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Full text of "Proceedings"




OF THE 



DORSET MTQUftfc HISTORY 



FIELD 



EDITKD BY 

MOKTON G. STUART, 

Hon. Secretary. 



VOLUME XII. 



Borcbester : 

PRINTED AT THE "DORSET COUNTY CHRONICLE" OFFICE. 



1891 




984674 



v, 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Index to Plates and Engravings iv. 

Notice v. 

List of Officers and Hon. Members vi. 

List of Members ... ... ... ... ... ... ... viii. 

The Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian 

Field Club during 1890, by M. G. Stuart, M.A., F.G.S. ... xvi. 
Presentation of a Testimonial to the Secretary, Morton G. 

Stuart, Esq. xxxv. 

New Members elected since the Publication of Vol. XI xxxvi. 

Receipts and Payments from June, 1890, to June 1st, 1891 . . . xxxvii. 
General Statement, May 25th, 1891 xxxviii. 



Anniversary Address of the President ... ... ... ... 1 

Notes on the Stone Implements, &c., in the Dorset County 

Museum, by H. J. Moule, M.A. 16 

A Brief Historical and Descriptive Sketch of the Churches in 

the Rural Deanery of Dorchester (Dorchester Portion), by 

the Rev. W. Miles Barnes 36 

Notes on some of the Rarer Forms of Rubus lately found in 

Dorset, by the Rev. R. P. Murray, M.A., F.L.S 71 

On New and Rare Spiders found in 1889 and 1890, by the Rev. 

0. Pickard-Cambridge, M.A., F.R.S., C.M.Z.S., &c., &c.... 80 

New and Rare Dorset Land Shells, by C. O. P. Cambridge ... 99 

The External Growth of Sherborne School, by the Rev. Canon 

E. M. Young, Head-Master of Sherborne School 105 

Portland : Historical Notes, Descent of Manor, &c., by J. 

Merrick Head, Esq. ... ... ... ... ... ... 115 

Rooks Planting Acorns, by the Rev. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 

M.A., F.R.S., C.M.Z.S., &c., &c 132 

Roman Fortification, with special Reference to the Roman 

Defences of Dorchester, by the Rev. W. Miles Barnes ... 135 
Yetminster Church, by the Rev. C. H. Mayo, M.A., R.D., 

Vicar of Long Burton with Holnest ... 146 

On a Remarkable Deformity in a Flowering Head of Charlock, 

by Nelson M. Richardson, B. A., F.E.S 157 

Occurrence at Portland of Tinea subtilella, Fuchs, by Nelson 

M, Richardson, B. A., F.E.S 161 



IV. 

PAGE 

A Study on the Work of Preservation of the Church of St. 

Nicholas, Studland, Dorset, by William Masters Hardy ... 164 
Our Ancient British Urns, by Dr. Wake Smart ... ... ... 180 

The Portland Stone Quarries, by Mr. A. M. Wallis 187 

Report on the Returns of Rainfall and Observations on the 
Flowering of Plants and Appearances of Birds and Insects 
in Dorset during 1890, by M. G. Stuart, Hon. Sec 195 



PLATES AND ENGRAVINGS. 

FACING 

STONE IMPLEMENTS, ETC., IN THE DORSET MUSEUM PAGE 

1. Arrow Heads, Knife, Scraper, &c 17 

2. Foot of Couch or Stool, Axe or Maul, Fragment of Disc ... 21 

CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OF DORCHESTER 

1. Stoup, Fordington St. George ; Easter Sepulchre, Dor- 

chester St. Peter 39 

2. Font, Toller Fratrum 46 

3. Frome Vauchurch ; Stone Pulpit (15th cent. ), Frampton ... 55 

4. Saxon Font, Martinstown ; Charminster Church ... ... 48 

NEW AND RARE SPIDERS FOUND IN 1889 AND 1890 

New and Rare Spiders 80 

PORTLAND 

Ground Plan of the Ruined Church or Churches of St. Andrew, 
Portland 125 

OCCURRENCE AT PORTLAND OF TINEA SUBTILELLA 

Tinea subtilella, Fuchs ... ... ... ... ... ... 161 

THE WORK OF PRESERVATION OF STUDLAND CHURCH 

Ground Plan ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 165 

1. North- East Corbel on Tower ; North Window of Chancel... 166 

2. Font ; North- West Window of Nave 176 

3. Norman Arch, &c. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 175 

OUR ANCIENT BRITISH URNS 

British Urns .. 180 



NOTICE. 



Members are reminded that payment of the current year's 
subscription (10s.) entitles them to the immediate receipt of the 
Vol. of " Proceedings" or other publications for the year ; also that 
payment of arrears entitles to previous volumes, issued in those 
years for which the arrears are due. 

All volumes are issued, and subscriptions received, by the 
Treasurer, Rev. 0. P. Cambridge, Bloxworth Rectory, Wareham. 

Surplus Copies of former "Proceedings" (Vols. i. xi.) at an 
average rate of 7s. 6d. a volume, " Spiders of Dorset" (2 vols., 
25s.), and copies of " Monograph of the British Phalangidea or 
Harvest Men" at 5s. each, are in the Treasurer's hands for disposal 
for the benefit of the Club's funds. 

Any Member joining the Club and paying his subscription in a 
year for which no volume may be issued is entitled to a copy of 
the last previously issued. 

Members are requested to give notice to the Treasurer of any 
change in their address. 

Members desiring to withdraw from the Club are requested to 
give notice to the Treasurer, in order to avoid the trouble and 
expense incurred in sending them Notices of Meetings, &c. ; but 
until such notice is given they are liable to pay the Annual 
Subscription, due to the Club on and after January 1st each year. 



0mt 



ield 



INAUGURATED MARCH 26th, 1875, 



preeifcent : 
J. C. IMANSEL-PLEYDELL, Esq., J.P., F.G.S., F.L.S. 



KEY. SIR TALBOT BAKER, Bart. 

GENERAL PITT RIVERS, F.R.S. 
MORTOX G. STUART, Esq. (Hon. Secretary) 
REV. 0. P. CAMBRIDGE, M.A.,F.ll.S., C.M.Z.S., Ac. (T 



W. CARRUTHERS, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.L.S., British Museum, S. 
Kensington. 

K. ETHERIDGE, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S., British Museum, S. Kensington. 

E. A. FREEMAN, Esq., D.C.L., Summerlease, Wells. 

ALFRED NEWTON, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., Professor of Zoology and com- 
parative Anatomy, Magdalen College, Cambridge. 

J. PRESTWICH, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S., Shoreham, Seven Oaks, Kent. 

J. O. WESTWOOD, Esq., Hope Professor of Zoology, Oxford. 

G. R. WOLLASTON, Esq., Cliiselhurst. 

Rev. OSMOND FISHER, M.A., F. Gr.S., &c., Harlton Rectory, Cambridge. 

Mr. A. M. WALLIS, Portland. 




LIST OF MEMBERS 



I0mt Jtetural pstorg mtb 
Jfidb Club. 



The Eight Reverend the Lord 

Bishop of Salisbury 
The Right Honble. the Earl 

of Portarlington 
The Right Hon. the Lord 

Eustace Cecil 

The Right Hon. Lord Digby 
The Right Hon. Viscount 

Portman 
The Lord Stalbridge 

Acton, Rev. J. 
Adams, A. T., Esq. 
Aldridge, Reginald, Esq. 
Allen, George, Esq. 
Allman, G. J., Esq., LL.D., 

F.R.S., &c., &c. 
Andrews, T. C. W., Esq. 
Askew, Rev. R. H. 
Atkinson, T. R., Esq. 
Baker, Dr., M.D. 
Baker, Rev. Sir Talbot, Bart. 
Bankes, Albert, Esq. 
Bankes, Rev. Eldon S. 
Bankes, Eustace Ralph, Esq. 
Bankes, W. Ralph, Esq. 
Barnes, Rev. W. M. 
Barnsdale, Rev. J. G. 



The Palace, Salisbury 
Portman Lodge, Bournemouth 

Lytchett Heath, Poole 
Minterne, Dorchester 

Bryanston, Blandford 

Brook Street, London, and Knoyle 

House, Salisbury 
Iwerne Minster, Blandford 
Bellair, Charmouth 
Poole 
Strangways, Marnhull, Blandford 

Ardmore, Parkstone. 
1, Buxton Villas, Rod well, Weymouth 
Winterborne Zelstone, Blandford 
Gainsborough House, Sherborne 
13, Cornwall Road, Dorchester 
Ranston House, Blandford 
Wolfeton House, Dorchester 
Corfe Castle Rectory, Wareham 
Corfe Castle Rectory, Wareham 
Kingston Lacey, Wini borne 
Monkton Rectory, Dorchester 
3, York Terrace, Weymouth 



IX. 



Barrett, W. Bowles, Esq. 

RL.S. 

Baskett, C. H., Esq. 
Baskett, Rev. C. R. 
Batten, John, Esq. 
Batten, Mount, Colonel 
Batten, Mount, Miss 
Batten, H. B., Esq. 
Beckford, F. J., Esq. 
Bell, E. W., Esq. 
Bennett, H. R., Esq. 
Bennett, Chas. W., Esq. 
Bishop, Rev. H. E. 
Blanchard, E. W., Esq. 
Bond, N., Esq. 
Bond, T., Esq. 
Bower, H. Syndercombe, Esq. 

Brennand, W. E., Esq. 

Bridges, Captain 

Bright, Percy M., Esq. 

Brown, Rev. W. C. 

Browning, Benjamin, M.D., 
Esq. 

Budden, Alfred, Esq. 

Burdekin, Norman, Esq. 

Burt, George, Esq. 

Cambridge, Rev. O. P. ( Vice- 
President and Treasurer) 

Cambridge, Colonel, J.P. 

Carre, Rev. Arthur 

Carter, William, Esq. 

Cattle, Rev. William 

Cazenove, Rev. Canon 

Chaff ey, R. C., Esq. 

Charlton, Rev. Underbill 

Childs, Dr. C. 

Chudleigh, Rev. Augustine 

Climenson, Rev, John 

Clinton, E. Fyres, Esq. 

Colfox, T. A., Esq. 



Weymouth 

Evershot 

14, Bridge Street, Hull 

Aldon, Yeovil 

Upcerne, Dorchester 

Upcerne, Dorchester 

Aldon, Yeovil 

Witley, Parkstone 

Gillingham 

Markham House, Wyke Regis 

33, Gladstone Road, Bournemouth 

Hampreston Rectory, Wimborne 

Fernside, Parkstone 

Creech Grange, Wareham 

Tyneham, Wareham 

Fontmell Parva, Shillingstone, 

Blandford 
Blandford 
Fifehead Magdalen 
Bournemouth 
Ditton Marsh, Westbury, Wilts 

Weymouth 

Wimborne 

Castle Rise, Parkstone 

Swanage 

Bloxworth Rectory 

Bloxworth House, Wareham 

14, St. John's Terrace, Weymouth 

The Hermitage, Parkstone 

Charlton, Blandford 

Manor House, Cranborne 

Stoke-under-Hambden, Somerset 

Came Rectory, Dorchester 

Weymouth 

West Parley Rectory, Wimborne 

Shiplake Vicarage, Henley-on-Thames 

Wimborne 

Coneygar, Bridport 



Colfox, Miss A. L. 
Coif ox, Miss Margaret 
Colfox, W., Esq. 
Colfox, Mrs. Thos. 
Cother, Rev. P. S. 
Cotton, Lieut. -Colonel 
Crespi, Dr. 
Crew, Charles, Esq. 
Cricknmy, G. R., Esq. 
Cross, Rev. J. 

Cull, James, Esq. 

Curnie, Decimus, Esq. 
Dale, C. W., Esq. 
Dalison, Rev. R. W. 
Daniel, Woodruffe, Esq. 
Daslrwood, Miss 
Digby, J. K. D. W., Esq. 
Dowland, Rev. E. 

Dugmore, H. Radcliffe, Esq. 
Durden, H., Esq. 
Durden, H., Esq. 
Eaton, H. S., Esq. 
Ehves, Captain 
Embleton, D. C., Esq., 
F. R. Met. Soc. 

Evans, W. H., Esq. 
Everett, Mrs. 
Falkner, C. G., Esq. 
Fane, Frederick, Esq. 
Farley, Rev. H. 
Farquharson, H. R, , Esq. ,M. P. 
Fairer, Rev. W. 
Farrer, Oliver, Esq. 
Fetherston, Rev. Sir George 

Ralph, Bart. 
Fetherstonhaugh-Frampton, 

R,, Esq. 



Westmead, Bridport 

Westmead, Bridport 

Westmead, Bridport 

Rax House, Bridport 

Turmvorth Rectory, Blandford 

Filield, Grosvenor Road, "Weymouth 

Wimborne 

Lewcombe, Melbur^Usmond 

Weymouth 

Baillie House, Sturminster Marshall, 

Wimborne 
6, Pembroke Gardens, Kensington, 

London, W. 
Child Okeford 

Glanvilles Wootton, Sher borne 
Swyre Rectory, Dorchester 
Wareham 

Hill House, Templecombe, Bath 
Sherborne Castle 
11, Park Road, Wandsworth Common, 

London 

The Lodge, Park stone, Poole 
Blandford 
Dorchester 

Shepton Montague, Castle Gary 
Bournemouth 

St. Wilfrid's, St. Michael's Road, 

Bournemouth 
Forde Abbey, Chard 
Dorchester 

The College, Weymouth 
Moyles Court, Fordingbridge 
Lytchett Minster, Poole 
Tarrant Gunville, Blandford 
Vicarage, Bere Regis 
Binnegar Hall, Wareham 

Pydeltrenthide, Dorchester 
Moreton, Dorchester 



XI 



Ffooks, T., Esq. 
Ffytche, Lewis, Esq. 
Filliter, Freeland, Esq. 
Filliter, George, Esq. 
Fletcher, W. H. B., Esq. 
Fletcher, W. J., Esq. 
Floyer, G., Esq. 
Forbes, Major L. 
Foster, J. J., Esq. 

Freame, R., Esq. 
Freeman, Rev. H. P.Williams 
Furlonge, Rev. A. M. 
Fyler, J. W., Esq. 
Gal pin, G., Esq. 
Garland, Henry, Esq. 
Glyn, Sir R., Bart. 
Glyn, Carr Stuart, Esq. 
Goddard, Rev. Cecil Vincent 
Goodden, J. R. P., Esq. 
Goodridge, Dr., M.D, 
Goodridge, John, Esq. 
Goninge, Rev. T. R, 
Gravener, Captain 
Green, Rev. R., B.A. 
Gregory, G. J. G., Esq. 
Greves, Hayla, Esq., M.D. 
Griffin, F. C. G., Esq., M.D. 
Grove, Walter, Esq. 
Groves, T. B., Esq. 
Guest, M. J., Esq. 
Hansford, Charles, Esq. 
Hardcastle, J. A., Esq. 
Hardy; T., Esq. 
Harrison, Rev. F. T. 
Harrison, G., Esq. 
Hart, Edward, Esq., F.Z.S. 
Head, J. Merrick, Esq. 
Henning, Lieut. -General, C.B. 
Hill, Rev. C. R. 
Hine, W. C., Esq., M.D. 



Totnel, Sherbofne 

Freshwater, Isle of Wight 

Wareham 

W T areham 

Worthing, Sussex 

Wimborne 

Stafford, Dorchester 

Shillingstone, Blandford 

Offa House, St. Michael's Terrace, Upper 

Tooting 
Gillinghain 

Affpuddle Vicarage, Dorchester 
St. Andrew's Villa, Bridport 
Hethfelton, Wareham 
Tarrant Keynstone, Blandford 
Worgret, Wareham 
Gaunts House, Wimborne 
Woodlands, Wimborne 
Chideock Vicarage, Bridport 
Compton House, Sherborne 
Childe Okeford, Blandford 
102, Kent Road, Southampton 
Manston Rectory, Blandford 
South Walks, Dorchester 
Bridport 
Dorchester 

Rodney House, Bournemouth 
Royal Terrace, W T eymouth 
Fern House, Salisbury 
St. Mary Street, Weymouth 
Bere Regis, Wareham 
Dorchester 
Beaminster 
Max Gate, Dorchester 
Milton Abbas School, Blandford 
20, Lander Terrace, Wood Green, London 
Christchurch 

Pennsylvania Castle, Portland 
Frome, Dorchester 

West Fordington Vicarage, Dorchester 
Parkstone 



Xll. 



Hinxman, Rev. Charles 

Hodges, J. F., Esq. 

Hogg, B. A., Esq. 

Holford, Mrs. 

Hooper, Pelly, Esq. 

House, Edward, Esq. 

House, Harry Hammond, Esq. 

Howard, Sir R. N. 

Huntley H. E., Esq. 

Kelly, Alex., Esq. 

Laing, Rev. Malcolm S. 

Lamb, Captain Stephen E. 

Langford, Rev. J. F. 

Lawton, H. A., Esq. 

Leach, J. Comyns, Esq., M.D. 

Leonard, Rev. A. 
Linton, Rev. E. F. 

Lister, Arthur, Esq. 
Lister, Miss Guilelma 
Lowe, George F. E., Esq. 
Ludlow, Rev. Edward 
Luff, J. W., Esq., 
Luff, Montague, Esq. 
Macdonald, P. W., Esq., M.D. 
Malan, E. C., Esq. 
Manger, A. T., Esq. 
Mansel-Pleydell, J. C., Esq. 

(President) 

Mansel-Pleydell, Colonel 
Mansel-Pleydell, Rev. John 
Mansel, Colonel 
Mansel, Rev. Owen L. 
Marriott, Sir W. Smith, Bart. 
Mason, Rev. H. J. 
Mason, Philip B., Esq. 
Mate, William, Esq. 
Maunsell, Rev. F. W. 
Mayo, George, Esq. 
Mayo, Rev. C. H. 



Harrdown, Charmouth 

Dorchester 

Dorchester 

Castle Hill, Dorchester 

Weymouth 

Tomson, Blandford 

Malvern College, Malvern 

Weymouth 

Charlton Park, Blandford 

Mayfield, Parkstone 

Hinton St. Mary Vicarage, Blandford 

1st Dorset Regt., Dorchester 

Nice 

High Street, Poole 

The Lindens, Sturminster Newton, 

Blandford 

Vicarage, Beaminster 
Crymlyn, Branksome Wood Road, 

Bournemouth 
High Cliffe, Lyme Regis 
High Cliffe, Lyme Regis 
Gordon Villa, Dorchester 
Martinstown Rectory, Dorchester 
In wood, Henstridge, Blandford 
Blandford 

Forston, Dorchester 
Blackdown House, Crewkerne 
Stock Hill, Gillingham 

Wliatcombe, Blandford 
Longthorns, Blandford 
Bengeo Rectoiy, Hertfordshire 
Smedmore, Wareham 
Church Knowle, Wareham 
Down House, Blandford 
Wigston Magna Vicarage, Leicester 
Horningham Street, Burton-on-Trent 
62, Commercial Road, Bournemouth 
Symondsbury Rectory, Bridport 
Rocklands, Roclwell, Weymouth 
Longburton Rectory, Sherborne 



Xlll. 



Middleton, H. B., Esq. 
Micldleton, H. N., Esq. 
Milledge, Zillwood, Esq. 
Miller, Rev. J. A., B.D. 
Milne, Rev. Percy 
Mitchell, R, Esq. 
Mondey, Rev. F. 
Montague, J. M. P., Esq. 
Moorhead, Dr. J. 
Morford, Rev. A. 
Moule, H. J., Esq. 
Murray, Rev. R. P. 
Okeden, Colonel 
Paget, Rev. Cecil 
Patey, Russell, Esq. 
Patey, Miss 
Payne, Miss 

PearceEdgcumbe, Robert, Esq. 
Penney, W., Esq., A.L.S. 
Penny, Rev. J. 
Phillips, James Henry, Esq. 
Philpot, J. E. D., Esq. 
Philpots, W. R., Esq., M.D. 
Phipps, Rev. J. T. 
Piercy, G. J., Esq. 
Pike, T. M., Esq. 
Pinder, Reginald, Esq. 
Pinney, G. F., Esq. 
Pope, A., Esq. 
Pope, Rev. E. J. 
Portman, Hon. Miss 
Powell, Rev. F. J. Montagu 
Pye, William, Esq. 
Radclyffe, Eustace, Esq. 
Randall, Colonel 
Kavenhill, Rev. Canon 
Reynolds, R., Esq. 
Reynolds, Mrs. Arthur 
Richardson, N. M., Esq. 
Ridley, Rev. O. M. 
Ridley, Rev. Stewart 



Bradford Peverell, Dorchester 

Bradford Peverell, Dorchester 

Weymouth 

The College, Weymouth 

Evershot Rectory, Dorchester 

Chard 

2, Southfield Villas, Weymouth 

Downe Hall, Bridport 

1, Royal Terrace, Weymouth 
Poole 

The County Museum, Dorchester 

Shapwick Rectoiy, Blandford 

Turnworth 

Holt, Wimborne 

Farrs, Wimborne 

Farrs, Wimborne 

2, Westerhall Villas, Weymouth 
Dorchester 

Poole 

Tarrant Rushton Rectory, Blandford 

Poole 

Lyme Regis 

Parkstone 

H.M. Convict Prison, Portland 

Sunny Holt, Bournemouth 

Haven Hotel, Parkstone 

Heronhurst, Bournemouth 

Woodlands, Wareham 

Dorchester 

Bradford Peverell, Dorchester 

Littleton House, Blandford 

The Parsonage, Dalkeith, N.B. 

Eaton Cottage, Rodwell, Weymouth 

Hyde, Wareham 

Melbury Lodge, Wimborne 

Buckland Vicarage, Dorchester 

Hazelbury, Crewkeme 

Bridport 

Montevideo, Chickerell 

East Hill, Charnrinster 

Wareham 



XIV. 



Elvers, General Pitt 
Robinson, Sir Charles, F.S.A. 
Rodd, Edward Stanhope, Esq. 
Ruegg, L. H., Esq. 
Russell, Colonel 
Russell-Wright, Rev. T. 
Sanctuary, Rev. C. Lloyd 
Saunders, Miss Augusta 
Schuster, Rev. W. P. 
Scoror, A. P., Esq. 
Searle, Allan, Esq. 

Serrell, D. H., Esq. 

Sherren, J. A., Esq. 

Smart, T.W. Wake, Esq., M.D. 

Smart, Rev. D. C. 

Smith, Edmund Hanson, Esq. 

Solly, Rev. H. S. 

Solly, Edward, Esq. 

Sparks, W., Esq. 

Stafford, Rev. T. W. R. 

Stephens, Mrs. J. T. 

Stephens, R. Darell, Esq., 

F.G.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S. 
Stephens, Miss Guilelma 
Stephens, J. Thompson, Esq. 
S til well, Mrs. 
Stilwell, H., Esq. 
Stroud, Rev. J. 
Stuart, Morton G., Esq. 

(Secretary) 

Stuart, Colonel 
Styring, F., Esq. 
Suttill, J. T., Esq. 
Symes, G. P. Esq. 
Sydenham, David, Esq. 
Templer, Rev. J. L. 
Tennant, Colonel 
Thomas, Rev. S. Vesper 



Rushmore, Salisbury 

Newton Manor, Swanage 

Chardstock House, Chard 

Sherborne 

Weymouth 

Purbeck College, Swanage 

Powerstock, Dorchester 

Corscombe, near Cattistock 

Vicarage, West Lulworth, Wareham 

Canford, Wimborne 

Wilts and Dorset Banking Company, 

Southampton 
Haddon Lodge, Stourton Caundle, 

Bland ford 
Weymouth 
Cranborne 

Milborne St. Andrew, Blandford 
Charlton, Blandford 
Bridport 

Bell's House, Wimborne 
Crewkerne 

Whitchurch Canonicorum, Charmouth 
Wamlerwell House, Bridport 

Tre woman, Wadebridge 
Girtups, Bridport 
Wanderwell House, Bridport 
Leeson, Wareham 
Leeson, Wareham 
South Perrott, Crewkerne 

New University Club, St. James Street, 

London 

Manor House, St. Mary's, Blandford 
Yarrell's House, Poole 
Bridport 

Cornwall House, Dorchester 
Bournemouth 
Burton Bradstock 
Stanton Court, Weymouth 
Wimborne Minster 



XV. 



Thomas, W. R., Esq., M.D. 
Thompson, Roberts, Esq., M.D. 
Thompson, Rev. G. 
Todd, Colonel 
Turner, W., Esq. 
Tweed, Rev. Canon H. E. 
Utlal, J. S., The Hon. 

Ushenvood, Rev. Canon T. E. 
Vaudrey, Rev. J. T. 
Vinon, Rev. F. A. H., F.S.A. 
Walker, Rev. S. A. 
Wallace, Alfred Russel, Esq., 

LL.D., F.L.S., &c. 
Ward, Rev. J. H. 
Warne, C. H., Esq. 
Warre, Rev. F. 
Watkins, Rev. H. G. 
Watkins, Mrs. 
Watts, Rev. R. R., R.D. 
Weld, SirFredk., Bart. 
Weld-Blundell, H., Esq. 
W^erninck, Rev. Wynn 
West, Rev. G. H., D.D. 
White, Dr. Gregory 
Whitehead, C. S., Esq. 
Whitting, Rev. W. 
Williams, Rev. C. 
Williams, Rev. J. L., R.D. 
Williams, Robert, Esq. 
Williams, Mrs. 
Williams, E. W., Esq. 
Wilton,Dr. John Pleydell,M.D, 
Wix, Rev. J. Augustus 
Wright, H. E., Esq. 
Wynne, Rev. G. H. 
Yeatman, M. S., Esq. 
Young, Rev. Canon 



Little Forest House, Bournemouth 

Monkchester, Bournemouth 

Highbury, Bournemouth 

Keynstone Lodge, Blandford 

High Street, Poole 

St. John's Villas, Weymouth 

c/o Lovell, Son, and Pitneld, 3, Gray's 

Inn Square, London. 
Rossmore, Parkstone 
Osmington Vicarage, Weymouth 
Dorchester 
Spetisbury Rectory, Blandford 

Corfe View, Parkstone 

Gussage St. Michael Rectory, Salisbury 

45, Brunswick Road, Brighton 

Bemerton, Wilts 

Parkstone 

Parkstone 

Stourpaine Rectory, Blandford 

Chideock Manor, Bridport 

Lulworth Castle, Wareham 

Walditch Vicarage, Bridport 

Ascham House, Bournemouth 

West Knoll, Bournemouth 

Sherborne 

Stour Provost, Dorset 

Grove Lodge, Dorchester 

Canford Vicarage, Wimborne 

Bridehead, Dorchester 

Bridehead, Dorchester 

Herringston, Dorchester 

Pulteney Buildings, Weymouth 

Ibberton Rectoiy, Blandford 

Dorchester 

Whitchurch Vicarage, Blandford 

The Manor House, Holwell, Sherborne 

King's School, Sherborne 



The above list contains the New Members elected in 1891, up to date 
of publication. 



gomt Datura! istorg anb Jlntiparian 
Jfielb Club 

DURING THE SEASON 1890-91. 
By M, G. STUART, M.A., F.G.S. 



The work of the Season 1890-1891 has comprised the Annual Meeting 
at the County Museum, Dorchester, on Thursday, June 5th, 1890 ; 
a meeting at Portland on Wednesday, July 16th ; a Two Days' Meeting 
at Sherborne on Thursday and Friday, August 28th and 29th ; a Meeting 
at Kushmore on Tuesday, September 23rd ; a Meeting in the County 
Museum, Dorchester, on November 28th ; and another in the Museum on 
February 24th, 1891. During this Season 35 new members have been 
elected to the Club, and three members have been lost by death viz., 
Colonel Hambro, M.P., of Milton Abbey; the Rev. Edward Dayman, of 
Shillingstone ; and the Rev. J. H. House, of Winterborne Anderson. 
The total number of members on the List of the Club at the end of the 
Season stood at 268. The Eleventh Volume of " Proceedings," owing to 
difficulties in completing some of the plates, was not issued until 
January, 1891. 

THE ANNUAL MEETING AT DORCHESTER, June 5th, 1890, was well 
attended. The Treasurer, the Rev. O. P. Cambridge, read the Financial 
Report for the year 1889-90. He said that their position was a 
satisfactory one, inasmuch as they commenced the year with a balance of 
15 Os. 9d. and ended it with one of 26 5s. 10d., whilst the heavy bills 
for printing the last volume of the "Proceedings" (Vol. x.) had been 
discharged. He wished to thank the Members for the greater regularity 
they had shown in paying their subscriptions. During the year the 
Club had lost two honorary members by death, two ordinary members by 
death, and seven by resignation, leaving the total number of ordinary 
members at 252. During the year a sum of 22 7s. had been received by 
the sale of surplus copies of the " Proceedings" of the Club, which 
showed, he thought, that their publications were appreciated. 



XV11. 

ELECTION OF OFFICERS. The President, Treasurer, and Secretary, 
proposed by the Rev. Sir Talbot Baker and seconded by N. M. 
Richardson, Esq., were re-elected for office for the ensuing year. 

ELECTION OF NEW MEMBERS. Seven new members of the Club were 
elected. 

THE PROGRAMME FOR THE YEAR. After a prolonged discussion the 
following meetings were arranged : Portland and Pennsylvania Castle 
for July, Sherborne and Cadbury for August, Bokeiiy Dyke for 
September. 

REPORT OF THE CURATOR OF THE MUSEUM. Mr. H. J. Moule 
made his report on the additions to the Museum during the past year. 
First, the non-Dorset Department ; in the Library many of the more 
valuable books had been bound, the Collection had been enriched by 
British Museum Catalogues granted by the Governors, by a set of the 
Journal of the Archaeological Institute presented by Mr. T. Bond, by the 
Novels of Mr. T. Hardy given by the Author. In the Galleries the 
additions to the collection had been chiefly of an Oriental nature. To 
the Collection confined to Dorset alone, amongst the books the Curator 
drew attention to the loan by Mr. J. S. Udal of his valuable collection of 
books relating to Dorsetshire, 241 volumes in all. Amongst gifts to the 
Library were Vol. x. of the Transactions of the Dorset Field Club, 
Crowe's Poems, two Maps and Accounts of Dorset in 1610 and 1749 
respectively, given by Mr. L. G. Boswell Stone and Mr. H. Symonds, 
and the "Description of the Church Plate of Dorset;" lastly, the 
acquisition of the Ordnance Map of the County, which would greatly 
enrich the Library. With regard to the Dorset Collections in the 
Museum itself, Mr. Moule stated his conviction that with the small 
funds at their disposal their ambition should be more and more strictly 
limited to making the collections illustrative of the County as complete 
as possible. With regard to the progress of the Collection during the 
year, the most important fact to record was that of the purchase of the 
valuable collection of local Antiquities formed by Mr. Cunnington, which 
was represented by the three cases occupying the centre of the room. 
There was another loan which it was most desirable to purchase viz., 
the collection formed by Mr. Hogg of Dorset Antiquities, most of which 
belonged to Dorchester itself. A valuable collection of coins had already 
been purchased by the Museum from Mr. Hogg. Many valuable gifts had 
been made during the year. Amongst these were an interesting group 
of coins and relics from a Roman well at Kingston by Mr. Mansel- 
Pleydell, several worked flints and two polished celts by the Rev. O. P. 
Cambridge ; several objects found near Cranborne, especially a very 



XV111. 

fine leaf-shaped arrow head, by Dr. Wake Smart ; a iine Roman 
amphora found in the Weymouth Backwater presented by the family 
of the late Mr. Damon ; a bronze socketted celt by Mr. Fetherstonhaugli 
Frampton ; a fine worked flint by Mr. Cunnington. Of mediaeval relics, 
the stones of the Grey hound -yard Tudor Archway given by Mr. Fossett 
Lock, which it was proposed to erect in the place of one of the plastered 
arches of the Hall of the Museum ; two encaustic tiles from Dorchester 
Friary given by Mr. Hogg. Of Legal Documents relating to Dorset, a 
lease of Melbury Bubb by Alande Plunkett in 17 Ed. II. from Mr. A. M. 
Luck ham, and several grants of Stuart times relating to Buckland 
Newton and other places in Dorset given by Mr. J. Batten. In the Natural 
History Department of Dorset a great acquisition would be found in the 
collection of local fossils of J;he late Mr. Damon, which contained some 
excellent specimens, amongst others a fine Ophiodcrma Weyniouthiensis, 
a species discovered by a brother of Mr. Groves, of Weymouth. The 
task of setting up and labelling the Damon fossils necessitated moving 
every Dorset specimen in the cases. Amongst Liassic fossils two good 
specimens had been acquired through Mr. Cunnington. The discovery by 
the President of a new Saurian amongst the mass of bones brought to the 
Museum from Gillingham was remarkable. The three bones which led 
him to this Cuvier-like identification were now under lock and key. Of 
recent Natural History Specimens they had received not a few, chiefly 
Skins and Birds, procured through the zeal of Mr. Groves. Of these 
three had been set up, one, a puffin with its winter bill, was specially 
interesting. Mr. Moule closed his report with the hope that a larger 
portion of objects of Dorset interest might find their way to enrich the 
Collections of the County Museum. 

An adjournment at 2 p.m. was made for luncheon, after which the 
President delivered his Annual Address, which will be found at p. 1 of 
this volume. 

Subsequently two papers were read, viz. : 

" On Castle Hill, Cranborne," by Dr. Wake Smart. 
" On Holme Priory," by T. Bond, Esqre., of Tyneham. 

These two papers are printed in Vol. XI. of the " Proceedings." 

THE PORTLAND MEETING. This Meeting was held on Wednesday, 
July 16th. The weather was most favourable, a party numbering 
upwards of a hundred arrived at the Portland Railway Station at 
11 a.m. Thence the route led to the Verne Citadel, where, by the 
kindness of Colonel Russell, R.E., was exhibited a collection of 
antiquities discovered during the construction of that fortress. These 



consisted of human bones and crania found in stone coffins, flint 
implements, coins, and many fossils. Outside the building several stone 
coffins were exposed to view. Dr. McLean exhibited a very perfect 
specimen of the left jaw of a Lepidopterus found in the railway cutting 
near the Portland Breakwater ; also a block of crystallized Manganese 
dredged during the Challenger Expedition from the bottom of the sea at 
a depth of from three to four miles. From the Verne a short walk 
brought the party to an ancient grave, which had been opened by Mr. 
A. M. Wallis, containing a human cranium, bones, and fragments 
of pottery. Close by lay two fine querns and some rounded stones, 
probably used for slinging ; or for crushing corn, as some antiquarians 
suppose. The President here delivered a short address on the 
geological character of the Isle of Portland. He said it represented one 
of the most interesting districts of the Kingdom. Portland, long before 
these kinds of graves had been made, had suffered denudation, and 
at least a depth of 500 feet had been washed away. The raised 
beach, near Portland Bill, was of great interest, since it bore 
evidence to the oscillations to which the Island must have been 
subjected. The highest point of this raised beach was 56 feet, 
and the lowest 36 feet above the level of the sea. It is composed 
of rolled pebbles and stones, some of which came from the East, 
some from the West. He was of opinion that the grave before them 
AMIS a more recent place of burial than that found by Colonel Russell 
last year. 

A walk of a few yards brought the members to a Dene hole, or 
prehistoric underground hut. With regard to it the President said that 
about three years ago Mr. Wallis wrote to him stating that a Dene hole 
had been discovered, but owing to the working of the quarries it had 
been destroyed. He then wrote to Mr. Wallis to ask him to endeavour 
to find another, and the Dene hole before them was the result of his 
search ; it was unfortunately not so perfect now as when it was first 
discovered. He invited a discussion on the part of the members as to the 
origin of these Dene holes. Some people supposed they were reservoirs 
or granaries for corn of the prehistoric inhabitants. Others considered 
they were constructed as places of sepulture ; or even as memorials to 
the dead. The late Mr. Damon figured two of these Dene holes in 
his work on the Geology of Weymouth and the Isle of Portland ; they 
were side by side, and there was a communication two feet broad, and one 
foot high between them. 

Dr. McLean thought they were used as granaries, since corn in a 
parched condition had been found in them, which pointed to this purpose. 



XX. 

Mr. Wallis exhibited a bottle containing some of the corn which had been 
so discovered. Dr. Watts said at Grays, in Essex, was a wood in which 
were hundreds of these holes, of which most had been filled up, but some 
had been kept open. These holes were 80 to 100 feet deep, sunk through 
the sand into the chalk beneath. These holes grew narrower as they 
descended, and at the bottom were four curious chambers of a rose 
pattern. They had been most carefully examined, and the earth around 
sifted, but nothing had been found to determine their use ; the surround- 
ings, however, led to the conclusion that the spot originally formed an 
ancient village and that these holes were the storehouses of families for 
preserving their food for long periods, and against the attacks of enemies. 
Some of the famous stone quarries close by were then inspected, where 
several specimens of trees (conifers) and cycads were exhibited. The 
President here read a paper, which had been prepared by Mr. A. M. 
Wallis, on the subject of the economic value of the various beds of 
Portland stone, the mode of quarrying in vogue, and an historical account 
of quarrymen's rights in Portland. This paper will be found in full at 
p. 187 of this volume. 

After a cordial vote of thanks had been given to Mr. Wallis for his 
valuable paper, a start was made for Pennsylvania Castle. The route 
lay along the top of the cliffs, from which a grand view was obtained, the 
cuttings of the new Church Hope Railway, now in course of construction, 
were passed, and soon after, the party was met by Mr. Merrick Head (the 
owner of Pennsylvania Castle), who conducted them inside the grounds, 
and gave them a most cordial welcome. Subsequently Mr. and Mrs. 
Merrick Head entertained the whole party at luncheon in a marquee, 
which had been erected for the purpose in the garden. After luncheon 
the President returned thanks to Mr. and Mrs. Merrick Head, on 
behalf of the company, for the hospitality which they had received. 
He said he was old enough to recollect when Governor Penn used 
to cross the ferry, where there is now a bridge, in a carriage 
and four. In Portland, those who are not natives are called "Kim- 
berlins," and no " Kimberlin " is deemed a true Portlander, but he 
felt certain from the enthusiastic way in which Mr. Merrick Head 
advocated the interests of the people of Portland at the County 
Council and elsewhere, although not a native, he is not considered a 
Kimberlin. 

After luncheon, the members proceeded to the ruins of the old church ; 
where Mr. Merrick Head read a very excellent paper on the history of 
the Castle, the Churchj the Vicar's House, and Tithes. This paper will be 
found in full at p. 115 of the present volume. 



Twelve new members of the Club were subsequently elected, and Mr. 
A. M. Wallis was elected an honorary member on the proposal of the 
President. 

Considerable time was afterwards spent in examining the various 
objects of art and historical interest contained within the Castle, whilst- 
some members availed themselves of the fine entomological field afforded 
by the rough ground of the undercliff, and specimens of a spider new to 
Britain, Neon levis, Sim., were here discovered by the Treasurer during 
the afternoon. Pennsylvania Castle was built during the reign of George 
III. It is stated that its erection was due to the following incident : 
The king was one day riding with Governor Penn across the island when 
His Majesty stopped at what is now Pennsylvania, and exclaimed 
"What a delightful spot for a house." Upon which Penn replied 
" Your Majesty, it shall be built," and soon after the present Castle was 
commenced, Wyatt being chosen as the architect. The Castle was 
opened by the Princess Elizabeth, daughter of George III., who inscribed 
her name on the occasion in a book of etchings. This, as well as 
several paintings, engravings, and relics of the Penn family collected by 
Mr. Merrick Head, was exhibited to the members. Amongst the 
paintings the most highly prized is the portrait of William Penn, 
the founder of the Colony of Pennsylvania in the United States. 
Here Penn is represented in armour, the picture having been painted just 
after the siege of Carrick-fergus. Beneath is the inscription, " Pax 
quaeritur bello." An engraving represents an engagement fought by 
Admiral Sir William Penn, the father of William, with the Dutch 
fleet. Another engraving of great historical interest represents William 
Penn's treaty with the Indians, when he founded Pennsylvania in 1681, 
the land being bartered for a piece of cloth. A copy is preserved here of 
the famous treaty made under the great elm tree at Shackanaxon in 1682. 
The original was presented by John Penn to the Historical Society of 
Philadelphia, and is known as " the Belt of Wampum" (delivered by the 
Indians to William Penn). There is also a valuable painting of the Penn 
family, supposed to have been touched up by Sir Joshua Reynolds, and 
engraved by Turner. In the hall are some portraits of the family, 
one of the most interesting being that of John Penn, M.P. for Stoke, 
Bucks, who was appointed Governor of Portland, in 1805. This 
was painted by Sir William Beechey, who at the time was President of 
the Royal Academy. In a glass case are the dress swords of the Governor. 
A portrait of the poet Gray hangs in one of the rooms. In addition to 
these there are some valuable old engravings of Portland and the vicinity, 
and some fine oak carving. The large party left the Castle about 



XXII. 

4.30 p.m., after thanking their host and hostess for their hospitality. 
They returned to the village, where tea was provided at the Soldiers' 
Institute, after which they left the Island by the 5.30 train. 

THE SHERBORNE MEETING. A two days meeting was held at 
Sherborne, on Thursday and Friday, August 28th and 29th, and tine 
weather attended the proceedings, which was a rare advantage in this 
wet season. The programme had been arranged so as to enable the 
members to meet the Somersetshire Archaeological Society on the 
second day across the borders of the County at Cadbury Castle, 
and as this Society had made all the arrangements and undertaken 
to provide the information in that locality, the first of the two 
days (Thursday) was the only one for which the Dorsetshire execu- 
tive was responsible. A large party was present on each of the 
days, and the Digby Hotel, at Sherborne, formed the head-quarters 
during the visit. At twelve o'clock on Thursday, a start was made 
for the Abbey. The monument erected to the memory of the late 
G. D. Wingfield Digby Esq., who restored the building, was noticed, and 
then the party assembled in the Vestry, where Mr. K. D. Carpenter, a 
leading ecclesiastical architect of London, narrated the history of the 
building, elucidating his statement with the help of coloured diagrams 
and ground plans. He observed that a portion of the Roman pavement 
found on the site of the Abbey sometime ago, carried the history of the 
Church back to a period anterior to the Anglo-Saxon time of the 
commencement of the Eighth Century, but it was not until then that the 
architectural and documentary history began. In A.D. 705, Ina, a West 
Saxon King, appointed St. Aldhelm to the bishopric of Sherborne, then it 
was separated from the Diocese of Winchester. In the same year he 
founded a small nunnery at the mouth of the Frome, at Wareham, and 
probably also built the Church of St. Martin there. He most likely had 
his Cathedral at Sherborne, which was served by clergy and not by 
monks. St. Aldhelm was bishop for four years, and died in 709. It is 
probable the monks of Glastonbury rebuilt the wooden church of 
Doulting as a memorial to him. Sherborne had 26 Bishops in all, the last 
being Herman, chaplain to Edward the Confessor. On his decease in 
1072 A.D., the bishopric was removed to Old Sarum. In A.D. 1125 
Pope Honorius II. conferred large grants of land and endowments on the 
Abbey. The whole of the Anglo-Saxon Cathedral, with the exception of 
the western doorway of the north aisle of the nave and some adjoining 
walls, were pulled down by Bishops Rogers and Thurston. This doorway, 
which is in the early Anglo-Saxon style, is now blocked up. The Lady 



XX111. 

Chapel was built in the 13th century, about the same time as Salisbury 
Cathedral, and probably, from the resemblance of the mouldings in the 
two, by the same person. At the end of the 14th century the Church of 
All Hallows was built adjoining the \vest end of the Abbey. The Vicars 
of this Church were appointed by the Abbots, who as Rectors held the 
great tithes. A dispute, arising between the Vicars and Abbot, led to a 
riot, during which a burning arrow was shot into the thatched roof of the 
choir, which was ignited and consumed. The walls of the choir and 
tower still showed the marks of this conflagration. Abbot Bradford set 
to work to rebuild the whole church on the style of his new choir, leaving 
some of the old burnt stones as witnesses of the harm which had been 
done, and on some of the bosses were carved representations of the 
burning arrow. After the death of Abbot Bradford, the old Norman 
clerestory was pulletl down. In 1475 Abbot Ramsam actively pushed 
forward Bradford's plans for the nave. Ramsam died in 1504, and in 
little more than 30 years after, the last Abbot, John Barnstaple, 
surrendered the Abbey to the Crown on the dissolution of the Monasteries, 
and it was then granted to Sir John Horsey, of Clifton May bank. All 
Hallows Church at that time was in a very ruinous condition ; the 
parishioners sold the roof and the aisles, and by bargaining with Sir John, 
bought of him by degrees the nearly new Abbey Church and part of the 
contiguous buildings for the princely sum of 230 ; and it was a curious 
fact that the lawyer's bill for drawing up the necessary agreements only 
amounted to 14 pence. The windows in the choir in the time of Hutchins 
were described as fitted with heraldic glass ; this had been removed. In 
1848 repairs were commenced on the tower, nave, transepts, the south 
porch, and alterations of the west window. A sum of 4,000 was spent 
on the fabric. In 1856 Mr. George Wingfield Digby, of Sherborne 
Castle, restored the choir at his os\n expense as a memorial to his uncle, 
Earl Digby. On leaving the west door of the Abbey the curious 
fragments of buttresses were noticed, which protruded from the wall, and 
which originally pertained to the contiguous All Hallows Church. The 
mural tablet to the memory of Benjamin Vowell, his wives and daughters, 
on this external wall also attracted attention. The Rev. C. H. Mayo 
read extracts from an old deed, which showed that an ancestor of the 
Vowell family there buried was embroiled in the disturbance in which the 
roof and the choir were burnt. The conduit was next visited, which was 
stated by the Head-Master of Sherborne School to belong to the Governors 
of the School. It once stood in the Benedictine quadrangle of the 
Monastery ; there it was supplied with water by the Newell stream. At 
the present its water came from a copious fountain at Kennel Barton. 



XXIV. 

The conduit had been quite recently restored, and its position slightly 
altered. For many years the conduit was used as a savings bank for the 
town. The present mullions were not as they were originally. In 
Hutchins' History of Dorset they were represented as being carried down 
to the pavement and glazed. The Rev. E. M. Young also called 
attention to the date, 1561, carved over the small window of the room 
which formed Dr. Lyon's study. He stated that the curious Elizabethan 
building had been constructed out of the remains of the Lady Chapel of 
the Abbey, by the help of Bishop Jewel, of Salisbury. The handsome 
south front was then inspected, after which the members entered the 
precincts of the School ; the various buildings of interest around were 
pointed out. The library was visited. The Head -Master said that many 
of the documents were of great interest. For over 300 years the greater 
part of them had been stowed away in the muniment room at the 
Almhouses, and this accounted for the splendid state of preservation of 
their charter. The library was well supplied with curious editions of the 
Bible in various tongues, including Syriac, Anglo-Saxon, Gothic, and 
Erse. One very remarkable testament was in a now extinct North 
.American Indian dialect, and bore on the title page the date of 1662. 
Amongst interesting MSS. was that of the prize poem of 1850, by Lewis 
Morris, the author of the " Epic of Hades," who was an alumnus of 
Sherborne School. "Thermopylae" was the title of the poem, which 

commenced thus, 

" Thermopylae is silent 
The stern rocks frown no more." 

The party next were conducted over the Chapel, which was much 
admired, and subsequently proceeded to the schoolroom. They after- 
wards broke up for luncheon preparatory to starting on the excursion 
arranged for the afternoon. At 2. 30 carriages were in readiness to convey 
the party, then numbering about 50, to Bradford Abbas ; there the parish 
church formed the chief centre of interest. The building was at the time 
in the hands of the builder undergoing a process of restoration. It is 
built in the Perpendicular style, dating from the 15th century. Its most 
striking feature is its tower, which according to the authority of 
Hutchins, " is esteemed one of the best in the county. " It is loftier than 
the generality of church towers in Dorset, and is flanked at the corners 
with octagonal graduated buttresses crested at the top with fine 
pinnacles. In the west front are eleven canopied niches, two of which, 
the furthest from the ground, contain statues, the others are empty. 
Within the building little could be seen with advantage, owing to the 
alterations in progress. Some time ago it was round that the tine oak 






ceiling was seriously decayed, and it was decided, while the whole 
building was put in thorough repair, to replace the moulded rafters with 
new ones precisely similar, so that the original character of the edifice 
might not be debased. The fine pulpit, pews, and admirable font, the 
rare stone screen, and mural tablets, all received due attention. The 
repairs are being executed by Mr. Andrews, of Thornford, under the 
supervision of Mr. Benson, architect, of Yeovil. 

Leaving Bradford Abbas, another ride brought the party to Clifton 
Maybank, a fragment of the fine dwelling-house of the Horsey's, a family 
of much importance in Tudor times, but whose prosperity suffered severely 
in those of the Stuart dynasty. Authorities consider the original house 
was at least three times the size of the existing building, which was 
reported to have extended all across the court at the rear, and to have 
been situated on the present garden, facing the old pleasaunce. The 
octangular trussed buttresses and frieze pierced cusp work in the south 
front of the existing structure indicate the date of its erection to have 
been the latter part of the fifteenth or the beginning of the sixteenth 
century. The most beautiful feature of the west fa9ade is the oriel 
window, near the apex of the gable, with panels at the base bearing the 
sculptured allusive badge of the house a golden horse's head, flanked by 
the double rose of the Tudors. According to Hamilton Ilogers, the style 
of architecture and ornament are of the Early-Transition period, and are 
not sufficiently leavened with the Classic to date its construction to the 
clays of Elizabeth or her immediate predecessor. This archaeologist 
considers the house was erected in the first quarter of the sixteenth 
century by 'Squire John Horsey and his wife. The Rev. O. P. Cambridge 
read an extract from Hamilton Rogers' work Memorials of the 
West. It ran as follows : " After the death of the unfortunate 
Sir G. Horsey, in 1611, the noble old house appears to have been 
held intermediately by Heale, whose heiress, according to Hutchins, 
brought it to Hungerford, who sold it to the Harveys, of Comb, 
in Surrey, and they were its possessors in 1661. Notwithstanding 
this fifty years' vicissitude of ownership, and passing from hand 
to hand, it had probably suffered little change structurally up to 
the date of its purchase by the Harveys ; we now get an ominous 
glimpse of its preparatory declension. Writing in 1773 Hutchins 
continues, ' The mansion house is a large and stately pile of buildings, 
repaired, sashed, and otherwise modernised by the Harveys.' Then, 
doubtless, all the rich oak Tudor carved work and stone-mullioned 
windows, radiant with sparkling armories, were ousted, to make way for 
the bold monotony of deal panelled parallelograms, lit by the dingy 



XXVI. 

bottle-green sashed transparencies of good Queen Anne a style so 
devoutly worshipped by budding architects of the present day. In 
addition to the mansion there had also been erected a " very beautiful 
ancient gateway leading into the court, and ascribed to Inigo Jones." 
Purely Classic in style, it was doubtless built by the second race of the 
Harveys. This was also remaining in 1773." The Rev. O. P. Cambridge 
added that the person who had humiliated the house to its present " felon- 
like" appearance was unknown ; but that from extracts from the MS., 
" Anecdotes of My Life," compiled by Edward Ph clips, an ancestor of 
Mr. Phelips, of Montacute House, it was gathered that in 1786 the 
house was being pulled down, and that various materials were bought by 
this Edward Phelips, and used in the erection of Montacute House. 
The house was then examined by the party, and the old pleasaunce 
garden and bowling alley, at the corner of which stood the customary 
music room, were visited. The exterior of the house was also shewn by 
the courtesy of the tenant, Mr. W. Whittle, where the broad oak 
staircase with carved ballustrades, the oak panelling of one of the rooms, 
and the fine oriel window, all excited much admiration. Leaving Clifton 
Maybank, the party next visited Yetminster church, where they were 
welcomed by the Vicar, the Rev. R. S. MacDowall, who conducted them 
over the church and pointed out the many objects of interest. The 
building is dedicated to St. Andrew j the style of architecture is 
Perpendicular, it has recently undergone restoration under the direction 
of Mr. G. R. Crickmay. A paper on the subject of this church, which 
had been prepared by the Rev. C. H. Mayo, to be read here, was post- 
poned, through pressure of time, to the evening meeting at Sherborne. 

Leaving Yetminster the route next led to Thornford, where the party 
were received and hospitably entertained at tea on the Rectory lawn by 
the Rev. Wilfred Roxby. The church was afterwards visited. In the 
churchyard the Rector pointed out a hole about the size of a man's fist 
in the top of one of the tombstones, which formerly contained a copper 
receptacle, into which were paid on St. Thomas' Day the modus in lieu 
of prebendal tithes. The church, which dates from the 14th century, 
was restored about 25 years ago. An interesting feature of the interior 
is the stone screen, which used to support a solid wall of masonry, giving 
the chancel end of the church a heavy and dark appearance. This has 
now been removed. 

After leaving Thornford the members returned to Sherborne. Dinner 
was provided at the Digby Arms Hotel, after which five new members of 
the Club were elected. The company then repaired to the King's School. 
Here coffee was provided in the large dining hall, after which the Head- 



XXV 11. 

Master conducted them over the Laboratory and Museum. Here were 
exhibited Ichthyosaurian remains and the jaw of Megalosaurus Bucklandi, 
which is described by Sir R. Owen in the Q.J.G.S., a fair collection 
of oolitic fossils, and plants of the Carboniferous epoch, an ex- 
cellent entomological collection, and various weapons of primitive 
tribes. A formal meeting was then held, the President, J. C. Mansel- 
Pleydell, Esq., being in the chair. The Rev. C. H. Mayo read the first 
paper on "Yetminster Church," which will be found in full at p. 146 
of this volume. The Head-Master, the Rev. E. M. Young, then 
read a paper on "The History and External Growth of Sherborne 
School." The President rose to return thanks to the writers of the above 
papers, and to the Rev. E. M. Young for his kindness and hospitality in 
entertaining the Society at Sherborne School. He said it might not be 
known that Mr. Young was taking his holiday across the water, and had 
left his family in Brittany and crossed the Channel in order to give the 
Club the benefit of his company and experience that day. A vote of 
thanks to the Rev. E. M. Young was most cordially responded to, after 
which the party broke up at about eleven o'clock. 

The next morning, Friday, at about half -past nine, a party of members 
left the Digby Hotel and drove to South Cadbury, a distance of about 
eight miles. The weather was very fine and warm, and the day was 
much enjoyed. On arriving at South Cadbury the members of the 
Dorset Club, now numbering about 80, joined a party of 120 members of 
the Somersetshire Archseological and Natural History, under the leader- 
ship of their President for the year, H. Hobhouse, Esq., M.P., and of their 
Secretary, the Rev. J. A. Bennett. The first place visited was Cadbury 
Castle, a fine earthwork which rises very abruptly behind the little 
village of South Cadbury. It is a Romano-British hill fortress, or 
entrenched camp of refuge, whose only rival in this part of the country is 
Maiden Castle, near Dorchester. The latter camp covers more ground 
than Cadbury, is more regularly shaped, and possesses three trenches, 
whilst Cadbury has but two ; but whilst the embankment or outer trench 
of Maiden Castle slopes gradually upwards, Cadbury Camp rises abruptly 
from almost level ground, and w r ould therefore present far greater 
difficulties to an enemy attacking it than Maiden Castle. Many of the 
Somerset Archaeologists, including the Secretary, consider, and not 
without foundation, that Cadbury is the Camelot of King Arthur. 
Certainly to the archaeologist, Cadbury and its neighbourhood is very 
attractive. The Fosse-way passes not many miles distant ; almost every 
hill, spring, and wood bear names derived from British and Saxon roots, 
which tell of conflicts which have formerly taken place in the vicinity, 



XXV111. 

whilst the locality derives additional interest from being connected with 
King Alfred, as is indicated by the proximity of Athelney and Alfred 
Tower. The view from Cadbury Castle is very striking, and if there 
were any among the party assembled there on this occasion who were 
unable to appreciate the archaeological interest which the place possesses, 
they must have been amply repaid by the fine landscape which lay 
outstretched before them. After pointing out to the party King Arthur's 
Well and the probable position of the Gates of Gold, which, according to 
tradition, led into the hill, the Kev. J. A. Bennett led them to the other 
side of the hill, where from a mound he pointed out the various features 
of the surrounding country, such as Glastonbury Tor, Whitcombe Valley, 
Penselwood, Sigwell Camp, Brentknoll, Alfred's Tower, Cook's Peak, 
the Hills of Bratton and Creech, Musbury Camp, Paget's Tower, and 
Wellington's Pillar. The Secretary further narrated various interesting 
stories and folk lore connected with the camp, and he mentioned that he 
had discovered many hut dwellings five feet in diameter and four feet 
deep, floored with pebbles, and often containing bones of oxen and 
fragments of Romano-British pottery. The philology of Sigwell, which 
was situated on the hill opposite, was " victory well," and he thought 
it was the place where the Saxons refreshed themselves after having 
defeated the Britons, and from which they shortly after advanced and 
took Camelot. The cottagers maintained that King Arthur's burial 
place was in a field at the foot of a hill not far distant, where many 
bones have been exhumed. Leland, who had visited Cadbury, was 
firmly of opinion that it was the Camelot of King Arthur. In a 
corn field at the base of the hill on the other side many Roman 
coins had been turned up by the plough, as well as many old English 
coins. 

In answer to various questions addressed to him, the Rev. J. A. Bennett 
said the bones before mentioned were considered to belong to Saxons ; 
the bodies appeared to have been thrown into a pit in a careless and 
contemptuous manner. The derivation of the word "Camelot," he 
thought, was from " Camulus," the god of war, analogous to the Roman 
god Mars. The name " Cadbury, "as well, signified the hill of war. Sir 
Talbot Baker observed that the slope of the banks was steeper here than 
at Maiden Castle, but the trenches shallower. Alluding to a remark of 
Mr. Bennett's that the stone walls under the turf were put, in his opinion, 
for the accommodation of slingers, he mentioned that the Rev. Prebendary 
Scarth had held the opposite view. A cordial vote of thanks was then 
given to the Rev. J. A. Bennett for his address, after which the party 
proceeded to South Cadbury Church, which was also described by the 



XXIX. 

Rector, Mr. Bennett. This was the last occasion on which Mr. Bennett 
was thus officially engaged ; his sudden and unexpected death occurring 
not long after. The Somerset Society have lost, in Mr. Bennett, a most 
efficient secretary, and we ourselves have to regret the loss of one who 
gave us so hearty a reception, and expressed himself as looking forward 
to other re-unions of the two Societies in the near future. 

Luncheon was provided in a tent close by, after which the entire party, 
composed of members of the two Societies, proceeded in a long line of 
carriages to North Cadbury House, the front of which is a good example 
of Elizabethan architecture ; the rear was, however, taken down some 
years ago and rebuilt in the Italian style by the owner. The house was 
once the residence of the Earls of Huntingdon ; their arms with quarter- 
ings may still be seen in the windows of the hall. It now belongs to Mr. 
F. Wentworth Bennett, but is at present occupied by Lord Hobhouse. 

Here the party broke up, and the two-days' pleasant meeting was 
brought to a conclusion. 

MEETING AT FARNHAM AND BOKERLY DYKE. This meeting was held 
on Tuesday, September 23rd, the rendezvous being the Crown Hotel, 
Blandford, thence the party, numbering about 70, started in carriages for 
Farnham, where General Pitt Kivers, F.R.S., met them and conducted 
them over the Museum, in which the owner has placed some very 
important collections, selected and arranged by himself. In the first 
room of the building General Pitt Rivers explained that in 1852 he 
commenced forming a museum on the principle of selecting his subjects 
and then exhibiting objects to show the history and development of each. 
The collection arranged on the fore-mentioned system he exhibited at 
South Kensington and Bethnal Green for some years, and subsequently 
gave it to the University of Oxford, where 10,000 was voted for its 
preservation. As he had noticed people at museums usually took little 
interest in what they saw unless they knew something about them, the 
Museum at Farnham was a collection which he had arranged to illustrate 
those occupations which the inhabitants of the district were most familiar 
with namely, agriculture and handicraft ; whilst the objects themselves 
were so well labelled that every one could soon find out what they wanted. 
On some shelves were pottery of various kinds, in one case jewellery and 
ornaments of the peasantry of different nations, whilst the various kinds 
and shapes of caps worn by the women in different villages in Brittany 
formed about the most interesting series of all. Each parish in Brittany 
had its own distinctive cap, worn by the women, the original type of 
which is maintained thoughout. In an adjoining room would be 



XXX. 

found some remarkably old wood carving, originally used for beds 
by the natives of Brittany. The ancient and modern work in 
this handicraft was well exhibited by these specimens. Another case was 
arranged to illustrate the implements in use during the stone, bronze, and 
iron ages. General Pitt Rivers then proceeded to describe the various 
models which he had prepared during the progress of the excavations 
at Rotherly Woodcuts and Bokerley. One difficulty which these ancient 
inhabitants met with was illustrated viz., that of obtaining suitable 
flints for purposes of digging, and this they overcame by sinking deep 
shafts or mines to obtain the kind of flints they required. At Cissbury 
Camp there were numerous shafts, which went down 40 feet beneath 
the surface. The model of the village found on Woodyates Common was 
viewed. In another room of the Museum the models of the excavations 
at Bokerly Dyke were exhibited. General Pitt Rivers said the work here 
was more interesting than elsewhere as it gave larger evidence of the 
life of the people of that time, and because the Dyke was a defensive 
work, covering a large tract for the defence of the West of England. 
Near the Dyke was to be seen a portion of the Old Roman Road, 
which ran from Sarum to Badbury and which the President had 
traced much further towards the Estuary of Poole. At a curve 
of the Dyke was an important entrenchment which cut across the 
Roman Road. A great deal had been written about this Dyke ; 
the chief point was to discover the date of it, and this was 
to be done by cutting through the rampart to find the surface lying 
beneath. One day the bandmaster, Mr. Laws, the leader of General 
Pitt Rivers private band, noticed a man taking soil from the top 
of the rampart, and whilst doing so, several Roman coins were 
found. Having obtained the consent of the landowner, Sir Edmund 
Hulse, to commence the search, he found several coins of Claudius 
Gothicus on the other side of the Dyke, nearly on the surface, 
and on the old surface as many as 600 coins of Honorius and 
Octavius were found. Honorius having left this country about 
A.D 404, we have an approximate date for the age of the work. 
In the corner a skeleton was found tying so near the old surface that it 
had been evidently buried before the Dyke was made ; therefore a 
settlement must have existed here anterior to that date. Relics of fires 
and skeletons were found, as at the village of Woodyates, and Roman 
coins were scattered about, proving the settlement to be older than the 
Dyke. Why the Romans scattered coins about in this way was not certain. 
It was evident that the people, who came after the Romans, dug into the 
foundation of their houses, and threw up the earth for the ramparts 



XXXI. 

without observing the coins, and these were thrown with the earth. 
General Pitt Rivers, in conclusion, said there was no doubt in his mind 
that Bokerley Dyke was Roman or post-Roman. 

The party then drove to the Dyke, six miles distant from Farnham, 
but before they reached it a very severe storm of rain was encountered, 
w r hicli curtailed the pleasure of the visit very seriously. General Pitt 
Rivers, however, who kindly conducted the party over the work in spite 
of the weather, pointed out the place where he had cut through the 
rampart and found the escarps of the Dyke. Nothing Saxon, he said, 
had been found. He pointed out the way in which silting had 
rounded the escarps of the Dyke. With regard to supposing this 
to be the site of Vindogladia, he said that one reason in favour of 
this was that Vindogladia was twelve Roman miles from Sarum, 
which was the exact distance of this spot. Another reason w r as that 
the Roman Road ran in a direct line from Sarum to that point, and 
from there in a direct line to Badbury. At this particular spot, 
however, it turned, and as that was the only turn in the road from 
Sarum to Badbury it must have been a very important place. The name 
Vindogladia might have bee*h derived from " Vint," signifying white, and 
" Gladh," a rampart, which must have been at the time of its construction 
a conspicuous white chalk object towering over the green sw r ard. 

The rain continuing to fall heavily the party was obliged to break up, 
and this most interesting meeting was brought to an unsatisfactorily 
premature conclusion. 

THE FIRST WINTER MEETING IN THE COUNTY MUSEUM. A meeting 
was held in the County Museum at Dorchester on Friday, November 
28th, and although the weather was extremely cold there was a large 
attendance. The President was unable to attend, therefore his place was 
occupied by the Rev. 0. P. Cambridge. Five new members were duly 
proposed and elected. After some matters of business had been brought to 
the notice of the members the various subjects enumerated on the printed 
programme for the day w r ere taken in order. The first of them was a 
paper on "Roman Fortifications with special reference to those of 
Dorchester" by the Rev. W. Miles Barnes. This will be found printed 
in full at p. 135 of this volume. A discussion ensued on the conclusion 
of this paper. Mr. Moule remarked that a gate, other than those 
mentioned in the paper had been identified by Mr. Jowett, the late town 
surveyor, who unearthed the foundation in Gallows Hill, which appeared 
to be Roman, and it seemed to him (Mr. Moule) that from the many 
references to Durngate in the Dorchester "Doomsday" these foundations 



XXX11. 

were those of the Durn Gate. That Durngate was not necessarily in a line 
with the street of that name. In the Middle Ages the North Gate was 
in Glyde Path. It appeared to him from the enormous massiveness of 
the Roman fortifications that the medireval residents would not be 
so foolish as to make new gates, and therefore the mediaeval gate 
was probably the successor to, if not the identical Roman gate, 
and consequently it stood at Glyde Path, near the cottage at Colliton 
House. A paper on "Studland Church," by Mr. W. Masters Hardy, 
was next read by the Secretary. This will be found at p. 164. At 
the conclusion of the paper Mr. Albert Bankes said as this was the 
parish church of his old home he should like to speak in praise of 
those who had undertaken the work of the preservation of this church 
Mr. Digby as rector, Mr. Luckham as churchwarden, Mr. Crickmay as 
architect, and Mr. Hardy as builder. Referring to a statement of Mr. 
Hardy, that at a time when there was no rectory a travelling priest 
did duty and occupied a chamber in the church, he said this was no 
doubt true, because until 50 years ago there was no resident clergyman, 
and the late Clerk told him he remembered when they had to catch a 
service when they could. The church was served at that time by a 
Curate from Swanage, and the Rectors being Pluralists the services were 
uncertain. 

A paper on " Dorset Implements of Stone in the Museum " was then 
read by H. J. Moule, Esq. This is given at p. 16. 

A paper on the subject of " Rooks Planting Acorns " was then read by 
the Rev. O. P. Cambridge, F.R.S. This paper is printed on p. 132 of 
this volume. 

At the conclusion of this paper, the programme for the day having 
been completed, the meeting closed. 



A SECOND WINTER MEETING was held in the Museum at Dorchester 
on Tuesday, February 24th, 1891. Unfortunately, the President was 
absent through ill health, and the Treasurer was detained through the 
illness of his eldest son. Mr. Albert Bankes took the chair at the 
commencement of the meeting. Five new members were elected to the 
Club. A proposal, suggested by the Rev. F. A. H. Vinon, that an 
account of the explorations lately carried out at Silchester, under 
the direction of the Society of Antiquaries, should be laid before 
the Club by a lecturer who superintended the operations, was first 
considered. The general feeling of the meeting was opposed to spending 
any part of the funds of the Club on a subject outside the bounds of 
the county. 



XXX111. 

Sir Talbot Baker (Vice-Presiclent), now occupying the chair, referred 
to the general impression of the existence ot a Roman Villa in the parish 
of Iwerne Minster which had never been excavated. He had written to 
General Pitt Rivers, who owned the field where the villa was supposed 
to exist, and in reply the General stated his doubts of the existence of a 
Roman Villa on the spot alluded to, which was immediately east of 
Hambledon Hill. However, with his permission, some preliminary 
excavation had been commenced, and various objects, such as the 
remains of a flint wall, fragments of pottery, tiles, and a large number 
of nails, which were found, led to the conclusion that a habitation 
had existed on the spot. On reaching the Greensand, which formed the 
substratum, there were marks of fire, soot, and ashes about the walls and 
tiles. General Pitt Rivers, who was working at Oxford, had promised 
to commence excavating the spot himself, and in the summer they might 
hope that something really interesting would be opened out. 

Mr. T. B. Groves exhibited a case of birds, collected by him in the 
vicinity of Weymouth during the recent hard weather. No less than 
seven Bitterns had been killed in the neighbourhood during this winter 
viz., two at Chickerell, one at Weymouth, two at Dorchester, and two 
at Abbotsbury. The case exhibited contained a male bird, from a flock 
of six, one of the finest he had ever seen. The bird's crop on examination 
was found to contain nothing but hairs of animals. The other birds in 
the case were a golden eye, a sheldrake, and grey plover, and the little 
spotted woodpecker, Picus minor, which had had been observed pecking 
at one of the posts on the Portland railway. Mr. Richardson exhibited a 
Queen wasp he had observed on December 14th hibernating on the 
curtain of a bedroom. The insect was found suspended entirely by its 
mandibles, its wings and legs being folded up under its body. Mr. 
Eustace Bankes said that on February 17th he had found a wasp sunning 
itself on a paling, which was a very early date to find wasps out of doors. 
Mr. Wallis exhibited some relics of Romano- British times lately found 
at Portland a ring, beads, fragments of pottery, and a portion of a 
human jaw (female) containing teeth. Three graves had been 
discovered on the Island lately by some workmen whilst setting up a 
crane, two of which each contained an urn ; the ring and the beads were 
found in the third grave. 

The papers on the printed programme for the day were then read in 
order. These included the following : " Stone Implements in the Dorset 
County Museum " by H. J. Moule, Esq. This was a supplementary 
paper to that read by him at the meeting on November 28th on "Dorset 
Stone Implements." This will be found at p. 25 of this volume. 



XX XIV. 

The Rev. R. P. Murray read "Notes on some of the Rarer Forms of 
E ubus lately found in Dorset." This is printed at p. 71. Mr. Nelson 
M. Richardson read a short paper on a " Moth, Tinea subtilella, Fuchs, 
recently discovered at Portland, and New to Britain," after which a paper 
on a " Remarkable Deformity in the Flowering Head of Charlock," which 
was found in a corn field near Radipole, was read by the same author. 
These papers are given at Moth, p. 161 ; Charlock, p. 157. 

A paper entitled " A Brief Historical and Descriptive Sketch of the 
Churches in the Rural Deanery of Dorchester (Dorchester portion) " was 
read by the Rev. W. M. Barnes, rector of Monckton. This paper is 
printed at p. 36. 

At the conclusion of this paper some discussion ensued. Mr. A. Bankes 
referred to the probable depopulation of the village of Winterborne 
Farringdon by the plague as a very interesting matter. Mr. Moule 
remarked that East Fordington Church was a rich field for the investiga- 
tion of archaeologists. He had been struck with the similarity between 
the design of the Bayeux tapestry and the carving on the doorway of 
Fordington St. George. The latter was not a tympanum, as it had 
often been called, but a thing of most unique construction. Indeed, so 
curious was it that he thought it had not gained the fame it deserved. 
He regretted the disgracefully rude elevation of the north side of the 
church. The atrocious north aisle had been actually sanctioned by the 
Diocesan architect of that day. The Rev. W. M. Barnes said in 
Canterbury Cathedral one could plainly see where the axe work ended, 
and the chisel work began. Two papers included in the programme for 
the day viz., " On some New and Rare Dorset Spiders " by the Rev. O. 
P. Cambridge, and " Some New and Rare British Shells" by Mr. Charles 
Owen P. Cambridge, Avere presented, and, in the unavoidable absence of 
the authors, were taken as read. These papers will be found, the former 
at p. 80 and the latter at p. 99 of this volume. This brought the 
meeting to a conclusion, and with it terminated the work of the season 
1890-91. 



Presentation of n ^estimonivtl to iht 
JRorton d. Stuart, 



The occasion of Mr. STUART'S marriage, in December, 1890, 
afforded the members of the Club an opportunity of testifying 
their personal friendship towards him, as well as their approbation 
of his zeal and efficiency in his official capacity. A valuable 
Antique Coffee Pot and a Binocular Field Glass were therefore 
presented to him as a wedding present. The subscription was 
limited to a maximum of 2s. 6d. each, and 153 members con- 
tributed towards the testimonial. 

A warm letter of thanks in acknowledgment of this mark of 
friendship and esteem was received from Mr. STUART and com- 
municated to the Club at a meeting at Dorchester on the 24th of 
February, 1891 ; and, subsequently, at the annual meeting on 
May 27th, 1891, Mr. STUART expressed in person his gratification 
at the receipt of this welcome and unexpected present. 

0. P. CAMBRIDGE. 



Jkfo Jftembcrs filecttb since the publication of 

. xi. 



DORCHESTER, NOVEMBER 27TH, 1890. 

Askew, Rev. R. H. Winterborne Zelstone Rectory, Blandford 

Portarlington, The Earl of Portman Lodge, Bournemouth 

Luff, Montague, Esq. Blandford 

Weld-Blundell, H., Esq. Lulworth Castle, Wareham 
Browning, Benjamin, Esq., 

M.D. Weymouth 

Mason, Philip B., Esq. Horningham Street, Burton-on-Trent 

DORCHESTER, FEBRUARY 24TH, 1891. 
House, Edward H., Esq. Tomson, Blandford 

Freeman, Rev. H. P. 

Williams Affpuddle Vicarage, Dorchester 

Gravener, Captain South Walks, Dorchester 

Williams, E. W., Esq. Herringston House, Dorchester 

Tweed, The Rev. Canon H. E. St. John's Villas, Weymouth 

DORCHESTER, MAY 27TH, 1891. 

Atkinson, T. R., Esq. Gainsborough House, Sherborne 

Eaton, H. G., Esq. Shepton Montague, Castle Gary 

Furlonge, Rev. A. M. Chilcombe, St. Andrew's Villa, Biidport 

Scoror, A. P., Esq. Canford, Wimborne 

Ridley, Rev. Stewart Wareham 

WAREHAM, JUNE 18TH, 1891. 

Lamb, Captain Stephen E. Dorchester Dep6t, 1st Dorset Regiment, 

Barracks, Dorchester 

Carter, William, Esq. The Hermitage, Parkstone 

Barnsdale, Rev. J. G. 3, York Terrace, Weymouth 

LYME REGIS, JULY 21ST, 1891. 
Garland, Henry, Esq. Worgret, Wareham 

Daniel, Woodruffe, Esq., Wareham 
Mitchell, F., Esq. Chard 

Stephens, J. Thompson, Esq. Wanderwell House, Bridport 
Saunders, Miss Augusta Corscombe, Cattistock 

LULWORTH, AUGUST 19xH, 1891. 

Randall, Colonel Melbury Lodge, Wimborne 

Burdekin, Norman, Esq. Castle Rise, Parkstone 

Cother, Rev. P. S. Turnworth Rectory, Blandford 

Carre, Rev. Arthur 14, St. John's Terrace, Weymouth 



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character and which are Deyoiiu. ^~ _ 
the county. Through the perseverance of man 
Nature is yielding up much of her hidden 
treasures ; energy, or its equivalent force heat, electricity, and 
other primary elements which possess no material constituents 
and are among the most powerful agents in Nature, have not 
escaped the grasp of man. Phonography, perhaps, is making the 
most startling progress, and, under the genius of Edison, is in a fair 
way towards perfection. Geology, which 50 years ago had no 
standpoint in the Areopagus of science, now stands on one of its 
highest platforms through the genius of Lyell, Sedgwick, 
Murchison, Prestwich, and those who have followed the lines laid 
down by these pioneers, all of whom have contributed towards the 
knowledge of the physical and biological history of our earth 
from the earliest periods. We now know the characteristic features 
and constitution of the rocks which are classified according to their 



rt 



For ''June 5th, 1891," in opposite page, read "June 5th, 
1890." 







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o o o 
<N co ira 



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tht 




(READ BEFORE THE MEMBERS OP THE FIELD CLUB 
JUNE 5ra, 1891.) 



SHALL not confine myself this morning to local 
subjects which come especially within the province 
of our Club, but shall include others of a general 
character and which are beyond the limits of 
the county. Through the perseverance of man 
Nature is yielding up much of her hidden 
treasures ; energy, or its equivalent force heat, electricity, and 
other primary elements which possess no material constituents 
and are among the most powerful agents in Nature, have not 
escaped the grasp of man. Phonography, perhaps, is making the 
most startling progress, and, under the genius of Edison, is in a fair 
way towards perfection. Geology, which 50 years ago had no 
standpoint in the Areopagus of science, now stands on one of its 
highest platforms through the genius of Lyell, Sedgwick, 
Murchison, Prestvvich, and those who have followed the lines laid 
down by these pioneers, all of whom have contributed towards the 
knowledge of the physical and biological history of our earth 
from the earliest periods. We now know the characteristic features 
and constitution of the rocks which are classified according to their 



2 PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 

constitution and order of superposition, fossils having a very subordi- 
nate place, and are only made use of to indicate the beds with which 
they are associated. Professor Prestwich's two recently published 
volumes embodying chemical, physical, and strato-geographical 
geology treat exhaustively of this phase of the science, while the 
labours of Owen, Huxley, Hulke, Lyddeker, &c., in animal 
palaeontology, and of Carruthers, Starkie Gardner, Clement Eeid, 
and Count Saporta in botanical palaeontology trace the various 
changes animal and plant-life have undergone from the remotest 
time to the present. Inductive genius has never been exercised 
more successfully than by the late Mr. Godwin Austen, to whose 
inspiration we are mainly indebted for the discovery of coal near 
Dover, which is likely to prove of much national importance and 
restore to the southern districts of England the mineral industries 
which they lost when the iron ores of Wales and the north of 
England associated with coal were found could be more economi- 
cally smelted than the ferruginous beds of the Weald by the fuel 
supplied from the forests of Kent and Sussex. From the days of 
Buckland and Conybeare, the relation of the Belgian coalfields 
and those of the north of Erance with the coalfields of Somerset- 
shire was suspected. In the year 1856 Mr. Godwin Austen sent 
forth his memorable paper, which was read before the Geological 
Society of England in 1856, " On the possible extension of the 
Coal Measures beneath the South-Eastern part of England," in 
which was shown the probability of the occurrence of coal near 
enough to the surface to be profitably worked in Kent, Sussex, and 
the Thames Valley. A series of coalfields exist in a direct line 
from Minden in Hanover to the neighbourhood of Calais, of which 
the basin of the Ruhr in Westphalia is the largest, its estimated 
area being 2,800 square miles ; those of Osnabriick and Aix la 
Chapelle are also in the German territory. Belgium has two 
large coal-basins in the Province of Hainault arid N"amur ; 
while Valenciennes and the Departments of the Nord and of the 
Pas de Calais yield abundant supplies in the French territory. 
Mr. Godwin Austen considered that the whole of the area was once 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 3 

a marshy swamp, supporting a vegetation of vascular Cryptogams 
and other coal-producing plants, which towards the close of the 
Carboniferous age underwent great disturbances, accompanied with 
a considerable compression of the beds into numerous folds near the 
German and Belgian frontier. The coal measures of Westphalia have 
a visible breadth of about 16 miles, but are really much greater, as 
they dip under the Cretaceous series, beneath which they are now 
worked. The diminution of breadth in the Belgian coalfields is 
referable to the foldings of the strata, otherwise the area would 
occupy more than five times its present surface breadth. The 
synclinals only have been preserved, denudation having removed 
the upper folds (anticlinals), forming a chain of isolated narrow 
troughs parallel to a lineal ridge, which Mr. Godwin Austen terms 
the Axis of Artois, elevated after the deposition of the uppermost 
Coal Measures, and the conversion of the vegetable matter and 
associated strata into Coal and crystalline limestones. This line of 
disturbance traverses the coal-bearing districts, far into the German 
area, and along the whole line the beds are of the same mineral 
character ; the precarboniferous rocks of Somersetshire are also 
similar to those on the Continent. After an interval of ten or 
eleven years, when Mr. Godwin Austen's bold theory became 
generally accepted by geologists, a Royal Commission was appointed 
to consider the question. In 1871 Professor Prestwich, who was a 
prominent member of the Commission, drew up a report which 
supported Mr. Godwin Austen's views, especially on the ground 
that the Belgian, French, and Somerset coalfields similarly 
disappeared beneath the upper Secondary beds. In the year 
following, the Sub-Wealden Exploration Committee was formed, of 
which Mr. Henry Willett was the originator and director. Boring 
was commenced at Netherfield near the base of the Wealden Beds. 
The work was abandoned after carrying it on to a depth of 
about 2,000 feet, when 60 feet only of the Oxford clay was reached, 
mainly in consequence of an accident to the lining pipes and the 
irrecoverable loss of the boring tool. The expense, which 
amounted to 6,275, was defrayed by private subscription. It was 



4 PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 

evident the borings had not touched Mr. Godwin Austen's ridge, and 
that the next trial would have to he made some way further north, 
where the Wealden-heds are absent and the Oolites very much 
thinned out ; the JN'etherfield borings proved these to be more than 
1,700 feet thick. The existence of the ridge in the London basin, 
where the Silurian and Old Red Sandstone strata were reached 
at depths varying from 800 to 1,200 feet, and where the Weaiden 
beds are absent, was confirmed in 1883 and subsequent years, 
-and the Oolites no thicker than 87 feet. The presence of the lower 
Palaeozoic rocks in the Thames Valley so near the surface rendered 
the discovery of coal southward most hopeful. Under the advice of 
Mr. Boyd Dawkins, who was an original member of the Sub-Wealdeii 
Exploration Committee, Sir Ed. W. Watkin, on the part of the 
Channel Tunnel Company, commenced a boring experiment in 
1886 near Dover ; a shaft was sunk on the west side of 
Shakespeare Cliff, and at the commencement of the present year the 
Coal-Measures were reached at a depth only of 1,204 feet, and good 
coal 20 feet further down. They are covered with 500 feet of the 
Lower Cretaceous and 660 feet of the Upper Oolites. It is 
noticeable that Mr. Godwin Austen's views, expressed 35 years ago, 
that the Wealden and Purbeck Beds terminate abruptly against the 
Paleozoic riclge and that coal might be successfully looked for, have 
been verified at Shakespeare Cliff, where the Lower Cretaceous Beds 
have been found to be in contact with the Portland Beds. It will 
be well to bear in mind that the Carboniferous series, which is the 
youngest of the Palaeozoic, and the older underlying Silurian and 
Devonian rocks, have been encountered in the Thames Valley 
-borings near London, while the Trias, Permian, Rh&tic, and 
Lias are entirely absent, accompanied with a rapid thinning out of 
the Oolitic Beds and the total disappearance of the Weald and 
Purbeck Beds. 

I will now transfer your thoughts from the earliest stratified 
rocks to those which preceded the present and Quaternary 
periods. There are good grounds for supposing that a Pleiocene 
Bed occurs near Dewlish, on the ridge commanding the eastern side 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 5 

of the village. The axis of the bed" is unconformable with the 
valley, which I consider has been formed subsequently. The fossil 
remains are restricted to one species only, Eleplias meridionalis. 
The larger bones only of this gigantic animal have as yet been 
met with, the smaller ones having probably perished owing to the 
dissolving power of rain water and other atmospheric causes. I 
hope in the course of the summer to make a thorough examination 
of the bed in its extension across the plateau, where the superin- 
cumbent material is thicker and more protective, and to find 
additional confirmatory evidence of the Pleiocene character of the 
bed. 

From the evidence of the flora contained in the Norfolk Pleiocene 
Crags, Professor Prestwich and Mr. Clement Reid are both agreed 
that the average climate during the Pliocene period was much the 
same as that of the present day. The gradual dying out of the 
southern types, and corresponding increase of the northern marine 
fauna to an Arctic one, they attribute less to general climatic 
changes, rather than to an uninterrupted communication with the 
Northern Sea, which favoured the immigration of Arctic species, 
while the southern fauna having no such communication with the 
warmer seas of the south would be ultimately overwhelmed and 
extirpated. Southern forms of freshwater mollusca occur mixed 
with Arctic marine shells in some of the Crags, leading to the 
conclusion that both lived at the same time side by side. Oak, 
beech, elm, pine, fir, and yew occur in the Forest-Bed, and while 
the few marine animals are of a northern, the land mammalia, 
25 in number, are of a southern type ; of these three only are now 
living in Britain and five in any part of the world. 

After the gradual refrigeration of the Pleiocene climate a 
period of 'intense cold prevailed, modified more than once 
probably when temperate fauna returned -from their southern 
temporary refuges in which they had sought shelter. The 
Boulder Clays of Norfolk are intercalated with lignites and 
remains of Pleistocene mammalia, showing that considerable 
changes of climate must Jiave occurred during the deposition. 



6 PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 

The changes are more clearly shewn in the Scandinavian 
and Danish peat-beds, by which are defined the nature of the 
different forests which grew up, perished, and succeeded each other, 
suited to the altered conditions of climate. An Arctic flora is found 
beneath the oldest forests which are chiefly composed of the aspen 
and birch. The Scotch fir comes next in succession, then the oak, 
and, lastly, the alder. The beech is now the prevailing tree. It 
seems clear then that as the Glacial Age was passing away and the 
climate ameliorated, forest trees grew and flourished. The Scotch 
firs in the earliest beds are stunted ; their rings of growth are 
so compact that 70 can be counted in one inch of thickness. In 
spite of these apparent unfavourable conditions they managed to 
live for three or four centuries. The beech has supplanted the oak 
in Denmark, and the forests of which it is composed are reckoned 
to be the finest in the world. The flora which preceded the aspen 
and the fir was decidedly Arctic, such as Dryas odopetala, Salix 
polaris, S. herbacea, and S. reticulata, Betula nana, Oxyria digyna, 
and one bird a Swift Apus glacialis, which is not uncommon now 
in the Spitzbergen lakes, but is not met with farther south than the 
Douvre Mountains. The Hippophae rhamnoides, which grew side 
by side at that remote period with Dryas octopetala, has lost its 
Arctic habits and even grows at sea level in temperate regions. I 
have found it near Grenoble, on the dry portions of the bed of the 
river Drac. It has taken a firm hold in the green walks of Lord 
Ilchester's lovely gardens at Abbotsbury Castle. It is noticeable 
that the Spruce-fir was indigenous in England before the Ice Age, 
when it migrated southward never to return as a native. The 
Grass of Parnassus and the Stag-moss are among the few 
representatives of the northern flora in Dorsetshire. 

The tufaceous beds of France, Italy, and Germany have thrown 
much light upon the migration of plants caused by climatal changes 
and the influence of man. Their origin is due to a calcareous 
precipitate, which encrusted every object with which it came in 
contact, giving it the appearance of having been turned into 
stone, leaving impressions of the shape and structure of mosses, 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 7 

twigs, and leaves even to the finest fibre. I have recently visited 
one of these "beds in the Valley of the Lez, near Montpellier, 
which is not of any great antiquity. Of the 30 species of plants 
contained in these tufas, nine have quitted the Valley of the Lez, 
one has retired to the Cevennes, four have left the Department of 
the Herault altogether. These losses have been compensated for by 
fresh accessions, which now retain a predominant hold in all parts of 
the district, none of which are represented in these tufas. Quercus 
coccifera, a dwarf spinous-leaved oak, is now most abundant and so 
characteristic of the arid limestone plateaux of the Department 
that it furnishes the name garrigue, derived from garroville, its 
Provenal name. The tufas of Provence to the east and Italy 
equally contain no trace of the Cistus', the Genistas, the Thymes, 
the Rosemaries, and Lavenders with which those who botanize 
over these vast wastes are so familiar, and which form their leading 
botanical features. 

The remarkable journey of Doctor ISTansen and his companions 
across Greenland in August and September, 1889, deserves a 
passing remark. Jansen and Stunstrup attempted a similar 
journey in 1878, and after encountering many difficulties were 
unable to penetrate further inland than 40 miles after reaching an 
altitude of 5,000 feet. The distinguished Arctic voyager and 
explorer, Baron Nordenskiold, was somewhat more successful in 
1885, when he penetrated 90 miles of the interior after travelling 
over a continual snow desert. An American, Mr. R. E. Peasy, in 
the year following reached an altitude of 7,525 feet after a journey 
of 100 miles direct into the interior. Doctor Nansen's expedition 
left Iceland June 4th, 1888, intending to land near Cap Dan. 
Being unable to get within 50 miles of the coast on account of the 
obstruction by icebergs, he took to his two boats, one of which was 
disabled ; when repaired after much delay and danger the 
journey was resumed, but strong currents carried him rapidly 
southward along the coast ; after several fruitless attempts to land 
he succeeded in reaching Anoritok, July 29th, 61 30' N. lat., 240 
miles farther south than he intended, and did not reach Umiavik 



8 PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 

64 30' N. lat. until August 15th, when the expedition commenced 
its arduous task. Strange to say, at first the intense heat compelled 
the party to travel at night. A heavy gale was encountered the 
second day, which confined the party to their tents three days. 
In the early part of September an extensive plateau between 8,000 
and 9,000 feet above the sea-level, and resembling a frozen ocean, 
was reached, which occupied three weeks to cross. The cold at 
this altitude was excessive, but Doctor Nansen was unable to 
register it as his thermometers were not adapted for so low a 
temperature ; he calculates that some nights it was 80 or 
90 Fahr. below freezing point. The mountains of the west coast 
were first sighted on September 19th, when they were arrested by 
dangerous ice and crevasses, which were happily safely traversed, 
and on September 26th the party reached the coast at Ameralik 
Fjord, 64 12' N. lat. The sledges of the expedition were propelled 
over the ice by sails, which relieved the party considerably when 
the wind and weather were favourable. Doctor Nansen and his 
party were obliged to spend the winter at Godthaab, as the last 
ship of the season had left, and they did not reach Copenhagen 
until May last, 1889. Doctor Nansen's main object was to prove 
the possibility of traversing the Continent of Greenland, and in 
this he was eminently successful. He considers that Greenland 
is completely covered over by snow, the accumulation of ages, 
which in some instances cannot be less than 600 feet thick, and 
which covers the tops of the mountains with glaciers and crevasses. 
The pressure of this enormous mass, with running streams under- 
neath, which are the sources of the ever-flowing rivers, prevent 
an excessive growth of the ice. It seems more than probable that 
the configuration of Greenland is similar to that of Norway and 
Sweden with their rugged mountain masses, high ridges, and 
fjords. Doctor Nansen's description of the mass of frozen snow 
forcing its way from the high plateaux of the interior to the 
coast with a resistless, crushing, grinding pressure gives some idea 
of the changes the earth's crust has been subject to under glacial 
conditions. 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 

A remarkable phenomenon in the shape of a waterspout occurred 
at High Stoy, the highest point of a range of hills between 
Melbury and Minterne, on the 7th of June last, about six o'clock 
p.m. It followed the road which traverses the crest of the hill, 
tearing up the largest stones from its foundation. It was preceded 
by much thunder and lightning, but with little rain, during the 
previous afternoon. The column of water, which was described as 
being about the thickness of a man's body, moved at a rapid rate 
in the direction of the axis of the hill range, shown by the 
devastation it occasioned. Holes eight or nine feet deep were dug 
out in several parts of the road, and an overwhelming stream 
hurled the material down the hill side. The Rev. A. J. Poole, of 
Stowell Kectory, in his description of it said there was no other 
evidence of the destructive effects of the waterspout neither on 
the other parts of the road nor on the surrounding land, and that 
the holes could not be assigned to the action of a storm, as the 
road is situated on a ridge of the hill, and could only have been 
occasioned by a solid column of water falling with force from a great 
height. The contents of the waterspout were poured out in its 
passage over Batcombe, Hannaf ord, .and Chetnole on the west side ; 
Cerne and Minterne on the north. The tumultuous torrents poured 
down the hill side and took the course of a small stream, which 
soon overflowed its banks, carrying destruction to everything which 
opposed its course. At Hannaford Mill much stock was drowned, 
and at Chetnole Mills the men had scarcely time to escape before the 
water had reached the first floor. Large trees were uprooted and 
carried down some distance by the force of the stream. About a 
hundred yards of Major Wingfield Digby's garden-wall and his green- 
house were thoroughly wrecked. Through his help several school- 
children were promptly rescued from a watery grave. The atmos- 
pheric disturbances in the neighbourhood were very excessive ; 
thunder and lightning, accompanied with torrents of rain, occurred 
at Cattistock in the afternoon of the 7th of June. At Melbury 
there was thunder and lightning without rain. A terrific thunder 
storm occurred at Langton Herring on the night of the 6th. At 



10 PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 

Wliatcombe there were heavy thunderstorms that night, which 
lasted until 11.30 p.m. ; the rain was inconsiderable. Mr. G. T. 
Symons, -F.R.S., the eminent meteorologist, regretted that the 
contents of the waterspout had not been tested so as to ascertain 
whether the water which supplied it was fresh or salt. Mr. Poole 
states a lady of his acquaintance saw a large waterspout a few years 
ago carried up from the sea with one of its spouts hanging over 
Batcombe Hill, which ultimately became absorbed in the clouds. 

An earthquake, the centre of which was supposed to have been 
near Cherbourg, was felt in Dorsetshire on the 13th May. The 
vibration travelled onwards at the rate of about 90 miles a minute, 
and reached our south coast at 8.21 p.m., and London 8.21 J. The 
shock was felt at Blandford, which Mr. H. Groves states lasted 
about ten seconds, and at about the same time, 8.15. The shock 
was felt in the Wareham parish church during Divine service ; the 
first was slight and only caused the roof to creak ; it was succeeded 
by a severer one which set the chancel lamps swinging; those 
whose seats were fixed to the piers or pillars experienced a distinct 
trembling movement. The shock extended to Bournemouth and 
Poole. An earthquake, accompanied by a heavy ground sea, was 
felt at Lyme Regis, July 5th, between 11 and 11.15 p.m. 

Archeeologists are awaiting General Pitt Rivers' report upon his 
excavations in Bockerly Dyke with much interest, there will 
probably be a cause of modification of opinion as to its date and 
origin. The Dyke traverses the remains of an extensive Roman 
settlement, which may prove to be the long contested site of 
Yindogladia. Among the various relics found in the entrenchments 
is a series of coins ranging from Gallienus A.D. 260, to Honorius A.D. 
395, a period embracing a most important portion of the Roman 
occupation of Britain. General Pitt Rivers divides the history of 
the Dyke into three periods, its south-eastern being the oldest, 
and might possibly be earlier Roman or pre-Roman. He accounts 
for the abrupt termination of both extremities by their being 
flanked by a forest which would render any artificial means of 
defence superfluous. The second period is marked by an extension 






PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 11 

of the Dyke in the direction of West Woodyates, crossing the 
present Salisbury road and the Roman road. The third by 
the destruction of that part of the rampart which lies between 
the Salisbury road and its western extension, and by the substitu- 
tion of another rampart a little to the north, over ground more 
strategically defensive. A restoration of the whole line of the 
Dyke, including the entrenchments made at all three periods, was 
made at this time. 

Pre-historic remains have been frequently met with in Portland. 
Bones of animals usually associated with man are found in the 
fissures which intersect the limestone beds. An interment of which 
I spoke at our last meeting, and which I conceive to be of great 
antiquity, was found in one of these fissures at the Verne quarries. 
My intelligent friend, Mr. Wallis, of Mallams, Portland, lately sent 
me a sketch of a grave in which was the body of a human being in 
a crouching position. It was accompanied with two stone spindles, 
three large round stones (not pebbles), weights probably of a 
loom, also a rudely worked piece of Kimmeridge shale. The 
remarkable underground bee-hive chambers which are sometimes 
uncovered by the quarrymen seem to have been store-places for 
corn in the days of plunder and insecurity. 

The accession of the eminent biologists, Professor Allman, 
F.R.S., and Doctor Alfred Russell Wallace, L.L.D., as members of 
our Club is a subject for much congratulation to myself, as I feel 
sure it is to every member. Professor Allman, late President of 
the Linnsean Society, has contributed largely during his long and 
laborious life to the science of biology. His special attention has 
been turned towards the early forms of animal life the Protozoa 
and Polyzoa. His two voluminous folio memoirs on the Fresh 
Water Polyzoa and Hydroida are master-pieces of research and 
description. 

Dr. Allman's anniversary address as President of the Linnsean 
Society in 1876 on " Recent Researches among some of the 
Sarcode Organisms " has removed some of the obstructions which 
obscured the knowledge of the early stages of life from the 



12 PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 

protoplasmic-cell to maturity. A subsequent Anniversary Address 
to the Society in 1879 embraces the phenomena of the growth of 
the egg-cell of animal and vegetable life by cell multiplications. 
His address the following year (1880) "On the aspects of 
vegetation in the littoral districts of Provence, the Maritime Alps, 
and the western extremity of the Ligurian Blviera," shews him to 
be a lover of Nature, both physical and botanical. 

Dr. Wallace's important work, " The Geographical Distribution 
of Land Animals with the relation of living and extinct Fauna," is 
the Naturalist's text-book of the first order. His most recently 
published work, entitled " Darwinism," is intended, as he says, to 
give such an account of the theory of Natural Selection as may enable 
any intelligent reader to obtain a clear conception of Darwin's 
work. He incorporates original and important statements of his 
own views and observations, which are of great value to the 
student of Natural History. Among much that is interest- 
ing are his remarks on the uses of colour in animals. He 
insists that coloration has a definite purpose in Nature, either 
for protection or concealment and recognition by those of similar 
species, that the sexual difference of colour is only prominent 
among the higher and more active animals. Doctor Wallace's 
observations, too, on the nests of birds are equally interesting. He 
shews that when they are open and the female sits exposed in her 
nest, as is the case w r ith pheasants, &c., instead of being brightly 
coloured like the male she escapes observation by being furnished 
with a sombre plumage suited to the environments of her nest, and 
conferring upon her greater security during her period of incubation. 
In these cases, where the sexes are equally brilliantly coloured and 
conspicuous, such as the Kingfishers, Woodpeckers, Toucans, 
Parrots, &c., they all nest in holes in the ground or in trees, or 
build a domed or covered nest, so as completely to conceal the sitting 
bird. In an interesting chapter upon the ornaments, brilliancy of 
colour, and other accessories peculiar to many males, Doctor 
Wallace takes a different view to that of Darwin, who regarded 
them as causes of attraction for female preference. Doctor 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 13 

Wallace considers these ineffective to secure the fittest for the 
struggle of life, inasmuch as many possessing them are not 
necessarily the most healthy and vigorous, and that the selection 
must be restricted to the direct result of male struggle and 
combat. He shewed there cannot possibly be female selection in 
the case of merit, as not one out of a hundred of their eggs 
produces a perfect insect and lives to breed. Our Treasurer 
supports Doctor Wallace's view on this subject. An extract from 
a letter written by him in 1869 is reproduced in "Darwinism," 
upon which Dr. Wallace makes the following remark : " This 
passage gives the independent views of a close observer, one, 
moreover, who has studied the species of an extensive group 
of animals, both in the field and in the laboratory, and very nearly 
accords with my own conclusions above given, and so far as the 
matured opinions of a competent naturalist have any weight, affords 
them an important support." His remarks upon the sexual 
coloration of insects are equally fascinating, and he points out that 
from an animal point of view geology reveals to us the conditions 
of an earlier and a better state of things than prevails at present. 
I share the author's belief in the spiritual nature of man, and I 
rise from the study of " Darwinism " with the assurance that this 
spiritual nature is derived from the Spirit of God, which confers 
the possession of an eternally living Soul. 

It seems to me the Darwin theory does not clearly define the 
influence it assigns to natural selection in its relation to coloration 
and instinct. It grants that new varieties of animals and plants 
can be produced without the aid of natural selection, and in the 
case of instinct it must have been coeval with primordial life or 
derivative. Later on there is no reason to doubt instincts have been 
acquired. With regard to coloration it is remarkable that Alpine 
plants where insect life is very sparse are more intensely brilliant 
and varied in colours than in the genial plains below with their 
myriads of insects. The coloration of Alpine plants cannot be 
employed as a means of attracting insects for the purpose of crosa- 
fertilization. . They are . for the. .most part propagated by self- 



14 PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 

fertilization, and thereby maintaining a vigorous and prolific 
vegetation. 

The seasonal changes of colour to which the coats and furs of 
animals are subject, especially in Polar regions, seem to be due to 
the action of light and heat upon the pigmefnt-cells and upon the 
chlorophyll-cells in the case of plants. With regard to instinct, 
much intelligence is apparent amongst the lowest and most rudi- 
mentary forms of animal life, which could not have been evolved 
but are original and primary. The questions, both of coloration 
and of instinct, are highly interesting. Are protective or attractive 
coloration and instinct exclusively the product of natural selection 
or the results of an overruling, directing, intelligent mind ? 

Among the various problems connected with Darwinism, none has 
engaged more attention than that of heredity, the more so just now 
owing to the publication of Doctor Weissman's tracts on the subject, 
which have recently become accessible to the general reader by an 
English translation from the German. To explain the process which 
persistently carries organisms through successive generations, uniting 
the ancestor with its most recent descendant, has engaged the 
attention of biologists since the time of Hippocrates. There is a 
recognised tendency of every organism to produce its like, or 
varying from it slightly, and in every case the parent transmits to 
the offspring structural modifications and functional peculiarities. 
A constant struggle for existence follows these changes ; the 
swiftest, strongest, hardiest, and colour favouring concealment in the 
case of animals ; strength of shoot, period of flowers or seeding, 
armature, colour, or odour to attract insects in the case of plants. 
In the case of unicellular organisms, which multiply by fission, and 
when the two parts are exactly alike in size and structure, 
heredity depends simply upon the continuity of the individual 
during the uninterrupted process of fission ; but in the case of 
multicellular organisms, which do not increase in numbers by simple 
division, but multiply by means of sexual reproduction, great 
difficulties arise to account for the principle of heredity. Darwin's 
theory of Fangenesis, which he put forward as a provisional 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 15 

solution, goes to shew that every cell in all the tissues of a 
multicellular organism throws off germs or gemmules, which 
multiply by self-division, and after circulating through the whole 
body are collected from all parts of the system in the condition of 
cell-seeds, which have a strong affinity for each other. These 
constitute the generative ova and spermatozoa, the fusion of which 
produces a new organism. A large number failing to develop, are 
transmitted in a dormant state to future generations to be sub- 
sequently developed. These are not thrown off until the organism 
is in an adult state. Doctor Weissman, on the other hand, 
supposes that in multicellular organisms some cells, which he 
terms somatic cells, are specially fitted to provide for nutrition, 
while others germ-cells perform the work of production. 
These he considers are transmitted without break of continuity 
from one generation to the next, and do not differentiate until 
late in embryo growth, ultimately attaining a highly specialised 
character. 

The germ-plasms, which originated in the unicellular organisms, 
are carried on in the multicellular in continuity from generation to 
generation. On the occasion of the fusion of two germ-plasms a 
new organism is formed and a portion of it placed aside in the 
gemmule-cells to secure that continuity. This fusion must bring 
different proportions of different elements together in each 
generation ; but a point requiring explanation is how the several 
varieties in the germ-cells commenced in order to make generic and 
specific differences. The two theories of Pangenesis and heredity 
are extremes of several intermediates, differing more or less from 
both. For my part it appears to me the problem must remain 
among the hidden arcana of Nature's mysteries. 



Jtote* on the tont Implement*, #r., in the 
or0et 



i. 




By H. J. MOULE, M.A. 



ET me begin by saying in what spirit it is that I 
act on Dr. Smart's suggestion that I should write 
a paper on the Stone Implements, &c., in the 
Dorset Museum. I aim low. Our collection 
would be . poor without the specimens acquired 
from Mr. Cunnington. Now he promises a book 
on his important researches. In view of this I, of course, must 
take heed lest I seem to be in the slightest degree forestalling him. 
And, apart from this, it is, I suppose, a short notice, not an essay, 
that is wanted from me. In trying to carry out these ideas I have 
an unpleasant fear that I am rash. It is very hard to condense 
without squeezing out every particle of interest from a subject like 
this. 

Probably some members of the Club entirely doubt the artificial 
working of many of the flints and other stones called implements. 
If so, I would ask my friends to remember that stone implements 
as rude as the roughest ancient ones are in use, or have been in 
quite recent years. In this Museum there is a very rudely split 
pebble, which, found with charred and splintered moa bones in 



Proc. Dorset JV. H. & A. F. Club Vol. J2Z". 7&9/ . 7Y 7. 
1. 




1 . Arrow tvecul.. Mar Cr-artbvT'na . Smout CcUF J . Scraper for arrow-shafts ? 'Frome WdbvellJlogg C? 
2,3. D: 2,&nqygarHM,Forduvgtorv 6. I)^r^peMr^haft^^Fordiiigtori, Fields. Hogg Col L n 

' 3, Frcme Wdtwell> . Bcdi, Tlagg Coll 1 '.Minute Celt. One, oftfw circular entrerichjiierjuLs, 

4 1 . Knife. Pentr-idge 3i2l, Cranborne.Jmart CoUP' KnoUoiv. Smart CoW^ Tfdj celt may be- cav 

H J.Moulp del. indtcUMTVofculjJ'Ontieonj^. Mi-nterrL Bros . lith. . 

ALL FULL SI-Z'E . 



STONE IMPLEMENTS. ETC., IN THE DORSET MUSEUM. 17 

New Zealand, was undoubtedly an implement for getting at the 
marrow. Further, I think we may fairly give trust and acceptance 
to the opinion of experienced antiquaries. 

In now proceeding to speak of the chief specimens in the Dorset 
Museum I shall follow Evans, both in beginning with Neolithic 
implements and (roughly) in order of their varieties. I shall also 
be guided by him in including within the four corners of the 
subject several contrivances and articles not exactly implements. 

i. Evans' first class of Neolithic implements consists of celts. 
First used, he says, as an antiquarian word in 1696, the name celt 
seems, to my mind, curiously ill chosen. It makes many think 
that it has some reference to the Celtic race. It has none. Further, 
it is from celtts, a Latin word found in only one single, solitary 
place namely, the Vulgate of Job xix., 24. Otherwise unknown 
in antiquity, it looks as if it must be a scribe's mistake. Then it 
is taken to mean in that verse a chisel. In antiquarian parlance it 
means an implement more like an axe. There is a glamour about 
celts. They were, nay are, called thunderbolts, and credited with 
magic power as charms. Before pointing out a few of our Dorset 
specimens I would say, in passing, that they give one proof, among 
many, that progress is not always, and in all things, a characteristic 
of man. In the chipping of flints and other stones into large 
implements the Neolithic men seem to have been less skilful 
than some of the much more remote Palaeolithic men. And it is 
chipping that is the art part of stone implement making. What 
the Neolithic people did introduce (it seems) was smoothing the 
tools. But Ruskin lays down that nothing producible merely by 
patience and sandpaper is artistic. Now we have chipped Neolithic 
celts far ruder, to my eye, than most large Palaeolithic implements. 
And here, while speaking of rude celts, a word may fitly be said 
of certain extremely rough worked flints and other stones, also of 
Neolithic date in the opinion of experts, as I understand. They 
are of the class of implements called by some mattocks, and were 
in certain instances probably used in tillage. So, likely enough, 
were the ruder celts. But several of these extra-rough mattocks, 



18 STONE IMPLEMENTS, ETC., IN THE DORSET MUSEUM. 

having been found by Mr. Cunnington near barrows, are in liis 
belief tools made hastily for the interment-work and then thrown 
away. Again, in our Dorset collection we have a fair number of 
well chipped Neolithic celts. Most stone celts, even from far apart 
lands, such as England and Japan, have a strangely marked family 
likeness. They are of a long, narrow form, widening gradually 
towards the end, where seems to be the cutting edge. In connection 
with this instinct for producing that shape, Evans notes that the 
burnishing stones used at this day by pewterers and bookbinders 
aie curiously like celts. But we have one or two ancient Dorset 
specimens of a different type of celts. It is hard to say whether 
this kind of flint celt is the prototype of the plain, flat bronze celt, 
or an imitation of it. Very possibly the latter. The flint tools, 
doubtless, continued to be used long after bronze was imported. 
This is the state of things, as regards steel, to this day in Central 
America. One of our flint celts (PI. I., fig. 7) in question is 
almost too small to be called a celt, and another is not much 
larger. But then we have a bronze celt about on a par as 
to size. And now we come to the celts which, among French 
antiquaries, give a name to the Neolithic epoch the polished 
celts. To us in this hurrying age the thought of the time 
which must have been spent in grinding down flint, to the 
extent which we see, is simply appalling. But it is nothing at 
all to the work done in boring beryl within quite modern years by 
certain South American Indians. With them the boring of one 
charm went on during great part of two lifetimes, the task being 
bequeathed from father to son. But we need not pity Indians, or 
Celts either, in their long labours. In their condition and mode of 
life leisure was often unlimited. A piece of sedentary work, not 
very laborious, that could be taken up and put down in a moment, 
was not a burden, but a positive relief. The smoothing down of 
the surface of the celts such as you may see in the Museum, and 
the bringing the edge to that regularity, was not a bore but a solace 
to our Dorset forefathers. You can almost see them, sitting about, 
among their round wattled huts, Chalbury way or near Poundbury, 



STONE IMPLEMENTS, ETC., IN THE DORSET MUSEUM. 19 

each man plodding away at his celt with a bit of heath-stone, or 
perhaps with a foreign, basalt rubber with sharp sand. This 
polishing helped off a quantity of time between hunt and hunt, raid 
and raid, field-work and field-work. I hazard the idea that these 
wonderfully finished celts must have been ceremoniously broken 
at the burial. If broken in use surely the edge would be the 
chief part to suffer. But sometimes the celt is broken across 
and the delicate edge little, if at all, damaged. There is a good 
example in the Museum from Laurence Barrow, which till a few 
years ago stood behind Sydney Terrace, Dorchester. In flinty 
Dorset flint celts are in enormous majority, compared with those of 
other kinds of stone. Of Greenstone we have, however, two 
excellent ones and fragments of others of basalt. And there is in 
the Cunnington Collection another most noteworthy fragment. 
Mr. Cunnington found it on B-idgway by the exercise of the extra 
sense which he seems to have. But I must leave the story for his 
own telling. Suffice it to say that its material is an iron-stone of 
the utmost rarity, and jet black. I need hardly say that greenstone, 
basalt, and this ironstone have all come, wrought or unwrought, 
from outside Dorset. The two greenstone celts are, indeed, of 
different proportion namely, rounder in section than our flint 
ones ; and, therefore, may very likely be foreign-made. As to the 
way in which celts were used, I may perhaps say a little here. In 
the opinion of some antiquaries, as well as of certain persons who 
have seen savages at work, celts were often used for peaceful 
purposes without any handle at all. An Australian settler has told 
me that he has often watched a " black fellow " holding a piece of 
wood free in his left hand and, with an English carpenter's chisel in 
his other hand, jobbing away at the wood in a manner totally 
different from anything that a European would do. Very rough 
work was made, but the black fellow trusts to scraping to bring all 
smooth. "Depend upon it," said my friend, "these celts were 
often used in that way." Very likely. Some, however, were 
hafted axe-wise, past a doubt, for at least two specimens have been 
found in the north with their handles remaining, one in Solway 



20 STONE IMPLEMENTS, ETC., IN THE DORSET MUSEUM. 

.Moss. In these instances the celt was set in a hole made through 
the haft-end. For an implement of war, of tree-felling, hunting, 
or tillage, a good long handle was indispensable. From the Swiss 
lake-villages, again, comes presumptive evidence that probably here, 
as certainly there, celts were sometimes handled with short pieces 
of stag's horn, to be used as chisels. Or the butt-end of the 
horn-socket was in some cases fitted into the side of the knob of a 
club, thus forming a ponderous axe. Again, Swiss specimens have 
been found in which the celt is fitted into a piece of the root-end 
of the " beam " of a stag-horn, and the brow antler retained as a 
short haft. None of these stag-horn fittings have been found in 
Dorset, that I know of. But one or two pieces of antler in the 
Museum look as if they may have been intended to be so applied. 
There is in the Cunnington Collection one celt of the sort which 
seems intended for a withe handle, like that of a smith's punch. 
Before passing away from this class of implements I ought perhaps 
to say something about the possibility of using them for working 
timber. I can quite think that many may disbelieve this. I 
would point out two considerations. First, in ignorance of the 
cutting qualities of iron or bronze it is likely that men would be 
satisfied with work which to us would seem mere mangling of 
wood. In Ireland a wooden hut has been found, preserved in peat. 
The timbers were morticed with firmness enough, it seems. But 
the tenons, and everything showing tool marks, proved that all had 
been wrought with tools of a bluntness which to our thinking 
would make them useless. Secondly, in the probably important 
and common work of digging out canoes it is very possible that fire 
came into play. The North American Indians, some of them, 
thus made their flint adzes useful in canoe hollowing. They 
lighted small fires along a log. After a time they cleared away the 
fire and chopped out the charred timber below. Then another fire 
and another chopping, and so on. 

ii. Evans' second class of stone implements consists of picks, 
chisels, gouges, &c. Of gouges I do not think we have any Dorset 
ones in. the Museum. They may be described as celts with a 



ProvDoravb N.H.&A.F. Club Vol. JIT. 1891. PI. 11. 




Foot of couch, or stool. It is made 
of Eimmeridf/e Coal. 



ffogy Cell? 



S. 




or MauL of Bcusajit. 
Alderholt Ccmmorv. 
Smart CoUF 




Fragment ofcu discs, of ctudk. The, superficial 
hol&s vary from fyirv. to Uk irv depttv. 
JoroLarv HtiL, Weynwuih/. 
Presented by M*.' Smith/. 



6 IN. 



I FT. 



S C A L E . 



B.J.Moule del. 



Miri-terrL Bros . lith. 



STONE IMPLEMENTS, ETC., IN THE DORSET MUSEUM. 21 

slightly curved edge, like that of a steel gouge. Picks and chisels, 
too, differ little in general form from celts, but are of longer shape. 
Of these there are some Museum specimens from Dorset, which 
agree pretty closely with Evans' figures. 

iii. Evans next treats of perforated axes, and then of 
hammers. I may take them together, as our number of Dorset 
specimens in the Museum is hardly enough to make up two 
classes. We have, however, a few very good ones. For 
instance, there is a perforated axe from Winterborne Steeple- 
ton, and belonging to the Warne Collection, which has been 
figured not only by the late Mr. Warne, but in the books of 
other antiquaries, including Evans. It is one of the many stone 
axes which seem certainly to have been meant solely for use in 
war. This little basalt one of ours would break a man's skull most 
effectually, but it has not the least approach to a wood-cutting edge. 
The same may be said of the very fine axe or maul (PI. II., fig. 2) 
found at Alderholt, near Cranborne, and given by Dr. Smart. 
But on the other hand this axe is of such weight, 4Jlb., that it 
must have been a strong warrior who could find it handy in use. 
It shows, however, little or no sign of having been used for any 
such purpose as hammering stone or metal, or as a mattock. I 
next draw your attention to a very remarkable hammer-head in 
the Cunnington Collection, and found in a barrow on Kidgway. 
It seems originally to have been of disc form, but to have been 
battered by long use to a roughly octagonal shape. This battering 
looks to my eye to have been caused by hammering, not flints, but 
the bone punch which is conjectured to have been the tool used in 
some of the very fine flaking of the edges of arrow-heads and 
scrapers. Then, also in the Cunnington Collection, there is a 
specimen of the rare class of hammers in which the ingenious Celts 
took advantage of natural holes in flints or other stones. In the 
hammer in question the hole seems to me to have naturally 
penetrated about half way through the pebble. This encouraged 
some clever man to try to bore it deeper, which he did, but not 
quite through. It may, just possibly, have, been hafted as it 



22 STONE IMPLEMENTS, ETC., IN THE TORSET MUSEUM. 

stands. But most likely it was thrown aside unused. From the 
nature of the boring I should think it to be of late date. In this, 
however, I may be quite mistaken. While speaking of bored 
hammers and axes I cannot help throwing out a conjecture that in 
perforating, and perhaps in shaping, these implements water may 
possibly have been sometimes used here, as it is now in New 
Britain. Powell thus describes the method : * " The native . . 
takes a piece of suitable granite, which he places in a slow fire of 
cocoa-nut shells . . and allows it to become redhot. He then, 
by the aid of a split bamboo in the place of tongs, removes it from 
the fire and begins to drop water on it drop by drop. . . That 
portion of the stone on which the water falls begins to fly and 
crack off until the heat has gone out of the stone. He then repeats 
the process until an irregular hole is formed through the centre." 
This method could be used, probably, only with igneous stones, as 
basalt and granite. They are of old used to fire, and do not 
crumble with great heat as flint and some other stones would do. 
It seems possible, I repeat, that both boring and fashioning may 
sometimes have been done partly by water by our early ancestors. 
But I do not think, to tell the truth, that any of the few bored 
implements of igneous stone in the Dorset Museum have been thus 
perforated. Evans points out a puzzle connected with some perfo- 
rated implements. Our great Cranborne maul is an instance in 
point. The difficulty is to understand how a haft small enough to 
go through the hole could be strong enough to wield the great 
weapon with. Evans half thinks that the handle may have been 
of twisted raw hide or sinews, which would harden into a haft of 
great toughness, and also stiffness, as he thinks. Is it possible 
that a short handle might be made of an ox-horn ? The solid part 
might be fitted into the hole of the weapon, and the hollow part, 
if pretty thin, might be held in the hand. Or, again, this hollow 
part might have a wooden handle fitted into it. 

iv. We have next to consider flakes and scrapers. The former 
are found in very large numbers, which is no wonder. They are 
* " Wanderings in a Wild Country," p. 160. 



STONE IMPLEMENTS, ETC., IN THE DORSET MUSEUM. 23 

the necessary product of the work on large implements. Many of 
them may have been never put to any use. On the other hand 
numbers of them have such a keen edge that they might, and 
doubtless did, serve for knives. Indeed, to my eye they look far 
more useful for cutting purposes than what are considered to be 
carefully fashioned knives. There is a long flake, for instance, 
from Laurence Barrow, the edge of which might pretty successfully 
be used -to hack a rough slice off a roast boar from Poundbury Een. 
It is probable that with simple keen flint flakes it was that, if not 
here, yet on the Continent, the ancient Celtic folk actually 
trepanned skulls. The scrapers are flakes, varying from about 
three inches in diameter down to little more than half-an-inch. 
By minute flaking they are for the most part brought to a more or 
less exactly semicircular blunt edge. Evans speaks of some being 
ground. I see no such edges here. But one or two have that 
look from a strange curve in the cleavage. I cannot myself under- 
stand that they could serve for cutting anything. From analogy 
of Esquimaux use, and from difficulty of assigning any other 
purpose for them, they are believed to have been for scraping 
hides, and perhaps wood, bone, and horn. They very likely were 
often inserted in a handle, as is the custom with the Esquimaux. 
Preparation of skins was no doubt an important industry among 
the Celts. Yet the multitude of scrapers still found seems to me 
a puzzle. A different and less common class of scraper is well illus- 
trated among the Hogg and Smart specimens (PI. I., figs. 5 and 6). 
They are wrought, with great pains and skill, to a more or less 
regular crescent edge, some at the end, others at the side. Almost 
certainly these were for scraping arrow and lance shafts, and also for 
sharpening tines of deer horns, which seem to have been used as 
daggers. Some flints of this shape are, however, thought by Evans 
to be strike -lights. These scrapers, too, at least the smaller ones, 
were no doubt the tools used for making bone pins, bodkins, and 
borers. Among scrapers I should, probably, name the carefully 
worked specimens sometimes found both here and elsewhere in 
undoubtedly ancient sites, and yet having an extraordinary 



124 STONE IMPLEMENTS, ETC., Itf THE DOllSET MUSEUM. 

likeness to gunflints. But I only passingly mention them 
here, as Evans seems inclined to include them in another 
class, which may perhaps be considered on another occa- 
sion. Then there are saws, which are thin flakes with one 
edge notched, often with great delicacy. We have several 
specimens. 

v. Our fifth class is that of horers. I confess that of some 
implements figured by Evans as borers I should without his 
authority feel some doubt as to their use. As to others, again, 
there can hardly be any hesitation. Eor piercing holes for 
sewing hides I should, however, myself prefer some of the 
keenly pointed small flakes to such flaked borers as I have seen. 
The bone ones, again, look very handy. We must, how- 
ever, take it, I suppose, that borers were not only for such 
work as piercing hides, but also, some of them, for perforating 
wood, bone, horn, and even stone. I do not think that Evans 
speaks of there being any certainty that borers were mounted in 
handles. It is, however, most likely that they w y ere so fitted 
oftentimes. 

Having now reached about the middle of the subject, but the 
end of the time that with any conscience I can take up to-day, I 
close this paper. I hope, however, if the club will indulgently 
honour me with another audience at the next meeting, to have 
something more to say then. Some of the stone, or quasi-stone, 
antiquities unmentioned to-day are by far the most interesting and 
rare of any in the Museum. I hope also to touch on a very 
remarkable and little considered distinction drawn by Dawson and 
others between the witness borne by Neolithic worked stones and 
Palaeolithic ones about the men of their respective epochs. For 
to-day, let me leave with you a picture, however faint, of our 
Celtic Durotrigian forefathers, as men of clever heads, deft hands, 
long toilsomeness, men (as Dr. Jessop darkly hints) much more 
forward in the world than we have hitherto been taught. Such, in 
a sentence, is the not " sermon" but history in these worked 
stones of Dorset. 



STONE IMPLEMENTS, ETC., IN THE DORSET MUSEUM. 25 
II. 

In beginning a second paper on the Dorset Stone Implements 
and other Appliances in the County Museum, I feel that it is no 
easy task which I am taking up. For among the things now to "be 
noticed are several of the utmost rarity, to say the least of it. 
These deserve a far better describer than I can pretend to be. 
But I must do my best. 

In the paper which I read on November 28th I followed pretty 
nearly the order adopted by the great antiquary Evans in his 
handbook. I pursue the same plan now as regards the few regular 
classes of implements yet to be spoken of. But besides these there 
are the rarities noticed above. These do not exactly fall into 
Evans' category. After speaking of them, I again follow his lead 
by closing with what I have to say in connection with Palaeolithic 
implements. 

On November 28th, I described five classes of Neolithic 
implements. I now come to Class vi., which consists of 
trimmed flakes, knives, &c. Of these we have some characteristic 
specimens. But, as far as I know, certainly as far as the Dorset 
Museum collections are concerned, this county does not abound with 
this kind of implement anything like so much as with the cognate 
class known as scrapers. I would draw your attention to a very 
beautifully wrought knife in the Smart Collection (PI. I., fig. 4). 
It was found on Pentridge Hill. Conspicuous by their absence from 
the Museum Dorset Collections, if not from the county, are three- 
types of knife found in some districts. These are dagger-knives, 
lance-head knives, and a curved and very elaborately flaked sort of 
knife, found in Sussex and elsewhere. Perhaps I may here, as well 
as at any other point, mention two puzzling flints in the Smart 
Collection. They look almost like crystalline prisms, although 
really nothing of the sort. They seem likely, at the very least, to 
have been fashioned to their roughly prismatic shape for some 
definite purpose. But what this may have been I find inscrutable, 
unless just possibly to be used as punches in flaking other flints. I 
hardly think this, however. 



26 STONE IMPLEMENTS, ETC., IN THE DORSET MUSEUM. 

vii. Next come arrow-heads and lance-heads. To this class of 
flint implements great interest is attached, and always has been. 
I said, in speaking of celts, that round them even now hovers a 
spell, a belief in their possessing occult influences. This is still 
more true respecting arrow-heads. Of the many extraordinary 
beliefs connected with them I must mention only one or two. 
They are called elf-darts. They appear and disappear mysteriously. 
If you set yourself to search for elf-darts you certainly will not 
find any. This bit of folklore, however, I think hardly that Mr. 
Cunningtoii will maintain to be true. Then, again, on the other 
hand, when you are thinking of anything rather than of elf-darts, 
lo and behold there is one right under your feet, and where you 
could make oath that nothing of the sort was lying only a short 
time before. And, when found, elf-darts are things to keep, 
having very powerful talismanic virtues. Evans figures one which 
is set in silver as a charm. A similar one is in the Museum at 
Palestrina, I am told. As long ago as in ancient Etruscan times 
this belief in their magic influence existed, it seems. A flint 
arrow-head forms a central pendant in a necklace of gold beads 
found in one of the tombs in Tuscany. But, I think, it was 
chiefly or only in the barbed arrow-heads that the spell was sup- 
posed to reside. Certainly they are remarkable enough, sometimes 
beautiful enough, and the mode of making them incomprehensible 
enough, to account almost for the belief in their being formed by 
elfin hands, and therefore in their possessing occult qualities. But, 
in speaking of the Museum specimens (PL I., figs. 2 and 3), it will be 
best to begin with ruder forms. Very rude, truly, are some of the 
small chipped flints which antiquaries call, and doubtless truly call, 
arrow-heads. The Museum contains not a few specimens of this 
very rough and clumsily contrived sort. But, rough or delicate, 
the arrow-head was used only locally. This, it is suggested in 
passing, may some day serve as an argument respecting the races 
dwelling in this and that part of England. Evans says that in 
Sussex, where in places flint implements of several kinds are 
countless, he has never seen a single arrow-head. Here, in Dorset, 



STONE IMPLEMENTS, ETC., IN THE DORSET MUSEUM. 27 

we do find them. Indeed, a friend of mine used, when a boy, to 
pick up dozens of them, and literally play at ducks and drakes 
with them. I don't say that this difference between Dorset and 
Sussex proves the races of dwellers in the two counties to have 
been diverse in Neolithic times, but it looks that way. Of course, 
however, this point can here be only indicated, not followed up. 
The roughest arrow-heads need no description. Indeed, they 
almost defy it, in their varied rudeness. Of more carefully wrought 
arrow-heads there are several shapes, such as the leaf form ; the 
simply triangular ; triangular with a slight notch at one side ; the 
same with the notch deepened so as to produce a two-barbed form ; 
the same with one barb ; the triangle with two notches, forming a 
sort of tang between the barbs ; the same developed into the fully 
barbed and tanged make ; and lastly, according to Evans, a chisel- 
edged form. The leaf form is often carried out splendidly, both for 
arrow and for lance-heads. Of the former, the Museum possesses 
several good Dorset specimens, particularly one from near Cranborne, 
in the Smart Collection (PI. I., fig. 1). This is noted by Mr. 
Thurman in the Archseologia and in Warne's Celtic Tumuli. It is 
worked with much delicacy and to a very thin section. Indeed, the 
thinness of some arrow-heads, both of this and the barbed sort, looks 
like a display of skill in producing a beautiful weapon for show, 
but too fragile for use. One leaf -shaped head in the Cunnington 
Collection is large, and may have been for a javelin rather than 
an arrow. The same may be said of the splendid Cranborne 
one just noticed. Dr. Smart, by-the-bye, tells me of a remarkable 
localisation of javelin heads, at least as regards that district. In 
the long series of years over which his researches there have 
extended, he has found large weapon heads only in low ground, 
near the stream ; never on Pentridge Hill and other high ground, 
where small arrow-heads abound. He conjectures that the javelins 
may have been used as fish spears or for killing animals frequenting 
marshes. But this Cranborne specimen is small compared to some 
from other localities, such as the splendid one from Gloucestershire 
in the non-Dorset Warne Collection. Of the other specified forms 



28 STONE IMPLEMENTS, ETC., IN THE DORSET MUSEUM. 

of arrow-head the Museum contains Dorset specimens, of which 
several are good, but which need not be particularly spoken of for 
the most part. But a few specially excellent ones may be named. 
For instance, there is a one barbed, or unequally barbed, arrow-head 
from Upwey, in the Cunnington Collection. It is of minutely 
careful make, and so is a smaller one in the Hogg Collection 
from Fordington Field (PI. I., fig. 2). Then we have to 
say one word about the Museum's chief treasure in the 
department of flint implements namely, the six almost 
matchless barbed and tanged arrow-heads from a barrow at 
the southern edge of Fordington Field. To give an idea of 
the extraordinary delicacy of the fashioning of these I need 
only say that the heaviest weighs 25 grains, the lightest 16. 
Now Evans quotes 38 grains as a remarkably small weight, the 
head being, however, slightly larger than the Dorset ones. And 
these arrow-heads here are not only light but are most skilfully 
^flaked. In fact, the more you look at them the greater puzzle the 
modus operandi seems to be. Of these heads it appears certain that 
they can never have been meant for use, but only for show on state 
occasions. It is annoying to doubt their being Dorset made. But 
their exceeding superiority over any others of that shape, known to 
me, as found in the county, makes me think that they may have 
been imported. I ought to say that Mr. Cunnington personally 
discovered these splendid specimens. Of the chisel-edged arrow- 
heads I am not sure that the Museum has examples. One or two 
small wrought flints, however, come at least very near to those 
considered by Evans to be chisel arrow-heads. No one probably 
would have guessed this. But he quotes an Egyptian and a 
Norwegian specimen, both having part of the arrow shaft still 
attached. He considers this proof conclusive. 

I can but name the spindle-whorls, pulley-shaped stones, whet- 
stones both rude and highly finished, and the pointed pieces of 
rag-stone found on a pottery site, and thought to be potters' tools. 

We have now gone hurriedly and imperfectly through the series 
of Neolithic Dorset stone tools and weapons in the County Museum. 



STONE IMPLEMENTS, ETC., IN THE DORSET MUSEUM. 29 

But before speaking of one or two rare specimens of other appliances 
of stone, or quasi stone, I must refer for a moment to certain flints 
which are the exact converse of those concerning which I spoke at 
the outset of my first paper. Those are decided to be fashioned 
by man. These, although seeming to show plain signs of man's 
work, are by some thought to be naturally or accidentally shaped. 
There is -for instance one, presented by the Rev. 0. P. Cambridge, 
which looks, and by many is believed, really to be a whetstone, 
showing palpable traces of hard work done on it. Yet, considering 
that flint is a most unsuitable stone for grinding on it either 
another flint or metal, it is doubtful whether these marks are not 
natural. Again, there is a flint, presented by Dr. Smart, on which 
are marked the eyes, nose, and mouth of a man. Yet these are 
pronounced by a high authority to be produced accidentally. Dr. 
Smart has also presented a remarkable holed flint which, whether 
unworked or partially worked, he believes to have been a weapon, 
a sort of knuckle-duster. This, by the way, he believes to have 
been the use of some of the large and slightly worked flints, called 
by some mattocks, and referred to in my first paper. 

To come now to the closing section of this paper, I would 
say that, in including things made of materials not technically 
classed as stone, I am following Evans' handbook. Amber, 
for instance, he touches on. But that treatise was written 
before Mr. Cunnington's great find in Clandown Barrow. Nor 
must I do more than allude to it, as it will make an important 
feature in his book. Suffice it to say that that barrow produced, 
not only the rare kind of vessel called an incense-burner, and a 
thin plate of the purest gold, but also the greater part of a most 
beautiful amber cup, which to my eye looks like Greek work ; and, 
further, a gold adorned jet head of a staff or sceptre. The latter is 
unique, and the cup all but so. The only other amber cup recorded 
was found near Brighton, and is of rude make. I would refer 
those who have access to Evans' handbook to his suggestion 
respecting a shale cup much like our amber one. He thinks that 
it was made, handle notwithstanding, on a pole lathe. To my eye 



30 STONE IMPLEMENTS, ETC., IN THE DORSET MUSEUM. 

this looks to be the case as regards the Clandown cup. I have 
now to say a little about a quasi stone, very characteristic of 
Dorset, and on which Evans does not say much. This is Kimme- 
ridge shale, commonly called coal. I need but say, in passing, that 
the Dorset Museum possesses many specimens of the lathe-cores of 
shale, formerly called Kimmeridge coal money. There is also, in 
the Smart Collection here, an armlet turned of this shale by the 
late Mr. Medhurst, with the core. This exactly resembles one of 
the two ancient types. I should also remark that the Museum 
contains two ancient shale armlets more perfect than usual. They 
were found at Fordington by my father. Next I must draw your 
attention to a very remarkable slab of this shale. Several of an 
oblong form have been found in Dorset, Wilts, and Hants. For 
instance, General Pitt Rivers found a large one at Woodcuts, and 
has reproduced the ornament thereof on the covers of the splendid 
volumes describing his discoveries. These slabs have been thought 
by some to be boards for draughts or some such game, the squares 
having been painted, and so obliterated by Time. Others think 
them to have been writing tablets, the unadorned reverse having 
been covered with wax. The General inclines to the latter opinion, 
and so does Dr. Smart. We have in the Hogg and Warne Collec- 
tions fragments of these slabs, one wholly unornamented. But I 
wish specially to mention another slab, a large fragment of which 
is in the Cunnington Collection. It seems to me to increase the 
puzzle about this class of antiquity not a little. For this thin slab, 
about nine inches across, was a disc. Now this circular shape 
seems most unlikely for a writing tablet, and nearly as much so for 
a draught-board. Nearly, I say. For in the Middle Ages, and 
therefore perhaps earlier, they used chess boards of a round form. 
(Pictorial Hist, of England ii.) This fragment is depicted in the 
Purbeck Papers, p. 225. It is ornamented with incised circles 
forming a border near the circumference, with a small concentric 
circle an inch or two within. The border is decorated with a 
series of intersecting semicircles, and the inner circle seems to have 
been surrounded by several little ones. The small circles, certainly, 



STONE IMPLEMENTS, ETC., IN THE DORSET MUSEUM. 31 

and the large ones, probably, were struck with compasses. It is 
suggestive that a pair of ancient bronze compasses were found not 
very far from the slab, with which they are now grouped in the 
Museum. On the whole this remarkable relic looks to me like an 
ornament, and, if so, probably the rectangular ones were so likewise. 
It is impossible that the ornamented side of this round slab could 
have been used as a writing tablet or game board. And it does 
not seem likely that that side, ornamented and also slightly convex, 
would be placed downwards when the appliance was in use, what- 
ever the use might be. My idea, given with much doubt, is that 
this round slab or plaque was affixed by glueing, or more likely 
by inlaying, in the middle of a wooden panel, simply for ornament. 
If so, the rectangular ones were perhaps for the same purpose. 
The slight scoring on the reverse of some of these plaques might in 
that case be for giving the glue a better hold. I see no signs of 
holes, as if for nails, in any Dorset specimens. But two small 
rectangular fragments from Nursling, Hants, now placed with the 
round slab, have a small hole in each. Next I have to speak of 
another disc of Kimmeridge coal in the Warne Collection ; quite 
a different sort of thing, however. It is nearly two inches thick 
and has been fifteen inches in diameter, turned on a lathe. On 
one side it has a circular centre sinking, and from this three 
rectangular ones have branched, judging from one and part of 
another remaining. This remarkable fragment is the largest 
ancient appliance of Kimmeridge shale ever found, as far as I 
know. It comes from the site of a Roman pottery at Bagber. 
Taking this into account I think that Mr. Warne can hardly have 
been wrong in considering the disc to have been a potter's throwing 
wheel. The sinkings in the under face would fit on to a frame 
connected with the driving wheel in the usual way. The fragment 
is described and engraved in " Warne's Ancient Dorset." The 
last application of Kimmeridge shale which I have to notice is a 
very rare one namely, as a material for parts of furniture. Of 
such use of this shale the only published notice, known to me, is 
by Mr. Warne, In " Ancient Dorset," p. 297, he says that Mr. 



32 S T ONE IMPLEMENTS, ETC., IN THE DORSET MUSEUM. 

Hall possessed a piece of shale, from Frampton, rudely carved with 
a lion's or leopard's face, and seeming to have been a supporter of 
some piece of furniture. Now, the Dorset Museum does not possess 
this specimen (I wish it did), but in Mr. Hogg's Loan Collection are 
three most interesting ones. The largest, found in South Street, 
Dorchester, is of massive make, being three and a-half by three 
inches thick (PI. II., fig. 1). It is rather more than six inches 
long, sharply carved, and apparently of Roman work. There can 
be no doubt that it was part of a leg of a stool or couch. The 
lower end is brought to a curved foot ; and on each side, above, is 
an ornament in relief, slightly like a man's leg. What it is 
intended for I know not, unless it may be the stem of a leaf or 
flower which was carved on a possible extension of the block, now 
lost. The other two objects are smaller, but of similar style, 
speaking roughly. They also were found in South Street, but not 
with the larger leg. Mr. Warne seems to consider Kimmeridge 
shale a suitable material for legs of furniture. I should hardly 
think so myself, although very diffident in uttering any opinion 
contrary to his. I should have supposed the stools, couches, or 
tripods, to which these curious legs belonged, to have been not for 
use, but either purely for display, or to be dedicated as votive 
offerings in a temple. Is it not possible that Kimmeridge coal, 
different from jet geologically, but like in appearance, may have 
shared its supposed talismanic virtues? It was held that jet 
" drives away serpents, relieves fantasies, and has virtues against 
the visits of fiends by night," as Mr. Warne quotes in "Ancient 
Dorset," p. 295. The use by Roman joiners of this shale for legs of 
furniture is perhaps a point, as far as it goes, in favour of the shale 
plaques having been ornamentally applied to or let into woodwork. 
I close what I have to say particularly of Kimmeridge coal by noting 
that we have in the Museum several pieces roughed out into a ring 
form apparently with the intention of their being carved, not 
turned, into armillse. Mr. Warne speaks of an armilla so made. 

I must now draw your attention very specially to two 
specimens of a contrivance which seems to be. hitherto un- 



STONE IMPLEMENTS, ETC., IN THE DORSET MUSEUM. 33 

described. One, like the things just noted, is of Kimmeridge 
shale. It was found at Smallmouth, Weymouth, and was 
presented by Mr. Cunnington. But the larger one, which 
I will describe, is of chalk. It was found at Jordan Hill, 
Weymouth. It is a fragment of a disc, which, when entire, was 
about nine inches across, and is fully three and a-half inches 
thick. It was pierced by a central hole, three and a-half inches or 
so in least diameter, but expanding a little towards each surface. 
This may have been caused by friction, for the surface of the 
opening is very smooth. On the periphery, between this opening 
and the outer edge, are five superficial holes and parts of two 
others. They are ranged irregularly in two ranks. Now these 
carefully made, round-based holes, are of varying and seemingly 
graduated depths. The shallowest is a quarter of an inch deep, 
the deepest one inch and a quarter. The puzzle is to decide what 
was the use of these holes, which, probably, are only a few of many 
which the entire disc contained. The other fragment, much 
smaller and made of shale, is in design apparently identical with 
the chalk disc. I have sent slight drawings of these curious relics 
to Mr. Franks, of the British Museum, and to General Pitt- 
Rivers, to both of whom the contrivance is quite new. Mr. 
Franks confesses entire inability to explain it, but says that the 
holes remind him of the curious " cup markings" found on rocks 
and stones. General Pitt-Rivers, misled, I am certain, by my 
imperfect drawing, conjectures that the block of chalk may have 
been used for the rest of the upper end of a "bow-drill," by the 
friction of which the superficial holes mi 6 ht be produced. Again, 
Mr. Smith, of East Street, Weymouth, who presented the chalk 
fargment, thinks that the graduated holes were for casting lead 
weights. Now it seems to me quite fatal to all these suggestions 
that they do not in the slightest degree account for the large 
central opening. And other objections there are. To my own eye, 
if I may venture an opinion, the contrivance looks as if just 
possibly it may have been for a game. The disc may have been 
placed on a smooth board, in the midst of which was fixed a round 



34 STONE IMPLEMENTS, ETC., IX THE DORSET MUSEUM. 

peg or block, loosely fitting the central opening. The game may 
have been played by turning the disc round on that axis, during 
which rotation the players would drop balls into the holes, and 
score according to the depth of the hole catching each ball. I give 
this idea with much doubt, and shall be grateful for opinions. 

And now I must, at length, wind up with a word, and a short 
word, on the Palaeolithic implements in the Dorset Museum, and 
on the limitation of the witness to be derived from them. The 
implements in question are not numerous. There is one flint, from 
the gravel at Blandford, on the artificial working of which much 
doubt has been thrown. Yet it is so like the French " river-drift " 
men's worked flints from St. Acheul and other places that I feel 
bound to mention it. There is, again, a roughly chipped celt from 
Norden, presented by Mr. Cunnington. It is pronounced to be 
Palaeolithic. It is not, however, of any of the usual Palaeolithic 
shapes, to my own eye. Thirdly, there is a worked flint found by 
Mr. Cunnington in red clay at the west of Maiden Castle. Lastly, 
I have to draw your attention to one specimen in the general 
collection and to a group of twenty-three in the Cunnington 
Collection of wonderfully well-worked implements JtdrJies the 
French call them all from Broom ballast pit, Hawk church. Here 
there must have been a manufactory, for that pit has produced 
certainly several scores, perhaps hundreds, of specimens. And they 
are, most of them, as sharp and unworn as on the day when they 
were made. In shape, and in what Evans considers quite an 
important characteristic namely, in orange brown colour, they are 
palpably Palaeolithic. One of them is remarkably large, nine inches 
long. In clever shaping, and accurate, although bold flaking, it 
certainly seems to me that the Hawkchurch flint " knapper " 
sitting among the gravel there day after day, back in the far 
dimness of Time, was a cleverer fellow " of his hands " than his 
Neolithic, far more recent successors. 

And now as a close allow me to ask you to note the often 
ignored, although geologically obvious, difference between what we 
are told by the white celts of the Durotrigian Neolithic people and 



STONE IMPLEMENTS, ETC., IN THE DORSET MUSEUM. 35 

what we learn from the orange " haches " of the Palaeolithic folk, 
unnamed, unstoried, under the dark shroud of millenniums. We 
study Neolithic implements, and in some dim degree we thereby 
learn about the state of .our forerunners in these parts two, three, 
or four thousand years ago. We study Palaeolithic implements, 
and, it seems to me, some at least among antiquarian writers think 
that they glean information about the Palaeolithic folk in these 
parts in like degree. In like degree, if I do not mistake them. 
On consideration, however, it is in a very different and a much less 
degree. Suppose a parallel case. Suppose that in 3,000 to 
5,000 years hence India shall have sunk 600 feet. The antiquaries 
of that time will search hut-sites and graves of Ghonds, Lushais, 
Veddahs, in the Ghauts, Neilgherries, Adams' Peak, and other 
islands then representing India and Ceylon. Eude enough imple- 
ments they will find signs of rude enough life. Will they be 
right in saying that such were the appliances, such the life, in 
India of the far back nineteenth and earlier centuries ? Of course 
not. Why the whole amazing architectural and other art of India 
would be ignored. No word, no dimmest hint, of the vast stone 
Cingalese reservoir dykes, of the dome of Beejapore, of the gemmy 
inlay of the Taj, compared to which all corresponding European 
work is a clumsy bungle. No word of the rock-hewn architecture 
of Karli, to which Europe hardly affords even the poorest parallel. 
And remember that such submergence of the Palaeolithic regions 
has come to pass, as Dawson and other eminent geologists point 
out. Let us then bear in mind that these cleverly fashioned 
Hawkchurch flint implements are the work, most likely, not of 
the advanced Palaeolithic folks, but of the rough hillmen of that 
epoch. What the best work was, who shall tell 1 Encrusted with 
serpulae, matted with algae, it lies on the deep down sea bed 
anywhere within the wide-stretching hundred-fathom line. 



dhtirches in iJie fhtntl 



glteixh 
4 ]) of )0rche0ter 



(DORCHESTER PORTION). 




By the Rev. W. MILES BARNES. 

RREP ARABLE injury has been done to churches 
everywhere through injudicious restoration and 
repair. It is in the power of the clergy, who 
are practically the guardians of the churches, 
especially in country places, to save what remains 
of the ancient structures, and they and others 
interested are invited to use their best efforts to that end. 

To assist those who are desirous of doing so, but have no 
knowledge on the subject, and to preserve a permanent record of 
the ecclesiastical, historical, and archaeological features which 
should be carefully guarded in each church, the notes which follow 
have been prepared. 

Before proceeding to the description of the churches in this 
rural deanery, a few hints on the proper restoration of ancient 
buildings might not be out of place. 

In restoring an ancient church no stones should be removed and 
no walls rebuilt, unless their reconstruction is absolutely necessary ; 
walls thrown out of perpendicular by the thrust of the roof may 
oftentimes be saved by the addition of a strong buttress. All such 
buttresses and new building generally should be of unmistakeable 
19th century work, not an imitation of old work. To imitate old 
work is a forgery, and should be punished at least with repre- 



CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OF DORCHESTER. 37 



hension. In restoring old roofs and other constructions of wood, 
only so much as is decayed and unsound should be removed, and 
the restoration should be piece by piece. Workmen are fond of 
re-cutting old stonework to make it look fresh and to match the 
new. They should be warned not to do this, or reface the stone of 
walls. The tooling on the face of the stonework of walls is 
sometimes the only mark by which the date of a wall can be fixed. 
In the notes on the churches, instead of styles centuries are given, 
as the mention of styles does not convey any definite idea of date 
to minds unfamiliar with them. 

Thus by 12th cent, will be understood Norman style ; 13th 
cent., Early English; 14th cent., Decorated English; 15th cent., 
Perpendicular English. The chronological table beneath, taken 
from Rickman's Gothic architecture, shews the duration of the 
styles of architecture thus classed under the head of centuries. 

It should be borne in mind, however, that the several styles may 
be some few years later in the country, in out-of-the-way places. 

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE. 



12th CENT. Norman 


William I. 


1066 




William II. 


1087 




Henry I. ... 


1100 




Stephen I. 


1135 to 1154 


Transition ... 


Henry II. 


1154 to 1189 


13th CENT. Early English 


Richard I 


1189 




John 


1199 




Henry III. 


1216 to 1272 


Transition ... 


Edward I 


1272 to 1307 


14th CENT. Decorated 






English... 


Edward II. 


1307 




Edward III. 


1327 to 1377 


Transition ... 


Richard II. 


1377 to 1399 


*15th CENT. Perpendicular 
English ... 


HenryIV.,V., VI. 


1399 to 1422 




Edward IV. 


1461 




Edward V. 


1483 




Richard III. 


1483 




Henry VII. 


1485 




Henry VIII. 


1509 to 1546 



* Few, if any, whole buildings were executed in this style later than 
Henry VIII. 



38 CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OF DORCHESTER. 

The facts on which the subjoined descriptions are based were 
obtained in every case by personal inspection of the buildings, 
notes of their features being taken at the time, in which survey I 
received much kind assistance from Mr. T. Hardy. 

1. DORCHESTER ST. PETER'S. 

A fine example of Perpendicular work. The church presents many 
features in common with Sherborne Abbey, which leads to the suspi- 
cion that both churches may have been the work of the same architect. 
The arches with panels in the soffit are characteristic of the date. 
Arches similarly decorated are found also in Sherborne Abbey, and 
in the Perpendicular additions to Charminster Church. 

The DOORWAY is of excellent workmanship, of transition Gorman 
period ; it consists of two orders, the inner carrying the chevron in 
an enriched form, the outer a zigzag of peculiar character. The 
roof is waggon-headed. 

The FONT is modern, and so also is the SEDILIA on the south 
side of the chancel, as well as the east end of the chancel with the 
east window. 

The date of the effigies of the Crusaders, which, according to 
Coker (Survey of Dorset), were brought, at the dissolution of 
monasteries, from the priory church, judging by their armour 
would be 1360 to 1390. The reasons for fixing this date are as 
follows : The gauntlets are detached from the arm pieces, and they 
were not separated from them till the middle of the 14th century. 
After 1400 plate armour was used ; these effigies are clad in chain 
and plate armour. Moreover, the basinett under the head of the 
knight, the camail of mail attached to the helmet, the horizontal 
sword belt formed of square plaques and low down on the hips, 
are distinct evidences of the period to which these effiigies are 
assigned (see Archaeological Journal, vol. 43, Xo. 171, 1886, page 
334). As some of the ejected monks were in all probability still 
living in Dorchester when Coker w r as making notes for his history, 
what he relates of the priory and of the transfer of these effigies 
from it may be trusted. 



Proc. Dorset N.H. & A.F. Club, I'ol.xii., i8gr. 



PLATE I. 





STOUP. FORDIKGTON, ST. GEORGE 




EASTER SEPULCHRE. DORCHESTER. ST. PETER. 



CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OF DORCHESTER. 39 

EASTER SEPULCHRE : Of the same period is the rest for the 
Easter sepulchre on the north side of the chancel, which may have 
been brought also from the priory, or it may have been transferred 
from the old St. Peter's church. It is a good specimen of 
architectural design of the 14th century, late in the style and in 
fair preservation ; the stone slab on which the sepulchre rested is 
supported on panelled sides and a front, which is ornamented by 
sunk quatrefoils ; the canopy above is an ogee in form, richly 
crocketted, flanked by finials, and finished beneath in a large 
trefoil, each foil of which is trefoiled in its turn ; in the spandrels 
are monograms (plate 1). 

The north chancel aisle of the church, where this sepulchre 
originally stood, is said to have been built by the ancestors of Sir 
John Williams, of Herringston, whose monument, erected in 1628, 
now stands at the east end of it. As the "Williams' family were 
benefactors to the church, and as some of them are buried within 
its walls, it is not improbable that this receptacle for the sepulchre 
may have been given to the church by one of the family, in which 
case the J.W. in one of the spandrels may be the monogram of the 
donor. John is a name which frequently occurs in the history of 
the family. Amongst others a grant of arms was made to John 
Williams, gentleman, of Herringston, late of Dorchester, in 1525 ; a 
later Sir John Williams was buried in 1617. If the K in the 
centre of the second quatrefoil in the base stands for Richard II., 
the date of the sepulchre would be somewhere between 1377-1399, 
the period of the transition from Decorated to Perpendicular 
English style, with which date the architecture of this sepulchre 
would accord. 

"Bloxam" (Principles of Gothic Architecture, vol. 2), writes 
thus of the Easter sepulchre : " Within the north wall of the 
chancel of many churches near the altar a large arch like that of a 
sepulchral arch, more or less decorated, may be perceived ; within 
this the holy sepulchre generally a wooden and moveable struc- 
ture was set up at Easter, when certain rites commemorative of 
the burial and resurrection of our Lord were anciently performed 



40 CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OP DORCHESTER. 

with great solemnity. The construction is thus described in a 
document of the period. The sepulchre in question belonged to 
St. Mary Kedcliffe, Bristol : * Item, that Maister Canyne had 
delivered this 4th day of July, in the year of our Lord, 1470, to 
Maister Nicholas Fetters, vicar of St. Mary Redcliffe, Moses 
Conterin, Philip Bartholomew, Procurators of St. Mary Kedcliffe 
aforesaid, a new sepulchre gilt with golde and a civer thereto. 
Item, an image of God Almighty, rising out of the same sepulchre 
with all the ordinance that longeth thereto, that is to say, a lathe 
made of timber and the iron work thereto. Item, thereto longeth 
heaven made of timber and stayned clothes. Item, Hell made of 
timber thereto, with Divils to the number of 13. Item, 4 knights 
armed, keeping the sepulchre with their weapons in their hands ; 
that is to say 2 axes and 2 spears, with 2 paves (i.e. shields). 
Item, 4 payr of angel wings, for 4 angels made of timber and well 
painted. Item, the Fadre, the Crowne and Visage, the ball with a 
cross upon it, well gilt with fine gould. Item, the Holy Ghost 
coming out of heaven into the sepulchre. Item, longeth to the 
4 angels, 4 chevelures (i.e. perukes).' " 

2. DORCHESTER HOLY TRINITY. 

Modern, built 1876. The only remains of the old church are a 
font now in the rectory garden, the basin of Ham Hill stone, dated 
1662 ; the base of the 14th century style, the intermediate member 
between the two which does not belong to the font may be of 15th 
century date. 

OLD PARISH CHEST in the vestry, with three locks and straps, 
and a handle at each end ; it is dated 1683. 

3. ALL SAINTS'. 

Modern. Rebuilt in 1845. In the porch under the tower is a 
high tomb upon which is a recumbent figure clad in a gown with 
an Elizabethan ruff, the effigy of Matthew Chubb, who was bailiff 
of the town in 1590, and member for the town in the Parliament 
held in the first year of King James I. This effigy was removed 



CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OF DORCHESTER. 41 

from the Old Church, together with the sumptuously carved and 
painted arms of Carolus Kex now on the south wall of church. 

4. CHRIST CHUKCH. 
Wholly modern. The church was consecrated in the year 1843. 

5. FORDINGTON ST. GEORGE.* 

TOWER : An excellent example of a 15th century tower. 

NORTH SIDE OF CHURCH : There was formerly a transept on this 
side, similar to that on the other. 

CHANCEL : Georgian classic, built by Mrs. Pitt, the impropriator, 
1750. 

CHANCEL ARCH : 15th century, of poor detail. Of the old 
chancel Hutchins said it " had stalls on each side of it after the 
manner of cathedrals of oak very curiously carved, gilt, and 
painted ; the roof of timber in like manner was very curiously 
de viced, and much larger and longer than the body of the church. 
The rood loft at that time was highly preserved." 

SOUTH SIDE, PORCH ARCH : 13th or 14th century. The porch 
has 15th century additions. 

DOORWAY OF CHURCH, with carved head, is generally ascribed 
to the Norman period. The subject is supposed to be St. 
George at the battle of Antioch. The battle of Antioch was fought 
in 1098 ; if this surmise is correct the work could not be earlier 
than 1100, and it should be noted that the Saracens are clad in 
Norman armour and that the armour is similar to that represented 
in the Bayeux tapestry. Perhaps the workmanship may afford 
the safest clue to the date of its execution, We know from the 
description by Gervase of the choir of Canterbury Cathedral (see 
Rickman), that the chisel was introduced for carving between 1100 
and 1180 ; up to 1110 the axe was used.f Now there are no signs 

* "St. George was chosen by our ancestors as their tutelar saint under 
the first Norman king" (Butler's Lives of the Saints, Ap. 23, vol. iv., 
p. 253). 

t The use of the chisel and gouge was well known to the Britons (see 
Frank's " Horse ferales " and ArchaeologicalJournal). A bronze chisel, 
similar to the carver's chisel used to-day, was found in a British barrow 
in Devonshire. 



42 CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OF DORCHESTER. 

of axe work in the sculpture except perhaps in the ground, and 
unless it can be shown that the carving has been recut with the 
chisel at a subsequent period we must conclude that the doorway 
and the transept are of the same period transition Norman. If, 
however, it can be shown that the work was originally wholly 
executed by the axe there is no reason why it may not have been 
of, Saxon origin and a portion of an original Saxon church, unless 
the close jointing of the stones of which the sculpture is composed 
is a proof of later work. Buildings of the 10th and early llth 
centuries were undoubtedly of a ruder kind than those of a later 
and perhaps also of an earlier age, if we may take Bradford-on-Avon 
as a type of an 8th century church. 

It is supposed that the prevalence of the belief that the world 
w r ould come to an end in the year 1000, of which there is frequent 
mention in documents by writers of the time, led to a general 
neglect of building in stone in the previous century ; perhaps the 
knowledge of the art almost died out with the builders, so that 
when building in stone was resumed it was resumed by men who 
were untrained and unskilled in the art. This would account for 
wide jointed masonry and the crudeness of the carving common in 
work of the age.* It is assumed, and perhaps wrongly for the 
whole subject is to a certain extent a matter of conjecture that 
from the armour, the subject, and other details, the work could not 
have been of an earlier date than the 12th century. Mr. Parker, 
however, on the authority of an Italian author, has stated that 
similar figures were found in Syrian churches 300 years before the 
date of the Norman work (Archaeological Journal, No. 88, 
page 349). 

The new window between the transept and porch, which was put 
in in 1879, is Perpendicular in character and good in design. 

SOUTH ARCADE : Transition Norman. TRANSEPT Arch into Nave, 
Perpendicular, 15th century. Arch into Aisle, ditto; 4 centred 
period. High windows on east and west : Good 15th century. 

* On the other hand the magnificent illuminations in the Benedictional 
of S. Aethelwoki which was written circa 977, the time in question, and 
of which engravings will be found in Archaeologia, vol. 24, undoubtedly 
shew buildings of stone as existing at that time. 



CHURCHES IX THE RURAL DEANERY OF DORCHESTER. 43 

Assuming the walls of the transept to be of 13th century as 
there is good reason to do these windows must be insertions. 

PISCINA : Early English 13th century with face cut off. The 
walls of this transept appear to have been much cut about and 
patched, so that it would be difficult to say where the Early 
English masonry begins and ends without uncovering the 
stonework. 

FURNITURE. FONT : Perpendicular, 15th century. CORBEL : 
Possibly Early English, 13th century, to carry the floor of the 
chamber, before the insertion of the Perpendicular windows. 
PULPIT OF STONE dated 1592. The pulpit was originally on the 
opposite side, where the remains of the iron bond by which it was 
fixed will be found leaded into the jamb of the arch on that side. 
It was removed to its present position in 1863, when the upper 
doorway of the rood loft staircase wag lowered two or three feet to 
give access to it. The moulding at the bottom is modern ; it was 
worked and presented to the builder who erected it, and at first it 
decorated (!) the upper edge of the pulpit. 

STOIJP for lioly water at the door, Early English, 13th century or 
earlier. Its form is most unusual. This stoup, which is 16 Jin. 
high by 15|in. in diameter, was discovered in 1833 ; it seems 
evident that it was not originally a stoup, for it has a drain through 
the bottom which has been plugged with lead ; possibly it is a 
small Gorman font placed in the present position in the 13th 
century (plate 2). 

The modern north aisle with its arcade is of such a character as 
to ruin the aspect of the whole interior. Before these arches were 
inserted the north wall of the nave was solid, with a 15th century 
window between the tower and transept, possibly this is the 
window which is now in the east end of aisle. 

HISTORY : It is not possible to read with certainty the history of 
this church in its stones ; links are wanting to make the evidence 
complete. The history which follows is probable and is consistent 
with what is known of the church, and with what may still be seen 
in the building. The original church was cruciform ; the north 



44 CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OF DORCHESTER. 

transept was standing in the present century. The depth of 
the transept was the width of the 19th century aisle, which 
is a lateral extension of it. The south transept in early times 
corresponded with it ; the greater depth of this transept may be 
due to an addition made for a purpose which will be considered 
presently. 

The original structure was Saxon. It is true St. Osmund gave 
the church to his cathedral of Sarum A.D. 1091, 25 years after the 
Conquest, but it was not necessarily built at that time, for the 
occasion of his presenting it was not the building of the church 
here, but the foundation and endowment of the cathedral there. 

Fordington was a Royal manor in Saxon times, and it is not 
likely that the King would allow his own manorial lands, upon 
which so considerable a population dwelt, to be unprovided with a 
church. This cruciform church probably possessed a central 
tower. It was a plan which was common to both Saxon and 
Norman churches. There is no absolute proof of this, but the 
evidence of the stones is distinctly in its favour ; it will be noticed 
that, although the Norman arcade is in such excellent preservation, 
the whole of the centre of the church where the tower would have 
been, including the chancel and transept arches, was renewed in the 
15th century, at which time the new tower was built at the west 
end. This of course may be a coincidence, and there may be no 
connection between the two, but it looks very much as if the old 
Saxon tower was standing at that date ; if there were no tower 
there it is inexplicable why it should have been necessary to renew 
the stonework in the centre of the church where it would have the 
best protection, and yet that the Norman work in the nave should 
be in such excellent preservation three or four centuries later. In 
confirmation of this view it will be remarked that the Norman 
arcade to the east ends in a wall which, though much patched and 
giving evidence generally of 15th century reparation, has a base 
which was evidently at one time much larger, and might have 
formed part of the original pier of the tower at the south-west 
angle. The population of the parish having increased after the 



CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OF DORCHESTER. 45 

Conquest it would have become necessary to enlarge the church 
and to add in the 12th century the transition Norman aisle (with 
its interesting doorway and stoup). The piscina in the south 
transept where an altar stood must have been added not long after. 
Possibly attached to the transept was an anchorite's cell (ankerhold 
or domus inclusi), perhaps a lean-to with a window overlooking the 
altar to which this piscina belonged. This may have been enlarged 
late in the 13th or in the 14th century by carrying up the walls, 
incorporating the transept, and putting in a floor seven or eight 
feet above the ground level, resting on corbels, one of which is 
still to be seen in the south wall. The anchorite's cell frequently 
had three windows one small window through which food was 
received, a window opposite to admit the light, a third over-looking 
the high altar ; the domus inclusi sometimes consisted of a single 
cell, sometimes as here of more, in which case it afforded 
accommodation for an attendant. It sometimes possessed an altar 
of its own and oftentimes contained a fireplace. Perhaps the 
Fordington cell was furnished with the latter convenience ; there 
is a curved hollow channel in the wall which might have been a 
flue. The earliest chimneys were not carried up above the roof as 
ours are, but were cut in the wall to a few feet above the fireplace, 
and were then turned out at the side of the wall as this one might 
have been. It will be noticed that the face of the piscina has been 
cut off. From the direction of the chimney this would have been 
necessary to give room for the construction of the fireplace. It is, 
however, more likely that the channel (chimney or not) was made 
at the time of, or shortly after, the restoration of the church in the 
15th century, and in this manner; the builders of the rood loft 
staircase and doorway, finding the old wall of the transept out of 
perpendicular, instead of pulling it down added to it on the inside 
to make the wall plumb for their work, rounding off the addition 
thus made into the old Avail at the top ; but leaving this channel 
so that the back of it was the face of the old wall. Anchorites 
when they took up their abode in cells were conducted thither and 
installed with a solemn service, after which the doorway by which 



46 CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OF DORCHESTER. 

they entered was often built up or closed and sealed. The estab- 
lishment of anchorites' cells in connection with churches appears 
to have been as early as the establishment of Christianity in this 
isle. In the Saxon chronicle, under the date 657, at the hallowing 
of the monastery of Peterborough, the Abbot is reported to have 
said to King Wulfhere : " I have here holy monks who wish to 
Spend their lives as anchorites, if they knew where. And there is 
an island here, which is called Anchorets' Isle, and my desire is 
that we might build a minster there to the glory of St. Mary, so 
that those may dwell therein who wish to lead a life of peace and 
rest." 

In the 15th century great changes were made in the church. 
Besides the building of the tower, the chancel, and transept arches, 
of which I have spoken, and the rood screen with its loft and 
staircase, the south transept was cleared, the floor taken down, the 
south window inserted, and the font, windows, and other 
Perpendicular work put in. 

6. TOLLER FKATRUM. 

The church is a modern one without any pretension to archi- 
tecture, but it contains a remarkable font, cylindrical in form. At 
the base, above a plain band, is a narrow moulding, ornamented 
with a kind of chevron, above which are boldly but rudely cut 
figures, some of which support with head and hands a cable 
moulding, over which is an interlaced pattern of Saxon character. 
These interlaced designs, though continued into the Norman period, 
were used at an early date ; in a Saxon MS. of the 8th century 
(Evangelia Sacra Nero D. 4.) are designs very similar to this. In 
Bede's time there were no stone fonts, but in later Saxon times 
stone fonts were common ; and there is reason to believe that some, 
perhaps many, of the so-called Norman fonts are really of Saxon 
origin. The only font I have been able to find at all resembling 
this is the font of Stoke Cannon, in Devonshire. In that also the 
figures are rudely cut, and four figures, one at each corner, support 
with head and hands the basin, which rests on a cable moulding. 



Proc. Dorset N.H. & A.R Club, Vol. xii., 1891 . 



PLATE II. 




FONT, TOLLER FRATRUM. 




CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OF DORCHESTER. 47 

Iii that font also, though there is no continuous interlaced pattern 
above the figures, the designs are distinctly of Saxon character, and 
the figures are habited, so far as one can judge, in the garb with 
which one is familiar from illuminations in Saxon MSS. (plate 2). 

Beneath the east window is a fragment of sculpture, possibly of 
14th or 15th century, the subject of which is St. Mary Magdalene 
wiping the Saviour's feet with her hair. There are also two corbel 
heads of no special interest. 

7. CHARMINSTER. 

NAVE, arcades : Transition Norman. 

CLERESTORY : 14th century, or early 15th. 

ROOF : 15th century, corbels ditto, good. 

There may be under the plaster ceiling a good oak roof panelled, 
or similar to that covering the porch. 

The string on the east wall of the nave shows the pitch of the 
original roof. 

CHANCEL ARCH : An interesting specimen of transition Norman 
There may be hagioscopes on either side of it. 

TOWER AND TOWER AISLES : Fine, late 15th century work of the 
date of St. Peter's Church, Dorchester. 

CHURCH DOOR : 14th century. 

PORCH, mixed : The gurgo^le at the east corner is especially good. 

FURNITURE. PULPIT, Jacobean, dated 1635 a good speci- 
men of this period. 

FONT : Might be Norman ; only the bowl, much cut about and 
without lead lining, and the base remain. 

MONUMENTS : There are two interesting monuments in Purbeck 
marble on the south side. The brasses are gone, but otherwise 
they are in good condition. They were probably erected to 
members of the Trenchard family, circa Henry VII. 

There are remains of a hagioscope which opened from the south 
aisle into the chancel. 

HISTORY OF THE CHURCH AS RECORDED IN ITS STONES : The 
original church was of the Norman transition period (plate 4). Of 



48 CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OF DORCHESTER. 

this church the arcades, chancel arch, and perhaps the font remain. 
The 12th century work in this church is in so perfect a state of 
preservation that, standing at the west end looking towards the 
chancel and disregarding the clerestory above and the pews below, 
the nave of the church presents very much the appearance it must 
have presented six or seven centuries ago. The principal additions 
to the church were made by the Trenchards, late in the 15th 
century. At that time the church may have possessed a small 
early tower. In the place of this the Trenchards built the present 
tower, working in their monogram, which is a good design, into 
every part of it. It will be found inside and out, incised, cut in 
relief, and let in in lead. The Trenchards continued the aisles 
along the sides of the new tower to its west face. The present 
porch was somewhat clumsily added at the same time ; in building 
it the materials which remained from the greater work appear to 
have been used. The clerestory had been built and the windows 
of the church inserted at an earlier date. The chancel, which is 
not ancient, is smaller than the previous one, the foundations of 
which have been met with in digging graves. 

8. WOODSFORD. 

This church was in the main built in 1863 by T. H. Wyatt ? 
who was at that time the diocesan architect. 

The only portions of the ancient church now remaining are the 
Early English (13th century) window to the west of the porch, the 
base of the tower to within a yard or so of the string course, the 
piscina in the transept, and a small locker for containing the sacred 
vessels, &c., which is also in this transept, but concealed by a seat ; 
when discovered the remains of the hinges were still attached to it. 
The church was rebuilt on the old foundations, except the chancel 
and the aisle, which is a late addition. The old chancel was 
unusually small, covering an area not larger than 8ft. by 7ft. 
internally. In excavating for the new chancel no foundations 
were discovered outside the old walls ; there is reason, therefore, 
for believing that the foundations of these walls were the founda- 



Proc. Dorset N.H. & A.F. Club, Vol. xii., 1891. 



PLATE Illl. 




SAXON FONT. MARTINSTOWN. 




CHARMINSTER CHURCH. 



CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OF DORCHESTER, 49 

tions of the original chancel ; the walls, however, had been rebuilt, 
possibly when the 18th century window which it contained was 
put in. Incorporated into the wall were three stones, which 
appeared to be sills of an Early English triplet window. The 
chancel arch, which was very plain, was of diminutive proportions, 
being only about 5ft. in span with a height of 7ft. Gin. There was 
a plain hagioscope on the south side of it. The transept, now 
rebuilt in the Early English style, was a 14th century addition to 
the church ; the piscina is of that date. Before the rebuilding, 
about 1838, the nave had been enlarged. The north wall was 
taken down and rebuilt farther back, so as to take in the whole of 
the area now covered by the nave and aisle. On the rebuilding of 
the church in 1863 the nave was restored to its former dimensions 
by the addition of the arcade by which the new area enclosed in 
1838 was converted into an aisle. 

The chief interest of the building now centres in the tower, of 
13th century date, of which happily the most interesting part, the 
basement, has escaped the rebuilder's hand. Churches of this 
early period were frequently constructed so as to afford a refuge to 
the parishioners in any sudden emergency. The parish church was 
the parish castle ; and in the event of a sudden attack the villagers 
could fly to it and there defend themselves. The towers were the 
keeps of these ecclesiastical castles. Previous to the rebuilding of 
the church in 1863 the tower was a low but solidly built structure, 
about 23ft. in height, surmounted by a pyramidical roof, which was 
covered with tiles. The only external openings were two slits, one 
above the other, in the west face of the tower, of which the lower 
one remains unaltered. The communication between the church 
and tower was, and still is, by means of a small 13th century 
archway. When closely pressed the garrison could retire to the 
tower and barricade this entrance. The narrow slit or loophole 
which still serves as a window is widely splayed into a shouldered 
arch in the inside, and could be used by archers and cross-bowmen. 
A similar loophole constructed for use in this way, with an inner 
shouldered arch, may be seen in the ancient walls of York. The 



50 CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OF DORCHESTER. 

upper stage of the new tower, including the two-light windows and 
gable roof which were added in 1863, were suggested by the tower 
of a church near the lake of Zurich. The old altar slab was found 
in the pavement near the door, and was buried under the north 
pier of the new chancel arch. 

9. WINTERBORNE CAME. 

NORTH SIDE : DOORWAY OP CHURCH, 14th century. WINDOW 
(north chancel), originally 14th century ; on this side are the 
foundations of what may have been the rood loft staircase. 

EAST END : EAST WINDOW, 15th century, with 13th century 
inner splay and window arch. 

SOUTH SIDE : SOUTH DOORWAY (built up), 14th century. 

Two of the square-headed windows (15th century) on this side 
are remarkably good. 

TOWER : 15th century (late Perpendicular). 

The roof of the church was a characteristic one of the county ; 
it was waggon-headed and plastered ; the chancel ceiling was 
divided into four compartments by moulded oak ribs. This roof 
was removed and the present roof erected in its place in 1883. 

FURNITURE : FONT, base and pedestal, 13th century ; basin, 
15th century. PULPIT : Dated 1624, good. ALTAR RAILS : 
Jacobean. 

ROOD SCREEN : Good 15th century work, in fairly good 
preservation. The tracery panels in the heads of the doors are 
original ; those in the screen modem copies. 

MONUMENTS : On the south side is a monument with a canopy to 
it, under which is a brass to the memory of Dorothy Miller, who 
died on October 15th, 1591. On the north side is a high tomb 
with effigies of Sir John Miller and Anna his wife ; of his funeral 
achievements the helmet still remains on the monument. " We 
meet not unfrequently in country churches, nigh to which ancient 
manor houses, mansions, or halls still or did formerly exist, and 
sometimes also in town churches, suspended from the walls or lying 
about the church, tattered banners and penons and pieces of 



CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OF DORCHESTER. 51 

armour, in general not such as were intended to or could be actually 

worn. These formed the funeral achievements of 

individuals of a greater or less degree of rank, and were borne by 
the heralds at funerals, which were formerly, especially during the 
16th or 17th centuries, conducted with much secular pomp, and 
marshalled by one or more of the heralds in accordance with certain 
rules, differing with regard to the status or rank of each individual 
whose funeral was thus performed." (" Companion to Gothic 
Architecture Bloxam.") 

PROBABLE HISTORY OF THE CHURCH AS KEVEALED IN ITS 
STONES : The original church of Winterborne Came was built in 
the 13th century. Of this church there are still portions of the 
walls, the window arch and inner splays of the east window, the 
base and pedestal of the font. In the 14th century the north and 
south doorways and the north chancel window were added, and in 
the 15th century the Perpendicular additions to the church and the 
rood screen. The rood screen must have been dismantled, and the 
text written across it, circa 1561. In the October of that year the 
Church Commissioners of Queen Elizabeth ordered that the rood 
lofts should be taken down ; the screens themselves, with the 
addition of a crest in the place of the lofts, were to remain to serve 
as a partition between the chancel and nave. This order appears 
to have been promptly carried out, for in the churchwardens' 
accounts of St. Helen's, Abingdon, which were reprinted in the 
first volume of " Archa3ologia," is the entry under the year 
1561 : "To the carpenter and others for taking down the roode 
lofte, and stopping the holes in the wall where the joices stoode, 
15s. 8d. To the peynter for writing the Scripture where the roode 
lofte stoode and overthwarte the same isle, 3s. 4d." 

10. WINTERBORNE FARRINGDON. 

Farringdon, now united to Came, was an ancient village ; from 
the dedication to St. German it is probable that' a church existed 
here in British times ; of the later church only the east end, 
which is of 14th century work, now remains. Hutchins states 



52 CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OF DORCHESTER. 

that the church had become ruinous as early as the year 1648, when 
divine service ceased to be celebrated in it, and the services for the 
parish were held in the domestic chapel belonging to Herringstone 
House. Hutchins, who died in 1773, further says : "The tower 
and some of the walls remained a few years since." Forty years 
later, as we learn from a drawing now in the possession of 
E. W. Williams, Esq., of Herringstone House, portions of a turret 
of the tower and of some of the walls still existed. 

11. WHITCOMBE. 

SOUTH SIDE, PORCH ARCH : 13th century. CHURCH DOORWAY, 
Norman. WINDOWS, 15th century. 

EAST END: EAST WINDOW, 13th century, hood moulding 
original and very good, the windows well restored. 

NORTH SIDE : WINDOWS, 15th century. NORTH DOORWAY (built 
up), Norman. CHANCEL DOORWAY, 15th century. 

TOWER : Embattled and well proportioned, 15th century. The 
grilles in the windows are remarkably good. The seats of pinnacles 
remain on the battlements. 

FURNITURE. FONT : 12th century, the basin of Purbeck 
marble, and the central pillars are original, the small pillars later. 
There is a stone seat on the north side of the chancel. The floor 
of the chancel was originally lower ; it was raised 20 or 30 years 
ago. In the head of the north chancel window are fragments of 
ancient glass of the 15th century. 

There was formerly a rood beam supported by piers of rough 
stone plastered ; probably when the rood was removed in 1561 the 
thin partition wall was carried up to the roof and plastered. This 
wall with its supporting piers was taken down a year or two ago, 
when a portion of the moulded rood beam was found in situ ; the 
beam with the piers formed a square opening, which was unsightly ; 
possibly it would have been taken down in 1561 had the command 
been less stringent to remove the roods and lofts, but to leave the 
partition between chancel and nave. Over-officious churchwardens 
who removed these divisions were required to replace them. In 



CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OF DORCHESTER. 53 

the churchyard was a cross. A step with socket, and a portion of 
the shaft, the date of which may have been of 13th century, are 
all that remain of it. Notes : The plan of the church, long and 
narrow, is Norman, and some of the ancient walls of that date 
are still standing. No portion of the 15th century roof remains. 
The 15th century roof, as appears from the weathering on the east 
face of the tower, was much flatter than the present roof. 

12. WYNFORD EAGLE. 

Church is a modern building and not on the site of the old one^ 

The chancel arch shortened was brought from the old church \ it 
is of the 15th century, but of poor workmanship. 

The FONT is ancient, of the 13th or 14th century. 

PISCINA, Norman, late in the style. 

The ancient tympanum described and figured in Hutchins' Dorset 
is not known to the villagers or vicar, though one woman says she 
heard there is a carved stone underneath the ivy on one side of the 
porch. 

A Tudor house stands not far from the church with the date 
1630. The front with well-proportioned porch is in good preserva- 
tion. The old oak wainscoting with overmantel still decorates the 
King's chamber, and in the cellar, formerly a kitchen, is a stone 
fireplace of the date. 

13. KNIGHTON. 

Mainly Early English and early in the style. 

NORTH SIDE : Porch, buttress, and priest's door, 13th century. 

DORMER WINDOW : 15th century. 

EAST END : East window originally 13th century. 

WALLS, ditto. 

SOUTH SIDE : ARCADE of two bays dividing transept from nave, 
13th century, good. This arcade is strengthened by arches built 
up on the transept side, circa Charles I. 

The windows in the transept on east and west sides are pure 
Early English inside and out. The window in the nave, west of 
the arcade, 15th century, but the window arch and splay are 



54 CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OF DORCHESTER. 

earlier, and may have originally contained a triplet of Early 
English lights. 

TOWER : Early English (13th century), with 15th century upper 
stages and windows. The window opening on the west face of the 
tower may have contained a slit to serve as a window or for defence, 
as at Woodsford (No. 8). 

CHANCEL ARCH : Probably Saxon ; there are hagioscopes on 
either side of it. 

FONT : Modern. 

HISTORY OP THE CHURCH AS RECORDED IN ITS STONES : As the 
church is mainly of the 13th century, the only earlier work being 
the chancel arch, it seems most likely that the original church to 
which this arch, if Saxon, belonged, or if Norman was added, was 
a Saxon structure, for a substantial Norman church would not have 
become so decayed in eighty years or so after its erection as to 
necessitate its being pulled down and rebuilt. The Saxon church 
gave place to the Early English in the 13th century, the chancel 
arch alone remaining of the ancient church. The upper stage of 
the tower and the Perpendicular windows in it and in the church, 
including the dormer window, were added in the 15th century. 
At this time the 13th century (Early English) roof still existed, 
and the dormer window was built into it. The steep slope of this 
roof is shown by the weathering on the tower and the ancient 
eaves-course which still remains in places in the walls. 

At a late period after the Perpendicular the walls were raised, 
and the present roof superseded the steep 13th century roof. 

There was a tradition in the village that there was a very 
beautiful painting on the east wall of the nave above the chancel 
arch ; the repair of the ceiling a few years ago gave the opportunity 
for testing the truth of the tradition the wall was examined at a 
distance by candle light when upon it was seen a short word in 
Hebrew characters surrounded by an ornamental border in colour. 
When the opportunity occurs again for examining it, it should be 
observed whether the word is the mysterious word A.G.L.A., 
the meaning of which is not known ; but, as it has been found 



Proc. Dorset N.H. & A.F. Club, Vol. xii., i8gi. 



PLATE III. 




FROME VAUCHURCH. 




STCNE PULPIT (15TH CENT.) FRAMPTON. 



CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OF DORCHESTER. 55 

written in Hebrew characters on paper and inserted in the furniture 
of churches, engraved on rings and other articles, and as it is found 
in a mediaeval medical manuscript of the 14th century, as a 
physical charm against fever (see Archseologia, vol. xxx., p. 400, 
where a copy of the MS. is given), it is not impossible that it was 
used as a talismanic charm against the plague. For further par- 
ticulars see Archaeological Journal, vol. iii, p. 359; vol. iv, p. 78 ; 
vol. xxiv, p. 68; vol. xxviii, p. 25. 

14. FRAMPTON. 

Very little that is ancient remains in this church ; the tower 
was rebuilt in 1695 by Robert Browne, who added the north aisle 
with its arcade a few years later ; the arcade was rebuilt in 1862, 
when much of the new work in the church was added. 

The original church is said to have been built in the reign of 
Edward IV. That the roof of the old church was of that date is 
probable from the description of the decoration upon it "On square 
panels were painted a rose and the sun issuing from it, the device 
of King Edward IV." (Hutchins). There is nothing in the present 
church (except a 13th century aumbry in the south aisle) which 
shows an earlier date than Edward IV. The chancel arch and the 
arcade dividing the south aisle from the nave would be about that 
date, and so might be the square-headed Perpendicular doorway 
inserted in the tower, and the large west window with plain tracery, 
and the small two-light window. 

Carved on the capitals of the columns at each end of the south 
arcade are grotesque figures of monks ; on the capital at the west 
end two monks are represented as wrestling for a hoop. A copy 
of an ancient illumination (Strutt's Sports and Pastimes) shows 
figures in a similar attitude, but instead of a hoop a staff is the 
object of contention. At the east end of the arcade two hoops are 
behind the monks. On the capitals of the chancel arch are cut the 
monogram of St. Mary and the sacred monogram. Similar capitals 
will be found in Winterborne Church, and from the similarity of 
the work it is possible that the carving in both churches might be 



56 CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OF DORCHESTER, 

by the same hand. The church contains an interesting pulpit of 
early 15th century work ; this has suffered much through the 
re-tooling of the stone at a late period. Some of the panels carved 
in figure subjects are modern imitations of the old ; at present it is 
easy to distinguish them (plate 3). 

In the chancel are the effigies of Sir John Browne, in a suit of 
tilting armour, and his wife ; the former, it should be noted, on 
account of the armour, was born in 1558 and died in 1627. 

On the opposite side is a monument bearing a so-called emblem 
of mortality, the representation in stone of a corpse sewn in a sheet, 
and thus attired for burial ; the date of the monument is 1653. 
"Up to and during the early part of the 17th century the bodies of 
the commonalty were as a rule buried without coffins, being simply 
enveloped in a linen sheet or shroud." (See Bloxam, " Companion 
to Gothic Architecture," llth edition, p. 386.) An illustration of 
a corpse similarly attired, copied from a mural painting (late 15th 
century) on the wall of the chapel of the Holy Trinity, Stratford- 
on-Avon, is given on page 196 of Bloxam 's "Principles of Gothic 
Architecture," vol. ii. The sewing up of corpses in cloth for burial 
was at an earlier date common amongst persons of all ranks. In 
an account of the expense of the funeral of a great man who lived 
at Bridport A.D. 1326 was " 9d. for linen cloth in which to sew the 
body." Bridport Corporation Kecords (Dorset Antiquarian Field 
Club Transactions, vol. xi., p. 101). On two monuments in the 
north choir aisle of Salisbury Cathedral are carved effigies of corpses 
so attired ; the shroud which envelopes one of them is represented 
as tied at the ends and open in the middle, disclosing the corpse 
within. 

15. STAFFOKD. 

PORCH, ARCH, AND PORTIONS of the walls of the church of 
south side, 14th century. COPING AND APEX STONE, 15th century. 

The date above the entrance and in the gable of the east end 
(1640) may have been the date of the last restoration of the 
church. 

CHURCH DOORWAY : 15th century, 



CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OF DORCHESTER. 57 

SOUTH SIDE : Window to the west of the porch ; the oldest 
window now existing in the church, 14th century, and a good 
specimen of the style. 

NORTH SIDE : Chancel window, originally 14th century. This 
window has been much mutilated in repair. The rebuilding of the 
wall on this side would account for the incongruities noticeable in 
it. 

KOOF : Waggon ; Perpendicular English in character ; possibly 
the ribs have been renewed, the bosses certainly have. 

FUKNITUKE. PULPIT, CHANCEL SCREEN, and PEWS of the date 
cir. 1640, are interesting and in fairly good preservation; on the 
south side the original pew hinges remain. 

FONT : Ancient, possibly 14th century. Looks as if an inter- 
mediate member, octagonal in form, had been removed from 
between the basin and base. 

A brass pulpit light of excellent design, dated 1713. There are 
two monuments described in Hutchins. 

HISTORY OF THE CHURCH KECORDED IN ITS STONES : The 
earliest church of which there are any remains was of the 14th 
century ; of this church there still remain wall, porch, moulding 
in the inside of the north chancel window, at which time there 
probably existed an early tower. 1st restoration : Perpendicular 
period, when the tower was built and the cinquefoil Perpen- 
dicular windows were inserted. 2nd restoration : 1640. Some 
of the walls were rebuilt, and most of the windows were 
tinkered and debased in Tudor style and the carved oak work 
added. 

It will be noticed that the tower is out of centre with the 
church ; this may be accounted for in two ways : either the early 
church was a Norman structure with a narrow south aisle, of which 
the arcade was taken down to increase the accommodation when 
this roof was put up, or the church has been enlarged by putting 
back the north Avail, as w r e know was done at Woodsford. If there 
was a Norman aisle the width of it would have been 5ft. or 6ft. 
internally. 



58 CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OP DORCHESTER. 

16. MARTINSTOWK 

The church as it stands is mainly of the 15th century. 

The CHANCEL was wholly rebuilt at that time, the walls, 
windows, door in the south side (now blocked up), the piscina 
with aumbry above, the excellent roof (now concealed by the 
plaster ceiling), are all of the period. The cill of the window on 
the south side was carried down to form a sedilia ; the seat seems 
inconveniently high above the floor, but there are clear tokens that 
the floor at the east end of the chancel was originally much higher. 
On either side of the east window is a bracket supported by a 
pillar ; these brackets presumably were for images.* 

The roofs throughout the church are of 15th century construction, 
and are very good for a country church. 

The TOWER pinnacled and embattled, of three stages, is also of 
the Perpendicular period ; the turret at the side is later than the 
tower. 

When the walls of the church towards the west end were 
repaired some years ago MURAL PAINTINGS were found upon them ; 
they are believed to be still there underneath the whitewash. 

The FONT, of Purbeck marble, is probably Saxon (plate 4). 

The very peculiar arcade dividing the nave from the aisle calls 
for some remark ; that there was an aisle here anciently is certain 
from the bases of the columns, which are undoubtedly ancient. 
That the arcade has not been rebuilt since the 15th century seems 
probable from the fact that the roof of the aisle is of that style. 
The stonework of it until recently was coloured. A few years ago 

* "In the 'Concilium Provinciale Cashelense,' Provincial Council of 
Cashell in Ireland, held A.D. 1453, it was enjoined that in every church 
there should be at least three images namely, of S. Mary the Virgin, of 
the crucifix, and of the patron of the place, in honour of whom the 
church was dedicated. But besides the images thus specially enjoined 
and required to be placed in every church at the expense of the 
parishioners, many other images of saints, or such as were so esteemed, 
were made at the costs of and presented by individual benefactors, or 
left by will to churches ; and the brackets on which they were placed 
are still retained, mostly projecting from one side, or both, of an east 
window." "Principles of Gothic Ecclesiastical Architecture Bloxam. " 



CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OF DORCHESTER. 59 

the colouring was chiselled off by masons, which accounts for the 
new face upon the stone. Above the chancel arch, which is of 
very debased character, are the Royal Arms of George II., and on 
the west wall of the aisle is a remarkable painting on an old oak 
panel representing King David playing on a harp : the frame is not 
the original setting of the painting, before the gallery was taken 
down it, decorated the front of it, what position it originally 
occupied in the church is not known. 

17. MORETOK 

The original church consisted of a chancel and a nave with a 
tower, which was on the south side of it and in the centre of that 
side. To the east of the tower was a chapel dedicated to the 
Holy Trinity ; this chapel was rebuilt and converted into a family 
pew in 1773. A sketch made by Miss Phyllis Wollaston in 
1775, now in the family archives of the lord of the manor, shews 
the old church as it was after the rebuilding of this chapel. The 
vestry on the west of the tower was added in 1776, when the stone 
steps shewn in the sketch as leading from the outside to the west 
gallery were removed to make room for it. The tower and nave 
were rebuilt at the same time, and the apse added in the place of 
the ancient chancel. The north aisle was built in 1840 ; there was 
no aisle previously on this side of the church. 

There is not a great deal in the church which will interest the 
antiquary, the church having been rebuilt so recently. 

The basin of the font is of the 15th century, and there are two 
arches of the same date on the south side of the nave, both much 
renewed, and one of them brought from another part of the 
church. 

In the chapel is a well preserved brass to the memory of 
James Frampton, some particulars of which being given in 
Hutchins need not be repeated. The kneeling figure is represented 
without sallet or helmet, as is usual in brasses of the date. He is 
habited in plate armour, the shoulder pieces are broad, and there 
are large tassets in front over a skirt of mail, which is divided for 



60 CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OF DORCHESTER. 

convenience of riding ; round the neck is an upright neckguard of 
plate, and on the feet broad-toed sollarets. He is armed with 
sword and dagger. Except the sollarets the armour is of an 
earlier date than 1523, which is the date of the "brass; 1500 would 
be about the date of the armour. (See monumental brass to 
Sir Humphry Stanley in Westminster Abbey. Hewett's "Ancient 
Armour in Europe " supplement, page 58.) 

The memorial in white Carara marble, erected in 1762 to the 
memory of Mary, the wife of James Frampton, executed by 
Peter Matthias Van Gelder, of Amsterdam, should be noticed for 
the exquisite carving, in the border, of flowers, which are treated in 
a naturalistic, not conventional, manner. An engraving of this 
monument is given in the earlier edition of Hutchins' "Dorset." 

In the west window of the nave, and in the east window of the 
north aisle, are heraldic medallions in painted glass. On comparing 
the arms represented in them with the descriptions given in the 
first edition of Hutchins' " Dorset " of windows in the old mansion 
house, it will be seen that these windows must have been removed 
to the church from thence. The painted glass belongs to the latter 
half of the 16th century ; one of the medallions is dated 1585, and 
from the character of the painting it is clear that all of them were 
painted about that time. The method of painting employed is the 
enamel. Enamel colours were invented about the middle of the 
16th century. Their first use was to give depth and detail to 
mosaic glass windows ; it was not until some time after their 
discovery that glass was painted wholly in enamel colours. These 
paintings, therefore, are not late in the style. 

18. MONKTON. 

NORTH SIDE : PORCH ARCH, late Decorated. CHURCH DOORWAY, 
Norman. WINDOWS, generally 15th century, much debased. EAST 
WINDOW, 15th century. QUOINS OF CHANCEL, externally 12th or 
13th century. Under the east window is a 13th century buttress, 
the top of the buttress has been cut off, it looks as if originally it 
was continued up the gable with a 13th century window on each 



CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OF DORCHESTER. 61 

side of it, supporting the small cot which contained the sanctus 
bell. 

ARCADE WITHIN THE CHURCH, 15th century. 

TOWER, late 15th century. There are some indications which 
lead one to suspect that the core of the tower may be Early English. 

FURNITURE. FONT : The basin and a portion of the pedestal 
14th century (late). 

PISCINA : Originally in the south aisle, 15th century. 

SCREEN : The head of the ancient screen is inserted in the base ; 
the date is late 14th century, style Decorated English, approaching 
Flamboyant. 

RESTORATION OF THE CHURCH in 1870. At this restoration the 
north wall, which was Norman, was taken down ; it was very thick 
and of rubble, built upon the surface of the ground without founda- 
tions.* To find a solid foundation for the new wall the masons 
had to go down six feet. Into this wall oaken beams had been 
built, the wood had perished, little more than dust was left ; { the 
use of wood in stone walls by the Normans may have been a relic 
of the Roman practice. "Turn in crassitudine perpetuee talese 
oleaginece ustilatee quam creberrimse instruantur uti utrseque muri 
frontes inter se, quemadmodum fibulis, his taleis conligatae eeternam 
habeant firmitatem, &c." (Vitru, lib. 1, cap. 5.) 

The roof was waggon-headed, plastered with one moulded rib 
dividing the nave from the chancel. The chancel was shorter than 
the present one, the ancient screen, the base of which was found 
in situ between two high pews, being on the east side of the rood 
loft doorway. This base, which was much decayed, consisted of an 
oak framework with three plain panels on either side, the head of 
the screen was found upon the base, and is inserted in the new 
screen in a position similar to that in which it had been found. 

* It seems to have been in Saxon and Norman times a common 
practice to build upon the surface of the soil without foundations ; the 
soil, however, was no doubt well rammed. Of one church built in Saxon 
times it is recorded that the soil was beaten together by means of a 
battering ram. 

t Cavities left by the decay of oaken ties in Norman walls were to be 
seen at Dinas Powis, Brunlaise, Rochester, and Lincoln Castles. 



62 CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OP DORCHESTER. 

There was a circular staircase leading to the rood loft, the upper 
doorway to which was a small square opening, the stone steps, with 
the exception of the uppermost one, which is now supported by an 
iron bar built in for the purpose, were removed and a doorway made 
in the opposite side of the turret to give access to the organ 
chamber. A plain painted oak 17th century pulpit stood against 
the door of the rood loft turret, entirely blocking it, so that its 
existence was not suspected until the pulpit was removed. The 
door was then revealed, and on opening it the turret within was 
found filled with hay and straw, which must have been there for 
centuries, possibly since Cromwell's visit to these parts, for the 
pulpit was of that date. 

On removing the whitewash from the walls of the south aisle 
15th century wall paintings, rudely executed in outline, were found. 

One altar slab was found in the pavement of the porch turned 
upside down'; this was buried in the chancel. 

The organ chamber with its archways into the chancel and aisle 
were added at this time, the old windows of the church displaced 
by the arches being repaired and inserted in its walls. 

The piscina now on the south side of the chancel was in the 
south aisle, and there were indications that there had been a chapel 
there, possibly formed by a parclose from the first pillar to the wall. 

There were some ancient oak benches (14th century), but these 
were too much decayed to be used again. 

19. BROADMAYNE. 

The CHANCEL : Early English (13th century), contains a triplet 
east window with the characteristic roll moulding round the three 
lights on the inside, three single-light windows, one on the north, 
two on the south, and a piscina with trefoil head, which has been 
re-tooled, all of the same date. In the south wall is a 13th century 
doorway (now walled up). 

NAVE : On the south side partly concealed by the stairway to the 
pulpit is another piscina, and near it a 14th century window. The 
church doorway next to it is of the 13th century. The window to 



CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OF DORCHESTER. 63 

the west of the doorway has a cinquefoil head of the 15th 
century. 

WEST END : A doorway with stoup outside on the south of it 
and a window above, 15th century ; much repaired. 

NORTH AISLE : The window nearest the east end is original and 
of the 14th century ; the other windows in this aisle are copies. 
The arch opening into the vestry is the ancient chancel arch of 
13th century, removed to this spot at the last restoration. The 
arch is not more than six feet in span, and is constructed of a soft 
white stone not unlike chalk, known by the name of CLUNCH. 
This stone was much used in ancient building. It will be found in 
Westminster Abbey, in the front of Exeter Cathedral, in one of 
the chapels at Christchurch, and in this neighbourhood, at Great 
Toller, where an early arch lately discovered is mainly built of it. 
Similar stone is found in the quarries of Beer, near Seaton, in 
Devon. 

The TOWER on the south side of the nave is of two stages 
the lower, 13th century, containing an arch and two windows 
of that date, with a small doorway at the back facing the 
roof, which, with the higher stage of the tower, was added two 
centuries later. 

PORCH : In the porch, within the lower stage of the tower, 
are a stoup with the face cut off and showing the basin in 
section, and a niche ; over the entrance is also a niche of the 
14th century. 

FUKNITURE. FONT : The basin, 15th century, of ordinary 
type ; some of the panels have been chiselled. 

HISTORY OF THE CHURCH AS SHOWN IN ITS STONES : The church 
was built mainly in the 13th century; the greater part of the 
church now 7 standing is of that date. The chancel with its windows, 
the priest's door in the side of it, a portion of the nave walls, the 
tower (lower stage), and the church doorway are all of the Early 
English period, and so is the small arch in the aisle, the removal of 
which from the chancel has ruined the Early English aspect of the 
interior. The heads of the windows are unusually round ; the 



64 CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OF DORCHESTER. 

point can scarcely be discerned in some of them.* This is a local 
peculiarity of the builder. Of the same date is the piscina near 
the pulpit (with drain cut off), where there was formerly an altar 
and a chapel. 

The substitution of the 14th century windows in the nave for 
the narrow Early English windows may have been for the sake of 
obtaining more light. 

In the following century the cinquefoil perpendicular head was 
put into the nave window, and the great west window and door, 
with its stoup, were inserted, an additional stage was added to the 
tower, and a small doorway was cut in the lower stage, by which 
the belfry was reached from the outside. Beneath this doorway is 
a string moulding with sockets cut in it for the beams of a floor. 
How this floor communicated with the church is not clear, as it is 
above the present and was above the ancient roof ; and there is 
nothing to show that there was ever a roof over it, though it must 
have been wide enough for a small room. 

At the last restoration, some years ago, by Mr. Hicks, architect, 
of Dorchester, the north aisle, with its arcade, were added. It was 
at this time that the chancel arch was removed and the present 
wide chancel arch substituted. 

20. STRATTOK 

NORTH SIDE : PORCH with its archway and niche above, Early 
English (late) or Decorated (early). CHURCH DOORWAY : Inner 
arch Tudor, outer arch ancient. WINDOWS, 15th century, pure 
and good. 

EAST END : The quoins are stop chain f erred. Stop chamfers in 
such a position are unusual, except in early work. CHANCEL ARCH : 
Early English (13th century), settled out of shape. There are 
hagioscopes on either side of it. 

* Arches with heads similar in shape may be seen supporting the 
clerestory in the west wall of the south transept in Netley Abbey. They 
are undoubtedly of the Early English period, though possibly late in the 
style. 



CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OF DORCHESTER. OO 

SOUTH SIDE : WINDOWS, Flamboyant (beginning of 15th century). 
SOUTH DOORWAY, ancient. 

TOWER, 14th century period with 15th century insertions and 
additions. 

The spiral staircase in the south-west corner, enclosed in oak 
casing, belongs to the fan tracery period of Henry VIII. reign. 
FURNITURE. FONT, 13th century. 

In the churchyard was a 15th century cross, of which only the 
foundations and steps now remain. 

HISTORY OF THE CHURCH AS RECORDED IN ITS STONES : The 
original church was of Norman construction, built circa 1140. 
This church it is reasonable to suppose was of the type common to 
village churches of the Norman period, a long narrow building, 
whose timber roof was covered with thatch or shingles of wood. 
The Norman church may have been burnt out, or it may have been 
taken down to make way for a larger building ; both hypotheses are 
tenable. That some disaster befel the church is probable, if only 
from the disappearance of the Norman font at so early a period as 
the Early English, whilst the fact that the Early English church 
had entrances on the north, west, and south seems to show that the 
village had extended on all sides of it. 

A piscina belonging to this church was found in a heap of 
stones, the remains of the old chancel. Originally it projected 
from the wall and was supported on a shaft. Of the Early English 
church which succeeded the Norman building, the porch, chancel 
arch, hagioscopes, walls, and font remain. Surmounting the gable 
of the western end was in all probability a bell turret or cage. 
This gave place, a hundred years later or so, to the present tower, 
which belongs to the 14th century period. 

Early in the 15th century the Flamboyant windows were 
inserted in the south side, and later in the same century the 
windows on the north side and the Perpendicular insertions 
in the tower were added the windows in the place of the 
Early English windows. In the heads of the windows are 
fragments of well painted glass the sacred monogram and the 



66 CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OF DORCHESTER. 

monogram of S. Mary in the tracery of one ; in another the 
Tudor rose of Henry VII. 

Since the above was written the rebuilding of the church has 
been commenced. A chancel with organ chamber are to be added to 
the nave ; the ancient chancel arch, with one of its hagioscopes, will 
be removed to the latter. The removal of the whitewash from the 
walls disclosed wall paintings of different dates over every part of 
the church ; on the splay of a window on the north side was a good 
design of the 15th century, on the west end of the same side and 
on the south side were figure subjects of the same date rudely 
executed, and on the east end texts of a much later date. In the 
gable at the east end, above the ceiling, were the Royal arms of 
King Charles, well painted, and the motto " Feare God, honor the 
King" above it, the whole filling up the gable. 

The removal of the lead covering revealed an oak timbered roof 
of most massive construction. The tie beams were squared trees 
16x12 inches; the struts between the principals from the tie 
beams to the ridge formed a series of arches, and similar struts 
from those beams to the purlins formed, where perfect, a similar 
series of arches on either side, in planes at right angles with the 
rafters. The effect from the floor, had the ceiling been removed, 
would have been unusual and striking. This roof was originally 
undoubtedly of the 14th century, and, although it had been repaired 
in 1721 and again in 1813, the character of the 14th century roof 
was well preserved. Timber roofs of this period are rare. 
Amongst the carved stones belonging to the Xorman building, 
found in taking down the old walls, were some rich chevron 
ornaments belonging to an arch, the plinth of a pilaster with 
cable moulding, and a portion of some decorative work. 

21. COMPTON VALEXCE. 

This church was rebuilt a few years ago. The tower, of 
ordinary 15th century character, alone remains of the old 
church. The brass described by Hutchins is still in its place. 
An ancient (15th century) piscina is built into the chancel wall, 



CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OF DORCHESTER. 67 

but it has been re-cut so as to be almost past recognition as 
old work. 

22. FROME VAUCHURCH. 

A tiny church, yet not wanting in interesting features. The 
plan of the church is Norman, or earlier. 

The chancel has been built recently. 

On the north side of the church is a doorway (built up) of late 
12th century (Norman) workmanship. The familiar dog-tooth 
ornament which appears in the moulding of the arch is an evidence 
of the lateness of the work in the period. This is the first 
Norman work I have met with in Ham Hill stone. 

The font may be of the same period. The basin, however, has 
no trace of the staples for fastening the cover, which are generally 
to be found in ancient fonts. 

Some of the nave windows, which are rudely cut, may have 
been originally of the 14th century, and so may be the arch of 
the porch, the head of which has been tampered with. These 
have no special interest. 

The narrow chancel arch, as is shown by the foundation, was 
formerly of the same width at the base as it is just below the 
impost. The jambs have been cut away at some time and a pointed 
head substituted for the ancient round head. The original arch is 
not later than the Norman period ; the indented ornament on the 
impost is of that period, and this may have been executed some 
time after the erection of the arch, as was a similar indented 
ornament on an impost of one of the arches in the triforium of the 
Abbey Church of St. Alban's (plate 3). 

23. BRADFORD PEYERELL. 

The church was rebuilt in 1850 on the old foundations. A loth 
century arch and the bowl of the font, which appears to have been 
re-cut, are all that remain of the old church. The font is of 
13th century character. 

The church, poor in other antiquities, is rich in painted glass. 
On the north side of the chancel is a two light window of ancient 



G8 CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY OF DORCHESTER. 

glass. The medallions of which it is composed are described in the 
first edition of " Hutchins' History of Dorset" as having been in the 
east windows of the church with others which have disappeared. 
From a sketch of the old church in the possession of Mr. H. B. 
Middleton it appears that the chancel was of the 13th century 
(Early English) style, and from the remark of Hutchins that this 
glass was in the east windows of the church there is ground for 
assuming that the east windows were an Early English triplet, or 
two single light windows, perhaps divided by a flat pilaster buttress 
which carried the cage of the sanctus bell above the gable. As 
architectural styles are oftentimes much later in remote places than 
in large towns, it is not too much to assume further that the church 
though Early English in style was built very early in the 14th 
century. Now, the subjects of the pictures are outlined and shaded 
in enamel brown and tinted with yellow stain the yellow stain 
was discovered circa 1310 ; that these paintings were made soon 
after the discovery seems certain from the character of the outline 
and shading. There is good reason, therefore, for thinking that 
these windows were painted circa 1315 and that the chancel was 
built at that time. It seems the more likely that the glass was 
coeval with the church, since the subjects appear to relate to the 
" Assumption of the B. V. M.," to which the church is dedicated. 
Of the four medallions, one is a modern imitation of the old, one 
is original, of the other two the head of one and the base of 
another are modern, and so is the border. 

The glass of the east window has a history. In September, 
1845, a meeting of the Koyal Archaeological Institute was held at 
"Winchester, and a short notice of the painted glass in Winchester 
and the neighbourhood was read by C. Winston, an expert in 
stained glass. In the cloisters of Winchester College were two 
boxes of ancient glass which had been removed Mr. Winston was 
informed from the west wind^v of New College Chapel, Oxford,* 

* The Warden of New College states that the contents of these chests 
were given to Winchester College, the glass to be employed in the 
reparation of the chapel windows, and that subsequently the glass was 
granted for the decoration of Bradford Peverell Church, 



CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY Ofr DORCHESTER. 69 

when the window designed by Sir Joshua Reynolds was put up. 
The contents of the boxes were examined by Mr. Winston, who 
found that they contained fragments of 13th and 14th century 
glass. On May 25th, 1850, five years later, Mr. H. K Middleton, 
during the rebuilding of Bradford Peverell Church, went to Oxford 
to see some glass which had been offered to him for the church by 
the Warden of New College, and was said to have been removed 
from the top of the west window of the chapel.* The cases were 
sent to Mr. Nockalls J. Cottingham, an eminent glass painter, who 
reported that they contained 124 feet of ancient glass. There was 
little figure work amongst it, but a large quantity of rich plain 
colour and diaper work, which he thought could be worked into 
draperies of figures, &c. The ornament, he said, was exceedingly 
good. Amongst it was the sacred monogram I.H.S., each letter 
on a separate piece of glass and surmounted by a crown a very 
unusual arrangement. There was also much beautiful canopy 
work. The present east window, which is in the Early English 
(13th century) style, was designed with the intention of utilising 
as much of the Early English glass as possible. The draperies of 
the angels, of our Lord in the vesica piscis supported by them, and 
much of the dark background, is original Early English glass. 
The sanctus, the outer border, and some of the plain glass in the 
grounds is 14th century; the remainder and the design are modern. 
Some of the ancient glass has been retouched. Mr. Cottingham 
proposed to use the 14th century glass, including some of the 
canopy work, in a second window, but this suggestion was not 
carried out, and, with the exception of some fragments still in Mr. 
Middleton's possession, the remainder of the glass was lost. 

In a window on the north side of the nave are the arms of 
William of Wykeham, surrounded by the ribbon of the Garter. 

* From the description of the contents of the cases given by Mr. 
Cottingham, from what we see of the Early English glass, from what we 
know the canopy work of the 14th century would be like, it seems veiy 
improbable that the glass came from the west window only, or that such 
glass as was found in the cases would have been combined in one window 
anywhere. 



70 CHURCHES IN THE RURAL DEANERY Of 1 DORCHESTER. 

The Garter and motto and some of the grounds are original ; 
the remainder is modern work by the painter of the east window. 
"With respect to the date of this ancient glass, Mr. T. F. 
Kirby, Bursar* of Winchester College, writes : " The church 
of Bradford Peverell was one of the churches belonging to 
Winchester College which they had to repair, if not to rebuild, 
soon after they came into possession of it, and the coat of 

arms of their founder, William of Wykeham 

now in the north window of the nave, was no doubt put in to 
commemorate the fact of this restoration or rebuilding." The 
window, according to Hutchins, originally had the words " William 
Wykham, Churche Patron," beneath the Wykeham arms, which 
seems to imply that the glass was inserted by Wykeham himself 
before he presented the tithes of the church to his new 
College of S. Mary, at Winchester, in 1395. This is the more 
likely because he was a patron of the glass painter, and took such 
special interest in that kind of decoration that he bequeathed a 
sum of money for the glazing of windows in Winchester Cathedral ; 
but, as Mr. Kirby points out that the church was repaired (the 
chancel, from the style of the architecture, could not have been 
rebuilt at this time) shortly after Winchester College came into 
possession of it, it is possible that the glass was put in at that time ; 
the difference in the dates would be trifling. 









on *owe of the jlater Jforms of 
lately foxtail) m Dorset 




By the Rev. E. P. MURRAY, M.A., 
F.L.S. 



KNOW of no problem presented by British Botany 
more difficult, yet more fascinating, than that 
which meets us in the study of the fruticose 
Rubi. Most of the plants we meet with are well 
separated from the forms most nearly related to 
them by characters w r hich are sufficiently obvious 
to the botanist, nor do they show any great tendency to run into 
one another. But in some few genera this is far from being the 
case. We shall find no better illustration of these unstable groups 
than is to be found in the familiar bramble of our roadsides, 
heaths, and woodlands. 

The older botanists were content to combine the innumerable 
forms of European shrubby brambles into two or three species 
viz., R. idceus, L. (raspberry), R. fruticosus, L. (blackberry), and 
R. coesius, L. (dewberry). With R. idceus we have no further 
concern to-day ; it is a form of great antiquity, and is well 
separated from its allied forms. There can be no doubt, on the 
other hand, that R. fruticosus and R. coesius are very nearly allied. 
Their combined distribution is given in Hooker's "Student's Flora" 



72 RARER FORMS OF RUBUS LATELY FOUND IN DORSET. 

as " Europe (Arctic), N. Africa, N. and W. Asia, Himalaya." It 
has, however, long been apparent that the plants grouped together 
under these two names exhibit an amount of difference among 
themselves enormously greater than do the majority of plants in 
other genera. Nothing is easier than to make a selection of 
extreme forms. If we could rest there the problem would be an 
easy one ; the extreme forms are abundantly distinct. But they 
are connected together by so many other forms which pass so 
gradually into one another that it becomes in many cases almost 
impossible to assign limits to the forms which so long as we 
confined our attention to the extremes appeared so distinct. What 
is to be done ? Men have been working at the problem for many 
years in Britain, in France, in Germany, in Scandinavia, and we 
have not yet reached any definite conclusions. But I believe that 
there are conclusions to be reached, and I believe also that no 
botanists in the world are in a better position for continuing the 
investigation than are the botanists of England. Clearly, the first 
thing to do is to endeavour to differentiate and define our bramble- 
forms, and to collate them with those of other countries. At 
present we have, I believe, just 100 such forms in Britain, and 
this number, large as it is, will probably be considerably increased. 
In 1869 Genevier described over 200 species from the Valley of 
the Loire, while Focke gives 72 more or less aggregate species as 
found in Germany, under which are grouped a considerable number 
of other less distinct forms. These figures shew considerable 
differences ; but I suppose that in all these countries the number of 
separable forms is about the same. I think it is necessary that 
these forms should be worked out, because, till that is done, the 
task of re-combining them into groups which shall be more or less 
equivalent in value to the species met with in other genera can 
hardly be successfully attempted. Such an attempt has been made 
by Mr. Baker in the " Student's Flora," but seems to have met 
with little favour. In the meantime we should, in my opinion, 
regard the forms of bramble with which we meet as forms rather 
than species, yet forms with a decided tendency to fix themselves. 



RARER FORMS OF RUBUS LATELY FOUND IN DORSET. 73 

Probably, in the lapse of time, many of them will die out, others 
will remain the species of the future. Our work should be (at 
least in part) to determine, as far as possible, which forms are 
likely to survive, and then to group the other forms round them. 

One important point is this : How do the different forms arise 1 
Have all the individuals now assignable to any given form neces- 
sarily a. closer genealogical connexion among themselves than with 
the parent form 1 In other words, may the forms with which we 
are dealing arise independently at different times and in different 
places ; or do all the individuals of each form trace back to one 
common ancestor, the founder of the race 1 If we adopt the latter 
view, we must be prepared to accept a very high antiquity for 
many even of our less distinct forms, for in a very large number of 
instances these forms are common to England and France, to 
England and Germany, to England and Scandinavia. No doubt, 
some forms have come to us by immigration from these countries 
in those long past days when Britain was still a part of continental 
Europe, and have remained practically unchanged since their 
arrival. So, I should suppose, has JRubus suberectus come to 
us from the north, and R. rusticanus (the commonest of all our 
brambles in southern England) from France. But in many cases I 
am inclined to think that a similar environment will tend to 
produce a similar variation, and as bramble forms, even those most 
nearly allied, seein to be very generally sterile (or nearly so) except 
among themselves, these variations will tend to become permanent. 
But they may be quite young forms in one place, very old ones in 
another. I have thought it well to lay before you these few 
remarks, because it is most important that you should understand 
in some degree what the object is which we have before us. It is 
not to multiply names, nor to burden the human memory with an 
indefinite number of minute and almost unintelligible distinctions, 
but step by step to investigate the facts which lie before us, till we 
reach some explanation of them. Nature is surely doing something 
in such a case as this which it is well worth our while to study ; 
but of course we must begin by learning thoroughly to know our 



74 RARER FORMS OF RUBUS LATELY FOUND IN DORSET. 

bramble forms. I believe Dorset to be almost exceptionally rich 
in these, but that may only be because it has lately been (in its 
south-eastern portion) pretty closely studied by several specialists, 
chiefly by the Revs. W. Moyle Rogers and E. F. Linton, of 
Bournemouth, while we have had the great advantage of visits 
from Mr. T. R. Archer Briggs, whose recent death we mourn, than 
whom none had a greater acquaintance with the Rubi of the south- 
west of England, and from Dr. Focke, the great German specialist. 
I myself have also tried to do some little work in this direction. 
In consequence of these investigations I am now enabled to lay 
before you descriptions of several Rubi which have either been 
very lately added to the British lists or are of great rarity in 
England. They are all from the valley of the Stour, or the country 
within a very few miles of it. 

Rubus sulcatus, Vest. Dullar Wood, one mile from Bailey Gate 
Station. I had the good fortune to find this species for the first 
time in July last (1890), but the bushes which I then saw had 
been much cut about, so that I passed the plant as probably a form 
of Rubus suberectus, Anders. A few days later I showed it to Mr. 
Rogers, who at once suggested sulcatus. Mr. Briggs accompanied 
me further into the wood, and soon all doubts were dispelled by 
the discovery of further specimens in fine condition. Several 
plants threw their flowering panicles full ten feet into the air. 
This species can hardly be confused with any other except suberectus, 
and perhaps plicafus. From R. suberectus it differs by its sulcate 
stems, with strong prickles, dilated and compressed at base, stalked 
lower leaflets and sepals reflexed after flowering. R. sulcatus has 
a wide distribution in western Europe, being found in Scandinavia, 
Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and France. It also occurs, but 
very rarely, both in England and Scotland. In all probability it is 
a form of considerable antiquity. Areschoug suggests that it 
appeared originally as a modification of R. plicatus. It was first 
recorded as British by Professor Babington in 1886, having been 
found (probably in the previous year) in Perthshire by the late Mr. 
A. Sturrock. Since then it has been reported from a few English 



RARER, FORMS OF RUBUS LATELY FOUND IX DORSET. 75 

counties, but I suspect that states of R. plicatus have been generally 
mistaken for it. Judging from its situation in Dullar Wood, this 
plant should be looked for in damp woods. In this county it can 
hardly be confined to the tiny wood where alone I have yet seen it. 
In the adjoining larger Foxholes Wood I did not see a trace of it. 
I possess in my herbarium specimens from England (Dorset), 
Brunswick, Hanover, and Scandinavia, besides a somewhat doubtful 
plant from Switzerland (Ticino). 

Rubus erytlirinus, Genev. So long ago as 1880 the late Mr. T. 
K. A. Briggs wrote, in the "Flora of Plymouth," "we have a 
bramble very common about Plymouth, certainly of the Khamni- 
folii group, and allied to Lindleianus, which will, I believe, have 
to be described as a new species, should it not be found to be 
identical with some continental one." Dr. Focke has since told us 
that it is the Rubus erytlirinus of Genevier, a plant of western 
France. I believe it will be found somewhat commonly in southern 
England. Messrs. Briggs and Focke have collected it at Arne, at 
Branksome Chine, and at Daggons, in this county. I am inclined 
to refer here also a bramble which is exceedingly abundant in 
Dullar Wood and in parts of Foxholes, though neither Mr. Briggs 
nor the Kev. Moyle Rogers would accept it as absolutely identical 
with the Plymouth plant. It requires further study. R. erytliri- 
nus has been recorded from Cornwall, Devon, Somerset, Hants, 
Gloucestershire, Herefordshire, and Suffolk. According to Mr. 
Briggs it may be distinguished from R. Lindleianus by being much 
less prickly, by having larger and broader flat or convex leaves 
with dentate, or obscurely dentate serrate, divisions ; when any 
waving is present it is only close to the edges. Also by having 
the panicle more pyramidal and less cylindrical, with distant 
branches below, and by far the larger number separate from one 
another, "by having flowers with pink or tinted, not milk-white 
petals, and by producing large fruit. The dentition of the leaves is 
much coarser and more irregular than in R. rhamnifoUus, and the 
under surface is less frequently felted. R. rhamnifoUus also has 
white flowers. See "Journal of Botany," 1890, p. 204. 



76 RARER FORMS OF RUBUS LATELY FOUND IN DORSET. 

Rubus dumnoniensis, Bab. This species was founded by Professor 
Babington in the "Journal of Botany" for November last (1890) 
in order to receive a plant from the neighbourhood of Plymouth, 
which had previously been assigned to R. incurvatus. Focke 
thinks that it may be the same as the R. rotundatus of P. J. Miiller, 
but will not speak decisively. He says : " It is near R. incurvatus, 
which may be, however, distinguished by its shorter prickles, 
smaller pink flowers, and long narrow panicle." R. dumnoniensis 
has large white petals and long slender prickles, reminding one of 
those of R. affinis. It has been recorded from near the Lizard, 
Cornwall (Focke) ; about Plymouth (Briggs and Focke) ; S. Hants 
(Briggs) ; Derbyshire (Rev. "W. R. Linton). I have myself seen it 
about Bournemouth (Hants) and between Sturminster Newton and 
Fifehead Neville (Dorset), in both which places it was pointed out 
to me by the Rev. W. R. Moyle Rogers. 

Rubus leucandrus, Focke. For such knowledge as I possess of 
this form I am indebted to Mr. Rogers. The species was described 
by Focke in 1875 from N.W. German specimens. It is nearly 
related to R. villicauUs, from which it differs by its smaller 
prickles, its leaflets strongly acuminate, and its panicle leafless in 
the upper part. The last character does not, I think, always 
hold good. Dr. Focke saw the plant near West Moors and Daggons 
in this county, and I have myself seen it in Piddle Wood, Stur- 
minster Newton ; in a rough field near Dullar Wood, both in this 
county ; and in Bournemouth (Hants). 

Rubus Mrtifolius, Kalt. This grows abundantly in Bere Wood, 
where I gathered it for the first time in August, 1885. It is a 
striking plant, and when well developed can hardly be mistaken. 
But it is apt to shade off in the direction of R. leucandrus, and 
possibly these two may prove eventually to be the extremes of one 
species. This idea has been suggested to me partly by the 
examination of specimens in Mr. Rogers' herbarium, and partly by 
the fact that Dr. Focke, who named the Bere Wood plant R> 
hirtifolius, remarked that it was the same as another which I had 
sent to him under that name. This referred to a Plymouth plant 



RARER FORMS OF RUBUS LATELY FOUND IN DORSET. 77 

received from Mr. Briggs, which is, I think, essentially the same as 
our plant. Yet across that plant Dr. Focke had written u R. 
leucandrus, var. T It is a point which can only be decided by further 
study. The R. liirtifolius of Bere "Wood is an exceedingly hairy, but 
quite eglandular plant, with a very soft under surface to the leaves. 

Rulus pyramidalis. Kalt. A very beautiful bramble, long 
confused with R. liirtifolius, from which, however, it seems to be 
abundantly distinct. The panicle is truly pyramidal (whence the 
name) and is plentifully furnished with glands. But I find no 
glands on the barren stem in the only specimens to which I have 
access. The stems seem also to be much less hairy than in ./. 
liirtifolius (at least as it is found in Bere Wood). 

R. pyramidalis occurs by a bushy roadside just to the south of 
Bere Wood, where it was found by Mr. Briggs and myself in July 
last. It must not be confused with R. pyramidalis, Bab. 
(= R. longitliyrsiger, Lees), a very different plant, belonging to the 
glandulose division of the brambles, and as yet unknown as a 
Dorset plant. 

Rubus anglosaxonicus, Gelert. This plant seems to me to require 
further study. It is said by Focke to be intermediate between 
It. mucronatus and R. Radula, but I think that its affinities are 
more with R. macropliyllus than with the former of these two. 
Indeed, I suspect that it is often confused with R. macropltyllus, 
from which, however, its glandular stem and panicle should easily 
distinguish it. Focke tells us that the stems of R. Radula are much 
rougher, from numerous equal aciculi ; its leaflets are narrow and 
acuminate and its sepals are usually reflexed. R. mucronatus will 
be easily distinguished by the shape and serrature of its leaflets. 
Very curiously R. anglpsaxonicus seems to have first been recognised 
as distinct at Copenhagen, where it was grown from seeds sent 
from Plymouth under the name of R. macropltyllus. Focke 
records it from Hampshire. I have it from Wells, Somerset ; from 
Xorth Devon (Rogers) ; and from the neighbourhood of Bailie 
Gate, in Dorset. It is said to occur also in N.W. Germany, where 
it is local, and in France. 



78 RARER FORMS OF RUBUS LATETY FOUND IN DORSET. 

Riibus melanodermis, Focke. In 1886 the Rev. W. M. Rogers 
observed a bramble new to him growing abundantly on Puddletown 
Heath, and between Rampisham and Evershot, in this county. 
This was subsequently determined by Prof. Babington 
to be R. melanoxylon, Miill et Wirtg. Dr. Focke has since pointed 
out that this is not the case, and in May, 1890, he described it as 
a new species under the name of R. melanodermis. He adds, 
however, that it may possibly be a variety of the species to which 
Babington has ascribed it. However this may be, it is one of our 
most marked brambles in South Dorset, extending from its original 
station westwards to Bournemouth, and for some distance into Hants. 
It is often abundant. I have it from near Wool, Wareham, 
Bailie Gate, Studland, and Branksome. Babington places it under 
the Koelileriani ; but this hardly seems to be its right place. I 
think it has affinities with several other species e.g., R. Bloxamii, 
and perhaps R. infestus. One of its most marked features consists 
in the shape of the terminal leaflet, which ends in an abrupt 
cuspidate point. I have seen nothing quite like this in any other 
bramble with which I am acquainted. 

Rubus plintliostylus, Genev. This form was added to the British 
lists in 1887 by Prof. Babington on the strength of specimens 
collected by the Rev. W. Moyle Rogers in Minster Valley, E. 
Cornwall, in June, 1886. These specimens (some of which I have 
seen in Mr. Rogers' herbarium) are very immature, but Prof. 
Babington seems to have had no hesitation in assigning them to 
Genevier's plant. Since then nothing more had been heard of 
the plant in Britain until in November last I submitted to Prof. 
Babington a bramble which I had collected in the previous August 
in Foxholes Wood, near Bailie Gate, and in hedges by the side of 
the road from Bailie Gate to Hamworthy. I had supposed it to 
belong to R. Koehleri, though not quite agreeing with any of the 
named forms. The Professor, after a careful comparison with 
Genevier's original specimens (now in the Cambridge Herbarium) 
referred it to R. plintliostylus a determination with which M. 
Rogers, to whom I afterwards showed the plant, is disposed to 



RARER FORMS OF RUBUS LATELY FOUND IN DORSET. 79 

concur. If these gentlemen are correct I think that R. plintlwstylus 
must be placed as a sub-species under R. Koehleri. The characters 
on which Genevier lays most stress are the leaflets wedge-shaped at 
the base, stems very pricldy, sepals very spreading. In the Dorset 
plant the armature is weaker than I should have expected from his 
description. Writing of the Cornish plant Prof. Babington says 
"panicle short, few flowered." In our plant the panicle is 
elongated (18 inches cr more) and crowded with flowers. 




n Jfcto mib flat* <pikr0 founb in 

1889 anb 1890. 



By the Rev. O. PICKARD-CAMBRIDGE, M.A., F.R.S., 
C.M.Z.S., &c., &c. 




(WITH PLATE.) 

WO years have passed since my last report : Of the 
first of these years (1889) I have nothing new to 
science to record, though the season was fairly 
favourable, and some rare species were found, some 
of which will be noted presently. The past year 
(1890) has been a tolerably successful one in respect 
to spiders, though the generally cold, damp, and sunless character of 
the season made it anything but a good one in regard to entomology 
in its wider sense. Seasons of this kind have often proved to be by 
no means so inimical to spiders as to insects. Dry, hot summers, 
though they may favour the development of some species, are, on 
the whole, hurtful to the majority of spiders. Considering, therefore, 
that our leisure time has been very much engrossed by other 
matters of greater or less importance, we have reason to be well 
satisfied with what I have now to record of the past two years' 
researches. To summarise these I may shortly say that besides a 
large number of rare and interesting species met with, two are new 
to Britain and three new to science ; one of the former and one of 
the latter having been found in. Dorsetshire. I propose only to 



Proc Dorset X.II&-A l'i-ld (It I, ],'/ A/7 



Zc. 




3c. 






. 





4-1. 



11. 




31. 





1c 




OPCamVilge ^ 
E.Caitelifti. 



~MmtemBr 08 . vrop . 



NEW AND RARE SPIDERS. 81 

make here a few general remarks on these various captures ; the rest 
of the paper will .be occupied by systematic and technical details. 
Among the species captured or brought to my notice in 1889, the 
most noteworthy were Segestria perfida Walck, from Bristol ; 
Liocranum celere Cambr., under pieces of rock at Portland on 
the 26th of April ; Oxyptila Blackwallii Sim. (remarkable from 
the clubbed hairs with which it is clothed), in a similar situa- 
tion on the 10th of May. Marpessa pomatia Walck, one 
of our largest and rarest jumping spiders, together with 
Walckendera pratensis Bl., were found in Wicken Fen, Cam- 
bridgeshire, by my nephew ; Agroeca inopina Cambr., on 
Bloxworth Heath, and Cluliona coerulescens L. Koch, in Bere 
Wood, by one of my sons, who also met with adult males of 
Hahnia elegans BL, among water weeds on the 25th of August 
in a pond on the heath. I had for many years past found females 
of this spider, but had not before succeeded in finding the males. 
Among dead leaves in Bere Wood in October I met with a second 
example of Neriene nefaria Camb., the first (and only other, as yet 
known) example having been found among grass on the cliff near 
Smallinouth Sands, Weymouth, during an excursion of our Field 
Club on the 2nd of July, 1879. Epeiria sdopetaria Clk., occurred 
near Chickerell on the 20th of May. This is a fine species, locally 
abundant in some parts of England, but very rarely met with in 
this county. An adult male of the rare and curiously-formed 
Walckendera jucundissima Cambr., is the only other capture of 
1889 which I shall note here. 

Coming now to 1890, a long day in the Isle of Portland, May 31st, 
yielded us a number of local species, among them being young 
examples of Neon levis Sim., a pretty little salticid, or jumping spider, 
not before met with in England ; its habitat is under fragments of 
rock near Pennsylvania Castle, where also in similar situations we 
found several examples of both sexes of Walckenaera saxicola 
Cambr. This very distinct spider is of great rarity ; it was first 
found near the same spot by myself in July, 1860, and, excepting 
oiice, on Bloxworth Heath, has not been taken since, until this 



82 NEW AND RARE SPIDERS. 

past year ; a subsequent day at Portland, when the Dorset Field 
Club met there (July 16), produced another specimen of Neon 
levis. On the 30th of May we found in a small glen running up 
through the iron-sandstone rock at Abbotsbury spiders unusually 
abundant among the coarse grass and herbage, and among them 
many examples of Oxyptila simplex Cambr., hitherto only found, and 
that very rarely for some years past, on or near the Kectory lawn 
at Bloxworth. Drassus pubescens C. Koch, was also found at 
Abbotsbury, as well as (in great abundance) the pretty little 
Theridion bimaculatum Linn, in all stages of growth, many of 
both sexes being adult. Two rare species of Liocranum (L. celans 
BL, and L. celere Cambr.), were also found in 1890, the former in 
January among moss, near Bloxworth, the latter among heather. 
Another spider of greater popular interest has turned up, 
new to Dorset, Argyroneta aquatica Clk. (though I have always 
suspected its existence there) ; it was found abundantly among 
water weeds on the banks of the river in the Stoborough meadows, 
near Wareham, and, later on, in a pond on Bloxworth heath by 
C. 0. P. Cambridge while hunting for shells. I have abo received 
from Mr. T. W. Stoddart, of Bristol, specimens of Teutana grossa 
C. L. Koch, a fine species of the family Tlieridiidte : these were found 
by him in a cellar, where they appear to be not unfrequent ; hitherto 
it has only been met with once in England, by Mr. Black wall, 
many years ago near Winchester. A fine example of Epeira 
angulata Clerck, a rare and local species, was also sent to me 
from near Bovey Tracey, in Devonshire, by Miss Lilian Gould, 
who found it towards the end of August, 1890, in its large 
orbicular snare woven in a furze bush. On the 25th of June 
we found specimens of a rare and curious species in a swamp 
near Hyde only a second British locality for it Tlieridiosoma 
argenteolum Cambr. This little spider, or one very nearly 
allied, has had a good deal written about it lately by an American 
author, Dr. . McCook, who attributes to it, from his own 
observations, a very singular habit. The American spider spins 
an imperfect orbicular snare ; this it holds taut by a kind 



NEW AND RARE SPIDERS. 83 

of trap-line, which, immediately on the striking of the snare by an 
insect, the spider lets go with a jerk, and thus more effectually 
secures the insect. Dr. McCook appears to be convinced that the 
American and English spider are of the same species, a point on 
which I have some doubts, as I have never yet been able to detect 
any such snare where I have found the English spider in some 
abundance. It is possible, however, that I may have overlooked 
the snare. One of the additions to our British list was made by my 
nephew (Rev. Fredk. 0. P. Cambridge), on the summit of Helvellyn, 
Tmeticus niger (F. 0. P. Cambr.), a fine distinct species new to 
science : this was found under stones, in company with Tmeticus 
sublimis Cambr., another rare species (only found before on the 
Grampians), and Leptypliantes pinicola Sim., new to Britain. 
These three rarities were obtained during a hasty visit one day in 
September last, and augur well for the existence of other yet 
unknown spiders in the same regions. Nearer home in our own 
neighbourhood I have met with in the past year (only for the 
second time) Walckendera ignobilis Cambr., one of the smallest 
known spiders ; as well as a female of Hilaira uncata Cambr.' 
with its white lenticular eggsac, concealed in the crevice of a 
decayed stump. This was the first time I had ever found the 
cocoon of this species, though the spider itself is fairly abundant in 
our swamps. In the month of January I found among moss near 
Bloxw r orth a spider new to science, of the genus Opistoxys Sim. a 
genus separated from Neriene by the peculiar form of the sternum. 
From Ireland an example of a fine species of Tegenaria was sent to 
me by Mr. G. H. Carpenter, of the Science and Art Museum, 
Dublin. It was found at Glenalough in a crevice of a wall of loose 
stones, and is allied to T. atrica C. Koch, but is smaller and more 
nearly allied to T. nervosa Sim., but I think it is distinct ; and 
hitherto undescribed. The last spider on which I shall remark 
here is the fine species of Tarantula T. fabrilis Koch (discovered 
some years ago on Bloxworth heath, and, as yet, apparently confined 
to that locality). It is a very variable species in its appearance, 
not being found at all in some seasons ; but on the ( 18th of 



84 NEW AND RARE SPIDERS. 

September last we obtained several adults of both sexes in the 
course of an hour's work. 



SYSTEMATIC LIST 

OP NEW AND BABE SPIDEBS FOUND IN 1889 
AND 1890. 

ORDER ARANEIDEA. 

FAM : DYSDERID^E. 

GEN: SEGESTRIA (Latr.) 

SEGESTRIA FLORENTINE (Rossi). 

Segestria perfida, Walck. Cambr., Spid. Dors. p. 459. 
An adult male of this fine species taken near Bristol in 1889 
by Mr. T. W. Stoddart, is the only example recorded in Britain 
since its notice by Dr. Leach, many years ago (in the supplement 
to the 4th edition of the Encyclop. Brit., Art. Annulosa), as having 
occurred at Plymouth. Mr. Stoddart has kindly submitted this 
example for my inspection. The glossy green hue of the falces 
seems to be confined to the female. Its much larger size, however, 
and other specific characters will easily distinguish it from 
S. senoculaca Linn, or S. Bavarita C. L. Koch, the only two other 
known British species. 

EAM : DRASSID.E. 
GEN : DRASSUS (Walck.) 

DRASSUS PUBESCENS. 
Drassus pubescens Thorell. Rec., Grit, Aran, p. 110. 

Cambridge, Spid. Dors. p. 20. 

An adult male of this rare spider was found under a stone at 
Abbotsbury in June, 1890, by C. 0. P. Cambridge. 

GEN: CLUBIONA(Latr.) 

CLUBIONA C^ERULESCENS. 

Clubiona ccerulescens L. Koch. Cambr., Spid. Dors. p. 29, and 
Proc. Dors. N.H. and A.F. Club, vol. iv., p. 151, and vol. vi., p. 3. 



NEW AND RARE SPIDERS. 85 

An adult female of this rare spider was found by C. 0. P. 
Cambridge among herbage in Bere Wood, on the 17th of 
September, 1889. 

GEN : AGKOECA (Westr.) 

AGROECA INOPINA. 

Agroeca inopina Cambr. Proc. Dors. N.H. and A.F. Club, vol. 
vii., p. 71, pi. iv., fig. i. 

An adult female was found among heather on Bloxworth heath 
on the 17th of August, 1889, by C. 0. P. Cambridge. This is its 
second occurrence only in this locality. 

GEN : LIOCRANUM (C. L. Koch.) 

LlOCRANUM CELANS. 

Liocranum celans, Bl. Cambr., Spid. Dors., p. 41. 
An immature female of this rare spider was found among moss in 
Morden Park, January 10th, 1890. 

LIOCRANUM CELERE. 

L. celere Cambr. (Sub., celer Id.), Spid. Dors., p. 40. 

Immature specimens were found under pieces of stone at 
Portland on the 26th of April, 1890. An immature example was 
also found under an old turf on Bloxworth heath, in September, 
1890; and another, subsequently, under a stone near Weymouth, 
by C. 0. P. Cambridge. 

FAM : AGELENID.E. 
GEN : AMAUROBIUS (C. L. Koch.) 

AMAUROBIUS FENESTRALIS. 

Amaurobius fenestralis, Stroem. Cambr. Spid. Dors., p. 56. 
This spider, so abundant in some localities in the north of 
England, is very rare in the south. The occurrence of it, therefore, 
at Abbotsbury among loose stones in an old wall is interesting. The 
example referred to was found by Mr. Nelson M. Richardson, who 
kindly sent it to me for examination. 



86 NEW AND RARE SPIDERS. 

GEN : TEGENARIA (Latr.) 
TEGENARIA HIBERNICA sp. n., fig. 4. 

Adult male, length 3J lines. 

Tills spider, though very much smaller, resembles T. atrica, 
C. L. Koch, and other nearly allied species in general form and 
appearance. The Cephalothorax is dark yellow-brown, paler along 
the median line, with a broadish marginal border and converging 
stripes on the thorax of a pale brownish-yellow hue. 

The Eyes are small and in the ordinary position, those of the 
posterior row are equi-distant from each other, but the two 
centrals of the anterior row are slightly further apart than each is 
from its adjacent lateral eye. The four central eyes form nearly a 
square, but its foreside is shortest. The height of the clypeus is 
equal to half that of the facial space. 

The Legs are long 4, 1, 2, 3, moderately strong, of a dull 
brownish drab-yellow hue, unicolorous, armed with longish slender 
spines, bristles, and hairs. 

The falces are rather long, strong, vertical, slightly divergent, 
and darker in colour than the legs. 

Sternum dark brown, apparently with a pale border and central 
stripe, but the specimen being in a dry state and this part 
being much concealed by the legs, its pattern could not be 
satisfactorily seen. 

The Abdomen was too shrivelled to allow of its true colours and 
pattern to be observed, but Mr. Carpenter tells me that when 
captured it very nearly resembled that of T. atrica C. L. Koch. 

The Palpi are moderately long ; the cubital joint is slightly 
shorter than the radial and has, besides lesser ones, two long 
strongish tapering black bristles in front, one at each extremity ; 
the radial joint has a large obtuse subconical prominence near its 
anterior extremity on the outer side, terminating in a tapering 
somewhat spine-like apophysis which ends in a very slightly hooked 
point ; the length of this apophysis exceeds that of the prominence 
of which it is the continuance. The radial joint is furnished with 
hairs and bristles, of which last one near the middle of the foreside 



NEW AND RARE SPIDERS. 87 

is long and stronger than the rest. The digital joint is of the 
usual form, long, rather narrow, being produced into a long point ; 
it is equal in length to the radial and cubital joints together. The 
palpal organs have a strong prominent pointed corneous process near 
the middle, and a long prominent circularly-curved tapering filiform- 
pointed spine is connected with them. 

This spider, which is certainly new to Great Britain and Ireland, 
is, I think, new to science. It is nearly allied to T. nervosa Sim., 
and T. larva Id., from the Eastern Pyrenees, but on a careful 
comparison with the descriptions of those species I believe it to be 
distinct. From our other British and Irish species it may easily 
be distinguished ; from T. Derlmmi (which it resembles nearly 
in size) by the form of tho radial prominence and apophysis, 
and from T. atrica C. L. Koch and T. Guyonii Guer. by its 
small size, unicolorous legs, and the structure of the palpi. From 
T. campestris it may be distinguished by the smaller size of this 
latter species, its more distinct abdominal pattern and annulated 
legs, as well as by the much larger digital joints of the palpi. 

A single adult male was kindly sent to me by Mr. G. H. 
Carpenter, of the Museum of Science and Art, Dublin, by whom it 
was found among loose stones in an old wall at Glendalough, 
Ireland, in September, 1889. 

GENUS : ARGYRONETA (Latr.) 
ARGYRONETA AQUATICA. 

Argyroneta aquatica Clk. Camb. Spid. Dors., p. 471. 

On April 28th, 1890, C. 0. P. Cambridge met with this spider 
in abundance among water weeds while dredging for shells in the 
Stoborough Meadows, near Wareham. Subsequently, September, 
1890, it was also found at Oak o'mire Pond, Bloxworth Heath. 
This is its first record as a Dorset Spider. 

In the description " Spid. Dors." I.e. supra it was omitted to 
mention that on the underside of the abdomen, a little way in 
front of the spinners, is a transverse slit or opening leading to a 
spiracular organ. Whether this is or is not of importance for 
the purpose of classification appears as yet to be uncertain. 



88 NEW AND RARE SPIDERS. 

FAM. : HAHNIID.E. 
GEN. : HAHNIA (C. L. Koch). 

HAHNIA ELEGANS. 

Hdhnia elegans Bl. Cambr., Spid. Dors., p. 69, and Proc. Dors. 
N.H. and A.F. Club, vol. x., p. 130. 

Although I had met with females of this species in spring and 
early summer on Bloxworth Heath, on the margins of ponds, and 
in other localities in the neighbourhood, the first adult males I had 
seen were several found here on the 26th of August, 1889, by 
C. 0. P. Cambridge. 

HAHNIA MONTANA. 

Halinia montana Bl. Cambr. Spid. Dorset, p. 70. 
Abundant in one spot on Bloxworth Heath, both males and 
females adult, on August 6th, 1890. 

FAM. : THERIDIID.E. 

GEN. : TEUTANA (Sim.) (Theridion Auctt. ad partem.) 
TEUTANA GROSSA, fig. 1. 

Theridion versutum Blackw. Cambr. " Spid. Dors.," p. 479. 

Theridium grossum C. Koch. Die Arachn. Bd. iv., p. 112, 
pi. cxl., fig. 321. 

Adult females of this spider were kindly sent to me in 
December, 1890, by Mr. J. W. Stoddard, by whom they were found 
in cellars at Bristol. The only previous occurrence in Great 
Britain is that recorded by Mr. Black wall (near Winchester) in 
Spid. Great Brit, and Ireland, p. 193, pi. xiv., fig. 124, the 
specimen there described being a male. Mr. Stoddard tells me 
that it spins a coarse sheet of web usually across a corner between 
the ceiling and wall. The cocoon is a loose woolly bag about 
half-an-inch in diameter, containing 40 50 eggs. 

GEN. : THERIDION (Walck.) 

THERIDION BIMACULATUM. 

Theridion limaculatum, Linn. Cambridge Spid. Dors., p. 91. 
This pretty spider was found (both sexes) in abundance at the 
roots and among the stems of mixed herbage at Abbotsbury in 



NEW AND RARE SPIDERS. 89 

June, 1890; some were adult, but for the most part they were 
immature. 

GEN : THERIDIOSOMA (Cambr.) 
THERIDIOSOMA ARGENTEOLUM. 

Tlieridiosoma argenteolum Cambr. Spid. Dors,, pp. 428, 572. 

On the 25th of June, 1890, I met with an adult male and 
females of this rare and curious spider in a swamp at Hyde, near 
Bloxworth. Among the females was an entirely black one; 
excepting in colour it did not differ from the others. 

Dr. McCook in his work on " American Spiders and their 
Spinning Work," vol. i., pp. 195, 207, has a chapter on a spider 
which he believes to be of this genus, and, if not identical 
it seems to be of a nearly allied species. The American 
spider spins a somewhat irregular geometric web, which it 
keeps taut by a central line held in its claws, with the slack 
line gathered between its feet. The spider, when an insect comes 
upon its snare, springs it by suddenly releasing the line, when, as 
the author describes it, the slack line sharply uncoils, the spider 
shoots forward, the whole web relaxes, and the spiral lines are 
thrown round the insect. This is repeated several times before the 
prey is seized. I have not yet succeeded in finding T. argenteolum 
in any snare whatever. The localities it inhabits make it peculiarly 
difficult to carry out any observations on the subject. Examples 
kept some time in confinement by my nephew, Rev. F. 0. P. 
Cambridge, showed no disposition to spin any snare at all. 

GEN. : LEPTYPHANTES (Sim.) 

LEPTYPHANTES PINICOLA. 
Leptypliantes pinicola Sim. Aran. de France Tom. v., p. 312, 

fig. 76, 77. 

F. 0. P. Cambridge. Ann and Mag. 

N. H., ser. 6, vol. vii., p. 78, pi. ii., 
fig. iii. 

Several examples of this very distinct little spider (both male 
and female) were found by my nephew, Rev. F. 0. P. Cambridge, 



90 NEW AND RARE SPIDERS. 

under stones near the top of Helvellyn on September 18th, 1890. 
This was its first occurrence as a British species. 

LEPTYPHANTES TERRICOLA. 

Linyphia terricola C. L. Koch. Die Arachn. xii., p. 125, pi. 
425, fig. 1,047, 1,048, and Blackwall Spid. 
Gt. Brit, and Ireland ii., p. 231, pi. xii., 
fig. 163. 
zebrina, Menge. Cambr. Spid. Dors., p. 182. 

Bathypliantes zebrinus, Menge. Preuss. Spinn. i., p. 113, pi. 20, 
Tab. 39. 

Many years ago (towards the end of Mr. Blackwall's life, and 
when his eyesight had greatly failed), I repeatedly received from 
him. examples of a Linyphia sent to him for determination 
labelled Linyphia terricola Bl. These I could not distinguish, 
except by a sometimes smaller size and paler colouring, from his 
Linyphia tennis. I submitted these examples to Dr. L. Koch, who 
agreed with me that they were specifically identical with L. tennis, 
and, not possessing any of Mr. Blackwall's earlier types of L. 
terricola, we concluded that his L. tennis and L. terricola were 
only varieties of the same species. Subsequently, Dr. Thorell, 
when preparing his work on " Synonyms of European Spiders," 
examined some of these examples of L. terricola and came to 
the same conclusion ; his remarks and determinations, Syn. Eur. 
Spid., pp. 65-66, 1870, are, therefore, based on the supposition of 
the identity of Blackwall's two species, L. tennis and L. terricola. 
M. Simon's synonymic determination, Ar. de Fr. v., p. 317, are 
also based on the same supposition, as likewise are those in Spid. 
Dorset, p. 185. Last autumn, however, while hunting over some 
hitherto overlooked bottles of spiders received after his decease 
from Mr. Blackwall's collection, I found one containing specimens 
in good condition labelled " Linyphia terricola" Bl. " types." 
They had been set apart by Mr. Blackwall from his earlier 
captures for the artist's use in illustrating his " Spid. Gt. Brit, and 
Ireland." On examining these I found them to be quite distinct 



NEW AND RARE SPIDERS. 91 

from those Mr. Blackwall (as above mentioned) had returned to me 
as his L. terricola, and in fact to be identical with a species I had 
(Spid. Dors., p. 182) described and recorded as Linypliia zebrina 
Menge. Whether this is really the L. (Bathypliantes) zebrina of 
Menge is another question, but that it is the true L. terricola of 
Koch I feel pretty sure, and that it is at any rate Blackwall's L. 
terricola admits of no doubt. My L. zebrina, therefore, now 
becomes a synonym of L. terricola BL, and this last name (including 
also, as I believe, L. terricola C. Koch, L. zebrina Menge Camb., 
and possibly Batliyphantes zebrinus Menge), will resume its place as 
a substantive species, distinct from L. tennis, Bl. (i.e.\ L. tenebricola 
Wid.). The Rev. F. 0. P. Cambridge in distinguishing, as he does 
most accurately, these two species L. tennis BL, and L. terricola 
Ann. and Mag. N. H. 1891, ser. 6, vol. vii., pp. 74, 77, pi. ii., 
fig. i., ii. gives the latter as a synonym of Bathypliantes zebrinus 
Menge. This can hardly be correct, as, on the supposition that 
Blackwall's and Koch's L. terricola are identical, the name terricola 
has many years priority over zebrinus Menge. 

A great confusion has necessarily arisen out of the above 
mentioned supposed identity of Blackwall's L. terricola and L. tennis, 
owing to Dr. Thorell (followed by M. Simon) having based his 
synonymic conclusions as to these and other allied species on that 
supposition. At the present moment I have not the leisure to 
unravel the questions involved. 



GEN : MICRONETA (Menge, Neriene BL, ad partem.) 

MlCRONETA SUBLIMIS. 

Neriene sublimis Cambr. Spid. Dors., p. 491, and "List of 
Areneidea and Phalangidea of Berwickshire and Northumberland," 
Proc. Berwickshire Nat. Hist. Club., vol vii., p. 314. 

Microneta sublimis Cambr. F. 0. P. Cambr., Ann. and Mag. 
N. H., 1891, ser. and vol. vii., p. 83., pi. ii., fig. vii. 

Examples of this species were found by the Rev. F. 0. P. 
Cambridge under stones on the ascent of Mount Helvellyn, in 
September, 1890. It had previously only been found on the 
Cheviot Hills. 



92 NEW AND RARE SPIDERS. 

GEN : PORRHOMMA (Sim., Neriene Bl., ad partem.) 

PORRHOMMA NIGRUM. 

Tmeticus niger Rev. F. 0. P. Cambridge. Ann. and Mag. N.H., 
1891, ser. and vol. vii., p. 80, pi. ii., fig. iv. 

Examples of this fine species, new to science, were found by Rev. 
F. 0. P. Cambridge, under stones on the top of Helvellyn, in 
September, 1890. It is closely allied to PorrJwmma montigena 
(C. Koch), but is, I think, distinct. The minute description given 
by my nephew (I.e. supra), and his exceedingly accurate figures 
leave little to be desired, excepting that the form of the sternum 
(which is the leading character in the genus Porrlwmma Sim.), 
does not terminate behind " in a broad truncate prolongation," but 
in a rather sharp conical point. This point, however, bends 
upwards towards the pedicle, which unites the thorax and abdomen, 
and might easily be overlooked. 

GEN : OPISTOXYS (Sim., Neriene Bl., ad partem.) 
OPISTOXYS SUBACUTA, sp. n., fig. 3. 

Adult male, length If lines. 

The whole of the anterior part of this spider is yellow, the femora 
and tibiae of the legs tinged with orange. The profile of the caput 
and thorax forms a slight curve with a very small depression just 
behind the occiput. The cephalothorax is glossy, and appears 
to be destitute of hairs. The height of the clypeus equals half 
that of the facial space. 

The Eyes are small and rather closely grouped together in two 
nearly concentric curved rows, all are pearl-white, excepting the 
fore-centrals which are dark, they are seated on black spots, the two 
lateral pairs on tubercles, and the eyes of each of these two pairs 
are contiguous to each other. The eyes of the fore-central pair are 
smallest and contiguous to each other, and each is separated from 
the hind-central eye nearest to it by a diameter's interval. The 
eyes of the hind-central pair are slightly nearer together than each 
is to its adjacent lateral eye, the interval being rather less than a 
diameter. The four central eyes form a small trapezoid, whose 
anterior side is shortest, and its posterior side longest. 



NEW AND RARE SPIDERS. 93 

The Legs, 1, 2, 4, 3, are moderately long, slender ; the spines, 
short and very slender, scarcely more than bristles, one on each of 
the femora, except those of the first pair, which have two, and 
two on the tibiae ; the metatarsi have none. 

The Palpi are of moderate length, and similar in colour to the 
legs, the cubital joint is short, and has a tolerably long and strong 
black tapering bristle near the middle of its anterior margin, the 
radial joint is about equal in length to the cubital, its anterior 
extremity is rather broad or angular, and near the middle of its 
upper side is furnished with some bristly hairs, mostly in a kind of 
fringe near its fore extremity ; the digital joint is large, and has a 
strong lobe on the outer side of a darker yellow brown hue than 
the rest, its extremity is obtuse and bluff. The palpal organs are 
prominent and complex, with various corneous lobes, spines, 
and processes. 

The Maxillce are strong and much inclined to the Labium, which 
is very short, broad, and somewhat hollow truncate. 

The Falces are rather long, not very strong, rather projecting, and 
slightly divergent at their extremities. 

The Sternum is heart-shaped, and its hinder extremity is 
produced into an elongated sharp point between the coxae of the 
fourth pair of legs. 

The Abdomen is oval, glossy, moderately convex above, of a 
pale luteous colour, thinly clothed with coarse hairs. 

A single example of this very distinct spider was found among 
moss in Morden Park, on the 7th of April, 1890. It appears to 
belong to M. Simon's genus Opistoxys, whose chief distinguishing 
character is the sharp pointed prolongation of the posterior end of 
the sternum. 

GEN : HILAIRA (Sim., Neriene BL, ad partem). 

HlLAIRA UNCATA. 

Hilaira uncata Cambr. Spid. Dors., p. 433, and Proc., Dors. 
N.H. and A.F. Club, 1882, vol. iv., p. 151, and 1889, vol. x., 
p. 132. 



94 NEW AND RARE SPIDERS. 

On the 16th of April, 1890, I found an adult female with its 
white lenticular cocoon, in a crevice of an old log, in a swamp on 
Bloxworth Heath. 

GEN : NERIENE Bl. 
NERIENB NEFARIA. 

Neriene nefaria Cambr. Spid. Dors., p, 439. 

An adult female occurred among dead leaves and grass in 
Bere Wood, on the 2nd of October, 1889. The only previously 
recorded example was one of the same sex, found near Weymouth, 
July 2nd, 1879 (I.e. supra, but there given by mistake as a male). 

GEN : WALCKENAERA (Bl.) 

WALCKENAERA PRATENSIS. 

Walckenaera prat ensis Bl., Cambr. Spid. Dors., p. 202, and Proc. 
Dors. N H. and A. F. Club, 1889, vol. x., p. 119. 

An adult male of this spider was taken in Wicken Fen, 
Cambridgeshire, by the Rev. F. 0. P. Cambridge, in 1889. 

WALCKENAERA SAXICOLA. 

Walckeniiera saxicola Cambr., Spid. Dors., pp. 145 578. 

Adults of both sexes of this local and rare spider were found 
under pieces of rock and stone, near Pennsylvannia Castle, Port- 
land, on the 31st of May, 1890. 

WALCKENAERA IGNOBILIS. 

Walckenaera ignobilis Cambr., Spid. Dors., p. 155. 

This, which is one of the smallest known spiders, seems also to 
be among the rarest. One (an adult male) was found at the roots 
of coarse grasses in a swamp, near Bloxworth, on the 3rd of 
April, 1890. In this locality I had found several just after the 
publication of "Spid. Dors.," about 1882, but, though frequently 
working the same spot, have not seen it since until April, 1890. 

WALCKENAERA JUCUNDISSIMA. 
Walckenderajucundissima Cauibr., Spid. Dors., p. 449, 



NEW AND RARE SPIDERS. 95 

On the 9th of November, 1889, I found again examples of this 
rare spider (an adult male and females) in the original locality, 
near Bloxworth, among moss. 

FAM: EPEIRID^E. 

GEN: EPEIRA (Walck). 

EPEIRA ANGULATA, fig. 2. 

Epeira angulata Clerck, Cambr., Spid. Dors. 270. 
A fine example of the adult female of this spider was sent to me 
from Bovey Tracy, Devonshire, by Miss Lilian Gould, by whom it 
was found in its geometric snare in a furze bush in August, 1890 
The only previously recorded localities for this species were 
Bloxworth and Morden Heaths, Dorset, and near Ringwood, Hants. 
The adult male has not yet been found in Britain. 

EPEIRA SCLOPETARIA. 

Epeira sclopetaria Clk. Cambr. Spiders of Dorset, p. 277. 

An example of this very local species was found near Chickerell 
in May, 1890, by Mr. Nelson M. Richardson, of Monte Video, near 
Wey mouth. It appears to be very scarce in this county I have 
only met with it myself on one occasion (near Bloxworth) many 
years ago. It is abundant near Hoddesdon, Hertfordshire, and in 
some other parts of England. 

EPEIRA PATAGIATA. 

Epeira patagiata C. L. Koch. Cambr. Spid. Dors., p. 277. 

During the past year (1890) this spider has been found in some 
abundance by my nephew (Rev. Fredk. 0. P. Cambridge) in 
the neighbourhood of Carlisle. 

FAM : THOMISID^E. 
GEN : OXYPTILA (Sim.) 

OXYPTILA SIMPLEX. 

Oxyptila simplex Cambr. Spid. Dors., p. 324, and Proc. Dors. 
N. H. and A. F. Club, vol. vi., p. 11. 



96 NEW AND RARE SPIDERS. 

Up to May, 1890, the only known British locality for this 
spider has been the lawn of Bloxworth Kectory, but in May and 
June, 1890, it was found in some abundance, both sexes in a state 
of maturity, at the roots of herbage at Abbotsbury, near Weymouth. 

OXYPTILA BLACKWALLII. 

Oxyptila Blackioallii Sim. Cambr. Spid. Dors., p. 318. 

On the 10th of May, 1890, I found several adult females under 
pieces of rock below the Convict Prison at Portland (where the 
original specimens occurred many years ago). Also on the 5th of 
September, 1890, a single example of the adult female occurred in 
a similar position near the caves at Tilly Whim, Swanage. 

FAM: LYCOSID^E. 
GEN: TAKENTULA (Smel.) 

TARENTULA FABRILIS. 

Tarentula fabrilis Clerck. Cambr. Spid. Dors., p. 368. 
This fine but very local and rare spider occurs in several parts of 
Bloxworth and other heaths in the neighbourhood, though in some 
seasons it is difficult to find a single example. The close adaptation 
of its black and hoary colouring to the surface of the heath soil and 
lichens, renders it almost impossible to see it until it moves. On 
the 18th of September, 1890, in company with Mr. Cecil 
Warburton (of Christ's Coll., Cambridge), we found several adults 
of both sexes in the course of an hour's work. 

FAM : SALTICID^E. 
GEN : NEON (Sim.) 

NEON LEVIS. 

Neon levis Sim. Aran. de France torn, iii., p. 211. 
Two immature females of this spider new to Britain were 
found under pieces of rock near Pennsylvania Castle on the 31st of 
May, 1890, and a male, also immature, in the same locality on the 
16th of July. It is very nearly allied to Neon reticulatus Bl. 
(Spid. Dors., p. 404), which it resembles in size. In its general 



NEW AND RARE SPIDERS. 97 

aspect, however, it wants the distinctly reticulated appearance so 
characteristic of N. reticulatus, and the thorax is marked by some 
distinct radiating black lines. The legs also are distinctly 
annulated with black, while those of N. reticulatus scarcely show 
any signs of annulation. According to M. Simon the male is 
unknown, but I refrain from giving a more minute description of 
the one above referred to, as the exact colours and markings are 
scarcely to be relied upon, excepting in the adult state, in which I 
hope to find it during the ensuing season. 

GEN : MARPESSA (Thor.) 
MARPESSA POMATIA. 

Marpessa pomatia Walck. Cambr. Spid. Dors., p. 555. 

An example of this fine and rare spider was found in Wicken 
Fen (near Cambridge), by the Eev. F. 0. P. Cambridge in 1889. 
This is probably a fen species, and, if so, that will account for its 
not having been more frequently met with. Few localities have 
perhaps been less systematically searched for spiders than the fen 
district, in which, however, many new and rare species might be 
confidently expected to reward the collector. 



LIST OF SPECIES ABOVE NOTED WITH REFERENCES TO PAGE, 

PLATE, AND FIGURES. 

Segestria Florentina, Rossi. p. 84. 

Drassus pubescens, Thor. p. 84. 

Clubiona caerulescens, L. Koch p. 84. 

Agroeca inopina, Cambr. p. 85. 

Liocranum celans, Bl. p. 85. 

celere, Cambr. p. 85. 

Amaurobius fenestralis, Stroem. p. 85. 

Tegenaria Hibernica, Cambr. sp. n. p. 86, fig. 4. 

Argyroneta aquatica, Clerck. p. 87. 

Hahnia elegans, Bl. p. 88. 

montana, Bl. p. 88. 



98 NEW AND RARE SPIDERS. 

Teutana grossa, C. L. Koch p. 88, fig. 1. 

Theridion bimaculatum, Linn. p. 88. 

Theridiosoma argenteolum, Cambr. p. 89. 

Leptyphantes pinicola, Sim. p. 89. 

terricola, Blackw.-C. L. Koch p. 90. 

Microneta sublimis, Cambr. p. 91. 

Porrhomma nigrum, F. 0. P. Cambr. p. 92. 

Opistoxys subacuta, Cambr., sp. n. p. 92, fig. 3. 

Hilaira uncata, Cambr. p. 93. 

Neriene nefaria, Cambr. p. 94. 

Walckenaera pratensis, Bl. p. 94. 

saxicola, Cambr. p. 94. 

ignobilis, Cambr. p. 94. 

jucundissima, Cambr. p. 94. 

Epeira angulata Clerck. p. 95, fig. 2. 

sclopetaria, Clk. p. 95. 

patagiata, C. L. Koch p. 95, 

Oxyptila simplex, Cambr. p. 95. 

Blackwallii, Sim. p. 96. 

Tarentula fabrilis, Clk. p. 96. 

Neon levis, Sim. p. 96. 

Marpessa pomatia, Walck. p. 97. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE. 

Fig. 1. Teutana Grossa C. L. Koch. la., spider natural size ; 
15., eyes, from above and behind ; lc., genital aperture. 

Fig. 2. Epeira angulata Clk. 2a., spider enlarged ; 25., ditto 
in pofile ; 2c., profile of lower side of abdomen more 
enlarged ; c', tubercle near epigyne ; 2d., genital aperture 
with its' process and characteristic tubercles d', d". 

Fig. 3. Opistoxys subacuta sp. n. 3d., eyes from above and 
behind ; 35., maxillae, labium, and sternum ; 3c., 
portion of palpus showing form of radial joint. 

Fig. 4. Tegenaria Hilernica sp. n-. 4a., portion of palpus, 
showing form of radial joint; 45., radial joint in 
another position. 



|Uto anb fUr* $0r**t f anb 




By C. O. P. CAMBRIDGE. 



HE following brief paper is a notice of a few rare 
land shells which have been found in this county 
since the publication of Mr. Mansel-Pley dell's 
paper, in volume vi. of The Dorset Field Club 
Proceedings. I have merely mentioned their 
localities and the dates of their capture, with a 
few notes on habitat and habits; full descriptions of the species can 
be found in any of the numerous works published on " British Land 
and Fresh- water Shells." 

The first species I have to notice is Helix Pisana, two specimens 
of which I found on the borders of Muston Down, between the 
village of Winterbourne Kingston and Blandford. I was exceedingly 
surprised to find this species in such a locality, as I believe it is 
generally confined to sandbanks on the sea shore. These two 
specimens were found on a chalk bank in January, 1889 ; one was 
alive and the other dead. They were rather small and resembled 
the Tenby type, though with thinner bands and less distinct 
markings. The Tenby examples (where the species is abundant), 
differ considerably from those taken in Jersey, the latter being much 
larger, thinner, paler, and of a browner hue. I sent the two 
specimens to the meeting of the Conchological Society of Great 
Britain, held at Leeds, in January, 1890, and they were then named 



100 NEW AND RARE DORSET LAND SHELLS. 

Helix Pisana. I have never been able since to obtain any more 
specimens, though a variety of H. virgata occurs there which 
somewhat resembles them. Mr. Mansel-Pleydell mentions (on 
Pulteney's authority) the capture of this species on sandbanks 
between Lulworth and Weymouth. The next species of note is 
Vertigo Moulinsiana. I found a few specimens of this rare shell 
on the stem of bulrushes and other water plants in a swampy 
piece of ground near a large stream in the village of Morden, about 
four miles from Wareham. This was in August, 1889, and at the 
time I supposed them to be a variety of V. antivertigo, but at the 
meeting of the Conchological Society, in January, 1890, they were 
named as V. Moulinsiana. During the months of August and 
September, 1890, I searched carefully at the same spot, and in its 
immediate neighbourhood and took in all about 200 specimens, 
nearly all full grown. They were sitting on the stems of the 
water sedges and rushes, which in many places grew in six inches of 
water. I noticed then they did not appear to move about much. 
In winter the place is often quite flooded with water and the plants 
all die, and what becomes of the shells I do not quite know. I have 
been unable to find any trace of them either in winter or spring, 
and the only time when I can observe them is when the plants are 
all up and flourishing. 

Mr. R. Standen, of Manchester, has kindly furnished me with 
the following information about F. Moulinsiana: " F. Moulinsiana 
was first discovered in England, about 1876, by Mr. Groves, who 
found it in two localities one in Hampshire, and the other in the 
neighbourhood of Hitchin, in Herefordshire, and Dr. Gwyn 
Jeffreys found it at Ware Priory, Herts. It has also occurred in 
Ireland, and was described in Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1878, 
as Vertigo Lilljeborjii (Westerlund), but Eimmer, who saw and 
compared the specimens, seems to think they are all identical with 
F. Moulinsiana. These are all the British localities recorded 
before, and the habitats are the same, viz., marshes on reeds, &c., 
except that of the Irish specimen, which occurred " under stones in 
a damp place." 



NEW AND HARE DORSET LAND SHELLS. 101 

Most conchologists seem to agree in thinking that F. Lilljeljorjii 
and V. Moulinsiana are the same, though I have never myself had 
an opportunity of comparing them. 

Mr. Standen remarks that the specimens I sent him from Morden 
differ from those he has seen, resembling rather V. Lilljeborjii. 

I have noticed that the number of denticles in the mouths of my 
specimens varies from four to five. During August, 1890, 1 found 
the species in two other localities, though only one specimen at 
each, the first at Chamberlayne's Bridges, Bere Regis, on a reed in 
the adjoining water-meadows, the second in the parish of Bloxworth, 
in a locality very similar to that at Morden, being in fact on the 
banks of the same stream at a different part. This latter specimen 
I found in company with F. edentula, of which I took several speci" 
rnens on the grasses which grow there in the month of May, 1890. 
I found a few specimens of F. edentula under sticks and pieces of 
wood in marshy soil at Morden. And in August of the same year, 
besides those found on reeds, I took three specimens by means of a 
sweeping net on the leaves of hazel and sallow bushes in Bere 
wood, parish of Bere Regis. Three other species of Vertigo have 
been taken in Dorsetshire (1), F. pygmaea ; (2), F. antivertigo ; 
(3), F. minutissima. Of F. antivertigo I have myself taken a few 
specimens under logs and sticks in a heath marsh at Bloxworth, 
during the past year (1890). Mr. E. R. Sykes, of Weymouth, took 
F. minutissima in some abundance at Portland, in the autumn of 
1889, and I found a few specimens under stones there in the 
month of June, 1890. I also took one specimen on the opposite 
side of Weymouth bay, not far from Osmington Mills. Dr. Gwyn 
Jeffreys has taken this very local shell at Lulworth, and Mr. J. C. 
Mansel-Pleydell records it from Hough ton Wood. F. pygmaea 
appears to be rare at Bloxworth, and in the neighbourhood, 
since during the past three years I have only found about six 
specimens, though I have searched carefully. All these were 
found either at the roots of grass or under stones in fields. 
At Weymouth, near the two-mile copse (on the Dorchester 
Road), I found in September, 1890, a small colony of this shell 



102 NEW AND RAKE DORSET LAND SHELLS. 

under a heap of stones in a field, where I turned up about thirty 
individuals. 

Besides these I have taken at Bloxworth Rectory Balia perversa, 
on a rubble wall of an outhouse facing north, and Clausilia laminata 
under logs, together with one or two specimens of the variety albida, 
which is a very beautiful object. 

At the beginning of September, 1890, I found one specimen of 
Acme lineata, which has never yet been recorded as taken in 
Dorset. It was under a tuft of grass in a marsh at Bloxworth, and 
I have been unable to find another, though, owing to the red colour 
of the mud, exactly resembling the shell, it might easily be over- 
looked. It is not usually a gregarious shell, and Mr. J. W. 
"Williams in his " Shell Collector's Hand-book," gives as its habitat 
" among decaying leaves and moss in damp situations." It is very 
local and is never found anywhere in abundance. 

I append a list of land and fresh-water shells which I have myself 
taken in this county during the short time in which I have been 
collecting : 

Sphaerium corneuni, Bere Regis. 

lacustre, Aimer ; Weymouth. 
rivicola, Morden. 

Pisidium amnicum, one or two specimens Bere Regis. 
fontinale, Bloxworth. 
pusillum, Bloxworth. 
nitidum, one or two specimens Bere Regis. 
roseum, ditto Bloxworth. 

Unio pictorum, Morden. 
Anodonta cygnea, Morden. 
Neritina fluviatilis, Bere Regis. 

Bythinia tentaculata, Bere Regis ; Morden ; Weymouth. 
Valvata piscinalis, Bere Regis ; Morden ; Weymouth ; Winter- 
bourne Zelston. 

cristata, one specimen, Morden. 
Hydrobia ventrosa, Lodmoor, Weymouth. 
Planorbis nautileus, Bloxworth ; Weymouth. 



NEW AND RARE DORSET LAND SHELLS. 103 

Planorbis albus, Bloxworth ; Bere Regis, 

spirorbis, generally distributed. 

vortex, Bere Regis, Wareham. 

carinatus, \ Morden. 

complanatus,-' Wareham ; Bere Regis. 

corneus, Weymouth. 

contortus, Morden ; Bere Regis ; Weymouth. 

Physa fontinalis, Bloxworth ; Morden ; Bere Regis ; Weymouth; 

Winterbourne Zelston. 
Linmea peregra, generally distributed. 

auricularia, Morden. 

stagnalis, Wareham (one specimen) ; Aimer. 

palustris, Winterbourne Zelston ; Bere Regis ; Morden. 

truncatula, Bloxworth ; Winterbourne ; Chicjverell 
(near Weymouth) ; Morden ; Bere Regis. 

glabra, Bloxworth. 
Ancylus fluviatilis, Bere Regis. 

lacustris, Bloxworth ; Morden. 
Testacella Maugei, Corfe. 

Succinea putris, ^ . ,, r . 

V Bere Regis; Wool. 
elegans, J 

Yitrina pellucida, generally distributed. 
Zonites cellarius, generally distributed. 

alliarius, Bloxworth ; Morden. 

nitidulus, generally distributed. 

,, purus, Bloxworth. 

radiatulus, Bloxworth. 

nitidus, Morden ; Bere Regis. 

,, glaber ? Bloxworth. 

crystallinus, generally distributed. 

,, fulvus, ditto, though not so common. 
Helix aculeata, Bloxworth ; Weymouth. 

nemoralis, generally distributed. 

,, arbustorum, one specimen Bere Regis. 

aspersa, generally distributed. 

,, rufescens, ditto. 



104 NEW AND RARE DORSET LAND SHELLS. 

Helix concinna, Bloxworth. 

hispida, generally distributed. 

sericea, Bloxworth. 

,, fusca, Bloxworth ; Bere Regis. I took by means of a 
sweeping net on underwood in Bere Wood in 
August and September, 1889 and 1890 ; also a 
few specimens on hazel in a marsh at Bloxworth. 

Pisana, Winterbourne Kingston. 

virgata, on downs everywhere. 

caperata, ditto. 

ericetorum, Blandford ; Portland. 

rotundata,, generally distributed. 

rupestris, Portland ; Isle of Purbeck. 

pulchella, Bloxworth; Weymouth. 

lapicida, Bloxworth ; Portland. 
Bulimus acutus, "Weymouth ; Portland. 

obscurus, Bloxworth ; Weymouth ; Portland. 
Pupa secale, Lulworth ; Portland. 

umbilicata, on walls everywhere. 

marginata, Weymouth ; Portland. 
Vertigo antivertigo, Bloxworth. 

Moulinsiana, Morden ; Bloxworth ; Bere Eegis. 

pygmaea, Bloxworth ; Weymouth. 

edentula, Bloxworth ; Morden. 

minutissima, Weymouth ; Portland. 
Clausilia rugosa, generally distributed. 

laminata, Bloxworth. 
Balia perversa, Bloxworth. 
Cochlicopa lubrica, Bloxworth. 
Achatina acicula, Portland (one specimen). 
Carychium minimum, generally distributed. 
Cyclostoma eiegans, Bloxworth ; Winterbourne Kingston ; 

Portland ; Bere Regis. 
Acme lineata, Bloxworth (one specimen). 
Total 80 species. 



(External (Srototh of <Iurborne 



A Paper read before the Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian 
Field Club, August 28th, 1890. 



By the Rev. Canon B. M. YOUNG, Head-Master 
of Sherborne School. 




HERBORNE School, as the Free Grammar School 
of King Edward Vlth is styled in the earliest 
documents we possess the "King's School" being 
an appellation of comparatively recent times 
was the first-born child of that goodly family 
of Grammar Schools, which sprang out of the 
religious convulsion of the 16th century, commonly known as the 
Reformation. Hence it may fairly claim to have been the earliest 
Protestant School established in the Kingdom. Whether the 
initiation of the great educational movement which has shed lustre 
upon the reign of the sixth Edward can be attributed in any 
degree to the prescience of the boy-king himself may fairly be 
questioned. In the case of Sherborne School it is more than 
probable that the Protector Somerset, who in 1550 was actually in 
possession of Sherborne Castle, furthered the petition of the 
inhabitants of the town and of the country round to the Crown, for 
the grant of the disused Chantries, from which its endowments are 



106 THE EXTERNAL GROWTH OF SHERBORNE SCHOOL. 

derived ; and in the window which we placed in our Library in 
1887, as a memorial of Her Majesty's Jubilee, we have ventured 
to presume upon this strong probability, as though it were actual 
history. Our Charter, owing to the care with which for more than 
300 years it was stowed away among the muniments of the Alms- 
house, is in singularly good preservation, and bears date May 13th, 
1550. This gives us precedence over the School founded by 
Edward Vlth at Bury St. Edmunds, which obtained its Charter in 
August of the same year, and that of Bruton, which was founded a 
few months later. We speak of the School as re-founded by 
Edward VI. The acts of the preceding reign had swept away 
the free schools of the Monasteries, together with the wealthy 
foundations which supported them ; and to the serious evil, which 
had resulted from the destruction of the Abbey School at Slier- 
borne, may be traced, if not the plan, at least the first step in 
carrying out the plan, for utilizing the endowments of such religious 
houses and Chantries as still survived the general wreck, for the 
establishment of Grammar Schools, where the principles of the 
reformed faith might be engrafted upon young minds, which as yet 
had no prejudice of their own against them, and loyalty to the 
Throne might be inculcated untrammelled by monastic influence. 
But of the School of pre-Edwardian times we have no records 
beyond the mention of a ruined " Schole-house," which, at the 
date when the letters patent were granted constituting the new 
School, was in the possession of Sir John Horsey, Kt., the lay 
impropriator of the dissolved Monastery, and the grotesquely 
carved miserere in the Choir of the Abbey Church, which proves 
that, whatever may have been the quality of the education im- 
parted, the method of its inculcation was at least drastic. It is a 
common error to suppose that the Monastery Schools suppressed at 
the dissolution were conducted by the Monks themselves. The 
garb of the Scholemaster represented in the miserere is that of a 
secular, and, as a matter of fact, the relation of the Monasteries to 
the Schools supported by them was at this time, and had been for a 
considerable period, that of beneficent landlords employing seculars 



THE EXTERNAL GROWTH OF SHERBORNE SCHOOL. 107 

to teach gratuitously in the Schools maintained at their cost. 
Indeed, it is more than probable that, at the time when the Abbey 
was dissolved, none of its members possessed sufficient learning 
even for the moderate requirements of the secular education of the 
day. 

In letters patent, then, bearing date May 13th, 1550, the 
Chantries of Martock, St. Katherine in Gillingham, St. Katherine 
in Ilminster and Lytchett Matravers, together with the free Chapel 
of Thornton in the parish of Marnhull, all of them newly sup- 
pressed by a supplementary act in the first year of Edward's reign, 
or they would hardly have escaped the rapacity of Henry's 
favourites, were appointed " by the King's Majesty " for the 
establishment of a Free Grammar School (Libera Schola Gram- 
maticalis) in the town of Sherborne ; the income from which 
sources amounted at the time to 31 marks, or ,20 13s. 4d. One 
mark was to be paid annually to the Crown as quit-rent, and 
continued to be paid for several years by the Governors, as feoffees 
of the King's Manor of Stalbridge. It was left to the trustees, 
twenty " discreet and honest inhabitants " of the Town, who are 
constituted a Corporation, with a common seal, " able to sue and be 
sued," to dispose as they thought fit of the rents and profits of the 
estates, to elect masters, and to frame orders, or statutes, according 
to the changes of time and circumstance, with the advice of the 
Bishop of Bristol ; and the first care of the " Companie," as they 
style themselves in the first extant Minute-book, which dates back 
to 1591, must have been to give a local habitation to the School, 
which so far existed only in endowment and in name. 

This they appear to have done by obtaining permission of 
Sir John Horsey to use the old " Schole-house," then in ruins, at a 
nominal rent of 4d. per annum, which is duly accounted for in the 
earliest account we possess, that of the 3rd year after the granting 
of the letters patent. In the following year, however, we discover 
from the curious " accompte " of Jarvis Ayshelee, " Warden and 
Receptor of the rents and revenues of the said Schole, from the 
ffeaste of St. Mychell the Archangell, in the ffirste yere of the 



108 THE EXTERNAL GROWTH OF SHERBORNE SCHOOL. 

reygne of our Soverayn Ladye Qn Marye, until the said ffeaste of 
St. Mychell the Archangell in the ffirste and seconde yere of the 
reygne of Phillippe and Marye, by the grace of God, of Englonde, 
Ffraunce, Napilis, Jerusaluni, and Irelonde Kynge and Queue," 
that they gave ,40 to Sir John Horsey in part payment for this 
old " Schole-house and the Plumbe House, with two gardens, 
11 whereof one is called the Abbey Lytten, with all the void ground 
" coming of the late Chappell called the Bow, and the Ladye 
" Chappell, and all the ground belonging to the said Schole-house 
" for the space of 99 yeres." In the next year they pay 
,10 more, and smaller sums in succeeding years, apparently as 
quit-rents; until in 1629 the property is acquired absolutely, in 
consideration of the payment of .12 to the trustees of one Coker, 
who possessed the reversion. 

From an entry in the Minute-Book, bearing date June 12, 1596, 
it appears that this old "Schole-house," of which no trace now 
remains, was on the North side of the Church, probably adjoining 
Bishop Roger's Chapel, now the Vestry ; a committee of the 
Governors having been appointed in that summer " to make 
convenient seats for the schollers in the rome adjoining Sir John 
Horsey 's yle," which must have been a smaller room connected 
with, or in close proximity to it. 

The premises thus acquired of Sir John Horsey formed the 
nucleus out of which the School, as we now see it, has been 
developed. Originally they included the two ruined Chapels of 
our Ladye and our Ladye of Bow; the grave-yard of the Monastery, 
which covered the ground occupied by the present entrance court 
to the East of the Church, and a portion of what is now the Head- 
Master's lawn ; a ruined Dortoir, or Dormitory, of which a trace 
still remains in the marks of the pitch of its roof visible upon 
the wall of the North transept ; the Schole-house already 
mentioned ; the Plumbe-house, and the Conduit-house, then 
standing in the centre of the Monastery quadrangle, now the upper 
portion of the lawn. The site, on which the Head-Master's private 
dwelling stands, was occupied in part at this time by the old Priory, 



THE EXTERNAL GROWTH OF SHERBORNE SCHOOL. 109 

subsequently converted into a Poor-house, but this was not acquired 
until 1749. 

Upon the acquisition of these premises in 1554, the dilapidated 
Schole-house was pulled down, as we discover from various items 
in the accounts rendered yearly by the "Wardens on lolls of 
parchment, of which we possess a large number, and a new room 
was erected, apparently on its site, at a cost of .10 15s. 3d., the 
old materials being no doubt employed in its construction. It is 
likely that the statue of the King, which is of Portland stone, was 
then first set up in the School, but of this there is no record. Five 
years later, in 1559, the two Ladye Chapels were converted into a 
residence for the Master, with the co-operation of Jewel, Bishop of 
Salisbury, to which See the Castle and adjoining estates had been 
again restored. The picturesque ornamentation of the South front 
was defrayed by subscription of the Trustees and others, whose 
initials and shields appear beneath the Arms of the King, at a cost 
of 3 11s. 4d. 

And so things continued for nearly 50 years. But though there 
is no mention of any further building until the beginning of the 
next century, the entry of 1596, to which I have already alluded, 
seems to indicate that the number of scholars had begun to exceed 
the accommodation, and that a second room was adapted for 
teaching purposes. 

In March, 1605, during the Mastership of Mr. Grove, it is 
ordered that .100 be employed in the building of a new Schole- 
house, bj yearly provision to be made, " unless Mr. Anketell shall 
be compounded of his quit-rent," which last clause would seem to 
imply the adoption of a new site. In the following September 
paymasters and supervisors of the new buildings are appointed, 
and in February, 1606, the work is commenced, Roger Brinsmead 
being employed to do the mason's and John Beare (?) the 
carpenter's work. The sum of 37 is lent by certain of the 
Trustees, among whom the well-known Sherborne names of 
Hoddynott and Ridout figure for the first time, for the purpose 
of completing it. 



110 THE EXTERNAL GROWTH OF SHERBORNE SCHOOL. 

This building was still prior, however, to the present Dining- 
hall, which was not erected until 1670, 63 years later. In the 
opinion of Dr. Harper, to whose valuable Tercentenary Address I 
am largely indebted, it consisted of what is now the Matron's 
Room, still remembered by Old Shirburnians as the Library in 
which Dr. Lyon taught, and the panelled Dining-room below it, 
now used as a Servants' Hall. Beyond it must have been erected 
certain buildings to serve as a brew-house and a wood-house, against 
which in 1642, 35 years later, "such chambers as may be 
conveniently raised," were ordered to be built, apparently for the 
use of the " Tablers," or Boarders, who had begun to be received 
in the Master's house. These were pulled down in 1835, during Dr. 
Lyon's Headmastership, to make room for what are known as the 
Bell Buildings. 

"With all deference to Dr. Harper, I am inclined to think that 
the portion of building now standing between the entrance of the 
Bell Buildings and the Dining-hall, was but an adjunct to the 
School-room itself, which must have been of very imperfect 
construction to have required rebuilding so soon. It stood, as I 
believe, where the Dining-hall now stands ; and this idea is 
favoured by our discovery, four years ago, of the traces of a dial, 
with the date 1635 painted upon the surface of stones, which must 
have been used in its construction, and were subsequently built into 
the south Wt%ll of the new room. The soil here is spongy to a 
degree, and seems to have been in ancient times the bed of a water- 
course. Is r or is it surprising that the building of 1607 should have 
collapsed in 60 years, if its outer wall, like that of the building of 
1670, which we have recently restored, was given a foundation of 
only 18 inches. It was found necessary to underpin this wall in 
1887 to a depth of 11 or 12 feet, before we could obtain a secure 
foundation. 

We have now traced the material development of the School 
through the first century of its existence through the age of 
Shakespeare and Bacon, of Cecil and Raleigh. Little indication, 
as is natural, of political events is recorded in the matter-of-fact 



THE EXTERNAL GROWTH OF SHERBORNE SCHOOL. Ill 

records of the " Companie." Now and tlien the proximity of the 
School to the aristocratic domain of Sherborne Castle brings the 
name of Sir W. Raleigh upon their minutes. Once, in 1601, they 
address a letter to Sir R. Cecil, acquainting him with the removal of 
one Master, and the appointment of another in his place, whose 
election they hope will prove satisfactory to the powers that be. 
The star of Catholic Spain pales as that of Protestant England rises, 
but there is no mention of an extra week's holiday for the defeat of 
the Armada. Raleigh is attainted and executed, and Sherborne 
Castle passes into the possession of the Digbys, but the School minds 
its own business, and betrays no consciousness of the change of 
patron. It is the golden age of English letters, but no culture is con- 
ceived of outside the dead languages. Science is new-born in the 
Instauratio and the ISTovum Organum, but not yet has it entered into 
the heart of schoolmasters that Laboratories and Museums, such as 
that in which we are now met, shall ere long contend with Homer 
and Maro for precedence in stimulating the young idea to shoot. 

But with the close of the Elizabethan era a change comes over 
the scene. The reign of the pedant-king has prepared the way for 
a new attempt at despotism on the part of the Crown, and we are in 
the vortex of a new revolution. Even the honest and discreet 
" companie," who regulate the affairs of King Edward's School in 
Sherborne, in spite of their unquestionable loyalty, are forced to 
recognise the political exigencies of the time. Singularly enough 
it is the year 1650, the centenary year of the School's founding. 
Sherborne Old Castle is in the hands of the Parliamentary Forces, 
to which, after a gallant struggle of fourteen days, it had yielded five 
years before. It is a sore time for loyal Sherborne : but Hugh 
Hodges, Warden of the School, is true to King Charles and to his oath, 
and undergoes arrest rather than remove the bauble of the Royal 
Scutcheon over the School door, which had provoked the ire of the 
Parliament men. After this show of resistance a compromise is 
effected, audit is agreed on the 10th of August that the "Companie 
doe consent to get the Warden to take down the King's Arms over 
the School door, and at the south end of the School-house, it being 



112 THE EXTERNAL GROWTH OF SHERBORNE SCHOOL. 

commanded and required by Captain Helyar, a captaine for the 
Parliament, to be done." The statue of the King within the 
schoolroom itself is allowed, it would seem, to remain. The 
reticence of the Minute-book during this eventful crisis is provoking, 
but discretion was doubtless held to be the better part of valour. 
Upon the restoration, ten years later, all danger to demonstrations 
of loyalty is over, and in 1670 steps are taken for re-building the 
School-room, which is in a state of decay. But the records of this 
work are so meagre, except in the bare account of moneys spent, 
that it does not even appear whether the present Dining-Hall, 
which dates from this time, was a restoration and improvement 
upon the old building merely, or whether it was an entirely new 
departure. I have before stated that my own belief inclines to the 
former view. At any rate it was ordered that the Statue of King 
Edward VI. our Palladium the oldest solid relic of the past, 
which we possess should be again set up, with the same four Latin 
verses beneath its feet as in the former room. The fear of Captain 
Helyar being now removed, it was also resolved that the King's 
Arms be replaced over the School door, and " washed over with 
oyle only, or some sad colour," as though the trustees were 
mindful of the Horatian precept, to preserve a temper as far 
removed from overweening joy in prosperity as from undue 
depression in adversity. At the same time the Head-Master, Mr. 
Goodenough, is directed to make a pair of Latin verses to set 
beneath them, which is the origin of the clever rebus still existing. 
This gives the date both of the founding of the School, 1550, and 
of the new building, 1670, according as the numerals are added 
together in pairs or singly. 

Tecta ZJraco Gustos Leo VinDe X FZos Z)ecus Auctor 
KeX pius haec servat protegit ornat aLit. 

Six years later, Dr. Highmore, Warden, is empowered to finish the 
Library, now mentioned for the first time, but whether the date 
1670, upon the wall of this room, is to be taken as an indication 



THE EXTERNAL GROWTH OF SHERBORNE SCHOOL. 113 

that this and the room below it were constructed at the same time 
as the present Dining-hall, or whether, as Dr. Harper "believes, the 
older School-room was now converted into these two rooms, and a 
new room built to the south of them, there is not sufficient 
evidence to show. 

In 1697 another addition was made for the benefit of the 
Tablers ; the sum of .320 9s. 6d. being expended in erecting a 
house at the west end of the School garden, at right angles to 
what is now the vestry, " containing a parlour and a wood-house, 
with several chambers over it for sick boys." An outbreak of 
small-pox, which had carried off several of the boarders, was 
probably the cause of this new measure. The demolition of this 
building is within the memory of some here present, to whom the 
erection of the present School-house and the extension of the lawn 
must seem a matter of yesterday. 

No^further alteration was effected for nearly 50 years, when, in 
1749, the Old Priory and adjoining garden were annexed, only so 
much of the masonry being reserved from the hammer as was 
required for the wall which now extends from the boys' door to 
the Study Buildings. 

The Bell Buildings were erected in 1835, at a cost of 1,400 
odd, about a third of which sum was defrayed by Dr. Lyon 
himself. 

The Digby Buildings date from 1851, and are due to the 
munificence of Edward, Earl Digby, and the surrender of a portion 
of his income by Dr. Harper, for the construction of the Chapel, as 
originally designed. 

The new School-house was built in 1860, in large measure 
through the liberality of the late Squire, Mr. George Wingfield Digby. 

In 1865 the Chapel and Crypt were extended, and in 1870 the 
new block of Class Rooms was added, forming the west side of 
the third Court, and running parallel to the School-room, which 
was converted into a Library between the years 1880-1884. 

The Lavatories, West Cloister, School-room, Modern Schools, 
Gymnasium, and Sanatorium are among the moie recent additions 



114 THE EXTERNAL GROWTH OF SHERBORXE SCHOOL. 

to the School, and outside the scope of the present paper. The 
block of buildings, in which we are now assembled, was for many 
years a silk factory, occupying the site of w r hat were once the 
Abbey Mills. These were purchased in 1873 of Earl Digby, and 
adapted for the teaching of Science, Music, Drawing, and 
Carpentry. Our excellent Swimming-bath dates from the same 
year. The actual room, in which we sit, was our Music Room until 
1880, when it was fitted up for its present purpose as a Museum. 

And now, ladies and gentlemen, having briefly sketched the 
history of the School Buildings to the present time, my task is 
done. The internal history of Sherborne School forms a different 
chapter, 'even more obscure, during the first two centuries of its 
existence, than that which I have endeavoured to lay before you. 
The present is scarcely a time to dwell upon the singularly 
chequered story ; but it is a chapter full of interest for those who 
would study the conditions of the development and prosperity of 
what I trust I may still call a great Public School. The public 
Schools of England are native to our soil. They have grown, some 
of the most famous of them, like the proverbial mustard seed, from 
small beginnings into great trees. The secret of this growth has 
not lain in great endowments, but in faith, and patience, and in the 
subordination of the individual to the general interest. Institutions 
are greater than men, and every man who is privileged to belong to 
an historic institution owes far more to it than he can ever hope to 
confer upon it. Not for individuals, not for parties, not for one 
generation more than for another do the Public Schools of England 
exist. They belong to the nation. As national trusts must they 
be administered, if they are to live and flourish. As nurseries of 
national life, pure from all self-seeking, and devoted to the highest 
moral, religious, and intellectual as well as physical interests of 
youth, must they be maintained, or the roots wither, and the 
curse of sterility falls at last upon the fairest growth. 



fiortlmtb, 

HISTORICAL NOTES : DESCENT OF MANOR, &c. 




By J. MBRRICK HEAD, Esq. 



S a member of this club I have been asked to make 
a few remarks upon the objects of interest visited 
by them to-day in this immediate neighbourhood ; 
but first allow me to express on behalf of Portland 
the great honour you have done us by your visit 
to this Island, so full of historical and antiquarian 
associations. 

Before proceeding to remark upon Rufus Castle and the Old 
Church, I may mention that the earliest historical records point to 
Portland as having been a place of great importance. 
Hoveden, vol. I., page 31, states : 

" Adelwlf igitur primo anno regni sui cum ipse adversus 
" predictos hostes in una parte regni sui persisteret undique 
" confluente paganorum multitudine misit Alfhard 
" consulem cum parte exercitus ad debellandum Dacos qui 
"cum triginta tribus navibus apud Hamtonan appulerant 
" ubi magna strage hostium patrata clarissime triumphavit. 
" Misit etiam rex Adelwlf Edelhelm consulem nt pugnaret 
" contra alium exercitum apud Port cum exercitu Westsexiae. 
" Cumque dui comflexissent, occiso predicto consule, Daci 
"Victores exteterunt." 



116 PORTLAND. 

A.D. 837 or 839. 

" Therefore Adelwlf in the first year of his reign when he 
" himself stood firmly against the aforesaid enemy in one 
" part of his Kingdom whither from all sides there was 
"a massing together of the pagan hosts, sent the Consul 
" Alfhard with part of his army that he might overthrow 
" the Dacians who with 33 ships had effected a landing 
" near Hamton where a great slaughter of the enemy 
" having taken place he triumphed brilliantly. The King 
"Adelwlf also sent the Consul Edelhelm to fight against 
" another army near Port with the army of Wessex. And 
" when the two met together in battle, the aforesaid Consul 
" having been slain, the Dacians stood forth victors." 
Previous to this it has been stated that in the reign of King 

Brethric, A.D. 787, Haretha came over in three ships and is 

supposed to have landed at Portland. 

Again A.D. 982, page 66, it is further recorded that 

"Anno DCCCCLXXXII. Ad provincias Dorsetsensium 
"tres naves piratarum applicuerunt et Portland 
" devastaverunt. Civitas Lundonia igne cremata est." 
" In the year 982. To the provinces of Dorset steered three 
"ships of the pirates to land and ravaged Portland. The 
" city of London was also destroyed by fire." 
The Anglo Saxon Chronicle, page 103, confirms this A.D. 

982 

" Anno DCCCCLXXXII. In this year arrived in Dorset- 
" shire three ships of Vikings and ravaged in Portland." 
The same authority, page 150, records 

"Anno MLII. (10e52). In this year died Alfgyfu Sunna, 
"the mother of King Edward and King Harthcnut Earl 
" Godwin together with his fleet hoisted his sails and they 
"at once betook themselves to Wight and there landed 
" . . . and then they went westward until they came to 
" Portland and then they landed and did whatever harm 
" they could do." 



PORTLAND. 117 

These matters are referred to as probably giving the reasons and 
showing the necessity for building the Castle which tradition has 
assigned to William Rufus. The circumstances point to this 
tradition as being probably correct, for in Anno 1142, only about 
40 years later, it is recorded that Robert, Earl of Gloucester, took 
this Castle from King Stephen for the Empress Maud. 

The Castle may have been one of those, having regard to 
Portland's history and particularly to turbulent times, so well 
described by the Monk of Peterborough in the Old English 
Chronicle. He says of the English Lords 

"They foreswore themselves and broke their troth, for every 
"Nobleman made him a Castle and held it against the 
" King and filled the land full of Castles. They put the 
"wretched Countryfolk to sore toil with their Castle 
" building, and when the Castles were made they filled them 
" " with devils and evil men. Then they took all those that 
" they deemed had any goods, both by night and day, men 
" arid women alike, and put them in prison to get their gold 
" and silver and tortured them with tortures unspeakable, 
" for never were martyrs so tortured as they were. And 
" this lasted nineteen winters while Stephen was King and 
" ever it was worse and worse." 

I can find no other direct record of it later than that of 1142. It 
most likely devolved with the Royal Manor of Portland, of which 
Her Gracious Majesty is now the Lady. 

King George III. gave Rufus Castle to Governor Penn. 



The following extracts from the Public Records may be here 
introduced in connection with the History of the Island and the 
Castle : 

DOMESDAY BOOK. Dorset. Land of the King. The King holds the 
island which is called Portland. King Edward held it in 
his lifetime, &c. 



118 PORTLAND. 

TESTA DE NEVILL. Dorset. Hundred of Sherburn. " The Prior and 
"Convent of Winchester hold Portland, &c., in free alms 
" of the old feoff ment of the Kings of England." 

ABBREVIATIO PLACITORUM. Pleas before the King at Westminster, &c., 
Mich. 7-8 Edw. I. "In a plea between the Lord King pltf 
" and Gilbert de Clare deft are set out several heads of the 
" law touching the custody of the manor of Portland which 
" belongs to the Bishop of Winchester." 

CHARTER ROLLS. 42 Hen. Ill pars innea mem. 2. Grant to 

of inter alia. Portland Manor and Wyke Manor near 
Portland in Co. Dorset. 

Do. 43 Hen. Ill pars innea mem. 5. Grant to Richard de Clare 
Earl of Gloucester and Hertford of Portland Isle with 
members, viz., Wyke, Weymouth, and Helewell in Co. Dorset. 

CHARTER ROLLS. Miscellaneous Charters and confirmations of liberties 
temp. Edw. III. From the Roll made 21 Edw. Ill while the 
King was at Calais Edmund de Rupe Edwardi and Matilda 
his Wife, &c., claim liberties on behalf of the Earl of 
Gloucester in inter alia Wyke, Portland, 

Weymouth market, and Heselwell in Co. Dorset. 

ABBREVIATIO ROTULORUM ORIGIN ALIUM. Mandate to Sheriff of 
Dorset to seize into the hands of the King the manors of 
Wyke and Portland, &c., 17 Edw. I. 

Do. Grant restoring to Johanna Countess of Gloucester & 
Hertford All lands lately seized into the King's Hands except 
lands and tenements in the Isle of Portland. 25 Edw. I. 
Do. Grant of custody of Manors of Portland and Wyke, &c. , to 

Richard Lovell, 8 Edw. II. 
Do. Mandate to Richard Lovell regarding the Manors of Portland 

& Wyke, &c., 10 Edw. II. 

Do. Mandate to Richard Lovell concerning same Manors. 
10 Edw. II. 

INQUISITION POST MORTEM. 24 Edw. I. Gilbert de Clare Earl of 
Gloucester & Hertford seized 
of Wyke Manor surveyed "| 

Portland Manor survey ed.lin Co. Dorset. 
&c. &c. J 

INQUISITION POST MORTEM. 35 Edw. I. Johanna wife of Gilbert de 
Clare Earl of Gloucester, &c., seized of 
Portland Manor surveyed ^ 
Wyke Manor surveyed Un Co. Dorset. 
&c. &c. 



PORTLAND. 119 

INQUISITION POST MOPtTEM. 8 Edw. II. Gilbert de Clare Earl of 

Gloucester & Hertford seised of 

Portland Manor surveyed ^ 

Wyke Manor surveyed j-in Co. Dorset. 

&c. &c. 
INQUISITION POST MORTEM. 34 Edw. III. Elizabeth de Burgo wife of 

Theobald de Verdon seised of 

Wyke Manor A 

Portland Manor Un Co. Dorset. 

&c. &c. J 
INQUISITION POST MORTEM. 43 Edw. III. Lionel Duke of Clarence & 

Elizabeth his Wife seized of 

Wyke Manor ^ 

Portland Manor 1-in Co. Dorset. 

&c. &c. J 
INQUISITION POST MORTEM. 22 Ric. II. Roger de Morton Mari Earl 

of March seized of 

Wyke Manor -v 

Portland Manor j-in Co. Dorset. 

&c. &c. J * 
INQUISITION POST MORTEM. 3 Hen. VI. Edmund de Morton Mari 

Earl of March seized of 

Wyke Manor 1 * T^ 

. j-m Co. Dorset. 

Portland Isle, messuages, lands, &c. J 

INQUISITION POST MORTEM. Inquisitions of various years of the reign 

of King Henry VI. substitute a Henry Russell, for the 

Guild of St George in Weymouth 

Messuages, lands, &c., in ) 

Portland and Wyke Regis, &c. i 
INQUISITION POST MORTEM. Inquisitions temp. Edw. I., 7 Edw I., For 

the Bishop of Winchester 

Portland Manor ) -. 

Co. Dorset. 
Wyke Manor' > 

INQUISITION AD QUOD DAMNUM. 27-33 Hen. VI. Henry Russell of 
Weymouth Grant to Guild of St. George, Weymouth, of 
Messuages, lands, &c., in 

Portland and ^ ... 

. . . >Co. Dorset. 

Wyke Regis I 

ROLLS OF PARLIAMENT. 11 Henry VII. Manor of Portland confirmed 
to the Queen though expressed in a former Grant as being 
in Co. of Somerset. 



120 PORTLAND. 

PROCEEDINGS IN CHANCERY. Temp. Elizabeth. Wm. Gardine pltf 
v Robert Well and Thomas Benvile clefts. To obtain 
possession of divers land and tenements within the Manor or 
Isle of Portland which descends to pltf from his late father. 
Custom stated respecting the determining suits arising in 
the said island within the court there and not elsewhere. 

IBID. Bennett Jackman (single woman) pltf v Richard Knight and 
Roger Knight defts. Claim as heir. Eight acres of land 
in the Isle of Portland late the estate of John Jackman 
deceased being of the tenure of gavelkind. * 

EXCHEQUER DEPOSITIONS. Dorset 15 and 16 Eliz. Mich. The Queen 
pltf (Deft not named) concerning Manor of Portland and 
the demesnes of same. 

EXCHEQUER DEPOSITIONS. Dorset. Hil. 21 Eliz. The Queen by 
Hen. Howman Pltf v Robert Gardner Knt. and Wm. 
Gonynges Defts. As to Manor of Portland and customs of 
the Manor. 

EXCHEQUER DEPOSITIONS. Dors. Trin. 5 and 6 Geo I. Robert 
Andrews and Agnes his wife pltfs v Augustin White and 
others defts. Manor of Portland (Dorset) and closes of land 
in the village of Weston in the Isle of Portland. Custom or 
usage in said manor of making a church or free-church-gift 
of customary lands, &c.t 

EXCHEQUER COMMISSIONS. Book of Commissions. Hilary 21 Eliz. 
Portland Isle, Dorset. Commission to enquire of certain 
articles touching lands in the aforesaid Isle. 

MEMORANDA ROLL. Lord Treasurer's Remembrances. Inquisition 
touching certain lands in the Isle of Portland in the County 
of Dorset. Hilary Commissions of Charles I. 

PARLIAMENTARY SURVEYS. Dorsetshire. 

No. 12. The Manor of Portland with the rights, members, 

and appurtenances. Oct. 1650. 

No. 13. Escheated lands in the Parish of Portland with the 
rights, members, and appurtenances. October 1650. 

PRIVY SEAL DOCKETS AND WARRANTS. Portland Isle. 

* This shows that the custom of gavelkind prevails in this Island, as 
in Kent. 

t This peculiar custom exists as follows viz,, that the Vendor or 
Transferror of property attends at the parish church and in the presence 
of two witnesses signs the document. 



PORTLAND. 121 

Nov. 29, 1708 \ Confirmation of a Warrant of Nov. 3 granting to 

MSS. Harl : 73, 48 inhabitants of Isle of Portland 12d. for every ton of 

7 Anne ' stone dug in the Commons in the Island (excepting 

stone taken for King's use by Warrant of Surveyor, 

Works). Power to inhabitants to dig stone according 

to ancient custom. Out of every 12d. 9d. to be held 

by Trustees for inhabitants during Queen's life, the 

3d. remaining to be accounted for in manner 

accustomed. 

"With reference to the general Historical matters connected with 
Portland Eufus Castle and the Old Church I may quote the 
following extract from Lelaud's Itinerary, temp. Queen Elizabeth 
(vol. 3, 2nd edition, 66-7) 

" Portland hath bene of anncient tyme be al likelihood 
" environed with the se and yet berith the name of an isle. 
" It is eminent and hilly ground on the shore of it and a 
* "great plain yn the middle of it. The cumpace of it is 
" counted to be about 7 miles. . . . There is a castelet 
" or pile not far from the streate and is set on a high roche 
" hard by the se clitfes a little above the est end of the 
" Chirch. The Paroche Chirch that is but one at this 
" tyme in the isle is large and some whet low builded in the 
" hangging rootes of an hille by the shore. The Chirch 
" and Paroche is about a mile dem. to go the next way to it 
" from the Kinges Xew Castelle in the Isle. . . sum 
" say that in tymes past ther was a nother Paroche Chirch 
" in the Isle but I there lerned no certente of it. There be 
" very few or utterly no trees in the isle saving the elmes 
" about the Chirch. Ther wold grow more if they were 
" ther planted yet the isle is very bleak. . . The 
" personage sette in the High Streat is the best building in 
" the Isle. The Bishop of Winchester is the Patrone of the 
" Chirch. The isle is the Kynges. 

Coker, in his particular account of the Historic of Dorset 
published 1732, gives the following : 

" On the south point stands the onlie Church soe near the 
" sea, that for safetie of it they have beene forced to wall 



1 22 PORTLAND. 

" the Church Yarde Banks almost of an incredible height, 
" soe that it even afrighte one to look downe. ISTeare the 
" Church but at least fiftie steppes of stone above it stands 
" the walls of the olde Castelle, for scite before the 
" invention of Ordnance, in man's judgment impregnable ; 
" yet was it both forced and wonne by Robert Earle of 
" Gloucester, base brother to Maude the Empress and in 
" her behalfe, what time shee waged Warre with King 
" Stephen for her right. At this place in the year 1588 
" the Spaniards with there supposed invincible Arnrie 
" shewed to land ; but being prevented by the English 
" between them there begun in the sight of a!l the Coast 
" such a fight that they were forced to acknowledge their 
" Arniie vincible and to shift for themselves, though many 
" hundreds of them came short home and two of their great 
" shippes brought into Weymouth. 

" Portland hath plentie of excellent Quarries of stone that 
"for solidnesse and durablenesse it is transported into 
" London and that in great plentie. Sithence it pleased the 
"King Anno 1610 by the advice of his Architecturers to 
" make choice of Portland stone for the re-edifieing of his 
" Banquetting House at Whitehall. 

" Concerning the name controversie hath arisen, some 
" thinkeing it took name by reasons of the scite opposite 
" to the Port of Weymouth, which opinion I cannot but 
' reject. In that I believe it had to name Portland before 
" the other had anie being. And therefore I will content 
"my selfe with the opinion of the judicious Cambden, 
" which is that it took name from one Port, a noble Saxon 
" who in the yeare of our Salvation 703 arriveing there, 
" much infested and annoyed these Coasts. After in the 
" declineing age of Saxon's Empire, Portland felt often the 
" violent and furious rage of the Danes, who when they 
" came as Scoutes Anno 783 to discover the goodeness of 



PORTLAND. 123 

" the land and good places for landeing as also what 
" resistance the Inhabitants could make haveing then but 
" onlie 3 shippes in their companie touched first of all at 
" this Island whence (either for want of good landeing 
" which is most likelie for there is none, or beeing driven 
" by the inhabitants) they retired to Tingmouth in Devon." 
Hutchins, in his History of Dorset, states : 

"THE CASTLE. 

" But little mortar or cement has been used in the 
" construction of the walls which are roughly built of native 
" Ashlar. Three of the sides are considerably larger than 
" the two others. On that next the Cliff are no openings, 
" which shew that it was originally constructed on the edge 
" of the Cliff. On the opposite side are two openings of 
" about 10 feet in height from the cills to the apex of the 
" pointed arches which are splayed internally to a width of 
" about 8 feet narrowing to about eighteen inches, but there 
" is no slit externally to represent the splay but about 5 
"feet from the cill a square stone is inserted with a hole 
" about 8 inches in diameter in the centre. There are four 
*' other openings in the face towards the East and a smaller 
" one over a gateway in the narrow north-east face. 
" Exteriorly at the angles and in the middle of each of the 
" two principal faces exposed to assault are large Corbels* 
" formed of three stones projecting outwardly beyond each 
" other which probably formed the support of an over- 
" hanging gallery from which an enemy approaching the 
" walls could be advantageously annoyed with missiles. 
" These Corbels* are in groups of three close together." 
In Grose's Antiquities it is mentioned 

PORTLAND OLD CASTLE, DORSETSHIRE. 

" This building which stands a little to the Eastward of 
" the Old Church and fifty steps of stone above it appears 
* Query, Machicolations. 



124 PORTLAND. 

" to have been the keep of the Castle it seems very 
" ancient its figure a Pentagon on its top are several 
" Machicolations and loop holes. The foundation of it was 
" much above the top of the tower of the Church and it 
" must have been almost impregnable before the Invention 
" of Ordnance. It is vulgarly called Bowe and Arrow 
" Castle and the Castle of Kufus probably from a supposition 
" or some tradition that it was built by that King. Anno 
"1142 it was taken by Eobert Earl of Gloucester from King 
" Stephen for the Empress Maud." 

Referring to the description of the Castle given by the authorities, 

the wall on the south side has now disappeared, and the entrance 

which formerly existed is now represented by the present archway. 

No trace remains of the " steppes of stone " referred to in Grose's 

Antiquities and Coker's Dorset. 

As to the extent of the Castle we have no evidence, but I may 
here refer to the name of the field adjoining the Castle known as 
Castle "Hays." The word "Hays" probably means an enclosure, 
and is identical with the Haha fence. A view of the Castle as it 
existed in 1756 is still extant (see Grose's Antiquities). 

THE CHURCH. 

Hutchins, in his History of Dorset, gives the following description 
of the Church : 

"Dedicated to St. Andrew 1475 was a large, ancient, but 
"rude fabric situated at the southern extremity of the 
" Island, so near that, to preserve encroachments, the 
" Islanders were obliged to wall the banks to an incredible 
" height. At the time of taking the Nona Inquisitiones in 
" the Reign of Edward III. it appears to have been burnt 
" and destroyed by the enemy. It consisted of a Chancel 
" and body very low and tiled which seemed to have been 
" built at different times. The tower was plain and 
" moderately high, but had no bell in it and was detached 
" near a yard from the body. The inconveniency of its 



PORTLAND. 125 

"situation was owing to a pretended want of depth 
" elsewhere. The Churchyard being made ground gave rise 
"to a tradition that it was anciently in the centre of the 
" Island which extended to ' The Shambles.' " 
An examination of the ruins appears to disclose the existence of 
the earlier Church, and that the present ruined Church was built 
within the scite of the older building.* 

That the former Church existed on the same spot is most 
probable, and for obvious reasons, and the gravestones in the 
churchyard tend to confirm this view. From the shape and general 
description, some of them appear to be of the 12th century. On 
close examination one of them shows traces of a floriated cross 
upon the face of it, and on another there is a plain cross. 



The Rectors of the Church of St. Andrew date from A.D. 1302, 
of whom a List is appended down to the induction of Dr. 
Henchman, in 1641, who is the person referred to in Grose's 
Antiquities. 

Patrons. Rectors. 

The Bishop of Winton John Golde de Warham pbr non May 

The King; the Bishopric 1302 instituted by Henry, Rector of 

of "Winton being vacant Swanich his Proxy 

The Bishop of Winton William le Blound clerk, on the death 

of Golde, instituted 19th July 1324 

Nicholas de Keinvent presented to 
this Parochial Church of St. Andrew, 
instituted 4 non February 1324 

William de Herwyton clerk on the 
resignation of Keinvent, instituted 30 
November 1336 

John Petit clerk, instituted 35 
November 1339 
* I have made a ground plan which accompanies this paper. 



126 PORTLAND. 



Peter de Inkpene pbr on cesser or 
resignation of Petyt, instituted 15 
February 1340 

Philip AVeston rector of Churchton on 
the resignation of Inkpenne Canon of 
Whorwel and prebend of Middleton 
Diocese Winton, instituted 5 August 
1346 

Exchanged with 

Edward Chamberlyn rector of Drax- 
thorp, Diocese Lincoln, instituted 3 
February 1346 

Exchanged with 

John Fordinghey rector of Berlee, 
Diocess London, instituted 20 May 
1365 

John Stynkele,instituted20 July, 1392 

John Bernard Chaplain on the 
resignation of Stynkele, instituted 29 
January 1396 

Walter Lambarde rector of Hurst- 
Monceaux,instituted6 ^November 1400 

Exchanged with 

John Roland Rector of Crekelade, 
instituted 14 November 1402. 

Thomas Morton Clerk on Resignation 
of Roland, instituted 19 November 
1423, 



PORTLAND. 127 

William Whithing or Whillying 
Chaplain, instituted 20 December 
1414. 

Thomas Salthowe, pbr. on the 
dismission of Whilying, instituted 
16 January 1441. 

Robert Alston, Chaplain, instituted 
18 December 1473. 

Exchanged with 

William Osgodby, rector of Castleford, 
Diocese York, instituted to the 
Church St. Andrew 13 February 
1475. 

Exchanged with 

Richard Jeffray, rector of Codford St. 
Peter, instituted 14 February 1476. 

Owen Watson 

John Newman, pbr. M.A. on the 
death of Watson, instituted 27 August 
1533. 

Thomas Go wide, instituted 1550. 

Evan Green, instituted 1570, died 
1578. 

Thomas Stoodleigh, instituted 9 
January 1598. 

Humphrey Henchman D.D. in 1641. 
He was sequestered and paid .200 for 
his composition. 



128 PORTLAND. 

I have left off here, as it did not appear interesting to continue 
the list to a later date. 

An old drawing of the Church is shown in the " Gentleman's 
Magazine" of 1799, vol. 69, part I. 

THE CHURCHYARD. 

The Churchyard, which adjoins the Church on the south and 
east sides, contains the following Gravestones and Tombstones. 
The inscriptions are given so far as they can be deciphered : 

Three Gravestones before referred to apparently of the XII. 
century. 

Tombstones to 

Attwooll who died llth of August Anno Domino 
1670. 

To Abel Flew who was buried October 25 A.D. 1676. 

In life I wroath in stone 
Now life is gone I know 
I shal be raised 
By a stone and B 
Shuch a stone as giveth 
Living Breath and Saveth 
The Righteous from the 
Second death. 

To Agnes Attwooll who was buried December 18 A.D. 1674. 
To Eobert Mitchell who departed this life ye 9th day of May, 

1680. Etatis suge 63. 

To Robert Pitt who deceased the 20th day of January A.I). 1690. 
To Julan the wife of Robert Biett who departed this life the 

2nd May 1691. 
To Mary Ferly who departed this life ye 10 day of March 1692 

aged 24 years. 
To John Flew who died August ye 15th 1698 also of Grace his 

wife who died July llth, 1740. Aged 89 years. 
To Elizabeth Gilbert who died 16 August 1720, 
To M. P. 1729, 



PORTLAND. 129 

To Robert Chiles who died 15 June 1733. 

To B. S. 1741. 

To John Stone who died in the year 1744. 

To Henry Hellar. 

To Andrew Stone who died 30 July 1764. 

To M. M. 1760. 

To Edward Pearce, Superintendent of His Majesty's Quarries in 

Portland who died 12 June 1745. Aged 58 years. 
To Lucretia wife of William Andrews who departed this life ye 

5 April A.D. 1710. 
To Abell son of Kobert and Alese Pearce who died July 25 

A.D. 1737. 

" Grieve not for me nor-be sad, 
The shorter time I lived the fewer sins I had." 

To Susannah the daughter of Silas and Elizabeth Comben who 
died ye 25 June 1737. Aged 31 years. 

" My friends and lover left behind 
" I pray for me no longer weep 
" I am espoused to Christ in 
" Heaven with God my 
" Marriage day to keep. 

To William Attwooll died 1717. 

To Sarah Flew died December A.D. 1729. 

To Philip Durenth A.D. 1713. 

To John Ayles who died 3 June 1723. 

To M. M. 1760. 

It would appear that no burials have taken place in this Church- 
yard for upwards of 120 years. 

The names of Attwooll, Flew, Pitt, Stone, Pearce, Andrews, and 
Comben are still common in the Island. 

THE VICAR'S HOUSE, PORTLAND. 
It may not be out of place to refer to the ancient Vicar's House, 
Portland, Grose in his Antiquities states ; 



1 30 PORTLAND. 

"It is pretended to have been the Parsonage House and 
"although the living is a Rectory, is vulgarly called the 
" Vicarage House. The Inhabitants know little about it 
" but have a tradition that it was a fine place demolished in 
"the last Civil Wars. It appears that Humphrey 
" Henchman who was inducted into the Rectory 1641 A.D. 
" was sequestered and paid 200 for his composition and 
"that in 1643 one Henry Way was appointed to succeed 
"him." 

" From the form of what remains of this Edifice it is 
" more than probable it was an Oratory or small Chapel and 
" as such might be a particular object of the rage of the 
" Puritans among whom the demolishing a building of that 
" kind was held a work extremely .meritorious." 
The following is an extract from the Parish Book " Portland 

Island Ancient Records " : 

" To say one Personage House in the villidge of Wakem. 

Demolished and burnt down by the usurper Oliver Cromwell, and 

hant been rebuilded every since." 

CHURCH LANDS. 

9 Edward VI. Eight acres of land in Brochhampton, in 
Portland, were held by Humphrey, Earl of Devon, of the Abbot of 
Abbotsbury. 

Anno incerto, Henry VI. lands here were given to the Guild of 
St. George in Waymouth, which seem 2 Edward VI. to be granted 
to Richard Randal. 

37 Henry VII. lands here belonging to Abbotsbury Abbey 
were granted to John Broxholm, &c. 

TITHES. 

The following is an extract from the Parish Book of Portland : 
The Hay put up in small Cocks, the person or proctor take the 

Tenth Cock. The Wheat are put in strait lines and the person 

or proctor take the Tenth Shive, 



PORTLAND. 131 

Barley and other Grain put up in Cocks or Sliives takes the 
Tiths in the same manner. 

Calfs sold, the person or procter take the Tenth penny soe sold. 

Calfs killed by the owner, the person or procter has the left 
shoulder of the same. 

Lambs are always Tithed. The owner first makes choice of two 
Lambs, if they have seven Lambs, the person or procter takes the 
Tenth Lambs, and if it soe happen there should be any odd lambs, 
the owner thereof is to pay the person or procter one half-penny 
each. 

As to Henns The person or persons that keep the same. The 
person or procter takes a egg for every henn and two for a cock, and 
collected on Good Friday. 

As to Cows The person or procter receive for every Cow one 
penny, what is called Cow wit, and yearly collected. 

As to Fish The person has the tithe of Fish drawn on Shoare. 

As to Gardens Every one pays. Each if larger, more, and this 
is generly collected on Good Friday yearly. 

Easter offerings and other oblations paid by every parishioner, 
this allsoe is a ancient costume and collected yearly. 

As to Wool of the Sheep the person or procter has the Tenth 
thereof. 

Lambs Wool never Tithable. 

If Sheep are sold with the Wooll on there backs before shorn to 
pay the person or procter twopence each sheep soe sold. 



In submitting these observations for the consideration of the 
Society, it may be mentioned that they are principally based upon 
well known authorities ; and however imperfectly they may have 
been presented to you, it is hoped that it has been clearly shown 
that Portland has an ancient history, and that it is not unworthy 
of the County of Dorset. 



panting 




By the Rev. O. PICKARD-CAMBRIDGE, M.A., P.R.S., 
C.M.Z.S., &c., &c. 



T will be in the recollection of some now present 
that I read some notes at a former meeting of our 
Club upon * Squirrels burying acorns in Autumn, 
and I observed that one season, subsequently, 
there sprung up numerous young oak trees where 
the burying had taken- place. Talking over this 
afterwards with my friend, Mr. Harting (Secretary of the Linnsean 
Society and well known as an ornithologist and general Naturalist), 
he mentioned to me a paper he had come across, written nearly two 
centuries ago, in which a very similar account was given of an 
extensive sepulture of acorns by Roolcs. Mr. Harting has since 
very kindly sent me a copy of that much of the paper referred to 
which relates to this subject. The paper is entitled "An Essay 
" towards a Natural History of Westmoreland and Cumberland, by 
" Thomas Robinson, Rector of Ouseby, 8vo., London, 1709." 

It is as follows : 

" About 25 years ago coming home from Rose Castle, early in the 
" morning, I observed a great number of crows [Rooks] very busy 
" at their work upon a declining ground of a mossy surface. I 
" went out of my way on purpose to view their labour, and I found 
* See Vol. xi., p. 27. 



HOOKS PLANTING ACORNS. 133 

"they were planting a grove of oaks. The manner of their 
" planting was thus : They first made little holes in the earth with 
" their bills, going about and about until the hole was deep enough, 
" and then they dropped in the acorn and covered it with earth and 
"moss. This young plantation is now (1709) growing up to a 
" thick grove of oaks fit for use, and of height for the crows to 
" build their nests in. I told it to the owner of the ground, who 
" observed them spring up and took care to secure their growth 
" and rising. The season was the latter end of Autumn when all 
" seeds were full ripe." I have never seen the work from which 
this extract was made, and consequently do not know anything of 
the Author's general ideas on Natural History or his tendency of 
thought, but Mr. Harting, who is well acquainted with it, appears 
to assume that the Author considered that the Rooks were moved 
by a conscious intention to provide a future grove for building their 
nests on that barren spot. I suppose that this " post hoc, propter 
hoc " argument will scarcely need remark or refutation in these 
days. But it would probably have appeared to be the height of 
absurdity to the 18th century observer to have suggested the simple 
idea that the Rooks were only following the very ordinary instinct 
of concealing the superabundant food which their immediate 
necessities did not require. This, however (just as in the case of the 
Squirrels), was, it appears to me, no doubt the fact. I have not my- 
self actually seen Rooks burying acorns, but along side of our oak 
woods at Bloxworth the heath district extends ; and over this heath 
district, to the extent of half-a-mile, at least, in width, there spring 
up annually numerous young seedling oaks among the short stunted 
furze and heather. This has been so for generations past, so much 
so that a bare heather hill (on which may now often be seen many 
little seedling oaks from the previous year's acorns) has borne, from 
time immemorial, and still bears, the name of Oak-hill. The soil 
here, and generally along this heath district, is such as to give no 
chance of the oak seedling ever growing up to anything larger than 
a mere bush, even supposing they escaped, which they seldom do, 
for even one year, the nibbling off by cattle, and especially by 



134 



ROOKS PLANTING ACORNS. 



the numerous rabbits infesting the locality. Once now and then, 
however, a plant does escape, being encouraged, perhaps, by an 
isolated spot of more fertile soil, or the generous protection of a 
furze or bramble bush, and grows up to a tree. These, however, 
are not numerous. Only one such exists in the district I have 
mentioned, and it has also from time immemorial gone by the name 
of " the " Oak Tree. This tree is now in a state of rapid decay 
owing to the gradual encroachment of the bog close by, which has 
turned its site into a swamp. The log also has always been called 
" The Oak Tree Bog," but has lately, among ourselves, obtained the 
name of the Paludwn bog, owing to its having been the spot where 
an exceedingly rare lepidopterous insect, Pteropliems paludum, was 
rediscovered a few years ago by one of my sons. (See Proc. 
D.KH. & A.F. Club, vol. viii., p. 57.) 

I have above observed that I have never seen Rooks actually 
burying acorns in this locality, but I have constantly seen them 
flying to fro there, both in Autumn and during winter, and I feel 
no doubt whatever but that they are the agents in the planting of 
those acorns which spring up thus yearly so far from the trees 
bearing them. It is too far for the agency of Squirrels, and still 
more so for that of Mice. Doubtless the Rooks do find and regale 
themselves in winter time, when hard pressed by frost binding up 
the fallows, on the acorns buried in the more sandy soil protected 
from freezing by the furze and short heather ; but I imagine that 
nearly always the larger proportion escape, and if the soil were 
suitable and protection given from cattle and rabbits, oak groves 
would be found in after years just as our friend, the Rev. Thos. 
Robinson, found one growing up 200 years ago in Cumberland. 




floman Jf0rlifkftti0n, foith 
to the fUmran l^ftmas of 



uituntt 




By the Rev. W. MILES BARNES. 



studying Roman fortification two books will be 
found of infinite value ; the first the " Arch- 
itectura" of Yitruvius, the second the " Epitoma 
rei militaris" of Flavins Yegetius Renatus. 
Neither of these works is printed in England, and 
the second seems to be very little known. When 
Yegetius wrote events were foreshadowing the fall of Rome, the 
Roman army and the Roman military institutions were already 
becoming disorganised, and the object of his book was to urge 
their reconstruction and the restoration of the ancient discipline. 
To such an extent had discipline been relaxed that the 
Romans had ceased even to entrench their standing camps, 
and they had met with disaster in consequence.* Even en- 
quiries were no longer made after the customs which had 
formerly prevailed, and had been so long neglected. Yet though 
the ancient discipline was no longer maintained, it was by no means 
impossible to recover it ; in former ages the art of war, often 

* Dicat aliquis : Multi anni sunt, qulbus nullus fossa aggere valloque 
mansurum circumdat exercitum. Respondebitur : Si fuisset ista cautela, 
nihil nocturni ant diurni superventus hostium nocere potuissent (Lib. 
iii. c. 10.) 



136 ROMAN FORTIFICATION. 

neglected and forgotten, had been as often recovered from books.* 
Vegetius hoped his treatise on military institutions might be means 
of reviving it again. He evidently wrote with that object in view ; 
he proposed no novelties ; he explained and urged the adoption of 
the ancient methods, which had been proved in past ages, and had 
the recommendation of the highest military authorities of those 
ages. If this is borne in mind, the peculiar value of the two books 
to us in our investigations about the walls of Dorchester will be 
perceived. 

Yitruvius, who had been an engineer officer in the army of Julius 
Caesar, wrote his book about B.C. 25. Vegetius dedicated his 
treatise to the Emperor Valentinian ; it must in consequence have 
been written about A.D. 370. In points, therefore, on which 
Vitruvius and Vegetius are in accord we have practically an 
unbroken chain of evidence as to the manner in which the Romans 
fortified their towns between the years B.C. 25 and A.D. 370, and 
if, on examining the Roman works about Dorchester, we find they 
do not accord with the descriptions given by both these writers, we 
must conclude that either from the nature of the soil, or from some 
other peculiarity, it was not advisable to carry out the fortifications 
in the usual way ; or that the walls here were originally built in 
accordance with the general rules of Roman fortification, but that 
the details, which do not now appear, have been destroyed at some 
subsequent period. 

At first sight it might be thought that Dorchester was the site of 
a camp constructed by Vespasian when he subdued the Britons who 
lived in these parts, and that in later years the ditch was deepened 
and a wall built upon the rampart in the place of the palisade ; 
and, thus strengthened, the spot was adopted as a site for the town 
Durnovaria. 

* Haec ex TISU librisque antea servabantur, sed omissa diu nemo 
quaesivit, qui vigentibus pacis officiis procul aberat necessitas belli. Sed 
ne impossibile videatur reparari disciplinam, cujus usus intercidit, 
doceamur exemplis. Apud veteres ars militaris in oblivionem saepius 
venit, sed prius a libiis repetita est, postea ducum auctoritate firraata 
(Lib. iii. c. 10.) 



ROMAN FORTIFICATION. 137 

Now in the first place we do not know that Vespasian found it 
necessary to construct a camp here at all ; if he did it would not in 
all probability be of a more formidable character than the Roman 
camp commonly was. According to Vegetius, when the danger 
was not imminent a camp was entrenched in this way ; a slight 
ditch was carried round the whole circuit only 9ft. broad and 7ft. 
deep ; with the turf taken from it a breastwork 3ft. high was 
formed within the ditch ; when there was reason to fear an attack 
by the enemy, the camp was surrounded by a regular ditch 12ft. 
broad and 9ft. deep. A parapet four feet in height was then raised 
on the side next the camp, with hurdles and fascines properly 
covered and secured by the earth taken out of the ditch ; the 
height of the entrenchment was thus 13ft. On the top of the 
whole strong palisades, which the soldiers carried with them for 
the purpose, were planted. Spades, pickaxes, wicker baskets, and 
tools of all kinds were carried by the army for the purpose. 
(Vegetius " Epitoma rei militaris" Lib. I. cap. 24). 

A second difficulty is the irregular form of the space included 
within -the rampart which surrounded Dorchester. Roman camps 
were not always parallelograms, but they were generally of regular 
form. " The form of the camp," says Vegetius, " must be determined 
by the nature of the country, in conformity to which they must be 
rectangular, triangular, or oval." The common form was the 
rectangle, and there was no reason, with the choice of ground before 
them, that the Romans (if they had a camp on this spot) should 
have formed it otherwise. One can scarcely imagine a more orderly 
and symmetrical arrangement than was to be found in the plan of a 
Roman camp. When the camp was marked out and the troops 
marched upon the ground every centurion could march his century 
straight to the spot it was to occupy ; but how could he do this in 
a camp with four unequal sides, in which the troops on one side 
of the pretorian street must be arranged differently to the troops 
on the other side, and especially if the form of the camp was 
changed day after day 1 A third, and it seems to me conclusive, 
proof that the ramparts surrounding Dorset did not previously 



138 ROMAN FORTIFICATION. 

encircle a camp is this on calculating the area within the ramparts 
it will be found that a camp of this size would accommodate more 
than four legions with their auxiliaries (1) and Vespasian only had 
one. On the other hand the plan of a Roman town was rarely 
rectangular. Yitruvius recommends that it shall not he square, 
nor formed with projecting angles, but polygonal (circumitionibus) 
that the enemy may be seen from more places j for a part in which 
angles project is not easily defended because the angle protects the 
enemy more than the citizen (" Architectura" Lib. I. cap. 5.) In 
passing we may remark that the plan of the interesting Roman town 
of Silchester, which is now being excavated, was polygonal as 
recommended by Yitruvius. Yegetius bears similar testimony. 

Let us see what was the nature of the fortifications which 
surrounded Dorchester. We must, however, first understand how 
cities were built at the time when Dorchester became a Roman 
possession that we may have some standard with which we can 
compare the works we shall find here. 

The first consideration when a new town was to be laid out was 
the situation, and next the convenience and healthiness of the spot 
proposed ; in these respects the Romans were most careful in the 
selection of their sites both for camps and town. Yitruvius devotes 
a chapter (Lib. II. cap. 4) to these points alone, whilst Yegetius lays 
additional stress on the importance of choosing a site naturally strong 
(Lib. IY. cap. 1). In these respects Dorchester conforms to the old 
Roman traditions ; no stronger position than the town occupies 
could have been found in the neighbourhood ; its healthiness is 
proverbial, and it is conveniently situated for water just above the 
Frome. 

When the site was determined, the next point to be settled was 
the size of the proposed town and the plan of the walls. The 
buildings and streets were an after consideration. It is a misfortune 
that no exact plan of the Roman walls exists. It is said to have 

(1) According to the system of castramentation which was practised 
about this time it has been computed that one thousand men would occupy 
13,027 superficial feet (English). 



ROMAN FORTIFICATION. 139 

been ruined for defensive purposes by the Danes, but considerable 
portions of it, and we may assume the whole of the foundations, 
remained up to comparatively recent times. On Speed's map, 
which was published in 1610, the foundations of the whole of the 
walls are figured, and I understand Dr. Stukeley to say that in his 
time the foundation of the wall could be traced. Since then most 
of the wall has been destroyed. In 1764 85 feet of it was 
pulled down and only 77 feet left standing. In the summer of 
1802 another portion of the old wall was removed, and now little 
more than a fragment remains. 

As to the manner in which walls of fortified towns were built we 
have the clearest evidence. The principal ditch was first marked, 
then dug out. This ditch was wide and deep, the soil dug out of 
it was used to form a rampart on the town side ; the ditch was 
deepened close to the rampart to receive the foundation of the wall. 
On the other side of the rampart a second wall was built to 
keep the rampart in position and to back it up, and the soil 
between them was well rammed down. Vegetius explains the 
construction simply : "A rampart, to have sufficient strength and 
solidity, should be thus constructed. Two parallel walls are built 
at the distance of 20 feet from each other, and the earth taken out 
of the ditches thrown into the intermediate space and well rammed 
down. The inner wall should be lower than the outer to allow an 
easy and gradual ascent from the level of the city to the top of the 
rampart. A ram cannot destroy a wall thus supported by earth, 
and in case the stonework should by accident be demolished the 
mass of earth within would resist its violence effectually." 
Vitruvius' plan was similar but more elaborate. He advises that 
the main wall shall be tied from front to rear with olive wood 
beams, and the two walls united by cross walls "disposed as 
the teeth of a comb or saw usually are, for when this has 
been done the great weight of earth (between them) will be 
distributed into small parts, and so will not be able by the pressure 
of its united weight to push out the substructure of the walls in any 
degree " (Lib. I. cap. 5). These zigzag cross walls tying the main 



140 ROMAN FORTIFICATION. 

walls would add greatly to their strength. The distance of the two 
walls from each other would, of course, determine the width of the 
terrace upon the rampart between them ; this was not always the 
same. Vegetius, as we see, gives 20 feet as a convenient width. 
Vitruvius, after describing the manner of building the outer wall, 
adds " moreover the foundation of the substructure on the inner 
side should be so far from the outer (wall) as to afford sufficient 
space within that the cohort may stand on the breadth of the 
rampart for defence as it is drawn up in line of battle." The width 
of the terrace at Pompeii is about 15 feet. Generally the inner 
was much lower than the outer wall, though in some cases it was 
higher, as at Pompeii, and thicker, as in the fortified camp of 
Saalburg, in the Taunus mountains, near Homburg, the outer wall 
of which is only five feet thick, whilst the inner is seven feet. 
(" Lives of the Greeks and Romans," described from ancient 
monuments, Guhl and Koner.) The inner wall at Dorchester may 
have been higher and thicker than the outer ; but high or low, 
thick or thin, the general rule was to make a rampart for the 
defence of a town with a wall on either side of it and a wide ditch 
outside ; and the point to which your attention is specially directed 
is that we have the remains of one wall only at Dorchester. Where 
was the other 1 The fragment that remains has some appearance 
of having been part of the inner wall. Many persons will remember 
the remains of the ditch, the hollow road now filled up, parallel with 
the walks and some yards from the wall ; the outer wall should 
have been on the edge of this ditch. We have further evidence of 
the masonry now standing being the inner wall from the excavations 
made here by the Dorset Field Club some years ago, when a Roman 
paved way was found at the foot of the wall on the inside four feet 
below the surface. It is a great pity the excavations were not 
carried further to find out the width of the paved way and to obtain 
conclusive proof that it was level with the ancient town, as we 
presume it was, and therefore answered to the broad way in 
stationary camps upon which large bodies of troops could be 
manoeuvred, and along which they could be sent to any point of the 



ROMAN FORTIFICATION. 141 

wall threatened by the enemy. There must have been a second 
wall some 15 to 25 feet from this one, for the Romans, if they had 
found the chalk so solid as to be a sufficient protection against the 
ram without the support of a stone wall, could not if we can trust 
Vitruvius and Vegetius have given the enemy the protection of 
the ditch and the advantage of the high ground of the rampart in 
making an assault, it was so distinctly opposed to their general 
practice. This shows the importance of making further excavations, 
and the spot which appears to ofler the best results is by the West 
Walk Cottages. A trench cut across the rampart here should 
reveal its construction and lay bare the foundations of both walls, 
unless they have been completely removed, as they have been in the 
South Walk ; but from the form of the rampart here it does not 
seem likely that every trace of the walls has disappeared. 

Yitruvius gives the rule for the thickness of walls. They should 
be sufficiently thick " for two armed to pass each other with ease." 
The old walls of Dorchester are stated by Stukeley to have been 
twelve feet in width ; allowing for the parapet and battlements, 
there would be left ample room for two armed men to pass each 
other. I would just add here that it is not clear from Dr. Stukeley's 
description whether he is speaking of the wall or of its foundation ; 
if the latter, the wall may have been nine or ten feet in thickness. 
As to the original height of the wall, the height to the top of the 
portion now standing is about eleven feet above the paved way. 
Stukeley says : " I saw the foundation of it (i.e., the wall) in a 
sawpit laid upon solid chalk. It is yet twelve feet high," which 
suggests that there were indications that it had been higher. 
Suppose it to have been sixteen feet originally, add 4*6 for the 
parapet and battlements, and you have a total height of over 20 feet, 
and this, remember, for the inner wall, if it toas the inner wall, 
which was generally lower than the outer one and less strong. 

The directions of Yitruvius for building town walls include the 
construction of towers. " Moreover/' he says, " turrets must be 
projected outwardly, so that when the enemy wishes to storm the 
wall he may be wounded with missiles on his exposed side from the 



142 ROMAN FORTIFICATION. 

towers right and left." Whether the walls which surrounded 
Dorchester had or had not towers could only be decided by 
uncovering the foundations, if they still exist ; as the fortifications 
are so strong in other respects there is no reason for assuming that 
they were deficient in this.* 

"The intervals between the towers must be so contrived that 
one must not be further from another than an arrow's flight, so 
that if any of them is attacked the enemy may be repelled by 
scorpions and other pieces of artillery from the towers to the right 
and left. . . . Also over against the interior sides of the 
towers the wall must be divided by intervals as wide as the towers, 
that the footways bridging them may be within the towers, and 
these must not be fastened with iron, so that if the enemy has 
seized any part of the wall the defenders will cut it away. If they 
do this promptly they will prevent the enemy from penetrating the 
rest of the towers and wall without casting themselves headlong 
(into the hollow of the tower)." These wooden drawbridges 
were a very ingenious way of isolating the portion of the wall 
attacked. Of gates, there were in all probability four at least. 
We know the position of two of them. The foundations of the 
west gate were observed at the top of High-street (1) * where they 
are marked on the Ordnance Survey map ; and no one appears to 
question that the south gate was at the end of South-street. 

There is a little difficulty about the position of the east gate. 
Hutchins says " In making the new road (i.e., the portion of the 
London-road leading out of Dorchester to the east) a little to the 

* " There were probably towers at the corners ; the mounds and the 
curves which the walls formed there instead of angles which can still be 
traced, are some evidence of it. It was a common practice to round the 
corners of the fortifications of Roman camps and towns, and on the 
mounds within these rounded curves of fortifications, towers were 
frequently built. The Roman tower which still remains in the fortifica- 
tions of York is in this position (see Archaeological Journal, vol. 31, 
p. 226). 

* (1) Dr. Stuckeley, in his map of Durnovaria, dated August 22nd, 1723, 
represents the Durngate-street as continued through the town, with the 
west gate at the end of it, on a supposed road to Ischalis, 



ROMAN FORTIFICATION. 143 

east of Seager's orchard at the entrance into Dorchester the 
Icknield-street was discovered and crossed. If this Eoman road 
was crossed there, its probable course would be towards the left 
of the east gate ; and it is very improbable, if the gate was 
at the end of the High East-street, that the road would have 
been constructed in this way. The custom was to turn the road 
to the right of the gate " so that the right sides of the attacking 
troops which are not covered by their shields may be open to the 
weapons of the besieged" (Vitruvius, Lib. I., cap. 5). If the gate was 
at the end of Durngate-street it would be in the right position both 
for this road and for the road which apparently passed through the 
Roman Cemetery at Fordington, from which a branch may have 
passed over the ford. The Cornhill was for centuries a market. 
"Was it in Roman times a Forum Venale ? and did the road from the 
east gate run into it at one end, and the road from the west gate at 
the other ? if so, it was not an arrangement for which there is no 
precedent. But to my mind the position of the east gate will not 
have been conclusively proved until its foundations have been laid 
bare, when it is to be hoped they will be mapped. 

There is nothing to show where the north gate was situated. 
There was a north gate at the time of the commonwealth, for we 
have particulars of the manner in which it was fortified. We 
should naturally look for the north gate at the foot of the Friary- 
lane. There is no evidence that it was there, but if it were, there 
was room on the south bank of the Frome, though there is not room 
now for a road in the direction of the Charminster-road. 

As to the construction of gateways generally, we have precise 
particulars. At the ends of the gateways were double-leaved gates. 
To secure them against fire Vegetius says they were covered with 
" raw hides and iron plates, but the ancient invention is the best 
for the purpose j it is a work (propugnaculum) thrown up before 
the gate with a portcullis (cataracta) at the entrance suspended by 
iron rings and ropes. If the enemy enter the work the portcullis 
is let down and they lie at the mercy of the besieged. The wall 
above the gate should be perforated in several places that water may 



144 ROMAN FORTIFICATION. 

be poured down to extinguish the fire when occasion requires." 
This accounts for the openings over the gates of Pompeii, which 
appear to have puzzled some antiquaries. 

We have now the fortification complete so far as this ; an inner 
wall 12ft. thick, a rampart 15 to 25ft. wide, with an outer wall 
retaining it, the whole about 40ft. in thickness (1),* a deep ditch 
on the outside of that again, possibly towers in the walls some 
eighty yards apart. 

This seems formidable enough, but the fortifications of the town 
were much stronger than this indicates. Vitruvius says special care 
ought to be taken that " there may not be an easy approach to 
attack the wall, but that the wall should be surrounded by steep 
places, and so contrived that the road up to the gates may not be 
direct but inclined to the left, &c." At Dorchester the position 
was strengthened in this way by throwing up two lines of ramparts 
outside the walls. "When I was a boy the ridges of these two lines 
were very apparent, and one at least is clearly seen on the south 
side, and one, if not both, may still be traced on the west. As the 
ditches were cut in the solid chalk, it will be possible by cutting a 
trench across them to find out exactly what were their original forms, 
their depth, and width. 

I have not discussed the question whether Dorchester was a 
stationary fortified camp (a castra stativa), because as a fortified 
garrison town it was that, and something more ; if it be contended 
that Dorchester was a castra stativa for troops only, there will be 
the difficulty of its size. I cannot find an instance of such a camp 
being constructed five times as large as was required. Even the 
enormous camp of Gamzigrad, in Servia, which is remarkable as 
being one of the largest known, is not so large. Poundbury, as 
regards size, is much more like what we should expect the 

* (1) This seems unnecessarily strong, but it must be remembered that 
battering rams, and other engines of enormous size and power were used 
jn warfare at that time. Vitruvius speaks of a balista which threw a 
stone 3601bs. in weight, and of a tortoise constructed by Agetor the 
Byzantine, for filling ditches and undermining walls, which was 60ft. 
long and 18ft. broad. 



ROMAN FORTIFICATION. 145 

construction to have been if such a purely military camp was 
required in the neighbourhood j but this, from its construction, 
Poundbury could not have been. 

Dorchester, however, in its plan has much in common with the 
military camp. It reveals its military origin and the hand of a 
military architect. The South-street answers to the Pretorian-street, 
the High-street to the Via Principalis. There is no reason to 
doubt that the Arx itself stood on the Castle Hill, the barracks of 
the soldiers between it and the walls ; the Koman remains found 
near there by Mr. Hogg and others have very much that character. 




(Ehmxh. 



By the Rev. C. H, MAYO, M.A., R.D., Vicar of Long 
Burton with Holnest. 




HE village of Yetminster, as we have seen in our 
ramble to-day, is pleasantly situated in the opening 
of the hills through which runs the little brook 
which joins the Yeo at Bradford Abbas, and from 
its position has gained the name it bears of Gate 
Minster, which, like another opening at Corfe's 
Gate, similarly named, gives access through the natural boundary 
of the hills to the stretch of country beyond. It is furnished, 
above the average, with quaint 17th century houses, one of which 
bears an inscription which may serve as a puzzle to the members 
of this society. 



AN + DO 


10 4 


DO + 


1607 + 


RE H 


- DE + 


BE + DO 


AN - 


f SN 


HA + ED 


DE 


f IN 



At a conspicuous point in the village stands the church, an 
interesting subject for architectural study, and a landmark which 
may be noted from the hills for a considerable distance. The 



YETMINSTEIl CHURCH. 147 

parish is extensive, and, together with the daughter Chapelry of 
Chetnole, occupies upwards of 4,300 acres, and when it formerly 
comprised the adjoining parishes of Eyme Intrinseca, Clifton 
Mayhank, and Leigh the last only separated from it in 1849 it 
must have been one of the most important in the neighbourhood. 
To this position testimony is borne by a custom still remembered 
by the old people of Minterne as having existed in their fathers' 
days, if not in their own, that the bearers of corpses for burial from 
Middlemarsh to Minterne, on reaching the summit of the range of 
hills at Dogbury, would stand and " face the Mother Church," as 
they express it, that is, the church of Yetminster, about four miles 
distant as the crow flies, thus testifying to the prominent position 
occupied by this minster and parish in mediaeval Dorset. 
Yetminster contains four manors, and supplied the endowments of 
two Prebends, and partly that of a third, in the Cathedral of 
Sarum. At the date of the compilation of Domesday it belonged 
to the Bishop of that See a certain William holding of the Bishop 
some six hydes out of the entire 15 at which the estate was then 
rated and in all probability it may have formed a part of the 
ancient endowments of the See of Sherborne. On the foundation 
of the Cathedral Establishment at Old Sarum by Osmund, Saint and 
Bishop, it was one of the original estates given by him in his 
charter of A.D. 1091 for its maintenance. (Keg. Osmund, Vol. I M 
p. 198. Rolls' Series, 1883.) Here the Dean exercised Peculiar 
Jurisdiction, except that in some respects his authority was ousted 
by the Prebendary of Yetminster and Grimstone, two years out of 
every three. Such being the ownership of the land, Yetminster 
has naturally failed to be the seat of any great manorial families. 
Their place has been taken by Ecclesiastics or their Lessees, who 
occupied the position of landlords. Lists of the holders of the three 
Prebends are extant, dating from the year A.D. 1226, when William 
de Len held the Prebend of Yetminster Prima (otherwise called 
Superior, Overbury, or Upbury), Tancred that of Yetminster 
Secunda (otherwise Inferior or Southbury), and R. de Maupodre 
the Prebend of Grimstone and Yetminster, which has a double 



148 YETMINSTER CHURCH. 

name from being maintained by estates in both these parishes. 
Some illustrious names are found in each of these lists, Yetminster 
Prima having been held by William of Wykeham, Bishop of 
Winchester, and founder of the two S. Mary Winton Colleges, 
1361 ; by Henry Chicheley, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1397 ; by 
James Stanley, Bishop of Ely, 1492 ; by Thomas Thirlby, Bishop 
of Westminster, Norwich, and Ely, 1537 ; by Isaac Barrow, master 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1671 ; and by Bishop Butler, author 
of the "Analogy of Keligion," 1721. Yetminster Secunda, by 
Chicheley, 1400 ; by William Dudley, Bishop of Durham, 1471 ; 
by Reginald Pole, Archbishop of Canterbury and Cardinal, 1519 ; 
and by Henry Cole, Provost of Eton, 1539 ; and Grimstone and 
Yetminster by Thomas Polton, Bishop of Hereford, 1408 ; by 
Hugh Parry, Bishop of S. David's, 1467 ; by William Barton, 
Suffragan Bishop, 1515 ; and by John Elton, 1519 1547, an 
ancestor of my own, and the founder of a Fellowship at B.N.C., 
Oxford. 

The annual value of these Prebends at various periods may be 
seen in the following table : 

1226. 1291. 1535. 

s. d. s. d. s. d. 

Yetminster and Grimstone ... 13 6 8 ... 20 ... 32 1 10| 

Yetminster Prima* 568 ... 8 13 4 ... 22 

Yetminster Secunda* 5 6 8 ... 800 ... 18 

Two of these viz., Yetminster Prima and Secunda are now 
in lay hands, Mrs. Frances Jane Ffooks being the Lady of the 
Manors thus denominated, while that of Yetminster and Grimstone 
belongs in reversion to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, Mrs. E. 
H. Fitzherbert being at present the lessee. The fourth Manor, 
which is called that of " Yetminster," without any further addition 
to the name, was squeezed from the See of Sarum in the reign Of 
Elizabeth, and belongs to Mr. Digby, of Sherborne Castle. 

To pass from the general history of the parish to the Church of 
S. Andrew, which we are visiting to-day, it is hardly necessary to 

* Called "Prebenda Dni T'isij," i.e. Thydisii, and "Ricardi de 
Coleshull," respectively, the holders in 1284. 



YETMINSTER CHURCH. 140 

call your attention to the handsome battlemented tower, porch, and 
aisles in the latter period of the Perpendicular style, with the 
disproportionately long chancel, constructed in a poor imitation of 
Early English, which are now before you. I say " a poor imitation 
of Early English," for it is scarcely possible to suppose, with 
Mr. Christian, that the Prebendaries of Yetminster in the 13th 
century, having before their eyes the superb example of that style 
in their Mother Church of Sarum, could have erected the chancel, 
which now stands eastward of the nave. The ill-fitting heads of 
the windows, the poverty-stricken chamfers in lieu of mouldings, 
the want of uniformity in the lights of the east window, and the 
general roughness of the work would have been an abomination in 
the eyes of William de Len, or Tancred, or whoever they were, 
who occupied these Prebends at the date when the Early English 
style was in vogue. A glance at the base of the E. E. font, recently 
recovered, with its delicate mouldings, will show us what these 
early builders would have done, had their hands been given to the 
work. 

Briefly to indicate the principal points which were to be observed 
before entering the church, I may mention the numerous external 
crosses (viz., crosses patee within a circle) to be seen on three of the 
tower buttresses, on the buttress near the south door, on the jamb 
of the window between the north porch and the tower, together 
with a small cross patee also to be observed at the apex of the 
tower door below the hood-mould the Holy water stoup hollowed 
in the external buttress, near the south door and the five small 
windows, blocked at the present restoration, viz., two in the east 
gable of the nave, one near the eastern window on the north wall of 
north aisle and on either side of the corresponding window in the 
south aisle intended to give light to the rood gallery. 

In regard to the chancel, the west and south windows nearest the 
nave have similar crosses to those already mentioned, and the eastern 
buttresses also bear them, but one below and the other above the 
plinth. It is noticeable that the crosses on these buttresses are cut 
in what I am informed is Xettlecombe stone, the other dressings of 



150 YETMINSTER CHURCH. 

the church being of stone from Hamhill. They may have been 
removed to their present position from an older chancel. There are 
also to be seen the traces of foundations at the base of the north 
and south walls, which seem to indicate that the chancel at one 
time stopped short about ten feet west of the present termination, 
and the line of a straight joint appears running down beneath the 
north-east window. The head of a small doorway in the north 
chancel wall is indented with a rectangular splay, forming the base 
of a nitch, of which the wall above bears no further trace, showing 
that if this stone is in its original position the Avail above has been 
re -built. 

Entering the church, which has recently undergone a judicious 
restoration under the direction of Mr. G. R. Crickmay, and which 
it is not now necessary for me to describe, we observe the 
Perpendicular font, formed of one piece with a section of the 
adjacent column the old Purbeck base of the Early English font 
already mentioned, a circle with four smaller circles for pilasters, 
found inverted on the floor at the north-west corner of the tower 
the grand brass of John Horsey, who died 8th of July, 1531, and 
Elizabeth, his wife, daughter of Eichard, and sister and heir of 
Eobert Turges, of Turges Melcombe, Dorset, recently re-fixed by 
one of the family, Major E. K. Horsey the matrix of another 
brass which the writer discovered before the restoration commenced 
the spaces formerly occupied by two altars at the east end of the 
aisles with their piscinae, the northern piscina, like the font, being 
formed out of the same block as the semi-pillar of the eastern 
member of the arcade, the bracket near this north altar for the 
support of an image, two small carved figures, found during the 
restoration, two stone brackets, carved with foliage, the southern 
ancient, the northern a recent reproduction (1889), which carried 
the rood beam some specimens of 15th century seating and lastly, 
the fragment of a wooden screen, which once divided the chancel 
from the nave. 

Looking at the roof we observe remaining certain traces of 
ancient colouring, the sacred monogram I.H.S. crowned, alternating 



YETMINSTER CHURCH. 151 

with suns in splendour, the colours employed being white, red, and 
black, and bands of colouring on the pillars of the arcades. One 
boss on the nave roof is important. It bears a white horse's head, 
bridled the Horsey crest indicating that the Horsey who 
possessed Clifton Maybank at the date of the erection of the 
nave, &c., was much concerned in the success of the work. It will 
be interesting to endeavour to establish his identity. Assuming 
that the internal decorations are coeval with the erection of the 
building, the sun in splendour will show us that the nave dates 
from the reign of Edward IV., 1461 83, who had adopted this 
device as his badge, which stood him in so good stead at the Battle 
of Barnet, 1471. We shall readily recall the lines in the third 
part of Shakespeare's Henry VI., Scene II. : 

Edw. : Dazzle mine eyes, or do I see three suns ? 
Rich. : Three glorious suns, each one a perfect sun ; 

Not separated with the racking clouds ; 

But sever'd in a pale clear shining sky. 

See ! see ! they join, embrace, and seem to kiss, 

As if they vow'd some league inviolable ; 

Now they are but one lamp, one light, one sun. 

In this the heaven figures some event. 
Edw. : Tis wondrous strange, and like yet never heard of. 

I think it cites us, brother, to the field, 

That we, the sons of brave Plantagenet, 

Each one already blazing by our meeds, 

Should notwithstanding join our lights together 

And over-shine the earth as this the world. 

Whate'er it bodes, henceforward Avill I bear 

Upon my target three fair-shining suns. 

During this reign three Horsey s held in succession the Clifton 
property Henry, who died 1461-2 ; Thomas, his brother, who 
died 1468-9 ; and John, the son of the latter, who married the 
heiress of Turges, and enjoyed the estate for the long period of 
62 years, dying in 1531. Of these three possible builders the 
first may be excluded as having died when the reign had scarce 
commenced. We have then to choose between the father and son. 



152 YETMINSTER CHURCH. 

Of these it is far and away most probable that the latter was the 
person interested in the building, as he entered upon the estate at 
an early age, being only six years old when his father died, so that 
ready money may have accumulated during his long minority, to 
which would be added the ample means placed at his disposal 
through his marriage with the heiress. If this conjecture is 
correct the building of the church would be his first work on 
attaining his majority, and the brass which the church now so 
fortunately possesses would represent the Esquire and his spouse 
who saw, principally, it may be, through their own bounty, the 
present handsome Perpendicular building rise from its foundations. 
John Horsey's will is still extant (dated 1 May 23, Henry VIII. 
1531, pr. July 1532. 16 Thower), and in it he desires to be 
buried at Eatmister, and bequeaths 40s. to " the maintenance and 
reparacion of the Church of Eatmyster underneath the condicion 
that I be prayed for in the Bede Roll yerely." 

John Horsey was " felix opportunitate mortis." He did not live 
to see the expulsion of the monks from Sherborne, 11 March, 
1539, with which, perhaps, he would not have been in sympathy, 
as he had a daughter a nun at Barking, nor did he see his son 
enriched with the spoils of Church property, nor the church of 
Yetminster, which he evidently loved, robbed of its vestments and 
valuable ornaments by the rapacious commissioners of Edward VI., 
1550, one of whom was his grandson. 

By the way, when these commissioners, who were Giles 
Strangwayes, George Delalynd, John Horssey, and Thomas 
Trenchard, all members of good Dorset families, came to 
Yetminster, they found " 5 bells in the tower, 1 suyt of vestments 
with a cope of blue velvet, 1 suyt of vestments of black wosted 
with a cope, 1 payre of vestments of whyt saten, one paire of 
vestments of red wosted, 1 paire of blewe chamlet, 1 peyre of 
blewe sylk, 1 paire of blewe wosted, 1 cope of greyne sylk, 1 cope 
of whyt fustyaine, 2 bann's of clothe, 2 surpleces, 6 altar clothes, 
1 chalis parcell gylte, 4 towells. To the Churche use apoynted by 
the said corny ssion's the chalis with the cope of whyt fusteyne, 



YETMINSTER CHURCH. 153 

with all the table clothes and surples. The Rest comytted to the 
charge of them under wry ten," i.e., till arrangements could be 
made for carrying them away. The names are those of John 
Turner, curate, Thomas Mundaye, John Myller, Thomas Carter, 
churchwardens, and Wyllm Sherry. Wyllm Wylles, Walter 
Phelpes, John Aylvord, parishioners. (Queen's Remembrancer's 
Miscellanea. Church Goods, Dorset, 2-17.) 

One remark only need be made upon this transaction viz., 
that the cope was evidently a vestment of undisputed legality, 
otherwise no specimen of it would have been left. But, if lawful, 
the abduction of the others becomes simple robbery. And such 
was really the case, for in the instances where a church happened 
to possess two chalices the commissioners abstracted one of them, 
and unblushingly left the worst for the use of the parishioners. 

At this time we have seen that there were five bells in the 
tower, the number still to be found there, though all but one have 
since been recast. This one bell bears the inscription " Or a mente 
pia pro nobis virgo Maria" The others are dated respectively 
1595, 1608, 1610, and 1655, the last again cast in 1889. 

1. B flat. 8 cwt. Diameter, 34 ins. 

"W.C. R.R. P.S. C.W. T.P. 
AN. NO. Do. MI. XL 1610." 

2. A flat. 10 CAvt. Diameter, 35| ins. 

4 'AN. NO. Do. ML XL 1595." 

3. G. 12 cwt. Diameter, 38^ ins. 

"O.RA.MEN.TE.PLA.PRO.NO.BIS.VIR.GO.MA.RI.A" 

4. F. 15 cwt. Diameter, 43^ ins. 

" Bee mindful of thy latter end 
For thou must die youth or age 
As hath thy f reinde. 

T.K. T.D. N.B. C.W. ANNO DOMINI 1655." 

5. E flat. 18 cwt. Diameter, 48 ins. 

" I sovnd to bid the sick repent 
In hope of liefe whene breathe is spent." 



154 YETMINSTER CHURCH. 

Below this last inscription is a handsome stamp, representing the 
lion of S. Mark, within a circle. It is followed by the word 
Wolddis, and date 1608. 

The chalice mentioned in the foregoing inventory has been 
replaced by a good Elizabethan chalice, with paten cover, bearing 
the small black letter 0, which indicates the year 1571. The 
maker's mark consists of the letters A and B linked together. 
Another paten, of the date of 1752, was given much later by Ann 
daughter of John Abingdon, Esq., of Over Compton, the wife of 
H. C. Floyer, Esq., of Stratton. 

Yetminster also once possessed a pair of organs. In " The 
presentment of the Vicar, Churchwarden, and Sidemen of 
Yetminster in the triennial Visitation of the Right Worthy and 
Reverend Deane of Sarum, the 15th day of September, 1635," it 
is stated "Imprimis, to the sixth Article concerning the Church 
Goods and the Ornaments thereof, we do present that the Organs 
of our Church of Yetminster are decayed and sold from the 
Church, and we desiar to have them restored again." History 
repeats itself; and if the Vicar and churchwardens were in the 
year of grace 1890 to put their wishes into writing, they could not 
state their case more accurately than in the words of their 
predecessors 255 years ago. 

The existing registers, unfortunately, do not date earlier than 
the year 1677, but a memorandum by John White, who became 
vicar two years later, mentions that he had in his possession 
another book beginning in 1558. Who will seek for this old book, 
which even now may be lying hid in some office or muniment 
room, whither it has gone astray from its proper place of custody ? 

Traces of distemper painting, comprising the ten Command- 
ments, the Creed, and a skeleton with scythe and hour-glass, 
standing on a globe, with various texts and mottoes, adorned the 
walls of the church, but unavoidably perished at the recent 
restoration. 

One monument in the church, besides the brass, deserves 
attention viz., that of Bridget, wife of John Minterne, of 



YETMINSTER CHURCH. 155 

Batcombe, and second daughter of Sir John Browne, of Frampton, 
Knt., who died 19th July, 1649, now removed from the north-east 
corner to the west wall of the north aisle. The Minternes were 
the owners of Newland, in the former parish, and curious stories 
are even now in circulation among the peasantry, relating to the 
infernal operations of one member of the family, known as 
" Conjuring Minterne." Probably he was possessed of more 
scientific or literary acquirements than the ordinary run of Dorset 
gentry of his day, and this fact, if fact it was, may have invested 
him with a halo of supernatural renown. He is said to have leapt, 
on horseback, from the top of Batcombe Hill, over the church 
tower, upsetting a pinnacle in his course ; and other stories, 
equally remarkable, are still told about him. 

The following pathetic lines, which are of frequent occurrence, 
are to be found in the tower of the church : 

" Our life is nothing but a winter's day 
some only break their fast and soe away 
others stay dinner and depart full fed 
the deepest age but supps and goes to bed 
he's most in debt that lingers out the day 
I dy'd betimes and have the lesse to pay " 

Yetminster Church is also the burial place of Arthur Cosens, 
Esq., Sheriff of Dorset in 1807, who died 24th June, 1810. 

Among the vicars of Yetminster, the sad case of William 
Bartlett should not be passed by. He was instituted on 17th 
March, 1607, and had a dispensation to hold in addition the 
Rectory of Church Knowle, 12th November, 1627. On the 
beginning of the civil troubles he was deprived of his Rectory by 
the ordinance against Pluralities and of his Vicarage by the 
Committee of the County, and was plundered and imprisoned at 
Westminster, 1646, and sequestered from his temporal estate. A 
letter written by him on the 18th October of that year, after he 
had been 22 weeks in prison for conscience's sake, may be read in 
Walker's Su/erinys of the Clergy, pt. II., p. 198. 



156 YETMINSTER CHURCH. 

Yetminster seems to have rejoiced in the possession of three 
churchwardens. Three names occur in 1550, and again on the 
bells dated 1610 and 1655. A churchwarden and two sidesmen 
signed the presentment in 1635, and three names also appeared on 
the Commandments, formerly painted on the church wall, and on 
the cover of the parish register, 1677. This may be accounted for 
on the supposition that one was elected for the mother church and 
one each for the two chapelries, following the lines laid down for 
the election of the Eeeve at the Michaelmas Manorial Court, when 
three names were submitted by the Homage to the Steward, 
whereof one must dwell at Leigh, the second in Chetnoll, and the 
third in Yetminster, from whom the Steward chose one to serve in 
the said office. 

This parish has produced, so far as I am aware, no distinguished 
native or resident, unless we except Benjamin Jesty, who, having 
discovered in his own person the prophylactic effects of cow-pox 
taken direct from the animal, had the fortitude to vaccinate his 
wife and children, in the year 1774, some 22 years before Jenner 
had made similar observations and experiments. The latter, 
however, received the tribute of fame and the Parliamentary 
Grant. Jesty was buried at Worth Matravers, in the Isle of 
Purbeck, and his tombstone there records that " He was born at 
Yetminster, in this county, and was an upright, honest man, 
particularly noted for having been the first person known that 
introduced Cowpox by Inoculation, and who, from his great strength 
of mind, made the experiment from the cow on his wife and two 
sons in the year 1774." He died 16th April, 1816. One famous 
man, though not a resident in Yetminster, is connected with it as 
the charitable founder of a boys' school. I mean the Hon. Robert 
Boyle, of Stalbridge, one of the original members of the Royal 
Society, who, by his will in 1691, bequeathed the funds from 
which a school was built for the free education of 10 boys of 
Yetminster, 6 of Leigh, and 4 of Chetnole. A new scheme, 
converting it into an ordinary elementary boys' school, was made 
on 10th April, 1873. 



a lUmarkable geformitu in a Jflotocring 
of dharlork. 




By NELSON M. RICHARDSON, B.A., 
F.E.S. 



the 25th of May, 1889, 1 was walking along a path 
through a corn field, on Radipole Farm, near 
Weymouth, on the look-out for anything interest- 
ing, but chiefly for anything entomological, which 
would probably at that season take the form of a 
rolled-up leaf or spun-up shoot with a larva 
inside, when my attention was arrested by a flowering stem of 
charlock, or wild mustard (Brassica arvensisj, two or three yards 
from the path, which had a very peculiar appearance. The plant 
was abundant in the field, but this stalk seemed to be deformed in 
some way, so I picked and examined it. This flower stalk is quite 
normal until within three or four inches of the tip, at which point it 
gives off a small thin branch just over Jin. in length, which again 
joins the main stem about 2 Jin. higher up, this main stem being bent 
over downwards so as to meet the small branch, forming a closed some- 
what circular figure, nearly an inch in diameter. After this second 
junction the main stem continues its course for more than an inch, and 
terminates in the usual way with a few small flower buds in fact, 
if the small joining branch were removed and the stem stretched 
out straight, there would be nothing strikingly remarkable about it. 



158 DEFORMITY IN A FLOWERING HEAD OF CHARLOCK. 

On the piece of the stem which I Lave preserved, and which 
is altogether about 6Jin. long, there are six pods below the 
point where the connecting branch diverges from it, two of these 
being within -Jin. of this point. On the curved piece of the main 
stem there are, or rather have been, eight seed pods, and beyond the 
second junction are numerous seed pods and flowers, one seed pod 
being exactly level with the junction of the stem and branch. On 
the connecting branch, and almost exactly in the middle, is a very 
small but perfect bud, just like those at the tip of the main stem, 
and on this branch, quite close to its upper junction, is a second 
small bud. These I regard as of great importance in working out 
the history of this monstrosity. 

The only other peculiarity in the stem that I think it worth while 
to describe is a long groove which begins about |in. below the first 
junction, and continues its course up the main stem to near the tip. 
The stem is naturally covered with very small longitudinal grooves, 
so small that it would more correctly be called striated ; and it is 
out of one of these tiny grooves that the larger groove of which I 
am speaking, arises. In some parts this groove looks more like a 
split, as if one had drawn the point of a knife down the stalk and 
the edges of the wound had gaped open. The groove becomes 
gradually larger from its origin to the first junction with the 
connecting branch ; it then suddenly increases in size and remains 
large between the two junctions, after which it is less definite and 
distinct. 

It is important to notice that the ends of the connecting branch 
are immediately adjacent to the groove, and both spring from the 
same side of it, which is very strong evidence that the branch is in 
some way connected with it ; but the groove is large enough to 
take in many threads of the size of the little connecting branch, 
which is not much thicker than a strong sewing thread. 

There would be no great difficulty, in the case of a plant or tree 
sufficiently large to manipulate, in grafting a branch in this position, 
so as to join any point of the stem to a second point higher up ; and 
such cases do occasionally, I believe, occur in nature, where a branch 



DEFORMITY IN A FLOWERING HEAD OF CHARLOCK. 159 

of a tree crosses and rubs against another branch, and they gradually 
grow together ; but it would be difficult to apply this explanation in 
this case, as it would be hard to shew how the top of the shoot had 
got bent round, and also how the little shoot had remained firmly 
pressed against the larger shoot sufficiently long to effect a complete 
junction. 

The explanation which I would suggest is that a wound was 
made in an ordinary flowering shoot whilst young, perhaps when 
very small indeed, when the whole thing was only a bud. If at 
this earty date, it would have been but a very minute puncture, 
which would probably in 19 cases out of 20 have healed up by the 
sides again growing together : or it may have been a small slit in 
the stalk made at a later date ; it must, however, have been made 
not later than when the main stalk between the points of junction 
was Jin. long the present length of the connecting branch. 

This accident, whatever was its cause, perhaps a thorn or a blow, 
divided the stem into two parts, the smaller of which I have 
spoken of as the connecting branch. It would be likely that such a 
narrow thin little strip of bark would be stunted and unable to keep 
pace in growth with the other part, which included almost all the 
stem ', hence, whilst this little threadlike portion was almost 
stationary in size, the remainder of the stem grew on, until at the 
time that I found it it measured 2 Jin., or five times the length of the 
other portion which had become detached from it. This latter, 
being sufficiently strong to hold it, caused it to curve round 
into the shape which it has taken. 

The groove represents the place from which the connecting branch 
was removed, but it has grown and widened out with the growth 
of the stem. The buds on the little branch are very much stunted 
from the small amount of nourishment that could flow to them 
along such a minute stalk, which also, no doubt, exhausted much of 
its energy in healing up its inner side where it was severed. This 
wound to it would represent half its surface, whereas the correspond- 
ing wound on the main stem would be to it but a trifle. It is 
interesting to note that of the eight buds on this portion of the 



160 DEFORMITY IN A FLOWERING HEAD OF CHARLOCK. 

stem, two only are opposite, the other six being single, so that four 
buds are missing, as the plant produces its flowers in pairs, and there 
are only two single flowers on the small stalk and six on the 
large stalk. 

One difficulty that I see is that the groove extends above and 
below the divided stalk. I should say that this was probably caused 
by the tendency that we see in any plant of a split in a branch to 
continue its progress at each end along the grain of the wood. 

Whilst I am on the subject of vegetable monstrosities, I may 
mention a carline thistle which I found at Portland the other day. 
The plant is only 9in. high, and has two flowers ; one ordinary one 
on a little side branch, and one very extraordinary one, which looks 
as if it were composed of six or seven flowers, as the surface 
occupied by its florets measures Tin. in length and only about fin. 
in breadth, so that the length is eleven times the breadth ! It is 
something like a cockscomb. The most striking part, perhaps, to 
the picker of it is the frightful array of prickles below the flower ; 
it seems as if 20 flowers had here united their forces instead of 
six or seven. 

I should add that the stalk is flattened in much the same 
proportion as the flower, but the root is quite normal. The 
explanation of this I shall leave to the botanists of the Field Club. 




Proc, Uersei JV.H. & A.F. Club Vol. X1L . IfWl. 




H . M Kichai-dsorv del . Mirvbem. Bros . Ch r oira 

1. Tinea subtilella Z.Gelechia ocellatella.var. S.Laverna lacteella. 

&. work of larva in birch leaf. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE. 



1. Tinea subtilella, Fuchs. Discovered as a species new to Britain by 

Mrs. N. M. Richardson at Portland, August, 1890. Fourteen 
specimens have altogether been taken in that month and August, 
1891, by Mr. and Mrs. Richardson, and two by Rev. C. R. Dig by. 

2. Gelechia ocellatella, Sta. This pink variety was bred, together with 

others of the ordinary form, from larvae collected at Portland on 
Beta maritima by Mr. N. M. Richardson, June 28th, 1890. 

3. Laverna lacteella, Sta. From specimens taken by Rev. O. P. 

Cambridge at Bloxworth, and by Mr. N. M. Richardson at 
Whatcombe, near Blandford ; Mr. E. R. Bankes has also bred 
this species from larvae collected by him at Bloxworth all in 1890. 

4. Tinagma betulce, Wood. From a specimen taken at Bloxworth by 

Rev. O. P. Cambridge in July, 1887. The mines of this species 
have also been observed at Whatcombe by Mr. N. M. Richardson, 
and the perfect insect was taken in some abundance at Bloxworth 
in June, July, and August, 1891, by Messrs. O. P. Cambridge, 
N. M. Richardson, and E. R. Bankes; and most probably it 
occurs elsewhere in the county amongst birch. 

The life history of this species was worked out by Dr. Wood, in 
Worcestershire, from the slight clue afforded by the holes in 
the birch leaves, and the moth, which was thus discovered, 
was described as new to science in October, 1890 (E.M.M. 
xxvi., 261). The egg is probably laid on the outside or in the 
substance of a young shoot of birch. The larva, when hatched, 
mines upwards in the birch twig, and in the late summer, 
when almost full-fed, turns off into a leaf stalk, through which it 
proceeds into the substance of the leaf. Having mined into it a 
short distance, it cuts out from the upper and under cuticles 
corresponding oval pieces (fig. 4a), which it lines with silk, closing 
them together except at one end, so as to form a sort of bag-like 
case. Carrying this on its back, it descends from the birch tree, 
and, having found a convenient resting place, fastens up the mouth 
of its case and turns therein to a pupa, from which the perfect 
insect emerges in the following summer. 

Fig. 4a represents the biich leaf after the larva has left it. It now 
appears that the work of the larva had been observed in 1885 near 
Hamburg by Dr. Sorhagen, who proposed for the moth (not then 
known) the name of Heliozela Hammoniella. A very full and 
interesting description of the larva and its habits is given by 
Dr. Wood in Entom. Monthly Mag. xxvi., 261. (See also 
E.M.M. xxvii., 48, 299, and Stettin Entom. Zeitung, 1891, p. 133.) 



ccumnre at fJortknb of linea 

Jfndw, 

A SPECIES NEW TO THE BRITISH FAUNA. 




By NELSON M. RICHARDSON, B.A., 
P.B.S. 



an afternoon early in August, 1890, Mrs. 
Richardson and I were collecting at Portland, and 
I had left her for a short time to look for one or 
two species which occur on some steep slopes, 
when she caught a very small moth and boxed it 
with some difficulty and soon afterwards a second. 
She was immediately struck by the very hairy appearance of its 
head and shewed me the moths as soon as I rejoined her, but as it 
was then growing dusk we were unable to make much out of them, 
though they did not look like old acquaintances. We caught no 
more on that day, but on examining the insect on the next 
morning we came to the conclusion that it was probably a Tinea, 
and if so, new to Britain, as it did not belong to any of the known 
British species. Mr. Stainton has since kindly named it for me 
from German specimens in his collection. As might have been 
expected, we went several times to Portland in pursuit of this 
little creature, but took altogether only eight specimens between 
us. The weather was not good during the early part of 
August on the days on which we went, and moths did not fly much. 



162 TINEA SUBTILELLA, FUCHS. 

Tinea subtildla flies in favourable weather for a short time late in 
the afternoon with an irregular sort of flight, and when it settles 
on a stone or leaf generally runs away at a great pace and is a very 
difficult insect to get safely into a pill box. If one does not succeed 
at the first attempt, one is not likely to do so afterwards, as it will 
probably have disappeared amongst the stones or in a bush, and 
will not come out again until one has gone away. It is hard to 
get in good condition, as its movements are so quick and continuous 
it runs round and round in the box when caught, which takes a 
good many of the scales off its wings, and it is not easy to set it 
without damaging it. It is a pretty little moth when alive, when 
perhaps the most conspicuous feature in it is its eyes, which 
stand out like little black beads from the sides of its head, and 
are well shewn off by the pale ochreous ground colour of its wings. 
The top of its head, which is pale reddish ochreous, is also striking 
from its extreme hairiness. 

There is no British species of the genus Tinea very closely allied 
to subtildla^ the one it most resembles being biseUiella, which is, 
however, much larger about twice the size and has not the 
dark scales at the tip of the wing which are present in subtildla, 
besides differences in the structure of its maxillary palpi. With 
the exception of what Stainton (Nat. Hist. Tineina, Vol. xiii., p. 
34) speaks of as "the semi-mythical subammanella, which is only 
represented by the two anterior wings in my collection," and of 
which the size is given as 3'", Tinea sultiletta, with an expanse of 
3J'", is the smallest British species of the genus, though from its 
light colour it is by no means the most inconspicuous. 

The following is a description of the imago (see also Ent. 
Monthly Mag., Vol. xxvii., p. 14). 

Exp. al., 3J 3f". Labial and maxillary palpi both much 
developed. Head very hairy, pale reddish-ochreous ; eyes black, 
very conspicuous when the insect is at rest. Fore-wings and 
fringes shining pale ochreous with a slight appearance of a darker 
greyish spot at the tip of the wing, and with the costa at the base 
also somewhat darker. Hind-wings and fringes very pale greyish- 



TINEA SUBTILELLA, PUCHS. 163 

ochreous. Antennae, legs, and thorax pale ochreous, like fore-wings ; 
body more the colour of hind-wings. 

This moth was first taken by Herr Fuchs on July 12th, 1878, 
at Bornich in the Rhine district (Rheingau), on the walls of old 
vineyards. He observes that to catch it with the net was not 
difficult, but to see it in the net was not so easy, and in the attempt 
to box it when in the net he lost many specimens. On cooler 
evenings it was less active and sat quietly on the stone walls of the 
vineyards, and was then more easily boxed. 

Probably, Herr Fuchs used a white net, in which it is most 
difficult to see a small light-coloured moth, whereas I generally use 
a green net, which makes the boxing an easier matter ; my difficulty 
was to catch it in the net. 

This is the smallest of six species which Mr. Stainton tells me 
that Herr Fuchs found on the vineyard walls. Four of these have 
not yet been detected in Britain, and the remaining species, Tinea 
nigripuncteUa, which Fuchs took in plenty, is rare with us. I once 
took one in a stable at Portland, but have never seen any more 
specimens, so that it would appear as if this species was not there 
associated with stones or walls. It is most often, I believe, found 
in outhouses, but I do not think that the larva is known. It would 
be interesting if it were to turn up amongst the stones at Portland, 
especially if accompanied by any of Herr Fuchs' four other species. 
This genus is very uncertain in its appearance, and amongst our 
British species are several very rare ones, some of which are, so far 
as I am aware, only known in this country by the simultaneous 
capture of a few specimens. It is therefore by no means unlikely 
that others are still to be found, in spite of the immense number of 
collectors that are now spread all over the country, and I hope that 
the ensuing season may shew that the resources of Portland are not 
yet exhausted, though so-called civilization is doing its best to 
destroy the insects by making a new railway, and the collectors of 
them, by the establishment of a new rifle range at which rifles are 
used which, I am told, carry two miles, the shooting with which 
takes place straight along the undercliff. 



Jl 



on the toork of $3rmrbation 



of 



FROM ITS ORIGINAL FOUNDATION BY THE SAXONS TO THE DATE 
OF ITS COMPLETION BY THE NORMANS. 



By WILLIAM MASTERS HARDY 

(Swanage, Dorset). 




THE SITUATION OF STUDLAND. 

HE village of Studland is beautifully situated on the 
east coast of the Isle of Purbeck, Dorsetshire, near 
the entrance to Poole Harbour, and the site of the 
church lies three miles north of Swanage and six 
east of the historical Corfe Castle. Away 
southward swell the Bollard Downs, terminating 
eastward in the " Old Harry Rocks," which break the waves from 
entering Studland Bay. Elms, cypresses, and yews (the latter must 
be over a thousand years old) shelter and literally preserve the 
unique building. For instance, in 1881 a strong S.W. gale was 
not felt in the ancient churchyard. 

In the year 1880 the rector, the Rev. C. R. Digby, B.A., and his 
churchwardens (Mr. A. M. Luckham and Mr. J. Gould), after 
receiving suggestions from the Society for the Preservation of 
Ancient Buildings, determined to save the church from a threatened 
and utter collapse. There were immense cracks in the walls and 
arches of the tower, rendering it far from secure. 




CD 



STUDLAND CHURCH. 165 

Heavy shores were, therefore, set at the dangerous angles to 
receive the thrust of the interior arches and groinings, and a cutting, 
7ft. wide and from 4ft. to 12ft. deep, was excavated in sections at 
an average distance of 3ft. from the walls (thus leaving space 
for their subsequent underpinning) and filled in with concrete. 
This extended from the east end of the chancel to the west end of 
the nave. An account of interesting relics found during these 
operations will be found on page 177. 

The work of preservation w r as vigorously commenced in the 
summer of 1881 by Mr. W. M. Hardy, of Swanage, under the 
direction of the Diocesan Surveyor, G. R. Crickmay, Esq., architect 
(Westminster and Weymouth). The tower was thoroughly shored 
and encased, and the interior arches were wedged up with strong 
centres ; then the underpinning commenced. This was found both 
difficult and dangerous, so that short sections of wall, from two to 
three feet at a time, were proceeded with, and even then, while the 
brickwork was being carried up, the core of the wall ran down like 
sand in the hour-glass, especially when, on one occasion, the 
volunteer artillery at Swanage, in close thick weather, were at 
heavy gun practice. 

The new work was set in wider than the base of the walls and 
piers within and without (except at the east end of the chancel) and 
carried from A B B B on plan. Underpinning was unnecessary 
for the rest, but the foundations were cleared out, Portland cement 
concrete rammed in, and a water gutter hollowed on the surface. 

An interesting example of " The Twist " * was revealed during 
the excavations. The old foundation appeared eighteen inches out 
from the plinth at the N.W. corner, diminishing to nothing at the 
chancel, while on the S. side the plinth-line was the same distance 
the other side of the foundation line, the error tapering to nothing 
at the middle buttress of tower. Further investigation showed that 
inside on the north foundation and outside of the south a fresh line 

* The "Twist" found in churches and cathedrals is that divergence in 
the line of the choir from that of the nave intended to convey to the 
spectator the inclination of our Lord's head on the Cross. 



166 STUDLAND CHURCH. 

of foundation had been laid down, as if the workmen had set about 
their task with line and square, but when the ecclesiastical 
authorities arrived to lay the corner stone they ordered the rather 
common " twist " to be observed. 

Many indications were discovered that all the faced stone inside 
and out, even the plinth and thin stone foundation which bears it, 
were additions to an earlier building of rubble-work. (PI. I., fig. 2). 
The band of ashlar-work each side of the chancel was a thin face of 
stone with no bond into the wall. This started our enquiries, and 
we became more convinced as we proceeded. On the south side a 
large window or doorway had been cut of the full size and deeper 
than the ornamental moulding, and there an arch of brick was 
turned which went through the wall. 

Blunders of the early builders came to light during the 
excavations sufficient to account for the sinking of the fabric. The 
early builders found that one part of the ground consisted of soft 
red sand, so soft that no pickaxe was needed to remove it, and 
another section of hard sand and ironstone. To obviate building on 
such an unequal basis they threw in a layer of strong pipe-clay 
about three feet thick and five wide, which appears to have been 
well consolidated. Perchance they dreaded building " a house upon 
the sand," though there was no fear of floods in this situation, and 
neglected to notice that their clay was a part of the "house," and, 
as it happened, the clay about four feet from the floor line became 
soft and the worms (an example of the Darwinian observations) 
made the clay a favourite haunt, and burrowed it through and 
through, softening and weakening the whole foundation, threatening 
the final collapse of the fabric. 

Upon this clay the foundations, formed of very rough sandstone 
filled in with sand and earth without mortar of any kind, were 
put in up to the ground line. Here were more relics (which, 
see p. 177). 

Ecclesiastical customs further aided to endanger the church e.g., 
the endeavour of the Monks to bury their dead near to the Holy 
Place causing them' to dig the vaults and graves close to the 




ft 




STUDLAND CHURCH. 167 

foundations, some sepulchres were deeper than the original 
substructure, particularly on the south side (fig. 3 on plan) ; and it 
appeared evident also that the Saxon builders did not foresee that 
their Norman successors would raise a weighty superstructure on 
the weak basis of their workmanship. 

SECTION OF THE CHANCEL WALL AND FOOTING. 
(Marked on Plan). 

A. Base of pillar, standing upon two courses of thin flat stone, 
was simply tucked under at a later date. 

B. Foundations, large sandstone rock put in roughly, and to a 
depth of about four feet. 

C. A course of flints regularly " pitched " like a floor. 

D. A bed of white clay of varied thickness. When wet it was 
as slippery as grease, and ran into a creamy substance, although dry 
it became very hard and difficult to remove with the pickaxe. 

THE MOETAR 

used gives evidence of an earlier and a later building operation. 
That of the earliest portion of the building namely, the core 
between the walls, the rough-footing, and rubble-work had little 
lime in it, and the loamy sand and fine grit had been taken from 
the churchyard, and in colour was umber. The mortar of the 
ashlar work, piers, and arches, which may be classed as Norman 
work, was whiter and of better substance, chiefly consisting of 
lime and grit in equal quantities like that in the work at Corfe 
Castle ; while both work and mortar of the S.W. buttress, which 
may be assigned to the 14th Century, was the best, the mortar 
being as hard as cement. 

To preserve the chancel a brick beam, two feet by eighteen inches, 
was built in all round the walls just above the window arches, and 
in the centre of this beam a hollow was left, through which were 
run tie-rods an inch-and-a-half thick, and these were fastened at 
each angle by nuts and screws. Upright bars were placed at the 
angles. A couple of sets of bars connected, one running round 



168 STUDLAND CHURCH. 

the imposts of the arches and the other six feet higher, were worked 
into the tower. 

Although no hammering was allowed the insertion of these bars 
was a ticklish task, but happily no accident happened. About 
half-way up the tower, at the N.E. angle, the ashlar had to be 
removed three feet in height by twenty inches broad. There the 
core commenced Tunning until no less than eight feet above the 
hole was entirely emptied out. 

The whole of the plaster on the interior walls was picked off. 
Then the difficulty had to be met how should the chancel arches be 
kept up 1 For the cracks had been filled up of old with wooden 
wedges and plastered over. These having decayed, and the walls 
being a mass of small flints, chalk, and loamy sand (for there was 
nothing solid), the core came rattling down like dust directly the 
plaster was disturbed through the cracks in the groining where the 
wedges had been fixed. The difficulty of the running core was 
overcome by removing the loose stones directly the running ceased, 
washing out the cracks, filling them with Portland cement-grout, 
and treating the outside face with red sandstone. Underneath 
the whitewash fresco paintings of figures were found on the lower 
parts of the groined arches and on the walls round. Traces of these 
frescoes are now visible. The diagonal ribs were discovered 
ornamented with red and blue lines. 

A STUDY OF THE STRUCTURE. 

Insertion of Norman into earlier work (Saxon surely) meets the 
investigator on every hand. To effect this insertion the Norman 
masons carefully drew out the rubble-work and fitted the new 
ashlar in the old. 

Outside the eastern wall of the chancel is an illustration of early 
rubble-work intact from foundation to roof. The original plinth 
and quoins remain. A Gothic window is inserted into this wall. 
Of old there does not appear to have been any window, except in 
the gable a small Norman loophole without decoration, and which 
had no glass but was closed by a wooden shutter. On the gable- 



STUDLAND CHURCH. 169 

end there is a cross of modern date roughly worked. In a sketch 
by the Kev. John M. Colson, 1858, the gable is represented 
as " hipped-in." On removing the old roof it was patent by the 
timber that though there were no outward signs the sketch was 
trustworthy. Some of the stones of the ancient eave's-course were 
(removed from their original place), and were worked into the south 
wall as ashlar on some occasion when the roof was being repaired. 
The moulded corbels on each side of the gable remain in their original 
position, and formed part of this course, which once ran the entire 
length of the eaves on either side of the chancel. Three or four of 
the stones can easily be seen below the eaves on the south. 

THE NORTH WALL OF THE CHANCEL 

reveals how the Norman insertions were made. For five or six 
feet from the foundation there is the rough early rubble-work (pi. I., 
fig. 2, E). Then can be seen a belt of ashlar (pi. I., fig. 2, A.), 
into which a pure Norman window has been inserted. The coating 
of ashlar from six to nine inches on the bed is inside and out, but 
the core of the wall (found while fixing the iron binding rods) is 
of rubble, and (pi. I., fig. 2, C.) this rubble continues above the 
ashlar until the roof is reached, while the Norman work is notched 
into the ancient quoins at the angle, and so straight-faced as to 
leave the older wall crooked. 

A CONSECRATION CROSS 

is carved in a N.E. angle quoin about five feet above the plinth, 
another on the capital of the column in the interior on the same 
level, and there are more crosses at different angles in the chancel. 

As on the S. side a moulded eave's-course surmounted this N. 
wall, at the top of which, near the tower, is a small doorway leading 
to the tower and priest's chamber over the chancel, evidently 
reached by a ladder from the exterior. If there was, at one time, 
no rectory it is supposed a travelling priest did duty and used the 
chamber as his abode. 

The serious nature of the settlement, producing from four- 
and-a-half to six inches difference, is observed over the arch of 



170 STUDLAND CHURCH. 

the small window. It seems miraculous that the chancel kept erect 
so long. 

THE SOUTH WALL OP THE CHANCEL 

was made, in all respects, like the northern, and it is again observable 
that there is a difference between the original rubble and the added 
ashlar. The angle quoins are Saxon. A moulded Norman window 
has been inserted, afterwards converted into a doorway, perhaps 
for the convenience of the clergyman as there is no vestry. 
In the seventeenth century this window was restored. Over it we 
find modern ashlar-work, as if to strengthen this wall, which seems 
the weak part of the church, and here were built in in the old times 
eave's-course. 

A SQUINT 

of later date points directly in the interior of the church between 
the choir and the chancel, where there is a raised stone platform 
about six inches high betwixt the choir and the chancel. 
Perhaps the altar stood here and the opening was made for the 
convenience of those attending the Lady Chapel. The squint has 
a rebate in the head for a wooden shutter, and part of the hooks 
remain. 

A curious instance of reverence interfering with security came to 
light on this side. About 1840 a buttress was built at the S.E. 
angle, thirteen feet high and two feet six inches by two feet, 
battering slightly on the S. front, solid, notched into the ashlar, and 
tied in the angle with irons. As the buttress was dragging down 
the wall orders were given by Mr. Crickmay for removal. Lo ! 
three feet under the plinth a leaden coffin, a stone three feet square 
across it, upon which the buttress had been erected ! The coffin 
had given in three inches. This buttress has not been replaced. 

THE TOWER 

also shows signs of Saxon origin. At first built of square rough 
rubble-work to the height of the present string-course (in earlier times 
the eave's-course), half-way up its modern height, and roofed in at 
the same pitch as the nave and chancel. Then there were no 



STUDLAND CHURCH. 171 

buttresses, since the foundations of these erected since bear clear 
traces of being added to ancient masonry. (Fig. 2 on plan.) 

Two small windows were undoubtedly in the centre of the N. 
and S. walls. There are the remains of sandstone window jambs 
with no grooves for glass but rebates for shutters. The roofs were 
probably thatched with reed. 

The buttresses have been inserted to strengthen the walls outside, 
while inside we find massive columns and arches added to the 
earlier wall to enable the Normans to safely raise the super- 
structure. 

Above the string-course the ashlar has been carried up and worked 
in with the buttress, a fact which should make the argument for a 
Saxon building earlier than the Norman alterations perfectly 
conclusive. 

It was clearly the intention of the latter masons to carry the 
tower six feet higher than they did. At the top are parts of four 
windows, one in either wall, at each jamb bases and columns, the 
latter three feet six inches, without capitals, as if the builders 
determined to finish off with semi-circular arches, but probably the 
building showed a tendency to settle, the mixed work at the bottom 
not bearing the strain, so the windows were built up level with a 
thickness of walling (three feet six inches), and the two flat 
gable-ends E. and W. one foot six only, to give a slight run to the 
roof. 

It is to be noticed that the two skew-stones at the bottom of the 
water-table on E. side are worked to the proper pitch of the roof, 
but on the W. side they are worked at a different angle, being, it 
would appear, the ancient skews, when the tower roof was parallel 
to that of the nave, as if the builders covered in pro tern. The tower 
is now strong enough to bear completion. 

The roof was found to be of rude carpentry, great timber 
principals, purlins, and rafters with rough oaken shingles laid 
across about three inches asunder covered with cast-lead 3-1 6th inch 
thick without wooden rolls, and the lead in good condition. 
The earliest date scored thereon is 1381. 



J72 STUDLAND CHURCH. 

In the northern wall a perfect Norman window has been inserted 
out of centre in order that the mid-buttress of the three flat 
buttresses to the side of the tower should have its true position. 
The appearance of these is curious. They are not alike, and the 
W. one does not set back (like the eastern) in order that it should 
come out level with the eaves, or perhaps the earlier w r ork was not 
upright, against which the buttress has certainly been built. 

The iron eave's-gutter was supported on iron brackets, and at Mr. 
Hardy's suggestion it was decided to use a corbel for that purpose. 
He drew a stone from the quoin, and discovered that the inner end 
of the stone was a carved head similar to those round the eaves of 
the nave, and this head now forms the corbel at the N.E. corner of 
the tower. (PL I., fig. 1.) 

The south wall of the tower had a strong buttress placed against 
it at its S.W. angle (see plan), probably in the sixteenth century. 
Before this it appears as if there were three flat buttresses like 
those on the N. To the E. of the mid-one there was a small 
window, for, on removing the plaster inside, the Norman arch was 
disclosed. . About the seventeenth century a larger window was 
inserted with a brick arch, which is now cemented over. 

THE EAST END OF THE TOWER 

is of Norman ashlar-work excepting each side of the doorway (into 
the bell loft from the priest's chamber), which is rough rubble- 
work. This doorway is square-headed and square jambs. The 
east window of the tower has two moulded jambs a round centre 
column of sandstone and the stone head was added in the place 
of a wooden lintel in 1881. 

THE WEST WALL OF THE TOWER, 

from nave gable to roof, is of Norman ashlar-work. The window 
(above the nave) not quite so wide as the others, is in the same 
style with foot ornaments to the columns like those in the chancel. 
A wooden lintel was removed in 1881 and a stone head put in its 
place. 



STUDLAND CHURCH. 173 

Opposite to, and level with one at the E., is a square-headed 
doorway, at the bottom of which, in picking off the plaster, a rough 
groove, the whole width of the N. joint, was brought to light. 
This is at the entrance to the bell loft, and, as each of the four 
bells (see Bells, p. 177) will go through the opening except the 
largest, and its rim is the exact width given by the extra groove, it 
was evidently knocked out to admit the big bell. 

THE NAVE. 

The exterior of the nave is adorned with strange Norman corbels 
along the eave's-course of rude workmanship and vulgar design. 
Iconoclasts have smashed the most interesting. Cheek by jowl 
with stones, bearing these curious decorations, are some heads 
showing advanced skill, chiefly designs of animals. The harebell 
represented within the building also figures upon some of the corbels, 
and one of an octopus on the N. 

THE SOUTH WALL OF THE NAVE, 

up to the eave's-course, is mainly rubble-work. The porch is 
modern. (Fig. 4 on plan.) There were probably two narrow 
Saxon windows in this wall similar to those on the 1ST. (The two 
quoins, fig 5 on plan, are ashlar.) The old doorway was here also. 
Two large semi-circular windows have been inserted, one each side 
of the porch. The doorway is Norman. The plinth is in good 
condition, having been buried in the soil. It has been surmised 
that the Normans inserted the plinth and seven-inch course of 
ashlar on the top of it when they altered the church. The N.W. 
(pi. L, fig. 2) small window proved an interesting study. 

It certainly splayed both outside and in, similar to those of the 
Saxon church of S. Lawrence, Bradford-on-Avon, but the Normans 
inserted jambs and arches in the outside part of the window, which 
account for the two arches found here one inside the other. The 
N.E. window was evidently like this one, but a doorway had to 
be cut through, to reach which a flight of steps outside led to the 
entrance of a gallery, which was constructed about the middle of 
last century along the N. side of the nave. 



174 STUDLAND CHURCH. 

THE WEST END, 

it is believed, was a plain wall with no window. The Saxon work 
rises as high as the eave's-course. There is now a large semi- 
circular window of a late date with plain jambs. Probably there 
was a gable-end with water-table, but this has been rebuilt. A fine 
old Maltese cross stands at the gable-end. 

THE INTERIOR OF NAVE. 

The floor line is remarkable in running towards the chancel 
three to four inches in ten feet. Under the floor are from three to 
four feet of human remains and sand. 

In taking off the plaster to fix a match-board dado on the north 
and south walls a line running all round the nave parallel with the 
floor line was discovered, 2 J inches wide, of red and blue distemper. 
This colour was laid on very thin plaster close to walls and finished 
off at the jambs of doorways with ornamental finials. 

INSIDE THE CHANCEL 

are four columns (see plan), one at each angle, with a groined arch, 
the diagonal ribs of which are semi-circular stilted. The groins 
are of Purbeck "burr" and soft enough to be carved with a 
knife, wondrously light for such architecture, being porous ; the 
" burr " is unfitted for facing. The stone can be obtained only from 
rocks which appear at low tide thirty yards E. of the stone quay 
at Swanage. There are no other arches in the neighbourhood 
turned with this stone. A proper radiation has been maintained 
of the stones in the arches. 

The rough rubble-work of the three walls reaches a height of 
about four feet. 

Above the E. window, one of a later date, a large crack filled 
in with red sandstone shows the settlement. As a whole the 
window went to the S. and drew the jamb from the rubble work. 
The outside N. jamb projects two or three inches from the inner. 

The later builders left the E. wall of the chancel untouched. 
The N. side was hidden by plaster until the preservation. It has 



> 




c<t> 




STUDLAND CHURCH. 175 

a Norman window with a splayed arch and ashlar-work running 
level with the sill up to the groin. The ashlar is from six to nine 
inches on the bed, so that the facing only of the rubble-work could 
have been removed to build this. Here, again, the ancient work 
appears crooked. The window shews the effect of the collapse of 
the fabric. The crack is filled in with red sandstone. The jambs 
have been cut about very much. 

Here stands an altar-tomb of Purbeck marble ; the brasses which 
were on the shield have been demolished. 

Three of the Colson family filled the rectorial office for more than 
a century. The stained glass window in memory of the Rev. T. 
Colson, forty years rector, is dedicated to the patron S. Nicholas. 
There is also a marble tablet in memory of the Kev. J. M. Colson, 
rector for fifty-one years. 

The floor (from the choir to the chancel) has been restored to its 
original lines. It was level with the top of the bases of the 
columns. The ancient bases and the skirting-courses were 
discovered during the excavation. The tombstones have been 
relaid, as near as possible, in their former positions. 

THE COLUMNS OF THE CHANCEL 

need a few words of explanation. The N.E. capital bears the 
consecration cross ; that of the S.W. possesses but one perfect, the 
others being destroyed when the faces of the capital and of the rib, 
starting from the N.E. capital, were cut off to make room for the 
tablets. The S.E. column is carved differently to the others. The 
S.W. and N.W. columns and pilasters were destroyed, with the 
exception of the bases and about six inches of the shafts. Pilasters 
without any column we're added here and at the KW. to 
strengthen the old capital in 1881. 

INSIDE THE CHOIR 

the bases of the columns on the platform are six inches higher 
than those of the chancel. The Norman arch suffered severely 
(pi. III., fig. 2), by the settlement, and became very distorted. 



176 STUDLAND CHURCH. 

There is reason to believe that it is built inside a Saxon stilted, 
square-faced arch, the capitals of which are about eighteen 
inches higher than the latter, which are cut in behind the earlier 
moulding. All the arches are slightly stilted. The earliest capitals 
are unique in decoration, the subjects being fern and harebell 
simply treated, why not acanthus 1 as at S. Mark's, Venice, and also 
in Romanesque work. The two rough corbels under them (very 
plainly inserted since the Saxon work) seem to have supported a 
rood-beam ; the three holes to fix the rood to the ashlar-work are 
seen above the Norman arch. (PI. III., fig. 2 X .) And over these 
are the remains of a fresco, representing a standing figure, with one 
kneeling on either side of him. 

Zig-zag moulding (surface carving) ornaments the outer moulding 
of the arch. The window dedicated to the Virgin Mary is in 
memory of Miss L. C. Luckham, and is dated 1884. 

The walls of the choir are of rubble-work. The bell loft is above. 
The ceiling, which is groined as in the chancel, is supported by 
Purbeck " burr," and the skirting-course runs round, as in the same 
portion of the chancel. 

The nave arch again shows the settlement. Here stands a 
slightly stilted Norman arch, with hatchet and basket moulding 
on the capitals. The basket work is to be noticed as it 
occurs. 

The end beam of a side gallery was once inserted in the N. 
capital (pi. III., fig. 1), the hole of which, six inches square, is 
stopped with Roman cement, and carved to imitate the stone an 
unsightly botch. Rudely-carved foot ornaments, very like those at 
Wimborne Minster, are at the bases of the columns. 

The stained glass S.E. window perpetuates the memory of one 
of the Bankes family. 

THE FONT 

stands under the gallery at the W. end of the church (pi. II., fig. 1), 
very ancient, rudely axed out of Purbeck " burr," with a rim four 
inches thick, and it was either lined with lead, or rimmed for a 
cover perhaps both. The stone which supports the bowl is a 



STUDLAND CHURCH. 177 

window head, similar to the one inserted in N.W. window (pi. II., 
fig. 2), evidently taken from the N.E. nave window. 

THE BELLS 

lend scope for conjecture. Three were cast in the seventeenth 
century, but the large one bears the astonishing date 1065 ; that is 
about the supposed date of the rubble-work of the earliest builders 
of the church. 

S. ^Ethelwold's Benedictional shows five bells in a tower of the 

4 

tenth century. Bede, A.D. 674, mentions " the hearing the well 
known sound of a bell," perhaps one of hooped wood in an open 
turret, and maybe the Studland bell was at first in such a turret, 
and was taken down when the tower was enlarged. This bell bears 
an inscription in English " Draw nigh to God." It has been 
suggested that the date should be 1605 ; but it is not, it might 
have happened in reversing the figure in casting. 

Again, it is an inferior bell to the rest, showing fire-cracks and 
sounding ill. The learned in campanology should doff their coats 
and examine the problem. They have never done this. There 
were certainly cast bells in England thirty years before 1065. 

INTERESTING EELICS 

were unearthed during the excavation of the trenches for under- 
pinning purposes. Three distinct layers of burials with the upper 
graves of the modern type, the second " cists," for which rough, 
unhewn, Swanage stones had been used to surround and cover the 
bodies, and beneath these, lying in a line approaching N.E. to S. W., 
were " cists " formed of rough local flints and some stones. The 
remains were re-interred at a greater depth in the hard sand beneath 
the concrete. 

Under the S.E. corner of the tower it became necessary to go 
down twelve feet. In excavating, a brick grave containing a coffin 
was found touching the S. chancel wall. There was no inscription 
and it was reburied under the yew tree, thirty-two feet N. of the 
N. door of the nave. 



178 STUDLAND CHURCH. 

Four feet .from the N. chancel window another rough Swanage 
stone " cist " was discovered, but not disturbed. And between the 
tower buttress and the S. porch a " cist " of hewn stone, correspond- 
ing to the Norman work of the church, was found and had to be 
removed. 

In the old foundations were bedded massive stone steps, rudely 
axed, with morticed holes, about four inches square, to admit the 
door-janibs evidently non-ecclesiastical evidently remains from 
some very ancient villa, Saxon holding, or strong keep, worked 
.out of local sandstone of the consistence of the hoary and lonely 
Agglestone Rock on the heath. Also a huge keystone of an arch, 
suitable for a radius of five feet, was turned up ; likewise a hand- 
mill formed by two round stones about eighteen inches in diameter, 
one of them having a hole at its centre. 

IN CONCLUSION 

I think that the facts herein contained speak for themselves, 
and deserve from antiquarians their best consideration. At every 
point there are problems for which there seems to be but one 
legitimate and logical solution viz., that a Saxon, rough, rubble- 
work building, was improved by Norman insertions. If so, then 
the church at Studland is one of the most ancient remains in our 
country, and deserves to have its fame spread and its uniqueness 
recognised. With facts before us of original foundations (see plan)j 
old red sandstone steps, and stones to match, and window jambs, 
and mouldings, &c., very roughly axed, we are bound to say that on 
this site building operations were carried out at a very early date. 
It might have been a Roman stronghold or look-out hiding-pace for 
the use of the good people of Wareham, Corfe Castle, and 
Wimborne. We also find that in the middle of the seventh century 
S. Aldhelm built a church near his own estate "not far from 
Wareham, in Dorset, where Corfe Castle stands out in the sea," the 
remains of which are still visible, as has been pointed out by Mr. 
T. Bond in his valuable Treatise on Corfe Castle, in the south wall 
of the western, or second ward. From architectural peculiarities 



STUDLAND CHURCH. 



179 



traceable in Worth and Studland Churches, and S. Martin's 
Church at Wareliam, these buildings, in their original form, may 
be assigned to the time of S. Aldhelm, if not to his personal 
superintendence. 




Jtncient f ritish Brns. 




By Dr. WAKE SMART. 



ITH a wealth of Ancient British pottery in the 
cabinets of private collectors in Dorset, and in the 
public Museum, and in Libraries with illustrated 
works relating to the subject, I am not aware of 
any attempt having been made to reduce the facts 
thus obtained to a systematic order or classifica- 
tion, by which their value may be better understood and appre- 
ciated. It may be thought a presumption on my part to attempt 
or even suggest any action of the kind alluded to, and, if induced 
to do so, my motive will be simply to place the facts we have at 
hand in a clearer light, with the hope of improving our knowledge 
and increasing their value as historical data. 

In his " Description of the Deverel Barrow, opened in A.D. 1825 
by William Augustus Miles, Esq.," there is an introductory letter 
from his friend and patron, the late Sir E. C. Hoare, Bart., of 
Stourhead, wherein the worthy Baronet writes as follows : " I 
have been for many years past engaged in opening the numerous 
barrows about Stonehenge, Abury, and Everley, in Wilts ; and 
you have been more fortunate in this one Tumulus than I have 
been in hundreds ; nor have I, in my Museum, more than one [urn] 
of the upright form, like those numbered 2, 3, 7, 12, 15, 22. I can 
safely pronounce your urns to be of the earliest British manufacture, 



Proc.Darset N.H. & A.F. Club. Vol.M. 1831. 
SIX CELTIC URNS. IN THE DORSET COUNTY MUSEUM. 




Wfnterborne W!riteckurcli.(Stupp CoOX) 



((yUndrtccd>) Winter-home daiston. Given Icy M Michel 







(CorwidaL) WvnterbcmeAhlxw 

;..,.,. : '-- - 




(Coruridal) JVetzr Wcu-eJujun, . Cunrdngton CoW\ 




(Ctvwidal) Rok& Dowtv. War-n& CoW^ 

H.J.Moule del. 



(Globular) Wuvterborne> Wfvbbeckarch/. 

Warn* CoLL 1 ^ 
I FT- 2 FT. 



SCALE. 



Mmfceon. Bros . lith. 



ANCIENT BRITISH URNS. 181 

which their coarse texture will sufficiently evince; they also differ 
materially in form from those I have found ; but still the favourite 
zig-zag ornament of the Britons is observable in your urns as well 
as mine." (Dated, 1826.) 

.Now let me observe that in this quotation there exists the germ 
of a classification that has never reached the stage of maturity. 
And it is my wish now to invite particular attention to these 
striking remarks, and to deduce from them some important con- 
vsiderations. In his interesting book Mr. Miles gives us six Plates, 
which contain nineteen figures of urns from this barrow, of which 
those whose numbers are referred to by Sir Richard Hoare are all 
of an unusual type, being more or less cylindrical, such a type as he 
had never but once, as it seems, met with in Wiltshire. This is a 
remarkable fact in the experience of such a close observer, and 
must point without doubt to a distinct difference between the 
sepulchral urns of Wilts and Dorset. These Dorset urns, of 
cylindrical shape, would seem to denote an earlier style of 
manufacture than those he had found in Wiltshire. I shall return 
to these Plates again presently, but at this moment call attention to 
the fact that the urns numbered 2, 3, 15, 22 are not only cylin- 
drical, especially so the two last of them, but are also, according 
to Sir R. Hoare, of coarse texture, and ornamented in a very 
rude manner with irregular marks or indentations, which may have 
been made by the workman's finger-nail, or, as No. 2, a band of 
circular impressions, which may have been made by the ball of his 
thumb. In Mr. Warne's Plates to his work on " The Celtic Tumuli 
of Dorset," on Plate 3, Pokeswell, there are figured two urns of this 
type ; and in Plate 5, Rimbury, there are several of this form with 
similar rude and simple ornamentation. Now the question naturally 
arises, whence is it that these primitive forms are found in Dorset, 
and not 'in the adjoining county 1 The question may admit of a 
two-fold answer : 1st, that the one county was peopled with an 
earlier race of people ; 2nd, that the other, if peopled with an 
equally ancient race, had undergone changes which its neighbour 
had not experienced. I am disposed to accept the latter explanation. 



182 ANCIENT BRITISH URNS. 

Our earliest civilisation has come to us from the East. If 
so, in the natural course of events the "Wiltshire Plains would 
receive the earlier beams of that civilisation which, gleaming from 
the Dover Cliffs and the shores of Kent, made its way along the 
course of the Thames, and through the Wilds of Andred to emerge 
with clearer effulgence on the Plains of Wiltshire. Without 
pursuing the metaphor, we may imagine that the Belgse, a 
commercial, if not a warlike people, would prove themselves 
to be the pioneers of the Bronze Age, and thus these incursions 
would gradually supersede old customs and habits, and intro- 
duce new methods of art, in clay as well as metal. Thus I 
can conceive that the Bronze Age established its footing in Wilts 
before it settled itself in Dorset ; consequently old habits, old 
customs, and modes of thought continued longer amongst the 
Celtic race of Dorset. To assign a date to the period when these 
changes began is beyond our power, but we shall not be far wrong 
if we carry them back several centuries before the Roman Invasion. 
Stonehenge is unquestionably a monument of the Bronze Age ; 
Abury of the Stone Age. It is a fact that Bronze Weapons, the 
elaborately ornamented Drinking Cups of fine texture, and the 
Incense Cups, as they are called, are all more frequently found in 
the Tumuli of Wilts than of Dorset, pointing to the higher 
generalisation that the Bronze Age was established in our neighbour 
county before it revolutionised Dorset. 

Now, to return to the Deverel Barrow. Of the nineteen or twenty 
urns which are given by Mr. Miles, ten of these are of the globular 
form ; all of them embellished with bands of linear indent, and 
some with the Vandyke or chevron pattern also, round the upper 
part or neck of the urn. They have many of them perforated ears 
or loops to admit a thong or twisted vegetable fibres for suspension. 
This globular shaped vessel is by no means uncommon. Thus in 
Plate 2, Celtic Turn., there are two of this kind shown from 
barrows on the Ridgeway and Came, each ornamented with the 
usual circular and zig-zag lines. In PI. 3, Pokes well, two of this 
description ; in PI. 6, two more from Whitchurch. At Plush in 



ANCIENT BRITISH URNS. 183 

1871 a large number of sepulchral urns were discovered in a bed 
of large flints ; there were, it is said, so many as 30 or 40 which 
contained bones and ashes, all of which were destroyed with 
the exception of two or three, two of which were of globular 
form with band of indented lines round the upper part. 
[See a communication from the late Canon Bingham, F.S.A., in 
Proceed. Soc. Antiq. 2nd S., Vol. 5, p. 112.] 

In " The Barrow Diggers," Plate 8, are figures of two urns of 
this form which were obtained from barrows on Charlton 
and Littleton Downs.* A third urn from the same spot by 
Mr. Durden is of the sub-cylindrical shape, 18in. in height and 
10 Jin. in diameter of niouth, rudely impressed with the finger and 
thumb. Urns of the globular form have been so often found in 
the Dorset barrows, and so rarely elsewhere, that we are induced to 
claim them as peculiar to this county. This suggestion was first 
made to me by Mr. Moule, who was quoting the " Archaeological 
Journal." It may not be easy to explain the origin of peculiarities 
of style in an early period, but there can be no reasonable doubt of 
the fact. We must bear in mind that at this period fictile vessels 
were hand-made without the potter's wheel, and that consequently 
much depended on the taste and skill of individual workmen. The 
size of these globular urns varies a good deal. The specimens in our 
Museum measure thus : 1. From Whitchurch S. Farm (Celt. Turn., 
pi. iv.) ; height, II in. ; diameter of mouth, 7|in. ; girth, 2ft. 11 in. 
2. Pokeswell (Celt. Turn., pi. 8) ; height, 8f in. ; diameter of mouth, 
Tin. (?); girth, 2ft. Sin. (?). 3. Chesilborne; height, 8Jin.; diameter 
of mouth, 7 Jin. ; girth, 2ft. l|in. In the last place I will draw 
attention to a third description of cinerary urns, of which we 
possess some striking examples, and which are more generally 

* This somewhat singular work is attributed to the pen of the late Rev. 
Charles Woolls, curate of Sturminster Marshall. It is dedicated to the 
Rev. Thomas Rackett, M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., rector of Spetisbury. It 
gives an account of the excavation of a large barrow at Shapwick with 
much expense, time, and labour, and very little profit. There are some 
valuable notes in the book, and a few good plates of antiquities, &c. 
Printed by Mr. Shipp, Blandford, 1839, p. 122. 



184 ANCIENT BRITISH URNS. 

known than those of the two other kinds already mentioned, and 
are more widely distributed throughout this country. These vary 
much in size, in modification of form, and in modes of ornamenta- 
tion, yet are reducible, as I think, to one and the same principle of 
classification, as I will endeavour to shew before I conclude this 
paper. 

In' a very charming little volume written and published by the 
late Edward T. Stevens, F.S.A., of Salisbury, entitled, " Jottings 
on some Objects of Interest in the Stonehenge Excursion of the 
Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society," on August 
24, 1876, two years only before the author's lamented decease, a 
deplorable loss to archasological science, he, on p. 179, speaks of 
" barrel-shaped " urns, which, it is said, " although rather common 
in the barrows of Dorset, are rare in those of Wiltshire ; only one 
from a barrow within a third of a mile from Stonehenge is figured 
by Sir E. C. Hoare. It is the largest obtained by him entire, and 
measures over 22in. in height" [and 15in. in diameter of mouth].* 
These dimensions, however, have been exceeded by those of an urn 
found at Bishopstone in 1867, now in the Blackmore Museum : 
" The largest hitherto found in Wiltshire, ' barrel-shaped,' and 
measures over 24 inches in height." (P. 177.) Unquestionably, 
it is a noble specimen of cinerary urn, but why Dr. Thurman should 
have classified it as " barrel-shaped " is not so obvious. Strictly 
speaking it is not at all of that form ; conoidal would, I think, 
have been a more appropriate designation. Urns partaking of this 
character are certainly very well known in Dorset, whilst a true 
" barrel-shaped " one would be rarer than any other form known 
here. | By the kindness of my friend, Mr. Moule, our excellent 

* There is a figure of this urn of conoidal form in a Pamphlet by Sir R. 
C. Hoare giving an index to his discoveries in the Barrows of Wiltshire, 
with plates of the different kinds of Tumuli. This Pamphlet is become 
very scarce. Shaftesbury : Rutter, 1829. 

t There are two examples of this bi-conoidal type in the Dorset Museum ; 
they are small urns, but well marked specimens of this rare form ; one 
in Mr. Cunnington's collection from Little Puddle, the other in the 
Warne collection. 



ANCIENT BBITISH URNS. 185 

curator, I am enabled to give the dimensions of a few of this 
conoidal class of urns in the Dorset Museum : 1. From Winter- 
borne Clenston, urn, height, 21in. ; diameter of rim, 15in. 2. 
Whitchurch (Shipp collection), ditto, height, 20|in. ; diameter of 
rim, 17Jin. 3-4. Lord's Down, Dewlish, ditto, height, 16|in. and 
16in. ; diameter of rim, 13|in. and 13in. 5. Rimsbury (Warne 
collection), ditto, height, 16in. ; diameter of rim, 9|in. 6. Winter- 
borne Abbas (by the late Mr. Manfield), ditto, height, 16in. ; 
diameter of rim, llfin. One of the finest urns of this class ever 
found in Dorset was disinterred by Mr. Shipp from a barrow on 
Eoke Down, and is now in Mr. Durden's Museum. It measures 
18in. in height, 13 Jin. diameter of mouth, 15in. diameter of bulge, 
and Tin. diameter of foot. Its contents were thirteen gallons of 
earth, ashes, and human bones. (Celt. Turn., Warne.) This 
affords a criterion of the capacity of these large urns. On Whit- 
church Downs in 1864 Mr. Shipp discovered an urn 22in. in height, 
and in circumference 53in. It was of plain cylinder shape, 
decreasing in size to the bottom (conoidal), and contained calcined 
bones and rudely chipped arrow heads. It has a greater capacity 
than the Roke Down urn, and is the largest yet found in Dorset. 
(Celt. Turn. No. 41, Warne.) On Launceston Heath Messrs. Warne 
and Shipp excavated two barrows, from one of which they obtained 
a fine urn 19in. in height, 14in. diameter of mouth, with 16in. 
diameter of bulge, ornamented round the top with a series of 
Vandykes resembling pointed Gothic arches, and vertical lines to 
the foot. The other urn was less ornate, but very like the other in 
form and size. (Celt. Turn., Vignette.) From Bloxworth Down an 
urn 17in. in height and 15in. in diameter, filled with calcined 
bones and ashes, was found (ib.) On Boveridge Heath an urn of 
coarse material 9 Jin. in height and 12in. diameter of mouth, simply 
and rudely ornamented, inverted over a deposit of calcined bones 
and protected above by a large sandstone * (ib.) From Merley Heath 
the Rev. John Austin procured a fine urn height, 17in. ; diameter 

* This urn has been lost, but from a sketch of it which I have it might 
have been included in the globular class. 



186 ANCIENT BRITISH URNS. 

of mouth, 12in. (Plate 7, fig. 7, Celt. Turn.) In "The Barrow 
Diggers" (plate 9, fig. 4) is a fine urn from a cairn of flints at 
Puddlehinton 9in. in height, 7in. diameter of mouth, 24in. 
circumference at the top, and 16in. at the foot. This urn is one of 
a numerous family which present a great variety in form and 
ornamentation, extending from the base of the cone or shoulder of 
the urn to the rim or mouth. All such are of the conoidal class. 

I have adduced examples enough to illustrate the classification I 
have adopted in this paper, which resolves itself into the three 
following heads, viz. : 

1. Urns of the cylindrical or sub-cylindrical form. 

2. Urns of the globular form. 

3. Urns of the conoidal form. 

And in conclusion 

" Si quid novisti rectius illis 
Candidus imperti ; si non, his utere mecum. " 

T. W. W. S. 
May, 1891. 




JJorthmb 




By Mr. A, M. WALLIS. 



UAKRYING stone in Portland dates back from a 
very early period. The banqueting house at 
Whitehall was constructed of material brought 
from Portland in 1610. After the great fire of 
London it took the form of a trade. St. Paul's 
Cathedral and other public buildings were built of 
Portland stone. All of the quarries are worked from the top, and 
it was necessary to remove from ten to fifty feet of the superin- 
cumbent Purbeck beds before the Portland beds could be reached. 
The site chosen was near the edge of the cliff where the Purbeck 
beds could be conveniently disposed of and not far from the place 
of shipment of which there are many evidences ; remains of piers 
may be traced around the island. Few would believe that a pier 
was ever erected in the West Bay, but there is one, however, at a 
place called Little Bow, near the Tar Rocks. The Purbeck beds 
are locally known as Mublle and Cap 1, Kubbly bed, composed 
of clay and shivered stone ; 2, clay seam ; 3, hard slate ; 4, 
bacon tier, composed of stone and clay ; 5, seam of clay, dark 
brown, streaked with green ; 6, a layer of soft stone called aish, 
which, when solid, is very white and used for whitening hearthstones 
and doorsteps; 7, soft bur stone, coarse-grained, and used in the 



188 PORTLAND STONE QUARRIES. 

island for building. The bur rests upon the dirt bed, which at one 
time supported a forest ; silicified conifers and cycadea, locally 
known as bird's nests, occur in some profusion, the trunks of the 
conifers penetrating through the soft bur above. The roots occur 
occasionally in the underlying cap, which, with the scull cap 
terminates the Purbeck series. The dirt bed is only about a foot 
thick, so enormous has been the pressure to which it was subject. 
Stumps of trees are found standing five or six feet above, which 
measure from four to five feet in diameter. They usually bend 
towards the south-east. In addition to these fossils the dirt bed 
contains rounded blue stone, which, when broken, gives off a 
disagreeable smell. The cap, which is from six to eight feet in 
thickness, intervenes between this and a second dirt bed in which 
cycadea (bird's-nests) occur. It is a very hard stone, and forms a 
bed which has to be blasted before removal. The last bed of the 
Purbeck series is the scull cap, from two to three feet thick, and 
which rests on the Portland bed. Various means are employed for 
blasting this hard obstinate cap, the one mostly in vogue at 
present being dynamite fired by electricity. Several holes can be 
exploded simultaneously. These are made with a drill of steel from 
four to five feet in length and about an inch and a-half in diameter 
with a flattened cutting edge which, being wider than the bar, 
makes the hole large enough for the bar to clear it. When the drill 
has been driven down to its full length a bar of iron from eight to ten 
feet in length with similar cutting edges is substituted. This bar, 
termed by workmen a jumper, is held by two or three men, and is 
continuously lifted up and let do\vn with force until the hole is 
of sufficient depth. The holes are usually placed in a line six or 
seven feet apart and from eight to twelve feet from the outside. 
When charged with dynamite and the fuse ready two very fine 
wires insulated with gutta percha are fixed to a rod of wood which 
keeps them in position. The detonator, which is placed in a small 
cartridge of dynamite, is attached to the fuse and secured in such a 
way as not to allow the admission of water, which is poured into 
the holes after the introduction of the detonator. Two stout 



PORTLAND STONE QUARRIES. 189 

insulated wire cables attached to hand reels are fastened to the two 
outside holes ; these are of sufficient length for the operator to keep 
at a convenient and safe distance, and he, after connecting the cable 
with the electric apparatus, fires the dynamite. Another method is 
by wedging. To effect this iron pigs, or pieces of iron 16 inches 
long, four broad, and two and a-half thick are used. Two of these, 
placed one on the other, are inserted along the face of the bed in 
several places ; sometimes there are as many as eight or ten of 
them ; four large wedges are hammered in between the pig irons. 
A man armed with a sledge hammer from 161b. to 201b. in weight is 
required for each set of wedges. When all are ready every man 
strikes with accurate precision to the time given by the leading 
hand. This is termed reaming the upper cap. Each quarry is 
worked by four or five men and a boy, termed a company. In case 
more hands are wanted, others are borrowed from a neighbouring 
quarry, who are expected to bring their own tools with them. These 
are repaid by lending quarry men on the same terms. A block of 
stone weighing two or three hundred tons can be moved by this 
method. It is then blasted, and the pieces are removed by a crane on 
a trolly and thrown away. The scull cap, which is equally valueless, 
is treated in the same manner, but with less difficulty and trouble. 
This is the lowest bed of the Purbecks, and is succeeded by the 
Portland beds. The first of the series, called the roach, has several 
joints passing through it named according to the direction they take 
souther, east and wester, north-easter and south-easter, or 
rainger. Fissures, termed by the islanders gullies, from one to three 
feet in width in a south-west and north-west direction, and from 
30 to 60 yards apart, form the headings of the quarries. The 
quarryman's object is to find a suitable joint, which is sometimes 
difficult, as they are often closed up. A thin layer of soil usually 
covers the roach, and is very hard, but with the aid of a pointed 
tool it will fly out along the joint. Holes, or trenches, eighteen 
inches Icng, from eight inches to a foot deep, and six inches wide, 
are worked through the joint, the number depending upon the size 
of the rock which is to be moved. Iron pigs are then hammered 



190 PORTLAND STONE QUARRIES. 

down tight between these wedges are introduced, made of the best 
Swedish iron and weighing from seven to nine pounds each. After 
a few blows from sledge hammers the rock cracks along the joint ; 
occasionally the rock will not start and the trenches will break up ; 
this is called spurring, and fresh trenches have to be made. 
Minute shells occur under a thin bed lying on the top of the roach. 
As soon as the piece is separated from the bed the wedges are 
driven down, and with the aid of flat pieces of iron it is moved six 
or eight inches apart ; this is called reaming. Some of these pieces, 
weighing from 150 to 300 tons, can be moved by seven or eight 
men only. During the process of moving these large pieces, some 
of the joints will occasionally separate, and if not it is disjointed by 
force, it is then turned on its side by the help of a crane. Eefore 
the introduction of this useful and labour-saving machine it was 
usual to borrow men from the neighbouring quarries. Huge pieces 
used to be turned with iron bars and cog-wheel jacks by ten or twelve 
men, some of whom would heave on the jacks while others 
took a short nip with the bars. When everything was ready one 
man would say " Stran all so-o ay-so-ay," when the rest would haul 
with all their strength as each syllable was uttered. The process 
is called " hauling the rock down." When in this position the 
next thing to be done is to detach the roach from the underlying 
whit bed, to effect which a Y-shaped pit or trench is made at the 
junction, into which thin pieces of iron from ten to twelve inches 
long and capable of standing great pressure are introduced. These 
are then tightened up with wedges ; a few strokes of a sledge hammer 
will effectually separate it from its associated bed. Eoach varies 
greatly in different parts of the island both in structure and thickness ; 
it usually consists of numerous casts of shell. At the Bill the 
roach is made up of small oyster shells. It makes good material 
for rough walling, is very porous, and not affected by frost. It is 
well adapted, too, for sea walls and foundations of buildings. When 
in large blocks and laid in its natural position it will resist any 
amount of pressure. The whit bed to which the roach is attached 
when discovered is set apart for use, and if free from joints large 



PORTLAND STONE QUARRIES. 191 

blocks of from ten ton? and upward can be brought under the 
quarrymen's hammer and squared. In squaring the largest side is 
usually taken first in a vertical position. The tool used is called a 
kivel , it is a kind of hammer weighing from six to eight pounds ; 
the head is oblong, three inches in length and one inch and a-half 
wide, slightly hollowed so as to give it two cutting edges ; the 
other end is pointed and termed a broach ; the handle is a little 
more than two feet long ; a larger kivel from 161b. to 201b. in weight 
is used to break off the large pieces of rough stone, which is called 
" knocking off the rough." The quarrymen are so accustomed to 
the work that they can guide the tool with the utmost precision, and, 
by keeping time with each other, make every stroke effective. As 
soon as the rough portion is removed by the kivel the block is 
chopped over with an axe, which gives the stone a rough finish ; it is 
then turned over and squared. A competent man measures 
the stone when it is finished and marks the number of cubic feet 
it contains. The trade mark of the firm and the quarry mark are 
cut upon the face of the block by the quarrymen. Sixteen cubic 
feet is allowed for a ton of Portland stone or roach. A block may 
be known whether it is sound by striking it with a piece of iron or 
some hard substance. If sound it will give a good ring, but if 
rotten or venty it will give a discordant sound, and by placing the 
hand on the stone when striking it the vent may be detected by a 
slight undulating motion. In some parts of the island the whit bed 
is intersected by hard silicious seams or bars, as they are locally 
termed. The stone is generally lifted or split along these bars. 
At others there are two or three seams of shells which run parallel 
to the bed ; they generally consist of Perna mytiloides and Peden 
lamellosus. The stones from these quarries are generally of large 
size but inferior quality. The stone from the north part of the 
island is the best ; it holds its length from five to eight feet, it is free 
from shells, and composed of oolitic grains ; its colour is brownish 
or buff colour, and easily worked. It stands all weather, and can 
be easily distinguished from the white whit bed. The usual fossils 
met with in the whit bed are teeth, vertebrae, and bones of fish. 



192 PORTLAND STONE QUARRIES. 

A layer of flint from six inches to a foot thick separates it from 
the lower whit hed, which varies in thickness from two to five feet ; 
helow it again is another flint seam succeeded by a bed of whitish 
stone intermixed with large black flints. This bed, too, rests upon 
a seam of flint fifteen inches thick. In some parts of the island 
these beds are absent, and the whit bed rests on the curf, with a 
thin seam of flint or shelly bar intervening. The curf is usually 
sand, and capable of being squared up into blocks. It is very 
white, compact, and not oolitic, but is useless when underlying the 
whit bed and flint. From the curf downwards the large Ammonites 
and Pleurotomaria occur, but they predominate in the curf. The 
base bed differs widely in different parts of the island. When 
protected by the Purbeck and Portland beds the stone is white with 
a fine oolitic grain. On the west side of the island, however, it is 
soft and in a rotten condition, and quite useless for quarrying. In 
the quarries when the base bed underlies the whit bed, which is 
not adapted for the market and is unprotected by the Purbeck bed, 
it is of good quality, eight feet thick, and harder than the pro- 
tected base bed. Although this stone is good for building purposes, 
it cannot be relied on like the brown whit bed, and owing to its 
more compact material is liable to be affected by frost. The joints 
are more open than those of the whit bed, and it is cut up to size 
with greater facility. It is the lowest bed that is of any economic 
value, and is often called the Base bed. There are some twenty or 
thirty beds on the west side of the island intervening between it 
and the Portland clay and sands, fifty-five feet thick in the 
aggregate. Some of these are quarried by the prisoners for building 
and for the fortifications of the Verne Citadel. Two of them, 
termed flat beds, were used for the Admiralty works at the Break- 
water. They are about three feet thick, of a white to a bluish- 
gray colour, with hard close grain containing a high percentage of 
silicate. It is a good building stone when defended from the 
weather. This and all other close-grained stone is unfit for use 
when the sea bottom is muddy, being liable to the attacks of boring 
worms. 



PORTLAND STONE QUARRIES. 193 

CURIOUS CUSTOMS. 

There is a curious old custom which is still practised by the 
quarrymen called " The Jump." Oil the return of a newly-married 
man belonging to the quarry to his work arrangements are made 
for the pay off. It was compulsory at one time for the men to pay 
five shillings or to jump ; now it is a matter of choice whether he 
will do either, but as a rule he will not get much peace until he 
has complied with the general custom. When a pay off is to take 
place notice is given to the men of the neighbouring quarries. 
Sometimes five or six sets of quarrymen will assemble and dine 
together. As soon as dinner is over preparations are made for the 
jump. A. piece of thin wood is held at one end by the man who 
was last married, and at the other end by the man who is likely to 
be married next. The piece of wood is held at a convenient height 
to jump it with ease, the married man standing on one side and 
the unmarried man on the other. A man stands by the side of 
each man who holds the board armed with a stick, whose duty it 
is to strike him while he is jumping. Before he begins another 
man stands forward, and with his hat off he reads the law, as it is 
termed, the custom, which is as follows : " Young men and 
bachelors, I bid you all adieu, married men and Kohers I come unto 
you." The jump is to be made while the last sentence is uttered. 
This is generally repeated. He then reads the law relating to those 
who do not observe the rules, such as omitting to take their hats 
off, talking, or otherwise out of order. The afternoon is then spent 
in a genial manner. I consider the above originated from some 
ancient marriage custom, probably Celtic or Saxon. There are 
many Celtic words in common use in Portland. Kimlin is familiar 
to every Portlander. It designates one who is not a native of the 
Island, and although he may have resided many years there he is 
still a Kernlin. Drew a way through a kind of stile, and many 
other words are in use among the people here. There is another 
custom now obsolete termed Binding-day, which persons now living 
can remember. It was observed on the Wednesday of the seventh 
week after Christmas "Day, when men and women took anything 



194 



PORTLAND STONE QUARRIES. 



they could lay their hand on from their neighbours, including 
wearing apparel, which could be redeemed by paying a small 
tribute. On that day there was no law to interfere. The custom 
is said to have originated from an attack upon the islanders by some 
foreigners, who killed all the men they could find on the island and 
saved the women alive. Many men hid themselves, and when 
the foreigners thought they had gained the confidence of the women 
and were safe they and the men who were hidden rose and killed 
the foreigners. 




on thz fUtntn* of fldnfall 



(Dbmbation* on the Jlobming of Pant* anb 

of $ irb* anb Insect* 



IN DORSET DURING 1890. 



By M. G. STUART, Hon. Sec. 



HE report for the year 1890 is drawn from returns 
made from schedules, which were prepared l>y a 
Committee in the winter of 1889 to suit the 
features of the Fauna and Flora of Dorset. The 
importance of a uniform system of making these 
observations becomes more apparent since the 
experiment of drawing out a return for the County has now been 
carried on for three years in succession. Mr. Edward Mawley, 
the Phenological Recorder to the Royal Meteorological Society, in 
a paper read before the Hertfordshire Natural History Society in 
1891, draws attention to this matter. He says the observer should 
watch " the same individual trees and shrubs, and as regards 




196 



RETURNS OF RAINFALL, ETC., IN DORSET. 



herbaceous plants those growing in precisely the same spots each 
year." Further, the trees and plants should be average mature 
plants, situated in neither very exposed or sheltered positions. The 
first flowers on each plant should be carefully watched for. He 
defines a plant to be in flower when the stamens on the first 
blossom of it first become visible. The object of each observer 
should be accuracy in the recorded observations, whilst attention 
should be concentrated on a few unmistakeable species. 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE APPEARANCE OF BIRDS IN DORSET 
DURING 1890. 





Weymouth. 


Whatcombe. 


Corfe 
Castle. 


Bloxworth. 


Keynstone. 


Childe 
Okeford. 


Cuckoo . . 


Apl. 28 


Apl. 13 


Apl. 16 


Apl. 16 


Apl. 23 


Apl. 19 


Swallow .. 
Sand Martin 


Apl. 28 


Apl 4 
June 2 


Apl. 14 
Apl. 15 


Apl. 16 


Apl. 4 


Apl. 13 
Apl. 16 


Swift 


May 16 


Apl. 30 


May 4 


May 8 


May 8 





Goatsucker 


May 12 


May 21 


Mav 22 


a May 3 








Landrail . . 





May 5 


May 15 





May 12 


May 1 


Nightingale 
Wheatear 


May 2 


Apl. 22 


May 2 
Apl. 14 


Apl. 16 
Apl. 15 


Apl. 8 


Apl. 13 
May 10 


Woodcock 





Oct. 13 


Oct. 21 





Nov. 7 






Mr. Richardson mentions that he has not observed the Wryneck 
at all this year. The Corncrake, which is a fairly common bird 
in the neighbourhood of Weymouth, has not been noticed, nor has 
the Redstart. 

From Swanage, Mr. Andrews writes, the first Wheatear was 
seen on the 13th of March, and the first Swallows on the 12th of 
April. These latter remained with us, also Martins, until the day 
preceding the great frost viz., Nov. 25th ; on that day, as on 
several" previous days, numbers of each class could be and were 
observed. 



The 
Appearance 
of 


Was noticed at 


Weymouth. 


Whatcombe. 


Corfe Castle. 


Childe 
Okeford. 


Frog spawn... 
Viper 
Ringed Snake 


June 2 


Feb. 12 
Mar. 12 


April 4 


Mar. 25 
April 9 



a Song May 7th. 



RETURNS OF RAINFALL, ETC., IN DORSET. 197 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE FLOWERING OF PLANTS, 1890. 





Weymouth. 


4 





Bloxworth. 


Whatcombe. 


Childe 
Okeford. 


Wood Anemone 


Apl. 22 


Mar. 19 




Mar. 15 




Mar. 31 


Lesser Celandine 


Feb. 20 


Feb. 8 


Jan. 27 





Feb. 9 


Jan. 27 


Marsh Marigold 





Mar. 15 


Mar. 26 





Mar. 26 





Dog Violet 





Feb. 27 





Mar. 30 





Mar. 16 


Greater Stitchwort 


May 10 


Mar. 12 


Apl. 10 


Apl. 4 


Apl. 14 


Mar. 30 


Herb Robert . . 
Horse Chestnut 


May 2 
May 4 


Apl. 29 
May 4 


May 1 


Apl 29 


Apl. 22 
May 5 


May 6 

May 5 


Bush Vetch 


May 16 


Mav 10 








May 13 


May 1 


Blackthorn 


Apl. 5 


Mar. 20 


Mar. 31 


Mar. 30 


Apl. 3 


Mar. 28 


Hawthorn 


May 3 


May 9 


May 10 


May 8 


May 20 


Apl. 25 


Ivy 


Sep. 26 





__ 





Oct. 4 


Mar. 30 


Dogwood 


June 14 


June 18 








June 4 


May 7 


Elder . . 


May 29 





June 6 





May 31 


May 24 


Wild Teazel 


July 30 


July 21 







July 31 





Devil's Bit 





Aug. 9 








Aug. 30 





Knapweed 
Field Thistle 


June 14 
May 30 


June 18 
July 18 








July 16 
July 21 





Coltsfoot 





Mar. 14 


_ 





Mar. 17 


Mar. 30 


Yarrow .. 


Julv 10 


June 19 








June 4 





Ox-eye .. 


May 26 


May 19 








May 12 


Mar. 28 


M ouse-ear Hawkweed 





May 16 








May 22 





Harebell 





July 21 








June 30 





Greater Bindweed 


June 29 










July 26 


May 22 


Ground Ivy 
Wych Elm 


Mar. 15 
Mar. 15 


Mar. 17 
Mar. 11 


Apl. 19 


Mar. 23 


Mar. 29 
Feb. 20 


Mar. 16 
Mar. 22 


Hazel . . 












Jan. 27 


Feb. 21 


Cowslip . . 
Spotted Orchis 


Apl7 20 


Mar724 


Apl. 3 


Apl. 5 

May 29 


Apl. 1 
May 28 


Mar. 28 
May 28 


Bluebell.. 


Apl. 23 


MarT 27 


Apl. 3 


Apl. 5 


Mar. 31 


Mar. 28 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE APPEARANCE OF INSECTS, 1890. 





5 


4 


i 


fj 


. 







o 





o 


2,0 




>> 


8 


a 


X 


J4 






6 


5 


z 





Cockchafer 


May 12 




May 9 


May 18 


Apl. 2 


Bloody Nosed Beetle 


May 20 





Mar. 26 


Apl. 6 


_ 


Glowworm 


June 24 





June 4 


Aug. 4 


_ 


Wasp 
Large Garden White Butterfly 
Small Garden White Butterfly 
Orange Tip Butterfly 
Meadow Brown Butterfly 


May 3 
May 3 
Apl. 16 
May 12 
July 1 


Apl. 8 

Apl7 5 
May 11 
July 4 


May 22 
Mar. 28 
Apl. 6 
Apl. 1 
Apl. 8 


Apl. 3 
Apl. 4 
Mar. 22 
May 1 


Apl. 20 

Apl. 10 
May 24 



The Kev. 0. P. Cambridge writes : " The general character of 
the year has been its cold, cheerless sunlessness, especially during 
June, July, and August. It has been the worst entomological year 
I have known for many years past ; scarcely even a wasp (though 



198 



RETURNS OF RAINFALL, ETC., IN DORSET. 



wasps were in great abundance at Cadbury, Somerset, during 
luncheon time at the Field Club meeting on August 29th). The 
year has also been remarkable for the almost complete absence of 
thunderstorms." 



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ADDITIONAL RAINFALL RETURNS. 

General Pitt Rivers sends the amounts of rainfall registered at the 
Larmer Tree during 1890 as 33 '41 inches, showing an excess of 1-16 
over that of Rushmore, distant about one mile to the north-east. 



RETURNS OF RAINFALL, ETC., IN DORSET. 199 

At Swanage 25'23 inches were registered, of which 0*65 fell in 
the form of snow on the night of December 18th, but as the 
temperature was above freezing point (i.e., 33 F.) this melted as 
it fell. Mr. Stillwell, at Langton Matravers, states that in 
February the total rainfall was only 0'83, of which 0*56 fell on 
the 14th. 

The day on which the greatest amount of rain fell 

At Langton Matravers was on Sept. 21st, then 0.82 in. was registered. 
,, Wyke Aug. 9th, 078 

Whatcombe Sept. 26th, 1-33 

Gillingham Aug. 9th, 0'85 

,, Kushmore Aug. 18th, ,, 1*18 

The rainlessness of the month of February will be evident from 
a perusal of the adjoining table. The small number of days on 
which rain fell during this month is also noticeable e.g., appre- 
ciable rain was registered only on 

7 clays at Wyke 

6 ,, Bloxworth 
5 ,, Whatcombe 

7 ,, Rushmore 

7 Shaftesbury 
9 ,, Gillingham 




DA 
670 

D69D6 
v.12 



Dorset Natural History and 
Archaeological Society 
Proceedings 



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