(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Proceedings"

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 



at jhttp : //books . qooqle . com/ 



77) 
/ 




Photo h\ .\/,\\r\. Vfifnti^t-'ii'x I twitrxl, ?0, RoM Sirttl, l.tvcrf-ool. 



JOHN A. BRODIE, M. Eng. Wh. Sc, M. Inst. C.E. 
President, 1907 — 1908. 



7\uoc];kl)Inus 

ixcoeporated association of mnicipai: 
am county enmneeks 



VOLUME XXXIV. 1907 Mi()8 



tjiomas roLi; 

AbiC M iNST r w 
(.'•./ /,i/v/ «■'' ''«' A". ..■•<! 'in, ) 



77.*' A*?Pi*( Hon (■< •>(<! i f i ii i'i'l't i'fs t .■.,.,!• V ft.,- (}>, ■ '. ' i, it* 

"!('' '/?''/■/ I'. I. I. 



ft out) on 
E. ci' V N. >TOX, Ltmitkp. 57 flAYMAKKRT 

ilfU) JJorfc 




N<;. Wii. Si ., M. I\M CM 



PEOCEEDINGS 



OP THE 



INCORPORATED ASSOCIATION OF MUNICIPAL 
AND COUNTY ENGINEERS 



VOLUME XXXIV. 1907-1908 



EDITED BY 

THOMAS COLE 

ASSOC M. INST. O.E. 

(Secretary of the Association) 



The Association is not as a body responsible for the facts and opinions 
advanced herein. 



Zonfton 

E. & P. N. SPON, Limited, 57 HAYMARKET 

i&efo f?otfe 
SPON & CHAMBERLAIN, ]25 LIBEBTY STREET. 

1908 



LOXDON : PRINTED BT WILLIAX CLOWES AND 9058, LIMITKD, 
GRKAT WINDMILL STRKET, W., AND DDKX STRKKT, STAMFORD 8TBKKT, S I. 



CONTENTS. 



Frontispiece Portrait- 
Jons A. Brodik, M. Eng., Wh. So., M.Inflt. C.E., President. 

TXQK 

List of Officers ▼ 

List of Past Presidents yi 

List of Members vii 

List of Associate Members xxxviii 

List of Towns and Districts Represented xli 

List of Associates Hv 

List of Graduates 1* 

Standing Committers lxvi 

Editorial Notice lxviii 

District Mhetings — 

Metropolitan District Meeting at Westminster: 

Election of Hon. District Secretary 1 

Advisability of Quarterly Meetings 1 

Midland District Meeting at Bilston : 

Election of Hon. District Secretary 2 

Notes on the Bilaton Sewerage Scheme. J. P. Wakeford (Plate) 2 

Visits to Works 11 

Discussion and Reply 11 

Western District Meeting at Teignmouth : 

Election of Mr. Moulding as Hon. District Secretary 15 

Municipal Works at Teignmouth. C. F. Gettings (Plate) . . . . 15 

Discussion 27 

Reply to Discussion 28 

Visits to Works 29 

Horn District Meeting at Hampton: 

Election of Mr. Chambers as Hon. District Secretary 30 

Interpretations of Sewago Purification Phenomena. S. H. 

Chambers (Plates) 30 

Public Works at Hampton. S.H.Chambers 51 

Discussion 00 

Reply to Discussion 70 

Visits to Works 7tf 

Metropolitan District Meeting at Westminster: 

Public Baths and Washhouses. T. W. Aldwinckle (Plates) . . 74 

Discussion 87 

Reply to Discussion 98 

Continuous Filtration of Bath Water. R. J. Angel (Plates) . . 96 

Discussion 105 

Reply to Discussion Ill 

a 2 



300532 



IV CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

District Meetings— ooniintied. 

Home District Meeting at Wimbledon: 

' Municipal Works at Wimbledon. C. H. Cooper 113 

Wimbledon Municipal Electricity Works. H. Tomlinson-Lee . . 120 

Bridge Reconstruction at Richmond. A. W. Szlumper 131 

Look, Weir, and Footbridge at Richmond. J. H. Brierley (Plates) 133 

Discussion 139 

Reply to Discussion 146 

VisittoWorks 148 

Lancashire and Cheshire District Meeting at Eccles: 

Election of Honorary District Secretary 149 

Municipal Works in Eccles. T. S. Picton (Plates) 149 

Discussion .. . 169 

Reply to Discussion '.. 175 

VisittoWorks 175 

Eastern District Meeting at Norwich : 

Election of Honorary District 'Secretary 178 

Sewage Pumping Machinery, Reinforced Concrete Rising Main 

and Hydroly tic Sewage Tanks. A. E. Collins (Plates) . . 178 

Discussion 196 

Reply to Discussion 204 

VisittoWorks 205 

Lancashire and Cheshire District Meeting at Blackpool: 

Municipal Works at Blackpool. J. S. Brodie (Plates) .. .... 206 

Discussion 232 

Reply to Discussion 237 

VisittoWorks 239 

Scottish District Meeting at Dunoon : 

Municipal works at Dunoon, with special reference to mechanical 

Filters. J. Andrew (Plates) 240 

Discussion • 255 

Reply to Discussion 267 

VisittoWorks 269 

Annual Report of Council 270 

Financial Statement for Year ending April 30th, 1908 . . . • . . 280 

Alterations in Memorandum, Articles and Bye-la ws 282 

Appointment of Auditors 284 

„ „ Scrutineers 284 

„ „ Honorary District Secretaries 284 

Appendix: 

Statistical Returns 287 

Examinations 293 

Board of Examiners 307 

Certificated Candidates, 1907-1908 308 

Memoirs of Deceased Members 309 



COUNCIL, 1908-1909. 

fjnsifait. 

E. PURNELL HOOLEY, M. Inst. C.E., County- Surveyor, Nottingham. 

W. N. BLXlR, M. Inst. C.E., Borough Surveyor, St. Pancras. 

J. PATON, Borough Engineer, Plymouth. 

C. F. WIKE, M. Inst. C.E., City Surveyor, Sheffield. 

©rtonarg HUmfors oi Council 

J. VV. COCK RILL, M. Inst. C.E., Borough Surveyor, Great Yarmouth. 

C. H. COOPER, M. [Nsr.C.E., Borough Engineer, Wimbledon. 

A. T. DAVIS, M. Inst. C.E., County Surveyor, Salop. 

A. FIDLER, M. Inst. C.E., Borough Engineer, Northampton. 

A. GLAD WELL, Engineer and Surveyor, Rural District Council, Eton. 

A. D. GREATOREX, M. Inst. C.E., Borough Surveyor, West Bromwich. 

W. HARPUR, M. Inst. C.E., City Engineer, Cardiff. 

T. W. A. HAYWARD, A.M. Inst. C.E., Borough Surveyor, Battersea. 

P. H. PALMER, M.Inst.CE., Borough Surveyor, Hastings. 

J. S. PICKERING, M. Inst. C.E., Borough Engineer, Cheltenham. 

R. READ, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E., City Surveyor, Gloucester. 

H. E. STILGOE, M. Inst. C.E., City Engineer, Birmingham. 

R. J. THOMAS, M. Inst. C.E., County Surveyor, Bucks. 

H. T. WAKELAM, M. Inst. C.E., County Engineer, Middlesex. 

A. E. WHITE, M. Inst. C.E., City Engineer, Hull. 

$ast fronts. 

A. E. COLLINS, M. Inst. C.E., City Engineer, Norwich. 

J. PATTEN BARBER, M. Inst. C.E., Borough Engineer, Islington, N. 

JOHN A. BRODIE, M. Eng., Wh. So., M. Inst. C.E., City Engineer, Liverpool. 

glerffte |asi $ resitonts. 

T. H. YABBICOM, M. Inst. C.E., City Engineer, Bristol. 

J. LOBLEY, M. Inst. C.E., Borough Engineer, Hanley. 

O. C. ROBSON, M. Inst. C.E., Surveyor, Urban District Council, Willesden, N.W. 

|jon<rrarjT gistrirf Stcxtimts. 

African District.— T. W. STAINTHORPE, A. M.Inst.CE., P.W.D., Cape Town, 8.A. 
Eastern District.— R. A. MACBRAIR, M. Inst. C.E., Lincoln. 
Home District.— S. H. CHAMBERS, Hampton-on-Thamrs. 
Indian District. — J. HALL, M. Inst. C.E., Bombay. 
Irish District.— R. H. DORMAN, M. Inst. O.E., Armagh. 

Lancashire and Cheshire District. — C. BKOWNRIDGE, M.Inst.CE., Birkenhead. 
Metropolitan District.— W. F. LOVEDAY, Stoke Newington. 
Midland District. — H. RICHARDSON, A.M. Inst. C.E., Handsworth, Birmingham. 
Northern District. — J. P. DALTON, Ryton-on-Tyne. 
Scottish District.— J. BRYCE, A.M. Inst. C.E., Partick, N.B. 
Wales (North).— W. JONES, A.M. Inst. C.E., Colwyn Bay. 
„ (South).— W. E. C THOMAS, A.M. Inst. C.E., Neath. 
Western District.— T. MOULDING, A.M. Inst. C.E., Exeter. 
Yorkshire District. — H. W. SMITH, A.M. Inst. C.E., Scarborough. 

fftneral fan. Serrciarj. lonorarn Grtasnrer. 

CHAS. JONES, M. Inst. C.E. LEWIS ANGELL, M. Inst. CE. 

Swretarg. 

THOMAS COLE, A.M. Inst. C.E., 11 Victoria Street, London, S.W. 

Assistant Steretarg, 

HENRY A. GILES, 11 Victoria Street, London, S.W. 

Telegraphic Addrtu : Telephone y umber : 

"Bisecting, London." m Wb*tmin6teu 5088." 

b 



PAST PRESIDENTS. 



1873-4\ 
1874-5/ 

1875-6. 

1876-7. 

1877-8. 

1878-9. 

1879-80. 

1880-1. 

1881-2. 

1882-3. 

1883-4. 

1884-5. 

1885-6. 

1886-7. 

1887-8. 

1888-9. 

1889-90\ 
1890-91/ 

1891-2. 

1892-3. 

1893-4. 

1894-5. 

1895-6. 

1896-7. 

1897-8. 

1898-9. 

1899-1900. 

1900-01. 

1901-02. 

1902-03. 

1903-04. 

1904-05. 

1905-06. 

1906-07. 

1907-08. 



LEWIS ANGELL, M. Inst. C.E. 

•J. G. LYNDE, M. Inst. C.E. 

JAMES LEMON, M. Inst. C.E. 
*F. ASHMEAD, M. Inst. C.E. 

G. F. DEACON, LL.D., M. Inst. C.E. 
*E. PRITCHARD, M. Inst. C.E. 
•A. W. MORANT, M. Inst. C.E. 
*W. S. TILL, M. Inst. C.E. 

C. JONES, M. Inst. C.E. 

W. H. WHITE, M. Inst. C.E. 
•W. G. LAWS, M. Inst. C.E. 
•R. VAWSER, M. Inst. C.E. 

J. LOBLEY, M. Inst. C.E. 
*J. GORDON, M. Inst. C.E. 

E. B. ELLICE-CLARK, M. Inst. C.E. 

H. P. BOULNOIS, M. Inst. C.E. 

T. DE C. MEADE, M. Inst. C.E. 

J. CARTWRIGHT, M. Inst. C.E. 

J. T. EAYRS, M. Inst. C.E. 

A. M. FOWLER, M. Inst. C.E. 
•E. R. S. ESCOTT, M. Inst. C.E. 
*F. J. C. MAY, M. Inst. C.E. 

Sib ALEX. R. BINNIE, M. Inst. OE. 

0. C. ROBSON, M. Inst. C.E. 
. W. HARPUR, M. Inst. C.E. 
•C. H. LOWE, M. Inst. C.E. 

E. GEORGE MAWBEY, M. Inst. C.E. 

T. H. YABBICOM, M. Inst. C.E. 

W. WEAVER, M. Inst. C.E. 

A. T. DAVIS, M. Inst. C.E. 

A. E. COLLINS, M. Inst. C.E. 

J. PATTEN BARBER, M. Inst. C.E. 

J. A. BROD1E, M. Eno., Wh. So., M. Inst. C.E. 
• DeoeaMd. 



LIST OF MBMBEES. 



IT 18 PABTICULABLY REQUESTED THAT BVBBY CHANGE OF ADDRESS MAT BB 
COMMUNICATED WITHODT DELAY TO THB SbCBBTABY. 



* Those Member* against whose names a star is placed have passed the 
examination awt hold the Testamur of the Association. 

b signifies re-election under By-law 5a. a elected as Graduate, a elected as 
Associate, am elected a§ Associate Member, ta transferred to Associate. 
tam transferred to Associate Member. T transferred to Member. 

P signifies recipient of Association 9 $ £10 premium. 

p „ „ „ £5 premium. 

p „ „ „ £3 premium. 



HONOBABY MEMBERS. 



Date of Election 
and Transfer. 
1898 Dec 17 

1888 Mar. 3 

1904 Feb. 27 

1905 Sept. 23 
1892 Apr. 23 
1890 Sept. 13 
1874 June 1 
1904 Jan. 23 



BICKNELL, B.E.E Inst 

C.E. 
CODRINGTON, THOS., 

M. Inst. G.E. 
COWAN, P. C, MJnstC.E. 



HAWKSLEY, 

M. Inst C.E. 

PUTZEYS, E. 



CHABLES, 



ROBINSON, Pbofbbbob HY., 

M. InBt. C.E. 
TULLOCH, Majob H. t O.B., 

R.E. 
WILLCOCK8, G. W., M. 

Inst C.E. 



Local Government Board, 

Whitehall, S.W. 
5 Biverdale Bd., Twickenham 

Park. 
Chief Engineering Inspector, 

Local Government Board, 

Ireland. 
80 Great George Street, S.W. 

Ingenieur en chef, Direotenr de 
la Ville de Bruxelles. 

Parliament Mansions, West- 
minster, S.W. 

28 Victoria Street, S.W. 

Chief Engineering Inspector, 
Local Government Board, 
Whitehall, S.W. 



1893 Oct 21 



MEMBEBS. 

Abrahams, C.V City Surveyor, 

Jamaica. 



Kingston, 



1894 
B1902 



Jnne 21 \ 
Mar. 22/ 



Abubbow, C, M. Inst C.E. .. 
1903 May 16 Adams, A. E 



j»1896 
1897 



1873 

B1884 

1897 



Jan. 
Jan. 



Aitken, T., M. Inst. C.E. 
Allen, A. T 



515 Consolidated Buildings, 
Johannesburg, S.A. 

Borough Engineer, Chippen- 
ham, Wilts. 

County Surveyor, Cupar, Fife. 

Surveyor to the Urban Distriot 



Council, 
Sussex. 



Portslade - by- Sea, 



May 2 \< 
Jan. 26/ 
June 19 



, T.T.. 



.. Broad Street,Stratford-on-A von. 

Alvbs, G Surveyor to the Urban Distriot 

Council, Glastonbury. 

b 2 



Viii LIST OF MEMBERS OP THE INCORPORATED ASSOCIATION 

Date of Election 
und Transfer. 
1890 June 26 Anderson, R. S., Assoc. M. County Surveyor, Peebles, N.B. 

Inst. C.E. 
1900 Deo. 15 Anderson. W. V., Assoc. M. City Surveyor, Winchester. 

Inst. C.E. 
1906 Apr. 28 Andrew, J Burgh Surveyor, Dunoon, N.B. 

T1899 Oct e ^?}* Ani>rbw8 » 8 - p Borough Surveyor, Faversham. 

T1899 Oct' 2l}* Angkl ' R J '' M * I "* t C ,B - ' * Borou g h Surveyor, Bermondsey, 

' S.E. 

1894 May 19 * Angell, J. A., A.M.Inst.O.E. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Beckenham, S.E. 

1873 Feb. 15 ANGELL, LEWIS, M.Inst. "Calside," Carlisle Boad, 

C.E. (Past President, and Eastbourne. 
Bon. Treasurer. Member of 
Council.) 

1899 June 29 *Anstee, J Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Guildford. 
1880 May 27\ Abmistead, R., Assoc. M. 8 Charles Street, Bradford. 
El 899 Feb. 25/ Inst. O.E. 

1900 June 16 Asquith, A. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Holyhead. 

1890 June 26 Atkinson, J., A.M. Inst. C.E. Borough Surveyor, Stockport. 

1904 Aug. 4 Atkinson, T. B County Surveyor, Earlston, Ber- 
wickshire, N.B. 



JS1 aw ID BArF > °- J Council Chambers, Gosforth, 

B1903 »ept. ^3j Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

1904 Jan. 23 Baines, CO Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Paignton. 

1900 Feb. 10 Bains, G. S. L Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Saltburn - by- the- 
Sea. 

1884 May 29 Baker, F Borough Surveyor, Middles- 
brough, Yorks. 

B1903 Fe£ 2l} Bakeb » J » A** IdsL 0E - •• 75 Hi S h St**** Slough. 

1896 June 25 Baldwin, L. L., A.M. Inst. Surveyor to the Urban District 

C.E. Council, Coalville, Leicester. 

T J||g^*2 2 }*BALL, B.,A.M.Inst.O.E. .. Borough Surveyor, Nelson, 
' Lanes. 

T1898 Feb" 19}* Ball ' Q ' 9 A,M - Inst 0JL - Surveyor to the Urban District 

' Council, Bexhill. 

1879 Oct. 28 Banks, W., A.M. Inst C.E. City Surveyor, Rochester. 

1905 Apr. 29 Barber, E. H., A.M.InstC.E. Town Surveyor, Goole. 

1887 Mar. 12 BARBER. J. PATTEN, Borough Engineer, Islington,N. 
M. Inst. C.E. {Past Presi- 
dent. Member of Council) 

mloftft A«f oo}*Babkbr, H. W Surveyor to the Urban District 

T190C Apr. 28 J Council, Walmer. 

G1888 Sept. 15\*Barnes, S. W. J„ Assoc. M. Surveyor to the Urban District 

T1892 July 11/ Inst. C.E. Council, Hanwell. 

1897 Jan. 16 Barrett, E. J., Assoc M. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Inst. C.E. Council, Staines. 

1899 Jan. 21 Barbs, J. D Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Bromyard. 



OF MUNICIPAL AND COUNTY ENGINEERS. IX 

Date of Election 
and Transfer. 

SiSS fe S1*Batb, E. M Surveyor to the Urban District 

T1905 May 27/ ^^ f^^.^. 

1896 Oct. 24 \ Baylis, T. P., Assoc. M. Inst Surveyor, Droitwich. 
B1904 May 28/ C.E. 

?1903 Jn?/ 25}* Bkaoham ' W * E Town Surveyor, Leek. 

1903 May 16 Bean, J. A County Surveyor, Northumber- 

land. Moot Hall, Newcastle. 

1894 Jan. 13 Beaumont, A. County Surveyor, Yorks, East 

Biding. County Hall, Bever- 
ley. 

1897 Mar. 13 Beaumont, G. E Surveyor to the Rural District 

Coun^Wortley. "Holme Lea," 
Greenoside, near Sheffield. 

1897 Mar. 13 Beaumont, T. C Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Driffield. 

1892 Jan. 16 Bell, 6., Assoc. M. Inst. C.E. Borough Surveyor, Swansea. 

1897 Jan. 16 Bell, G. J., M.InstO.E. .. County Surveyor, Cumberland. 

T1906 De& 15}* Bell » L * M " MInBi0E - •• Municipal' Engineer, Penang, 

1906 Apr. 28 Bell, T. H Surveyor to tho Urban District 

Council, Ramsbottom. 

1895 Jan. 19 Bbllingham, A. W. H., M. Engineer-in-Chief, British Mu- 

Inst C.E. nicip., Tientsin, North China. 

1896 Jan. 18 Bennett, H. M Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Keynsham, Bristol 
1886 Deo. 18\ Bennett, W. B. G., M. Inst. Midland Bank Chambers, 
B1902 Nov. 8 / C.E. Southampton. 

T1900 July {9}* BbnnbtT8 J j - p - •• •• •• Surveyor to the Urban District 

* ' Council, Harrow. 

1886 Oct. 16\ Bebrinoton, R. E. W., M. Graisley, Wolverhampton. 
B1896 Jan. 18/ Inst. C.E. 

1892 Mar. 11\ Beswick, W. H., Assoc M. 214 Astley Street, Dukinfleld, 
B1899 May 6 J Inst. C.E. Cheshire. 

1891 June 6 Bettany, F Borough Engineer, Burslem. 

1902 Mar. 22 Bibbby, T Cheadle, Staffs. 

1890 Mar. 29 BINNIE, SIR A. R., M. Inst. 9 Gt. George Street, West- 
C.E. (Peat President.) minster, S. W. 

B1908 A°l' 25} BlBD ' W * F The l8land ' Midsomep N °rton. 

1897 Jan. 16 Bibks, E Highway Surveyor to Rural 

District Council, Uxbridge. 

1901 Feb. 16 Blackbubn, J. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Soothill Upper. 
P1873 May 2 Blackshaw, W., Assoc. M. Borough Surveyor, Stafford, 
lust C.E. 

1904 Aug. 5 Blackwood, R Burgh Surveyor, Kilmarnock, 

N.B. 
1886 Juno 12 Blair, W. N., M. Inst. C.E. Borough Surveyor, St. Panoras. 
(Vice-President.) 

1903 Oct 17 Bland, J. D Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, CheBterton. 

1907 Apr. 27 Blanet, C Borough Surveyor, Newry, 

Ireland. 
1900 Mar. 10 Blood, A.T Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Hitchin. 
1907 May 25 Boddie, C. L., A.M.Inst.O.E. County Surveyor, Londonderry. 

1902 Nov. 8 *Bobo, E. A Borough Surveyor, Margate. 



X LI8T OF MEMBERS OP THE INCORPORATED ASSOCIATION 

jD*t« of Election 
*«d Transfer. 

Riant i^* J?) BoTTEBiLL,0.,A-MJnstOJE. 583 Fulham Road, Walham 
B1908 Feb. 21 J Gre9n g w 

1904 Feb. 27 Bottomlby, H. ].'. .. .. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Bingley. 

1877 May 1 BOULNOIS, H. P., M. Inst Local Government Board, 

C.E. (Past President.) Whitehall, S,W. 

1903 Deo. 12 Bourne, J Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Rawmarsh. 

189ft Mar 1Q1 

HSOBFBb 2l} B0WEN ' H ' W County Surveyor West Sussex 

' County Council, Horsham. 

1904 Aug. 12 Bowie, J. MoL Burgh Surveyor, Max welltown, 

Dumfries, N.B. 
1898 Oct. 15 Boyle, J. C, A. M. Inst. O.E. City Surveyor, Armagh. 

1903 "May 16 Bradley, A.W., AMJnstC.E. Borough Engineer, Bury, Lanes. 
01889 May 18\*Bbadlby, J. W., M. Inst. City Engineer, Westminster, 
T1893 Apr. 22/ C.E. S.W. 

1897 Jan. 16 Bradley, W. L Surveyor to the Urban District 

olftq* Tan iq» Council. Tonbridgo. 

T1896 Oct 24f BraD8HAW » F * E * Q Borough Surveyor, Tamworth. 

1878 May 2 Bbbsbey, J. T. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Wanstead, Essex. 

1891 Aug. 1 Brett, J. H County Surveyor, Co. Antrim. 

Belfast, Ireland. 

1891 Aug. 1 Brettell, W. H Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Rowley Regis, 
Staffordshire. 

1894 Oct. 20 Bridges, O. A Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Bognor. 
1891 Mar. 21 Bbiebley, J. H., A. M.Inst. Borough Surveyor, Richmond, 

C.E. Surrey. 

1901 Dec. 7 BRODIE, J. A., M. Eng., City Engineer, Liverpool. 
Wh. 8a, M. Inst. C.E. 
(Past President. Member 
of Council.) 
1889 Apr. 13 Bbodie, J. S., M. Inst C.E. .. Borough Engineer, Blackpool. 

1894 Oct. 20 Buookb,J Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, North wich, Cheshire. 
1884 July 10 Brown, A., M. Inst. C.E. .. Borough Engineer. Notting- 
ham. 

1898 Jan. 15 Bbown, C, A. M. Inst. C.E. .. Borough Engineer, Chelmsford* 

1904 Aug. 25 Brown, Chas Burgh Surveyor, Hawick, 

N.B. 

1905 Jan. 28 Brown, F Town Engineer, Eroonstad, 

O.R.C., South Africa. 
1908 Jan. 18 Bbown, H. E. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Altrinoham. 
1905 Sep. 28 Bbown, H. H. Lane, M. Inst. Supervising Engineer.Lucknow, 
C.E. United Provinces, India. 

B1904 Janf^} Bbown » j - w -» M. Inst. C.E. Church Square, West Hartle- 

TiStft Jjjj o )*Bbown, R., A.M. Inst. O.E. Surveyor to the Urban Distriot 
TiKHJ eept. s ) Council, Southall Norwood. 

*iittft Jan' i *)*Bbown, R .R Electrical Engineer to the 

bibw Jan. idj Urbftn Dis trict Council Brid- 

lington. 



OP MUNICIPAL AND COUNTY ENGINEERS. XI 

Date of Election 
and Transfer. 

1893 Mar. 4 *BROWNRiDGB,C.,M.InstC.E. Borough Engineer, Birkenhead. 
(Member of Council.) Son. Secretary, Lancashire 

and Cheshire District 

1904 Aug. 9 Bruce, J. S. .. .. .. .. Burgh Surveyor, Kirriemuir, 

N.B. 
1901 Feb. 16 Bryoe, J., A.M. Inst. C.E. Burgh Surveyor, Partick, N.B. 
{Member of Council). Hon. Sec. y Scottish District 

T1902 Mar. 22}* BbtniN0 » W * G " ^^ Surveyor, Northallerton, 

1873 May 2 Buokham, E., M. Inst. C.E. Borough Surveyor, Ipswich. 

1897 July 8 \ Buckley, M. J., Assoc. M. 26 Bessborough Terrace, N.C.B., 
B1902 Mar. 22/ Inst C.E. Dublin. 

1897 Feb. 13 Bull, H. F., A.M. Inst. C.E. County Surveyor, Cheshire. 

1895 Feb. 16 Bdnting, T. F Borough Surveyor, Maidstone. 

1895 Jan. 19 Burden. A. M., Assoc. M. County Surveyor, Kilkenny. 

Inst C.E. 

1892 Sept 24 Burgess, S. E., M. Inst C.E. Borough Engineer, South 

Shields. 

1900 Apr. 21 Burxitt, J. P.,A.M.InstC.E. County Surveyor, Enniskillen. 

1905 Mar. 3 Burn, W., A. M.Inst. C.E... Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Sutton-in-Ashfield, 

Notts. 
1904 Aug. 6 Burns, t) Burgh Surveyor, Pollokshaws, 

N.B. 
1890 June 7 Burslaii, R Borough Surveyor, Congleton. 

T1902 Jan." 25}* BuBTON » A » A,M In8t - aE * Bo™* 11 Engineer, Stoke-on- 

1897 Jan. 16 Bubbridge, T. A Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Spilsby. 
G1899 June 29) 

TA1902 Jan. 25}*Bush, W. E., A. M. Inst. C.E. City Engineer, Auckland, New 
T1904 Feb. 27J Zealand. 

1890 Sept. 13 Butler, W Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Fareham. 
1899 June 29 Butterworth, A. 8., Assoc. Municipal Engineer, Port Eliza- 
M. Inst. 0. E. - beth, S. Africa. 

£iq!y7 ?^ J^Buttebworth, G. L Surveyor to the Rural District 

T1907 Apr. 27/ ^^ We of Th|met 



1894 Apr. 6 Cains, T., AssocMJnst C.E. City Engineer, Worcester. 
1891 Dec. 12\ Cairncross, T. W., Assoc. M. Bd. of Exors. Buildings, c/o 
B1903 Jan. 17/ Inst. C.E. Wale, Adderley Street, Cape 

Town, S.A. 
1903 Jan. 17 Calder, W., A. M. Inst O.E. City Engineer, Prahran, Vic- 
toria. 
1891 Oct. 17 Campbell, A. H., M. Inst Engineer and Surveyor, Town 
C.E. Hall, East Ham, E. 

1887 Mar. 12 Campbell, K. F., M. Inst. Borough Engineer, Hudders- 

C.E. field. 

1888 May 12 Capon, E. R Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Epsom. 

B^£n. 2?} CARI> ' H North Street, Lewes. 

1903 Feb. 21 Carter, A. H Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council,Litherland,Liverpool. 



Ill LIST OF MEMBERS OF THE INCORPORATED ASSOCIATION 

Date of Election 
and Transfer. 

1901 June 27 Cabteb, G. E Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Winchester. 

1897 June 19 Cabteb, G. F Surveyor to the Urban Distriot 

01892 July 11) Council, Mexborough. 

TA1901 Deo. 7 }*Cabteb,G. F., MJnstC.E... Borough Engineer, Crovdon. 
T1904 Jan. 23j 

1898 Deo. 17 Cabtwbight, A. S Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Wilmslow, Cheshire. 

1873 May 2 CABTWBIGHT, J., M. Inst. 21 Parsons Lane, Bury. 
C.E. (Past President.) 

1904 June 26 Cabteb, W Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Melford. 3 Melford 
Road, Sudbury. Suffolk. 

1895 Mar. 16 Cass, B. W Surveyor to the Urban District 

mo* tut— ia\ Council, Farnham, Surrey. 

£S ft ffl ««**•'• "^J^^o^-by- 

1896 Mar. 21 Chadwick, J Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Fenny Stratford. 

1903 Jan. 17 Chambers, S. H. (Member of Surveyor to the Urban District 
Council.) Council, Hampton. Bon. Sec- 

retary, Home District. 

1901 Deo. 7 Chancellor, W. B City Surveyor, Lichfield. 

1897 Jan. 16 Chapman, C. B. W Surveyor to the Urban District 

lftQ o Mar a \ Council, Wembley. 

B1899 May 6 / 0hablb8 » t Bessborough Boad, Harrow. 

1884 Deo. 20 Chart, B. M Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Croydon. Town 
Hall, Croydon. 

1900 Feb. 10 Chowins,W. H Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Burnham, Somerset. 
1906 Mar. 3 Christie, S. L Burgh Surveyor, Montrose, N.B. 

B1907 June 2o} Clahe ' J " AJL In8t - 0E ' - 8urve y° r » Sleaford. 

1898 Sept. 3 Clark, E. 0*N County Surveyor, Leitrim. 

1908 Jan. 18 Clark, W. G. J Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Wigston Magna, 
Leicester. 

il904 a£? \l) Clark *> g E • A.M.Inst.O.E. Borough Surveyor, Boston, Lin- 
Apr. a ) oolnshire. 

1899 Oct. 21 Clarke, H. A Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Briton Ferry. 

1898 Oct. 15 Clabrt, W. H., A. M. Inst. Borough Surveyor, Sutton Cold- 

C.E. field. 

1886 Dec. 18 Clabson, H. J Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Tamworth. 

1901 May 11 Clayton, F. T Borough Engineer, Beigate. 

1893 July 81 Clocgh, W Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Audenshaw. 

1899 Oct. 21 Cluca8, B. H Borough Surveyor, Kingston- 

on-Thames. 

^iwot J i& L)*Coales, H. F Surveyor to the Urban Dlstriot 

Tl»yo uct. to) Council, Sunbury-on-Thames. 

01886 Oct. 16\*Coales, H. G., Assoc M. Surveyor to the Urban District 

T1888 July 12/ Inst. C.E. Council, Market Harborough. 

1882 Sept. 30 Cookbill, J. W., M. Inst. Borough Surveyor, Great Yar- 

C.E. (Member of Council.) mouth. 



OF MUNICIPAL AND COUNTY BNGINEEBS. 



Xlll 



Date of Election 
and Transfer. 

1893 June 24 
1904 June 26 



Cookbill, T., Assoc. M. Inst. 
C.E. 

COLKBY, H. J 



1 892 Sept 24 Collen, W. MA, MJnst C.E. 

1888 May 12 COLLINS, A. E., M.Inst C.E. 

{Past Pretident. Member 

of Council.) 
1900 Oct 15\ Collins, G.M.,Aasoo.M.In8t. 
B1901 June 27/ C.E. 
1896 Jan. 18 Collins, B 

1905 Apr. 29 Collins, W. A. 



1886 May 
B1897 Feb. 
G1897 July 
T1900 Dec. 



Surveyor to the Urban District 
Council, Biggleswade, Beds. 

Surveyor to the Bural District 
Council, Atherstone, War- 
wickshire. 

County Surreyor, Dublin. 

City Engineer, Norwich. 



17 Saville Road, Blackpool. 

Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Enfield, N. 
Surveyor to the Bural District 

Council, Bridgwater. 



j 3 | Comber, P. F., M. Inst. C.E. 19 Lower Ueson Street, Dublin. 



^}*Cook, F. C. 



1893 Apr. 22 Cook, F. P., Assoc M. Inst 
C.E. 



G1888 July 
T1890 Mar. 
B1908 Jan. 
G1888 July 
T1890 Mar. 



^|*CooK, J., Assoc. M. Inst C.E. 
18) 



Surveyor to the Urban District 
Council, Nuneaton. . 

Surveyor to the Urban District 
Council, Mansfield Wood- 
house. 

The Cottage, Gateacre Brow, 
Gateaore, near Liverpool. 



1q)*Coopbb, C. H., M. Inst. C. 
™> (Member of Council.) 

1898 Sept 3 Cooper, E. C 



E. Borough Engineer, Wimbledon. 
15 Dora Boad, Wimbledon 
Park, S.W. 
.. Surveyor to the Urban District 
Council, Shanklin, Isle of 
Wight. 
1894 Oct. 20 Coopbb. F. A., C.M.G., M. Director of Publio Works, 
Inst. C.E. Colombo, Ceylon. 

1887 Sept 17 Cooper, W. W. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Slough. 

B1902 N?v. 8 2 } CopLBY « C - T * A.M.Inst.C.E. 252 Barkerhouse Boad, Nelson, 
' Lancashire. 

1896 Jan. 18 Cordon, R. O Surveyor to the Bural District 

Council, Bel per. «* Belmont," 
aiftQfi May 9Q\ Duflield, near Derby. 

?{|^Ju^el9r C0BRIB ' H - W Su^eyor to the Urban District 

' Council, Lower Bebmgton, 

ioq4 j llnA 91 \ Cheshire. 

B1903 Jan 17 ( CoTTEIlELL > A - p - L > M.Inst. 28 Baldwin Street, Bristol; and 
' C.E. 17 Victoria Street, S.W. 

1906 Mar. 3 Cottle, F Borough Engineer, Douglas, 

1891 June25\ ,. f „ T a fi Me of *£">. 

B1897 July 31) ' Surveyor, Pen maenmawr. 

1898 May 21 Cox, J Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council,Margam,Port Talbot. 
P1880 Feb. 7 Cox, J. H., M. Inst. C.E. .. City Surveyor, Bradford. 
1900 Mar. 10 CBABTREE,W.B.,M.Sc.(Vict), Surveyor to the Rural District 
A. M. Inst C.E. Council, Doncaster. 

P1881 May 6 Creer, A., Assoc. M. Inst.C.E. Engineer to Ouse and Foss 

Navigations. Yewhurst, Bick- 
ley, Kent 



Xiv LIST OP MEMBERS OP THE INCORPORATED ASSOCIATION 

Date of Election 
and Transfer. 

1900 July 19 Cross, A. W., A. M. Inst O.E. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, King's Norton. 
1889 Deo. 14 *Crowther, J. A., Assoc M. Borough Engineer, Southamp- 
Inst. C.E. ton. 

Zlwl t!o« ?q1*Croxforp, J. W Surveyor to the Urban District 

T1908 July 18/ CmZndU Brentford. 

®!^o I? *; ^}*Crump, E. H., A. M. Inst C.E. Surveyor to the Urban District 
Tl903Mayl6/ Council, Hinckley. 

T1904 Am 3o}* CuDBIBD ' T * ° Borough Surveyor, Beocles. 

1900 June 16 Comhixg, W Highway Surveyor to the Rural 

District Council, Lanchester, 
co. Durham. 

1889 Dec. 14 Currall, A. E Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Solihull, Warwick- 
shire. 

1896 Apr. 25 Curry, W. F P.W.D., Pretoria, South Africa. 

1893 Mar. 4 \ Corrt, W. T., A. M. InstO.E. Minas <le Rio Tinto, Provincia 

B1899 Feb. 25/ de HuelvR, Spain. 

1897 Feb. 13 Cuti.br, H.A., M.Inst. O.E. City Surveyor, Belfast. 



1893 June 24 *Dalton, J. P. 

{Member of Council.) 



.. Surveyor to the Urbau District 

Council,Ryton-on-Tyne. Hon. 

Secretary, Northern District. 
.. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Willington Quay. 
.. Surveyor to the Urban Dristriet 

Council, Nantyglo and Blaina. 

Council Offices, Blaina. 

10 DAVIS, A. T., M.Inst C.E. County Surveyor, Salop. 
(Past President.) (Member of Shrewsbury. 

Council.) 

15 *Dawson, C. F Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Barking. 

191 

g > Dawson, C. J Wykehara House, Barking. 

25 Dawson, N. H Borough Surveyor, Banbury. 

15 Day, C Borough Surveyor, Chatham. 

9 DEACON, G. F., LL.D. 16 Great George Street, West- 

(Glasgow), M. Inst. C.E. minster, S.VV. 

(Past President.) 

15 Deane,J.W Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Small thorne. 

11 *Dearden, H., A. M* Inst. Borough Engineer, Dewsbury. 

C.E. 

14 Delany, J. F City Engineer, Cork. 

1 Dennis, N. F.,A.M.Inst.O.E. Borough Engineer, West Har- 
tlepool. 

25 Dewhir8T, J Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Chelmsford. 

151 

in >*DiciiN80N, A. J Surveyor to the Urban District 

W) Council, Redditoh. 

27 DroxiNSON, R Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Berwick-on -Tweed. 



1899 Jan. 21 Davidson, J. F. 

1900 Oct. 15 Da vies, W. J. 

1880 Apr. 



1900 Oct. 

1884 Apr. 
B1902 Nov. 
1896 July 
1898 Jan. 
1873 Dec. 



1898 Jan. 
1892 Mar. 

1904 July 
Pi 890 Feb. 

1896 July 

ol898 Oct. 
T1899 June 

1895 June 



OP MUNICIPAL AND COUNTY ENGINEERS. XV 

Dale of Klection 
and Transfer. 

1900 Feb. 10 Diggle, James Surveyor to the Urban Difltriot 

Council, Matlock. 

1881 Dec. 10 Diggle, J., A.M. Inst. C.E. Water Engineer, Heywood. 
1889 Sept 21 Diggle, Wm Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Runcorn. Frodsham, 
Chester. 

1877 Oct. 20 Ditch ah, H Borough Surveyor, Harwich. 

1897 Apr. 10 Diver, D. J Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Marple, near Stock- 
port. 

B1M3 Jan. ll) DlX0N ' F * J ' AM# Inet 0E - Town HaU chftmbeM > Ashton- 

AifiQi Ancr i\ under-Lyne. 

tiQQ« rZr' oi[* D «ON, J. R., M.Inst C.E. Borough Engineer, Town Hall, 

TI896 Oct. 24J Woolwich. 

1887 June 18 Dixon, R., AssocM.InstO.E. Borough Surveyor, Stratford-on- 

Avon. 
1889 July 4 Dodd, P., Assoc M. Inst.O.E. Borough Surveyor, Wandsworth, 

S.W., 27 Carlton Road, Put- 
ney, S.W. 

1897 Jan. 16 *Dodgeon, A., A.M. Inst C.E. Surveyor to the Urban Distriot 

Council, Clayton-le-Moors. 

1888 May 12 Dorm an, R. H.,M. Inst C.E. County Surveyor, Armagh. 

(Member of Council.) Hon. Secretary, Irish District. 

1898 June 30 Dormer, P. C Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Chesham, Buoks. 

Tl9€4 Sen? n}* 00 ™ 1 '* 8 * 8 Surveyor to the Urban District 

p ' ' Council, Kenil worth. 

1906 Jan. 20 Douglass, W. L., M.Inst.O.E. District Engineer, Middle Ward, 

Lanark County. Distriot 
Offices, Hamilton. N.B. 

1899 Oct. 21 Dryland, A., A. M.Inst. C.E. County Surveyor, Wiltshire. 

1891 Dec. 12 Duffik, W. E. L., M. Inst Count v Surveyor, Waterford, 
C.E. I. Ireland. 

«1901 JuSe 8 5 } DlIH0H ' T - h 27 Clement's Lane, Lombard 

Street, E.C- 

1898 May 21 Dunn, J Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Chesterton. Bruns- 
wick House, Cambridge. 
1873 Feb. 15 Dunpcombe,C.,M.A., M.Inst. 92 Victoria Street, Westminster, 
C.E. S.W. 

*1892 Sept. 24}* Dyack ' W " M " In8t °- E * " Bur * h Surve y° r > Aberdeen. 

1882 June 29 Dyer, S Engineer to the Rural District 

Council. Bridlington, 29 Quay 
Road, Bridlington. 



1879 May 1 
1904 Aug. 3 
1883 Aug. 4 
1877 Nov. 18 
1890 May 3 
1890 Feb. 1 



Earnbttaw, J. T., Assoc. M. 

Inst. C.E. 
Easton, W. C, B. Sc. f M. 

Inst. C.E 

Eaton -Shore, 6., Assoc. M. 

Inst. C.E. 
EAYRS, J. T. f M.Inst.O.E. 

(Past President.) 
Ebbetts, D. J 

Eddowes, W. C 



Borough Surveyor, A 8b ton - 
under-I.yne, Lancashire. 

Glasgow Main Drainage Works, 
Partick, N.B. 

Borough Surveyor, Crewe. 

89 Corporation Street, Binning- 

ham. 
Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council. Acton. 
Borough Surveyor, Shrewsbury. 



XVI LIST OF MEMBERS OF THE INCORPORATED ASSOCIATION 

Date of Election 
and Transfer. 

JSH"*' ?H*Edob,P. J., M.InstO.E. .. 22 Collingwood Buildings, 
R1896 JaD. 18J Newoa*tieK>n-Tyne. 

1891 Sept 12 Edmondson, S Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Burnley. 
1904 Jan. 23 Edwards, H. C. J., Assoc. M. Borough Engineer, Lambeth. 

Inst. C.E. 
1907 Nov. 2 Eloe, W. H., A. M. Inst G.E. Borough Engineer, Bacup. 

1897 July 31 *Elfobd, E. J Borough Surveyor, Southend- 

on-Sea. 
1873 Feb. 15 ELLICE-CLARK, E. B., M. 13 Charles Street, St. James's, 
Inst. C.E. {Past President.) London, S.W. 

1900 Apr. 21 Elliott, F. T Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Wrotham, Kent. 

1907 May 25 England, J Borough Engineer, Wrexham. 

1895 July 27 Entwisle, H Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Swinton, near Man- 
chester. 
1897 Jan. 16 Evans, E., A. M. Inst C.E. County Surveyor, Carnarvon- 
shire. 

1895 Jan. 19 Evans, E. I., Assoc. M. Inst. Surveyor to the Urban District 

C.E. Council, Penarth, S. Wales. 

1896 May 29 Evans, J. P Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Wrexham. 
1903 Oct 17 Evans, S County Surveyor, Mold, Flint- 
shire. 



1890 June 7 Fairley, W., A.M. Inst C.B. Richmond Main Sewerage 

Board, Kew Gardens, S.W., 
ni«Q« TmiA <*m and 69 Victoria Street, S.W. 

milqQF^ e SrFABNHAM,W.A Surveyor to the Urban District 

T1899 Feb. 25 j CouncU, Foots Cray. Sidoup. 

1893 July 31 Fabrington, T. B., A. M. Surveyor to the Rural District 

Inst.CE. Council, Conway. Trinity 

Square, Llandudno. 
1896 Jan. 18 Fabrington, W., Assoc M. Surveyor to the Urban District 
Inst C.E. Council, Woodford Green, 

Essex. 

1900 Deo. 15 *Fellows, T. E Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Willenhali. 

1894 Jan. 13 Fenn, T Surveyor to the Urban District 

i««7 fern* i7i Council, Belper. 

jsssffl"—.^ ■Er^^r'i&s 

Boards. Old Bank Offices. 
Stourbridge. 
P1899 Jan. 21 Fidlbr, A., M. Inst. C.E. .. Borough Engineer,Northampton. 
(Member of CouncU.) 

T1906 Sept. 22}* FlNCH ' A ' R " A ' M ' InBt - CE ' Borou g h Surveyor, Kensington. 

T1904 Jan 6 23}* FlN0H > K E > A ' M - ***• aE - Borough Engineer, Bethnal 

Ureen. 

1904 Nov, 18 Findlay,J. R Burgh Surveyor, Leith, N.B. 

1894 Jan. 13 Findlat, R., A.M. Inst. C.E. Surveyor, Eltham Green, S.E. 
01892 May 281 

T1897 Jan. 16}*Fitton, G Thornfield, Urmston Lane, 

R1903 July 25} Stretford, Manchester. 



OF MUNICIPAL AND COUNTY KNGINEERS. XV11 

Date of Election 
and Transfer. 

1903 May 16 Fxtzmaurioe, M., C.M.G., Chief Engineer, London County 
M. Inst. C.E. Council, Spring Gardens. 

1895 Oct. 19 Fleming, M. J Borough Surveyor, Town Hall, 

Waterford. 
1893 Jan. 14\ Flower, T. J. M., Assoc M. Scottish Buildings, Baldwin 
B1899 May 6 / Inst. C.E. Street, Bristol; and 28 Vic- 

toria Street, Westminster, S.W. 
1906 Sept. 22 Fobbes, A. .. County Road Surveyor, Linlith- 
gow, N.B. 

*]¥£ ^ 2?1«Forbes, A. H Surveyor to the Urban District 

T1899 Jan. 21/ Council, Saffron Walden. 

1896 Nov. 28 Ford, G City Surveyor, St. Albans. 

Jon* t!^ ID Foster, T 51 State Insurance Buildings, 

B1905 Jan. 28/ Dale gtreet? Liverpool . 

O1901 June 8 
TA1901 Oct. 19 *Fowlds, W., A.M. Inst. O.E. Borough Engineer, Keighley. 
T1907 Sept 7 J 
1873 May 2 FOWLER, ALFRED M„ 1 St Peter's Square, Man- 
M. Inst C.E. (Past Tresis oliester. 
dent.) 
01896 Jan. 18) 
TA1904 May 28}*Fox, S. F. L., Assoc M. Inst Borough Surveyor, Luton. 
T1906 May 26| C.E. 

1897 Mar. 13 Fox-Allin, C.J Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Smethwick. 

2l!So ft? I°}*Fraseb, R. W Surveyor to the Urban District 

T1902 Nov. 8 / Council, Hoylake, Cheshire. 

1895 Oct. 19 Frost, H Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Gosport and Alver- 
stoke. Gosport. 

B1898 Ja? 6 15} FbT ' W ' H " A,M * InBt 0,B - 9 High Street ' Go8 P° rt 



1877 Oct 20 Gamble, 8. G., Assoc. M. Inst Metropolitan Fire Brigade, 
C.E. Southwark Bridge Road, S.E. 

1885 June 6 Gammagr, J Borough Surveyor, Dudley. 

.}§&?£« 13 Gabbaw '°- t - E8 £^te^ e ewtow,,Linford, 

1894 Mar. 3 Garrett, J. H County Surveyor, Worcester. 

■12Sw£«} Glsim ' P All^rt Chambers, Carr Lane, 

1902 Jan. 25 Gent, T. W. B Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Leigh. 
1902 Feb. 22 George-Powell, J Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Godstone, Surrey. 
1905 Jan. 28 Gbttutgs, C. F Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Teignmouth. 
1901 Oct 19 Gibbs, A. G Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Midhurst, Sussex. 
1900 Mar. 10 Gibson, S Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Biddulph. 
1889 Dec. 14 Gum, A. F District Surveyor to the Kent 

County Counoil, Tonbridge. 

70 Quarry Hill, Tonbridge. 



XV111 LIST OP MEMBERS OP THE INCORPORATED ASSOCIATION 

Date of Election 
and Transfer. 

1899 June 10 Gladwell, A. (Member of Engineer and Surveyor, Rural 
Council.) Distriot Council, Eton. 160 

High Street, Slough, Bucks. 

1904 Jan. 23 Gledrtll, G Surveyor to the Urban Distriot 

Council,Balby with Hexthorpe. 
1893 May 13 *Gloyne,R.M.,M. Inst O.E. Distriot Engineer, Spring 

Gardens, S.W. 
1895 Jan. 19 Goldjer, T. C Borough Surveyor, Deal. 

1904 Feb. 27 Goldsworthy-Crump, T. .. Surveyor to the Rural Distriot 

Council, Taunton. 8 St. 

George's Terrace, Wilton, 

Taunton. 
1886 June 12 Goodyear, H., Assoc M.Inst Borough Surveyor, Colchester. 

C.E. 
1897 June 19 Gordon, F Surveyor to the Rural Distriot 

Council Halifax. Clifton, 

Brighouse. 
1899 June 10 Goudie, A. H. .. .. .. Burgh Engineer, Stirling, N.B. 

T1901 Dec 6 7 9 }* Grant » f - t Borough Surveyor, Gravesend. 

1905 Sept 23 Gray, C. C Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Hayes. 
61887 Feb. 5 \*Greatorex, A.D., M. Inst Borough Surveyor, West Brom- 
PPT1898 Apr. 22/ C.E. (Member of Council.) wioh. 

1895 Mar. 5 Gbebn, A. A. Borough Surveyor, Braokley. 

1899 June 10 Greek, G., A.M. Inst C.E... Borough Engineer, Wolver- 
hampton. 
1901 Feb. 16 Green, J. 8 Borough Engineer, Haslingden. 

1897 Mar. 13 Green, W Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Castleford. 
a1901 Deo. 7 \ Greenshtelds, N., Assoc. M. Borough Engineer, Bedford. 
T1903 Deo. 12/ Inst C.E. 

1890 May 3 \ Greenwell, A., Assoc. M. 30 Furnival Street, Holborn, 
B1898 Apr. 23/ Inst C.E. E.C. 

1898 Mar. 19 Gregory, T Surveyor to the Urban Distriot 

Council, Newburn-on-Tyne. 

1892 Jan. 16 Gregsox, G Surveyor to the Rural Distriot 

Council, Durham. 

1886 Oct. 16 Gregson, J., Assoc. M. Inst Surveyor to the Urban Distriot 
C.E. Council, Padiham, near 

Burnloy. 

1882 Sept. 80 Grieves, R Surveyor to the Urban Distriot 

Oounoil, Blyth, Northumber- 
land. 

1897 June 19 Grieves, W. H Surveyor to the Urban Distriot 

Counoil, Buxton. 
1904 Oct 29 ^Griffiths, H. LL, .. .. Borough Surveyor, Brecon. 
1886 Sept 11 Grimley, S. S., Assoc. M. Inst Surveyor to the Urban Distriot 
C.E. Council, Hendon. 

1899 Deo. 16 Grimshaw, F. H., A.M. Inst Surveyor to the Urban Distriot 

C.E. Counoil, Atherton. 

1908 June 25 Grimwood, G. F Borough Engineer, Monmouth. 

1898 Dec 17 Guilbert, T. J States Surveyor, Guernsey. 

1892 Apr. 28 Gunnis, J. W. County Surveyor, Longford, 

Ireland. 
1890 Mar. 29 Gun yon, C. J., AJK. InstCLE. Surveyor to the Urban Distriot 

Council, Wood Green, N. 



OF MUNICIPAL AND COUNTY ENGINEEU8. XIX 

Dote of Election 
and Transfer. 

1891 Deo. 12 Hackett, E. A., M.E., M. County Surveyor, Cloumel, 

Inst. C.E. Tipperary, Ireland. 

1897 June 19 Hague, S Borough Surveyor, Dukin» 

field. 

1885 June 6 Haigh, J., A.M . Inst. O.E. . . Borough Surveyor, Aberga- 

venny. 

1906 June 28 * Hailstone, T. H Borough Surveyor, Riohmond, 

Yorks. 

1896 Apr. 25 Hainswobth, M. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Teddington. 

1902 Sept. 6 Hale, A Municipal Engineer, Howrah, 

Bon oral. 

2}S? rw Jq}*Hall, C Surveyor to the Urban District 

T1901 Oct 19/ Council, Droylsden, near 

Manchester. 
1902 Nov. 8 Hall, E Borough Surveyor, Carnarvon. 

JiSt m^I J?l Hall, J. f M. Inst. OE. Executive Engineer, Municipal 

B1SAW Mar. zi) (Member of Council.) Offices, Bombay. Hon.t>ecre- 

tary t Indian District. 

1886 May 1 Hall, W., A.M. Inst O.E. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Great Crosby. 

1900 June 16 Hallam, B Surveyor to the Rural District 

Couucil, Eton. 

1901 May 11 Haller, J. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Carlton, near Not- 
tingham. 

1905 June 22 *Halbtbad, B Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Brierfield, Lanes. 

1894 July 7 Hamar, A Borough Surveyor, Bishop's 

Castle, Shropshire. 

1887 Mar. 12 Hamby, G. H., Assoo.M.Inst Borough Engineer, Lowestoft. 

C.E. 

1897 Feb. 13 Haup, H. J., Assoc M. Inst Surveyor to the Urban District 

C.E. Council, New Swindon. 

1897 Mar. 13 Hanson, J. H Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Cottingham, Yorks. 
1890 Sept 13 Hanson, W Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Wantage. 

1896 Jan. 18 Haba, R City Engineer, Yokohama* 

Japan. 

B1908 Jan.' ll} Hardik0 > J - E Ashlev Road » E P 80m i Surrev - 

1899 Juue 29 'Hargreaves, J. E Surveyor to the Urban District 

Counoil, Fam bo rough, Hants. 
1899 May 6 Hahman, E. A., M. Inst. C.E. Corporation Gas Engineer, 

Huddersfield. 

1897 Mar. 13 Habptjr, A. O Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Caerphilly. 

i905 Jan. 28 Harpur, J. L. Town Surveyor, Brierley Hill. 

1894 Mar. 3 HARPUR, W., M. Inst C.E. City Engineer, Cardiff. 
(Past President. Member of 
Council.) 

1896 Jan. 18 Harris, F Surveyor to the Rural District 

Couucil, Tonbridge. Bid- 
borough, Tunbridge Wells. 

?1907 Jan. 6 19} &*****> K - J - & Borough Surveyor, Wisbech. 



XX LIST OP MEMBERS OF THE INCORPORATED ASSOCIATION 

Date of Election 
and Transfer. 

1901 May 11 Harrison, A., M.Inst C.E. .. Borough Engineer, South wark. 

Town Hall, Walworth Road, 
S.E. 

1906 Apr. 28 "Harbison, E. Y^ Assoc. M. Surveyor and Water Engineer 

Inst. C.E. to the Urban District Council, 

Wellingborough. 

1899 June 29 Harbison, G. F. P Surveyor to the Rural Distriot 

Council, East Stow. Stow- 
/iionn m«» iq\ market, Suffolk. 

£io!w m^' q J*Habbison, J. W Surveyor to the Urban Distriot 

iftQA v™ 9*\ Council, Wombwell, York*. 

B1904 Jan ' 23/ Hab8T0N » w -» am - In8t - °- B - 8 H y the 8treet » D<»tford. 

1905 Sept 23 Hart, G. A Sewerage Engineer, Municipal 

Buildings, Leeds. 
1S96 Oct. 24 Hartley, T. H Borough Surveyor, Colne. 

1893 Oct. 21 Harvey, T. F., Assoc. M. Borough Engineer, Merthyr 

Inst C.B. Tydvil. 

1907 Apr. 27 Hawke, W. C, A.M.InstC.E. Borough Surveyor, Dover. 
1889 Feb. 9 Hawkins, I. T., Assoc M. Director of Public Works, Lagos. 

Inst. C.E. 

1906 Deo 15 Hawkins, J. F County Surv., Roads & Bridges, 

Berkshire. Reading. 

1892 Apr. 23 Hawley, G. W Highway Surveyor R.D.C., 

Basford. Burton Buildings, 
Parliament St., Nottingham. 

1902 July 10 Haynes, H. T.,Assoo. M.Inst. City Engineer, Perth, West 

C.E. Australia. 

1895 Apr. 20 Haynes, R. H., M. Inst C.E. Borough Engineer, Newport, 

Sleoa t^ 6 {k)*Haywabd, T. W. A., A.M. Borough Surveyor, Town Hall, 
T1898 Jan. 10 j ImL r (Member of Council.) Battersea. 

Tim jSne^}*^^ 000 ' 88 Borough Engineer, Brighouse. 

1907 Mar. 2 Heap, J. A Borough Surveyor, Todmorden. 

1899 June 10 Heath, J Surveyor to the Urban Distriot 

Council, Urmston. 
1885 June 6 Heaton, G., Assoc. M. Inst Surveyor to the Urban Dist 
C.E. Councils, Abram and Pember- 

ton. King Street, Wigan. 

ilno ? eb * ]q) Henderson, A. J., Assoc M. «Bramlev," KiUarney Road, 
E1908 Jan. 18/ Ingt c E ; Wandsworth, S.W. 

°lani ?S? e ?I1*Hendry, J. S Surveyor to the Urban District 

T1901 Oct. 19/ Council, Cannock, Staffs. 

1897 Feb. 13 Henry, T Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, East Retford. 

1903 Dec. 12 Henshaw, R. S Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Portland. 
1892 June 11 Heron, J., B.E., B.A County Surveyor, Co. Down. 

Courthouse, Downpatriok, 

Ireland. 
1902 May 10 Heslop, R Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Tanfield, co. Durham 
1875 Dec. 21 Hewson, T., M. Inst. C.E. .. 159 Moorside Road, Flixston. 

1894 July 7 Higgens, T. W. E., Assoc M. Borough Surveyor, Town Hall, 

Inst C.E. Chelsea, S.W. 

1898 May 21 Higoins, J Chief Engineer, Grey Co., New 

Zealand. 



OF MUNICIPAL AND COUNTY ENGINEERS. XXI 

Utts of Election 
and Transfer. 

?!w6N?v.8}* H ^ HF - B ^Sr^e UrbW,Dbtri0t 

1898 Deo. 17 Hinohclifte, D Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Shepton Mallet. 
1902 July 10 ♦Hikes, C. E. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Windermere. 
1898 Sept. 3 Hirst, B. P., A.M. Inst OB. Borough Surveyor, Southport 

1895 June 27 Hodgson, W Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Keswick. 

»l^MKn}* HoOB,K ' L - W "Bowona," Prerton B<»d. 

* ' Leytonstone, N.E. 

1897 Jan. 16 Hole,W. P Borough Surveyor, Mont- 

gomery. Crowther's Hall, 
Welshpool. 

1904 Aug. 16 Holmes, F. G Burgh Surveyor, Govan, N.B. 

1892 Mar. 11 Holmes, G. W., Assoc. M. Engineer to the Urban District 
Inst C.E. Council, Walthamstow, N.E. 

®!^? ?*■ J2}*Holt, E. B Permanent Way Engineer, 

T1904 Oct 29J Wellington Bridge, Leeds. 

1901 Dec. 7 *Holt, W., AssooJi.Inst.CE. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Sale, Cheshire. 

1884 Oct. 9 Hooley, Cosmo 0., Assoc M. Croft's Bank House, Davy- 

Inst. O.E. holme, nr Manchester. 

1884 Oct 9 HOOLEY, E. P., M.Inst County Surveyor, Nottingham. 
C.E. (Prettfsnt.) 

1898 Jan. 15 Hopkinson, F Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Blyth and Cuokney. 
66 Bridge Street, Worksop. 
1891 Deo. 12 Hoban, J., M.E., MJnstCE. County Surveyor, 82 George 

Street, Limerick, Ireland. 
▲1902 Feb. 22\ Horton, J. W., AssocM Jnst County Surveyor, Derbyshire. 
T1906 Nov. 3 J C.E. 

1894 Mar. 3 Howard, H Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Litilehampton. 
PI 889 Deo. 14\ Howard-Smith, W., Assoc. M Arosa," Amersham Hill, High 
B1898 Oct 15/ M.Inst.C.E. Wyoombe. 

1880 May 27 Howoboft, J Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Redcar, Yorkshire. 

1894 June 21 Howell, F. G County Surveyor, Surrey. 

Kingston-on-Thames. 

1896 Feb. 22 Howse, W. T Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Bexley. 

1897 June 17 Hughes, H. T Highway Surveyor, Hayfleld 

Road. Chanel-en-le-Frith. 

1897 Jan. 16 Humphreys, J Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Maesteg. 

1899 June 1 Humphries, H. EL .. .. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Erdington. 

1894 June 21 Hunt, G. J. Borough Engineer, Dorchester. 

1897 July 8 Hunter, T Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Leigh. 

Slfftfi a™' J*)*Hubd, H Surveyor to the Urban District 

l\w aE fJ\ °° unci1 ' Broadstairs. 

SnJ7r H ™»» F Surveyor to the Urban District 

Tioft9 £!£' ool CouncU, Ashton-on-Mersey. ' 

T1903 Mar' 21 f HuTTOir » s Surveyor to the Urban District 

ar. ai) Council, Exmouth. 



Xxii LIST OF MEMBERS O* THE INCORPORATED ASSOCIATION 



Date of Election 
and Transfer. 



B1906 Mar 3 *} IkoamelL8 > K W Surveyor, Pokesdown. 

G J2£ £ P J' £H*Ikgham, W., A.M. InetCE. Hydraulic Engineer, Port 
T1896 Oct. 24/ Elizabeth, South Africa. 

1899 Feb. 25 Ingram, 8. .. . County Surveyor, Devon. 

Exeter. 

1888 Nov. 17 Ibvino, W.E. ... Town Surveyor, Toowong, 

Queensland, Australia. 

.i2£ & ne 2*1 ^ AC8 i L - H -» A - In * 0B - •• 3 Ve ™ lam Buildings, Gray's 
B1902 Nov. 8 / Inn w#c . 

1904 May 28 Ivbson, J. A. .. Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, 2 Nares Street, Soar- 
borough. 



1900 July 19 Jack, G. H County Surveyor, Hereford- 

shire. 

1893 Oct 21 Jaffbey, W Town Surveyor, Matlock Bath. 

1896 Oct. 24 James, A. 0., A.M. Inst O.E. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Grays Thurrook. 
Grays. 

1903 Dec. 12 James, C. C, M.Inst.C.E. .. The Ministry, P.W.D., Cairo. 

28 Victoria Street, S.W. 

^fonS^ 251*Jameson, M. W., A. M.Inst Borough Engineer, Stepney. 
Tl890Mar. 29/ 0E Gt Alie St., Whitechapel, E. 

1897 Feb. 13 Jabvis, R. W Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Tenbury. 

1885 Apr. 18 Jeeves, E Surveyor to the Urban District 

i o«o t *\ Counoil, Melton Mowbray. 

°JS! £*?' ISVjbffes, R. H m A. M. Inst CE. Surveyor to the Urban District 
, T J^ O*- \l[ Council, Maiden. 

G iS£ wt' Ia Wenkin, C. J., A.M. InstCE. Surveyor to the Urban District 
T1896 Oct 24/ Council, Finchley, N. 

1899 June 10 Jenkins, D. M.,A.M Jnst.CE. Borough Surveyor, Neath. 

1907 Jan 19 Jenkins, J. P Borough Surveyor, Penryn, 

Cornwall. 

B1908 Feb 29} jKHMIN0B » G 9 Nel80n Street > »<>therham. 

1895 May 25 Jepson, J Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Leveushulme. 
O1900 June 16 j 
A J™1 2°** i 9 >*JEBRAM, G., A.M. Inst C.E. Surveyor to the Urban District 

*"?££ S° V - Li Council, Merton. 

Tl908May 23J 

1892 July 21 Jevons, J. H„ A. M. InstCE. Borough Surveyor, Hertford. 

1904 May 28 Johnson, J Borough Surveyor, Rawtenstall. 

1895 June 27 Johnston, J., M. Inst CE. Waterworks Engineer, Brighton. 

1883 Aug. 4 \ Jones, O.C, Lt-Col. A. S., Ridge Cottage, Finohampstead, 

B1902 Nov. 8 / M. Inst. CE. Berks. 

1873 Feb. 15 JONES, CH AS., M. Inst. CE. Borough Surveyor, Ealing, 

(Past President and Oen. Hon. Middlesex. 
Secretary. Member of Council.) 

1894 July 7 Jones, Ohbistophsb .. .. Borough Surveyor,Hythe, Kent. 

°122 SlL J2)*Jo«8» F. W., A.M. Inst. CE. Surveyor to the Urban District 
T1904 June 26J Council, Frome, Somewet 

1874 Jan. 29 Jones, I. M., M. Inst. CE. Engineer to the Dee Bridge 

Commissioners. 



OF MUNICIPAL AND OQUNTT ENGINEERS, XX111 

Date of Election 
and Transfer. 

1894 June 21 Jones, J * Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Hengoed, vid Cardiff. 
1894 June 21 Jokes, J. O Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Biggleswade. 
1903 June 6 Jones, R. R Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Horsforth. 
1900 Mar. 10 Jones, T. C Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Frimley. Oamberley, 

Surrey. 
1892 May 28 Jones, W., As&ocM.InstO.E. Surveyor to the Urban District 
(Member of Council.) Council, Colwyn Hay. Hon. 

Sec, North Wales Distriot. 

1897 Feb. 13 Jones, W. J Surveyor to the Urban Distriot 

Council, Rhondda. 

1898 Apr. 23 Jones, W. P Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Glyncorrwg. 

1906 Dec. 15 Joyce, T. W Borough Engineer, Dartmouth. 

1891 June 25 Jukes, W. H Surveyor to the Urban Distriot 

Council, Tipton. 
01895 Oct 19) 

am 1907 Nov. 2 >* Julian, J., B.E Borough Surveyor, Cambridge. 

T1908 June 25) 



1905 Oct. 28 *Kat, G. H .. Surveyor to the Urban Distriot 

Council, Irlam, Lanes. 

R1899 I)S 16} Kay » W ' B " AMm InBt 0E Atho1 8treet ' Don K lft8 » **\e of 

1892 Apr. 23 Kennedy, J. D Borough Surveyor, Retford. 

1905 Jan. 28 ^Kenton, L Surveyor to the Urban Distriot 

Council, Tottington. 
1895 May 25 Ketwood, H. G Borough Surveyor, Town Hall, 

Ossett 
1892 July 11 Ktod, T., Assoc M. Inst C.E. Surveyor to the Urban Distriot 

Council, Swadlincote, Burton- 

on-Trent. 
1899 Oct 21 Killick, J. 8. Highway Surveyor to the Rural 

District Council, Croydon. 
1899 June 29 Killick, P. G Borough Surveyor, Finsbury, 

E.C. 

B1903 JiSy25} KlNNISOK ' A - M Abbey Cottage, Leek, Staffs. 

1888 Sept. 15 Kiek, T., Assoc. M. Inst. C.E. City Engineer, Brisbane. 
1907 May 25 Kibkpatriok, C. B. S., A. M. City Engineer, Newoastle-on- 
Inst.CE. Tyne. 

1895 Oct. 19 Knapp, R. W Borough Surveyor, Andover. 

1903 June 25 *Knbwstubb, F. W., A.M.Inst. c/o Mrs. Nicholson, 319 MacGee 
C.E. Street, Winnipeg, Canada. 

1903 June 25 *Knewstubb, J. J Surveyor to the Urban Distriot 

Council, Penrith. 

B1903 Jan*.' 17} Knioht » J ' M " A.MJnst.C.E. 35 Bancroft Road, Mile End.E. 

1907 Sept. 7 Kusakabe, B Chief Engineer to Municipality, 

Tokio, Japan. 

1884 Oct. 9 Laoet, F. W., MInstC.E. .. Borough Engineer, Bourne- 
mouth. 

Tlfsl Mm. 16}* LactTj G ' W Borough Surveyor, Oswestry. 

c 2 



XXIV LIST OF MEMBERS OF THE INCORPORATED ASSOCIATION 

Date of Election 
and Transfer. 

B1902 Jan* 25} LA*i , AN,G.B.,M.lMt.C.E. Hardy's Chambers. Pieter- 

maritzburg, 8.A. 

1900 Deo. 15 Lailey, H. G. N. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Trowbridge. 

1900 July 19 Laithwaiti,V Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Turton. 

1904 Apr. 30 Lakbbbt, A. P P.W.D., Winchester House, 

Aiqft o Mai- w\ Johannesburg, 8outh Africa. 

T19S5 3* !} L ^™*, w - T - Abboc - 0i * **&»«> LeedB « 

1 M.lnst CIS. 

1904 Oct. 13 Land ale, G. Burgh Surveyor, Musselburgh, 

N.B. 
1891 June 6 \ Landless, J. T., Assoc M. 4 Nioholas Street, Burnley. 
B1908 Feb. 29/ Inst CE. 

1904 Aug. 25 Lawbib ( J. P Burgh Surveyor, Bo'ness, N.B. 

1884 July 10 Lawson, C. G., Assoc. M. Surveyor to the Urban District 
Inst. C.E. Council, Southgate. District 

Offices, Palmer's Green, N. 

1900 Mar. 10 Lawton, C H. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Warminster. Christ- 
church Cottage, Warminster, 

T1901 May 11 }* Lea » M ' ^ M ' haL 0E " " ^ Su ^ evor » Truro - 

1904 Aug. 31 Lbb, J Burgh Surveyor, Paisley, N.B. 

j)1896 Oct. 24 Leebody, J. W County Surveyor, Co.Tyrone(S.). 

1898 Mar. 19 Lbetb, H. J. G County Surveyor, Huntingdon. 

1880 Apr. 10 Lebtb, W. H., AJkLInstCE. County Surveyor, Bedford. 

1900 May 19 Legg, E. I BoroughSurveyor,Christohuroh t 

Hants. 

1894 May 19 Leigh, W Borough Surveyor, Chorley. 

1873 Feb. 15 LEMON, J., M. Inst CE. Stookwell Lodge, The Avenue, 

(Past President) Southampton. 

1899 Oct. 21 Lines, E Engineer to the Rural District 

01896 July 25) Council, Chesterfield. 

T1899 Deo. 161+Livebsedge, J. W Surveyor to the Urban District 

B1903 Feb. 21) Council, Leigh-on-Sea, Essex. 

1891 Mar. 21 \ Livingstone, G., Assoc. M. 23 Milbury Avenue, Hove. 
B1901 Aug. 24/ Inst.CE. 

1907 May 25 Lloyd-Da vies, D. E., Assoc. Chief Engineer, The Munid- 

M. Inst. CE. pality, Alexandria, Egypt 

T1900 Oct ?5}* LoBLEY » F - J » A.MJnstCE. City Surveyor, Chiohester. 
1873 May 2 LOBLEY, J., M. Inst. C.E. Borough Engineer, Hanley, 
(Past President, Member of Staffordshire. 
Council.) 

1896 June 25 Locke, W. B. Borough Surveyor, Town Hall, 

Hemel Hempstead. 
1889 Sept. 21 Lomax, C. J., Assoc. M. Inst Engineer to the Urban District 
CE. Council, Gorton. 37 Cross 

Street, Manchester. 

1904 Mar. 26 Longdin, H. W Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Penge. 
1 896 Oct. 24 Longfikld, B. W. F. t M. Inst County Surveyor, Co. Cork (W.). 
CE. Bandon. 

R1908 Feb' It) Lonolbt, H. B Distriot Surveyor, Town Hall, 

' Manchester. 

1902 Nov. 8 Lobd, E. L Borough Engineer, Greymouth, 

New Zealand. 



OF MUNICIPAL AND COUNTY ENGINEERS. XXV 

Date of Election 
and Transfer. 

1901 May 11 Loved ay, W. P Borough Surveyor, Stoke 

(Member of Council.) Newington, N. Hon. Sec. 

Metropolitan District. 
1892 Jan. 16 Lovbgrove, E. J., M. Inst Borough Engineer, Hornsey, N. 
C.E. 

1897 July 8 Lumsdbn, J. L Burgh Surveyor, Kirkcaldy. 

1896 July 25 Lund, Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Cleokheaton. 
1896 Oct 24 Lynam, F. J., Assoc. M. Inst County Surveyor, Co. Tyrone 
O.E. (N.). 

61888 July 12\*Lynam, G. T., M.Inst C.E. Borough Surveyor, Burton-on- 
T1897 Oct. 16/ ■* - Trent 

1891 Aug. 1 Lynam, P. J County Surveyor, Louth. 

Dundalk, Ireland. 



1873 May 2 \ MoBbath, A. G., Assoc. M. Montagu Road, Sale, Cheshire. 
B1900 Mar. 10/ Inst C.E. 

1905 Mar. 3 McBeth, M. B Surveyor to Mid- Argyll District, 

Argyllshire County Council, 
County Buildings, Lochgilp- 
head, Argyllshire. 

1883 May 80 MaoBbaib, B. A., M.lnst.0 Jt City Engineer, Lincoln. Hon. 
(Member of Council) Sac Eastern District. 

1904 Aug. 24 MoBbide,8 Burgh Surveyor, Butherglen, 

N.B. 

1900 Feb. 10 MoDebmto, O Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Eaton. 

1897 Feb. 13 McDonald, A. B., M. Inst City Engineer, Glasgow. 
C.E. 

1904 Oct. 29 MaoGregob, J. M. .. .. County Surveyor, Dornoch, 

Sutherland, N.B. 

1897 Jan. 16 MaoKenztjb, D. .. .. .. County Surveyor, Dunfermline. 

1895 Oct. 19 MoKbnzdb, J. MoD. .. .. Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Bucklow. Mossburn 
Bldgs., Stamford New Road, 
Altrinoham. 

1904 Oct 1 Maokie, G. D Water Engineer, Municipal 

Buildings, Clydebank, N.B. 

1898 June 30 MoEillop, B Burgh Surveyor, Perth, N.B. 

1906 Mar. 3 *Maden, J Borough Engineer, King 

Williamstown, S. Africa. 

1898 Feb. 19 Madin, W. B Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Rushden. 
1886 Dec. 18 Maib, H., M. Inst. C.E. .. Borough Engineer, Hammer- 
smith, W. 

1892 July 21 Manning, G. W. Surveyor to the Rural District 

al ooo Tan 1M Council, Staines. 

T1M1 Am. 24r MABK8 ' a W Borough Surveyor, Woking- 

®* ' ham. 

1888 July 12 Mabss, H. C, M. Inst C.E. City Surveyor, Carlisle. 

1899 May 6 Masks, W. L Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Rhymney. 
1897 Mar. 13 Marshall, J Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, West Mailing. 
▲1903 Jan. 17\ Marshall, L. P., M. Inst Chief Engineer, Rangoon Muni- 
T1907 Nov. 2 / C.E. cipality. 



XXVI LIST OF MEMBERS OF THE INCOBPOBATED ASSOCIATION 

Dite of Election 

and Transfer. 

1891 Jan. 21 \ Marston, 0. ]f v Assoc M, Masonic Hall Chambers, Mill 
B1902 Nov. 8 J Inst. C.E. Street, Sutton Ooldfleld. 

1894 Mar. 3 \ Marten, H. J., Assoc. M. 11 Victoria Street, 8.W. 
B1908 May 23/ Inst. C.E. 

T1907 Deo" i*}* 14 **™* E- b » A.M.Inst.O.E. Borough Engineer, Botherham. 

1899 May 6 Mason, C. G., Assoc. M. Inst Borough Surveyor, Guildford. 

C.E. 

1904 Oct. 22 Massie. C Water Engineer, Falkirk, N.B. 

1890 Mar. 29 Massie, F., M. Inst. C.E. .. Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Wakefield. 

1904 Aug. 17 Massie, J. Burgh Engineer, Edinburgh, 

N.B. 

1906 Apr. 28 Mather, H. T. . . . . . . Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Surbiton. 

1888 Feb. 17 Mathews, G. S., Assoc. M. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Inst. C.E. Council, Dorking. 

1898 Dec. 17 *Matthews, E. B., Assoc M. Borough Surveyor, Bridlington. 

Inst. C.E. 

1904 May 28 Maudslet, C. W. Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Oakham, Butland. 

1881 Dec. 10 MAWBEY, E. G., M. Inst. Borough Engineer, Leicester. 

C.E. (Past President.) 

01896 July 25\*Maxwell, W. H., Assoc M. Borough Surveyor, Tunbridge 
T1902 Sept. 6 J Inst. C.E. Wells. 

ffi^e26}* MAT » CG P.WD., Sepoy Lines, Penang, 

1894 Oct. 20 Maybuby, H. P. .. ..' ..' County Surveyor, Maidstone. 

1901 Aug. 24 Maylan, 8 Surveyor to the Bural District 

Council, Basford. 

1889 May 18 Mayne, C, M. Inst. C.E. .. Engineer and Surveyor to the 

Municipal Council, Shanghai. 
Hon. Corresponding Sec. for 
Eastern Asia. 
1888 Feb. 17 MEADE, T. DE OOUBOY, City Surveyor, Manchester. 
M. Inst C.E. (Past Presi- 
dent.) 

j U ° e ?g}*METOALFE,A.J. District Main Boad Surveyor, 

' Ashbourne. 

1893 June 24 Miller, H., M. Inst. C.E. .. County Surveyor, East Suffolk, 

Ipswich. 

1902 July 10 Miller, H Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Heysham. 

1897 Jan. 16 *Milkes, G. P., Assoc M. Inst. Surveyor to the Urban District 
C.E. Council, Stroud. 

1874 May 28 Mitchell, J Borough Surveyor, Hyde, Man- 
chester. 

1896 Oct. 24 Mongur, J., A.M. Inst. C.E. County Highway Surveyor, 

County Buildings, Stafford. 

1900 Dec. 15 Monteath, G County Surveyor, Newtown, 

St. fioswell's, N.B. 

1898 Apr. 23 Morgan, E. F Borough Boad Surveyor, 

Croydon. 

1907 May 25 Morgan, E. L., A.M. Inst. C.E. Borough Engineer, Bolton. 

1895 July 27 Morgan, G. S Surveyor to the Bural Distriot 

Council, Llantrissant, Gla- 
morgan* 



1903 June 25 
B1908 



OF MUNICIPAL AND COUNTY ENGINEERS XXVU 

Date ot Election 

and Transfer. 

1892 July 11 Morgan, J Surveyor to the Rural District 

Couooil, Pontardawe. Swan- 
sea. 

1901 June 8 Morgan, R. P Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Towyn. - 

1874 May 1 Morgan, W. B., AJsoo. M. Borough Surveyor, Weymouth 
Inst. C.E. and Melcouibe Regis, Dorset- 

shire. 

1905 Oct. 28 Morlet, E Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Walthamstow. 

1903 Feb. 21 Moulding, T., A.MInstCE. City Surveyor, Exeter. Hon. 

(Member of Council.) Secretary, Western District. 

T1902 June 7 5 } MouNT > J - °» AM - In8t 0B « Boro^ Surveyor, Lancaster. 
1885 Feb. 7 \ Mountain, A. H., Assoc M. 'Surveyor to the Rural District 

Bl 905 Jan. 28/ Inst C.E. Council. Barton - on - Irwell. 

Green Lane, Patrioroft, near 
Manchester. 

1898 Sept. 3 Mulyany, C. J., M. Inst. C.E. County Surveyor, Athlone. 

1890 Mar. 29 Muboh, P Borough Engineer,Portsmouth. 

1896 Nov. 28 Murphy, P. E., M.Inst C.E. Engineer to the Tottenham and 

Wood Green Joint Drainage 
Committee. Council Build- 
ings, Tottenham, N. 

1904 Aug. 6 Murray, J County Surveyor, Renfrewshire. 

Paisley, N.B, 

1904 Aug. 17 Mubbat, J Burgh Surveyor, Port Glasgow, 

N.B. 

1895 Feb. 16\ Murzban, Khan Bahadur "Gulestan," Murzban Road, 
B1904 Jan. 23/ M. C, CLE., M. Inst. C.E. Bombay. 

1896 Oct 24 Nanxtvell, H. H. .♦ '.. 'Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Br&intree. 

T1905 Ma^y 27}* Na8h ' F ' O. C, Assoc MJnst. Town Hall, Bethnal Green, N.E. 
* ' C.E. 

1905 Oct. 28 Nelson, G., AJUInst. C.E. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Gosforth. 

1897 July 8 Newman, S. J Borough Surveyor, Poole. 

B1903 Jan.* n} Nbwton » °- B 19 Cooper Street, Manchester. 

01895 Jan*. 19) 

TA1901 Oct. 19 >»Newton, E.B.,A.M. Inst. C.E. Borough Surveyor, Paddington, 

T1902 Mar. 22) W. 

1888 May 12 Newton, W. J., A.M.InstCJBL Borough Surveyor, Acorington. 

T1899 Feo!' 25}* NlCHOLS » A - B., A.MInst.C.E. Borough Engineer, Folkestone. 

1904 Aug. 5 Ni8BET,T., Assoc. M.Inst.C.E. Masterof Works, City Chambers, 

Glasgow, N.B. 

1887 July 14\ Nobbington, J. P., Assoc. M. 28 Dulwich Road, Brixton, S.E. 
B1899 Feb. 25/ Inst C.E. 

T1898 Sept 3 3 }* NoRBW » J - H Borough Surveyor, Godalming. 

JSJ? 5"l }!} Norbish, G. R Hawley House, Tudor Road. 

B1901 May 11 j Upper Norwood. 

1900 Dec. 15 Nuttall, H., Assoc. M. Inst Surveyor to the Urban District 

C.E. Council, Kearsley. 

1899 Feb. 25\ Nuttall, W District Surveyor, 28 Crosby 

B1908 Feb. 29/ Road, Birkdale, Southport 



XXV111 LIST OF MEMBERS OF THE INCORPORATED ASSOCIATION 

Date of Election 
and Transfer. 

SSS rw 6 2? |*Oakdbn, B., A.M Inst. C.E. ., Surveyor to the Rural District 
Tl899 0ot21J Council, Newark. 

T1906 Nov. I 5 } ° AKB9 ' H * H " f - - - Town Surveyor,Ventoor,Lof W. 

1901 Aug. 24 O'Haba, H. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Ballymena, Ireland. 
1892 Jan. 16 Oxtoby, W., M. Inst O.E. .. Borough Engineer, Camber well, 

S.E. 



1907 Mar. 2 Palk,D. 8. Engineer-in-charge, P. W. D., 

Cape Coast, W. Africa. 

1896 Apr. 25 Palmkb, F. W. J. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Heme Bay. 
rPl900 Mar. 10 Palmeb, P. H., M.InsiC.E. Borough Surveyor, Hastings. 
(Member of Council.) 
1905 Jan. 28 Panbing, J., AJtf. Inst. O.E.L Town Surveyor, Wicklow. 

1894 Apr. 6 Pabdob, J. C, Assoc. M. Inst Surveyor to the Urban District 

C.E. Council, Barry, near Cardiff. 

1876 May 1 Pabkbb, J., Assoc M. Inst. City Surveyor, Hereford. 
C.E. 

»i^£ nSLor) Pabkbb, J., A.M. Inst O.E. 49 Denmark Villas, Hove, 
BiS95JuneZ7j Brighton. 

.125! ™ 2?} Pabkbb, J. E., A.M.InstO.E. P.O. Chambers, St. Nicholas 
Biauu J?eD. n ) Square, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

1896 Oct 24 Pabkbb, S. W. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Gainsborough. 
1893 July 13 Pabb, F., Assoc. M. Inst O.E. Borough Surveyor, Bridgwater. 

?1899 Oct e 2l}* PABR » F - H Borough Surveyor, Lymington. 

«1893 Jan. 141 

T1894 Oct. 20>*Pabb, N Brunswick House, Brentford. 

B1908 Jan. 18) 

1905 June 22 ♦Pabby, E District Main Road Surveyor, 

Hertforshire. 66 Whimbush 
Road, Hitohin, Herts. 
P1894 June 21 Paton, J. (Vice-President.) Borough Engineer, Plymouth. 
1905 June 22 Patthtbok, N. P. Borough Surveyor, Gateshead. 

1895 Jan. 19 Pattison, W. P. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Benwell and 
Fenham. 

1897 Jan. 16 Peacock, T.J District County Surveyor, 

Holland County Council* 
Spalding. 

1898 Dec. 17 Pbaboe, F. W Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Twickenham. 

Hill Side, Standon, Herts. 

Municipal Engineer, Singapore, 
8.S. 

County Surveyor, Glamorgan. 
Bridgend. 

9 Belgrave Road, Gloucester. 
Borough Surveyor, Basiugstokc 



.1908 j£e^} Pem - H - *- M-lMtCB. 
1891 Deo. 12 Phbce, B., M. Inrt. O.K .. 

r\m %£ ?f} PHn*iP8,G.A,A.M.I M tO.E. 

1904 May 28 Puipps, F. B., Assoo.M.Inst 
O.E. 



OF MUNICIPAL AND COUNTY ENGINEER8. xxix 

Date of Election 
and Transfer. 

1901 Aug. 24 Pick, 8. P. County Surveyor, Leicester. 

6 Millstone Lane, Leicester. 
1901 Oct 19 Pickabd, J. E. Borough Surveyor, Pontefraot, 

Tories. 

1898 Apr. 23 Piokeb, E. .. • Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Beverley. 
Pol 887 June 18\*Piokbring, J. S., M. Inst. Borough Engineer, Cheltenham. 
PPT1890 Sept. 13/ O.E. (Member of Council.) 

B1884 May 29} PlcKEBlN< *» *• • • • • • • n Lowther Street, Whitehaven. 

T18&5 Oct \lY* la * LE *> G - H^ M. Inst C.E. Borough Engineer, Burnley. 

1906 Mar. 3 Picton, T. ft Borough Engineer, Eooles. 

P1881 Dec. 10 Platt, S. S„ M. Inst O.E. Borough Surveyor, Rochdale. 

1893 Oct. 21 Plowbight, A. H 2 Bury Street, Norwich. 

1897 July 8 Pools, H. 0. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Wath-upon-Dearn. 
1881 July 7 Porter, R Borough Surveyor, Wakefield. 

1899 Oct 21 *Prbsoott, A.E Borough Surveyor, Eastbourne. 

1898 Mar. 19 Pbrsoott, W. H., A.M. Inst. Surveyor to the Urban District 

C.E. Council, Tottenham, N. 

.1S5 ft. »}*"■**•'• "ftSEK ^ BOrnlUUn ' 

1904 8ept.29 PRrrrT, J Burgh Engineer, Selkirk, N.B. 

1873 May 2 Pbootob, J., M. Inst C.E. .. Mere Lawn, Bolton, Lanca- 
shire. 
1892 May 28 Pbousb, O. M., Assoc. M. Inst Surveyor to the Urban District 
C.E. Council, Dfracombe. 

1904 Aug. 4 Pubdm,W. H Burgh Engineer, Hamilton, 

1873 May 2 Pubnbll, E. J Water Engineer, Coventry, 

Warwickshire. 

1899 May 6 Purses, W. B., A.M. Inst County Surveyor, Rente ven 

C.E. County Council. Grantham. 

Gl 893 July 31\*Putj£AN, W. E., A.M. Inst Borough Surveyor, Morloy. 
T1898 June 13/ C.E. 

1905 Deo. 9 Pottbn, E. Van, M.Inst.O.E. Borough Engineer, Lewisham, 

Town Hall, Catfor<l, S.E. 



1886 Deo. 18\ Radford, J. C, A. M. Inst 163 Upper Richmond Road, 
B1901 Oct. 19/ C.E. Putney, S.W. 

1889 July 4 RapleT, W Surveyor to the Rural Distriot 

Council, Dorking. 

1908 May 23 Rawson, G Surveyor to the Urban Distriot 

Council, Worksop. 

1898 Apr. 23 Rayneb, P. J Surveyor to the Urbau District 

Council, Newhaven. 
1878 May 1 Read, R., A.M. Inst. O.E. .. City Surveyor, Gloucester. 
(Member of Council.) 
G1897 June 19) 

ta1901 Deo. 7 >*Redfbrn, J. L Borough Surveyor, Gillingham, 

Tl904Sept. 17) Kent. 

1897 Feb. 13 Rbhwiok, R Surveyor to the Urban Distriot 

Council, Horsham. 
1892 Mar. 11 Reynolds, E. J., Assoc M. Surveyor to the Urban Distriot 
Inst C.E. Council, Friern Barnet 



XXX LIST OF MEMBERS OF THE INCORPORATED ASSOCIATION 



Data of Election 
and Transfer. 

1888 July 12\ Richards, R. W., 
B1902 Feb. 22/ C.E. 



M.Inst. 



1908 July 18 Riohabdson, F. W 

1888 May 12 Richardson, H., Assoc. M. 

Inst. G.E. (Member of 

Council) 

1884 Oct. 9 Riohabdson, J 



1901 

1892 

G1901 

TA1905 

T1906 

01891 

T1897 

1891 



May 11 
Mar. 11 
Aug. 24 
Deo. 9 
June 28 
Deo. 12 
Mar. 18 
Oot. 17 



•Ridleb, W. .. 
Ridout, A. R. 



•RlLBT, J. 



1886 May 1 
1876 May 1 



1896 Mar. 21 



'Roberts, F., A. M. InstCE. 

Robinson, W. P., A.M. Inst 

C.E. 

Robinson, W. J 

ROBSON,0. 0., M. Inst OK 

(Pott President. Member 

of Council,) 
RODWELL, A 



1906 Sept. 22 Rogers, 8. G. 
1896 Jan. 18 Rogers, W. E. 



1904 Oct 22 Ronald, D 

1895 Jan. 19 Ross, J. C, A.M. Inst O.E. 



5£i>— *.*■ 



O1901 Feb. 16 
T1905 



1880 Oot 2 \ Rounthwaitb,R. S.,M.Inst 
R1905 May 27/ C.E. 
1888 May 12 Rtjoe,F. W 



1895 Feb. 16 Rtjshbrookb, T. J. 

1896 Apr. 25 •Rtjshton, E. .. . 



*19M Sept. 17} R ™ AH > F ' *• A-M.lDii.aB. 



Town Clerk and City Engineer, 
Dunedin, New Zealand. Hon. 
Corresponding Secretary tot 
Australasia. 

Borough Eugineer^AstonManor . 

Surveyor to the Urban District 
Counoil, Handsworth, Birm- 
ingham. Hon. Secretary 
Midland District 

County Surveyor, Rutland. 
Stamford. 

Borough Surveyor, Tewkesbury. 

Surveyor to the Urban District 
Counoil, Stone. 

Sewerage Engineer, Johannes- 
burg, Transvaal, S.A. 

Borough Engineer, Worthing. 

Surveyor to the Urban District 
. Counctf,Skelton-in-Cleveland. 
City Surveyor, Londonderry. 
Surveyor to the Urban Distriot 
Council, Willesden,Middleeex. 

Surveyor to the Rural District 
Council, Skipton. 

Borough Engineer, Chard. 

Surveyor to the Urban District 
Council, Rugely. 

Burgh Engineer, Falkirk, N.B. 

Engineer of Water Supply, City 
Hall, Toowoomba, Queens- 
land, Australia. 

Surveyor to the Urban Distriot 
Counoil, Thornhill, near 
Dewsbury. 

8 Willis Street,Wellington, New 
Zealand. 

County Architect, 86 Week 
Street, Maidstone. 

Borough Surveyor, High Wy- 
combe. 

Surveyor to the Urban Distriot 
Counoil, Cleethorpes. 

Borough Surveyor, Stamford. 



1890 Mar. 29\*8aise, A. J., Assoc. M. Inst Eagle Insurance Buildings, 

R1904 Mar. 26/ C.E. Baldwin Street, Bristol. 

1899 Feb. 25 Salkield, T Chief Engineer to Municipality 

AiQOftTnnA^ of Delhi, India. 

il9W De^l5r SAUNDlsll8 ' EY Borough Surveyor, Barnstaple. 

01887 June 181 

T1898 May 21 >*Saunders, J., AM. Inst. C.E. 24 Market Place, Newark. 

B1908 Mar. 21 ) 

1894 Mar. 3 Saville, J Town Surveyor, Heokmond- 

wike. 

1899 May 6 Sohofield, W. H., A.M. Inst. County Surveyor, Lancashire. 

C.E. County Hall, Preston. 



OF MUNICIPAL AND COUNTY ENGINEERS. XXXI 

Bate of Election 
and Transfer. 

1894 June 21 Boobgie, N., M. Inst. O.E. .. Boro' Surveyor, Hackney, N.E. 
1892 Sept. 24 Soott, A. F Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Cromer. 
1888 Not. 17 Soott, H. H., A.M.InstO.E. Engineer to the Commissioners, 

Hove* 
1880 May 27 Soott, B. S., Assoc M. Inst. Surveyor to the Urban District 

C.E. Council, Bishop's Stortford. 

1897 Feb. 18 Soott, T. Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Tadoaster, Aber* 

ford, near Leeds. 

1904 Aug. 4 Soott, T. H Burgh Surveyor, Inverness, N.B. 

1908 Jan. 18 Seaver, T. W., B. Bog. (New Municipal Engineer, North 

Boyal). Sydney, N.S.W. 

1897 July 8 Senior, C. E Surveyor to the Urban Distriot 

Council, Neston, Cheshire. 
1896 Oct. 24 Senior, J. S Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Swanage. 

Tlfi©8 Mar iq)*8 ettlb > «*• ^-» A.M JnstC.E. Borough Engineer and Surveyor, 
' Hey wood, Manchester. 

T1907 Mar 2 }* 8hacklbton » w *» ** M - In8t Borougli Surveyor, Grautham. 
' C.E. 

1896 Nov. 28 Shabpe, J. E. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Cheshunt 

1891 June 6 Shaw, H., Assoo.M.Inst.C.E. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Ilford. 

•IS? 1™® l±) 8 haw » J- H. Surveyor to the Urban District 

B1901 Aug. 24) Council, Browuhills, Staffs. 

1892 May 28 Sheabd, W. C, Assoc.M. Inst. Surveyor to the Urban District 

C.E. Council, New Mill*. "Stone- 

lea," New Mills, near Stock- 
port. 

1905 June 22 Shell, W. 8 Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Consett, Durham. 

1891 Oct. 17 Shepherd, G. J Surveyor to the Bural District 

Council, Kidderminster. 
1884 June 10 Sheppard, G. Borough Surveyor, Newark. 

tnSn \\ll H\ Shebren, A. 0.,A.M JnstC.E. Surveyor to the Urban District 
Tiw/ May to) Council, Cheriton. 

1892 July 11 Shilling-ton, H., M.E. .. Town Surveyor, Lurgan, Ire- 

laud. 

1895 Oct. 19 Shipton, T. H Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Oldbury. 

1902 June? Siddalls, J. .. Borough Surveyor, Tiverton. 

1887 Oct. 22 Stddons, J. M Surveyor to the River Nene 

Commissioners, Oundle. 

1896 Jan. 18 Sidwell, H. T Surveyor to the Bural District 

Council, Rochford. Rayleigh, 
Essex. 

B1898 Oct i5}* SlLC00K » E - J-» M. Inst. C.E. 11 Tothill Street, Westminster. 

1897 Mar. 13 Siloook, H Surveyor to the Rural District 

Counoil, Blaokwell. 67 West- 
gate, Mansfield. 

1903 Oct. 17 Sim monds, T. B Surveyor to the Urban District 

Counoil, New Maiden. 

1904 May 28 *SnraoNS, B Surveyor to the Urban District 

Counoil, Little Woolton, near 
Liverpool. 



XXXii LIST OF MEMBERS OP THE INCORPORATED ASSOCIATION 

Date of Election 
and Transfer. 

1901 Feb. 16 Simpson, H. Fabb County Surveyor, Northern Di- 

vision, Isle of Ely. Wisbech. 

1891 Aug. 1 \ Simpson, W. H., A. M.Inst Horsefair Street, Leicester. 
B1895 June 27/ C.E. 

1906 Deo. 15 Sims, A Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Ash ford. 

1890 Sept. 13 Sinclaib, J.S.,A.M.InstO.E. Borough Surveyor, Widnes. 

1908 July 18 Sihnott, E. S., M. Inst. C.E. County Surveyor, Gloucester- 
shire. Gloucester. 

1895 Oct 19 Skelton, R., A.M. Inst. OJfi. Municipal Engineer, Colombo, 

Ceylon. 

1898 Oct. 15 Smail, J. M., M.Inst C.E... Chief Engineer to the Metro- 
politan Board of Works, 
Sydney, N.S.W. 

1898 June 80 Smales, J. E Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Leatherhead. 
1895 June 27 Smillie, J. F Borough Surveyor, Tynemouth. 

1892 Mar. 11 Smith, C. Chambers .. .. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Sutton, Surrey. 

1902 Sept. 6 Smith, F. H Surveyor to the Urban District 

nl q 4 M ft v 2ft \ Council, Portishead. 

Sionl kw fSrSMiTH, F. Hall Surveyor to the Urban District 

T1904 bept 17/ ^^ Sheringham. 

1899 Mar. 25 Smith, H. W., A.M. Inst O.E. Borough Engineer.Scar borough. 

(Member of Council.) Son. Secretary, Yorkshire 

District 

1897 May 15 Smith, Jambs Borough Surveyor, Buckingham. 

1895 May 25 Smith, J. B Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Tyldesley. 

1901 Deo. 7 Smith, J. Gould, AJf. Inst Borough Surveyor, Beverley. 

OE. 
1905 Jan. 28 *Smith, J. EL Woolston, A. M. Surveyor to the Urban District 
Inst C.E. Council, Minehead. 

01898 Dec. 17 

ta!901 Oct 19 'Smith, J. Walkxb .. .. Borough Surveyor, Barrow-in- 
T1903 Oct 17) Furness. 

1904 Aug. 6 Smith, P. Burgh Surveyor, Arbroath, 

P1891 Dec. 12 Smith, T. B., AM. Inst O.E. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Kettering. 

1897 Jan. 16 Smith, V Borough Surveyor, Chesterfield. 

0I888 Jan. 14\*Smith-Saville, B. W., Assoc Borough Surveyor, Darwen. 
T1897 Mar. 13/ M. Inst C.E. 

B1907 Jan. ly} Snell, J. F. C., M.InstOE. Oaxton House, Westminster, 

S.W. 

1903 Oct 17 Sowden, M Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Whitchurch, Salop. 

1898 Dec 17 Spenoeb, J Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Oakworth. York 
Chambers, Cooke Street, 
Keighley. 

.!£? n!? ?nl SPENOEB,J.P.,A.M.InstOJ:. 30 Howard Street, North 
B1S31 Dec lOj Shields. 

1902 May 10 Spenoeb, L. G. P., A.M. Inst Borough Engineer, Ingle wood, 

C.E. New Zealand. 

01899 Dec. 16) 

taIUOI Oct 19>+Spbeoxley, J. A., Assoc Borough Surveyor, Ludlow. 
t1904 July 14) M. Inst C.E. 



OF MUNICIPAL AND COUNTY ENGINEERS. XXXiii 

Date of Election 
and Transfer. 

£l908^y Spra * RW City Engineer, York. 

T1906 Nov. 3 8 } 8puBMtLL » E - p Borough Surveyor, Holbom. 

1880 Feb. 7 \ 8TAiNTHOBPB t T.W n A.M.In»t P.W.D., Cape Town, South 
Rl899JunelO/ C.E. (Member of Council) Afrioa. Hon. See., African 

District. 
1889 Deo. 14 Stallabd, 8., A.M. Inst. C.E. County Surveyor, Oxfordshire. 

Oxford. 
1892 Mar. 11 Stephenson, E. P., Assoc. M. Town Surveyor, Llandudno. 
Inst C.E. 

1892 Mar. 11 Stevenson, A County Road Surveyor, Ayrshire 

County Oounoil. Ayr. 

1891 Oct 17 Stevenson, J Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, East Moleaey. 

1901 Feb. 16 Stewart, J Borough Engineer, Dunstable, 

Beds. 
1891 June 25 Stiokland, E. A., Assoc M. Borough Surveyor, Windsor. 
Inst C.E. 

1897 Jan. 16 Stilgoe, H. E., M. Inst C.E. City Engineer, Birmingham. 

(Member of Council.) 

1900 Dec. 15 Stiven, E. E Borough Surveyor, Whitehaven. 

1904 Jan. 23 *Stones, J .. Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Sedgfleld, oo. Durham. 

1898 Mar. 19 Stow, J. F Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Uxbridge. 
1908 Mar. 11 Streather, W. T., A.M.Inst. Surveyor to the Urban District 

C.E. Council, Waltham Cross. 

1880 May 27 8tubbs, W., A.M. Inst C.E. Borough Engineer, Blackburn. 

T1892 Sept 24}* SuioniB » F - *• ***• aE * " ^ Eaf 1 "*** Gnildhall, Lon- 

SJanZ JSl ^Wonderland, 0. H Surveyor to the Urban District 

T1907 May 25/ Council, Midgomer Norton 

1895 Mar. 16 *Suktees, R. T Water Engineer to the Urban 

District Council, Newton-in- 
Makerfleld. Newton-le- Wil- 
lows, Lanes. 

1904 Aug. 10 Sutherland, J. R., A.M.Inst Chief Engineer, Water Depart- 
C.E. ment, City Chambers, Glas- 

T1901 jlll |$}* SwALB8 > T - B Borough Surveyor, Maldon. 

B1889 aT is} SwABBBI0K * J - M - In8t CE ' 3° st Anns 8treet » Manchester. 

1899 June 10 8ykes,M.H. Borough Surveyor, Stockton- on- 

Tees. 

G1902 Feb. 22) 

TA1904 Dec. 3 |*Tait, W. L, A.M.Inst C.E. Borough Engineer, Sudbury, 
T1906 Nov. 3 ) Suffolk. 

1887 Mar. 12 Tanner, W County Surveyor, Monmouth- 
shire. Newport. 

1895 Mar. 16 Tarbit, T. H Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Loftus, Yorkshire. 
1891 Mar. 2l\ Taylor, H. W. v Assoc. M. St Nicholas Chambers, Amea 
B1903 Mar. 21/ Inst. C.E. Corner, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

ol898 Dec. 17 1 

ta1902 Jan. 25V*Taylor, J Borough Engineer, Walsall. 

T1907 Sept. 7 ) 



XXxiv LI8T OF MEMBERS OF THE INCORPORATED ASSOCIATION 

Date of Election 
and Transfer. 

G1900 Dec. 15) 

ta1903 May 16 ^Taylor, P Surveyor to the Urban District 

T1907 May 25) Council, Hampton Wick. 

1890 Sept. 13 Taylor, T. Q Borough Surveyor, Ramsgate. 

T1897 Oof' 16}* TATLOft » W ' J '» *• In8fc " 0JB ' Countv Surveyor, Hants. Win- 

1892 Apr. 23 Tebrill, W Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Ashford, Kent 

1892 Mar. 11 *Thomab, B. J., M. Inst. County Surveyor, Bucks. Aylee- 

C.E. {Member of Council.) bury. 

1890 May 3 Thomas, T. J., A*M.InstO.E. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Ebbw Vale. 

1902 May 10 Thomas, W. B ... Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Southwick-on-Wear. 

1887 Sept 17 Thomas, W. E. C., A.M. Inst Surveyor to the Rural District 
C.E. {Member of Council) Council, Neath. Hon. Secre- 

tary, South Wales District 

1906 Nov. 3 Thomson, J City Engineer, Dundee. 

%%& & T) Thobp, W. O Surveyor to the Urban District 

T1906 Nov. 3 / OoiodU Malvern. 

1891 Jan. 21 Thorpe, J Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Macclesfield. 

1898 Jan. 15 Throfp, J., M. Inst O.E. .. County Surveyor, Lincolnshire. 

29 Broadgate, Lincoln. 

t\™l ?E! e ?o)*Tiffik, T. R, A.M.InstO.E. Surveyor to the Urban District 
T1903 Dee. \l) Council, Dartford, Kent. 

i\ m o^ 6 Si Wombs, G. B., A.M. Inst C.E. Surveyor to the Urban District 
T189S Uct. 21 j Council, Barnes, Mortlake. 

1895 Mar. 16 Toolky, H Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Buckhurst Hill, 

Essex. 
1890 May 8 Towlson, S., A.M. Inst. C.E. Surveyor to the Urban Distriot 

Council Sevenoaks 
1894 Oct. 20 Trayers, W. H Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Wallasey. 

1897 Jan. 16 Tressider, W. H Borough Surveyor, Falmouth. 

1901 Feb. 16 Trowbdalr, T. J Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, AnnfieldPJain. Hare 

Law, Annfield Plain, Co. 

Durham. 

1893 Oct. 21 Turley, A. 0., AssocM.Inst. City Engineer, Canterbury. 

C.E. 
1890 Oct. 18 Ttjbnbull,A. J Burgh Surveyor, Greenock, N.B 

1897 Mar. 18 Turner, H. H Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Limehurst, Lanes. 
250 Oldham Road, Waterloo, 
near Ashton-under-Lyne. 

1899 June 10 'Turner, S Surveyor to the Rural Distriot 

Council, Ashby-de-la-Zonohe. 

1898 June 30 Turriff, A. A Burgh Surveyor, Elgin, N.B. 



1905 May 27 *Uren, F. C Surveyor to the Urban Distriot 

Council, Aldershot 



OF MUNICIPAL AND COUNTY ENGINEEE8. XXXV 

Date of Election 
and Transfer. 

01894 Jan. IS) 

T1901 Dec. 7 }*Vbit, L. J 1 Pimlioo Road, S.W. 

B1903 Feb. 21 1 

BlWB Jan* 17} VMrrBIfl ' A » Asf00 - **• lMt - 160 Buckingham Palace Road 

' O.K. S.W. 

1897 June 19 Vincent, S. J. L., A. M. Inst Borough Surveyor, Newbury. 
C.E. 



1894 June 21 Waddington.J. A.P n M.Inst Borough Engineer, Marylebone, 

C.E. W. 

1907 Dee. 14 *Waithman, 0. H Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Newmarket. 

1902 June 7 Wakefobd, J. P., A. M. Inat. Surveyor to the Urban District 

C.E. Counoil, Bilston. 

1888 July 12 Wakelam, H. 1% M. Inst County Engineer, Middlesex. 

C.E. (Member of Council.) Guildhall, Westminster, S.W. 

1898 Sept. 8 Walker, A. H., A. M. Inst Borough Surveyor, Lough- 

C.E. borough. 

»}2£ ?^ JHWalkeb, H Surveyor to the Urban District 

T1904 Jan. 28J Council, Wealdstone. 

1887 June 18 Walshaw,J. W Borough Surveyor, Peter- 
borough. 

1905 Sept. 23 Wabbubton, W. E Surveyor to the Urban District 

Counoil, Hornsea. 

1899 Jan. 21 Ward, J., M. Inst.CE. Borough Engineer, Derby. 
1904 Jan. 28 Wabd, T., Assoc. M. Inst C.E. Borough Engineer, Lower Hutt. 

4 Grey Street, Wellington, 
New Zealand. 

1886 July 8 WABDLB,J.W^A.M.InstO.K Borough Surveyor, Longton. 

°J222 5J?I J 9 Wablow, W. B. Surveyor to the Urban District 

T1905 Mar. 3 ) Council, Milton-next-Sitting- 

°J2S & ?5Wabb, G. W ^ Surveyor to the Urban District 

T1904 Sept 17/ Council, Southwick. 

1890 May 3 Watebhousb, D Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Watford. 
1892 Mar. 11 Watkeys, G., A.M.InstC.E. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Llanelly. 

1887 June 18 Watson, J. D., M. Inst. C.E. Engineer to the Birmingham, 

Tame and Rea Drainage 
Board, Council House, Bir- 
mingham. 

1904 Aug. 10 Watson, W Burgh Surveyor, St. Andrews, 

N.B. 

1889 Sept 21 Watts, E.T. Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Hadham and Stagn- 
ated, Bishop's Stortford. 

IB1908 J*n is} WatT8 » W » MJnstOJL .. Kenmore, Wilmslow, Cheshire. 
1887 June 18 WEAVER, W., M. Inst JS. 30 Lytton Grove, Putney Hill, 
(Past President.) S.W. 

1897 Feb. 13 Webb, J. A. Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Hendon. Great 
Stanmore. 

1905 Oct. 28 Webb, J. H. Borough Surveyor and Water 

Engineer, King's Lynn. 



XXXVi LIST OP MEMBERS OP THE INCORPORATED A88OCIATION 

Date of Hlectton 
and Transfer. 
1901 Oct 19 Webster, J. W Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Co wee, Isle of Wight. 
1905 Jan. 28 Webster, R. A. Town Engineer, Kru^ersdorp, 

Transvaal, 8.A. 
1882 Apr. 15 Welbubn, W Borough Surveyor, Middleton, 

near Manchester. 

JSwftl( W -"- ^nof"* Ha "° W R ° ad ' 

\®® ^P'' }*) Weston, H. J., Assoc. M. 24 Portland Street, South- 
B1903 Jan. 17J In8t c E ampton. 

1907 May 25 Wheeler, A. G Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Eastwood. 
P1888 July 12 White, A. E., M. Inst C.E. . . City Engineer, Hull . 
(Member of Council.) 
1891 Oct 17 White, H. V., M. Inst. O.E. I. County Surveyor, Queen's 

County, Maryborough. 

1900 Mar. 10 White, J.N Borough Surveyor, Stalybridge. 

1873 May 2 WHITE, W. H., M. Inst C.E. ^Oity Engineer, Oxford. 

(Past President.) 
1900 Aug. 25 Whtatt, H. G., A. M. Inst. Borough Engineer, Great 

C.E Grimsby. 

1889 Feb. 9 Wikb, C. F., M. Inst O.E. City Surveyor, Sheffield. 
( Vice-President.) 

1888 May 12 Wild, G. H Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Littleborough, near 
Manchester. 

1896 Apr. 25 Wilding, J Surveyor to the Urban District 

Counoil, Runcorn. 

1905 June 22 Wiles, J. W Surveyor to the Urban District 

iqoi ur— «xn Council, Gorton, Lanes. 

iSS w 7 el Wilkinson, J. P., M. Inst. 801-304 Corn Exchange Oham- 
mVeVl JMov. » ) c E ^ CathednU gtreetj h^. 

Chester. 

1899 Mar. 25 Wilkinson, M. H. .. .. Surveyor to the Urban District 

ifioo n»«k o*\ Council, Ley land. 

B1903 Mar 211 WlLnN80N » w Ashton House, Hemingbrougb, 

ifiAi a.t ' Q \ E. Yorks. 

B1885 June 6 J WlLL00X » J - E -» *• In8t C ' B ' ** Tei »P le B°w. Birmingham. 

1894 Mar. 8 Williams, H. Dawkjn.. .. Surveyor to the Urban District 

Counoil, Oginore and Garrw, 
Blackmill R.S.O., Bridgend. 

1893 July 31 Williams, J. B Borough Surveyor, Daventry. 

1897 May 15 Williams, M. Coychuroh, Bridgend. 

1907 Mar. 2 Williams, T. T Surveyor to the Rural District 

Counoil, Swansea. 
01898 June 30 1 

▲1901 Dec. 7 }*WiLLis, E., A.M. Inst. O.E... Surveyor to the Urban District 
T1908 Feb. 29 1 Council, Chie wick. 

1891 June 25 Willmot, J County Surveyor, Warwick- 
shire. 6 Waterloo Street, 
Birmingham. 
1904 Oct. 29 Willoughbt, P. B. A., AM. Surveyor to the Urban District 
Inst. C.E. Counoil, Pontypridd. 

1898 June 30 Wilson, A County Surveyor, Dumbarton- 

shire. 

1887 Sept. 17 Wilson, G Surveyor to the Urban District 

Counoil, Alnwick. 



TA1902 Jan. 25 

T1902 Nov. 8 

1880 Feb. 7 



OP MUNICIPAL AND COUNTY ENGINEEKS. XXXVU 

I fete of Election 
and Transfer. 

R1899 Feb 25 1 WlL80N > J Bankside, Baoup, Lancashire. 

1884 May 29 *WiLSON,J.B.,A.M.Inst.C.E. Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council, Cockermouth. 
1904 Aug. 23 Wilson, J. R Burgh Surveyor, Helensburgh, 

N.B. 
1907 Apr. 27 Wilson, W Town Surveyor, Portadown, 

Ireland. 

1897 Oct. 16 Winning, D Burgh Surveyor, Broughty 

Ferry, N.B. 
1880 Oct. 2 Win8hip, G., A.M. Inst. CM. Borough Surveyor, Abingdon 

Berks. 

1896 Feb. 22 Winter, O. E., Assoc M. Inst Borough Surveyor, Hampstead 

C.E. N.W. 

O1900 May 19] 

♦Wolfenden, B. J., A-M.Inst Borough Engineer, Bootle. 
C.E. 

Wood, A. R Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Tunstall. 

1894 Mar. 3 Wood, F. J., A. M. Inst C.E. County Surveyor, Sussex East. 

Lewes. 

1898 Apr. 23 Wood, W. E Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Church. 

B1903 Feb 2l) WooMnn)QB » 0. A Pinner House, Pinner, Middle- 

' sex. 

1899 May 6 Woodward, F Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Stourbridge. 

Sinn? SI 7 JqWootton, A. S Surveyor, Urban District Coun- 

T1901 Oct. 19/ cH, Bradford-on-Avon. 

1897 July 8 *Worrall, E Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Stretford, Council 
' Offices, Old Trafford. 
1886 July 8 Worth, J. E., M. Inst C.E. District Engineer, London 

County Council, Spring 
Gardens, 8.W. 
61893 July 13) 

T1899 Oct. 21 [♦Wright, J. A 6 Unity Street, Bristol, 

B1904 Dec. 3 | 

1892 May 28 \ Wynne-Roberts, B. O., M. 5 Victoria Street, Westminster, 
B1908 Jan. 18/ Inst C.E. | S.W. 

1895 Jan. 19 YABBICOM, T. H., M.Inst. City Engineer, Bristol. 
C.E. (Paai President. 
Member of Council.) 
©1892 July 11\*Yatrs, F. 8., Assoc. M. Inst. Surveyor to the Urban District 
T1892 Sept. 24/ C.E. Council, Waterloo, near 

Liverpool. 
1894 June 21 Yore, H., Assoc M. Inst. Surveyor to the Urban District 
C.E. Council, East Barnet Valley. 

Station Boad, New Barnet. 

1904 Aug. 26 Young, C Burgh Surveyor, Coatbridge, 

N.B. 
pi 900 May 19 Young, J .. Burgh Surveyor, Ayr. 

1899 Dec 16 Young, T Surveyor to the Rural District 

Council,Sunderland. 

1900 May 19 Young, W. P Surveyor to the Rural District 

Counoil, Wallsall. 



XZXVU1 



ASSOCIATE MEMBERS. 



* Those Associate Members against whose name a star is placed Iulvc passed the 
examination and hold the Testamur of the Association. 

B signifies re-election under By-law 5a. 

G elected as Graduate, a elected as Associate. 
ta transferred to Associate, tax transferred to Associate Member. 

Dtfee of Election 

And Transfer.; -^T^B 

1908 Feb. 29 Bains, T. T Surveyor, Rural Difltriot Coun- 
cil, South Shields. 

^t}m 5?£ I 5 ) BBL8HKB,B.J.,AJ4.Iu8tO.B. Deputy Borough Engineer, 
TAM1907 Noy. 2 J ft £ t AHe g^ stepney# 

G1904 May 28 

•Bbbbtdoe, H. M.K., AJlInst Assistant Surveyor, Long Eaton. 
O.E. 



A1905 June 22 

T1908 July 18 

G1898 June 30 

TA1901 Oct. 19 

TAH1907 Nov. 2 



♦Best, H. Stobb, A. M. Inst Chief Assistant Surveyor, 
C.E. Urban District Council, 

Beokenham. 



1908 Feb. 29 Caret, J. G Engineer and Surveyor, Heston 

and Isleworth Urban District 
Council. 
01904 May 291 

A1907 May 25>*Oattlin, O., A.M.InstO.E. Assistant Borough Engineer, 
TAM1908 May 28) Holborn. 

1907 Sept. 7 'Chabt, B Chief Assistant Surveyor, Bural 

District Council, Croydon. 
01898 Dec. 17) 

A1902 Mar. 22>*Clews, C. A Deputy Borough Surveyor, 

TAM1908 Apr. 25 1 Derby. 

TAM1907 Sept.7 7 } touuan, H., A. M. Inst C.E. Deputy City Engineer, Norwich. 

TA1902 Jan! 25 1* 00 "* 1 * "' T - P " A - M - Inst deputy City Surveyor, Carlisle. 
TAM1907 Dec! 14) 0JL 

G1897 Feb. 13) 

a 1901 Oct. 19}*Colus-Adambon, A. 0. .. Assistant Borough Engineer, 
TAH1908 Apr. 25 1 Hornsey, N. 

*J52 ?wt' ?a! Cboom, W. E. Fboomb .. Chief Engineering Assistant, 
TAM1W7 iieo, if j Middlesex County Council. 

19 West Park Road, Kew 
Gardens. 

1907 Dec. 14 Culun, H. B Highways Surveyor, Rural Dis- 

trict Council, Isle of Wight 

1908 July 18 Denton, A. J Borough Surveyor's Office, 

South Shields. 
01891 Sept 12) 

ta1902 Sept 6 }*Dolamobb, F. P Deputy Borough Engineer, 

t am 1907 Dec. 14) Bournemouth. 



Data of Election 
and Transfer. 

01898 Jan. 15 
TA1903 Jan. 17 
TAM1907 Nov. 2 



LIST OF ASSOCIATE MEMBERS. 



♦Godfrey, G. H., A. M. Inst Deputy Engineer, Shanghai 
C.E. Municipality. 



1907 Sept. 7 Goodwin, J. D Borough Engineer, Ashfield, 

K.S.W. 

TA J al^8Fe P b r :29}* G< ^ KM ^» A ' T - D & ^^^ ^^^ 

1908 June 25 Gordon, T. W Assistant City Engineer, Not- 

tingham. 

ta£i907 DeT 14} Ha » mu >. w - J D *P ut y City Surveyor, Shef- 

J field. 

01897 June 19) 

A1901 Oct 19[*Hajgh, W. EL, A.M. Inst O.E. Chief Assistant City Engineer, 

TAM1908 June 25) Cardiff. 

™sy B -^" "ars^'ss 

Council. Guildhall, West- 
mister, S.W. 

1908 July 18 Hicks, W. B Deputy Borough Engineer, 

Ealing, W. 

01897 June 191 

ta 1902 Jan. 25 [* Johnston, R. W Deputy Borough Engineer, 

tam1907 Dec. 14) Birkenhead. 

61901 June 8 ) 

A1904 Mar. 26}* Jokes, H. O Chief Assistant Borough Engi- 

tah1908 Fob. 29) neer, Folkestone. 

1908 Apr. 25 *King, G. B Deputy Surveyor, Urban Dis- 
trict Council, Twickenham. 

1907 Sept. 7 Lane, W. G Surveyor, Urban District Coun- 
cil, Tavistock. 
O1901 May 11] 

A1901 Oct 19[*Li8MKR, A.B., A.M.Inst.C.E. Assistant Engineer, Town Hall, 
tam1908 Apr. 25) Edmonton. 



ol900 Apr. 21 
A1901 Dec. 7 
TAM1908 Feb. 29 



'Miller, G. F Chief Assistant Borough Engi- 
neer's Office, Hastings 



Q1899 Oct. 211 

a1 904 June 25 ['Plant, W., A.M. Inst C.E. . . Engineering Assistant, Town 



T1908 July 18) Hall, Leicester. 



Qginee: 
Hall,] 



A1902 Mar. 22 

TAM1907 



Dec! 14} RaN80m ' W » a « M ' Infit °- B ' Assistant City Surveyor, Wor- 



1907 Sept. 7 Riohabdson, BL Deputy Borough Surveyor, 

Scarborough. 
61903 June 6 ) 

A1904 Mar. 26>*B08EVeabe, L., A.M.Inst.C.E. Council House, Birmingham. 
tam1908 Feb. 29 1 

1907 Sept. 7 Sms,S. B Borough Engineer, Hamilton, 

N.Z. 

d '2 



Xl LIST OF ASSOCIATE MEMBERS. 

Date of Election 
and Transfer. 

G1899 Dec. 16) 

a 1902 May 10>*Slateb, F. J Assistant Surveyor, Town Hal), 

TAM1908 Feb. 29) Camber well, S.E. 

TAM1907 Nbv 2 9 } Snodoba8S > *•» A.M.InstO.E. Deputy Borough Engineer, 

01895 Jan. 19) 
TA1901 Oct. 19 }*Steel«, W. J., A.M.Inst.C.E. Deputy City Engineer, Bristol. 
TAM1907 Nov. 2 | 

1908 Apr. 25 Stkwabt, B. T Counoil Offices, Feltham. 

TAM1908 May 23}* ScTHBBLAHD » D ' 8 Chief Assistant Surveyor, South- 

^ ' gate. 

n^wlon? fc e 2°)*Surroir f W. F. Chief Assistant, Birmingham 

TAMiyu/ JNov. i ) Water Supply. Water Offices, 

Broad Street, Birmingham. 

TAM1907 Nor*?} SwARBRI0K *<* I> e P ut y Borough Surveyor, 

' Swansea. 

^Awlon« i«7 ™}*Tomlinbon, J. W. f A.M.Inat. Chief Assistant Engineer, City 
TAM1908 Apr * 25 ' C.E. Engineer's Office, Coventry. 

TAwlanT w 7 6 |*Towneb, H. V. Acting Superintendent, Works 

TAM1907 fcept. 7 J - and Surveys, P.W.D., Singa- 

pore. 

01904 May 281 

TA1904 Dec 3 }• Walton, J. S Deputy Borough Engineer, 

TAM1907 Deo. 14) Torquay. 

na^iona i£l y oSWiLKiKSON.F^A.MJnst.aE. Deputy Borough Engineer, 
TAM19U8 *eb. 29 j Wimbledon, S.W. 



xli 



TOWNS AND DISTRICTS 

REPRESENTED BY MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATE 
MEMBERS OP THE ASSOCIATION. 



A. signifies Abroad. 

Af. „ African District. 

E. „ Eastern District. 

H. , t Hour District. 

Ind. „ Indian District. 

I. „ Irish District. 

L. & C. „ Lancashire & Cheshire 
District. 



Met. signifies Metropolitan District. 

M. „ Midland District. 

N. „ Northern District. 

S. „ Scottish District. 

W.N. „ Welsh District ( North). 

W.S. „ „ „ (South). 

West. „ Western District. 

Y. „ Yorkshire District. 



TOWN. 

Aberdeen 

Abergavenny .. . 

Abingdon 

Abram 

Accbington 

Acton 

Aldershot 

Alexandria 

Alnwick 

Altrinohah 

Andoyer 

Annfield Plain .. 
Antrim (Connty) . . 

Audenshaw 

Arbroath, N.B. .. 
Argyllshire (County) . 

Armagh 

„ (County).. . 
Ashby-db-la-Zouoh 
ashfikld, n.s.w. . . 

ASHFORD 

(Rural) 



DISTRICT. 

S. 
West. 

H. 
L. & 0. 
L. &0. 

H. 

H. 

A 

N. 
L.&C. 

H. 

N. 

I. 
L.AC. 

8. 

S. 

I. 

I. 

M. 

A. 

H. 

H. 



Ashton-under-Lyne L. AC. 



Ashton-on-Mersby 
Aston Manor 

ATHER8TONE (Rural) 

Athebton 



NAME. 

W. Dyack. 
J. Haigh. 
G. Wiuship. 
(i. Heaton. 
W. J. Newton, 
D. J. Ebbetts. 

F. C. Uren. 
D.E.Lloyd-DaYiee. 

G. Wilson. 
H. E. Brown. 
R. W. Knapp. 
T. J. Trowsdale. 
J. H. Brett 

W. Clough. 

P. C. Smith. 

M. B. McBeth. 

J. C. Boyle. 

R. H. Dorroan. 

S. Turner. 

J. D. Goodwin. 

W. Terrill. 

A. Sims. 

J. T. Earn8haw. 

F. Hutton. 

F. W. Richardson. 

H. J. Coleby. 



Athlone (County) 
Auckland, N.Z. . . 

Ayb 

Ayrshire (County) 



L.A0. 

M. 

M. 

L. AC W. Clough, 

L. A C. 

I. 

A. 

S. 

s. 



F. H. Grimshaw. 
C. J. Mulvany. 
W. E.Buah. 
J. Younjj. 
A. Stevenson. 



Baoup .. 

Balbt with Hexthorpe 

Balltmena 

Banbury 



L. AC. 
Y 
I. 
H. 



W. H. Elce. 
G. Gleduill. 
H. O'Hara. 
N. H. Dawson. 



xlii 



TOWNS AND DISTRICTS 



TOWN. 


DISTRICT. 


NAME. 


Basking 


•• JU.. •• 


. C. F. Dawson. 


Barnes 


H 


.. G. B. Tomes. 


Barnstaple 


West. 


.. KY. Saunders. 


BABBOW-ra-FUBSE88 


,. L.&C 


.. J.W.Smith. 


Babry . 


W.S 


.. J. C. Pardoe. 


Barton-upon-Ibwell (Rural) 


.. L.&C 


A. H. Mountain. 


Basford (Rural) 


M 


S. Maylan. 


„ „ (Highways) . 


• J&. •• •• 


.. G. W. Hawley. 


BASINGSTOKE 


H. .. .. 


.. F. R-Phipps. 


Battersea 


• Met. 


.. T. W. A. Hay ward. 


Beooles , 


E 


.. T. 0. Cudbird. 


Beckenham 


• H. .. •• 


.. J. A. Angell. 


Bedford , 




.. N. Greenshields. 


Bedford (County) , 


H. 


.. W. H. Leete. 


Belfast 




.. H. A. Cutler. 


Belpeb , 


M. .. .. 


.. T. Fenn. 


„ (Rural; 


M. 


.. B. C. Cordon. 


Benwell , 


N. •• •• 


.. W. P. Pattison. 


Berkshire (County) 


H- 


.. J. F. Hawkins. 


Bebmondsey 


Met .. .. 


.. B. J. Angel. 


Bebwick-on-Tweed 




.. R. Dickinson. 


Berwickshire (County), N.B. . 


8 


.. T. B. Atkinson. 


Bbthnal Greek 


Met .. .. 


.. E. E. Finch. 


Bbteblet 


Y 


.. J.G.Smith. 


(Bural) 


Y 


.. E. Picker. 


Bexhill 


H 


.. G. Ball. 


Bexley 


H 


.. W. T.Howse. 


BlDDULFH 


M 


.. S.Gibson. 


Biggleswade 




.. T. Cockrih. 


(Bural) 


H 


. . J. 0. Jones. 


BlLSTON 




.. J. P. Wakeford. 


BlNGLEY 


Y 


.. H. Bottomiey. 


Birkenhead 




.. C. Brownridgc. 


Birmingham .. 


• Al> • • •• 


.. H. E. Stilgoe. 


Bishop's Castle 


M 


.. A. Hamar. 


Bishop's Stobttobd .. .. 


H 


.. R. S. Scott. 


Blackburn 




.. W. Stubbs. 


Blackpool 


. L.&C 


.. J. S. Brodie. 


Black well (Rural) , 


M 


.. H. Silcock. 


Blyth ( N orthumberland) . . . 


N 


.. R. Grieves. 


Ulyth and Cuckvey (Rural) . 




.. F. Hopkinsou. 


Bognor 


H 


. . 0. A. Bridges. 


Bolton 




.. E. L. Morgan. 


Bombay 


Ind 


.. J. Hall. 


Bo'ness, N.B 


S 


.. J. P. Lawrie. 


Bootle 


. L.&C 


.. B. J. Wolfeuden. 


BOSTON, LlNCS , 


E 


.. G. E. Clarke. 


BOURNEMOITH 


H 


.. F,W. Lacey. 


Braokley 


M 


.. A. A. Green. 


BltADFOKD 


Y 


.. J. H. Cox. 


Bradford-on-Avon 


West 


.. A. S. WOOTTON. 


Braintree 


E 


.. H. H. Nankivell. 


Brecon , 


W 


.. H. LI. Griffiths. 


Brentford 


H 


.. J. W. Croxford. 


Bridgwater , 


West 


.. F. Parr. 


Bridgwater (Rural) 


West .. .. 


.. W. A. Collins. 


Bridlington 


Y 


.. E. R. Matthews. 


(Rural) , 


Y 


.. S.Dyer. 


Brierfield 


. L.AC 


.. B. Halstead. 


Bbiebley Hill 


M 


. . J. L. Harpur. 



REPRESENTED 8Y MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATE MEMBERS. xliii 



TOWN. DISTRICT. 

Bbighouss Y. 

Bbisbane A. 

Bristol West. 

Bbiton Febbt W.S. 

Bboadstaibs H. 

Bromtabd M. 

Bboughty Febbt, N.B 8. 

Brownhills M. 

Bicxhurst Hill E. 

Buckingham BL 

„ (County) H. 

Bucklow (Rural) L. ft 0. 

Btjbnham West 

Burnley L. ft 0. 

„ (Rami) L. & O. 

Bubslem M. 

Burton-on-Trent M. 

Bt7bt L. ft 0. 

Buxton M. 

Caerphilly W.8. 

Cambebwell Met. 

Cambbisge E. 

Cannock, Staffs M. 

Canterbury H. 

Caps Coast Af. 

Cabdiff W.S. 

Cabmsle N. 

Carlton M. 

Carnabvonshtbe (County) . . .. W.N. 

W.N. 

Castlefobd T. 

Chatham H. 

Cheadle, Staffs M. 

Chelmsford E. 

(Rural) E. 

Chelsea Met 

Cheltenham West 

Cheriton H. 

Chesham M. 

Cheshire (County) .i .. .. L. ft. C. 

Cheshunt H. 

Chester L. ft C. 

Chesterfield M. 

(Rural) .. .. M. 

Chesterton E. 

„ '.Rural) E. 

Chichester H. 

Chippenham West. 

Chiswick H. 

Chorley L. ft C. 

Chbibtohubch H. 

Church L. ft C. 

Clayton-lb-Moobs L. ft C. 

Cleokheaton Y. 

CLEETH0RPE8 E. 

Coalville M. 

Coatbridge, N.B S. 

Cockermouth (Rural) N. 



NAME. 

S. S. Haywood. 

T. Kirk. 

T. H. Yabbicoin. 

H. A. Clarke. 

H. Hurd. 

J. D. Bam. 

£>. Winning. 

J. H. Shaw. 

H. Tooley. 

J. Smith. 

R. J. Thomas. 

J. McD. McKenzie. 

W. H. Chowins. 

G. H. Pickles. 

3. Edmondson. 

F. Bettany. 

G. T Lynam. 
A. W. Bradley. 
W. H. Grieves. 



A. O. Harpur. 
W. Oxtoby. 
J. Julian. 
J. 8. Hendry. 
A. C. Turley. 

D. 8. Palk. 
W. Harpur. 
H. C. Marks. 
J. C. Haller. 

E. Evans. 
E. Hall. 
W. Green. 
C.Day. 

T. Bibbey. 

C Brown. 

J. Dewhfrst 

T. W. E. Higgeus. 

J. S. Pickering. 

A. O. Slierren. 

P. C. Dormer. 

H. F. Bull. 

J. E. Sharpe. 

I. M. Joiie*. 

V. Smith. 

E. Lines. 

J. D. Bland. 

J. Dunn. 

P. J. Lobloy. 

A. E. Adams. 

E. Willis. 

W. Leigh. 

E. I. Legg. 

W. E. Wood. 

A. Dodgecm. 

C. Lund. 

E. Rush ton. 

L. L. Baldwin. 

C. Young. 

J. B. Wilson. 



xliv 



TOWNS AND DISTRICTS 



TOWN. 


DISTRICT. 


NAME. 


Colchester 


E 


.. H. Goodvear. 


Colnk 


.. L.4 


.. T.H. Hartley. 


Colombo, Ceylon 


Lad 


.. F. A. Cooper. 




Ind 


.. R. Skelton. 


Colwyn Bat 


... W.N 


.. W.Jones. 


CONGLETON 


.. L. AC 


.. R. Burslam. 


CONSETT 


N 


.. W. S. Shell. 


Conway (Rural) 


W.N. .. .. 


.. T. B. Farrington. 


Cork 


I. 


.. J. F. Delany. 


Cork (County), West . . . . 


I. .. •• 


.. R. W. Longfield. 


COTTINGHAM 


Y 


.. J. H. Hanson. 


Cowes, Isle of Wight 


.» H. •• .• 


.. J.W.Webster. 


Crewk 


.. L.&C. .; .. 


.. G. Eaton-Shore. 


Cromer 


• • E. •• •• 


.. A. F. Scott. 


Croydon 


H 


.. G.F.Carter. 


„ (Highways) .. .. 


H. .. .. 


.. E. F. Morgan. 


„ (Rural) 


H 


.. R. M. Chart. 


„ (Rural) (Highways) 


H 


.. J. S. Killick. 


Cumberland (County) . . 


N 


.. G.J. Bell. 


Cupar (Fife) (County) 


S 


.. T. Aitken. 


Dartford 


H 


.. T. E. Tiffen. 


Dartmouth 


West 


.. T. W. Jovoe. 


Daventry 


•• M. •• 


.. J.B.Williams. 


Darwen 




.. R.W.Smith-Saville. 


Deal 


• • H. •• •• 


.. T. C. Golder. 


Delhi 


Ind. .. .. 


.. T. Salkield. 


Derby 


M 


.. J. Ward. 


„ (County) 




.. J. W. Horton. 


Devon (County) 


West 


.. S. Ingram. 


DEW8BUBY 


Y 


.. H. Dearden. 


D0NOA8TER (Rural) .. .. 


Y 


.. W. Crabtree. 


Dorchester 




.. G. J. Hunt. 


Dorking 


. . H. •• •• 


.. G. S. Mathews. 


(Rural) 


H 


.. W. Rapley. 


Douglas, Isle or Man 


.. L. & C. .. .. 


.. F. Cottle. 


Doyer 


H 


.. W. C. Hawke. 


Down (County) 


I 


.. J. Heron. 


Driffield (Rural) 




.. T. C. Beaumont. 


Droylsden 


.. L.&0 


.. C. Hall. 


Dublin (County) 




.. W. Collen. 


Dudley 


M 


.. J. Gammage. 


Dukinfield 


.. L.&C 


.. S. Hague. 


Dumbartonshire (County) .. 


S 


.. A.Wilson. 


Dundee 


S 


J. Thomson. 


Dunfermline (County) 


S 


.. D. MacKeuzie. 


Dunoon, N.B 


S 


.. J. Andrew. 


Dunstable 


M 


.. J. Stewart. 


Durham (Rural) .. . , .. 


N 


.. G. Gregson. 


Ealing 


H 


. . C. Jones. 


East Barnet Valley . . 


H 


.. H. York. 


East Ham 


H 


.. A. H. Campbell. 


East Molesey 


• • H. •• •• 


.. J. Stevenson. 


East Retford (Rural) 


•• M. 


.. T. Henry. 


East Stow (Rural) .. .. 




.. G. F. P. Harrison. 


Eastbourne 


H 


.. A. E. Prescott 


Eastwood 


M 


.. A. G. Wheeler. 



REPRESENTED BY MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATE MEMBERS. xlv 



TOWN. 


DISTRICT. 


NAME 


Ebbw Valb 


. . West ■• •• 


.. T. J. Thomas 


ECCLES 


.. L.&C 


.. T. 8. Picton. 


Edinburgh, N.B , 


S 


.. J. Masai e. 


Elgin, N.B 


S 

H 


.. A. A. Turriff. 


Enfield 


.. R. Collins. 


Ennibkillen (County).. 


I 


.. J. P. Burkitt. 


Epsom 


• • H. •• .. 


.. E. R. Capon. 


Ebdington 


M 


H. H. Humphries. 


Ebith 


H 


.. H. Hind. 


Estox 


Y 


.. C. McDermid. 


Etox (Rural) 


H 


.. R. Hallam. 


(Highways) .. 


H 


.. A. Glad well. 


Exeter 


Wert 


.. T. Moulding. 


Exuoith 


Wert 


.. S. Hutton. 


Falmoith 




.. W. H. Tressider. 


Falkirk, N.B 


S 


.. D. Ronald. 


Fareham 




.. W Butler. 


Fabnborough 


H 


.. J. E. Hargreayes. 






.. R. W. Cass. 


Faykbshah 


H 


.. S. P. Andrews. 


Feltham 




.. R. T.Stewart 


Fenny Stratford 


H 


.. J. Chad wick. 


Finchley 


H. .. .. 


.. C. J. Jenkin. 


Finsbuby 


Met .. .. 


.. P.G. Killick. 


Fldttbhibb (County) .. .. 


W.N 


S. Evans. 


Folkestone 


H 


.. A. E. Nichols. 


Foot's Cray 




.. W. A. Farnham. 


Fbikrn Barxet 


H 


.. E.J.Reynolds. 


Frxmlet 


H 


.. T. C. Jones. 


Frinton-on-Sea 


E 


.. E. M. Bate. 


Fbome 




F. W. Jones. 


Gainsborough 


E. .. .. 


.. 8. W.Parker. 


Gateshead 


N 


.. N. P. Pattinson. 


GlLLIXGHAM 


H 


.. J. L. Redfern. 


Glamorgan (County) .. 


W.S 


.. G. A. Phillip*. 


Glasgow. N.B. 


s 


.. A. B. McDonald. 


Glasgow. NB 


s 


.. T. Nisbet 


GLASTONBURY 




.. G. Alves. 


Gloccester 


West .. .. 


.. R. Read. 


Gloucestershire 


West 


.. E. 8. Sinnott 


Gl/rXOORHWG 


W8 


W. P. Jones. 


Godalsixg 


H. .. .. 


J. H. Norris. 


Godstone (Rural) 


H 


.. J. George-Powell 


Goole 


Y. .. 


.. EH. Barb r. 


GORTOS 


.. L.4C. .. .. 


.. J. W. Wiles. 


Gosronn 


N 


.. G. Nelson 


Gosfort AND Altbbstokb .. 




.. H. Frost 


Gotan. X.B 


S. .. . 


F. G. Holmes. 


Grantham 


E. .. .. 


W. Shackleton. 


Gratesend 


H. .. .. 


.. F. T. Grant. 


Grats Thtbbocb 


H 


A.C.James. 


Great Crosbt 


.. L.&C 


.. W. Hall. 


Gbxat Gkoisbt 




.. H. G. Whyatt 
.. J. W. Cockrill. 


GSLAT YaRMOCTH 


E. .. .. 


GanaFOCK. N.B. 


8 


.. A. J. Turnbnll. 


Gbzt County, New Zealand 


A. .. .. 


J. Higgins. 


Gbbysocth. New Zealand 


A. .. .. 


.. E. I. Lord. 



xlvi 



TOWNS AND DI8TBIOT8 



TOWN. TO8TBI0T. 

Guernsey H. 

Guildford H. 

„ (Rural; H. 

Hackney Met. 

Hadham and Stansted .. .. H. 

Halifax (Rural) Y. 

Hamilton, N.B S. 

Hamilton, N.Z A. 

Hammersmith Met 

Hampstead Met 

Hampton-on-Thames H. 

Hampton Wick H. 

Handsworth M. 

Hanley M. 

Hants (County) H. 

Hanwell H. 

Harrow H. 

Harwich £. 

Haslingden L. & 0. 

Hastings H. 

Hawick, N.B S. 

Hates H. 

Heokmondwike T. 

Helensburgh, N.B 8. 

Hembl Hempstead M. 

Hendon H. 

„ (Rural) H. 

Hengoed (Rural) W.S. 

Hereford M. 

t , (County) M. 

Herne Bay H. 

Hertford H. 

Hertfordshire (Highways) . . H. 

Heston and Isleworth .. .. H. 

Heysham L. AC. 

♦Heywood L. & 0. 

High Wycombe H. 

Hinckley M. 

HlTCHIN H. 

Holborn Met. 

Holland (County) E. 

Holyhead W.N. 

Hobkhea Y. 

Hoknsey H. 

HORSFOIITH Y. 

HORtfHAU H. 

Hove H. 

HowitAH, Uenoal Ind. 

Hoylake and West Kirby .. L. & C. 

Huddeksfield Y. 

(Gas) Y. 

Hull Y. 

Huntingdon (County) M. 

Hyde L. AC. 

Hythe H. 

Ilford E. 

Ilfraoombb West 

Inglewood, N.Z A. 



: NAME. 

T. J. Guilbert 
C. G. Mason. 
J. Anstee. 

N. Scorgie. 

E. T. Watts. 

F. Gordon. 
W. H. Purdie. 
8. B. Sims. 
H. Mair. 

O. E. Winter. 
S. H. Chambers. 
P. Taylor. 
H. Richardson. 
J. Loblev. 
W. J. Taylor. 
8. W. J. Barnes. 
J. P. Bennetts. 
H. Ditcham. 
J. 8. Green. 
P. H. Palmer. 
Chas. Brown. 
C. C. Gmy. 
J. Saville. 
J. K. Wilson. 
W. R. Locke. 
8. 8. Grimley. 
J. A. Webb. 
J. P. Jones. 
J. Parker. 

G. H. Jack. 

F. W. J. Palmer. 
J. H. Jevons. 
E. Parry. 
J. G. Carey. 
H. Miller. 
J. A. Settle. 
T. J. Rushbrooke. 
E. H. Crump. 
A. T. Blood. 
E. F. Spurrell. 
T. J. Peacock. 
A. Asquith. 
W. E. Warburton. 
E. J. Lovegrove. 
R. R. Jones. 
R. Ren wick. 
H. H. Scott. 
A. Hale. 
R. W. Fraser. 
K. F. Campbell. 
E. A. Harman. 
A. E. White. 
H. J. G. Leete. 
J. Mitchell. 
Chris. Jones. 



H. Shaw. 
O. M. Prouse. 
L. G. P. Spencer. 



REPRESENTED BT MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATE MEMBERS, xlvii 



TOWN. 



DISTRICT. 



INVERNESS 

Ipswich . 



S. 

E. 

L.&C. 

Isle of Ely, North (County) .. E. 

Isle of Thanet (Rural) .. H. 

Isle of Wight (Rural) (Highways) H. 

Islington .. Met. 



NAME. 
T. H. Scott. 
E. Backhaul. 
6. H. Kay. 
H. F. Simpson. 
G. L. Butterworth. 
H. B. Cullin. 
J. P. Barber. 



Johannesburg 



Af. 



A. P. Lambert. 



KbABSLBY 

Keighlet 

Kenilwobth 

Kensington 

Kent (County) 

Kebteven (County) 

Keswick • 

Kettebing 

Ketnbh am (Rural) 
Kiddebminsteb (Rural) 
Kilkenny (County) .. .. 

KdLMABNOCK, N.B 

King's Lynn 

King's Norton 

Kingston, Jamaica .. .. 
Kingston-on-Thames .. 
King Williambtown, S.A. .. 

Kirkcaldy 

Kirriemuir, N.B 

Kroonstad, O.R.C 

Kbtjgersdobp, Transvaal .. 



L.&0. 
Y. 

M. 
Met. 

H. 

E. 

N. 

M. 
West. 

M. 

I. 

S. 

E. 

M. 

A. 

H. 

Af. 

S. 

s. 

Af. 
Af. 



H. Nuttall. 
W. Fowlds. 
8. Douglas. 
A. R. Finch. 
H. P. Maybury. 
W. B. Purser. 
W. Hodgson. 
T. R. Smith. 
H. M. Bennett 
O. J. Shepherd. 
A. M. Burden. 
R. Blackwood. 
J. H. Webb.' 
A. W. Cross. 
C. V. Abrahams. 
R. H. Clucas. 
J. Maden. 
J. L. Lumsden. 
J. S. Bruce. 
F. Brown. 
R. A. Webster. 



Lagos 

Lambeth 

Lanark (County) 

Lancashire (County) 

Lancaster 

Lanchester (Rural) (Highways) 

Lkatherhead 

Leeds 

Leeds (Sewerage) 

Lkek 

Leicester 

(County) 

Leigh 

n (Rural) 

Leigh-on-Sea 

Leighton Buzzard 

Leith, N.B 

Lettrim (County) 

Levekshulme 

Lewisham -. .. 

Leyland 

Lichfield 

Limekxbst (Rural) 

Limerick (County) 

Lincoln 



Af. 
Met. 

S. 
L. AC. 
L.&C. 

N. 

H. 

Y. 

Y. 

M. 

M. 

M. 
L.&C. 
L.&C. 

E. 

H. 

6. 

I. 

L.&C. 

Met. 

L.&C. 

M. 
L.&C. 

I. 

E. 



I. T. Hawkins 
H. C. J. Edwards. 
W. L. Douglass. 
W. H. Schofleld. 
J. C. Mount 
W. Cumming. 
J. E. Smales. 
W. T. Lancashire. 
G. A. Hart. 
W. E. Beucham. 
E. G. Maw bey. 
S. P. Pick. 
T. Hunter. 
T. W. B. Gent. 
J. W. Liversed^e. 
C. H. AVaithman. 
J. R. Findlay. 
E. O'N. Clarke. 
J. Jepson. 
E. Van Putten. 
W. H. Wilkinson. 
W. B. Chancellor. 
H. H. Turner. 
J. Horan. 
R. A. MucBrair. 



xlviii 



TOWNS AND DISTRICTS 



TOWN. 

Lincoln (County) 

Linlithgow (Highways) .. 

LlTHBRLAND .. .. .. 

LlTTLEBOROUGH 

LlTTLEHAMPTON 

Little Woolton 

Liverpool 

Llandudno 

Llanelly 

Llantrissant (Rural) .. .. 

LOFTL'8 

London 

„ (County) 

Londonderry 

Londonderry (County) 
Longford (County) 

Longton 

Loughborough 

Louth (County) 

Lower Bebington 

Lower Hutt, N.Z 

Lowestoft 

Lucknow (United Provinoea) 

Ludlow 

Lurgan 

Luton 

Lymington 



DISTRICT. 

E. 

S. 

L.&0. 

L.&O. 

H. 

L. & 0. 

L. & 0. 

W.N. 

W.S. 

w.s. 

Y. 

Met. 
Met 

I. 

I. 

I. 

M. 

M. 

I. 
L. AC. 

A. 

E. 
Ind. 
West. 

L 

M. 

H. 



Lytham L.&O. 



NAME. 

J. Tliropp. 
A. Forbes. 
A. H. Carter. 
G. H. Wild. 
H. Howard. 
R. Simmons. 
J. A. Brodie. 

E. P. Stephensou. 
G. Watkeys. 

G. S. Morgan. 
T. H. Tarbit. 

F. Sumner. 

M. Fitznmurice. 
W. J. Robinson. 
C. L. ttoddie. 
J. W. Gunnis. 
J. W. Wardle. 
A. H. Walker. 
P. J. Lvnam. 
H. W. Corrie. 
T. Ward. 

G. H. Hamby. 
H. Lane Brown. 
J. A. Spreckley. 
H. Shillintrton. 
S. F. L. Fox. 
F. H. Parr. 

A. J. Price. 



Macclesfield (Rural) L. & 0. 

Maesteg W.8. 

Maidstone H. 

Malden H. 

Maldon E. 

Malvern M. 

Manchester L.&O. 

Mansfield Woodhousb .. .. M. 

Margam, Port Talbot .. .. W.S. 

Margate H. 

Market Harborough M. 

Marple L. & C. 

Marylebone Met. 

Matlock M. 

Matlock Bath M. 

Maxwelltown, N.B 8. 

Melford (Rural) E. 

Melton Mowbray M. 

Mebthyr Tydyil W.S. 

Mbrton H. 

Metiiley Y. 

Mexborouoh Y. 

Middlesbrough Y. 

Middlesex (County) .. .... H. 

Middleton L. ft C. 

Midhurst (Rural) H. 

Midsombr Norton West. 

Milton-next-Sittinqboubnb .. H. 

Minbhead West 



J. Thorpe. 
J. Humphreys. 
T. F. Bunting. 
R. H. Jeffes. 
T. R. Swales. 
W. O. Thorp. 
T. De C. Meade. 

F. P. Cook. 
J. Cox. 

E. A. Borg. 
H. G. Coales. 

D. J. Diver. 
J.A.P.Waddington. 
J. Diggle. 

W. Jaffrey. 
J. McL. Bowie. 
W. Carver. 

E. Jeeves. 

T. F. Harvey. 

G. Jerram. 

T. W. Nichols. 
G. F. Carter. 

F. Baker. 

H. T. Wakelam. 

W. Welburn. 

A. G. Gibbs. 

C. H. Sunderland. 

W. R. Warlow. 

J. H. Wooton-Smith. 



REPRESENTED BY MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATE MEMBERS. xlix 

TOWN. DISTRICT. NAME. 

Monmouth West G. F. Grimwood. 

Monmouthshire (County) .. .. West W. Tanner. 

Montgomery W.N W. P. Hole. 

Montrose, N.B S 8. L. Christie. 

Morley Y W. E. Putman. 

Mu88elbukqh, N.B 8. G. Landale. 



Nantyglo and Blaina 

Neath 

„ (Rural) 

Nelson 

Neston 

New Malden 

New Mills 

New Swindon 

Newark 

„ (Bund) 

Nbwbubn-on-Tyne .. .. 

Newbury 

Newoastle-on-Tyne .. 

Newhavbn 

Newmarket 

Newport, Mon 

Newry 

Newtown St. Boswblls, N.B. 
North Sydney, N.S.W. .. 

Northampton 

Northumberland (County) 

Northwich 

Norwich.. 

Nottingham 

(County) .. .. 
Nuneaton 



West. 
W.S. 

W.S. 
L.&C. 
L.&C. 

H. 
L.&C. 

H. 

M. 

M. 

N. 

H. 

N. 

H. 

E 
West. 

I. 

S. 

A. 

M. 

N. 
L.&C. 

E. 

M. 

M. 

M. 



W. J. Dayies. 

D. M. Jenkins. 
W. E. C. Thomas. 

B. Ball. 

C. E. Senior. 

T. B Simmonds. 
W. C. Sheard. 
H. J. Ham p. 
G. Sheppard. 
R. Oakden. 
T. Gregory. 
S. J. L. Vincent. 
C. R. S. Kirkpatrick. 

F. J. Rayner. 

O. H. Waithman. 
R. H. Hayues. 
C. Blaney. 

G. Monteath. 
T. W. Seaver. 
A. Fidler. 

J. A. Bean. 
J. Brooke. 
A. E. Collins. 
A. Brown. 

E. P. Hooley. 

F. C. Cook. 



Oakham (Rural) .. 

Oakworth 

Ogmore and Garrw . 

Oldbuby 

088ETT 

Oswestry 

Oxford 

Oxfordshire (County) 



E. 
Y. 

W.S. 
M. 
Y. 
M. 
H. 
H. 



C. W. Maudsley. 
J. Spenoer. 
H. D. Williams." 
T. H. Shipton. 
H. G. Key wood. 
G. W. Lacey. 
W. H. White. 
S. Stallard. 



Paddington . . 
Padiham .. .. 
Paignton 
Paisley, N.B. 
Partick, N.B. 
Peebles (County) , 
Pembebton .. . 
Penang, S. S. 
Penarth.. 

Pbnge 

Penrith 

Penbyn 



Met. 

L.&C. 

West. 

8. 

S. 

S. 

L.&C. 

A. 

W.S. 

H. 

N. 

West. 



E. B. Newton. 
J. Gregson. 
C. O. Baines. 
J. Lee. 
J. Bryce. 
R. S. Anderson. 
G. Heaton. 
L. M. Bell. 
E. I. Evans. 
H. W. Longdin. 
J. J. Knewstubb. 
J. P. Jenkins. 



T0WN8 AND DISTRICTS 



TOWN. 



Pkbth, N.B 

Perth, West Australia .. .. 

Peterborough 

Plymouth 

p0llok8haw8, n.b 

Pontarda we (Rural) 

Pontefract 

Pontypridd 

Poole 

Portadown 

Port Elizabeth, South Africa 

Port Glasgow, N.B. 

Portishead .. 

Portland 

Portslade-by-Sea 

Portsmouth 

Prahran, Victoria 



DI8TBIOT. 

S. 

A. 

M. 
West. 

S. 
W.S. 

Y. 
W.8. 

W. 

I. 

Af. 

S. 
West 
West. 

H. 

H. 

A. 



NAME. 

R. MoKillop. 
H. T. Hayne*. 
J. W. Walslmw. 
J. Paton. 
D. Burns. 
J. Morgan. 
J. E. Pickard. 
P.R.A.Willoughby. 
8. J. Newman 
W. Wilson. 

A. 8. Butterworth. 
J. Murray. 

F. H. Smith. 

B. 8. Henshaw. 
A. T. Allen. 
P. March. 

W. Colder. 



Queen's County 

Queenstown, South Africa 



I. 

Af. 



H. V. White. 
W. A. Pallist*. 



Ramsbottom L. & C. 

Ramsgate H. 

Rangoon A. 

Rawmarsh Y. 

Rawtekstall L. & C. 

Redcar Y. 

Redditch M. 

Reioate H. 

Renfrewshire (County), N.B. .. S. 

Retford M. 

Rhondda , .. W.S. 

Rhymney , West. 

Richmond, Surrey H. 

Richmond, Yorks Y. 

Rochdale L. & 0. 

Rochester H. 

Roohford (Rural) H. 

Rothebham Y. 

Rowley Regis M. 

Ruoeley M. 

Runcorn.. L. & C. 

(Rural) L. &0. 

RU8HDEN M. 

Rutherolen, N.B S. 

Rutland (County) E. 

Ryton-on-Tynr N. 

Saffron Walden E. 

St. Albans H. 

St. Andrews, N.B 8. 

St. Pancras Met 

Sale L. A C. 

Saltbcrx-by*the-Sea Y. 



T. H. Bell. 
T. G. Taylot 
I,. P. Marshall. 
.1. Bourne. 
J. Johnston. 
J. Howoroft. 
A. J. Dickinson. 
h\ T. Clayton. 
J. Murray. 
J. D. Kennedy. 
W. J. Jones. 
W. L. Marks. 
J. H. Brierley. 
T. H. Hailstone. 
S. S. Piatt. 
W. Banks. 
H. T. Sidwell. 
E. B. Martin. 
W. H. Brettell. 
W. E. Rogers. 
J. Wilding. 
W. Dicele. 
W. B. Madin. 
S. McBride. 
J. Richardsun. 
J. P. Dalton. 



A. H. Forbes 
G. Ford. 
W. Watson. 
W. N. Blair. 
W. Holt. 
G. S. L. Bains. 



REPRESENTED BT MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATE MEMBERS. 



TOWN. DISTRICT, 

Scarborough Y. 

(Rural) Y. 

8edg field, Co. Durham .. .. N. 

Selkirk, N.B 8. 

Skyenoaks H. 

Shanghai, China A. 

Shanklin H. 

Sheffield Y. 

Shepton Mallet West. 

Shebingham E. 

Shrewsbury M. 

Shropshire (County) M. 

Singapore A 

Skelton-in-Clbveland .. .. Y. 

Skxpton (Rural) Y. 

Slough H. 

Smallthorne M. 

Smethwick M. 

Solihull (Rural) M. 

Soothill Uppeb Y. 

South Shields N. 

„ (Rural) .. .. N. 

South all Norwood H. 

Southampton H. 

Southesd-on-Sea H. 

Southgate H. 

Southport L. <kC. 

Southward Met 

SOUTHWICK H. 

Southwick-on-Weab N. 

Spilsbt (Rural) E. 

Stafford M. 

„ (County) (Highways).. M. 

Staines H. 

„ (Rural) H. 

Stalybbidge L. <fe 0. 

Stamford E. 

Stepney Met. 

Stirling S. 

Stockport L. AC. 

Stockton-on-Tees N. 

Stoke-on-Trent M. 

Stoke Newington Met 

8tone M. 

Stoubbbidge M. 

8tbatfobd-on-Ayon M. 

Stbetford L. A 0. 

Stboud West 

Sudbury E. 

Suffolk (County), East .. .. E. 

Sunbuby-on-Thames H. 

Sunderland (Rural) N. 

Subbiton H. 

Subbey (County) H. 

Sussex (County), East BL 

» » West .. •• H. 

Sutherland, N.B. (County) .. S. 

8utton H. 

8UTTON Coldfteld M. 

Sutton-in-Abhfield M. 



NAME. 
H. W. Smith. 
J. A. Iveson 
J. Stones. 
J. Pritty. 
S. Towlson. 
C. Mayne. 

E. C. Cooper. 

C. F. Wike. 

D. Hiuclioliff. 

F. Hall Smith. 
W. C. Eddowes. 
A. T. Davis. 

R. Peirce. 
W. P. Robinson. 
A. Rodwell. 
W. W. Cooper. 
J. Deahe. 
C. J. Fox-Allin. 
A. E. Currall. 
J. Blackburn. 
S. E. Burgess. 
T. T. Bains. 
R. Brown. 
J. A. Crowther. 

E. J. Elford. 
C. G. Lawson. 
R. P. Hirst. 
A. Harrison. 

G. W. Warr. 
W. B. Thomss. 
T. A. Busbridge. 
W. Blaokshaw. 
J. Moncur. 

E. J. Barrett. 
G. W. Manning. 
J. N. White. 

F. R. Ryman. 
M. W. Jameson. 
A. H. Goudie. 
J. Atkinson. 
M. H. Sykes. 
A. Burton. 

W. F. Loveday. 
A. R. Ridout. 

F. Woodward. 
R. Dixon. 

E. Worrall. 

G. P. Milnes. 
W. I. Tait 
H. Miller. 
H. F.Coales. 
T. Young. 

H. T. Mather. 
F. G. Howell. 

F. J. Wood. 
H. W. Bowen. 

J. M. MacGregor. 
C. 0. Smith 

W. A. H. Clanry. 

W. Burn. 



lii 



TOWNS AND DISTBIOTS 



TOWN. DISTRICT. 

Swadlincote M. 

Swanage .. West. 

SWAN8EA W.S. 

„ (Rural) W.S. 

SwiNTON L. & C. 

Sydney, New South Wales .. A. 



NAME. 

T. Kidd. 
J. S. Senior. 
G. Bell. 
T. T. Williams. 
H. Entwisle. 
J. M. Smail. 



Tadcasteb (Rural) Y. 

Tamworth M. 

„ (Rural) M. 

Tanfield N. 

Taunton (Rural) West. 

Tavistock West. 

Teddington H. 

Tbionmouth- West 

Tenbuby (Rural) M. 

Tewkesbury West. 

Thobnhill Y. 

Tientsin, China A. 

Thtebaby (County), South .. I. 

Tipton M. 

Tivekton West. 

Todmorden Y. 

Toeio, Japan A. 

Ton bridge H. 

(Rural) H. 

Toowono, Queensland .. .. A. 

Toowoomba, Queensland .. .. A. 

Tottenham H. 

TOTTINOTON L &C. 

Towyn W.N. 

Trowbridge West. 

Tbubo West. 

Tunbridqe Wells H. 

Tunbtall M. 

Tubton L. *0. 

Twickenham H. 

TYLDE8LEY L. & C. 

Tynemouth N. 

Tyrone (County), North .... I. 

„ „ South .. .. I. 



T. Soott. 

F. K. G. Bradshaw. 

H. J. Clarson. 

R. Heslop. 

T. Goldsworthy- 

Crump. 
W. G. Lane. 
M. Hainsworth. 
C. F. Gettings. 
R. W. Jnrvis. 
W. Ridler. 

A. Rothera. 
A.W.H.Bellingham. 

E. A. Hackett 
W. H. Jukes. 
J. Siddalls. 

J. A. Heap. 

B. Ku&akabe. 
W. L. Bradley. 

F. Harris. 
W. E. Irving. 
J. C. Ross. 

W. H. Prescott 
L. Kenyou. 
R. P. Morgan. 
H. G. N. Lailey. 
M.Lea. 

W. H. Maxwell. 
A. R. Wood. 
Y. Laithwaite. 
F. W. Pearoe. 
J. B. Smith. 
J. F. Smillie. 
F. J. Lynam. 
J. W. Leebody. 



Ubmbton L. & C. 

Uxbbidge (Rural) (Highways) .. H. 

„ (Rural) H. 

Ventnor H. 

Wakeiteld Y. 

„ (Rural) Y. 

Wallasey L. A C. 

Walmeb H. 

Walsall M. 

Walsall (Rural) M. 

Waltham Cross E. 

Walthamstow H. 



J. Heath. 
E. Birks. 
J. F. Stow. 

H. H. Oakes. 



R. Porter. 
F. Massie. 
W. H. Travers. 
H. W. Barker. 
J. Taylor. 
W. P. Young. 
W. T. Streather. 
E. Morley. 



REPRESENTED BY MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATE MEMBERS. 



liii 



TOWN. 

Walthamstow 

Wandsworth 

Wanbtead 

Wantage 

Wabb 

Warminster 

Warwickshire (County) 

Watbrpord 

w (County) 

Waterloo 

Watford 

Wath-upon-Dearnr 

Wealdstone 

Wellingborough 

Wembley 

West Bromwioh 

West Hartlepool 

West Mallino (Rural) .. .. 

Westminster 

Weymouth and Meloombe Regis 

Whitchurch 

Whitehaven 

Wicklow 

Widnes 

Wigston' Magna 

Willenhall 

WlLLESDEN 

Willington Quay 

WlLMSLOW 

Wilts (County) 

Wimbledon 

Winchester 

(Rural) 

Windermere 

Windsor 

Wisbech 

Wokingham 

Wolverhampton 

wombwell 

Wood Green 

Woodford 

Woolwich 

Worcester 

(County) 

Worksop 

Worthing 

Wortley (Rural) 

Wrexham 

(Rural) 

Wrotham 

Yokohama, Japan 

York 

Yorkshire, East Riding .. 
„ North Riding .. .. 



DISTRICT. NAME. 

H. G. W. Holmes. 

Met P. Dodd. 

H J. T. Bressey. 

H W. Hanson. 

H. H. F. HilL 

West C. H. Lawton. 

M J. Willmot 

L M.J.Fleming. 

I W. E. L. Duffln. 

L.&C F. S. Yates. 

H. D. Waterhouse. 

Y H. 0. Poole. 

H H. Walker. 

M E. Y. Harrison. 

H. C. R. W. Chapman 

M A. D. Greatorex. 

N N. F.Dennis. 

H J.Marshall. 

Met J. W.Bradl 

West W.B.Morgan. 

M M. Sowden. 

N E. E. Stiven. 

I. J. Pausing. 

L.&0 J. S. Sinclair. 

E. W.J. G.Clark. 

M T.E. Fellows. 

H O. C. Robson. 

N J. F. Davidson. 

L. &0 A. 8. Cartwright 

West A. Dryland. 

H C. H.Cooper. 

H W.V.Anderson. 

H G. E. Carter. 

L. AC 0. E. Hiues. 

H E. A. Btiokland. 

E E. J. S. Harris. 

M C.W.Marks. 

M. G. Green. 

Y. J. W. Harrison. 

H. C. J. Gunyon. 

E. W. Farrington. 

Met J. R. Dixon. 

M T. Caink. 

M. J. EL Garrett 

M. G. Rawson. 

H. F. Roberts. 

Y G. E. Beaumont. 

W.N J. England. 

W.N J.P.Evans. 

H F.T.Elliott. 

A. R. Hara. 

Y F. W. Spurr. 

Y. A. Beaumont. 

Y W. G. Bryning. 



liv 



ASSOCIATES. 

* Those Associates against whose names a star is placed have passed 

the examination and hold the Testamur of the Association. 
o signifies elected as Graduate, 
ta transferred to Associate. 



Date of Election 
and Transfer. 

1907 Jan. 19 *Aldridgb, A. E. W Assistant Borough Surveyor, 

Walsall. 

1906 June 28 # Ash, H.J Chief Engineering Assistant, 

Council Offices, Nuneaton. 

1901 Oct 19 Ashbee, W Divisional Surveyor, Middlesex 

C.C. Briarside. Hanwell, W. 

1908 June 25 *Baggott, S. Borough Engineer's Office, 

Northampton. 

1906 May 26 'Ballard, W. E., A. M. Inst Assistant Engineer, Council 

O.E. Offices, King^s Heath, near 

Birmingham. 

1907 May 25 Baxter, J. O. R. Borough Engineer's Office, 

Great Grimsby. 
1904 Sept. 17 Bell, O. D., B.Sc. (Vict.) .. Borough Engineer's Office, 

Barrow-in-Furness. 

TAiatt Feb. 29}* Bell » G - **• Borough Surveyor's Office, 

' Swansea. 

01897 July 3 1\*Bentlet, J. H., A. M. Inst Deputy Borough Engineer, 

TA1901 Oct. 19/ O.E. Town Hall, Oldham. 

ta1<*)2 nSt! 8 4 }* Biboh » J Deputy8urveyor,PublicOfflces, 

TA1908 Ju^e25}* BlJLKWAT " PHILI,IP8 ' B - •• City Engineer's Offioe, West- 
' minster, S.W. 

1903 Jan. 17 *Booth,E. W., A. M. Inst. O.E. Engineering Assistant, Town 

Hall, Croydon. 

TA1907 mUt. 2 8 }* Bbadlet ' °- G Town Surveyor, Goole. 

TA1905 JaT28}* BB ^ D8HAW » A " 8 " ^M- 1 * 8 *- Deputy Borough Engineer, Bed- 

SJu u ^>^ J - T Tk SSL 9 ^T f c<>unoil 

1903 July 25 *Bromly, A., A.M. Inst O.E. Assistant Engineer, Town Hall, 

Croydon. 

1902 Jan. 25 Brookes, A. E County Surveyor, Western 

Division, Cornwall, St. Ivea. 

1902 Jan. 25 Browk, H. A Assistant Borough Surveyor, 

Town Hall, Fulham, S.W. 

1908 June 25 *Brown, H. B. E Borough Engineer's Office, 

Northampton. 

TA1908 JUy ?s}* BuLL » E * M Council Offices, Finchley. 

1908 Feb. 29 *Bullouoh, J. S Borough Engineer's Offioe, 

Blackburn. 



LIST OF ASSOCIATES. lv 

Date of Election 
and Transfer. 

1904 May 28 "Burton, W. E. H. t Assoc. M. Chief Engineering Assistant, 
InstCE. County Architect's Office, 

Wakefield. 

1904 Sept. 1 Carson, W. H n Assoc M. City Engineer's Offloe, City 

Inst. C.E. Hall, Ottawa, Canada. 

1904 May 28 Carter, E. W. A. Assistant City Surveyor, Guild- 
hall, Gloucester. 

t^SiJ*??' 1 ^ Vcartbr, S. F. R Assistant Engineer, Heston & 

TA1907 Mar. 2 J Isleworth Urban District 

Counoil.TownHall t Honnslow. 

rSiSe 3 }* *^ 1 * 11 - "SfiUnSS?. C0Un ° il 

1908 Feb. 29 Clare, T. A Borough Engineer's Office, 

Leigh, Lanes. 

J?JS1 ^Z T 7 1*Clatpoole,A. H„ A.M.Inst District Surveyor, 63 Queen 
TA1W4 ?>ept. 17) CE Square, Bristol. 

1904 Oct. 11 Connor, C o/o John Mowlem & Co., Gros- 

venor Wharf, S.W. 

1903 May 16 Cooke, J. E Assistant Borough Engineer, 

Town Hall, Islington. 

G1900 May 19\*Coombs, O. A Irrigation Works, Trincomalee, 

TA1901 Oct. 19/ Ceylon, India. 

1907 Sept. 7 Court, W. H. A., A.M. Inst Borough Surveyor's Office, 
CE. Leicester. 

TA1902 Nov g 1 }* 00 *^' - Di8trict Surveyor, Town Hall, 

Atom a™«. o±\ Poitsmouth. 

«.?iani rv+ g ,SrOox,A. L.,A.M.Inst.O.E. .. City Surveyor's Office, Man- 

TAlWJ uct. U) cheater. 

1905 Mar. 4 *Cox, C. L., A.M.Inst. O.E. .. Assistant Engineer, Municipal 

Offices, Colombo. 

Jl\w£ if?: o°)*Crabb, H. B., A.M.InstC.E. District Surveyor, Council 
TA1907 Mar. 2 J •• Roug ^ Birmingham< 

ta1^6 Nov e 3 2 }* CB08S,W ' G Assintant Borough Surveyor, 

' Tunbridge Wells. 

1901 Oct 19 *Croxford, C. H Chief Engineering Assistant, 

Town Hall, Wood Green, N. 



Tll928Apr.25}* DABBT ' H Town Hall, Ealing, W. 

TA1905 Mav 27}* Debnbt ' W ' A ' M * InBt 0K Borou g h Engineer's Office, Bir- 
y ' kenhead. 

1904 Aug. 19 De Kretser, H. K District Engineer, P. W. D., 

Mihintale, Annradbapura, 
Ceylon. 
) 904 Aug. 12 Donald, R. B., A.MJnst.CE. Resident Engineer's Office, 

Sewage Disposal Works, Hud- 
dersfield. 

1906 June 28 *Drebden, W. J Chief Engineering Assistant, 

Town Hall, Battersea. 

1907 Jan. 19 * Dunning, W. J. .. ., .. Assiatant Surveyor, Council 

Offices, Colwyn Bay. 

t!i905 jSne22}* DTEB ' RH Assistant Borough Engineer, 

' Southend-on-Sea. 

e 2 



lvi LIST OF ASSOCIATES. 



Date of Election 
and Transfer. 



G iS^ £ 6C ' i 7 l*ELLiBON, D., A.MJnstC.E. Deputy Borough Engineer, 

T *J22 Dec. 7 / We8t Bromwioh. 

i25 t o^rENDSOB, H. A Surveyor, Rural District Council, 

TA1902 Jan. 25/ "■ Ke^sham, Bristol. 



1904 Aug. 27 Foebe8, W Burgh Engineer's Office, Edin- 

burgh, N.B. 

-S2& ^1; oB'Fosteb, H. H. Assistant Surveyor, Borough 

TA1903 July 2oJ Surveyor's Office, Wands- 

worth. 215 High Rd.,Balham. 

Q \ ano ^ JIV***™. J Assistant Borough Surveyor, 

TA1902 Jan. 25/ Town Hall, HammersmithV- 

P1903 Mar. 21 Galbbaith, A. R., A.M. Inst. District Surveyor, Town Hall, 

C.E.I. Portsmouth. 

1905 June 22 *Gammage, E. J Borough Surveyor's Office* 

Dudley. 

1905 June 22 *Goodb, W. J Divisional Surveyor, Shropshire. 

Wellington, Salop. 
G1899 Deo. 16\*Goodfellow, H., A.M.Inst. Chief Engineering Assistant, 
TA1902 May 10/ C.E. Town Hall, Southport 

°innt ^ Jnl*GoBDON, J., A.M. Inst C.E. Assistant Burgh Surveyor, 
TA1902 July 10J Aberdeen, N.B. 

1903 July 25 Gbat, A. B Engineering Assistant, Council 

House, Birmingham. 

°}*®* J *H' JJWBBENWOOD,J.P.,A.M.In8t Deputy Borough Surveyor, 
TA1901 Oct 19 J B Town HftUf Burnley# 

1904 Aug. 9 Gbeio, J. M. M., A.M.Inst c/o Messrs. Kennedy, Ltd.* 

C.E. Partick, Glasgow. 

.SbSj&S}* "™* 11 - B ^*. 8urveyor,s °"°* 

1903 June 6 Harding, H. W. .... .... Chief Engineering Assistant, 

«ioqq rw on City Engineer's Office, Bristol. 

•iSS jut. ?i*HiRP«B, A Deputy Borough Surveyor 

TAl902MaylO/ Town Hallf gt h^^ 

Lanes. 

1903 June 6 Heap, H., A. M. Inst C.E. .. 16 Manor Avenue, Grimsby. 

Jt\w\ a™ oqVhbath,J.R .. .. Assistant Borough Surveyor, 

taIWO Apr. £9) Burslem. 

1904 Aug. 26 Hexdebsoh, B. T City Engineer's Office, City 

ioak Tk q\ Chambers, Glasgow, N.B. 

i2S n iSrHEwrpr, F Surveyor to the Urban Distriet 

TA1906 Dec. 15/ ^^ Hoyland Nether 

9l io2S w W ' lnl*HiNOB8LiFF, E. B Deputy Surveyor, Council 

TA1902 May 10/ 0^^ Barry 

1905 Jan. 28 Hifwood, J. W.,A. M. Inst Chief Assistant, Borough Eng. 

C.E. Office, Southend-on-Sea. 

TA1908 A *r' 25}* HoDaK ' ^ ° ^ Surve y or ' B 0ffice » Sheffield. 

JIiXE M U a?* ooj'HoLLOWAT, W. Chief Engineering Assistant,. 

TA1902 Mar. 22 j Council Offloes, Kettering. 



LIST OF ASSOCIATES. lvii 



Date of Election 
and Transfer, 



taUMNot 8 1 }* Jm " tIN8 ' B - J 0Wef Aflfiifltant » Town H^Dt 

' Portsmouth. 

1902 May 10 Kkr, A. M., B. So. (Vict.), Assistant Borough Engineer, 
A.M. Inst C.E. Town Hall, Warrington. 

^ Ql iS«T? ne ?«l*KiE8EB,W. H. G., Assoc. M. District Surveyor, Bristol. 
TA1906 Dec. 15/ In§t E 

1906 Mar. 3 Kinneab, 0. F. A City Chambers, Edinburgh. 

1904 Feb. 27 Kirby, H. C Town Engineer's Department, 

Pretoria, S.A. 

1901 Deo. 7 Lashmobe, E. W., Assoc M. District Surveyor, Alma Yale 

Inst. C.E. Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

TAl^Dec e i5}* LBK8,HB District Eng., Jaffna, Ceylon. 

1907 Sept. 7 Lillet, A. S Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Porthcuwl, Glam. 

1904 Sept. 6 McInnes, D City Engineer's Office, Glas- 
gow, N.B. 

1902 Nov. 8 MoKenzib, L. S., A.M.InstC.E. District Surveyor, 63 Queen 

Square, Bristol. 

J^2n7 Uf" o 5 }*Maokenzib, W. H Assistant Borough Engineer, 

TA1907 Nov. 2 I -» Bournemouth. 

1903 Mar. 21 Manning, W. B., A. M. Inst. Assistant Borough Surveyor, 

C.E. Town Hall, Chelsea. 

1904 Aug. 4 Marb,G. E District Offices, Hamilton, NJB. 

J! iXS t 55)*MATHmw f H. B., A.M.Inst. Chief Assistant, Borough En- 
TA1907 June 20/ QJL gineer , fl ^^ ^ 

TA1908 June 25}* M,LNER ' J " D » A.M.InstO.E. City Engineers Office, HuU. 

-tiom Jw' 1q1*Mitohbll, G Waterworks Engineer's Office, 

TA1901 Uct 19J Lincoln. 

1904 Sept. 19 Morrison, A. W. .. .. .. Burgh Engineer's Office, Edin- 
burgh, N.B. 



J*!™- ^ y ]21* Na thai«bl82, A. H., Assoc. District Engineer, P.W.D., 
taiju* Jan. iyj M . Inst.CE. Bungalow, Wegambo, Ceylon. 

*s^: !>-.,, x^r-To^a 

Walthamstow. 

JIimt S S J*Nbwman, W. W Assistant Engineer, Urban 

ta190< Nov. 2 J Digtriot ^^ w ; tfo|tL 

1904 Aug. 17 Oliver, J. B Burgh Engineer's Department* 

Edinburgh, N.B. 

TA1902 July ?2}*Opexshaw, J., A.M.InstO.E. Engineering Assistant, Town 

® j^ ^ r ' oqWakb, J. E n A.BlInstC.E. .. Chief Assistant, Engineer's 
' Office, Handsworth, Birming- 

ham. 



lviii LIST OF ASSOCIATES. 

Date or Election 
and Transfer. 

1904 Sept 5 Patbbbon, J. B Deputy Burgh Surveyor, Par- 

tiok, N.B. 

^88 »»•»-« »* *■£* £3* 6 S£ 

Staffs. 

1906 Jan. 20 *Pbbkixs, G. S Assistant Surveyor to the 

Urban District Council, 
hiqok T«« iQ* Teddington. 



1903 Deo. 12 ♦Race, A- Chief Assistant, Borough En- 

fineer's Office, Barrow-in- 
urness. 

1904 Aug. 31 Reid, M Burgh Engineer's Office, Pais- 

J!iuv7%!?' ?oh fil0HAM *> & p Engineer's' Office, Derwent 

TA1907 Jan. 19/ Valley Water Board, Bainford, 

vid Sheffield. 
1906 May 26 Robinson, W. P., B.Sc.(Vict.) Shiie Hall, Durham. 
A.M.Inst.CE. 

1902 Nov. 8 Rowbottom, J Chief Assistant, Borough Sur- 

veyor's Office, Ashton-under- 
Lyne. 

1903 June 6 Sadler, F Deputy Surveyor, Council 

Offices, Aoton, W. 

LfiSm 2f?L ?S1*Savao«, E. B., A.M.Inat C.E. Superintending Engineer, 

VAltTO May 1UJ gewerg & R iv6r8 Department, 

Council House, Birmingham. 

1904 May 28 *Smith, C. Y Assistant Borough Engiueer, 

Town Hall, Greenwich. 
1906 Apr. 28 Smith, H. J. T., A.M.Inst Assistant Engineer, Municipal 
CE. Offices, Caloutta. 

1904 Aug. 22 Stephen, T. M District Offices, Hamilton, N.B. 

1904 Apr. 80 Stoby, G. E Surveyor, Western District* 

Town Hall, Sheffield. 
1903 Mar. 21 Sutcliffe, H Deputy Borough Engineer 

To "" "" 



rown Hall, Huddersfleld. 



01899 June 10 



ta1905 Sen * 23(*Thaokebat, J. B Deputy Borough Surveyor, East- 

^" ' bourne. 

-}JEfi iffV 5°1*Thackbay, F. J Engineering Assistant, Rural 

TA1907 Nov. 2 J District Council, Burnley. 

1904 June 25 ♦Thompson, W., A.MJnst.C.E. Deputy Borough Engineer, 

Burton-on-Trent. 



1905 Sep. 23 Wabu, A. W., A.M. Inst. CE. Assistant Borough Surveyor, 

Stockport. 

TAl 902 Mar! 22}* WlUB » J * S - AM * 1l *' CX trough Engineer, Jarrow. 

01902 July 10\* Whitakeb, G. H., A.M.Inst. Chief Assistant, Borough En- 
TA1905 Jan. 28/ CE. gineer's Office, Sunderland. 



LIST OF ASSOCIATES. lix 



Date of Election 
and Transfer. 



1903 May 16 White, W. H. J., A. M. Inst Deputy Borough Engineer, 
C.E. Town Hall, Cheltenham. 

ta19€4 Feb' f/WmoiBY, J., AJUnstCE. Engineering Assistant, Munici- 
' pal Offices, Plymouth. 

61901 Aug. 24\* Wilkinson, H. F., AJkUnst Senior Engineering Assistant, 
TA1907 Not. 2 / C.E. Urban District Council, 

Tottenham. 
1902 Mar. 22 Williams, H. B. Chief Assistant, Borough En- 
gineer's Office, Workington. 

1902 July 10 Williams, J • Assistant Borough Surveyor, 

Town Hall, Hampstead, N. W. 

TA19&! Deo.* J^Wiluams, J. H 1>e ^7 Borou « n Bn g™**> 

1906 Apr. 28 Williams, S. G., Assoc M. Assistant Engineer, Municipal 
Inst C.E. Offices, Singapore, 8.S. 

®JS? fe e ?°WiL80H,F^ A.M.InslO.E. District Surreyor, 63 Queen 
TA19U1 Alec. 7 ) gqtlare> Brigtol 

4SEH* n " ,w * H ^y&&2r«* 

TAl902Feb 22/* Ybllakd ' T Assistant Borough Engineer, 

' Bury. 



GRADUATES. 



AU Graduate* have pasted the examination and hold the Teetamur 
of the Attociation. 



Date of Election. 
1906 April 28 

1893 Oct 2 

1905 June 22 

1890 Mar. 29 
1897 July 31 

1906 June 28 

1906 May 26 

1902 Mar. 22 

1903 Deo. 12 

1901 Aug. 24 
1889 June 8 
1892 Oct. 15 

1908 July 18 

1896 June 25 
1889 July 4 

1899 June 29 

1903 June 6 

1905 Jane 22 

p]904 June 25 

1902 July 10 

1906 June 28 

1897 June 19 

1906 May 26 
1906 Deo. 15 

1908 Jane 25 

1908 June 25 

1904 Dec. 3 

1894 July 7 

1908 Dec, 12 

1906 May 26 

1906 Dec. 15 
1904 May 28 
1904 Jan. 23 



Andrews, 8. H. ., .. .. Hendon House, Limesfbrd 

Boad, Nunhead, S.E. 

Ball, J. B., M. Inst G.E. . . Engineers Office, G.C. Railway, 

Marylebone, N.W. 
Barker, H. W Council House Hands worth, 

Birmingham. 
Batlbt, G. H., A.M.Inst.O.E. 19 Cooper Street, Manchester. 
Beard, E. T., M. Inst. O.E. . . Hill House, Walmer, Kent. 
Beaumont, B. H Greno Lodge, Grenoside, near 

Sheffield. 
Bentlet, W 468 St. Helens Road, Bolton, 

Lanes. 
Bebrinotox, E. E. W 28 Victoria Street, Westminster, 

S.W. 

Biker, W. J. E Municipal Offices^ Harrogate. 

Blanohard, B Town Hall, Leicester. 

Blizard, J. H., A.M .Inst C.E. Lansdowne House,Sou thampton. 
Bradshaw, J. B n A 31 .Inst Officers' Quarters, Library 

C.E. Street, Gibraltar. 

Brothers, L. D Borough Engineer's Office, 

Blackburn. 
Bruce, W Burgh Engineer's Office, 

Edinburgh. 
Brtans, J. G., A.M.Inst.CE. 277 Calle 25 de Mayo, Buenos 

Aires. 

Burgess, R. W. Town Hall. Stratford, E. 

Butler, H. L 18 Gay ton Road, Hampstead. 

Butler, R " Woodthorpe," Prospect Road, 

Tunbridge Wells. 

Butt, E. E. W Cou noil Offices, Birmingham. 

Button, F. E City Surveyor's Office, Man- 
chester. 



Caplen, Lu .. 
Cartlkdge, J. R. 



Castle, J. H 

Cathcart, A. B., A.M. Inst 

C.E. 
Chapman, H. J 



Charles, J. A. 



Clarke, R. E 

Clegg, H., A.M. Inst C.E. .. 

Cochrane, J. 

Conway, F. J. K 

Couzens, R. H 

Cowlishaw, H. H 

Cox, C.E 



RuBthull, Tunbridge Wells. 
Assistant Surveyor, District 

Council Offices, Barnes, S.W. 
27HighburyPark,Highbury,N. 
c/o Wator Engineer, St. Peter's 

Church Side, Nottingham. 
31 Smisby Road, Ashby-de-la- 

Zouch. 
Borough Engineer's Office, 

Barrow-in-Furness. 
Public Offices, Arnuld, Notts. 
Surveyor to the Urbau District 

Council, Felixstowe. 
15 Ure Place, Montrose Street, 

Glasgow. 
Borough Engineer's Office, 

Town Hall, Birkenhead. 
City Engineer's Office, Carlisle. 
108 Wellesley Road, Croydon. 
Windmill Hill, Cradley. Cradley 

Heath. 



LIST OF GRADUATES. bri 

Date of Election. 

1897 June 19 Oreswell, W. T 1 1 Victoria Street, S.W. 

1906 Sept. 22 Griswell, W Contractor's Office, Derwent 

Valley Waterworks, Bamford, 
Sheffield. 
1892 July 11 Cross, F. W., AJM. Inst C.E. "Iugleside," Clifton Road, 

Sutton Coldfield. 

1907 May 25 Crosslet, H. B Town Hall, Richmond, Surrey. 

1903 June 6 Cubitt, H. W County Hall, Spring Gardens, 

1905 Jan. 28 Darby, A. E... .. .... Town Hall, West Didsbury, 

Manchester. 

1901 June 8 Dayidge, W. R., Assoc. M. District Survoyor, Lowisham 

Inst. C.B. (West), 301a Brockley Road, 

S.B. 

1902 July 10 Dawkdto, F Borough Surveyor's Office, 

Bournemouth. 

1907 Nov. 2 dr Colville, H. M Caxton House, Westminster, 

S.W. 

1902 July 10 Deelby, G. P Moushall, Amblccote, Brierley 

Hill, Staffs. 

1904 May 28 Draper, J Council House, Handsworth, 

Birmingham. 

1903 Oct. 17 Duncan, L. G. .... .. 10 Hanover Buildings, South- 

ampton. 

1906 May 26 Batrs, T. W., A.M.InstO.E. '* Thornlen," Beeches Road, 

West Bromwich. 

1907 Sept 7 Edwards, B. W Municipal Buildings, Ponty- 

pridd. 

1906 Dec. 15 Edwards, J. H 9 Talbot Road, Wrexham. 

1898 Dec. 17 Essex, E. H., A.M. Inst O.E. Town Hall, Ley ton, N.E. 

1905 May 27 Farrar, W Town Hall, Todmorden. 

1886 Sept 11 Fenton, W. 10 Paradise Square, Si effield. 

1900 June 16 Fwheu, B 37 Inman Road,Harlesden,N.W. 

1903 July 25 Ford, J Lower House, Branscombe, Ax- 
minster. 

1903 Feb. 21 Foster, J. W Town Hall, Bradford. 

1903 June 6 Foster, W. A.. A.M.InstC.E. Town Hall, Acorington. 

1907 Dec. 14 Furness, D., Stud.Inst.CE. Town Hall, Blackpool. 

1903 June 25 Gettinos, S. S., Assoc. M. Resident Engineer's Office, 

Inst C.K. Tring, Herts. 

1899 June 10 Gibson, W. S "Everitta/'FinchleyLan^N.W. 

1888 July 12 Glass, S. N„ A.M. Inst. O.E. 16 Ravenscroft Road, Chiswick. 

1905 Jan. 28 Goddard, F. B 215 Balham High Road, Bal- 

ham, S.W. 

1906 Deo. 15 Goldsmith, W. H. .. .. Town Hall, Hull. 

1904 Deq. 3 Grove, A lParkhVldTerrace.Stourbridge. 

1905 June 22 Guxson, E., A.M. Inst O.E. c/o Grindlay & Co- Caloutta. 

1905 June 22 Hadfield, J. R District Council Offices, Barnes. 

1904 Jan. 23 Harkness, J 20 Duke Street. Edinburgh. 

1901 June 27 Harlow, W. W. R., Assoc. City Engineer's Office, Carlisle. 

M. Inst O.E. 

1908 May 23 Harmer, E. F 25 Mansion Road, Southampton. 

1906 Mar. 3 Harrison, J 355 Manchester Road, Burnley. 

1903 June 25 Harrison, P. T Borough Engineer, Dorchester. 

1907 Nov. 2 Harrison, W. A. Edgerton House, WinewaU, 

near Colne, Manchester. 



lxii LIST OF GRADUATES. 

D»*e of Election. 

1905 Oct. 28 Hassall, J Besident Engineer's Office, 

Western Valleys (Mon.) 
Sewerage Board, Bassaleg, 
Mon. 

1907 Mar. 2 Hazeltinb, C. A. 10 Snmmerhill Boad, South 

Tottenham. 

1908 Feb. 29 Hedges, H. N 55 Western Boad, Tring. 

1893 Jan. 14 Hellawbll, O Town Hall, Withington, Man- 
chester. 

1906 June 28 Hbwes, G. W , 27 Williams Boad, Burnley. 

1906 Deo. 15 Hewitt, A. G "Nntfield," Scarborough Boad, 

Filey. Yorkshire. 

1896 June 25 Hills, O. G 360 Mare Street, Hackney, N.E. 

1900 June 16 Hobson, E 117 Oakland Boad, Hills- 
borough, Sheffield. 

1906 Mar. 8 Holden, B. B Town Hall, Oldham. 

1907 Deo. 14 Holt. P., Stnd.Inst.CJi. .. Gloughfleld, near Manchester. 
1904 Oct. 29 Howell, H. EL, A.M.InstC.E. 63 Queen Sauare, Bristol. 

1903 Jan. 17 Howells, D. P„ AJOnst Municipal Engineer, Muizen- 

C.E. berg. Cape Colony. 

1907 May 25 Hotle, J. A. Borough Surveyor's Office, 

Haslingden. 

1907 Jan. 19 Hunt, G. F Council Offices, Leigb-on-Sea, 

Essex. 

1899 Jane 10 Hutohings, W. A. Springfield Brewery, Wolver- 
hampton. 

1904 Deo. 3 Hutchinson, H. F Engineer's Dept, Town Hall, 

Walthamstow. 

1909 Deo. 12 Jacques, H. S., A Ji.Inst.OJB. 5 Radnor Boad, Westbury-ou- 

Trym. 

1906 Deo. 15 Jbnkinson, F. 29b High Street, Rotherham. 

1905 Jan. 28 Jennings, W Borough Engineer's Office, 

Leyton. 

1907 May 25 Johnson, W. H. Town Hall, Great Yarmouth. 

1907 Sept. 7 Jones, F. E. Lisbourue Farm, Lisbourne 

Lane, Stockport. 
1903 July 25 Jones, T.. A.M.InstO.E. .. 53 Princes Street, South port. 

1906 Dec 15 Jones, T Townneld Boad, West Kirby. 

1906 May 26 King, J. S Council Offices, Friern Barnet, 

New Southgate, N. 
1903 June 25 Knight, B. B Council Offices, Bromley, Kent 

1903 June 25 Knowlks, G. P., AM. Inst. 89 Victoria Street, S.W. 

C.E. 

1907 Sept. 7 Laird, N. P Thuraby, near Leicester. 

1905 Dec 9 Lake, W. S., A.M.Inst.O.E. Borough Engineer's Offioe, 

Plymouth. 

1906 Dec 15 Lees, B. B 99 Autrobus Street, Congleton, 

Cheshire. 

1904 June 25 Lewis. H. M Town Hall, Staines. 

1904 Dec. 3 Line, H. W L.C.C., 19 Charing Cross Boad, 

S.W. 

1907 May 25 Loach, A. E Council House, Aston Manor, 

Birmingham. 

1906 June 28 Ludpobd, E. W. Belle Vne House, Bavensoourt 

Square, Hammersmith. 

1905 Sep. 23 Lyddon, A. J Engineer's Office, 28 Valentine 

Koad, King's Heath, near 
Birmingham. 



LIST OF GRADUATES. lxiii 

Date of Election. 

1905 May 27 MoArd, A. J Edge Hill, Whitehaven. 

1900 Deo. 15 MaoDonald, K. G 13 Charles Street, St. James's, 

S.W. 

1905 May 27 Mattland, W. H Town Hall, Hoylake. Cheshire. 

1903 June 25 Mann. £. £., B.So., A.M. Borough Engineer's Offloe, 

Iust.C.E. Southampton. 

1904 May 28 Mansfield, F Town Hall, Hereford. 

1903 Jan. 17 Marbian, H. G., Assoc. M. Bank Chambers, Twickenham. 
Inst C.E. 

1906 April 28 Marsh, F. E Municipal Engineer's Office, 

Singapore, S.S. 

1903 Jan. 17 Masters, W. H. Glencairn, Arthur Road, South- 

ampton. 
1906 Dec 15 Matthews, R. H 178 High Road, South Totten- 
ham, N. 

1905 May 27 Matthew, S South Villa, Crow Nest Park, 

Dewsbury. 

1900 June 16 Mattinson, H., A.M.Inst.C.E. 55 Piccadilly, Manchester. 

1904 May 28 Millar, P Borough Engineer's Office, 

Southampton. 

1901 Oct. 19 Milnes, B Town Hall, Birkenhead. 

1905 May 27 Minors, E City Engineer's Office, Wor- 

cester. 

1905 June 22 Morgan, G. L. 11 The Parade, Pontypridd. 

1899 June 10 Moss, P. A Town Hall, Upper Street, 

Islington. 

1902 Jan. 25 Moss, W 14 Hesketh Avenue, Didsbury, 

Manchester. 

1904 Dec. 3 Needham, J. E. • Municipal Engineer's Office* 

Shanghai. 

1906 Jan. 20 Newsome, S. H City Surveyor's Office, Sheffield. 

1904 May 28 Nichoils, R Borough Engineer's Office, 

Southampton. 

1896 June 25 Nightingale, C. F "Endellion," Buchanan Road, 

Walsall. 

1905 Sep. 23 Night, J « Highcliffe," Fulwioh Road, 

Dartford. 

1907 June 20 Ollevant, H. E. "Norwood," Nelson Street, 

Rot her ham. 
pl905 Jan. 28 Owen, J., A.M.Inst.C.E. .. Engineer's Department, L.C.C., 

Spring Gardens, S.W. 
1901 Aug. 24 Oxberry, F. W Borough Engineer, Kendal. 

1899 Oct. 21 Palmek, G.F "Oakland*," North Ormesby, 

Middlesbrough. 
1901 Feb. 6 Palmek, W. L.F., Assoc. M. City Engineer's Office, Bristol. 
Inst. C.E. 

1906 Deo. 15 Parker, E Stretford District Council 

Offices, Old Trafford, Man- 
cht stt-r. 

1904 May 28 Parker, J 9 Winchester Rd.,nford, Essex. 

1906 June 28 Parsons, A. S Borough Surve\or's Office, 

A s Ion Manor, Birmingham. 

1906 Dec 15 Peacock. J. L Sewage Works Contract, May- 
field. Sussex 

1906 June 28 Peabce, W. H Borough Engineer's Office, 

Southend-on-Sea. 



lxiv LIST OF GRADUATES. 

Date of Election. 

1904 June 25 Pearson, T. G Town Hall, Barrow-in-Furness. 

1896 Feb. 22 PRBKiNs,T.L.,A;M.Inst.C.E. P. W. D., Hong Kong. 

1903 Feb. 21 Peubott, E. S 6 Elliston Road, Redland, Bris- 
tol. 

1903 Dec. 12 Pebsry,W. C Town Hull, Barrow-in-Furness. 

1902 July 10 Phillips, R 410kehamptonRoad,Willesden, 

N.W. 
1901 Aug. 24 Pickin, W. H L.C.C. Works Department, Bel- 
vedere Road, Lambeth, S.E. 

1904 May 28 Pieboy, M. A The Grove, Eagle Road, Wem- 

bley, Middlesex. 
1907 May 25 Pimm, G. B. R. .. .• .. 2 Lamorna Place, Devonport 

1906 Dec 15 Pool, H 10 Jasper Street, Hanley, Staffs. 

1907 Mar. 2 Poulden, G. E. L., A.M. c/o A. Scott, Esq., Santiago, 

Inst.CE. Chili, S. America. 

1888 Sept 15 Pbitohard, T., M.Inst. C.E. 264 Gresham House, Old Broad 

Street, E.G. 

1898 Juno 30 Quick, A. H., Assoc M. Inst " Inverness," Malvern Road; 

C.E. Thornton Heath. 

1904 Dec 3 Quirk, J. J Borough Surveyor's Office, 

Swiudon, Wilts. 

1900 Deo. 15 Rawstron, C. O Surveyor's Office, Rural District 

Council, Lichfield, Staffs. 

1901 June 8 Read, F., Assoc M. Inst C.E. Public Offices, Pentre, Rhondda, 

Glam. 

1902 Nov. 8 Rbdfobd, W. T Town Hall, Eocles, Lanca. 

1904 May 28 Richmond, W. S Municipal Offices, High gate, N. 

1908 July 18 Roberts, L. G 189 High Road, Balham, S.W. 

1907 Deo. 14 Roddan, T. K Office of Public Works, City 

Chambers, Glasgow. 
1900 June 16 Rousell,A. J.,A.M.InstC.E. Borough Engineer's Offloe, 

Wortliing, Sussex. 

1905 June 22 Sagab, J. H Council Offices, High Street' 

Poplar. 

1906 May 26 Sawdon, J. S ... Municipal Buildings, Chelten- 

ham. 

1904 May 28 Schltjnd, W. T. 8 «* Dulce Domum," Cleanthus 

Road. Shooter's Hill, S.E. 

1902 July 10 Shepherd, G. G Town Hull, llford. 

1906 June 28 Sherwood, A. F Borough Surveyor's Office, 

Town Hall. Hammersmith. 

1899 June 29 Simms, F Town Hall, Sheffield. 

1905 May 27 Sissoks, F. P Assistant Borough Engineer, 

Hanlev. 

1905 Oct. 28 Slater, E. A., A.M. Inst 201 Maiden Road, Colchester. 

C.E. 

1906 June 28 Small, L. J Surveyor's Department, Hendon 

R.D.C., Great Stanmore, 
Middlesex. 

1906 Jan. 20 Smith, A North Road House, Fareham, 

Hunts. 

1898 Jan. 15 Smith, G. H 1 Worcester Road, Wimbledon. 

S.W. 

1906 May 26 Smith, W. B Public Offices, Hampton, 

Middlesex. 

1905 Mar. 4 Snape, A. E., M.Sc, A.M.Inst 102 Queen's Road, Norwioh. 
C.E. 

1898 June 30 Spink, J Citv Surveyor's Offloe, Man- 
chester. 



LIST OF GRADUATES, lxv 

Date of Election. 

1899 June 29 Stanton, F. W. S., AM. Inst. 28 Baldwin Street, Bristol. 

C.E. 
1907 June 20 Stanyeb, F Fullford House, Lichfield. 

1904 June 25 Stephenson, W. E. v A.M.lnst City Engineer's Office, Leeds. 

C.E. 
1906 Mar. 8 Sutcliffe, H 158 Todmorden Road, Burnley. 

1906 June 28 Tasman, H. E Town Hall, Islington, N. 

1900 Dec. 15 Taylor, H. T 3 North Terrace, Gt. Meolg, 

Hoylake, Cheshire. 

1902 July 10 Taylor, S Town Hall, Manchester. 

1907 Sept. 7 Thomas, E City Surveyor's Office, Man- 

chester. 

1907 Sept 7 Tomey, N. G 86 Trinity Road, Handsworth, 

Birmingham. 

1905 Sep. 23 Tonge, J. A 125 Nottingham Road, Mans- 

field. 

1900 June 16 Tremelling, H., Assoc. M. Borougli Engineer's Office, 

Inst. C.E. Newport, Mon. 

1903 Jan. 17 Tresedeb, F. H The Nurseries, Cardiff. 

1904 May 28 Tulley, G. W 64 Ashley Terrace, Edinburgh. 

1906 Sept. 22 Turton, C Penkridge, near Stafford. 

1905 Dec. 9 Underbill, G. B St. Stephen's, Canterbury, Kent. 

1904 May 28 Varey, J. A Westhill House, Chapel Aller- 

ton, Leeds. 

1905 May 27 Vernon, A Town Hall, Upper Street, Is- 

lington. 

1906 June 28 Wainwright, H. C 22 Haden Hill, Wolverhamp- 

ton. 
1888 Jan. 14 Ward, F. D., A. M. Inst C.E. 16 Hackins Hey, Liverpool. 

1897 June 19 Webb, F Town Hall, Chelsea. 

1898 Jan. 15 Wells, F. B , Assoc. M. Inst, o/o The Great Southern Rail- 

C.E. way Co., Buenos Aires. 

1902 Sept. 6 West, A. S., A.M.Inst.O.E... Borougli Engineer's Office, 

Harrogate. 
1902 Jan. 25 White, C. D Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Newton Abbot. 

1901 June 8 Whttefobd, E. H., AM. Inst. Engineer's Office, Derwent Val- 

CE. ley Water Board, Bamford, 

near Sheffield. 

1901 June 27 Willett, A. J 18 Castled ine Road, Anerley, 

S.E. 

1895 June 27 Williams, D. S Resident Engineer, Portsmouth 

New Waterworks, Farlington, 
Hants. 

1900 Dec. 15 Wills, A. J 3959 Penngrove Street, Phila- 
delphia, U.S.A. 

1900 July 19 Wrack, W. P 117 High Street, Poplar, E. 



1904 June 25 Wright, F. W. Resident Engineer's Office, 

Sewerage Works, Camberley, 

Surrey. 
1906 May 26 Wright, W., A.M. Inst C.E... Borough Engineer's Office, 

Southend-on-Sea. 
1906 June 28 Wrigley, G. E Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Sowerby Bridge. 



STANDING COMMITTEES. 



GENERAL PURPOSES COMMITTEE. 

THE PRESIDENT (ex-officio). 

J. PATTEN BABBER (Islington), Chairman. 

W. N. Blaib (St Pancras). W. Habpub (Cardiff). 

J. A. Bbodie (Liverpool). T. W. A. Hatwabd (Battersea). 

J. W. Cock bill (Great Yarmouth). Ohas. Jones (Ealing). 

A. E. Collins (Norwich). R. J. Thomas (Backs Co.). 

C. H. Cooper (Wimbledon). H. T. Wakelam (Middlesex Co.). 

A. Fidlkb (Northampton). C. F. Wikb (Sheffield). 

A. D. Gbeatobex (West Bromwieh). T. U. Yabbioom (Bristol). 



FINANCE COMMITTEE. 

THE PRESIDENT (ex-officio). 

T. H. YABBICOM (Bbistol), Chairman. 

J. P. Babbbr (Islington). Ghas. Jonbs (Ealing). 

J. A. Brodib (Liverpool). W. F. Loveday (Stoke Newington). 

A. E. Collins (Norwich). P. H. Palmer (Hastings). 

W. Harpur (Cardiff). R. Read (Gloucester). 

T. W. A. Haywabd (Battersea). R. J. Thomas (Bucks Co.). 



PAPER COMMITTEE. 

THE PRESIDENT (ex-officio). 

H. T. WAKELAM (Middlesex Co.), Chairman. 

J. Patten Barber (Islington). T. W. A. Haywabd (Battersea). 

J. A. Brodie (Liverpool). W. F. Loveday (Stoke Newington). 

J. W. Cockrill ((ireat Yarmouth). J. S. Pickering (Cheltenham). 

C. H. Coopeb (Wimbledon). R. Read (Gloucester). 

A. D. Gbeatobex (West Bromwieh). . R. J. Thomas (Buoks Co.). 



PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEE. 

THE PRESIDENT (ex-offleio). 

J. S. PICKERING (Cheltenham), Chairman. 

J. P. Babbek (Islington). A. Fidleb (Northampton). 

J. A. BiiODiE (Liverpool). A. D. Greatorex (West Bromwieh). 

J. W. Cookrill (Great Yarmouth). P. H. Palmer (Hastings). 

A. E. Collins (Norwich). H. E. Stilgoe (Birmingham). 

A. T. Davis (Shropshire County). C. F. Wire (Sheffield). 



EDITORIAL NOTE. 

The Council having decided that Volumes of "Pro- 
ceedings" shall in future contain a complete record 
of the work of the Presidential year covered, the 
present (84th) volume terminates with the last District 
Meeting held under the Presidency of Mr. John A. 
Brodie, and the Annual Report of the Council for the 
year 1907-08. 

Mr. Brodie's Presidential Address, together with 
the Proceedings at the last Annual Meeting will be 
found fully reported in Volume 88. 

The Presidential Address of Mr. E. Purnell Hooley, 
with the Proceedings of the year 1908-09. will be 
reported in Volume 35. — Ed. 



THE 

INCORPORATED ASSOCIATION OF MUNICIPAL 
AND COUNTY ENGINEERS. 



METROPOLITAN DISTRICT MEETING. 

July 6, 1907. 
Held at Westminster. 

J. Patten Babber, MJnst.C.E., Past-President, 
in the Chair. 



Mr. Barber apologised for the unavoidable absence of the 
President (Mr. John A. Brodie). 

Mr. W. F. Loveday was unanimously re-elected Honorary 
Secretary for the Metropolitan District. 

A general discussion then followed as to the advisability of 
holding quarterly meetings in the Metropolitan District, and it 
was finally resolved to recommend the Council to consider the 
question. 



4 SOUTH STAFFORDSHIRE JOINT SMALL-POX HOSPITAL. 

conveying the effluent to the carriers, and thence to the 12£ acres 
of land before discharging to the Brook. 

Half-round pipes are laid on the top of the sandy surface- 
soil for distributing purposes, each pipe being controlled by a 
disc-valve in the walls of the distributing channels, and by 
stops in the pipes. 

Great care has been necessary in the selection of the sandy 
surface-soil, since, if taken from any considerable depth, it does 
not contain the organisms necessary for purification purposes. 

The machinery comprises two oil-engines, each capable of 
developing 6£ brake horse-power at 250 revolutions per minute ; 
two horizontal, double-acting, single-cylinder guide-pumps for 
filtered water, 5-inch bore, 12-inch stroke, delivery 58 gallons 
at 40 revolutions per minute; two sets of horizontal three- 
cylinder ram pumps for sludge-lifting, 8-inch bore, and 18-inch 
stroke, each set delivering 350 gallons at 30 revolutions per 
minute. Two lime-grinding mills and lime-solution mixing- 
cylinders have also been provided. 

Very great difficulties were encountered in the laying of the 
intercepting sewers in the main thoroughfares, owing to the 
presence of old colliery workings, and at one stage of the work 
it was necessary to temporarily shore the Lichfield Street eleva- 
tion of the Town Hall, and afterwards to carry out special 
works to ensure the safety of the building. 

Arrangements have been made with the Wolverhampton 
Corporation for draining certain properties within their district 
which are at present unsewered, into the Bilston system. 

The total cost of the scheme when completed will amount 
to about 52,000J. 



South Staffordshire Joint Small-Pox Hospital. 

This Hospital, which was opened on December 4, 1905, has- 
been erected at Bradley in the Urban District of Bilston, and 
serves the County Borough of Wolverhampton, the Borough of 
Smethwick, the Urban Districts of Amblecote, Bilston, Coseley, 
Darlaston, Heath Town, Oldbury, Eowley Eegis, Sedgley, Short 
Heath, Tettenhall, Tipton and Wednesfield, and the Rural 
District of Kingswinford, which districts were, by a provisional 
order made by the Local Government Boar^d Trader section 279 



PLATE N° 



I 







I ■" 



To/aa pag€4 



SOUTH STAFtfORtfSHlUE JOINT SMALL-POX HOSPITAL* 5 

of the Public Health Act, 1875, formed into a united district, 
called "The South Staffordshire Joint Small-Pox Hospital 
District.'- The population of the area at the last census was 
362,578, the rateable value 1,374,105*., and the area 37,731 
acres. A penny rate in the pound produces 5725/. 

The site of the hospital is bounded on two sides by the 
Birmingham Canal, and is almost entirely isolated from dwelling 
houses. It is known as " Moorcroft Colliery," and contains a 
little over 56 acres. 

The buildings afford accommodation for forty patients, and 
for a sufficient staff of nurses, etc., to look after a larger number 
of patients should an epidemic arise. 

The building site is surrounded by an unclimbable galvanized 
iron fence 7 feet high, and consists of about 5 acres. The re- 
mainder of Hie site is fenced in with barbed wire fence. 

Immediately at the entrance to the building site there is a 
lodge with discharge block combined. 

The administrative block provides accommodation for a resi- 
dent doctor, matron, and fourteen nurses and servants. A large 
cooking kitchen, surgery, and store-rooms, and the necessary bath 
rooms and sanitary accommodation are also included in this block. 

The hospital itself consists of three pavilions. Nos. 1 and 
3 Pavilions will accommodate sixteen patients each, and No. 2 
Pavilion, which is an observation block for doubtful cases, will 
accommodate eight persons. 

Each of these pavilions is divided into two wards (male and 
female) with a nurses' kitchen separating them. Bathrooms 
and sanitary conveniences are also provided for each ward. 

The three pavilions are connected to each other, and also to the 
administrative block, by covered ways so constructed as not to 
prevent the free passage of air on all sides of the buildings. 

A laundry, harness-room, stables, ambulance shed, accommo- 
dation for infected and disinfected clothing vans, mortuary, 
destructor, and disinfector have been provided. 

Two concrete bases upon which additional pavilions or 
temporary accommodation may be erected upon emergency 
have also been constructed. 

The mortuary is provided with an air-tight inspection 
window, through which identification may be made without 
risk of infection. 



6 SOUTH STAFFORDSHIRE JOlKT SMALL-POX HOSPITAL. 

The buildings are erected in red. brick, and are of the 
simplest character possible, without any attempt at ornament 
or decoration. They are erected on concrete bases interlaced 
with steel joists bolted together. The floors are of teak, and 
the walls, being faced with "Albino" cement, are perfectly 
smooth, and no mouldings or acute angles have been introduced. 
All the corners are rounded off so as to allow no possible resting- 
place for dirt or disease germs. 

The buildings are lighted throughout by electricity, and the 
large pavilions are also wired for electric radiators. 

The ventilation and heating are carried out by natural means. 
The windows open in the " hopper " form at the top, and the 
sashes at the bottom can be continually open so as to allow a 
current of fresh air without causing draughts. The Moorwood 
Hospital stoves draw in fresh cold air, which, after passing 
through the stoves, enters the wards in a warmed condition. 

A special feature has been made of the doors, which are 
composed of deal and compo-boarding so framed together as to 
give a perfectly even surface on both faces without any mould- 
ings or panels. 

Exits are provided at the end of eaoh ward in addition to 
the central entrances in case of fire or panic. 

No complicated or expensive machinery has been provided 
which would require a skilled mechanic to be retained on the 
premises. 

The bathrooms are grouped round the kitchen in each 
block, thus avoiding extensive hot and cold water mains. 

The water supply is from the Bilston Urban District Council's 
mains, and provision is made for fire hydrants in each block 
and in the grounds. 

The furniture is simple and strong, but suitable, and has 
been specially designed or chosen for the several purposes for 
which it is required to be used. 

All the china, enamel, glass and cutlery are stamped and 
engraved, and the linen, etc., marked so as to distinguish the 
articles used by the patients from those used by the staff, and 
all from being used elsewhere. 

A telephone has been installed in the buildings. 

The drainage is treated upon the site, there being no main 
sewers within a considerable distance from the site. 



STONBFIELD COUNCIL SCHOOL. 7 

The grounds in the building area have been laid out in a 
simple manner with shrubs and trees, and about 30 acres of the 
remainder of the site have been planted with trees by the 
Midland Be-afForesting Association. By this means it is hoped 
that the value of the property will be increased, and its 
appearance rendered more attractive. 

The cost of the work, including the purchase of land, was 
£18,000. 

The buildings were designed by Mr. George Green, Assoc. 
MJnstC.E., Borough Engineer, Wolverhampton. 



Stonefield Council School. 

This School was opened on August 2, 1906. 

When the Bilston Education Committee was first formed in 
September, 1903, in pursuance of the Education Act, 1902, it 
was at once apparent that further School accommodation was 
urgently needed in Bilston. The existing Schools were over- 
crowded, and the Committee felt that they should be put on 
the 10 square feet basis of accommodation as early as possible. 
With this proposal the Board of Education agreed, and urged the 
Committee to build Schools to provide for the surplus children. 

The School, which accommodates 1200 children, is built on 
the class-room principle, and special centres are provided for 
instruction in Manual Training and Cookery. 

Large Central Halls, 60 feet long by 26 feet 6 inches wide 
in the Boys' and Girls' Departments, and 62 feet by 24 feet in 
the Infant Department, are provided and so arranged in each 
case that the Head Teacher can exercise supervision over the 
Classes in the Class-rooms from the desk in the Central Hall. 

In each of the Boys' and Girls' Departments there are six 
Class-rooms, measuring 25 feet by 24 feet, and one measuring 
20 feet 6 inches by 20 feet. Arrangements are made in each 
of these departments for two of the larger Class-rooms to open, 
by means of folding partitions, to add to the space of the 
Central Hall. 

In the Infant Department there are six Class-rooms, each 
23 feet 6 inches by 23 feet 6 inches, and one 20 feet 6 inches 
by 20 feet. 



8 BILSTON WATERWORKS. 

There is also provided a Science Lecture Theatre, measuring 
28 feet 6 inches by 22 feet at the angle of the Boys' and Girls' 
Departments, which will be used by these two departments 
only. 

In each department there is a private room for the Head 
Teacher, and suitable cloak-room, lavatory, store, and play- 
shed accommodation is provided in accordance with the 
requirements of the Board of Education. 

There is a Manual Training Centre, 62 feet by 22 feet, fitted 
up with work benches for woodwork. This centre is utilised 
by the children attending the upper standards of all the public 
elementary schools of Bilston. 

The Cookery Centre adjoins the Girls' School, and is 32 feet 
6 inches by 25 feet. 

The School is fitted throughout with electric' light and 
electric bells, and heated on the low pressure system. The 
furniture is on the dual desk system. 

The total cost of this school, including the site of 3 acres, 
was 17,457/. 18*., or about 14/. 10s. per head. Exclusive of 
Manual Training and Cookery Centres, the cost works out at 
about 13/. per head. 



Waterworks. 

The water supply to the township is derived from a well 
in the red sandstone situate at the Bratch, in the parish of 
Wombourne, about 7 miles from Bilston. The level of the 
floor of the engine house is 267 feet above O.D., and from 
here the water is lifted a height of about 440 feet from the 
level of the water in the well to the service reservoir, through 
some 4 miles of 14 inch main. 

A very complete description of these works was given in a 
paper read by the late Mr. C. L. N. Wilson, at the District 
Meeting of this Association, held at Bilston, on September 17, 
1898. 

The following particulars may, however, be of interest: — 

(A) Statement, showing the total income, expenditure, etc. 

(B) The position of the loans at March 31, 1907. 



BILSTON WATERWORKS. 







Total 








Year. 
March 31 

to 
March 31. 


Total income. 


expenditure. 

Including interest 

on and 

repayment of 

loans. 


Interetton 

and 

repayment of 

loans. 

£ «. d. 


Payments in 
excess of 
receipts. 


Receipts in 
excess of 
payments. 




£ *. d. 


£ t. d. 


£ s. d. 


£ «. d. 


1897-96 


4709 5 5} 


6456 15 4 


8145 7 


1747 9 10* 


— 


1898-99 


4865 8 8 


6266 8 11 


8185 8 4 


1400 15 8 


— 


1899-00 


5017 19 5 


6993 3 6 


3771 14 6 


1975 4 1 


— 


1900-01 


5243 8 5 


7181 18 6 


8687 9 10 


1888 10 1 


— 


1901-02 


5889 11 4 


7261 8 6 


3785 17 2 


1871 17 2 


— 


1902-08 


5584 9 4 


6462 18 10 


3220 4 8 


928 4 6 


— 


1903-04 


5688 16 2 


5989 16 


8210 4 10 


850 19 10 


— 


1904-05 


5875 10 10 


6106 6 1 


8198 2 8 


230 15 8 


— 


1905-06 


6878 9 8 


5977 8 1 


8068 2 7 


— 


401 6 2 


1906-07 


6847 15 4 


6648 17 6 


8048 


— ~ 


887 14 10 



Date. 


Amount. 


Rate of 
Interest. 


Term 

of 
years. 


Animal charge. 


Amount out- 
standing at 
March 31, 1907. 


Date when loan 

will be fully 

repaid. 


Feb. 28,1894 
June 27, 1894 
Oct. 28,1896 

Oct. 18,1898 


10,000 

25,000 

7,750 

6,937 


per cent. 
8» 
81 
8 

2? 


50 
50 
50 

80 


£ s. d. 

486 
1089 19 9 

801 4 2 
/With interest 
\ 282 / 
j With interest* 
\ 85 / 


£ s. d. 

8,806 9 6 

22,297 17 4 

6,962 6 9 

5,081 


Feb! 28,1944 
June 29, 1944 
Oct. 28,1946 

Oct. 18,1928 


Oct. 18,18981 850 


2? 


10 


170 


Oct. 18,1908 


Dec. 8,1899 11,000 


8J 


50 


/With interest 
\ 220 0, / 


8,800 


Dec. 8,1946 


May 23,1900 2,242 


Si 


30 


118 2 8 , 1,947 9 7 


May 23,1930 


Sept. 28, 1908 1,500 


81 


80 


{WUfc merest}, ^ Q Q 


Sept. 28, 1988 



The following statement gives the consumption of water for 
trade and domestic purposes for the ten years ending March 31, 
1907, from which it will be observed- that with the exception 
of the years 1902-03 and 1903-04, the supply for trade pur- 
poses has steadily increased, the , lowest consumption being 
38,962,110 gallons in the year 1898-99, and the highest 
69,968,842 in the year 1906-07. 



10 



BILSTON WATERWORKS. 



The average daily consumption during the four consecutive 
years ending March 31, 1902, was at the rate of 1948 gallons 
per head of the population. The average for the four con- 
secutive years ending March 31, 1907, was 1675 gallons per 
head per day of the population. 

In these calculations the year 1897-98 has been ignored, as 
excessive amounts were pumped in the early months of that 
year, due to the fact that the pumps were used to enable the 
well-sinkers to complete the well. 



1897-98. 
Annual consumption ... 
Average daily consumption 
Daily consumption per head 

1898-99. 
Annual consumption ... 
Average daUy consumption 
Daily consumption per head 

1899-00. 
Annual consumption . . . 
Average daily consumption 
Daily consumption per head 

190O-01. 
Annual consumption ... 
Average daily consumption 
Daily consumption per head 

1901-02. 
Annual consumption ... 
Average daily consumption 
Daily consumption per head 

1902-03. 
Annual consumption ... 
Average daily consumption 
Daily consumption per head 

1908-04. 
Annual consumption . . . 
Average daily consumption 
Daily consumption per head 



Basinets by 



Domestic Including 



44,098,975 
120,805 
8-89 



88,962,110 
106,745 
8*44 



40,948,720 
112,175 
8-50 



48,024,000 
181,572 
4-06 



48,552,010 
188,019 
409 



46,054,087 
126,176 
8*87 



46,747,960 
127,726 
8-90 



business, watering 
streets, etc. 



255,278,415 
699,879 
22-56 



288,967,560 
641,062 
20-68 



212,676,920 
582,676 
18-21 



228,802,605 
626,857 
19-34 



288,604,580 
640,012 
19-69 



199,566,898 
546,757 
1674 



188,788,840 
502,004 
15*82 



ToUl. 



299,867,890 
820,183 
26-45 



272,949,670 
747,807 
2412 



258,620,640 
694,851 
21-71 



276,826,605 
758,429 
28*40 



282,156,540 
778,081 
23-78 



245,620,485 
672,983 
20-61 



280,481,800 
629,780 
19-22 



VISITS TO WORKS. 



11 



1904-06. 
Annual consumption ... 
Average daily consumption .., 
Daily consumption per head .., 

190&-O6. 

Annual consumption , 

Average daily consumption 
Daily consumption per head ♦. 

1906^07, 

Annual consumption , 

Average daily consumption 
Daily consumption per head .., 



Basinets by 
metre. 



50,118,000 
187,809 
409 



57,548,040 
157,666 
4-59 



9,968,842 
191,695 
559 



Domestic, including 



business, watering 
streets, etc. 



198,158,450 
542,886 
16-17 



213,078,285 
588,776 
17*02 



281,748,008 
684,912 
18-51 



Total. 



248,271,450 
680,195 
20-26 



270,626,275 
741,442 
21-61 



801,711,850 
826,607 
24-10 



Visits to Works. 

The Members then drove in brakes to the new outfall 
sewerage works, which they inspected under the guidance of 
Mr. Wakeford and Mr. George Latham. They subsequently 
drove on to the South Staffordshire Small-Pox Hospital, and 
were shown over the premises by Mr. Green. 

Lunch was partaken of at Bilston at the invitation of the 
Chairman and Members of the Council, Mr. Skemp presiding. 

After lunch the members watched a tar-spraying apparatus 
at work, and visited the new Council Schools at Stonefield. 
They subsequently drove to the waterworks pumping-station, 
where the powerful machinery was inspected, and tea was 
partaken of at the invitation of Councillor Sankey. 

Mb. A. D. Gbeatobex : I should like to propose a hearty 
vote of thanks to Mr. Wakeford for the paper he has written 
for the occasion, and also for the privilege he has given us of 
seeing the works we inspected to-day. 

Mr. J. T. Eaybs : I have pleasure in seconding the vote of 
thanks. 

Mr. Wakeford : I am obliged for your vote of thanks for 
the paper, which I should prefer to call a few notes on the 
works we visited. As a matter of fact the notes on the 
Hospital were supplied by Mr. Green, the Borough Surveyor of 
Wolverhampton, who was the architect of the building. 



12 



COMMUNICATED KEPLY TO DISCUSSION. 

Mr. G. Green, in reply to Mr. H. Richardson : The follow- 
ing are the particulars asked for regarding the Small-Pox 
Hospital : — 

Spaoe per bed. . . . 2028 cubic feet 

Floor area per bed . . 156 square feet 

Window area per bed . 40 „ 

Cost per cubic foot of the building . about ScL 

Mr. G. B. Latham, in reply to Mr. A. Burton : 

Question. — " I notice the capacity of the tanks is equal to 
20 to 30 hours' dry-weather flow of sewage of future population. 
Will you say why this particular proportion is chosen ? " 

Answer. — "The capacity of the settling tanks is calculated 
that four of them will hold six hours' flow of an average rainy 
day, the average rainy day being arrived at by dividing the 
amount of rainfall by the number of days on which it falls, 
and in this case it came to 0165 inch per rainy day/' 

Question. — " It appears to me that the thickness of 3 feet 
6 inches medium so close in nature as that shown to us, would 
be liable to clog very soon unless the tank effluent is very 
clear. I should like to know if a similar bed for a similar kind 
of sewage has been in operation anywhere, and what has been 
the experience gained therefrom." 

Answer. — " Filters of this description were first put down at 
Friern Barnet, and commenced working in 1887; the sewage 
was treated with sulphate of alumina and lime before going on 
to the filter. The effluent from the filters discharges direct 
into a stream without any land treatment. An analysis of the 
effluent from these works on September 5, 1899, after twelve 
years' working, was as follows : — 



Total solid matter .. 

Chlorine 

Chlorine sodium chloride 

Nitrogen as free ammonia 

Nitrogen albd. ammonia 

Nitrogen as nitrates 

Nitrogen as nitrites 



Crude sewage 


Effluent taken 


entering works 


from No. 1 bed 


Sept. 6, 1099. 


Sept.. 5, 1899. 


987 


631 


024 


817 


15-22 


1342 


7-840 


0-5040 


0-3584 


00291 


— 


8*640 


faint trace 


— 



COMMUNICATED REPLY TO DISCUSSION. 



13 



Oxygen absorbed in 3 minutes at 80° Fahr. 

Oxygen absorbed in 4 hours 

Oxygen absorbed after 5 days* incubation 80° 

Fahr. in 3 minutes 

Suspended matter — 

Organic 

Inorganic 



Crode sewage 
entering works 
Sept. 5, 1899. 




Effluent Uken ' 
from Mo. l bed 
Sept. 5, 1899. 



0-084 
0-357 

0070 



' (Signed) R. H. Hablakd, F.LC, F.O.S., 

" 37, Lombard Street, E.C. 



" This was without any preparation for the sample being 
taken, the visit being a surprise one. Similar filters have also 
been constructed at Pontefiract, where lime precipitation only is 
used, the sewage being acid, and where the Local Government 
Board sanctioned the direct discharge into a stream without 
land treatment. There are also several places where these 
filters have been used with an effluent from a septic tank 
without any chemical treatment with very good results with 
careful management. Before these works were carried out an 
experimental filter was made and the effluent from it analysed, 
with the following results : — 



Grains per gallon. 



Sewage. 



Effluent. 



Dissolved solids 

Chlorine 

Nitrogen as free ammonia 

Nitrogen as albd. ammonia 

Nitrogen as nitrites 

Nitrogen as nitrates 

Oxygen absorbed in 15 minutes at 80° Fahr. 
Oxygen absorbed in 4 hours 
Suspended matter — 

Organic 

Inorganic 

Total 

Incubation 5 days at 80° Fahr. 



115-5 
35-3 
2*680 
0672 



1-604 
2-130 



1260 
370 
0069 
0-033 

2-619 
0056 
0126 



2-53 \mero 

Ml Jtraoo 

5-84 
Effluent dear and bright, 
no smell 



" (Signed) R. H. Hablakd, F.I.C., F.C.S., 

44 37, Lombard Street, E.C. 



14 COMMUNICATED REPLY TO DISCUSSION, 

Question. — " Upon what basis is the 133 gallons per yard 
for the filter 5 feet thick taken ? " 

Answer. — " The basis on which the sewage filters are calcu- 
lated is 150 gallons per mean yard area of the filters. The 
surface area, owing to the ramp of the banks, is somewhat 
larger than the mean area, hence the figure 133 gallons per 
yard." 

Question. — "With relation to the treatment of the sewage 
with lime for preoipitating purposes, I should like to know 
what would be the probable result upon bacteria filters and 
upon the effluent resulting from alkalinity of the tank 
effluent." 

Answer. — " We have found that a slightly alkaline effluent 
is good for these filters, but should the effluent be at all acid it 
will throw the filter out of work for a short period. It has 
been found at Friern Barnet that only a very small quantity of 
sulphate of alumina is required to be used." 

Mr. G. Green, in reply to Mr. A. Burton : 

Question. — " In the mortuary of the Small-Pox Hospital, as 
far as I could see, the lantern was protected inside with wire 
netting of about g-inch mesh. It seems to me that very much 
finer gauze ought to be used in order to prevent any flies from 
coming in contact with any bodies which might be deposited 
there, as I understand that such contact is a most dangerous 
cause of the spreading of this fearful disease." 

Answer. — " With regard to the wire netting placed over the 
louvres of the mortuary, I may say that this was placed there 
to keep the birds from getting inside and building there; it was 
not in any way intended to keep out flies. I do not think 
there would be any danger arising from the latter insects, as the 
mortuary would be kept particularly clean, and the bodies 
would not be exposed. They would at once be put in coffins, 
and closed down ; besides which the place would be abundantly 
supplied with disinfectants, which would keep the flies out." 



WESTERN DISTRICT MEETING. 

•October 19, 1907. 

Held in the Town Hall, Teignnunith. 
W. Harpur, MJnst.C.E., Past-President, in (lie Chair. 



Mr. F. Slocombb, J.P., Chairman of the Teignmouth Urban 
District Council, offered the Association a hearty welcome. 

Mr. W. Harpur, having apologised for the unavoidable 
absence of the President, thanked the Chairman for the kind 
welcome he had extended to the Members of the Association. 

The resignation of Mr. J. S. Pickering from the Western 
District Hon. Secretaryship having been received with regret, 

Mr. T. Moulding, City Engineer, Exeter, was unanimously 
elected in his stead. 



MUNICIPAL WOBKS AT TEIGNMOUTH. 

By CHAELES F. GETTINGS, Surveyor and Water 
Engineer to the Urban District Council. 

The area of the Urban District (exclusive of area covered by 
water) is 1635 acres, the residential population about 8700, and 
number of inhabited houses 1950. During the summer season 
the population is increased by 5000. The gross rateable value 
is 46,950*. 

The following satisfactory abstract is included in the Medical 
Officer's (Dr. F. C. H. Piggott, B.A., and B.C. Cantab.) Annual 
Report for the year 1906. 



16 



MUNICIPAL WORKS AT TEIGNMOUTH. 



Births. 



No. 



150 



Bate. 



17-42 



Deathi. 



No. 



Bate per 

1000 
births re- 
gistered. 



14 933 



Deaths all 



No. 



124 



Bate. 



14-40 



10 



Nettd 
at all ages. 



No. 



Bate. 



134 15*56 



The zymotic mortality 0*11 (compared with 1*52 for England 
and Wales). 

Geological. 

The geological formation is of the New Red Sandstone. 
The mean rainfall is 33*04 inches, the number of wet days 
176, and the mean humidity 82. 

Roads and Streets. 

The whole of the roads in the District, except private roads, 
are repaired direct by the Council, the length of main roads 
being 3$ miles, .and other roads 24 miles. The cost of the 
upkeep of the main roads is 485/. per annum, towards which 
the County Council contribute 375/. The County Council 
grant additional sums for improvements. The main roads are 
subjected to the heaviest traffic in the distriot, as they form the 
three principal entrances to the town. 

Considerable attention has been given to the roads during 
the past three years, especially with regard to reforming the 
contour, in some cases as much as 6 inches having been taken 
off the crown of the road. Limestone and flint were the 
principal materials used, but, owing to competition, the Author 
has been able to practically discard both these materials for 
granite. The stone is obtained from the Trusham quarries. 
This material has been subjected to some severe tests, and is 
one favourably reported on by Mr. Lovegrove with regard to the 
attrition test. It is broken to an even size, the gauges generally 
being If inches and 2 inches. The average cost for coating 
with granite, including scarifying and rolling complete, is 9tf . per 
sup. yard. Since using granite the cost of street scavenging 
has decreased, and a much improved surface has been obtained. 



STRICT Kj 

Crosse 



.jjj^jp —..>. ■ ■» 



i 






MUNICIPAL WORKS AT TEIGNMOUTH. 17 

Limestone is now used for tar macadam purposes only, and 
flints only in repairs to the outlying roads where it is less 
expensive carting owing to the pits being in the immediate 
vicinity. During the past twelve months the side streets have 
received special attention, and where the gradients will permit 
they have been coated with tar macadam. Last autumn and 
the early part of this season the east end of the Promenade 
was coated with tar macadam and asphalte, and just recently 
the length of road from the Beach Hotel to Courtenay House 
has been coated. The latter section had a large amount of 
material, principally granite, on the road, but was most irregular 
and lumpy. The whole area was scarified, the stone turned 
over and regulated and dry rolled. It was then coated with a 
1-inch layer of fine asphalte and thoroughly steam "rolled and 
sprinkled with dry limestone dust. The cost finished complete 
was 9d. per sup. yard. The section between Courtenay House 
and Pier entrance has been coated with tar macadam 3 inches 
thick, and a fine coat of asphalte to fill in interstices. The cost 
of this work was Is. 3£d. per sup. yard. Both these sections 
will be open for inspection. 

In a number of the by-streets asphalte paving 3 inches in 
thickness has been adopted for the footpaths, the lower two 
inches being of 1-inch gauge, and the upper layer of f inch 
to dust. 

Fortunately the Author is in a position to manufacture tar 
macadam and asphalte at a very moderate cost compared with 
many towns, the stone and tar being obtainable at a reasonable 
price. The latter is obtained from the Council's gasworks, and 
is very good in quality. The method adopted in making tar 
macadam and asphalte is as follows : The stone and chippings 
are delivered dry and put under cover in the depot. This 
material is then filled into drying machines, where it remains 
for a night. Iron mixing platforms are provided under the 
shed with the dryers immediately adjacent, and as the stone 
or chippings are drawn from the dryer they are thoroughly 
incorporated with a boiling mixture of tar, pitch, and creosote. 
The Author prefers to leave the material in the depot for a 
month before being used, as it has been found from experience 
that it is more satisfactory and wears longer. 

Salt water is used for street watering with veiy satisfactory 

c 



18 MUNICIPAL WORKS AT TEIGNMOUTlf. 

results. The Author has experimented with several patent dust 
layers, and, in his opinion, some are not so good as sea-water. 

The Author has carried out a number of road widenings and 
improvements, and the work has been principally done by 
direct labour, the total cost amounting to about 25001, 

Parks and Pleasure Grounds. 

The total area of the pleasure grounds is about 12 acres, 
which embraces The Den, Bitton Park, and a number of small 
plots in various parts of the town. The whole of the grounds 
are maintained directly by the Council's staff, under the Author's 
supervision. All the bedding plants are propagated in the 
greenhouse adjacent to the lifeboat house, and the Author 
considers that the results achieved compare favourably with 
any other seaside resort of a similar size, and probably with 
many much more important. 

A scheme for laying out the remainder of The Den has 
recently been submitted, which provides for the erection of a 
pavilion, and levelling the ground so that it can be adapted for 
bowls or other games. 

Foreshore Protection. 

The question of dealing with the Foreshore is continually 
being discussed, and the matter is a serious one financially for 
a small town and a difficult one from an engineering aspect. 
The sands are continually shifting according to local climatic 
conditions. The Author has prepared a scheme in which it is 
proposed to use the chain cable groyne as invented by Mr. 
AUanson Winn. The chief reason for this recommendation is 
owing to initial cost, and he understands that good results have 
been obtained on the west coast of Ireland. If any member 
can give information on this subject the Author will be pleased 
to receive it. 

Sewerage. 

The bulk of the sewage from Teignmouth is delivered into a 
storage tank in the harbour situate at Gales Hill, the capacity 
of this being equal to about 225,000 gallons. Until 12 months 



MUNICIPAL WOKKS AT TEIGNMOUTH. 19 

ago this tank was not railed round, and had open grids for 
ventilators, A number of complaints were made with regard 
to the smell, and the Author advised fencing it in with iron 
railing, closing up the open grids, and providing one of Webb's 
patent sewer gas lamp extractors, together with three inlet 
shafts. The Council adopted these recommendations, and no 
objections have since been received. The lamp is doing its 
work very satisfactorily. The outlet from this tank is regulated 
by hand on the ebb tides. 

There are three other sewer outlets on the Teignmouth side 
above Gales Hill which discharge directly into the river. 

Shaldon and Kingmore were sewered at the same time as 
Teignmouth, and have a tank sewer which is worked in a 
similar manner to that at Gales Hill. 

On the whole these arrangements give fairly satisfactory 
results, although occasional complaints are received through the 
sewage getting up the river, but it has not yet been sufficiently 
serious for the river authorities to take any action in the 
matter. 



House Refuse and Street Scavenging. 

Particular attention is given to the removal of house refuse. 
The central portion of the town is cleared daily, and with the 
exception of the outlying parts (which are cleared weekly) the 
refuse is removed from other portions of the district twice a 
week. There are no privies in the district, and the greater part 
of the collection is made from proper sanitary bins which are 
provided by the householders. Unfortunately the cost of 
removal is increased by the long distance to the tip, which is 
one mile from the centre of the town. The district being 
residential, a large portion of the refuse collected is of a light 
character, and the quantity removed during last year amounted 
to 5873 loads. The average cost per load is 2s. 10d. 9 including 
rent for tip. 

A refuse destructor scheme was submitted some few years 
ago, and was deferred on account of the cost, but the Author 
considers this is the only practical and sanitary method of 
dealing with the difficulty, and one that will have to be faced. 



20 MUNICIPAL WORKS AT TEIGNMOUTH. 

The whole of the streets in the centre of the town are 
scavenged daily, and alternate days on the outside. Covered 
orderly wagons are kept going continually in the town. 



New Streets and Buildings. 

The model bye-laws and the Private Street Works Act, 1892, 
have been adopted, and are strictly enforced. About two years 
ago the Author submitted plans for standard sections for all 
new roads which the Council approved, and these are now 
strictly adhered to. 

Three large estates are now in course of development, and a 
record number of plans for new houses have been approved 
during the current year. 

Fire Brigade. 

The Council have an efficient Fire Brigade, which is well 
equipped with modern appliances, including a Merryweather 
steamer and escape. All the members of the Brigade are 
connected by telephone, and there are three call stations in the 
town, in addition to the central station. 

Public Conveniences. 

The town has been rather deficient in the matter of public 
conveniences, as there are only three provided. The Author has 
prepared plans for a new underground convenience on the 
Promenade, which is now in course of construction. 

The accommodation provided in this convenience is 11 
urinals, 4 W.C.'s, and lavatory with 3 basins, together with 
separate attendant's store on the Men's side; and 6 W.C.'s, 
with lavatory of 2 basins on the Female side. The brickwork 
will be built in cement with vitreous brick, and the whole of 
the interior will be lined with 6 in. by 3 in. white glazed 
tiles. The fittings are to be in best heavy white glazed fireclay, 
and the woodwork in polished teak. The cost of the whole 
work complete, including drainage, will be 1020/. 



MUNICIPAL WORKS AT TEIGNMOUTH. 21 



Mortuary. 

A public mortuary is provided at Gales Hill, and is fitted 
up with the usual equipment. 

Burial Board. 

The Urban Authority are constituted as a Burial Board, and 
the Author is Surveyor to the Board. About two years ago the 
Author was instructed to prepare plans, etc., for an extension 
of the existing Cemetery, and the Board purohased about 4£ 
acres of land immediately adjacent. The ground purchased has 
been enclosed with a dwarf stone wall and iron fence. About 
2£ acres have been laid out, the remainder being left for further 
extension. The subsoil being wet, the whole of the land has 
been under-drained 12 feet deep. With the exception of the 
boundary wall and fence, the whole of the work was carried out 
by direct labour under the Author's supervision, and it has 
recently been completed. The total cost has been 4500/., 
including 2200/. for land. 

Isolation Hospital. 

This was erected in 1905-1906, the site of 1£ acres forming 
part of an estate of 6^ acres purchased by the Council for 
purposes of a Public Park, at a total cost of 3300/. The position 
was approved by the Local Government Board, with the stipu- 
lation that the area proposed to be reserved for Hospital purposes 
should be increased (by £ acre) to its present size. 

The site is an ideal one and overlooks the harbour; it is 
enclosed by a Karri close-pale fence 6 feet 6 inches high. The 
Council act as Port Sanitary Authority, and it is proposed to 
provide direct communication with the Harbour by means of a 
bridge across the intervening G.W.E. line, and private steps. 

The hospital accommodation is for eight beds, the Board's 
recommendations as to wall, floor, and air space having been 
strictly adhered to. There is a Male and Female block, each 
having two wards with Nurses' Duty Room between, and bath- 
room, all communicating only with the external verandah. 
The two blocks are built end to end, but with the doors and 



22 MUNICIPAL WORKS AT TEIGNMOUTH. 

verandahs on opposite sides. The out offices, comprising 
slop-sink, W.C., and coal store, are built in the centre of each 
block, but separated from the main building by the verandah. 

In a separate block is provided a Laundry, Beck Steam 
Disinfector with separate admission and delivery rooms, 
Mortuary, Ambulance Room, and Store. 

The Administration House has accommodation for the 
Medical Officer, Matron, and three Nurses, and is connected 
by private telephone with each hospital block. 

The buildings are faced with "Nori" bricks, with terra 
cotta heads, sills and strings, the walls are 16-inch hollow 
walls, and the roofs are covered with Portmadoc slates laid on 
close boarding and felt. The verandah and bath-room floors are 
laid in terrazo, all others are wood, the space underneath being 
covered with 6 inches of concrete. The wards are ventilated 
by means of floor ventilators behind each bed, with a counter- 
poise valve ventilator in the chimney, and a ridge extractor 
to each ward, and are heated by means of slow combustion 
open fire grates. All internal woodwork is flush with the 
walls, which are plastered, and all internal, external, and vertical 
angles are rounded. The verandahs are glazed with patent 
glassing. The sewage is treated by means of a covered settling 
tank and small percolating filter, being distributed by means of 
an automatic distributor, the effluent being discharged into the 
public sewer. 

The cost, exclusive of purchase of land, was as follows : — 
Buildings, £2496; Fencing, £103; Disinfector, £103; Outfall 
Works, £42 ; making a total cost of £2744, or a cost per bed 
of £343. 

Watee Supply. 

Source, — The water supply for Teignmouth is obtained from 
three sources, viz. : a deep well and borehole situate at Mylor, 
the Venn, and Haldon Streams. 

For distribution purposes the district is divided into two 
zones; the High Level reservoir known as Hazeldown is 
situate on Haldon Hill, the top water-level being 424*5 feet 
above O.D. It is covered in, and divided into two compart* 
ments, the total capacity being about 1,600,000 gallons. This 



MUNICIPAL WORKS AT TEIGNMOUTH. 23 

reservoir is supplied from the Haldon Spring and Mylor Well. 
The Low Level reservoir is situate at Landscore, is covered 
in, has one compartment, and the capacity is about 300,000 
gallons; the top water-level being 133*0 above O.D. It is 
supplied by the Venn Stream and Mylor Well and bore 
hole. 

Mylor Well— Mylor Well is 82 feet deep, 10 feet in 
diameter, and is connected with adits which are driven from 
another well situate about 45 yards West. The total length 
of the adits is about 102 yards, and the diameter 5 feet 

Mylor Pumping Plant — The following is a brief description 
of the engines, gas plant, and pumping machinery: — Two 
Crossley gas engines of sixteen nominal horse-power, and 
6-inch water vessels for each engine, with complete sets of 
water-circulating, air, and exhaust pipes, the latter being 
carried out to silencers outside the engine house. The gas 
plant consists of a patent Economic plant, with one generator, 
hydraulic box, superheating boiler and feed pump, one washer 
and one gas holder 6 feet diameter by 6 feet deep, with com- 
bined tank and scrubber. One set of 3-throw pumps, 9-inch 
diameter barrels, with 24-inch working stroke, which are capable 
of lifting 222 gallons per minute through 440 yards of 8-inch 
rising main to Landscore reservoir, which is a lift of 132 feet. 
There is also one set of 3-throw pumps, 5 inches diameter, with 
12-inch stroke, which are capable of lifting 56 gallons per 
minute through 900 yards of 4-inch rising main to Hazeldown 
reservoir, a lift of 423 feet 6 inches. The pumps are fixed at 
the bottom of the dry well, which is inside the pumping station, 
and 55 feet below floor-level. 

In addition to the above plant there is a 10-inch borehole 
sunk through the centre of the wet well, which is 332 feet 
below ground-level, and is lined with steel tubes for 282 feet in 
depth. A borehole pump was fixed, together with a temporary 
10-horse-power vertical engine and boiler. Unfortunately 
this plant had not given satisfaction when the Author com- 
menced duties, as considerable trouble was experienced with 
the buckets. About eighteen months ago the whole of the 
tubes were drawn, together with the barrel and bucket. The 
old barrel and bucket was replaced, and since that time has 
given complete satisfaction. This source is only used to augment 



24 MUNICIPAL WORKS AT TEIGNMOUTH. 

the Low Level supply when we have practically exhausted the 
water from the deep well. 

The nature of the strata at the bottom of the borehole is of 
a soft red sandstone, consequently the water is very thick 
when delivered, and it was found absolutely necessary to 
provide filters. Two high-pressure filters were provided, and 
the water is pumped direct from the bore-hole through the 
filters and on to Landscore reservoir. The filters are capable 
of dealing efficiently with 6000 gallons per hour. 

Shaldon. — Shaldon and Eingmore have an independent 
water supply, which is obtained from a shallow well 28 feet 
deep. There are two adits driven from the well, one being 

25 J yards North, and the other 8£ yards South. The strata is 
principally red sandstone. 

Shaldon Pumping Plant — The pumping plant at this station 
was erected in 1885, and consists of one set of 3-throw 4-inch 
Tangye's pumps, and is driven by an 8-horse-power nominal 
Tangye's steam engine in duplicate. The necessary steam is 
supplied by a Cornish boiler 10 feet long by 3 feet 6 inches 
in diameter in duplicate. There is a 5-inch rising main con- 
necting to a covered service reservoir, the capacity of the latter 
being about 100,000 gallons. 

Holne Moore Scheme. — In. consequence of the insufficiency of 
the supply from existing sources, and the liability of occasional 
contamination, the Council have considered the question of aug- 
menting the supply for a number of years, and have had many 
schemes before them. On the author's appointment some three 
years ago an agreement had just been entered into with the 
Paignton Urban District Council, to take a supply in bulk from 
their Holne Moor reservoir, and one of his first instructions 
was to submit a scheme for a line of route connecting with the 
Paignton main. Innumerable difficulties had to be considered 
owing to the immediate vicinity being intersected by various 
clay mines, quarries, and rivers, and eventually four alter- 
native schemes were submitted, when, on the Author's recom- 
mendation, the Council decided to adopt the one now in 
progress. 

The general plan and key sections will give an idea of the 
line of route adopted, also of the configuration of the country. 
With the exception of the approaches to the river the whole 



MUNICIPAL WORKS AT TEIGNMOUTH. 25 

line of route is along the public highway, but notwithstanding 
this the cost of easements has been a serious item. The mains 
in each case gravitate direct to the existing service reservoirs, 
the length between Park Hill and Hazeldown reservoir (about 
10 J miles) being 9 inches in diameter, with a duplicate across 
the river Teign. The supply for Shaldon branches off this 
main at Netherton, when there is about 3 miles of 4-inch main 
to Shaldon reservoir. Landscore supply branches off at Coombe 
Yale with about half a mile of 6-inch main connecting to the 
reservoir. The mains pass through five villages in the Newton 
Abbot Kural District Council area, and an agreement has 
been entered into with this authority to supply them if 
required. 

At Park Hill intake a meter-house is provided, and 9-inch 
Venturi meters with recorders complete in duplicate will be 
fixed. Meters will also be fixed on each supply main. 

Probably many members will be interested in the sections, 
as the gradients and pressures are unusually heavy, the heaviest 
being on the section across the river Teign. After calculating 
the various thicknesses required for cast-iron pipes, and finding 
them so heavy, and considering their liability to fracture, the 
Author decided to consider steel as an alternative. At that 
time only short lengths of steel pipes had been used for water- 
works in this country, although a large number had been used 
for gas, especially at Bournemouth, hence there was a difficulty 
in obtaining reliable data. 

A list was obtained from the British Mannesmann Tube Co. 
giving the whole of the waterworks they had supplied on the 
Continent, and the Author got in touch with each engineer. 
In this manner he obtained valuable information, especially 
withuregard to the life of the pipe, and he cannot pass by with- 
out acknowledging the extreme courtesy and trouble taken by 
the various continental engineers, which he considers might be 
copied with advantage by his own countrymen. Further to 
these inquiries he made exhaustive tests at the Company's works, 
and after making careful calculations, he came to the conclusion 
that he could safely recommend his Council to adopt their use, 
and effect a considerable saving on the initial cost of the scheme. 
The complete scheme was submitted to the Local Government 
Board for cast-iron pipes at an estimated cost of £23,600, but 



26 MUNICIPAL W0BK3 AT TTIGNMOUTH. 

at the Inquiry an amended scheme for steel pipes was 
submitted, the estimated cost being £19,300, or a saving of 
£4300. The Author is pleased to inform the members that the 
Board sanctioned the amended loan without alteration, but 
stipulated that the main should not be tapped, which is not in 
any way a disadvantage in this case. It may be interesting to 
the members to know that this was the first complete scheme 
sanctioned by the Board where steel pipes were proposed to be 
used. Since that time a number of others have been submitted. 
The Author is also pleased to say that his estimate of saving 
has been fully confirmed by the amount of tender accepted for 
the work. 

The type of pipe adopted for ordinary mains is of the spigot 
and faucet, the joint being made with lead wool, and the latter 
has been found advantageous for high pressures. A special 
flange pipe is being used for the river crossing; and is rather 
unique, as the Author is not aware that it has previously 
been used on waterworks. The spigot and faucet pipes are 
tested to 600 lbs., and the flange pipes to 1000 lbs. per square 
inch before leaving the works. The whole of the mains are 
being tested to a pressure of 520 lbs. per square inch before 
being covered in. 

The river crossing is about a quarter of a mile wide, the 
channel being about 50 yards wide at low water, with a 
minimum depth of 2 feet of water, and the tide rises from 
10 to 12 feet. The Harbour Commissioners stipulated that 
there should not be less than 3 feet cover to the top of any 
work across the channel portion, and as this portion is sur- 
rounded with 12 inches of concrete, the depth to the bottom of 
the trench is about 8 feet below low- water line. This portion 
of the work was carried out in a cofferdam, but considerable 
difficulty was experienced owing to the nature of the ground 
and the large amount of water met with in the bottom of the 
trench. Special stop-valves are being provided on either side 
of the river, with an arrangement devised by the Author for 
checking the flow of water on either side. 

The Author regrets that pressure of work has prevented him 
from giving further details, especially with regard ' to the 
detail cost of works, and tabulating the many experimental 

+s he has made with the steel pipes. Since having this 



DI8CUS8I0X. 27 

scheme in hand he has received many inquiries from various 
engineers, and has endeavoured to give the information asked 
for, but should there be any point on which he has not dwelt 
in this paper that members may require information upon, he 
will be pleased to supply it if possible on request 

The past three years has been an exceedingly busy time for 
the Author, but his additional labours have been made much 
easier through the courtesy extended to him by the members 
of his Council, and he would like to take this opportunity of 
expressing his appreciation for their assistance, also to his staff 
for the loyal services rendered. 

The Author cannot conclude without saying that he fully 
appreciates the honour the Association are conferring on his 
town by paying this visit, and he sincerely hopes that the 
members will find something of interest, and will leave with 
good impressions. 

DISCUSSION, 

Mb. S. Hutton: I have pleasure in proposing a vote of 
thanks to the Author. I have found at Exmouth that great use 
can be made of the local stone which can be obtained across 
the bay at Babbacombe. The limestone is very well suited for 
back-roads and roads which have not much traffic. I find by 
laying it in March and tarring it over with hot tar about 
June we get a surface which is almost equal to tar macadam. 
I have some terraces done in this method which have been 
in use eighteen months. I find that the use of sea-water 
spread by one of the spreaders keeps the dust down very 
well. The only other matter to which I wish to refer is 
the use of steel tubes for the water mains. The question is 
whether it is economy in every case. I am commencing to lay 
1% mile of 9-inch and 10-inch mains at Exmouth, and the 
price laid complete for cast-iron pipes is 1786/. The tender 
for steel tubes alone was 1691/., so if I had used steel tubes at 
Exmouth the work would have cost 200/. more. Of course I 
have everything in my favour at Exmouth, as the farthest 
point is only a mile and half from the railway station. It 
seems to me that steel tubes may be the proper thing to use 
in an outlandish place where the carting is very costly* Where 



28 REPLY TO DISCUSSION, 

the work is near to a railway station cast-iron pipes are still 
the cheaper. 

Mr. W. Harpur : I should like to second the vote of thanks 
to Mr. Gettings for his paper. 

Mr. Owen Baines : I think Mr. Gettings has made a new 
departure in using these steel tubes, and he has had a good 
deal of pluck in making a beginning. I know he has a 
difficult undertaking in carrying the main across the river, 
and I wish him every success in the work. 

The vote of thanks was unanimously passed. 

Mr. C. F. Gettings, in reply : I have been amply repaid 
by the reception which my paper has met with from the 
members. The Western district has not the best of reputations 
for push, and the meetings have not been well attended. I 
hope the Western members will endeavour to support Mr. 
Moulding in any future meetings he may arrange, as although 
a meeting may be held in a small town, and there may not be 
extensive works to inspect, yet from the mere fact of a number 
of members gathering together to discuss matters among them- 
selves there must be something gained by it. I certainly think 
it would be to our advantage if a few more meetings could be 
arranged in the Western district. With regard to Mr. Hutton's 
remarks, the adoption of steel tubes for small-sized water mains 
is a new thing in this country, and in making comparisons 
local circumstances must be considered. If you have had an 
opportunity of looking through the sections you will notice 
that our pressures are exceedingly high, varying up to a 
maximum pressure at the river of 380 lbs. to the square inch, 
and you all know that it requires a very heavy section of cast- 
iron pipe to withstand that pressure. I do not know what 
pressures Mr. Hutton has to deal with at Exmouth, but the 
great point which induced me to decide upon the use of 
Mannesmann steel tubes was the extremely high pressure I 
had to deal with. When I tell you that if cast-iron pipes had 
been adopted a large proportion of the pipes would have been 
I inch and 1 inch in thickness, you will see that the oost of 
cast-iron pipes would have been very heavy. That has a great 
deal to do with the favourable comparison of the cost of pipes, 
and if Mr. Hutton has only a light section to deal with, 
such as £ or g inch in thickness, it will make a considerable 



VISITS TO WORKS. 29 

difference. The other advantages in favour of tubes are 
the small number of joints to be made with pipes of 30 feet 
average length, and the easy manner in which they can 
be manipulated, making a difference both in the labour in 
excavation and laying as compared with 9-inch cast-iron pipes. 
With regard to the joints there is a point not mentioned in the 
paper. We are using lead wool for jointing, and I have 
tested the 9-inch pipe with a 3-inch faucet up to 1000 lbs. 
satisfactorily. The Local Government Board stipulated that 
we should not tap the main. Where connections have to be 
made special branches are provided for this purpose if required. 
With a view of meeting this objection in any future case, the 
Company have manufactured a pipe with a thickened shell 
about 2 inches in width, so that the thickness will correspond 
with a cast-iron pipe, and the tapping can be done in the usual 
way. It is anticipated this will get over the Local Government 
Board objection. A few sections of pipes are in the room for 
inspection, and you will have the opportunity of inspecting 
them on the works. 

The Members then proceeded in brakes to inspect the Mylor 
Waterworks Pumping Station, with Candy high-pressure filters ; 
the Bitton Isolation Hospital, and by motor-boat inspected the 
laying of the water-pipe line with British Mannesmann steel 
tubes across the tidal river Teign. This inspection liad to be 
made at low tide. 

On returning to Teignmouth the Members were entertained to 
luncheon by the Chairman and Members of the Council. 

In the afternoon a visit was made to the clay mines and pipe 
and brick works of Messrs. Hexter, Humpherson and Co. A 
number of interesting tests were made on various sized pipes for 
both internal pressure and crushing strain. At the conclusion of 
the inspection the Members were entertained to tea. 



HOME DISTBICT MEETING. 

October, 26, 1907. 
Held at Hawpbm-on-Tkamcs. 

John A. Brodee, MJEng.WhJSc., MJnst.CE., President, 
in the Chair. 



The Chairman of the Urban District Council, Mr. J. J. Diaper, 
J.P., welcomed the members to Hampton. 

The President, on behalf of the Association, thanked the 
Chairman for the kind welcome he had extended. 

The resignation of Mr. S. J. Thomas from the Home District 
Hon. Secretaryship having been accepted with regret, Mr. S. H. 
Chambers was unanimously elected in his stead. 



SOME INTERPRETATIONS OF SEWAGE PURI- 
FICATION PHENOMENA- 

By SIDNEY H. CHAMBERS, Surveyor to the Hampton 
Urban District Council. 

The degree of purification which sewage undergoes within the 
narrow limits of a practicable treatment area has been assumed 
to be inherently and absolutely a bacterial operation. Indeed, 
it has been stated categorically that the difference between the 
foul turbid sewage entering such an area and the clear, or only 
faintly opalescent liquid, free from smell, leaving it, was and 
must be regarded as the expression of the work accomplished 
by these micro-organisms. 



SEWAGE PURIFICATION PHENOMENA. 31 

This theory had its origin in the inference that the destruc- 
tive operation in nature upon dead and excrete organic matters 
was entirely effected by the agency of bacteria. Moreover, in 
order to substantiate the hypothesis, it was necessary to draw 
the somewhat specious deduction that what was happening 
under natural conditions in connection with a small amount 
of organic matters when placed upon a large extent of surface, 
would occur when the entire sewage of a district was disposed 
upon a comparatively insignificant prepared treatment area. 

The fact that in nature the destructive operation is a 
complex one, in which baoteria play only a part, was to a great 
extent ignored. As was also the even more important fact that 
notwithstanding the large extent of surface to which organic 
matter is under natural conditions applied, yet accumulations 
of such matter, and its retention in the soil for years awaiting 
destruction, are of the very essence of the operation, and con- 
stitute, especially in this connection, factors of far greater 
moment than those associated with the change to which some 
portion thereof is annually subjected. 

In ordinary farming operations estimations as to the value 
of manure applied are based upon the assumption of an accu- 
mulation within the soil, and of a slow recovery from it. Prom 
which tables have been drawn up showing that the compen- 
sation value of the unexhausted manurial residue in the land 
is calculated upon the basis of a gradual removal of organic 
matters from the soil extending over a period of eight years. 

Further, the cultivation effect in assisting the withdrawal 
of organic accumulations should not be lost sight of, as an 
additional operation not occurring in artificial treatment areas. 

In the destructive process in nature the scavaging action of 
animals constitutes no unimportant consideration in reducing 
the grosser organic solids. Whilst these scavengers are, in the 
main, excluded from sewage treatment areas, yet the amount of 
work effected therein by worms, flies, and other animals beyond 
the range of organisms generally understood to be concerned in 
the biological, and certainly excluded from the bacteriological 
operation, is not yet fully appreciated. 

The due recognition of these facts should have occasioned 
considerable disquietude in the minds of the pioneers of the 
all-bacterial system of sewage purification, and ought to have 



32 SOME INTERPRETATIONS OF 

prepared them and others for the accumulations in tanks, beds, 
or other filtration area, which are everywhere the sign-manual 
of the bacterial system of sewage treatment. 

In order to be able to thoroughly appreciate the deductions 
which were drawn from experimental determinations in the 
earlier stages of the movement, and the theories formulated 
thereupon, it is desirable to quote from the writings of some of 
those who took a foremost place in the elucidation of the subject. 
In so doing, as well as in the subsequent criticism, it should be 
distinctly understood that it is not, in any way, intended to 
detract from either the value or the magnitude of the work 
referred to. More especially is this the case since the views 
then held have, by their authors' more recent investigations, 
been considerably modified in the direction indicated in the 
present contribution. Indeed, were it not that these earlier 
statements still exert an influence upon the minds of many, 
and are not foreign to some who have been conversant with the 
subject from its initiation, but who have not been able to 
shake themselves free from the trammels of what cannot but be 
regarded as indeterminate experiments and inconclusive observa- 
tions undertaken in the earlier period — were it not for these 
facts, one of the main grounds for this communication would be 
non-existent. 

The first reference is to the publication "Experimental 
Investigations by the State Board of Health of Massachusetts 
upon the Purification of Sewage by Filtration and by Chemical 
Precipitation, and upon the Intermittent Filtration of Water, 
made at Lawrence, Mass., 1888-1890 " (Boston, 1890), where 
on page 578, under the heading " A General View of Results," 
the following may be found : — 

" The truths in regard to filtration of sewage that have been 
made manifest by the experiments of the State Board of Health 
in the past two years can be appreciated only by a careful 
study of the results which have been presented. No statement 
of general conclusions can convey all that these experiments 
have made known; but, to one who has carefully considered 
the results in detail, it may be useful to group the results and 
bring out some of the general truths with more clearness. 

" The experiments with gravel stones give us the best illustra- 
tions of the essential character of intermittent filtration of 



SEWAGE PURIFICATION PHENOMENA. 33 

sewage. In these, without straining the sewage sufficiently to 
remove even the coarser suspended particles, the slow movement 
of the liquid in thin films over the surface of the stones, with 
air in contact, caused to be removed for some months 97 per 
cent, of the organic nitrogenous matter, a large part of which 
was in solution, as well as 99 per cent, of the bacteria, which 
were of course in suspension, and enabled these organic matters 
to be oxidised or burned, so that there remained in the effluent 
but 3 per cent, of the decomposable organic matter of the 
sewage, the remainder being converted into harmless mineral 
matter. 

" The mechanical separation of any part of the sewage by 
straining through sand is but an incident which, under some 
conditions, favourably modifies the result; but the essential 
conditions are very slow motion of very thin films of liquid 
over the surface of particles having spaces between them 
sufficient to allow air to be continually in contact with the 
films of liquid. 

" With these conditions it is essential that certain baoteria 
should be present to aid in the process of nitrification. These, 
we have found, come in the sewage at all times of the year ; 
and the conditions just mentioned appear to be most favourable 
for their efficient action and, at the same time, most destructive 
to them and to all kinds of bacteria that are in the sewage." 

The next quotation can be seen in Mr. Dibdin's book, 
"Purification of Sewage and Water, 1897," pp. 62 and 63, and 
is to the effect that — 

"The following is a summarised statement of the work 
accomplished by the one-acre coke breeze filter at the Northern 
Outfall between September, 1893, and November, 1896, during 
which period it had filtered 500 million gallons of effluent. 
Since the effluent, which is passed on to the filter, contains, on 
an average, seven grains of suspended matter per gallon, a 
quantity equal to 2232 tons of sludge of 90 per cent, moisture 
has been removed, the filtrate containing practically no sus- 
pended matter. Of the matter thus removed, about 110 tons 
were organic, the whole of which has been oxidised ; whilst the 
sand amounted to about 40 tons, which, calculated at 24 cwts: 
per cubic yard, would cover the filter to a depth of 0267 inch 
if spread equally over its surface. Such sand has, however, 
been carried into the body of the coke, and at present there is 

D 



34 SOME INTERPBETATIONS OF 

no appearance of any danger of choking arising from this cause. 
The organic matters in solution in the crude effluent absorb, on 
an average, 3*5 grains per gallon of oxygen from permanganate 
in four hours, while the filtrate absorbs only 07 grain. The 
amount of oxidation effected in this way would require 90 tons 
of oxygen, or, in other words, is equal to the effect which could 
be obtained by the use of about 2000 tons of good commercial 
manganate of soda. The organic matter in solution that has 
been completely removed, as determined by the difference 
between the loss on ignition of the solids in the crude effluent 
and the filtrate respectively, amounts to 250 tons ; making with 
the 110 tons of suspended organic matter a total of 360 tons. 
The organic matter that remains in the filtrate is in such a 
condition that no signs of after putrefaction are exhibited, 
however long the filtrate may be kept, either undiluted or 
diluted, in open or closed bottles." 

These statements, it will be seen, are definite, and do not 
admit of even the faintest shadow of doubt being cast upon the 
meaning of what was intended to be an accurate interpretation 
of sewage purification phenomena. The respective authors 
originate and lend the weight of their authority to the doctrine 
that in treating sewage by intermittent filters and in contact- 
beds all the organic solids present in the sewage, whether in a 
condition of suspension or of solution, and not appearing in 
the effluent, had. been, and presumably would be, oxidised and 
burned in any suitably arranged treatment area, and would be 
converted into harmless mineral matter by bacterial agency* 
In other words, that, in such an area, the difference between the 
sewage and the effluent ought to be expressed in terms of 
matters actually destroyed, and should be regarded as the 
measure of bacterial activity. Further, the material of the 
filtration area is taught to be practioally inoperative as either a 
strainer of the sewage, or as a collector of sewage matters ; any 
mechanical separation effected, even by material as fine as sand, 
is held to be "but an incident, which, under some conditions, 
favourably modifies the result." 

Since the material must be so regarded; and since the 
doctrine does not admit of any accumulation of organic matters, 
whether of recent origin or in process of disraption— for the state- 
ment on this point is quite clear, " the whole has been oxidised " 
—it follows that a logical interpretation of this doctrine must 



SEWAGE PURIFICATION PHENOMENA. 35 

include the conversion of the organic solids, suspended and 
soluble, into mineral matters during the time occupied by — 
pari passu with — the flow of liquid through the treatment area. 
This interpretation of sewage purification phenomena has the 
merit of consistency, in that suspended and soluble organic 
matter are both and with equal readiness destroyed. It is not, 
however, in accord with the observed phenomena, and it is 
not true. 

Every person, at all acquainted with the subject, would 
now, from practical observation, be prepared to deny the truth 
of this statement as regards the rapid and complete conversion 
of the suspended organic matter, whilst, at the same time, they 
might hesitate to refute and might even, following the generally 
accepted opinion, affirm the rapid conversion of the soluble 
organic matter. In this connection the opinions of Col. T. W. 
Harding and W. H. Harrison, M.Sc., as recorded in the " City 
of Leeds Eeports on Experiments in Sewage Disposal, 1905," 
based upon observations made during the years of 1898-1905, 
may be considered as peculiarly apposite, and are expressed in 
the following quotations : — 

* It was impossible not to be struck by the rapidity in which 
the chemical changes were brought about. In order to test the 
speed at which the sewage came through the filter, repeated 
trials were made as follows : — 

"About a litre of alkaline fluorescine solution, a very 
powerful oolouring matter, was poured into the channel carry- 
ing the sewage to the sprinkler, and the time carefully taken 
before the oolour began to appear in the filtrate as it ran out 
of the bottom. It usually took three minutes before the full 
coloration appeared, though there was clear evidence of it 
after 2J minutes, the depth of the material in this bed being 
12 feet and the grade very coarse indeed. The changes brought 
about by bacterial action are therefore remarkably rapid as 
regards dissolved impurities, but it is not, of course, suggested 
that the action on suspended solids is also so rapid. On the 
contrary, the dissolution or transformation of the matter in 
suspension in sewage is a slow one, and when finely divided 
Solids come through a percolating filter, brown in colour and 
well oxidised, the process has probably required seven to 
fourteen days. At least, judging from the time which passes 
before suspended matters come through in a new filter, it takes 



86 SOME INTERPRETATIONS OF 

these fully that time to work gradually down, washed forward 
by the liquid which itself comes through in three minutes," 
p. 104. 

" The action of the oxidising bacteria of a percolating filter 
on dissolved impurities is strikingly rapid," p. 119 ; and 

"The experiments detailed in this report show how im- 
portant is the question of the suspended matter in sewage. By 
bacterial processes the oxidation of dissolved impurities is rapid 
and easy, but that of the suspended matter is very slow, and 
there is always a large irreducible residuum," p. 146. 

These opinions record an advance which had, in the mean 
time, declared itself in the knowledge of sewage purification 
phenomena, bringing these phenomena more into line with 
those previously referred to as occurring under natural con- 
ditions. For experimental observations as well as practical 
operations had by this time determined that the dissolution of 
organic " suspended matter is very slow, and there is always a 
large irreducible residuum." 

Had the earlier statements referred to been confined, as 
they were purported to be, to the truths in regard to filtration 
— in connection with which the authors had obtained accurate 
scientific information — the advance in the knowledge of sewage 
purification methods would have been none the less consider- 
able, and little grounds for criticism and subsequent disappoint- 
ment would have arisen. 

Truth, however, was blended with fiction, and assumption 
took the place of accurate scientific observation. Indeed, the 
statement as to the entire conversion of the organic solids into 
mineral matter is contradicted by the voluminous analytical 
data from which the conclusion was drawn, which show only a 
modicum of such conversion. 

Reference has already been made to the fact that the 
continuation of the exhaustive Lawrence experiments and the 
later investigations by Mr. Dibdin have considerably modified 
their earlier views. It would, therefore, be obviously unfair to 
exclude these whilst adducing the later observations of others. . 

The more recent Annual Reports of the State Board of 
Health of Massachusetts have consistently referred to the pre- 
sence of accumulations of organic matters in every one of the 
many filters operated upon during the last twenty years. These 
accumulations have occurred irrespective of the rate of flow of 



SEWAGE PURIFICATION PHENOMENA. 37 

the sewage, even when that flow has been as low as 20,000 
gallons per acre per day; notwithstanding the comparatively 
weak character of the sewage operated upon ; and independent 
of the material, which has been of variable sizes, down to the 
finest river silt averaging about 0*004 inches in diameter. The 
Seports have demonstrated the necessity for the removal of 
these accumulations from the filters in order to prolong their 
period of practical usefulness, and have recorded numerous 
experiments, including cropping, undertaken with the object of 
ascertaining if it were in any way possible to insure the con- 
version of some proportion of the retained organic matters. In 
addition they have " clearly shown the stable nature of a large 
percentage of this organic matter," which they have described 
as "stable as soil nitrogen which remains year after year at 
practically the same point unless exhausted by severe cropping." 
This statement practically identifies the already referred to 
Accumulations in nature with those which, it was also held, 
must occur in sewage-treatment areas. 

Mr. Dibdin has modified the views he previously held, in 
that he now provides means for the more expeditious removal 
of the accumulated sewage solids, the organic portion of which 
he formerly held to be totally destroyed. 

In the light of this dual recantation; considering the 
exhaustive character of the experiments at Lawrence and the 
prolonged period over which they were conducted, together 
with the definiteness of the statement as regards the practical 
indestructibility of a large percentage of the accumulated organic 
matter ; having regard to the results of the Leeds experiments 
already quoted, and to the fact that, but for fear of over- 
burdening the communication, numerous other experiments, 
equally conclusive, might have been adduced ; and finally, 
viewing the general effect of the practical operation, there is 
demonstrated, incontrovertibly, the ever-present existence of 
more or less extensive accumulations of organic solids on, in, or 
passing out of the treatment area. 

Under these circumstances to again formulate a doctrine in 
which the accumulation of organic matter in the filtration area 
is both ambiguously denied and practically ignored, and to 
advise local authorities to this effect, is in the highest degree to 
be deprecated. Yet such is the attitude taken up by Dr. 
George Eeid, in a paper on "the "Nitrification of Sewage," 



38 SOME INTEBPKBTATIONS OF 

which appeared in the Contract Journal on the 18th and 
25th ultimo. 

Dr. Eeid, in discussing the effect of the Hanley operation 
upon suspended solids, states that the preliminary treatment 
resulted in an effluent which was " passed on to the filter con- 
taining 7'6 parts per 100,000, exactly one-half of which is 
mineral matter. This suspended matter, it will be seen, is 
practically all retained in the top layer of the filter* where 
the organic portion is liquefied in all probability by aerobic 
organisms. The mineral matter, however, must remain in the 
filter, and in time, no doubt, it will be found necessary to remove 
the filtering medium to a depth of a few inches for the purpose 
of washing it, but so far, after over three years' constant working, 
no such necessity has arisen. As a matter of fact, if the total 
mineral suspended solids passing on to the filter during the 
three years were deposited in a uniform layer over the whole 
surface, the depth of the coating would be less than 1J inches." 

If a comparison be made between this statement and that 
of Mr. Dibdin's, previously quoted, as to the working of the 
Barking contact beds, striking similarities will be revealed. 
Indeed, with the exception of the calculation in Mr. Dibdin's 
statement as to the amount of suspended and soluble organic 
solids destroyed, the two are practically identical. Dr. Beid, 
however, makes up for the omission by specifically stating the 
liquefactive nature of the operation, and where it takes place— 
" the organic portion is liquefied in all probability by aerobic 
organisms," and " in the top layer of the filter." 

In addition, in referring to Mr. Scott-Monorieff's experi- 
mental work, Dr. Eeid says — 

" I feel pretty confident that, had a much finer filter medium 
been used by Soott-Moncrieff, the high oxidising changes would 
have been effected at a shallower depth, and practically the 
whole of the suspended solids would have been liquefied and 
nitrified within the filter." 

This statement transcends the region of criticism, especially 
when it is coupled with the fact that Mr, Scott-Moncrieff has 
repeatedly affirmed that in his experiments the whole of the 
suspended and soluble organic matter present in the sewage 
and absent from the effluent had been converted by the bacterial 
operation, and that no accumulations existed. 

Dr. Beid declares himself to be optimistic. It should not 



SEWAGE PUBIFICATION PHENOMENA. 39 

be forgotten, however, that the optimism and over-confidence 
of the enthusiast in sewage purification has previously and 
not infrequently led to no inconsiderable wastage of public 
funds, and to the grievous disappointment of the responsible 

jiueer. 

The Leeds experiments are of undoubted value as a record 
of careful and continuous work. They are of especial service in 
demonstrating the importance of the question of the suspended 
matter in sewage ; in showing how very slow its disruption is ; 
and in indicating that a large irreducible residuum always 
exists for ultimate removal and disposal. They are not so 
fortunate in having failed to recognise the importance which 
ought to be attached to the dissolved organic solids. Indeed, 
they assert that the dissolved impurities are oxidised by 
bacterial processes rapidly and easily, even during the time, 
three minutes, which the liquid took in flowing through the 
filter. 

These and similar statements with regard to the dissolved 
impurities must, however, be regarded as assumptions, equally 
erroneous as those relating to the rapid oxidation of suspended 
organic solids previously animadverted upon. In neither case 
is there evidence in the effluent or elsewhere of the complete 
mineralisation of the suspended and soluble organic solids on 
the one hand, nor adequate expression of the oxidation of the 
organic solids in solution which have been removed by the 
filtration operation on the other. 

This interpretation of sewage purification phenomena, though 
it is more in accord with the operations as ordinarily observed, 
has not, however, the merit of consistency, nor is it true. 

If it can be shown that the organic solids in solution in the 
sewage, instead of being oxidised during the flow of the liquid 
through the filtration area, are in reality removed from the liquid 
as solid matter which is deposited upon the material in that area, 
then the importance of the original solids in suspension, which 
in the quoted Barking experiments amounted to 110 tons, 
cannot fail to be less momentous than those consecutively 
produced in the filtration area from the soluble solids, which 
were estimated to amount to 250 tons. 

The Hampton doctrine is that the operation of sewage 
purification is one of desolution, that is to say, the impurities 
organic and some of the inorganic, whether in a condition of 



40 SOME INTERPRETATIONS OF 

suspension or of solution, are removed from the liquid by a 
process of precipitation. This theory, it will be seen, is the 
direct antithesis of that commonly held. The one involving a 
throwing out of solution, the other a liquefaction — a throwing 
into solution. 

In a paper read before the Institution of Civil Engineers, 
in January, 1906, " On the Elimination of Suspended Solids 
and Colloidal Matters from Sewage," by Colonel Jones and 
Dr. Travis, the following conclusions are recited : 

"The deductions drawn from the foregoing observations 
and experiments are: that sewage is, under all circumstances 
and at all times, completely clarified by the dissociation from 
the liquid of its organic, and some of its inorganic constituents, 
in a particulate condition, and not, as has been assumed, by 
the resolution and oxidation of such matters; and that the 
clarification can be, and is, accelerated in two ways, namely, 
by bringing the liquid into intimate contact with surfaces, 
as in land treatment and in filtration areas, and by move- 
ment of the liquid, as occurs in rivers into which sewage is 
discharged. 

" Moreover, such effect can be delayed by quiescence, as was 
seen in the bottle observation first alluded to, where weeks 
elapsed before the liquid became transparent, or as would occur 
were the sewage to be ponded, and to remain undisturbed. On 
the other hand, the effect cannot be altogether arrested ; it is a 
natural phenomenon." 

These deductions, as stated, were, in the main, the result 
of observations and experiments conducted at the Hampton 
Sewage Works. Some of these experiments were incorporated 
in the paper, others were referred to in a paper in the Journal 
of the Eoyal Sanitary Institute for 1906, on " The Organic 
Colloids of Sewage," by J. H. Johnston, M.Sc, whilst there have 
been many others, including some in the course of operation 
which are reserved for a future contribution. Here it is only 
intended to give an interpretation of sewage purification 
phenomena based upon these observations and experiments, 
and to adduce evidence in support of it. 

The interpretation is founded upon the following con- 
siderations : — 
— ■* Sewage, as it arrives at the sewage treatment area, is a more 
w turbid liquid, generally of a brownish mucilaginous 



SEWAGE PURIFICATION PHENOMENA. 41 

appearance, containing gross and fine matters in suspension. 
These matters can be arrested on ordinary filter paper, and are 
recorded by the sewage chemist as solids in suspension. The 
filtrate is described as containing the solids in solution, though 
if it be submitted to a refiltration, or to the operation of a finer 
filter, a further proportion of matters in suspension would be 
removed. Even after the double filtration, or other procedure, 
it not uncommonly happens that there would still remain 
particles in suspension which would follow ordinary gravitation 
laws and deposit. After the removal of these several solids — 
the real solids in suspension — the liquid contains infinitesimally 
fine particles, which are not subject to the above-mentioned 
laws, being in a condition of solution — colloidal. The particles 
are, however, definite, being capable of recognition by the 
ultramicroscope, and of determination in various ways. More- 
over, there is no elemental difference between the particle in 
colloidal solution, and recorded as amongst the solids in solu- 
tion, and a large proportion of the grosser particulations removed 
by the filter paper and recorded amongst the solids in suspen- 
sion. At one time and in one sewage the particle may be in 
colloidal solution — hydrosol — whilst at another time, and in 
another sewage area, it may be in a condition of suspension — 
hydrogel. It is inconceivable, therefore, that in the one con- 
dition it can be completely oxidised in three minutes, and 
that in the other it can only be slowly acted upon, leaving 
ultimately a large irreducible residuum. More especially is this 
the case when it is remembered that the throwing out of solu- 
tion is one of the characteristic properties of colloids generally, 
and that the condition of solution is dependent upon the con- 
tinned maintenance of the binding force between the particle 
and the solution of the particle. When this is interfered with, 
a more or less immediate precipitation of the particles takes 
place. This precipitation — the aggregation and coagulation of 
the particles — can be seen under the microscope, and can be 
expedited in a variety of ways, amongst which the intimate 
contact with surfaces is a well-recognised means. This intimate 
contact is secured in .filtration areas generally, and in this way 
the particles in solution become particles in suspension and are 
brought within the laws of gravitation. The result of this 
operation is to deprive the liquid of its colloidal matter and to 
bring it into a clarified condition. The liquid will, however, 



42 SOME INTERPRETATIONS OF 

still contain certain organic products which are capable of 
existence in true solution, in addition to ammonias, and in* 
organic soluble solids. 

The above-described effects can be witnessed, when sewage 
is submitted to continuous observation in the laboratory under 
almost every conceivable set of practical working conditions. A 
sample so submitted will show : the immediate deposition of the 
grosser, heavier solids ; the delay incidental to the dropping of 
the finer suspended matter ; the earlier or later coagulation and 
deposition of the colloidal matters; and throughout all the 
gradual clarification of the liquid, which proceeds pari passu 
with the deposition effect. The complete operation will have 
resulted in the conversion of the turbid sewage into a clear 
liquid, by a transference of matters in solution to matters in 
suspension, and by the simple deposition of these, and of the 
ordinary suspended solids. The original solids in suspension 
will have become increased by the operation as the original 
solids in solution will have proportionally diminished, whilst 
the bulk sample will have remained practically unchanged as 
regards its total constituents. If the observation be further 
continued, the deposit will be seen to become gradually reduced 
in amount and to be changed in character, the viscous particles 
having assumed a more granular appearance. Soon, however, 
this reduction effect will become less marked, and finally will 
appear to be determined, whilst the liquid in the mean time 
will have continued clear. Even in samples which have been 
under observation for years there still remains deposit and 
clear liquid. 

It must not be assumed that it is intended to convey the 
impression that the biolytic operation is restricted to the later 
series of phenomena, and excluded from the former. It should 
only be understood that the desolution effect has entirely over-* 
shadowed any reduction or other operation due to the action of 
organisms. It is recognised that biolysis occurs in the sewage 
prior to its having gained admission to the treatment area, that 
is to say, in the sewers, as well as in the alimentary tracts of 
the animal economies contributory thereto. 

When sewage is admitted to a treatment area, the above 
described series of phenomena occur, and are of the essence of 
the operation. The phenomena, however, are obscured, to some 
extent, by the presence in the area of organic matters, organic 



SEWAGE PURIFICATION PHENOMENA. 43 

products, ammonias, nitrites, and nitrates, which have resulted 
from previous physical, chemical, and biolytical sewage 
operations. These substances — the majority of them — are 
undergoing some degree of change, and, as they contribute to 
the liquid as it passes through, of necessity alter it. 

In tracing the sewage through a treatment area, it will be 
seen that, in passing through the screening and detritus 
chambers and septic, hydrolytic, or other tank, the sewage 
will leave behind the gross substances ; the larger proportion 
of its depositing and floating solids; and probably some of 
its colloidal solids. Any biolytic change in the liquid itself 
or in the finer solids which it carries is practically negligible. 
The sewage is, however, modified by the contributory sources 
alluded to above. It becomes admixed with previous sewages; 
it is impregnated with gases and volatile products, and has 
added to it some increase of ammonias, and of soluble organic 
products resulting from biolytic changes in the sludge deposited 
from sewage, some of which will have been brought to the 
treatment area months before; and, in addition, it carries 
forward not only its own undeposited suspended solids, but 
also no inconsiderable quantity from the older sludge which 
has been disturbed by gaseous eruptions. 

In passing through the filtration area, whether this area be 
contact beds, percolating filters, or land, the operation is 
practically alike in each, differing only in degree. 

The suspended solids become, in part, arrested by the fine- 
ness of the pores, and by adhesion to the material, or to the 
slime covering the material from previous sewage operations. 
The colloidal matter of the solids in solution becomes particulate 
upon the material or slime, and adheres to it. Some proportion 
of the organic products which are in a condition of actual 
solution and some of the ammonias are absorbed by the material 
or slimy coating. Biolysis causes some portion of the organic 
products to be further reduced, and carbonic acid And other 
gases to be liberated, as well as some larger proportion of the 
ammonias to be oxidised. Some proportion of the gases, and 
volatile substances, to which the offensive odour is due, whether 
present in the original sewage or contributed to it from the 
accumulated sludge by the tank operation, will be given off 
into the atmosphere, whilst some proportion will become 
absorbed by the material and oxidised — sulphuretted hydrogen 



44 SOME INTEEPBETATIONS OF 

being decomposed and free sulphur deposited in the filter, 
substituted ammonias being also decomposed, and the ammonias 
oxidised. 

The effluent, thus deprived of its odour, may contain some 
suspended matter from the original sewage if the pores be open ; 
it will almost certainly contain some proportion of colloidal 
matter which has not been removed from solution ; some organic 
products and ammonia which have not been converted by the 
biolytio operation ; and some oxidised nitrogen. 

Its character, however, will be profoundly altered by the 
contributory sources. By admixture with the retained liquid, 
and whilst flowing over or in contact with the material and 
slime, the incoming liquid will have added to it suspended 
matters both actual and colloidal from antecedent deposited 
matters, as well as organic products, ammonia and oxides of 
nitrogen, the results of biolytio operations on the deposited and 
absorbed substances from previous sewages. 

The relative apparency or obscurity of the operation is 
largely a question of size of material. In the finer experimental 
filters at Lawrence, where the applied sewage is only 4 per cent, 
of the liquid contents, and does not appear as an effluent for 
25 days, the operation is obscure, and any doctrine formulated 
upon it is largely inferential. 

In the larger grained experimental filters at Lawrence and 
Hampton, where the applied sewage appears as an effluent in 
a few minutes, the operation is apparent, and the interpretation 
is, or ought to be, easy. 

. In the " Thirty-fourth Annual Eeport of the State Board of 
Health of Massachusetts 11 (1902), Boston, 1903, pp. 202-3, 
analyses are given showing the results of working the % inter- 
mittent continuous filters Nos. 135 and 136 for the year 1902. 
In the case of filter No. 135 the total suspended solids applied 
to the filter were 46 parts per 100,000, whilst the effluent 
contained 7*7 parts, so that neglecting any biolytic action upon 
the 4*6 parts, the operation had actually resulted in increasing 
the total suspended solids by 31 parts, or by 67'4 per cent 
over that which had been applied. Where these additional 
suspended solids had come from is clearly shown in the analyses, 
for the organic solids in solution had, during the same period, 
been reduced from 16*2 to 12*0 parts per 100,000 in passing 
through the filter. The sum of the operation was that the total 



SEWAGE PURIFICATION PHENOMENA. 45 

suspended solids had been increased by 3*1 parts, whilst the 
soluble organic solids had been reduced by 3*8 parts. The 
figures relating to filter No. 136 similarly show that the total 
suspended solids had increased by 5*0 parts per 100,000, 
whilst the organic solids in solution had been reduced by 
6-7 parts. 

The experimental percolating filter at Hampton brings out 
these facts with great clearness. On this account, it has been 
arranged that it shall form one of the subjects of demonstration 
at the visit to the sewage works. The filter has applied to it 
the effluent from the hydroly tic tank, which has a mucilaginous 
appearance, containing, as the average of all the samples 
submitted to analyses, 7*4 parts suspended matter per 100,000, 
whilst the filtrate is only slightly opalescent and contains 
an average of 13*7 parts. This increase in the matters in 
suspension has been proved to come from the soluble organic 
solids, which, in passing through the filter, have shown a 
compensatory reduction. 

The questions of methods of construction and of working 
also apply. If, for instance, it be thought desirable to retain 
the solid matters in the filter, as is somewhat usual, especially 
in the case of contact beds, the desolution effect is obscured. 
If, on the contrary, it be thought advisable to unload, the 
desolution is obvious. 

The original method of working the Hampton contact beds 
was to exclude nothing from them, except the screenings, and 
to endeavour to retain the suspended matter in them, in the 
confident hope that all would be destroyed. The result was 
that, in 1902, after four years' operation, so much sludge 
had been removed from the beds, and so much was retained 
in them as to give rise to the opinion that the original 
suspended solids had either suffered no diminution by biolysis, 
or whatever diminution had been effected had been jnade up 
from some other source. 

The opinion was confirmed by careful estimations and 
calculations which are referred to in a paper read before the 
Association of Managers of Sewage Disposal Works, at 
Hampton, on June 17, 1905, by Mr. T. Hughes, the manager, 
entitled " A Eetrospect of Six Years' Treatment of Crude Sewage 
in Triple Contact Beds, and a Forecast," and also in the paper by 
Jones and Travis before referred to. Since these papers were 



46 SOME INTHBPRETATIONS OF 

-written the correctness of the calculations has been confirmed 
by estimating the total amount of sludge removed in washing 
the beds. 

By the method of working the beds, the bioly tic effect upon 
the original suspended matter had not been manifest, owing to 
the desolution effect occurring in them, whilst the latter effect 
was not evident in the effluent, and could only be inferred by 
the amount of accumulated matters. 

The present method of working the beds is to exclude from 
them the largest possible quantity of suspended solids, and as 
much of the colloidal matter as will readily be removed from 
solution by large surface contact. Whilst at the same time 
the beds are so operated as to secure the disengagement and 
evacuation of as large a proportion as possible of those solids 
which have entered them, or which may be formed therein from 
the soluble solids. 

By this method of working the desolution effect is made 
evident, since the total amount of suspended matter leaving 
the beds is in excess of those gaining admittance thereto. The 
effect of this throwing out of suspended matter is, obviously, to. 
minimise the accumulations, which necessarily must prolong 
the working efficiency of the beds. 

If the sewage, instead of passing through a treatment area, 
be discharged into a river, the same series of phenomena occur, 
excepting that they are spread over a greater distance, and may 
occupy a longer time. In this case the sewage, in being carried 
down the river, deposits its suspended solids and colloidal 
matters, whilst the liquid portion admixes with the river water, 
and those substances in actual solution — organic products and 
ammonia — are further broken down and oxidised. In so far 
as the liquid is concerned it has passed on clarified and 
purified. In so far as the important sewage impurities are 
concerned — the actual and potential suspended matter — they 
remain behind, forming a layer of deposit along the bed of the 
river. To this deposit each discharge of sewage adds its quota. 
The continuously increasing accumulations, besides being sub- 
jected to the operations of scavengers previously alluded to, 
are slowly reduced by hiolytic — fermentative, putrefactive, and 
oxidative — actions. This reduction effect is largely a question 
of temperature. In the colder weather the slowness of the 
changes in the deposited, matters permits the gaseous and' 



SEWAGE PURIFICATION PHENOMENA. 47 

volatile substances to escape without disturbing the deposit, 
and to be themselves further broken down and oxidised, so 
that no external evidence of the fermentative and putrefactive 
nature of the operation exists. In the warmer weather, how- 
ever, the actions are more energetic, the deposited matters 
become charged with minute gas bubbles, which, when failing 
to escape, float portions of the deposit to the surface, where the 
gases and volatile products are given off, and the putrefactive 
nature of the operation upon the actual and potential suspended 
matter is made evident to the senses. 

This interpretation of sewage purification phenomena in 
livers is in direct opposition to that propounded by Mr. Dibdin. 
He believes that " from the work done on the sewage of London 
the conclusion might be drawn that the whole of that sewage 
was being destroyed by aerobic bacterial action/' and has stated 
that the aerobic bacterial theory of sewage purification was 
deduced from those observations. 

The essential nature of the operation, however, does not 
admit of any doubt. An examination of the deposited matters 
on the bed of the river will demonstrate the complexity of the 
biolytic actions, and will verify the axiom that putrefaction of 
nitrogenous organio matter is as inherent a part of nature's 
operation, as is the oxidation of the ammonia to which such 
action gives rise. 

If further proof were needed, it could be found in the 
common observation that it is in the warmer weather, during 
the period of the greatest biolytic activity, that the putrefactive 
character of the operation is most in evidence, and that in the 
colder weather, during the organisms' practical inactivity, little 
or no such manifestation exists. Whereas in order to establish 
Mr. Dibdin's theory the exact opposite should prevail. The 
argument does not, therefore, require further elaboration, for' 
auch an interpretation bears its own refutation. 

When the doctrine of desolution as an interpretation 
of sewage putrefaction phenomena was first propounded at 
Hampton, and after the colloidal oharacter of a large proportion 
of the organic solids in solution had been determined, a search 
was made in the literature of the subject in order to ascertain if 
any confirmatory evidence of these views could be found. The 
references relating to colloids were given in the paper by Jones 
and Travis, and need not be further elaborated in th& 



48 SOME INTERPRETATIONS OF 

communication, notwithstanding the fact that other papers 
dealing with colloids in sewage have since appeared. 

It therefore only remains to adduce evidence in support of 
the theory of desolution. 

In 1900 Professor Dunbar, Director of the State Institute 
of Hygiene, Hamburg, announced that, as the result of many 
years' experiments, he had come to the conclusion that the 
explanations made with regard to the purification of sewage in 
oxidation beds, viz. that such purification was directly and 
completely due to bacterial action, was wrong. He pointed 
out, and adduced numerous experiments to prove that the 
principal part in the process of purification was played by 
absorption action, but that the effective continuance of the 
absorption action was directly dependent upon bacterial activity 
and oxidation. 

Since that time the subject has been continuously investi- 
gated at the State Institute under the direction of Professor 
Dunbar. One of the results of these researches is a communi- 
cation by Drs. Kammann and Carnwath, a condensed transcript 
of which, by J. H. Johnston, M.Sc., appeared in the Surveyor 
on the 27th ultimo, and from which the following extract is 
taken : — 

" The sewage, with its dissolved organic matter, after the 
suspended matters have been retained by mechanical filtration 
on the surface of the filtering material, is divided into very thin 
films between the single particles in the fine sand. Around 
each single grain of the filter forms with time a very thin, soft 
membrane, which is made up of undissolved matter of an 
organic and inorganic nature, and tends to raise not inconsider- 
ably the original water-retention capacity of the material* 
Peculiar to this sticky coating is the formation of quite an 
enormous surface, which consists not only of an outer, but also 
of an inner, moistenable surface; and to this also is to be 
ascribed the high development of the absorption action to which 
we must necessarily attribute the explanation of many actions 
observed in biological sewage purification processes. 

" The dissolved organic matter of the sewage applied to the 
filter is absorbed by the moist membrane. In artificial 
biological processes the absorption is completed in three to ten 
minutes; so that with the far greater surface development of a 
Jfery fine intermittent filter, and the accompanying better division 



PLATE NO. 1. 



.AN. 





E 



£L 



bLi 



N 



\ 



tfGTtQNS QT *r j wr ^j, r/jftr y mr£j » 



il 



• 



»jbBb ** 



^*~ 






[To/aae 



SEWAGE PURIFICATION PHENOMENA. 49 

of the sewage into very thin films, a still quicker absorption 
of the dissolved organic matter of high molecular weight is to 
be supposed. Only in this way is it explainable how sewage 
applied to a filter in a very short time flows away from the 
effluent channel deprived of its organic putrescible substances 
as a clear, bright produot. 

" The filter has now a rest, the absorbed organic matter is 
decomposed in the moist membrane by the action of micro- 
organisms, enzymes, and absorbed atmospheric oxygen, and the 
nitrifying bacteria begin their action of mineralising, simul- 
taneously with chemical oxidation, the nitrogenous organic 
matter lying in their sphere of action. This biological action, 
coupled with chemical energy, goes on so long as there are any 
substances of high molecular weight still to be broken down." 

Professor A. Calmette, Director of the Pasteur Institute, 
Lille, has this year published a paper in the Revue (T Hygiene, 
"On the Mechanism of Biological Purification by Contact and 
Percolating Beds," from which the following is extracted : — 

" Every one knows that when sewage filters through a soil 
sufficiently permeable and conveniently drained there is seen to 
issue from the drains a clear water, whose purity is quite com- 
parable to that of streams and rivers the most protected against 
accidental causes of pollution. Thus the soil has absorbed and 
retained the impurities, as if it had dissolved them. 

" This phenomenon of absorption was observed for the first 
time a hundred and fifty years ago by an apothecary named 
Bronner, again in 1819 by an Italian agriculturist, Gazzier. 
Thirty years later it was discovered anew by Huxtable and 
Thomson. These scientists remarked, on shaking manure water 
with earth, that this earth absorbed the organic matter, leaving 
the manure water decolourised and clear. 

** If, then, one filters through earth a solution, of purine for 
example, each of the elements of the earth fixes the dissolved 
matters as by a phenomenon of adhesion or of dyeing. Each 
element impoverishes the solution during passage, and it is soon 
deprived of all the organic matter which is susceptible of being 
fixed. The length to which this purification goes varies with 
the depth, the absorbing power, the hygroscopy, and the tem- 
perature. It varies also with the richness in organic matter of 
the water applied, and according to the nature of this matter. 
Those which are the most complex, and the nearest to the 

E 



5G SEWAGE PURIFICATION PHENOMENA* 

vegetable or animal state, are the most actively fixed. The 
power of adhesion diminishes as the molecule is simplified : it 
is nil with certain crystallisable substances." 

"The researches of Dunbar have thus established the 
following theory of purification in bacterial contact beds. The 
matters in suspension are arrested by the beds ; the matters in 
solution are fixed by an absorbing power analogous to that of 
soil. During the periods of aeration the microbes decompose 
the fixed matters and regenerate the material by permitting a 
new fixation." 

It is not necessary, neither is it intended, to comment upon 
these confirmatory illustrations, other than to say that the 
quoted authorities fully recognise the fact that the organic 
solids in solution are not mineralised during the transit of the 
liquid through the filtration area. They do not particularise 
the colloidal state in which these solids exist in the sewage, 
but in describing the method of removal from the liquid in its 
passage through the filter as a fixation upon the material by a 
process of absorption or dyeing, and in showing that this power 
increases with the complexity of the organic molecule, they 
infer its colloidal nature, and the phenomenon a desolution. 
The question as to the immediate or remote, complete or 
incomplete biolysis of the matters so fixed does not arise in 
this connection, even had it not been previously dealt with. 

In conclusion, the Author desires to express his great in- 
debtedness to Dr. Travis of Hampton for permission to utilise 
his "Notes on Experiments" and other writings, which the 
Author acknowledges having taken full advantage of. The 
Author's obligations are also due to Mr. J. H. Johnston, 
chemist, and to Mr. T. Hughes, manager of the Hampton 
Sewage Works, for other valuable assistance. 



51 



AN ADDENDUM DELATING TO PUBLIC WOKKS 
RECENTLY CARRIED OUT AT HAMPTON-ON- 
THAMES. 

The Association has on a previous occasion (in October, 
1900) visited this district, when the Authors predecessor, 
Mr. John Kemp, Assoc.M.Inst.C.E., read a paper on the 
Sewerage and Sewage Disposal Works with reference par- 
ticularly to the Shone system of collecting and delivering the 
sewage ; the construction of the works departmentally, and to 
the working of the bacterial method of treatment by triple 
contact ; which paper is recorded in the " Proceedings of the 
Association," vol. xxvii. (1900-1901), p. 97. It is not, therefore, 
proposed in this reference to traverse the same ground, but to 
describe as briefly as possible the extensions to the Sewage 
Disposal Works, and other works that have been carried out by 
the Author. 

Extensions to Sewage Disposal Works. 

In 1903, owing to the difficulties incidental to the passing 
of a screened sewage direct on to contact beds, now well under- 
stood, and on account of the increasing volume of sewage 
arriving at the Works from the growing population, it was 
found necessary to provide more suitable means for efficiently 
removing the suspended matter from the sewage. The Author, 
in conjunction with the Consulting Engineers, advised the 
Council to instal the Hydrolytic Tank, and after having 
received the necessary sanction of the Local Government 
Board, the work was put in hand and carried out department- 
ally under the direct supervision of the Author. 

The existing screening chamber into which the whole of the 
sewage is delivered from the rising main was raised 18 inches. 
This chamber was formerly open, but objectionable odours were 



52 PUBLIC WORKS AT HAMPTON-ON-THAMES. 

emitted into the atmosphere, due to the fact of the sewage 
having been in the rising main for a long period, and it was 
decided to cover and ventilate the chamber as part of the 
scheme for the general ventilation of the tank, and closed 
channels on the principle of the Hydro-mechanical system of 
sewer ventilation. 

The sewage passing through the screen is conveyed by a 
covered channel to the detritus tanks. These tanks are in 
duplicate and are worked alternately. Each has a capacity of 
3000 gallons. The sewage is diverted from one to the other 
about once a fortnight, and the sludge is removed from the full 
tank by means of a valved opening, which allows it to pass 
into the sludge manhole. By this means nearly one half of the 
total quantity of sludge is removed from the sewage. From 
these tanks the sewage enters the centre of a transverse channel 
which conveys it into the sedimentation chambers of the hydro- 
lytic tank by delivering it behind submerged walls which lead 
it to a depth of 4 feet 3 inches. This tank is divided by light 
walls formed of 4-inch self-faced York flagstones, into three 
compartments, the centre one of which is the reduction 
chamber, the outer two the sedimentation chambers ; the only 
means of communication between these chambers being by 
narrow openings at the bottom of the sedimentation chambers. 
At the end of the tank is a weir divided into three portions, one 
for each chamber ; the relative widths of these divisions govern 
the outflow of sewage from the several chambers, and determine 
the proportional quantity which flows through each. The side 
weirs (sedimentation) have a width of 7 feet each, or a combined 
width of 14 feet, and the central (reduction) weir has a width 
of 2 feet The total width of 16 feet is, therefore, apportioned 
in the ratio of 87*5 per cent, to the sedimentation chambers, 
and 12*5 per cent, to the reduction chamber. 

The tank was designed to deal with 300,000 gallons per day, 
but it has been amply demonstrated by experience with the 
tank, and by experiments in the model tank, to be capable of 
dealing efficiently with a dry-weather flow of 500,000 gallons 
per day. 

While the sewage passes through the sedimentation chambers, 
those matters in suspension whose specific gravity approaches 
to that of the liquid will travel along a practically level plane, 
while the lighter and heavier particles will describe upward and 



PUBLIC WORKS AT HAMPTON-ON-THAMES. 53 

downward curves, the length of the curve being proportioned to 
the weight of the particle and the velocity of the flow. The 
lighter particles will rise to the surface and be retained there 
by the submerged walls at the end of the chamber. The 
heavier partioles, in falling, have their curve shortened by the 
descending volume of the liquid which passes out of the bottom 
of the sedimentation chambers into the reduction chamber ; in 
other words, the natural downward displacement of the particles 
will be accelerated by the downward flow of one-eighth of the 
entire volume* of sewage, by which, means the deposit is^carried 
into the reduction chamber. The slower rate :of flow, in this 
chamber permits the "solids to descend into; the lower ,patt of 
the chamber and prevents so large a quantity of the. deputed 
matters from being carried. out of; the tank during periods of 
agitation caused by the gases generated. 

The formation of gases is, with almost negligeable exceptions, 
limited to the reduction chamber, and the evolved gases rise to 
the surface of the liquid either,directly or, by being, directed there 
by. the sipping walls. * These walls, separate the rising gases in the 
reduction chamber from the depositing, solids :in the sedimenta? 
tion chambers, and thus obviate, the confusion, in operation which 
would otherwise ensue. The; part of the chamber below the 
openings at the bottom of the sedimentary chambers , is. for the 
reception of sludge ;< it is. designed to hold the sludge t contained 
in forty days' average flow of sewage. . In actual'work, however, 
it holds double. this .quantity. ,Along the 'floor at intervals 
are .fixed } valves,- through : which : 3000 ^gallons, of sludge are 
removed about once a fortnight from the tank into' the sludge 
manhole. > 

The floating solids on the. surface of the liquid in the sedi- 
mentary y chambers and those 'floated; in the reduction chapiber 
are occasionally,-when unduly . accumulating, raked over into the 
detritus tank. _■;._; . . " v 

The sewage flowing over the weirs of the first portion enters 
a channel which leads to the secopd portion of the tank. This 
consists of four hydrolysing chambers, arranged in sequence. 
The liquid is 4 conducted to the bottom of each .chamber by 
means of stoneware pipes. r : Blue .brick arches are constructed 
to support the material, and arranged with 2£-inch openings,' so 
as to leaye ; passage for the liquid. The floor under each arch is 
concave, arid forms with the ;arch- a. space for .'the sludge; two 



54 PUBLIC WORKS AT HAMPT0N-0N-THA.MES. 

valves are provided under each arch for the removal of the 
deposit. The material is broken flints, varying in diameter 
between 3 and 6 inches. The liquid passes upwards through 
the openings between the bricks and through the material to 
the surface, where it flows over a weir, and enters the down- 
ward stoneware pipes of the next chamber. f After the operation 
has been repeated in the four chambers, the liquid, having taken 
three hours in its passage, enters the lower covered channel 
which conducts it to the contact beds. 

The ventilation of the tank and channels is effected by 
means of an 18-inch "Sirocco" fan driven by a Marshall's 
vertical steam-engine, which causes a diminished air pressure in 
the air duct, channels, and tank, and withdraws the gases as 
they rise to the surface of the liquid. Atmospheric air is 
admitted at various regulated openings as indicated upon the 
plan. The chief opening is situated near the end of the 
effluent channel, which ensures that the maximum quantity of 
air shall pass over the surface of the liquid after it has left the 
tank. This volume is increased in the tank by the air admitted 
at the several regulated openings. The increased volume passes 
over the surface of the liquid in the tank, and over that in the 
channel and screening chamber, to the air duct and fan, whence 
it passes to and through the air purifying filter fixed over the 
fan-house, and is discharged therefrom into the atmosphere. By 
these means the gaseous contents of the tank and channels are 
rendered practically inodorous. On the other hand, gases which 
have been formed in the rising main and tank cannot escape out 
of any of the openings leading into the screening chamber, tank, 
or channels. 

The sludge removed from the detritus tanks, the hydrolytic 
tank, and the hydrolysing chambers, passes into a 50-gallon 
Shone Pneumatic Ejector, which discharges its contents into 
trenches in the land. These trenches are 3 feet wide, 1 foot 
6 inches deep, and 120 feet long, a space of 5 feet being left 
between each pair of trenches for future utilisation. Half an 
acre will suffice for twelve months' sludge disposal, which is at 
the rate of 2 acres per 1,000,000 gallons of daily flow of sewage. 

At the present time, and for the past eighteen months, the 
primary and secondary contact beds have been fed from the 
bottom, that is to say, the liquid from the tank is discharged 
from the covered channel into a shaft which is connected to a 



tUBLIC WORKS AT HAMPTON-ON-THAMES. 55 

main duct, having communication with the half channels formed 
in the floor of the beds, and covered with an earthenware per- 
forated tile, thus enabling the liquid to be distributed over the 
whole filtration area. By this method, undoubtedly, distri- 
bution and aeration are carried on more uniformly, whilst at the 
same time, owing to the action of the upward and downward 
flow, and the beds being emptied with valves full open, the 
beds are more completely deprived of their accumulated matters, 
and therefore maintain their original capacity for a longer 
period. 

The effluent from the primary and secondary beds is dis- 
charged on the surface of the tertiary beds, the top layer of 
which consists of some 12 inches of very fine material, that 
enables the sludge and other deposited matters to be retained 
on, and easily removed from, the surface. 

The cost of these extensions has been as follows : — 

£ 

Hydrolytic tank. Detritus, sedimentary, hydrolysing chambers 2200 
New channels. Alterations to, and covering of old channels. 

Raising and covering screening chamber 1 50 

Ejector, chamber, air and rising mains 300 

Engine, fan and fan-house, and air ducts and filter 300 



Total ... £2950 

In February last it was found necessary to increase the area 
of tertiary beds, and the Author constructed departmentally 
two additional beds with an area of 257 sup. yds. each. The 
cost, which was borne out of current rates, amounted to 365/. 

Roskhill Estate. 

The Council in 1901 purchased the Bosehill Estate, con- 
taining an area of 4 ac. rd. 33 p., for the sum of 3300/., and 
a mansion, which has been adapted for the public offices, 
library and reading-room, and technical classes ; about £ acre 
has been set apart and enclosed a3 a depot, the existing stables, 
coach-house, and sheds on this portion being utilised for present 
use. Some 2\ acres were allocated for a Housing Scheme. 



56 



PUBLIC WORKS AT HAMPTON-ON-THAME8. 



Housing Scheme. 

Daring the year 1902 the Council carried out the scheme 
for housing the working classes, which the Author prepared 
and supervised. 

The following statement, together with the plans, set forth 
the details : — 

Workmen's Dwellings. 
{Erected wader the Housing of the Working Classes Act, 1890.) 

Particulars of Dwellings. 
The dwellings are divided into four classes as follows : — 

12 cottages (Clan A), each containing 5 rooms and a scullery. 

30 „ (Class B) „ 4 

5 „ (Class C) „ 4 „ 

9 doable tenements (Class D) „ 2 „ „ 

1 old cottage (South Lodge) „ 4 „ „ 

Each tenement has its own larder, coal-store, and w.c, and 
a garden at the rear averaging about 80 sq. yds. 

The area of the site utilised is 1 ac. 3 rds. 11 p. 

The scheme was completed in September, 1903, and 
comprises — 



10 cottages (Class A) 

2 end houses „ 
29 cottages (Glass B) 

1 end house „ 

5 cottages (Glass C) 

9 double tenements (Class D) 
, 1 old oottage (South Lodge) 



Frontage. 


Rent. 


ft ins.) s. d. 


12 6 


6 9\ 

7 0/ 


23 4 


12 6 


6 3\ 
6 9/ 


22 6 


16 6 


70 




(4 6 


17 6 






5 6 




5 6 



Cubic*! 



8,561 

7,951 

9,727 

ground floor I 

12,656 } 

first floor ) 



Coetper 

(build- 
ing only V 

£ i. d. 
219 16 8 

194 6 8 
250 12 

295 6 8 

150 



Coetper 
foot cube 



d. 
616 

587 
6-20 

5*6 



All rooms have a clear height of 9 feet. 
The total cost of the scheme, inclusive of supervision 
charges, is as follows : — 



PUBLIC WORKS AT HAMPTON-ON-THAMES. 

Land: 2 acres Ord. 88 p. at £451 14s. 1-6& £ 8. d. 

per acre 1,010 

Cottage (South Lodge) 150 

Buildings 12,899 16 11 

Boads, drainage, and sewers ... 841 

Fencing 584 

Other expenses 462 14 6 



57 

£ «. a. 

1,160 
14,237 11 5 



£15,397 11 5 



£1,160 was borrowed for 50 years, interest at 8} per cent. 
£14,237 „ „ 40 „ „ 8J „ 



Infectious Diseases Hospital. 

In 1903 the Author prepared plans, etc., and superintended 
the erection of a four-ward isolation hospital, with a total 
accommodation of 10 beds, which comprises the following 
buildings : — 

Administrative block. 
Ward pavilion. 

Laundry and disinfecting block. 

Ambulance station and mortuary, and recently has been added porter's 
lodge and discharging block. 

The buildings were ' designed and the site laid out in 
accordance with and in strict adherence to the Local Govern- 
ment Board's regulations in such matters. 



Total Expenditure incurred. , 

Land : 7 acres (2 acres only are at present utilised and enclosed) 

Buildings, etc £3464 

Porter's lodge and discharging ward ... ... 498 

£3962 

Furnishing (including tent, etc.) 384 

Laying out grounds ... ... ... 100 

Total 



£ 
2061 



4446 
£6507 



Tramways. 

The London United Tramways Company, Ltd., obtained 
powers from Parliament in 1898, and in ' 1902 constructed 
tramways through the district. There are 2\ miles (double 



58 PUBLIC WORKS AT HAMPIOX-OK-TBAMES. 

track) and a short length of single track at High Street, 
Hampton H3L 

The original Act contained very few concessions in the way 
of widening* and improvements, bat during the construction 
and afterwards the Council have very successfully obtained 
further concessions from the Company, so that, when the 
Company have fulfilled all their obligations, which, by the 
way, they appear to be very slow in accomplishing, nearly 
the whole of the route traversed will have been widened to 
45 feet or more, besides the footways paved and kerbed and the 
road properly drained 

Many notable and costly widenings have been made, and 
owing to the existence of the large trunk mains of the 
Metropolitan Water Board, which in some instances were only 
a few inches below the surface, and had to be lowered or the 
road surface raised, there is no doubt that this portion of the 
service has proved to be the most expensive to construct 

Electric Lighting. 

This work has been carried out in the district by the 
Twickenham and Teddington Electric Supply Co., to whom 
the Council leased their order, which they obtained in 1901. 

The Council may determine the agreement of 1903 by 
twelve months' notice to expire at the end of the first seven or 
fourteen years, or at the end of any year subsequent, or by 
mutual consent at any time by paying the Company the 
amount of capital actually expended by them on lands, 
buildings, works materials, and plant within the district plus 
in/, per cent. 

New Bbidge. 

After much consideration the London and South- Western 
Railway Company were prevailed upon to construct a new 
bridge at Park Boad in 1905 in place of an old wooden one. 

The total cost, including approaches, amounted to 2570/. 
The Council have to pay a moiety of this amount in 20 equal 
half-yearly payments with 3 J per cent, interest on the sum 
remaining unpaid. 



PUBLIC WORKS AT HAMPTON-ON-THAMES. 



•59 



Private Streets. 

Eecently a number of streets have been made up under the 
Private Street Works Act, 1892, and the cost of the last four is 
as follows : — 



Bate per foot run 
of frontage. 



Buckingham Road 
Park Road ... 
Acacia Road ... 
Nightingale Road 




«. d. 

10 532 

12 71 

9 312 

9 2-37 



Eefuse Collection and Disposal. 

The refuse is collected once a week from every house, and 
the whole of the work is completed in four days. This work 
was reorganised some three years ago with very satisfactory 
results, the present cost is some 340Z. per annum, and only 9/. 
more than it was nine years ago (when the collection was 
fortnightly), although the number of houses has increased some 
44 per cent. 

The method of disposal that is still in vogue is by filling up 
disused ballast pits. The Author in 1904 advised the Council 
to adopt a more sanitary and up-to-date system, and after many 
inspections, meetings, and reports, the Author was instructed 
early in this year to prepare plans and specifications giving the 
necessary details to enable the several makers of refuse 
destructor plants to submit schemes for destroying the refuse 
and utilising the waste gases to generate steam to drive the 
machinery at the air-compressing station. Tenders have been 
received, and the Council have decided to accept the tender of 
Messrs. Horsfall, their price being the lowest, viz. 1211/., which 
includes two cells, grate area 30 square feet per cell, front feed 
type, combustion chamber at right angles to the furnace, Cornish 
boiler 16' 6" by 6' 6" in diameter, with a working pressure of 
•120 lbs. to the square inch, forced draught by means of fan and 
steam jets, Cameron type feed-pump and self-acting injector, 
dust catcher, and no doubt an air heater will be added. The 
total cost of the scheme is estimated at 2500/., which includes 



60 PUBLIC WORKS AT HAMPTON-ON-THAMES. 

buildings, main flue to existing shaft, and steam connections. 
The Author is of opinion that the scheme should not be a 
charge upon the rates, after due allowance is made for the 
saving in the coal bill and value of residuum. 

Statistics. 

1891. 1901. 1907. 

Population ... 5,882 ... 6,813 ... 9,500 

Rateable value ... £59,892 ... £80,584 ... £124,000 
Death-rate ... 143 ... 10-6 ... 105 (per 1000) 



Area: 2036 acres. 

General district rate ... 1«. Id. in the £.* - 

Poor rate 1$. Id. inthe£. 

The total indebtedness of the district is 74,151/., which 
includes 14,347/. for the Housing Scheme, and 6511/. for 
Private Street -Works^the principal and interest of these not 
being paid out of the rates. t 

Road Mileage. 
. 17J miles maintained by the Council. 
2J »•*'"»• County Council. 
« i 3} miles private streets not yet taken over. 

Total ... 23} miles. 



The Author cannot complete these notes without expressing 
his deep gratitude and thanks to all those who have rendered 
him assistance in the arrangements. for this meeting, especially 
to the Clerk ( to "the Council,' Mr. Edgar Cozens, and Mr. W. B. 
Smith, Assistant Surveyor. t 



, DISCUSSION. 

Mr. C, H. Cooper : I beg to propose a hearty /rote of thanks 
to the Author, I am not very much in favour of septic, action, 
but there are, no doubt, cases where itmay.be made, use. of, as in 
sewage disposal there is no one method of treatment applicable 
to all places. 'As.- regards ,public ; work;, I. am glad ; to see 
Hampton adopting the principle of doing work departmentally. 
I find it very good in my own district/ but of course you do 
find places \ where . the . method has utterly: failed. I . do ; not 
think you can find a- worse failure of departmental work than 



DISCUSSION. 61 

the Metropolitan Water Board. I will take, as an instance, the 
fixing of fire hydrants. Formerly in Wimbledon we were able 
to get our fire hydrants fixed at something under 81., now I am 
unable to estimate what will be the cost. In a case the other 
day of a new estate where the hydrant was fixed when the main 
was laid, the Metropolitan Water Board charged something like 
91. If those hydrants were fixed in an ordinary street, where 
the main had to be cut, the cost would be 101. The Board 
charges in each case a full day for a horse and cart — even 
though three or four jobs are going on close by. If a joint is 
made, the plumber's walking time, etc., is charged. The way 
in which the Board is managing its works department wants 
thoroughly overhauling, so that local authorities may be fairly 
dealt with. 

I see Hampton has a contract with the Twickenham and 
Teddington Company as regards the electric lighting. I am 
afraid, for a district like Hampton, electric light is the most 
expensive form of street lighting. In a big town it is all very 
well, and I quite approve of it in main streets where there is a 
lot of traffic : but with outlying streets by all means adopt gas. 
You will get gas companies to supply the gas and maintain the 
mantles for 21. 17s. 6d. per annum, and in some districts even 
find the lanterns. That is for all-night lighting. Electric 
lighting in my own district costs no less than a rate of 4$d. in 
the £ per year. I should strongly advise a district to think 
twice before adopting electric light for street lighting. Mr. 
Chambers has gone very fully into the question of sewage 
treatment, and he has not advocated filters that deal with an 
abnormal quantity of sewage ; he mentions 500 million gallons 
per acre in three years. We are glad to have figures which one 
can take as reliable. 

Dr. S. Rideal : I have pleasure in seconding the vote. I 
am here as a visitor, and should have liked to have heard the 
views of the members before speaking on this practical solution 
of the sewage problem. This paper of Mr. Chambers' seems, 
perhaps, to be more theoretical than practical, as he has gone 
over the very latest theories in respect of sewage disposal. The 
point which is now under discussion in the theory of sewage 
disposal, and which has been elaborated by Mr. Chambers, is 
whether the matter which undergoes treatment in any sort of 
area is first brought out from the colloidal state into a solid 



62 SEWAGE PURIFICATION PHENOMENA. 

condition before undergoing further change. The advocates of 
the colloidal theory, as represented here by Colonel Jones and 
Dr. Travis, maintain that before any real change takes place 
in the liquid portion of the sewage passing through the 
hydrolytic tank — the organic solids in solution are changed into 
a particulate condition, and that this solid state is brought 
about by contact with surfaces. They further contend that this 
change is due in some way to the absorption phenomena which 
were shown by Professor Dunbar, of Hamburg, to always take 
place in sewage purification. Those who hold this theory, viz. 
that this is a purely mechanical or physical change, and has 
nothing to do with bacteria, are at variance with those who 
hold that the change is bacterial. Mr. Chambers, in his paper, 
admits there is a biolytical change in sewage, but wishes us to 
believe that this is subsequent to the physical phenomena 
which destroys the colloids present. Whether the sewage bo 
put on land or in a filter, it there is finally oxidised by bacteria 
is, I think, now universally admitted. The difficulty we have 
to meet is that sewage is, perhaps, the most complex of all 
substances, and the changes which take place must also be very 
complex. Mr. Cooper was talking of the microscope just now. 
This colloidal theory is far beyond the microscope. It requires 
the ultra-microscope to investigate it. As to what the ultra- 
microscope reveals physicists are not yet agreed, and we cannot 
follow this change of the colloidal matter into a solid state any 
better by this instrument. When this hydrolytic tank — which 
is now in practice, for its erection here at Hampton was 
approved by the Local Government Board — was invented by 
Dr. Travis and Colonel Jones, it was called a hydrolytic tank, 
because the changes were believed to be due to hydrolysis — 
which means the breaking down of compounds into smaller 
compounds by combination with water without any oxidation 
or other change taking place. This change takes place in a 
variety of organic substances and in a variety of ways. 
We can, for example, convert a colloid substance like starch 
into a less colloid substance like dextrine by heat or 
by enzymes. We can also bring about that change by 
means of yeast. After the starch has been converted into 
dextrine, then, by after treatment, by any acid and warmth or 
bacteria you can convert this dextrine into sugar, which is 
crystalline or non-colloidal, and finally into alcohol and into 



DISCUSSION, 63 

carbonic acid. That breaking down of the complex colloid of 
starch into the smaller compounds of dextrine! sugar, and 
alcohol is not accompanied by thq formation of any particulate 
matter. This change of cellulose and starch into alcohol must 
take place in the sewage, and we have no reason to believe that 
in sewage the change is accompanied by the separation of any 
solid matter. That action of breaking down will take place in 
the brewer's mash-tun, and it will take place in the septic tank. 
You can take another substance — beef tea — which contains 
several complex colloid substances called albumoses. Those 
substances, by means of bacteria and acid, undergo a breaking 
down into smaller compounds without the formation of any 
solids, which are more easily filtered and oxidised. This 
peptonisation is determined by bacteria or their enzymes, by 
heat, but not by exposure to surfaces or contact with inert 
material like glass or clinker, and can be brought to the 
mineralisation stage without the separation of any solid. 
There is one example that we well know in which that is not 
true, where the colloid does not pass straight through to the 
mineralisation stage without the formation of a solid — that is 
the ordinary fermentation or souring of milk, and there may be 
others ; but Dr. Travis and Colonel Jones say that all organic 
substances, before they are broken down, must become solid, 
and that is to be done somehow or other, but how we do not 
quite understand. It is rather remarkable that when I first 
published my book on Sewage Disposal in May, 1900, two 
months before I was engaged to write a book on glue, so that I 
was looking up all the information I could get on the typical 
colloid substance at the same time I was working at sewage 
disposal. When glue is diluted with water it also undergoes 
this hydrolysis. It breaks down into lots of small substances, 
and those substances have not the power of sticking as the glue 
does. In the ordinary glue-pot the change into a less colloid 
substance is brought about by hydrolysis without any solid 
particulate matter separating. This theory of sewage disposal 
has, however, some points in its favour. It is perfectly true 
that sludge is formed and separates when these changes take 
place. That was known at Hampton long before the hydro- 
lytic tank and I believe was the primary cause of its introduc- 
tion here. It is also known that in all percolating filters a 
black sludge is the final change. Whether that is due to 



64 SEWAGE PURIFICATION PHENOMENA. 

non-bacterial change or the converting of the colloid into these 
black substances by physical rearrangement of the molecules, 
as Mr. Chambers says, you cannot tell without the aid of the 
ultra-microscope, and the issue depends on the trustworthiness 
of this instrument. I think, however, the change is a bacterial 
one. In a paper read before the British Association, Section B, 
at Glasgow, in 1901, I gave some analyses of the Hampton 
black residues. The paper discussed the formation of humus 
and the so-called irreducible residue in bacterial treatment of 
sewage, and pointed out the similarity of peat and soil humus 
to that of the black substances formed in fermented sewage. 
Adeney, in 1897, had earlier called attention to this relation, but 
the following quotation from my. paper, I think, shows that 
I then believed that these bodies were colloids and had the 
property of absorbing out of the liquid some of the organic 
soluble constituents : — 

" Organic decompositions, except those of final oxidation, 
are usually attended by the production of a brown colour ; the 
colouring matter sometimes remaining in solution, and some* 
times in the more energetic reactions separating in brown 
flakes. Types of reactions producing the colour are : — 

1. Heat alone, as in the formation of caramel from sugar 
and its allies. 

" 2. Heating with acids, alkalies, various salts, or even to a 
high temperature with water alone. 

"3. The change that occurs when vegetable tissues are 
injured or exposed to air, as seen when fruits are cut or bruised, 
connected with the action of the ferments called by Bertrand 
' oxydases.' 

"4. Natural decay in the formation of soils, vegetable 
mould, and peat, and finally, under certain conditions, of 
lignite and coal. 

"Simultaneously with hydrolysis a smaller number of 
molecules seem almost invariably to undergo the opposite 
change of withdrawal of water, accompanied by increase in the 
percentage of carbon, and condensation of the molecule pro- 
ducing coloured colloid compounds, which are comparatively 
inert, but have the power of combining with, or mordanting, 
large quantities of the matters in solution, both inorganic and 
organic. It is probable that the molecular weight of these 
bodies is exceedingly high. Their separation and purification is 



DISCUSSION. 65 

so difficult that, in spite of a large amount of work, it has not 
yet been satisfactorily accomplished, but many common pro- 
perties besides colour render it convenient to group together 
under the aggregate term humus all bodies possessing such 
properties and produced by dehydration with limited oxidation." 

I believe, therefore, that the particulate matter is due to 
some product of bacteria which exist in the solution, and may 
be, if I use a very inaccurate word to express my meaning 
— their excreta. In the splitting up of these this black sub- 
stance is produced, and more is produced under some conditions 
than others. Surfaces play an important part on absorption. 
They absorb much as the jelly-fish does its food, or the white 
corpuscles in the blood absorb bacteria. This surface growth 
envelops the small organic particles which then undergo 
digestion in the slime on the top of the bed, but to call that 
a physical change is perhaps as difficult to establish as the 
purely bacterial — the enzyme theory. There are very re- 
markable practical results put forward as the result of the 
working of this tank and filter. Mr. Chambers points out 
that in the experimental filter the amount of sludge which 
comes away is greater than the amount of sludge that goes into 
the bed. That is an argument for believing that the colloid 
matter in solution comes out of solution and accounts for the 
increase of sludge in the filter in the way I have just described. 
I do not know any other place where that has taken place to 
such an extent as in the filters here. The increase of sludge in 
suspension is thus novel. We know that solids do come out of 
all the beds, and are large in amount, and must be provided 
for, but I have never heard before of their being greater in 
amount than the solids going into the bed. Anyway, that is 
not a filter I should recommend you to go in for if you want to 
minimise the difficulties at your sewage disposal works. I think 
this hydrolytic tank should be renamed, and they ought to call 
it a non-hydrolytic tank or a colloidal tank, because if there is 
no hydrolysis taking place it is a misnomer. As I said at the 
beginning, we are discussing a very complex subject, and I 
regard the paper rather as a theoretical than a practical one. 

Lt.-Colonel Jokes, V.C. : I am very pleased that we have 
Dr. RideaTs company to-day, as he has givei* us such an 
extremely scientific and elaborate description of the very 
complex matter of sewage and its transformation. It is a 



66 SEWAGE PURIFICATION PHENOMENA, 

great pleasure to me to find that he has taken up the gauntlet 
thrown down by Dr. Travis and myself in January, 1906. 
Since that time a great deal of additional information has 
been stored up at Hampton by Dr* Travis, and through Mr. 
Johnson's careful observation of the hydrolytic chamber and 
model that he has at work. Not being a chemist by profession, 
what little I know of it is a smattering compared with Dr. 
Eideal, and I would not presume to speak on it in his presence, 
but I feel there is a practical aspect which ought to be interest- 
ing to us as engineers. Dr. Eideal has not taken the trouble 
to read carefully what this paper puts forward. We contend 
that the glue or the colloidal matter of sewage must be put into 
a solid form before it is acted upon by any bacteria.- What 
Dr. Eideal asserts is exactly the reverse of what we have said, 
and what Mr. Chambers has put forward in this paper as the 
Hampton system. The Hampton system is exactly what the' 
late Dr. Tidy did in the witness-box when he was called upon 
to give an example of precipitation, and insisted upon shaking 
the bottle. The same effect — the agitation in the presence of 
the solid substances — promoted the coagulation in the solution. 
That was taken advantage of in the hydrolytic tank by the 
many vertical surfaces. The German and English chemists 
are coming to see that there is a great deal in that, and it is 
more simple if you have got a substance like sewage not to 
dissolve it more in the septic tank, but to take out what is in 
a semi-solid state already by giving agitation in the presence of 
surfaces. I will say this — the very name contact bed realises 
this idea, that the medium and its surfaces were required, and 
they called it a contact bed in consequence. I dare say my 
reputation as a confirmed sceptio led people to jump to the 
conclusion, and I was taunted at Westminster and elsewhere 
as one who held that the bacteria had nothing to do with the 
purification work. On the contrary, I was one of the first 
(when Warington's discoveries came out that the bacteria 
worked in the land to purify sewage) to see the effect of these 
bacteria, but I impugned them by saying they were not 
immaculate, and did not do all they were said to do. They 
do their part. The great point arrived at lately is that, do 
what you will, these contact beds, or percolating filters, or 
whatever you like to call them, retain organic matter, and do 
not mineralise it in three minutes as they are supposed to do 



DISCUSSION. 67 

by some people. My belief in sewage treatment from the 
beginning has been that you have got to follow the lines of 
nature. That what is cast off as excreta and dead from animal 
and vegetable life has got to go through the mill again, and be 
broken up in some way by the bacteria. We ought to respect 
that law of nature, and instead of trying to store sewage up in 
a small space we have got to spread it and pass it round. The 
whole thing is a course of nature, and works round and round. 

Mb. A. £. Shape : A scheme similar to this at Hampton, in 
which the Hampton results have been taken full advantage of, 
has just been started at Norwich. The reason Mr. Collins has 
adopted that view is that we have got a large area of land 
which has got very sewage sick. This is thought to be due to 
the deposition of solids in the land, choking it up as in an 
ordinary filter bed. By adopting these tanks, which all are 
agreed are very efficient in taking out the solids from the 
sewage — no one has denied, after Mr. Hughes' paper, their 
efficiency in taking out the solids in the colloidal tank — we 
shall have a clear effluent which we can put on the land. 
Then, if the land treatment is not quite satisfactory, it is 
proposed to have filters to further purify the sewage. When 
one considers that at the present time tank after tank and 
filter bed after filter bed are becoming choked up, I do not 
think any one can deny there is something to be said for this 
hydrolytic tank, and the taking out of the solids. It is with 
this idea that these hydrolytic tanks have been put down in 
Norwich, and we hope in time to have some results to show 
the Association. The tanks are much larger than the tanks at 
Hampton, and we hope in time to get some results to support 
or carry further this very interesting problem of the disposal 
of sewage. 

Mr. E. Aglio Dibdin : I am sorry my father (Mr. W. J, 
Dibdin) is unable to be present to-day. There are one or two 
places in the paper where Mr. Dibdhi's name is used. I am 
sorry to say that in one place he is accused — under a mis- 
apprehension — of having recanted from the opinion that the 
natural inoffensive destruction of organic matter is due to 
aerobic biological activity. I venture to say my father is 
now, as ever, a very strong believer in the efficacy of biological 
action. In the first place, when his attention was drawn to 
sewage disposal as affeqtip" the sewage Qf Londoi^ he observed 



68 SEWAGE PURIFICATION PHENOMENA. 

under certain conditions the disappearance of the solid matters 
as well as of the matters in solution. On the banks of the 
Thames the solid matters were deposited by the crude sewage 
going into the river. As long as the supply of sewage matter 
to that area was kept within certain limits, there was no sign 
of fecal contamination on the foreshores, but when the amount 
of sewage sent into the river was greater than the natural 
forces at work in the river could overcome and destroy, then 
there were signs of faecal contamination. When chloride of 
lime was used to disinfect the sewage, it destroyed the natural 
forces, viz. : the organisms, and there was a deposition of dead 
organic matter. When the effect of the chloride of lime passed 
off, and the natural forces began to act on the dead organic 
matter there was an offensive decomposition. It is rather late 
in the day to have any doubts as to the ultimate part which 
organisms play in the destruction of sewage. If, as Colonel 
Jones contends, we must accept the biolytic action which 
takes place in the human organism, then we must accept 
the biological action which takes place in the land through 
the lower animals, such as worms and beetles. The bacteria 
only play the lowest and least part in the destruction of this 
matter, and prepare it as manure for future operations. If we 
refer to the report of the evidence given before the Royal 
Commission on metropolitan sewage, you will see that the 
manurial value is insignificant — that it is not worth handling. 
Instead of trying to use the sludge it is more economical to 
change the solids in solution and suspension into such a form 
that there is no offence to human beings, and leave the utilisa- 
tion of the substances entirely to nature. Mr. Dibdin's early 
experiments with filters showed that the bacteria mostly would 
grow; other organisms were few in comparison. The coarse 
primary bed was added to tackle the sludge ; the solid matter 
as well as the fine matter. In a paper by Dr. Fowler before 
the Society of Chemical Industry it was shown that the 
absorption of ammonia by a filter is not necessary to nitrifica- 
tion, although such absorption is beneficial in the early 
.stages when the bacteria are presumably few. The slime on 
the surface of the filter is biological in character, and the 
jnatters attracted thereto by physical causes are altered in 
(Character by organisms so as to become inoffensive. According 
£9 the naturp 0/ ## .outfall the chemical constituents of an 



DISCUSSION. 69 

effluent are more or less of a secondary consideration, the main 
point being whether those constituents are so combined as 
to be harmless to men and animals, or are live matter of an 
inoffensive type. Mr. Dibdin has in no way recanted or 
withdrawn from his original ideas on these points. He has 
developed his ideas along certain lines. The slate bed, which 
is referred to as a means for treating solids, was designed 
primarily for increasing spaces. In order to use contact beds 
at such a rate that they would not be choked by solids, we 
should have had to multiply them perhaps two or three times. 
In order to overcome that difficulty, Mr. Dibdin devised the 
slate bed to give greater working capacity. The slate bed is 
nothing more than an irrigation plot, with surfaces one above 
the other. We have a series of surfaces which are comparable 
to the surfaces of irrigation plots covered with live earth 
containing the organisms found in good soil. We can allow 
a deposit of -£ 6 of an inch on each surface at each filling, we 
have an average of a \ of an inch of live earth to deal with it. 
We have an air supply on the top of the water trapped under 
the slates. It is not a departure or a modification, but only a 
development of the views previously held. It is an economy 
of space which has been effected in the slate bed. I repudiate 
the idea that Mr. Dibdin has modified his views as to aerobic 
or anaerobic action, or has recanted from the idea that aerobic 
biological action is the only process which can destroy sewage 
inoffensively. 

Mr. E. J. Silcock: This paper apparently is principally 
directed towards the discussion of the part which bacteria 
play in the re-solution of sewage, and that subject from the 
scientific point of view is no doubt an exceedingly interesting 
one, and one to which we should be glad to pay attention at all 
times, but I venture to think that the paper in the form in 
which it is presented to us is more suitable for discussion by 
chemists and bacteriologists than by engineers. It is not the 
function of the engineer to attempt to demonstrate whether the 
action is bacterial or chemical, but to obtain that information 
as far as possible from those gentlemen who are directing their 
attention to the strictly scientific side of the question. What 
we want, having heard their views, is to endeavour to design an 
apparatus which will foster and carry out sewage purification 
in the best possible way. What we really want to have put 



70 SEWAGE PURIFICATION PHENOMENA, 

before us, in a paper such as this, is some information as to the 
degree of purification obtained by this particular form of tank. 
If the paper had done that it would have shown us the amount 
of solids in suspension in the crude sewage, and in the effluent 
from the tank. Then we should have been able to determine 
whether the tank was doing the work in a more rapid and 
economical way than other forms of tanks. The separation 
of the solids in this form of tank appears to be exceedingly 
good. Personally I came here to see the tank and the results 
obtained. We want something of a more practical character. 
The paper does not deal with the question of the farther puri- 
fication of the sewage after the liquid has passed through the 
tanks. I understood from the first information supplied by Dr. 
Travis, that the tank was to be followed by an oxidising process 
in which fans were to be used. That is a complicated system 
which could not be applied in small installations. It might do 
for the large Corporations with a big purse, but it seems to me 
that no such system could be successful in the smaller towns. 

The vote of thanks was unanimously accorded. 

Mr. Chambers in reply : My objects in writing the paper, 
were to review and to criticise the more generally accepted 
theories of sewage purification, and to endeavour to substi- 
tute therefor a doctrine which had resulted from four years* 
continuous research work at the Hampton laboratory. I 
did not anticipate other than that the views expressed would 
meet with some measure of hostility, and that they would not 
be acceptable to some who might take part in the discussion. 
I have been somewhat agreeably surprised at the paucity of the 
opposition, and cannot but regard it as evidence that the views 
of sewage purification are rapidly changing in the direction 
indicated in the paper. In reply to Mr. Silcock I may say that 
I thought I should be discharging my obligations to the 
Association more completely by bringing forward new facts 
relating to the subject generally, rather than by limiting myself 
to the operations of the hydrolytic tank, more especially, as the 
tank itself, and the model hydrolytic tank, will thoroughly be 
gone into at the sewage works, and the amount of purification 
effected thereby will be fully explained. I am glad that I shall 
have an opportunity of replying in writing to the criticisms 
which have been raised in the discussion, and to any which 
may be communicated. 



COMMUNICATED REPLY TO DISCUSSION. 71 



COMMUNICATED REPLY. 

Mft. Sidney H. Chambers, in reply to the discussion: I 
cannot agree with the statements made by some of the speakers 
that the paper is more theoretical jthan practical, and that 
it is one which should have been presented to chemists rather 
than to engineers. I venture to assert that a right interpretation 
of sewage purification phenomena — a knowledge of the actual 
changes the sewage undergoes in its transit through the treat- 
ment area — is as inherently of the essence of practice, as its 
elucidation is of the utmost possible interest to the municipal 
engineer. There is, however, no disputing the fact that, in the 
paper, I have gone over the very latest theories in respect to 
sewage disposal, as I have also thought it to be necessary to in- 
corporate views which can now only be looked upon as ancient 
history. The doctrine upheld in the paper has emanated from 
Hampton and has resulted from the Hampton researches. No 
one who has listened to the discussion can seriously contend 
that that doctrine has in any way suffered thereby. Indeed, 
with the single exception of Dr. Eideal, it is not controverted, 
and Dr. Eideal's criticism is markedly less hostile than on 
previous occasions. Moreover, Dr. Eideal, in his policy of 
opposition, has signally failed to do himself justice. This is 
especially evident in his references to the colloidal theory, and 
to the amount of suspended matter issuing from filters. With 
regard to the former, Dr. Eideal stated that " this colloidal theory 
was far beyond the microscope — it required the ultra-microscope 
to investigate it. As the ultra-microscope is not yet in being 
we cannot follow this change of the colloidal matter into a solid 
state." This statement is scarcely courteous to the Author 
of the paper, who asserted that colloidal particles could be 
recognised by the ultra-microscope. The principle of the ultra- 
microscope was enunciated by Siedentopf and Ziegsmondy, and 
had been carried into effect in 1902. The ultra-microscope 
has since been in daily use in chemical laboratories all over 
the world ; it has been demonstrated before the Eoyal Society ; 
and it has also been used by the Author, and those engaged 
upon the Hampton investigations. The ultra-microscope is 
not required, as Dr. Eideal stated, to follow the change of the 
colloidal matter into a solid state. This change, as described in 



?2 SEWAGE PURIFICATION PHENOMENA. 

the paper, can be witnessed by the ordinary observer, and its 
minuter details seen by the aid of the microscope. It can also be 
brought about in a moment by the addition of electrolytes, and it 
can be delayed for weeks. The real object of the ultra-microscope 
is to render visible particles which lie far beyond the range of 
the ordinary microscope. By the use of the ultra-microscope the 
particulate nature of all colloidal solutions has been demonstrated, 
and the dimensions of the smaller of the particles which can be 
seen lie in the neighbourhood of the largest molecules. Indeed 
it has been claimed that the larger molecules of albumen and of 
certain fluorescent substances have been actually seen. Dr. 
Bideal's other criticism with regard to the experimental filter 
is equally unfortunate. His contentions that " the increase of 
sludge was novel," that " he did not know any other place where 
that had been established," and that it "was not a filter he 
should recommend " shows a lack of acquaintance with the 
literature of the subject as well as with the practical work* 
ing of filters. The fact that more suspended solids issued 
from a filter composed of large-sized filter particles than 
entered it is not novel. It has been illustrated and directly 
referred to by Colonel Jones and Dr. Travis in their reply to 
the discussion on their paper before the Institution of Civil 
Engineers as a "method of eliminating solid matter which 
ought to be encouraged as it is one of the means of prolonging 
the practical usefulness of the beds." It has been shown to 
take place in some of the Massachusetts experimental filters as 
long ago as 1902. It has also been described by Mr. Watson 
as occurring in the Birmingham filters, and it has been established 
in other places. Indeed it may be accepted as a fact that 
whenever such a filter is not evacuating more suspended 
matter than is entering it, then that filter is becoming an area 
of retention, and is on the way to becoming blocked. Mr. E. 
Aglio Dibdin's denial that Mr. W. J, Dibdin has in any way 
recanted his formerly expressed opinions can only be regarded 
as the subject of regret. It in no way modifies the facts as 
recorded in the paper. It follows, however, that Mr. W. J. 
Dibdin still maintains .that the whole of the organic matters 
suspended and soluble which are arrested by filters are oxidised 
by bacteria ; and yet Mr. B. Aglio Dibdin himself states that 
" the bacteria only play the lowest and least part in the de- 
struction of this matter." 



VISITS TO WORKS. 73 

The Author cannot conclude his reply without expressing 
his indebtedness to all those who have taken part in the 
discussion, and without recording his appreciation of the 
opportunity afforded him by the Council of the Association for 
bringing forward his paper, and for their visit to Hampton. 

The Members then visited Hampton Court Palace, going over 
a portion of the historic building. 

The party had luncheon together, under the presidency of 
Mr. J. A. Brodie 9 at Cleggs Hotel. 

In the afternoon visits were made to the National Physical 
Laboratory, tfie whole of the buildings, laboratories and testing 
rooms being open for inspection under the conductorship of Dr. 
Olazebrook and members of his staff. 

At the conclusion of the inspection the President proposed a 
vote of thanks to Dr. Glazebrook. 

The vote of thanks was passed by acclamation. 

The Members then proceeded to the sewage disposal works, 
where they inspected tJie hydrolitic tank described by Mr. C/iambers 
in his paper. 



METROPOLITAN DISTRICT MEETING. 

February 28, 1908. 

Held at Westminster. 
W. Ntsbet Blair, M.Inst.C.E., Vice-President, in the Chair. 



The Chairman: Mr. Aldwinckle is not a stranger to our 
Association. He gave us a paper here, I think in this same 
building, a few years ago on fire-proof construction and the 
defence of buildings against fire. Many of us know Mr. 
Aldwinckle as distinctly in a foremost position to speak on the 
construction of public baths. I have a special knowledge of 
the fact, as Mr. Aldwinckle constructed for the Council of St. 
Pancras a very fine block of baths, which are illustrated on the 
drawings now before us. 

Mr. Aldwinckle then read the following paper : — 

PUBLIC BATHS AND WASHHOUSES. 
By T. W. ALDWINCKLE, F.E.I.B.A. 

The importance and value of public baths in relation to the 
health of the community are now so generally recognised, and 
the necessity for the provision of such institutions is so generally 
accepted, that such buildings are now to be found in most of 
the important towns in the kingdom, sometimes, but not always, 
of a size and character adequately to fulfil the requirements of 
the neighbourhood. All public authorities now fully recognise 
the necessity for these institutions, but as public baths are not 
usually self-supporting, the fear of putting fresh burdens upon 



PUBLIC BATHS AND WASHHOUSES. 7§ 

the ratepayer will often check, and even indefinitely postpone, 
the development of such schemes. It is thus the imperative 
duty of the architect when designing public baths to always 
keep before his mind two important economies, viz. economy 
in the erection and finish of the buildings, and economy in 
their administration, the latter being the legitimate result of a 
well-considered and well-arranged plan. 

To begin at the beginning, with the site; the general mistake 
is made of having this of too small an area for its intended 
purpose. Baths are most needed in crowded localities where 
land is expensive, and too little, therefore, is acquired. This 
necessarily cripples any plan, however well considered, with the 
result that the several buildings are crowded together with 
insufficient air space and limited means of intercommunication, 
and the future administration suffers. Another result frequently 
is that the new buildings come up too close to those of adjoining 
owners, resulting in claims in respect of vibration and in 
respect of interference with light and air. The ideal site is 
one which admits of all the departments, swimming baths, 
slipper baths, public laundry, etc., being placed on the ground 
floor, thus ensuring top lighting and good ventilation. It is 
also desirable that at least two sides of the site should abut 
upon a public thoroughfare. 

The following points should, the Author thinks, be carefully 
observed in designing public baths : — 

Due separation of sexes and classes. 

Efficient supervision. 

Economical administration. 

Good lighting and ventilation of all parts. 

Means of intercommunication throughout. 

When public baths are intended for a large town, there will 
generally be three swimming baths, two for men and one for 
women. It is unnecessary to have two of these baths for 
women, as the use of them by this sex is not so general as to 
warrant such a course. The two classes of women bathers use 
the bath on alternate days, or some similar arrangement is 
adopted. In many establishments there is no swimming bath 
specially dedicated to women, the men's bath being given over 
to them on certain hours or on certain days. This, however, is 
to be deprecated. Unless the men's baths are open for men 



76 PUBLIC BATHS AND WASHHOUSES. 

during the whole of the week, the popularity of the baths will 
most certainly suffer. 

In arranging the buildings upon the site, the swimming 
baths, being large, have to be considered first, the slipper baths 
coming in for the smaller areas. But the slipper baths are of 
equal importance with the swimming baths, and their arrange- 
ments must be as carefully considered. This is particularly 
the case with a site of irregular shape. When a site is large 
enough, it is far preferable, and for administrative purposes 
more economical, to have all the slipper baths on the ground 
floor. Where this is not possible it is better to have these all 
on the first floor rather than they should be divided over two 
floors. A good deal of attendance and supervision are required 
for slipper baths. 

There should be separate entrances for the two sexes, if 
possible in different streets. For men there should be separate 
entrances for the two classes, one on each side of a central ticket 
office. So far as men are concerned, the Author thinks that it 
is most desirable that those who pay for a first-class swim or 
slipper bath should be free from the rowdyism which sometimes 
occurs among the second-class bathers. The entrances in all 
cases (for either sex) should lead as directly and as shortly as 
possible to the swimming baths, in connection with each of 
which there should be a good-sized and well-lighted lobby, but 
not a waiting-room. All long corridors should be carefully 
avoided. The main entrance should also lead, as directly as 
possible, to the slipper baths. If these are on the first floor 
the stairs leading up to same (separate for each sex and class) 
should be close to the entrances. There should be a well-lighted 
and ventilated waiting-room adjoining each set of slipper baths. 

In designing the swimming baths it must be kept in mind 
that water is expensive, and that it has to be warmed, which 
is also costly. Therefore, the swimming ponds should not be 
unnecessarily large or deep. A good size for the men's bath is 
100' long by 35' wide, the depth of water ranging from 3' 6" to 
6' or 6' 6"; greater width and greater depth suggests undue 
consumption of water. The second-class bath should be at 
least quite as long as the first-class bath. The deepest point 
should be about 10' from the end. A good size for the ladies 1 
swimming bath is 75' by 25', with a depth of water from 
3' to 6'. 



PUBLIC BATHS AND WASHHOUSES. 77 

The general design and arrangement of the men's first-class 
swimming bath will depend upon the question whether this 
will be used during the winter as a public hall for concerts and 
entertainments. In many localities a good public hall is much 
needed, and where that is the case the hall will generally 
become a source of profit during the winter months. In order 
that this swimming bath shall be made suitable for such 
purposes special arrangements must be made as regards 
entrances and exits, staircases and galleries, and the whole 
of the hall and its adjuncts would, in London, come under the 
theatre requirements of the London County Council, and these 
requirements, while strictly necessary, are calculated greatly to 
increase the cost. One great difficulty in this matter is that 
the features which constitute a good hall for swimming-bath 
purposes do not altogether make a good concert hall. The 
ventilating lantern and skylight which form an admirable 
arrangement for a swimming bath, make a very poor ceiling 
for a concert hall, and have anything but good acoustic 
qualities. 

At the St. Pancras Baths, Kentish Town, an effort was made 
to cope with this difficulty. The Author did away altogether 
with the Lantern skylight, and provided a curved inner ceiling 
of trefoil section, putting a non-ventilating skylight on each 
side of the roof with steel sashes in the curve of the ceiling, 
with slightly obscured glass immediately under the skylight. 
This gives ample light in the Hall for all purposes, and the 
curved ceiling has good acoustic qualities. This Hall, both 
in summer and winter, is ventilated on the plenum system, 
900,000 cubic feet per hour being driven in at the floor level, 
the outlets for the vitiated air being in the apex of the ceiling 
leading into a main outlet trunk communicating direotly with 
the external air. The incoming air is of course warmed not 
only during the winter but frequently during the bathing 
season in the so-called summer months. In addition to the 
main plenum, there is a supplementary plenum system, quite 
independent of the other, which discharges warmed air halfway 
up the curve of the ceiling. The object of this is to keep the 
ceiling, and especially the steel portion of it, warm, and thus 
to prevent that condensation of the watery vapour which is 
usually so troublesome in a swimming bath. In this connection 
it may be mentioned that it is desirable to have all plenum 



76 PUBLIC BATHS AND WASHHOUSKS. 

during the whole of the week, the popularity of the baths will 
most certainly suffer. 

In arranging the buildings upon the site, the swimming 
baths, being large, have to be considered first, the slipper baths 
coming in for the smaller areas. But the slipper baths are of 
equal importance with the swimming baths, and their arrange- 
ments must be as carefully considered. This is particularly 
the case with a site of irregular shape. When a site is large 
enough, it is far preferable, and for administrative purposes 
more economical, to have all the slipper baths on the ground 
floor. Where this is not possible it is better to have these all 
on the first floor rather than they should be divided over two 
floors. A good deal of attendance and supervision are required 
for slipper baths. 

There should be separate entrances for the two sexes, if 
possible in different streets. For men there should be separate 
entrances for the two classes, one on each side of a central ticket 
office. So far as men are concerned, the Author thinks that it 
is most desirable that those who pay for a first-class swim or 
slipper bath should be free from the rowdyism which sometimes 
occurs among the second-class bathers. The entrances in all 
cases (for either sex) should lead as directly and as shortly as 
possible to the swimming baths, in connection with each of 
which there should be a good-sized and well-lighted lobby, but 
not a waiting-room. All long corridors should be carefully 
avoided. The main entrance should also lead, as directly as 
possible, to the slipper baths. If these are on the first floor 
the stairs leading up to same (separate for each sex and class) 
should be close to the entrances. There should be a well-lighted 
and ventilated waiting-room adjoining each set of slipper baths. 

In designing the swimming baths it must be kept in mind 
that water is expensive, and that it has to be warmed, which 
is also costly. Therefore, the swimming ponds should not be 
unnecessarily large or deep. A good size for the men's bath is 
100' long by 35' wide, the depth of water ranging from 3' 6" to 
6' or 6' 6"; greater width and greater depth suggests undue 
consumption of water. The second-class bath should be at 
least quite as long as the first-class bath. The deepest point 
should be about 10' from the end. A good size for the ladies' 
swimming bath is 75' by 25', with a depth of water from 
3' to 6'. 



PUBLIC BATHS AND WASHHOUSBS. 77 

The general design and arrangement of the men's first-class 
swimming bath will depend upon the question whether this 
will be used during the winter as a public hall for concerts and 
entertainments. In many localities a good public hall is much 
needed, and where that is the case the hall will generally 
become a source of profit during the winter months. In order 
that this swimming bath shall be made suitable for such 
purposes special arrangements must be made as regards 
entrances and exits, staircases and galleries, and the whole 
of the hall and its adjuncts would, in London, come under the 
theatre requirements of the London County Council, and these 
requirements, while strictly necessary, are calculated greatly to 
increase the cost. One great difficulty in this matter is that 
the features which constitute a good hall for swimming-bath 
purposes do not altogether make a good concert hall. The 
ventilating lantern and skylight which form an admirable 
arrangement for a swimming bath, make a very poor ceiling 
for a concert hall, and have anything but good acoustic 
qualities. 

At the St. Pancras Baths, Kentish Town, an effort was made 
to cope with this difficulty. The Author did away altogether 
with the Lantern skylight, and provided a curved inner ceiling 
of trefoil section, putting a non-ventilating skylight on each 
side of the roof with steel sashes in the curve of the ceiling, 
with slightly obscured glass immediately under the skylight. 
This gives ample light in the Hall for all purposes, and the 
curved ceiling has good acoustic qualities. This Hall, both 
in summer and winter, is ventilated on the plenum system, 
900,000 cubic feet per hour being driven in at the floor level, 
the outlets for the vitiated air being in the apex of the ceiling 
leading into a main outlet trunk communicating directly with 
the external air. The incoming air is of course warmed not 
only during the winter but frequently during the bathing 
season in the so-called summer months. In addition to the 
main plenum, there is a supplementary plenum system, quite 
independent of the other, which discharges warmed air halfway 
up the curve of the ceiling. The object of this is to keep the 
ceiling, and especially the steel portion of it, warm, and thus 
to prevent that condensation of the watery vapour which is 
usually so troublesome in a swimming bath. In this connection 
it may be mentioned that it is desirable to have all plenum 



78 PUBLIC BATHS AND WASHH0U6ES. 

ducts and inlets of large area so that the velocity of the air 
may be low, thus avoiding perceptible draughts of air. 

Dealing again with the ordinary details of a swimming 
bath, the gangways and dressing-boxes should be kept as small 
as possible, consistent with efficiency, or the size of the building 
will be unduly increased. For a First Class Men's Bath the 
gangways should be 4 feet wide at the sides of the pond, 6 feet 
wide at the shallow end, and at least 8 feet wide at the deep 
end. The dressing-boxes should be 3' 6" by 3' 6", the partitions 
and doors being in teak, the partitions standing 2£" clear of the 
lloor on gun-metal shoes, and being 6' 9" high. For the 
Women's Swimming Bath, the end gangways may be narrower, 
but the dressing-boxes can with advantage be a little larger, and 
7' 6" high, the doors being 5' 6" high, the space above being 
enclosed by a short curtain. It is not desirable to put dressing- 
boxes at either end of the men's or women's first-class 
swimming baths. It will generally be found that a sufficient 
number can be provided at the sides, but this remark does 
not apply to the second-class swimming baths. 

If the Men's Bath is to be used as a Concert Hall in the 
winter, these boxes should be made removable, which is a very 
simple matter. These boxes are usually placed under the gallery, 
if there is one, but they are now sometimes placed on the upper 
tier of amphitheatre seats rising from the bath gangway. This 
amphitheatre arrangement has the excellent result that a good 
view can be obtained of all parts of the pond during swimming 
competitions and entertainments, which is far from the case 
with the ordinary gallery, and is far preferable to placing 
the boxes under or at the back of the amphitheatre seats. 
Admirable as the amphitheatre arrangement is, and of that there 
can be no question, it is open to the objection that it consider- 
ably increases the width and length of the hall containing the 
Swimming Pond ; the dressing-boxes are not so accessible as in 
the usual place; and the general arrangement does not lend 
itself to the purposes of a hall for concerts or entertainments. 
At the same time, the Author is not at all sure that it is good 
policy to impair the efficiency of the Swimming Bath for the sake 
of the winter concerts. Assuming that a gallery will be required, 
it should run round the two sides and one end, the latter over 
the shallow end of the pond. It is preferable to have no 
gallery at the other end, as a gallery interferes with the 



PUBLIC BATHS AND WASHHOUSBS. 79 

arrangements for diving, etc. The gallery must necessarily be 
steep and shallow, and will not as a rule take more than two 
rows of seats at the sides, but more rows can be put at the 
end. It is a very good arrangement, and one that is much 
appreciated, to put a gallery at one end of the Women's Swimming 
Bath. All the seats in the gallery must be of the " tip-up " type. 

Another arrangement has been carried out at the Camber- 
well Baths, Old Kent Eoad, by which the front of the gallery 
has been set back in a line with the front of the dressing- 
boxes, the rear part of the gallery standing over a corridor on 
the floor below. This enables a much better view to be. 
obtained of the bath pond, and retains the dressing-boxes in 
their usual position, and also admits of an extra row of seats in 
the gallery. 

There should be easy access to the gallery from the ground 
floor of the Swimming Bath, and also external access, which 
will be required on the occasions of swimming entertainments. 

For the Men's Second Class Swimming Bath, the dressing- 
boxes must be more numerous and smaller in size. The 
divisions can be of plain slate, 6' 6" high (again kept clear of 
floor). These boxes can be 2' 9" by 2' 9", and there can be a 
fair proportion of boxes a little larger to hold two bathers. As 
the placing of these boxes along the sides and ends of the bath 
will not give a sufficient number of them, additional boxes 
should be arranged in well-lighted transepts or annexes, but 
not out of proper view and control. The doors should stand 
about 15" off the floor, and be 2' 6" high. 

Great care must be taken with the construction of the bath 
pond to ensure its being water-tight. The bottom of the pond 
should have a good thickness of cement concrete, and the walls 
should be built of brickwork in cement, in preference to concrete, 
on good foundations. The pond should have a water-tight internal 
coating of either asphalte or cement, and this should be carefully 
tested with water before the final linings are fixed. The sides 
should be lined with white glazed bricks, but for the bottom of 
the pond Terrazzo paving is preferable, as the straight lines of 
the brick paving assume horrible contortions when seen through 
the water. The only objection to Terrazzo is that the water 
does not look quite so bright as with white glazed bricks. The 
nosing to the pond should be white marble for first class, and 
plain slate for second class. £ glared fire-clay scum trough 



76 PUBLIC BATHS AND WASHHOUSES. 

during the whole of the week, the popularity of the baths will 
most certainly suffer. 

In arranging the buildings upon the site, the swimming 
baths, being large, have to be considered first, the slipper baths 
coming in for the smaller areas. But the slipper baths are of 
equal importance with the swimming baths, and their arrange- 
ments must be as carefully considered. This is particularly 
the case with a site of irregular shape. When a site is large 
enough, it is far preferable, and for administrative purposes 
more economical, to have all the slipper baths on the ground 
floor. Where this is not possible it is better to have these all 
on the first floor rather than they should be divided over two 
floors. A good deal of attendance and supervision are required 
for slipper baths. 

There should be separate entrances for the two sexes, if 
possible in different streets. For men there should be separate 
entrances for the two classes, one on each side of a central ticket 
office. So far as men are concerned, the Author thinks that it 
is most desirable that those who pay for a first-class swim or 
slipper bath should be free from the rowdyism which sometimes 
occurs among the second-class bathers. The entrances in all 
cases (for either sex) should lead as directly and as shortly as 
possible to the swimming baths, in connection with each of 
which there should be a good-sized and well-lighted lobby, but 
not a waiting-room. All long corridors should be carefully 
avoided. The main entrance should also lead, as directly as 
possible, to the slipper baths. If these are on the first floor 
the stairs leading up to same (separate for each sex and class) 
should be close to the entrances. There should be a well-lighted 
and ventilated waiting-room adjoining each set of slipper baths. 

In designing the swimming baths it must be kept in mind 
that water is expensive, and that it has to be warmed, which 
is also costly. Therefore, the swimming ponds should not be 
unnecessarily large or deep. A good size for the men's bath is 
100' long by 35' wide, the depth of water ranging from 3' 6" to 
6' or 6' 6"; greater width and greater depth suggests undue 
consumption of water. The second-class bath should be at 
least quite as long as the first-class bath. The deepest point 
should be about 10' from the end. A good size for the ladies' 
swimming bath is 75' by 25', with a depth of water from 
3' to 6'. 



PUBLIC BATHS AND WASHHOUSES. 77 

The general design and arrangement of the men's first-class 
swimming bath will depend upon the question whether this 
will be used during the winter as a public hall for concerts and 
entertainments. In many localities a good public hall is much 
needed, and where that is the case the hall will generally 
become a source of profit during the winter months. In order 
that this swimming bath shall be made suitable for such 
purposes special arrangements must be made as regards 
entrances and exits, staircases and galleries, and the whole 
of the hall and its adjuncts would, in London, come under the 
theatre requirements of the London County Council, and these 
requirements, while strictly necessary, are calculated greatly to 
increase the cost. One great difficulty in this matter is that 
the features which constitute a good hall for swimming-bath 
purposes do not altogether make a good concert hall. The 
ventilating lantern and skylight which form an admirable 
arrangement for a swimming bath, make a very poor ceiling 
for a concert hall, and have anything but good acoustic 
qualities. 

At the St. Pancras Baths, Kentish Town, an effort was made 
to cope with this difficulty. The Author did away altogether 
with the Lantern skylight, and provided a curved inner ceiling 
of trefoil section, putting a non-ventilating skylight on each 
side of the roof with steel sashes in the curve of the ceiling, 
with slightly obscured glass immediately under the skylight. 
This gives ample light in the Hall for all purposes, and the 
curved ceiling has good acoustic qualities. This Hall, both 
in summer and winter, is ventilated on the plenum system, 
900,000 cubic feet per hour being driven in at the floor level, 
the outlets for the vitiated air being in the apex of the ceiling 
leading into a main outlet trunk communicating direotly with 
the external air. The incoming air is of course warmed not 
only during the winter but frequently during the bathing 
season in the so-called summer months. In addition to the 
main plenum, there is a supplementary plenum system, quite 
independent of the other, which discharges warmed air halfway 
up the curve of the ceiling. The object of this is to keep the 
ceiling, and especially the steel portion of it, warm, and thus 
to prevent that condensation of the watery vapour which is 
usually so troublesome in a swimming bath. In this connection 
it may be mentioned that it is desirable to have all plenum 



PUBLIC BATHS AND WASHHOUSKS. 81 

should be made up in panels about 7' by 3' 6", tongued and 
ledged, and with framed ends, rebated diagonally at the corners, 
and each corner secured with a piece of |" teak, 4" square, fixed 
with brass caps and screws to the bearers below ; the bearers or 
joists carrying this floor should run transversely across the 
pond and rest on strong framed and braced trestles running 
longitudinally down the pond, and secured to each other with 
bolts and nuts. This makes a floor which is a good one to 
dance on, and is of good appearance. 

If a swimming bath is designed to be used as a concert 
hall in the winter, there must be a large public entranoe quite 
separate from the ordinary bathers' entrance, with separate 
entrances, staircases, and exits to and from the gallery, and 
there should be ample accommodation for both sexes in the 
matter of cloak-rooms and lavatories. 

It is most desirable that the support of the different 
swimming clubs should be obtained, and, with a view to 
this end, it is desirable to provide at least two good club 
rooms in connection with the men's first-class bath, fitted up 
with lockers, etc. These rooms should be so arranged as to be 
suitable for artistes' rooms on the ocoasions of concerts and 
other entertainments. 

The provision of slipper baths is a costly item in public 
baths, both as regards the capital outlay and the annual ex- 
penditure, and it has been suggested that these baths should be 
dispensed with and sprays substituted. This would save the 
cost of fire-clay baths, and also the cost of a good deal of water*, 
as the consumption of water per bather would be much less. 
The Author is, however, inclined to favour the use of both bath 
and spray, as he has great doubts whether the spray alone is 
sufficient for cleansing purposes. The supply of hot and cold 
water to the bath should be under the control of the attendant, 
while the bather could control the spray, provision being made 
to prevent the possibility of scalding. It is not suggested that 
the spray should be only of cold water. The baths and valves, 
etc., should be the same for both classes of bathers, but the 
partitions and appointments will vary. For the first class 
enamelled slate is a good material for the partitions, marble 
being still better. Marble, however, is expensive. For the 
second class, plain slate is suitable. All these partitions should 
stand 2£" clear of the floor, and stand on gun-metal or galvanised 

G 



82 PUBLIC BATHS AND WASHHOUSES. 

iron shoes, and fee fixed together with similar oramps. All this 
work shonld be very carefully done. The doors should be of 
wood, preferably teak. The Author has used slate, but they 
are too heavy, and frequently come to grief. The bath-rooms 
should be 6' by 6' at least, and the partitions 6' 6" high. The 
baths should in all cases be fire-clay glazed inside and over the 
roll, and should stand on glazed fire-clay feet. As the glazed 
roll affords no grip for the hands, it is as well to provide a teak 
handrail about 3' long fixed to the wall at the side of the bath, 
so that the bathers can raise themselves after immersion. 
There should be a small office for the attendant in each class, 
and the whole of the arrangements should be in the direc- 
tion of easy supervision and prompt attendance upon the 
bathers. 

Every dressing-box and slipper bath-room should have a 
teak seat, kept two inches clear of the wall and secured to 
galvanised iron brackets by gun-metal bolts so as to be easily 
removable for cleansing purposes; also a looking-glass and 
hat-pegs. 

In some cases, where the space is limited, some of the 
slipper baths have been placed over a portion of the swimming 
bath. In fact, this had to be done to a small extent at 
St. Pancras. Such an arrangement, however, is not desirable, 
as there should be a good top light over the whole length of the 
bath pond. 

In connection with the swimming and. slipper baths it is 
important there should be means for the immediate disposal of 
dirty towels, so that these are not lying about the gangways 
and passages. There should be at least two towel shoots in 
each department, and these should discharge direct into the 
basement, and be at once conveyed to the establishment laundry. 
This may be a convenient opportunity to point out that the 
subways and passages in the basement should be wide, high, 
and well lighted, so that all dirty work can be done down there 
instead of on the bath floor. The basement also will be useful 
for the storage of dressing-boxes from the men's first-class 
swim during the winter, and of the temporary floor and staging 
during the summer, as also the chairs from the public hall, 
and also as a general means of intercommunication between the 
several departments. 

The public washhouse will have its own separate entrance, 



PUBLIC BATHS AND WASHHOUSES. 83 

but this may, if possible, adjoin the pay office of the women's 
entrance, the same office being worked for both. It will be 
necessary to provide a barrier or turnstile just past the pay 
office. The number of washing compartments will depend 
upon the needs of the neighbourhood, but fifty is an average 
number. Each compartment contains three divisions for wash- 
ing, boiling, and rinsing, all being of iron enamelled internally. 
The wringers or hydro extractor should be under-driven by 
hydraulic power, and should have safety interlocking covers. 
There will be a drying chamber with a number of pull-out horses 
equal to the number of washing compartments, each horse num- 
bered to correspond with the number of the washing compartment. 
It is preferable to heat and ventilate this drying chamber on 
the plenum system, supplemented by steam coils placed in the 
chamber. The horses should have the back plates so arranged 
that when fully drawn out this plate will close the opening, 
otherwise the plenum fan will be driving hot air into the 
washhouse. There will also be a mangling room. At the 
entrance there should be a good waiting-room, a cloak-room 
with lock-up lockers, and, if possible, a crlche. The ventilation 
of the washhouse requires careful attention, as there is a large 
amount of steam being produced in the room when fifty washing 
compartments are in full work. A large fan is absolutely 
necessary in order to quickly remove this steam, but in order 
to render this fan really effective, provision must be made for 
the admission, at suitable points, of plenty of external air. The 
floor of the washhouse, which should be of Terrazzo, should be 
laid to good falls, so that water will drain away easily. The 
general arrangements of the public washhouse should always 
admit of good supervision. 

The establishment laundry is required for the washing of 
towels, bath costumes, etc. It is most important that this 
department should be arranged on a scale suitable to cope with 
the large amount of business which accrues in hot weather. 
There will be required a washing machine, a wringer, a boiling 
copper, washing tubs, a steam ironer, and a rinser, those re- 
quiring motive power being driven from an electric motor, and 
about fifteen drying horses, which should be heated and venti^ 
lated as described for the public washhouse. In connection with 
this laundry lifts should be provided in suitable positions to 
send up the clean towels to each department. 



84 PUBLIC BATHS AND WASHHOUSES. 

The warming and ventilation of a large public bathing 
establishment are of great importance and present some diffi- 
culties. Where the first-class bath is to be used as a public 
hall, the warming and ventilation should be on the plenum 
system, as already described. But for the other departments 
other means will be necessary. As regards warming, it must 
be remembered that even in the bathing season our climate 
presents us with a good deal of cold weather, and that means 
must be provided for maintaining a good temperature even in 
departments which are opened only for the so-called summer 
season. As the temperature of the water in the swimming 
baths is generally 73° and often 75°, the bath buildings must 
have a fair temperature, or bathers might take a chill after 
leaving the water. All this applies with even stronger force 
to the slipper baths, which are open during the whole year. 
The best system of warming is by means of radiators on a hot- 
water low-pressure circulating system, circulating from steam 
heaters in the basement. In order to prevent condensation in 
the open lantern roof, which is a source of great annoyance, it 
is a good plan to run a hot-water circulating pipe round the 
lower part of the roof lantern. 

As regards ventilation, apart from plenty of open windows, 
all departments should have, where possible, open roofs with 
ventilating lantern skylights, each with a good electrically- 
driven fan. These fans must be large and powerful, as small 
fans are perfectly useless in removing steam and vapour. But 
in all cases where these fans are used, proper inlets for external 
air must be provided, and these should be somewhat near the 
floor level, so as to obtain a through current of air. No fan 
will be efficient without this provision. 

The supply of hot water for the establishment must be 
arranged on a liberal soale, so as to meet special demands in 
the hot weather. The hot water should circulate by gravity 
from steam heaters in the basement, and it is most important 
that these heaters should be of a suitable size, and with 
sufficient heating surface to supply the required amount of 
hot water for the slipper baths at the busiest season. The 
quantity of hot water required should be accurately ascertained, 
after which the provision of the requisite amount of heating 
surface can easily be calculated. This is not always done, 
with the result that the hot water supply fails at the critical 



PUBLIC BATHS AND WASHH0USE8. 85 

moment. The circulating pipes can, as a rule, be slung under 
the floor of the slipper baths. 

The arrangements for the cold water supply for a large 
bathing establishment have to be on a large scale. A 
swimming bath 100' by 35' takes upwards of 100,000 gallons 
of water, and as the bath has to be emptied, cleansed, and 
refilled between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m., the mains must be large. 
If the water company's water is to be used, and there is a 
good pressure, there need be no difficulty, but the size of the 
main must be carefully considered. In this connection it must 
also be pointed out that the emptying pipes must be large in 
order that the bath may be emptied in a short time, not for- 
getting that the head of water for the emptying process is 
very slight, being from 6 feet down to nil. Th&j bath having 
been refilled with water at perhaps 50°, this water has to be 
warmed up to say 73°. This is best done by means of circu- 
lating pipes, with a steam ejector drawing in the cold water and 
then ejecting the same into the pond at a higher temperature. 
When once the required temperature is reached in this large 
bulk of water it takes a very little steam to maintain it. 

In the event, however, of an artesian well being sunk, 
there is another method of warming available, which is em- 
ployed at the St. Pancras Baths. There two borings were sunk 
and provide a yield of about 26,000 gallons per hour. Instead 
of pumps, the " Air lift " process was used, by which compressed 
air at a high pressure drives the water up an inner tube placed 
down the bore pipe. Thus there are no pumps at a great depth 
to get out of order, the whole of the gearing is on the surface. 
The air compressor is driven by steam, and the exhaust steam 
from the same passes through a condenser. The whole of the 
water raised from the well passes through this condenser, and 
its temperature is raised by the exhaust steam to 73° or 74°, at 
which it enters the swimming ponds, and thus warms the 
whole of this water without any further expenditure of fuel 
than is required to drive the air compressor. This is by far 
the most economical arrangement known to the Author. The 
circulating pipes already referred to should not, however, be 
dispensed with, as pumping machinery occasionally breaks 
down. 

The provision of ample cold-water storage is essential, but 
mainly for the supply of the slipper baths, laundries, and boilers, 



86 PUBLIC BATHS AND WA3HH0USES. 

the swimming baths being dependent upon the Company's direct 
supply, or from a well. It most be obvious that unless a large 
area of additional land were acquired there can be no storage 
capable of filling even one swimming bath. It will generally 
be found that a storage, capacity of 20,000 gallons will be 
sufficient for the purposes named. 

Owing to the exigencies of space, the boiler house, which is 
a most important department, is frequently placed under the 
public washhouse, or some other department, resulting in un- 
satisfactory conditions of lighting and ventilation. Wherever 
possible the boiler house should have an open roof and lantern 
skylight. When this is done there will usually be ample height 
for multitubular boilers, which are more economical in working 
than Lancashire boilers. But whatever type of boiler is used, 
it is most desirable that before deciding upon their size, careful 
calculations should be made of the duty to be done, the amount 
of hot water required for the slipper baths and laundries, tho 
units of heat required for the heating apparatus, and the amount 
of steam required for motive power. Boilers of a capacity 
unequal to the duty required are always a source of consider- 
able trouble. The boiler house should be as centrally placed as 
possible. 

There should be in the basement a large amount of storage 
accommodation, for general stores, towels, engineer's stores, etc., 
and a large and well-lighted engineer's shop; the latter is 
always a busy place in a large establishment 

A residence has to be provided for the superintendent. 
This should comprise two parlours, three bedrooms, kitchen, 
scullery, bath-room, stores, etc. All this accommodation can 
generally be arranged on one of the upper floors. The engineer 
also requires a residence, which should comprise parlour, two 
bedrooms, kitohen, and store. This residence must not be 
entered from the baths establishment. The superintendent's 
office should be easily accessible and preferably near the 
entrance. 

There should be provided, by means of doors, etc., inter- 
communication between the several departments, so that the 
superintendent and his wife can get access to all parts con- 
veniently and without loss of time. 

In some baths, refreshment rooms are provided. Where 
this is the case, they should be near the entrances, so as to be 



DISCUSSION. 87 

under proper control. The separation of first and second classes 
should be maintained in these rooms. 

Each department should be well supplied with sanitary 
conveniences, in well-lighted and ventilated annexes, separated 
from the bath halls, etc., by a cross-ventilated lobby. 

One word as to the engineering work at public baths* 
This work is by far the most important of any department in an 
institution of this kind, and it is of the highest importance that 
the details should not only have been carefully considered, but 
that the work itself should be of the highest class. A break- 
down in this department paralyses the whole of the work of the 
bath. Whatever economies may be practised, it is the best and 
cheapest policy to pay a good price for this work, and to entrust 
its execution to none but high-class engineering firms. 

The internal finishings of public baths should be designed 
primarily with a view to cleanliness. The walls of the swim- 
ming baths and slipper baths should be lined throughout with 
white glazed bricks, as this is the only material which can 
easily be kept clean. For corridors, passages and gangways, 
except to the basement, the best paving is Terrazzo paving, as 
it is bright and cheerful, and easily cleaned. All internal 
paintwork should be kept as light as possible, not only for the 
sake of brightness, so essential in a bath, but also in the 
interests of cleanliness. 

The external architectural features of the buildings should, 
in my opinion, be simple and dignified, suggestive of the 
intended purpose of the building. Any elaboration of the 
elevations is a waste of public money, having regard to 
the fact that the cost of these buildings is defrayed, not from 
voluntary subscriptions, but from money raised by rates from 
the pockets of the ratepayers. 



DISCUSSION. 

Mr. H. Percy Boulnois, Local Government Board: I have 
pleasure in moving a vote of thanks to the Author. With 
regard to the length of the swimming-bath — 100 feet — I take 
it that that is the right length for swimming matches. I under- 
stand that straight lines on the floor of the bath are necessary 
to guide divers when doing scientific diving. In the provinces, 



|J8 PUBLIC BATHS AND WASHHOUSES. 

and particularly in the manufacturing towns — I do not know 
whether it is so in London — the bathers have to go through 
what is called a dirty bath to wash off the filth from their 
bodies before going into the swimming-bath. I should like to 
know whether Mr. Aldwinckle considers that description of 
bath should be simply a trough with hot water and soap, or 
something in the nature of a douche ? As to making a bath 
watertight, I wish to know whether Mr. Aldwinckle has found 
Calender's bituminous sheeting equally as effective as asphalt, 
or whether it is not sufficiently tough, or strong, or lasting to 
answer the purpose. Also, whether he has any experience of 
ferro-concrete for a swimming-bath. The difficulty with ferro- 
concrete is that it is exceedingly light, and, if there is any out- 
side water, it is practically a tank, and likely to float. With 
regard to the roofs of swimming-baths, I must say that many 
architects seem incapable of making a design for a strong bath 
roof combined with sufficient lightness. I would like to suggest 
the use in the roof of fortified glass, because, with breakage of 
ordinary glass, very serious accidents might happen. As to 
heating the bath, the steam-jet is the better way, and not the 
old circulating system. In designs of baths there are frequently 
not sufficient conveniences put in, that is urinals and water- 
closets. I do not know whether there is any defined proportion 
of conveniences which ought to be put in, but they very often 
fall short of requirements. With regard to the slipper-bath, I 
do not think it will ever go out of popularity. Many people 
like the luxury of lying in a warm bath; they do not care 
for the spray bath. Then, with regard to boilers, Mr. Ald- 
winckle is perfectly right. I often get designs in which boilers 
are placed in such a position that they must be built in; you 
cannot get them out without pulling down a wall. They forget 
that the boiler has to come out and another has to go in again. 
I find that cast-iron pipes fail, owing to the damp atmosphere, 
and that copper pipes, although exceedingly expensive at the 
outset, are the cheapest to use. As to the number of first- 
and second-class slipper-baths, very few architects seem to be 
aware that this is regulated by an Act of Parliament passed in 
1846 : " If more than one class, the number of second-class 
slipper-baths must be at least double the number of first-class, 
and if more than two classes the number of the lower class 
must be double the number of the higher classes added 



DISCUSSION. 89 

together." I have pleasure in moving a vote of thanks to Mr. 
Aldwinckle for an exceedingly practical paper. 

Dr. B. E. Brown, Medical Officer of Health, Bermondsey : 
I have pleasure in seconding the vote of thanks. Mr. Boulnois 
has called attention to the proposed length of the swimming* 
bath. The length which Mr. Aldwinckle thinks the best is 
100 feet; I think that is hardly long enough. A bath is 
designed primarily for swimming purposes. I would rather 
have a bath 50 yards long, or say 44 yards. It should be a 
fraction of a mile. If it takes too much water, it will be better 
to have a reduction in the depth. Beyond a depth of 5 feet 
6 inches it is not much good for swimming purposes. The 
Gamberwell baths are about 25 yards long. But those baths 
are very little used for athletic purposes ; they are principally 
used for socials and dances during the winter. I have been in 
those baths, and I think the depth there must run to 7 feet 
6 inches. I do not see the slightest advantage in that depth 
of water, except for high diving, and I think this is not a thing 
^ be encouraged among school children, as there is a danger 
to the drums of the ears and of strain on the heart. For adults 
it does not do any harm, but the practice of these things by 
children is not to be commended. As to the ventilation of 
baths, I think the plenum system a very good one. The baths 
very often have to be used at night, when it is impossible to 
get natural ventilation without chilling the bathers. 

Mb. B. J. Angel: It is far better to place the dressing- 
boxes at the side of the bath. I do not agree with the 
tucking of them away under the amphitheatre seats. In 
those baths where the dressing-boxes are under the gallery 
there is a great difficulty in lighting. No light gets direct to 
the boxes. Reference has also been made to the heating of the 
water. I do not wish to say very much about that, as I refer 
to it in my paper, but in the system which is referred to there 
the water is kept at the same heat throughout the day — that is 
by circulation. Another important thing is the provision of a 
foot-bath. Some degree of authority should be given to the 
attendant as to compelling the use of the foot-bath. He should 
have power to prevent a person going into the swimming-bath 
before using the foot-bath, if necessary. A good deal of the 
impurity which gets into the water might be avoided in that way. 

Mr. J. Bush Dixon : I should like to add my congratulations 



90 PUBLIC BATHS AND WASHHOUSBS. 

to Mr. Aldwinckle for what, after a careful reading, appears 
to be a paper teeming with information to any one interested in 
this question of baths. As to the dressing-boxep, I question 
very much whether it is economical to have removable dressing- 
boxes, especially considering the wear and tear of removal. I 
agree that the idea of boxes being placed under the gallery 
which extends down to the floor, as at the Haggerston Baths, 
Shoreditch, is a mistake. It is a most inconvenient box for 
the bather, and a great nuisance to the people on the gallery. 
The question of the gallery projection is one of the difficulties 
all of us have to face. If the gallery projects very far into the 
hall, it has to be oarried on stanchions, and, if the hall has to be 
used for public purposes, such as dancing and the like, the 
stanchions are a nuisance. With reinforced concrete a good 
deal of the difficulty has been overcome, and if the gallery is 
carried out as at Hammersmith Baths, no stanchions are 
needed. But in ordinary cases there is not sufficient side room 
to allow of the whole gallery being supported by cantilevers. 
As to the paving round the swimming-ponds, no mention is 
made of the slippery and dangerous condition into which grano- 
lithic usually gets when wet, and terrazzo paving is also apt to 
become slippery. I find the use of Buabon ribbed tiles not 
only prevents that slfpperiness, but adds somewhat to the 
attractiveness of the bath. They are a nice rich red, look warm, 
and help the decoration. Then, to assist in keeping the water 
clean, a long foot-trough or channel about a foot deep, with a 
stream of water constantly running through, is a great help. 
With regard to the slipper-bath divisions, slate so soon becomes 
scratched and disfigured that, although a little more has to be 
paid for marble — say, St. Anne's, or something of that descrip- 
tion — it really proves more economical in the end. The question 
of keeping the divisions clear of the floor is somewhat of an 
open one, because, unless care is taken, there is likely to be a 
draught underneath. With regard to the slipper-baths them- 
selves, I think Mr. Aldwinckle recommends that they should 
have feet on the four corners to raise them above the floor. I 
think that is a mistake, as there should be no space under the 
bath where dirt can accumulate and not be easily removed. I 
have come to the conclusion that the best method is to make up 
any space underneath with a concrete seating properly rounded 
off from the floor. I have also found it most useful to have all 



DISCUSSION. 91 

kinds of spare places in the nature of bicycle-stores and the 
like, and you can hardly have too many conveniences, especially 
if the swimming-baths are going to be used for public enter- 
tainments. Mr. Aldwinckle recommends that there should be 
a drying-horse for towels in the establishment laundry. I 
think the better method is to have a roller ironer there, with a 
steam bed, into which the towels pan be put to both dry and 
iron in one operation. I congratulate the Association upon 
having before it a paper of this valuable kind, and support the 
vote of thanks to Mr. Aldwinckle. 

Mb. 0. E. Winter : I only want to make one remark which 
has occurred to me, arising from my own experience with the 
swimming-baths at Hampstead. There was some difficulty 
for years with leakage from the swimming-baths, and which 
gradually became so pronounced that some steps had to be 
taken to stop it. The difficulty was greater as, owing to the 
levels of the site, the higher bath is twenty feet above the level 
of the lower bath. We bad ultimately to cut away the whole 
of the glazed brick lining of the sides and floors of the baths, 
and put in an asphalt course and reline the baths ; that has 
effectually remedied the leakage. Mr. Aldwinckle has suggested 
the putting in of either an asphalt or cement lining. It seems 
to me cement is not sufficient to prevent leakage, and that 
either asphalt or — as suggested by Mr. Boulnois — Calender's 
bituminous lining is required. We have been trying winter 
cricket in the baths at Hampstead, but it has not been a 
financial success. The gymnastic and badminton classes, how- 
ever, pay very well and are much appreciated. 

Mr. S. G. Gamble : There is one point in connection with 
this subject that has not been touched upon, and that is letting 
for entertainments. Is it absolutely necessary from a financial 
point of view that baths should be so constructed that they can 
be turned practically into music halls during the winter 
months? It seems to me they should be planned for one 
purpose or the other. 

Mr. F. Sumner : There is one important point that I was 
pleased to hear Mr. Boulnois touch upon, that is, as to the 
proportion of slipper-baths required to be provided by the 
Act. 

In designing baths we find it a very onerous requirement to 
get the full proportion of second baths to the first required by 



92 TUBLIC BATHS AND WASHHOUSES. 

the Act, and very frequently the numbers having regard to the 
district served are not required. 
. I believe if we could have smaller units of slipper baths in 
various parts of the district, placing first-class baths where such 
are required, and second class where these are needed, it would 
be better than having them altogether in proportion called for by 
the Act. We want to bring the baths to the people who require 
them, as the people will not walk any great distance to the baths. 

Mr. Boulnois : I do not follow how the Act would effect it. 
If you had units you would still require to have the same 
proportion of first, second, and third-class slipper-baths. 

Mr. Chambers Smith : As to securing the watertightness of 
a bath, Mr. Aldwinokle suggests cement. My opinion is that 
cement cannot be depended upon for watertightness. In my 
own district we have concrete floors, and the bath was built upon 
the solid chalk, and yet, after being built eighteen months, 
there were serious cracks. The only way of preventing leakage 
is by putting in Callender's or some other bituminous lining. 
Mr. Aldwinckle recommends that the doors of the dressing- 
boxes should be 5 feet 6 inches high. I do not think that is 
so good as having a door 3 feet 6 inches high, and a curtain 
of red baize above. 

Mb. J. S. Pickering : I should like to ask Mr. Aldwinckle 
whether he has any objection to a slipper-bath with dressing- 
boxes on either side. This system is not mentioned in the 
paper. It is a very economical method of construction, as 
directly a bather has finished he can go into one dressing-box, 
and the other is available for the next bather. 

The Chairman: I am quite sure we are unanimous in 
according to Mr. Aldwinckle the thanks of the Association for 
liis very interesting paper. You do not get the custom for 
swimming in the winter that makes it worth while filling and 
emptying all the baths regularly. You may meet the demand 
by keeping open one bath, and by putting a floor over you 
are able to use the others for concerts and meetings, and in 
St. Fancras the women's bath is used as a gymnasium. It 
is an advantage to use these large premises in other ways 
than as baths, which would be idle during the winter season. 
You get a certain revenue from those other purposes which goes 
to meet the outgoings. The greatest cost is, of course, the 
interest on capital. 



93 



COMMUNICATED EEPLY. 

Mr. T. W. Aldwinckle, in reply: First-class swimming 
baths should be generally made 100 feet long, as three lengths 
make 100 yards, which is a standard length in swimming 
contests. In some cases a fraction of a mile has been chosen 
as a standard of length, such as 44 yards, which is a fortieth of 
a mile, but this length is too great for any purposes except 
swimming contests, and would be costly both as regards water 
supply and warming. I advocate terrazzo paving at the bottom 
of the bath ponds, as the straight lines of glazed bricks take 
unsightly shapes as seen through the water. For the purpose 
of guiding swimmers and divers I arrange in the terrazzo 
paving dark lines 4 inches wide and about 5 feet apart, running 
longitudinally. This meets all purposes. I think there is a 
great future for ferro-concrete in connection with bath con- 
struction, and that considerable economy can be effected by its 
use. The use of fortified glass in the skylights is advisable where 
the latter are close to the street, but in other positions I do not 
think it necessary. It is more expensive than ordinary glass; 
and there is necessarily a large area of it. Copper piping would 
always be preferable to iron piping, but the additional expense 
would be enormous in respect of the main pipes, and there 
would be a large area of bright metal to be kept clean, involving 
additional labour, which has to be paid for. It was suggested 
by Dr. Brown that swimming baths should be longer, and that 
to meet this economy in water might be effected by reducing 
the depth. This would, however, interfere with diving, which 
is extremely popular. Moreover, I do not think that the usual 
depth, which is from 3 feet 6 inches, to 6 feet 6 inches, could 
well be reduced without interfering with the general usefulness 
of the bath. I am quite in favour of marble partitions for 
slipper bath-rooms in preference to enamelled slate, as the latter 
soon becomes damaged, and to my mind marble is naturally a 
more cleansible material, but the latter is undoubtedly more 
expensive, especially in the lighter colours, and a dark marble 
would be unsuitable as not easily showing up the dirt. It is an 
excellent arrangement to have no clear spaces between the 
fireclay bath and the floor. In some recent hospital work I 
have bedded these baths on 4 inches of cement concrete, 
bringing up the terrazzo paving as a curved skirting all round. 



94 PUBLIC BATHS AND WASHHOUSES. 

Care must, however, be taken to leave quite free the waste pipe 
and trap. I do not like any partitions or divisions in connection 
with bath rooms or dressing-boxes to be brought down close to 
the floor. This provides square internal angles which are 
difficult to clean. When these divisions stand clear of the 
floor it is easy to wash down the paving of the entire area as a 
whole, instead of dividing the operation into a number of limited 
areas. A considerable amount of labour is thus saved. I do 
not think that terrazzo paving is slippery if kept quite clean. 
It should be cleansed with water very frequently. I have, how- 
ever, often used the Euabon tiles mentioned by Mr. Kush 
Dixon, which are excellent. Steam roller ironers are very 
effective for drying purposes, and should be very useful in the 
establishment laundry. As regards the watertightness of 
swimming bath ponds, this is a very important matter, as 
leakages are very difficult to put right afterwards. On the 
whole I think it is safer to line the pond with asphalte in 
preference to cement. In any case, the pond should be carefully 
tested after being lined and before any glazed brick inner walls 
or terrazzo paving are executed. A reference was made to the 
height of the doors to the dressing-boxes. In connection with 
the first class-baths, I think that the doors should be quite 5 
feet 6 inches high, as this class of bathers desire privacy. 
Curtains are only suitable for ladies' baths. But for the 
second-class swims it is, for several obvious reasons, most 
desirable that the doors should be so low that the attendant can 
have a fair view of what is going on inside. These doors 
should be 12 inches clear of the floor and the top of the door 
should not exceed 4 feet above the paving. With reference to 
the suggestion that slipper bath-rooms should have separate 
dressing-rooms, one on each side of the bath-room, in order to 
ensure economy of time in the use of the baths, I may say that 
such an arrangement is already in use in connection with spray 
baths, but I know of none in connection with slipper baths. It 
appears to me an excellent idea, as a somewhat smaller number 
of slipper baths would be required, each bath being used more 
frequently. I fear, however, that a much larger floor area 
would be occupied, as a slipper bath-room cannot well be smaller 
than 6 feet by 5' feet, and there would be in addition two 
dressing-boxes to each bath. The case is different with spray 
baths, which do not require a room more than 5 feet by 3 feet 



COMMUNICATED KEPLY. 95 

3 inches. It is an admirable suggestion that small groups of 
slipper baths should be placed among the poorer districts, in 
order to bring these within an easy distance of the homes of the 
people. If arranged on a very moderate scale the expenses of 
administration should not be great. The principal item of the 
initial cost would be the hot-water supplies. All washing 
of towels, etc., could be done at the main central establishment. 



96 



CONTINUOUS FILTRATION OF BATH WATER: 
A DESCRIPTION OF ITS WORKING. 

By ROBERT J. ANGEL, MJnst.C.E., A.R.I.B.A., 

Borough Engineer and Surveyor of Bermondsey. 

The system of maintaining the purity of water used in 
swimming-baths by continuous filtration as opposed to 
repeated renewals is a modern idea, and promises to become 
generally used, judging by the results obtained in institutions 
where the system is already installed. The adoption of such a 
system is based not only on the question of economy, but also 
on the proved hygienic advantages it possesses. If the cost of 
water and heating is such that the bath can be filled with 
repeated renewals at frequent intervals for a small annual 
charge, it is, of course, obvious that this method must be pre- 
ferable to continuously filtering the same water. If these 
renewals cannot take place with sufficient frequency to allow 
the water to be used with a tolerable degree of cleanliness for 
the last bather, then the argument must be all in favour of 
some such system as here described. 

There is no doubt that a certain amount of prejudice exists 
in the minds of some regarding refiltered bath water, but this 
has been found to be chiefly among those who do not use the 
bath at all. When bathers have seen and tried the water, or 
had the working of the plant explained to them, there has been 
no instance within the Author's knowledge where anything 
but satisfaction with the water has existed. 

The following advantages are claimed for continuous filtra- 
tion : — (1) The water is never allowed to get into an unclean 
state, such as may be the experience of the last bather in water 
ready to be thrown away under the old system. (2) The water 
is uniformly heated throughout at all times, and those cold 
areas which exist during the first hour or two in water heated 
after filling are avoided. (3) A total absence, even in a 
crowded bath, of that close " body M smell so well known in 
the atmosphere of most public swimming-baths which are 



tr, ft) H. nil t 





tRAToR 



JQUS FILTRATION « 
THERHITHE SW!M|\ 



[To face p. 96. 



CONTINUOUS FILTRATION OF BATH WATflR. '97 

much used. (4) A continuous current of water is maintained 
through the bath. (5) Economy of water. (6) Saving of time 
of the employees attending in the early hours of the morning 
to heat up a fresh bath. 

A sample of the water was taken from the bath just before 
emptying on May 22, 1906, before the filtration plant was 
installed, and it was analysed. The water had been in use 
three days, and about eight hundred persons had bathed in it 
(many being school-children). To the eye it presented the usual 
appearance of bath water. The analysis which is given later 
on in the paper is intended to show the effect of filtration. 

The plant in connection with the system of purification 
which has come more particularly under the Author's notice 
was installed at the Botherhithe Baths, in the Borough of 
Bermondsey, and commenced working on October 28, 1906, at 
which date the first-class bath was filled with water, and it 
remained there until April 8, 1907, during which time 2607 
persons used it, and at that date it was analysed. This water 
was then changed from the first-class to the second-class bath, 
and the first-class filled with fresh water. (The second-class 
bath is closed during the winter months.) 

It was considered necessary to put the plant to the severest 
test possible, and so, as the condition and appearance of the 
water seemed unchanged, the same water which was turned out 
of the first-class into the second-class bath on April 8, 1907, 
was allowed to remain there until August 2, 1907 — a period 
of nine months, during which time 30,873 persons used it, 
when it was again analysed. At that date both baths were 
emptied and refilled from the mains. It must, of course, be 
clearly understood that the Author does not advocate such a long 
period in general practice, but the analysis compares favourably 
with the untreated bath water before the plant was installed. 

The water is intended to be renewed twice during the 
summer season and once during the winter. 

Two foot-baths were provided for bathers to use before 
entering the water, should occasion require it. 

There are a few points gained by experience in working, 
one being that the filters should be thoroughly cleaned out at 
periods regulated by the number of bathers using the water, 
and not left to be done at stated intervals. No ferns or other 
plants should be allowed in any position where either the earth 

H 



98 CONTINUOUS FILTRATION OF BATH WATER, 

or moisture from the soil can drop into the bath, as minute 
forms of life come from the soil and thrive in the water, and 
for the same reason the exposed water on the roof in the 
aerator should be carefully guarded. As much live steam as 
can be economically obtained should be passed through the 
filter during cleansing. 

Statement showing the difference in Cost of Working 
the Bath before and after the Installation of the 
Plant, exclusive of Coal and Labour, 

During the year ending October 31, 1906, Le. the twelve 
months preceding the erection of the plant, the first-class bath 
was refilled fifty-six times, and the second-class sixty-two 
times. 
Cost of water at Qd. per 1000 gallons— £ «. d. 

56 times at 2/. ; 62 times at 11. 17a 226 14 

(Prices vary, owing to difference in size of baths.) 
Overtime in cleaning baths 16 6 

£243 

For the year ending October 31, 1907, being one complete 
year's working of the plant, the first-class swimming-bath was 
filled twice with water from the town's supply, and the second- 
class once from the town's supply, and once with water taken 
from the first-class bath, equalling a total cost for water of 
51. 17s., and the remaining items are set out as follows : — 

water ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• 

OU for pumps ... ., 

Overtime for cleaning baths 

Cleansing filter 65 times, consumption of water 

being 413,375 gallons 10 7 

Estimated cost of— 

A. Evaporation of water from aerator \ 

B. Water used for spraying surface of baths I ok in n 

C. Water used for foot-baths i "* 

D. Boiler J 

£54 14 8 

(There appears to hare been six times too much water used on the flushing.) 
If the cost of plant had been defrayed out of loan, the repayment and 
interest would hare to be added to this. 

The cost of the coal used in the building could not be 
divided between the swimming-baths, slipper-baths, and 
laundry ; but as a matter of fact the total quantity used during 
the year ending October, 1906, was 474 tons, and that during 



£ s. 


d. 


5 17 





1 11 


6 


11 9 


2 



CONTINUOUS FILTRATION OF BATH WATER. 99 

the year ending October, 1907, was 486 tons ; therefore, as the 
consumption was so nearly equal, it is neglected from the 
calculations when comparing each year, as there was no reason 
to believe that any variations had taken place in any of the 
other departments of the baths than that under consideration. 

The quantity of coal consumed for the pumps, etc., has 
since been ascertained to be 10 cwts. per day of 15 hrs. to 
maintain a 40 lbs. pressure of steam. 

As there is no additional, nor any saving of, labour in 
maintaining heat during the day or attention to the pumps 
under either the old or new systems, the question of employees 
has been left out of the comparison. 

There is practically nothing to get out of order or requiring 
renewal, so that no depreciation or maintenance of machinery 
has been considered, the only moving parts being the two 
small pumps ; and the filtering material, being cleansed every 
few days, will probably not require renewing for years, as it 
is entirely enclosed in the cast-iron tank. 

As matters stand, therefore, at present the scheme shows a 
saving of 188/. 5*. Ad. on the year's working. 

In the purification of the water there are three different 
processes engaged, viz. (1) mechanical, (2) biological, and 
(3) ..chemical ; and although the result is the same, viz. the 
conversion of complex organic compounds into simpler ones, 
it is difficult to apportion the exact share which each takes 
in producing the final result. 

In the first place, there is the mechanical cleansing of the 
water from the coarser impurities by the filter. This is self- 
evident, and needs no explanation. Naturally, the finer the 
material in the filter, and the thicker the layer through which 
the water has to pass, the more effectual this will be. 

The next process, the biological, also takes place in the 
filter, and is probably due to the activity of anaerobic organisms 
in its interstices. These organisms assist in splitting up the 
complex organic matters mentioned through their various 
stages, viz. ammonia and nitrites, into the end products 
known as nitrates. 

The periodical cleansing of this filter by " live " steam, no 
doubt, puts a temporary check on this action, but when the 
water is put through the filter again, the spar will soon regain 
a fresh supply of anaerobes. 



100 



CONTINUOUS FILTRATION OF BATH WATKB. 



The third cleansing process (chemical) is that due to the 
exposure of the water to the atmosphere by the aerator on the 
roof. This is principally one of oxidation, in which the greater 
portion of the organic matter will be destroyed by the combina- 
tion of the atmospheric oxygen with it, the final products being 
water, carbonic acid, and an innocuous residue. Saline ammonia 
and any volatile animal products in the water will also be got 
rid of during this process of aeration. This, no one who takes the 
trouble to visit the aerator can doubt, for the sense of smell will 
convince him that a number of such products are freely given off. 

These various end products are represented in the filtered 
water by chlorides of the alkalies and alkaline earths, as well 
as nitrates of the same bases, and these in themselves are 
perfectly harmless. The worst that can take place is their 
gradual accumulation in the water. 

The water has been analysed, both before and since the 
plant has been installed, chemically by Mr. E. Bodmer, F.I.C., 
F.C.S., the Borough Analyst, and bacteriologically by Dr. John 
Eyre, M.D., P.R.S., Edin., the Bacteriologist to Guy's Hospital, 
and reported on from time to time by Dr. E. K. Brown, B.A., 
M.D.,D.P.H.,Lon<L, the Medical Officer of Health of Bermondsey. 





Chemical Analysis. 




Sample. 


a. 
May 22, 1906, be- 
fore plant «u 
erected. Water 
In nee for 3 days, 
and need by 800 
people. 


B. 
April 8,1907, after 
plant had worked 
6 months, and 


C. 
July, 29, 1907, after 
plant had worked for 
9 months, and eame 
water in ate all that 




water been need 
by 2407 people. 


time as previously 
explained, and used 
by 30,878 people. 


Colour in 2-ft. tube »•• 


Yellowish 


Pale green 


Pale green and 




green 


and clear 


clear 


Suspended matter 


Appreciable 


Practically 


A few vegetable 




amount 


none 


fibres 


Odour 


None 


None 
Grains per gallon. 


None 


Total solid residue ... 


21-87 


31-85 


22-40 


Loss on ignition 

Combined chlorine ••• 


8-67 


4-20 


2*45 


150 


1-60 


1-66 


Equal to sodium chloride 


247 


204 


278 


Nitrogen as nitrates 


003 


080 


0-70 


Nitrites 


Present 


Present 


None 


Saline and free ammonia 


0-007 


00015 


00065 


Albumenoid ammonia ... 


0056 


00155 


00100 


Oxygen absorbed from per- 








manganate in 4 hours at 
80°Fahr. 








0-781 


0101 


0-088 



CONTINUOUS FILTRATION OF BATH WATER. 101 

The analyst's remarks respecting sample A (unfiltered) are 
that it is a very much polluted water, and contained numerous 
bacteria — being, in fact, unfit for use, and might possibly be 
injurious to health if any quantity was accidentally swallowed. 

With regard to sample B (filtered), he states that the 
organic matter equalled only about one-sixth the quantity in A 
(unfiltered). There was no epithelium or bacilli adhering 
thereto, as was found in the untreated water. He considered 
the water very good, and still fit to use, although it had been in 
the bath five months. 

With regard to sample C (in use for nine months), this 
water contains from one-third to one-ninth the amount of un- 
oxidised organic matter found in the untreated water, but the 
nitrates show that much of the organic matter has been 
oxidised, and thus rendered harmless; and, "considering the 
long period (nine months) during which the water has been in 
use, the results are certainly very good." (The Author has 
previously mentioned that this long test was used only to 
ascertain the capabilities of the plant. The water was con- 
tinuously and carefully watched by the medical officer during 
that period.) 

Bacteriological Analysis. 

Sample of water taken on April 8, 1907 {in use five months). 

1. Number of living micro-organisms per cubic centimetre 
capable of multiplying on gelatine at 20° C, 

5000. 

2. Number of living micro-organisms per cubic centimetre 
capable of multiplying on agar at 37° C, 

645. 

Ratio of 1 to 2 = 7'7 : 1. ■ 

3. Bacilli coli present in 1 cc. of the water sample, but not 
in every 0*1 cc. 

4. Streptococci absent from 110 cc. of the water sample. 

5. Ordinary skin staphylococci present in 10 cc. of the 
water sample. 

Remarks. — The result of the bacteriological examination of 
this sample affords satisfactory evidence of the efficiency of the 



102 CONTINUOUS FILTBATION OF BATH WATER, 

treatment to which the Botherhithe Bath water is subjected. 
As it is obviously impossible to compare it with drinking 
water, for which it is not intended, it will be sufficient to say 
that bacteriologically it contains approximately the number and 
variety of organisms that would be present in a public bath 
water that has been in ordinary use for a very short time only. 
In its naked-eye appearance and lack of odour and sediment it 
resembles the water from a newly filled bath. It may also be 
noted that none of the specific bacteria of infectious diseases 
could be detected. 

(Signed) John Eyke. 

Sample of water taken on Jvly 29, 1907 (in me 9 months). 

1. Number of living micro-organisms per cubic centimetre 
capable of development upon gelatine at 22° C, 

3183. 

2. Number of living micro-organisms per cubic centimetre 
capable of development upon agar at 37° C, 

448. 

Eatio of 1 to 2 = 71 : 1. 

3. Microbes of indication — 

Bacilli coli present in 1 cc. of the water sample, but 

not in 01 cc. 
Streptococci absent from 50 cc. 

Remarks. — The present sample of water compares well with 
the previous sample collected from these baths, April 8, 1907. 
The total number of organisms present per cc. is distinctly 
smaller. Both those developing at the air temperature and 
those developing at the body temperature have been reduced, 
so that the ratio remains practically the same. Bacilli coli 
communis are present in unaltered numbers, but it is a significant 
fact that coliform bacilli are present in lower dilutions, viz. in 
01 cc. All those found in the previous sample were typical 
coli bacilli 

(Signed) John Eyre, M.D., F.R.S., Edin., 

Bacteriologist to Guy's Hospital, etc. 



CONTINUOUS FILTRATION OF BATH WATER, 103 

The following is a description of the working of. the 
scheme : — 

The water is first put into the first- and second-class baths 
direct from the main, and then alternately allowed to gravitate 
to a strainer, which eliminates such solid particles as portions 
of bathing costumes, grit, hair-pins, etc., etc. The water is 
afterwards raised by pumps to the aerating tower, which 
is fixed on the roof, by which means the whole of the 
water is broken up and exposed to the atmosphere, and thus 
it receives a fresh supply of oxygen. The water then 
descends and passes through the filter, which purifies it. Then 
it passes through a heater, which is worked by the spent steam 
from the pumps and from other parts of the building, and a 
small quantity of live steam producing a temperature of 74°, 
and after this, the water is delivered into the shallow end of 
the bath, again fit for bathing. This process is continuous. The 
filter is cleansed about every second or third day, by passing 
about 2000 gallons of water and live steam the reverse way 
through the filtering media, and washing the accumulation out 
into the sewer. The first- and second-class baths are worked 
alternately, and the plant will deal with 20,000 gallons per 
hour; the water in the large swim being changed every 4J 
hours by this process of circulation. As the baths are situated 
near manufacturing works, there is a tendency for dust to blow 
in through the louvre ventilators during the night, and settle 
on the water ; therefore a spray is used each morning to clean 
off the top surface, and it also replenishes any water lost by 
evaporation and that used in the emptying of the filtering 
chamber during the periods of cleansing. The cost of the 
plant and builders' work was 965/., and was defrayed out of 
revenue. 

The various parts consist of — 

1. A strainer to intercept particles likely to obstruct the 
pumps. 

2. Two pumps to deliver the water to the aerator. 

3. An aerator to oxygenate the water, situated on the roof. 

4. A filter capable of filtering the water, provided with 
means of cleansing the filtering surface when required. 

5. A heater-condenser capable of condensing the steam used 
by the pump, and of raising the temperature of the water from 
about 50° to 74° Fahr. when suppled with auxiliary live steam. 



104 CONTINUOUS FILTRATION OF BATH WATER. 

6. A break-tank for re-aerating the water. 

Strainer. — The strainer consists of a cast-iron shell having 
two branches, the one connected to the bath, and the other to 
the pump suction. The shell is provided with a cast-iron 
cover and a removable perforated cylinder of copper, so 
arranged as to be easily removable for cleansing when required. 

Pumps. — There are two pumps, each being 8£ ins. diameter 
and 15 ins. stroke, and work 36 double strokes per minute, 
delivering the 10,000 gallons of water to a height of 40 ft. 
to the aerator on the roof, the suction being connected, to the 
respective baths. The pumps are of the vertical direct-acting, 
single-cylinder type, having Bichardson's patent valve-gear. 
The valves are of the Kinghorn type, with gun-metal seats and 
guards. The pumps are provided with a suitable air vessel. 

Aerator. — The aerator consists of cast-iron "A" frames 
supporting a copper perforated pipe. These "A" frames are 
connected together by means of light girders at intervals, and 
fixed to these girders are perforated zinc trays, having sufficient 
number of perforations to allow of the required amount of 
water to pass through in a large number of very fine streams. 
The aerator is fitted with three of these trays. The bottom of 
the aerator consists of a galvanised sheet-iron tank to receive 
the aerated water. The end frames of the aerator are boarded 
in, and the sides are fitted with a number of louvre boards, 
so arranged that the air can have free inlet and outlet to the 
water, and that any water splashing on to these boards will 
run back again into the tank. 

Filter.— The filter measures 14 ft. X 6 ft. 6 ins. x 5 ft. 
6 ins. deep, and is of sufficient surface to deal with 20,000 
gallons of water per hour. The filter tank consists of cast-iron 
plates. The filter is arranged inside with a rib which supports 
a couple of filter plates of wrought iron, these filter plates having 
a sheet of wire gauze in between, and so arranged that the 
holes in the plates are opposite one another. In that part of 
the filter below the filter plates a cast-iron pipe is connected to 
a valve on the outside of the filter. This cast-iron pipe has a 
large number of 1£ in. wrought-iron pipes branching out under 
the whole of the filter surface, these pipes having a number of 
very small holes arranged in them, so that the delivery of air 
for flushing purposes may be distributed as evenly as possible on 
to the surface Qf the filtering material. The filtering material 



DISCUSSION. 105 

consists of gravel of special quality, about 18 ins. or 19 ins. 
deep, supported on the above-mentioned plates. 

Heater-condenser. — The heater-condenser is of Bow's patent, 
No. 16a, Class A, consisting of a cast-iron shell, with solid 
drawn copper tubes, 1 J in. original bore, indented under Bow's 
patent. 

Break - tank. — The break-tank consists of wrought-iron 
galvanised plates riveted together. 

DISCUSSION. 

Mb. H. P. Boulnois : I have pleasure in moving a vote of 
thanks to the Author. I have seen the process at Manchester, 
where the first installation was, I think, put up. I do not think 
it was quite this system. In that case the water was strained 
by gravity through felt bags enclosed in wire cages. This is 
quite a different system from that at Manchester. It is 
practically a system for the proper filtration and aeration of 
the water, so that it can be used over and over again. That is 
a wonderful step in the direction of economy, and of making 
the bath more attractive. As to the cost of the system I must 
say I should like more detailed information. 

Mb. J. Bush Dixon, Woolwich : I have pleasure in seconding 
the vote. I think Woolwich is the first instance of the con- 
tinuous filtration of water having been applied to new baths in 
London. The installations at Islington and Botherhithe are 
applied to existing baths. I should like to congratulate Mr. 
Angel on having placed before the Association a paper which is 
most interesting, and particularly so to those who may have 
nibbled at the subject. The paper leaves a lot to be desired in 
the way of information, and I agree with Mr. Boulnois that the 
particulars given as to working cost are very slight ; certainly 
from experience at Woolwich, where the system has been in 
operation for some time, the figures would not anything like 
tally. I was one of a deputation which went in November, 
1905, to Newton Heath, Manchester, where it was understood 
the system was first tried. It was there we heard that the first 
idea of filtration was through felt bags, which became so foul 
that it was a most nauseous and disgusting operation to clean 
them, and they had to drop the idea on that account. Then a 
firm came along with a system of filtering through fine spar or 



106 CONTINUOUS FILTRATION OF BATH WATER. 

gravel. We also visited Bury, which was one of the first places 
to take up Sow's method, mainly because their water supply 
came from a peat district, and was very much discoloured. My 
Councillors were very greatly impressed when they saw the 
water delivered from the mains quite brown, and when they 
went to the swimming-bath, where water had been in use for 
four or five months, they found it beautifully clear and opales- 
cent. After visiting these and the new Victoria Baths at 
Manchester, I had to report to my Council, and you can imagine 
the scepticism with which the report was received by those 
who knew nothing of the system. After the matter had been 
considered by our medical officer, it was agreed to allow the 
system to be installed conditionally on the water being changed 
once a fortnight. I think I can claim for Woolwich that it has 
the most complete installation which has yet been introduced 
into London. The outlay for the filtration and aeration plant 
has been 1200/., and for staging another 200/. We use small 
spar in the filter. The result so far has been most satisfactory. 
There is no doubt such a system leads to great economy in the 
use of water, and it provides for clean water for those bathers 
who are not fortunate enough to be able to go in when the 
water is first changed in the ordinary way. To examine the 
accumulation that comes from the filter would go far to prevent 
the scepticism which prevails with regard to this system. It 
is most astonishing to see what can be got out of water after 
one or two hundred people have been bathing, and I think 
the prejudice against the idea of re-using so long would soon 
disappear if the contents of the filters could be seen. I do not 
observe anything in the analysis which points to the softening 
of the water, but it is a fact that in Woolwich, where we have 
a hard water coming from the chalk, this system softens the 
water a good deal, and makes it better for bathing in. With 
regard to direct-acting pumps, my experience is that they are 
somewhat extravagant in the consumption of steam. They 
consume approximately 250 lbs. of steam per hour, and steam 
the full stroke, whereas a saving could be made of at least 
50 lbs. of steam per hour if there was a flywheel to the pump 
and a cut-off in the stroke. I do not think it a good thing to 
use the same filter alternately for two swimming-baths. There 
are separate filters for each bath at Woolwich, and we have a 
pump for each. Mr. Angel mentions a break tank for aeration, 



DISCUSSION. 107 

which is of great importance, but so far as I can see they have 
no break tank at Botherhithe. The object of this is to aerate 
the water after passing through the filter, and also for cleansing 
the filters. The water after having been filtered goes into an 
open flushing tank under pressure, and overflows into bell- 
mouthed outlets, which convey it to the heaters before going 
back into the bath at the shallow end. I can only say that 
Mr. Angel has done most useful service in bringing this system 
under the notice of the Association. I think it is a system 
which is worthy of more consideration than it is now receiving, 
and so far as I am concerned, if it will be any use to any 
member of the Association, I should be glad to show him the 
system in working at Woolwich. As to the amount of water 
and steam used it is most economical, but I have no reliable 
figures to quote as yet. I am prepared to accept those given 
so far as they go in regard to Botherhithe baths, but I certainly 
hesitate to accept them as applying also to Woolwich. 

Mr. Chambers Smith: There is a sentimental objection 
against using water repeatedly ; evidently Bermondsey is not 
quite a residential district. We have got a very good class of 
bathers at Sutton, and when it was first proposed to adopt the 
system, we had very strong opposition to it. " You are going 
to use this water over and over again for six months," was the 
objection urged to it. It was pointed out that after six months' 
or twelve months* use the water was actually purer than when 
it was received from the town mains. That was not sufficiently 
convincing to my Council. The medical officer of health 
opposed it, and the medical men on the Council thought there 
was objection to it. I do not think that sentimental objection 
holds good to any one who has seen it in actual working. 
There is one thing in regard to the cleansing of the bath. We 
all know there is a deposit on the floor and a growth on the 
sides of a swimming-bath, which really requires to be cleaned 
down daily. How is that growth and deposit effectually 
removed from the bath ? Perhaps Mr. Angel will be able to 
explain that. Altogether the saving is a most important one. 
Our bath holds roughly 100,000 gallons, and at a cost of 7d. 
per thousand gallons, that is 3/. Boughly, it costs us about 101. 
per week to change the water. The saving on the cost of water 
is probably 70 or 75 per cent. I think it is a system which 
requires the most careful consideration and attention, so that 



108 CONTINUOUS FILTRATION OF BATH WATER. 

we can advise our local authorities, after due consideration, that 
an important economy can be effected in the management of 
public baths. 

Mr. E. B. B. Newton : I would congratulate Mr. Angel on 
a paper which would be more useful if we had a little further 
information on one or two points. In the table of chemical 
analysis we might have in a column D an analysis of the water 
before entering the bath, i.e. the water in the main. We might 
have also information as to the aeration of the water, the 
method of working and capacity of the filter, and the nature of 
the filtering materials. It is difficult to formulate any con- 
clusion from the comparison given in the paper of the cost of 
working the bath before and after the installation of the filters. 
It is for two different years, and so not a good comparison. 
The number of bathers and the state of the weather, which has 
a great influence in the number of persons using a swimming- 
bath, are not given for each year. I do not think these figures, 
as between the two years, can give us an accurate idea of the 
saving in cost in the same year. It would be interesting to 
know the total annual expenditure on the baths, and what 
proportion the saving bears to it In considering the adoption 
of this suggested method, one has to take into account the 
number of people it prevents — especially in a high-class neigh* 
bourhood — from attending the baths. Whether this system 
is actually good or not a certain number of persons will not 
attend public baths, unless they are reasonably sure they are 
going to bathe in clear water from the main. 

Dr. Brown : I have heard a good many objections to this 
system, but, so far as I can make out, they resolve themselves 
into one, that is, the sentimental objection. That unquestion- 
ably is the chief objection to it. It sounds a very objectionable 
thing to be constantly using the same water over and over 
again. Really I cannot see that there is much to be gained by 
laying too much stress on the sentimental side of the question. 
If we are going to talk about sentiment, how about the water 
we drink and the food we eat ? I am afraid we would have 
great difficulty in ever washing our faces, or drinking any 
water, and be all driven to drink distilled fluids of various 
descriptions, and we would want all our food sterilised in some 
way or the other. I am afraid it would not be safe to breathe 
the atmosphere. What is the sentimental objection? It is 



DISCUSSION. 109 

that the water is used over and over again ? What is the harm 
in using water over and over again provided it is cleansed in 
the interval ? People do not hesitate to bathe in the Thames 
and other rivers where sewage is constantly pouring in. People 
do not think anything of drinking milk which is teeming with 
bacilli coli more than in this water. Even our water supply 
in London is not free from bacilli coli. We are drinking these 
coli every day, although they may not be in such quantities as 
in this bath. But they undergo filtration, and our London 
water we do not drink as Thames water, but as water which has 
undergone filtration. I do not agree with keeping the water in 
the bath nine months ; that was done to try the worst effect. It 
might have confirmed one's position if we had had more analyses. 
But in any case these analyses, taken on the whole, are what 
one would expect. I need not deal with colour ; the colour is 
improved. It cannot be questioned that, as regards suspended 
matter, it is improved, because it is free from suspended matter. 
As to odour there is none in any of the samples. The total 
solid residue and loss on ignition I need not deal with. Com- 
bined chlorine is of some importance, as increase of chlorine 
may be taken to represent in some way urine which gets into 
the water. You will see there is a slight increase in this. 
That is what you would expect. There may be a certain 
amount of urine get into the bath, but not much. The chlorine 
as chloride is a comparatively harmless thing ; it cannot do any 
harm except from a sentimental point of view. The important 
thing is nitrates. If there is any organic matter it gets altered 
in character, as it is generally undergoing a process of oxida- 
tion, and in the ordinary course these nitrogenous products are 
disintegrated into ammonia and then into nitrates. There is a 
great increase in nitrates — about twenty times as many as 
before the plant was erected, and more than twice as much in 
the second analysis of the filtered water. Nitrates cannot 
possibly do any harm. If you found a quantity of nitrates in 
a drinking water you might wonder where they came from, and 
regard them as showing a source of pollution, but in a swim- 
ming bath they are perfectly harmless. Saline and free 
ammonia are slightly increased, and there is a further increase 
in the second analysis. This is a more or less unstable con- 
dition, and I do not lay stress on it, as it depends upon the 
state of the filter. The albuminoid ammonia has slightly 



110 CONTINUOUS FILTKATION OF BATH WATER. 

increased. The oxygen absorbed is nothing unusual. Thd 
bacteriological examination is not so important as appears on 
the surface, as the number of bacteria is a constantly varying 
quantity, varying from hour to hour according to the heat of 
the bath and the number of bathers. The important fact is 
that bacteriologically the water does not get worse. You must 
expect some impurity, especially in a district where the popula- 
tion is not among the most aristocratic. The water in these 
circumstances often gets dirty and disgusting in one day. The 
bottom gets covered with a dark layer, and has the appearance 
of being dirty. In a place like Westminster the water will get 
dirty in a day in the summer time. It seems to me the proper 
way to look at it is this: you are between two things. If 
you are prepared to have a stream of perfectly fresh, pure 
water from the Metropolitan Water Board's main going through 
the bath continuously every day well and good; I should 
prefer that myself, but you have got the expense to consider. 
If you can fill your bath every day, I agree that would be the 
best thing to do, but you are met there by expense, and it 
seems to me it is a question between expense and the getting 
the best method you can. By this method the water never 
really gets dirty at any time, no matter how many bathe in it, 
and it is equally clean for all the bathers. In the Gamberwell 
baths they tried an experiment there of using well-water. The 
spa used there has got a certain amount of iron in it. The 
result is, when you get the bath filled with the spa water you 
cannot see the bottom of the bath, and when any one dives in 
he is lost to sight. After two days you get an iron precipitate 
at the bottom. 

Mb. J. E. Boaz : It strikes me that there is one thing which 
cannot be removed from the water by any system of filtration 
or aeration, and that is anthrax. 

Mb. Sumner : I am more perplexed than ever after hearing 
Dr. Brown. He has stated that he does not believe in keeping 
the water in the bath so long, though the analysis is perfectly 
satisfactory. Is it really only a question of sentiment with 
Dr. Brown, or is it that he really doubts the analyst's figures ? 

The Chairman : In regard to this paper, I do not wish to 
say very much, but there are one or two points which occurred 
to me. Attention has been called to the absence of the coal 
account in the comparison of cost of the two systems. That, as 



DISCUSSION. Ill 

I understand it, is because the cost of coal seems to be the same 
in both systems. I had the same experience, though not the 
same comparison. In one of our baths we had been using 
main water, and had to heat it by circulation. Then we put 
down a deep well, from which we drew our water, and after a 
year we found that the cost of coal to pump up the water from 
the deep well was practically the same as the former cost of 
heating the water. As I understand the position, it costs about 
the same to pump the water through the filtering apparatus as 
it does to heat the water supplied from the main. It costs us 
about as much to pump the water from the chalk as to heat the 
water drawn from the main. My preference is naturally for 
the clean water from the chalk. My Council had this process 
under consideration, and on the basis of sentiment they would 
not adopt it. I think it. is entirely a matter of sentiment. 
There is a good deal in what Dr. Brown said. If we worried 
about the microbes in the air we breathe, in the water we 
drink, and the food we eat we should have a very worried life, 
and he treats the analyses in the same way. There is a certain 
amount of actual nitrates, and ammonia, but they will not do 
anybody any harm. They are good enough to bathe in ; you 
do not drink the water. 

Dr. Brown : I do not think that filtration, or any process 
like it, would destroy anthrax spores. Even if they were in the 
bath, I think they would be destroyed naturally in the course of 
a very short time. These spores would be developed into bacilli, 
which would die out. The best answer is that they would be 
most unlikely to be there. In reply to Mr. Sumner, I think it 
would be a concession to sentiment if I wanted the water 
changed every fortnight, but to want it changed every quarter 
is not a concession to sentiment. I do not think the floor and 
sides of the bath could be thoroughly cleansed without the bath 
being emptied, and, for that reason, I think it is advisable to 
have the water changed at least once a quarter. 

The vote of thanks to Mr. Angel having been unanimously 
accorded, 

Mr. E. J. Angel, in reply, said: With regard to the 
remarks of Mr. Boulnois as to the use of felt bags at Man- 
chester for cleansing the water, they became so terribly 
offensive that the men refused to go on with the work. But 
that does show the benefit which accrues from filtration. If 



112 CONTINUOUS FILTRATION OF BATH WATER. 

that filth was in the water instead of the bags, it would be very 
offensive to bathe in. I left the question of coal out because 
there was no real difference in cost Mr. Dixon referred to the 
quantity of steam used, and that it would be an advantage to 
use a flywheel. I agree with him. As to the alternate use of 
the filter for the two baths, I admit that I would prefer to put 
down a separate filter for each bath and work them continuously. 
The break-tank was not put in. A tank was already in use, and 
we utilised that for a break-tank. Mr. Chambers Smith men- 
tioned the cleansing of the sides and bottom of the bath. The 
attendants have brooms weighted with lead, with which they 
brush the sides and bottom of the bath, disturbing any accumu- 
lation there, and then the apparatus is put on full pressure, and 
the whole of the water is changed. When that is done daily, 
you will quite see that only a small accumulation can take 
place. Mr. Newton asked for an analysis of the water before it 
enters the bath. That would be simply an analysis of the 
ordinary London drinking water. The description of the filter 
is set out in the paper. As to the difference in the number of 
people using the bath before and after this system was installed, 
we have not noticed any change whatever except that caused 
by climatic conditions. We have another bath in Bermondsey, 
and have not noticed any addition to the number of bathers 
there, which would have been the case if they had preferred 
the unfiltered water taken from the main and renewed frequently. 
As to the cooling of the water when it gets out into the open 
air, during the severe frost we took notice of that, and we found 
it is only in the open air about one minute, and during that 
time it drops only two degrees in temperature. It is chiefly 
the sentimental reason which prevents us from using the water 
for a long time. We give the bath a thorough scrape down with 
spirits of salts when we empty it. 

Light refreshments were served at the dose of the business 
proceedings. 



HOME DISTRICT MEETING. 

Hay 2, 1908. 

Held in the Worple Hail, WimMedm. 
W. Nisbet Blaik, M.Inst.C.E., Vice-President, in the Chair. 



The Mayor (Mr. S. E. Collier, M.D.) received the members 
and offered them a cordial welcome to Wimbledon. 

The Chairman thanked the Mayor for the welcome he 
accorded. 



MUNICIPAL WORKS RECENTLY CARRIED 
OUT AT WIMBLEDON. 

By C. H. COOPEB, M.Inst.C.E., Borough Engineer, 
Wimbledon. 

The Association has visited Wimbledon on three previous 
occasions, viz. on September 28, 1889, when they were 
received by the late Mr. W. Santo Crimp, then Engineer and 
Surveyor to the Wimbledon Local Board, who subsequently 
attained that world-wide fame which a man possessing 
his abilities deserved. In addition to abilities, Mr. Crimp 
had that thorough sincerity and charm of manner which 
endeared him to all who were fortunate enough to possess 
his acquaintance. His death, at the early age of forty-seven, 
was a great loss to the branch of engineering whiclt to practice,, 
and especially so from his capacity for research. 

I 



114 



MUNICIPAL WORKS 



The second visit was made on April 30, 1898, and the 
third on March 16, 1901. 

Those members who visited the district on these dates will, 
no doubt, agree that on each occasion there were many new 
works to be seen, and it is hoped that to-day's meeting may not 
be without interest to those who have taken the trouble to 
attend. 

The Author's remarks will be confined mainly to works 
carried out since the last visit of the Association to Wimbledon, 
and the following table will show the growth which necessitated 
these works : — 



Year 

ending 

March 

31. 


Popu- 
lation. 

44,246 


Mileage 
of roads 
repair- 
able. 


Electrical 

output in 

unite. 


Amount 

of loan* 

sanctioned 

during 

year. 


Total 
indebted- 
ness. 


Rateable 

value. 


id. In 
tbe£ 
pro- 
duces 


1902 


35-75 


889,027 


69,738 


812,567 


814,468 


£ 
1222 


1903 


46,162 


3700 


1,157,084 


39,004 


330,152 


327,561 


1267 


1904 


47,719 


3766 


1,283,060 


24,332 


336,661 


341,616 


1333 


1905 


48,240 


3975 


1,499,958 


29,118 


359,391 


373,587 


1378 


1906 


49,860 


4120 


1,801,075 


31,718 


348,783 


381,610 


1437 


1907 


51,714 


4283 


2,084,434 


65,106 


363,111 


402,281 


1483 


1908 


~ ■ 


4476 


2,819,817 


45,112 


385,830 


410,520 


1514 



Tramways. 

In the Session of 1902, a Bill was introduced into Parliament 
by the London United Tramways (1901), Ltd., which provided 
for tramways in this district. The Author was well posted in 
the difficulties experienced by brother surveyors in neighbouring 
districts in dealing with the Company, which placed him in the 
somewhat unique position of being forewarned, and, under his 
advice, two clauses were inserted in the section of the Bill 
protecting Wimbledon — the one empowered the Corporation 
to prevent the running of tramcars until the widenings shown 
on the deposited plans had been carried out to the full extent ; 
under this clause an area of no less than 311 acres has been 
added to the highways free of cost to the Corporation. The 
other clause provided that where the tramways passed over or 
interfered with any sewer which, in the opinion of the surveyor, 
it would be dangerous or inconvenient to retain in its position, 
.the Company, at $eir pwn expense, were tq take up such 



RECENTLY CABBIJSD OUT AT WIMBLEDON. 115 

sewer and relay the same in a portion of the road not occupied 
by the tramway. To liquefy this liability the Company paid 
to the Corporation the sum of 5000/. 

These tramways traverse a route within the borough of 
3*637 miles, which, with the exception of 0*86 miles, is in 
double track, whilst 0*88 miles lie alongside the borough 
boundary. The lines are connected with the remainder of 
the London United Tramway Co.'s system, which has a length 
of 54 miles, connecting up the districts of Shepherd's Bush, 
Hammersmith, Acton, Ealing, Chiswick, Kew, Brentford, 
Isleworth, Hounslow, Twickenham, Teddington, Hampton^ 
Kingston, Surbiton, New Btalden, Wimbledon, Merton, 
Mitcham, and Tooting. The lines are worked on the over- 
head system, with a voltage of 500, direct current, the track 
being laid with 100-lb. rails, with a cross sleeper rail at 6 feet 
apart. The rails are laid on a bed of concrete, 6 inches thick, 
which extends tp .the entire width of the part of the roadway 
maintainable by -the Company. The joints between the rails, in 
addition to "fish plates, have a sole plate, 2 feet 6 inches in 
length and 8 inches deep. The track, with the 18-inch margin 
on either side, has been laid with Earri and Jarrah blocks in 
pitch, and grouted in with cement, at such a level as tp allow 
of cross falls of | inch to the foot on the margins on either side. 
In one case only has the Corporation seen fit to pave these 
margins with wood. 

Pumping Plant. 

The method of raising sewage at the two main pumping 
stations (Durnsford Eoad Sewage Works and Raynes Park) 
has been altered from reciprocating pumps, driven in the former 
case by steam, and in the latter case by gas engines, to centri- 
fugal pumps placed horizontally and driven by vertical shafts 
direct from motors placed above ground, whilst the pumps are 
placed in chambers at levels approximating that of the sewage 
in the pump wells. 

The current supplied for driving motors in this department 
is single-phase, alternating, the voltage being 440, and the 
price charged 0-90d. per B.T.U. 

In the case of Durnsford Eoad Pumping Station, the former 
plant consisted of two double-plunger, single-acting, pumps, 



116 MUNICIPAL WORKS 

the plungers being 2 feet 1 inch in diameter with 4-feet stroke, 
capable of raising 4000 gallons per minute. These pumps, 
which were erected in 1875, were not sufficient to deal with the 
sewage due to the increase in population. The present plant 
consists of two 22-inch and one 12-inch centrifugal (Worthing- 
ton) pumps, each of the larger pumps being driven by a 115- 
B.H.P. British Thomson-Houston motor, and are capable of raising 
8000 gallons per minute, with a head of 24 feet. These two 
pumps are only intended for use in times of maximum flow 
and storms. The smaller pump is a 12-inch Worthington 
centrifugal pump driven by a 25 B.H.P. British Thomson- 
Houston motor, and is capable of raising 1500 gallons per | 
minute. The combined efficiencies are as follows, including ! 
loss in the motors : — 



23-inch Pomps. lUadh Pomp. 

Percent. Percent. 

At fall load 65*7 60-9 

99 * 9f • •• ••• ••• vU «f ... ... ••• DO D 

' 99 W 9* ••• •*• ••• OmO ••• ... ... 4o*« 

99 f 99 ••• ••• ••• 44*U •«• •** ••• Oj'O 

In the case of the Baynes Park Pumping Station, the 
former plant consisted of two 3£ H.P. "Otto" Gas Engines 
capable of raising 400 gallons per minute. The present plant 
consists of two 6-inch (Worthington) centrifugal pumps driven 
by 7£ B.H.P. Brush Electrical Company's motors, and are 
capable of raising 400 gallons per minute each, i.e. twice what 
the former pumps raised, with a head of 31 feet The combined 
efficiencies are as follows, including loss in the motors : — 

Percent. 
At foil load 54*0 

99 I 99 ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• OU V 

99 i 99 ••• ••• ••• ••• ■•• ••• ••• Wv 

99 f ,9 *■• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• *D*D 

The pump impellers are of the enclosed type. 

As the former pumps at both these stations were in a bad 
condition, the plant had to be installed before the screens 
were erected, and considerable difficulty was experienced in 
consequence. The screens that have been adopted are those 
of Messrs. S. S. Stott and Co. of Haslingden, Lanes., these are 
electrically driven. 

In connection with the sewage works, since the last visit of 
the Association, 5 acres of bacteria beds have been added. 



RECENTLY CARRIED OUT AT WIMBLEDON. 



117 



The beds consist of burnt ballast 3 feet in depth, screened on a 
§-inch mesh hand sieve; the material passing through the sieve 
forms the top 9 inches of the beds, whilst the larger material 
forms the bottom layers of the beds. The subsoil drains are laid 
at a distance of about 6 feet apart ; these discharge into an open 
cbncrete channel ; the upper ends of the drains are carried above 
the ground so as to form ventilators which, when a bed is 
not in use, allows a free circulation of air through such bed. 
These beds are charged twice in 24 hours* 

Four settling tanks, each having a capacity of 212,000 
gallons, were constructed in 1902. These tanks are 110 feet 
in length by 30 feet wide, the sludge outlet being placed at a 
distance of 20 feet from the end where the raw sewage is 
admitted. The depth varies from 10 feet to 14 feet. 

The sewage and effluent from each of the processes, i.e. 

from the settling tanks, 

„ 1st run bacteria beds, 
„ 2nd „ „ and 

„ irrigation plots, 

is analysed daily by the Assistant Farm Manager, Mr. C. 
Austin Snook, the average monthly analysis for last year being 
as follows : — 











Oxygen absorbed per 100,000 parts. 


Year 1907 


















By raw sewage. 


By final effluent. 


Month. 












January 


,, 


... 


••• 


8074 


0-259 


February 


.. 


... 


• a. 


3691 


0-364 


March 


## 


... 


• •• 


3486 


0*263 


April ... i 
May ... 


»•• 


... 


... 


3*289 
3170 


0*264 
0-290 


June ... 


tm 


... 


... 


3-227 


0-199 


July ... 




... 


• •• 


2481 


0149 


August 


•*. 


... 


... 


2-688 


0-255 


September 


»•• 


... 


... 


3-349 


0*213 


October 


••• 


... 


• •• 


3089 


0-269 


November 




... 


• *. 


2-849 


0-443 


December 


... 


••• 


• •• 


3-266 


0168 



Air-compressing Plant. 
The air for sludge-pressing and driving two ejector stations 
was formerly pressed by — 



118 



MUNICIPAL W0BKS 



One Johnson's double-acting twin compressor working 40 
strokes per minute, and having 12-inch diameter steam-cylinder 
and 9-inch diameter air-cylinder, with 20-inch stroke ; and a 

Goddard, Massey and Warner's double-acting compressor, 
having a 12-inch diameter steam-cylinder and 8'2-inch diameter 
air-cylinder, 16-inch stroke, making 132 strokes per minute. 

The plant has been replaced by — 

Three Lacy-Hulbert & Co/s air-compressors, belt-driven 
by three General Electric Company's single-phase induction 
motors. 



COMPRESSORS. 







Diameter of 
platan. 


Stroke. 


Revolutions 
per minute. 


Cubic feet of air 

at atmospheric 

pressure, pressed 

to 100 lbs. 


Mechanical 
efficiencies of 
compressors. 


A. 
B. 
C. 


Double acting 


8" 
8" 
6J" 


7" 
7" 
5" 


190 
165 
175 


150 

130 

30 


84 
84 
72 


MOTORS. 




H.P. 


Revotatkmi 
minute 


per 


Efficiencies at full 
load per cent. 


Combined efficiencies. 


A. 
B. 
C. 


30 

25 

8 


725 
725 
725 


86 
86 
84 


72 
72 

608 



Recreation Grounds. 

Although Wimbledon, on the north-west, has the advantage 
of 583 acres of the Common, a large portion of the population 
cannot avail itself of the facility of such open space, and the 
Local Authority has provided, in adddition, six recreation 
grounds, having an area of 54 acres. Wandle Park, where it is 
proposed to have lunch, was acquired by the Corporation in 
1907, and was opened by Her Eoyal Highness Princess Louise, 
Duchess of Argyll, on July 11, 1907. The area of the portion 
of the park purchased by the Corporation is 9*70 acres, but 
owing to Mrs. Richardson Evans having acquired the mill-pond 



RECENTLY CARRIED OUT AT WIMBLEDON. 119 

and grounds connected therewith, having an area of 2*25 acres, 
and which she has presented to the National Trust as a memorial 
to her late brother, Mr. John Feeney, who for many years was 
connected with the Birmingham Post, this park may be said to 
have an area of 12 acres. 

The park is of considerable historical interest, as it joined, 
and in all probability at one time formed part of, the celebrated 
Abbey of Merton. It belonged at one period to Mr. Perry, 
who was a London banker and the proprietor of the Morning 
Post, and who was in the habit of entertaining King George 
the Fourth and Lord Nelson at the house in which you will, 
to-day, have lunch. The park is also interesting from an 
engineering point of view, as the iron road, constructed to take 
Sussex iron to the Wandsworth Ironworks, ran through the 
garden, which is now laid out for the purpose of teaching 
horticulture to children. 



120 



WIMBLEDON ELECTRICITY UNDERTAKING. 

By H. TOMLINSON-LEE, AMJnst.RE. 

The Urban District Council of Wimbledon obtained from 
the Board of Trade, in 1897, a Provisional Order for an elec- 
tricity supply scheme in their district, and the supply for 
private and public lighting was inaugurated on July 17, 1899. 
In 1903 a further Order, named the Wimbledon Electric Light- 
ing Extension Order, was obtained, authorising the inclusion 
of the adjoining parish of Merton in the area of supply. The 
total extent of the combined areas is 4985 acres, and the 
estimated population is 60,000. 

The consulting engineer for the original scheme, Mr. A. H. 
Preece, A.M.I.C.E., read a paper thereon before you in 1898. 
The Author, therefore, does not propose to refer to the works as 
originally constituted, but to confine himself to a description of 
them as they at present exist. 

System. 

The high-pressure alternating current, single-phase, system 
of generation is employed. The high-pressure, or primary, 
voltage is 2000 to 2500 volts, the periodicity being fifty com- 
plete cycles per second. Transformer sub-stations, for reducing 
this primary pressure to the low pressure, or secondary, voltage 
of 220 and 440 volts for distribution, are built in different parts 
of the supply area. The Author will refer more fully to the 
distributing system in another part of this paper. 

Buildings. 

The buildings consist of an engine-room of two bays, a 
boiler-house of two bays, offices, staff-house, stores, workshop, 
circulating-pump house, the refuse-destructor house, and 



WIMBLEDON ELECTRICITY UNDERTAKING. 



121 



tipping platform. With the exception of the original engine- 
room and boiler-house, now the refuse-destructor house, which 
now form a very small part of the works, the whole of the 
buildings have been designed by Mr. C. H. Cooper, M.I.C.E., 
the Borough Surveyor, and erected under his superintendence. 

There are two chimneys, one 175 feet high from the ground 
level, with an internal diameter of 11 feet, built on the Custodis 
principle, and the other 96 feet high from the ground level, with 
an internal diameter of 6 feet. 

The offices are commodious and conveniently arranged, and 
the rooms over them are used for the accommodation of the 
members of the technical staff. 



Engine-room. 

In the engine-room there are seven steam-driven alternators, 
particulars of which are given in the following table : — 



No. 


K.W. 


I.H.P. 


R.P.M. 
365 


Type of alternator. 


Type of engine. 


Exciter. 


1 


120 


150 


Crompton-Brunton 
with revolving 


WUlans 


Direct 










3-crank 


coupled 










armatures 


compound 
Ditto 




2 


120 


150 


365 


Ditto 


Ditto 


3 


120 


150 


365 


Ditto 


Ditto 


Ditto 


4 


850 


550 


333 


Ditto 


Ditto 


Ditto 


A 


350 


550 


333 


Ditto 


Ditto 


Ditto 


G 


625 


900 


300 


British Thomson- 
Houston with 


Browett- 
Lindley 
3-crank 


Ditto 










revolving field 












magnets 


compound 




7 


1000 


1800 


1500 


Ditto 


Curtis 
vertical 
turbine 


Separate 
motor- 
driven. 



The whole of the reciprocating engines — Nos. 1 to 6 — 
exhaust into a surface condenser, situated in a pit at the end of 
the engine-room, having a cooling surface of 3400 square feet, 
and capable of dealing with 35,000 lbs. of exhaust steam per 
hour. An oil-separator and a grease extractor are installed 
in connection with this condenser. The condensed steam is 
discharged into the adjacent hot-well by steam-driven twin 
air-pumps and a monotype air-pump. 



122 WIMBLEDON ELECTRICITY UNDERTAKING. 

The turbo-alternator has its own condensing plant, con- 
sisting of a Worthington surface condenser, having a cooling 
surface of 3000 square feet, with a three-throw motor-driven 
air-pump, which discharges the condensed steam into the 
before-mentioned hot-well. 

There are two hand-operated overhead travelling cranes in 
the engine room. That over the reciprocating sets has a lifting 
capacity of 5 tons, and that over the turbo-alternator has a 
lifting capacity of 15 tons. 

The main high-tension switchboard, mounted on a gallery 
at one end of the engine-room, is of a cellular type. There are 
seven generator panels, an interconnector panel, and ten feeder 
panels, with the usual indicating and measuring instruments. 
The exciting switch-gear is mounted in front of the generator 
panels. In connection with this main switchboard there are 
two sub-fuseboards — fixed on the wall facing the 120 K.W. 
sets — controlling the street-lighting circuits and the power 
circuits for the works and sewage pumping station. 

Circulating Pump-house. 

The circulating pump-house is situated at the rear of the 
workshop. It contains at present two centrifugal circulating 
pumps, each coupled direct to a 45 B.H.P. single-phase motor, 
the switchgear for which is mounted on a gallery above the 
pumps. The circulating water for the whole of the condensing 
plant is obtained from the river Wandle. It flows by gravity 
from the river to a well immediately underneath the circulating 
pumps. These pumps are capable of delivering 2000 gallons of 
water per minute to the condensers, through approximately 
140 yards of 22-inch delivery pipe ; the maximum pump suction 
is 9 feet 9 inches, and the total static head about 28 feet. 

The circulating water, after passing through the condensers, 
returns to the river by gravity. 

A 2-ton overhead travelling crane, operated by hand, 
traverses the circulating pump-house, 

Boiler-iiouse. 

The boiler-house contains eight water-tube boilers having 
a total heating surface of 24,077 square feet. Three of these 



•WIMBLEDON ELECTRICITY UNDERTAKING. i23 

boilers — Nos. 1, 2, and 3 — are hand-fired with Welsh coal, the 
remainder being fitted with Bennis patent mechanical stokers 
and compressed air furnaces. These stokers are operated by 
motors through overhead shafting and belting. The coal used 
is Midland small nuts, having a calorific value of about 
13,000 B.Th.U. 

There are two Green's economisers, one of 128 tubes 
connected with Nos. 4, 5, and 6 boilers, and one of 320 tubes 
connected with Nos. 7 and 8 boilers, three Weir feed pumps 
and two Worthington feed pumps. Attached to the flues are 
two combustion recorders for recording the percentage of carbon 
dioxide (GO a ) in the flue gases. Since their installation, the 
Author has been able to detect and remedy various irregularities, 
with the result that the coal is now burned more economically. 

Coal is brought into the works direct over a siding from the 
main line of the L. and S. W. Bail way. The trucks are hauled 
over a weighbridge and up on to a turntable at the workshop 
end of the overhead railway, which runs the whole length of 
the boiler-house between the two lines of boilers. The coal is 
deposited on the floor under the railway, and fed into the 
stoker hoppers by hand. 

The gases from Nos. 1, 2, and 3 boilers are carried off by 
the small chimney, and those from the other boilers are carried 
off by the main chimney. 



Water-softening Plant. 

Adjoining the main chimney is a water- softening 'and 
storage plant. The softener is capable of softening con- 
tinuously 4000 gallons of water per hour, the process being 
as follows: The water to be softened is pumped from the 
circulating pump-house well, by a Worthington turbine pump 
direct coupled to a single-phase motor, to the softening tank, 
where it is mixed with the soda softening re-agent and clear 
lime water. From this tank the water passes to a precipitation 
chamber, then through a wood wool filter, and finally, before 
being discharged into the storage tank, it passes through a 
quartz sand filter which removes all finely suspended matter. 
The whole of the softening and filtering system is contained in 
the tower alongside the storage tank. The initial hardness of 



124 WIMBLEDON BLKCTKICITY UNDERTAKING. 

the water is about 24 degrees, which is reduced by the treat- 
ment to about 8 degrees at a cost of approximately Ad. per 
1000 gallons. The storage tank has a capacity of 30,000 
gallons. 

Workshop. 

The workshop adjoins the boiler-house, and is immediately 
under the coal-hauling platform. The Author has installed an 
equipment of machine tools electrically driven through over- 
head shafting. The whole of the mechanical repairs are carried 
out in this workshop. 

Stores. 

The Stores are situated under the tipping platform and 
adjacent to the refuse destructors. They are very complete, 
a good stock of spare parts for the various machines in the 
works being kept. 

Refuse Destructors. 

The refuse destructors are of the Beaman and Deas top- 
feed type. They consist of four cells connected to two water- 
tube boilers, having 3580 square feet of heating surface. The 
maximum capacity of these destructors is 21,000 loads of house 
refuse and 2700 loads of sludge cake per annum. Forced 
draught is obtained by means of a centrifugal fan driven by a 
small steam engine. It was originally intended that the steam 
raised in the boilers attached to these destructors should be 
used for driving the engines in the electricity works, but after 
about two months' running this was found to be impracticable, 
and the cells were shut down, the boilers being hand-fired with 
Welsh coal. 

In 1902, in consequence of the removal of the original coal- 
fired boilers from the destructor house, the Author was enabled 
to effect some much-needed improvements in the destructor 
cells, and they were again set to work on June 1 of that 
year. The steam raised was used for driving the engines of the 
sewage pumping station, and at present it is employed for 
heating the Isolation Hospital and driving the machines 
installed there. 



wimbledon electricity undertaking. 125 

Distributing System. 

The distributing system is very extensive. High-pressure 
mains run from the works to the main sub-stations, and 
from these main sub-stations to the minor sub-stations. The 
whole of these high-pressure feeders are interconnected. The 
current is transformed in the sub-stations to a pressure of 
220 volts for private, and 440 volts for public, supply. 

The high-pressure mains are concentric, paper-insulated, and 
lead-covered; they are drawn into stoneware conduits, each 
cable being isolated. 

The private lighting low-pressure cables are concentric, 
paper-insulated, lead-sheathed and armoured, and they are laid 
direct in the ground. 

The public lighting low-pressure cables are three-core, 
vulcanised indiarubber, lead-sheathed and armoured, and 
they are laid direct in the ground. A pressure of 440 volts is 
maintained between the outer conductors. 

The house-service cables are twin, paper-insulated, lead- 
I sheathed and armoured, and the public-lamp service cables are 

twin, vulcanised india-rubber, lead-sheathed and armoured. 
| The total mileage of mains laid to date is as follows : — 

High -pressure mains for private and public supply ... 45*3 miles. 

Low-tension private distributing mains ..." 78*0 „ 

Low-tension pnbUo lighting mains ... 48*0 „ 

Low-tension private and public lighting service cables ... 27*6 „ 

Total ... 198-9 ,, 

There are twenty-eight sub-stations, both under and above 
ground, and six transformer pits, with a total capacity of 
transformers installed of 2455 kilowatts, the average capacity of 
each sub-station being 83 kilowatts, and of each pit 21 kilowatts. 
The present capacity of the largest sub-station is 225 kilowatts. 

The Author has re-designed and enlarged practically the 
whole of the sub-stations ; they are now up-to-date, and comply 
with the regulations of the Home Office and the Board of 
Trade. 

In order that the Engineer-in-charge at the works may be 
cognisant at any time with the private lighting low-tension 
pressure in the various parts of the supply area, fifteen of the 
principal sub-stations have recently been connected with the 



126 WIMBLEDON ELECTRICITY UNDERTAKING. 

works by means of a system of pilot wires. These wires are 
brought to a central point in the engine-room, and there connected 
with fifteen voltmeters, one for each sub-station. These volt- 
meters are fitted with recording charts, which are renewed every 
twenty-four hours, and indicating scales. 

Public Lighting. 

The public-lighting system is entirely separate from the 
private-lighting system, the mains being "dead" during the 
day. The whole of the lamps are controlled from the works, 
being switched on simultaneously in the following manner: 
The public-lighting feeder is switched in on the main switch- 
board, a separate alternator being then run up on it ; when up 
to the proper speed and pressure, this alternator is paralleled 
with the other machines running on the private-lighting load. 
When the public lighting is switched off, this operation is 
reversed, the alternator being separated from the private- 
lighting machines, and then gradually shut down. 

All the main roads and important cross-road junctions 
in Wimbledon are lighted by 98 flame arc lamps, each giving 
approximately 2700 candle-power, and consuming 500 watts 
per hour. The side roads are lighted by incandescent electric 
lamps, there being 1036 posts, with two 16-candle-power lamps 
in each lantern.. Forty-three hot-wire Foster arc lamps, giving 
approximately 1200 candle-power, and consuming 600 watts 
each, have been erected on the Ashen Grove Estate, a part of 
Wimbledon which is being rapidly developed. Each lamp is 
protected by its own fuses. 

Experiments with metallic filament lamps for side street 
lighting have been carried out. The results obtained with 
the Osram lamp have been very satisfactory, and it is 
probable that the whole of the side streets may eventually be 
lighted by them. 

The charge for street lighting is 2\d. per unit, which includes 
attendance and cleaning. The total charge for the past year 
was 5994/. 155., or approximately 51. lis. lQd. per post. 

Commercial Statistics. 

The annual accounts of the undertaking afford striking proof 
of its phenomenal success, and the Author trusts the following 
analysis of the yearly returns will prove interesting : — 



WIMBLEDON ELECTRICITY UNDERTAKING. 



127 



SP 



8. 
I 



II 






•giaransaoo 
joiaqainK 



Jddji 



[osipm 



o 



s a s a 

l> © O CO 



8 

«5 



i i 2 § 



I I 



1«i-4^4©CO'«Hi-4iH© 

I § g 5 2 S. S 8 §. 
«? *? » sf * s» s »: t 



g" g 



3 5 



£ 



§ 



rH ^ ©* 



0> 



8 3 



CO CO ©1 ©* 



*4 ^ Cft' 
i-« 00 »£5 J 

n n ot imc 



Pioe «au I 
iadp9ai«iqo ' 
a>Lid oSudAy | 



§ $ 



c© 3 co e* <8*» 
cb cb cb cb esiW 



2 
1 



o 

3 



CO 

of 



S 8 g 8 

O *H tt> t- 



l> I- *H 

© ~4 »* 

to « e 



1 



CO 



CO 

<■« 
00 



sf s 



2? PS 



I 



1-4 

to 
.2 

I 



O 

1 
1 



a 



•s 






si 



§ 



i 



°t 



I' 



CM ■ 



1! 



i + + + + + + 



^ 



S 2 



33 % 



+ 
3 

CO 



•ft* 



1-4 ^4 »H *4 

,P fe 3 J 



CO CJ »-• 



«5 l> 



£ 



,-4 ^ ,H rH CO 01 



is 



1 



f 



>B. 



CO 

© 



^ CO 

*3 B 8 8 3 8 



-H CO 

© -*4 



9 



SB 






§ S CO CO 
CO CO © © 



s 



s 



©5 ^gggSSS© 

C5C30iOiCJ>OC7>C>CSO> 
r-««i-»«Hi-ii-<rHi-iiHrH 



128 WIMBLEDON ELECTRICITY UNDERTAKING. 

The net profit earned by the undertaking to March 31, 1907, 
has been apportioned in the following manner : — 

£ $. d. 

Applied to the relief of local rates 4,350 7 5 

Placed to the credit of a reserve fond 6,621 18 1 

Transferred to a suspense account to await allocation ... 2,123 10 2 



Total ... £13,095 15 8 



System of Charging. 

The present charge for electricity supplied to all consumers 
for lighting purposes (including that supplied to religious and 
charitable institutions, public buildings), etc., is : — 

(a) For all units consumed up to but not exceeding 

400 units per quarter 4J<t per B.T. unit 

(&) For all units consumed in excess of 400 units 

but not exceeding 800 units per quarter ... id. „ „ 
(c) For all units consumed in excess of 800 units 

per quarter 3Jd. „ „ 

The present charge for electricity supplied for power, 
up to 2 H.P., and for cooking, heating, or other 
special purposes, when installed on a separate 

meter is 2d. „ „ 

The present charge for electricity supplied for power 
(2 H.P. and upwards) when installed on a separate 
meter is ... l|d. „ „ 

In any case where small motors, cooking apparatus, heaters, 
etc., are installed requiring less than 220 watts, energy will be 
supplied only at lighting rates. 

The charge for hire of a meter is Is. per quarter, except in 
the case of a consumer whose account for energy supplied 
during any quarter amounts to 5s. or upwards per meter, when 
no charge is made. 

Extensions. 

The following extensions will be carried out during the 
present year : The generating machinery will be increased by 
the addition of a 1000 kilowatt turbo-alternator with condensing 
plant. A main high-tension, remote-control switchboard, 
having nine machine panels, an interconnector panel, sixteen 
feeder panels and exciting gear ; two water-tube boilers with 




ft COMPRESSOR. 



[7b face p. 128. 



WIMBLEDON ELECTRICITY UNDERTAKING. 129 

chain-grate mechanical stokers, Weir feed pump, and an 
economiser of 320 tubes, will also be erected. The total cost 
of these extensions is estimated at 17,6001., and they will be 
carried out in accordance with the specifications of the Author, 
and under his superintendence. 

A new and modern refuse destructor is also to be erected on 
a site adjoining the railway siding, but distinct from the electricity 
works. The plant will be of the back-feed type, and will be 
capable of destroying 84 tons of refuse and 28 tons of sludge cako 
per day of twenty-four hours. It will be erected in accordance 
with a scheme prepared by the Borough Surveyor, Mr. C. H. 
Cooper, and the Author, and the estimated cost, including a 
chimney 180 feet high by 8 feet internal diameter, will be 
9750*. 

Curtis Turbine. 

In view of the increasing interest in turbo-generating plant, 
the Author hopes the following brief description of the Curtis 
vertical turbine at the works will not be out of place : — 

The turbine is of the three-stage type ; the first stage contains 
three sets of revolving buckets, the second and third stages two 
sets each. In each stage the bucket rings are bolted in a single 
cast steel disc. There is one shaft, which serves for both the 
turbine and the alternator. Between each stage is a diaphragm, 
and on them are fixed gun-metal packing sleeves, grooved on the 
inside; also where the shaft passes through the first stage, a 
packing, consisting of three carbon rings each made up in three 
segments and held together and against the shaft by a garter 
spring, is inserted. 

No packing is required at the bottom, or low-pressure, end 
of the shaft, as the step-bearing water is discharged into the 
steam space. 

No by-pass valves are provided in any of the stages. With 
steam at a pressure of 150 lbs. per square inch, superheated to 
about 125° Fahr. and exhausting to a vacuum of 1 lb. absolute 
pressure, the pressure in the various stages is approximately as 
follows : — 

First stage 3 lbs. per square inch above atmosphere. 

Second stage vacuum 20 i nches. 

Third stage vacuum 28 inches. 

K 



130 WIMBLEDON ELECTBICITY UNDERTAKING. 

The step-bearing consists of plain cast-iron blocks, the upper 
one being fixed on the end of the shaft. The lower block is 
supported on four gun-metal screws, geared together and 
operated from the outside by a pair of chain wheels and a chain. 
The water pressure in the step-bearing is about 225 lbs. per 
square inch at full load. Four to five gallons of water per 
minute are required to lubricate this bearing, while the guide 
bearings require about three gallons of oil per minute. This 
oil is returned to a cooling tank, and is used over and over 
again. 

The average total clearance between the stationary and 
moving parts of the turbine is about 0*13 of an inch. 

The turbine is fitted with hydraulic controlling valve gear. 
It consists of a hollow piston valve working inside a liner, 
around the circumference of which passages are cored communi- 
cating with the various sections of the first-stage nozzles. 
These passages have openings into the interior of the liner, 
and the piston valve, which is actuated by a hydraulic ram, 
in moving up or down, uncovers or covers these openings in 
succession, thus regulating the number of first-stage nozzles in 
action. The ram is operated by water at the foot-step bearing 
pressure, and is controlled by two small pilot valves operated 
by the governor. 

An emergency valve is placed on the top of the liner. It 
is of the mushroom type, so arranged as to be able to im- | 
mediately cut off steam from the turbine. It is normally held | 
open by steam pressure on the underside of a small piston on 
the valve spindle, the upper side of which is connected to the 
exhaust. In this position it compresses a strong spring, which 
closes the valve when equality of pressure is obtained on both 
sides of the piston, by the admission of steam to the upper side 
of this piston through a small pilot valve. This emergency 
valve is always fully open when the turbine is up to full 
speed and the controlling piston is at its lower or no-load 
position. 

To prevent a sudden demand of water for the foot-step 
bearing operating gear robbing the step blocks of lubricant 
a spring-loaded ram accumulator is provided. It is connected 
to, and supplied by, the foot-step bearing supply pump. 



131 



L. AND S. W. RAILWAY RECONSTRUCTION 
OF BRIDGE OVER RIVER THAMES AT 
RICHMOND. 

By A. W. SZLUMPER, M.Inst.C.E. 

This bridge crosses the river Thames in three spans, each 
of 100 feet. It is approached on the Surrey side by a brick 
viaduct, and terminates on the Middlesex side by a brick span 
crossing a public road. 

Formerly, the river openings consisted of cast-iron arches, 
three to each line, carried on brick piers, with a timber super- 
structure of oak joists and decking. 

The work of reconstructing all bridges of cast iron has 
been systematically carried out by the L. and S. W. Eailway 
Company for many years. 

Some years ago, as a temporary measure, an extensive 
system of wrought-iron ties was inserted to Eichmond Bridge, 
bracing all the ribs together. Early in 1906 the structure 
showed further signs of weakness, and it was decided to proceed 
with the reconstruction. 

The first operation consisted of driving piles in clusters 
close to the old structure, placing bearing-girders on the same, 
just clear of the soffit of the cast-iron ribs and at right angles 
to the same, then placing temporary main girders on these 
bearing-girders parallel to the ribs, one immediately under 
each running rail ; they were wedged up tightly to the super- 
structure, and thus the cast-iron ribs were relieved of the bulk 
of their load. The three spans were divided up into eleven 
spans, varying from 16 feet to 60 feet, this latter being a 
requirement of the Thames Conservancy, so as not to impede 
the traffic in the river. 

The design of the new bridge consists of steel ribs, four to 
each opening, 102 feet 8§ inch span, 2£ feet deep, and bearing 
on cast-steel pins, 9 inches diameter, open spandril work 



132 I* AND S. W. RAILWAY RECONSTRUCTION. 

(following as near as possible the old design), and cross girders 
and deck plates. 

The contract for the removal of the old cast-iron ribs and 
the provision and erection of the new ironwork was placed last 
May, and operations were started last August, when single-line 
working was established over the bridge. 

Owing to the heavy traffic, the only time the line can be 
blocked altogether is early Sunday mornings, and then but for 
about five hours. 

The old ribs were bolted together in sections. 

A week was occupied in preparing a span for removal, and 
this was accomplished on Sunday mornings. 

The ribs were lifted from their bearings in sections by 
cranes, and placed on timber-trucks and conveyed to the 
Railway Company's works at Nine Elms for breaking up and 
use in the cupola. 

As the ribs were removed, the work of cutting away and 
preparing the abutments and piers for receiving the new 
bearing-boxes and steel pins was taken in hand, and the 
erection of the new steel libs and superstructure proceeded 
with. These new ribs were delivered in small sections, and 
unloaded at. the site on Sunday mornings, the bolting up, 
riveting, etc., proceeding during the week. 

The new ironwork under the line out of use was com- 
pleted and opened for traffic on March 1 last, the running 
line being slewed on to this new portion on this date. . 

The operation for the removal of the old cast-iron ribs, etc., 
under the line thrown out of use on March 1, and the erection 
of the new steel work is proceeding with rapidity, and, it is 
hoped, will be completed and double-line working restored 
early next month. 

The total weight of the cast-iron ribs removed was 408 tons, 
and the total weight of steel in the new work, including the 
steel castings in bearing-pins, etc., 608 tons. 



v 



133 



NOTES ON THE FOOTBRIDGE, LOCK, AND 
WEIR, RICHMOND (SURREY). 

By J. H. BRIERLEY, Assoc.MJnst.C.E., Borough 

SUKVEYOR. 

The control and conservation of the river Thames are in the 
hands of a body of thirty-eight Conservators, usually spoken of 
as the " Thames Conservancy." 

In the year 1889, however, a Bill was lodged in Parliament 
on behalf of the Richmond Vestry and the Twickenham Local 
Board, "to authorise the construction of a Footbridge with 
removable sluices and a Lock and Slipway on the river Thames 
in the parishes of Richmond and Isleworth and for other 
purposes," and the Act authorising the scheme was passed in 
the following session. 

The somewhat unusual procedure of two local authorities 
requesting Parliament to sanction a River Improvement Scheme 
to be carried out by the conservators of such river was the final 
outcome of an agitation for some improvement in the condition 
of the river Thames between Teddington and Isleworth (ex- 
tending over a period of some thirty years) on the part of the 
two above-mentioned local authorities, riparian owners, and 
others interested in its condition. 

The level of low water had been gradually falling until 
in later years at low tide the stream was so shallow as to be 
insufficient to allow a pleasure steam-boat of the lightest 
draught to float along it, and its muddy foreshores were both 
unsightly and offensive. 

The state of things complained of was primarily due to 
two causes, viz. the removal of Old London Bridge in the year 
1833, and the ever-increasing quantity of water abstracted 
from the river above Teddington Lock by the London Water 



134 NOTES ON THE FOOTBRIDGE, LOCK, 

Companies. Dredging in the lower section of the river, and 
the greater waterway provided in reconstructing other bridges, 
had also contributed to the evils complained of in a lesser 
degree. 

Petitions were from time to time presented by the 
Richmond Vestry and others to the Conservators, pointing 
out that large sums of money had been received by them from 
the London Water Companies in return for the privilege of 
increasing their intake from the river, and that some con- 
sideration was due to those who were thereby condemned to 
endure the evils attendant on the consequent unsatisfactory 
condition of the Thames below Teddington Weirs, due in some 
measure to the decreasing volume of water flowing over the 
weirs there. 

In 1871 a further memorial was presented to the Con- 
servators, earnestly entreating the Board to construct a lock 
and weir, or otherwise relieve the inhabitants of the district 
from the intolerable nuisance which they had so long and 
patiently borne, and which, in the absence of a lock, would 
daily increase. 

The Conservators then appointed Sir John Coode- and 
Captain Calver, K.N., to report to them, and also to confer in 
the matter with Sir James Abernethy, the engineer retained by 
the Richmond Vestry, 

To those who either are now, or may possibly in future be, 
closely concerned with the question of the present condition 
and desired improvement of a tidal river, a perusal of the 
report presented by the two first-named gentlemen, containing 
as it does the result of certain observations and inquiries into 
the condition of the river, and their opinion as to the causes 
responsible therefor, with the conclusions arrived at by them 
as to the remedy for the evils admitted by the engineers to 
exist, will doubtless prove interesting. 

Shortly, Sir John Coode and Captain Calver deprecated the 
construction of the suggested lock and weir, which in their 
opinion would be injurious, as it would cause silting in the 
river, both above and below the structures ; result in the loss 
of tidal volume from the river where it is of the greatest value ; 
diminish the scourage power, and needlessly interfere with the 
navigation ; and would also tend to increase the frequency and 
extent of the flooding of adjacent lands. 



AND WEIR, RICHMOND (SURREY). 135 

They recommended the improvement of the river by the 
entire diversion of sewage therefrom; by dredging; and also 
by the construction of practically uniform slopes along the 
foreshores, between the high- and low-water lines throughout 
the district between Teddington and Kew, so that all the 
indents and resting-places for silt should be removed. 

The engineers, however, expressed their conviction that 
there was no portion of the whole tidal division of the Thames 
which stood in greater need of improvement than that lying 
between Kew Eailway Bridge and Teddington Lock. 

On the other hand, Sir James Abernethy as strongly 
advocated the construction of a lock and weir as the best 
method of procuring an additional depth of water between 
Richmond Bridge and Teddington, and preventing the deposit 
of offensive mud on the shores and in the bed of the river. 

The Conservators stated in their next annual report that 
they had come to the conclusion that a judicious deepening of 
the river by dredging will afford a safe and proper remedy 
for the existing defects in the navigation, and they have, in 
consequence, commenced the needful works ; but for the next 
ten years they did nothing beyond a little dredging, and the 
evil state of things continued. 

In 1883 certain local residents lodged a Bill for a new lock 
and weir at Isleworth ; but this, for lack of means, was dropped. 

Threatened with an inquiry by a Select Committee of tho 
House of Commons the Conservators at last undertook to 
execute certain improvements, and spent some 21,0002. in 
dredging and embanking the river between Teddington and 
Kew Bridge. 

These works, which their expert advisers had some fifteen 
years previously confidently predicted would effect the 
necessary improvement, proved, however, so far as then carried 
out, to be quite inadequate. 

Further memorials and appeals to the Conservators having 
proved unavailing, the local authorities, on behalf of the long- 
suffering residents, at last took the bold step, as previously 
mentioned, of lodging a Bill in Parliament, providing that the 
Conservators should execute the works of constructing the new 
footbridge, lock, and weir, unless within six months after 
the passing of the Act they should give notice to the Local 
Authorities (or one of them) that they did not intend to do 



136 



NOTES Otf THE tfOOTBRIDGE, LOCK, 



so ; in which case the local authorities were to be empowered to 
carry out the works. 

The Bill was naturally strenuously opposed in both Houses, 
but the opposition fortunately proved futile, and the Act 
authorising the scheme was, as before stated, passed in the 
session of 1890. 

The Act gave the Conservators the option of executing the 
works, which on completion (certified by the Board of Trade) 
were to vest in the Conservators, to be thenceforth maintained 
and worked by them at their own charge, they taking the tolls 
of the footbridge and lock. 

The Act also gave power to the Sanitary Authorities within 
the riparian parishes to levy a rate not exceeding in any year 
2d. in the pound. A penny rate now suffices for Richmond 
Parish. 

The rateable value of land, houses, and property, of which 
any part is within 100 yards of high-water mark (ordinary 
spring tides), is for the purposes of rates under the Act to be 
deemed to be twice the value at which the same stands in the 
valuation list. 

The estimated cost of the works was 40,000/., which it was 
agreed should be divided as follows :— 

£ 

Richmond 22,945 



Twickenham 
Petersham 
Ieleworth 
Ham 



, 14,160 

1,147 

1,068 

680 

£40,000 



The expenses of obtaining the Act (4500/.) were in part 
paid by subscriptions, and the balance (two-thirds) by the 
local authorities. 

The Conservators decided to execute the work themselves, 
which, after revising the plans, they did in a most efficient 
manner, and they also bore the additional cost, amounting 
to some 21,000/., the total cost of the works thus being 
61,000/. 

Description of Works. 

The structure consists of a bridge, having five arches, and 
carrying a double gangway, 348 feet in length, between the 



AND WEIK, RICHMOND (SURREY). 137 

banks, and 28 feet in width; the two gangways being each 
6 feet wide, with a central space of 16 feet between them, 
which is occupied by the sluices when raised. 

The three centre arches, containing the sluices, are of 66 feet 
span, the two end ones being each of 50 feet span. 

Under the arch on the Surrey side is the Lock, which is 
250 feet long, and 37 feet wide for two-thirds of its length, 
the gates being 26 feet wide. Under that on the Middlesex 
side is a slip-way, with three sets of slides and rollers,, for 
the passage of pleasure boats. 

Under the staircase leading to the footbridge on the Surrey 
shore is arranged a lock-keeper's house, and on the other side 
workshops, etc., are similarly placed; the buildings being of 
red brick, with Bath stone dressings. 

The abutments and piers of the bridge are of Portland 
cement concrete, faced with blue Staffordshire bricks and 
Cornish granite, the foundations being carried down to the 
London clay. 

The elliptical girders carrying the gangways are of steel 
plate, the web of each being in two pieces only. 

The three centre arches are fitted with Stoney's Patent 
Sluices, each 66 feet wide by 12 feet high, and weighing 
32 tons, constructed of steel plates, stiffened on the down- 
stream side by two steel arched girders, and which sluices, at the 
date of erection, were the largest then constructed. 

The sluices are suspended on trunnions at each end, fixed 
at a point coincident with the centre of gravity, and which 
slide up and down in vertical guides, recessed into the sides 
of the piers; under the trunnions at each end are passed two 
steel wire ropes, 1 inch in diameter, which run over a large 
pulley attached to the lifting gear above, and to the end of 
each of the four ropes is fixed a counterbalance weight, 
weighing 8 tons. 

The counterbalance weights work in wells, constructed of 
steel plates, each 3 feet square, built in the masonry opposite 
the end of each sluice. 

These wells also act as supports to the vertical guides and 
bearers, which are planed surfaces of cast iron, between which 
and the ends of the sluices are interposed the free rollers, of 
which there is a set on either side, arranged to take the pressure 
of the water, so that the friction is reduced to a minimum. 



138 NOTES ON THE FOOTBRIDGE, LOCK, 

The sluices weigh 4 tons more in air than in water, and 
the difference is compensated for by additional special balance 
weights, carried on differential chains, and perfect balance is 
thereby at all times maintained ; and the sluices can be readily 
raised by two men by means of the winches placed above on 
the piers. 

An ingenious arrangement, designed to prevent unsightliness, 
is provided by means of a wrought-iron lever (carrying a small 
pulley), which projects from one end of the sluice ; this when 
rising meets, and then travels in a curved guide (which is con- 
nected to the vertical guide near the top), when the sluice reaches 
the level of the parapet of the bridge, so that the sluice is then 
turned over flat on its side between the two gangways, being thus 
hidden from view by the girders and parapets of the bridge, at 
the same time allowing a clear headway of 21 feet above Trinity 
high-water mark. 

The rollers which receive the pressure of the water, whether 
directed up or down stream, are placed in a cradle working 
in the recess opposite the ends of the sluice, and which is 
suspended by two ropes fixed to a girder on the bridge; the 
ropes being passed under the sheaves of the rollers, and over 
the trunnion bearer, the rollers thus rising with the sluice but 
at half the speed, having only half the distance to travel. 

The lifting gear fixed on the top of each pier is similar at 
both ends, motion being imparted to the pulleys over which 
the suspending wire ropes pass by means of a crab winch 
attached to one set of gear only, the power being conveyed 
by means of a 5-inch shaft and spur gearing, from one side of 
the arch to the other. 

The sluices, which maintain a maximum pressure of 100 tons 
each when lowered, are so accurately counterbalanced that they 
are floated and raised with the rising tide, by means of a 
timber float fixed on the up-stream side of each about 18 inches 
below the top. 

The object of the sluices is to hold up the water to 5 feet 
9 inches below Trinity high-water mark, i.e. about half-tide 
level (ordinary spring tide), the difference between low water 
and the average height of spring tides being about 11 feet; 
and they are worked so that the water is so held up between 
8 a.m. and 9 p.m., but the Conservators are empowered, by 
consent of the Board of Trade, to keep up the sluices as they 



AND WEIR, RICHMOND (SURREY). 139 

may consider necessary for the due protection of the navigation 
of the river. 

In practice the sluices are kept up for three or four successive 
nights twice a month. 

In times of heavy rains and floods they are of course always 
kept up. 

When the tide has ebbed to the height of about five feet six 
inches below Trinity high- water mark the sluices are lowered 
down to, or to within a few inches of the sills, according to the 
quantity of water passing over Teddington Weirs. 

The water is never allowed to flow over the sluices. 

In the daytime a red disc is suspended from the centre of 
each arch when the sluices are down, and at night a red lamp is 
shown on the bridge. 

The slipway has sloping floors of concrete laid to a gradient 
of 1 in 8 with 3-inch wrought-iron pipe rollers revolving on 
bearings 5 feet 3 inch centres fixed to a timber framework. 

An iron cradle is fixed at the summit on a rocking spindle 
at the centre, for passing the boats from one side to the other. 



A loan for the several local Authorities' contribution of 
40,000Z. was obtained for a period of forty years. 

The foundations and masonry of the Lock, Slipway, and 
Piers were executed by the Thames Conservancy. 

The bridgework and sluices were constructed by Messrs, 
Eansomes & Rapier, of Ipswich and London, under the direction 
of Mr. C. J. More, MJnst.CE., Chief Engineer to the Con- 
servancy, Mr. Le Neve Foster being Resident Engineer. 

The sluices were designed by the late Mr. F. C. M. Stoney, 
MJnstC.E., whose invention has since been as successfully 
adopted in works of a similar nature on several of the most 
important rivers in the world. 



DISCUSSION. 

Mb. G. Midgley Taylor, Westminster: I should like to 
discuss the question as to the advisability of converting a 
steam-driven plant into an electrically driven plant. I have 
had to report to the Glasgow Corporation on the pumping 



140 DISCUSSION. 

of their sewage. One of the questions submitted to me was, 
that having electricity works for tramways and lighting and a 
large surplus of power, would it not be cheaper to use 
electricity rather than steam? The Electricity Department 
undertook to supply the current at f rf. per unit, which is even 
less than the charge at Wimbledon; but on working out, 
however, the annual expenditure required for pumping with 
electrical power, and comparing that with the cost of coal, and 
also taking into account the interest and repayment of capital 
for thirty years for electrically driven pumps, the annual sum 
required by the Glasgow Corporation would be something 
approaching three times more for electricity than for steam. I 
think it would be extremely interesting if Mr. Cooper could 
give us some idea of the difference of cost of working these 
pumps electrically compared with steam. Of course I know 
if you have an old steam installation— a regular coal eater — the 
electrically driven plant would be cheaper, but with pumps 
running regularly, with a charge of ^oths of a penny per unit 
for current, I do not think an electrical plant can be anything 
like economical. If there is only intermittent pumping, then it 
is diiferent ; for under thoso circumstances electricity compares 
favourably with steam. Particularly is that true if you have 
only a small plant. At Wilton I have found it much cheaper 
to run the pumps by electricity and accumulators rather than 
employ a double shift of men. Again, if you run the plant J 

electrically, it seems a necessity to put in centrifugal pumps. j 

I put in the first electric installation for pumping sewage 
automatically at Stowmarket. I am sorry to say that the 
efficiency of that machine in working does not amount to more 
than 28 per cent., in spite of our having tried several gears and 
done everything to improve the efficiency. Even at that it is 
an extremely economical method of working, because it is small 
and requires practically no attention. But when you come to 
purchase electrical power at ^ ths of a penny per unit and only 
get 657 per cent, of efficiency with the 22-inch pumps and 
60*9 per cent, on the 12-inch pumps, then I am of opinion that 
for permanent pumping steam would be the cheaper. With 
regard to the centrifugal pumping, Mr. Cooper has explained 
that he had great difficulty to begin with, because he could not 
install his screens until after he got the system going. That 
is a difficulty we have to contend with in pumping sewage 



DISCUSSION. 141 

electrically from outlying districts. With electrically driven 
pumps you must have screens in front of them. 

Going now to the bacterial installation, I see that Mr. 
Cooper tells us he charges his beds twice a day. It would be 
very interesting to all of us to know the quantity per cubic yard 
of material applied during that double charging. The infor- 
mation is not in a form to enable us to appreciate the results he 
has obtained. It would also be of interest if Mr. Cooper could 
give us the figures of the oxygen absorbed throughout the series. 
He tells us that the sewage from the first and second beds are 
analysed, but he only gives us the figures for the raw sewage 
and the final effluent. I must congratulate Mr. Cooper on the 
excellent results obtained. I have been over the sewage farm 
many times, have seen it growing, and have kept in touch with 
the many alterations which have been made, and it always 
appears to me that more is being done for purification, acre for 
acre, than at any other farm in the world. That speaks very 
highly, not only for Mr. Cooper but for his farm manager. 

With regard to Mr. Tomlinson Lee's paper, the cost of 4rf. 
per thousand gallons for water softening is a very big price. 
On a larger scale it is possible to soften water for \d. per 
thousand gallons. 

Mr. F. R. Phipps : The question of pumping, which has been 
raised by Mr. Midgley Taylor, is one of great interest to 
municipal engineers. I think we have all had experience that 
where there is pumping to be done, and there is an electrical 
undertaking belonging to the Corporation, the Surveyor has been 
asked to use electrical instead of steam or gas driven pumps. 
I should like to ask Mr. Cooper if he advised the removal of 
the steam and gas engines, and the substitution of the electrical 
pump. I have had very recently to report on the same matter, 
and I find the cost of the electrical pump is very much in 
excess of steam or gas. I think the current used for water 
horse-power per hour with the centrifugal pump must be at 
least 1 \ unit, which at ^ths of a penny per unit for the large 
22-inch pump would be for the whole year's running 2847J. 
The cost of steam on the basis of Z\ lbs. of coal at 24a. per ton 
per horse-power hour, not taking into account interest on and 
repayment. of capital, would be 949/. I have had experience 
for the last eighteen months with a suction gas pumping plant, 
using \\ lb. of anthracite costing 30s. per ton, which is equivalent 



142 DISCUSSION. 

to 024 of a penny per horse-power hour, or 423J. for the 
year, being about one-sixth of the cost of electrical pumping. 
If Mr. Cooper could give us the cost, it would be interesting and 
useful to those who have to advise on the same point. The 
question of the utilisation of the steam from the destructor for 
either sewage pumping or other purposes, is one which is much 
discussed. I see it is mentioned that great difficulty has been 
found in utilising that steam, though the actual cause of diffi- 
culty is not mentioned. My own Council has considered the 
putting down of a destructor for sewage pumping, which is at 
present done by coal-fired boilers. The price for street 
lighting appears to be high as compared with incandescent 
gas lighting, which would come to about 31. per lamp per annum. 
I should like to ask if any incandescent gas lamps are in use 
or whether they are all electrical. Then could we have the 
number of private motors which are paying ljd! per unit? 
Considering the large amount of profit made by the electrical 
undertaking, I should have thought a less price would have 
been charged for current for power purposes. 

Mr. A. E. Snape : I think it is very satisfactory in the case 
of the Wimbledon Corporation that they have obtained such 
good terms from the Tramway Company. It is usually the 
case that the Corporation has the worst of the bargain. What 
Mr. Cooper says about the two clauses inserted in the Act, and 
their successful operation for the Corporation, is of very great 
interest to the members of the Association. I have noticed the 
success of the Corporation of Norwich in their appeal with 
reference to the 18-inch margin on the sides of the tramway 
track. The Company are held responsible for the paving of 
that margin, and if that is not done by them they must 
compensate the Corporation for the money spent in doing it. 
With reference to the electrically driven plant, it may be of 
interest to give some particulars of the system adopted in 
Norwich. Mr. Collins has adopted an electrically driven plant 
with a vertical spindle, the pump to be drowned. The pump 
will be worked at night without any attendants in the engine- 
house and a system of alarm bells will give warning of any 
mishap. The other two pumps will be belt driven by suction 
gas engines. We shall then be able to tell the relative 
efficiency of the electrically driven and the suction gas pumps, 
as they are both of the samq horse-power, I hope when the 



DISCUSSION. 143 

system is working we shall have figures of the relative 
efficiencies of the two types of pump&. I should like to ask 
Mr. Cooper how the pumps in this system are driven — whether 
they are driven direct or by bevel gearing. Mr. Collins has 
found in his investigation that bevel gearing is noisy and 
inefficient. We are now adopting belt-driven pumps. This 
has necessitated the pumps being placed at the ground level, and 
therefore they will not be drowned, but a charging apparatus 
will be provided. Has Mr. Cooper any difficulty with the 
stripping of the blades in the centrifugal pumps? In our 
pumps, which are of the Eoturbo type, there is 3 inches 
clearance between the blades and the casing, allowing material 
up to an inch in size to pass through without any damage to 
the pump. We are advised that we shall have no difficulty 
with the blades. Will Mr. Cooper say what he has done with 
the pressed sludge? I should have thought it would not be 
necessary to press the sludge, as by providing a relatively small 
area of land you could allow it to run into trenches and thereby 
disintegrate. 

The references in Mr. Tomlinson Lee's paper to the Curtis 
turbine are very interesting. There are not many installations 
of this American turbine in this country. Would Mr. Tom- 
linson Lee say what is the output of the turbine, and the 
pounds of steam used per kilowatt-hour, and thereby give us 
the efficiency of the turbine ? 

Mr. S. G. Gamble : Is not the cost of street lighting by 
electricity, amounting to a rate of Ad. in the pound, rather 
high for a town which has no congested street traffic ? I notice 
that the Electricity Department charge a rent of Is. per quarter 
for meters to small consumers. I presume that includes all the 
cost in connection with the meter, fixing and keeping in order, etc. 

Mb. T. W. A. Hayward : I have always been of opinion 
myself that, given a constant load, pumping can be done more 
economically by steam power than by a second-hand power 
like electricity. The figures given by Mr. Taylor have been 
most convincing, but I have no doubt Mr. Cooper will give 
a very satisfactory explanation of why he adopted electrically 
driven pumps. I think the terms obtained from the Tramway 
Company are very satisfactory indeed, particularly with regard 
to sewers. I should like to ask Mr. Cooper if 6 inches of 
concrete is sufficient for a tramway track ? I am rather at a loss 



144 DISCUSSION. 

to understand what Mr. Cooper means when he says in one case 
only has the Corporation seen fit to pave these margins with 
wood. The paper says immediately before, " The track with the 
18-inch margin on either side has been laid with Karri and 
Jarrah blocks " — I presume at the expense of the Company. I 
suppose Mr Cooper means the space between the kerb and the 
18-inch margin paved by the Company. I should like to know 
what Mr. Cooper's experience is with regard to macadam roads 
and wood track for tramways. One of the most difficult things 
one has to do is to maintain a suitable carriage-way where the 
tramways run through a macadam road. I have much pleasure 
in moving a vote of thanks to the authors of the papers. 

Mr. Capon : I have very much pleasure in seconding the 
vote of thanks. 

Mr. Livbrsedge : There are certain references in the paper 
to bacteria beds. I do not know when the last meeting of the 
Association was held here, but it is stated that since then five 
acres of new beds have been added by Mr. Cooper. I should 
like to ask Mr. Cooper if he is satisfied with a mesh of |ths of 
an inch for material in contact beds after the precipitation tank 
treatment, or whether he has found any clogging of the beds, and 
whether they have required renewal at any time. I should also 
like to know what material he uses in the beds. 

Mr. Norman Scorgie: I should like to congratulate Mr. 
Cooper on the arrangement made with the United Tramways 
Company, and also congratulate Wimbledon that they are not 
within the area of the Metropolis. If he had had to deal with the 
London County Council, Mr. Cooper would not have been so 
successful. I know a case in the north of London where the 
authority made terms with the Tramway Company to pave the 
margin of road outside the statutory 18 inches to the kerbstone 
free of cost to the authority. After a time the central 
authority purchased the lease, they stepped in and said, " You 
have made too hard a bargain, and you must contribute 500/. 
towards the cost of this work." In the paper one is given the 
maximum capacity of the destructor in loads, which are an 
indefinite quantity. Can we be told what the tonnage is, or even 
per cubic yard ? because we all know that house refuse varies 
considerably as to its weight per cubic yard. 

As to public lighting, I am certainly of opinion that, so far 
as regards the electrically lighted lamps, the Council are paying 




r «r 



Tofajce p. 144. 



PLATE N? 3. 



)ND, SURREY. 




I 



>l< 



i I 



ii! 



DISCUSSION. 145 

more than the commercial value for the illuminant they get. 
It was pointed out by Mr. Phipps that incandescent gas lamps 
could be lighted, and lighted efficiently, with not less than 50 
candles, at something like 3/. 7*. 6d. per lamp. Wimbledon is 
paying 5/. lis. lOd. When you examine the electric light 
accounts you can see the reason for this — 20 per cent, of the 
income of the undertaking is paid by the Council. They sell 
the current to themselves at far more than its value, and if that 
were not so their accounts would not show the profit they do. 
I am sorry I cannot congratulate Wimbledon on their electric 
light undertaking. If you take the amount for reserve fund 
and relief of rates, and not yet allocated, during the eight years 
the installation has been at work, it only equals 7 } per cent., or 
less than 1 per cent, per annum on the capital outlay. It has 
been stated that at least 1£ per cent, should be put on one side 
for depreciation and renewals. I know it is being put aside 
for depreciation, but you want something in addition for renewals, 
as the loans for machinery have been granted for too long 
periods. The amount for reserve does not equal J per cent, per 
annum. Would that be the case with a commercial undertaking ? 
I am afraid there would be few companies which would be in 
a position of solvency for many years if that was the only 
provision they made. The electric undertaking is working to 
advantage at the present time, but the time will come when 
they will require to put their hands in their pockets ; and the 
Local Government Board will not grant loans for renewals of 
any portion of the plant, the first loans of which are not paid 
off. And it seems to me, looking at the size of the engines, that 
several of the smaller sets will be worth little more than scrap 
iron in a short time. 

The Chairman : Time now necessitates the closing of the 
debate, and I desire to make but very few remarks before asking 
the authors to reply. The terms obtained from the Tramway 
Company are abnormally favourable to the Corporation. With 
regard to the discussion, I think you will agree that it has been 
interesting and profitable — especially are we indebted to our 
visitors for their remarks. Mr. Midgley Taylor's remarks are 
especially valuable, being both scientific and practical. We are 
unfortunate in not having with us Mr. Szlumper, the author of 
the paper on the Railway Bridge, and Mr. Brier] y, the author of 
the paper on Richmond Footbridge, Lock and Weir. There are 

L 



146 REPLY TO DISCUSSION. 

points in those papers, and especially in the drawings, which 
will be of great interest to us, and which we shall appreciate 
more on viewing the works. I shall be particularly interested 
in noticing the vertical setting of the centrifugal pumps, because 
there is a difficulty in maintaining the bearings of pumps 
set in that position. 

The vote of thanks was unanimously accorded. 

Mr. C. H. Cooper, in reply, said : The question of economy in 
electrically driven pumps versus steam-driven pumps has to a 
great extent been answered by Mr. Midgley Taylor, who found 
in the case of Wilton and Stowmarket that electricity, even 
with as low an efficiency as 28 per cent., was the cheaper method 
of driving. In the case of Glasgow, where, by-the-by, electricity 
was not tried — only reported upon — steam was considered the 
cheaper. Glasgow is an instance of raising a large volume of 
sewage ten times that of Wimbledon, with a comparatively even 
flow, where the amount of storm water to be raised is only 52 
per cent, of the maximum sewage flow, whereas at Wimbledon 
we allow for pumping storm water equal to eight times the dry- 
weather flow when one of the large pumps is out of work. The 
dry- weather flow in the case of Glasgow does not vary more than 
33 per cent, from the mean, whereas in the case of Wimbledon 
the variation would be over 100 per cent. These figures I 
consider sufficient to show that no comparison should be made 
between an estimate of the cost of pumping at Glasgow and 
Wimbledon. 

Mr. Phipps has based his figures on a coal consumption of 
3£ lbs. per pump horse-power. If Mr. Phipps takes the coal 
consumption at the L.C.C. station, where large quantities of 
sewage are raised with much more even flows than can be 
obtained at Wimbledon, he will find coal consumptions varying 
from 5*6 to 7*3 lbs. of, coal per pump horse-power, which cost 
from 0*27<2. to 055d. for coal alone. To this must be added cost 
of stoking and interest and repayment on additional capital 
expended on steam plant. Such a coal consumption could 
never be got with a much smaller and more variable flow at 
Wimbledon, where the coal consumption would be at least 
10 lbs. per pump horse-power, equal to V2d. at 205. per ton, 
whereas electricity at {*$d. per unit, even with as low 
efficiency of 50 per cent., would cost only 117^., in addition to 
which the cost of stoking and additional cost of plant is saved. 



SEPLY to discussion. 147 

When the Wimbledon pumping plant was considered, the 
question of suction and water gas was fully gone into, and the 
liability of failure to get the additional units to work in time 
of storm was the great factor which weighed against suction and 
producer gas, and I may say that a large factory, which has its 
own gas plant, at Wimbledon would gladly have had electricity 
at Id. per unit rather than extend their plant, had the Council 
at the time supplied at that price. 

I have not the slightest doubt that the method of raising 
sewage in the future will be by electrically driven pumps. 

As regards the water capacity of our filters, this would, 
with the later filters constructed, be about one-third, but with 
those covered with soil would, no doubt, be much less. 

With respect to Mr. Snape's remarks, all the pumps I have 
erected are placed at such a level that they can be charged from 
the sewers and so worked automatically if desired. There is jio 
gearing or belting connected with the pumps, which revolve 
on the same shafts as the motors, both revolving at the same 
speed. 

The sludge deposited in the settling tanks is pressed into 
cake and burnt, as there is no sale for it. 

In answer to Mr. Liversedge, I am quite satisfied with our 
filter beds. What clogging takes place is confined to the first 
run bed and is removed with the top inch or so of material, 
which may be said to be renewed once in three years at a cost 
of about 301. per acre. The filtering material is burnt clay, 
costing about 2s. 4d. per cubic yard. 

Mr. Hay ward has more experience of tramways than I. So 
far we have found 6 inohes of concrete under the track sufficient. 

Mr. H. Tomlinson Lee : The first question was raised by 
Mr. Midgley Taylor, and referred to the cost of water softening. 
The figure quoted of %d. per 1000 gallons, I think, must be for 
reagents only. I charge in the item of 4d. per 1000 gallons 
about 1'id. for pumping the water, about |rf. for the reagent, and 
then the cost of repairs and renewals brings up the total to 
about 4d. Mr. Fhipps asked how many motors we have on the 
circuit. Approximately about 40, Of these I do not think there 
are more than six or seven above 5 horse-power, Mr. Snape asked 
a question as. to the Curtis turbine. The makers guaranteed a 
steam consumption of 19*7 at full load, 20*4 at three-quarter 
load, 22*7 at half load, 27*5 at quarter load, the average being 



148 REPLY TO DISCtfSSIOK. 

20*9. In view of the tests I have had taken, I can say that we 
come out so far about 5 per cent, higher. 

Mr. Snape : What is the output of the turbine ? 

Mr. Tomlinson Lee : One thousand kilowatts. The cost of 
street lighting was raised by Mr. Gamble, who considers a 
rate of 4d. in the pound as high. If he will refer to the rate in 
other boroughs, he will find the average is from 5d. to 8d. 
Wimbledon is one of the lowest. A question has been asked 
as to meter charges. Why the meter charges are made on the 
small consumer is due to this fact. We get an application from 
a consumer for an installation, and he consumes perhaps three 
units in the year. We have had to go to the expense of a 10J. 
capital outlay for the installation, and we must have some 
return on that outlay. If the consumer uses the units, all well 
and good ; but if he does not, then we must have something for 
it The charges in Wimbledon are equal, on the average, to any 
authority around London. With regard to street lighting 
and the profits of the electricity undertaking, if you refer to our 
accounts you will see we have a capital outlay of approximately 
168,000/., of which there is nearly 40,000/. for street lighting 
mains. These mains are not used for any other purpose than 
street lighting. If you take 40,000/. as being the outlay for 
street lighting, and remember that we only received for street 
lighting for the year 1907-8 5994/. 15s., you will see it does not 
leave us much margin. With reference to the earnings of the 
electricity undertaking, they work out at 10 per cent, on 
the capital outlay. 

The members had luncheon together at Wandle Park; and 
visits of inspection were paid to the Foster Arc Lamp Works, 
the central fire station, the isolation lcospital, and to Richmond, 
where the meiribers were received and welcomed by the Mayor 
(Councillor T. W. Stephens), and later a visit was made to the 
Richmond Railway Bridge. 



LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE DISTRICT 
MEETING. 

May 9, 1008. 

Held at the Town Hall, Eccles. 
Mr. J. Lobley, MJnst.CE., Past President, in the Chair, 



The Members were received by the Mayor (Alderman Nuttall), 
who offered them a hearty welcome to Eccles. 

The Chairman thanked the Mayor for his kind welcome. 

Mr. C. Brownridge was unanimously re-elected Honorary 
Secretary for the Lancashire and Cheshire District. 

SOME MUNICIPAL WORKS IN ECCLES. 

By THOMAS S. PICTON, 
Bobough Engineer and Surveyor. 

It is recorded that the village and parish of Eccles derived 
their names from the ancient church. Eccles is doubtless a 
short form of " Ecclesia." It can be assumed that the ancient 
village of Eccles was in existence in the days of the Norman 
Conquest. Gilbert, son of William de Notten, in the year 1120, 
gave a grant to the church of Eccles, to the clerks and their 
men. There is also remaining a quaint old thatched house in 
Church Street, supposed to have been built in the year 1094. 

One of the old Eoman roads passed through Eccles. Mr. 
Charles Boeder says, in his description of " Eoman Manchester," 
"That the road to Coccium (Wigan) was 13 yards wide and 
issued from the western gate. It was 17 Roman miles long, 



150 SOME MUNICIPAL WORKS IN ECCLES. 

and formed the tenth iter. According to Barrett it was a fine 
paved causeway. In 1832 it was discovered as a broad ridge 
of gravel and stones on the south side of Begent Eoad, in the 
first field on the west side of Ordsall farm. The road to Wigan 
and the estuaries were probably built by Agricola. ,, 

Mr. William Harrison's Archaeological Survey of Lancashire 
shows this Eoman road as passing through the north-east part 
of Ellesmere Park, Chorlt&n Fold, and Bocky Lane, then 
through Worsley, Tyldesley, and on to Wigan. The road has 
been exposed at Worsley and Tyldesley. Pre-Boman coins, 
canoes, and miscellaneous articles have been found near Eccles 
and Barton. At Eocles a canoe and also a hollowed log were 
dug out of the earth during the construction of the Manchester 
Ship Canal. The old Liverpool and Manchester Bailway passes 
thVough Eccles; also the famous Bridgewater Canal, which 
was constructed by the celebrated engineer, Mr. James Brindley, 
about the year 1754. 

During the construction of the Liverpool and Manchester 
Bailway Mr. George Stephenson predicted that in ten years 
there would not be a single boat on the Bridgewater Canal. 
That opinion has not proved correct ; to-day it is extensively 
used by the Manchester Ship Canal undertakings; and its 
utility is generally acknowledged. 

A portion of the Barton Aqueduct was removed when the 
Ship Canal was constructed, but the Corporation decided to 
retain one of the arches in remembrance of Mr. Brindley's 
work. This arch has been re-erected near to the original 
position in Barton Lane. 

Mr. James Nasmyth, the inventor of the steam hammer, had 
his engineering works at Patricroft. The Corporation placing 
the steam hammer in a prominent position on their coat of 
arms on account of this invention. 

The geological formation of the district consists partly of 
the new red sandstone, and partly of the coal measures. The 
regular stratification having generally an alluvial covering 
consisting of boulder clay, marl, gravel, sand, or the varying 
mixtures of these. Quick-sands and peat patches are very 
frequently met with in the borough, to the detriment of 
builders and contractors. The strata has been subjected to 
geological disturbance. Although Eccles is not large in area, 
faults abound ; in the course of a mile, four or five faults occur. 



SOME MUNICIPAL WORKS IN ECCLES. 151 

Near Monton Green, coal crops up to within six feet of the 
surface, being overlaid to that depth by boulder clay. 

Eccles lies in the Manchester meteorological zone. The 
numerous wet days in the year, and the similarity of the 
substratum, subjects both to fogs and mists, those of Eccles 
being free from the pollutions of the Manchester fogs. 

General Statistics. 

At the formation of the Local Board, in 1851, the number of 
houses was 1839 ; population, 9730 ; death-rate, 22*64 per 
1000. The Charter of Incorporation was granted in May 
1892. The borough is divided into six wards* The area, 
2008 acres. The population in 1901 was 34,361, now estimated 
at about 39,000 ; the number of houses, 7664. Death-rate in 
1907, 15 per 1000. Rateable value, 170,0002. Poor rate, 3a. Ad. ; 
district rate, 3$. 7d. in the 11. ; and a Id. per 1/. assessment 
realises 625/. Debt, 258,000Z. The average annual rainfall 
during the last ten years is 31*345 inches. The consumption of 
water can be taken at 28 gallons per head per day on the 
population. 

Public Roads. 

The total mileage of the public highways in the borough is 
25 miles 4 furlongs 53 yards, of which 4 miles 4 furlongs 
170 yards are main roads and 5 miles 3 furlongs 177 yards are 
secondary roads. These particulars do not include 4£ miles which 
ate on the Earl of Ellesmere's estate, and which are considered as 
private roads, kept in repair by the Earl. These roads are 
constructed of slag macadam, costing about Is. Gd. per square 
yard. 

The county authorities contribute 1455Z. per annum for the 
maintenance and scavenging of the main roads, and 4252. per 
annum for the secondary roads, on the understanding that the 
Council contributes a similar sum. The remaining 15 miles 
3 furlongs 146 yards of " other roads " are maintained out of the 
rates, the average amount during the last five years being 
800Z. per annum. 

Thirty years ago many of the public streets were paved with 
6-inch grit setts on a foundation of cinders, the joints being 
filled in with gravel. Owing to the heavy and continuous 



152 SOME MUNICIPAL WORKS IN ECCLES, 

traffic that use the highways at the present time the grit sett is 
not proving. a suitable material. The main and secondary roads 
are paved with 3-inch by 6-inch granite setts, principally from 
the Welsh quarries. Norway granite setts have been laid down 
with advantage. Welsh setts, 24*. per ton, Norway, 28s. per 
ton, delivered at Eccles. 

There are only 3 miles, or about 32,584 square yards, of 
granite macadam roads in the borough, maintained out of 
the rates. 

Tab Macadam Koads. 

The Council has been favourably impressed with the use of 
tar macadam for certain classes of streets ; those which are cul- 
de-sacs, and those which are used by the light vehicular traffic. 

Up to the present time twenty-two streets have been laid 
down with tarred limestone macadam. The first two, being cul-de- 
sac streets, were constructed in August, 1895. They are in good 
condition at the present time, and have had no money spent on 
them for repairs. " Stanley Avenue " and " Cavendish Grove " 
were constructed under contract. The whole thickness of this 
material when completed is 6 inches, made up of the following 
gauges : 2&-inch gauge equals 3 inches, l£-inch equals 2 inches, 
and f-inch equals 1 inch thick. This tarred limestone was laid 
on a foundation of clinkers, cinders, or brick-bats, 9 inches 
thick. 

The Park. 

The cost, including excavation and foundation, was is. 7jrf. 
per square yard. " The Park " was constructed in August, 1897. 
The cost of this street was 5s. 4d. per square yard. Three years 
after it had to be extensively repaired. The total area of the 
carriageway is 1980 square yards, and the area of the repairs' 
1238 square yards. The total cost was 142/. 16*. 6(2., or 2s. 3£<i. 
per square yard. Some repairs were done during 1904-5, 
amounting to 5/. 4s. 8d. Since construction this road has cost 
2\d, per square yard per annum for maintenance. " Paradise 
Street " was constructed in the summer of 1897, cost 4s. 9d. per 
square yard. Four years after, the Northern Quarries Co., 
Silverdale, were engaged to re-coat the street with 1^-inch 
gauge, and on the top i-inch and f-inch mixed tarred limestone. 

Materials, 88/. 6*. 3d., labour, 56/. 10s. lOrf. Total cost, 



SOME MUNICIPAL WORKS IN ECCLES. 153 

144/. 17 s. Id. Area of the carriageway, 1176 square yards. 
Some repairs were done in 1905 amounting to 21. 19s. 5d. 
Since construction this street has cost 3d. per square yard per 
annum for maintenance. " Gleaves Koad ," constructed during 
the summer of 1897, cost 4s. lOd. per square yard. The surface 
of this road began to break up after four years' wear. The 
Author tried the following experiment : the surface of the road 
was hacked and well swept, hot prepared tar well brushed on, and 
then a coating of f -inch and £-inch dry limestone chippings spread 
on the tar. The steam roller was kept on this road continually 
until a good solid surface was obtained. Area of the carriageway 
is 1164 square yards. The cost of the above repairs amounted 
to 37/. 17s. 4d., equal to 7£d. per square yard. A little repair was 
done during 1906, amounting to 1/. 10s. Since construction 
this road has cost fd. per square yard per annum for main- 
tenance. 

Several other tar macadam streets in the borough were 
constructed by Corporation workmen, the material being 
|r prepared in a shed specially erected for the purpose. The work 

! done in this way is proving satisfactory. It is now considered 

I more advantageous to obtain the tarred limestone from a reputed 

firm, ready prepared for putting on to the street. Also, that 
instead of a cinder foundation, to put in a foundation of hand- 
packed broken rubble, 9 inches in thickness, the interstices being 
filled in with rubble scapplings, and this foundation well steam - 
rolled before the tarred stone is put on. The cost under this 
specification works out as follows: Foundation, Is. 5%d., and 
tarred stone 4s. 5d. per square yard. After the top coat is 
finished the street is properly barricaded for over a week, so 
that the surface can have an opportunity of setting hard before 
any kind of vehicular traffic uses the carriageway. Insisting 
upon closing the streets has given excellent results. 

Footpaths. 

The late Local Board constructed a great number of the foot- 
paths in the district with 15-inch by 4-inch edging, and 12-inch 
by 8-inch kerbs, forming the footpaths with cinders, paving 
tiles, etc. These materials are not proving satisfactory, the 
Council is gradually altering these footways by substituting 
2£-inch concrete flags for the tiles, etc. The footpaths to all 



•> tef ittxicipal works nr eccues. 



^ ij.^r constructed with 12-inch by 8-inch kerb?, 

*-m2KCe Sags, on a bed of 4 inches of cinders and 

stojiL the flags having a 6-inch bond wherem 

*:.s jl^ applies to all private street improvement 



Carriageways. 

Particulars of Pavements. 

* 'rit.ittion of the paving in the streets mentioned Mov 
<<•£ of 9-inch cinders and three inches of gravel, and 
^cnsolidated with a ten-ton steam roller. 

6" Garr Setts. 



stfs I'Msar 



Prime cost per 

square yanl, 

including 

foundation. 



sa^ ~ ! 1897 

S*** _ 1897 

&»1 ... 1898 

I 




3" x 6" Welsh Granite Setts. 



X . a* St*d ... 
s . ^*Read 



1898 
1898 
1898 
1898 



2576 
2520 
2632 
4392 



11 

11 

11 

11 



Cost per tquit 

yard pef * r rru 

for repairs 



d. 
0-BQ 

0*44) 
0-10 
0-08 






3" x 6" Norwegian Gbakite Setts. 



1 905-06 
1905 



370 
1260 



9 7 
9 



V^vc<W Ro*d„ 



1901-05 



6" FfcAa Book Fatikg. 
9720 '/^Ib^ 



~L 



N^w^- The exeeasiye amount fo 
ittvKwe tafclfte between Manchester and 



SOME MUNICIPAL WORKS IK KCCLES. 



155 




I I & 



CO 

a* 



I i 



Cft 

ei 






%i 



51 I I 



■a 



•sir s 



or o> 



<** *« « 

IH O M 



£>» 



8 2 S S 8 



1 5 



► 
2 
o 

i 



s 

g © 



154 



SOME MUNICIPAL WORKS IK ECCLES. 



new streets are now constructed with 12-inch by 8-inch kerbs, 
and 2 J -inch concrete flags, on a bed of 4 inches of cinders and 
2 inches of sand, the flags having a 6-inch bond wherever 
possible. This also applies to all private street improvement 
works. 



Carriageways. 

Particulars of Pavements. 

The foundation of the paving in the streets mentioned below 
is composed of 9-inch cinders and three inches of gravel, and 
properly consolidated with a ten-ton steam roller. 

6" Gbit Setts. 



Name of street. 



Cannon Street 
Green Street 
Oxford Street 
Pleasant Road 



Date when 
completed. 



1897 
1897 
1897 
1898 



Area of carriage- Prime «*■* JR" 

w ^a n ir e Tsaf 



1986 
2028 



1800 



t. d. 

5 1 

5 2 

5 2 

5 6 



Cost per square 

yard per annum 

for repairs. 



d. 
0*80 
0-40 
0-10 
0*08 



3" x 6" Welsh Granite Setts. 



Albert Street ... 
Clarendon Road... 
Monton Road ... 
Wellington Road 



1898 
1898 
1898 
1898 



2576 
2520 



4392 



11 
11 
11 
11 



Chnroh Street 
Pool Street 



3" x 6" Norwegian Granite Setts. 



1905-06 
1905 



370 
1260 



9 7 
9 



Liverpool Road , 



6" Flag Rook Patiho. 
1901-05 1 9720 I 6 6 



H 



Note. — The excessive amount for repairs per annum is due to the heavy 
motor traffic between Manchester nnd Liverpool. 



SOME MUNICIPAL WORKS IN ECCLES, 



153 



HI 



* I 



i I * 



09 



i i 



e 

3 

I 

00 



fr3 



3 



Us 



1* 

p 



§1 



HO 




S3J 



'ti 



II 



^ CO CO 



Pi 

111 



>« © © 

W O. iH 









fi 



$ 



CO CM 
^ CM 



s s s 

*■ * § 



a 

5 



2 



I 



s 



6 5 



« 0Q 

11 



§ 

d 



2 
o 

§ 

I 
« 05 a 

£ S 6 



04 



156 



SOME MUNICIPAL WORKS IN ECCLKS. 



Footways. 
Particulars of Concrete and Natural Flags. 

The foundation of the footways consists of 4 inches of 
cinders, and 2 inches screened gravel. 

The concrete flags are 2£ inches in thickness, and the 
natural flags 3 inches in thickness. 



Ooncbbte Flags. 



Name of street. 


Date when 
completed. 


Area of footway 
la square yards. 


Prime cost per 

square yard, 

including 

foundation. 


Cost per square 

yard per annum 

for repairs. 


Boardman Street 
Cawdor Street ... 
Clarendon Boad 
Wellington Boad 


1895 

1902-07 

1906 

1900 


751 

1768 

394 

459 


#. d. 

4 6 

5 5 
4 3 
4 6 


d. 
03 


Alexandra Boad 
Cannon Street ... 
Oxford Street ... 
Pleasant Boad ... 


1897 
1897 
1896 
1898 


Natural Flag 

804 

904 

1099 

848 


fl.' 

5 3 
5 4 
5 1 
5 9 


002 



Tramways. 

The Corporation own the electric tramways in the borough. 
The late Board in 1877 constructed tramways for horse traction, 
costing 17,961/. These lines were leased to the Manchester 
Carriage Co. In 1901 the Council obtained Parliamentary 
powers to reconstruct the tramways for electric traction. By 
agreement, these lines have been leased to the Salford Corpora- 
tion for a term of thirty-five years at an annual rental of 10 
per cent, oh the total cost, the Eccles Corporation undertaking 
the maintenance. The tramways cost 69,647/. There are 
2 miles 7 furlongs 6*33 chains of double track, and 2 miles 
1 furlong 3*20 chains of single track. The gauge is 4 feet 
8J inches. The steel rails are in 60-feet lengths, 7 inches by 
7 inches, weight 102 lbs. per yard, laid on a bed of concrete 



SOME MUNICIPAL WORKS IN ECOLES. 157 

6 inches thick. Fish-plates, weight 73£ lbs. per pair, each 
27 inches long. Sole plate, weight 43 £ lbs., 8 inches by £ inch 
by 27 inches long. Tie-bars, section 2 inches by J inch, 
notched at one end and screwed at the other, £ inch diameter, 
and 4£ inches long, with two nuts and two washers to each. 
The maximum gradient is 1 in 20, and the sharpest curve is 
50 feet radius. The feeder cables are drawn in Doulton's 
conduits, and for the return system the rails are bonded with 
two No. 0000 Chicago bonds. The trolley wires are double 
throughout the entire system, and made of hard drawn copper, 
0*4 inch in diameter. The poles are set 6 feet in the ground, 
and the base surrounded with 12 inches of concrete. A portion 
of the system was opened for traffic on October 4, 1902, and 
the last section on June 1, 1905. The maintenance of the 
permanent ,way and the overhead equipment up to date has 
cost 1497/. 165. lOd. 

The construction of ' the tramways necessitated many 
important street widenings and improvements, costing 21,480/. 
These included a new lattice girder bridge and approach roads 
at Monton Green, in lieu of a very dangerous stone bridge, 
spanning the canal at right angles. . . 



Scavenging. 

In 1893 the scavenging department employed eight men, 
and hired daily two horses and carts. ^ The area of the roads 
at that time was : Main roads, 65,026 square yards ; secondary 
roads, 57,947 square yards; and other roads, 55,455 square 
yards ; annual cost, 450/. The cleansing and scavenging 
departments and the town's yard depfit are under the manage- 
ment of Mr. C. W. Laskey, Chief Sanitary Inspector, who has 
supplied the following information as to the cost of cleansing 
the highways during 1907 : Eighty-one loads of sand were 
used on the streets, 2621 loads of water used, 17,060 gullies 
cleansed, 1023 manhole dirt-boxes cleansed, 1623 cart loads 
and 1658 hand-cart loads of refuse removed. The cost being, 
for manual labour, 768/. 12s. 5d. ; team labour, 578/. 12s. bd. 
The area of the roads at the present time is, main roads, 
74,196 square yards; secondary roads, 79,183 square yards; 
and other roads, 226,027 square yards. There are ten men 



158 SOME MUNICIPAL WOBKS IN EOCLES. 

employed in this department. Foreman's wages, 32s. per 
week ; sweepers, 24s. per week ; all overtime work is paid for. 
The men get six days' holiday per annum. They are provided 
with overcoats every alternate year, and with trousers, hats, 
and leggings annually. 

The Town Dep6t. 

In 1893-4 the Council considered the advisability of pro- 
viding a depot and their own horses, carts, and other materials 
for the better working of the several departments, it being 
found that the hiring of team labour was very unsatisfactory. 
A suitable site was purchased, containing 6470 square yards 
of land. Mr. A. C. Turley, then Borough Surveyor, prepared 
the necessary plans and estimate, as follows : — 



Excavating and draining 


... 


... 


£ 
... 500 


Stabling for twenty horses 


... 


• •• 


... 1100 


Mason's shed and mess-room 


... 


... 


... 120 


Men's latrines 


»•• 


... 


... 100 


Cement-stores 


... 


... 


... 150 


Smithy and shoeing-forge 


... 


... 


... 230 


Provender-stores ... ... 


••• 


... 


... 700 


Large cartshed ... ... 


... 


... 


... 440 


Foreman's cottage ... 


... 


... 


... 600 


Weighing-machine office ... 


... 


... 


... 70 


Entrance gates 


... 


... 


... 40 


Flagging, paving, and kerbing 


... 


••• 


... 800 


Water and gas mains 


... 


... 


... 270 


Machinery 


... 


... 


... jOO 


Contingencies * 


... 


»•• 


... 50 



Total ... £5670 

This scheme was completed in the early part of 1898, at a 
total cost of 5660/. The dep6t is situated off Liverpool Road, 
a little distance beyond Fatricroft Bridge. At the entrance to 
the yard is placed a public weighing machine and office. All 
goods entering or leaving the yard are here weighed and 
recorded. Near the entrance there is a vacant piece of land, on 
which is erected a temporary fire station. Close to the fire 
station is the horse-keeper's house, and on the opposite side is 
the men's mess-room and mason's shed. Along the south side 
of the yard are placed stables for twenty horses, two loose 
boxes, harness-room, and horse-cloth drying-room. On the 



SOME MUNICIPAL WORKS IN ECCLES. 159 

west side is placed the engine-room, provender-mixing room, 
a shed for carts belonging to the highways department, and 
also for the storage of materials. Above these are the pro- 
vender-stores and the machinery for chopping and crushing the 
fodder. On the north side is a large cartshed, used by the 
cleansing and scavenging departments, and on the east side are 
the smithy, wheelwright's shop, cement and other stores. At 
present the wheelwright's shop and smithy are not used for the 
purpose for which they were erected, owing to the fact that the 
annual cost of repairs to implements, tools, etc., does not 
warrant the permanent employ of men for these trades. 
Latrines for the men are provided. The store-yard is princi- 
pally used for the deposit of setts, cinders, gravel, and macadam, 
etc., used by the highways department. Three departments 
use the yard — the cleansing, highways, and watch committees. 
The two latter contribute 50/. and 40/. per annum respectively 
for the use of the yard. The highways committee hire team 
labour from the cleansing committee, the rate being 10s. 6d. 
per day for horse and driver. The working of the dep&t has 
proved very successful. Eighteen horses are owned by the 
committee. These are depreciated year by year; they now 
represent an average value of 261. 14s. per horse. 

Provender account for half-year ending March 31, 1907 : — 



ft. d. 


£ ft. 


d. 


OatB, 489 bushels, average 2 11 J per bushel ... 


... 71 18 


4 


Bran, 1385 scores, „ 1 1) per score 


... 76 6 


1 


Clover, 2(578 stones, „ 6 j per stone 


... C8 17 


1 


Straw, 1554 stones „ 3} per stono 


... 21 17 





Linseed • 


... 1 6 


G 


Beans 


18 





Indian corn 


12 





Sundries • 


... 5 6 






Total ... £247 1 

Four hundred and twenty-two weeks' keep of horses 
average lis. 8Jd. per hor3C per week. 

Wages of workmen: Horsekeeper, 35s. per week, with 
house, coal, and light ; carters, cleansing department, 27s. per 
week ; scavenging department, 27s. per week ; highways depart- 
ment, 26s. per week. Cleansing department, foreman, 29s. per 
week; ash-pit men, 27s. per week; ash-bin men, 26s. per 
week. In 1903 the Corporation erected, adjoining the town 



. I 



160 SOME MUNICIPAL WORKS IN ECCLES. 

depdt buildings, a public mortuary, 16 feet 3 inches long by 
13 feet wide and 12 feet 6 inches high, containing two 
mortuary tables, at a cost of 222/. 85. 9d. 



Sewers. 

In 1851 the drainage arrangements of the district were so 
defective that Robert Bawlinson, Esq., held a Government 
inquiry on the subject, and he recommended the formation of 
the Local Board for the purposes of the Public Health Act, 
1848. From 1851 to 1874 the district was properly drained. 
The necessary plans and sections included a 4-feet by 4-feet 
main outfall brick sewer and several 3-feet circular brick 
sewers; making junctions with these trunk sewers are con- 
duits 24 inches, 18 inches, 15 inches, 12 inches, and 9 inches 
in diameter. The sewer in Bocky Lane is the greatest in depth, 
being 51 feet below the surface. There are about 43 miles 
of public sewers in the borough. During the last eight years 
the Author has used, with great success, 12-ijich, 9-inch, and 
6-inch ramp junctions, when constructing shallow sewers, 
having their outlets into deep sewers. Soon after incorporation 
Mr. Arthur C. Turley, A.M.I.C.E. (now City Surveyor, Canter- 
bury), reported strongly upon the advisability of the Corporation 
dealing effectively with storm water. Many complaints of 
flooding in the low-lying parts of the borough were brought 
before the notice of the Committee, The volume of water 
coming down to the lower districts, during heavy rainfall, was 
more than the sewers could discharge ; ad well as putting extra 
work on the pump engines at the Sewage Farm. In 1896 Mr. 
Turley prepared several schemes dealing with this question ; 
eventually sanction was obtained for all the proposed works to 
be carried out. In 1897 a 3-feet by 2-feet sewer was constructed 
in Liverpool Boad. It is 746 yards in length and an average 
depth of 16 feet 3 inches. It has nine manholes built on it for 
inspection purposes. It was constructed throughout in tunnel. 
The invert is formed with Doulton's stoneware invert blocks, 
sides of sewer are constructed with Staffordshire blue bricks. 
Arch of sewer with a 4£-inch ring of pressed radiated engineer- 
ing bricks, backed with 4£-inch cement concrete. At the 
summit an overflow weir has been fixed, which is so arranged 



:n 



ANT 



=c=l 



S I 



tr^ai 



;H 



C 1 




PLATE N? 



^t\d "EVcVal\on 



To face page 160. 



SOME MUNICIPAL WOBKS IN ECCLEa. 16l 

that when the 18-inch shallow main sewer from Eccles is 
flowing more than two-thirds full, the excess can pass over the 
weir into the new 3-feet by 2-feet sewer. This arrangement will 
prevent the backing-up of sewage taking place in flood times 
up the branch drains connected with the 18-inch pipe sewer 
above mentioned. This new sewer cost 2015/. 0$. 9d. The 
following are the full particulars of the storm-water scheme. 
A 3-feet by 2-feet intercepting sewer constructed along the 
south side of the borough in close proximity to the Manchester 
Ship Canal, having its outlet into the 3-feet circular sewer in 
Barton Lane. It is 1768 yards in length, the greatest depth 
being 24 feet; 740 lineal yards was tunnelled through hard 
red sandstone rock. There are 27 manholes and lampholes for 
ventilation and inspection purposes. The construction of this 
sewer was as follows: Doulton's stoneware invert blocks, 
4J-inch blue bricks lining up to the springing of the arch, 
backed with 4£ inches of cement concrete. The remainder of 
the sewer being 4£-inch stock radiating brickwork in the 
tunnel portion, and 9-inch brickwork in two rings for that 
which was constructed in open cutting. All brickwork was set 
in cement mortar. This intercepting sewer is connected to 
the storm overflow conduit which discharges its waters into 
the Ship Canal. The total cost was 3941/. 0s. lOd. A 
duplicate 3-feet 3-inch circular sewer in Liverpool Eoad from 
New Lane to Tindall Street is 377 yards in length, of an average 
depth of 19 feet. This new sewer was necessary by reason of 
two 3-feet 3-inch circular sewers joining at the junction of 
New Lane with Liverpool Eoad. • The sewer in New Lane was 
disconnected and continued to the street above named. This 
sewer was constructed with 9-inch stock radiating brickwork 
in two rings, set in cement mortar, for the top half of the sewer, 
and one ring of radiating blue bricks for the bottom half, laid 
on a bed of cement concrete, 4 feet 9 inches by 2 feet 6 inches. 
Four ordinary manholes and lampholes have been built, but 
two special manholes were built on this sewer. The first 
chamber being 29 feet 6 inches long by 9 feet 2 inches wide 
and 11 feet 6 inches high from the invert, inside measurements. 
The walls are 14 inches in thickness, the inside being faced 
with stock engineering bricks and backed with common. The 
benching is composed of cement concrete, 6 to 1, 3 feet 6 
inches thick. The roof is arched over with three rings of 

M 



162 SOME MUNICIPAL WORKS IN ECOLES. 

stock radiated brickwork, set in cement mortar. The second 
special manhole opposite Tindall Street is 17 feet long by 
15 feet 3 inches wide and 10 feet high from the invert, inside 
measurement, the materials for the construction of this man- 
hole described as above. The roof of this chamber is con- 
structed with 6-inch stone landings resting on 9-inch by 7-inch 
*nd 4-inch by 3-inch rolled steel joists. In this chamber is 
fixed an overflow sill, 11 feet 9 inches by 1 foot 2 inches by 
9 inches at the proper level connected with the 4-feet by 3-feet 
storm-water overflow, which discharges into Salt Eye Brook* 
The cost of this sewer was 2121/. 6s. 3d. A 4-feet by 3-feet 
storm-water overflow is constructed from the 3-feet 3-inch 
circular sewer near the manhole opposite. Tindall Street, to 
discharge into the brook above mentioned. This overflow is 
447 yards in length and constructed as follows : 4 J-inch blue 
brick inverts and sides, with 9-inch stock radiated brickwork 
on the top, set in cement mortar and encased in cement con- 
crete. Two manholes are built on this overflow for ventilation 
and inspection purposes. It cost 1778/. 19s. 4d. A 4-feet by 
2-feet 9-inch storm-water overflow is constructed from the 
3-feet 3-inch circular sewer in Barton Lane opposite Fountain 
Street, to discharge into the Manchester Ship Canal. The 
materials of construction similar to overflow in Tindall Street. 
It is 180 yards in length, and has four manholes built on it. 
This overflow cost 578/. 15s. 8d. There are also two small 
overflows in Peel Green Road. A 9-inch pipe receiving sur- 
face water and a 5-feet by 1-foot culvert from Peel Green Road 
sewer. They discharge into the Manchester Ship Canal, and 
cost 300/. The whole of these storm-water overflows were 
completed in 1898. Since that date we have had many heavy 
thunderstorms, frequently registering l£ inch to 2 inches of 
rainfall within the twenty-four hours. 

The Author desires to state that Mr. Turley's scheme has 
proved entirely successful, for in the districts that were previously 
affected no complaints whatever have been received as to cellar 
flooding. 

The Sewage Farm. 

The scheme prepared was to treat the sewage by precipita- 
tion in tanks and subsequently purification upon specially 



SOME MUNICIPAL WORKS IN ECCLES. 163 

prepared land. The quality of the land purchased was suitable 
for filtration purposes, being principally sand and gravel. It 
was also well situated and the configuration of the land generally 
favourable, though the pumping of the sewage daily would be 
an absolute necessity. 

In 1893 the dry-^weather flow of sewage was 925,000 
gallons. The price for 40 acres of land was 6000Z., the remain- 
ing area at a chief rent of 10L per annum per acre. The 
Corporation established Farm Buildings upon their .works, to 
effect a more economical management, for by providing them 
they would be able to keep their own horses for working upon 
the farm, and cows for dairy purposes. 

On the completion of the works in 1895, Mr. G. W. Willis 
was appointed Sewage Farm Manager, and he has kindly 
supplied the Author with the following information. 



Description of the Works. 

The catch pit is 20 feet long by 8 feet wide, having an 
inclined floor, and is provided with a screen fixed the full width, 
having taper bars £ inch apart. The screen is cleansed by 
means of scrapers of two rows of steel teeth, riveted to cross 
bars and fitted between the bars of the screen. 

The pump well is 25 feet long and 20 feet wide, and is 
provided with sump to ensure the suction and delivery of 
sewage containing any matter which can pass through the 
screen. The pump well and catch pit are covered in with a 
concrete roof; but manholes are provided. The sewage is 
raised into the discharging basin, through 20-inch pipes from 
the welL The basin is 12 feet in diameter, and contains the 
bell-mouth, 6 feet in diameter. This is fitted to the delivery 
pipes into which the sewage is forced, and gently overflows its 
sides. The conduits to the detritus tanks are 3 feet wide, and 
are coterminous in length with those tanks. They are provided 
with openings at uniform distances. Penstocks are also fixed 
admitting sewage into the tanks as desired. The detritus tanks 
are in duplicate, each 30 feet by 30 feet, 6 feet deep at the top side 
and 8 feet at the lower side. Each tank has an equal number 
of cast-iron trapped outlets. The settling tanks are five in 
number, two, 120 feet by 60 feet, two, 135 feet by 60 feet, and one, 



164 SOME MUNICIPAL WORKS IN BCCLES. 

135 feet by 22 feet. All fed from a conduit 4 feet wide. Each 
settling tank is divided into three parts by means of cross walls 
and sills for preventing the flowing of solid matters in the 
sewage. Each tank is 7 feet deep at the sides, and 8 feet in 
the centre. The distributing troughs are 2 feet 6 inches wide, 
designed with special openings which enables the flowing of 
sewage to be uniform. The settling tanks can be worked either 
on the intermittent or continuous flow system. By the latter 
method it is possible to irrigate any plot of land on the farm, 
and when necessary to sludge the tanks they can be worked on 
the intermittent flow system. Their total capacity is 1,500,000 
gallons. Cement concrete has been used in the construction of 
the foundations, floors, etc., of the tanks, well, etc. The floors 
floated and finished smooth, the walls faced with blue bricks 
set in cement mortar, coping, granite concrete. The carriers 
consist of glazed stoneware socketed pipes, from 18 inches to 
24 inches diameter, having joints made with caulked gaskin 
and cement The distributing chambers are 35 in number. 
Each chamber is 3 feet 9 inches square, and is constructed with 
a concrete floor and foundation, brick walls and granite concrete 
coping. The effluent passes through a short length of iron 
pipe and falls into the main grip made in the land. The farm 
is divided into 28 plots. The highest being 16 feet above the 
lowest. They vary from £ to 4£ acres in extent, and are so 
arranged that any class of crops can be cultivated. The land 
is drained with seconds earthenware pipes, laid from 3 feet 
6 inches to 5 feet in depth, at fixed distances apart, according 
to the quality of the sub-soil. They are laid in herring-bone 
manner, and so arranged that the tank effluent cannot pass into 
them before it has flowed on to and through the land. Aerating 
shafts of 6-inch vertical pipes are provided to each plot. The 
farm is laid out chiefly for intermittent downward filtration 
with broad irrigation; succulent crops, such as Italian rye grass, 
cabbage, and mangold wurzel, are grown with much success. 
The nature of the sewage is domestic with trade refuse, which 
is about 20 to 25 per cent, manufacturers', bleachers' and dyers' 
refuse waters, the quantity per day being about 400,000 gallons. 
In most cases it is treated first on the manufacturers 9 premises. 
During 1907 the dry-weather flow of sewage amounted to 
1,500,000 gallons per day. The sludge deposited in the tanks 
flows into pipes which convey it to be discharged by gravitation 



SOME MUNICIPAL. WORKS IN ECCLES. 165 

to the sludge beds ; these are formed of porous materials, 2 feet 
6 inches in depth, coarse cinders and clinkers at the bottom 
and fine cinders at the top. The outfall sewer below the catch 
pit is now utilised as a storm overflow. A sill being con- 
structed in it and to come into operation when the sewage is 
beyond eight times the ordinary flow. Storm-water filters 
are being constructed 3 feet in depth, main discharge pipes 
18 inches to 12 inches in diameter, subsidiary drains, 6 inches 
to 4 inches, laid 8 feet apart. The filtering media, coarse 
clinker from the destructors, constructed as streaming filters, 
capacity 500 gallons per square yard per day. The area of the 
contact filter beds when completed will be 14,500 square yards, 
capacity 50 gallons per square yard. The beds are filled three 
times daily and equal to dealing with 2,175,000 gallons per 
day. The contact beds average 3 feet in depth, with main 
discharge pipes 12 inches to 9 inches diameter, subsidiary drains, 
4 inch diameter, 8 feet apart, the walls, etc., are constructed of 
concrete. Filtering media is crushed and graded clinkers. 
Clinkers passing over 1 J-inch ring mesh is laid to a depth of 
18 inches, graded upwards to clinker passing £-inch ring mesh 
and rejected by i-inch mesh. 



Buildings and Machinery. 

The buildings are of a substantial and simple character, and 
consist of a manager's house, and machinery buildings, the latter 
consist of destructors, boiler-house, engine and pump house, tool- 
house, chimney, etc. The chimney is octagonal in shape and 
90 feet high. The walls are faced with buff bricks. The farm 
buildings consist of stabling for 6 horses, cowsheds for 36 head 
of cattle, loose box, cartsheds, food stores, and milk-house. The 
machinery consists of 2 destructors, boilers, pumps, clinker- 
crushing plant, etc. Two boilers of the Lancashire type, each 
28 feet long and 7 feet diameter, 135 lbs. pressure, heating 
surface 817*02 square feet. Three engines, 4 pumps, dynamos, 
etc., are provided. Two of the engines are of the horizontal 
pattern, high pressure, 25 I.H.P., and 1 inverted engine 95 
B.H.P., 2 crank compound condensing enclosed type with forced 
lubrication. The pumps are of the centrifugal type — two 9-inch 
and two 10-inch. Each 9-inch pump will raise 90,000 gallons 



166 80ME MUNICIPAL WORKS IN SCCUE8. 

of sewage 26 feet high in one hour, and the 10-inch pump 
120,000 gallons. The dynamo, 7 K.W. capacity, is direct driven 
by single crank inverted engine. 



Eefuse Destructor. 

The refuse destructor is a " Simplex " twin cell type. Each 
unit is equal to a 30-ton disposal of ordinary refuse every 
24 hours with a 10 per cent margin. The residue is a hard 
vitreous clinker about 33 per cent of the total quantity of 
refuse destroyed. The evaporation in the boilers is equal to 
1*33 lbs. of water, per pound of refuse destroyed, the water 
passing into the boilers at 212 degrees Fahrenheit The 
destructors, which commenced firing operations April 1, 1904, 
are worked continuously, destroying practically the whole of 
the refuse of the borough. The steam required to drive the 
pumping engines and other machinery is evaporated by the 
refuse. The average quantity of refuse burnt per week of 
seven working days is 210 tons. The annual costs in con- 
nection with the destructor, furnacemen, and flue cleaning, 
520Z. The repair and maintenance of the furnaces last year 
was 16/. 0s. lOd. For tools, etc., 251. per annum. Capital 
charges, etc, 3081. per annum. The income is a saving in coal 
of 810/. per annum. Annual income for the sale of clinker for 
bacteria beds, 262/. Bye-products, 51. per annum. 



Clinker Crushing Plant. 

This plant consists of clinker mill with a capacity of 4 tons 
per hour, elevator, revolving screen, shoots, mortar mill, etc., 
driven by vertical inverted engine fixed in engine-room. The 
crushing and delivery of the clinkers to the bacteria beds costs 
about lOd. per ton. 

Cost of Sewage Works. 

Pump well, catch pit, detritus and settling tanks, conduits, 
carriers, contact beds, storm-water filter, and the draining, 
forming and levelling the land, buildings for boilers, engines, 
pumps, etc., boilers, engines, pumps, and other machinery, 



SOME MUNICIPAL WOBKS IN ECCLES. 167 

boundary wall and gates, farm buildings, consisting of cow- 
sheds, stables, barn and cartshed, weigh-house and machine, 
27,436/. 

Building for destructors, inclined roadway, destructors, 
clinker-crushing plant, mortar mill, etc., 44731. 

Building for disinfector, disinfector machine, bedding 
removal van, etc., 606/. 

The annual charge upon the rates, interest and sinking fund, 
is 2090/., or a rate of 3*55rf. The annual charge for working 
expenses of destructors, pumping station, farm operations, and 
rent is 2228/., or a rate of 3'86d. Total, 7'4d. 



Gas, Water, and Electricity. 

The gas is supplied by the Salford Corporation, who laid 
down the first 8-inch main in 1854, along Gilda Brook Road, 
Church Street, Liverpool Road to Pfltricroft. Price at that 
time 5$. per 1000 cubic feet. At the present time it is 2s. lOd. 
per 1000 cubic feet. 

The water is supplied by the Manchester Corporation, from 
their reservoir at Gorton. They commenced this supply in 
1862 by means of a 7-inch trunk main. The diameter of the 
distributing mains is 3 inches, 4 inches, and 5 inches. 

The electricity station in Cawdor Street is under the 
management of Mr. H. W. Angus, electrical engineer. The 
station was first erected in 1898, but since that date additions 
have been added. The system is single-phase, alternate 
current at 2000 volts, 200 volts at consumer's terminals. 
Electricity for working the tramways in the borough is 
generated at this station. The total cost when fully equipped 
will be 40,037/. 



Workmen's Dwellings. 

In 1896 the Corporation commenced a scheme for demolish- 
ing nearly 140 insanitary houses, in close proximity to the 
Town Hall. The purchase of these properties cost 22,649/. 
Most of the old houses have been pulled down. A new street 
and sewer have been constructed, and some new buildings 
erected on the site. To house the people displaced from the 



168 



SOME MUNICIPAL WORKS IN ECCLES. 



above, the Corporation erected 46 workmen's dwellings in 
Lewis Street^ Patricroft, costing 12,750/., including price of 
land. Particulars of cost as follows : — 



Contract and extras 

Grates 

Wall-papers 

Ashbins 

Electric installation 
Half cost of boundary wall 

Cost of street works 

Sewering and man-holes 
Architect and quantity surveyor 

Clerk of works 

Miscellaneous 

Total 



Parlour 

Living room ... 
Scullery 

W.C 

Front bedroom 
Second bedroom 
Third bedroom 
Bath room 



' All rooms are 9 feet 6 inches in the clear, and there is about 
200 square feet of garden provided for each house. The cubical 
contents being 11,666 cubic feet. Each house has cost 276/. 6&, 
which works out at about 5*6842d. per cube foot. 

The class of tenants comprises railway servants, engine- 
drivers, and skilled artisans, joiners, paper-hangers, etc. 

The houses are let at the weekly rentals of 7*. and 6s. 6d. 



£ «. d. 


... 10,586 18 9 


332 8 9 


42 10 1 


14 1 


151 18 5 


10 16 2 


845 4 5 


261 12 7 


410 8 2 


50 


3 19 1 


... 12,709 17 5 


bo 60/. 18*. per an 


ft. ins. ft. ins. 


... 13 9 x 11 


... 18 9 x 11 2 


... 7 6x67 


... 5 0x30 


... 13 9 x 11 


... 11 6 X 6 8 


... 9 6x68 


... 5 9x58 



Town Hall and Public Library. 

The present Town Hall was built in 1878, at a cost of 
6826/. This building was extended in 1898, with new 
council chamber, committee rooms, police court, etc. This 
cost 7485/. 

Mr. Andrew Carnegie presented to the borough a handsome 
Free Library, posting 8700/., of which sum he has already given 
7500/ f 



discussion. 169 

Fire Brigade. 

The Corporation has a Voluntary Fire Brigade, with a 
temporary fire station at the town depot. The staff consists 
of four permanent men and eleven retained men, under the 
superintendence of Mr. William Woodhead. The appliances 
consist of a steam fire-engine and a chemical engine and escape 
combined, and a horse ambulance. There are eight fire alarm 
boxes, placed in different parts of the borough. The Corporation 
hope, at some future date, to house the brigade in an up-to-date 
fire station. 

Cemetery, Becreation Grounds, and Baths. 

The Corporation possess a cemetery of 36 acres, costing 
11,908/. to lay out. Also three recreation grounds, 10, 10, 
and 12 acres respectively, and other open spaces. There is 
a public swimming bath at Patricroft, erected in 1882; but 
it requires enlarging on more modern lines. It cost 4833/., 
including extensions. 



DISCUSSION. 

Mb. A. J. Price : The first thing I have to speak about is the 
tar macadam. The prices are, no doubt, the best you can get in 
this district, because you have had the work done by contractors 
in competition; but they seem high in comparison with the 
price for which I am able to get the work done at Lytham. I 
see Mr. Picton has been able to carry out a good deal of work 
himself. He says, " it is now considered more advantageous to 
obtain the tarred limestone from a reputed firm, ready prepared 
for putting on to the street." I should like to know the reason 
for this. The experience my Council has had with contractors 
doing tar-asphalting has convinced them that I can do the work 
at Lytham as well as any outside firm. I should like to know 
why you are using Norwegian granite setts instead of Welsh 
setts. It is stated that the Norwegian setts at 28*. a ton, work 
out at 9*. and 9s. 7d. per square yard; therefore I cannot 
understand how it happens that the streets paved with Welsh 



170 SOME MUNICIPAL WORKS IN ECCLES. 

setts of the same size at 24s. per ton, work out at 11*. per 
square yard. As to the sewage farm, the scheme seems to have 
been prepared originally for precipitation, and I should like to 
know whether you still adopt chemical precipitation, or whether 
you have done away with chemicals, and adopted the bacteria 
system. That is to say, have you converted your settling tanks 
into open sceptic tanks, and done away with the expense of 
chemicals, and also the cost of dealing with the sludge. 

Mb. H. G. Whyatt: I have lately used a good deal of 
tar macadam, but I am not yet able to compare the average 
price. Mr. Picton says the first streets made in Eccles in 1895, 
both ctds-de-sac, were made 6 inches thick of tar macadam. It 
seeins rather extravagant ; 6 inches is too thick for a cid-desac. 
I notice the cost is given as 5s. per square yard ; but, on turning 
to the tabulation, it appears as being 4s. 7£i. The cost of the 
street known as the Park is given as 2\d. per square yard, per 
annum for maintenance, but in the tabulation it is given as 
l'8d. I think the answer to Mr. Price's question, as to the 
difference in cost between Norwegian and Welsh granite setts 
is that the Norwegian setts are somewhat lighter in weight per 
cube foot, and therefore they spread over a larger area : another 
reason is that the Norwegian setts are not so well dressed as the 
Welsh, and lie farther apart. The Welsh setts are very 
accurately dressed, and lie closer together. As to the Tramways, 
I think the Eccles Corporation made an excellent bargain with 
the Salford Corporation in getting 10 per cent, on the cost of 
the lines, making a revenue of 7000/. per annum on four miles 
of road. I wish something had been said in the paper as to 
what becomes of the 7000/. Of course some of it has to be 
used to meet the payment of interest and instalments of loan, 
and in five years the cost of repairs has been 1500/. or 300/. a 
year. Are the Eccles Corporation putting the balance to the 
credit of the district fund, and relieving the rates, or saving 
some of the money to meet the cost of the big repairs when they 
come in future years ? (The Mayor : Saving it.) If so, what 
have you added to the district fund, and saved the rates in 
consequence ? Another thing which strikes me is the horse food. 
The daily rations are 7 lbs. of oats, and 9£ lbs. of bran a day. 
It seems to me almost criminal to feed horses with 9£lbs. of 
bran a day. From what I am told by horse experts it is 
practically the same as if you were to take a spoonful of Gregory's 



DISCUSSION. 171 

powder with every meal you eat. It is a purgative. If the oats 
were doubled and the bran divided by three, the cost of 
horse keep would be less, and the horses would manage a little 
bit better. The food we give our horses is — 16 lbs. of oats, 
2 lbs. of beans, 3 pounds of bran, making 21 lbs. of corn 
food. We give the horses as much hay as they like to eat. 
The total cost of our 20 horses for one year was 506/. 19*. 9d., 
which comes out at 9*. 9d. per horse per week, against the 
Eccles cost of 11*. 8|d., that is a difference of 2s. per weelyra 
each horse, a saving of that much is well worth consideration. 
I can corroborate the paper that Mr. Turley's scheme was 
entirely successful, and that there were no further complaints 
of cellar flooding. I think the date we noticed the floods 
ceased was 1897. The only other point was with regard to the 
sewage farm. Mr. Picton says they bought 40 acres of land for 
6000/., and the remaining area is rented at a chief rent of 10/. 
per acre per annum. The area rented is not stated. I con* 
gratulate the borough upon the progress it has made. 

Mr. G. W. Lacey : I will propose a vote of thanks to 
Mr. Picton for his excellent paper. I should like to know 
the consumption of water, for trade purposes. With regard 
to tar macadam roads, 6 inches of tar macadam on a good 
foundation seems an extravagant depth unless the traffic is 
particularly heavy, which in the streets mentioned does not 
appear to be the case. Perhaps Mr. Picton will give us 
some information as to what kind of traffic the roads have 
to bear, as, unless the traffic is heavy, one would think there 
was something wrong with the material, or the method of 
putting it down, seeing that they have gone into a state of dis- 
repair in three or four years. No other material but limestone 
appears to have been put down. With regard to new streets, the 
estimated cost of making up the streets, not including sewers, 
would be useful information to have in the paper. With 
regard to teams, it appears to me that the Cleansing Com- 
mittee in hiring out teams at 10s. 6d. per day are getting a 
very good price. With regard to horse keep, I am of opinion 
that too much bran is given the horses, but if Mr. Whyatt can 
feed his horses at 9s. 6d. per week he is doing it more cheaply 
than most of us. I think the cost at Eccles is fairly reasonable. 
I cannot do it for lis. 8d. even, for the last few years. There 
are a few points with regard to the sewage farm. I should like 



172 SOME MUNICIPAL WORKS IN ECCLES. 

to know how the sludge is disposed of. With regard to the contact 
beds that are being made, Mr. Ficton gives the area as 14,500 
square yards, with a capacity of 50 gallons per square yard with 
three fillings, making a total quantity capable of being dealt 
with of 2,175,000 gallons per day. That is 1J times the dry 
weather flow only, and he will have to work his beds at a higher 
rate than that stated to deal with three volumes. I do not see 
how he is going to do it, without some choking in future. The 
storm-water overflow sill, he states, is set for eight times the 
ordinary flow, and if that large volume is to be dealt with, 
where is the water going ? With regard to the refuse destructor, 
Eccles is in a fortunate position. On the face of it, a rate of 
nearly 7Jrf. for sewage disposal would seem to be a com- 
paratively heavy rate, but looking at the amount a penny rate 
produces, the assessment in Eccles would not appear to be 
unduly high. The accommodation provided in the workmen's 
dwellings is not mentioned in the paper, but according to the 
diagram displayed there is a parlour, living room, and scullery, 
and three bedrooms. Mr. Picton might state the difference in 
the houses let at 7s. and 6s. 6d. There is not much difference 
in the rental, and I take it there cannot be much difference in 
the accommodation. 

Mr. A. Lawrence Cox: I have much pleasure in 
seconding the vote of thanks to Mr. Picton. I was much 
surprised to find, on reading the paper, that Mr. Picton had not 
tried any granite tar macadam, but that all his work had been 
in limestone. Limestone of the ordinary class is of such an 
exceedingly porous nature that it cannot possibly wear as well 
as granite. A standardised asphaltic mixture should be 
adopted that would adhere firmly to the stone and also 
withstand climatic effects. Another important feature is the 
grading of the broken aggregate. Under ordinary conditions 
the interstices in the road crust is about 40 per cent., and 
this is one of the weak spots of the present system, in the 
water bound road this space is filled with dust or mud as 
the case may be, and in tar bound roads is an element of 
weakness owing to the liability to retain an excessive amount 
of tar. 

Mr. J. S. Brodie : I have laid down tar macadam in lime* 
stone granite and blast furnace slag, and I must say, in my 
experience, limestone gives the best results. Other people may 



DISCUSSION. 173 

have arrived at different conclusions to myself, but, in my 
experience, limestone has given the most uniform results, both 
in regard to the appearance of the road and its subsequent 
maintenance. I have looked with care at the prices set forth by 
Mr. Kcton, and I think they are very reasonable indeed. I can- 
not touch Mr. Picton's figures as regards the cost of upkeep of 
my sixty horses, and I am sure my Stable Committee are 
animated with extreme feelings of economy. Therefore I take 
it that Mr. Picton's figures are not extravagant. I have some 
parts of our Blackpool Corporation tramway system which 
are leased to two companies, one at the north end and one at 
the southern end of the town. In the case of one company we 
have an arrangement whereby we receive a percentage on the 
capital outlay, and we have to keep up the maintenance of the 
line, and in the other case we have a smaller percentage, and 
the company has to pay for the upkeep of the lines. I need 
not assure you that there is no comparison between the two 
methods. The upkeep is much heavier than any tramway man 
thought it would be, and I advise you to put the cost of main- 
tenance on to the shoulders of the company, and not on to the 
corporation. It seems that the usual percentage is nine or 
ten per cent, on the outlay, the corporation undertaking the 
maintenance. This will land the corporation in a deficit 
on their tramway undertaking at no very distant date. 
As regards tar macadam, some of us may find some day — 
whether we mix our aggregate ourselves, or get it from people 
who mix it for us — that the tar wants not to be halfway down 
or at the bottom, but as near the top as possible. An experi- 
ment which is being made at Liverpool by the city engineer, 
our present esteemed president, of putting down the dry 
macadam, and afterwards spraying the tar on the top of it, 
gives promise of much success. I have laid down tar macadam 
both departmentally and by contract. I must say that the 
work by contract has been quite as satisfactory as that done 
departmentally. 

Mr. Shillington : Nothing has been said in the course of 
the discussion about the effect of putting tar macadam on a 
road with a steep gradient. 

Mr. W. Welburn : The paper only gives us the total cost 
of the destruction of the refuse. Can Mr. Picton give us the 
cost per ton ? [Mr. G. W. Willis, farm manager: It is 10*99d # 



174 SOME MUNICIPAL WORKS IK ECCLES. 

per ton.] I should also like the cost per million gallons of 
dealing with the sewage at the works. The paper in this case 
gives the dry weather flow and not the total flow. 

Mr. J. S. Sinclair: With reference to the tar macadam 
roads. The foundation of these roads is stated to be 9 inches 
of clinkers, cinders, or brickbats. This question of foundation 
is simply a matter of the natural formation of the geological 
strata. I find at Widnes, where we have a clay foundation, 
9 inches deep is not sufficient, and where road foundations are 
made with cinders they have turned out very unsatisfactory. 
My experience is that the heavy traffic crushes the cinders 
down to a fine grit ; the foundations made up of boiler cinders 
1 inch to $ of an inch diameter, when taken up four or five 
years later, were found crushed to small particles. If the sub- 
soil is sand you may have a 9-inch deep foundation with a 
suitable hard material, but with clay or a heavy marl subsoil 
9 inches is insufficient to stand the swelling during times of 
frost and the expansion of high summer temperatures. I notice 
that Mr. Picton has not done any tar-spraying. I should fancy 
that on some of his side and cul-de-sac streets, if he tried tar- 
spraying on granite macadam it would be more economical than 
tar macadam roads, and would allow him to put in a good 
foundation to start with. I have done about a mile in length 
of these tar-sprayed roads, and some parts have been for two 
years used with light vehicular traffic, and show very little sign 
of surface wear ; this has been done at a cost of Id. per yard 
super., and includes cost of tar, drippings, and a certain amount 
of sand. As regards the cost of horse-feeding, I think it is very 
low. At Widnes I cannot do it at the present time for less 
than 12s. 6d. per week. It varies with the price of provender, 
and has been as low as 10s. 10(2. The weight of food we give 
to our horses per day is as follows : Beans, 25 lbs. ; Indian 
corn, 2*5 lbs. ; oats, 4*01 lbs. ; bran, 51 lbs. ; linseed, 08 lbs. ; 
meal, 015 lbs. ; rack hay, 14*3 lbs. ; total (say), 29 lbs. per 
horse. With regard to the rate of 10*. 6d. per day for horse hire, 
I think the Committee are charging a high price for this work, 
but it may be accounted for in expensive plant, and for the 
repayment of capital charges. The cost in Widnes of horse 
hire, including repayment of capital charges, cart repairs, 
renewals, etc., is 9*. to 9*. 6d. per day, 

Mr. Whyatt : Might I explain that I am in a very fortunate 



COMMUNICATED BEPLY. 175 

position for buying provender. We pay from 18*. to 20*. per 
quarter for oats, and this works out at 23s. &d. We get bran 
at 57. per ton, and this works out at 61 3*. Sd. We buy direct 
from the threshing machine, and we get an advantage that 
way. 

Mb. Brodie : Don't you underfeed the horses ? 

Mb. Whyatt : With 21 lbs. of real food a day ? No, I 
think not. 

The Chaibman : In my district we have to be very cautious 
with the use of tar macadam. The education of our horses is 
very backward. They are so used to gradients of 1 in 8 that 
even with a gradient of 1 in 50 they do not like tar macadam. 
I think the Eccles Corporation is to be congratulated on the 
very low cost of the sewage works. We are just completing 
works costing 100,000/., so I am rather envious of the way in 
which Eccles has got out of its difficulty. As to the workmen's 
dwellings, I should like to know if they are self-contained 
houses, and not let in fiats. They will not have flats at all in 
my district. Those who go in for workmen's dwellings want a 
sort of a garden city, so at present we have not got any work- 
men's dwellings at the cost of the rates. There are plenty of 
new houses in Hanley at very much lower rentals than these. 
Each house standing on its own ground, fronts on a 12 yards 
street, and private back yards in accordance with the model 
bye-laws. 

The members were entertained by tlie Mayor and Corporation 
to luncheon in the Town Hall. 

In the afternoon the members visited the Carnegie Library, the 
Monton Bridge and approaches, the town depdts, the Electricity 
Station, and the Barton Aqueduct and swing bridge on the Man- 
Chester Ship Canal. At the Barton Bridge, Mr. W. H. Hunter, 
Chief Engineer to tlie Canal Co., was present and the bridge 
was swung for the inspection of the company. 



COMMUNICATED REPLY. 

Mr. T. S. Picton in reply: To execute a number of tar 
macadam streets, the Committee in 1899 erected a temporary 
shed for drying, heating, and preparing the tar macadam. 



176 SOME MUNICIPAL WOKKS IN ECCLES. 

When those streets were completed, it was considered advis- 
able to wait for a few years to see how they turned out 
under the traffic, before going on with any more tar 
macadam carriageways. The shed was removed to one of the 
yards and used as a store shed. Six years elapsed before any 
more streets were approved as tar macadam streets; and 
after careful inquiries and examination, the Committee then 
adopted the policy of accepting tenders for the tarred limestone, 
ready prepared. As far as I can judge at present, the material 
obtained in this way is giving every satisfaction and proves 
just as economical to us, as preparing it by our own staff 
of men. The Norwegian setts were used on the highways 
where the gradients were steep, and the reason why I used 
them, although 4s. per ton dearer than the Welsh setts, was 
that this particular class of Norway granite is of a non-slippery 
nature. I have had them paved on a gradient of 1 in 20 five 
years ago, and they are giving every satisfaction. Since the 
opening of the Sewage Farm in 1895, no chemical precipitation 
has been used by the Sewage Farm Manager in the working of 
the farm. The cost in the tabular statement in connection with 
" Cavendish Grove," 4s. 7^d. is correct, the 5s. is an error. The 
cost of maintenance in " the Park " is 2 id. per square yard, the 
item in the table is an error. The calculation has been taken 
over the whole area of 2058 square yards, instead of on 
1238 square yards, the area repaired. The extra cost of paving 
the Welsh setts is on account of the higher price of materials 
in 1898 as compared with 1905-6. 

The rent from the tramways, after the costs of maintenance 
have been deducted, is set aside as a "reserve fund." The 
area of the sewage farm rented is 31J acres. As Eccles obtain 
their water supply from the Manchester Corporation, they do 
not make it a practice in their arrangements with any of the 
outlying districts to keep the amount of water used for trade 
and domestic purposes separate. 

When the Committee first commenced laying down tar 
macadam, they were advised 6 inches in thickness was not too 
much. I agree, for I do not think you can get a satisfactory 
conglomerate of tarred stone less than 6 inches. Then, again, 
in my opinion, 6 inches acts as a better cushion for the traffic. 
The experience of those who have put down a number of tar 
macadam roads is that you cannot tell how the street will turn 



COMMUNICATED BBPLY. 177 

out. If the stone is not dry, and the mixture not properly 
prepared, the work cannot turn out well; and when it is 
executed by different contractors, you may, perhaps, have the 
danger of the streets breaking up. The foundation to all 
new streets is formed with 9 inches of hand-packed rubble, 
blinded with cinders, and steam-rolled. (When tarred 
macadam is to be used, the interstices of the rubble are 
filled up with broken stones.) Five-inch flag rock setts or 
6-inch grit setts, or 'tarred macadam is used for the 
carriageway; 12-inch by 8-inch kerbs, and the footways 
flagged with 2|-inoh concrete flags. Without sewering this 
costs about 17«. per foot of frontage. The sludge at the Sewage 
Farm is run on to filter beds, then carted on to the land, and 
ploughed in. The revenue from the Sewage Farm is deducted 
before arriving at the cost of the rates. The houses let at 
7s. per week are in the front street, those let at 6s. 6rf. per week 
are in a side street and near to a street of inferior property. 
There is no difference in the construction of the dwellings. 
Some of the tar-macadam streets in Eccles have been laid down 
on gradients of 1 in 22, 1 in 22*43, and 1 in 23*3. I have not 
received any complaints as to their slipperiness. All the tar- 
macadam streets were constructed under the 150th section 
of the Public Health Act, 1875, for the forming of private 
streets. Therefore, in this case, tar-spraying would not be! 
suitable. I have done a considerable amount of tar-spraying 
on the ordinary macadam roads, and find it very serviceable. 
The whole of the workmen's dwellings in Lewis Street, etc., are 
self-contained. 



EASTERN COUNTIES DISTRICT 
MEETING. 

May 30, 1908. 

Held at Norwich. 
C. H. Cooper, M.Inst.C.E., Member of Council, in the chair. 



The Mayor (G. E. Buxton, Esq.) received the members and 
offered them a hearty welcome to Norwich. 

Mr. W. Weaver, Past President, thanked the Mayor for his 
kind welcome. 

Mr. J. W. Cockrill was unanimously re-elected Hon. 
Secretary for the Eastern District. 



SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE 
SEWAGE PUMPING MACHINERY, REINFORCED 
CONCRETE RISING MAIN, AND TRAVIS 
SYSTEM SEWAGE TANKS, IN PROGRESS 
AT NORWICH- 

By ARTHUR E. COLLINS, MJnst.C.E., (Past President), 
City Engineer, Norwich. 

JSote. — The present meeting at Norwich has been arranged to 
enable Members to see certain works in progress of a novel 
character. The new engines and pumps are in course of 
construction at the builder's worifs, but no parts thereof 
are yet on t&e ground. 



SEWAGE PUMPING MACHINERY. 179 

The " Bonna " reinforced concrete pipes and the Travis sewage 
tanks are in interesting stages of construction. It is hoped 
to show the works in operation at a future meeting. 

Existing Sewage Outfall Pumping Plant. — The existing 
Sewage Outfall Pumping Station at Trowse, Norwich, was 
designed and carried out in 1868 by a former President of the 
Association, the late Mr. A. W. Morant, then City Engineer of 
Norwich. 

The engines, three in number, are jet condensing beam 
engines, each with a steam cylinder 36 inches by 72 inches, and 
driving a bucket and plunger high-lift pump and a bucket low- 
lift pump. The former pumps sewage a total lift, including 
suction and delivery, of 132 feet to the top of Whitlingham 

y T Sewage Farm through If mile of 20-inch cast-iron pipes. The 

low-lift pump is not used, the valves being removed, the bucket 

remains attached to the engine as a balance weight only. The 

low-lift pumps when used delivered direct to the River Yare. 

These engines are very wasteful of fuel and will in future 

* ■* be used as reserves. 

Existing Sewage Screen. — The sewage is screened through 

irto flat bars spaced 1 inch apart. The screen is inclined and fitted 

with the now nsual raking gear, which the writer first designed 

Bob- and applied at Salford in 1882. 

In the paper read by the present writer at the District 
Meeting held in Norwich on June 10, 1898, he stated that 
the sewage from the low-lying parts of Norwich below the 
levels commanded by the then recently constructed outfall 
sewer was raised by Shone ejectors. These at that time had 

i$) scarcely been completed. The ten years' constant use of these 

tftf ejectors since 1898 has shown that absolute reliance can be 

placed upon them. The cost of repairs has been trifling, and 
the renewals have been of the slightest character. They, 
together with the air-compressing machinery, were built by 
Hughes & Lancaster of Buabon. 






.„ Sewage Outfall new Pumping Maohineky 

$d The new pumping machinery at the Trowse outfall will 

*rf consist of four "Eoturbo" pumps constructed by Parkers, 

$d Limited, Wolverhampton, on Bees' patent. 



180 SEWAGE PUMPING MACHINEKY, 

One pump will be at the bottom of a vertical spindle having 
a 150 B.H.P. electric motor at the top. 

The pump will be fixed at such a level as to be self-charging, 
but it will stand in a dry chamber. The suction side will be 
connected with the sump by a 14-inch suction pipe fitted with 
a sluice valve. 

The delivery side will have a sluice and a retaining valve, 
both of somewhat special character. 

The motor circuit will be closed and opened by switch gear 
arranged in five steps, and operated by a float rising and falling 
with the sewage in the sewage sump, from which all the 
" Eoturbo " pumps will draw. 

The electrically driven pump is arranged to start and stop 
automatically, it being for night work, and when in use an 
attendant need not be present. In the event of the sewage 
flow becoming abnormal and beyond the capacity of this unit, 
the continued rising of the float closes circuits operating alarm 
bells in the dwellings (close at hand) of the attendants, who 
will start one or more of the other units hereafter described. 

The electric motor and equipments are being built by 
Messrs. Laurence & Scott of Norwich, and the installation 
includes Scott's patent switch gear, which is especially adapted 
for automatic working with big currents. The current will be 
continuous at 440 volts and obtained from the Corporation's 
mains. 

The other three pumps will be similar to that above 
described, excepting that horizontal spindles will be provided ; 
they will be fixed 11 feet 6 inches above suction level and will 
not be self-charging, this not being necessary, as they will be 
driven by gas engines requiring the presence of an attendant for 
starting and stopping, who can charge the pumps when required 
by means of an electrically operated Eoturbo air exhauster. 

As before stated, four pumps will be provided, each of a 
capacity of 2800 gallons per minute, at a maximum total head 
(incluchng friction) of 117 feet, and to deal with a variation of 
head from 117 feet to 94 feet, at the lower heads the volume of 
water to be increased inversely as the head. 

The guaranteed efficiencies of the pumps are 70 per cent at 
the normal rated duty. This is a conservative rating, and the 
efficiency under actual conditions is expected to be higher 
than this. 



SEWAGE PUMPING MACHINERY. 181 

The special feature of the Roturbo pump is that the power 
does not vary appreciably over the whole range of the variation 
in head. 

This self-regulation is the unique feature of the Eees- 
Eoturbo pump over an ordinary centrifugal or turbine pump, 
and the great advantage is accomplished by departing from the 
ordinary design of a centrifugal. The patentee informs me 
that instead of designing the impeller to impart speed energy 
to the water equivalent to the head required, the impeller is 
replaced by what may be described as a revolving pressure 
drum of very large capacity in comparison with the orifices at 
the rim. The consequence of this design is that the water 
enters the pressure drum and becomes practically stationary 
with reference to the revolving drum, being carried round by 
vanes or partitions in this drum. As a consequence of this a 
pressure is generated at the rim of the pressure drum about 
10 per cent, greater than the maximum lift that the pump is 
designed for. A series of directed nozzles or turbine blades 
are arranged at the rim of the drum, which convert a portion 
of the pressure in the drum into velocity, and if these nozzles 
are directed rearwardly, the pressure inside the drum is then 
available for turbine effect,, which increases with increased 
volumes of water flowing through the drum. The result of 
this turbine effect is to transfer the power which would other- 
wise be absorbed from the motor to the rim of the impeller. 
As a consequence of this, the power taken by the motor never 
exceeds that required for the normal duty of the pump, and 
on the lower heads the power taken by the motor actually 
decreases. The effect of this may be illustrated by the 
accompanying curve, Fig. 1, in which the approximate shape 
of the power curve of an ordinary centrifugal or turbine pump is 
given, and plotted on the same scale is the power curve of a 
Eoturbo pump. It will be noticed that the two power curves, 
from maximum head and no flow of water up to normal head 
and flow of water are approximately the same, the only difference 
being that due to the turbine effect. It appears to be possible, 
without any special care being taken in the designing, to secure 
somewhat better efficiencies than with the ordinary turbine 
pump for the same head and duty when running at the same 
speed, but the power curves beyond the normal point, as the 
head falls and the flow of water increases, will be noticed to 



182 SEWAGE PUMPING MACHINERY. 

vary very largely, and it is over this range of the duty of the 
pump that the Eees-Eoturbo shows its characteristic features, 
and which consequently gives it a great advantage over the 
ordinary pump where fixed to any duty where the head dealt 
with is a variable quantity. 

Curves are given on Figs. 2, 2a and 2b of three sample 
pumps of varying duties, each about 70 to 80 feet maximum, 
the normal duties being 60,000 gallons per hour, 30,000 gallons 
per hour, and 12,000 gallons per hour respectively, from which 
the wide range of head within high efficiency limits will be 
noticed. 

The estimated curves of the pumps for Norwich are given 
in Kg. 4. 

An incidental advantage of the design of the Boturbo is 
the reduction of wear and the consequent permanence of the 
efficiency attained. The ordinary centrifugal or turbine pump, 
depending upon speed energy between the impeller and the 
fixed casing, necessarily is subject to great wear when the water 
is charged with sand or grit 

Taking actual figures, a lift of 100 feet on a centrifugal 
pump requires a velocity of water at the tips of the impeller 
of approximately 80 feet a second. In the case of the Roturbo, 
the rim of the impeller for a similar duty would also revolve 
at a speed of 80 feet a second, but having already secured the 
pressure inside the revolving drum, it becomes possible to 
throw the water back almost tangentially, at a speed of, say, 
40 to 50 feet a second, consequently the resultant speed of 
the water in the fixed casing is only about 35 feet a second 
(Fig. 3). 

As a result of this, and also because the pressure drum 
cannot have any cavitation troubles to reduce the efficiency, the 
cutwaters or expanding channels may be removed some con- 
siderable distance from the rim of the impeller, and the pump 
will, when dealing with large quantities of water, give high 
efficiencies with a free vortex. As a result of this there is 
nothing in the path of the water after leaving the impeller to 
wear away, and when the water is expanded in a free vortex to 
the points of the tips of the defieoting vanes in the fixed casing, 
the speed of the water is so slow that results have demonstrated 
there to be no tendency to wear at this point. As there are no 
impediments to the flow of anything that has passed the 



SEWAGE PUMPING MACHINERY. 183 

impeller, there is consequently no possibility of any damage to 
the Norwich pumps due to pieces of solid matter up to an inch 
in diameter being carried up with the sewage. 

The smallest orifice in the rim of the revolving pressure 
drum in the case of the Norwich pumps is 1 J inch diameter, 
and as the space between the revolving rim and the deflecting 
vanes in the fixed casing is approximately 2 inches, anything 
which will pass through the pressure chamber has got a clear 
flow through the fixed casing without any possibility of 
breakage or damage to the pump. 

The passage through any pump is always, of course, in pro- 
portion to the duty, and the larger the pump, necessarily the 
larger the particle which can be carried through. 

In the case of the Norwich pumps, the sewage will be 
screened so that nothing exceeding $ inch diameter will pass up 
the suction pipe. 

Fig. 5 shows an arrangement of the vertical pump and 
motor. 

Fig. 6 gives the horizontal type of the pump, showing the 
pressure chamber removed and the deflecting vanes or cutwaters 
in the fixed casing. 

Fig. 7 gives detail of the bearing and stuffing box 
therefor. 

To avoid risk of excessive wear and tear of the pump 
journals and their bearings by extrusion of gritty water, the 
writer has designed special lantern brasses to be inserted with 
the journal gland packings. These lantern brasses form water 
chambers around the journals, and are supplied with olean 
water at a higher pressure than that in the pump, with the 
result that any gland leakage will be of clean water into the 
pump and not of gritty water out of it. 

The contract price for the four Eoturbo pumps fixed com- 
plete, but not including foundations, pipe work, and buildings, 
is 14241. That of the electric motor, including special switch 
gear and alarm bells in attendants' dwellings, is 450/. 

Each of the three horizontal spindle Eoturbo pumps will be 
belt-driven by a 175 B.H.P. horizontal two-cylinder Tangye 
gas-engine, supplied with suction gas by a Tangye producer. 
The engines are of most massive design ; they will receive a 
similar quality of firing mixture at each cycle, the governors 
regulating the quantity of mixture. In addition to all usual 



184 SEWAGE PUMPING MACHINERY. 

water-cooling of the engines, the pistons and the suction 
valves will be water-cooled. The arrangement of the engines 
and producers is such that one cylinder of each engine can 
conveniently and economically be used alone when a small 
amount of power only is required. The ignition will be by 
magneto. The ignition plugs will be arranged to permit of 
cleaning the firing-points whilst at work. The engine beds are 
arranged to catch all oil, so preventing soakage into the concrete 
engine loadings. The cylinder lubrication is by positive 
pressure, the amount being visible. The cost of each gas 
.engine with its producer, erected complete, but exclusive of 
foundations and builder's work, is about 1560/. 

This includes for an air-compressing engine for starting, 
circulating pumps, and other necessary items. 



New Sewage Screens and Detritus Pits. 

The existing sewage screen will be removed and specially 
designed screens substituted therefor in the existing pit. The 
new screens will consist of steel plates ^ inch thick, perforated 
with closely pitched circular holes of J inch diameter, prepared 
by Poole's patent perforating machinery at Hayle, Cornwall. 
The plates will be supported in angle-iron frames, which also 
support a large rectangular bottom box forming a detritus pit. 
The frame, with its sewage screen and detritus pit, is mounted 
on guide wheels running in vertical wall guides in such a 
manner as to be raised to above the surface of the ground by 
means of a 10-ton electric hoist, and when so raised the screen 
and pit collections can be removed through an end door into a 
waggon standing at a lower level. 

The screens and silt pits will be in duplicate ; the flow of 
sewage will be shut off from a screen before it is raised for 
cleaning. 

A hose and water under pressure will be used for cleaning 
the screen. This arrangement was adopted to avoid the great 
cost of sinking a large screening chamber in very bad soil, and 
to avoid the trouble arising in the use of screens and raking 
gear of the present pattern. The estimated cost of the screens 
and silt pits, including electrio hoist, is 420/. 

The arrangement of screens is shown in Figs. 8 and 9. 



REINPORCED CONCEETB RISING MAIN. 185 



New Keinforced Concrete Eising Main. 

The sewage pumped will be conveyed to the tanks in course 
of construction at Whitlingham Sewage Farm through a 
36-inch rising main 2 }j miles long, constructed of reinforced 
concrete on the " Bonna " system by the Columbian Fireproof - 
ing Co., Ltd., of 37, King William Street, E.C. This construction 
was advised after prolonged inquiry and inspections of existing 
works, some of which had been in use fifteen years and were 
apparently in perfect condition. 

The working head at Norwich is 125 feet, to which must be 
added for shocks arising from pulsation and periodic waves of 
pressure in such a length and size of pipe. 

The elements of the pipe are : 

(1) A cage of light + section steel wire wound into a spiral ; 
the spiral is held in pitch by longitudinal wires tied to the 
^iral at each alternate intersection. 

(2) A tube of thin sheet steel of the whole length of pipe 
closely fitting outside (1). 

The jointing of the steel tube sheets is effected by means of 
oxyhydrogen blow-pipes, which make autogenous welds. In 
most of the autogenous welding at Norwich it has been found 
convenient to use ordinary lighting gas instead of pure hydro- 
gen. For heavy welding, oxyhydrogen or oxyacetylene are 
preferred because of the greater heat. 

The oxygen and the acetylene, or other heating gas, may be 
so regulated at the blow-pipe as to give either a fusing flame or 
a burning or oxydising flame. With this latter flame iron or 
steel can be cut to any shape ; with the former, it can be fused 
or welded together with no waste. 

(3) A cage of heavy + section steel wire wound into a spiral, 
the pitch being dependent on the internal pressure to be resisted. 
This spiral is also held in pitch by longitudinal wires bound to 
the spiral at each alternate intersection. The longitudinals 
also provide the tension elements for resisting transverse 
bending. (3) closely fits outside (2). 

(4) An internal lining of cement mortar or fine concrete 
keyed to interior of sheet steel tube by the internal spiral cage. 

(5) An external lining of cement mortar or fine concrete 
keyed to the exterior of sheet steel tube by the external spiral cage. 



186 REINFORCED CONCRETE RISING MAIN. 

(6) A primary joint consisting of bitumen, this remaining 
watertight notwithstanding slight flexure. 

(7) A secondary and structural joint consisting of a short 
length of heavy + section spiral covering the joint, surrounded 
and encased when in situ with cement, mortar, or fine concrete. 

The interior and exterior cement mortar or concrete coatings 
are applied as follows : — 

(a) A collapsible iron mould slightly longer and, when 
extended, of the interior diameter of pipe is placed on end. 

(6) The assemblage (1), (2), (3) is placed concentrically 
around (a). 

• (c) An iron cope or mould in three sections longitudinally, 
and having an interior diameter similar to that of outside of 
finished pipe, is placed concentrically around (a) (b). 

(d) Cement mortar or fine concrete is poured into the con- 
centric spaces each side of (2), which are partly occupied by (1) 
and (3), the cope or mould being struck with heavy mallets to 
assist consolidation and extrusion of air. 

In warm weather the moulds may be removed in three 
hours ; in cold weather in one or more days. 

The pipes are left standing on end till the concrete is quite 
hardened, generally about five weeks, when they are laid flat 
for finishing and are then ready to be laid. 

When the writer was considering the scheme now in 
progress he obtained prices for oast-iron, steel, and " Bonna " 
reinforced concrete pipes, these latter being on the only system 
known to him likely to meet his requirements. The result 
was that the "Bonna" pipes were offered laid and jointed 
complete in Corporation trenches at about three-quarters of the 
price of steel, and somewhat more than one-half the cost of 
cast iron. 

The Local Government Board have sanctioned a fifteen 
years 9 repayment period loan for these pipes, at the same time 
allowing a thirty years' period for ordinary concrete in sewage 
tanks. 

The rising main will cross the River Yare by an inverted 
syphon. 

The usual air valves will be provided where necessary, 
also a valve for emptying the rising main into the outfall 
sewer. 

A relief or safety valve (Fig. 10) of large size and special 



HYDROLYTIC SEWAGE TANKS. 187 

design will be placed on the rising main at Trowse. It will 
be a double beat valve, and, notwithstanding its discharge area 
being equal to 452 square inches, which at the blowing-off 
pressure of 56 lbs. to the square inch amounts to over 11 tons 
on that area, the actual weight of the valve and its super load 
will only amount to 12| cwts. 

The valve will open freely when the designed internal 
pressure is exceeded, but is controlled in closing by an adjust* 
able cataract gear. 

The writer's object in designing this special valve was to 
ensure effectual interference with periodic waves or fluctuations 
of pressure in such a long large main, which are often most 
destructive, causing pressures in some cases greatly exceeding 
those of ordinary work. 

Travis System Hydrolytic Sewage Tanks and the 
Principles and Practice of their Operation. 

The greatest departure from ordinary practice arises in con- 
nection with the sewage tanks. 

The Norwich Sewage Farm was laid out for broad-cast 
irrigation by crude sewage in 1868, and gave sufficiently good 
results till a few years since, when the substitution of an 
average of 3,000,000 gallons of strong sewage per day for 
6,000,000 gallons of subsoil water containing sewage soon 
showed the Farm to be insufficient for the desired purpose. 

As the result of many visits to sewage works in various 
parts of the country, of several inspections, and an investigation 
of the work accomplished by the hydrolytic and other tanks, 
the writer was forced, against his prejudices, to the conclusion 
that the Hampton experiments and treatment proved that the 
general practice of tank treatment of sewage was based on error, 
and he decided to recommend the adoption of the Travis system 
of hydrolytic tank treatment for Norwich. 

Tanks are now being constructed to the writer's designs, 
prepared in close collaboration with Dr. Travis, and embodying 
many new features of undoubted importance (Figs. 11 and 12). 

The principles of the hydrolytic tank operation have been 
deduced from a prolonged study of sewage, and from exhaustive 
experiments relating to the special condition in which the 
suspended matters exist therein, as well as from extensive and 



188 HYDROLYTIC SEWAGE TANKS. 

actual observations, conducted at Hampton, having reference to 
the nature of the operation occurring in all tanks. 

These principles will be the more easily understood and the 
action of the tank more readily appreciated after consideration 
of these several factors. 

The liquid portion of the sewage, having brought the 
impurities to the Disposal Works, has fulfilled its essential 
object. It is not, to any appreciable extent, beneficially 
affected by being submitted to a tank operation. Indeed, when 
this is a prolonged one, the liquid becomes deleteriously in- 
fluenced by being saturated with the gases evolved from the 
decomposing sludge. 

The liquid, however, contains suspended solids which require 
to be eliminated and which are of all grades, varying from the 
readily depositable gross matters and finer substances, together 
known as the solids in suspension, down to the infinitesimally 
fine colloidal particles, whioh are accounted amongst the solids 
in solution. The former of these can be arrested by an efficient 
tank operation ; the latter are not depositable, under practical 
working conditions, unless they are brought into very intimate 
contact with surfaces. 

The operation occurring in tanks differs in character, de- 
pending upon whether septic action is or is not permitted to take 
place. It is also modified in the former case by the amount of 
septic action as well as by the special behaviour of the sewage. 

The operation in ordinary settling tanks is a simple one, 
for there are only two forces at work, viz. the onward flow of 
the liquid, and the rising and falling of the lighter and heavier 
particles. By the former of these forces the finer suspended 
matters are carried forward and issue in the effluent. By the 
combined forces the lighter and the heavier solids reach the 
surface and the bottom of the liquid, at variable distances 
along the tank. The depositing solids form a layer of sludge, 
to which each succeeding volume of sewage adds its quota. 
In this way a more or less rapidly rising floor of sludge results, 
which diminishes the liquid capacity of the tank, increases 
the rapidity of the flow of the liquid through it, and causes a 
larger proportion of suspended matters to pass out of it than 
is consistent with its successful working. Therefore the 
operation has to be stopped, and the tank has to be emptied 
and cleaned out 



HYDROLYTIC SEWAGE TANKS, 189 

The operation occurring in septic tanks is a complex one. 
Ordinary settlement, as herein described, does of course take 
place and the above-enumerated forces are engaged, but there 
is super-added a third force resulting from the decomposition 
of the sludge. 

The septic operation has, very generally, been assumed to 
be a liquefactive one, and such tanks have, not uncommonly, 
been called liquefying tanks. Indeed, so-called "areas of 
liquefaction" have been described, but these have been shown, 
by the Hampton observations, to be merely liquid areas due 
to the separation of the sludge into a higher layer, the lower 
limits of which can be seen to be charged with gas bubbles, 
and the lower portion, containing fewer gas bubbles, with 
intervening liquid. Whilst a modicum of liquefaction does 
undoubtedly occur, as well as a small expression of the opposite 
condition of de-solution, the essential nature of the operation 
is a gasification. The amount of gas produced has usually 
been described as a percentage of the volume of sewage ; but 
this is inaccurate, for gas production is absolutely independent 
of sewage volume, inasmuch as it is created. by, and therefore is 
strictly proportionate to, the amount of sludge accumulations. 
The formation of gas is markedly influenced by temperature 
conditions, being active in the summer and practically dormant 
in the winter, but as an average for the year, and as the mean 
of many observations, the amount when referred to the sewage 
flow will be found to be approximately five per cent. The 
depositing matters, expressed as dry solids, will rarely exceed 
•05 per cent., and will have to pass through the uprising gases. 
These gases therefore constitute a force opposed to and greater 
than that of the depositing solids. This complicates the 
operation, and is the chief explanation for the inadequate 
results, and for the large proportion of suspended solids which 
characterise septic tank effluents. 

The effects of the gases may be manifested in one of two 
ways, according to the special behaviour of the sewage. In the 
first case, the gases are unable to escape freely from the de- 
posited sludge, which becomes charged with minute gas bubbles, 
and which is either lifted bodily or in large masses to the 
surface, where it remains as scum. The gas makes an attempt 
to escape and fissures form in the scum, but before this can 
become effectual and the scum can fall, other portions of sludge 



190 HYDBOLYTIC SEWAGE TANKS. 

are floated up underneath that first described, which prevent it 
from re-depositing. The formation of scum continues until a 
mere channel for the sewage exists, through which solid feces 
and unaltered paper are conducted to the effluent, which neces- 
sitates the cessation of the operation, and the removal of the 
scum contents of the tank. 

In the second case, the gases can escape freely and are 
continually arising from the deposited sludge. At intervals 
portions of the sludge are carried up to the surface where, as 
no impediment to the easy escape of the gases exists, these 
become disengaged and the sludge falls to the bottom again. 
The depositing and re-depositing matters form a gradually 
rising floor of sludge which, unlike that referred to under simple 
settlement, is not fixed, but is periodically disturbed by the 
gaseous eruptions, and is gradually carried forward to the outlet 
of the tank. As the operation continues the sludge accumula- 
tions become more extensive, the gaseous disturbances more 
pronounced, and the character of the effluent more foul until 
ultimately the tank has become inefficient and its accumulations 
have to be removed. 

Each form of tank operation has thus been shown to be 
determined by the increasingly foul character of its effluent, 
which has been occasioned mainly by the extensive sludge 
accumulations. These accumulations have clearly indicated 
the desirability, if they have not actually demonstrated, the 
necessity for periodical rather than for terminal sludge 
removal. 

The principles associated with the hydrolytic tank may now 
be considered. These are — 

(1) To exclude from any prolonged tank operation as large 
a proportion of the liquid as possible. 

(2) To effect the sedimentation of the depositable contents 
of the sewage in such a way as will avoid the rising floor of 
sludge, which has been seen to interfere with and to terminate 
other tank operations, by substituting therefor a disappearing 
floor of liquid, which will increase the sedimentation efficiency 
and will make it perpetual. 

(3) To separate the hostile forces of deposition and gaseous 
eruptions by limiting these operations to their own separate 
compartments. 

(4) To prevent undue accumulations of soum and sludge by 



I 



HYDROLYTIC SEWAGE TAKES. 191 

periodically withdrawing that proportion which the special 
method of operating the tank may dictate. 

(5) To correct the frequent outrush of disturbed deposited 
matters, the result of gaseous eruptions, by the re-deposition 
and removal of these solids in an additional chamber, 

(6) To submit the entire volume of liquid to the attracting 
influences of self-cleansing surfaces in order to abstract as large 
a proportion of the finer suspended and colloidal solids as 
possible; and 

(7) To maintain continuously the predetermined capacities 
of the tank. 

These principles are, in the main, secured by dividing the 
tank, which is in its lower part wedge-shaped in transverse 
section, into three compartments by a longitudinal arch-shaped 
division, this shape having been adopted for constructional 
reasons. This arch has openings at its springings and its crown 
for liquid communication. The outlet end of the tank has a 
level weir, which is divided by the arch, so as to apportion a 
definite width of weir to each of the compartments. The two 
lateral compartments or chambers are devoted to sedimenta- 
tion and the oentral to sludge reduction, the wedge-shaped 
portion being for sludge collection, and for its removal. 

The cross-section of the hydrolytic tank is so admirable for 
facilitating rapid deposition and easy removal of solids in 
suspension that it has been adopted in the Norwich scheme for 
the detritus tanks. 

The sewage will enter the sedimentation chambers only. 
The first volume which will flow into them will pass through 
the openings in the lower part of the arch into the wedge-shaped 
portion, which will become gradually filled by the succeeding 
volumes. As the sewage continues to flow, the liquid will rise 
equally in all the chambers until it is level with the weir; 
the communication between the reduction chamber and its 
outlet weir being upward through the crown openings in the 
arch, and thence along a channel carried by the arch. Thereafter 
the proportion of liquid passing through each of the chambers 
will be determined by the relative width of its weir to that of 
the others. 

Numerous experiments have been made in order to ascertain 
the most advantageous division of the weir. The weir of 
Hampton hydrolytic tank was originally proportion^ & the 



192 HYDROLYTIO SEWAGE TANKS. 

ratio of 87*5 per cent to the sedimentation chambers, and of 
12*5 per cent, to the reduction chamber. It was subsequently 
altered, for experimental purposes, to 80 per cent, and 20 per 
cent, respectively. The former or even slightly higher per- 
centages might be recommended in the case of a notably weak 
sewage, the latter would be more suitable for a comparatively 
strong one. 

The period during which the liquid will have to remain in 
the several chambers has also been the subject of continuous 
investigations. These have shown that no commensurate 
advantage would accrue from a longer stay in the tank than 
four hours for the liquid passing through the sedimentation 
chambers, and twelve hours for the liquid flowing through the 
reduction chamber. They have also demonstrated that this rate 
of flow can be accelerated to, and to even less than, one and 
three hours respectively without either disturbing the sludge or 
giving rise to an excessive amount of suspended matters in the 
effluent. 

The sedimentation chambers are more or less wedge-shaped 
on transverse section, and, as previously stated, receive the 
entire volume of sewage. Of this volume 80 per cent, will, in 
the Norwich tanks, traverse the chambers and will, on the 
average flow, pass over the weir at the end of the tank in four 
hours ; whilst the remaining 20 per cent, will descend, through 
the openings in the arch, into the reduction chamber. In other 
words, the contents of the upper two-thirds of the vertical 
height of the chamber, representing 80 per cent, of the sewage, 
will constitute a forwardly moving force, which will carry the 
rising and falling particles some distance along the chambers. 
The light suspended solids will, by this and by their own force, 
reach the surface where they will be retained by the shallow 
soum wall near the weir. The contents of the lower third of 
the chambers, the representative of the remaining 20 per cent, 
volume, will be a downwardly directing force, or disappearing 
floor of liquid, into which the depositing solids will fall, and 
by which they will be conveyed into the reduction chamber. 
These solids will therefore only have to descend, in virtue of 
their own gravity, to the junction of the upper two-thirds with 
the lower third, before entering the volume which will carry 
them out of the chambers as a concentrated sewage. The degree 
of concentration of this liquid can be expressed by saying that 



- 



ft£ES ffOTUXBO ~ so 



PLATE N? I 

Ftc.2" 







£>ocn-y Dj#Gf?fiMs. 



TURBO J20. 

tff.PM. 



F/G.4. 




To face page ipi* 



4 



HYDROLYTIC SEWAGE TANKS. 193 

the greater part of the original solids in suspension in 100,000 
volumes of the sewage entering the chambers will be collected 
in the lower 20,000 volumes, which will pass out of the bottom 
of them. 

The liquid itself will also be found to be of varying degrees 
of specific gravity. When it is heavier than the liquid contents 
of the chambers, it will descend and traverse the lower limits of 
the chamber to the end, and then gradually rising upwards will 
force the lighter liquid over the weir. When it is of lighter 
specific gravity, it will rise and travel to the end of the tank, 
on the surface of the heavier liquid, which will be gradually 
displaced downwards, into the reduction chamber. So that, 
under all circumstances, the depositing solids and the heavier 
liquid will pass through the openings into the reduction chamber, 
whilst the liquid containing the smallest amount of solids in 
solution will pass out of the tank. 

The adaptability of these chambers to the high rates of 
flow of liquid through them, already alluded to, can now be 
easily understood, for if the contents of the upper two-thirds 
of the chambers pass rapidly through them, the contents of the 
lower third, conveying the deposited solids, pass as rapidly out 
of the bottom of them. 

The principle of excluding as large a proportion of the liquid 
as possible from any prolonged tank operation will thus have 
been secured, for 80 per cent, of the liquid will usually have 
passed out of the tank in four hours. It is, however, necessary 
to submit the liquid to the attracting influence of self-cleansing 
surfaces or colloid collectors, hereafter termed colloid'ors, in 
order to obtain the benefit of that principle. This will be 
brought about by placing these colloid'ors in the end three- 
fourths of the chambers, whose dimensions are increased to 
provide for the capacity they occupy. The first fourths of the 
sedimentation chambers will not contain colloid'ors, and will 
be devoted solely to sedimentation purposes, which, in so 
far as the grosser matters are concerned, will be practically 
completed therein. In the end three-fourths the sedimenta- 
tion of the less gross matters, and the abstraction from the 
liquid of the finer substances and colloidal solids upon the 
colloid'ors, will be in active operation until the liquid leaves 
the tank. 

The capacities of these chambers will be always maintained, 

o 



194 HYDBOLYTIO SEWAGE TANKS. 

for sludge will neither collect nor form in them, except such as 
becomes attached to all surfaces, and as the particular surfaces 
in this tank will be self-cleansing, the deposits will, when their 
weight overcomes the power of attraction, fall away from them 
into the reduction chamber. 

The reduction chamber will be the recipient of the concen- 
trated sewage, and will have the rate of flow of its liquid 
contents diminished to one-third of that in the sedimentation 
chambers, in order that the suspended matters may be deposited 
into its lower part, or sludge space. Whilst depositing its 
solids the liquid will flow forwards and upwards to the weir, 
over which it will on an average pass in twelve hoars after it 
has entered the chamber. The action occurring herein will be 
a modified form of septic tank operation. There will be the 
same continuous formation of gas ; the more or less periodical 
discharge of the gas so formed ; and the concomitant disturbance 
of the sludge. The forward movement of the liquid will carry 
some small proportion of the disturbed deposited matter oat of 
the chamber as well as project the re-depositing sludge some 
distance towards the outlet end. The disturbance will, however, 
be limited by reason of the smaller amount of sludge accumu- 
lations, owing to the periodical sludge withdrawals, and will 
only appertain to one-fifth of the sewage flow, and not to the 
entire volume, as in septic tanks. For whatever the disturbance 
in the reduction chamber may be, it will never be communi- 
cated to the sedimentation chambers, nor will the gases which 
occasion the disturbance ever contaminate the liquid flowing 
through these chambers. 

The ratio of the depositable solids — the solids in suspension 
— to the converted matters may be sufficiently accurately ex- 
pressed as three to one ; that is to say three-fourths, or 75 per 
cent., of these solids will either appear in the effluent or most 
accumulate in the tank as scum or sludge. As the essential 
object of a tank operation is to adequately protect the effluent 
from suspended impurities, the excess accumulations of scum 
and sludge must therefore be removed if this object is to be 
effectually accomplished. 

The scum has been assumed to be a desideratum, but this is 
not so. It is in reality a detrimental in that it acts as a barrier 
to the free escape of the gases, and in this way encourages a 
larger scum formation. It will, therefore, be regularly removed 



HYDROLYTIC SEWAGE TANKS. 195 

from the sedimentation and reduction chambers by drawing it 
back to the scum outlet channels. 

The periodical removal of the sludge, though it may be a 
matter of some difficulty in flat-bottomed tanks, will be easily 
effected from the reduction chamber. Numerous observations, 
however, have shown that it is altogether futile to attempt to 
do this from one outlet, for the liquid will come through when 
the angle of the sludge surrounding the outlet valve approaches 
to from 20 to 30 degrees above the horizontal. Therefore the 
bottom of the reduction chamber must be constructed as a series 
of inverted cones or alternatively pyramids having slopes of 
sufficient steepness, and provided with outlet valves at their 
bottoms to ensure the efficient removal of the sludge. 

The character of the operation will, by these means, be 
brought under entire control. For if the chief desirability be 
to secure the maximum of sludge reduction, this can be effected 
by maintaining a high sludge level in the chamber. If, on the 
other hand, it be necessary to minimise gas formation, aerial 
nuisances, and malodorous effluent, this can be secured by 
keeping the accumulation of sludge down to its lowest possible 
limit. 

The liquid issuing from the reduction chamber will be con- 
ducted to the hydrolysing chamber in order to correct the 
periodical issue of disturbed deposited matter from the former 
chamber, and to submit the liquid to the attracting influence of 
colloid'ors. These will be placed throughout the entire chamber, 
excepting in the lower part thereof, which will be reserved for 
sludge collection and withdrawal. The liquid will enter towards 
the bottom of the chamber, and will flow forwards and upwards 
around the colloid'ors to the weir, which it will cross in five 
hours on an average after it has left the reduction chamber and 
entered the hydrolysing chamber. The suspended solids which 
will have been carried over from the reduction chamber, and 
the matters which will be arrested by, and will fall from, the 
colloid'ors, will be periodically withdrawn through the sludge 
outlet valves. The scum which will form on the liquid in the 
chamber will also be regularly removed to the scum outlet 
channels. 

The principles and practice of the hydrolytic tank operation 
have now been considered, and it is submitted that these con- 
siderations have demonstrated that the hydrolytic tank carries 



196 HYDROLYTIC SEWAGE TANKS. 

the operation further, and more adequately protects the sub- 
sequent treatment area than does any other tank — not merely 
in correcting the outflow of suspended matter from it, nor solely 
in excluding a large proportion of the liquid from an unneces- 
sary tank operation, nor even in causing to be removed a fair 
proportion of the finer suspended and colloidal solids from the 
liquid, but also in the efficiency of its provisions for, and the 
easy method of operating, the removal of the accumulations 
during the continuous work of the tank. Chemical precipitation 
tanks achieve some of these objects, but hardly to the same 
extent, and at no inconsiderable expense for chemicals, which 
not only add to the actual amount of sludge to be dealt with, 
but are also associated with less automatic methods of sludge 
collection and removal. 

In conclusion, the writer affirms that if one fact more than 
another has been clearly set out in this communication, if 
practical experience also has demonstrated anything, it is the 
overwhelming necessity for sludge removal from all tanks, and 
the fact that this necessity increases in proportion to the clarity 
of the effluent He desires to emphasise this, not only in 
relation to sludge removal, but also in regard to its subsequent 
disposal, the provision for which can scarcely be too ample 
in any sewage treatment area. 



DISCUSSION. 

The Chairman : Mr. Collins has clearly demonstrated the 
advisability of using reinforced concrete in the sewer he is 
constructing, and the fact that he has been able to construct 
such a sewer at half the cost of iron pipes will, at all events, 
tend to get rid of the opposition of the Local Government Board 
to reinforced concrete. 

Dr. Travis : I have to congratulate Mr. Collins on the very 
lucid manner in which he has described the working of the 
hydrolytic tank, and the several methods of removing the solid 
matters from the sewage. Mr. Collins particularly desires that 
I should refer to the condition in which these solid matters 
exist in sewage, more especially that of the minuter particles. 
In the sewage of Norwich there are on an average per 100,000 
parts, 68 parts suspended matter, which would deposit in two 



DISCUSSION. 197 

hours' quiet settlement, and should be regarded as gross solids, 
capable of being removed by a tank operation. In addition to 
these there are about twelve parts, consisting of fine particles, 
which will not deposit in the time stated, nor can they be 
removed by an ordinary tank operation, but as they can be 
arrested on a filter paper they are recorded with the 68 parts 
as the solids in suspension. Beyond these there are particles 
in colloidal solution, which constitute about 20 parts per 
100,000, and which do not differ except in size from the gross 
or the fine particles. These particles can be demonstrated by 
the ultra-microscope, an instrument which has been constructed 
during the last five years, to be definite, and to be in a sus- 
pended condition. It is just as necessary to remove these from 
the sewage as it is either the fine or the gross substances. Not 
only so, but this removal must take place before the sewage can 
be purified. It occurs when sewage is placed on land, in a filter, 
or is discharged into a river. When sewage is treated by 
dilution — a method in vogue in America — the deposition of 
these solids, the gross, the fine, and the particulate, is evidenced 
by accumulations along the bed of the river. The idea of 
placing sewage in a river is that the oxygen contained in that 
river will destroy the organic matter discharged into it. The 
oxygen content will, up to a certain point, oxidise the products 
which have been created on the bed of the river, but the bulk 
of the matter remains, and gradually accumulates until the 
river becomes practically a septic tank. Mr. Collins rather 
wishes me to mention the ultra-microscope to show that the 
colloidal matters are in a condition of suspension. In operating 
this instrument an ordinary microscope with a high power is 
used, and a very intense but very minute beam of light is 
passed through the liquid under examination. This intense 
light becomes diffracted from the surfaces of the particles, which 
are about a six millionth of a millimetre in size. The size of 
the smallest object which can be seen by a microscope is about 
a seven-thousandth of a millimetre. In observing a liquid 
by the ultra-microscope the particle itself is not seen, but its 
diffraction disc — the light surrounding the particle — is observed. 
Each particle is distinct, and is in continuous movement, 
whether moving in its orbit or in its ellipse. One point of 
practical moment has been established in the Hampton research 
laboratory, and that is that the gross matters can be converted 



198 HYDROLYTIC SEWAGE TANKS. 

into colloidal solution by agitation. This has actually been 
done, even after the matters had been deposited for some time. 
We had a sample of an effluent which had deposited its colloidal 
solids for twenty-two months, and the liquid of which was 
perfectly transparent. This was placed in a revolving vessel 
for twenty-four hours, and at the end of that time, a fairly large 
proportion of the deposit was thrown into colloidal solution. 
In the conveyance to an outfall by gravitation, the sewage will 
not contain a large proportion of matters in colloidal solution ; 
the colloidal matter will be in a gross condition. If the sewage 
is held up in the sewers for a long time, or if it be agitated on 
the way to the sewage works, then a large proportion of the 
colloid matter will be found to be in colloidal solution. If the 
gross colloid matter be submitted to tank treatment, and if it 
remained in the tank for any prolonged period, it would, in 
great part, be thrown into colloidal solution. The method of 
removing this is by bringing it into contact with surfaces. If the 
colloidal solution were left in a vessel, in the course of time — a 
week, a fortnight, or longer — the colloid would come out of 
solution and would form a deposit on the sides and bottom of 
the vessel. 

The Chairman : There is one thing I should like to ask. 
After you have got rid of the gross, the fine, and the colloidal 
matter, how much is left in solution ? 

Mr. S. H. Chambers: I would like to move a vote of 
thanks to Mr. Collins for inviting the Association to Norwich, 
and also for the paper which he has presented to us. I am 
particularly interested in the hydrolytic tank, as my authority 
at Hampton wore the first to instal the tank, and it has now 
been in operation for the past four years. A model tank has 
also been under working conditions during the same period ; 
and the actual work which Mr. Collins anticipates in the tank 
proposed for Norwich has been going on in my district un- 
interruptedly during that time. Mr. Collins has the advantage 
of me, for he has had the benefit of the experience obtained, 
and the experiments carried out at Hampton in designing my 
tank, and I expect in the future Hampton will be left behind 
and Norwich come to the front. 

With regard to the ultra-microscope, I am pleased that 
Dr. Travis has mentioned it, because at the Hampton meeting 
it was asserted, when I stated that colloidal particles could be 



DISCUSSION. 199 

seen, that the instrument had yet to be invented, but I have 
seen these colloids by the aid of the ultra-microscope myself. 

The design of the Norwich tanks is an admirable one, and in 
many ways an improvement on the one at Hampton. 

The Chaibman : I have much pleasure in seconding the vote 
of thanks to Mr. Collins. 

Mb. E. J. Silcock : I think the principle involved in these 
tanks is an important departure in the problem of the separa- 
tion of the solid matter of sewage, and it is one of the results of 
which we shall all look forward to with great hopes that they 
will be successful. The principle, as far as I can understand it, 
is to submit the sewage to the largest amopit of surfaces that 
can be presented to it, so that attraction may take place 
between those surfaces and the extremely minute particles in 
suspension. The method of suspending the colloid'ors in the 
way Mr. Collins proposes is an excellent arrangement. At the 
Hampton works the hydrolysing chambers are filled with flints 
and large stones which do not lend themselves so readily to 
cleansing as the inverted plates in this instance. The main, 
constructed of Bonna reinforced concrete, is also a new departure 
as far as sewage works are concerned. It is a system well 
adapted to the purpose where internal pressure has to be 
resisted. Some five or six years ago I remember trying some 
experiments with reinforced concrete pipes. The culvert which 
was proposed to be made was an inverted syphon, and the 
reinforcement in that case was to be carried out with expanded 
steel. The great difficulty we had was to make the concrete 
sufficiently watertight to withstand the pressure. It did not 
occur to us to make a core or hoop of steel. That addition in 
these pipes seems to give all that is required. The details of 
this have been worked out in a very practical way. The joints 
between one pipe and another are exceptionally strong, and the 
special pipes can be moulded on the site to suit the particular 
requirements of the case as they arise, without being sent to a 
foundry. These are good features. 

Mb. H. W. Taylob : To effect purification of sewage one 
must separate the solids from the liquid, and until that is done 
trouble will result either in the tanks or filters or in both. 
There are certain works and places where one gets a precipitant 
with the sewage itself. I refer more particularly to the pottery 
towns, where a large amount of china clay, in a finely divided 



200 HYDROLYTIC SEWAGE TANKS. 

form, gets into the -sewage and is carried down in the sewer to 

the disposal works. This clay will settle, if it is given time, 

and as it settles it attracts those minute particles — the colloidal 

matters — and carries them to the bottom of the tank. In a 

similar manner, at sewage works in colliery districts, where the 

colliers get their coals gratis, one will always find a considerable 

amount of fine ashes and coal dust carried down the sewers, 

which also act as a precipitant. Therefore, if the sludge is run 

off regularly under those two special conditions, you will get 

better results than with a sewage with no natural precipitant 

in it, but in the majority of cases these conditions are not 

present. When the sludge settles, it generates gases which 

constantly rise in the form of bubbles, and thus these solids 

and gases are opposing elements. At Hampton there are 

420 parts per 100,000 of wet sludge on the one side, while 

opposed to that there is an average of 6J per cent, of gases 

generated throughout the whole of the 12 months. (It will be 

more in the summer, when the temperature is higher and 

bacterial life is more active, and less in winter, when the 

temperature is low ; but 6 \ per cent, is the average throughout 

the year.) That means 6250 parts per 100,000 of gases rising, 

against which there are 420 particles of wet sludge trying to 

settle. That gives us some idea of the opposing forces that are 

going on in an ordinary septic tank. As a bubble rises to the 

surface of the tank it forms a very slight vortex, but it is 

sufficient to carry a small particle of sludge with it. If one 

watches at the outlet of the tank one will see these little bits 

of sludge going over, and that is where the sludge is going. It 

does not stop at the bottom of the tank — except a very small 

proportion — and consequently the experiments reported at 

Exeter are true in a certain sense. The sludge does not stop in 

the septic tank, but is carried forward to be dealt with in the 

filter or contact bed. In the hydrolytic tank which is being 

constructed at Norwich, 80 per cent, of the sewage goes through 

the side chambers, and only 20 per cent, goes through the 

central chamber. The sewage carries with it to the centre 

chamber nearly all the grosser solids, and therefore one gets 

rid of that disturbance which goes on in a septic tank. I think 

this new tank has all the advantage of every other tank I have 

seen, and it has many features of its own, and I believe it to be 

the best up-to-date. I have constructed a small hydrolytic 



DISCUSSION. 201 

tank, which has only been at work for two or three weeks, 
therefore it is too early to speak of its results as yet, but so far 
it is answering well and quite up to expectations. There is 
one other point I should like to emphasise, and that is that 
engineers are naturally very sceptical of accepting anything 
new, especially in sewage disposal. Eesults and analyses have 
been put before me many times, but the majority of experi- 
ments and analyses have been over such short periods that 
they are not sufficient to convince me they were right The 
Hydrolytic Tank Company were very wise, they did not bring 
forward their tank until it had been in operation three or four 
years, and the results are founded, not upon a few but upon 
thousands of analyses carried on regularly from day to day over 
three or four years. It must follow that if they are able to get 
consistently good results over that period of time, the system is 
worth careful consideration. 

Mb. 6. A. Hart : Sufficient regard to detail in design, 
dependent upon the form of treatment to be adopted, is essential 
if the best results are to be obtained from such treatment ; and 
in this respect the design of the hydrolytic tank appears to be 
exemplary. As long as the circumstances and conditions 
which envelope the problem of sewage purification in our 
municipalities continue to vary, as they do at this time, it 
appears to me to be altogether impracticable to anticipate that 
the sludge of our varied localities can be treated in the manner 
provided for in the hydrolytic tank. 

This treatment is, of course, the means to an end, and under 
certain conditions may be said to be the wrong remedy for a 
specific complaint. As typical of this, one may be allowed, 
perhaps, to refer to the conditions which prevail at Leeds, where 
we, as an authority, are situated in a most unfortunate position, 
determined almost entirely by the physical features of our 
locality. Were we able readily to dry to controllable form a 
large mass of liquid sludge in good open land, then one could see 
the great advantage which this form of treatment would present. 

Unfortunately we are not so placed. Our land is generally 
stiff clay and low-lying to the river, and it has been found 
necessary to adopt totally different treatment to our sewage 
and sludge in order to render ourselves immune from the grave 
danger of an ungovernable nuisance arising. 

It occurs to me, however, that I do not see why this general 



202 HYDROLYTIC SEWAGE TANKS. 

design of tank should not be with advantage adapted to a 
precipitative process, although I am not aware whether it has 
been in any case tried in this way. 

Mr. A. Burton : If Mr. Collins will put in the paper some 
rough idea of the analysis of the sewage, it will be a great 
guide to those who have to adapt such works to their own 
towns. I should like to ask whether the liquid from the 
sedimentation tanks goes upon what are generally known as 
bacteria filters, and, if so, whether, when application was made 
to the Local Government Board, they relaxed in any way their 
requirements as to area. It does seem to me, from the paper 
and statements which have been made, that when not only a 
large amount of gross and fine, but of colloidal, matters are 
taken out of the sewage, that such a large area will not be 
required as is generally insisted upon by the Local Government 
Board. Further, I should like to know if we can have a rough 
comparative idea of the capacity of the tank to dry-weather 
flow. We shall then have some idea of the proportion of the 
dry-weather flow to be calculated for. Then there is the ques- 
tion of the colloid'ors. Mr. Collins says the colloid'ors will be 
made of wood, but does not state what kind of wood he proposes 
to use. I presume one with the closest grain would be the 
best for the purpose. The next point is the emptying of these 
tanks. I understand Mr. Collins to say they are to be emptied 
every day. Does he think the proportion of sludge removed 
from these tanks is a serious item ? 

Mr. Edwin Ault (Westminster) : I am much interested in 
what Mr. Collins has said about the Eoturbo pump, but he will 
forgive me if I utter a word of caution to the members with 
respect to the efficiency of the pump. It has been stated that 
the efficiency is 70 per cent, at normal head and volume, 
and that the efficiency does not greatly vary when the head 
and volume are inversely variable, or, in other words, when the 
product of head and volume have a constant value. This may 
be true, but when a constant head has to be maintained while 
the volume is variable, such as will be the case when pumping 
direct into town mains, the efficiency of the Eoturbo, in common 
with all centrifugal pumps, will become lower and lower as the 
volume discharged from the pump decreases, while the head is 
maintained. 

I can corroborate what Mr. Collins has said about the 



DISCUSSION. 203 

serious stress of pipes and joints by wave or oscillatory action 
of water, from a recent experience in connection with a 42-inch 
cast-iron main delivering water by gravity to a pump well, the 
discharge end of the main being open. As the pumping of 
water was intermittent, the supply to tho well had to be closed 
twice daily. The main, for a length of about 2000 to 2500 feet 
back from the well, is laid quite level, and, in consequence, the 
surface gradient of the water flow is such that the pipe is only 
about half full at the discharge end. In closing the valve on 
the outlet, no matter how slowly it was done, a large volume 
of air was locked in the pipe, and severe water hammer occurred 
every time the valve was shut down. This did serious damage 
to the lead joints. A vent pipe was placed on the pipe at the 
back of the valve, which considerably improved matters, but 
the oscillations of the water were sufficient to send jets of water 
through the vent-pipe 40 or 50 feet high. Later a 6-inch bye- 
pass was put on the pipe round the main valve, and was allowed 
to remain open for some time after the large valve was closed. 
This so far improved matters that the occasion for repair to 
joints was practically done away with; but even after these 
alterations I have known the oscillations of the water within 
the 42-inch main to continue for three-quarters of an hour 
subsequent to the closing of the main valve, as evidenced by 
the puffs of air at the vent-pipe. 

With regard to the cost of electrical pumping as compared 
with steam power. I have recently gone through a number of 
.tenders in response to an advertisement for pumping plant to 
deliver 10,000 gallons of water per minute against a total head 
(including suction and friction) of 220 feet. Owing to certain 
decisions of the purchasing authority, the plant will for some 
time deliver into the town mains at the reduced head of about 
150 feet, and the volume pumped will vary largely as the draw 
off by consumers, owing to small reservoir capacity. The pump- 
makers tendering were allowed a free hand as to the class of 
plant they would supply, and they were to guarantee the 
working cost. Amongst a number of tenders received one was 
for an electrically driven plant with centrifugal pumps, and 
the working cost for current, without reckoning establishment 
charges, came to some four times the cost of fuel for the steam- 
driven plant, the cost of the current being 1 \d. per B.T.U. 

Monsieur A. L. Lanseign (Paris): I wish to thank Mr. 



204 HYDROLYTIC SEWAGE TANKS. 

Collins and all the officials of the Norwich Corporation for the 
assistance and kindness received from the time of starting the 
manufacture of the pipes here. The President of the French 
Republic during the week has cemented the entente cordiale, 
but that was cemented at Norwich six months ago by the kind- 
ness to the French officials, who were sent here to superintend 
the manufacture of the pipes. Tou will have an opportunity 
of seeing the work of manufacture and laying of the pipes from 
beginning to end. To enumerate the contracts my firm have 
carried out and have in hand would show that it is not a new 
thing, and that its efficiency has been proved. 



COMMUNICATED REPLY. 

Mr. Collins : In answer to the Chairman's question, it is 
expected that a purification of 60 per cent, will be effected by 
the Travis tanks. 

In reply to Mr. Burton's inquiry as to analysis of Norwich 
sewage, the samples were taken hourly for twenty-four hours on 
May 20, 1908, and are as follows :— 

Solids in suspension s 79*6 

Solids in solution = 85*4 

Organic solids in solution = 39*8 
Colloid solids in solution — 

After two hours* settlement = 31-0, organic = 206 



„ filtration through paper 


= 194, „ 


= 12-4 


„ ,, „ asbestos 


= 176, „ 


= 11G 


Chlorine 


= 8*6 




Ammoniacftl nitrogen 


= 80 




Albumenoid nitrogen 


= 218 




Albumenoid nitrogen in colloids — 






After two hours' settlement 


= 0-45 




„ filtration through paper 


= 0-33 




„ „ „ asbestos 


i = 0*2 




Oxygen absorptions 


= 12-3 





As to Mr. Burton's question respecting the treatment 
following the Travis tanks, the tank effluent will be irrigated 
over 200 acres of the existing sewage farm. On Dr. Travis's 
recommendation the Corporation have undertaken that the 
effluent from the tanks shall be equal to the effluent from a 
tank in which the sewage is subject to chemical treatment. 
This undertaking has resulted in the Local Government Board 
not requiring the provision of filters or contact beds previous to 



COMMUNICATED BEPLY. 205 

irrigation. The combined capacity of the tanks equals 0*23 
of the average daily dry-weather flow. The colloid'ors will be 
made of any suitable wood which can be bought at a fair price, 
probably JaTrah. The Author has considered various arrange- 
ments for ascertaining when the drawing off of sludge should 
cease, but is at present of opinion that the proper time for such 
cessation must be decided by practice. The sludge will be 
disposed of by pumping it to the higher levels of the farm, 
where it will be rem into trenches in the same manner as has 
been adopted by Mr. "Watson of the Birmingham sewage farm. 
The Local Government Board insisted on the sludge being taken 
to the higher levels instead of gravitating to the lower parts of 
the farm, their reason being that the higher levels would not be 
available for irrigation, whilst the lower levels would. In 
answer to Mr. Ault's inquiries, the diagrams of tests of Eees's 
Roturbos — some of which were prepared in the presence, 
and with the assistance, of the Author — show the variations of 
efficiency as compared with head and volume. It will be 
noticed that through quite a considerable range the efficiency 
does not vary much. Of course in pumping directly into a 
town main there are times when there will be no efficiency 
whatsoever by reason of there being no flow, but it would not 
be advisable to use any type of centrifugal pump for such 
pumping. By pumping into a tank, which need not of necessity 
be very large, efficiency can be relied on. 

The Autho* quite agrees as to the excessive cost of electrical 
pumping as compared with the cost when good steam or suction 
gas plant is used, but this disadvantage of electricity disappears 
when relatively small quantities have to be pumped inter- 
mittently because of the labour saving arising from automatio 
working. This assumes the supply of electricity at a reason- 
able price. 

The Members drove in "brakes to Trowse, where an opportunity 
was afforded of seeing the Rolurbo engines and the earlier stages 
in the construction of the Bonna reinforced concrete pipes. The 
party afterwards proceeded to Whitlingham, where they were most 
hospitably mtertained to luncheon by the Sewage Committee, and 
the remainder of the afternoon was occupied with the inspection of 
the work in progress, the manufacture and the laying of the 
Bonna reinforced pipes. 



LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE 
DISTRICT MEETING. 

June 13, 1908. 

Held at Blackpool. 

J. A. Brodie, M.Eng.,Wh.Sc.,M.Inst.C.E., President, 
in the Chair. 



-»Or<K©*- 



The Members assembled in the Council Chamber at the Town 
Hall, where they were received by the Mayor (Alderman 
J. Battersby, J.P.), who very heartily welcomed them to 
Blackpool. 

The President thanked the Mayor for his kind welcome. 



BLACKPOOL AND SOME OF ITS MUNICIPAL 

WORKS. 

By JOHN a BRODIE, MJnst.C.E., Borough 
Engineer and Surveyor, 

It will be convenient to describe very briefly the various 
Municipal Works and Undertakings, which are the subject 
of this Paper, in the following order, viz.: 1. Historical, 
2. Physical Features. 3. General Statistics. 4. Sea Defence 
Works. 5. The Promenades, Foreshore, and Sands. 6. Carriage- 
ways. 7. Footpaths. 8. Private Street Works. 9. Tree 
Planting in Streets. 10. Lytham Boad Bridge over Kailway. 
11. Sewerage and Sewage Disposal. 12. Befuse Destructor. 
13. Highway Depdts and Municipal Workshops. 14. Stables 
and Depdt, 15. Public Conveniences. 16. Open Spaces. 



BLACKPOOL AND SOME OF ITS MUNICIPAL WORKS. 207 

17. Sea-Water Supply Works. 18. Sanatorium Extensions. 
19. Two New Council Schools. 20. Allotments. 21. Corpora- 
tion Land Estates. 22. Public Mortuary. 23. Cemetery 
Extensions. 24. Building Bye-laws: New Buildings. 25. 
Water Supply. 26. Gas Works. 27. Electricity Works. 
28. Tramway Undertaking. 29. Street Lighting. 30. Street 
Cleansing and Refuse Removal. 31. Town Hall. 32. Police 
Courts and Stations. 33. Fire Brigade Depot. 34. Wholesale 
Market. 35. Public Slaughterhouse. 36. Public Libraries. 

The Author is directly responsible for the construction of 
the Works, and the maintenance of the same, in regard to items 
4 to 24 inclusive, while he acts in a consultative and con- 
structional capacity, as occasion arises, in regard to most of the 
other items. 

1. Historical. 

The County Borough of Blackpool is situated at the west- 
ward or seaward extremity of that part of West Lancashire 
known as the "Fylde." The Fylde country has never been 
clearly defined, but may be roughly described as bounded by 
the rivers Wyre and Bibble on the north and south respectively, 
by the sea on the west, and by an imaginary line drawn from 
Preston to Garstang on the east. 

The name "Blackpool," derived from the existence of an 
ancient peaty-coloured lake or "pool" half a mile inland from 
the foreshore, and about 800 yards in width, came first into 
use in the reigns of Mary and Elizabeth. During the reign of 
Charles II., Edward Tyldesley, eldest son of Sir Charles Tyldesley 
of Tyldesley, erected a hunting-lodge on a site now known as 
Tyldesley Terrace. Towards the end of the seventeenth century 
the hunting-lodge was extended into a large country seat. 
Gradually a village grew up around the country mansion, and 
in time many visitors were attracted to the locality by the 
recuperative properties of the sea-breezes, the expansive sands, 
and the excellent bathing facilities to be found. 

On October 23, 1851, the first Local Government Authority 
for the district was constituted, consisting of nine members, 
under the name of the Layton-with-Warbreck Local Board of 
Health. 

On July 31, 1868, this name was altered to the Blackpool 
Local Board of Health. 



208 BLACKPOOL AND SOME OF ITS MUNICIPAL WORKS. 

In 1871 the number of members of the Local Board of 
Health was increased from nine to eighteen. 

On January 21, 1876, a Charter of Incorporation was 
granted, the Council consisting of six aldermen and eighteen 
councillors, and the borough was divided into six electoral 
wards. 

In 1879 the area of the borough was considerably extended, 
and the boundaries of the present six wards were defined by 
the Blackpool Improvement Act, 1879. 

In 1898 the number of aldermen was increased from six to 
twelve, and the number of councillors from eighteen to thirty- 
six, while the number of wards remained at six. Each ward is 
therefore represented by two aldermen and six councillors. 

On August 27, 1898, a separate Commission of the Peace 
was granted to the borough. 

On October 1, 1904, Blackpool was constituted a County 
Borough. 

The following figures will show the remarkable growth of 
Blackpool during the latter half of the nineteenth century : — 





1851 


1861 


1871 1881 


1891 


1901 


Population 
Rateable value ... 


2564 


8907 


7092 12,987 
— £104,909 


21,970 
£178,377 


47,338 
£427,898 



2. Physical Featukes. 

Geologically, Blackpool, as well as almost all the Fylde 
country, is, superficially, in the tertiary and post-tertiary systems. 

Boughly, the northern half of the borough is composed of 
the upper boulder clay overlying the " Drift," and drains inland 
from the sea-front at an elevation there of about 75 feet above 
O.D., in an easterly direction to a natural lake known as Marton 
Mere, over two miles from the sea-front. Marton Mere has an 
area of about seven acres, and overflows at about 20 feet above 
O.D., through an artificial channel, cut about sixty years ago 
for drainage purposes, in a north-easterly direction, and now 
discharges into the river Wyre at Skippool. Previous to the 
artificial watercourse being made, the mere discharged into the 
sea at the same point as the southern section. 

The southern section of the borough is part of the great 
Marton Moss, having about 5 to 6 feet of blown sand, blue and 



BLACKPOOL AND SOMfl Of ITS MUNICIPAL WORKS. 209 

white silt, known locally as " slob/' and has a natural drainage 
by a small stream, called Spen Dyke, discharging into the sea, 
near Tyldesley Terrace. 

3. General Statistics. 

The Registrar-General's estimated residential population, 
at June, 1907, was 62,420. Eateable value, 1908, is about 
495,000/. 

Area of Municipal Borough, exclusive of foreshore, 3496 acres. 
Area of foreshore ••• ... ••• 748 „ 

Total area of Borough ,„ ... ... 4244 acres. 

The death-rate last year was 11*59 per 1000. 

The total rainfall for last year was 33'35 inches. 

Total rates : — General District, Borough, Poor, and Edu- 
cation, 5*. 6d. in the pound. 

Blackpool is, by rail, 18 miles from Preston, 39 miles from 
Lancaster, 47 miles from Liverpool, 49 miles from Manchester, 
77 miles from Leeds, 122 miles from Birmingham, 227 miles 
from London. 

The supply of gas, electricity, and sea- water, as well as the 
tramways, are all owned and controlled by the Municipal 
Corporation, and the water-supply is the property of a publicly 
elected body called the Fylde Water Board, hereinafter more 
particularly referred to. 



4. Sea Defence Works. 

In 1778 the county historian, Mr. Hutton, wrote: "One 
of the leading amusements at Blackpool is to ride or walk; 
another is to figure on the parade. This is a pretty grass walk 
on the verge of the sea bank, divided from the road with white 
railing. It is perhaps six yards broad, and two hundred long, 
with an alcove on one end only, but at the other a wide pond 
or pit." " This parade," continues the prophetic Hutton, " is 
capable, by Art improving Nature, of being made one of the 
most beautiful walks on the island. It might easily be ex- 
tended to a mile, in a straight line, and at no great expense, 
with an alcove at each end." 



210 BLACKPOOL AND SOME OF ITS MUNICIPAL WORKS. 

In 1828 it is recorded that "a fine gravel promenade was 
laid out on the sea bank to a considerable distance, occupying 
a large portion of the site of the old road " referred to by Mr, 
Hutton. 

In 1856 the promenade was extended from Talbot Square 
to what is now known as the Hotel Metropole. 

The erosion of the coast becoming more and more serious, 
Parliamentary powers were sought in the early sixties to 
protect the sea-front. The first Bill promoted in Parliament 
by the then Local Board was unsuccessful on financial grounds, 
as it was proposed to levy a rate equally over the district to 
meet the cost of the works necessary for protecting the front, 
whereas the Lords' Committee in Parliament decided that such 
cost should be borne only by those having property on the 
front, who would be directly benefited by the improvement. 

In 1865 an Act was passed by Parliament containing a 
clause that a special parade rate should be levied on all 
frontagers. That Act is still in force. 

Under the powers of the 1865 Act and a supplementary 
Act (1868) increasing the borrowing powers of the Board, the 
sea defence works and promenade, extending from Carlton 
Terrace to the further end of South Shore, a distance of about 
two miles along the sea-front, were completed, and opened on 
Easter Monday, April 18, 1870, at a total cost of about 88,0007. 

In 1876 that part of the sea-front extending northwards 
from Carlton Terrace to the Gynn, a distance of about 1267 
lineal yards, the property of the Claremont Estate Company, 
was sloped and stone-pitched, and a broad marine parade and 
drive made, all at the cost of the Company. The erosion on 
this ipart of the front was, however, so constant and serious 
that, in 1893, the Corporation promoted and obtained an Act 
of Parliament, authorising the borrowing of 50,000f. for the 
purpose of constructing new sea defence works and promenade. 
The works, which were carried out under the supervision of 
Mr. J. Wolstenholme, Assoc.M.Inst.C.E., then Borough Surveyor, 
were found to be very tedious and costly in execution, and 
were not completed and opened until 1899, at a cost of 
144,7167. 

It was, about the same time, found that the 1865 prom- 
enade (from Carlton Terrace to South Shore) was rapidly 
becoming inadequate to cope with the ever increasing-annual 



BLACKPOOL AND SOME OF IfS MUNICIPAL WORKS. 211 

influx of visitors, so in 1899 a scheme for widening that part 
of the promenade seaward for a uniform extra width of 60 
lineal feet was sanctioned by Parliament, at an estimated cost 
of 345,000?. 

• A short length (about 240 lineal yards) from the extreme 
south end to Victoria Pier was commenced and completed in 
1900, at a cost of 6036/. 

The Author having been appointed Borough Surveyor and 
Engineering adviser to the Corporation in September, 1900, 
was direoted by the Council to re-consider, and report on the 
whole scheme of widening as sanctioned by Parliament, and 
for that purpose to inspect most of the sea defence works in 
this country and on the continent. Acting on his report, the 
Council decided to increase the widening from 60 feet to 100 
feet (except opposite the three piers, agreements with the 
proprietors of which having been scheduled in the Act of 1899 
on a 60 feet basis). The requisite authority for the extra 
widening having been obtained from Parliament by the Black- 
pool Order (No. 1), 1902, the work was proceeded with at the 
South Shore end in June, 1902, and completed and opened, as 
far as Talbot Square, on July 25, 1905, a distance of 3184 
lineal yards, at a cost of 304,000Z. As already stated, the total 
length sanctioned by Parliament was 3584 lineal yards, and 
the total Parliamentary estimate was 345,000/., so that the cost 
pro rata, so far as completed, was about 2500/. within the 
estimate, although the added width had been increased from 
60 feet to 100 feet, and the plant in stock has been treated 
as capital. 



5. The Promenades, Foreshore, and Sands. 

The total length of the foreshore, or sea-frontage, is 4 miles 
167 yards. 

The length of frontage protected by sea defence works is 
2 miles 6 furlongs 11 lineal yards. 

The area of the promenade south of Talbot Square is 
171,521 square yards, and that of the promenade north of the 
same point is 50,257 square yards, or together 221,778 square 
yards, equivalent to about 46 acres of promenading space. 

South of Talbot Square the following are the widths : — 



••• 


... 


IS feet 


••• 


••• 


«0 „ 


... 


••• 


15 „ 


... 


• •• 


80 „ 


••• 


• •• 


n 



212 BLACKPOOL AND SOME OF ITS MUNICIPAL WORKS. 

Promenade proper, average ... ... ... 80 feet. 

Tramway space for doable ttne, from 17 feet 6 inches 
to 20 feet 6 inches. 

West footpath 10 feet 

Carriage-way 40 „ 

East footpath 15 feet to 30 „ 

From Cocker Street to the Gynn the widths are : — 

Lower Promenade or Walk 

Middle ditto 

West footpath ... ... ... 

Carriage-way ... ... ,., 

East footpath ... ... ... 

The area of the sands at low-water mark of an ordinary 
spring tide is 1175 acres; at mean low-water mark the area 
is 748 acres. 

The range of an ordinary spring tide is 27 feet, but tides 
have been aotually measured in recent years with a range of 
32 feet 9 inches. 

The flow of the tide is from south to north, the ebb from 
north to south-west. 

There is an average depth of about 6 feet of sand over the 
foreshore, and under the sand is a bed of stiff clay, of varying 
depths. There is no treacherous bottom or " quicksand " on 
any part of the foreshore, although during temporary shifting 
of the sandbanks the sands may be more consolidated, for 
short periods of time, at one place than at another. 



6. Cabbiage-ways. 

The main thoroughfares are from 45 feet to 60 feet 
in width, with carriage-ways 33 feet to 40 feet in width, and 
two footways each 8 feet 6 inches to 12 feet in width. 

The ordinary front streets, under the Borough Bye-laws, 
are not less than 36 feet in width, with a carriage-way 21 feet 
wide, and two footways each 7 feet 6 inches in width. 

Back streets are regulated in width by a local Act, and 
may be not less than 12 feet in width if required by the 
Corporation. They are usually from 9 feet to 12 feet in width. 

A few passages are from 4 feet to 6 feet in width. 

The length of front streets in the borough is, at present, 
about 694 miles, formed as follows : — 



BLACKPOOL AND SOME OF ITS MUNICIPAL WORKS. 



213 



Description of Paving. 


Area in 
square yards. 


Cost per 

square yard 

laid complete, 

including 

foundation. 


Haslingden setts, 6" to 10" long, 4" to 6" wide, 6" to 
6}" deep, on 7" hand-set pitched foundation 

Soft wood blocks, 3" x 4}" deep, on Portland cement 
concrete foundation 6" deep 

Australian karri and jarrah, 3" X 4}" on Portland 
cement concrete foundation 

Tar macadam, 5" in thickness, on hand-packed rubble 
foundation 8" deep 

Macadam, 5" Penmaenmawr granite on 7" hand- 
packed rubble foundation 


316,800 
12,675 
95,928 
55,805 

823,680 


9. d, 

6 6 

6 1J 
13 5 
5 9 
3 9 



The average costs, per lineal yard of streets, including 
carriage-ways, footpaths, gulleys, connections, and under- 
drainage (but not sewers), crossings, kerbs, and channels, are — 

For streets 36 feet in width, 3J. 1*. lOd. por lineal yard. 
„ „ 12 „ „ 1*. 8«. Od. „ „ „ 

„ w 9 „ „ lu Si. 9(1. „ „ „ 

Haslingden kerbs 12 inches by 8 inches, 3s. 104. per lineal yard laid. 

Ditto channels (paved setts) 2 feet in width, 5s, $d. per lineal yard laid, 



7, Footpaths. 



The footpaths in the borough are from 6 feet to 12 feet in 
width, and are of a combined length of about 124 miles. They 
are formed as follows >— 



Description. 


Area in 
square yards. 


Cost per 

square yard 

laid complete, 

including 

foundation. 


Yorkshire flags, 3" in thickness, bedded on 3" bed of 

sand, pointed in black lime mortar 

Lancashire flags, 3" in thickness, bedded same as 

above ... ••• ••• #•• ••• ••• ••• 

Caithness flags, 3" in thickness, bedded same as above 
Portland cement concrete flags, 2J" in thickness, 

bedded same as above • 

Tar-asphalte, 3" in thickness, exclusive of any 

foundations ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• 

Gravel, 14" to 2" in thickness 

Clinker, about 3" in thickness 


246,752 

188,338 
20,836 

25,860 

126,205 

7,010 

15,840 


9. d. 

4 11 

4 11 
6 2 

4 3 

1 9 
11 
4} 



214 BLACKPOOL AND SOME OF ITS MUNICIPAL WORKS, 



< 

H 

5 

i 



CO 

I 

l-H 

00 



~ 3 § i 

pne* p 

.a ^ co <u 

a 8 31 






4 



4 
i 



i 



* 
& 



I 



• «COt*»Wt»HH I l> fH 



• oo»o^t*aos0 t»«o 



— g — 



OIQ^i 00 iOCQ<*00 

*<i£cSXcfti^H*V* 
e?ef rfoft* t* t» *« 



BIO^^OCOOOO 



*fooo_ ^ _ „ 

*-T*-i t» »o i-< oj eo t* 

Mn pH pH pi 






— ^5 

« OC — 

IT!" 

Cfc 



cn oo «* co «o ©* g» g 



f-toocoeoeoo* I co 



* ia°s 



I « oi «* cm oo a> pi . »« 

S 



«|8S898g:8 

' rH Pi *■* »"* 



g I oooooocft 



^ i 2SS8SS5 

<3 I cmwpicd^qo t^ 



| ^ io c* « ** oo a g 



.1 

.?« i 

ii a ' 



*8 Pi pi ^ 



. O •* t» 00 « C* 00 t* c* 

» IH HpI *- 



<* <* co* of » <* erf i-T 



g''*lGC»pi'*<plC»eO 



CO t-"tff <N QC ) <£*>*+ 



8SS§3§$8 



jttCQQOOOOO 



.t^pi^CO^iOO&iO 



pl^CJOJpi^jOigQ 

o> t> o c<i © a? o g5 
-«f t> pi co ef co -* c* 



o pi pi 



cm -♦< c© io co © t^ go 

d s swags 

55 ic?«* i-f co ©* c* io <n 

pi 

COCNr*CM0000»ftt* 



M 



£" 



p* 

8. 



f. II B 

55 






»ao 



)QOO)C)wAO 



BLACKPOOL AND SOME OF ITS MUNICIPAL WORKS. 215 



9. Tree Planting in Streets. 

The following are the trees which have been planted, under 
the Author's directions, during the last two or three years : — 

156 Acer Pseudo-platanus, or Common Sycamore. These are 
doing well. 

' 138 Ulmus Montana Wych, or Scotch Elm. These are also 
doing well. 

10 Ulmus Campestris Wheatleyii, Elm. Do not flourish 
well in Blackpool, and will have to be taken out. 

10 Ulmus Campestris, English Elm. Do not flourish well 
in Blackpool, and will have to be taken out. 

Total 314, at a total cost of 636/. 16s. 7tf., equal to an 
average of 21. 0s. 7d. per tree, which includes preparation for 
and planting, tree-guards, cast-iron grids, 3 feet by 3 feet, let 
into the flagging, stakes, etc. 

The trees are planted from 15 to 25 feet apart, as far as 
possible in streets running north and south, so as to be sheltered 
from the prevailing westerly and south-westerly gales. 

It is found that the forest trees most suitable for Blackpool 
are the Maple and the Common Sycamore. The next best is 
the Elm, Wych or Scotch. 

The local conditions here are somewhat unfavourable to 
tree planting in streets, as the westerly gales are, in some periods 
of the year, extremely strong. 



10. Lytham Eoad Bridge over Railway. 

The above bridge and approaches were rebuilt during the 
winter of 1906-7, at a cost of 8000/. 

The old bridge and approaches were built under the powers 
of the Blackpool and Lytham Eailway Act, 1861. Lytham 
Koad is the main approach to Blackpool from the south, and is 
60 feet in width, and perfectly straight and level for a distance 
of 1 mile 6 furlongs 107 yards, from the borough boundary 
inwards to Wellington Boad. By the easy complaisance of the 
Local Authority of the time, the Railway Companies, in 1862-3, 
carried the railway under this fine road by means of a bridge 
having cast-iron girders and brick abutments, 36 feet in width 
between parapets, and 30 to 32 feet in width at the approaches 



216 BLACKPOOL AND SOME OF ITS MUNICIPAL WORKS. 

(not more than half the width of the road), and at an angle of 
20 degrees with the centre line of the road. The result was 
most unfortunate, and when a tramway was laid in this road in 
1895, dissatisfaction gradually increased until, in 1905, the 
Corporation obtained a special Act of Parliament to straighten 
and widen the bridge. 

The new bridge, built from the Author's plans, is 50 feet in 
width between parapets, or 10 feet narrower than the road, and 
is in a straight line with Lytham Eoad. It was found im- 
practicable to get the full width, as certain important contiguous 
buildings had arisen since the old bridge was built. It is built 
of steel plate girders on Accrington plastic facing brick abut- 
ments, with Nelson stone facings and copings. The foundations 
were carried down to 12 feet below rail level, through the peat 
on to the blue silt, as the borings showed that no better 
foundation was available at a depth of 30 feet. On the blue 
silt a double layer of 4 inches thick pitch-pine planking was 
laid diagonally, and on this planking Portland cement concrete 
(1 to 4) was deposited for a width of 11 feet and a depth of 
4 feet, and on this the brick abutments are carried, giving a 
pressure of 2600 lbs. per square foot on the blue silt The 
foundations for the approach walls were taken down to an 
average depth of about 4 feet into the blown sand overlying the 
peat, and were formed by steel reinforced Portland cement 
concrete (1 to 4), giving a maximum pressure of 1500 lbs. per 
square foot on the blown sand. 

The steel work was designed to carry 60 tons on a wheel 
base of 10 feet by 5 feet, with a factor of safety of 5. The main 
girders are 60 feet clear span, and vary in depth from 5 feet 
6 inches to 8 feet 6 inches. The cross-girders were specially 
designed to suit the excessive " skew " of the bridge — 60 degrees 
— which is perhaps a record in obliquity. As a double line of 
tramways over the bridge had to be provided for, it was 
necessary also to specially design the cross-girders so as to 
obtain easy curves (in a vertical plane) over the bridge, and 
also at the lower ends of the approach gradients, which are 
lin20. 



blackpool and some of its municipal works. 217 

11. Sewerage and Sewage Disposal. 

It will have been already gathered, from the Section (No. 2) 
of this Paper, describing the physical features of the borough, 
that in consequence of the unusual peculiarity of a large part of 
the area of the borough draining inland from the sea in an 
easterly direction, the sewerage of the borough has been found 
to be by no means free from difficulties. 

It has been found necessary to create three drainage areas to 
be served by pumping machinery (two steam and one gas), in 
order to raise the sewage up to the levels of the main sewers. 
Probably two more low-lying areas may have to be dealt with 
in the same way. 

The sewerage is on the combined system, but, as far as 
possible, the natural watercourses have been utilized to take 
surface water. 

There are about 90 miles of sewers, varying in size from 
6-inch to 24-inch pipe sewers, and from brick barrels 2 feet 
diameter to storage sewers 13 feet 3 inches by 8 feet. 

There are two main outfall sewers, both delivering into the 
sea below low-water mark of high spring tides. The main 
sewer outfall, as well as the surface water outlet, opposite 
Tyldesley Terrace, is made of 800 lineal yards of 3 feet 
internal diameter cast-iron pipes, each with an additional 
length of 150 lineal yards of 3-feet steel pipes, which were 
added last year to each outfall, so as to carry them into deep 
water. 

There is an underground storm-water automatic electrical 
pump, of 107 B.H.P., opposite Tyldesley Terrace, by which 
storm water in the sewers is raised up to sea-level, when there 
is a combination of heavy rainfall and a high spring tide, as 
the level of the sewer outfall at Tyldesley Terrace is practically 
at O.D., and consequently is tide-locked to the extent of about 
13 feet 9 inches at a high spring tide, so that many cellars 
would be flooded unless pumps were provided. 

The northern outfall, opposite the Gynn, is also constructed 
of 3 feet diameter cast-iron pipes, about 450 lineal yards in 
length, and also delivers into deep water. The surface of the 
drainage area at the north end being much higher than at the 
central and south, no pumping is required, as the sewers are 
never tide-locked. 



218 blackpool and some of its municipal works, 

12. Kefuse Destbuctor. 

The first refuse destructor at Blackpool was au eight-cell 
plant, erected by Messrs. Manlove, AUiot, and Co., in 1891. 
Five years later four more cells were put down by Messrs. 
Horsfall and Co., giving a total capacity of about 88 tons per 
diem. The furnaces were top fed. Forced draught was obtained 
by means of two fans, driven by a horizontal engine, which also 
supplied power to a 5-feet mortar mill. Steam was generated 
by a small water-tube boiler, placed close to the cremator, which, 
fed by coke, assisted in destroying the offensive gases. The 
chimney was 120 feet in height and 4£ feet diameter. The 
buildings were of a temporary character, the roof above 
the tipping-deck being carried on cast-iron columns, the sides 
being filled in with timber boards. 

In consequence of the phenomenal increase of both the 
resident and floating population of the borough, the plant 
described above had, of late years, come to be quite unable 
to cope with the summer refuse, which had to be stored in' 
the open until the quieter winter months. This practice of 
storing refuse during the hot summer months was not only 
highly insanitary, but was also very expensive on account of 
the extra handling. 

In 1902, therefore, the Corporation approved a scheme, 
prepared by the Author, for the entire reconstruction of the 
destructor, at a cost of 22,000/. 

The scheme included a new furnace house and tipping-deck, 
62 feet 5 inches by 48 feet, new boiler house, 34 feet 6 inches 
by 34 feet, and engine house, 34 feet 6 inches by 23 feet 6 inches, 
mortar mill shed, 49 feet by 19 feet, clinker crusher house, 
28 feet 6 inches by 25 feet, lime store, new chimney, railway 
sidings, six new Horsfall cells, two new Babcock and Wilcox 
boilers, with engines, dynamos, motors, mortar mills, clinker 
crusher and screen, tin flatteners, etc. The buildings are 
faced with seconds Accrington semi-plastic bricks and terra* 
cotta dressings. The new chimney is 210 feet in height by 
8 feet 6 inches internal diameter, built on the Alphons Custodis 
principle, with specially made perforated Euabon bricks, and 
lined for its entire height with fire-brick, built in vertical 
sections of 20 feet, any one of which sections may be taken 
out and renewed without disturbing the other sections. The 



BLACKPOOL AND SOME OF ITS MUNICIPAL WORKS. 219 

foundations were carried down to the solid red clay, a depth 
of 23 feet 6 inches, and carried on a concrete base, 45 feet 
square by 6 feet deep. Cost of foundations, 999Z.; cost of 
chimney above ground level, 1757/. Total, 2756/. 

The new cells have a guaranteed capacity of 12 tons per 
cell per diem, which they much exceed in practice. The 
boilers develop 460 H.P. at a pressure of 120 lbs. per square 
inch, and the average temperature in the main flue is 1800° 
Fahr. when in full work. The power is converted into electrical 
energy by two dynamos, and is utilised for lighting, driving 
mortar mills, clinker crushers, saw mills, and all the machine 
tools and plant in the Highway Department, Eigby Eoad, 
closely adjoining the destructor. The Author desires to 
acknowledge the most efficient manner in which all the 
contractors carried out their work, and especially Messrs. 
Horsfall and Co., who were responsible for the details of 
the destructor plant proper. 



13. Highway Dep6ts and Municipal Workshops. 

For administrative purposes, the borough is divided into 
two highway districts, north and south, with separate foremen 
and staff of workmen, stores depots, plant, timekeepers, 
storekeepers, etc., for each district, with sub-depots at various 
points. 

The northern district depot is at Greenhill, off New Eoad. 

The southern district depot is at Eigby Eoad. Eailway 
sidings from the lines of the Joint London and North Western 
and Lancashire and Yorkshire Railways are laid into each 
depdt. At Eigby Eoad are also the Corporation workshops, 
administered by the Highway Department, and executing work 
for other departments of the Corporation, including cement 
stores, saw mills, fitter's, blacksmith's, joiners, cartwright's, 
painter's, and cement testing shops, all having machine tools 
driven by electricity supplied from the refuse destructor. Here 
are also the headquarters of the tramways permanent way, which 
is administered by the Highway Department. 



220 BLACKPOOL AND SOME OF ITS MUNICIPAL WORKS, 



14. Corporation Stables and Depot. 

Previous to 1902 the rapidly growing number of horses 
required in connection with Corporation work were stabled in 
a temporary and make-shift manner in various parts of the 
borough. This arrangement had both advantages and draw- 
backs, but it was felt, as the numbers increased, that greater 
economy of administration would be possible by concentrating 
all the teams at one point. 

Consequently, in 1902-3, the present stables, capable of 
accommodating 60 horses, and including horse-keeper's house, 
6 loose-boxes, hay, corn, and other storerooms, chop- 
ping, grinding, and hay-cutting rooms; electrically-driven 
machinery and electric light throughout, shedding on three 
sides of site for carts, etc., shoeing-smith's shop, veterinary 
surgeon's office, men's mess-room, water-troughs, weighing 
machine, etc., were built and equipped at a cost of 17,0001., 
exclusive only of land. The cost of stabling proper worked 
out at the rate of about 701. per horse. 

15. Public Conveniences and Lavatories, 

In consequence of the very large number of day-excur- 
sionists visiting Blackpool during the season, a comparatively 
large number of public conveniences have been erected in 
different parts of the borough within recent years. 

There are four underground, two semi-underground (i.e. 
underground on three sides, but entered on the level on one 
side where levels were favourable), and one above-ground. 
The total accommodation provided is for 277 persons (male 
and female), at a total cost of 11,500/. The accommodation 
varies from 20 to 62 persons for each convenience, and the 
cost of erection from 973/. to 2394/. for eaoh. 

Although the charges are as small as possible, the gross 
revenue last year amounted to 2463/., and, after paying all 
expenses, interest, and sinking fund, there was a net profit of 
about 300Z. 

The conveniences and lavatories are in all cases made 
internally of the best glazed ware, glazed bricks, and tiled or 
terazzo floors, with special arrangements for efficient ventilation. 



BLACKPOOL AND SOME OF ITS MUNICIPAL WORKS. 



221 



16. Open Spaces. 

The following open spaces are situate at various suitable 
places in the borough, viz. — 



Locality. 


Area in 
sq. yards. 


Cost of form- 
ing and laying 
out. 


Average 
annual cost of 
maintenance. 


Remarks. 


King Street and Cook- 




£ «. d. 


£ s. d. 




son Street 


250 


69 11 1 


9 9 4 




Central Drive and 










Central Road 


820 


103 12 6 


9 6 10 


Planted with trees 
which have since been 
removed. Mainte- 
nance cost will in- 
crease to about £25. 


Whitegate Drive and 










Raikes Road 


200 


22 17 6 


5 15 11 


Trees. No grass. 


Raikes Road at Secon- 










dary School 


954 


127 15 2 


28 12 6 




Regent Square 


232 


83 2 4 


9 


Completed in 1907. 


Church Street at St 




Annual rent 






John's Church ... 


398 


6 8 


5 4 2 


Few flower beds. 


Gynn Estate 


3414 


Not yet 
laid out 






Claremont Road ... 


7063 


»» » 







17. Sea-Water Supply Works. 

The Sea-Water Supply Works were originally constructed 
by a private owner, under the powers of the Blackpool Sea- 
Water Act, 1873, from whom they were purchased by the 
Corporation in 1903. 

They consist of a 10-inoh oast-iron intake pipe and supply 
tank built on the foreshore opposite the pumping station, 
from which the sea-water is drawn through 216 lineal yards of 
10-inch cast-iron suction pipes, laid in a 4-feet diameter culvert, 
to the bottom of the pump well, at a depth of 69 feet 6 inches 
below the ground level. From this level the water is lifted, by 
means of two horizontal steam geared pumps, each about 
20 B.H.P., to a height of 61 feet above ground level, or a total 
height of 130 feet 6 inches, into a cast-iron tank, 61,300 
gallons capacity, at an elevation of 141 feet above O.D. A 
low-level tank, 73,500 gallons capacity, is placed just under the 
ground level for storage purposes between tides. 



222 BLACKPOOL AND SOME OF ITS MUNICIPAL WORKS, 

The pumps are of the bucket type, 15£ inches in diameter 
and 3-feet stroke, fixed at the bottom of the well, with long 
spear rods working off the engine-cranks, 80 feet above. Steam 
is supplied by a Lancashire boiler, 24 feet by 7 feet, at a 
pressure of 70 lbs. per square inch. 

Sea-water is supplied to the principal hotels and boarding 
houses, as far as South Shore, through about 5700 lineal yards 
of distributing mains, from 2 inches to 9 inches diameter. 
Sea-water is also used to a great extent by the Corporation for 
street watering, sewer flushing, and other public purposes. 

The total capacity of the plant, working during practicable 
tidal hours, is about 200,000 gallons per diem. 



18. Sanatorium Extensions. 

The sanatorium was originally erected in 1891 from designs 
by Mr. J. Wolstenholme, then Borough Surveyor, on a plot of 
land about four acres in area costing 1700/. ; buildings, equip- 
ment, and laying out grounds cost 6675/., or a total of 8375/., 
and included two ward blocks for 20 beds and 4 cots, 
administrative block, disinfecting and laundry block, and a 
stable. A porter's lodge was erected in 1898. 

Large additions were made in 1905-6, from plans prepared 
by the Author, including additions to administrative block, 
new disinfecting and laundry block, boiler house, 10-bed 
double isolation block, and a 22-bed double ward pavilion, 
giving an additional 32 beds accommodation, at a cost of 
17,052/., including all buildings and equipment, or at the rate 
of 533/. per bed. The present total accommodation is therefore 
54 beds and 4 cots, at a total cost of 25,427/., or at the rate of 
about 462/. per bed, and counting two cots equal to one bed, 
including land. Provision is made for a future extension, if 
necessary, of an additional 22 beds, on the present land. 

The floors are of narrow teak planks throughout, finished 
with Sonuk; the walls are finished internally in Eeene's 
cement and Sipolin paint, and externally of best plastic 
Accrington bricks and stone facings. 

The heating is by hot water, with calorifiers for each block, 
supplied with steam from two Lancashire boilers, one 27 feet 
by 7 feet, and one 15 feet by 5 feet 6 inches. Hot-water pipes 



BLACKPOOL AND SOME OP ITS MUNICIPAL WOKKS. 223 

ran under all floors, and wards are heated by radiators. 
The ventilation is by the ordinary turret ventilators, assisted by 
heated-air inlet stoves and grates. 



19. Two New Council Schools. 

The late Blackpool School Board and, since 1902, the 
Council, as the local Education Authority, have, during the 
past nine years, erected five new elementary schools and one 
secondary schood. Three of the elementary schools were 
erected from competitive designs at a cost of 60,3001., exclusive 
of land, and an accommodation for 3179 scholars, equal to a 
rate of 18/. 19s. 2d. per scholar. 

Two schools were erected last year„ from plans prepared by 
the Author, at a cost of 16,522/., exclusive of land, but including 
full equipment, and an accommodation for 1080 scholars, equal 
to a rate of 15/. 55. per scholar. 

The secondary school cost 20,597/., and has accommodation 
for 400 students, or a cost of 51/. 10s. per student. 

The designs for the two latter (Claremont and Waterloo 
Road) schools provide for mixed and infant departments (900 
each school), but the mixed departments only (540 each 
school) are at present erected, so that the cost per scholar will 
be considerably reduced on completion. 

Both schools are single storey, with classrooms 24 feet 

: 4 inches by 24 feet 8 inches (each 60 scholars) grouped round 

- a central hall 81 feet 3 inches by 30 feet. Heating is by hot 

L water, with pipes and radiators. Ventilation is natural, with 

: < outlets in ceilings connected to turret extractors. Fresh air 

r brought to central hall and classrooms by means of 24-inch 

glazed stoneware pipes, with ducts under floors, and branches 

■[ are run to screens which are provided with hit-and-miss 

aluminium grids. Walls are internally of high-glazed brick 

dados and plaster above, with Accrington plastic bricks and 

^ stone dressings externally. Central halls and classrooms have 

f wood-block floorings, and entrance halls and cloak-rooms have 

granolithic concrete floors. 



224 BLACKPOOL AND SOME OP ITS MUNICIPAL WORKS. 



20. Allotments. 

In 1903 the Corporation laid out a portion of their surplus 
lands on the easterly and westerly sides of Central Drive as 
allotment gardens. The gardens were very quickly tenanted, 
and have been much appreciated by most of the holders. A 
healthy spirit of rivalry is in existence, as is evidenced at the 
Annual Allotment-holders' Show. The contents of the land so 
laid out is about 10£ acres, divided into 65 allotment gardens. 
The number of tenants is 63, and the whole of the gardens are 
tenanted. The gardens vary in size from 482 square yards to 
653 square yards, and the rents — based, of course, on the size of 
the plots — run from 17*. 9d. per annum to 11. 7s. Id. per annum. 
The rent paid clears the tenant, the Corporation paying any 
rates, and also the water charges. 

The Corporation have appointed one of the tenants of an 
allotment on the easterly side of the Drive, and also a tenant 
on the westerly side of the Drive, as respective superintendents 
of the gardens on either side, and these superintendents, in 
return for an allowance from their rent, see that the regulations 
are duly observed. 



21. Corporation Estate. 

The Corporation Estate, 26 acres in extent, costing 13,250/., 
at the Gynn, in the most northerly part of the borough, was 
purchased in 1897 for the purpose of providing filling material 
in connection with the North Shore Sea Defence Works and 
Promenades. Since the completion of these works, the estate 
has been, and is being, gradually sold off for building plots. 

The Corporation also possess limited areas of land in 
various parts of the borough, which are really surplus land left 
after the street improvements have been effected in connection 
with which they were purchased. 

A further estate, adjoining the Gynn Estate, of an area of 
26£ acres, has recently been purchased by the Corporation at a 
cost of 5100/., also with a view to a very extensive contemplated 
street improvement and town planning scheme. 














PLATE NO. 1. 






BLACKPOOL 
| DESTRUCTOR WORKS. 



O 

z 



PLAN, -ELEVATIONS AND 
SECTIONS OF CHIMNEY, 



Ei-evA-now 

PmtlMj at of JEj^ton^ h»* »gu. »y foot . 



[Tfj/<UMj>. 224. 



BLACKPOOL AND SOME OF ITS MUNICIPAL WORKS. 225 



22. Public Moktuary. 

The public mortuary was erected in 1903, from plans by 
the Author, on land belonging to the Corporation adjacent to 
the cemetery. 

It consists of a mortuary chamber 24 feet by 16 feet 
6 inches, fitted with six blue slate slabs each 6 feet 8 inches by 
2 feet 6 inches by 1§ inch thick, built up 3 feet above the 
floor level on buff glazed brick piers ; a post-mortem chamber 
15 feet by 16 feet 6 inches, fitted with special operating table 
of porcelain enamelled fireclay, with overflow to porcelain 
channel formed in concrete floor and leading to outside gulley ; 
juries' viewing oorridor, storeroom, w.c. ; and lavatory accom- 
modation, with hot and cold water. 

The floors are of cement concrete, finished smooth, with 
falls to channels. 

The interior walls of rooms are lined with buff glazed bricks. 
The mortuary and public mortuary rooms are lighted from the 
roof, the lights having a northern aspect. The ventilation is 
natural, by means of extra large louvres, protected by finely 
perforated zinc fly-guards. 

The exterior of the building is of best selected local bricks, 
with blue brick dressings and York stone heads and sills. 

The total coat of erection and equipment of the building, 
exclusive of land, was 666/. 

23. Cemetery Extensions. 

The Blackpool Cemetery is the property of the Corporation 
(who are the Burial Board for the district), and was originally 
8 acres in extent, and was laid out in 1872-3. 

In 1899, by a clause in an Improvement Act, the Corpora- 
tion were authorised to acquire compulsorily a further area of 
25 acres for cemetery extensions, contiguous to and on the north 
side of the old cemetery. This land was acquired by arbitration 
in 1901, at a cost of 7382/. 

In 1905-6 a provisional extension of 3£ acres was made, at 
a cost of 2458/., which included main drainage (average depth 
17 feet), deep sub-soil drains (14 feet below the surface), surface 
water drains (3 feet in depth), laying out walks, levelling, 
fencing, and planting with trees. 

Q 



226 



BLACKPOOL AND SOME OF ITS MUNICIPAL WORKS. 



The deep sub-soil drains were laid on an average 30 feet 
apart, and the average nature of the sab-soil was — 7 feet boulder 
clay, 1 foot running sand, 3 feet of marl, 3 feet of wet loam. 

The roads were formed of 9 inches of hard burnt clinker, 
covered with 6 inches of Carnforth gravel well rolled, with all 
necessary manholes, surface water gullies, etc. 

24. Building Bye-laws: New Buildings. 

The following tabulated return shows the number of new 
dwelling-houses and temporary and movable buildings, as well 
as the lengths of new streets, sewers, and house drains inspected 
and certified under the Bye-laws* and Local Acts : — 



Years. 


New 
Dwelling 


New Streets. 


New Sewers. 


House Drains. 


Temporary 
and movable 


Home*. 


Miles. 


Miles. 


Miles. 


RnlMhwp, 




No. 








No. 


1901 


370 


3 


2J 


5 




1902 


883 


4f 


3 


3 


6 


1903 


311 


5 


3 


8} 


34 


1904 


292 


21 


2* 


31 


48 


1905 


245 


a 


21 


2| 


47 


1900 


318 


1* 


5* 


67 


1907 


295 


3 


3 


4f 


93 




2214 


23i 


18 


27 


295 



25. Wateb Supply. 

The water supply, which is of an abundant and most 
excellent quality, is by gravitation from impounding reservoirs 
at Barnacre and Grizedale Moor, a distance of 18 miles from 
Blackpool. 

The Fylde Water Works, which were originally the property 
of the Fylde Water Company, were opened in 1865. The 
works were acquired by the present Board under Statutory 
lowers in 1899. 

The Fylde Water Board consists of fifteen members, 
nominated by the Corporation of Blackpool (7); the Urban 
District Councils of Fleetwood and Lytham (each 3) ; and the 
Urban District Council of St. Annes*on-the-Sea (2). The Board 
supplies water to practically the whole of the Fylde and 



BLACKPOOL AND SOME OF ITS MUNICIPAL WORKS. 227 

Garstang Districts. Mr. William Wearing is the engineer to 
the Board. 

The present capital outlay of the Board stands at 1,133,7531. 

The rate of annual charges for domestic supply varies from 
Is. 1\&. to Is. 6d. in the £, inoluding one free w.c. The 
supply by meter for trade purposes, other than domestic, ranges 
from 9d. to la. 6d. per 1000 gallons. 



26. Gas Works. 

The Gas Works, originally Btarted by a Company in 1852, 
were purchased by the Corporation in 1861, and have cost a 
capital outlay of about 210,700/. 

The total quantity of gas made last year was 531 million 
cubic feet, yielding a net profit of 15,700/. 

There are about 89£ miles of gas mains, 2170 street gas- 
lamps, and 13,623 private consumers. 

The price per 1000 cubic feet for lighting purposes is, and 
has been for many years, at the rate of 2s. 4d., while for power 
purposes, when taking a maximum of 50,000 cubic feet per 
quarter, the price is reduced to Is. lOd. per 1000 cubic feet. 

The total profits from the Gas Works made since the under- 
taking was acquired by the Corporation amount to 257,700/., or 
considerably more than the capital cost of the works. 

The gas manager is Mr. John Chew, to whose skill and 
ability the extremely efficient and commercially prosperous 
condition of the gas undertaking is due. 



27* Electricity Works. 

The Corporation Electricity Works were originally con- 
structed under statutory powers, and opened in 1893. They 
have been much extended since, until the capital outlay now 
stands at about 190,000/. 

The system of supply is both direct and alternating, with a 
standard voltage of 200, and the works now contain 14 engines, 
with a total indicated horse-power of 4825. These are supplied 
with steam from 12 boilers, each with a pressure of 140 lbs. per 
square inch. There is a storage battery of 260 cells, and a 
cooling tower of 250,000 gallons per hour capacity. 



228 BLACKPOOL AND SOME OF ITS MUNICIPAL WOBKS. 

The units supplied last year were 2,899,204, including 
lighting and power (1,232,932), public lighting (282,251), and 
tramways (1,384,021), yielding a net profit of 8299/. There 
are 1108 consumers, 99£ miles of electric lighting mains, 
277 public arc lamps, and 706 public incandescent and NernSt 
lamps. 

The charges for lighting are on the maximum demand system 
(6d. for first hour and 2d. afterwards), or, alternatively, a flat rate 
of 5d. per B.T.U. ; for power purposes, 3d. for first hour and Id. 
afterwards, modified by a sliding scale based on quantity taken. 

The borough electrical engineer is Mr. Charles Furness, by 
whose energy and professional skill the Electric Light Under- 
taking has been placed on a thoroughly satisfactory profit- 
earning basis. 



28. Tramways. 

The Blackpool Tramways were the first electrically operated 
Street tramways to be installed in the United Kingdom, and 
were laid down by the Blackpool Tramway Company, from a 
Scheme prepared and carried into execution by Mr. J. Wolsten- 
Tiolme, C.E., then bdrough surveyor, as regards permanent-way, 
and Mr. Holroyd Smith in respect of electrical details, and 
opened by the late Alderman Sir J. H. Harwood, of Manchester, 
on September 29, 1885. 

The gauge is 4 feet 8£ inches, and the central slot, with 
underground conductor system, was adopted, current being 
supplied from a generating station at 200 volts continuous. 

The Tramway Undertaking was purchased by the Corporation 
from the Company in 1892. 

Probably no more unfortunate situation could have been 
chosen for central slot electrical traction than Blackpool 
Promenade in 1885, with its frequent sandstorms, floodings at 
high tides, etc., now, happily, experiences of the past. 

In 1899 it was therefore decided to replace the central slot 
underground system by the overhead trolley method of traction, 
at 500 volts potential, and this work was successfully carried 
out by the late Mr. R C. Quin, then borough electrical 
engineer. 

The length of permanent- way (whioh is in charge of the 



BLACKPOOL AND SOME OF ITS MUNICIPAL WORKS. 229 

Highway Department) now in use within the borough is as 
follows : — 

2 miles 1 furlong 9*56 chains of 6-inoh rails (92 lbs.) laid in 1895. 
6 „ 6 „ 9-40 „ >t 4j-inob l , (98 n ) „ 1900-01. - 
12 „ 1 „ 4-71 „ „ 7-inch „ (98 „ ) laid sine© 1900. 



Total 21 miles 1 furlong 9*67 chains. 

The electricity is supplied from the Corporation electricity 
works, at a rate of l'79rf. per unit. 

The tramway capital outlay stands at 281,3901., and the 
net surplus last year was 10,042J. 

Of the above length of single-line track, 17 miles 3 furlongs 
0*7 chains are owned and operated by the Corporation, while 
3 miles 6 furlongs 8'97 chains are owned by the Corporation, 
but are worked by the Blackpool and Fleetwood Tramroad 
Company, Ltd., on the north side, and by the Blackpool, 
St. Annes and Lytham Tramway Company, Limited, on the 
south side of the borough. 

The tramway department has, from the very first,. been 
most successfully administered by the present able general 
manager, Mr. John Lancaster, to whom great credit is due, both 
for its efficient condition and successful commercial position. 

29. Street Lighting. 

The Street Lighting of the borough is in charge of a principal 
Committee of the Council called the Markets and Street 
lighting Committee, and as regards the gas lighting, is under the 
immediate direction of the gas manager, while the public 
electric lamps are under the management of the borough 
electrical engineer, both of these departmental officers working 
under the directions of the above Committee, so far as regards 
public lighting. 

There are 2100 public gas lamp posts lighted, at a cost of 
5423/. per annum ; and 1083 public arc, Nernst, and incandescent' 
electric lamps lighted, at a cost of 5863Z., or a total cost of street 
lighting of 11,286/., per annum. 

30. Street Cleansing and Befuse Bemoval. 

The cleansing and watering of streets, and also the removal 
of house refuse, are in charge of a principal Copamittee of the 



230 BLACKPOOL AND SOME OF ITS MUNICIPAL WORKS. 

Council, with a Cleansing Superintendent and staff This 
department is also responsible for the working of the refuse 
destructor, sewer cleansing and flushing, the supervision of all 
the. public sanitary conveniences, and other similar duties. 

31. Town Hall,. 

The Town Hall was commenced in 1895, and completed in 
1900, at a cost of 81,500?., including cost of site and furnishing, 
from competitive designs, that of Messrs. Potts, Son, and 
Hennings, architects, being successful. 

The facades are of Buabon bricks and Yorkshire stone. 
Facing Talbot Square, over the main entrance is a Clock Tower 
and steel and timber composite spire, covered with sheet copper, 
180 feet in height. 

The ground floor accommodates the Borough Treasurer and 
his staff, the Borough Surveyor and part of his staff, and the 
Advertising Manager and his staff, while part of it is let off in 
shops. The first floor is occupied by the Council Chamber, 
Mayor's parlour, Committee-rooms, and Town Clerk's depart- 
ment. The second floor contains the Borough Surveyor's 
drawing offices and wages clerks' offices, and the caretaker's 
apartment. 

The Town Hall Buildings are already inadequate to meet 
the growing requirements of the borough, as the Medical Officer's, 
Cleansing Superintendent's, and Education's departments are all 
located in rented premises in different parts of the town. 

32. Police Courts and Stations. 

The Police Courts, South King Street, were erected in 1892, 
at a cost of 20,560/., from plans .prepared by Mr. J. Wolsten- 
holme, C.E., then borough surveyor. 

There are two courts, a Coroner's room, Justices' consultation 
and retiring rooms, Chief Constable's residence, with all necessary 
offices, cells, married and single men's quarters, men's recreation* 
room, parade ground, etc. 

The exterior of the courts is of York stone parpoints and 
Kainhill stone dressings. 

There are two sub-district police stations in different parts 
of the borough, and the erection of another is now about to bo 
proceeded with. 



BLACKPOOL AND SOME OF ITS MUNICIPAL WORKS. 231 



33. Fire Brigade Dep6t. 

The Fire Brigade Depot was erected in 1900, at a cost of 
£9288, from plans, etc., prepared by Mr. J. A. Nuttall, 
architect, Blackpool. 

The depfit includes a large fire-engine room, containing :— • 

One steam engine, 400 gallons capacity. 

One manual do. 

One two-horse ohemical carrier and escape combined. 

One 45 feet hand escape. 

One cart hose. 
Stabling containing four horses, offices, Superintendent's resi- 
dence, Firemen's quarters and recreation-room, and the Game- 
wall Fire-alarm apparatus, and all the most up-to-date appliances 
for attending to calls with the utmost celerity. 

34. Wholesale Market. 

The Corporation Wholesale Fruit and Vegetable Market is 
situated in Market Street, and was originally erected in 1854. 
Plans prepared by the Author are now under consideration for 
the entire re-construction of the Market Buildings, at an 
estimated cost of 45,000/. 

35. Public Slaughterhouse. 

The Public Slaughterhouse, off New Boad, was erected in 
1895, from plans, etc., prepared by Mr. J. Wolstenholme, then 
borough surveyor, at a cost of about 14,000/. They are 
substantially built, and are closely adjacent to the main lines of 
the railway companies. Facilities are provided for the annual 
slaughter and dressing of about 4000 cattle, 40,000 sheep, and 
2000 pigs. 

36. Public Libraries and Beading Eooms. 

The Central Public Library was established in 1880, and at 
present occupies temporary premises belonging to the Corpora- 
tion in Market Street. There is also in the same building the 
nucleus of a future Art Gallery. A scheme is, however, now 



232 BLACKPOOL AND SOME OF ITS MUNICIPAL WORKS. 

under consideration for entirely new and more commodious 
Central Library Buildings and Art Galleries. 

There are also three branch Beading Booms and Lending 
Libraries at suitable points in the borough, while in connection 
with the branch Beading Booms at Bevoe, recently erected, a 
Gymnasium has been built and equipped 



DISCUSSION. 

Me. T. W. A. Hay ward : It is gratifying to see that the Cor- 
poration, although they have the public spirit and enthusiasm 
to embark on such expensive schemes, are doing it on the com- 
paratively low rate of 58. 6d. in .the pound. I am glad to see 
you have adopted the principle of wide streets, and that you 
are paving your streets with impervious material. You are 
justified in so doing when your death rate is only 11 per 
thousand, which speaks volumes for the town of Blackpool. 
I think Mr. Brodie is to be heartily congratulated upon the 
success of the sea defence works. 

Mr. E. Willis : Mr. Brodie does not mention the cost per 
ton of house refuse consumed. And with regard to tree 
planting, might we know if the soil has been found unsuit- 
able for planes, acacias, and chestnuts, as each of these have a 
very good appearance, and are fairly hardy. 

In the section dealing with new buildings, mention is made 
of temporary or movable structures approved by the Council. 
I should be glad to know if you have special clauses dealing with 
temporary structures, and whether fees are paid for licenses or 
supervision, and the time such buildings are allowed to remain, 
whether indefinitely or from year to year. Could Mr. Brodie 
inform us if the two-horse chemical fire-engine and combined 
escape has yet had much work to do, and if so, whether it has 
been an absolute success. Some of the prices mentioned by 
Mr. Brodie seem abnormally cheap in comparison with those 
current in or near London. Would he give some idea as to 
the value of labour in this locality. 

Mr. G. W. Lacby: According to the bye-laws, I observe 
that the minimum width of ordinary front streets is 36 feet. 
The paper states that main thoroughfares are from 45 feet to 
60 feet wide, and I should like to ask if there is any difficulty 



DISCUSSION, 233 

in getting owners to lay out now streets of a greater width than 
36 feet. The average cost of streets 36 feet in width is given 
in the paper at 8/. 1*. lQd. per lineal yard, or equal to 10s. 3d 
per foot frontage, which includes, I presume, carriageways of 
macadam, and on this point I should like to ask what is the 
difference between this and the works given in the summary 
statement. I take it that a certain amount of work has been 
done on the new streets, and that the cost in the schedule is for 
the completion, whatever that may include, as the rate per foot 
of frontage for 1907-1908 works out at 8s. 4d. Another point 
is whether back streets are required in connection with all the 
front streets. I should like to know, seeing that the water 
supply is a moorland supply, whether it is subject to peaty 
discoloration, and whether the water is filtered. The charges 
would appear to be rather high. Eespecting the street lighting 
by gas, the cost of which works out at 2L lis. 8d. per lamp per 
annum, the information does not state whether the burners are. 
incandescent or the ordinary fiat flame. 

Mb. A. J. Pkice : I think one should remember, when you 
look at the plans of the sea wall, that this is the largest under- 
taking of the kind in this country, and that Mr. Brodie was not 
only responsible for the design of it, but also for the carrying 
out of the work. 

I do not think the work is quite as ornamental as Mr. Brodie 
would have liked to make it, but considerations of economy come 
in, and therefore one is not able to do all one likes as to 
ornamentation, but with regard to the structure, its strength 
and stability, I do not think there can be any question. It 
was proposed to widen the promenade 60 feet originally, but 
afterwards Mr. Brodie was able to get his way and widen to 
100 feet by showing the Council that it was only a question of 
filling in more sand, and that the wall would be the same cost 
in either case. There are one or two regrettable features. At 
the pier it is badly contracted, being only 60 feet wide. It 
rather spoils the use of the promenade there, and it seems to me 
a great pity that the pier companies stood in the way of making 
the whole promenade the same width throughout. At the 
North Pier there is a return concrete wail abruptly ending 
the promenade. 

The intention, I believe, of Mr. Brodie was to take the sea 
wall across the bay and utilise the space enclosed for sea-water 



234 BLACKPOOL AND SOME OF ITS MUNICIPAL WORKS. 

baths, and it is unfortunate that he could not cany this scheme 
out The return wall had to be made of great strength to with- 
stand the force of the waves, and if the sea-wall had been 
extended across the bay, this wall would not have been 
required, or it would not have been needed so strong as it 
is now. I am sorry Mr. Brodie was not permitted to finish 
this work, but seeing that money is becoming easier — the bank 
rate is going down — the Council may shortly be able to allow 
him to finish the promenade. With regard to the widening, I 
think you must all agree that the way in which the promenades, 
tramways, and roadway have been laid out is a very good 
arrangement. Mr. Brodie thinks limestone is the best material 
for tar macadam, but I think granite would be much better on 
the grounds of economy, durability, and absence of dust Lime- 
stone is too soft a material for a roadway with the traffic you 
get on the sea-front at Blackpool. I have treated the road 
along the sea-front at Ly tham with tar and granite chippings, 
and during the whole of last year I never had a watering cart 
on the road, though forty or fifty motor cars sometimes pass 
over it in an hour. When granite has been put down properly 
you have a more durable roadway, and you have got rid of the 
dust nuisance. I have recently been speaking to a man who 
has a good deal to do with horses, and who said to me, 
" You will always get broken-winded horses on limestone roads 
because of the dust." Turning to the prices given in the paper 
for different kinds of paving, one wonders how some of the work 
has been done. I do not know how Mr. Brodie has been able 
to get Haslingden setts 6 inches deep laid on a 7-inch hand- 
pitched foundation for 6*. 6d. per yard. The price for the 
hardwood blocks is a reasonable one. The ordinary macadam 
roadway, with 5 inches of Penmaenmawr granite on 7 inches of 
hand-packed rubble, is given at 35. 9tf . per square yard, and this 
is a very reasonable price. Then we have tar macadam, 5 inches 
thick, on 8-inch hand-packed rubble at 5s. 9d. per yard, and 
this seems very high. I take it this price is for the front, where 
there are special features. I do not think tar macadam should 
cost more than Is. per yard more than ordinary macadam. 
With regard to the planting of trees in the streets at Blackpool, 
I think the difficulty of doing this is over-estimated. Although 
Mr. Brodie says they have great difficulty in growing trees on 
the front, I think he will be able to do so if his Council will 



discussion, 235 

give him the necessary time and money. Blackpool prides 
itself on being up-to-date, but the absence of trees is the 
penalty of its modernity, and time and money must be freely 
spent before it can look for any great improvement in this 
respect. 

Mr. R. P. Hirst : It must be a satisfaction to Mr. Brodie, as 
it must be to the Corporation, that in the promenade extension 
he has been able to carry out the work within the estimate, 
though he has made the promenade 100 feet wide instead of the 
60 feet originally proposed. That is due very largely to tho 
work being carried out by Mr. Brodie himself without the inter- 
vention of a contractor. I cannot agree with Mr. Price that the 
difference in the cost of a tag macadam road and an ordinary 
macadam road should be so slight as he estimates. With regard 
to the soft wood paving, I cannot understand how Mr. Brodie can 
do that on a 6-inch concrete foundation for 6s. l\d. per square 
yard. With regard to the cost of streets given under the heading 
Private Street Works — summary statement — does that include 
the cost of the main sewer? In a previous paragraph Mr. 
Brodie says the average cost per lineal yard of streets, including 
carriageways, footpaths, gulleys, connections, and underdrainage 
(but not sewers), is for streets 36 feet in width, 31. Is. lOd. per 
lineal yard. Working that out, it appears as though the sewers 
are also excluded from the summary statement, but I should 
like to know whether that is so, and why. With regard to tree 
planting, I think they have made an admirable start in Black- 
pool. It is one of the things which Blackpool requires, but 
an outlay of 21. per tree seems a rather large item. In 
Southport we can do it on an average at about 15s. per tree, 
and we have planted some thousands of trees. The question of 
allotments, though only a small thing at the beginning, is one 
of very great importance, which we shall have to pay more 
attention to. 

Mr. J. Johnson : I should like to ask Mr. Brodie whether his 
price for paving includes the racking of the setts with granite 
chippings and running with pitch, also what his experience is 
of County Clare flags, which I understand he has used, and the 
price of same, as they are not included. I notice that his price 
for Lancashire flagging is 4s. Ud. per yard, and I think there 
must be some mistake with regard to this, as I am in the midst 
of the Lancashire flag quarries and have to pay nearly that price 



236 BLACKPOOL AND SOME OF ITS MUNICIPAL WORKS. 

for best bains flags without squaring or laying. I would like 
to know the reason that the cost of Private Street Works in the 
years 1901-1902 given is so much more than the other years. 
I think if we had the number of hours in the year that the 
street lamps are lighted it would be a useful addition to that 
part of the paper. 

Mr. T. S. Picton : The sea defence works are without doubt 
a splendid example of engineering skill. In the paving of the 
footpaths of Blackpool a great quantity of Lancashire and 
Yorks natural flags have been used. I strongly advocate the 
use of 2£-inch concrete flags. They are cheaper than the 
natural flags, and will give better results : they do not laminate ; 
and they have no holes in them. I think it is proved con- 
clusively by the use of concrete flags on London bridge as 
compared with Yorkshire flags on the Thames embankment. I 
also think the smaller flags give the best results. I am glad to 
see the Corporation are taking action as to providing allotment 
gardens. I am pleased also to see that the repair and main* 
tenance of the tramway track is under the control of tho 
borough engineer, and not the tramway manager. I find there 
is no mention made in the paper of a public bowling green or 
public swimming baths. I take it that the Corporation of 
Blackpool allow private enterprise to make such provision. 

Mr. W. H. Grieves : I have pleasure in proposing a hearty 
vote of thanks to the Author. I should like to have heard more 
of the tar spraying results, which I think our President could 
enlighten us on. The tar spraying Mr. Price did at Lytham, 
was, I believe, on granite and not granite tar macadam. 

Mr. Price : But I have some granite tar macadam. 

Mr. Grieves : I have not yet heard of any very satisfactory 
results of granite tar macadam. I admit that limestone tar 
macadam may be dusty at times, but that may not be the result 
altogether of the material. Dust is also caused by horse- 
droppings and other things on the roads. As to Mr. Price's 
allegation about broken-winded horses on limestone roads, I 
have been in Buxton twelve years, we have nothing but lime* 
stone roads, and I have never heard of a broken-winded horse. 
I should, however, like to have heard something about dustless 
roads, had there been tima I should also like to hear some- 
thing as to how the administrative work is carried on, and how 
you get on with the Local Government Board when the work is 



DISCUSSION. 237 

done by regular men employed by the Council. With regard to 
the use of 2£-inch concrete flags, I suggest that you should go 
in for 3-inch flags, as they are much better than 2J-inch. 

Mr. W. Jones : I desire to compliment Mr. Brodie on the 
nature of the material he has used in his sea wall. In the two 
and half miles of promenade which I have carried out at Colwyn 
Bay, I have unfortunately been obliged to use local limestone, 
and the same durability cannot be expected from that material 
I beg to second the vote of thanks to Mr. Brodie. 

Mr. W. B. Chancellor : Municipal engineers in the Mid- 
lands are seriously troubled with the dust problem. In Lichfield 
as many as 400 motor cars pass through daily. I have been 
trying tar painting the road surfaces and find that it answers 
fairly well during the summer months, but that during the 
winter a nasty greasy mud is created, very difficult to remove, 
and that the second state of the road is really worse than in 
the first instance. I should be glad if the Borough Surveyor of 
Blackpool would inform me whether the whole of the tar 
macadam in Blackpool is of limestone, or whether he has laid 
down any of slag or granite, also which of the materials he 
finds to be the best. We know that limestone in itself is a 
soft material, and I cannot quite see why, when incorporated 
with tar and other ingredients, it should be made preferable to, 
say, granite tarred macadam. There has hitherto been a 
difficulty in forming a suitable matrix to bind granite together, 
but, providing that difficulty is removed, I venture to submit 
we have discovered the road of the future. Respecting the 
cost of laying down tarred macadam I find that it can be done 
in Lichfield for 3s. 9d. per super yard, i.e. 8 inches of slag 
pitching and 4 inches granite tar macadam topping. Limestone 
tar paving on footways in side streets 2 inches thick, including 
foundations, can be executed at Is. 6d. per sup. yard. 



COMMUNICATED REPLY* 

Mr. J. S. Brodie : In reply to Mr. Willis. The cost per ton 
of collecting and destroying the house refuse at the destructor 
is about 1*. 5d. Planes and chestnuts have been planted in 
some of the streets before the Author's time, and, where 



238 BWX5KP00L AND SOME OF ITS MUNICIPAL WORKS. 

sheltered from the prevailing winds, have been successful ; in 
exposed situations, they have not been so. The standard rate 
of wages applicable to the district is, in all cases, paid. Tem- 
porary and movable buildings are regulated by a local act, 
Blackpool Improvement Act, 1901, section 46, but no fees are 
collected by the corporation or the staff. The fire escape and 
chemical carrier answer all the purposes which were expected 
from them. 

In reply to Mr. Lacey. Back streets may be required by 
the corporation 12 feet in width, under the Blackpool Improve- 
ment Act, 1893, section 68, and are nearly always insisted 
upon. The water supply is not from a peaty sub-soil at all, 
and is never discoloured, and although mechanically filtered, 
might very well be supplied without filtration at all. Street 
gas lamps are almost entirely fitted with incandescent mantles, 
but a few flat flame burners are still in use in back streets. 

In reply to Mr. Price. The prices stated in the paper, 
namely 6*. Gd. per square yard for Haslingden setts, and 
6s. l\d. for soft wood uncreosoted blocks, are perfectly correct. 

In reply to Mr. Hirst. The price for tree planting given in 
the paper, 21. 0*. 7d. per tree, includes the tree itself, planting, 
the grating, and wire guard round the tree, under-drainage, and 
all complete, whereas the 15s. referred to by Mr. Hirst refers 
to the tree and its planting only. 

In reply to Mr. Johnson. The higher cost for private street 
works of 1901-1902 over the following years, was in consequence 
of the standard specifications being somewhat modified in the 
latter period. 

In reply to Mr. Picton. Concrete flags have been extensively 
tried in Blackpool, and have not been a success. They are 
found to be quite unable to resist the action of frost, and are 
especially liable to be broken in connection with re-laying gas, 
electric light, and water main trenches. There are no corporation 
bowling greens nor swimming baths at Blackpool. 

In reply to Mr. Grieves. The same difficulty is experienced 
at Blackpool as elsewhere in regard to the views of the Local 
Government Board as to the employment of the permanent 
staff on works carried out under loan. 

In reply to Mr. Chancellor. The Author has had experience 
in the use both of slag, limestone, and granite, but, as the 
general result of such experience, he finds limestone on the 



COMMUNICATED REPLY. 239 

whole most suitable to work with in respect of tar asphalte 
macadam. He is, however, still experimenting in regard to the 
use of granite for that purpose. 

The President and Members attending the Meeting were 
entertained to luncheon by the Mayor of Blackpool at the Hotel 
Metropole. The Mayor (Alderman Battersby) occupied the chair. 

The afternoon was occupied by the inspection of the sea defence 
works and promenades, tar asphalted carriage-ways, wood paved 
carriage-ways, the main sewer outfall, refuse destructor, highways, 
depots, and municipal workshops, corporation stables, sea-water 
supply works, sanatorium extension, electricity works f fire brigade 
depdt, and the garden city at Cleveleys. 



SCOTTISH DISTRICT MEETING. 

June 19 and 20, 1908. 

Held at Dunoon. 
J. Lee, Burgh Surveyor, Paisley, in the Chair 



The Members assembled in the Burgh Chambers, where they 
were received and very heartily welcomed by Provost Dobrfi, 
on behalf of the Town Council. 

The Chairman thanked the Provost for his very kind 
welcome. 

Bye-Laws. 

Mr. Bryce reported that the Burgh Officials had revised the 
bye-laws, and the Committee having made some further 
revision had again sent them on to the Burgh Officials Associa- 
tion. A meeting of the District would be called, and when 
the bye-laws were finally adopted they would be sent to the 
Local Government Board for their approval, and it is hoped that 
would be done in the coming autumn. 

Mr. Bryce was unanimously re-elected Honorary District 
Secretary. 

MUNICIPAL ENGINEEEING WORKS AT DUNOON, 
WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE WORK- 
> ING OF MECHANICAL FILTERS. 

By JAMES ANDREW, Burgh Surveyor, Dunoon. 

Introductory. 

Dunoon is situated on the west shore of the Firth of Clyde, 
where the tidal wave at ordinary spring tides is 11 feet. 

The burgh has a sea-front of 3 miles, on which there are 




,OH*. I9.BARTLETTS toU.uUiNWS, HOLBOftN CIRCUS. B. C 



J 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING WORKS AT DUNOON. 241 

three piers, Dunoon, Kirn, and Hunter s Quay. Dunoon Pier 
is the property of the Town Council, and along with the 
Pavilion, Castle Gardens, and the natural setting behind makes 
a very pleasing impression on the visitor. 

Dunoon was constituted a burgh in 1868, and in the forty 
years of its burghal existence it has evolved from a seaside 
resort for the classes to a popular holiday resort for the masses. 

The following paragraph shows the valuation for the past 
thirty years, and gives the principal events municipally for the 
same period. From it also can be gathered sufficient of general 
interest to make further introductory remarks unnecessary. 

In 1878 the rateable value stood at 36,000/., rising to 42,000/. 
in 1882. In 1891, when the burgh boundaries were extended, the 
rateable value reached 45,000/. In 1893 Dunoon Castle House 
and Gardens were purchased at a cost of 4600/., the rateable 
value standing at 46,000/. In 1895 the burgh was divided into 
wards. 1896 saw the purchase of the Dunoon Pier from the 
Hafton Trustees at a cost of 27,000/., the rateable value having 
then risen to 53,000/. In 1898 the pier, extended and enlarged, 
was opened, the cost being 26,500/., including buildings. The 
rateable value at this date stood at 58,000/. In 1900 the gas 
works were taken over from the gas company at a cost of 31,060/., 
rateable value 64,500/. In 1902 mechanical filters were intro- 
duced. In 1905 the pavilion was built at a cost of 16,000/., 
rateable value 72,500/. 1906 saw the opening of the new Front 
Eoad and Shore Koad widening, cost 38,000/. The rateable 
value in 1908 stands at 77,000/. 

Water Supply. 

To describe the various schemes from among which the 
present source of supply was selected as the most suitable, 
and to go into the arguments for preferring the selected one 
and discarding the others, would provide good subject matter 
for discussion, but it would occupy too much time, and 
consequently only the water supply and works as they are 
to-day will be dealt with. 

The drainage area, 1100 acres in extent, is moorland,, and 
provides pasturing for sheep. It is, unfortunately, lined wibk 
sheep drains, and these allow the water to flow off ttjudlty, 
producing a twofold effect, the reverse of l^neficiaL 

R 



242 MUNICIPAL ENGINEEBING WORKS AT DUNOON, 

The raw water passing over peaty lands and catting its way 
through mossy sheep drains, arrives at the reservoir at certain 
seasons of the year very much discoloured. 

At other times the raw water is quite normal as regards 
colour. 

The storage capacity of the reservoir above the lowest 
outlet is 90,000,000 gallons, equal to approximately three 
months' supply at the time of greatest consumpt. 

The top water area of the reservoir is 10| acres, and the top 
water-level is 242 O.D. 

The outlet from the reservoir is a 12-inch cast-iron pipe, 
and after passing through the filters the water is delivered into 
two clean water-tanks, situated immediately behind the town 
at an elevation of 205 O.D. 

The combined capacity of these tanks is 600,000 
gallons. 

The trunk supply main is made up as follows: 12-inch 
pipe 1550 yards; 9-inch pipe 2400 yards; and 6-inch pipe 
750 yards. 

The distributing mains are as follows: 6-inch pipe 1650 
yards; 4-inch pipe 800 yards; and 3-inch pipe 17,500 
yards. 

Under certain conditions a distributing system made up of 
the sizes and lengths of pipe just stated might be tolerably 
satisfactory, but when, as in Dunoon, the main and only supply 
pipe is on the lowest level, and a considerable proportion of 
consumers on the high levels are supplied almost exclusively 
from a network of 3-inch pipes, the defects of such a system 
become apparent. 

These particulars are noted with a view to invite discussion 
on the subject of distribution. 

The most interesting part of Dunoon's water supply works 
is the filter plant, which consists of twelve of Bell's 8-feet 
diameter patent vertical type pressure filters. 

Prior to the introduction of these filters the water was 
passed through four sand beds, having a combined area of 1300 
square yards. The filtering medium was 3 feet 6 inches thick 
made up as follows ; top layer 18 inches of coarse sand ; 
middle layer 12 inches of coarse gravel ; bottom layer 12 inches 
of 2£-inch metal. 

It was found that these filters did not remove the peaty 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING WORKS AT DUNOON. 243 

discoloration sufficiently, and the Town Council, realising the 
importance of householders being able to procure clear water at 
all times, considered it advisable to investigate the merits of 
mechanical filters. 

Exhaustive inquiries were made with respect to the various 
makes of mechanical filters, the result of which led to the 
adoption of Bell's filters. 

Two filters were put down experimentally, a guarantee 
being given by the makers that the filtrate would be equal in 
colour to distilled water, also that the filters would pass 10,000 
gallons per hour each. 

Both guarantees were fulfilled. The colour of the un- 
altered water taken as 100, was reduced in the filtrate 967 
percent. 

The sand filters reduced the colour 22 per cent. 

The period of maximum colour coincides with the period of 
maximum demand, a coincidence which makes it imperative on 
account of the limited capacity of the clean water tanks to have 
the filter power equal to the greatest demand. 

Each filter is rated at a minimum output of 6500 gallons 
per hour, the combined twelve are capable therefore of delivering 
78,000 gallons per hour. 

During the Glasgow Fair week, when the population to be 
supplied is estimated at not less than 30,000, the consumpt 
for the twelve hours «8 a.m. to 8 p.m. is approximately 800,000 
gallons, the meter registering at 8 a.m. 50,000 gallons ; at 
12 noon 75,000 gallons; at 4 p.m. 58,000 gallons; and at 
8 p.m. 53,000 gallons. The consumpt per head for the Glasgow 
Fair week is 27 gallons for the twelve hours 8 a.m. to 8 p.m., 
and 43 gallons for the twenty-four hours. 

One of the advantages which Bell's filter has over the gravity 
bed is the facility for combining chemical treatment with 
filtration, and it is this combined treatment applied to Dunoon 
water which produced decolorisation to the extent already 
quoted. 

But before dealing with the chemical treatment, a descrip- 
tion of the filters and their working will be given. 

As already stated, the filters are twelve in number. They 
are situated at the lowest part of the 12-inch main between the 
reservoir and the clean water tanks. 

Figure 1, Plate 1, shows the position of the filters relative 



244 MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING WORKS AT DUNOON. 

to the main, also the external arrangement of the piping, and 
is sufficiently explanatory to make it only necessary to 
describe the internal arrangement and the means adopted for 
washing. 

Each filter contains approximately seven tons of fine Leighton 
Buzzard crushed quartz, on the top of which the raw water 
descends. There are 144 strainers at the bottom, conical in 
shape, with detachable perforated lids having countersunk holes. 
The narrow ends of the strainers are fixed to 1-inch pipes which 
in turn are connected to a series of 3-inch pipes, the 3-inch 
pipes again connecting to the filter outlet. The strainers are 
filled with pea gravel, and the space between the bottom of the 
shell and the bottom of the strainer lids is filled with concrete. 
This arrangement at the bottom induces the whole of the 
filtering medium to be continuously brought into action, the 
inclination of the water to descend vertically being no greater 
at one point than another. 

The period of time during which the filters run without 
washing depends on the condition of the water, and intimation 
that it is necessary to wash is conveyed by the gauge. When 
the water is at its best washing is necessary only once in 
three days; when it is at its worst it becomes necessary to 
wash twice in the twenty-four hours. 

In washing, the 5-inch inlet valve on the top of the filter to 
be cleansed (see Figure 1, Plate 1) is closed, and the 6-inch 
washout valve is opened. 

The effect of opening the washout valve is to divert filtered 
water from the 10-inch outlet, which, following the line of least 
resistance, forces its way up through the sand and out at the 
bell mouth, the sand by the reverse flow being thrown into 
suspension. This being done, a vertical, hollow shaft, which 
rests on the bottom of the filter, and, going up through the 
filter shell, terminates in a bevel wheel, is made to revolve by 
means of a pelton wheel driving shafting which engages with 
the bevel wheel of the filter to be washed, by means of a 
movable clutch. 

The function of the hollow shaft is to supply water to the 
arms after-mentioned, the supply being obtained from a vertical 
3-inch pipe branching off the 5-inch outlet pipe. The reverse 
flow, occasioned by the opening of the washout valve, causes 
filtered water to fill the 3-inch pipe* The filtered water is 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING WORKS AT DtfNOOfc. 245 

admitted to the hollow shaft by opening a valve on the 3-inch 
pipe (Fig. 1, Plate 1). 

From this vertical shaft hollow arms, with rakes attached, 
project, and the rotation of the shaft and arms, together with 
the action of jets of water issuing from small back-pressure 
valves on the rakes, completely break up the bed and allow of 
its being thoroughly cleansed. The upward flow of the water 
carries the dirt with it, the wash- water being led to discharge 
into a small stream. 

The operation of washing one filter can be done in about 
four minutes, and it is usual to wash two filters at a time, so 
that the twelve filters may be washed in thirty minutes. 

The chemical treatment consists in adding to the water, 
before it reaches the filters, certain chemicals which possess the 
property of extracting the peaty matter contained in the water, 
and to which discoloration is due. 

Two chemical solutions are required, a solution of lime and 
a solution of alum. 

The lime solution is a saturated solution, and the alum 
solution varies in strength according to the colour of the water 
to be treated. 

These solutions are prepared in three open tanks, two being 
required for the alum solution ; the solution in one of the alum 
tanks maturing the day on which the solution in the other is 
being used up. 

The solutions are injected into the water by pumps, the 
power to work which is derived from the water itself, by means 
of a motor inserted on the 12-inch inlet branch. Plate 1 shows 
the position of the motor. 

The motor is contained in a cast-steel case, 2 feet 4 inches 
in height and 3 feet 4 inches long over flanges. 

The motor oocupies a central position inside the case 
lengthwise, but is eccentric vertically. 

The circumference is made up of six hinged blades, and the 
form of the casing is such that the entrance of the water to the 
case opens the blades, and the pressure, forcing them on, keeps 
them in contaot with the inside of the casing till they reach the 
exit opening, when the water is released, and the blades, on 
reaching the bottom of the case, are closed. The blades at the 
running ends are fitted with rollers revolving on ball bearings. 
Lignum vit® is used for side bearings. 



246 MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING WORKS AT DUNOON. 

The pumps are connected directly to the shaft, which, so 
soon as the water is admitted to the motor case, commences to 
revolve, and immediately puts the pumps in motion. 

The alum pump is a vertical, single-stroke pump ; length of 
stroke 3 inches ; diameter of ram 1 inch. 

The lime pump is a horizontal double-stroke pump ; length 
of stroke, 2£ inches ; diameter of ram, 1 inch. 

The alum tanks are 5 feet square, and 4 feet deep ; the lime 
tank is 4 feet square and 5 feet deep. 

Fig. 3, Plate 1, shows the arrangement of motor, tanks, 
pumps, and piping from the tanks through the pumps to the 
inlet. 

The alum tanks are filled periodically from the top, and 
discharge at the bottom. 

The lime tank is automatically supplied. The water enters 
at the bottom, and rises up through a 6-inch bed of gravel, on 
the top of which is slaked lime. 

As lime water it is decanted about 6 inches below the 
overflow. 

The sulphate of alumina is added to the water through the 
medium of aluminoferric cake, the analysis of which is as 
follows : — 



Al f O, 


... 


... 14-00 per 


cent minimum. 


Fc t O, 


... 


... 075 


» 


Free SO, 


... 


... 0-60 


f 


Combined SO,... 


... 


... 84-30 


>» 


Insoluble ... 


... 


... 011 


n 


Water 


... 


... 50-24 


»» 



At first it was the practice here to add aluminoferric only 
when the colour of the water demanded it, but for the past year 
it has been added at each washing. 

The hydrate of alumina formed by the sulphate of alumina 
and calcium hydrate settles among the grains of the top inch 
or so of sand, the colouring matter of the water forming with 
the hydrate of alumina an insoluble compound. There is thus 
little, if any, fouling of the bed below the hydrate of alumina, 
consequently the arrested impurities are easier removed, and 
less water is used in washing. 

The quantity of aluminoferric used varies according to the 
season of the year. From July to the end of November the 
quantity used is much greater than in other months. 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING WORKS AT DUNOON. 247 

The following table shows the varying amounts used : — 



Table showing Quantity or Aluminopebbio Cake used during 
Tear 1906. 



Week ending. 


Quantity of water 
consumed. 


Quantity of u cake" 
used. 


Percentage of 
•• cake "to water. 




gallons. 


lbs. 


grains per gallon. 


Judo 2nd 


6,700,000 


888 


0927 


„ 9th 


6,822,000 


75 


0077 


„ 16th 


6,516,000 


125 


0134 


„ 23rd 


6,738,000 


687 


0713 


„ 80th 


6,804,000 


820 


0-843 


July 7th 


7,176,000 


803 


0-783 


„ Hth 


7,350,000 


713 


0-679 


„ 2Ut 


7,538,000 


1038 


0*963 


„ 28th 


7,370,000 


1071 


1017 


Aug. 4th 


7,116,000 


1465 


1-441 


„ 11th 


7,032,000 


1800 


1-791 


„ 18th 


7,198,000 


1700 


1-653 


„ 25th 


6,791,000 


1725 


1-778 


Sept. 1st 


6,488,000 


1700 


1-834 


„ 8th 


6,243,000 


1448 


1-623 


„ 15th 


5,883,000 


1330 


1-582 


„ 22nd 


5,482,000 


1100 


1-404 


„ 29th 


5,910,000 


1075 


1-271 


Oct. 6th 


5,424,000 


1300 


1-677 


„ 13th 


5,280,000 


1275 


1-681 ' 


„ 20th 


5,152,000 


870 


1182 


„ 27th 


5,262.000 


900 


1-197 


Nov. 3rd 


5,193,000 


700 


0-943 


„ 10th 


5,090,000 


425 


0'58|4 


„ 17th 


5,112,000 


675 


0-924 


„ 24th 


5,109,000 


450 


0-616 


Deo. 1st 


5,103,000 


600 


0-823 



These quantities were added as the quality of the raw water 
required. In 1906 there was no motor, pumps, or open chemical 
tanks, and consequently there could not be the same exactitude 
in adding known quantities of chemicals, as is possible with the 
Aew arrangement. 

If the motor's revolutions were in direct proportion to the 
quantity of water passed, one observation would be sufficient to 
establish a relationship between the revolutions and quantity 
of water passing. But at 34 revolutions per minute the motor 
passes 36,000 gallons per hour, while at 68 revolutions per 
minute it passes 57,000 gallons per hour. So that for double the 
speed of 34 little more than 1 J times the output at 34 is obtained. 

What is required is a meter from which the output of the 



248 MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING WORKS AT DtJNOOK. 

filters can be learned at a glance. Having got the output it is 
a simple calculation to determine the quantities of water and 
of " cake " necessary to compound a solution of any required 
strength. For instance, say it is required to add 1 grain of 
cake per gallon of filtered water when the motor is making 
68 revolutions per minute, that is, passing 684,000 gallons in 
twelve hours, the amount of cake required would be 98 lbs., and 
the depth of water 32 inches. This quantity of solution should 
last twelve hours. 

The aluminoferric used here is obtained from Messrs. Peter 
Spence and Son, of Manchester, and costs 3/. per ton delivered 
Dunoon Pier. 

The chemical treatment costs on an average 2s. 4d. per 
1,000,000 gallons of filtered water. 

The cost of treatment for labour and chemicals is 7*. 4rf. per 
1,000,000 gallons. 

The total cost including interest and repayment of capital 
is about 20s. per 1,000,000 gallons. 

In concluding with a brief reference to the experience 
gained during six years' acquaintance with mechanical filters, 
it is necessary to explain first of all that until this year the 
plant only consisted of six filters. 

This year it became evident when washing that two of the 
filters required cleaning, as the wash arms could not be moved. 
The inference was that the perforations on the strainer lids had 
become clogged, and that the amount of water passing up 
through by the reverse flow was insufficient to throw the sand 
into suspension. 

Accordingly, one filter was shut off and emptied, when it 
was found that the strainer lids were as suspected. 

The sand, however, was absolutely clean, and the examina- 
tion of the material responsible for the closing of the per- 
forations showed that it was very fine sand. 

The perforations in the old filters are not countersunk, 
consequently it is possible for grit to enter on the top and get 
stuck in the middle of the perforation, and this is what took 
place. The strainer lids on the last six filters have the per- 
forations such that any grit entering the perforations will pass 
through and be caught in the pea gravel, or pass on to the clean 
water tanks. 

The sand, after being six years at work, was deeply stained, 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING WORKS AT DUNOON. 249 

and looked like brown sugar. It was, however, as already 
stated, absolutely clean. The Author tested the old filters after 
cleaning the two defective ones, and found the output of the 
six above their minimum rating, although less than when they 
were first put down. 

The inside of the filter shell showed no signs of incrustation 
or scaling where it was in contact with the sand. There were 
slight signs of incrustation on the upper part of the shell free 
of contact with the sand. 

The condition of the filter shell inside was, in the Author's 
opinion, extremely satisfactory. 

As to repairs, all that has been spent on this item was 
10s. 5d. for strained lids, one or two having been broken in 
removal. 

Improvements. 

The most important improvement carried out within recent 
years was the widening of the Shore Eoad from Moir Street, 
Dunoon, to Kirn Pier, and the construction of a new front road 
from Dunoon Pier to Moir Street, thereby making a continuous 
esplanade between the two piers about 2200 yards in length. 

This was a scheme of some magnitude for Dunoon, and one 
that had often been considered by former Town Councils and 
as often delayed. 

The stumbling-block on each occasion was the finding of the 
filling-in material, over 100,000 cubic yards being required. 
When the Town Council instructed the Author to prepare plans 
for the scheme that has been carried out, they were considering 
the propriety of forming a recreation ground, embracing a full- 
sized football pitch with a quarter-mile track round it. The 
site chosen was a field about 16 acres in extent, the property of 
the Town Council. 

Negotiations had taken place with the Clyde Trustees with 
a view to get the filling-in material from their excavations at 
the Clydebank Dock, but this plan was found to be almost 
impracticable. 

It occurred to the Author, however, that there might be 
sufficient material in the field chosen for the recreation ground, 
and on going into the question this was found to be the 
case. 



252 MUNICIPAL ENGINEEKING WOBKS AT DUNOON. 

So far as construction was concerned this second contract 
was a repeat of the first, and requires no special mention. 

It however interfered with the conditions that existed for 
discharging- coal boats, and the Town Council accordingly 
obtained powers from the Board of Trade to construct a harbour 
for the accommodation of this traffic. 

So far only the north arm of the harbour has been built, 
Messrs. McAlpine being the contractors. It is 225 feet long 
and 41 feet wide on top. 

At spring tides it is left high and dry, and consequently 
there were no difficulties in construction. 

About 40 feet out and 18 inches below the surface a soft 
tenacious livery clay was found, which, on being exposed to the 
air and the necessary movement of the workmen, became a mass 
of unmanageable material that resisted all efforts to excavate it 
with the pick and shovel. 

A Priestman grab worked from a ten-ton crane had no 
effect on it, and the time between the ebb and flow of the tide 
(about two hours) was so short that no progress could be made 
by hand labour. 

Accordingly it was decided to found on the top of the clay, 
and to put in 6-feet lengths of invert 18 inches thick at 10 feet 
intervals. 

There being no likelihood of dredging here, this method was 
permissible. 

The contract price for excavations for foundations was 5s. 
per cubic yard, for concrete in foundations 35s. per cubic yard, 
for concrete in wall 25s. per cubic yard, and for filling 2s. per 
cubic yard. 

The wall was faced with concrete blocks 2 feet 6 inches by 
2 feet 3 inches by 2 feet, cast in wooden moulds, and the 
backing of the wall was 7 to 1 concrete with displacers. The 
blocks were made with 5 to 1 concrete with displacers faced 
with 3 to 1 pure concrete. 

Besides the improvements just described there were other 
improvements of less magnitude, but of not much less importance, 
j carried out. 

! Two lavatories for both sexes were built, one costing 871/., 

| the other 611/. 

Figure 5, Plate 3, shows the accommodation provided by 
the former. 



MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING WORKS AT DUNOON. 253 

The latter consists of six urinal stalls, three washhand 
basins, and three closets for gentlemen ; and three closets and 
three washhand basins for ladies, with attendants' rooms. 

Both lavatories were built on reclaimed ground, the area of 
which is 6| acres. 

Two bathing stations were built at a cost of 198/. for the 
two. Plate 2, Figs. 4 to 9, shows the ladies' bathing station. 

A boating station was built at a cost of 800/., and a boat 
slip at a cost of 5391. 

Figs. 1, 2, and 3, Plate 3, show the boat slip. 

Stairways giving acoess to the beach were built at intervals 
of 100 yards, and the stairways are shown on Plate 2, Figs. 1, 
2, and 3. 

The draining, filling, turfing, and forming track of the 
recreation ground cost 1451/. 

The turf on the field was stripped before the navvy came 
forward, and used in turfing the football pitch. 

The turf cost 8d. per sq. yard relaid. 

The total cost of the work carried out by the Author was 
38,000/. 

The Dust Problem. 

Several of the palliatives have been tried here, but owing 
to rain falling, it was not possible to form an opinion as to 
their efficiency as a dust layer. 

This year the Council decided to experiment on the 
main street with the Gladwell system of repairing, and the 
Author was instructed to put down an experimental section 
of 600 sq. yards. 

This was done, and its behaviour will be noted during the 
summer. The old surface of the road was in no way disturbed 
beyond brushing it and oleaning it thoroughly before putting 
down the sub-binder. 

The sub-binder was put down about | inch thick, and a 
coat of 2^-inch metal 2-stones depth put on top of it, and 
rolled until the binder showed coming up between the stones. 

Then a sprinkling of the binder was thrown on top and 
rolled into the interstices, to meet the sub-binder. 

This method of repairing streets has a great deal to 
recommend its adoption in those places where for the want 
of funds a better system is prohibitive. But in the Author's 



254 MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING WORKS AT DUNOON. 

opinion it is absolutely necessary to its success that the 
specification by Messrs. Gladwell and Manning be closely 
followed. It does not appear possible to regulate the sub- 
binder and metal to varying depths, such as a "cuppy" 
surface supplies. For this reason old surfaces should be 
scarified and rolled true as recommended in the specification. 

As already stated, in the experimental section carried out 
here, the irregularities of contour were not corrected, and there 
are evidences that this was a mistake. 

The cost of repairing this section on the Gladwell system 
was lOd. per sq. yard, while the cost of repairing on the old 
water-bind system was 6d. per sq. yard. 

Kefuse Disposal. 

The refuse is cremated in a Horsfall destructor, which has 
been in operation now for eighteen months. 

The destructor is a two-cell plant with boiler power to 
utilise all the heat generated by the combustion of the refuse. 
It is in duplicate. 

At present there is no steam used except for forced draught, 
but when the plant was put down it was expected to introduce 
electric lighting within the burgh. Nothing has been done, 
however, beyond getting an order towards the putting down 
of an electric light station. 

The cost of the plant, including buildings, economises and 
boilers, was 5066/. 

The following is a copy of the Test report of last July :— 

Bate of test July 10th, 11th, and 12th, 1907, 

Duration of test 58$ hours. 

Number and type of cells Two cells " back feed " type. 

Total grate surface ... 60 super feet. 

System of forced draught • Horsfall patent " hotblast " steam -jet. 

Nature of refuse Domestic and trade refuse, and 

slaughter-house offal. 

Number, size, and type of boiler ,.. One "Baboook & Wilcox" boiler, 

marine G.T. class. 

Economise^ number of tubes Green & Sons, 48 tubes. 

Total quantity of refuse burned ... 56 tons = 125,440 lb*. 

Total quantity of refuse burned per cell 

per 24 hours 12 tons. 

Total quantity of refuse burned per sq. 

ft. of grate per hour 35*4 lbs. 

Total water evaporated ,.. 137,700 lbs. 



DISCUSSION. 255 

Total water evaporated per hour ... 2354 lbs. 
Total water evaporated per lb. of refuse 

from, and at 212° F. or 100° Cent. ... 133 lbs. 
Percentage of clinker and ash to refuse 

burned ... ... • 23 per cent. 

Mean steam pressure ... 170 lbs. 

Mean feed temperature 54° F. 

Mean main flue temperature Over 2000° F. (melted copper). 

Mean temperature behind boilors ... No means of ascertaining this. 
Horse-power developed at 20 lbs. steam 

per I.H.P. per hour 11768 H.P. 



DISCUSSION. 

Mb. James Murray : I have no doubt that in many ways 
the filters described are a great improvement over the old sand 
filters, especially as they can be placed in a very small space, but 
my opinion is that it is impracticable to adopt them in places 
where there is only a limited supply of water. From 2\ to 5 
per cent, of water is stated to be used for the cleaning of the 
filters, but I think it is nearer 10 to 15 p$r cent, as a rule. 
The man in charge of the filters has no particular object in 
saving the water. Another thing is that it is necessary to clean 
the filters frequently to produce good water, especially in the 
months of June, July, and August, these being the months in 
which the highest consumption is recorded for the year. If the 
operation is performed once a day, some twenty minutes or 
half an hour is occupied cleaning the filters. Every one present 
knows that a pipe, say 3 inches in diameter, running under 
pressure for half an hour, takes away a considerable quantity of 
water. Filtered water is used to clean the dirty filters, and 
the operation results in a certain amount of filth being carried 
into the first filters, and vice versa. Taking all that into consider- 
ation, I think that if some better method for cleaning the filters 
could be adopted, the system described would be more universally 
used. I have been told that, as a result of the use of alum, a 
3-inch pipe has been contracted in seven months to almost a 
2-inch. I do not know of any filter which gives us such good 
results in the colour of the water. Good sand unfortunately is 
becoming very scarce for filtering purposes; in fact, the 
material has been brought from Ireland at a cost of 18s. 6d. per 
cubic yard. These filters have the advantage that the filtering 
material is limited in quantity and not so expensive to replace, 



256 MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING WORKS AT DUNOON. 

and there is no chance of suspended material being carried into 
the domestic supply. At Dunoon the population varies from 
9000 to between 35,000 and 40,000, and although there may 
be plenty of water for 10 months of the year yet they have to 
provide for say 40,000 during the other two months of the year 
Dunoon is, to a certain extent, favourably situated. The water 
area supply is moorland, of large extent, and has a good fall to 
the reservoir. I have seen the reservoir filled with a supply 
of water sufficient for 130 to 200 days in the short period of 
seven hours. I congratulate Mr. Andrews very heartily on the 
instructive paper which he has prepared, and I have great 
pleasure in moving a hearty vote of thanks to him. 

Mr. G. D. Mackie: There is a great deal of prejudice 
against mechanical filtration, and I think this is to a great 
extent justified, because, unless the apparatus is worked on 
scientific principles, the chances are that some of the coagulant 
will get through the filter into the filtrate and in that way set 
free the nodules in the pipes. If you supply an acid water — 
no matter how slightly tainted it is with acid — that water is 
unfit for domestic consumption. Therefore, the question of 
mechanical filtration must be gone about very cautiously. "1 
notice that there is only 37 feet difference between the top 
water level and the pure water tanks. He might let us know 
what is the depth of the outlet of the storage reservoir. I 
must join issue with Mr. Andrew when speaking of the 
drainage area ; he says, " It is unfortunately lined with sheep 
drains and these allow the water to flow off rapidly, producing 
a twofold effect the reverse of beneficial." In my opinion it is 
highly beneficial, because when you have a gathering ground 
undrained the water lies on it instead of rapidly passing down 
through the drains to the reservoir. I have visited many of 
the important installations of mechanical filters in Scotland 
and in England, and what struck me in this installation is that 
the Town Council have got two guarantees, one for clear- 
ness and one for rapidity of passage of the water through the 
filter bed. I think one guarantee that ought always to be 
obtained is this — that none of the sulphate of alumina will be 
found in the filtered water, because unless you have that the 
water is bound to act on the pipes. I have sand filters that 
have not been cleaned for six weeks in summer, and I think if 
you have a normal plant you can pass the water through it at 



DISCUSSION. 25? 

nearly as high a rate as you can with these filters, but in that 
case you will not get the same benefit. Of course, in this case, 
you have a pressure, and only the head of water with a sand 
filter. There is an enormous difference in the rate of filtration 
between a slow sand filter bed and that given in the paper for 
these filters. A slow sand filter generally filters at about 500 
gallons per square yard per day. I have worked out the rate 
in this installation, as given in the paper, and find it is 43,000 
gallons per square yard per day. Even in America the general 
practice is not to allow the rate of filtration to exceed 30,000 
gallons per square yard per day. The work of the filter 
depends upon the quantity and the kind of the coagulant, 
and the way it is introduced into the filter. Touching this 
same point of the rapidity of the filtration, the scum which 
is formed by this coagulant is an artificial scum, and one can 
see the danger, if the pace is forced too much, that the scum 
will be broken and impure water forced into the filtrate. Mr. 
Andrew says, " One of the advantages which this filter has over 
the gravity bed is the facility for combining chemical treatment 
with filtration, and it is this combined treatment applied to 
Dunoon water which produced decolorisation." If Mr. Andrew 
means the slow sand bed I agree, but if he means the other 
kind of mechanical filter, which is known as the gravity filter, 
I fail to see how the filter described is superior. 

Mr. Andrew : I mean the open sand bed. 

Mr. Mackie : If you look at the number of installations in 
America, in Africa, and at home, you will see that the pressure 
type of filter is being replaced by the open gravity filter. In 
order to have successful filtration with a coagulant you must 
have absolute control of the coagulant, and you must have 
sufficient storage of the water between the introduction of the 
coagulant into the water and its delivery to consumers, in order 
to allow the chemical reaction to take place and not send the 
hydrate into the consumers' pipes. You must also have an 
absolutely regular rate of filtration. In the case of Dunoon 
I do not think any of these three points are carried out. Mr. 
Andrew tells us he has great difficulty in controlling the rate of 
the introduction of the coagulant into this filter. When I 
visited the filters in 1907 I could not see that there was any 
attempt made to control the introduction of the coagulant. It 
was put in at the will of the attendant, and the method of 

s 



258 MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING WORKS AT DUNOON. 

working was very erratic. If you had a gravity bed the 
chemicals would be introduced by gravity and at a uniform 
rate as compared with the water, and I think in that way you 
would get a uniform result. I think if the filter had been at a 
higher level, and the coagulant had then been introduced by 
gravity, and the water allowed to settle before going into the 
filter bed, a good deal better results would have been obtained. 
I should like Mr. Andrew to tell us in what way he determines 
the amount of sulphate of alumina he has to use for a given 
quantity of water. I know that Mr. Andrew says, " At first it 
was the practice here to add alumina ferric only when the 
colour of the water demanded it, but for the past year it had 
been added at each washing/' If the amount of the coagulant 
is determined merely by the colour of the water then the results 
must be crude and inaccurate. There is only one way in which 
the amount of coagulant to water can be determined, that is by 
determining the alkalinity of the water. In the first place 
peaty water is very soft. If you get an excess of alumina in 
the water you are bound in the long run to get free acid into 
your water, and if you have the least trace of free acid then 
that water is unfit for domestic purposes. Then again, Mr. 
Andrew speaks of this coagulant as fed direct into the filter 
bed. That is wrong, because you must allow some time for the 
thorough mixing of the coagulant with the water. In this case 
it is almost instantaneous, and the reaction of the chemical 
treatment may not take place until a portion of the water is 
delivered to the consumer. If you have a bed for sedimentation 
to take place you can satisfy yourselves that chemical reaction 
has taken place before delivery of the water to the town. In 
that way you will save a good deal of unnecessary work on your 
filter, because you will not require to clean it so often. Then 
you must have an absolute uniform rate of filtration. If you 
have not there is a chance of your breaking the scum on the 
surface of the sand. I do not think there can be any com- 
parison between the results of a slow sand filter and the 
mechanical filter. You know you can get . a perfectly pure 
water with a sand filter; of course, I do not mean a colourless 
water, because I do not look upon discoloration as an impurity. 
If you want a colourless water you must, of course, have 
chemical treatment. Now, taking up Mr. Murray's point as 
to the washing water, I find, it is generally put at 5 per cent, of 



DISCUSSION. 259 

the water filtered. If you are filtering a million gallons it 
means that 50,000 gallons are required for washing water. 
Mr. Andrew has put the cost of the treatment in these filters 
at 20s. per million gallons. I should like to ask if he has 
included anything there for washing water. 

Mb. J. S. Brodijs : Discoloured water may not be dangerous 
to health, but sentiment enters largely into these matters, and 
I think the public are justified in complaining if water is not 
reasonably clear. I have had no experience of mechanical filters, 
for the water at Blackpool gives no trouble; so I think our 
thanks are due to those enterprising engineers — Mr. Andrew 
among them — who have tackled the question and done their 
best to solve the problem with satisfaction. I think it is a 
step in the right direction of supplying the public with a water 
that is both clear and wholesome. But the sea-defence works 
are even more interesting to me than the work of mechanical 
filtration. I have yet to inspect them, but, speaking from 
what I have read in the paper, I have to heartily congratulate 
Mr. Andrew on the success he has attained in a very difficult 
subject indeed. Naturally those who have to fight Father 
Neptune in his attacks on the shores of this country appreciate 
the difficulties to be faced. The filling of the wall has been 
very considerable — namely, 100,000 cubic yards—and I find 
that the cost of carriage, excavating, etc., is very heavy. I 
take it there was no sand available on the seashore, for we all 
know that sand is really the cheapest material to use for filling 
when it is available. At Blackpool we put about one million 
tons of sand from the foreshore behind our new sea-wall, at a 
cost of less than 6d. per ton ; but of course it would be more 
expensive at Dunoon, owing to the difficulty of obtaining the 
material. I notice that Mr. Andrew speaks of the legal diffi- 
culty which he has encountered with the owners of the fore- 
shore. It is more the custom in England for the authorities 
to purchase the foreshore, and this has been done at Blackpool 
at a merely nominal figure. In regard to the displacers, I think 
Mr. Andrew has been very successful in his contract price of 
18s. per cubic yard for foundation, and 14s. 6d. for the wall, 
including facing. That is very reasonable. In making up a 
solid filling behind a sea-wall, there is likely to be a certain 
amount of subsidence with clay, which will result in a hollow 
space being formed. Sand does not give that trouble. I should 



260 . MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING WOBKS AT DUNOON. 

like to know what is the cost of the wall itself per lineal yard 
— I mean the wall as distinct from the backing. Mr. Andrew 
has stated that the contract price for excavations was 55. per 
cubic yard; for concrete in foundation, 35s. per cubic yard; 
for concrete in wall, 25s. per cubic yard ; and for filling, 2*. per 
cubic yard. I consider all those prices are very reasonable, 
though at Blackpool we prefer to do our own work without 
resorting to contractors. By doing the work yourselves, you 
might have saved a little money. 

With regard to the dust problem, I have used no end of 
palliatives, and my experience has been that they will only 
act for a short time. Some more permanent system of making 
dustless roads is obviously necessary. 

I shall be glad to know whether the destructor at Dunoon 
is of the top feed or an open-front type. In my Blackpool 
destructor, I insisted upon a top feed, because in places like 
Blackpool and Dunoon you have to conduct your refuse de- 
struction with the least possible nuisance to visitors, and the 
great problem is to not have any offensive smells coming from 
the destructor at all. We had to go a little out of our way 
to do that, but we accomplished it in the end. I shall be 
glad if Mr. Andrew can tell us the cost per ton of refuse for 
collecting, and for cremation after the collection is made — I 
mean the wages only, and not interest and payments of sinking 
fund, for every town has its own system in regard to the latter. 
I shall be glad to know also what use is made of the residuals 
and the waste heat. At Blackpool we utilise most of our waste 
heat in providing power for breaking stone, sawing wood, and 
in other ways. We separate all fish refuse instead of burning 
it in the destructor, and make a fish manure, at a cost of 1/. per 
ton, for which we get 41. per ton. Fish refuse has a most 
deleterious effect if burned in the destructor. Then we have 
no end of oyster shells in Blackpool, which are ground up in 
mortar mills, and the powder sold for the feeding of chickens. 
There is a good sale for it ; in fact, we could sell more than 
we make. 

Mb. Holmes: In the original filters there seems only to 
have been 3 feet 6 inches or 3 feet 8 inches of filtering materials. 
I presume it would not have materially improved matters if the 
depth of filtering materials had been increased to 5 feet or 5 feet 
G inches, as the difficulty seems to have been to deal, not with 



DISCUSSION. 261 

an impure water, but with a discoloured water. Personally, I 
would prefer to drink a water which was only discoloured, rather 
than a water which was treated with unknown chemicals. One 
thing which has specially interested me in reading Mr. Andrew's 
paper is the large amount of money which the Dunoon Council 
has spent during the last fifteen years or so. It would be 
interesting if Mr. Andrew would give us some idea of the rates 
of assessment in Dunoon, as I should think that with an 
assessable rental of 77,000Z. and a recent capital expenditure of 
about 150,000/. they must be fairly heavy, unless the profit 
from the pier helps to reduce them. With reference to the 
Esplanade, I quite agree with the remarks of Mr. Brodie. The 
price of the wall struck me as being exceedingly moderate. Even 
the filling for the promenade from the football field does not 
seem to be out of the way at Is. 4d. per cubic yard ; when you 
take into consideration the distance it had to be carted, I think 
the Dunoon Council are to be congratulated upon the economical 
results obtained in the construction of their Esplanade. In 
reference to the trial of the Gladwell system of road-making, 
I think Mr. Andrew is right in saying that it is a mistake not 
to scarify the road in the first place, because I can see that 
there are likely to be difficulties if you do not start with a 
uniformly even surface. Probably that mistake will not be 
repeated in any local extension of the system. The cost at 
Dunoon of 4d. per square yard is not a serious addition to the 
cost of repairing by the older method. I think Mr. Gladwell 
claims that it can be done for 2d. or 3d. extra per square yard, 
but I am afraid his estimate is rather under the mark. With 
reference to the refuse disposal, the first thing that struck me 
was the cost of the installation, which is quoted at 5066/. for 
a 2-cell destructor. In Govan we have eight cells, and the cost 
was only about 800/. more. 

Mr. Andkew : It is a 2-cell plant in duplicate. 

Mb. Holmes : That explains the difference. It would be 
interesting to know the cost of burning the refuse at Dunoon. 
Something like Is. per ton seems to be the average by 
other destructors. I should also like to know to what extent 
you work your plant. Our last installation at Govan, with 
forced draught, is guaranteed to burn 10 tons per cell per day, 
but we only work it up to 6 or 7 tons per cell per day ; to work 
it up to the full capacity might involve very heavy outlays for 



262 MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING WORKS AT DUNOON. 

maintenance. We made a very favourable arrangement with 
the firm who built our latest destructor. They undertook to 
maintain it in good working order for a period of five years at 
a fixed rate per ton burned, and at the termination of that time 
they undertook to maintain it for a further period of five years, 
and we expect to have an installation as good at the end of ten 
years as at the beginning of that period, and if that is so our 
expectation of a life of twenty years for the destructor is likely 
to be realised. 

Mr. C. Brown : I have laid 3000 yards of road on the Glad- 
well system. I must say, I have had a good deal of trouble 
with the surface, the horses' feet apparently kicking up the 
small stone. I have painted a thousand yards of the newly 
finished road with the hot tarvia, and that I find properly seals 
the surface and makes a good road. I found the price a good 
deal dearer than Mr. Andrew. I had to excavate the road 5 
inches to begin with. I paid 6 Jrf. per gallon for the tarvia. I 
understand that you can get this material in England a good 
cheaper than that, the carriage being less. 

Mr. J. Young : It is something new to me to learn that so 
much chemicals are required in the operation of the filters 
described. I have to deal with a peaty water, which is brought 
a distance of 19 miles to our filters. The way we get rid of 
the peaty matter is by turning the water into a large service 
reservoir, where it lies for a considerable time, and undergoes 
sedimentation, aeration, and exposure to sunlight. Afterwards 
it passes into six large sand-filters, and in the end we manage 
to produce a good water. If they are properly looked after, it 
is quite possible, with ordinary sand-filters to deal with a peaty 
water, to get a very presentable water indeed. Of course, you 
cannot always have these conditions in a place like Dunoon, 
where the gathering ground is close to the town, and limited 
in area. In such a case you must filter rapidly, and, as a con- 
sequence, the peaty stain is very much exaggerated in the water. 
As regards the sheep drains, I do not consider it any dis- 
advantage to have these on the gathering grounds, for they help 
the water to pass off rapidly — a great advantage. As regards 
sea-walls, I should like to ask Mr. Andrew and also Mr. Brodie 
— whom we are pleased to see with us in Scotland — whether the 
erection of the sea-wall has promoted additional erosion on 
thd sea-beach. That is a question which may have been under 



discission. 263 

the observation of surveyors of seaside towns. I have had an 
unhappy experience of a fore shore about three-quarters of a 
mile in length. Seven years ago the foundation of the esplanade 
wall had a covering of from 2 feet to 3 feet of sand, but at the 
present time it is 3 feet below the foundation of the wall, and 
the only thing to do has been to protect the toe of the founda- 
tion by putting in groynes the whole length of the esplanade. 
Possibly Mr. Andrew has had a different kind of foreshore to 
deal with in Dunoon. I rather think, after looking at it, that 
a great deal of rock must have been encountered, but there may 
have been bad ground to contend with, and I shall be very 
pleased to hear in the reply what was done when soft material 
was met, whether the foundations were strengthened or any 
precautions taken for strengthening or deepening the toe of the 
wall. I notice that Mr. Andrew faced up his wall with a 
different material from that in the heart of the wall, and I 
should like to know how that was got into place in the work. 
You have in Dunoon a destructor of the back-feed type. Am I 
to understand that there are two units of two cells in that 
destructor? 

Mb. Andrew : Yes, absolutely in duplicate. 

Mr. Young : Four grates. 

Mr. Andrew: Yes. 

Mr. Young: Top-feed destructors have been the subject 
of much controversy among surveyors, and I must say that one 
I know of was very disappointing. After the refuse was tipped 
down, the ironwork of the charging opening became red hot, and 
set the refuse on the furnace cooking and stewing. The result 
was that it was decided to alter the destructor to one of the 
Horsfall type, and in order to put an end to the cooking and 
stewing I have referred to, they laid down a 6-inch hollow 
floor of agricultural tiles laid in concrete, and passed through 
it a current of cold air. I have at present in my burgh a 
Meldrum front-feed destructor, and with that there is no 
nuisance of the kind I have spoken of. I am experimenting 
and doing my best to find some material combined with 
macadam which will not require very much renewal, at the 
same time keeping a permanent surface and preventing dust. 
As long as we have whinstone macadam to deal with and 
water-binding, it is certain that we shall have dust. I shall, 
therefore, be very interested to see the result of the use of the 



264 MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING WORKS AT DUNOON. 

tarvia binder. My view is, that it is not the right thing to 
lay tarred metal, or even tarvia, on a road that has not been 
previously scarified. The proper course is to scarify the road 
thoroughly and bring the road to a proper curvature and even 
surface, put on the stone, and then roll it. Tou will find the 
same difficulty when you make a new road with hand-pitched 
bottoming. If you have many depressions in the foundation, 
they are sure to repeat themselves in the top surface. It is not 
practicable to manipulate tarred metal in the same way as 
water-bound material. In connection with this dust question 
I intend to try an experiment on some 4800 yards of a new 
road laid in the following manner. I take 2£-inch machine* 
broken whinstone metal, screened, and I lay that 3J inches or 
4£ inches thick. I then take lj-inch metal and give it a 
slight sprinkling over the road so as to very nearly fill up the 
interstices. Then I bring on a tar spraying-machine and 
thoroughly tar-spray the road several times, and roll it hard. 
Having put on the top dressing of tar and chips, I again roll the 
road to its finished surface. In that way I am hopeful of making 
a road nearly equal to tar macadam. The cost of the tar-spraying 
for the machine and the composition of tar and other ingredients 
is quoted to me at something about 4d. per yard, but from that 
4d. I have to deduct the saving in the carting of the water, the 
sand and gravel, and the brushing and sweeping required to 
make an ordinary water-bound road. 

Mr. J. R. Wilson : There is one point in the paper which 
previous speakers have passed over — that is, the distribution of 
the water. I see from the paper there is some 17,500 yards of 
3-inch pipe. I consider that an enormous quantity of small 
pipes for a burgh like Dunoon. In my burgh I have great 
difficulty in supplying from a 3-inch pipe, owing to the heavy 
draw. To obviate that, in a good many places, we have laid 
5-inch pipes in place of 3-inch. With the larger pipe I find 
less waste and a better supply of water, while it is of more use 
in case of an outbreak of fire. I think it would be an advantage 
to Dunoon if Mr. Andrew had permission to take up half of 
these 17,500 yards of 3-inch pipe, and replace them with 
5-inch. You would find the benefit in less waste, and fewer 
complaints from consumers. 

Mr. J. P. Spencer : To my mind the most important part of 
the discussion to-day has been with regard to the mechanical 



DISCUSSION. 265 

filtration of the water. It is a difficulty which I fear has yet 
to be satisfactorily solved. Primarily, to have soft water you 
must, in its natural state, have it somewhat discoloured. A 
white water is always a hard water. I am exceedingly sorry 
to find with many consumers a certain amount of prejudice 
obtains against a water which has any amount of discolora- 
tion, because from medical testimony — though doctors differ 
on this as on many other subjects — in chalk districts certain 
diseases are more prevalent, where the water is of a hard, limey 
nature. I have some experience of the chalk districts in the 
southern and western parts of England, and whether it is from 
the domestic water supply passing through the chalk hills I 
cannot say, but a tendency to cancer is said to be more pre- 
valent in some of those districts than where a soft and 
originally discoloured water is supplied. On the other hand, 
it is said that the hard water full of lime — or rather, I should 
say, full of the effects of passing through the lime — is better 
for bone formation in children, but even in that doctors differ, 
and to have the full force of truth it must be taken that 
children live on water and nothing else. The bone formation 
is more largely contained in the food they eat than in the water 
they drink. Therefore, I think in those parts of Scotland, and 
some parts of the North-East of England, where the water is 
soft, although somewhat discoloured with an absolutely harm- 
less element, namely, peaty discoloration, there is no reason to 
complain, or to be at all downhearted about it. At the same 
time we cannot disguise the fact that the ordinary consumer 
has a prejudice against a water which is not supplied to him a 
pure white. I am afraid that sometimes they like it to be not 
only white but sparkling. We know that a sparkling water 
contains carbonic gas, chiefly derived, in the case of well water, 
from contamination by sewage. But it looks all the prettier to 
the eye for the contamination. I think the mechanical filtra- 
tion might be supplemented afterwards by a certain amount of 
sand gravitation filtration, but to obtain that object it would 
have to be known before the works were designed, because it 
very largely resolves itself into a question of levels. That 
brings me to this question : What does Mr. Andrew find the 
minimum head of water necessary to work the motors and the 
filters ? The success or otherwise of mechanical filtration must 
to some extent depend upon the level you have at your 



266 MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING WORKS AT DUNOON. 

disposal between the storage reservoir and the clear water 
tank. The question of the retaining wall at the esplanade is 
most interesting, and I am very glad to see that Mr. Andrew 
has given Dunoon the benefit of the sectional shape he has 
done. One of the greatest drawbacks to the sea walls and 
promenades of many of the chief watering places is that when 
the wind is direct upon the coast the waves wash up and break 
upon the promenade. It is evident from the section that such 
an objection cannot happen at Dunoon. Another good feature 
is the manner in which the sheeting is secured at the back of 
the wall to keep it in position. The dust problem is always to 
be with us, as we are told that the motor car is always to be. 
It occurs to me that it is very unreasonable on the part of 
users and owners of motor cara that they appear to think 
they have only to demand a road which shall create no dust. 
That, I am afraid, is not likely to be accomplished, though 
efforts are now being made by surveyors throughout the king- 
dom to minimise the amount of dust on the roads. Owners of 
motor cars think the problem would be solved if a road was 
made which did not create dust. That is a great mistake, as 
every surveyor of practical experience knows the dust upon a 
road is not altogether produced by friction and wear upon the 
road itself. Dust comes from many quarters, and even if you 
got a smooth and hard surface you would still have the dust 
which comes from adjacent places and settles upon the road. 
Therefore the effort ought to be mutual, and the users of motor 
cars should be a little more strenuous in their endeavour to 
alter the construction of motor cars so as not to throw so many 
obstacles in the way of a satisfactory result. 

The Chairman: We have, in Paisley, a pressure filter 
through which we pass a little water to serve a few villas in 
an outlying district. The water is taken direct from the 
reservoir, and, though the water is pretty clear, we put the 
filter in so that we might assure the residents that the water 
is properly filtered. Like some others, I am a strong supporter 
of sand filtration. In Paisley we have nineteen very large 
sand filters, and we are completing another three of the same 
size. Like Mr. Young, my opinion is that if towns can have 
sufficient storage — and large enough storage reservoirs — you 
will get rid of the trouble in filtration. Corporations should 
look further ahead. They look for sufficient size in reservoirs 



REPLY TO DISCUSSION. 267 

and filters to last for about thirty years, but they should get a 
very much larger area, particularly for filters. The cutting of 
the sheep drains on the gathering area is a very good idea. 
Three years ago we spent a considerable sum of money in 
cutting sheep drains on our gathering area. This has proved 
a great advantage. Wo get the water very much quicker, and 
the ground has dried. Of course, at the beginning we had 
trouble by water being very much discoloured. I should like 
to congratulate Mr. Brodie upon getting 71. 10$. a ton for some 
of his refuse. 



EEPLY TO DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Andrew, in reply, said : I am glad the paper has called 
forth so much discussion. I do not intend to say that we are 
by any means perfect in the treatment of the water by the 
system we have in Dunoon, but we are making improvements 
every day. You are not to think that the water is being treated 
because of any slight discoloration in it. It has not been 
possible by sand filtration to remove the deep stain of peaty 
discoloration. The Council, just prior to my coming here, had 
decided to put in Bell's filters. The colour of the water at 
this time of the year is very pronounced, more particularly 
after rain. Mr. Mackie asked how we estimated the quantity 
of sulphate of alumina to use. As it is purely a question of 
removing colour, it is colour that determines the quanitity used. 
What has been done in this matter is the result of experience. 
I have given in my paper a table showing the quantities of 
aluminoferric cake used in different months. It will be seen 
that the highest ratio of " cake " to water is 1/834 grains per 
gallon. As 50 per cent, of the " cake " is water, there is only 
about 0*9 grain of sulphate of alumina, and as it takes about 
seven grains of sulphate of alumina to make one grain of alum, the 
quantity of alum is about one-eighth of a grain per gallon of water. 
Mr. Mackie mentioned the danger of the coagulant getting 
through if the filters are pressed. That has happened here before 
the plant was doubled, when I saw hydrate of alumina in the 
clean water tanks. Mr. Mackie laid great stress on the absolute 
necessity for a uniform rate of filtration. I can only presume 
that he meant a maximum rate. Filters cannot be worked at 



268 MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING WORKS AT DUNOON. 

a uniform rate, at least, not in Dunoon, where the demand is 
much greater at one time than another. So long as the filters 
work well at the maximum rate they are bound to work better at 
a slower rate, and I apprehend no danger now of any coagulant 
passing through. My calculation of the maximum amount of 
water used in washing brings it out at from 3 to 3J per cent. 
Sometimes we do not wash more than three times a week, 
sometimes we wash three times a day, so that the quantity is 
very variable. Mr. Mackie's statement that Bell's filter with* 
out the use of a coagulant would not filter or purify water, is 
misleading. I have these filters at work in other parts of the 
county without the use of chemicals, and the results are 
highly satisfactory. 

Mr. Murray made the strange remark as to filtered water 
being used to clean the dirty filters, " this resulting in a certain 
amount of filth being carried into the first filters and vice versa." 
I consider the washing of the filtering material by filtered 
water one of the best features of the filters, and as for filth 
being carried into any of the filters during the operation of 
washing, I have only to say that such a thing is impossible, 
as neither in filtering nor washing does any of the water that has 
passed through a filter as filtered water or wash water, pass 
through any other filter. 

With regard to the filling behind the sea wall, and Mr. 
Brodie's remarks as to the cost, there was no filling to be had 
on the foreshore. The filling obtained from the excavations in 
the field was gravelly soil and rock. There was some sandy 
clay, but the greater part was gravelly soil. 

As to the displacers, the wall is a comparatively thin wall, 
but as large displacers as possible were used. The average 
price for the wall would be about 5/. per lineal yard, the 
maximum about 121. As to the foreshore rights, the Council 
have got the most of the foreshore on lease from the office of 
Woods and Forest and the Board of Trade, at a nominal annual 
payment As to the refuse the cost of collection is variable, 
but the price for cremating is about Is. per ton. 

The defect in the distribution of water which becomes 
apparent owing to the great number of 3-inch mains is 
reduced pressure occasioned by the high velocity of the water, 
which also has a scouring effect on the dirty incrustation, 
removing nodules and causing dirty water. 



REPLY TO DISCUSSION. 269 

The "tarvia" liquid cost 6d. per gallon delivered on 
Dunoon pier. 

In reply to Mr. Young's question as to the possibility of 
erosion on the beach, there are no signs of erosion apparent. 
The beach has changed in appearance somewhat since the wall 
was built, but this is due to the contractor having removed a 
great number of boulders lying about the foreshore. From 
levels I have taken recently, I find that the beach has assumed 
practically the same level to the new wall as it bore to the old 
trail, the level at the new wall being in some places 2 feet 
6 inches above the surface of the old beach. 

Mr. Young also referred to the facing of the wall, and 
asked how it was put in. There was a movable iron plate 
with handles, the plate measuring about 5 feet long and 18 
inches deep. This plate was kept the required distance from 
the face by means of 4 inches by 2 inch battens, and was held in 
position at the back by displacers. When the backing was 
brought up to the level of the top of the plate, the facipg was 
run in, and the battens and plates pulled up, to be fixed again. 

Mr. Spencer referred to the head of water necessary to work 
the filters. We have plenty of head in Dunoon, more than the 
makers say is necessary. I understand from the makers that 
11 feet of head is sufficient for filtering, but for purposes of 
washing more head is necessary, about 20 feet. From my 
experience of the filters I have no reason to doubt these figures. 

The Dunoon Town Council entertained the Members to luncheon 
in the Town Sail. The remainder of the afternoon was occupied 
with visits of inspection to the Waterworks, the Refuse Destructor, 
the Esplanade, and the Promenade. 

In the evening the Annual Dinner of the Scottish Members was 
held at the Argyle Hotel. Later the Members, by the invitation 
of the Council, attended the Concert held in the Pavilion at the 
Castle Gardens. 

On Saturday, June 20, the Members visited the Craig" 
musehat Quarry at Gourock, where they were received by 
Mr. A. A. B. Lang and members of his staff, and conducted over 
the quarry, where an opportunity was given of witnessing the 
manufacture of tar macadam, rock drilling, and sett-making. 
The Members were entertained to luncheon by Mr. Lang. 



THIETY-FIFTH AXNXAL MEETING. 

XOTTZSGHAM, J*m* 25, 26, and 27, 190&. 
Me. J. Pattd Bju^-ee, MJsst.CE. (Past PusdotX 



The Members assembled at the Shire Hall, Nottingham, and 
were received by Lord Belper, Chairman, Notts County 
Council, 

Mr. J. Patten Barber, in the unavoidable absence of the 
President (Mr. John A. Brodie), returned thanks cm behalf of 
the Association. 

The Secretary read the minutes of the Thirty-fourth Annual 
General Meeting, which were confirmed and signed. 

The Secretary then read the 35th Annual Beport of 
Council: — 

ANNUAL BEPOBT. 

The Council have much pleasure in presenting their Annual 
Beport. 

Since the last Annual Meeting the changes in the constitu- 
tion then authorised by the Members have oome into effect. 
The new class of Associate Members has already justified its 
formation, ten gentlemen having been elected and twenty-nine 
transferred thereto. The financial changes are dealt with later 
on in this Beport under the head of Finance. 

District Meetings. 

Since the last Annual Meeting, ten District Meetings have 
been held:— At Westminster, July 6, 1907; Bilston, Sep- 
tember 14 ; Teignmouth, October 19 ; Hampton, October 26 ; 
Westminster, February 28, 1908 ; Wimbledon, May 2 ; Ecoles, 



ANNUAL REPOM OF COUNCIL, 1907-1908- 



271 



May 9 ; Norwich, May 30 ; Blackpool, June 13 ; and Dunoon, 
June 19 and 20. 

The thanks of the Association are greatly due to the 
Members who have so kindly placed their experience and work 
at the disposal of their brethren, and to the various District 
Secretaries for their endeavours in arranging meetings in their 
respective Districts. The Council note that there is an excessive 
difficulty in arranging meetings in certain of the Districts, and 
confidently appeal to the Members in whose District no meeting 
has recently been held to come forward and help their Local 
Secretary in the arduous task of arranging, and successfully 
carrying out, a meeting. The value of these gatherings by 
interchange of professional views and experience, coupled with 
the opportunity of inspecting the works visited and described, 
is of the first importance to the Municipal Engineer who would 
keep himself abreast of the progress of his profession. 



The Roll of the Association. 

During the financial year ending April 30 last, 48 new 
Members, consisting of 13 ordinary Members, 10 Associate 
Members, 7 Associates and 18 Graduates have joined the 
Association. Eighteen Members have resigned, 19 names have 
been written off or not re-elected, and the Council record with 
regret the deaths of Messrs. B. C. Mawson, H. Nettleton, 
J. Pollard, L. Stevens, W. Stringfellow, W. Thwaites, and 
E. F. Vallance. 

The numbers on the roll of the Association at the close of 
the year were 9 Honorary Members, 834 Ordinary Members, 
39 Associate Members, 123 Associates, and 204 Graduates, 
making a total of 1209. 



— 


1902 
to 19v8. 


1903 
to 1904. 


1904 
to 1900. 


1903 
to 1900. 


1906 
to 1907. 


1907 
to 1908. 


Hon. Members .. .. 


S 


10 


10 


10 


9 


9 


Members # 


810 


813 


852 


844 


850 


834 


Associate Members ., 












39 


Associates 


83 


93 


123 


138 


144 


123 


Graduates 


133 


144 


158 


180 


204 


204 


Total . . 


1034 


1060 


1143 


1172 


1207 


1209 



272 ANNUAL BEPORT OF COUNCIL, 1907-1908. 

The Council have transferred 6 Associates and 2 Graduates 
to the class of Members ; 24 Associates and 5 Graduates to the 
class of Associate Members ; and 9 Graduates to the class of 
Associates. 

The Finances. 

The audited Balance-Sheet and Statement of Sevenue and 
Expenditure which accompanies this Seport shows a balance 
carried forward at the close of the year ending April 30 last, of 
28/. 3s. U. 

The increase in entrance fees and subscriptions has, as yet, 
only been partially felt, in the revenue side of the Association's 
finance. 

Although on the expenditure side a most satisfactory 
diminution has now been effected in the necessarily large item 
of printing, due to the acceptance of a tender in very strict 
competition with selected firms throughout the country, a careful 
study of the balance-sheet will be found to fully justify the 
Council in their recent request to the Members to place the 
income of the Association on a footing commensurable with 
the importance of the work now devolving upon the Council, 
if the best interests of the Association and the Municipal 
Engineering profession generally are to be maintained. 

Examinations. 

Since the last Report four examinations have been held, at 
which 74 candidates presented themselves for examination. Of 
these, 32 satisfied the examiners and have been granted the 
testamur of the Association. 

The Board of Examiners have, during the past year, 
devoted careful thought to the methods of examination, and 
upon their recommendation your Council have decided that 
before a testamur is granted, the candidate must have obtained 
a satisfactory "pass" in each of the five "sections of the 
examination. Also that a candidate failing in not more than 
two sections shall in future be allowed to sit for re-examination 
only in the subject or subjects in which he did not satisfy the 
examiner. 



annual report of council, 1907-1908. 273 

Premiums. 

The Council have awarded the Association premium of 
51. 5s. to Mr. E. E. W. Butt (Graduate) for his paper on " Storm 
Water Discharge," read at the last Annual Meeting. Premiums 
of 31. 3s. have also been awarded to Mr. J. W. Leebody 
(Member) for his paper on " County Eoad Maintenance/' read at 
Belfast, and Mr. T. Aitken (Member) for his paper, "The 
Maintenance of Boads," read at St. Andrews. 

The New Council, 

The Scrutineers, having examined the ballot lists, report the 
following members elected as the Council for the year 1908-09 : 

President. — Mr. E. Purnell Hooley. 

Vice-Presidents. — Messrs. W. N. Blair, J. Paton, and C. F. 
Wike. 

Ordinary Members of Coumcil. — Messrs. C. H. Cooper, 
J. W. Cockrffl, A. T. Davis, A. Fidler, A. Gladwell, A. D. 
Greatoiex, W. Harpur, T. W. A. Hayward, P. H. Palmer, 
J. S. Pickering, E. Bead, H. E. Stilgoe, E. J. Thomas, H. T. 
Wakelam, and A. E. White. 

Hon. Secretary. — Mr. Charles Jones. 

Hon. Treasurer. — Mr. Lewis Angell. 

The Past-Presidents (ex-officio Members of Counoil) are 
Messrs. A. E. Collins, J. Patten Barber, and J. A. Brodie. The 
elective Past-Presidents are Messrs. T. H. Yabbicom, J. Lobley, 
and O. C. Bobson. 

The Council consider it desirable that members should in 
future vote for not less than fifteen ordinary members of 
Council, and propose to ask the members to alter the Bye-laws 
governing the method of election of Council accordingly. The 
Council also feel it desirable that power should be given to 
them to co-opt one ordinary member of Council representing 
Scotland, and one ordinary member of Council representing 
Ireland, in case no such member or members be returned as 
elected in the ordinary way. 

Delegates to Other Bodies. 

The following gentlemen have served or are serving as 
delegates on behalf of the Association : — 

T 



274 ANNUAL BEPOBT OF COUNCIL, 1907-1908. 

Mr. Charles Jones (Hon. Secretary) to the Sanitary Inspectors' 

Joint Examination Board. 
„ W. Nisbet Blair to the N.A.L.G.O. 
„ A. E. White „ „ 

„ J. S. Pickering „ National Housing Reform Council 

(Letchworth Exhibition). 
„ H. T. Wakelam „ Eoads Improvement Association 

and National Dustless Eoads 
Committee. 
Mr. T. W. A. Hayward to the Plumbers' Registration Com- 

mittea 
„ A. E. Collins „ R.I.B.A. Joint Committee Re- 

inforced Concrete. 
„ J. W. Cockrill 

„ W. Harpur „ Engineering Standards Com- 

mittee. 
„ C. F. Wike 

Messrs. J. A. Brodie, E. P. Hooley, T. W. A. Hayward, 
H. T. Wakelam, H. E. Stilgoe, R. J. Thomas, C. F. Wike, 
W. J. Taylor, and the Secretary, to the Paris Roads Congress. 

Reports from Delegates. 

The Sanitary Inspectors* Joint Examination Board. — Mr. 
Chas. Jones : The operations of the Board have been extended 
beyond London with much success. A large number of candi- 
dates, including many ladies, have been examined during the 
past year. The Board are glad to find that a high standard of 
knowledge has, as a rule, been displayed by the candidates. 

The N.A.L.G.O.—M.V. W. Nisbet Blair: The quarterly 
meetings of the National Council during the past year have 
been held at Manchester, London, Hull, and Cardiff. Sir 
Homewood Crawford, solicitor to the Corporation of the City of 
London, has been elected President for the year, and Mr. HL 
E. Blain, of West Ham, was re-appointed Chairman of the 
National Council. 

The Superannuation Scheme has been repeatedly considered 
by the Council, and a Conference has been held with repre- 
sentatives of the Association of Municipal Corporations with 
the object of securing the support of that body. 

The scheme hag been submitted to the Local Government 



ANNUAL BEPORT OF COUNCIL, 1907-1908. 275 

Board, and an interview with the President sought, but only 
with the result that, having regard to the pressure of public 
business, he was unable to consider the question at present. 

At the Cardiff meeting on May 2, instructions were given 
for a draft Bill to be prepared with the idea of submitting it to 
Parliament next Session. 

Propaganda work has been vigorously and most success- 
fully pursued ; new Guilds or Associations have been and are 
still being organised throughout the country, the number of 
Guilds now affiliated being 50, and the local membership 15,000. 
The whole area of England and Wales has been divided into 
eleven districts, in each of which there is to be formed a 
District Association, constituted of representatives of the local 
Guilds, and each District Association is to elect members of 
the National Council proportionate to their membership. This 
will not affect the relationship of Professional Associations to 
the National Association. 

The Letchworth Garden City Competition. — Mr. J. S. 
Pickering : The Council were invited to nominate a Judge to 
assist in awarding prizes for artisans' houses of various types, 
erected in connection with the Letchworth Housing Exhibition, 
1907. Together with representatives of the Eoyal Institute of 
British Architects and the Surveyors' Institution, I made an 
inspection of upwards of sixty houses built for competition. 

The Judges upon awarding the premiums were able to 
report a distinct improvement in the planning of the houses 
generally, as compared with the previous exhibition, and that 
the attempts made to provide suitable dwellings at a reasonable 
cost were in many cases successful. 

Roads' Improvement Association. — Mr. H. T. Wakelam: 
Since the important Conference was held in June, 1907, at the 
Olympia Exhibition, and at the Institution of Civil Engineers, 
the question of obtaining subsidies from the Imperial funds has 
been fully discussed, and the President of the Local Government 
Board has been approached with a view to his receiving a 
deputation on the subject. 

Your Association have also forwarded a memorial to the 
Board praying that the matter should have the careful attention 
of the department, with a view to annual grants being made to 
the various road authorities, for the express purpose of road 
improvement. 



276 ANNUAL BEPOBT OF COUNCIL, 1907-1908. 

It is hoped that the representations which are being made in 
this direction will bear fruit, and result in some scheme being 
formulated by the Board to bring about the object your Associa- 
tion, and other advocating bodies in this connection, have before 
them. Your President and myself are watching oarefully the 
interests of the Association in the matter. 

The National Registration of Plumbers. — Mr. T. W. A. 
Hay ward: During the year six meetings of the Committee 
have been held, and six meetings of the General Purposes 
and Finance Sub-Committee, making twelve meetings in all 

Two examinations for BegistratioQ have been held, at 
which fifty-three candidates presented themselves, twenty 
passing the full technical and practical examination. The 
examinations were conducted by four examiners (two master 
plumbers and two operative plumbers), who are appointed by 
the Registration Committee. Examinations are held in the 
workshops at King's College by the permission of the 
Worshipful Company of Plumbers. 

A very important development in the history of the Regis- 
tration Movement has taken place during the year as the 
result of a conference between the Worshipful Company of 
Plumbers and representatives of the Registration Committee 
and the District Councils throughout the country, at which a 
scheme for the future management of the Registration 
Movement was adopted. 

The scheme sets up a General Council composed of repre- 
sentatives of the Company, the Registration Committee and 
District Councils, as well as the chief plumbers' associa- 
tions and public and professional bodies, concerned in the 
specification and regulation of plumbers' work. It is hoped 
that this development will heartily commend itself to all who 
are desirous of maintaining the high standard of qualification, 
and the status of the plumbing trade. 

A large number of Metropolitan Borough Councils as well 
as many other Councils have decided that all plumbers' work 
should be carried out by registered plumbers. If this system 
is universally adopted, it is believed that it will result in best 
plumbers' work being done. 

As a large amount of plumbers' work comes under the 
supervision of municipal surveyors, your representative has had 
great pleasure in attending the various meetings and helping 



ANNUAL REPORT OF COUNCIL, 1907-1908. 27? 

in what he considers to be this forward movement in regard 
to the registration of plumbers. 



Memorials. 

In accordance with the resolutions of the last Annual 
Meeting, memorials upon the subjects of State Aid for Eoad 
Maintenance and Town Planning have been duly addressed to 
and acknowledged by the President of the Local Government 
Board. 

Your Council have further addressed a memorial to the 
Prime Minister, urging that in view of the importance now 
attaching to the work of the Local Government Board, the 
status of the President of that Board should be raised to that 
of a Secretary of State. 

Your Council have seized the opportunity presenting itself, 
in the clauses of the Town Planning Bill now before Parliament, 
to urge upon the Government the necessity of providing that 
the municipal engineer — upon whom the duties of carrying out 
the provisions of the Bill will chiefly fall — should be appointed 
and dismissed only by sanction of the Local Government 
Board. 

Depreciation of Assets for Income Tax Purposes. 

At the request of the Institution of Municipal Treasurers 
and Accountants, your Council appointed a committee to meet 
their Sub-Committee dealing with this matter. The question 
of the depreciation of tramway permanent way and paving was 
carefully gone into, and finally equated periods were suggested 
for adoption, and are now under the consideration of the Inland 
Kevenue Authorities. 

Legal Protection to Members. 

Several cases have during the year been carefully 
investigated. 

In one case it was found necessary and desirable to assist 
the member by legal advice, and strenuous efforts were made 
by the committee having charge of the case. A deputation 
attended at a meeting of the Authority, and laid the views 



278 ANNUAL KEPORT OF COUNCIL, 1907-1908. 

of the Association before them. The Council are gratified 
to report that in the result more favourable terms were 
obtained by the member. 

Period of Loans sanctioned for Reinforced Concrete. 

Your Council have appointed an influential deputation to 
wait upon the President of the Local Government Board in 
order to discuss certain difficulties arising from the restricted 
period of loans granted for work carried out in this material. 
It is confidently hoped that when the pressure of work in 
Parliament has somewhat slackened, the Bight Hon. Mr. Burns 
will consent to receive the deputation and to hear their vieto. 

Identification Badges. 

These badges having met with universal approval at the 
last Annual Meeting, the Council have decided to continue 
their issue. The list of names has been somewhat altered 
with a view to ensuring greater convenience in its reference. 

Bills in Parliament. 

The Parliamentary Committee have had the following Bills 
under consideration : — 

Public Health Act (1875) Amendment (Water Bights) Bill 

Public Health Officers Bill. 

Housing of the Working Classes Bill. 

Housing of the Working Classes Acts Amendment Bill. 

Housing, Town Planning, etc., Bill. 

and are still watching their progress. 

Change of Title. 

The Council have given careful consideration to the desira- 
bility of a change in the name of the Association, and propose 
to ask the members to agree to the alteration of the name to 
"The Institution of Municipal and County Engineers." The 
Council further propose that Bye-law 22 should be repealed and 
a new Bye-law substituted, sanctioning the use of descriptive 
abbreviations of title as printed for each class of membership. 



annual report of council, 1907-1908. 279 

Alteration in Memorandum. 

In accordance with the requirements of the Board of Trade 
in sanctioning the Memorandum of the Association, a note has 
hitherto been appended to the testamur granted by the Associa- 
tion to the effect that the possession of the testamur "shows 
the result of an examination held on behalf of the Association, 
and is not to be deemed a qualification to discharge the duties 
of any position or appointment." It is obvious that such a 
proviso may be misleading to members of Local Authorities who 
may be unaware of the extreme care exercised by the examiners 
and the searching nature of the examination held by your 
Association, and the Council therefore propose to use their best 
endeavours to obtain the permission of the Board of Trade for 
the removal of a note which is both meaningless and unnecessary. 

Information on Technical Subjects. 

The Council desire to call attention to the practice of 
officials (other than Engineers or Surveyors), of Local Authorities, 
asking for information on technical subjects which properly 
come under the control of the Engineers and Surveyors. The 
Council desire to record their opinion that such information 
should be applied for, and given by, the Engineers and Sur- 
veyors only. 

General. 

Your Council desire to call the attention of members to the 
desirability of their advising the Secretary of the Association as 
to any forthcoming appointment of Engineers and Surveyors, or 
professional assistants to the same, with the object of enabling 
a letter to be sent to the Local Authority concerned in each 
case, directing attention to the value to be attached to member- 
ship of the Association, or to the possession of the testamur of 
the Association as an indication of the candidate's special 
education and training for such an appointment. Further, 
members of the Association are requested to give preference — 
other things being equal — to holders of the testamur in making 
appointments. 

On the motion of the Chairman, seconded by Mr. H. G. 
Whyatt, the Keport was received and adopted. 



Br. 



STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURE 



RECEIPTS. 

To Balance, May 1, 1907 

„ Subscriptions in advance 

„ Arrears 

„ Entrance Fees 

„ Subscriptions 

„ Sale of "Proceedings" 

„ Examination Fees 

„ Interest on Investments 

„ Bepayment of Loan and Interest 

„ Balance of Petty Gash, May 1, 1907 

„ „ due to Secretary, April 30, 
1908 



£ t. d. 

53 5 2 

61 11 

124 4 



29 15 
970 5 9 
32 14 
248 17 
41 15 
20 4 
3 8 



2 14 2 



£ t. d. 



239 2 



1349 14 2 



1588 14 4 



2>r, 



NET REVENUE 



To Receipts as per statement 

„ Subscriptions, 1907-8, unpaid 

less 25% bad 


£ s. d. 

152 15 6 
88 8 10 


£ i. d. 
1349 14 2 

114 11 8 
45 10 

163 9 3 




„ -Proceedings "(Vol. 84) 

„ Balance being excess of expenditure oyer income 
for year ending April SO, 1908 


£ 






1673 5 1 





2)r. 



STATEMENT OF ASSETS 



LIABILITIES. 

To Sundry Creditors 

„ Balance of Petty Cash due to Secretary .. . 

„ Subscriptions in advance 

„ Balance being excess of assets over liabilities 



£ 8. d. 

110 
2 14 2 



£ s. d. 



112 14 2 

61 11 

1238 16 6 



1413 1 8 



Examined with the vouchers and 



FOR THE YEAR ENDING APRIL 30, 1908. 



Cv. 



EXPENDITURE. 

By Reports of Meetings 

„ Examiners' Fees and Expenses 

„ Printing, Lithography, and Stationery 

„ Meetings* Expenses 

„ Bent of Office and Goals 

„ Bankers' Charges 

„ Telegraphic Address and Telephone 
„ Delegates', Auditors', etc., Expenses 

„ Premiums 

„ Law Reports and Parliamentary Papers 

„ Salaries 

„ Petty Cash- 
Postages 

General 

„ Office Expenses 

„ Balance 



£ *. 


d. 


£ s. d. 


.. 




63 


.. 




188 3 7 


# . 




543 3 


## 




71 3 8 


•t 




79 4 9 


mm 




3 5 11 






10 11 






80 8 4 


# . 




13 


•• 




8 18 


•• 




475 


38 7 


1 




27 15 


4 


61 2 5 
13 13 






•• 


£ 


28 3 5 




1588 14 4 



ACCOUNT. 



Cr. 



By Expenditure as per statement (less balance) 
„ Sundry creditors, April 30, 1908 



£ s. d. 

1560 10 11 
112 14 2 



I- 



1673 5 1 



AND LIABILITIES. 



Gt. 



By Balance at Bank, May, 1908 

„ £290 Southampton Corporation 3* % Stock at 102 .. 

„ £553 12s. 9d. India 2J% Stock at 78 

„ £261 14s. Id. London County Council 2} % Consols 

at78 

H £200 Metropolitan fy % Consolidated Stock at 80 

„ Subscriptions in Arrear 

XeM50%bad 

„ "Proceedings "in Stock 

£e«50% 

„ Office Furniture 



£ s. d. 



192 17 
96 8 


6 
9 


238 15 
119 7 



6 



£ 

28 3 

294 

431 



0. d. 
5 



203 10 
160 



96 8 9 



119 7 6 
80 12 



1413 1 8 



found correct, May 8, 1908. 

Sidney Stallard| a^o*** 
R. A. MaoBraib \ A »*itorB. 



Lewis Anqell, Hon. Tretuurer. 
Charles Jones, Hon. Secretary. 
Thomas Cole, Secretary. 



282 THIBTY-FIFTH ANNUAL GKNEBAL MEETING. 

ALTERATIONS IN THE BYE-LAWS. 

The Chabman then moved the following alterations in the 
Bye-laws : — 

That the words " the Association " and " the Incorporated 
Association " be deleted wherever they occur in the bye-laws, 
and the words " the Institution " be substituted in lieu thereof. 

Bye-law 14. To be altered by the addition of the words 
printed in italics. 

Bye-law 14. . . . "Each Member receiving a Ballot Paper 
shall be entitled to vote for or erase any of the names thereon 
and to substitute others, subject in all cases to the limits of 
Clause 25 in the Articles of Association": provided always 
that not less than fifteen names for Ordinary Members of Council 
he returned. . . . 

Bye-law 22. To be rescinded, and the following new Bye- 
law inserted in lieu thereof : — 

Bye-law 22. The following abbreviations of the name of the 
Institution may be used to denote connection therewith : — 

Members M. Inst. M. & Co. E. 

Associate Members . ♦ . Assoc. M. Inst. M. & Co, E. 

Associates Assoc. Inst. M. & Co. R 

Graduates Grai Inst. M. & Co. E. 

The motions were duly seconded, and after discussion were 
put to the meeting and carried. 

ALTERATIONS TO MEMORANDUM AND ARTICLES. 

' At a Special General Meeting held during the Thirty-fifth 
Annual Meeting, the following alterations to the Memorandum 
and Articles of Association were proposed by the Chairman 
(Mr. J. Patten Barber), duly seconded, and after discussion, 
carried : — 

That the name of the Association be altered to "The 
Institution of Municipal and County Engineers." 

ALTERATIONS IN THE MEMORANDUM OF 
ASSOCIATION. 

That the words "Incorporated Association" be deleted 
wherever they occur in the Memorandum, and the word 
" Institution " be substituted in lieu thereof. 



ALTERATIONS IN MEMORANDUM, ARTICLES, AND BYE-LAWS. 283 

That Clause (d) of the Memorandum be altered by the 
deletion of the words printed in italics as follows : — 

(d) The examination of persons in engineering, surveying, 
building construction, sanitary science and works, and 
in local government, municipal and sanitary law ; and 
the granting of certificates of having passed the 
examination in the above subjects to candidates. 
Provided that no such certificate be granted without 
a note on it stating that " This Certificate shows the 
result of an Examination held on behalf of the 
Association, and is not to be deemed a qualification 
to discharge the duties of any office or appointment." 

ALTERATIONS IN THE ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION. 

(Introduction, Clause 1) 

That the words (hereinafter called "the Association") be 
altered to read (hereinafter called " the Institution "). 

(Introduction, Clause 2) 

That the words " and whereas the Association " be altered 
to read " and whereas the Institution," and the words " by a 
registered Association" be altered to read "by a registered 
Institution." 

That the words "the Association" be deleted wherever 
they occur in the Articles, and the words " the Institution " be 
substituted in lieu thereof. 

Clause 25. To be altered by the addition of words printed 
in italics : — 

Council. 

25. The affairs of the Association shall be governed by a 
Council who shall be chosen from the Members only, and shall 
consist of one President, three Vice-'Presidents, fifteen Ordinary 
Members of Council, Honorary Secretary, Honorary Treasurer, 
six Past-Presidents, and the District Honorary Secretaries for 
the time being. 

The Council shall furtlwr co-opt, as Ordinary Menibers of 
Council, one Member to represent Scotland, and one Member to 
represent Ireland, should no such member or members be elected 
by the Annual Ballot for the election of the Council. 



284 THIRTY-FIFTH AtfKUAL GENERAL MEETING. 

Clause 26. To be altered by the addition of words printed 
in italics. 

26. The President, Vice-Presidents, Ordinary Members of 
the Council, co-opted Members of Council, and one Past-President 
who is an elective Member of Council, shall retire at each 
Annual General Meeting, but shall be eligible for re-election. 



In accordance with the Companies Acts the change of title and 
the alterations to the Memorandum and Articles of Association 
were confirmed at a Special General Meeting, duly convened 
and held in the Congress Hall, Franco-BritisJi Exhibition, 
July 18, 1908. 



Mr. Barber presented the Association Premiums for papers 
read at meetings during the previous year, awarded by the 
Council as follows : — 

51. in books to Mr. E. E. W. Butt (graduate) for his paper 
entitled " Calculation of Storm Water Discharge and Design of 
Sewerage Details." 

31. in books to Mr. J. W. Leebody (member) for his paper 
entitled " County Eoad Maintenance in Ulster." 

SI. in books to Mr. T. Aitken (member) for his paper entitled 
" Maintenance of Koads." 

Mr. E. A. MacBrair was elected Hon. Secretary for the 
Eastern District, Mr. T. W. Stainthorpe was elected Hon. 
Secretary for the African District, and the other Hon. District 
Secretaries were re-elected pending meetings in their respective 
districts. 

Mr. S. Stallard and Mr. G. W. Lacey were elected Auditors 
for the ensuing year. 

Messrs. E. J. Angel, A. H. Campbell, F. Harris, T. Henry, 
H. B. Purser, H. Shaw, C. C. Smith, and 0. E. Winter, were 
elected Scrutineers for the ensuing year. 

Mr. Barber then introduced Mr. Brodie's successor in the 
Presidential Chair — Mr. E. Purnell Hooley. 

A hearty vote of thanks was accorded by acclamation to the 
retiring President for his services to the Association during his 
year of office. 



APPENDIX. 

FAGS 

Statistical Returns, etc. 287 

Examinations 293 

Board of Examiners . . . . , . . . . . 307 

Certificated Candidates, 1907— 1908 308 

Memoirs of Deceased Members 309 



287 



STATISTICAL BETUBNS 

On the following subjects lie at the Offices of the Association, 
11 Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W. Those marked thus 

* are in duplicate, and can be borrowed for perusal by 
Members on application to the Secretary. Those not marked 

* can only be inspected at the Offices. 

N.B. — Please quote Beferbnoe Number when applying fob 
Loan of Returns. 



(Member* are requested, when kindly tending statistic*, to do to 
in duplicate if possible.) 



Ref.No. 
12 

53 

11 
1 

49 

36 
67 

59 

63 

3 
4 



Abattoirs (Public). 

W. Chappie Eddowes. 1902. 

Cemeteries (Public). 
•H. Richardson. 1904. 

Drainage Connections (Private). 
*H. Eichardson. 1902. 

Drainage (House). 
J. Atkinson. 1894. 

Drainage (New Buildings). 
*E. J. Lovegrove. 1896. 

Fire Brigades. 

G. T. Lynam. 1899. 
*H. W. Longdin. 1907. 

Hospital (Infectious Diseases). 
*J. Walker Smith. 1905. 

Labour, Conditions of. 
♦A. E. Collins. 1906. 

Lighting (Electric). 
J.W.Brown. 1894. 
J, W- CockrilL 1891, 



288 
Bef.No. 

5 
40 

6 
7 

9 

8 
48 
54 
68 
70 

69 

38 

57 
58 

10 

46 
47 
41 



13 
56 

42 
65 
65 



appendix. 

Lighting (Elkotbio). 
W. A. Davies. 1893. 

E. J. Siloock. 1896. 

Lighting (Gas). 

J. W. Bradley. 1895. 
P. Boss. 1896. 

Lighting (Public Street). 

CO. Smith. 1892. 

A. H. Campbell. 1895. 
•E. J. Lovegrove. 1900. 
•A. E. Nichols. 1903. 
•C. Chambers Smith. 1908. 

F. C. Cook. 1907. 

Lighting (Public Street) (Times of). 

G. W. Warr. 1908. 

Liquid Night Soil (Disposal of). 
*G. T. Lynaro. 1899. 

Motoe Wagons (Uhlttx and Working or). 
•J. Walker Smith. 1905. 
*B. J. AngeL 1903. 

Pavements (Comparison of Life and Cost of Grantee 
and Gritstone). 
C. F.Wike. 1890. 

Pavements (Tab Macadam). 
A. E. Collins. 1896. 
J. Hall 1896. 
E. A. Stickland. 1897. 

Private Street Improvements 
Works of). 
W. J. Newton. 1892. ' 
•T. J. Bushbrooke. 1905. 

Public Baths and Washhouses. 
*P. Edinger. 1897. 
•J. Walker Smith. 1905. 
A. H. Campbell. 1907. 



(Construction of 



STATISTICAL BETUBNS. 289 



Kef. No. 



Befusb (Collection or). 
14 J. Price. 1891. 

2 •A.E.Nichols. 1906. 

60 *E. A. Borg. 1906. 



*©• 



Eefuse (Destructors). 

15 W.Brooke. 1885. 
33 J. Gammaga 1899. 

Eefuse (Disposal of). 

16 J. Price. 1896. 

Eefuse (Bemoval of). 

17 0. B. Fortune. 1886. 

Boads (Maintenance of Main, in Non-County 
Boroughs). 

18 W. Howard-Smith. 1894. 

Boads (Paving of Main). 
31 H. Eichardson. 1899. 

Boads (Steam Bolling of). 

19 A. W. Parry. 1885. 

Boads (Watering of). 

20 W. Dawson. 1891. 

Scavenging (Street). 
17 C. E. Fortune. 1886. 

Sewage (Bacterial Treatment of). 
66 *J. S. Pickering. 1905. 

Sewage (Disposal of). 

21 J. H. Cox. 1892. 

22 H. Eichardson. 1890. 
39 J. W. Cockrill. 1900. 

Sewage Disposal Works. 
35 *G. T. Lynam. 1899. 

Sewers (Ventilation of). 

23 J. T. Earnshaw. 1893. 
51 *H. G. Whyatt. 1900. 

Sewer Ventilation. 
64 J. Price. 1906. 

u 



290 
Itcf.Ko. 

25 
50 
62 

61 

52 
26 



24 
34 
43 



37 
44 

27 

28 
29 

45 
30 
32 



APPENDIX. 

Slaughter- Houses. 

J. W. CockrilL 1885. 

Stbeets (Constbuotion of New). 
•T. R. Smith. 1902. 



Superannuation. 
•A. E. Collins. 



1906. 



Swimming Baths. 

*P. K. A. Willoughby. 1906. 



Team Laboub. 
*T. J. Rushbrooke. 



1904. 



Tbamwats. 

J. E. Swindlehursk 1891. 

Tbamwats (Electbio). 
*Gr. T. Lynam. 1903. 
Town Clerk of Birmingham. 1899. 
Chas. Mayne. 1897. 

Underground Telephone and Telegraph Wmss. 
*Qt. T. Lynam. 1899. 

Water Bates. 

A. W. Lawson. 1898. 

Water Supply (Diameters and Depths of Mains 
Frozen in 1895). 
RPritchard. 1895. 

Water Supply (fob Domestic and General Pub- 
poses). 
J. T. Eayrs. 1890. 

Workmen's Dwellings. 
•J. W. CockrilL 1897. 

Workmen's Wages and Houbs of Laboub. 
J. R. Dixon. 1897. 
R. H. Haynes. 1897. 
S. E. Burgess. 1899. 



statistical returns. 291 

Transactions of Other Societies, Books, Etc. 
(Not available for loan.) 

London Chamber of Commerce. Eeport on Cement Admixtures. 

1897. (13.) 
Drainage Problems of the East (2 vols.). By C. C. James. (26.) 
Field Work and Instruments. By A. T. Walmisley. (14.) 
Glasgow Engineering Congress, Section VII. (Municipal), 1901. 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 

Land Surveying and Levelling. By A. T. Walmisley. (15.) 
Land Treatment of Sewage. By H. T. Scoble. (31.) 
Boads, Construction and Maintenance. By A. Green well. (27.) 
Sanitary Fittings and Plumbing. By G. L. Sutcliffe. (30.) 
Sewerage and Sewage Disposal. By Prof. H. Bobinson. (28.) 
Sewage Disposal. By Prof. H. Bobinson. (29.) 
Society of Engineers. 

Surveying Instruments. By W. F. Stanley. (16.) 
The Sanitary Institute. 

Special Beports. 
(Not available for loan.) 

Bacterial Treatment of Sewage. Prof. Frank Clowes, D.Sc. 
(London), and A. C. Houston, M.B., D.Sc. 1904. (1.) 

Bacteriological Experiments with Sewage. Borough Surveyor, 
Leicester. 1900. (2.) 

British Standard Sections. Engineering Standards Committee. 
1903. (3.) 

Manchester Main Drainage, Eeport on. City Surveyor, Man- 
chester. 1896. (4.) 

Public Baths, Instructions, etc., to Architects. Surveyor to the 
Urban District Council, Handsworth. 1901. (5.) 

Sewage Disposal, Eeport on. Borough Surveyor, Bradford. 1896. 

(6.) 
Sewage Disposal Works, Specification, etc., for. Borough Engineer, 

Blackburn. 1893. (7.) 
Sewage Purification. J.D.Watson. 1903. (8.) 
Sewer Ventilation, Report on. Borough Engineer, Leicester. 

1899. (9.) 
Tramway Traction. City Surveyor, Birmingham. 1899. (21.) 
City Surveyor, Sheffield. 1897. (10.) 



292 APPENDIX. 

Well Sinking and Boring Operations. Surveyor to the Urban 
District Council, Handsworth. 1904. (11.) 

Western Australian Hard Woods. Agent-General for Western 
Australia. 1902. (12.) 



Pamphlets. 

(Not available for loan.) 

Conical Projection of Maps. R H. Foy. 1901. (17.) 
Destructors and Steam Production. W. H. MaxwelL 1901. 

(18.) 
Formulae and Tables of Velocities and Discharges of Sewers* 

T. De Oourcy Meade. 1897. (19.) 
Hodograph, Tha T. Ferguson. 1901. (20.) 
Meteorology of Nottingham. Also Chart showing the relation of 

the Number of Deaths from various causes to Meteorological 

Conditions. (23.) 
Municipal Subways. B. M. Parkinson. 1903. (24.) 
Type Drawings for Melbourne Sewerage. W. Thwaitee, Chief 

Engineer, Melbourne. (22.) 

Journals. 

(Not available for loan.) 

American Electrician. 

„ Electrical World and Engineer. 

„ Engineering Record. 
Builder. 

Cassier's Magazine. 
Contract Journal. 
Electrical Engineer. 
Engineering Times. 
Local Government Chronicle. 
Local Government Officer. 
Page's Magazine. 
Sanitary Record. 
Street Railway Journal 
Surveyor and Municipal ai*d Qgnnty Engineer 



EXAMINATIONS. 



SYLLABUS. 



Thi Incorporated Association of Municipal and County 
Enoinkkiis undertake the holding of Examinations, by written papors 
and vivd voce, in the following subjects : — 

Engineering as applied to Municipal work. (Two papers.) 

Building Construction and Materials. 

Sanitary Science as applied to Towns and Buildings. 

Municipal and Local Government Law as relating to the work 
of Municipal Engineers and Surveyors. 

Every candidate who applies for permission to sit for the Examina- 
tion of the Association must be at least 22 years of ago, and must 
possess one of the Certificates hereinafter mentioned in each of the 
following subjects : — 

Enoush, including (1) English Composition ; (2) English Grammar, 
including Analysis and Parsing; (3) English History; (4) Geo- 
graphy. 

Mathematics, including (1) Arithmetic — Vulgar and decimal fractions, 
proportion, square root, simple and compound interest, profit and 
loss, percentage, H.C.F. and L.C.M.; (2) Algebra — the ordinary 
rules ; fractions ; brackets ; simple, simultaneous and easy quadratic 
equations, and problems involving the use of such equations ; H.C.F. ; 
L.C.M. ; and square root ; (3) Euclid — the first throe books. 

List of Certificates which will be accepted as evidence that 
Candidates possess the necessary qualifications in the various sub- 
jects: — 

(1) English Composition and (2) English Grammar. 

University of London : Matriculation Examination. 

Victoria University: Preliminary Examination. 

University of SL Andrew*: Preliminary Examination in Science. 

University of Glasgow : Preliminary Examination in Science. 

University of Aberdeen : Preliminary Examination in Science. 

University of Edinburgh: Preliminary Examination in Science. 

University of Dublin : General Examination at end of Senior Freshman year. 



294 APPENDIX. 

University of Wales : Matriculation Examination 

University of Birmingham : Matriculation Examination. 

King's College, London : Examination for the College Matriculation Certifi- 
cate in Engineering. 

University College, London: Matriculation Examination (Engineering 
Department). 

Royal Indian Engineering College, Cooper 9 s Hill : Entrance Examination. 

City and Guilds of London Central Technical College: Matriculation Exam- 
ination. 

University College, Bristol : Preliminary Examination (Engineering Deport- 
ment). 

8cctch Education Department : The Leaving Certificate. 

Oxford and Cambridge Scltools Examination Board : A Higher Certificate. 

University of Adelaide: Senior Public Examination. 

University of Tasmania : Senior Public Examination. 

Central Welsh Board : Honours, Senior or Junior. . Certificate to be en- 
dorsed " English Composition," " English Language," and «* English 
Literature." 



Oxford Local : 



Certificate for English 



Language and Litera- 
ture will be accepted 
as qualification required 
in English Composition 
and English Grammar. 



Senior Examination — Honours or Pass. 
Junior Examination — Honours or Pass. 
Cambridge Local: 

Senior Examination— Honours or Pass. 

Junior Examination — Honours or Pass. 

Society of Arts: Advanced stage — First or Second Class, obtained since 

1904; Intermediate stage— First Class, obtained since 1904; and the 

certificates corresponding thereto obtained prior to 1904. 

College of Preceptors : First Class (or Senior), Second Class (or Junior), in 

the Professional Preliminary Examination; First Class (or Senior), 

Second Class (or Junior), in Certificate Examination. 

(3) English Histoby. 

University of London : Matriculation Examination. 

Victoria University : Preliminary Examination. 

University of St. Andrews : Preliminary Examination in Science. 

University of Glasgow : Preliminary Examination in Science. 

University of Aberdeen : Preliminary Examination in Science. 

University of Edinburgh : Preliminary Examination in Science. 

University of Dublin : General Examination at end of Senior Freshman year. 

University of Wales : Matriculation Examination. 

University of Birmingham : Matriculation Examination. 

King's College, London : Examination for the College Matriculation Certifi- 
cate in Engineering. 

University College, London: Matriculation Examination (Engineering De- 
partment). 

Jioyal Indian Engineering College, Cooper's Hill : Entrance Examination. 

City and Guilds of London Central Technical College : Matriculation Exam- 
. iiiation. 

University College, Bristol : Preliminary Examination (Engineering Depart- 
ment). 

Scotch Education Department : The Leaving Certificate. 

Oxford and Cambridge Schools Examination Board : A Higher Certificate. 



EXAMINATIONS. 295 

University of Adelaide: Senior Public Examination. 

Univertity of Tasmania: Senior Publio Examination. 

Central Welsh Board : Honours, Senior or Junior. 

Oxford Local : As for English Composition and English Grammar. Cer- 
tificate for History will be accepted as qualification required in English 
History. 

Cambridge Local : As for English Composition and English Grammar. Cer- 
tificate (Senior or Junior) for History, Geography, etc., will be accepted 
as qualification required in English History and Geography. 

Society of Arts : As for English Composition and English Grammar. Cer- 
tificate for Commercial History and Geography will bo accepted as 
qualification required in English History and Geography. 

College of Preceptors : As for English Composition and English Grammar. 

(4) Geogbaphy. 

Univertity of London : Matriculation Examination. 

Victoria Univertity: Preliminary Examination. 

Univertity of St. Andrews: Preliminary Examination in Science. 

Univertity of Glasgow : Preliminary Examination in Science. 

Univertity of Aberdeen: Preliminary Examination in Science. 

University of Edinburgh: Preliminary Examination in Science. 

University of Dublin : General Examination at end of Senior Freshman year. 

University of Wales : Matriculation Examination. 

University of Birmingham : Matriculation Examination. 

King's College, London : Examination for the College Matriculation Certifi- 
cate in Engineering. 

University College, London: Matriculation Examination (Engineering De- 
partment). 

Royal Indian Engineering CoUege t Cooper's HiU : Entrance Examination. 

City and Guilds of London Central Technical College : Matriculation Exam- 
ination. 

University College, Bristol: Preliminary Examination (Engineering Depart- 
ment). 

Scotch Education Department: The Leaving Certificate. 

Oxford and Cambridge Schools Examination Board : A Higher Certificate. 

Univertity of Adelaide : Senior Publio Examination. 

University of Tasmania : Senior Public Examination. 

Central Welsh Board : Honours, Senior or Junior. 

Oxford Local : As for English Composition and English Grammar. 

Cambridge Local : As for English History. 

Society of Arts: As for English History. 

College of Preceptors : As for English Composition and English Grammar. 

Mathematics. 

University of London : Matriculation Examination. 

Victoria University : Preliminary Examination. 

University of St. Andrews : Preliminary Examination in Science. 

University of Glasgow : Preliminary Examination in Science. 

University of Aberdeen : Preliminary Examination in Science. 

University of Edinburgh : Preliminary Examination in Science. 

University of Dublin : General Examination at end of Senior Freshman year. 



296 APPENDIX. 

University of Wales: Matriculation Examination. 

University of BirmingJtam: Matriculation Examination. 

King's CoOege, London: Examination for the College Matriculation Certifi- 
cate in Engineering. 

University College, London: Matriculation Examination (Engineering De- 
partment). 

Royal Indian Engineering College, Cooper's HiU : Entrance Examination. 

City and Guilds of London Central Technical College : Matriculation Exam- 
ination. 

University College, Bristol: Preliminary Examination (Engineering Depart- 
ment). 

Scotch Education Department : The Leaving Certificate. 

Oxford and Cambridge School* Examination Board: A Higher Certificate. 

University of Adelaide : Senior Pnblio Examination. 

University of Tasmania : Senior Public Examination. 

Central Welsli Board : Honours, Senior or Junior. Certificate to be endorsed 
" Arithmetic," " Algebra," and " Geometry." 

Oxford Local : As for English Composition and English Grammar. Cer- 
tificate to be endorsed "Arithmetic" and u Mathematics." 

Cambridge Local : As for English Composition and English Grammar. Cer- 
tificate to be endorsed " Arithmetic " and " Mathematics." 

College of Preceptors: As for English Composition and English Grammar. 
Certificate to be endorsed " Arithmetic," " Algebra," and " Geometry." 

Board of Education : Science Examination— Stage 1, First Class ; or Stages 
2 and 8, any Class. 



The foregoing regulations do not apply to Candidates who have 
previously sat or received permission to sit. 

A Candidate who has been awarded any of the undermentioned 
Certificates is exempt from farther educational examination: The 
Institution of Civil Engineers, Studentship; The Royal Institute 
of British Architects, Preliminary ; the Surveyors' Institution, Pre- 
liminary. 

The Council reserve power to alter or add to the foregoing re- 
quirements. 

Two or more Examinations are held in each year, one at least, in 
April, in London, and one at least, in October, in some provincial 
town to be fixed on by the Council and duly advertised beforehand. 

Examinations will also be hold in Scotland and Ireland, providing 
a sufficient number of Candidates desire to enter. Examinations in 
Scotland will be held in October ; in Ireland, in April. 

The Council will consider applications, which must be made on 
the form issued with the syllabus. 

If permission is granted by the Council, a " sitting" form will be 
forwarded. The candidate may then make application on such form 
to be entered for tho next ensuing, or any future, examination. 

Candidates who have sat and failed, are particularly requested 



EXAMINATIONS. 297 

to ask for a " sitting " form, when they desire to enter their names for 
re-examination. 

The Council will accept entries, in order of priority, as far as 
accommodation will permit 

The fen for each Examination is 4Z. 4*., two guineas to be paid 
with the " sitting " form, and two guineas on the day of examination. 

The fee is to be sent with the sitting form only. 

Candidates who do not present themselves for examination forfeit 
their entrance fee. 

A candidate sitting for examination after October 1907, and 
failing to satisfy the examiners in not more titan two of the five 
subjects, will be permitted to sit at any subsequent examination, on 
payment of half-fees, for re-examination only in the subject or 
subjects in whioh he failed. Upon completing his passes in all the 
five subjects, he will be duly granted the testamur of the Association. 

A candidate failing in more than two subjects will be permitted 
to sit, for re-examination in all the subjects, at any subsequent 
examination, on payment of half-fees. 

The Examinations occupy three days, and the subjects are taken 
as follows: — 

First day, 10 to 1 .. •• Sanitary Science. 

„ 2.30 to 6.30 .. Building Construction. 

SccoDd day, 10 to 1 .. .. Engineering (1st Paper). 

„ 2.30 to 6 .. „ (2nd „ > 

Third day, 9.30 to 11.30 .. Municipal and Local Government Law. 

„ 12 Viva voce Examination. 

Candidates must attempt one question in each section, but must 
not attempt more than six questions in each subject. In the case of 
Municipal Law, which is not divided into sections, not more than 
six questions must be attempted. 

Successful candidates recjeive a Certificate in the form of a 
" Testamur," signed by the acting Examiners, and sealed and counter- 
signed by the President and Secretary of the Association in Council. 

No information as to the result of an Examination, beyond the fact 
of a candidate having " Passed " or " Failed," is given. 

Questions set at Examinations held prior to 1902 can only be 
obtained in the volumes of the ' Proceedings.' On sale by Messrs. 
E. & F. N. Spon, Ltd., Publishers, 57 Haymarket, S. W. The questions 
set at subsequent examinations aro not published. 

Any inquiries referring to the Examinations should be direotod 
to Mr. Thomas Cole, Secretary to the Association, 11 Victoria 
Street, London, S.W., and should be accompanied by an addressed 
foolscap envelope. 



298 APPENDIX. 



SUBJECTS OF EXAMINATION. 

J.— Engineering A8 applied to Municipal Work : 1st Paper : 

A. Sewage Disposal. 

B. Tramways Construction. 
0. Bridge Construction. 

D. Water Supply. 

II. — Engineering as applied to Municipal Work : 2nd Paper : 

A. Geodesy. 

B. Hydraulics. 

C. Sewerage. 

D. Road Construction and Maintenance. 

IIL— Building Construction : Strength or Materials: 

A. Materials. 

B. The Construction of Public and Private Buildings. 

C. Building By-laws. 

D. Public Baths and Hospitals. 

I W-Sanitary Science as applied to Towns and Buildings : 

A. Heating and Ventilation. 

B. Scavenging and Disposal of Refuse. 

C. Water Supply and Drainage of Buildings. 

D. Disinfection. 

V.— Municipal and Local Government Law as relating to the 
Work of Municipal Engineers and Surveyors. 

Note. — The Examiners do not recommend any particular text-books, as it is 
desired to make the Examinations rather a test of the candidate's practical 
knowledge of the subjects generally, than to find his acquaintance with any 
particular book or books. 



EXAMINATIONS. 299 



EXAMPLES OF QUESTIONS. 

The following questions have been compiled from Examination 
Papers 6ot to Candidates, and serve as examples of the questions 
asked under tho different sections. 

DiBJtonoNS. — "You ore particularly requested to write legibly, and to answer 
the questions as concisely as possible. Fill in your number where indicated, 
also at the top of every booh handed in. Prefix the number of the question 
to each answer. Place (hie question-paper inside your book before handing it 
in. Wherever possible, freeband sketches or diagrams should be drawn 
to illustrate the answer ; these should be carefully executed, as they will be 
taken as showing the Candidate's proficiency in this style of drawing. Candidates 
must not, during the examination, refer to any books or manuscript, or 
communicate with each other. Slide rules may not be used." 



I. Subject :-— ENGINEERING as applied to Municipal Work. 

(Candidates must attempt one question in each section, 
but not more than six in all.) 

FIRST PAPER. 

(Time allowed, 8 hours.) 

Section A. SEWAGE DISPOSAL. 

1. Describe briefly the various systems of treatment now in use at outfall 

works ; explain tbeir general principles, advantages, and disadvantages. 

2. Describe on up-to-date system of sewage disposal suitable for a district 

of 10,000 population, taking a dry-weather flow of 40 gallons per head 
per day, and state how you would deal with storm water. Give 
dimensions wherever possible. 

3. A series of settling tanks are to be constructed, each to contain 260,000 

gallons. State the dimensions you suggest for one of such tanks, and 
give sketch, plan and sections showing the form of bottom you suggest, 
and the position of inlets and outlets, and how same should be formed. 

Section B. TRAMWAYS CONSTRUCTION. 

4. Sketch and describe the various kinds of tramway rail joints in use for 

electric traction, stating their respective advantages and disadvantage*. 
Design an ordinary fish-plate joint, and point out the features to which 
you consider special attention should be paid. 



300 APPENDIX. 

6. Sketch the cross-section of a road 32 ft. wide between kerb*, one side 
being 1 ft lower than the other, with double track tramway, 3 ft 6 in. 
gauge; show, in figures, the "cambering" of the road, when paved 
the whole width with stone setts, or Jarrah wood, and also when the 
tramway is paved with setts, and the remainder of the road macadam. 

6. Sketch a " turn out" or "passing place" on a single line of tramway, 
figure the leading dimensions, the angle of the crossings, and describe 
the length, position and character of the "points" required for 
diverting the traffic. 



Section 0. BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION. 

7. Work out the strains on a wrought-iron girder (sketch given) 56 ft. span, 

7 ft. high, and give figured sections of flanges, struts and ties. Dis- 
tributed load 200 tons. 

8. State the live load per foot run of paths and carriageway you would 

allow for in tbe case of a bridge, 60-ft span, with a carriageway 
36 ft wide, and 12-ft paths on each side. 

The bridge has two lines of tramway, 4 ft 81 in. gauge, to carry 
cars weighing 5 tons when loaded, the distance between the two 
wheel axles being 18 ft. 

9. A bridge has to be constructed to carry a 60-ft. street over a canal, the 

clear span being 40 ft., the minimum head room being 11 ft at centre 
and 9 ft. at sides above normal water-level : the approaches are rising 
gradients of 1 in 24 and 1 in 90 respectively. Sketch the bridge you 
recommend for such a position, giving all important particulars, short 
specification tests for materials, and tests for bridge when completed. 

Section D. WATER SUPPLY. 

10. What percentage of total annual rainfall over a watershed would you 

expect to have available for storage ? State locality and characteristics 
of the watershed to which your answer relates. 

11. A covered reservoir is required to serve a town of 5000 inhabitants. 

Sketch and describe the reservoir you would adopt, giving all requisite 
details, and assuming your own conditions of site and foundation. 
Give a short specification of the necessary works, tests for material*, 
and an estimate of cost 

12. Sketch and describe a small pumping station capable of lifting daily 

100,000 gallons of water from a borehole in the rock and delivering 
through a rising main 500 yards long into a reservoir, the total vertical 
lift being 100 ft After working out the theoretical hone-power 
required, state the brake horse-power and type of engine yon recom- 
mend, and give your reasons. 



EXAMINATIONS. 301 



II. Subject :— ENGINEERING as applied to Municipal Work. 

(Candidates must attempt one question in each section, 
but not more than six in all.) 

SECOND PAPER. 

(Time aOottacZ, SJ houn.) 

Section A. GEODESY. 

1. Describe the mode of making a land survey with the chain only, and 

with the usual instruments, and explain the advantages of the latter 
method. Describe the instruments, and give an illustration of a " field- 
book" with imaginary entries therein. 

2. Make a sketch of the primary and vernier scales of a theodolite for 

reading to minutes. Explain the object of the vernier, and the prin- 
ciple upon which it works. 

8. How would you proceed to contour and make a plan of a valley proposed 
to be used as an impounding reservoir? What is the advantage of a 
contour plan for this purpose? 



Section B. HYDRAULICS. 

4. The velocity in a 9-in. pipe, running full, laid at a gradient of 1 in 48, is 

352 ft per minute. Give the velocities in such a pipe when laid at 
the following gradients : 1 in 16, 1 in 96, and 1 in 432. 

5. A pumping main a mile in length is required to discharge 600 gallons 

per minute at a velocity of 3 ft. per second. What diameter pipe is 
necessary? 

6. What do you mean by " hydraulic mean depth " ? Why is the hydraulic 

mean depth the same in the case of a circular pipe flowing full or half 
full, supposing you agree that it is so ? 



Section C SEWERAGE. 

7. Describe the usual method of setting out the lines for the construction of 

a sewer, and the means that should be adopted to ensure that the 
invert shall be laid to the correct depth and gradient. 

8. Make a detail sketch with figured dimensions of a storm overflow chamber 

on a 3 ft. by 2 ft. egg-shaped sewer, discharging when full 600 cubic 
ft. per minute, assuming that the storm overflow will come into 
operation when' the sewage flowing is one-third the depth of the 
sewer. 



302 APPENDIX, 

9. A circular sower, 4 ft. internal diameter, is to bo constructed with brick- 
work in open cutting, the invert being 15 ft below the surface of the 
ground. Trial holes show 6 ft. of loose made ground, 4 ft. of clay, 
and 12 ft. of running sand resting on a thick bed of clay. Show by 
sketches the timbering of the trench and the construction of the sewer, 
and give a description of the work and materials. 

Section D. ROAD CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE. 

10. Do you consider the stones in macadam should be all of one gauge, or do 

you prefer varying sizes ? State the reasons for your preference. 

11. A macadamised carriageway 36 ft. wide has got into bad repair, and the 

whole surface requires to be recoated with stone for an average thickness 
of 3 in. Explain in detail the different operations necessary to carry out 
the repairs, including rolling, and give the cost per yard of each 
operation, assuming that the cost of the stone delivered on the road is 
12*. 6d. per ton, binding material 3s. 6d, per ton, and labour W. per 
hour. 

12. Give a brief description and express your opinion of any methods of road 

construction and treatment with which you are familiar for the 
prevention of dust caused by motor traffic 



in. Subject:— BUILDING CONSTBUOTION. 

(Candidates must attempt one question in each section, 
but not more than six in all) 

(Time aUound, 4 hours.) 
Section A. MATERIALS. 

1. State what you know of the various timbers used in building, and what 

class of work and situation they are each adapted for. 

2. State the crushing and safe working loads of any brickwork with which 

you are acquainted, describing the brickwork. 

3. Explain, as far as you can, the different characteristics and chemical com- 

position of common lime, hydraulic lime, Roman cement, Portland 
cement, and Keene's cement. 

Section B. THE CONSTRUCTION OF PUBLIC AND 
PRIVATE BUILDINGS. 

4. A girder, with a clear span of 30 ft., bears a uniformly distributed load 

of 40 tons ; it is supported at one end by a wall and at the other by * 
hollow cast-iron column, circular in section. The column is 10 ft in 
height with fixed ends. Give the dimensions of the column, with 
method of calculation. 



EXAMINATIONS. 303 

5. In the construction of a factory chimney specify the following : — 

(a) The subsoil being a stiff clay and weight of shaft 1000 ton*, 
what area of concrete is it necessary to provide for founda- 
tion? 

(() What proportion should the spread of the footings bear to the 
thickness of the brickwork at the base of the shaft ? 

(c) In a shaft 200 ft. high, give the varying thickness of brick- 

work from base to eap, with distances between the various 
offsets and height of fire-brick lining. 

(d) What is the usual proportion of the diameter of base to the 

height of Bhaft (circular on plan)? 

(e) State the comparative advantages of circular, octagonal and 

square shafts with regard to wind resistance. 

6. Sketch a concrete beam reinforced with steel rods to carry a distributed 

dead load of 20 tons with a clear span of 15 ft. Show your calcula- 
tions. 

Section C. BUILDING BY-LAWS. 

7. State how the Bubsoil of the site of an intended new building should be 

drained, " where the dampness of the site renders such precaution 
necessary." Give sketch-plan of drains. 

8. Describe fully the chief provisions for the prevention of the spread of fire 

from one house to another. 

9. What information must be given to a sanitary authority by a person 

desirous of laying out a new street? 

Smtion D. PUBLIC BATHS AND HOSPITALS. 

10. Make a cross-sectional sketch of a public swimming bath, 44 ft. in 

width oyer all, showing the bath, dressing-boxes, gallery, and roof, 
with their several dimensions. Describe fully the means adopted for 
rendering the bath water-tight, and give the type of roof. 

11. In designing an isolation hospital for 100 beds, shortly describe the 

following provisions, viz. : — 

Number and extent of ward blocks. 

Nature of other buildings necessary for administration purposes. 

Proportion of floor space per bed. 

Proportion of cubical space per bed. 

Method of ventilation to be adopted in wards. 

Method of heating to be adopted in wards. 

12. In designing public baths, comprising, say, a swimming bath 70 ft, x 30 

ft., ten slipper baths, and a small laundry, what method would you 
adopt to heat the water, and how would you warm the building ? 



304 APPENDIX. 



IV. Subjbot :— SANITARY SCIENCE as applied to Towhs 

AND BUILDLNG8. 

(Candidates mast attempt one question in each section, 
bat not more than six in all.) 

(Time allowed, 8 hours.) 

Section A. HEATING AND VENTILATION. 

1. Explain what you mean by "natural* and "artificial" ventilation. 

Illustrate your answer by sketches of each as applied to a public build- 
ing or school. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each 
system ? 

2. In preparing a scheme for warming a building, what are the recognised 

methods of calculating the amount of heating surface required for 
varying temperatures? 

3. Describe concisely three different methods of ventilating sewers, expressing 

your views as to their merits or otherwise. 

Section B. SCAVENGING AND DISPOSAL OF. REFUSE. 

4. Describe the method you would adopt for collecting — 

(a) The contents of cesspools. 
(6) Excreta in pails, 
(c) Offal. 
And give particulars of the vehicle you would recommend in each case. 

5. Describe the essential features of a good type of refuse destructor, and give 

a section of the same. 

6. Describe the most satisfactory means of 

(a) Removing house refuse 
(o) Cleansing ashpits and privies 
where the local authority undertake the work of removal. 

Section C. WATER SUPPLY AND DRAINAGE OF 
BUILDINGS. 

7. Describe the construction of a hot-water service for bath and other pur- 

poses in a house. Describe how the circulation is obtained, and show, 
by a diagram, the position of the boiler, cistern, cylinder, etc., and 
state the precautions that should be taken to prevent damage by frost. 

8. State shortly what are the general principles of efficient house drainage, 

and give a few examples of how these are frequently disregarded in 
actual practice. 

9. What kind of water acts upon lead ? - State the risk attendant upon its 

use and the means you would adopt for avoiding or reducing such 
risk. 



EXAMINATIONS. 305 

Section D. DISINFECTION. 

10. Mention the various disinfectants in common use, and state which you 

consider the best for particular purposes. Describe the methods of use 
and the precautions necessary. 

11. What are the points to be observed in the selection of the necessary appa- 

ratus to effect the proper disinfection of bedding and clothing? Give 
a brief description of the apparatus with which you are acquainted. 

12. Describe how you would proceed to disinfect a house after the following 

diseases : (a) scarlet fever, (6) typhoid fever, (c) diphtheria, (d) small- 
pox. 



V. Subject:— MUNICIPAL AND LOCAL GOVBBNMENT 
law a8 relating to the work of municipal and countt 
Enoinesbs and Subvbyorb. 

(England) 

(Candidates must not attempt more than six questions.) 
(Time allowed, 2 lwur$.) 

1. Under what Act can a local authority make bye-laws as to deposit of 

plans for alterations to existing buildings, and to what buildings do 
these bye-laws apply ? 

2. What are the conditions under which a manufacturer may discharge his 

trade refuse into the sewers of a local authority ? 

3. Can a local authority compel a proper supply of water to be laid on to 

premises, and if so, under what conditions in (a) urban districts, (h) 
rural districts ? State the mode of procedure in each case. 

4. The surveyor to a local authority has reported to him (a) a dangerous 

building abutting on a public highway, and (b) a dangerous chimney on 
private enclosed premises. State what are his powers and duties in each 
case, and set out fully the proceedings he would take in proper sequence. 

5. An occupier refuses to allow his premises to be entered by the assistants 

of the surveyor to a local authority for the purpose of taking levels ; 
what course is prescribed by statute to meet such a case ? 

6. State which Acts give powers respecting tramways and light railways, 

and describe the principal differences between them, particularly as to 
position of tramway in road, spaces, notices, supervision, and mode of 
procedure. 

7. Describe the provisions of the Buildings in Streets Acts, 1888, and point 

out in what respect they differ from the previously existing power*; 

8. What rights have owners and occupiers of property to connect their 

drainage with the sewers of a local authority (a) within the district, 
(b) without the district ? (c) under what restrictions can the connections 
be made? and (d) what are the penalties for non-compliance? 

X 



306 APPENDIX. 

9. Give two instances where you consider the present Public Health and 
Sanitary Acts or Highways Acts are defective or require amendment, 
and in what way .would you remedy these defects? 

This question is intended to elicit answers from candidates as to 
any difficulties they may have experienced or observed or heard 
of in carrying out the duties of a surveyor, 

10. What is a Provisional Order, and when is it usually applied for? Com* 

pare it with a local Act of Parliament, specifying its chief advantages. 
State the nature of Provisional Orders issued by the Board of Trade as 
distinct from the Local Government Board. 

11. Give reasons for recommending a council to adopt the Private Streets 

Works Act, 1892. State also the disadvantages of that Act compared 
with sections 150 and 152 of the Public Health Act, 1875. 

12. What powers have local authorities with respect to-**- 

(a) Planting of trees in highways ? 
(&) Underground conveniences? 

(c) Sanitary conveniences for manufactories ? 

(d) Ingress to and egress from places of public resort? 

(e) Safety of platforms on public occasions? 



V. MUNICIPAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT LAW AS 
RELATING TO THE WORK OF MUNICIPAL 
ENGINEERS AND SURVEYORS. 

(Scotland) 

(Candidates must not attempt more than six questions.) 
(Time allowed, 2 hours.) 

1. Define the various roads to which these words apply, viz.. Highway. 

Turnpike Road, Statute Labour Road, as interpreted by the Roads and 
Bridges (Scotland) Act, 1678. 

2. Describe the statutory provisions whereby a local authority can recover 

from any person expenses for damage to highways caused by extra- 
ordinary traffic thereon, or by excessive weight passing along the 
same; and state in what Act of Parliament these provisions arc 
embraced. 

3. To whom must application be made for authority to lay out new streets ? 

Specify the details which require to be shown on the plan accompanying 
the application. 

4. If a Burgh should desire to improve any existing private streets, what 

statutory procedure would be necessary? 
6. What are the powers of a Burgh with reference to the keeping of footpaths 
of public streets in proper repair? How far do these powers apply to 
private streets ? 



EXAMINATIONS. 



307 



6. Specify tho proceduro which must be adopted in a Police Burgh bofore a 

public Bower can bo laid. Under what Act is this necessary ? 

7. What powers of entry are given under the Public Health (Scotland) Act 

for the purpose of examining drains, and what is tho necessary pro- 
cedure? 

8. Specify the duty of a Local Authority with referenco to the water supply 

of buildings in an isolated district. 

9. Enumerate the powors given for the formation of special water supply 

districts. State briefly under what circumstances a Local Authority 
is bound to take action. 

10. What were the requirements of the 1892 Burgh Police (Scotland) Act 
with regard to back space for proposed buildings, and what alteration 
was made by tho 1903 Act ? 



BOABD OP EXAMINERS. 
The President of the Association (ex-officio). 



Lewis Anqell, M. Inst. C.E., 
F.B.I.B.A., Follow of King's 
College, London, 

J. P. Barber, M.Inst. O.E. 

W. Nbbbt Blair, M. Inst. C.E. 

J. A. Brodie, M. Eng., Wh. Sc, 
M. Inst. C.E. 

C. Brownridoe, M. Inst. C.E. 

J. Brtoe, A.M. Inst. C.E. 

J. Cookrill, M. Inst. C.E. 

A. E. Collins, M. Inst. C.E. 

C. H. Cooper, M. Inst. C.E. 

H. A. Cutler, M. Inst. C.E. 

A. T. Davis, M. Inst. C.E. 

B. H. Dobman, M. Inst. C.E. 
W. Dtaos, M. Inst. C.E. 

J. T. Eatrs, M. Inst. C.E. 
A. M. Fowler, M. Inst. C.E. 

A. D. Greatorex, M. Inst. C.E. 
G. Green, A.M. Inst. C.E. 

S. Hartt, M. Inst. C.E. I. 

B. H. Hatnes, M. Inst. C.E. 



C. Jones, M. Inst. C.E. 

James Lee. 

James Lemon, M. Inst. C.E., 

F.B.I.B.A. 
Jos. Loblet, M. Inst. C.E. 

A. B. McDonald, M. Inst. C.E. 
E. G. Mawbet, M. Inst. C.E. 

C. J. Mulvany, M. Inst. C.E., 

B.A. I. (Dublin). 
James Paton. 

J. S. Pickering, M. Inst. C.E. 
W. H. Presoott, A.M. Inst. C.E. 

B. Bead, A.M. Inst. C.E. 

0. C. Bobson, M. Inst. C.E. 
H. E. Stilqoe, M. Inst. C.E. 

B. J. Thomas, M. Inst. C.E. 
H. T. Wakelam, M.Inst. C.E. 
W. Weaver, M.Inst. C.E. 

A. E. White, M. Inst. C.E. 

C. F. Wire, M. Inst. C.E. 

T. H. Yabbioom, M. Inst. C.E. 



308 



APPENDIX, 



CANDIDATES WHO PASSED THE EXAMINATIONS 
HELD 1907-1908. 



59/A and 60th Examinations, October 1907. 



A. E. W. Aldridge. 
S. E. Axon. 
W. A. Bofct. 
J. S. Bullough. 
T. A. Clare. 
G. R. Collinson. 
D. Furness. 
H. N. Hedges. 



P. Holt. 
R. 0. Jones. 
F. W. Knight. 
T. K. Roddan. 
C. C. V. Roebuck. 
E. Taylor. 
C. H. Waithman. 
W. H. W. Walden. 



61st and 62nd Examinations, April 1908. 



S. C. Baggott. 
L. D. Brothers. 
H. B. E. Brown. 
H. J. Chapman. 
J. A. Charles. 
B. Cooper. 
J. Cunliffe. 
R. Fletcher. 



E. F. Harmer. 
W. B. Madin. 
W. T. Minshull. 
R. C. Moon. 
J. B. Panks. 
J. W. Pooley. 
L. G. Roberta. 
J. W. Trodd. 



flDemote of Decease*) flDembere. 



The Council, having been requested to append some short 
notice of the decease of Members of the Association, 
will feel obliged by early notice being forwarded to the 
Secretary, with such particulars as it may be desirable to 
insert in these " Proceedings." 



Mr. John Pollard died on September 3, 1907, in the 55th 
year of his age. For some years he was engaged under the late 
Sir Joseph Bazalyette, upon the Thames Embankment and 
other works constructed for the Metropolitan Board of Works. 
He was Surveyor to the Hendon Local Board from 1880 to 1887, 
and designed a system of Main Sewerage and Sewage Disposal 
for the district. In 1887 he, in partnership with Mr. H. J« 
Tingle, M.Inst.C.E., commenced private practice in Westminster, 
and remained a partner in this firm to the time of his death. 

Mr. Pollard was a Member of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers, and was elected a Member of this Association in 
March, 1884. 

Mr. William Stbingfellow, late Surveyor to the Thame 
Urban District Council (Oxfordshire), disappeared from the 
steamer Alberta during the voyage from Southampton to the 
Channel Islands on September 3, 1907, in the 40th year of his 
age. He was appointed in the previous May to Thame, previous 
to which he was Surveyor to the Urban District Council of 
Ashborne, Derbyshire. 

Mr. Stringfellow was an Associate Member of the Institution 
of Civil Engineers and was elected a Member of the Association 
in June, 1893. 



310 APPENDIX. 

Mr. Hugh Nettleton, late Surveyor to the Urban District 
Council, Weston-super-Mare, died very suddenly from heart 
disease on October 20, 1907. He filled the position of 
Surveyor at Weston-super-Mare for over sixteen years, and he 
carried out several important drainage works, the widening of 
the sea front at Anchor Head, and improvements on the parade 
and in the parks. 

Mr. Nettleton was an Associate Member of the Institution 
of Civil Engineers, and was elected a Member of the Association 
in July, 1893. 

Mr. William Thwaites, M.A., late Engineer in Chief 
Metropolitan Board of Works, Melbourne, died on November 19, 
1907. In 1874, Mr. Thwaites was engaged on the Victorian 
and South Australian Eailways. In 1879 he entered the 
Public Works Department of Victoria, and in 1891 he was ap- 
pointed Engineer-in-Chief, Melbourne and Metropolitan Board 
of Works. During the tenure of his office he carried out the 
drainage of Melbourne and other very important works. 

He was a Member of the Institution of Civil Engineers, and 
was elected a Member of the Association in April, 1898. 

Mr. Lewis Stevens, late Surveyor to the Newton Abbot 
Urban District Council, died suddenly on January 2, 1908, in 
the 52nd year of his age. He succeeded his father as the 
Surveyor of the old Local Board, and during the twenty-seven 
years that he occupied the position carried out the Sewage 
Outfall Works, the laying out of Baker's Park, the construction 
of many roads, the reconstruction of the Cattle Market, and 
many other works of importance. 

Mr. Stevens was elected a Member of the Association in 
March, 1890. 

Mr. Robert Frank Vallance, late Borough Surveyor of 
Mansfield, died on April 18, 1908, in the 51st year of his age. 
Mr. Vallance was appointed Surveyor in 1894 to the Mansfield | 

Improvement Commissioners, and when the town was incor- I 

porated in 1891 he became Borough Surveyor. He was also 
Surveyor to the Warsop Urban District Council. He rendered 
valuable service to the Mansfield Hospital, of which he was the 



MEMOIRS OF DECEASED MEMBERS. 311 

honorary Architect for many years. As a Freemason, he was 
a P.M. of the Forest Lodge, and Treasurer of the Forest 
(Eoyal Arch) Chapter. 

Mr. Vallance was elected a Member of the Association in 
September, 1889. 

Mr. Robert Collett Mawson, late Borough Surveyor of 
Evesham, died on April 20, 1908. Mr. Mawson went to 
Evesham over twenty-five years ago to take charge of the 
Waterworks. During the past quarter of a century he super- 
intended the carrying out of many important undertakings 
in the town and district, including the enlargement of the 
Evesham reservoirs. 

Mr. Mawson was elected a Member of the Association in 
March, 1892. 

Mr. John Mallinson, late Engineer and Surveyor to the 
Skipton Urban District Council, died very suddenly from failure 
of the heart on May 1, 1908. He was a pupil to his father, 
who was Surveyor to the Skipton Council, and for a short time 
was Chief Assistant to the Borough Engineer of Batley. In 
1898 he was appointed to Skipton, where he carried out many 
important schemes of public utility. 

Mr. Mallinson was elected a Member of the Association in 
February, 1900. 

Mr. Alfred Wbller, late Borough Surveyor, Brighton, died 
on June 10, 1908, in the 60th year of his age, after a painful 
illness which had extended over eight weeks. Mr. Weller 
entered the Surveyor's Department in 1866, and was appointed 
Surveyor in 1905, in succession to the late Mr. May. Mr. 
Weller was also Surveyor to the Brighton Intercepting and 
Outfall Sewers Board. His long acquaintance with the 
measures of foreshore protection undertaken in Brighton brought 
him into prominence as a witness before the Eoyal Commission 
on Coast Erosion. 

Mr. Weller was elected a Member of the Association in 
September, 1907. 

OCT 3 1916