for from 5 to 6 miles. J. C. Allison, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E., 
Assistant Engineer of the Mexican Co., was assigned to make surveys 
for these levees on August 1st, and their location was completed early 
in September. The elevation of the top of the concrete head-gate 
was 124, and it was decided to put a track over this structure and 
extend it down the levees, so that the grade was made 126 at Andrade, 
124 at the Lower Heading and over the Hind Dam, and thence for 
4 miles south, generally 6 ft. above the old high-water marks. At 
all points the grade was kept approximately 2J ft. higher than that 
of the levee opposite the Yuma Project, because, should the latter 
break, the damage would be far less than if the levees on west side 
were to fail, with re-diversion of the river to the Salton Sea. Be- 
tween the head-gate and the Lower Heading it was necessary to locate 
the levee very close to the river, because it must obviously be between 
the river and the Main Canal, and some large areas of bad adobe, 
damp, and impossible to work with teams, lay close to the canal and 
extended well toward the river. Below the break, the levee was also 
close to the river, because of similar soil conditions for about 4 
miles. 

The levee was designed with a top width of 8 ft. and slopes of 2i 
to 1 on the river side and 2 to 1 on the land side. The ground for 
the base of the levee was cleared and grubbed, but no "muck-ditching" 
was done. The desirability of muck-ditching was fully realized, and 



1478 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

it was a part of the levee design. Experience in the valley had always 
shown that, not only ditch and canal banks, but low borders of irri- 
gated fields, etc., leaked badly when water was first applied. Indeed, 
interesting cases were cited of water in considerable volume dis- 
appearing into the ground for several days, doubtless flowing away 
under the surface through partly opened cracks of buried layers of 
cracked adobe. 

On the other hand, the money supplied by the Southern Pacific 
Company was for closing the break, and only for that purpose, until 
the re-diyersion of the river was assured. No narrow construction 
was placed on this, to prevent building levees at all, but it was not 
considered proper to incur any avoidable expense in this direction 
until it should have been clearly demonstrated that it was physically 

LEVEES CONSTRUCTED BEFORE DECEMBER, 1906, WHERE 

GROUND SURFACE WAS SMOOTH, WITH NO INDICATION OF 

FORMER SLOUGHS FORMED BY RIVER OVERFLOW 

SCALE OF FEET 



CROSS-SECTION 



Top of Levee 



Grountl Surface 



LONGITUDINAL CENTER SECTION 
Fig. 18. 

possible to close the break. No muck-ditching had been done in levee 
building on the Yuma Project up to that time, and, besides, expe- 
rience in the valley had always been that cracked adobe layers when 
thoroughly saturated and under the weight of a few feet of earth soon 
soften and the underground interstices automatically close. It was 
thought that the levees could probably be maintained until their bases 
would thus soak up tight, although it was certain that they would 
leak like sieves when water first came against them. Thus it was 
ordered that muck-ditch work be omitted. 

Material for the levees was taken from borrow-pits on the land 
side. It was fully realized that this was not in accordance with 
the usual practice, but it was decided on after careful considera- 
tion of the advantages and disadvantages. The location of the levee 



Papers.] IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1479 

was forced very close to the river for a great portion of the way, and 
the levees of the Yuma Project on the opposite side were also so 
close to the stream that the distance between was in many places only 
1 400 ft. — an exceptionally narrow waterway for such an unruly stream 
as the Colorado. As it was certain that the current at flood stages 
would be very great in such sections, it was extremely desirable not 
to disturb in any way the rank vegetation between the river and the 
levee, as it could not help but greatly break up and retard currents 
and thus protect the levee from erosion. 

RECONSTRUCTION OF LEVEES WHICH WERE 
BUILT BEFORE DECEMBER, 1906 



Ground Surface 




CROSS-SECTION 

SCALE OF FEET 



10 20 10 60 80 

lievees excavated with muck-ditch to section shown, and then refilled 
with good material to original section per dotted line 

Fig. 19. 
LEVEE CONSTRUCTED AFTER DECEMBER, 1906 



SCALE OF FEET 




Ground Surface 
CROSS-SECTION 
Fig. 20. 

Experience with the levees of the Yuma Project showed that the 
hope that borrow-pits would be silted up was vain, and instead, that 
they would be cut together to form a continuous canal having eddying 
currents below the traverses during high floods, unless extensive brush 
abatis work was used. This sort of protection was deemed very un- 
satisfactory, because, though the Mexican Co. actually owns the 
land on which the levees were located in Mexico, it is practically 
impossible to exercise very much control over the Indians, owing to 
the indifference of local Mexican authorities. The Indians have always 
utilized any overflowed areas along the river as they wished, for their 
little garden patches, and these levees must absolutely cut off such 
water. For a long time it was utterly impossible to keep these nomads 
from planting seed in the borrow-pits, where the ground remains 



1480 IKEIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 



Foot of Levee Slope 



Tup nf Levee 



Foot of Levee Slope 



BERM 




3) 



O 
O 



Om 

XI CD 

rn-< r- 
O rn 

m ^- 
zo m 
< z 



Papers.] irrigation AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1481 

wet the longest, and from destroying all brush growths that start 
therein. It was considered impracticable to maintain brush abatis 
work, which, when dry, would only make it easier to burn off the 
area in front of the levee for a garden clearing. 

On the other hand, the land spoiled in making borrow-pits was 
of little value, being non-irrigable under existing conditions. There 
are no quicksand pockets above the water-table in that region, and, 
the soil being alluvial silt with more or less sand intermixed, there 
was consequently no fear of water-soaked material running, such as 
occasionally causes levee trouble elsewhere. There is also along the 
river no surface soil crust, which it is undesirable to disturb in levee 
building. 

The only pertinent objection to land-side borrow-pits in this case, 
therefore, seemed to be the matter of increased total head, which 
it was decided did not outweigh the advantages of an undisturbed rank 
vegetation as a protection against the erosion of the water slope by 
swift currents. 

These levees were built by the Shattuck and Desmond grading 
outfit on force account, with the intention of changing to a yardage 
basis as soon as possible. On December 6th, 1906, about 1^ miles above 
and below the dam, respectively, had been completed, 5 miles more were 
under construction, and the ground was cleared for another 2 miles. 

Situation of the California Development Company and the 
Mexican Company. 

About November 15th, 1906, the various operations along the 
river were making satisfactory progress, and the writer for the 
first time since June 1st left the river, hurriedly investigated the 
condition of the C. D. Co. and the Mexican Co. and reported 
his findings toward the end of that month. As a result of this, 
when the second break occurred a few days later, further advances 
by the Southern Pacific Company were advised against, and Presi- 
dent Eandolph concurred and so reported to Mr. Harriman. The 
fact that such a decision was made by the Harriman interests un- 
qualifiedly has not been generally accepted without some mental reser- 
vations. It may be interesting, therefore, to make some excerpts from 
this report. The balance sheet for the combined C. D. Co. and Mexican 
Co. was approximately as follows: 



1482 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

Assets. 

Real estate (chiefly in Mexico) $545 037.26 

Stocks (chiefly unsold water stock) 175 GOO. 00 

Plant : 

Machinery and equipment $179 621.82 

Branch railroad track 63 000.00 

Canals in Mexico 375 000.00 

Canals in United States 308 616.37 

926 238.19 

Accounts repeivahle (chiefly notes secured by water stock). 235 137.02 

Total $1 882 012.47 

Liabilities. 

S. P. Co.— Audited bills and interest $1 532 595.73 

General audited bills and interest 73 786.72 

Bonds and accrued interest 515 200.00 

. , ,, s $2121582.45 

Damage claims (probable) : 

New Liverpool Salt Co $50 000.00 

Land owners 200 000.00 

Water Companies Nos. 6 and 8 500 000.00 

S. P. Co 1000 000.00 

Inter-California R. R.— S. P 250 000.00 

2 000 000.00 

Total $4 121 582.45 

Net liabilities 2 239 569.98 

The possibility of extending the canal system and selling additional 
water rights was discussed, and the opinion was offered that such pos- 
sible returns would probably just about sufiice for building a canal 
from the river into the valley, to take the place of the Alamo channel, 
Vv^hich might be necessary in 5 or perhaps not for 20 years; and for 
building new controlling works on it in the valley. 

The conclusions were that maintenance and operation expenses, 
properly estimated, would take up the returns from the sale of 600 000 
acre-ft. per annum. The cost of protecting the region from the Col- 
orado flood-waters was set down as problematic, probably averaging 



Papers.] IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1183 

$100 000 per year, and fluctuating enormously, and it was advised that 
the task of controlHng the river was too serious a tax on the enterprise 
under any possible circumstances, while international complications 
would probably mean considerable delay in arranging for such work 
equitably and satisfactorily. 

The Second Break. 
On December 5th, 1906, a severe flood came down from the Gila, 
as shown by Plate CIX. Superintendent Hind and the writer, who 
were in Imperial Valley at the time, received telegraphic notice from 
the water-shed, and went at once to the river. For reasons already 
explained, trouble was expected from water getting under the levees, 
because no muck-ditch protection had been provided, and a large force 
of men was detailed to watch the sections for a mile on either side of 
the Hind Dam day and night as soon as water came even near the river 
toe of the levee. Information from the upper stations throughout the 
Gila water-shed frequently indicate floods which never materialize, 
and this was another case of the "truth itself" being not believed. 
There was so much accumulated work in the valley that there was no 
time to watch a discharge of 30 000 sec-f t., although a river stage 
which would test out and soak up the levees was obviously of great 
importance. Mr. Hind and the writer were in Yuma, returning to the 
valley, when the flood reached the Lower Heading, where the river began 
rising at midnight and rose at the rate of 1 ft. per hour until the peak 
was reached early in the morning. At 3 :30 a. m. Mr. Hind and the 
writer left Yuma on the work train, reaching the Lower Heading 
about 5:15 a. m. and found three serious and distinct breaks within 
100 yd., the first one being about 2 400 ft. from the south end of 
Hind Dam. In addition water was finding its way under the levee in 
about ninety other places, within the stretch where the water reached 
the toe of the levee, or about | mile above and an equal distance below 
the dam. Mr. J. Calvert, General Foreman, had fully obeyed instruc- 
tions, and when the water began to reach the toe of the levees at the 
lowest point, had commenced work with his force of about 75 men, 
doing all that seemed possible. The trouble was not that any one break 
could not have been easily handled, but that so many points of 
weakness were developed practically at the same time. Indeed, it is 
really remarkable that the situation got beyond control in only these 
three places. 



1484: IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

A part of the general arrangements with the Inter-Cahfornia Rail- 
road was its use of the Hind Dam. On the south end of this dam 
the proposed alignment turned a small angle to the right, and it was 
planned to have the fill for the next 2 miles without any openings — 
constituting thus a spur levee to prevent any water which passed 
through the main levees from reaching the old channel of the break 
beyond the dam. Had this fill been ready, or had the first serious 
break been 500 ft. farther along, sand bag diking across the traverses 
and out into the brush to force the water to spread out and follow an 
old and well-defined swale which entered the Alamo 2 miles beyond, 
would have been easily possible. In either case, the damage would 
have been limited to losing less than 1 000 cu. yd. of levee section. 

As it was, however, the water coming through the breaks filled the 
borrow-pits on the land side, overflowed the intervening traverses, and, 
as the land in general sloped westward, over-topped the last traverse 
by the channel of the break below the dam, and caused a rapid grade 
recession from there, following the borrow-pits through the nearest 
break. When Mr. Hind and the writer reached the scene, the first of 
the three breaks was beyond control, and the situation was hopeless. 

By the time the grade recession had reached and passed through the 
break, the flood had crested, and the water had risen against the levee 
to a depth of about 4 ft. The water rushing through rapidly increased, 
and cut into the far side of the bank, and was deflected and began cut- 
ting into the land side of the levee. This soon breached the dike about 
1 000 ft. from the end of the Hind Dam. This breach became the main 
break, and was rapidly widened and deepened until, within 24 hours, 
the old channel was again entirely dry and the river had been re-diverted 
into the Salton Sea. 

The men of the grading outfit engaged on levee extension work 3 
miles down the river we're flooded out, and the steamer Searchlight was 
sent to relieve them. The re-diversion into the Salton Sink occurred 
so rapidly that the steamer was left grounded there in the old channel, 
and inasmuch as it was the only craft on the river not controlled by the 
contractors on the Laguna Weir, this was a serious matter. 

The Southern Pacific Quits. 

This disaster brought to the higher authorities of the Harriman 
Lines a thorough realization of the size of the great task of controlling 



PLATE CXIX. 

PAPERS, AM. SOC. C. E. 

NOVEMBER, 1912. 

CORY ON 

IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, 

COLORADO RIVER DELTA. 




Pig. 1. 



-Levee Failures Resulting in Sec(.)Xd Break, Dkce.mber 
Note the Shoet Length of the Two Gaps. 



■th, 19tj0. 




Fig. 2. — Effect of Flood of December Tth, 1906, on Levee of U. S. 
Reclamation Service, Opposite Lower Heading. 



Papers.l irrigation AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1485 

the Colorado. The imperative need of invulnerable levee construction 
for at least 10 miles along the river was made evident, and the difficulty 
and cost of building and maintaining such a system was emphasized. 
Entirely aside from the very great cost of bank protection work to pre- 
vent the breaching of levees through the side cutting of the banks, 
was the difficulty of building in such bad soil a line of defence which 
would be absolutely dependable. 

The financial condition of the C. D. Co. and tlie Mexican Co., as 
just explained, was very bad, and, under the most favorable circum- 
stances possible, the chances of the Harriman interests ever being 
able to get back very much of the moneys already advanced were 
extremely remote. In addition, however, it was apparent that an un- 
usually efficient and expensive levee system would be required, the 
first and maintenance cost of which was too large a burden to under- 
take. 

The stockholders of the irrigation properties notified the Southern 
Pacific management controlling them that the properties could not be 
expected to do such overflow protection work, and indeed should not 
pay more than a proportional part based on the total value of the 
property interests in jeopardy, especially in view of the immense 
amount of work which had already been done at its expense. Urging 
that the irrigation company had caused the menace (which may or 
may not be entirely the case) had not the slightest significance to the 
Southern Pacific interests, which were really the only ones with any 
funds, collateral, or equipment, and were in no possible sense 
responsible for any changes in physical conditions along the Colo- 
rado River, except to make them very miich better than they otherwise 
would have been. 

On the other hand, it was recognized that something would have 
to be done very quickly because the summer flood of 1907 would in all 
probability cause sxich grade recessions as to force a hurried exodus 
from Imperial Valley which would be without a parallel in history. 
The chances of such grade recession extending far enough to render the 
control of the river after that flood very much more difficult, were re- 
mote. The matter was made complex by the fact that all work had to be 
done in Mexico and practically all property interests in jeopardy were in 
America; and there were no provisions, State or National, to handle 
such a curious situation. Unless the river was turned and kept going 



1486 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

to the Gulf, the Southern Pacific would suffer the loss of its traffic 
from the Imperial Valley and would have to change its line and 
build 100 miles of track, but, to obviate these losses would certainly 
not justify it in undertaking to control the river single-handed. 

Accordingly, the people of Imperial Valley were notified that, 
while the Southern Pacific would be very glad to place such equip- 
ment and organization as it had along the river at the disposal of 
any party who wanted to proceed with the work, and would be willing 
to contribute toward the expenses thereof in proportion to the value 
of its interests as compared to all others in jeopardy, it would not 
advance additional funds without a definite arrangement for being 
reimbursed. Work on a roadbed following — 100-ft. contour was 
ordered and rushed to completion. The cost of grading was very 
small, and such a line would preclude the possibility of the interrup- 
tion of transcontinental traffic by the Salton Sea for at least 4 or 5 
years, during which time a line lying entirely above sea level could 
be economically constructed. 

On December 13th a mass meeting of the people of Imperial Valley 
was held in Imperial, and subscriptions for river control work, totaling 
$950 000 were made by various interests. These were the Imperial 
Valley Improvement Company (the practical successor of the Imperial 
Land Company) $100 000; the Holton Power Company, $100 000; the 
C. M. Co., $250 000, and the directors of the mutual water companies 
together a bond issue of $500 000. All these were made promising 
payment 90 days after the break should have been closed successfully, 
the railroad to assume all risk of the work. 

While considering these subscriptions, it was urged in opposition 
that the mutual water companies might not be able legally to issue 
bonds or expend money fqr river protection work at all, or indeed that 
the people of the valley could raise money, except by individual sub- 
scription, for work to be done in Mexico. Requests were sent out in all 
directions, resulting in numerous civic and political bodies and au- 
thorities of the State wiring to President Roosevelt asking to have the 
United States Government act in the emergency. The President acted 
promptly, and as the result of telegraphic correspondence with Mr. 
Harriman, instructions to start work on the river were received on 
December 20th. 



Papers.] irrigation AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1487 

In the meantime the organization at Andrade and at the Lower 
Heading had been kept intact. The quarry was developed, sidings 
just across the border in Mexico were lengthened to 7 000 ft., and 
material and equipment of all possible kinds which might be needed 
were gathered in readiness to proceed whenever orders might be re- 
ceived. 

Senator Flint's Bill. 

Immediately after the holidays, Senator Frank C. Flint, of Cali- 
fornia, introduced a bill in the Senate providing for the appropria- 
tion of $2 000 000 to handle the situation. Under the provisions of 
this bill, whatever sum might be found just should be paid to the 
Southern Pacific Company for work then under way, and the remainder 
should be utilized to establish an irrigation project for Imperial Valley 
by the IT. S. Reclamation Service. The idea was that the irrigation 
of American land in the Salton Basin and the regulation of the Colo- 
rado River were inseparably connected, and that as soon as the situa- 
tion shovild be under control by the Southern Pacific Company, the 
entire matter should be turned over to the Reclamation Service for 
future handling. President Roosevelt, on January 12th, 1907, sent a 
special message to Congress severely criticising the promoters of the 
C. D. Co. and the management of the properties, and urging the 
passage of the Flint bill in order to relieve the settlers of Imperial 
Valley from the "injustice" they were enduring. 

When the bill reached the House, Hon. S. C. Smith, Representative 
from the Eighth California Congressional District — in which Imperial 
Valley is located — opposed it, advising that he did so because of re- 
quests from his constituents in the valley. There can be no doubt 
that, with very few exceptions, the farmers in the valley objected to 
the bill, preferring the existing irrigation arrangements to those which 
would follow under the Reclamation Service,* and desiring govern- 
mental assistance in river protection work, and in that only. Largely 
due to Mr. Smith's efforts, the bill failed to pass. 

Change in Organization. 

In spite of the opinions of visiting engineers, experience during the 
first closing left little doubt that there would be any particular 
difiiculty in making the second closing without any brush mattress 

* Among the objections, the two most important were the probable increase in cost of 
water and the necessity for reducing individual holdings to probably 40 acres or less. 



1488 lltlilUATION AND ElVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

foundation. Even had such been deemed desirable and worth the delay 

in time, very little brush was available nearby because of the large 

quantity used for the first closing. It was felt that the work was 

standardized and con.sisted in throwing ordinary railroad trestles across 

the break and from them making rock fill dams in series. The levee 

construction work to be done, however, was very much of a problem 

in every way. Superintendent Hind Avas transferred to the levee 

reconstruction and extension, and Mr. Clarke, formerly Resident 

Engineer of the Tucson Division, Southern Pacific Company, came 

to the work as Superintendent of the second closing on December 

20th, 1906. 

At the same time, an entire change in the accounting system was 

ordered, effective December 7th, the date of the break. Prior to that 

time the work had been done by the Mexican Co., with material and 

funds supplied by the C. D. Co., and the latter corporation from time 

to time borrowed money from the Southern Pacific Company. This 

was changed so that the Mexican Co. was furnished money by Epes 

Randolph, Agent of the Southern Pacific Company, and the C. D. Co. 

had nothing to do with the matter whatsoever. On the American side 

of the line, the operations were exclusively under the name of "Epes 

Randolph, Agent, S, P. Co." The railroad furnished supplies and 

material to him under the same arrangements and conditions as it had 

furnished them to the C. D. Co., namely, at a cost plus 10 per cent. 

One marked difference, however, occurred in making these charges, 

namely, that after January 1st all freight bills were rendered at traffic 

rates instead of at i cent per ton-mile, this being made necessary by the 

provision of the Interstate Commerce Commission which took effect 

at that time. 

Closlng the Second Break. 

The work of closing 'the second break was in several ways interest- 
ing. To begin with, the current struck where the south end of the 
Hind Dam had been, and was there deflected sharply, resulting in very 
serious erosion. Few people who saw the break at this stage believed 
it possible to hold this erosion from going entirely through the struc- 
ture, but by unloading immense quantities of rip-rap, the fill was held, 
the water in front cutting to a depth of about 42 ft. 

Two trestles were decided on and started, five pile-drivers being 
used, one at each end of each trestle and a floating machine in the 



PLATE CXX. 

PAPERS, AM. SOC. C. E. 

NOVEMBER. 1912. 

CORY ON 

IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, 

COLORADO RIVER DELTA. 





f 



^ 



mP^. 




Papers.] irriqATIOX AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1489 

middle of the stream. These trestles had to be thrown in a curve con- 
cave up stream to connect with the levee on the south side, therefore the 
piles had to be driven in a very strong quartering current. The 
channel was narrowed and the bottom cut down to a maximum depth 
of 38 ft. In driving 90-ft. piles under these conditions, there was con- 
stant danger of overturning the driver and losing the machinery, there- 
fore two complete pile-driving outfits were kept in reserve and two 
boats waited below the trestle to pick up any men who might be thrown 
overboard. 

On December 28th one line of trestle was practically completed, when 
a flood, shown on Plate CIX (which, by the way, let the stranded 
steamer Searchlight get back up the river to the work), carrying un- 
usual drift, tore out about one-third of it. Three times this occurred, re- 
sulting in the loss of a large quantity of bridge material. All this was 
obtained through Mr. R. H. Ingram, General Superintendent, Southern 
District, Southern Pacific Company, and the following telegram from 
him is interesting: 

"Los Angeles, 1/14/07. 
"H. T. C— 

"We have exhausted all available supply of piles in San Diego and 
Southern California. There is very little hope of getting any in 
Northern California. If you feel that you will need any more please 
let me know at once as we must make arrangements with the Atlantic 

^y^^^"^* "R. H. Ingram." 

On January 26th, 1907, the first trestle was finished for the fourth 
time, all stringers wei'e in place, and the track was two-thirds laid. 
In the second trestle, 50 ft. above the first, seventeen bents remained to 
be driven. The fill on the south, connecting the trestle with the levee, 
was 60% completed. Stored on the branch line in Mexico and the 
United States there were 175 "battleships" of rock, loaded at the quarry 
of the C. D. Co. by steam shovels, and 100 flatcars of large rock from 
the distant quarries. At each end of the dam, i mile of the levees had 
been reconstructed, and li miles more opened up, while there were 
1 100 men and 1 000 head of stock engaged at Andrade and on the 
river. 

On January 27th, the first trestle was completed, and dumping rock 
from it began at 5 v. M. By daylight 145 "battleships," containing 

*The lines from New Orleans to El Paso. 



1490 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 



6 600 cu. yd. of rock had been unloaded as another flood from the 
Gila began arriving, but it caused little trouble. On February 10th at 
11 p. M. the second break was closed, and all the water was again going 
down the old channel. 

The following materials were used in the second closing: 

4 000 ft. of railroad trestle — of this, 1 800 ft. were carried away 
by floods before either trestle could be completed or any rock 
could be dumped. When rock dumping began, no more 
trestle was lost; the final result was two trestles, 50 ft. apart, 
and each 1 100 ft. long, or 2 200 ft. of trestle. 
16 000 ft. of 8 by 17-in. Oregon pine stringers— 8 000 ft. of these 
were removed. 
1200 piles. 
45 000 cu. yd. of earth placed by teams — making 960 ft. of earth 
dam to connect with the levee, 31 000 cu. yd. being placed by 
February 2d. 
2 15Y car loads, or 55 000 cu. yd., of rock used prior to actually 
closing off the water. 
221 car loads, or 7 735 cu. yd., of gravel. 
203 " " " 8 840 " " " clay. 

The discharge of the river when work began on December 20th, 
1906, was 12 500 sec-ft. 

Dec 31st 48 900 sec-ft. 

Jan. 7th 15 200 

Jan. 12th 44 300 

Jan. 18th 16 300 

Jan. 20th 33 400 

Jan. 27th (when first rock dumping began) 13 800 

Feb. 3d ' 31 300* 

Feb. 7th 17 700 

Feb. 11th 20 800 



After the break was closed, 956 car loads, or 38 240 cu. yd., of clay 
and 873 car loads, or 33 555 cu. yd., of gravel were used to complete 
the Hind-Clarke Dam. The rate of dumping rock, etc., is shown by 
Table 14. 



*4 300 sec-ft. down the old channel. 



PLATE CXXI. 

PAPERS, AM. SOC. C. E. 

NOVEMBER, 1912. 

CORY ON 

IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, 

COLORADO RIVER DELTA. 





Papers.] irrigation AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1491 

TABLE 14. — Car Loads of Material. 





"Battle- 
ship." 


Flatcar. 


Clay. 


Gravel. 


January 27th to February 3d 


606 

489 
85 


501 

K85 

91 


8 
58 
38 


15 
140 




28 






February llth to 15th , 


1 180 
323 


977 

77 


104 
99 


173 
48 








1503 


1054 


203 


221 



The water was shut off on February 10th at 11 p. M. and the flatcar 
rock then on hand and en route was unloaded in order to release 
the cars, the rock from Andrade being used until the 18th in raising 
the dam hurriedly to protect it against possible floods. The total 
number of car loads of material used in the closing and in the finish- 
ing up of the Clarke Dam were: 

"Battleship." Flatcar. Clay. Gravel. 

1490 1182 784 873 

During the entire operations subsequent to the second break, in- 
cluding finishing up the Hind-Clarke Dam complete, but exclusive of 
the rip-rap to hold the grade before the completion of the trestle over 
the break on January 27th, the following car loads of material were used: 
" Battleship." Flatcar. Clay. Gravel. 

1517 1240 956 2 052 

The clay pit was closed on March 3d, and the Hind-Clarke Dam 
was finished, except for the final surfacing with the spreaders, on 
March 15th. 

Two steam shovels, and part of the time three (not including the 
one in the Mammoth gravel pit) were engaged from September, 1906, 
to May, 1907, at $7.50 per day, prior to January 1st, 1907, and at 
$12.50 thereafter. During the period, there were from 1 to 12 loco- 
motives, at the following rates: 

American, light $ 8.00 per day. 

Moguls 10.00 

Consolidation 12.00 " 

Car pile-drivers, working 40 days at. . 10.00 " 

Donkey engines 1.50 " 

Skid-drivers, complete 2.50 " 



1492 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

TABLE 15. — Soutiii-:rn Pacific Equipment used om River, 
FROM December, 1906, to July, 1907, Expressed in car-days. 



Month. 


£-2 . 
03 a >. 

O ® cS 

111 


Steel side 

dump cars at 

50 cents 

per day. 


4J 

1 n ea 

t, 
So <o 




CO C >> 

OJ 03 

feo'2 


m to 

CS a ^ 

cj 0) ca 
^ on 
Co %. 

cS 


Home freight 

car detention 

(box and flat), 

at 15 cents 

per day. 


Foreign 

freight 

equipment 

detention. 


December. 1906... 
January, 1907.... 
February, 1907... 

March. 1907 

April, 1907 

May. 1907 


595 

690 

219 

54 

'"2 


3 271 

4 972 

4 609 

5 565 
5 255 
4 792 
2 635 
1336 


80 
30 
15 
27 
4 
9 
53 
12 


141 
174 
153 
321 
32:^ 
440 
264 
24 


42 




371 

675 

47 
47 
28 
17 
32 


306 
6(X) 

78 
71 
2 

2 


June, 1907 :.. 

July, 1907 










Totals 


1 560 


32 435 


230 


1840 


43 


1 217 


1059 



The Clarke Dam extends from the soutli end of the Hind Dam 
across the second break to the levees on the south. These two dams, 
consequently, constitute one continuous structure, which is known 
as the Hind-Clarke Dam. 

Results of Experience in Constructing the Hind-Clarke Dam. 

The experience obtained in making these two closings, according 
to the methods used, afforded some information regarding work of this 
class which is believed to be entirely unique and in some respects 
unexpected. In the first place, it was shown that the brush mattress 
bottom protection is not only unnecessary, but adds to the cost, both 
in time and money, provided rock is thrown in at a reasonably rapid 
rate. In discussing the possibility of handling the situation along the 
lines decided on, the opinion was freely expressed that the rapid current 
would carry smaller rocks indefinite distances down stream, and that 
the larger ones would ' quickly settle into the soft, water-soaked, 
alluvial soil to indeterminate but very great depths. As a matter of 
fact, a relatively small quantity of "battleship" rock sufficed to blanket 
the bottom of the stream with a mattress of rock which fulfilled essen- 
tially the same function as a mattress of brush. 

In this type of construction it is desirable to have rock of various 
sizes, such as obtained by blasting large quantities in the quarry and 
loading with a steam shovel. Large stones (from 1 to 7 or 8 tons), 
which can be loaded on flatcars only with derricks, are effective, but 



PLATE CXXII. 

PAPERS, AM. SOC. C. E. 

NOVEMBER, 1912. 

CORY ON 

IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, 

COLORADO RIVER DELTA. 







•"^-—-•-.-■^ 




Fig. 1. — Failure of Rockwood Gate, October 11th, 1906. 




Fig. 2. — Muck-Ditch Construction in Levee Extension Work, 1907. 



Papers.] irrigation AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1493 

not absolutely necessary in raising short sections where, through care- 
lessness or a little unexpected settling, an unusual quantity of water 
is going over a low place in the dam with consequent menacing 
velocity. Such large rocks were unloaded by a great number of men 
using pinch-bars, and, to prevent upsetting, the cars were chained 
to the stringers when unloading especially heavy rocks. One man was 
killed during each closing by going overboard with a large rock, and 
these were the only serious accidents. No equipment was lost during 
either closing. 

Two trestles were used in both cases. These were 30 ft. apart in 
the Hind Dam, and 50 ft. apart in the Clarke Dam, the idea being 
that the current would prevent building a rock mattress extending far 
enough up stream by merely dumping rock from the trestle on which 
the closing was made. Careful examination of the resulting cross- 
section, when the water was shut off the first time, seemed to indicate 
pretty clearly that it was a needless precaution to have two trestles for 
final heads of 14 ft. or less. As there was to be no mattress in the 
second closing, it was decided to use two trestles, in order to take no 
avoidable chances. Everything worked so well that it seemed safe to do 
a little experimenting, and, practically speaking, the second break was 
closed from the lower trestle alone. 

In both cases the fills at both ends were kept well above the possi- 
bility of being overtopped, and of uniform heights across the re- 
maining length. Train loads extending entirely over the trestles were 
unloaded most of the time; but short sections of the fill which were 
low were promptly filled in, and great care was exercised to dis- 
tribute the overpour evenly. Once, in the building of each of these 
structures, a local settlement occurred, resulting of course, in 
large quantities of water going over the relatively short lowered sec- 
tion. The same experience was had in making the upper coffer-dam 
wall for completing the gap in the Laguna Weir. The construction 
of a rock fill barrier dam was regarded as impracticable by engineers, 
because of just such occurrences surely breaching the barrier hopelessly. 
In point of fact, continued dumping of even small rock soon stops such 
so-called breaks, although that results in the waste of much material. 

The chief difficulty is caused by drift in the stream being caught 
by the trestle. Theoretically, such drift should be very easily broken 
up and carried to the bottom by dumping rock. In practice, however, 



1494 IRRIGATION AND RIVER CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER [Papers. 

there is difficulty in keeping drift accumulations from seriously threat- 
ening the trestle. In Fig. 1, Plate CXXI, a very sharp kink will be 
observed which is due to drift accumulations throwing the entire trestle 
out of line. Two or three bents were taken out of the upper trestle 
from this cause. 

It was found that a cross-section of the dam under the trestle 
is about as shown in Fig. 22, so that it is the inevitable little breaks 
and slides, rather than actual settling, which occurs in such cases. 
Local readjustments or settlings were easily handled with an estimated 
quantity of 100 sec-ft. per lin, ft. of dam going over the rock fill. 
How much more could be handled safely with the rock available is 
not known. The writer would say that experience along the Colorado 
River would not justify using the rock fill barrier dam method for 
quantities in excess of half that flow, on an average, although possibly 
much greater rates of 
discharge over such a 
structure might be safe. 
The quantity which went 
over the 680-ft. crest was 

sec-It. RESULTING SECTION OF RCCK FILL DAMS MADE 

The total length of duringfirst and second closings 

Fig. 23. 
rock fill dam used in the 

trestle was 1 125 ft., and the water was allowed to pour over 680 ft. of 

it; the trestle consisted of 4-pile bents, all piling vertical, 15-ft. spacing 

between bents, average penetration of piling about 18 ft. The total 

head, or the difference in water surface above and below the dam, was 

12.45 ft., all developed in place in 13 days and 5 hours. 

By way of comparison, the building of the upper and lower sides 

of the coffer-dam within which the central or channel portion of the 

Laguna Weir was comjileted is most interesting. One line of trestles, 

740 ft. long, was thrown across the stream just above the upper edge 

of the weir, and another trestle, Y28 ft. long, below the lower edge, 

the trestles being about 400 ft. apart. From these trestles rock fills 

were built up, and all the water in the river was forced through the 

sluice-gates at the ends of the weir, the Arizona sluice-way being 

2 700 ft. distant and the California sluice-way 1 500 ft. There were 

well-developed quarries at each end of the weir, and the haul was from 

1 500 to 3 500 ft. The following equipment was used : 




Papers.] irrigation AND RIVER -CONTROL, COLORADO RIVER 1495 

One 2i-cu. yd.