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Full text of "Proceedings"

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF ILLINOIS 

LIBRARY 






% 



2 C ^ _ m\yiw- 

BULLETIN 



' ' ilUfi'i], iT> / ' 



OF THE 



AMERICAN Library Association 

Entered aa second-class matter December 27, 1909, at the Post Office at Chicago, III., under Act of Convreas of 

July 16, 1894. Acceptance for aailine at special rate of postasre prorided for in section 1103. 

Act of October 3. 1917. authorized on July 8, 1918. 

Vol.12.no. Km^'] CHICAGO, ILL. Siptoibih. iwi 



CONTENTS 

Papers and Proceedings of the Saratoga 
Springs Conference 



OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION 
PRESIDENT 

Thomas L. Montgomery - - - Pennsylvania State Library 

FIRST VICE-PRESIDENT 

JUDSON T. Jennings - . - . Seattle Public Library 

SECOND VICE-PRESIDENT 

Linda A. Eastman - - - - Cleveland Public Library 

TREASURER 

Carl B. Roden . _ . . . Chicago Public Library 

SECRETARY 

George B. Utley - - A. L. A, Executive Office, Chicago 






A 



PAPERS AND PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



FORTIETH ANNUAL '"^; 
MEETING ^ 



OF THE 



AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION 

HELD AT 

SARATOGA SPRINGS, N. Y. 

JULY 1-6, 1918 



AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION 

CHICAGO, ILL. 

1918 



CONTENTS 



Title 

President's address: Civilization 

Address of welcome 

The future of library work 

What the city library is doing to help win the war . 

The spirit of the war literature: Prose .... 

The spirit of the war literature: Poetry 

Canadian libraries and the war 

The A L. A. follows the flag overseas .... 

The cooperation of the Y. M. C. A. and the A. L. A. 

Library work with children in war time .... 

The war and library training 

The library war service ......... 

The work of the A. L. A. war service committee 

The A. L. A. war service committee report 

The A. L. A. campaign for $1,000,000 

Sending books "over there' 

Libraries and the United States Food' Administra- 
tion 

A call to service 

What the library commission is doing to help win 
the war 

What the county and rural library is doing to help 
win the war 

What the state library is doing to help win the war 

What the university library js doing to help win the 
war 

Is camp library service worth while? 

The United States Boys' Working Reserve . 

The day's work in Hoboken 

Government documents relating to the war . 

Present discontents with newsprint stock .... 

A neighborhood apprentice class 

Elimination of the use of readers' cards in the 
public library 

What men read in camps 

What men read in hospitals 

A woman among ten thousand bluejackets 

From camp to camp: the work of a field represen- 
tative 

What a base hospital librarian should know . 

The organization of hospital library service 

How the camp library reaches every man . . '. 

How the camp library reaches every man 

A day at a camp library 

A day in camp 

Camp library work at a naval training station 

A day at Fort Leavenworth 

War department indexes 

Cost reduction in cataloging 

Cataloging economies: Meeting the demands of war 
service cataloging 

Cataloging economies: How Rochester economizes '. 

Cataloging economies: The care of gift pamphlets 

Reports of officers and committees 



AtJTHOR 



Page 



Thomas L. Montgomery 45 

Charles B. Alexander 48 

Arthttr E. Bostwick 50 

Hiller C. Wellman 57 

George F. Bowerman 60 

May Massee 72 

George H. Locke 78 

M. Llewellyn Raney 81 

William Orr 93 

Caroline Burnite 9S 

Frank K. Walter 98 

Herbert Putnam 103 

/. /. Wyer, Jr 106 

107 

Frank P. Hill 163 

W. H. Brett 183 

Edith Guerrier 184 

William Warner Bishop 185 

Julia A. Robinson 186 

Mary L. Titcomb 187 

/. I. Wyer, Jr. ... 189 

/. C. M. Hanson 192 

Adam Strohni 196 

H. W. Wells 198 

Asa Don Dickinson 200 

H. H. B. Meyer 202 

H. M. Lydenberg 211 

Emilie Mueser . 217 

Jeannette M. Drake 219 

M. S. Dudgeon 221 

Miriam E. Carey 222 

Blanche Galloway 223 

Miriam E. Carey 225 

Edith Kathleen Jones 226 

Caroline Webster 231 

Joy E. Morgan 233 

Frederick Goodell 236 

John A. Lowe 237 

Lloyd W. Josselyn 239 

Herbert S. Hirshberg 240 

Mary L. Titcomb 241 

Willis F. Sewall 242 

T. Franklin Currier 243 

May Wood Wigginton 245 

Grace B. McCartney 247 

Adah Patton 249 

251 



Proceedings of general sessions 276 

Executive board 291 

Council 295 

Agricultural libraries section 295 

Catalog section 30O 

Children's librarians section 301 



College and reference section 
Professional training section 
School libraries section .... 
Camp hospital librarians round table 
Lending department round table 
Public documents round table 



303 
304 
306 
307 
308 
309 



Round table of the libraries of religion and 

theology 311 

Round table of training class teachers . . 312 

Exhibits 312 

Post-conference notes . . . . _ . . . . 313 

National association of state libraries . . . 314 

American association of law libraries . . . 366 

League of library commissions 366 

Special libraries association 369 

Attendance summaries 371 

Attendance register 372 

Index 379 



mi -^ 

C-rsrD •'2- 

SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 

JULY J.6, I9J8 

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS: CIVILIZATION 
By Thomas L. Montgomery, Librarian, Pennsylvania State Library, Harrisburg, Pa. 



I would not for a minute keep you in 
suspense in the adopting of such a title 
as I have given, nor alarm you with the 
thought that the whole of this meeting 
is to be given to a discussion of things 
from their beginnings. In the choosing 
of this title I have had in mind certain 
subjects that are interesting to me, tus- 
socks, so to speak, in the oozy swamps 
of human activities, which enable one to 
bound lightly over the intervals of time 
and arrive at a triumphant conclusion 
within forty-five minutes. I hope to be 
pardoned for the few allusions that I make 
to my native state in a discourse of this 
kind. It is much better for a person of 
my limited horizon to speak of things 
with which I am familiar rather than to 
adopt sounding phrases dealing with il- 
limitable space. 

If you will look In the dictionary as I 
have you will probably agree with me that 
the word "civilization" is the most unsat- 
isfactory in the whole Webster concatena- 
tion. It bears very little relation to the 
word "civil" which precedes it and is even 
less satisfactory than the word "civilize" 
which follows it. Its definition contains 
no thought of charity, kindness, literature, 
music, nor goodness. It refers simply to 
advancement in the arts with a rather 
weak notion of refinement. Until it has 
been reorganized and rehabilitated it does 
not as a term deserve the respect of men. 
But grant that after this war is over it 
should be made to mean more, that some 
of the qualities which I have mentioned 
are Included in its definition. Where 
should we look in the past for inspiration? 
The Egyptians were advanced in the arts 
but you would not seek it there, nor in 
Babylon, nor in Persia. Rome would give 
us little satisfaction and even Greece can 



only inspire us with a few years of her his- 
tory. Her wonderful literature, we are 
told by statisticians, was produced by some 
eighteen men only, nevertheless Greece 
was and is a satisfaction. In her archi- 
tecture and in her sculpture the Greeks 
sought to make things more beautiful. It 
would have been impossible for a Greek to 
follow Rodin's example and depict "A man 
with a broken nose." True civilization 
was not found in the time of King John In 
spite of Magna Carta and all that meant 
to mankind. It was not much better after 
the introduction of the printed book, and 
in the times of Charles II. people were 
robbing each other and the government, 
and acting as if they were possessed of 
devils. Yet in the reign of the Merry 
Monarch a son was born to a distinguished 
man who was probably one of the worst 
grafters of his time, a child who was to 
become, in my humble opinion, the great- 
est contribution to civilization in the two 
hundred years that preceded and the two 
hundred years that followed that event. 
I allude to William Penn, the founder of 
Pennsylvania. 

His history is familiar to all of you. He 
is pictured in the beautiful series of paint- 
ings in the Pennsylvania Capitol as a stu- 
dent at Oxford where he had been sent to 
fit himself for the life of a courtier. He 
listens to the argument of the travelling 
Quaker and is impressed by the honesty 
and simplicity of his ways. Having adopt- 
ed this faith he is driven from home by his 
irate father and is thrown into prison for 
his profane utterances. He is even shown 
writing tracts in his cell and upon his re- 
lease visiting the prisoners and perform- 
ing various kindnesses to the poor and 
neglected. Another picture shows him in 
the act of receiving the Charter for the 



46 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



State of Pennsylvania from Charles II. 
Whenever Charles II. was not engaged in 
anything else he gave Pennsylvania to 
someone. Lord Baltimore thought the 
land belonged to him but Charles II. owed 
a large sum of money to Penn's father and 
this had to be liquidated whether Lord 
Baltimore liked it or not. The King jest- 
ingly alluded to Penn's ultimate consump- 
tion by the savages. He replied that he 
would have little trouble with them as he 
intended to buy their lands equitably. 
"Why," said the King in astonishment, "is 
not the land mine?" "No," replied Penn, 
"they are the original occupants of the 
soil and you have no more right to claim 
them by discovery than they would have 
for discovering Great Britain." His fa- 
mous treaty with the Indians was never 
sworn to and never broken. Such was the 
influence which he exerted by his kind- 
ness, consideration and tact that for sev- 
enty years from the time of his coming 
there were neither wars nor even rumors 
of wars. Penn wrote to Thomas Holme, 
"When the great God brings me among 
you I intend to order all things in such a 
manner that we may live in love and 
peace one with another, which I hope the 
great God will incline both you and me to 
do." Even the Walking Purchase of 1737 
did not in its rascality cause a break with 
the redskin, although by it the Delaware 
lost their most highly prized lands. It 
was not until the Indian learned that the 
white man could not keep his word that 
the Delaware, the Shawnee and the Mingo, 
oppressed from without by the unfriendly 
Iroquois and cheated from within, moved 
gradually westward, pressed by the throng 
of land-thirsty settlers who invariably by 
their association with the rum traffic made 
the Indian more savage than he had been 
before, and this disgrace has been per- 
petuated to the present time. The Indian 
has been routed out of each place assigned 
to him by the greed of those having charge 
of his affairs, but a kind Providence has 
always seen to it that the place to which 
he is banished provides riches for him in 
the form of mineral wealth or oil so that 



he again becomes subject to the cupidity 
of those who should be his best friends. 
The utter absurdity of the provisions 
which allow an uneducated and brutal 
foreigner the full rights of citizenship and 
deny to the native American the right to 
dispose of his property except through a 
trustee, must be manifest to the crudest 
intellect I like to think of American de- 
mocracy as having had its birth at Valley 
Forge. It is impossible, however, to in- 
clude the history of the Iroquois in such a 
conclusion. Its confederacy of five tribes, 
the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayu- 
gas and Senecas to which the Tuscaroras 
were afterwards added was associated un- 
der a plan which has lasted for more than 
three centuries and still exists today. 
Their importance is not due entirely to 
their early acquirements of firearms but 
to the wisdom of their system of govern- 
ment. The council of matrons, the con- 
struction of the clans (the members of 
which were not allowed to intermarry 
within the same clan) and their admit- 
tance of captured enemies to full tribal 
rights, all stamp them as of an advanced 
intelligence. Through a long series of 
years they held the balance of power be- 
tween the French and English in America. 
They were good agriculturists and grew 
corn, tobacco and fruits. They also made 
splendid pottery and kept their public rec- 
ords upon wampum. Most certainly those 
who are Interested in the equal rights of 
women must regard the Iroquois as a very 
advanced type of civilization. The limita- 
tion of descent belonged exclusively to the 
woman. A chieftain's son did not succeed 
him in office, but his brother. If there 
were no brother then a son of his sister or 
some descendant of the maternal line was 
chosen. When a decision had to be made 
it was by unanimous agreement. It was 
no wonder that such a people approved of 
Penn's League of Amity. Unfortunate as 
it was that warfare had to enter Into the 
relations of the three nations, now joined 
together for the protections of the rights 
of man, these early contests with the In- 
dians unquestionably developed a hardy 



MONTGOMERY 



47 



people whom even the sufferings of Valley 
Forge could not overcome, and the subse- 
quent victory at Yorktown was due in no 
slight degree to the heroism engendered 
here in spite of privation and disease. 

The free public school system forms an- 
other attractive stepping-stone in the path 
of general civilization. In my own state 
a system had prevailed for years of fur- 
nishing free schooling only to self-con- 
fessed paupers. This was based upon the 
old Friends' public school established in 
1697, whereby the rich were schooled at 
reasonable rates and the poor for nothing. 
A class distinction was thus engendered 
which resulted in the poor people staying 
at home. Philadelphia was the first to 
cast aside this system and provide free 
schools at public expense. Agitation for 
the extension of this system finally cul- 
minated in an act of the legislature pre- 
sented in 1834 which was passed with 
only one dissenting vote. On account of 
the taxation necessary for carrying out the 
act about one-half the districts rejected it 
and sent representatives to the legislature 
to have the law repealed. The Governor 
was told that any favorable consideration 
of the act on his part would result in his 
defeat for re-election. At this time there 
appeared upon the scene one who by his 
energy and ability immediately took front 
rank in the affairs of the Commonwealth. 
When I was a small boy I used to be told 
of the pithy remark of Mr. Chauncey De- 
pew that the three great Pennsylvanians 
were Benjamin Franklin of Massachusetts, 
Albert Gallatin of Switzerland and Thad- 
deus Stevens of Vermont. Slightly worn 
by the repetition of this bon mot I re- 
marked that I would like to add another, 
George Washington of Virginia. When- 
ever George Washington wished to do any 
thing he came to Pennsylvania. His ex- 
peditions through western Pennsylvania in 
1753, 1754 and 1755 are well known. He 
was at Brandywine, Whitemarsh, German- 
town and Valley Forge and while President 
of the United States he resided In Phila- 
delphia, except during the short visits that 
he paid to New York. Incidentally I be- 



lieve it is part of the education of every 
gentleman that he should pay short visits 
to New York. George Washington, how- 
ever, seldom went to Virginia except to 
look after the crops or to attend a fox hunt. 

The speech of Thaddeus Stevens in sav- 
ing the free school act from defeat was 
one of the most masterly in his career. 
"If," said he, "the opponent of education 
were my most intimate and personal polit- 
ical friend and the free school candidate 
my most obnoxious enemy, I should deem 
it my duty, as a patriot, to forget all other 
considerations and I should place myself 
unhesitatingly and cordially in the ranks 
of him whose banner streams in light." 
People who had no children said that the 
tax was unjust to them, and he replied 
that the wealthy farmer was taxed to sup- 
port criminal courts and jails, although 
never tried for a crime nor having enjoyed 
the hospitality of a prison. Of course. It 
was understood that a great part of the 
opposition to the free schools was on the 
part of the sectarian Institutions, the pro- 
jectors of which did not wish to be taxed 
for both. 

Only second to the public schools has 
been the civilizing effect of our public li- 
brary system. In some respects It Is more 
Important, for Its Influence extends from 
the cradle to the grave. I don't know 
whether It is a general feeling but I have 
myself an Intense and loving respect for 
the men who first forwarded the Idea of 
the free distribution of books. Of those of 
our guild who met In 1853, Mr. Lloyd P. 
Smith, Dr. W. F. Poole and Dr. Edward 
Everett Hale are the only ones whom I 
knew and of these Dr. Poole was the only 
one associated with the free library move- 
ment. It Is wonderful, however, to think 
that such an assemblage of librarians 
could take place at that day. The opening 
remarks of the President show why. "To 
every one who knows the nature of the 
librarian's duties, the details which con- 
sume his days and render absence from 
his post impossible, except at the cost of 
severe labor on his return. It must be 
manifest that we have met at considerable 



48 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



sacrifice. We obey some strong heartfelt 
impulse in incurring the expense of this 
gathering." How expensive it was may be 
gained from the report on salaries. Only 
twelve men at that time received for their 
services $1,000 or upwards and the high- 
est salary in the country was $1,900, given 
to the state librarian of Massachusetts. 
Nevertheless we find these men going 
forth to spread the doctrine throughout the 
country and in 1876 they met almost spon- 
taneously to form the association of which 
you and I are proud. It Is no easy task to 
accomplish the results which have been 
attained by enthusiasm alone, yet such has 
been the fascination of our propaganda 
that it has increased in influence year by 
year with but one important gift to help 
the cause, and now in this year of the war 
we find ourselves the trustees of books 
and dollars by the million in the effort to 
preserve civilization in the soldiers' and 
sailors' rough life. This work has been 
well done. It has been well done because 
the former President of the Association 
had a thorough grasp of the situation and 
appointed a committee upon which it 
would have been very hard to improve, and 
that committee being thus intelligently 



constituted knew that the Librarian of 
Congress should be given the widest lati- 
tude in prosecuting the work. I shall re- 
frain from speaking of the events of the 
past year. The future I have consigned to 
one far abler than I, but I should like to 
bring this before you. After the war is 
over, where are the youths of the nations 
to assemble to accomplish their post-gradu- 
ate work under competent supervision? It 
is not likely that they will submit them- 
selves to the influence linked with the 
Prussian propaganda. England cannot re- 
ceive them. France is far-spent. It may 
be that America may be called upon, with 
its great educational foundations, to pro- 
vide a center for the students of the whole 
civilized world. God grant that she may 
prove equal to the demands which may be 
made upon her! It is evident that the 
German language is to be driven from our 
schools. I hope that Portuguese and Span- 
ish may be substituted, so that we may un- 
derstand our neighbors to the south and 
thus lead up to a United States of Amer- 
ica extending from Tierra del Fuego to the 
Arctic Ocean, its citizens fighting shoulder 
to shoulder for the protection of the rights 
of man. 



ADDRESS OF WELCOME 
By Charles B. Alexandeb, Regent of the University of the State of New York 



Conscious as I am of the honor ac- 
corded me as the representative of the 
Regents of the University of the State of 
New York, really representing the State 
of New York, of extending a word of wel- 
come to this distinguished conference of 
the American Library Association, yet it 
is with a new spirit of appreciative un- 
derstanding that I bring to you the greet- 
ings of the governing Board of our educa- 
tional system. 

I feel an added pride in greeting you in 
renowned and historic Saratoga. This re- 
gion has a particular interest to us at this 
time when our minds are so often turning 



for inspiration to the glories of our past 
history and to the heroes who made us a 
nation. This region, because of its won- 
derful water routes, has been the great 
strategic point in the wars waged for the 
control of this continent. The battles of 
Saratoga in 1777 and the surrender of 
General Burgoyne broke up the great cam- 
paign which was planned to sever and con- 
quer the warring colonies; they aroused 
great enthusiasm throughout the country, 
and were the determining event which led 
France to form the alliance which assured 
our independence. George Washington, 
Alexander Hamilton, George Clinton and 



ALEXANDER 



49 



Philip Schuyler are early names in the 
long list of distinguished personages who 
have enjoyed the benefits and pleasures of 
this great resort. One may drink deep of 
patriotism, too, at these Pierian springs. 

I am, however, here primarily to extend 
to you the cordial invitation of the Re- 
gents of the University of the State of 
New York to visit another historic place, 
a few miles south of us. This year we 
celebrate the centennial of the New York 
State library. We feel a pardonable pride 
In its history — in its growth and achieve- 
ment and service to the educational life of 
our State. There is needed only your 
presence to make this the notable occasion 
we wish It to be and which we believe it 
deserves to be in the library and educa- 
tional history of the country. We expect 
to have the honor of welcoming you at Al- 
bany next Saturday, July 6, 1918. 

Merely to glance over your program is to 
gain an inspiring realization of the myriad 
activities of our libraries which touch all 
phases of the nation's life, and of their ef- 
ficient adaptation to the great emergency 
which we face. The theme of your pro- 
gram is the war and your consideration 
will be the utmost utilization of your or- 
ganized activities In bringing the victory 
that will assure the permanence of the In- 
stitutions built by the world-old struggle 
for freedom and human happiness. 

The French Army has a saying: Pourvu 
que les civils tiennent; that is, that victory is 
certain, "if the civilians hold out." I have 
wondered If this aphorism was born of 
the bitterness of those whose lot it was to 
suffer and die or of a deep understanding 
of the essential truth of it. We have 
looked with a horrible loathing at the trav- 
esty on civilization which prostituted the 
entire efficiency of a modern nation's so- 
cial and economic life to the work of con- 
suming and destroying. But the enemy 
has employed brute force as his funda- 
mental argument and we have no alterna- 
tive but to answer It in kind. To-day na- 
tiOTis war, with all their stupendous and 
marvelously organized forces. Lloyd 
Oeorge has said that he feared the thor- 



ough organization of Germany's civil life, 
educated and drilled during a generation 
to obedience and efficiency, more than the 
armed forces of the enemy. Our armies 
cannot be defeated if your civil popula- 
tion, their indispensable foundation. Is 
strong and unyielding. The democracies of 
the world, which live In the intelligent sup- 
port of the people, are warring with a 
power which exacts a blind, pitifully blind, 
obedience of its myrmidons. It is a mat- 
ter of training, of education. This is well 
recognized. Everywhere posters confront 
us, exhorting, admonishing, advising; the 
government disseminates Information 
throughout the land; public speakers pro- 
vide enlightening knowledge; our great, 
free press Is ubiquitous. The people must 
be Informed — must be taught what to do 
and how to do — to conserve and bring to 
bear the great, latent strength of the na- 
tion. 

In this world conflict the war has illum- 
ined things hitherto unnoticed. Among 
other things, it has illumined the Idea of 
duty. Today this does not consist In doing 
the immediate thing for which one Is em- 
ployed, but in doing the best thing pos- 
sible in the service of the nation. This 
was well illustrated when one of our of- 
ficers checked the advance of the foe the 
other day by marshaling around him cer- 
tain cooks and other camp followers. The 
cooks might very well have said that they 
were not there to fight but to cook, but 
each man of the miscellaneous gathering 
surrounding the officer left his immediate 
occupation and they baffled the foe. So 
for example the idea of sacrifice, which 
until the war was treated by many as an 
obsolete function; but now with millions 
making sacrifices and ready to make the 
great sacrifice, the world is enlightened, 
fio also the old phrase, "a life for a life," 
is constantly illustrated, as it was the' 
other day where the enlisted man carried 
his officer along the deck, and just as he 
got the officer in a place of safety was 
himself killed. 

In the ability to reach, educate and af- 
fect the adult population the library o<;cu- 



48 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



sacrifice. We obey some strong lieartfelt 
impulse in incurring ttie expense of this 
gathering." How expensive it was may be 
gained from the report on salaries. Only 
twelve men at that time received for their 
services $1,000 or upwards and the high- 
est salary in the country was $1,900, given 
to the state librarian of Massachusetts. 
Nevertheless we find these men going 
forth to spread the doctrine throughout the 
country and in 1876 they met almost spon- 
taneously to form the association of which 
you and I are proud. It Is no easy taslc to 
accomplish the results which have been 
attained by enthusiasm alone, yet such has 
been the fascination of our propaganda 
that it has increased in influence year by 
year with but one important gift to help 
the cause, and now in this year of the war 
we find ourselves the trustees of books 
and dollars by the million in the effort to 
preserve civilization in the soldiers' and 
sailors' rough life. This work has been 
well done. It has been well done because 
the former President of the Association 
had a thorough grasp of the situation and 
appointed a committee upon which it 
would have been very hard to improve, and 
that committee being thus intelligently 



constituted knew that the Librarian of 
Congress should be given the widest lati- 
tude in prosecuting the work. I shall re- 
frain from speaking of the events of the 
past year. The future I have consigned to 
one far abler than I, but I should like to 
bring this before you. After the war is 
over, where are the youths of the nations 
to assemble to accomplish their post-gradu- 
ate work under competent supervision? It 
is not likely that they will submit them- 
selves to the influence linked with the 
Prussian propaganda. England cannot re- 
ceive them. France is far-spent. It may 
be that America may be called upon, with 
its great educational foundations, to pro- 
vide a center for the students of the whole 
civilized world. God grant that she may 
prove equal to the demands which may be 
made upon her! It is evident that the 
German language is to be driven from our 
schools. I hope that Portuguese and Span- 
ish may be substituted, so that we may un- 
derstand our neighbors to the south and 
thus lead up to a United States of Amer- 
ica extending from Tierra del Fuego to the 
Arctic Ocean, its citizens fighting shoulder 
to shoulder for the protection of the rights 
of man. 



ADDRESS OF WELCOME 
By Charles B, Alexandeb, Regent of the University of the Stat.e of New York 



Conscious as I am of the honor ac- 
corded me as the representative of the 
Regents of the University of the State of 
New York, really representing the State 
of New York, of extending a word of wel- 
come to this distinguished conference of 
the American Library Association, yet it 
is with a new spirit of appreciative un- 
derstanding that I bring to you the greet- 
ings of the governing Board of our educa- 
tional system. 

I feel an added pride in greeting you in 
renowned and historic Saratoga. This re- 
gion has a particular interest to us at this 
time when our minds are so often turning 



for inspiration to the glories of our past 
history and to the heroes who made us a 
nation. This region, because of its won- 
derful water routes, has been the great 
strategic point in the wars waged for the 
control of this continent. The battles of 
Saratoga in 1777 and the surrender of 
General Burgoyne broke up the great cam- 
paign which was planned to sever and con- 
quer the warring colonies; they aroused 
great enthusiasm throughout the country, 
and were the determining event which led 
France to form the alliance which assured 
our independence. George Washington, 
Alexander Hamilton, George Clinton and 



ALEXANDER 



49 



Philip Schuyler are early names in the 
long list of distinguished personages who 
have enjoyed the benefits and pleasures of 
this great resort. One may drink deep of 
patriotism, too, at these Pierian springs. 

I am, however, here primarily to extend 
to you the cordial invitation of the Re- 
gents of the University of the State of 
New York to visit another historic place, 
a few miles south of us. This year we 
celebrate the centennial of the New York 
State library. We feel a pardonable pride 
in Its history — In its growth and achieve- 
ment and service to the educational life of 
our State. There is needed only your 
presence to make this the notable occasion 
we wish it to be and which we believe It 
deserves to be in the library and educa- 
tional history of the country. We expect 
to have the honor of welcoming you at Al- 
bany next Saturday, July 6, 1918. 

Merely to glance over your program is to 
gain an inspiring realization of the myriad 
activities of our libraries which touch all 
phases of the nation's life, and of their ef- 
ficient adaptation to the great emergency 
which we face. The theme of your pro- 
gram Is the war and your consideration 
will be the utmost utilization of your or- 
ganized activities in bringing the victory 
that will assure the permanence of the in- 
stitutions built by the world-old struggle 
for freedom and human happiness. 

The French Army has a saying: Pourvu 
que les civils tiennent; that is, that victory is 
certain, "if the civilians hold out." I have 
wondered If this aphorism was born of 
the bitterness of those whose lot it was to 
suffer and die or of a deep understanding 
of the essential truth of it. We have 
looked with a horrible loathing at the trav- 
esty on civilization which prostituted the 
entire efficiency of a modern nation's so- 
cial and economic life to the work of con- 
suming and destroying. But the enemy 
has employed brute force as his funda- 
mental argument and we have no alterna- 
tive but to answer It In kind. To-day na- 
tions war, with all their stupendous and 
marvelously organized forces. Lloyd 
George has said that he feared the thor- 



ough organization of Germany's civil life, 
educated and drilled during a generation 
to obedience and efficiency, more than the 
armed forces of the enemy. Our armies 
cannot be defeated if your civil popula- 
tion, their indispensable foundation, is 
strong and unyielding. The democracies of 
the world, which live in the intelligent sup- 
port of the people, are warring with a 
power which exacts a blind, pitifully blind, 
obedience of its myrmidons. It is a mat- 
ter of training, of education. This is well 
recognized. Everywhere posters confront 
us, exhorting, admonishing, advising; the 
government disseminates information 
throughout the land; public speakers pro- 
vide enlightening knowledge; our great, 
free press is ubiquitous. The people must 
be Informed — must be taught what to do 
and how to do — to conserve and bring to 
bear the great, latent strength of the na- 
tion. 

In this world conflict the war has Illum- 
ined things hitherto unnoticed. Among 
other things, it has Illumined the idea of 
duty. Today this does not consist In doing 
the Immediate thing for which one Is em- 
ployed, but In doing the best thing pos- 
sible In the service of the nation. This 
was well Illustrated when one of our of- 
ficers checked the advance of the foe the 
other day by marshaling around him' cer- 
tain cooks and other camp followers. The 
cooks might very well have said that they 
were not there to fight but to cook, but 
each man of the miscellaneous gathering 
surrounding the officer left his Immediate 
occupation and they baffled the foe. So 
for example the Idea of sacrifice, which 
until the war was treated by many as an 
obsolete function; but now with millions 
making sacrifices and ready to make the 
great sacrifice, the world is enlightened, 
fio also the old phrase, "a life for a life," 
is constantly illustrated, as it was the' 
other day where the enlisted man carried 
his officer along the deck, and just as he 
got the officer in a place of safety was 
himself killed. 

In the ability to reach, educate and af- 
fect the adult population the library 0|ccu- 



60 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



pies a position of great responsibility and 
Is a great power for national defense. This 
situation, which offers our libraries the 
greatest opportunity in their history to 
demonstrate their educational value to the 
nation has been fully realized and thor- 
oughly acted upon by the American Li- 
brary Association. 

With its watchword, "War service," this 
Association has bent its fullest energies to 
the duty, and its splendid work forms an 
Inspiring chapter In the history of the 
war. Educational results are mostly In- 
determinable, but some tangible accom- 
plishments are noted with marveling grati- 
fication. I wish all of our people could 
know of the great fund raised for the war 
work; of the acquisition of Innumerable 
books; of the erection of the many library 
buildings and the establishment of branch 
libraries In our camps; of the library work 
In hospitals; of the technical and recrea- 
tive books placed In our forts, naval ves- 
sels, camps, and sent abroad; of the labor 
and time given by trained men to the 



work; and of the other countless activities 
of the "Library war service." It is demon- 
strated that the library provides as high 
and important a war service as any other 
field of effort. 

To many this realization of the great 
power and influence of the library comes 
with some surprise. The extraordinary 
development of this branch of our educa- 
tional system has not been generally com- 
prehended. Indeed, it is a far cry from 
the modest beginning of the American LI- 
brary Association in that convention at 
Philadelphia in 1876 to this great business 
organization which affects our entire edu- 
cational and social life. By its progress- 
ive methods, this Association has estab- 
lished the public library as a familiar and 
potent agent of our civilization; and it 
has made library work a science Indeed, 
efficient, economical, practical. And one 
has only to study the library history of 
Europe to realize that you have done pio- 
neer work, and furnished a vitalizing spir- 
it to the library life of the world. 



THE FUTURE OF LIBRARY WORK 
By Aethtjb E. Bostwick, Librarian, St. Louis Public lAbrary 



When a railroad train is on Its way, its 
future history depends on which way It Is 
heading, on Its speed, and on whether Its 
direction and Its speed will remain un- 
changed. With these premises, one may 
confidently predict that a train which left 
Chicago at a given hour on one day will 
reach New York at a given hour on the 
next. Of course, something may happen 
to slow the train, or to wreck it, or even to 
Bend It back to Chicago, in which cases our 
predictions will come to naught. This Is 
what the weather man finds. His predic- 
tions are based on very similar data. Our 
weather conditions travel usually across 
the continent from west to east at a fairly 
uniform rate. If that rate is maintained, 
and the direction does not change, and 
nothing happens to dissipate or alter the 



conditions, we can predict their arrival at 
a given place with a fair degree of accu- 
racy. Those who rail at the weather man's 
mistakes are simply finding fault with our 
present inability to ascertain the causes 
that slow up storm centers, or swerve them 
In their course, or dissipate them. When 
we know these things, and know In addi- 
tion what starts them, we can give up mak- 
ing forecasts and write out a pretty def- 
inite weather time-table — as definite and 
as little subject to change, at any rate, as 
those issued by the railroads. 

My business at this moment Is that of a 
forecaster. We know just where and what 
the library situation is at present, and 
some of us think we know where it is head- 
ed. If It should keep on In the same di- 
rection and at the same rate, we ought to 



BOSTWICK 



51 



be able to describe it as it will be, say, in 
1950. Of course, it may get headed in some 
other direction. It may slow down or 
speed up; it may melt away or strike a 
rock and be Irrecoverably wrecked. If I 
see any chances of any of these things, it 
is my business to mention them. If my 
forecast should turn out a failure no one 
can prove it until 1950 arrives, and then I 
shall not care. 

To begin with the necessary prelimina- 
ries of our forecast — what and where are 
we now? I have said that I know; prob- 
ably you think that you do; but as a mat- 
ter of fact our knowledge is neither com- 
prehensive nor accurate. We need a gen- 
eral library survey. We have, as a sort of 
statistical framework, the figures now 
printed annually in tabular form in the 
A. L. A. Proceedings, but probably no one 
would maintain that these do, or possibly 
could, give an adequate idea of the char- 
acter or extent of the work that our libra- 
ries are doing. Those of us who think we 
know something of it have gained our 
knowledge by experience and observation 
and neither is extensive enough in most 
cases to take the place of a well-consid- 
ered and properly-managed survey of ex- 
isting conditions and methods. 

In default of a survey, we must, as I 
have said, fall back upon observation and 
experience. I can certainly claim no mo- 
nopoly of these, and what I say in this re- 
gard is, of course, largely personal. But it 
seems to me that the distinguishing marks 
of library work, as at present conducted, 
include the following. As you will see, 
they are all connected and overlap more or 
less. They are all growth-products. They 
are: 

1 Size and expense 

2 Socialization 

3 Professionalization 

4 Popularization 

5 Nationalization. 

First, library work in our country to- 
day is large and costly. Extensively it 
covers a great territory and reaches a 
huge population. Intensively it embraces 
a largo variety of activities — ^many that 



one would hesitate, on general principles, 
to class as "library work." 

Secondly, a large amount of this in- 
crease of activity has been of a kind that 
we are now apt to call "social." It deals 
with bodies or classes of people, and it 
tends to treat these people as the direct 
objects of the library's attention, instead 
of dealing primarily with books, as for- 
merly, and only indirectly with their read- 
ers. In fact, the persons with whom the 
library now deals may not be readers at 
all, except potentially, as when they are 
users of club or assembly rooms. 

Thirdly, librarians are beginning to 
think of themselves as members of a pro- 
fession. At first sight this may seem to be 
a fact of interest only to library workers, 
and not at all to the public. Its signifi- 
cance may appear if we compare it to the 
emergence of the modern surgeon with his 
professional skill, traditions and pride, 
from the medieval barber who simply fol- 
lowed blood-letting as an avocation. Pro- 
fessionalism is a symptom of a great many 
things — of achievement and of conscious- 
ness of it and pride in it; of a desire to do 
teamwork and to maintain standards; to 
make sure that one's work is to be carried 
on and advanced by worthy successors. 

Fourthly, libraries are now conducted 
for the many; not for the few. It is our 
aim to provide something for every one 
who can read, no matter of what age, sex, 
or condition. We do not even limit our- 
selves to readers, for we provide picture 
books for those who are too young to read. 
We are transferring the emphasis of our 
work from books to people. This charac- 
teristic is closely connected with what I 
have called "socialization," but it is not the 
same thing. An institution may deal with 
all the people without dealing with them 
socially or in groups; and it may deal en- 
tirely with groups without dealing with 
everybody. The library now does both. 

Fifthly, the library is now a national 
institution, at least in the same sense as is 
the public school. It is national in extent, 
national in consciousness, if not national 
in administration. Our own association 



52 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



has played its part In this development; 
the present war has given it a great stim- 
ulus. Those who see no nationalism with- 
out complete centralization and who say 
that we are not yet a nation because all 
our governmental powers are not centered 
at Washington, will doubtless deny the na- 
tionalization of the library. They take too 
narrow a view. 

We may now combine two or more lines 
of inquiry. In what direction is the libra- 
ry moving in each of these respects? Is it 
speeding or slowing up? Is there any rea- 
son to look for speeding or slowing up in 
the future? 

As regards size and cost, our develop- 
ment has been swift. We cannot, it seems 
to me, keep up the rate. Twenty years ago 
the institutions now constituting the New 
York Public Library circulated a million 
books. They now circulate ten million. 
Does anyone believe that twenty years 
hence they will circulate one hundred mil- 
lion? There must be further increase, be- 
cause we are not now reaching every per- 
son and every class in the community, but 
it will not and cannot be a mere increase 
of quantity. We must do our work better 
and make every item and element in it tell. 
We must substitute one book well read for 
ten books skimmed. In place of ten worth- 
less books we must put one that is worth 
while. There are already signs of this 
substitution of quality for quantity in our 
ideals. 

Extension, as opposed to intension, has 
appealed to many enthusiastic librarians 
as "missionary work." Perhaps the term 
is well chosen. Some of it is akin to the 
missionary fervor that sends funds to con- 
vert the distant heathen when nominal 
Christians around the corner are vainly 
demanding succor, material, mental and 
spiritual. We have too much of this in the 
library; attempts to form boys' clubs with 
artificial aims and qualifications when 
clubs already formed to promote objects 
that are very real in the members' minds 
are ignored or neglected; the provision of 
boresome talks on "Rubber-culture in 
Peru" and on "How I climbed Long's 



Peak," when members of the community 
would be genuinely interested in hearing 
an expert explain the Income tax; the pur- 
chase of new books that nobody wants 
when an insistent demand for old stand- 
ards of sterling worth has never been ade- 
quately met; all sorts of forcing from the 
outside instead of developing from the 
inside. This kind of thing, like charity, 
begins properly at home, and the real mis- 
sionary takes care to set his own house in 
order before he goes far afield — to fill the 
nearby demand, when it is good, before at- 
tempting to force something on those who 
do not want it. 

It is in this direction that our promise of 
continued progress lies when we cannot 
see grounds for expecting great future in- 
crease of income. 

This leads us naturally to discuss what 
I have called our socialization, which Is 
just beginning. It is running strong, but 
there is room for a long course, and that 
course, I believe, it will take. In the first 
place, we are functioning more and more 
as community centers, but there is enor- 
mous room for advance. We are strag- 
gling all along the line, which is one sign 
of an early stage. Some of us have not 
yet awakened to the fact that we are 
destined to play a great part in commu- 
nity development and community educa- 
tion. Others are reluctantly yielding to 
pressure. Others have gone so fast that 
they are in advance of their communities. 
Take, if you please, the one item of the 
provision of space for community meet- 
ings, regarded by some as the be-all and 
the end-all of the community center idea. 
It is really but one element, but It may 
serve as a straw to show which way the 
wind blows. Some libraries are giving no 
space for this purpose; some give it grudg- 
ingly, with all sorts of limitations; others 
give quite freely. None of us gives with 
perfect freedom. I suppose we in St. 
Louis are as free as any. In 15 assembly 
and clubrooms we house 4,000 meetings 
yearly. Our only limitations are order 
and the absence of an admission fee. I 
incline to think that the maintenance of 



BOSTWICK 



53 



order should be the only condition. If an 
admission fee is charged, part of it should 
go to the library, to be devoted to caring 
for the assembly and clubrooms and im- 
proving them. There are many commu- 
nity gatherings that can be best adminis- 
tered on the plan of a paid admission. 
These ought not to be excluded. Most of 
our restrictions are simply exhibits of our 
reluctance to place ourselves at the com- 
plete social disposal of the community. 
A community is not a community unless it 
has political and religious interests. If 
we are going to become socialized at all, 
why balk at these any more than we 
should exclude from our shelves books on 
politics and religion? I look to see so- 
cialization, in this and other directions, 
proceed to such lengths that the older li- 
brary ideals may have to go entirely by 
the board. Some of them are tottering 
now. I have said that I consider this mat- 
ter of the use of assembly rooms only one 
item in what I have called socialization. 
It may all be summed up by saying that 
we are coming to consider the library 
somewhat in the light of a community club, 
of which all well-behaved citizens are 
members. Our buildings are clubhouses, 
with books and magazines, meeting rooms, 
toilet facilities, kitchens — almost every- 
thing, in fact, that a good, small club 
would contain. If you say "then they have 
ceased to be libraries and are something 
else," that does not affect me any more 
than when you show that we are no longer 
speaking Chaucer's language or wearing 
the clothes of Alfred the Great. 

When we were trying to explain to the 
architects of the New York branch build- 
ings exactly what we wanted in those 
structures and met with the usual miscon- 
ception based on medieval ideas of a libra- 
ry, one of the most eminent architects in 
the United States suddenly sat up and took 
notice. "Why, these buildings are not to 
be Uhraries at all," he said, "they are to 
be reading clubs." He had learned in a 
few minutes what many of us still see 
through a glass darkly. 

An even more important manifestation 



of what I have called socialization is the 
extension of occupation groups to which 
the library is giving special attention and 
special service. The library has always 
had in mind one or more of these groups. 
Once it catered almost entirely to a group 
of scholars, at first belonging predominant- 
ly to the clergy. In later years it added 
the teachers in schools and their pupils, 
also the children of the community. These 
are definite groups, and their recognition 
in the rendition of service is a social act. 
Other groups are now being added with 
rapidity, and we are recognizing in our 
service industrial workers, business men, 
artists of various kinds, musicians and so 
on. The recognition of new groups and 
the extension of definite library service to 
them is progress in socialization, and it is 
going on steadily at the present time. 

Just now the most conspicuous group 
that we are taking in is that of business 
men. In adjusting our resources and meth- 
ods to the needs of this group we are 
changing our whole conception of the scope 
of a library's collection. As Mr. Dana has 
pointed out, we now collect, preserve and 
distribute not books alone, but printed 
matter of all kinds, and in addition rec- 
ords of other types, such as manuscripts, 
pictures, slides, films, phonograph discs 
and piano rolls. Some of these, of course, 
are needed to adapt our collection to oth- 
ers than the business group— to educators, 
artists or musicians. We shall doubtless 
continue to discover new groups and un- 
dergo change in the course of adaptation 
to their needs. 

The recognition of special groups and 
the effort to do them service has proceeded 
to a certain extent outside the public libra- 
ry, owing to the slowness of its reaction 
to this particular need. The result has 
been the special library. I am one of those 
who are sorry that the neglect of its op- 
portunity by the public library has brought 
this about, and I hope for a reduction in 
the number of independent special libra- 
ries by a process of gradual absorption and 
consolidation. The recent acquisition of 
some formerly independent municipal ref- 



54 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



erence libraries by the local public libra- 
ries is a case in point. There must always 
be special libraries. The library business 
of independent industrial and commercial 
institutions is best cared for in this way. 
But every group that is merely a section of 
the general public, set apart from the 
rest by special needs and tastes, may be 
cared for most economically by the public 
library. If its service is not adapted to 
give such care, rapid and efllcient adjust- 
ment is called for. 

In a library forecast made several years 
ago, Mr. John C. Dana stated his opinion 
that the library, as it is, is "an unimpor- 
tant by-product," that it is to be of impor- 
tance in the future, but will then have de- 
parted from the "present prevailing type." 
Without necessarily agreeing to our pres- 
ent insignificance, we may well accept, I 
think, this forecast of future growth and 
change. 

Professionalization, too, has by no means 
reached its limit. As has been pointed 
out, it is a symptom, rather than the 
thing itself. It is like a man's clothes, by 
which you can often trace the growth or 
decay of his self-respect. Pride in one's 
work and a tendency to exalt it is a 
healthy sign, provided there is something 
back of it. The formation of staff associa- 
tions like that recently organized in New 
York is a good sign, so is the multiplica- 
tion of professional bodies. The establish- 
ment of the A. L. A. in 1876 was the be- 
ginning of the whole library advance in 
this country. It was only a symptom, of 
course, but with the healthy growth of 
libraries I look for more signs of our pride 
in what we are doing, of our unwillingness 
to lower it or to alter its ideals. 

The familiar question, "Is librarianship 
a profession?" reduces to a matter of def- 
inition. We are being professionalized for 
the purposes of this discussion If we are 
growing sufficiently in group conscious- 
ness to let it react favorably on our work. 

One of the earliest developments of a 
feeling of professional pride In one's work 
is an insistence on the adequate training 
of the workers and on the establishment of 



standards of efficiency both for workers 
and work. Here belongs a forecast not 
only of library school training, but of offi- 
cial inspection and certification, of sys- 
tems of service, etc. Standardization of 
this kind is on the increase and is bound 
to be enforced with greater strictness in 
the future. In our professional training 
as in other professions the tendency is to- 
ward specialization. With us, this spe- 
cialization will doubtless proceed on the 
lines of facilities for practice. An engi- 
neering school cannot turn out electrical 
engineers if the only laboratories that it 
has are devoted to civil and mechanical 
engineering. A specialist in abdominal 
surgery is not produced by experience in a 
contagious disease ward. Similarly we 
ought not to expect a school remote from 
public library facilities to specialize in 
public library work, or a school in close 
connection with a public library to produce 
assistants for the work of a university 
library. Increasing professional spirit 
among us will demand specialization ac- 
cording to equipment. 

Popularization, some may think, has al- 
ready gone to the limit. How can we be 
more of the people than we are today? Are 
we not, in sooth, a little too democratic, 
perhaps? Personally I feel that a good 
deal of the library's social democracy is 
on the surface. Any member of a priv- 
ileged class will assure you that his own 
class constitutes "the people" and that the 
rest do not matter. The Athenians hon- 
estly thought that their country was a 
democracy, when it was really an oligarchy 
of the most limited kind. England hon- 
estly thought she had "popular" govern- 
ment when those entitled to vote were a 
very small part of the population. A li- 
brary in a city of half a million inhabit- 
ants honestly thinks that a record of 100,- 
000 cardholders entitles it to boast that 
Its use extends to the whole population. 
We cannot say that we reach the whole 
number of citizens until we really do 
reach them. The school authorities can 
go out to the highways and hedges and 
compel them to come in; we cannot. 



BOSTWICK 



55 



Herein doubtless lies one of our advan- 
tages. Our buildings are filled with, willing 
users. It is our business to universalize 
the desire to read as the schools are uni- 
versalizing the ability. But we have not 
yet done so, and popularization proceeds 
slowly. I cannot say that I see many in- 
dications of speeding up in the rate, al- 
though our increase in the recognition of 
groups, noted above, may have an influ- 
ence here in future. As groups develop 
among that part of the population that 
uses the library least, our opportunity to 
extend our influence over that part will 
present Itself. One such group is ready 
for us but we bave never reached it — that 
of union labor. The recognition of the 
unions by the library and of the library 
by the unions has been unaccountably de- 
layed, despite sporadic, well-meant, but in- 
effective efforts on both sides. No more 
important step for the intellectual future 
of the community can be taken than this 
extension of service. 

Nationalization has just begun. It is 
speeding up and will go far, I am sure, in 
the next twenty years. Our libraries are 
getting used to acting as a unit. We 
should not like administrative national- 
ization and I see no signs of it; but na- 
tionalization in the sense of improved op- 
portunities for team work and greater 
willingness to avail ourselves of them we 
shall get in increasing measure. For in- 
stance, one of our greatest opportunities 
lies before us In the inter-library loan. It 
knocks at our door, but we do not heed it 
because in this respect we have not begun 
yet to think nationally. But having be- 
gun national service in the various activi- 
ties brought to the front by the war, we 
shall not, I am sure, lag behind much 
longer. The national organization of the 
A. L. A. has long provided us with a 
framework on which to build our national 
thoughts and our national deeds, but hith- 
erto it has remained a mere scaffolding, 
conspicuous through the absence of any 
corresponding structure. The war is teach- 
ing us both to think and to act nationally, 
and after it is over I shall be astonished 



if we are longer content to do each his own 
work. Our work is nationwide, in peace 
as in war and our tardy realization of this 
fact may be one of the satisfactory by- 
products of this world conflict. 

Now it is not beyond the possibilities 
that the library movement, headed right 
and running free, may still fail because it 
meets some obstacle and goes to pieces. 
Are there any such in sight? I seem to 
see several, but I believe that we can steer 
clear. If we split on anything it will be on 
ah unseen rock, and of such, of course, we 
can say nothing. 

One rock is political interference. The 
library has had trouble with it of old and 
some of us are still struggling with it. It 
is assumed by those who put their trust in 
paper civil service that it has now been 
minimized. This overlooks the undoubted 
fact that in a great number of cases the 
civil service machinery has been captured 
by politicians, and now works to aid them, 
not to control them. The greatest danger 
of political interference in public libra- 
ries, now lies in well-meant efforts to turn 
them over to some local commission estab- 
lished to further the merit system, but actu- 
ally working In harmony with a political 
machine. 

Another rock on which we may possibly 
split Is that of formalism. Machinery 
must be continually scrapped and replaced 
if progress is to be made. It will not grow 
and change like an organism. The library 
Itself is subject to organic growth and 
change, but its machinery will not change 
automatically with It. If we foster in any 
way an idea that our machinery is sacred, 
that It is of permanent value and that con- 
ditions should conform to it instead of its 
conforming to them, our whole progress 
may come to an end. I have called this a 
rock, but it is rather a sort of Sargasso 
Sea where the library may whirl about In 
an eternity of seaweed. 

Another obstacle, somewhat allied to 
this of formalism. Is the "big head" — none 
the less dangerous because it Is common 
and as detrimental to an Institution as It 
is to an Individual. Just as soon as a per- 



58 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



motors, and a host of similar topics. In 
fact, no day passes without many calls for 
technical books directly or indirectly bear- 
ing on the war. 

When the American Library Association 
imdertook last fall to raise a million dol- 
lars to supply books and libraries for our 
soldiers and sailors, public libraries 
throughout the country conducted the cam- 
paign. That was almost the first of the 
national campaigns for funds, and showed 
splendid vision on the part of the Amer- 
ican Library Association's leaders. But 
projects of the kind were novel; it was 
necessary to convince librarians, trustees, 
and public of the necessity of the work. 
In the light of later campaigns, the amount 
required seems trivial; but at the time the 
quotas assigned to each library looked 
formidable indeed, and I suspect many a 
librarian confronted the problem with mis- 
giving. The occasion, however, furnished 
an exceptional opportunity for impressing 
on the public the importance of books and 
libraries. In Springfield the task was ren- 
dered easier by the city's being made a 
center for western Massachusetts, and 
holding a large meeting addressed by 
speakers furnished by the Association. The 
program suggested was followed, and a 
committee organized consisting of seventy 
patriotic women who canvassed the city. 
•By the middle of the campaign week, 
Springfield's quota was fifty per cent over- 
subscribed. The experience raises a query, 
however, as to the best method of proceed- 
ing in subsequent campaigns. It is desir- 
able that contributions should come from 
as many individuals as possible, and yet 
the total amount to be raised seems hardly 
great enough to warrant the time and en- 
ergy of a large organization and a house- 
to-house canvass. 

Just as soon as war was declared, as 
already stated, large contingents of sol- 
diers were stationed in Springfield to guard 
the Armory, the Watershops, and certain 
other places. The need of recreational 
reading by these men was so obvious that 
the library supplied deposits of books be- 
fore the American Library Association be- 



gan operations; and it has continued to 
care for these groups, requisitioning from 
the American Library Association the more 
technical books and special publications 
not obtainable by gift in the city. Books 
for the soldiers have been solicited con- 
tinuously, and have been shipped to the 
camps and dispatch offices. Pictures have 
been gathered and classified for use in 
military instruction at Camp Devens, and 
scrapbooks have been made for the hos- 
pitals. In March when the book campaign 
week was instituted, the plan was tried of 
enlisting the pupils in the high schools. 
In proportion to the effort involved, the 
results were surprising. The newspapers 
responded generously, and for seventeen 
days contained items ranging from a few 
paragraphs to special articles of two or 
three columns. The cooperation of the 
high school principals was obtained, and 
an opportunity secured to address the pu- 
pils in each of the three schools. They 
were asked to assume entire responsibility 
for gathering the books; and they took 
hold with a will. A wholesome rivalry be- 
tween schools set in, and the result was 
more than 34,000 excellent books. Mem- 
bers of the Woman's Club lent automobiles, 
a local box company presented packing 
cases, trucking companies furnished trans- 
portation, and the Woman's Committee of 
the Council of National Defense helped in 
plating and preparing the books for circu- 
lation. 

The library has, naturally, been active 
in the movement for food conservation. It 
promptly printed lists of books to help the 
housekeeper make the best use of food sup- 
plies, and it has, of course, displayed all 
sorts of charts and posters showing the 
nutritive value of foods. The newspaper 
is doubtless the best medium for arousing 
widespread interest, but you cannot de- 
pend upon people's taking the trouble to 
clip; for recipes, food cards, or other ma- 
terial which is to be kept and consulted 
frequently, other methods of distribution 
are desirable. In this connection, the pub- 
lic library affords an admirable channel 
for reaching the homes of the people. Be- 



WELLMAN 



69 



sides printing lists on gardening, beekeep- 
ing and similar subjects, the Springfield 
library has procured and distributed thou- 
sands and thousands of pamphlets on diet, 
canning, vegetable raising, thrift, etc. 
With the aid of the high schools and of the 
Hampden County Improvement League, it 
prepared model meals for meatless, wheat- 
less and other days, all showing a correct- 
ly balanced diet. Throughout these ex- 
hibitions the cases were surrounded by 
housewives copying the recipes and dili- 
gently figuring the calories. The library 
then arranged with the Committee of Pub- 
lic Safety for a continuous series of ex- 
hibits and demonstrations in the main 
building and also in the branches. It has 
tucked in library books, when borrowed, 
thousands of excellent recipes to encour- 
age the use of substitutes for meat, wheat, 
sugar, fats and oils — and please note the 
adjective excellent, for many of the recipes 
printed have been almost as deadly as en- 
emy shells. In the same way, at appro- 
priate branches recipes have been distrib- 
uted in foreign languages, and in one in- 
stance a speaker was obtained to address 
a gathering of foreign housewives. 

Of course, pictures, notices, posters and 
lists have been constantly displayed in aid 
of all patriotic movements, and the month- 
ly Bulletin has constantly urged their im- 
portance. The reference department has 
gathered material on women's war work, 
and maintains also a directory and regis- 
ter of local organizations engaged in war 
work. The hall and rooms of the library 
and museums have been placed freely at 
the service of patriotic organizations, and 
parties have been held for the soldiers. 
Precedent has gone to the wall, and solici- 
tation in the library of contributions for 
furthering patriotic work has been al- 
lowed. Campaigns for the Red Cross, the 
Red Triangle, the War Chest, Liberty 
Loans, and allied projects have been as- 
sisted, the librarian and other members 
of the staff have served as canvassers, and 
they have also represented the library on 
committees for food conservation, Ameri- 
canization, draft registration and the like. 



A meeting of librarians in the western 
part of the state was called to further war 
gardening, conservation and thrift. A 
booth was installed to raise money for the 
Young Men's Christian Association; a sta- 
tion established for selling thrift stamps 
to the public; and thrift clubs were or- 
ganized among the children. In short, like 
public libraries everywhere, the institution 
has tried to cooperate in every possible 
way with food and fuel conservation com- 
missions, with the Council for National De- 
fense, the Committee of Public Safety, and 
all similar organizations. But the signifi- 
cant fact is that while for months with 
perhaps a single exception, all work of 
this kind in the library was undertaken by 
the initiative of the library, the field of 
its usefulness is now recognized. Within 
the space of two days, for example, it has 
been asked to further the Red Cross knit- 
ting campaign, to distribute circulars for 
thrift stamp week and to take charge of 
the distribution of sugar cards. 

Not least important in these trying times 
Is the opportunity the library affords for 
relaxation from nervous strain. With this 
in mind, incidentally, a little booklist was 
printed entitled "Nonsense and humor." 
The war is continually present, conscious- 
ly or subconsciously and the resulting ten- 
sion Is depressing. Many a man or woman 
finds in books which lead the thoughts 
Into other fields, the relief and refresh- 
ment that make for sanity and emo- 
tional poise. 

We should not forget, however, that 
probably the most fundamental service Is 
rendered by the library through Its large 
collection of books on the war. A catalog 
with descriptive notes was printed and 
4,000 copies distributed, listing the best 
and most popular. Books of this kind ex- 
ert a powerful Influence In educating pub* 
lie opinion. Circulated by the thousands 
throughout the whole commimity, they 
give an Intelligent comprehension of the 
issues at stake, further unity of thought 
and action, stiffen the determination to 
win, and promote in no small measure In- 
creased willingness to bear the deprlva- 



60 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



tions, hardships and losses necessary for 
success. 

The record, In truth, is modest enough, 
especially when contrasted with the serv- 
ice and sacrifice of those who hazard their 
all in the battle front. But no great war 
nowadays can be won in the field alone; 
the men in khaki, to win, must be backed 
by the whole civil population at home. 
Here lies the opportunity of the library. 
Through the public library system, the 
people can be reached as by no other 
agency save the press, and with an influ- 
ence in some ways different and more en- 



during. In aiding the production of muni- 
tions and food, in assisting all forms of 
community effort necessary to maintain 
the fighting forces, in making known and 
reenforcing the wishes of Governmental 
agencies and commissions, in stimulating 
informed and intelligent patriotism, and in 
sustaining the morale of the nation, the li- 
brary finds a work by no means to be de- 
spised. And library workers may take 
comfort in knowing .that their effort in 
their home libraries forms a real and im- 
portant, if humble, part of the vast war 
machinery. 



THE SPIRIT OF THE WAR LITERATURE: PROSE 
By George F. Bowerman, Librarian, Public Library of the District of Columbia 



The student of the prose writings of this 
war is already confronted with an em- 
barrassment of riches perhaps unequaled 
in the history of literature. Incomplete 
bibliographies have recorded more than 
15,000 titles of books and pamphlets on the 
war. The purpose of this paper is to se- 
lect from this mass a very few of the most 
important and typical books for comment. 
I do not intend to be critical, but I shall 
attempt to show something of the spirit 
of the books selected for consideration. 

Although an interesting subject for 
study, the books generally considered to 
have had an influence in fathering the war, 
such as the writings of Treitschke, Bern- 
hardi and Nietzsche must be omitted, as 
must also the writings treating of the 
causes and political aspects of the war, 
even though they include the signiflcant 
and eloquent utterances of President Wil- 
son, watched for the world over; the books 
by James M. Beck that did so much to 
bring to America conviction of the jus- 
tice of the cause of the Allies; Friedrlch 
Naumann's "Central Europe," regarded as 
the official statement of Germany's terri- 
torial ambitions in this war; the answer 
to Naumann by Andr6 ChSradame in his 
"Pangerman plot unmasked" and other 



writings, and the group of books by Ger- 
mans who have left Germany and are now 
opposing her, "J'accuse, by a German" and 
"The crime," by the same author, and "Be- 
cause I am a German" and "The coming 
democracy" by Hermann Fernau. Limita- 
tions of time compel me to represent this 
phase of my subject by two books only, 
treating of the psychology of the war in 
England and France, with mention of a 
third book on the psychology of German 
kultur. 

The spirit and temper of England can- 
not be better shown than by a brief ex- 
tract from a fascinating book by Profes- 
sor Gilbert Murray, entitled "Faith, war, 
and policy" (1917). From this gentle Ox- 
ford don and classicist we have the right- 
eous indignation that any right-minded man 
must feel at the present time. We must 
not hate, we are told (in August, 1914), 
but there is to be no softening of fiber — 
resolution rather "to face death and kill." 

"For there Is that side of it too. We 
have now not only to strain every nerve to 
help our friend — we must strain every 
nerve also to injure our enemy. This Is 
horrible, but we must try to face the truth. 
For my own part, I find that I do desper- 
ately desire to hear of German dread- 
naughts sunk in the North Sea. Mines are 



BOWERMAN 



61 



treacherous engines of death; but I should 
be only too glad to help to lay one of them. 
When I see that 20,000 Germans have been 
killed in such-and-such an engagement, and 
next day that it was only 2,000, I am sor- 
ry. That is where we are. We are flight- 
ing for that which we love, whatever we 
call it. It is the Right, but it is something 
even more than the Right. For our lives, 
for England, for the liberty of western 
Europe, for the possibility of peace and 
friendship between nations; for something 
that we would rather die than lose. And 
lose it we shall unless we can beat the 
Germans." 

Something of the French spirit may be 
gathered from an unusual book by Gustave 
LeBon, "The psychology of the great war" 
(1916), which aims not to examine the 
historical events of the war but rather "to 
analyze the psychological phenomena which 
surround its genesis and evolution." His 
theme is the preponderance of what he 
calls the mystic over the rational bases of 
action in the present struggle. To quote a 
few extracts from his introduction: 

"The present war is a contest between 
psychological forces. Irreconcilable ideals 
are grappling with one another. Individual 
liberty is drawn up against collective 
servitude, personal initiative against the 
tyranny of state socialism, old habits of in- 
ternational integrity and respect for 
treaties against the supremacy of the can- 
non. The ideal of the absolutism of force, 
whose triumph Germany is now striving to 
secure, is nothing new, for in antiquity it 

reigned supreme Men were beginning 

to forget the dark ages in which the weak 
were pitilessly crushed, the useless bru- 
tally cast off, and the Ideals of the nations 
were conquest, slaughter and pillage. But 
the belief that the progress of civilization 
had once and for all destroyed the barbar- 
ous customs of primitive periods was a 
dangerous illusion, for new hordes of sav- 
ages, whose ancestral ferocity the cen- 
turies have not mitigated, even now dream 
of enslaving the world that they may ex- 
ploit it." 

And from the concluding chapter: 

"Even though the German armies should 
win a hundred battles and lay a hundred 
cities waste, the world needs liberty so 
much and has so many means of defense 
that no Caesar may hope to subject it to 
his laws." 

And again: 

"All these disasters will have no result 



if our will to win persists, for the conquest 
of a nation's territory is not enough. To 
dominate a people its soul must be van- 
quished too — Germany has not enfeebled 
the will of any nation which she has in- 
vaded. All of them would rather die than 

submit The future depends, beyond all 

else, upon the continuance of our will. 
CONQUER OR DIE, BUT NEVER YIELD! 
must be the brief watchword of the na- 
tions which Germany would enslave. 
Neither Nature, nor Man, nor Fate itself, 
can withstand a strong and steadfast will." 
Although published early in the war and 
then criticized by some as not sufficiently 
judicial, Dr. Thomas F. A. Smith's "The 
soul of Germany" is now, in the light of 
Germany's crimes, seen to be an acute and 
illuminating study of German character 
and ideals. The author, an Englishman, 
spent twelve years in Germany as a stu- 
dent and teacher and as a lecturer in the 
University of Erlangen and throughout the 
country. His book is especially important 
for its analysis of the German system of 
education, in which he characterizes the 
German schools as intellectual barracks 
and the universities as high schools of 
kultur and brutality. Defending his state- 
ments from German official statistics of 
vice and crime, the author makes an ajH 
palling but unanswerable indictment of the 
moral state of the German people that 
helps to explain their conduct of this war, 
without regard for honesty, honor, decency, 
pity, or chivalry. 

From the books of discussion and criti- 
cism let us turn to the literature of per- 
sonal experience. 

One of the most interesting and widely 
read contributions to the literature of the 
war is a book so unique as almost to defy 
classification. I refer to Sir Oliver Lodge's 
"Raymond, or life and death," a memoir 
of the great scientist's youngest son who 
was killed in action. The exceptional 
character of the book lies in the fact that 
it not only pictures the son while alive 
and doing a man's work in the trenches, 
but also follows him beyond the grave and 
by means of what the father regards as 
authentic messages received through a 
trance medium represents him as a still 



62 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



living personality, exhibiting the same in- 
terest in and affection for his family that 
he felt in his life on earth. As is well 
known, Sir Oliver Lodge, a scientist of the 
first rank, has long been a believer in 
psychic communications between the living 
and those who are physically dead. From 
these communications the author argues a 
certainty of the continuity of life. He 
holds also that without such a belief all 
the great sacrifice of human lives that the 
war involves has no meaning. Dr. Conan 
Doyle says of this book: 

"It is a new revelation of God's dealing 
with man, and it will strengthen, not 
weaken, the central spirit of Christianity. 
It is one of the few books of which it can 
be said that no one can read it with care 
and understanding and be the same man 
or woman afterward. If you are a be- 
liever in such things already it will have 
left that belief wider and more definite. 
If you are not a believer you will find 
opened up to you a new world which you 
cannot lightly dismiss from your philos- 
ophy of life." 

The books that make the widest appeal 
to those who are taking only a distant and 
safe part in the war are those which re- 
late the experiences of combatants and 
noncombatants in camp, trench, hospital, 
and throughout the belligerent and invaded 
countries. 

From the large and growing list of books 
by fighting men it is possible to choose 
only five or six of the most vivid. 

"Over the top," by Sergeant Arthur Guy 
Empey, is deservedly the most popular 
war book by a soldier. Empey, or "Emp," 
as he calls himself when, on the public 
platform, he puts the punch of his vigor- 
ous personality into the interpretation of 
his thrilling story, has lived a great deal 
in his relatively few years. After sixteen 
years spent in knocking around the world, 
including service in the United States Reg- 
ular Army, he had settled to his engineer- 
ing profession when the European War 
broke out. The news of the sinking of the 
Lusitania caused him to write emergency 
telegrams to the members of his National 
Guard command ready to be sent as soon 



as the expected order should come from 
Washington to report for duty. One day 
after the messages had been covered with 
months of dust, a lucrative professional 
offer came over the 'phone and to his 
own surprise he found himself declining 
it because he was off for England. Arriv- 
ing there he enlisted in the British army, 
went to the front, always volunteered for 
extra hazardous duties, was wounded three 
or four times, once lying for thirty-six 
hours unconscious in a shell hole. His 
necessary surgery included a pretty opera- 
tion in facial restoration. A wound in the 
shoulder prevented further fighting, so 
that after eighteen months he was dis- 
charged as "physically unfit for further 
war service." Since his return to America 
he has written "Over the top," and other 
sketches first published serially and later 
issued in book form as "First call." 

"Over the top" is a perfectly direct ac- 
count of his experiences as a British Tom- 
my. One gets no heroics, but rather the 
hard work, the fatigue, the discomfort, the 
filth, the torture endured from cooties, the 
danger and suffering, and also the humor, 
the fun, and the practical jokes. Early in 
his book he speaks of some conversation 
as happening after he had learned to "un- 
derstand English," meaning of course the 
Cockney and other dialects of unlettered 
Englishmen. For his readers he has fur- 
nished a thirty-five page glossary entitled 
"Tommy's dictionary of the trenches." 
Some of these terms are "Blighty," mean- 
ing home; "No man's land"; "Carry on," 
keeping at it; "the best of luck," the Jonah 
phrase of the trenches, used whenever a 
man goes "over the top" or Into extra 
hazardous duty ; '^gone west," to have been 
killed. 

From a book all so quotable it is diffi- 
cult to choose, so I will content myself 
with this bit from his hospital experi- 
ence: 

"Some kindly looking old lady will stop 
at your bed and in a sympathetic voice 
address you, 'You poor boy, wounded by 
those terrible Germans. You must be suf- 
fering frightful pain. A bullet, did you 
say? Well, tell me, I have always wanted 



BOWERMAN 



63 



to know, did It hurt worse going In or 
coming out?' 

Tommy generally replies that he did not 
stop to figure It out when he was hit. 

One very nice looking, over-enthusiastic 
young thing stopped at my bed and asked, 
•What wounded you In the face?' 

In a polite but bored tone I answered, 
•A rifle bullet.' With a look of disdain she 
passed to the next bed, first ejaculating, 
•Oh! only a bullet? I thought it was a 
shell.' Why she should think a shell 
wound was more of a distinction beats 
me." 

Almost his closing words are: 

"War Is not a pink tea, but In a worth 
while cause like ours, mud, rats, cooties, 
shells, wounds, or death Itself are far out- 
weighed by the deep sense of satisfaction 
felt by the man who does his bit." 

I am Informed that "A student In arms," 
by Donald Hankey, has become almost a 
second Bible with all Y. M. C. A. men en- 
gaged in war work. The author was an 
Oxford man, a student for the ministry. 
He was killed in October, 1916, leading his 
men. The two volumes published under 
this title are made up of short essays, and 
imaginary conversations, originally pub- 
lished chiefly in the Spectator. They are 
filled with lofty Idealism and charged with 
religious spirit. They deal not so much 
with the actual Incidents of the war as 
with soldiers' attitude toward life at the 
front, toward religion, the church, their 
officers and each other. 

The character of the books may be gath- 
ered from this brief extract from a chap- 
ter entitled, ••Of some who were lost and 
afterward were found," meaning the black 
sheep In his command, the men who, he 
says, "would not fit into any respectable 
niche in our social edifice," who '•were in- 
curably disreputable, always in scrapes, 
always Impecunious, always Improvident," 
"drunken and loose in morals." But this 
is the way they acted in an engagement: 

"Then at last we 'got out.' We were 
confronted with dearth, danger and death. 
And then they came to their own. We 
could no longer compete with them. We 
stolid respectable folk were not in our ele- 
ment. We knew it. We felt It. We were 
determined to go through with it. We suc- 
ceeded; but it was not without much in- 



ternal wrestling, must self-conscious effort. 
Yet they, who had formerly been our de- 
spair, were now our glory. Their spirits 
effervesced. Their wit sparkled. Hunger 
and thirst could not depress them. Rain 
could not damp them. Cold could not chill 
them. Every hardship became a joke. 
They did not endure hardship, they derided 
It. And somehow It seemed at the moment 
as if derision was all that hardship existed 
for! Never was such a triumph of spirit 
over matter. As for death, it was. In a 
way, the greatest joke of all. In a way, 
for if it was another fellow who was hit it 
was an occasion for tenderness and grief. 
But if one of them was hit, O Death, where 
is thy sting? O Grave, where Is thy vic- 
tory? Portentous, solemn Death, you 
looked a fool when you tackled one of 
them! Life? They did not value life! 
They had never been able to make much of 
a fist of it. But if they lived amiss, they 
died gloriously, with a smile for the pain 
and the dread of it. What else had they 
been born for? It was their chance. With 
a gay heart they gave their greatest gift, 
and with a smile to think that after all 
they had anything to give which was of 
value. One by one death challenged them. 
One by one they smiled in his grim visage 
and refused to be dismayed. They had 
been lost, but they had found the path that 
led them home; and when at last they laid 
their lives at the feet of the Good Shep- 
herd, what could they do but smile." 

John Masefield's ••Galllpoli" deserves to 
be Included in this study because, as one 
critic has said, it Is "literature so magni- 
ficent, so heroic, so heartbreaking, that it 
sends us back to the Greek epics for com- 
parison." Though he does not say so, 
Mr. Masefield was at Galllpoli and partici- 
pated In the events he records. The book 
is a clear and connected account of the 
Dardanelles campaign from the landing at 
Cape Helles to the final evacuation in Janu- 
ary, 1916. The author refers to the cam- 
paign as "a great human effort, which 
came, more than once, very near to 
triumph, achieved the Impossible many 
times, and failed in the end, as many great 
deeds of arms have failed, from something 
which had nothing to do with arms nor 
with the men who bore them..." "This 
failure," says Masefield, ••is the second 
grand event of the war; the first was Bel- 
gium's answer to the German ultimatum." 



64 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



The strength of the book consists not in 
its arguments against the military blun- 
ders of the campaign, but in its recital of a 
pathetic and dramatic human story, a 
breathless story, filled with disaster and 
death. The quality of the story is shown 
by this passage, at the close of the book. 
Until the truth is known, he says, as to 
why the Peninsula was not won, let oui- 
enemies say this: 

"They did not win, but they came across 
three thousand miles of sea, a little army 
without reserves and short of munitions, a 
band of brothers, not half of them half 
trained, and nearly all of them new to 
war. They came to what we said was an 
impregnable fort on which our veterans of 
war and massacre had laboured for two 
months, and by sheer naked manhood they 
beat us, and drove us out of it. Then ral- 
lying, but without reserves, they beat us 
again and drove us further. Then rallying 
once more, but still without reserves, they 
beat us again, this time to our knees. Then, 
had they had reserves, they would have 
conquered, but by God's pity they had none. 
Then, after a lapse of time, when we were 
men again, they had reserves, and they 
hit us a staggering blow, which needed 
but a push to end us, but God again had 
pity. After that our God was indeed piti- 
ful, for England made no further thrust, 
and they went away," 

Mr. Masefield has since written a book 
on the war on the western front, "The old 
front line," and has recently been lectur- 
ing in this country. Those who heard him, 
as I suppose many of you did, will not 
»oon forget his sad face and his melancholy 
voice as he told of the war. 

The little book by Lieutenant Coningsby 
Dawson, "Carry on," consists of a collec- 
tion of letters to his family characterized 
by vividness of impression, sympathetic 
insight, and a spirit of heroism. The au- 
thor on his graduation from Oxford came 
to America and spent a year in Union 
Theological Seminary. Giving up the min- 
istry he turned to writing and published 
two or three novels including the "Garden 
without walls" and "The slaves of free- 
dom," the latter early in 1916. Securing a 
commission in the Canadian field artillery 
he was soon in France. These letters, 
which are most intimate and personal, 



were written from dugouts on the Somme 
battle front in the intervals of artillery 
fire. They were published altogether with- 
out the knowledge of the author, with a 
biographical introduction and editorial 
notes by his father, the Reverend Dr. 
W. J. Dawson. For its size this book is 
quite the most abundant in quotable pass- 
ages: 

"We have got to win," he writes, "so 
that men may never again be tortured by 
the ingenious inquisition of modern war- 
fare." 

"If unconscious heroism is the virtue 
most to be desired, and heroism spiced 
with a strong sense of humor at that, then 
pretty well every man I have met out here 
has the amazing guts to wear his crown of 
thorns as though it were a cap-and-bells. 
To do that for the sake of corporate stout- 
heartedness is, I think, the acme of what 
Aristotle meant by virtue." 

"All night the machine guns tap lik€ 
riveting machines when a New York sky- 
scraper is in the building." 

"There's a picture in the Pantheon in 
Paris, I remember; I believe it's called 
'To glory.' One sees all the armies of the 
ages charging out of the middle distanc€ 
with Death riding at their head. The only 
glory I have discovered in this war is in 
men's hearts — it's not external. Were one 
to paint the spirit of this war he would 
depict a mud landscape, blasted trees, an 
iron sky; wading through the slush and 
shell-holes would come a file of bowed fig- 
ures, more like outcasts from the Embank- 
ment than soldiers. They're loaded down 
like pack animals, their shoulders are 
rounded, they're wearied to death, but they 
go on and go on. There's no 'to glory' 
about what we're doing out here; there's 
no fiash of swords or splendor of uniforms. 
There are only very tired men determined 
to carry on. "The war will be won by tired 
men who could never again pass an In- 
surance test, a mob of broken counter- 
jumpers, ragged ex-plumbers and quite un- 
herolc persons. We're civilians in khaki, 
but because of the ideals for which we fight 
we've managed to acquire soldiers' hearts." 

Lieutenant Dawson has since published 
"The glory of the trenches," likewise filled 
with inspiring idealism, and has been sent 
by the British Government to France to 
make a study of the American army there. 
A book recording his observations is an- 
nounced with the title, "Out to win." 

Another recent lecturer is the author of 



BOWERMAN 



66 



two books on England's early experiences 
in the war, "The First Hundred Thousand" 
and "All in it — K (1) carries on," by Ian 
Hay, that is, by Captain, now Major John 
Hay Beith, also a novelist of note. These 
sketches of "the personal adventures of a 
typical regiment of Kitchener's army" give 
a detailed, unofficial chronicle of a unit 
of "K (1)," a company of Scotch High- 
landers of which the author was a mem- 
ber. He says that the "characters are en- 
tirely fictitious but the incidents described 
all actually occurred." He shows how a 
green regiment is whipped into shape, how 
it behaved under fire, and how irrepressible 
humor, his own and his companions', could 
lighten any situation. As the reader fol- 
lows the unit through these two volumes 
he comes to know by name and character- 
istics and so much to love the individual 
officers and men that when each engage- 
ment is over he is eager to learn whether 
Bobby Little, Captain Wagstaffe, Corporal 
Mucklewaine, Privates Cosh and Tosh and 
all the other kilted Jocks and Jimmies, 
Sandies and Andies are still alive and safe. 
The first volume closes with the Battle of 
Loos; the Second extends to "profitable 
participation" in the Battle of the Somme- 
The author announces that there will not 
be a third volume, for the First Hundred 
Thousand, as such, says he, are no 
more. As Sergeant Mucklewaine observed, 
"There's no that mony of us left now, ony- 
ways." 

These books also afford abundant mate- 
rial for quotation, of striking and humor- 
ous incident and dialogue; much of the 
latter, however, is in Scotch dialect that 
needs the tongue of a Scotsman for its 
proper rendition. 

In view of the criticisms formerly lev- 
eled at our own earlier official manage- 
ment of this war, there is pertinence in 
Major Beith's chapter on "Olympus" which 
is divided roughly, he says, into three de- 
partments : 

(1) Round game department (including 
dockets, indents, and all official correspond- 
ence) ; (2) Fairy godmother department; 
(3) Practical joke department. 

"The outstanding feature of the round 



game department is its craving for ir- 
relevant information and its passion for 

detail Listen, and we will explain the 

rules of the game. Think of something 
you want immediately — say the command 
of a brigade, or a couple of washers for 
the lock of a machine-gun — and apply to 
us. The application must be made in writ- 
ing, upon the army form provided for the 
purpose, and in triplicate. And — you must 
'put in all the details you can possibly 
think of.' " 

For instance in the case of the machine- 
gun washers — by the way in applying for 
them you must call them "gun, machine, 
light Vickers, washers for the lock of two." 
That is the way they talk at the ordnance 
office. An ordnance officer refers to his 
wife's mother as "Law, mother-in, one." 
You should state when the old washers 
were lost, and by whom; also why they 
were lost, and where they are now. Then 
write a short history of the machine-gun 
from which they were lost, giving date and 
place of birth, together with the exact 
number of rounds which it has fired — a 
machine-gun fires about 500 rounds a min- 
ute — adding the name and military record 
of the pack animal which usually carries 
it. When you have filled up the document 
you forward it to the proper quarter and 
await results. 

The game then proceeds on simple and 
automatic lines. If your application is 
referred back to you not more than five 
times, and if you get your washers within 
three months of the date of application, 
you are the winner. If you get something 
else — say an aeroplane, or a hundred wash 
hand basins — it is a draw. But the chances 
are that you lose." 

Of the books of personal experiences by 
noncombatants the most interesting to me, 
the most sprightly and entertaining, the 
most moving is Hugh Gibson's "Journal 
from our legation in Belgium." Written 
for the eye of his mother, it covers the pe- 
riod from July 4 to December 31, 1914. The 
author was first secretary of the American 
legation in Brussels. He -begins by lament- 
ing that he had been sent to such a quiet 
post and expressing his resolution to ask 
for a transfer to some busier place. Then 
comes the end of July. From that time on 
the reader is constantly wondering how he 
found time to sleep, much less keep this 
journal. Indeed, there are days at a time 
when he was absent in Louvain, Antwerp, 



66 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



Havre and London, when he slept little, 
and wrote nothing. He was often in places 
of great danger, as for example in Louvain 
while street fighting was in progress; his 
official duties took him back and forth be- 
tween the German and Belgian lines dur- 
ing engagements. Through it all he was 
ever cheerful and helpful and was espe- 
cially active in carrying messages of good 
cheer between Belgian husbands and fath- 
ers and their beleaguered families in Brus- 
sels. His sympathies were at all times 
clearly with the Belgians and his book con- 
stitutes a strong, first hand indictment of 
German treachery. Anyone who doubted 
the stories of German atrocities has only 
to read this record of our own representa- 
tive in Belgium to find on almost every 
page unstudied testimonies to robbery, 
pillage and murder committed by the Ger- 
mans everywhere in the most deliberate 
and systematic fashion. 

Mr. Gibson was not in Louvain at first, 
but arrived in time to see much of the 
work of destruction. It is his conviction 
based on first-hand evidence that for six 
days the German army indulged in an orgy 
of bestiality and murder, and that "the 
whole affair was part of a cold blooded and 
calculated plan to terrorize the civilian 
population." At this time all of the de- 
tails cannot be published without endan- 
gering the lives of people remaining in 
Belgium, but later on "the true facts of the 
destruction of Louvain will startle the 
world — hardened to surprise at German 
crimes though it has become." When food 
was nearly exhausted someone remarked 
that the Germans must not let the Belgians 
starve. General von Luttwitz replied with 
warmth that the Allies might feed them; 
if they did not, they were responsible for 
whatever might happen; that if there were 
riots, the whole civil population might be 
driven into some restricted area and fenced 
in and left to die. 

From pages crowded with tragic events 
the difficulty is in deciding what not to 
quote. There was the morning when the 
German army occupied Brussels, going 
through it* streets, haughty, contemptuous. 



in marvelous array and equipment. "It 
was a wonderful sight, and one which I 
never expect to see equaled as long as I 
live. They poured down the hill in a 
steady stream without a pause or a break; 
not an order was shouted or a word ex- 
changed among the officers or men. All 
of the orders and signals were given by 
whistles and signs." 

At Louvain an officer declared to Mr. 
Gibson: "We shall make this place a des- 
ert. We shall wipe it out so that it will 
be hard to find where Louvain used to 
stand. For generations people will come 
here to see what we have done, and it will 
teach them to respect Germany and to 
think twice before they resist her. Not 
one stone on another, I tell you — kein 
Stein auf dem andern!" 

Mr. Gibson reports that the Germans 
had trained the population to throw up 
their hands as soon as anyone came in 
sight. One of his most moving experiences 
at Louvain was when in going around a 
corner in the motor they came on a little 
girl of seven carrying a canary in a cage. 
As soon as she saw them she threw up her 
hands and cried out something that they 
did not understand. Thinking that she 
wanted to give them some warning they 
put on the brakes and drew up to the curb. 
"Then she burst out crying with fear and 
we saw that she was in terror of her life. 
We called out to reassure her, but she 
turned and ran like a hunted animal." 

Later when the German authorities be- 
gan to appreciate the loathing of the world 
at the crime of Louvain the order was is- 
sued to stop the work of destruction. Mr. 
Gibson says: "It was only when he learned 
how civilization regarded his crimes, that 
the Emperor's heart began to bleed." 

He tells of another case when a troop train 
passed over a railway crossing and there 
was an explosion like the report of a rifle. 
The train was promptly stopped, and the 
officer in command at once collected all of 
the men in the vicinity and had them 
stood up against a wall and shot. After 
they were all safely dead the German 
switch tender got a chance to explain that 



BOWERMAN 



67 



he had placed an explosive cap on the 
track as a signal to stop the train before 
reaching the next station. 

But Mr. Gibson's book is by no means 
grim and gloomy. Every day's record is 
lightened by humor, especially by the au- 
thor's dry comments on the stupidity and 
asininity of German officialdom. 

Visitors to Belgium in peace time who 
remember the omnipresent dog drawing a 
milk cart will here find him hauling ma- 
chine guns and ammunition carts. 

Throughout the book one is impressed 
by the different attitudes of the Belgians 
and Germans toward the Americans. The 
Germans were usually polite, affable and 
correct in form, profuse in promises, but 
showed clearly their distrust and their 
underlying hostility, and seemed to as- 
sume that American sympathies were not 
with them. The Belgians, on the other 
hand, always took it for granted that the 
Americans were friendly to them. The 
American flag on the legation motor was 
always cheered. He relates that on his 
memorable trip to Louvain the citizens 
"were pathetic in their confidence that the 
United States was coming to save them. 
In some way word had travelled all over 
Belgium that we have entered the war on 
the side of Belgium and they all seem to 
believe it. Nearly every group we talked 
to asked... when our troops were com- 
ing A little boy of eight asked if we 

were English and when I told him what 
we were, he began jumping up and down, 
clapping his hands and shouting, 'The 
Americans have arrived.' " 

It is quite natural that Ambassador 
James W. Gerard's "My four years in Ger- 
many" should be eagerly read because of 
its first-hand, inside, authoritative informa- 
tion about America's relations with Ger- 
many. The book more than meets one's 
expectation of it. The value consists not 
only In its account of the diplomatic mat- 
ters which the author handled with so 
much credit to his country, but also for his 
pictures of German conditions, tempera- 
ment and psychology, for his rehearsals 



of his conversations with the Kaiser and 
German ministers of state, for his ac- 
counts of prison camps and of conditions 
among working men. 

In reading this book every American is 
thankful that we had at Berlin a man who 
could tell the German foreign office that 
if an insult to this country, hung by the 
League of Truth in a conspicuous place, 
was not removed he would go with a mov- 
ing picture operator and take it down him- 
self; who could tell the Chancellor that he 
would sit in the street in front of his of- 
fice until attention was paid to a proposal 
about the war prisoners; who could tell 
Zimmermann that there was a lamp post in 
America for every German here who would 
rise against this country; who could tell 
the foreign office that he would stay there 
"until hell freezes over" before he would 
sign the treaty demanded of him as a con- 
dition of the embassy's safe-conduct out 
of Germany — and carry his point in each 
case. 

This is a book that should be read entire 
by every "American for its illuminating pic- 
ture of our enemy. Nearly every page 
has something worthy of quotation. Most 
noteworthy perhaps Is Mr. Gerard's inter- 
view of over an hour with the Emperor in 
October, 1915 — an audience had been re- 
fused for more than six months — in which 
the Kaiser showed intense bitterness 
against the United States. Standing very 
close to Mr. Gerard, the Kaiser said re- 
peatedly: "America had better look out 
after the war"; and, "I shall stand no non- 
sense after this war." 

The ambassador gives it as his opinion 
that "the Germans believe that President 
Wilson had been elected with a mandate 
to keep out of war at any cost, and that 
America could be insulted, flouted and 
humiliated with impunity." He also says: 
"I believe that today all of the bitterness 
of the hate formerly concentrated on Eng- 
land has now been concentrated on the 
United States." He adds that German- 
Americans are hated worse than other 
Americans because they have neither as- 



68 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



sisted Germany nor kept America out of 
the war. 

In closing his book Mr. Gerard says of 
the causes and the outcome of the war: 

"It is because in the dark, cold, north- 
ern plains of Germany there exists an 
autocracy, deceiving a great people, poi- 
soning their minds from one generation 
to another, and preaching the virtue and 
necessity of war; and until that autocracy 
is either wiped out or made powerless 

there can be no pe&,ce on earth And 

there must be no German peace. The old 
regime, left in control of Germany, of 
Bulgaria, of Turkey, would only seek a 
favorable moment to renew the war, to 
strive again for the mastery of the world. 
Fortunately America bars the way." 

Mr. Gerard has since published "Face to 
face with Kaiserism," described by the au- 
thor as a continuation of his earlier book. 

Out of the large number of novels the 
war has brought forth, I can name only a 
few, grouping them under the countries 
that they In a sense represent. For Ger- 
many I shall mention Cholmondeley's 
"Christine"; for Russia, Walpole's "The 
dark forest"; for France, Benjamin's "Pri- 
vate Gaspard" and Barbusse's "Under 
fire," and for England, H. G. Wells' "Mr. 
Britling sees it through" and May Sin- 
clair's "The tree of heaven." 

In spite of the fact that it is slight and 
intrinsically not very important, I include 
"Christine," by the author who writes un- 
der the pseudonym of Alice Cholmondeley, 
because it has been widely read and be- 
cause it probably gives a better and a 
more accurate picture of Germany at the 
outbreak of the war than does any other 
novel. It is written in the form of letters, 
vivacious and readable, from a young Eng- 
lish girl to her mother. Christine Is study- 
ing music in Germany and becomes en- 
gaged to a German officer. The story 
brings out with quaint humor the German 
servility toward the offlcier, and authority 
generally and the adoration of the Kaiser. 
When she was simply an English girl she 
was nothing, was crowded off the sidewalk; 
when she was betrothed to an officer she 
was petted and congratulated on the fact 
that she was going to be a "good German" ; 



when Great Britain declared war her lover 
was practically commanded to give her up 
and she was humiliated and insulted. 

One of the best touches is that of the 
transformation of Kloster, her great mu- 
sic master, from a rebel who constantly 
denounces the authority of the military 
caste to a good yeoman in the Kaiser's 
service by his decoration with the Order of 
the Red Eagle, first class, with title of 
Wirklicher Geheimrath mit dem Pradikat 
Excellenz. On receipt of that honor he 
casts off his former confidante and most 
promising pupil (Christine) without a 
word of explanation. 

While war was brewing she was com- 
pelled to hear much of Germany, its his- 
tory, achievements and character, 

"By the time the servant came to take 
the tea things I had a distinct vision of 
Germany as the most lovable of little 
lambs with a blue ribbon round its neck, 
standing knee-deep in daisies and looking 
about the world with kind little eyes." 

After the Austrian note had been sent to 
Serbia she had this conversation with her 
hostess, who said: 

" 'Russia and France will not interfere 
in so just a punishment.' 

'But is it just?' I asked. 

She gazed at me critically at this. It 
was not, she evidently considered, a suit- 
able remark for one whose business it was 
to turn into an excellent little German. 
'Dear child,' she said, 'You cannot suppose 
that our ally, the Kaiser's ally, would make 
demands that are not just.' 

'Do you think Friday's papers are still 
anywhere about?' was my answer. 'I'd like 
to read the Austrian note, and think it 
over for myself. I haven't yet.' 

The Grafin smiled at this, and rang the 
bell. 'I expect the butler has them . . . But 
do not worry your little head this hot 
weather too much.' 

'It won't melt,' I said, resenting that my 
head should be regarded as so very small 
and also made of sugar. 

'There are people whose business it is to 
think these high matters out for us,' she 
said, 'and in thein hands we can safely 
leave them.' 

'As if they were God,' I remarked. 

'Precisely,' she said, 'Loyal subjects, true 
Christians, are alike in their unquestion- 
ing trust and obedience to authority.' " 

I am able to offer no opinion as to wheth- 



BOWERMAN 



69 



er the real author of "Christine" is or is 
not Ihe writer usually known in literature 
as the Countess von Arnim, author of 
"Elizabeth and her German garden." 

Some may think that to represent Rus- 
sia in war fiction I ought to include An- 
dreyev's "Confessions of a little man in 
great days," since it is by a prominent 
Russian novelist and is about the war. 
However, as I detest the whining, self- 
pitying tone of its soul analysis, I prefer 
to include a more robust book, "The dark 
forest" by the English novelist, Hugh Wal- 
pole, author of "Fortitude." In "The dark 
forest," the story is concerned with a Red 
Cross "Otriad" or surgical unit whose 
members follow the Russian armies on 
their advance and their great retreat in 
Galicia. Types of English and Russian 
character are contrasted and the Russian 
myatlcal temperament and belief in psychic 
phenomena play an important part in the 
development of the story. The atmosphere 
is that of war and of Russia. There are 
many vivid impressions of actual warfare. 
One has to do with the lack of ammuni- 
tion which caused the Russian breakdown. 
The following is an extract from Tran- 
chard's diary: 

"They say that the Austrians are strain- 
ing every nerve to break through to the 
river and cross. We are doing what we 
can to prevent them, but what can we do? 
There simply is not ammunition! The of- 
ficers here are almost crying with despair, 
and the men know it and go on, with their 
cheerfulness, their obedience, their mild 
kindliness — go into that green hill to be 
butchered, and come out of it again, if 
they are lucky, with their bodies mangled 
and twisted, and horror in their eyes. It's 
nobody's fault, I suppose, this business. 
How easy to write in the daily papers that 
the Germans prepared for this war and 
that we did not, and that after a month or 

two all will be well After a month or 

two! tell that to us, stuck here in the for- 
est and hear how we laugh!" 

To Ren6 Benjamin was awarded the Gon- 
court prize for 1915 for his "Private Gas- 
pard, a soldier of France." The slang of 
the original is almost untranslatable and 
though the book has been reproduced in 
good American slang, the spirit of France 



breathes in spite of the inadequacies of the 
translation. The hero is a Montmartre 
snail merchant, but he is also the tradi- 
tional gamin grown up; according to one 
critic he is the Gallic cock of legend. He 
is irrepressible, bubbling over with assur- 
ance, humor and sympathy. We find in 
Gaspard the spirit of France, gay and 
brave, despite the horrors of war, the 
France that so marvelously disappointed 
her enemies, the France that recreated her- 
self out of the war. The buoyancy, cour- 
age and vigor that pervade the story are a 
fitting symbol of the land that produced 
it. These extracts illustrate the quality 
of the book: 

"Gaspard Inquired: 'What do you call 
this place?' 

The sergeant replied: 'They tell me it's 
G— .' 

'G — ?' said Gaspard. 'Never heard of it.' 

He was obviously dissatisfied. No one 
ever heard of G — . What he wanted was 
the name of one of the great battles of 
history. To have been wounded at G — 
would mean nothing, however great an es- 
cape from death he might have had. He 
had seen so many fall and die! The only 
ones he hadn't seen were the Germans. 
He asked the others: 'Did you see the Ger- 
mans?' 

A wounded man replied: 'Much do I wor- 
ry about that! I don't want to see them.' 

'Well, you think like a fool. He doesn't 
care to see them!... Well, who does?... 
Only I sure didn't think that war was any- 
thing like this. And I'm not the only one 
at that. When I fight I'm not afraid to 
show myself; I don't go into hiding! But 
with these swine, they stay at home and 
fire at you all their rotten steel and iron. 
We were willing to go right to it; all we 
wanted was a hand to hand fight' 

A voice from the shadows said: 'Unfor- 
tunately those are no more the conditions 
of modern warfare.' 

'Modern be damned!' said Gaspard. 'I 
don't know any big words like that but I 
know what I'm talking about. And if I'd 
known before I wouldn't have gone into 
the infantry.' 

'Where would you have gone?' said the 
same voice. 

'Where would I have gone? Why, In a 
flying corps! I would have applied for a 
job as an aviator. . . and that's the kind of 
a job I'd like, because I could spit on the 
Germans!' 

Gaspard was allowed to go home on 



70 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



three days' leave. He hurried to Paris, 
arriving at his home at midnight and 
waked up his mother, his mistress Marie, 
and his little son and told them all of his 
experiences at the front. 

During the night of his arrival, after 
drinking the coffee which she prepared 
for him, all the memories of the past 
months came back to him; he was happy 
to find his home in such good condition 
and looked affectionately first at Marie and 
then at the boy. While thinking over the 
past he became suddenly aware of a deep 
feeling of gratitude toward this brave 
woman who had brought up his son and 
taken such good care of him. He said: 

'I'll tell you what we'll do I just got 

an idea. . . . This is war, you know. . , and 
there Is nothing like war to give you an 
Idea... not that there's anything new 

about it, but war changes everything 

Listen here, Bibiche, don't you think it 
would be better. . . if we went out. . . and 
got married?' 

This was entirely unexpected and she 
was so happy she could hardly reply. 

Gaspard, with all the frankness of his 
simple soul, went on: 

'I just came to think of it... and when 
you think of it you might as well do it. . . 
because, you know... later on we might 
forget all about it.' 

His mother began to worry. 

'You're not afraid that you're going to 
be killed when you go back, are you?' 

•Killed!' Gaspard cried, 'killed!' Well 
I don't think! Never. . . but this is the 
way; so long as we're doing a general 
cleanup we might as well settle up our 
own private affairs. Here's a little kid 
who doesn't know just what he is. That 
was all right before the war. But when 
it is all over everything will be straight- 
ened out and we don't want to be behind 
the others.' 

Married he was, though it took him five 
days and his leave was only three and 
this resulted in imprisonment when he 
reported back for duty, which seemed 
pretty hard when he had been to such 
pains to marry his wife and give his son 
a father." 

Although Henri Barbusse's "Le Feu" 
(English translation entitled "Under fire") 
received the Goncourt prize for 1916 and is 
by some French critics regarded as the 
book of the war most likely to hold a per- 
manent place in literature, I mention it 
not to commend it but to condemn its 
spirit and effect. Most French people de- 
plore the vogue It has gained in America 



and even charge its circulation here to 
German propaganda. They resent the book 
as a false picture of the poilu. With ex- 
treme naturalism the author dwells on the 
filth and the stench of trench life and on 
the animalism of the common soldiers who 
are for the most part pictured as without 
ideals, without a spirit of patriotism, as 
simply dragging out a sordid existence in 
the trenches until they get to billets where 
they can be gluttons and become sodden 
with drink. A book that has been so gen- 
erally read and so violently discussed can- 
not be ignored. However, it comes so far 
short of doing justice to the sufferings, the 
heroism and the patriotism of the French, 
that in spite of its brilliancy, the general 
effect of this book by an avowed pacifist 
is unwholesome and its circulation is not 
designed to help win the war. 

I fancy that it is not necessary to make 
any extended comment on H. G. Wells' 
"Mr. Britling sees it through," probably 
the most widely read novel that the war 
has produced. Published before we went 
into the war, this novel of England in war 
time has peculiar interest for Americans, 
for it is through the eyes of an American 
visitor that Mr. Wells first shows us 
Matching's Easy, with its lighthearted. In- 
consequential life running with ordered 
smoothness. All through the story Mr. 
Direck remains as representative of Amer- 
ica, torn between two conflicting states of 
mind by the war, just as Herr Heinrlch, 
the German tutor, simple, methodical to 
the point of absurdity, stands for the de- 
luded, docile German people. But in its 
essentials this Is the story of Mr. Britling, 
and through the story of what the war is do- 
ing to England, taking from him, as from 
thousands of others, his best loved son, 
but also making him look beyond the 
personal love, beyond nationalism to find 
a meaning that will justify the sacrifice. 

Perhaps the most interesting thing about 
the book is that in it Mr. Wells through 
Mr. Britling gives an amazingly frank, 
transparent portrait of himself, his ideas, 
his sympathies, his character as a man of 
letters and finally that he sets forth what 



BOWERMAN 



71 



may be called his own conversion to reli- 
gion. The most quoted passage of the 
book is the letter written by Mr. Britling, 
after the loss of his son Hugh, to Hein- 
rich's father, whose son has also been 
killed. After many futile attempts he con- 
cludes: 

"Religion is the first thing and the last 
thing, and until a man has found God and 
has been found by God, he begins at no 
beginning, he works to no end. He may 
have his friendships, his political loyal- 
ties, his scraps of honor. But all these 
things fall Into place and life falls into 
place only with God. Only with God. God, 
who fights through men against Blind 
Force and Night and Non-Existence; who 
is the end, who is the meaning. He is 
the only King. Of course, I must write 
about Him. I must tell all my world of 
Him. And before the coming of the true 
King, the inevitable King, the King who is 
present whenever just men foregather, 
this bloodstained rubbish of the ancient 
world, these puny kings and tawdry em- 
perors, these wily politicians and artful 
lawyers, these men who claim and grab 
and trick and compel, these war makers 
and oppressors, will presently shrivel and 
pass — like paper thrust into the flame. 
. . . Our sons who have shown us God." 

Mr. Wells has continued the explanation 
of his theory of religion with God as the 
militant king of a united world^in his es- 
say, "God the invisible King," and in his 
recently published novel, "The soul of a 
bishop." 

A novel which is perhaps fully as signi- 
ficant as "Mr. Britling" in its portrayal of 
England's gradual progress from stunned 
incredulity regarding the war to intense 
and grim absorption in it, and a novel 
which is certainly far more artistic as 
literature than "Mr. Britling" is May Sin- 
clair's "The tree of heaven." The over- 
whelming effect of the war on one pros- 
perous and comfortably self-satisfied fam- 
ily is made to seem typical. Miss Sinclair 
has intensified the impression she gives of 
the war as fate by devoting over half of 
her book to the life of the family before 
the war begins. We see the four children 
growing up about their mother, who is 
complacently contented with herself, her 
home, her husband, and above all her 



children whom she secretly holds dearer 
than her husband. She has a complacent 
feeling of pride too that England is her 
country, when she gives the matter a 
thought, but for the most part England 
means little to her but her own immedi- 
ate surroundings — her home with its 
charming garden in which stands the 
"tree of heaven." Anthony, her husband. 
Is absorbed in his thriving business and 
In providing generously for the demands 
of his family. 

Then the war comes. At first their life 
goes on very much as usual; then they are 
all drawn ^gradually into its vortex, until 
finally the old placid personal life is a 
thing of the past — never to return. Trag- 
edy has come to the household through its 
children, but with tragedy has come the 
awakening of something in the souls of 
Anthony and his wife of which they had 
never before been really conscious — 
passionate devotion to England and Its 
ideals of liberty. 

The presence in this novel of more than 
a suggestion of belief in spirit communica- 
tion with the living Is very interesting be- 
cause it is one of many illustrations of the 
turning of English thought and belief In 
that direction since the outbreak of the 
war. ' fi| 

It should be observed that America has 
not produced any great war novel, perhaps 
for the reason that not yet has the iron 
really entered into her soul. 

The books I have commented upon form 
but a very small selection from the elig- 
ibles. Though several of them were pub- 
lished somewhat early in the war, their 
value Is attested by their continued popu- 
larity. Another paper of similar length 
might be devoted to an altogether differ- 
ent group of war books that taken to- 
gether would probably prove only a little 
less interesting than those I have treated. 

I have tried to communicate something 
of the spirit of the prose literature of the 
war by means of abstracts of and extracts 
from some of the most Important and 
typical books produced by the war; that 
Is, I have aimed to be as direct a means as 



72 



SARATOGA SPRING'S CONFERENCE 



possible of communication from the au- 
thors to my hearers, instead of interpos- 
ing my own reactions between my audi- 
ence and the writers whose books I have 
chosen for comment and quotation. To 
summarize briefly some of the impres- 
sions I have gained from my reading, I may 
instance as most prominent these charac- 
teristics: 

Everywhere there is loathing for the 
Germans — the men as well as their mili- 
tary masters — for their treachery and de- 
ceit — they don't fight fairly or like good 
sportsmen — for their cruelty, for their 
dastardly attitude toward women and chil- 
dren and noncombatants. It is quite as 
evident to the fighting man as to the 
statesman that the Germans have carried 
the world back to a state of savagery from 
which it must be rescued. The fighting 
men among the Allies believe themselves 
to be engaged in a high crusade, not sim- 
ply to make the world safe for democracy, 
but something more elementary than that, 



to make it a place in which human beings 
may again live in safety. And the hope is 
everywhere present that this may prove 
the last and final war and that civilization 
may never again be put to the torture. 
Though the sense of danger, the apprehen- 
sion of death, the grumbling at the dis- 
comforts incident to life in camp and 
trench, the irritation at the injustice at 
being uprooted from habitual life and em- 
ployment and at being forced by the Kai- 
ser to clean things up are always present, 
in most of the books I have read, cheer- 
fulness, good spirits, take it as it comes, 
be a good sport, fun, practical jokes, com- 
radeship, goodfellowship, sympathy, helt- 
fulness and tenderness are much more 
prevalent. Finally the will to victory, the 
spirit that has dominated France and 
made her the marvel of the world, is the 
spirit that pervades all of this literature, 
and will prove, I believe, the strongest 
factor in bringing the war to the only 
conclusion that America will tolerate. 



THE SPIRIT OF THE WAR LITERATURE: POETRY 
By May Massee, Editor, The Booklist 



The two great mysteries of this life are 
love and hate, and as war is such a mar- 
velous manifestation of both in their high- 
est and lowest expressions it intrigues the 
minds of men to find the answer, to under- 
stand, to explain, to glorify in all its won- 
der and to hideously expose in all its hor- 
ror. 

When men are moved to the point where 
they can interpret their own emotions, 
their speech becomes the speech of poets, 
the seers, and as never before have so many 
men been shaken to the depths, never be- 
fore have there been so many poems to 
voice the immediate feelings of a genera- 
tion. They express every shade of feeling 
from the lightest to the deepest, from 
poems which are inspired to those which 
are — not inspired, until one who reads hun- 
dreds of these expressions is divided be- 



tween sincere admiration and half-ashamed 
appreciation of Mr. Dooley's idea that the 
bombardment of defenseless citizens by 
"concealed batt'ries iv poets" adds a new 
terror to warfare. 

Most of the men are young, and glorious 
youth thrills through their poems — "The 
ungirt runners," "The soldier's game," 
"The river bathe" — numberless poems of the 
joy of living. It makes a sporting propo- 
sition of the first fighting, with dare-devil 
boys shouting "Over the top with the best 
of luck and give 'em hell!" You will find 
it in the trench ditties like the one which 
sprang from nowhere in the first year of 
the war when the regulars were waiting 
for Kitchener's army: 

"Who are the boys that fighting's for. 
Who are the boys to win the war? 
It's good old Kitchener's army. 



MASSES 



73 



And every man of them's tr^s bon, 
They never lost a trench since Mons, 
Because they never saw one." 

Or this song from the French, translated 
in "The A. E. F.:" 

Madelon* 

For all the soldiers, on their holidays. 

There is a place, just tucked in by the 
woods, 
A house with ivy growing on the walls — 

A cabaret — "Aux Toulourous" — the goods! 
The girl who serves is young and sweet as 
love. 

She's light as any butterfly in spring, 
Her eyes have got a sparkle like her wine. 

We call her Madelon — it's got a swing! 
The soldiers' girl! She leads us all a dance! 
She's only Madelon, but she's Romance! 

When Madelon comes out to serve us 
drinks. 
We always know she's coming by her 
song! 
And every man, he tells his little tale, 

And Madelon, she listens all day long. 
Our Madelon is never too severe — 
A kiss or two is nothing much to her — 
She laughs us up to love and life and God — 
Madelon! Madelon! Madelon! 

We all have girls for keeps that wait at 
home 
Who'll marry us when fighting time Is 
done; 
But they are far away — too far to tell 
What happens in these days of cut-and- 
run. 
We sigh away such days as best we can, 
And pray for time to bring us nearer 
home, 
But tales like ours won't wait till then to 
tell— 
We have to run and boast to Madelon. 
We steal a kiss — she takes it all in play; 
We dream she is that other — far away. 

A corp'ral with a feather in his cap 
Went courting Madelon one summer's 
day. 
And, mad with love, he swore she was su- 
perb. 
And he would wed her any day she'd say. 
But Madelon was not for any such — 
She danced away and laughed: "My stars 
above! 
Why, how could I consent to marry you. 

When I have my whole regiment to love? 
I could not choose just one and leave the 

rest. 
I am the soldiers' girl — I like that best!" 



When Madelon comes out to serve us 
drinks, 
We always know she's coming, by her 
song! 
And every man, he tells his little tale, 

And Madelon, she listens all day long. 
Our Madelon is never too severe — 
A kiss or two is nothing much to her — 
She laughs us up to love and life and God — 
Madelon! Madelon! Madelon! 



^Reprinted by permission from "The A. E. P.,'! 
by Heywood Broun. (Appleton.) 

The Bairnsfather of trench poetry has 
not yet appeared, but when he comes be 
sure he will have the spirit of youth. 

But this youth now is filled with a great 
purpose, such purpose as in ordinary times 
comes only to genius and demands years 
for its accomplishment, while to-day youth 
must accomplish in a few days, perhaps 
in a crowded hour, for death is always just 
ahead. 

Now we feel the shudder of the first rec- 
ognition, then the growing intimacy with 
death, and finally we know that to this 
glowing resplendent youth has come the 
completed wisdom of old age, the realiza- 
tion of death as a mere part of life, bearing 
great gifts, with the certainty that though 
each individual life is but, "a pulse in the 
eternal mind," it has given its part to the 
life of the great cause which lives forever. 
The spirit of youth going into battle Is 
typified in this poem by Julian Grenfell: 

Into Battle' 

The naked earth is warm with spring. 

And with green grass and bursting trees 
Leans to the sun's gaze glorying, 

And quivers in the sunny breeze; 
And life is colour and warmth and light, 

And a striving evermore for these; 
And he is dead who will not fight; 

And who dies fighting has increase. 

The fighting man shall from the sun 
Take warmth, and life from the glowing 
earth ; 

Speed with the light-foot winds to run. 
And with the trees to newer birth ; 

And find, when fighting shall be done 
Great rest, and fullness after dearth. 

All the bright company of Heaven 
Hold him in their high comradeship, 

The Dog-Star, and the Sisters Seven, 
Orion's Belt and sworded hip. 



74 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



The woodland trees that stand together, 
They stand to him each one a friend; 

They gently speak in the windy weather; 
They guide to valley and ridge's end. 

The kestrel hovering by day, 
And the little owls that call by night, 

Bid him be swift and keen as they. 
As keen of ear, as swift of sight. 

The blackbird sings to him, "Brother, 
brother. 

If this be the last aong you shall sing. 
Sing well, for you may not sing another; 

Brother, sing." 

In dreary, doubtful, waiting hours. 
Before the brazen frenzy starts. 

The horses show him nobler powers; 
O patient eyes, courageous hearts! 

And when the burning moment breaks, 
And all things else are out of mind. 

And only joy of battle takes 
Him by the throat, and makes him blind, 

Through joy and blindness he shall know, 
Not caring much to know, that still 

Nor lead nor steel shall reach him, so 
That it be not the Destined Will. 

The thundering line of battle stands. 
And in the air death moans and sings; 

But Day shall clasp him with strong hands. 
And Night shall fold him in soft wings. 
Julian Orenlell. 



^Reprinted by permission from "The muse 
in arms," edited by EJ. B. Osborn. (Stokes.) 

Rupert Brooke's sonnets voice their real- 
ization of death. 

The Dead* 

Blow out, you bugles, over the rich Dead! 
There's none of these so lonely and poor of 

old. 
But, dying, has made us rarer gifts than 

gold. 
These laid the world away; poured out the 

red 
Sweet wine of youth; gave up the years 

to be 
Of work and joy, and that unhoped serene. 
That men call age; and those who would 

have been 
Their sons, they gave, their immortality. 

Blow, bugles, blow! They brought us, for 

our dearth, 
Holiness, lacked so long, and Love, and 

Pain. 
Honour has come back, as a king, to earth. 
And paid his subjects with a royal wage; 



And Nobleness walks in our ways again; 
And we have come into our heritage. 

Rupert Brooke. 

^Reprinted by permission from "The col- 
lected poems of Rupert Brooke." (Lane.) 

Soldiers do not spend much time describ- 
ing the horrors of war, they have to live 
them, but now and then a man is able to 
look at them straight and to give them to 
us straight, as in the "Night bombard- 
ment" and "Assault" of Robert Nichols, 
some of Gilbert Frankau's, and "The rear- 
guard," by Siegfried Sassoon; which I shall 
read because it is necessary to visualize 
this hell which forms the constant sinister 
background, even though here and there 
it does flash to sudden beauty in the light 
of some great truth shining above its hor- 
ror: 

The Reab-guabd* 
(Eindeniurg Line, April 1917) 
Groping along the tunnel step by step. 
He winked his prying torch with patching 

glare 
From side to side, and sniffed the un- 
wholesome air. 

Tins, bottles, boxes, shapes too vague to 
know, — 
A mirror smashed, the mattress from a 
bed; 
And he, exploring, fifty feet below 
The rosy gloom of battle overhead. 

Tripping, he grabbed the wall; saw some 
one lie 

Humped and asleep, half-hidden by a rug; 

And stooped to give the sleeper's arm a 
tug. 

"I'm looking for Headquarters." No re- 
ply. . . . 

"God blast your neck" (for days he'd had 
no sleep), 
"Get up and guide me through this stink- 
ing place." 

Then, with a savage kick at the silent heap. 
He flashed his beam across the livid face 

Horribly glaring up; and the eyes yet wore 

Agony dying hard ten days before; 

And twisted fingers clutched a blackening 
wound. 
* * * « * 

Alone, he staggered on until he found 
Dawn's ghost, that filtered down a shaft- 
ed stair 

To the dazed, muttering creatures under- 
ground. 



MASSEE 



75 



Who hear the boom of shells in muffled 
sound. 
At last, with sweat of horror in his hair, 
He climbed through darkness to the twi- 
light air. 
Unloading hell behind him, step by step. 
Siegfried Bassoon. 



^Reprinted by permission from "The muse 
in arms," edited by E. B. Osborn. (Stokes.) 

We feel this sinister background con- 
stantly but the spirit of the poems seems to 
be to dismiss it with the one word "Hell," 
and to express in poetry the ever recurring 
beauty in nature and the nobility in men. 
Where the war has devastated the fields, 
the men find beauty and wisdom from the 
birds which must have brought great com- 
fort, for poem after poem pays tribute to 
their singing, such as this refrain, "I thank 
the gods that the birds are beautiful still," 
or 

"And in the sky the larks, still bravely 

singing, fly 
Scarce heard amid the guns below." 

Or in this, which is one of the beautiful 
poems of the war, with a real philosophy: 

Magpies in Picaedy* 
The magpies in Picardy 

Are more than I can tell. 
They flicker down the dusty roads 

And cast a magic spell 
On the men who march through Picardy, 

Through Picardy to hell. 

(The blackbird flies with panic, 

The swallow goes like light, 
The finches move like ladies, 

The owl floats by at night; 
But the great and flashing magpie 

He flies as artists might.) 

A magpie in Picardy 

Told me secret things — 
Of the music in white feathers, 

And the sunlight that sings 
And dances in deep shadows — 

He told me with his wings. 

(The hawk is cruel and rigid. 

He watches from a height; 
The rook is slow and sombre. 

The robin loves to fight; 
But the great and fiashing magpie 

He flies as lovers might.) 

He told me that in Picardy, 
An age ago or more, 



While all his fathers still were eggs. 

These dusty highways bore 
Brown, singing soldiers marching out 

Through Picardy to war. 

He said that still through chaos 

Works on the ancient plan. 
And two things have altered not 

Since first the world began — 
The beauty of the wild green earth 

And the bravery of man. 

(For the sparrow flies unthinking 

And quarrels in his flight. 
The heron trails his legs behind, 

The lark goes out of sight; 
But the great and flashing magpie 

He flies as poets might.) 

Tipuca. 

♦Reprinted by permission from Westminster 
Gazette and Literary Digest. 

And as men are stirred by the Immediate 
beauty about them, they are inevitably re- 
minded of the beauty at home with all its 
loved associations, their passionate faith in 
the flght to save that beauty and their be- 
lief that if death keeps them in the field 

their spirits will return 

"They also will come home." 

There is one poem which gives the beauty 
of England as home, speaks for men's love 
of it, shows the sorrow of parting and the 
bravery of the sacriflce, the faith in the 
cause and the hope of the spirit's return if 
the flnal sacriflce is needed. This one 
poem gives it all — I mean, of course, Mr. 
Masefield's "August, 1914": 
August 1914* 

How still this quiet cornfield is to-night! 

By an intenser glow the evening falls. 
Bringing, not darkness, but a deeper light; 

Among the stooks a partridge covey calls. 

The windows glitter on the distant hill; 
Beyond the hedge the sheep-bells in the 
fold 
Stumble on sudden music and are still; 
The forlorn pinewoods droop above the 
wold. 

An endless quiet valley reaches out 

Past the blue hills into the evening sky; 

Over the stubble, cawing, goes a rout 
Of rooks from harvest, fiagging as they 

fly. 

So beautiful it Is, I never saw 
So great a beauty on these English fields. 



7« 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



Touched by the twilight's coming into awe, 
Ripe to the soul and rich with summer's 
yields. 
***** 

These homes, this valley spread below me 
here. 
The rooks, the tilted stacks, the beasts in 
pen, 
Have been the heartfelt things, past-speak- 
ing dear 
To unknown generations of dead men, 

Who, century after century, held these 

farms. 

And, looking out to watch the changing 

sky. 

Heard, as we hear, the rumours and alarms 

Of war at hand and danger pressing nigh. 

And knew, as we know, that the message 
meant 
The breaking off of ties, the loss of 
friends. 
Death, like a miser getting in his rent, 
And no new stones laid where the track- 
way ends. 

The harvest not yet won, the empty bin. 
The friendly horses taken from the stalls. 

The fallow on the hill not yet brought in. 
The cracks unplastered in the leaking 
walls. 

Yet heard the news, and went discouraged 
home. 
And brooded by the fire with heavy mind, 
With such dumb loving of the Berkshire 
loam 
As breaks the dumb hearts of the Eng- 
lish kind. 

Then sadly rose and left the well-loved 

Downs, 

And so by ship to sea, and knew no more 

The fields of home, the byres, the market 

• towns. 

Nor the dear outline of the English shore. 

But knew the misery of the soaking trench. 
The freezing in the rigging, the despair 

In the revolting second of the wrench 
When the blind soul is flung upon the air, 

And died (uncouthly, most) in foreign 
lands 
For some idea but dimly understood 
Of an English city never built by hands. 
Which love of England prompted and 
made good. 
***** 

If there be any life beyond the grave, 
It must be near the men and things we 
love. 



Some power of quick suggestion how to 
save. 
Touching the living soul as from above. 

An influence from the Earth from those 
dead hearts 
So passionate once, so deep, so truly 
kind. 
That in the living child the spirit starts. 
Feeling companioned still, not left be- 
hind. 

Surely above these fields a spirit broods, 
A sense of many watchers muttering 
near 
Of the lone Downland with the forlorn 
woods 
Loved to the death, inestimably dear. 

A muttering from beyond the veils of 
Death 
From long-dead men, to whom this quiet 
scene 
Came among blinding tears with the last 
breath. 
The dying soldier's vision of his queen. 

All the unspoken worship of those lives 
Spent in forgotten wars at other calls 
Glimmers upon these fields where evening 
drives 
Beauty like breath, so gently darkness 
falls. 

Darkness that makes the meadows holier 
still. 
The elm-trees sadden in the hedge, a sigh 
Moves In the beech-clump on the haunted 
hill, 
The rising planets deepen in the sky. 

And silence broods like spirit on the brae, 
A glimmering moon begins, the moon- 
light runs 
Over the grasses of the ancient way 
Rutted this morning by the passing guns. 
John Masefield. 



^Reprinted by permission from "Philip, the 
King, and other poems," by John Masefield. 
(Macmillan.) 

Yesterday you heard one of America's 
gifts to the spirit of war poetry in Carl 
Sandburg's "The four brothers" and an- 
other in Dr. Raney's report of his work for 
books for the soldiers in France. 

Here is another poem which voices the 
ideas met everywhere in America where we 
have the memory of the great man who 
typified them: 



MASSEE 



77 



Abbaham Lincoln Walks at Midnight* 

(In Springfield, Illinois) 
It is portentous, and a thing of state 

That here at midnight, in our little town 
A mourning figure walks, and will not rest, 
Near the old court-house pacing up and 
down. 

Or by his homestead, or in shadowed yards 
He lingers Where his children used to 
play, 
Or through the market, on the well-worn 
stones 
He stalks until the dawn-stars burn 
away. 

A bronzed, lank man! His suit of ancient 
black, 
A famous high top-hat and plain worn 
shawl 
Make him the quaint great figure that men 
love, 
The prairie-lawyer, master of us all. 

He cannot sleep upon his hillside now. 

He is among us: — as in times before! 
And we who toss and lie awake for long 

Breathe deep, and start, to see him pass 
the door. 

His head is bowed. He thinks on men and 
kings. 
Yea, when the sick world cries, how can 
he sleep? 
Too many peasants fight, they know not 
why, 
Too many homesteads In black terror 
weep. 

The sins of all the war-lords burn his heart. 
He sees the dreadnaughts scouring every 
main. 
He carries on his shawl-wrapped shoulders 
now 
The bitterness, the folly and the pain. 

He cannot rest until a spirit-dawn 
Shall come; — the shining hope of Europe 
free: 
The league of sober folk, the Worker's 
Earth 
Bringing long peace to Cornland, Alp and 
Sea. 
It breaks his heart that kings must mur- 
der still. 
That all his hours of travail here for men 
Seem yet in vain. And who will bring 
white peace 
That he may sleep upon his hill again? 
VacJiel Lindsay. 



^Reprinted by permission from "The Congo 
and other poems," by Vachel Lindsay. (Mac- 
miUan.) 



And I would like to read one which ex- 
presses what we find again and again in 
the soldiers' poems, their insistence on the 
universal brotherhood of common men: 

Five Soxjls* 
First Soul — 

I was a peasant of the Polish plain; 
I left my plow because the message 

ran: 
Russia, in danger, needed every man 
To save her from the Teuton; and was 
slain. 
I gave my life for freedom — this I 

know; 
For those who bade me fight had told 
me so. 

Second Soul — 

I was a Tyrol ese, a mountaineer; 
I gladly left my mountain home to 

fight 
Against the brutal, treacherous Mus- 
covite : 
And died in Poland on a Cossack spear. 
I gave my life for freedom — ^this I 

know; 
For those who bade me fight had told 
me so. 

Third Soul— 
I worked in Lyons at my weaver's loom. 
When suddenly the Prussian despot 

hurled 
His felon blow at France and at the 
• world; 

Then I went forth to Belgium and my 
doom. 
I gave my life for freedom — this I 

know; 
For those who bade me fight had told 
me so. 

Fourth Soul — 

I owned a vineyard by the wooded Main, 
Until the Fatherland, begirt by foes 
Lusting her downfall, called me, and 
I rose 
Swift to the call — and died in fair Lor- 
raine. 
I gave my life for freedom— this I 

know ; 
For those who bade me fight had told 
me so. 

Fifth Soul— 

I worked in a great shipyard by the 
Clyde, 

There came a sudden word of wars de- 
clared. 

Of Belgium, peaceful, helpless, unpre- 
pared. 



7t 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



Asking our aid: I joined the ranks, and 
died. 
I gave my life for freedom — this I 

know; 
For those who bade me fight had told 
me so. 

W. N. Ewer. 

Parts of President Wilson's speeches 
give form to the best spirit of war poetry 
and are real poetry though not technically 
poetry and so denied to this paper. And 
if I have confined myself to war poetry in 
English, it is simply because it is most 
available to us and the spirit is the same, 
though each country's expression has its 
6wn special beauty and fire. 

We have found in these poems glorious. 



^Reprinted by permission from "From the 
front ; trench poetry," edited by C. B. Andrews. 
(Apple ton.) 



resplendent youth with its love of life, 
fired with a great purpose, and the recog- 
nition of death as a mere part of life. 

The realization of Hell — that wonderful 
word which it seems was created ages ago, 
and gathered in power on the tongues of 
men through the generations, that to-day 
it might symbolize the fact. 

The love of the homeland, with the per- 
sonal love for individuals so beautifully ex- 
pressed and merging into the wider love of 
all mankind as brothers — does it dream a 
hope that Heaven, too, that magic word 
which has been growing in the hearts of 
men through all the generations, may find 
its realization in the years to come? — 
when all that is remembered of this war 
shall be that it was fought to prove man's 
faith in the brotherhood of man. 



CANADIAN LIBRARIES AND THE WAR 



By George H. Locke, Chief Librarian, Toronto Public Library 



To a nation or rather a colony — for we 
are not ashamed of being a colony — with 
no standing army, with no regular troops 
and no garrisons, the great war came with 
a suddenness that was terrific in its ef- 
fect. It is true we were not close to the 
war and liable to invasion. Therefore we 
were not panic-stricken in any way. In- 
deed, we were so far from the center of 
difiiculties and so imbued with the idea 
that war was impossible because of the 
peacefulness of our immediate neighbors, 
that we could only with difficulty realize 
that war was on. But we recovered our 
breath, sent over to London our good 
wishes, and offered to help out with men 
and munitions, our principal munitions 
being wheat and flour. 

We did not wait for our offer to be ac- 
cepted. The wheat and flour left in the 
first available steamers. The "fiery cross" 
set all the country afiame and thirty-three 
thousand men gathered at Valcartier near 
the historic port of Quebec, the flower of 
the nation and eager for the fray. 



Everything was done in feverish eager- 
ness and within six weeks of the declara- 
tion of war this Armada left Quebec to 
help the Motherland. We were in it be- 
cause Britain was in it and we were to 
stay in it because it was a fight for justice, 
liberty, and the right of the small and 
the weak. 

As Sir Wilfrid Laurier expressed it on 
the eve of the sailing of the Armada: 

"We are British subjects and today we 
are face to face with the consequences 
which are involved in that proud fact. 
Long have we enjoyed the benefits of our 
British citizenship; today it is our duty 
and our privilege to accept its responsibili- 
ties; yes and its sacrifices. It is our duty, 
more pressing on us than all other duty, 
at once, on this first day of debate In the 
Canadian Parliament, to let Great Britain 
know that there is in Canada but one mind 
and one heart, and that all Canadians 
stand behind the Mother Country, con- 
scious and proud that she did not engage 
in war from any selfish motive, for any 
purpose of aggrandizement, but that she 
engaged in war to maintain untarnished 
the honor of her name, to fulfill her obliga- 



LOOKS 



79 



tions to her allies, to maintain her treaty 
obligations, and to save civilization from 
the unbridled lust of conquest and power." 

For every man who went five had vol- 
unteered and at once we began the work 
of training in our various camps the rein- 
forcements which we knew would be nec- 
essary. The work was carried out with an 
intensity of purpose and a feverish haste, 
both of which were natural in the face of 
the great emergency, but which made drill 
and food the great essentials of the mo- 
ment. When, however, the work of the 
camps got into its stride, so to speak, it 
was seen that the organized force of the 
Y. M. C. A., which was handling with such 
great success the canteens, "was the best 
agency through which to help the soldier 
in his leisure and sometimes lonely hours. 
The public libraries near the training 
camps, the schools in the larger cities, 
the church societies and the clubs became 
the feeders of the Y. M. C. A. canteens 
and there poured in books and magazines 
in great quantities. The work was not 
highly organized and was indifferently 
done as one might suppose in the midst of 
the confusion of the early days. It might 
have been done better if we had had the 
warning and experience of other nations. 
With us the personnel of the camps was 
changing so rapidly because of the use of 
training camps in England, that we con- 
sidered that backing up the Y. M. C. A. 
was our best plan. And we did. What we 
might have done if there had been time to 
organize would make quite another story. 
Certainly we should have done it "on our 
own" as you are doing and not trusted to 
any other organization. 

When there was a great winter camp at 
the National Exhibition Grounds at To- 
ronto in 1915, the Toronto Public Library 
installed a war camp library of specially 
selected books in charge of a librarian 
from its own staff, who now is serving in 
the artillery in France. This was greatly 
appreciated by the men, so much so that 
many of the books accompanied them 
abroad. When the camp broke up, the 
library was kept in readiness for use and 



when the Y. M. C. A. opened their Red 
Triangle Hostel in Toronto this library 
was given place in their building, where 
to-day it is doing duty for the returned 
soldier. 

.^nd so from Victoria In the extreme 
west (where Miss Helen Stewart, the libra- 
rian, not satisfied with providing for the 
men in camp, went herself to the front for 
a year and a half as a voluntary worker, 
and since her return has been providing 
for the men in hospital, in camp and in 
vocational training centers) to Calgary 
and Edmonton, where the public libraries 
have cooperated with the Military Y. M. 
C. A., and furnished books and magazines 
to the great Sarcee Camp; to Regina and 
Moose Jaw, where Camp Hughes of that 
province was supplied by those public li- 
braries with books through the chaplains 
and the Military Y. M. C. A. to Winnipeg, 
where there were many soldiers and where 
the public library established special read- 
ing rooms, branch loan stations, and fur- 
nished discarded books to the camps and 
departing military trains; to Ottawa, which 
cooperated with the Y. M. C. A., bought 
quantities of inexpensive but interesting 
reprints for the camp and opened rooms 
for instructional purposes; to Westmount, 
Quebec, where Miss Saxe organized the 
women of the city in her usual efficient 
manner, this work, new then to all the 
world, has been in progress. 

And of the library with which I am 
identified let me say that we supplied 
25,000 books, most of which were from 
our own stock, some given to us, and some 
specially purchased by us. The range of 
our activities may be seen when I enu- 
merate the soldier circles which we have 
entered by peaceful penetration: Camp 
Borden; Niagara Camp; Exhibition Camp, 
which had the first "War Library" on the 
continent; Barriefield Camp in Eastern 
Ontario; Ketchum Barracks; Ravina Bar- 
racks; Gerrard Barracks; Gerrard Base 
Hospital; Spadina Hospital; College Hos- 
pital; Kapuskasing Internment Camp; 
Muskoka Sanitarium; Great War Veterans 



80 



SARATOGA SPRIN(J8 CONFERENCE 



Club; Maple Leaf Club; and Red Triangle 
Club. 

We had no government aid and little 
government sympathy. We were not dis- 
appointed in this, for we have been identi- 
fied too long with the promotion of intel- 
ligence in communities to hope for imme- 
diate and complete recognition. 

But what was the most important re- 
sult of all our efforts was the feeling, new 
to many in our country, that libraries were 
a necessity to the communities and that 
they had a definite value. In many places 
there had been a vague and hazy feeling 
that this was so but now this became clear 
and definite. 

It was a war which needed explanation 
and description. It came without any 
warning and in the midst of peaceful un- 
preparedness. At once the library was 
discovered as the place for public infor- 
mation and was visited and talked about. 
It became socially recognized. Where 
there was an efficient librarian or an in- 
telligent library board this responsibility 
was greatly welcomed, in other cases there 
was a local panic or a hopeless recrimina- 
tion. 

But more than this it was a war which 
demanded intelligent mobilization of so- 
cial effort, and the knowledge that here in 
a town was a social institution already 
established which could be used came al- 
most as a shock. There were no sec- 
tional, denomination, or social jealousies 
to be considered in the use of this public 
institution and so it became the organiz- 
ing center for all the committees engaged 
In patriotic effort. 

As a result the public library has be- 
come better known in the community, and 
in its case to be better known is to be 
better appreciated. Library grants were 
not cut by the municipal councils except 
in some isolated communities handicapped 
by poor library boards who had little or 
no influence in the community. 

And now we have had over three years 
of experience and let me give you the 
cheering word that appropriations for 
public libraries in the province of Ontario 



have advanced forty per cent and that cir- 
culation of books has increased thirty-five 
per cent. This has not come without ef- 
fort, and most of all in Ontario we owe our 
progress to the superintendent of public 
libraries for the province, Mr. W. O. Car- 
son, to whom be praise and honor, a gov- 
ernment official all too rare, full of energy 
and intelligence in regard to every phase 
of his work. 

There may be a tendency In some places 
to neglect the regular work for the spe- 
cial and more spectacular. There is a 
glamor about war work, there is a feeling 
with many persons and Institutions — If 
such can be said to have feelings — that 
there must be the "soldier contact" and 
that to miss that experience is to be neg- 
lectful of one's duty. We have passed 
through this stage. It has been difficult 
sometimes to persuade people that to do 
their work efficiently and to cooperate so 
far as time and strength will permit in 
the patriotic efforts is the best way to 
serve their country. An efficient cataloger 
is restless to become a Red Cross worker, 
at which work she would be but an aver- 
age person. Her idea is that she would 
then be doing something for her country 
— especially if she had a uniform. 

And this same phase of unrest imperils 
our libraries themselves. The spectacular 
work of the camps and of societies In con- 
nection with patriotic effort — all necessary 
to be done and to be encouraged — makes 
our regular work of supplying information 
and going through the routine of daily 
duties, "the keeping of the home fires," 
seem gray and uninteresting. Let me 
warn you as one who has come through 
this and is now interested in the soldiers 
who are returning in large numbers 
maimed and broken in health but cheerful 
and wanting to get into harness again, 
that the public library which has been 
kept lively — not merely alive — in the in- 
terval will have won its very way Into 
the lives of the people to such an extent 
that it will be the center for cooperation 
with government commissions, schools, 
vocational training centers, hospitals and 



RANEY 



81 



convalescent homes and thus will be a 
positive and permeating influence. 

That is what we are trying to do in To- 
ronto. We have many discouragements 
but we are not easily cast down. There Is 
a big job ahead of us in trying to get suit- 
able literature to the convalescent sol- 
dier in hospital, rest homes and club. This 
will be difficult as we have found already, 
for government officials often "fancy 
themselves" and their choice of books is 
too often without intelligence. I am sure 
from your experience you can picture the 
official who says that anybody can run a 
library and choose books. He is sure he 
can and does not see the obvious moral 
the librarian draws. 

In this connection let me urge that you 
keep your work organized for the years 
after the war and you may be able to help 
very definitely the soldier in his efforts to 
re-educate himself. The theory that the 
unambitious man can be made ambitious 
by education or that the war can bring out 
ambition and talents in a man who had 
them not is a fallacy that needs to be 
dealt with at once. We are suffering from 
some of that kind of false educational doc- 
trine in our efforts towards re-education. 

We are on the threshold of a vast edu- 
cational undertaking too vast and far 
reaching for most of our educators, just 
as the conduct of the war itself has been 
too vast for those trained under former 



conditions. Let us throw aside that faith 
in experience which hampered the early 
conduct of the war and which will likely 
hamper us in dealing with that most con- 
servative social force, education. Let us 
acknowledge that experience is not the 
great thing needful, but youth with its 
imagination, hope and energy, and we In 
Canada, who were forced to remain at 
home and deal with the prosaic are trying 
to place the institution with which we are 
identified as prominently on the map of 
political and social intelligence, as our 
representatives in Europe have placed our 
country on the map of the world nations. 

We are a nation of less than eight mil- 
lions of people in a vast country which Is 
bounded by three oceans and a friendly 
neighbor. We have equipped and sent to 
the great war 500,000 men; we have manu- 
factured fifty millions of shells, forty-five 
millions of cartridge cases and sent mil- 
lions of bushels of wheat to needy France 
and starving Belgium. 

And in every good word and work In 
which we had a chance to help — or could 
make the chance — the institution which I 
have the honor to represent, the library, 
has been "on the job" and when possible 
has led the way. We expect to be even 
more necessary and more useful in the re- 
construction days to come and are trust- 
ing your efficient organization to be of 
great service to us. 



THE A. L. A. FOLLOWS THE FLAG OVERSEAS 

By M. LiiJWELLYN Raney, Librarian of The Johns Hopkins University (Director of Over- 
seas Service for the A. L. A.) 



The road turned sharply to the west. 
Standing at the turn, if one dared, and 
stretching out his arms along the high- 
way, he would grasp, in each hand, as it 
were, a village three-quarters of a mile off 
— a French village ruined and deserted. 
The one to the right was the first behind 
our trenches; that to the left the last in 
the line of communication. The bend half- 



way was, therefore, an important link in 
the chain, and the enemy hammered away 
consistently in the hope of breaking it. An 
attractive target was it, not only because a 
direct hit on the roadbed would impede 
the movement of supply trains, but couched 
in the lee were hidden officers and mate- 
rial, while on the convex side sat tangent 
and camoufiaged an American battery, so 



82 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



that a shot long or short might be equally- 
effective. The ground in the triangle bore 
mute evidence of the intensity of the en- 
deavor, for it was filled with shell holes. 
They called it "Hell's Half Acre," and the 
turn of the road "Dead Man's Curve." 

We left our machine in the nearer vil- 
lage, behind the shield of a fragmentary 
wall, and followed the custom in reach- 
ing the farther village on foot, along the 
hypotenuse, across fields and through 
wire entanglements. So enticing, how- 
ever, was the scene, that I was back again 
part way that night, and on the following 
day we swung at top speed around the 
horseshoe itself and down the full length 
of our line — an adventure which the Army 
authorities have since found it necessary 
to forbid, except under cover of darkness. 

My first visit was made in the shank 
of a beautiful day. Our guns had already 
started the argument of the night. Slip- 
ping down the incline on the other side 
of the road, we found ourselves at the 
dugout doorway of two young officers. 
It seems that a gas shell had fallen in that 
vicinity the night before and taken toll 
of their comrades. Their minds went back 
to that event, and, in the case of one of 
them, back further to a wife and four 
little ones in the west. Went back with 
that quiet, determined smile, which, 
please God, the Hun shall rue the day he 
ever awakened by his ruthless barbarism! 

And what were these our defenders do- 
ing, as we chanced upon them in the 
gathering shadows? On the little table 
lighted by a single candle were spread 
out for the one a National Geographic 
Magazine of a bygone day, and for the 
other a Literary Digest recently issued. 
Such was my first glimpse of the Amer- 
ican zone of advance. Our promise of 
an adequate library service from home was 
received with hearty appreciation, and the 
promise has been kept. If those young 
lieutenants be still there alive, they can 
find, ten minutes' walk away, a good stock 
of A. L. A. books and magazines. But 
before our first shipment could reach and 
leave Paris, a special messenger was sent 



to us all the way from the front, begging 
immediate dispatch of our wares, since for 
them had grown a clamorous demand. 

Into the farther village we tramped, en- 
tering through the little gardens and 
orchards of once happy homes, now the 
resting place of our first fallen, with the 
grass green above them and at their feet 
flowers, planted by the hands of unforget- 
ting comrades. A place of utter desola- 
tion — only one roof remaining and not 
one inhabitant, nor even a dog or cat left 
within its shattered walls. But in sub- 
terranean retreats lay our Crusaders from 
over the Atlantic and after the rest of 
the day, were crowding about the counter 
of civilization's only vestige — the Y. M. C. 
A. canteen — installed under that sole re- 
maining roof. 

The next village found the busy hour 
of barter passing. Trench time was just 
ahead. Down in the Y's "cave voutee" 
the men were standing about in the 
gloom pierced by a lone candle — full- 
panoplied and with masks alert. It was 
a quiet, subdued, knowing crowd — not a 
word of profanity or one smutty remark. 
Someone turned to the phonograph and 
put on "Mandalay." A whistle started up 
from the corner and soon all inside and 
out had joined in, but joined so softly 
that, despite a fiber needle, the instrument 
was allowed to carry over them all. Then 
a negro piece, and they laughed quietly 
at the crude but cleanly jokes, so quietly 
that not a word was lost. Outside, in the 
glory of a declining sun, they were lolling 
under the remnant walls which shielded 
them from the enemy's eye and his snip- 
ing — reading, nearly all, or turning lazily 
through the illustrations or the columns 
of humor. The devoted secretary told me 
that if his scanty store of books and period- 
icals were multiplied manyfold, he would 
not have enough to satisfy these hungry 
souls. Thus they were spending the only 
normal hour, which, in twenty-four, was 
vouchsafed them in such advanced post. 
A little later they were off down the con- 
cealed roadway, and dropping beneath the 
hedge into communicating trenches, had 



RANEY 



83 



passed Into the night to have it out with 
death. 

Since then our supply has come, and 
you will not exaggerate the rejoicing 
consequent. 

Such are the doughboys in action, but 
at any given time a much greater num- 
ber of them are detailed to other neces- 
sary work and have a different schedule. 
And if we add the supply trains, head- 
quarters police, veterinarians, etc., as well 
as the upwards of twelve hundred officers, 
we shall not have accounted for two-thirds 
of the 27,000 men that go to make up a 
combat division. Thus there are about 
4,500 artillerymen, 2,500 machine gunners, 
1,500 engineers, 1,500 engaged in medical 
and sanitary work and 500 belonging to 
the signal corps — groups having each a 
life peculiar to itself, and calling to us in 
its own tongue. For example, strong rep- 
resentations are made In behalf of the 
gun crews, because they are not only men 
of technical training, and, therefore, ac- 
customed to richer mental pabulum, but 
they are confined to a square which can- 
not be left by them or entered by another; 
and yet, though on duty for twenty-four 
hours a day and perhaps for days in suc- 
cession, they may have waited in vain to 
hear the telephonic command to fire. So 
time hangs heavily. Special means must 
be devised to reach them. We hope we 
have found them through the chaplain, in 
his usual function of regimental postmas- 
ter, since reading matter can be sent with 
the mail on munition trains moving at 
night to the outlying gun positions. As 
for detached units, the military have 
agreed to forward our parcels directly for 
us. 

Back of the fighting zone lie the so- 
called divisional areas, where the final 
training takes place and where after action 
they go for repose. Here the troops are 
billeted In strings of French villages set 
along the great arteries of travel and their 
principal feeders. Perhaps nowhere do 
most men miss the comforts of home — the 
customary diversions of civil life, more 
than among these kindly neighbors of a 



foreign tongue with their mocking remind- 
ers of native land and loved surroundings. 
Here, whether in anticipation of the trial 
by fire, or relaxation from it, they miss 
keenly the presence of women and children. 
It Is a good lesson to learn and should 
deepen the wells of domestic affection 
when they return. Meanwhile one cannot 
but be touched by their brave improvisa- 
tions, their good-hearted endeavors to 
bridge the chasm. Like rain to parched 
ground is a cheering entertainer to them, 
and how ravenously they read. Eagerly 
they are hunting substitutes and escapes. 
The great thing about a noble book is that 
therein they are apt to find better than 
they sought or had known. 

One evening I came unannounced upon 
a crowd packing a hut to the doors In an- 
ticipation of a performance put on by their 
own talent. They had their own volunteer 
band and there were to be lots of stunts. 
Just as the instruments were tuning up. 
It reached the ears of the officer In charge 
that a library man from America was in 
the building. So I was ushered to the 
platform and the story of our proposed 
service became the first number on the 
program. The Idea was vigorously ap- 
plauded. In fact, before I could settle 
down to the evening's schedule, I had to 
go out and reassure an eager group of dis- 
tant listeners that they had heard correct- 
ly and the news was reliable. 

In this great finishing region Is the cen- 
ter of army schools for the training of 
staff officers, as well as the corps schools 
where line officers are bred. Thus at the 
former there are no less than eighteen sec- 
tions, such as for example, anti-aircraft, 
camouflage, carrier-pigeons, dentistry, en- 
gineering (with several subdivisions, like 
mines, flash and sound, bridge-building, 
and construction), gas, infantry specialties 
(e.g. bayonet, machine gun, marksmanship, 
sniping, etc.), signal corps, tanks, trench 
mortars, and so on, together with a gen- 
eral staff college, at which a former secre- 
tary of war was a pupil when, the present 
secretary made his visit. 

Textbooks the Government provides. The 



84 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



matter may be so new as to be Issued in 
mimeographed form alone. But we can be 
very useful in our supply of collateral tech- 
nical reading. Thus the cablegram call- 
ing for five hundred copies of "Jeanne 
d'Arc," demands thirty of "Metal workers' 
pattern book." We have already made such 
contributions as we had on hand, and the 
staffs of instruction have promised to sug- 
gest bibliographies supplementary. They, 
of course, get their share of recreational 
reading also. 

In this zone of advance, the unit of li- 
brary service must be the division, even 
though it may extend through forty vil- 
lages. It arrives suddenly, stays an in- 
definite but relatively short period, passes 
up to the front for the fire-test, comes back 
after a few weeks to a divisional area, but 
likely enough not to the same one, for re- 
fitting, thence to the front again. Thus 
a certain division occupied in the course 
of six months four different and widely 
separated positions. Before you could 
make a library survey by villages and get 
them supplied fittingly, the area might be 
emptied, and then either remain so or be 
refilled by another with quite dissimilar 
distribution of personnel. An organization 
like the Y. M. C. A., Knights of Columbus 
or Salvation Army, that aims to get a hut 
in all of the chief villages, is severely taxed 
to keep abreast. It seems best for us to 
compose a proper divisional equipment, 
send it to a center for fitting distribution, 
and then when the division moves out, re- 
store our collections to the central ware- 
house of our host organization, unless 
there be reason to suppose that the area 
is being abandoned. A fresh layout is then 
to be sent along for the division's use, in 
its new position. Wastage, of course, there 
must be, but the loss is not absolute, as 
long as a worthy volume remains in some- 
body's possession. 

We cross the line now into the inter- 
mediate area, where the divisions, except 
replacement, are in disintegration. The 
exception feeds the front and is fed from 
the coast — a pool of men in the midst of 
a steady stream. Here are the camps of 



casuals — unfortunates from both directions 
meeting. They have gotten separated from 
their units, perhaps missed the paymaster, 
and await reassignment. Coming the oth- 
er direction are fellows incapacitated for 
one reason or another. The place is a mix- 
ture of barracks and hospitals. The fel- 
lows are apt to be low in spirit and 
pocket. Here we had no difficulty in get- 
ting our doctrine of free service accepted, 
for the Y. M. C. A. did not have the heart 
to exact its usual deposit. 

Here too are great training camps, espe- 
cially for artillery and aviation. For ex- 
ample, out in the fields, miles away from 
the nearest village, an American city with 
a population of 10,000 has been laid out. 
It has its own macadamized roads, electric 
lighting plant, water works, sewage dis- 
posal and railroad — a city of huts, offices, 
warehouses, sheds — an aviation center. 
When you reflect that we have in Europe 
scores of such camps, with three dozen to 
ten thousand in each, and that there are 
150 mechanics to every eighteen fliers, and 
that the pilots also have their term of 
ground training, you can appreciate the 
importance of the service, when we meet 
the urgent demand of the officers to sup- 
ply books on aeronautics for the men in 
the shops. 

Here are the great midway depots and 
plants. For example, one of these depots 
is an ice factory and the third largest pro- 
ducer in the world, furnishing daily ice 
for the cold storage of eleven million 
pounds of meat. It is six and a half miles 
long and at parts two miles broad. 

Salvage plants and bakeries, camouflage 
factories and ammunition caches all find 
place here. This brings concentrations of 
specialists in training centers, labor and 
technical troops, ordnance and warehouse 
men, forestry and engineering or construc- 
tion troops, guards and headquarters con- 
tingents — units living largely in barracks 
and making a very definite demand on us 
which we are steadily advancing to meet. 

Finally there's Aix-les-Bains — that 
unique experiment of our army, upon 
which the eyes of our military and the 



RANEY 



85 



Allies are earnestly fixed. Will it take? 
Will the fellows call it vacation if their 
leave be spent under the eyes of officers, 
no matter how crowded the pleasures? If 
it succeeds, such places will be multiplied. 
All the hotels in this popular bathing place 
have been taken over by the army and 
rooms are drawn by lot. The magnificent 
suites of wealth and nobility are now oc- 
cupied by our doughboys from the trenches. 
There are excursions, boating, bathing and 
other sports; Europe's band and a theater, 
and in the Y's casino at least we shall have 
a fine show of books, with a trained libra- 
rian in charge. 

In this region, and the third to which 
we now turn, the base areas surrounding 
the ports — for all Gaul is divided into three 
parts, each of which the Americans in- 
habit — the engineer comes into his own, 
though his work runs from water's edge 
to No Man's Land. They are the sapper, 
searchlight and sound-ranging troops; 
theirs are the gas and flame, the electrical 
and mechanical regiments; they build the 
bridges and railroads and operate them as 
well; they put In the docks, warehouses, 
barracks and hospitals; they operate the 
cranes, autos, trucks and depots. A year 
ago at a certain French port there were a 
few small wharfs, approachable by light 
draft vessels, which were emptied and 
loaded by hand labor. To-day we have 
driven 30,000 piles with machinery and 
constructed four great docks capable of 
accommodating sixteen heavy cargo vessels 
at the same time and deepened the chan- 
nel for their entry. American railways 
have been laid, cranes Installed and 150 
warehouses are in various stages of con- 
struction, and here they put together 
American locomotives and not far away 
the cars. 

At another port you can now walk along 
three miles of landing stages and see 375,- 
000 square feet of wharf space, where last 
October there was a swamp. Nearby is a 
remarkable system of warehouses which 
will cover nearly 2,000 acres; not to men- 
tion a mighty railway system. A hospital 
of 25,000 beds, the largest in the world, is 



here being built, while In this area is ac- 
commodation for 25 per cent of the com- 
mand. This means a concentration of 12,- 
000 laborers in this region. Then there 
are the naval stations and rest camps for 
troops arriving. But time does not suf- 
fice to enumerate all the types of concen- 
trations In these base areas, or the kinds 
of library service patently appropriate. 
Suffice It to say that it was in these areas 
that we felt it necessary to place our first 
consignments. One case only I must 
specify, and that because it might general- 
ly be overlooked. I wish there were space 
to print In full a stirring appeal sent us 
for books by a commander of stevedores in 
one of these port cities. He wanted recre- 
ation books to combat the social evil. Two 
months of very careful study had con- 
vinced him that they were the best anti- 
dote. "A man who can get hold of a 
book," he writes, "stays at home and reads 
it, soon Improves in the matters of dress 
and military conduct and shows improve- 
ment in morals and self-respect." And the 
illiterate hear and learn from them. 

Now that, backing from the front, we 
have reached the water, I am reminded 
that it was due to the Navy that I landed 
at all and the commander of the United 
States naval forces operating in European 
waters was the first consulted. I might, 
therefore, with propriety obey chronology. 

Well, the admiral had had an experience 
and so was shy of welfare organizations. 
Besides, the larger ships possessed libra- 
ries and a fund from which to replenish 
them. And then at our chief naval base 
friends had erected and presented to the 
navy a fine clubhouse, with books abundant 
as part of its equipment. Perhaps a little 
patience would bring a similar boon to the 
other bases. Still the reception was cor- 
dial and he matched the Secretary's letter 
with a pass to all naval stations under his 
command and an instruction to his officers 
that they extend every facility for carry- 
ing out this work. 

If fortune began thus faintly to smile, 
she beamed upon us in France, for, repair- 



86 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



Ing thither without disturbing the balance 
in Ireland, I stumbled at nayal headquar- 
ters in Paris upon a group of officers who 
at once set up a vigorous plea in behalf of 
the aviation stations. These boys, with a 
good percentage of college graduates 
among them, were choice fellows, and yet 
set usually in out-of-the-way places, with 
recreational provision scanty or none. 
Their admiral out at the coast endorsed 
what they had to say, but wanted it dis- 
tinctly understood that his boys on the 
boats were just as deserving of our re- 
membrance. Of this he was good enough 
to give me a demonstration at first hand, 
for out to sea I went for two days and 
nights in the flagship of a convoying fleet 
in its work down the French coast. Those 
full hours we must not now peer into. 
Sufiice it to say that I was given the free- 
dom of the vessel, running from bridge 
to boiler-room, bunking with the surgeon, 
dining with the officers, chatting with the 
crew, sighting the guns — filled with the 
lore of those wonderful months. Hun- 
dreds of impressions have since been re- 
corded on the privileged plate of my mind, 
but that first one cannot be effaced. These 
heroes of the sea, their every hour uncer- 
tain, whether tracking the serpent beneath 
the waves, or scouring for his horned 
eggs, have won my heart for aye and shall 
have the A. L. A.'s warmest hand. 

Did they have time or inclination for 
books, as some had denied? I spent an 
evening with them in the crowded quar- 
ters under deck and there I saw a dozen 
of them lying in their bunks reading. 
Many of them had fastened soap boxes on 
the side of the hull opposite their narrow 
beds, and these were the little libraries of 
their very own! It seems that they used 
to make a continuous run of it, but the 
losses at night were so considerable that 
our naval authorities had finally prevailed 
on the British and French to run their 
merchant vessels down the coast only In 
daylight. So the fellows had their eve- 
nings to themselves. The opportunity was 
there and the desire was not lacking. The 
body was constrained, but the mind was 



eager to wander. Travel they wanted, ad- 
ventures of the sea, stirring Western fic- 
tion from home, and good tales of the war. 
Empey they instanced, and called for Jack 
London, Zane Grey, Ralph Connor, Stanley 
Weyman, Joseph Conrad, Kipling, Steven- 
son, and someone mentioned French text- 
books. Oh, yes, they knew what they 
wanted, and what they did not too; for 
example, religious books, though they con- 
fessed there was one fellow who did a lot 
of such reading and had also distinguished 
himself by keeping clear of their pet vices. 
After all, their minds went back to him, 
I noticed, and I believe they would not like 
it If our selection had nothing to please 
this peculiar comrade. 

The water trip past, I went by land on 
to the U. S. naval aviation headquarters 
in France. There the same cordial greet- 
ing was given and the commander was so 
interested that he said he would, if neces- 
sary, appoint a special officer whose sole 
duty would be the management of the col- 
lections sent his stations. Distribution by 
a naval vessel was arranged. We could be 
assured, he said, that not only would this 
material not be abused, but it would be 
husbanded by appreciative fellows as a 
treasure. We hope, indeed, there is soon 
to be a Y. M. C. A. hut at all stations, so 
as to afford adequate shelter and atten- 
tion to our collections. 

The service began on the spot, as a mat- 
ter of fact. Men in some of the stations 
were to take Annapolis examinations the 
next month. They did not have the neces- 
sary textbooks and a preliminary test 
showed they were sure to fail without 
them. Could we help? We could and did. 
A cablegram was sent at once to London. 
The books came promptly and were im- 
mediately distributed to the candidates, 
"each one of whom" so the officer writes, 
"expressed sincere thanks." And he added: 
"No doubt this is the beginning of a very 
useful mission which you ought to perform 
with our men in Europe." 

A cablegram was then sent to Washing- 
ton, calling for shipment of 8,000 volumes, 



RANEY 



87 



equally divided between the vessels and 
hydroplane stations in France, addressed 
to our commanding officers at two French 
ports, and brought over in naval supply 
vessels. This has been supplemented by 
other consignments, including a hundred 
different periodicals by subscription. 

Well, I saw Admiral Sims again, and 
then it was a different story. If fortune 
had first smiled and then beamed, she 
now laughed outright. He had heard from 
France, and as a result he wanted books 
sent to every arm of his service, naval 
bases, aviation stations, mine-sweeping 
bases, and even his pet battleships that in 
February would never, never need us, he 
asks us in May surely not to forget. And 
for good fellowship they want to exchange 
books with the British fleet. 

I could go back home on a transport if I 
wished and was given a letter to the Sec- 
retary of the Navy, In which he says: "We 
recognize, of course, the great value of 
Mr. Raney's services and those of his As- 
sociation in increasing the contentment of 
our forces, and he may be entirely sure 
that his efforts in this respect will be ap- 
preciated by many thousands of men over 
here." 

At his request routes have now been 
mapped out with the Navy Department 
for supplying books to our far-flung line in 
Europe. Whether hovering about the 
British Isles, slipping through the Bay of 
Biscay, keeping guard at Gibraltar, or 
stopping the rat holes in nameless islands, 
we shall follow them in their devoted task 
and at the odd hour of rest hope to give 
them cheer from home. 

If the navy situation had been delicate, 
it was child's play compared with the dif- 
ficulties faced when we turned to the army, 
whether in England or France. There 
stood a decree fixed in general orders, 
which seemed to allocate the field of civil- 
ian activity to the Red Cross and Y. M. C, A. 
— the one to handle the ill, the other the 
well. Accordingly both had been militar- 
ized; the one holding the hospitals, the 
other operating the canteen. They rode 



about in army machines, drew upon the 
commissary for supplies shipped in Gov- 
ernment bottoms, and travelled at military 
rates. The arrangement was logical, there 
was no use in denying it. If you were a 
military commander, you would demand 
the same simplification, and, moreover, it 
was due the American people, who have to 
meet the cost. You could accordingly feel 
in the atmosphere a working agreement to 
kill off newcomers, and the backyards of 
all three parties were white with the 
bleaching bones of would-be associates. 

If thus they had the support of law, they 
had added the effectiveness of possession — 
proverbially the more important — holding, 
that is, both credentials and chronology. 
They had been in the field for months and 
were amazing Europe by the magnitude 
and uniqueness of their programs. Both 
had taKen the world for their province, and 
the press was full of their doings. While 
the army was necessarily struggling to 
reach its feet, here were two magnificent 
American organizations which were win- 
ning us plaudits for daring performances 
on a big scale. 

And they had preemption not merely in 
general, but in particular had been at li- 
brary service since the summer of 1917. 
On each side of the channel, they both had 
library departments, with staffs of size 
and budgets boundless. Active buyers sat 
in the London market, sending books and 
periodicals across and afield. 

Finally in hut and hospital they had 
ready to hand the only establishments 
which were strategically in position for 
rendering the service. 

There was nothing theoretical about this, 
you will agree. My instructions did not 
cover the case, though the diplomatic char- 
acter of the mission was underscored. So, 
taking stock of our resources, which in- 
cluded (1) a letter of introduction and au- 
thorization from the Secretary of War to 
General Pershing, (2) command of Amer- 
ican book resources, and (3) trained per- 
sonnel, I determined to stake our future 
overseas on a single throw, and that was 



88 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



the following communication presented in 
person at general headquarters: 

February 20, 1918, 
c/o American Embassy, 
Paris. 
General John J. Pershing, Commander-in- 
Chief, American Expeditionary Force, 

France. 

Sir: — As seen from the letters of Secre- 
taries Baker and Daniels, the American 
Library Association has been engaged by 
the War and Navy Departments as the 
agency to supply our forces at home and 
overseas with reading material during the 
war. ^^Jj 

For this purpose a fund has been raised 
by popular subscription, while books and 
magazines are being systematically solic- 
ited in the United States. 

The headquarters of this service are at 
the Library of Congress, and Dr. Herbert 
Putnam is general director. 

First attention was given to the training 
centers in America. Through a generous 
gift of the Carnegie Corporation, it became 
possible to erect and furnish in each of 
thirty-five camps and cantonments a cen. 
tral building with ample accommodations 
for books, readers and attendants. A 
month ago 500,000 volumes had been in- 
stalled, one-fifth purchased, the rest given. 

I am now sent to Europe to map out a 
line of action appropriate for the Associa- 
tion. After study of British methods 
which, under the aegis of the Government, 
are carried out on a huge scale, and after a 
rapid survey of the local situation, the 
rough outline of our obligation can be 
discerned. Let me briefly sketch it. 

Our Association has but one concern and 
that is to reach the man with the book 
that's needed. Whatever procedure will 
accomplish that shall be adopted, no mat- 
ter whether an old one or a new one. You 
welcome us; we shall not abuse the con- 
fidence. Our business here is to win the 
war and every proposal is to stand or fall 
according as it helps or hinders this busi- 
ness. We do not offer to add a fifth wheel 
from vanity or upset the carriage to get 
credit for fixing it. But we do want to 
meet our obligation to the American peo- 
ple who give the money and material, to 
the Grovernment that appoints us, and es- 
pecially to the boys, who have the right to 
command us. If library service fails, our 
Association will reap the dishonor. We 
must, therefore, under your sanction, pro- 
ceed with care, though in a spirit of utter 
unselfishness. 

Now the man, well or ill, needs to be 
reached. There are found already at hand 



two great trusted organizations which have 
established that contact — the American 
Red Cross and the American Y. M. C. A. 
If these (and in less degree) other 
agencies can receive, deliver and admin- 
ister effectively our wares, it is the part of 
wisdom and should be of pleasure for us 
so to consign those wares. That is what 
under conditions we propose to do. 

To receive such material they are pat- 
ently able. Their ability to convey it eflB- 
clently has yet to be demonstrated, and to 
dispense it wisely requires the finest 
thought that our combined heads and 
hearts can from day to day conceive. 

No new name needs therefore to be 
added to the receiving agencies, no ware- 
houses by us engaged. What we require 
here, so far as France is concerned, is a 
trained man of high executive and inter- 
pretative ability, who shall serve three 
ends: (1) Be a balance wheel between the 
Red Cross and Y. M. C. A., passing upon 
their claims for percentage of shipment; 
(2) key up the executive centers and field 
services, as of authority, to effective per- 
formance, by freely examining and freely 
prescribing; (3) interpret systematically 
to us in America the situation as it de- 
velops, so that we in turn may on the other 
side meet our obligation. 

And what is that obligation? 

To be the reservoir, and the only one, un- 
der Governmental decree, from which to 
draw supplies of this sort. 

And why one only? 

To prevent duplication of effort and ship- 
ment of useless material; therefore, to save 
tonnage, which is precious. 

Why the American Library Association, 
rather than another organization, entirely 
aside from the Governmental status? 

Because in the finely and widely ramified 
public library system in the United States 
we have at hand without cost an agency 
for collecting and sorting material, and in 
purchases we have been granted unpar- 
alleled discounts by publishers and cession 
of royalties by authors. In our various 
depots and especially the two terminal 
ones at Hoboken and Newport News, we 
can separate the fit from the unfit and dis- 
patch material in classified form and eco- 
nomic volume ready for immediate con- 
sumption on arrival overseas. We be- 
come, therefore, the neck of the American 
bottle. 

In this rough sketch of our proposed 
European work on both sides of the At- 
lantic, some qualification is now seen nec- 
essary and more may appear hereafter. 

As here defined, our representative in 
Paris (or London) has mainly an advl- 



RANEY 



89 



sory and ambassadorial function, though 
since our material is in question it might 
be expected that his advice would get 
adoption. It may become quickly neces- 
sary, in order that we should meet our 
contract with the Government, that our 
Association should become the apex of an 
executive pyramid with the two associative 
organizations the base, establishing policy 
and exercising authority. 

On the other hand, the American Libra- 
ry Association does not touch what may be 
termed the technical library work of either 
associate, though its advice where request- 
ed must be freely given. I refer, on the 
one hand for example, to the Central Med- 
ical Library being established in Paris by 
the American Red Cross for American doc- 
tors in military service, though it happens 
that we were in position to render here a 
marked service; and on the other hand, 
reference is here made to the religious, 
educational, and other stock which the 
Y. M. C. A. assembles as apparatus for its 
special courses and work. 

If the American Library Association, in 
your judgment, is thus meeting its obliga- 
tion in the right spirit, and if the scheme 
seems commendable and the service wel- 
come, I might respectfully hope to receive 
from you, (1) a statement to such effect; 
(2) a status, which under continuous con- 
trol might enable me (and anyone who 
might succeed me) to make the necessary 
inspection of possible book centers, as Ad- 
miral Sims has accorded, at military rates 
of travel; (3) a request of Washington 
that we be secured the American shipping 
monopoly above suggested; (4) a small 
concession of tonnage to us (say 50 tons a 
month), which may in fact be no greater 
than at present consumed in purposeless 
but inadequate shipments; (5) communi- 
cation from time to time of sufficient in- 
formation to make our organization re- 
sponsive to your growing and changing 
need. 

I am. Sir, yours respectfully, 

(Signed) M. Llewellyn Raney, 
Director of Overseas War Serv- 
ice, American Library Associa- 
tion. 

To this was appended the following en- 
dorsements : 

If the general plan of the above meets 
with the approval of the Commander-in- 
Chief, the A. E. F. Y. M. C. A. will be glad 
to cooperate along such lines as the Com- 
mander-in-Chief may designate. 

(Signed) E. C. Cabteb, 
Chief, A. E. F. Y. M. C. A. 

The American Red Cross will be glad to 



cooperate along the same lines as the co- 
operation given by the Y. M. C. A. 

(Signed) J. H. Perkins, 
Major O. R. C, U. S. A., 
Commissioner for Europe, 
American Red Cross. 
The official reply follows: 



From: C. in C. 



February 22, 1918. 



To: Director of Overseas War Service, 
American Library Association. Subject: 
Supply of Library Material to A. E. F. 

1. In answer to your letter of February 
20, which has been received and considered 
with great interest, the following conclu- 
sions have been arrived at. 

2. The scheme which is proposed is 
commendable and the service is welcome. 
The details of distribution, due to the pres- 
ent tonnage conditions, make it desirable 
that the plan of working out the scheme 
for the distribution of proper reading mat- 
ter to the A. E. F. be handled in connection 
with the existing agencies now working for 
their well-being, that is, the Y. M. C. A. 
and the Red Cross. 

As indicated in your letter, both of these 
organizations have expressed their will- 
ingness and desire to cooperate and it is 
believed that a mutual exchange of in- 
formation and facilities will enable your 
scheme to be carried out to the great ad- 
vantage of all concerned. 

3. For the present, a tonnage of not to 
exceed 50 ship tons per month has been 
requested from Washington for this pur- 
pose, and it is believed that this should be 
sufficient, and that no allotment of tonnage 
for a similar purpose should be made. 

4. The intent of the above recommenda- 
tion is that there should not be any com- 
petition in supplying this matter to the 
troops, but that the work should be cen- 
tralized in the American Library Asso- 
ciation. 

By order of the C. in C. 

James A. Logan, Jr., 
Lt. Col. G. S., A. C. of S., G-I. 

This was backed up by a cablegram from 
the Commander-in-Chief to the Chief of 
Staff in Washington, recommending the de- 
sired grant of tonnage to us, with the pro- 
viso that none be allotted to any other or- 
ganization for similar purpose. 

To this the Chief of Staff in time ac- 
ceded, with in turn a proviso that such 
consignments be addressed to the "Chief 
Quartermaster A. E, F., France, for dis- 
tribution." 



90 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



That ofllclal countered with an offer to 
erect us without cost a warehouse at an 
important interior point, to which he 
would dispatch our shipments at Govern- 
ment expense. The offer was, of course, 
accepted; the warehouse is about com- 
pleted, and books in quantity are en route 
thither. 

Fifty tons, I explained, was a small 
amount, but it would suflace, provided, 
first, that we had the monopoly, because 
duplicate and unfitting material would thus 
be turned away from the ships; and pro- 
vided, second, that we had military sup- 
port In the conservation of what we did 
send. The latter came to be afforded in a 
peculiar and gratifying fashion. The Gen- 
eral whose famous sayings "Nous void 
enfin, o Lafayette" and "Disposez de nous 
comme il vous plaira," so stirred the heart 
of France, gave us also his signature to a 
sentiment, which, used in or with the 
books, records his moral alliance without 
invoking his ofllcial authority, which would 
have involved penalties and consequent 
alienation. So above our cases stands a 
placard which is headed: 

WAR SERVICE LIBRARY 

provided by the 
People of the United States 
through 
The Amebican Libraey Association 
and, following then with an announcement 
of a service without any charge, and a few 
simple rules, concludes with this quota- 
tion: 

These books come to us overseas from 
home. To read them is a privilege; to re- 
store them promptly unabused, a duty. 
(Signed) John J. Pebshinq. 

Of course, before that first fruitful visit 
to general headquarters a deal of water 
had gone under the bridge, and after It a 
great deal more, before a final settlement 
was reached. Our overseas constitution, 
as we may call it, bore the written en- 
dorsement of the two great associated or- 
ganizations. The negotiations which led 
up to this and tediously followed it need 
not here be recounted. Men of vision were 
at the head of each, and it was a pleasure 



to deal with them. The Red Cross found 
us useful in strengthening its Medical Li- 
brary established in Paris for American 
doctors in military service, since, by cabled 
exchanges with Washington, conferences 
with French officials, and a visit to Swit- 
zerland, we put them in the way of secur- 
ing their much needed journals from en- 
emy countries — found us so useful in fact, 
that they finally agreed to have us run this 
central library for them and have its fine 
suite of rooms in the Reinhart Galleries 
for our headquarters, if we liked. 

As for the Y. M. C. A., its library depart- 
ment was suffering from growing pains. 
We were called in consultation and in the 
end our prescription was accepted. It is 
now pretty well settled that our European 
staff, headed by Mr. Burton E. Stevenson, 
will occupy a rented floor in the same man- 
sion as the Y. M. C. A.'s educational and 
allied departments are about to enter. We 
shall in any case maintain at our head- 
quarters a reference library and take over 
their reference work. Aside from their 
own religious and similar technical stock, 
it will be our books that go to the huts, and 
they will maintain an experienced business 
manager, who will see that requisitions are 
carried out, and a competent field secre- 
tary, who will greatly aid us in keeping 
abreast of conditions. 

But more potent than either of these con- 
siderations was our promise of American 
books. The men did not like the English 
substitutes which the Y. M. C. A. had felt 
compelled to use. Besides, the London 
market was going dry and prices were ad- 
vancing. Editions were not being reprint- 
ed, owing to shortness of paper and labor. 
Furthermore, the great British organiza- 
tions, which were feeding the British 
armed forces on a huge scale, looked with 
anxiety on American competition, so that 
a moral issue was raised. The Red Cross 
was so desirous of escaping from this 
dilemma that it offered to share its pres- 
ent tonnage with us to bring over Ameri- 
can reading material for our hospitals in 
Europe. Indeed, under this arrangement, 
we have made an initial shipment of 25,000 



RANEY 



fl 



volumes to France, and instructions have 
been issued for similar dispatch of 5,000 
volumes to England, with regular monthly 
service to follow in each case. 

The Y. M. C. A. had no tonnage to spare, 
but it could help in another way. Men 
needed books en voyage. The military au- 
thorities consented to have us put boxes 
on transports for deck usage. The Y. M. C. A. 
secretaries and the chaplains agreed to 
look out for the books en route, to re-box 
and deliver them in port. Here, going into 
their warehouses, they would be subject 
to our further orders for distribution. 
While there has been an enormous amount 
of loss in this service, and we are conse- 
quently in negotiation with Washington 
for a change of method, it has been Im- 
mensely popular, and thus far our chief 
source of supply overseas. 

And here it Is fitting to say that in the 
British Isles our interests are for the time 
to be looked after by Mr. G. H. Grubb, of 
G. P. Putnam's Sons in London, whom we 
succeeded in attaching to the Y. M. C. A. 
staff there. A little later, when the situa- 
tion develops more, we shall doubtless find 
it expedient to send a special representa- 
tive over. 

I spoke above about keeping abreast of 
conditions. This reminds me of the fifth 
and last request set down at the end of our 
constitution — "communication from time 
to time of suflacient Information to make 
our organization responsive to your grow- 
ing and changing need." Headquarters' 
frank compliance with that petition con- 
stitutes my chief embarrassment in ap- 
pearing here today and draws perforce a 
veil about the British Isles. So much the 
best remains untold. Never did our army 
more strikingly evince its essentially demo- 
cratic character than when it suffered us 
to set up in the military zone a library 
service based on scientific surveys. We 
were not required to sit off in Paris and 
conduct correspondence. We could rather 
move freely among the men, make our own 
observations and apply our own conclu- 
sions. Nor were we censored. The result 
Is going to be a unique record, and the be- 



trayal of confidence would be unthinkable. 
We are of the brotherhood that means to 
bind the madmen of central Europe and It 
is ours to warm the hearts and clarify the 
vision of our comrades. 

Survey? The word had not been uttered 
in Paris before we came. There were no 
field reports, no visitations. We began 
with a demonstration of the military map 
at General Headquarters. My time In 
France was spent In keying up Paris and 
plotting the field. Consequently when our 
material at length began to arrive It knew 
just where to go and it cannot come too 
fast to embarrass us; nor will the steve- 
dore get a book on trench mortars, or any- 
body the cast-offs of the garret. 

Again the constitution speaks about a 
pyramid. It Is already In course of con- 
struction. We have persuaded our asso- 
ciates to enter a library council, of which 
our representative is chairman. The other 
recognized organizations, such as the 
Knights of Columbus and Salvation Army, 
will, of course, be accorded membership 
also. Overlapping of effort will thus be 
checked, systemization and Improvement 
of practice secured. 

And here let It be said once for all that 
If we seem to be stressing unduly the Im- 
portance of our liaison with the two largest 
of our associates, we do not fail to value 
the opportunity offered through the smaller 
ones. 

The Knights of Columbus promise an In- 
teresting opening a little later. When I 
left France they were deep in plans and 
busy with the cables. 

Make no mistake about it, the service of 
the Salvation Army Is keenly appreciated 
by the men. It is ably led, evinces good 
strategic sense, has mobility and displays 
its traditional sympathy for the sorely 
tried by planting its huts along the fringe 
of fire. The boys speak of simple affection 
shown them and I can well believe it, 
when I recall, as needs must, one shining 
face of which I caught a glimpse behind 
the counter as I peered into the doorway 
at twilight. It Is with pleasure and assur- 



92 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



ance that we have made all their huts an 
initial shipment. 

And the Y. W. C. A. shall not he forgot- 
ten. How fine a conception to offer what 
the men so highly value — normal relations 
with normal women. It was in a hostess 
house that one of the prettiest services I 
heard of in my whole stay in Europe was 
being rendered. It is a classic of benev- 
olence, literally too sacred for publication. 
Right cheerfully will our books be sent 
there. 

Finally, through the cooperation of Red 
Cross and Y. M. C. A. we have been en- 
abled to make arrangements in Switzer- 
land for serving our prisoners of war in 
Germany and Austria. The Red Cross is 
to furnish foodstuffs, clothing and medi- 
cine, we are to provide books, and the 
Y. M. C. A. to make other recreational 
provisions, their proposed independent ap- 
peal for reading material being abandoned. 
I visited Berne and Geneva for this pur- 
pose and left behind an order for 6,000 
volumes as an initial stock. Further ap- 
propriate shipments will be made from 
our stores in France, and we shall have the 
aid of the Y. M. C. A. in their distribution. 

To meet all these demands, we have es- 
tablished six dispatch ofilces in America 
at points of embarkation. According to 
their reports, more than 400,000 volumes 
have been sent to the docks so far, Mr. 
Stevenson cables that up to June 12 203 
points in France had been reached with 
first shipments. 

The material goes in classified forni in 
standard cases, holding about fifty or sixty 
volumes each. Strongly and neatly built, 
with screwed-on top and medial shelf, they 
have, when stacked, the value of a sec- 
tional bookcase. The inauguration of the 
service was announced originally in the 
Paris newspapers; then by a formal cir- 
cular, mailed out to all custodians. Final- 
ly, each box contains a copy of the placard 
to surmount it, as already mentioned, and 
a set of Instructions for the librarian in 
charge. The volumes are all labeled and 
pocketed ready for use. 

The miscellaneous box, which naturally 



predominates, is made up of three-fourths 
fiction and one-fourth other recreational 
material. About one book in ten in such 
cases we aim to take from purchased 
stock. 

The reference and technical books are, 
of course, largely bought. They go in 
cargo for the most part, and their char- 
acter is plainly stenciled on the lid, so 
that they may be appropriately assigned 
In the field without the necessity of break- 
ing bulk. 

As to magazines, we have proceeded with 
caution. Displacing, as we have so largely, 
the library work of our associates other- 
wise, we have hesitated to take over also 
the magazine service, which they are main- 
taining with regularity and at great ex- 
pense. However, we have made a begin- 
ning by inducing a certain number of pub- 
lishers to turn over unsold remainders to 
us, and if the Burleson sacks are to re- 
sume overseas dispatch and get effective 
use, we shall have to receive, sift and for- 
ward them. These magazines of ours are 
all for trench usage, non-returnable. 

Thus the cycle is complete from training 
camps in the United States to troop trains 
(as we contemplate) and transports, from 
port to the front and back to rest station, 
hospital or captivity; with the naval units, 
whether ashore or at sea, from the British 
Isles to the Mediterranean, we follow the 
flag. 

Complete, did I say? Not till the boys 
get home again. The war Is going to end 
one of these days, but repatriation will take 
a year or two. To combat the perils of re- 
action and to prepare for civilian life, the 
army is to be put to school during that pe- 
riod. We have our eyes already on that 
wonderful opportunity. 

And then, France, glorious France, 
blood-redeemed, has heard of the American 
public library, which, finding literal trans- 
lation inadequate, it dignifies with the 
sobriquet, Maison de Tons, The People's 
House. A great organization headed by 
the President of the Republic, planning for 
the social reconstruction of France after 
the war, has decided to transplant this 



ORR 



93 



unique institution and make it the center 
of the plan. Our aid is asked. Who can 
foresee the result? 

The American Library Association was 
born a Crusader. It first saw the light at 



age of one year, it was in England, a god- 
mother. Through the proceedings of forty 
years has run the red thread of service to 
democracy. It found no difficulty, there- 
fore, in following the flag overseas. May 
the fairest page in its history be the one 



an international exposition. At the tender that is writ in blood. 

THE COOPERATION OF THE Y. M. C. A. AND THE A. L. A. 
By William Orb, Educational Director, National War Work Council, Y. M. C. A. 



A year ago it was my privilege, by the 
courtesy of your officers, to appear before 
you and to present the attitude of the 
Young Men's Christian Association with 
regard to any cooperation in this matter 
of the supply of library books. I think 
both parties in the case thought they were 
taking some chances. We very cleverly 
concealed any euch misapprehensions, any 
such misgivings, and undertook to carry 
out in absolute good faith and sincerity 
what you have undertaken as a common 
enterprise, and now at the end of the year 
all those misgivings have disappeared. I 
would not say that we have attained to a 
state of absolute perfection; that would 
indicate that either one or both of the 
parties were not much concerned about 
the enterprise if there was absolute agree- 
ment. But as we move along steadily one 
issue after another has been settled and 
settled in a way not to serve the advan- 
tage of either organization in the long run 
but for the good of the common cause. 

It is a remarkable demonstration, more 
significant than all the service rendered, 
of how with the right spirit in these or- 
ganizations, somewhat diverse in their 
methods, each with its own professional 
pride, each with its own particular ideas, 
they work together and achieve large re- 
sults. Again and again there have come 
to us from the field in this country testi- 
monials on the part of our secretaries of 
their keen appreciation of the large serv- 
ice that has been rendered by your Asso- 
ciation to them In supplying books and 



reading matter of various kinds, and not 
only in supplying the material but in giv- 
ing them expert service, advice and coun- 
sel, whereby that material has been made 
of large value to the soldiers. 

I have not time to go into all the details 
of what has been done in this country. 
That has been read before you in papers 
in terms you comprehend to a better ex- 
tent than I. I just want to give you some 
figures that came to us. They are fairly 
. reliable, and that is a fearful thing to say 
about any statistics, especially those se- 
cured from war camps, but they have been 
checked up and the demonstration is 
rather significant. We collected for the 
first three months in the year, by a spe- 
cial survey from our camps in this coun- 
try, figures in regard to the books, and it 
appeared from those figures that over a 
million and a quarter books were being 
circulated from the Y. M. C. A. buildings. 
Those books in almost all cases have come 
as contributions from the American Libra- 
ry Association. I want to tell you also 
that the Y. M. C. A. buildings have certain 
other forms of activities which we con- 
duct within our own sphere, under our own 
jurisdiction, to which the library service 
Is a most Important adjunct. We have, 
for example, lectures. I do not recall the 
exact number of lectures, but they were 
on all kinds of subjects, upon the war and 
its causes, on natural history, literature, 
anything that would interest the men, 
upon northern France, where they are go- 
ing, upon the customs and practices of 



94 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



the French people. Over a million men 
attended those lectures in a period of 
three months. That runs up, you see, into 
four or five million a year. I believe that 
is rather an understatement. The purpose 
as each lecture is given is to take the in- 
terest that is aroused in that particular 
subject and use that as a means whereby 
we direct the men to the reading of books 
in our own buildings and of those books 
that are in the camp library itself. I be- 
lieve we are just at the beginning of that 
means of stimulating reading along defi- 
nite lines with a purpose on the part of 
the men. 

And then the class work. Class work for 
foreigners I shall speak of this morning, 
class work for those who may be well 
learned in their own language but cannot 
speak a word of English. The attendance 
in those classes runs up to many hundred 
thousands. And then the classes in vari- 
ous subjects; mathematics at the training 
stations; classes in history, classes in ele- 
mentary arithmetic. I think Mr. Wellman 
told you the other morning about how, in 
the Springfield Armory, through the ini- 
tiative largely of the library and through 
the cooperation of the Y. M. C. A., groups 
of soldiers coming from the southern 
camps are .being instructed for the first 
time in the elements of the English lan- 
guage and arithmetic. I know that is so 
because I have seen it; that is testimony 
of an eye-witness. 

So the result of this fine spirit has been 
the way in which things have been worked 
out and adjusted. We look back with un- 
bounded satisfaction upon this year's 
work. I was very glad, indeed, to hear 
from Dr. Raney the way that work has 
been initiated in France. I know perfect- 
ly well from reports that come to us from 
our leaders how we look with expectation 
to getting such an arrangement made 
with the American Library Association as 
the proper agency to take under its charge 
and care the furnishing of books over- 
seas, the delivering of them at the vari- 
ous points, and we are on our part under- 
taking as far as we possibly can to see 



that those books are placed in the hands 
of the soldiers and they are directed in 
their reading. There again we have a 
large measure of satisfaction. 

I am glad to see that Dr. Raney, when 
he said the cycle is completed, did not say 
the circle is closed. I do not know whether 
the two terms are synonymous but cer- 
tainly the circle is not closed. We are 
just on the verge of this work. 

I took the liberty a year ago of saying 
that we must think in very large terms of 
this enterprise. We must think of books 
by the millions. And that has been es- 
tablished to be the case. I believe we 
just have established the foundation for a 
work of increasing promise. We have got 
to develop our work intensively in the 
camps in this country; we have got to 
develop more and more as we get into 
military conditions the reading of the men 
along serious lines. They are responding 
to that. We have discovered that while 
these men are not educated in many cases, 
the army that is assembled under our col- 
ors is composed of the most Intelligent 
body of men ever got together. They may 
not be as highly educated but they have 
that keen mental alertness, that desire to 
know, that curiosity which can be con- 
verted into a genuine desire to study. And 
we find as we complete our resources to- 
ward ministering to that desire the psy- 
chology of the soldier himself. 

A man who has recently been working 
in the camps stated to me that when the 
men first assembled there was bewilder- 
ment in their minds, there was a large in- 
terrogation point: Why is it so? Why 
this sacrifice we are making? Is this 
breaking of home ties, this venture into 
the unknown, after all worth while? The 
men want to be instructed upon what is 
at stake and why they are fighting. And 
there the library ministers and there 
these classes in elementary subjects. I 
saw a soldier down in Camp Gordon pain- 
fully tracing out, "I am a soldier of Amer- 
ica. I am fighting for democracy. De- 
mocracy is the rule of the people." He 
had the slogan; he had the catchword; 



BURNITB 



95 



he had the battle cry. But what Is In- 
volved in democracy? The library and the 
classroom and the lecture and the per- 
sonal interview are all to contribute to the 
instilling of that term "democracy" into 
the man's mind until he realizes that it is 
something worth fighting for. Then he 
gets into the training, gets the conscious- 
ness of the soldier, and wants to know 
how to do the job. And there again the 
library and the lecture and the teacher 
come in, supplementing the work of the 
military expert. The man reads and stud- 
ies and listens and becomes a more ef- 
fective soldier in technique and all that 
pertains to military knowledge and prac- 
tice. Then he contemplates the crossing 
of that which has become a mere ditch 
which 276,000 crossed in June — a mag- 
nificent achievement. He wants to know 
about that country to which he is going 
and those French people for whom he is 
to fight and with whom he is to fight, and 
about his comrades in arms from almost 
every country in the world. There again 
the ministry of the book and of the class 
and of the lecture comes in. And so he 
goes across, gets into the camp and turns 
weary and worn; he has had enough of 
the awful business; his mind Is saturated 
with the horrors. Again comes the min- 
istry of the book and the teacher and the 
lecturer and the entertainer to make him 
for a little time forget, and bring up his 
strength of body and mind and spirit so 
tfiat he shall fittingly go on to complete 



the grim business. Those are the ways 
in which we are engaged. 

And for another thing, to conserve the 
results of victory, I want to speak for a 
moment to the home librarians. I was 
glad to catch a little word this morning. 
One of the speakers this morning said: 
"Yes, push the war work, but keep the 
home boys strong." We have got to keep 
the home libraries strong. Otherwise it 
might be that though we won the victory 
we would not garner the fruits thereof, 
and the true general is the one who keeps 
the results of victory. That is going to 
mean, after all, a victory of ideas, and 
putting Ideas into practice. Just take this 
idea of unity of these people with whom 
we are fighting. We feel now we are 
brothers in arms with our former foes of 
Britain, and the Stars and Stripes float 
from Westminster Tower in London; the 
Frenchman Is our brother in arms. Is 
that to be just a dream of the past or is It 
to become a reality in practice? The li- 
brary, the classroom and teacher and their 
association are going to assure that fruit 
of victory. 

Another thing — we hear again and again 
that this is a war of ideals. You know it 
Is much easier to fight for something that 
is tangible than it is to fight for an ideal. 
A good many wars have been fought for 
very definite acquisition. We are not 
fighting for territory, material possessions; 
we are fighting for ideals. The book, the 
classroom, the teacher, are to make those 
ideals your possession. 



LIBRARY WORK WITH CHILDREN IN WAR TIME 
By Caholine Bubnite, Director of Children's Work, Cleveland Piiblic Library 



We cannot remind ourselves too often 
that April, 1917, marked the passing of an 
old order and the beginning of a new. We 
were less conscious of it then than we are 
now, we are less conscious of it now than 
we will be a year from now. It is a new 
order for every individual and no less new 



for every agency serving Its community. 
New problems are being solved and old 
activities are being tested in the light of 
new national needs. Schools, libraries, 
settlements, and all other social agencies 
are being resocialized. One may see this 
taking place on all sides, and every worker 



96 



SARATOGA SPRING'S CONFERENCE 



can tell of activities she is now promoting 
which two years ago were entirely outside 
her field. By reason of this resocialization 
of community life and forces, tremendous 
accomplishments have been possible. Out 
of these common undertakings has come a 
common spirit, which is bringing the com- 
munity agencies into new relationships with 
each other and into a fuller understanding 
of the place that each should take. 

Children, as a class, are as affected by 
this new life as any other class. One of 
the great changes for them is that they 
must now make their own definite contribu- 
tion of one sort or another to national 
needs. In other words, they have become 
an asset for the present as well as for the 
future. Not next month, nor next year, 
but now, they must be socially and eco- 
nomically productive, and upon those who 
deal with them, lies the responsibility for 
bringing this about. 

In a great measure society is permitting 
each institution to decide how children 
shall help. It is largely allowing each to 
develop its own ways of helping, keeping a 
strict accounting of its results. It says to 
those agencies dealing with children: 
There are certain things to be done, take 
your part, show us at such and such a 
time what you have taken for your share, 
and at that time it will be determined 
whether it has been enough. 

Society has given such agencies the new 
common aim' of helping to the utmost. But 
society is not primarily concerned just at 
this time with the question of how we ac- 
complish our ends, and whether we make 
what we do mean the most to the child that 
it can mean. That important question it 
will determine later, when the children of 
to-day are men and women, and then the 
test will be whether they meet the tre- 
mendous responsibilities of that hour with 
the fulness of their powers. But it is for 
us who work with children to remember 
now, that the resources and ability and spir- 
it of the young man or woman who will be 
twenty-one some ten years from now de- 
pends In no small degree not only upon 
what he does now at eleven in helping in 



food conservation or camp library work, but 
how he does it. 

In a certain city a Kaiser's coffin was 
placed in a public square, and children as 
well as adults who had bought a war sav- 
ing stamp were invited to drive a nail into 
the coffin. On bill-boards on leading streets 
are pictures of atrocities. Hundreds of 
children see these pictures every day. These 
methods of arousing feeling are known to 
be in use in other cities, which are leaders 
in much that is liberal and progressive, 
as in the one referred to. Do we need 
other evidences that the responsibility of 
the right education of children through war 
time activities lies peculiarly with the 
teacher, the librarian and the social worker 
at this time? 

There are certain definite things wherein 
children are proving that they can be of 
great assistance. On the economic side 
there are two: Saving and investment; 
food conservation and production. On the 
social side there are three: First, Red 
Cross work, carried on more recently 
through Junior Red Cross activities; sec- 
ond, camp libraries; third, heightening 
and strengthening an a,rdent spirit of 
patriotism, thereby arousing those spiritual 
forces which are the mainspring of action 
of this time, and which define themselves 
in true fidelity and devotion to our own 
land. Rightly fostered, this spiritual ardor 
is indeed the greatest contribution to 
present times that children can make. 

It is planned in this discussion to show 
in the reports of various libraries which 
follow, just what has been the libraries' 
contribution in war times through activi- 
ties of children. In utilizing the energies of 
children, the libraries have had, together 
with all other agencies, the advantage of 
the children's fine fresh joy in service which 
came to them in their first realization that 
they could help. This joy in service will 
climax and recede unless it is rightly used, 
and should this happen, the best that lies 
in service for them will be lost, their help 
will become only material and in the nature 
of set tasks. Giving them the fullest under- 
standing of the importance of the things 



BURNITB 



97 



they are doing and a full knowledge of the 
ends they are serving, is the one way in 
which this can be avoided. 

When the library takes the initiative in 
collecting books for camp libraries, when 
planning the part it expects the children 
to take in getting to the libraries the 
thousands of books to be collected, it should 
plan at the same time adequate means for 
the children to learn what camp libraries 
really are, to see pictures of camp libraries, 
to learn something of the similarity be- 
tween a library in a camp and a city 
library. It must see that children under- 
stand from their own use of the library the 
need of many books on the shelves in order 
that a soldier may make a satisfactory 
selection, and something about the different 
kinds of books needed in a camp library. 

If the library is able to secure the help 
of the manual training department of the 
schools in making boxes for overseas ship- 
ments, it should make available some 
knowledge about the particular use of the 
boxes; why they are planned as they are, 
and the many other interesting matters 
which will help children to know what 
they are working for. If Boy Scouts are 
asked to help in certain definite ways, the 
library must not reward them with the 
medal of service of the scout organization, 
the scout paper, or in some similar way. 
It should see to it that they become in- 
telligent public servants doing their share. 

In other words, we must not set just so 
many tasks for the children as their part 
of these big movements, but we must re- 
member that we should aim to appeal to 
their intelligence as we do in dealing with 
adults. It is the methods of presentation 
which must vary, rather than the princi- 
ples themselves. The important thing is 
that children should understand that books 
are a great part of the recreation and edu- 
cation of the soldier, and they should un- 
derstand, as well, why organization is neces- 
sary in carrying forward this work of sup- 
plying books to soldiers. One way to edu- 
cate children in this camp library move- 
ment is to get them to write to their rela- 
tives who are in camp, asking whether they 



use the camp library, what they think of it, 
whether they find books there which they 
want, and what books they would like which 
are not available. This might be done in 
some spirit of investigation, which would 
give a little training in methods of getting 
first-hand knowledge. 

Whatever in general may be the way the 
library goes about enlisting the aid of the 
children, various plans should be worked 
out, of course, and several organizations 
will doubtless be needed to carry out the 
plans. Aside from these dealings with chil- 
dren, commercial organizations might be 
asked to help, such as a photographers' as- 
sociation to furnish local photographs for 
pictures and slides; printers' association to 
furnish a special bulletin for teachers and 
children. In these and other ways, the re- 
sources of many groups of people will be 
levied upon to contribute to this particular 
phase of the education of the children. 

But the child is chiefly an asset at the 
present time in his contribution to the com- 
munity feeling of fidelity and devotion to 
his country, and the library must play an 
important part in the quickening of chil- 
dren which this means. We have heard 
much about the various ways of inculcating 
patriotism. That such efforts have not al- 
ways come out of careful thinking, but 
rather from a fine frenzy for immediate 
accomplishment is instanced in a child's 
estimate of her town teacher, "Gee, but she 
is one patriotism fiend!" One can read 
from such a remark the pathos of mis- 
spent effort and how the child remained 
untouched by the most desperate appeals. 
This is the day of patriotism readers, 
which draw from much that is best in 
literature, but which are likely to fail in 
their purpose by reason of the very direct- 
ness of their approach of subject. Just as 
direct moral instruction has little place 
in making of character, so the inculcation 
of patriotism will probably not be brought 
about by direct instruction in its beauties 
and values. It is true also that by no 
means all which the children can come to 
know of patriotism will be taken from 
books. We go to books for the fine deeds of 



98 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



the past and the present, but a part of such 
teaching must come out of the immediate 
experiences of the child, and still another 
part from intelligent service, well directed. 
The foregoing references to children's part 
in camp library work may illustrate the 
quality last mentioned. 

The material which comes from books 
has been no less available in the past than 
now. It needs regrouping, however, to 
bring stronger focus upon motives and 
situations. Patriotic readers are an effort 
in this direction. But first let us remember 
we must understand what patriotism is 
before attempting to arouse any feeling on 
the part of the children through story-tell- 
ing and through their reading. Can we not 
say that patriotism involves loyalty, knowl- 
edge of and obedience to law, knowledge 
of one's own country and other coun- 
tries, sharing liberty, safeguarding liberty, 
sacrificing for liberty, service through 
liberty. When we really understand this, 
we are ready to select and arrange ma- 
terial for the children. Heroic deeds in 
verse and prose give concrete form to 
these attributes. We must consider the 
organization of society as well, so that the 
child can understand that society affords 
him certain benefits. The child of foreign 
parentage can understand that for him then 
lie opportunities peculiar to his own coun- 
try in the free public libraries and the free 
public schools, even though he may have 
heard at home tales of discouragement and 



of failure to secure those social and eco- 
nomic advantages, the hope of which 
prompted his parents' removal to America. 
When we give such meaning to his every- 
day contacts, we are teaching patriotism, 
as well as when we draw from the past 
the deepest and richest experiences of man- 
kind to meet this highest need. But in 
whatever way we attempt to periorm this 
service, the surest way to avoid the danger 
of falling into abstract preachments, which 
are certain to fall always on deaf ears, is 
by carrying over to children only that 
which has first quickened ourselves. 

In our first reactions in war times, we 
have been much concerned with the patriot- 
ism or the lack of it, in the foreign-born. 
At times Americanism seems to mean birth 
in America. In our search for illustrations 
of heroic deeds we have taken little pains 
to seek in other classic sources. The 
other day, twenty-five thousand Czecho- 
slovaks marched in a parade in one city 
to honor the man whom they proclaim as 
their future president. Professor Massaryk. 
Some of their banners were messages to 
us. One read, "Americans, do not be dis- 
couraged! We have fought these tyrants 
for three hundred years!" To such people 
and to their history could we not well go 
for new tales of heroic sacrifices for free- 
dom, which can quicken and impel li- 
brarian, teacher and child to a new concep- 
tion of what safeguarding liberty and 
sacrificing for liberty really mean? 



THE WAR AND LIBRARY TRAINING* 
Et Fbank K. Waltee, Vice-Director, New Yorlc State Library School, Albany 



It is evident that the success of any kind 
of training must depend on the quality of 
the persons to be trained and on the pos- 
sibility of getting a sufficient number of 
candidates to permit the selection of 
enough who are well qualified for the work. 

Among the libraries which conduct traln- 

*Abridged from original paper. 



ing classes, by far the larger part have had 
the number of applicants greatly dimin- 
ished. In most cases the quality of the 
applicants seems lower than in previous 
years. The following comments from 
Baltimore, Buffalo, Milwaukee and St. 
Joseph, respectively, are typical: 

(1) "War conditions have absolutely 
demoralized the training of apprentices in 



WALTER 



99 



this library. Until last summer, we always 
had from a dozen to a score of young 
women in library work.,. At present we 
have only two or three persons in train- 
ing, have waived any high school require- 
ment and have half a dozen vacancies in 
the library staff with no prospect of filling 
them." (2) "There was a decided falling 
off of applicants for positions at the time 
of our last examination, and a falling off, 
we thought, in the quality of applicants as 
well. The usual small group of young men 
was altogether missing." (3) "Fewer 
applicants and less fit." (4) "The num- 
ber of applicants has been very few and 
the quality much below the average. I 
would say that one in four is a possibility." 

It is nevertheless reassuring to learn 
that a fair number of libraries have suffered 
little in respect to either number or qual- 
ity of applicants. These are not only the 
smaller libraries but the libraries of Birm- 
ingham, Chicago, Detroit, Grand Rapids, 
Indianapolis, Kansas City, Savannah and 
Utica. The reasons for this maintenance 
of number of applicants are not always in- 
dicated. Those given by Birmingham and 
Grand Rapids are interesting: 

Birmingham "has been affected not at all 
apparently, except recently. We used the 
argument for good jobs ahead in Wash- 
ington as inducement to get girls to en- 
ter apprentice classes." 

In Grand Rapids, "our experience is that 
so far as our library training class is con- 
cerned, the fact that a good many of our 
people have gone into the government serv- 
ice at Washington has widely advertised 
our library training and we are having 
more applicants than ever for this work. 
The people who are applying now are a 
little more mature and have a little better 
education than those who have come here- 
tofore." 

In Queens Borough the number has been 
reduced from sixteen to four, but the sit- 
uation has "improved the quality In one 
way, namely, that these apprentices really 
care for this particular work." 

Other cities, like Denver, have suffered 
chiefiy in the small number of applicants 
from whom to choose. 

The most general method used to coun- 
teract the loss of applicants for admission 
to training classes has been the raising of 
the salaries of those already on the staff. 
Increased publicity has been used by the 



public libraries of Buffalo, Youngstown 
and the District of Columbia and doubt- 
less by others. Public talks, letters to and 
interviews with high school students have 
been the means most generally employed. 
St. Joseph has lowered the minimum age 
for admission to its training class from 
twenty to eighteen. Brooklyn and Mil- 
waukee have modified their plans of train- 
ing. Omaha and Davenport have reestab- 
lished training classes or will establish 
them, and Rochester is about to begin one. 

In the library schools replying (which 
included those of the St. Louis Public Li- 
brary and the University of Washington 
and all members of the Association of 
American Library Schools) there was only 
a slight general decrease in the number of 
students in 1917-18 (though Atlanta re- 
ported a decided decrease in the number 
of candidates for examination). Most of 
the schools anticipate a marked decrease 
in numbers in 1918-19. The quality of the 
students was high, and in several cases a 
real improvement was noted. The most 
common, method used to counteract the ex- 
pected decrease in numbers has been in- 
creased advertising through magazines 
and talks before schools and colleges. 

In these days when fixed opinion on any 
subject is almost impossible, it is no sur- 
prise to find that in most of the libraries 
reporting there is a marked restlessness 
or an indifference toward library work on 
the part of training class students. The 
same reason is given in every recorded 
case: low salaries and the apparent hope- 
lessness of immediate substantial improve- 
ment. Where this spirit of restlessness is 
not the most marked characteristic, the 
training classes have shown increased ap- 
preciation of the possibilities of service in 
libraries. In several cases this is directly 
attributed to more public recognition of 
library service (including war service) or 
to the unconscious compliment paid libra- 
ries by the demand for library experience 
in filing and other forms of government 
work. 

Aside from some desire to leave conven- 
tional library service to enter war library 



100 



SARATOGA SPRING'S CONFERENCE 



service and an Inclination, noticed in sev- 
eral library schools, to enter departmental 
service with the national government (an 
inclination which se^ms to have reached 
its height in some other schools) there has 
not been much apparent change on the 
part of library students in their attitude 
toward their chosen work. Doubtless more 
of them are more restless and discon- 
tented with their prospective salaries but 
on the other hand, more of them, it ap- 
pears from the reports, have an increased 
respect for really good library service. 

Dissatisfaction with library service and 
scarcity of applicants naturally suggest re- 
adjustment in training methods. It is 
therefore a gratifying surprise to find that 
so few material changes in training class 
or library school courses have been found 
necessary as yet. In some instances 
changes have been made in the length of 
the course and in more insistence on 
clerical routine. Brooklyn and the Dis- 
trict of Columbia have planned special 
courses of varying length and purpose for 
the different needs of their libraries. Sev- 
eral libraries, among them Queens Bor- 
ough and Brooklyn, begin paying appren- 
tices for whole or part time much earlier 
than formerly. 

It Is noteworthy that the libraries whose 
heads have been in camp libraries rather 
generally suggest increased attention to 
instruction in war library activities. Rel- 
atively few are planning to train assist- 
ants for clerical government service, 
though this is suggested by Birmingham, 
Grand Rapids, Kansas City and Omaha. 
More attention to business library meth- 
ods and more instruction in the relation 
of the library to the social and industrial 
activities of its community is frequently 
suggested. In nearly every case there is 
a positive statement that the present 
standards of library training will not be 
lowered. This is often coupled with an 
expressed intention of definitely raising 
the standard. 

Like the training classes, the library 
schools have so far made no radical 
changes in their courses and apparently 



few are contemplated. Simmons College 
has had a brief summer course for base 
hospital workers and nearly all the schools 
are planning to give increased time and 
attention to the place of the library in war 
activities. Simmons College and Western 
Reserve report the introduction of a few 
lectures on governmental service and the 
Carnegie School of Pittsburgh also plans 
training in this direction. This has also 
been done at the New York State Library 
School and no doubt in other schools. 
There is general agreement on the advis- 
ability of adhering to training for library 
work and of not becoming pseudo-com- 
mercial schools either permanently or 
temporarily. This has not prevented a 
more general recognition of the claims of 
business and other special libraries and 
more time will be given to them in the 
future. In no case is there an expressed 
intention of lowering standards to attract 
students. On the contrary, in every di- 
rection there is recognition of the fact 
that future library demands will require 
library training standards higher than any 
that are maintained at present. 

The lack of change, actual and suggest- 
ed, is not stagnation. It is rather a dis- 
inclination to rush blindly into work which 
for the present at least, is likely to lead 
into professional blind alleys instead of 
into the high road. It is also a recogni- 
tion of the fact that some place must be 
left for common sense; that training 
courses, like legislation, cannot provide for 
every emergency but must lay foundations 
on which adaptations can be made. In 
other words, where there is failure to meet 
conditions, it is probably as likely to be 
due to mistakes in admitting unsuitable 
students as to indicate serious defects in 
their instruction. 

Some changes are inevitable in future 
library training. Definite prophecy is haz- 
ardous now, but probable reconstruction 
in training is foreshadowed in many of 
the replies on which this report is based, 
and to some extent, they have been sug- 
gested in it. Extension of training to all 
grades of library service seems not only 



WALTER 



101 



Inevitable but Immanent. It is not un- 
likely that this may mean not only instruc- 
tion in "extension centers" by an exten- 
sion staff of competent librarians, but 
even the establishment of correspondence 
work In centers too remote and with li- 
brary staffs too small to permit definite 
class work. The more or less distinct di- 
vision of library service into clerical and 
professional seems anticipated, at least In 
the larger libraries. 

None of these will be real innovations. 
Extension courses are already suggested 
by Miss Doren, of Dayton, and are under 
consideration by a very important educa- 
tional foundation. For years the library 
Institute has been doing extension work 
systematized and unsystematized. Corres- 
pondence work in library economy is al- 
ready conducted by the University of Chica- 
go and Is anticipated by the excellent "Ap- 
prentice course for small libraries" issued by 
the Library School of the University of Wis- 
consin. Brooklyn, the Public Library of 
the District of Columbia, and other libra- 
ries have already planned or are actually 
using in their training classes courses 
which distinguish between clerical and so- 
called professional service. The New 
York State Library has for years had 
through the state civil service commis- 
sion two grades of help: (1) the clerk and 
junior clerk grades, and (2) the library 
assistant grade with its analogous exami- 
nations for higher professional grades. The 
probable change will be to bring together 
Into a more or less harmonious plan the 
best of these experiments and to urge 
through the American Library Association 
and its affiliated sections and organiza- 
tions the acceptance of definite standards 
of service in libraries. This will not mean 
arbitrary uniformity. It will, on the con- 
trary, mean the establishment of a norm 
from which variation may be frequent and 
extensive. Nevertheless, association or 
combination for similar practice will be a 
great step In advance of our present con- 
dition which in many cases Is not associa- 
tion as much as aggregation or even con- 
glomeration. 



Whether this will lead quickly and sure- 
ly to definite certification of librarians and 
standardization of library service is not 
for me to prophesy. Even if it should, 
there is no positive cause for alarm. Li- 
brary autonomy is not necessarily endan- 
gered by central library control. The 
camp library service has not lessened the 
opportunities for war service by individual 
libraries, even though It has meant the 
adoption of much standardized practice 
and the subordination of many Individual 
schemes. 

This is not a problem for this section 
to solve alone. More and more the train- 
ing class must be strengthened to perform 
Its proper function; the library school 
course must be strengthened and become 
more and more distinctive in its broader, 
non-local service. In an increasing de- 
gree extension work must do its part in 
bringing professional instruction to every 
person in library service. 

But, beyond all this, there must be a de- 
mand from libraries for better service, and 
for greater recognition of better service. 
Ex'tenslon course, training class, and library 
school will be non-essential Industries un- 
less their products are put to use. Nor 
can their products be satisfactory unless 
the instruction is based on definitely rec- 
ognized needs clearly expressed in terms 
of positions in Individual libraries. There 
are no warehouses in which library train- 
ing agencies can store their products to 
be drawn on in small lots at uncertain 
periods, for their products are profession- 
ally perishable in storage. 

Too many libraries have paraphrased a 
well-known motto so that it might read: 
"The best assistants for the most libraries 
at the least cost." Of great significance 
and encouragement is the attempt of prac- 
tically every reporting library to raise the 
salaries of its staff members and even 
more cheering Is the success of many of 
these attempts. Perhaps most cheering of 
all are the admission that the largest sal- 
ary increases are still inadequate and the 
regret that such is the case. The library 
schools are encouraged to learn that their 



102 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



students have received considerably high- 
er average salaries than ever before. 

The time has passed when asceticism, 
particularly of the involuntary type, neces- 
sarily makes for holiness. The joy of 
•work is not lessened by ability to live de- 
cently and to provide oneself with a fair 
share of the things which make for higher 
enjoyment of life. Society approves the de- 
sire of the masses to live in better houses on 
better food and to have more time for recrea- 
tion. It is deemed patriotic to pay higher 
taxes and provide higher wages for more 
people in more subsidized industries. It 
is admitted necessary to raise huge sums 
of money for smileage books, Y. M. C. A. 
huts, camp libraries, and similar agencies 
to preserve the morale of our men who 
are fighting for freedom. We librarians 
are not necessarily unpatriotic if we de- 
mand at least enough to maintain the 
standard of living we need for reasonable 
comfort. It has been said that the old 
New England conscience was determined 
by two fears, the fear of God and the fear 
of the poorhouse. The first was respons- 
ible for much of the best in our national 
life but it may at least be questioned 
whether a smaller measure of the latter, 
some generations ago, would have been 
entirely without beneficial local results. 

Let us not deceive ourselves because of 
the generous recognition accorded our 
war service. Our home bases need im- 
provement. A letter from Portland, quot- 
ed by permission, is in point: 

"I think the discussion in your section 
should be the most important of the Con- 
ference and I say that with all due re- 
spect and enthusiasm for the war activi- 
ties, but libraries have reached the point 
where the salary question is a daily issue. 
We are, most of us, if not all of us, facing 
one of two alternatives; either we must 
retrench, cut off some of our activities, or 
we must content ourselves with poorly 
paid, which means poorly prepared and 
poorly educated, assistants. I've wondered 
for many years how much longer we might 
expect college bred, cultured men and 
women to give their lives for the love of 
the work alone. In Portland, and I fancy 
our experience is not unique, we no longer 
can hold our best people unless there are 



other ties to offset the salary. The war 
and the high cost of living are hastening 
the crisis. What is to be done about it? 
How can the taxpaying public be con- 
vinced that the library laborer is worthy 
of his hire? A conversation in my office 
the other day was illuminating. The pres- 
ident of one of the large ship-building 
plants had stopped in to consult with me 
as to which one of my meager staff he 
should ask to organize his new library. 
He remarked that he would give her $150 
this first month and after that if she were 
not worth $250 or so she would be worth 
nothing at all. He concluded his plea 
with, 'and Miss Isom, this demand of the 
business man for the trained librarian will 
have a tremendous influence upon library 
salaries.' The president of my board hap- 
pened to be present, and in a few words 
he outlined the extent of the library's ac- 
tivities and then said, 'and now Mr. B., 
would you as a large taxpayer be willing 
to vote for the amount needed to pay 
these librarians a proper wage?' And Mr. 
B. said hesitatingly, 'I don't know that I 
would.' There is the situation that we are 
confronting. We are more than ready to 
release our people for war service, to train 
them for government employment — train- 
ing them for business houses is another 
story." 

Sporadic action in widely separated li- 
braries will accomplish little. It is not 
library spirit but public feeling which 
needs education. Unless library assistant, 
librarian, library trustee and library asso- 
ciation from Maine to California and from 
Minnesota to Texas work together in de- 
manding substantial recognition of the 
value of library service, we shall accom- 
plish little. If presented properly as a 
general movement there need be nothing 
unprofessional in any phase of the de- 
mand. 

Pine words butter no parsnips and when 
even parsnips are beyond the reach of our 
purses and the fine words must be mostly 
self-infiicted or administered by sympa- 
thetic but equally impecunious colleagues, 
the paths to librarianship will not be badly 
crowded by high-grade, enthusiastic appli- 
cants. 

The conclusions which it seems reason- 
able to reach therefore, are these: (1) The 
libraries of the country need trained help 



PUTNAM 



103 



as never before and the need Is likely to 
increase; (2) existing agencies, whether 
school or training class, seem essentially 
sound in theory and to need adjustment 
rather than reconstruction; (3) these ad- 
justments can be fully effective only when 
the extension course, the training class, 
the library school, the librarians and the 
appointing officers of libraries work to- 



gether in essential harmony. (4) It will 
be useless to plan training without having 
someone to train and there will not be 
enough persons to train unless enough sal- 
ary can be offered to attract competent 
men and women from other lines which, 
to an outside observer, seem to give equal 
chances of service with more than an 
equal chance to live comfortably. 



THE LIBRARY WAR SERVICE* 
By Herbert Putnam, Librarian of Congress (General Director A. L. A. War Service) 



The library war service has been a 
dominant, if not the dominant, note in the 
program of this Conference; and a general 
word in behalf of the administration of it 
is only natural. 

In planning for the Conference we in 
charge of the work had to consider what 
was our duty to you here. As an Associa- 
tion you assumed the responsibility for 
this work; you secured the resources for 
it; and you are now to go before the pub- 
lic in another appeal. Can you go with 
confidence? Can you go with a clean con- 
science? 

Confidence implies understanding. A 
complete understanding of our operations 
we could not give you. We could not put 
you in touch with every phase of the work, 
with every relationship. We could not 
put you in our own places, vest you with 
our experiences. All that we could do 
was, so far as a written statement could, 
to submit a report to you, with some sta- 
tistics, and with an indication of the prob- 
lems and the manner of meeting them. 
We could provide an exhibit for you to 
see; and we could produce for you to see 
and hear, some of the men and women who 
have been most intimately engaged in the 
actual service. Those things we have at- 
tempted. 

We were certain that from these at- 
tempts you would gain a necessary assur- 
ance and some valuable impressions; that 



♦Stenographic report of extemporaneous 
address. 



you would feel that the work is well under 
way, and that it is already the sort of work 
that you meant to do; that you would be 
convinced, and feel confident of being able 
to convince the public, that it is the sort 
of work expected of you. 

And as to the methods: we hoped you 
would feel that they have sustained your 
repute as an Association. Especially that 
your repute has been safeguarded in cer- 
tain essentials: your repute for soundness 
of method, and for adaptability and flexi- 
bility in method; your ability to avoid 
dogmatism, and an excess of professional- 
ism; and your concern for frugality 
against the temptation to be inconsider- 
ately lavish. In bearing upon this last 
item it is no small matter. In any further 
appeal, that of the $800,000 you have ex- 
pended during the first eight months only 
$60,000 went in salaries. 

And as regards the actual administra- 
tion: we wished you to see, to hear, and to 
feel the spirit of the men and women who 
have been engaged in the actual contacts. 
I do not know the impression they made 
upon you. I think, though, that you have 
felt their competence for the task, includ- 
ing especially a freedom from the exces- 
sive professionalism to which I have re- 
ferred. And I trust you noted also a cer- 
tain freedom in another particular — that 
implied in their references to Headquar- 
ters. One of them referred to some essen- 
tial of his service as conceded reluctantly 
by Headquarters. I liked to have him get 



104 



SARATOGA SPRING'S CONFERENCE 



up and say that. It showed that he knew 
Headquarters would have no sensitiveness 
in the matter. He wouldn't have said it if 
he hadn't appreciated the cause of the 
reluctance: he knew the reluctance due to 
our difficulty in meeting his particular need 
while regarding our responsibility for the 
general policy. 

And I trust you felt a certain sportsman- 
like attitude on the part of these workers 
— Miss Titcomb, for instance. She thought 
Leavenworth a small affair. [Though if 
she had considered she must have known 
that we knew it was only a big opportunity 
that deserved Miss Titcomb.] But she 
said to herself: "This is a military estab- 
lishment: I go where I am sent." And she 
went; and she found it by no means a 
small opportunity. There is not such a 
thing in our service. 

You have felt, I think, that these men 
and women who have gone into this serv- 
ice have not merely a conviction, but a 
real exultation in it. That is a fine and 
assuring thing. Nothing has given me 
greater satisfaction than the evidence of it. 

I do not know your definition of a "gen- 
eral director." I suppose he is somebody 
who is "generally directing" as well as 
"directing generally." But my theory was 
that my prime duty was to gather to the 
service the men and women competent to 
conduct it. The process was, of course, a 
slow one; because the experience requisite 
must be an experience in the field, an ex- 
perience then still to be developed. And 
for the work at Headquarters the final 
competence must be a combination of ex- 
perience in the field with experience there. 

The organization that has resulted — that 
now exists — is a competent one; and I 
hope you feel so. 

As to the work accomplished we trust 
that you will think it sufficient to be as- 
suring; but our greater concern is that you 
should realize the problems still unsolved, 
the magnitude of the work ahead. 

In my own report I have tried to indi- 
cate them. They exist in every branch 
and phase of the establishment, the organ- 
ization, the service. New ones are created 



for us daily. And they are not problems 
that can be dealt with dogmatically. They 
require adaptation of our practice to actual 
conditions. It was a military establish- 
ment that we were entering and we were 
entering it at the invitation of the mili- 
tary authorities. Our subordination was 
to them; and it was only by satisfying 
them, by adjusting our practice to their 
requirements — even to their prejudices — 
that we could serve them acceptably, or 
even secure opportunity to serve them at 
all. Do not lose sight of that. 

Now we are going on with the work. 
You and we are partners in it. We do not 
want you to be "silent partners." We 
need your aid; but we want also your sug- 
gestion, your counsel, your criticism. The 
matter may be a wrong thing done which 
you wish to call to our attention; it may 
be a thing wrongly done; it may be a 
thing imperfectly done; it may be an op- 
portunity missed; or it may be yourself 
wishing an opportunity. In any case we 
shall assume that the inquiry or sugges- 
tion or criticism is solely for the purpose 
of aiding us. We shall assume this unless 
and until you convince us to the contrary. 

But it is only fair to ask you to recog- 
nize one or two distinctions, to take ac- 
count of one or two presumptions. They 
should affect your method or attitude in 
presenting the matter. A wrong thing 
done or a thing wrongly done press upon 
our attention as sharply as you like. But 
there is a difference between that and a 
thing imperfectly done, or an opportunity 
for the moment missed; because we may 
be as conscious of the defect or of the op- 
portunity as you are. It is probable that 
for every such defect or opportunity that 
you observe, we know of at least ten. I 
would therefore be a bit more tentative in 
calling our attention to mere defects, as if 
they were something of which we were 
ignorant. 

The matter may be an opportunity that 
you wish. The wish is perfectly legitimate, 
and you should by all means inform us of 
it. The spirit of war service is deeply 
personal with each of us. We want to give 



PUTNAM 



105 



expression to It. But the entire member- 
ship of the Association cannot find a per- 
sonal opportunity in this service to the sol- 
diers and sailors. That is clear. There 
must be a choice and we must make it. 
We are not infallible, and our choice is 
subject to limitations that we can't pub- 
lish. But test us by the competence of the 
people who are chosen, not by your im- 
pression of the people left out. Test it on 
the affirmative side, not on the negative. 
It is by the people we select, not by those 
we fail to select, that our administration 
must be judged. For nineteen years at 
Washington I have been insisting upon this 
distinction. Almost weekly I have been 
asked to prove why a given person should 
not be appointed to the Library of Con- 
gress. I have refused for two reasons. 
First, because it would be impossible to 
prove it to their satisfaction; and second 
because it was not my business: I would 
be responsible for any appointments made, 
but I would not undertake to explain why 
I failed to appoint someone else. 

There is a feature of this service which 
I had in mind when I referred to what I 
characterized as the sportsmanlike atti- 
tude of the men and women engaged in it. 
It is military service. That means, not 
that it requires a subordination strictly 
military, but that it is an emergency serv- 
ice requiring summary methods, summary 
decisions by a central authority. The cen- 
tral authority may not In judgment be per- 
fect. On any particular Its judgment may 
not be as sound as the judgment of some 
particular person among you. But the in- 
dividual judgments among you cannot be 
applied to the problem. And there is a 
point at which discussion and explanations 
must cease, and a decision made. At that 
point, if you still differ, we can only ask 
you to trust us. 



There is another incident of the service. 
It being in a sense military, we draw peo- 
ple into it summarily and may have to 
discontinue them summarily. Explana- 
tions are Impracticable. Thart is under- 
stood among our camp librarians. As they 
come to the call, so when they are "re- 
lieved" they accept the release without 
question. The relief Is no disparagement 
to them; It is not a discharge; It Is not a 
dismissal. That Is understood between 
them and us and in justice to them It 
should be understood generally. 

As to all such decisions we hope, I say, 
that you will have faith In us. But your 
faith in us rests largely upon our faith In 
you. We have It: in your sincerity of 
purpose, In your unity of spirit. 

Now you are to go before the public in 
a larger appeal. You can make It with 
confidence. And from what has been pro- 
duced here you can give substantial rea- 
sons for it. Last fall you started to pro- 
vide certain welfare work for an army of a 
million men; yesterday it was an army of 
two million men; in a few months It will 
be one of four million, and as many more 
as may be required. We began with the 
Idea that the work was to be on this side 
of the water. From Dr. Raney's address 
yesterday, you have gathered that the 
overwhelming duty of It may be overseas. 
As Mr. Orr has said of the Y. M. C. A., 
"the center of gravity of the work Itself 
may shift to the other side." The pros- 
pect creates a far larger opportunity for a 
prodigiously extended service. 

We must all join in the appeal; we must 
bend ourselves to it. We must go before 
the public with confidence in the merit of 
what has been done, but also with a single- 
ness of purpose and an honest unity of 
spirit. 



IOC 



gARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



THE WORK OF THE A. L. A. WAR SERVICE COMMITTEE* 
By J. I. Wyeb, Jb., Director, New York State Library (Chairman War Service Committee) 



Three documents just placed in your 
hands embody the printed report of the 
War Service Committee: The report prop- 
er, to which is added a statement from the 
general director; the report of its Sub- 
committee on Finance, which was In charge 
of the "Million dollar campaign"; and Li- 
brary War Bulletin No. 7, with supplement, 
emanating from the headquarters in Wash- 
ington. These are business documents, 
simple, direct, largely official records and 
papers. The design of the committee in 
submitting them is that they shall embody 
only the facts — matter for your current 
Information and for permanent record. No 
attempt is made in these documents to re- 
flect the spirit of the work, to recount its 
privileges, to review its opportunities, or 
to comment in other than a simple, direct, 
matter-of-fact way upon the work as it has 
developed through the year. 

The purpose of this early printing is to 
save the time of the Conference and to 
furnish opportunity for discussion, based 
upon an advance reading of the reports. 
It may be objected by some that a report, 
distributed at the door as you come into 
the meeting, furnishes but scant opportu- 
nity for advance perusal and for discus- 
sion, but this committee has been report- 
ing to the Association for a year. The 
printed sentences put into your hands this 
morning contain very little that is new to 
you. The information is crystallized here 
for convenience of reference, for consulta- 
tion. The reports that the committee has 
in effect been making are through our pro- 
fessional journals, through the bulletins 
from headquarters throughout the year, 
through the personal knowledge which all 
of us have from assisting in this work, and 
from the divers ways in which we have 
followed it throughout the year. Conse- 



•Stenographlc report of extemporaneous 
address. 



quently, we feel absolved from any delay 
in getting our report to you, because, as 
has just been indicated, the committee has 
been reporting constantly and very fully 
for many months. 

Again, this is not the usual committee 
report. A committee is usually looked to 
for research work, for extended investiga- 
tion that gathers new facts, that deliber- 
ates upon them, that lays certain conclu- 
sions before the parent body, conclusions 
which up to the time of the committee's 
report were perhaps unknown. Its report 
is usually looked to, then, as the defini- 
tive statement of new thought or enter- 
prise. You can see in a moment why this 
is not a customary report. It is not, in a 
sense, the report of the War Service Com- 
mittee at all. That committee takes no 
great credit to itself for results which may 
have followed from its initiative during 
the year. It is not the seven members of 
the War Service Committee that have done 
the hard work this year. It is you, and 
you, and hundreds and thousands that are 
not this morning within reach of my voice, 
that have made the report of the War Serv- 
ice Committee; that have done the work of 
the War Service Committee, of which the 
report is but the pale shadow. The War 
Service Committee has had, by far, the 
easier end of this work, the burden and 
heat of which has been upon its profes- 
sional colleagues throughout the entire^ 
country. I say work; it is but a short 
time since this work was but a dream. 
Had anyone said, even the most ardent 
member of the War Service Committee, 
at our Conference at Louisville a year ago, 
that within the next twelve months the 
American Library Association, which had 
never raised $10,000 in its life, would raise 
a million and three-quarters dollars, would 
gather together a library of books nearly 
(Continued on page 18t) 



WAR SERVICE COMMITTEE 



107 



AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION 

WAR SERVICE COMMITTEE 



To the President and Members of the Ameri- 
can Library Association: 

The Preliminary Committee. Soon after 
the entrance of the United States into the 
World War, American librarians became 
keenly concerned to know how they, their 
libraries and the professional association 
which represents them to the nation might 
best serve our country in the common cause. 
Sharing this belief that such a service was 
possible. President Walter L. Brown, in May, 
1917, appointed a committee "to assemble 
the various suggestions that have been made 
and to bring them before the Association 
with some sense of proportion, possibly with 
recommendations as to which might be most 
practical and most helpful to the Govern- 
ment." This preliminary committee com- 
prised : . Herbert Putnam, chairman ; A. E. 
Bostwick, R. R. Bowker, Gratia Countryman, 
M. S. Dudgeon, Alice S. Tyler, J. I. Wyer, 
Jr. Its report (Proc. Louisville Conference, 
pp. 315-25, and separately printed with the 
title Our Libraries and the War), presented 
June 22, 1917, was accepted and its following 
recommendations adopted. 

The recommendations of your committee 
are these: 

1. That a War Committee be appointed to 
continue the investigation of this subject in 
its various phases, and under general direc- 
tion of the Executive Board, to represent the 
Association in the various relations which it 
involves. 

2. That as such a committee should take 
benefit of the discussions of this conference, 
it be appointed immediately, by the present 
executive, instead of by the next incoming 
Board. 

3. That for convenience and efficiency in 
the executive part of its duties its member- 
ship be limited to seven; but that it have 



power to create a larger committee, advisory 
and auxiliary to itself, also sub-committees 
from within or without its membership. 

4. That for its guidance and that of the 
incoming Board upon one important pros- 
pective activity, there be discussion by the 
association as to the participation of libraries 
and of the association in the supply of read- 
ing matter to the troops, and such an 
expression as shall enable the committee to 
speak authoritatively for the association in 
any appeal that it issues, or undertaking 
that it enters into. 

5. As a basis for such a discusson and 
expression we recommend consideration of 
the following resolution: 

(a) That the American Library Associa- 
tion welcomes the information reported as 
to the aims of various agencies in the sup- 
ply of reading matter to the troops; and 
that it will gladly aid to develop and espe- 
cially to coordinate the service proposed by 
them; assisting as an association and 
through libraries individually in the prep- 
aration of lists and in the collection, scrutiny 
and organization of material. 

(b) That it assumes that the efforts of the 
several agencies may by conference be so 
differentiated as to avoid both confusing 
competition and unnecessary duplication. It 
assumes also that consistently with their 
organization and aims in other respects, they 
will especially welcome such a cooperation 
on the part of the Association as shall in- 
sure skilled service in the actual administra- 
tion of the collections, without which, in the 
judgment of the association, full advantage 
cannot be taken of the opportunity. 

6. If, in addition to various measures of 
cooperation with other agencies concerned in 
the supply of reading matter to the troops, 



108 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



there shall appear to the A. L. A. War Com- 
mittee a prospect of funds for the erection, 
equipment ajid maintenance, under the aus- 
pices of the association, of distinct library 
buildings with suitable collections and expert 
service in each of the sixteen main canton- 
ments, the committee is especially authorized 
to represent the association in soliciting the 
necessary funds, material and service, in all 
measures of organization, and in the actual 
administration of the libraries themselves. 

The War Service Committee. Pursuant to 
these recommendations President Brown at 
once named the War Service Committee with 
the following personnel: J. I. Wyer, Jr., 
chairman; E. H. Anderson, A. E. Bostwick, 
Gratia Countryman, M. S. Dudgeon, F. P. 
Hill, Alice S. Tyler. 

This committee finds its initial status and 
authority in the six recommendations recited 
above. An ampler authority was later con- 
ferred by the Federal Government in a letter 
from the chairman of the Commission on 
Training Camp Activities and in certain reso- 
lutions enacted by the Executive Board of 
the A. L. A. on August 14, 1917. These 
documents follow: 

WAR DEPARTMENT 

Commission on Training Camp Activities 

Appointed by the President of the United 
States, 

Raymond B. Fosdick, Chairman, 

Lee F. Hanmeb, 

Thomas J. Howells, 

Joseph Lee, 

Malcolm L. McBride, 

John R. Mott, 

Charles P. Neill, 

Major P. E. Pieece, U. S. A. 

June 28, 1917. 
Doctor Herbert Putnam, 

Congressional Library, Washington, D. C. 
My dear Dr. Putnam: 

At a meeting of the Commission on Train- 
ing Camp Activities held this morning, it 
was unanimously voted to ask the American 
Library Association to assimie responsibility 
for providing adequate library facilities in 
the thirty-two cantonments and National 
Guard training camps which are expected to 
open on or about September first. Because 
your organization can call to its service the 



trained abilities of all the librarians of the 
United States, it seems natural to ask you to 
administer this problem for the Government. 
We approach you with more assurance of 
your attitude perhaps, than we would other- 
wise be justified in feeling, because of your 
evident willingness to undertake this task, 
as expressed in the resolutions adopted by 
your organization in Louisville last week. 

Briefly, we have in mind the erection in 
each camp of a suitably equipped central 
library which will be under your management 
and direction. The funds for the erection 
and equipment of these buildings will have 
to be provided from private sources, and I 
trust that your organization will be suc- 
cessful in obtaining ample financial support. 
The Y. M. C. a. buildings located in the 
camps will be glad to act as your distributing 
agencies if, on account of the size of the 
camp, it becomes necessary to decentralize 
your circulation plant. The Commission will 
undertake the responsibility of seeing that 
these buildings are heated and lighted, and 
will find funds, if necessary, to provide for 
the transportation of books and magazines. 
It is possible, too, that we may be able to 
provide for the traveling and living expenses 
of such of your associates as may be detailed 
to work in the camps; however, this is a 
question which will have to be further con- 
sidered. 

The activity of your organization along 
this line will receive the full support and co- 
operation of this Commission, and I am au- 
thorized to express our sincere appreciation 
of your willingness to undertake this very 
important task. 

Very sincerely yours, 
(Signed) Raymond B. Fosdick, 

Chairman. 

AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION 

A meeting of the Executive Board of the 
American Library Association was held at 
the Public Library, Washington, D. C, Au- 
gust 14, 1917. 

Present: President Montgomery (presid- 
ing). Misses Rathbone and Doren, and Mr. 
Dudgeon and Miss Eastman, through proxy 
held by Mr. C. H. Milam. 

Dr. Frank P. Hill, chairman of the War 
Finance Committee, appeared before the 
Board and called attention to the limitations 
of power given to the War Service Committee 
in the resolutions adopted by the Association 
at Louisville, June 22, 1917. 

The following resolutions were unanimously 
adopted : 

( 1 ) Resolved, That the War Service Com- 
mittee appointed at the Louisville Confer- 



WAR SERVICE COMMITTEE 



109 



ence be authorized to proceed with the work 
of providing books for soldiers and sailors 
at all camps in this country and abroad, 
and to engage in such other activities as are 
manifestly related to Library War Service. 

(2) Resolved, That the War Service Com- 
mittee be authorized, through its War Fi- 
nance Committee, to solicit funds in the 
name of the American Library Association 
for the purpose stated in resolution No. 1. 

(3) Resolved, That the general War Ser- 
vice Committee, through its War Finance 
Committee, be authorized to use such funds 
for books, salaries and such other expenses 
as may be necessary to carry on its work. 

(4) Resolved, (a) That the general War 
Service Committee be authorized to disburse 
money through the War Finance Committee 
on the approval of the chairman of the War 
Finance Committee and of one other member 
of the Camp Libraries Committee. 

(b) That all bills incurred by the General 
Committee or by any sub-committee must 
bear the signatures of the Chairman of the 
War Finance Committee and one other mem- 
ber of the Camp Libraries Committee before 
payment, and no bill shall be paid without 
such signatures. 

(c) That the Campaign Fund, which shall 
be kept separate from the War Service Fund, 
shall be expended under the authorization 
of the War Finance Committee. 

(5) Resolved, That the American Security 
and Trust Company of Washington, D. C, 
be appointed as depository of the War Ser- 
vice Fund, and the People's Trust Company 
of Brooklyn, New York, be appointed as de- 
pository of the Campaign Fund, and that 
the American Security and Trust Company 
be appointed as treasurer of the War Service 
Fund to draw checks. 

(6) Resolved, That the said American Se- 
curity and Trust Company be authorized to 
disburse money in payment of vouchers only 
when bearing the approval of the chairman 
of the War Finance Committee and one other 
member of the Camp Libraries Committee. 

Attest : 



Geoege B. 



Utley, 
Secretary. 



Changes in Committee Personnel. Miss 
Tyler was unable to serve and Electra C. 
Doren was at once named in her stead by 
President Brown. Later in the year Mr. 
Bostwick and Mr, Dudgeon resigned, the 
former because of inability to attend meet- 
ings and absence on the Pacific coast for a 
considerable part of the winter, and the lat- 
ter, when in October, 1917, he became more 



closely associated with the executive work 
of the committee as Manager of Camp Li- 
braries. President Montgomery named for 
these vacancies W. H. Brett and Charles 
Belden. On August 28, 1917, the committee 
designated George B. Utley, Secretary of the 
A. L. A., as its Executive Secretary. 

Meetings. The committee organized on the 
day of its appointment. It has held thirteen 
meetings during the year, four in Louisville, 
three in Washington, five in New York City 
and one at Camp Sherman, Chillicothe, Ohio. 
The minutes of these meetings appear as 
Appendix A to this report. There have been 
present by invitation at many of these meet- 
ings President Montgomery and Messrs. 
Bowker and Putnam, members of the pre- 
liminary committee, the latter for most of 
the year General Director of the Committee's 
Library Service in the Camps. 

Sub-committees. The following sub-com- 
mittees were early formed. Their titles 
fairly represent the nature and scope of the 
work as originally conceived. Notes defin- 
ing the work of the committee have been 
added in some cases. 

Finance. Mr. Hill, chairman. 

Publicity. Mr. Bostwick, chairman. 

Camp Libraries. Mr. Anderson, chairman. 

(later Mr. Dudgeon.) 
State Agencies. Mr. Dudgeon, chairman. 
Local Agencies. Miss Countryman, chair- 
man. 

The last two committees will assemble in- 
formation as to all war work done by Ameri- 
can libraries, whether under State, municipal 
or other auspices, with the object of corre- 
lating all agencies most effectively and pre- 
venting competition and duplication. 

They will also organize through State and 
local library agencies, the collection and sort- 
ing of books and periodicals and will arrange 
for the assignment and shipment of such 
material to the points where it shall be most 
needed. 

Food Information, Claribel R. Barnett, 
chairman. 

This Committee is to make available to all 
libraries such publications of the Federal 
Government and the several States as shall 
be of use in the present campaign for food 
conservation and preservation. It is ex- 
pected that each library will act as a dis- 
tributing center for such publications in its 
community and will work actively with gov- 



110 



SARA.TOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



ernmental agencies for demonstration and 
instruction. 

Library War Manual, G. F. Bowebman, 
chairman. 

The Library War Manual will make avail- 
able to libraries from time to time all oppor- 
tunities for individual or institutional ser- 
vice. So far as possible, detailed directions 
for work, descriptions as to its conduct at 
other libraries, with names and addresses of 
cooperating agencies will be given. 

Federal Publications, H. H. B. Meyeb, chair- 
man. 

This committee will use every effort to 
inform libraries as to useful publications 
(other than agricultural) of the Federal 
Government and will endeavor to secure their 
free distribution to libraries in quantities 
suflScient to supply all needs. 

Transportation, R. H. Johnston, chairman. 

To procure the best possible railroad rates 
on library material destined for army and 
naval camps and to arrange the best routing 
for books sent to the cantonments and Na- 
tional Guard camps. 

Selection of Books, Benjamin Adams, chair- 
man. 

This committee compiled and printed a 
list of 5,000 titles of fiction and non-fiction 
to be used as a basis for the choice of books 
for camp libraries. 

Library War Week, Cabl H. Milam, chair- 
man. 
To emphasize by a national publicity cam- 
paign among libraries, but more especially 
with the general public, the opportunities 
and channels for war service by libraries. 
This committee distributed two bulletins 
which did much to waken interest in Library 
War Week and in the first book campaign. 
Every one of its five members has been ac- 
tively connected with Washington Head- 
quarters since the work was centralized 
there in October. 



When Herbert Putnam became General 
Director in October, 1917, and Camp Library 
service in all its phases was consolidated at 
the Library of Congress all of the above 
sub-committees were discharged except those 
on Food Information and Finance. The lat- 
ter went out of existence when the financial 
campaign was ended and its accounts audited 
and transferred to the Treasurer of the 



A. L. A. in January, 1918, but was revived 
imder the same chairman Jxme 8, 1918. 

Visits to Camps by the Committee. The 
following list of visits, made chiefly to the 
larger camps, by members of the War Service 
Committee will serve to show their active 
participation in its major work. All but 
four of the thirty-seven camps having sep- 
arate buildings have been visited by a mem- 
ber of the committee and these four by the 
General Director. 

The Chairman spent the month of March 
in a round of visits made by authority of 
the committee and at the invitation of the 
General Director, .while Mr. Hill's trip of 
equal length was made at the request of the 
Chairman. In both journeys individual re- 
ports on each camp visited were sent to 
Washington and a comprehensive general re- 
port was submitted to the committee and 
the General Director. 

The resulting first-hand knowledge of 
camp conditions is deemed of the utmost 
importance and has proved of the highest 
value to every member. 

Mr. Anderson — Devens, Sherman, Upton. 

Mr. Belden — Devens. 

Mr. Brett — Custer, Devens, Grant, New- 
port News, Sherman, Taylor. 

Miss Countryman — Grant, Snelling. 

Miss Doren — Devens, Sherman, Upton, 
Wilbur Wright. 

Mr. Dudgeon — Custer, Devens, Dodge, 
Funston, Grant, Great Lakes, Meade, Sher- 
man, Taylor, Upton. 

Mr. Hill — Devens, Gordon, Greene, Han- 
cock, Jackson, Johnston, McClellan, Merritt, 
Mills, Sevier, Shelby, Sheridan, Sherman, 
Wheeler. 

Mr. Wyer — Beauregard, Bowie, Devens, 
Dix, Ellington Field, Ethan Allen, Fimston, 
Gordon, Great Lakes, Lee, Logan, McArthur, 
Meade, Oglethorpe, Pike, Plattsburgh, Sevier, 
Sherman, Travis, Upton, Wadsworth. 

Mr. Putnam — Cody, Devens, Dix, Fre- 
mont, Gordon, Great Lakes, Greene, Hancock, 
Jackson, Johnston, Kearny, Kelly Field, Lee, 
Lewis, Meade, Merritt, Mills, Oglethorpe, 
Pike, Sheridan, Sherman, Travis, Upton, 
Wheeler. 



WAR SERVICE COMMITTEE 



111 



Early Work. The acceptance of the invi- 
tation from the Commission on Training 
Camp Activities not only placed the War 
Service Committee in direct official relation 
to the Government through the War De- 
partment but it at once gave substance and 
definiteness to the major item on the pro- 
gram presented by the Preliminary Com- 
mittee. 

There is a very considerable program of 
War Service possible for every library in the 
country, a program surprising and impressive 
in its variety and extent. Certain items of 
this program were touched upon in the re- 
port of the Preliminary Committee. They 
have been most admirably stated with more 
particularity in Ifew York Libraries for May, 
1918. Among them all, however, the out- 
standing item, arresting, picturesque, tangi- 
ble, readily visualized, is direct service of 
reading matter to the troops. 

This service it was which Mr. Fosdick's 
letter made official, specific, insistent. Two 
things were at once apparent that money 
(and a great deal of money when measured 
by A. L. A. resources and experience) was 
the sine qua non and that speed was almost 
as important. It was July. The sixteen 
great camps, a number almost at once 
doubled and now more than forty, were to 
open in September. Application to the great 
philanthropic foundations brought an en- 
couraging hearing and good advice but no 
immediate funds. No popular appeal could 
succeed in midsummer. There remained but 
to plan and carry out a nation-wide appeal 
for funds at the earliest possible date, and 
in the meantime to do as much as might 
be, through the libraries of the country, 
through volunteer personal help and with 
the scanty thousands in cash that were 
available from our own membership (a 
veritable salvation this Dollar-a-month fund 
— worth in timeliness manyfold its face 
value in dollars) to further book service in 
the camps through other welfare agencies 
which should be earlier on the grounds. 

The " Million -dollar drive " under the Sub- 
committee on Finance is now successful and 
inspiring history. All librarians know some- 



thing of it, and many librarians had a part 
in its success. The official narrative of it 
appears in a separate pamphlet (in effect a 
part of the present report and like it pre- 
sented in print to the Saratoga Conference) 
and will not be repeated here. 

And so, working through sub-committees, 
with almost no money, but with large faith 
and a lively hope, much was accomplished 
in July, August and September, in 

(a) Perfecting plans for library buildings 
and equipment. 

(b) Conference and correspondence with 
publishers resulting in an understanding as 
to discounts. 

(c) The preparation and printing of a 
selected list of titles for camp libraries. 

(d) Organizing the first book campaign 
which resulted in the collection and shipment 
to camps of many thousand books often far 
ahead of the arrival of the librarian or any 
A. L. A. representative. These books were 
usually turned over to the Y. M. C. A., which 
in many instances was unaware that any 
other organization was responsible for their 
collection and shipment. These early ship- 
ments were often the only books available in 
" Y " huts for many weeks. 

(e) The establishing of collection and sort- 
ing stations in a dozen or more populous 
centers, notably in Chicago and New York. 

(f) Inauguration of a personnel roster. 

(g) Sending a few volunteer librarians to 
camps, who were housed in Y. M. C. A. build- 
ings or other quarters until library buildings 
were erected. 

Much of this early work, especially the 
collection of books, was of necessity sus- 
pended during September when the thought 
and energies of all librarians were given to 
the money campaign. All in all the later 
work owes much to the zeal and efforts of 
sub-committees (especially those on State 
and local agencies. Library War Manual, 
Transportation, and Selection of Books) and 
individuals who carried the work in those 
lean and strenuous days of unorganized 
beginnings. 

By October 1, with funds in hand, it be- 
came possible to combine all parts of the 
work in a single office, imder a skilled exec- 
utive, with a paid office staff, and to pro- 
ceed with the multitude of projects which 
could not be advanced without money and a 
single policy. Of the nine months since that 



112 



SAKATOGA SPRINGS CONFEEENCE 



date the General Director will speak in a 
statement which is found on pages 13-28. 
In the committee's minutes for its meetings 
of October 3 and 18 occur the actions and 
conditions which effected the transfer of the 
necessary funds and authority to Mr. Putnam. 
Other Work. Two or three lines of work 
which have seemed to some or all of the 
committee to be of distinct promise and 
importance have either been dropped or sup- 
ported with less zeal and money than would 
have been the case had the committee felt 
free to use its funds for anything except 
" Books for Soldiers." 

Library Wa/r Service Week 
A vigorous and resourceful sub-oommittee, 
adopted at Louisville, desired to impress 
upon the libraries and people of the country 
in a spectacular and intensive Library War 
Service Week, the many opportimites which 
present conditions offer to American libraries 
for social and patriotic service. The project 
was a tempting one, but it seemed wise and 
necessary to limit the money campaign of 
September, 1917, to the one object, and this 
left the War Service Committee without the 
funds needed for such a publicity campaign. 
The two book campaigns (especially the sec- 
ond) and the money drive have undoubtedly 
achieved for libraries very much of the pub- 
licity sought in Library War Service Week, 
and the committee notes with pleasure that 
every member of the sub-committee has en- 
listed for service at Headquarters and has 
there foimd abundant outlet for his ardor 
and ideas. 

Libraries and the Food Campaign 
The aim of the Food Information Sub- 
committee has been (1) to help stimulate 
interest in the National Food Campaign; 
(2) to aid libraries in selecting and obtain- 
ing authoritative publications bearing upon 
the production, conservation and preparation 
of food, especially the publications of State 
and Government agencies; (3) to help in 
bringing about greater co-operation between 
public libraries and the National and State 
organizations engaged in agricultural exten- 
sion and the National food campaign. 



The committee sent out a special appeal 
last August to all libraries, with suggestions 
as to ways of cooperating in the work. It 
has prepared selected lists of books and 
pamphlets on various phases of agricultural 
production and conservation and preparation 
of food which, in accordance with a coopera- 
tive arrangement with the Library Section of 
the Food Administration, have been either 
printed in " Food News Notes " or distributed 
in multigraphed form by the Food Adminis- 
tration. The committee has also endeavored 
to interest Government and State agencies 
in increasing the distribution of their publi- 
cations on these subjects to public libraries. 
At the suggestion of the committee, the De- 
partment of Agriculture is now publishing a 
series of Library Leaflets designed especially 
for distribution through libraries and calling 
attention to Department and other publica- 
tions on subjects of special interest in the 
present food emergency. 

The Committee is as follows: Chairman, 
Claribel R. Barnett, U. S. Department of 
Agriculture; George A. Deveneau, College of 
Agriculture, University of Illinois, Urbana; 
Cornelia Marvin, State Library, Salem, Ore- 
gon; Joseph L. Wheeler, Public Library, 
Youngstown, O. 

In this field, too, indubitably alluring and 
useful, the War Service Committee found it- 
self without available funds beyond the few 
hundred dollars collected from the dollar-a- 
month subscriptions. 

The next appeal for funds (see Appendix 
A, minutes of meeting on Jime 8, 1918) 
must be broad enough to embrace useful War 
Library work of any sort. 

Reconstruction 

Reconstruction work for crippled and dis- 
abled soldiers is already taking form in our 
own country as well as in Canada and in the 
European countries. In this great humani- 
tarian impulse and in the solution of a para- 
mount social and economic problem definite 
opportunity is offered for library service: 

First, in supporting the efforts of organized 
agencies and workers in occupational therapy 
and vocational rehabilitation by supplying to 
them books and special librarians. 



WAK SERVICE COMMITTEE 



113 



Second, by offering suitable liorary training 
and the opportunity in our libraries for the 
disabled soldier to carry on such lines of 
clerical and technical library work as his 
education and his ability permit. 

A special study of this field and its possi- 
bilities should be begun at once. Such sur- 
veys and experiments as the Red Cross Insti- 
tute is now conducting for industrial cripples 
are in a high degree suggestive of the charac- 
ter of the study which should be undertaken 
in our own profession. Provision for investi- 
gation and initial experiment, doubtless at 
this stage, falls within the scope of Library 
War Service. The full cooperation of all 
library trustees, librarians and the American 
Association of Library Schools must enter 
into the successful prosecution of such a re- 
construction project. 

Audit. Acting at the request of and under 
instructions from the A. L. A. Finance Com- 
mittee, Marwick, Mitchell, Peat & Co. char- 
tered accountants, made an audit of the re- 
ceipts and disbursements of the Library War 
Fund from its inception to May 31, 1918. 
Their report, dated June 11, 1918 (a copy of 
which has been filed with the chairman of 
the War Service Committee), finds in the 
minutes of the meetings full and regular au- 
thority for all grants made and all fiscal acts 
done. It also reports properly signed vouch- 
ers and canceled checks in support of all pay- 
ments and balances and assets as shown in 
the financial statement appearing as Appen- 
dix B to the present report. 

Acknowledgments. It is impossible to cite 
all individuals or institutions to which the 
War Service Committee and its work rest 
imder heavy debt. There are some names, 
however, which suggest such service as amply 
to warrant an expression of particular grati- 
tude. The first such is Herbert Putnam. It 
is neither invidious, nor can it be news to 
any having more than a casual knowledge 
of our work, that the Committee's chief obli- 
gation is to the Librarian of Congress, who 
not only promptly made available the person- 
nel and facilities of the National Library for 
this National service but who has given un- 
sparingly of his own time, his strength and 



his splendid talents to its organization and 
conduct. The work today is more his than 
ours and its success adds another item to 
the long list of benefits for which American 
libraries have to thank the Library, and the 
Librarian, of Congress. 

The Committee's thanks are due to Edward 
L. Tilton for indispensable professional ser- 
vices in the planning and locating of camp 
library buildings, to those fourteen libraries 
and seven individuals (notably to the Rocke- 
feller Foundation) a veritable honor-roll, who 
lent $45,000 to make possible its campaign 
for funds, to the anonymous donor of $10,000 
for a building at the Great Lakes Naval 
Training Station, to John Foster Carr for 
signal service in the New York City book 
campaign, to the Carnegie Corporation, and 
especially to its secretary and treasurer, for 
quick interest in our plans and for a sub- 
stantial grant in aid of their furtherance, to 
the trustees, librarian and staff of the New 
York Public Library and the Public Library 
of the District of Columbia for notable hos- 
pitality and help, to the Y. M. C. A. and 
many of its major and minor oflScials for 
courtesies and cooperation especially during 
the poor and early days of our work, to the 
Special Libraries Association and its late 
president for hard work and cordial offer of 
cooperation, and to the library commissions 
of the country for leadership and responsi- 
bility in local organization and effort. 

Having acknowledged (but assuredly with- 
out canceling) these outstanding and major 
obligations to a few, there must follow in- 
stantly a not less fervent and hearty ac- 
knowledgment to the many. Neither individ- 
ually nor collectively have the seven members 
of the War Service Committee any undue 
pride of achievement. It is certain that the 
General Director has not. It is neither Gen- 
eral Director, Committee nor indeed the 
American Library Association, whose crea- 
tion the Committee is, that has brought this 
work to such measure of success as it may 
have reached. If to the membership roll of 
the Association there should today suddenly 
be added the names of those libraries and 
librarians (never before members) who have 



114 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



helped in Library War Service, its length 
would be more than doubled. It is the libra- 
ries and librarians of this country who are 
doing this work. Not one too small, remote 
or feeble to have part in it if the spirit is 
willing. But for the zeal and hard work of 
thousands of libraries (hundreds of them 
heretofore undiscovered even by the A. L. A.) 
who found a million and three-quarters in 
money and four millions of books, who have 
made libraries centers for all sorts of local 
war work, who have aided Liberty Loan, 
Food Administration, and Red Cross, but for 



these thousands our war service never could 
have started nor could it continue for a single 
week. To them, and as the poorest of their 
compensations, this Committee extends its 
thanks. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. I. Wyeb, Jb., Chairman. 
Edwin H. Andebson. 
Charles Belden. 
William H. Brett. 
Gratia Countryman. 
Electra C. Doren. 
Frank P. Hill. 



WAK SERVICE COMMITTEE 



115 



A. L. A. WAR SERVICE 



Statement by General Director as to Operations 
October 4, 1917— June 30, 1918 



The initial organization of our War Service 
and the administration of it until October 4, 
1917, are covered by the report of the War 
Service Committee; the campaign of last 
autumn, which provided the financial re- 
sources, by the report of the Chairman of 
the War Finance Committee. My own report 
would naturally comprehend the actual op- 
erations since I took charge of them as Gen- 
eral Director. Their progress has, however, 
been communicated to you so fully in the 
various bulletins which have been issued 
from Headquarters, beginning with Bulletin 4 
of January last, that it would be unwar- 
rantable to review them in detail now. What 
especially concerns you now is (A) the ex- 
isting status and (B) the prospective prob- 
lem: especially, as involved in this, the im- 
perfections still to be remedied, as well as 
the amplifications of the service necessary 
to meet the ever enlarging opportunity. 

A. The existing status is exhibited in Bul- 
letin 7 distributed at the Conference. It is 
reported in this independent form as more 
convenient for other uses. It includes 

1. A summary of the existing physical es- 
tablishment — the " plant." 

2. A summary of the existing resources in 
books — including those available as well as 
those actually in service. 

3. The present organization and personnel. 

4. A complete list of participants in the 
formal organized service from the beginning. 

5. A financial statement, complete to 
June 1, 1918, at which date the accounts of 
the disbursing officer were audited, supple- 
mented by a memorandum of (estimated) 
receipts and expenditures for the month of 
June. 



THE PHYSICAL ESTABLISHMENT 

Includes, as will be seen, 36 standard li- 
brary buildings in as many of the major 
camps, with one other (at Camp Mills) in 
process. 

It includes also a similar building at New- 
port News which serves a group of neighbor- 
ing camps, but also as an Overseas Dispatch 
Office. 

It includes also certain smaller structures 
of special type for special local uses, of which 
others also are in process — in some cases 
portable buildings, costing from $1,000 to 
$3,000 each. 

But it includes also certain buildings not 
owned by us but placed at our disposal — as 
The House that Jack Built, at Newport, R. I., 
and the Chapel of the Base Hospital at Camp 
Devens. And space assigned to our collection 
and service in Camp Merritt, N. J., Camp 
Humphries, Va., and in hundreds of Hospital, 
Red Cross, Y. M. C. A., and other welfare 
buildings. 

It includes space so assigned for our Dis- 
patch Work in the basements of the New 
York Public Library and of the Widener Li- 
brary at Harvard; and a loft lent to us for 
Dispatch Work at 31 West 15th Street, New 
York City. Our Dispatch Offices at Hoboken 
and Brooklyn are in rented quarters which 
cost moderately. 

And the General Headquarters has through- 
out been provided by the Library of 
Congress. 

A complete census of our physical estab- 
lishment would, however, justly include the 
space assigned to the receipt, preparation and 
dispatch of gift material in thousands of 
local libraries which from the outset have 



116 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



dedicated such to our service. As justly also, 
the list of the participants in our service 
should include the names of those librarians 
and the members of their staffs who have 
heartily and zealously assisted them. 

The Camp Buildings: Dimension. The 
architect's plans provided for a building 120 
feet in length but with the alternatives of 
reducing this to 93 feet by the omission of 
two of the bays or to 67 feet by the omission 
of four of them. These alternatives took 
account of the stipulation in the Carnegie 
Grant that no individual building with its 
equipment should cost over $10,000. Esti- 
mates secured independently by the archi- 
tect and the Office of Cantonment Construc- 
tion indicated $6,700 as a probable cost of 
the 120 foot building. The contracts for the 
16 Cantonments, which alone the Committee 
decided on at the outset, were all therefore 
placed for buildings of the full length. But 
conditions soon developed that raised doubts 
as to the estimates: certain contractors de- 
manded a higher commission than the 6 per 
cent, specified; others required authority to 
purchase materials locally instead of from 
the mills; and in numerous camps wages had 
advanced exorbitantly. These circumstances, 
coupled with freight congestion and weather 
conditions that enforced much idleness of 
labor while carried on the rolls, caused us 
serious uneasiness lest we exceed the limit 
with which it was our first duty to comply. 
A revised estimate was sought. It raised the 
probable cost of the building alone to nearly 
$9,000. 

The only prudent course at the time legally 
open was to cut down the length as the plans 
had provided, wherever the state of construc- 
tion permitted this course to be taken. It 
did so in the case of only four of the Can- 
tonment buildings — Custer, Devens, Lee and 
Jackson. But it could be, and was, taken in 
the case of all the National Guard Camps, as 
the buildings for these had been postponed 
in the doubt of their even relative perma- 
nence. Of the four thus reduced, Devens has 
since been reimbursed by an extension which 
provides the equivalent of the two omitted 
bays in a much more effective form. 



At one camp — Lewis — there has even 
been such an extension to the 120 foot build- 
ing. It was possible there within the $10,000 
limit. At Camp Lee, on the other hand, the 
93 foot building alone cost to the limit. So 
variant have been the conditions of construc- 
tion — a variance, it may be noted, experi- 
enced by the Government itself in its own 
operations. 

In the south generally, however, the 93 
foot buildings have come well within the 
limit, so that the aggregate saving upon them 
will suffice to cover at least the additional 
buildings at Johnston, Chickamauga and 
Kelly Field, if, as has been assumed, the 
Carnegie Corporation interposes no objection 
to the application of it to these. 

These three camps, with Camp Mills, just 
revived, and Charleston fast enlarging in im- 
portance, are but illustrative of major needs 
that have developed since the original project 
was framed and submitted. But besides 
them there are pressed upon our attention 
smaller posts which can make out a good 
case for some sort of a building — if not 
for reading uses, at least as a headquarters 
and distributing center. Jefferson Barracks 
is such a one. Mare Island another. There 
will be numerous others — posts where the 
service we would render cannot adequately be 
provided through the Y. M. C. A. or other 
welfare agencies or the Army or Navy Chap- 
lains. Portable buildings in varying sizes 
costing from $1,000 to $3,000 — or even 
$4,000 — may reasonably answer. They can 
be provided only from the General Fund; 
and provision for them, and for the service 
incidental to them, will be one of the needs 
to be emphasized in connection with the next 
Financial Campaign. 

That, and the prospective needs overseas, 
which will only temporarily be cared for by 
the quarters just now lent to us. 



Camp Buildings: Equipment. The Can- 
tonment buildings (except Lewis) have shelv- 
ing tables and desks supplied by the Library 
Bureau and Windsor Chairs supplied by the 
Wakefield Company. The other buildings 
(except Sheridan, to which the equipment for 



WAR SERVICE COMMITTEE 



117 



Lewis was diverted, and Great Lakes, which 
received the Library Bureau eqmpment) 
have shelving and delivery desks constructed 
by the contractor, and tables and common 
side chairs secured from local concerns. The 
reason for the distinction was not mere econ- 
omy; it was the inevitable delay for manu- 
facture, and of long distance shipment during 
the freight congestion. Some of the cheaper 
stock secured in the South — tables and 
chairs — has behaved ill. But this is true also 
of some of the substantial and well-seasoned 
stock supplied by the Library Bureau — 
some of the tables especially being cracked 
and warped — doubtless from exposure dur- 
ing transit. As far as appearance is con- 
cerned there is no equipment more attractive 
and fitting either to the building itself or to 
the nature of a military camp than that at 
Lewis — all of which was secured locally and 
cheaply. 

Precise uniformity in either buildings or 
equipment has not been sought. On the con- 
trary, variances have been encouraged where 
apparently essential to convenience or effi- 
ciency. Two of the buildings — Kearny and 
Logan — have porches; eight have open fire- 
places. In the minor equipment of an ad- 
ministrative sort we have discouraged any 
beyond the minimum necessary to the pur- 
pose; emphasizing that neither the elegance 
nor the scientific completeness of technical 
apparatus customary in a permanent munici- 
pal library was warrantable in a military 
training camp whose permanence was doubt- 
ful. 



Camp Buildings: Accommodations. Those 
required are 

1. Living qitarters for the staff. These suf- 
fice and are appropriate in all the buildings. 

2. Shelving for the resident collection. 
This also suffices even in the 93-foot build- 
ings: suffices, that is to say, for the number 
of volumes (10,000 to 15,000) that should be 
on the shelves at any one time. 

3. Unpacking, storage and workroom. Ex- 
cept as the latter is provided by the segrega- 



tion of an alcove, is generally inadequate 
even in the 120-foot buildings. A small rear 
(" lean-to ") addition such as has already 
been made at Gordon and Kearny, may have 
to be provided generally — except where, as 
is the case in some camps, space for unpack- 
ing and storage is provided in the garage. 

4. Accommodations for Readers. In certain 
camps even the 93-foot building suffices at all 
times. In some camps not even the 120-foot 
building suffices at the times of heaviest use 
(Saturdays and Sundays). The fact that it 
does not is not in itself a warrant for ex- 
tending the building — any more than it 
would be in the case of a municipal library 
It was certainly better at the start to have a 
greater number of buildings fairly adequate 
than to have fewer adequate in all respects 
at every moment. Apart from the Carnegie 
Grant every extension of our " plant " means 
just so much less available for books and 
service. The field to be covered is a vast one, 
enlarging daily. The prime duty is to see 
that no point is neglected. That assured, 
whatever margin of resource remains can be 
applied to further amplification and improve- 
ment at particular points. 

Dispatch Offices. The first — called an 
Assembling Station — was that in the New 
York Public Library in space provided by the 
authorities there. For several months it was 
in charge of Mr. Hodgson, lent by the New 
York State Library. From December imtil 
recently it was conducted by Mr. Vail of the 
New York Public Library, who had assisted 
Mr. Hodgson. Neither the space, nor any 
practicable organization there, proved ade- 
quate to the needs, especially of the handling 
of the purchased books; and it is only since 
April, when through the efforts of Mr. E. H. 
Anderson, an entire floor of a business block 
at 31 West 15th Street was placed at our 
disposal — rent free — that we have been 
able to place this essential business upon an 
efficient basis. With Mr. Bailey, of Gary, in 
charge, an appropriate staff, and a consider- 
able stock of purchased books actually on 
hand to meet requisitions, it seems likely to 
ensure a prompt and adequate service. 



118 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



BOOKS 

Prior to October, 1917, the books sent into 
the camps had been solely gift books, of 
which several hundred thousand had been 
secured. 

The basis of a purchase list had been pre- 
pared in a compilation of titles selected by a 
Committee of New York librarians. It 
comprised about 5,000 titles, of which over 
one -half were fiction, and some were juvenile. 

The prospect that not merely fiction but 
the recreative literature generally, and many 
of the standards, would be supplied by gift 
— the uncertainty also (for proof was yet to 
be had) as to the interest of the men in any 
but recreative literature, induced caution in 
our first actual purchases. Instead of 5,000 
titles, our first purchase comprised but 500 
titles, and these largely reference or technical 
works. The theory of this selection was 
promptly sustained by reports from the 
camps. It was succeeded by a list of 300, 
and that by one of 200 titles. The three 
lists, with some subsequent miscellaneous 
purchases, and selections for special uses 
(Aviation Camps, Quartermasters' Camps, 
etc.), were grouped into a Classed List, issued 
in mimeograph form last February, which 
represents fairly our general policy and 
range of purchase. 

Under the procedure already arranged or- 
ders were placed directly with the publishers. 
This was a condition of the large discount 
(generally 50 per cent) accorded. The books 
were to be invoiced direct to the Camps, with 
duplicates of the invoice to Washington and 
to Mr. Brown at the Brooklyn Library, who 
placed the orders for us. The shipments were 
to be by Quartermaster's freight. 

The system, thoughtfully designed, was 
frustrated by the conditions encountered: 
the publishers were busy with the Christmas 
trade (for which they supply in the autumn 
months) and, with staffs depleted, found dif- 
ficulty even in packing the material, and 
more in preparing the multiple invoices re- 
quired for the 32 camps and the two other 
points; the Quartermaster was pressed with 
Grovernment material; and the freight con- 



gestion — especially critical in October and 
November — delayed long the transit of the 
books actually shipped. Payment had to 
await the receipt of the shipment at the 
Camp and the checking of the invoice by the 
Camp Librarian. In all but the near-by 
Camps it was delayed for weeks, and in the 
more remote it was in many cases delayed 
for months. 

The conversion of the Assembling Station 
at the New York Public Library into a Dis- 
patch Office substituted a system under 
which the books purchased were delivered to 
it and the invoices cleared there. This left 
still the problem of shipment, which with the 
congestion in freight still continuing, could be 
met only by the use of express and parcel 
post, to both of which we have had recourse, 
in spite of the added expense. 

The number of volumes purchased to Jime 
10th has reached a total of 411,505. 

In addition some thousands of volumes 
have been bought in England and France for 
direct delivery to the service there. 

A problem in purchase — that is, of dealing 
with a demand that could be met only by 
quantity purchases — is of text books. 
Every Camp is not merely a place for drill, 
it is also a place for study. And the study 
includes numerous subjects outside of mili- 
tary technique — subjects which are part of 
the curriculum of a grammar or high school 
or the first two years at least of college, 
and, for some branches of the service, nu- 
merous others also. At Camp Johnston, a 
Camp for Quartermasters, no less than a 
thousand in all. These, under governmental 
requirement. In addition, the Y. M. C. A. 
has at every large Camp imdertaken instruc- 
tion in English, French and elementary 
mathematics. 

Neither the Government nor the Y. M. C. 
A. furnishes — or furnishes adequately — the 
text books required. And the appeal to ua 
has been repeated that we furnish them from 
our Fund. What this would mean in outlay 
may be guessed from a request from one 
point — New London — which is merely a 
minor point; it was for 50 Trigonometries, 70 
Algebras and 60 Geometries. 



WAR SERVICE COMMITTEE 



119 



Shall our Fund respond to an appeal of 
this sort? It is hard to deny it categori- 
cally. Yet any adequate response would have 
depleted our Fund below the margin of safety 
until another Campaign shall have replen- 
ished it. 

Thus far we have had to content ourselves 
with a moderate supply of copies — ten to 
twenty — ^associated with our main collection, 
with the provision that at least one or two 
of these should be reserved for reference use. 

A further problem upon which also a defi- 
nite line is difficult to draw is as to the sup- 
ply from our Fund of booke desired by the 
Y. M. C. A. as permanent apparatus of its 
huts. At the outset the Committee supplied 
twenty-one such books specifically requested, 
at a cost to the Fund of about $6,000. 
Others — especially further manuals of refer- 
ence — might well be supplied; and, with 
ampler resources, should be. It ought not to 
be necessary for a soldier to walk several 
miles to ascertain a fact in an atlas or ency- 
clopedia. 

Book Campaign. By the Spring, with our 
buildings, and the overseas service in opera- 
tion, a much larger number of gift books also 
was needed than was supplied by the ordinary 
solicitation and collection pursued during the 
winter. And in April an intensive campaign 
was undertaken to secure them. Under pro- 
vision by the War Service Committee it was 
conducted by Headquarters, an appropriation 
of $25,000 being made to cover the expense 
— chiefly of printing and publicity. As you 
are aware it resulted in the immediate coUec- 
ticHi of over 3,000,000 volumes; the major 
percentage of them available material. 

The selection among them, of what is really 
appropriate and useful, requires a discrimi- 
nation which cannot always be ensured by 
definitions furnished. And it seems probable 
that at certain centers of collection there will 
have to be provided assembling and storage 
spaces where the work of selection and dis- 
patch may be conducted by regular attaches 
of the Service under particular specifications 
from Headquarters as to the particular needs 
of the Camp to be served; needs which be- 
come specialized as the collection grows. 



The number of books on hand in the 41 
main Camps as reported June 1, 1918, was 
1,051,693. 

The total number actually dispatched to all 
points except overseas on June 15tl had 
reached 2,100,000. 

The collections in the main Camps vary 
both in size and efficiency; and the effort to 
readjust them must be a continuing one; 
especially as the readjustment must take ac- 
count of changes in the nature of the Camp 
itself — i. e., of the type of training which 
it provides. 

Books for Overseas Service. Involving as 
it does shipment by transports with sailings 
irregular and unannounced, this could be pro- 
vided for only by the establishment at the 
Ports of Embarkation, of Dispatch Offices 
with an ample supply of books and facilities 
for sorting, casing and delivery. The first 
such, under Mr. Asa Don Dickinson, was 
opened at Hoboken last January. Its early 
shipments were informal — sometimes con- 
sisting of cases shipped in to cargo space 
available at the last moment. Later it was 
able to add definitely authorized cargo ship- 
ments to the amount of 30 cargo tons a 
month ; and also " Deck Cpllections " in the 
custody of the Y. M. C. A. Transport Secre- 
tary to be used on the voyage and recased at 
the Port of Debarkation for service in France. 
The second main Dispatch Office at Newport 
News was initiated in March. It parallels 
the practice at Hoboken, with a definite allot- 
ment of 20 tons of cargo space per month. 

Other Dispatch Offices reported necessary 
have been provided for at New York, Brook- 
lyn, Boston and Philadelphia; and still others 
may have to be. 

Including certain deliveries of thus far 
about 20,000 volumes to the Red Cross for its 
service abroad, the total of our shipments for 
overseas service has now reached about 
350,000 volumes. This is exclusive of the 
thousands handed either to units departing 
from the Camps or to the men individually. 

MAGAZINES 
An ample supply of current magazines for 
our own buildings as well as for those of the 



120 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



Y. M. C. A. and other agencies was appar- 
ently assured by the masses received and for- 
warded by the Postal authorities under the 
one cent mailing privilege. The supply 
proved defective in these particulars: (1) 
The distribution was uneven, certain Camps 
receiving a surplusage, others none at all; 
(2) the deliveries, while sufficiently prompt 
for the interest of the magazines as litera- 
ture, were not always prompt enough to meet 
the call for them as information; and (3) 
certain magazines, particularly the scientific 
and technical, urgently desired by the officers 
and men failed to be represented in the gifts. 

The distribution has been from time to 
time readjusted upon reports by us to the 
Postal authorities; prompter delivery and, in- 
cidentally a more efficient one, was sought by 
our assumption at each Camp of the labor of 
receiving, sorting and distributing the incom- 
ing sacks of material; and subscriptions were 
placed by us for a selected list of magazines 
which would assure for our own buildings at 
least one reference copy of those conveying 
the latest summary of events, the information 
— including that on military and technical 
subjects — of most importance to the officers 
and men — and at least a representation of 
the periodicals embodying the most notable 
literary expression of the period. A line was 
difficult to draw. We drew it first at a brief 
list — some thirty in all — exclusively for 
our own building. Later we added certain 
technical periodicals for the smaller posts. 
The list should probably be enlarged; and the 
supply — at any rate of the technical periodi- 
cals — may have to be extended to the Y and 
other welfare buildings. Such an extension 
would involve a very heavy expense indeed. 
If pursued into the Overseas Camps — as con- 
sistently it should be, if adopted at all — it 
would mean in the case of each periodical 
over 1,500 subscriptions for the Y huts 
alone. Even with the reduced rates accorded 
by the publishers the cost could scarcely be 
met out of our present fund; but the eager- 
ness of the men, especially abroad, for this, 
as against other forms of literature, should 
certainly be recognized; and resource for rec- 



ognizing it should be sought in the campaign 
for additional funds. 

In anticipation of it we have already initi- 
ated the service by the supply (through sub- 
scription) of a selected list of magazines and 
newspapers to the naval bases abroad. 

Newspapers. The eagerness extends to 
newspapers; to the newspapers of the home 
town and to the metropolitan dailies which 
contain a fuller survey of events. Several of 
the latter have been included among our sub- 
scriptions for our own buildings. For the 
former — local dailies — any attempt at a 
comprehensive subscription was impractica- 
ble. Appeals to the publishers have, however, 
resulted in a considerable supply of them in 
certain of the Camps. Each Camp Library is 
also authorized to secure daily the issues of 
one or more papers of the vicinity. 

At least one metropolitan daily and, if pos- 
sible, several geographically representative, 
should be promptly available in our Camps 
abroad. And as the other agencies are not 
providing them, we should, when practicable, 
do so. That undertaking also, if extending 
to every hut, would mean for each newspaper 
an outlay of probably $10,000. 

The prestige of such service would not, of 
course, accrue to us. It does not fully, even 
in the case of the books supplied to the Y 
and other agencies, notwithstanding that 
these carry our bookplate. It would not at all 
in the case of magazines and newspapers with 
nothing upon them to credit them to our 
Fund or effort. But it is not prestige for our 
Association that must be our prime motive 
in this service. 

The number of " Burleson " magazines ac- 
tually handled by our Camp Librarians to 
date is estimated at 5,000,000. The labor 
involved has been heavy; but the service 
essential; for prior to it tons of the material 
lay idle in the receiving warehouses, just as 
other tons of it have lain idle at ports of 
embarkation for lack of a similar service of 
selection there; for the postmasters do not 
perform it. 

ORGANIZATION 

The organization passed to me by the Com- 
mittee last October consisted at Headquarters 



WAR SERVICE COMMITTEE 



121 



of Mr. Utley, Secretary of the A. L. A., as 
Executive Secretary, and Mr. Dudgeon aa 
Camp Libraries Director ( Manager ) . They 
were still without any office staff. 

Some 12 librarians in the Camps comprised 
the force in the field. 

The creation of a Headquarters staff proved 
singularly difficult. For certain of the over- 
head work there were obviously desirable men 
with actual experience in the Camps; and 
these were yet to be developed. For the sub- 
ordinate work the stenographers and clerks 
required had to be sought against the compe- 
tition of Government departments and com- 
missions willing to pay almost any price for 
even imperfect service. The competent supply 
seemed for the moment exhausted. And it 
was only after weeks of effort that a force 
could be secured capable of handling the 
routine. 

In the earlier stages the struggle to deal 
with the cvunulating mass of correspondence 
and requisition, the necessity of withholding 
action until questions of policy could be set- 
tled, and the constant experience of action 
frustrated — by delay in a factory, or con- 
gestion in mail, express or freight — all this 
involved — especially for Mr. Utley and Mr. 
Dudgeon — a severe strain indeed. They 
bore it with a temper thoroughly admirable, 
for which the Service cannot be too grateful. 

The vital matter of a financial and account- 
ing system was fortunately provided for from 
the start by the availability near at hand of 
a competent expert as Disbursing Officer. 

The development of the overhead personnel 
has from time to time been reported in our 
Bulletins. Mr. Utley has served as Executive 
Secretary with only two recent breaks due to 
his necessary absence from Washington, 
when his place and duties with us have been 
assumed by Mr. Strong. Mr. Dudgeon's ser- 
vice as Camp Libraries Manager ceased with 
the conclusion of his original leave from Mad- 
ison, last December. The duties of that office 
since then, though in part subdivided, have 
fallen chiefly upon Mr. Wheeler, It is he 
especially who has conducted the correspond- 
ence with the Camps on matters of routine 
and has supervised the selection of the pur- 



chased books. He has served under the title 
of an Assistant to the General Director. But 
a like title — convenient and usual in Wash- 
ington has also been assigned to several 
others in especially responsible service at 
Headquarters; to Mr. Milam, who more 
nearly than any other single member of the 
staff exercises the function of Assistant Di- 
rector, and at times to Mr. Windsor, Miss 
Rathbone and several others who have as- 
sisted us for briefer periods in special phases 
of the work. We are indebted indeed to the 
institutions which have lent them — unusu- 
ally indebted to YoungstoAvn, which has lent 
Mr. Wheeler for in all some ten months of 
service, and extraordinarily to Birmingham, 
which has lent Mr. Milam for a period as 
long and still to continue. There are others 
who without particular title have rendered 
valuable aid in special connections. And, of 
late, among the overhead personnel, we have 
been able to include Mr. M. G. Wyer, Mr. 
Rush, Miss Rose, Miss Humble, Miss Dixon, 
Miss Baldwin and Miss Gleason and several 
others — Mr. Kerr, Mr. Compton, Miss Cur- 
tis, Miss Carey — whose work will also be 
partly in the field. 

The Library of Congress has, of course, 
contributed its quota, including Mr. Slade, 
Chief of its Periodical Division, for practi- 
cally continuous service in connection with 
book selection, and recently Mr. Hastings in 
connection with Order Work. 

The Headquarters staff thus gradually de- 
veloped has reached its present dimension of 
44 persons. Even at this it is below, rather 
than above, normal, for the work to be done. 
For the work, as it developed, has required 
both specialization, and an increasing elabo- 
ration of system and records. Buildings, 
Books (Solicitation, Selection, Purchase, Dis- 
tribution ) , Supplies, Practice, Personnel, 
Publicity are but some of the main subjects 
to be dealt with; and, involved daily in each, 
not merely operation, but decisions as to pol- 
icy. I know no force in Washington harder 
pressed with work or more closely devoted. 

As at Headquarters, so in the field, a con- 
siderable and valuable part of the service has 
been rendered by volunteers, the Fimd as- 



122 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



Burning only their traveling expenses and sub- 
sistence. This was consistent with our assur- 
ance at Louisville and to the public that the 
expert service required, or at least most of it, 
would quite certainly be furnished in this way. 
It has, in many a librarian of high compe- 
tence — Mr. Jennings, Mr. Hadley, Mr. 
Henry, Mr. Strohm, Mr. Yust, Mr. Bowerman, 
Mr. Wright, and the many others whose 
names appear in the list. And when we were 
able to cite Mr. Brett among the number — 
Mr. Brett, who, not content with the loan of 
several members of his staff for service at 
Camp Sherman — actually lent himself for 
the organization and direction of the Dis- 
patch Office at Newport News — when we 
were able to cite Mr. Brett among the volun- 
teers — we felt that the example was com- 
plete — that not even in the municipal libra- 
ries of first importance could the duty to the 
home library suffice as a reason for declining 
this one. 

It is, however, the reason still given by 
those of our principal librarians who have 
not thus far personally been drawn into the 
service. I emphasize this only to their credit. 
For it disposes of the supposition that they 
hesitate because of the meagerness of the pay. 
In standardizing this at but $100 a month 
for the Camp Librarian — $100 plus expenses 
— we had regarded it rather as an honora- 
riiun than as compensation. Even as such it 
will probably be increased — it certainly 
must be to such librarians as leave their regu- 
lar posts for any long term of service with us 
during which their home salaries are with- 
held. But the actual experience thus far 
shows few instances indeed where we have 
failed to secure the man — or woman — 
sought, merely because of the inadequacy of 
the pay. 

The proportion of the completely volunteer 
to the (nominally) paid service at the Camps 
has been at times as one to two. It has di- 
minished as the organizers — who especially 
composed the volunteers — have relinquished 
the administration to the regular Camp 
Librarians. 

But in many cases — as of Sherman, 
Dodge, Taylor, Devens — a camp library has 



continued to have the benefit of volunteer 
supervision by a neighboring librarian long 
after its establishment. 



For the permanent conduct of the Camp 
libraries our policy would be to secure men 
who can attach themselves to that work as a 
major interest — superior for the moment to 
that at home — and then to equalize, co- 
ordinate and constantly revitalize the service 
through a corps of visiting inspectors in 
touch with Headquarters. 

The need of co-ordination and of constant 
communication with a central authority is 
obvious if one considers that these major 
Camp Libraries comprise over forty separate 
establishments, requiring a policy in common 
but each requiring also provision for condi- 
tions peculiar to itself. The problem of them 
as a whole is a novel problem; and the men 
in charge of them, even where equal in abil- 
ity, have had no preparation in common for 
this particular work. 

Each, on assvuning his task, has been fur- 
nished with some general instructions; and 
in the course of his work receives from time 
to time circulars of information and instruc- 
tion issued to the Camps as a whole. But he 
finds it necessary also to submit numerous 
inquiries as to the needs or problems peculiar 
to his local situation. Where the Camp is not 
too remote he may supplement these by an 
occasional visit to Headquarters. On his way 
to his post he generally visits at least one 
other well-conducted Camp. 

He needs in addition the stimulus — or 
restraint — of an occasional visit by some 
representative of Headquarters. This has in 
a measure been furnished; and if it has not 
yet been organized into a system, with defi- 
nite periodicity, the reason is that the crea- 
tion of a staff of visiting supervisors and 
inspectors had to await the development of 
librarians with an experience suitable to the 
purpose; an experience both of a Camp and 
of Headquarters. To dispatch to a Camp a 
representative without it, would have been to 
multiply misunderstanding, and to create ir- 
ritation — all at considerable expense. 



WAR SERVICE COMMITTEE 



123 



One further device would doubtless tend to 
encouragement, enterprise, and efficiency; an 
occasional conference of the Librarians of 
neighboring Camps. Two such have already 
been held — one at Atlanta February 28th, 
one at Waco on March 2l8t. The former was 
presided over by Mr. Milam, the latter by 
Mr. J. I. Wyer, Jr., not in his capacity as 
Chairman of the Committee, but at my re- 
quest as a special representative of Headquar- 
ters. The obstacle to frequent ones is the 
expense — even " neighboring " Camps being 
in fact so distant from a common meeting 
point. The benefit of general conference — 
not merely to the Librarians, but to Head- 
quarters — is, however, so clear, that we have 
felt warranted in bringing to Saratoga — so 
far as necessary at the expense of the Fund 
(.though it has been necessary only in part) 
— a sufficient number of the Camp Librarians 
to constitute a representative body. 

Regional Organization and Supervision. 
There are districts where, in addition to, or 
apart from, any large Camp, there is a con- 
siderable group of smaller posts, with special 
needs to be met requiring a local supervision 
intermediate with Headquarters. Massachu- 
setts represented such a district; and the 
general responsibility for it — including the 
administration of the Library at Camp 
Devens itself — was assumed by the State 
Library Commission — we furnishing the 
standard resources in buildings, books and al- 
lowance for service, the Commission applying 
these and supplementing them as it saw fit; 
an arrangement highly favorable to the ser- 
vice. The New Jersey Commission has taken 
especial solicitude for the smaller posts in 
that State. Mr. Edgerton of New London has 
looked after such posts in his vicinity; and 
Mr. Ferguson, of Sacramento, has notably 
taken concern and provided resources for 
every post, large and small, in California. 



Various other librarians have assumed su- 
pervision over particular large camps in their 
vicinity; as Mr. Anderson of Upton, Mr. 
Roden of Grant. 

The needs of our soldiers along the Mexican 
Border, disclosed tardily, have now resulted 
in a system — in fact in two systems — of 
traveling libraries issuing from San Antonio, 
and El Paso respectively. The former have 
been in process of organization by Miss Long, 
of Van Wert, Ohio, the latter by Miss McCol- 
lough, of Evansville, Indiana. In each case 
a local headquarters is provided by the local 
Public Library. 

Overseas Service. As you are aware an 
investigation of the situation and opportimity 
abroad was entrusted to Dr. M. L. Raney of 
Johns Hopkins who started upon his mission 
last January. He has returned and will him- 
self tell you something of his observations 
and experiences. Upon his recommendation 
he was joined in Paris in April by Mr. Bur- 
ton E. Stevenson, who, with Mrs. Stevenson, 
have remained there to pursue the actual 
work for which Dr. Raney initiated the rela- 
tions. Dr. Raney continues his general direc- 
tion of it from this side. 

Personnel: The Supply. No one familiar 
with the profession would say that the list of 
men and women who have participated in the 
service lacks in competence; and if numerous 
names prominent in the profession fail to ap- 
pear, it is not because they have not been 
asked and indicated their inability, or are not 
in view for participation hereafter. 

The defect that does appear is a present 
lack of Camp Librarians free to serve for 
longer periods. The change from organizer to 
Librarian is a necessary one; an occasional 
change of librarians often serves to refresh 
and invigorate the administration; but with 
the system established, very frequent changes 
in the personnel will be injurious. Note. 



Note. It Is, of course, less so if the new- 
comer, though not direct from another Camp, 
has had experience in a similar post. With 
such an experience he will bring new points of 
view, as he will bring a fresh spirit and differ- 
ent qualities of competence, probably desirable 
and likely to improve and diversify the service. 
It would offset the risk of inertia in administra- 
tion which is a very serious risk indeed where 
the Library is subject to the limitations of a 
single individual during a long period. So cer- 



tain is this that I believe either interchange, or 
a rotation in the office, would promote effi- 
ciency. The objection suggested — that it de- 
prives the Library of the acquaintance gained 
by the outgoing Librarian with the other 
personnel of the Camp — both military and 
civilian (welfare) — is a natural one. But it 
overlooks the fact that this other personnel 
also — particularly the military and the Y. M. 
C. A. — is also constantly changing. 



124 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



For the subordinate positions at the Camps 
an adequate supply of competent persons is in 
prospect. The increasing availability — per- 
missibility — of women for service in the 
Camps, helps to assure it. The time may 
come — at certain Camps may come shortly 
— when women may be designated to the 
actual charge of the main library. As ap- 
pears from the list of personnel they already 
occupy positions of responsibility in every 
phase of the service, and many of them are 
already in charge of Camp Libraries — though 
none as yet in charge of the main Camp 
Library building. 



The staffs at the Camps are imequal. They 
will have to be equalized ; and probably all of 
them enlarged. The work is not merely 
severe, it is very protracted — begiiming at 
nine — actually earlier — in the morning and 
lasting until ten at night every day of the 
week, including Sunday, which is in fact the 
heaviest day. And it is not merely the work 
within the building: it is an active and la- 
borious work in the Camp at large. 

FINANCE 

A statement as to the Fimd as a whole is 
of course submitted by the War Service Com- 
mittee and appears in the audit submitted by 
the A. L. A. Finance Committee as well as in 
the War Finance Committee's " Story of the 
Campaign." The financial statement [pre- 
pared by the Disbursing Officer] appended to 
my report embraces merely the funds placed 
at my disposal through action of the War 
Service Committee. 

Like the general statement, it covers in 
detail the period (about eight months) to 
Jime 1, 1918, the date of audit. 

It shows 

Receipts of $902,449 27 

Disbursements of 722,536 70 

Balances, Jime 1, of 179,912 57 

of which $52,329.10 wa» the balance of the 



Carnegie Grant (all obligated), $5,000 is a 
sinking fund for insurance, and $33,500 is 
represented by advances, including those for 
Overseas Service. Of the General Fund the 
available balance to my credit June 1st was 
$89,083.47. An additional credit ($75,000) 
voted by the Committee on June 8th, and cer- 
tain reports of advances enlarged this to 
$169,783.47. Against this siun the expendi- 
tures for June (General Fund) are likely to 
have totaled at least $139,000; leaving a pres- 
ent balance (General Fund), July 1, of say 
$30,000. 

An examination of the expenditure, as clas- 
sified under the separate items of buildings, 
equipment, books, supplies, freight, travel, 
service and subsistence, emphasizes the very 
large outlay necessary for upkeep and admin- 
istration: outlay not merely for service, but 
for supplies, travel, and transportation. Each 
of these must still enlarge with the enlarge- 
ment of the establishment and the expansion 
of the work. Among supplies, for instance, 
packing cases alone, for our Overseas ship- 
ments, are costing us over $150 a day. The 
sum — $41,000 — under General Equipment 
is about one-half chargeable to the purchase 
of automobiles. And we have not been able 
to avoid the expenditure of some $10,000 for 
building and building equipment not charge- 
able to the Carnegie Grant. 

At $85,000 for the eight months, the cost 
of service and subsistence has averaged about 
$10,000 per month. But the amount for May 
was $19,000, and will, of course, increase, 
even without any advance in the standards of 
compensation. 

It is to be observed, however, that the item 
does include not merely salaries but subsist- 
ence; subsistence of many a volimteer, as 
well as that of most of the salaried force in 
the field and a portion of the staff at Head- 
quarters. About a third of the $85,000 is 
chargeable to this accoimt, leaving less than 
$60,000 as the outlay for salaries during the 
eight months. 



WAR SERVICE COMMITTEE 



125 



AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION WAR SERVICE FUND 
Hebbebt Putnam, General Director 
Financial statement showing total Receipts and Disbursements to May 31, 



1918 



Receipts 
Credits transferred to this accoimt in Ameri- 
can Security and Trust Co.: 



Oct. 27 
Oct. 27 
Nov. 14 
Nov. 30 
Dec. 10 
Jan. 1 
Jan. 3 
Feb. 28 



General funds $391,998 23 

Carnegie Grant 107,200 00 

General funds 153,021 77 

Carnegie Grant 100,500 00 

Special donation 10,000 00 

Interest on deposit. . . . 2,429 27 

Book campaign fimd. . 25,000 00 

Carnegie Grant 112,300 00 



DiSBUBSEMENTS 

October to May 

Buildings, Carnegie Grant $230,753 59 

Building equipment, Carnegie 

Grant 36,917 31 

Buildings, general funds 7,196 28 

Building equipment, general 

funds 2,846 36 

Books 210,109 16 

Binding 559 52 

Book Campaign 24,566 72 

Freight 8,042 17 

General equipment 41,394 37 

Great Lakes Station building 

and equipment 10,000 00 

Service and subsistence 85,201 49 

Sundry 15,276 03 

Supplies 36,586 76 

Travel 13,086 94 

Total expenditures $722,536 70 

Funds in hands of Camp Libra- 
rians and Overseas Agents . . . 33,500 00 
Balance in American Security 
and Trust Co.: 

General funds 89,083 47 

Carnegie Grant 52,329 10 

Insurance fund 5,000 00 



$902,449 27 



$902,449 27 
Respectfully submitted, 

William L. Beown, 

Disbursing OflBcer. 

AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION WAR SERVICE FUND 
Hebbebt Putnam, General Director 
Expenditures under Budget 
The Budget, as granted in "the initial form in October, 1917, and from time to time 
readjusted, together with the corresponding expenditures, is as follows: 

Books, 



Buildings and equipment 

(Carnegie grant) 
Granted: $320,000 00 



including binding 

and periodicals 

$318,000 00 



Service 
$85,000 00 



Bldgs. and equip. 
Gen. funds .. $10,042 64 



Miscellaneous 
$142,020 00 



Freight . . . 
Gen. equip. 
Sundry . . 
Supplies . . 
Travel . . . 



8,042 17 
41,394 37 
15,276 03 
36,586 76 
13,086 94 



Expended: 267,670 90 210,668 68 



85,201 49 



124,428 91 



Balance $52,329 10 $107,331 32 —$201 49 $17,591 09 

Note. — On June 8, 1918, an additional credit of $76,000 was voted without specifications. 

William L. Bbown, 

Disbursing Officer. 
June 1, 1918. 



126 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



ESTIMATED EXPENDITURES, JUNE 1-30, 1918 

(General Fund) 

Balance on hand June 1 ' $89,083 47 

Receipts: . 

Credit voted June 8 75,000 00 

Advances refunded 5,700 00 , 

$169,783 47 

Elxpenditures : 

Already on! the books (June 20) .■..■.'.■. $75,574 00 

To be made, say .'. 64,209 47 

139,783 47 

Estimated probable balance July 1, say $30,000 00 

William L. Bbown, 

Disbursing OflScer. 
June 20, 1918. 



CAMP PRACTICE: UNIFORMITIES 
An association which, after two generations 
of the study and discussion of library prac- 
tice, proffered its professional experience as 
applicable to this work would be expected to 
apply it in a service definitely standardized 
and completely uniform. Had it attempted 
this at the outset it would have shown blind- 
ness to a condition which it was even more 
particularly its duty to regard. (1) That 
the problem was a new one; and (2) that it 
included variances in the needs and the con- 
ditions special to localities and to the rela- 
tions involved. A practice necessary in one 
camp might be superfluous in another; one 
permissible in one camp might even — owing 
perhaps to the attitude of the military au- 
thorities — be prohibited in another. To im- 
pose at once an identical practice, a precise 
uniformity, might have defeated many an 
opportunity. It would have created antagon- 
isms. And it would have prevented us from 
a repute still more valuable — that of ability 
to adapt our methods to the situation and 
the needs to be served. 

Instead, we chose to experiment: prescrib- 
ing upon theory as little as possible and 
developing a practice only as experience 
proved it practicable and desirable. The re- 
sult has been at times considerable variations 
of detail, some of which still exist. They 
extend, as you see, even to the uniforms of 
our staff — which are not fully uniform. 
[They are not, because even with original 



specifications supposed to be authoritative 
they have been modified by military prescrip- 
tion at certain of the camps.] 

But the practice is now gradually converg- 
ing; and the Camp Library Handbook, which, 
after the discussions of our camp librarians 
here, will be printed, will exhibit a consider- 
able body of fairly standardized procedure. 

CAMP LIBRARIES: STATISTICS OF USE 

Exact or comprehensive ones are imprac- 
ticable. The reference use is direct and un- 
recorded. The issue for outside use is re- 
corded at the Main Library, but only im- 
perfectly at the huts, and not at all in con- 
nection with the " traveling " collections. 
Statistics of circulation reported by the 
camps in April proved quite imreliable as a 
basis of comparison. 

Other Statistics, e. g., of the number of 
volumes available and of the number of out- 
lying branches and stations are of course 
possible for a given date; and a table em- 
bracing them appears in Bulletin 7. They 
are, however, subject to such variations, even 
from day to day, that they also are unsafe 
indication of the situation or of the com- 
parative resources at any later date. 

Statistics of Expenditures, kept at head- 
quarters for each camp, are intelligible only 
with explanation of the difference of period 
and variance in conditions. The latter affects 
especially the cost of service, some camps 
having the benefit of far more volunteer or 
" lent " service than others. The service at 



WAR SERVICE COMMITTEE 



l?T 



Devens, for instance, is supplemented by the 
State Commission; that at Johnston is sub- 
atantially furnished by the Jacksonville 
Public Library. 

PUBLICITY 

During the first three months we were 
closely engaged with practical problems. 
There would have been little profit in ex- 
ploiting these. Beginning with January, 
however, systematic publicity was both pos- 
sible and desirable. It was imdertaken 
through publications (Bulletins beginning 
with No. 4) of our own, and press matter 
supplied currently to newspapers and maga- 
zines. As an aid to the latter we had 
the (part time) service for several months 
of a trained newspaper correspondent in 
favorable relations with the other correspon- 
dents at the Capital. We had also the expert 
counsel for a week of Mr. John K. Allen of 
Boston. This was the only professional aid 
employed, either in the regular course or in 
connection with the book campaign; and its 
total cost to us was less than twelve hundred 
dollars. The other efforts were solely those 
of our regular headquarters staff. 

There has been no outlay whatever for paid 
advertisement. 

The publicity matter for the book cam- 
paign was supplied directly from headquar- 
ters; and the printing and distribution of it 
constituted the main expense of the campaign. 

IN GENERAL 

Our Association began this work without 
financial resources. When (after the finan- 



cial campaign) resources became available, 
conditions had developed unfavorable either 
to considerate organization or to prompt, 
smooth and effective action. The first three 
months were embarrassed by them. 

Order gradually emerged, an organization 
was effected, policies were determined, and 
action developed to its present dimension. 

The development has been by experiment 
and evolution. It has been so especially for 
two reasons: 

1. The problem was a novel one. 

2. The fund was a trust fund. It was vital 
to the work, to the repute of the Association, 
and to the success of further appeals to the 
public — that the foundations should be 
sound, and the beginnings of expenditure 
careful, even to the point of frugality. 



The present situation is different. The 
novel elements in the problem have become 
familiar; policies have been determined; and 
an establishment, organization, system and 
service have been developed, recognized as 
appropriate to the task. Each has imperfec- 
tions: establishment, organization, system 
and service will require remedy as well as 
amplification. But the application of the 
remedies is now a relatively simple problem 
in administration; and the amplification is 
proceeding as rapidly as possible under the 
existing resources. 

Herbbbt Putnam, 

General Director. 

Saratoga, N. Y., July 2, 1918. 



128 SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 

Exhibits Appended 

A. Gift Books Sent Out through June 15. 

B. Purchased Books Sent Out through Jime 10th. 

O. Statistics of Camp Library System and Collections for the 41 Major Camps to June Ist. 
D, Personnel : Summary. 

A 
Oift Books Sent to Camps, Stations, Vessels and Overseas through June 15th 

Books Sent 
41 large military camps and naval stations (including books received and en 

route) 1,317,304 

237 small military camps (47 of these are Aviation camps, including schools and 
repair depots. There have been shipped to these points more than 60,000 

gift books) 244,784 

116 small naval stations 135,480 

17 marine stations 21,183 

116 vessels 32,029 

91 hospitals 29,503 

6 dispatch offices have shipped overseas (this includes approximately 80,000 

purchased books) 285,306 

Total 2,065,589 

Books reported collected by the libraries of the country 3,896,054 

Note. — These figures are only those reported to Headquarters. Thousands of books have 
been collected and distributed by libraries to nearby military, naval and marine camps and 
stations of which no record has been sent to Headquarters. 

B 

Pwchased Books Sent to Camps, Statio7is, Vessels and Overseas through June 10th 

Books Sent 

*41 large military camps and naval stations 234,255 

113 small military camps (47 of these are Aviation camps, including schools and 

repair depots ) 45,477 

63 small naval stations 6,623 

13 marine stations 2,298 

27 vessels 1,760 

*14 hospitals 1,266 

t6 dispatch offices have received for shipment overseas 92,987 

Balance in New York stock 26,940 

Total 411,505 



* Figures for large camps include books purchased for base hospitals located at these 
camps ; figures for other hospitals given separately. In some cases purchased books have been 
used by camp librarians in smaller camps and stations over which they have supervision. 

t Figures for one dispatch office, Newport News, include some purchases for small camps 
and stations in the vicinity of Newport News as well as those purchased for overseas. 



WAR SERVICE COMMITTEE 



129 



Statistics of Camp Library System ond Collections for the 41 Major Camps to June lat 



Camp and State 

Beauregard, La 

Bowie, Texas 

Chickamauga Park, Ga. (Ft. Oglethorpe) 

Cody, N. Mex 

Custer, Mich 

Devena, Mass 

Dix, N. J 

Dodge, la 

Doniphan, Okla 

Fremont, Calif 

Funaton, Kans 

Gordon, Ga 

Grant, 111 

Greene, N. C 

Hancock, Ga 

Humphreya, Va 

Jackaon, S. C 

Jefferaon Barracks, Mo 

Johnston, Fla 

Kearny, Calif 

Kelly Field, Tex 

Lee, Va 

Lewis, Wash 

Logan, Tex 

MacArthur, Tex 

McClellan, Ala 

Meade, Md 

Merritt, N. J 

Mills, N. Y 

Pelham Bay, N. Y 

Perry, 111. ( Great Lakes) 

Pike, Ark 

Sevier, S. C 

Shelby, Miss 

Sheridan, Ala 

Sherman, Ohio 

Taylor, Ky 

Travis, Texaa 

Upton, N. Y 

Wadsworth, S. C 

Wheeler, Ga 



BraJiches Stations 



9 

19 
16 
21 
12 
10 
16 
13 
14 
36 
21 
17 
11 
10 
12 

2 
10 

1 
11 
11 
14 
18 

8 
12 
10 
16 

5 

9 

11 
15 

9 
18 
11 
16 
20 
22 
19 

9 
11 




1 
3 

7 

20 



80 

61 

7 

24 

63 

5 

35 

4 





7 

11 

7 

12 

25 

97 

9 

65 

1 

56 

1 

2 

20 

17 

4 

3 
10 
16 
59 
25 

5 
36 



Books in 
Camp 

14,000 
40,439 
26,604 
25,800 
15,055 
20,000 
40,561 
39,559 
26,000 
37,803 
35,300 
35,000 
40,000 
26,376 
20,000 

1,650 
20,600 

2,000 
12,272 
29,087 
14,911 
32,275 
48,550 
22,770 
23,883 
28,095 
22,795 
26,138 

7,900 

3,900 
16,336 
27,000 
16,173 
30,000 
28,743 
32,712 
28,000 
26,243 
50,170 
27,130 
29,863 



Books 
purchased 
Nov.-June 

5,008 
5,981 
4,937 
6,181 
7,066 
6,766 
6,060 
5,428 
5,498 
5,393 
6,935 
8,031 
5,826 
5,637 
5,505 
3,811 
5,650 

446 
7,258 
5,535 
5,335 
5,903 
6,290 
5,046 
6,651 
5,744 
6,264 
8,987 
3,023 

261 
6,388 
2,701 
5,525 
5,073 
6,209 
6,077 
5,742 
6,157 
7,820 
6,964 
6,144 



525 



798 



1,051,693 



234,255 



130 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



Personnel: Summary 

On October 4, 1917, there were at Head- 
quarters 3 men doing administrative work, 
and no clerical assistance. In the field there 
were 12 camp librarians and assistants. 

On January 1, 1918, there were 7 persons 
doing administrative work and 10 doing 
clerical work at Headquarters. There were 
62 camp librarians and assistants in 33 
camps; 1 stgent and 2 assistants in 1 dis- 
patch office. 

On June 20, 1918, there were 12 persons 



doing administrative work and 34 doing 
clerical work at Headquarters; 145 camp li- 
brarians, assistants and organizers in 45 
camps; 6 agents and 17 assistants in 6 dis- 
patch oflSces; 24 librarians in hospital ser- 
vice; 6 field representatives; 2 representa- 
tives overseas; and scores of librarians repre- 
senting Library War Service more or less 
oflBcially at the camps in their vicinity. 

Some of these people have been volunteers. 
Scores of them have been lent by their libra- 
ries with no expense to the Library War 
Service, except for traveling and subsistence. 
Others have been paid salaries and expenses. 



WAR SERVICE COMMITTEE 



131 



APPENDIX A 



MINUTES OF MEETINGS OF THE WAR 
SERVICE COMMITTEE, LOUISVILLE, 

Friday, June 22, 2 P. M. 

Met at luncheon. Present: Messrs, Bost- 
wick, Dudgeon, Wyer, Miss Countryman; on 
invitation, President Walter L. Brown, Her- 
bert Putnam and William Orr, representing 
the Y. M. C. A. 

After discussion of respective plans of the 
A. L. A. and the Y. M. C. A. and the possi- 
bilities for effective cooperation, Committee 
adjourned to meet on the following day. 

Saturday, June 23 

Committee met at 9 a. m. in the Seelbach 
Hotel. Present: Messrs. Dudgeon, Bostwick, 
Hill, Wyer, Miss Countryman; and by invita- 
tion, Messrs. Montgomery, Putnam. 

Voted, That the body of the report of the 
Preliminary Committee be printed at once 
for distribution before the adjournment of 
the Conference. 

After discussion, the following sub-commit- 
tees and chairmen were appointed, each 
chairman with power to add working mem- 
bers to his committee and report such addi- 
tions to the chairman of the general com- 
mittee. (For personnel of various sub- 
committees appointed at different sessions at 
Louisville, see pages 7-8.) 

The chairmen present were asked to for- 
mulate definitions of the work of their re- 
■pective committees and to submit these for 
discussion at the next meeting. 

Messrs. C. H. Compton and J. L. Wheeler, 
a sub-committee of the Association's Com- 
mittee on Publicity, offered its services im- 
mediately and to any extent desired in the 
preparation of book lists or in any other 
possible manner. 

The Committee on War Plans of the 
Special Libraries Association (R. H. John- 
ston, C. C. Williamson, D. N. Handy) sent a 
commiinication expressing its readiness to co- 
operate as auxiliary to the A. L. A. Com- 



mittee, as a formal sub-committee or in any 
way in which it might be of use. 

It was voted to accept these two oflferi 
and express the hope that these committees 
will work with the A. L. A. Committee, con- 
sult with its chairman and keep him in- 
formed as to their plans and activities. 

Moved by Mr. Hill and Voted, that Mr. 
Herbert Putnam and Mr. R. R. Bowker, 
members of the Preliminary War Plans Com- 
mittee, shall have notice of all meetings of 
the General Committee and be asked to at- 
tend all meetings of its Sub-committee on 
Camp Libraries. 

Upon invitation, Mr. Putnam made a 
statement outlining the work done to date, 
its present status, and the work of first im- 
portance now claiming the attention of this 
committee in the matter of the establishment 
of camp libraries. 

A communication from C. H. Milam pro- 
posing a Library Publicity Week was read to 
the committee and action deferred that its 
members might have further time for con- 
sideration. 

Adjourned. 

Sunday, June 24 

Committee met at 9 a.m. Present: Messrs. 
Hill, Bostwick, Dudgeon, Wyer, Misses Coim- 
tryman and Doren; and on invitation. Presi- 
dent Montgomery. 

Definitions for work of the several sub- 
committees were discussed and from the re- 
sulting data and opinions the chairman was 
authorized to formulate tentative definitions 
in organization bulletin to be issued later. 
(See Bulletin 1.) 

A communication was received from Mr. 
John A. Lowe on behalf of the Massachusetts 
Free Public Library Commission describing 
the work already under way in that State. 
It was referred to the Committee on State 
Agencies. 

Buildings. At this point Mr. Hill laid be- 
fore the committee an offer from Mr. Edward 



1S2 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



L. Tilton of his services to the Association 
in the preparation of plans, specifications and 
estimates for the buildings proposed on the 
various cantonments and camp grounds 
throughout the country. The offer was ac- 
cepted with expression of keen appreciation 
and Mr. Tilton was invited to meet with the 
committee. 

After conference and discussion the follow- 
ing points were tentatively fixed subject to 
such further revision and determination as 
Mr. Tilton might find it desirable to make. 

Building to be 40 x 120 — interior to be 
treated as a typical library plan and fin- 
ished as one room, save for such partitions 
as might be formed by double-faced book 
shelves — to contain two sleeping apart- 
ments — to provide, through alcove shelving, 
for two or three semi-private study rooms 
in addition to facilities for books and read- 
ers in the main room — expected to be at 
least 10,000 volumes — provision to be made 
for map display, ample bulletin board space 
both inside and outside the building — fur- 
nishing to provide for large use of news- 
papers and periodicals — chairs rather than 
tables to be preferred in furniture, to the end 
that largest possible number of readers may 
be accommodated — window-seats to provide 
for as many additional readers as possible.. 

In view of the fact that there seem likely 
to be thirty or more major training camps 
in the country, at each of which a library of 
10,000 new books seems necessary for the 
most effective service, the sense of the com- 
mittee was recorded that the sum of not 
less than $250,000 should be made available 
for their purchase. 

The matter of a Library War Week, post- 
poned from previous meeting, was again 
brought up for consideration and the chair- 
man was requested to ask Mr. Milam, rep- 
resenting the group promoting the enterprise, 
to appear before the committee at its meet- 
ing Monday morning. 

Adjourned. 

Monday, June 25, 9 a. m. 

Present: Messrs. Dudgeon, Bostwick, Hill, 
Wyer, Misses Countryman and Doren; and 
by invitation, President Montgomery. 



Mr. Hill, for the Finance Committee, re- 
ported formation of a Dollar a Month Club 
among the members of the Association, and 
his committee was authorized to prepare sub- 
scription cards for distribution at the next 
general session of the Association. He re- 
ported the addition to the Finance Committee 
of Messrs. W. H. Brett, George W. Cole and 
Edward L. Tilton. On request of Chairman 
Hill the Finance Committee was authorized 
to employ as treasurer a trust company, 
name not designated — this to relieve the 
chairman of the details of bookkeeping and 
accounts. 

Chairman Hill requested the chairman of 
each committee to forward budget figure* 
to the Finance Committee covering proposed 
expenditures, and on this head it was voted 
by the full committee that no expenditure* 
be made except on specific authorization of 
the chairman of the General Committee or 
of the Finance Committee. 

At this point Mr. Tilton conferred further 
with the committee as to plans for the camp 
library buildings, particularly as to heating, 
plumbing, lighting, standardization of plani 
and material construction. 

Mr. C. H. Milam appeared before the com- 
mittee in the interest of a Library War 
Week, and after his presentation it was 
moved by Mr. Dudgeon that a sub-committee 
of five on War Library Week be appointed 
to consist of Mr. Milam, chairman, Messrs. 
L. J. Bailey, Rush, Josselyn and J. L. 
Wheeler. Amended by Mr. Hill that the 
matter be referred to the Publicity Commit- 
tee with authority to appoint such a com- 
mittee as indicated in Mr. Dudgeon's motion 
to carry out the plan. The amended motion 
prevailed. Mr. Bostwick at once annoimced 
the appointment of the committee. 

Voted, That the General Committee hereby 
recommends to the Finance Committee pro- 
vision in the first budget for a general man- 
ager of camp libraries at such salary and 
traveling expenses as may be required. 

Adjourned. 

Attest : 

J. I. Wyeb, Je., 

Chairman. 



WAR SERVICE COMMITTEE 



133 



Hotel Powhatan, Washington, D. C, 
August 14, 1917. 

Present: Messrs. Hill, Dudgeon, Anderson, 
Wyer, Miss Doren; and by invitation, Presi- 
dent Montgomery and Secretary Utley of the 
American Library Association. 

Canada. Communications were presented 
from members of the Association suggesting 
possibility of effective cooperation with 
Canadian libraries in supplying books to 
soldiers. The chairman presented letters 
from Canadian libraries most active in this 
work indicating that it was already well 
organized in Canada on effective lines and 
that probably there was little opportunity, 
if any, for close cooperation. 

Bibliography of Military Medicine. Clement 
W. Andrews proposed on behalf of the John 
Crerar Library the printing of a list of books 
on medicine and surgery of war, one of the 
chief uses of which should be a basis for 
interlibrary" loans during the period of the 
present war. On motion the committee 
heartily approved the publication and ex- 
pressed the hope that it would shortly be 
available. 

Book Collection Cities. The chairman pre- 
sented the following list of twelve libraries 
designated by the Camp Libraries Committee 
as collection centers for books collected by 
the 6,000 libraries of the country, the plan 
being to ship from specified zones to each 
of these libraries for trans-shipment to camps 
on instructions from the manager of camp 
libraries : 

Atlanta — Carnegie Library. 

Boston — Public Library. 

Chicago — Public Library. 

Cleveland — Public Library. 

Denver — Public Library. 

Kansas City — Public Library. 

Los Angeles — Public Library. 

New York — Public Library. 

Portland — Library Association. 

Philadelphia — Free Library. 

St. Louis — Public Library. 

Washington — Library of Congress. 

Camp Libraries Manager. Report from 
Camp Libraries Committee indicated a need 



for a manager of camp libraries who should 
give full time to the work, as soon as such 
service could be arranged. On motion, duly 
seconded and carried, the chairman of the 
committee was authorized to make such ar- 
rangements as would accomplish this with 
Mr. Matthew S. Dudgeon of Wisconsin, if he 
is able to proceure his release from the Free 
Library Commission of Wisconsin. 
Adjourned. 

Attest : 

J. I. Wyeb, Jb., 

Chairman. 

New York City, August 28, 1917. 

Present, at Room 207 in the New York 
Public Library, at five o'clock, the Chairman 
and Messrs. Anderson, Dudgeon and Hill. 

The chairman of the Camp Libraries Com- 
mittee reported that, following action and 
authority of the full committee at its meet- 
ing in Washington on August 14, M. S. Dud- 
geon, after having been released by the Wis- 
consin Free Library Commission, had been 
appointed Manager of Camp Libraries from 
August 27 at a salary of four thousand dol- 
lars ($4,000) per annum, for such term as 
he may continue in this work and position. 
This was then duly ratified by vote of com- 
mittee. 

The chairman of the Camp Libraries Com- 
mittee (Mr. Anderson) offered his resigna- 
tion. This was formally accepted, and, on 
motion duly seconded and carried, Mr. Dud- 
geon was named for the post. 

By unanimous vote of those present, Geo. 
B. Utley was designated executive secretary 
of the committee. 

Adjourned. 

Attest : 

J. I. Wteb, Jb., 

Chairman. 

Washington, D. C, October 3, 1917. 

At a meeting of the War Service Commit- 
tee of the American Library Association, at 
twelve o'clock noon, the following members, 
a quorum of the whole, were present: E. H. 
Anderson, M. S. Dudgeon, F. P. Hill, J. I. 
Wyer, Jr., G. B. Utley, Executive Secretary, 



134 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



and, by invitation, E. L. Tilton, architect of 
the committee. 

Furniture. Mr. Tilton laid before the com- 
mittee the following letter: 

LiBEABY BUBEATT, 

New York, September 28, 1917. 

Re : A. L. A. Libraries for Army Cantonments 
Mr. E. L. Tilton, Architect, 52 Vanderbilt 
Avenue, New York City. 

Dear Sir: 

Referring to our estimate of September 
25th, we have been directed by Dr. F. P. Hill 
to send an itemization of the price quoted in 
said letter. 
7037 — 39 3' double-faced sec- 
tions, unit wood book 
shelving, 7 shelves 

high $526 00 

23130 — 1 30 tray card catalog 
case, equipped with 
screw front rods, to be 
inserted in one section 
of the imit shelving . . 55 00 

7601 — 1 book truck with 4 

3" diameter wheels. . . 22 00 

741-3 — 1 charging and delivery 

desk 340 00 

1 attendant's desk, 27" 

X 40" 18 00 

1 librarian's desk, 32" 

X 50" 25 00 

7100 — 1 table for librarian's 

office, 2%'x4' 16 00 

7100 — 11 reading tables, 3'x5' 

X 31%" high 198 00 

Total, f . o. b. factory for each 

library $1,200 00 

The book shelving will be made on the 
same principle as our unit wood book shelv- 
ing, which is bolted together, being very 
simple to erect or change. There will be no 
moldings or paneling. The front edge of the 
shelves will be made without beading. The 
table tops and coimter tops will be made of 
solid straight oak. 

All material would be shipped carefully 
crated, and prepared for erection by ordinary 



carpenters; simple setting plans and direc- 
tions will be furnished by us. 

Our estimate above does not include the 
trucking from destination freight station to 
the libraries, as data of cost covering this 
is not available. 

Yours very truly, 

LIBRARY BUREAU, 

H. R. Datz. 

After discussion, it was Voted, that the 
Committee, through its Executive Secretary, 
contract with the Library Bureau for sixteen 
pieces of each of the following items of fur- 
niture for camp library buildings, viz.: 

The first, third (amended as 2 trucks in- 
stead of 1), fourth (price $240 instead of 
$340), fifth, sixth and eighth of the items 
noted in the above letter at a total cost for 
each camp of $1,051. 

Mr. H. R. Datz, present and representing 
the Library Bureau, agreed to specifications 
expressed in the above letter and promised 
shipment in six weeks from date. These as- 
surances were adopted as part of the contract. 

Acting for Hayward Brothers, Mr. Datz 
submitted specifications and sample of an 
oak arm chair. It was Voted that the Com- 
mittee, through its Executive Secretary, con- 
tract for 3,200 such chairs at not to exceed 
$3 each, crated and f. o. b. factory, with the 
imderstanding that the order will be shipped 
in six weeks from date and that, if necessary, 
it may be divided among several factories, 
provided there be no deterioration in material 
or workmanship. 

After recess until two o'clock, the same 
members met with Herbert Putnam and 
Charles Belden also present. 

Minutes of meetings of August 14 and 28 
were submitted, and, on motion, they were 
approved without reading. 

Reports were received and accepted from 
the sub-committees on Camp Libraries, Food 
Information and Finance (the latter sub- 
mitted following its separate session in the 
preceding forenoon ) . 

The Committee on War Library Manual 
submitted as its report the three numbers of 
the War Library Bulletin. 



WAR SERVICE COMMITTEE 



135 



Library War Fund. The substance of the 
report of the Sub-committee on Finance was 
that the campaign for a Million-dollar Li- 
brary War Fund is a success. That nearly 
$1,000,000 in subscriptions are already re- 
ported, with ten States to be heard from and 
new subscriptions from all States reported 
daily. Discussion developed the unanimous 
opinion of the Committee that this million 
dollar fund, having been procured for the 
specific and widely advertised purpose of 
books for soldiers, could be used only for 
such of the Committee's work as clearly falls 
under that caption. The discussion expressly 
negatived the propriety or good faith of di- 
verting any part of the Library War Fund 
to the use of the sub-committee on Publicity 
(for Library War Service Week) and Food 
Information. 

Voted, That the Chairman be authorized 
to employ such clerical and stenographic as- 
sistance as in his judgment may be necessary 
at Albany. 

Committee took further recess till 11 a. m. 
on the following day. 



Convening after recess at 11 a. m., October 
4, 1917, the following members, a quorum of 
the whole, were present: E. H. Anderson, 
M. S. Dudgeon, F. P. Hill, J. I. Wyer, Jr., 
and G. B. Utley, Executive Secretary. There 
were also present by invitation Charles Bel- 
den, E. L, Tilton and, through part of the 
session, Herbert Putnam. 

Library Service to the Troops. Upon con- 
sideration of the situation and the prospect, 
the need being apparent for the concentra- 
tion in a single executive of certain of the 
duties entrusted to this Committee, it waa 

Voted, That Herbert Putnam, Librarian of 
Congress, hereinafter referred to as the Gen- 
eral Director, be requested to take over the 
direction and conduct of the work of supply- 
ing reading matter to the military and naval 
forces of the United States, entrusted to this 
Committee by the general resolution of the 
Association at Louisville, Jime 22, 1917, by 
the invitation of the Commission on Training 
Camp Activities June 28, 1917, and by the 



votes of the Executive Board adopted August 
14, 1917. 

Voted, That for this purpose he is author- 
ized, 

1. To select and appoint, or otherwise em- 
ploy, such persons as in his judgment may be 
necessary in connection with this service, to 
define their duties, to fix their compensation 
and to discontinue their employment within 
his discretion. This authority extends to the 
persons now under employment, whether paid 
or volunteer. Among his staff he shall ap- 
point an officer to be known as the Disburs- 
ing Officer, and another officer, known as the 
Executive Secretary. 

2. To determine finally the design and 
equipment of the buildings proposed, if neces- 
sary, modifying the provisional plans as cir- 
ciunstances may seem to require; and to 
arrange for others, if required, subject in 
both cases to the limit of the grant by the 
Carnegie Corporation for such purposes; 

3. To contract for the erection and equip- 
ment of such buildings; 

4. To determine finally the list of books 
to be purchased, and to contract for their 
purchase within the funds available, and as- 
sign those acquired to their appropriate loca- 
tion and service; 

5. To accept or reject other reading matter 
offered as gift, and similarly apply that 
accepted ; 

6. To contract for and purchase necessary 
supplies ; 

7. To make all other contracts in his judg- 
ment necessary to the service, including the 
lease of such premises as may be necessary 
for administrative uses; 

8. To enter into such other obligations as 
may involve expenditures from the funds 
committed to the Association for the general 
purpose stated; 

9. To determine with the Commission on 
Training Camp Activities the other agencies 
of the War Department involved, and also 
with the Red Cross, the Y. M. C. A., the 
Knights of Coliunbus, and other such non- 
official agencies, the reciprocal relations which 
may promote efficiency in this field of service; 

10. And in general to carry into effect the 



136 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



purposes for which this Committee was cre- 
ated so far as they concern the supply of 
reading matter to American soldiers and 
sailors, exercising in its behalf the authority 
confided to it by the votes of the" Association 
and of the Executive Board recited above. 

11. That from the funds available for these 
purposes (after all expenses of the Library 
War Fund Campaign have been settled) and 
including any funds hereafter received, the 
General Director shall prepare a budget to 
be submitted to the War Service Committee 
on October 15 of each year. This budget may 
be amended by the War Service Committee, 
and when finally approved by this Commit- 
tee, shall be at the disposal of the General 
Director for the purposes related above. 

All contracts and advances made and all 
bills incurred in this work shall be approved 
first by the head of the department in which 
the charge originates, second, by the Execu- 
tive Secretary, and finally by the General 
Director. They shall then be passed to the 
Disbursing Officer for payment. All checks 
shall be signed by the Disbursing Officer and 
countersigned by the Executive Secretary or 
the General Director. The Disbursing Officer 
shall be bonded in the sum of $25,000, the 
premiums for which shall be chargeable to 
the funds of the Committee (provided, how- 
ever, that the present method of approving 
vouchers shall be continued until subscrip- 
tions to the Library War Fund reach the 
sum of $1,000,000 plus necessary campaign 
expenses). 

The American Security and Trust Com- 
pany of Washington is approved and con- 
tinued as the Washington depository of the 
funds of the War Service Committee. Other 
depositories may be designated by the Finance 
Committee of the American Library Associa- 
tion for such parts of the funds as it may be 
deemed expedient or advantageous to place 
elsewhere. 

The General Director shall submit to the 
chairman of the War Service Conmiittee a 
monthly statement of expenditures and bal- 
ances touching the several items in the budget 
and the books, accoimts and vouchers shall 
b« open to the chairman of the Finance Com- 



mittee of the American Library Association 
for quarterly audit. 

Voted, That as the foregoing action involves 
the fundamental control and direction of the 
work in this field, it be submitted for the 
ratification of the Executive Board, notwith- 
standing the apparent completeness of the 
authority vested in this Committee by the 
votes of the Board on August 14, 1917. 

Mr. Dudgeon offered his resignation as 
chairman of the Sub-committee on Camp 
Libraries. Voted, That the resignation be 
accepted and Mr. Wyer be appointed to the 
vacant chairmanship. 

It was also Voted, That this Committee ap- 
proves the plans submitted to it at this time 
by its architect for sixteen library buildings 
at cantonments, excepting, however, such 
building as may be notified to the office on 
Cantonment Construction by the manager of 
camp libraries. 

It was Voted, That the office of Cantonment 
Construction be asked to arrange immediately 
for the erection of the buildings according to 
the following paragraph, appearing in letter 
of Col. Littell (per Major L. L. Calvert), 
dated October 4, 1917: 

" This office estimates the cost of the pro- 
posed library buildings at the National Army 
Cantonments, according to your sketch plans, 
to be the sum of $6,700, including plumbing, 
heating stoves, electric wiring and fixtures." 

Further Voted, That such part of the svun 
granted by the Carnegie Corporation for 
these purposes (not exceeding the allowance 
of $10.,000 for each building), or so much of 
it as may be necessary, is hereby set apart 
and designated for the construction of these 
buildings. 

Voted further. That in behalf of this Com- 
mittee the Librarian of Congress is especially 
authorized to make all necessary contracts 
in pursuance of the above arrangements, this 
being in anticipation of his authority so to 
contract and obligate the American Library 
Association as General Director of this ser- 
vice, according to other votes of this Com- 
mittee adopted today. He is also authorized 
to approve and sign other contracts for the 
equipment and furnishing of such buildings. 



WAR SERVICE COMMITTEE 



137 



In view of the necessity of meeting the 
conditions attached to the grant of the Car- 
negie Corporation, the chairman of the War 
Service Committee is asked to report to the 
secretary of the Carnegie Corporation: 

( 1 ) Amount of total subscriptions to Li- 
brary War Fund, except the gift of the Car- 
negie Corporation; 

(2) Amount of cash in hand arising from 
these subscriptions and, further, from time to 
time to revise this statement in order to re- 
lease portions of the grant needed to continue 
construction of buildings. 

Committee then adjourned. 
Attest : 

J. I. Wyeb, Jr., 

Chairman. 

New York Public Library — 3 p. m., Thurs- 
day, October 18, 1917. 

Present: J. I. Wyer, Jr. (presiding), E. H. 
Anderson, Frank P. Hill, and M. S. Dudgeon, 
a quorum; also Herbert Putnam, Librarian of 
Congress, and George B. Utley, Executive 
Secretary. 

The minutes of the meetings of October 3 
and 4 were read and approved. 

Mr. Putnam presented a report of the ac- 
tion taken by him under the special vote of 
October 4, 1917, with reference to library 
buildings at the cantonments, and it was 

Voted, That this action is approved, and 
that the Secretary transmit to the Carnegie 
Corporation a copy of Mr. Putnam's report 
and this approval. 

The Secretary, Mr. Utley, being also Sec- 
retary of the Executive Board, having re- 
ported the ratification by the Board of the 
votes of this committee October 4, 1917, re- 
questing Herbert Putnam, Librarian of Con- 
gress, to take over the direction and conduct 
of the work of supplying reading matter to 
the military and naval forces of the United 
States, and granting him certain authority 
for that purpose; 

And Mr. Putnam having signified in writ- 
ing his acceptance of the service. 

The Chairman of the War Finance Com- 
mittee stated the total of subscriptions re- 
ported to date for the supply of reading 
matter to the military and naval forces, also 



the amount of the campaign expenses actu- 
ally paid to date and an estimate of other 
obligations on this account still outstanding, 

It appearing from the said statements that 
the subscriptions to date exceed a million 
dollars by an amoimt amply sufiicient to 
meet all the expenses paid and to be paid, it 
was 

Voted, That from the funds on deposit 
with the American Security and Trust Com- 
pany of Washington, D. C, there be trans- 
ferred to the People's Trust Company of 
Brooklyn, New York, the sum of $70,000 to 
be applied under the existing system of ex- 
penditure for the purpose of meeting out- 
standing campaign expenses, including 
expenses of collection, and of reimbursing to 
certain subscribers the sums advanced by 
them to imderwrite the campaign. 

Voted, That except as to the said sum of 
$70,000 so to be transferred, the new fiscal 
system proposed by the vote of this Com- 
mittee on October 4, 1917, in particular that 
provided for under paragraph 11 of that vote, 
shall now take effect. 

The General Director having submitted es- 
timates for an initial budget the following 
initial budget totalling the sum of $865,020 
was, after discussion, approved and adopted: 

Initial Budget Submitted by General Director 
to the War Service Committee as of Octo- 
ber 15, 1917 

Buildings and equipment (Carnegie 

Grant) $320,000 

Books (including replace- 
ments), binding, periodi- 
cals $368,000 

Service 125,000 

Equipment, supplies, insur- 
ance, rent, postage, tele- 
grams, travel, transpor- 
tation, printing, sundries 

and contingent 52,020 

545,020 

$865,020 
Mr. Putnam having also laid before the 
committee a communication received by him 
from the American Secxirity and Trust Com- 
pany stating that the sum voted to his credit, 
as General Director, should be a lump sum, it 
was 



138 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



Voted, That in pursuance of the provisions 
of the vote of this committee on October 4, 
1917, the American Security and Trust Com- 
pany of Washington, D. C, be and is hereby 
authorized and requested, out of the remain- 
ing funds of this committee in its hand (ex- 
cept the said sum of $70,000 so to be trans- 
ferred), to credit Herbert Putnam, as General 
Director, with the sum of $865,020, to be 
drawn upon in accordance with the provisions 
of the said vote, for the purposes of the 
work contemplated therein. And should the 
funds at present in the hands of the said 
company be insuflBcient for this action, then 
to credit to his account the sum on hand, and 
from subscriptions later received from time 
to time to credit further sums, until the 
total shall reach the sum of $865,020 above 
stated. It was then 

Voted, That out of the sum placed at his 
disposal to-day, the General Director is au- 
thorized to pay outstanding claims against 
the War Service Fimd (exclusive of campaign 
expenses), where such claims are certified to 
him as correct and due by the chairman of 
the War Finance Committee and one other 
member of the Camp Libraries Committee. 

Voted, That the War Finance Committee 
be requested to continue to completion the 
work of collecting the sums subscribed in 
the campaign, incurring such expenses as may 
be necessary for the purpose. 

Voted, That if, after investigation, it ap- 
pears to the General Director that insurance 
should be placed upon the library buildings 
at the cantonmenta and camps, he is re- 
quested to place it, the premium being 
charged to the fimds subject to his disposal. 

Voted, That the Secretary transmit to the 
Carnegie Corporation a summary of the ac- 
tion taken by this committee in its votes of 
October 4, 1917, and of to-day, so far as it 



may appear to be of interest to the corpora- 
tion, and that he inform the Commission on 
Training Camp Activities of the action taken 
of interest to it. 

Mr. Dudgeon, because of his active partici- 
pation in the executive work of the com- 
mittee, presented his resignation as a member 
of the committee. 

Voted, That it be accepted. 

The Secretary reported that contingent 
upon his resignation, the President of the 
Association had designated C. F. D. Belden, 
Librarian of the Boston Public Library, to 
the vacant position. 

For the information of the committee the 
Secretary reported also the receipt from Mr. 
Putnam of a commimication addressed to the 
President of the Association tendering hi« 
resignation as a member of the Executive 
Board. 

For the information of the committee Mr. 
Putnam stated that as General Director he 
would ask Mr. Utley to continue as Execu- 
tive Secretary and Mr. Dudgeon as Camp 
Library Manager; and that he proposed to 
appoint as Disbursing Officer, William L. 
Brown of Washington, D. C, formerly 
Cashier of the Hampton Institute, and now, 
and for some time past, Chief Clerk of the 
Copyright Office; that the appointment would 
take effect October 19, 1917, at which date 
Mr. Brown's bond in the Fidelity and Cas- 
ualty Company of New York to the Asso- 
ciation in the sum of $25,000 will be ready 
for delivery to such person or official as the 
committee may designate, or in absence of 
such designation, to the Treasurer of the 
American Library Association. 

Adjourned. 

Attest : 

Geo. B. Utley, 

Executive Secretary. 



WAR SERVICE COMMITTEE 



139 



THE FOLLOWING REPORTS, LETTERS, AND 
MEMORANDA, MENTIONED IN THE FORE- 
GOING MINUTES ARE APPENDED TO AND 
MADE A PART OF THESE MINUTES. 



Library of Congress, 

Washington, D. C. 
New York City, October 18, 1917. 
To the A. L. A. War Service Committee: 
Gentlemen : 

I report the following action taken under 
the special vote of your committee October 4, 
1917, with reference to library buildings at 
the sixteen cantonments: 

1. In company with Mr. Utley and Mr. 
Dudgeon I laid before Mr. Mayer, Secretary 
of the Commission on Training Camp Activi- 
ties, a copy of the vote, and asked his 
counsel. 

2. In company with him we had an inter- 
view with Major Starrett, Chairman of the 
Cantonment Construction Commission, and 
asked his counsel and direction. 

3. I later received from him drafts (1) of 
a Memorandum of Agreement between the 
Association and certain contractors (not at 
the moment named), constituting an order 
for the erection of the buildings and a con- 
tract for payments. A copy of this memo- 
randum is attached, marked A. I received 
also from him a suggested draft of a letter 
from me to the OflScer in Charge of Con- 
struction, General Littell. Copy appended, 
marked B. 

Sixteen copies of the Memorandum, signed 
by me in your behalf, were to be forwarded 
to General Littell, with the above letter, the 
names of the contractors being left blank, to 
be filled in by his office. 

4. The total expenditure involved in the 
sixteen contracts, according to the estimates 
of General Littell's office, is $107,200. 

On October 12 I was informed that the 
Carnegie Corporation had deposited this sum 



in the American Security and Trust Com- 
pany, to be available for payments on this 
account. 

5. On the same date I forwarded to Gen- 
eral Littell, with the covering letter (B), the 
sixteen contracts duly signed by me in your 
behalf. 

6. I have since received from General Lit- 
tell's office a list of the contractors whose 
names were inserted in the contracts. A 
copy of the list is appended, marked C. 

Very respectfully, 

Heebert Putnam. 
N. B. I append also (marked D) a list of 
the particular sites within each cantonment, 
stated by Mr. Tilton to have been agreed 
upon and noted by the Office of Cantonment 
Construction. 

A 
MEMORANDUM OF FORM OF AGREE- 
MENT BETWEEN THE AMERICAN 
LIBRARY ASSOCIATION, INC. 
78 East Washington Street, Chicago. 
(Washington Address, c/o Library of 
Congress) 

and 

You are hereby authorized to proceed with 
the construction of library for the Army Can- 
tonment at as indicated 

on Drawings 1, 2 and 3, prepared by Edward 
L. Tilton, Architect. The work is to be done 
under the direction and subject to the ap- 
proval of the Constructing Quartermaster 
for the camp (or such successor as may be 
appointed by the Commanding Officer of the 
Cantonment Division U. S. Quartermaster 
Corps ) . 

We understand that the work will be done 
under the same general terms and conditions 



140 



SAEATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



as obtained in the contract between you and 
the United States Government for the per- 
formance of the general construction work on 
the cantonment, with only such modifications 
as would apply to ownership by the Associa- 
tion, and the necessary changes in interpreta- 
tion to bring the work under the direct con- 
trol of the Construction Quartermaster, as 
above. 

The fire insurance on the building will be 
carried by us. We agree to pay you for the 
building, the actual cost as certified by the 
Construction Quartermaster, plus six per cent 
to cover overhead and profit; full payment 
to be made by us to you within five ( 5 ) days 
after certified completion of your work by the 
Construction Quartermaster. 

American Libbaet Association (Inc.), 
By its War Service Committee. 
Heebebt Putnam, 

Agent for this Contract. 
October 12, 1917. 



B 



October 12, 1917. 



Sir: 

The American Library Association, Inc., 
has permission from the Secretary of War to 
erect on cantonment sites certain small li- 
brary buildings as per drawings 1, 2 and 3, 
prepared by Edward L. Tilton, prints of 
which are herewith handed you. The Asso- 



ciation will pay the contractors direct for 
this work, but it is desired that the work 
be done under your Construction Quarter- 
master, and subject to his inspection and 
approval. We have, therefore, drawn a short 
form of order, copy of which is hereto at- 
tached, which we should like to give the con- 
tractor, putting your Construction Quarter- 
master in oflScial relation to us in the matter. 

We request that, if this procedure meets 
with your approval, you issue such orders 
as will enable your Constructing Quarter- 
master and your auditing oflScers to allow 
this work to proceed. 

Please note that the contractor looks to us 
solely in the matter of payment, and no obli- 
gation rests with the Government in the 
matter. For your information, we will state 
that the Library Association has the funds 
and authority for payment for these buildings 
available, as will appear from the copies of 
letters and resolutions attached. 

Very truly yours, 

For the American Library Association 
War Service Committee, 

Herbert Putnam. 

Brigadier-General I. W. Littell, 
in charge of Cantonment 
Construction Division, 

Quartermaster Corps, U. S. A. 



NATIONAL ARMY CAMPS WITH NAMES OF CONTRACTORS 

Names Locations Contractors 

Camp Custer Battle Creek, Mich Porter Brothers. 

Camp Devens Ayer, Mass Fred T. Ley & Co. 

Camp Dix Wrightstown, N. J Messrs. Irwin & Leighton. 

Camp Dodge Des Moines, la Charles Weitz & Sons. 

Camp Funston Fort Riley, Kans George A. Fuller & Co. 

Camp Gordon Atlanta, 6a Arthur Tufts Company. 

Camp Grant Rockford, 111 Bates Rogers Construction Co. 

Camp Jackson Columbia, S. C Hardaway Construction Co. 

Camp Lee Petersburg, Va Rinehardt & Dennis. 

Camp Lewis American Lake, Wash Hurley Mason Company. 

Camp Meade Admiral, Md Smith, Hauser & Mclsaac. 

Camp Pike Little Rock, Ark James Stewart & Company. 

Camp Sherman Chillicothe, Ohio The A. Bentley Company. 

Camp Taylor Louisville, Ky Mason & Hanger. 

Camp Travis Fort Sam Houston, Tex Stone & Webster Company. 

Camp Upton Yaphank, Long Island, N. Y. . Thompson Starrett Company. 



WAR SERVICE COMMITTEE 



141 



D 

LOCATION OF LIBRARIES FOR NA- 
TIONAL ARMY CANTONMENTS 

Camp Devens, Ayer, Mass. 

Library: Near Postoffice. 
Camp Upton, Yaphank, L. I. 

Library: Section N, near 80th Street. 
Cam,p Dix, Wrightstown, N. J. 

Library: Near Y. M. C. A. between Infan- 
try and Artillery Brigade. 
Camp Meade, Annapolis Jet., Md. 

Library : Opposite Y. M. C. A. and K. of C. 
Camp Lee, Petersburg, Va. 

Library: On space between 7th and 8th 
Streets. 
Camp Jackson, Columbia, 8. C. 

Library: Near 1st Avenue and Q Street. 
Camp Gordon, Atlanta, Ga. 

Library: Hardee Avenue, opposite Y. M. 
C. A. Auditoriiun. 
Camp Pike, Little Rock, Ark. 

Library: North Avenue opposite Y. M. 
C. A. Brigade Building. 
Camp Sherman,- Chillicothe, Ohio. 

Library: Between Cleveland and Cincin- 
nati Avenues, Section F, on Elyria Street. 
Camp Taylor, Louisville, Ky. 

Library : Opposite Y. M. C. A. Auditorium. 
Camp Custer, Battle Creek, Mich. 

Library: Front Section L, Signal Bat- 
talion. 
Camp Grant, Rockford, III. 

Library: Between 12th and 26th. 
Camp Dodge, Des Moines, Iowa. 

Library: Southeast from Telephone Build- 
ing, across street. 
Camp Funs ton. Fort Riley, Kans. 

Library: Opposite Y. M. C. A. 
Camp Travis, San Antonio, Texas. 

Library: Between the end of G. Avenue 
and 32d Street. 
Camp Lewis, American Lake, Wash. 

Library: West of 1st Brigade. 



A. L. A. War Service Headquarters, 
Washington, D. C, October 18, 1917. 
To the A. L. A. War Service Committee, 
J. I. Wyer, Jr., Chairman: 
This is to notify you that, by a correspond- 
ence vote taken pursuant to the Constitution 
of the Association and by direction of the 
President, the Executive Board has ratified 
in full the action taken by your committee 



in its votes of October 4, 1917, transferring 
to Herbert Putnam, Librarian of Congress, 
certain functions and authority with refer- 
ence to the supply of reading matter to the 
military and naval forces of the United 
States and providing a new system of pro- 
cedure in connection with the War Service 
Fund. 

Very truly yours, 

Geoege B. Utlet, 
Secretary American Library Association. 



Library of Congress, 
Washington. 
OflSce of the Librarian. 

New York City, October 16, 1917. 
Mr. Chairman: 

I accept and will undertake the service re- 
quested of me by your committee in its votes 
of October 4, 1917. 

Very truly yours, 

Herbeet Putnam. 
Mr. J. I. Wyer, Jr., 

Chairman A. L. A. Library War Service 
Committee. 



REPORT OF CHAIRMAN OF WAR 
FINANCE COMMITTEE 
Mr. Hill, as Chairman of the War. Finance 
Committee, reported that, including the Car- 
negie Grant of $320,000, the subscriptions to 
the fund reported to date total $1,300,000 of 
which the sum of $390,000 appears to have 
been paid into the Treasurer. 



Letter Head of 
Ameeican Security and Trust Company 
Teust Department. 
Washington, D. C, October 15, 1917. 
In re Am. Library Assn. War Service Fd: 
Herbert Putnam, Esq., 

Library of Congress, 

Washington, D. C. 
Dear Sir: 

With reference to the application of the 
fund known as the American Library Asso- 
ciation War Service Fund, we understand 
that you are to submit a budget to the War 
Service Committee, which, when passed upon 



142 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



and approved by the American Library As- 
sociation, a sum based thereon will be placed 
at your disposal for the work itself. We 
presume that this company as treasurer of 
the general fund will receive a certified copy 
of the resolution passed by the American 
Library Association, which resolution should 
authorize us to place the sum mentioned to 
the credit of Library War Service Fund, Her- 
bert Putnam, General Director; and it should 
be for a lump sum, not for an itemized bud- 
get, as the latter would require us to exam- 
ine the bills and maintain a system of ac- 
counting which is already provided for 
otherwise in your general system. 
Yours truly, 

B. AsHBY Leavell, 

Asst. Trust Officer. 



Public Library, Chillicothe, Ohio, 11 a. m., 
November 17, 1917 

Present, being a quorum of the Committee : 
J. I. Wyer, Jr., F. P. Hill, E. H. Anderson, 
Electra C. Doren, J. L. Wheeler (as proxy of 
C. F. D. Belden), also Thomas L. Montgom- 
ery, President of the A. L. A., and George B. 
Utley, Executive Secretary. The minutes of 
the meeting of October 18, having been dis- 
tributed in advance to all the members of 
the Committee, were formally approved. 

The following sub-committees were, on 
motion, discontinued: 
State Agencies Camp Libraries 

Local Agencies Publicity 

War Library Manual Federal Publications 
Transportation Selection of Books 

It was further 

Voted, That the Chairman of the Sub- 
Committee on Library War Week be in- 
formed that under the plan and in accordance 
with the purpose and understanding of the 
conduct of the recent campaign for funds no 
money can properly be appropriated for any 
purpose other than supplying reading ma- 
terial to the military and naval forces. 

Voted, Further, that the continuance of 
the Sub-Committee on Library War Week be 
referred to the Chairman of the War Service 
Committee, with power. 

The Chairman of the War Finance Com- 



mittee presented the accompanying report 
(Appendix 1) and audit from Marwick, Mit- 
chell, Peat & Company (Appendix 2). 

Voted: That these documents be received 
and placed on file. 

The Chairman of the American Library 
Association Finance Committee (A. L. 
Bailey), by a letter of November 10th (copy 
hereto attached), (Appendix 3), stated that 
he had gone over the report of the auditor 
and that it seemed to him satisfactory in 
every respect. 

On inquiry from the Chairman the Execu- 
tive Secretary informed the Committee that 
the bond of W. L. Brown, Disbursing Officer, 
had been deposited with the Treasurer of the 
American Library Association, and acknowl- 
edgment received. 

The General Director, having submitted by 
correspondence, copy of a communication 
(October 29th) by him to the American Se- 
curity and Trust Company requesting that 
the amount to be placed at his disposal 
(under the Committee's vote of October 18th) 
be limited to $652,220, except as this sum 
may be enlarged by further payments by the 
Carnegie Corporation, and he having in- 
formed the Chairman of this Committee that 
the Company recognizes this communication 
as sufficient to accomplish the purpose, it was 

Voted, That the above-mentioned commu- 
nication of October 29th to the American 
Security and Trust Company be incorporated 
in the minutes (Appendix 4). 

The General Director reported that he had 
placed no insurance on the buildings during 
their construction, the rates ($3 per $100) 
seeming excessive; but that he should, in 
accordance with the opinion of the Sub- 
Committee on Camp Libraries, in lieu of in- 
surance, create a sinking fund corresponding 
to the premiums that would be payable on 
the buildings after construction. 

The General Director further reported that, 
acting under his general authority, he had 
accepted a gift of $10,000 for a library build- 
ing at the Great Lakes Naval Training Sta- 
tion, that the sum had been paid over (to 
the War Finance Committee) and that he had 
placed the contract. 



WAR SERVICE COMMITTEE 



143 



Inasmuch as this gift was not foreseen in 
the budget voted October 18th, and as the 
sum involved should be made available to the 
use of the General Director in addition to 
the sum then voted, it was 

Voted, That the American Security and 
Trust Company, as Treasurer, is authorized 
and requested from the A. L. A. War Service 
moneys in its hands, to transfer to the credit 
of the War Service Fund, Herbert Putnam, 
General Director, the sum of $10,000, in addi- 
tion to that authorized by vote of this Com- 
mittee on October 18th, 1917. 

In view of the fact that the American 
Security and Trust Company requires ratifi- 
cation by the Executive Board of the above 
vote, and that such votes will continue to 
require ratification unless the need be antici- 
pated by a vote general in terms, the Com- 
mittee recommends that the following sug- 
gested form of general authorization by the 
Executive Board be submitted to the Board: 

Suggested Form for General Authorization 
by Executive Board 

" Voted, That the American Security and 
Trust Co., as Treasurer, is authorized and 
requested from the American Library Asso- 
ciation War Service moneys in its hands and 
other moneys added thereto hereafter, to 
transfer to the credit of the American Library 
Association War Service Fund, Herbert Put- 
nam, General Director, in addition to the 
sums heretofore authorized, such further 
sums as further votes of the American Li- 
brary Association War Service Committee, 
duly notified to it, shall from time to time 
request so to be transferred." 

Proposals to adopt some special procedure 
by which gifts for special uses could be de- 
posited with the general fund and applied 
without a specific vote of the Committee, and 
ratification by a specific vote of the Executive 
Board, were considered by the Committee, but 
it was finally 

Voted, That such proposals be laid on the 
table, as more time for consideration is 
desired. 

Note. It was suggested by the General 
Director that the adoption of such a vote as 



that appended to these minutes (Appendix 
5) might suffice. 

The General Director advised the Com- 
mittee that the Commission on Training 
Camp Activities asked to be relieved from its 
agreement to provide heating and lighting for 
the Camp Library buildings (the reasons 
therefor being set forth in a letter from Mr. 
Lee F. Hanmer to the General Director under 
date of November 5, 1917). 



It was unanimously Voted, That the cor- 
dial appreciation and thanks of the War 
Service Committee of the American Library 
Association be given to the Board of Trustees 
and Librarian of the Public Library of the 
District of Columbia for their generous pro- 
vision of commodious quarters for the con- 
duct of the financial campaign, and for their 
many additional courtesies. 



The Committee at 12.30 p. m. took recess 
until 5 p. m. The afternoon was spent in- 
specting the camp library building, Y. M. 
C. A., K. of C. and other buildings at Camp 
Sherman. 

The Committee reconvened at 5 p. m. at 
the Chillicothe Public Library. 

The Committee considered certain book 
campaigns proposed and outlined by ( 1 ) 
Grosset and Dunlap, and (2) the Standard 
Statistics Company, and gave as its recom- 
mendation that the Association embrace any 
opportunity for the procuring of good books 
when this can be done outside any commer- 
cial connection. (Mr. Hill requested to be 
recorded in the negative.) 

Book Campaign. The committee discussed 
at some length the question of an intensive 
book campaign. Among the opinions in- 
formally expressed were the following: 

( 1 ) Such a campaign can best be conducted 
through existing State and local agencies 
without paid organizers or assistants. 

( 2 ) At least one full time paid official with 
necessary clerical assistance should be en- 
gaged in the capacity of a department heead 
for such an enterprise. 

(3) Such a campaign should be organized 
as carefully and completely as was the cam- 



144 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



paign for money, and it cannot be said that 
paid workers are unnecessary until a definite 
policy and procedure has been decided on. 
We should profit by the experience of the 
money campaign — avoid its mistakes and 
adopt its good features. It was at length 

Voted, That the chairman confer with the 
General Director regarding an intensive book 
campaign and report (by correspondence) to 
the Committee. 



The inability of the Committee to meet 
incurred expenses except through the fiscal 
routine provided for in the resolutions of 
October 4th and 18th was brought to its at- 
tention and it was thereupon 

Voted, That nothing in the resolutioHS of 
October 4th and 18th, establishing the fiscal 
routine now administered by the General Di- 
rector shall operate to prevent the incurring 
of obligations by this Committee against 
funds over and beyond the credits heretofore 
voted or hereafter to be voted to the General 
Director for the purposes indicated in the 
resolutions of October 4th and 18th. 



Finance Committee Recommendations. The 
American Library Association War Finance 
Committee, meeting at Chillicothe, at an ear- 
lier hour on this same date, adopted certain 
recommendations which it transmitted to the 
Chairman of the War Service Committee, for 
such consideration and action as the latter 
Committee deems proper (copy of these 
" Recommendations for Consideration by the 
Finance Committee " hereto appended as Ap- 
pendix 6).* 

The War Service Committee, considering 
these recommendations, took action on the 
various heads as follows: 

( 1 ) Voted, That the Chairman of the War 
Finance Committee be authorized to release 
the Assistant Treasurer from his bond at 
such time as seems appropriate. 

(2) Voted, That it is desirable to invest 
any available suras now on deposit in the 
American Security and Trust Company in 



such manner as will procure the best interest 
return consistent with safety and easy avail- 
ability. 

(3) Voted, That the monthly subscription 
account (the DoUar-a-Month Fund) be kept 
separate from the Million Dollar Fund. 

(4) Voted, That the Carnegie Corporation 
grant of $320,000 be counted a part of the 
fimd raised by the American Library Asso- 
ciation. 

(5) No action taken by the War Service 
Committee. 

(6) No action taken by the War Service 
Committee. 

(7) Voted, That the American Library 
Association be asked to audit the account of 
the A. L. A. War Finance Committee. 

(8) Voted, That in accordance with the re- 
quest of the War Finance Committee, the 
clerical supervision of the funds be trans- 
ferred to the American Library Association, 
not later than January 1, 1918, to be man- 
aged through the regular A. L. A. Finance 
Committee and Special War Service Commit- 
tee, with power to add such increased clerical 
assistance as may be necessary. 

(9) No action taken by either the War 
Finance Committee or the War Service Com- 
mittee. 

(10) Voted, That the question of the de- 
sirability of the location of the headquarters 
of the American Library Association and of 
the General Director of the Library War Ser- 
vice in the same city be laid on the table. 

(11) No action taken by either Committee. 

(12) Voted, That the Chairman and the 
Secretary of the War Finance Committee pre- 
pare a history of the financial campaign, and 
that the expense of printing it be provided 
from the war fund, preferably from the 
DoUar-a-Month Pledge Fund. 

(13) No action taken by the War Service 
Committee. 



Voted, That the cordial thanks of the War 
Service Committee, as well as of the War 
Finance Committee, be extended to the mem- 
bers of the Library War Council for their 



These form part of Appendix 1. 



WAR SERVICE COMMITTEE 



145 



willing and ever-ready assistance in the re- 
cent campaign- 
Adjourned. 

Attest : 

Geo. B. Utlet, 
Executive Secretary. 

Note. As to Heating and Lighting of 
Buildings. 

The General Director adds for the informa- 
tion of the Committee that the Commission 
on Training Camp Activities having expressed 
definitely its inability to carry out its agree- 
ment to furnish heat and light, he took up 
the matter directly with the War Depart- 
ment. The Department, i. e., the Government 
itself, will provide both light and heat. [See 
letter of Quartermaster-General, Nov. 21, ap- 
pended.] (Appendix 7.) 

APPENDIX 1 

REPORT OF THE CHAIRMAN OF THE 
SUB-COMMITTEE ON FINANCE 

The duties of the Finance Committee are 
practically at an end, the campaign is vir- 
tually concluded, and the Committee may 
congratulate itself upon the successful out- 
come of the campaign for $1,000,000 to pro- 
vide reading matter to soldiers and sailors at 
home and abroad. The total cash in hand 
November 14th amounted to $1,058,208.24, 
and there are subscriptions due (most of 
which is in bank at Chicago, Philadelphia, 
Trenton and other places; and including 
$213,000, balance of the Carnegie Corporation 
appropriation), making a total (in round 
numbers) of $1,460,000. This will be in- 
creased somewhat, but we ought to be satis- 
fied even if we do not reach a million and a 
half. 

With this report is submitted a statement 
of receipts and balances due from subscribers. 
Practically all subscriptions will be paid; in 
other words we have accomplished the un- 
usual result of collecting all of our pledges. 

The total of $1,460,000 includes $320,000 
contributed by the Carnegie Corporation for 
the erection of library buildings at the 
thirty-two cantonments and camps. 

To raise this fund the sum of $50,000 (or 



to be exact, $44,700) was loaned the Com- 
mittee by librarians and individuals. 

This Campaign Fund ($44,700) has been 
audited by certified accountants — Messrs. 
Marwick, Mitchell, Peat & Co., Washington, 
D. C, and the report is satisfactory to Mr. 
A. L. Bailey, Chairman A. L. A. Finance 
Committee. (The Auditors' report and Mr. 
Bailey's letter of approval are submitted 
herewith. ) 

The Chairman also submits a report of ex- 
penses thus far incurred in the process of 
" cleaning-up the returns," and of expenses 
incurred by local campaign committees. This 
report should be audited by the A. L. A. 
Finance Committee. 

(A final statement of this Campaign Fund 
will be made to the A. L. A. Finance Com- 
mittee when the Association is ready to ac- 
cept charge of the accounts.) 

All of our borrowed capital, $44,700, has 
been returned (as shown by the statement 
from the People's Trust Company) in ac- 
cordance with promise made, and nine libra- 
ries and individuals have turned back a part 
or all of their original loan to the Library 
War Fund. 

The actual cost of the campaign up to 
October 31st was $44,124.15. The War Ser- 
vice Committee then appropriated $25,000 for 
the expenses of local campaigns and for 
cleaning up the campaign. A full statement 
of these expenses will be submitted to the 
A. L. A. Finance Committee. 

Since the last of June the chairman has 
given up practically all of his time to this 
work and without vacation, and his secretary 
has given all of her time in Washington. 

The Committee ought to be willing to re- 
lieve us of further detail and turn the work 
over to the A. L. A. 

The wind-up will be a long-drawn out af- 
fair and it will be as easy to turn the account 
over at one time as another. The chairman 
would like to be relieved of this work and 
thinks the accounts could be audited and 
turned over to the Treasurer of the A. L. A., 
say on the 10th of December. 

I have not felt like doing this until au- 
thorized by the Committee. The Chairman 



146 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



holds office by virtue of appointment by the 
Chairman of the War Service Committee, the 
other members were appointed by the Chair- 
man of this Committee. There seems to be 
no reason why the Committee should not dis- 
charge itself. 

In conclusion the chairman presents certain 
recommendations for the consideration of the 
Committee : 

( 1 ) Authorize Chairman to release the As- 
sistant Treasurer from his bond when in his 
judgment it is proper and expedient. 

(2) Invest fund now deposited in the 
American Security and Trust Company at 
once in short-time securities. 

( 3 ) Keep the monthly subscription account 
separate from the $1,000,000 fund. 

(4) The Carnegie gift of $320,000 to be 
counted as part of the $1,000,000 fund raised 
by the A. L. A. 

(5) Consider plans for the continuance of 
an assured income during the period of war — 

(a) By increasing monthly pledges 
from non-librarians. 

(b) By mite-boxes in all libraries. 

(c) Preparation within our own ranks 
for a financial campaign next year. 

(d) Fines and direct appropriations 
from libraries. 

(6) Prepare at once for an intensive cam- 
paign for books, even more carefully organ- 
ized than was the recent campaign for money. 

(7) Ask the American Library Association 
to audit the account of the A. L. A. War 
Finance Committee. 

(8) Clerical supervision of the fund be 
turned over to the A. L. A. on December 10th, 
to be managed through the regular Finance 
Committee and Special War Service Com- 
mittee. 

(9) Employees of the A. L. A. Treasurer's 
office to take charge of the cleaning-up process 
and of recording further collections after 
December 10th. 

(10) Desirability of the location of the 
A. L. A. offices and of the General Director 
in the same city. 

(11) The best library organizers should be 
sent to the thirty-two camps and to naval 
stations even if the cost seems large and that 



as good service should be rendered to the 
navy as to the army. 

(12) Prepare a history of the campaign; 
expense of printing to be paid from the fund. 

(13) Discharge or dissolution of the Com- 
mittee. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Frank P. Hill, 

Chairman. 



APPENDIX 2 



[lettebhead] 

MaBWICK, IlIlTCHELL, PeAT AND COMPANY, 

733 Fifteenth Street, N. W., 
Washington, D. C, 

November 5, 1917. 
Dr. Fbank p. Hill, Chairman, 

American Library Association War Finance 
Committee, 
26 Brevoort Place, 

Brooklyn, New York. 
Dear Sir: 

In accordance with instructions as con- 
tained in your letter of October 31, 1917, we 
have examined the accounts of D. P. Beards- 
ley, Assistant Treasurer of the American Li- 
brary Association's War Finance Committee 
and have found them correct. We have ob- 
tained certification of cash balances on hand 
from the People's Trust Company of Brook- 
lyn, and have checked and cancelled checks 
against his vouchers and cash book entries. 
The unexpended balance due from Mr. 
Beardsley to the War Finance Committee at 
the close of November 2, 1917, is $189.58. 

We submit herewith nine copies of our 
report, consisting of: 

Statement No. 1 — Summary of Receipts 
and Disbursements. 

Statement No. 2 — Classification of Dis- 
bursements. 

Statement No. 3 — Checks outstanding on 
November 2, 1917. 

One copy has been forwarded, at his re- 
quest, to Mr. Arthur L. Bailey, Free Library, 
Wilmington, Delaware, which we trust meets 
your approval. 

[Signed] Very truly yours, 

Maewick, Mitchell, Peat and Co. 



WAK SERVICE COMMITTEE 



147 



[lettebhead] 

Mabwick, Mitchell, Peat aisd Company, 

733 Fifteenth Street, N. W., 

Washington, D. C, 

November 5, 1917. 
Dr. Feank p. Hill, Chairman, 

American Library Association War Finance 
Committee, 
26 Brevoort Place, 

Brooklyn, New York, 
Dear Sir: 

In accordance with instructions as con- 
tained in your letter of October 31, 1917, we 
have examined the accounts of the American 
Library Association's War Finance Commit- 
tee and have obtained certification of cash 



balance on hand from the People's Trust Com- 
pany of Brooklyn. 

We submit herewith nine copies of our re- 
port, consisting of: 

Statement No. 1 — Summary of Receipts 
and Disbursements. 

Statement No. 2 — Classification of Dis- 
bursements. 

Statement No. 3 — Checks outstanding on 
November 2, 1917. 

One copy has been forwarded, at his re- 
quest, to Mr. Arthur L. Bailey, Free Library, 
Wilmington, Delaware, which we trust meets 
your approval. 

Very truly yours, 
Maewick, Mitchell, Peat and Co. 



AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION WAR FINANCE COMMITTEE 

Statement No. 1 

Summary of Receipts and Disbursements from August 10, 1917, to November 2, 1917, inclusive 

Receipts deposited in the People's Trust Disbursements as per Summary 

Company: Statement attached $44,124 15 

From Dr. Frank P. Hill 

1917 

Aug. 10 $2,000 00 Advances to War Service Com- 

" 15 2,000 00 mittee, unpaid 147 86 

" 20 4,000 00 

" 27 2,000 00 

" 31 4,000 00 

Sept. 8 4,000 00 

" 14 4,000 00 

" 21 5,000 00 

" 26 5,000 00 

Oct. 5 5,000 00 

" 20 5,000 00 

" 30 2,347 36 

$44,347 36 
From Other Sov/rces 
Overpayment of H. N. 

Sanborn $0 55 

Overpayment War Fund, 

Hamilton 8 36 

Check from S. M. Bard.. 41 67 
Check from L. E. Stearns. 63 65 

114 23 

Checks outstanding as per State- 
ment attached 3,007 63 Balance in bank 3,197 21 

$47,469 22 $47,469 22 



148 



SAEATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION WAR FINANCE COMMITTEE 

Statement No. 2 

Classification of Disbursements from August 10, 1917, to October 31, 1917, inclusive 

Item Office Field Total 

Salaries $9,456 83 $10,409 16 $19,865 99 

Maintenance, including Conferences 634 36 5,089 91 5,724 27 

Travel, including Conferences 661 33 3,170 87 3,832 20 

Telephone and telegraph 2,158 04 661 85 2,819 89 

Postage and expressage 2,166 83 140 83 2,307 66 

Printed matter 8,090 75 8,090 75 

Office supplies and expenses 1,180 29 1,180 29 

Contingencies 13 302 97 303 10 

Total $24,348 56 $19,775 59 $44,124 15 



Dr, 



APPENDIX 3, NOV. 17, 1917 

November 10, 1917 
Frank P. Hill, Chairman, 
A. L. A. War Finance Committee, 
Brooklyn, New York. 
Dear Sir: 

I have examined the report of Marwick, 
Mitchell, Peat & Co., chartered accountants, 
which they have made on the receipts and 
disbursements of the Campaign Fund of the 
War Finance Committee of the American Li- 
brary Association, and beg to report that so 
far as I can judge it seems to me satisfactory 
in every respect. 

Very truly yours, 

A. L. Bailey, 
Chairman Finance Committee Ameri- 
can Library Association. 



APPENDIX 4, NOV. 17, 1917 

American Library Association 

Library War Service 

Headquarters 

The Library of Congress, 

Washington, D. C, 

October 29, 1917. 
Gentlemen : 

In accordance with your request the sum 
($865,020) which you were requested to 
place to my credit as General Director was a 
lump sum. In determining it, however, the 
War Service Committee contemplated that 
$320,000 of it would represent the grant by 
the Carnegie Corporation for library build- 
ings at the cantonments and National Guard 



Camps. The balance — $545,020 — represents 
what I am free to expend on other accounts. 
As between me and the Committee, therefore, 
the sum in your hands that I should control 
is only $545,020 plus deposits by the Corpo- 
ration — all such deposits being on account 
of the grant. 

Of the $320,000 only $107,200 has thus far 
been deposited — the rest awaiting placing of 
contracts or claims presented under them. 

I therefore request that for the present the 
amount to be placed to my credit as General 
Director be limited to ( $545,020 plus $107,200) 
$652,220 — except as this amount be in- 
creased by further deposits from the Carnegie 
Corporation. 

Very respectfully, 

Herbert Putnam, 
General Director. 

The American Security and Trust Co., 
Washington, D. C. 



APPENDIX 5, NOV. 17, 1917 

Proposed Vote for Gifts for Special Use 
Voted, That in the likelihood of gifts for 
special uses in connection with Library War 
Service, which may require prompt action by 
the General Director, the following procedure 
be authorized and requested: 

1. The offer, or gift, if not made to the 
General Director, shall be at once commimi- 
cated to him by the authority receiving it; 

2. Moneys paid over in pursuance of it 
shall be deposited with the Treasurer, with 
notice that they are " special " in character ; 



WAR SERVICE COMMITTEE 



149 



3. That a duplicate of this notice shall be 
transmitted to the General Director. 

4. That each and every sum so notified and 
deposited shall be placed by the Treasurer to 
the credit of the War Service Fund, Herbert 
Putnam, General Director, in addition to any 
amounts heretofore or hereafter voted as a 
general credit, and shall thereupon become 
available for disbursement by him, for the 
purposes contemplated, in accordance with 
the procedure established under the general 
credit. 



APPENDIX 7, NOV. 17, 1917 

Wae Department, 

Office of the Quartermaster-General of the 

Army, Washington, 

November 21, 1917. 
Mr. Hebbeet Putnam, 

Librarian of Congress, 
Washington, D. C. 
My dear Mr. Putnam: 

With reference to your memorandum of 
November 20th regarding the question of fur- 
nishing heat and light for library buildings 
erected and being erected at cantonments and 
National Guard camps, it pleases me to ad- 
vise you that the Secretary of War, under 
date of November 21, approved recommenda- 
tion of this office, that inasmuch as the libra- 
ries referred to are provided solely for the 
benefit of enlisted men, the necessary fuel and 
light be furnished by the Government. The 
necessary instructions to this effect will be 
given by this office. 

Very respectfully, 
[Signed] Henby G. Shabpe, 

Quartermaster-General. 



New York Public Library — 10 a. m., Decem- 
ber 29, 1917. 
The following members present, being a 
quorum of the Committee: J. I. Wyer, Jr., 
E. H. Anderson, F. P. Hill, Gratia A. Coun- 
tryman, C. F. D. Belden and W. H. Brett 
(named by President Montgomery since last 
meeting to succeed A. E. Bostwick, resigned ) ; 
also Herbert Putnam, General Director of the 



Library War Service, and G. B. Utley, Execu- 
tive Secretary. 

The minutes of the meeting of November 
17, 1917, which had been distributed to all 
members of the Committee were formally ap- 
proved. 

A commimication regarding the functions 
of the War Service Committee was laid be- 
fore the Committee by Mr. Hill. 

Voted, That it be accepted and placed on 
file. 

Investment of Surplus Funds. Investment 
of the surplus funds now on deposit with the 
American Security and Trust Company being 
under consideration, and the Library War 
Council having recommended that these sur- 
plus funds be invested in U. S. Treasury Cer- 
tificates, it was, on motion of Dr. Hill, sec- 
onded by Mr. Anderson, 

Voted, That, subject to the approval of the 
Executive Board, $500,000 from the funds 
deposited with the American Security and 
Trust Company be invested in 4 per cent 
U. S. Treasury Certificates at par, with inter- 
est, according to the recommendation of the 
Library War Council. 



The General Director submitted an infor- 
mal statement on the progress of the library 
war work. 

Publicity. The employment of a high- 
grade publicity man or a publicity bureau 
was discussed and without taking formal ac- 
tion it was the unanimous feeling of the 
Committee that a capable publicity man 
should be employed at headquarters. The 
General Director emphasized his conviction 
of the need for expert and prompt publicity 
and expressed his satisfaction that the Com- 
mittee favored the employment of adequate 
service. 

Report by War Finance Committee. Mr. 
Hill, Chairman, presented a statement of re- 
ceipts and expenditures in connection with 
the Library War Fund to December 29, 1917 
( Appendix 1 ) . 



The Committee next considered the ten 
memoranda at the end of the above report. 
1. Reconunendation of the Library War 



150 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



Council as to investment of surplus. Action 
already taken. 

2. On motion of Mr. Anderson, seconded by 
Mr. Brett, it was 

Voted, That the War Service Committee 
recommend to the Executive Board that it 
arrange for an audit of the accounts of the 
War Finance Committee, as of December 29, 
1917. 

3. The Chairman of the War Finance Com- 
mittee, having recommended that the ac- 
counts now in his hands in Brooklyn be left 
there and that new accounts be opened in 
Chicago by the Treasurer of the A. L. A., it 
was 

Voted, That only such of the records as are 
immediately necessary to the work in Chi- 
cago be forwarded there; the balance being 
retained for the present in Brooklyn. 

4. No action required, it being vmderstood 
that the Treasurer of the A. L. A. would avail 
himself of Mr. Fitzpatrick's services in in- 
stalling the financial records in Chicago. 

5. On motion of Mr. Hill, seconded by Mr. 
Brett, it was 

Voted, That the campaign account be kept 
for the present where it is: namely, in the 
People's Trust Company of Brooklyn. 

6. Voted, That subscribers to the Monthly 
Library War Service Fund be given an oppor- 
tunity to complete their subscriptions for 
twelve months in one payment, this payment 
to be made to C. B. Roden, Treasurer, and 
that henceforth these monthly subscriptions 
be discontinued. 

7. No action taken. 

8. On motion of Miss Countryman, sec- 
onded by Mr. Brett, 

Voted, That Mr. Hill and the Chairman of 
the War Service Committee continue to ap- 
prove the campaign expense accounts. 

9. No action taken. The General Director, 
being asked for information, said it was clear 
that Mr. Dudgeon, when director of Camp 
Libraries, committed the Committee to the 
payment for certain books to be bought by 
and for the Y. M. C. A., but that bill, al- 
though requested, had not been received. 

10. No action taken. 



At 1 o'clock recess was taken, the Commit- 
tee reconvening at 2:30, with the same 
persons present as in the morning, and in 
addition Mr. R. R. Bowker, advisory member 
of the Committee. 

Book Campaign. The subject of a book 
campaign, discussed at the Chillicothe meet- 
ing on November 17th, was taken under con- 
sideration and treated at some length and 
from various viewpoints and with several pro- 
posals made. It was at length, on motion of 
Mr. Anderson, seconded by Miss Countryman, 

Voted, That the General Director be asked 
to undertake an intensive but continuing cam- 
paign for books. (Mr. Hill wished to be 
recorded in the negative. ) 

On motion of Mr. Anderson, seconded by 
Mr. Belden, it was 

Voted, That the American Security and 
Trust Company, as Treasurer, is authorized 
and requested from the A. L. A. War Service 
moneys in its hands, to transfer to the credit 
of the War Service Fund, Herbert Putnam, 
General Director, the sum of $25,000 in addi- 
tion to that authorized by vote of this Com- 
mittee on October 18th, 1917, this sum or 
such portion of it as is necessary to be used 
in meeting the expenses of a book campaign. 

In the course of the discussion relative to 
a book campaign, Mr. Hill informally pre- 
sented a memorandum on the subject which 
is appended to and made a part of these 
minutes. (Appendix 2.) 

Payment of Bills from the General Fund. 
The inability of the Committee to meet in- 
curred expenses except through the fiscal 
routine provided for on October 4th and 18th 
was considered at the Chillicothe meeting of 
November 17th and certain action there 
taken (see minutes of Chillicothe meeting, 
p. 40 ) . Supplementing that action it was, 
on motion of Mr. Anderson, 

Voted, That the American Security and 
Trust Company, as Treasurer, is authorized 
and requested from the A. L. A. War Service 
moneys in its hands, to transfer to the credit 
of George B. Utley, Executive Secretary, the 
sum of $2,000, to be used to meet general ex- 
penses of the Committee not justly chargeable 
to the fund voted to the credit of the War 



WAR SERVICE COMMITTEE 



151 



Service Fund, Herbert Putnam, General Di- 
rector; bills covering such expenses to be 
approved by the Chairman of the Committee, 
and checks to be drawn and signed by George 
B. Utley, Executive Secretary. 
Adjourned. 

Attest : 

Geo. B. Utley, 

Executive Secretary. 



APPENDIX 1, Dec. 29, 1917. 

REPORT OF THE CHAIRMAN OF THE 
A. L. A. WAR FINANCE COMMITTEE 
TO THE WAR SERVICE COMMITTEE, 
DECEMBER 29, 1917. 

Gentlemen : 

The Chairman of the A. L. A. War Finance 
Committee (a sub -committee of the War 
Service Committee) presents herewith a 
statement of receipts and expenditures in 
connection with the Library War Fund. 

Cash to the amount of $1,522,798.06 has 
been received up to and including Friday, 
December 28th, and information is at hand 
to the effect that additional money to the 
extent of $144,001.87 is deposited in banks 
or reported in various cities, as shown in the 
financial statement; making a total cash re- 
ceipts of $1,666,799.93. In addition a state- 
ment of the Campaign Fimd is also sub- 
mitted. 

The Library War Council by a formal vote 
recommended that a large portion of the 
balance be invested in United States Treas- 
ury certificates, and the Chairman of the 
War Finance Committee endorses this recom- 
mendation. It will be seen by the accom- 
panying letter from Miss M. M. Bruere, 
Secretary to Chairman Vanderlip, that these 
certificates can be supplied by the National 
City Bank at par and interest. I presume 
this recommendation should be transmitted 
to the Executive Board for direct action. 

The Chairman was authorized to have the 
bond of the Assistant Treasurer, Donald P. 
Beardsley, cancelled. This has not been done, 
as it was found that the bond was for a year 
and that no rebate would be allowed if can- 
celled within the year: 



The Treasurer of the A. L. A. spent a 
couple of hours in Brooklyn December 13th 
to see about taking over the accounts. It 
was agreed as there were still many places 
to report that the transfer should be de- 
ferred until December 31st. The Chairman 
informed the Treasurer that John E. Fitz- 
patrick, who had been in the Finance De- 
partment of the Brooklyn Public Library 
for a year and who had been bookkeeper 
for the Finance Committee since the middle 
of November, was willing to go to Chicago 
for a few weeks to assist in closing the ac- 
counts. The Treasurer was to let him know 
before the end of the month, but no reply 
has been received. At the moment therefore 
everything is in the air. It will be awkward, 
if not difficult, for a new person to take on 
this work without instructions. 

Money is being received daily, and while 
the large amounts are nearly all in, still 
checks will continue to be received for some 
time to come. It would be of advantage, 
therefore, for the person who takes up this 
work on the first of January to have knowl- 
edge of the procedure which has been found 
necessary during the past three months. 

The Chairman of the Finance Committee 
would naturally like to have the accounts 
audited. This question was discussed with 
the Treasurer on his recent visit to Brooklyn, 
and the difficulty of getting a really satis- 
factory audit without great expense was 
considered. It is possible that the submis- 
sion of a detailed report of returns to the 
State Director or Treasurer for checking and 
the final publication of the campaign returns 
by cities is perhaps all the detailed audit 
necessary. An examination of the books for 
the record of receipts and expendittires is a 
simple matter which can be done either by 
the Treasurer of the A. L. A. or by a regular 
auditor whom the A. L. A. would select. In 
any event the account should be formally 
accepted and the Chairman given a receipt 
in full. 

REPORT 
Action suggested by the War Service Com- 
mittee on the following: 



152 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



1. Recommendation of Library War Coun- 
cil. 

2. Will the War Service Committee ask 
the A. L. A. to audit the account of the 
Finance Committee or give receipt in full? 

3. What shall be done with accounts now 
in Brooklyn? 

4. Any recommendation with regard to 
Fitzpatrick? 

5. Keep campaign account where it is un- 
til all bills are paid. 

6. Shall we discontinue $1 monthly sub- 
scriptions ? 

(a) Show present form of receipt. 

(b) If do stop give all chance to pay 

up for one year. 

7. Fake soldiers collecting for Fund in 
Brooklyn. 

8. How shall expense bills be approved 
after January 1st? 

9. Question of paying Y. M. C. A. for 
books bought. 

10. Consider disposition of Fund after 
War. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Fbank p. Hill, 

Chairman. 

APPENDIX 2, Dec. 29, 1917. 
BOOK CAMPAIGN 
Organization: 

The Campaign for Books will involve an 
immense amount of detail work, and it is 
therefore better separated (as the Financial 
Campaign has been) from the regular admin- 
istrative work of the General Director. The 
work should be under the immediate direc- 
tion of the War Service Committee (in con- 
sultation with the General Director), which 
would select and appoint a business mana- 
ger — a man like Mr. Allen of Boston. 

Field directors, so called, in the Financial 
Campaign would not be necessary, but we 
should carefully consider the peculiar duties 
required of the man in this position and then 
whether there are librarians with the ability 
or the experience needed; the whole to be 
carried on within the profession, using li- 
brary commissions. State libraries or indi- 
vidual libraries as State agencies, who would 
select State and local directors. 



Should Not Depend Entirely upon Volun- 
teer Help. At least one person should be 
employed in each of the larger States to 
give his entire time as an assistant to the 
State director and to take general charge of 
the details connected with the work. The 
business manager should have a separate 
office force with his headquarters at the 
Library of Congress. 
Methods: 

Instead of having only thirteen centers, 
every large city should be made a center. 

The direction of shipping should be han- 
dled by the business manager, who would act 
as a dispatcher, shipping with a definite 
knowledge of best railroad facilities, etc. 

Just what it is desired that each library 
shall do with the material collected should 
be decided beforehand in consultation with 
the General Director and definite instructions 
should be issued concerning every point. 

Accept everything in the way of books, 
magazines, etc., and sell what is not wanted. 

The statement of useful and useless ma- 
terial will be necessary to determine the 
books which should be sent to camp even if 
it is not needed as a suggestion to donors. 

In place of attempting to embody detailed 
instructions regarding shipping in the general 
instructions these instructions should be 
given by the General Manager to the indi- 
vidual centers through the State directors or 
the paid assistant. The question of shipping 
is too complicated to be covered by a general 
circular. 

A form of report of quantity and quality 
of books received and distributed at each 
center should be planned so that the person 
in charge of this work can have an accurate 
knowledge of the resources in the various 
centers and the disposition made of these 
books. One weakness of the Financial Cam- 
paign was the lack of specific suggestions in 
regard to the best methods of raising money. 

Suggestions for campaign organization and 
methods should be collected from the centers 
which were most successful in the Financial 
Campaign and embodied in the instructions. 
(See Brown suggestions.) 



WAR SERVICE COMMITTEE 



153 



Date for an Intensive Campaign: 

The psychological effect of a definite time 
for undertaking the work should not be over- 
looked. The campaign once well started and 
properly pushed will continue by its own 
momentum. 

Publicity Man: 

A publicity man is needed to prepare 

(a) Circular of information for librarians. 

(b) Placards, pamphlets, etc., for distribu- 
tion. 

(c) Articles for the newspapers and maga- 
zines to arouse interest and to satisfy that 
interest when it is aroused. 

The necessity for keeping up the publicity 
should be recognized and frequent reports 
should be secured from camp librarians. In- 
cidents illustrative of the appreciation of the 
books will inspire others to give. 

Expense: 

It should be remembered that in all prob- 
ability 3,000,000 volumes will be collected. 
If only a sixth of these prove useful, they 
will represent a saving in money of at least 
$250,000. We should therefore be amply 
justified in spending from $20,000 to $25,000 
to do the work connected with this campaign 
thoroughly and efficiently. 



Minute of Correspondence Vote 

Washington, March 1, 1918. 

To the War Service Committee: 

The Chairman of the War Service Com- 
mittee, Mr. J. I. Wyer, Jr., advises me under 
date of February 19th that by correspond- 
ence vote the War Service Committee has 
authorized the transfer of $50,000 from the 
budget item for " Books " to that of "Mis- 
cellaneous." This vote refers to the initial 
budget voted to the General Director on Oc- 
tober 18, 1917. 

Very truly yours,, 

Geo. B. Utlet, 
Executive Secretary. 



New York Public Library, 10 a. m,, 
April 4, 1918 

The following members were present, being 
a quorum of the Committee: J. I. Wyer, Jr., 
E. H. Anderson, F. P. Hill, C. F. D. Belden 
and W. H. Brett. Thomas L. Montgomery, 
President of the American Library Associa- 
tion, Herbert Putnam, General Director of 
the War Library Service, and R. R. Bowker, 
editor of the Library Jov/rnal, were also 
present. 

The minutes of the meeting of December 29, 
1917, which had been distributed in type- 
written form to all members of the Commit- 
tee, were formally approved. 

Audit. The Chairman submitted copy of 
report (Appendix 1) from Arthur L. Bailey, 
Chairman of the A. L. A. Finance Committee, 
as made to the Executive Board of the Asso- 
ciation, showing that in accordance w^ith the 
recommendation of the War Service Com- 
mittee of December 29, 1917, his Committee 
had audited the accounts of the War Finance 
Committee. This report was accompanied 
by detailed statements from the Chairman 
of the War Finance Committee covering re- 
ceipts and expenditures in the various funds 
handled by this Committee and which were 
the subject of the audit. 

The Chairman also reported approval by 
the A. L. A. Executive Board (A. L. A. Bul- 
letin, March, 1918, pp. 10-11) of the action 
of this Committee of December 29, relating 
to the investment of $500,000 in 4% U. S. 
Treasury certificates and of the transfer to 
the credit of the Executive Secretary of 
$2,000 to be used to meet general expenses of 
the Committee not justly chargeable to the 
funds voted to the credit of the General 
Director. 

The attached statement was submitted by 
the General Director ( Appendix 2 ) . 

Acting on item A of this statement, it was 

Voted, That the General Director be au- 
thorized to make such transfers as he finds 
necessary from one account to another, within 
the appropriations which have already been 
made to him, also to meet out of such appro- 
priations the cost of any additional buildings 
which may be required and any excess over 



154 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



the sum set aside for the original buildings, 
and to report such action to the Chairman 
of the Committee. 

Acting on item C, it was 

Yoted, That any sums realized from the 
sales of unavailable books, magazines or 
reading matter, whether gift material or 
other, shall either be turned over to treas- 
urers of local campaign committees or be 
accounted for directly to the treasurer of 
the A. L. A. 

A. L. A. Program. The Chairman reported 
conference with the Secretary of the A. L. A. 
relative to the report of the War Service 
Committee at the Saratoga meeting and an 
agreement, subject to approval by this Com- 
mittee, that the full report of the General 
Committee with supplementary reports from 
sub-committees and a statement from the 
General Director, be printed in advance and 
distributed at Saratoga and that an oral 
summary report of not over thirty minutes 
be made to the Conference by the Chairman, 
to be accompanied by an oral statement from 
the General Director. This understanding 
was ratified by President Montgomery and 
agreed to by the Committee. 

Visits to Camp Libraries. The Chairman 
reported that he had visited sixteen camps 
and camp libraries March 8 to 29, according 
to memorandum submitted to each member 
( *Appendix 3 ) , and that twenty-one different 
camps where there are library buildings have 
already been visited by members of the War 
Service Committee and five additional camps 
by the General Director. 

Acting on item 8 of this memorandum, it 
was 

Yoted, That as many of the additional 
camps as practicable should be visited by the 
Chairman or some other member of the War 
Service Committee designated by him between 
this time and the A. L. A. Conference. 

Use of Enlisted Men. The Secretary laid 
before the Committee the following communi- 
cation : 



St. Louis, Mo., March 4, 1918. 
George B. Utley, Esq., 

c/o Library of Congress, 
Washington, D. C. 
Dear Mr. Utley: 

I have a copy of your circular letter of 
February 28 to librarians, with regard to 
camp library service. As I have said before, 
I feel that there are more than enough com- 
petent librarians now in military service to 
take care of these libraries without drawing 
on the A. L. A. funds, but we will never get 
them if we are to rely on regimental com- 
manders or even on the commanding officers 
of the camps. We must get a Government 
order from the War Department. We must 
now be paying out a considerable sum from 
our fund, even in the case of volunteer work- 
ers whose subsistence and traveling expenses 
have to be covered, and I believe that this 
could all be saved. I may be wrong, but I 
will not acknowledge it until the plan has 
been tried and has failed. 
Yours sincerely, 

Aethub E. Bostwick, 

Librarian. 

As this letter touches the policy of the 
War Service Committee in constituting the 
personnel of its war library service, it was 
unanimously recorded as the sense of the 
Committee that any application to the War 
Department such as this communication 
would imply, would be quite unwarrantable, 
as would any request for such continued ser- 
vices of enlisted men as is likely to interfere 
with their military preparation or duties. 

Overseas Service. There were laid before 
the Committee and read in full two detailed 
reports (January 21 and February 26, 1918) 
by M. L. Raney on the conditions affecting 
its Overseas Service in Great Britain and 
France. 

Second Money Campaign. Mr. Brett laid 
before the Committee a telegram asking 
whether the A. L. A. War Service wished to 
be represented, and in what amount, on the 
formal program for the Cleveland war chest 



Not printed. 



WAR SERVICE COMMITTEE 



155 



in May, 1918. The Chairman was directed to 
reply in the affirmative and to suggest 
amount. 

The matter of a second money campaign 
being thus specifically brought forward and 
the sense of the Committee having been ex- 
pressed that it must occur within the present 
calendar year, it was 

Voted, That the Chairman appoint a com- 
mittee of three (of which he shall be one) 
to consider and formulate plans for a second 
money campaign and to report them at the 
next meeting of the War Service Committee. 
Further, that to this committee be referred 
with power any matters relating to another 
money campaign which may be brought to 
the notice of the War Service Committee. 
The Chairman thereupon named Dr. Hill 
chairman and Mr. Belden third member of 
this committee. 

Attest : 

J. I. Wteb, Jb., 

Chairman. 

APPENDIX 1, April 4, 1918. 

February 13, 1918. 
To the Executive Board of the American 
Library Association: 

The Finance Committee of the Association 
having at your request examined the ac- 
counts of the Chairman of the War Finance 
Committee, report as follows: 

These accounts relate to two distinct lines 
of action: (1) the campaign to secure the 
fund for camp libraries, and (2) the accounts 
of the fund itself. 

As to the first, a partial audit was made 
as of November 2, 1917, by Messrs. Marwick, 
Mitchell, Peat & Co., chartered accountants. 
This the Finance Committee have accepted. 
This audit did not include certain advances 
by the Assistant Treasurer to the War Ser- 
vice Committee and certain payments of local 
campaign expenses which were to be repaid 
from the war fund. These items form 
account E. 

All of accounts A, B, D and E were veri- 
fied by the Committee, the receipts checked 
against the bank statements and all the ex- 



penditures determined to have been covered 
by properly approved vouchers. 

As to the fund itself the expenditures have 
not been authorized or controlled by the 
War Finance Committee and the vouchers 
for these expenditures are not in the pos- 
session of its chairman. The receipts, how- 
ever, have passed through his hands and have 
been recorded in his account C. These re- 
ceipts the Committee find to have been very 
carefully credited to the communities con- 
tributing. In some cases the State directors 
have made detailed reports of the total 
amount contributed from their States, and 
in all but two of such cases the Committee 
find that they are in absolute or very close 
agreement with the record of receipts. In 
other cases the directors' reports cover only 
a portion of the contributions from a given 
State, and in quite a large number there 
were no State directors or no reports were 
received from them. 

In all cases of the last class and also when- 
ever a considerable proportion of contribu- 
tions was not covered by the directors' 
reports the Committee examined the corre- 
spondence and reports from the individual 
towns and find that here also there is very 
close agreement with the record. 

The total amount stated in account C to 
have been received by the War Finance Com- 
mittee to and including January 19, 1918, is 
$1,573,153.79, which amount was deposited 
with the American Security and Trust Com- 
pany of Washington as treasurer of the fund, 
as shown by their statements up to and in- 
cluding January 23, 1918. Deducting the 
monthly contributions the deposits amounted 
to $1,570,386.44. 

The total amount stated in the directors' 
reports and other correspondence to have 
been contributed up to January 19, 1918, as 
nearly as could be ascertained by the Com- 
mittee, was $1,574,610.83. Almost the whole 
of this difference occurred in the reports of 
two States. After correspondence, it was 
found that in some cases deductions for local 
expenses had not been reported and in others 
unpaid subscriptions had been reported as 
contributions. Some of these have since been 



156 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



paid. The few discrepancies remaining are 
•till under investigation, but most of them 
are almost certainly due to the same causes. 
They are so small in amoimt, both abso- 
lutely and relatively, that the Committee see 
no reason for delaying their report, especially 
as it would appear that the total amount 
received is slightly greater than the total 
reported as contributed. 

The Committee desire to call attention to 
and emphasize the great difficulties and com- 
plexities of the work of receiving and record- 
ing such a multitude of transactions, though 
it would require a careful examination of the 
correspondence to realize them fully. They 
wish, therefore, to express their high appre- 
ciation of the thoroughness, faithfulness and 
accuracy with which the work has been 
done. 

Signed A. L. Bailey, Chairman, 

H. W. Ckavee, 

C. W. Andeews, 

Committee. 

APPENDIX 2, April 4, 1918. 
RECOMMENDATION OF GENERAL DIREC- 
TOR FOR MEETING APRIL 4, 1918 

A. The monthly statement of the Disburs- 
ing Officer for March (submitted herewith) 
shows the balance to the item of sundry and 
contingent expenses reduced, as of April 1st, 
to less than $10,000, or plus interest on de- 
posits, to about $12,000. For the needs of 
the next three months this item will again 
have to be substantially replenished. 

B. Buildings. 

1. Attached is a statement showing in 
columns (a) the cost of each Camp Library 
building to date, (b) the additional cost of 
its equipment (so far as possibly chargeable 
to the Carnegie Grant), (c) the total for 
each, (d) the margin or excess on each as 
compared with the $10,000 limit. 

In the case of nine buildings there is an 
excess. The buildings are Devens, Dix, Fun- 
•ton. Grant, Lee, Meade, Pike, Sherman, Up- 
ton; and the excess runs from $355.70 in the 
case of Pike to nearly $5,000 in the case of 
Devens. An addition planned at Lewis may 
involve a slight excess. 



So long as the total expenditure on the 
building and equipment account will be 
within the total ($320,000) of the grant, it 
is of course possible that the corporation will 
permit any such excesses to be met out of 
the grant. In the contingency that it may 
refuse to do so, however, I ask authority to 
meet any such excess from the General Fund 
(item "miscellaneous" of the budget). 

2. Construction of a building may prove 
necessary at Newport News. As it will pre- 
sumably be outside the scope of the grant, I 
ask authority to construct it from the Gen- 
eral Fund (same item). 

3. Small — perhaps portable — building* 
may prove necessary at some of the smaller 
posts; and perhaps a 93-foot building at 
Yorktown. As action upon them, if deter- 
mined, may have to be summary, I recom- 
mend that the budget be understood to be 
applicable to the construction of necessary 
buildings as well as the lease of them. 

C. Sales of undesirable books, magazines, 
newspapers. 

These have been in vogue from the outset, 
but, so far as I know, have never been for- 
mally authorized by the Committee. A vote 
authorizing them seems desirable. 

N. B. Prior to my administration receipts 
from such sales were deemed applicable to 
petty local expenses or transportation. They 
are now supposed to be covered into the 
General Fund. This seems the prudent 
course. 

New York Public Library, 10 a. m., 
June 8, 1918. 

Present: Edwin H. Anderson, Charles 
Belden, Elecitra C. Doren, Frank P. Hill, 
James I. Wyer, Jr., of the Committee (being 
a quorum), Thomas L. Montgomery, Presi- 
dent of the American Library Association, 
and after 11 o'clock, Herbert Putnam, Gen- 
eral Director of the Library War Service. 

Voted, That the minutes of the meeting of 
April 4 be approved without reading as type- 
written and sent to all members of the Com- 
mittee. 

The Chairman laid before the Committee 
a report from Mr. Hill of his visit to ten 



WAE SERVICE COMMITTEE 



157 



southern camps and six cities where library 
service to the troops is or is about to be 
inaugurated. 

Second Money Campaign. The following 
report was presented by the Committee ap- 
pointed April 4, 1918, to prepare a plan of 
organization for a second money campaign 
and to report this to members of the War 
Service Committee. 

TENTATIVE ORGANIZATION 

Need for More Funds. At the time of the 
first campaign the need for books in our 
military and naval camps was of necessity 
largely a matter of conjecture because it had 
not been definitely demonstrated. The first 
appeal was therefore a conservative one. 

The need for library service, an abundant 
supply of good, interesting and instructive 
books and a competent, expert personnel to 
administer them has now been clearly shown, 
and the demand from overseas and from 
home camps and stations has been far beyond 
the expectation of those closely connected 
with the work. 

The amoimt subscribed in the first cam- 
paign will be exhausted in six months, while 
opportunities for service and demands from 
new quarters (and especially from overseas) 
are daily presented. 

The American Library Association must 
therefore make another appeal for funds. 

The Prospect. (1) The campaign for funds 
held in the fall of 1917 and that for books 
held in the spring of 1918 have educated 
the general public as to the library needs of 
our soldiers and sailors, and individual ex- 
perience and observation in the first year 
of the war will have done much to impress 
these facts upon the public mind. 

(2) Hundreds of towns and cities took 
part in the first campaign. Practically all 
of these will be ready to participate in a new 
drive, while, in addition, a number of places 
which for one reason or another did not put 
on a campaign will be stimulated by the 
success of the first campaign to take part in 
the second. 

(3) By the time this second campaign is 
made the War Service of the American Li- 



brary Association will have been in operation 
a full year. It is already possible to collect 
an impressive exhibit of testimony to the 
need, value and efficiency of this service from 
public officials, camp commanders, officers and 
men. The work itself should be its own 
best advertisement and appeal. 

Goal. Three million dollars or more,. as the 
necessities shall appear to the Library War 
Finance Committee. 

Quota. Ten cents per capita, computed on 
latest available population figures, except 
that in cities of more than 250,000 the quota 
shall be five cents per capita, or to be de- 
termined by the Library War Finance Com- 
mittee and its Chairman after goal is settled, 
from the results of other money drives and 
conditions existing in different States and 
cities. 

Time of Campaign. Preferably between 
November 15 and December 1, 1918, but final 
decision to rest with the Library War Fi- 
nance Committee. 

Headquarters. Washington or New York? 
Decision to rest with Library War Finance 
Committee. 

Plan. The following plan was approved as 
the present sense of the War Service Com- 
mittee and by it referred to the Library War 
Finance Committee with power to alter or 
revise. 

A. To raise $3,000,000 to intensify and 
expand the present service; to purchase 
books for old and new camps, stations, etc.; 
to replace books worn out by use; to fur- 
nish many trained librarians for service in 
connection with the selection, distribution 
and use of books; to provide library build- 
ings in France and probable additional 
buildings in United States. 

B. Appointment of Library War Council 
same as before with the addition of repre- 
sentative men and women from sections of 
the country not represented in the original 
Council, possibly making a full membership 
of 25 or even more. 

C. Appointment by the Chairman of the 
War Service Committee of Chairman of Li- 
brary War Finance Committee with power 
to select committee and to manage campaign 



158 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



as in 1917. It is desirable that this appoint- 
ment be made at once in order that details of 
organization be presented at the Saratoga 
meeting. 

D. National organization. 

1. National campaign manager (a non- 
librarian in whose hand will be the expert 
direction of the campaign) . 

a. A Publicity Director. 

Under this officer there should be cre- 
ated a formally organized Speakers' Bu- 
reau with personnel for each State and 
indication of men and women available 
nationally. A speaker's manual should 
also be prepared and printed. 

2. Treasurer of Fund (now American Se- 
curity and Trust Company, Washington). 

a. Comptroller or Assistant Treasurer. 

3. Ten or fifteen Division Directors (these 
for the most part to be librarians familiar 
with the libraries in the several districts) 
to be assisted by paid publicity men. 

" If there is a National Publicity Director, 
why should he not provide publicity material 
for the entire country, including copy for 
newspapers? It seems to me that instead of 
having Division Directors assisted by paid 
puilicity men, let us have them assisted by 
paid organization men, one for each district. 
Perhaps Dr. Hill means the same thing as 
I do, but there should be men available who 
are accustomed to organize work in cities and 
towns for such a drive, and divisional direc- 
tors need such help, as few librarians have 
had much experience in raising funds or 
building up an organization to raise funds." 
(Mr, Belden.) 

E. State Organization. 

1. State campaign director, i. e., executive 
officer of State War Council (usually and 
preferably a librarian). 

Selected by the Division Director and ap- 
pointed by the Library War Council and 
Library War Finance Committee. 

2. State War Council. 

Selected by the Division Directors in con- 
ference with the State Campaign Director 
and consisting of about ten of the leading 
trustees or prominent people of the State, 
with proved business ability and experience 



in raising money, to confer with division and 
State directors, plan State campaign, and see 
that a campaign is started in every city and 
town of the State. 

3. State Treasurer. 

Selected by State War Council and ap- 
pointed by the Library War Council and 
Finance Committee. 

F. Local organizations. 

1. Local War Council to consist of local 
library board and a number of prominent 
men and women of the community which will 
act as an Advisory Board. The local library 
board should select the men and women of 
the commimity who should be included in 
this council. What should be the local or- 
ganization when the library board refuses 
to approve? Should procedure be as in 3 be- 
low? Is it worth trying to put on a cam- 
paign where the library board definitely re- 
fuses to sponsor it? 

2. Local campaign director to be selected 
by the Local War Council, may be the public 
librarian (though not one librarian in ten 
is the best person for local director) but 
must be a man or woman whose importance 
in the community and whose knowledge of 
and sympathy with library work are matters 
of public acknowledgment. He will be the 
executive officer of the Local War Council. 

3. In places where there are no libraries 
the local campaign director to be either 
(a) mayor or man appointed by him, (b) 
superintendent of schools, (c) president of 
woman's club. 

Suggested Procedure. 1. Conference of 
Division Directors with Chairman of Library 
War Finance Committee and National Cam- 
paign Director, at least two or preferably 
three months before date set for campaign. 

2. Selection of State Campaign Directors 
and appointment of State War Councils as 
early as possible. 

3. Selection of local Campaign Directors 
and appointment of Local War Councils. 

4. State meetings arranged by the State 
War Council and State Director in conference 
with the Division Director, Effort should be 
made to secure the attendance of as large a 
nimiber of local directors and representatives 



WAR SERVICE COMMITTEE 



159 



of the local war councils as possible. Good 
speakers should be provided and plans for 
local and State campaigns thoroughly dis- 
cussed. 

5. Local War Councils and Local Campaign 
Director should appoint committees to organ- 
ize the work along the following lines: 

a. Publicity. 

b. Individual subscriptions of considerable 
amounts. 

c. Theatres. 

d. Churches. 

e. Fraternal associations. 

f. Art, literary, educational and profes- 
sional associations. 

g. Schools, colleges, etc. 

h. Mercantile establishments, including de- 
partment stores and especially the book trade. 

i. Chambers of commerce, boards of trade, 
rotary clubs, etc. 

j. General public, house to house campaign. 

The above groups to select and instruct 
corps of workers in their fields with repre- 
sentatives, where necessary, in different sec- 
tions of the city. Where public library has 
branches in various parts of the city, these 
should be used as centers for neighborhood 
work. 

6. Meeting of local war councils, campaign 
directors and committees to follow State 
meetings. 

7. Mass meeting of all workers and com- 
mittee directors to arouse enthusiasm just 
before opening of campaign. 

Estimated Cost of Campaign. $75,000 for 
National and local expenses. ( Mr. Hill. ) 

$150,000. '• Money must be spent in order 
to get money." (Mr. Belden.) 

$120,000. "The last campaign cost 4.3% 
and that is all such a campaign should cost." 
(Mr. Wyer.) 

Suggestions for Campaign Workers. In the 
last campaign it was apparently taken for 
granted that everybody knew how to solicit 
money, while, as a matter of fact, librarians 
as a class are quite imfamiliar with eflforts 
to raise large sums of money by popular sub- 
scriptions. There should be a campaign 
handbook for local workers which should in- 



clude suggestions as to methods which have 
been found effective. 

Immediate Publicity. Notice should be 
sent at once to all librarians that a second 
campaign is to be put on so that the project 
may be included in any local war chest which 
is being made up. 



Second Money Campaign. The Chairman 
announced the appointment of Mr. Hill as 
Chairman of a new sub-committee on Library 
War Finance with power to appoint other 
members of the Committee. It was thereupon 

Voted, That the following action of the 
War Service Committee be recommended to 
the Executive Board of the American Library 
Association for its approval. 

That the War Service Committee of the 
American Library Association, through its 
sub-committee on Library War Finance, be 
authorized to prepare a plan for a second 
financial campaign, to solicit funds in the 
name of the American Library Association 
for the purpose of providing books and per- 
sonal library service to soldiers and sailors 
in this country and abroad and for carrying 
on such other activities as are manifestly 
related to library war service. The funds so 
collected shall be styled " The American Li- 
brary Association Second War Service Fund." 



Assuming favorable action on the fore- 
going, the War Service Committee passed the 
following supplementary votes which are like- 
wise submitted for the approval of the Execu- 
tive Board. 

Voted, That after approval by the Execu- 
tive Board of the A. L. A. the American 
Security and Trust Co., as treasurer, is au- 
thorized and requested from the A. L. A. 
War Service moneys now in its hands to 
transfer $75,000 (seventy-five thousand dol- 
lars) from the General Fund to a fund to be 
called " The Campaign Fund," such sum to 
be an initial appropriation for the purpose 
of meeting expenses in the second financial 
campaign. 

Voted, That this " Campaign Fund " shall 
be kept separate from the two War Service 
Funds and shall be expended under the au- 



160 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



thorization of the Library War Finance 
Committee. 



The War Service Committee notifies the 
Executive Board at this time that it will 
later approve and nominate to said Board 
a depository which shall act as treasurer for 
the " American Library Association Second 
War Service Fund." 

Report from General Director. The General 
Director reported that to avoid the serious 
impairment of efficiency incident to the sum- 
mer climate of Washington he is proposing 
to transfer the Headquarters for the summer 
to Albany, N. Y., this on the assumption that 
accommodations for them may be furnished 
by the New York State Library. 

He further brought to the notice of the 
Committee the figures in the Report of the 



Disbursing Officer for May 31, showing a 
balance of less than $90,000 in all funds ex- 
cept the Carnegie Corporation fund for build- 
ings, and requested a grant of $60,000, the 
sum estimated as needed to carry the work 
of his office until July 1st. The Committee 
thereupon 

Voted, That the American Security and 
Trust Co., as Treasurer, is authorized and 
requested from the A. L. A. War Service 
moneys in its hands to transfer to the account 
of the A. L. A. War Service Fund, Herbert 
Putnam, General Director, the sum of sev- 
enty-five thousand dollars ($75,000) in ad- 
dition to all similar grants heretofore au- 
thorized. 

Grant for General Purposes. A detailed 
statement of bills paid from the $2,000 fund 
voted by the Committee on December 29, 
1917: 



General Expenses War Service Committee, December 29, IQll-May 31, 1918 

Auditing accounts of War Finance Committee: 

F. P. Hill, meals for A. L. A. Finance Committee $23 82 

A. L. Bailey, travel account 29 37 

C. W. Andrews 105 31 

Transfer of accounts to Treasurer, A. L. A. : 

C. B. Roden, travel account 80 43 

H. Lovi, travel account 85 26 

Belated Campaign expenses: 

P. L. Windsor 9 50 

C. & P. Telephone Co 59 20 

Underwood Typewriter Co 7 00 

J. C. Fitzpatrick, compiling tables 87 50 

W. U. Telegraph Co 4 01 

Postal Telegraph Co 54 

Denver Public Library 79 24 

E. K. Steele, printing 8 00 

Evans Penfield Co., printing 9 00 

Expenses War Service Committee: 

Printing 29 30 

Travel, members attending meetings 244 47 

Travel, members visiting camps 424 91 

Sub-committee on Food Information 13 75 



$1,300 61 



showing a balance on hand of $700, with con- 
siderable expenses in prospect incident to the 
Saratoga meeting, it was 

Voted, That, after approval by the Execu- 
tive Board of the American Library Associa- 
tion, the American Security and Trust Com- 
pany, as treasurer, is authorized and re- 
quested from the A. L. A. War Service 
moneys in its hands, to transfer to the credit 
of George B. Utley, Executive Secretary, the 
sum of $2,000, to be used to meet general 



expenses of the Committee not justly charge- 
able to the fund voted to the credit of the 
War Service Fund, Herbert Putnam, General 
Director; bills covering such expenses to be 
approved by the Chairman of the Committee, 
and checks to be drawn and signed by George 
B. Utley, Executive Secretary. 
Adjourned. 

Attest: 

J. I. Wti», Jb. 



WAR SERVICE COMMITTEE 161 

APPENDIX B 

AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION WAR SERVICE COMMITTEE 

Total Receipts and DisbursementB, Library War Fund, August 17, 1917-May 31, 1918 

Receipts 

Cash subscriptions $1,739,801 37 

Liberty Bonds received as contributions 300 00 

Gift for library building at Great Lakes 10,000 00 

Interest on balances of General Committee to January 1, 1918 1,614 62 

Refunded of $70,000 transfer to Peoples Trust Co. (campaign expenses) 3,944 42 

Checks once credited, returned for endorsement and later re-deposited 1,146 50 

Total deposits in American Security and Trust Co. as shovm by its state- 
ments and by audit of Marwick, Mitchell, Peat & Co. under date of 

June 11, 1918. (copy filed with Chairman) $1,756,806 91 

DiSBUBSEMENTS 

Transfers to account Herbert Putnam, General Director - $900,020 00 

Transfers to Peoples Trust Co., Brooklyn (campaign expenses) 70,000 00 

Transfers to G. B. Utley, Executive Secretary (expenses of General Committee 2,000 00 

Bills paid by Committee before General Director took over the work 2,036 08 

Assets 
$500,000 4 per cent. U. S. Treasury certificates at par, and accrued interest to 

4 January, 1918 (due 25 June, 1918) 500,109 69 

Bonds of the second Liberty Loan to par value of 300 00 

Cash balance in American Security and Trust Co. 31 May, 1918 282,341 24 

$1,756,806 91 



AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION WAR SERVICE COMMITTEE 
Receipts and Expenditures by the General Director 

Regeipts 

Voted by Committee: 

General purposes $545,020 00 

Carnegie Corporation Grant (buildings) 320,000 00 

Gift for building. Great Lakes 10,000 00 

Book campaign 25,000 00 

Interest on current account 2,429 27 

$902,449 27 
Payments (October 4, 1917-May 31, 1918) 

37 buildings (on account) $287,713 54 

Service 85,201 49 

Books (including freight and book campaign expenses) 243,277 57 

Equipment ( including automobiles) 41,394 37 

Miscellaneous (including travel, maintenance, supplies) 64,949 73 

Advances to camp librarians and overseas work 33,500 00 

Balance May 31, 1918 146,412 57 



$902,449 27 

Payments have averaged about $94,500 per month. The above la a summary statement 
compiled to serve the Committee. A detailed financial statement of the General Director** 
expenditures appears in his report. 



162 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



APPENDIX C 



PUBLICATIONS 

The principal publications of general in- 
terest issued during the year, in addition 
to the three pamphlets forming this report, 
are: 

Koch, T. W. War Service of the American 
Library Association. 37 p. 1918. 

A popular, illustrated account of Camp 
Library Service. Distributed from Head- 
quarters. 
War Library Bulletin. Vol. 1, Nos. 1-7. 

Aug., 1917-July, 1918. 
Information Circular. No. 1-date. Nov. 
20, 1917-date. 

Mimeographed information for Camp 
Librarians and members of the Commit- 
tee. 



Press Bulletin. Feb. 2, 1918, and weekly 
thereafter. 

Publicity medium for the Library War 
Service. 

In Allen and Fosdick, Keeping our Fight- 
ers Fit, 1918, there is a chapter describ- 
ing the A. L. A. War Service. 

Brief Articles on Camp libraries, What the 
soldier reads and the work of the A. L. A. 
occur in Dial, 31 Jan. and 23 May, 1918; 
Literary Digest, 21 July, 11 Aug., 18 
Aug., 10 Nov., 1917, and 6 April, 1918; 
Nation, 25 Oct., 1917, and 21 Mar., 1918; 
Outlook, 3 April, 1918; Nation, 25 Oct., 
1917, and 21 Mar., 1918; Southern Work- 
man, June, 1918; World's Work, April, 
1918. 



THE MILLION DOLLAR CAMPAIGN 



163 



Story of the 
AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION CAMPAIGN 

FOR $ J, 000,000 
bV 

Frank P. Hill, Chairman A. L. A. War Finance Committee 
and Emma V. Baldwin, Secretary 



In the spring of 1917 the President of 
the American Library Association, Mr. 
Walter L. Brown, appointed a committee 
to report on "Our libraries and the War." 
This report recommended, among other 
important matters, that a War Committee 
be appointed and that this War Commit- 
tee be authorized to solicit funds for the 
establishment and administration of libra- 
ries in the camps and cantonments. 

Such a "working committee" was ap- 
pointed by the President at the Louisville 
Conference, and Dr. Herbert Putnam and 
R. R. Bowker of the original committee 
having declined reappointment, their 
places were filled by the appointment of 
J. I. Wyer, Jr., as chairman, and Frank P. 
Hill. 

Several meetings of the War Service 
Committee, as it was finally designated, 
were held at Louisville, and subcommit- 
tees appointed. Frank P. Hill was named 
chairman of the Finance Committee, with 
power to appoint other members. He 
asked time to consider this offer, stating 
that it would require a large sum of money 
to put the enterprise on a solid basis, and 
that unless a way could be found to raise 
the required funds it would be useless to 
undertake it. The first encouragement 
came from Miss Josephine A. Rathbone of 
Pratt Institute, who suggested that month- 
ly pledges be secured from librarians and 
others interested. A start was made in 
this direction at Louisville, where pledges 
amounting to over $100 per month were 
made. 

The first individual subscription was of 
$5,000, from Alfred Hafner, a life member 
of the Association. 



Although the amount already pledged on 
the monthly subscription basis would not 
go far toward making up the total amount 
needed it was an indication of the sym- 
pathy of librarians throughout the coun- 
try. With this evidence of their willing- 
ness to cooperate, the chairman worked 
out a plan for reaching: 

(a) 3,000 members of the A. L. A. 

(b) 6,000 libraries. 

(c) Library commissions, library asso- 

ciations, etc. 

(d) Trustees of the 6,000 libraries. 

(e) Interested friends and patrons of 

libraries. 

While the plan formed an excellent 
basis, the chairman of the War Finance 
Committee was not satisfied that it would 
produce the required amount of money, 
and it was not until a further considera- 
tion showed that an expansion of the 
tentative plan could be devised, that he 
accepted the position of chairman. 

He then began the study of ' possibilities 
and prepared a budget which called for not 
less than $250,000 for buildings, $250,000 
for books and $128,700 for the expenses 
for the first year. 

Realizing the necessity of securing the 
cooperation of librarians in all parts of the 
country, and appreciating the advantage 
of securing the counsel and advice of men 
of financial and business experience, the 
chairman then selected a representative 
committee including the librarian and a 
member of the Board of Trustees of some 
of the larger libraries of the country. 
The complete committee is named on p. 3. 

Returning from Louisville the chairman 
of the War Service Committee and the 



164 



SARATOGA SPRING'S CONFERENCE 



chairman of the War Finance Committee 
stopped at White Sulphur Springs where 
they met Mr. Edward L. Tilton, architect, 
who had been asked by the chairman of 
the Finance Committee to serve on that 
committee in order that the War Service 
Committee might have the benefit of his 
judgment and experience. At this confer- 
ence it was decided that unless the work 
could be planned on a large scale there 
was no use to attempt it, and that it would 
require a large amount of money to put 
through the project in a way to bring 
credit to the A. L. A. 

En route home Messrs. Wyer, Tilton and 
Hill stopped at Washington and found that 
Dr. Putnam as the representative of the 
American Library Association had been 
requested by Mr. Raymond B. Fosdick, 
chairman of the Commission on Training 
Camp Activities, to erect library build- 
ings at the various camps and canton- 
ments and to furnish books to soldiers and 
sailors. This placed us in direct ofiicial 
relations with the War Department, and by 
appointment we visited the Quartermas- 
ter's Department and on plans located 
buildings at the camps. 

Reaching New York Mr. Tilton, who had 
been reminded that the A. L. A. needed the 
active cooperation of the Carnegie Corpo- 
ration, invited Messrs. Putnam, Wyer and 
Hill to meet Messrs. James Bertram and 
R. A. Franks, representatives of the Car- 
negie Corporation, at luncheon July 5, 
1917. At the luncheon a letter submitted 
by the chairman of the War Service Com- 
mittee, asking for $320,000 for the erec- 
tion of thirty-two library buildings was 
discussed, and it was evident that the 
proposition appealed to the representatives 
of the Carnegie Corporation present. Very 
late in the summer the Corporation acted 
favorably upon the request, conditioned 
upon the A. L. A. first raising an equiva- 
lent amount. 

The tentative plan for raising the money 
outlined by the chairman was submitted 
to several people acquainted with "drives" 
in the hope of assistance in expanding it, 
but it was not until the Red Cross head- 



quarters at Washington was visited that 
real help came. Our representatives were 
turned over to Mr. Harold Braddock, who 
had been in the thick of the big Red Cross 
drive for $100,000,000, to whom the tenta- 
tive plan was submitted. After considera- 
tion he reported that by the extension of 
our plan, it would be comparatively easy 
to raise $1,000,000 through the agency of 
the A. L. A. 

Together we worked out the final draft* 
and submitted it to Messrs. Henius, 
Brett, Cole, Levi, Hafner and Tilton of 
the War Finance Committee, who met 
at the New York Public Library, July 23, 
1918. 

To put on a drive to raise $1,000,000' re- 
quired the raising of $50,000 for expenses, 
and. this proved a stumbling-block, until 
Dr. Max Henius, then president of the Chi- 
cago Public Library Board, suggested that 
the amount be underwritten by libraries 
and individuals at $1,000 each. As a test 
of sincerity of purpose $3,000 was immedi- 
ately pledged for this purpose. 

On July 28 at a meeting in Atlantic City 
of a few librarians from the states of New 
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Dela- 
ware and Connecticut and the District of 
Columbia the sum of $7,000 more was 
raised. 

The committee having met with this en- 
couragement sent out an appeal to fifty- 
three libraries with the result that 
$50,000 was pledged in less than two 
weeks, of which only the sum of $44,- 
700 was called for. A list of the contrib- 
utors appears as Appendix A. 

This sum was raised with the dis- 
tinct understanding that the amounts 
should be paid back to the contributors 
after the $1,000,000 fund had been raised. 
(It was understood that the fund was for 
general expenses but when it was found 
that local expenses would be contracted 
and must be guaranteed by the Finance 
Committee the War Service Committee 
appropriated $70,000 to pay back the con- 
tributors and to meet local expenses. This 



•The draft was later printed and distrib- 
uted In pamphlet form. 



THE MILLION DOLLAR CAMPAIGN 



165 



account is to be found in detail in Ap- 
pendix B.) 

The project was now fairly launched. 
Mr. Braddock was selected as Campaign 
Director, and he in turn engaged Harold 
Flack as Assistant Director and D. P. 
Beardsley as Assistant Treasurer. To 
these men and especially to Mr. Braddock, 
-Who worked indefatigably day and night, 
much of the success of organizing and de- 
veloping the campaign is due. 

The Secretary of War gave his sanction 
to the plan by the appointment of the 
following Library War' Council to assist 
the A. L. A. War Finance Committee: 
Frank A. Vanderlip, Chairman, 
Asa G. Candler, 
P. P. Claxton, 
J. Randolph Coolidge, 
Mrs. Josiah E. Cowles, 
John H. Finley, 
James A. Flaherty, 
E. T. Stotesbury, 
Theodore N. Vail, 
Harry A. Wheeler. 

This Council rendered the greatest ma- 
terial service, both nationally and locally, 
to the committee, several of the members 
taking active part in local campaigns. 

Headquarters of the Finance Commit- 
tee was established at the Public Libra- 
ry, Washington, D. C, whose trustees had 
generously offered space in the library 
building for the purpose. 

Early in August the organization was 
completed by the employment of twelve 
field directors whose duty it was to set up 
the machinery in the states and cities, and 
to assist local directors in placing the sub- 
ject before the people of the country. 

In order to present the plan of cam- 
paign before as many people as possible, 
a conference of librarians and trustees 
was called to meet in Washington, August 
14, 1917. This was attended by about one 
hundred members of the A. L. A. and was 
addressed by Mr. Raymond B. Fosdick, 
chairman of the Commission on Training 
Camp Activities, and by Dr. P. P. Claxton, 
Commissioner of Education, and J, Ran- 
dolph Coolidge, Jr., members of the Libra- 
ry War Council. 



A second session was held on the fol- 
lowing morning when instructions were 
given to field directors and library repre- 
sentatives from various sections of the 
country. 

Those who attended this conference en- 
thusiastically endorsed the plan of cam- 
paign, and went home filled with confi- 
dence that the country would respond to 
the appeal made by the American Library 
Association for $1,000,000. This confidence 
was not misplaced. Librarians, trustees 
and friends all over the country entered 
into the nationwide campaign with faith, 
hope and optimism. 

The result of the efforts of the com- 
bined agencies went beyond the fondest 
expectations of the most sanguine and is 
shown in Table C, which gives the details 
of receipts by states and cities, together 
with the expenses of collection. 

To raise $1,000,000 from a nation with 
over a hundred million inhabitants re- 
quired the contribution in dollars equal to 
less than one per cent of the population. 
In view of the shortness of time In which 
to arouse an interest in the project and to 
complete the necessary organization for 
the work, it seemed probable that we 
should be obliged in this campaign to de- 
pend almost entirely upon the larger 
cities, although the smaller communities 
were not neglected in the appeal. It was 
therefore decided to request each com- 
munity to raise a sum equal to five per 
cent of its population, with the idea that 
the cities participating in the campaign 
would make up for those communities 
which could not be reached. In their en- 
thusiasm some cities set goals in excess 
of that apportionment. Contrary to our 
expectations, however, it was in the small 
communities that the fund received the 
most liberal support, and consequently, 
while few large cities reached their goal 
of five per cent many of the small towns 
reported receipts far in excess of their 
goals. The reasons for this are easy to un- 
derstand when we consider the complica- 
tions of modern urban life and the diffi- 
culty of securing concerted action. 



168 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



In the original plan the week of Sep- 
tember 24 was set as the time for the 
drive, but many communities were so im- 
patient to get the work started that funds 
were solicited almost as soon as the plan 
was announced. At the beginning of the 
drive many circumstances tended to in- 
crease the difficulties of the workers, such 
as the vast numbers of influential people 
who were away on vacation; conflict with 
other campaigns; pressure of local busi- 
ness, etc., but though disappointed, the li- 
brarians on the whole were not disheart- 
ened, and continued to work in spite of all 
drawbacks. 

The campaign was peculiar in many re- 
spects. In the first place, the amount to 
be raised was in reality a very small sum 
when considered In relation to the popu- 
lation and resources of the country. As a 
consequence the elaborate organization 
which had been necessary in the Red Cross 
campaign was not needed In this. The 
task given the field directors was a new 
one, for in most campaigns they are sent 
to do intensive work in cities within a 
limited territory, while in this campaign a 
single field director was assigned to a group 
of states. The field directors, too, were 
handicapped by their lack of knowledge of 
librarians and library conditions, and some 
of the librarians, on their side, expected 
that the field directors, being experts, 
were to raise the fund without help. 

But what was lacking in experience was 
made up in determination. This was 
shown by the practically unanimous re- 
quest that came from all parts of the 
country for permission to continue the 
campaign beyond the week which had 
been set for it. In place of being eager to 
drop the work most librarians seemed to 
be reluctant to give up until every avail- 
able dollar had been secured. Returns 
continued to pour In during the last three 
months of the year and over $27,000 was 
received on the last day of December. 

The goal set in this campaign was not 
only reached, it was almost doubled. While 
this result was made possible only by the 
hard and continuous work on the part of 



librarians, trustees and the civic organiza- 
tions and other Individuals who partici- 
pated in this work, we believe most libra- 
rians will endorse the statement made by 
one of our members: 

"It has been a strong pull but I am glad 
we decided to do our part. Better than the 
four thousand dollars contributed is the 
very general Interest and appreciation of 
the whole thing by the many people who 
have made their small contributions, run- 
ning all the way from three cents, from a 
poor Polish woman, to a hundred dollars. 
The byproduct of interest in our local li- 
brary is worth much to us." 

The total net amount raised, as reported 
by the chairman of the War Finance Com- 
mittee on January 19, 1918, when the final 
report in detail was submitted to the 
A. L. A. Finance Committee, was $1,570,- 
386.44 in cash, with additional subscrip- 
tions reported but not received, bringing 
the grand total up to $1,727,554.25. (Table 
C shows the total amount received up to 
April 1.) 

Fear was expressed by some librarians 
that the cost of collecting the money 
would be out of proportion to the amount 
received. The committee is gratified to re- 
port that the cost was kept within reason- 
able limits and amounted to 4.2 per cent, 
including amounts spent nationally as well 
as those reported by the various states and 
cities. 

On October 3, when the cash receipts 
warranted the A. L, A. In going ahead, the 
Finance Committee recommended the ap- 
pointment of Dr. Herbert Putnam, Libra- 
rian of Congress, as General Director, and 
the War Service Committee acted favor- 
ably upon the recommendation. Since the 
above date the administration of the af- 
fairs of the War Service Committee has 
been in the hands of Dr. Putnam. 

The War Finance Committee found that 
It could not close Its accounts at once and 
so continued until January 19, 1918, when 
the A. L. A. Finance Committee audited 
the accounts and made Its report to the 
Executive Board. 

The response of the American people to 



THE MILLION DOLLAR CAMPAIGN 



167 



our appeal for funds for the conduct of the 
work which the government selected us to 
do has been extremely generous. Through- 
out the campaign the A. L. A. through its 
appointed representatives pledged the peo- 
ple of this country to furnish books and 
libraries to our soldiers and sailors wher- 
ever they might be. This work is con- 
stantly increasing in scope, and the task of 
meeting the demands and fulfilling our 
part in the war work of the nation de- 
mands the very best thought and effort of 
the members of the American Library As- 



sociation; and the months to come will 
test and try us In every conceivable way, 
and prove whether or no we are worthy 
of the confidence which has been placed in 
us by the American people. 

The Finance Committee under whose di- 
rection the campaign was conducted deep- 
ly appreciates the splendid response which 
was made in all parts of the country, and 
desires to acknowledge its indebtedness to 
all those who cooperated in this work and 
contributed so largely to the success of 
the undertaking. 



168 SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



APPENDIX A 

List of Contributors to Campaign Fund 

John Ashhurst $ 100.00 

Baker & Taylor Co 1,000.00 

Birmingham Public Library 1,000.00 

Brooklyn Public Library 1,000.00 

Chivers Book Binding Co T 1,000.00 

Detroit Public Library 1,000.00 

Alfred Hafner 2,000.00 

Dr. Max Henius 1,000.00 

John Crerar Library 1,000.00 

Library Bureau 1,000.00 

Minneapolis Public Library 500.00 

Thomas L. Montgomery 100.00 

New Orleans Public Library 1,000.00 

New York Public Library 1,000.00 

New York State Library 1,000.00 

Pratt Institute Free Library 1,000.00 

Providence Public Library 1,000.00 

Rockefeller Foundation 25,000.00 

Washington County (Md.) Free Library 1,000.00 

Youngstown Public Library 1,000.00 

American Library Association 2,000.00 



$44,700.00 



THE MILLION DOLLAR CAMPAIGN IW 



APPENDIX B 

Statement of Receipts and Disbursements of the Library War Fund of the A. L. A. 

(Bool<s for Soidiers) to the Time the Fund was Transferred from the 

War Finance Committee to C. B. Roden, Treasurer of the A. L. A. 

American Security & Trust Co., Treasurer. 



Receipts 

August to December, incl., 1917 $1,522,797.06 

January 1 to 19, Incl., 1918 50,356.73 

$1,573,153.79 

Interest to December 31, 1917 1,614.62 $1,574,768.41 

Disbursements 

Campaign expense detailed below $70,000.00 

Sundries 2,036.00 

To Herbert Putnam, general director 787,720,00 

To George B. Utley, executive secretary, War Service Com.. 2,000.00 

To purchase of U. S. Treas. Certificates 500,000.00 

To accrued interest of U. S. Treas. Certificates to Jan, 4 109.59 

Balance in bank, Jan. 23, 1918* 212,902.74 $1,574,768.41 



Report of Disbursements of the Campaign Expense Fund 
of $70,000 

Sundry bills paid by People's Trust Co $ 352.64 

Salaries 22,423.52 

Maintenance 6,120.98 

Travel 5,618.08 

Telephone and telegraph 3,919.89 

Postage and express 3,423.93 

Advertising and printing 22,430.36 

Oflice supplies and expense 1,568.43 

Contingencies 331.32 

$66,189.15 
Balance (returned to the American Security & Trust Co., treas.) 3,810.35 

$70,000.00 

•Checks deposited on Jan. 19 in Brooklyn not received at bank until Jan. 23. 



170 



SARATOGA SPRING'S CONFERENCE 



Statement of Contributions to the Li 
Campaign E 



APPENDIX C 
brary War Fun 
xpenses to Feb 

Receipts 



State- 



Monthly 

sub- 
scriptions 

Alabama $ 22.00 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 82.00 

Colorado 

Connecticut 151.00 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 181.50 

Florida 

Georgia 33.40 

Idaho 

Illinois 220.OS 

Indiana 50.00 

Iowa 82.10 

Kansas 22.00 

Kentucky 23.00 

Louisiana 6.00 

Maine l.OO 

Maryland 7.00 

Massachusetts 233.50 

Michigan 126.00 

Minnesota 87.00 

Mississippi 



Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada . 

New Hampshire 



62.10 
4.00 
14.00 



16.00 



New Jersey 113.00 

New Mexico 

New York 470.50 

North Carolina 5.00 

North Dakota lO.OO 

Ohio 178.00 

Oklahoma 4.00 

Oregon 59.15 

Pennsylvania 244.00 

Rhode Island 24.00 

South Carolina 



South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virg^inia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 

Hawaii 

New Zealand 

Carnegie Corpora- 
tion 

Anonymous 

Misc. and no ad- 
dress* ; 

General National 
Headquarters . . . 

Adv. to War Finance 
Com. and War 
Serv. Com 



5.00 
7.00 
43.00 
27.00 
12.00 
20.00 
26.05 



82.00 



18.00 



Campaign 

subscriptions 

$ 11,808.34 

2,257.85 

7,766.81 

48,216.30 

19,388.68 

62,985.53 

13,422.58 

10,416.57 

3,174.93 

6,294.85 

849.50 

112,740.13 

48,361.55 

35,216.70 

8,125.33 

4,284.83 

8,435.52 

3,465.18 

16,471.81 

190,955.06 

33,931.95 

39,031.05 

4,505.22 

20,971.91 

1,134.36 

11,382.20 

140.00 

15,300.92 

51,077.66 

30.45 

220,685.68 

4,831.77 

5,898.48 

104,435.43 

2,204.91 

18,536.98 

93,725.78 

25,874.85 

5,806.78 

9,393.96 

14,121.55 

16,347.39 

6,000.00 

13,549.52 

15,315.52 

21,829.73 

1,780.23 

41,296.40 

4,442.97 



320,000.00 
2.00 



33.50 



Total 
11,830.34 $ 

2,257.85 

7,766.81 
48,298.30 
19,388.68 
63,136.53 
13,422.58 
10,598.07 

3,174.93 

6,328.25 

849.50 

112,960.18 

48,411.55 

35,298.80 

8,147.33 

4,307.83 

8,441.52 

3,466.18 

16,478.81 

191,188.56 

34,057.95 

39,118.05 

4,505.22 
21,034.01 

1,138.36 

11,396.20 

140.00 

15,316.92 

51,190.66 

30.45 

221,156.18 

4,836.77 

5,908.48 
104,613.43 

2,208.91 
18,596.13 
93,969.78 
25,898.85 

5,806.78 

9,398.96 
14,128.55 
16,390.39 

6,027.00 
13,561.52 
15,335.52 
21,855.78 

1,780.23 
41,378.40 

4,442.97 

18.00 

1.00 

320,000.00 
2.00 

33.50 



$2,771.35 $1,738,258.20 $1,741,029.55 



•Mary E. Don $ 5.00 

Jessie E. MacCurdy 1.00 



Diminica Public Libi'ary 

Faze Benson 

Agnes J. Brown 

Nellie Burmeister .i 

Phillis Campbell 

Mrs. A. D. Case 

Kate Epples 



10.00 

.so 

.50 
.50 
.50 
.50 
.50 



Ruth Hummell . 
Glenna Kelly . . . 
Helen M. Morse 
Zenna Osgood .. 
G. N. Patton ... 
Jessie M. Poppy. 
Verda Ratcliff . . 
Elsie J. Eamley.. 
A. J. Royal 



d to April 1, 1918,t together with the 
ruary 1, 1918 

-Expenditures v 

Paid 
by War 

Finance Total 

Committee expenses 
■ 430.02 
81.60 



Gross 

receipts 

12,260.36 

2,257.85 

7,766.81 

48,298.30 

19,536.73 

63,434.48 

13,422.58 

10.598.07 

3,383.12 

6,626.65 

849.50 

114,441.46 

49,414.42 

35,298.80 

8,166.71 

4,590.15 

8,441.52 

3,466.18 

16,478.81 

191,199.79 

34,178.67 

39,118.05 

4,648.09 

21,634.01 

1,138.36 

11,396.20 

140.00 

15,316.92 

51,190.66 

30.45 

221,540.71 

4,836.77 

5,908.48 

105,161.68 

2,208.91 

19,624.33 

94,092.87 

25,912.15 

5,806.78 

9,438.45 

14,128.55 

16,390.39 

6,027.00 

13,561.52 

15.335.52 

22;397.38 

1,780.23 

42,333.42 

4,442.97 

18.00 

1.00 

320,000.00 
2.00 

33.50 



Ded. 

from 
contri- 
butions 
$ 430.02 



$1,749,706.31 
50 



.50 
.50 
.50 
.50 
.50 
.50 
.50 
.50 



148.05 
297.95 



208.19 
298.40 

i, 48 v. 28 
1,002.87 

'l9.38 
282.32 



11.23 
120.72 



142.87 
600.00 



384.53 



$ 81.60 
""24.76 



263.53 
485.92 



1,028.20 

123.09 

13.30 



39.49 



541.60 
9SS'.62 



49.00 



43.18 
10,254.87 



35.53 
SV.74 



65.01 



2,729.82 
100.45 



474.35 
775.79 

178.47 

374.00 

23.48 



352.88 



24.76 
148.05 
297.95 



208.19 
298.40 

'l,7'44l81 
1,488.79 

"19.38 

282.32 

49.00 

""43'. 18 

10,266.10 

120.72 

35.53 

142.87 

654.74 



65.01 



3,114.35 
100.45 



548.25 1,583.38 2,131.63 



1,028.20 
597.44 
789.09 

2Y7.96 

374.00 

23.48 



352.88 
541.60 



955.02 



46,982.56 46,982.56 



1,235.83 1,255.83 



$8,676,76 $66,189.15 $74,865.91 

Hazel G. Schlosser 50 

Isabel Sidey 50 

Alma M. Smith 50 

Dorothy J. Stair 50 

Grace Yates 50 

Mary Yanke 50 

L. L. Dubaney 2.00 

Ellen H. Hoffman 5.00 



$33.50 



tCampaign subscriptions passing through A. L. A. treasurer's office since latter part of March and 
monthlv subscriptions since Jan. 19 not included. 



THE MILLION DOLLAR CAMPAIGN 



171 



Contributions by States 
Cities and Towns Contributing $200 or IVIore Listed Separately 



Alabama 

Albany $ 202.00 

Anniston 233.00 

Bessemer 356.35 

Birmingham 4,326.12 

Corona 205.00 

Decatur 200.10 

Dothan 300.00 

Florence 206.80 

Gadsden 590.10 

Mobile 946.55 

Montgomery 1,320.23 

Selma 383.50 

Tuscaloosa ■ 265.50 

Total contributions from 50 

other towns 2,703.11 

Monthly contributions 22.00 

$12,260.36 

Arizona 

State at large (no report by 

counties or towns) $2,257.85 

Arl<ansas 

State .at large (no report by 

counties or towns) $7,766.81 

California* 

Alameda $ 6,536.28 

Anaheim 250.00 

Calaveras 261.60 

Colusa 222.34 

Contra Costa 700.68 

Fresno 1,210.48 

Fullerton 201.15 

Glenn 377.05 

Imperial County 450.42 

Kern 553.00 

Kings 443.55 

Long Beach 768.78 

Los Angeles 12,973.52 

Los Angeles County 723.89 

Marin County 508.00 

Merced 405.00 

Monterey 545.05 

Napa 206.00 

Nevada County 345.14 

Orange 300.00 

Pasadena 1,570.00 

Redlands 378.37 

Riverside County 650.00 

Sacramento 1,324.04 

San Bernardino 283.87 

San Diego 1,772.37 

San Joaquin 1,921.23 

San Luis Obispo 320.00 

San Mateo 638.50 

Santa Ana 421.00 

Santa Barbara 6'91.15 



Santa Clara 1,886.25 

Santa Monica 400.00 

Siskiyou County 646.16 

Solano County 1,261.01 

Sonoma 828.48 

Stanislaus 684.90 

Tulare County 685.08 

Tuolumne 214.85 

Ventura 545.82 

Whittier 309.17 

Yolo 373.50 

Yuba 210.95 

Total contributions from 28 

other counties 2,217.62 

Monthly contributions 82.00 

$48,298.30 

♦Subscriptions for mag- 
azines $ 50.00 

Sonoma Co. Board of 
Supervisors spent for 
books at Camp Fre- 
mont 125.00 

Colorado 

State at large (not distributed 

by towns) $11,173.95 

Boulder 970.83 

Canon City 211.15 

Colorado Springs 3,365.50 

Denver 767.67 

Fort Collins 747.50 

Longmont 605.02 

Loveland 254.20 

Pueblo 1,081.26 

Total contributions from 5 other 

towns 359.65 

$19,536.73 
Connecticut 

Ansonia $ 955.66 

Berlin 286.15 

Bethel 275.50 

Branford 652.00 

Bridgeport 8,581.17 

Bristol 250.00 

Danbury 806.76 

Darien 311.80 

Derby 522.32 

East Hartford 702.00 

East Windsor 354.55 

Enfield 543.50 

Essex 214.35 

Fairfield 400.00 

Farmington 471.45 

Glastonbury 332.05 

Greenwich 1,230.69 

Hartford 3,516.43 

Killingly 219.10 

Litchfield 340.40 



172 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



Manchester 1,104.53 

Meriden 1,859.14 

Middletown 910.12 

Milford 383.50 

Nau^atuck 751.97 

New Britain 2,760.00 

New Canaan 524.35 

New Haven 6,064.53 

New London 302.25 

North Canaan 300.40 

Norwalk 781.48 

Orange 466.00 

Plymouth 218.17 

Portland 202.00 

Putnam 331.00 

Salisbury 329.50 

Saybrook 218.03 

Seymour 431.50 

Shelton 365.69 

Simsbury 210.32 

South Windsor 203.25 

Southington 312.50 

Stamford 1,040.00 

Stratford 592.25 

Suffield 222.35 

Torrington 1,245.23 

Vernon 702.80 

Wallingford 341.01 

Waterbury 7,836.25 

Waterford 220.00 

Watertown 360.15 

West Hartford 512.46 

Wethersfield 277.05 

Winchester 342.96 

Windham 413.83 

Windsor 352.75 

Windsor Locks 382.20 

Total contributions from 107 

other towns 8.446.08 

Monthly contributions 151.00 



$63,434.48 
On hand, not forwarded. . $317.97 

Delaware 

State at large (no report by 
counties or towns) $13,422.58 

District of Columbia 

Regular subscriptions $10,416.57 

Monthly contributions 181.50 

$10,598.07 
Florida 

Jacksonville $1,226.01 

Pensacola 200.00 

Tampa 851.55 

Total contributions from 38 

other towns 1,105.56 

$3,383.12 
Balance In bank not for- 
warded $104.48 



Georgia 

Athens $ 579.27 

Atlanta 1,688.55 

Columbus 400.50 

Macon 391.00 

Savannah 1,401.50 

Total contributions from 39 

other towns 2,132.43 

Monthly contributions 33.40 

$6,626.65 
Idaho 

Coeur d'Alene $322.75 

Lewistown 439.75 

Total contributions from 2 other 

towns 87.00 

$849.50 
liiinois 

Belleville $ 775.00 

Bloomington 1,128.05 

Chicago 93,199.07 

Elmhurst 266.14 

Galesburg 908.66 

Harvard 225.45 

Highland Park 350.00 

Jacksonville 721.55 

Kewanee 421.20 

La Salle 606.73 

Mattoon 565.00 

Normal 250.00 

Oak Park 1,555.25 

Peoria 320.03 

Pontiac 235.00 

Quincy 1,160.12 

Rock Island 1,516.00 

Rockford 1,531.93 

Springfield 2,369.63 

Sycamore 200.00 

Taylorvllle 253.41 

Urbana 265.60 

Waukegan 501.86 

Total contributions from 70 

other towns 4,895.73 

Monthly contributions 220.05 

$114,441.46 
Indiana 

Anderson $ 1,390.00 

Auburn 200.07 

Aurora 243.15 

Bloomington 225.25 

Bluffton 535.92 

BoonvIUe 257.23 

Clinton 1,085.00 

Connersville 910.49 

Crawfordsvllle 532.80 

Crown Point 200.00 

Decatur 232.00 

Elkhart 379.10 

Elwood 480.00 

Evaneville 4,619.22 

Fort Wayne 2,635.45 



THE MILLION DOLLAR CAMPAIGN 



173 



Franklin 308.83 

Gary 2,762.53 

Hartford City 300.00 

Huntington 594.65 

Indianapolis 6,204.36 

Jeffersonville 388.71 

Kokomo 821.29 

La Fayette 1,048.53 

La Grange 429.18 

La Porte 824.85 

Lawrenceburg 298.00 

Lebanon 372.03 

Legonier 360.90 

Logansport 1,003.36 

Madison 405.00 

Marion 501.00 

Martinsville 326.86 

Michigan City ., 626.57 

Mishawaka 650.00 

Mt. Vernon 217.25 

Muncie 1,692.78 

New Albany 1,225.00 

Noblesville 285.48 

Peru 500.00 

Princeton 394.00 

Richmond 1,133.70 

Rushville 245.00 

Shelbyville 738.56 

South Bend 2,608.34 

Sullivan 257.25 

Valparaiso 1,125.40 

Vincennes 295.00 

Wabash 376.00 

West Lafayette 221.65 

Whiting 325.00 

Winchester 228.25 

Total contributions from 71 other 

towns 5,443.43 

Monthly contributions 50.00 

149,414.42 
Iowa 

Algona $ 1,046.25 

Ames 231.30 

Anamosa 226.35 

Audubon 732.09 

Bloomfield 300.00 

Boone and vicinity 947.48 

Cedar Rapids 2,451.11 

Clarinda 258.40 

Clinton County 1,929.15 

Council Bluffs 947.90 

Cresco 700.00 

Davenport 1,139.11 

Des Moines 5,501.00 

Dubuque 1,452.95 

Emmetsburg, Palo Alto Co 360.00 

Grinnell 319.93 

Grundy Center 312.35 

Jefferson County 600.00 

Knoxville, Marlon Co 443.56 

Le Mars 251.S0 

Leon 221.50 

Manchester 413.75 



Marion 235.69 

Mason City 1,300.64 

Monticello 250.00 

Oskaloosa 1,861.21 

Ottumwa 202.95 

Pella 322.44 

Perry 230.35 

Rock Rapids 551.00 

Sigoumey, Keokuk County 1,006.55 

Sioux City 1,414.50 

Storm Lake 808.10 

Tipton 315.75 

Washington and County 690.90 

Waukon, Allawakee County 223.13 

Waverly, Bremer County 262.22 

Total contributions from 110 

other towns 4,755.59 

Monthly contributions 82.10 

$35,298.80 
Kansas 

Arkansas City $ 500.00 

Cherryvale 259.00 

Emporia 794.29 

Independence 600.00 

Kansas City 519.62 

Manhattan 304.50 

Pittsburg 221.81 

Salina 300.00 

Topeka 1,178.35 

Wellington 255.00 

Wichita 1,700.64 

Winfleld 201.77 

Total contributions from 26 other 

towns 1,309.73 

Monthly contributions 22.00 

$8,166.71 
Kentucky 

Campbell County $ 350.00 

Henderson County 420.06 

Jefferson County 1,628.00 

McCracken County 740.55 

Contributions (total) from 16 

other counties 1,428.54 

Monthly contributions 23.00 

$4,590.15 
Louisiana 

Lake Charles $ 802.50 

New Orleans 5,941.90 

Parish of Jefferson 263.00 

Parish of Rapids 213.00 

Parish of Ouachita 377.60 

Parish of Terrebonne 291.45 

Total contributions from 9 other 

towns and parishes 546.17 

Monthly contributions 6.00 

$8,441.52 
Maine 

Augusta $ 325.0C 

Belfast 250.00 



174 



SARATOGA SPRING'S CONFERENCE 



Biddeford 855.15 

Madison 200.00 

Portland 707.04 

Presque Isle 219.50 

Waterville 436.61 

Total contributions from 14 other 

towns 471.88 

Monthly contributions 1.00 

$3,466.18 
Maryland 

Alleghany County $ 1,777.00 

Anne Arundel County 270.69 

Baltimore 10,014.00 

Baltimore County 233.54 

Montgomery County 335.75 

Queen Anne County 429.53 

Washington County 1,826.65 

Wicomico County 892.27 

Total contributions from 10 other 

counties 692.38 

Monthly contributions 7.00 

$16,478.81 
Massachusetts 

Abington $ 395.00 

Adams 273.29 

Amesbury 446.92 

Amherst 314.53 

Andover 613.50 

Arlington 750.50 

Attleboro 938.15 

Auburn 257.08 

Belmont 1,277.96 

Beverly 1,370.56 

Boston 58,371.27 

Bourne 245.00 

Braintree 284.25 

Bridgewater 236.21 

Brockton 3,421.83 

Brookline 8,070.94 

Cambridge 5,261.61 

Canton 368,29 

Chelsea •. . . 572.10 

Chicopee 722.38 

Clinton 632.36 

Concord 351.00 

Dalton 622.97 

Danvers 404.65 

Dedham 608.85 

Dover 405.50 

Duxbury 307.01 

Everett 1,610.00 

Fairhaven 431.55 

Fall River 3,317.97 

Pitchburg 2,070.88 

Framingham 1,000.00 

Gardner 978.99 

Gloucester 636.86 

Grafton 344.48 

Great Barrington 527.19 

Greenfield 608.22 

Groton 261.55 



Haverhill 2,556.00 

Hingham Center 306.80 

Holyoke 2,294.82 

Hopedale 509.07 

Hudson 492.00 

Ipswich 340.36 

Kingston 214.00 

Lancaster 617.84 

Lawrence 291.33 

Lee 260.06 

Leominster 928.98 

Lexington 500.00 

Lincoln 224.00 

Longmeadow 211.70 

Lowell 2,964.86 

Ludlow 645.91 

Lynn 881.88 

Maiden 2,270.00 

Manchester 230.00 

Marblehead 303.00 

Marlborough 794.00 

Medford 852.65 

Melrose 301.00 

Milford 200.00 

Millbury 262.26 

Milton 1,900.74 

Monson 250.00 

Nahant 229.70 

Natick 759.05 

Needham 369.96 

New Bedford 5,544.00 

Newburyport 644.05 

Newton 4,528.40 

North Adams 1,148.00 

North Andover 390.67 

North Attleboro 246.00 

North Easton 530.01 

Northampton 202.00 

Northbridge 714.25 

Norton 230.05 

Norwood 787.50 

Orange 229.00 

Palmer 500.00 

Peabody 1,026.00 

Pittsfield 2,229.98 

Plymouth 1,108.07 

Quincy 2,365.42 

Reading 527.15 

Rockland 363.75 

Rockport : 225.00 

Salem 1,629.94 

Sharon 202.50 

Shrewsbury 200.00 

Somerville 1,625.63 

South Hadley 474.16 

Southbridge 240.62 

Spencer 358.25 

Springfield 8,105.76 

Stoughton 359.53 

Taunton 447.61 

Turners Falls 303.11 

Uxbridge 256.25 

Wakefield 760.33 

Walpole 270.00 



THE MILLION DOLLAR CAMPAIGN 



175 



Waltham 1,839.51 

Ware .- . . . 234.00 

Wareham 299.00 

Watertown 1,100.00 

Wayland 300.00 

Webster 469.27 

Wellesley 610.00 

West Spriagfield 467.78 

Westfield 835.25 

Westford 362.86 

Weymouth 705.00 

Whitman 411.05 

Williamstown 205.73 

Winchendon 443.18 

Winchester 974.00 

Winthrop ., 665.00 

Worcester " 7,517.71 

Total contributions from 249 

other towns 12,480.69 

Monthly contributions 233.50 

$191,199.79 
Michigan 

Ann Arbor $ 1,501.43 

Alpena 271.00 

Big Rapids : 250.00 

Cadillac 717.75 

Calumet 1,525.00 

Detroit 16,495.25 

Escanaba 306.00 

Grand Haven 200.00 

Grand Rapids 4,009.81 

Jackson 1,631.15 

Kalamazoo 240.39 

Ludington 500.00 

Menominee 618.65 

Monroe 380.75 

Niles 300.00 

Owosso 230.00 

Port Huron 927.10 

Saginaw 1,500.00 

Stambaugh 218.65 

Ypsilanti 206.00 

Total contributions from 26 other 

towns 2,023.74 

Monthly contributions 126.00 

$34,178.67 
IVIinnesota 

Amoka County $ 200.00 

Bigstone County and Ortonville 472.46 

Blue Earth County and Mankato 1,057.49 

Brown County 412.78 

Carlton County and Cloquet. . . . 365.00 

Clay County and Moorehead. . . . 352.53 

Crow Wing County 243.50 

Dakota County and Hastings... 482.09 

Faribault County 352.64 

Fillimore County 503.92 

Goodhue County and Red Wing. 547.26 

Hennepin County 12,037.48 

Itasca County 506.64 

Kandiyohi County 385.25 



Koochiching County 260.54 

Lake County and Two Harbors. 453.80 

Olmstead County 400.00 

Otter-Tail County and Fergus 

Falls 405.46 

Pennington County 245.99 

Pine County 320.71 

Polk County 807.65 

Ramsey County 3,500.00 

Redwood County 287.61 

Renville County 279.15 

Rice County 381.00 

Rock County and Luverne 255.56 

St. Louis County 7,751.50 

Stearns County 809.89 

Steele County 300.04 

Wabasha County 339.50 

Waseca County 221.00 

Washington County 238.65 

Winoha County 670.04 

Total contributions from 33 other 

counties 3,183.92 

Monthly contributions 87.00 

$39,118.05 
fVlississippi 

Claiborne County $ 206.81 

Hinds County 311.30 

Lauderdale County 314.80 

Sunflower County 416.25 

Washington County 425.35 

Yazoo County 205.20 

Total contributions from 39 other 

counties 2,768.38 

$4,648.09 
Missouri 

State at large $ 21.50 

Cape Girardeau 357.00 

Jefferson City 486.46 

Joplin 483.50 

Kansas City 3,540.50 

Latom • 235.01 

Nevada 277.00 

Rolla 200.00 

St. Joseph 473.75 

St. Louis 12,672.62 

Sedalia 733..55 

Webb City 322.81 

Total contributions from 37 other 

towns 1,768.21 

Monthly contributions 62.10 

$21,634.01 
Montana 

Great Falls $ 264.85 

Kalispell 369.41 

Lewistown 407.25 

Total contributions from 4 other 

towns 92.85 

Monthly contributions 4.00 



$1,138.36 



178 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



Nebraska 

Alliance $ 350.00 

Beatrice 238.20 

Blair 290.03 

Central City 250.50 

College View 238.73 

Fairbury 483.76 

Hastings 792.85 

Lincoln 2,408.48 

Madison County 780.75 

Neligh 259.45 

Shelton 205.00 

Thayer County 207.00 

Wayne 223.00 

Total contributions from 57 other 

towns 4,654.45 

Monthly contributions 14.00 

$11,396.20 
Nevada 

Carson City $140.00 

New Hampshire 

State at large $ 195.78 

Berlin 700.00 

Claremont 405.00 

Concord 1,036.03 

Derry 264.57 

Dover 900.00 

Exeter 250.00 

Franklin 315.00 

Keene 392.30 

Laconia 335.19 

Manchester 3,622.11 

Milford 200.00 

Nashua 614.00 

Peterborough 319.48 

Rochester 309.25 

Total contributions from 114 

other towns 5,442.21 

Monthly contributions 16.00 

$15,316.92 
New Jersey 

Asbury Park $ 658.00 

Atlantic City 785.00 

Bayonne 1,279.11 

Belleville 269.25 

Bernards Township 688.20 

Bloomfleld 330.00 

Bound Brook 300.00 

Bridgeton 358.10 

Burlington 286.00 

Camden 1,609.10 

Collinswood 352.13 

Dover 500.00 

East Orange 1,800.00 

Elizabeth 2,550.20 

Englewood 721.00 

Flemington 242.50 

Freehold 306.23 

Hackensack 801.09 

Haddonfield 243.96 



Harrison 500.00 

Hoboken 1,800.00 

Kearney 1,636.19 

Lakewood 335.00 

Lambertville 368.20 

Leonia 205.00 

Madison 717.49 

Millville 549.17 

Montclair 1,659.50 

Moorestown 435.00 

Morristown 1,546.68 

Navesink 303.55 

Newark 3,247.96 

New Brunswick 1,146.39 

Orange 992.74 

Passaic 1,964.08 

Paterson 2,500.00 

Perth Amboy 2,449.21 

Plainfield 1,260.00 

Princeton 648.53 

Rahway 500.00 

Roselle 203.70 

Rutherford 361.00 

South Amboy 375.63 

South Orange 711.00 

Summit 495.72 

Trenton 2,000.00 

Town-of-Unlon 575.36 

Verona 223.55 

Vineland 455.60 

Westfleld 329.94 

West Hoboken 1,122.12 

West Orange 242.70 

Total contribution from 83 other 

towns 5,136.78 

Monthly contributions 113.00 



New Mexico 

Contributions from two towns. 



$51,190.66 



$30.45 



New York 

Albany $ 4,717.00 

Auburn 490.90 

Bath 203.25 

Beacon 713.31 

Bronxville 408.00 

Buffalo 13,107.89 

Canajoharie 404.00 

Canandaigua 379.20 

Canton 338.85 

Cohoes 449.19 

Corning 857.09 

Cortland 723.29 

Dansville 228.61 

Elmira 1,031.72 

Endicott 1,000.00 

Fairport 245.11 

Freeport 260.60 

Fulton 500.00 

Garden City and Hempstead 295.60 

Geneva 431.22 

Glen Cove 719.41 



THE MILLION DOLLAR CAMPAIGN 



177 



Gouverneur 224.73 

Groton 206.75 

Harrison 286.29 

Herkimer 614.66 

Homell 617.44 

Hudson Falls 361.70 

Ilion and Mohawk 500.00 

Irvington-on-Hudson 339.22 

Ithaca 784.43 

Jefferson County 300.00 

Johnstown 701.75 

Leroy 250.00 

Lewiston 273.97 

Little Falls 555.50 

Locust Valley 252.00 

Massena 226.59 

Millbrook : 1,064.20 

New York (including Brooklyn 

and Queens) 151,802.37 

North Tonawanda 600.00 

Norwich 709.55 

Ogdensburg 700.00 

Olean 750.50 

Oneonta 525.46 

Perry 250.00 

Plattsburg 358.15 

Portville 350.00 

Potsdam 207.85 

Poughkeepsie 1,070.00 

Rochester 7,500.00 

Rockville Centre 280.30 

Rome 1,257.00 

Saugerties 425.00 

Suffern 200.00 

Syracuse 281.00 

Tarrytown 286.00 

Troy 1,801.88 

Utica 4,301.01 

Warsaw 250.00 

Watertown 375.00 

Wellsville 250.00 

Total contributions from 162 

other towns 11,475.67 

Monthly contributions 470.50 

$221,540.71 
North Carolina 

Asheville $1,060.60 

Charlotte 1,275.07 

Elizabeth City 490.85 

Goldsboro 350.00 

Greensboro 408.49 

Rocky Mount 516.30 

Total contributions from 18 other 

towns 730.46 

Monthly contributions 5.00 

$4,836.77 
North Dakota 

Barnes County $ 252.98 

Bowman County 250.00 

Burleigh County 335.00 

Divide County and Crosby 225.00 

Ellendale 386.10 



Grand Forks County 303.60 

Jamestown 238.16 

Minot 311.97 

Pierce County 369.47 

Ramsey County 286.95 

Total from 74 other towns 2,939.26 

Monthly contributions 10.00 

$5,908.48 
Ohio 

State at large $ 199.46 

Akron 5,000.54 

Alliance 387.05 

Ashtabula 827.98 

Athens 342.61 

Bryan 536.56 

Cambridge 677.25 

Canton 563.00 

Carrollton 585.26 

Celina 205.76 

Chillicothe 772.00 

Cincinnati 14,700.00 

Circleville 400.00 

Cleveland 35,540.33 

Conneaut 506.75 

Cuyahoga Falls 359.30 

Dayton 7,914.04 

Defiance 262.00 

Defiance County ^. 369.72 

Delaware 455.75 

Elyria 264.70 

Hamilton 515.11 

Jefferson County 227.52 

Lorain 890.40 

Mansfield 452.68 

Marion 500.00 

Martins Ferry 460.39 

Maryville 200.00 

Massillon 825.00 

Medina 297.30 

Middletown 1,321.50 

New Philadelphia 405.00 

Oberlin 220.00 

Painesville 411.25 

Ravenna 297.62 

Salem 500.00 

Sandusky 600.00 

Sidney 400.00 

Springfield 1,589.64 

Stark County 679.55 

Toledo 5,527.06 

Troy 309.73 

Urbana 425.00 

Van Wert 474.52 

Warren 1,330.16 

Wayne County 218.68 

Willoughby Township 650.00 

Wilmington 275.95 

Xenia 483.57 

Youngstown 8,363.32 

Total from 92 other towns 5,262.69 

Monthly contributions 178.00 

$105,161.68 



178 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



Oklahoma 

Bartlesville $ 375,00 

Enid 574.00 

Oklahoma 255.91 

Tulsa 1,000.00 

Monthly contributions ..... 4.00 

$2,208.91 
Oregon 

Astoria $ 835.15 

Baker 605.00 

Corvallis 310.25 

Eugene 414.95 

Grants Pass 321.95 

Medford 312.78 

Oregon City 411.75 

Pendleton 434.00 

Portland 8,937.96 

Salem 539.00 

Total contribution from 125 

other towns 6,442.39 

Monthly contributions 59.15 

$19,624.33 
Pennsylvania 

Allentown $ 1,185.94 

Ambridge, Fair Oaks and Baden 487.00 

Aspinwall 211.51 

Beaver Falls 853.98 

Bellefonte 248.59 

Bethlehem 1,128.00 

Bloomsburg 400.06 

Braddock 1,269.71 

Bradford ,^ 1,105.00 

Butler 821.99 

Carlisle ^ 509.53 

Carnegie 675.59 

Chambersburg 616.25 

Connellsville 642.72 

Conshohocken 716.90 

Danville 400.00 

Dorranceton 205.91 

Duquesne 250.00 

Easton 1,500.00 

Erie 1,464.00 

Greensburg \ 832.50 

Grove City 200.33 

Harrisburg 3,043.32 

Hazelton 1,702,51 

Homestead 2,119.55 

Irwin 215.40 

Jenkintown 233.50 

Jersey Shore 354.80 

Kane 300.00 

Kingston 344.21 

Knoxville 425.65 

Lancaster , , 1,155.20 

Lansdowne 260.50 

Leetsdale 201.02 

Lockhaven 435.00 

Mauch Chunk 205.90 

Mechanicsburg 267.60 

Media , 527.91 

Milton 209.80 



Montrose 285,11 

New Brighton 358.50 

Morristown 298.35 

Northampton 411.16 

Oil City 1,049.50 

Pennsburg 222.50 

Philadelphia 19,467.33 

Phoenixville 414.00 

Pittsburg 22,518.25 

Plymouth 316.00 

Pottsville 1,477.70 

Quakertown 222.50 

Rochester 400.00 

Royersford , 216.75 

Scottsdale 300.00 

Sewickley 419.00 

Shamokin 1,050.85 

Sharon and environs 1,527.08 

Sunbury 700.00 

Titusville 496.00 

Warren 500.00 

Washington 1,035.69 

Wellsboro and Tioga County. , . 387.00 

West Chester 436.25 

Wilkes-Barre 2,577.49 

Williamsport 1,743,50 

Total contributions from 113 

other towns 7,290,98 

Monthly contributions 244.00 

$94,092.87 
Rhode Island 

Barrington $ 270.60 

Bristol 382.00 

Burrillville 441.65 

Cranston 897.67 

Cumberland and Lincoln 787.23 

East Providence 426.49 

Johnston 261.75 

Newport 3,050.64 

North Kingston 300.00 

Pawtucket 3,221.20 

Providence 10,557.57 

Scituate 208.20 

South Kingston. 385.76 

Warren 205.00 

Warwick 324.72 

Westerly 595.12 

Woonsocket 1,352,60 

Total contributions from 20 other 

towns 2,219.95 

Monthly contributions 24.00 

$25,912.15 
South Carolina 

State at large $ 872.91 

Charleston 1,944.85 

Columbia 706.60 

Greenville 875.00 

Marlborough County 308.00 

Newberry 235,25 

Total contributions from 10 other 

towns 864.17 



$5,806.78 



THE MILLION DOLLAR CAMPAIGN 



179 



South Dakota 

Beadle County $ 269.00 

Brookings County 666.63 

Brown County 896.95 

Davison County 525.00 

Fall River County 275.00 

Grant County 222.00 

Kingsbury County 319.72 

Lawrence County 486.45 

Lincoln County 720.25 

McPherson County 225.05 

Minnehaha County 686.33 

Pennington County and Rapid 

City 447.80 

Roberts County 360.33 

Total contributions from 41 other 

towns and counties 3,332.94 

Monthly contributions 5.00 

$9,438.45 
Tennessee 

Bristol $ 225.00 

Chattanooga 1,128.98 

Jackson 505.70 

Memphis 10,035.95 

Nashville 1,918.25 

Contributions from 4 other towns 307.67 

Monthly contributions 7.00 

$14,128.55 
Texas 

State at large $ 1,120.43 

Bell County 1,165.00 

Bexar County 550.00 

Brazos County 561.74 

Dewitt County 300.00 

Denton County 253.95 

Ellis County 291.60 

Fayette County 236.50 

Grayson County 293.71 

Harris County 2,500.00 

Howard County 250.00 

Jefferson County 312.60 

Lamar County 500.00 

Lampasas County 249.06 

Lubbock 307.45 

Marion County 235.34 

McClellan County 526.00 

Orange County 250.00 

Taylor County 250.06 

Titus County 218.00 

Travis County 397.70 

Wichita County 1,787.81 

Williamson County 228.50 

Total contributions from 39 other 

counties 3,561.94 

Monthly contributions 43.00 

$16,390.39 
Utah 

State at large (not distributed) $6;000.00 

Monthly contributions 27.00 

$6,027.00 



Vermont 

State at large $ 9,191.14 

Bennington 475.74 

Lyndonville 545.00 

Montpelier 842.51 

Rutland 910.00 

St. Albans 400.00 

St. Johnsburg 455.30 

Total contributions from 13 other 

towns 729.83 

Monthly contributions 12.00 

$13,561.52 
Virginia 

Charlotteville $ 355.40 

Covington 216.00 

Danville 513.02 

Fauquier County 581.50 

Hampton 248.71 

Lynchburg 982.07 

Petersburg 921.91 

Richmond 5,470.92 

Roanoke .^ 1,865.00 

Salem 200.00 

Suffolk 218.49 

Total contributions from 59 other 

towns 3,742.50 

Monthly contributions 20.00 

$15,335.52 
Washington* 

Aberdeen $ 750.00 

Bremerton 208.60 

Centralia 408.25 

Chehalis 238.40 

Everett 680.29 

Hoquiam 600.00 

Olympia 265.78 

Seattle 9,861.80 

Spokane 2,132.84 

Tacoma 1,553.36 

Walla Walla 810.00 

Wenatchee 312.86 

Yakima 900.60 

State Federation of Women's 

Clubs 897.55 

State at large (mainly rural 

schools) 2,227.30 

Total contributions from 15 other 

towns 1,023.70 

Monthly contributions 26.06 

$22,39;7.38 
*A contribution of $52.00 was sent to 

Camp Lewis. 

West Virginia 

State at large $ 925.73 

Wheeling 764.50 

Total contributions from 2 other 

towns 90.00 



$1,780.23 



180 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



Wisconsin 

Antigo , 

Appleton 

Beloit 

Columbus 

Eau Claire , 

Fond du Lac , 

Green Bay 

Hartford 

Kaukauna 

Kenosha 

La Crosse 

Lake Geneva. 

Madison 

Manitowoc 

Marshfield 

Menasha 

Merrill 

Milwaukee 15 

Mineral Point 

Neenah 

Oconto 



Oshkosh . . . 

Racine 

Reedsburg . 
Sheboygan . 

Sparta 

Stoughton . 
Superior ... 
Two Rivers 

Vernon 

Wausau 



374.27 
467.35 
916.88 
250.69 
938.50 
541.65 
,343.70 
203.10 
204.10 
830.00 
,505.23 
259.65 
,277.00 
650.10 
346.00 
350.00 
210.85 
,556.62 
230.24 
416.70 
271.85 
,033.07 
,033.71 
251.95 
,014.50 
200.00 
269.70 
,009.44 
212.65 
249.27 
560.43 



Washburn 216.81 

Watertown 219.00 

Waukesha 290.00 

Waupun 203.88 

Whitewater 200.00 

Undistributed (check through 

Madison) 150.00 

Total contributions from 228 

other towns 5,992.53 

Monthly contributions 82.00 



$42,333.42 
Wyoming 

Basin $ 440.25 

Casper 400.00 

Cheyenne 1,196.30 

Douglas 206.74 

Laramie 723.89 

Rock Springs 330.50 

Uinta County 263.88 

Total contributions from 19 other 

towns 881.41 



Carnegie Corporation 
Contribution 



$4,442.97 
,$320,000.00 



Miscellaneous 

Hawaii $18.00 

New Zealand 1.00 

Anonymous and without address 33.50 



Grand total $1,749,706.31 



WAR SERVICE COMMITTEE 

(Appointed by the Executive Board) 



J. I. Wyeb, Jr., New York State Library, Electba C. Doeen, Public Library, Dayton, 

Albany, N. Y. Ohio. '^ 

Edwin H. Anderson, Public Library, New Feank P. Hiix, Public Library, Brooklyn, 

York City. N. Y. 

W. H. Beett, Public Library, Cleveland. Charles F. D. Belden, Public Library, 

Ohio. " 



Boston, Mass. 



Geatia a. Counteyman, Public Library, Executive secretary: Geobge B. Utlet, 
Minneapolis, Minn. A. L. A. OflSce, Chicago. 



THE MILLION DOLLAR CAMPAIGN 



181 



WAR FINANCE COMMITTEE 



Birmingham 

W. H. Manly, Trustee 

Carl H. Milam, Librarian 
Boston 

William F, Kenney, Trustee 

C. F. D. Belden, Librarian 
Brooklyn 

Brooklyn Public Library 

David A. Boody, Trustee 

N. H. Levi, Trustee 

Frank P. Hill, Librarian 
Pratt Institute Library 

F. B. Pratt, Trustee 

Edward F. Stevens, Librarian 
Buffalo 

George Davidson, Jr., Trustee 

Walter L. Brown, Librarian 
Chicago 

Chicago Public Library 

Max Henius, Trustee 

Carl B. Roden, Librarian 
John Crerar Library 

Marvin Hughitt, Trustee 

Clement W. Andrews, Librarian 
Cincinnati 

W. T. Porter, Trustee 

N. D. C. Hodges, Librarian 
Cleveland 

John G. White, Trustee 

W. H. Brett, Librarian 
Dayton 

Electra C. Doren, Librarian 
Denver 

Frederick R. Ross, Trustee 

Chalmers Hadley, Librarian 
Des Moines 

Iowa State Library 

William S. Allen, Trustee 

Johnson Brigham, Librarian 
Detroit 

Charles R. Robertson, Trustee 

Adam Strohm, Librarian 
Grand Rapids 

Charles W. Carman, Trustee 

Samuel H. Ranck, Librarian 
Hartford 

Caroline M. Hewins, Librarian 
Kansas City 

James E. Nugent, Trustee 

Purd B. Wright, Librarian 
Los Angeles 

Frank H. Pettlngill, Trustee 

Everett R. Perry, Librarian 
Louisville 

Josiah B. Powers, Trustee 

George T. Settle, Librarian 
Minneapolis 

Gratia A. Countryman, Librarian 



Montgomery 

Thomas M. Owen, Librarian 
New Bedford 

Francis J. Kennedy, Trustee 

George H. Tripp, Librarian 
New Orleans 

John Fitzpatrick, Trustee 

Henry M. Gill, Librarian 
New York 

E. W. Sheldon, Trustee 

E. H. Anderson, Librarian 
Northampton 

Joseph L. Harrison, Librarian 
Philadelphia 

Clinton R. Woodruff, Trustee 

John Ashhurst, Librarian 
Pittsburgh 

John H. Leete, Librarian 
Portland (Ore) 

W. L. Brewster, Trustee 

Mary F. Isom, Librarian 
Providence 

Henry B. Gardner, Trustee 

William E. Foster, Librarian 
Queens Borough 

Robert B. Austin, Trustee 

Jessie F. Hume, Librarian 
Riverside 

L. V. W. Brown, Trustee 

Joseph F. Daniels, Librarian 
St. Louis 

George O. Carpenter, Trustee 

Arthur E. Bostwick, Librarian 
St. Paul 

Charles W. Farnham, Trustee 

W. Dawson Johnston, Librarian 
Seattle 

J. T. Jennings, Librarian 
Springfield 

Hiller C. Wellman, Librarian 
Tacoma 

Rt. Rev. Frederick W. Keator, Trustee 

John B. Kaiser, Librarian 
Wilmington 

LeRoy Harvey, Trustee 

Arthur L. Bailey, Librarian 
Worcester 

Charles M. Thayer, Trustee 

Robert K. Shaw, Librarian 
Youngstown 

Dr. Ida Clarke, Trustee 

Joseph L. Wheeler, Librarian 
New York (at large) 

Alfred Hafner. 

Charles B. Alexander. 

Edward L. Tilton. 

George Watson Cole. 



182 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



(Continued from page 106) 
twice the size of the greatest libraries of 
the country, would have library buildings 
and between two and three hundred libra- 
rians and assistants, in forty great mili- 
tary camps in the country, would serve 
hundreds, close to a thousand, different 
stations and forts and posts and barracks 
of one kind and another, would have 
shipped abroad 300,000 volumes, would 
have done, in short, what you know has 
been done — how many members, in the face 
of such statement, would have considered 
It a dream, or a mere matter-of-fact state- 
ment of what would be easy to accomplish 
once they decided to undertake it? It is 
this dream that you have accomplished. It 
is you who went out and got the million 
dollars. It is you and hundreds and thou- 
sands of others who collected between 
three and four millions of books, not the 
members of the War Service Committee. 
It is you, who are yourselves the several 
hundred who, from first to last in the past 
year, have been formally connected with 
the administration in the camps, and in 
the dispatch offices, and the work of the 
committee has been merely in starting the 
ball rolling. So I say this is not the usual 
report. It is merely a reminder of work 
that you have been doing. Therefore, it is 
not so important that a printed statement 
of it be put in your hands a week in ad- 
vance, to acquaint you fully with the char- 
acter of the work and the details of it. 

In the report of Dr. Hill's subcommittee 
on the "Million dollar fund," there are two 
honor rolls, to which I wish to allude. One 
is the "List of contributors to campaign 
fund," the underwriters. It is a brief list 
of those individuals and libraries who had 
such faith in the ability of the A. L. A. to 
do this work that they loaned the money 
which made it possible. Our obligation 
therefore is heavy to those whose names ap- 
pear on that list. 

Further on is another and a longer hon- 
or roll, showing the "Contributions by 
states, and cities and towns contributing 
$200 or more." If your name, this morn- 
ing, does not appear on either of these 



honor rolls, do not take it as a matter for 
discouragement. There will be shortly an- 
other opportunity for similar enrollment 
and next year your name, in prominent 
place, will reach you in the next printed 
report. 

Perhaps it is not too soon to see and say 
something of the effect that the A. L. A. 
Library War Service will have on civilian 
library status and activities in this coun- 
try. It seems clear that these by-products 
will be several and of much importance. 
Successive campaigns for money and books 
are not only revealing the definitely recog- 
nized role of the book as a prime factor in 
morale and the many ways, hitherto un- 
dreamed of, in which books and libraries 
may be of war time service; but through 
all this the library is being very much 
more firmly fixed in the social conscious- 
ness as an essential institution as alert to 
its duties and opportunities in war as In 
peace. 

All this will leave the library with a 
new and wholesome assurance. It has 
learned to ask boldly for what it needs 
and the splendid response has revealed the 
American people's belief in its work. We 
are left with a renewed faith in our work 
which heartens us greatly and will react 
on library work everywhere. 

Enough has been said for this occasion. 
There are problems that have come up in 
the transaction of this work by the gen- 
eral director and his staff at Washington 
that are proper for discussion and com- 
ment. There are matters of policy that 
perhaps are likewise, but they will not be 
presented this morning from this plat- 
form. It is results, it is the work itself 
that we are putting before you. I want to 
emphasize in a definitive way that this re- 
port of the War Service Committee is more 
or less a report of progress. It is not un- 
likely. If the necessity for the work con- 
tinues for another year, that you will raise 
more money and secure more books from 
the people of this country than you have 
in the year that has passed, that the work 
which seems so much like the realization 



BRETT 



183 



of a dream today, so almost incredible in 
its extent and character, will look small in 
comparison with the results of another 
year. So it is not as the sum or summary 



of a work finished or done, that the War 
Service Committee brings its report to 
you this morning, but solely and purely 
as a progress report. 



SENDING BOOKS "OVER THERE"* 
By W. H. Bkett, Librarian, Cleveland Public Library 



The Newport News dispatch station was 
established early in March in a business 
block, removing to its own building in 
April. Newport News is one of the two 
large embarkation ports. The station was 
planned to supply the camps of the army 
and navy — some thirty in number — in the 
tidewater district, on both sides of Hamp- 
ton Roads. The whole district includes 
many places having interesting associa- 
tions with early Virginia history, the Revo- 
lution and the Civil War. The principal 
work of the station, however, is sending 
books overseas. The building is located 
conveniently to the piers and the em- 
barkation headquarters and is similar to 
the camp library buildings in its construc- 
tion. 

The first librarian who did much to or- 
ganize the work was Miss Margaret Mann, 
head cataloger of the Carnegie Library of 
Pittsburgh. She was succeeded in April 
by Miss Sophie K. Hiss, catalog librarian 
of the Cleveland Public Library. The 
staff includes three former members of 
the Cleveland library staff, one from St. 
Louis and one from Davenport. 



•Abstract of address, given more fully in 
the August Library Journal. 

[Note : As the proofs of these papers and 
addresses of the Saratoga Springs Confer- 
ence are passing through the press, the sad 
word is received of the sudden death, on 
August 24, of Mr. W. H. Brett.] 



While the work has been under the 
general charge of the dispatch agent from 
the beginning, he has only been able to 
give a share of his time to it and most of 
the credit for the work that has been ac- 
complished is due to the librarians and the 
staff. 

The work of placing books in the camps 
is of great interest, as it brings more di- 
rect contact with the men in the service 
and has a great variety, the work being 
done through the Y. M. C. A. agencies, 
the Red Cross, the hospitals and the army 
and navy chaplains. Books are also is- 
sued directly to the men who visit the 
station. The principal work, however, is 
sending books overseas, which is done in 
two ways. The books are packed In boxes 
a little over 30 by 20 inches and about 8 
Inches In depth with one shelf and a solid 
cover which is screwed on and removable. 
The boxes form a convenient bookcase. 
They are largely placed on the decks In 
charge of the Y. M. C. A. secretaries who 
go overseas and are used by the men go- 
ing over arid afterward turned over to the 
agencies overseas, thus adding to the sup- 
ply. Other books in still larger numbers, 
packed either in the boxes already de- 
scribed or in small packing cases, are 
placed in cargo and shipped to France, an 
allowance of twenty tons being made to 
this shipping station. 



184 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



LIBRARIES AND THE UNITED STATES FOOD ADMINISTRATION 
By Edith Guerrier, Director, Library Section, United States Food Administration 



In order that I might bring you the 
thanks of the United States Food Admin- 
istration and greetings from the Food Ad- 
ministrator, I asked for five minutes on 
this program. It is almost a year since I 
was most unexpectedly called to Washing- 
ton to help place food conservation propa- 
ganda in the libraries of the United States 
to the end that you might give it proper 
publicity. The Food Administrator was 
confident that if you had the material you 
would use it. You have clearly demon- 
strated that his confidence was not mis- 
placed. The Food Administration is not 
going to ask you to turn your libraries 
into food shows. The fact that the food 
problem is quite as much a spiritual as a 
material one makes your help most vital 
and significant. 

In the midst of turmoil and confusion 
it is legitimate that we should preserve in 
our libraries the quiet atmosphere that 
makes for what one of our librarians has 
aptly termed "emotional poise." In this 
quiet atmosphere we can with dignity 
present the food problems of the world 
and it is our privilege to study means of 
presenting those problems which shall ap- 
peal to all who enter your doors. 

Almost a year ago the Food Administra- 
tor said when he was first appointed: 

"If democracy is worth anything, we can 
do these things by cooperation, by stimu- 
lation, by self-sacrifice, by the patriotic 
mobilization of the brains of this country. 
If it cannot be done in this manner it is 
better that we accept German domination 
and confess the failure of our political 
ideals, acquiesce in the superiority of the 
German conception and send for the Ger- 
mans to instruct us in its use." 

Thank God we have proven our right to 
rely upon democracy. One incident alone 
is sufficient. The first of last December 
we had for export until the next harvest 
20,000,000 bushels of wheat. If we keep 
up our present rate of export, by next har- 



vest we shall have exported 150,000,000 
bushels, 130,000,000 bushels being the free 
offering of this great free-hearted country. 

Sacrifice, service and sharing the gifts 
of Him whom we worship in spirit and in 
truth have accomplished that which all 
the perfect, Jong established systems, the 
gifts of emperors and kaisers, can never 
hope to overthrow. The poets and the 
philosophers, the wise men of the ages, 
they are the ones who must nerve us for 
this task, and it is our gracious privilege 
to provide the spiritual food so abundantly 
that the material food will have more than 
a mere material significance. 

As members of this splendid organiza- 
tion, as librarians, as citizens of this great 
free country, we have now the part of 
torch bearers, and the torch must be held 
with no wavering hand. If, for Instance, 
we doubt the value of our work, the an- 
swer is "buckle down to work." If we find 
out that we as individuals have nothing to 
do with the making of the morning, we 
may say with Rostand's Chanticleer, "Then 
I am just the cock of a remoter sun! My 
cries so affect the night that it lets cer- 
tain beams of the day pierce through its 
black tent, and those are what we call the 
stars. I shall not live to see shining upon 
the steeples that final total light com- 
posed of stars clustered in unbroken mass; 
but if I sing faithfully and sonorously, 
and if, long after me, and long after that, 
in every farmyard Its cock sings faith- 
fully, sonorously, I truly believe there will 
be no more night." 

Acknowledging freely that as a mere 
person I am unworthy to be your repre- 
sentative in the Food Administration, I 
yet cannot give a backward look. My 
hand Is on the plow and I ask that you 
continue to open your fields for the Food 
Administration team. I ask with the sure 
knowledge that he who asketh receiveth. 



BISHOP 185 



A CALL TO SERVICE 

While the Saratoga Springs Conference is still fresh in our recollection, and before 
the feeling and enthusiasm engendered there become dimmed, may I venture to urge on 
all librarians the imperative call of the present day to our best, our most devoted, our 
highest service? 

The war has shown us two great lines of work, peculiarly our own, which can be done 
by no other agency so well as by libraries and librarians. These are our own library 
service at home in meeting the enormously increased need for popular education and 
information, and our direct provision of books to the soldiers and sailors at home and 
overseas. 

Never before have libraries had laid upon them such a burden of duty as in the dis- 
semination of sound and informing knowledge regarding the war, its aims, its conduct, 
the relation of the citizen thereto, and the whole array of problems arising from an 
unusual condition of society. Next to the public press, the one agency which can best 
supply such information to all classes of the community is the public library. If the 
library was vital before the war, it is tenfold as vital now. Our cities, towns and vil- 
lages need the best in books and magazines, need the best effort of librarians as never 
before. The hour calls for definite, earnest, well thought out plans for the unifying 
and bettering of our daily service. And the times are not easy. Our libraries have 
already contributed to the military and civil branches of the Government numbers of 
their best folk. On us who "stay by the stuff" falls the increased burden. Our call is 
plain — no falling off in efficiency because of war; rather a higher devotion and a greater 
servicel 

Further, and no less vital, is our library war service; the provision of books in an 
effective (because organized) manner to our troops and our sailors. The American 
Library Association with splendid enthusiasm promised its aid to the Government at 
the Louisville Conference, hardly realizing, perhaps, the magnitude of its task. Last 
summer the Committee on "War Service, through various agencies, planned a great cam- 
paign for money and for books. Largely through the efforts of librarians in every part 
of our land an Imposing sum was gathered in the fall. The Librarian of Congress 
become general director of the library war service. Library buildings were erected 
In the great camps, innumerable stations were set up in every "Y" hut and house, on 
the ships. In smaller camps. Slowly and with great difficulty in the midst of a nation- 
wide dislocation of energy, a splendid service has been developed by the hard and long 
labor of our devoted colleagues at headquarters and in the field. The dispatch of books 
to Europe and their supply to the troops has been well begun. The attempt has proven 
the value of books in army life. It Is no longer an experiment, but an assured success. 

On us now rests the burden of carrying onward this work so admirably begun. 
There will be need of money, much money. Prepare now to bring every effort to bear in 
your home towns to raise your share, yes, and more than your share. Let your people 
know what the Association Is doing, get the papers to print accounts of the library war 
service. Inform yourself by visits and by letter. If our members actually KNOW 
what is being done, here and in France, the money will raise itself. 

There is need of personal service. Offer yourself, and like a soldier, obey orders. 
If you are called, for whatever work, that Is your special call to duty. If you are not 
called at once, remember that the home service needs your every thought and action. 
The library war service must be a selected service, a choosing of men and women for 
special needs because of individual qualification. In war time men obey and do not 
growl. The work to be done is vast. It will require every one of us who can work in 
it, sooner or later. It will hearten every officer of the Association, every camp and 
hospital librarian, to know that the volunteer list Is embarrassingly large. 

These words, my fellow librarians, are not preaching. Someone must voice the 
needs of the hour, and you have called me to lead the Association for a year in the time 
of our country's peril and mightiest effort. Therefore, I write this call to service, 
confident both In your response and In your welcome of the message. 

William Wabneb Bishop, 

July, 1918. ' President, American Library Association. 



186 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



WHAT THE LIBRARY COMMISSION IS DOING TO HELP WIN THE WAR 
By Julia A. Robinson, Secretary Iowa TAhrary Commission 



Although what I recount is actually the 
work of the Iowa Library Commission, I 
speak impersonally to-day as the secretary 
of an abstract commission, using our own 
state name simply to supply the sense of 
reality in illustrating library commission 
war work; and if I shall seem to be guilty 
of state pride, remember I am speaking 
for you and voicing your pride in your 
own state and your own library workers, 
for what one commission has done most 
of them have done. 

Briefly to summarize the commission 
war work — the calls which have come to 
us to which we have endeavored to respond 
may be listed under: (1) Book collec- 
tions; (2) library war fund campaign; 
(3) aid in food conservation; (4) miscel- 
laneous activities; (5) personal contribu- 
tions. 

Book Collections. During the Mexican 
trouble the Iowa Library Commission sent 
a number of boxes of books to the border 
for the use of our boys there and soon 
after the entrance of the United States 
into the present war and some time before 
the work of supplying books to the camps 
was taken up by the American Library 
Association we furnished books from our 
own collection to the boys of the Iowa 
National Guard encamped near Des Moines. 
At the same time we sent books to the 
colored training camp at Fort Des Moines. 

The first book campaign, like the second, 
was conducted by the secretary of the 
commission as state director and publicity 
material furnished. The first drive re- 
sulted in the collection of 25,000 books, 
most of which went to Camp Dodge. 

In the last campaign more than 100,000 
books were given. In the smaller towns 
where there was no library the collec- 
tions were made by the women's organiza- 
tions. About half of the last books col- 



lected have gone direct from the libraries 
to Camp Dodge and other camps. The 
other half have gone through the commis- 
sion office where they were prepared and 
sent to camps outside the state and for 
shipment overseas. The work of prepara- 
tion was done in the commission office for 
the books received in both collections and 
in both cases extra help was required 
which was paid for from commission 
funds. 

Library war fund. Between the two 

drives came the "million dollar campaign" 
in which Mr, Johnson Brigham, state li- 
brarian, was state director, but the secre- 
tary of the commission worked in closest 
cooperation. The publicity material was 
all sent out from the commission oflSce 
and the expense of sending borne by the 
commission — the correspondence and post- 
age being taken care of by the state li- 
brary. Our achievements in this drive 
were not satisfactory but represented much 
effort in which we were greatly embar- 
rasised by what was supposed to be expert 
help outside the library profession. 

Food conservation. Efforts in two direc- 
tions were urged upon the libraries by the 
secretary in her capacity as state director 
for Iowa for the United States Food Ad- 
ministration: (1) To assist in showing 
why we should conserve; (2) how to con- 
serve. 

To aid in the first direction hundreds of 
letters and circulars of information, direc- 
tion and suggestion, and thousands of 
posters for display and bulletins for dis- 
tribution were sent to libraries and 
schools. Motion picture slides were also 
provided and loaned by the commission to 
the libraries. 

In giving assistance in how to conserve, 
the libraries have been furnished with 
recipes and urged first to have them tested 



TITCOMB 



187 



and then to distriljute them as widely as 
possible. 

Miscellaneous activities. In the course 
of all these activities the regular work of 
the commission and of the traveling li- 
brary has been carried on and mention 
should be made of the fact that through 
the traveling library hooks and pamphlets 
on the war in all its phases and on kindred 
topics have been provided, advertised and 
circulated freely and lists prepared and 
suggestions for buying given; this with 
other activities will be continued. At the 
state fair in August our annual library 
exhibit will this year be made a library 
war activity exhibit. Every number of 
the Iowa Library Quarterly these days is a 
war service number, though not always so 
marked. 

The secretary has spoken on the book 
collection and on food conservation at dis- 
trict meetings of the w^omen's clubs last 
fall and of the libraries this spring and on 
other occasions. She also represents the 
libraries on the Woman's Committee of the 
Council of National Defence for Iowa and 
is chairman of the subcommittee on the 
registration of women for service. 

Personal contributions. In personal con- 
tributions we may seem to be lacking. 



Each member of the staff has given largely 
of herself, but with a force hardly suffi- 
cient to carry the work in normal times 
we can ill afford now with our extra war 
demands to spare anyone for outside 
work. Nevertheless just before I came 
away Miss Reba Davis, librarian of tlie 
traveling library, left for three months' 
base hospital work in Texas. This is em- 
phatically a personal contribution on the 
part of each of the assistants who will be 
obliged to bear heavier burdens at home 
during her absence. On her return others 
may possibly be spared but in the mean- 
time we shall not be of those of whom it 
is said "They also serve who only stand 
and wait," for we have no time for either 
standing or waiting with the many calls 
to service which daily come to us. 

But with it all, even more than to the 
boys in France, it all seems so "d im- 
personal" and in addition at such long 
range that with all our efforts we can but 
feel that it has not been even "our bit." 

But still we trust that your bit and our 
bit and many billions more may help to 
hasten the day when the Kaiser shall cease 
from troubling and the weary nations be 
at peace. 



WHAT THE COUNTY AND RURAL LIBRARY IS DOING TO HELP WIN THE WAR 
By Maby L. Titcomb, Librarian, Washington County Free Library, Hagerstown, Md. 



Like every other library, the first thing 
we did in August, 1914, was to display our 
meager assortment of war books. The 
making of the large sign with "The Great 
War" printed upon it in the blackest of 
type, in itself was a relief to our feelings. 
Somehow just naming it, giving it a label 
"The Great War" par eminence was an 
outlet to overcharged emotions. Then the 
public came, and read (for a few months 
how they read!) Usher's Pan-Germanism 
and Bernhardl's remarkable pronounce- 
ment of the German policy, and all the 
other titles, now almost forgotten. Then 



came the White Book, and the Yellow, 
eagerly devoured, and after that interest 
in our shelf began to wane. As a people, 
our minds were largely made up on the 
side of the Allies, but as yet we felt no 
especial concern In this fight 3,000 miles 
away, so one day when the librarian heard 
a captious voice saying, "O, those old war 
books! I'm so sick and tired of nothing 
but war," she moved the offending dis- 
play to a less conspicuous location, and 
for all the time we waited before coming 
to a reasonably clear understanding of 
Germany's aims, the interest remained 



188 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



academic. The new war books were read, 
but the flood of propagandist literature re- 
ceived little attention. Even the interest 
in the maps of the war fronts diminished 
after the terrible rout of the Russians. 

For a season the library marked time. 
Then came our entrance into the conflict 
and at once there was a change. Every- 
thing was in demand; our sign, "The 
Great War," was no longer needed, our 
only hope was to be able to keep within 
sight of the demand for books about the 
war. About a month before our entrance 
as a nation, the librarian was looking at 
the pile of propagandist pamphlets, dusty 
and untidy, and in an excess of housekeep- 
ing zeal almost decided to send to the junk 
man all but one copy of each. Some in- 
stinct stayed her hand, and the month 
after every copy was In the hands of a 
man on the farm or in the country store. 

In July of that year a Red Cross class, 
meeting every morning, was given a room 
in the building and met there for two 
months pending the establishment of per- 
manent headquarters. People began to 
wake up and ask questions and the library 
saw its chance to get into the great game. 
In the fall of that year the librarian un- 
dertook the state chairmanship of the 
A. Ii. A. war service campaign, with head- 
quarters at the library. That was fol- 
lowed by the chairmanship of the Red 
Cross Christmas seal sale. An educa- 
tional committee of the Maryland Council 
of Defense was formed in Washington 
county, consisting of a library trustee, su- 
perintendent of schools, county farm agent, 
home demonstration agent and urban 
demonstrator, with the librarian as secre- 
tary. This formed an excellent coopera- 
tive body, and it is through this commit- 
tee working through the librarian that the 
most valuable work of the library has 
been done. 

A set of questions on the causes of the 
war, etc., framed by the superintendent of 
schools and the committee, was issued to 
the teachers with directions that they in- 
form themselves, instruct their pupils, and 
require an essay from each one before the 



close of the winter term, the best essay 
from each grade to be printed in the local 
newspapers, the educational committee be- 
ing the judge. This gave an opportunity 
for a large circulation of a pamphlet, "What 
we are fighting about," issued by the Mary- 
land Council of Defense, and also of the 
Red, White and Blue series of pamphlets. 
The county demonstrator, the urban dem- 
onstrator, and the library book wagon 
have all circulated these pamphlets as 
well as those of the National Food Gar- 
den Commission, Food Administration, De- 
partment of Agriculture and others. A 
basket on the delivery desk labeled "Take 
as many as you like" has been emptied 
and replenished daily. Through these 
and many other avenues over one thou- 
sand pamphlets have been distributed. 

In the children's room, a weekly reading 
from some interesting war book has been 
given to the older boys, about four periods 
being devoted to a book, the boys follow- 
ing the narrative with a map. When the 
story hour stopped in the spring the chil- 
dren's librarian went out with the farm 
agent, giving talks to the boys' corn clubs 
on the war and our responsibilities to it. 

A class of volunteer workers meets one 
evening in the week to make scrapbooks 
for hospital use under the direction of a 
member of the staff. The library has also 
collected and shipped 1,016 volumes for 
the camp libraries, being administered by 
the American Library Association. 

Through the librarian, speakers and in 
many cases patriotic music have been pro- 
vided for over one hundred meetings of 
community clubs, patriotic mass meetings, 
etc., in the country districts. The libra- 
rian herself has talked at many of these 
meetings and to the Red Cross branches 
in the county. The school librarian has 
in her charge a Red Cross branch in a 
near-by village, meeting with them for 
work two nights in the week. Just now 
the library is selling thrift stamps on an 
installment plan in the children's room 
and the stations In the county which are 
visited weekly by members of the staff. 



WYER 



189 



This is one side of the shield. Looking 
on the other side, we find that even fiction 
goes slowly. War books of the narrative 
kind are still in demand and to an extent, 
books of international history and rela- 
tions. There is also a perceptible turning 
toward the psychical, spiritual and eth- 
ical. This is as it should be. The women 
of leisure are now at work. The children 



are busy with the Junior Red Cross or 
war gardens; the young men are gone, or 
getting ready to go; and for those who 
are left the newspapers are all-absorbing 
and exciting. It is only as the library can 
enter into the war work of the community 
that it can justify its right to existence in 
war time. 



WHAT THE STATE LIBRARY IS DOING TO HELP WIN THE WAR 
By J. I. Wyeb, Jr., Director, New York State LiTirary, Albany, N. Y. 



Immediately after the entry of this coun- 
try into the war the nation began to 
mobilize its resources — military, naval, in- 
dustrial, agricultural, scientific, educational 
— and each separate profession, industry 
and activity, through its practitioners, be- 
gan to take thought as to what specific war 
time service it might render. 

Probably the great surprise of the war 
to librarians has been the amazing range 
of opportunity that has been ofi'ered for 
what we may consider real library war serv- 
ice. Libraries have never been formally 
inventoried and examined to discover their 
possible war time contributions to national 
defense. Quite aside from their functions 
of supplying fresh news and judgments of 
current events and abundant wholesome 
recreational reading (functions supplying 
an indispensable element in morale and as 
highly important in stress as in serener 
times) libraries surely have a vital part in 
that work of organized research which is 
behind Germany's scientific and industrial 
efficiency and which has bulked large in all 
President Wilson's preparedness plans. 
That such work must be pushed with in- 
creased vigor, and its adepts kept out of 
the trenches for just such service is one 
of the sharpest lessons which England has 
learned, and successful research rests as 
much upon adequate and well-organized 
book resources as upon laboratories and 
trained men. It did not occur, perhaps, to 
librarians, even in the face of the vast 



mobilization of civilian effort, that there 
would be so considerable a part and a pro- 
gram for libraries and their work. I do 
not say this in any spirit of boasting. It 
is not in that spirit, despite some news- 
paper strictures that have been passed 
upon the program of this Conference, that 
libraries and librarians have done this work 
or that we have come together at this 
Conference to talk about it. 

i observed, particularly in Miss Tit- 
comb's remarks and in Mr. Wellman's, as 
well as in Miss Robinson's, the note of 
humility that was struck, and it is in that 
same strain that I wish to speak of what 
the State Library at Albany has done. 
I cannot believe that its work is greatly 
different from that of any other state 
library. Beyond its more usual functions, 
which must be intensified and accelerated 
in time of great need, there is an excep- 
tional service bearing full upon the im- 
mediate work of training an army, which 
the State Library offers to the mili- 
tary authorities of state and nation. 
Every man in the new army must have at 
least some months of training. Special 
schools and training must be provided for 
officers in every branch of the service and 
even for different duties in the same 
branch. Dozens of different specialized 
schools exist in France for the air and 
artillery services alone. Military training 
camps these must be, of course, but they 
must be more — schools and colleges in the 



190 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



real sense of the terms, equipped with 
laboratories, lecture halls, and libraries, 
and back of these general camps hundreds 
of special schools for the training of officers 
and specialists in the learned branches of 
the profession of war. 

The plain and immediate duty of the 
State Library, situated at the military 
headquarters of each state, would seem to 
be to build up its present small collection 
of military books into a military library 
adequate to be a center of military informa- 
tion for the state and to serve effectively 
the needs of research workers studying new 
methods and instruments for attack and 
defense. 

It should actively disseminate to the hun- 
dreds of schools and libraries throughout 
the state, with which it is in official rela- 
tion, information and expert opinion essen- 
tial to the comprehension of military facts 
and policies and to the maintenance of the 
morale of the nation. 

It should provide military and technical 
books, as required, to any school or college 
giving "officers' training" work. Its medi- 
cal library should acquire promptly all new 
and important material on military hygiene, 
medicine, sanitation and surgery and 
should give the widest publicity to the 
availability of this material to all military, 
medical and hospital corps. The following 
Items describing some specific lines of 
service by the New York State Library are 
noted without any logical arrangement but 
merely as they happen to be jotted down: 

A military information service was or- 
ganized as soon as this country came into 
the war, sorting out from our shelves the 
relatively few volumes that seemed to 
promise a live and active service at the 
present time, getting as soon as possible 
those other hundreds or thousands of 
volumes that bore more immediately upon 
present problems and the actual questions 
of war. These were put into a special col- 
lection. We accumulated such pamphlets 
as we could, subscribed for duplicate maga- 
zines and periodicals and either clipped 
them or circulated them as single numbers. 
This material was made available not only 
in the city of Albany but throughout the 
state in connection with our regular lending 



service. At the request of the Resource 
Mobilization Bureau, a rather high sound- 
ing name for what in most states is called 
the State Council of Defense, the State 
Library prepared a pamphlet on America's 
part in the v/ar, of which several thousand 
were printed. The same bureau also called 
for the compilation of a book about the 
American flag for use in quantities 
throughout the state. It was compiled but 
has not yet been published. 

The draft boards came to us, at first 
tentatively and later with more assurance, 
for help in organizing their records, to 
enable them at once to make reference to 
the names that were filed with each board 
alphabetically by the name of the soldier, 
by the registration numeral, by his serial 
number, and under some other numerical 
arrangement peculiar to their own records. 

A federal bureau of the National Draft 
Office is located at Albany and handles 
the v/ork for the entire state. Its records 
and correspondence soon outgrew its own 
facilities for taking care of it and the State 
Library was called into conference; a sys- 
tem was suggested, a course of reading and 
study mapped out for the people in charge 
of the system, the books, literature and 
catalogs of filing system and those that 
make them were distributed to them and 
they have come to look to us, I fancy, for 
such help as may be necessary in keeping 
pace with their growth of correspondence 
from three letters a day in the first week 
to something like a thousand letters a 
week at the present time. 

We organized the collection of local his- 
tory material on the war for the State 
Library throughout the state by designat- 
ing in each county one library to be a cen- 
ter for that work. In a circular letter to 
the 600 registered libraries of the state 
v;ere described the kinds of material they 
were asked to collect, pictorial, literary, 
manuscript, the ephemeral and the more 
permanent. Those letters were sent out 
so that each one of the 600 libraries should 
know which was the central collecting 
agency in its own county, the exact kind 
of material wanted, the form in which it 
was desired to have it, the greater plan 
of which it was to form a part, and the 
times and seasons at which we wished to 
have the material sent in to Albany. The 
State Council of Defense formed a useful 
publicity agent in every county, ably re- 
inforcing our own plans and our own 
efforts, for if librarians have learned any- 
thing through all this year of war work It 
is that they are a weak and feeble folk un- 
less they realize and use to the full the 



WYER 



191 



efforts of every other class of citizens and 
of every other agency, most of them lying 
* at hand and much neglected in every en- 
terprise in which we have been engaged. 

The State Library photostat has been 
freely and fully at the service of all state 
departments having to do with war work 
and has been much used for a surprising 
variety of work, much of it of exceptional 
urgency, frequently calling for evening and 
Sunday work. 

In the matter of camp libraries, before 
the A. L. A. had its work organized there 
were three reserve officer training camps 
in New York State. There were large camps 
in one or two other cities of the state. 
There were smaller posts here and there. 
The State Library in one case furnished a 
librarian for three months; in all cases 
furnished some books and acted as adviser 
when it was necessary (and it seldom was 
necessary) in stimulating local libraries to 
action in connection with near-by posts that 
called for some similar service. Thousands 
of books were used in that way. We dupli- 
cated freely when it was necessary and 
furnished personal service from the State 
Library whenever it seemed to promise 
usefulness, even, as indicated, to the ex- 
tent of sending a man for three months to 
the Plattsburg Camp. 

This leads naturally into the larger war 
service of the A. L, A. We have felt in 
that regard that almost any member of 
the staff that promised any usefulness in 
such work within our State or in camps 
where any New York men were to be 
found, was properly subject to draft. Our 
reference librarian has been librarian at 
Camp Upton ever since the camp opened. 
The first camp librarian at Spartanburg, 
where the New York National Guard men 
went first, was one of our own staff. 

So four or five members of the staff have 
been absent in various lines of camp library 
work, among them Miss Caroline Webster 
for three months in Washington organizing 
the hospital work for the library war serv- 
ice there. No demand upon us is too heavy 
for compliance in this regard if it is at 
all possible to let some lines of work go, 
to cut out others. We instituted a rather 
rigid inquiry of our routine and our 
regular working methods to discover if 
there were not portions of it that could be 
cut out entirely, if there were not other 



portions that could be Indefinitely post- 
poned, and we have freed some additional 
service for more important uses in that 
way. 

The Federal Government has called upon 
the State Library, and my associate, Mr. 
Walter, spent several weeks in midwinter 
in one of the Government offices, organizing 
a card and a filing system. 

In connection with the draft boards of 
Albany, our law library was taken for the 
legal advisory work of the city and our 
law librarian acted as the secretary for the 
legal advisory board of that district. Ses- 
sions were held in the law library and in 
the legislative reference library. The law 
librarian is still chairman of the board 
and he has assumed the task of reviewing 
the claims of registrants for the entire 
state, some ten thousand or more of these 
claims having been handled by the board of 
which our librarian is the secretary. At 
the request of the Adjutant's office he 
notifies delinquents of their status. 

The State Library acted as state head- 
quarters in the A. L. A. financial campaign, 
in both book drives, and like other state 
agencies has distributed the books upon 
orders from Washington. It initiated the 
local Albany campaign for money in the 
Fall, with the active cooperation and aid 
of the local public libraries. 

The United States Food Administration 
has an office in the State Library, a very 
busy office, an office whose work surprises 
me more and more every time I go into it. 
I am confronted there with what looks like 
a shipping room, an apparatus temporarily 
constructed, with great heaps of the 
pamphlets and posters issued by the 
United States Food Administration, stacks 
of round mailing tubes, great piles of 
envelopes addressed by the addressograph 
and ready to go out and people busily em- 
ployed in filling them up. Our Mr. Wynkoop 
is library publicity director for the Federal 
Food Administration. If every state is 
being taken care of with the literature of 
that central office of Mr. Hoover's as well 
as New York State Is, I can scarcely under- 



192 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



stand why we should not be able to save 
food enough to feed the whole world. 

In none of the above have I taken account 
of the many ways in which the daily work 
of the library, its regular routine, has been 
colored by war work; the difficult matter 
of book selection, of subscription to new 
periodicals, the distressing complications 
that have arisen by the failure to receive 
books and periodicals, especially from 
abroad, the trouble in financial records that 
has been brought about, the difficulty and 
efforts required to get books of any sort 
from abroad. Especially has war work 



colored reference work in all sections of 
the library. 

At the beginning I alluded to the amaz- 
ing number of opportunities that have 
opened for library work in connection with 
the war. It was a new thought that books 
and their custodians could be mobilized for 
military service. I know of no better state^ 
ment of this anywhere in print than that 
prepared by Mr. Wynkoop as program or 
syllabus for the conduct of the thirty state 
library institutes and printed in the May 
number of New York Libraries. 



WHAT THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY IS DQING TO HELP WIN THE WAR 
By J. C. M. Hanson, Associate Director, University of Chicago Libraries 



For the winning of a war there are said 
to be three essential and preeminent requi- 
sites: Man-power, money, morale. 

As to the first, the average American 
university library cannot boast of any ap- 
preciable surplus. The University of Chi- 
cago Library may or may not represent 
the average in this respect. It had, on our 
entrance into the war, 81 women assistants 
and 24 men, and of the latter number only 
eight of military age. The result is that 
the library can present only five names of 
assistants actually in military service. 

As for the second requisite, money, per- 
haps the less said the better. With sev- 
enty out of one hundred assistants receiv- 
ing salaries running from $30 to $75 a 
month one cannot expect to make a show- 
ing comparable to that of the great busi- 
ness corporations or other institutions 
with vast 'financial resources. Still the 
eagerness to give and the willingness to 
sacrifice is there in full measure, and the 
saying credited to the Apostle Peter, "Gold 
and silver have I none, but what I have 
give I Thee," may well apply to many of our 
library assistants during the last year. 
Subscriptions to the Red Cross, the vari- 
ous ambulances, particularly the Univer- 
sity and the Henry E. Legler ambulances. 



the three Liberty Loans, thrift stamps, 
and various charitable enterprises have 
been participated in by all. I know of no 
exceptions. 

There remains the third element, mo- 
rale, and here is where the University Li- 
brary may, in common with other libra- 
ries and similar institutions, claim recog- 
nition. 

It has been said that morale is likely to 
prove the deciding factor in the present 
war, also that the farther from home the 
scene of conflict, the more difficult for the 
soldier to keep up a firm spirit for the 
work in hand. It was, no doubt, with this 
in mind, and fully aware of the powerful 
influence exercised by the printed book for 
instruction, entertainment, and in general 
for the moral uplift of the soldier that the 
American Library Association inaugurated 
its plan for providing camp libraries. 

In the first confusion, due to a depleted 
force, without a corresponding diminution 
in pressure for service, assistants in the 
university library were a little puzzled as 
to just how and where to offer their serv- 
ices. A wish had been expressed by libra- 
rians of the central west that the Univer- 
sity of Chicago undertake, as a special 
function, the collecting of books and ma- 



HANSON 



193 



terial on the war. The proposal was re- 
ceived with favor by the president and the 
departments of instruction, and plans for 
the collection and their partial realization 
may be said to constitute the first step in 
the war work of the library. 

Almost simultaneously with the demand 
for a war collection came demands from 
faculty, students, alumni and others for 
books on military and naval science, gen- 
eral and special. Little attention having 
been paid to these latter subjects prior to 
the war, there was no nucleus around 
which to build. It was necessary to begin 
at the bottom. 

Calls for aid from the A. L. A. War Serv- 
ice at Washington came next and here 
the library was fortunate in being able to 
offer the services of the head of its refer- 
ence department, Mr. E. N. Manchester, 
for three months, during which period he 
served as camp librarian at Camp Cody, 
New Mexico. His letters; and, on his re- 
turn, the recital of his experiences, the 
needs of the soldiers, and their interest 
and appreciation of what the library was 
able to do for them, served to kindle the 
enthusiasm of the entire force, and when, 
soon after, the time came for the drive for 
books, the assistants responded with a will. 

Before the A. L. A, had begun its active 
campaign for books, the Great Lakes Naval 
Station, north of Chicago, was receiving 
thousands upon thousands of volumes, 
which were piled up in boxes and on the 
floors in almost hopeless confusion. The 
libraries of Chicago immediately responded 
to the call for help, and from the Univer- 
sity of Chicago libraries ten assistants 
went up for two days each, sorted books, 
wrote cards and helped prepare books for 
the various camps. The library contrib- 
uted half of their time, and, at first, paid 
transportation. Later the A. L. A. took 
over the work, and the Great Lakes library 
is now one that we of the central west 
point to with special pride. 

The organization and registration for 
war work of the women of Chicago next 
engaged the attention of several members 
of the staff. Miss Elizabeth Lamb, reviser 



in the cataloging department, had charge 
of the preparation and filing of the cards 
for the sixth ward, near the university. 
Nearly the entire cataloging department 
volunteered to help in supervising this 
work. Other assistants have taken a lead- 
ing part in preparing name index cards 
for twenty-six other wards, something 
over 300,000 cards having so far been filed. 

Before the work on the registration 
cards had been completed the drive for 
books was on. Four committees were ap- 
pointed to assume general charge and al- 
most every assistant was enrolled to help 
out in some way or other. It was our am- 
bition to make the collection of the uni- 
versity not only large numerically, but one 
which should contain only books likely to 
prove of real service to the soldiers. More- 
over, it was decided to pocket, plate, label, 
classify and catalog all the books prior 
to shipment. This latter decision was 
reached at a committee meeting held when 
only about 1,000 volumes were in sight. 
Later when the number threatened to ex- 
ceed the 9,000 mark, it became necessary to 
call for outside help for the simpler work 
of pasting, labeling and marking. The 
clerical work was done chiefly by the 
women members of the staff, the heavier 
work of packing and moving fell to the 
men. Students from the University 
Y. M. C. A., and from various fraternities 
have been of assistance, offering their own 
services, and, in some cases, their auto- 
mobiles to carry books to and from the 
university library and the different de- 
posit stations established in the neighbor- 
hood. The University of Chicago Press 
has printed and distributed posters and 
announcements and transported and de- 
livered books. 

Of other activities in which this univer- 
sity library has had a share may be men- 
tioned the rather important work of solic- 
iting and distributing pamphlets on the 
war to students and members of the fac- 
ulty. This has fallen to the assistant in 
charge of the war collection. Over 10,000 
pamphlets have been distributed gratis. 
The same assistant has also maintained a 



194 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



number of bulletin boards for war posters, 
pamphlets, cuttings, contributed almost 
daily notices to the student papers, com- 
piled reading lists on the war and in vari- 
ous ways assisted students and professors 
engaged in the study of the war, or pre- 
paring for active service of some kind in 
connection with it. 

I need not add that the ladies of the staff 
have done their share and more in knit- 
ting and in preparing surgical dressings 
and the like. 

There are other activities too numerous 
to mention connected with the neighbor- 
hood clubs, charitable organizations, Red 
Cross, Y. M. C. A., Y. W. C. A., churches. 
Council of Defense and National Security 
League, each of which has demanded and 
received its share of assistance from mem- 
bers of the staff. All have responded as 
far as their strength and resources would 
permit. Some, I fear, have in their eager- 
ness and enthusiasm exceeded the limits of 
safety and are as a consequence threat- 
ened with physical and nervous break- 
down. It has been a part of the directors' 
duties to warn against and counteract 
over-zealous application on part of those 
not strong enough to stand the extra strain. 

In addition to the collecting and prepar- 
ing of books for shipment to camps, still 
going forward at the university, the as- 
sistants have recently undertaken to de- 
vote one evening a week to similar duties 
at the Chicago Public Library. As the dis- 
tance of the latter institution from the 
homes of the assistants is from eight to 
twelve miles, and Chicago lacks as yet a 
real system of rapid transit, the participa- 
tion on part of the university library as- 
sistants represents also in this instance a 
contribution of time and energy worthy of 
mention. 

Maintenance of war gardens by some of 
the men and service of others as speakers 
upon the different loans and upon other 
subjects directly related to the war, are 
matters of course. 

Finally, the assistants decided last win- 
ter at a staff sociable to undertake the sup- 
port of two French orphans for the dura- 



tion of the war, the contributions for this 
purpose being entirely voluntary. 

What has here been recited must serve, 
then, to indicate briefly a part of the acti- 
vities by which one university library has 
endeavored to aid in the prosecution of the 
war. Whether or not it will serve also as 
a fair representation of the experience of 
other institutions of the same class, I can- 
not say. Some may have done more, some 
less. In any case, it is safe to say that the 
spirit which has permeated the assistants 
and stimulated their efforts at Chicago 
will be found also in the other libraries of 
the country. 

In conclusion, I can hardly refrain from 
giving expression to a thought that has 
been on my own mind, as I know it must 
have been on that of practically all of you 
during the last year. It is briefly this: 
The war must be looked at, not only from 
the point of view of immediate military 
exigency, but with a view also to its ulti- 
mate results, not only its material results, 
but the moral and intellectual as well. 

Just as it has been shown that the univer- 
sity library can contribute more to the 
maintenance of morale than to the supply 
of man-power or money, so it can no doubt, 
in common with other learned institutions, 
give more effective support to the Govern- 
ment and other powers in counteracting 
certain dangerous and pernicious influences 
at home, than through direct participation 
in warfare abroad. I need hardly mention 
the epidemics of hysteria and weakmind- 
edness which break out at crises like the 
present one and which tend to cheapen and 
weaken our patriotic endeavors. Even 
more serious are the insidious efforts of 
selfish and unscrupulous interests to util- 
ize our emergency for personal profit and 
gain. 

It will be recalled that the United States 
Commissioner of Education has sent out a 
timely and emphatic warning against the 
ill-advised and shortsighted campaign 
against the study of foreign languages. In 
the great economic reorganization, and far- 
reaching reconstruction which it is agreed 
must come after the war, and for which 



HANSON 



195 



even now a number of nations are making 
the most feverish preparations, men and 
women with knowledge of foreign lan- 
guages will be needed in constantly increas- 
ing numbers. We of the university and 
great reference libraries have perhaps had 
better opportunity than the average to note 
the frequency with which persons in search 
of the best information on a given subject 
are again and again blocked by their lack 
of knowledge, not only of the subjects 
treated in the books and articles laid before 
them, but particularly by their ignorance of 
the languages in which the books are print- 
ed. The handicaps resulting from such 
ignorance must be patent to all. They are 
so serious that I for one do not wish to 
see them saddled on those who during the 
period of reconstruction to come will be 
called on, each in their field, to uphold the 
dignity and position of this republic in its 
relations to other nations. 

In view of this situation and with our 
knowledge of what confronts us, it would 
seem to be the safe and proper course for 
libraries to consider, not only the imme- 
diate future, the military situation of the 
moment, but look farther ahead in plan- 
ning their share in the efforts required to 
win the war. 

Prominent writers and thinkers have, 
before and after the outbreak of the war, 
sounded warnings against the tendencies 
noticed not only among the great auto- 
cracies and plutocracies and the other im- 
perialistic combinations of the world, but 
among the minor nations as well, to set up 
as their aims and ambitions material gain, 
acquisition of money and wealth, control 
of commercial and natural resources at 
home and abroad, opportunities for extra 
lucrative investments, while too frequently 
assuming toward sound and thorough 
knowledge and all that pertains to the do- 
main of philosophic thought and idealism, 
an attitude of contempt. It has been 
claimed also that the most effective weap- 
ons for counteracting such tendencies must 
be sought for in the extension of knowl- 
edge and education based on sound moral 
principles. There should be no hesitation 



In deciding the position to be assumed by 
libraries to these and similar movements 
for human betterment. 

It has been said further that our time is 
not rich in great personalities, that the 
proper atmosphere for fostering such per- 
sonalities cannot be provided amid the 
rush and struggle for gain which has 
characterized particularly the latter part 
of the nineteenth and early part of the 
twentieth centuries. As proof has been 
cited the growing tendency to read only 
the daily papers — to cut even this reading 
to the minimum by glancing over the head- 
lines in search of something to satisfy the 
craving for the sensational, for something 
to supply a moment of stimulation in the 
great weariness from ceaseless toil. 

To wean at least a small part of the gen- 
eration now coming forward away from 
this unending struggle for material gain, 
for sensation, for personal aggrandizement, 
to bring them to read good books, to think 
and search their own thought, to give some 
small part of their time to moral and in- 
tellectual ideals and efforts — might not 
this perhaps be credited to libraries as in 
a sense a contribution to the winning of 
the war? 

In other words, is there any task, no 
matter how lowly, which may not be con- 
sidered as an aid to winning the war, pro- 
vided it has as its aim the spiritual and 
moral development of the individual, helps 
to enrich his life, teaches him to think, 
sheds light and happiness on him and his 
environment? 

Finally, should not, after all, the main 
contribution of university libraries toward 
the winning of the war be sought for in 
their own special fields of endeavor, In the 
maintenance and fostering of the princi- 
ples laid down in the world's greatest 
books, such as are found embodied in the 
Golden Rule, in the great legal codes and 
moral systems handed down to us, truths, 
which history shows us to have been the 
chief foundation stones " wherever and 
whenever human society has been able to 
function with some degree of security and 
success? 



19fi 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



Personally, I am utterly unable to appre- 
ciate or sympathize with the claim that a 
ruthless war is the most effective war. It 
fell to my lot once to make a study of the 
Thirty Years War with special reference 
to the participation in it of Gustavus 
Adolphus. His maxim "The best Christian 
is the best soldier," formed the basis for 
the rigid discipline enforced in his armies 
while he remained in command and there 
is no evidence that it interfered in the 
slightest with his military success. Lord 
Roberts until 1904 said a week or two 
before his death, "Let us fight against 
the enemy in such a manner that we 
shall earn not only his respect, but 



also his friendship." The cultivation 
of sentiments like those here referred 
to, the fostering of a broad and lib- 
eral education on firm moral founda- 
tions, preservation of freedom of thought 
and expression, with due regard to the de- 
mands of great national emergencies, are 
to my mind important issues which no uni- 
versity library or similar institution work- 
ing for the moral, and intellectual uplift 
of the people, can afford to ignore, not 
only in its endeavors to end the war suc- 
cessfully, but in all efforts tending to- 
wards the restoration of orderly and nor- 
mal conditions among men. 



IS CAMP LIBRARY SERVICE WORTH WHILE? 

By Adam Stkohm, Librarian, Detroit Public Library (Camp Librarian, Camp Gordon, 

Ga.) 



The question should, I think, be consid- 
ered from two points of view: Is it worth 
while to the men in the army to have 
these libraries; and is it worth while to 
the camp librarian to give service in 
the camps? 

As far as the first consideration is con- 
cerned, I hold that the presence of camp 
libraries in the camps is justified if we 
bring to these camps the professional skill 
and ability which we possess, an ability 
that is not available through any other or- 
ganization and never has been. For that 
purpose it is necessary that all good libra- 
rians feel under obligation to volunteer or 
accept a call from headquarters. It would 
mean in connection with that, that not 
only should they accept this call but should 
give a reasonable permanency to their 
service. The replacement idea in the camp 
library service is not a success. 

In a general way, these camp libraries or 
the camp library service is justified only 
if every policy that we lay out, if every 
effort that we give to it, is for the national 
purpose for which these camps are organ- 
ized. In this work we should forget not 



only the possible glory that may be in the 
assignment that is given to us, possibly the 
reflection that comes to our home institu- 
tions; we should forget our Identity alto- 
gether and simply approach the whole 
problem from the national point of view. 
And in that regard I differ with some camp 
librarians. I think that the camp library 
is not like a regular city or county library. 
It is a special library for a special purpose. 

The statement has already been made as 
to the necessity of technical books — all the 
books that are needed for the development 
and understanding of military arts — and 
the need of these books is too obvious for 
further comment. Add to these all the 
books available on flowers, rocks, photog- 
raphy, books on flne arts; but those are 
the incidental interests, those are the in- 
cidental happenings in giving this service. 
The big need, the real need, is to get books 
of analytical power and devote our skill to 
the training of men for a special purpose. 

It has been repeatedly said and it has 
just the same force now as it had six 
months ago, that the only purpose of this 
whole activity is to win the war, which is 



STROHM 



1S7 



true. But w© have, I think, progressed in 
the last few months a little bit beyond the 
mere military aspect of this wonderful ex- 
perience that we are going through. All 
at once America has discovered Europe. 
We realize that back of all those inter- 
national policies and happenings and mili- 
tary events there are motives and in- 
trigues, all of which we ought to know. 
We realize that underneath the flash- 
ing events of military tragedies and vic- 
tories there is a war underneath the very 
war, and conscious of those facts, the 
American nation and the young soldiers 
are going forward in a spirit of idealism. 
If there ever was any case of a national 
lifting up of spirit toward idealism, it is 
certainly true about America's entry into 
the war. Notwithstanding the faults that 
may at one time have been found in the 
Allies' claims, truly now we are joined in 
something that quickens the pulses of all. 
Information is available now; books 
have recently appeared that give the un- 
derlying causes, that furnish the back- 
ground, and analyze the big epoch now un- 
rolling itself. Those are the books and 
those are the magazines that above every- 
thing else should receive the attention and 
the understanding of the officers and sol- 
diers. In this way our professional per- 
sonal influence can do a great deal to 
arouse a spirit, a faith that is not avail- 
able just now through any other agency in 
the camps. 

The situation as to the boys who are not 
perhaps conscious of the real ideals of de- 
mocracy is sometimes a most bewildering, 
helpless thing in these camps. In so far 
as they can realize that out of the mud and 
blood will arise a new social order, a new 
Europe, a new world, they will go into 
the supreme test in a spirit of confidence 
and righteousness, different from that of 
any other brother belligerent. 

Now is it worth while to the librarian? 
The answer to that is perhaps quite diffi- 
cult to articulate. Is it worth while to 
be alive at all just now? Is it worth while 
to be in your country's service, humble as 
it is? Is it worth while to have this ex- 



traordinary privilege, as I feel it, of work- 
ing with men, with men exclusively? In 
that respect I think we have something to 
learn in our public library service. la it 
not possible so to arrange our service that 
the attractions that in a way are avail- 
able in the camp libraries for men can be 
introduced there, the freedom, the infor- 
mality of things? There, of course, we 
are all alike; we are all brothers, all 
equally muddy occasionally. The libra- 
rian is not anything like a controlling 
master. He wanders about among the boys 
in khaki; he is called across the floor for 
a little information on this and that, 
and there is absolutely no red tape or 
stiffness about it. As a matter of fact, 
this service is one of working the thing 
out together rather than of anything else. 

Something may also be said in antici- 
pation of the status of things after the war 
is over. Surely, when these soldiers are 
returning from their duty abroad and com- 
ing back to civil life, the recollection of 
the attention, of the consideration, that 
was given them from the country, from the 
librarians, will help a great deal toward 
supporting the libraries. It will also place 
public service on a higher plane than it 
has ever been before. Indeed, one of the 
benefits of the war will be the recognition 
of public service as an honor. Service to 
his city, state and country should be ex- 
acted from every one worthy the name of a 
man. You very women may, indeed, de- 
mand that every man should give some part 
of his life to the service of his country. 

Something has been said about the em- 
ployment of men and women in our camps. 
I am not going to enter into any argument 
about that. One or two things I care to say 
about it. In the first place, I do not think 
it is very important to discuss whether it 
be a man or a woman. A man librarian 
and a woman librarian will make a suc- 
cess in the camp as in any other library if 
they are good librarians, not because they 
are men or women. 

Yet another thing I want to say, speak- 
ing for myself and I think speaking for 
the camp librarians as far as I know them, 



198 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



that we are in this work because we can- 
not help ourselves, because opportunity 
has been offered to us; we are here for 
such usefulness and service as we can 
give. And if the executive committee or 
if the War Department or any other au- 
thorized authority should determine that 
it will be for the best interests of the serv- 
ice that women replace the men, I for one 
would withdraw most cheerfully and I 
think the rest of us would do so and wish 
our colleagues the very best of luck. 

Indeed, we are fighting, we are working, 
we are exerting ourselves now for some of 
the finest ideals there ever were. And if 
democracy means anything just now it 
does not mean any unkindly competition. 
We are going to work this out; we are go- 
ing to win out by cooperation and nothing 
else, and that will be true, I think, about 
the library war service, which is, perhaps, 
more intelligently applied than any other 
civilian service we can think of. The 
whole civilian activity is really too large 



for competition. I think we all real- 
ize there is not any especial "glory" con- 
nected with it. We are dressed up in uni- 
forms but our uniforms are never going to 
have any memories of military valor con- 
nected with them. We are fully conscious 
of the propriety that no service star should 
ever be hung in our honor. But in a 
deeper sense and especially perhaps on a 
wonderful day like this Fourth of July, 
one would like to cherish the hope that all 
people who have sincerely and unselfishly 
given something of themselves for the pro- 
motion of a great cause like ours, whether 
they are the women in the kitchens, the 
mechanics in the factories, the civilian 
workers in the Y. M. C. A. huts, or the 
camp librarians — may we not hope that in 
so far as we have heartened and quickened 
the spirit that reaches now from land to 
land, we have perhaps each one of us added 
a little star in that firmament of light, 
hope and justice to which an anxious world 
is looking up. 



THE UNITED STATES BOYS' WORKING RESERVE 
By H. W. Wells, Associate Director, United States Boys' Working Reserve 



The United States Boys' Working Re- 
serve is a section of the United States Em- 
ployment Service of the Department of 
Labor. Its purpose is to enroll, to train, 
and to supervise at their work all boys 
who are sixteen years of age and over and 
under twenty-one years of age and are 
physically fit for the work to be under- 
taken, with a primary purpose of rehabili- 
tating farms that have been denuded by 
the war emergency of their supply of adult 
labor. The fourth item of its program is 
to inspect the farms where boys are to be 
employed in order that the living and 
working conditions on these farms shall 
conform to certain definite standards set 
up by the Reserve. 

There are approximately two million 
boys of Reserve age in the United States 
who are in school or are occupied at labor 



that Is seasonal or that is not essential to 
the winning of the war. This is the source 
of labor supply with which the Reserve im- 
mediately deals. Of the two million boya 
under consideration approximately 500,000 
are in the high schools of the United 
States. 

The Reserve is organized into state units 
with a federal state director in charge of 
every state unit; and into county units 
with a county director in charge of every 
county unit. Federal state directors are 
federal employes and are appointed direct- 
ly from Washington by the Secretary of 
Labor. County directors are appointed by 
federal state directors and are commis- 
sioned by them with their commissions 
countersigned from Washington. 

Into every high school of the United 
States the Reserve proposes to place, and 



WELLS 



199 



In thousands of instances has already 
placed, an enrolling officer whose busi- 
ness is to bring to the attention of ev- 
ery boy of Reserve age in his school 
the claims of the Reserve upon his pa- 
triotic service, and to enroll boys who 
respond to this call. There are now 
enrolled into the United States Boys' 
Working Reserve throughout the forty- 
eight States of the Union and in the Ter- 
ritory of Hawaii, 200,000 boys. 

The Reserve is organized into three 
units: the agricultural unit, the industrial 
unit and the vocational training unit. All 
the emphasis of the organization has been 
placed upon the agricultural unit because 
it is through this unit that the boys of the 
United States are best able to serve their 
country in the present crisis. 

In order to prepare boys to enter the 
agricultural unit courses of study in the 
elements of farm practice were introduced 
into the school courses of many of the 
states and were prosecuted through the 
past autumn, winter and spring. 

In seven of the states the Reserve main- 
tained central farm training camps, and in 
one state a training farm, for the intensive 
training of selected boys in the elements 
of farm practice and in the spirit that 
should animate members of the Reserve. 
In every one of these camps the boys were 
submitted to daily physical training and 
were subject to military discipline. 

Manifestly the Reserve offers to the li- 
braries of the United States a large op- 
portunity for usefulness. A hearty co- 
operation with the United States Boys' 
Working Reserve is urged upon the libra- 
rians of the United States. That coopera- 
tion can best he offered in these outstand- 
ing ways: 



1. By giving the greatest possible pub- 
licity to the Reserve. This is best done 
by assembling the material that is used by 
the Reserve, and by posting some of it 
and by distributing other of it; by main- 
taining an honor roll of all boys who are 
patrons of the libraries and are enrolled 
Into the Reserve. 

2. By offering the legitimate services of 
the libraries to all agencies in city, town 
and county that are directly interested In 
in the United States Boys' Working Re- 
serve. 

3. By the enrollment of all boys who are 
not in attendance upon the schools of the 
locality; and by referring schoolboys not 
enrolled to the proper enrolling officer of 
their schools. 

4. By acting as an arm of the school sys- 
tem, in close cooperation with the school 
authorities and with the county directors 
of the Reserve, to teach boys the elements 
of farm practice in preparation for their 
work upon the farms. 

5. To act as emotional centers to stir 
the boy patrons of libraries to a love of 
country and to the true meaning of a 
genuine patriotism. 

As seventy-five per cent of the potential 
enrollment of the Reserve is not in school; 
and as a very large portion of a part of 
this seventy-five per cent is a patron of 
the libraries, the duties of the libraries to 
the youth of the land in this particular re- 
gard are difficult to exaggerate. 

The national organization is about to 
add to its stalf a director of library co- 
operation whose business shall be to keep 
the libraries of the country informed con- 
cerning the United States Boys' Working 
Reserve, and to outline a program of prac- 
tical library cooperation. 



200 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



THE DAY'S WORK IN HOBOKEN 
By Asa Don Dickinson, A. L. A. Dispatch Agent, Ho'boken, N. J. 



Our days at the Hoboken Dispatch Of- 
fice are full of interest and incident. 
Starting in January with one, we now oc- 
cupy four of the pleasantest saloons in a 
town which has ever been famous both for 
barrooms and Germans. We are but one 
block back from the water* front. The 
Leviathan docks just around the corner. 
Daily an intermittent stream of very sober 
looking soldiers passes our door. They 
are on the long trail which in another mo- 
ment will bring their feet to the gangplank 
of a transport. 

But we cannot afford to gaze long at the 
surroundings. The day's work at Hobo- 
ken means that 6,000 books must be sent 
overseas and this involves a good deal of 
hard work. 6,000 a day means 750 an 
hour, twelve a minute, one every five sec- 
onds. If 6,000 books are to be dispatched 
daily, 6,000 must be received, acknowl- 
edged, unpacked and prepared for ship- 
ment daily. They come In lots of all sizes, 
from a single "Baedeker" up to 20,000 
books at once. Ten per cent are pur- 
chased books, and these entail ordering 
and bill checking. They come in all sorts 
of ways: by quartermaster's freight, by 
freight prepaid, by freight collect, by ex- 
press prepaid, by express collect, by parcel 
post, by moving-van, wagon or limousine, 
by lighter and by hand. They come with 
all sorts of addresses, they come in every 
possible sort of package — nearly 100 pack- 
ages a day, which should all receive atten- 
tion on the day of their arrival, for the 
next day will bring as many more. The 
books must all be carefully inspected of 
course, and a certain number of "unsuit- 
ables" will have to be disposed of. The 
very large majority of books which pass 
inspection must be roughly classified, and 
each must contain one bookplate, book- 
pocket, and book card bearing the au- 
thor's surname and a brief title. (Bless- 



ings on the librarian who sees that the 
books he sends us are carefully prepared 
for shipment. . The shelf-list card is not 
required In our work. Cooperating friends, 
all please take notice if you would save 
useless labor.) After the books are made 
up into carefully proportioned little libra- 
ries of about seventy-five volumes each, 
they are packed in our regulation shipping 
bookcases. In each box are placed direc- 
tions to the amateur librarians who are to 
care for the books overseas. And finally 
there is the sealing, stenciling and ship- 
ping of the boxes. Some are for use on 
the transports and later "over there"; 
some for cargo shipment as part of 50 tons 
a month asked for by General Pershing; 
some are for shipment to one or other of 
the Naval Bases; or to the Red Cross; or 
to some particular ship in local waters. 
About 80 boxes go out each day. Ninety- 
nine, 7,425 books, is the one-day record so 
far. Each should bear three pasted labels 
and on the average five stencilings. Our 
stencil library is surprisingly large. If a 
box is wrongly marked it will surely go 
astray. In the midst of the hurly-burly 
over there we cannot but fear it may do so 
any way. 

Suppose we note the events of a busy 
hour or so at 119 Hudson street: 
8:15 a.m. — The dispatch agent arrives, to 
find a truck waiting to be loaded for the 
piers. Porters and truckmen are enjoy- 
ing a- cozy social hour. 
8:16 — The dynamo begins to buzz, galvan- 
izing porters and truckmen into more or 
less strenuous action. 
8:20 — Morning mail arrives: 25 letters and 
50 pounds of newspapers and periodicals. 
8:25 — Truck arrives with load of 50 cases 
of books received per quartermaster's 
freight — ^flve lots in the load — two lots 
are "short" one case apiece. 



DICKINSON 



201 



8:30 — Parcel post wagon arrives with 27 
parcels: books from publishers, libra-, 
ries and Individuals, and supplies from 
headquarters. 

8:35 — A limousine stops before the door 
and an early-rlsIng Lady Bountiful en- 
ters bearing three Issues of the Saturday 
Evening Post, and one copy each of 
Owen Meredith's "Luclle," Irving's 
"Sketch-book," Mitchell's "Reveries of a 
bachelor," Drummond's "Natural law In 
the spiritual world," and "Mr. Britling." 
She naturally wishes to know all about 
how we send books to soldiers, and 
holds the dispatch agent In gracious so- 
cial converse for seven precious minutes, 
till 

8:42 — An irate policeman enters to say 
traffic on Hudson street Is completely 
blocked by vehicles standing before our 
premises. 

8:45 — Loaded truck departs for the pier, 
and the traffic begins to trickle through 
the jam. 

8:50 — A big express wagon arrives to clog 
things up again, and at 8:50% comes a 
giant "seagoing" motor truck nine 
hours out from Philadelphia with 185 
of our shipping bookcases. 

8:51 — Three newly hired porters take a 
good look at this load; then two of them 
remember that they have been drafted 
and must leave "for the front" at once; 
the third candidly states that the work 
is too hard for him. 

8:52 — Telephone bell rings: "One hundred 
eight boxes of books are lying on Pier 1. 
They have just come off a lighter from 
Cheyenne, Wyoming. They weigh about 
300 pounds apiece. I suppose they be- 
long to you folks. The major says to 
tell you they must be taken away be- 
fore noon, or he will dispose of them as 
he sees fit." 

8:53 — Telegram from Washington head- 
quarters: "Congratulations on your last 
weekly report. Kindly arrange to dou- 
ble your output next week and here- 
after." 

8:54— Wagon arrives with load of packing 
boxes. 



8:55 — Another telegram from "Washington 
headquarters: "Use only our standard 
shipping bookcases. Discontinue at once 
all use of packing boxes." 

8:56 — Telegram from manufacturer of 
standard shipping bookcases: "Can't get 
labor or lumber. Don't expect any more 
boxes for at least a week." 

8:58 — Distinguished librarian of leisurely 
habits and a fine conversational talent 
arrives to Inspect our work. 

9:00— Class of Y. M. C. A. transport secre- 
taries arrives to receive Instruction In 
the care and administration of our trans- 
port libraries. 

9:10 — Red Cross chaplain enters with an 
urgent demand for "Lady Audley's se- 
cret." "There Is a boy In St. Mary's 
hospital who must at once have that 
book and no other." 

9:15 — Read letter from headquarters: The 
gist Is as follows: "Don't stick so close 
to your office. Get out, man, and culti- 
vate diplomatic relations with admirals 
and major generals." 

9:16 — Wire from headquarters: "Please 
release your first assistant." (He had al- 
ready gone to Boston to establish dis- 
patch office there.) 

9:20 — Base hospital chaplain enters with 
a list of 450 titles. He tells us that he 
has selected them with great care, and 
hopes there need be no substitutions. 
They must be on board his ship at 9 
a. m. tomorrow. She sails at noon. He 
doesn't know her name or number or 
whether she sails from New York, Brook- 
lyn or Hoboken. 

9:21 — Quartermaster's truck arrives with 
load of Burleson magazines. 

9:23^Three loud explosions in rapid suc- 
cession on the water front. Many win- 
dows are broken by the concussion. All 
hands rush into the street. German 
woman from delicatessen shop next door, 
in hysterics, demands first aid treat- 
ment. She gets It — good old-fashioned 
cold water. 

9:25 — Moving van arrives with load of 
8,000 loose, unsorted books, collected by 
the New York Public Library. 



202 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



9:27 — Secondhand packing box dealer ar- 
rives to take away old boxes, and dealer 
in old paper arrives for a load of dis- 
carded books. 

9:28 — Military authorities threaten drastic 
action if we continue to block traffic in 
Hudson street. A string of 75 quarter- 
master trucks is being held up. 

9:29— Sell two copies of "The Four Mil- 
lion," first editions, to a book dealer for 
$60.00. 



9:30 — Long distance telephone from Wash- 

. ington headquarters: "Our representa- 
tives abroad report very few books ar- 
riving in France. Why is this?" 

9:31 — Director of Library War Service 
concludes an unobtrusive visit of in- 
spection by saying a few kind words as 
to the progress we are making, and by 
advising us not to overwork. 

9:32 — The dispatch agent falls heavily to 
the floor. He has fainted. 



GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS RELATING TO THE WAR 
By H. H. B. Meyek, Chief Bibliographer, Library of Congress 



An attempt to review, in the course of an 
hour, the output of the largest printing 
establishment in the world, during the pe- 
riod of its greatest activity, must neces- 
sarily appear somewhat absurd. One of 
my colleagues with a mathematical turn of 
mind has estimated that it would take fifty- 
six hours steady reading to merely peruse 
the Monthly Catalogue of public documents. 
Obviously an enormous exclusion must be 
practiced and but few documents can be 
passed in review. But what is to be the 
basis of exclusion or inclusion? Again ob- 
viously present usefulness. This is neither 
the time nor the occasion in which to at- 
tempt an appraisal of documents as records 
of past events. That is rather the business 
of the future historian after time has per- 
formed its slow but sure winnowing. But 
this is the time and place to attempt to 
point out what documents are of the most 
use in helping the ordinary citizen, who is 
the special care of the modern librarian, 
to perform his part in the war. 

In the treatment of the material itself 
two courses lie open, either to take it up 
by subject or by issuing office. The latter 
has been selected because an arrangement 
by issuing office after all parallels to a 
great extent an arrangement by subject, 
while it affords a readier means of identifi- 
cation. I shall pass in rapid review, then, 



the publications which have been issued by 
the pennanent departments of the govern- 
ment, followed by those of the special de- 
partments and bureaus brought into exist- 
ence by the exigencies of the war. 

State Department 
To begin with the State Department: 
Apart from the routine publications there 
stands out prominently the "Diplomatic 
correspondence with belligerent govern- 
ments relating to neutral rights and du- 
ties." A fourth part was published in May 
of this year, bringing the documents down 
to the declaration of war against Germany, 
April 6, 1917, and the severance of diplo- 
matic relations with Austria-Hungary and 
Turkey, April 8 and 23, respectively. It 
covers the whole of the submarine contro- 
versy to its final consummation. This is 
perhaps the most valuable contribution of 
source material so far made to the history 
of the war. Although a plain, straightfor- 
ward presentation of documents, it is an ab- 
solute indictment, and such an array of evi- 
dence as forces a conviction of the utterly 
stupid perfidy of the governments of the 
Central powers, which made it impossible 
for the United States to remain out of the 
war. Its value to patriotic speakers should 
not be overlooked. Many of the facts which 
form the basis of their arguments and ap- 
peals rest on the evidence here presented. 



MEYER 



203 



Treasury Department 

The Treasury Department, in connection 
with each successive liberty loan, has is- 
sued a series of posters, circulars, and bul- 
letins appealing to the patriotism of the 
citizens to respond to the call for money. 
While they have a permanent historic value, 
their Immediate interest lies in connection 
with the loan to which they relate. The 
fourth liberty loan is to come in the fall, 
probably in October. Every librarian 
should be ready to aid in the drive with a 
display of posters, and with Information 
circulars at the reference desk. Write be- 
forehand to the Publicity Bureau, Treasury 
Department, Washington, D. C, stating 
briefly your interest in the matter and re- 
questing display posters and information 
circulars. Let them know that you are 
the center of information in your commu- 
nity; do it briefly, no one has time in Wash- 
ington at this crisis to read long letters, 
however interesting, and the only effect of 
a long letter is to delay matters. 

Some of the circulars have a more per- 
manent interest at the reference desk. The 
pamphlets entitled "Second liberty loan of 
1917, a source book" and "Liberty loan 
bonds, what they are, what they stand for, 
and how to buy them," are two of these. 
More important still are Liberty Loan Cir- 
cular 8, "Conversion of United States 15-30 
years 3% per cent gold bonds of first lib- 
erty loan," and Liberty Loan Circular 9, 
"Interchange and transfer of liberty bonds," 
the use of which is obvious. 

The posters, circulars, and bulletins re- 
lating to war savings certificates and 
stamps are to be had on application to the 
National War Savings Committee, Treas- 
ury Department, Washington, D. C. Some 
of these also have a reference-desk value, 
and I should mention especially "United 
States government war savings stamps, 
what they are, and why you should buy 
them. W. S. 113." If you are asked about 
the steps to be taken for establishing au- 
thorized selling agencies, they are de- 
scribed in W. S. 130, while W. S. 133 is a 
"Handbook for banking, educational, indus- 



trial and other interests" and W. S. 144 is 
a "Textbook for speakers in thrift stamps 
and war savings stamps." 

Information concerning "War savings so- 
cieties, what they are and how to organize 
them" will be found in W. S. 145. In con- 
nection with these societies the committee 
began in March of this year the publication 
of a monthly with the title "War saver, 
bulletin for war savings societies of the 
United States," also to be had free on ap- 
plication to the committee. War Savings 
Circular 8 contains the Treasury regula- 
tions further defining the rights of holders 
of war savings certificates. 

The work of the War Risk Insurance 
Bureau is of widespread interest in every 
community. It has published a series of 
bulletins. The first dealing with "Terms 
and conditions of soldiers' and sailors' in- 
surance," the second, "Brief outline of 
family allowances," etc., of which the third 
is a more extended statement, while the 
fourth contains "Answers to questions you 
will ask." 

Though not war documents strictly 
speaking, the circulars of the Federal Farm 
Loan Bureau are of importance just at this 
juncture. They give information on how 
farmers may form national farm loan as- 
sociations and so take advantage of the 
opportunities to borrow money on terms 
favorable to the farmer. Special attention 
should be directed to Circular 5, "Farm 
loan primer," which gives an answer to 
most of the questions which are likely to 
be asked concerning the Federal Farm 
Loan act. The act itself is printed as Cir- 
cular 4. Since October, 1917, several num- 
bers of a "Borrower's Bulletin" have ap- 
peared, intended primarily for the national 
farm loan associations. 

From the ofllce of the Internal Revenue 
Commissioner has appeared an "Income 
tax primer, prepared by the Bureau of In- 
ternal Revenue for the information and 
assistance of tax payers." It ought to 
answer all questions, but it doesn't, quite. 

There are in the Treasury Department 
two rather anomalous bureaus which grew 



204 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



out of the Customs Division. Tlie Coast 
Guard, combining the Life Saving Service 
and the Revenue Cutter Service, and the 
Public Health Service which had its origin 
in the Quarantine Service. 

The Coast Guard, which during the war 
has been placed under the Navy Depart- 
ment, has published a most admirable little 
handbook on the gasoline engine with the 
title, "Handbook on the care and operation 
of gasoline engines," so simple, clear, and 
straightforward in its presentation of the 
subject that it may be understood even by 
the girl who runs and ruins your auto- 
mobile. 

The Public Health Service has Issued two 
publications of great value at all times, but 
of special interest just now. "Laundries 
and public health, a sanitary study," which 
is Reprint 385, from the Public Health Re- 
ports. I want to pause here a moment to 
say a good word about the Public Health 
Reports. Under this rather strange title 
is hidden one of the most useful scientific 
journals issued in this country. Most of 
the articles are written from the popular 
viewpoint of public health and sanitation 
and it requires no profound medical or 
scientific knowledge to understand them. 
Small libraries seeking a high grade scien- 
tific journal making a wide appeal cannot 
do better than to subscribe for this period- 
ical. 

In February of this year appeared a vol- 
ume, "Prevention of disease and care of the 
sick, how to keep well and what to do in 
case of sudden illness," by W. S. Stimpson, 
Assistant Surgeon General of the U. S. 
Public Health service (with a supplement 
on "First aid to the injured," by R. M. 
Woodward, Surgeon U. S. Public Health 
service) , which in the judgment of many is 
the best book on home and family medicine 
ever printed. It differs vastly from the 
old-fashioned home doctor book, the read- 
ing of which produced an acute attack in 
rapid succession of every disease described. 
This volume tells of the many simple ways 
in which disease may be prevented, how 
to take care of the home and the body, how 



the doctor can be helped, and what can be 
done in any sudden emergency. If I had 
my way, I should print ten million copies 
of this and send one to each household in 
the country as a war measure. 

War and Navy Departments 

The War Department and Navy Depart- 
ment have been most prolific in printed ma- 
terial. Their publications, however, deal 
with military and naval matters of a highly 
technical character and fall outside the 
scope of this paper, which I have conceived 
to be a summary of those documents which 
will help the ordinary citizen to find his 
place and do his part towards winning the 
war. I have acted as the agent through 
whom the camp libraries have received the 
publications of these two departments, so 
that I have come into very Intimate con- 
tact with them, and I know that to give 
them adequate treatment would make this 
paper several times as long as it is, and 
would obscure the main point which I 
wished to emphasize. There is one excep- 
tion, however, in the case of the Surgeon 
General's Oflice, which has issued three bul- 
letins with the title "Abstracts, transla- 
tions and review of recent literature on the 
subject of the reconstruction and reeduca- 
tion of the disabled soldier." Bulletin 1 
contains an introductory retrospect of the 
literature of the subject and a review of 
recent works; Bulletin 2 continues this re- 
view and Bulletin 3 reviews the experi- 
ences of France and Great Britain. The 
problem of the maimed and disabled sol- 
diers is one of the most important prob- 
lems of reconstruction. These three bul- 
letins form at present the best starting 
point for work along this line. This office 
also began publishing with the June num- 
ber a periodical with the title "Carry on, a 
magazine on the reconstruction of disabled 
soldiers and sailors." 

The Army War College has been publish- 
ing for some time a "Monthly list of mili- 
tary information carded from book, period- 
ical and other sources," a bibliography of 
use to those interested in military affairs. 



MEYER 



205 



Post Office and Department of Justice 

The Post Office and Department of Jus- 
tice have hardly found it necessary to ven- 
ture outside of their routine publications. 
There is one exception In the case of the 
Department of Justice, "Interpretation of 
war statutes, bulletin." This consists of 
charges to juries, decisions, opinions, re- 
marks, rulings, etc., relating to war stat- 
utes. 

Interior Department 

The Department of the Interior, however, 
has made a distinct effort to get Into the 
game. The bureau most successful in this 
respect has been the Bureau of Education, 
whicli has supplemented the work of the 
Department of Agriculture, an^ the Food 
Administration, by rousing the Interest of 
the schools in war work. The Community 
Leaflets beginning with brief studies of a 
rather miscellaneous character have turned 
more and more to war subjects. Most of 
the Higher Education Circulars are war 
documents concerned with the place and 
work of the colleges and universities in the 
war. The Teachers' Leaflets, also, of which 
the third number has recently appeared, 
take up the work of the lower grade schools 
in war time. 

Just at present, when there Is a strong 
movement afoot to make the community 
center the locaj ward board to control war 
activities of the community, the Bureau of 
Education Bulletin 11, 1918, will be found 
invaluable. It describes the purposes of 
a community center, how to organize one 
and carry on Its activities and gives a 
model constitution. Bulletin 18, 1918, 
"Americanization as a war measure," Is of 
more than passing Interest. The Bureau 
of Education is also to be credited with a 
pamphlet on "University organization for 
national service and defense." Two of the 
bulletins of 1917 Illustrate the close rela- 
tionship of education and the war. No. 25 
on the "Military training of youths of 
school age in foreign countries," and No. 36 
on the "Demand for vocational education 
In the countries at war." 

The Bureau of Mines has published sev- 



eral pamphlets relating to the economic use 
of fuel, which make a wide appeal. A 
reprint of Technical Paper 97 Is on saving 
fuel in heating a house. This should be 
used in connection with Technical Paper 
199, "Five ways of saving fuel In heating a 
house." The scarcity of hard coal makes 
Technical Paper 180 especially Interesting. 
"Firing bituminous coals In large house- 
heating boilers." Technical Paper 166 is 
a practical discussion of motor gasoline. 
Department of Agricuiture 

When the history of this great war 
comes to be written, the work of the De- 
partment of Agriculture of the United 
States will be recognized as one of the 
great forces which secured victory for the 
Allies. 

Its publications are the most numerous 
and perhaps the most valuable of any 
printed contributions made by a govern- 
ment department. Last September the 
A. L. A. Subcommittee on Federal Publica- 
tions compiled, and the Division of Bibli- 
ography of the Library of Congress printed 
and distributed seven thousand copies of ^ 
"List of federal documents especially use- 
ful to librarians and citizens at the pres- 
ent time." About two-thirds of the list 
consisted of Department of Agriculture 
publications. The present seemed an ex- 
cellent opportunity to revise that list and 
bring It down to date, and I offer here the 
results of such a revision. 

I will not review these bulletins in de- 
tail, but mention those which have an in- 
terest far beyond the farm or garden. 
Farmers' Bulletin 474, "Use of paint on 
the farm," taken In connection with Cir- 
cular 69 of the Bureau of Standards, enti- 
tled "Paint and varnish," will turn any 
ordinary citizen Into an expert house 
painter after one reading. Farmers' Bul- 
letin 771, "Homemade fireless cookers and 
their use" will almost produce an indif- 
ference to the coal situation. Farmers' 
Bulletin 840, "Farm sheep-raising for be- 
ginners" will set any man calculating the 
value of his clip to be; while No. 861, "Re- 
moval of stains from clothing and other 



206 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



textiles" will cause such an overhauling of 
rummage bags as never was. 

From the Office of Public Roads and 
Rural Engineering have come "Earth, 
sand-clay and gravel roads," Bulletin No. 
463; "Standard forms for specifications, 
tests, reports and methods of sampling for 
road materials," as recommended by the 
first conference of state highway testing 
engineers and chemists, Bulletin No. 555; 
"Illustrated lecture on public road im- 
provement," Syllabus 29. 

I give these special mention because they 
have an interest In connection with certain 
war bulletins issued by the Highways 
Transport Committee of the Council of 
National Defense, which have for their ob- 
ject the larger use of motor trucks on or- 
dinary highways for an extended local 
traffic, in order to relieve the congestion of 
traffic on fixed lines of transportation. 

The Office of Farm Management has con- 
tributed a "Plan ifor handling the farm- 
labor problem," Farm Management Circu- 
lar 2, and a study of the "Cost of keeping 
fym horses and cost of horse labor," Bul- 
letin 560. 

The Bureau of Markets has issued three 
documents of great value in connection 
with the food problem: No. 5, "The mar- 
keting of canning club products"; No. 6, 
on the "Distribution and utilization of 
garden surplus," and No. 7, "Potato grades 
recommended by the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture and the United States 
Food Administration." 

The States Relation Service has occu- 
pied itself largely with cooperative methods 
of raising and preserving food products 
through boys' and girls' clubs, schools, can- 
ning clubs, etc., but it has published two 
professional papers which ought not to go 
unmentioned. One of them is "Studies on 
the digestibility of some animal fats," Bul- 
letin No. 507; the other on the "Digesti- 
bility of some vegetable fats," Bulletin No. 
505, These discuss all of the better known 
fats and many of the less known from the 
point of view of their digestibility, which, 
after all is almost synonymous with their 



food value. Those of you who have paid 
any attention to the food conditions in 
Germany and her Allies, are aware that the 
most serious deprivation to which these 
peoples have been subjected has resulted 
from the scarcity of fats. Should the war 
continue for any lengthy period, this sub- 
ject will assume for us a larger and larger 
interest. 

Last spring and summer the Department 
of Agriculture published five numbers of 
a "Food Thrift Series," to which there 
have been no additions, but their place 
seems to be taken by the United States 
Food Leaflets issued in conjunction with 
the Food Administration. The contents of 
these valuable little leaflets are as good as 
their titles, and they are works of art. 
Let me repeat a few, which in a single 
clean-cut phrase disclose the subject mat- 
ter of the pamphlet. "Start the day right 
with a good breakfast"; "Do you know corn- 
meal?" "A whole dinner in one dish"; 
"Choose your food wisely"; make a little 
meat go a long way"; "Food for your chil- 
dren"; "Milk the best food we have." 

Occasionally Uncle Sam publishes an in- 
teresting war article. Such to me was 
"Meteorology and war flying," by Prof. R. 
De C. Ward, a reprint from the Monthly 
Weather Review for December, 1917. I 
want to go a little out of my way again to 
mention the "Monthly Weather Review," 
which is another of those high grade sci- 
entific journals of popular interest, pub- 
lished by the government. It is astonish- 
ing what a wide range of subjects is cov- 
ered by yiis rather narrow title. They ex- 
tend from cyclones and weather insurance, 
to seismology, climate, rivers and fioods 
and solar radiations; in fact, most sub- 
jects which could be comprised under the 
broad designation "physiography." Of 
late some space has been given to the rela- 
tions of meteorology to areonautics, as In 
the article above cited. 

In closing my review of Department of 
Agriculture publications, I want to direct 
your attention pointedly to the "Weekly 
News Letter." Those of you who are not 



MEYER 



207 



acquainted with it will probably conclude 
that it has something to do with current 
events; but it hasn't. Under this some- 
what preposterous title lies hidden one of 
the best and cheapest popular agricultural 
journals ever printed. I've been an ama- 
teur farmer myself for a number of years 
and I speak from experience. It is not 
loaded up with such articles as "How to 
make a hundred thousand dollars out of 
three hens" which fill the pages of the 
"City Farmer" and similar journals, but 
contains many practical hints on all points 
connected with home farming, home gar- 
dening, and stock and poultry raising, and 
is well worth the subscription price of fifty 
cents per year. 

Department of Commerce 
The Department of Commerce is doing a 
great work, which will find its true frui- 
tion in the period of reconstruction, which 
must necessarily follow this period of de- 
struction. Through its Bureau of Foreign 
and Domestic Commerce, whose agents are 
studying trade conditions in all parts of 
the world, it is accumulating a vast array 
of facts which are being set forth in the 
well known "Special Agents Series" and in 
the "Commerce Reports." Occasionally a 
report appears with an immediate war in- 
terest, such as the one on "German foreign- 
trade organization, with supplementary 
statistical material and extracts from offi- 
cial reports on German methods" and the 
report on "German trade and the war, 
commercial and industrial conditions in 
war time and future outlook." These re- 
ports might well be studied by American 
business men who wish to understand the 
secrets of German commercial success. 

The Bureau of Fisheries through its Eco- 
nomic Circulars is striving to improve old 
methods and sources and to extend the 
sources by describing new varieties of fish. 
No. 27 gives the details for the construc- 
tion of a "Practical small smoke house for 
fish," and then, having built your smoke 
house, you are told in No. 29 "Why and 
how to use salt and smoked fish; 61 ways 
of cooking them." No. 30 discloses un- 



dreamt of "Possibilities of food from fish." 
Some of the new varieties are described 
in No. 31, "Carp with 23 recipes"; in No. 
32, "Whiting," in No. 33, "Eulachon, a rich 
and delicious little fish," in No. 34, "Skates 
and rays, interesting fishes of great food 
value, with 29 recipes for cooking them." 

The Bureau of Standards, which under 
the able direction of Dr. Stratton, Is doing 
scientific work of international reputation, 
has issued during the past year four pub- 
lications of the greatest Interest and widest 
appeal coming as they do just at the begin- 
ning of our new era of thrift. Publica- 
tions more timely it would be impossible 
to name. The first of these is Circular 
No. 55, "Measurements for the household," 
which gives the most interesting Informa- 
tion of the highest scientific accuracy in 
the simple language of every day life. It 
takes up in order dry and liquid measures 
of all kinds, the amount of material in 
various Irregular units still in use, the 
standards in gas, electric, steam and .other 
power measurements, with easily under- 
stood descriptions of the instruments used. 

Of even greater significance Is Circular 
No. 70, "Materials for the household." 
Again In simple language, but high scien- 
tific accuracy are described, structural ma- 
terials, such as clay products, wood, met- 
als, lime, cement, plasters, etc.; flexible 
materials such as rubber, leather, textiles, 
and paper. These are followed by sta- 
tionery materials, such as inks and ad- 
hesives. The volume also Includes cleans- 
ing agents, disinfectants, preservatives, 
and polishes, and even a section on fuels, 
Illuminants and lubricants. 

The other two publications to which I 
would direct your attention are Circular 
No. 69 and Circular No. 75. The former on 
"Paints and varnishes" describes the ma- 
terials and how to detect adulterations/ 
how they are to be applied, and what paints 
and varnishes are best suited to particu- 
lar uses. The latter is on "Safety for the 
household" and gives interesting details on 
the sources of danger and the means of 
preventing them. 



30S 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



Department of Labor 

The Department of Labor has been active 
In taking up war work. The Bureau of 
Labor Statistics has given much space to 
war quotations in its Monthly Review, and 
has reprinted a number of the Memoranda 
of the British Health of Munitions Work- 
ers Committee which are applicable to our 
own conditions. These form an important 
part of the series of bulletins on labor as 
affected by the war. 

Bulletin 170, "Foreign food prices as af- 
fected by the war"; 219, "Hours, fatigue, 
and health in British munition factories"; 
222, "Welfare work in British munition 
factories"; 223, "Employment of women 
and juveniles in Great Britain during the 
war"; 230, "Industrial efficiency and fa- 
tigue in British munition factories"; 237, 
"Industrial unrest in Great Britain." 

Bulletin 242, "The food situation in Cen- 
tral Europe, 1917," is one of the most fas- 
cinating war books published. We have 
heard a great deal about starvation in Ger- 
many and the countries allied with her. 
Hardly a day passes but there is some ac- 
count with more or less detail of the people 
in the Central Empires starving. This bul- 
letin shows how much truth there is in 
these stories. It is perhaps as accurate a 
statement as can be made, being based on 
the collection of European newspapers, 
largely German, brought together by the 
Carnegie Institution and in the custody of 
Dr. Victor Clark. It takes up in order 
Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, and 
Turkey. It discusses the food supply, the 
government regulations for controlling dis- 
tribution, prices, probable crops, and the 
effect of shortage on the public health. 

Lastly there is the important document 
entitled "British industrial experience dur- 
ing the war," edited by Robert and Kath- 
erine Barrett in two volumes extending to 
over 1,200 pages. It contains a digest of all 
the laws, rules, and orders affecting em- 
ployers, workmen, and output from August, 
1914, to May, 1917; the text of these laws, 
orders, etc. and special reports on manu- 



facturing industries, on transportation, and 
on coal mining. 

One of the newer bureaus of the Labor 
Department is the Employment Service 
which has charge of the whole matter of 
finding and placing workers for the gov- 
ernment and war industries. It has pub- 
lished 23 numbers of a weekly called the 
"U. S. Employment Service Bulletin" 
which gives information on the establish- 
ment of government labor exchanges 
throughout the country, labor supply and 
distribution and employment problems in 
general. 

The Public Service Reserve is also carry- 
ing on its work under the auspices of the 
Department of Labor. Several circulars 
have been published relating to the utiliza- 
tion of any reserves of labor, and to the 
work of the Boys' Working Reserve, which 
is closely related to the Boy Scout move- 
ment. 

The Children's Bureau has initiated a 
movement, that is perhaps the most sig- 
nificant in the whole conservation pro- 
gramme. It has been demonstrated time 
and again that the deaths of most infants 
can be prevented by timely measures. It 
is the object of this movement to see that 
these timely measures are taken. The first 
step was the establishment of Children's 
Year, extending from April 6, 1918, to 
April 6, 1919. 

The movement was introduced to the 
public by Children's Year Leaflet No. 1, 
prepared in collaboration with the Depart- 
ment of Child Welfare of the Woman's 
Committee of the Council of National De- 
fense; the second Leaflet appeared in two 
parts, Part I containing "Suggestions to 
local committees"; Part II, "Suggestions 
to examiners," in the weighing and measur- 
ing test carried out mostly in May. Leaf- 
let 3 gives the "Children's year working 
programme." 

The Children's Bureau has branched out 
in other directions. It prepared the ma- 
terial on which the war risk insurance bill 
was based. This has appeared in two bul- 
letins. On the "Care of dependents of en- 



MEYER 



209 



listed men in Canada" and on the "Gov- 
ernmental provisions in the United States 
and foreign countries for members of the 
military forces and their dependents." 

Four Bulletins on child welfare as af- 
fected by war conditions in foreign coun- 
tries have been published. Their general 
subjects are: 1, Child labor in warring 
countries; 2, Juvenile delinquency in cer- 
tain warring countries; 3, Infant welfare 
in war time; 4, Illegitimacy as affected by 
the war. 

Care of the Children Series No. 4, entitled 
"Milk — the indispensable food for chil- 
dren," should be in the hands of every 
mother and is being given wide distribu- 
tion in the Children's Year Campaign. It 
shows the need of milk for young chil- 
dren, discusses the values of various milk 
substitutes, and points out what other coun- 
tries are doing to insure a milk supply for 
infants, and growing children. 

Miscellaneous Bureaus 

The smaller independent bureaus were 
mostly created in times of peace to per- 
form some specific function. They have 
not as a rule published any war docu- 
ments, but there are a few exceptions to 
this sweeping statement which should be 
mentioned. 

The Federal Trade Commission has is- 
sued an important report on the anthra- 
cite and bituminous coal situation and the 
relation of rail and water transportation 
to the present fuel problem. 

The Tariff Commission has published 
three numbers of a Tariff Information Se- 
ries which cover "Papers and books," "The 
dyestuff situation in the textile industries" 
and "Silk and manufacturers of silk." 

The Library of Congress has published 
the "United States at war; organizations 
and literature," and has in press "A check 
list of the literature and other material in 
the Library of Congress on the European 
war." 

The brief report of the Board of Media- 
tion and Conciliation touches on labor ques- 
tions from a war viewpoint. 

Before passing to the bureaus which have 



been brought into existence by the war, I 
want to say a word about the Addresses of 
the President. These are usually intro- 
duced into the Congressional Record. 
When delivered before Congress they are 
printed as Congressional documents. The 
others may usually be had from the Presi- 
dent's secretary. 

It is of interest to know that the Pro* 
ceedings of Congress are summarized daily 
in the Official Bulletin of the Committee 
on Public Information. For the War Con- 
gress there has appeared a "Monthly com- 
pendium of the War Congress, status of 
legislation, numerically and by subjects," 
compiled by W. Ray Loomis, assistant su- 
perintendent of the document room. House 
of Representatives. This gives the legis- 
lative history of all measures introduced 
into Congress. 

War Bureaus 

In taking up the publications of the war 
bureaus I want to give the place of honor 
to the United States Food Administration. 
I take my hat off to Mr. Herbert Hoover, 
to him I would apply the epithet wise, 
for he seems to me a wise man. He has 
taken this people of ours — the most In- 
tractable, pig-headed, opinionated, and 
self-willed in the world (we are all of 
these, of course in a nice way) and by 
coaxing and arguing, by explanation and 
reasoning, by appealing to our higher 
selves he has led us into adopting his 
measures with enthusiasm. 

Among the publication of the Food Ad- 
ministration, "Food news notes for public 
libraries" was issued especially for our 
benefit. In a recent number, 9, appeared 
a complete list of the publications Issued 
by the Food Administration. Many of 
them are starred, indicating that they are 
out of print, but I have been assured that 
those have been replaced by later and bet- 
ter publications. 

Among those in print to be noted es- 
pecially are: Bulletin 5, "Ten lessons In 
food conservation," which was sent to 
every public library on the A. L. A. mail- 
ing list; Bulletin 13, "Food value of milk"; 



210 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



Bulletin 14, "Why we must send wheat" 
The U. S. Food Leaflets were mentioned 
in connection with the Department of 
Agriculture publications. 

The Food Administration has also issued 
a great many leaflets and small circulars 
giving recipes and directions for saving 
food. There is one publication by Presi- 
dent Van Hise, of Wisconsin University, 
worthy of a somewhat more extended no- 
tice. The first part of "Conservation and 
regulation in the United States during the 
world war" was published by the Food 
Administration. It covers the conditions 
before the war, the economic effects of the 
war, food production and conservation, and 
federal regulatory legislation. The sec- 
ond part has appeared from the University 
of Wisconsin press and describes the work 
of the Food Administration, the Fuel Ad- 
ministration, the construction and con- 
trol of shipping, the War Industries Board 
and other organizations engaged in the 
work of preventing waste and conserving 
energy and material. 

The United States Shipping Board, and 
the Emergency Fleet Corporation have pub- 
lished an annual report, and a special "Re-' 
port of the shipyard employment man- 
agers' conference" held in Washington last 
November, which are of general interest. 
Their other publications are mostly speci- 
fications for ships to be built. 

The United States Railroad Administra- 
tion has published one very important "Re- 
port of the Railroad Wage Commission to 
the Director General of Railroads." Per- 
haps no commission was ever given such 
complete access to all sources of informa- 
tion. The report attracted widespread at- 
tention because of its comprehensive rec- 
ommendations increasing the wages of 
railroad employees from 4*4 per cent for 
the higher to 43 per cent for the lower 
rates of wages. 

The Council of National Defense has not 
published anything of general interest ex- 
cepting its annual report. But its High- 
ways Transport Committee has published 
two very important little bulletins, the 



titles of which are self-explanatory: No. 
1, "Return loads to bureaus, to save waste 
in transportation," and No. 2, "The rural 
motor express, to conserve foodstuffs and 
labor and to supply rural transportation." 

The War Trade Board which has taken 
over the functions of the Exports Admin- 
istrative Board, and is also charged with 
the administration of the Trading-with- 
the-enemy act, has published a "Journal of 
the War Trade Board for exporters, im- 
porters, and shippers." It is intended to 
keep all those officials, organizations, and 
individuals, interested in overseas trade, 
informed as to the administrative proce- 
dure of the Board. 

The publications of the Committee on 
Public Information are too well known to 
need more than mention. Besides the Offi- 
cial Bulletin, they have published the "Red, 
white and blue Series"; the "War Infor- 
mation Series"; the "Loyalty Leaflets"; 
and recently several numbers of a bulletin 
described as "Special service for employ- 
ers." 

The Federal Board for Vocational Edu- 
cation has published fifteen bulletins which 
fall naturally into three groups. A series 
upon emergency training for men in those 
industries where the war has found a 
scarcity of trained mechanics; a Re- 
education Series dealing with rehabilita- 
tion, and an Agricultural Series concerned 
with agricultural education. The Board 
has begun the publication of a Vocational 
Summary of which the second number has 
just appeared. 

The National Advisory Committee for 
Aeronautics, has published three reports 
which embody the fourteen or fifteen 
smaller reports issued from time to time. 

The National War Labor Board, of which 
ex-President Taft is one of the joint chair- 
men, is about the latest of these special 
boards to come into existence. It has is- 
sued a circular on its function and powers 
and a report on the Western Union Tele- 
graph controversy. 



LYDENBERG 



211 



PRESENT DISCONTENTS WITH NEWSPRINT STOCK 
By H. M. Lydexbeeg, Reference Librarian, New York Public Library 



During the summer of 1914 the New 
York Public Library in desperation at the 
condition of its newspaper files began 
some experiments towards solution of the 
problem of preservation. The diflBculty 
was greatest in the case of American news- 
papers of the last twenty-five years, say 
those issued since the middle of the 
eighties, which marks approximately the 
time ground putp superseded rags for 
newsprint stock. 

We realized our problem was a little 
more diflicult than that of most libraries 
because there are probably few places 
where bound volumes of newspapers are 
subject to as constant, indiscriminate, and 
careless use as the public subjects them 
to in our newspaper reading room. Pass- 
ing over a detailed narration of the ex- 
periments, suffice it to say we decided that 
no chemical preparation then on the mar- 
ket would give us satisfactory results, and 
that the most practical solution lay in the 
use of thin transparent silk or a thin 
transparent Japanese tissue paper. We 
finally concluded that, all things consid- 
ered, the latter substance was the better, 
and as a practical test we bound two vol- 
umes of the New York "World" newspaper 
in this fashion. We took the issue for July 
and August, 1895, broke it out of its covers, 
patched up the numerous pages that were 
sadly in need of repair, then mounted 
each sheet between two sheets of Japan- 
ese tissue paper and bound the volume in 
standard fashion after these sheets had 
dried and were pressed. 

This served as a sample of the work 
connected with old volumes. For new vol- 
umes we took the file for July, 1914, 
treated individual sheets in the same 
fashion, bound the volume and put it on 
our shelves. 

These volumes were subjected to the 
ordinary normal use and after about six 
months we felt the results justified our 



undertaking the work on a larger scale. 
Unfortunately, however, the expense of 
treatment was more than the library could 
afford. At that time the entire manipula- 
tion of the individual sheets was done by 
hand, and the cost amounted to $35 per 
volume, the labor charge being the larger 
part. 

Mr. Schwarten, the superintendent of 
our printing office and bindery, to whose 
zeal and interest high tribute must be 
paid, found on the market a pasting ma- 
chine which, with certain alterations, he 
was able to adapt to our work. By the 
use of this fhachine the cost of handling 
was reduced to about ?25 per volume. 

After this fact had been firmly estab- 
lished we wrote to the New York City 
newspapers telling them what we had done 
and the conclusions we had reached. We 
offered to treat in this fashion the files of 
such papers as would share the expense 
with us to the extent of $20 per volume; 
we felt that as the volumes would have to 
be bound anyway the Library would be 
willing to bear the expense of binding to 
the amount of $5, leaving to the news- 
paper publisher $20 as the cost of the spe- 
cial treatment. One paper replied by re- 
turn mail, asking no questions except as 
to how we wished payments to be made. 
Of the other papers two showed interest 
but developed nothing further. Since Janu- 
ary, 1915, we have therefore been binding 
the one paper in this fashion — a volume 
to a month — and the results have been 
thoroughly satisfactory. 

In 1917-18 we began experimenting with 
chemical treatment of newspaper stock. 
We knew of attempts that had been made 
with a casein solution put on with a brush, 
but, so far as we could learn, none of these 
efforts had proved successful. It was im- 
possible to get a transparent fluid or one 
that would spread evenly. Moreover, 
practical paper men told us that casein 



212 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



in coated paper stock entailed certain dis- 
integration within a comparatively few 
years. 

With a Paasche air brush this last win- 
ter we experimented with Zapon or liquid 
celluloid; with shellac and glycerine; with 
shellac, turpentine and paraffine; with car- 
bon tetrachloride and paraffine; with a 
paper preservative made by a varnish com- 
pany; and with a flexible varnish (a basis 
of linseed oil and resin) secured through 
a local dealer. 

Zapon we had tried some years before 
but not with a spray brush. We found it 
increased the thickness very slightly and 
likewise Increased the strength of the pa- 
per but slightly. The same remarks ap- 
ply to the solution of shellac and glycerine, 
and of shellac, turpentine and paraffine. 
Not one of these three substances discol- 
ored the paper much nor left a rough sur- 
face. With the solution of carbon tetra- 
chloride and paraffine we found the sur- 
face was sticky and greasy, and with the 
paper preservative we found that in addi- 
tion to other defects the ink ran. 

The flexible varnish was satisfactory in 
practically every respect, except that it 
was diflficult to get an even distribution 
with the spray brush. By dipping we se- 
cured a surface of good distribution and 
satisfactory transparency and smoothness. 

Unfortunately, just as we arrived at this 
point, just as we began to think we might 
now go to quantity production and learn 
how many gallons were necessary for a 
volume of say one thousand pages, we 
were informed by the supply house that it 
could not "take up this problem further 
at this time, because materials required to 
match samples are requisitioned by the 
government." Our hopes, therefore, of 
having some definite conclusions to lay 
before the College and Reference Section 
are disappointed until the war has rolled 
its course and conditions once more be- 
come normal, at least so far as the chem- 
ical field is concerned. 

We shall continue to bind the one paper 
in Japanese tissue, and if any of our other 
newspaper friends decide to pay the addi- 



tional cost for this method of preservation 
of their volumes, we shall be glad to add 
them to our list. Our conclusions indi- 
cate that the Japanese tissue method is 
far and away the best, all things consid- 
ered. Its chief disadvantages are its cost 
and the reduction of transparency. The 
latter is very slight; the former is slight 
or great, depending entirely upon your 
idea of the purchasing power of twenty 
dollars. The advantages of the method 
are many. In the first place the strength 
of the paper is increased over 200 per cent. 
You see you have the original sheet firmly 
held between two additional sheets of 
strong paper. This Japanese tissue con- 
sists of long fibre stock made by hand, 
the fibres tawing a laminated criss-cross 
arrangement, twined and intertwined 
twisted and intertwisted, which, of course, 
makes the paper infinitely stronger than 
when the pulp is treated by machinery 
with the result that the fibres tend more 
or less to lie parallel. It has the further 
advantage of absolute exclusion of air, 
and this, we believe, is a very strong de- 
terrent against chemical disintegration of 
the wood pulp stock. The paper treatment 
offers too the only solution in sight for 
the treatment of bound volumes in bad 
condition. 

At the present moment our experiments 
seem to indicate that the use of a flexible 
varnish may be advisable for the treat- 
ment of current volumes before they are 
bound. No chemical treatment, however, 
will have the possibilities of the tissue pa- 
per treatment so far as the mutilated 
sheets of bound volumes are concerned. 

This question of paper stock on which 
our present day books are issued presents 
in the opinion of some of us one of the 
most serious problems that confront refer- 
ence collections. We get little or no en- 
couragement from the papermakers them- 
selves. They tell us that the chlorine and 
other bleaching elements left in the stock 
insure with almost absolute certainty com- 
plete disintegration within a compara- 
tively few years. On coated papers, par- 
ticularly those In which casein is one of 



LYDENBERG 



213 



th« component parts, we have the addi- 
tional encouragement that the casein will 
hasten disintegration. 

Of course, books with a message of 
prime Importance will live. They will be 
reprinted from time to time on paper made 
from rags — not sawdust. We shall suffer 
most, so far as research and Investigation 
are concerned, in the loss of the ephemeral 
material which is in itself too slight in 
Importance to justify reprinting, but which 
taken In mass offers the basis for investi- 
gation of current opinion and present-day 
thought In almost any line of human act- 
ivity. In large busy libraries such as the 
New York Public Library newspapers will 
sooner or later disappear entirely. They 
will be preserved for a longer period in 
collections such as the American Anti- 
quarian Society, where their use is not so 
great and where the occasional and per- 
sistent investigator can use them under 
proper supervision. In the large, busy li- 
braries I suppose they will survive only as 
a tradition and our successors will prob- 
ably erect bronze tablets to mark the 
whilom site of that pre-Cambrian fossil 
"the newspaper room?" 

Bibliographical Notes 

The following titles are appended — not 
as a complete bibliography of the subject 
— ^^but merely as notes of various articles 
that have come to hand from time to time 
and seemed of Interest in connection with 
this problem. The arrangement is chrono- 
logical. 



[Justin Winsor's efforts. Note appended 
to article by Rossiter Johnson entitled: 
Inferior paper a menace to the permanency 
of literature.] (Library Journal. 1891. 
V. 16, p. 241-242.) 

About 1870 or 1875 Justin Winsor tried in 
vain to induce editors of leading Boston 
dailies to publish a few copies of each issue 
on good paper. 

Same. (American Library Associa- 
tion. Bulletin, 1910. v. 4, p. 675.) 

Eames, Wilberforce. Care of newspapers. 
(Library Journal. 1897. v. 22, no. 10, p. C50- 
C51.) 

Devoted chiefly to methods of binding old 
newspapers at the Lenox branch of the New 
York Public Library. 



Conference of Italian librarian*. (Li- 
brary Journal. 1898. v. 23, p. 667.) 

At a session of Italian librarians at which 
the deterioration of paper was discussed, It 
was resolved to ask the government to con- 
trol the standard of paper for. government 
publications and for a given number of 
books, reviews, and newspapers for the gov- 
ernment libraries. 

Society of Arts. Committee on the dete- 
rioration of paper. Report. (Journal of 
the Society of Arts, 1898. v. 46, p. 597- 
601.) . t 

Sutton, C. W. Preservation of local 

newspapers. (Library Association record. 

1954. V. 3, p. 121-125.) 

The paper and the discussion which fol- 
lowed has little to do with paper, but deals 
more with the binding of newspapers. 

United States. Pulp and Paper Investi- 
gation Committee. Hearings. 1908. 5 v. 

Nothing definitely on newsprint paper as it 

affects libraries, but useful for reference. 

Chlvers, Cedric. The paper and binding 

of lending library books. (American Li- 
brary Association. Bulletin. 1909. v. 3, 
p. 231-259, illus., pi.) 

Excellent pictures of paper fiber. 

Veitch, F. P. Durability and economy in 

papers for permanent records, a report 

submitted by H. W. Wiley and C. Hart 

Merriam . . . including paper specifications 

by F. P. Veitch. Washington, 1909. 51 p. 

illus. (U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Report no. 89.) 

Report on government experience In using 
and testing paper. 

Hill, Frank P. The deterioration of 

newspaper paper. (Library Journal. July, 

1910. V. 35, p. 299-301.) 

A paper read at the Mackinac Conference, 
in which the author tells of his efforts to in- 
terest newspaper publishers in better paper, 
the response of the Brooklyn Eagle, and the 
rely of Professor Herzberg of Berlin regard- 
ing a preservative solution made in Germany 
which will make the sheets of "parchment- 
like firmness." 

Same. (American Library Associa- 
tion. Bulletin. 1910. v. 4, p. 675-678.) 

International Congress of Applied Chem- 
istry, 8th, 1912. Starch cellulose and pa- 
per. 300 p. illus., pi., tables. {Original 
communications, v. 13, section Yla.) 

A collection of articles. Nothing definitely 
on newsprint paper as it affects libraries, 
but useful for reference. 

Newsprint paper. (Library Journal. 

August, 1912. V. 37, p. 437.) 

The substance of a report presented at the 
Ottawa conference of A. L. A. with request 



214 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



for continuation of the committee for fur- 
ther investigation. 

[Nickel as a substitute for paper.] (Li- 
brarian. 1912. V. 2, p. 246.) 

An editorial referring to T. A. Edison's 

scheme of using nicliel sheets for paper. 

Preservation of newspapers. (American 

Library Association. Bulletin, 1912. v. 6, 

p. 116-118; Discussion, p. 118-120.) 

Report of an A. L. A. committee consist- 
ing of P. P. Hill, H. G. Wadlin and Cedric 
Chivers. Report covers different sugges- 
tions made to it during the year including 
"special editions" and use of "cellit." 

[Brooklyn Daily Eagle plan.] (Library 

Journal. January, 1913. v. 38, p. 2.) 

An editorial referring to the plan whereby 
the Brooklyn paper offers to furnish to li- 
braries a special edition for permanent pres- 
ervation. 

Newspaper preservation. (Library Jour- 
nal. January, 1913. v. 38, p. 53.) 

A short note announcing the reported in- 
tention of three newspapers, besides the 
Brooklyn Daily Eagle, to print "Library Edi- 
tions" and the protest of the New York World. 

Norris, John. Preservation of paper. 

(Library Journal, January, 1913. v. 38, p. 
16-20.) 

An important article prepared by the chair- 
man of the committee on paper of the Ameri- 
can Newspaper Publishers Association, in re- 
sponse to a request from librarians for a bet- 
ter paper. Submitted to a committee of the 
American Library Association Nov. 26, 1912. 
A discussion of how improvement may be 
obtained, the composition of newspaper print, 
the complaint of librarians, U. S. Govern- 
ment specifications, Government commission 
report on special paper, how Library of Con- 
gress cares for old newspaper flies, data re- 
lating to storage of newspaper files in public 
libraries and by commercial concerns. 

Same. (American Newspaper Pub- 
lishers Association. Bulletin. 2795. "B" 
special, p. 1133-1140. November 30, 1912.) 

Brand, C. J., and J. L. Merrill. Zacaton 
as a paper making material. 1915. 27 p. 
illus. U. S. Department of Agriculture. 
Bulletin no. 309. 

Printed on zacaton paper. Contains biblio- 
graphical foot-notes. 

Lydenberg, H. M. Preservation of mod- 
ern newspaper files. (Library Journal, 
April, 1915. V. 40, p. 240-242.) 

Paper read before meeting of teachers of 
journalism at Columbia. 

Federal Commission's hearing on news- 
print. (Paper. Dec. 20, 1916. v. 19, no. 15, 
p. 25.) 

Federal Trade Commission hears both 
sides of news print controversy. (Editor 
and Publisher. August 5, 1916. v. 49, no. 8 
supplement: p. 1-12.) 

"Textual report of addresses made and evi- 



dence submitted to the government Investi- 
gators at Washington conference by repre- 
sentatives of the newspaper publishers and 
the newsprint manufacturers." 

Mr. Dodge fixes news print price. (Ed- 
itor and Publisher. November 25, 1916. 
V. 49, p. 5-6.) 

Agreement between publishers and dealers. 

News print cost, profits and statistics. 

(Editor and Publisher. Dec. 16, 1916. v. 49, 
p. 14, 16-19. Tables.) 

Federal Trade Commission findings on the 
result of the examination made into manu- 
facturers' records, showing each step in print 
paper manufacture and distribution, estimated 
average cost to newspaper publishers. 

New York City papers decrease size to 

help conserve news print supply. (Editor 
and Publisher. August 5, 1916. v. 49, no. 8, 
p. 3, 22.) 

Newsprint men and publishers confer- 
ence. (Paper, v. 19, no. 21, p. 28; v. 19, 
no. 26, p. 18.) 

Price and supply discussed. 

Newspaper investigators issue state- 
ment; comment on rising cost of paper 
and point to increased imports. (Paper. 
V. 19, no. 9, p. 22.) 

Steele, George F. Newsprint produc- 
tion and shipments. (Paper. Sept. 20, 
1916. V. 19, no. 2, p. 22; Oct. 18, 1916. v. 19, 
no. 6, p. 24.) 

Letters of the secretary of the Newsprint 
Manufacturers' Association. 

Phillips, S. C. Paper supplies as affected 

by the war. (Paper maker and British 

paper trade journal. March 1, 1916. v. 51, 

p. 229-248.) 

A long, thorough paper with discussion de- 
voted for the most part to conditions in Eng- 
land, but also dealing with world supply and 
cost. 

Surface, Henry E. Selected paper bib- 
liography entitled "U. S. Government pub- 
lications pertaining to pulp and paper." 
(Paper. October 4, 1916. v. 19, no. 4, p. 25- 
30.) 

Weeks, Lyman H. History of paper 

manufacture in the United States, 1690- 

1916. New York, 1916. xv, 352 p. 8°. 

Last chapter has statistics of paper produc- 
tion, consumption and cost from the latest 
census figures. The newspaper publishers' side 
of the controversy relating to the price of 
newsprint paper. 

American Newspaper Publishers Asso- 
ciation. Increase in imports of newsprint 
paper to U. S. in past 4 years. Charts 
prepared by paper committee of American 



LYDENBERG 



215 



Newspaper Publishers Association. (Ed- 
itor and Publisher. May 5, 1917. v. 49, 
p. 8-9.) 

Counsel for government analyze the 
news print agreement. Mark Hyman and 
Herbert C. Smyth see in court decree ade- 
quate protection for all interests involved 
and strong precedent for future steps to- 
ward price control. (Editor and Publisher. 
Dec. 1, 1917. V. 50, p. 16.) 

Developments in newsprint paper probe. 
Grand Jury examines witnesses. Trade 
Commission may fix a "Reasonable" price. 
(Paper. Feb. 21, 1917. v. 19, no. 24, p. 20.) 

Federal Commission's report on news- 
print. Makes criticism of Newsprint As- 
sociation's activities and announces price 
agreement. (Paper. March 7, 1917. v. 19, 
no. 26, p. 20, 22.) 

Mclntyre says news print mills are run- 
ning overweights with heavy loss to pub- 
lishers. (Editor and Publisher. Nov. 3, 
1917. V. 50, p. 9.) 

With schedule showing increase of prices 
and complaint of publishers. 

Newsprint price set at $2.50 at the mill. 
(Editor and Publisher. March 10, 1917. 
V. 49, p. 9-10, 28.) 

Reaping as they have sown. (Paper. 

Jan. 31, 1917. v. 19, no. 21, p. 20-21.) 

Paper manufacturers' statement that the 
continuous demand by newspapers for cheaper 
paper has Itilled a goose which laid golden 
eggs. 

Snook, J. S. Newsprint situation. (Con- 
gressional Record. Jan. 26', 1918. v. 56, 
p. 1390-1392.) 

Address delivered before the Ohio City Ed- 
itors Association. Columbus. January 19-20, 
1918. 

Story of newsprint crises of 1916-17. 
Warnings of shortage and higher prices 
given by manufacturers last April. News- 
paper economies adopted. Federal Trade 
Commission's investigation. (Editor and 
Publisher. March 3, 1917. v. 49, no. 38, 
Supplement p. 10-11.) 

ADDENDA 

In answer to a circular letter accom- 
panying a preprint of the foregoing text, 
sent to various libraries, trade papers, 
etc., throughout the country, letters were 
received from the following: — 

Henry E. Bliss, librarian. College of the 
City of New York, July 2 — Newspapers 



need not be preserved, their place being 
taken by comprehensive, discriminating, 
representative digests and reprints. 

Clarence S. Brigham, librarian, Ameri- 
can Antiquarian Society, June 24 — I have 
sometimes thought that an inexpensive 
method of preservation would be to take 
two copies of each paper and paste each 
page solidly upon a thin sheet of good rag 
paper. The surface would not deteriorate, 
and the paper would then stand consider- 
able hard usage. 

Walter L. Brown, librarian, Buffalo Pub- 
lic Library, June 26 — It has been our prac- 
tice to make scrapbooks of local news- 
paper material, which saves the use of the 
files. The weather, the markets, death and 
marriage notices, and a few other items 
answer the questions of a large number 
of those who wish to use the newspaper 
files. This scrapping of special material 
is the only practical suggestion we have 
used for newspaCper preservation. 

Solon J. Buck, superintendent, Minne- 
sota Historical Society, June 28— With ref- 
erence to the question of wear and tear, 
let me suggest that a simple expedient and 
one much cheaper than any treatment of 
the paper, would be the binding of dupli- 
cate or even triplicate volumes, if neces- 
sary, one of which should be put away in 
the dark for permanent preservation. By 
the time the other volume or volumes have 
been worn out, the demand for it would 
probably have diminished so much that it 
would no longer be in serious danger of 
destruction in this way. One other which 
occurs to me is that if worst comes to 
worst, we can adopt the expedient of mak- 
ing photostatic copies of the more impor- 
tant parts of a few of the more important 
files, whenever It becomes certain that 
they are actually going to disintegrate. 

Mr. Herbert F. Gunnison, business man- 
ager, The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, July 12— 
I do not believe there is any other method 
than that of printing on a good quality of 
paper containing a certain proportion of 
rags. My suggestion is that Congress and 
the several state legislatures be asked to 
contribute to a paper fund of $50,000 for 
the purpose of having certain newspapers 
throughout the country printed on good 
paper in order that they might be per- 
manently preserved in the Congressional 
and state libraries. If other libraries de- 
sired copies they could pay a proportion 
of the cost. I believe this plan to be the 
only practical solution of the problem. It 
might be able to start with a fund of $25,- 
OOO, in which case the amount might be 
taken from contingent funds of the libra- 
ries without asking for legislative action. 



216 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



W. Dawson Johnston, librarian, St. Paul 
Public Library, June 25 — Doubted the ad- 
visability of preserving newspapers. 

Thomas J. Keenan, editor, "Paper," 
July 1 — I am of the opinion that a solution 
of cellulose of the viscose pattern might be 
found effective as a preservative for news- 
papers, and I shall endeavor to start some 
experimentation looking to the production 
of a satisfactory solution. The sheets 
would have to be dipped in a bath of the 
solution and afterwards dried. 

H. L. Koopman, librarian, Brown Uni- 
versity Library, June 25 — It looks as if 
there were no solution for our sawdust 
literature except to supply it with real 
fibers. For the future, however, we ought 
to be able to apply the London Times so- 
lution of better paper, and I have no doubt 
that if the leading libraries of America 
would all agree on one newspaper — which 
I should suppose would be the New York 
Times — and would consent to pay the cost, 
perhaps $75.00 a year — we could save that 
paper at least from premature dissolu- 
tion. I am quite sure that one successful 
experiment would lead to our extension 
of the salvage action. 

John Ridington, acting librarian, Univer- 
sity of British Columbia, Vancouver, Can- 
ada, July 17 — It seems to me the problem 
has two remedies. The first is the print- 
ing of a limited library edition of impor- 
tant newspapers on paper of a permanent 
character. This would not involve much 
in the way of cost, but a good deal in the 
way of trouble in the newspaper press 
rooms. The shifting of all the rolls of a 
sextuple press for the running of half a 
dozen or fifty special copies is a matter 
of more trouble and time than of expense. 
If some of the really good newspapers 
could be induced to do this the problem 
would be to a large extent solved. I have 
an impression that in England, and per- 
haps in France, this is done to a certain 
extent. I seem to have read somewhere 
that there is a special edition of the Times 
and perhaps of other newspapers sent to 
royalty, the edition being printed on a spe- 
cial rag-made paper, of good quality and 
durability. Possibly some of the good 
newspapers would be public - spirited 
enough to do this at their own charge. 
Perhaps a federal, state or municipal grant 
could be given, at the recommendations of 
librarians, to meet the extra cost involved. 
At any rate this is one way of meeting the 
situation. 

The second remedy lies not in the hands 
of newspaper publishers or librarians, but 



in the departments of chemical Industry. 
The elimination from news print paper of 
the last remnants of the powerful acids 
necessary to transform wood fiber into 
chemical wood pulp is a problem for the 
industrial chemist rather than for the li- 
brarian. I see no reason why some amount 
of extra care in the process of paper mak- 
ing would not result in the absolute elim- 
ination of these acids, with the result that 
the paper would be durable, would retain 
its color, fiber, texture and strength. The 
alternative method of preservation, if no 
special and permanent papers are used for 
a limited library edition, or the sulphuric 
or other acids cannot be completely taken 
out of the wood pulp paper, is in the direc- 
tion that Mr. Lydenburg has adopted — the 
keeping away of the issues as printed from 
the action of the air by enclosing them In 
Japanese or other tissues. I cannot add 
anything to his suggestion in this regard. 

J. P. Robertson, provincial librarian, 
Winnipeg, Manitoba, June 25, 1918 — Sym- 
pathy with the movement to protect news- 
papers. 

Henry E. Surface, engineer In forest 
products. United States Department of 
Agriculture, Madison, Wisconsin, July 11 
— The problem is one more deserving of 
the publisher who uses the paper than the 
producer who makes it. The latter will 
make any quality the former is willing to 
pay for. Little prospect of getting a pa- 
per stock of higher quality and lower cost. 
Few of the present newspapers need a 
longer life than twenty-four to forty-eight 
hours. 

F. P. Veitch, chemist in charge leather 
and paper laboratory, Bureau of Chem- 
istry, United" States Department of Agri- 
culture, July 6 — I am convinced that the 
only proper and effective way of insuring 
the preservation of current newspaper 
files is to print library editions on paper 
ot good stock which has sufficient weight 
and strength to withstand the use to which 
files of papers will be subjected. As a mat- 
ter of fact it might be accepted as an un- 
deniable truth that no paper which is 
freely handled will endure indefinitely. It 
would be well, therefore, to print a num- 
ber of copies of more Important papers on 
heavy durable stock and preserve without 
handling one or more copies for future 
reference. It Is believed that only by some 
such way as this can we expect the pres- 
ent day newspapers to be available one 
hundred years or more from now. Han- 
dling is more detrimental to paper of good 
quality than its aging. 



MUESER 



J17 



A NEIGHBORHOOD APPRENTICE CLASS 
By Emilie Mueseb, Librarian, Lucas County Library, Maumee, Ohio 



In a paper on "Secondary education In 
library work," given at the last A. L. A. 
meeting, Miss Jessie Welles suggested the 
possibility of several small libraries con- 
ducting an apprentice class or a training 
class on the same basis as outlined by her 
for a larger library or a branch library 
system. 

This experiment, was made during the 
past winter by three small libraries situ- 
ated in three different towns within easy 
access of each other. A fourth and larger 
library made valuable contributions, not 
because it had entered into the cooperative 
echeme, but because it was interested in 
the experiment. The outline proposed by 
Miss Welles was followed in the main, 
with a few adjustments to local conditions. 

The immediate purpose of this experi- 
ment was, first, to see whether it would be 
possible to carry out a plan of cooperation 
among libraries too small individually to 
conduct a training class; and second, 
whether such a class could be made worth 
while to these libraries and to the stu- 
dents. 

The following Is a brief outline of the 
course and of deductions drawn from this 
experiment: 

The complete course covered a period 
of three months. An entrance examina- 
tion was given, and out of eight candi- 
dates taking the examination, five were 
chosen for the class. All of these candi- 
dates but one were high school graduates 
and this one person had had some experi- 
ence in one of the libraries engaged in this 
cooperative scheme. During the first week 
one of the accepted students withdrew, 
leaving four to continue and complete the 
course. 

Approximately five lectures were given 
each week, and ten hours were in return 
required for practice work. Most of the 
lecture work was carried by two of the 
libraries, the other two making occasional 
contributions. Three of these libraries 
were used for practice work. These li- 
braries were in character, one a uni- 



versity library, one a county library in the 
first stages of organization and the third a 
small town library. The technical courses 
each averaged six lecture hours; book se- 
lection and the special lectures given by 
persons representing various phases of so- 
cial and civic work, each averaged twelve 
lecture hours. Children's work was en- 
tirely omitted, principally because there 
was no children's room for the students 
to work in, and also because before the 
end of the course unforeseen circum- 
stances prevented the carrying out of the 
schedule as originally planned. 

Whether this experiment was entirely 
worth while it is hard to say, but it did 
prove the possibility of cooperation among 
libraries satisfactorily situated. The def- 
inite profit in such cooperation being that 
it divided the burden of the work and per- 
mitted a partition of lecture subjects ac- 
cording to the better equipment of library 
or librarian, e.g. one library might be 
much better prepared to give lectures in 
cataloging, filing and classification than 
the other library, as was the case here, the 
university library having the best catalog 
to work with. 

As to whether It was worth while for 
the libraries doing the work, this too may 
be answered in the afllrmative. Each li- 
brary received the same percentage of the 
students' practice time as that library 
gave to actual lecture time, the ratio to 
the whole being maintained. Though the 
libraries expected a return in service for 
the time they gave In lectures, consider- 
able effort was made to connect the prac- 
tice work with the lecture of the day, but 
where this was not possible greater consid- 
eration was given to the student that she 
might benefit rather than the library. 

Our further consideration is, can such a 
course be really worth while to the stu- 
dents? This seemed the hazardous part of 
the experiment. In this case it might have 
been worth while, for each of the students 



218 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



received an opportunity to enter library- 
service shortly after her completion of the 
course. But almost immediately the sal- 
ary question arose with the result that one 
entered the government service, one went 
back to teaching, the third entered the fil- 
ing department of a business house, leav- 
ing only one out of the four remaining in 
library work, this being the one who was 
admitted to the class by virtue of her pre- 
vious library experience. These changes 
occurred! within two months after the 
course. No false promises had been made 
to the candidates, but hearing of the course 
they became interested and stuck to it to 
the end, yet when it came to doing actual 
library work, the salaries seemed Insuffi- 
cient. 

Leaving out of consideration the salary 
question which will naturally be solved if 
libraries are standardized, let us consider 
the possible value of such a class. No 
promises of library positions were made, 
but the fact that vacancies were likely to 
occur made this experiment possible with 
all fairness to the students, and at the 
same time gave three libraries additional 
help at a time when it was needed, and 
also prepared these girls to fill minor li- 
brary positions in the future. Of course, 
the opportunities for these girls were lim- 
ited to the four libraries interested in the 
class, but if some recognized standard 
Vv-ere established that apprentice classes of 
this character would have to meet, might 
not this be a v/ay of increasing the sup- 
ply of at least partially trained persons for 
vacancies in small libraries when they 
occur? The library schools train for big- 
ger positions, the large libraries for their 
own service; what chance has the small 
library to improve unless some such plan 
is adopted? 

To be sure all kinds of efforts have been 
made to reach the small library and In- 



spire it with a broader vision of service, 
but such efforts are for existing conditions 
and do not provide for the future. Sum- 
mer schools admit only those already in 
the service and no matter how bad the 
material, try to improve it. Library In- 
stitutes, round tables, district meetings 
do the same, even commission visitors can 
only give friendly advice, though the super- 
vising district librarian may go a step fur- 
ther, yet when vacancies occur are they 
not usually filled with local and untrained 
people? 

Mr. John A. Lowe, agent Massachusetts 
Free Library Commission, says: 

"Many of the difficulties and problems of 
the small library would be solved if the 
librarian question were settled. An active, 
intelligent community; a well organized 
and completely equipped plant; even a well 
chosen collection of books often fail to 
call with sufficient appeal to the librarian 
so that her service to the town is any- 
thing more than mediocre at best." 

This is true, but in the scheme of li- 
brary standardization and librarian certi- 
fication, what about the small library, or 
rather, what about the librarian, for it 
would not be so difficult to standardize the 
library once the librarian Is taken care of. 

Not very many years ago the country 
school was In the position in which we 
now find the library. Through state or- 
ganization schools were brought up to a 
recognized standard and the improvement 
rejoiced in, but now we are again discon- 
tent and are demanding centralized schools 
with at least an efficient principal at the 
head of each. Township schools are in 
course of construction everywhere because 
of this demand. 

Some day libraries will also be central- 
ized and small libraries merged into town- 
ship and county libraries. In the mean- 
time how can training be given to local 
people that will fit them to better fill posi- 
tions they may be called on to fill? 



DRAKE 



219 



ELIMINATION OF THE USE OF READERS' CARDS IN THE PUBLIC LIBRARY 
Bt Jeannette M. Drake, Principal, Circulating Department, Los Angeles Public Library 



The aim in our present day libraries is 
to give the patron more individual atten- 
tion and assistance, and to cut running 
expenses where possible, which means that 
we must study into absolutely everything 
that we are doing to see what can be modi- 
fied or given up altogether in favor, of 
something better. 

When I was in Sioux City one result of 
this kind of study was that we did away 
with readers' cards. Many questions came 
up before we decided to do this, and we 
weighed the arguments for and against 
each one, always taking into account the 
cost, both in supplies and the cost of libra- 
ry time in making the various records and 
always working for a system that would 
give the patron the most satisfactory serv- 
ice. All libraries would not have the same 
things to consider, as our cliarging systems 
are different. 

Some of the problems were: 

1. How can we satisfy the reader who 
forgot his card and left, it at home? Or 
perhaps, did not expect to come to the 
library, so did not bring his card? Or the 
reader who says, "I left my card at the 
library and they lost it." 

2. The annoyance of the cards left in 
the morning and which no one has had 
time to alphabet and file. 

3. Cost of the supply of readers' cards. 
The average patron uses from two to four 
cards each year. 

4. Cost of library time in making new 
readers' cards and the duplicates; time of 
fi.ling and refiling. 

We are all spending some money adver- 
tising our libraries, but are we all studying 
every transaction that is being made now 
with the people to make them our very 
best advertisers? Would a department 
store that was working hard for business 



and the good will of each individual in 
the community refuse to charge a bill of 
goods to a person after he has opened an 
account with the store? The patron has 
opened an account with the library when 
we issue a card to him. Are we justified 
In refusing to give him a book, because he 
forgot his card or to cause him annoyance 
about it, when our records show that he Is 
in good standing with the library? Why 
not have that record always at hand at 
the charging desk? 

The Sioux City rules are liberal, as we 
wanted the books out of the library and In 
the homes of the city, so we loaned one 
seven-day novel, three fourteen-day novels 
and as many non-fiction as the patron 
wanted at one time. With these things in 
mind we decided to try the experiment of 
doing away with readers' cards, in spite of 
much advice against it. After using it 
three years we were convinced that It was 
more satisfactory than the old way. The 
satisfaction of always having the card at 
hand cannot be measured to the library or 
to the patron. The readers understood 
very quickly why we were doing this and 
asked why we had not done it before! All 
the questions that are necessary to ask 
when charging a book are the reader's 
full name and address. 
Our exact method is as follows: 
The regular application blank is used, 
with the printing on the "guarantor's 
pledge" side so arra.nged that there is 
space for the reader's name, number and 
address at one end. These application 
blanks are arranged alphabetically in the 
file where the readers' cards used to be 
kept. When a book is charged the attend- 
ant asks the reader his full name and ad- 
dress; the reader's name is then looked up 
in alphabetical file, his number found and 
the charge is made in the usual way, the 
date stamped and the number written on 



220 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



the book card, and the date stamped on the 
dating slip in the book. The application 
cards are always in this one file and there 
is no chance for loss as in the other sys- 
tem. They are never removed except to 
change an address, or to be withdrawn 
from use. 

When an overdue book is returned, if the 
fine is paid before the book is discharged, 
"Pd." is penciled under the date on the 
dating slip and erased when the book card 
is returned to the book pocket. If the fine 
is not paid when the book is discharged the 
reader's number and amount of fine is 
penciled on a small slip of paper (as, 
3904 — 10 cts.) and dropped in a small box 
for the purpose. The next morning the 
name belonging to 3904, for example, is 
looked up in the registration record and 
amount of fine is then penciled on the ap- 
plication blank in the file. A better way 
is to always collect fines at the time the 
book is received, then the only penciling 
that would be necessary on the book slip 
would be when the reader could not pay 
the fine for some good reason. 

The same system is used in the branch- 
es. All applications are filed, as above ex- 
plained, at the main library, whether 
these are signed at the main library or at 
the branches. A duplicate card with the 
reader's number, name and address with 
plain space below is made and kept in al- 
phabetical file at the branch where the 
reader borrows books. These cards are 
never removed except to change an ad- 
dress or to be withdrawn. A reader may 
draw books from the main library and the 
branch at the same time. 

Someone has asked about the borrow- 
er's receipt in this system. We had not 
stamped the date of the return of the book 
for years so this did not seem an impor- 
tant point to us and we had practically no 
trouble concerning it. In this system it 
does take longer to charge books, as the 
reader's number must be looked up each 
time. The charging desk is near the re- 
ceiving desk and one or more people 



charge books, as is necessary. This sys- 
tem could not be used if 'the number of 
books loaned was not liberal, as we must 
depend on the word of the patron as to 
the number of books he has out. 

In a larger library the alphabet could 
be divided as it is in banks and several 
desks could be used at once, if necessary. 
Fewer people would be needed in the reg- 
istration department and more to charge 
books. The point we want to keep in mind 
is the best and most accommodating serv- 
ice to our patrons. 

I have not yet studied this out in its ap- 
plication to a very large library. As I see 
it, at present, it is much more diSicult to 
give expert personal or individual service 
in the large library than in a medium 
sized library. It seems that it is necessary 
to consider groups or crowds, as we do in 
Los Angeles, rather than the individual. 
However, we are working on this. 

Finally, the advantages are: 

1. Eliminates constant talk and argu- 
ment as to where readers' cards are and 
constant explanation about bringing them 
each time a book is taken out, etc. 

2. By asking addresses each time, these 
are kept up-to-date. 

3. Card is always in the library in its 
proper place. 

4. Saves time of assistant in filling out 
readers' cards in the beginning and the 
duplicates and the temporary cards. 

5. Saves cost of readers' cards. 
The disadvantages: 

1. Readers have to wait while their 
number is being looked up. 

2. Necessity of asking reader's name 
each time. 

3. Reader will not have a receipt for his 
book, which he never had, anyway, under 
our old system. 

4. Have to take patron's word as to 
number of books he has out. 

It is hoped that someone will work out a 
far better system than this, making it im- 
possible for people to say, "I could not get 
a book because my card was at home." 



DUDGEON 



221 



WHAT MEN READ IN CAMPS 



By M. S. Dudgeon, Secretary Wisconsin Free TAbrary Commission {Camp Librarian, 

Great Lakes, III.) 



You will pardon me, I trust, if I begin 
with a very commonplace remark, and that 
is that a man in camp reads books upon 
the subjects in which he is interested, just 
as you do, just as I do, just as any trained 
worker reads. Now, the one subject in 
which the man in the camp is most in- 
tensely interested is: winning this war, 
and as a result he is anxious to read any- 
thing that will help him lick the Kaiser. 

In the beginning we possibly over-esti- 
mated the need of recreational reading; we 
possibly over-estimated the function that 
we had in keeping up the moral standard 
and in keeping the boy out of mischief. It 
develops that the oflBcers succeed fairly well 
in keeping the men busy and out of mis- 
chief and they don't need our help as 
largely as we thought they might. 

To illustrate how the men are training 
themselves for war: In one naval camp 
the men are rushing up on trigo- 
nometry. There are in that camp 250 
copies of trimonometries (every one of 
them, by the way, a gift collected in re- 
sponse to telegrams, and some of them con- 
tributed by publishers). Thousands of men 
are studying those 250 much used copies 
of trigonometries simply because there are 
thousands of men in that camp who know 
that, trigonometry is useful in helping them 
navigate the vessels in which they will 
later be placed, and other thousands realize 
as they never did before that trigonometry 
will prove useful in helping them point 
guns on the strongholds of the Kaiser. 
They are studying geography in that camp 
because they realize that in war they 
must know the waterways of the world. 
There are 2,100 men in that camp studying 
aviation, and 2,200 men studying aviation 
and wireless telegraphy are necessary to 
win the war. Everywhere the men are 



reading those things, largely technical non- 
fiction, which have a direct bearing on 
the work of the war. 

I do not want to be understood as saying 
that the men are not reading other things 
and reading them extensively. It has been 
the common experience that men read 
poetry. Service, for example, is popular; 
but they read generally the sort of poetry 
that any men in civil life read. They read 
drama and they read essays. They read, 
of course, a good deal of travel relating to 
the countries where some of them hope to 
go. They read fiction, although less than 
we thought they would read. My observa- 
tion is that in fiction probably the western 
story is more popular than anything else. 
They read Zane Grey, Stewart Edward 
White, Owen Wister. Mark Twain's 
"Huckleberry Finn" is popular. They read 
detective stories. They read the variety of 
things that all of us read when we read 
for recreation. I want to say this further, 
that you will not get a class of reading men 
that read fiction that is cleaner and more 
wholesome than do the men in the camps. 

You might be interested in some of the 
percentages. The general average, as near 
as I can get at it, is about fifty-fifty, instead 
of being seventy per cent fiction and thirty 
per cent non-fiction, as in many public 
libraries. In one camp repeated tests 
showed that the non-fiction was a little 
over seventy per cent and the fiction a little 
less than thirty per cent. 

The chief point that I wish to make is 
that men will read in camp anything that 
will assist them in becoming more proficient 
in the diversified activities of war. This 
means that we must specialize In supplying 
specialized non-fiction, and you can hardly 
be too generous in anything you can do 
toward furnishing these books for these 
men. 



222 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



It seems there are two possible sugges- 
tions for the future. So far as we inside 
the camp are concerned, we must remember 
that the men in camp are very busy and 
it is going to be more and more essential 
that we bring this technical and r>on-fiction 
reading material closer to the men. We 
must study the situation in camp and 
plan engineering books, for example, in 
the headquarters or near the headquarters 
of the engineers; machine gun companies 
must have the books on machine guns near 
them. 

For those outside of the camps it has 



occurred to me that future book campaigns 
will have to be more special in their char- 
acter; there will have to be a definite effort 
to collect certain definite books that ex- 
perience has shown are needed in the 
camps and must be secured for the camps. 
To sum it all up then, it seems to me, 
the outstanding principle is that the techni- 
cal, non-fiction books which will help win 
the war are the things that the men are 
reading, are the things they want to read, 
are the things they ought to read and the 
things which we as librarians must pro- 
vide and help them read. 



WHAT MEN READ IN HOSPITALS* 

By Miriam E. Carey, Supervisor, Minnesota State Board of Control {Field Representa- 
tive, Hospital Service) 



What a man reads in a hospital depends 
on two things: the man himself and the 
supply of books. 

To put a man to bed does not change 
him fundamentally. His education, tastes 
and habits remain unaltered when he lays 
aside his uniform and dons pajamas and 
a bathrobe. His reading will be influ- 
enced by all his personal endowments and 
qualities. 

The character and degree of his illness 
will also have much to do with what he 
reads. If his is a surgical case he will 
have time and strength to read more than 
he ever read before, and he will ask for 
the kinds of books he has always preferred. 
He will want to keep up with his studies 
and will do some serious work while he is 
in confinement. 

If he is quarantined for mumps or 
measles, as so many of our "heroes" have 
been, he will need first of all to be di- 
verted. Detective stories and the cowboy 
and wild west tales are what he craves. 



♦Abstract of paper (printed in full in Au- 
gust Library Journal.) 



The state of a man's mind — whether he 
is worried about his family or merely 
homesick — will influence his choice of 
books. He may have to be coaxed before 
he will take the trouble to read. 

The supply of books must also be ade- 
quate to meet the needs of foreign-born 
soldiers who know only their mother 
tongue. Then there are those American- 
born men whose education is so rudimen- 
tary that they must have very simple Eng- 
lish, very clear print and plenty of pic- 
tures in order to read at all. 

There must be technical books for the 
soldier students: good, stirring fiction for 
the depressed, homesick and anxious, and 
for the suffering, scrapbooks, things easy 
to hold, and pictures. 

Given a supply of books adequate to 
meet these varied demands and the sol- 
diers in the hospitals will read more books 
in a given time than their more fortunate 
fellows who have more freedom but less 
leisure. 



GALLOWAY 



223 



A WOMAN AMONG TEN THOUSAND BLUEJACKETS 

By Blanche Galloway, Librarian, Pelham Bay (N. Y.) Naval Training Station, (Branch 
Librarian, Queens Borough Public Library, Jamaica, N. Y.) 



When I first came to Pelham Bay I felt 
much as the boy who came to me the first 
morning while I was sorting books, and 
said, "Could you give me a funny poem 
which I could learn before night? There 
is going to be a show over here and if I 
can learn the poem I can be in it." I was 
told before going to the camp that the 
officials had asked for a man to do the 
work, but when informed that no man was 
available they consented, after some per- 
suasion, to try a woman. Hence my anx- 
iety resembled that of the boy with the 
poem — to learn what was wanted, and "be 
in it." 

My first morning was spent making the 
rounds of the camp, under the guidance of 
the chaplain. Stopping at one of the bar- 
racks, we found the place in perfect or- 
der, with all the hammocks stowed away 
in large boxes for the day, and the bags 
containing clothing and personal posses- 
sions hanging properly In their places, 
The picture would hardly remind one of 
the comforts of home, and yet every face 
was happy and smiling, and from them 
one would never know that those boys 
hadn't slept on downy couches the night 
before. 

As we passed on through the great stor- 
age houses, kitchens and mess hall I was 
greatly Impressed with the cleanliness of 
it all, and the great care that is being 
taken to provide good substantial food for 
the men. 

The hospital was quite the most at- 
tractive place in camp. The large airy 
wards, with their softly tinted walls, and 
rows of spotless beds, almost made one 
wish to be ill. As I had dinner that day 
with the nurses, I learned of some of the 
possibilities for service to the men In the 
hospital, and I could hardly wait to get 
started on my real work. 



As for books, I found them everywhere, 
in the Y. M. C. A. and K. of C. buildings, 
chaplain's office, Red Cross headquarters, 
and on shelves two rows deep and two 
rows high, but very few of them were 
suitable to the demands, and none of them 
where the men could really get at them. 
Let me say here that the boys in the Navy 
have wonderful opportunities for advance- 
ment through study of special subjects, and 
the ambitious boy who Is planning to go 
up for examinations has little time and 
slight Interest In the books of fiction which 
are so lavishly showered upon them. 

My greatest problem was to find room 
enough to establish myself. The Y. M. C. A. 
secretary very generously said that if I 
could find any place which wasn't being 
used I could have It. You will understand 
how generous that offer was when I tell 
you that the Y. M. C. A. building was al- 
ready so crowded that men had to watch 
their chances for a seat on the benches 
along the sides of the room. Chairs were 
at a premium, and he was fortune fa- 
vored who was able to secure one. The 
only unused space was the kitchen, which 
the ladles used for canteen work on Satur- 
days and Sundays. This made a very good 
work room, but It was rather disconcert- 
ing to have all of one's things moved out 
by noon every Saturday, especially when 
there was no place to which to take them. 

The eagerness with which everyone did 
what he could to better conditions was 
most gratifying. Carpenters were called 
In, and they started at once building new 
shelves In the corners where the boys 
could have free access to the books. They 
were pleased with this new condition, for 
as one boy expressed it, "It seems like a 
real library now that we can handle the 
books as we please." This was good, but 
when the technical books began to arrive 



224 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



there wa« general rejoicing wherever it 
became known. 

The camp officials were most kind in de- 
tailing men to help prepare the books for 
circulation and to guard them after they 
were ready. This worked very well and 
many interesting facts were to be gleaned 
from these boys as they flourished the 
paste brush or pen. However, it is rather 
an uncertain life, a man may just have 
acquired the fine art of pasting properly 
when orders come for him to be ready to 
ship out in a few hours, or it may even 
happen, as it did to one of my boys, that 
he will be promoted from the library de- 
tail to the garbage wagon, through his 
own preference, for there he can have 
liberty every night. 

Collections of technical books were 
placed in the K. of C. and Y. M. C. A. 
buildings. Word came from the head of 
the radio school that a collection on that 
special subject would be very useful in 
their study room, which was no more than 
a mess hall, glorified by the presence of 
teachers and scholars. These books were 
supplied. Books and scrapbooks were sent 
to the hospital as requested by the head 
nurse. 

The men were especially pleased with 
cartoon books and short stories, the great- 
est demand being for geographies. One 
boy said, "When a fellow is three thou- 
sand miles from home, he kind o' likes to 
see it on the map at least." I was told by 
the head nurse that the same condition 
prevailed there as in the general camp. 
When a man is able to read he wants to 
be studying for his next examination. 

In the isolation camp where the boys 
stay for the first three weeks after enlist- 
ing, and where they are not allowed to as- 
sociate with any of the other fellows ex- 
cept the ones in their own barracks, we 
found that the placing of twenty-four 
books in each barracks seemed a perfect 
godsend to them. There are at present 
seventy-eight barracks In this isolation 
camp. It was one of my happiest days 
when I went over on the big navy truck to 
distribute the books to these new recruits. 



As the faces of the boys brightened at 
the sight of the books, I kept thinking that 
if the people over the country who have 
given so generously of their favorite vol- 
umes could have heard a few of the ex- 
pressions of gratitude from these boys, I 
am sure they would feel many times re- 
paid for any sacrifices they have made. 

One day one of the Y. M. C. A. secre- 
taries discovered about ninety men sta- 
tioned on a boat which was patroling the 
sound. They were not allowed to come 
ashore, but were only working about four 
hours a day. Can you imagine their feel- 
ings when the box of books and magazines 
arrived to relieve the monotonous hours 
of just waiting. 

One of my greatest concerns was how 
the boys themselves were going to feel 
about having a woman establish herself in 
their essentially masculine surroundings. 
My fears were allayed on this score when 
a very young boy came up and asked me 
if I had come to stay, saying that it looked 
good to see a woman around; and incl- 
dently after a moment's pause said, "Say, 
what do you do for a headache which you 
can't get rid of?" My suggestion that he 
go and get "liberty" and spend a week 
end at home where he could sleep as long 
as he wanted to, seemed to work, for 
\/hen I met him coming in the gate Mon- 
day he had forgotten that he ever had an 
ache of any kind. 

A lad came so appealingly one day and 
said he had just read in the morning pa- 
per that his best friend had gone "over 
the top" for the last time "over there" and 
he wondered if I wouldn't help him write a 
note of sympathy to the boy's parents. 
Others asked for help with problems In 
geometry, which they needed to solve be- 
fore going up for examinations for higher 
ratings. When time would permit I could 
listen to the most thrilling experiences of 
those who had been on the high seas. 
Boys who had spent months on submarine 
chasers or who had been torpedoed them- 
selves were always glad to find someone 
who would appreciate their tales of won- 
der. 



CAREY 



226 



Each day seemed to unfold some greater 
bond of friendship, until I soon felt myself 
a part of this most interesting life about 
me. It remained for the boy with the 
beaming face who asked me if I would 
like to share a mother's letter to her son 
in the navy, to make me feel how much a 
woman's presence was really appreciated 
in camp, for as I read that lovely letter, 
telling the little personal happenings in 
the lives of the other members of his fam- 



ily, and finally of the reminder not to for- 
get to thank God for his loving watch and 
care each day, I could understand the feel- 
ing of that fine boy, and I was glad to be 
able to share his pleasure. 

The opportunities for service which 
daily present themselves are so great, I 
shall be thankful as long as I live, that I 
had the opportunity to do what one woman 
could among ten thousand Navy boys, who 
were all true blue. 



FROM CAMP TO CAMP: THE WORK OF A FIELD REPRESENTATIVE 

By Mibiam E. Cabet, Supervisor, Minnesota State Board of Control (Field Representative, 

Hospital Service) 



There is as much difference between the 
camps as there is between the soldiers in 
them. Each has its special characteristics 
and these are not permanent but may alter 
with every movement of the army. Some 
camps have a predominance of colored 
troops; some are distinguished by large 
groups of medical men, or machine gun- 
ners, or cavalry. There may be principally 
educated and trained specialists, or there 
may be large numbers of illiterate to 
whom every detail of the life around them 
is a novelty. 

Camp libraries must keep in touch with 
all these peculiarities and the books set 
aside for base hospitals must have cog- 
nizance of them also. A library in any 
hospital is primarily recreational, but as 
the Red Cross houses are for the use of 
all convalescent soldiers the libraries in 
them will be patronized by men who are 
no longer "sick abed" but up and around 
and more impatient to get in touch with 
their work again than to be simply amused. 

It appears then that to put a suitable 
collection of books into a hospital is not 
a simple proceeding. Bright, clean copies 
of the kinds of fiction that men like; po- 
etry, war books, history, travel and biog- 
raphy; but also technical books following 
the trend of the camp's activities; foreign 



books in numbers to meet the local condi- 
tions; books in simple English and text- 
books of all kinds. Including primers and 
readers, if there are many uneducated and 
illiterate In the camp. 

What the librarian of a base hospital 
library aspires to do is to get everybody to 
reading. In order to know how to do this 
a leisurely survey from bed to bed is 
taken. After the soldier gets acquainted 
with the librarian and adopts her as one 
of his own folks, he does not hesitate to 
tell her what he wants to read. Far from 
it. And after one of these bedside visits 
she can tell him, if he does n.ot know him- 
self, what he wants. 

The librarian at Red Cross house. Camp 
Gordon, Miss Marjorie Wilkes, paid a call 
recently at the bedside of a man who was 
perfectly certain that he did not want to 
read anything. His was an orthopedic 
case and he was peevish and almost con- 
temptuous. But it transpired that Miss 
Wilkes discovered in him a latent sense of 
humor and soon after her call she sent 
him a copy of "Penrod" with the message 
that if ever he had been a boy she was 
sure he would enjoy the book. The next 
time she visited the ward this man in- 
stead of being almost rude and wholly un- 
responsive was all smiles. Never had he 



226 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



enjoyed a book like that one. Would slie 
send him another? Greatest thing he'd 
ever read. 

To satisfy the needs of sick soldiers it 
is necessary not only to take the book to 
the man but to get acquainted with him. 
After this has been done the librarian and 
her orderly have the supremest satisfac- 
tion that can come to such workers, name- 
ly that of seeing every man in the ward 
with a book, a scrapbook, or a magazine 
in his hand. As Miss Wilkes' orderly said 
after getting back from one of his rounds, 
"Well, I left everybody a-readin'." 

When these men are on foot again and 
can go in person to the library, what they 
will choose will depend on their own spe- 
cial bent. The librarian's part will be 
chiefly that of guide, having foreseen from 
her study of the wards and her knowledge 
of the character of the camp what will be 
the principal demands of the convalescent. 

There are at present hospital libraries 
in all the large camps in Georgia with li- 
brarians in charge who are or soon will 
be residents of the Red Cross houses at 
each cantonment. In Alabama there will 
soon be two such workers; in South Caro- 
lina there are now three and in North 
Carolina two; in Mississippi, one; Ten- 
nessee having no claim on Chickamauga 
Park appears to have no camps or hospi- 
tals, but as a matter of fact Chattanooga 
is the point of arrival for Fort Oglethorpe, 
which has a base hospital, librarian and 
both medical and hospital branches. 

Camp Wadsworth in South Carolina is 



the senior hospital library. Miss Ola 
Wyeth was the pioneer and worked her 
way to success through the difHculties 
which surrounded every activity of the 
camp in the spring of 1918. Fort McPher- 
son and Camp Gordon followed soon after, 
Miss Avey and Miss Wilkes having them 
in charge at present. Miss Mary Lonyo 
went to Camp Wheeler early in the year 
and now finds herself a resident of the 
Red Cross house (as are the other libra- 
rians named) with a library of 4,500 vol- 
umes ready for her use, besides a number 
of deposit stations, also well stocked. 

Miss Marie Fox Waite is in charge at 
Camp Greene, and finds that her experi- 
ence as reference librarian at Princeton 
University is useful even in a camp. At 
Camp Hancock, Camp Sheridan and Camp 
Sevier the librarians are rapidly getting 
adjusted to their respective fields. 

Good reports are received from Camp 
Shelby, and from Camp Jackson, under the 
direction of Miss Wyeth, the pioneer, a 
development adequate to the needs of a 
hospital of 2,300 beds may be expected. 

Fort Johnston in Florida is said to be 
ready for a hospital librarian, and at Camp 
McClellan in Alabama the work will be 
organized very soon. From these brief 
statements it may be rightly inferred that 
the hospital librarians in the south are 
seriously at work with every reason for 
being pleased with the prospect of getting 
notable results, not the least of which will 
be their personal satisfaction at being al- 
lowed to serve in this capacity. 



WHAT A BASE HOSPITAL LIBRARIAN SHOULD KNOW 
By Edith Kathleen Jones, Lihrarian, McLean Hospital, Waverley, Mass. 



Obviously, the first thing a hospital 
librarian should know is something of 
hospital organization. To all outsiders, 
the information that every large hospital, 
even in times of peace, is organized and 
administered under such strict rules and 
discipline and with such regard to rank 



of staff and employees as to be almost 
military in character, comes as an amaz- 
ing discovery. 

In the ordinary hospital — general, state 
or private — the superintendent is the apex 
of the cone, so to speak; immediately sur- 
rounding him are the widening circles of 



JONES 



221 



the staff. Each department is under its 
own head, who, in turn, is responsible to 
the medical superintendent or the chief 
administrator, and every person has his 
fixed place and rank. Nurses must rise 
when a physician enters the ward or room 
and remain standing till he goes out. If 
there is a training school for man as well 
as woman nurses the discipline is espe- 
cially strict. 

Now translate this into military terms 
and you have the commanding officer, who 
is a colonel, in place of the superintendent, 
surrounded by his majors, captains and 
lieutenants, who comprise the medical 
staff. The administrative staff is com- 
posed of the adjutant, the quartermaeter, 
the chaplain and other officers; the non- 
commissioned officers, wardmasters, 
clerks, stenographers, carpenters, etc., who 
are enlisted men; the nursing corps, con- 
sisting of women, headed by the chief 
nurse who is responsible for their work 
and behavior and must discipline them 
if they break rules. The nurses and the 
enlisted men are not allowed to speak to 
each other except to give and receive 
orders. 

The chaplain is in charge of the educa- 
tional and recreational as well as religious 
activities of the hospital, therefore the 
library nominally is under his command, 
though in most cases he has so many 
other things to attend to that he is glad 
to let the librarian take the initiative and 
go to the commanding officer for orders 
and permissions. 

Besides all this personnel, there are the 
patients, for whose benefit the hospital is 
organized and carried on. The library 
must take into consideration the needs 
of all these persons — patients, officers, 
nurses and enlisted men — numbering any- 
where "from a few hundred to several 
thousand. 

Now there are several varieties of army 
hospitals, but the only ones which concern 
us are: the base hospitals connected with 
training camps, the general military (or 
naval) hospitals and the "reconstruction 
hospitals," not connected with any camp. 



In the first, therefore, the library has the 
camp library to draw upon for help and 
for books; in the second and third she 
must rely upon the nearest large public 
library and dispatch office. 

The training-camp base hospital receives 
the men from that camp; cases of measles, 
scarlet fever, pneumonia, etc., which go 
into the medical wards; accident and 
operative cases, assigned to the surgical 
wards; mental cases, including epileptics 
and feeble-minded, who are put in the 
psychiatric wards. 

The general hospitals, unconnected with 
any camp, receive the chronic or severe 
cases from the camp hospitals, the troop 
ships or the various fronts; shell-shock, 
gassed, sick and wounded men from 
France. 

The reconstruction hospitals take the 
crippled soldiers and teach them trades 
and occupations, fit them with new arms 
and legs, and turn them out prepared to 
earn their own livings. In addition, there 
will be, of course, the hospitals for chronic 
cases who must be cared for all their lives 
by the government. All these hospitals 
will be more or less permanent institiv 
tions and the libraries in them should be 
placed at the outset on a permanent foot- 
ing. Here, especially, the librarian should 
be enlisted for the duration of the war 
or longer; frequent changes will be dis- 
astrous. 

In these hospitals, then, we have a large 
community of men and women isolated 
from the rest of the world (for even in 
the training camps the base hospital is 
placed off in one corner), away from camp 
activities or outside recreation. They 
must have recreation, so along comes the 
Red Cross and puts up a house for the 
use of the convalescent patients and makes 
it as homelike as possible. They must 
have books and magazines, for these 
armies of this world war are reading men, 
called from all walks of life, so the A. 
L. A. offers to provide books and certain 
periodicals and a librarian if the hospital 
will provide the room or building, the 
shelving and a few other things. 



228 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



Now arises the question of housing the 
library. Shall it be in the Red Cross 
building, which generously offers its wall 
space and perhaps a room for its use, or 
shall we ask for a separate building — 
the chapel, perhaps — and set up house- 
keeping for ourselves? This is a nice 
question, for there is much to be said 
on both sides. The Red Cross house 
furnishes a pretty and very popular place, 
but it is noisy, for either the pianola or 
the piano is going from morning till night 
and sometimes there is a billiard room 
also; the nurses and enlisted men are not 
supposed to use these rooms till after 
hours (late in the evening) and, when 
all is said and done, the librarian is a 
guest in the Red Cross house and has 
not the same freedom which she would 
have in a home of her own. 

On the other hand, while the separate 
room or building will not prove so popular 
with the convalescent patients, it is a 
boon to the enlisted men, who can run 
in at noon mess and from supper till bed- 
time, read the papers, magazines and 
books and have a pretty, quiet and com- 
fortable place to sit and a woman to talk 
to — things he cannot get at the Y. M. C. A., 
which is the enlisted man's only recreation 
room. Moreover, in a separate house, the 
librarian can impress her own individuality 
upon it, making it pretty and attractive, 
with lots of color, yet keeping it mascu- 
line; can put up maps, pictures, and use 
bulletin boards for publicity purposes as 
she pleases, can have a quiet place in 
which to work and to make her plans for 
the different branch libraries in the Red 
Cross house, nurses' quarters, officers' 
quarters, etc., and plan her ward libraries 
for the next day. For the hospital li- 
brarian will spend her mornings in the 
wards, taking magazines, books and scrap- 
books to the bed-patients, talking to them 
and cheering them up. 

Whichever plan is carried out, the libra- 
rian must work in close cooperation with 
the Red Cross people and the Y. M. C. A., 
for all are doing the same sort of work. 
And there is always at least one woman 



resident in the Red Cross house with 
whom the librarian will naturally asso- 
ciate. 

This brings us to the next thing a hos- 
pital librarian ought to know — her living 
conditions and social status. Both of these 
are rather unsatisfactory at present, for 
women are now for the first time in the 
history of the world being admitted into 
army life in other capacities than that of 
nurse, and, naturally, there is no place for 
them and they have no rank. The nurses' 
quarters, where most of them are now 
housed, are crowded and not very comfort- 
able. In some hospitals, in or near a 
town, the commanding officer prefers to 
furnish transportation and have the libra- 
rian live outside. This is really the most 
comfortable for the librarian. It has just 
been arranged with the Red Cross head- 
quarters at Washington to have the li- 
brarians room and eat in their houses, 
but this is possible only in the new type 
of house with several chambers, and then 
only when these chambers are not needed 
for families of very sick boys. There are, 
then, three possibilities of housing, all of 
them calling for meals in the hospital 
either in officers' mess, nurses' quarters 
or Red Cross house. Under the very best 
conditions living is not luxurious to say 
the least, and sometimes it is disagree- 
able, but the librarian should thoroughly 
understand all this before she undertakes 
the work and remember always that we 
women were not invited to enter this 
world of men and if we do intrude we 
must bear ourselves as good soldiers and 
not complain of hard beds, soiled table 
linen, lack of bathrooms, suffocating heat 
and dust in summer, freezing cold in win- 
ter, and tobacco smoke all the time. 

All this brings us to the librarian her- 
self — ^her qualifications for a position In- 
volving delicate readjustments of all her 
previous conceptions of living and work- 
ing. What is the first qualification de- 
manded? Library training? 

Now I expect a storm of protest from 
all you A. L. A. people, but I most em- 
phatically put that at the very end. Mind, 



JONES 



229 



I do not say she need not have any library 
training, for she should have the funda- 
mental principles, but first of all she must 
have certain traits of character which are 
indispensable if we wish to make these 
base hospital libraries a success — and we 
cannot afford to have a single one a failure! 

First of all, she must be mature. A 
camp is no place for a young girl anyway, 
and in a base hospital, where the librarian 
comes into such close contact with so many 
men, she must be able to meet officers with 
dignity, chaperohe the nurses, and mother 
the boys. The officers do not want a young 
girl — in fact, they will not have her! She 
is only an embarrassing adjunct. The 
chief nurse does not want her — she al- 
ready has the responsibility of from one 
to three hundred other girls. The enlisted 
men don't want her — they are so keen on 
their job that girls (except the one girl 
back home that almost every one of them 
has, apparently) do not exist. The patients 
don't want her — they want someone they 
can talk to as they would their mothers, 
for when these soldiers of ours are sick 
in hospital they are just homesick boys 
and they want to be mothered, and a 
young girl can't do that. As one sailor 
affectionately told the librarian at his 
naval station, "You are mother and grand- 
mother and aunt and sister and sweetheart 
all in one." Obviously a young girl can't 
be grandmother to a lot of boys! Accept 
this great, outstanding fact, then, that 
young girls are not wanted in camp and 
that for once middle-aged women are at 
a premium — if they are the right kind. 

Second, the librarian must be dignified. 
In any institution where so many men and 
women are living in such cramped quar- 
ters and pursue the same routine day after 
day, there are bound to be petty jealousies, 
gossip, scandal and quarrels. The libra- 
rian must keep her dignity, take sides with 
none, be friends with all. She must bear 
herself so that neither officers nor men 
will dare to be familiar with her. 

She must be loyal to the hospital and 
her superior officers. No longer is the 
library the supremely important thing — 



the hospital and what It stands for is that 
— and only as the library is subordinated 
to and serves the needs of the hospital is 
it efficient or necessary. 

The librarian must be able not only to 
take orders and accept a reprimand in a 
soldierly spirit but she must be able to 
give orders tersely and explicity. The 
common soldier is not supposed to think 
for himself but he is trained to obey 
orders. She must know how to approach 
the commanding officer or other officers 
with a well-formulated plan to be accepted 
or vetoed by them; she must not waste 
their time and patience by asking help 
in deciding which of two or three plans 
might better be carried out; she is liable 
to a curt dismissal if she does. 

She must not be sensitive and she must 
not be sentimental. Sympathy the boys 
want, but how they do hate to be wept 
over! 

If in addition to all these admirable 
traits the librarian can sing, play, draw, 
paint, play games, get up impromptu en- 
tertainments on . rainy days or dull even- 
ings when the boys will not respond to 
ordinary methods of cheering up, or if 
she is skilled in any branch of handicrafts 
and can teach the boys to do things — then 
she Is indeed a treasure and the posses- 
sion of any of these accomplishments 
might well balance a lack of library train 
Ing. 

Still, we cannot overlook the undeni 
able fact that a librarian is supposed to 
deal with books, and it is very essential 
that she should know them well, have read 
them, enjoyed them and be able to interest 
the boys in them. The boys want detective 
and "wild west" stories, adventure, rom- 
ance and poetry when they are sick; she 
must be able to select them offhand. When 
they are convalescing they are restless, 
eager to get back into the game and they 
fret for fear they will get behind in their 
classes and the other men will get to 
France before they do. Then they de- 
mand books on gas engines, turbines, 
radio and wireless, trigonometries, all 
sorts of things a woman knows little about. 



230 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



The librarian must know how to get these 
books and, what is more, must be thrilled 
when the eager boys show her pages of 
"beautiful" tables of logarithms, pictures 
of milling machines, and explain to her 
"how the wheels go round." Emphatically, 
she must know books as well as love boys. 

Don't I advocate library training? Most 
assuredly I do! I have been trying for 
seven years to get the large private hos- 
pitals to put in good libraries and trained 
librarians, just because I know how much 
more efficient training makes a person. 
Yet it is a fact that in a hospital library 
you must forget all the rules you have 
learned, except the fundamentals. The 
camp libraries have learned this too. They 
have found that it takes all their time to 
get books out fast enough for the men 
to read them — so eager are they — and that 
a book circulates just as well and isn't 
lost any oftener if it isn't in an accession 
book or a card catalog or even a shelf- 
list, and if it hasn't an elaborate book 
and name card. These camps have taught 
us librarians many things and one is to 
forget rules and remember only books 
and people. I have heard of a librarian 
who "is the sort of librarian to whom a 
book is something to be cataloged." We 
do not want that sort in our base hos- 
pitals. I 

Nevertheless, in order to forget things 
one must first have learned them, and 
even a hospital librarian must have some 
rudiments of librarianship, though these 
can be learned while personality cannot. 
Given two applicants of equally charming 
personality, knowledge of books and love 
of boys, one a trained librarian and the 
other not, I would give preference to the 
trained librarian. But, given a rather 
colorless, ineffectual sort of person who 
Is an expert librarian and another appli- 
cant who has traveled extensively, speaks 
French, Italian and a few other languages, 
has a keen sense of humor and is interest- 
ing to meet, but has no library experience 
except a knowledge of books, certainly I 
would prefer the latter, though I would sug- 
gest that she learn enough about classi- 



fication, cataloging and a few other things 
to enable her to carry on the library. 

Even a trained librarian going from a 
public or a college library into a hospital 
must, I think, be bewildered at first by the 
utterly changed conditions and new prob- 
lems. It is no longer library first, every- 
thing done according to approved method, 
books all in order, readers coming to you; 
but hospital first, last and always, books 
suited to the patients to whom you must 
take them, previous methods often inade- 
quate, individuality and ingenuity needed. 
In the fifteen years since I left a college 
library to enter that of a hospital I had for- 
gotten all this till I found several of the 
base hospital librarians confronting these 
same problems and just as bewildered as 
I remember to have been. One such libra- 
rian said to me, "I see I must revise all 
my ideas of library work." 

Realizing something of this and knowing 
the value of personality even without 
training, it was suggested by headquarters 
that a short course of supplementary train- 
ing for base hospital work might be in- 
troduced into some of the schools for 
library science. Such a course is being 
worked out at Simmons College this sum- 
mer. This library school was chosen 
because it is near several large general 
hospitals and near McLean Hospital, 
which is acknowledged to have the most 
beautiful library of any hospital in the 
country, near a training camp, a naval 
base hospital, a large public library which 
is the center of war activities, an A. L. A. 
dispatch office and several schools for 
training teachers in occupational therapy 
and trades for reconstruction hospitals. 
Visits to such places give an idea of all 
kinds of hospital and war library service. 

This course, as It Is organized, includes 
lectures on hospital and camp conditions; 
housing the libraries; qualifications and 
duties of librarians; care of the medical 
library; publicity methods; relations of 
base hospital libraries to A. L. A. Head- 
quarters and to camp libraries. Also lec- 
tures on book selection and ways of get- 
ting books to patients, officers and nurses, 



WEBSTER 



231 



with brief analysis of detective, mystery 
and secret service stories; wild west and 
adventure; romance and love stories and 
the little books for bed patients (including 
scrapbooks) ; poetry, essays, drama and 
art; books in French and other languages 
and the opportunity to teach foreigners 
English and our boys French; travel, his- 
tory and war books; outdoor books, games, 
occupations and handicrafts; books on 
mechanics, engines, etc.; some of the camp 
reference books. These lectures are for 
all the students. In addition, those who 
are not trained librarians have lectures and 
practice work in simple classification, 
cataloging, shelf listing, charging, filing, 
alphabetically, care of periodicals and news- 
papers. The whole class should also have 
some practical experience in sorting gift 
books and discarding the problem novels 
and trash. 



In order to ascertain the amount of in- 
itiative of the students, examination might 
be given along these lines: Make out lists 
of forty or fifty books suited to bed 
patients, convalescents, officers and en- 
listed men. Plan a library housed in the 
Red Cross house (new type) and also in a 
separate building or room. Outline a plan 
of advertising the library throughout the 
hospital. Tell what special qualifications 
each applicant thinks she has for enter- 
taining boys or being helpful to them. 

Such a course should enable the base 
hospital librarian to approach her peculiar 
problems with confidence instead of be- 
wilderment, and so prove of practical value. 
It also should provide an especially well- 
equipped personnel from which A. L. A. 
headquarters may draw to provide satis- 
factory librarians for the rapidly increasing 
number of base hospitals throughout the 
country. 



THE ORGANIZATION OF HOSPITAL LIBRARY SERVICE* 



By Caeoline Webster, Library Organizer, New York State Library 



In February, 1918, the War Service Com- 
mittee decided that some systematic serv- 
ice to the hospitals should be undertaken. 
Before that a few camp librarians had felt 
the importance of this branch of the work 
and had sent collections of books to the 
hospitals, sometimes to a chaplain, some- 
times to the Y. M, C. A., Red Cross or 
medical officer in command, but in the 
flood of other work no "follow up" had 
been possible and often the books sent 
were not even unpacked. The Red Cross 
or the "Y" had at many of the hospitals 
collections of books numbering from three 
to four thousand miscellaneous books. 
They were donated in most cases by lov- 
ing friends, and evidently donated on the 
supposition that anything was good enough 



•Abstract of paper printed in full in Library 
Journal. 



for a soldier. The representatives of the 
Red Cross and Y. M. C. A. at the hospitals 
were already overworked and their in- 
terest in books, except in rare cases, was 
secondary. 

The first step of course in establishing 
library service was to get authoritative 
information from the surgeon general's 
office and the Navy Department concern- 
ing the number of hospitals and their size, 
and^from the Red Cross the plans for the 
development of their work at convalescent 
houses and their attitude toward library 
work. 

Second, to learn the attitude of the 
medical oflBcers in command to the work 
of the A. L. A., for in the last analysis it 
is the medical officer in command who 
controls hospital life and no matter how 
enthusiastic a chaplain, a Red Cross or 



232 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



a "Y" representative may be about library 
work, it can have no official recognition 
until approved by the M. O. C. 

Last but not least in importance was 
to find suitable people for the work, for 
many who seem especially adapted to 
hospital library work have a distaste for 
it, and some in their zeal for war service 
sign for hospital library work when they 
are in no way adapted to it. 

For a hospital librarian personality 
counts high, book knowledge and a love 
of books are essential, but alas this taste 
is often left out of one who would pass 
muster on technical training and organ- 
izing ability. This last Is essential where 
new work is to be started^ (Immediate 
availability and geographical proximity 
must also be given consideration, which 
complicates selection.) 

After the surgeon general, the Navy 
Department and the Red Cross were ap- 
proached and their cooperation assured, 
headquarters sent to every camp libra- 
rian a request that he take up with the 
medical officer in command the question 
of a library at the base hospital and the 
appointment of a base hospital librarian, 
but at all the army and navy hospitals 
headquarters dealt directly with the medi- 
cal officer in command, sending him a 
personal letter enclosing a questionnaire 
which he was asked to fill out and re- 
turn. The responses from this question- 
naire gave a basis for procedure. The 
hospitals seemed to be interested in book 
service solely. It was only after personal 
interviews with the medical officer in com- 
mand at some of the hospitals that the 
latter was willing to have an organizer or 
library visitor go on the wards. It is 
a tribute to the women sent to these 
hospitals that in every case where the 
medical officer in command was sure that 
all he needed was an organizer to get 
the work started, when the work of or- 
ganization was completed, it was the same 
medical officer in command who insisted 
that a permanent librarian be appointed 
to the staff. 



The demand for books for the hospitals 
in this country has been very much along 
the lines asked for at the camps. Tech- 
nical books, simple French books, primers 
for the foreign born who are just learn- 
ing to read. One hospital librarian reports 
in one day requests ranging from a primer 
by a man in the wards to a book on ancient 
Greek scales in which a musician was 
interested. The man in the hospital in 
this country is rebellious at being there, 
rebellious because he is missing so much 
of his work and will be so far behind his 
companions when he gets out, so beside the 
story and picture books for the sick man 
the convalescent must have the books that 
will make it possible for him to keep up 
with his work. Following is a list sent 
in by a Red Cross worker for books that 
were requested after an afternoon's visit 
to several of the wards: 

Books on applied chemistry. 

Books on radio activity. 

25 military books (regular list). 

1 The work-house ward. 

1 Military aeroplanes. 

1 Flying, some practical experiences. 

1 The aeroplane speaks. 

1 Book on the manufacture and grading 
of lumber. 

1 Book on instruction for a beginner in 
the quartermaster's department. 

I.Columbia War Paper 17. 

1 The future of the disabled soldier. 

1 Publications on different subjects con- 
nected with motor mechanics. (Govt. 
Printing Office.) 

The hospital from which this list came 
is largely filled with men who have not 
been over, but for the hospitals on this 
side which are receiving men from over 
there, the demands are different. Books 
are selected by the librarians for their 
therapeutic and remedial value. It is not 
technical books teaching the soldier how 
to fight that are asked for, but books 
that will help him to live, bright picture 
books that will take his mind from the 
horrors he has seen, good stories, poetry, 
books dealing with the fundamentals in 
life. Books that help him to adjust him- 



MORGAN 



238 



self to life under entirely changed con- 
ditions. 

There is not time to go into details 
connected with the organization of li- 
braries at particular hospitals and the 
line to be drawn between service ren- 
dered by the Surgeon General's Office and 
the American Library Association. 

Suggestions for the organization of 
hospital libraries have been sent out from 
headquarters which will probably have to 
be modified to suit particular cases. These 
take up on general lines the problems that 
will be met by every hospital librarian. 
They consider service to the medical and 
nursing corps, the enlisted men and or- 
derlies, as well as the service to the very 
sick, the wounded and the convalescent 
man. 

Although the American Library Associa- 
tion is now giving book service to a chain 
of hospitals reaching from Santo Domingo 
to Pearl Harbor, H. I., although satisfac- 
tory relations have been established with 
the Red Cross for library work In con- 
valescent houses and they are giving not 
only the use of a room and shelving for 
books but in their new houses are pro- 
viding living quarters for librarians, and 
although the American Library Associa- 
tion has given the Red Cross 25,000 books 
for the use of the hospitals in France, 
nothing more than a start has been made 
as far as hospital work is concerned. 

Little or nothing has been done toward 
coordinating our work with the occupa- 
tional and vocational work to be done in 
the hospitals and little or nothing has been 
done for the hospitals overseas. 



A great reconstruction hospital is being 
built in Boston which is to be devoted en- 
tirely to the re-education of the handi- 
capped. In Canada there are training 
shops in connection with the convalescent 
hospitals. It is not unlikely that shops 
of the same kind will be built here. If 
this is so librarians with specialized train- 
ing in all branches of technical library 
work will be needed. 

The 25,000 books sent to the Red Cross 
will stop the gap over there for a time but 
when one considers the size and number of 
the hospitals in England and France for 
our troops, the gap will not be filled for 
long. The Red Cross reports fifty Red 
Cross units that have gone over, each 
equipped to care for a hospital of from 
one to two thousand beds. We know of 
two ten thousand bed hospitals that are 
being constructed In southern France. 
We know that the Red Cross is calling for 
25,000 nurses between now and the first 
of January. This means a provision for 
250,000 men, for the Red Cross estimates 
ten men to a nurse. This much we do 
know and there are doubtless other hos- 
pitals about which we know nothing, but 
with these figures before us it takes no 
great flight of the imagination to know 
that as far as hospital service Is concerned 
our big work is before us. 

And as the aim of the first part of 
library war service has been to make bet- 
ter fighters of our men, the aim of this 
second and equally important phase will 
be to make better men of our fighters and 
defenders. 



HOW THE CAMP LIBRARY REACHES EVERY MAN 
Bt Joy E. Morgan, Camp Librarian, Camp MacArthur, Waco, Texas 



The public interest would be well served 
by a wider spreading of the idea that there 
is a place in public education, large beyond 
measure, which is not being filled and 
which cannot be well filled by any agency 



other than the free public library. There 
is unusual opportunity in our army camps 
for the dissemination of this Idea among 
the thousands of men who come from lo- 
calities not now served by free libraries. 



234 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



The mere presence of an attractive 
building in camp spreads the library idea. 
Each army unit has its bulletin board 
which every man in the unit is supposed 
to read. Upon these bulletin boards the 
camp librarian may have posted book lists 
and announcements calling attention to 
the library. Then there are the motion 
picture machines, in Y. M. C. A. and K. of 
C. huts, in the liberty theater and in other 
buildings about camp. Through these ma- 
chines slides may be run calling attention 
to the free book service. The platforms of 
Y. M. C. A. huts afford opportunity for 
talks about books and their uses. Trench 
and camp, a weekly newspaper which is 
published in most camps, is glad to give 
ample space to accounts of library activi- 
ties. Finally there is the direct approach 
to men in their army units. Nearly al- 
ways the company commander is willing 
on request to form his company at retreat 
into an audience which may be addressed 
by the librarian in a brief account of the 
library eervlce In camp, on troop trains, on 
transports and overseas. 

These are big opportunities upon which 
we have merely begun to realize and which 
cannot be fully realized without Increas- 
ing the number of assistance in camp li- 
braries. The camp library is a more Im- 
portant institution than we at first real- 
ized. It is the heart of a system of libra- 
ries. The building is as centrally located 
as any building can be, but most army 
camps are not compact and some parts of 
camp may be several miles from the cen- 
tral library. There is not a convenient 
and cheap transportation system as in a 
city. In order to get the books nearer 
the men branches are established in the 
huts of the Y. M. G. A. and K. of C. There 
Is at least one such building for every 
army brigade. Each of them has a room 
or comer of a room that is devoted to li- 
brary service. The books for this service 
are supplied by the American Library As- 
sociation through the camp library. Col- 
lections vary in size from a few hundred 
volumes to two thousand volumes. The 
staff of the main library maintains gen- 



eral supervision over these branches, but 
the actual lending of the books is handled 
by the secretaries of the various build- 
ings. Recreation huts are usually crowded 
and branch libraries reach a large number 
of men, but with only one such building 
for every five thousand men It Is obvious 
that they cannot reach every man in camp. 
There must be provision for library serv- 
ice for men who do not find it convenient 
to attend these recreation huts. 

Such service may be provided by the 
regimental library. The establishment of 
such a library depends primarily upon the 
regimental chaplain. He may prefer to 
leave the handling of books to other 
agencies. He may see in books valuable 
opportunity for contact with his men. The 
library of the Thirty-fourth Infantry is a 
good type of the regimental branch. Chap- 
lain Cohee of that regiment secured an 
abandoned mess shack for a library and 
made effective use of a collection of some 
three thousand books. This same chap- 
lain had taken a thousand books to the 
Mexican border and reported a circula- 
tion In his regiment of 15,000 books in 
eight months. He says in a letter, "I am 
sure there was nothing in that camp that 
was touching the lives of those men sa 
vitally as those thousand books." But not 
every chaplain appreciates the value of 
books and is able to get a building for 
their circulation. 

The ideal type of service for reaching 
every man is the company library or book 
station. These libraries are located in 
first sergeants' tents or in mess shacks. 
In barracks' camps they are located in 
some comer of the barracks. Camp Mac- 
Arthur being a tent camp, we felt the need 
of having collections so made that they 
could be quickly distributed or taken up. 
The Waco high schools shops built us two 
hundred cases to be used in establishing 
company libraries. These cases of fifty 
books each can be handled at the rate of 
twenty or thirty per day, which may be 
necessary when troops are suddenly or- 
dered to be moved. By means of com- 
pany libraries books can be placed so near 



MORGAN 



286 



every man that he can get them without 
leaving his company street. Through 
these stations men form the reading habit 
and learn to avail themselves of the larger 
opportunities of the branch libraries and 
of the main library. 

Another important work is the branch 
library in the Red Cross Convalescing 
House at the base hospital. This work 
has already been ably discussed and may 
be passed over now. 

The connection between these various 
branches and stations and the main libra- 
ry is made by means of the library truck 
or Ford. Its daily trips give life to the 
work in all parts of camp. Camp roads 
are never too rough for the Ford to haul 
its loads of books and magazines. By its 
use the camp library becomes an aggres- 
sive institution that reaches out to touch 
all phases of camp life. 

It is peculiarly necessary that the camp 
library be aggressive. It Is a compara- 
tively new Institution. Thousands of men 
In camp have never before enjoyed free 
library privileges. They are In strange 
fiurroundings. They are new to each other. 
Some are away from home for the first 
time. All are ordering their lives anew. 
Books may have a large place In their new 
habits. Books have the power to make 
them better soldiers and better citizens. 

Another factor in getting books to every 
man has been the efficiency of the staff at 
headquarters. I come from one of the re- 
mote camps. Waco is far from Washing- 
ton. Help has been difficult to get. Camp 
MacArthur is widely scattered. The heat 
is intense and enervating. The problem 
has not been easy, but It has been made 
much easier by the helpful attitude of 
headquarters and by the prompt attention 
they have given to our needs. Things 
move fast in an army camp. Time is vital, 
much more vital than in civil life. Quick 
service Is appreciated by the military au- 
thorities. I mention these things especial- 
ly because the hearty cooperation of the 
military authorities makes the work vast- 
ly more effective. They have gladly post- 
ed on every bulletin board In camp an- 



nouncements calling attention to the libra- 
ry and urging soldiers to avail themselves 
of its opportunities. Military instructors 
send members of their classes to the li- 
brary and feel free to call upon it for help 
in any emergency. 

The camp library satisfies two distinct 
types of needs. First, it supplies the tech- 
nical books that every ambitious soldier 
is eager to get. It is not uncommon for 
the library to keep in active circulation a 
hundred copies of a single title on mili- 
tary science. Men study these books be- 
cause they know it pays. The man who 
studies gets promoted and the man who 
loafs stays at the bottom. 

The second type of need that the camp 
library serves is the need for Inspiration. 
The camp library helps men to find them- 
selves. It is tragedy for men to be taken 
from their homes and kept long under 
military regimen without understanding 
the issues of the w^ar and without enthu- 
siasm for the sacrifice they make. Men 
need to know, they have a right to know, 
why we are at war, why they must be sent 
to Europe, why It is necessary to fight 
this war at terrible cost to avoid conse- 
quences to civilization more costly even 
than war. One man read Van Dyke's book 
"Fighting for peace" and found at Its close 
the fitting quotation from Tennyson's 
"Epilogue." He fixed upon these lines: 
". . . He needs must fight 

To make true peace his own, 
He needs must combat might with might, 

Or might would rule alone." 
He found In those lines the explanation 
of our part in the war. For him there was 
reason for all the hardship, for all the 
struggle, for all the sacrifice. 

The camp library is a center from which 
radiate right ideals. We have been wor- 
shipping false gods. Ideals have been sub- 
ordinated to material things. We have 
valued too highly some things that we 
now see are of little worth In themselves. 
Too often have we thought of life, not as 
an opportunity for service, but as a span 
of years to be lived out. But this Is a 
war for Ideals and these Ideals are pene- 



236 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



trating into the rank and file of our troops. 
Ideals release immense stores of hidden 
energy in men and the inspiration thereof 
is as necessary for victory as are guns 
and ammunition. 

These are the things for which the camp 
library etands. It is a live institution; it 
does things quickly and thoroughly. 



Through its branches and stations it 
reaches out to all the men in camp. By 
its use surplus time is turned into hope, 
into happiness and into opportunity. It is 
serving the cause of democracy and 
through it we are making a very large and 
a very definite contribution toward the 
winning and the ending of this war. 



HOW THE CAMP LIBRARY REACHES EVERY MAN 
By Fbedebick Goodell, New York Public Library {Camp Librarian, Camp Wheeler, Ga.) 



One of the librarians the other day in 
speaking of a camp said that camps were 
composed of all sorts of men. The way 
to reach all these men in the camps is 
something we have all been thinking 
about. Of course, we cannot do it but we 
do come quite near to doing it sometimes, 
I think. 

Publicity, of course, is a very important 
thing in reaching them. We have a great 
many men in the camps who do not know 
about the library. In the southern camps 
particularly we have a great many men 
who have never heard of a public library. 
In Camp Wheeler we have 3,000 men who 
cannot read or write. They were quite a 
problem but we tackled that in fine style: 
we taught them how to read and write and 
then we gave them the books after they 
learned how to use them. 

Another thing that is important is the 
personal relationship between the libra- 
rians and the military officers and the 
other organizations working in the camp. 
I think that the camp librarian should 
neglect almost any other duty he has to 
establish good relationships, become ac- 
quainted, to have people know him, know 
that he is in the camp, know that he rep- 
resents the splendid organizations he does 
represent and make people realize that the 
library is taking a most important part in 
molding the opinion of the soldier. We 
all know when our young men went to 
these camps they did not have any idea 
why they were fighting; they are just be- 



ginning to find out now why we are fight- 
ing, and the library has had a large part 
in telling them that; making them real- 
ize why it has been necessary to turn this 
great peaceful country into an armed 
camp. That is a most important work the 
library is doing in the camps, to place 
these ideas before all the men. 

The camps, of course, differ in their 
physical aspect and their makeup. It is 
hard to tell us you should do a certain 
thing and should not do a certain other 
thing. One very interesting thing we had 
at Camp Wheeler when we received no- 
tice that the men in camp were to be 
changed. We were to have men from a 
new section of the country entirely. I 
thought it would be interesting to try to 
get those fellows before they came to the 
camp, so I tried in several ways, through 
the newspapers of the towns from which 
they were coming and through the cham- 
bers of commerce in the towns from which 
they were coming, to let them know that 
the American Library Association had a 
camp librarian with a splendid, active 
camp library back of him waiting for 
them, and when they did come to camp I 
noticed a difference right away. They 
felt that that camp library was something 
they would have to look up; it was a point of 
interest to them and something they went 
to in the first place. As soon as they 
came to the camp a great many mothers 
sent letters to me for their boys; they did 
not know to whom to send them and the 



LOWE 



237 



library was the first institution they had 
heard of. I found that that paid. 

I found too that pushing the library 
through speaking in the Y. M. C. A. build- 
ings and different publicity through the 
Y. M. C. A. buildings and branches is very 
valuable. The conditions are similar to 
those in a large library with extension 
branches; first, men come to the nearest 
unit. They find out there is a library in 
the camp and they want to know some- 
thing about the central library. They will 
come from the extension branch or from 
the station to the central library. 

The great thing the librarian must have 
in the camp is adaptability, and being 
adaptable to a camp is some job. We have 
perhaps today surrounding the library 20,- 
000 men who are machine gunners. They 
are intensely interested in machine guns 
and books on mechanics and we have to 



supply that need. Then between midnight 
and midnight those men all move out, the 
whole city is gone, and a new city has 
come. These men perhaps do not care a 
hang about machine guns; they are inter- 
ested in horses. The library must start 
all over again. 

The changing personnel of our camps is 
a problem that is facing us all right now 
and it is one in which we will need the 
help of the librarians back home to a great 
degree. We may call upon the libraries 
for a great many tools and books to help 
us out and I am sure the libraries will re- 
spond. One message I want to leave with 
you today is the gratitude of a camp libra- 
rian who has been isolated down in the 
south — the thanks for the ready response 
all the libraries of the country have given 
to even the slightest and apparently the 
most trivial request. 



A DAY AT A CAMP LIBRARY 

Bt John A. Lowe, Agent, Massachusetts Free Public Library Commission {Camp 

Librarian, Camp Devens, Mass.) 



Variety of work, long hours and no relief 
from activities marks the work of a camp 
librarian. A typical day at any one camp 
would serve to show the work of all of 
them: 

At 5:30 in the morning a siren blows 
frightfully. Presently two men appear to 
clean the building. Great contrasts appear 
among these: we have had artists, lawyers, 
college professors, one circus man, foreign- 
ers who speak no English, ex-prize fighters, 
and negroes fresh from Florida. 

Hardly is the cleaning process under 
way, when an officer rides up to the door 
on horseback, sending an orderly in to 
ask regarding some special technical books 
which were to be borrowed from the Boston 
Public Library for this officer's immediate 
use. Another officer rushes in to ask for 
"Rabbi Ben Ezra." That is easy, but to 
stop to interpret the poem line by line to 
him, at just that time, is another matter. 

The morning mail carries stacks of it — 
and a second demand for "that report" from 
headquarters, and a questionnaire from 



some psychologist, who wants to know 
"whether men are reading, what they are 
reading, and why they are reading." 

The private detailed to drive the truck 
stands waiting for his orders. As soon as 
he is gone you get out the blank sheets 
for the report of statistics and begin to 
figure. But a telephone call comes for the 
librarian. It is from the commanding 
general, who desires an interview at 
division headquartefs immediately regard- 
ing an overseas division library. Just start- 
ing out, you are called back to the tele- 
phone to find that the division Intelligence 
officer demands the instant appearance of 
the librarian at his office. Afterward it 
proves to be a matter regarding the circula- 
tion of German propaganda about camp 
by conscientious objectors and others. 

Back to the library you go from division 
headquarters, full of business, only to find 
a private waiting with a poem which he 
has written and about which he asks advice. 

Lunch next, but you can take only ten 
minutes for this during which you eat 
very good food, and have good company 



238 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



among the officers of the battalion. Just 
as you are starting on the statistical sheet 
again, a deputation from a near-by women's 
club, which helped in the drive, appears 
and insists on seeing the librarian, who 
shows them the library, explains the work, 
and answers the all-important question as 
to whether their part in it proved of worth 
or not. This is, of course, one of the many 
interruptions of the same kind each day. 

The same story, over and over, loses its 
edge and brilliance, even for an enthusiast, 
but somehow this story does not become 
entirely dull. 

Only a few men and officers come in dur- 
ing the morning and afternoon in propor- 
tion to the total attendance, because they 
are on duty all the time. Those who do 
come, however, are seriously interested in 
military subjects. They come in to consult 
our picture collection of military subjects, 
which they take out to use in classroom, 
room work and other lectures. They are 
also investigating material in books: one 
man is preparing a paper on the contri- 
butions of chemistry to the war, and de- 
sires material; another wishes an in- 
terpretation on the complicated question in 
a trial by court martial. Another wants 
to know how long a projectile stays in the 
bore of a gun after the firing takes place. 

But what is that sound outside? Halt! 
A company comes to attention. Under 
military order, an officer comes in, salutes, 
and asks if he may bring in his company, 
which is out on a hike, in order that they 
may take books, each man making his own 
selection. This is also sometimes done 
with men In quarantine, who come only in 
companies and then under military 
discipline. 

Call now comes to go at once to the base 
hospital library, where the chapel has been 
turned over as a library building and neces- 
sary changes in construction are being 
made. Over the 'phone comes an order for 
two hundred books for a Y. M. C. A. build- 
ing, and a few moments later for twenty- 
flve books for women at the hostess house. 
Fifteen minutes out of the building is 
allowed the librarian for supper, and ten 
hours of the day have gone by! When you 
get back, the crowd has already begun to 
appear, and for the rest of the evening it 
is one mad rush of combined desk and 
reference work. Taps at ten o'clock — the 
lights are put out, but those statistics are 
not yet finished! 

The statistics anyhow are not an actual 
indication of work accomplished or the 
quality of the same. A librarian at one 
camp counts all the books in the branches 



and deposits twice a month. Another 
conscientious man counts only the books 
actually delivered to individuals at the li- 
brary desk. Manifestly there is a differ- 
ence in the amount! In some camps nearly 
all of the books are in the library building 
and almost none in barracks or Y. M. C. A. 
buildings; hence such librarians report a 
tremendous attendance and circulation rec- 
ord. In some camps there are more books 
out of the library building than in it avail- 
able to men in barracks and other public 
buildings and yet no account is made of this 
on circulation records. In some camps the 
buildings are all together, like a city block, 
and in others the buildings are scattered 
over an area of fourteen square miles, so 
that the number of men who come to the 
building itself varies greatly. 

The fact that the library is decidedly a 
man's library renders the service quite dif- 
ferent in quality from that given at a public 
library. Men living in rough barracks 
without color or homelikeness find in the 
library comfort, cleanliness and beauty and 
the testimony of appreciation is overwhelm- 
ing both from officers and men. From every 
side expressions of appreciation of the 
building are manifest. There is a freedom 
in the use of the building not present in a 
public library where women and children 
seem to scare off the men. 

In our library men are encouraged to 
smoke, to take off their blouses, and make 
themselves perfectly at home, more in the 
manner of the library of a club than a 
strictly public library. The personal con- 
tact between the librarian and the readers 
gives a good chance at a formative in- 
fluence for the love of books and reading 
without unpleasantly forcing this. Red 
tape is cut to shreds. There are no fines; 
overdue notices are sent and books are 
collected by the authority of company com- 
manders. Lectures and art exhibits are 
arranged and very much appreciated by 
the men. The men like "high-brow" things, 
although civilians seem to believe that any 
old thing is good for the soldier. 

The aim and quality of the work is to 
give through reading matter recreation, 



JOSSELYN 



239 



education and inspiration to all officers and 
men in camp, who desire to avail them- 
selves of the opportunity. All of this is 
for the upbuilding of the morale of the 
army, whose business Is war, and which 
appreciates anything contributing to the 
effectiveness of its purpose. 

The work of the library has a vitalising 
effect upon the librarians, as it develops 
personal resources of reaching men. It 
helps to maintain the morale of the army 
by keeping the men in camp, and by meet- 
ing their cultural needs. It teaches the 
library habit to many men who never used 
a library before, and develops it among 
book lovers. Men become so appreciative 
of the value of the camp library that they 
gladly cooperate with their officers in 
arranging for regimental and company 



libraries for overseas, even to their willing- 
ness to take a book in their already over- 
burdened pack, A colonel of the old army, 
who scorned the idea of a camp library 
and all other activities managed by 
civilians told me, soon after the camp was 
established, that "if he had his way, all 
such activities should be bodily thrown out 
of camp." A few days before he left for 
France, some months after, he had the 
great courtesy to come to the library to 
say: 

"I have revised my decision as far as 
the camp library is concerned because of 
the work done for my officers and men. 
In the new army there is most decidedly 
the need of a place for the serious, studious 
work done by the men and this the camp 
library affords in making better soldiers of 
our army." 



A DAY IN CAMP* 

By Llotd W. Josseltn, Librarian, Public Library, Jacksonville, Fla. {Camp Librarian, 

Camp Johnston, Fla.) 



In a few minutes I can no more tell you 
of a day's work in camp than any camp 
librarian can really do the work alone 
that comes up, so I am going to do as my 
friend Goodell did when I went up to 
visit Camp Wheeler and he took me to 
that lake in the mud in his little second- 
hand Ford out to camp — just hit the road 
in two or three spots. 

Isaac Marcosson in his book, "The busi- 
ness of war," gives a wonderful descrip- 
tion of the quartermaster's work in the 
American armies. Out at Camp Johnston 
100,000 men a year are being trained to do 
this work — the clothing, the feeding and 
the transporting of men. This means in 
a camp that cannot hold normally over 
eighteen or twenty thousand, that 17,000 
men are coming into camp every two 
months to take a training of ten weeks in 
one of the many schools, such as office 
training schools; shop schools; road train- 



•Abstract of remarks. 



ing schools; automobile drivers; train 
drivers; road repairmen and the like; re- 
mount schools for such occupations as 
wagon-making, teaming, horseshoeing and 
similar work; and officers' training schools 
for the performance of the work of the of- 
ficers in these same branches. 

To meet this special type of work the 
American Library Association has built 
up at Camp Johnston a library of 12,000 
books, 6,000 of these books being technical 
books, most of them in the 600 and 300 
classes. We have there at least 1,000 
books in the reference department alone. 
So you see our greatest work and effort 
has been to supply material for the in- 
structors, to assist them in writing up the 
lectures which they are delivering in the 
various schools. Their work changes from 
week to week. A lecture will be written 
on a certain subject and that lecture is 
never given again, it must be entirely re- 
written, because to keep up with the 
changes the instructors must have the very 



240 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



latest publications and get a great deal 
from magazines and periodicals. Then we 
put forth a special effort, of course, to 
guide the student in his work, in his re- 
search and study, and to .push the tech- 
nical books which we have on the shelves. 
Our day's work is very similar to that of 



a college reference library and that of a 
public library, except that the librarians 
and all of our workers bear in mind that 
they are wearing the uniform, are serving 
in a military camp, are there to help win 
the war, and that "war is hell." 



CAMP LIBRARY WORK AT A NAVAL TRAINING STATION 

By Hebbeet S. Hibshbeeg, Librarian, PuMic Lilirary, Toledo, Ohio (Camp Librarian 

Chreat Lakes, III.) 



The fundamental difference perhaps be- 
tween the men in the naval camps and 
those in the army camps is that the men in 
the naval camps are without exception 
volunteers. They have not been drafted. 
A good many of them have perhaps had 
the thought of the approaching draft as an 
impetus to their enlistment in the navy, 
but men of this kind are likely to be of a 
higher degree of average Intelligence than 
those who are in the army camps. The 
result is that in the navy camps we have 
practically no men who do not speak Eng- 
lish. There is a great variety of men, 
as there is in the army camps, but the aver- 
age grade of intelligence is doubtless 
higher. 

The Great Lakes Naval Training Station 
is largely devoted to a series of schools for 
the preparation of men in different sub- 
jects. The library in serving these men 
puts collections of books in the regimental 
headquarters, which are really the school 
headquarters, and the regimental com- 
mander appoints some detail to care for 
the books and that man acts really as a 
school librarian. 

We have groups of men, 1,800, 2,000, 
2,500, all studying the same subject. The 
problem of supplying a sufficient number 
of the same kind of books to those men of 
course is a tremendous one, and it is al- 
most impossible for the library to find 
enough books on the few subjects which 
those men are studying to supply them with 
the books they need. 



Another point of contact of the camp 
library in the navy camps which the 
library in the army camp does not have is 
that with the training ships. The men 
after a period of training ashore are sent 
to sea. Placing books on the cruisers is 
of course one of the things which the navy 
camp library can do and which the army 
camp library cannot do. 

A method of contact with the men which 
we are considering at the Great Lakes is 
one which is used and has been used for a 
great many years in county libraries, and 
that is the book wagon. When the men 
first come to camp they are placed in de- 
tention for a period of three weeks. Parts 
of the naval camps are devoted entirely to 
detention purposes. During the period of 
detention the men are forbidden to con- 
gregate in buildings and of course they 
find the time boresome because of the fact 
they are not yet acquainted with their 
messmates and are. left a good deal to 
themselves, especially for the first few 
days. I believe that by using the book 
wagon and taking the books right out 
among the men, we can educate the 
men to the use of the books as they come 
into the camp. 

At Great Lakes the camp library has 
been for some time and is still in one of 
the detention camps. The great influx of 
men made it necessary to include the 
camp in which the library was placed as 
part of the detention camp. The men were 



TITCOMB 



241 



forbidden to come into the building. In 
order to offset the detention regulation, 
the library was brought out onto the porch. 
A table and a collection of thirty or forty 
books were placed on the table and the 
men passing by get the books from the 
library steps. Such an adaptation to con- 
ditions would be practically impossible in 
a city. Library assistants would not want 



to take the position of peddling their books 
from the steps, but in camp we think noth- 
ing of that sort of adaptation to conditions. 
Other conditions are practically the 
same as those found in the various army 
camps and the methods of the distribu- 
tion of books are very similar to those 
so completely described by the army camp 
librarians. 



A DAY AT FORT LEAVENWORTH 
By Mary L. Titcomb, Librarian, Washington County Free Library, Hagerstown, Md. 



When I got a letter asking me if I 
would go to Fort Leavenworth, Kans., and 
look over the situation and see what 
was needed there and make recommenda- 
tions as to whether we should have a 
separate library there, whether we should 
appoint a permanent librarian and what 
should be done, I was not a bit interested. 
You know what we think of Fort Leaven- 
worth — we think of it as a place where 
people go when they are finished, and 
I was just beginning — but I said, "Now, 
see here, these are military orders and 
I go where I am told to go." 

My first visit before going to the camp 
was to the community house. There in 
Leavenworth they have really a rather re- 
markable community house. The trolley 
line is along the stretch from the Soldiers' 
Home at one end of the town to Fort 
Leavenworth at the other end. Midway 
between, just in the center of the town 
on the line of the trolley, is this com- 
munity house which consists of a double 
store apartment upstairs and down, very 
attractively fitted up, with a hostess and 
a Y. W. worker and a man representing 
the Fosdick Commission. There I got in 
touch with things. 

When presented to the Colonel in com- 
mand of the army post at Fort Leaven- 
worth, I explained in detail what the 
American Library Association was, the 
national association of librarians in the 
country, and about the money we had 



raised and what we were trying to do 
and that we were working under the Fos- 
dick Commission of Training Camp Ac- 
tivities. The colonel was very cordial. 
He said he did not know whether his 
soldiers had much of any time to read 
or not; that he worked them pretty hard, 
and if they had any time every one that 
came there had at least two sisters and 
a mother and sweetheart, "but you can go 
ahead and do what you please; you have 
my permission; you have a free hand In 
the camp." 

We went to see the chaplain of the 
disciplinary barracks. Before the chaplain 
came in, I talked for quite a little while 
with a young trusty there In the room 
who was the chaplain's secretary, a 
Pennsylvania boy, cultivated, a perfect 
gentleman. The prisoner's brown, like 
a wood-dye, trousers which have never 
seen a crease, very baggy at the knees 
and with the prisoner's number on each 
knee, and when the men go out to work 
they have such a number on the back. 
That young fellow talked to me without 
the least consciousness of himself what- 
ever. He told me about the library; he 
told me they were making a loose leaf 
catalog and showed me the number of 
sheets; they were doing that in the print 
shop in the educational school. He apolo- 
gized for the appearance of the sheets 
because he said they had different men 
at work on it from time to time and some 



242 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



of the apprentices did not do as well as 
others. 

Pretty soon the chaplain came in and 
I again explained who I was, what I was 
and what I represented, and I said, "I 
believe we sent you some books, 1,500 
books; you have had 1,500 new books 
recently?" "Oh, no, not as many as that," 
he said. The trusty spoke up and said, 
"Just about 1,500." I said, "I was told 
we were sending that number." "But 
they did not come from you," said^ the 
chaplain. And remembering that I must 
go carefully, I said, "Why, I thought we 
sent you some." Then the trusty inter- 
vened again; bringing forward a book, 
he said, "Yes, those came from the Amer- 
ican Library Association," opening it and 
showing our bookplate. The chaplain 
looked at it and said, "Well, I had never 
seen that bookplate; I thought all the 
time those books came from the Soldiers' 
Aid Society in New York." Then and 
there I made up my mind in Fort Leaven- 



worth these book plates were going on 
the outside as well as the inside of the 
book. 

Then he voiced some of his apprehen- 
sions about our coming in there with our 
books and I was able to allay his fears 
and finally I said, "If we can send you 
from 500 to 1,000 books, new scientific 
books, books on the war, technical books, 
would you like them?" "You bet your 
boots," he said. 

I am sure that anything sent there is 
going to be taken care of. They have got 
a long room with wooden stacks; they 
are going to have steel stacks; they have 
taken all the books they can from the 
Kansas Commission and have had them 
relettered and put back on the shelves. 
They have taken gift books which came 
through us and classified and arranged 
those; and let me say that my conclusion 
is we are going to have a permanent 
library there in the Y. M. C. A. building. 



WAR DEPARTMENT INDEXES* 



Some of the principal indexes connected 
with war work are the following: A card 
index of the men in the American Expedi- 
tionary Forces is built up from passenger 
lists prepared at the ports of embarkation, 
and signed by the company commanders. 
Before being typed they are carefully 
scrutinized by experienced women clerks 
and every possible error corrected. Every 
local address is verified against the Postal 
Guide, the Western Union list of telegraph 
offices, and if necessary against an atlas. 
For cases still in doubt two cards are 
typed and stamped "Data Uncertain." One 
of these goes to file at once, and the other 
Is used as a basis for further investiga- 
tion. The original enlistment paper is the 
best and principal source of verification, 
for here we have an official document 



•Extracts from a letter from Lieut. Willis 
P. Sewall, of the Statistical Division, Ad- 
jutant General's office, to Miss Adelaide F. 
Evans, chairman Catalog Section, A. L. A. 



signed by the soldier himself. 

The errors which creep into the records 
are mainly due to poor handwriting, care- 
less typing, and to misunderstanding and 
misspelling information given by word of 
mouth. Then there are those cases where 
the soldier for reasons best known to him- 
self deliberately gives a false name or 
false emergency address. 

The Chief of Staff has officially stated 
that more than 900,000 men are already 
in France, and that the million mark 
will soon be reached. We have a card for 
each man; and are now typing and filing 
upwards of 10,000 cards a day. The prob- 
lems of a great file of names are very 
different from those of a library catalog. 
Our file already occupies 1,080 trays, the 
Smith family leading in occupancy of eight 
trays. 

Another file is that of the enlistment 
papers. After about eighteen or twenty 
files of enlistment papers had grown up. 



CURRIER 



243 



they were turned Into one alphabet, a 
process involving the handling of about 
two million papers. From the latest mus- 
ter rolls envelopes or "jackets" are being 
typed for each man, to contain his enlist- 
ment papers, any personal papers, his 
service record when mustered out, etc. 

In the bureau of war risk insurance ap- 
plications and subsequent correspondence 
are filed numerically, with an alphabet- 
ical index. This will probably be the 
largest alphabetical index of names in the 
world, as the record will include all en- 
listed men, whether insured or not; giv- 
ing the reasons for failure to take out in- 
surance where men have not desired to 
avail themselves of it. The allotment sec- 



tion of the bureau of war risk insurance is 
still another index. 

A complete central occupational card 
index is being assembled, giving occupa- 
tional qualifications of every registrant. 
These cards are arranged by symbolic 
numbers for occupations, with geograph- 
ical extensions of numbering. Besides this 
occupational index of registrants, there 
is a card catalog of educational, occupa- 
tional and military qualifications of every 
enlisted man. 

Finally, as it takes money as well as 
some other things to win the war, there 
may be mentioned the file of income tax 
returns, arranged geographically and by 
size of income, the file comprising about 
thirteen million entries. 



COST REDUCTION IN CATALOGING 
By T. Franklin Cubeieb, Assistant Librarian, Harvard College Library 



In the industrial world a lowering of the 
cost and a more finished product resulted 
from the transfer of the process of manu- 
facture from the home and small shop to 
the factory. The centralization of catalog- 
ing by placing it in the hands of a large 
institution which has every facility for 
doing it well and economically has had a 
similar result in the library world. Fur- 
ther improvements and economies will un- 
doubtedly result from further centraliza- 
tion and greater coordination of effort on 
the part of catalogers. It is to the catalog 
departments of our larger libraries that we 
look for the realization of such plans, but 
it is just these departments that are find- 
ing increasing costs and inelastic budgets 
most burdensome, and it is here, therefore, 
that the greatest demand exists for study- 
ing carefully the relation of quantity and 
quality of output to cost. 

It is our duty as catalogers by mutual 
conference to pool experiences, marshal 
facts and figures, study the relation of our 
work to the problems of larger library ad- 



ministration and thus reinforced to bring 
about an intelligent and sustained pres- 
sure for adequate support. At the same 
time we must promote and prepare for 
increased resources by learning how to 
utilize to the utmost those now at our com- 
mand. We must study carefully the cost 
of production, take advantage of every 
method that leads to economy, prune away 
with ruthlessness each process the value 
of which we cannot prove. This, I take it 
is the aim of our conference to-day. 

In response to your chairman's request 
I might enumerate the labor-saving devices 
I have found useful, A symposium of such 
papers would suggest to each one of us 
specific methods that we have not our- 
selves stumbled on, but I refrain, for the 
essential thing that we wish to teach to 
our staff is not so much individual specific 
methods as the habit of mind that will in- 
stinctively plan each piece of work in the 
best way and avoid ineflicient procedure, 

I should like then to consider the 
economies resulting from the application 



244 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



of some of the essentials of efficient man- 
agement. The ones I select are formu- 
lating correct ideals of work, care in select- 
ing and training assistants, correct super- 
vision and flexibility of organization. By 
paying strict attention to these, economy 
of production must surely ensue. 

The need of formulating for our assist- 
ants the fundamental aims and ideals of 
their tasks is not ordinarily suggested in 
discussions of economy of work, but a vast 
deal of time is wasted by those who, be- 
cause they lack a proper perspective, try 
to do something that has no excuse for be- 
ing done. Did you ever ask one of your 
catalogers to formulate the aims of your 
catalog? 

At present, I should formulate the prin- 
cipal aim of the Harvard catalog, in so far 
as the author entries are concerned, not as 
the forming of a repertory of titles, each 
bibliographically complete, but as the 
providing of a handy tool to bring to the 
searcher, with as little trouble and delay 
as possible, a given book. If, then, I see 
a cataloger carefully verifying each name 
from a series of reference books and 
crowning her labors by triumphantly add- 
ing to her heading an unused name, I ask 
her whether her expenditure has helped or 
hindered the user of the catalog. 

Next in order to the formulation of ideals 
comes the selection of persons who are 
carrying them out, and training them in 
the intricacies of the work. This matter 
has been frequently the subject of discus- 
sion at our meetings and I will not discuss 
it here, but I cannot pass it by without 
mention, for it is an altogether too impor- 
tant part of that process by which we hope 
some day to emulate Henry Ford's boasted 
100 per cent efficiency and to prevent fill- 
ing the round holes of our catalog peg 
board with square pegs. The expense in- 
volved in the attempts of a cataloger to 
do work for which she is not suited or for 
which she has not been trained must be 
prevented; and it can be forestalled or 
cured by careful selection and systematic 
instruction. 



I am told that the major in our army is 
the highest officer who comes in immediate 
contact with the men — in the battle higher 
officers handle units — the major handles 
men. The supervisors in our large cata- 
log staffs have this privilege and duty. 
On them rests the responsibility of seeing 
that accurate, intelligent and scholarly work 
is produced by an economical expenditure 
of money and energy on the part of the 
catalogers. Real economy can be obtained 
only if correct principles of supervision 
are taught and insisted on. To illustrate 
by example, each person called to super- 
vise even a small piece of work must real- 
ize that her first duty is to see that those 
under her are working intelligently and 
productively and with enough work plan- 
ned ahead. When she is assured of 
this state of affairs she can then and only 
then apply her own time to detailed and 
routine work; but she must constantly 
be on the alert not to absorb herself so 
deeply in her own routine work that she 
loses track of her assistants. If she does, 
they will listen to wrong advice from each 
other, pile up work incorrectly done, or 
mark time, even though they have the best 
intentions in the world. Again, the super- 
visor must guard against the constant 
temptation of habitually doing things her- 
self because she can do them so much bet- 
ter QT faster than her helpers. There is no 
eventual economy in this, for three out of 
four times the helper will lose the sense 
of responsibility, as well as the discipline 
of doing harder work and quite possibly 
will be wasting time while her supervisor 
is doing her work for her. The supervisor 
should remember that growth comes with 
the opportunity of doing. 

It may sound mercenary, but I make no 
apologies for my belief that the supervisor 
should get in the habit of thinking of work 
done under her charge in terms of dollars 
and cents. She will be much less likely to 
authorize a doubtful bit of work if she 
knows it will take five dollars out of her 
budget than if she looks on it as merely 
a few hours' postponement of a more im- 



WIGGINTON 



245 



portant job. There is tonic in the realiza- 
tion that a half hour's conference of two 
or three catalogers over a knotty point 
really costs a dollar or two, for this knowl- 
edge may result the next time in a straight 
decision, without conference, that costs ten 
cents. 

The last essential to which I wish to 
call your attention is flexibility of organi- 
zation within the department and in its re- 
lation to other departments. The ques- 
tion of proper division of work is one that 
cannot be settled once for all — it will vary 
in different libraries, and even in a given 
library, according to the nature of the 
work and personnel of the workers. Rules 
for forwarding books must be made only 
to care for normal accessions flowing in 
from day to day, and these rules must be 
easily changeable in special instances. 
Sympathetic cooperation of catalogers and 
supervisors with the head of the depart- 
ment as well as between the librarian and 
different department heads will lead to 
saving by special routing of exceptional 
work. There are times when the duties of 
the accessions and order clerk blend close- 
ly with those of the catalogers. For ex- 
ample, the accessions department might 
well assume the labor of collating the 
plates and maps of an invoice of English 
books, but it would be waste of time for 
it to collate a volume printed before 1500 
when the cataloger will feel it necessary 



to do the work again in. the process of 
properly cataloging it. 

To sum up the points I have tried to 
make: Economy of work will be attained 
less by teaching, parrot like, specific de- 
vices than by building up a habit of effi- 
ciency and a common sense view of rela- 
tivity in the importance of work. This 
can be attained best by raising the tone of 
the catalog staff through careful selection 
and training of assistants, by formulating 
the ideals and aims of our work, by train- 
ing our supervisors in the principles of 
management and by promoting flexibility of 
organization within and between the de- 
partments. Furthermore, ideal conditions 
in the selection, training and supervision 
of the staff presuppose adequate financial 
return for labor. I do not dare hope for 
immediate realization of this happy state 
of affairs — the war is putting a severe 
strain on us in the way of budgets that 
are contracting in purchasing power even 
though on paper remaining normal, but 
those of us who are not called to active 
duty at the front or to its supporting lines 
may feed our patriotism by looking ahead 
to the future when the library will be called 
to do its full share in reconstructing and 
invigorating our mental and spiritual life. 
And we must prepare by establishing 
a foundation of efficiency in methods that 
will support the increased activities and re- 
sponsibilities of that day of honorable peace 
for which we, as a nation, are striving. 



CATALOGING ECONOMIES: 



MEETING THE DEMANDS OF WAR SERVICE 
CATALOGING 



By May Wood Wigqinton, Catalog Department, Louisville Free Public Library 



Those of us who have been doing camp 
library service have had to find just what 
are the barest essentials in cataloging and 
surely there is a lesson there for all cata- 
logers. 

The war is affecting libraries as it is af- 
fecting every phase of life. Libraries are 
feeling the pinch of the increased cost of 



maintenance and the shortage of labor. . . 
and demands are coming in to help in 
this or that bit of war service .... 

In December, our camp library building 
was completed, the avalanche of books be- 
gan to arrive and the problem before us 
was this: We had a fine big camp with 
some 40,000 soldiers in it, drilling hard, 



246 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



studying hard, eager for entertainment, 
ready to read. We already had collections 
of books in the Y. M. C. A. and K. of C. 
buildings, supplied from our own stations 
department so that the men were looking 
to us for books and clamoring for more. 

We had our building completed and fur- 
nished and filled with books just as they 
had come from the people who gave them. 
We wanted the men to use the books im- 
mediately, we wanted to open the building 
for use immediately, but before we could 
do that the books must be equipped with 
a charging system, some sort of catalog 
must be made of them, they must be classi- 
fied and marshaled into order ready to 
circulate. 

Our force consisted of two men camp 
librarians and just such members of the 
Louisville Free Public Library as could 
be spared. The eighteenth of December 
we started In, eight of us. On Janu- 
ary 22, after just eighteen days' work at 
camp, we formally opened the library with 
11,500 volumes ready for circulation. 

Each book had been equipped for charg- 
ing, a pocket had been pasted in, and a 
charging card made. In order to facilitate 
the slipping of books, when they returned 
from circulation, we decided to write the 
author and title and class number on the 
pocket and to give each book an acces- 
sion number. We kept no accession book, 
but gave each book a serial number with a 
numbering machine. This would always 
give us the total number of books in the 
library and would identify copies in the 
charging trays and would be much easier 
to put on than copy numbers which neces- 
sitate reference to a shelf list. 

The A. L. A. War Service Committee 
had recommended that books be classified 
to three figures and that the author's last 
initial be used under the class number. 
Realizing that painting the author's ini- 
tial on the backs of the books would take 
much of our already too short time, we de- 
cided to leave off the author's initial. 

We deeply regret that we only classified 
to three figures. It takes no more skill 
and little less time to classify closely — 



and the close classification helps to find 
specific subjects. This Is especially true 
in a library with no subject catalog. We 
reclassified military science, expanding 
the already fully expanded Dewey in or- 
der to have specific numbers for each mi- 
nute subdivision of military art and engi- 
neering. We found by experience that 
broad classification is poor economy. 
Books about the war we have marked 
"War" and war fiction and war poetry are 
gathered together under the marking 
"War-F" and "War-P" respectively. 

We decided we must have an author 
and title catalog of all books, fiction and 
non-fiction. Our catalog is of the simplest, 
merely the author's last name and a short 
title and the class number; and the index 
to the Dewey has to serve in place of sub- 
ject cards and shelf list. Our work was so 
easy, technically, that anybody could do 
most of it, a great point in camp library 
work where everybody must be pressed 
into service, volunteers and detailed sol- 
diers. If we found a man who could run 
a typewriter, he was put to work typing 
author and title cards for the catalog; if 
he could write a legible hand he helped 
copy author and title and accession num- 
ber on book pockets. The soldiers helped 
us paste pockets in the books and stamp 
them with the name of the library. 

Camp cataloging is of necessity the 
most economical cataloging we have ever 
seen. The classifying and cataloging of 
over 30,000 books in our camp cost the 
A. L. A. but $125.75, plus the cost of the 
cards. 

Of course, it cost the Louisville Free 
Public Library the assistants' time, which 
was given to the camp, and the transporta- 
tion to and from camp each day. 

The members of the library profession 
have risen to the emergency of war serv- 
ice and have provided libraries (fully 
equipped and classified and cataloged al- 
most over-night) for communities of 40,- 
000 adult readers, most of them studying, 
going to school, taking examinations and 
thus calling on the library for concrete 
help. 



MCCARTNEY 



247 



These libraries have been laboratories in 
which we have been working out an ex- 
periment in library efficiency and speed of 
organization that has tested our flexibility 
and adaptability. 

The experiment has been successful. 
Dare we disregard its conclusion? 

We have found that libraries can serve 
these communities well without the elab- 
orate bibliographical paraphernalia with 
which catalogere have surrounded our 
books. The analogy between a camp li- 
brary and a big public library is not per- 
fect. The collections are smaller and nar- 
rower in their scope. The reference work 
is simpler and confined to a few clearly 
defined subjects. Many arguments can 
be brought forward in defence of fine 
scholarly cataloging. In our own catalog 



department we still continue to follow all 
our former rules and are cataloging as 
carefully as ever. 

Have we failed to learn the lesson of 
the camp library? I am holding no brief 
for any radical changes. I am putting it 
up to catalogers everywhere. In face of 
the Increased demands for service, dare 
we catalogers waste time looking up ob- 
scure middle names of obscure authors or 
laboriously typing "Ed.6,rev. N.Y.Putnam, 
1917cl898. 2v.illus.por.facsim.map,sq.F" on 
hundreds of cards? 

We have learned many lessons this win- 
ter in a camp library. But we must not 
let them blind us to the humbler lessons 
that win help us to get books to the peo- 
ple at less expense of the world's valuable 
labor. 



CATALOGING ECONOMIES: HOW ROCHESTER ECONOMIZES 

Bt Grace B. McCabtney, Head of Catalog and Order Departments, Public Library, 

Rochester, N. Y. 



To make clear the reasons for some of 
the processes which we have found eco- 
nomical and about which I am to tell you, 
I wish first of all to describe briefly the 
Rochester Public Library system and Its 
catalogs : 

We have as yet no central library: our 
system consists of five general branch li- 
braries varying In size from 8,000 to 15,- 
000 volumes, a business and municipal 
reference branch of 2,000 volumes, and 67 
stations, including six sub-branches, which 
draw their book supply from a stations col- 
lection of nearly 17,000 volumes. Each 
branch library has Its own catalog and 
shelf list, while in the catalog department, 
housed with other administrative offices 
on the upper floors of the largest branch, 
there are an official catalog and shelf list 
which show which branches have each title 
and the number of copies in each. L. C. 
cards are used for these catalogs whenever 
possible, subjects, corrections, and other 
necessary information being typed in. All 
catalog cards are typed If we cannot obtain 
printed ones, and shelf-list cards are al- 
ways typed. The stations collection Is not 
cataloged so fully as the branch collections. 



but Is recorded in a stations list on cards 
flled In the catalog department. This list 
shows for each title the classiflcatlon. au- 
thor's name In full, title of work, date of 
publication, publisher, list price, and copy 
numbers which are used instead of acces- 
sion numbers. These are all typed cards. 
The staff of the catalog and order de- 
partment consists of a head, assistant cata^ 
loger and three typist catalogers. With 
this force all books for the entire system 
are ordered and cataloged. Branch libra- 
rians and assistants have merely to file 
cards and shelve books when these are sent 
out from the department. Our orders since 
January 1 have amounted to $7,600 and in 
the same time 7,206 volumes have been 
cataloged using 13,647 cards, 8,361 L. C, 
and 5,286 typed. The repairing of books is 
also supervised by this department. Involv- 
ing the sorting of the books to be sent to 
the bindery for rebinding and resewing 
from those to be recased by the book men- 
der employed in the library. The number 
of books so sorted during the past six 
months was over 7,050. Besides these 
things our catalog department, in common 
I am sure with other such departments. Is 
frequently called on to lend its members to 



248 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



branches or other lines of the library work. 
Any short cuts to the accomplishment of 
our own work are therefore eagerly sought, 
and joyfully welcomed when found. 

The first of our cataloging economies be- 
gins when the books are ordered. Orders 
are sent to the dealers in the form of typed 
lists on which the items wanted are ar- 
ranged alphabetically by authors, with fair- 
ly full imprint information given. Carbon 
copies of the list are made and one 
(checked with number of L. C. cards for 
our needs) is sent to the Library of Con- 
gress as an order for printed cards. The 
cost of ordering L. C. cards by list is slight- 
ly more than by slips or L. C. numbers, but 
we are certain that this increased cost is 
more than covered by the saving in time 
which would be spent in writing slips, 
searching for numbers, etc. 

A second time saver is the form of the 
typewriter platens which are used. These 
are twenty Inches in length, each with 
three metal attachments held close to the 
platen by strong springs. These metal 
pieces firmly hold the tops of the catalog 
cards, the operator types the subject or 
other information across the three cards, 
turns to the next line with one motion and 
continues her "three in one" work. 

Perhaps the point that saves most time 
is our disuse of Cutter numbers. Instead 
of having these, we make certain that the 
author's name appears clearly on the cover 
of each volume. If the publisher has not 
provided this, we have the name added, but 
these cases are comparatively few. We 
find that the branch assistants have no 
difficulty in shelving by name rather than 
by the Cutter number, and borrowers are 
much less confused than when both Dewey 
and Cutter numbers appear on books and 
cards. We save greatly by not having to 
spend time in locating the Cutter number 
to be used, and by not taKing time to type 
this number on cards, book pocket, and 
book slip, as well as saving the time and 
expense involved in marking that number 
on each volume. No classification num- 
ber is assigned to fiction, therefore no 



marking is needed on these books except 
the upper case J which is stamped on juve- 
nile fiction. 

I say stamped, because class numbers, 
author's names, etc., are gilded on our 
books instead of being on a label or writ- 
ten with ink. The first cost of gilding is, 
of course, a little more than the other 
methods, but is in reality very little and 
gilding has the advantages of indefinite 
durability and legibility, to say nothing of 
being better looking. We pay $0.02 per 
line, and $0.00 2-3 for a single stamping 
(as J, P, etc.). This includes cost of ma- 
terials as well as of labor. 

Another saving of time is concerned with 
the cards placed in the union catalog when 
any card has been temporarily withdrawn. 
When we add to any branch collection a 
work which is new for that branch, but a 
copy of which is already somewhere else 
in the library system, we take from the 
official catalog the main entry card for 
that work, on which are traced subjects, 
added entries, etc., and make from it the 
cards for the branch now receiving the 
copy. As our branch collections are to a 
certain extent duplicates of each other we 
have frequent occasions for such with- 
drawals, especially when new branches are 
opened. It has therefore been found eco- 
nomical, at the first withdrawal, to type 
on a temporary card the class number, 
author and title of the book represented, 
instead of writing the information. When 
the official card is returned to its place, 
this temporary card is filed alphabetically 
with other such cards ready for the next 
using, thus saving cards and time of writ- 
ing, to say nothing of eliminating the dan- 
ger of illegibility. 

These methods we feel to be truly savers 
of time. I hope the cataloger who may 
be inspired to try any or all of them will 
not be disappointed in them. We are still 
on the lookout for additions to our short- 
cuts, or replacements of them, if substi- 
tutes will be brought to our attention. 



PATTON 



249 



CATALOGING ECONOMIES: THE CARE OF GIFT PAMPHLETS 
By Adah Patton, Catalog Librarian, University of Illinois Library, Urbana 



The University of Illinois Library has 
a very active gift and exchange depart- 
ment which is largely instrumental in ad- 
ding to the library, in addition to a large 
number of bound volumes and serial pub- 
lications, about six thousand pamphlets 
each year. Of these from five to eight hun- 
dred are considered of sufficient value to 
merit full cataloging. The remainder, over 
five thousand pamphlets a year, must be 
cataloged economically. They must be 
cataloged in some way which will make 
each pamphlet available through the cata- 
log, will furnish a record which will en- 
able the order department to avoid the 
purchase of duplicates and will make all 
the pamphlets on any subject available to 
readers. This problem, of cataloging what 
we call second class pamphlets, was solved 
five years ago by the use of the following 
method: 

A student at the university, usually not 
a library school student, is employed for 
about fifteen hours a week to type author 
cards for these pamphlets as they come in. 
Manila cards, of the same size and weight 
as the white cards in the public catalog, 
are used. The color serves to distinguish 
the cards for the second class pamphlets 
and makes it easy to remove any or all 
of them. Carbon copies are filed in the 
gift and exchange department and kept 
for a few months to prevent requests for 
duplicates. 

The student clerk is given elementary 
instructions, in the beginning, in the mak- 
ing of author entries. This does not in- 
sure a correct form of entry in every 
case, but as the cards are revised by a 
classifier and a filing assistant, the incor- 
rect entries are detected and sent back for 
correction. No attempt is made by this 
student clerk to supply missing forenames 
or to verify names given on title pages. 
Only the author, a brief title, the date of 
publication, the source, and date of re- 
ceipt are given. Occasionally when a num- 
ber of pamphlets, leaflets, etc., by one 
author are received only one card is made, 
but this Is not done without consulting 
the classifier. When the card for a pam- 



phlet is made it is placed in the pamphlet, 
the pamphlet is stamped with the library 
ownership stamp, and both pamphlet and 
card are then sent to the classifier. 

In the beginning the decimal system of 
classification used by the library was great- 
ly abridged to make the work of classi- 
fication as simple as possible and still sep- 
arate the material into usable groups. With 
a few exceptions, only three figures were 
used and in many cases inclusive numbers 
have proved practicable. For instance, not 
many second class pamphlets on philosophy 
or religion are received by the library and 
the lOO's and 200's are grouped by tens, 
i. e. 110-119, 120-129 and so on. As was 
expected, many subjects which were at 
first grouped together have had to be sep- 
arated on account of the large amount of 
material received or the call for material 
on special phases of a subject. With only 
one card record to be altered the closer 
reclassification of any one subject does not 
require a great amount of time. To save 
time and make easier a possible change of 
classification 'number, the classifier writes 
the number in pencil, not in ink, directly 
on the pamphlet. As a small concession 
to the appearance of the catalog the num- 
bers are typed on the cards by the typists, 
the classifier having made a pencil note 
of the number on the lower edge of the 
card. The classification number is pre- 
ceded by the capital letter P on both card 
and pamphlet to indicate the character of 
the material to the shelf assistants. No 
book numbers are used except in the class 
P920-929 where we have a collection of in- 
dividual biography. In this class the first 
letter of the name of the biographee Is 
added to establish a partially alphabetical 
arrangement. 

The classifier sends the cards to be filed 
in the public catalog. Up to this point in 
the routine the titles of the pamphlets 
have not been searched for in the catalog 
to see whether any are already in the 
library. The responsibility for finding such 
duplicates is thrown on the cataloger who 
files the cards; thus instead of searching 
through the catalog once for possible dup- 
licates and then after the cataloging is 
completed, filing the cards, only the latter 
is done. If it is found that the pamphlet 
is an added copy, it is added to the first 
card and the other returned to the classi- 



260 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



fier who marks the pamphlet "copy two." 
If the library has as many copies as are 
likely to be needed, the pamphlet is sent 
to the duplicate collection. Forms of en- 
try which do not agree with those previ- 
ously used in the catalog are returned to 
the student clerk for correction, but it is 
understood that the cataloging of this class 
of pamphlets is not to be held to the 
standards of completely cataloged material. 

After the cards are filed the pamphlets 
are sent to the stacks and filed in boxes 
which are labeled with the class numbers 
preceded by the capital letter P and shelved 
before the completely cataloged books with 
the same class number. Each collection of 
pamphlet material is represented In the 
public shelf list by a card on which is given 
the class number and a note "Box of 
pamphlets." No shelf-list of titles is kept, 
so an inventory cannot be taken. The cost 
per piece for cataloging these pamphlets 
Is about one-tenth of the cost for fully 
cataloged books or pamphlets. 

So far no arrangement of the pamphlets 
having one class number has been attemp- 
ted but we have "reached the point where 
some such arrangement is necessary. We 
believe a chronological rather than an 
alphabetical order will be most useful be- 
cause these pamphlets are now used prin- 
cipally to supplement and bring up to date 
the Information published in books. We 
shall have to add the year to the class num- 
ber for the benefit of the shelf assistants. 
The users of this material are chiefly: (1) 
the members of the reference department 
who use it to answer calls for recent In- 
formation on definite subjects; (2) ad- 
vanced students working in the stacks, or 
(3) those who have references to partic- 
ular reprints or articles in pamphlet form. 
For any of these classes arrangement by 
date should be convenient. 



Regular exceptions to the above treat- 
ment are: (1) Foreign doctoral disserta- 
tions which are classified as minutely as 
completely cataloged material. These are 
placed in pamphlet binders and shelved In 
their proper places, have the usual book 
numbers and shelf slips but are repre- 
sented In the catalog by nothing more than 
author cards with titles and dates added. 
(2) College publications of an administra- 
tive character such as catalogs and regis- 
ters which are shelved in a separate place 
according to a special scheme and are not 
cataloged at all except in the case of espe- 
cially long or complete sets. 

The collection of this pamphlet material 
was occasioned by the demand for it by 
the various departments of the university. 
The increasing use of it has seemed to 
justify the treatment which it has been 
given. Some of it at some time may be 
of historical interest, some may be of value 
because of a suddenly developed general 
interest in a subject which has formerly 
appealed to only a few. The latter was 
the case with the pamphlets on military 
subjects which had been treated as second 
class, but were practically all made first 
class and completely cataloged after the 
outbreak of the war. The object is to pre- 
serve all such material as economically as 
is consistent with its temporary use and 
in such a way that any part of it will be 
available If for one reason or another it 
becomes of permanent value. If it does 
become valuable or of general interest it 
may be accorded a different treatment. 



REPORTS 



251 



REPORTS OP SECRETARY, TREASURER, TRUSTEES OF ENDOWMENT FUNDS, 
PUBLISHING BOARD AND COMMITTEES, 1917-18 



SECRETARY'S REPORT 

The past year has been the most event- 
ful for the Association in the forty years 
of its history, but for the headquarters 
office it has been the most uneventful of 
any year since the establishment of the 
office. The war service which the Asso- 
ciation is rendering to the military and 
naval forces of the country in supplying 
libraries and library service to the men 
in training camps and other army and 
naval posts and stations in this country 
as well as to the forces overseas, is by all 
measures the most far-reaching and sig- 
nificant of any work which librarians of 
the country and the American Library As- 
sociation as an organization have ever un- 
dertaken, a work which is sure to carry 
deep-rooted results far beyond the days 
of the present crisis. The center of this 
activity, however, has naturally been 
Washington rather than Chicago. The 
Secretary of the Association has been in 
Washington engaged in this enterprise 
nearly continuously since the financial 
campaign of last September, occupying the 
position »f Executive Secretary of the Li- 
brary War Service and of the War Service 
Committee, and has been in Chicago only 
about six weeks of the time between Sep- 
tember 1, 1917, and June 1, 1918. 

The routine work of the headquarters 
office has, however, in no way suffered by 
this absence, as matters there have gone 
forward smoothly and expeditiously under 
the capable direction of Miss Eva M. Ford, 
the assistant secretary, and Miss Gwen- 
dolyn Brigham. For their ever faithful 
and Intelligent service the Secretary 
wishes to express his sincere appreciation. 

Chicago Headquarters — The Association 
is indebted to the Chicago Public Library 
for another year — the ninth — of hospitality 
and generous provision of ample and com- 
modious quarters in its main library build- 
ing. Free quarters, 'free heat, free light. 



free janitor service, and a warm spirit of 
camaraderie with the library staff — these 
have all been ours, and to the Board of 
Directors and to Librarian Roden, as well 
as to our lamented friend, the late Henry 
E. Legler, the sincerest appreciation of 
every member of the American Library 
Association is due. 

Librarians with the Colors — A consider- 
able number of members of the A. L. A. 
are serving with the Colors, either in the 
army or the navy, and a card record of 
these and of other library workers who 
are in the service, whether members of 
the Association or not, has with the assist- 
ance of librarians and library commis- 
sions and library schools, been compiled 
for permanent preservation. A service 
flag in honor of these men serving with 
the Colors is being made and will be dis- 
played at the Saratoga Springs Confer- 
ence. The flag contains 297 stars — one a 
gold star, a memorial to Dudley Coddlng- 
ton, assistant in the Seattle Public Li- 
brary, who before the entrance of the 
United States into the war enlisted with 
our Canadian allies, and was killed in that 
glorious charge of the Canadians at Vimy 
Ridge in April, 1917. 

According to the custom adopted for 
service flags only men enlisted In the serv- 
ice are included. Many of our fine capa- 
ble women are, however, rendering service 
equally valuable to the country — in the 
Red Cross, in the Y. M. C. A., in the Y. W. 
C. A., in the Councils of National Defense, 
and elsewhere, and their patriotic work 
should in some adequate way be recog- 
nized and recorded. At least one of these 
women has rendered the supreme sacri- 
fice — Miss Winona C. Martin, librarian of 
Rockville Center, New York, who went 
overseas as a Y. M. C. A. canteen worker, 
and who fell victim to German frightful- 
ness during an air raid on Paris, on March 
11, 1918. 



252 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



Membership — The growth of the Asso- 
ciation has been retarded by the war. This 
is no more than must be expected, how- 
ever much we would like to see member- 
ship in the national Association keep pace 
with its increased responsibilities and op- 
portunities for service. 

When the 1917 Handbook was printed 
tiiere were 3,346 members of the Associa- 
tion. Since then there have been addi- 
tions as follows: new personal members, 
l&O (the same number as last year); for- 
mer personal members rejoining, 15 (as 
against 24) ; new institutional members, 
11 (as against 37); former institutional 
members rejoining, 1 (as against 3) ; to- 
tal, 177 (as against 214 for the corre- 
sponding period last year). Four personal 
members have become life members (as 
against 6 last year). 

Publicity — Practically no publicity work 
has been conducted from headquarters, but 
the wide publicity accorded the Library 
War Service has given the general work 
of the Association more publicity than it 
has ever received in all the previous years 
of its existence. Hundreds, even thou- 
sands of newspaper articles relative to 
the financial campaign, the collection of 
books, the establishment of camp libraries 
and the extension of the work overseas 
have been collected by our clipping serv- 
ice, and in addition numerous magazine 
articles on various aspects of the work 
have appeared from time to time during 
the past six months. 

The need of a cooperative publicity ex- 
pert, working under the auspices of the 
A. L. A. and in the interest of the gen- 
eral library field is more and more appar- 
ent. Good money could be saved the local 
libraries, but what is even m6re to the 
point, effective advertising of library serv- 
ice would be gained. A by-product of the 
war is a better knowledge and apprecia- 
tion of what libraries are and what they 
stand for and are prepared to do, and 
when normal times are restored we be- 
lieve libraries will be In a mood to con- 
sider more favorably than ever before this 



much debated project of a publicity ex- 
pert. In the meantime let us not lose 
sight of this desirable goal to be attained, 
and let us keep it in mind, as, for example, 
the energetic publicity committee of the 
Pacific-Northwest Library Association is 
helping us to do. 

Reference was made in our last year's 
r«port to the library publicity and adver- 
tising conference held under the auspices 
of the Advertising Association of Chicago 
on May 25, 1917. One of the speakers at 
that gathering was Mr. John B. Ratto, who 
is connected with the Redpath Lyceum 
Bureau. In the course of his duties last 
summer and fall Mr. Ratto visited a large 
number of the smaller towns in Minne- 
sota, Iowa, Missouri and Ohio. At Mr. 
Ratto's proposal, and with the approval 
and collaboration of the respective state 
library commissions, arrangements were 
made by the A. L. A. office with the local 
librarians in the towns visited, to have 
Mr. Ratto meet and confer on publicity 
methods with the librarian and the mem- 
bers of the library board. A number of 
enthusiastic letters were received ex- 
pressive of the practical good accom- 
plished by Mr. Ratto's visits. 

Publisliing Board — As in previous years 
a considerable part of the time of the 
staff has been devoted to the work of the 
Publishing Board. The sales of publica- 
tions have kept well up to the mark of 
other years, but few new publishing ven- 
tures have been undertaken. Particulars 
regarding this part of the office activities 
are recorded in the report of the Publish- 
ing Board. 

Library Annual — A year ago plans were 
being rapidly perfected for the publication 
of a statistical library yearbook, the mate- 
rial to be prepared by the A. L. A. and the 
publishing to be done by and at the ex- 
pense of the U. S. Bureau of Education. 
Entrance into the war and the consequent 
devotion of practically all Association 
activities to war work have necessitated 
an indefinite postponement of this work. 
In the meantime the R. R. Bowker Com- 



REPORTS 



253 



pany is arranging, with the official ap- 
proval of the A. L. A„ to include more 
comprehensive statistics than heretofore 
in its "American Library Annual," and 
will probably continue to do this until the 
Association and the Bureau of Education 
can bring out the long planned for year-book. 

Japanese Art Panels — Reference was 
made in last year's report to the beautiful 
collection of water color panels which 
were donated to the American Library 
Association by the Imperial Japanese Gov- 
ernment, at the close of the Panama- 
Pacific International Exposition. During 
the year 1916-17 the collection, as was re- 
ported, performed an itinerary of some 
eighteen libraries of the north-central 
states. During the past year it has 
been touring New England and the north 
Atlantic states, the itinerary covering 
eleven libraries In the east, and ending In 
Youngstown, Ohio, the first of October. 

Field Work— The "field work" for the 
past year has included talks by the Sec- 
retary on the general work of the Asso- 
ciation or of the Library War Service, 
before the Kentucky Library Association, 
the University of Illinois Library School, 
the Chicago Library Club, the summer 
schools at Iowa City, Indianapolis and Co- 
lumbus, the training class of the Chicago 
Public Library, and the staffs of the De- 
partment of Agriculture Library and the 
University of Chicago Libraries. He also 
made a brief address at the dedication of 
the Camp Library at Camp Lee, Virginia, 
at which former President Taft was the 
principal speaker. The Secretary ac- 
cepted an invitation to attend the meet- 
ing of the Maine Library Association in 
May, but illness unfortunately prevented 
his attendance. 

Mr. P. L. Windsor, librarian of the 
University of Illinois, and Mrs. Jessie 
Palmer Weber, librarian of the Illinois 
State Historical Society, were appoint- 
ed by President Montgomery to be the 
official representatives of the American 
Library Association at the Centennial ce- 
lebration of the Illinois State Historical 
Society, held in Springfield, April 16-17, to 



commemorate the one hundredth anniver- 
sary of the admission of Illinois into the 
Union. 

President Montgomery ofliicially repre- 
sented the Association at a conference of 
the League to Enforce Peace, in Philadel- 
phia, May 16-18. The object of the meet- 
ing, which was addressed by a number of 
notable representative Americans, is ex- 
pressed in the slogan: "Win the war for 
permanent peace." 

Necrology — Seventeen members of the 
Association have died since the last Con- 
ference. In this number is a charter mem- 
ber of the Association, who was also a 
life member, and three other life mem- 
bers. Three were library trustees, two 
were librarians of public libraries of Im- 
portance, one of whom was an ex-presi- 
dent of the Association and a man most 
beloved by his fellow members. The libra- 
rian of a state library, three who had re- 
tired from active work, and several ca- 
pable library workers cut off In the active 
days also are among the lamented num- 
ber. The list follows, and fuller biograph- 
ical sketches will appear In the Handbook 
of the Association for the current year: 

Barnwell, W, J. E., assistant librarian. 
Public Library, Cincinnati, Ohio, died May 
8, 1918. 

Barton, Edmund Mills, librarian emeri- 
tus, American Antiquarian Society, Wor- 
cester, Mass., died April 14, 1918. Charter 
member. Life member, 

Beckwith, Daniel, librarian of the Provi- 
dence Athenaeum, Providence, R. I., died 
July 8, 1917. Life member. 

Belin, HfeNRY, Jr., treasurer. Public Li- 
brary, Scranton, Pa., died December 25, 
1917. 

BuYNiTZKY, Eleanor, assistant. Weather 
Bureau Library, Washington, D. C, died 
October 7, 1917. 

Cass, Elizabeth H., librarian of the 
Portland Cement Association Library, Chi- 
cago,- died October 26, 1917. 

GiLLis, J. L., librarian, California State 
Library, Sacramento, Calif., died July 27, 
1917. 



254 



SARATOGA SPRING'S CONFERENCE 



Habkis, George William, librarian em- 
eritus, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y., 
died October 11, 1917. 

Hazard, Rowland G., chairman Board of 
Directors, Narragansett Library Associa- 
tion, Peace Dale, R. I., died January 23, 
1918. 

HiNRicHSEN, Savilla I., former librarian 
of the Illinois State Library, Springfield, 
111., died August 27, 1917. 

Hyde, Sara G., catalog reviser, Yale Uni- 
versity Library, New Haven, Conn., died 
January 3, 1918. 

Kent, Dorothy, formerly chief of the 
Circulation Department, Free Public Li- 
brary, Trenton, N, J., died July 2, 1917. 

Legler, Henry E., librarian. Public Li- 
brary, Chicago, 111., died September 13, 
1917. Life member. 

LuNN, Minnie, assistant. Order Depart- 
ment, Public Library, Louisville, Ky., died 
March 17, 1918. 

MoYEB, L. R., president Library Board, 
Public Library, Montevideo, Minn., died 
March 13, 1917. (Decease not known when 
report for 1916-17 was prepared.) 

Outhouse, Emma G., assistant, Public 
Library, Evansville, Ind., died September 
6, 1917, 

Steiger, Ernst, publisher, of New York 
City, died August 2, 1917. Life member. 

Thain, Mabel A., librarian. Public Li- 
brary, Oak Park, 111., died October 3, 1917. 



The following persons had formerly be- 
longed to the Association, although not 
members at the time of their death: 

Cutter, William R., librarian emeritus. 
Public Library, Woburn, Mass., died June 
6, 1918. 

Doubleday, Mrs. Frank Nelson (Neltje 
Blanchan), author. New York City, died 
February, 1918. 

Leipziger, Henry M., formerly chairman 
of the library committee of the Aguilar 
Free Library, New York City, died De- 
cember 1, 1917. 

Merrill, Mrs. Emily A., Cambridge, 
Mass., died May 3, 1918. 

Rudolph, Alexander J., formerly with 
the Newberry Library, Chicago, and in- 



ventor of the "Rudolph Indexer," died Au- 
gust 16, 1917. 

Sampson, Francis Asbury, formerly li- 
brarian of the Missouri State Historical 
Society, Columbia, Mo., died February 4, 
1918. 

Smith, Mrs. H. W., librarian of the Pub- 
lic Library, Truro, N. S., died November 

2, 1917. 

The Secretary wishes, in conclusion, to 
express his sincere appreciation of the 
uniform courtesy and spirit of helpfulness 
of the members of the Executive Board 
and Publishing Board, the Committees and 
membership in general of the Association. 
Respectfully submitted, 

George B. Utley, 
Secretary. 

REPORT OF THE BOOKBINDING 
COMMITTEE 

The war work of the American Library 
Association has postponed some of the 
work of the Bookbinding Committee. Plans 
are being made to cooperate with the Li- 
brary War Service in giving suggestions 
and instructions at the camp libraries in 
the repair and rebinding of their books, 
especially non-fiction. 

The bookbinding exhibit, prepared for 
the Louisville Conference in June, 1917, 
has been in constant use during the year, 
the schedule being as follows: 

1. Ohio State summer school, July 6-20. 

2. Indiana summer school, July 23-Aug. 15. 

3. Iowa State meeting, October 9-11. 

4. Indiana State meeting, October 17-18. 

5. Oklahoma State meeting, Oct. 23-25. 

6. Providence Public library, Nov. 15-30. 

At this time, the exhibit was in need of 
repairs and replacements. These were 
made by Miss Gertrude Stiles, of the Cleve- 
land Public library, and the exhibit was 
shown at the Western Reserve Library 
School during the month of March, and 
at the University of Wisconsin Library 
School during the month of April. It was 
shown at the Maine State meeting in May, 
and will be used at the Ohio summer 
school. Requests for the exhibit have 
also come from Carleton College, from the 
library schools at Atlanta, Albany, and 



REPORTS 



255 



Syracuse, and from the public libraries at 
Fremont, Ohio, and Ft, William, Canada. 
The usefulness of the exhibit shows the 
advisability of revising and continuing it. 

.Other methods of publicity, including 
an illustrated pamphlet on bookbinding, 
and a model instruction card for book let- 
tering, are proposed by the committee, but 
time has not permitted their accomplish- 
ment. 

Miss Mary E. Wheelock, of the St. Louis 
Public library, is now preparing a report 
on the increased cost of binding, due to la- 
bor and materials, with recommendations 
based on the figures obtaired. It is hoped 
to publish this in the library magazines 
during the summer. 

Miss Stiles is preparing an exhibit of 
1918 bookbinding conditions, which will be 
shown at the Saratoga meeting. This is 
based partially upon the report of Miss 
Wheelock. 

Several inquiries have been received 
from libraries and publishers in regard to 
binding and rebinding. It would appear 
from the lack of interest in the subject of 
library binding that, for the present at 
least, the greatest need in this field is 
more publicity for some of the elementary 
facts, so that school officials and especial- 
ly public librarians may reduce the waste 
of money and books that at present is re- 
sulting from poor methods. 

Joseph L. Wheeler, Chairman. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON FEDERAL 
AND STATE RELATIONS 

Your Committee on Federal and State 
Relations respectfully reports that during 
the year it has endeavored to be vigilant 
in regard to measures which concern libra- 
ry matters. 

We have, consequently, conferred with 
the Department of State, and the Com- 
mittees on Commerce of Congress, in ref- 
erence to the status of libraries in regard 
to the Trading-with-the-Enemy Act. 

We have also endeavored, though as yet 
unsuccessfully, to secure amendments to 
the postal law of the United States: 

(1) To the end that libraries may re- 



ceive foreign magazines containing adver- 
tisements of liquor, believing that the re- 
ceipt of such magazines was not intended 
to be prohibited by the law which was 
passed to prevent the importation of in- 
toxicating liquors into states having pro- 
hibitory laws. 

(2) That the rate upon post cards be 
reduced to one cent. It is certainly ab- 
surd that a circular in an envelope can be 
sent for one cent and that a printed, large 
size card can be sent for the same amount, 
while a post card costs two cents. 

(3) That the zone system of postage 
upon magazines be repealed, and the na- 
tional rate be established in lieu thereof, 
in order that there be no encouragement 
of sectionalism in this time when the unity 
of the country is so important. 

Bebnaed C. Steineb, Chairman. 
REPORT OF THE TRUSTEES OF THE 
CARNEGIE AND ENDOWMENT 
FUNDS 

The Trustees of the Endowment Fund 
beg leave to submit the following state- 
ment of the accounts of their trust for 
the fiscal year ending January 15, 1918: 

The only change in investments during 
the year occurred through the calling on 
May 1, 1917, of a $1,000 United States 
Steel Corporation Sinking Fund 5% Gold 
Bond due April 1, 1963, at 110, and the 
reinvestment of the proceeds in another 
$1,000 bond of the same issue at 105i plus 
commission. All interest on Investments 
has been paid. As set forth in our re- 
port of last year, the $15,000 par value of 
Missouri Pacific Railway Company Collat- 
eral Trust 5% Bonds due January 1, 1917, 
which had defaulted in the payment of the 
semiannual interest due September 1, 1915, 
were deposited with the Columbia Trust 
Company, of this city, as depositary of a 
committee formed to protect the interests 
of the holders of that issue of bonds, and 
this committee thereafter advanced the 
amount of the September 1, 1915, March 1, 
1916, and September 1, 1916 coupons at- 
tached to the deposited bonds. The reor- 
ganization of the Missouri Pacific Rail- 
way Company was completed during last 



256 SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERGENCE 

summer, and on July 27, 1917, we received The usual audit of the investments and 

in exchange for the $15,000 of Collateral accounts of the trust was, at the request 

Trust 5s, $15,000 par value of Missouri of the chairman of the Finance Committee 

Pacific Railroad Company First Refunding of the American Library Association, made 

Mortgage 5% Series B Bonds, due January by Mr. Harrison W. Craver, director of 

1, 1923, Interest payable February and Au- the Engineering Societies Library, of this 

gust, and the following as an adjustment city, 
of the interest: Respectfully submitted, 

$ie.67 per $1,000 Sept. 1, 1916, to M. Tayloe Pyne, 

Jan. 1, 1917, at 5% $250.06 _, „, „ 

$20.83 per $1,000 Jan. 1, 1917, to Edwabd W. Sheldon, 

June 1, 1917, at 5% 312.45 Wm. W. Appleton, 

.50 per $1,000 interest on inter- 
est 7.50 Trustees, Carnegie and Endowment Funds. 

$570.00 ^®w York, June 4, 1918. 

CARNEGIE FUND, PRINCIPAL ACCOUNT 

Cash donated by Mr. Andrew Carnegie $100,000 

Invested as follows: 

Date of Purchase Cost Book Value 

June 1, 1908 5,000 American Telephone & Telegraph Com- 
pany 4% Bonds due July 1, 1929, inter- 
est January and July 96^^ $ 4,825.00 

June 1, 1908 10,000 American Telephone & Telegraph Com- 
pany 4% Bonds due July 1, 1929, inter- 
est January and July 94% 9,437.60 

June 1, 1908 15,000 Cleveland Terminal & Valley Railroad 
Company First Mortgage 4% Bonds 
due November 1, 1995, interest May 
and November 100 15,000.00 

June 1, 1908 10,000 Seaboard Air Line Railway (Atlanta- 
Birmingham Division) First Mortgage 
4% Bonds due May 1, 1933, interest 
March and September 95% 9,550.00 

June 1, 1908 15,000 Western Union Telegraph Company Col- 
lateral Trust 5% Bonds due January 1, 
1938, interest January and July 108% 15,000,00 

June 1, 1908 15,000 New York Central & Hudson River 
Railroad Company, Lake Shore Collat- 
eral 3%% Bonds were exchanged Feb- 
ruary 10, 1916, for 
15,000 New York Central Railroad Company 
Consolidation Mortgage Gold 4% Bonds, 
Series "A," due February 1, 1998, inter- 
est February and August 90 13,500.0( 

June 1, 1908 15,000 Missouri Pacific Railroad Company 
Collateral Trust 5% Bonds were ex- 
changed for 
15,000' Missouri Pacific Railroad Company First 
and Refunding Mortgage Gold 5% 
Bonds due 1923, Series "B," interest 
February and August 104% 15,000.0t 

May 3, 1909 13,000 United States Steel Corporation Sinking 
Fund Gold 5% Bonds due April 1, 1963, 
interest May and November 104 13,000. OC 

Aug. 6, 1909 1,500 United States Steel Corporation Sinking 
Fund Gold 5% Bonds due April 1, 1963, 
interest May and November 106% 15,000.00 



REPORTS 



257 



July 27, 1910 1,000 United States Steel Corporation Sinking 
Fund Gold 5% Bonds due April 1, 1963, 
Interest May and November 102^ 

May 11, 1916 1,000 United States Steel Corporation Sinking 
Fund Gold 5% Bonds due April 1, 1963, 
interest May and November 105% 

May 2, 1917 1,000 United States Steel Corporation Sinking 
Fund Gold 5% Bonds due April 1, 1963, 
interest May and November 105% 



1,000.00 



1,000.00 



1,000,00 



s&n. 



102,500 
15, 1918 United States Trust Company on deposit. 



99,812.50 
187.50 



$100,000.00 

The surplus account was increased $100.00 during 1917 by Premium received on one 
United States Steel Corporation Sinking Fund Gold 5% Bond called in at 110, making the 
surplus account $350.00. 



CARNEGIE FUND, INCOME ACCOUNT 
1917 

January 15 Balance $1,473.27 

February 1 Int. New York Central 300.00 

March 1 Int. Seaboard Air Line 200.00 

May 1 Int. Cleveland Terminal 300.00 

May 1 Int. United States Steel : 437.50 

July 2 Int. Western Union 375.00 

July 2 Int. American Telephone & Telegraph 300.00 

July 27 Int. Missouri Pacific to June 1, 1917 570.00 

August 1 Int. Missouri Pacific — June 1 to Aug. 1, 1917 124.95 

August 1 Int. New York Central 300.00 

September 1 Int. Seaboard Air Line 200.00 

November 1 Int. United States Steel 437.50 

November 1 Int. Cleveland Terminal 300.00 

December 3 Int. on deposits 59.79 

1918 

January 2 Int. Western Union 376.00 

January 2 Int. American Telephone & Telegraph 300.00 

Disbursements 
1917 

May 2 Premium United States Bond bought $ 56.25 

May 2 Accrued Interest .14 

May 8 Carl B. Roden, treasurer 2,000.00 

September 26 Carl B. Roden, treasurer 1,500.00 

November 28 Carl B. Roden, treasurer 1,000.00 

December 3 United States Trust Co. commission 75.00 

January 15, 1918, Cash on hand 1,421.62 

ENDOWMENT FUND, PRINCIPAL ACCOUNT 
1917 

January 15 On hand, bonds and cash $8,261.84 

March 2 Life Membership, G. Forstall 25.00 

March 2 Life Membership, F. W. Faxon 25.00 

April 2 Life Membership, C. A. Baker 25.00 

April 30 Life Membership, H. D. Subers 25.00 

April 30 Life Membership, G. A. Deveneau 25.00 

April 30 Life Membership, W. Teal 25.00 

September 10 Life Membership, M. P. Fan 25.00 



$6,063.01 



$6,053.01 



$8,436.84 



258 SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 

Invested as follows: 

Date of purchase 

1908 

June 1 2 U. S. Steel Corporation Sinking Fund Gold 5% 

Bonds 98^ $1,970.00 

October 19 2 U. S. Steel Corporation Sinking Fund Gold 5% 

Bonds 102% 2,000.00 

November 5 1% U. S. Steel Corporation Sinking Fund Gold 

5% Bonds 101 1,500.00 

1910 

July 27 1% U. S. Steel Corporation Sinking Fund Gold 

5% Bonds 1021,^ 1,500.00 

1913 

December 8 1 U. S. Steel Corporation Sinking Fund Gold 5% 

Bond 99% 991.25 

January 15, 1918, Cash on hand, U. S. Trust Co 475.59 



ENDOWMENT FUND, INCOME ACCOUNT 
1917 

May 1 Int. U. S. Steel Bonds 1200.00 

November 1 Int. U. S. Steel Bonds 200.00 



$8,436.84 



1400.00 



Disbursements 

1917 8 Carl B. Roden, treasurer .$200.00 

May 28 Carl B. Roden, treasurer 200.00 

November $400.00 

REPORT OF THE TREASURER 

January 1 to May 31, 1918 

Receipts 

Balance, Union Trust Co., Chicago, Jan. 1, 1918 $ 4,780.17 

G. B. Utley, Secretary, membership dues 6,919.65 

Trustees Endowment Fund, income 200.00 

Trustees Carnegie Fund, income 2,000.00 

A. L. A. Publishing Board 800.00 

Interest on bank balance, Dec, 1917-May, 1918 41.37 



$14,741.19 
Expenditures 

Checks Nos. 114-120 (Vouchers No. 1706-1771, incl.) $5,251.04 

Distributed as follows: 

Bulletin $1,727.68 

Committees 31.25 

Headquarters: 

Salaries 2,541.65 

Additional services 403.94 

Supplies 102.77 

Postage and telephone 305.31 

Mificellaneous 138.44 

A. L. A. War Service Committee, subscription 1,000.00 

A. L. A. Publishing Board, Carnegie Fund income 2,000.00 

8,251.04 



Balance, Union Trust Co., Chicago $ 6,490.15 

G. B. Utley, Secretary, balance. National Bank of the Republic 250.00 



Total balance $ 6,740.16 



REPORTS 259 

James L. Whitney Fund 

Principal and interest, Dec. 31, 1917 $345.84 

Interest, Jan. 1, 1918 5.10 

Tenth installment, Jan. 31, 1918 29.89 

Total $380.83 

A. L. A. War Service Fund 
Receipts, Jan, 20 to May 31, 1918:* 

Campaign subscriptions $65,151.98 ' 

Monthly subscriptions 336.10 

Balance Campaign fund returned to War Service fund by F. P. Hill, Chair- 
man War Finance Committee 3,944.42 

Six $50 4% Liberty Loan bonds placed with American Security & Trust 

Co., representing 300.00 

Semiannual interest on above bonds 6.00 

Total assets deposited with American Security & Trust Co $69,738.50 

Balance on hand and undeposited with American Security & Trust Co., May 
31, 1918: 

Campalgm subscriptions $1,617.13 

Monthly subscriptions 276.00 1,893.13 

Total deposits and assets, Jan. 20-May 31, 1918 ^ $71,631.63 

^ In addition, the sura of $66.19 was retained at points of contribution for local adjust- 
ment of expense. 

2 Of this amount, the sum of $41,060.09 has been taken into the accounts of F. P. Hill, 
Chairman, and enumerated in his report of contributions by states as shown in his "Story 
of the A. L. A. campaign for $1,000,000." 

^Exclusive of Carnegie Corporation contribution of $112,300 deposited directly with 
American Security & Trust Co. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Chicago, June 17, 1918. C. B. Roden, Treasurer. 

REPORT OF FINANCE COMMITTEE urer. He found that the receipts as stated 

To the American Library Association: by the treasurer agree with the transfers 

In accordance with the provisions of of the assistant treasurer, with the cash 
Section 12 of the Constitution, your Fi- accounts of the latter, and with the state- 
nance 'Committee submits the following ments of transfers in the accounts of the 
report: trustees. The expenditures as stated are 

The probable income of the Association accounted for by properly approved vouch- 

for 1918 has been estimated as $24,380, ers, and the balance shown as that in the 

and the Executive Board has been author- Union Trust Company of Chicago agrees 

ized to make appropriations to this with the bank statement of December 31, 

amount. The details of the estimated in- 1917. The bank balances and petty cash 

come were pulalished in the Bulletin for of the assistant treasurer agree with the 

March, 1918, together with the budget bank books and petty cash balances. The 

adopted by the Executive Board, and are accounts of the assistant treasurer are 

for this reason not given here. correct as cash accounts. 

Dr. C. W. Andrews has audited for the The securities now in the custody of the 

committee the accounts of the treasurer trustees have been checked for the com- 

and of the secretary as assistant treas- mittee by Mr. Harrison W. Craver, who 



260 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



certifies that their figures are correct. He 
found that the bonds and other securities 
amount, at par value, to $102,500.00 for 
the Carnegie Fund, and to $8,436.84 for the 
endowment fund. 

The accounts of the James L. Whitney 
fund, which are in the hands of the treas- 
urer, have been examined and found to be 
as stated by him in his annual report. 

Respectfully submitted, 

AuTHTJB L. Bailey, 
Chairman. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON LIBRARY 
TRAINING 
The omission of the holiday meeting in 
Chicago made it impossible to have any 
meeting of the committee during the year, 
and with war work taking the surplus 
time of individual members of the com- 
mittee, it has been impossible to make 
further studies either in investigating 
bibliographic and library instruction in 
colleges and normal schools or to lay 
plans for investigation of some courses 
which have recently been started in con- 
nection with high schools. Following its 
proposal of last year, which met with a 
favorable response, the committee has ar- 
ranged a program for a round table con- 
ference of training class and apprentice 
class teachers, feeling sure that the rapid 
development of this sort of instruction 
makes it highly important that there be 
some general agreement as to standards 
for this kind of training. The training 
classes thus far started by individual li- 
braries have been organized with very lit- 
tle reference to other similar classes and 
the course of training has been largely 
shaped by the need of the library and by 
the personal Interests of the instructor. 
As the war seems likely to give the per- 
sons completing these courses much more 
rapid advancement than was originally 
contemplated when the courses were es- 
tablished, It seems imperative that a con- 
ference should be held for a comparison 
of experience. If out of this conference 
there shall grow some further work tend- 
ing toward uniformity of method. It would 



seem likely to be of great service to the 
cause of library training. 

A circular issued by the Association of 
American Library Schools on the subject 
of increased compensation for library 
sei*vice suggests one of the greatest diffi- 
culties in the way of further advance in 
the field of library training. While under 
the present stress caused by the great de- 
mand for people with library training in 
government war work, salaries have had 
a tendency to rise, it is probable that 
when this emergency Is over, conditions 
will again return to their approximate po- 
sition before the war. It was evident even 
then that private business enterprises 
were feeling the need of persons with li- 
brary training and this movement is like- 
ly to be intensified by the necessities of 
the war and by the much enlarged field 
of competition which will be available to 
business enterprises when the war is over. 
Unless, therefore, the general level of 
salaries in our large public libraries and 
in our larger college and university libra- 
ries can be raised, there is almost sure to 
be a continued dearth of the kind of ma- 
terial for which libraries are seeking. So 
many more avenues of service are open to 
college women than formerly that in a 
much lessened proportion are they consid- 
ering library work. The salaries offered 
in library work have been found to be 
much less than those offered in other 
fields. I have been informed of at least 
one case where the dean of a women's 
college refused to allow library work as a 
possible field of service to be presented to 
her students on the ground that they 
could not afford to enter that profession. 
These facts must in some way be present- 
ed to our tax levying bodies and our 
larger colleges and universities may well 
consider whether they have not been sacri- 
ficing the worker in order to extend the 
work. ' 

The chairman of the committee has had 
correspondence during the year with a 
number of people who feel that the prod- 
uct of the library schools is not satisfac- 
tory; and there are no doubt individual 



REPORTS 



261 



cases in which such criticism may be en- 
tirely justified. In such cases the fault 
may lie in the candidate or may be the 
result of inefficient work on the part of 
the school. There seems to be quite a ten- 
dency to generalize from individual cases 
and to condemn the schools generally be- 
cause of some one individual failure. It 
may be well remembered, however, that 
such failures occur in every field of serv- 
ice; that the schools are largely depend- 
ent upon the librarians as to the general 
capabilities of the candidates accepted by 
them and that the recommendations from 
librarians concerning applicants for ad- 
mission to library schools are almost al- 
ways exceedingly favorable. Thus candi- 
dates possessing intellectual capacity to 
pass entrance examinations and class- 
room examinations may lack those quali- 
ties of personal adaptability which really 
determine success or failure in library 
work. The schools may give adequate in- 
struction and try to provide their pupil 
with the right viewpoint and with en- 
thusiasm for professional service, but they 
cannot remake the student or radically 
change his temperament. This seems 
sometimes to be forgotten by the critics 
of library schools. Absolute honesty on 
the part of librarians in recommending 
candidates to the schools, and adequate 
compensation to attract people of cultiva- 
tion and intellectual capacity will do more 
to solve the problem than any radical re- 
organization of library school methods. 
There are no doubt faults in every school 
and the instruction could be improved if 
the schools were in a position to offer 
salaries which would attract a more ex- 
perienced body of instructors; but it must 
be remembered here again that with one 
or two exceptions the schools are not en- 
dowed, and must obtain from their stu- 
dents the income to pay the expenses of 
the school. High tuition cannot well be 
obtained unless there is a prospect of 
some reasonable compensation after the 
work has been taken. The tuition In most 
schools is probably as high as present 
salary conditions will justify 



It will be seen then that this question of 
compensation really plays a large part in 
the future of library training. If the pro- 
fession desires to see the standard of 
training advanced, the schools improved, 
and a higher type of person attracted to 
the profession, nothing will so contribute 
to that end as the prospect of more ade- 
quate compensation when the training is 
completed and the work begun. 

Respectfully submitted for the commit- 
tee. 

AzABiAH S. Root, Chairman. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON LIBRARY 
LEGISLATION 

This committee was appointed by Presi- 
dent Brown after the midwinter meeting 
of the Council In 1916. It is, of course, 
impossible to compile a report on the leg- 
islation of the current year for the regular 
annual meeting, and it was the intention 
to make this present report at the mid- 
winter Council meeting of 1917. The giv- 
ing up of that meeting brings the report 
to you at this time. 

In December, 1917, Mr. LeRoy J. Bur- 
lingame, a senior student in legislation at. 
the University of Wisconsin, undertook a 
digest of library legislation of the year, 
as a practical problem in his work. An 
article presenting the results of his re- 
search was printed in Library Journal for 
February, 1918 (p. 78-83). 

Your committee has taken Mr. Burlin- 
game's article as a basis upon which to 
found the present report. This commit- 
tee has submitted to a library authority in 
every state concerned, the digest state- 
ment as contained in Mr. Burlingame's 
article and has asked to be informed of 
any corrections or additions. Answers 
were received from most states. 

In view of the necessity for economy in 
paper and printing expenses it has not 
seemed wise to duplicate here a large part 
of the material already made available in 
Mr. Burlingame's article. We append 
hereto a statement showing such correc- 
tions or additions of matter of general in- 
terest as we have been able to obtain for 
the various states. In cases where no ref- 



262 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



erence to the legislation of a given state is 
made in the appended summary, the com- 
mittee has either received no answers from 
that state or has been informed that the 
digest in Mr. Burlingame's article is cor- 
rect. The digests submitted herewith have 
in every case been prepared from corre- 
spondence with the state concerned, and 
wherever possible the language has been 
quoted. The business assigned to this com- 
mittee was that of "keeping track of legis- 
lation and presenting a digest of it to the 
A. L. A." No attempt is made therefore 
to evaluate the legislation passed. 

C. B. Lester, Chairman. 



Appendix to report of Committee on 

* Library Legislation 

California — The salary of county libra- 
rians in counties of the twenty-fifth class 
was raised to $1,800 and in counties of 
the fifty^first class to $1,200. 

Colorado — No important changes were 
made in library laws. A comprehensive 
county library law was introduced, but 
failed of passage owing to the unex- 
pected short session of the legislature. 

Connecticut — Bills in Connecticut are 
^ not printed until after a favorable com- 
mittee report. A law of 1917, however, 
provides that the State Library shall 
make photographic copies of all bills 
before delivery to committees. Copies 
shall be kept on file and may be fur- 
nished. Another law gave the Public 
Library Committee increased powers in 
helping public libraries throughout the 
state. Several special acts of local im- 
portance were passed. 

Georgia — A bill providing for an appro- 
priation of $5,000 to the State Library 
Commission, heretofore unsupported, for 
the employment of a paid secretary and 
for an enlargement of its activities was 
left in the hands of the appropriation 
committee in the House as unfinished 
business. This bill will be pending in 
the session meeting in the summer of 
1918. 

While the appropriation bill does actu- 
ally read as if the State Library admin- 
istered funds for purchase of books and 
supplies for the Court of Appeals, as a 
matter of fact the state librarian does 
not control it and it is in the hands of 
the clerk of the court. 

The funds for printing court reports 
and state records while appropriated in 
the name of the State Library are really 



administered, the former by the court 
reporter, the latter at the direction of 
the governor. All state publications, 
however, are sold through this office. 
Illinois — Illinois appropriated $167,412.06 
for library purposes, $69,600 of which 
went to the Legislative Reference Bu- 
reau and $2,000 was appropriated to 
make up a past deficit. 

A bill to enable counties to provide 
free public libraries passed the Senate, 
but failed to come up for vote in the 
House. 
Indiana — The township extension law 
(passed in 1911) was so amended as to 
permit the appointment to a town li- 
brary board of residents of the township 
outside the town, when a major part of 
the financial support comes from the 
township. 

Under the terms of the county library 
law the county commissioners may levy 
a tax without a petition, but with a pe- 
tition shall levy a tax, to establish a 
county library. This compulsory tax 
upon petition has been one of the fea- 
tures of the Indiana law which has 
helped particularly in establishing libra- 
ries. Taxing boards have had no dis- 
cretion in the matter when once the 
petition was properly filed. 

Further the library board, and not the 
county commissioners or county council, 
determines the rate of tax. This has 
been another helpful feature, because it 
has not been necessary for library 
boards to appear before taxing bodies 
to beg for funds. 

A bill requiring librarians appointed 
for the first time to certain library posi- 
tions to hold certificates for qualifica- 
tion issued by a Board of Library Ex- 
aminers, and another providing for a 
State Library Commission to take con- 
trol of both the State Library and the 
Public Library Commission, were both 
defeated. 

A bill was introduced abolishing the 
separate Bureau of Legislative Informa- 
tion and combining the work with the 
State Library where it was originally 
instituted. This bill passed the Senate 
but was defeated in the House. At the 
very end of the session, however, an 
amendment to the general appropria- 
tion bill was passed cutting off the ap- 
propriation for the bureau. Similar ac- 
tion was taken regarding the Bureau of 
Statistics. Both bureaus ceased to ex- 
ist September 30, 1917. 

Meantime, however, a law had been 
enacted providing for the compilation, 
under the direction of the governor, of 



REPORTS 



• 262 



a yearbook to contain the annual re- 
ports of state officers, boards and com- 
missioners, and other statistical data, 
and an appropriation was made there- 
for. In order to have trained people to 
carry on this work, the governor con- 
solidated the facilities and material 
equipment of the two bureaus and re- 
tained part of the staff. For conveni- 
ence the new office, which is, of course, 
under the immediate direction of the 
governor, is still known as the Bureau 
of Legislative Information. Charles Ket- 
tleborough, formerly legislative drafts- 
man in the bureau, has been the di- 
rector since January 1, 1918. It is sin- 
cerely to be hoped that the very effi- 
cient legislative reference and drafting 
work which had been built up under Mr. 
Lapp may not suffer from this handicap 
and that the work may be put back on a 
firm basis by the next legislature. 

Kansas — In cities of the second class the 
possible tax levy may be four-fifths of 
one mill in place of four-tenths of a mill 
as formerly. 

Maine — The appropriation for all forms of 
library work was $62,000 for two years. 
The most important new legislation was 
that providing for a legislative refer- 
ence bureau. Other laws to be noted 
were amendatory of existing statutes. 
The responsibility for library instruc- 
tion was divided between the State Li- 
brary and the Library Commission. The 
annual grant to free public libraries was 
changed from a flat rate of ten per cent 
to a discretionary one of from seven to 
ten, and the total amount which a town 
may receive was limited to $500. The 
fee for incorporating a library was low- 
ered from five dollars to one dollar. 

A commission was provided for to in- 
vestigate the needs for a State Library 
building and report to the next legisla- 
ture. 

Minnesota — Appropriations for library pur- 
poses would total $76,150 with the inclu- 
sion of- $25,000 for public school libra- 
ries. 

Several imiportant bills were intro- 
duced but failed of passage. Among 
them were provisions for progressive 
changes in the county library law, for a 
legislative reference department in the 
State Law Library, pension for library 
employees, a department of archives in 
the Historical Society, and for a State 
Board of Education which would take 
over the powers and duties of the Li- 
brary Commission. 

Missouri^A small appropriation ($2,000) 
was secured from the legislature for the 
legislative reference work of the Libra- 



ry Commission. It was, however, ve- 
toed by the governor. A county library 
bill was introduced but made no prog- 
ress. 

Montana — A bill amending the county li- 
brary law was introduced but was killed 
in the House. 

Nebraska — Appropriations for library pur- 
poses totaled $79,030 of which $22,500 
went to the Historical Society, $19,500 
to the Library Commission, $17,000 to 
the State Library, and $16,500 to the 
Legislative Reference Bureau. 

New Jersey — A bill to establish a Depart- 
ment of Public Records passed the Sen- 
ate but never came to a final vote in 
the House. 

New York — An act passed primarily as a 
school measure may have material ef- 
fect upon some public libraries. It pro- 
vides for the creation of town boards of 
education and the consolidation of cer- 
tain small school districts. Libraries 
which have received some support from 
such districts may have to look else- 
where for it, as to towns or villages. 

Altogether sixteen laws were passed 
which referred to libraries in some way, 
but practically all were of local or minor 
importance. 

North Carolina — The increased appropria- 
tion for the Library Commission is an 
annual appropriation. 

Rhode Island — Ninety-seven hundred dol- 
lars ($9,700) was appropriated for libra- 
ries in Rhode Island during the year 
1917. The salary of the law librarian 
was increased from $1,600 to $2,400, and 
that of the state librarian from $1,600 
to $1,800. The state librarian also re- 
ceives $600 as state record commis- 
sioner. 

South Carolina — $2,566 ,was appropriated 
for the support of the State Library. A 
special law was enacted providing for 
calling an election upon the question of 
levying a tax for the support of a pub- 
lic library in the Rock Hill school dis- 
trict. 

Texas — Under the county library law the 
state librarian is chairman of the board 
of library examiners. 

Vermont — The appropriation to the Free 
Public Library Commission shows an 
increase from $6,200 to $7,500, but no 
provision is made outside of it, as for- 
merly, for heat, rent, light, and janitor 
service. However, they expect soon to 
move into the new state building, and 
hence there is a real increase in funds 
available. 

The tax exemption clause has been 
amended to read as follows, so far as 
libraries are concerned: "...real and 



264 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



personal estate set apart for library 
uses and used by public and private cir- 
culating libraries open to the public and 
not for profit." 

Washington — The legislature raised the 
salary of the state law librarian from $2,- 
400 to $3,000 but this item was vetoed by 
the governor. The Supreme Court held, 
however, that a warrant should issue for 
the former salary which was fixed by 
law, consolidation of school libraries and 
available or not. 

The report of the State Library Ad- 
visory Board contained various recom- 
mendations, many of which could be put 
into effect without statute change. Rec- 
ommendations requiring legislation in- 
cluded a comprehensive county library 
law consolidation of school libraries and 
small public libraries where deemed ad- 
visable, and an adequate fixed minimum 
support for libraries in cities of the first 
class. 

West Virginia — Total appropriations for 
library purposes were $36,200. A bill 
for a State Library Commission failed 
to pass. 

Wyoming — Appropriations by the legisla- 
ture to the State Law and Miscellaneous 
Library amounted to $18,200 for one 
year, including tax levies from land ren- 
tals. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON WORK 
WITH THE BLIND 

The report of the committee covers the 
period of two years. 

Miss Goldthwaite, of the New York Pub- 
lic Library, and Mrs. Delfino, of the Free 
Library of Philadelphia, by courtesy of 
the Association of Instructors of the Blind, 
attended the meeting of that association 
held at the School for the Blind in Hali- 
fax, Nova Scotia, In July, 1916. Follow- 
ing the sessions Miss Goldthwaite was ap- 
pointed a member of the Committee on 
Uniform Type, representing libraries for 
the Blind. 

Mrs. Rider, of the Library of Congress, 
Miss Goldthwaite and the chairman at- 
tended the annual meeting of the Na- 
tional Committee for the Prevention of 
Blindness, held In New York City No- 
vember 24, 1916. 

The committee is greatly pleased to re- 
port that, as a result of Its efforts, the 
Public Library, Birmingham, Alabama, 
has become a distributing headquarters 



for embossed books in the south. Books 
in American Braille have been loaned from 
the Perkins Institution in Watertown, 
Mass., and a stock of Moon type for use 
by the adult blind, has been deposited as 
an inter-library loan by the Free Library 
of Philadelphia. 

Recent Important publications: 
"Institutions for the Blind in America." 
A directory of the work for the blind in 
the United States and Canada, compiled 
In 1916 by Charles F. F. and Mary D. 
Campbell. Reprinted from the American 
Encyclopedia of Ophthalmology, Vol. IX. 
"The Blind In the. United States, 1910." 
Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Cen- 
sus, Issued 1917. 

Several libraries report the training of 
volunteers In reading and writing English 
and French Braille In preparation for work 
among the newly blind adults In England 
and France, and since the entry of Amer- 
ica Into the war this service has been ex- 
tended to those interested In fitting them- 
selves for such work in this country. 

The report of the Commission on Uni- 
form Type for the Blind was officially 
adopted by the American Association of 
Workers for the Blind at the convention 
held In June, 1917, at Portland, Maine, the 
result of this action will be the gradual 
establishment of one embossed type for 
the English speaking blind instead of 
three as at present. 

This is the most significant event In the 
development of library work for the blind 
since the passage of the federal law per- 
mitting embossed reading matter free 
transit through the mails. As the pass- 
age of this law gave to circulating libra- 
ries the opportunity of serving the public 
who read by touch, so the adoption of the 
uniform type will greatly stimulate such 
service, multiplying the amount of avail- 
able literature and at the same time very 
much simplifying the technique of the li- 
brarian's task In circulating it. 

Embossed alphabets, several primers 
and one or two books of fiction are now 
available in the Revised Braille. It is 
earnestly desired that the federal appro- 
priation for the embossing of books be 
materially increased. 



REPORTS 



266 



Mrs. Rider, of the Library of Congress, 
was appointed a member of the Advisory 
Committee of the Subcommittee on Oph- 
thalmology, General Medical Board, Coun- 
cil of National Defense, and attended the 
sessions held in Washington, D. C, Octo- 
ber 12 and 13, 1917. 

The chairman of your Committee on 
Work with the Blind reports that the serv- 
ices of this committee were proffered to 
the above named Subcommittee on Oph- 
thalmology and its Advisory Committee, 
on October 12, 1917, and acknowledged 
with thanks by Major James Bordley, Jr., 
M. O. R. C, chairman in charge of the re- 
education of blinded soldiers and sailors. 

In Canada there are but few special li- 
braries for the blind, the most active of 
which is the Canadian National Library 
for the Blind. From its inception this 
library has been called upon to assist the 
blind in many parts of Canada to solve 
their bread-and-butter problems as well as 
to supply them with reading matter, pa- 
per, writing appliances, games, etc. This 
necessity brought home to the manage- 
ment the fact of the existence of a truly 
national blind cause and has resulted in 
the creation, on the initiative of the li- 
brary, of the Canadian National Institute 
for the Blind incorporated under the laws 
of the Dominion of Canada. 

One of the first activities of the Insti- 
tute is that of assisting the Invalided Sol- 
diers Commission in its task of re-adapt- 
ing a number of blinded Canadian soldiers 
to normal life. To date from seventy to 
seventy-five soldiers of the Dominion have 
lost their sight, about thirty-five of this 
number being now in Canada. Of this to- 
tal a few have graduated from the famous 
St. Dunstan's Hostel for Blinded Soldiers 
and Sailors. The Canadian National Li- 
brary for the Blind, besides giving tempo- 
rary quarters to the institute free of 
charge, also places its building at the dis- 
posal of the soldiers and provides all the 
necessary equipment for the Braille course. 
That these men are now being so eflficient- 
ly fitted to cope with the new conditions 



of life is almost wholly due to the pur- 
chase of the present quarters at 142 Col- 
lege Street, Toronto, Ontario, the rooms 
generously loaned by the Toronto Public 
Library having become too small. A print- 
ing department has been added and work 
is now going forward on a series of On- 
tario public school textbooks for the use 
of blind pupils. 

On December 6, 1917, the explosion of a 
munition ship In the harbor of Halifax, 
N. S., resulted in the destruction of a large 
part of that city and in the blinding of a 
number of Its citizens. The popular no- 
tions as to the number of these sufferers 
are, however, of a very exaggerated char- 
acter. It Is true that more than 600 cases 
of injury to eyes have been reported, but 
of this total not more than forty have thus 
far become totally blind. As time goes on 
others will, of course, be added to this 
list, but it now seems reasonably probable 
that the ultimate total of completely 
blinded cases will fall short of 100. The 
increase in the number of Canadian blind 
resulting from the Halifax disaster has as 
yet had no effect upon the library situa- 
tion of the Dominion. As the sufferers are 
taught Braille and Moon type, however, it 
will probably be found that the circula- 
tion of books in embossed type will be 
slightly increased, though the probable in- 
crease in active readers will be so small 
as to preclude the hope of any large addi- 
tion to library loans. 

In view of the exceedingly small num- 
ber of blinded soldiers and sailors re- 
turned to Canada after four years of 
fighting, your committee does not anti- 
cipate a large increase in the number of 
blind readers in the United States, but 
owing to the worldwide interest in all 
matters pertaining to blindness as a re- 
sult of the war and the consequent cer- 
tain development of this phase of library 
work, your committee urges upon you the 
need for additional centers for the dis- 
tribution of embossed books in certain 
parts of the country. 

A paper entitled "Library work for the 
blind in relation to the schools" was read 



286 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



by Miss Mabel R. Gillis, of the California 
State Library, at the twenty-fourth bien- 
nial convention of the American Associa- 
tion of Instructors of the Blind, held in 
Colorado Springs, Colorado, June, 1918. 
The following motion was unanimously 
adopted and the secretary instructed to 
notify the American Library Association of 
the action of this convention: 

"That this convention of the American 
Association of Instructors of the Blind re- 
quest the American Library Association to 
make a survey of the United States and 
recommend zones or districts in which 
there shall be established circulating libra- 
ries for the blind." 

Following the receipt of telegraphic in- 
formation of this action, of the American 
Association of Instructors of the Blind, the 
chairman of your committee replied with 
the following message: 

"iCommittee on Work with Blind of 
American Library Association thanks the 
American Association of Instructors of the 
Blind in convention assembled, for its unan- 
imous message expressing cooperation. 
Chairman will urge that definite selection 
of desirable centers for circulation of em- 
bossed books be made at coming confer- 
ence at Saratoga Springs." 

The cordial support of the American As- 
sociation of Instructors of the Blind, as in- 
dicated by the foregoing resolution, is 
heartily appreciated by your committee, 
which has for several years urged the need 
for additional distributing agencies. 
For the Committee, 

Emma R. N. Deltino, 
Chairman. 
REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON 
IMPORTATIONS 

The Committee on Importations has 
previously reported the successful out- 
come of the negotiations with the British 
Government for the release of material in 
detention, whether at Rotterdam or in Lon- 
don. 

The former was put on board ship in 
midsummer, 1917, for dispatch direct to 
America, but the vessel has never sailed. 
At the committee's suggestion the Depart- 
ment of State has cabled instructions to 
our Minister at The Hague to endeavor to 
arrange for the shipment of all these pub- 



lications to the United States Dispatch 
Agent at New York, directly if possible, 
otherwise via Great Britain. 

As to parcels held in London, there has 
been a deal of distribution, but some ap- 
pear still to remain. Accordingly, the De- 
partment, again at the Committee's sug- 
gestion, has sent a like instruction to the 
American Consul General in London "to 
request the appropriate British authori- 
ties to forward these publications at the 
earliest practicable date," similarly con- 
signed. 

It will be noticed that here the instruc- 
tions of the Department have taken a new 
turn. It asks that the goods be consigned 
to the Government of the United States, 
rather than to the institutions concerned. 
We appreciate the change, for such a re- 
quest could hardly be refused. 

Following the passage of the Trading- 
with-the-enemy Act, the American Library 
Association, on application of this com- 
mittee, as It has also previously reported, 
was granted by the War Trade Board a 
license, whereby universities, colleges and 
public bodies of approved character might 
secure enemy publications of importance 
to research in science and scholarship, 
provided the Department of State ap- 
proved the method and the Censorship 
Board sanctioned the admission of such 
material. 

Turning its attention first to the pe- 
riodicals of 1918, the committee authorized 
and requested the leading importers to 
have their clients submit their lists, ex- 
cluding the popular, historical, political 
and theological titles; 114 institutions re- 
sponded, with upwards of 1,000 different 
titles. Six of the applicants were ruled 
out by the Department, as falling outside 
the categories of the beneficiaries of the 
license. 

The titles were classified and tabulated, 
and the entire record card-indexed. In 
consultation with the State Department 
and Censorship Board, the list of approved 
titles was reduced to the 255 titles of 
which a copy Is appended to this report. 
The cause of the reduction was the Cen- 



REPORTS 



267 



sorship Board's disinclination to under- 
take so formidable a task of examination 
of texts, and then the State Department 
did not desire to sanction a practice which 
it suspected greatly to exceed that of our 
Allies. 

In one important respect, the State De- 
partment finally, much to the committee's 
expressed regret, reversed a decision 
which had been given wide publicity, and 
required that the Association itself, with- 
out the intervention of any American 
agents, should place the orders through 
the diplomatic pouch directly in neutral 
countries. 

There was, of course, nothing for the 
Importers to do but acquiesce, and since, 
having no license, neither they nor the In- 
dividual institution could legally them- 
selves place subscriptions, the agents 
passed wholly from the scene and the 
committee became the only medium of 
transactions. 

The Department thereupon requested 
that the Association send a representative 
abroad, who, in behalf of both the Gov- 
ernment and the institutions, might con- 
clude the transaction. As the secretary of 
the committee was leaving on another mis- 
sion for the Association, it was found pos- 
sible to comply. 

At the committee's suggestion, the De- 
partment announced the new policy to the 
British Government and requested the 
courtesy of uninterrupted passage for such 
of these shipments as might come through 
British territory. This was granted at 
once, since such consignments were to 
come addressed to the Dispatch Agent of 
the Department, in New York, and to bear 
the United States seal. 

So the order was sent in the Embassy 
mail to The Hague and placed with Mar- 
tinus Nijhoff, who was found to have ren- 
dered satisfactory service to others. 

Mr. Nijhoff has succeeded In getting the 
goods, and has made at least three ship- 
ments, bills for which have been received. 
It is likely that twice as many are on the 
water. The first two are known to have 
gotten as far as London. The Minister at 



The Hague was endeavoring, at last re- 
port, to dispatch the third directly to 
America and thought it likely he might 
succeed. The shipments are prepared at 
about fortnighly Intervals. 

At the State Department's request Brit- 
ish and French practice was Investigated 
and reported with recommendations. These 
were based on an examination of the rec- 
ords and shelves of the British Museum, 
the London Library and the Royal Soci- 
ety of Medicine, and conferences at the 
Board of Trade, H. M. Stationery Office 
and the Postal Censor's, in England; and 
in France, on consultations with the Bi- 
blioth6que Nationale, the Sorbonne, the 
Minister of Public Instruction; and in 
Switzerland, with a special representative 
of the French Minister of Foreign Affairs. 

As the practice of our Allies was found 
to be much more liberal than ours, the 
Secretary of State gave cabled approval 
of the recommendation to raise our policy 
to the same level. 

A cablegram was then sent to the De- 
partment, suggesting the propriety, in 
the existing international situation, of 
placing these additional orders in Switzer- 
land, provided clear passage through 
France could be arranged. The Depart- 
ment cabled assent, and the French Gov- 
ernment in turn acquiesced. 

Switzerland was then visited for confer- 
ence at the Legation and with dealers, the 
result being that Libralrie Kundig at Ge- 
neva was selected as our Swiss agency. 
Subsequently the lists of five Institutions, 
forwarded belatedly from Washington, 
were dispatched thither and have been 
acknowledged. 

Recently a conference was held be- 
tween representatives of the Department 
of State, the War Trade Board and the 
committee, at which the committee, on the 
basis of the European reports, was asked 
to undertake the conduct of a bureau for 
handling the business of importing publica- 
tions from enemy countries, not merely 
for educational Institutions, but for all 
bodies and Individuals concerned. The 
committee felt compelled to decline the 



268 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



offer and It is not yet known whether such 
a bureau is to be established. 

Meanwhile, this committee will see to it 
that the institutions covered by our pres- 
ent license shall not lose by inaction the 
new privileges allowed them, at least so 
far as periodicals are concerned. Books 
also are covered in the grant, but as yet 
the committee lacks the facilities for em- 
barking upon any such service, except, 
perhaps. In cases of great emergency. 

It was said above that the Department 
of State gave consent to have the Ameri- 
can policy raised to the level of the Brit- 
ish and French. This has been defined as 
follows: Institutions may order and pay for 
all their usual serials. Of these the Cen- 
sorship Board will impound for the con- 
tinuance of the war those that fall in the 
categories heretofore entirely forbidden, 
i. e. the popular, historical, political and 
theological. Thus for the first time the 
continuity of all files is assured, at least 
to those institutions which had made ad- 
vance payments to their agents through 
1917. 

Institutions are advised, therefore, to 
send to the secretary of the committee, at 
the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 
Maryland, desired titles not appearing on 
the approved list of 255 periodicals already 
ordered. Please submit them in alphabet- 
ical order and duplicate copies. Send sep- 
arate from the list a covering order, also 
in duplicate. 

Please meet the agent's bills immedi- 
ately upon presentation. He has made out- 
lays in advance and communication is 
slow. Remittances to the agent, as well 
as your necessary correspondence with 
him, the secretary will undertake to for- 
ward, provided the conditions above have 
been met, and there be in every case en- 
closed a stamped envelope addressed to the 
Secretary of State for forwarding same. 
The committee is making no charge for its 
services, but it cannot undertake expense 
or clerical service. 

Watch the Library Journal for further 
developments, and disregard notices from 
all sources other than the committee. It 



alone has legal right to act in your behalf. 
Fbank p. Hill, Chairman. 
Clement "W. Andrews, 
E. H. Andebson, 
M. Llewellyn Raney, Secretary. 



Appendix to Report of Committee on Im- 
portations: Periodicals approved by the 
Department of State and the Censorship 
Board, December, 1917. 

Philosophy 
Archiv fiir philosophie 
Kant-studien 

Vierteljahrsschrlft fur wissen. philoso- 
phic 
Zeitschrift fiir philosophie und philos. 
kritik 
Psychology 
Archiv fiir die gesamte psychologie 
Zeitschrift fiir angewandte psychologie 
Zeitschrift fiir padagogische psychologie 
Zeitschrift fiir psychologie und physi- 
ologic der sinnesorgane 
Anthropology, Ethnography, Geography 
Archiv fiir anthropologic 
Internationales archiv fiir ethnographie 
Petcrmann's mitteilungen und Ergan- 

zungshefte 
Zeitschrift fiir ethnologic 
Education 
Archiv fiir padagoglk 
Comcnius-gesellschaft. Monatsschriften 
Internationales archiv fiir schulhygicne 
Lehrproben und lehrgange aus der praxis 

d. hohcren lehranstaltcn. 
Padagogisches archiv. 
Sokrates. Zeitschrift fiir gymnasialwe- 

sen 

Zeitschrift fiir den deutschen unterricht 

Zeitschrift fiir die erforschung und be- 

handlung d. jugendlichen schwachsinns 

Zeitschrift fiir geschichte der erzichung 

und des unterrichts. 
Zeitschrift fiir kinderforschung 
Zeitschrift fiir schulgesundheitspflege. 

Music 
Guide musical 
Die Musik 

Neue zeitschrift fiir musik 
Signale fiir die musikalische welt 

Art 

Berliner archltckturwelt 

Die graphischen kiinste 

Die Kunst 

Kunst fiir alle 

Kunst und kunsthandwcrk 

Repertorium fiir kunstwissenschaft 

Zeitschrift fiir bildendc kunst 

Zeitschrift fiir christliche kunst 



REPORTS 



269 



Classical Archeology 

K. deutsches archaologisches institut. 

Jahrbuch 
K. deutsches archaologisches institut. 

Mitteilungen 
Zeitschrift fiir numismatik 

Philology, Classical 

Archiv fiir papyrusforschung 

Berliner philologische wochenschrift 

Glotta 

Hermes 

Jahresbericht iiber die fortschritte d. 

klass altertumswissenschaft. 
Neue jahrbiicher f. d. klass. altertum 

jahrbiicher f. d. klass. altertum 
Philologus 

Rheinisches museum fiir philologie 
Wochenschrift fiir klass. philologie 

Philology, Modern 
Archiv fiir das studium der neueren 

sprachen u. literaturen 
Euphorion 

Germanisch-romanische monatsschrift 
Literaturblatt fiir germanische u. ro- 

manische philologie 
Die neueren sprachen 

Philology, English 

Anglia 

Englische studien 
Philology, German 

Beitrage zur geschichte der deutschen 
sprache u. literatur 

Zeitschrift fiir deutsche philologie 

Zeitschrift fiir deutsches altertum 
Philology, Romance 

Romanische forschungen 

Zeitschrift fiir franzosische sprache u. 
literatur 

Zeitschrift fiir romanische philologie 
Philology, Oriental 

Deutsche morgenlandische gesellschaft. 
Zeitschrift 

Zeitschrift fiir agyptische sprache 

Zeitschrift fiir Assyriologie 
Philology, Comparative 

Indogermani«che forschungen 

Zeitschrift fiir vergleichende sprach- 
forschung 

Mathematics 

K. preuss. Akademie der wissenschaften, 
Berlin. Sitzungsberichte 

Archiv fiir mathematik u. physik 

Bibliotheca mathematica 

Deutsche mathematiker - vereinigung. 
Jahresbericht 

Jahrbuch iiber die fortschritte der ma- 
thematik 

Journal fiir die reine u. angewandte ma- 
thematik 

Mathematische annalen 

Monatshefte fiir mathematik u. physik 



Zeitschrift fiir mathematik u. physik 

Zeitschrift fiir mathematischen u. natur- 
wissen. unterricht 
Astronomy 

Astronomische gesellschaft. Vierteljahrs- 
schrift 

Astronomische nachrichten 
Physics 

Annalen der physik 

Deutsche physikalische gesellschaft. 
Berichte 

Fortschritte auf dem gebiete der ront- 
genstrahlen 

Jahrbuch d. drahtlosen telegraphie 

Jahrbuch der radioaktivitat 

Meteorologische zeitschrift 

Physikalische zeitschrift 

Zentralblatt fiir rontgenstrahlen 
Chemistry 

Annalen der chemie 

Chemisches zentralblatt 

Deutsche chemische gesellschaft. Be- 
richte 

Journal fiir praktische chemie 

Kolloid-zeitschrift 

Zeitschrift fiir analytische chemie 

Zeitschrift fiir angewandte chemie 

Zeitschrift fiir anorganische u. allge- 
meine chemie 

Zeitschrift fiir physikalische chemie 
Geology 

Deutsche geologische gesellschaft. Zeit- 
schrift 

Geologische rundschau 

Geologisches zentralblatt 

Internationale mitteilungen fiir boden- 
kunde 

Internationale zeitschrift fiir metallo- 
graphie 

Mineralogische u. petrographische mit- 
teilungen 

Neues jahrbuch fiir mineralogie 

Zeitschrift fiir gletscherkunde 

Zeitschrift fiir krystallographie u. mine- 
ralogie 

Zeitschrift fiir praktische geologie 

Zeitschrift fiir vulkanologie 

Zentralblatt fiir mineralogie 

Botany 
Annales mycologici 
Botanisches zentralblatt 
Deutsche botanische gesellschaft. Be- 
richte 
Flora 
Hedwigia 

Jahrbiicher fiir wissensch. botanik 
Mycologisches zentralblatt 
Zeitschrift fiir botanik 
Zeitschrift fiir pflanzenkrankheiten 
Zeitschrift fiir pflanzenziichtung 

Biology 
Anatomische hefte 



270 



SARATOGA SPRING'S CONFERENCE 



Anatomischer anzeiger 

Archiv fiir anatomie u. physiologic 

Pfliiger's Archiv 

Archiv fiir entwicklungsmechanik der 
organismen 

Archiv fiir mikroskopische anatomie 

Archiv fiir protistenkunde 

Archiv fiir rassen- und gesellschafts- 
biologie 

Archiv fiir zellforschung 

Biochemische zeitschrift 

Biologisches zentralblatt 

Fermentforschung 

Internationale monatsschrift fiir ana- 
tomie u. physiologie 

Internationale zeitschrift fiir physika- 
lisch-chemische biologie 

Jenaische zeitschrift fiir naturwissen- 
schaft 

Morphologisches jahrbuch 

Skandinavisches archiv fiir physiologie 

Zeitschrift fiir allgemeine physiologie 

Zeitschrift fiir angewandte entomologie 

Zeitschrift fiir biologie 

Zeitschrift fiir biologische technik 

Zeitschrift fiir garungs-physiologie 

Zeitschrift fiir induktive abstammungs- 
u. vererbungslehre 

Zeitschrift fiir morphologie 

Zeitschrift fiir physiologische chemie 

Zeitschrift fiir wissen. insektenbiologie 

Zeitschrift fiir wissensch. mikroskopie 

Zeitschrift fiir wissensch. zoologie 

Zentralblatt fiir biochemie u. biophysik 

Zentralblatt fiir physiologie 

Zentralblatt fiir zoologie 

Zoologischer anzeiger 

Zoologische jahrbiicher 

Medicine 
Archiv der pharmacie 
Archiv fiir dermatologie 
Archiv fiir exper. pathologie u. pharma- 

cologie 
Archiv f. gynakologle 
Archiv fiir hygiene 
Archiv fiir kinderheilkunde 
Archiv f. klinische chirurgie 
Archiv f. laryngologie 
Archiv fiir ohren-, nasen- u. kehlkopfheil- 

kunde 
Archiv f. ophthalmologie 
Archiv f. pathologische anatomie 
Archiv f. psychiatrie 
Archiv f. verdauungskrankheiten 
Beitrage z. pathologischen anatomie 
Berliner klinische wochenschrift 
Dermatologische wochenschrift 
Dermatologische zeitschrift 
Deutsche medicinische wochenschrift 
Deutsche zeitschrift fiir chirurgie 
Deutsche zeitschrift fiir nervenheil- 

kunde 
Deutsches archiv fiir klinische medlcin 



Ergebnisse der inneren medizin u. kin- 
derheilkunde 
Folia haematologica 
Folia neurobiologica 
Germany. K. Gesundheitsamt, Berlin. 

Arbeiten 
Hygienische rundschau 
Jahrbuch fiir kinderheilkunde 
Journal fiir psychologie u. neurologie 
Medizinische klinik 
Mitteilungen aus den grenzgebieten der 

medizin u. chirurgie 
Monatsschrift fiir geburtshiilfe u. gyna- 
kologle 
Monatsschrift f. kinderheilkunde 
Monatsschrift f. ohrenheilkunde 
Monatsschrift f. psychiatrie u. neuro- 
logic 
Miinchener medicinische wochenschrift 
Neurologisches zentralblatt 
Therapeutische monatshefte 
Therapie der gegenwart 
Vierteljahrsschrift f. gerichtl. medicin 
Wiener klinische wochenschrift 
Wiener medicinische wochenschrift 
Zeitschrift fiir chemo-therapie 
Zeitschrift f. d. gesamte neurologie 
Zeitschrift fiir experimentelle pathologie 
Zeitschrift fiir fleisch- u. milchhygiene 
Zeitschrift fiir geburtshiilfe u. gynako- 

logie 
Zeitschrift fiir hygiene 
Zeitschrift fiir immunitatsforschung 
Zeitschrift fiir kinderheilkunde 
Zeitschrift fiir klinische medicin 
Zeitschrift fiir krebsforschung 
Zeitschrift fiir ohrenheilkunde 
Zeitschrift fiir orthopadische chirurgie 
Zeitschrift fiir physikalische u. diate- 

tische therapie 
Zeitschrift f. tuberkulose 
Zeitschrift f. untersuchung der nahrungs- 

u. genussmittel 
Zeitschrift fiir urologie 
Zentralblatt f. allgem. pathologie 
Zentralblatt f. bakteriologie 
Zentralblatt f. d. gesamte innere medizin 
Zentralblatt f. d. grenzgebiete der medi- 
cin u. chirurgie 
Zentralblatt f. gynakologie 
Zentralblatt fiir herz- u. gefasskrank- 

heiten 
Zentralblatt f. innere medicin 
Zentralblatt f. kinderheilkunde 

Agriculture 
Archiv f. wissensch. u. praktische tier- 

heilkunde 
Berliner tierarztliche wochenschrift 
Biedermann's zentralblatt f. agrikultur- 

chemie u. rationell. landwirtschafts- 

betrieb 
Journal f. landwirtschaft 
Landwirtschaftliche Jahrbiicher 



REPORTS 



271 



Landwirtschaftliche versuchsstationen 
Milchwirtschaftliches zentralblatt 
Zeitschrift f. infektionskrankheiten der 
haustiere 

Technology 

Archiv f. eisenbahnwesen 

Archiv f. elektrotechnik 

Armierter beton 

Beton und eisen 

Die chemische Industrie 

Deutsche bauzeitung 

Dingler's polytechnisches journal 

Elektrotechnik und maschinenbau 

Elektrotechnische zeitschrift 

Ferrum 

Gesundheits-Ingenieur 

Gliickauf 

Journal f. gasbeleuchtung 

Metall und erz 

Der oelmotor 

Prometheus. Illustr, wochenschrift uber 

die fortschritte in gewerbe, Industrie 

und wissenschaft 



Ranch und staub. Zeitschrift fur ihre 

bekampfung 
Stahl und eisen 

Verein deutscher ingenieure. Zeitschrift 
Zeitschrift fiir architektur- und inge- 

nieurwesen 
Zeitschrift f. bauwesen 
Zeitschrift f. das ges. turbinenwesen 
Zeitschrift f. elektrochemie 
Zeitschrift f. instrumentenkunde 
Zeitschrift f. komprimierte u. fiiissige 

gase 
Zeitschrift fiir transportwesen 
Zeitschrift f. wissenschaftl. photographie 
Zentralblatt d. bauverwaltung 

Bibliography 
Bibliographie der deutschen zeitschrift- 

enliteratur 
Bibliographie der fremdsprachigen zeit- 

schriftenliteratur 
Bibliographische monatsberichte 
Wochentliches verzeichnis 
Zentralblatt fiir bibliothekswesen 



REPORT OF A. L. A. PUBLISHING BOARD 



The war has so overshadowed all other 
affairs for libraries and the American Li- 
brary Association during the past year 
that the normal activities of the A. L. A. 
Publishing Board have been considerably 
reduced. 

The Board has suffered an irreparable 
loss in the passing of its chairman, Mr. 
Henry E. Legler, who had been a member 
of the Board since 1905 and its chairman 
from June, 1907, to his death in September, 
1917. Keenly interested in everything per- 
taining to library work, Mr. Legler during 
the entire twelve years of membership in 
the Board was particularly active and con- 
cerned in all that related to its work. He 
had brought from his library commission 
experience that rare training and judg- 
ment which made his opinion and advice 
exceedingly valuable in matters pertain- 
ing to the publication and distribution of 
bibliographical aids, and his experience in 
the administration of a large public libra- 
ry system enabled him to view problems 
from yet another angle and give them the 
benefit of the changed point of view. Mr. 
Legler will be grievously missed by his 



colleagues in library work and by none 
more than by his fellow-members of the 
Publishing Board. 

New Publications — ^The largest and in 
many respects the most important publi- 
cation of the year was the new edition of 
Miss Kroeger's "Guide to Reference Books" 
which has been greatly enlarged and thor- 
oughly revised by Isadore G. Mudge, refer- 
ence librarian of Columbia University. Se- 
riously delayed in its publication and anx- 
iously awaited by a large library circle, 
the "Guide" has been enthusiastically re- 
ceived and widely distributed. 

The "Apprentice Course for Small Li- 
braries," prepared by the faculty of the 
University of Wisconsin Library School, 
is having a distinct field of usefulness in 
a number of ways. 

The new publications of the year are as 
follows : 

Guide to reference books, by Alice 
Bertha Kroeger, third edition, revised 
throughout and much enlarged, by Isadore 
Gilbert Mudge. 4,000 copies. 

Special Indexes in American Libraries, 
a list of subjects separately cataloged or so 



272 



SARATOGA SPRING'S CONFERENCE 



arranged as to be readily accessible com- 
piled by the A. L. A. Publishing Board. 
1,000 copies. 

Apprentice course for small libraries. 
Outlines of lessons, with suggestions for 
practice work, study and required reading, 
by the faculty of the Library School of the 
University of Wisconsin (Mary E. Hazel- 
tine, Mary F. Carpenter, Marion Humble, 
Helen Turvill). 3,000 copies. 

Periodicals for the small library, by 
Frank K. Walter. Second edition, rewrit- 
ten and enlarged. 2,000 copies. 

A. L. A. Manual of library economy: 
Chap. 25, Pamphlets and ^ninor library ma- 
terial — clippings, broadsides, prints, pic- 
tures, music, bookplates, maps. 3,000 copies. 

Some popular books on the great war, 
by Grace Miller, (Printed for the Western 
Massachusetts Library Club and reprinted 
by permission.) 

Reprints — The following publications 
have been reprinted : 

Analytical cards for Warner's Library of 
the world's best literature. 250 sets. 

A. L. A. Manual of library economy: 
Chap. 5, Proprietary and subscription libra- 
ries. 3,000 copies. 

Library Journal — ^Savannah (Ga.) Public 
Library. Plans. 100 copies. 

North Central Association of Colleges 
and Secondary Schools — Standard library 
organization for accredited high schools of 
different sizes, by C. C. Certain. 1,500 copies. 

The Booklist — ^The total subscriptions 
to The Booklist now are as follows: Bulk 
to commissions and libraries, 2,622; retail 
subscriptions, 2,188; sent to library mem- 
bers and affiliated state associations as part 
of their membership perquisites, 538; free 
list, 167; total, 5,515 (as against a total of 
5,401 reported last year). (Free list in- 
cludes 37 sent to camp libraries.) 

Hereto are appended brief reports from 
Miss Massee, editor of The Booklist, and 
Mr. Merrill, editor of periodical cards. 
Abthub E. Bostwick, 
Acting Chairman. 
THE BOOKLIST 

The Booklist in its new form with its 



name simplified has had a busy year with 
"nothing to report," although when one 
considers that there has been an almost 
complete change of staff, that the printers 
had a strike, that the mails and express 
were indefinitely behind so that books were 
sometimes over a month on the way and 
then arrived all at once, that the Booklist 
delivery was correspondingly slow, that 
several of our best readers have been 
called away by the war, one wonders there 
is any Booklist left to report. 

That there is this Booklist, that its use- 
fulness has increased is due to the wisdom 
of the plan which made it a cooperative 
product, maintained by the concerted ac- 
tion of many libraries with lines of book- 
review communication centralized and re- 
distributed. 

The editor went to Boston and New York 
as usual to interview publishers. The pub- 
lishers' use of the Booklist is growing. 
Several now send copies of the notes to 
their traveling men for advertising. The 
practice of the book salesmen of showing 
their advance lines to the editor in Chi- 
cago makes it possible to plan in a meas- 
ure for what is coming. 

The editor attended the Iowa and the 
Illinois library meetings in October, the 
Atlantic City meeting in February, and 
was the speaker at the tenth anniversary 
of the dedication of the Kewanee, Illinois, 
library building. Otherwise the editor has 
been devoted to the office, where she is 
glad to report the growing custom of calls 
from visiting librarians. Many a good 
book-note and many a good suggestion 
have come to the Booklist by way of these 
chance visits. 

The office has done some work for the 
Council of National Defense, reporting on 
books which are considered pro-German. 
This work consisted in summarizing spe- 
cial reports received from libraries, which 
responded promptly to the requests for in- 
formation. 

The Booklist staff wishes to thank the 
Publishing Board for its continued and 
generous support and the libraries of the 



REPORTS 273 

country for the spirit and the work which Attention is called again to the war as 

makes the list. responsible for this continued decrease in 

May Massee. ^^q amount of indexing done. Few for- 

A. L. A. PERIODICAL CARDS ^^^^ serials on our list are received from 

The present report upon the preparation . , , , , , , 

, . „ , X. , J - J. abroad; some serials may be suspended 

and issue of analytical cards for current 

serials covers the year ended April 30. 1918. ^^'^ °*^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^"^^ countries. 

Shipments 332 and 333, including 121 Our printers have served notice that the 

and 117 titles respectively, have been sent price of cards and printing must be raised 

to subscribers; shipment 334, containing 25 per cent on account of increased cost of 

153 titles, has been shipped since the above labor and materials, and cards must be 

^**'®- billed to subscribers at a corresponding in- 

The number of titles cataloged in 1917- ^^^^^^ j^ ^^.j^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^0,^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

18 is thus 238, and the number of cards . , ^ , . , u ^i. 
1 i ji oaocc * v,jv,-.r.ofto ji cessful to secure lower terms elsewhere. It 
printed Is 20,255, of which 16,393 were dis- 
tributed to subscribers. The correspond- ^« ^""^^^ ^^^^ ^°^^ ^"^ ^^^^ '^^"^^'^ ^° 
ing figures last year were three shipments, withdraw his support on this account, 
containing 525 titles, and 29,851 cards dis- Respectfully submitted, 
tributed. William Stetson Mebbill. 



A, L. A. PUBLISHING BOARD— FINANCIAL REPORT 
Cash Receipts May 1, 1917, to April 30, 1918 

Balance, May 1, 1917 $ 1,375,11 

Interest on Carnegie Fund (May, 1917 — $2,000.00) 

(Oct., 1917— 1,500.00) 

(Dec, 1917— 1,000.00) 4,500.00 

Receipts from publications 14,772.93 

Interest on bank deposits 18.80 $20,666.84 

Payments May 1, 1917, to April 30, 1918 
Cost of publications: 

A. L. A. Publishing Board Reports $ 16.00 

A. L. A. List of subject headings (Stock and work to 

date) 664.40 

Booklist 2,334.70 

Apprentice course for small libraries, including plates.. 783.00 
Guide to reference books, including plates, 3rd edition. . 2,153.38 
Manual of library economy: Chaps. 5 (reprinted), 25 

(including storage on plates) 19*5.98 

Periodical cards 221.51 

Periodicals for the small library, new edition 165.44 

Some popular books on the great war (1,950 copies for 

advertising and publicity) 21.78 

Special indexes in American libraries 49.25 

Reprint from Library Journal, The Savannah Public Li- 
brary — plans 4.53 

Reprint from North Central Association of Colleges and 
Secondary Schools, Standard library organization for 

accredited high schools 58.00 

Warner cards 1,407.20 $8,075.17 

Addressograph supplies 151.94 

Advertising 358.12 

Editing publications 243.91 

Expense, headquarters (1917— a/c) 2,800.00 

Postage and express 1,179.63 



274 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



Publications — as agent: 

New types of library buildings, Wisconsin Free Library Commis- 
sion 1.75 

Royalties 177.10 

Salaries 4,721.23 

Supplies 832.04 

Travel 322.96 

Balance on hand April 30, 1918 1,802.99 



$20,666.84 



SALES OF A. L. A. PUBLISHING BOARD PUBLICATIONS 
April 1, 1917, to March 31, 1918 



The Booklist, regular subscriptions 1,930 $1,930.00 

Additional subscriptions at reduced rate of 50c 258 129.00 

Bulk subscriptions 1,310.55 

Extra copies 940 133.10 3,502.65 

Handbooks: 

1, Essentials in library administration 155 30.06 

5, Binding for libraries 309 30.17 

6, Mending and repair of books 393 52.42 

7, U. S. Government documents in small libraries 333 38.65 

8, How to choose editions 129 14.85 

9, Normal library budget 47 6.61 

10, Manual for institutional libraries 34 8.21 180.97 

Tracts : 

1, How to start a library 69 3.13 

4, Library rooms and buildings 42 3.72 

5, Notes from the art section 10 .50 

8, A village library 29 1,40 

9, Library school training 19 .95 

10, Why do we need a public library 131 5.50 15.20 

Foreign lists: 

French 14 3.40 

French fiction 5 .25 

French literature, recent 57 13.75 

German 9 4.28 

Hungarian 7 1.00 

Italian 2 .70 

Norwegian 3 .75 

Polish 14 3.38 

Russian 28 13.15 

Swedish 14 3.27 43.93 

Reprints: 

Bostwick, Public library and public school 22 1.39 

Inspirational influence of books in the life of children 29 1.39 

Library statistics 8 .39 

Making maps available 29 1.38 

N. E. A. — List of books for rural school libraries 47 4.15 

Some recent features in library architecture 11 .58 9.28 

Periodical cards, subscriptions 521.24 

Reed's Modern eloquence (cards for) 3 sets 7.50 

Warner's library of the World's best literature (cards for) 156 sets 1,162.40 1,691.14 

League publications: 

Aids in library work with foreigners 67 6.16 

Directions for librarian of a small library 42 4.01 

League Handbook, 1916 53 25.08 

League Yearbook, 1912 1 .50 35.75 

A. L. A. Manual of library economy, chapters as follows: 

1, American library history. 158 9.05 

2, Library of Congress 206 13.27 



REPORTS 276 

3, The state library 102 6.42 

4, College and university library 166 9.83 

5, Proprietary and subscription libraries '. 187 9.41 

6, The free public library 98 6.15 

7, The high school library 223 18.07 

8, Special libraries 86 7.54 

10, Library buildings 178 11.00 

11, Furniture, fixtures and equipment 237 14.17 

12, Library administration 353 17.12 

13, Training for librarianship 102 7.74 

14, Library service 202 14.48 

15, Branch libraries 215 11.44 

16, Book selection ." 488 30.33 

17, Order and accession department 418 25.96 

18, Classification 226 20.36 

20, Shelf department 91 ■ 5.14 

21, Loan work 424 18.83 

22, Reference department 142 12.63 

23, Government documents (state and city) 94 8.35 

24, Bibliography 274 18.11 

25, Pamphlets and minor library material 312 25.91 

27, Commissions, state aid, etc 153 8.44 

29, Library work with children 231 14.45 

30, Library work with the blind 53 4.51 

32, Library printing 256 15.31 364.02 

A. U A. Catalog, 1904-11 229 321.39 

A. L. A. Index to General Literature 10 57.00 

A. L. A. Index to General Literature, Supplement 1900-10 14 51.60 

Apprentice course for small libraries 383 242.35 

Books for boys and girls 259 47.88 

Catalog rules 600 328.67 

Cataloging for small libraries 242 280.25 

Collection of social survey material 45 4.29 

Graded list of stories for reading aloud 165 15.19 

Guide to reference books. Supplement 1909-10 15 3.10 

Guide to reference books, Supplement 1911-13 8 2.96 

Guide to reference books, new edition 2,339 4,716.03 

High school list 110 51.08 

Hints to small libraries 57 39.53 

Hospital list 21 S.13 

Index to kindergarten songs 19 26.25 

Index to library reports 9 8.30 

Library buildings 16 1.50 

List of economical editions 69 15.70 

List of music and books about music 16 3.94 

List of subject headings, 3rd edition 527 1,179.26 

List of 550 children's books 22 3.27 

Lists of material to be obtained free or at small cost 194 44.44 

Periodicals for the small library, old edition 299 27.12 

Scientific management, List of books on 12 1.12 _ 

Shakespeare, Brief guide to the literature of 18 8.40 

Special Indexes in American libraries 68 6.46 

Subject headings for catalogs of juvenile books 54 76.20 

Subject Index to A. L. A. Booklist, v. 1-6 24 5.38 

Subject Index to A. L. A. Booklist, v. 7 14 1.36 

Vocational guidance through the library 85 7.80 

A. L. A. Bulletin and Proceedings 77 28.30 $7,611.25 

113,454.19 



276 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



PROCEEDINGS 

July J-6, J9I8 



FIRST GENERAL SESSION 
(Monday evening, July 1) 

The Fortieth Annual Meeting of the 
American Library Association was called 
to order by the president, Thomas L. Mont- 
GOMEBY, librarian of the Pennsylvania 
State Library, at the Grand Union Hotel, 
Saratoga Springs, New York, on Monday 
evening, July 1, 1918. 

Dr. Charles B. Alexander, regent of 
the University of the State of New York, 
being introduced, extended to the associa- 
tion his greeting in behalf of the State of 
New York, in an 

ADDRESS OF WELCOME 

(See p. 48) 
The reading of the president's address 
followed, President Montgomery choosing 
as his subject 

CIVILIZATION 

(See p. 45) 

The following telegram was read by 
the secretary: 

Please accept congratulations from Na- 
tional War Garden Commission for splen- 
did patriotic work of librarians of America 
during emergency of war time. This com- 
mission is especially grateful for helpful 
cooperation given by libraries in the dis- 
tribution of its books of instructions on 
war vegetable gardening and on home 
canning and drying of vegetables and 
fruits. This help has been of great im- 
portance in stimulating home production 
and conservation of foodstuffs. Please 
let it be known to all librarians present 
at Conference that our books are available 
for their use. We have sent a supply to 
your Conference headquarters for distri- 
bution to librarians. 

Charles Lathrop Pack, 

President National War 
Garden Commission. 

Washington, D. C, July 1, 1918. 

After the reading of the foregoing mes- 
sage the session was adjourned. 

SECOND GENERAL SESSION 
(Tuesday morning, July 2) 
President Montgomery presided. 
The President called attention to the 
reports of ofllcers and committees which 



had been printed in advance of the Con- 
ference, and distributed to members. These 
reports included those of the secretary, 
treasurer, trustees of the endowment funds, 
the A. L. A. Publishing Board, the Com- 
mittee on Bookbinding and Committee on 
Federal and State Relations. The reports 
of the Committees on Library Training, 
Work with the Blind and Legislation were 
read by title. 

All of the above reports were accepted 
and ordered printed as a part of the Con- 
ference proceedings. (For the reports see 
page 251 and following.) 

President Montgomery then called for a 
report of the War Service Committee fY-om 
the chairman, Mr. J. I. Wyer, Jr., director 
of the New York State Library, and Mr. 
Wyer spoke upon 

the work of the war service committee 
(See p. 106) 

Mr. J. C. Dana, librarian of the Newark 
(N. J.) Public Library, having inquired 
whether a report would be issued regard- 
ing the visits made to camp libraries by 
Dr. F. P. Hill, Mr. Wyer replied that this 
information had not been included in a 
formal report but would be printed in the 
Library Journal. 

Mr. Dana stated that he desired to bring 
to the attention of the Association the ex- 
istence of this report, for the reason that 
it includes certain criticisms worthy of 
note, and further explains very clearly the 
position of women in relation to camp li- 
brary work. Dr. Hill's attitude upon this 
being especially gratifying to the speaker, 
who believes the brains of the Association 
in large degree are in the heads of women. 

The President called upon Dr. Frank 
P. Hill, librarian of the Brooklyn Public 
Library, and chairman of the Library War 
Finance Committee, for a statement of the 
manner in which the war library fund had 
been raised. 



PROCEEDINGS 



277 



Dr. Hill responded by saying that the 
report of the Library War Finance Com- 
mittee was comprised in the "Story of the 
million dollar campaign" (see page 163) 
and that he had nothing to add to that 
statement except to say that money was 
still coming in, and that a second financial 
campaign was planned to call for three or 
four times the amount asked for in the 
first one. 

President Montgomery then called upon 
Dr. Herbert Putnam, librarian of Con- 
gress, and general director of the Library 
War Service. 

In mentioning that the report of the 
War Service Committee, including a state- 
ment by the general director, had been 
printed in advance of the Conference and 
distributed. Dr. Putnam called attention to 
a number of the War Library Bulletin and 
to the exhibit at the hotel as auxiliary to 
the report. 

Continuing to speak of the library war 
service work, Dr. Putnam said: 

With the numerous authorities intro- 
duced to you as connected with the work, 
the jurisdiction would seem somewhat 
complicated. There is the president of the 
Association, the chairman of the War 
Service Committee, the chairman of the 
War Finance Committee, the general di- 
rector. Really, however, it is not so com- 
plicated as it might seem. The relations 
are quite logical. The chairman of the 
War Service Committee represents the au- 
thority of the Association vested in a com- 
mittee for a special piece of work. Since 
the committee's attempt last October to 
divest itself of the actual conduct of the 
work by vesting that in a general director, 
the task of its chairman has been chiefly 
to see that the committee abstained from 
executive as against legislative functions. 

As between the chairman of the War Fi- 
nance Committee and the general director 
the relation is a very simple one: he 
raises the money; I spend it; and his chief 
task is to raise money fast enough and to 
see that I don't spend it too fast. In fact, 
however. Dr. Hill's actual solicitude is 
that I shall spend it fast enough to assure 
him the relish of another financial cam- 
paign. 

And back of all of us. President Mont- 
gomery, representing the majesty and the 
complacency of the Association, "points 
with pride" — when he gets a chance to. 



He also receives, and to the best of his 
ability, absorbs criticisms that come to 
him: making sure that even if they reach 
the chairman of the committee, they shall 
not reach the general director, to harass 
him in the midst of perplexing details. 
This is a very important service, which I 
have no doubt Mr. Montgomery has exe- 
cuted to an extent which we engaged in 
the practical detail have no adequate real- 
ization of. 

As Mr. Wyer has said, we have in effect 
been reporting to you, especially in our 
Bulletins, ever since last January. Any 
report today, though containing summaries 
of operations, would not be a complete ex- 
hibit of them; nor is the time ripe for a 
final exhibit. My own "statement" takes 
up under several heads rather the exist- 
ing situation, the problem and the pros- 
pect. It summarizes the physical establish- 
ment, the accommodations for our work, 
the books available, gift and purchase, de- 
scribes the method of procedure as one of 
evolution, makes reference to a few phe- 
nomena such as camp practice, and ap- 
pends a statement of receipts and expendi- 
tures. Under each heading I have at- 
tempted to indicate some of the imperfec- 
tions still existing: imperfections imply- 
ing improvements still to be effected. At 
the close I have not hesitated to assert 
that we have now a service both "appro- 
priate" and recognized to be such. That 
does not, however, mean a service fully 
adequate. In fact it is a service still in- 
adequate. It requires improvement and 
enlargement under every head: under 
buildings, books, organization and prac- 
tice. There must be enlargement — a real- 
ly enormous enlargement — for the problem 
itself is constantly enlarging, and it is 
also constantly diversifying. Not merely 
are we to have an army of several million 
men, instead of the one million which we 
planned for last autumn, but the needs of 
these men are developing in a multiplicity 
of ways as well as at a multiplicity of 
points. Every day brings new evidence of 
this. No day finds us at a standstill; no 
decision made is certain to be final for the 
next. 

There is in my statement a little head- 
ing entitled "Uniformities." It is a dis- 
claimer. There aren't any, to speak of. 
Even our uniforms aren't uniform. You 
have evidence in the variety of them among 
the camp librarians who form part of our 
exhibit here. In our younger days we 
were taught that there were three kinds of 
symmetry: the symmetry of alternation, 
the symmetry of repetition, and the sym- 
metry of unsymmetrical detail. If we can 



278 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



claim for our service any symmetry at all, 
it will be the symmetry of "unsymmetrical 
detail." 

But that is true of the war operations 
of our government also. The War De- 
partment, the Navy Department, all the 
agencies, look to a unity in the final re- 
sult; but they recognize that such a result 
is not necessarily to be secured by an 
identity of practice in every relation. The 
diversity of conditions encountered could 
be dealt with only by an equal diversity of 
methods. And the camps were military 
establishments. If we had gone in there 
with rigid standards, and a practice of in- 
sistent uniformity, the attitude towards 
us would have been as stiff as it has in fact 
been yielding. Our practice has, there- 
fore, varied in the several camps; it has 
not even necessarily continued identical 
in the same camp; for the camps them- 
selves change from time to time both in 
their personnel and in the type of training 
which they undertake. We must meet such 
changes and all that they involve. 

The development of a personnel re- 
quired the development of an experience. 
It was not possible at the outset to estab- 
lish even at headquarters a staff represent- 
ing the combinations necessary. For such 
a combination involved both general com- 
petence and an actual experience in the 
field; and at the outset men and women 
with the latter were yet to be developed. 

Now we have an "establishment" — an 
organization — appropriate, even if not ade- 
quate; and this means much. 

Meantime the work itself has proceeded 
with the resources in hand. And already 
it has gone far to consume the resources. 
Last October these consisted of a million 
and three-quarters dollars. We have spent 
between eight and nine hundred thousand; 
so that the balance available on July 1 is but 
a little over eight hundred thousand. At 
the present rate of expenditure, that is, at 
the prospective rate beginning July 1, of 
one hundred and fifty thousand dollars a 
month, you have money enough for only 
about five months of further operation. 
So that it is none too soon, as the chair- 
man of the War Finance Committee has 
indicated, for you to prepare for another 
campaign which will secure further re- 
sources by the late fall, certainly by De- 
cember 1. 

•The report contains some statistics; but 
statistics of such a sort are not results. 
We can as little show results in this work 
as you can in the work of a municipal 
library. What will be the ultimate effect 
upon the man in the use of the book? You 
can cite testimony, you can quote experi- 



ence, but you cannot give definite proof. 

But as regards our soldier service the 
experience of those in direct contact with 
it will certainly furnish a vivid sugges- 
tion. And in the symposium this morn- 
ing we plan now to bring to you recitals 
of some of those experiences. They will 
be typical, and they will be authoritative, 
since they will come from the men and 
women who have had them. 

In addition, later, will be a statement 
by Dr. Raney of his observations over- 
seas, and of the opportunities and the 
duties for us that he has seen there. 

The Secretary announced that the fol- 
lowing Committee on Resolutions had been 
appointed: Arthur E. Bostwick, chairman; 
Mary E. Ahern and Harrison W. Craver. 

Mr. Carl H. Milam, librarian of the 
Public Library, Birmingham, Alabama, 
now acting as assistant to the general di- 
rector. Library War Service, was called 
upon by the president to conduct a sym- 
posium on camp library work. 

Mr. Milam stated that it was desired to 
discuss in the presence of those who had 
directed the administration of the war li- 
brary work certain practical problems of 
camp library service, based on the experi- 
ences of camp librarians in attendance at 
the Conference. 

Mr. M. S. Dudgeon, secretary of the Wis- 
consin Library Commission, and latterly 
acting as camp librarian at Great Lakes, 
Illinois, was first called upon, and ad- 
dressed the assembly on 

WHAT MEN READ IN CAMPS 

(See p. 221) 

Miss Miriam E. Carey, field representa- 
tive in the hospital service, was next called 
upon by the chairman, and spoke upon 
what men read in hospitals 
(See p. 222) 

Dr. Clement W. Andrews: The speaker 
in a very interesting account made no 
mention of the reading of the staff. Do 
the surgeons, the nurses and the orderlies 
read at all, and what do they read? 

Miss Carey: If the- librarian knows 
books and is able to meet the demands of 
the staff and the nurses, they will come to 
her for books. In some hospitals the 
nurses use the library largely for recrea- 



PROCEEDINGS 



279 



tion; in one that I know of the staff re- 
quested special books from the librarian. 
As she was able to procure them, the read- 
ing kept up. It depends on whether the 
librarian can meet the demand. 

Mr. Edgerton, of New London, Connecti- 
cut, emphasized the need at the camps of 
sets of textbooks, such as trigonometries, 
comprising enough copies of one edition 
to' make it practicable for an instructor 
to do classroom work with a number of 
men. He cited an instance of prompt and 
effective work, when by aid of the Wash- 
ington office a class at Fort Wright was 
supplied with algebras at an opportune 
time. 

Mr. BowKER here requested that Mr. 
Brown, of the Brooklyn Public Library, 
describe a certain "hurry call" for aviation 
books. 

Mr. Bkown: We had permission from 
Dr. Putnam to obtain books from Mr. Bai- 
ley, of the A. L. A. Dispatch Office. We 
had a call at four o'clock one afternoon 
for some books on aviation and some trig- 
onometries. Within twenty - four hours 
of the time we got the call the books were 
on the way to the train. We took them to 
Camp Mills at 4:00 a.m. The company 
desiring them left at 7:00 a.m., taking the 
books with them. 

Miss Downey, of Salt Lake City, stated 
that state departments of education and 
school superintendents and principals had 
given her great aid In sending hundreds 
of ordinary textbooks. She further said 
that from her experience she should judge 
the need for fiction at camps might be met 
largely by gifts of such books, leaving the 
funds to be applied to purchase of tech- 
nical works and desired serious literature. 

Mr. Milam: We buy practically no fic- 
tion from the fund; we are depending al- 
most wholly on gift books for fiction. 

Mr. Milam then asked Mr. Dudgeon to 
speak upon his experience with the text- 
book question. 

Mr. Dudgeon explained that he had 
worked both from the Washington office 
and at the camps; that when a man ex- 
pected to become an officer as the result 



of his camp studies, it was questionable 
whether it was the function of the library 
to provide an individual textbook for three 
months. In his camp experience plenty of 
old textbooks suitable for enabling a brush- 
up on a subject were available. 

Mr. BowKER inquired the attitude to- 
ward books on elementary German and 
German educational subjects. 

Chairman Milam: We are furnishing 
them at the request of the camp libraries 
for men who have to study German under 
the direction of the officers. 

Others taking part in the discussion 
were Mr. Ranck, Miss Winser, Mr. Van 
Hoesen, and Mr. Purd B. Wright. It was 
brought out that some sections of the coun- 
try have solicited textbooks from educa- 
tional centers to a greater extent than 
other sections; and additional aid in col- 
lecting such books was willingly offered 
by librarians. 

Miss Downey suggested that a definite 
message be sent to the N. E. A. asking 
that textbooks be collected and turned over 
to the A. L. A. 

Chairman MirjvM: That is a splendid 
suggestion. I may •'ay within the past few 
weeks most college librarians in the coun- 
try have received a special letter from 
Washington asking for that material. 

Mr. BowKER moved that the A. L. A. 
send an official communication to the 
N. E. A. thanking the superintendents and 
teachers for their cooperation so far and 
asking for their larger cooperation in the 
future. 

The motion was duly seconded and car- 
ried. 

In accordance with this vote of the As- 
sociation the following message was tele- 
graphed to the secretary of the National 
Education Association: 

The American Library Association In an- 
nual conference at Saratoga Springs, by 
unanimous vote cordially thanks the super- 
intendents, teachers and other members 
of the National Education Association for 
their hearty cooperation In obtaining 
needed books, particularly textbooks for 
the military and naval forces both here 



280 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



and overseas, and asks for and antici- 
pates a yet larger cooperation in the com- 
ing year. 

Following this discussion, Mr. W. H. 
Bkett, librarian of the Cleveland Public 
Library, read a paper on 

SENDING BOOKS "OVEK THEKE" 

(See p. 183) 

Chairman Milam: Heretofore I have not 
wasted any of your time in introductory 
speeches, but I am going to make one. 
Mr. Asa Don Dickinson has two claims to 
distinction. Many of us felt in managing 
a library of 30,000 volumes we have rather 
a good sized job on our hands; Mr. Dick- 
inson is handling 30,000 volumes a week 
and is sending them to France. His other 
distinction Is he Is the only living libra- 
rian who occupies four saloons at one time. 

Mr. Asa Don Dickinson, In charge of 
the A. L. A. Dispatch Office at Hoboken, 
then read a paper entitled 

THE day's WOBK IN HOBOKEN 

(See p. 200) 

Miss WiNSEB having Inquired whether 
every soldier had a book put into hl& 
hands, Mr, Dickinson replied that prob- 
ably a book for every three men was fur- 
nished. He further said that the giving 
out of magazines to men departing on 
ships was discontinued, under request from 
officers. 

Mr. Milam also stated that the giving 
of books to individuals was being discon- 
tinued. 

Chairman Milam having observed that 
the limited time allowed for the remain- 
der of the program of that session would 
prevent his calling upon agents at other 
dispatch offices, it was voted to hold a spe- 
cial meeting on Thursday, July 4, at 10:30 
a. m., to consider the remaining subjects 
of the regular program, and the discussion 
of dispatch office work was continued. 

Mr. Charles H. Brown, of the Brooklyn 
dispatch office, was first called upon by the 
chairman, and stated briefly that ship- 
ments of about 30,000 books a month were 
going from Brooklyn overseas. More than 
that would not be attempted, as it was de- 
sired to supply the camp library needs of 



soldiers and sailors in the neighborhood, 
who came into the office in numbers up 
to 150 a day. 

Mr. Loins J. Bailey, of the New York 
dispatch office, was next called upon, and 
said the New York office receives practic- 
ally all of the purchased books that are to 
be forwarded to camps. Books are being 
sent to all points in this country, and to 
Alaska, Hawaii, Haiti and the Canal Zone, 
The office also conducts an overseas de- 
partment, and has received the gifts sent 
in for war service to the New York Pub- 
lic Library, amounting to perhaps 500,000 
volumes. 

Dr. C. O. S. Mawson, of the Boston dis- 
patch office, then spoke of the splendid quar- 
ters provided free for that office in the base- 
ment of the WIdener Library, and said 
that he had a body of 300 volunteers to 
draw upon — women of various Red Cross 
centers, the men of the entire collection 
department of the New England Telephone 
Company, who offered to come In the eve- 
ning and do all packing until the end of 
the war; a group of thirty girls from the 
telephone service; and forty or more vol- 
unteers from the Harvard College Library. 
He further stated that over 60,000 books 
had been prepared for shipment from New 
England, and said every transport leaving 
Boston was supplied with all the books it 
would take. 

Mr. Teal: When Pershing asked for 
fifty tons of books every month. If fifty 
tons are being shipped from Hoboken, how 
many tons are shipped from the other 
places and what are they doing with them? 

Chairman Milam: Books are going over 
In three or four different ways. There Is 
a tonnage space of fifty tons a month, per- 
haps a hundred to a hundred and fifty 
thousand volumes a month. Twenty-five 
thousand volumes have been delivered to 
the Red Cross and will go across on the 
Red Cross tonnage and other books are 
being sent on naval facilities to naval 
bases abroad. 

Mr. Franklin H. Price, of the Philadel- 
phia dispatch office, being called upon by 
the chairman, stated that the office at Phil- 



PROCEEDINGS 



281 



adelphia is the smallest of the dispatch 
offices. About 9,800 books a week Is the 
limit of output. Deck shipments for use 
on transports are sent out, and also books 
are sent across for the naval bases. 

Chairman Milam: Since the remarks of 
Mr. Price have been so modest, let me cite 
an instance when he delivered about 4,000 
volumes to a supply officer on forty-eight 
hours' notice. We have not been handing 
out any bouquets this morning, but if It 
were within the scope of the meeting, I 
am sure we could pass them out very free- 
ly, not only to the camp librarians but to 
the dispatch officers. 

There followed a short discussion regard- 
ing gift book plates and pockets and the 
marking for war service books, the points 
being brought out that while in emergency 
rubber stamps and short cut methods might 
be resorted to, yet the tendency should be 
to build up library service and not merely 
to scatter books broadcast; that the books 
are gifts of the A. L. A. for the use of the 
army and navy, not individual gifts to 
men in military service to be held or dis- 
posed of as personal possessions; and that 
no library system should prevail which 
would offset the efforts of officers to train 
men in habits of orderliness and careful- 
ness. 

Mr. Bowkeb: Before adjournment I wish 
to move that the proper officials be author- 
ized and instructed to extend the best 
wishes and heartfelt desires of the Amer- 
ican Library Association for cooperation 
in the great work of supplying the forces 
in the field with the best reading, to our 
associates among the allied nations, the 
Library Association of the United King- 
dom and the library authorities of the 
other nations allied with us in the great 
and righteous cause of the world war. 

The motion was duly carried. 

Mr. Bowkeb: I move that when we ad- 
journ we do so by a rising vote as a testi- 
monial of our respect and honor and ap- 
preciation for those represented on the 
platform and largely on the floor, for those 



who are doing our work today in the libra- 
ry field, which is to help win the war. 

The motion was duly seconded and car- 
ried, whereupon the session was adjourned. 

THIRD GENERAL SESSION 

(Wednesday morning, July 3) - 
President Montgomery presided. 
At the request of the President, the 
Secketaby read the report of the Finance 
Committee, which was received and or- 
dered printed as a part of the proceedings. 
(See page 259.) 

The Secretary: At the meeting of the 
Executive Board in Washington, January 
2, the Board passed a vote as follows: 

yoted. That the secretary prepare or 
have prepared a proposed amendment to 
the Constitution setting forth the general 
auditing powers of the Finance Commit- 
tee. 

Attention had been called to the fact that 
the Finance Committee was not instructed 
by the Constitution to audit the accounts 
of the Publishing Board, and there were 
other auditing duties that should be looked 
after by the Finance Committee which 
should properly be stated in the Constitu- 
tion. 

The Executive Board therefore at Its 
meeting Monday of this week approved the 
following amendment to Section 12 of the 
Constitution, which deals with the Finance 
Committee: That the last sentence of 
Section 12 be amended to read as follows: 

"The Finance Committee shall audit the 
accounts of the secretary, treasurer, trus- 
tees of the endowment fund, treasurer of 
the Publishing Board, and all other ac- 
counts, and report to the Association at 
the annual meeting." 

According to the Constitution of the As- 
sociation the Constitution may be amended 
by a three-fourths vote of those present 
and voting at two successive meetings of 
the Association, provided that notice of the 
amendments be sent to each member of 
the Association at least one month before 
final adoption. 



282 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



On motion, duly seconded and carried, 
the amendment was adopted. 

(This constitutes the first vote of the 
Association on this amendment.) 

Next on the program Miss Edith Gueb- 
BiER, director of the library section of the 
Food Administration, Washington, D. C, 
spoke briefly upon 

THE LIBRARIES AND THE UNITED STATES FOOD 
ADMINISTRATION 

(See p. 184) 

The President announced as the general 
topic of a symposium to be held at that 
session, "What libraries are doing to help 
win the war." 

Miss Mary L. Titcomb, librarian of the 
Washington County Free Library, Hagers- 
town, Maryland, presented the first ad- 
dress, on 

WHAT THE COUNTY AND BUBAL LIBBABY IS 
DOING TO HELP WIN THE WAB 

(See p. 187) 
The next paper on the program was that 
of Mr. HiLLEB C. Wellman, librarian of 
the City Library Association, Springfield, 
Massachusetts, whose subject was 

WHAT THE CITY LIBRARY IS DOING TO HELP 
WIN THE WAB 

(See p. 57) 
Miss Julia A. Robinson, secretary of the 
Iowa Library Commission, followed with 
a paper entitled 

what THE LIBBABY COMMISSION IS DOING TO 
HELP WIN THE WAB 

(See p. 186) 
Mr. J. I. Wyer, Jb., director of the New 
York State Library, then delivered an ad- 
dress on 

WHAT THE STATE LIBRARY IS DOING TO HELP 
WIN THE WAB 

(See p. 189) 
Mr. J. C. M. Hanson, associate director 
of the University of Chicago Libraries, 
followed with a paper on 

WHAT THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY IS DOING TO 
HELP WIN THE WAR 

(See p. 192) 
Mr. George H. Locke, librarian of the 
Public Library of Toronto, Canada, pre- 
sented the next paper, having for his sub- 
ject 



CANADIAN LIBBABIES AND THE WAB 

(See p. 78) 

Dr. Hill: Mr. Locke has given us a 
most interesting description of the work in 
Canada under great difficulties. He has 
not told us one-tenth part of the difficul- 
ties which the librarians there had to 
contend with. 

There are two features of his story 
which should sink into our minds. In the 
first place, that the circulation and the 
amount of money spent on libraries have 
increased. With us It is a different story. 
Most libraries have found that their cir- 
culation has decreased and that it Is with 
great difficulty that some of us obtained 
money necessary to carry on the library, 
even with the appropriation of two or 
three years ago. The second is the work 
which the libraries may do after the war. 
And with those two In mind I would sug- 
gest or even move that the committee on 
resolutions prepare a resolution which 
would state the feeling that libraries are 
decidedly essential to the people of the 
United States during this war. 

The motion was duly seconded and car- 
ried. 

Dr. M. LiJswELLYN Raney, librarian of 
the Johns Hopkins University Library, and 
secretary of the Committee on Importa- 
tions, then read a report from that com- 
mittee, which was received and ordered 
printed as a part of the proceedings. 

(See page 266.) 

Dr. Hill: The Committee on Importa- 
tions desires to place on record the fact 
that not only has Its secretary. Dr. Raney, 
prepared and read the report but also has 
done all of the work In connection with 
gaining the concessions from our own 
Government and from the governments on 
the other side. 

On motion, the meeting was then ad- 
journed. 

SPECIAL GENERAL SESSION 

(Thursday morning, July 4) 
At the request of President Montgomeby, 
Mr. Cabl H. Milam took the chair, the 
meeting being an adjournment of the camp 
library symposium of Tuesday, July 2. 



PROCEEDINGS 



283 



Chairman Milam first called upon Mr, 
Joy E. Morgan, camp librarian, the topic 
of whose address was 

HOW THE CAMP LIBRARY REACHES EVERY 
MAN 

(See p. 233) 
Mr. Frederick Goodell, camp librarian, 
also addressed the assembly on 

HOW THE CAMP LIBRARY REACHES EVERY 
MAN 

(See p. 236) 

Chairman Milam: Before passing on to 
the next subject or opening this up for 
general discussion, I would like to ask 
somebody representing a naval station to 
speak for just a moment or two on the 
same subject. I wonder if Mr. Hirshberg, 
from the Great Lakes Naval Training Sta- 
tion, is here? 

Mr. Herbert S. Hibshbero, camp libra- 
rian at Great Lakes, Illinois, accordingly 
spoke briefly on 

CAMP LIBRARY WORK AT A NAVAL TRAINING 
STATION 

(See p. 240) 

A Member: To what extent do you re- 
quire textbooks? 

Mr. Hirshberg: The question of text- 
books, of course, is still open. I person- 
ally believe that where the Government 
does not supply the books (as they do not 
in all the schools) the A. L. A. should an- 
swer the call. A great deal of the call for 
textbooks, however, comes not from the 
men who are already in the schools, but 
those who are preparing to go into the 
schools; that is, the men in detention 
camps who have enlisted for radio or for 
aviation want books on radio and aviation, 
elementary books, or perhaps the textbooks 
used in the schools themselves. The 
A. L. A. is called upon by those men indi- 
vidually to furnish those books and, of 
course, the books must be furnished in 
very large quantities if we are to do the 
work which is to be done there. 

Mr. Charles E. Rush called attention to 
a poster by Mr. Charles B. Falls, of New 
York City, stating that the work was the 
gift of this artist to the library war serv- 
ice, copies of the poster to be furnished 



to libraries and camps; and having sug- 
gested that a telegram of appreciation and 
congratulation be sent to Mr. Falls, the 
matter was referred to the Committee on 
Resolutions. 

Chairman Milam next called upon Mr. 
Lloyd W. Josselyn, who spoke on 

A DAY IN CAMP 

(See p. 239) 
Mr. John A. Lowe followed, with a pa- 
per on 

A DAY IN CAMP 

(See p. 237) 
Miss Mary L. Titcomb, having been 
called upon by the chairman, spoke on 

A DAY AT FORT LEAVENWORTH 

(See p. 241) 
At the close of Miss Titcomb's address, 
Mr. J. I. Wyer stated that the following 
communication had been presented to the 
War Service Committee at its meeting on 
the previous day: 

"Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 
July 3, 1918. 
We ask the War Service Committee 
please to announce at the Special General 
Session to be held Thursday, July 4, at 
10:30 a.m., its future policy as to the em- 
ployment of women in the work under its 
charge. 

Beatrice Winseb, 
Mary E. Downey, 
Tessa L. Kelso, 
May Massee, 
Theresa Elmendorf, 
Annie Carroll Moore, 
Emma V. Baldwin." 
Mr. Wyer, for the War Service Commit- 
tee, then submitted a statement as follows: 
The Committee is glad to reply promptly 
and specifically to the foregoing request. It 
must be said, however, merely as a fact and 
not in any sense as excuse or parley, that It 
is impossible (in the words of our petition- 
ers) "to announce a future policy." In 
the library war service both policies and 
practices are like Huyler's candies, "Fresh 
every hour." Policies are determined by 
the general director, and so rapid is the 
growth of the work from hour to hour 
that it is often, in the rush of the day's 
business, very hard to distinguish be- 
tween a policy and a practice. Because 



284 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



of these things the War Service Commit- 
tee has made few formal pronouncements 
of policy. There are, however, in posses- 
sion of the committee certain facts, sta- 
tistics, and documents which indicate ten- 
dencies in this interesting matter and from 
these tendencies, policies may readily be 
inferred. These the committee is very 
glad to present. The first is as follows: 

The roster of the personnel of the libra- 
ry war service from its inception last Oc- 
tober, printed and distributed to the mem- 
bers of this conference as War Library 
Bulletin 7, shows the names of 236 men 
and 69 women. These women are 

On the headquarters staff 8 

On the field staff 9 

In dispatch ofilces 12 

In camp libraries 40 

The second, from the statement of the 
general director which accompanies the 
printed report of the War Service Com- 
mittee placed in your hands at the open- 
ing session, is as follows: 

"The increasing availability — permissi- 
bility — of women for service in the camps 
helps to assure an adequate personnel. 
The time may come — at certain camps may 
come shortly — when women may be desig- 
nated to the actual charge of the main li- 
brary. As appears from the list of per- 
sonnel, they already occupy positions of 
responsibility in every phase of the serv- 
ice and many of them are already in 
charge of camp libraries, though none as 
yet in charge of the main camp library 
building." 

And the following observations by Dr. 
Hill, a member of the committee with 
strong predilections for the largest pos- 
sible use of women in its work, is taken 
from the report of his recent visit to ten 
large southern camps. 

"Ever since the War Service Commit- 
tee was organized, I have felt that women, 
being in a large majority in the American 
Library Association, should be called into 
intimate relations with the work, both at 
headquarters and in camp, and I still feel 
just as strongly about it. From the be- 
ginning I have realized that there were 
many obstacles in the way of women serv- 
ing as chief librarians at the camps and I 
come back from my trip strongly fortified 
in that opinion. Here are some of them: 
1. Objection on the part of commanding 
officers. 



2. Difficulty of establishing relations 

with camp headquarters. 

3. The fact that it is a camp of men. 

4. Inaccessibility of the camp library. 

5. Necessity for leaving the grounds by 

7 p.m. 

6. Exceptional physical hardships im- 

posed and required. 
But they can be a large part of the staff 
at nearly every library, and at many of the 
camps women are employed both as volun- 
teers and as paid members of the regular 
staff. 

Camps are located six to twelve miles 
from towns and to reach them one has to 
make use of most uncomfortable jitney 
service. This can be endured when the 
library building is near the entrance or 
on a main thoroughfare. In many camps 
the library is on a side street a mile from 
the gate and difficult to reach. Women 
would not find it altogether pleasant to 
work in such camps, but the best evidence 
on this score would come from the women 
now serving in the libraries. If they are 
willing to put up with the discomforts and 
inconveniences, we ought to accept their 
services and place them in every camp as 
assistant librarians. Give them every pos- 
sible opportunity to aid in this noble work. 
To them quite as much as to the men is 
due the success of the money campaign 
and they should be given an equal share in 
the conduct of the work." 

The final speaker of the camp library 
symposium was Mr. Adam Stbohm, libra- 
rian of the Detroit Public Library and 
camp librarian at Camp Gordon, Georgia, 
his topic being 

IS CAMP LIBRARY WORK AVOBTH WHILE? 

(See p. 196) 

Mr. Emerson inquired whether any dis- 
tinctive service was being rendered at the 
camp libraries with the idea of American- 
izing any who have not imbibed the full 
spirit of American ideals. 

Chairman Milam: No person is better 
qualified to answer that question than the 
last speaker, Mr. Strohm. 

Mr. Strohm: There is a great deal of 
formal work being done in the way of class 
instruction in American history, teaching 
English, explaining, interpreting, analyz- 
ing the motives back of the American 
identification with the war. Perhaps the 
reprints of the President's various mes- 
sages have accomplished more than any- 
thing else. 



PROCEEDINGS 



285 



I think we should realize that the mili- 
tary training itself, the mingling with the 
boys in khaki, the significance of the re- 
lations between the men and between the 
ofBcers does more toward Americanizing 
the boys than anything else. The salute 
and the return salute between the private 
and his superior signify the mutual under- 
standing of this service of all, viz.: ready 
obedience yet equal consideration as man 
to man. 

Dr. Hill: Is it not a fact that the edu- 
cational work in the camp is in the hands 
of the Y. M. C. A. educational secretary 
and that they are developing that work to 
a great extent? 

I remember one camp that I visited and 
there were 3,600 illiterates who were be- 
ing taught by "Y" secretaries. And I un- 
derstand that work is being organized now 
in a cooperative way between the Y. M. C. A. 
and Knights of Columbus and Jewish Wel- 
fare Workers, so that it will be in charge 
entirely of the Y. M. C. A. secretaries. 

Now that I am on my feet, in regard to 
the statement made a short time ago by 
the chairman of the War Service Commit- 
tee as to employment of women, I wish to 
emphasize the point that the War Service 
Committee has nothing to do with the em- 
ployment of women or of men; this is en- 
tirely in the hands of the general director. 

Miss Winser: First may I thank the 
War Service Committee for this most cour- 
teous word by Mr. Wyer. There seems to 
be in their minds an absolute misunder- 
standing of what it is a few of the women 
of this Association had in mind when they 
put this question to them. It is not that 
we desire to be camp librarians necessarily, 
but it is that we are getting excessively 
weary of being protected, shielded from 
hard work. We are quite accustomed in 
our own spheres to doing hard work of all 
kinds, so let us forget this cherishing of 
women in library work. 

Mr. PuRD B. Wright: In any camp, in 
any place, in what they call the forefront 
of this work, the man is not alone, be- 
cause he has nine or ten or twenty or 
thirty or forty women back of him; and 



the work that we are doing out West is 
made possible in my library because I 
have a force of sixty-five people working 
every night so that I may go and do it, 
and we ought to give the credit to them. 

Miss McDonald: As representing a 
number of the women that Mr. Wright has 
just spoken of, I would like to remind you 
of a remark Mr. Strohm made, and that is 
the exultation attained from the direct 
service. It is all right to wash dishes; it 
is all right to raise money and to work 
overtime hour after hour and night after 
night; I am perfectly willing to do it and 
I love the girls that are helping me to do 
it, but also it is all right to hand around 
in some way a little of that exultation that 
comes from direct Avar service. 

Miss MooRE (of New York City) : As 
one of the signers of that paper — I do not 
like to call it a petition because I have 
never liked signing petitions — I would 
like to say a word as to the reason why 
I signed it: 

I signed it from a very strong convic- 
tion that a clearer and more comprehen- 
sive statement should be made concerning 
the status and opportunities for work for 
women in the extension of the camp li- 
brary service and in the belief that this 
statement should be made in the interest 
of library service in general. 

We do not all want to be camp libra- 
rians. I feel just as Mr. Strohm does as to 
its being a question of skill in librarian- 
ship, whether it be a man or a woman, 
working singly, or in combination. But 
we are losing right and left from our libra- 
ries promising young women who have 
given five, ten or more years to library 
work and have distinct contributions to 
make. These young Avomen have beeta 
eagerly welcomed and readily placed by 
other organized groups of war workers or 
in Government service. I have not talked 
with a librarian here who is not in need 
of assistants. I have neVer attended so 
middle-aged a convention as this one, for 
I have seen but one or two young assist- 
ants who seem likely to pass from one li- 
brary to another. 

I think this is very significant. I think 
it is very important that we realize what 
it means. I believe we are not only fac- 
ing, but are already in the midst of the 
gravest crisis in library service with which 
we have ever been confronted. We have 



286 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



got to call into library service competent 
help in larger numbers than ever before if 
the work is to go on. 

We have got to meet the questions of the 
younger women with something responsive 
to their appeal if we are to hold their in- 
terest. I have told two or three young 
women of ability and poise, but who are 
not yet 25 years old and are debarred from 
overseas work, that if they can be patient 
and put themselves into the work at hand, 
they will probably get the kind of work 
they are longing to do in the course of a 
year or two. 

Those of us who have to interpret and 
sustain the strong desires of young women 
who are in the period of wanting to give 
their utmost in service for the country 
must have all the support we can get from 
the American Library Association, from 
both sides, from the war work side and 
from the civilian side. 

Mr. Settle: I represent Camp Taylor 
here. I want to say for the benefit of the 
ladies present that I have a staff of fifty- 
two in the city library and that we are 
using from four to six of the staff at the 
camp library every day. I am the only 
man on the staff. 

Mrs. Elmendorf: I simply want to say 
as one of those signers, the object of sign- 
ing the request was to try to see that the 
same information was given to a great 
number of people. In talking here I have 
found a different bit of information from 
nearly every person that I have talked 
with and it seemed to me that one clear 
statement from this committee would 
serve to oil a good many troubled waters. 

Miss Hall: May I say just a word for 
the home service? I think we are making 
a little mistake in belittling what we can 
do there. I know that I have never been 
busier in my library than during the past 
year. I have never felt more the depend- 
ence of my people upon me. I have never 
felt more respomsibility toward them. I 
have felt the pressure of the home service 
so strongly that I have hardly known 
where to turn to get it all done. 

Miss Malone (of New York City) : I 
would like to make a suggestion along the 
lines proposed by the women who signed 
that paper: 

I would like to call the attention of the 
American Library Association to the fact 



that this War Service Committee consists 
of five men and two women. Last year 
they held thirteen meetings; four were at 
Louisville, at the conference; presumably 
all attended; five were held in New York 
City, three were held in Washington and 
one in Ohio. And the two women who 
were on the committee were Miss Doren of 
Dayton, Ohio, and Miss Countryman from 
Minnesota, and they presumably could not 
attend the Washington meetings or the 
New York City meetings on account of the 
distance, and of the thirteen meetings that 
were attended there were nine in which 
no women were represented at all, and the 
outlining of the plans for the work the 
woman librarians have done in regard to 
the camp libraries was done principally at 
the nine meetings, at which there were no 
women represented. I would like to sug- 
gest that since the meetings seem to be pro- 
posed being held in the east, some eastern 
women be put upon that committee, so 
that they may attend the meetings and 
know what burdens they are going to lay 
upon the shoulders of other woman libra- 
rians, I would like to suggest — and it is 
only suggestions I am making — the name 
of Miss Josephine Rathbone. The A. L. A. 
might appoint her and in addition any 
New York library worker. I would like to 
suggest her name or the name of any other 
woman who would be asked to attend the 
great number of meetings that are still to 
be held in New York City and Washington. 

Chairman Milam having inquired 
whether the general director desired to 
add anything to what had been said, Dr. 
Putnam spoke as follows: 

What I wish particularly to say is that I 
am glad that the inquiry or petition was 
presented to the committee, if only be- 
cause of the manly expressions the discus- 
sion of it has evoked from the women this 
morning. 

If there was any reason why I should 
have deprecated it, should have felt in- 
clined to be indignant at it (you will see 
in a moment why I use that word), it was 
because of its implied disparagement of 
the competent, finely spirited and able 
women who have actually heen in our serv- 
ice. That I have felt badly about. That 
is the only thing: that there should seem 
an underestimate of them and of the fine 
work that they have been doing. Why, I 
see them all about me. Miss Rathbone her- 
self and the others. 

The whole question, as Mr. Wyer has 
clearly and adequately stated, is a ques- 
tion of practice rather than of policy. That 
is in fact true of the entire procedure in 
our operations. 



PROCEEDINGS 



287 



I had intended a general word to you 
this morning, a word in conclusion to that 
which I said on Tuesday morning. This is 
not the time nor the appropriate occasion 
for it. But as to this particular question 
you may, I think, feel assured that it will 
take care of itself, and especially that it 
will do so in proportion as the women feel 
about it as they have indicated in the 
course of this discussion. 

Let me add this, to another purpose. 
One thing said this morning especially 
touched a matter that has concerned my 
thought and my conscience for some time 
past. It was said by Miss Hall. 

We are all eager to be "at the front"; 
we are eager to feel that we are doing 
"war work." That is natural, and sound. 
But we must not allow ourselves to dispar- 
age the essentially war service that we are 
performing at our "regular jobs." When 
I have encountered a man or woman eager 
to get away from the regular job for some 
job at Washington, I have discouraged 
them. But there are so many of them! 
Even children's librarians anxious to get 
away from that job to go into filing work 
in the ordnance division. Think of it! A 
children's librarian, in war time, willing 
— eager — to abandon such a work as that 
for the work of a file clerk! Believe me, 
I cannot name a man in war time service 
in Washington who can do for the future 
of this country what the librarian of a 
children's department can do at this very 
moment. 

On motion, the session was then ad- 
journed. 

FOURTH GENERAL SESSION 
(Thursday afternoon, July 4) 

The meeting was duly called to order. 
President Montgomery being in the chair. 

Mr. Carl B. Roden, librarian of the Chi- 
cago Public Library, introduced Mr. Carl 
Sandburg, of Chicago, poet and editorial 
writer, who read from his published and 
unpublished poems, a number of those se- 
lected dealing with phases of the war. 

At the request of the president. Dr. Her- 
bert Putnam introduced as the next speak- 
er Dr. M. Llewellyn Raney, librarian of 
the Johns Hopkins University and director 
of overseas service for the A. L. A. 

Dr. Raney's subject was 

the a. l. a. follows the flag overseas 
(See p. 81) 

President Montgomery then called upon 
Mr. William Orr, the educational director 



of the National War Work Council of the 

Y. M. C. A., who spoke upon 

the cooperation of the y. m. c. a. and the 

A. L. A. 

(See p. 93) 
At the close of Mr. Orr's address the 
session was adjourned. 

FIFTH GENERAL SESSION 

(Friday morning, July 5) 
President Montgomery presided. 
The first paper on the program was pre- 
sented by Dr. Arthur E. Bostwick, the 
subject being 

THE future of LIBRARY WORK 

(See p. 50) 
Miss May Massee, editor of The Book- 
list, followed with a paper on 

THE SPIRIT OF THE WAR LITERATURE: POETRY 

(See p. 72) 
Dr. George F. Bowerman, librarian of 
the Public Library of the District of Co- 
lumbia, then presented a paper on 

THE spirit of THE WAR LITERATURE: PROSE 

(See p. 60) 

Mr. Bowker: Although America has not 
produced a great novel of the war, it has 
produced the greatest literature of the 
war, the most widely read, the most elo- 
quent, the most epigrammatic of the war 
— the words of Woodrow Wilson. I want 
to ask that Dr. Bowerman, with his fine 
voice which we have so clearly and sym- 
pathetically heard, will conclude his pa- 
per by reading to us at least the wonder- 
fully eloquent and significant phrases 
which mark the oration of President Wil- 
son yesterday. 

Dr. Bowerman then read the following 
excerpt from the address of President 
Woodrow Wilson, delivered at Mount Ver- 
non, July 4, 1918: 

These great objects can be put into a 
single sentence. What we seek is the reign 
of law, based upon the consent of the gov- 
erned and sustained by the organized opin- 
ion of mankind. 

These great ends cannot be achieved by 
debating and seeking to reconcile and ac- 
commodate what statesmen may wish, with 
their projects for balances of power and 
of national opportunity. They can be real- 
ized only by the determination of what 
thinking people of the world desire, with 



288 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



their longing liope for justice and for so- 
cial freedom and opportunity. 

I can fancy that the air of this place 
carries the accents of such principles with 
a peculiar kindness. Here were started 
forces which the great nation against 
which they were primarily directed at first 
regarded as a revolt against its rightful 
authority but which it has long since seen 
to have been a step in the liberation of its 
own people as well as of the people of the 
United States; and I stand here now to 
speak — speak proudly and with confident 
hope — of the spread of this revolt, this 
liberation, to the great stage of the world 
itself! The blinded rulers of Prussia have 
roused forces they knew little of — forces 
which, once roused, can never be crushed 
to earth again; for they have at their 
heart an inspiration and a purpose which 
are deathless and of the very stuff of 
triumph ! 

President Montgomery then called upon 
Dr. Hebbebt Putnam, librarian of Con- 
gress and general director of the A- L. A. 
war service, who addressed the assembly In 

THE LIBRARY WAE SERVICE 

(See p. 103) 

Mr. Craver: There Is one matter I hope 
the Association will arrange before it ad- 
journs. The question of having an annual 
convention in these busy days when we 
are all pressed with other matters has been 
one upon which there has been a consider- 
able difference of opinion. Under our Con- 
stitution, however, the Executive Board 
has no discretion in the matter. It must 
arrange an annual convention. I should 
like to move, Mr. President, that before we 
separate, in view of our uncertainty as to 
the future, we authorize the Executive 
Committee to omit the 1919 meeting if in 
its judgment it seems expedient so to do. 

Mr. Carb: I take extreme pleasure in 
seconding that motion. 

Mr. Bowker: Before the vote is taken, 
while I shall be glad to vote for it, I wish 
to emphasize one thought. The doubt of 
the desirability of holding the convention 
this year has been dispelled, I think, by 
the experience of every one of us, and 
while I believe we may vote to put this 
discretion in the hands of the Executive 
Board, I for one want to express the hope 
it will not be exercised in that direction. 

The motion was duly carried. 



Specially appointed committees having 
prepared memorial resolutions on the 
death of two distinguished members of 
the Association, these memorials were 
then read and adopted by a rising vote. 



HENRY EDUARD LEGLER 

LIFE member of THE AMERICAN LIBBABY 
ASSOCIATION, PBESIDENT 1912-13 

In this grim, noble time, when millions 
of men with unfaltering feet mount 

"Up the large ways where death 

and glory meet," 
we are straitened by an imperative need 
for uncovering some other, some altered 
aspect of death. 

Sorrow from of old has been individual 
— isolated — it has been mourning. But we 
cannot now, even in imagination, look into 
those wide graves in France, we cannot 
even picture to ourselves that forest of 
low, wooden crosses and think "Where is 
sorrow like unto my sorrow?" We can no 
longer suffer a broken column as fit sym- 
bol of the young dead, "Dead ere his 
prime." 

Every authentic word from the front of 
that dire midst of war reiterates this cer- 
tainty: "It is a far, far better thing that I 
do than I have ever done." In the face of 
that certainty, It is no longer tolerable to 
think of that massed, sacrificial death as 
frustration — as waste. That were to make 
"these dead to have died in vain." 

They have consentlngly paid a price, the 
last and highest price from them, an un- 
utterably precious price for us, for what 
must be an unutterably precious posses- 
sion to us, even a holy thing, as that cup 
of water brought from "the well which is 
by the Bethlehem gate" was to David. 
They have said each to the- other, 
"As He died to make men holy, 
Let us die to make men free." 

"What manner of persons ought we to 
be" to receive that blood-bought freedom 
into our hands for ourselves and for the 
children? 

As we look thus at death — as we see it 
as a deliberately counted and paid price 
for a most dear thing — almost at once we 
see, in the light of that greater glory, that 



PROCEEDINGS 



289 



the passing of certain single lives may be 
interpreted in a like way and change our 
mourning to proud sorrow. 

Certainly the life and the death of this 
man whom we now honor and remember, 
Henry Eduard Legler, our fellow-worker, 
our friend, were a deliberate, a willing 
paying of what he himself reckoned a not 
extortionate price for the thing he meant 
to do. He absolutely faced the fact from 
the beginning that the price would al- 
most certainly have to be paid if he un- 
dertook that last great task of his life. 

Life itself shaped and tempered this in- 
strument for its best use. Born of an 
Italian mother, the son of a Swiss father, 
he was given gentleness, courtesy, per- 
suasiveness, simplicity, a deep love of 
beauty, perhaps his heritage from his 
motherland. These graces veiled and 
adorned an unfaltering, noiseless resolu- 
tion and persistence and a keen intelli- 
gence that came, perhaps, from his father 
and from Switzerland. 

Perhaps to make sure that neither in- 
heritance should overwhelm the other, life 
transported the little lad across the seas 
to a new and a not-too-friendly environ- 
ment, a small western Wisconsin town. 
The early death of his father threw the 
boy into the earning world which gave him 
experience that wakened in him an in- 
tense, persistent, dynamic sympathy with 
those who are deprived of opportunity. 
He was the most genuine, the most funda- 
mental of democrats. 

It is not necessary to tell here how after 
work at the printer's case he picked up a 
reporter's notebook and thence proceeded 
to a taxing, training experience as pur- 
chasing agent for a great school system. 
After that experience he came into the 
work which brought him among us as the 
secretary of the Wisconsin Free Library 
Commission, afterwards to become, at 
length and at last, librarian of the Chi- 
cago Public Library. The story of all 
these things is written elsewhere. 

He did not create the Wisconsin Free 
Library Commission. Other equally de- 
voted hands raised that structure. He did 



set its house in order and extended its 
domain and made its persistence sure. 

He did not found the Chicago Public 
Library. Another of our great names is 
linked with that. He did knock the dogs 
from under the keel of that great ship, so 
that she slipped down the ways where she 
had hung, and now she rides the full 
stream of Chicago life. 

His message comes back to us in the 
words of him who wrote and who lies "In 
Flanders Fields," 

"To you from failing hands we throw 
The torch ; be yours to hold it high. 
If ye break faith with us who die 
We shall not sleep." 

The words of this memorial have not 
been cast into formal resolutions. They 
have been made few and short purpose- 
ly, that they might be like that brief, 
momentary pause in the nation's busy, 
noisy life which has once or twice hon- 
ored the passing of a great servant of the 
people. 

Theresa Elmendorf, Chairman. 

WuxiAM H. Brett, 

Carl B. Roden, 

Committee. 

JAMES LOUIS GILLIS 

James L. Gillis came into library work 
in 1899 as a man who had already clearly 
demonstrated his ability to handle large 
problems, to meet men and, in a business 
sense, to get results. His experiences as 
a railroad employee and officer, rising as 
he did from messenger boy to assistant 
superintendent of a division, gave him a 
foundation upon which, in a period of 
eighteen years as librarian of the Cali- 
fornia State Library, during which time 
he served the California Library Associa- 
tion as president nine terms, he was able 
to erect a library structure surpassing in 
size and beauty the accomplishments of 
many another leader whose whole life was 
devoted to one purpose. To those most 
intimately associated with him, the motive 
which spurred him on to greater efforts 
and larger service was clear: he had a 
never failing desire to give the boys and 
the girls of his great state, and particu- 



290 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



larly those in the country and the moun- 
tains remote from opportunity's pathway, 
a chance to make themselves better and 
more useful men and women; as he said 
frequently "to continue their education, 
by books and reading, throughout their 
lives." To this task he brought a clear 
brain, a boundless energy, a friendliness 
for people, a love for his friends, a capac- 
ity to consider and weigh new things and 
a faith in his work which will long make 
his name an honor and an inspiration in 
the library world. Professionally he came 
into our work In a commonwealth unor- 
ganized and without definite aim: he left it 
a system beautiful in Its simplicity and its 
effectiveness. His was an outpost posi- 
tion and he held it staunchly, unfailingly. 
He erected the California County Free Li- 
brary plan as his watchtower and from its 
fair height an ever growing throng will 
get its vision of a bigger life, of better 
things. His loss to llbrarianship is a 
heavy one; his inspiration is a treasure 
not easily or soon exhausted. 

Everett R. Perry, Chairman. 

Milton J. Ferguson, 

George T. Clark, 

Committee. 



The President: I will ask for a rising 
vote to testify to your approval of these 
two resolutions. 

A rising vote was thereupon given. 

The President: I will now call for the 
report of the Committee on Resolutions. 

Dr. Arthur E. Bostwick presented the 
following report of the Committee on Reso- 
lutions, and it was duly adopted: 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON 
RESOLUTIONS 

RESOLVED, That at the close of its 
Fortieth Annual Conference, the American 
Library Association desires to place upon 
record its gratitude to all those who have 
done their parts toward making that Con- 
ference a success. 

To speakers, not members of the Asso- 
ciation, who have come from a distance as 
its guests to address us, we give our 
thanks, and assure them of our heartfelt 
appreciation. 

We express our sincere pleasure in ac- 
cepting the invitation of the educational 
authorities of the State of New York to 



take part in the exercises commemorating 
the centenary of the New York State Li- 
brary. 

RESOLVED, That the thanks of the As- 
sociation be given to Charles B. Falls, of 
New York, for his generous contribution 
of the designs for the two posters for 
Library War Service, namely: the one 
used in the book campaign and the one 
just completed to promote library public- 
ity within the various camps. 

Whereas, the Association learns with 
pleasure that grants made to public libra- 
ries in Canada have materially increased 
during the war, and that. In certain cities 
in the United States also, there have been 
increased appropriations for library pur- 
poses; be it 

RESOLVED, That we express our grat- 
ification at this action and our belief that 
libraries are a sufficiently important part 
of our educational life to warrant a simi- 
lar action in other cities in the United 
States. 

RESOLVED, That the American Library 
Association expresses Its appreciation of 
the opportunity afforded American libra- 
ries by the Library and Exhibits Section 
of the United States Food Administration 
and Its directors of library publicity in the 
several states to cooperate in the work of 
food conservation; and that we pledge our 
continued assistance. 

Arthur E. Bostwick, 

Mary Eileen Ahern, 

Harrison W. Craver, 

Committee on Resolutions. 

The secretary read the report of the 
tellers of election, showing that the fol- 
lowing officers had been elected: 

REPORT OF THE TELLERS OF 
ELECTION 

Total number of votes cast, 105. 
President 

William Warner Bishop, librarian Uni- 
versity of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 
105 votes. 

First Vice-President 

Charles F. D. Belden, librarian Public 
Library, Boston, Mass. 105 votes. 
Second Vice-President 

Burton E. Stevenson, librarian Public 
library, Chillicothe, Ohio. 104 votes. 
Members of Executive Board 
(for three years) 

Linda A. Eastman, vice-librarian Public 
Library, Cleveland, Ohio. 104 votes. 



EXECUTIVE BOARD 



291 



Adam Strohm, librarian Public Library, 
Detroit, Mich. 103 votes. 

Members of Council 

(for five years) 

W. Dawson Johnston, librarian Public 
Library, St. Paul, Minn. 104 votes. 

Joseph L. Wheeler, librarian Reuben 
McMillan Free Library, Youngstown, Ohio. 
102 votes. 

Mary S. Saxe, librarian Public Library, 
Westmount, P. Q., Canada. 105 votes. 

Jessie Fremont Hume, librarian Queens 
Borough Public Library, Jamaica, N. Y. 
102 votes. 

Henry N. Sanborn, librarian Public Li- 
brary, Bridgeport, Conn. 104 votes. 
Trustee of endowment fund 

M. Taylor Pyne, Princeton, N. J. 103 
votes. 

President-elect Bishop was escorted to 
the platform by Dr. Wire and Mr. Carr. 

President Montgomery: It now becomes 
my proud duty to present to you this 
scepter of power together with all the joys 
and sorrows, the responsibilities and emolu- 
ments of office. I do this the more gladly be- 
cause I know of your loyalty to the ideals of 
this Association. To use a homely but 
timely illustration, I know that if this ad- 



ministration has dropped a stitch you will 
catch it up and if that is not possible that 
you will unravel the mesh with a kindly 
hand and replace it with the well-woven 
fabric of constructive usefulness. 

You have our heart-felt wishes for a 
happy and successful administration. 

President-elect Bishop: The incoming 
president is wise who makes no predic- 
tions and prefers to let his administration 
speak to the membership of the Associa- 
tion by its deeds. I am, however, deeply 
sensible of the honor conferred upon me 
personally by election to this office. I am 
also highly gratified that in my person the 
university and college libraries of the 
United States for the fifth time received 
this recognition in the history of the Asso- 
ciation, and before declaring the conven- 
tion adjourned I beg to place not only my 
individual efforts but those of the entire 
membership of the Association in Dr. Put- 
nam's hands in the conduct of the library 
war service. We stand behind him and we 
will stand behind him with all our might 
and heart and soul unto the end. 

There being no further business to come 
before the Association, the Conference was 
adjourned sine die. 



EXECUTIVE BOARD 



FIRST SESSION 

A meeting of the Executive Board was 
held at Saratoga Springs, July 1, 1918. 

Present: President Montgomery, Vice- 
President Eastman, Electra C. Doren, Jo- 
sephine A. Rathbone, Frank P. Hill, M. S. 
Dudgeon, S. H. Ranck and A. L. Bailey. 

The minutes of the last meeting (Janu- 
ary 2, 1918) were approved as printed in 
the Bulletin for March. 

Voted, That election of officers be held 
on Thursday, July 4, and that polls be 
open from 12 noon to 2:30 p. m. and again 
from 5 to 6 p. m. 

Voted, That William Teal and one other 
to be chosen by him be tellers of election 
(Mr. Teal appointed Gertrude Forstall). 



Voted, That the Executive Board recom- 
mend to the Association the amendment of 
Section 12 of the Constitution, so that the 
last sentence be changed to read as fol- 
lows: 

"The Finance Committee shall audit the 
accounts of the secretary, treasurer, trus- 
tees of the endowment fund, treasurer of 
the Publishing Board, and all other ac- 
counts, and report to the Association at the 
annual meeting." 

Voted, To exempt from payment of mem- 
bership dues for the duration of the war 
all those who are in the military or naval 
service of the country. 

The Executive Board, at the request of 
the War Service Committee, took the fol- 
lowing action relative to a second money 
campaign : 



292 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



Toted, That the War Service Committee 
of the American Library Association 
through its subcommittee on Library War 
Finance be authorized to conduct* a sec- 
ond financial campaign, and to solicit funds 
in the name of the American Library As- 
sociation for the purpose of providing 
boolcs and personal library service to sol- 
diers and sailors in this country and 
abroad and for carrying on such other ac- 
tivities as are manifestly related to library 
war service. The funds so collected shall 
be styled "The American Library Associa- 
tion Second War Service Fund." 

Assuming favorable action by the Ex- 
ecutive Board on the foregoing resolution, 
the War Service Committee at its meeting 
on June 8, 1918, passed the following sup- 
plementary votes which it likewise sub- 
mitted for the approval of the Executive 
Board: 

Voted, That after approval by the Ex- 
ecutive Board of the American Library 
Association, the American Security and 
Trust Company as treasurer is authorized 
and requested from the American Library 
Association War Service moneys now in 
its hands to transfer seventy-five thousand 
dollars ($75,000) from the general fund to 
a fund to be called the "Campaign Fund," 
such sum to be an initial appropriation for 
the purpose of meeting expenses in the 
second financial campaign. 

Voted, That this "Campaign Fund" shall 
be kept separate from the two War Service 
Funds and shall be expended under the 
authorization of the Library War Finance 
Committee. 

The Executive Board by unanimous vote 
ratified the above votes of the War Serv- 
ice Committee. 



♦The War Service Committee at its meet- 
ing held on June 8, 1918, in framing the pro- 
posed vote which it would submit for action 
by the Executive Board, made the proposed 
vote to read, "That the War Service Com- 
mittee of the American Library Association 
through its sub-committee on Library War 
Finance be authorized to prepare a vlan for 
a second financial campaign," etc. The word 
"conduct" in place of "prepare a plan for" 
was substituted in the vote as passed by tbe 
Executive Board by that member of the War 
Service Committee who framed the original 
draft, namely Dr. Hill, chairman of the 
Committee on Library War Finance. 



The War Service Committee notified the 
Executive Board that it would later ap- 
prove and nominate to the said Board a 
depositary which shall act as treasurer 
for the "American Library Association Sec- 
ond War Service Fund." 

The War Service Committee, at its meet- 
ing of June 8, 1918, having shown a de- 
tailed statement of bills paid from the 
$2,000 fund voted by the committee on 
December 29, 1917, to the credit of George 
B. Utley, executive secretary, from which 
it appeared that a balance remained of 
only $699.39, with considerable expenses 
in prospect incident to the Saratoga 
Springs conference, it was 

Voted, That after approval by the Ex- 
ecutive Board of the American Library 
Association, the American Security and 
Trust Company as treasurer is authorized 
and requested from the American Library 
Association War Service moneys in its 
hands, to transfer to the credit of George 
B. "Utley, executive secretary, the sum of 
$2,000, to be used to meet general expenses 
of the committee not justly chargeable to 
the fund voted to the credit of the War 
Service Fund, Herbert Putnam, general di- 
rector; bills covering such expenses to be 
approved by the chairman of the commit- 
tee, and checks to be drawn and signed by 
George B. Utley, executive secretary. 

The Executive Board by unanimous vote 
ratified the above vote of the War Service 
Committee. 

Voted, That the report of audit of the 
Finance Committee of the American Li- 
brary Association of February 13, 1918, to 
the Executive Board, be officially adopted. 

The report, previously placed in the 
hands of the Executive Board by corre- 
spondence, is as follows: 
Report of the A. L. A. Finance Committee 

on audit of the accounts of the chair^ 

man of the War Finance Committee 
To the Executive Board of the American 
Library Association: 

The Finance Committee of the Associa- 
tion, having at your request examined the 
accounts of the chairman of the War Fi- 
nance Committee, report as follows: 



EXECUTIVE BOARD 



293 



These accounts relate to two distinct 
lines of action: 

(1) The campaign to secure the fund 
for camp libraries, and (2) the accounts of 
the fund itself. 

As to the first, a partial audit was made 
as of November 2, 1917, by Messrs. Mar- 
wick, Mitchell, Peat and Company, char- 
tered accountants. This the Finance Com- 
mittee have accepted. This audit did not 
include certain advances by the assistant 
treasurer to the War Service Committee 
and certain payments of local campaign 
expenses which were to be repaid from 
the war fund. These items form account E. 

All of accounts A, B, D and E were veri- 
fied by the committee, the receipts 
checked against the bank statements and 
all the expenditures determined to have 
been covered by properly approved vouch- 
ers. 

As to the fund itself, the expenditures 
have not been authorized or controlled by 
the War Finance Committee and the 
vouchers for these expenditures are not 
in the possession of its chairman. The 
receipts, however, have passed through 
his hands and have been recorded in his 
account C. These receipts the committee 
find to have been very carefully credited 
to the communities contributing. In some 
cases the state directors have made de- 
tailed reports of the total amount con- 
tributed from their state and in all but two 
of such cases the committee find that they 
are in absolute or very close agreement 
with the record of receipts. In other 
cases the directors' reports cover only a 
portion of the contributions from a given 
state and in quite a large number there 
were no state directors or no reports were 
received from them. 

In all cases of the last class and also 
wherever a considerable proportion of con- 
tributions was not covered by the direct- 
ors' reports, the committee examined the 
correspondence and reports from the in- 
dividual towns and find that here also 
there is a very close agreement with the 
record. 

The total amount stated in account C 
to have been received by the War Finance 
Committee to and including January 19, 
1918, is $1,573,153.79, which amount was 
deposited with the American Security and 
Trust Company of Washington as treas- 
urer of the fund, as shown by their state- 
ments up to and including January 23, 
1918. Deducting the monthly contribu- 
tions the deposits amounted to $1,570,- 
386.44. 

The total amount stated in the directors' 
reports and other correspondence to have 



been contributed up to January 19, 1918, 
as nearly as could be ascertained by the 
committee, was $1,574,610.83. Almost the 
whole of this difference occurred in the re- 
ports of two states. After correspond- 
ence, it was found that in some cases de- 
ductions for local expenses had not been 
reported and in others unpaid subscrip- 
tions had been reported as contributions. 
Some of these have since been paid. The 
few discrepancies remaining are still un- 
der investigation, but most of them are 
almost certainly due to the same causes. 
They are so small in amount, both abso- 
lutely and relatively, that the committee 
see no reason for delaying their report, 
especially as it would appear that the to- 
tal amount received is slightly greater 
than the total reported as contributed. 

The committee desire to call attention 
to and emphasize the great difficulties 
and complexities of the work of receiving 
and recording such a multitude of transac- 
tions, though it would require a careful 
examination of the correspondence to real- 
ize them fully. They wish, therefore, to 
express their high appreciation of the 
thoroughness, faithfulness and accuracy 
with which the work has been done. 
Arthur L. Bailey, 
Clement W. Andrews, 
Harrison W. Ceaver. 

February 13, 1918. 

The following Committee on Resolutions 
for the Saratoga Springs Conference was 
named by the President: Arthur E. Bost- 
wick, Mary Eileen Ahern and Harrison 
W. Craver. 

Voted, That the Executive Board em- 
ploy counsel whenever necessary to assist 
it in all legal matters, such counsel to be 
employed on the nomination of the presi- 
dent of the Association. 

Mr. Dudgeon having offered to present 
a plan for the systematic promotion of the 
reading of the hest of the non-fiction books, 
it was 

Voted, That Mr. Dudgeon be requested 
to present such a report within the next 
three months. 

Voted, That the question of meeting the 
expenses incurred by the Board in connec- 
tion with meetings other than the annual 
meetings be referred to the Finance Com- 
mittee. 

Adjourned. 



294 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



SECOND SESSION 

A meeting of the Executive Board was 
held July 5, 1918, at Saratoga Springs. 

Present: President Bishop, A. L. Bailey, 
Frank P. Hill, Electra C. Doren, Linda A. 
Eastman and Josephine A. Rathbone. 

Voted, unanimously. That the president 
obtain from counsel an opinion as to the 
relations between the American Library 
Association, its Executive Board, its War 
Service Committee and the general di- 
rector of its Library War Service under 
certain resolutions passed by the Ameri- 
can Library Association, the Executive 
Board and the War Service Committee, and 
to ascertain where the custody of the fund 
raised for library war service should be 
vested. 

Voted, That Josephine A. Rathbone be 
appointed a member of the A. L. A. Pub- 
lishing Board to fill the unexpired term of 
the late Henry E. Legler (term expires 
1920). 

Voted, That the president be authorized 
to fill the two existing vacancies on the 
A. L. A. Publishing Board caused by the 
expiration of terms of Arthur E. Bostwick 
and M. S. Dudgeon. 

Voted, That the Committee on Finance 
for the coming year be constituted as fol- 
lows: A. L. Bailey, chairman; C. W. An- 
drews, H. W. Craver. 

Voted, That the secretary be authorized 
to distribute to such other accounts as are 
most in need the $130 remaining in the 
"contingencies" account of the budget for 
the current fiscal year. 

Voted, That the appointment of standing 
comjnittees for the coming year be referred 
to the president with power. 

At the suggestion and request of A. L. 



Spencer, of South Canisteo, New York, the 
Board adopted the following resolution: 

RESOLVED, That the Executive Board 
of the American Library Association re- 
news its endorsement of the plan for a 
special flat rate of local character over 
the rural delivery lines, the level of such 
rate to be fixed by the postal authorities 
as low as is consistent with the self-paying 
character of the postal service. 

Cooperation with the U. S. Bureau of 
Education In the preparation and publica- 
tion of war time reading lists, according to 
a plan outlined by J. L. Wheeler to the 
A. L. A. Publishing Board, being under 
consideration, it was 

Voted, That the question of means of ob- 
taining the requisite funds for preparing 
for publication certain war time reading 
lists be referred to the War Service Com- 
mittee with the approval of the Executive 
Board of the lists proposed. 

The secretary reported receipt of invi- 
tations from the following places for the 
next Conference of the Association: As- 
bury Park, Buffalo, Chicago, New York, 
Philadelphia, St Louis and San Francisco. 

Voted, That the invitations for places of 
meeting for the next Conference be re- 
ceived and recorded, and action on place 
of meeting be deferred to a future meet- 
ing of the Board. 

Voted, That the secretary be requested 
to prepare a statement of work in prospect 
for the coming year at the headquarters 
office or elsewhere which should have his 
personal attention, and to present this 
statement to the Executive Board at its 
next meeting. 

Voted, That when the Board adjourns It 
adjourn to meet at the call of the chair. 

Adjourned. 



COUNCILr— AGRICULTURAL LIBRARIES SECTION 



295 



COUNCIL 



The Council met at Saratoga Springs, 
July 4, 1918, President Montgomery pre- 
siding. 

Twenty-six members, a quorum, were 
present. 

The following committee was appointed 
by the President to nominate five mem- 
bers to the Council to be elected by the 
Council: J. I. Wyer, Jr., E. H. Anderson, 
Sarah C. N. Bogle, Linda A. Eastman, and 
C. F. D. Belden. 

A letter was read from a member of the 
Council recommending that the A. L. A. 
compile a list of pro-German literature 
which should be withdrawn from circula- 



tion by all public libraries of the United 
States. 

Voted, That a Committee be appointed 
to consider and act with power on the 
preparation of a list of warning of books 
whose misuse should be guarded against. 

The Committee on Nominations to the 
Council submitted the names of M. L. 
Raney, Pauline McCauley, M. J. Ferguson, 
Agnes Van Valkenburgh and R. R. Bowker, 
and on vote that the secretary be instructed 
to cast a ballot for their election, they 
were declared elected to the Council for a 
term of five years each. 

Adjourned. 



AGRICULTURAL LIBRARIES SECTION 



HRST SESSION 
(Joint session with League of Library 
Commissions and National Associa- 
tion of State Libraries.) 

By invitation of the Agricultural Libra- 
ries Section, a joint session with the 
League of Library Commissions and the 
National Association of State Libraries 
was held on the evening of July 3, the sub- 
ject for the symposium being "Libraries 
and the food problem." 

At the request of Mr. George A. Deve- 
neau, chairman of the Agricultural Libra- 
ries Section, Mr. Henry N, Sanborn pre- 
sided. 

Miss Clara F. Baldwin, secretary of the 
Minnesota Library Commission, spoke for 
the library commissions as follows: 

"The library extension commissions 
which exercise advisory or supervisory 
functions have naturally pushed the work 
done for food conservation through their 
regular channels of activity. These com- 
missions have undertaken to help libraries 
to show (1) why conservation is needed, 
through special bulletin boards, circulation 
and distribution of material, use of pos- 
ters, exhibits, talks and all the methods 
outlined by the Food Administration; and 
(2) how to conserve. 



In thirteen states the executive officer of 
the library extension commission, or some 
member of the staff, has been appointed 
library publicity director. In Illinois and 
Massachusetts the commission secretary Is 
a member of the library publicity commit- 
tee. The methods employed by the com- 
mission have Included circular letters sent 
out at regular intervals or from time to 
time as occasion required. The commis- 
sions which publish bulletins have stressed 
the subject of food conservation in these 
publications. The work has also been em- 
phasized at state and district meetings and 
library institutes. In Illinois six library 
conferences were held in different parts of 
the state and fifty-nine libraries were vis- 
ited for special conferences. The work of 
local libraries has been supplemented 
through special loan of charts and exhibits 
of posters, photographs and motion picture 
slides." 

Mr. Godard, librarian of the Connecticut 
State Library, was the next speaker. He 
said in part: 

"In planning to speak for state libraries 
it was realized that the most that could be 
done was to give an account of what the 
State Library of Connecticut had accom- 
plished, not because it was unusual but be- 
cause it was well known to the speaker and 
it was believed to be typical of the work 
done in the other states. 



296 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



When this country entered the war it 
was fully realized that only by utilizing 
every agency for reaching the people could 
maximum results be accomplished. To this 
end, as a preliminary measure, a survey 
of all the existing agencies in the state of 
Connecticut was made and the mailing lists 
maintained at the state library were care- 
fully revised, especially the list of libra- 
ries; for it was realized that the best 
printed material In the world would fail 
in accomplishing its mission if it were not 
properly addressed. The state library dis- 
tributed the, material sent it for this pur- 
pose, held exhibits designed to educate the 
people in the necessity for increased pro- 
duction and conservation of food, prepared 
a poster for the use with children, and, 
most important of all, took an agricultural 
census of the farm and state, showing In 
the minutest detail what each farm had 
produced, area planted to various crops, 
etc. The results of this census were coded 
on cards which have been of great use to 
county agents and to others interested in 
speeding up production. The library has 
also made a list of boys from sixteen to 
twenty years of age, which has been very 
useful; and a list of leaders of thought in 
the state to prevent duplication in sending 
out material. Such men appear on all im- 
portant mailing lists and often In the past 
had received a number of copies of the 
same thing. This list has been effective 
In preventing this waste." 

Miss Claribel R. Barnett, librarian of 
the United States Department of Agricul- 
ture, spoke for agricultural libraries. She 
said In part: 

"It seems providential that the outbreak 
of the war found the country provided 
with an agricultural organization unex- 
celled by any in the world. This organiza- 
tion, stretching from the Individual farm 
through the county agent and the agricul- 
tural college to the Secretary of Agricul- 
ture of the President's cabinet, was able to 
set in motion at once forces which have 
done magnificent work in Increasing the 
production of food and Its conservation. 
Agricultural libraries are a part of this or- 
ganization and are In a position of great 
usefulness. They serve the scientist and 
research worker by rendering bibliograph- 
ical aid; they are in a position to help other 
libraries In the valuation of agricul- 
tural literature; in some states they are 
doing extension work through the boys' and 
girls' clubs and other extension agencies. 
It is highly desirable that more library 
school students recognize the opportunities 
for service in agricultural library work. 
This would be greatly aided by a special 



course for agricultural librarians in some 
of the library schools. Such a course 
should take up such subjects as the bibli- 
ography and history of agriculture, sources 
of agricultural literature, the bibliography 
of the sciences relating to agriculture, the 
editing of agricultural publications and 
some of the administrative problems con- 
nected with the relation of the libraries 
of the agricultural colleges to the experi- 
ment station libraries and to the agricul- 
tural extension work of the state. It would 
seem the duty of the library profession to 
provide this special Instruction in agricul- 
tural literature in order that the library 
profession may do Its full share in the 
great national program of agricultural edu- 
cation. Magnificent as is the service al- 
ready rendered by the great agricultural or- 
ganization of the country. It is but a proph- 
ecy of possibilities for the new epoch upon 
which we are entering. May it not be 
hoped that agricultural libraries will be of 
greater service to agriculture and to our 
rural democracy In the future than they 
have been in the past?" 

Mr, Carl B. Roden, librarian of the Chi- 
cago Public Library, spoke for public li- 
braries, as follows: 

"Never before in the history of libraries 
have they had such an opportunity to per- 
form a needed public service, but, as In all 
such cases, a real benefit has accrued to 
them In return, for the opportunity to get 
the public acquainted with the library has 
been put to good use." In representing 
public libraries at this meeting the 
speaker, like Mr. Godard, wanted It under- 
stood that the work done by the Chicago 
Public Library would be outlined, not be- 
cause it was thought better than that done 
by other public libraries but because It was 
what he knew about and It was believed to 
be typical. 

"The most notable single thing done by 
the Chicago Public Library was the holding 
of a food show which was so great a suc- 
cess that the woman's committee of the 
Illinois Council of Defense asked permis- 
sion to take It over and give it permanent 
quarters. This has been done and it is 
viewed by hundreds every day. Smaller 
food shows have been aided in churches 
and other places. The library has been 
generous in Its policy of lending its as- 
sistants to help In the food conservation 
work wherever needed. Miss Jessie M, 
Woodford, of the library staff, has been a 
member of the library publicity committee 
headed by Dr. Deveneau as library pub- 
licity director for the state, and has de- 
voted much time to its work. The docu- 
ment section of the library has been prac- 



AGRICULTURAL LIBRARIES SECTION 



297 



tically given over to food conservation 
work, as the policy has been to cut out as 
much of the routine work as could pos- 
sibly be spared in order to leave the library 
machinery and the time of the assistants 
available for the more immediate neces- 
sity of food conservation work." 

Miss Edith Guerrier, director of the li- 
brary publicity work of the Food Admin- 
istration, followed. After paying a grace- 
ful tribute to the chairman and each of the 
speakers individually who had preceded 
her, for the help and cooperation she had 
received from them in carrying out the 
program of the Food Administration in 
its work with libraries, she said: 

"The voluntary conservation of food ac- 
complished by the people of the United 
States has succeeded beyond the most san- 
guine expectations of the Food Adminis- 
tration. The work of libraries to this end 
has been a real contribution to the win- 
ning of the war. The function of my of- 
fice is to act as a collector of the ideas put 
into use in the various libraries over the 
country and give them the publicity they 
need to secure a greater usefulness. Too 
great praise could not be given to the 
splendid work done by the various states, 
such as California with its 58 county chair- 
men, Illinois with its food show and fine 
active organization, and many other states 
too numerous to mention. The main thing 
for libraries to do is to connect the reading 
of the people with the appeal of the food 
conservation work, and make exhibits ef- 
fective by the dramatic and imaginative 
emotions aroused and set to work." 
The United States Boys' Wobking Resebve 

(See p. 198) 
was the subject of an address of general 
interest by Mr. Henry W. Wells, associate 
director of this organization. 

At the close of Mr. Wells' address Mr. 
Deveneau of the Illinois College of Agri- 
culture made a motion that the sections of 
the American Library Association repre- 
sented by this joint session express their 
appreciation of the wonderful work al- 
ready done by the U. S. Boys' Working Re- 
serve and their desire to aid it in every 
way possible. The resolution was unani- 
mously adopted. 

Miss Helen W. Atwater, representing the 
woman's committee of the Council of Na- 
tional Defense, was next introduced by Mr. 
Sanborn. She said: 



"The woman's committee was created 
by the Council of National Defense as a 
'committee of that council to serve as an 
authorized channel of communication be- 
tween the various federal departments and 
other agencies of the Government, and the 
women of the country, especially for the 
transmission of information and requests 
which the Government might wish to give 
to the women of the nation in order to en- 
list their help in its war activities. The 
woman's committee in turn asked the 
women of each state to organize correspond- 
ing women's divisions which should do 
similar work in their states and these state 
divisions in turn were organized in county 
and local units. Thus a machinery was cre- 
ated by which suggestions from Washing- 
ton could be promptly and authoritatively 
transmitted to the women practically all 
over the country. 

In planning its work the woman's com- 
mittee found it desirable to subdivide its 
activities into eight or ten departments. 
The food conservation work is carried on 
through two of these departments, one en- 
titled the food administration department, 
whose work consists in furthering the 
plans of the United States Food Admin- 
istration, and the other the department of 
food production and home economics, the 
work of which corresponds to that of the 
United States Department of Agriculture 
as the latter deals directly with women. 

As far as the work of food conserva- 
tion is concerned, it is practically the same 
whether carried on under the auspices of 
the Department of Agriculture or of the 
Food Administration, and the suggestions 
which the Food Administration, through 
its library division, has made to the Amer- 
ican Library Association and the cordial 
cooperation which the Association and its 
individual members have given the Food 
Administration In this work has been 
equally helpful to the food conservation 
work of the other agencies. 

In addition to the work with food, it is 
becoming more and more apparent that 
other lines of conservation will have to be 
generally adopted by the country, and here 
the libraries can be of assistance in the 
same way that they have in the food con- 
servation work. It is useless to urge people 
to buy liberty loan bonds or war savings 
stamps unless we can point out definite 
ways in which they can save money for 
such purchase. . . . Unfortunately, 
up to the present time there has not been 
published as much good popular material 
on the conservation of these other ma- 
terials for daily use, as was available on 
the subject of food before the war, but it 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



will be a very useful service on the part 
of libraries if they will call to the atten- 
tion of the public such reliable material as 
already exists and will aid in distributing 
such emergency material as will undoubt- 
edly be published by governmental agen- 
cies, and probably also by private persons 
or societies, within the next few months. 
Much of the subject matter for such a gen- 
eral conservation or thrift compaign may 
seem at first sight rather trivial. Let us 
remember, however, that it is not many 
years ago when questions of food values, 
which now interest practically everyone, 
were considered equally trivial and tire- 
some. In speaking of this increased in- 
terest on the part of the public in food 
questions, a worker in food conservation 
recently said that one of the reasons why 
people were now so interested in food was 
that the war had brought it into its in- 
ternational relationships. In the same 
way we must bring questions of textiles 
and fuels and all the other materials of 
our daily use into their proper position in 
our national economy, and the workers in 
the field are trusting to the assistance of 
the libraries to aid In pointing out their 
dignity and International relationships." 

Following this address the joint ses- 
sion adjourned. 

SECOND SESSION 

The second session of the Agricultural 
Libraries Section was held on the evening 
of July 4. 

Mr. George A. Deveneau, chairman, 
presided and opened the session by read- 
ing a paper on "The agricultural literature 
of Canada," by Miss Jacquetta Gardiner, 
librarian of the Ontario Agricultural Col- 
lege, who was unable to be present. The 
following is a summary: 

The Dominion Department of Agriculture 
issues many bulletins, circulars and re- 
ports, but owing to the war, has reduced 
the publication and distribution of the 
larger reports and comprehensive bulletins, 
aiming to make the publications more 
specific and brief. At the same time it is 
extending the circulation as rapidly as 
is consistent. 

This department also issues bulletins of 
the International Institute at Rome; the 
Bulletin of Foreign Agricultural Intelli- 
gence; The Agricultural Gazette of Can- 
ada; and the Agricultural War Book. 

The International Institute supplies the 
Institution at Rome with statistics and offi- 
cial information respecting agriculture in 
Canada, and prepares for distribution in 



Canada corresponding information from 
countries adhering to the International In- 
stitute of Agriculture. 

At present, each monthly issue of the 
Agricultural Gazette of Canada (published 
in English and French at Ottawa) is di- 
vided into five parts, Pt. 1 devoted to vari- 
ous phases of the work of the Dominion 
Department of Agriculture; Pt. 2 dealing 
with the Provincial Department; Pt. 3 
with rural science; Pt. 4 with special con- 
tributions, reports of agricultural organiza- 
tions, notes, and publications, the latter 
being a list of the new publications each 
month, and an index to the periodical liter- 
ature of value appearing in various maga- 
zines, etc., during the month; Pt. 5 deal- 
ing with the International Institute of 
Agriculture. 

The Agricfttural War Book (production 
and thrift) is prepared for the use of 
instructors and for the press of Canada. 
The notes and extracts have been taken 
from the agricultural and daily newspapers 
of Canada and other reliable sources, and 
discuss all phases of the question of agri- 
culture pertaining to the "production and 
thrift campaign." 

Bulletins and pamphlets are issued by 
the Inland Revenue Department, Central 
Experimental Farm, Dairy and Cold Stor- 
age Commissioner, Entomological Branch, 
Division of Botany, Tobacco Division, Seed 
Branch, Health of Animals Branch, Divi- 
sion of Chemistry, Fruit Division, Publi- 
cations Branch, Live Stock Branch, and 
the International Institute. 

The Dominion Experimental Farms is- 
sue an annual report compiled by the di- 
rector and chief officers of the Central Ex- 
perimental Farm, and superintendents of 
branch farms and stations; bulletins, cir- 
culars, etc.; Seasonable Hints (published 
in March, July and October) ; exhibition 
circulars; circular letters; and contribute 
articles to the agricultural press. 

The Fruit Branch, in addition to bulle- 
tins and circulars, issues monthly crop 
reports during the fruit season, advising 
the public as to the condition of the fruit 
crop all through the Dominion, with infor- 
mation regarding foreign conditions. 

The Seed Branch issues reports, bulle- 
tins, special contributions, chiefly statisti- 
cal, which are sent to the Census and 
Statistics Monthly, issued by the Trade 
and Commerce Department; leaflets on 
seed testing, and sometimes hints on 
cleaning seed, are enclosed with the re- 
ports sent to farmers and seed merchants. 
Due to the war conditions, short articles 
giving prompt information to farmers. 



AGRICULTURAL LIBRARIES SECTION 



299 



gardeners and seed merchants are sent to 
the press and agricultural papers. 

When a campaign of publicity is on in 
connection with the patriotism and pro- 
duction movement, there are inserted in 
newspapers from coast to coast a series of 
advertisements, each one making a spe- 
cialty of some particular branch of agri- 
culture. A coupon attached Invites appli- 
cation for bulletins on specified subjects. 
Posters of the same character are also 
displayed in public places, such as rail- 
way stations, etc. 

Lists of these Dominion publications are 
available for distribution, and may be had 
by applying to the Publications Branch of 
the Department of Agriculture at Ottawa. 

Since 1914 notices of new publications 
have appeared each month in the Agricul- 
tural Gazette. In addition to these, there 
are lists published on the back covers of 
some of the bulletins, for instance, the 
Fruit Branch has a list on the back page 
indicating the available numbers of the 
Dairy and Cold Storage Commissioner's 
series. 

Most of the Dominion and many of the 
Ontario and other provincial publications 
are now indexed in the Agricultural Index 
published by the H. W. Wilson Co. of New 
York City. [A detailed statement of the 
agricultural publications of each of the 
provincial governments was included in 
this paper.] 

Mr. Deveneau then introduced Miss Vera 
M. Dixon, assistant librarian of the Iowa 
State College, who read a paper entitled 
"A Plan for library extension work In 
agriculture and home economics." The fol- 
lowing is a summary: 

There is a distinct contribution which 
the libraries of the state agricultural col- 
leges can make in the present national ef- 
fort to get information to the farmers and 
the housekeepers. 

They have presumably the best collection 
of books in the state relating to the sub- 
jects of agriculture and home economics; 
they are in contact with the experts on the 
faculty of the college and are, therefore, 
in a position to keep informed on the lit- 
erature of these subjects and are usually 
in close touch with the workers in agri- 
culture and home economics over the 
state. 

For this and other reasons there should 
be maintained in connection with agricul- 
tural college libraries an extension bureau 
devoted to collecting and making available 
the best and most recent literature on the 
subjects of agriculture and home economics. 



This would constitute ah authority to 
which people over the state could write 
for information and from which they could 
borrow books. 

The collection should consist of books, 
pamphlets and package libraries, and 
could be loaned to leaders of clubs, home 
demonstration agents, county agents, and 
schools. The estimated cost for conduct- 
ing this work at Iowa State College is as 
follows: 
Initial cost: 

Salary of assistant, $90 for 12 
months $1,080 

Equipment of room 300 

Supplies (including postage and 
express) 200 

Books 1,000 

$2,580 
Yearly cost of maintenance: 

Books $ 500 to $1,000 

Equipment 100 

Supplies 100 

Postage and express 100 to 200 

Salary 1,500 to 1,600 

A questionnaire was recently sent to aL 
state universities, agricultural libraries, 
and state library commissions to determine 
how much library extension work in agri- 
culture and home economics they were do- 
ing. Sixty-one state universities and agricul- 
tural colleges answered. Of this number 
63 per cent report that they are doing li- 
brary extension work, and the number of 
questions answered per year runs from 
twenty-five at the University of Nebraska 
to 6,879 at the University of Kansas. 
Eight have a special assistant in charge 
of this work and many express the wish 
that they had. 

Miss Lucy E. Fay, librarian of the Uni- 
versity of Tennessee, gave a report of the 
plan for agricultural extension work at 
that university, and Mr. William M. Hep- 
burn, librarian of Purdue University, In- 
diana, made a similar report. 

A spirited discussion of the interesting 
facts brought out by Miss Dixon's report 
resulted in a motion made by Miss Lacy, to 
present a resolution to Dr. Alfred C, True, 
of the Department of Agriculture, that, 
since 63 per cent of the institutions in this 
country doing agricultural work are carry- 
ing on some form of library extension work 
in response to the great need existing for 
such service, he be respectfully urged to 
consider this need and the great handicap 



300 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



experienced in meeting it because of lack 
of funds, and if possible devise some 
means of using a portion of the Smith- 
Lever funds for this purpose. The resolu- 
tion was unanimously adopted. 

There followed a paper on "The sources 
of agricultural statistics," by Miss Mary 
G. Lacy, of the library of the U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture. [The paper, with 
an appended list of statistical sources, will 
appear in the Library Journal.'] 

Miss Barnett, for the Handbook Com- 
mittee, reported progress and it was de- 
cided that the material in hand be circu- 
lated among agricultural libraries for 
criticism and suggestions. 
Mr. Hepburn proposed the following of- 



committee appointed at Louisville in 1917 
which recommended to the Association of 
Agricultural Colleges and Experiment 
Stations that each agricultural experiment 
station be requested to keep a reserve sup- 
ply of not less than 150 copies of each pub- 
lication issued, to be drawn on in com- 
pleting sets in libraries. The Nominating 
Committee, consisting of Miss Barnett and 
Mr. Hepburn, proposed the following of- 
ficers for the coming year, and on motion 
they were elected: Chairman, Vera M. 
Dixon, assistant librarian, Iowa State Col- 
lege, Ames, Iowa; secretary, Lucy E. Fay. 
librarian. University of Tennessee, Knox- 
ville,. Tennessee. 

Mary G. Lacy, 

Secretary. 



CATALOG SECTION 



The Catalog Section met Tuesday eve- 
ning in the club room of the Grand Union 
hotel, with the chairman, Miss Adelaide F. 
Evans of the Detroit Public Library, pre- 
siding. The secretary, Miss Mary F. Baker 
of the University of Missouri Library, was 
unable to be present and Miss Leta E. 
Adams of Gaylord Brothers acted in her 
stead. 

In a most interesting personal letter to 
Miss Evans, read by Miss Mary E. Hyde, 
Lieut. Willis F. Sewall, of the adjutant 
general's office, told of "War Department 
Indexes." [Extracts from this letter are 
given on page 242.] 

Dr. C. W. Andrews of the John Crerar 
Library presented a report from the Deci- 
mal Classification Advisory Committee. He 
said such slight progress had been made 
during the year that it might almost be 
called a "report of standing still." The 
committee felt that unless there was a de- 
cided change for the better during the 
coming year, they should either go on in- 
dependently or else ask to be discharged. 

In the symposium on "Cataloging econ- 
omies," which followed, the speakers were 
decidedly conspicuous by their absence. 



Miss Jennie M. Flexner, of the Louisville 
Free Library, read a paper written by Miss 
May Wood Wigginton of the same library, 
on 

CATALOGING ECONOMIES: MEETING THE DE- 
MANDS OF WAR SERVICE CATALOGING 

(See p. 245) 
The next paper, written by Miss Grace 
B. McCartney, of the Rochester Public Li- 
brary, was read by Miss Adeline B. Zachert 
of the same library, on the subject 

CATALOGING ECONOMIES: HOW ROCHESTER 
ECONOMIZES 

(See p. 247) 
Miss Margaret Mann, of the Carnegie 
Library of Pittsburgh, read the paper of 
Miss Adah Patton of the same library, en- 
titled 

THE CARE OF GIFT PAMPHLETS 

(See p. 249) 
Miss Katharine Dame, of the New York 
State Library, read the paper of Mr. T. 
Franklin Currier, of Harvard College Li- 
brary, the title being 

COST REDUCTION IN CATALOGING 

(See p. 243) 
Considerable discussion of short cuts in 
general and especially the elimination of 



CHILDREN'S LIBRARIANS SECTION 



301 



Cutter numbers followed. Some of those 
taking part were Mr. G. W. Lee of the 
Stone and Webster Library, Mr. J. C. M. 
Hanson of the University of Chicago Li- 
brary, Mr. Charles Martel of the Library 
of Congress, Dr. E. C. Richardson of 
Princeton University Library, Miss Rena 
Reece of the Denver Public Library, Miss 
Jennie M. Flexner of the Louisville Free 
Library and Miss Leta E. Adams of Gay- 
lord Brothers. 

Mr. Maurice Sloog, of 713 Madison Ave- 
nue, New York City, announced the forma- 
tion of a French information bureau and 
clearing house and invited the patronage* 
of the librarians present. 



Mr. Herbert C. Collar of the Grosvenor 
Library, Buffalo, spoke very fully on the 
making of "Index cards for maps found in 
certain periodicals." 

The Committee on Nominations, through 
Miss Sophie Hiss of the Cleveland Public 
Library, chairman, named the following 
as officers of the section for the ensuing 
year: Chairman, Miss Jean Hawkins, of 
the New York State Library School; secre- 
tary. Miss Adah Patton, of the University 
of Illinois Library. 

These officers were elected and the meet- 
ing was adjourned. 

Leta E. Adams, 
Acting Secretary. 



CHILDREN'S LIBRARIANS SECTION 



The Children's Librarians Section met 
Tuesday evening, July 2, with Miss Sarah 
C. N. Bogle of the Carnegie Library School, 
Pittsburgh, in the chair. But one session 
of the section was held, therefore a busi- 
ness meeting preceded the program. 

A report of the permanent committee of 
five on the production of children's books, 
of which Miss Burnite is chairman, was 
read by Miss Hazeltine and approved as 
read. The committee had studied the situ- 
ation and obtained some definite informa- 
tion after getting reports from about thir- 
ty publishers who "replied in a spirit of 
interest and a desire for cooperation." It 
is not surprising that none of them felt 
that there was anything that could be done 
to improve the physical qualities of the 
books just now. 

Nearly all of the publishers in answer to 
the question, "In what ways may this 
committee be of service to your firm," 
asked that they be apprised of the plan of 
work and decisions of the committee. One 
firm would welcome an opportunity to put 
suggested ideas and manuscript of books 
before the committee or a specially sug- 
gested committee of children's librarians, 
and would contribute something to the ex- 
pense of such cooperation. 



The committee recommended that the 
next step be the securing from publishers 
some definite statement of books which 
they expect to reprint and especially those 
which they plan to reset, to determine 
whether any changes seem wise in illus- 
tration, make-up or text. 

The committee also recommended the ad- 
visability of finding out from the publish- 
ers those books which are out of stock and 
which they are not planning to republish 
and whether publishers would be inter- 
ested in a statement from the large libra- 
ries as to the importance of continuing par- 
ticular titles. 

The committee considered that much of 
the success of any attempt to influence the 
production of better books for children 
depended on a cordial relationship be- 
tween the committee and the publisher, 
especially on the confidence of the pub- 
lisher in the practical judgment of the 
committee. 

A list of examples of books of unsatis- 
factory typography and books which do 
not wear well has been prepared by this 
committee. 

None of the speakers scheduled on the 
regular program were able to be present. 
Miss Adeline B. Zachert read Miss Caro- 
line Burnite's paper on 



302 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



LIBEAEY WOEK WITH CHrLDBEN IN WAE TIME 

(See p. 95) 

Following this paper informal reports 
from Miss Annie Carroll Moore of New 
York, Miss Emma R. Engle of Philadelphia, 
and Miss Alice I, Hazeltine of St. Louis 
gave summaries of the war service ren- 
dered by children in the various cities. 
The secretary read a report from Miss 
Alice M. Jordan of Boston. A report was 
received from the Los Angeles Public Li- 
brary. 

The reports from these cities, given at 
some length, showed variations in meth- 
ods but unanimity of effort and aim and 
the accomplishments in the first hurried 
excitement, even when definite plans were 
lacking, were stupendous. It was regretted 
that the lateness of the hour prevented 
much discussion after these reports. 

The Library Committee of the Junior 
Red Cross submitted the following report, 
which was read by the secretary: 
Report of the Library Committee of the 
Junior Red Cross 

To aid in accomplishing the aims of the 
Junior Red Cross the following Library 
Committee was appointed by Dr. H. N. 
MacCracken, National Director of the Ju- 
nior Red Cross: 

Mr. C. C. Certain, Cass Technical High 
School, Detroit; Miss EflSe L. Power, head 
of children's department, Carnegie Libra- 
ry, Pittsburgh; Miss Elisabeth Knapp, 
chief of children's department. Public Li- 
brary, Detroit. 

The purpose of the committee is to pro- 
mote library service as one of the means 
of properly informing children concerning 
their national life and of preparing them 
for intelligent participation in the activi- 
ties of the Junior Red Cross and aifiliated 
organizations. 

The method of procedure formulated by 
the committee is as follows: 

(1) The coordination of library service 
with Red Cross activities, by the fol- 
lowing means: 

(a) The compilation and distribu- 
tion of reading lists and leaflets 
relating to patriotic and educa- 
tional programs. 



The leaflets will be addressed to 
children on such topics as 
"Why we are at war" 
"How boys and girls can help" 
"Heroes at the front" 
"Great national holidays" 
"Men and women of the day" 
"War time changes in commerce, 

etc." 
"How the Red Cross and other or- 
ganizations help the soldiers and 
sailors" 

(b) The publication of illustrated 
bulletins. 

(c) Establishment of permanent Ju- 
nior Red Cross shelves or al- 
coves in libraries to make ac- 
cessible reports and literature 
of the Junior Red Cross and al- 
lied organizations. 

(d) Assisting in gathering mate- 
rials and preparing reading lists 
relating to the activities and 
campaigns of the Junior Red 
Cross. Tentative suggestions 
and lists will be prepared in ad- 
vance, and supplemented at later 
dates. 

(e) Clipping and mounting of mate- 
rial of local interest to branches 
of the Junior Red Cross organ- 
izations. 

(f) Preparing exhibits of books and 
pamphlets for displaying the 
work of the Junior Red Cross. 
An exhibit of this kind is pos- 
sible and can be increased in in- 
terest by the addition of the 
handiwork of members. 

(g) The organization of reading 
clubs, study clubs and debating 
clubs which can do Red Cross 
knitting in libraries without in- 
terference with the usual pro- 
grams. The programs of these 
clubs also offer unlimited oppor- 
tunities for information. 

(2) Definite concerted effort on the part 
of librarians in helping to save the 
children of America from the unset- 
tling effects of the war. The stimu- 
lation of the imagination, the re- 
freshment of the mind, the creation 
of new interest and reading for pure 
enjoyment are to be valued as im- 
measurable assets in attaining the 
purpose of the Junior Red Cross. 
Plan of organization: 
The Junior Red Cross Library sections 
of the National Education Association and 
the American Library Association Com- 
mittees on Library War Service and on 



COLLEGE AND REFERENCE SECTION 



303 



Cooperation with Educational Associa- 
tions. 

Each of the cooperating committees has 
planned work to be directed by the Amer- 
ican Library Association and the National 
Education Association. 
Cooperating organization : 
(a) American Library Association: 

(1) Library War Service, Carl H. 
Milam, assistant to the director, 
Library War Service, Library of 
Congress, Washington, D. C. 

(2) Committee on Cooperation with 
Educational Associations, Wil- 
lis H. Kerr, chairman. Normal 
School Library, Emporia, Kan- 
sas. 

(3) Children's Librarians' Section. 

(4) School Libraries Section. 
i.b) National Education Association: 

The president of the Library Depart- 
ment, C. C. Certain, Cass Tech- 
nical High School, Detroit, Mich. 
Committee chairmen: 

Colleges and Universities: Harriet 
A. Wood, Library Association, 
Portland, Oregon. 

Normal School: Willis H. Kerr, Li- 
brarian, State Normal School, 
Emporia, Kansas. 

Elementary Schools: Annie S. Cut- 
ter, children's department, Pubr. 
lie Library, Cleveland, Ohio. 



Rural Schools: Orpha Maud Peters, 
Public Library, Gary, Indiana. 

The present significance and importance 
of work for children in libraries was em- 
phasized in various meetings and although 
there were fewer children's librarians pres- 
ent than usual, stimulation to renewed ef- 
forts was not lacking. 

The Nominating Committee, consisting 
of Miss Hazeltine of St. Louis, Miss Her- 
bert of Washington, and Miss Sutherland 
of Kansas City, reported the following ofii- 
cers, who were duly elected: Chairman, 
Miss Caroline Burnite, Cleveland Public 
Library; vice-chairman. Miss Adeline 
Zachert, Rochester Public Library; secre- 
tary. Miss Ethel Wright, Toledo Public 
Library. 

The chair appointed Miss Louise Hooper 
of Brookline and Mr. Adam Strohm of De- 
troit on the advisory board; and on the 
Committee for the Production of Children's 
Books, Miss Nina Brotherton of the Car- 
negie Library of Pittsburgh, and Mr. Theo- 
dore W. Koch of the Library of Congress. 

The meeting was then adjourned. 

Elisabeth Knapp, 
Secretary. 



COLLEGE AND REFERENCE SECTION 



The section met Friday evening, July 5, 
W. W. Bishop presiding. 

Mr. ,H. M. Lydenberg, chief reference li- 
brarian. New York Public Library, pre- 
sented a paper on 

PRESENT DISCONTENTS WITH NEWSPRINT 
STOCK 

(See p. 211) 
Dr. C. W. Andrews presented facts re- 
garding the union list of periodicals which 
he is editing for libraries of the middle 
western states. This list will show joint 
holdings of university and state libraries 
and in addition sets held by public libra- 
ries which are not in the university and 
state libraries. It is expected that the list 
will include about 30,000 entries and that 
the volume as printed by the H. W. Wilson 



Company will consist of about 600 pages. 

A discussion of "Instruction in bibliog- 
raphy and the book arts in colleges and 
universities" was introduced by A. S. Root. 
He advocated that elementary instruction 
in high schools in the reference use of 
libraries should be followed in colleges by 
courses in the history of printing and in 
bibliographical methods given by the libra- 
rian, and in the bibliography of special 
subjects given by specialists on the fac- 
ulty. 

The chairman appointed Mr. Quaife and 
Mr. Keogh as a nominating committee and 
their report naming Augustus H. Shearer 
as a member of the committee controlling 
the affairs of the section, was adopted. 



304 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



The lateness of the hour prevented the 
formal discussion of the last topic on the 
program, "University and college catalogs 
in university libraries," but after adjourn- 
ment several members of the section, un- 



der the leadership of Mr. Hanson, told how 
their institutions are handling and filing 
these publications. 

Chables J. Barb, 
Acting Secretary. 



• PROFESSIONAL TRAINING SECTION 



The ninth annual meeting was called to 
order by the vice-chairman, Mr. Ernest J. 
Reece, in the absence of the chairman. 
Miss Jessie Welles. At the request of the 
chairman, Mrs. Harriet P. Sawyer acted 
as secretary pro tem., as Mrs. Theodora R. 
Brewitt, the secretary, was unable to be 
present. 

The program opened with a paper by 
Mr. Frank K. Walter on 

THE WAR AND LIBRARY TRAINING 

(See p. 98) 

The discussion of the paper was opened 
by Miss Mary Emogene Hazeltine, who 
said that the question of the increase of 
salaries was a vital one. The state library 
commission wants the libraries of the state 
to have trained workers, but it is dilficult 
to get trustees to pay adequate salaries. 
Raises should be by the twenty-five dollar 
method rather than the five. The influence 
of Washington may help solve the problem. 
The university students can obtain larger 
salaries in other fields and the course of 
training covers more hours than the usual 
university courses. An increase of the 
element of seriousness was noted in the 
student's mind and attitude toward the 
work last year. The example of the sol- 
dier was followed and forced marches met 
with no objection. 

Miss Eastman reported modification in 
training class plans for last year, viz., a 
clerical course for a clerical grade, and de- 
laying the apprentice course until January 
1 in order to get enough students to form 
a class. 

Miss Rathbone spoke of the unprecedent- 
ed demand for trained workers. More than 
half the students graduating this year had 
been salaried assistants in libraries before 



coming to Pratt. An investigation of the 
actual expenses of the students showed 
that they ranged between $520 and $550 
for the school year, an investment quite 
worth while. 

In regard to salaries. Miss Doren said 
that the trustees must be reached and back 
of them the taxpayers. Librarians should 
convert the trustees and reach the budget 
commission. What is the idea among li- 
brary boards as to the proportion of libra- 
ry income which should be applied to sal- 
aries? It is very diflScult to meet the pres- 
ent war competition when pages can dou- 
ble their salaries in Washington. Stand- 
ards of work cannot be reduced. It is an 
economy to conduct a training class; 
fewer persons do more work, when trained, 
than a larger number of untrained assist- 
ants. The war has brought insistent de- 
mands which must be met and the solu- 
tion is more training plus more salary. 

Miss Curtiss suggested an efficiency sur- 
vey of salaries and living expenses, giving 
educational qualifications. Compare sal- 
aries with those received by graduates of 
business colleges, teachers' colleges, etc. 
In short, make something concrete which 
can be grasped. 

Miss Hooper told of the elaborate re- 
port, which she presented to her board, 
giving the educational qualifications of the 
staff assistants and a comparison of sal- 
aries with school salaries. The trustees 
were impressed and cut the general ex- 
penses and book fund in order to meet the 
increased salary budget as recommended. 

A similar plan was described by Miss 
Donnelly, who had used it with success. 

Miss Zachert referred to the general 
feeling that "it was not ladylike to men- 



PROFESSIONAL TRAINING SECTIOIS 



305 



tion salaries" and added, "The librarian 
must be convinced before convincing oth- 
ers, and a knowledge of salaries the coun- 
try over is necessary to convince trustees." 

At the end of the discussion, Mr, Walter 
made the following motion: "That a com- 
mittee be appointed to make a survey of 
the salary conditions in the libraries of the 
United States, and their relation to the 
problem of effective library training." The 
motion was seconded by Miss Bogle and 
passed unanimously. 

The next paper introduced another sub- 
ject of great interest, "Some experiments 
in secondary training": Psychological 
tests conducted in training classes of the 
public libraries of Brooklyn, Chicago, De- 
troit, Portland (Ore.), and Washington by 
Dr. Elsie Murray, professor of psychology, 
Wilson College, Chambersburg, Pa., who 
kindly sent the following abstract for pub- 
lication : 

"The following is a record of a pioneer 
attempt in the application of psychological 
methods to the rating and differentiation 
of abilities in a class of prospective library 
assistants. A series of twelve tests, 
planned by the writer, at the request and 
under the direction of Miss Jessie Welles 
(of the Wisconsin Library School), was 
applied by Misses Herbert, Sawyer, Mor- 
gan, Hopkins and Whitcomb, to the mem- 
bers of their training classes in the public 
libraries of Washington, Detroit, Portland, 
Brooklyn and Chicago, in the fall of 1917 
and spring of 1918. The fifty student ap- 
prentices tested were also rated by their 
class instructors on a scale of 5 to 1 points 
in the following: general mental ability; 
accuracy; practical ability; social ability; 
executive ability. 

"The following rough method of evaluat- 
ing results was then provisionally adopted: 
The corrected tests sent in by the class di- 
rectors were scored, not on the customary 
percentage basis, but by the quartile meth- 
od, i. e., an individual whose performance 
in any test ranked with that of the best 
quarier of the group of fifty was assigned 
four points; with that of the next best 
quarter, three points, etc. The various 
scores thus obtained from the twelve tests 
(twenty in all) were then tentatively 
grouped in four sets according as they 
seemed best adapted to gauge either: (a) 
general ability; (b) accuracy, or clerical 
ability; (c) practical ability; (d) social 
ability. From the scores thus grouped a 



single composite rating in each of the four 
abilities mentioned was then obtained for 
each individual. 

"The comparison of the composite test 
ratings in each ability thus obtained with 
the instructors' final estimates of the cor- 
responding qualities discloses suflBcient 
agreement to warrant both a further 
evaluation of the results in connection with 
the type of position to which each member 
of the classes has been recommended, and 
a repetition of the experiment (with modi- 
fications) with other training classes. The 
final corroboration of the value of the re- 
sults must come, of course, empirically, 
i. e., from the actual records of success or 
failure made by each individual tested 
along the special lines of work entered." 

Miss Murray was unable to attend the 
Conference, so her paper was read by Miss 
Adah F. Whitcomb, director of the Chicago 
Public Library training class, who said 
that the results of the tests when tabulated 
showed that, on the whole, the ratings cor- 
responded to class records at the end of 
the course. 

Miss Morgan, who opened the discussion 
f the paper, felt that the tests had been 
valuable in corroborating the grading by 
the instructors. 

Miss Herbert's experience was that the, 
ratings proved dissimilar to her own in 
certain cases but that they might show 
potentialities. "It will be interesting to 
watch the future development of the stu- 
dents and see how the ratings in psycho- 
logical tests work out." 

Mr. Rice received the impression that an 
intelligence test had been made rather 
than an educational one, and advocated the 
latter, e. g., a test showing standards of 
rapidity of cataloging. 

(Miss Murray's paper states that the 
tests were for native ability rather than 
acquired skill or knowledge, but there was 
a speed test including accuracy. — ^H. P. S.) 

To Miss Reese's suggestion that person- 
ality should be taken into consideration in 
these tests, Miss Whitcomb replied that she 
understood that this had not been at- 
tempted thus far by psychologists. 

An experiment in giving a class general 
vocational and intelligence tests was re- 
ported by Miss Donnelly, who said that the 



306 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



grading by three members of the staff, on 
a scale from one to twenty-five, differed 
greatly. She concluded her remarks by 
saying that such tests should be related 
to the employer's point of view rather than 
that of the instructor and should be con- 
ducted for ten years before conclusions 
could be regarded as authoritative. 

Others took part in the discussion, which 
was concluded by Mr. Walter, who said: 

"Psychological tests are uncertain at 
present. Dr. Goddard, the leading Amer- 
ican exponent of these tests, insists on the 
essential relation of the tests and the per- 
son conducting them in determining the 
validity of the tests. Moreover, there are 
many psychologists who consider them 
educational rather than intelligence tests 
and some who attack their essential gen- 
eral accuracy. For a while, at least, it is 
important for librarians (who are not al- 
ways trained psychologists) to supplement 
them by the composite opinions of as many 



instructors as practicable." 

The last contribution to the program was 
a description of 

A NEIGHBORHOOD APPRENTICE CLASS 

(See p. 217) 
written by Miss Emilie Mueser, librarian, 
Lucas County (Ohio) Library, and read by 
Miss Lilly M. E. Borresen. 

The report of the Nominating Committee 
(Mr. Walter, Miss Curtiss and Miss Whit- 
comb) for officers for the next year was 
presented as follows: Chairman, Mrs. Har- 
riet P. Sawyer; vice-chairman, Miss Mary 
Emogene Hazel tine; secretary. Miss Clara 
W. Herbert. 

The report of the committee was accept- 
ed, the officers declared elected, and the 
meeting adjourned. 

Harriet P. Sawyer, 

Secretary, pro tern. 



SCHOOL LIBRARIES SECTION 



The School Libraries Section held two 
sessions, one a round table and the other 
the regular meeting, at both of which the 
chairman, Mr. F. K. Walter, presided. No 
special program was followed at the round 
table; topics for discussion were suggest- 
ed by questions asked at the meeting. 

Mr. Sherman Williams explained the re- 
cently adopted regulation of the Board of 
Regents of New York State concerning 
standardization of school librarians. 

The library problems of the junior high 
school were discussed by Miss Adeline B. 
Zachert, Mr. Willis H. Kerr and Mr. John 
D. Wolcott. Miss Zachert advocated the 
creation of a division of the school section 
to be known as the junior high school di- 
vision and to have the following functions: 

1. The preparation of a standard list of 
general literature to serve as a guide to 
teachers in junior high schools. 

2. The encouraging of a friendly inter- 
est of librarians toward their local boards 
of education in urging the appointment of 
qualified librarians in junior high schools. 

3. The preparation of a simple outline 
of Instruction in the use of books for ju- 
nior high school pupils. 



The problem of magazines in the high 
school library received attention and some 
concrete ways of tempting pupils to read 
suitable books were thoroughly discussed. 

At the regular section meetings the gen- 
eral topic was, "The school library in the 
teaching of patriotism." Various aspects 
of this subject were given by Miss Rachel 
Baldwin of Allegheny High School Branch, 
Pittsburgh; Miss Helen S. Babcock of the 
Austin High School Branch, Chicago, and 
Miss Anne T. Eaton, Lincoln School of 
Teachers College, New York. 

Miss Baldwin in discussing the topic 
brought out the following facts: 

The high school is a fertile field for the 
cultivation of patriotism, because of the 
various agencies which readily link them- 
selves with school activities such as Red 
Cross, Boy Scouts, Liberty Loan cam- 
paigns, food conservation, etc., all of which 
serve to stimulate loyalty and enthusiasm 
and offer opportunities where pupils may 
work for definite ends. The school libra- 
ry comes in everywhere, there is no activ- 
ity which it cannot touch. Nothing is 
easier at this time than to arouse war pa- 
triotism by means of bulletins, pictures, 
current topics, debates, war books, sol- 



CAMP HOSPITAL LIBRARIANS ROUND TABLE 



307 



diers' book campaigns, etc. The libra- 
rians' and teachers' greatest opportunity, 
however, is to fuse this enthusiasm for one 
great cause into an active, constructive 
patriotism that will give generous and 
loyal service to our country in peace as 
well as in war. 

Miss Babcock in her paper supplemented 
the statements of Miss Baldwin by tell- 
ing of the work in the Austin High School 
Branch of Chicago, substantially as fol- 
lows: 

Teachers are Informed of the material 
of general interest for the teaching of pa- 
triotism contained in the library, by mimeo- 
graphed bulletins; if more specialized, this 
information is conveyed by personal note 
or interview. A marked copy tucked in 
the teachers' box often brings good results. 
In order to locate articles appearing in the 
magazines quickly, simple penciled cards 
referring to the articles are filed in an in- 
dex and kept on one of the tables and thus 
anticipate the coming of the new Readers' 
Guide. 

During the various campaigns, the libra- 
ry has displayed all posters and notices in 
its room and kept on hand literature bear- 
ing on the subject. It has been the policy 
of the school to use the public speaking 
classes to make the appeals. This was first 
tried with the A. L, A. book drive. The 
library was headquarters but the school or- 
ganizations were utilized, thereby gaining 
wider publicity and interest. The "two- 
minute men" used the library as the source 
of their material for speeches, circulars, 
advertisements, pamphlets, editorials, ad- 
dresses and the like. 

The various government bulletins were 
used as a basis for class work, also clip- 
pings, pictures and the Readers' Guide. A 
recipe file was started in the card .catalog. 
Exhibits of food uses, such as a model 
meal for a child of five and the daily ra- 
tions of the fighting nations, were shown, 
together with all available material in 
printed form. 

Miss Eaton in her paper deplored the 
fact that though the word patriotism has 



been written and spoken more often than 
ever before, we have not altogether suc- 
ceeded in teaching true patriotism so long 
as the stirring up of hatred and violence 
is defended as a legitimate and necessary 
means of awakening the people. Mis& 
Eaton said in part: 

If we have ever felt for a moment that 
the work of a school library lacks contact 
with realities, surely we need feel so no 
longer, for the school library if it well fills 
its appointed task will be helping to elimi- 
nate passion and hate as well as to do 
away with that self-satisfied indifference 
which refuses to recognize the meaning of 
all that the nations of the world are under- 
going. One way in which the school libra- 
ries can do this is by familiarizing chil- 
dren with the highest Ideals of the past as 
a safeguard for the present. 

Annie C. Moore, Miss Mary E. Ahern, 
Dr. Sherman Williams, Miss Adeline B. 
Zachert and Mr. Willis S. Kerr participated 
In the discussion which followed the read- 
ing of the three papers. 

Miss Elisabeth Knapp, chief of the chll 
dren's department of the Detroit Public 
Library, read a report of the library com- 
mittee of the Junior Red Cross, This re- 
port defined the purpose of the committee, 
suggested methods of coordinating library 
service with Red Cross activities and out- 
lined the plan of cooperating with other 
organizations, such as the National Edu- 
cational Association. This report was en- 
dorsed by the School Libraries Section. 

The following officers were elected to 
serve the School Libraries Section next 
year: President, Helen S. Babcock, Public 
Library, Chicago; secretary, Annie T. 
Eaton, Lincoln School, Teachers College, 
New York City. 

Adeline B. Zachebt, 
Secretary. 



CAMP HOSPITAL LIBRARIANS ROUND TABLE 



The Hospital Librarians Round Table 
which met at 2:30 p. m., July 2, dealt with 
two distinct phases of the work: the grow- 
ing activities in the local hospital libra- 
ries, and reconstruction work. 



Electra C. Doren, Anna G. Hall, Kath- 
leen Calhoun, of the Vocational Branch, 
Invalided Soldiers' Commission, Ottawa, 
Canada, W. O. Carson, also of Canada, and 
several others spoke of what Is being done 



308 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



by the Red Cross Institute for Crippled and 
Disabled Soldiers, and other activities in 
the matter of reconstruction. 

Miss Caroline Webster presented a pa- 
per on 

THE ORGANIZATION OF HOSPITAL LIBRARY 
SERVICE 

(See p. 231) 
Miss Miriam E. Carey, field representa- 
tive in the hospital service, followed with 
a paper entitled 

FROM CAMP TO CAMP: THE WORK OF A FIELD 
REPRESENTATIVE 

(See p. 225) 



The next paper was presented by Miss 
E. Kathleen Jones, librarian McLean Hos- 
pital, Waverley, Mass., who took for her 
subject 

WHAT A BASE HOSPITAL LIBRARIAN SHOULD 
KNOW 

(See p. 226) 
The final paper on the program was that 
of Miss Blanche Galloway, librarian Pel- 
ham Bay (N. Y.) Naval Training Station, 
Miss Galloway's subject being 

A WOMAN AMONG TEN THOUSAND BLUE- 
JACKETS 

(See p. 223) 



LENDING DEPARTMENT ROUND TABLE 



The Lending Department Round Table 
met July 3, with an attendance of about 
seventy-five. In the absence of Miss Jean- 
nette M. Drake, Mr. Everett R. Perry read 
her paper, entitled 

ELIMINATION OF THE USE OF READERS' CARDS 
IN THE PUBLIC LIBRARY 

(See p. 219) 
An excerpt from a letter from Miss 
Miriam B. Wharton, librarian of the Bur- 
lington Free Public Library, to Miss Drake 
was presented, as follows: 

I see by the announcements of the 
A. L. A. meeting that you are to talk on 
the "Elimination of the readers' card." 
I am so glad and hope your good words 
will lead others in the way. After your 
state meeting where your experiment was 
discussed, I came home and immediately 
tried it out: that was almost two years 
ago and we are still enthusiastic, and the 
public are so relieved. Cedar Rapids and 
Oskaloosa have since followed and are 
equally rejoiced with the change, so you 
cannot be too enthusiastic. 

In the discussion these facts were 
brought out: 

Redlands has followed suit in elimi- 
nating borrower's cards. Rochester tried 
dispensing with them at one of the sub- 
branches but had to go back to using' the 
card. Wilmington has tried to shorten 
and simplify the process of charging and 
finds the Newark system the best. The 



Sioux City way does not shorten the proc- 
ess nor lessen congestion at the charging 
desk. 

Newark thinks it could be used in small 
libraries but it means increased waiting 
and work for the borrower. Mr. Dana fur- 
thermore said that for twenty-five years 
he had been trying to find a simpler meth- 
od than the Newark and found that any 
means used for saving the library meant 
extra work for the patron. 

The consensus of opinion was that the 
Sioux City system would not work or be 
feasible in a large library system. 

The question box brought forth the fol- 
lowing queries: 

1. How have the libraries near the 
training camps .for soldiers and sailors 
handled these men when they presented 
themselves as would-be patrons? 

Omaha lost so many books, a deposit was 
required; this was not successful, as the 
men frequently were called away with so 
little notice they could not get the money 
refunded. Now books are sent to the 
camps and placed in charge of the Y. M. 
C. A. 

Wilmington also makes deposits in the 
camp, the A. L. A. supplying the needed 
technical books. The question of fines has 
not arisen, as the soldiers return their 
books promptly. Omaha and Newark re- 
mit fines, Elizabeth treats the soldier as a 
regular patron except that the officer's 
signature takes the place of any other ref- 
erence. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENTS ROUND TABLE 



309 



2. What can be done when books are 
kept until long overdue by members of the 
board of trustees of a library, after the 
usual post card notices have been sent? 

The methods used were: Notify wife of 
the board member; use special card saying 
book is needed; send personal letter; tele- 
phone that book is urgently needed. 

3. What is the general opinion in re- 
gard to charging books by date of issue in- 
stead of date due? 

This was voted on and a large majority 
found in favor of the date due. Cleveland 
has used both and hopes never to return 
to the date of issue. 

The chief opposition to using date due 
seems to be the chance of charging with 
the wrong stamp and the inability to fix 
responsibility, Pittsburgh reports no trou- 
ble of this sort. Each date has a different 
colored pencil — current date (discharging 
pencil) is brown; 7 day, black; 14 day, 
yellow; 28 day, green. Each assistant has 
a symbol — a check, a dash, etc. — which 
she makes when writing borrower's num- 
ber, thus fixing responsibility absolutely. 



Another library further differentiates by 
using different sized type for different 
dates. 

4. Have any libraries instituted econ- 
omies in the routine of the circulation de- 
partment in the effort to release assistants 
for war work which might be of interest to 
this meeting? 

Newark bought a nicer set of trays to 
save time; also recommends use of regis- 
tration book in place of numerical file at 
central library. Mr. and Miss are now 
omitted from registration entries and bor- 
rower's card, while a dash ( — )' is used for 
Mrs. 

Rochester multigraphs the bookslips of 
books of which there are many copies in 
use, which require frequent renewing. 

Miss Waller I. Bullock, of the Carnegie 
Library of Pittsburgh, was chosen chair- 
man for the next meeting, and Miss 
Frances Dorrance, of Trenton, secretary. 
Agnes F. P. Gbeeb, 
Secretary. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENTS ROUND TABLE 



The meeting was called to order, July 5, 
by the chairman, Mr. George S. Godard, 
state librarian of Connecticut. Mr. De- 
marchus C. Brown, state librarian of Indi- 
ana, acting as secretary. 

The chairman briefly outlined the pres- 
ent status of the printing bill before Con- 
gress. He stated that the outlook was 
somewhat discouraging and that no action 
could be expected during the present War 
Congress, when more important world prob- 
lems were at stake. He called attention 
to House Resolution 11521, which is a new 
printing bill introduced by Mr. Barnhart 
on April 18, 1918, and referred to the Com- 
mittee on Printing, having been ordered 
printed. Up to the present time the chair- 
man has heard of no report having been 
made on the same by the committee. 

The bill is entitled, "A bill to amend and 
revise the laws relating to printing and 
binding and the distribution of publica- 
tions for Congress," In brief it abolishes 



all the official gazette and geological sur- 
vey libraries and rewrites the sections rela- 
tive to valuation distribution. It places in 
the hands of the Joint Committee on Print- 
ing the responsibility of determining much 
of the detail relative to publication, bind- 
ing and distribution included in the former 
printing bills. Thus, Section 18, para- 
graphs 1 and 2, read as follows: 

Sec. 18, Par. 1. The Joint Committee on 
Printing shall have power to adopt and 
employ such measures as, in its discretion, 
may be deemed necessary to remedy any 
neglect, delay, duplication, or waste in the 
public printing and binding and the dis- 
tribution of Government publications, and 
shall exercise general supervision over 
printing and binding for Congress. 

Sec. 18, Par. 2. The Joint Committee on 
Printing is hereby authorized to inquire at 
any time into all matters pertaining to the 
public printing and binding and the dis- 
tribution of publications for Congress, the 
judiciary, and the various executive de- 
partments, independent offices, and estab- 
lishments of the Government, to report to 
Congress from time to time any abuses in 



310 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



the public printing and binding and 
the distribution of Government publica- 
tions, and to recommend such remedial 
legislation as in its judgment may seem 
proper. 

Twenty publications heretofore included 
in Congressional distribution to depository 
libraries it Is proposed to remove from 
such distribution, as may be seen from 
Section 11, which reads as follows: 

Sec. 11. The printing of the following 
publications for congressional distribution 
as heretofore provided by law shall be dis- 
continued: Monthly Summary of Foreign 
Commerce of the United States, Annual 
Report of Foreign Commerce and Naviga- 
tion of the United States, Annual Report 
of the Health Officer of the District of Co- 
lumbia, Annual Report of the Bureau of 
Ethnology, Bulletins of the Bureau of Eth- 
nology, Bulletins of the Bureau of Fish- 
eries, Geological Bulletins, Geological Pro- 
fessional Papers, Geological Water-Supply 
Papers, Topographic and Geologic Maps 
and Atlases, Charts of the Coast and Geo- 
detic Survey, Memoirs of the National 
Academy of Sciences, The American Eph- 
emeris and Nautical Almanac, Publications 
of the Naval Observatory, Annual Report 
of Field Operations of the Bureau of Soils, 
Annual Report of the Commercial Relations 
of the United States with Foreign Coun- 
tries, Navy Yearbook, and the Annual Re- 
port of the Commissioner of Patents with 
list of patents. 

The chairman stated that on the whole 
he felt the bill was a step in the right di- 
rection, for up to the present time the 
Joint Committee on Printing had expressed 
its desire and willingness to incorporate 
any suggestions which the librarians of 
the country had united in asking for when 
the same did not conflict in detail consid- 
ered essential for the convenience of Con- 
gress. This willingness was shown in the 
other printing bills before Congress as ex- 
plained before the Government Documents 
Round Table at former meetings by Mr. 
Carter, Clerk of the Joint Committee on 
Printing. It is a safe assumption, there- 
fore, that the same willingness may be ex- 



pected from the Joint Committee here- 
after. 

The chairman also called attention to 
Senate Bill 4366, introduced by Senator 
Chamberlain, April 16, which was referred 
to the Committee on Library, and by that 
committee reported favorably without 
amendment, June 6, as explained by Re- 
port 481 of the 65th Congress, 2d Session. 
This bill relates to the return of govern- 
ment publications by depositories. Sec- 
tion 5 reads as follows: 

Sec. 5. That libraries heretofore desig- 
nated by law as depositories to receive 
books and other Government publications 
shall hereafter, during their existence, 
continue such receipt, and new designa- 
tions may be made when libraries hereto- 
fore chosen shall cease to exist or other 
designation shall hereafter be authorized 
by law. The librarian of any library above 
mentioned may return to the superintend- 
ent of documents and the superintendent 
of documents shall receive back such of 
the documents and publications furnished 
to said libraries as in the opinion of said 
librarian are not suitable for collection or 
use by said library. 

Following the brief explanation cover- 
ing the two bills affecting the publication 
and distribution of documents, the chair- 
man introduced Dr. H. H. B. Meyer, chief 
bibliographer, Library of Congress, who 
read a paper upon 

GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS BELATING TO THE 
WAR 

(See p. 202) 

On motion of Mr. Dullard, state librarian 
of New Jersey, a vote of thanks was re- 
turned to Dr. Meyer for his interesting and 
instructive paper. 

The Committee on Public Documents 
was instructed to take up the question of 
securing for certain depository libraries 
the twenty publications proposed to be 
eliminated from congressional distribu- 
tion, as stated in Section 11 of the pro- 
posed printing bill. 

There being no further business the 
meeting was adjourned. 



311 



ROUND TABLE OF THE LIBRARIES OF RELIGION 
AND THEOLOGY 



The Round Table of the Libraries of 
Religion and Theology was held Wednes- 
day evening, July 3, with an attendance of 
about twenty-five. 

The meeting was called to order by the 
president, Dr. Charles R. Robinson of the 
Philadelphia Divinity School. A nominat- 
ing committee consisting of Mr. Glen B. 
Ewell of Rochester, Miss Edith Clark of 
the Bible Teachers' Training School, New 
York City, and Mrs. C. E. Moody of the 
Day Missions Library at Yale University, 
was appointed by the president. 

The first paper was read by Miss Hollis 
W. Hering, of the Missionary Research 
Library, New York City, on "The war and 
the mission field." 

This paper reviewed the effects of the 
world confiict which "has set the uttermost 
parts of the earth vibrating," as it bore 
upon the mission fields. In spite of in- 
superable difllculties, many of the mission 
fields themselves being battle ground, on 
the whole the missions have held their 
own splendidly, while the war has forced 
rapid development in three very distinct 
directions: A tremendous impetus has been 
given to the development of native races 
which has hastened by many years the 
movement towards "devolution" in native 
churches; the Moslem field has been cleared 
by the complete collapse of the idea of the 
political unity of Islam; and everywhere 
the bonds of caste and race prejudice are 
giving way. In touching upon the various 
unique missionary openings due to the 
war, attention was drawn to the work in 
the various Native Labour Contingents 
now in France. In closing, Miss Hering 
mentioned the serious effect of the war on 
the size and frequency of publication of 
the missionary publications. 

A paper prepared by Dr. Charles R. Gil- 
lett, who is in charge of the McAlpin col- 
lection, in the library of Union Theological 
Seminary, was read by Miss Julia Pettee. 

The collection now numbers over 15,000 
titles, ranging from the Elizabethan period, 
which is fairly well represented, through 
the Commonwealth period, which is quite 
full, and the controversial writings of the 



Restoration to the end of the seventeenth 
century. Though the collection is theolog- 
ical in its aim, history and politics are so 
closely interwoven that no close lines of 
demarcation can be drawn, and it forms 
an important depository of source material 
for the history of the period. The plan of 
the catalog includes the copying of the en- 
tire title page, with vertical line endings, 
and giving full bibliographical details, so 
that the exact identification of the numer- 
ous editions through which many of the 
writings have passed, and of the various 
separate parts of which many of the com- 
posite volumes consist, is possible. It is 
the design of the compiler. Dr. Gillett, to 
make the catalog not only a list of books 
but an adequate bibliographical tool for 
scholars. 

After Dr. Gillett's paper, the subject of 
an evaluated list of denominational period- 
icals was taken up. Dr. Robinson thought 
there was considerable demand for such a 
list to aid the libraries of limited funds 
in the selection of these periodicals. Dr. 
H. P. Smith of Union Theological Seminary 
had furnished a list of those currently re- 
ceived at that institution, upon which Dr. 
Robinson commented. 

The last paper, "On the exchange of du- 
plicates," by Samuel G. Ayres of Garrett 
Biblical Institute, Evanston, Illinois, was 
read by Mr. Ewell. 

Mr. Ayres arranges his duplicates alpha- 
betically, lists them, and sends out carbon 
copies to other libraries. He makes it a 
principle that any library desiring a book 
on the list shall have it whether he re- 
ceives its value in exchange or not. He 
also advises exchanging with dealers. Of 
the residue of unexchangeable books, selec- 
tions are sent to needy institutions in the 
south or perhaps to some minister. He has 
distributed 5,000 volumes, besides hundreds 
of magazines and pamphlets in this way 
during the last six years. 

Mr. Collar, Mr. Oko, Miss Krum, Mr. 

Ewell, Professor Root and Mr. Keogh spoke 

in the discussion following this paper. 

There seemed to be a consensus of opinion 



312 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



that the thing to do was to bestow the book 
where wanted, regardless of its exchange 
value. 

The Nominating Committee reported 
Prof. A, S. Root, librarian of Oberlin Col- 
lege Library, for president and Miss Hollis 



W. Hering, Missionary Research Library, 
New York City, for secretary. These of- 
ficers were elected and the meeting was 
then adjourned. 

Julia Pettee, 
Secretary. 



ROUND TABLE OF TRAINING CLASS TEACHERS 



The conference of training class teach- 
ers, arranged for by the committee on li- 
brary training, was held on the evening of 
July 3. About seventy-five persons were 
present. 

The following papers were read: 

1. What should be the standard of ad- 
mission to a training class? Marie 
Newberry, New York Public Library. 

2. How long should the course be? How 
much time per week should be given 
to practice and how much to study? 
Should the practice be paid for? Lucy 
Morgan, Detroit Public Library. 

3. What subjects should be taught in 
the course? Adah F. Whitcomb, Chi- 
cago Public Library. 

4. In what way and how soon after the 
beginning of the course should unde- 



sirables be eliminated? Clara W. 
Herbert, Public Library of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, Washington, D. C. 
5. When the course is completed and 
students are ready for work, what 
salary should be offered? Ernestine 
Rose, Carnegie Library, Pittsburgh. 

Each paper was followed by a general 
discussion in which an unusually large 
number of persons participated. So suc- 
cessful was the meeting that it was voted 
unanimously to arrange for a similar ses- 
sion at the next A. L. A. Conference. Miss 
Ernestine Rose was elected chairman and 
Miss Adah F. Whitcomb secretary. 

AzARiAH F. Root, 
Chairman. 



EXHIBITS 



(Reprinted from Library Journal, August, 
1918) 
A number of good exhibits were shown 
to excellent advantage in the hotel par- 
lors. Largest in point of size was that 
showing the work of the camp libraries 
and the library war service in general. 
Besides photographs from all camps from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific, there was 
shown a model of a camp library building 
of the Camp Kearny type, with reading 
porch along the side. There was also much 
interest in a book wagon for hospital use 
made and donated by the pupils of the 
Youngstown High School. The Food Ad- 
ministration had a large exhibit, with ma- 
terial changed at frequent intervals. Here 



were shown files of the numerous series 
of bulletins issued in cooperation with 
other government departments; maps, 
recipes, posters, photographs, and graphic 
exhibits suitable for small libraries; files 
of reports from library directors; corn, 
wheat and food exhibits; and sample maps 
from the Statistical Division and from 
Boston schools. On Wednesday photo- 
graphs of library publicity along food con- 
servation lines were shown, and on Thurs- 
day, posters from schools of different 
states. There were the usual exhibits of 
books by dealers, and the Dayton Library 
and Gaylord Brothers showed scrapbooks 
made for hospital use. 



POST-CONFERENCE NOTES 



313 



POST-CONFERENCE NOTES 



New York State Library Day. — In re- 
sponse to the invitation of Dr. Charles B. 
Alexander, of the Library Committee of 
the Board of Regents, of New York State, 
about four hundred A, L. A. members went 
to Albany on July 6 to attend centennial 
exercises in celebration of the establish- 
ment of the New York State Library. 

In addition to remarks by Dr. Alexan- 
der, the morning program included ad- 
dresses by Dr. Thomas E. Finegan, deputy 
commissioner of education of New York 
State; Dr. Melvil Dewey; Thomas L. Mont- 
gomery, William Warner Bishop, and J. I. 
Wyer, Jr. 

After these exercises the company were 
guests at a luncheon tendered by Dr. Alex- 
ander. The afternoon was spent in ex- 
ploring the building. Although it was 
Saturday and a half holiday, every divi- 
sion from the museum with its interest- 
ing Indian exhibits on the top floor to the 
departments in the basement, was open 



for inspection, and guides were furnished 
to conduct parties through the building. 

Lake Placid. — A post-conference trip 
was not planned to follow the 1918 meet- 
ing, but fifty-eight A. L. A. members found 
it possible to avail themselves of the kind- 
ness of Dr. Melvil Dewey, who extended 
to those in attendance at the Conference 
the hospitality of the Lake Placid Club. 

A motor-ride to Lake Placid from Sara- 
toga is in itself imaginable as an experi- 
ence of exceptional pleasure, and that an 
unstinted welcome awaited in a spot of 
great natural beauty, was a foregone con- 
clusion. Beyond this conception, those 
who made this trip bring back a story of 
a vast place marvelously appointed, fric- 
tionless in service; telling of music by 
Boston Symphony players seemingly in- 
terpretive of ecstasy at harmonious sur- 
roundings, until the A. L. A. people who 
could not be present at Lake Placid extend 
to the fortunate ones who were there a 
siincere congratulation. 



314 



SARATOGA SPRINGS CONFERENCE 



NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF STATE LIBRARIES 
Twenty-First Annual Meeting, Saratoga Springs, N. Y. July 2-4, I9J8 



FIRST JOINT SESSION 

(With the American Association of Law 

Libraries.) 

Billiard room, Grand Union Hotel, Tues- 
day, July 2, 2:30 p.m. 

The meeting was called to order by Mr. 
Edward H. Redstone, president of the 
American Association of Law Libraries. 

The first number on the program was a 
paper on the workings of the Massachu- 
setts Constitutional Convention now in 
session, presented by Dr. Lawrence B. 
Evans, state librarian and member of the 
commission to compile information and 
data for the use of the constitutional con- 
vention. 

WORKINGS OF THE MASSACHUSETTS 

CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 

By Dr. Lawrence B. Evans, 

State Librarian of Massachusetts 
America is pre-eminently the land of the 
written constitution. Such instruments of 
government are not unknown, to be sure, 
in other countries, but in America, with 
the exception of the brief period from the 
assembling of the second Continental Con- 
gress in 1775 until the adoption of the 
Articles of Confederation in 1781, neither 
the United States nor any member thereof 
has known a government which was not 
based upon a written instrument. The 
Virginia charters and the Mayflower com- 
pact were the progenitors of a long line 
of constitutions whose unbroken succes- 
sion has made the American people feel 
almost instinctively that orderly govern- 
ment is dependent upon a written docu- 
ment in which the organization of the 
state shall be described, and the funda- 
mental rights of the people shall be de- 
fined and protected. That somewhat nebu- 
lous scheme of government known as the 
British Constitution, which is so intan- 
gible and at the same time so real, has no 
parallel in the history of American insti- 
tutions. 



At the present time government in 
America is based upon forty-nine written 
constitutions which compose our funda- 
mental law, shaping and controlling and 
restraining the political activity both of 
the people of our several political units 
and of their governmental agents. To the 
provisions of these instruments all enact- 
ments of subordinate law-making authori- 
ties as well as all the acts of executive 
and administrative officials must conform, 
and it is axiomatic in our law that any 
enactments or executive acts which do not 
so conform will not be given any legal ef- 
fect by the courts. 

In consequence of the universal preva- 
lence of written instruments of government 
in the United States, and in view of the 
general tendency to embody a mass of 
statutory matter in the fundamental law 
and thus put it out of the reach of the leg- 
islative bodies which are so generally dis- 
trusted, the needs of a rapidly changing 
and complex society compel frequent revi- 
sion and amendment of our constitutions. 
Specific changes will in most cases be 
brought about upon the initiative of the 
legislature, but a revision of the consti- 
tution as a whole will be left to a body es- 
pecially elected for that purpose. Hence 
constitutional conventions, which in most 
states have heretofore met a