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PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 
OF LONDON. 

\ 
NOVEMBEB 17, 1870, TO APEIL 3, 1873. 



SECOND SERIES, VOL. V. 




LONDON: 

PRINTED BY NICHOLS AND SONS, FOK 

THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES, 

SOMERSET HOUSE. 



r 



DA 
2o 



6175B5 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGE 

Bronze Mace-head from Tipperary . . . . . .12 

Anglo-Saxon Fibula from Barrington 14 

Early-Christian Terra- Cotta Lamp . . . . . .16 

Bronze Bell from Bottesford, Lincolnshire .... 24 

Koman Vase from Kelvedon ... . .30 

Koman Strainer from Chichester .... .39 

A Goldsmith's Touchstone .... 51 

Seal of Henry de Langele . . . . . . .54 

Seal from Farnham ........ 55 

Flint Implement from Honduras . . .94 

Bronze Sickle from the Thames ... .95 

Flint Implement from the Isle of Wight . . . .113 

Glass Phial from Lutterworth . . . . . .115 

Vessel of Brass from Peckleton 117 

Roman Pottery from a Villa at Beddington . . . ' .153 
Seal of the Abbey of Dunfermline . . . . . ' .174 
Bronze Fibula from the King's County . . . . .190 
Bronze Weight from Cambridge . . . . . .218 

Greek Sling-bullet 220 

Tube of Yew-wood from Skull 223 

Seal of Milton Abbey 255 

Bronze Blade from Craigs, co. Antrim 269 

Stone Object from Brandon . . . . . . .272 

Bronze Censer from Limpsfield ...... 285 

Bronze Thurible from Syria . . . . . . .290 

Initial from Colonel Carew's MS. ....... 333 

Bronze Cross from co. Longford ...... 335 

Sword Pomel from Northamptonshire ..... 343 

Remains of British Canoe found in the Thames . . . 364 
Earthen Vessel from Ashburton Church, Devon . . .386 

Four Bronze Celts, England 398 

Five Bronze Weapons, England ...... 403 

Spearhead from Lurgan . . . ..... 405 



1V 



' PAGE 

Spearhead from Speen . .. .- * ., . . . 405 

Bronze Ferrule from Guilsfield . . . . . . 405 

Bronze Armlet, Scilly Isles .. . v. . . . .406 

Bronze Armlet, Cornwall . . . ; . . . . 406 

Jets from casting, Stogursey . ' . " . . . . . 409 

Five Bronze Weapons from Northumberland . . . .429 

Sickle-shaped Implement, Battlefield, Salop . . . .-431 

Gold Brooch found in Hanover , . . . .456 

Gravestone, Frodingh am, co. Lincoln . . . .'473 

Fragment of Metal Decoration from Ericombe . . , . 475 

Roseworthy Cross, Cornwall . . V. . . . . 484 

Inscribed Stone, Lanivet, Cornwall ...... 486 

Inscribed Stone Tablets, Cardynham, Cornwall . . . 488 

Key-shaped Ornament, Soham, Cambridgeshire . . . 496 



EREATA. 

P. 130, 1. 25, for " Rev. John Rae " read " John Rae, Esq." 
1. 26, for " Laurence " read " Lawrence," 
1. 30, for " William " read " Wilson." 
P. 135, 1. 16, for " Walter " read " William." 
P. 148, 1. 6 from the bottom, for " Rev. John Rae " read " John 
Rae, Esq." 

P. 148, 1. 5 from the bottom, for " Laurence " read " Lawrence." 
P. 153, 1. 9 from the bottom,/or " Castor" read " Caistor." 
P. 163, 1. 16 from the bottom, dele " with." 
P. 165, 1. 8, for "North Minims" read "Nash Mills." 
P. 189, 1. 25, dele " Thomas Thompson, Esq." 
P. 274, 1. 2 from the bottom, dele "post " 
P. 291, 1. 10 from the bottom,/or " censor " read " censer." 
p. 405 432, passim, for "ferule" read "ferrule." 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUAKIES 

OF LONDON. 



SESSION 1870-71. 



Thursday, November 17th, 1870. 
FREDERIC OUVRY, Esq ., Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Imperial Academy of Vienna : 

1 Siteungsberichto philos.-histor. Classe. 61 Band, heft 2, 3. 62 Band, heft 
1-3, 4. 8vo. Vienna, 1869. 

2. Denkschriften philos.-histor. Classe. 16 u. 18 Band. 4to. Vienna, 1869. 

3. Archiv fiir Kunde osterr. Geschichtsquellen. 41 Band, heft 1, 2. 8vo. 
Vienna, 1869. 

From the Lords of the Committee of Council on Education :- Science and Art 
Department, South Kensington Museum. Universal Catalogue ofc Books on 
Art. Vol. 2. I to Z. 4to. London, 1870. 

From E. Peacock, Esq. F.S.A. : A New Guide to Hull : with a correct map. 
Compiled by John Craggs, junior. 8vo. Hull, 1884. 

From the Royal Geographical Society : -Proceedings. Vol. xiv. Nos. 2-4. 
8vo. London, 1870. 

From the Author : The Theory of the Arts ; or, Art in relation to Nature, 
Civilization, and Man. By George Harris, F.S.A. Two vols. 8vo. Lon- 
don, 1869. 

From the Royal Academy of Sciences, Letters, and Fine Arts of Belgium : 

1. Memoires Couronnes et Memoires des Savants Etrangers. Tome xxxiv. 
' 4to. Brussels, 1870. 

2. Memoires Couronnes et autres Memoires. Collection in 8. Tome xxi. 
' 8vo. Brussels, 1870. 

.-{. Bulletins. 2 me Ser. Tomes 27 and 28. 8vo. Brussels, 1869. 

4. Ammaire. 36 me Annee. Sm. 8vo. Brussels, 1870. 

5 Nederlandsche Gedichteu uit de veertiende eeuw van Jan Boendale, 

'tleiii Van Aken en anderen. Uitgegeven door F. A. Snellaert. 8vo. 

Brussels, 1869. 

VOL. V. ]i 



2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

From the Royal Institute of British Architects : 

1. Sessional Papers, 1869-70. Nos. 10-13, and 1870-71. No. I. 4to. 
London, 1870. 

2. List of Members. 4to. London, 1870. 

From the Rev. Dr. F. G. Lee, F.S.A. : Ordinum Sacrorum in Ecclesia 
Anglicana Defensio, et Registrum consecrationis Archiepiscopi Parkeri 
photographice expresso, editore T. J. Bailey, B.A. Folio. London and 
Brighton, 1870. 

From the Editor : The Church Builder. Nos. 35 and 36. July and October. 
8vo. London, 1870. 

From the Huddersfield Archaeological and Topographical Association : The 
Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical Journal. Part 3. 8vo. 
London, 1870. 

From the Academy of Sciences of St. Petersburg : Bulletin. Tome xiv. 

(Feuilles 2236.) completing the vol. ; and Tome xv. (Feuilles 1 and 2.) 

4to. St. Petersburg, 1870. 
From the Society of Arts and Sciences, Batavia : 

1. Verhandelingen. Vol. xxxiii. 4to. Batavia, 1868. 

2. Tijdschrift. Vol.xvi. 2 6, xvii. 1 6, xviii. 1. 8vo. Batavia, 1866 68: 

3. Notulen. Vol. iv. 2, v. 6, vii. 1. 8vo. Batavia, 1867-69. 

4. Katalogus der Ethnologische Afdeeling van het Museum. 8vo. 
Batavia, 1868. 

5. Catalogus der Numismatische Afdeeling van het Museum. 8vo. 
Batavia, 1869. 

From the Author : The Chronicle of the Christian Ages ; or, Record of Events 
Ecclesiastical, Civil, and Military. By John Harwood Hill, B.A. 2 vols. 
in one. 8vo. Uppingham [1859]. 

From the Royal Society : Proceedings. Vol. xviii. Nos. 120 122 (com- 
pleting vol. 18), and vol. xix. No. 123. 8vo. London, 1870. 

From the Asiatic Society of Bengal : 

1. Journal. New Series. Vol. 39. Part 1, Nos. 1 and 2. 1870. 8vo. Cal- 
cutta, 1870. 

2. Proceedings. Nos. 48. April to August, 1870. 8vo. Calcutta, 1870. 

From the British Archseological Association : The Journal. June 30 and 
September 30. 8vo. London, 1870. 

From the Associated Architectural Societies: Reports and Papers. 1869. 
Vol. x. Part 1. 8vo. Lincoln. 

From the Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland: The 
Journal. Vol. 1. Fourth series. April and July, 1870. Nos. 2 and 3. 
8vo. Dublin, 1870. 

From the Society of Antiquaries of Zurich : 

1. Indicateur d'Histoire et d' Antiquites Suisses. Vols. 13 (June 1870). 
8vo. Zurich, 18551870. 

2. Berichte der Antiquarischen Gesellschaft (Der Gesellschaft fur Vater- 
liindische Alterthumer) in Zurich. 8vo. Zurich, 1868. 

From the Royal United Service Institution : Journal. Vol.14. Nos. 58 60. 

8vo. London, 1870. 
From the Anthropological Society: Journal of Anthropology. Nos. 1 and 2. 

July and October. 8vo. London, 1870. 
From the Editor, S. Tymms, Esq. F.S.A.: The East Anglian. Vol.4. Nos. 

113-116. 8m Lowestoft, 1870. 

From the Exeter Diocesan Architectural Society: Transactions. Part 2, vol. 2. 
Second series. 4to. Exeter, 1870. 



Nov. 17.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 3 

From the Author : The Portraiture of the Ancients. By C. W. King, M.A. 
(From the Archaeological Journal, vol. 27.) 8vo. London, 1870. 

From the Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland : The 
Archaeological Journal. Vol. 27. Nos. 105 and 106. 8vo. London, 1870. 

From Her Majesty's Secretary of State for the Home Department : 

1. By the Queen. A Proclamation commanding the observance of a strict 
neutrality in the matter of war between France and Prussia. Given at 
Osborne House, Isle of Wight, 19th July, 1870. 34th year of reign. 
Broadsheet folio. (Two copies.) 

2. By the Queen. A Proclamation to observe strict neutrality during the 
war between France and Prussia, and to warn from the violation of the 
Act against Illegal Enlistment, Shipbuilding, and Expeditions. Given at 
Osborne House, Isle of Wight, 9th August, 1870. 34th year of reign. 
Broadsheet folio. (Two copies.) 

3. By the Queen. A Proclamation declaring the Parliament to be further 
Prorogued to Tuesday 13th December. Given at Balmoral, 24th October, 
1870. 34th year of reign. Broadsheet. (Two copies.) 

From the Hon. R. C. Winthrop, Hon. F.S.A. : Peabody Education Fund. 
Proceedings of the Trustees, Feb. 15, 1870. 8vo. Cambridge, U.S.A. 
1870. 

From the Author, Charles Deane, Esq. : 

1 . Memoir of George Livcrmore. Prepared agreeably to a Resolution of 
the Massachusetts Historical Society. 8vo. Cambridge, U.S.A. 1869. 

2. A Brief Memoir of Robert Waterston, a Boston Merchant. By one who 
knew him many years. 8vo. Boston, U S.A. 1869. 

3. The Life of Mr. Thomas Dudley, several times Governor of the Colony of 
Massachusetts. Written, as is supposed, by Cotton Mather. 8vo. Cam- 
bridge, U.S.A. 1870. 

From the Cambrian Archa3ological Association : 

1. Archajologia Cambrensis. Fourth Series. Nos. 3 and 4. 8vo. London, 
1870. 

2. The Lordship of Gower in the Marches of Wales. Part 3. Edited by 
Charles Baker, Esq. F.S.A. 8vo. London, 1870. 

From the Numismatic Society : The Numismatic Chronicle. Vol. 10. New 
Series. No. 38. London, 1870. 

From W. H. Hart, Esq. F.S.A. : 

1. A New Discovery of the Prelates' Tyranny, in their late Prosecutions of 
Mr. William Pryn, etc. 4to. London, 1641. 

2. EIKftN.BASlMKH. Vel Imago Regis Caroli in illis suis rcrumnis et sdi- 
tudine. 12mo. The Hague, 1649. 

3. Literal Pseudo-Seuatus Anglicani, Cromwcll5i,Reliquorumquc Perduellium 
nomine ac jussu conscriptae a Joanne Miltono. 12mo. n.p. 1676. 

4. The Countermine : or, a Short but True Discovery of the Principles and 
Practices of the Dissenting Party. Svo. London, 1677. 

o. The \Veesils. A Satyrical Fable. 4to. London, 1691. 

6. The Anti-Weesils. A Poem. 4to. London, 1691. 

7. A Letter out of Suffolk to a Friend in London. 4to. London, 1694. 

8. The Review and Observator Review'd. By a Layman of the Church of 
England. 4to. London, 1706. 

9. The Post-Boy Robb'd of his Mail : or, the Pacquet broke open. Two 
vols. in one. 8vo. London, 1706 

10. A Cry from the Desart : or, Testimonials of the Miraculous Things 
lately come to pass in the Cevcnnes. By John Lacy. Second Edition. 
Svo. London, 1707. 

B2 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1870, 

11. Censnra Temporum. The Good or 111 Tendencies of Book's, Sermons, 
Pamphlets, &c. impartially consider'd. 4to. London, 1708-9. 

12. The Tryal of Dr. Henry Sacheverell. Fol. London, 1710. 

13. An Imitation of the Seventeenth Epistle of the First Book of Horace. 
Address'd to Dr. S ft. By Mr. Diaper. 4to. London, 1714. 

14. The Rise and Growth of Fanaticism : or, a View of the Principles of 
the Dissenters. Second Edition. 8vo. London, 1715. 

15. To all True- Hearted Scotsmen, whether Soldiers or others. 8vo. Perth, 
1715. 

16. A Speech made upon the Question about impeaching the Duke of 
Ormond. 8vo. London, 1715. 

17. A Letter to Richard Steele,Esq. 8vo. London, 1715. 

18. The Young Chevalier : or, a Genuine Narrative of all that befell that 
Unfortunate Adventurer. By a Gentleman. 8vo. London, n.d. 

19. Trials for High Treason of Thomas Hardy, John Home Tooke, etc. 
By a Student of the Inner Temple. 8vo. London, 1794. 

20. The Trial of Maurice Margaret at Edinburgh for Seditious Practices. 
By Mr. Ramsay. 8vo. London, 1794. 

21. Assassination of the King. The Conspirators Exposed, or, an Account 
of the Apprehension, &c. of John Smith and George Higgins on a Charge 
of High Treason. Second Edition. 8vo. London, 1795. 

22. Observations on the Trial of James Coigly for High Treason ; together 
with an Account of his Death. By John Fenwick. 8vo. London, 1798. 

23. Thirty-two Civil War Tracts. 4to. London, 1641-61. 

(1) Cheap-side Cross Censured and Condemned by a Letter sent from the 
Vice-Chancellour, and other Learned Men of Oxford. 4to. London, 
1641. 

(2) The Petition and Articles against Dr. Fuller, Dean of Ely, and Petition 
against Timothy Hutton. 1641. 

(3) Articles of Impeachment against Matthew Wren, D.D. Bishop of Ely. 
1641. 

(4) The Manner of the Impeachment of the xii Bishops Accused of High 
Treason. Whereunto is added the Petition and Remonstrance of die 
Bishops. 1642. 

(5) The Weekly Account. No. 18. January 3. 1643. 

(6) The Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer. No. 8. February 14 to Feb- 
ruary 21. 1643. 

(7) The True Informer. No. 23. February 17 to February 24. 1643. 

(8) Speciall Passages and Certain Informations. No. 29. February 21 to 
February 28. 1643. 

(9) The Parliament Scout. No. 37. March 1 to March 8. 1643. 

(10) Mercurius Aulicus. 12th Weeke. March 23. 1643. 

(11) A Continuation of Certain Speciall and Remarkable Passages. No. 39. 
March 30 to April 6. 1643. 

(12) The Same. No. 53. June 15 to June 23. 1643. 

(13) The Parliament Scout. No. 5. July 20 to July 27. 1643. 

(14) The Same. No. 8. August 10 to August 17. 1643. 

(15) The Same. No. 12. September 7 to September 15. 1643. 

(16) The True Informer. No. 1. September 23. 1643. 

(17) The Weekly Account. No. 7. October 18. 1643. 

(18) The Same. No. 9. November 1. 1643. 

(19) The Parliament Scout. No. 33. February 2 to February 9. 1644 

(20) The Same. No. 34. February 9 to February 16. 1644. 



Nov. 17.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 5 

(21) The Military Scribe. No. 1. February 20 to February 27. 1644. 

(22) Certain Informations from severall parts of the Kingdome. No. 67. 
February 15 to February 28. 1644. 

(23) Mercurius Veridicus. No. 7. March 5 to March 12. 1644. 

(24) The Parliament Scout. No. 38. March 8 to March 15. 1644. 

(25) Mercurius Britanicus. No. 27. March 11 to March 18. 1644. 

(26) Mercurius Civicus. London's Intelligencer. No. 44. March 21 to 
March 28. 1644. 

(27) The Parliament Scout, No. 41. March 28 to April 4. 1644. 

(28) The Phcenix of Europe, or the Forraigne Intelligencer. No. 1. 
January 16. 1645. 

(29) The Coinings Forth of Christ in the Power of his Death. A Sermon 
preached November 1, 1649. By Peter Sterry. 1650. 

(30) A Diurnall of some Passages and Affairs. April 28 to May 5. 
1652. 

(31) (Newspaper, no title). July 12 to July 18. 1654. 

(32) Mercurius Publicus. No. 22. May 30 to June 6. 1661. 

24. Historical Tracts. A folio volume containing the following twenty 
Tracts. * London, 16531728 : 

(1) A Declaration of the Parliament of England. 1653. 

(2) To the King's Most Excellent Majesty, an Essay for Recovery of Trade. 
1661. 

(3) His Majestie's Message to the Commons relating to Tangier. 1680. 

(4) His Majestie's Declaration touching the Dissolution of the Parliaments. 
1681. 

(5) An Answer to a late Pamphlet, entituled, a Character of a Popish 
Successor. 1681. 

(6) Vindication of Addresses in general, and of the Middle-Temple 
Address. 1681. 

(7) His Majestie's gracious Declaration for a Liberty of Conscience. 1688. 

(8) His Majestie's Letter to the Lord Bishop of London. 1689. 

(9) Elegies on the Queen and Archbishop. By Samuel Wesley, M. A. 1695. 

(10) A Consolatory Poem: address'd to his Majesty. By W. Partridge. 
1695. 

(11) A Relation of the Famous Conference held about Religion at Paris. 
1684. 

(12) To the Honourable the Commons of England assembled in Parliament. 
Account of Grievance by James Whiston. 1689. 

(13) The, Translation of the States General Letter to his Majesty. 1701. 

(14) The opinion of a Divine of the Church of England of the Oath of 
Abjuration. 1702. 

(15) A Letter to a Friend concerning the Partition Treaty, n.d. 

(16) The Humble Representation of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal 
presented to -Her Majesty, and Her Majesty's most gracious Answer. 
1703. 

(17) An Epistle from the Elector of Bavaria to the French King : after the 
Battel of Ramillies. 1706. 

(18) The Law Corrupted ; a Satire. 1706. 

(19) An Ode humbly inscrib'd to the Queen. 1706. 

(20) The Humble Representation of the House of Commons to the King. 
1728. 

25. Trials and Proceedings. A folio volume containing the following 
twelve Miscellaneous Tracts. London, 16781715. 



6 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1870, 

(1) The Trjal of William Stay ley, goldsmith; for Treasonable Words. 
1678. 

(2) An Impartial Consideration of those Speeches, which pass under the 
name of the Five Jesuits. Mr. Whitebread, &c. 1679. 

(3) The Lord Chief Justice Scroggs his Speech. 1679. 

(4) The Information of Francisco de Faria delivered at the Bar of the 
House of Commons. 1680. 

(5) Tho. Dangerfield's Answer to a certain scandalous lying Pamphlet. 
1680. 

(6) The Arraignment and Plea of Edw d Fitz-Harris, Esq. 1681. 

(7) The Tryal and Condemnation of Edw d Fitz-Harris, Esq. 1681. 

(8) The Proceedings at the Session Houses in the Old- Bailey, 'London, 
against Anthony Earl of Shaftesbury. 1681. 

- (9) The Tryals of T. Walcot, W. Hone, W. Lord Russell, J. Rous, and W. 
Blagg. 1683. 

(10) The Tryal and Conviction of John Hampden, Esq. 1684. 

(11) The Tryal and Conviction of Sir Sam. Bernardiston, Bart. 1684. 

(12) The Speech of the Lord High-Steward upon Proceeding to Judgment 
against James Earl of Derweutwater, &c. 1715. 

26. Six Broadsides, viz. : 

(1) Instructions for the Members of the House for the bringing in of Six 
Months' Assessment of the Arrears upon the Ordinance of 60,000 
Signed, II. Elsynge, Cler. Parl. D. Com. 1647. 

(2) Song for the King and Queen : written for New- Year's Day, 1694. 

(3) Form of Circular Letter of the Churchwardens of the Parish of St. 
Giles's, Cripplcgate. June 1709. 

(4) Number 34. The Examiner. March 1522, 171011. 

(5) The Postman : and the Historical Account. July 7 10. 1711. 

(6) Receipt Form of the Lord Bishop of Londonderry's subscription for the 
Translation of Homer's Iliads, filled in and signed by Alexander Pope. 

27. Topographical Prints, viz. : 

(1) Proof Impressions of Plates, 10, 17, 18, 19, 22, 23, 30, 31, 32, from The 
Journal of the British Archaeological Association, vol. vi. 

(2) Impression of Plate 18, from Collectanea Antiqua, vol. ii. 

(3) Plain Impression of Plate 3, from The Journal of the British Archaeo- 
logical Association, vol. ix. 

28. Autograph Letter of Giovanni Bianchi to Girolamo Ferri, Professor of 
Rhetoric of the College at Faenza. Dated Rimino, 19 January, 1751. 
Four pages folio. 

29. Seven Parchment Deeds of various dates. 

From the Surrey Archa3ological Society : Collections. Vol. v. Part 1. 8vo. 
London, 1870. 

From the Author : Segni di Cartiere Antiche. Dieci Tavole. By D. Urbani. 
8vo. Venice, 1870. 

.From the Sussex Archaeological Society : Sussex Archaeological Collections. 
Vol. xxii. Svo. Lewes, 1870. 

From the Camden Society : Publications. No. 103. Notes of the Debates 
in the House of Lords, officially taken by Henry Elsing, Clerk of the 
Parliaments, A.D. 1621. Edited by S. R. Gardiner, Esq. 4to. London, 
1870. 

From the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History : Proceedings. 
Vol. iv. No. 4. 8vo. Lowestoft, 1870. 



Nov. 17.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 7 

From A. W. Franks, Esq. M. A. V.P. S. A. and the Baron de Witte, Hon. F.S.A. : 
Histoire de la Monnaie Romaine par Theodore Mommsen, traduite de 
1'Allemand par le Due De Blacas. Vols 1 and 2. 8vo. Paris, 1865-70. 

From the Author : Althorp Memoirs, or Biographical Notices of Lady Denham, 
and other Ladies whose Portraits are to be found in the Picture Gallery of 
the Earl Spencer. By G. Steinman Steinman, Esq. F.S.A. 8vo. Printed 
for Private Circulation, 1869. 

From J. W. K. Eyton, Esq. F.S.A. : 

1. Papers from the Archaeologia, by John Bruce, Esq. F.S.A. Private 
Reprints, viz. : 

(1) On Inaccuracies in the Published Letters of Sir Thomas More. 4to. 
London, 1843. 

(2) On William Penn's Imprisonment in the Tower. 4to. London, 1853. 

(3) On a MS. Relation of the Proceedings in Parliament, A.D. 1628. 4to. 
London, 1860. 

(4) On a MS. Account of the Treaty of Newport, A.D. 1648. 4to. London, 
1863. 

(5) Description of a Pocket-Dial, made for Robert Devereux, Earl of 
Essex, nul593. 4to. London, 1867. 

2. Lord Spencer's Library. A Sketch of a Visit to Althorp, Northampton- 
shire. [For Private Circulation.] 8vo. 1870. 

3. Mr. Ashbee's Occasional Facsimile Reprints. X. Edward Webbe's 
Travels. From the Edition printed in London in 1590. Small 4to. 
London, 1869. 

From the Author : 

1. Testi di tre Canti della Divina Commedia tratti da Codici conservati, 
nella Biblioteca del Museo Britannico. Per opera e cura del Cav. 
Dottore Enrico C. Barlow. 4to. London, 1870. 

2. On the Vernon Dante, with other Dissertations. By H. C. Barlow, 
M.D. 8vo. London, 1870. 

From A. FitzGibbon, Esq. : Unpublished Geraldine Documents, edited by the 
Rev. Samuel Hayman, B.A. 8vo. Dublin, 1870. 

From the Author : Observations on the Geography and Archeology of Peru. 
By E. G. Squier, M.A. Hon. F.S.A. 8vo. London, 1870. 

From Sir James Colquhoun, Bart., through the Author : The Chiefs of Colqu- 
houn and their Country. By William Fraser. Two volumes. 4to. Edin- 
burgh, 1869. 

From the Smithsonian Institution : 

1. Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge. Vol. xvi. 4to. Washington, 
1870 

2. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. Vol. viii. and ix. 8vo. Wash- 
ington, 1869. 

3. Annual Report for the year 1868. .8vo. Washington, 1869. 

From the Essex Archajological Society : Transactions. Vol. v. Part 1. 8vo. 
Colchester, 1870. 

From the Powys Land Club : Collections, Historical and Archaeological, rela- 
ting to Montgomeryshire. Vol. iii. No. 2. Svo. London, 1870. 

From the Trustees of the New York State Library : 52nd Annual Report. Svo. 
Albany, 1870. 

From the Regents of the University of'the State of New-York : 18th, 19th, 
20th, and 22nd Annual Reports on the Natural History, and Historical and 
Antiquarian Collections. 8vo. Albany, 1865-69. 



8 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1870, 

Prom the American Philosophical Society : Proceedings. Vol. xi. No. 82. 
8vo. Philadelphia, 1869. 

From Harvard College : 

1. Forty-fourth Annual Eeport of the President to the Overseers. 1868-69. 
8vo. Cambridge, U.S.A. 1869. 

2. Annual Repor-t of the Trustees of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

1868. 8vo. Boston, 1869. 

3. Report to the Board of Overseers. 8vo. Cambridge, U.S.A. 1869. 

4. Catalogus Universitatis Harvardianse. M.DCCC.LXIX. 8vo. Cambridge, 
1869. 

5. Catalogue of the Officers and Students, 1869-70. First Term. 8vo. 
Cambridge, 1869. 

6. Address at the Dedication of Lancaster Memorial Hall. 8vo. Boston, 
1868. 

7. Addresses at the Inauguration of Charles William Eliot as President 
Oct. 19, 1869. 8vo. Cambridge, U.S.A. 1869. 

From the Essex Institute (U.S.A.) : 

1. Bulletin. Volume 1, Nos. 1-12 (completing the vol.) 1869. 8vo. Salem, 
Mass., 1870. 

2. Proceedings. Vol. 6, Part 1. 1868. 8vo. Salem, Mass., 1870. 

3. An Account of the Newspapers and other Periodicals published in Salem, 
from 1768 to 1856. By Gilbert L. Streeter. 8vo. Salem, Mass., 1856. 

From the Minnesota Historical Society : 

1. Annual Report. 1868 to 1869. 8vo. St. Paul, 1869-70. 

2. Charter, Constitution, and Bye-Laws. 8vo. St. Paul, 1868. 

3. Report of Explorations in the Mineral Regions of Minnesota. By Colonel 
Charles Whittlesey. 8vo. Cleveland, 1866. 

From the Author: La Mappemonde du VIII e Siecle de Saint Beat de Liebana. 
Par M. D'Avezac. 8vo. Paris, 1870. 

From the Author, through R. T. Pritchett, Esq. F.S.A.: Museum Catsianum. 
Verzameling van W. C. M. De Jonge Van Ellemeet. 18391870. 4to. 
Utrecht, 1870. 

From Richard Woof, Esq. F.S.A. : 

1. Certified Pedigree of Thomas Evans of Tyreymyneck, co. Montgomery. 
Lithograph Roll. 

2. Pedigree of Sir Christopher Hales, of Lincoln, Bart. 4to. London, 1870. 
(Two copies.) 

From G. F. Teniswood, Esq. F.S.A.: Lectures on Sculpture. By John Flax man, 
R.A. 8vo. London, 1829. 

From the Editor, W. Chappell, Esq. F.S.A. : The Roxburghe Ballads. Vol. I. 
Part 2. 8vo. Ballad Society. London, 1870. 

From the Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries of Copenhagen: 

1. Aarboger for Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historic. 1869. Hefte iii. iv. 
1870. Hefte i. 8vo. Copenhagen, 1869-70. 

2. Tillaeg til Aarboger for Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historic, aargang 

1869. 8vo. Copenhagen, 1870. 

3. Memoires. Nouvelle Serie. 1869. 8vo. Copenhagen. 

From C. Baker, Esq. F.S.A.: Surveys of Gower and Kilvey and of several 
Mesne Manors within that seignory. Edited for the Cambrian Archaeolo- 
gical Association, by Charles Baker, Esq. F.S.A., and G. G. Francis, Esq. 
F.S.A. 8vo. London, 1870. [Large paper. One of 50 copies.] 



Nov. 17.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 9 

From J. R. Appleton, Esq. F.S.A.: 

1. The History of Alnwick, the county town of Northumberland. 12mo. 
Alnwick, 1813. 

2. A View of the city of Durham, and its Environs. 12mo. Durham, 1813. 

3. A New Picture of Newcastlc-upou-Tyne. By Thomas Oliver. 12mo. 
Ne wcastle-upon-Tyne, 1831. 

4. A Guide through Newcastle-upon-Tyne and its vicinity. By M. A. 
Richardson. Sin. 8vo. Newcastle, 1846. 

5. Descriptions of Warkworth Hermitage, Wark worth and Alnwick Castles, 
and Alnwick and Hulne Abbeys. New edition. 12mo. Alnwick, 1818. 

6. Description of Bishop Auckland, with a Brief Account of the Bishops 
of Durham. 12mo. Bishop Auckland, 1820. 

From the Imperial Archaeological Commission, St. Petersburg!! : Compte- 
Rendu pour 1'annee 1868. Avec un Atlas. 2 vols. 4to. and folio. St. 
Petersburgh, 1869. 

From the Author : Die fmuisch-ungarischen Sprachen und die Urheimath des 
Menschengeschlechtes. Von D. E. D. Europoeus. 8vo. Helsingfcrs. 

From Spencer Hall, Esq. F.S.A.: Five Broadsides relating to the Reform 

League Demonstration, December 3, 1866, viz.: 1. League Prospectus. 

2. Official Programme. 3. Reform Holiday. 4. Important Notice. 5. 

Ticket of Admission. 
From the Author : On Ancient Manorial Customs, &c., in the county of Essex. 

By R. S. Charnock, Esq. F.S.A. 8vo. London, 1870. 

From the Editor, the Rev. M. E. C. Walcott, F.S.A.: 

1. The Inventory of St. Osyth's Priory, Essex, with Notes. 8vo. Reprinted 
from Essex Transactions, v. 53. 

2. Church Goods and Chantries of Derbyshire in the sixteenth century, 
with Notes. 8vo. 

From the Editor, Lord Clermont : Account of Sir Arthur Chichester by Sir 
Faithful Fortescue. Privately printed. 8vo. London, 1858. 

From the Author : On the Medals and Coins of the Pretender James. By 
Charles Golding. 4to. Manchester, 1870. 

From the Royal Institution of Great Britain : 

1. Proceedings. Vol. 5, Part 7 (completing vol. 5) and vol. 6, Parts 1 and 2. 
8vo. London, 1869-70. 

2. List of the Members. 8vo. London, 1870. 

3. No. 13. Additions to the Library. July 1869-70. 8vo. 

From the Rev. J. F. Russell, F.S.A.: Hierurgia Anglicana. Edited by Mem- 
bers of the Ecclesioldgical late Cambridge Caniden Society. 8vo. Lon- 
don, 1848: 

From the Author : A Short Account of the British Encampments, between the 
rivers Rheidol and Llyfnant, co. Cardigan. By J. G. Williams. 12mo. 
Aberystwith, 1866. 

From the Architectural and Archaeological Society for the county of Bucking- 
ham : Records of Buckinghamshire. Vol. iii. No. 8. (completing vol. 3) 
and Vol. iv. No. 1. Svo. Aylesbury, 1870. 

From the Royal Society of Literature : Transactions. Second series. Vol. ix. 
Part III. (completing vol. 9). Svo. London, 1870. 

From Albert Way, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. : 

1. Dissertazione sopra 1'anteriorita del bacio de' piedi de' sommi Pontefici 
all' introduzioue della croce sulle loro scarpo o sandali. Del P. Giacomo 
Pouyard, Carmelitano. 4to. Rome, 1807. Also, bound up with it, 
Lettera, del Cardinale Cesare Brancadoro alPabate Francesco Cancellieri 
su la dissertazione del P. Giacomo Pouyard. 4to. Rome, 1807. 



10 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1870, 

2. Histoire de Jules Cesar. Atlas. (Cartes du tome premier et du tome 
deuxieme) 4to. Paris, 1865-6. 

From the Author : Wanderings in Devon. By W. H. Hamilton Rogers. 8vo. 
Seaton, 1869. 

Erom the Eev. F. T. Havergal : A History of the old Hundredth Psalm Tune, 
with specimens. By the Kev. W. H. Havergal, M.A. 8vo. London, 1857. 

From the Canadian Institute : The Canadian Journal of Science, Literature, 
and History. Vol. xii., No. 6 (completing vol. 12). 8vo. Toronto, 1870. 

From A. W. Franks, Esq., M.A., V.P.S.A. : 

1. Jahresbericht der Deutschen morgenlandischen Gesellschaft fur 1845 
1846. 8vo. Leipzig, 1846. 

2. Zeitschrift der Deutschen morgenlandischen Gesellschaft herausgegeben 
von den Geschaftsfiihrern. I. Band. XXII. Band. I., II., -IV. Heft. 
8vo. Leipzig, 1847-68. 

3. Wissenschaftlicher Jahresbericht iiber die morgenlandischen Studien 
1859 bis 1861. Von Dr. Richard Gosche. 8vo. Leipzig, 1868. 

Erom the Author : A Light on the Historians and on the History of Crowland 
Abbey. By Henry Scale English. 8vo. London, 1868. 

Votes of special thanks were accorded to Lord Clermont, 
G. F. Teniswood, Esq. F.S.A., the Rev. F. G. Lee, D.C.K 
F.S.A., W. H. Hart, Esq. F.S.A., and to Sir James Colquhoun, 
Bart., for their valuable contributions to the Society's library. 

Fairless Barber, Esq. was admitted Fellow. 

By the direction of the Council the following correspondence 
was laid before the meeting : 

Foreign Office, August 16, 1870. 

SIR, I am directed by Earl Granville to transmit to you, for the information 
of the Society of Antiquaries, the accompanying copy of a despatch from Her 
Majesty's Ambassador at Constantinople, inclosing a translation of a Circular 
Instruction addressed by the Porte to the Provincial Governors enjoining them 
to preserve antiquities in Turkey. 

I am, Sir, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 

E. HAMMOND. 

The Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries, 
Somerset House, W.C. 



[Copy.] 

Therapia, July 31, 1870. 

MY LORD, Knowing the interest taken by many persons in England in the 
preservation of objects of antiquity in the East, I have the honour to forward 
to your Lordship the translation of a Circular Instruction to the Provincial 
Governors, enjoining them not to permit their continued destruction. 

Mr. Vice-Consul Wrench had forwarded a letter to me from Mr. Erank 
Calvert, pointing out the probable demolition of some ancient walls recently 
brought to light on the site of Ilium Novum, and remarking that shiploads of 
finely dressed limestone and granite blocks had been conveyed from Alexandria, 
Troas, and Assos, to be used in Government works at Constantinople. 

I brought the circumstances to the knowledge of the Porte, and the present 



Nov. 17.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 11 

instructions have been issued with a view to putting a stop to the system of 
spoliation which has prevailed throughout the country. 

I have, c. 
(Signed) HENRY ELLIOT. 

The Earl Granville, 
&c., &c., &c. 

Inclosure in the foregoing despatch 

Translation of a circular addressed by the Porte to all Provincial Governors, 
dated July 14, 1870. 

It has been ascertained that the local authorities do not preserve from injury 
such antiquities as are from time to time discovered in various parts of the 
Turkish dominions, but allow these relics to be removed, to be sold, to be used by 
this or that person in various buildings and aqueducts. 

It is superfluous to point out to you that such relics are characteristic of the 
manners and customs of preceding generations, and of great historic interest, and 
consequently evidences of civilisation. On this account a museum has been 
established in the capital. 

The local authorities are therefore enjoined for the future to preserve and 
forward to the said museum all remains of antiquity that may be anywhere dis- 
covered, and to prevent these antiquities from being damaged by anybody. 

You will enjoin compliance with these orders on your subordinates. 

Captain A. C. TUPPER, F.S.A. exhibited and presented 

1. A drainage Tile, found with some few others, in Bucklers- 
bury, about eighteen feet from the surface, between .two Roman 
walls, during the excavations in the summer of 1870 for the 
subway in Queen Victoria Street. This tile, although from the 
circumstances under which it was found it had clearly been used 
for drainage purposes, was of the same type as the ordinary 
Roman flue-tile with lateral opening.* A good account of these 
excavations is given by Mr. J. E. Price in his description of 
" The Roman Tesselated Pavement found in Bucklersbury," 4to. 
Loud. 1870, and at page 66 of that volume will be found a 
woodcut showing the exact appearance of the drain. 

2. Specimens of the red tessera composing the ordinary Roman 
pavement, of which much was found in the Bucklersbury exca- 
vations. 

The CORPORATION OF LONDON exhibited and presented a bronze 
Medal by J. S. and A. B. Wyon, diameter 3 inches, struck 
in commemoration of the visit of His Imperial Majesty Abdul 
Aziz, Sultan of Turkey, to the Corporation of London 18th 
July, 1867, The Right Hon. Thomas Gabriel, Lord Mayor. 



* Such tiles are figured in Journal Archaiol. Assoc. iv. 48 ; and in Catalogue 
of the temporary 'Museum of the Association at Chester, 1849, p. 14. 



12 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



[1870. 



Obv. Bust of the Sultan in profile. 

# ABDULAZIZ OTHOMANORUM 

IMPERATOR LONDINIUM 

INVTSIT MDCCCLXVI1. 

Rev. Allegorical group. The City of London receiving 
Turkey with emblems of hospitality and festive 
welcome. 

EGBERT FERGUSON, Esq. Local Secretary for Cumberland, 
exhibited and presented photographs of the Roman Altars found 
near Mary port, Carlisle.* 

J. W. BUTTERWORTH, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited and presented to 
the Society a spiked bronze Mace-head. It is 4 inches high, and 
the diameter of the base is 1 J inch. It is hollowed, and intended 
probably to receive a shaft or handle at the base (the rim of 
which is fractured along two-thirds of its circumference) and 
perhaps a spike at the top. The upper half has three rows of 
spikes, five spikes in each row, filling alternate spaces, repre- 
sented in the accompanying woodcut, and, from the damaged 

condition of some of the spikes, this 
formidable implement of war would 
seem to have come into contact with 
skulls of unusual density and hardness. 
The lower half of the socket is striated 
with a succession of concentric rings. 
The spikes are lozenge-shaped at the 
'base. Only eight of the fifteen are 
perfect, and of these five are curved at 
the point. 

There are three such articles in the 
museum of the Royal Irish Academy, 
one of which is figured in the catalogue 
of that museum by Sir W. R. Wilde. 
(Antiquities of Animal Materials and 
Bronze, p. 493, fig. 297.) Another is 
figured in the Dublin Penny Journal, 
ii. 20. But they are not confined to 
Ireland. In the British Museum is a 
bronze spiked mace-head found in a 
well at Great Bedwyn, Wilts, which 
was formerly in the collection of the Archaeological Institute, and 
is figured in their Journal (xviii. 163). Four examples of the same 




BRONZE MACE-HEAD FROM 
TIPPEEART. 



* See Proceedings, 2 S. iv. 495. 



Nov. 17.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 13 

description from Bavaria and Italy are figured in Lindenschmit's 
Alterthiimer unserer heidnischen Yorzeit, 8 tes heft, tafel ii. ; and 
011 the same plate will be found engravings of three spiked 
rings, no doubt intended for a cognate purpose. Three such 
spiked rings are engraved in Meyrick and Skelton's Ancient 
Armour, pi. xlv. ; a fourth, from Donaghadee, will be found 
figured in the Journal of the British Archaeological Association, 
i. 249 ; and a woodcut of a fifth, from Lidgate in Suffolk, 
accompanies the mace-head in the Archaeological Journal as 
above cited. See also Journal Arch. Assoc. iii. 61. 

The present specimen was found in a bog in the county of 
Tipperary, and came from the collection of the late Dr. Burgess 
of Clonmel. Mr. Alfred White, F.S.A. informs Mr. Butter- 
worth that he believes it to be composed of about nine parts of 
copper to one of tin. It contains no lead. It is usual to assign 
these spiked mace-heads to the bronze period ; but in the British 
Museum there are specimens which came from abroad, and of 
these some are decorated with patterns of a decidedly mediaeval 
character. It would therefore be very desirable in every case of 
a find of this description to ascertain whether the mace-head was 
accompanied with other objects which would give a clue to its 
date. 

FREDERIC OUVRY, Esq. Treasurer, by permission of the Rev. 
Arthur Bruce Fraser, exhibited a Roman bronze Steelyard 
Weight, in the form of the head of a goddess, ploughed up in 
the parish of Haversham near Newport- Pagnel, Bucks. 

In Mr. Roach Smith's Collectanea Antiqua, vol. iv. p. 57, pi. xv. 
is figured a steelyard weight, made of bronze, and representing 
the head of a Bacchante, which was found at Nursling, near 
Southampton. Another has been found at Chesterford. Both 
are now in the British Museum. A third specimen, the head 
of a youthful male, from Walton-on-the-Naze, is figured in the 
Journal of the Archreological Association, iv. 74. 

S. S. LEWIS, Esq. by permission of the Rev. J. A. Tillard, 
Rector of Conington, Cambridgeshire, exhibited a small copper 
Plaque, representing in Champleve enamel a figure holding an 
object apparently a key, probably an enrichment of one of the 
angles of a Limoges coifer of the thirteenth century, found in 
pulling down the walls of the chancel of Conington church. 

Mr. BYLES, of Boxmoor Station, exhibited, through John 
Evans, Esq. F.R. S. F.S.A. Local Secretary for Herts, some 
antiquities lately found at Barrington near Cambridge, and 
belonging to two different periods. 



14 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1870, 

Those earliest in date are two socketed bronze celts and a 
gouge. The celts are 3f and 3J inches long respectively. The 
larger has three raised bands on either side, and closely resembles 
the second of those from West Halton, Lincolnshire, engraved 
in the Archaeological Journal, x. 70. The smaller is like the 
third specimen engraved on the same page. The gouge is 3f 
inches long and 9- 16th of an inch broad at the edge. At the 
socket end there is a slightly raised band expanding outwards so 
as to form a sort of lip round the mouth of the socket, the internal 
diameter of which is 6-10ths of an inch. 

The other objects are Saxon, and consist of a knife, some 
beads, and a brooch. The former is about 8 inches long and of 
the ordinary character. Of the beads, three are formed of small 
lumps of amber irregularly rounded, and the fourth is of opaque 
yellow glass, nearly cylindrical, and about J inch in length, and 
the same in diameter. The brooch is of a much rarer character, 
and is formed of a thin disc of silver 18 inch in diameter, 
with a central circular opening *65 of an inch in diameter, 
across which passed the pin, which has now perished. On the 
face of the disc have been punched three concentric circles of 
minute annulets by way of ornament, so that in general character 
it resembles the brooches or circular buckles from Chavenage, 
Gloucestershire, engraved in the Journal of the Archaeological 
Association, vol. iv. p. 52, fig. 3, of which also examples have been 
found in Cambridgeshire. The present specimen, however, 
differs from all of these in having riveted on its face, at some- 
what irregular intervals, four small gold studs, with neatly 
beaded borders, and each having a -circular carbuncle set in its 
centre. 




ANGLO-SAXON FIBULA FROM BARRINGTON. 



Nov. 17.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 15 

W. R. COOPER, Esq. exhibited four cases containing twenty 
objects of interest from the collection of Egyptian antiquities 
formed by the late K. Hay, Esq. of Linplum, N.B. The follow- 
ing descriptive list of these objects was read by Mr. Cooper : 

" 1. A female recumbent figure rudely wrought in white lime- 
stone, with remains of outline decoration in red paint. i Rude 
as is this figure,' writes Mr. J. Bonomi in his catalogue of the 
Hay Collection, l it is genuine, and not the work of a European 
or an Arab forger. Every fragment of colour left upon the 
stone is suggestive of some peculiarity of costume, or has refer- 
ence to some theological dogma. The necklace, the ornamental 
cestus round the waist, here indicated by a double line of dots, 
the bracelets on the wrists, but above all the figure of the 
monstrous hippopotamus-headed goddess, Thoeris, at the head 
of the couch, fronting another typhonic deity, now too much 
defaced to be* recognisable, are all evidences of its genuineness. 
At the lower end of the -couch are other red lines too much 
obliterated to assist speculation, for I am as yet ignorant of the 
divinities proper to that end of the bed. ' 

" 2. An unknown object in sycamore wood. This resembles 
an outstretched arm terminating in a clenched hand, having the 
thumb extended ; on the outer extremity appears to have been an 
ornament formed of a lotus-blossom between tw.o buds. A 
mortice has been cut through the wood at this part, but for what 
purpose I am unable to state. 

u 3. A mutilated terra-cotta or red sandstone figure of a func- 
tionary of the nineteenth dynasty, wearing the broad stiffened 
dress (or Shenti) and plaited daft peculiar to that period. 
The arms are crossed over in front, and clasp to the breast a 
figure of the soul typified by a human-headed bird with 
expanded wings. The usual funereal seed-bag hangs over the 
right shoulder, a peculiarity which never occurs in the later 
semi- Grecian figures of the time of the Psammetici. Several 
lines of well-defined hieroglyphics remain, with one vertical 
ditto on the front. This is, according to Mr. Bonomi, a most 
rare specimen. 

" 4. A limestone Osiride figure nearly as the preceding, with 
the exception that the crossed arms hold the funereal flail and 
plough of Osiris H/iot-Amenti, and that the human-headed bird 
is here represented as brooding over the heart. Seven horizontal 
lines of hieroglyphics, which have been originally painted with 
a black pigment, are incised around this figure, and the hair and 
some lesser details have also been painted black. This specimen 
is in an excellent state of preservation. It is to be observed that 
the soul in Egyptian symbolism was always represented as a 
human-headed bird, a hawk, or a kind of crested stork. 



16 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



[1870, 



" 5. A wooden fragment, being the upper part of a school- 
master's writing tablet or loah Greco- Christian art. On both 
sides are inscriptions beginning with the same letter, viz. Alpha; 
after which follow several series of T-shaped characters divided 
into groups by the continual recurrence of the old Greek p. On 
one, the right side, the first line is preceded by a cross, and the 
remaining lines are divided into sections by a letter or symbol 
with which I am not familiar. 

" 6. A terra-cotta Greco-Egyptian lamp. The cross pattern 
forms a prominent decoration on this object, around which there 
is a Greek inscription in bold relief, which reads 

O @C TI(B 



6 @eo?, vue eoO. 
" 7. A very rude terra-cotta lamp of early-Christian work. 




On this interesting object the well-known unequal limbed, or 
Latin, cross occurs in connection with the Ankh, or Tau cross, 



Nov. 17.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUAKIES. 17 

the so-called Crux Ansata or Egyptian symbol of life. The 
union of these two emblems imparts a peculiar value, theo- 
logically considered, to this otherwise inelegant lamp. For thus 
it becomes a pictorial illustration of the influence of Egyptian 
mythology and Egyptian art in the early Christian church of 
Alexandria during the first four centuries of our era ; an in- 
fluence which has since extended itself beyond not only Egypt 
but the mother soil of Africa and the sister continent of 
Europe. 

" 8. A pilgrim bottle, or a kind of Aryballos in hard black 
stone, possibly basalt. This is beautifully turned, and implies 
the existence of a very perfect species of machinery among the 
ancient Egyptians in very remote times, as, to produce the oval 
figure of this bottle, a lathe with a system of excentric wheels 
would be required, a mechanical improvement not, I believe, 
carried back generally to so distant a period of time as 2000 B.C. 

" 9. Two large beads made of rods of coloured glass, which 
have been afterwards fused together and then rounded on a 
stone slab. The larger of the two presents some indications of 
an attempt to produce facets at the extremities, an inference 
borne out by the statement of Pliny (lib. 37, cap. 9) that the 
Egyptians were the first to simulate precious stones. I need 
hardly remind my hearers that the manufacture of this beautiful 
ornamental ware, or millefiore glass, was supposed to be peculiar 
to the Venetian artists of Murano in the middle ages.* 

66 10. A very large specimen of the coarse linen cloth, f liiero- 
glyphically called the Robe of Justification, in which the deceased 
was supposed to be attired, when in the Hall of the Two Truths 
he supplicated the judge Osiris. This garment is of a coarse 
flaxen texture and is 16 by 9 feet in width ; along one edge is 
a deep fringe, and the significance of the fringed garment in all 
ancient theologies and especially when considered in relation to 
the Arbang Kanphoth,f or garment of fringes, of the modern Jews, 
is a subject opening up a wide field of research in ecclesiastical 
archaeology. I may also add, that the coat of the Patriarch 
Joseph, translated of a many colours," in Gen. xxxvii. 3, is 
rendered by Gresenius and Benisch as a long-skirted or fringed 
garment. 

* One of the beads in question was nearly identical in size and pattern with 
that of which a fragment only is figured in the Archeeologia, vol. xxvi. pi. v. 
fig. 10. There is a woodcut of an entire bead of this type in Journal of Archasol. 
Assoc. iii. 328. Some remarks by Mr. A. W. Franks on the occurrence of these 
beads in different parts of the world and on their much debated origin will be 
found in Proceedings, 2 S. ii. 334. 

f Perhaps the Calasiris of Herodotus, lib. ii. 81. 

t See Mills' British Jews, and Picart's Ceremonies ct Coutumes religieuses for 
details of this national robe. 

YOL. Y. C 



18 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1870, 

u 11. A very perfect and noteworthy linen sleeve and mitten 
in one piece. The thumb is detached from the other fingers, and 
both ends of the mitten are carefully sewn over with coarse 
thread : along the selvage and sides is a double line of blue 
worked into the tissue, which is here joined lengthwise to form 
the sleeve. There is reason to infer that mittens of this descrip- 
tion were costly and distinctive, as on the walls of the tomb of 
Thothmes III., near Thebes, there are represented some Semitic 
captives bringing a pair of similar demi-gloves as a tribute to 
that magnificent Pharaoh. 

" 12. Two Greco-Egyptian gold rings, found, it is conjectured, 
in the Aasaseef near Thebes. One of these is of the usual signet 
form, but without an inscription ; the other is of an Etruscan 
pattern, and is composed of a spiral wire whose extremities end 
in a twisted loop, with knot-like intersections. Both these 
objects are of fine workmanship and are wrought in very pure 
gold. 

"13. A small and very beautiful scarab in green jasper. The 
hieroglyphics, which are less deeply cut than usual, represent 
either the hawk-shaped divinity Ra, or a deified Pharaoh under 
that symbol : in front of this principal figure is a small cartouch 
bearing the prenomen of Thomosis III. and on the opposite 
side is the solar disc with the sacred basilisk or urceus. In the 
base, or to speak numismatically the exergue, of the die is a smaU 
bird, apparently the Bennu or bird of Osiris. A portion of the 
bitumenized thread by which this gem was originally fastened 
to a mummy yet remains in the perforation for suspension, 
verifying an object which would otherwise appear to be of a 
later date than the eighteenth dynasty. 

" 14. Three silver-mounted scarabaei. No. 1 is of lapis lazuli. 
Among the almost illegible hieroglyphics appears the name of the 
god Phthah ; a second in lapis lazuli likewise has a rude group of 
a king adoring Amun Ra. The third is of vitreous paste and is 
broken. Traces however remain of a device composed of two 
lions passant, and a third object, possibly a papyrus or lotus 
flower. The silver mountings are conjectured by my friend 
Mr. Bonomi to be Arabic imitations of ancient Egyptian 
work, which is the more likely to be correct, as one of the 
scarabaei is wrongly set, and cannot in consequence be used 
as seal. 

u 15. A large scarab in vitreous paste. The figures and hiero- 
glyphics represent a king adoring the divinity Khonso or Phthah. 
The monarch wears the embroidered military cap or tosh, and 
not the pschent or royal crown of the united country. The 
deity is seated upon a low throne, and, as usual, grasps with 
both hands the so called Cucufa staff. In the base is a large 



Nov. 17.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 19 

cartoueh containing the name of Rameses II. (Miamim). The 
mounting of this scarab is Turkish. 

" 16. A copper gilt, or probably latten, ring with the head of 
the Saviour carved in red coral. I have ventured to pronounce 
this relic to be of Byzantine work from the quadrangular form 
and pattern of the setting. The bas-relief, which is full face, 
has evidently been much worn, and there is a hole at one part 
of the head as if for the insertion of a crown or aureol. 

"17. A small scarab in vitreous paste. The metal mounting is 
of ancient Egyptian work, but the hoop of the ring is unhappily 
wanting. The hieroglyphics upon the under, or seal, side are of 
rude work in the linear manner of engraving. They have not as 
yet been deciphered. 

u The preceding antiquities are only a few objects selected, as 
I before remarked, from the Hay Collection. That they are of 
undoubted authenticity the character of ttie late owner fully 
establishes, and, although- I am unable from the want of any 
memoranda to trace every object to its vendor, there can be 
little doubt that the bulk of the materials were procured from 
Signer Athanasi of Thebes, or as the result of the explorations 
of the late James Burton, F. Arundale, and Robt. Hay, in the 
ruins of the temples of Medineh Habou, Karnak, Philge, or the 
till then unexplored tombs of Gourna, between the, years 1828 
and 1^33." 

SAMUEL BIRCH, Esq., LL.D., F.S.A., communicated orally 
some observations on this exhibition, of which the following is a 
brief summary : 

After remarking that the objects exhibited by Mr. Cooper 
were divisible into three classes : 

1. Objects connected with private life, and the illustration of 
costume and manners ; 

2. Sepulchral antiquities ; and 

3. Objects of Christian art; 

Dr. Birch proceeded to notice the tunic (the so-called Robe 
of Righteousness, noticed by Mr. Cooper) as the most important 
article in the first head. 

He remarked that this was the basoui, or long tunic, reaching 
from the loins to the ankles, worn by public functionaries and 
on occasions of ceremony and state. In the remarkable lists or 
inventories of ancient Egyptian wardrobes this basoui is always 
to be found, and appears, therefore, to have been an indispensable 
article of costume among the upper class to whom these ward- 
robes belonged. 

There was .another form of tunic, the shenti, well known to 
most persons through the frequency with which it occurs on 

c 2 



20 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1870, 

Egyptian monuments. It was a shorter garment reaching merely 
to the knee in folds or flutings. 

With regard to the substances used by the ancient Egyptians 
in their woven fabrics, it certainly appears that linen and not 
cotton was the material almost exclusively employed, at least 
among the higher order.* It is singular, however, that although 
Herodotus f informs us that the woollen garment worn over the 
fringed tunic was as it were unclean, and as such forbidden to 
be introduced into the temples and not buried with the dead 
body, yet the microscopic examinations of the fibre of some of, 
these garments found in tombs have beyond a doubt established 
that they are woollen.. It is, however, to be remembered that 
most of the tombs explored are those of the higher orders, and 
that in these nothing but linen is found, it being in the case of 
poorer interments that other materials occur ; as, for instance, 
at Tourah, where the tombs of the quarriers of the stone of the 
Pyramids showed the use of woollen garments. 

To this general rule, however, there is a remarkable exception 
in the case of the body supposed to be that of King Mycerinus, 
discovered by Colonel Howard Vyse in his exploration of the Third 
Pyramid. This body was wrapped, not in linen, but in woollen 
garments. It has, however, been doubted whether this body was 
really that of the King. The late Sir Benjamin Brodie, on his 
attention being called to the circumstance that one of the knees 
had, during lifetime, suffered an accident which had resulted in 
an anchylosis of the joint, expressed an opinion that it never 
could have been made into a mummy at all. The body, according 
to this, may have been merely that of some unfortunate Arab 
who had penetrated the recesses of the Pyramid and there met 
with a miserable death. However, the King's coffin was there 
along with the body, and broken to pieces. It is thus still pos- 
sible that the remains found were indeed those of Mycerinus. 

Bitumen, which is a great preservative of the mummy, was 
not in use before the eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties. This 
will account for the paucity of bodies brought to light which 
belong to earlier periods. 

With regard to the mitten exhibited, Dr. Birch could offer no 
conclusive opinion. No similar object occurs in the monuments; 
for the instance quoted by Mr. Cooper, where Syrians are 
represented as bringing tribute, is not to be relied on as offering 
an example of the use of gloves or mittens ; the object held in 
the hand by the figure alluded to appearing rather to be a drinking- 
cup of the form called in classical antiquity rhyton, terminating 

* See Egyptian Antiq. ii. 187 seqq. (Library of Entertaining Knowledge) for 
accounts of various microscopic examinations establishing this fact, 
f Euterpe, 81. 



Nov. 17.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 21 

in a human hand, and most likely made of silver, as it is painted 
white, a conventional mode of indicating that metal. Dr. Birch 
added that he knew of no Egyptian authority proving that the 
priests, at all events under the ancient monarchy, ever wore 
gloves. 

The speaker then proceeded to remark upon the Scarabsei and 
Signet Rings, observing en passant that Mr. Kobert Hay's col- 
lection was indeed rich in these articles, comprising as it did 
upwards of 500 scarabs,* though, as was to be expected, many of 
these were repetitions of one type. 

The use of these curious objects dates back to a remote period 
in the Egyptian annals. As is well known, they w r ere made not 
merely in porcelain, but also in steatite or stea-schist, and the 
various semi-precious stones suitable for engraving, such as car- 
nelian, sard, and such like. The earliest scarabs are of the stea- 
schist, a substance which readily admits of engraving, coated 
with a blue a frit" of vitrified smalt. This series extends from 
the fourth and fifth dynasties to the twenty-sixth dynasty, but 
is not continued much further. No scarabs of this kind belong 
to the era of the Ptolemies. In the time of the twelfth dynasty 
the cylindrical signet, also found in use among the Assyrians 
and Babylonians, came into vogue. The hard stones and gems 
were of later introduction, probably under the influence of 
Greek art, for the ancient Egyptians themselves do not appear 
to have possessed the method of cutting such hard substances. 
A few such, however, exist which are clearly of great antiquity ; 
as, for example, a specimen in yellow jasper now in the British 
Museum. 

The principal purpose to which these scarabs was applied was 
to form the revolving bezel of a signet-ring, the substance in 
which the impression was taken being a soft clay with which a 
letter was sealed. This appears from seals on the Papyri, written 
in the Demotic character. 

It is singular that some of these objects have been found set 
in rings fixed with the plane engraved side inwards, rendering 
them unfit for the purpose of sealing. It is well known that the 
use of these scarabs was so extensive as to have prevailed beyond 
Egypt, being adopted by the Phoenicians and the Etruscans. 

The early scarabsei of stea-schist embrace a limited range of 
subjects, the engraving being mostly confined to the name of a 
King, the title of a deity to whose worship the wearer was 
addicted, or to expressions conveying wishes for happy life or 
similar blessings. Rarely, as in few examples in the British 
Museum, has the name of a priest or of a goddess been observed. 

* About 700 by Hay's Catalogue. 



22 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1870, 

Some scarabs of a larger size than usual, dating from -the time 
of Amenophis III., contain longer inscriptions, sucli as accounts 
of remarkable events; the marriage of that King ; his successful 
hunting expeditions, in which he slew 102 lions ; the construction 
of a great tank for receiving and preserving the waters of the 
rising Nile ; the occurrence of the festival of the sun's disc, &c. 
Such inscriptions are considered to have been an innovation 
on the earlier practice, and after the time of Amenophis III. 
large scarabs became rare. 

With regard to the second division of the antiquities exhibited 
the sepulchral figures deposited with the dead. These are 
found in great numbers, always in the type of Osiris, in whose 
form every body was embalmed, the Egyptians believing u that 
the deceased, as soon as he had passed the ordeal of the final 
judgment, was admitted into the presence of the deity, whose 
name was then prefixed to his own." * 

In the so-called Funereal Ritual or Book of the Deadf we have 
numerous chapters relating to devices and amulets to be placed 
in coffins, including some account of these effigies. They are 
called in the Ritual " working figures of Hades," and clearly 
were supposed to possess some mystic virtue, but what this was 
is not certain. They always bear the pickaxe and hoe, with the 
basket slung behind. The pursuit of agriculture was looked 
upon among the ancient Egyptians as one of great dignity, and 
even in the Elysian fields such labours were the principal occupa- 
tion of the shades of the blessed. J The formula "to move the 
sand from the east to the west," occurs in the Ritual in con- 
nection with these labours. 

The formula usually inscribed on these figures will be found 
(taken from the Ritual) in the Berlin Zeitschrift fur Aegyptische 
Sprache und Alter thumskunde, 1864, p. 89 ; 1865, pp. 4-20, in 
a paper by Dr. Birch. 

The inscriptions are not always identical, but do not vary 
more than may be accounted for by loose copying. Accuracy 
in copying, as Dr. Birch well observed, was not a characteristic 
of the ancients, but belongs much more to the habit of mind of 
modern days. 

These mortuary figures are of various materials, such as stone 
and porcelain. No authentic specimens exist in metal, none in 
any material that seem to be much older than Amenophis III. 
Of that period they are found in serpentine, afterwards in ala- 
baster, under the nineteenth dynasty in porcelain, and later still 

* Sir G. Wilkinson, Anct. Egyptians, ii. 4119 note. 

f See Bunsen's Egypt's Place in Universal History (English edition), v. 125 
seqq. for the Funereal Ritual, translated by Dr. Birch. 
J See Ritual : Manifestation to Light, ch. vi. 



NOV. 24.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 23 

in wood. The earlier porcelain figures do not bear incised 
inscriptions, a circumstance to be borne in mind by the collector; 
the genuine inscriptions on the early figures being painted on 
the porcelain, which was subsequently glazed. 

These sepulchral accessories went out of use after the conquest 
by Cambyses. 

Dr. Birch concluded by observing that lamps of terra-cotta, 
many exhibiting Christian symbols, are by no means un- 
common in Egypt. It is curious however that iw lamps ^of the 
earlier periods have been discovered, although it is certain that 
some means of artificial illumination must have been resorted to 
by the priests while engaged in the celebration of their worship 
in the temples, which were perfectly dark. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for jthese communications. 



Thursday, November 24th, 1870. 
A. W. FRANKS, Esq. V.P. in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Author: Historical Photographs. A Catalogue of upwards of 1,800 
photoo-raphs of the antiquities of Rome, with the dates, historical or ap- 
proximative, with an Index. By J. H. Parker, M.A. Oxon. F.S.A. 8vo. 
Oxford, 1870. 

From the Rev. F. G. Lee, D.C.L. F.S.A.: 

1. Tractatus de Sepulturis, Capellis, Statuis, Epitaphiis, et Defunctorum 
Munimentis. Authore Floriano Dulpho. 4to. Bologna, 1641. 

2. Histoire du Pretendant. 8vo. 1756. 

From the Powys-Land Club: Collections, Historical and Archaeological, relat- 
ing to Montgomeryshire. Vol. III. iii. (completing the volume). 8vo. 
London, 1870. 

From the Author :- British Association for the Advancement of Science. 
Liverpool, 1870. An Address delivered in the Department of Ethnology 
and Anthropology, September 15, 1870. By John Evans, F.R.S. F.S.A. 
8vo. London. 

From the Editor, S. Tymms, Esq. F.S.A. :- The East Anglian. Vol. iv. 
No. 117. 8vo. Lowestoft, 1870. 

From the Author: The Peoples of Transylvania. By R. S. Charnock, Ph. Dr. 
F.S.A. 8vo. London, 1870. 

From the Commission, through the Abbe Cochet, lion F.S.A.:-Bulletm de 
la Commission des Antiquites de la Seme-Inferieure. Tome 1", 3 
Livraison. 8vo. Rouen, 1870. 



24 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



[1870, 



Sir W. C. TREVELYAN, Bart. F.S.A. exhibited and presented 
a Photograph of a group of objects standing in his grounds at 
Wallington, Northumberland. They consist of a monolith in 
coarse sandstone, known as the " Poind and his Man " (see 
Hodgson's History of Northumberland, Part 2, vol. i. p. 348), 
and several Dragons' Heads, carved in Portland stone, portions 
of the supporters of the City arms, from the front of the ancient 
gate at Aldersgate, London, demolished in 1760. 

Colonel HAWORTH BOOTH exhibited a Vellum Roll .of the 
sixteenth century, containing a pedigree of the family of Booth, 
deduced from Henry Booth, Vice-Admiral of the North in the 
time of Henry VI. second son of Sir Thomas Booth of Bar- 
ton, in Lancashire, and continued, apparently in the same 
hand, to Thomas Booth of Byllyngholrae, who married Cecilia, 
daughter and heir of William Gardiner of Bishop's Norton, 
whose pedigree is carried back on this roll for 'fifteen genera- 
tions ; the pedigree of Booth is further continued for two more 
generations. The roll terminates with two fully emblazoned 
achievements of Gardiner and Booth. 

EDWARD PEACOCK, Esq. exhibited a Bronze Bell, of which a 
woodcut is here given, two-thirds of the actual size. 




Nov. 24.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 25 

This bell was found in the month of August 1870 in the parish 
church of Bottesford, near Brigg, Lincolnshire. It was dis- 
covered walled up in a putlog hole in the western wall of the 
south aisle, almost immediately over the half pillar which separates 
the aisle wall from that of the nave. 

It is worth remarking that the tongue of this bell is not 
suspended in the modern fashion from a loop cast in the head, 
but by a piece of iron, apparently an old nail, which is bent so 
as to pass through two holes pierced on either side of the handle. 
That this arrangement was not the result of a clumsy attempt 
to repair the bell, but that such was the original construction 
would seem probable from the circumstance that a precisely 
similar method of attachment of the clapper was observed in the 
case of another small bell also of bronze, which was exhibited 
some years ago before the British Archaeological Association.* 
This latter bpll, highly ornamented and bearing the date 1555, 
was found at Penton Mewsey, Hants, in the rectory stable. It is 
expressly stated to have been cast without a loop for suspension 
of the clapper. In the present instance the original absence of 
a loop is not quite so clear ; for there is a slight trace of a 
breach of continuity in the metal in the head of the bell, but 
this may be owing to the insertion of the handle. 

From the circumstance of its discovery it would appear likely 
that the bell was intended for some ecclesiastical 'purpose, and 
Mr. Peacock was disposed to think that it must have been used 
as a " sacring bell." 

In a letter to the Secretary Mr. Peacock observes that 

" The Lincolnshire Church Goods' Inventories of 1566 show 
that in many churches there were both sacring bells and hand 
bells. I am not so clear as I should like to be of the distinction, 
for certainly in some cases the sacring bells were hand bells, 
e.g. at Burton Goggles, where profane Mr. Eland u hong it by 
his horse eare ; " at Habrough, where Thomas Carter did the 
like ; and at Hoghe, where a calf was decorated with one. The 
only distinction I can see is that the sacring bell may have been 
the instrument used to ring at the mass, and the hand bell the 
one borne before the priest when he went to take the sacrament 
to the sick. 

" I send you with this some notes from my * Church Furni- 
ture.' You will see that there are eight cases given where bells 
had disappeared, improperly, from the churches. If I had 
included other similar articles in the list it would have been 
very much longer. Hence we may assume that these thefts 
were in many cases committed with no felonious intention, but 

* Journ. Archseol. Assoc. ii. 186. 



2(3 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1870, 

were simple removals for the sake of preserving to better times 
things which many of the people thought holy. 

"In five instances (and I think there are more in my book) 
bells were turned into mortars. Were they recast, or inverted 
and fixed in the- top of posts? The latter I am inclined to flunk ; 
men could not easily cast them into mortars for themselves., 
The following are the entries referred to by Mr. Peacock : 

Page. 
Aswardbie. One handbell, broken the start of yt, and, sold to Johnne 

Chamberlaine, and he haith made a morter thereof . . 3d 

[There was a " sacringe bell " at the same place.] 
Birton. One sacring bell William Eland had and hong it by his 
[Burton Goggles.] horse eare a long tyme but nowe yt is broken . ". . -." . 60 

[There were also ij handbelles here.] 
Castlebytham. Two handbelles sold to William Craine .... which he 

haith made a brasen morter of 59 

Corringham. One other handbell lost in the plague tyme 61 

[Probably the pestilence of 1563.] 

Gaton. A sacringe bell- was given to the parson of Tottill Anno 

primo Elizabeth and what he did with it wee knowe not . 83 

Glentworthe. A handbell gone we cannot tell howe the same yeare [1565] 85 

Gretford. One sacringe bell stolen awaie 91 

Habrough. One sacringe bell which Thomas Carter had and he haith 

made a horse-bell therof to hange at a horses eare ... 95 

Hemswell. ij hande belles solid to Robertt Aestroppe one of the sayd 

churche wardens to make a mortar off 103 

Hoghe. A sacringe bell sold to Austen Earle to put about a calves 

neck 105 

Lundonthorp. A handbell sold to our vicar that now is who hathe made 

a morter of it . ; . . 114 

Osbornbie. The handbelles sold to Tho. Bell and William Pell and thei 

have made brase morters with them 120 

North Reston. A sacring bell, a pix, a cresmatorie, ij crewetes, one alb 
and a stole Sir Robert Dyon our vicar had and what is 
become of theim wee knowe not but John Dyon esquier 
was his executor 126 

Scotter. One handbell was taken out of our church three years 
agoo, Thome Luddington then churchwarden, by whome 
we know not . 133 

Market Reason. Our handbell was gone out of our church, as our vicar 

saith by a madd woman a yeare ago 124 

Vlceby. One crysmatorie, one pix, one paire of sensers, one paxe, one 
sacringe bell, one crewett, made awaie and gone we know 
not howe nor what is become of them : . 155 

Some confusion appears to exist with regard to the sanctus or 
sauuce bell, and the sacring bell. It is hoped that the following 
notes will contribute to a clearer understanding of the subject. 

The often-quoted constitution of Robert Winchelsey, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, made circa 1305, enjoins that the parish- 



Nov. 24.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 27 

loners in every church should find " campanas cum chordis," 
i.e. bells with ropes to ring them,* and "Lucernam et Tintin- 
nabulum ad deferendum coram corpore Christi, in Visitatione 
Infirmorurn," that is, a lantern and a little portable bell for the 
purpose mentioned.! And Archbishop John Peceham's con- 
stitution, made in 1281, prescribes that at the Elevation of the 
Host the bells be rung, " pulsentur campansu ab una parte ad 
minus," according to Lyndwode's quotation ; J a in uno latere," 
according to the Oxford text of the entire constitution, in order 
that the people in the fields or at home, unable to attend mass 
daily, should bend the knee, &c. Here, whatever may be meant 
by " ab una parte ad minus," or by u in uno latere," it is 
clear that the campana to be rung must be a bell of considerable 
size in order to admit of its being heard at a distance. And, 
indeed, Lyndwode, commenting on the text, says, " Campance. 
Non intelligas de pluribus illo tempore simul pulsandis in una 
ecclesia, quia sufficit imam sonari ; sed pluraliter loquitur 
respectu plurium ecclesiarum. Et hsec pulsatio fieri debet de 
Campanis illis quse longius possent audiri, quod satis patet per 
rationem quse sequitur." 

This definition would be answered by one of the ordinary 
church bells, where there was a ring of bells in a belfry, or by 
such a bell as was sometimes hung in the bell-cote on the east 
gable of the nave, either alone or with one or as in some cases 
two fellows. And it seems reasonable to suppose that where a 
particular bell was appropriated to the purpose specified in the 
Constitutions, it was usually the bell which hung in the bell- 
cote, now generally known as the " Sanctus Bell," although 
indeed it is commonly said to take its name from the circum- 
stance of its having been rung when the priest began the ter- 
sanctus, just before commencing the canon of the mass. 

In the Surrey Inventories of Church Goods, the Saunce, 
Sance or Sanctes Bell frequently occurs. 

At Dorking, p. 12, are specified five bells in the steeple a 
chyme, a clocke, and a saunce bell. 

At Puttcnham, p. 15, four bells in the steeple and a saunce 
bell. 

At Tlmrsley, p. 17, three bells in the steeple and a saunctes 
bell, w eying di c , 'i.e. 9 half a hundred weight. 

* In the Statutes of John Pcccham, Archbishop of Canterbury, given in 
Wilkins, ii. 49, the same provision is required ; the words are " lariterna cum 
tintinnabulo, campanas in campanili, et cordos ad easdem." 

f Lyndwode. Do Ecclesiis edijicandis, c. Ut Parockiani, p. 251, Oxford 
Edition. 

J De Celebratione Missarum, c. A Itlssimus, p. 231. 

Inventories of Goods, &c., in Churches of Surrey. Ed. J. B. Daniel-Tyssen, 
F.S.A. 1869. Reprinted from Surrey Archasological Collections, vol. iv. 



28 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1870, 



At Sele. p. 30, three bells and a sance bell. 
At Horsellj p. 33, three bells in the steeple and a saunce bell. 
At Shalford, p. 35, a lettill bell, called a sawnce bell, conteyn- 
ing by extymacion xxv Ib. weight. 

At Wonersh,-p. 37, four bells and one saunce bell, waing 

liiij Ib. 

At Wimbledon, p. 42, three bells and a saunce bell. 

At Cheam, p. 67, four bells in the steeple and a lytell bell 
called the scanctus bell. 

At Mordon, p. 68, three bells and a sanctes bell. 

At Oxted, p. 120, four great belles and one saunce bell. 

And so on in many other instances. 

From these entries, especially those which give the weight' of 
the saunce bell, it is plain that it was not a hand-bell. 

With regard to the sacring bell however it is to be observed 
that the Promptorium Parvulorum translates " Belle " Cam- 
pana, and a Sacrynge belle " Tintinnabulum. Just above the 
last word, we read 

Sacryn, or halwyn, Consecro, sacro. 
Sacryn in the messe, Consecro. 
Sacrynge of the masse, Consecratio. 

With which interpretation agrees the following passage from 
John Myrc's Instructions for Parish Priests,* lines 278287, 
where, speaking of orderly behaviour in church, he says : 

And whenne )>e Gospelle i-red be schalle, 

Teche hem J?enne to stonde up alle, 

And blessef [hem] feyre as J>ey conne. 

And whenne >e gospel ys i-done, 

Teche hem oft to knele downe sone; 

And whenne they here the bell ryng, 

To that holy sakerynge, 

Teche hem knele downe boj>e gonge and olde, 

And bo}>e here handes up to holde, &c. 

The sacring-bell then rung at the Consecration in the Mass 
was not a campana, or ordinary large church bell, but a small 
bell, tintinnabulum, suitable for ringing inside the church. 
Usually, no doubt, as in Roman Catholic churches at the present 
day, a portable " hand-bell " was used for this purpose. In 
one instance however, that of Hawsted church, a bell, 6 
inches in diameter, remains or lately remained, { hung in the 
rood-loft, which can hardly have been anything but a sacring- 
bell. Such was also in all probability the " little bell belonging 
to " a screen on the north side of the chancel of Warton church 

* Edited by Mr. Peacock for the Early English Text Society, 1868. 
f i. e. cross themselves. 

of \M ^Sl^TS ? aws . ted ' P- 34 ' This tell is noticed in an inventory 
637, as one little bell, hanging between the church and chancel." 



Nov. 24] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 29 

in Lonsdale, which appears to have been in existence at some 
time during the last century.* 

Though the portable sacring-bell was frequently of silver, as 
appears from many of the printed inventories of the larger 
churches, yet this was not always the case. The sacring-bell 
at Farley in Surrey (ub. supra, p. 110) was of " latyng," more 
usually spelt " latten ;" and at Sawtre, in 28 Hen. VIII., two 
boxes of ivory and six sacryng bells were sold in one lot for 
two shillings, f This also appears from Mr. Peacock's extracts 
given above. 

That the saunce-bell and the sacring-bell were not identical 
may perhaps be considered as proved. Should further proof be 
needed it will be found in the Inventories, which specify sacring- 
bells as existing in churches where there was also a saunce bell. 

Thus in the cases of some of the Surrey churches, already 
mentioned, we find at Horsell two " sackring belles;" at 
Wimbledon, a " sackering-bell ;" at Oxted, one " sacryng-bell." 

As will have been seen, the small bell ringing within the 
church is not required for the service of the mass by the Pro- 
vincial Constitutions cited above ; it would seem, however, from 
the following passage, that the concurrent use of the two bells 
is to be found as early as 1287 : " Hostia autem ita levatur 
in altum, ut a fidelibus circumstantibus valeat intueri. Paro- 
chiani vero sollicite exhortentur ut in elevatione corporis Christi 
non irreverenter se inclinent, sed genuflectant, et creatorem 
suum adorent omni devotione et reverentia ; ad quod per cam- 
panellge pulsationem primitus excitentur et in elevatione ter 
tangatur campana major." J 

Mr. Peacock has remarked that in Lincolnshire hand-bells 
occurred together with sacring bells in the same church. This 
was also the case in Surrey in many instances. The hand bell 
is, in two instances at least, called a corse-bell, probably from its 
being used at funerals. Thus at West Horsley || there was " a 
sacring bell and a corse bell." At Send and Bipley, " two small 
sacring bells" and a " corse bell." In neither case are the hand- 
bells mentioned. At Addington If was a u procession bell," 
besides the sacring bell. " One .broken bell for procession " 

* Whitaker's Kichmondshire, ii. 295. 

f ArchaBologia, xliii. 232. 

J Synod. Exon. 1287, Wilkins, Cone. ii. 132. It may prove to be the fact 
that in process of time the ringing of the external bell was advanced from the 
moment of consecration to the commencement of the Tersanctus as a warning to 
persons outside the church to enter. 

" A hand-bell is invariably used at funerals in Italy, Sicily, and Malta, and 
commonly so in France and Spain, as a signal to clear the way, and elicit a 
prayer for the departed." Walcott, Sacred Archaeology, p. 69. 

|| Surrey Inv.'p. 19. 

f Ibid. p. 65. 



30 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1870, 

was all that remained at Sanderstead, besides the two - bells in 
the steeple. 

This hand-bell was no doubt the " tintinnabulum which was 
to be used in the visitation of the sick. Lyndwode, commenting 
on another constitution of John Peecham, has a curious passage, 
in which he says, that, if the priest cannot get an attendant to 
carry the bell and lantern, he must carry them himself, hanging 
the lantern over his arm or, as is done in extensive country 
parishes, the priest may fasten both bell and lantern round his 
horse's neck.* 

Sir WILLIAM TITE, C.B., M.P., V.P., exhibited the following 
objects : 

1. A Vase of thin brownish- 
black ware, an imitation 
apparently of a vessel of 
Kimmeridge coal. Dia- 
meter 4J inches ; height 2| 
inches. 

2. A Bronze Fibula, of a 
hasp shape, much decayed. 

VASE FROM KELVEDON. 3 




^ 

These two objects were discovered on the south side of the 
great Roman road from Chelmsford to Colcbester, in the parish 
of Kelvedon, on an estate called Dorward's Hall, belonging to 
Henry Dixon, Esq. About ten or fifteen years ago some of 
Mr. Dixoivs workmen were trenching a field, when they came 
upon the remains of Roman burial. There were several urns 
containing burnt bones, and a considerable number of copper 
coins. The latter are lost, and the vase and fibula are all that 
have been preserved. These specimens have since been pre- 
sented to the British Museum. 

The vase exhibits considerable similarity in form to the vessels 
of Kimmeridge coal discovered by the late Lord Braybroke, at 
Great Chesterford, in Essex, f 

3. A covered Goblet of glass, decorated with engraving of 
an unusually deep execution, representing amorini and vine- 
branches. The cover has a knob of silver, enamelled and gilt. 
The end of ^ the rod or screw by which this knob is attached to 
the cover is concealed by a plaque, enamelled with the coat 
armour of John Hugo von Orsbeck, Bishop of Spire 1675, and 
Archbishop of Treves and Prince Elector 1676 to 1711, when 
he died, holding both sees. 

* Lyndwode, De reliquiis.&c. c. diffnitslmum, ad verha Ivmine prevfo; p 249 

t See Archaeological Journal, xiv. 87. 



Nov. 24.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 31 

The blazon of the arms is as follows : 

Quarterly of four. 

(1.) Argent, a cross gules. Archbishoprick of Tr eves. 

(2.) Gules, a holy lamb proper. Abbey of Prum, in the forest 
of Ardennes, united in 1576 to the archdiocese of Treves. 

(3.) Gules, a castle double-towered argent masoned sable, 
traversed by a pastoral staff in bend and ensigned with a crown 
of the second. The provostship of Weissenburg, united to Spire 
in 1545. 

(4.) Azure, a cross argent. Bishopric of Spires. 

Surtout, on an inescucheon : Or, a saltire gules, between 
three waterlily leaves proper. Orsbeck. 

Ensigned with an Electoral hat. Behind the shield the pastoral 
staff and the sword in saltire. Motto, on a scroll : 

JOAN . HVGO . D.G. ARC. TREV. PR. EL. EP. SP. 

The whole cup and knob about 7 inches in height. 

4. A plain Gold Eing of unusual thickness, engraved inside 
with this posy : 

/ Esteeme Vertue more then gould. 
Found at Colyton, in Devonshire. 

Lord WHARNCLIFFE exhibited a Romano- Celtic Sword of iron, 
with a bronze scabbard, of similar character to those figured in 
plate xviii. of Horse Ferales. Found in Wensleydale in 1870. 

On this exhibition, A. W. FRANKS, Esq. V.P. made some 
remarks, which will appear, together with a figure of the sword 
and its scabbard, in the Appendix to Archoaologia, vol. xliii. 

ALEXANDER NESBITT, Esq. F.S.A. communicated a paper on 
Wall Decorations in sectile work, as used by the Romans, illus- 
trated by drawings of such work now existing in the Palazzo 
Albani at Rome ; and by an exhibition of fragments of glass 
used in this kind of decoration, which he had obtained in Italy, 
and had partially arranged so as to restore the original patterns. 
This communication will be printed in the Archaeologia. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these Communications. 



32 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1870, 



Thursday, December 1st, 1870. 
J. WINTER JONES, Esq. V.P. in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Royal Institution of Great Britain :-Additions to the Library. 
Nos. 7 and 12. July 1863-4, and July 1868-9. 8vo. 

From the Author, the Rev. J. F. Russell, B.C.L. F.S.A. :- 

1 Eight Tracts from The Ecclesiologist. 8vo. London, 1852-66. 

(1.) Thoughts on the revival of Panel Painting, in the style of the four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries, in connection with Ecclesiastical Decora- 
tion. 1852. 

(2.) Early Christian Pictures at Berlin. 1852. (March.) 

(3.) On the same subject. 1852. (October.) 

(4.) Some notes of a Tour in Germany. 1858. 

(5.) The same subject. No. 2. 1859. 

(6.) The same subject again. No. 3. 1859. 

(7.) Basilican Arrangement of Churches. 1. 1863. 

(8.) A Few Gleanings from Normandy. 1866. 

2. On the Painted Glass in Fairford Church, Gloucester, and its claim to be 

considered the work of Albert Durer. (From Archaeological Journal, xxv.) 

8vo. London, 1868. 

From the Royal Institute of British Architects : Sessional Papers, 1870-71. 
No. 2. 4to. London, 1870. 

William, Viscount Milton, M.P. was admitted a Fellow. 

The Rev. H. T. GRIFFITH, Local Secretary for the county of 
Norfolk, communicated a notice of a discovery of Roman re- 
mains at Bessingham, in that county, in a letter addressed to 
the Secretary, from which the following is an extract : 

" I write to apprise you of a slight discovery of Roman 
remains in the parish of Bessingham, about 6 miles to. the S.W. 
from Cromer. Some workmen in the employ of Daniel Spurrell, 
Esq. (the principal landed proprietor in the parish) were 
engaged in sinking a sand-pit on that gentleman's estate, when 
they came upon various fragments of Roman pottery, about 
4 feet below the surface of the ground. 

" These fragments are principally of the common blue clay, 
and perfectly plain ; one or two of them however are of a finer 
clay, of a brown colour, and having the sides ribbed or fluted 
spirally. There is no whole vessel remaining, and the various 
portions appear to be those of cups or other small vessels. 



Dec, 1.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 33 

With them were found a few human boues. I have sought in 
vain for any apparent indication of the connection of these 
remains with the Roman system of centuriation as expounded 
in Mr. H. C. Coote's paper in the Archaeologia, vol. xlii. 

u This disco very , trivial as it may appear, is so far interesting, 
as confirmatory evidence that Bessingham was once in Roman 
occupation, a fact which has been shown by remains of some- 
what similar description having been not unfrequently turned 
up during the last twenty years ; and amongst others the almost 
perfect half of a Roman hand-mill. In the parish is a large 
flat mound, of artificial construction, which goes amongst the 
villagers by the name of ' The Castle,' but which I take to have 
been a barrow. This was unfortunately planted thickly with 
trees, some three or four years ago, or, I believe, I could have 
induced Mr. Spurrell to have it trenched. There is no record 
of there having been any * Castle ' at Bessingham, and it is 
scarcely likely that there would have been one so near to ' Gres- 
ham Castle,' once in the occupation of the great Norfolk family 
of Paston, and of which the site and some foundations are yet 
discernible at Gresham, less than a mile distant from the mound 
in question, 

" The Parish Church of Bessingham is remarkable as con- 
taining a Saxon tower, admitted to be such by most antiquaries, 
from the peculiar form of the windows in it. This church, the 
main body of which is of late Perpendicular work, and (until 
lately) in a state of deplorable dilapidation, was ( restored ' last 
year. The whole of the south wall and the chancel-end of the 
north wall had to be taken down on that occasion, but the west 
end of the north wall was found to be a remarkably solid piece 
of masonry, apparently coeval with the tower itself." 

JAMES WYATT, Esq. Local Secretary for Bedfordshire, com- 
municated the following account of discoveries recently made at 
Hartford, in Huntingdonshire : 

" I have the pleasure of reporting the discovery of some 
interesting relics at the village of Hartford, about a mile from 
Huntingdon and two miles from Godmanchester (the Roman 
station of Durolippns). Last week I heard that some " skeletons 
and pots " had been found there in a gravel pit, and subse- 
quently had a communication from Dr. Rix, your Local Secre- 
tary for that county, which gave me sufficient authority to step 
over my own border into his territory. On Monday, the 30th 
May, I therefore went to Hartford and found that the Rev. 
George Finder, the respected vicar of the parish, had done the 
best he could under the circumstances to obtain correct informa- 
tion and preserve some of the relics. In a gravel-pit there the 

VOL.Y. D 



g 4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1870, 

workmen had found four human skeletons, which they said were 
' -position; but, on closely exammmg the site and 
'several statements. I came to the conclusion that the 



evera , 

was not substantiated but that, m al 1 Jjbabijty 
after the bodies had been buried, the light soil ^g m Jat 
spot and so disturbed their original posihon. I ^ v \^ 
to be the case in the gravel-pits at Kempston, where .many 
skeletons have been found in the Anglo-Saxon cemetery 
About 8 feet from these bodies was a large urn, from 10 to 
inches high, full of calcined bones, and inverted Near this was 
a quantity of charcoal, several burnt stones, and a fragment of 
a flint knife or flake, also burnt. About two yards further was a, 
smaller urn somewhat of the form of the so-called incense cups. 
This was smoshed " and lost. Both these vessels were made 
from a coarse dark-coloured clay, and being only slightly baked 
were very fragile. The larger urn was hand-made, with a 
slight lipped rim, and no other ornamentation than a small 
rude fillet round the shoulder or widest part. ^ The side of 
the gravel pit showed the section of the hole which had been 
made for the deposit of the urn, and in the debris were 
found an annular fibula of iron, nearly 2| inches in diameter, 
and a bronze pin 3^ inches long with a flattened head. The 
workmen informed me that numerous urns had been found 
in this and another field, but were always "smoshed," for 
nobody took any account of them till Mr. Finder knew of this 
last find. Both these urns were of similar outline to the 
rudest types found in Bedfordshire, at Kempston and Sandy. 
From the vicarage garden, adjoining the site where the skeletons 
were found, the Rev. Gr. Finder has obtained several Roman 
coins, which he handed to me, and a portion of a Roman mill- 
stone ; and in the alluvial soil over the gravel at the pit there 
has been found a portion of a British quern of pudding-stone 
conglomerate, and a very fine celt, constructed from a light 
grey, finely-grained " greenstone." This celt is 7 inches long, 
3f inches across at the widest part, and If inches thick, being 
of the broad and short type which is seen to prevail amongst the 
specimens discovered in the eastern part of England more 
especially. Although a portion of the smaller end is broken the 
exact proportions may be well imagined. The broader end is 
complete, and retains its sharp edge : the sides are worked to a 
thinner edge than is seen on the Scandinavian examples gene- 
rally, and the whole surface is wrought up to a perfect smooth- 
ness and polish. It is entirely due to the Rev. George Finder 
that a system of conservation of such relics has now commenced 
in a locality apparently prolific in objects of antiquarian interest. 
" The discovery here noted is curious in respect to the variety 



Dec. 1.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 35 

of objects representing different periods found on the same spot. 
The upper portion of the section has produced early- Celtic and 
Roman relics, the excavation into the gravel has yielded Saxon 
and Koman in close contiguity, and in the lowest stratum of 
the gravel have been found tusks and molars of elephas primi- 
genius and rhinoceros tichorhinus, and an artificial flint-flake. 

" There are also in this parish some remarkable earthworks 
which deserve an investigation, in which the owner of the lands 
should be interested. One of these, although only about two feet 
above the ordinary level of the pasture, retains a very distinct 
outline, and reminds the observer of the curious mounds of the 
valley of the Mississippi, as it represents a turtle flattened and 
elongated. I hope it may be possible to report, at some future 
time, a complete investigation of this and some other mounds in 
the parish." 

S. BUTTON WALKER, Esq. Local Secretary for Nottingham- 
shire, communicated, in a letter addressed to the Secretary, the 
following notes on ancient interments lately brought to light at 
Hucknall, co. Notts: 

" I forward to you a drawing which I have made to elucidate 
the description of a curious discovery which has been made in 
the parish of Hucknall (the burial place of the Poet Byron). 
Some little time ago a Local Board of Health was formed in 
the village, and the result has been the formation of sewers to 
carry off the drainage. In the course of these works a drain 
about four feet wide was excavated in a straight line across a 
grass-field belonging to the Duke of Portland, and in the occupa- 
tion of Mrs. Mary Walker. This drain, in its course of about 
108 feet from the wall of the play-ground of the village school, 
crossed at irregular intervals five spots where the limestone rock 
had at some former period been excavated to depths slightly vary- 
ing in each case. These breaks in the limestone were evidently 
portions of 'a series of shallow graves or trenches running nearly 
parallel to each other, and in a direction nearly at right angles 
to that of the new drain, and each trench had been used for 
interments. While excavating, the workmen came upon no less 
than 35 skeletons occuping these five graves. The first grave, 
about 22 feet from the wall, was about 7 feet wide, as if afford- 
ing space for one row of bodies. The next, 8 feet beyond the 
first, was also 7 feet wide. Beyond this, at an interval of about 
6 feet, was the third grave, 20 feet across, as if for a double row 
of interments ; followed at intervals of 4 and 8 feet by the 
fourth and fifth graves, which were 14 feet and 12 feet wide 
respectively. 

D 2 



3(5 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1870, 

" From my examination of the section I am of opinion that 
the trenches are of some length, though, from the refusal of 
the occupier to allow of any further excavations, we cannot say 
to what length they may run. 

" As you will perceive from the section there is very little soil 
above the limestone, from 8 to 12 inches on an average, and the 
persons who buried the bodies evidently did not like digging in 
the limestone, for the trenches or graves are none of them 
more than 2 ft. 9 in. deep, and some not more than 2 feet. 
Some of the bones are very large, and the skulls very- thick, 
and depressed towards the front. So far as the excavation has 
proceeded, no children's bodies have been found : it is,- therefore, 
presumable that they are the remains of persons slain in battle. 
Many of the bodies seem to have been thrown in. The remains 
disturbed have been put into a coffin, and are now in the tower 
of the church. The field is known to have been pasture land for 
upwards of 100 years. 

" The surface of the ground is quite level and does not m any 
way assume the form of a tumulus or barrow. 

" Newstead is within about one mile and a-half. 

a I do not know whether the discovery will be sufficiently 
interesting to any of the Fellows to induce them to visit the 
spot, with the view of further investigating the nature of the 
interments thus discovered ; but if anything be done it should 
be quickly, as the trench cut for the drain will no doubt be 
shortly filled up." 

W. H. H. KOGERS, Esq. Local Secretary for Devonshire, 
exhibited a Deed of Grant by Hugh de Courtenay, Junior, 
accompanied by the following note : 

" Through the kindness of the Chamber of Feoffees here, I 
have been examining a number (upward of sixty) of ancient 
deeds in their possession, relating mostly to the transfer of small 
messuages or burgages in the ancient village of Colyford, lying 
between this and Seaton, and which was formerly a place of 
greater pretensions, and a < borough' held under the Courtenays, 
though the history of the place seems now involved in great 
obscurity, 

" The feoffees still hold considerable property in the borough, 
which has its fair, elects a mayor, who is also constable and 
way warden within the precinct, "&c. , and there is a very ancient 
iron mace or staff of office still existing, and which is handed 
from successor to successor in this rustic mayoralty. I hope to 
be enabled some day to show the Society 'the mace, but the 
good people of Colyford are very jealous of its custodv. 



Dec. 1.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 37 

" The deeds to which I allude commence at the beginning of 
the reign of Edward III. and extend nearly to the close of that 
of Henry V III. 

u The most interesting in the whole series is the inclosed, 
which is a grant by Hugh de Courtenay, Junior, of the rever- 
sion of one burgage tenement and a half in Culliford to John 
Wylemot of that place and Juliana his wife ; dated at Colcombe, 
13 Edw. III. The finely-engraved seal attached to this deed is 
unfortunately imperfect. It is about an inch in diameter, and 
bears on an escucheoii placed between mullets, and surrounded 
by a border of tracery, the arms of Courtenay, three roundels 
(torteaux) and a label. Legend [SlGILLVM HUGONIS] DE 
COVRTEN'." 

" The introduction of the mullets sufficiently identifies the 
grantor with Hugh de Courtenay, third of that name, son and 
heir of Hugh Earl of Devon and Agnes his wife, sister of John 
Lord St. John of Basing. He was summoned to Parliament in 
llth Edw. III. by the name of " Hugh de Courtenay Junior," 
and in 1340 succeeded his father as Earl of Devon. 

a He married Margaret the daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, 
Earl of Hereford and Essex, Lord High Constable, by his wife 
Elizabeth, daughter of Edward I. 

u They had seventeen children, and were buried under a fine 
tomb, with their recumbent effigies thereon (he* in plate and 
chain armour, she in crenelated head-dress and long gown, with 
the swan of Bohun at her feet), in the nave of Exeter Cathedral. 
Within a few years past this tomb has been moved and re- 
built in a situation under the south tower, the effigies carefully 
restored with stucco , &G. Truly enough may we tremble, with 
such an example as this before us, for the fate of the fine choir- 
screen adjoining, but now it is hoped, thanks to the Society's 
vigorous remonstrance, out of danger.* 

u To resume, this Hugh, his father, and grandfather all lived 
at Colcombe Castle in Colyton, whence the deed is dated, now a 
fine ruin about a mile and a half distant from Colyford. 

U A notice of this deed appears under the head of ' The 
Devonshire Antiquary' in my * Wanderings in Devon,' 1869." 

FREDERICK HAINES, Esq. F S.A. exhibited a collection of 
antiquities from Chichester, which were thus noticed by the 
Director : 

" Mr. Haines exhibits this evening a considerable number of 
objects which have been obtained during the course of excava* 

- See Proceedings, 2 S. iv. 458, 1C2. 



38 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1870, 

tions which have recently been made at Chichester -for the 
purpose of laying out new markets in that city. 

"As was to be expected, from the great antiquity of the place, 
the excavations have produced remains of British, Roman, Anglo- 
Saxon, and still later origin. 

" The specimens exhibited are, I understand, only a few out of 
a much larger number which have come to light, the best only 
having been selected, and it is interesting to see in juxtaposition 
a collection of articles of various dates, all obtained from the 
same spot. 

" The earliest of these antiquities are the bronze celts, eight in 
number. These are not of uncommon types, and similar ones, 
will be found in the plates to Horae Ferales, and elsewhere. 

" They may be divided into two classes those without, and 
those with sockets. Of the unsocketed celts there are three 
examples : 

1. A celt six inches long, with broad blade, side and stop- 
ridges. The blade is ornamented on one side with a raised rib, 
on the other by a similar rib placed between two shorter ones. 
See Horse Ferales, pi. iv. fig. 26, in which example, however, 
the two lateral ribs do not occur. 

2. A celt of similar character, but 4J inches long, with blade 
proportionately much more narrow. 

3. A celt of similar character, but still narrower almost chisel- 
shaped blade, which is 3| inches long, the haft broken. 

Of socketed celts there are five, each with a single loop. 

1. A plain celt, 4 inches long, socket nearly square. 

2. A plain celt, 4 inches long, socket six-sided, sides of the 
blade bevelled off to a ridge. 

3. A celt 4 inches long, its socket nearly oval in section, 
with three somewhat diverging faint ribs on the blade. Com- 
pare Horae Ferales, pi. v. fig. 7. 

4. A celt 3 inches long, nearly square socket, of the same type 
as one from Barrington, Cambridgeshire, lately exhibited by 
Mr. Byles.* 

5. A celt 3f inches long, socket inwardly circular, externally 
quadrangular, with curved sides, six parallel slightly-raised ribs 
on haft, 

"We may now pass to antiquities of the Roman Period. 
Besides several fragments of the ordinary red ware called 
barman, Mr Haines exhibits a vessel of blackish ware, about 
5 2 inches high, with six longitudinal depressions or finger-marks, 
which very closely resembles the specimen engraved in the 

* Ante, p. 13. 



Dec. 1.] 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 



39 





STRAINER. ^-SIZE. 



Archasologia, vol. xxxviii. pi. iii. fig. 6, from the New Forest 
Potteries.* See Birch's Hist, of Pottery, ii. 364, cut No. 202. 

" There are three pieces of buff-coloured ware, namely, a small 
bottle, a fragment probably of a lamp, 
and a curious implement, consisting of 
a cylindrical base 2 inches across and 
about half-an-inch high, pierced with fil- 
tering holes and furnished with a neck 
and lip, apparently to be used for strain- 
ing some liquor. This little object seems 
to be entire, and not a mere fragment of 
a larger article. The woodcut gives a 
front view and also shows the holes at the 
bottom. 

" Among the bronzes are one very ele- 
gant fibula and a phallic pendant. 

u A large* dark-coloured globular bottle 
with a long neck, from Littlehampton, 
would at first sight seem to be Oriental 
and of no antiquity. It was found, how- 
ever, below the surface, near the sea-shore, 
and Mr. A. W. Franks is disposed to think that it may be Roman, 
the fine scratched lines crossing each other diagonally, which 
this bottle exhibits, appearing on undoubted Roman ware. 

" Among the miscellaneous antiquities may be noticed : Two 
objects in yellow mixed metal, which would appear to be 
a leg and one of the handles of such a vessel as is figured in 
Proceedings, 2 S. iii. 198. The leg is nearly of the same 
pattern ; the handle, however, is not ; it approaches more nearly 
in form to the handles of the Great Hunting Pot preserved 
at Warwick Castle, and figured in Archaeologia, vol. xiv. 
plates li.-liii., and still more to the handle of a large pot of 
brass, dated 1640, found in Ireland, and engraved at page 535 
of Sir W. Wilde's Catalogue of the Museum of the Royal Irish 
Academy. 

" There is a pendant, apparently in pewter, with the full-faced 
head of a man, with a diadem or crown, surrounded by five 
escallops, which project and foriri a sort of star. This object, 
which seems to belong to the thirteenth century, may have 
belonged to a horse furniture. 

" There is a curious bronze stamp or seal, square in the field, 
and with the figure of two monsters of the wyvern order inter- 
laced. The lowness of the relief renders it likely that this utensil 
was intended for stamping leather, and not for sealing. If it 

* There is a, specimen almost identical with this in the British Museum, which 
has just been photographed very successfully. 



40 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1870, 

were a seal, it is of a very unusual form for ^ the period (the 
latter half of the thirteenth century) to which it would seem t< 

36 ""Among the miscellanea is also a singularly rude fragment 
of pottery, worked with the fingers into the shape of a saucer, 
probably sun-dried. 

" Lastly, there may be noticed a tradesman s token : 

Obv. JOHN . SMITH . WITHOUT . THE = 

On a wreath a demi St. Lawrence. 

Eev. EASTGATE . OF . CHICHESTER = 
HIS HALFE PENNY. 

Figured in Boyne's English Tokens, p. 462, pi. 32. No. 3." 

PADRE KAFFAELE GARRUCCI, Hon. F.S.A. communicated an 
account of an Inscription on a Bronze Tablet in the Faliscan 
character, from Sta. Maria di Falleri. This paper will be 
printed, in a translation by W. M. Wylie, Esq. F.S.A., in the 
Archseologia, vol. xliii. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these Communica- 
tions. 



Thursday, December 8th, 1870. 
W. H. BLACK, Esq. Senior Fellow present, in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department : 
By the Queen. A Proclamation publishing and declaring that Parliament 
be further prorogued to Tuesday the 17th day of January next. Given at 
Windsor, 29th November, 1870, 34th year of reign. Broadside folio. (Two 
copies.) 

From E. Hailstone, Esq. F.S.A. : Five Almanacks for 1871, in the Yorkshire 
Dialect. Octavo. 

1. The Original Illuminated Clock Almanack. By John Hartley. Halifax. 

2. The Nidderdill Olminac. By Nattie Nydds. Pateley Bridge. 

3. " Tommy's Annual." Leeds. 

4. T' Bairnsla Foaks' Annual. Be Tom Treddlehoyle, Esq. Leeds and 
London. 



Dec. 8.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 41 

5. The Dewsbre Back at Mooin Olmenac. Be Mungo Shoddy, Esq. 
Batley. 

From the Author : The Popes of Kome, from the Earliest Times to Pius IX., 
A.D. 1870. By William Tayler, Esq. E.S.A. 8vo. London, 1870. 

PATRICK O'CALLAGHAN, Esq. D.C.L. F.S.A. exhibited a 
valuable collection of original letters and documents bearing the 
signatures of, or entirely written by, members of the Medici 
family and other persons of distinction who lived in the fifteenth 
and sixteen centuries. The following is a notice of these docu- 
ments, some of which, as will be seen, possess some historical 
interest independently of their value as autographs. 

1. Cosmo de Medicis to Philip Mary Duke of Milan and 
Pavia, &c. (1412 1447) recommending a captain in his service. 
Italian. 

(Signed) Vro s'vitore, 

CHOSIMO DE MEDICIS. 

Addressed : Illustrissimo principi et excellentissimo Domino Domino 

a Vicecomitibus Duci Mediolani et Papie Anglerie Comiti ac Chremone 
Domino Domino meo singularissimo. 

2. Lorenzo de Medicis (the Great, father of Pope Leo X.) 
to Ser Nicolo Michelozzi. 

Io ho poi pensato allo spaccio di Ser Benedetto, et perlevera o'gni difficulta dal 
canto nostro. Sono contento, quando non si possa fare altrimenti che 1'arcivescovo 
si sottoscriva a quello oblige, restando 1'obligo uelle mani di Pavia. Fatelo 
intendere a Ser Benedetto, che quanto piu vi penso, pin ne ho voglia. 

Al Poggio, a di xxvj di Giugno 1479, a ora l a . 

LORENZO DE MEDICIS. 
Addressed : S. Nicolo Michelozzi dove egle. 

3. John Cardinal de Medicis, afterwards Pope Leo X. to 
Bernard de' Michelozzi, Canon of Florence? introducing 
Messer Alexandro Sarno of Bologna, commissioned to treat of 
some important affairs. Latin. Dated at Viterbo, July 28. 
1506. 

(Signed) V r - Jo. CAR US d MEDICIS, 

Mann pp ! a. 

Addressed: Venerabili Viro Domino 
Bernardo de Michelozzis Canonico 
(Floren')* Amico 

4. Cardinal Julius de Medicis (afterwards Pope Clement 

* The address of the letter was written partly on the slip of paper with which 
the letter was fastened. This slip, owing to the manner in which the letter is 
mounted, cannot be replaced in situ, consequently some doubt may exist as to 
the word, 



42 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1870, 

VII.) as Vice-Chancellor of the Pope, to an anonymous cor- 
respondent. 

In reply to his letter of the xiii th he informs him that the 
affairs of the Galleons are in good order. Will write again 
to the very Reverend Armellino concerning the last winter's pay 
of the Galleons. Incloses a note on maritime affairs, to which he 
requests attention. Florence, May 15, 1520. 
Italian. Holograph. 

V r - Jo. VICECANCELL'. 

Julius de Medicis, cousin of Pope Leo X. held the Vice- 
Chancellorship from the fourth year of that Pontiff to the end of 
his reign. On the death of Lorenzo de Medicis Duke of Urbino 
and Prince of the Florentine Republic in May 1519, Pope Leo 
found it necessary to adopt measures for the government of the 
Florentine State, which at this time had become wholly sub- 
servient to the authority of the Medici, though it still retained 
the name and external form of a republic. A few days prior to 
the death of Lorenzo, Leo had dispatched to Florence the 
Cardinal de Medicis, who soon after assumed the superintendence 
of the State. His residence at Florence continued nearly two 
years, f during which time his government reflected great credit 
on himself. It is to this period that Dr. O'Callaghan's letter, 
which is dated from Florence, belongs. 

5. Catherine de Medicis, dowager queen of France, to Doro- 
thea, Duchess of Brunswick- Calenburg, dated Paris, October 
8th, 1581. This holograph letter of thanks for inquiries after 
the writer's health, which she states to be good, is addressed 

A ma nyepsse 

Madame la Duchesse de Brunsuig, 
and is signed 

V're bonne tan te, 

CATERINE. 

The expression niece, used by Catharine de Medicis, Was a mere 
complimentary or friendly form of speech. The actual connec- 
tion between the writer and the receiver of the letter was as 
follows : Claudia, the queen's daughter by King Henry II. of 
France, married Charles II. Duke of Lorraine, whose sister 
Dorothea, the lady addressed, was the second wife of Eric II. 
Duke of Brunswick-Calenburg. 

6. Mary de Medicis to Charles Emmanuel 1. Duke of Saxony, 
bhe sends back Sr. Gueffier with the last news from Spam 

t Roscoe, Leo X. ii. 202, scqq. ed. Bohn. 






Dec. 8.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 43 

relative to her good offices there in the Duke's favour, and 
refers him to the Marquis of Eambouillet for further particulars. 

(Signed) Y're bien bonne seur, 

MARIE. 

Addressed: A mon frere le Due de Saroye. 

Sealed with two impressions of a signet over silken thread. It 
is an impression from an engraved gem, with an escucheon 
ensigned with the crown, encircled by a cordeliere, and bearing 
France dimidiated by Medici, and Austria quarterly. Except 
that it is nearly double the size, this signet corresponds with 
No. 180 of the collection of seals, from the Imperial Archives 
of France, edited by M. Douet d'Arcq. The present seal, how- 
ever, is about 12 instead of 6 millimetres in its longest diameter, 
and M. Douet d'Arcq does not notice the dimidiation of the 
French coat/ 

This letter is without date, but the year 1618 has been marked 
on the outside. On the 9th October, 1617, Charles Emmanuel 
had concluded a treaty with Spain, which terminated the war 
which had been carried on for three years, relative to the suc- 
cession of Montferrat, to which the Duke pretended. He did 
not, however, disarm and cede the towns he had taken, says the 
" Art de Verifier les" Dates,"* until April 1618^ so that some 
negociations may still have been going on between the Courts of 
Spain and Savoy when the letter was written. The indorse- 
ment, however, may be inaccurate ; and it is to be borne in 
mind that the queen mother, during the whole of the year 1618, 
was a close prisoner in the Chateau de Blois.f 

7. Jacomuzio, or Muzio di Attendolo, called Sforza, the 
patriarch of the illustrious family of that name, to the Governors 
of Sienna (?) introducing a messenger, Paulo di Pongatello. 
Dated from Averso, August 18th. sine anno. 

7 O 7 

(Signed) SFORZA DE ATTENDOLIS, 

Comes Cotignole, Begin Sicilie Magnus Connes- 
tabilis, Confalonerius, &c. 

Addressed : Magnificis Dominis Dominis Primoribus Gubernatoribus Commu- 
nitatis et Capitaneo Populi Civitatis Se . . . arum Honorandis taiiquam 
patribus. 

Sforza was made Gronfaloniere by Pope Martin V. about 
1417. His predecessor, John XXIII., had created him Count of 
Cotignola, and Joanna of Naples, about 1415, had made him 

* xvii. 198. f Ibid. vi. 236. 



44 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE [1870, 

Grand Constable of the kingdom of Sicily. The present letter 
is, therefore, subsequent to these dates. He died in 1424. 

8. Ludovico Maria Sforza, called " 11 Moro," Duke of Milan, 
to Charles VIII., King of France. 

The letter, of which the following is an abstract, is m Italian, 
with the exception of the head-line, date, and signature, which 
are in Latin. 

Serenissime Princeps et Christianlssime Domine observatissime. Rigault, 
the King's messenger, (" oratore,") about to depart on the morrow. He should 
have preferred his remaining as a witness of the Duke's constant labours for the 
King. Besides intrusting Kigault with a message, he has thought proper to write 
briefly. The writer was always most lovingly disposed to the King, both by 
natural instinct, and as an inheritance from the Duke his father.- How well he 
was inclined to the most Christian King Louis (" Aluysio ")* is well known. To 
avoid tediousness he will only mention the following particulars. After the 
King had concluded the truce f (" Trudo ") of Genoa, through his Ministers at 
Viglevano, J the design of the English to invade France having become apparent, 
the King knows the offers the Duke made him of assistance, which he would have 
carried out had not peace intervened. Then upon the invasion of Burgundy by 
the King of the Romans || his Majesty also knows what the writer did for him 
when he sent to him for a loan of money. Again, on the King's undertaking 
his Neapolitan expedition, he knows how good his offices were then to him, 
exhibited both by his providing a considerable sum of money when the King, 
having passed the Alps, found himself without any, and by resisting the forces 
of the King Alphonso, the Pope, Florentines, and others who were in the 
Romagna before the King's army had crossed, and holding to him against all 
Italy. 

In the sequel, when the King was on his march towards Naples, the writer 
refused not to follow him as far as Sarzana, and that at a time when, having 
just lost the Duke his nephew, (" essendomi manchato el Duca mio nepote,") no 
one else in the world but himself would have left home. 

Threats of deposing the writer having been made by the Duke of Orleans and 



* Louis XL father of Charles VIII. 

f In 1490, after a revolution against the Sforzas, followed by a counter revolu- 
tion against the popularly elected doge, the Genoese called in the French as their 
ancient suzerains. The French Government, absorbed in the war of Britany, 
acquiesced in an arrangement by which the title of Doge of Genoa was restored to 
John Galeazzo, the reigning Duke of Milan, while the real authority was entrusted 
to Ludovico Sforza, his uncle, the writer of this letter. 

J A castle of the Sforza family, now Vigevano, whence the present letter is 
dated. 

Henry VII. 's expedition against Boulogne, ending in a sudden peace in 
November 1492. 

|| This was Maximilian I., elected King of the Romans 1486, succeeded his 
father Frederic III. in 1493. The Franche Comte was a portion of the dowry of 
Margaret of Austria, daughter of Maximilian, betrothed in her infancy to 
Charles VIII., whose repudiation of her in 1492 and consequent marriage with 
Anne of Bretagne, who had already gone through the ceremony of a proxy 
marriage with Maximilian himself, caused the latter to declare war against 
Charles; who, however, returned the Franche Comte, Artois, and other lands of 
Margaret s dowry, and concluded peace with the King of the Romans in 1493 
In the same year the Emperor Frederic III. died, and Ludovico Sforza induced 
Maximilian to marry his niece Blanche, with a dowry of 400,000 ducats, ohtain- 

of S MLT^ ng h 5 S Qf fc ins t rument gating him the investiture of the duchy 
ot Milan, which the Sforzas had never hitherto been able to obtain. 



Dec. 8.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 45 

his followers, threats which alone moved him not, but were accompanied by the 
practical result of the arrival of the folks the King knows of, (" de la gente che 
se sa,") and having constant advices that those about his Majesty were habitually 
using like threats the Duke, though not doubting the King's own good will 
having several times complained fruitlessly to him, was compelled to con- 
federate himself in the manner he did, and then happened what did happen. 
Providence subsequently, to the writer's excessive joy, re-established concord 
between himself and the King, and in the peace which ensued he promised the 
things contained in the articles, all which he has since faithfully kept. 

As to the fittiugout of the ships, ("il Armare,") his Majesty, who has been kept 
well informed, can judge whether in truth the Duke did not do all in his power, and 
had it rested with him to satisfy his Majesty's desires, having done the other things 
which lay in him, he certainly would not have failed, " in questo benedicto 
arinare ;" wherein if he succeeded not it was by no fault of his, as the King's 
ministers at Genoa tried to make out. If they had attended to his advice, the 
fleet would have been dispatched. Prays his Majesty not to be persuaded by the 
writer's enemies that the Genoese would have sailed but for him ; for, as he has 
often told the King, the Genoese being what they are, and discontented both 
with him and the King, it was impossible for him to do more than he did. 

Besides sending his cousin Ludovico de Fogliano to Asti, he deposited as a 
pledge the castelletto of Genoa, and the citadel also, although not obliged 
to do so by the articles of peace, a matter of great moment. He caused all the 
ships of his Majesty to be restored, as also all such of the munitions of war and 
artillery as could be found. The residue are being diligently sought after, and 
if not found the writer will pay for them. The liberation of M r de Miolans 
has taken place, for which he has paid the ransom of eight thousand gold ducats. 
What can be found of his goods has been restored to him ; for the remainder, if 
not found, the writer will pay. As to the Genoese hostages, he had intimated to 
the King's servants that difficulties must arise owing to the recent deaths of two 
sons of the governor, and also of two of Messer John his brother's sons, and of 
those which remain many are of tender years. The governor insisted, accord- 
ingly, that the thing could not be done. Messer Luca Spinola also, one of the 
hostages nominated, firmly declined to go. The writer will do all he can to 
induce him to go, and if he persists in refusing, he will endeavour that another 
of that house should go as hostage. 

Besides this, he permitted the illustrious lady Bona* to proceed to the 
King, even though not compelled by the articles of peace to do so, and 
although believing that the King of the Romans would not be pleased. Genoese 
matters are settled, and he cannot alter them. Although their city is nominally 
subject to him, yet his authority is in fact but limited, and if he strained it he 
would merely lose what influence he has, without benefit to the King. He con- 
cludes by entreating the King, who has had such strong marks of his affection, 
to believe so implicitly in its continuance, to hold for certain that in the matter 
of the fleet he did his duty, and not to give ear to those who from passion bring 
charges against him ; and, Genoa requiring to be kept content and not exasperated, 
which might result in losing it one fine morning, he can only encourage his 
majesty to restore to her Genoese Sarzana and Petra Santa, and thus secure the 
affairs of the realm, " perche havera da Genoesi piu che non saperia desiderare." 
Refers to M to Rigault for further particulars, and begs for favourable considera- 
tion. 

Viglevani die xi Decembris, 1495. 

CHE ME M TIS v. S OK LUDOVICUS MAKIA SPOR', 

ANGLUS Dux Mcdiolani, etc. 



* Either his sister-in-law, mother of John Galeazzo, a princess of Savoy, or 
his great niece, daughter of the late duke, afterwards married to Sigismund 
King of Poland : probably the former. 



46 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1870, 






The following brief historical notes may serve to explain the 
allusions in this very curious letter. 

As is well known, Ludovico Sforza, the writer, had a great 
share in inducing Charles VIII. to undertake the Neapolitan 
expedition. By a secret treaty in 1493 Ludovico promised free 
passage through his territories, liberty for the French to equip 
a fleet at Genoa, a free auxiliary force of 500 lances, and a loan 
of 200,000 ducats. Charles, after spending all his money in 
riotous living at Lyons, arrived at Turin on Sept. 15, 1494, 
and soon afterwards commenced his march upon Naples, through 
the Milanese in company with Sforza. They arrived at Pia- 
cenza on October 18th, and on the 22nd Ludovico heard of the 
death of his nephew John G-aleazzo Sforza, Duke of Milan,* at 
Pavia, on the previous day. Upon receiving this intelligence 
he left the King, returning to Milan to secure his succession 
to the dukedom, the affairs of which he had administered 
since his brother's assassination in 1476. The King, con-, 
tinuing his march, was met near Sarzana, on the confines of 
the Genoese and Florentine territories, by Peter de Medicis, 
who ceded to him that town, with Sarzanetta and Pietra Santa, 
the keys of Tuscany, to be held until the King should obtain 
possession of his kingdom of Naples. Ludovico, according to 
his own account, seems to have returned from Milan after a 
very short visit there, and to have accompanied Charles to 
Sarzana. The entry of the French into Rome and the capture 
of Naples followed, the King making his triumphal entry into 
that city on February 21, 1495. Not long after " there hap- 
pened what did happen," the events to which Sforza thus 
delicately alludes being the confederation of the Pope, the 
Venetians, Sforza himself, and other Italian princes, with the 
Emperor, against Charles. The Confederates, with an army of 
40,000 men, endeavoured to oppose his return to France after 
the revolt of Naples, but the result was their defeat under the 
Marquis of Mantua at Fuornova, July 6, 1495, five months 
previously to the date of the despatch. 

^ The Duke of Milan puts forward as the ground of his defec- 
tion from the King his fears of the Duke of Orleans and his 
party. Orleans had, in fact, pretensions to the duchy of Milan 
in respect of his grandmother Valentina dei Visconti, and he 
consequently affected to treat " II Moro " as a mere usurper. 
But the common version of the story is, that, as soon as Charles 
had entered Naples, Ludovico pressed for the immediate grant 
to himself of the principality of Tarentum, which he had been 

* He died at Pavia Oct. 21, 1494, of slow poison, administered (as was believed) 
by his uncle, the writer of this letter. 



Dec. 8.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 47 

promised for his assistance, and might justly consider himself 
to have earned. His request was refused, whereupon he stopped 
the equipment at Genoa of an auxiliary maritime force, and 
joined the Confederates. 

Peace was signed between Charles and Ludovico on Oct. 10, 
1495, at Yercelli. The articles of peace provided among other 
things that the Duke of Milan should serve the King against all 
opposers, and should fit out two ships for the relief of the 
Neapolitan fortresses, which were then threatened by the 
Aragonese. With regard to Genoa, he was to place two 
hostages in the King's hands, and to commit the strong fort out- 
side that town called the Castelletto to the Duke of Ferrara as 
a neutral prince, who was to hold it for two years. For Milan 
two hostages also were to be taken. The delivery of these 
latter hostages, says De Commines, " was effected, and he 
( 6 II Moro ') would have done as much for Genoa had riot the 
King been in such haste to be gone ; but as soon as he went 
away the Duke made use of shifts and evasions to excuse himself 
from doing it." After the King had marched away he sent per- 
sons to Genoa to see the ships equipped which the Duke of Milan 
was to lend him, but the Duke put the King to great expense in 
preparations, and at last would not let the ships go to him, but 
instead sent two of them to the enemy. Sarzana and Sarza- 
netta were never restored to the Florentines. These towns had 
once been Genoese, but were taken by the Florentines under 
Lorenzo de Medicis. About 1496 the French governor, the 
Bastard of St. Pol, sold them to the Genoese, while Pietra 
Santa was allowed to be purchased by Lucca. 

The King's envoy to whom this letter was entrusted appears 
from De Commines to have been the steward of Charles's house- 
hold, Rigault d'Oreilles. De Commines, on his return from 
an embassy to Venice, passed through Milan, and, finding the 
Duke at Vigevano, paid him a visit just about the time this 
letter was written. He had an interview with the Duke, and 
pressed for the dispatch of the ships. 

Charles threatened to return to Italy in 1496 on purpose to 
chastise the Duke. It need scarcely be said that he never 
carried out this intention. In the reign of his successor, how- 
ever, Ludovico fell into the hands of the French, and died in 
close captivity at Loches in 1510.* 

9. Ottaviano Maria Sforza to Anne de Montmorency, Con- 
stable of France, introducing Ser Paolo Petra Santa, a doctor, 

* See for further particulars De Commines, book viii. chaps. 18, 19, &c. and 
Martin, Histoire de France, vol. vii. 



4g PROCEEDINGS OF THE |_1870, 

and a Milanese gentleman well affected to ^the Most Christian 
King, and the bearer of certain communications from the writer. 
Italian. Dated Murano di Vinezia, June 25, 1538. 

(Signed) Servitore OTTAVIANO MARIA SFORZA, 

Veseovo, &c. 

Addressed : Allo Ecc mo mio S re lo S re Contestable di Francia. 

The writer was a natural son of Galeazzo Maria, Duke of 
Milan. In 1497 he was made Bishop of Lodi by Pope Alex- 
ander VI. He abandoned that see in 1499, on the arrival of 
the French, under Louis XII. On the return of the Duke 
Maximilian he was made governor- general of Milan, In 1519 
Pope Leo X. promoted him to the bishopric of Arezzo, which he 
ceded in 1524. In 1535 when Milan had fallen into the hands 
of the Emperor Charles V. he retired into private life in Milan, 
and died in 1541.* 

10. Instrument under the hand and seal of Caesar Borgia, 
appointing Andrew Giampietro to be vicar of his castle of Imola. 
His style runs thus: CAESAR f Borgia de Francia, Dei Gratia 
Dux Romandiole, Valentieque ; Princeps .... et Venafri ; 
Dominus Plumbini, etc. Ac S. R. E. Confalonerius et Capi- 
taneus Generalis. Dated Cremona, 1503. 

(Signed) CESAR. 

Seal 1J inch diameter. Subject Between two cornucopias, 
a shield quarterly of six. 
1 and 6. Three fleurs de lis. 

2. A pavilion. 

3. In a bordure an ox passant, Borgia* 

4. Barry of 6, Lenzuoli. 

5. A lion rampant. 

Louis XII. gave Caesar Borgia the Duchy of the Valenti- 
nois, in Dauphine, with other advantages, in recompense for 
the pope's granting the divorce between him arid Joanna, 
his first wife, and giving the cardinal's hat to his favourite 
minister, Georges D'Amboise. In 1499, after Louis XII. had 
conquered Milan, the pope conceived the idea of bringing into 
subjection the so-called vicars of the Roman Church, who, under 
this title, dating back to the times when the pope was settled at 
Avignon, had made themselves nearly independent, and to give 
over their towns, as Imola, Faenza, Forli, Rimini, Cesena, and 

* See Litta. Cel. Fam. ItaL 

f In large capitals, printed from a stamp. 



Dec. 8.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 49 

Pesaro, to Caesar Borgia. The French king helped Caesar with 
men, and in 1499 he captured Imola, in 1500 Forli, in 1501 
Faenza Piombino, and other places, and was declared Duke of 
the Romagna by his father. 

11. A receipt on parchment, 10J by 5 inches, under the hand 
of Hippolytus d'Este, Cardinal of Ferrara, Lieutenant- General of 
the King in Italy and Savoy, for a sum of one thousand livres 
tournois paid to him by the hand of Mr. Nicolas le Fevre, 
treasurer of the wars of Italy which sum was ordered to be 
paid him by the King in respect of his said office for the present 
month. French. Dated June 3, 1553. 

(Signed) HIP. CAR^L DE FERRARE. 



Hippolytus, son of Alphonso I. Duke of Ferrara, was born in 
1509, and took service with Francis I. of France, who procured 
his elevation to the purple. He stood high in the regard of 
Henry II., who forbad his ministers and generals in Italy to 
undertake anything without his sanction. The present in- 
strument appears to show that he actually held a Lieutenant- 
General's commission under the last named sovereign. He was 
Bishop of Ferrara and Archbishop of Milan 1520, and Cardinal 
in 1538. He died in 1572. 

12. Motus Proprius under the hand of Pope Alexander VI., 
granting in commendam to John Antony de Sancto Georgio, 
Cardinal Priest of the title of SS. Kerens and Achilleus, the 
Priory of Grandison (in the Pays de Vaud), and the Priory of 
Fabritius annexed, of the Order of St. Benedict, in the dioceses 
of Lausanne and Lyons, under the annual value of one hundred 
livres tournois, vacant by the death in the Roman Court* of 
William de Perreriis, the Pope's chaplain and an auditor of the 
Rota, for the life of the Cardinal, to hold together with the 
churches belonging to the title of his cardinalate and those of 
Alessandria and Parma, of which he was bishop, all constitu- 
tions, &c., to the contrary notwithstanding. 

(Signed manu propria) FIAT MOTU PROPRIO. f 

Beneath, in a marginal schedule, are enumerated several 
clauses of absolution, &c. to be inserted in a formal licence. 
(Signed again) FIAT. J 

* Benefices were reserved to the disposition of the Pope which became void 
" apucl Apostolicam Sedem," id est, whose possessors, who were living in the 
Curia, on journeying towards or departing from it, died either in the place where 
the Court was held, or within two days journey therefrom. 

t With a monogram resembling a P struck through. 

$ With the same monogram. 

VOL. V. K 



50 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1870, 

Beneath, in a set hand of the Roman Chancery 

Hiaf iSome ap'fc Sc'twn petrum (gutnto toctmo 
in* mecemW. &nno none. 

Indorsed: h. v. fol. ccxliiij. 

Lausanen'. 
Lugdunen'. 
Grand isson. 

(Signed) DE AZEGLIO, with paraplie. 

The instruments called Motus Proprii, taking effect not from 
the seal as do bulls and briefs, but from the sign manual of the 
Pope, begin to appear in the time of Innocent VIII. , and 
become common in the sixteenth century. 

As to the style of these instruments, which is not always quite 
uniform, see Nouv. Traiti de Dipl. v. 318, 324, seqq. In the 
present instance the Motus Proprius is rather in the nature of a 
warrant to prepare a formal instrument than in that of a docu- 
ment perfect in itself. 

In addition to the words motu proprio occurring at the end in 
the Pope's signature, the expression begins the instrument, 
the heading and first few words running thus : 

Commenda Prioratus valo' 100 y?. per obitum in Cu. 
pro ICmo J. Cardinali Alexandreri '. 

Motu Proprio etc. Dilecto filio Johanni Antonio titulo SSor' Nerei et 
Achillei presbitero Cardinali. Ut onera sibi juxta Cardinalitatis sublimitatem 
incumbentia, facilius perferre possit, &c., &c. 

These instruments, say the Benedictines, are never dated 
with the Dominical year. As will have been seen, the present 
instance affords no exception. No doubt can arise, however, 
as to the correctness of the attribution of the document to the 
9th year of Pope Alexander VI., as the Cardinal of Alessandria 
was created by that Pontiff soon after his accession in 1492, 
and he died in 1509, which was only the sixth year of the 
succeeding Pope Julius II. 

13. Letter under the signs-manual of Ferdinand and Isabella, 
King and Queen of Castile and Aragon, etc., on the occasion of 
the election of Pope Innocent VIII. 

Being unable, on account of the war against the King and 
Moors of Granada, and other weighty reasons, to proceed to 
Kome themselves, they nominate Don Ynigo Lopes de Mendoga, 
Oonde de Tendilla, their ambassador, alone or jointly with three 
others, m their name and in the names of their realms and 
subjects, to appear before the Pope, and offer him the obedience 
and reverence due and accustomed, and to perform all acts and 



Dec. 8.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 51 

take all oaths requisite. Dated at Alcala de Henares, February 
8, 1486. Spanish. 

(Signed) Yo EL BEY. 

Yo LA REYNA. 

This letter has been folded and sealed with a seal, 1^ inches 
in diameter, in red wax, of which substance traces remain. 

ALBERT WAY, Esq. F.S.A, exhibited an oblong piece of 
black marble or calcareous stone, of the size and form repre- 
sented in the cut.* The merchant's mark is engraved in intaglio 
on one end, which is bevelled away to an oval surface. That 
the intaglio was not intended for sealing seems pretty clear, from 
the fact that the initials are 
not reversed on the stone. At 
another spot is a small heart 
also in intaglio. This object 
which, since the exhibition, 
has been placed in the British 
Museum, was considered to be 
a goldsmith's touchstone. Al- 
though, at the present day, 
w r hen the use of aqua fortis is 
universal, it would of course 
be out of the question to use a 
calcareous stone as a touch- 
stone ; yet, so long as the fine- 
ness of the metal experimented 
on was ascertained merely by 
a comparison of the colour pro- 
duced by rubbing the specimen 
with that of the marks left by the 
friction of touch-needles of several ascertained degrees of fineness, 
any black stone of a proper grain would answer the purpose. 

Black basalt is the stone now preferred for touchstones. This 
mineral seems scarcely to have been in general use even in 
1788, for in Chambers' Encyclopaedia published in that year it 
is called " Irish touchstone " (being chiefly obtained from 
Antrim), and the writer adds: 

" Many authors affirm the touchstone is a kind of black 
marble, or that most black marbles will serve for touchstones ; 
black marbles it is true take the colour of metals, and may be 
use as touchstones in the ancient manner mentioned by Theo- 
phrastus and Pliny, i.e., by touching them with needles of 
different alloys, which manner is still practised in Germany and 

* Inserted by the kind permission of the Council of the Archaeological Institute. 

E2 




52 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1870. 

other countries; but in the manner of trying them with aqua 
fortis it is absurd to use any calcareous substances, &c. 

To judge by the engraved stamp the stone exhibited might 
have been wrought in the sixteenth century, and considering 
the date there seems no reason for doubting that it was actually 
intended for the use of the goldsmith. 

J. J. HOWARD, Esq. LL.D. F.S.A. exhibited, by permission 
of the Mayor and Corporation of Coventry, five early Deeds, of 
which the following is a brief notice : 

1. Charter of Walter de Daiville, whereby he gives to Richard 
of the Hall (de Aula), of Coventry, for his homage -and .service 
all that culture on the hill (super Hulle) outside Coventry, with 
all its appurtenances, which William Marshal (Willelmus Mares- 
callus) held, and which he gave to Lettice, daughter of Richard 
de Suttone, his niece. Habendum to Richard and his heirs, 
of the grantor and his heirs, rendering twelve silver pennies 
per annum, with clause of warranty. For this gift the said 
Richard gave eleven marks of silver de recognitione. Witnesses : 
Henry de Busherville,* Robert de Stiuechale, Viellus f de 
Folkeshulle, Nicholas son of Nicholas, Richard of Worcester, 
Vincent? Swan the Parker, Eobert the Vintner, William de 
Wilnhale, William de Repend, Richard the Goldsmith, Robert 
de Stoke, William Crude, and others. 

Seal circular, Ij inch in diameter; subject, a long pointed 
shield bearing fretty. Legend : 

+ SIGILL' WALTERI DE DAEVILL'. 

2. Charter of Walter de Davill, whereby he gives, grants and 
confirms to Walter son of Terricus ? of Coventry, for his homage 
and service, a croft in the vill of Stokes, which Richard son of 
Barnabas held. To hold of the grantor in fee, rendering " certain 
white gloves " in Easter week annually. With clause of war- 
ranty. Witnesses: Roger de Buschervill, ...... de Stokes, 

Nicholas son of Luilf, MiloBarba[tus ?], Viellus de Folkeshull, 
Nicholas de Smitesforde, Swayne the Barker (Suano Barkario), 
William Bacun, Robert ..... , Roger Raget? Helias de Wike, 

Randolf Talebot, Geoffrey Gerbet, and many others. 

Seal, as to the last charter. 

A charter of Robert de Dey vill, plainly one of the same family. 
was exhibited by Mr. Howard, from the same source, on June 



*-J?A*T> 7 th 'i f T^ as T5 Bokirvi11 ' w "ich occurs among the witnesses to 
Robert de Dayvile's Charter. Proceedings 2 S iii 148 

f Vitalis de Folkeshull, Robert de Stokes, and Walter de Daiville himself 



Warw?l 138 ner *" *** ^ W * fe > ln 34 H III Dug d 



Dec. 8.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 53 

15, 1865.* Robert de Deyvill's seal bore the same device on a 
similar though smaller shield. Walter, as I observed on that 
occasion, is mentioned by Dugdale as holding lands in Stoke, in 
34 Hen. III., to which time these deeds may nearly be referred, f 

3. Charter of Richard son of Ernisius, whereby he gives, 
grants, and confirms to William Bacun and his heirs, to hold 
of himself and his heirs, land situate between land which 
Herbert son of Jordan held, and the land which Roger son of 
Herbert held, rendering annually twelve pence for all sendee, 
with clause of warranty against all men and women. And for 
this grant William gave half a mark of silver. Witnesses : 
William de Brinket, Gerard Vineter, and Gerard his son, 
Richard Hall (de Aula), Matthew son of Roger, Hugh son of 
Martin, Richard de Warewic, John Mercer, Walter Bulli, 
William le Blond the Smith (W. Blundus, faber), Haldane 
Careter, Gilbert Butcher (carnifex), Hugh Butcher (carnifex), 
Richard son of Aki, Nicholas son of Everard ; and many others. 

Seal circular, 1 J diam. ; subject, An eagle displayed. Legend, 
SIGILL' RICARDI FILII ERNISII. 

It is curious that no locality is mentioned in the description 
of the land granted. From two indorsements, however, on the 
deed, the first in an early hand, t. btC. fort., which contracted 
words may, by the light of the second indorsement, in a hand of 
the last century, namely, "Well Street," be read u in vico 
fontis," we may conclude that the premises were. in the city of 
Coventry. 

4. London, Thursday, the Feast of St. Peter ad Vincula, 
10 Edw. III. (August 1st, 1336). Indenture reciting that 
Henry de Langele, son of John de Langele, of Coventry, had 
released and quitclaimed to Henry de Geddyngge and Alice his 
wife, mother of the said Henry de Langele, and to the heirs and 
assigns of Henry de Geddyngge, all his right in all the lands, 
rents, tenements, &c., which the same Henry de Geddyngge 
and Alice his wife held in Coventry and Eton, in the county of 
Warwick, and in Hinkele, in the county of Leicester, as ap- 
peared more fully in a certain deed of quitclaim, &c. And 
reciting, that the said Henry de Langele, " per quandam literam 
obligate riam de compoto," was bound in 100 to Henry de 
Geddyngge, to render account of the said one hundred pounds, 
and the gain and profit thereof arising at Christmas next after 
the date of the indenture : It is witnessed that the said Henry 
de Geddynge willed and granted that if the said Henry de 
Langele should appear personally before the king's justices 
within the first fifteen days after he should have been summoned, 

* Proceedings, n~bi supra. 

f See also Dugd .Warw. 576; and Visit. Bucks, MSS. Harl. 1533, fol. 57 b., 58. 



54 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



[1870, 




SEAL OF HENEY DE 
LANGELE. 



and before the said justices should levy a fine of all the pre- 
mises to the said Henry de Geddyngge and Alice his wife, 
and the heirs of Henry de Geddyngge, at the cost of Henry 
de Langele, that then the said letters 
obligatory should be surrendered to the 
said Henry de Langele, and held for null 
and void. And if Henry de Langele should 
not appear before the justices nor levy the 
fine as aforesaid, then the said Henry de 
Langele willed and granted that the said 
letters should remain in all their force. 
The seal to this deed is here engraved. 
A family of Langley was settled at Pinley, 
in Knighton hundred, co. Warwick, near 
Coventry, as early as the time of Henry 
IV.* The name of Henry de Langele, 
however, does not occur in Dugdale's War- 
wickshire, and the arms (namely, Argent, 
a fess sable, in chief three pellets), which 
that historian gives from Harborow church, 
are wholly unlike the very curious device which Henry de 
Langele's seal displays. 

The use of the lozenge instead of the escucheon was not so 
completely restricted to the female sex as modern practice and 
heraldic text-books would lead one to suppose. For instance, 
the seal of William Paynel attached to the Barons' letter, 1301, 
and that of Thomas de Furnival, 1274 f ; and, according to a 
sketch of a small seal by Nicholas Charles (Cotton MS. Jul. 
C. vii. 143) one of the successive Barons William de Brews, 
Lords of Bramber, bore on a lozenge, crusilly a lion rampant. 

The lozenge, however, as a charge, used singly, is certainly 
very rarely if ever met with. To find it sur- charged seems 
more strange still. 

This seal deserves the notice of those who contend for the 
existence of simulated, fanciful, or " sham" heraldry engraven 
on mere burgesses' seals in imitation of armorial devices. 

5. Deed poll, whereby Roger de Monhaut (de Monte Alto), 
Lord of Cheylesmore, granted and confirmed to God and the 
Church of St. Mary, of Coventry, to Brother Thomas, the Prior, 
and the convent there, and their successors, that, so far as in him 
lay, they might lawfully and freely enter the mill of Erlesmilne, 
in Coventry, which was of his fee, with the meadow, moor, 
pond, and all the appurtenances, and possess them all for ever, 



* Dugdale's Warwickshire, i. 209. 

t See Herald and Genealogist, iii. 334. 



Dec. 8.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 55 

without reclamation of himself or his heirs, notwithstanding the 
statute of our lord the King set forth concerning mortmain, 
saving the rents and services thereof due and accustomed. 
Witnesses : Sir Ralph de Moiihaut, Master Guy de Tyllebroke, 
Geoffrey le Hyreys, Peter le Bretoun, Robert de Stokes, 
Richard de Burtone, Peter Baroun, Simon Ernys, William 
Melet, clerk, and others. 

Seal oval, a small gem set in a silver rim, impression blurred, 
but apparently a Janus. The legend is illegible. 

The Statute of Mortmain passed in the 7th year of King 
Edw. I. (1279), and Thomas de Pavy was elected in that same 
year Prior* of St. Mary's, Coventry. The charter is probably 
not much later. In 1278 the grantor succeeded his father 
Robert. 

Roger de Montalt, father of Robert, and Cecilia his wife were 
great benefactors to Coventry cathedral church. She was sister 
and co-heir to Hugh de Albini, Earl of Arundel, who was one 
of the co-parceners who" succeeded to the vast possessions of 
Ranulf Blundeville Earl of Chester. In her right Roger pos- 
sessed extensive property in and about Coventry, including the 
manor of Cheylesmore, of which in this charter he styles him- 
self Lord. In 24 Hen. III. he and his wife granted (inter alia) 
to the church in fee-farm all their interest in the manor of 
Coventry, excepting (inter alia) the capital seat called Cheyles- 
more, and the park. Cheylesmore afterwards, in King Edw. 
III.'s reign, came to the hands of Queen Isabella his mother, 
and on the occasion of a partition taking place between her and 
the prior and convent, the Earl's Mill, entry to which was 
secured by this grant, is named as one of the boundary points. 

C. S. PERCEVAL, Esq. LL.D. Director, exhibited a sealing- 
wax impression of a silver Seal lately found at Caesar's Camp, 
near Farnham, Surrey, and now in the 
possession of II. Oke Clark, Esq. of Farn- 
ham. 

This seal, which is here engraved, pre- 
sents some remarkable features. The hex- 
agonal shape is, in the first place, worth 
notice on account of its excessive rarity, and 
the device coupled with the legend is not 
less so. 

It will be seen that the device is one which 

. _ .. p , teJiiAL< I'l\OJl FABlsHAM. 

is very common on seals or the fourteenth 

century ; that is, two heads, usually male and female, facing each 

* Monasticon, iii. 183, and sec Dugdale's Warwickshire, i. 130. 




56 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1870, 

other, and separated in general by a conventional, tree or 
branch. These seals usually bear such legends as " Love 
me and I thee," or " Je suis sel d'amour lei," whence the 
name " Love seal," frequently applied to this type. 

Examples of such seals will be found in Gents'. Mag. Ixi. 560; 
Archaeological Journal, x. 370 ; xii. 296 ; xiii. 420 ; xv. ,149 ; 
Journ. Archseolog. Ass. iii. 49 ; iv. 388 (in both which cases 
however the last words " and I thee " of the common motto 
have been misunderstood) xiii. 248 ; and see Gents'. Mag. Ixv. 
474, where is engraved a seal with the device in question, but 
with the name of the owner in the legend. 

The legend however on the present example is very different. 
It reads " Oremus pro invicem ut salvi simus," a sentence of 
which the Latin, however bad, can bear hardly any interpretation 
but one " Let us pray for each other, that we may be saved." 

In the Archaeological Journal, xii. 296, will be found the 
description of a seal with the same device, but with the legend 
" Ave Maria ;" showing a religious sentiment approximating in 
character to that of the seal now under notice. 

The male head in Mr. Clark's seal is certainly tonsured, and 
may therefore be appropriated to a clerk in holy orders. 
Whether the hood which envelopes his companion's head is a 
mere lay garment or the veil of a professed religious may per- 
haps be doubted. The seal may have been a present from a 
lady to her chaplain. The engraving of the matrix is remark- 
ably clear and good. 

J. G. NICHOLS, Esq. F.S.A. exibited, by permission of 
R. F. Dalrymple, Esq. the original appointment, under the 
privy seal of King Henry V., of Sir John Fastolfe to be Cap- 
tain of the Bastille of S. Anthony at Paris. This document, 
dated January 1421, has been printed, not with perfect accuracy, 
in the Norfolk Archaeology of the Norfolk and Norwich Archaeo- 
logical Society. Mr. Nichols's remarks, with a newly collated text 
of the document, will appear in the Archaaologia. ' 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these communica- 
tions. 

Thursday, December 15th, 1870. 
FREDERIC OUVRY, Esq., Treasurer, in the Chair. 



Dec. 15.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 57 

From the Royal Geographical Society : Proceedings. Vol. xiv. No. 5. (Com- 
pleting the vol.). 8vo. London, 1870. 

From A. Nesbitt, Esq., F.S.A. : De identitate Cathedrae in qua Sanctus Petrus 
Eomae primum sedit. Et de Antiquitate, et Praastaiitia Solemnitatis 
Cathedra? Romance Dissertatio. Svo. Rome, 1666. 

From the Netherlands Museum of Antiquities : -ZEgyptische Monumenten, 
door Dr. C. Leemans. 25 e Aflevering of 2 e Aflevering van de IIP Afdeeling. 
Fol. Leyden. 

From the Editor, S. Tymms, Esq., F.S.A. : The East Anglian. Vol. iv. 
No. 118. Svo. Lowestoft, 1870. 

A Yote of Special Thanks was accorded to A. Nesbitt, Esq., 
for the copy of the very rare work with which he had enriched 
the Society's Library. 

Notice was given of the ballot for the election of Fellows on 
Thursday, January 12, 1871, and a list of the Candidates was 
read. x 

Walter Consitt Boulter, Esq. was admitted a Fellow. 

EDWARD PEACOCK, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited: 

1. Small Candle of brownish wax, with cotton wick, with the 
surface indented in longitudinal grooves, similarly to the long 
taper which is held by the acolyth in the interesting picture 
" Celebration of High Mass," by John van Eyk,' belonging to 
Earl Dudley, and which was numbered 362 in the catalogue of 
the Exhibition of the Works of Old Masters at Burlington 
House, 1871. Mr. Peacock observes, in a letter to the 
Director : 

u My candle belonged to my great-great-grandmother Eli- 
zabeth Woodruffe, of Ranskill, in the county of Nottingham, 
who was married in 1715. She told her daughter, who told 
my father, that it was a holy candle, and had been handed down 
in the family from the times before the Reformation. As it has 
evidently never been lighted, it cannot have been a baptismal 
candle. I think, therefore, it is probable that it has been re- 
served for use at extreme unction or holy communion, when 
taken as viaticum. This candle proves that candles were cast 
as well as dipped in former days. It has certainly been made 
in a mould. 

" I send you a transcript from the Star Chamber Proceedings, 
which is curious, as proving a fact, of which I was not before 
aware, that people were accustomed to burn candles at mass. 
We all of course know of their use at baptism, confirmation, on 
altars, before shrines, tombs, &c. It would be interesting to 
know if this was merely a personal quarrel between Carre and 
his antagonist, or whether Thomas Batcman, jentilman, was 



58 PROCEEDINGS OF THE . [1870, 

moved to do what he did by zeal against popery. I fear there 
is no evidence, however, left to show. Bateman never filed 
his answer, or it has been lost." 

[P. R O. Star Chamber Proceedings, Hen. VIII. Vol. 8. CA-CE-CH. p. 153.] 

Lamentabilly schoweth and compleynyth vnto yo r highnes yo r trew and feyth- 
f all subiecte Kichard Carre of flixton in yo r Counte of Buff' yeman that as where 
the same yo r said subiecte apon Seynt Edmude day in the xiiij yere of the most 
nobill reign of yo r highnes was in the chirche of the seid toune of flyxton beyng 
the p'ishe chirche of yo r said subiecte heryng his messe as a trew cristen man 
schuld do thynkyng no bodely hurt to no man and yo r said subiecte so beyng 
heryng of his said messe did set before hym apon the pomell of the stole in the 
said chirche where he satt and knelid a candell of wax to burne in the honor of 
allmyghty god and the holy crusifix as yo r said subiecte continually of long- tyme 
have in eu'y feastfull day vsid and accustomed to do and as yo r said subiecte was 
soo herynge of his messe and the said candell burnyng before hym On Thomas 
Bateman of the said towne of flixton Jentilman of his crewell and malicyus evil 
disposed mynd rose from the stole in the said chirche where he satt and in crewell 
maner toke and threw downe the said candell and wolde not suffer yo r said 
subiecte to have the said candell to burne [ther]e apon the pomell of the stole 
and apon the Sonday next foloyng the said Thomas Bateman app'seyuyng 
that yo r said subiecte in heryng his matens and messe had set a nother wax 
candell a pon the pomell of the said stole where he satt in the said chirche in the 
honor of god and of the holy crusyfyx comaunded his s'uant to put doune the 
candell of yo r said subiectte and yo r said subiecte app'seyuyng the intent of the 
s'uaunt of the said Bateman as he was comyng to put doune the same yo r saide 
subiecte hilde the candell and the pomell of the stole together w l his hande saye- 
ing in fayer maner that he schuld not put doune his candell And ther w l the 
said Bateman did rise from his said stole where he sett w e in the said chirche 
and cam in a grett violent maner to yo r said subiecte sayeng and sweryng by the 
messe and dyu'se and many other grett othes that yo r saide subiecte schuld not 
sett nor kepe no candell burnyng apon the said pomell and if he did that he 
schuld ley his knyfe apon his hed w l dyu'se other grett wordes of threte and 
manysse By reason wherof the prest beyng att messe abought the gospell was 
inforcyd to put of his clothes and com down ffrom the awter to pacyfye the said 
pateman. 

[The document further sets forth how the said Carre was stabbed and other- 
wise ill-used by and at the instigation of Bateman.] 

2. A small bronze Lamp, adapted for suspension, inscribed 
round the margin, in large capitals of the early part of the 
sixteenth century, 

SVOR . JACOPA. 



^ lamp may have belonged to a nun (suor, sister) in some 
Italian convent. 

W. C. BOULTEK, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited and presented a 
photograph of the fine seal and counter-seal of Robert Waldeby, 
archbishop of York, 1396-8, for the jurisdiction of Hexham. 

The ^ seal exhibits a shield party per pale: 1. A pall sur- 
mounting a crozier in pale, as in the arms of Canterbury, and 
Armagh, and Dublin ; 2. A lion rampant ermine, crowned, 
within .a bordure compony. The counter-seal also has a shield 



Dec. 15.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 59 

bearing two keys in saltire, in chief a crown from which proceed 
five straight lines meeting above pyramidically and terminating 
in a cross. 

This seal has been engraved at least three times, once in 
Drake's Eboracum, where, however, it is mistaken for that of 
Robert Holgate (archbishop 1545-54) ; in the Gentleman's 
Magazine for 1839, New Series, xii. 234 ; and again in the 
Journal of the Archaeological Association, xiii. plate 2. 

There is, in the volume of the Gentleman's Magazine cited 
above, a learned note of Mr. J. G. Nichols in relation to this 
seal. He observes that the pall used by the archbishops until 
the Reformation appeared in the arms of the archbishops of 
York, as well as those of Canterbury, until the time of Arch- 
bishop Lee (the successor of Wolsey, consecr. 1531), inclu- 
sively. The keys and crown imperial, the modern arms of the 
see of York, are on all the monuments of the subsequent arch- 
bishops. Drake, indeed, omits the crown in Sandys' case, but 
his accuracy in this particular may be doubted. The keys and 
crown, says Mr. Nichols, were long before given as the arms of 
the church of York. With much probability, he supposes the 
crown on Waldeby's seal to represent the Papal tiara, and with 
the keys to be allusive to Saint Peter, the patron of the church. 
He adds that the alteration to an imperial crown first appears 
on the monument of Archbishop Piers, who died iii'1594. Mr. 
Planche, in his paper on the Wells Effigies (Journ-. Arch. Ass. 
ubi supra), has referred to two other examples of this early 
tiara, precisely resembling that on Waldeby's seal one from the 
Cotton MS. Nero D. I., the other from a glass window in Wells 
Cathedral, representing the sainted Pope Marcellus.* It should 
however be noticed that this peculiar form of crown is to be 
met with in early paintings of ecclesiastical subjects adorning 
the head of other personages than the sovereign Pontiff. Thus 
in a Coronation of the Blessed Virgin by Justus of Padua 
(ob. 1400), in the National Gallery, No. 701, the crown is very 
similar to that on Waldeby's seal, having three fleurons, from 
which issue three lines in a pyramidical form. 

The lion rampant ermine, within. the bordure compony, is no 
doubt the personal arms of Robert Waldeby. The fashion of 
impaling the arms of the see with the personal coat had already 
commenced at this time, as may be seen by the seal of Thomas 
Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1396. 

J. J. HOWARD, Esq. LL.D. F.S.A. exhibited, by permission 

* The label accompanying the figure in the glass window has been read S. 
Marcellina, but there seems little doubt that it is in fact S. Marcellus Papa (the 
last word being contracted). 



60 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1870, 

of the Mayor and Corporation of Coventry, two original Docu- 
ments. The first, relating to land in Bitteswell, in Leicester- 
shire, which belonged originally to the Trinity Guild, and 
subsequently to the Corporation of Coventry, may be thus 
described : 

Charter, whereby James son of Koger of Little Ashby, gives 
and confirms to Geoffrey son of William of Butmiswelle, in 
frank-marriage with Emma his daughter, one virgate of land in 
Butmiswelle, with the appurtenances in all places whatsoever 
within or without the vill of Butmiswelle, which virgate' of land 
Alexander de Butmiswelle sometime held of the grantor : Haben- 
dum of the grantor and his heirs to Geoffrey and Emma and 
their heirs issuing out of the said Emma, rendering annually 
one penny at Christmas. With clause of warranty. ^ Witnesses: 
Richard de Walecote, Richard son of Roger of Little Ashby, 
Helyas of Morton Hill (de Monte de Mortone), William Atwell 
(ad fontem) of Walecote, Ralf le Louerd, Reginald Cleybroc, 
Robert le Schereman, Peter Duvedale, William Patric de But- 
miswelle, and others. 

Seal, elliptical. If inch by 1 inch. Subject: A wheat-ear 
with two leaves folded back, much resembling an early fleur- 
de-lis. Legend : + s' JACOBI : FIL : ROGERI. 

This device is worth notice, as it may serve to explain several 
of the conventional flowers which we find on seals of the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries, and which are generally described as 
" early fleurs-de-lis." 

The following is the text of the second deed : 

Anno ab incarnacione Domini millesimo ducentesimo quinquagesimo sexto 
in crastino palmarum. Conventum est inter Philippum de Winchecumbe ex parte 
una, et Johannem le Flecher ex parta altera. Ita videlicet quod predictus 
Philippus retraxit breve Domini Regis super predictum Johannem perquisitum 
pro quadam communi pastura in campis de Sponna.* Sub tali scilicet forma, 
quod predictus Johannes vel heredes vel assignati sui in communi pastura 
p'tacta, ulterius non arabunt nee etiam seminabunt: sed secundum metas et 
divisas ibidem factas, ilia communis pastura predicta jacebit et permanebit 
intacta ; si tamen a casu contingat (vel etiam voluntarie) quod predictus Johannes 
vel heredes vel assignati sui ulterius in predicta pastura arent vel seminent, vel 
etiam divisas sive metas aliquas ibidem positas removeant, predict? Philippo vel 
ejus heredibus vel assignatis emendam facient per visum bondrum et legalium 
virorum ex consensu parcium eligendorum sub pena dimidii marcse nomine 
peccunie solvende, si virorum electorum visui vel etiam si viros aliquos honestos 
pro parte sua eligere, aliquo modo contradicere presumant (sic). Et ad omnia 
predicta fideliter observanda renunciavit predictus Johannes pro se et heredibus 
vel assignatis suis pmni exception! cavillationi et defensioni et omni juris 
remedio, tarn canonico quam civili, et specialiter Regie prohibition!, Subjecit 
etiam se predictus Johannes pro se et heredibus suis vel etiam assignatis juris- 
diction! Officialis Archidiaconi Coventriensis seu precentoris ejusdem loci qui- 
cunque fuerit pro tempore, quod ipsos sine cause cognitione de die in diem per 

* The free chapel of Sponne on the west side of Coventry is mentioned in 
Dugd. Warwickshire, i. 197. 



Dec. 15.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 01 

sententiam excommunicacionis vel aliam penam quam pars dicti Philippi duxerit 
eligendam, posset ad observacionem convencionis compellere, una cum dampnis 
et expensis, si pars dicti Philippi aliquas fecerit, ratione convencionis non obser- 
vate. Ex altera parte predictus Johannes retraxit breve Domine Regis super 
dictum Philippum perquisitum pro quodam messuagio versus Sponnam Sub tali 
forma quod omnes discordie et etiam contenciones inter predictos Philippum et 
Johannem prohabite a dictis die et anno in posterum relaxentur et compescantur. 
Si tamen contingat (quod absit) quod alique rixe et etiam contenciones in dictis 
vel factis vel etiam in terris tenementis vel edificiis inter predictos Philippum et 
Johannem et eorum heredes vel assignatos dehinc evenerint ; quicunque eorum 
erga alium deliquerit et per juramentum fidelium probari possit per visum domini 
vicarii sancti Michaelis et capellani de Sponna quicunque fueririt pro temporc 
alii emendabit sub pena dimidii marce qui dictorum vicarii et Capellani arbitrio 
consentire noluerit. Et ad hec omnia fideliter observanda uterque predictorurn 
Philippus et Johannes fide media se obligavit, et etiam huic presenti scripto in 
modum cyrographi confecto alternatim sigillum suum apposuit. Hiis testibus, 
Anketin' de Wikewane, Symone medico, Henrico Burgeys, Ada de la grene, 
Ricardo Magistro, Alexandra de Crulefeld, Erna[r'] de Aula, Thoma de Hore- 
well, Hugone clerico Cyrographi compositore, et aliis. 

This deed presents some remarkable peculiarities. It will be 
observed, in the first place, that although relating to secular 
matters, and indeed to a freehold interest in land, it is never- 
theless drawn up in a form partaking much more of the style of 
ecclesiastical than of civil instruments. Hugh the clerk, who 
has recorded the fact that he drew the deed, would seem to 
have been a practitioner in the canon law. 

The subject matter of the agreement between the two parties, 
Philip of Winchecombe, and John the Fletcher, is simply this. 
Philip had sued on a writ at common law against John for a 
certain common of pasture in the fields of Sponne, and the 
agreement witnesses that Philip had withdrawn this writ, on the 
terms that John and his heirs should no longer cultivate the 
common land in question ; and if by any chance John and his 
heirs should plough or sow there, or touch the boundaries, he and 
they should make amends to Philip and his heirs according to 
the award of certain arbitrators, under the penalty of half a 
marc. John, on the other side, withdraws a writ brought 
against Philip for a house in the neighbourhood of Sponne. 
But the remarkable part of this agreement consists of the 
methods proposed to enforce its observance. 

John, on the one hand, to bind his bargain with Philip, 
submits himself to the jurisdiction of the official of the Arch- 
deacon of Coventry, or of the prascentor of Coventry, who was 
to compel the observation of the agreement either by excom- 
munication or otherwise, but de die in diem, and without the 
formalities of a regular suit. In order to render this submission 
the more effectual, John renounced all legal or canonical de- 
fences, and in particular the King's writ of Prohibition. This 
very curious submission is not reciprocated by Philip. Both 
parties, however, agree, in case any fresh quarrel should arise 



62 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 

between them, that whichever shall be proved guilty of any 
trespass, by the oaths of lawful men, shall make amends to the 
other at the discretion of the vicar of St. Michael's, and the 
chaplain of Sponne, under a penalty as before of half a marc. 

It is to be observed that among the Constitutions of Arch- 
bishop Boniface, made in a provincial synod in 1261, five years 
after the date of this agreement, (which Constitutions were, in 
fact, an abortive attempt at ousting the jurisdiction of the 
King's Courts and increasing the acknowledged powers of the 
Courts Christian,) there is contained a provision ordaining that 
no archbishop, bishop, or other prelate should appear, if called 
upon by the king's letters, to answer respecting the following, 
among other matters, which the synod held to concern merely 
their office and Courts Ecclesiastical, viz., whether they ,took 
cognizance of actions personal concerning contracts, or quasi- 
contracts, trespasses or quasi trespasses, either between clerks or 
between clerks complainants and laymen defendants.* In the 
present instance it does not appear that either party was a 
clerk. 

^ W. G. LEVESON GOWER, Esq. F.S.A. Local Secretary for 
Surrey, exhibited a photograph taken from some Mural Paint- 
ings, lately discovered in Chaldon Church, Surrey, and which 
represent the Last Judgment. 

Mr. Leveson Gower furnished a short description of the 
subject, and stated that full-sized tracings of the paintings have 
been made, under the direction of Mr. Waller, to be drawn 
upon stone and ultimately printed in chromo-lithography. A 
detailed account will appear with these illustrations in the next 
part of the Surrey Archaeological Collections. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these Communications. 



Thursday, January 12th, 1871. 
AUGUSTUS W. FRANKS, ESQ., V.P. in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

' English Law> iL 8o> ami see 



Jan. 12.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 03 

From J. A. Pearson, Esq., F.S.A. : Cases for both Appellant and Respondent 
for the Earldom of Breadalbane ; also the cases both original and supple- 
mental of the Appellant and Respondent in the Stirling Peerage matter. 
2 vols. 4to. Edinburgh and London, 1867. 

From Robert Ferguson, Esq., Loc. Sec. S.A., Cumberland : A Short Historical 
and Architectural Account of Lanercost Abbey. By R. S. Ferguson, M.A., 
and C. J. Ferguson. 4to. London and Carlisle, 1870. 

From the Art Union of London : Report for 1870, with List of Members. 8vo. 
London, 1870. 

From the Author: Ancient and Modern Muggletonians : a Paper read before 
the Liverpool Literary and Philosophical Society, April 4th, 1870. By 
Alexander Gordon, M.A. 8vo. 

From the Science and Art Department, South Kensington : 

1. Textile Fabrics ; a Descriptive Catalogue of Church Vestments, Dresses, 
Silk Stuffs, Needlework and Tapestries. By the Very Rev. Daniel Rock, 
D.D. 8vo. London, 1870. 

2. Universal Art Inventory. Part 1. Mosaics and Stained Glass. Edited 
by Henry Cole, C.B. 8vo. London, 1870. 

3. Descriptive Catalogue of Musical Instruments. By Carl Engel. 8vo. 
London, 1870. 

From E. Hailstone, Esq., F.S.A.: Tommy Toddles's Comic Olmenac. 1871. 
8vo. Leeds and London. 

From the Editor: The Athenaeum. 2 vols. 4to. London, 1870. 

From the Editor, Geo. Godwin, Esq., F.R.S.: The Builder. Vol. 28. Folio. 

London, 1870. 
From the Proprietor, James S. Virtue, Esq.: The Art Journal. Ninth Volume. 

(New Series). 4to. London, 1870. 
From the Editor: Notes and Queries. Vols. 5 and 6. (Fourth Series.) 4to, 

London, 1870. 

From the Society of Arts: Their Journal. 8vo. London, 1870. 
From the Photographic Society : The Photographic Journal. 8vo. London, 

1870. 
From the Editor : Nature. 2 vols. 4to. London, 1870. 

From the Hoyal Institute of British Architects : Sessional Papers, 1870-71. 

No. 3. 4to. London, 1870. 
From the Asiatic Society of Bengal : 

1. Journal. New Series. Vol. xxxix. Part 2. No. 3. 8vo. Calcutta, 
1870. 

2. Proceedings. No. ix. September. 8vo. Calcutta, 1870. 

From the London Institution. Journal. No. 1. Vol. 1. 8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Author : Continental Notes for Private Circulation. By S. C. Bagg, 
J.P. 8vo. Montreal, 1870. 

From the Numismatic Society :- The Numismatic Chronicle. Vol. x. New 
Series. No. 39. 8.vo. London, 1870. 

From the Author : Ancestry of Priscilla Baker, wife of Isaac Appleton of 
Ipswich. By William S. Appleton. 4to. Cambridge (U. S. A.), 1 870. 

From the Author: Crowland and Burgh. A Light on the Historians and on 
the History of Crowland Abbey. By Henry Scale English. Vols. 2 and 3. 
(Completing the work.) 8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Editor: The Church Builder. No. 37. January. 8vo. London. 

1871. 

From Dr. Northcote, D.D.: Pagan Inscriptions and Christian Cemeteries. (Re- 
printed froni " The Month.") 8vo. 



04 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 

From the Author : The Life of Richard Deane, Major-General and General-at- 
Sea, in the service of the Commonwealth. By John Bathurst Deane, M.A., 
F.S.A. 8vo. London, 1870. 

From George Manners, Esq., F.S.A.: A Series of Ancient Baptismal Fonts, 
chronologically arranged. Drawn by F. Simpson, jun. Engraved by R. 
Eoberts. 4to. London, 1828. 

From the Royal United Service Institution : Journal. Vol. xiv. No. 61. 8vo. 
London, 1870. 

From the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire : Transactions. New 
Series. Vol. x. 8vo. Liverpool, 1870. 

From the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society : Proceed- 
ings, 1868-9. 8vo. Taunton, 1870. 

A vote of Special Thanks was accorded to George Manners, 
Esq., for his valuable presents to the Library. 

Samuel Sharp, Esq., F.S.A., Local Secretary for Northamp- 
tonshire, exhibited a set of Coin-moulds and other antiquities of 
the Roman period, lately found at Duston in Northamptonshire. 

A description of the objects exhibited on this occasion will be 
found in the Appendix to Mr. Sharp's Paper on Roman Remains 
at Duston, in the Archaeologia, xliii. 130. 

This being an evening appointed for the election of Fellows, 
no Papers were read. 

The ballot commenced at a quarter to nine and ended at half- 
past nine, when the following candidates were declared to be 
duly elected : 

Robert Furley, Esq. 

Rev. Thomas Bayley Levy, M.A. 

Robert Brown, Esq. 

William Long, Esq. 

Rev. John Harwood Hill, B.A. 

Robert Nicholas Fowler, Esq. M.P. 



Jan. 19.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 65 

Thursday, January 19th, 1871. 
FEEDERIC OUVRY, ESQ., Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From W. C. Boulter, Esq., F.S.A. : 

1. The Scarborough Guide (a second edition), to which is prefixed a descrip- 
tive Route through Hull and Beverley. 8vo. Hull, 1796. 

2. Historical Sketches of Bridlington. By J. Thompson. 8vo. Bridling- 
ton, 1839. 

3. The Stranger's Guide to Ferriby, Welton, Elloughton, and South Cave in 
the East-Riding of the county of York. 12mo. Hull, &c., 1841. 

4. The Visitor's Guide to York Cathedral : with an Account of the Churches 
in York. 16mo. York, 1845. 

5. Black's Guide to Leeds and vicinity. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1868. 

6. Thomas de Rotherham, Archbishop of York, and his College of Jaus at 
Rotherham. By John Guest, Esq. 8vo. Rotherham, 1869. 

From Frederic Ouvry, Esq., Treas. S.A. : The Isham Reprints. Edited by 
Charles Edmonds. Containing Shakespeare's Venus and Adonis. 1599. 
The Passionate Pilgrime. 1599. Epigrammes by Sir John Davies, and 
certaine of Ovid's Elegies translated by Christopher Marlowe. Small 8vo. 
London, 1870. (Small Paper, No. 13.) 

From the Royal Archeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland : The 
Archaeological Journal. No. 107. 8vo. London, 1870. 

From the Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical Association : The York- 
shire Archaeological and Topographical Journal. Part 4. (Completing 
vol. i.) 8vo. London, 1870. 

From the Author : Notes on the History and Distribution of Gold, Silver, and 
Tin in Great Britain. By John. Piggot, Junior, F.S.A. (From the Art 
Journal for July October, 1870.) 4to. London, 1870. 

From Edward Peacock, Esq., F.S'.A. : Henrici Kornmanni ex Kirchajna, de 
Miraculis Mortuorum, opus novum et admirandum in decem partes distribu- 
tum. Small 8vo. 1610. 

From the Author : Notes or Jottings about Aldeburgh, Suffolk. Relating to 
matters Historical, Antiquarian, Ornithological, and Entomological. By 
N. F. Hele. 8vo. London, 1870. 

From the Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland : The 
Journal. Vol. I. Fourth Series. No. 4. 8vo. Dublin, 1870. 

A vote of Special Thanks was accorded to the Treasurer for 
his present of the volume of " The Isham Reprints," of which 
the number printed is very small. 

Notice was given that the President had appointed the follow- 

VOL. V. F 



(56 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 

'ing Fellows to be Auditors of the Society's accounts for the 
year 1871 : 

Rev. James Gerald Joyce. 
George Steinman Steinman, Esq. 
Lieut.-Col. John Farnaby Lennard. 
Thomas Lewin, Esq. 

SAMUEL WOOD, Esq., F.S.A., Local Secretary for Shropshire, 
exhibited two Gold Kings found at Shrewsbury on or near the 
site of the new market. 

1. Signet-ring with finely cut figure of the Pelican " in her 
piety." Late sixteenth century. 

2. Posy-ring * As ioyned .in one so ioy in one RE 

FREDERIC OUVRY, ESQ. Treasurer, exhibited and presented 
an impression from a Brass Matrix of a Seal found in the sea at 
Orfordness, Suffolk, and belonging to a guild of Corpus Christi 
at Orford. 

This Seal, which dates from the fourteenth century, may be 
thus described : 

It is circular, If inches in diameter. Under a wide three - 
foiled arch with shafts terminated by crocketed finials is a large 
shield bearing the instruments of the Passion, viz., the cross 
between two scourges erect in base, the upper limb ensigned 
with the crown of thorns, a nail inserted into the end of the 
transverse and lower limbs, all surmounted by the reed with the 
sponge, and the lance in saltire. A kneeling figure on either 
side of the arch. 

Legend, 

+ 8' COG FROT'NITftTIS [GYLDG ?] CORPIS XPI; 
and over the shield ORFORD. 

The treatment of the symbols is precisely the same as that 
which we find on the ancient seal of Corpus Christi college, 
Cambridge, figured at page 11 of Masters' History of that 
house. 

The virtues ascribed to " these Arm us of Crist both God and 
man" as "Sent petur ]?e pop discriuet hem," will be found 
enumerated at the end of a curious religious poem on the Sym- 
bols of the Passion, printed from the Royal and Additional MSS. 
in the British Museum by the Early English Text Society in 
the volume " Legends of the Holy Rood, &c.," London, 1871. 

GEORGE MANNERS, ESQ. F.S.A. exhibited two original Letters 
both signed " Loys de Bourbon," in what appeared to be the 



Jan. 19.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 67 

same handwriting. One of these letters, without date, was 
holograph, and addressed a A la Raine," begging her and the 
King to believe in his fidelity. Signed, 

V're treshumble et tresobeyssant seujet et Seruyteur, 

LOYS DE BOUEBON. 

The other letter is addressed 

A Mon Cousin Mons r le Conte du Rude Ch lr de lordr' du 
Roy monseigneur et son Lieuten' g'ral en Poictou. 

The writer states that subjects of his town and bailiwick of 
St. Benoist du Sault, having learned his return from Court, have 
come to him to remonstrate against certain oppressions they had 
been subjected to for some years past, as well by the passage of 
armed troops as by excessive imposts and extraordinary bur- 
dens. This year they have been so persecuted by hail, frosts, 
and bad weather that they have been unable to reap sufficient 
corn, or make wine enough for their own subsistence. Never- 
theless by his commissioners the Count had ordered the 
" Esleus" of Blanc, and the authorities of St. Benoist, to pro- 
duce four hundred loads of corn, two hundred oxen, five hun- 
dred quintals of hay, straw and oats, &c. , to be delivered at the 
town of Luzignan,* for the sustenance of the camp of the King 
who was besieging La Rochelle. Begs the Count to exempt 
them as the requisitions are beyond their means. 

From Mirebeau, November 27th, 1572. 

(Signed) Voustre plus affectionne cousin et meille r amy, 

LOYS DE BOURBON. 

The authorship of these two letters has been attributed to 
Louis of Bourbon Due de Conde, who however was slain at 
Jarnac March 13th, 1569. He therefore could not have written 
the second letter, which may perhaps be assigned to Louis de 
Bourbon Due de Monpensier, b. 1513, d. 1582. He is recorded 
to have been present at the Siege of La Rochelle in 1573. 

Mr. MANNERS also exhibited a paper Book of ten pages, small 
folio, containing an original account of the expenses of the diet 
of the Privy Council sitting in the Star Chamber in the year 
1594-5. 

This exhibition was accompanied by the following remarks by 
C. S. PERCEVAL, Esq. LL.D., Director : 

" The history and antiquities of the Star Chamber have occu- 



* This town is situated about half way between St. Benoist du Sault and La 
Rochelle. 

F 2 



68 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

pied the attention of more than one distinguished Fellow of this 
Society. 

" Mr. Hallam, in the first volume of his Constitutional His- 
tory, pages 48 et seq., has gone into the distinction which existed 
between the King's ordinary council as a court with jurisdiction, 
usurped though part of it may have been, and the deliberative 
body the advisers of the Crown, more particularly known as the 
Privy Council ; and the late Mr. John Bruce, in his two letters 
on r The History of the Court of Star Chamber,'* has shown, 
perhaps more clearly and precisely than the learned historian of 
the Middle Ages, that the Court of Star Chamber was no new 
jurisdiction created (as had been frequently supposed) in the 
reign of King Henry VII. , but merely a new name for "the .old 
authority exercised by the Council generally sitting in the Star 
Chamber. The heading of Mr. Manners's document retains the 
more accurate style, ' The Queen's Majesties most honorable 
Privye Counsell at her Grace's Starchamber.' 

" i In the exercise of their judicial authority,' says Mr. Bruce, f 
' the Council held their sittings in a chamber of the Palace at 
Westminster, known as " the Council Chamber, near the Ex- 
chequer," and " the Chambre des Estoyers or Estoilles," near 
the Receipt of the Exchequer. The occupation of the Chambre 
des Estoilles, or Star Chamber, by the Council, can be traced 
from the reign of Edward III. Here the Court sat for the 
hearing of causes during term time twice and sometimes thrice 
in every week. After the sitting the judges of the Court (that is, 
the members of the King's ordinary council, the " Lords of the 
Council," as they are still termed in the Litany in the Church 
service, although many of them have generally been under the 
degree of a baron), together with the Clerk of the Council, 
dined in the Inner Star Chamber at the public expense. 't 

" The present account gives us the detail of the cost of these 
dinners during the Hilary Term of the year 1594-5. The 
Council sat for six days, namely, on Friday, January 24, which 
was the ^ first day of Term, on the two following Fridays, the 
intervening Wednesdays, and on Thursday, February 13, the 
last day of the term. The sittings are expressly stated to have 
been in Hilary term. The ordinary tables, however, all agree 
in ending this term in the years 1594-5 on the 12th and not 
the 13th of February. 

" We have a bill of fare for each of these days, and in the 
margin are noted the names of the lords and others who were 
present, but whether these names are merely those of the per- 



P. 348. 



Jan. 19.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 69 

sons who sat down to dinner, or are the complete list of those 
who attended the business part of the sitting does not very 
clearly appear. I observe that, although the number of persons 
6 present ' is not constant, yet the allowance of bread and beer 
is almost the same on each day, and does not vary with that 
number. The same may be said of the sums total. This being 
so, it would rather seem that a fixed banquet was provided 
without exact regard to the number of convives. 

" f The number of the Council who attended the Court is said,* 
in the reigns of Henry VII. and Henry VIII. , to have been 
near to forty, of whom seven or eight were prelates. In the 
reign of Elizabeth the number was nearly thirty ; but about the 
thirtieth year of that reign the peers who were not privy coun- 
cillors desisted from attendance, w r hich greatly lessened the 
number of the Court.' In the present instance the number of 
persons note<J in the margin varies from thirteen to nineteen. 

" The Lord Chancellor was the head of the Court. In 1595 
the great seal was in tlie hands of a Lord Keeper, Sir John 
Puckering, who is marked as present every day. 

" It was usual for the chief justices to attend, and, accord- 
ingly both Sir John Popham and Sir Edmund Anderson, who 
at that time presided in the Queen's Bench and the Common Pleas 
respectively, appear together on the first and last days, and on 
February 7th. Both were absent on January 29th and Febru- 
ary 5th. On January 31st the Chief Justice of England alone 
attended. Of the other judges (whom the Lord Chancellor had 
power to summon when necessary), the Lord Chief Baron 
attended thrice ; Mr. Justice- Shuttleworth, Mr. Justice Owen, 
and Mr. Justice Walmesly each once. The Master of the 
Rolls, Sir Thomas Egerton, afterwards Lord Keeper, figures 
thrice in the lists, twice by his official designation, once by 
name. 

" The Archbishop of Canterbury, Whitgift, was present 
every day ; the Bishop of London, Fletcher, appeared at the 
first three sittings. 

a Of temporal peers the attendants were the Lord Buckhurst, 
afterwards Lord Treasurer, Thomas Lord Burgh, the Lord 
Stafford, and the Earl of Essex, the first on four days, the rest 
each on one single occasion. 

" The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, Sir Thomas 
Heneage, and the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Sir John For- 
tescue, were present, the former on four days, the latter on all 
six. 

" Sir Edward Coke, the Attorney- General, appears four 



I again quote Mr. Bruce, uln sujiru, p. 



357. 



70 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

times, and a Doctor of the Arches (either Yaughan or Mount- 
ford) attended every day. 

" The provision of diet was profuse compared with the numbers 
who are set down as partaking of it ; it may however be sup- 
posed that the secretaries and others of the suite of the great . 
lords expected and obtained their share. 

" Fridays of course were fish days, though, besides capons, 
cocks and partridges, one joint of veal, or half a lamb, or both 
were provided for those who had licence to eat flesh-meat ; on 
each Friday there was afresh salmon, accompanied by a chine, 
were they eaten together ? 

" Besides the salt fish, cod, ling, salmon, eels, and herrings, 
there were fresh salmon and eels, pike and carps, great and 
small, bream, perch, flounders, a fish called < knobberd,' and 
haberdines* a salt fish probably taking its name from Aberdeen, 
the town of its export turbot, trout, whiting, soles, shrimps, 
limpets, crawfish, .and lampreys. 

" The flesh-meats deserve no particular comment. In this class 
poultry and game are included : turkeys, capons, cocks, pullets, 
pheasants, partridges, and snipes, mallards, teal, and blackbirds. 

" The charge for each dinner varies from ~L7L to 18Z., which is 
the same price they had reached in 1590. This appears from 
a paper in Lord Burghley's handwriting. f The cost of the 
dinners in 1509 had been no more than 21. Is. 2d. per dinner; 
in 1559, ' the ordinary charge of a dynar ' was 4/. 10s. or 
51. 9s.; in 1579 it had swelled to SI. or 10?.; while eleven 
years after that date the high figures of 111. or 181. had been 
reached. It was then that the treasurer's attention seems to have 
been drawn to the matter. The number of persons attending 
the council had much decreased since 1509, a circumstance 
which makes the increase of charge the more remarkable. With 
every allowance for waste and growing luxury, the eightfold 
or ninefold increase in eighty-six years offers a curious illustra- 
tion of the change in the value of money, ensuing upon by the 
discovery of the American continent. 

" The total cost of the dinners was 104Z. 2s. lOd. but this was 
exclusive of the ' provisions for the furniture of the dyettes.' 



* This fish occurs as an article of merchandise in patents for raising tolls for 
certain purposes in the fourteenth century. Thus in a grant of murage and 
pavage to Swansea in 1339, toll is to be charged ' de qualibet carectata de 
Aberden', coming to be sold within the town (Rot. Pat. 12 Edw. III. pars la, 
m. 37), and in a nearly identical patent of the previous reign the same article is 
specified among other fish. Ran die Holme in his Academy of Armorie, Book II. 
mentions " a Haberdine or Island (Iceland ?) Fish, of some called Poor John. 
It is the worst sort of Ling Eish, though very often it doth pass for it, because 
it is of so near relation." 

f MSS. Lansd. No. 1, art. 44, quoted by Mr. Bruce, Archaologia, xxv. 356. 



Jan. 19.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 71 

Under this head are charged in a separate account the salt, 
vinegar, verjuice, and other condiments, including a grocer's 
bill for spices amounting to 40/. 19s. 8d., together with cooks' 
wages, boat hire, portage, and sundries. Among sundries may 
be noticed a gimblet for the wine cellar which cost half-a- 
crown. The lords' room was strewed with herbs and flowers, 
and the floor of the dining room with rushes. The table linen 
was washed at a charge of Sd. per diem, and a hair rope was 
bought for 3s. kd. to dry it on. 

" These bills run the whole cost of the term up to 174. 10s. \cl. 
which amount is certified as correct by the signature of the 
Lord Keeper and allowed under the hand of Lord Burghley. 
Then follows an account of four tuns and a half of Gascony 
wine laid in for next year at the cost of 102/. 3s. This account 
again is certified and allowed by the Lord Keeper and the 
Treasurer, and an order for the payment of the sum total, 
2761. 13s. to Nicholas Smyth, the clerk of the council, is sub- 
joined. He had already been allowed 200/. on account or by 
way of * imprest,' a term which is still in use in the Treasury." 

The text of this curious account is as follows. The contrac- 
tions have been extended. 



Btett' HETnor' constlitr 
C'mt'o Jgtilanj, 

1594. 

Thexpences of the dyettes provided for the .... * Queenes majes- 
ties most honorable privye Counsell at her Graces Star- 
chamber during this Hillary e Terme in the yeare of the 
raigne of our soveraigne Ladye Queene Elizabeth the xxxvij th 
1594. 

Die Veneris xxiiijto. IMPRIMIS : in Bread xxviij s. vj d., in Beere, 
die Januar. 1594. vij s. vj d., in Ale v s., in Flower vj s. . xlvij s. 

Presentibus. item in Oysters vj s., in sweet Butter ij s., 

My L. of Cant. in iij old Linges xiiij s. vj d., in iiij greene 

ffishes viij s., in salte white Herringes xx d., in 
salt Salmon vij s. vj d. in ij Capons v s. viiij d., Sr. Henr. Barkell'. 

My L. Keep'. in great Pykes xv s., in ij smaller Pykes iiij s., 

in Grey fishe ij s., in j Joynt of Veale ij s. iiij d., 
in half alambe iij s. viij d., in iij great Carpes Sr. Willm. Courtney. 

My L. B. of London, xs., in v. smaller Carpes to bake and boyle 
viij s. iiij d., in iij Hosting Eeles vij s. vj d., 

Sr. John Fortescue. in iij stocke fishes ij s., in iij Chubbes iiij s., 
in iiij Tenches viij s., in ix. Perches vij s., in 

My L. Cheif Justice iij Breames xiiij s., in vij Trowtes vij s., in 
ofEnglande. iij Partridges vs., in j freshe Salmon and a 

* The paper is stained and worn here. A word seems missing though the 
sense is complete. 



72 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 9 [1871, 

Chyne xxvij s., in iij Cockes iij s. vj d., in 
iiij salte Eeles vj s. viij d., in Flounders vs., 

My L. Anderson. in xij Larkes xviij d., in C. di. of Smeltes vj s., 
in viij Gurnardes to sowse and boyle xvj s., in 
Shrimpes xvj d., in xij Whitinges xiiij s., in Mr. Assheley. 
xiij Knobberdes ij s. vj d., in vj Playce vj s., 

My L. Cheif Baron, in Lampernes ij s., in pounded butter xij s., in 
herbes iij s. iiij d., in Apples for Tartes 
ijs. iiijd. in Creame xxd., in Eggs vj s., in Mr. Tasseborowe. 

Mr. Atturney. iiij Lobsters iiij s., in ij Turbottes xvj s., in 

iiij freshe Coddes vij s., in iij Haddockes iiij s., 
in Barberyes xij d. in Eosewater xij d., in Doctor Mountford. 
Orringes and Lemons xviij d., in Quinces vj s. 
viij d., in portage iij s., in boathire iiij s., in all xv li. x s. ij d. 
Summa xvij li. xvj s. ij d. 

Die Mercurii xxix . Imprimis : in Bread xxix s. , in Beer vij s. vi d., 
die Januar. 1594. in Ale vs., in Flower vj s. . . . xlviij s. vj d. 

Presentibus. Item in xviij stone of Beefe at xxj d. the 

stone xxxj s. vj d., in vj Neates tounges vij s., 
in viij Joyntes of Veale for pyes and to roste Mr. Wade. 

My Lord of Cant. xvij s. ij d., in viij Joyntes of Mutton to boyle 
and roste xvj s., in x pound of Suett iiij s., 
in Bacon iiij s., in Marrowbones xx d., in ij Mr. Milles. 

My Lord Keep'. Lambs di. xvj s. viij d., in iij Turkeyes xviij s., 
in yij Capons xviij s. viij d., in viij Pullettes 
xiij s. iiij d., in ij Pheazauntes xvj s., in xij Mr. Chune. 

My L. Buckhurst. Teales viij s., in x Woodcokes xj s. viij d., in 
ix Partridges xv s., in viij Mallardes xij s., 

Sr. John Fortescue. i n xxiiij Siiytes xij s.,in viij Eabbetes vs. iiij d., Mr. Cromwell, 
in Apples for Tarts ij s. vj d., in xii Plovers 

My L. B. of London, viij s., in xxiij Blackbirds iiij s., in iij doz. 
Stintes vj s., in zeame for Fritters* iiij s., in iij 

Mr. Atturney. doz. of Larkes iiij s. vid., in pounded butter Doctor Vaughan. 

xij s. vj d., in Orringes and Lemons ij s., in 

Mr. James Crofte. herbes iij s. iiij d. in Creame xx d., in Eose- 
water xij d., in Eggs vj s., in Barberyes xij d., 
in portage iij s., in boathire iij s. iiij d., in all xiiij li. xs. viij d. 
Summa xvj li. xviiij s. ij d. 

Die Veneris xxxj. Imprimis : in Bread xxix s., in Beere vij s. vj d., 
die Januar. 1594. Ale vs., in Flower vj s. . . . xlvij s. vj d. 

Presentibus. Item in Oysters y s., sweet Butter ij s., in 

MV T f r f ^..k^ 6 ?.*^ s " V J d -> in iiij greene Fishes Mr. of the Bowles. 

My L. of Cant. V nj s., in 113 Sydes of Salt Salmon vij s. vj d., 

in vj Playce vj s., in iij Stockefishes ij s., in 
one Joynte of Veale ij s. iiij d., in v salt Eeles Sr. Tho. Weste. 

My L. Keep'. V] s. vnj d., in di. Lambe iij s. viij d., in Her- 

rings xxd., in iij great Pykes xvs., in ij 

My L. B. of London, smaller Pykes iiij s., in iij great Carpes xs., Mr Wade 
in i] Capons vs., in v smaller Carpes to boyle 
and bake iij s., in iiij Tenches viij s., in irj 

My L. Buckhurst. Partridges vs., in iij Breames xij s., in ix 
Perches vij s., in iiij greate Eeles vj s., in 
Lampernes ij s., in iij Cockes iij s. vj d., in xii Mr Mvlles 

Sr. Tho. Hennadge. Knobberdes ij s. vj d., in xviij Flounders vi s 

in xi J Larkes xx d., in vij Trowtes vij s., in C 

* Probably lard for frying. See Halliwell, Glossary, under Seame. 



Jan. 19.] 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 



73 



Sr. John Fortescue. di. of Smeltes vj s., in j freshe Salmon and a 

Chine xxvij s., in vij Gurnerdes xiiij s., in xij Mr. Vaughan. 

Whitinges xvj s., in iij freshe Coddes ixs., in 
Sr. John Woolley. xij Scallops iiij s., in Creyfishe ij s. vj d., in 

ij Turbottes xv s., in Shrimpes xvj d., in Mr. Topcliffe. 
My L. Cheif Justice pounded Butter xij s. ij d., in Creame ij .s, in 
of England. Apples for Tarts xx d., in Quinces vj s. viij d., 

in Egges vj s., in herbes iij s. iiij d., in Orringes 
My L. cheif Baron. an d Lemons xviij d., in Barberyes xij d., in 



Rosewater xij d., in portage iij s. iiij d., in 



boathire iiij s., in all 



Summa xvij li. vij s. 



. xiiij li.xixs. vjd. 



Die Mercurii quinto Imprimis : in Bread xxxs., in Beere vij s. vj d., 
die Febr. 1594. in Ale v s., in Flower vj s. . xlviij s. vj d. 

Presentibus. Item in xviij stone of Beeffe at xx d. the 

stone xxx s., in vij Neates tounges viij s. ij d., 
My L. of Cant. in viij Joyntes of Veale for pyes and to roste Mr. Atturney. 

xvij s. iiij d., in viij Joyntes of Mutton to 
My L. Keep'. ^ boyle and roste xvj s., in xiilb. of Suett iiij s., 

in zeame for Fritters iiij s., in Bacon iiij s., in 
My L. Buckhurst. Marrowebones- ij s., in vij Capons xviij s. viij d., Sr> Edw> Hobbye. 

in ix Pullettes xvs., in iij Turkyes xvs., in j 
My L B of London. Phezaunt viij s., in ix Woodcockes x s., vj d. 

in x Partridges xvj s. vii] d., in viij Mallardes Mr. Mylles. 
My L. Stafford. x s. viij d., in Habberdyne xij d., in xij Teales 

viij s., in xii Plovers vj s., in xxiiij Snytes 
Sr. Tho. Hennage. viij s., in viij Rabbetes vs. iiij d., in ij Lambes Mr. Assheley. 

di. xvj s., viij d. in iiij Curlewes xij s., in 

Stockfishe x d., in iiij doz. Larkes vj s. viiij d., 
Sr. John Fortescue. in pounded butter xij s., iiij d. in Egges viij s., Doctor Vaughan. 

in herbes iij s. iiij d., in Apples for Tartes- 
Sr. Tho. Weste. ij s - V J ^., in Creame ij s., in Barberyes xij d., 

in Rosewater xij d., in Orringes and Lemons 
Justice Shuttleworth.ij s., in portage iij s., in boathire iij s. vj.d., 

in all . . . . . xiiij li. iij s. ij d. 

Summa xvj li. xj s. viiij d. 

Die Veneris vij. die Imprimis : Bread xxix s., in Beere vij s. vj d., 
Februar. 1594. in Ale vs., in fflower vj s. . . xlvij s. vj d. 



Presentibus. 
My L. of Cant. 

My L. Keep'. 

My L. Buckhurste. 
Sr. Tho. Hennage. 
Sr. John Fortescue. 

Sr. John Woolley. 

My L. Chief Justice, 
of England. 



Item in Oysters iiij s., in sweete Butter ij s., 
in iij olde Lynges xiiij s. vj d., in iiij greene 
fishes viij s., in iij sydes of salt Salmon Sr. Tho. Leaton. 
vij s. vj d., in iij Stocke fishes ij s., in one 
Joynte Veale ij s. iiij d., in iij Playce iiij s. vj d., 
in iij great Pykes xv s., in Habberdyne x d., Mr. Assheley. 
in ij smaller Pykes iiij s., in halfe a lamb 
iij s. ' viij d., in iij great Carpes xij s., in v 
smaller Carpes to bake and boyle viij s. iiij d., Mr. Mylles. 
in ij Capons vs., in iiij salt Eeles vj s., in iij 
Partridges v s., in iiij Tenches viij s., in iiij 
Breames xv s., in iij Cockes iij s. vj d., in ix 
Perches viij s., in xviij Flounders vj s., in iij Mr . Cromwell, 
great Eeles vij s. vj d., in xij Knobberdes 
ij s. vj d., in salt Herringes xxd., in C di. of 
Smeltes vj s., in j fresh Salmon and a Chyne 
xxv s., in vj Gurnerdes xv s., in vij Trowtes 
vij s., in xij Whitinges xvj s., in xij Larkes Doctor Mountford. 



74 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 



xx d., in Lampernes ij s., in ij Limpets viij s., 
Anderson in Creyfishe ij s. iiij d., in Shrimpes xvj d., 
. Ander ^ 3^^ ^ g ? in pounded Butter xnj s., 

Mr of the Rowles in Creame ij s., in Apples for Tartes xviij d., Mr. Topliffe. 
in Quinces vj s. viij d., in Egges viij s., in 
Herbes iij s. iiij d.,in Orringes and Lemons ij s., 
in Barberyes xij d., in Kosewater xij d., in 
portage iij s. iiij d., in Boathire ill] s. 11113 d., 
in all . xvh.xv3d. 

Summa xvij li. viij s. xd. 

IMS Jovis xiij die Imprimis: in Bread xxxjs., in Beerevijs. vjd., 
Februar,i594 in Ale v s., in Flower vj s. . . xhxs.vjd. 

Presentibus. Item in xxij stone of Beeffe at xxij d. the 

My L of Cant stone, xl s. iiij d., in vij Neates Tounges My - L . chief Baron., 

viij s. ij d., in Marrowe bones xxd., in vii] 
My L. Keep'. Joyntes of Veale for pyes and to roste j us tice Walmesly. 

xvij s. iiij d., in viij Joyntes of Mutton to 
The Earl of Essex, boyle and roste xvj s., in xij Ib. of Sewette j ustice Owen. 

iiij s., in ij Lambes di. xvj s. viij d., in yn 
My L. Buckhurst. Capons xxj s., in ix Pullettes xv s., in iij sr. Tho. Egerton. 

Turkeyes xviij s., in x Cockes xj s. vii] d., m 
My L. Burrowes. xv Partridges to boyle and roste xxy s., in viij Mr At turney. 

Mallardes x s. viij d., in xxinj Blackbirdes 
Sr. Thos. Hennage. iiij s., in xij Teales vj s., in half a fresh Salmon Mf Wade 

xij s., xij Plovers viij s., in viij Kabbettes 
Sr.JohnFortescue. vs. iiij d., in iij Curlewes ixs., in Stockfishes Mr M Ues 

x d., in xviij Snytes ix s., in iij doz. of Larkes 
Sr.JohnWoolley vs - in j Turbott viij s., in Egges viij s., in M r. Assheley.* 

Creame ij s. iiij d., in Erbes iij s. iiij d., in 
My L. Cheif Justice pounded Butter xij s. iiij d., in Apples ij s. vj d., 
of England. in Orringes and Lemons ij s., m portage Doctor Vaughan. 

iij s. iij d., in Rosewater xij d., in boathire 
My L.Anderson. iij s., in all ..... XV H. XJ S. V] d. 

Summa xviij li. xij s. 

Summa totall of the sixe Dinners 
aforesaid is ... ciiij li. ij s. xd. 

Hereafter ensueth all manner of provisions for the furniture of 
the dyettes aforesaid provided in the iStarchauiber for the 
Queenes majesties most honorable privy e Counsell during 
this Hillary Terme, 1594. 

Imprimis for v loades of great Coales at xxvj s. the loade, vj Ib. x s. 
Item for xv sackes of small Coales at vij d the sacke, viij s. ix d. . Item 
iiij C. & di. of Faggottes at vij s. the C. xxxj s. vj d. Item for viij yards of 
diaper for a table cloath at v s. iiij d. the yard, xlij s. viij d. Item for mak- 
ing the said table cloathe and for threed, ij s. Item for iij busshelles of 
Baye salt at ij s. the busshell, vj s. Item for iiij busshelle of Whyte salt 
at ij s. the bush., viij s. Item for ij sackes to putt the said salt in, iij s. iiij d. 
Item for viij gallons of the best white wyne vineger at ij s. the gall., xvj a. 
Item for x gallons of the best redd wyne vinegar at xxd. the gall., xvj s. 
viij d. Item for viij gall, of the best verges f at x d. the gall., vj s. viij d. 

* Anthony Ashley, and Mr. Wade, otherwise Waad, were Clerks of the 
Council in this year. (See Cal. State Papers, Domestic, sub anno, passim.) 
They appear to have waited on alternate days, except the last day of term, when 
both attended. 

f Verjuice. 



Jan. 19.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 75 

Item for Rondelettes to putt the said vineger and verges in, iij s. vj d. 
Item for boathire and portage for the said vineger and verges at sundrye 
tymes, ij s. iiij d. Item for portage and boathire for the said salt, xx d. 
Item for earthen pottes, sauce pottes, and pannes spent in the kitchen this 
terme, viij s. iiij d. Item for fyne Whyte Salte spent at the Lords table 
this terme, xij d. Item for Mustard and Onyons spent in the Kitchen tifais 
Terme, iiij s. iiij d. Item for ij new baskettes for the markett this terme, 
iij s. Item for a small baskett to carrye fruit in this terme, iij s. iiij d. 
Item for another close baskett to carrye and recarrye the naperye to and 
from the Starchamber this terme, iij s. Item for Waste paper spent in 
the pastrye this terme, ij s. iiij d. Item for Broomes spent in the offices of 
the Starchamber this terme, xxij d. Item for yeast spent in the kitchen 
this term, and for fetching thereof, iiij s. Item for carrying out of the 
dust and soyle of the Starchamber kitchen and other offices there this 
terme, xvj d. Item for clensing the withdrawing place, ij s. vj d. Item 
for perfumes for the Lords dyneing Roome this terme, vj s. Item for candles 
spent in the kitchen and buttery this terme, xvj d. Item for vij gall, of the 
best redd wyne to fill up the hoggesheads of wyne at ij s. iiij d. the gall., 
xvj s. iiij d. Item for a case of Oyster knives, iiij s. vj d. Item for sand 
and whiting to scowre withall this terme xd. Item for ij whyte brusshes, 
viij d. Item foF iiij doz. of Russhes to strowe the Lords dyneing Roome at 
iiij s. the doz., xvj s. Item for gathering together and keeping the vessell 
of the Starchamber this terme", vj s. iiij d. Item for dressing up and 
keeping cleane of the Lords dyneing Roome and other Roomes above this 
terme, iij s. iiij d. Item for salt butter fetched from the chandlers this 
terme, as well for the Raunge and pastrye as otherwyse, xij s. iiij d. Item 
for vij elles of corse canvas for wypers and bagges against this terme, vij s. 
Item for making of the said wypers and bagges, and for threed, iiij d. Item 
to the Plommer for mending the pypes, ij s. iiij d. Item for a hearen 
rope to drye the wett naperye upon this terme, iij s. iiij d. Item for carrye- 
ing and recarryeing the Starchamber plate, iij s. Item to Jolrn Gill for 
carryeing it to and from the Starchamber, and for his well looking to it, 
v s. Item for ij Cheeses bought for the Lords table this terme, 
viij s. iiij d. Item for ij newe streyners bought for this terme, xij d. 
Item for lard to lard the Lords meat this term, vj s. iiij d. Item for the 
newe glassing, a mending, and leding the windowes against this terme, 
xij s. viij d. Item for a case of knives for the Lords Bord this terme, viij s. 
Item to Mr. Flint her majesties Locksmythe for translating, making, 
and a mending divers locks and keys in and about the Starchamber in and 
against this Terme, ix s. viij d. Item for xxj gallons of the best sacke at 
iij s. iiij d. the gallon, Ixx s. Item for xxx gallons and a quarte of the best 
whyte wyne at ij s. the gall., Ix s. vj d. Item for xij galls, and a quarte of 
the beste Muskadyne at iij s. iiij d. the gallon, xl s. xd. Item for vj gallons 
Renishe wyne at iij s. iiij d. the gallon, xx s. Item for ffawcettes and quilles 
for the Wyne Sellor this terme, xviij d. Item for a newe gimblett, ij s. vj d. 
Item for bottles to bring the Lords \vyne in this terme, xiij s. iiij d. Item 
to the cowper for his wages, v s. Item for his boathire, iiij s. Item for 
packthred this terme, viij d. Item for strawing herbes and flowers for the 
Lords Roomeths [sic] this terme, vj s. Item payed to the Grocer for all 
manner of spyces spent in and about the Lords dyette, six dynners this 
terme, as appeereth by a bill reman', xj li. ix s. viij d. Item for a hogges- 
head of stronge beere spent more than ordinarye this terme, xij s. Item 
for j kilderkyn of ale spent more then ordinary this terme, iv s. Item for 
j hh. of small bere spent more then ordinary this terme, vij s. vj d. Item 
in Wages, viz., To Stephen Treakle, master cooke, for his wages for vj 
dayes at iiij s. the daye, xxiiij s. Item to him for lending his stuffe this 
term after vjs. the daye forvj dayes, xxxvjs. Item to him for the boathire 
of himself, his men, stuffe and necessaryes this terme, iiij s. viij d. Item 
to him for his paynes and travell in going to the markett, and in Reward, 
xxx s. Item to Edw. Tomlyns, the Butler, for his wages for vj dayes, after 
xij d. the daye, vj s. Item to him for whyte cuppes and trenchers the same 



7(5 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

dinners at xij d. the dinner, vj s. Item to him for drinking glasses-this 
terme for the Lords, v s. Item to him for Rosewater f or the table, at xii , d. 
the dyner, vj s. Item for vj Tapistrye Cusshions, and for filling and make- 
ing them up against this Terme, v li. iij s. iiij d. Item tor Fawcetts and 
quills for beer? and ale this terme, viij d. Item to Thomas Gibson the 
under butter, for keeping cleane and sweete the pantrye and Seller this 
terme, ii s. vj d. Item to him for a Chipping kmfte, xij d. Item to him , 
for bottles this terme, ij s. Item to him for Glasemg the case knives this 
terme vj d Item to the Laundresse for washing the naperye vj dayes this 
terme' at viij s. the day, xlviij s. Item to the keeper of the drye larder for 
his wages for vj dayes for serving out of Spices, Butter, Eggs, Fruite, and 
other new storyes this terme, at xij d. the daye, vj s. Item to W illyamson 
for serving out the wyne this terme, after xij d. the daye for v] days, vj's. 
Item to the Scowrer of the Starchamber vessel for her wages this Terme, 
viri s Item to Thomas Tucker, the porter, for attending the doores vj. 
dayes, after xij d. the day, vj s. Item to him for goeing to the markett . 
this terme, having iiij d. every day for vj days, ijs. Item to vij poore men 
labouring in the kitchen haveing vj d. a day a peece for vj dayes, xxj s. 
Item to Nicholas Smythe for exercising the stewards 208 office, and for his 
paynes and travell in going 208 to the market, xl s. Item to William 
Godderd, Ussher of the Starchamber for divers provisions and neces- 
saryes by him provided and done for the Cort of Starchamber as 
appereth by his bill Rendered, cxvj s. . . Ixx li. vij s. iij d. 

The wholl charges as well of the dyette and provitions necessary 
for the furniture of the same provided for the Queenes majesties most honor- 
able privye counsell at her Graces Starchamber at Westminster during this 
Hillarye terme the xxxvijth yeare of her Highnes most prosperous raigne. 
As also the wages of certeine Officers and ministers of the same with cxvj s. 
layed out by the Ussher of the said Corte as appeareth by his bill Rem'. 
is . . . . . . clxxiiij li. xs. j d. 

Probatur summa per 

me Johannem Thomson-, 

Auditorem. 
Jo: PUCKERING, C. S. W. BURGHLEY. 



The Provitions of iiij Tonnes and di. of Gascoigne wyne and the 
charges of the same, whiche wyne is layed into the Star- 
chamber Seller for the Service of the Lords and others of her 
majesties most honorable counsell for the xxxvijth yeare of 
her Highnes most happy raigne 1595. 

Imprimis payed to John Swynerton the yonger Marchaunt the xxjth of 
Marche, 1594, for iiij Tonnes and an half of Gascoigne Wyne after the 
Rate of xxij li. x s. the Tonne, wherof deducted vij li. x s. for the new 
Impost, iiij xx. xiij Ib. xv s. Item for the carriage of the said Wyne from 
London to the Starchamber Seller, xij s. Item to the porters for loading 
and unloading and cowching of the said wyne into the Seller, xij s. Item 
to the cowpers for their helpe in tasting and choosing of the same wynes, 
and in looking to them, xiij s. iiij d. Item for the Stewards boathire to 
and from Westminster at sundrye tymes goeing about the same wynes, 
vj s. iiij d. Item to the cowpers for vj c and xij hoopes and chynes sett on 
the hoggesheades of the said wynes Ij s. Item for his boathire iiij s. iiij d 
Item for the cowpers dinners at Westminster at the hooping of the said 
Wynes viij s. Item for iij ells of corse canvas to stop the Bungholes iij s 
Item for xxviij gallons of wyne bought to fill up the hoggesheades that 
did leake by the way Ivj s. Item for ij loads of gravell ij s. . c ij li. iij s. 

Jo: PUCKERING, C. S. W. BURGHLEY. 



Jan. 19.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 77 

Mr. Stoneley, I pray you to pay to Mr, Nicholas Smyth* in full payment sol. p'. Stor 

of the some of two hundred threescore sixteen pounds and thirteen shillings ley et allo< 

for the diets of this Cc. and others in the Starre Chamber in Hillary MichSTSS 

terme laste, and for provision of iiij tunnes of Gascoigne Wynes for this ccli< et te , 

next year as apeareth, the sume of threescore sixteen pounds thirteen mino Pusch 

P'prius st 

V.N: 



Ther was 200 li. imprested this Hillary terme towards these and other 
charges. 

Indorsed: Nich'o Smyth pro dietis in Camera 
Stellat' termino Scti Hillarij 1594. 
cclxxvj li. xiij s. 

HODDER M. WESTROPP, Esq., communicated a paper on the 
Pre-Christian Cross. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these Communications. 



Thursday, January 26th, 1871. 

0. S. PERCEVAL, Esq., LL.D., Director, in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Th,anks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Editor, Mrs. M. A. Everett Green: 

Calendar of State Papers, domestic series, of the reign of Elizabeth, 1601 
1603; with Addenda 15471565; preserved in Her Majesty's Public 
Record Office. 8vo. London, 1870. 

From Her Majesty's Secretary of State for the Home Department: Proclama- 
tions by The Queen as follows : 

1. To publish and declare that the Parliament be further prorogued to 
Thursday, the ninth of February next. 

2. To ordain, declare, and command, that the sovereigns, having for the 
reverse the image of St. George armed, shall pass and be received as current 
and lawful money. 

3. For giving Currency to Gold Coins made at the Branch Mint at Sydney, 
New South Wales, of the like Designs as those approved for the correspond- 
ing Coins of the Currency of the United Kingdom. 

All given at Osborne House, Isle of Wight, 14th January 1871, in 34th year 

of reign. Broadsheet folio (2 copies). 
From the Royal Institute of British Architects : 

Sessional Papers 187071. No. 4. 4to. London, 1871. 
From the Editor, S. Tymms, Esq., F.S.A. : The East Anglian; Notes and 

Queries. Vol. IV. No. 119. 8vo. Lowestoft, 1871. 
From the Royal Society : 

Proceedings. Vol. XIX. No. 124. 8vo. London, 1870. 

* This Nicholas Smyth, a month afterwards, was made Receiver General for 
Middlesex, &c.' Cal. State Papers, Dom. Eliz. Vol. CCL. 1, 1595, Feb. 14. 
f An officer of the receipt of Exchequer. See Rymer, xvi., 497. 



78 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

From the Anthropological Society of London : 

Journal of Anthropology. Vol. I. No. 3. January. 8vo. London, 1871. 

^ Jou A 1C ItfeH^l'/XXXIX. No. 164 8vo. Calcntta, 1870. 
2. Proceedings. No. X. November. 8vo. Calcutta, 1870. 

From Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.S.A. : 

Reliques of the Anglo-Saxon Churches of St. Bridget and St. Hildeburga, 
West Kirkby, Cheshire. Illustrated by Henry Ecroyd Smith. 4to. Liver- 
pool, 1870. 

The Kev. HENRY OLLARD, F.S.A., presented two matrices of 
Seals, one (in bronze) of Ottocar, King of Bohemia, the other 
(in silver) a subject with SS. James and Katherine.* 

Mr. JAMES COLEMAN exhibited an original document .on 
paper, being an instrument under the marks of seven North 
American Indian Chiefs named Kanockere, Alom, Eliggene, 
Nogcotto, Torvis, Wippaycam, and Winappenege, dated July 
10, 1680, whereby the chiefs are declared to have alienated, 
bargained, and sold for themselves and their heirs " unto Mr. 
John Moll, off Newcastle upon Delaware River, in the Behalffe 
of all the Inhabitans Dwellinge att Casr and Broott Hand and 
Creeke and Witte Clay Creeck quite unto the falls thare off 
which are all reddi Seazed and shall gedder here after upon 
any off the said Lands above Christina Creeck as far as the 
Presinqs off Mary Land, y e Land called Musse Cripper tharein 
included .... for a Valuable consideration in voll Satis- 
faction payd unto us." The deed is said to be " geven unther 
Ower [that is the chiefs'] Custumary Marcks &c." 

The marks are rather curious. They are not mere crosses, 
but look like attempts at reproducing with pen and ink the 
totem of each chief. This document bears the following endorse- 
ments. 

1. " Seven Indians ther bill of Seale for all y e Land by on & 
above Christina Kreeke July ye 10th, 1680." 

2. Moll assigned his bargain to William Penn by the following 
memorandum : 

I JNO MOLL doe asseinge all my Reight title and Interest in the Within men- 
tioned Portith unto the Reight Honorad: William Penn Esqr. Propri.or and 
Gouvr. of Pensilvania New Castle &c. my own plantation off two hundered and 
od Akers of Land in Witt Clay Creeke only excepted. New Castle y e 21st day 
of ye 12 m: 1682. JNO. MOLL. 

3. Penn has docketed the instrument thus : 

Jo. MOLLS 

Indian Pur- 

chass to me 

10 Julv 1680. W. P. 



* See Proceedings, 2 S. iv. 431. 



Jan. 26.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 79 

The remaining endorsements only relate to the production of 
the document as an exhibit to a witness (one Patrick Baird) in a 
cause pending in 1740 between John, Thomas, and Richard 
Penn, plaintiffs, and Charles Calvert, Esq., Lord Baltimore in 
the Kingdom of Ireland, defendant, in the Court of Chancery 
at Philadelphia. 

J. J. HOWARD, Esq., LL.D., exhibited, by permission of the 
Mayor and Corporation of Coventry, two original documents : 

1. Letters of deputation under the hand and seal of William 
Lord Compton constituting the Mayor of Coventry and others 
his deputies in the Lieutenancy of the City and County of 
Coventry. 

2. Similar letters by the same after his creation as Earl of 
Northampton in 1618. 

The seals to both instruments are armorial, bearing Compton 
with eleven quarterings ; the second differing from the first only 
by the addition of an earl's coronet. 

The arrangement of the quarterings on these two seals is very 
anomalous. The twelve coats are arranged in three row T s, as if 
marshalled in the usual manner from 1 to 12, but on examina- 
tion it appears that the first two rows are as it were two grand 
quarters (each quarterly of four) placed side by side ; the 
dexter grand quarter, comprising coats 1, 2, 5,. 6, being as 
follows : 

1. Sable, a lion of England between three esquire's helmets 
argent. Compton, with an augmentation granted 1512 by 
King Henry VIII. 

2. A fess engrailed between six billets. Ayl worth.* 

5. On a chevron three estoiles. Compton, ancient. 

6. A chevron within a bordure, entoyre of roundels. 

Now these four coats thus marshalled appear in a window in 
Baliol College Chapel,* both on the tabard of the kneeling figure 
representing Sir William Compton (great-grandfather of the 
first Earl of Northampton, with whose seal we are dealing), and 
on an escucheon placed in front of him. 

The second coat is for the match of Sir William's father with 
Joan, daughter and heir of Walter Ayl worth, Esq. As to 
number 5 (third on Sir William's tabard and escucheon), see 
Mr. Shirley's remarks in Archseologia, xliii. 62. 

The sinister " grand quarter," embracing the quarterings 
3, 4, 7, and 8, comprised the following coats : 

3. [Argent], two bars [sable], a crescent for difference. 
Brer e ton. 

* Dugd. Warw. ii. 550. 



80 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 

4. [Gules], a chevron between 10 cross-crosslets within a 
bordure [argent J. Berkeley of Beverstone. 

7. A saltire engrailed. 

8 as 3. 

These four coats again, similarly marshalled, are to be found 
in the same window both on the mantle* of Dame Werburga 
Compton, who is kneeling opposite her husband Sir William, 
and on the escucheon placed side by side with his own between 
the two figures. This lady was a daughter of Sir John Brereton 
by Catherine, daughter and heir of Maurice Berkeley of Bever- 
stone. 

This exhausts the first eight quarterings on the two first rows. 
The blazon of the lowest row, the remaining four coats, fol- 
lows : 

9. [Gules], a lion rampant within a bordure engrailed [orj. 
Talbot Earl of Shrewsbury. 

10. [Or] , on a bend [gules cotised azure] between six mart- 
lets [of the second?], three wings argent. Walden. 

11. Party per fess, in chief three birds, in base a crescent. 

12. A chevron between three [leaves?] 

Peter Compton, grandfather of William the first Earl, mar- 
ried Anne daughter of George Talbot Earl of Shrewsbury by 
Elizabeth daughter and coheir of Sir Richard Walden of Erith, 
Kent. Anne was heir to her mother, but not to her father, who 
had male issue by a former wife. How the coats to which such 
an inheritrix is entitled ought to be marshalled by her son and 
his posterity and in particular whether or no such son has a 
right to quarter his mother's father's coat " of name " (in the 
present instance " Talbot") immediately before the arms of his 
mother's-mother's family, so as to show, as it were, the source 
through which he became entitled to them is a point which has 
been much discussed and never settled. Lord Northampton's 
practice in this particular is at ail events approved by the au- 
thority of the MS. in the College of Arms, attributed to Glover, 
and printed in Dallaway's Enquiry, &c., p. 370. f 

The two last coats which have not been identified, are, no 
doubt, Walden quarterings. 

F. W. BURTON, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited an axe-head, formed 
of a compact greenish stone, polished at the two ends, but left 
rough in the middle, where the hafting would be. Length 

* These quarterings belonging to the lady's own family should properly have 
been depicted on her kirtle, and not on her mantle, the correct place for her 
husband's arms, but the decay of heraldry had already begun when the window in 
question was set up. 

f See paragraph 5 in the footnote to p. 371 of that work. 



Jan. 26.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 81 

6 inches, width at the lunate edge 3 inches, greatest thickness 
about 1 inch. Found at Lough Neagh, co. Tyrone. 

The REV. H. M. SCARTH, M.A. Local Secretary for Somerset- 
shire, communicated some account of Ancient Remains recently 
found on the site of the Abbey of Keynsham, Somersetshire. 

The following is an abstract of Mr. Scarth's paper : 

The Abbey of Keynsham, scarcely any remains of which now 
exist, was situated midway between Bath and Bristol, nearly 
six miles distant from each, and upon the south bank of the 
river Avon, at the point where it is joined by the river Chew. 
The abbey stood just at the junction of the two rivers, at the 
opening of a pleasant valley, and looked down upon the rich 
meadow lands which bordered the Avon and stretch along its 
course between Bath and Bristol. All that now remains of this 
once nourishing and extensive monastic settlement is a portion 
of the boundary wall, and the parish church which formerly 
belonged to the abbey. 

A few particulars relating to the history of the abbey will be 
found in Collinson.* According to this authority the monastery 
was founded for Austin Canons by William Earl of Gloucester 
(ob. 1173) at the request of his son Robert, who predeceased 
his father. Both are stated to have been buried in the abbey 
church, which stood south-east of the present parish* church. 

The ground on which the abbey stood has recently been 
cleared for building villas, and the consequent excavations have 
brought to light some monumental inscriptions and other re- 
mains, of which some account follows. 

Unhappily many of the monumental slabs have been destroyed, 
though the remains of tabernacle work and other decorations 
have been preserved by the builder who is constructing the villas. 
The Bath Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club, how- 
ever, obtained possession of two of the best monumental slabs for 
the Bath Literary and Scientific Institution. These are now 
placed under the portico of the Institution, and the inscriptions 
on these, and on the others which are now destroyed, are faith- 
fully recorded in the proceedings of that Society. f 

The oldest of these inscribed stones is one which has the in- 
scription round the edge in Norman-French, and has on the 
surface an Early-English cross, ornamented with trefoils at the 
extremity of each limb. The length of the stone is 7 feet 
4J inches ; the breadth of the upper part 2 feet 5 J inches ; the 

* History of Somersetshire, ii. 402. 

f Sec Proceedings of Bath Nat. Hist, and Antiq. Field Club for 1869. No. 1, 
page 78. 

VOL. V. G 



82 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

lower 1 foot 8 inches. The writing is that of the twelfth cen- 
tury, and the inscription as follows : 

+ ISAB6L . De . PeNDGLSFORD . GYST . ICI 

DGU . Dec . 5fficrce . err . crceRCi . SOOGN . 

P3T6R . GT . SVe . 

This lady was probably a benefactress to the abbey, and took 
her name from a place now called Pens-ford, but at the date of 
the stone written Pendles-ford. 

The next slab contains on the surface a very elaborate cross 
of a much later date, and has the name of if)C inscribed in the 
centre of the upper part, which is trefoiled and cusped, The 
inscription runs thus: 

K< HIC . IACIT . WALTERUS . JOIE . (or IOCE) 
CANONICVS . NVPER . CVSTOS . CAPELLE SANCTE 
ANNE IN THE WODE . 
CVJVS ANIME PROPICIETVR ALTISSIMVS . AMEN. 

The style of the cross and lettering fix the date of this in the 
early part of the sixteenth century. 

On another inscription is also found the expression " Sancta 
Anna in Silva" or " in the Wode," referring to a chapel which was 
situated at Brislington, and belonged to the abbey of Keynsham. 
A description of this chapel, which was founded by one of the 
Lords de la Warre, will be found in Collinson.* 

Another slab, which was broken in several pieces, had the 
following couplet upon it, together with the date, A.D, 1499, in 
Arabic numerals : 

IN MARSHFIELD NATVS GRANT ABBAS ECCE JOHANNES, 
T HIC SVB PVLVERE PRES 

On another portion of the slab was inscribed : 

OBIIT IR KALEND MARCH A. DOMINI MR-)] (1499). 

The discovery of this stone enables us to correct the list of 
abbats of this house as given by Collinson. f Quoting, appa- 
rently from Browne Willis (Hist, of Mitred Abbeys, ii. 198), he 
says that John Graunt was elected abbat in 1493, and that he 
died in 1505. In fact, his confirmation, which must immedi- 
ately have succeeded his election, took place on June 1, 1487, { 
and his death, as we see, occurred in 1499. His successor, 

* History of Somersetshire, ii. 412. 
t Ibid. ii. 402. 

f Dug. Mon. correctly citing Wells Registers. See Button's Collections from 
those registers, MS. Harl. 6966, fo. 72 a. 



Jan. 26.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 83 

omitted by Collinson, was Philip Keynesham, who was confirmed 
as abbat on May 31 of the same year.* 

Three other incised slabs, lying side by side, were to the 
memory of the Deschell family. One was thus inscribed : 

IESV MISERERE ELEANOR DESCHELL 
QVONDAM CONSORTIS JOHANNIS DESCHELL 
CUJUS CORPUS HIC REQUIESCIT ANNO DOM- 
INI . MCCCCC . JESU FILI DEI MISERERE 

MEI . AMEN. 

A second is to the memory of IOHANNIS DESCHELL, the 
husband of Eleanor ; the name alone of this was legible. A third 
had the name obliterated, and only the words 



HIC REQUIESCIT CORPUS 

CUJUS ANIME PROPITIETUR . . . 

Another slab which had been turned with its face downwards, 
had the following inscription, and a cross and scroll in the 
centre : 

HIC JACET IOHN SPALDYNG 

CUSTOS, AC FRATRIBUS SEMPER AMABILIS ET GRATUS, ET CUSTOS 
SANCTE ANNE I SILVA. CUJUS ANIME PROPITIETUR .MAG . DEUS. 

The scroll contained the following words : 

DOMINE SECUNDUM MISERICORDIAM 
TUAM VOLO ME JUDICARL 

Other fragmentary inscriptions were scattered about, one to a 
man and his wife, having two floriated crosses in it, above which 
was a shield supported by an angel, with the name of IHS in- 
scribed upon it. The only part of the inscription remaining was 
the following words : 

HIC IACENT CATERINA UXOR 

EJUS CUJUS ANIMIS PROPITIETUR DEUS. 

Numerous fragments of carved stone and tabernacle work, 
still bearing the traces of colour, were dug up, and these have 
been preserved by the builder to whom the site belongs. One of 
these has a stone book with four lines in each page, being pro- 
bably a quotation from the Vulgate. The date of these fragments is 
the fifteenth century. There is also a finely executed small figure 

v Harl. MSS. 6966, fo. 83 a. 
G2 



g4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

of our Lord riding into Jerusalem on the ass. The capital of an 
Early-English column, very well executed, has been presented 
hy Mr. Cox the builder to the Literary and Scientific Institution, 
Bath, where two of the inscribed monumental slabs now lie. 
Portions of Norman work, Early-English, Decorated, and Perpen- 
dicular, have also been found. Several of the monumental slabs 
have been used a second time. Beneath a large blue Purbeck 
marble slab, on the surface of which was the indentation of a 
fine brass, the skull and bones of an aged man were found four 
feet below the surface in a walled grave. 

The greater part of these slabs and fragments were obtained 
from a spot which appears to have been occupied by the north 
aisle of the abbey church.* 

Mr. Scarth's communication was accompanied by a large plan 
of the buildings, and by several tracings from decorative tiles 
found within the abbey precincts. 

Of these, some exhibited the characteristic patterns of the 
thirteenth century. Besides the very common device of a cross 
flory between four birds placed within a circle, known as St. 
Edward the Confessor's arms, the only armorial tiles of an early 
date were the two following : 

1. A fragment with a shield bearing Argent, ten torteaux. In 
the lower corner or spandril, formed by the curve of the base of 
the shield, was placed a bishop's mitre drawn in profile, not, as usual, 
front-faced. This coat may with some confidence be assigned 
to Godfrey Giffard Bishop of Worcester, 1268-1302, whose 
paternal arms, here portrayed, became the arms of his see. 

2. A second shield, perhaps somewhat later in execution, ex- 
hibited a fess between six billets for Beauchamp. 

A shield of the beginning of the fifteenth century bears the 
keys and sword in saltire of the see of Wells ; and lastly a coat, 
evidently by its composition a grant of the beginning of the reign 
of Henry VIII., but which it has not been possible hitherto to 
appropriate. It may be described thus : Red, on a chevron 
engrailed between 3 (oak leaves ?) yellow, a chief red guttee yel- 
low [probably meant for ermine] . 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these Communica- 
tions. 



* Mr. Scarth refers to Addit. MSS. Brit. Mus. 15554, fo. 50, for a transcript 
of a deed dated 1495 relating to the abbey, and Addit. MSS. 13949 for epitaphs 
in the church. 



Feb. 2.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 85 

Thursday, February 2nd, 1871. 
EARL STANHOPE, President, in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Author : Speculations on the former Topography of Liverpool and 
its Neighbourhood. Part. III. A Paper read before the Liverpool Literary 
and Philosophical Society, October 17th, 1870. By Joseph Boult. 8vo. 
Liverpool, 1870. 

From the Author: Notes on Starston Church, and a Mural Painting lately dis- 
covered there. By E. Makilwaine Phipson, F.S.A. F.R.I.B.A. 8vo. 

From the British Archaeological Association : The Journal. December 31, 1870. 
8vo. London, 1870. (Completing vol. xxvi.) 

From the London Institution : Their Journal. No. 2. Vol. i. 8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Author: On the Personal Names and Surnames used in England in 
the Thirteenth Century, as illustrated by the Hartwell Evidences. By 
W. H. Black, Esq. F.S.A. 8vo. London, 1870. 

Charles Fox Roe, Esq. was admitted a Fellow. 

The Very Rev. the Dean of Westminster exhibited and pre- 
sented a plaster cast of the foot of the Cross on the tomb of 
Valerius Amandinus, discovered in December 1869 in the 
precincts of Westminster Abbey.* 

DOYNE C. BELL, Esq. exhibited, by the gracious permission 
of Her Majesty the Queen, a gold Armlet with spiral ribs in 
sharp relief. A figure of this object with a descriptive note by 
A. W. Franks, Esq. V.P. will appear in the Appendix to the 
Archgeologia, vol. xliii. 

It was ordered that the Special Thanks of the Society be 
conveyed to- Her Majesty as an acknowledgment of Her 
Gracious kindness in sanctioning this Exhibition. 

JOHN PIGGOT, Jun. Esq. F.S.A. exhibited two Illuminated 
Manuscripts, one . of which in particular is of considerable 
interest. They w^ere thus described by the Secretary : 

1. A manuscript on 126 leaves of vellum, measuring 7J inches 
by 5J. It contains hours and legends of Saints, and the 
illuminations are as miscellaneous as the text. The bulk of the 



* See Proceedings 2 S. iv. 409 ; Archaeological Journal, xxvii. 257, and 
elsewhere in that volume. 



86 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

volume is in a hand which may be assigned to the period 1480 
to 1500, but a portion at the end dates from 1430 'to 1440; 
while a number of illuminated letters and ornaments have been 
cut out of a book of the end of the thirteenth century and 
pasted on to the leaves and within the borders and on the mar- 
gins of the most modern work. These last in particular are 
very curious in conception, and of considerable beauty in 
execution. Early on in the volume occur some figures of the 
signs of the Zodiac, which have evidently belonged to the calen- 
dar of the oldest of the three manuscripts. To judge from the 
names of the local saints in the calendar prefixed to the volume, 
the first and larger portion would appear to have been written 
either in Hainault or Flanders. Thus we find, under January. 30, 
St. Aldegondis, a native of Hainault, said to be the blood royal 
of France, who was Abbess of Maubeuge, in Flanders Her 
sister St. Waldetrudis or Yaudru (April 9) patroness of Mons, 
in Hainault, also occurs. The saints Amatus (September 
13) and Mauront (May 5) both belong to Douay ; St. Aubert 
(December 13) to Cambray. The relics of St. Aycardus 
(September 15) found a resting place at Harpres, a monastery 
situated between Cambray and Valenciennes, all which places 
are in Flanders. St. Kemaclus (September 3) was Bishop of 
Maestricht, somewhat further north, in Limbourg. St. Piat 
(October 1) was the Apostle of Tournay, in Hainault. Mr. J. 
C. Robinson, F.S.A. informs me that the Duke of Aumale has 
in bis possession a small missal, which he believes must have 
been the very counterpart of this oldest manuscript, filled with 
subjects treated in a similar grotesque style. It may be useful 
to mention as a means of identifying the manuscript at any 
future period that a curious mistake occurs on the leaf facing 
an illuminated group of five Saints, viz. : St. Donis, St. George, 
St. Christopher, St. Blase, St. Giles. In the list of names of 
the Saints here represented the scribe has written that of St. 
Penis twice over, instead of substituting that of St. Giles, of 
whose identity in the group before us there can be no mistake, 
certified as it is by the adjunct or emblem of the leaping hind. 
The same emblem will be found connected with St. Giles in 
another part of this volume. Some of the subjects in the larger 
illuminations seem to be obscure. The figure of St. Quentin on 
the last leaf but three does not agree with the ordinary repre- 
sentations of that Saint, as he here holds in his hands those nails 
which ordinarily are figured as transfixing his shoulders. The 
wheel and the fetters are wanting." 

2. " A manuscript on 87 leaves of vellum, 5 J inches by 
4 inches. It contains hours and prayers, It is of French work 
of the first quarter of the fifteenth century," 



Feb. 2. j SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 87 

The MAYOR and CORPORATION of BODMIN exhibited, by the 
hand of the Rev. W. lago, the two following objects : 

1. A Casket or coffer about 1 foot 6 inches by 1 foot in length 
and width, in height about 10 inches. The lid sloped off' on each 
side. The box was entirely formed of thin sheets of ivory, 
strengthened by gilt metal bands, with the exception of the 
bottom, which was of light wood. The exterior surface of the 
ivory was ornamented by single figures of birds and monsters 
painted in colour, and exhibiting traces of gilding. The style 
of the drawing of these objects exhibited marked traces of an 
Oriental influence, which was also apparent in the diapered 
pattern fully coloured in red, black, and yellow, which decorated 
the bottom of the casket. 

Few of these ivory coffers have survived to our times ; hence 
arises a difficulty in determining the place of their manufacture. 

Although they strongly recall Sicilian mediaeval art, it seems 
more probable that they were productions of the Hispaiio- 
Moresque school. 

There are three coffers of similar work, though much smaller 
than the Bodmin casket, in the South Kensington Museum (see 
overleaf), and of these it is understood that two were procured 
in Spain. 

The coffer exhibited this evening is said to have come into the 
possession of the Bodmin Corporation from the dissolved Priory 
of St. Mary and St. Petroc. There is a small woodcut of it to 
be found at page 231 of the History of the Deanery of Trigg 
Minor, by Sir John Maclean, F. S.A. to whose suggestion it was 
owing that the Society had the present opportunity of inspecting 
this curious work of art. Careful drawings have been taken 
with the view to publication. 

2. A cylindrical Box of cuir bouilli, about 8 inches in dia- 
meter and a foot high, with stamped patterns, dating perhaps 
from the fifteenth century, fitted with a cover sliding on and off, 
like the modern pencil case. A woodcut of this interesting box 
will be found in the Journal of the Archaeological Institute, 
xxviii. 138. 

The Rev. J. H. BLUNT, F. S.A. "exhibited a collection of early 
Deeds, mostly with fine seals attached, and relating almost 
entirely to the Cistercian Abbey of Robertsbridge, in Sussex. 
Upon these documents some observations were made by C. S. 
Perceval, Esq. Director, which will appear in the Arclu\3ologia. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these Communications. 



88 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Thursday, February 9th, 1871. 
AUGUSTUS W. FRANKS, Esq. Y.P. in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Author : Description of the Park Cwm Trannlns. By Sir John Lub- 
bock, Bart. M.P. F.S.A. [From Journal of the Ethnological Society of 
London.] 8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Author : The Personal Expenses of Charles II. in the City of Wor- 
cester. By Eichard Woof, Esq. F.S.A. [From Transactions- of tb His- 
torical Society of Great Britain.] 8vo. 

From the Shropshire and North Wales Natural History and Antiquarian 
Society : Annual Report for 1870. 8vo. Shrewsbury, 1871. 

From the Cambrian Archaeological Association : Archseologia Cambrensis. 
Fourth Series. No. 5. January. 8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Author : The Emerald Vernicle of the Vatican. By C. W. King, 
M.A. [From the Archaeological Journal, vol. xxvii.] 8vo. London, 
1870. 

From the Author : Die Haus- und Hofmarken. Von Dr. C. G. Homeyer. 4to. 
Berlin, 1870. 

From the Hon. Arthur Dillon, F.S.A. : 

1. Hecatommithi, overo Cento Novelle di Gio. Battista Giraldi Cinthio, 
Nobile Ferrarese. (In two parts.) Sq. 8vo. Venice, 1608. 

2. De Abassinorum Rebus, deque ./Ethiopiae Patriarchis Joanne Nonio 
Barreto, et Andrea Oyiedo, libri tres : P. Nicolao Godigno Societatis 
Jesu Auctore. Nunc primum in lucem emissi. 8vo. Ley den, 1615. 

From the Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society : 

1. Their Magazine, Nos. 32, 35, and 36. (Vols. xi. and xii.) 8vo. Devizes, 
1868-70. 

2. Some Account of the Blackmore Museum, Salisbury. Part 2. 8vo. 

From the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society. Vol. iii. Part 10. 
[Completing vol. iii.] 8vo. London, 1870. 

From the Eoyal Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland : Chris- 
tian Inscriptions in the Irish Language. Chiefly collected and drawn by 
George Petrie. Edited by M. Stokes. Part 1. 4to. Dublin, 1870. 

From W. S. Walford, Esq. F.S.A. : Raymundi Duellii Excerptornm Genealo- 
gico-Historicorum Libri duo. Folio. Leipsic, 1725. 

From the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland : Their Journal 
New Series. Vol. v. Part 1. 8vo. London, 1870. 

Special Thanks were voted to Dr. C. G. Homeyer for the 
interesting work presented by him to the Library. 

The DEPARTMENT of SCIENCE AND ART exhibited three ivory 
Coffrets of similar work to that described at page 87. Although 
much smaller, the character of the metal work and of the 
paintings was the same. One of them was adorned with 



Feb. 9.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. ' 89 

shields " with armorial bearings, which, to judge by the style, 
might have been executed in the fourteenth century. 

Sir M. DIGBY WYATT, F.S.A. exhibited a Box of walnut 
wood, ornamented with carved scroll patterns, which he had 
obtained at Toulouse from a dealer who had brought it from 
Spain. It might probably be assigned to the end of the fifteenth 
century, and, as the exhibitor remarked in a letter to the 
Secretary, offered a curious example of what the Spaniards 
call "Mudejar" work, that is work done by Moors for 
Spaniards, half way between ordinary Moorish and Spanish. 

The ornament on the box in question inclined towards Re- 
naissance, but in many of the forms, particularly in the peculiar 
ending of some of the scrolls, it gave clear evidence of the 
Moorish taste. The box was probably made for some knight of 
Santiago, as^on one side is to be seen the celebrated sword of 
St. James surmounting the monogram IHS. 

This exhibition was peculiarly interesting in connection with 
that of the ivory caskets previously mentioned. 

C. D. E. FORTNUM, Esq. F.S.A. communicated, in the follow- 
ing letter to the Secretary, some account of recent discoveries in 
Rome : 

" I have just received a letter from my frtend Sig. R. 
Lanciani, of Rome, who holds office under the new Commission 
for the Preservation and Excavation of Antique Monuments, and 
who tells me that 

" 6 A very important discovery was reported the other day, 
which I went to see yesterday. In pulling down one of the 
semi-circular towers (the right one) near the Porta Salaria, 
which is now undergoing repair, a beautiful Roman tomb was 
brought to light, included by Honorius (or Aurelian ?) in his 
rebuilding of the walls. It has pillars of white Luiii marble 
with the ' entre-pilastres ' of travertine. The general aspect of 
the monument is not very far from that of Bibula's tomb ; but 
no inscription has yet been found. Still it is a very important 
f capo soldo ' to mark the line of the old road. 

" e They have just discovered a second tomb at the Porta 
Salaria ; it is of marble, and belonged to a child of eleven years 
five months and ten days an improvisatore poetess. Her 
parents tell us in the inscription that, in order to show that they 
do not exagerate in their affection for her (ne parentes adfectibus 
suis indulsisse videantur), they have had incised on the cippus 
some Greek compositions improvised by the young poetess. En 
effet on each side of the statue of the child in alto rilievo there 
is a very long composition in hexameters upon some quarrel 



90 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 

between Jupiter and Apollo on the subject of Phaeton.- ' Other 
EIIirPAMMATA are engraved beneath the Latin inscription. 

W. H. BLACK, Esq. F.S.A. communicated a paper on a 
hitherto unnoticed Expedition of the Emperor Augustus into 
Britain. The first part of this paper, which will appear in- the 
Archseologia, was read on this occasion. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these Communications. 

Thursday, February 16th, 1871. 
EAKL STANHOPE, President, in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Editor, S. Tymms, Esq. F.S.A. : The East Anglian. Vol. 4. No. 

120. 8vo. Loweatoft, 1871. 
From the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club : Proceedings. Vol. vii. No. 2. 

8vo. Alnwick, 1870. 
From the Author : Seven Inventories of Welsh Friaries. Edited by the Rev. 

M. E. C. Walcott, B.D., F.S.A. [From Archseologia Cambrensis.] 8vo. 

London, 1870. 
From the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland : Proceedings. Vol. vii. Fart 2. 

[Completing vol. vii.] Sq. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1870. 

From the Author: The Crown Lands : being an Essay on the Right of the 
Queen and Royal Family of England to Monetary Support from the 
Nation. By John W. Lyndon. 8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Author : A History of Lichfield Cathedral from its Foundation to 
the present time. By J. B. Stone, F.G.S. 4to. London, 1870. 

Robert William Edis, Esq. and Robert Furley, Esq. were 
admitted Fellows. 

THOMAS LEWIN, Esq. F.S.A. communicated a memoir on the 
Sites of the Temple at Jerusalem, of Antonia, and of the Acra. 

The first portion only of this paper was read this evening. 
The whole will appear in the Archaeologia. 

In connection with this communication the Palestine Explora- 
tion Fund Committee exhibited several drawings and plans, and 
a model of the rock of the Haram. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for this Communication. 



Feb. 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 91 



Thursday, February 23rd, 1871. 



FKEDERIC OUVRY, Esq., Treasurer, and subsequently th 
Very Rev. The DEAN OF WESTMINSTER, V.P., ii 



the 

-, in 
the Chair. 



The following Presents were announced, and Thanks for the 
same ordered to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Hon. A. Dillon, F.S.A. : Hugonis Grotii de Jure Belli ac Pacis libri 
tres. Editio Nova. 8vo. Amsterdam, 1670. 

From the Author : On the claims of Science to Public Recognition and Sup- 
port ; with special reference to the so-called " Social Sciences." By William 
A. Guy, M.B. F.R.S. (From Journal of Statistical Society.) 8vo. Lon- 
don, 1870. 

From the Author : Some Account of the Megalithic Remains in South Dorset. 
By E. Hadlow Wise Dunkin. (From the Reliquary.) 8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Author, C. R. Markham, Esq. F.S.A. : Entries in an old Pocket 
Book, of A.D. 1680, belonging to Sir Robert Markham, Bart, of Sedgebrook, 
co. Lincoln. 8vo. London, 1869. 

From W. Consitt Boulter, Esq. F.S.A. : 

1. On the prospective advantages of a Visit to the Town of Hull by the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science. By Charles Frost, 
F.S.A. 8vo. Hull, 1853. 

2. The Queen's Visit to Hull, Friday and Saturday, October 13th and 14th, 
1854. Second Edition. By James Smith. 8vo. Hull, 1854. 

From the Numismatic Society : The Numismatic Chronicle. New Series. No. 
40. (Completing vol. x.) 8vo. London, 1870. 

From W. M. Wylie, Esq. M.A. F.S.A. : Praxis Rerum Civilium, auctore Jodoco 
Damhouderio. 8vo. Antwerp, 1567. 

OCTAVIUS MORGAN, Esq. M.P., F.S.A., exhibited a pair of 
Rock Crystal Cups, which he accompanied by the following 
remarks in a letter addressed to the Secretary : 

" I have "sent for exhibition this evening a pretty object which 
has recently come into my possession, viz. : A pair of rock 
crystal cups mounted in silver gilt, which fit together as a box, 
similar to those of silver gilt and. of larger size which seem to 
have been in use in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, and 
are occasionally represented on cup-boards in illuminated MSS. 
of that period. If I remember rightly there is now at the 
Record Office the cuir bouilli case of one, which was formerly 
used for holding small documents ; it is however of considerable 
size. Vessels of this form are not common, and I have never 
seen one before. The date of this may be the sixteenth century." 

The height of the two cups, when placed one on the other, 
was 5J inches, their extreme diameter 2J inches. 



92 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

The second portion of Mr. Lewin's paper on the Site of the 
Temple of Jerusalem was read. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these Communications. 



Thursday, March 2nd, 1871. 
AUGUSTUS W. FKANKS, Esq. V.P. in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Royal College of Physicians : List of the Fellows, Members, Extra- 
Licentiates, and Licentiates. 8vo. London, 1871. 
From the Key. F. T. Havergal, M.A. Loc. Sec. S.A. Herefordshire : 

1. Magna Charta, cum Statutis, turn antiquis, turn recentibns, maximopere 
animo tenendis, jam noviter excusa, et summa diligentia emendata et cor- 
recta. Sm. 8vo. London, 1602. 

2. Selectiora Numismata in sere maximi moduli e Museo Francisci de 
Campo, concisis interpretationibus per D. Vaillant D. M. et Cenomanensium 
Ducis Antiquarium illustrata. 4to. Paris, 1695. 

3. An Essay upon Prints. Second Edition. 8vo. London, 1768. 

4. Picturesque Antiquities of Scotland, etched by Adam de Cardonnel. (In 
two parts.) 8vo. London, 1788. 

5. A Glimpse at the Monumental Architecture and Sculpture of Great 
Britain, from the earliest period to the eighteenth century. By Matthew 
Holbeche Bloxam. 8vo. London, 1834. 

From the Author : Brief Chapters on British Carpentry : History and Prin- 
ciples of Gothic Roofs. By Thomas Morris. 8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Royal Society : Proceedings. Vol. xix. No. 125. 8vo. London, 
1871. 

FRANK BUCKLAND, Esq. called the attention of the Meeting 
to the still continuing destruction of the ancient entrenchments 
known as the Dyke Hills, at Dorchester, Oxfordshire. ' 

It will be recollected that in May 1870 the Society en- 
deavoured to arrest the then threatened destruction of these 
earthworks.* It appeared however that in spite of remon- 
strances addressed to him from this and other quarters, Mr. 
Latham, the owner and occupier of the land, had commenced 
the work of destruction, and had levelled and ploughed up a 
considerable portion of the remains on the flat ground on the 
Oxfordshire side of the river. 

* See Proceedings, 2 S. iv. 496. 



March 2.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 93 

After some discussion, in which Col. A. H. Lane Fox, F.S.A. 
and W. H. Black, Esq. F.S.A. took a part, it was arranged 
that Mr. Buckland and Colonel Lane Fox should proceed to the 
spot and do their best to interest Mr. Latham in the preser- 
vation of the Dykes. 

The Society meanwhile passed the following Resolution, of 
which such use was to be made by Col. Lane Fox and Mr. Buck- 
land as should in their judgment seem best. 

"The Society of Antiquaries regrets to find that the remon- 
strances drawn up by the Society last year against the levelling 
of Dorchester Dykes have proved unavailing, and that the work 
of destruction still progresses. The Society loses no time in 
renewing the expression of its most urgent wish that the owner 
and occupier of the property would take all possible measures to 
preserve this interesting relic of British antiquity." 

The Vice-President in the Chair called the attention of the 
Society to the threatened destruction of " Caesar's Camp " at 
Wimbledon. The Secretary was instructed to make inquiries 
as to the quarter to which the remonstrances of the Society might 
properly be addressed. 

RICHARD REDMOND CATON, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited and pre- 
sented a Silver Seal of the town of Amarsweiler, or Marivillier, 
near Colmar, in Alsatia. 

This seal is circular, 1J inch in diameter. Subject St. Martin 
dividing his cloak with the Beggar. Legend, on a scroll, of 
which the ends terminate on the field : 



s secEGTvao civmms 

Mr. Caton also exhibited a Silver Seal, which may be thus 
described : 

Circular, inch in diameter. Subject, in a six-foiled panel, 
a shield bearing a bend between a lion rampant in chief and 
three cinquefoils in base. Legend : 

S IK NO LG . RI CG. 

Col. A. H. LANE Fox, F.S.A. exhibited : 

1. Two small penannular Rings of Gold with a spiral twist, 
much resembling in character the armlet exhibited on the part 
of Her Majesty on Feb. 2, 1871. These rings, one of which 
will be engraved, together with the armlet just mentioned, in 
the Archgeologia, vol. xliii. Appendix, were believed by the 
owner to have come from Africa. 

2. A flint implement (figured on page 94) brought from 
Honduras by a naval officer some years ago. 



94 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



[1871, 





FLINT IMPLEMENT FROM HONDURAS. 
Scale f rds, linear. 



March 2.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 95 

Except in its smaller size and finer workmanship it resembles 
one in the Blackmore Museum at Salisbury. See Stevens' Flint 
Chips, Frontispiece. 

The Rev. F. J. RAWLINS exhibited, by the hand of A. W. 
Franks, Esq. V.P. two curious objects found in the Thames 
near Windsor, and which the latter gentleman described as 
follows : 

" 1. A triangular instrument of dark olive-brown flint, of 
which the edges are slightly convex in outline. 

" One of them, which is 3fV inches wide, is brought to a fair 
edge by chipping ; the other two, which are each 3 inches wide, 
are ground down so as to form fine smooth edges ; the greatest 
thickness is three-eighths of an inch. 

" I have seen a certain number of implements of the same 
description, but generally circular or quadrangular with rounded 
angles. A Quadrangular one from the collection of W. J. 
Bernhard Smith, Esq. and found at Pentrefoelas, Denbighshire, 
is engraved in the Archaeological Journal, xvii. 171 ; two others 
from Cambridgeshire are in the collection of John Evans, Esq. 
F.R.S. F.S.A. In these specimens, however, the polished 
edge extends all round, and but little of the original chipping 
of the surface is now visible. 

" In various parts of Derbyshire circular implements of the 
same kind have been found. 

" It has been conjectured that these flints have been used for 
flaying, like the so-called " Picts' knives" that are often found in 
Shetland. 

" 2. A bronze sickle-shaped implement with a cylindrical 
socket for handle, and two rivet holes ; the blade has a central 
ridge, is curved, and appears to have been sharp on both edges. 
(See woodcut) Such objects have not unfrequently been found 
in Ireland, but in England they occur more rarely. One found 
in Cambridgeshire is engraved in the Archaeological Journal, 




BRONZE SICKLE FROM THE THAMES. 
Scale frds, linear. 



9(5 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

vol. vii. p. 302. Another from the Thames was exhibited to the 
Society some time since;* a third specimen, also from the 
Thames, is in the collection of John Evans, Esq. F.S.A. and an 
Alderney specimen is engraved in the Journal of the British 
Archaeological Association, vol. iii. p. 9. 

" In a description of the antiquities found at Camenz, in 
Saxony, Mr. Evans has described several foreign examples, f 
None of these specimens however quite resemble that exhibited 
by Mr. Rawlins, which bears more analogy with Irish forms, 
for instance with that engraved in Wilde's Catalogue of the 
Museum of the Royal Irish Academy, p. 527, fig. 404.' r 

The Rev. W. H. BATHURST exhibited a number of Romaii 
Antiquities found from time to time on the site of the Roman 
villa in his park at Lydney, Gloucestershire, and communicated 
a written description of the same, of which the following is an 
abstract : 

" The Roman station in Lydney Park is situated about 8 J 
miles from Chepstow, and about 20 from Gloucester, on the north- 
west bank of the river Severn, from which it is distant about 
2 miles. It stands not far to the west from the Roman road 
which is believed to have connected Gloucester (Glevum) with 
Caerwent (Venta Silurum) in Monmouthshire. Its ancient 
name is unknown, but it may have been one of the fortified 
posts which P. Ostorius is said by Tacitus (Ann. xii. 31) to 
have established near the banks of the Severn in order to 
restrain the incursions of the neighbouring tribes. 

u The station at Lydney consists of two camps situated on two 
neighbouring hills, separated by a deep valley. The smaller of 
these is nearly circular, and not more than 50 yards across. 
As it stands on the summit of the first rising ground from the 
river, it may have been an outpost for defence or observation. 
Nothing appears here but a mound surrounding the top of the 
hill, with some traces on one side of a second and third mound. 
Broken pottery has been found here, and a few coins ; also some 
hewn stones but these have a modern appearance. 

" The larger camp on the opposite hill is of an oblong shape, 
adapting itself to the form of the hill, about 830 feet in length, 
and 370 in breadth. On the south-west portion of this area lay 
the buildings which I have to describe. Some very imperfect 
views of the two camps were given by Major Ro'oke in the 
Archaeologia, v. 208. The only portion of the buildings then 
opened was what he calls < a very elegant bath,' of which * a 

* See Proceedings, 2 S. iv. 85. 

| See Proceedings, 2 S. iii. 328; see also 2 S. iv. 218. 



March 2.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 97 

very inaccurate drawing made in 1775 will be found in the 
Antiquarian Repertory, ii. 389.' 

" No regular examination of these remains was made till the 
year 1805, when curiosity was excited by the accidental dis- 
covery of a piece of pavement, and the whole surface was then 
gradually opened, measures carefully taken of every wall as it 
was exposed, and a plan made of the buildings. An irregular 
wall seems to have surrounded that part of the hill which was 
built upon : the remainder of the area is bounded by a mound 
of earth, except in one place where the steepness of the slope 
might make such a defence unnecessary. On the north, where 
the ground rises above the level of the camp, there are traces of 
a double mound and fosse. 

"A series of coins of about 60 Emperors from Augustus to 
Honorius having been found here, leads to the conclusion that 
the station must have been occupied during the whole period of 
the Roman dominion in Britain. Portions of melted lead and 
other traces of burning -have been met with in some of the 
rooms, indicating that a portion at least of the edifice was 
destroyed by fire. 

u The" buildings whose foundations have been traced cover a space 
of 315 feet from east to wesb, and about 300 feet from north to 
south. They may be considered as consisting of three parts, 
which we will refer to as A, B, C. A small erection near the 
building B was perhaps a separate structure. The letter D may 
be assigned to it. 

" The building A is probably the oldest, and may be regarded 
as the principal residence or Prsetorium. It extends 168 feet 
north and south and 135 east and west. The Atrium in the 
centre is 66 feet by 63. This seems to have been surrounded 
on three sides by a cryptoporticiis, the western side of which was 
84 feet long, each of the other sides 72 feet, and the whole 8 
feet wide. The rooms in general are small, the largest being 
23ft llin. by 18ft. 

u This building is bounded on the south or south-east by a 
thick outer wall, which follows the line of the hill, standing on 
the edge where a steep slope commences. 

u At one spot on the north side were found two small hollows 
in the ground filled with cinders and iron scoria, as if some 
forge had been worked near it. 

" The Atrium was paved with large flat stones in rows of 
about 2ft. 4in. wide, laid on the ground without mortar. The" 
gallery next the Atrium contained fragments of tessellated 
pavement ; the rooms adjoining it were also paved with tesserw 
in a more or less mutilated condition. In one of the most 
perfect w^ere found coins of Constantius, Constans, Yalens, and 

VOL. Y. H 



98 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 

Valentinian. Here were also found masses of melted lead on 
the floor in some places incorporated with it, and also marks 
of burning on the stones, tiles, &c., which had fallen in. The 
walls appear to have been covered with stucco ; of which some 
portions remained upon them. In another room were found 
coins of Claudius II., Tetricus, Allectus, Constantius, Constans, 
Valens, Valentinian, Gratian, and Maximus (silver). 

u The second portion of the buildings B has no visible connec- 
tion with A, and may have been built at a later period. The 
two divisions of it appear also unconnected and incongruous. 
In some of the rooms there have been found tessellated pave- 
ments and a series of hypocausts extending through many of the 
chambers into which this block was divided : the floors, however, 
are so much broken and destroyed that it is difficult to say 
whether there was a regular suite of bath-rooms or not. 

u A doorway appears to open on the edge of the hill, and may 
have been used for throwing away refuse down the slope. 

" The building marked C stands quite unconnected with the 
others : it is 93 feet in length and 76 in breadth. Three inscrip- 
tions on metal plates found near its walls, of the nature of votive 
tablets, seem to identify this with the temple which is named in 
one of them and implied in the others. 

" These inscriptions have been given in a work entitled " Stri- 
gulensia," printed for private circulation by Mr. Ormerod of 
Sedbury Park (p. 37), and copied from thence by Dr. M'Caul of 
Toronto, in his book on " Britanno-Roman Inscriptions " (p. 73). 
They all bear dedications to a local deity whose name in the 
dative case is variously spelled Nodonti, Nudonti, Nodenti. 
Various conjectures have been offered as to this divinity, of 
which one of the most probable seems that which identifies him 
with jEsculapius. 

" The temple in question stood nearly north and south : the 
entrance was at the south end. The north end of the principal 
apartment was divided into three recesses, in front of which 
were found the remains of a tessellated pavement, on which were 
represented several fishes on either side of two dragons with 
heads twined together. The fishes are considered to support the 
idea of a < god of the abyss :' the dragons are thought to cor- 
roborate the claim of ^Esculapius. 

" But the most notable part of this pavement is the inscription 
^hich appears at the head of it, of which I have a copy which 
is a fac- simile of the original. 

" It is unfortunately imperfect ; and if I attempt any solution 
ot its obscurities it is only with the view of eliciting the opinions 
ot others better versed in such investigations. 

< The first letter, D, is very distinct ; the next two are broken ; 



March 2.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 99 

but the portions that remain seem to show that they were A and 
N. These three letters must, I think, have been initials. Sup- 
posing it likely, then, that the name of the god would occupy 
(as is usual) the first place, I venture to suggest that D A N 
may stand for Deo Asclepio Nodonti. 

" For the union of the two names, Eoman and British, I find 
an authority in an inscription on an altar found at Netherby in 
Cumberland, and another at Plumptoii Wall (Arclueol. x. 118), 
both of which begin with the words ' Deo Marti Belatucadro ' 
of which Lysons says that they are dedicated to Mars by the 
local name of Belatucader. (Mag. Brit. iv. cliii. clxvii.) 

" The next letter in our inscription appears to be T, which may 
stand for the prenomen of the author of the work, whose whole 
title would then be Titus FLAVIUS SENILIS. His rank or 
office seems to be indicated by the letters which follow, viz. 
PR REL, which may mean Prafectm, or Pr<zses, Reliaionis. 
Dr. M'Caul offers another suggestion, and thinks it may' mean 
pretio relato. Let the learned decide. 

" The next three words are tolerably distinct : EX STE- 
PIBUS POSSUIT. Two variations in spelling from the usual 
mode are here observable stepibus for stipibusj* and possuit with 
two s's ; as the word promissit also has in the tablet of Pectillus. 
The next line begins with 0, then comes a break followed by 
ANTE, and then VICTORINO very distinct. Opus cwANTE is 
a natural way of filling up the blank ; but the letter preceding 
ante, of which part remains, looks more like Y than R. Could 
the word, then, have been ^vANTE ? The last word in the in- 
scription appears to begin with INTER and end with IATE. The 
termination would indicate the native place of Victorinus, but I 
cannot fill up the hiatus. The position of the letters will hardly 
bear out Interamnate, as suggested by Dr. M'Caul. 

" This inscription is interrupted between the words FLA VIUS 
and SENILIS by a circular perforation formed of an earthenware 
funnel, 3| inches in diameter and 4 inches deep, placed in the 
middle of a circle of coarse tesserce, which formed a shallow 
basin, the depth of which cannot easily be ascertained, as it 
has sunk unequally, so as to give the funnel an oblique direc- 
tion, the top of which, and consequently the bottom of the basin, 
was 3 inches on one side and 4 inches on the other below the 
general level of the pavement. On clearing out the funnel, 
which would just admit a hand, and below which was a cavity 



* Stips asrea pecimia minuta, ajra, asses fere dicitur de pecuniaquae a plu- 
ribus parva quantitate confertur, vel in opus aliquod publice faciendum, vel in 
honorem deorum, vel pauperibus alendis. Facclolatl Lex. ad voc. 

H 2 



t>ROCEEDTNGS OF THE 






of Constantinopolis, 1 ; of Valentmian, 1 ; of Valens, 1 ; 

H here it may be noticed, that in the three recesses before 
mentioned, closely adjoining this pavement, there were found 
no fewer than 531 coins (including 2 silver ones) of 19 d,i 
ferent emperors, from Antonius to Arcadms, besides balonma, 
Theodora, Helena, Urbs Roma, Constantinopolis, and 



the south-east edge of the camp hill there have been 
standing for a century or more two stone figures in the lorm c 
termini, which were always supposed to have been dug up on 
this hill, but I cannot vouch for the fact. It is said that about 
the year 1 740 they were used as common stones on the low 
adjoining ground to keep down flax while it was drying, and 
were afterwards placed where they now stand by the then 
owner of the property. Some doubt has lately been intimated 
in regard to their antiquity. 

" Another stone figure of a female sitting, with a cornucopia 
on her arm, was certainly found among these ruins ; This 
figure is now headless ; but I believe I may say that it had a 
head when first discovered. 

" Among the numerous articles in earthenware, bronze, iron, 
lead, and bone that have been found here there is only one to 
which I will call attention. It is a small oblong stone with four 
smooth sides, three of which are engraved with reversed letters, 
showing it to have been used as a stamp for a medicine or oint- 
ment for the eyes. On each of the three sides is the name ^ of 
the apothecary or druggist, Julius Jucundus, in the genitive 
case; beneath which is written the word collyrium^ more or 
less abbreviated. This is followed in the first by the word 
STACTU, in the second by MELINU, in the third by PENG. 
The collyrium stactum* is believed to have been made from the 
finest myrrh. 

" Melinum-f was prepared from quince. 

" PENG is believed to be abbreviated from penicillus, a soft 



* Myrrha et per se unguentum f acit sine oleo, stacte dumtaxat. Plin. Hist. Nat. 
xiii. 2. 

f Fit et oleum ex his (Cotoneis) quod melinum vocavimus. Plin. xxiii. 54. 



March 9.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 101 

kind of sponge, which Pliny says* was applied with honeyed wine 
to relieve tumours of the eyes." 

Mr. Bathurst also exhibited a chalice found in the wall of a 
house in his neighbourhood. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these Communications. 



Thursday, March 9th, 1871. 
EARL STANHOPE, President, in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Hon. Arthur Dillon, -F.S. A. : Eccelino da Romano, surnamed the 
Tyrant of Padua. A Poem, in twelve books. By Henry Augustus, Vis- 
count Dillon. 8vo. London, 1828. 

From A. W. Franks, Esq. M.A. V.P.S.A. : Abhandlungen fiir die Kunde des 
Morgenlancles, der Deutschen Morgenliindischen Gesellschaf t. Erster Band. 
Svo. Leipsic, 1859. 

From the Royal Institute of British Architects : Sessional Papers, 1870-71. 
No. 5. 4to. London, 1871. 

From Messrs. Sever, Francis, and Co. : Catalogue of the Library of Jared 
Sparks, with a List of the Historical Manuscripts collected by him and now 
deposited in the Library of Harvard University. Svo. Cambridge, U.S.A. 
1871. 

From the Asiatic Society of Bengal : Journal. New Series. Vol. xxxix. 
Part 2. No. 4. [Completing the vol.] Svo. Calcutta, 1870. 

E. CHARLESWORTH, Esq. exhibited and presented a Glass 
Bottle of medieval manufacture, 2 inches high, 3 inches in 
circumference at the base, nearly the same for If inches, when 
it contracts to a neck with a lip 1 inch across. 

This bottle was bought from a workman employed at a 
" coprolite " digging near Cambridge. 

J. B. SHEPPARD, Esq. exhibited- a parcel of Documents for- 
merly belonging to Canterbury Cathedral, accompanied by some 
remarks, of which the following is an abstract : 

" I have the pleasure to lay before the Society nineteen docu- 
ments of the fourteenth century relating to the Monastery of 
Christ Church, Canterbury, which, with many others of various 

* Pliu. xxxi. 47. Mollissimum genus earum (spongiarum) penicilli : oculo- 
ruin turnores levant ex mulso impositi. lidem abstcrgendae lippitudini utilis- 
sinii. Vol. 18, p'. 238. 



102 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

dates, I have by good fortune been able to save from the decay 
which has been destroying them ever since the time when, at 
the Reformation, they were snatched from the safe custody of 
the prior and convent. . 

" The instruments before us were written (all but one) during 
vacancies of the archiepiscopal see, and exemplify the exercise of 
the well-known powers of the prior and convent of Canterbury 
as guardians of the spiritualties sede vacante. All except the first 
and last are presentations to benefices over which the see of 
Canterbury had ordinary jurisdiction. _ Hence they are addressed 
to the prior and chapter as standing in the archbishop's place. 
The first relates to the institution of a vicar, and the last is a 
letter from the prior to the king, but even this is a reply to a 
summons from the king to the prior in his capacity of arch- 
bishop's substitute. 

" In the middle of the fourteenth century the prior's claim to 
the custody of the spiritualties seems to have been fully recog- 
nised, but about eighty years earlier there had been great 
resistance on the part of the bishops to the assumption of the 
convent, which they declared to be an ' usurpation.' The 
Annals of Oseney, under date 1270, relates that when Walter 
Bishop of Sarum died his successor went to Canterbury for 
confirmation (the metropolitical see being vacant), which busi- 
ness was duly performed ; but all the bishops except one refused 
to attend or to assist at the ceremony of consecration, denying 
the right of the monastery to summon the bishops for that pur- 
pose. On this occasion the apostolical see was appealed to, and 
judgment was given in favour of the prior and convent,* who 
thenceforward enjoyed their privileges unmolested until the 
Dissolution, when the dean and chapter succeeded to them. 

" The documents now exhibited will be considered in order; 
those of them which possess sufficient interest will be given at 
full length, whilst those which are merely ordinary " forms " 
will be abstracted. 

" 1. This is an instrument dated July 1, 1328, testifying the 
institution of Sir William de Otteryng, priest, to the vicarage 
of Elham, in the diocese of Canterbury, on the presentation of 
the keeper, scholars, and brethren of the house of the scholars 
of Merton in Oxford, who had the appropriation of the .church 
(i.e. the rectoryj. The text is as follows : 

Henricus permissione divina prior ecclesie Christ! Cantuariensis et ejusdem 
loci Capitulum dilecto suo in Christo Domino Willelmo de Otteryngg presby- 
tero salutem in Domino. Ad vicariam ecclesie de Elham Cantuariensis diocesis 
vacantem ad quam custodi scolaribus et fratribus domus scolarium de Merton 

* Ann. Mon. ed. Luard, iv. 239, and sec T. Wike's account of the same transac- 
tion, ib. p. 242, 



March 9.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 103 

in Oxonia ecclcsiam parochialem de Elham in proprios et perpetuos usus opti- 
ncntibus per literas nostras patentes (prout nostra interest sede Cantuariensi 
vacante) te iiominavimus presentandum et per eosdem veros patronos prout per 
inquisicionem factam recepimus nobis sic presentatus existis ad eandem te 
admittimus et perpetuum vicarium instituimus in eadem, ipsaque vicaria per 
missale nostrum investimus. Salvis in omnibus juribus dignitatibus et consuetudi- 
nibus ecclesie nostre prsedicte. In hac siquidem admissione et institutiorie 
jurasti quod in eadem vicaria (si)quidem earn sic intitulatam tenueris humano 
more continuam residenciam facies corporalem. In cujus rei testimonium has 
literas nostras fieri fecimus patentes. Dat. in capitulo nostro prscdicto Kaloiidas 
Julii, Anno Domini Millesimo ccc vicesimo octavo. 

" The church of Elham had been given to Merton College in 
1268 by Boniface, Archbishop of Canterbury, who was lord of 
the manor of Elham, saving a vicarage to be ordained of the 
value of thirty marks per annum, and it was arranged that the 
archbishop should, on the occurrence of a vacancy, nominate a 
clerk to the college, who should be presented by the warden to 
the archbishop within forty days of the nomination.* It is 
observable that this nomination was exercised on this occasion 
by the prior and convent, 'sede vacante , as being part of the spiri- 
tualties of the see and not of the temporalities. The vicarage 
is, or very lately was, still filled up from time to time according 
to the ancient ordination. 

" The date of this instrument is worthy of remark. According 
to Godwin, Simon Meopham, the successor of Walter Reynolds, 
after his election (December llth, 1327) betook himself to 
Avignon in order to make sure of his position. Being supported 
both by the chapter and the king, he succeeded in procuring the 
confirmation of his election by the pope on May 25th, and his 
consecration ensued on June 5th, 1328. He did not return to 
England until September 5th, 1328, and on the 19th of that 
month he obtained restitution of the temporalities. The document 
now before us is dated July 1st in the same year, by which time, 
in strictness, the authority of the dean and chapter had ceased 
to exist, and it is hardly to be supposed that the fact of the new 
archbishop's, confirmation (which supersedes the authority of 
the guardian of the spiritualties) should not have been officially 
intimated at Canterbury before July 1st. It is, however, 
observable that the parliamentary writs out of the chancery 
were still directed to the 6 Guardian of the Spiritualties,' and 
not to the archbishop, on June 15th and August 28th, 1328; 
and his first writ of summons to Parliament, superseding, in 
fact, the writ of the 28th August, was dated on September 19th, 
on which day his patents of restitution of the temporalities were 
sealed. The absence of the archbishop out of the realm pro- 
bably accounts for this. 

" The instrument under notice, if ever sealed or acted upon, 

* Hasted, iii. 343 



104 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

does not appear to have left the prior's office; for there is 
endorsed, as if on a piece of waste parchment, a copy or draft 
of a letter dated November 16th in the following year (1329), 
and addressed by the prior and convent to the archbishop.^ The 
writing of this letter is much rubbed, and is scarcely decipher- 
able in some places. Enough remains to show its purport, 
namely, to urge the archbishop to comply with the prayer' of a- 
previous petition of the convent, and to give general instructions 
to his officers to refrain from certain acts (not specified) preju- 
dicial to the conventual body. 

" The next twelve instruments are presentations made while the 
see was vacant by the death of John de Ufford, who was nomi- 
nated by bull, dated September 24th, 1348,* on the decease of 
Archbishop Stratford. He died, however, on June 7th, 1349, 
before consecration. 

" 2. Presentation by John de Ore of Master John de Echyng- 
ham to the church of Wudeton Ore, 5 to id. Junii (June 9), 
1349. 

" Wodeton (Wooton), near Barham, was purchased by W. de 
Echyngham, 10 Edw. I. from W. atte Helle, and 19 Edw. II. 
J. de Wodeton conveyed it to W. de Ore. The deeds are said to 
be in the possession of the Brydges family, the present owners 
of Wootton. It is possible that John was a relative of William 
de Echyngham ; but from the custom which ecclesiastics had of 
taking their names from the places of their birth it by no means 
follows, as a matter of course, that William de Echyngham the 
squire was connected in blood with John de Echyngham the 
priest. 

" 3. Presentation by Margaret de Bourne of John of East- 
hadden, chaplain, to the chantry of Bekesbourne, near Canter- 
bury. Dated at Canterbury, 2 a idus Junii (June 12th), 1349. 

" 4. Presentation by William de Clinton, Earl of Huntingdon, 
to the church of Ripley. Here the full style of the prior as 
4 custos spiritualitatis ' is given. 

Reverende discretionis viro priori ecclesie Christi Cantuariensis custodi spiri- 
tualitatis Cantuariensis diocesis sede ejusdem vacante Willelmus de Clyntone 
ponies Huntyngdon salutetn cum caris amicitiis. Ad ecclesiam de Ripple dicte 
diocesis vacantem et ad nostram presentacionem spectantem Robertum de 
Meburn clericum nostrum presentamus, vestre reverende discretioni supplicantes 
quatinus pref atum Robertum ad ecclesiam predictam admittere et ipsum Rectorem 
instituere ac quod vestro ulterius in hac parte incumbet officio facere et exequi 
velitis intuitu caritatis. In cujus, &c. Dat. apud manerium nostrum de Preston 
XYJ die Junii, A.D. MCCC quadragesimo nono. 

" William de Clinton, the patron, married Juliana, daughter 

* A writ of summons to Parliament, dated 20th November, 22 Edw III is 
addressed to him as J. de Ufford decano Lincoln' electo Cantuar' et confirmato. 



March 9.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 105 

of Thomas, granddaughter of William, and great-granddaughter 
of Roger de Ley bourne, the friend of Prince Edward, and his 
companion in the Holy Land. By his wife Juliana, called from 
her great estates 4 the Infanta of Kent,' he gained the manor of 
Preston next Wingham, from which place the document is 
dated. Juliana had had two husbands before she married Clin- 
ton, and when he died in 1355 she survived him. 

" 5. Presentation by Oliver Brokas (son of Sir John Brokas, 
knight), lord of the manor of Ifield, of Thomas le Graunt, chap- 
lain, to the church of Ifield. London, 19th June, 1349. 

" 6. Presentation by John Earl of Kent to Adam de Der- 
lyngton to Wykham, i.e. Wykham Brewes(/iod. Wickhambreux), 
of which manor this John Earl of Kent, second son of Edmund 
of Woodstock, died seized in 1352. London, June 21st, 1349. 

" 7. Robert de Elnested, John atte Setone, Ralph Lette, 
John Bromore, John Mykellmm, John Chuse, and other 6 paro- 
chiani fundatores ' of the perpetual chantry of the Blessed 
Virgin at Pageham, present Nicholas South, of Hollingbourne, 
priest, to the chaplaincy. There are two slips cut from the 
foot of the parchment for seals. The attestation clause notices 
that because the seals of the patrons of the chantry were not 
known to many persons they had procured the seal of the 
deanery of Pagham (one of the peculiars of the see of Canter- 
bury) to be affixed. The second slip was no doubt intended for 
this seal. June 1349. 

" 8. Presentation by Thomas de Aldeham of Thomas de 

to the rectory of Otteham. June 1349. 

" 9. John Teppenese presents John de Wislebech, chap- 
lain, of the diocese of Ely, to the rectory of Bircholt. Dated 
at Birchholte, July 2nd, 1349. The family of Teppenese held 
land temp. Edw, III. at Leigh, near Tollbridge. The property 
has been called in modern days ' Teppeness Corner.' 

u 10. Sir John de Cobham presents John de Thenelby to 
the perpetual chapel of ' Rodefelde juxta Middletone.' Dated 
at Cobham*, July 6th, 1349. Sir John alleges himself to be 
patron hac vice only. 

" Rodefelde is now Radfield, in the parish of Bapchild, near 
Milton (in the middle ages always spelled Middleton). The chapel 
in question was founded * in 1190 by Gamaliel de Neapoli, prior 
of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, who assigned land and a 
mill to Turstaii de Bapechild upon condition that he and his 
heirs should provide a chaplain and a priest to say daily masses 
for the soul of Henry the Second and others, with a mass on 
Sundays in honour of the Virgin. 

* See Hasted, ii. 5'J ( J. 



106 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

"11. William de Septvauns presents Peter de Pouldone, 
chaplain, of the diocese of Norwich, to the chantry of Borlegh. 
Nones of July (July 7) 1349. 

"12. The abbat and chapter of St. Kadigund's, near Dover, 
present Koger Fynch, of Yppeslee, chaplain of the diocese of 
Worcester, to the vicarage of Syberteswelde (or Siberts would), 
8 id. Julii (July 8) 1349. Endorsed, ' P'sentat' ad vicariam de 
Sybesteswelde (sic). Abbas Sancte Radegundis.' 

" 13. Mychael de Ponyngges, dating from Eastwell, pre- 
sents John de Borlee, priest, to the rectory of Earde, in the 
deanery of Shoreham, of which living he was patron hao vice, 
August 5th, 1349. The manor of Earde, near Crayford, passed 
to the family of Poynings in the reign of Edw. III. by the 
marriage of Lucas de Poyning with Isabel St. John, who had 
inherited it. In 1342 this Michael had a suit at law with the 
abbot of St. Augustine's relative to the patronage of the church 
of Tenterden ; he lost his cause. 

" 14. The next document is not addressed to the prior and 
convent, but 

Venerabili in Christo patri Domino Thome Dei Gracia Electo Cantuariensis 
Ecclesie confirmato vel ipso in remotis agente vicario in spiritualibus generali. 

" By it Hugo Colbrond, Stephen Scappe, Walter Scappe, John 
son of John Scappe, Hugo Colbrond, guardian of the heirs of 
Thomas Scappe, present Hugo de Stanford to the chapel of 
Cranthorne (Craythorne), near Romney. Dated at Romney, 
Sunday next before St. Bartholomew's day (23rd Aug.) 1 349. 

"After the death of John de Ufford, which, as before noticed 
(Hardy's Le Neve), occurred on the 7th June, 1349, before his 
consecration, Thomas Bredewarden was nominated to the 
archiepiscopal see by bull dated the 19th of that month. He 
was consecrated at Avignon early in July, and the temporalities 
were restored Aug. 22, 1349. lie died however on the 26th of 
August in that year, only a few days after the date of the 
instrument now before us. 

" The above patrons were perhaps founders and representa- 
tives of deceased founders of the chapel. 

"15. The King, patron by reason of the vacancy of the arch- 
bishopric, which was in the King's hands, presents Richard de 
Norwich to the rectory of Adesham. By letters patent dated 
at Westminster, Nov. 4, in the 23rd year of his reign of England 
and lOth^of France, 1349. Archbishop Bredewarden, as just 
stated, died on Aug. ^26 of this year, and was succeeded by 
Simon Islip. The living becoming vacant in the interval, the 
presentation fell to the King. 

" 16. The King, sede vacante, presents John de Grantham to 



March 9.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUAKIES. 107 

the rectory of Sundridge, a living in the gift of the Archbishop, 
by letters patent dated Nov. 4, in the 48th year of his reign 
of England and 35th of France. (Nov. 4th, 1374.) After the 
death of William of Whitlesey, June 5th, 1374, there was an 
inteval before the translation of Sndbury. 

" 17. This is a presentation by the King (Richard II.) of Master 
Adam de Wykemere, chaplain, to the deanery of South Mailing, 
which, owing to the vacancy of the see by the death of Simon 
de Sudbury, who was murdered by the rebels under Wat 
Tyler, June 14th, 1381, had fallen to the King's patronage. 
By letters patent dated at London July 11, 5 Eic. II. (1381.) 

" This Adam de Wykemere was the second Gustos or Master of 
Trinity Hall, Cambridge, a college founded in 1350 by William 
of Norwich, Bishop of Norwich. He was master in 1374, and 
probably did not resign until he obtained this preferment. It is 
perhaps worth observing that Simon de Sudbury was one of the 
executors of the Bishop of Norwich, and interested in his 
foundation at Cambridge." It is not impossible that this prelate, 
before his violent death, may have intended to confer the 
deanery of the collegiate church of South Mailing, which was 
in his patronage, on Master Adam as some reward for his 
exertions in governing the new foundation, and that his in- 
tentions were respected by the King. The very short interval 
between the archbishop's death and the date of the present 
instrument seems to favour this surmise. 

a No. 18 is a presentation, or a draft of one, for it is without 
date, by Ralph the abbat and the convent of St. Augustine, 
Canterbury, ' ad Romanam Ecclesiam nullo medio pertinentis,' 
of Edmund Andrew, chaplain, to the vicarage of Sturey (Jiodie 
Sturry). 

u Ralph was abbat from 1309 to 1334, and during his tenure 
of office there were three occasions on which the see was vacant, 
namely, in 1313 after the death of Winchelsey, in 1327 after 
that of Walter Reynolds, and in the year preceding the abbat's 
death, 1333. There is reason to believe that the present document 
belongs to the second period. 

" The great Benedictine abbey of St. Augustine, and the 
smaller convent of. Christ Church, belonging to the same order, 
were situated only a few hundred yards apart, and, as often 
happens in such cases, near neighbourhood produced conflicting 
interests, in fact so great was the mutual jealousy that they were 
never at peace. 

" So exalted in the ranks of the order was the monastery of St. 
Augustine that the abbat of that house is said to have been 
entitled to take his place in solemn conclaves next after the 
premier abbat of Monte Cassino. 



108 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

" 19. The last of the series exhibits a picture in words which 
after the lapse of so many years shows us in still bright colours 
the lordly prior weighed down by years and sickness constituting 
his two dignified proctors to make his excuses to the King. ^ 

" Prior Richard had been summoned,* as custos spiritualitatis 
sede vacante, to attend the King in Parliament, at York, on Monday 
next before the feast of St. Peter in Cathedra, February 15, 
1 334. The long journey, the unseasonable time of year, and his 
own failing health, made compliance disagreeable, perhaps im- 
possible ; he therefore sends the Robert and Richard of the 
document to be his proxies, expressing his loyalty and pleading 
his infirmities. 

Excellentissimo principi et domino suo Domino Edwardo dei gratia Rex 
Anglie illustri domino Hibernie et Duci Aquitanie suus capellanus humilis 
Eicardus Prior ecclesie Christi Cantuariensis custos spiritualitatis Archiepisco- 
patus Cantuariensis sede vacante quicquid reverentie poterit et honoris. Testis 
est michi qui abscondita cordis novit quod in eo praecipue letarer quo vestra 
regia majestas felicibus incrementis succreseret et regni gubernacula salubriter 
exerceret et quia ad instans Parliamentum vestrum apud Eboracum die Lune 
proximo ante festum Sancti Petri in Cathedra proximo futur' tenendum ad- 
versa valetudine prout dilecti michi in Christo Magistri Robertus de Stratford 
Canonicus Ecclesias de Lincoln et Ricardus de Chadesle juris canonici professor 
harum bajuli vobis plenius explicabunt seu explicabit eorum alter, impeditus 
personaliter venire non valeo, quod grave gero et moleste, Excellentiam vestram 
regiam humiliter deprecor quatinus hiis que praifati magistri Robertus et Ricar- 
dus vobis dicent seu dicet alter ipsorum debite si libeat ponderatis, absentiam 
meam excusatam dictis die et loco dignetur habere vestra regia magnitudo. Ad 
has autem meas literas excusatorias vestras dominationis aspectibus presentandas 
eosdem Magistros Robertum et Ricardum conjunctim et divisirn ad .vestram 
presentiam jam transmitto. In eo qui regibus dat regnare vestra valeat semper 
celsitudo. Script' Cantuariae nono die Februarii. 

" The letter, which has been folded and sealed over a slip of 
parchment passing through slits cut in it, is addressed thus : 

Excellentissimo principi et Domino suo Domino 

Edwardo dei gracia Regi Anglie illustri. 
per suum Capellanum Priorem ecclesie Christi Cantuar'. 

and below this line are the numerals ij, indicating that this is a 

duplicate. 

^ " The vacancy was on the death of Simon de Meopham. John 

Stratford, his successor, had restitution of the temporalties 

Feb. 5, 1334, so that in fact, at the date of the letters, the 

see was no longer vacant. 

" Robert de Stratford, probably the person named in the letter, 

-was Chancellor of the Exchequer at this time, and as such had 

summons along with the judges to the Parliament at York. 

ihe tact that he was obliged personally to attend affords a good 

reason for his holding the Prior's proxy. 

* By writ tested at Wallingford, Jan 2, 7 Edw. III. (1334). 



March 16.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 109 

" Thus we come to the end of the series of MSS. in which we 
have found the prior taking the archbishop's place, instituting a 
vicar, receiving presentations to benefices from two kings, two 
earls, three knights, a lady, two sets of founders of chantries, 
and other patrons, and we now leave him making his excuses to 
the King, and lamenting that his weakness of body prevents 
him from representing the see of Canterbury in the council of 
the nation. In conclusion I would observe that, although in 
the parcel of deeds exhibited we have perhaps only an accidental 
selection from a much larger number of presentations made 
during successive vacancies of the metropolitical see, yet that 
the number of these presentations, no less than fourteen occur- 
ring in the summer of 1349, from June to St. Bartholomew's 
day (24th August), seems surprisingly large, relating as they 
do to benefices in the county of Kent alone. It may well be 
so, for from Michaelmas 1348 to August 1349 raged ' the 
Black Death, ' that pestilence which carried off one-fifth of the 
people of Europe and Asia (some chroniclers say as much as one- 
half), and which destroyed such numbers of incumbents of 
benefices that for a long time many churches remained unserved. 
Although these MSS. do not indicate a mortality so grievous as 
that quoted above, yet the proportion of fourteen in one year is 
enough to attract our attention even after the lapse of nearly 
six centuries." 

EARL STANHOPE, President, communicated some observations 
on a probable allusion to the Christians in a passage of the sixth 
satire of Juvenal. This communication will appear in the 
ArchaBologia, vol. xliv. 



Thanks were ordered to be returned for these Communicati 



ions. 



Thursday, March 16th, 1871. 
J. WINTER JONES, Esq. V.P. in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the London Institution : Journal. No. 3. Vol. i. 8ro. London, 1871. 

From the Author : A History of the Weald of Kent. By Robert Furley, F.S. A. 
Also a sketch of the Physical Features of the District. By Henry B. Macke- 
son, F.G.S. In two volumes. Vol. i. 8vo. Ashford and London, 1871. 

From J. G. Fanshawe, Esq. : Notes, Genealogical and Historical, of the Fan- 
shawe Family. No. 4. Fanshaw Wills. Parti. 4to. London, 1871. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE [187f, 

From the Author, the Rev. Edmund F. Slafter, A.M. : 

1 Discourse delivered before the New England Historic Genealogical 

Society, March 18, 1870. 8vo. Boston, 1870. 

2. The Vermont Coinage. From vol. i. of the Collections of the Vermont 

Historical Society, 8vo. Montpelier, Vt. 1870. 
From the Author : The Income Tax : its extension at the present rate proposed 

to all classes. By William Kay Smee. Second edition. 8vo. London, 

[1846]. 
From the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society : Proceedings. Session 

1870. 8vo. London, 1871. 

The following Resolution, passed at a meeting of the Council, 
held February 21st, 1871, C. S. Perceval, Esq. LL.D. Director, 
in the Chair, was then read : 

In conformity with the Statutes, chapter xix, the President and Council give 
notice that at the next meeting, Monday, April 24, 1871, they propose to submit 
for ballot the following additions to and alterations in the Statutes : 

First, That a Chapter be added as under : 

" CHAPTER XIX. 
" Of Dividends or other like Benefits to Fellows. 

" The Society shall not and may not make any dividend, gift, division, or 
bonus in money unto or between any of its Fellows or Members." 

Secondly, That the Chapter entitled : 

" Of the Making, Altering and Eepealing of Statutes, which now bears the 
number XIX. be henceforth numbered XX." 

T. KER LYNCH, Esq. exhibited a collection of Photographs of 
Georgian churches and other buildings from Tor toum, a district 
of the old Armenian province of Taik. 

WILLIAM TAYLER, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited a large fragment of 
a Mirror Case of carved ivory of the fourteenth century, the 
subject of the carvings, taken probably from some romance, 
being the adventure of some Christian knights who have been 
surprised sleeping by a party of Saracens, who are seen riding 
away in the upper part of the fragment. This admirable 
specimen of mediaeval humorous art has been figured, not very 
satisfactorily, in the Journal of the ArchaBological Association, 
vi. 123. 

In the accompanying paper descriptive of this ivory, some stress 
is laid on the supposed fact that the knights, whose defences are 
almost' entirely of mail, are represented as wearing each a single 
prick-spur, a fashion which is stated to have been observed 
elsewhere.* On a careful examination, however, of the carving, 
it appears more than doubtful whether the artist intended 
to convey any such meaning, as it was extremely difficult, 

* For a good collection of examples of the prick-spur see a paper by J. James, 
Esq. F.S.A. in Journ. Arch. Ass. xii. 209. The writer does not take the view 
noticed in the text as to the wearing of a single spur. 



March 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. Ill 

from the much crowded grouping of the knights, to say to which 
particular figure the interior legs, those in the lowest relief, 
were intended to belong. The knights are represented in various 
stages of arming, and all have not buckled on their spurs to the 
leg nearest the spectator. 

The concluding portion of Mr. BLACK'S paper on an unnoticed 
Expedition of the Emperor Augustus into Britain was read. 

WALTER DE GRAY BIRCH, Esq. communicated a memoir on 
certain Leaden Tablets, containing inscriptions in Latin and early 
Italian, preserved in the manuscript department of the British 
Museum. This memoir will be printed in the Archasologia. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these Communications. 



Thursday, March 23rd, 1871. 
FREDERIC OUVRY, Esq. Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Royal Society : Proceedings. Vol. xix. No. 126. Svo. London, 
1871. 

From the Author, W. T. A. Eadford, B.A. Rector of Down S. Mary, Exeter : 

1. What style ought we to employ in additions to old Work ? A Paper read 
at the Exeter Diocesan Architectural Society, Nov. 3, 1870. 

2. Remarks on the Restoration of our Cathedral. A Letter to G. G. Scott, 
Esq. Both Svo. Exeter and London, 1871. 

From the Author, M. H. Bloxam, Esq. F.S.A. Loc. Sec. S.A. Warwickshire : 

1. Die mittelalterliche Kirchen-Baukunst in England. Yon M. H. Bloxam. 
Svo. Leipsic [1845]. (Edited by Dr. Emrich Henzlmann.) 

2. Report of Proceedings at Lutterwortli of the Leicestershire Architectural 
and Archaeological .Society. Compiled by Thomas North. Svo. Leicester, 
1861. 

3. On some Discoveries made in the Progress of the Restoration of Lutter- 
worth Church. 8vo. 1868. 

4. From the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, March 11, 1869. 
(Remarks on Sepulchral Effigies from West Leake Church, co. Nottingham, 
and Hillmorton Church, co. Warwick.) 8vo. 

5. On the Sepulchral Effigy of Archbishop Sandys in the Minster Church, 
Southwell, Nottinghamshire. Svo. [1869.] 

6. On the Sepulchral Effigios in Bottesford Church, Leicestershire. A 



112 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Description given to the Leicestershire Architectural and Archaeological 
Society, 24th June, 1869. 8vo. 

From the Author : A Book of Memories of Great Men and Women of the Age, 
from personal acquaintance. By S. C. Hall, F.S.A. etc. 4to. London, 
1871. 

From the Author, W. H. Black, Esq. F.S.A. : A Latin Epistle to Earl Stan- 
hope, P.S.A. on his recent Communication relating to a passage in the Sixth 
Satire of Juvenal. 8vo. London, 1871. 

Notice was given of the Ballot for the election of Fellows on 
Thursday, March 30, and a list was read of the Candidates to 
be balloted for. 

The Rev. C. W. BINGHAM, Local Secretary for Dorsetshire, 
communicated in a letter to the Secretary the following account 
of discoveries in a barrow near Dorchester : 

" 1 was asked the other day to come to a place called Phish 
Down, about four miles from hence to the westward, where a 
large barrow had been opened, in order to fill up a pit, and 
some urns had been discovered. I rode over at once, and found 
that the barrow was one pretty clearly indicated on Mr. Warne's 
map, and, indeed, on the Ordnance map. Like another very 
large barrow on a high point near this, it seems to have borne 
the name of Bulbarrow, thus confirming the notion that, like the 
Greek fiov , the prefix < Bull ' is intended to express hugeness. 

u It was very much broken up before I saw it, but I made 
out that it must have been some twenty yards in diameter. The 
barrow when I saw it was, so to speak, thoroughly skinned, all 
the earth from the top of it removed, and even many of the 
flints of which the centre consisted carted away. The top may 
have been, as well as I can guess, about eight or nine feet above 
the level of the down. The interments appear to have been at 
the distance of some two feet from each other, not occupying 
the whole area, but principally at least in the segment of a 
circle, concentric with the entire mound, and on the western 
side. Of course, however, the centre and the opposite side 
might have been rifled before. 

" When I arrived at the spot there were fragments of some 
twenty urns collected, of various sizes, a few having been 
inverted, and all either containing, or in close proximity to, 
calcined bones. I send a sketch of the few whose shape was 
recognisable. The third I was fortunate enough to take out 
myself with more care, I fancy, than had been generally used 
in their disinterment. 

" Generally speaking they were of the rudest unbaked clay, 
but there were some few fragments of red baked pottery. 



March 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUAKIES. 113 

" I could neither see nor hear of any implements or orna- 
ments of any kind. A large molar of a horse was the only 
thing I could discover, except the human bones, &c. above-men- 
tioned." 

Mr. Bingham's sketch comprised a large urn with bulging 
sides and nearly straight neck, 14 inches high and 8 wide at the 
top; one vessel 13 inches high, 9 inches wide at the top, with 
straight sides tapering downwards ; one barrel-shaped, 9 inches 
high and 7 inches wide at the top, ornamented with concentric 
horizontal lines, and a row of dots just below the widest diameter ; 
an urn of semi- globular form, with vestiges of a slightly-spreading 
neck, 7 inches high; a small vessel (fragmentary), 6J inches 
high, with a band of thumb-nail marks round the top, and an 
ear below this ; a fragment of the upper part of an urn, with a 
chevronny pattern formed by incised lines ; and, lastly, of a 
fragment of a large urn covered with rude bands of thumb-nail 
pattern.* 

Colonel A. H. LANE Fox, F.S.A. exhibited a very singular 




FLINT IMPLEMENT FROM THE ISLE OF WIGHT. 

Flint Implement (which is here figured reduced one -half), stated 

* The name of the spot where these objects were found is Plush Down, not 
Phish Down, as printed on page 112. The error was not noticed until after the 
sheet had gone to press. 

VOL. V. I 



114 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 

to have been found in the Isle of Wight several years ago, either 
on Ashey Down, near Brading, or, according to another account, 
near Ventnor. It has been preserved for about twenty years in 
the Ryde Museum, previous to which time it was in the 
possession of the late Dr. Martin of Ventnor. 

No further particulars than these could be ascertained ' by a 
gentleman (Mr. Hodder M. Westropp) residing at Ventnor, who 
kindly took considerable pains to endeavour to learn more. 
The specimen exhibits the characteristics of the flint of the 
Isle of Wight, a circumstance which negatives the idea that 
the implement might be of foreign origin. 

M. H. BLOXAM, Esq. F.S.A. Local Secretary for Warwick- 
shire, exhibited : 

1. A copper thurible and cover, nine inches high, hexagonal 
in plan, with turrets at the angle, fourteenth century. 

2. Cover of a copper thurible of the same period and similar 
but less elaborate design, with the legend u Gloria tibi Domine " 
engraved round the base. Found, some years ago, in a chest 
in Ashbury Church, Berks.* 

The Rev. ASSHETON POWNALL, F.S.A. Local Secretary 
for Leicestershire, exhibited a Phial of Glass which was 
found at Lutterwortb, in that county, under the circum- 
stances detailed in the following communication. 

Mr. Pownall also exhibited a vessel of bronze or brass, to 
which he referred in his paper, and which is figured lower 
down. 

" At a meeting of the Society of Antiquaries, on the 5th of 
April, 1869, I exhibited a glass vessel which had recently been 
found among the stone foundations of the parish church of 
South Kilworth, Leicestershire ; and a description of the vessel, 
together with a short account of the circumstances of the find, 
appeared subsequently in the Society's Proceedings.! Various 
conjectures were offered at the time, as to the probable use of 
the^vessel itself, and of the causes which led to its being de- 
posited in the foundation of a fourteenth century chancel. None 
appeared of much weight, or capable of proof, and two Fellows 
of the Society, whose opinion would have influenced us all, 
frankly confessed their inability to express any decided opinion 
on the matter. For the moment, therefore, the whole subject 
dropped, and in the entire absence of mediaeval glass, in utensil 

* See Archaiologia,x\. 402. For a notice of these Instrumenta Ecolesiastica, 
referring to a large number of examples, see Journ. Arch. Assoc. xix. 81. 
t Proceedings, 2 S. iv. 284. 



March 23.1 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES, 



115 



form glass vessels which with certainty can be assigned to the 
Middle Age a reluctance to express any decided opinion was 
not, perhaps, unreasonable. That glass vessels were used in 
those days, for special church purposes, was perfectly well 
known, through the inventories of church goods which have 
come down to us ; nay, it was not outside the bounds of pro- 
bability to suppose that such pieces have likewise come down to 
our times, and are existing unrecognised in modern collections ; 
but no antiquary till now has been able to lay his hand on any 
particular piece, and say " this is glass of the thirteenth or 
fourteenth or fifteenth century." I believe the earliest English 
glass (excluding, of course, church window glass) to which a 
date can be assigned lies in the Jermyn Street Museum, and 
goes back no further than the time of Charles II. 

" This fact invested with some interest, if not importance, the 
discovery at ^South Kil worth ; because the object discovered 
appeared before us as an unique specimen of the vitreous art of 
a particular period ; as much as those very curious examples of 
it from Nineveh, now in the British Museum, represent all we 
know r of glass belonging to the ancient Assyrians. 

" I have now to announce a further discovery of the same kind. 




GLASS PHIAL FROM LUTTERWORTH. 

In the course of last summer, in consequence -of my bavin 

i 2 J 



116 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

printed an account of the discovery of the bottle at So'uth Kil- 
worth in a local publication, I was informed that two glass bottles 
had been found, during the work of restoration at the parish 
church of Lutterworth (a market town within five miles of South 
Kil worth), and at some time during the years 1867-68. At first 
the attempt to get further particulars was not successful. Two. 
bottles had certainly been found, but they were lying unnoticed 
for so long a time in a chest or cupboard in the vestry, that one 
only have I succeeded in recovering. It is exhibited this even- 
ing (see the woodcut, p. 11 5, representing the phial fromXutter- 
worth, to a scale ^ linear, with the bottom of the actual size, 
to show the peculiarity of the manufacture), together with 
that which was discovered at South Kilworth. On com- 
paring the two together it will be seen that they are alike 
in shape and size, excepting a very trifling difference of 
form at the base, and that the one last found is quite perfect. 
The two phials evidently belong to the same period and the 
same manufacture. After obtaining possession of the glass, 
No. 2, I wrote to Mr. E. C. Morgan, who at the restoration of 
Lutterworth church was employed as clerk of the works, and 
from him I had the satisfaction of receiving the following 
letter :- 

Bangor Cathedral, February 14th. 
Rev. Sir, 

I received a note yesterday from Mr. Tomlinson desiring me to describe 
to you the position in which we found a very antique bottle containing' the oil of 
origanum (or described to be the oil of origanum by Mr. Gulliver, chemist at 
Lutterworth). The bottle was rather more than half full, and its contents were 
very little injured, and it smelt nearly as strongly as the same kind of oil in the 
chemist's shop. The bottle was found in the foundation of the west wall of the 
north aisle of Lutterworth Church. The foundation was composed of stone and 
earth, instead of mortar, and, the bottle was nearly at the outside, as in rough 
sketch. I am, &c. 

E. C. MORGAN, Clerk of Works. 

Concerning the find itself little more remains to be said ; the 
phial no longer contains the oil, but its scent is still very per- 
ceptible; and with regard to the missing one, from the descrip- 
tion I have had of it, the shape must have been rather more 
globular than that which we see this to have. 

Now, just about the same time that these glass ampulla were 
being found at Lutterworth and South Kilworth, another church 
in the county of Leicester, that of Peckleton, was under repair, 
and in the soil of the churchyard there the brazen vessel was dis- 
covered to which I desire also to direct attention at the present 
moment. It appears that the house of the churchwarden in that 
parish overlooks the churchyard ; and this official, one day, while 
the work was in progress, espied from his window one of the 
labourers stooping to examine more attentively some object in 



March 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 117 

his hand. To run out and claim the " treasure trove " was the 
work of an instant. It was this brazen vessel (see woodcut, half 




VESSEL OF BRASS FEOM PECKLETON. 

the actual size) full of a whitish-coloured substance like ointment, 
or consolidated oil. Most unfortunately the churchwarden took 
it into his head to get rid of this substance, whatever it was, 
under the idea it might be poisonous ; and accordingly the 
brass was submitted to a good cleansing, and its contents dis- 
appeared altogether. 

Here, then, are two different mediaeval vessels, both found 
containing oil, or oily matter ; it is an open question what 
purpose they once served in the ancient times of the Church. 

In this inquiry I have had the advantage of some assistance 
from Mr. Matthew Bloxam, a Fellow of this Society, and to his 
kindness am I indebted for several of the extracts from books 
given in the notes below. After some hesitation. Mr. Bloxam 
agreed with me in thinking that this brazen vessel, which he 
assigns to the fifteenth century, might have been used to contain 
one of the three sacred oils of the Church, namely, the oleum 
catechumenorum, the chrism, and the oleum infinnorum, used in 
extreme unction. 

It has been objected to this view that the usual receptacle 
for these oils, called a chrismatory, was a little box or case, with 
three compartments,* while the Peckleton vessel is not so divided. 

* In England these vessels were so generally destroyed at the Reformation 
that very few authentic examples remain. For the form of the chrismatory with 
three divisions in the fifteenth century, see Strutt, Horda Angelcynnan, vol. ii. 
pi. 58, taken from an illumination in John Rous's Life of Richard Beauchamp, 
Earl of Warwick, where a priest is administering extreme unction to the earl. 
Mr. Bloxam tells me that about forty years ago a metal chrismatory, also with 



118 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 

That such a box with three divisions was commonly employed 
to contain the small quantity of each oil needed for immediate 
use is indisputable ; but was it so always ? And to preserve 
the bulk of the sacred oils consecrated only once a year, would 
not larger receptacles sometimes be required ? Great stress was 
ever laid on the oils being kept in distinct vessels, and indeed 
the oleum infirmorum seems to have been directed to be pre- 
served in a different part of the church from that where the 
other two remained.* 

While hazarding this opinion, the worth of which will be 
determined by others, it is proper that another should be named 
which, I believe, has likewise found favour. It was thought' 
that this metal vasculum may formerly have been a receptacle 
for the entombment of an embalmed human heart ; and the dis- 
covery on the same spot of a leaden " bulla " of Pope Clement VI. 
(1342) may perhaps be felt to impart some probability to the 
idea. 

But what are we to believe about these two ampullae of glass ? 
The chrismatory (meaning thereby the box to contain the three, 
or sometimes possibly two, oils) was almost always of metal, 
from silver-gilt down to tin and pewter. f There is no evidence 
to show when the fashion of fitting glass phials} commenced. 
The English inventories of the Tudor period certainly mention 
no such glass receptacles ; but this is inconclusive, because these 
lists of church goods were made chiefly for the purpose of valua- 
tion ; and for sale, the phials, if any, would have been worthless. 
At all events the Lutterworth and South Kil worth phials seem 
both too large and of unsuitable shape for insertion in the cells 
of a small portable box. We may therefore dismiss the notion 
that they formed part of a chrismatory. 

the three divisions, considered to be of fourteenth century work, was found upon 
the wall-plate of St. Martin's church, Canterbury. Those who found it took it 
for an old inkstand. From a somewhat scarce work he gives me also the follow- 
ing quotation : 

" Quand il faut donner Pextreme onction a un malade, pour cet effet il faut 
avoir une boe'te de fer blanc, quasi de la facon qn'on en fait pour les pelerins, qui 
y mettent leur lettres d'attestation, etc. Et y fuire 3 separations par le dedans, 
pour y mettre 3 phioles de verrez carrez, afin d'y mettre les sainctes Huiles 
dedans." Le parfaict Ecclesiastique, ou Diverses Instructions sur toutes les 
fonctions clericales. Paris, 1866. 

* See as to this a canon of a council of Meaux, given by Burchard, iv. 76, 
and Ivo, pars la, cap. 268. And for an account of the hallowing of the holy 
oils, see Dr. Bock, Church of our Fathers, vol. iii. 

t Silver parcel-gilt " for oil and cream " (chrism) at Long Melford, Suffolk, 




goods at Ely, taken at the dissolution of that monastery. 

% Such as were used in France in the seventeenth century. (See previous 



March 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 119 

I think that we can point to a more probable use. Among 
the inventories of goods, given by Sir Thomas Cumberworth, 
Knt., to the chapel of the Holy Trinity, in Somerby church, 
A.D. 1440, there is this item, at page 183 of Peacock on Church 
Furniture : 

" A litle thing made of syluer and guilt to put relikes in, with 
a litle Crosse therein of gold and a pece of the Cross therein, 
and St. Catherines oyle in a glass, and other relikes beside." 

Again, in a list of the relics belonging to the shrine of St. 
Cuthbert, at Durham (liaine's St. Cuthbert, page 125), occur 
the following items : 

66 Item a thorn of the Crown .... the gift of Thomas de 
Hatfield, Lord Bishop of Durham, in a vial, inclosed in a case 
of leather. 

a Item a portion of the flesh of St. Oswin the King and 
Martyr, in atvial of crystal, with a gilt pedestal. 

u Item an ivory casket, with the oil of St. Katherine in two 
glass vials, and with the oil of St. Nicholas in a glass vial of 
St. Mertin. 

" Item an ivory casket, with the oil of St. Katherine, St. 
Nicholas, and St. Mary of Sardinia." 

Whatever doubt may rest on the possible use to which the 
vessel found at Peckleton was assigned in former times, may 
we not rightly believe that the extracts given above point to the 
probable use of these more fragile vessels, and allow us to regard 
them as receptacles of relics, objects consecrated in the religious 
thought of that day by association with one of the saints ? 
What the oil of St. Katherine was appears from a note in 
Mr. Peacock's book (page 183), quoted from Sir John Mande- 
ville (edit. 1727, pp. 71-73). After the murder of St. Cathe- 
rine her body was believed to have been borne by the angels to 
a sepulchre prepared for it on Mount Sinai. The church built 
there was long a notable place for pilgrims. 

u Beside the high altar, three degrees of height, is the feretory 
of alabaster, where the bones of St. Katherine lie, and the pre- 
late of the monks sheweth the relics to the pilgrims. And with 
an instrument of silver he froteth (rubs) the bones, and there 
goeth out a little oil, as though it were a manner sweating, that 
is neither like to oil nor to balm, but it is full sweet of smell, 
and of that they give a little to the pilgrims, for there goeth out 
but little quantity of the liquor," &c. &c. &c. 

Mr. Peacock adds that the relics of St. Valburgis, St. Deme- 
trius, and St. Nicholas were believed to have a similar property 
of exuding a miraculous oil. The relic treasures of Aachen, 
Koln, Douai,, and Tournai contained each a phial of St. Cathe- 
rine's oil until the period of the French devolution. 



120 PROCEEDINGS OP THE [1871, 

HereJ then, we have distinct proof of the use of glass^ phials, of 
the special purpose to which they were put, and mention made 
of the particular saints whose remains were imagined to give 
out a sacred oil. Among them occur the names of St. Mary 
and St. Nicholas. When I add that the dedication of the church 
at South Kilworth was to one of these two, and that of Lutter- 
worth to the other, a link worth noting has been added to pur 
chain of evidence. Have we not now some ground for assuming 
that the purpose to which these phials were devoted in former 
days is by these things indicated ? 

Another question remains for consideration. Discovered in 
the foundations of the church, are we to suppose .they were 
placed there at the time those foundations were laid, or at some 
period subsequently ? The custom which exists now of placing 
glass vessels containing coin and records under the corner stone 
of a new building, as one form of dedication, and for the pur- 
pose of dating it, may suggest the idea that the phials in ques- 
tion once served a similar purpose in the fourteenth century ; 
but it is an idea which cannot stand unsupported by testimony, and 
we have found none. True, a kindred practice prevailed, but we 
have distinct knowledge as to a difference in an important par- 
ticular. These phials were found, one at the west end of the 
north aisle, the other among the rubble stone-work of the east 
chancel wall. Now, whenever at the dedication of a church, in 
ancient times, the consecrated wafer or the relics of the saint 
were deposited, they wer<? invariably deposited beneath the altar. 
More than this ; the exact situation of the Lutterworth phial has 
been pointed out by Mr. Morgan's letter, and that position was 
outside the building ; a position little likely to be chosen, unless 
the deposit had to be made quickly and with secresy, as I con- 
ceive this to have been. For this fact, taken in connection with 
that which has gone before, inclines me to believe it was in a 
period subsequent to the foundation of the church itself that we 
must look for the date of these deposits. In the days when 
" the cresmatory, the crewetes, the pax, the lytle sackering 
bell, with the graile, were defaced and mad away ;" -when the 
rood loft was taken down and put to profane use ; when " the 
altar stones, defacid," were " laid in high waies, serving as 
bridges for sheepe and cattal;" when the cross itself was taken 
down and " sold to a tinker " (Peacock, Church Furniture, 
passim}\ then were some men's minds unquestionably revolting 
from acts horridly sacrilegious in their eyes, and, under the 
influence of a wish to save some long-prized relic of the church 
from similar desecration, we may believe these two phials were 
placed beneath the ground. Stowed away in the consecrated 
earth of these two nearly contiguous churchyards, one act of 



March 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 121 

reverent care probably suggesting the other, they might be 
considered safe under the soil, until Protesting zeal relaxed 
and ancient feelings were revived. So, I think, the hider of 
them thought ; though the expectation of pious hope, like his, 
affecting Reformer and Anti-reformer alike, was never realised, 
" caecis visus, timidis quies."* 

J. J. HOWARD, Esq. LL.D. F.S.A. exhibited, by permission 
of the mayor and corporation of Coventry, an Inventory of Pro- 
perty belonging to the Gild of the Holy Trinity of that city, 
made in 1442. It was clearly written on a long roll of vellum, 
about eight inches wide, with the left margin cut in a wavy line 
(by way of indenture). The text of this interesting record of 
mediseval manners is here printed, the contractions having been 
extended. 

INVENTORIUM factum die Veneris post Festum Sancte Lucie 
Virginia Anno Regis Henrici Sexti post conquestum xx 
inter Thomam Wildgrice magistrum Gilde Sancte Trinitatis 
Coventrie et Willelmum Baryntone Officiarium dicte Gilde 
custodientem Jocalia dicte Gilde subscripta. 

In primis unum dorsour lyned with Canvas of Arras Werk of hawkyng. Item 
ij bankers lyned with Canvas of Cowchid Werke moghteten.f Item vj quis- 
shenes with Oliphantes J in rede and grene. Item xij quisshenes of cowchid 
werke with wrethes, and a Reson in the wrethe. Item vj quisshenes with ymages 
of men and damselles. Item vj quisshenes of rede and grene, old and moght- 
eten. 

IN DOMO CONSILII. 

In primis unum Countour coopertum cum panuo viridi. Item ij bankers 
rubii et viridis coloris. Item rubium Registrum de pergamino scriptum cum 
nominibus fratrum et sororum qui fines suos persolverunt Gilde. Item unum aliud 
Registrum de papiro. Item unum aliud Registrum coopertum cum correo nigro 
pro introductione nominum novorumfratrumet sororum. Item unum Incausterium|| 
de pewter. Item una tabula pendens in qua continetur redditus lampadis pendentis 
coram cruce in Ecclesia Sancti Michaelis. Item unum librum pro juramento 
fratrum ad eorum introitum et ij kalende in eodem libro. 



* This legend appears on a medallion of Queen Mary (Tudor), issued, it has 
been said, on the temporary reconciliation of the English nation with the Church 
of Rome. 

f "Cowchid werke" would seem to be either that kind of embroidery in which 
the pattern is formed by sewing down a series of braids or threads, or else the 
same thing as " cut work," known at the present day by the French term applique, 
where embroidered pieces of another material are laid down on the fabric to be 
ornamented. Moqliteten is for moth-eaten. Mo\V"3TE clothwyrme, Prompt. 
Parv. ; and so also Wycliffe, St. Luke xii. 33. 

t An elephant appears on the City seal. See Proceedings, 2 S. iv. 156. 

Sic pro corio. 

|| A pewter inkstand. Erom the Gr.t<y*avfrov comes Encaustum,o? Incaustum 
(sometimes Incaustrum), having in Low Latin the meaning of Ink : whence the 
Ital. 1-ncMostro, Er. Uncrc, and the English word. 



122 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 



IN TRESORARIA. 



In primis una pixis ferro ligata in qua ponitur sigillum commune cum diversis 
ceris et clavibus Item una cista vocata Flaundrez Gofer in qua ponuntur Jocalia 
Gilde Item alia Cista ferro ligata in qua continentur munimenta tangencia ad 
maioralitatem et communitatem ville Item due alie ciste in quibus ponitur le 
napery Item alia parva cista vocata Flaundrez Gofer ferro ligata cujus clavem 
magister Gilde habet. Item una longa Gofer vocata Trussyng Gofer.* Item alia 
parva Cista. Item una Gofer vocata Gardeviaunce.f Item duo parva Candelabra 
enea. 

Item una Crux argenti et deaurati et ennameld. 

Item a grete stondynge Cuppe of Sylver and overgilt with an ymage of Seynt 
Jorge that weyeth Ixiiij unc' et di. 

Item two gylt Cuppes with her two coverclez, the tone is lyke a Bell, that weyen 
Ixxij unce et di. 

Item an Ewer gylt that weyeth xv unce et di. 

Item ij potell' pottes that weyen Ixx utice. 

Item ij Ewers of Syluer that weyen xxxiij unce et di. Item ij basynes of 
sylver that weyen v & xj unce. 

Item a mase of sylver that weyeth xxvj unce & di. 

Item an Ewer of sylver and gylt that weyeth xij unce & iij quarters. Item 
a byrell J cuppe that weyeth xxvij vnce. 

Item a newe chales of Sylver and overgylt that weyth xvj vnce & di. Item 
a Chalyscuppe overgylt that weyeth xxij vnce & di. 

Item a whyte Grypes eye that weyeth xxj unce. Item a blake Nutte that 
weyeth xix unce & j quarter. 

Item ij spice disshes gylt and ennamayled that weyen xliij unce & di. Item 
a lytell table of sylver and gylt weyeth iiij unce. 

Item ij knoppes of a Trumpet of sylver that weyn ij uuce. Item ij dowble 
masers rbunde that weyen xix unce & di. 

Item a maser with An ymage of owre lady in the prynte || weyeth vj unce & 
j quarter. 

Item a grete maser with a vise ^[ weyeth viij vnce & di. Item a maser with a 
vernycle weyeth viij vnce & j quarter. 

Item an olde maser that weyeth iij vnce & di. Item iij salt selers of sylver 
that weyth xxxvij vnce. 

Item a round massy boll' of sylver and his covercle weyen xxxij vnce. 

Item a pece of sylver covered like a Kardynall' hatte and a hare in the prynte || 
that weyeth xxviij vnce. 

Item a pece of sylver kevered with a pomelP overgylt that weyth xvij vnce 
&di. 

Item vj dosen and xj spones of sylver that weyen [vacaf] vnce. 

Item iiij spones of sylver and gylte that weyen v unce. 



* TRUSSYNGE COFUR. Clitella, Prompt. Parv. CliUllce in classical Latin 
denotes a pack-saddle. The word is here used for a valise carried on a sumpter- 
mule's back. To truss is to pack. See Privy Purse Exp. Eliz. of York, under 
" Trussing-bed " in Index. 

f " Item in two trussyng cofers and in two gardevyances, i salt saler of sylver 
and gilt," &c. (28 H. VI.) Kal. and Inv. of Exckqr. ii. 219. " Full mony in- 
strument of slawghter was in his gardevyance." Dnnb. ap. Jamieson,- Scott. 
Diet. " A bandit kist like a garde viant." Jewels, &c. of King James III., p. 7, in 
Inventories of Royal Wardrobe. Edinb. 1815. 

J Rock crystal. 

The egg of the ostrich was often called a griffin's or grype's egg. 

|| The prynte. Here we have a mediaeval name for the small round plate at 
the bottom of the mazer-bowl, usually of silver, frequently engraved or enamelled 
with a device. 

f A vise is a screw. Fr. vis. The " vyce of a cuppe" occurs in Palsgrave. 
See Prompt. Parv. sub roce VYCE. 



March 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 123 

Item iiij bordknyffes * harnessed with sylver and gylt with Olyphauntes that 
weyen xx vnce save j quarter. 

Item a stondinge cuppe of sylver with sonnes f that weyth xxij vnce & di. 

Item vj peces of sylver & the edges gylt with on covercle to hem that weyen 
xl vnce. 

Item ij old cowrs peces of sylver that weyen xij vnce. Item j basyn & a 
laver of laton. 

Item un' Ewer dargent' continens in se vj goblettes cum uno cou'lo ponde- 
rant' Ij vnce iij quarters de emptione Thome Wyldgris. 

Item unum Nutt de Doion' J couered and names' cum argento precii xxvj s. viij d. 

Item ij stonding Cuppes & vj peces Avith ij Couers that weyen iiij" x vnce & 
iij quarters and j d. weyght le vnce ij s. vj d. S'a xj li. vj s. xj d. 

Item the facion xl s." 

Item a gylt Cuppe that weyeth xviij vnce, le unce v s. Summa iiij li. x s. 

Item a stondyng cuppe that weyeth xxxij vnce large, le vnce xxxij d. Sum- 
ma iiij li. v s. iiij d. 

Item ij kandelstykkes of Sylver that weyen v lib. save di. unce. S'ma vij li. 
xviij s. viij d. Item the facion, iiij li. xvj d. 

Item a stondyng cuppe per fratrem Johannem Esturton, pris xl s. Item a 
stondyng cuppe that weyeth xviij vnce, a ij s. viij d. Summa xlviij s. 

Item a dosseji spones of sylver markyd with an fo that weyen xj vnce 
j quarter di. 

Item a maser with a 5 f) c that weyeth iiij vnce iij quarters save a faring 
weght. 

Item a couered pece with Armes of Ermyns that weyeth xxiij vnce & j quarter. 

Item ij basyris of sylver that weyen iiij xx xiij unce di. 

NAPERIA DIAPRYD. 

Imprimis a mete cloth of viij yards di. in. long* & j verg' in lat'. Item vij 
meteclothis in latitucline j verg' d. quarter. I metecloth vj verg' in longitudine. 
Item a metecloth de viij verg' & iij quart' in longitudine. Item j metecloth de 
viij verg. in longitudine. Item a metecloth de vj virgis in longitudine. Item 
j metecloth de viij virgis & iij quart' in longitudine. Item j metecloth de vij 
virgis in longitudine. Item j metecloth de xij virgis di. in longitudine. Item 
j ffyne pleyn cloth de viij virgis iij quart' in longitudine & j ellon' in latitudine. 
Item iij napkyns de Eeynes. Item a towelP de viij virgis iij quart' in longitu- 
dine et lat' di. virge. Item j towell de x virgis in longitudine et in latitudine 
di. virge. Item j towell with a lyst, a quarter brode of blew, xviij virg' j quart' 
in longitudine & in latitudine di. virge di. qrt' [with 8 more towels from 19 to 
5^ yards long, the longest ell wide the rest yard wide]. 

NAPERIA PLEYN. 
[24 metecloths from sixteen to three yards long,, and widths varying from 



* MENSAL KNYFE, or borde knyfe. Mensalis, Prompt. Parv. See John 
Russell's Boke of Nurture, p. 138, 1. 333 (E. E. T. S. edition) where the "table 
knyfe " is used by the carver to lift the cut trencher of bread and lay it down 
before the lord whom he serves. 

f Suns, probably engraved on the cup. 

j A nut (or drinking- vessel in that form) made of a wood called Dudgeon. 
The spelling of the word in the text agrees with the reading of the Wiuton MS. 
of Prompt. Parv., which has " DoiON', dogena" for "DoRON', degener": see 
Mr. Way's note sub voce RONNYN. What Dudgeon exactly was seerns hardly 
to have been ascertained. Nares says that it is the root of box. For a notice 
of a dagger with a black wooden handle, supposed to be a " dudgeon dagger," 
see Proceedings, 2 S. iv. 35. 



124 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

1 yard save the nayle to 3 quarters.] Item j sanap (surnap) * de x virgis iij quarters 
in longitudine et in latitudine di. virg. [& 5 others ten to three yards long]. 

In Dorso Rotuli. 

IN COQUINA ET BUTTILEKIA. 

Imprimis xi olle enee magne et ij olle parve et j possnet. Item j patella enea 
magna in fornace in coqaina. Item iiij pattelle g r enee. Item xij .Spittes.ferr'. 



Item x pewter pottes potellers. Item vj 

de ferro. Item j gr[andisj mort[aria] enea. Item j awndiron g>' de ferro. Item 

j foleyn borde. Item iij cofurs. Item j crux cupri deaurati cum baculo eius- 

dem. Item j mer e et unum signum pro mort'. Item unum Cawdron de 

Cupro. 

Some account of the Trinity Guild at Coventry will be found 
in Dugdale's Warwickshire. See also Toulmin Smith's English 
Guilds (Early English Text Soc.) p. 234. The Master of the 
Guild was always, or generally, the person who had served as 
mayor of the city during the previous year. 

JOHN BRENT, Esq. F.S.A. Local Secretary for Kent, com- 
municated, in a letter addressed to the Secretary, the following 
Report of the progress of Antiquarian research in his district : 

The year just concluded has not in East Kent afforded many 
new facts in archaeology, nor offered many relics to the attention 
of the antiquary. Roman remains have occasionally turned up 
in isolated spots, and among these I may note a small Roman 
patera, of Samian ware, brought to me last autumn from a brick- 
field at Barham, upon the lower external surface of which is 
marked a design generally supposed to be a Christian symbol. 
The significancy of this mark, however, lies open to doubt, when 
we call to mind that it appertained also to Libitina or Perse- 
phone, and in this connection it is said to have appeared on the 
dresses of the Roman gravediggers, and has been recognised 
with this Pagan symbolism in the catacombs at Rome. The 
sculptured stones of Scotland exhibit similar cruciform figures, 
and the supposed presence on the sculptures of Mitla and Pa- 

* The surnap or serrenappe seems to have been placed underneath one of the 
long towels such as are mentioned in this Inventory, and spread all down the 
table after meat, for the convenience of wiping the guests' hands after washing. 
The "making" the surnap was a matter of great form, as to which consult the 
Early English Text Society's Collection on Manners and Meals quoted above, 
at the following passages, viz., Russell, Boke of Nurture, p. 132, 208 ; Wynkyn de 
Worde's Boke of Kervynge, p. 269; Boke of Curtasye, p. 321. The tradition of 
the surnap is perhaps hardly extinct yet. The writer remembers not many years 
ago observing at the end of dinner in a certain College Hall at Cambridge, how, 
along with the bason and ewer with rosewater, a long neatly-plaited cloth was 
placed on the upper end of the table, and was then thrown some way down the 
table by a servant with a jerk of the hand, the plaits unfolding with the motion. 

f A bell. 



March 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 125 

lenque of designs resembling the Maltese cross has given rise to 
theories upon which, after all, no certain reliance can be placed. 
The cross, in fact, is so simple a figure as to suggest itself as an 
ornament, or even as a symbol, under any form of civilization 
or religious belief and even so it must not be forgotten that 
Christianity existed at an early era in England, and considerably 
prior to the time of Lucius, Romano-British kings were said to 
have been present at Nice, A.D. 325, and amongst the Roman 
legions were doubtless Christian soldiers. The invasion of these 
shores by the Northern and German tribes stamped out for a 
time the feeble light of the evangelism of these rude ages. 

Roman pottery, as I am informed, has been found, within no 
distant period, at Wodesborough ; also near the church at Stod- 
marsh, on the top of the hill, and at Ramsgate, Preston, and 
Wingham. At Preston three cinerary urns, objects in Samian 
ware, and tke bottle-shaped, narrow -necked vessel of reddish 
clay so common in Roman interments have been exhumed. 
At Westgate Bay, between Reculver and Margate, the quantity 
of Roman pottery continually turning up exhibits proof that at 
one period the Romans had a considerable settlement in that 
locality. 

I now beg to exhibit a Roman enamelled brooch of rather 
peculiar shape, said not long since to have been found at Minster, 
together with four little bronze implements, namely, ear-pick, 
tweezers, &c., procured with it. I may also compare this brooch 
with another of the same character, but of more elegance of 
shape, discovered near St. Martin's church, Canterbury. I had 
it direct from the spot. In the same locality, some years since, 
gold Byzantine and Merovingian coins, looped for decoration, 
were found. Very recently some Anglo-Saxon spear-heads were 
exhumed not far off; and I think it not improbable that the 
hitherto undiscovered cemetery of the Anglo-Saxon population 
of Canterbury may some day be laid open in this neighbour- 
hood. 

Roman pottery is continually being found at and near Canter- 
bury, mostly of common material, and of the usual forms, dolia, 
patera, and mortuary urns. The chief exception to these may 
be noted in the exhuming of two twisted gold armlets, contain- 
ing three to four ounces of gold each, and discovered during 
excavations for the London, Dover, and Chatham railway, at a 
spot situated not half a mile from St. Martin's. I cannot ex- 
hibit these, but I produce two Roman bronze armlets which 
they somewhat resemble, found also at Canterbury, near the 
Dane John, in a cemetery where the interments were almost 
wholly by inhumation. 



120 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 

As the three other Roman cemeteries in Canterbury which 
have more or less come under my immediate inspection were 
wholly indicative of the rites of cremation, I am rather puzzled 
to account for the exception in this instance. 

The Romans, we know, as regards religious practices, were 
generally a tolerant people : perhaps some portion of the settlers 
under the Romans, or soldiers resident at Canterbury, retained 
the peculiar rites of the continental tribes from which they 
originally came. 

The presence of other objects found with these relics, -such as 
long iron coffin nails and Roman coins, point to a close affinity 
to a Roman original. 

Near this cemetery is the ruin of the old castle of Canterbury, 
in the inclosed quadrangle of whose walls, at some depth, was 
found a Roman cinerary urn, containing, with the ashes, the 
bones of fish and other animals, and portions of lava or pumice 
stone, a product evidently of foreign importation. 

As a matter of more general archseological interest, I beg to 
give a short account of the opening of a large tumulus last 
autumn, in which I was assisted by my brother, Mr. Cecil Brent. 
It is situated on Mountain Hill, Cage Hill, in the parish of 
Stowting. I commenced the excavations by cutting a deep 
trench across the barrow ; also another at right angles on the 
southern side. Very near the surface, where the two trenches 
centrally joined, I found portions of a British urn of reddish 
clay, slackly baked, and lying evidently out of the place of their 
original deposit. The vessel was peculiar, not perhaps on ac- 
count of the small knobs projecting under the rim around it, 
but from the circumstance of minute clear-cut holes perforating 
each knob, giving the impression that the suspending cord or 
ligament must have been very fine to have penetrated them. 
Nothing under the strength of metallic wire the use of which 
is hardly likely I should have thought would have been of any 
use. About two feet lower down was an extensive floor of burnt 
wood ashes, and upon this lay what appeared to be a flint flake, 
and the charred bladebone of a sheep or pig. This was the ex- 
tent of our discoveries. We dug down to the original unmade 
soil, but found nothing more. There were both sand and clay 
in the mound, extraneous to the soil around it. The sand was 
probably brought from a wood rather higher up, where it 
abounds. The floor of burnt ashes, which was very decided and 
from one to two inches thick, doubtless indicated some sacrifice 
or funeral feast. Upon this floor, probably when the rites of 
obsequy were concluded, earth was heaped up, and the mound 
trimmed into shape. 



March 28.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 127 

I ascertained, although not until after I had commenced my 
undertaking, that the tumulus had been opened, or rather was 
accidentally explored, about thirty years since, in taking off a 
portion of the top to facilitate agricultural operations, and that 
some earthen vessels had been found. The fragment of the urn 
I exhumed was probably left behind by these explorers. Never- 
theless I felt bound to continue my search, in hopes of discover- 
ing some primary interment. I may even now have missed it, 
as the mound is of great size, and the levelling process previously 
practised upon it may, by altering its original outlines, have 
rendered it a matter of uncertainty where its true centre or apex 
had once been. This mound overlooks the valley wherein lies 
the field whence some Anglo-Saxon relics were exhumed for the 
Society a year or two since. 

Turning to a much more remote period, I would make a few 
remarks on <the flint implements of the drift, inasmuch as I am 
able to add the gravel beds of Canterbury, the left bank of the 
valley of the Stour looking towards Chatham, to the other local- 
ities where these objects have been discovered. Although there 
is a certain degree of sameness about all the specimens, and little 
novelty can be looked for, nevertheless each discovery is so far 
of interest as it always affords an additional chance of finding a 
new link in the chain of the history of these mysterious records 
of a past so remote. 

The flint implements at Canterbury are found in the gravel 
pits at very various depths sometimes in strata resting upon 
the chalk itself, at a depth of 16 to 18 feet, in other instances 
rising with the chalk that underlies the gravel, almost to the 
surface. 

The flints which I now exhibit came mostly from gravel pits 
and sanded strata beneath the gravel, or intermingling with it. 
The two ovoid specimens are neatly made, the others on the con- 
trary are extremely rude. Indeed we can hardly see the use of 
them as implements of any sort. 

There seems to be a characteristic difference, in spite of their 
apparent similarity, between the worked flints of different 
localities. Those of the valley of the Somme have a peculiarity 
of their own, and differ from those of Reculver. These Canter- 
bury flints are in certain respects unlike those of either locality. 
In a few of the Canterbury specimens I have noticed a depression 
as if to receive the thumb, which I do not think accidental. 

I have one or two recent specimens also from Reculver ? one 
especially truly artistic in appearance, and perhaps the finest 
relic of the sort ever discovered in Kent. I found it last April 
lying by itself on a little ledge of sand on the sea shore. Two 



128 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

weeks previous there had been a sudden fall of some hundred 
tons of the cliff, for I was present when the cliff fell; I heard it, 
but did not actually see it, fall, having luckily just turned a 
corner in the bay. Stormy weather intervened before my next 
visit, but when 1 came again a fortnight afterwards the cliff had 
been washed into the sea, and this relic alone was left. 

It will be remembered that about three years since a tessellated 
pavement was found in Burgate Street, Canterbury, at the depth 
of about eight feet. A photograph presented by Mr. Pilbrow is I 
believe in the possession of the Society. Of all the numerous ob- 
jects of antiquity found during the works above alluded to this is 
the only one retained by the Mayor and Commonalty. Having 
received the authority of the Mayor to remove it to the Museum 
I found the attempt full of difficulty. The tesseraB, owing to 
the imperfection of the backing or concrete, whether through 
lapse of time or other causes, separated at the slightest touch. 
They seemed to have been set in a thin layer of lime or chalk- 
wash ; beneath was a concrete of brick-dust scarcely an inch 
thick, then a layer of sand not more than one and a quarter 
inch in width, resting on a concrete of chalk, pebbles, &c. 
scarcely two inches wide. 

After several attempts, during which the tesserae were dis- 
turbed, the only expedient that gave any chance of success was 
to procure some large plates of sheet iron and pass them through 
the sand between the brick-dust rubble and the bed of concrete, 
and so endeavour to raise the pavement bodily. This process 
entailed several breakages, as well as did the journey to the 
museum through the streets. However, by the assistance of a 
carefully coloured tissue paper tracing made by Mr. Hall, the 
city surveyor, whilst the pavement was in situ, it was completely 
and I believe accurately restored and set in a frame for its per- 
manent preservation in the Canterbury Museum. 

I should not however have called the attention of the Society 
to this pavement had not further explorations in Burgate Street 
last week (January 1871) laid open the remains of other pave- 
ments belonging to the same Roman house. We found also 
part of the wall of the house (the southern wall), lying about 
nine feet deep, a solid mass of Roman concrete upon which had 
apparently been erected the wall of a medieval building. It 
lay immediately beyond the street pavement up the opening of 
a yard abutting thereon. 

The pavement found last week consisted of black and white 
tesserae with a few red squares of a diamond pattern, very like 
the one exhumed by Mr. Pilbrow. It was too fragile however to 
be removed. It lay about eight feet deep ; it continued in a 



March 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 129 

straight line some feet towards the south side of the street, it 
then descended, making, as far as I could ascertain, a fall of 
between one and two feet. Here the pattern changed to a 
guilloche of red, white, and black tesserae, a small portion of 
which I have procured. The descent or sinking of the floor of 
the Roman house, from what cause must remain unknown, 
exhibited a curious result. The occupant, instead of picking 
up his flooring and levelling the ground, started another pave- 
ment immediately above it, in one place about fourteen inches 
apart, the upper pavement being of coarser materials, and 
consisting of red tesserae of larger size, intermixed with a few 
white squares. Immediately under the lowest pavement was a 
small black mortuary urn, perfect when found ; some fragments 
of Upchurch and Samian ware lay near it. Evidences of other 
apartments in this Roman house were apparent, especially as in 
a drift way made by the w r orkmen underground the edgings of 
pavements appeared. Any attempt however to follow them up 
would have entailed much" expense, and perhaps have proved 
abortive on account of the condition of the street, which was 
intersected by gas, drainage, and water pipes in every direc- 
tion. 

Mr. C. Roach Smith, in his valuable book, Roman London, 
remarks a that the county of Kent can boast of none of these 
beautiful works of Roman art." Nevertheless, I have often 
noticed, during partial excavations, scattered portions of pave- 
ments, taken at the Roman level, below the public ways in Can- 
terbury. There is no reason to doubt but that the houses of 
Roman Canterbury possessed many of these ornamented floor- 
ings ; whilst, from the presence of numerous hot-air tubes and 
pipes constantly discovered, I feel confident the occupants of the 
ancient Durovernum who settled there as conquerors were not 
without the conveniences and luxuries found in Britain in other 
Roman settlements. One thing, however, is certain, from the 
state of numerous objects found at the Roman level, except 
pottery, the many half-molten coins, cinerated relics, charred 
wood and rafters, that the ancient city was at one time ruth- 
lessly destroyed by fire and sword. 

In connection with this communication Mr. Brent exhibited 
several specimens of Roman and other antiquities referred to in 
his Report; and also presented a drawing of a Roman urn found 
March 5, 1871, at the Vauxhall Brickfields, Canterbury. 

This vessel was of the shape of the modern oil jar of the south of 
Europe. The height was 1 foot f inch ; the largest diameter 11^ 
inches. The neck (5^ in. across at the mouth) was ornamented 
by two bands of a wavy pattern worked in relief, beneath which 
on the shoulder 'of the vase was a scroll pattern, formed by rolls 

VOL. V. K 



130 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 

of clay, luted on to the surface. These ornaments were not 
quite perfect. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these Communica- 
tions. 



Thursday, March 30th, 1871. 
J. WINTER JONES, Esq. V.P. in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Royal Geographical Society : Proceedings. Vol. xv. No. 1. 8vo. 

London, 1871. 
From the Author : National Holidays, and in reference to Sir John Lubbock's 

Bank Holiday Bill. By William Kay Smee, Esq. F.S.A. 8vo. London, 

1871. 
From the Royal Institute of British Architects : Sessional Papers, 1870-71. 

No. 6. 4to. London, 1871. 

The following Gentlemen were admitted Fellows : 

William Bragge, Esq. 
Morris Charles Jones, Esq. 

This evening being appointed for the ballot for the Election of 
Fellows no papers were read. 

The ballot opened at a quarter before and closed at half-past 
nine o'clock, when the following gentlemen were declared to be 
elected Fellows of the Society : 

George Bonnor, Esq. 

Eev. John Kae. 

Thomas Laurence Kington Oliphant, Esq. 

John Sackville Swann, Esq. 

Colonel John Bayly, E.E. 

John Samuel Rawle, Esq. 

James William Holme, Esq. 

John Allan Rolls, Esq. 

Valentine Dudley Henry Cary Elwes, Esq. 



April 20.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 131 

Thursday, April 20th, 1871. 
AUGUSTUS W. FRANKS, ESQ., V.P. in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Powys Land Club : Collections, Historical and Archaeological, rela- 
ting to Montgomeryshire. Vol. iv. Part 1. 8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Author : The Abbey of Ystrad Marchell (Strata Marcella) or Pola. 
By Morris Charles Jones, F.S. A. (From Montgomeryshire Collections, IV.) 
8vo. London, 1871. 

From G. Manners, Esq. F.S. A. : Itineraria Symonis Simeonis et Willelmi de 
Worcestre, Quibus accedit Tractatus de Metro, in quo traduntur regulae a 
scriptoribus mcxlii revi in versibus Leoninis observatee. Edidit Jacobus 
Nasmith, A.M. S.A.S. 8vo. Cambridge, 1778. 

From the Editor : The Church Builder. No. 38. April. 8vo. London, 
1871. 

From the Author : Lord Lieutenant and High Sheriff. Correspondence upon 
the question of Precedence. Collected by J. M. Davenport, F.S. A. 8vo. 
London, 1871. 

From C. Warne, Esq. F.S. A. : Baal Durotrigensis. A Dissertation on the 
ancient Colossal Figure at Cerne, Dorsetshire. By John Sydenham. 8vo, 
London. 

From the Royal Institute of British Architects : Sessional Papers, 1870-71. 
No. 7. 4to. London, 1871. 

From the Author : The Chronicles of the Pathan Kings of Delhi, illustrated by 
Coins. Inscriptions, and other Antiquarian Remains. By Edward Thomas. 
8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Camden Society : The Camden Miscellany. Vol. vi. 4to. London, 
1871. 

From the London Institution : Journal. Nos. 4 and 5. Vol. i. 8vo. Lon- 
don, 1871. 
From J. W. K. Eyton, Esq. F.S. A. : 

1. A Compendious History of Sussex, Topographical, Archaeological, and 
Anecdotical. Containing an Index to the first twenty volumes of the Sussex 
Archnaological Collections. By M. A. Lower. 2 vols. 8vo. Lewes and 
London, 1870. 

2. English Reprints, by Edward Arber, viz. : 

(19) James I. Essaycs in the Art of Poesie, 1585. Countcrblastc to 
Tobacco, 1004. 

(20) Sir Robert Naunton. Fragmenta Regalia. From 3rd ed. 1653. 

(21) Thomas Watson. Poems. 1582-1593. 

(22) William Habington. Castara. 3rd ed. of 1640 collated with those 
of 1634, 1635. 

(23) Roger Ascham. The Scholemaster. From 1st ed. 1570 ; collated 
with 2nd, 1571. 

(24) Tottel's Miscellany. Songcs and Soncttcs by the Earl of Surrey, Sir 
Thomas Wyatt, Nicholas Grimald, and uncertain others. 1st ed. col- 
lated with the 2nd, of 1557. 

K2 



132 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE 

3 Fac-simile Texts by Edward Arber. The first printed English New 
Testament. Translated by William Tyndale. Photo-lithographed from 
the Grenville copy in the British Museum. 4to. London, 1871. 

4. Publications of the Early English Text Society. 2 vols 8vo. London, 
viz. : 

(44) Joseph of Arimathie : the Eomance of the Seint Graal. Edited by 
W. W. Skeat, 1871. 

(45) King Alfred's West-Saxon Version of Gregory's Pastoral Care. 
Edited by Henry Sweet. 1871. 

5. Mr. Ashbee's Occasional Fac-simile Keprints. Three parts. Sm. 4to. 
London, 1869-71 : 

(xi) "The Carriers' Cosmographie." By John Taylor (Water Poet) 

From ed. of 1637. 

(xii) " The Debate and Stryfe betwene Somer and Wynter." From the 

Original printed by Laurence Andrewe. 

(xii) " The Humors of Bottom the Weaver." From the Original of 

1661. 

A Vote of Special Thanks was accorded to J. W. K. Eyton, 
Esq. for this fresh mark of the interest which he has constantly 
shown in the Library of the Society. 

Notice was given that the Anniversary Meeting would take 
place on Monday, April 24th, and a list was read of the persons 
proposed by the Council as the Council and Officers for the 
ensuing year. 

The Report of the Auditors for the year 1870 was read. (See 
page 133.) 

Thanks were ordered to be returned to the Auditors for their 
trouble, and to the Treasurer for his good and faithful services. 

A correspondence was read between Colonel Lane Fox and 
Mr. T. Latham, the owner and occupier of the Dorchester Dykes 
(see ante, p. 92). Mr. Latham gave no hopes that the demoli- 
tion would be permanently arrested, but stated that for the pre- 
sent it was not his intention to proceed with his works. . 

WILLIAM BRAGGE, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited and presented pho- 
tographs of objects of religious art from Russia, consisting of 
pectoral crosses, triptychs, &c. in metal work. 

The REV. ASSHETON POWNALL, F.S.A. Local Secretary for 
Leicestershire, communicated some further remarks on the dis- 
covery of Mediaeval Glass Bottles imbedded in the foundation 
walls of Lutterworth and South Kilworth churches,* with the 

* See ante, p. 114. 



April 20.] 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUAKIES. 



133 



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134 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 

view of satisfying some doubts which had been expressed at the 
ordinary meeting on March 23rd as to the antiquity of the 
phials, and as to the certainty that they were found in the 
position alleged. 

Mr. Pownall showed that the improbabilities were very great 
that he should in either case have been duped by a trick played 
by some one with glass phials (whether really antique or not) 
purposely placed for the sake of imposition in a particular spot. 
In the case of South Kilworth (Mr. PownalPs own parish), 
though not actually overlooking the workman (a very simple- 
minded villager) who turned up the bottle, Mr. Pownall was on 
the ground at the time. The man was far from thinking he had 
found a prize when the phial appeared among the loose stones of 
the old foundation. Indeed, but for the orders given that every- 
thing should be shown to Mr. Pownall before being thrown 
aside, the Kilworth bottle would certainly have been so dealt 
with. 

" The discovery of the phial at Lutterworth," Mr. Pownall 
continued, " was made also without my having seen it disinterred ; 
but hear the particulars, and the supposition of an attempt to 
hoax will not stand a moment. That such a bottle was found I 
have produced evidence in Mr. Morgan's letter, and there is no 
question at all that the bottle exhibited by me is one of the two 
represented as having been found ; but he who found it, whoever 
he was, never knew it would come to my hands. No one at 
Lutterworth had the least notion of its pretensions to antiquity ; 
and so little notice of the discovery was taken at the time that 
the companion bottle is destroyed or lost. A hoax must have an 
object ; but, so far from attempting to hoax anyone, those who 
found this Lutterworth bottle did nothing with it. I wish they 
had. In fact, had pains not been taken to hunt up and secure 
it, this Lutterworth bottle would probably by this time have 
gone the way of all glass. By mere chance did I hear of the 
discovery ; and when, at my request, search was made, it was 
only successful after an interval, and then only as regards one 
of the two. On comparing them, these two phials discovered 
apart, at different times, by different people, who never could 
have dreamed that both bottles would come into my possession 
are seen to be alike, and so much alike as to point to similarity 
in date and manufacture." 

With regard to the intrinsic evidence of the antiquity of the 
glass, ^ Mr. Pownall left that question to the decision of persons 
acquainted with the characteristics of the ancient and modern 
manufactures of that material, only remarking that to his own 
eye the difference between these phials and modern glass was 
strikingly apparent. 



April 20.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 135 

Mr. Pownall added that he was not surprised that his assertion 
as to the date of the earliest dated specimens of glass had been 
received somewhat incredulously, as little is known about the 
history of ancient English glass. 

In his paper he had admitted the possibility of early glass 
vessels having come down to us, but added that if such pieces 
exist they are unrecognised, and cannot be pointed to as spe- 
cimens of a particular century. 

A. W. FRANKS, Esq. V.P., to whom Mr. Pownall had referred 
as his authority for his statement as to dated glass, said that 
he quite agreed with Mr. Pownall in his statement about the 
earliest vessels with known dates. The glass object in the 
Jermyn Street Museum referred to by Mr. Pownall was a 
medallion of Charles II. ; and the oldest English glass vessel of 
known date might probably be of the 17th century. 

WALTER WHITE, Esq. F.S.A. stated that about five or six 
years ago a bottle of a very similar character was found in the 
foundations of the chancel wall of the church of St. Phillack, 
Cornwall. It was believed to be half filled with the blood of St. 
Felicitas, and had been replaced in situ. From the position 
where it was found it could not have been later than' the twelfth 
century. Another illustration was here furnished of the un- 
doubted antiquity of the Leicestershire phials. 

The Secretary stated that Mr. Powell, the head of the glass- 
works at Whitefriars, had seen the bottles exhibited by Mr. 
Pownall, and had expressed his conviction of their antiquity, 
basing his conclusions on the peculiarities of the manufacture, 
especially the sharp cutting off of the rim of the neck by the 
shears and the method by which the base had been detached 
from the mass of glass. 

S. BUTTON WALKER, Esq. Local Secretary for Nottingham- 
shire, exhibited: 

1. An Iron-capped Stake, which he thus described : 
" I believe the stake shod with iron to be an ancient British 
pike or other warlike instrument ; it was found at a depth of 
something like 15 feet below the upper surface of the gravel 
bed of the River Trent during the excavation made for the 
coffer-dam of the pier of the new bridge the iron portion 
thereof has since discovery disintegrated somewhat, and I have 
therefore been obliged to have it varnished to hold the particles 
together, which has taken away somewhat from its ancient 
appearance, but I was obliged to do this to preserve it. 



136 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [18 71 

2. Aii implement which from its late Gothic form might be 
attributed to the reign of Henry VII., of which the use was not 
free from doubt, Mr. Walker himself and others taking it for 
a pair of snuffers, others for a portion of a rush-holder. See 
Proceedings 2 3- i v - 158. 

WILLIAM WHITE, Esq. F.S.A. communicated a memoir on 
the Galilee of Durham Cathedral, which will appear in the 
Archaeologia. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these Communications. 



ANNIVERSARY. 

Monday, April 24th, 1871. 

FREDERIC OUVRY, Esq. Treasurer, and subsequently the 
EARL STANHOPE, President, in the Chair. 

W. D. Cooper, Esq. and J. G. Nichols, Esq. were nominated 
by the Chairman, and appointed Scrutators of the Balloting 
List. 

During the Ballot the following Address was delivered by the 
President : 

GENTLEMEN, 

The losses which this Society has sustained since its last 
Anniversary or more exactly speaking in the period which 
elapsed between the 5th of April, 1870, and the 5th of April in 
the present year, are the following : 

Deaths. 

The Rev. William Beal, LL.D. 
William Henry Blaauw, Esq. M.A. 
*The Rev. Guy Bryan, M.A. 
George Chapman, Esq. 
*Edward Foss, Esq. 
William Sidney Gibson, Esq. M.A. 
*Philip Hardwick, Esq. R.A. F.R.S. 
William Chapman Harnett, Esq. 

* Fellows who had compounded for their subscriptions. 



April 24.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 137 

Henry Harrod, Esq. 

John, Lord Henniker, M.A. 

* William Alexander Mackinnon, Esq. M.P. M.A. F.R.S. 

The Rev. John Richardson Major, M.A. 

Charles Wykeham Martin, Esq. M.P. 

*Jolm Nicholl, Esq. 

*The Right Hon. Sir Jonathan Frederick Pollock, Bart., 

M.A. F.R.S. 
Thomas Thorby, Esq. 
Thomas Willement, Esq. 

Honorary. 
Signer Bonucci. 
M. Prosper Merimee. 
George Ticknor, Esq. 

\ 

Withdrawals. 

Charles Tilstone Beke, Esq. Ph.D. 

Josiah Goodwin, Esq. 

William Sandys Wright Yaux, Esq. M.A. F.R.S. 

Within the same period the gentlemen whose names I shall 
now proceed to read were elected Fellows : 

Elections. 

John Major, Lord Henniker. 

Edward Morton, Esq. 

William Bragge, Esq. 

Wyke Bayliss, Esq. 

Morris Charles Jones, Esq. 

Faiiiess Barber, Esq. ' 

William Douglas Hamilton, Esq. 

The Rev." Benjamin Webb, M.A. 

George Lambert, Esq. 

James Eglinton Anderson Gwynne, Esq. 

The Rev. Thomas George Bonney, B.D. 

William Copeland Borlase, Esq. 

Thomas Quiller Couch, Esq. 

William Amlmrst Tyssen Amhurst, Esq. 

William, Viscount Milton, M.P. 

Robert Furley, Esq. 

The Rev. Thomas Bayley Levy, M.A. 

Robert Brown, jun. Esq. 

* Fe'llows who had compounded for their subscriptions. 



138 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 

William Long, Esq. M.A. 

The Rev. John Harwood Hill, B.A. 

Robert Nicholas Fowler, Esq. M.A M.P. 

George Bonnor, Esq. 

John Rae, Esq. 

Thomas Laurence Kington Oliphant, Esq. 

John Sackville Swann, Esq. 

Colonel John Bayly, R.E. 

John Samuel Rawle, Esq. 

James Wilson Holme, Esq. M.A. 

John Allan Rolls, Esq. 

Valentine Dudley Henry Gary Elwes, Esq. 

W. H. BLAAUW, Esq. M.A. was born on the 25th May, 1793, 
was elected a Fellow on the 30th May, 1850, and died on the 26th 
April, 1870. His two communications to this Society are of a 
date four years anterior to his election among our body. The 
first was read on the 19th February, 1846, and is entitled " An 
Account of two leaden Chests containing the bones and in- 
scribed with the names of William de Warren and his wife 
Gundrada, founders of Lewes Priory, in Sussex, discovered in 
October 1845, within the Priory Precinct." (Archaeologia, 
xxxi. 438.) In this paper Mr. Blaauw had decided the question 
of the parentage of Gundrada in favour of her being the 
daughter of William the Conqueror which some had doubted 
as well as of Matilda, William's Queen which no one denied. 
This position was attacked by Mr. Stapleton (a great authority), 
in a paper in the Archaeological Journal, vol. iii. p. 1-26, pur- 
porting to be " in disproof of the pretended marriage of William 
De Warren with a daughter of the Conqueror." To this paper 
Mr. Blaauw replied in the second of his two communications to 
the Archseologia, read on the 3rd December, 1846, and entitled 
" Remarks on Matilda, Queen of William the Conqueror, and 
her daughter Gundrada" (Archseologia, xxxii. 108-125). More 
recently the distinguished and very learned author of the "His- 
tory of the Norman Conquest of England," Mr. Edward A. 
Freeman, has discussed this question in the Appendix to his 
third volume (p. 645-658), and on this particular point he 
agrees with Mr. Stapleton as against Mr. Blaauw. I may 
however observe, that to the almost insuperable objection to 
Mr. Stapleton' s view, derived from the express words of the 
Conqueror, who, in his original Charter, speaks of Gundrada 
as his daughter words which Mr. Stapleton, without as it 
seems to me any sufficient warrant, has altered from " filie 
mee" into " pro me," Mr. Freeman, I presume to think, has 
really nothing to urge but the improbability that in another 



April 24.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 139 

Charter,- that of Earl William of Warren, Queen Matilda 
should be spoken of as " the mother of his wife." "It is 
utterly inconceivable," Mr. Freeman adds, "that Earl William 
would have used this language if King William had been the 
father of his wife. In such a case he would have described his 
wife as the daughter of King William." For my own part I 
may be allowed to prefer the decisive statement made by King 
William to the inference drawn from the language of Earl 
William. The wisdom of the father that knows his own child 
has never been considered so rare and exceptional as that of the 
child that knows his own father. Those who read the pages of 
the three authors I have named will find that there are other 
grounds also, on which I cannot now enter, which show that 
Mr. Blaauw was justified in his assertion as to the parentage of 
Gundrada. 

Mr. Blaauw's taste for historical researches and power of 
historical composition are ably shown in a substantive work 
entitled " The Barons' War, including the Battles of Lewes and 
Evesham. 4to. Lewes, 1844." A demand had arisen for a 
second edition of this work, and Mr. Blaauw was engaged, I 
believe, in this undertaking when failing health too early 
arrested his pen. To the Transactions of the Sussex Society, 
of which he was the principal founder and for many years the 
sole editor, his contributions were both numerous and important. 
They are enumerated in a well-deserved memoir of their author 
prefixed to the volume xxii. of the Sussex Archaeological Col- 
lections. I must not omit mentioning that for many years Mr. 
Blaauw gave us the advantage of his services as Local Secretary 
for Sussex, and in 1851 he was elected a Member of our 
Council. 

GEORGE CHAPMAN, Esq. was elected a Fellow on the 2nd 
April, 1857, and died in the month of July, 1870, from the 
effects of malaria to which he had been exposed on a visit to 
Rome. As will be seen from the subjoined note * he very 
frequently contributed to the interest of our meetings by the 
exhibition of objects of art and antiquity, and on this account, 
as on others, his .removal at an early age is an event we must 
not pass over without an expression of regret. 

EDWARD Foss, Esq. was born on the 16th October, 1787, was 
elected a Fellow on the 18th April, 1822, and died on the 27th 
July, 1870, at the advanced age of eighty-three years. He was 
by profession a solicitor, and in the same year in which he 

* Proceedings, iv. 105, 208, 244 ; 2 S. i. 288, 340, 412. 



140 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [18?lj 

joined the Society he became a Member of the Inner Temple 
with the intention of being called to the Bar, an intention he 
never carried out. His younger brother was a partner in the 
firm of Payne and Foss, so distinguished for its bibliographical 
treasures and book-lore, and by his mother's side he was nearly 
related to the eminent scholar Dr. Charles Burney. In, the 
year 1840 he retired from business and devoted the leisure he 
had so well earned to the cultivation of literary tastes ; above all 
to the execution of a project which he had for a long time 
cherished, and for which he had carefully employed himself in 
collecting materials. .1 refer of course to his Lives of the 
English Judges. I must however give the first place, on this 
occasion, to his contributions to our own Transactions. 

The first of his communications to this Society was made on 
the 19th November, 1846, and is printed in the Archaeologia, 
vol. xxxii. pp. 83-95, under the title, " On the Lord Chancellors 
and Keepers of the Seal in the reign of King John." In 1853 
he contributed a paper " On the Lineage of Sir Thomas More," 
which is printed in the Archaeologia, vol. xxxv. pp. 27-33. In 
this paper he shows that John More, first the butler, afterwards 
the steward, and finally the reader, of Lincoln's Inn, was the 
Chancellor's grandfather ; and that John More, junior, who was 
also at one time the butler there, was the Chancellor's father, 
and afterwards the Judge ; a descent which precisely suited 
the " familia non celebri sed honesta natus " in Sir Thomas's 
epitaph, and which no subsequent inquirer, so far as I am 
aware, has been able to controvert. In the same volume of the 
Archseologia (pp. 305-309) we find a paper " On the relationship 
between Eichard Fitz- James, Bishop of London, and Lord Chief 
Justice Sir John Fitz- James," which was laid before the Society 
on the 19th January, 1854. On the 16th November in the 
same year he read a paper " On the origin of the title and 
office of Cursitor-Baron of the Exchequer," in a letter addressed 
to the Viscount Strangford, F.R.S. and Vice -President of 
this Society ; the paper in question being published in the 
Archseologia, vol. xxxvi. pp. 26-32. In the interval between the 
first and second of these communications, namely, on the 8th 
February, 1849, Mr. Foss laid before the Society a paper on 
the Justices of Trailbaston, of which an abstract is printed in 
our Proceedings, vol. i. p. 312 Lord Macaulay, I remember, 
was present as a visitor on the evening when that paper was 
read, and he had never, as he mentioned to me, heard of the 
Trailbaston Justices before. These various papers, it will be seen, 
are all of them the produce of their author's labours on that 
great work " The Judges of England " the first two volumes 
of which appeared in 1848, and the last or ninth volume in 1864. 



April 24.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 141 

It would not fall within the scope of these obituary notices 
to give any detailed account, much less to enter into any criti- 
cism, of works published outside the circle of this Society. This 
much however I will venture to predict, that the " Judges of 
England " will hold a lasting place in the Biographical Litera- 
ture of this country, and will not soon nor readily find any rival 
to contest it. It is at any rate certain that we can no longer 
complain, with the quaint author of the " Worthies of England," 
that, u though Judges leave more land than Bishops, they leave 
lesse memorials behind them of the time, place, and manner, 
when and where born and dyed, and how they demeaned 
themselves." 

After the publication of his magnum opus^ Mr. Foss gave to 
the world his " Tabulae Curiales, or Tables of the Superior 
Courts of Westminster Hall, showing the Judges who sat in 
them from 1066 to 1864. 8vo. London, 1865." And at the 
moment when death overtook him he was engaged in passing 
'through the press a work-in one volume, entitled " Biographia 
Juridica, a Biographical Dictionary of the Judges of England 
from the Conquest to the Present Time, 10651870. 8vo. 
London, 1870." This most useful and compendious work com- 
prehends every name in the larger work, with slight abridg- 
ments and corrections, adding to them the Judges who have 
been appointed since 1864, the whole number exceeding 1,600 
lives. Prefixed to this volume is a biographical sketch of the 
author by the Rev. J. C. Robertson, Canon of Canterbury, to 
which I am indebted for some of the particulars in this obituary 
notice, and to which those who desire fuller details may turn 
with both advantage and pleasure. 

HENRY HARROD, Esq. was born at Aylsham, in Norfolk, on 
the 30th September, 1817 ; was elected a Fellow on the 16th 
March, 1854; and died on the 24th January, 1871. He was 
educated in Norwich, and practised as a solicitor there for many 
years. It is long since we have had to deplore the death of a 
more thorough and more practical antiquary within his own 
especial range. For proof of this assertion I may refer in tha 
first place to his well-known work, " Gleanings among the 
Castles and Convents of Norfolk. Norwich, 1857." 8vo. We 
there find that happy combination of documentary evidence, 
with proofs from architectural details, which in the hands of 
Mr. Harrod has proved as fertile of results as in those of Pro- 
fessor Willis. The information contained in this volume was 
" gleaned" during the twelve years in which Mr. Harrod was 
honorary secretary to the Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological 
Society, of which the Transactions abound with papers from his 



142 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1671, 



pen, and I might add with illustrations from his pencil ; for in 
this respect Mr. Harrod enjoyed a great advantage. The plans 
and drawings in the work I have just named are admirable spe- 
cimens of what an archaeological illustration ought to be, not a 
mere play of the fancy, but an exact representation of the facts 
of form. Mr. Harrod's contributions to our Proceedings will 
be found recorded in the subjoined note.* The following papers 
have either appeared or will hereafter appear in the pages of 
Archseologia. The first was read on the 3d May, 1855, on 
some Horse-Trappings found at Westhall, illustrated by draw- 
ings, which furnish a striking confirmation of what has just 
been observed respecting Mr. Harrod's artistic powers. His 
next communication was made to us on the 16th February, 
1865, and contained an interesting notice of entries in ancient 
wills and other documents referring to the ring and mantle worn 
in the middle ages as badges of perpetual widowhood. The next 
was read on the 1st February, 1866, and is entitled, " Some 
Details of a Murrain of the Fourteenth Century, from the Court 
Rolls of a Norfolk Manor " (Archaeologia, xli. p. 1-14). A third 
was read on the 6th May, 1869, and gave a history and descrip- 
tion of Wymondham Abbey, in the county of Norfolk. A fourth 
was read on the 31st March, 1870, and went far to prove that 
the ancient crypt beneath the chapter-house at Westminster was 
used in the time of King Edward I. as the Treasury of the 
Great Wardrobe. Only the day before his death the Secretary 
received a letter from our lamented Fellow, saying that he was 
then engaged in putting the last touches to a paper on the 
Tower of London, and that he hoped ere long to be able to go 
to the Record Office to verify a few references, and make some 
extracts which would enable him to lay this paper before the 
Society. 

Mr. Harrod had all through the winter been suffering from 
disease of the heart ; and it deserves to be recorded by us that 
the last time he ever left his home, only a fortnight before his 
death, was to visit these apartments, and pursue his researches 
in our library on this very subject. 

I have much gratification in being able to inform you that his 
widow, the eldest daughter of the late Colonel Franklin Head, 
has placed at our disposal these valuable researches on the 
Tower, in which Mr. Harrod was literally engaged up to the 
very last moment of his life, together with other communications 
which Mr. Harrod had intended to lay before us. I am sure 
you will concur with me in tendering to her not only our 
warmest thanks for thus fulfilling, as far as she could, her 

* Proceedings, iii. 227 ; 2 S. if. 270, 308, 311 ; iii. 19, 65, 225 ; iv. 341, 346, 456. 



April 24.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 143 

husband's intentions towards the Society, but also the expression 
of our heartfelt sympathy in the severe and sudden bereavement 
which she has sustained. 

Of my brother-in-law, JOHN, LORD HENNIKER, I should also 
desire to say a few words. Born February 3, 1801, and elected 
a Fellow December 16, 1852, he was for nearly nineteen years 
associated with us. During that period he was several times a 
member of the Council, and I might appeal to all those who met 
him there for a testimony to his ever courteous manner, to his 
patient, nay pleased, attention, to the cordial interest which he 
felt in the studies of archaeology, and to the undeviating zeal 
which he displayed for the interests of the Society. There, as 
in the more essential avocations of public or of private life, he 
was constantly animated by one impulse, the desire to do right, 
the determination to fulfil his duty in whatever matters, great or 
small, might come before him. In that respect he might aptly 
be compared to his contemporary and brother peer from the 
same county, our late Vice- President the Marquess of Bristol. 
Neither of them contributed any essay to our Archasologia, yet 
each has made and left many warm friends among us ; nor will 
the kindly recollection of either be willingly let die. 

JOHN NICHOLL, Esq. was born on the 19th April,' 1790, and 
was elected a Fellow on the 16th February, 1843, and. died on the 
7th February, 1871. His contributions to our Proceedings were 
few in number, but the pursuits in which he engaged were so 
congenial to us that he deserves a passing notice at our hands. 
The genealogical collections which he formed were admirably 
drawn up in respect of accuracy, and richly embellished with 
armorial bearings and illuminated initials. Seven folio volumes 
of these collections, not to mention others, he presented to the 
Ironmongers' Company, compiled as they were from their 
archives. From these collections grew his History of the Iron- 
mongers' Company, printed for private circulation, in imperial 
8vo, 1851, and again in 4to, in 1866. Mr. Nicholl served as 
Master of the Ironmongers' Company in 1 859. 

CHARLES WYKEHAM MARTIN, Esq. was elected a Fellow on 
the 5th of December, 1850, and died in the month of November 
1870. His name does not appear among the contributors to the 
Archasologia, but his communications to the Society, as recorded 
in our Proceedings, and as enumerated in the subjoined note,* 

* Proceedings, ii. 79, 83, 94, 231 ; iv. 119 ; 2 8. ii. 103, 142, 283 ; iii. 76 ; 
iv. 25G. 



144 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

were not unfrequent or unimportant. In the welfare of the 
Society he always evinced the liveliest interest, as was shown by 
his assiduous attendance at the meetings of the Council. His 
great antiquarian taste, as well as knowledge, were most fully 
manifested in " The History and Description of Leeds Castle, 
Kent," Westminster, 1869, a folio volume which he carried 
through the press in the year before his death. One copy, 
presented by himself, is among the most prized possessions of 
our library. 

In Leeds Castle, indeed, Mr. Wykeham Martin took at all 
times, as was natural, a just and becoming interest. To that 
fine old seat, or, as I may more truly term it, that mediaeval 
fortress, he applied not only all the resources for its illustration 
that pencil or pen could supply, but also for its restoration more 
substantial works. You are well aware how difficult is that task 
of restoration, and how frequently it ends by maiming much 
more than it mends. With Mr. Wykeham Martin this was 
never the case. I saw the works in question on a visit to him 
during the last months of his life, and was greatly impressed 
with the excellent taste and judgment, the practised skill, which 
these works displayed. 

In the year 1865 I had the gratification to nominate this 
lamented gentleman as one of your Yice-Presidents. It was an 
appointment that gave much pleasure to himself, and that, so 
far as I may presume to judge, was highly satisfactory to the 
Society at large. Mr. Wykeham Martin was, indeed, blessed 
beyond most men with a cordial and cheerful temper, which 
made it a delight to be associated with him, and which seemed 
to render it impossible that envy or ill-will, or any other of the 
baser passions, could even for a moment find a place within 
his breast. Qualities such as these, in the persons who preside 
at our weekly meetings, are, I am sure you will agree with me, 
not less essential to our well-being than any amount of anti- 
quarian skill or knowledge. 

Some two or three years ago, or it might even be longer, I 
ventured to suggest to Mr. Wykeham Martin the -composition 
of a paper for our Archaeologia which I thought would have 
proved of the highest interest and value. My idea was founded 
on an essay entitled, " Mediaeval Houses and Castles in England," 
which was prepared by him for the Archaeological Academy of 
Belgium, but which was never published, nor even printed in 
England, a few copies only for private circulation being struck 
off at Antwerp in 1862. It seemed to me that this essay, though 
short, was without exception the very best that I ever read on 
that prolific subject. It seemed to me, also, that it would admit 
of being re-written on a considerably larger scale, arid with 



April 24.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 145 

many farther illustrations. Indeed, he says himself, at the 
close of his essay, u an outline only of the subject has been given 
in these pages." Had that outline been filled up, however, in 
the manner that I wished, it would, beyond all question, have 
formed a most worthy appendage to our own publications. 
Mr. Wykeham Martin accepted, with readiness, the task which 
I had presumed to urge, and he told me, when last I saw him, 
that his new essay had already made some progress, That he 
should have left it incomplete adds one to the many reasons that 
we have to deplore his untimely end. 

The most recent of the deaths we have to deplore is that of 
THOMAS WILLEMENT, Esq., who was elected a Fellow on the 17th 
May, 1832, and who died at Davington Priory, near Faversham, 
on the 10th March, 1870, at the age of 85 years. Mr. Wille- 
ment's contributions to our Proceedings, it will be seen,* were 
neither numerous nor important enough to admit of any ex- 
tended notice on this occasion, but he was held in high respect 
among us for his qualities both of head and heart. 

As I have had already occasion to apprise you in my circular 
summons, a ballot will this day be taken on a slight addition to 
and alteration in the Statutes, which are now submitted by 
the Council for your consideration, and which wer,e duly read 
and announced at the Ordinary Meeting of March 16, 1871. 
The sole object of this addition and alteration is to aid in 
bringing the Society within the provisions of the Act 6 and 7 
Viet., c. 36, which exempts from county, borough, parochial, 
and other local rates, land and buildings occupied by Scientific 
or Literary Societies. On the desirability of securing for our- 
selves an immunity of this nature, no difference of opinion, I 
venture to anticipate, will be found to exist among the Fellows 
of the Society. 

A Ballot will also have to be taken at this Meeting by the 
Members of the Council here present to fill the vacancy of the 
Soane Trusteeship, caused by the promotion in the ranks of that 
Trust of our Treasurer, Mr. Ouvry. It is the desire of the Council 
to nominate to that post our Director Mr. Perceval, who seems 
to us deserving of that or any other mark of confidence in our 
power to bestow. 

Gentlemen, I do not think that there are many more obser- 
vations with which I need now detain you. The essays which 
you have heard read at our evening meetings during the past 
year will, as usual, come before you again some at full length 

* Proceedings, iii. 202; 2. S. i. 40. 
VOL. V. L 



146 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

in the Archaeologia others condensed or by extracts only in the 
Proceedings. But I cannot advert, even in the most cursory 
manner, to these papers without desiring to express my acknow- 
ledgment for the great kindness with which you were pleased to 
welcome mine -the essay namely in which I endeavoured, by a 
reference to the early Christians, to explain a difficult allusion 
in the sixth Satire of Juvenal. It was not to be expected that 
an attempt to deal in a new manner with any passage in an 
ancient author should pass by without eliciting some able argu- 
ments upon the other side. One of these has been contributed 
by our brother member Mr. Black, in the same classic language 
as that to which its comments were directed, thus reviving the 
practice of a former, and perhaps more learned, age, when Lathi 
was commonly used as the medium of communication between 
scholars in the divers European states. I can assure you that I 
cordially welcome all such critical volleys, even when directed 
against my own small craft, convinced as I am that, in the long 
run, truth is most surely elicited by the amicable conflict, and 
sometimes it may be the gradual convergence of opposite 
opinions. For here, as Burke once so finely put it, " our anta- 
gonist is our helper." With these noble words I conclude. 

The President having concl-uded his Address, it was moved by 
J. Winter Jones, Esq., V.P., and seconded by William Smith, 
Esq., D.C.L., and carried unanimously : 

" That the thanks of the Meeting be offered to the President 
for his Address, and that he be requested to allow it to be 
printed." 

In pursuance of the Soane Museum Act, referred to in the 
President's Address, the formal election of a Soane Trustee was 
proceeded with by the President and Council, when Charles 
Spencer Perceval, Esq. LL.D. Director, was duly elected to that 
office. 

It was moved by J. Winter Jones, Esq., Y.P., and seconded 
by Augustus W. Franks, Esq., Y.P., and carried unani- 
mously : 

" That the best thanks of the Society be given to C. S. 
Perceval, Esq., LL.D., Director, now Soane Trustee, for the 
care and attention he has given to the editing of the last number 
of the Archaeologia, and for its prompt publication, and for his 
great labour in bringing up the arrears of the Society's pub- 
lications." 



^ Ballot was then taken on the question of the proposed 
alteration of the statutes (see ante, p. 110), which was carried 
unanimously. 

The Ballot for the election of President, Officers, and Council 



May 4.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 147 

being closed, the Jists were examined by the Scrutators, when 
the following Fellows were found to have the majority of the 
votes of the Society : 

Eleven Members from the Old Council. 

The Earl Stanhope, President. 

Augustus Wollaston Franks, Esq. M.A. V.P. 

Sir William Tite, M.P. V.P. and Auditor. 

Very Rev. A. P. Stanley, D.D. Dean of Westminster, V.P. 

Frederic Ouvry, Esq. Treasurer. 

Charles Spencer Perceval, Esq. LL.D. Director. 

Rev. James Gerald Joyce, B.A. Auditor. 

George Steinman Steinman, Esq. Auditor. 

Colonel Augustus Henry Lane Fox. 

Rev, John Fuller Russell, B.C.L. 

William >mith, Esq. 

Ten Members of the New Council. 

Lieut.-Col. John Farnaby Lennard, Auditor. 
Thomas Lewin, Esq. Auditor. 
Samuel Birch, Esq. LL.D. 
Richard Redmond Caton, Esq. 
Charles Drtiry Edward Fortnum, Esq. 
Rev. Whartoii Booth Marriott, M.A. 
Rev. William Sparrow Simpson, M.A. 
George Richmond, Esq. R.A. D.C.L, 
Hon. William Owen Stanley, M.P. 
William John Thorns, Esq. 

C. Knight Watson, Esq. M.A. Secretary. 

The thanks of the Society were then voted to the Scrutators 
for their trouble in examining the Balloting Lists. 



Thursday, May 4th, 1871. 
EARL STANHOPE, President, in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Science and Art Department : A Catalogue of Anglo-Saxon and 
other Antiquities discovered at Eaversham, in Kent, and bequeathed by 
William Gibbs, Esq. of that town, to the South Kensington Museum. 
Compiled by C. Roach Smith, E.S.A. &c. 8vo. London, 1871. [Two 
copies.] 

L 2 



148 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Trom the Author : The Book of Common Prayer in Ireland : its Original and 

History ; with an attempt to prove that the Disestablishment of the Church 

has not rendered any alteration in it necessary. By John Eibton Garstin, 

F.S.A. 8vo. Dublin, 1871. 
Prom the Royal United Service Institution : Their Journal. Vol. xiv. 

Appendix. 8vo. London, 1871. [Completing vol. xiv.] 
From the Koyal Institute of British Architects : Sessional Papers, 1870-71. 

No. 8. 4to. London, 1871. 
From the Author :Ab Ithel : an Account of the Life and Writings of the 

Rev. John Williams Ab Ithel, M.A. By James Kenward, FiS.A. 8vo. 

Tenby, 1871. 
From the Royal Society : 

1. Philosophical Transactions. Vol. 159, part 2, and vol. 160, parts 1 and 2. 
4to. London, 1870. 

2. Proceedings. Vol. xix. No. 127. 8vo. London, 1871. 

3. List, 30 Nov. 1870. 4to. London, 1870. 
From J. W. K. Eyton, Esq. F.S.A. : 

1. The Fuller Worthies' Library. Lord Brooke's Works. Vols. III. and IV. 
8vo. Printed for private circulation, 1870. 

2. Miscellanies of the Fuller Worthies' Library. Conclusion of Vol. I. con- 
taining : The Poems of William Harbert, of Glamorgan. The Poems of 
Humphrey Gifford. The Poems of Dr. William Loe. 8vo. Printed for 
private circulation, 1870. 

From John Fetherston, Esq. F.S.A. : The Warwickshire Antiquarian Magazine. 
Parts 1 to 6. 8vo. Warwick, 185971. 

From the Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland : The 
Journal. Vol. I. Fourth Series. No. 5. 8vo. Dublin, 1871. 

From the Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, LL.D. Hon. F.S.A. : 

1. Third Annual Report of the Trustees of the Peabody Museum of American 
Archaeology and Ethnology. 8vo. Boston, 1870. 

2. Oration on the 250th Anniversary of the Landing of the Pilgrim Fathers 
at Plymouth. By the Hon. Robert C. Winthrop. 4to. Boston, 1871. 

3. Tributes of the Massachusetts Historical Society to the memory of Hon. 
David Sears and George Ticknor, LL.D. 8vo. Boston, 1871. 

4. Peabody Education Fund. Proceedings of the Trustees at their Annual 
Meeting, February 15, 1871 ; with the Annual Report of their general agent, 
Dr. Sears. 8vo. Cambridge (U.S.A.), 1871. 

The nomination by the President of Colonel Augustus Henry 
Lane Fox to be a Vice- President was read. 

The following gentlemen were admitted Fellows : 
Eev. John Rae. 

Thomas Laurence Kington Oliphant, Esq. 
Valentine Dudley Henry Gary Elwes, Esq. . 

A letter was read from JAMES FOWLER, Esq., Local Secretary 
for Yorkshire, calling the attention of the Society to a proposed 
removal of the Choir Screen in the parish church of Wakefield.* 

* An excellent drawing on stone of this screen, interesting both as a work of 
art, and as being probably one of the latest screens ever set up (until the Gothic 



May 4.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 149 

This screen, of carved woodwork, with two high gates in the 
centre, was fixed in 1636, upon the lower stage of the ancient 
rood-screen. Some years back, Mr. Fowler observed, the church- 
wardens removed the gates to another part of the church, and 
stripped off most of the ancient carving from below, to nail on 
to the reading-desk. Later still, they took down the upper part 
of the screen, but ultimately re-erected it in its original position. 
Since then, he continued, it has been proposed more than once, 
as a medium course betwixt destroying the screen and allowing 
it to remain in its present position, to remove it, and re-erect it 
in the tower, filled with plate glass; another screen, more in 
character with the church than the present one, being Bubsti- 
tuted in the chancel. It is obvious, Mr. Fowler added, that 
such a removal would almost entirely destroy the historic interest 
of the screen, and he hoped that the Society would think it right 
to address some remonstrance in the proper quarter. 

The following Resolution proposed by 0. Morgan, Esq., 
M.P., F.S.A., and seconded by H. S. Milman, Esq., F.S.A., 
was then put from the Chair and carried unanimously, the 
Secretary being directed to communicate copies to the Church- 
wardens and to the Secretary of the Parish Church Restoration 
Committee at Wakefield : 

The Society of Antiquaries of London learns with regret that the very inter- 
esting screen at All Saints' Church, Wakefield, after being once saved from 
destruction, is now threatened with removal. 

If the restoration of a monument be too frequently a violation of taste, the 
displacement of a monument is as frequently a violation of truth. Removed 
from the spot where it originally stood, and for which it was originally designed, 
it breaks the historical continuity of the building to which it belongs, misleads 
the student of our national art and architecture, and violates all those principles 
of dealing with monumental remains which have commended themselves to the 
judgment of the best archaeologists in all ages. 

If the requirements of Divine service or any urgent public utility demanded 
the removal of this screen, the Society might perhaps hesitate in its course. But 
it would appear, on inquiry, that no such excuse exists. The Society, therefore, 
feels bound to protest strongly against the removal of the screen as untrue in art, 
unjustifiable in taste, destructive in practice, and fatal to those antiquarian 
interests and pursuits which it is the duty of this Society to protect. 

Signed on behalf of and at the desire of the Society, 

STANHOPE, President. 

Somerset House, 

May 4, 1871. 

JOHN ADDY, Esq., Stud. List. C. E., communicated the fol- 
lowing account of a recent discovery of a Roman Villa at 

revival of the present day) between Choir and Nave of an English parish 
church, was given to the Library of the Society on January 27, 1870, by 
J. T. Micklethwaite, Esq., now a Fellow of the Society. It is satisfactory to 
learn while this sheet is passing through the press that milder counsels have 
prevailed at Wakefield, and that the screen has not been removed. 



150 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Beddington, near Croydon, Surrey, accompanied by plans of 
the building excavated, with specimens of Roman pottery and 
other relics obtained from thence, together with cinerary urns 
of the Anglo-Saxon period from a cemetery on the same site : 

"Early in 1871 certain works in extension of the sewage 
irrigation system, for some years in operation under the Croydon 
Local Board of Health, were commenced upon lands, a portion 
of a farm of 170 acres, called the Park Farm, in the parish of 
Beddington, lying on the north side of the river Wandle, be- 
tween Beddington Lane and Hackbridge railway station. 

" Early in February the workmen engaged in cutting one of 
the i carriers ' running east and west, for the conveyance of the 
sewage to the land, at a depth of two feet, came across a -wall, 
which they removed, and fragments of red earthenware tiles 
about nine inches square were thrown out. This attracted the 
author's attention, but knowing that further excavations would 
have to be made on the same site, no additional search was con- 
tinued at that time. 

" On February 24th in digging another carrier at right angles 
to the above, at a distance of fifty feet from the first discovery, 
many fragments of Roman pottery, chiefly of a coarse slate 
coloured ware, were found. Several of these pieces were marked 
crossways with stripes, and upon being joined together as care- 
fully as possible proved to be an elegant vase, about nine inches 
high and of a similar diameter. A piece of Samian ware, having 
a small pattern, was also picked up. Accompanying these were 
also large quantities of bones of animals and birds, and a sheep's 
horn. These remains were about eighteen inches below the 
surface. 

In continuation of this carrier the workmen cut across a 
detached chamber, and at a distance of two or three hundred 
feet further south found three coins in three separate places. 

" 1. Commodus (second brass). Extremely corroded. 

"2. Constantine period. 

Obv. Head to the right, of Rome or Constantinople. 
Rev. Victory. 

"3. Constantine period. Constantius? (much worn). 

" It was apparent that we were on the site of Roman remains, 
and it was, therefore, determined to use every effort to prosecute 
the excavation. The walls cut through were evidently Roman, 
and valuable advice was given by E. L. Brock, Esq., who kindly 
visited the site. He gave his decided opinion that a Roman 
villa was about to be uncovered, and suggested that more ex- 
tensive excavations should be made. 

" These anticipations were referred to the contractor of the 
works, Mr. Symonds, Reigate, who kindly rendered every 



May 4.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 151 

assistance. Workmen were at once engaged under the direc- 
tion of the author, to continue the explorations ; and the result 
was most satisfactory, as a Roman villa, of considerable preten- 
sions, was by degrees brought to light. 

" The site of these remains, and the surface of the ground for 
several hundred feet around, though somewhat lowered by our 
works, is still considerably higher than that of the surrounding 
farm, the general character of which is that of a deposit of drift 
gravel, covered with surface mould, varying in depth from nine 
inches to two feet. 

" The walls of the house are about two feet below the surface, 
and the portions that have escaped the ravages of time stand 
from a height of six inches to twenty-one inches from the foun- 
dation. No artificial foundation was visible beneath the walls, 
which are placed upon the natural gravel bed. The walls are 
composed of large flints and flat Roman bricks set in mortar. 
The bricks are from one and a half to two and a half inches in 
thickness and ten inches square. The exterior walls are built 
solely of flints and mortar. The buildings extend east and west 
from the larger central chamber, the walls of which are more 
regular and thicker than any of the others, and probably this 
was the principal apartment of the building. 

" The internal dimensions of this chamber are sixteen feet by 
ten feet. At the north-western extremity there is* an opening 
into a semicircular structure of about three feet six inches 
radius ; at the mouth of this recess are two piers or buttresses 
which project forward from the interior line of walls ten inches. 
In this recess there were the remains of the columns of the 
hypocaust. A similar recess, only larger, was found at Uri- 
conium ; this, it may be remarked, was also on the northern 
side of the chamber. 

" At the north-eastern corner of the central chamber is a rec- 
tangular apartment annexed to, but apparently having no open- 
ing into it,, at least at the level of the existing remains. 
This chamber conclusively shows that a hypocaust existed in 
this as in other Roman dwellings. It was most carefully ex- 
cavated, and the supports for the floor above were clearly 
exposed. These supports are built up of the common Roman 
tiles, of red earthenware, varying in size from eight inches to 
eleven square, and one and a half inches thick, which were laid 
in mortar. They were built here to the height of twelve inches 
from the foundation of the walls. The thickness of the exterior 
walls of this apartment is fifteen inches. 

u Immediately east of the central chamber, and at a distance 
from it of seven feet, is a building entirely detached and uncon- 
nected by any wall with the main part of the villa. This build- 



152 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 

ing was unfortunately cut through by the workmen. >; It was 
more perfect than any other portion ; perhaps its separation from 
the main building had preserved it from destruction. Ihis 
chamber is ten feet in length by six feet in breadth.^ The 
western wall is of unusual thickness, being two feeUhree inches, 
the other walls being from eighteen to twenty-one inches across. 
The flooring is composed of red tiles, nine inches square, laid 
regularly in mortar to a depth of twelve inches. The interior 
walls are coated with a coarse plaster, composed of lime and 
powdered burnt clay, which presents the same appearance as 
the mortar beneath the tiles. 

" A series of outer and partition walls, of a much more rough 
construction, and less easily defined, are attached to the western 
part of the large chamber. Their relation was ascertained by 
careful examination. From all appearances it is conjectured 
that they were offices attached to the dwelling. South of the 
thick wall abutting on the large chamber a portion of pavement, 
five feet by one foot nine inches, composed of square tiles, 
appears to have been subjected to great heat whilst in its present 
position. They were found to be fragile when attempted to be 
removed, and had a dark appearance as though they were 
calcined. Probably this was where the fire of the hypocaust 
was made. 

" Nothing like a tessellated pavement was met with, and from 
appearances it was doubtless a dwelling of but moderate pre- 
tensions. 

" Large quantities of fragments of plaster from the walls were 
found in and around the building. They are of a white ground, 
marked with bands of various widths, from a quarter of an inch 
to two inches. The stripes are principally of a crimson colour, 
but pieces having sepia and pink stripes were picked up, and 
some fragments had traces of a yellow pigment. Corner pieces 
coloured red were also found, showing the angles where the 
lines joined. These fragments of plaster are formed of lime 
mixed with small pieces of bricks and flint. It is interesting to 
note that the colour on these fragments is apparently as fresh as 
if painted recently, although they have been subjected to the 
action of air and moisture for so many hundred years. 

" Large quantities of portions of the flue tiles were found in 
the interior of the larger chamber, some retaining the traces of 
fire very distinctly ; they are scored in various patterns. 

" The space within the walls was a mass of debris, composed 
of made earth, soot, fragments of brick, tiles, pottery, and 
plaster from the walls. 

" The portions of pottery exhibited various kinds : several 
pieces of Samian ware were met with, and others of a peculiar 



May 4.] 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 



153 



red ware, adorned by a natural pattern, produced by the impres- 
sion of a small shell on the still moist clay. Two of these frag- 
ments are represented in the woodcut. 




RED POTTERY FROM A VILLA AT BEDDLNGTON. 

Two pieces, supposed to be Castor ware, are of a chocolate 
colour, embossed with white ornaments. 

" A bronze bead, about half an inch in diameter, was found 
in the interior of the large chamber. Two coins only were 
found in removing the earth from the buildings. 
u 1. Constantine period. 

Obv. Head of Rome, URBS ROMA. 
Rev. Romulus and Remus. Mint mark TR. 
" 2. A Saxon silver penny.* 

* The obverse of this coin agrees precisely with that figured in Ruding's 
Annals of the Coinage, pi. 17, No. 19 except that in that specimen there are 
eight and not seven pellets. The moneyer Eadmund occurs on a coin of different 
type, ibid. Appendix, pi. 28 (Aethelstan No. 2), and the contraction LEIG-CE for 
Leicester on other pieces. 



154 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

Obv. Kp JSDELSTAN REX TO BR. Seven small pellets forming 

a rose. 
R ev> ^ EADMUND MO LEIGCE. Nine similar pellets. 

Many oyster shells, and shells of the helix class, were found 
amongst the d&ri*, also the skull and bones of a dog, the lower 
jaw of an ox, or of some other large animal, accompanied with 
many bones of smaller animals and birds. A roof tile, deeply 
indented with the impress of the foot of an animal, probably 
that of a sheep, was taken from the walls of the building. 

" The most interesting discoveries connected with this build- 
ing having now been described, attention must be drawn briefly 
to the surrounding area, where further evidences of Roman 
occupation were developed. 

" A lump of mortar of the well-known Roman type was dis- 
cerned by the writer at another spot on the farm, and upon 
excavation being made underneath, the foundation of a building, 
apparently about twenty feet square, was met with, accompanied 
with many fragments of large vessels or amphorae, but nothing 
worthy of note in addition. These remains were so little attrac- 
tive that no extensive search was made. 

" A coin of Claudius II. ? was picked up adjoining this 
building. 

" Two other coins were picked up in separate places on the farm. 

" 1. Allectus. 

Obv. ALLECTVS. Head of Allectus to left. 
Rev. LAETITIA AUG. . Galley. 

Mint mark, probably indicating that it was struck at Colchester. 
"2. A coin of Carausius ? 

" About 500 yards in a southerly direction from the villa, 
workmen engaged in excavating surplus material on April 14th 
discovered the remains of a human skeleton ; adjacent to this an 
iron spear-head of superior workmanship was found, together 
with fragments of thin iron, which probably composed the boss 
of a shield, and an iron knife. All these articles are very much 
oxydised. A few feet further from the above skeleton another 
was found, the excavation made for the grave being very dis- 
tinct to a depth of about eighteen inches below the surface. 

" A most important discovery was made also on the same 
spot and on the same day, as a large sepulchral urn of dark 
ware, marked with patterns of considerable elegance, was found. 
The workmen, having received instructions, were fortunately 
very careful in using their picks, and although very brittle, on 
account of the moisture, the vase was removed almost entire. 
It is about nine inches in diameter, and of a similar height, and 
contained some fragments of bones mixed with earth. Another 



May 4.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 155 

one of smaller size adjoining it fell to pieces upon removal. On 
the same site, on the 24th April, a third urn of similar appear- 
ance, marked with patterns, but very much damaged, was 
found ; adjoining it were human bones. A few hours later 
attention was again called to a fourth urn of smaller size and 
more elegant proportions. It is about seven inches in height 
and is ornamented with encircling lines and impressed orna- 
ments. This vase stood upright in the ground, and when the 
writer arrived its impress was visible at a depth of eighteen 
inches below the surface. In removing the earth from the in- 
terior a fragment of bone was noticed. Adjacent to the above 
another human skeleton was found accompanied by an iron 
dagger or knife. On the following day an urn, very much 
fractured, was exposed. It is of a similar make to those pre- 
viously described. 

66 The site upon which these urns are found has not the 
appearance of a barrow, although a space of about an acre in 
extent is clearly elevated -above the meadow surrounding. The 
urns and weapons closely resemble those found in Anglo-Saxon 
barrows, and from their being so plentifully scattered upon this 
part of the farm, lead to the supposition that we are invading an 
Anglo-Saxon burying-ground. 

" There is evidence of the practice of inhumation as well as 
cremation, and this example is not uncommon in cemeteries of 
that period, but before adopting final conclusions considerable 
light is required to be thrown upon this subject. 

" The discovery of these evidences of Koman and Anglo-Saxon 
occupation are most interesting, and may lead to more precise 
conclusions respecting the Noviomagus mentioned in the Itine- 
rary of Antoninus, and which, in the opinion of most antiquaries, 
was in the neighbourhood of Croydon. 

" Possibly these remains may lead to the discovery of others 
more important at some future time, and (in conjunction with 
the remains found at Woodcote) help to establish the locality of 
the Roman road, which it is supposed crossed through Beddington 
parish. 

" A careful record of these discoveries having been preserved, 
it was thought advisable to continue the irrigation works in 
progress, and the above remains, of ancient construction, are 
now hidden from sight, until some new engineering or other 
necessity shall overthrow the present works, constructed par- 
tially upon the Roman foundations." 

B. SAND WITH, Esq., British Consul at Crete, communicated a 
paper on the different styles of Pottery found in ancient tombs 
in the Island of Cyprus, illustrated by a series of coloured 



156 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE 

drawings of the objects described. This paper will appear in 
the Archseologia. 

In connection with this communication Col. A. H. LANE 
Fox, V.P., and J. WICKHAM FLOWER, Esq. exhibited a number 
of Fictile Vessels, and other antiquities, from Cyprus, formerly in 
the Cesnola collection, recently dispersed by public auction. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these Communications. 



Thursday, May llth, 1871. 

CHARLES SPENCER PERCEVAL, Esq., LL.D., 
Director, in the Chair. 

The following Presents w r ere announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Cambrian Archaeological Association : Archseologia Cambrensis. 

Fourth Series. No. 6. (Vol. 2.) 8vo. London, 1871. 
From the British Archaeological Association : The Journal. March 31. 8ro. 

London, 1871. 

From the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne : Lapidariuin Sep- 
tentrionale ; or, a Description of the Monuments of Roman Rule in the 
North of England. Part 2. Folio. Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1871. 

From J. W. K. Eyton, Esq. F.S.A. : 

1. Fuller Worthies' Library. The works in verse and prose complete of 
Henry Vaughan, Silurist. Edited by Rev. A. B. Grosart. Vols. 1 and 3. 
8vo. Printed for private circulation. 1871. 

2. Miscellanies of the Fuller Worthies' Library. Vol. 2. The Anatomic 
of Baseness (1615) by John Andrews. Poems by Henry Lok (1593-1597). 
The Teares of the Beloved (1600) and Marie Magdalene's Teares (1601) by 
Gervase Markham. Edited by Rev. A. B. Grosart. 8vo. Printed for 
private circulation, 1871. 

3. Illustrative Papers on the History and Antiquities of the City of 
Coventry. From original and mostly unpublished documents. By Thomas 
Sharp, Esq. Reprinted, with additions, by W. G. Fretton. 4to. Printed 
for the Subscribers. 1871. 

4. Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica. Monthly Series. Parts i. to xi. 
8vo. London, 1870. 

From the Nassau Antiquarian and Historical Society : 

1. Annalen. Zehnter Band. 1870. 8vo. Wiesbaden. 

2. Urkundenbuch der Abtei Eberbach im Rheingau. Von Dr. K. Rossel. 
2ter Band. II. Abtheilung. 8vo. Wiesbaden, 1870. 

James Wilson Holme, Esq. was admitted a Fellow. 



May 11.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 157 

THOMAS M'KENNY HUGHES, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited, by per- 
mission of Miss Atkinson, of Dale Head, Arkendale, Yorkshire, 
a Box of latten or mixed metal, in general appearance not 
unlike the well-known coffrets or shrines of Limoges work, but 
differing from them in the shape of the cover, which has arched 
and not straight sides. These terminate in a straight band of 
metal, heightened originally by a denticulated cresting, of 
which, however, a small portion only remains. The dimensions 
of the box are as follows : Length, 6| inches ; depth, 2^ inches; 
height, including the cover, 5 inches. The cover and sides are 
ornamented with incised inscriptions, in Gothic letters, dating 
probably from the end of the fourteenth century. 

Several such boxes, all very nearly alike, have been noticed. 
Among these are : 

1. A box found at Holbeach, in Lincolnshire, figured very 
rudely in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1779. 

2. Another* in the Meyrick (Douce) collection. 

3. A third, of precisely the same character as that exhibited, 
but a trifle shorter, is carefully figured in the Journal of the 
Archaeological Association, vol. xiii. pi. 34, with accompanying 
letterpress. At the moment of writing (March 1872), this box 
and the last happen both to be on view among the objects on 
loan at the South Kensington Museum. 

The ornamentation of all these boxes, and the t inscriptions 
which they bear, are so nearly identical, that all would seem to 
have come from one workshop. Although there are some slight 
variations in the series of letters forming the inscriptions on 
each, yet there can be little doubt that all are intended for the 
same thing. So far as can be ascertained, however, the inscrip- 
tions have never been read, and it may probably be that they 
represent a real legend which, by repeated copying, with 
attention more to the ornamental effect of the letters than to the 
sense of the words, has become degraded into unintelligible 
groups of characters. 

The Rev. HENRY OLLARD, F.S.A. exhibited, by permission 
of the Mayor and Town Council of Derby, the silver Matrix of 
the Seal of that town. It has been more than once figured,* 
but no engraving can do justice to the beauty and boldness of 
the execution. The seal represents a stag couchant on grass 
with a conventional tree behind him, and surrounded by a 
paled fence, corresponding very nearly to Richard II. 's favourite 
device of the Hart lodged, the deer in the present case alluding 
to the first syllable of the name of the town. The fence of the 

* Particularly in Lewis' Topographical Dictionary, article Derby. 



158 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 

park or hay is composed of twenty sharply-pointed pales, pro- 
jecting fully -r^-th-inch above the field. Alternating -with but 
outside these pales are groups of three pellets, connected together 
by lines, of which one series runs from group to group, while 
the other cross each other saltirewise between the pellets and the 
piles. 

These lines seem to indicate a net, whence it may be con- 
cluded that a hay, or inclosure for taking wild beasts is intended, 
and not a park. 

Mr. OLLARD also exhibited the matrix, and presented an 
impression of a fine seal of the fourteenth century, said to be 
that of the Benedictine Abbey of St. Mary at York. This seal 
is not mentioned in the new edition of Dugdale, while Drake,, 
Eboracum, gives a much earlier seal than this as used by that 
monastery temp. Edw. IV. 

The seal is circular, 2 inches in diameter. Subject : Under 
a crocketed arch, the Blessed Virgin seated, holding the Divine 
Infant in her arms, the latter nimbed, the former crowned. On 
either side, in the field, a lion passant guardant turned upwards, 
parallel to the shafts of the arch. Above the dexter lion a 
crescent, above the sinister a star. Legend 

Kp VIRGO PVD1CA PIA NOSTRI MISERERE MARIA. 

EDWIN FRESHFIELD, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited a Capital of a 
Column in carved stone, which he had brought from Ayaslook 
or Ayaslik, near the site of the ancient Ephesus, accompanied 
by the following note : 

The capital of a pillar of white marble, which I send for 
exhibition, was found by me at Ayaslook, the village near Old 
Ephesus, under the following circumstances : 

I was riding with my friend Mr. Edward Purser, the chief 
engineer of the Ottoman Eailway, a long resident in the country 
and a real antiquary, with a store of practical knowledge about 
the ruins of Ephesus, Magnesia, and Tralles. We had crossed 
over the plain of Ephesus, and had been tracing the walls along 
Mount Coressus. On our return, Mr. Purser and I discussed 
where it was probable that the Church of St. John, built by 
Justinian, was situated. Mr. Purser expressed an opinion, 
founded upon the ruins on Ayaslook Hill, that the church had 
been there, and he further gave me his reason for believing, from 
the quantity of debris used in building, that the Temple of 
Diana would also be found on the plain under the same hill. 

The hill of Ayaslook lies north and south, and the Great 
Mosque, now in ruins, is upon the west slope of the hill. Between 



May 11.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 159 

the mosque and the Ayaslook Kafinet, which is on the plain at 
the south end of the hill, are the scattered remains of the village 
of Ayaslook. Taking a short cut from the mosque behind the 
houses, I observed the end of this piece of marble sticking out of 
the ground, and saw what it was. Mr. Purser kindly had it dug 
up for me. 

I have no doubt it is the capital of a Byzantine column used 
in a Christian church, but, as it is small, it probably belonged to 
a column at the side of a window or an arcade. I found a 
similar capital in a village not far from Ak-Sher (Thyatira) some 
years ago, but was too far from any mode of carriage to convey 
it to Smyrna. 

I attribute it to the age of Justinian, and it most probably 
came from the Church of St. John, which was built at Ephesus 
by that emperor. 

The following is shortly what Procopius says of this church : 
" It happens that there is a steep place outside the City of 
Ephesus. 

" There is no earth there, nor would the soil that is there 
grow fruit if anyone tried to grow it, as it is altogether rough 
and rocky. Here the inhabitants in former times had built 
a temple to the Apostle St. John called Theologos. This apostle 
is called Theologos because he relates things appertaining to God 
in a more than human manner. This old temple, which was 
both small and ruinous from age, the Emperor Justinian pulled 
down altogether, and, not to tell a long story, he built a large 
and beautiful church like that dedicated to the Apostles in the 
royal city, which I have already described." 

To imitate Procopius, and not tell a long story, the Church of 
St. John was cruciform, with five domes, very like St. Mark's at 
Venice, or St. Front at Perigueux, except that it was very much 
larger and was strictly cruciform, and not in the shape of what 
is now termed a Greek cross. 

To return to my Byzantine capital. 

I attribute it to the age of Justinian, on account, first, of its 
peculiar shape ; and, secondly, of the ornament upon it an 
acanthus leaf in low relief. 

It is not older than the time of Justinian, because the new 
style had not then developed itself. The present capital is just 
such as you would expect that the style of the capitals in the 
Church of SS. Sergius and Bacchus, built by Justinian when he 
was Cesar, and Agia Sofia when he was Emperor, would lead to 
a style no doubt due to Anthemius of Tralles. A little later 
the acanthus leaf vanishes. 

The following is my reason for thinking it belongs to the 
Church of St. John : 



160 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

First. The other hills near the ruins of Ephesus, and upon 
which there are ruins, do not answer the description: of the hill 
given by Procopius, while the hill of Ayaslook eminently does 
it is altogether rough and rocky. 

Secondly. There is a large ruin on the top of the hill, appa- 
rently of a Byzantine church, but too much knocked about, 
having been for years generally used as a quarry, to admit . of 
the form being easily traced. 

Thirdly. The recent excavations by Mr. C. Newton and Mr. 
Wood have shown that Mr. Purser was right in his guess, and 
that the Temple of Diana was situated in the plain just under- 
neath the hill of Ayaslook, about 300 yards south-west of the 
Great Mosque. This being so, it would seem that 'the three 
great sacred edifices of Ephesus, the Great Temple, the Church 
of St. John, and the Mosque of the fourteenth century, were 
(as might be expected) within a short distance of each other. 

Fourthly. Some importance, though not much, is to be attri- 
buted to the name Ayaslook, which the Greeks declare to be a 
corruption of Agios Theologos. 

There is no doubt that the Greeks called and do call the 
different quarters of their towns, as we do, by the names of their 
churches. The quarters of Agio Dimitro and Agia Catharina 
are as well known in Smyrna as St. Pancras or St. Giles in 
London. 

It is stated by some that Ayaslook is really Ayaslik, and means 
in Turkish a sacred place or village, and has reference only to 
the mosque, but if this is true it may as well have reference to 
the church and the temple. 

Lastly. The other better known ruins of Ephesus are at least 
a mile and a half off, and where stones are so plentiful it would 
not be worth while carrying this one a mile and a-half. On 
the whole, therefore, I think it likely that we have here a small 
capital from St. John's Church. 

W. M. WYLIE, Esq. F.S.A. communicated the following 
account of Ancient Interments recently discovered in the Ceme- 
tery of St. Ouen, at Rouen : 

Amidst all the sorrows and anxiety caused by the recent 
foreign occupation of Rouen, our old friend the Abbe Cochet 
has just made, in that town, one of the most remarkable sepul- 
chral discoveries of the Christian period which exist on record. 

Last month while attentively watching some public works in 
the gardens of St. Ouen, M. Cochet arrived at the conviction 
that a cemetery must at some time have existed here. He ac- 
cordingly proceeded to excavate a piece of ground measuring 
12 metres in length by 10 in breadth, down to a depth of 



May 11.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 161 

5 metres 30 centimetres, or more than 17 feet English. Such a 
space, equal to some 3HO square feet of surface measurement, is 
sufficiently extensive for fair induction. The Abbe's toils were 
rewarded by the discovery of no less than four distinct strata of 
interments, lying one above the other, and clearly attributable 
to as many various periods of Christian inhumation from the 7th 
to the 14th and 15th centuries. 

This bird's-eye view as it were of sepulchral research this 
continuous multum in parvo illustration forms so interesting 
and important a resume of this branch of our archaeological 
studies, that I cannot but think that a brief outline may be 
acceptable to the Society. 

To these couches or strata of interments the Abbe' gives the 
names respectively of Valesian, Capetian, Carlovingian, and 
Merovingian. 

The upper stratum of these interments belongs to the fourteenth 
and fifteenth centuries, or the Valesian period, as the Abbe is 
pleased to term it. It is evident that at this date stone coffins 
had fallen into disuse. The only one met with here belongs 
unmistakeably to the Merovingian period. Its secondary em- 
ployment and appearance in this upper level must be attributed 
to some accidental fancy, as in the case of the recent discovery 
of a Roman sarcophagus at Westminster Abbey. 

It was found that at this period the dead had been 'Committed 
to the earth, either in a simple winding-sheet, or a plain coffin. 
There were also the remains of two plaster coffins.* The date 
of these remains is definitely fixed by the presence of a number 
of those earthenware vessels, pierced round with a ring of holes 
and partly glazed, in which charcoal was burned at interments 
around the coffin, and committed with it to the grave. 

The Abbe has found no remains which can be ascribed to 
the sixteenth century. 

2. The second or Capetian stratum, from about 1050 to 1250, 
is found at a .depth of 1 metre 20 centimetres, and extends 
down to 2 metres. The tombs here are for the most part double, 
that is, built one above the other. Their peculiarity is that they 
have no other base than the bare soil, on which pieces of stone 
are set edgewise and then mortared 'together. A square niche 
received the head of the corpse, and the top was formed by 
several flat stones laid together. This kind of interment is well- 
known in France, and we have an illustration of it in the 36th 
volume of the Archaaologia, PI. xxi. The date of the eleventh 
and twelfth centuries is more particularly fixed by the style of 
the writing on some 16 leaden crosses of the Greek form, which 

* See Cochet, Norm. Soitterr. 2d ed. p. 408. 
YOL. V. M 



162 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 

were found on the breasts of the dead. These are inscribed 
with a formula of absolution, a usage peculiar to 'the period. 
Examples of these crosses have multiplied since I originally wrote 
on the subject in the 35th volume of Archseologia. Among 
these tombs, however, exist a few of the early Merovingian stone 
coffins, cut out of a single block from the Paris quarries of 
Yergele and St. Leon. These have been brought from other 
sites and adapted here to a secondary interment. Pieces of 
stone placed in the angles of the coffin supply the place of a 
niche for the head, and the usual massive lid is replaced by flat 
slabs of stone. 

The earthen vessels for charcoal, so numerous in the stratum 
above, do not appear here, which induces a doubt whether 
the custom of interring them with the body had yet become 
developed. 

The bodies were all found with the hands crossed above the 
leaden inscriptions lying on their breasts. 

The third or Carlovingian stratum is found at a depth of 
from 2 metres to 2 metres 80 centimetres. Here were found six 
massive coffins, of one entire block of stone, from the quarries of 
this neighbourhood, some of which indeed belonged to the monks 
of St. Ouen. The width at either end is nearly the same. The 
rude ponderous form of these coffins slightly recalls that of the 
Eoman tombs of the fourth and fifth centuries. The lids also, for 
the most part, are of one piece and slightly convex. The niche 
for the head is circular and worked in the stone itself, while this 
niche in the tombs composed of various pieces of stone, observed 
in the last stratum, is always square. 

No kind of relics have been found in these coffins which would 
assist to determine their period. The Abbe indeed seems to have 
been entirely guided in his attribution by the sole known example, 
which happens to be an historical one. This is the tomb of 
Robert Champart, one time Abbot of Jumieges, and subsequently 
Bishop of London and Archbishop of Canterbury, who ended his 
days at Jumieges, as a simple monk, in 1052. His coffin was 
discovered, some years since, below the choir of Jumieges, 
where it now stands. Some of these coffins appear to have been 
used more than once, and in one of them the remains of two 
bodies were found. The hands, too, were not crossed on the 
breast, as we have just noticed was the case in the preceding 
interments, but lay on the abdomen, in the natural position com- 
monly noticed during the seventh century. 

4. We now come to the fourth or Merovingian stratum, 
extending from 2 metres 80 centimetres, to a depth of 3 metres 
40 centimetres. All the coffins we here find are from the 
Paris quarries of Vergele, St. Gervais, or St. Leon. They are 



May 11.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 163 

in one piece, narrower at the feet than the head, while the 
cover is either flat, or somewhat gabled ; perhaps following 
Eoman traditions. Here, at all events, we find relics which 
furnish evidence of date. A vase of the black pottery common 
to Envermeu, Londinieres, &c. ; two belt-plates of iron da- 
mascened with silver, a clasp of chased bronze, amber beads, 
and an iron bracelet, all tell their own Merovingian history. 
No doubt far richer relics would have been met with, but, 
even in this hallowed spot, we recognise the hand of the 
spoiler, so common in the Merovingian period, and one coffin, 
at least, was tenantless, and filled with earth. M. Cochet 
considers these Merovingian tombs to be of the seventh and 
eighth centuries, and therefore coeval with the foundation of 
the Abbey of St. Ouen itself. It must have been the great con- 
venience of water carriage, by the Seine, that filled Normandy 
with these stone coffins, from the quarries of Paris, down to the 
tenth century, after which date they no longer appear.* 

As all these coffins of St. Ouen would certainly appear to have 
been always destined to be placed under ground, we, perhaps, 
could hardly look for any ornamentation of sculptured crosses 
upon them. In fact, the only thing of the kind noticed is on 
one of the coffins of the Capetian period, where a Greek cross 
has been chiselled resembling the leaden ones with inscribed 
formulae of absolution. 

5. The fifth or Roman stratum reaches from 3 metres 40 
centimetres to 5 metres 30 centimetres. It is a mass of debris 
of the Roman period consisting of every variety of pottery, 
ashes, oyster and mussel shells, coloured with decorations, &c. 
Among the ashes were found four bronze coins of Trajan, 
Antoninus, and Clodius Albinus. M. Cochet considers these 
debris to be rather those of some public Roman building, as a 
temple, than of a private dwelling. Whatever such building 
may have been, it was within the grounds of the very ancient 
monastery of the Holy Apostles, which dated from the intro- 
duction of Christianity at Rouen. When St. Clothilde restored 
this monastery in 530, the remains of a Christian altar were 
found with an inscription recording its consecration to the 
Holy Apostles by St. Denis (third century). About 650 St. 
Ouen remodelled the whole institution, and established the 
Benedictine convent. At this period the Roman ruins were 
probably levelled, and the earliest Merovingian interments 
occurred. 

Another historical and melancholy interest attaches to this 

* In the Abbe's published works, La Kormand'ie Souttcraine, Sepultures 
Gfauloises, Itomaines, Franques, et Normalities, &c., such coffins are repeatedly 
mentioned, and dimensions given. 

M 2 



164 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 

re-discovered city of the dead. On this very spot, on May 24th, 
1430, the unfortunate Maid of Orleans was compelled to abjure 
the errors imputed to her by her cruel judges. This was only 
seven days before her execution in the market place of Rouen. 
The history of her trial speaks of the cemetery of St. Ouen as 
being the scene of such abjuration, but all memory of the site 
had faded away, and has only been brought back to light by 
these recent researches. 

This find is really a most remarkable one. All the interments 
in this the private cemetery of St. Ouen may be supposed to be 
those of persons of consideration, who, in accordance with the 
belief of those times, sought a last resting place in a . spot to 
which a notion of superior sanctity was attached. 

To the Abbe Cochet the results of the search must be very 
gratifying, presenting, as they do, a fresh corroboration collec- 
tively of the general correctness of his views on these subjects.* 
He has had the best examples of the coffins of the Merovingian 
and Carlovingian periods removed to Rouen Museum. 

The Rev. W. H. SEWELL communicated a paper, in which he 
sought to clear Sir James Tyrrell from the share usually imputed 
to him of complicity in the murder of the infant Princes in the 
Tower of London. 

This paper will appear in the Archseologia. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these Communications. 



Thursday, May 18th, 1871. 

COLONEL AUGUSTUS HENRY LANE FOX, V.P., in 

the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Authors, on the part of Her Majesty's Government : Catalogue of 
Specimens, in the Museum of Practical Geology, of British Pottery and 
Porcelain from the occupation of Britain by the Romans to the present time. 
Second Edition. By Trenham Reeks, and F. W. Rudler. 8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Author : Address delivered at the Anniversary Meeting of the 
Geological Society, 17th February, 1871. Bv Joseph Prestwich, F.R.S. 8vo. 
London, 1871. 



I P3 ^ i8 * Ur g i reat 1 authorit y on medieval Christian burial. We are 
indebted to him for no less than five papers in the Arch*eologia on this subject. 



May 18.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 165 

Notice was given of the Ballot for the Election of Fellows on 
Thursday, May 25th, and a list of the Candidates was read. 

The following gentlemen were admitted Fellows : 
liev. John Harwood Hill. 
Richard Woof, Esq. 

An Exhibition, consisting of stone implements and other objects 
obtained from the beds of drift or tertiary gravel in various 
countries, and from the caves and rock shelters of the South of 
France, was opened. 

In illustration of this exhibition the following addresses were 
delivered : 

A. W. FRANKS, Esq. V.P. on the remains of primitive Man, 
recently discovered in the caves and rock shelters of La Dor- 
dogne in France. 

JOHN EVANS, Esq. F.R.S. F.S.A. on the occurence of Flint 
Implements in the Drift, their various types and characteristics. 

The following summary records the approximate number of 
objects forming this collection, with the names of the gentlemen 
by whom they were exhibited, and the localities where they were 
respectively discovered. The actual arrangement of the collec- 
tion has been followed. 

ENGLAND. 
1. VALLEY OF THE THAMES, &c. 88 specimens. 

High Terrace Gravel, East Acton and Baling . .57 

Colonel A. H. Lane Fox, V.P. 

Hammersmith, 1 ; Hackney Down, 1 . .2 

Rev. W. Sparrow Simpson, F.S.A. 

Stoke Newington, 1 ; Peasemarsh near Godalming, 1 . 2 

King's Langley, Abbot's Langley and North Mimms . 3 

John Evans, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

Reculvers, Kent . . .- . . .23 

John Brent, Esq., F.S.A. (20) 

Colonel Lane Fox (1) 

J. Evans, Esq. ( 2) 

Swalecliff, Kent ..... 1 

J. Evans, Esq. 



166 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

2. VALLEY OF THE MED WAY, &c. 13 specimens. 

Canterbury .... .10 

J. Brent, Esq. 

Ospringe . 

J. Evans, Esq. 

Dartford ..... . ' > l- 1 

F. G. C. Spurrell, Esq. F.G.S. 

Bromley ....... 1 

Coles Child, Esq., F.G.S. 



13 



3. VALLEY OF THE AVON, WILTS. 19 specimens. 



Bemerton, 6; Milford Hill, 9; Fisherton, 3; South 

Newton, 1 . . . . . .19 

Trustees of the Blackmore Museum, Salisbury. 

4. THE SOLENT DISTRICT. 13 specimens. 

Hill Head, near Fareham . ... 2 

Blackmore Museum (1) 
J. Evans, Esq. (1) 

Southampton, 3 ; Alverstoke, 1 . . . .4 

J. Evans, Esq. 

Fordingbridge and Ashford . . . .3 

Blackmore Museum (2) 
J. Evans, Esq. (1) 

Bournemouth . . . . . . 3 

J. Evans, Esq. 
Foreland, Isle of Wight . . . . 1 

T. Codrington, Esq. 

JL3 

5. SOMERSETSHIRE. 12 specimens. 

Chard ...... 

Blackmore Museum. 
Wokey Hole . . . . .9 

J. Wickham Flower, Esq., F.G.S. 

12 



May 18.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 167 

6. VALLEY OF THE OUSE, BEDS. AND NORFOLK. 3 specimens. 

Biddenham ...... 1 

J. Evans, Esq. 

Bedford .... 1 

Colonel Lane Fox. 

South Wooton, King's Lynn . . . . 1 

James Wyatt, Esq., F.G.S. 

_3 

7. VALLEY OF THE LITTLE OUSE, NORF. AND SUFF. 

42 specimens. 

Santon Downham . . . . .18 

Rev. W. Weller Poley (13) 
J. Evans, Esq. ( 3) 

H. R. Maynard, Esq. ( 2) 

Brandon, 1 ; ^Wanford, 5 .... 6 

J. Evans, Esq. 

Broomhill, Weeting . . . . .4 

Rev. W. W. Poley (3) 
H. R. Maynard, Esq. (1) 

Shrub Hill, Feltwell ..... 6 

J. Evans, Esq. (3) 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.R.S., F.S.A. (1) 

Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., F.R.S. (2) 

Thetford . . . . . . . ' 8 

J. Evans, Esq. (5) 
Sir J. Lubbock (1) 

Sir C. Lyell (2) 

_42 

Also a series of classified specimens from the above localities. 
J. Wickham Flower, Esq., F.GLS. 

8. VALLEY OF THE WAVENEY. 6 specimens. 

The Society of Antiquaries of London (5)* 
J. Evans, 'Esq. (1) 

9. VALLEY OF THE LARK, SUFFOLK. 5 specimens. 
Icklingham . .... 3 

J. Evans, Esq. 

Mildenhall, Brick Earth at High Lodge ... 2 
A. W. Franks, Esq. V.P. 

* These were the five specimens discovered in 1797, and which are figured and 
described in the Archteologia, xiii. 204, plates xiv. xv. 



168 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

FRANCE. 

1. VALLEY OF THE SOMME. 92 specimens. 

St. Acheul, near Amiens . . . . .60 

J. Evans, Esq. (10) 

Sir J. Lubbock ( 5) 

Sir C. Lyell (45) 



27 



Montiers, 


near Amiens 


. 




J. Evans, Esq. 
Sir J. Lubbock 


(3) 
( 2) 


Abbeville 


g 


. 




J. Evans, Esq. 


( 4) 




Sir J. Lubbock 


( 1) 




Sir C. Lyell 


(22) 



92 

And a series of classified specimens from this valley. 
J. W. Flower, Esq. 

2. VALLEY OF THE BRETTE. 4 specimens. 

Vaudricourt, near Bethune (Pas de Calais) . . 4 

J. Evans, Esq. 

3. VALLEY OF THE LOIRE. 3 specimens. 

Marboue . . . . . . .2 

J. Evans, Esq. (1) 

A. W. Franks, Esq. (1) 

Vendome ....... 1 

J. Evans, Esq. 

4. VALLEY OF THE SEINE. 1 specimen. 

Charenton ..... 1 

J. Evans, Esq. 

5. PLATEAUX OF POITOU. 19 specimens. 

La Folie, Poitiers ....... 1 

J. Evans, Esq. 
Various localities . .18 

J. Evans, Esq. (7) 

A. W. Franks, Esq. (11) 

19 



May 18.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES 169 

6 VALLEY OF THE CLAISE, VIENNE. 2 specimens. 

J. Evans, Esq. (1) 

A. W. Franks, Esq. (1) (a cast). 

7. LA DORDOGNE. 

A collection of casts of objects in reindeer horn, with sculptured 

subjects, from the caves and rock shelters. 
Cast and lithograph of a fragment of mammoth tusk, bearing a 

scratched drawing of the mammoth, from rock shelter at 

La Madelaine. 
Breccia, worked flints, cores, and flakes ; harpoon-heads in 

reindeer horn, and bone needles. 
Photographs, drawings, lithographs, and plans illustrative of 

discoveries in caves, &c. of this district. 
A. W. Franks, Esq. 

SPAIN. 

MADRID. 1 specimen (a cast). 
J. Evans, Esq. 

INDIA. 

Specimens of implements in quartzite, from the Laterite Beds, 
Madras Presidency. 9 specimens. 

Col. Lane Fox (5) 

Sir J. Lubbock (2) 

Sir C. Lyell (2) 

ABSTRACT OF NUMBER OF SPECIMENS OF IMPLEMENTS. 
ENGLAND. 

1. Thames . . .88 

2. Medway . . . .13 

3. Avon, W ilts .19 

4. Solent district . . . .13 

5. Somersetshire . . . .12 

6. Ouse ..... 3 

7. Little Ouse . . . .42* 

8. Waveney .... 6 

9. Lark ..... 5 

Total . . .201 

* Exclusive of classified collections by J. W. Flower, Esq. 



170 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 

FRANCE. 

1. Somme. .... 92* 

2. Brette . 

3. Loire 3 

4. Seine ... 1 

5. Poitou . . . . .19 

6. Claise ... .2. 

Total . . . 121 

SPAIN. 

One specimen. 

INDIA. 

Nine specimens. 



It was ordered that the Thanks of the Society be returned 
to the several contributors to this Exhibition, and to Mr. T. K. 
Gay for the zealous assistance rendered by him to the officers of 
the Society in the arrangement of the Collection. 

The Palaeolithic Exhibition continued open during the hours of 
10 A.M. to 4 P.M. on Friday, May 19, and on the following days 
until Thursday, May 25. The number of persons, Fellows of the 
Society, and others, who availed themselves of this opportunity 
of examining a very large collection of objects of the early Stone 
Period was upwards of 500. 



Thursday, May 25th, 1871. 
AUGUSTUS W. FEANKS, Esq. V.P. in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Koyal Institution of Great Britain : Proceedings. Vol. vi. Part iii. 
No. 54. 8vo, London, 1871. 

From Her Majesty's Secretary of State for the Home Department. By The 
Queen. A Proclamation regulating the Distribution of the net proceeds of 
Prizes captured from the enemy. Given at Windsor, 16th May, 1871, 34th 
year of reign. Broadside folio. (Two copies.) 

* Exclusive of classified collections by J, W. Flower, Esq. 



May 25.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 171 

Robert Brown, junior, Esq. was admitted a Fellow. 

This being an evening appointed for the Election of Fellows 
no papers were read. 

The Ballot began at a quarter to nine and ended at half-past 
nine, when the following candidates were declared to be duly 


William Hazlitt, Esq. 

William Adlam, Esq. 

Charles Harcourt Chambers, Esq. M.A. 

John Edward Price, Esq. 

Thomas Brooke, Esq. 

Rev. Francis John Rawlins, M.A. 

Cunninghame, Lord Borthwick, 

Eev. Richard Valpy French, LL.D. 

Bamuel Dutton Walker, Esq. 

Edward Jackson Barren, Esq. 

Honorary. 

The Due de Broglie. 
Signer Rudolfo Lanciani. 
Professor Sven Nilsson. 
II Cavaliere Giuseppe Fiorelli* 



Thursday, June 8th, 1871. 
C. S. PERCEVAL, Esq., LL.D., Director, in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Royal Institution of Cornwall : Journal, with the Fifty-Third Annual 
Report. No. XII. April. 8vo. Truro, 187-1. 

From the Author : The Jacobite Lairds of Gask. By T. L. Kington Oliphant, 
Esq. 8vo. London, 1870. 

From the Royal Irish Academy : 

1. Transactions. Vol. xxiv. Science. Parts 16, 17, and Title and Con- 
tents. [Completing the vol.] 4to. Dublin, 1870-1. 

2. Proceedings. Vol. ix. Parts 2 and 3 [not previously presented,] and 
Vol. x. 8vo. Dublin, 186570. 

3. Proceedings. Vol. I., Series 2. Nos. 1 and 2. 8vo. Dublin, 1870-1. 

4. Address delivered before the Royal Irish Academy. November 30, 1870. 
By John H. Jellett, B.D., President. 8vo. Dublin, 1870. 

5. Report of, the Council for the year ending March 16, 1871. 8vo. 
Dublin, 1871. 



172 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 

From the London Institution : Journal. No. 6. Vol. I. 8vo. London, 1871. 
From the Koyal Institute of British Architects : Sessional Papers 1870-71. 

No. 9. 4to. London, 1871. 
From the Archaeological Section of the Birmingham and Midland Institute, 

through S. Timmins, Esq., President : Transactions, Excursions, and 

Eeports. 1870. 4to. Birmingham, 1871. 
From J. W. K. Eyton, Esq. F.S.A. : Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica. 

Monthly Series. Edited by J. J. Howard, LL.D. F.S.A. No. xii. May. 

8vo. London, 1871. 
From C. Knight Watson, Esq. M.A., F. and Sec. S.A. : Historical Notices of 

the Society of Dilettanti. Printed for private circulation only. 4to. Lon- 
don, 1855. 
From the Massachusetts Historical Society : 

1. Proceedings. 1869-1870. 8vo. Boston, 1871. 

2. Bibliography of the Massachusetts Historical Society. By Samuel 
A. Green, M.D. (From Proc. Mass. Hist. Soc. 1871). 8vo. Boston, 1871. 

From the Author : Notes on the Pilgrims' Way, in West Surrey. By Captain 
E. Kenouard James, B.E. 8vo. London and Guildford, 1871. 

From the Royal Society : Proceedings. Vol. xix. No. 128. 8vo. London, 

1871. 
From the Canadian Institute : The Canadian Journal of Science, Literature, 

and History. Vol. xiii. No. 1. May. 8vo. Toronto, 1871. 

From the East India Association : Journal. Vol. v. No. 1. 8vo. London, 
1871. 

From the Koyal Archseological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland : The 
Archaeological Journal. No. 108. [Completing vol. xxvii.] 8vo. Lon- 
don, 1870. 

From the Royal United Service Institution : Journal. Vol. xv. No. 62. 8vo. 
London, 1871. 

The following gentlemen were admitted Fellows : 

Rev. Thomas Bayley Levy. 
John Edward Price, Esq. 
William Hazlitt, Esq. 
Rev. Francis John Rawlins. 
William Adlam, Esq. 
Edward Jackson Barron, Esq. 
Thomas Thompson, Esq. 

The Joint- Committee of the Bridge House Estates and Im- 
provement Committees of the Corporation of the City of London 
exhibited and presented a Bronze Medal, struck in commemora- 
tion of the visit of Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen to the 
City of London, to open Blackfriars Bridge and the Holborn 
Valley Viaduct, 6th November, 1869. Obv. head in profile to 
the left, VICTORIA D.G. BRIT. REGINA F.D. Rev. 1869, Holborn 
Viaduct and Blackfriars Bridge, combined with wreaths of oak 
and laurel, and supported by figures of London and Britannia. 



June 8.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 173 

In the centre a shield of the City arms. G. G. Adams. D. so. 
Diameter 3 inches. 

The Rev. J. H. HILL, F.S.A. exhibited a Koman Amphora of 
small size and ordinary type, lately found in Barbican, London. 

A. W. FRANKS, Esq. V.P. exhibited the silver matrix of a 
seal of the town of Manetin, near Pilsen, in Bohemia. 

The seal is circular, nearly 1J inch diameter. At the back is 
a handle consisting of a semicircular plate of like diameter, 
hinged on to the seal. This handle seems originally to have 
been furnished with a loop for suspension. The back of the seal 
is engraved with scroll work ; one side of the handle with a 
demi-angel supporting a tablet with the date 1569, by his side a 
flower-pot : two dolphins, with interlaced tails on the other side. 

The cypher A I or A T, is engraved on the back, where is also 
a punch-mark, with the letters c R or c F. 

The impression of the seal is a shield bearing a cross patee 
dimidiating an eagle displayed. 

Legend in Koman character, s. + CIVIYM IN MANETIN + . On 
the field outside, and within the curves of the sides of the 
shield are the figures 6 9, agreeing with the date on the handle. 

W. H. BLACK, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited a sealing wax impres- 
sion of the reverse of the Seal of the Chapter of the Benedictine 
Monastery of the Holy Trinity, Dunfermline, taken from the 
brass matrix, which was found in 1840 in pulling down an 
ancient building in Gateshead, formerly the Hospital of St. 
Edmund.* 

An impression from the same matrix was presented to the 
Society on Jan. 28th, 1841, by J. 0. Halliwell, Esq. F.S.A., 
from whom Mr. Black had obtained that now exhibited. 

The matrix of the obverse is in the Bodleian Library. 

Mr. H. Laing in his Scottish Seals, 1st Series, 'No. 101 2, has 
identified the reverse by finding both parts appended to an 
instrument dated 1590. 

Both parts of the seal will be found engraved overleaf, it is 
believed for the first time in juxtaposition, f Dr. Rawlinson in 
1751 included the obverse (of which the matrix was then in his 
possession) in a small copperplate of six Scottish seals, of which 
an impression is in the library of the Society of Antiquaries, 
but it is not known whether this plate was ever published. 

The subject of the obverse is pretty clear, representing a cele- 

* See Archaeologia JEliana, vi. 106. 

f The obverse from a cast of the original, obligingly forwarded by Mr. Henry 
Laing. 



174 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



[1871, 





SEAL OF THE ABBEY OF DUNFERMLINE. 



June 8.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 175 

bration of Mass, at which are assisting a crowned female figure, 
doubtless St. Margaret of Scotland, foundress of the Church, 
and another figure of doubtful sex.* 

The Legend is : 

-f 8IG1LL' CAPIT'LI GCCL'IG SC'G TRINITATIS D6 
DVNF6RMGLIN. 

The reverse, representing the Majesty, or Our Lord sitting in 
judgment, is of remarkably fine design and execution. 

The legend has not hitherto been quite correctly read. It 
runs thus, the contractions being expanded : 

MORTIS VEL VITE BREVIS EST VOX, ITE, VENITE : 
DICETUR REPROBIS, ITE VENITE, PROBIS. 

The contraction for EST is particularly deserving of notice. It 
occurs but rarely, and then in documents of the eleventh 
century. The occurrence on a seal of the contraction for VEL is 
also observable. 

Major COOPER COOPER, F.S.A. exhibited two leaden private 
Seals of the thirteenth or early fourteenth century, dug up at 
Toddington, Bedfordshire, the impressions from which may be 
thus described : 

1. Circular, 1 inch in diameter. Subject, a seven-pointed star 
or flower. Legend : 

+ S'TEPp'I . ROW6(. 

2. Pointed oval, 1 inch long. Subject, a flower resembling 
a rude fleur-de-lis. Legend : 

+ S' MTILD' P6(COCK. 

W. C. BOULTER, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited and presented a full- 
sized photograph of a fragment of a Seal in brown wax appended 
to an original deed, dated St. Barnabas Day, 10 Henry IV., 
whereby the Abbat and Convent of Beauchief (De Bello Capite) 
grant lands at Wymondeswolde (hodie Wymeswold), co. Leicester. 
This document is in the possession of J. H. Hill, Esq., Solicitor, 
of Hull. 

The subject of the seal, which when entire would seem to 
have been oval, about 2 inches in the greater diameter, is the 
Martyrdom of St. Thomas of Canterbury, treated in the usual 
conventional manner of the fourteenth century, agreeing in this 

* Compare the second seal of the Chapter of Glasgow, figured in Laing's 
Scottish Seals, 1st Series, No. 1024, plate xxii. fig. 2, where a similar subject, a 
celebration attended by one person only, occurs. An earlier seal of Dunfermline 
is described in the same work, 2nd Series, No. 1133. 



176 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

respect ^ith other seals of the Abbey noticed in the Mpnasticon. 

The letters CCL6S, a part of the word ECCLESIE are all that 
remain. 

Dr. Pegge in his History of Beauchief Abbey, printed in 
Nichols' Bibliotheca Topographica Britannica, vol. ix. in the 
plate xii. fig. B., has engraved this seal, also from an imperfect 
impression, whence he has been led into the error of substituting 
COMMUNE for ECCLESIE. 

Completing the legend from the two examples, it must have 
run thus : .- 

s' eccLesie SANCTI xpoMe MARTIRIS D* BeAvcpiep. 

The Premonstratensian Abbey of Beauchief, according to Dr. 
Pegge, pp. 8, 9, owned a manor at Wymeswold, and were 
impropriators of the Rectory there. 

Burton in his History of Leicestershire notices that in one of 
the windows of that Church was an (i Orate " for an Abbat of 
Beauchief. 

Besides the present seal and one more common seal of the 
Abbey described in the Monasticon, there is extant a small 
official seal of the Abbat. It is of oval form, exhibiting the not 
uncommon design of a hand issuing out of the sinister side of 
the field, grasping a pastoral staff in pale. Legend : 

SIGILLLM ABBATIS DE BELLO CAPITE. 

J. J. HOWARD, Esq. LL.D. F.S.A. exhibited, by the per- 
mission of the Mayor and Corporation of Coventry, the following 
original Documents and Seals : * 

1. A transcript, on two skins of parchment, of two Records 
of the Marshalsea Court, temp. 5 Hen. V. held at Coventry, 
exemplified under the official seal of the Court. The following 
is an abstract of these two records : 

The first record is of a trial at the " Placita Aulae Hospitii 
Domini Regis coram Seneschallo et Marescallo," originating out 
of an inquisition taken at Coventry before the steward and marshal 
of the King's household, on Wednesday next after -the feast of 
St. Laurence the Martyr, 5 Hen. V. (Aug. 11, 1417), whereby 
a jury of the vicinage of Coventry present that a common foot- 
way, leading from Cook Street in that city, to a grange of the 
Prior of St. John, called HarnalPs Grange, is ruinous and 
founderous, to the grievous nuisance of the King and his people, 
by reason of the omission by the Prior of St. Mary, Coventry, 
to scour (escurationis) an adjacent ditch (fovece). That it was 

* Exhibitions of other charters and documents from the Coventry archives, 
obligingly procured by Mr. Howard, will be found noticed in Proceedings, 
2 S. ii. 155, 183, 188, 444 ; iii. 52 ; v. 59. 



JuilC 8.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 177 

his duty to scour it, by reason of his having land abutting 
thereon, that all his predecessors used to scour it, and that 
the way had been ruinous ever since Christmas, anno primo 
Hen. V li . Whereupon the prior is summoned to attend the 
court on Friday next before St. Bartholomew's Day (Aug. 20), 
wherever, &c. within the verge, to answer the King of the said 
nuisance. On that day Robert Faireford, the King's attorney, 
appears against the prior, who appears by William Ham his 
attorney, and (with protestation that he did not know that the 
way was in fact ruinous as presented,) pleads that it was not 
his duty to scour the ditch, as his predecessors never had done 
so. On this issue is joined, to be tried per patriam, and a jury 
awarded, who after a continuance on St. Bartholomew's JDay, 
come on the morrow of that feast (August 25), and, being sworn, 
return a verdict for the defendant. Judgment accordingly. 

The second record arises on a similar presentment of nuisance 
against the prior, of the same date, before the same court, the 
process and continuances the same, and tried before the same jury, 
on the same day. The presentment is that there is a certain high- 
way of the lord the King in the town of Radeford, within the 
liberty of the city of Coventry, whereby men go from. Coventry to 
Radeford, ruinous, broken, and unrepaired, to the nuisance, &c., 
by default of scouring of a ditch on the west side of that highway, 
to wit, from a certain water-mill called Radeford Mill, to another 
mill called Hille Mill, which the prior is bound to clean and 
scour, by reason of his lands lying on either side of the ditch, 
and that the prior and all his predecessors used to scour it, and 
by reason, &c., were bound to do so. And that the highway 
had been ruinous, &c., from Christmas, in the 10th Henry IV. 
The trial, as in the former case, resulted in a verdict for the 
prior. 

u In cujus rei testimonium sigilJum officii curie marescalcie 
hospitii domini Regis istis Inquisitlonibus est appensum." 

The fine seal attached to this record is circular, If in. dia- 
meter. Subject, in a circle ornamented with tracery, a shield 
bearing two bars, and in chief three roundels, on either side of 
the shield a sickle. Three lions passant guardant surround the 
shield, immediately, above and below which, a small sprig of 
flowers is introduced in the field. 

Legend, 

Stfltiium : offictt : mawscalcte : fjosptctt : Uomtni : tegts. 

This seal bears the personal arms of Sir Walter Hungerford 
of Heytesbury, who not long before this time succeeded Sir 
VOL. v. N 



178 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 

Thomas Erpingham as steward of the household.* He was a 
person of great repute with King Henry V. In 1418 he was 
made K.G. ; was one of the executors of the King's will, and in 
the next reign became Lord High Treasurer. 

According to Hoare's Hung erf ordiana^ p. 6, Walter de 
Hungerford, grandfather of our lord steward, married Elizabeth, 
daughter and heir of Sir Adam FitzJohn, of Chevill, in Wilts, 
whose arms were, Sable, two bars argent, and in chief three 
plates, which coat was assumed by the lady's descendants, or 
indeed by her husband. And this is to some extent borne out 
by the Roll temp. Edw. II. which gives the coat in question to 
Sir Adam FitzJohn, of the county of Lincoln, while Jenyns' 
Ordinary, MS. Harl. 6589, partly printed by Nicolas as a Roll 
temp. Edw. III., assigns the same coat to Walter Hungerford, 
the field, however, being azure instead of sable. The sickle is 
a well-known Hungerford badge. 

The seal of office of the Marshalsea Court, temp. Sir Thomas 
de Erpingham, was exhibited by Mr. Howard (also from the 
Coventry archives) to the Society of Antiquaries, on June 1 6, 
1864 (see Proceedings, 2 S. ii. 444). It bears the arms of Sir 
Thomas. A third seal of the same court, also bearing the arms 
of the lord steward, is appended to a transcript of a record of the 
court in the British Museum (L. F. C. xiii. 19), dated 18 Edw. 
III. Ralph, Lord Stafford, was then steward of the household, 
and this seal bears his arms [or] a chevron [gules] on a shield 
surrounded by three lions of England. The impression is unfor- 
tunately broken away at the margin, but from the initial words 
which remain, S.OF., we may conclude that the legend, when 
complete, read similarly to those on the Erpingham and Hun- 
gerford seals. 

At the time when the proceedings recorded in the document 
under notice took place, the King, Henry V., had shortly before 
left England for his second French campaign, leaving his 
brother John, Duke of Bedford, his locum tenens, or guardian 
of the realm. 

Some remarks on the constitution of the Marshalsea Court 
will be found in Proceedings, 2 S. ii. 444. 

2. A circular seal, about 1 inch in diameter, and of very 
beautiful design. The Madonna and Child are represented in 
the centre, seated within a circular panel, and surrounded by 

* Erpingham was still steward in 2 Hen. V. See Rot. Pat. ej. anni, 4ta pars, 
m. 37. Hungerford had succeeded on or before July 23, 5th Hen. V. (1417), 
being entered by name with the addition of " Seneschallus Hospitii Domini 
Regis," among the noblemen who witnessed the delivery of the great seal of 
gold to the Bishop of Durham on that day, the King being at Southwick Priory, 
near Porchester, on the eve of his voyage to France. Glaus. 5 Hen. V. m. 16, 
in dorso. 



June 8.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 179 

the four evangelistic symbols, each also in a roundel, and separated 
by elegant tracery. Attached to a feoffment of a house in 
Tefford Street, Coventry, dated Monday after Ascension Day, 
23 Edw. III. (1349), made by Thomas le Scherman of Coventry, 
clerk (feoffment of John Norreys of the same place, chaplain), 
to John de Folongley and others. 

A private seal of similar design is described in the Proceed- 
ings, iv. 14, differing, however, by the introduction of a kneeling 
figure into the central panel, and the addition of the legend, 
" Mater Dei miserere mei." 

3. A circular seal f inch in diameter. Subject, in a decorated 
panel, a shield bearing a cross recercelee within a bordure 
engrailed. Above the shield is an Agnus Dei. Legend, in 
Lombardic character 

SGNUS : DGI : GO ? 6 : S ? OIT : AMI. 

Appended to a cleed dated Wednesday, the Vigil of the Apostles 
Peter and Paul, 9 Edw. III. June 28, 1335, whereby Thomas 
de Solyhul releases to Master John de Canleye and his heirs 
sixteen pennyworth of annual rent, issuing out of a house in 
vico de Spanna in Coventry, with clause of warranty of the 
rent. Witnesses, Roger le Bray, " Ballivo Coventr' ex parte 
comitis," John son of William le Wallere, Thomas son of 
Geoffrey le Wallere, John Kynge, and others, 

It may be doubted whether this seal be not another example of 
imitative heraldry (See Proceedings, 2 S. iv. 202). The Agnus 
Dei, standing on the shield like a modern crest, is unusual. It 
is not a crest, for it is neither placed upon a helmet, the invari- 
able usage of this period, nor yet on a wreath, a much more 
modern practice. The legend does not identify it with the maker 
of the deed, but refers to the Agnus Dei, making that emblem, 
as it were, the principal subject of the seal. 

4. Acquittance dated at Coventry, Monday next after the 
Feast of St. Michael the Archangel, 10 Henry IV. (Monday, 
October 1st, 1408), whereby Thomas Feryby, Treasurer of the 
Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Coventry, acknowledged 
to have received in the name of the Prior and Convent 10 of 
the Ferm of the City of Coventry froin the Mayor and Bailiffs 
there. " In cujus rei testimonium Sigillum officii mei pro ac- 
quietanciis deputatum presentibus est appensum." 

Seal on a slip cut from the foot of the parchment bill Ellip- 
tical, subject an eagle displayed. Legend 

SIGILL' OFFICII TpeSTTVRie CO[V6T']. 

The seal is considerably older than the document ; it may be 
referred to the thirteenth century. 

N2 



180 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 

5. Impression in red wax of a private seal of Thomas Grey, 
first Marquis of Dorset, lozenge-shaped, bearing an unicorn 
statant ermine with rays of the sun surrounding him. ^ Appended 
to a release of a timber yard in Coventry to certain feoffees. 
Dated October 20, 13 Henry VII. (1497). 

In the List of Badges and Crests, printed in Coll. Top. et 
Gen, iii. 66, the Marquis Dorset gives " on a sun or ail uni- 
corn couchant ermine," and Lord Ferrers of Groby (also a Grey) 
had for devise on his standard " an unicorn current argent." 
Ibid. p. 60. 

Lieut.-Col. G. GRANT FRANCIS, F.S.A. Local Secretary for 
South Wales, exhibited an impression of Queen Elizabeth's Seal 
of the Court of Great Sessions for Carmarthen, Cardigan, and 
Pembroke, appended to a transcript of a record of a common 
recovery, suffered at Carmarthen before Richard Atkyns and 
James Ley, justices of Great Session, on Monday, 15 August, 1 
Jac. I., wherein William John By none and Ho well John were 
demandants, and John Owen gent, and Broeus ap Evan were 
deforciants, of two messuages, 200 acres of land, &c. in Mydryme. 
Exemplified under " Sigillum nostrum ad brevia in Curia nostra 
sigillanda deputatum. Dated 8 October, anno 1 Jacobi Regis. 

The seal will be found engraved in Archaeologia, xxxi. 495. 
King James had not been many months on the throne, and 
the new seal of this court was probably not yet engraved at the 
date of the instrument, so that the seal of Queen Elizabeth was 
still in use. 

G. F. HAINES, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited the following objects, 
obtained from recent excavations at Chichester 

1. An iron arrow-head, probably mediaeval. 

2. A small and elegantly modelled figure in bronze, of Priapus, 
crowned with flowers, and holding fruits in the lap of his gar- 
ment, which is elevated to an indecent height. 

3. A large bead of jet. 

W. R. S. RALSTON, Esq. communicated, in a letter to the 
Director, which will be printed in the Archseologia, vol. xliv., 
some remarks relative to a copper bason found at Chertsey, 
bearing an inscription. This inscription had been considered by 
the late Mr. J. M. Kemble to be in Saxon runes, and his inter- 
pretation will be found in the thirty-third volume of Archaeologia, 
p. 40. Mr. Ralston's object is to prove the inscription to be 
in modern Greek, and that it bears a widely different nieaning 
from that assigned to it by Mr. Kemble, 



June 8.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 181 

HYDE CLARKE, Esq. communicated a paper on the name 
Britannia, and its relationship to prehistoric populations. 

The following is an abstract of this communication. 

After observing that the various attempts which had from 
time to time been made to explain the word " Britannia " from 
the Celtic, Classic, Semitic, and Vasco-Iberian languages had 
all proved unsatisfactory to him, Mr. Clarke informs us that 
he was induced to seek elsewhere. 

If from BRITANNIA and SARDINIA the B and S (which for 
the moment may be assumed to be prefixes) be struck off, it 
will be seen that they contain the same root elements, R D N ; 
and if we look for other proper names of this form, we shall 
find them copiously. 

Thus we have 

Rhodanus, Gaul. Jordanus, Syria. 

Rotanus, Corsica. Dyardanes, India. 

Eridanus, Italy. Kartenus, Mauritania. 

Artanes, Bythinia. Bradanus, Italy. 

Jardanus, Crete. Prytanis, Asia Minor. 

Jardenus, Greece. Vartanus, Sarmatia. 

Bradanus, Prytanis, and Vartanus have considerable resem- 
blance to Britannia in their elements. All these are the names 
of rivers, and there are other river names allied, but with the 
radicals in the sequence R N D, including 

Barentinus, Italy, and 
Orontes, Syria. 

These three letters, indeed, enter into river names in various 
order, and we may enumerate among such 

Tanarus, Italy. Kedron, Palestine. 

Aternus, Italy. Marauder, Caria. 

Tarnis, Gaul. Skamander, Mysia. 

DuraniiiSj Gaul. ,, Sicily. 

Matrinus, Italy. Oromzudrus, Cappadocian Ar- 

Saturnus, ,, menia. 

Liternus, ,, Etumander, Asia. 

Vulturnus, ,, Aknder, Phrygia. 

Trinium, ,, Tarandrus, ,, 

Vatrenus, ,, Akalandrus, Lucania. 

Matrona, Gaul. 

We have now three river names with a prefix, B p, like 
Britannia, and one, Saturnus, with a prefix like Sardinia. 

Thus a chain of names can be traced reaching through Gaul, 
Italy, Greece, and Asia Minor, to the remote East, and we have 
to find a language in which the root will be significant. This 



182 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 

will he found in Georgian and Mingrelian in Caucasia, for the 
word Mdinare or Dinare means river. 

This, however, the writer admits, amounts to little of itself, 
and has to be tested so as to ascertain whether the Georgian 
languages were used in the formation of river-names at some 
period of antiquity. 

The words for" river, brook, and water in these languages 
are : 

Georgian and Mingrelian^ Mdinare or Dinare. 

Siuan or Suan, Oruba. 

Mingrelian^ Tsqari. 

Georgian, Pshani. 

Swan or Suan, Gangalits. 

^ Veets. 

Now, if each of these words be taken, their congeners will be 
found in the river names. It may be observed that they are 
under the same conditions as Dinare, and that the root letters 
are susceptible of transposition. 

Mr. Clarke proceeds to adduce lists of river-names cognate 
to each of these six words. Examples from each list follow. 
For ORUBA 

Ehebas, Bythinia. Eubicon, Italy. 

Khobites, Sarmatia. Arabis, Gaul. 

Ravius, Sligo Bay. Arabius, Carmania. 

Tuerobis, Tivy in Wales. Sarabis, India. 

Euripus, Strait in Greece. Marubius, Sarmatia. 

Again, transposing R and B 

Iberus, Caucasia Sabrina, Britain, 

and Spain. ' Siberis, Galatia. 

Abarus, Armenia Sybaris, Tiberis, Liparis, Italy. 

and Kolkhis. Khaberis, India. 

Hebrus, Thrace. Khaboras, Mesopotamia. 

Baris, India. 
For TSQARI 

Kurus or Cyrus, Iberia, Media, Persia. 
Gaoris, India. 

Akheron, Greece and Italy. 
Agrianes, Thrace. 
Agoronis, India. 
Again such forms as 

Araxes, Armenia, Persia, Scythia. 

Aragus, Iberia. 

Arakthos, Greece. 

Markka, nymph of the Liris, Italy. 

Targines, Italy. 

Birgus, the Barrow in Ireland. 



June 8.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 183 

For PSHANI 

Pison or Pishon, the river of Paradise. 
Phasis, Kolkhis, Iberia, Ceylon. 
Kephissos, Greece. 
Hyphasis, India. 
Pisaurus, Italy. 

Asopius, Greece Albinia, Italy. 

Albanus, Albania. Hypanis, India. 



Enipeus, Macedonia. 
Anapus, Sicily. 
Danubius, Germany. 
Tinova (Teign), Britain. 
Novius (Nith), Scotland. 

For GANGALITS or Ganga. 

Ganges, India and Ceylon. 
Sangarius, Asia Minor. 
Agna, Mauritania. 
Magon, India. 
Akinakis, Pontus. 
Saganus, Carmania. 
Tanager, Italy. 

For VEETS. 

Pediseus, Lapithus, Cyprus. 
Pad us, Italy. 
Boetis, Spain. 
Tava, India. 
Salduba, Spain. 

The number of these river-names included in Mr. Clarke's 
entire list is 143. He argues that the case is not slight when 
it rests on above one hundred examples, which could have 
been much, increased by admitting partial roots, as those in 
DR, DN, RN. These names are all taken from one class of words, 
those used for rivers, and they are all explained from one class 
of languages on fixed principles. Many of the names are actually 
taken from the Caucasian area, where these languages are now 
spoken. 

The ancient language of Georgia or Caucasia, the Paleo- 
georgian, explains the river names of Asia and Europe, but the 
cases of Britannia and Sardinia, it may be thought, are excep- 
tional. This may, however, be tried by the application of the 
same river roots to the names of countries. 



184 



PKOCEEDINGS OF THE 



[1871, 



Thus we have 

DINARE Sardinia PSHANI Hispania 

Britannia Campania 

Mauritania Albania 

ORUBA Arabia TSQARI Arakhosia 

Europa Arkadia 

Iberia (East) Liguria 

(West) Lokris 

Hibernia G-ANGA Sikania 

Epeirus Lukania 

Kupros Lakonia 

Hyrkania 

Thus a copious list of forms, all having the same meaning, is 
found to be applied to the western countries, known to the 
ancients, Britannia, Hibernia, Hispania and Iberia, Sardinia, 
Sikania (Sicily). These terms are also applied to eastern 
regions. 

Such, says Mr. Clarke, is the fact ; the exact explanation has 
perhaps yet to be sought. The Caucasan Tibetans, as their com- 
parative mythology shows, worshipped rivers in particular as 
well as fire. It is possible that countries and islands were put 
under the sanction and dedication of the river-gods by the 
attribution of a river-name. The peculiar constitution of the 
Paleogeorgian language in its then state allowed a great 
variety of appellations, using several roots for water and river, 
as yet unselected, undefined, and unlimited, and having the 
faculty of transposing these roots and of employing prefixes, and 
many lands and islands could receive designations of the same 
significance of dedication, and yet all distinctive. 

Britannia and Sardinia would have the same meaning, but 
their prefixes prevented them from Being confounded. The 
neighbouring islands of Britannia and Hibernia were equally 
distinguished. 

The like principle appears to have been applied to the names of 
towns. If the names of the most ancient cities are taken and 
analysed in the foregoing manner, they will be found .to exhibit 
a strange conformity, and which is neither the result of chance 
nor of a capricious classification, but of law. 

With regard to the termination appearing as NIA it possibly 
represents a word, signifying country or land. We have a word 
Keni in Georgian of that meaning, and the E may represent a 
prefix. NI may also represent the plural in ni. 

Having defined the language, it is useful to identify the popu- 
lation which gave the names and its history. The river-names 
already recited reach from Assam and the foot of the Himalayas 



June 8.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 185 

to the Atlantic Ocean. On this area a language approaching 
the Paleogeorgian is nowhere spoken but in the Caucasus. 
There is, however, this remarkable fact, that in the Himalayas, 
in High Asia and in Assam, are found numerous tribes, in the 
languages of which have been discovered the affinities of the 
Caucasian languages, and some of them under our own empire. 
These include the Tibetan, Lepcha, Milchan, Hor, Lhopa, Takpa, 
Gyarung, Thaksya, Abor, Horpa, Thochu, and Gurung. 

These are tribes living in a low state, but among them and 
within our own borders are the Khasias, a people in this day 
building megalithic monuments. 

From such a point Mr. Clarke considers that there must have 
issued from High Asia into India a horde of many tribes, 
high and low, white and tawny, warriors, priests, iron smelters, 
stone builders, who made themselves masters of India and 
Ceylon, and, at least, frequented the country beyond the 
Ganges, where they knew the tin mines of the East ; conquering 
empires in Media, Persia, Mesopotamia, holding the Holy Land 
to the borders of Egypt, all Asia Minor was theirs. They 
poured into Europe, founding states and cities, holding the 
lands and islands of the South and West. 

These are the people who must have worked gold and tin 
here before the Phoenicians had appeared on the scene of history, 
and who, from 3,500 to 4,500 years ago, occupied all the regions 
of the East and West. 

This, therefore, was a population which occupied these islands 
and planted towns after the Iberians and Ligurians, long be- 
fore the Celts and the Belgians. It is, therefore, to this popula- 
tion, assisted by the light of the comparative history of Europe 
and Asia, we shall be able to assign many monuments and many 
remains found on our soil. It is a new chapter in our history 
deserving of study, one of megalithic structures, but one like- 
wise of gold ornaments and works in bronze. 

J. H. PARKER, Esq. F.S.A. delivered an address descriptive 
of the progress of the excavations undertaken during the past 
winter season by the British Archaeological Society and other 
bodies in Rome. The substance 6f this address, which was 
repeated before the Royal Archaeological Institute a few days 
later, will be found in the Archaeological Journal. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these Communications. 



186 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



Thursday, June 15th, 1871. 
AUGUSTUS W. FEANKS, Esq. V.R in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From J. H. Parker, Esq. Hon. M.A. F.S.A. : 

1. Roman Exploration Fund (Treasurer's Report, July 1 to Dec. 31, 1870). 
8vo. 

2. A Lecture on the Excavations in Rome from July 1st to December 30th, 
1870, delivered to the British Archaeological Society. By J. H. Parker, 
Hon. M.A. Oxon, etc. 8vo. 

From J. W. K. Eyton, Esq. F.S.A. : An Historical and Descriptive Guide 'to 

Warwick Castle, Kenilworth Castle, &c. and other Places of interest in the 

neighbourhood. 12th edition. 8vo. Warwick, 1870. 
From the Author : Remarks and Suggestions on the Scheme for the comple- 

tion of St. Paul's Cathedral. By G. E. Street, A.R.A. 8vo. London, 

1871. 
From W. H. Hart, Esq. F.S.A. : 

1. A Collection of the Proceedings in the House of Commons against the 
Lord Verulam, Viscount St. Alban's, Lord Chancellor of England, for Cor- 
ruption and Bribery. 8vo. London, n.d. 

2. Constitutions and Canons Ecclesiastical treated upon by the Convocations 
of Canterbury and York, and agreed upon with the King's Majesties 
Licence. 4to. London, 1640. 

3. A Vindication of Churches, commonly called Independent : or, a Briefe 
Answer to two Books by William Prinne, Esquire. 4to. London, 1644. 

4. A Plain Answer to a Popish Priest questioning the Orders of the Church 
of England. 4to. London, 1688. 

5. A Funeral Oration to the Memory of Mary II. Queen of Great Britain. 
By Francis Spanheim. 4to. London, 1695. 

6. The Rehearsal, as it is now acted at the Theatre Royal. 7th edition. By 
George, late Duke of Buckingham. 4to. London, 1701. 

7. The Life and Character of Mr. John Locke. Written in French by 
M. Le Clerc, and done into English by T. F. P. Gent. 4to. London, 
1706. 

8. Money and Trade, consider'd ; with a proposal for supplying the Nation 
with Money. By John Law. 8vo. London, 1720. 

9. A Plot discovered, carried on by False Brethren against the new Con- 
verts from Popery to the Protestant Religion. By J. B. Denis. 8vo. 
London, 1722. 

10. An Abstract of Sir Isaac Newton's Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms. 
2nd edition. By Mr. Reid. 8vo. London, 1732. 

11. The Antiquity, Dignity, and Advantages of Music. By S. Croxall. 
8vo. London, 1741. 

12. A Letter from William Shirley, Esq. Governor of Massachusetts Bay, 
to His Grace the Duke of Newcastle : with a Journal of the Siege of Louis- 
bourg. 8vo. London, 1746. 

13. A Letter to the Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Bangor. By Phileleu- 
theros Eboracensis. 8vo. London, 1750. 

14. A Letter to the Lord Bishop of London. By a Citizen of London. 8vo. 
London, 1750. 



June 15.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 187 

15. Modest Remarks upon the Bishop of London's Letter concerning Earth- 
quakes. 8vo. London, 1750. 

16. Historical Tracts. A folio volume containing the following 12 Tracts. 
London, 1680-1729 : 

(1) The Great and Weighty Considerations relating to the Duke of York ; 
or, Successors of the Crown. 1680. 

(2) The Information of Edward Turbervill, of Skerr, in the County of 
Glamorgan, Gent, delivered at the Bar of the House of Commons, Tues- 
day, 9th Nov. 1680. 1680. 

(3) On the Old Cause in an Epitaph Preliminary. Written, first in 
Latine by an anonymous Author ; now turn'd into English by another. 
[Verse : Latin and English.] n.d. 

(4) A Poem on the Coronation of King William and Queen Mary. 1689. 

(5) The late Lord Russel's Case, with Observations upon it. Written by 
the Right Hon. Henry, Lord de la Mere. 1689. 

(6) A Reply to a Sheet of Paper, intituled, The Magistracy and Govern- 
ment of England vindicated. By John Hawles. 1689. 

(7) A Dialogue between Timothy and Titus about the Articles, and some 
of the Canons of the Church of England. 1689. 

(8) The^Case of Sir Edward Hales, Baronet. Being an exact Account 
of the Tryal. 1689. 

(9) An Ode upon the Glorious and Successful Expedition of His High- 
ness the Prince of Orange, now King of England. 1689. 

(10) A state of the Proceedings in the House of Commons with Relation 
to the Impeached Lords : and what happened thereupon between the Two 
Houses. 1701. 

(11) The Representation Examined : being Remarks on the State of 
Religion in England. 1711. 

(12) The Joint and Separate Account or Narrative of George Collcott 
and Robert Jones, mariners, relating to what passed at their several 
meetings with others about the affair of Dunkirk. 1729. 

17. Historical Tracts. A quarto volume containing the following 10 Tracts 
London, 1686-1702 : 

(1) A Defence of the Papers written by the late King and Duchess of 
York against the Answer made to them. 1686. 

(2) A Memorial from His Majesty, presented by the Count de Briord, 
containing Reasons for accepting the late King of Spain's Will in favour 
of the Duke of Anjou. 1700. 

(3) The Duke of Anjou's Succession considered ; with Reflections on the 
French King's Memorial to the Dutch. 2nd 'edition. 1701. 

(4) The Duke of Anjou's Succession further consider'd. Part ii. By the 
Author of the First. 1701. 

(5) Some Considerations of a Preface to an Enquiry concerning the occa- 
sional Conformity of Dissenters, &c. By John Howe. 1701. 

(6) The History of the Kentish Petition. 1701. 

(7) Jura Populi Anglicani : or, the Subjects' Right of Petitioning set 
forth. 1701. 

(8) A Collection of several Treaties, &c. since the late Revolution. 1701. 

(9) The King of France's Memorial delivered to the States-General by 
Monsieur d'Avaux, upon taking possession of the Towns in Flanders 
1701. 

(10) The Dangers of Europe from the growing Power of France. 1702. 

18. Historical Tracts. A quarto volume containing the following eight 
Tracts. London, 1693-1710 : 



188 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

(1) The Second Part of the Relation of the late Wicked Contrivance 
against the lives of several Persons, by Forging an Association under 
their Hands. Written by the Bishop of Rochester. Savoy, 1693. 

(2) The Examinations of Sir Thomas Cooke and other Persons touching 
the East India Company. 1695. 

(3) An Essay upon the present Interest of England. To which are added, 
the Proceedings of the House of Commons in 1677 upon the French King's 
Progress in Flanders. 2nd edition. 1701. 

(4) Advice to all Parties. By the Author of the True-born English-man. 
1705. 

(5) A Letter from a Gentleman in Scotland to his Friend in England, 
against the Sacramental Test. 2nd edition corrected. 1708. 

(6) Reflections on Dr. Sacheverell's Answer to the Articles of Impeach- 
ment. 1710. 

(7) The Good Old Cause : or, Lying in Truth, being a Second Defence 
of the Lord Bishop of Sarum, from a second Speech. By one Miso-Dolos.^ 
1710. 

(8) The Arguments and Reasons for and against engrafting upon the 
Bank of England with Tallies, &c. n.d. 

19. Church Affairs in England. A quarto volume containing the following 
seven Tracts. London, 1675-1703 : 

(1) The Burnt Child dreads the Fire : or, an Examination of the Merits 
of the Papists, relating to England. By William Denton. 1675. 

(2) Reflections upon the Answer to the Papist misrepresented, &c. 
Directed to the Answerer, n.d. 

(3) A Discourse explaining the nature of Edification. Both of Particular 
Persons in private Graces, and of the Church in Unity and Peace. By 
John Kettlewell. 1684. 

(4) The Church of England truly represented, according to Dr. Heylin's 
History of the Reformation. 1686. 

(5) Solomon and Abiathar : or, the Case of the Deprived Bishops and 
Clergy discussed. 1692. 

(6) An Answer to a Letter to Dr. Sherlock, written in vindication of 
Josephus's Account of Jaddus's Submission to Alexander. 1692. 

(7) The Interest of England considered, in respect to Protestants dissent- 
ing from the Established Church. 1703. 

20. Church Affairs in England. A small quarto volume containing the fol- 
lowing four Tracts. London, 1682-8 : 

(1) A short and Plain Answer to the Questions I. Where was your 
Religion before Luther ? II. How know you the Scriptures to be the 
Word of God ? By a Protestant. 1682. 

(2) A Discourse against Purgatory. 1685. 

(3) Three Letters tending to demonstrate how the Security of this Nation 
against Persecution for Religion lies in the Abolishment of Tests, and in 
the establishment of Liberty of Conscience. 1688. 

(4) A Seasonable Discourse, showing the necessity of maintaining the 
Established Religion in opposition to Popery, n.d. 

21. Peerage Tracts. An octavo volume containing the following four 
Tracts. London, 1719-20 : 

(1) The Constitution explained, in Relation to the Independency of the 
House of Lords. 1719. 

(2) A Letter to the Earl of O d concerning the Bill of Peerage. By 

Sir R d S le. 1719. 

(3) An Inquiry into the manner of creating Peers. 2nd edition. 1719. 



June 15.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 189 

(4) The Old Whig, Numb. I. and II. on the state of the Peerage. With 

Remarks upon the Plebeian. 3rd edition. 1720. 

22. Literary Tracts. A quarto volume containing the following seven 
Tracts. London, 1687-1704 : 

(1) The Hind and the Panther. A Poem, in three parts. 2nd edition. 
1687. 

(2) Revolter : A Trage-Comedy acted between the Hind and Panther, 
and Religio Laici, &c. 1687. 

(3) The Hind and the Panther transvers'd to the Story of the Country 
Mouse and the City Mouse. 1687. 

(4) The Mouse grown a Rat : or, the Story of the City and Country 
Mouse newly transpos'd, in a Discourse betwixt Bays, Johnson, and 
Smith. 1702. 

(5) The Monument : a Poem sacred to the Memory of William III. King 
of Great Britain, &c. By Mr. Dennis. 1702. 

(6) An Ode in Praise of Musick, set for variety of Voices and Instru- 
ments by Mr. Philip Hart. Written by J. Hughes. 1703. 

(7) An Elegy on the Author of the True-born English-man. With an 
Essay on the late Storm. By the Author of the Hymn to the Pillory. 
1704. x 

The following gentlemen were admitted Fellows : 
Cunninghame, Lord Borthwick. 
Thomas Brooke, Esq. 
Rev. John Booker. 
Thomas Thompson, Esq. 

The Hon. ARTHUR DILLON, F.S.A. exhibited arid presented a 
large and important collection of Impressions in gutta percha 
from the Common Seals at present in use by the majority of the 
municipal Corporations in England and Wales, with several of 
those used by similar bodies politic in Scotland. As is well known, 
the matrices of many of these seals are either originals of 
mediaeval workmanship, or are copies from such originals, which 
no longer exist. Hence the value of this acquisition to the Museum 
of the Society. 

As some acknowledgment of his kindness a vote of Special 
Thanks was- accorded to Mr. Dillon. 

JOHN PIGGOT, ESQ. F.S.A. exhibited a very fine collection of 
fac-simile Drawings of Painted Glass Windows, of the full size of 
the originals, which he had lately caused to be executed at his 
own expense. The most interesting portion of the exhibition 
was the series of portrait figures of the Clopton family and their 
connections set up by John Clopton, about 1485, in the windows 
of Long Melford Church, Suffolk. A complete list of these 
interesting portraits, with notes of the armorial bearings which 
occur on the surcoats of the male, and on the mantles and kirtles 
of the female figures, will be found at page 25 of the first 



190 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

volume of the Visitation of Suffolk, 1561, edited by J. J. Howard, 
Esq. F.S.A. where two of the figures, viz. Katherine Mylde, 
wife of Sir Thomas Clopton, and an angel holding a shield of 
the arms of Say, impaling Fray quartering Danvers, are repre- 
sented on a reduced scale, but giving a good idea of the character 
of the drawing. 

HODUER M. WESTROPP, Esq. exhibited the following Bronze 
Objects of Irish workmanship : 

A fibula of bronze, of which the ornamental portion is thickly 
gilt, and has sockets intended for the setting of pastes or gems. 
The ring has been broken at some time, and repaired by the 
insertion ot two pieces of iron. 




BRONZE FIBULA FROM THE KING'S COUNTY. 

This object was found at Eidgemount near Frankford, in the 
King's County. By Mr. Westropp's kind permission a woodcut 
of the brooch is here introduced, repeated from the Proceedings 
of the Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland, 
3 s. i. 279, where some remarks by Mr. Westropp on relics of 
this class will be found. 

2. A bell, of oval section at the base, 2 inches high to the 
crown, from which springs a flat piece of metal, nearly half an 
inch square, pierced with a hole, through which passes a rivet, 
connecting a looped handle. One side of the bell exhibits a 
Latin cross, the other an object of which the outline recalls that 
of an Irish round tower with its conical cap. 

3. Curved piece of bronze, about 4J inches long, pierced 



June 15.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 191 

with five rivets or stud holes and showing some traces of cast 
and incised pattern. Apparently a portion of a pastoral staff. 

4. Figure from a crucifix. The legs represented as placed 
one over the other. They present a peculiarity in that the lower 
part of the legs is made in a distinct piece which fits on the 
upper portion by a rabbet, through which passes a rivet which 
admits of the leg turning in one direction. It has been sug- 
gested that the figure formed a portion of the decoration of a 
shrine, and that the foot of the figure may have concealed a key- 
hole or recess for a relic. 

5. A ring of very pale greenish bronze, 3| inches external 
diameter, of circular section, J-inch thick. 

6. Rude finger-ring with a plain bezel and shoulder, possibly 
enamelled originally ; no trace of colour remains, but hatched 
lines on the surface suggest this mode of ornamentation. 

A. D. BARTLETT, Esq. exhibited through J. Y. Akerman, 
Esq. F.S.A. two Bills of Indictment exhibited to the Grand 
Jury of the Borough of Abingdon, at a session holden in 1654, 
and framed under the Act of the Commonwealth Parliament in 
1650, " for suppressing the detestable sins of incest, adultery, 
and fornication." One of these bills charged John Hemesdale 
of Abingdon with the carnal knowledge of one Mary Warner, 
wife of William Warner, Slatter, contrary to the Statute, &c. ; 
the other varied the charge, presenting that Mary Warner on 
the same day as alleged in the first indictment had been carnally 
known by Hemesdale. The bills were ignored, each being in- 
dorsed " Wee knowe it not," Under the Act, incest and 
adultery (knowingly committed) were capital felonies. 

ALEXANDER NESBITT, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited a circular Pyxis 
of ivory carved with subjects from the life of St. Mennas of 
Alexandria, the work of the sixth century. On this exhibition 
Mr. Nesbitt made some remarks which, together with a commu- 
nication on the same subject which he had received from Padre 
II. Garrucci, Hon. F.S.A. and which were read to the meeting, 
will be printed in the Archa^ologia. 

EARL STANHOPE, President, exhibited an original Letter 
addressed to John Stanhope, Esq., a gentleman of the privy 
chamber, by one the officers serving in the expedition against 
Cadiz in 1596, written a few days after the capture of the town 
on June 21. The text of the letter is as follows : 

To his very honorable freind Mr. Jhon Stanope one of the gentlemen of hir 
Majesties Privie Chamber at the Court. 

From Mr. George Bucke. 
Sm, Although I had a purpose not to write any letters out of this fleet, y.et 



192 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

by reason I departed so rudely without taking my leave of you whome I am 
bound most to honour (next to my Lord Admiral*) in the court for' many fauours 
and wellwyshyings which I have had of yours. I would therefor by this commo- 
dity of sending tak occasion to crave pardon, and excuse myself " by "f this 
that my departure was much sooner and more soddain then I expected, as I hope 
you have allreddy conceyved & herewithall . (bycaus I am in the place from 
whence ther is great expectation of newes as I think) write something of the 

food fortune which God hath given our generalls in this expedition although 
know you have better meanes to vnderstand it by them that haue seen all 
& J are ther viua voce to report it. 

Sir, when wee came to Cadiz wee found in the harbour more then 50 ships, 
wherof the cheef wer 5 galeones 'of the king, viz. the St Philip Admiral, the 
St Mathew, the St Andera, the St Thomas, the St Juan, 3 levantisas, 2 great 
ships of Nueua Hispania, & 3 fregates, then was ther 31 merchant ships richely 
laden for the Indies, 2 hulkes, the rest wer nibotes and small ships, & besid 
thes 19 gallyes, & in one of them called the Cagion was the Marquis of S u 
Cruz, the gallies wer well beaten & fled away by the Puente de Fuego ; -of the 
ships the St Mateo & St Andera were taken, & the rest burnt at Puntal & 
alongst the bay toward Porto real. 

The same night also the town was taken, so that wee had another Veni, 
Vidi, Vici, & within 2 dayes all sackd & spoyled ; but the landmen had all, 
and so it was the pleasure of the generalls, for when I demanded a house of the 
Quartermaster-General he answered mee that hee had no order from the 
generalls to quarter any seamen vnder the degree of S r W. Ralegh, who I think 
neuertheless had not much although hee deserved very much, in this that hee 
fought so bravely with the Spanish fleet while they wer ouerthrowen ; if our 
souerange mistress had seen it it would I think have been a sufficient expiation 
of all his faults whatsoeuer. I haue allwayes held him to bee wise and now I 
am testigo de vista that hee is a very valiant seaman. 

I haue talked with some Spanish prisoners grave men & of good quality & 
they estimat that the King and his subiects are endomaged 20 millions of 
ducates by this service ; but that which was in the ships is lost, but all that Avas 
good in the town, iewells, gold, plat, money wherof there was great store and 
infinit store of rich marchandis, cloth of gold, silkes, sugars, Spanish wynes, rice, 
oyle, and much other are all to bee found in the ships, but some of the captaynes, 
fearing (by like) som commissioners to meet vs at home, did presently fraight 
barkes, and lade them and sent them home before : but this I wysh for my own 
part not that ther mought be ony wrong doore, but that ther mought bee some 
indifferent sharying, for I haue heard some of the best Spaniards confess that 
nothing dismayd them so much as our fleet and the countenans of the ships, & 
the service they did. 

Some fewe dayes after, the generalls made I know not how many knightes, 
wherof some few did well deserve it and others in that they wer men of good 
quality, but the rest deserved it as I did, & that was to march from Puntal into 
the market place with an armur on my bak & a pik on my neck in an extreme 
hot day, which I think my grandsire Brakenbury & many more of D. Gifford's 
band would not doo for the best encommienda in Spayne. 

Ther bee redeemed for other Spanish prisoners about 40 English men that wer 
slaves in the galleys, & wee expect 12 more, whereof " one W" a brother of 
Mrs. Willis is one. Hernandes Hurtado captain of the gaily La Fama brought 
them to my Lord " upon " || & 2 of our small ships shot at the gaily as shee 
came & kylled & hurt 3 of ther men. 

The King was lately sick of the gout & a fever at Toledo, and a Spanish 
gent, told me that hee was a very weak man. The Prince is at Madrid accom- 



* Lord Howard of Effingham. 

f The word " by " has been erased in the original. 

' or " was originally written, and " & " written over it. 

The words " one W " are erased in the original. 
j| The word " upon " is erased in the original. 



June 15.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 193 

panied with the Constable of Castile, & the Duk of Alva & many other brave 
young grandes, and, as they say, hee wysheth a peace with England. 

The Spaniard that told me of the King's sicknes asked me in the instant how 
the Queen had her helth. I told him that her Majesty had as strong & as 
helthfull a body as the youngest mayd in her court. Ther bee some 40 slaves of 
Turky arid Barbary escaped out of the gallyes, which my Lord hath sent in a 
small bark into Barbary. 

The 4. of July, beeing Sunday, the town was fyrecl in every part (the Monastery 
of St. Francis onely excepted), and till Wednesday following wee wer in sight of 
the town & wee mought still perceyve the fyre contynuing. It was fyred, as I 
heard, bycaus the Corrigidors & the best of the Spaniardes had compounded to- 
ransom them selves at " one hundred & " * six score thowsand ducates by a 
day, which broken, the towne was fyrcd and they all brought prisoners in the 
ships, wherof ther bee 4 in the Ark " Rayley."f 

Thus I haue acquainted you with the cheefest matters that haue happned in 
our army that I now remember, & this gent Mr. Maynard maketh haste with 
my Lord's privat letters, & this message my Lord would have employed mee in, 
but I desired to be excused, bycaus hee had delivered the Queen's letters befor 
to Mr. AS.J 

No more, but recefve my loue & desire to doo you service in good part, & 
remember him whose affyance in your woord & frendship hath mad to runne 
other fortunes then once he thoughte, but I am content with them whatsoeuer, 
I mean that they shalbe herafter, for as for this iourney I think it an honour 
and a happines to bee in it. God send you your desires. 

From aboord the Ark Baley in 36 & dim. degrees & in the longitud of Lepe 
as our Masters ghess. 9 July. 

Your most affeetionat & 

reddy to doo you service 

G. BUCK. 

Sir, ther is one honourable Lady in the Court to whom I am much bound, as 
you know, my Lady Secill ; I pray you recommend my humble service to hir <fc 
to kyss hir handes ; & this is all the sutes I haue to trouble you with, and if 
euer it ly in my forturi I will acknowledg her honour's fauours, in the mean 
I think my self holden to remember them. 

On this exhibition, C. S. Perceval, Esq. LL.D. Director, 
made the following remarks : 

The original letter which the President communicates this 
evening to the Society is not entirely new to the students of 
English History of the sixteenth century. Dr. Thomas Birch, 
in his Memoirs of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, a work 
compiled almost entirely from the papers of Anthony Bacon, 
has printed the greater part of the letter nearly- verbatim at 
page 97 of his second volume, not from the original however, 
but from a copy inclosed in a letter dated August 9, 1596, and 
written to the Earl of Essex on the first news of his expected 
arrival at Plymouth after the Cadiz expedition, by Reynoldes, 
his secretary. The copy was forwarded to the Earl, in order 
that he might know what men were saying of Sir Walter 
Raleigh's conduct at the siege. " Sir Walter Raleigh," says 
Reynoldes, a was exceedingly commended for his judgment, 

* The words " one hundred & " are erased in the original, 
f The word " llayley " is erased in the original. 
J Sir Anthony 'Ashley, Secretary of the Council of War. 
YOL. V. O 



194 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 

discretion, and valour in the sea-service, and much was attri- 
buted to him; For his commendation from the army, I do 
send your lordship a copy of a letter sent to Mr. John Stanhope, 
which is immoderate, and a blind man may see whereat he 
aimeth.. His friends in court do as immodestly broach and 
publish his praise, as well by letters as by speech. I do also 
send a copy of my lord admirals to the deceased lord chamber- 
lain,* wherein, altho' he ascribeth much to Sir Walter Raleigh 
and others, yet he maketh a most honourable mention of your 
worthy actions." 

Dr. Birch's copy begins with the words " but the landmen 
had all," and omits the concluding sentences and postscript. 

Whether the commencement of the letter and its date., the 
name of the writer, and the postscript were furnished in the 
copy transmitted to Essex cannot certainly be known without a 
reference to the Bacon papers. The first sentences of the letter 
are merely complimentary, and the slight account of the capture 
of the town, which follows, would not be worth sending to the 
general in command ; the postscript also is of a private nature, 
and, on the whole, the probability is that Reynoldes' copy con- 
tained none of these particulars, nor yet the name of the writer. 

The Society will, I am sure, be glad to be put in possession of 
a perfect copy of this curious letter. 

There can, I think, be little doubt that George Buck, the 
writer of the letter, is to be identified with Sir George Buck, 
the author of the Life of King Richard III. His biographers 
make no mention of his having served at the siege of Cadiz, 
but it appears from the end of the second book of the u Life 
and Reign," that his family were connected by ties of gratitude 
if not of blood with the Norfolk family, who, especially the 
Lord Admiral, Howard of Efnngham, are there mentioned in 
glowing terms. 

There is extant in the Public Record Office a list, dated June 
1, 1596, of the ships employed in the expedition.! Those com- 
manded by the Lord Admiral were the Arke, the Lyon, the 
Dreadnaught, the True Love, and the Lyon's Whelpe. It was 
from the first-named, probably the flagship, that George Buck 
writes. J 

Sir George Buck, for that he was among the great number of 
persons knighted at the siege, seems to be hinted by his 

* Henry Lord Hunsdon. 

f~ State Papers Dom. 1596, cclix., June 1st. 

J Minutes of a council held on board the " Arke " .Tune [1596], and of another 
on board the " Due Eepulse," Essex's own ship, will be found among the State 
Papers. (Dom. cclix. 17-18.) 

In a list of knights made at Cadiz June, 1596, (Dom. cclix. 83) the, name of 
Sir John Buck occurs. Some Christian names, however, are omitted, and one or 



June 15.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 195 

letter, obtained in 1597 a grant of the office of Master of the 
Revels, either in possession or reversion, it is not clear which. 
I get the information from a curious letter, from one John Lylie 
to Secretary Cecil, complaining of the ill-success of his own suit 
for a place, and mentioning Buck as having " the office of the 
revels countenanced upon him." This letter (S. P. Dom. cclxv. 
61) is dated Dec. 22, 1597. 

The Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to whom the letter is 
addressed appears to have been the third son of Sir Michael Stan- 
hope who in the third year of James I. was created Lord Stan- 
hope of Harrington, a dignity which became extinct on the 
death, without issue, of Charles his only son. This John Stan- 
hope held in succession the offices of Gentleman of the Privy 
Chamber, Treasurer of the Chamber, and Vice-Chamberlain 
under Queen Elizabeth, and was continued in the latter place 
by King Jam^s I. It was his namesake and nephew, Sir John 
Stanhoj>e of Elvaston, who was the common ancestor of the 
Earls of Chesterfield, Stanhope, and Harrington. 

The letter, by the date of latitude and longitude, was written 
at sea, about 40 miles English due west of Cadiz. Lepe is a 
little town on the north shore of the Bay of Cadiz.* 

C. DRURY FORTNUM, Esq. F.S.A. communicated the follow- 
ing extract translated from a Letter in Italian, lately received by 
him from Signor R. Lanciani, Hon. F.S.A. who is connected 
with the Government Administration of Antiquities at Rome, 
giving some interesting particulars of antiquarian discoveries 
there : 

" To the Administration of Antiquities is reserved a most 
ample space of ground for future research. Upon this no one 
will be permitted to build, and it will be kept open as a public 
promenade. This area is comprised in a line which, starting 
from the foot of the Capitol, turns by the Velabrum and the 
Murcian valley, embracing the Palatine and the Circus Maximus, 
and continuing along the eastern margin of the Aventine to the 
Thermae of Caracalla ; thence it occupies the lower grounds of 
the Villa Mattei, the convent of .SS. Giovanni e Paolo, the 
Temple of Claudius, the Baths of Titus, the Coliseum, and so 
by the valley of the Forum back to the Capitol. As you will 
perceive, a good field is reserved to us ; and if the Department 

two have been marked as inaccurate. In another list (cclix. 84) the name be- 
comes Sir John Rooke. This list offers other discrepancies. The total number 
in the longest list is about 62. His name is not among the " Captains of the 
Queen's army by sea to Gales " (Dom. cclvii. 107). 

* Another account of the expedition, with a list of the ships, will be found in 
the Arcluxiologia', xxxiv. 315. 

o 2 



196 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

of Antiquities works as well in future years as it has done during 
this, I assure you that before long we shall be able to walk along 
many of the streets of ancient Rome. I give you a short aper^u 
of what has been accomplished in six months. 

" The excavation which you will recollect around the Column 
of Phocas has been considerably widened since January last, lay- 
ing open entirely the plan of the Basilica Julia, a great part of the 
Vico Tusco, and the perimeter of the Temple of Castor and Pollux 
(the three columns, &c. ) The portion which included the Forum 
has not yet been entirely cleared of earth, so that we do not yet 
know what may come to light here. More than 32,000 cubic 
metres of earth have been carried away; but unfortunately 
220,000 still remain before we can reach the arch of Titus. 
The pavement of the Basilica Julia is well preserved (white 
africano and giallo marbles). A monumental inscription in 
Greek of the time of Septimius Severus occurs in one place, and 
an infinity of 'graffiti.' At one spot were found the traces of a 
house of the seventh century ; in the opposite angle are the 
pilasters which supported the roof, preserved up to the height 
of the second floor. But few remains of sculpture, and (what 
is incredible) only two coins were found. The ' Vico Tusco ' 
retains its pavement of lava, the Temple of Castor and Pollux 
a part of its mosaic pavement of the time of Tiberius, and many 
fragments of columns. 

" On the Palatine the semicircular exedra of the Stadium of 
Domitian has been cleared out. You cannot imagine what a 
fine thing it is. It was divided into two floors ; the upper one 
was formed with columns of pavonezetto., and niches for statues 
around, and a row of oriental granite columns along the front. 
Of the statues only a few fragments are found, but we have two 
columns of pavonezetto, three bases, a capital, and a dozen 
blocks of granite. The lower storey was divided into three rooms, 
covered with vaulted ceilings, and painted with frescoes, the 
pavement of coloured marble. All this is nearly intact. The 
total height of the building is over 100 feet. 

" At the Baths of Caracalla five large apartments have been 
discovered, with mosaic pavements intact, and many fragments 
of sculptured marble. 

"Inside the city, near to the Porta Maggiore, some private 
persons have excavated part of the necropolis that flanks the Via 
Prenestina e Labicana. Seven Columbarii have yielded 204 
inscriptions, 245 lamps, 4 cinerary urns of marble, 5 vases of 
Arezzo ware, 120 ' balsamarii ' of glass, 170 of terra cotta, 5 
beautiful busts, 2 earrings of gold, 200 coins, 10 rings of bronze, 
and 1 of glass (of no value), besides an immense quantity of 
fragments. 



June 15.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 197 

a I will transcribe two interesting inscriptions, the first scratched 
on the bottom of a vase, because the poor cobbler, perhaps, had not 
money enough to have it done on marble. 

T1CHICI . SVTORIS . AD . SPEM . VETEREM. 

" The Speranza Vecchia was one of the most important points 
in Home, whence diverged seven aqueducts and six roads. 

" The second inscription was found to-day (1st June, 1871), 

M.ARTORIVS . M . L . AVCTVS . HOMO . 
OPTVMVS . HIC . CONCIDIT HAVETE . 

" A third says, 

" HEIC . SI TVS . SVM . LEMISO . QVEM . NVNQVAM . 
NISI . MORS . FEINIVIT . LABORS . 

" At Ostia the Imperial Palace, formerly called the Baths, is 
now entirely excavated, with its mosaics, its colonnade, &c." 

GRANVILLE^LEVESON GOWER, Esq. F.S.A. Local Secretary 
for Surrey, exhibited by the permission of C. H. Master, Esq., 
of Barrow Green House, Oxted, the ancient deeds of which the 
following is a brief notice, viz : 

1. London : Thursday next after the feast of the Apostles St. 
Peter and Paul, 27 Edward I. Charter of Thomasina, daughter 
of the late Sir Rouland de Okstede, to John de Hamme and 
Aliva his wife, granting all the lands, &c., which she had or would 
have in fee out of the succession of the said Rouland, in the 
manor of Okstede, co. Surrey, with "clause of warranty. Wit- 
nesses : Sir Thomas de Warblintone, Sir John Dabrun, Sir 
John de Burstowe, Sir William Ambesas knight, John de Lud- 
hame, Frederic (?) Agrifin, Reginald de Chelesham, Walter de 
Codestone, &c. 

Seal, octagonal -f- in. across. A shield bearing an oak tree. 
Legend, 

^ S. THOMASIN6 DG ACSTEDG. 

The arms of Sir Roland de Oxtede, father or grandfather of 
Thomasina, are blazoned in the Roll, temp. Henry III., pub- 
lished by Nicolas, as " ov ung kene de gules," that is " with an 
oak tree (chene) gules ; " the tincture of the field being accident- 
ally omitted. That it was argent appears from the roll called 
the Roll of Acre, Haul. MSS. 6137, fo. 89b, number 246, 
where, however, the tree as given in the seal has become an 
oak branch. The expression " ung kene," perplexed Sir N. 
Harris Nicolas, who however rightly conjectured its meaning. 
Some particulars of the family of Ac-stede (Oak-stead) or 
Oxted, will be found in Manning and Bray's History of Surrey, 
vol. ii. page 383. 



198 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 

2. Charter, whereby Walter de Abernun gives and confirms 
to William son of Eillard the Smith, for his homage and ser- 
vice, one acre of his land next the field called Brodefeld, in fee, 
rendering to him and his heirs 2d. annually. With clause of 
warranty. For this grant William gave the grantor x shillings 
sterling in gersumam, and to Matilda his wife vi d. Hiis testi- 
bus : Willelmo Venatore, Willelmo de la Garstune, Ada de la 
Garstone, Rogero de Home, Eustachio de Wolenestede, Ricardo 
Forestario, Willelmo Serp., Philippo filio Ade, &c. 

Seal : A fleur-de-lis 

^ SIGILL' WALTERI DABERN'. 

The names of four of the witnesses to this charter, namely ? 
William and Adam de la Garstune, Roger de Home, and Eustace 
de Wolcnstede, occur also as witnesses to the charter of John de 
Chelesham, giving land at Walkhamstead to Richard son of 
Richard the Forester.* The dates of the two charters therefore 
must nearly agree. That of John of Chelesham would appear 
from the style of the equestrian effigy with which it is sealed to 
be early in the thirteenth century. Hence the present deed may 
probably be attributed to Walter de Abernon, who was alive be- 
tween 1202 and 1235.f The land was probably at Bletchingley, 
as in the same collection there is another charter, granting to 
William the Smith land in Bletchingley, abutting on land of 
Walter d' Abernon. 

3, 4. Two charters of Richard Forester and Basilis his wife, 
of parcels of land near Bletchingley, co. Surrey, without date, 
but belonging to the end of the thirteenth century. Seal : a 
four-petaled flower with alternating stamens. 

^ SIGILL RICARDI FORESTAR'. 

As has just been noticed there were two persons of this name, 
father and son. A deed of Richard le Forester, dated 16 Ed. I. 
1288, is noticed in the Proceedings, 2 S. iv. 84. 

The present deed is probably that of the father. 

Mr. LEVESON GOWER also exhibited a Horn-book, which 
was found in the winter of 1870-71, behind the panelling of a 
Tudor house, in the village of Limpsfield, in Surrey. This 
humble educational instrument is nearly identical with one 
figured in the Journal of the Archaeological Association, vol. 
ix., plate 13, which, however, appears to have been preserved 
more carefully than the specimen from Limpsfield. 

* Proceedings, 2 S. iv. 83. 

f See some account of this family, of Albnry and Stoke Dabernon, in Surrey 
Archaeological Collections, v. 58. 



June 15.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 199 

Lieutenant- Colonel G. GRANT FRANCIS, F.S.A., exhibited 
several ancient Documents and Charters, some with seals 
attached, the particulars of which follow : 

1. Indenture between Walter Coke Prior of Taunton and 
his Convent of one part, and Stephen Cokke burgess of Taun- 
ton of the other part, witnessing a compromise of a suit between 
them for three shillings and sixpence worth of rent issuing out 
of a tenement in Seynt Mary Street in Bridgewater, between a 
tenement of the Chantry of the Blessed Mary on one side and a 
tenement of John Best on the other side. 

Dated in Aula Gilde de Brygge Water, Thursday next after 
the Translation of St. Thomas the Martyr, 2nd Henry IV. (July 
14, 401). 

Under a fragment of the common seal of the Priory of 
Austin Canons of Taunton described in the Monasticon, vi. 165. 

2, 3. Two charters without date, but of the middle of the 
thirteenth century, whereby the burgesses of Bridgewater, by the 
style of" Universi Burgenses de Bruges Wai teri," grant burgages 
in that town which appear to have belonged to a Chantry of St. 
Mary the Virgin. Both deeds are under the same seal, which 
bears the not unusual impress of the Blessed Virgin and Divine 
Infant placed above an arch, beneath which is a figure in a 
posture of adoration. The seal probably was made for some 
ecclesiastic, but has been altered by effacing the original legend 
(the space for which appears in the impression in undue relief) 
and by engraving a new legend 

SIGILL: BeATG MAR1G VIRGIN1S 

which does not quite fill the space. In one deed the seal is 
described as u Sigillum commune ; " in the other as a Sigillum 
commune beate Marie Virginis." 

4. Charter whereby John Cokswayn, Vicar of the Church of 
Br id gge water, grants and confirms to Henry Fliter, baker of 
Bridgewater, and Isabella his wife, for their joint lives, certain 
lands in the hundreds of Canyngton, North Pedorton, and 
Andrisfeld, with remainder to John Thomas and Alice his wife. 
Dated 28th March, 21 Henry VI. (1442). 

The seal is curious. It is circular, about 1 inch in diameter, 
exhibiting the figure^ of an individual in a loose gown with a 
hood covering the body to the waist, but thrown back so as to 
leave the neck bare, in a kneeling posture, the lower part of the 
body traversing the legend space. A sun and a blazing star, 
each crowned, are placed, the former to the right, the latter to 
the left of the figure. Legend 

btcavtt tie 



200 PROCEEDING'S OF THE [1871 , 

5. Seal of Richard Arsher, of Bridgewater, smith, 18th 
August, 20 Henry VI. (1442), exhibiting a text X. within a 
horse-shoe. Attached to his deed giving an acre of land in 
Wembldone to Walter Trewe of that place and Alice his wife. 

6. Walter le Large, by charter dated 27 Edw. I., Sunday 
next after St. Martin's Day (November 15th 1299), gives to John 
de Northperton in fee " unum stallum in domo stallornm de 
Brugewater quod jacet in parte boriali inter stallum Eustachii 
Top .... ex utraque parte" to hold of the chief lords of 
Bridgewater. Seal : an engraved stone showing a bearded head 
with a diadem, set in a silver rim, with the legend 

*S' WALTERI L6 LARGG. 

7. William Horsey, by charter dated May 20, 19 Edward IV. 
gives to John Kendall " unum shamellum sive macellum situa- 
tum in australi parte exopposito tenementi in quo Johannes 
Lekesworthy modo inhabitat inter shamellum sive macellum 
Bicardi Chokkes* militis ex parte orientali et shamellum sive 
macellum Johannis Dest ex parte occidental! cum suis per- 
tinentiis in Briggewater." 

Seal, a capital W. 

8. Charter dated July 1 st, 1529, whereby Sir William Weston, 
Knight of Rhodes, " Miles de Rodys," conveys an acre of the 
land of St. John Baptist in Merther Mawr, in Glamorganshire, to 
Wylliarn ap R, with a clause of warranty for Sir William and 
his successors. 

The seal is unfortunately broken and the legend nearly gone. 
Enough remains to show that it was rather an official than a 
private seal, being of the pointed oval form and having a figure 
under a tabernacle, intended probably for St. John the Baptist 
in his hairy raiment. Under his feet is a shield, the lower half 
of which remains and exhibits a plain cross. 

That the land conveyed was parcel of the possessions of the 
Knights Hospitallers (who, it may be observed, had a preceptory 
at Slebech, in the adjoining county of Pembroke), is sufficiently 
clear from the designation "terra Sancti Johannis. Baptiste," 
and from the circumstance that the warranty is against the 
successors and not the heirs of the grantor. Weston became Lord 
Prior of the Hospital in England about 1527, and was the last 
who held that office, dying in 1540, on the day of the dissolution 
of his house. That he should assume to grant away what would 
appear to be the possessions of his house, in his own name as Knight 
of Rhodes, without express mention of the chapter of the order, 
and under a seal which, although imperfect, does not appear to 

* A justice of C. P., died 1486. 



June 15.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 201 

be the common seal of the order in England, is a circumstance 
worthy of notice. 

9. A deed of exchange without date, between the monks of 
the Cistercian Abbey of Kirkstead in Lincolnshire and Baldric 
de Grendale, concerning lands at Ulceby, near Alford, in the 
same county. The monastery was founded in 1139 ; the present 
deed may, from handwriting and style, be dated about the be- 
ginning of the thirteenth century. 

The text is as follows : 

Hoc est excambium tcrrarum inter Monachos de Kirkestede et Baldricum 
de Grendale scilicet quod idem Baldricus excambiavit cum predictis Monachis 
tredecim acras terre in Campis de Vlesbi pro tredccim acris terre dimidia per- 
ticata minus in campis ejusdem ville. Et terre quas prefatus Baldricus recepit 
a Monachis iacent in his locis, scilicet: In Orientali Campode Vlesbi ad Loschou 
dimidia acra et viij eschaetes ; Juxta Holegate dimidia acra x eschaetes minus ; 
Ad caput ejusdem quarentene le Houetland i perticata et viij eschaettes. Item 
juxta Holegate dimidia acra x eschaettes minus ; La forere de Sevenacre dimidia 
acraet vij eschaetes ; Super sevenacre una acra etxjiij eschaettes et dimidia ; Ad 
Brockemeregate dimidia acra et iiij eschaeites ; La forere ad Berctheit una 
perticata ; Ad Snokclandes dimidia acra v. eschaeites et dimidia minus ; Juxta 
Croftum Johannis dimidia perticata et vij eschaeites. Item juxta Holegate 
iij pertice iiij eschaettes minus ; Ad Brockmeregate v. perticate ; Ad Scorte- 
lands dimidia acra v. eschaeites et dim. minus ; Ad Lesingecroft dimidia per- 
ticata et una eschaite ; Ad Scortefurlanges dimidia perticata una eschaeite 
minus. In Occidentali Campo predicte ville in duobus locis super Gumpedeile, 
j. acra et xiij eschaeites ; Ad Drivedale dimidia acra. Item ibidem v. perticate ; 
La forere de Vrabule una perticata et dimidia et ij eschaeites. Ad Potteregate 
dimidia acra ; Ad Baldrikewang dimidia acra una eschaeit' minus ; Ad Grene- 
gate una acra v. eschaeites minus. Omnes predictas terras habebunt et tencbunt 
predictus Baldricus et heredes ejus inperpetuum pro xiij acris dimidia perticata 
minus. Et hee sunt terre quas predicti Monachi rcceperunt de prefato Baldrico 
in excambium pro predictis terris et jaceut in his locis, scilicet : In Orientali 
Campo de Vlesbi super Sinthenris viij acre ; Et in Occidentali Campo super 
lliclandes v acre. Has predictas terras habebunt et tenebunt Monachi inperpe- 
tuum pro xiij acris sive plus sive minus fuerit in prefatis locis. Et sciendum 
quod utrique Monachi videlicet et Baldricus et heredes ejus warrantizabunt ad 
invicem predicta excambia et acquietabunt de omnibus rebus et servitiis contra 
omnes homines inperpetuum. Testibus Henrico Capellano de Langetune, Johanne 
de Haltune, Philippo de Eordingtune, Henrico de Wdehall, Roberto filio Tome 
de Aswardebi, Roberto filio Gaufridi de Aswardebi, Symone filio Toli de Lange- 
tune, Elric dc Salstorp. 

Seal gone.- The parchment label remains. The top of the 
parchment indented, the word CYROGRAPHVM being cut through. 

There is a cartulary of Kirksteacl Abbey among the Cottonian 
Manuscripts (Vesp. E. xvin.), in which many of the earliest 
title deeds of the house are registered, and the deed here printed 
occurs at fo. 26 b< among several others relating to Ulceby. 
From these we learn that this Baldric was son of William de 
Grendale, that his uncle Reinerus de Ulesbi held two bovates of 
land of him, also in Ulceby fields.* The son-in-law and heir of 

* Fo. 14, Ullesbi, num. iiij ; ibid. fo. 13, num. iij, where one bovate of 
laud is described particularly as comprising 40 acres of land by the perch of 



202 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 

Reinerus, named Ranulf, was also a benefactor to the Abbey. 
Baldric's wife was one Isabella de Olakesbi (Claxby, about a 
mile east of Ulceby). 

In Testa de Nevile (pp. 308, 331), Walter de Grendale, pro- 
bably a descendant of Baldric, appears as holding three parts of 
a quarter of a knight's fee in Uleby and Clatthorp (Claythorpe) ; 
and the same quantity of land, described as lying in Catsworth 
(the name of the wapentake), is in a somewhat early inquisition 
printed in the same collection, registered in the name of Ralph 
de Grendala, who may be taken to have been the immediate 
predecessor of Walter. 

The land-measure employed in this deed of exchange seems 
very remarkable. The denominations are acres, half acres, 
perches, and eschaettes, or eschaeites. The perch is in another 
contemporaneous charter (see note on the preceding page), de- 
nned as being either of 17 feet (a local measure which occurs 
elsewhere), or as at the present day of 16J feet. Which 
measure was used in this survey does not appear, nor is it 
very material to know. It may be assumed that the relative 
proportion of the perch to the acre is the same, whether the 
usual or the local perch was taken. 

The term " eschaette " does not occur in any of the other 
early deeds enrolled in the Kirkstead cartulary. On compu- 
tation it will be found that it is not a determinate fraction of 
either the acre or the perch. It seems to be used in much the 
same sense as the more usual word " sellion," a ridge of land of 
uncertain size. 

10. Original impression of the seal of King Henry VII. for 
the Chancery of Cardiff. A fragment appended to a lease of 
lands within the lordship of Sully made to Richard Adams. 
The style of the king is Henricus Dei Gratia Rex Anglie et 
Francie et Dominus Hibernie ac Dominus Glamorganc' et Mor- 
gannc'. Dated " In Cancellaria nostra de Kaerdiff sub sigillo 
cancellarie nostre ibidem penultimo die Aprilis anno regni nostri 
post conquestwn decimo octavo." 

Among the Harleian charters in the British Museum (Cart. 
Harl. 75, E. 19) is a similar lease dated on the same day, the 
date clause bearing the same remarkable expression post con- 
questum. The seal to this document, although imperfect, is 
somewhat less so than the impression affixed to the deed exhi- 
bited. It may thus be described. 

Circular seal, 3| inches in diameter. Obverse: shield of arms, 
France modern and England quarterly, within a garter bearing 
the legend 

16 feet and a-half, with a toft and the houses built thereon. The perch of 17 
feet is mentioned in another Ulceby deed, f o. 20 b, num. xxxix. 



June 15.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 203 



. gogt . <|ut . mal , g . pense 

the words being separated by roses. Ensigned with a close 
lambrequined helm turned to the dexter, with the crest of a lion 
statant. 

Reverse : On a diapered field a fine equestrian effigy turned 
to the sinister, the shield and bardings bearing France and 
England quarterly. 

The legend, which appears to be the same on both sides, on 
comparing the fragmentary portions of it would seem to have 
read thus : 



: cancellable : reQtg : fjenrtct : tie : tiommus guts toe : 
glmnorgan : et : morpnofc. 

King Henry VIII. in his seventeenth year, according to Sir N. 
Harris Nicolas (Chronology of History) introduced the word 
octavus in his style. Judging by the absence of the word and 
the character* of the handwriting, these two leases would seem 
more probably to belong to the reign of his father, Henry VII. 
The seal may be older, not impossibly altered from a matrix of 
K. Edward IV. a view which is suggested by the character of 
the equestrian effigy, and by the occurrence of the roses in the 
motto of the garter. 

More information is wanted with regard to the seals of the 
lordships marchers.* 

11. A good impression of the Duchy of Lancaster seal of 
King James I. 3^ inches in diameter. A scrolled shield of 
Lancaster between two ostrich feathers with scrolls. Helm, 
chapeau, and lion statant crest, between the initials I. R. 

Legend : 

+ SIGILLVM . JACOBI . DEI . GRACIA . ANGL* . SCOT' . FRAN 7 ET 

HIB[ERNIE REGI]S DE DVCATV suo LANCASTR' 

Perhaps the latest sigillary example of the medieval use of c for 
T occurs here in the word GRACIA. 

12. Defeasance of a recognizance made 13 Edw. III. under 
the Statute of Merchants, (13 Edw. I. stat. 4) ty Sir Edward 
Stradling of Halfwey, in the county of Somerset, f whereby 
he bound himself to Robert le Latimer, merchant of Dorset, 
in a penalty of 10.0Z. to secure the provision of entertainment 
and clothing specified in the text which here follows : 



* For the seal of the Chancery of Monmouth, see Proceedings, 2 S. iv. 2G4, 
Archaeological Journal, xiv. 55, and Journal of the Archaeological Association, 
xiv. 56. 

f See as to the family of Stradling of St. Donat's Castle, Glamorganshire, 
and of the county of Somerset, Arcliccolofjia Cambrensis, vol. xi. and St. Donat's 
Castle, by G. T. Clark, Esq. F.S.A. 1871 



204 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. [1871. 

Omnibus Christ! fidelibus &c. Robertas filius Johannis le Latimer Mercator 
de Comitatu Dorset Salutem. Licet Dominus Edwardus de Estradelyngh' Do- 
minus Manerii de Cou'behaweye et Edwardus filius ejusdem Edwardi Merca- 
tores de Comitatu Somerset in centum marcis sterlingorum teneantur et 
unusquisque eorum insolidum per scriptum suum obligatorium sub statuto 
mercatorum factum apud Bristoll' septimo decimo die Augusti anno Regis 
Edwardi tertii post Conquestum tertio decimo pro bladiis eisdem venditis mihi 
vel meo certo attornato vel executoribus meis solvendorum modo quo in dicto 
scripto obligatorio continetur. Volo tamen et per presens scriptum meum 
concede quod si dictus Dominus Edwardus vel Elena uxor ejus vel Edwardus 
filius eorum me cum equo et garcione meo per adventus meos et moras meas et 
Johannem uxorem meam cum exitu nostro ut in cibis et potibus bene et com- 
petenter sustentaverint et unam Robam competentem cum furrura annuatim 
mihi et alteram Robam competentem cum pellura aimuatim Johanne uxori mee 
ad totam vitam Johanne matris mee in festo Natalis Domini vel festo Pasche 
solverint, quod extunc dictum scriptum obligatorium centum marcarum irritum 
sit et vacuum et omnino suo careat vigore et pro nullo habeatur. - In eujus &Q. 
Dat. apud Halefweye die Veneris vicesimo die Augusti A. R. R. E 1 . iii.'post 
conquestum 13. Hiis testibus, Gilberto de Hwych', Johanne le Bret, Symone de 
Roches et aliis. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these Communications. 

The Meetings of the Society were then adjourned until Thurs- 
day, November 23rd, 1871. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUAKIES 

OF LONDON. 



SESSION 1871-72. 



, Thursday, November 23rd, 1871. 
EARL STANHOPE, President, in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Numismatic Society : The Numismatic Chronicle. New Series. 
Nos. 41 and 42. 8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Author : South Winfield Manor. Illustrated by Plans, Elevations, 
Sections, and details, with Perspective Views and a Descriptive Account, &c. 
By Edmund B. Ferrey. Folio. London, 1870. 

From the Author : Notes and Speculations on the Guildford Caverns. By 
Captain E. Renouard James, R.E. 8vo. Guildford, 1871. 

From the Author, Signer Fabio Gori : 

1. Sulle ultime Scoperte Archeologiche ayvenute in Roma. Parte Prima. 
Scavi delP anno 1870. 4to. Rome, 1871. 

2. Sugli Edifizi Palatini. Studi topografico-storici. 8vo. Rome, 1867. 

3. II Carcere Mamertino ed il Robore Tulliano. 8vo. Rome, 1868. 

4. Sulla Grqtta e Fonte di Pico e Fauno. 8vo. Rome, 1869. 

5. Sullo splendido avvenire di Roma e sul modo di migliorare 1'interno 
della Citta e 1'aria delle Campagne. 8vo. Rome, 1870. 

6. II Santuario del Persiano dio Mitra ultimamente scoperto a S. Clemente 
in Roma. 4to. Rome, 1871. 

From the Editor : The. Church Builder. Nos. 39 and 40. July and October. 
8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Rev. John Kenrick, F.S.A. : Communications to the Monthly Meet- 
ings of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society, relating to the Antiquities and 
Natural History of Yorkshire. 1870. 8vo. London and York. 

From the British Archaeological Association : Their Journal. June 30 and 
September 30. 8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries of Copenhagen : - 

1. Tillceg til aarboger for Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historic, Aargang 
1870. 8vo. ' Copenhagen, 1870. 



206 PBOCEED1NGS OF THE 

2. Aarboger. Hefte 24. 1870. Hefte 1, 1871. 8vo. Copenhagen, 
1870-1. 
From the Koyal Geographical Society : 

1. Journal. Vol. 40. 8vo. London, 1870. 

2. Proceedings. Vol. 15. Nos. 24. 8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Author : Early Annals of the Episcopate in Wilts and Dorset. By 

the Kev. W. H. Jones, M.A. F.S.A. 8vo. London and Oxford, 187,1. 
From the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland : 

1. Journal. Vol. 1. Nos. 1 and 2. 8vo. London, 1871. 

2. Regulations, 1871. 8vo. London, 1871. 

From H. C. Coote, Esq. F.S.A. : Buried cruciform Platforms in Yorkshire. 
By Charles Monkman. Supplementary Remarks on buried cruciform Plat- 
forms in Yorkshire. By H. C. Coote. [Reprinted from the " Yorkshire 
Archaeological Journal," Vol. II.] 8vo. 1871. 

From the Associated Architectural Societies : Reports and Papers. ' 1870. 
Vol. 10, Part 2. 8vo. Lincoln, 1871. 

From the Imperial Academy, Vienna : 

1. Sitzungsberichte philos.-histor. Classe. 63 Band, Heft 1, 2, 3 ; 64 Band, 
Heft 1, 2, 3 ; 65 Band, Heft 1, 2, 3 ; 66 Band, Heft 1. 8vo. Vienna. 1870. 

2. Denkschriften philos.-histor. Classe. Band 19. 4to. Vienna, 1870. 

3. Archiv f iir Kunde osterr. Geschichtsquellen, 42 Band, Heft 1, 2 ; 43 Band, 
Heft 1 ; 44 Band, Heft 1, 2. 8vo. Vienna, 1870. 

4. Fontes rerum Austriacarum. Band 30 and 33, Abtheilung II. 8vo. 
Vienna, 1870. 

From the Royal United Service Institution : Their Journal. Vol. xv. Nos. 63 
and 64. 8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland : Their 
Journal. Vol. I. Fourth Series. Nos. 6 and 7. 8vo. Dublin, 1871. 

From the Surrey Archaeological Society : Collections. Vol. 5, Part 2 [Com- 
pleting Vol. 5.] 8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Author, Professor Ch. F. Hartt : 

1. Amazonian Drift. [From the American Journal of Science and Arts, 
Vol.1.] 8vo. 1871. 

2. Brazilian Rock Inscriptions. 8vo. 1871. [From the American Natu- 
ralist, Vol. 5.] 

3. The Ancient Indian Pottery of Marajo, Brazil. 1871. [From the 
American Naturalist, Vol. 5.] 

From the Author, Sir John Lubbock, Bart. M.P., F.S.A. : 

1. On the Development of Relationships. 

2. Note on some Stone Implements from Africa and Syria. [Both from the 
Journal of the Anthropological Institute. 8vo. London, 1871.] 

From the Royal Academy of Sciences, Letters, and Fine Arts of Belgium : 

1. Meinoires des Membres. Tome 38. 4to. Brussels, 1871. 

2. Memoires couronnes et des Savants etrangers. Tomes 35 et 36. 4to. 
Brussels, 1870-71. 

3. Bulletins. 2 e serie, tomes 29 et 30. 8vo. Brussels, 1871. 

4. Annuaire de 1871. Sm. 8vo. Brussels, 1870. 

From Professor S. Ljubic : Viestnik narodnoga Zemaljskoya muzeja u Zagrebu 
za godinu, 1870. 8vo. Zagrebu, 1871. 

From the Editor, W. Chappell, Esq F.S.A. : The Roxburghe Ballads. Vol. L, 
part 3. [Completing Vol. I.] 8vo. London, printed for the Ballad 
Society, 1871. 



Nov. 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 207 

From the Author : Annals of St. Fin Barrc's Cathedral, Cork. By Kichard 
Caulfield, LL.D. F.S.A. 8vo. Cork, 1871. 

From the Author : Oriel : a Study in Eighteen Hundred and Seventy. With two 
other Poems. By James Kenward, F.S.A. 8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Smithsonian Institution : 

1. Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge. Vol. XVII. Folio Washing- 
ton, 1871. 

2. Annual Report of the Board of llegents for the year 1869. 8vo. Wash- 
ington, 1871. 

From the American Philosophical Society : 

1. Transactions. Vol. XIV. New Series, Part 1. 4to. Philadelphia, 1870. 

2. Proceedings. Vol. XI. Nos. 83 85. [Completing the vol.] 8vo. 
Philadelphia, 1870-71. 

From the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Boston : Proceedings. 
Vol. VIII. Pp. 137296. 8vo. Cambridge and Boston, 1869-70. 

From the Trustees of the New York State Library : Fifty-Third Annual Report. 
8vo. Albany, 1871. 

From the Compiler, B. Perley Poore, Esq. : Congressional Directory for the 
third Session^of the 41st Congress of the United States of America. Second 
Edition. 8vo. Washington, 1871. 

From the Essex Institute (America) : 

1. Historical Collections. Vol. x. (Second Series, Vol. ii.) 8vo. Salem, 
Mass., 1870. 

2. Bulletin. Vol. II. 8vo. Salem, Mass., 1871. 

3. Proceedings. Vol. 6, Part 2 (Completing Vol. 6.) 8vo. Salem, Mass., 
1870. 

From the Essex Archteological Society : Transactions. Vol. 5, Part 2. 8vo. 
Colchester, 1871. 

From the Author : An Official Inaccuracy respecting the death and burial of 
the Princess Mary, daughter of King James I. By Colonel J. Lemuel 
Chester. 8vo. 1871. 

From the Literary and Philosophical Society of Liverpool : Proceedings. 
Vols. 23 and 24. 8vo. London and Liverpool, 1869-70. 

From the East India Association : Their Journal. Vol. 5, Nos. 2 and 3. 8vo. 
London, 1871. 

From the Cambrian Archreological Association : Archseologia Cambrensis. 

Fourth Series. Nos. 7 and 8 [completing Vol. 2.] 8vo. London, 1871. 
From Lieut.-Col. G. G. Francis, F.S.A. 

1. Old Glamorgan. A Rent Roll of Sir George Herbert, Knt., of the 
Place House, Swansea, and the Friars, Cardiff, 1545. Fol. 1869. 

2. Portrait of George Grant Francis, Lieut.-Col. J. Andrews, Photo. A. 
Rimanoczy Lith. Fol. 

From J. R. Applcton, Esq. F.S.A. : 

1. Arthur Stebbings' Guide to Southwold and its vicinity. 12mo. Lowes- 
toft. 

2. Temple Newsam : its History and Antiquities. By W. Wheater. 8vo. 
Leeds. 

From the Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland : The 
Archaeological Journal. Vol. xxvii. Parts 109 and 110. 8vo. London, 
1871. 

From Albert Way, Esq. M.A. F.S.A.: 

1. Pontificale Romanmn. Folio. Venetiis apud Juntas. 1543. 



208 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1^71, 

2. ^Enea Vico. Augustarum Imagines sereis formis expressae : vitaj quoque 
earundem breviter enarratse. 4to. Venice, 1558. 

3. Constanzio Landi. In veterum Numismatum Romanorum Miscellanea 
Explicationes. (Bound with ^Enea Vico.) 4to. Lyons, 1560. 

4. S. Jerome. La vie des Peres tant d'Egypte que de Sirie et^de plusieurs 
autres pays. Composee par monseigneur sainct Hierosme. Imprimee nouvel- 
lement a Paris. [Black Letter.] Fol. Paris, n. d. 

5. Gerard Malynes. Lex Mercatoria, or the Ancient Law Merchant. Fol. 
London, 1622. 

6. A Compleat History of the Lives and Reigns of Mary, Queen of Scotland, 
and of her son and successor James I. By William Sanderson. Fol. 
London, 1656. 

7. Jurisprudent Hero-ica, sive de Jure Belgarum circa Nobilitatem et 
Insignia. (Authore J. B. Christyn.) Fol. Brussels, 1668. 

8. Le Grand Cabinet Remain, ou Recueil d'Antiquitez Romanies que 1'oji 
trouve a Rome. Par Michel Ange de La Chausse. Fol. Amsterdam, 1706. 

9. The Royal Tribes of Wales. By Philip Yorke. 4to. Wrexham, 1799. 

10. The "Departing Soul's address to the Body, a fragment of a Semi- 
Saxon poem discovered by Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart, with an English, 
translation by S. W. Singer. 8vo. London, 1845. 

11. Les Dues de Bourgogne, etudes sur les Lettres, les Arts, et 1 'Industrie 
pendant le xv e siecle. 2nd partie. Preuves. Par le Comte de Laborde. 
3 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1849-52. 

12. Luigi Ferrario. Memoria intorno ai Palinsesti. 8vo. Milan, 1853. 

13. P. Carlo Annoni. Epigrafe antica di Milano. 4to. Milan, 1854. 

14. Glasgow Cathedral Painted Windows. Fol. Glasgow, 1856. 

15. An octavo volume containing the following Tracts on Bells : 

(1.) Notice sur les Cloches, par M. L'Abbe Jules Corblet. 1857. (Paris). 
(2.) Notice sur les Cloches, par M. L'Abbe Barraud. Caen. 1844. 
(3.) Notice sur les Cloches de Bordeaux, par M. L'Abbe J. D. Pardiac. 
Paris, 1858. 

(4.) Practical Remarks on Belfries and Ringers, by H. T. . Ellacombe. 
London, 1850. 

(5.) The History and Antiquity of Bells, by Abner H. Brown. Nor- 
thampton, 1856. 

(6.) De la Liturgie des Cloches, par L'Abbe Jules Corblet. Amiens. 
1855. 
(7.) Law of Church Bells, by Abner H. Brown. London, n. d. 

16. Der Wiistenroder Leopard, ein romisches Cohortenzeichen. Von E. 
Braun. 4to. Bonn, 1857. 

17. Die Externsteine. Von E. Braun. 4to. Bonn, 1858. 

18. Apollon Sminthien. Par J. De Witte. 8vo. Paris, 1858-. 

19. Scotland in the Middle Ages. By Cosmo Innes. 8vo. Edinburgh, 
1860. 

20. B. Biondelli. Sull'Antica lingua Azteca o Nahuatl. 4to. Milan, 1860. 

21. Memorials of Angus and the Mearns : being an account of the Castles 
and Towns visited by Edward I. 1291 6. By Andrew Jervise. 8vo. Edin- 
burgh, 1861. 

22. Histoire des Arts du Dessein depuis 1'epoque Romaine jusqu' a la fin. 
du XVI e siecle. Par J. Rigollot. (Atlas) 8vo. Paris, 1864. 

23. Neujahrsblatter auf die Jahre 1853, 1854, 1855, 1867. 1. Geschichte 
des ehemaligen Chorherrngebaudes beim Grossmiinster. 2. Dasselbe. 2te 
Abth. 3. Fortsetzung. 4. Das Freischiessen von 1504. 4to. Zurich, 
185367, 



Nov. 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 209 

24. A History of the Town and Palace of Linlithgow. By George Waldie. 
12mo. Linlithgow, 1868. 

25. Hypotyposis Arcium, Palatiorum, Librorum, Pyramidum, &c., ab illustri 
& strcnuo Viro Henrico Ranzovio, pro rege & equite Holsato conditorum, 
cum nonnullis eorum Ectypis partim ameis, partim ligneis, conscripta et 
edita a Petro Lindebergio. Sm. 4to. Frankfort, 1592. 

2G. Theodor Hoping. De Insignium sive Armorum prisco et novo jure 
Tractatus juridico-historico-philologicus. Fol. Nuremberg, 1642. 

27. Le Peintre Graveur. Volumes 1 21. Par Adam Bartsch. 8vo. Vienna, 
18031821. 

28. Zur Alterthumskunde des Nordens. Von J. J. A. Worsaiie. 4to. 
Leipsic, 1847. 

29. Beitriige zur Geschichte der Familie Maness. Von Georg Wyss. 4to. 
Zurich, 1850. 

30. Die Keltischen Alterthiimer der Schwciz, zumal des Kan tons Bern, in 
Absicht auf Kunst und iisthetiscb.es Interesse. Von Alb. Jahn. 4to. Bern, 
1860. 

31. Augustus Marmorstatue des Berliner Museums. Achtundzwanzigstes 
Programm zum Winckelmannsfest der Archiiologischen Gesellschaft zu 
Berlin. Vqp E. Hiibner. 4to. Berlin, 1868. 

32 Greek Inscription found at Sestos. (Printed for private circulation 
only.) Edited by Mr. Greaves. Fol. London. 

From J. W. K. Eyton, Esq. F.S.A. : 

1. Fuller Worthies' Library. Edited by the Rev. A. B. Grosart. (In 
continuation.) 

Henry Vaughan's Works. Vols. 2 and 4. 8vo. 1871. 

Miscellanies. Vol. 2. Marie Magdalen's Lamentations for the Losse of 

her Master. 1601. [Completing the vol.] 8vo. 1871. 

Miscellanies. Vol. 3. The Countesse of Pembrokes Emmanuel, together 
with certaine Psalmes. By Abraham Fraunce (1591). .Concerning the 
Holy Eucharist and the Popish Breaden God (1625). By Thomas Tuke. 
8vo. 1871. 

2. Early English Text Society. (In continuation.) 46. Legends of the 
Holy Rood. Edited by R. Morris. 47. Sir David Lyndesay's Works, 
Part 5. The Minor Poems. Edited by J. A. H. Murray. 48. The Times' 
Whistle. Compiled by R. C., Gent. Edited by J. M. Cowper. 8vo. Lon- 
don, 1871. 

3. Mr. Ashbee's Occasional Fac-simile Reprints. (In continuation.) 

XIV. " A Treatyse of this Galaunt, with the maryage of the Bosse of 
Byllyngesgate." 

XV. " A xnew Play, called Canterburie his Change of Diot." 1641 . 

XVI. " A certain Relation of the Hog-faced Gentlewoman called Mistris 
Tannakin Skinker." 1640. 

XVII. " Drinke. and Welcome," by John Taylor (the Water Poet). 1637. 

XVIII. Lady Eleanor Audeley's " Strange and Wondcrfull Prophesies." 
1649. 

XIX. " The Generous Usurer." 1641. Small 4to. London, 1871. 

4. Stecn and Blacket's original illustrated Wolverhampton Guide and 
Visitors' Handbook. 12mo. Wolverhampton, 1871. 

5. Stiff ord and its neighbourhood, Past and Present. By William 
Palin, M.A. Printed for private circulation. 8vo. 1871. 

6. Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica. Monthly Series. Edited by 
J. J. Howard, LL.D., F.S.A. Nos. 1316. Svo. London, 1871. 

From the Autaor : Parish Registers. By R. E. C. Waters, Esq. B.A. Re- 
VOL. V. P 



210 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 

printed, with additions and corrections, from " The Home and Foreign 
Review." No. IV. April, 1863. Printed for private circulation. 8vo. 
London, 1870. 

From the Camden Society : Publications. New Series, No. I. The Fortescue 
Papers. Edited by S. R. Gardiner. 4to. London, 1871. 

From the Author, Ch. Rcessler : 

1. Les Antiquites Historiques du Musee du Havre. 8vo. Rouen, 1870. 

2. Rapport sur les Sepultures Gallo-Romaines du Havre. 8vo. Havre, 
1870. 

3. Le Tombeau de Mausole. 8\o laris, 1870. 

From the Author : A Glossary of Cornish Names now or formerly in use in 
Cornwall. By the Rev. John Bannister, LL.D. 8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Author, Morris C. Jones, Esq. F.S.A. : 

1. The Abbey of Ystrad Marchell (Strata Marcella), or Pola; Part 2. 8vo. 

2. Incidents connected with the Rebellion of Owen Glendower in Powys- 
Land. 8vo. (Both from Collections relating to Montgomeryshire, issued 
by the Powys-Land Club. Vol. IV., ii.) 

From the Powys-Land Club : Collections Historical and Archaeological re- 
lating to Montgomeryshire. Vol. IV. ii and iii. 8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical Association : Report of 
the Excursion to Leeds and neighbourhood. 8vo. Leeds, 1871. 

From the Editor, Richard Woof, Esq. F.S.A. : Pedigree of the Turner Family, 
and its representatives in 1871. 4to. Privately printed. London, 1871. 
Two copies. 

From the Author : Notice sur Edouard Gerhard. Par J. De Witte. Sm. 8vo. 
Brussels, 1871. 

From the Canadian Institute : The Canadian Journal. Vol. XIII. No. 2. 8vo. 
Toronto, 1871. 

From the Editor, Mary A. Everett Green : Calendar of State Papers, Domestic 
Series, of the reign of Elizabeth. Addenda, 1566 1579 ; preserved in Her 
Majesty's Public Record Office. 8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Author : A Winter in Iceland and Lapland. By the Hon. Arthur 
Dillon. 2 vols. 8vo. London, 1840. 

From the Manx Society : Publications. Vol. XVIII. The old Historians of the 
Isle of Man, Camden, Speed, Dugdale, Cox, Wilson, Willis, and Grose. 
Edited by William Harrison. 8vo. Douglas, 1871. 

From the London Institution: Their Journal, Nos. 7 and 8, Vol. I. 8vo. 
London, 1871. 

From the Editor, Francis Bennoch, Esq. F.S.A. : The Refugees' Benevolent 

Fund. The Final Report of the Acting Committee. 8vo. London, 1871. 
From the Royal Institution of Great Britain : 

1. Proceedings, Vol. VI. Part 4, No. 55. 8vo. London, 1871. 

2. No. 14. Additions to the Library. July 1870 to July 1871 8vo 
London, 1871. 

From the Author : Medals, Clasps, and Crosses, military ajid naval. In the 
Collection of J. J. W. Fleming. 4to. 1871. [For private circulation 
only.] 

From A. J. Waterlow, Esq. : The Accounts of the Churchwardens of the 
Parish of Saint Michael, Cornhill, in the City of London. From 1456 to 
1608. Edited by W. H. Overall, F.S.A. Printed for private circulation. 
Square 8vo. London, 1871. 



Nov. 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 211 

From the Author, the Rev. M. E. C. Walcott, B.D., F.S.A. : 

1. Original Documents. Church Lists of Pembroke, Caermarthen ; the 
hundreds of Kelhynoke, Derws, Elvet, Perveth ; and St. Asaph. [From 
Archseologia Cambrensis. 4th Series, vol. ii.] 8vo. 

2. Chantries of Leicestershire and the Inventory of Olveston. 8vo. 

From the Author : On the Forms of Prayer recited " at the Healing," or touch- 
ing for the King's Evil. By the Rev. W. Sparrow Simpson, M.A., F.S.A. 
[From Journ. of Arch. Assoc. Vol. 27.] 8vo. London, 1871. 

From Robert Ferguson, Esq. : Cumberland and Westmoreland M.P.'s, from the 
Restoration to the Reform Bill of 1867 (16601867). By Richard S. Fer- 
guson, M.A., Barrister-at-Law. 8vo. London and Carlisle, 1871. 

From A. W. Franks, Esq., M.A., V.P.S.A : 

1. De Societate Antiquaria Londinensi Epistola Christiani Kortholti. 4to. 
Leipsic, 1735. 

2. A Picturesque Tour in Yorkshire and Derbyshire, by the late Edward 
Dayes ; with illustrative notes by E. W. Brayley, F.S.A. Second Edition. 
8vo. London, 1825. 

3. Stray Notes on the Text of Shakespeare, by Henry "YVellesley, D.D. 4to. 
London, 1865* 

From the Author : Memoirs on Remains of Ancient Dwellings in Holyhead 
Island, explored in 1862 and"1868. By the Hon. W. Owen Stanley, M.P., 
F.S.A. 8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Author : The Convent of Saint Catherine of Sienna, near Edinburgh. 
By George Seton, M.A. 4to. Edinburgh, 1871. (Printed for private 
circulation.) 

From the Royal Lombardic Institution : 

1. Memorie. Vol. XI. 2 della Serie iii. Fascicolo 3 e ultimo ; Vol. XII. 
Fasc. i. Folio. Milan, 1870. 

2. Rendiconti. Serie ii. Vol. II. Parte 2. Fasc. 17-20 ed ultimo ; 
Vol. III. Fasc. 1-15. 8vo. Milan, 1869-70. 

From the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester : Proceedings. 
Vol. XI. Nos. 1 and 2. Svo. 

From the Author: Further Notices of Winchelsea. By W. Durrant 
Cooper, Esq., F.S.A. Svo. (From Vol. XXIII. Sussex Archaeological Col- 
lections.) 

From the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society : Pro- 
ceedings, 1870. Vol. XVI. 8vo. Taunton, 1871. 

From the Author : An Account of the Priory of S. Martin, Dover. By J. 
Tavenor Perry. Svo. Oxford and London, 1871. 

From the Author : Observations of Comets, from B.C. 611 to A.D. 16-iO. Ex- 
tracted from the Chinese Annals. By John Williams, F.S.A. 4to. 
London, 1871. 

From the American Philosophical Society held at Philadelphia : Proceedings. 
Vol. XII. No. 86. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1871. 

From Her Majesty's Secretary of State for the Home Department : By the 
Queen. A Proclamation to publish and declare that the Parliament be 
further prorogued to Wednesday the 27th December next. Given at Bal- 
moral, 3 November, 1871, 35th year of reign. Broadside fol. (Two 
copies.) 

From the Author : Remarks on Roman Coins found near Woodbridge, Suffolk. 
By Bunnell Lewis, M.A., F.S.A. 8vo. 1871. (From the Archaeological 
Journal, Vol. XXVIII.) 

P 2 



212 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 

From the Author : Merlin and Arthur. The following Essay is printed for 
the use of the Early English Text Society. [By Scott F. Surtees.] Printed 
for private circulation. 8vo. 1871. 

From the Architectural and Archaeological Society for the County of Bucking- 
ham : Kecords of Buckinghamshire. Vol. IV. No. 2. Svo. Aylesbury, 
1871. 

From the Author : The Next Holiday : how to keep it. By William Bay 
Smee, F.S.A. ' Second Edition. 8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Koyal Institute of British Architects : Sessional Papers, 187172. 
No. 1. 4to. London, 1871. 

From the Author : The Bohuns of Midhurst. [By Edmond Chester Waters.] 
Svo. 1872. (From the Herald and Genealogist. Vol. 7.) 

From the Society of Arts and Sciences, Batavia : 1. Tijdschrift voor Indische 
Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde. Deel XIX. 8vo. Batavia, 1870. 
2. Notulen. Deel VII. Nos. 24. Deel VIII. Nos. 1 en 2. 8vo. Batavia, 
186970. 

From A. W. Franks, Esq. M.A. V.P.S.A. Presented in accordance with the 
intention of the late Felix Slade, Esq. F.S.A. : Catalogue of the Collection 
of Glass formed by Felix Slade, Esq. F.S.A. With Notes on the History of 
Glass Making, by Alexander Nesbitt, Esq. F.S.A., and an Appendix con- 
taining a description of other works of art presented or bequeathed by 
Mr. Slade to the Nation. Printed for private distribution. Fol. 1871. ' 

Votes of Special Thanks were accorded to Albert Way, Esq. 
F.S.A., for his valuable contribution to the Library ; and to 
A. W. Franks, Esq. V.P., one of the Executors and Trustees of 
the late Felix Slade, Esq. F.S.A. for the Present, announced this 
day, of the very handsome and finely illustrated volume, descrip- 
tive of the large collection of glass formed by Mr. Slade, and 
bequeathed*by him to the British Museum. 

This work, left unfinished] at Mr. Slade's death, has since been 
completed under the direction of Mr. Franks, and it is in accor- 
dance with the testator's wishes that, out of the limited number 
printed, a copy has been deposited in the Library of the Society, 

The PKESIDENT informed the Society, that during the recess 
he had ventured, in the name and on behalf of the Council, to 
urge upon Her Majesty's Government the importance of securing 
for the British Museum the valuable collection of antique jewel- 
lery, gems, and goldsmith's work, formed by Signor Castellani, 
of Rome. He was glad to be able to inform the meeting, that 
the Government had recognised the propriety of so doing, and 
that the collection in question had been purchased for the 
British Museum. 

The President also informed the meeting, and that with 
sincere regret, that this evening, and he feared for some weeks 
to come, they would be deprived of the presence of their 
Treasurer, who was always so assiduous in his attendance. He 
grieved to say that impaired health compelled him, under 
medical advice, to go to the Mediterranean in search, of that 



Nov. 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 213 

rest which the over-zealous discharge of his professional and 
other duties had rendered imperative. 

DECIMUS BURTON, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited and presented two 
coloured Photographs of Oil Paintings, being views of Hyde Park 
Corner prior to and in 1827 : 

1. Prior to 1827 from an oil painting, showing the toll-bar. 

2. 1827, from an oil painting by the late James Holland, 
showing the surmount and sculptures designed by Mr. 
Burton for the Arch on Constitution Hill. 

A. W. FRANKS, Esq. V.P. exhibited and presented a col- 
lection of casts of Ivories and Bookbindings of the Carlovingian 
period from Cologne, Gildesheim, and other quarters. 

In accordance with a Resolution of the Council held November 
21st, 1871, the following Report, relating to a meeting held in 
the Chapter House at Westminster during the recess was 
read 

The Dean of "Westminster desires to report to the Council, that in the month 
of July of the present year, after consulting with the President, and after obtain- 
ing the permission of Her Majesty's Government, he placed himself in communi- 
cation with the Director and Secretary of the Society, with a view to arrange 
a meeting to be held in the Chapter House at Westminster. The Dean had felt 
that the Society of Antiquaries of London were so largely entitled to the credit 
of having brought about the Restoration of the Chapter Houseythat it was only 
right they should once more meet within its walls to see the results of their exer- 
tions. He had therefore proposed that cards of invitation should be sent to all 
the Fellows, and to such other persons as might be interested in the completion 
of the Restoration. 

Cards were accordingly issued. A numerously attended meeting was held at 
the Chapter House, on July the 21st, at 4 P.M., and after some opening remarks 
from the Dean, and from Mr. George Gilbert Scott, R.A. F.S.A. calling attention 
to the work which had been accomplished, the following Resolutions were suc- 
cessively put from the Chair, and carried unanimously : 

I. Moved by R. Neville-Grenville, Esq. M.P. F.S.A., seconded by Sir W. F. 
Pollock, Bart., 

That this meeting, while congratulating Her Majesty's Government, and 
in particular the Right Honourable W. E. Gladstone, and the Right 
Honourable" W. Cowper- Temple, on the progress which has been so judi- 
ciously made in the restoration of the Chapter House, anxiously desires to 
impress on the Government and on both Houses of Parliament the necessity 
of completing the task they have taken in hand, by filling the windows 
with stained glass. 

II. Moved by the Right Honourable W. Cowper-Templc, M.P., seconded by 
J. H. Parker, Esq. M.A. F.S.A., 

That this meeting, anxious to secure for future generations of illustrious 
Englishmen the honour of interment in the Abbey or its precincts, suggests 
to Her Majesty's Government that steps should be taken for the erection of 
a new Cloister, fulfilling the purposes of a Campo Santo. 

III. Moved by Sir William Tito, M.P. C.B. V.P.S.A., seconded by Henry 
Reeve, Esq. F.S.A. , 

That the thanks of this meeting be offered to the Right Honourable 
W. E. Gladstone for permission to assemble this day in the Chapter House, 
and to the Dean of Westminster for consenting to preside. 



214 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 

To the above report of the Dean of Westminster, the Secretary 
added that a copy of the Resolutions having been -sent to the 
Right Honourable W. E. Gladstone, M.P., the following reply 
has been received : 

10, Downing Street, Whitehall, 

18 Aug. 1871. 

Sir, Mr. Gladstone desires me to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, 
forwarding a copy of the Resolutions adopted by the Society of Antiquaries with 
reference to Westminster Abbey and to the Chapter House, which has been 
lately restored. 

Mr. Gladstone will take an opportunity of calling the attention of the Govern- 
ment to the subject which has been brought to his notice by the Society of 
Antiquaries. I am, &c., 

W. B. GUEDON. 

C. Knight Watson, Esq. 

JAMES FOWLER, Esq. F.S.A. Local Secretary for Yorkshire, 
exhibited the following objects : 

1. A Watch belonging to Sir Lionel S. Pilkington, Bart., 
which may be described as follows : 

The watch is octagonal in shape, and two inches in length by 
one-inch and five eighths in width, and one inch and one-eighth 
in depth. On the upper valve is engraved, on the outside, in a 
central octagonal compartment, a group of Susannah and the 
Elders, and in eight smaller surrounding compartments a 
cherub, two river horses, two nude female figures, two sphinxes, 
and a pair of cornucopise ; and within, a wreath of conventional 
branchery and foliage. On the opposite valve, or back of the 
case, which does not open, there is engraved in the central octa- 
gonal compartment Susannah before the Judges ; and in the 
eightsurrounding small compartments, respectively a demi- 
figure with a pair of trumpets, two rabbits feeding in foliage, 
two boys playing on musical instruments, a demi-man playing 
on a musical instrument, a demi-woman playing on a trumpet, 
and a human face in the midst of foliage. On the dial- 
plate is engraven, in the centre the Stoning of St. Stephen, sur- 
rounded by classical figures and foliage. There is neither minute 
hand, hair-spring, nor chain, catgut being used instead of the 
latter. The works are of brass, and revolve in a direction con- 
trary to that of modern watches, and the fusee has seventeen 
turns upon it. The hours are struck upon a fine clear-sounding 
bell, and the sides of the case are of gilt brass, richly engraved, 
and pierced for the emission of sound. The pendant is a swivel, 
to allow of the watch being easily turned and examined, as it 
hung at the girdle of the wearer. It bears the name of" Pierre 
Combret, Paris." Its date may be assigned to the end of the 
sixteenth century, and the designs would seem to have been 
furnished by Dubry. 



Nov. 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 215 

2. Five tracings of painted glass, reduced, etched, and printed 
by Hancock of Le wish am, and coloured by hand from the 
originals. 

1 and 2. The second and third lights of a three-light window 
in the chancel of Thornhill Church, Yorkshire ; representing 
the Nativity of Our Lord with the Assumption of the Virgin, 
and the Resurrection of Our Lord with the Coronation of the 
Virgin. The first light, now destroyed, may not improbably 
have contained the Annunciation and the Death or Entomb- 
ment of the Virgin. The lower tier of subjects would then 
range as follows: 1, the Annunciation ; 2, the Nativity; 3, the 
Resurrection of Our Lord ; and the upper tier 1 , the Death ; 
2, the Assumption ; and 3, the Coronation of the Virgin. The 
date of the glass is about A.D. 1495. 

3. A compartment of the east window of Methley Church, 
Yorkshire, representing the two doctors of the Church 
SS. Jerome "and Ambrose. SS. Augustine and Gregory, with a 
number of other Saints,. occur in other compartments, but the 
glass is very fragmentary. 

4 and 5. Two angels, bearing scrolls and standing on wheels, 
from the tracery lights of a window in the Waterton Chapel, 
Methley. These and the preceding belong to the Fifteenth 
Century, apparently to about the reign of Edward IV. 

The process for obtaining the etchings Mr. Fowler believed to 
be a kind of Photo-Zincography. A reversed negative photograph 
of the tracing, which must be in black and white, uncoloured, is 
transferred to a zinc plate suitably prepared, and the white parts 
corroded as usual. The plate is then fastened to a block of 
wood, and printed like an ordinary woodcut. The cost is ex- 
tremely moderate, varying from ninepence to two shillings per 
square inch ; and the effect superior to any other mode of illus- 
trating subjects in painted glass yet attempted. In chromo- 
lithographs the colours are always opaque and lifeless, and the 
outlines far from being at all necessarily, as by this process, per- 
fectly accurate. 

3. Two heel-ball rubbings of Heraldic bench-ends in Great 
Sandal Church, Yorkshire. Each bears a shield ; the first 

Quarterly : 

1. Percy and Lucy, quarterly. 2. Percy, Ancient. 3. Poyn- 
ings. 4. Fitzpaine. 5. Bryan. Impaling Frost and Amyas 
quarterly. 

The second Shield is - 

Quarterly : 

1 and 4. Percy. 2 and 3. Lucy, with a martlet for difference. 

Impaling Frost and Amyas, quarterly. 



216 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 

The arms are therefore those of Josceline Percy, youngest son 
of Henry, fourth Earl of Northumberland, between about the 
year 1523, when he was married to Margaret Frost, of Fether- 
ston, and 1532 when he died. 

Above the shields runs the inaccurately carved inscription 

(rate pro sono statu toselgmg pgrcg atmeserg, 

preceded by the crescent and fetterlock badge, with a martlet on 
the crescent for difference. 

4. Kubbings of an earlier example of the crescent and fetterlock 
badge, on a miserere, and of the crescent alone as an ornament 
in the panelling of the choir stalls, at All Saint's Church,- Wake T 
field, c. 1470 ; perhaps for Henry, third Earl of Northumber- 
land, who was one of the chief commanders of the Lancastrian 
army at the Battle of Wakefield, and fell three months after at 
Towton Field. 

5. A heel-ball rubbing of an incised sepulchral slab in Camp- 
sail Church, Yorkshire. The cross, of noble proportions, is 
floriated at once richly and chastely. It stands upon a graduated 
Calvary. On one side of the shaft is a sword, with the point 
directed downward. 

6. A series of twelve water-colour drawings, by Cromek, of 
the antiquities of Bakewell Church, Derbyshire, viz. : 

Incised sepulchral slabs, most of them of the thirteenth century. 
Amongst these is a coped stone, bearing the inscription 

QNTVLS 8INT bOMINVM CORPV8CVLA 8VA 
MOR8 NULLI PAR6N8 MOR8 PIGTAT6. ... 

An adaptation of Juvenal, Sat. v. 172, 3. 

- " Mors sola fatetur 
Quantula sint hominum corpuscula. 

The end of the stone appears to have been broken off. The 
lines would appear to have been, originally, 

" Quantula sint hominum corpuscula sola fatetur 
Mors nulli parens (? parcens), mors pietate deletur," 

or to that effect. 

The ancient cross-stem (similar to those at Ilkley), in the 
churchyard. 

The monument, in the interior, of Sir Godfrey Foljambe, 
Seneschal of Pontefract to John of Gaunt, and Avena his 
wife. 

Monument of Sir Thomas Wendesley of Wendesley, slain 



Nov. 30.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 217 

at the battle of Shrewsbury, on the part of Henry IV., 
A.D. 1403. 

An altar-tomb to one of the Vernons, of Haddon. 

The Font 

The Piscina and Sedilia. 

A richly-ornamented Norman doorway, on the exterior. 

A fragment of arcading, with the chevron moulding. 

Fragments, including the piscina in the Vernon Chapel. 

A paper by Mr. James Fowler was then read on Mediaeval 
Representations of the Months and Seasons, which will appear 
in the Archa^ologia, vol. xliv. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these communications. 



Thursday, November 30th, 1871. 
Colonel A. H. LANE FOX, V.R, in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester,: Proceedings. 
Vol. xi. Nos. 2 and 3. Session 1871-2. 8vo. 

From the Editor, John Fetherston, Esq. F.S.A. Selected List of Charters and 
other Evidences belonging to the Corporation of Coventry. 8vo. War- 
wick, 1871. 

From the Author : The Prison and the School. Second Number. An Appeal 
for the Girls. By E. E. Antrobus, F.S.A. For private circulation only. 
8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Author : On two Heraldic Bench-ends in Great Sandal Church. By 
James Fowler, Esq. F.S.A. 8vo. 

George Wharton Simpson, Esq. was admitted a Fellow. 

George John, Lord Rosehill, proposed for election as a Fellow, 
being entitled as the eldest son of a Peer to have his election at 
once proceeded with, the ballot for such election was taken, and 
his Lordship was declared to be duly elected. 

JOHN PIGGOT, Esq. F.S.A., Local Secretary for Essex, ex- 
hibited a plain Gold Ring of Roman workmanship, found lately 
at Little Totliam in Essex. The bezel of the ring bore the 

V . N 
incised letters y S T ' "^ s inscription, although it has 

called forth many ingenious conjectures, has not as yet met 
with a satisfactory interpretation. 



218 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 

ALBERT WAY, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited, by permission of 
S. S. Lewis, Esq., the Roman Weight of Bronze with characters 
inlaid in silver, which is represented in the accompanying 
woodcut. 




BKONZE WEIGHT FEOM CAMBKIDGE. 

Mr. Way illustrated this exhibition by the following remarks 
contained in a letter to the Secretary : 

" I beg to offer for the inspection of the Society a Roman 
relic lately found at Cambridge, which appears to be of some 
interest. It is a bronze weight, a sextans, or sixth part of the 
Roman pound ; it was brought to light with a bronze armlet, 
on the northern side of the Castle Hill, at Cambridge, near the 
Histon Road. A small brass of Allectus, and a few brass minimi, 
much defaced, lay near the spot. These objects have been sent 
to me by Mr. S. S. Lewis, Fellow and Librarian of Corpus Christi 
College, and, with his permission, I am desirous to submit them 
to the Society. Small Roman weights of bronze have occurred 
on several occasions in this country ; examples were obtained in 
London by Mr. Roach Smith, and are noticed in his Illustrations 
of Roman London.* These are similar in their general form to 
the weight in Mr. Lewis's possession, namely, a depressed sphere. 
These graduated weights, however, so far as I have had occasion 
to observe, are of less frequent occurrence than the stilyard 
weights that are found so often with Roman remains in this 
country, and are in many instances of beautiful and artistic 
design. The comparatively frequent discoveries of the equipon- 
dium of bronze, much varied in its fashion and elegant work- 
manship, would suggest that the convenient appliance, the statera, 
or stilyard, was more commonly employed than the earlier inven- 
tion, the balance. There is, moreover, a feature in the little 
relic sent by Mr. Lewis, to which I desire to invite attention, 
because any details, however minute and trivial, associated with 
ancient epigraphy, have a certain value, entitling the objects on 
which they are found to some special consideration. The weight 
found at Cambridge, it will be seen, bears two symbols or charac- 

* P. 144, pi. xxxviii. Four a two-ounce, one-ounce, half, and quarter of the 
ounce. 



Nov. 30.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 219 

ters inlaid in silver, one of them bearing some resemblance to 
the caduceus, deprived of its handle. It is, however, in fact, 
the well-known siyla &, the commencement of the technical 
word ovy/cia, uncia, an ounce. The second character might, if 
the inscription were unique, be taken for the letter R ; but we 
shall find, by comparison with other examples, that it is merely 
a peculiarly formed B, denoting the number 2, which is the 
number of ounces comprised in the sextans, the particular part 
of the libra which this little relic proves to be. 

u Of the particular form of ancient weights, we have many 
illustrations in antiquarian works. Caylus gives us a graduated 
series of small marble weights that are of interest as bearing the 
official authentication by the Prefect of Rome. The letters are 
somewhat roughly cut, and not intended, as Caylus remarks, to 
receive the incrustation of silver, of which he had seen many 
examples, and the several weights bore no symbols to distinguish 
them in the, graduated series, respectively. The legend runs as 
follows : Ex auctoritate Q. Juni Rustici praefect. vrb.* It 
may seem not unreasonable to imagine that the incrustation of 
a precious metal, as on the weight found at Cambridge, was 
a sign that it had passed through some formality of authen- 
tication. 

Gruter in his Corpus Inscriptionum, page ccxxi. has also given 
notes of several ancient weights, the sub-divisions of the As or 
Libra. The uncia is marked 8 * A, the sextans tf ' B, or as in an 
example rudely figured (page ccxxii. fig. 5), 'R, much as the 
weight now under consideration. The quadrans is marked 
8 r. Of the triens Gruter gives no satisfactory example with 
this kind of mark. One weight which, by the corresponding 
weight in modern Roman ounces, must be a triens, is also 
marked with a r. The semis, or half-pound of twelve ounces, 
bears the mark tf * S s . This writer describes nine sextantes, and 
gives their respective weights in modern Roman ounces, 
scruples, and grains. They vary from 1 oz. 23 scr. 4 grs. to 
1 oz. 20 scr. 20 grs. the average weight being 1 oz. 21 scr. 
8 grs. which, when converted into English ounces Troy, is 
equivalent to 1 oz. 14 dwts. 8J grs. nearly, corresponding within 
four grains with the weight of the bronze specimen obtained by 
Mr. Lewis, which weighs 1 oz. 14 dwts. 11 grs. 

A sextans precisely similar to that now exhibited is figured in 
Professor Stephens' Old Runic Monuments, p. 569. 

Montfaucon j has figured a series of ten of those ancient 

* Caylus, Recueil, tome iv. pi. Ixvi. p. 206. According to Sigonius (ap. Grutcr 
ccxxii.) lie was Prefect of the city A.D. 344. 
f Vol. iii. p. 170, pi. xciv. 



220 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

weights from the old collection at Paris under his charge, but 
now dispersed. He gives examples that had been figured by 
various collectors and writers on antiquity, as Spon, Fabreti, 
and Bonanni. These weights, similar in form to that which has 
originated these few remarks, are of various dimensions and 
materials, they are not infrequently of black marble, designated 
Lapis Lydius, or touch-stone, and one is mentioned that was of 
jasper. 

There are doubtless many other specimens in public museums 
and private collections, but it seems curious that very few, it 
any, have been recorded as found in Britain. I have written 
not a few letters of inquiry about such weights found in England 
but without result. None have occurred at Corinium, "nor, at 
Isca Silurum, nor any other Roman site where I have directed 
inquiry. 

In the second Vase Room of the British Museum several 
specimens, I am told, are preserved ; one, a sextans, has the B 
formed almost exactly like that sent by Mr. Lewis : the triens 
does not bear the A , as might have been expected, but four 
dots o inlaid in silver. 

It has been already observed that a bronze armlet was found 
with the sextans. This, it will be seen, is a simple, fiat band 
without any ornament of interest; it is engraved at intervals 
with lines cross-hatched diagonally. There can, I imagine, be 
little doubt as regards its Roman origin, although it presents no 
feature whatever of the taste and skill almost invariably. shown 
on Roman work. 

Of the four coins I can discern only, as before mentioned, 
a small brass of Allectus with the reverse " Ltetitia Aug." 

T. J. ARNOLD, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited the following objects : 
1. A leaden Sling-Bullet of Greek manufacture, bearing the 
proper name KAEONIKOT. 




GREEK SLING-BULLET. 



Whether the names inscribed on this and other bullets of the 
same kind are those of the maker, or rather of the general com- 
manding the expedition on which they were used, may be 
doubted. Mr. Arnold was disposed to entertain the latter view, 
which indeed is supported by the authority of some of the Roman 
glandes, of which an example, bearing the name of a general 



Nov. 30.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 221 

(Imperator), will be found engraved in Proceedings, 2 S. iv. 315, 
while others, as that of the centurion of the xth Legion (Ibid. ii. 
270), tend rather to confirm the former opinion. 

One Cleonicus, a native of Naupactus, living towards the end 
of the third century B.C. is recorded by Polybius (lib. v.) to 
have been sent by Philip V. to make peace with the JGtolians. 
He was accompanied by both a naval and a military force, which, 
however, does not appear to have been called into active service. 
That this bullet formed a part of the ordnance stores of this 
expedition cannot at all events be easily disproved. The use of 
the ancient sling is illustrated by the coins of Aspendus and 
Selga.* 

2. A small disc of metal, strongly gilt on one side, on which 
is engraved a shield bearing Argent, two chevrons gules, a 
crescent for difference. Round the outer circle was the owner's 
name 

ARTHVRE HYDE, 1580. 

This relic was picked up by Mr. Arnold, in a small shop at 
Chertsey, the owner informing him that it had been found in 
the neighbourhood. 

The following note on this subject was communicated in a 
letter addressed to the Secretary by A. W. Franks, Esq. 
V.P. : 

u I would venture to suggest, with respect to the engraved 
disc exhibited by Mr. Arnold, that it has been the lid of a box, 
pocket-dial, or watch. The side with the armorial bearings has 
been probably within, hence the good preservation of the gild- 
ing ; the other side has been without, and has suffered so much 
from wear and tear that the gilding has only remained in the 
sunk lines. The pocket-dial of the Earl of Essex, described by 
our late Fellow Mr. John Bruce (Archasologia, xl. PL xviii.) 
and now in the British Museum, has within the lid the arms of 
the owner. The same is the case with an oval watch presented 
to the British Museum by the late Mr. Slacle, and described in 
the catalogue of his collection, Appendix No. 22. 

With regard to the arms, they must be those of Hyde with a 
crescent for the difference or mark of cadency for a second son. 
The Hydes of South Denchworth and Kingston Lisle, co. Berks, 
and also those of Pangbourne, co. Berks, and of Romsey, co. 
Hants, bore Gules, two chevrons argent. The arms on the disc 
are represented with the tinctures reversed, but this may be an 
error of the engraver, or the branch to which Arthur Hyde 

* As to slings and sling-bullets, see, in addition to the passages cited in the 
text, Proc. Soc. Ant. 2 S. ii. 266, and the references there ; and i bid. iv. 314, 
footnote. 



222 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

belonged may have borne the colours reversed, a not uncommon 
difference. It is moreover to be remembered that our -modern 
mode of representing tinctures is said to have been invented, or 
made certain, by Silvestro Pietrasanta, whose great work, 
"Tesserae GentilitiaB," is dated 1638. The earlier authors used 
hatched lines merely to represent a difference of tincture. 

" According to Burke's Landed Gentry, Arthur Hyde, second 
son of William Hyde of Denchworth, settled in Ireland temp. 
Elizabeth, was living in 1623, and is considered the ancestor of 
the Hydes of Castle Hyde, co. Cork. 

" In this individual we may very probably recognise the 
owner of the watch or other object of which the disc formed a 
part. 

" There is, I believe, a pedigree of Hyde of Kingston Lisle 
in Harleiaii MS. 1535." 

J. C. LUCAS, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited a British Gold Coin found 
at Warbleton, Sussex. The type corresponded with Nos. 9 and 
10 in plate E. of Mr. John Evans' work on British Coins. 

The Rev. J. C. CLUTTERBUCK exhibited two objects of different 
periods, from a spot in the Thames nearly oppsite the Dorchester 
Dyke Hills, and close to the place of the discovery of the British 
Buckler, of which an account is given by Mr. Gage in Archae- 
ologia, xxvii. 298. 

1. A well chipped flint implement 5 inches long by 1J broad, 
of which one end is pointed, the other slightly rounded. 

2. An iron or steel dagger about 11 inches long, probably of 
of the fifteenth century. The silver ferrule of the leather sheath 
remained united by corrosion to the upper part of the blade. 

EDWARD PEACOCK, Esq. F.S.A. Local Secretary for Lincoln- 
shire, exhibited a Charter of Regnaut de Giresme, Prior of the 
Hospitallers in France, dated 1397, granting certain privileges 
to the tenants of the Hospital in the town of Coulours-en-Octe. 

On this charter some observations were made by C. Knight 
Watson, Esq. F.S.A. Secretary, which, together with a tran- 
script of the deed, will be printed in Archseologia, vol. xliv. 

Col. A. H. LANE Fox, V.P. exhibited a wooden instrument of 
unknown use, found in an ancient copper-mine in the parish of 
Skull, near Skibbereen, which is here figured. 

The length of the longer leg is 17 inches, of the shorter 
13 inches. The diameter at the small end 1^ inch, at the 
large end, where a terminal piece is inserted (shown detached 
in the small figure), 2J inches. 



Nov. 30.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 223 

This curious object was exhibited, in 1848, by Dr. Allman to 
the Royal Irish Academy. He notices * that the antiquity of 
the mine at the bottom of which it was found may be judged of 




TUBE OF YEW WOOD, FROM SKULL. 

by the fact that some. of the old rubbish lies near the mouth of 
the cuttings, covered by two feet of naturally formed peat. 

W. M. WYLIE, Esq. F.S.A. Local Secretary for Hampshire, 
exhibited by permission of Dr. Ferdinand Keller, Hon. F.S.A. 
a Disc of Silver with repousse equestrian figure, set in a frame of 
bronze, recently found at Seengen, in the Aargau. This ex- 
hibition was illustrated by a paper, by Mr. Wylie, treating the 
object as an example of the class of ornament to which the word 
pJtalera applies, and demonstrating the Alamannic origin of it. 
Mr. Wylie's communication will appear in the Archasologia, 
vol. xliv. part i. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these Communications. 



Thursday, December 7th, 1871. 
AUGUSTUS W. FRANKS, Esq. V.P. in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Royal Institute of British Architects : Sessional Papers 1871-72. 
No. 2. 4to. London, 1871. 

* Proc. Royal Irish Academy, iv. 05. 



224 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

From the Royal United Service Institution : Their Journal. Vol. XV. No. 65. 
8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Science and Art Department, South Kensington : A First List of 
Buildings in England having Mural or other Painted Decorations. Of 
dates previous to the middle of the 16th century. 8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Author : Detached Church Belfries, with special reference to those 
in the county of Hereford. By J. Severn Walker. 8vo. 1871. 

From the Editor, Llewellyn Jewitt, Esq. F.S.A. : The Reliquary. Nos. 45 
and 46. Vol. XII. 8vo. London, 1871. 

An exhibition was opened of Stone Implements of the Neo- 
lithic period, comprising a numerous and important series; 
contributed with great liberality by a number of Fellows of the 
Society, and other gentlemen interested in these memorials of 
primitive industry. 

The specimens sent for exhibition were arranged according to 
the countries where they had respectively been found. 

The following list shows pretty nearly the number of objects 
exhibited, with the names of the exhibitors and the number 
contributed by each : 

EUROPE. 

GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN ISLANDS. 

No. of Objects 
Name of Exhibitor. exhibited. 

Thomas Ashby, Esq. .... 4 

Rev. James Beck, Loc. Sec. Sussex . 53 

J. Brown, Esq 12 

W. B. Clarke, Esq M.D. ... 1 

R. D. Darbishire, Esq. F.G.S. . . 2 

John Evans, Esq. F.R.S. F.S.A. . . 60 

Robert Fitch, Esq. F.S.A. ... 6 
J. W. Flower, Esq. F.G.S. . . .10 

Col. A. H. Lane Fox, V.P. . . . (5 

Lt-Col. G. Grant Francis, F.S.A. . . 100* 

A. W. Franks, Esq. V.P. ... 4 

Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A. . . 23 

Llewellyn Jewitt, Esq. F.S.A. . . 10 

E. Lawford, Esq. M.D 2 

Thomas Layton, Esq. F.S.A . . .12 

J. F. Lucas, Esq. ..... 31 

C. Monkman, Esq 31 

W. H. Penning, Esq. . . 1 

W. B. Phillips, Esq 6 

* Paviland Cave, Gower. 



Nov. 30.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 225 

No. of Objects 
Name of Exhibitor. exhibited. 

Rev. W. Sparrow Simpson, F.S.A. . . 1 
W. J. Bernhard Smith, Esq. ... 3 
J. Tlmrnam, Esq. M.D. F.S.A. . 21 



IRELAND. 

Rev. J. Beck . 5 

Mr. Evans . .... 14 

Col. Lane Fox . . 22 

Rev. W. Green well .... 5 

E. P. Shirley, Esq. F.S.A. ... 13 

Rev. W. S. Simpson .... 16 

Hodder M. Westropp, Esq. . _ 2 77 
\ 

. FRANCE. 

Mr. Evans . ..... 24 

Mr. Flower (5 from Channel Islands) . 24 
Col. Lane Fox (5 from Channel Islands) . 7 

Sir J. Liibboek, Bart. F.R.S. F.S.A. _1 5G 

BELGIUM. 
Mr. Evans . .... 17 

HOLLAND. 
Mr. Franks .... 10 

GERMANY. 

Mr. Evans . ... 10 

Mr. Franks . ... 6 

Col. Lane Fox ... 1 -. 

SWITZERLAND. 

Mr. Flower ..... 1 

Swiss LAKES. 

Mr. Evans ... . . 18 

Col. Lane Fox 

Mr. TTostropp . _1 2 Q 

VOL. v. Q 



226 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

No. of Objects 
Name of Exhibitor. exhibited. 

DENMARK. 

Kev. J. Beck . . . ... 62 

Mr. Evans ^ . . . 54 

Mr. Flower ..... 8 

Col. Lane Fox. . . . .19 

Mr. Franks ...... 6 

Sir J. Lubbock ..... 15 

Mr. Bernharcl Smith . . _! 165 

HUNGARY. 

Mr. Flower ..*... 1 

ITALY AND SICILY. 

Mr. Evans ...... 

Mr. Franks ... j6 9 

GREECE. 

Mr. Evans ...... 

Mr. Flower ...... 2 

Mr. Franks ...... 1 

Sir J. Lubbock ... 2 

Mr. 



SPAIN AND PORTUGAL. 
Rev. W. Greenwell .... 3 

Total number of specimens, Europe . 791 

ASIA. 

BORNEO. 
Col. Lane Fox ..... 1 

ARABIA. 
Mr. Evans ...... 6 

INDIA. 

Col. Lane Fox ..... 22 

Mr. Flower ...... 1 

Mr. Evans ...... 2 



Nov. 30.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUAKTES. 227 

No. of Objects 
Name of Exhibitor. exhibited. 

CHINA (YUNNAN). 

Mr. Evans ...... 1 

Mr. Franks .... li 15 



JAPAN. 



Rev. W. S. Simpson 
Col. Lane Fox . 



Total number of specimens, Asia 56 

AFRICA. 

ALGERIA. 
Mr. Flower ..... 1 

EGYPT. 

Mr. Franks ...... 3 

F. D. Hartland, Esq. F.S.A. . _? . 5 

WEST AFRICA. 

Mr. Evans ...... 2 

Mr. Flower ...... 4 

Mr. Franks . J 12 



SOUTH AFRICA. 



Rev. J. Beck 
Mr. Evans . 



Total number of specimens, Africa . 26 

AMERICA. 

NORTH AMERICA. 

Mr. Evans ...... 2 

Col. Lane Fox ..... 9 

Rev. W. Greenwell .... 2 

Rev. W. S. Simpson . 44 ^ 

Q2 



228 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1871, 

No. of Objects 
Name of Exhibitor. exhibited 

MEXICO. 

Mr. Evans ..... - 1 

Rev. W. S. Simpson. . . . . 30 
Col. Lane Fox . . . . .27 

Mr. J. Bernhard Smith . . _1 59 

CENTRAL AMERICA, NEW GRANADA, VENEZUELA, 
BRITISH GUIANA. 

Col. Lane Fox ..... 18 

Mr. Franks ...... 11 

Rev. W. S. Simpson ... 1 

Mr. Evans ..... _? 33 

WEST INDIA ISLANDS. 

Mr. Westropp . . . . . . . 1 

Mr. Flower ...... 3 

Col. Lane Fox . . . . . 4 

Rev. W. S. Simpson. . . . . 3 

Mr. Bernhard Smith ..... 2 

Mr. Evans . . . . _ ig 

SOUTH AMERICA. 

Mr. Westropp . . . . . . 1 

Mr. Flower ..... . 1 

Col. Lane Fox ..... 11 

Rev. W. S. Simpson ..... 9 

Mr. Bernhard Smith . 



Total number of specimens, America 188 

SOUTH SEAS, AUSTRALIA, &c. 

Rev. J. Beck ...... 4 

Mr. Flower (4 from Australia) ... 5 

Col. Lane Fox (6 from Australia) . . 24 

Rev. W. S. Simpson (1 from Australia) . 9 

Mr. Westropp (I from Australia) . . 2 

Mr! Bernhard Smith . . . . 1 

Rev. W. D. Parish (Australia) . ... 1 

Mr. Evans (Australia) .... 1 

Total number of specimens, South Seas^ &c. 47 



Nov. 30.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 229 

No. of Objects 
Name of Exhibitor. exhibited. 

NEW ZEALAND. 

Mr. Flower ...... 4 

Rev, J. Beck 1 

Rev. W. S. Simpson 22 

Captain A. C. Tapper, F.S.A. ... 3 

Col. Lane Fox 3 QQ 

80 

SUMMARY OF THE NUMBER OF SPECIMENS. 

Europe . . .791 

Asia ..... 56 
Africa ..... 26 
^ America . . . .188 
South Seas, &c. . . . 80 



JOHN EVANS, Esq. F.R.S. F.S.A. delivered an address, in 
which he called attention to the general classification of Stone 
Implements of the Neolithic period, as illustrated by the collec- 
tion exhibited on this occasion. 

It was announced that the exhibition of Neolithic . Implements 
would remain open for some days, including the next Ordinary 
Meeting, appointed for Thursday December 14th. That meet- 
ing, however, was not held in consequence of the alarming con- 
dition of the health of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, a Royal 
Fellow of the Society. 



Thursday, January llth, 1872. 
AUGUSTUS W. FRANKS, Esq. V.P. in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors: 

From the Powys-Land Club : Collections, Historical and Archaeological, re- 
lating to Montgomeryshire. Vol. IV. iii. 8vo. London, 1871. 

From His Grace the Duke of Marlborough, through the Author, M. H. Nev'il 
Story-Maskelyne, Esq. M.A. F.Ii.S. : The Marlborough Gems, being a 
Collection of Works in Cameo and Intaglio, formed by George, third Duke 
of Marlborough. Printed for private distribution. 4to. London, 1870. 

From the Author : The Chambered Tumulus in Plas Newydd Park, Anglesey. 
By the Hon. W. O. Stanley, M.P. F.S.A. 8vo. 



230 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

From the Author : The Revenue Resources of the Mughal Empire in India. 
1593-1707. By Edward Thomas, F.R.S. 8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Author, John Gough Nichols, Esq. F.S.A. :- 

1. The Biography of Sir William Harper, Alderman of London. 8vo. 
London, 1870. 

2. Bibliographical and Critical Account of the three editions of "Watson's 
Memoirs of the Ancient Earls of Warren and Surrey. 8vo. 1871. 

3. The Family of Alye. [From Herald and Genealogist, Vol. VI.] Small. 
4to. 

From the London Institution : Journal, Nos. 8 and 9, Vol. I. 8vo. London, 
1871. 

From the Author : A Memoir of Barbara, Duchess of Cleveland.. By G. 
Steinman Steinman, Esq. F.S.A. Printed for private circulation. 8vo. 
1871. 

From the Editor, Thomas Q. Couch, Esq. F.S.A. : The History of Polperro, a 
fishing town on the south coast of Cornwall. By the late Jonathan Couch, 
F.L.S. 8vo. Truro and London, 1871. 

From the Royal Society : 

1. Philosophical Transactions. Vol. 161, Part 1. 4to. London, 1871. 

2. Proceedings. Vol. 20, No. 130. 8vo. London, 1871. 
From the Author, Count Gozzadini, Hon. F.S.A. : 

1. La Necropole de Villanova decouverte et decrite. 8vo. Bologna, 1870. 

2. Congres d'Archeologie et d'Anthropologie Prehistoriques, Session de 
Bologne. Discours d'Ouverture. 8vo. Bologna, 1871. 

3. Renseignments sur une ancienne Necropole a Marzabotto. 8vo. Bologna, 

From the Author : Atlas Hydrographique de 1511 du Genois Vesconte de 
Maggiolo. Par M. D'Avezac. 8vo. Paris, 1871. 

From the Yorkshire Archgeological and Topographical Association : The 

Journal. Part VI. (Vol. 2). 8vo. London, 1871. 
From Her Majesty's Secretary of State for the Home Department : By the 

Queen. A Proclamation to publish and declare that the Parliament be 

further prorogued to Tuesday, Feb. 6, 1872. Given at Windsor, Dec. 21, 

1871. 35th year of reign. Broadside folio (2 copies). 
From the Royal Academy of Sciences of Lisbon : 

1. Memorias. (Classe de Sciencias Mathematicas, Physicas e Naturaes.) 
Nova Serie, Tom. IV. Part 1, 2. 4to. Lisbon, 1867-70. 

2. Catalogo das Publicacoes. 8vo. Lisbon, 1865. 

From the Royal Commissioners of Art and Archeology : Bulletin 8 et 9 me 
Annees, et 10">e Annee Nos. 18. 8vo. Brussels, 1869-71. 

From the Author: Monografia ed Iconografia della Terracimiteriale o Terra- 
mara di Gorzano, ossia Mbnumenti di pura Archeologia Per Dott Fran- 
cesco Coppi. 4to. Modena, 1871. 

From the Literary and Philosophical Society, Manchester: Proceedings. 
Vol. XL Nos. 4, 5, and 6. 8vo. 1871-2. 



n Aioert way, ^sq. M.A. F.S.A.: The Rows Roll 4to T^nd ifu* 
[Not published till 1859.] n > L 

From the Editor : The Athenasum. 2 vols. 4to. London, 1871. 

From the Editor, Geo. Godwin, Esq. F.R.S. : The Builder. Vol. XXIX Folio 
London, 1871. 

5. Virtue, Esq. : The Art Journal. Tenth Volume 
- 1 1871. 



Jan. 11.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 231 

From the Editor: Notes and Queries. Vols. VII. and VIII. (Fourth Series.) 
4to. London, 1871. 

From the Society of Arts: Their Journal. 8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Photographic Society : The Photographic Journal. 8vo. London, 
1871. 

From the Editor: Nature. 4to. London, 1871. 

From the Author: Donnington Castle: a Royalist Story. In fourteen staves. 
With Notes. By Colonel Colomb. 8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Abbe Cochet, Hon. F.S.A.: Bulletin de la Commission des Antiquites 
de la Seine-Inferieure. Tome l er . 8vo. Rouen, 1868. 

From the Editor: The Church Builder. No. 41. January. 8vo. London, 
1872. 

From the Author : Inventories of Church Goods and Chantries in Cheshire. 
Temp. Edw. VI. [From Trans, of the Hist. Soc. of Lancashire and 
Cheshire.] By the Rev. M. E. C. Walcott, B.D. F.S.A. 8vo. Liverpool, 
1871. 

From the Royal Library, Munich : Catalogus Codicum Manu Scriptorum 
Bibliothecae Regiae Monacensis. Tomi III. Pars II. Codices Latinos con- 
tinens. 8vo. Munich, 1871. 

From the Camden Society : Publications, New Series II. Letters and Papers 
of John Shillingford, Mayor of Exeter 1447-50. Edited by Stuart A. 
Moore, F.S.A. 4to. London, 1871. 

From the Royal Institute of British Architects : 

1. Sessional Papers, 1871-72. No. 3. 4to. London, 1871. 

2. General Conference of Architects, 1871. Report of Proceedings. 4to. 
London, 1871. 

From the Author : The Christian Doctrine of Prayer for the Departed. By 
the Rev. Frederick George Lee, D.C.L. F.S.A. With cdpious notes and 
appendices. 8vo. London, 1872. 

From the Author : On the Early Occupation of the Cotteswold Hills by Man. 
By G. F. Playne. Read at Williton, October 5th, 1870. [From Proc. of 
the Cotteswold Club.] 8vo. 

From the Council of the Art Union of London : Report for the year 1871, with 
List of Members. 8vo. London, 1871. 

From A. W. Franks, Esq. M.A. V.P.S.A. : History and Plans of British Camps, 
Cromlechs, Meini Hirion, and Tomens, in the district of Lleyn, Carnarvon- 
shire, from Biddgelert on the east to Aberdaron on the west. By J. G. 
Williams, Penllyn, Pwllheli. 1871. 4to. Manuscript. 

The Neolithic Exhibition continued on view this evening, and 
during the following week. 

This being an evening appointed for the election of Fellows, 
no papers were read. 

The ballot opened at a quarter to nine and ended at half-past 
nine, when the following candidates were declared to be duly 
elected : 

Edward Shearme, Esq. 

George Charles Yates, Esq. 

Charles Shirley Brooks, Esq. 

Willianj Sedgwick Saunders, Esq., M.D. 



232 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

General John Meredith Read, Consul- General of the United 

States at Paris. 

Kev. William John Loftie, B.A. 
Rev. Richard Kirwan, M.A. 
Hugh Owen, Esq 

Honorary. 
Augusto Pereira do Yabo e Aiihaya Gallego Soromenho. 



Thursday, January 18th, 1871. 
Col. AUG. H. LANE FOX, V.P. in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From T. M'Kenny Hughes, Esq. F.S.A. : The Village Churches of Denbigh- 
shire, illustrated by Perspective, Geometrical, and Detail Drawings. By 
Lloyd- Williams and Underwood, Associates K.I.B.A. Denbigh. Fol. 

From Key. M. E. C. Walcott, B.D. F.S.A. : A Companion in a Tour round 
Lymington : comprehending a brief account of that place and its environs. 
By Kichard Warner, Jun. 12mo. Southampton, 1789 

From Messrs. Sawyer and Bird : The Ancient Sculptures in the roof of Norwich 
Cathedral, which exhibit the whole course of Scripture History. By the 
Very Kev. Edward Meyrick Goulburn, D.D. Part 1. Fol. London, 1872. 

From the Numismatic Society : The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the 
Numismatic Society. Vol. XI. New Series. No. 43. 8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Eoyal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland : The 
Archasological Journal. No. 111. 8vo. London, 1871. 

From Alfred Heales, Esq. F.S.A. : 

1. Chiddingfold Church. 8vo. London, 1871. 

2. Great Greenf ord Church. [From Transactions of London and Middlesex 
Archaeological Society, Vol. IV.] 8vo. 

The Neolithic Exhibition, which had been on view during the 
whole of the previous week, remained for this evening, supple- 
mented by a Collection of Stone Implements in use among the 
aborigines f Queensland, Australia, contributed by C. B. Gri- 
maldi, Esq., the specimens being selected with the object of 
showing : 

1st. That the chipped and the ground weapons of Australia 
form two separate stages. 

2ndly. The gradual progression from stone to metal weapons. 

A. W. FRANKS, Esq. V.R, delivered an address, in which he 
reviewed the varieties of form and material which might be 
observed in stone implements from different parts of the world ; 
passing in review the various countries in geographical order, 



Jan. 18.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUABIES. 233 

and referring to the examples of each to be found in the series 
of stone implements exhibited on the present occasion He then 
noticed the extraordinary similarities of form to be found in 
specimens from localities widely apart, which did not however, 
in his opinion, prove any close affinity between the races by 
which they were employed, but arose rather from the same 
necessities having produced the same results. 

He then adverted to the occasional discovery of types supposed 
to be peculiar to our country in another far distant from it. 
Such discoveries he considered to require more than ordinary 
confirmation., and should be viewed with suspicion. After citing 
a number of instances of this nature he attributed their occur- 
rence to the following causes : 

1. The fraud, carelessness, or ignorance of dealers. 

2. The carelessness or imperfect knowledge of collectors. 

3. Natural causes, such as the removal of rubbish from the 
neighbourhood of houses to the fields in the operation of agricul- 
ture, and the still larger removals caused by conveying ballast 
from one country to another by shipping. 

He illustrated these various modes of error by examples that 
had come under his notice, and directed to them the earnest 
attention of archaeologists, whose aim should be the truth and 
that only. 

Colonel A. H. LANE Fox, V.P. then addressed the meeting, 
observing that as they had already heard, in the interesting 
discourses of Mr. Evans and Mr. Franks, all that it was 
necessary to say in detail about the neolithic implements 
exhibited, he would endeavour to vary the subject by offering 
a few general remarks; and, as this was an exhibition of 
neolithic combined with savage implements, he would say a 
few words upon the connection which existed between the two 
classes and the necessity of studying the one in order to arrive 
at a right understanding of the other. He would observe in the 
first place, that as every exhibitor had sent a selection of the 
most remarkable specimens in his collection, the exhibition was 
calculated to convey an exaggerated idea of the skill and origi- 
nality of primeval man, and was but ill adapted to impress the 
mind with the very slow progress of continuity by which even 
the comparatively simple arts of the stone age of culture had 
been brought about. This, he thought, was a consideration of 
great moment in the study of prehistoric archaeology, because 
it was very difficult for civilised man to place himself in the 
position of the savage, and the most fallacious arguments are 
sometimes based upon the assumption that certain things must 
have been natural and self-evident to primeval man because 



234 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

they appear so to us. Colonel Lane Fox proceeded to dilate at 
some length upon this subject, and to show that it required a 
process of abstraction, in order to get at the ideas of a savage in 
any definite period of early culture. He next proceeded to 
examine the question, how far existing savages can be taken as 
the representatives of primeval man. Referring to the ethno- 
logical distribution of the human race, as defined by Professor 
Huxley and others, he showed that the line of demarcation 
between the stone and the metallurgic stages of culture did 
not in any way correspond to the racial boundaries, but that 
three out of four of the primeval groups of mankind are 'divided 
between the stone and metallurgic culture. The real boundary 
of the metallurgic arts was geographical, not racial, and this 
showed that the culture of a people depended chiefly on ' its 
geographical position with regard to the spread of the arts from 
certain centres in which a combination of generating elements, 
racial character being no doubt one, had been favourable to its 
growth. If this is true of the arts connected with metallurgy, 
it may be equally true of those of the stone age which preceded 
them. Assuming the general progression of humanity, or at 
least of human culture from a lower to a higher state, to be 
established, the question for sociologists to determine was, 
whether the lower phases of culture now found in the world are 
to be regarded as early branches from the same stem with the 
higher, or as independent growths ; and if the former, then to 
what extent the existing foliage of the branches can be taken to 
represent the condition of the parent stem at the time they 
branched from it? In the consideration of this subject, the 
speaker drew attention to the close resemblance between the 
stone implements of existing savages and those of the stone age 
of our own country; observing that, whatever the value we 
might be disposed to attach to the tools and weapons of a people 
as the representatives of their moral and intellectual culture, 
we have practically no alternative but to accept them as such, 
seeing that they are the only relics of our first parents remaining 
to us. Thus, the mode of flaking and fabricating flints for im- 
plements is shown to have been identical all over the world ; the 
arrow-heads of North America present us with all the four types 
that are common to this country. The almond-shaped celt was 
of the same form everywhere. The flint scrapers of the Esqui- 
maux show how flints of the form found in our own sub- 
soils were used and hafted, and the mode of boring holes in 
stones appears to have been the same in our age of stone as 
amongst existing savages. Turning to the weapons of the 
Australians, the lowest living representatives of our early cul- 



Jan. 25.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 235 

ture, we find internal evidence of their having been derived 
from natural forms, thus pointing unmistakeably to the inference 
that, low as their existing culture is, it is the highest to which 
they have ever attained, and that during the many ages which 
have witnessed the advance of civilisation in Asia and Europe 
these savages have remained unchanged, or have progressed 
but slowly. When we come to consider the causes of this re- 
tardation in some regions and amongst some people, we are met 
with difficulties arising chiefly from our inability to realise the 
conditions of a culture much lower than our own. Foremost 
amongst these causes may, however, be placed (as we learn from 
the testimony of travellers) the influence of stupidity, vested 
interest, superstition, and greed of personal power. To the 
presence of those qualities in race, combined with favourable 
external conditions, which enable us to war against such influ- 
ences, we are indebted for the advance in culture to which we 
have attained. Colonel Lane Fox concluded by offering some 
practical suggestions for the better studying of prehistoric archae- 
ology. 

A vote of special Thanks was accorded to the Fellows of the 
Society and other gentlemen who had contributed to form the 
Neolithic Exhibition, and to John Evans, Esq. F.R.S. F.S.A. 
A. W. Franks, Esq. V.P. and Col. A. H. Lane Fox, Y.P. for 
their addresses. 

The very efficient assistance rendered by Mr. Gay, who under- 
took and ably carried out the arrangement of the collection, was 
also cordially acknowledged. 



Thursday, January 25th, 1872. 
EAEL STANHOPE, President, in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From Rev. John VVilson, D.D. F.S.A. :--Fasti Ecclesia3 Hibernicaj. Illus- 
trations, Corrections, and Additions. By Henry Cotton, D.C.L. Vol. 5. 8vo 
Dublin, 1860. 

From the London Institution : Their Journal. No. 10. Vol. 2. Svo. London 

1872. 

From the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester : Proceedings 
Vol. XL No. 7. Svo. Manchester, 1872. 

From the Royal Institute of British Architects: Sessional Papers, 1871-72 
No. 4. 4to. London, 1872. 



236 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

From the Editor, Rev. A. B. Grimaldi : A Synopsis of English History from 
the Earliest Times to the year 1870. By Stacey Grimaldi, F.S.A. Second 
Edition. 8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Author : Sepultures du Cimetiere Merovingien de Liverdun (Meurthe). 
Par M. Charles Cournault. 8vo. 

From the Kilkenny and South-East of Ireland Archaeological Society. Vol. VI. 
New Series. No. 58. 8vo. Dublin, 1871. 

The nomination by the President of the following gentlemen 
to act as Auditors of the Society's accounts was read : 

Lieut.- Col. John Farnaby Lennard. 
Thomas Lewin, Esq. 
The Lord Henniker. 
John Winter Jones, Esq. 

Edward Shearme, Esq. was admitted a Fellow. 

MORRIS CHARLES JONES, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited a small Spur 
of brass, or a similar mixed metal, found recently in the Great 
Van Mine, Montgomeryshire. 

The arms of the spur were short, each about two inches long, 
and appear never to have been furnished with buckles. A slit 
for a small rowel, which, however, had been lost, terminated 
the nearly straight neck, about one inch long. The spur pro- 
bably belonged to the early part of the sixteenth century, while 
back plates for the leg still remained in use, to which the spur 
was riveted. There are several examples of this spur in the 
Meyrick Collection of Armour. 

The Venerable Archdeacon TROLLOPE, F.S.A. Local Secretary 
for Lincolnshire, exhibited a handsome spur of steel, strongly 
plated with silver, ornamented with chased work of handsome 
renaissance design and good execution. It was found on the 
spot where the battle of Stoke-upon-Trent was fought, but would 
rather appear to belong to a later period than that action. 

W. M. WYLIE, Esq. F.S.A. Local Secretary for Hampshire, 
exhibited, by permission of James Pringle, Esq. of Torwoodlee, 
N.B., five documents from the muniment chest of that gentle- 
man, which may be described as follows : 

1. Dispensation, under the seal of John Archbishop of St. 
Andrew's, Primate of the Eealm of Scotland and Legate of the 
Holy Apostolic See, with power of Legate a latere, dated at 
Edinburgh, 1556, vii. Id. Maii, in the fourth year of Pope 
Paul IV., for the marriage of Thomas Hoppringill and Isabelle 



Jan. 25.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 237 

Hoppringill the parties being related in the fourth degree of 
consanguinity. A fragment only of the seal is pendant from a 
silken lace, which passes through three holes in a pointed 
oval plate of tinned iron, furnished with a rim, of which part 
only remains, but which, when entire, served to protect the seal, 
and possibly was fitted with a cover. 

In an Italian hand, on the fold over the lace, is the word 
Datarim; in the left corner, u F. Petrus," indorsed with a note of 
registration. The whole character of the instrument is in imita- 
tion of the style of the Roman chancery. 

John Crighton was the last Archbishop of St. Andrew's who 
adhered to the Church of Rome. 

2. Admission of James Pringle, of Torwoodlie, January 21, 
1691, before James Maklurge, dean of gild, and the gild coun- 
cell, to be a Burges and Gildbrother of the City of Edinburgh, 
" be right of Issobel Hall his spous, daughter lawfull to Sir 
John Hall of Dunglas, Knight and Barronet, Present Lord 
Provost of the said Citie." He paid u for his duetie to the 
Dean of Gild threttie three shilling four pennies, and watches 
twentee four shilling." 

The first words, and the name of the person admitted, are in 
large Roman letters gilt ; the rest in a good bastard Italian hand. 

3, 4, 5. Three notarial Instruments of Sasine of lands in the 
neighbourhood of Berwick and Edinburgh, dated respectively 
in 1486, 1548, and 1618. 

The first was an infeudation by Alexander de Settone of Tuly- 
body of his son of the same name. 

The second recorded the Sasine of Archibald son and heir of 
Gawin Hoppringill deceased, by virtue of an instrument of 
Sasine under the hand and seal of Sir Gawin Vallange, chaplain 
of the altar of the Blessed Virgin within the parish church of 
St. Michael Musselburgh, superior lord of the fee. 

The third recorded the Sasine of James son and heir of 
James Pringle of Fynneis deceased, by virtue of a precept of 
dare constat under the hand and seal of John Archbishop of 
Saint Andrew's, the lands being within the regality of St. 
Andrew's, of which he was superior lord. 

In this latter instrument the surname is spelled both Hop- 
pringill and Pringyll. Some speculations as to the signification 
of the first syllable of the name, now quite disused, will be found 
in Burke's Landed Gentry, article Pringle of Yair. 

S. R. PATTISON, Esq., exhibited a copper or Bronze Vessel of 
Roman workmanship similar to those described by Edwin Old- 
field, Esq. F.S.A. in the Archasologia, xli. 325, found in the 



238 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

Buitron copper mine near Huelva in Andalusia. The handle of 
this bowl, which is elegantly fashioned, will be figured in the 
Archseologia, vol. xliii. 

The Venerable Archdeacon TROLLOPE, F.S.A., exhibited a 
recent impression from the brass matrix of the Seal of Richard 
Duke of Gloucester (afterwards King Richard III.)? as Admiral 
of England, in the counties of Dorset and Somerset. Some 
remarks on this seal made by C. S. PERCEVAL, Esq. LL.D., 
Director, will be printed in the Archaeologia. 

The Rev. T. SALWEY exhibited the Matrix of an Ecclesiastical 
Seal, to which the Director drew attention in the following 
observations : 

Mr. Salwey exhibits this evening the matrix in morse ivory 
of the Seal of the Peculiar Jurisdiction of Leighton. This inter- 
esting example of a rare class of seals has been for many years 
in the possession of Mr. Salwey and his family, though all trace 
of the source whence it came to them has been lost. It is to the 
good offices of Mr. Albert Way that we are indebted for this 
exhibition. 

The matrix is of the pointed oval form usual in ecclesiastical 
seals. It measures 2f by If inches, and is provided at the back 
with a three-lobed handle, pierced for suspension, of one piece 
with the seal. The device is the usual mediaeval representation of 
the Holy Trinity, placed under a canopy of Perpendicular style. 
Beneath, in a niche with a head formed by two round arches, is 
a small figure, full-faced, in a standing or kneeling posture, with 
the hands clasped in prayer, and surrounded by four full-faced 
heads (angels or saints), each surmounted by a curved line with 
a dot above it, which may perhaps be intended for a nimbus. 

The legend, in Roman characters, reads 

SIGILLVM OFFICII * PECVLIARIS * JVRISDICTIONIS ' DE ' LEIGHTON 

Ivory is a material which does not lend itself to much elabor- 
ation of detail in a work of this sort, and the workmanship of 
this matrix is of a rude and debased character. The faces of the 
different figures are almost grotesque in their simplicity. 

Apart from the legend, the letters of which can hardly be 
earlier than the middle or the first third of the sixteenth century, 
the execution of the seal might be placed in or about the year 
1480. 

Before endeavouring to decide the question of what particular 
ecclesiastical court this seal belonged to, I propose to say a few 
words as to the nature and history of the peculiar jurisdictions ; 



Jan. 25.] SOCIETY or ANTIQUARIES. 239 

and in this I hope I may be pardoned, for, although these juris- 
dictions existed up to the time of the passing of the Act estab- 
lishing Her Majesty's Court of Probate, little was even then 
generally known as to them, and in these days we live so fast 
that they have already almost passed into the domain of anti- 
quity. 

The word Peculiar is variously used in ecclesiastical law, 
but taken generally it has much the same meaning as franchise 
in the common law, implying the existence of local jurisdiction 
enjoyed by some person (as it were in peculio), more or less inde- 
pendently of the ordinary or other person having judicial 
authority in the surrounding district. 

Jurisdictions peculiar and exempt from the Diocesan are : 

1. Royal Peculiars. " The King's Free Chapel is a royal 
peculiar exempted from all spiritual jurisdiction, and referred to 
the immediate government of the King ; there are also some 
peculiar ecclesiastical jurisdictions belonging to the Kirg, which 
formerly appertained to monasteries or religious houses."* 

2. Archbishop's Peculiars. " Archbishops had their pecu-' 
liars, which are not only in the neighbouring diocese, but dis- 
persed up and down in remoter places ; for it appears by 
Eadmerus that wherever the archbishop had an estate belonging 
to him he had sole jurisdiction as ordinary."t 

3. The peculiars of certain Deans and Chapters,' as of St. 
Paul's, of the Dean and Chapter of Salisbury, of the Dean and 
Chapter of Lichfield, depending upon ancient compositions 
entered into between them and their respective bishops. 

4. Certain peculiars belonging originally to certain monas- 
teries. 

There are also peculiar jurisdictions not exempt from, but 
subordinate to, the bishop of the diocese. 

Such are peculiars which belong to deans and chapters 
(other than the exempt jurisdictions just mentioned), or to a 
prebendary, exempted from the archdeacon only. " They are 
derived from the bishop, of ancient composition, and may be 
visited by the bishop, in his primary and triennial visitation ; 
in the meantime the official of the dean and chapter, or the 
prebendary, is the judge ; and from hence the appeal lieth to 
the bishop of the diocese. "{ 

Robert, Bishop of Lincoln, about the year 1160, by an in- 
strument under his seal, released perpetually all the prebends in 
the church from episcopal rights and exactions, willing that all 
the canons of Lincoln should have perpetual liberty in their 



* Wood's Institute, 530. f Ayliffe, Parerg. 418. % Wood, 530. 



240 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

prebends, and all possessions thereto belonging. So that thence- 
forward it should be unlawful for any archdeacon, or official of 
an archdeacon, to exact anything procurations, visitations, 
fees, &c. from the prebends or churches appertaining to the 
Church of Lincoln, or to implead any of their tenants ; but 
that they (1.0. the canons) should have in all respects the 
same liberty as the canons of Salisbury had in their own 
churches. And at the same time this bishop addressed a man- 
date to each of .his archdeacons, informing them that he had 
absolved all the canons of Lincoln from the subjection which the 
archdeacons theretofore had used to require from the prebends 
of the canons, as well in respect of the prebends themselves 
(i.e. the manors and churches) as the inhabitants thereof. 

We have here a clear account of the origin and establishment 
of the peculiar jurisdiction of the prebendaries in the Church of 
Lincoln. Similar privileges were obtained by the canons of 
other churches; at Salisbury, as we have just seen, even earlier 
than at Lincoln. Certain of the prebendaries of Hereford, 
several of those of Lichfield, and all or most at York and Wells, 
had peculiar jurisdiction within their respective prebends. In 
the remaining three English churches of the old foundation, 
namely St. Paul's, Chichester, and Exeter, the prebendaries do 
not appear to have had such jurisdiction. 

The main advantages accruing to the possessors of these 
peculiars were the exemption from the visitation of, and con- 
sequent exactions by way of procurations and fees, of the Arch- 
deacons and their officials ; and the profits of testamentary and 
sometimes matrimonial jurisdiction. At Lincoln, for instance, 
the prebendaries possessed the right of proving wills and grant- 
ing administrations of the goods of persons dying within the 
jurisdiction, concurrently with the consistory court of the 
bishop, but to the exclusion of the courts of the bishop's com- 
missaries in the four archdeaconries and of the archdeacons 
themselves. During the bishop's visitation these peculiar 
courts, as well as the inferior courts of the bishop's commis- 
saries and of the archdeacons, were inhibited. During these 
seasons the business was conducted in the name of the chan- 
cellor of the diocese. 

The rectors and vicars of several parishes, particularly in 
the diocese of Worcester, had also peculiar jurisdiction similar 
to that exercised by the prebendaries of whom mention has been 
made, and doubtless originating also from episcopal grants. 

The judge of these, as of other ecclesiastical courts, is almost 
always styled the Official, though the duties were sometimes 
performed by a Commissary : instances of both titles are found 
on the seals in the subjoined list. 



Jan. 25.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 241 

To return to Mr. Salwey's seal, that of the peculiar jurisdic- 
tion of Leighton. 

There were two prebends of that name in the Cathedral 
Church of Lincoln, namely, that of Leighton Bozard, Buzzard, 
or Beaudesert, in the county of Bedford, and locally situated 
within that archdeaconry ; and that of Leighton Bromswold 
(alias Leighton Ecclesia), in the county of Huntingdon, and 
locally situated in that archdeaconry.* 

The seal is probably that of Leighton Buzzard, which was 
the largest and most important jurisdiction. The collegiate 
church there was dedicated to All Saints, while that of Leighton 
Bromswold was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, whose image 
we should expect to find on a seal of that jurisdiction. 

The number of exempt and peculiar jurisdictions in England 
was very large. According to the Parliamentary Return of 
1832 the number of Courts of Peculiars then existing was as 
follows : 

Royal ... .... 11 

Archiepiscopal and Episcopal . . . .14 

Decanal, Sub-Decanal, &c. , . . .44 

Prebcndal . . . . . . .88 

Rectorial and Vicarial . . . . .63 

Other Peculiars . . . . . .17 

Lords of Manors (mostly courts belonging origin- 
ally to Monasteries dissolved having exempt 
jurisdiction) . . . . . . . 48 

Testamentary jurisdiction survived theoretically in all or 
nearly all of these courts, up to the year 1857, when the Act of 
Parliament was passed which constituted Her Majesty's Court of 
Probate. The matrimonial jurisdiction, where it existed, had 
been seriously affected, and even abolished in some cases by the 
operation of statute law. Practically the proving of wills, in 
the smaller courts, had in a very large number of cases fallen 
into desuetude for a length of time before the passing of the 
Probate Act. 

Considering that each of these numerous courts must have 
had a seal for the transaction of business, it is, at first sight, 
surprising that so few examples, either of matrices or of impres- 
sions to documents, should have been noticed by sigillographers ; 
and, again, it is somewhat remarkable that of those which have 
been noticed the majority are of very recent date, relatively to 
the antiquity of the courts to which they belong. One of the 
oldest in the list subjoined is a late fourteenth-century seal of 
the jurisdiction of Little Malvern. 

* Until recently both archdeaconries, Bedford and Huntingdon, belonged to 
the diocese of Lincoln. 

VOL. V. H 



242 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

The matrices of many of these seals are probably still to be 
found in the custody of the late registrars of the respective 
courts. They are now for the most part useless, as the shadow 
of jurisdiction which may still remain annexed to any peculiar 
untouched by modern legislation can seldom require the use of 
a seal.* There is, therefore, much likelihood that in the course 
of the next few years all that remain will be thrown away as old 
metal. In the meantime it would be very desirable, if the 
matrices cannot be obtained for the national collection, that im- 
pressions, at all events, should be secured. Some of these seals 
may possess special features of artistic or historical interest. As 
memorials of a bye-gone state of society all would be worth 
preserving. 

As to original impressions, their rarity will be partly accounted 
for when we recollect that they can only occur on instruments 
of a personal and transient interest (namely, wills of personalty, 
sentences and dispensations in causes ecclesiastical), not con- 
nected with the land, and consequently not worth preserving 
as title deeds. Wills of land, I need hardly say, were unknown 
to the general common law before the Statute of Wills in 
Henry YIII's. time. Where such a will could be made, it was 
almost always under a local custom of a city or borough, and to 
have effect was enrolled not in the spiritual, but in the temporal 
court as, for instance, in London, in the Hustings Court. 

It must also be borne in mind that so far as regards the pre- 
bendal and other small peculiars, the jurisdiction was in each case 
confined to one or two parishes, and that the number of instru- 
ments passing under any one seal must always have been pro- 
portionately small. 

The following brief list comprises all the examples at present 
known to me of seals of peculiars. If leisure permitted, it 
might no doubt be increased to some extent from published 
sources. Such as it is, it may at least serve to awaken curi- 
osity on the subject, and may induce others to assist in making 
it more perfect. 

Many of these descriptions are from impressions which have 
been most kindly submitted to me by James Kendrick, Esq. M,D. 
of Warrington, whose collection includes the majority of the whole 
number of seals in the list. 

KOYAL. 

1. The Commissary of the exempt jurisdiction ef the Royal 
Hospital of St. Katherme, by the Tower of London. Subject : 

* I am told that marriage licences still issue under the seal of the Peculiar of 
Great Canford. This is probably one of a very few similar cases. 



Jan. 25.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 243 

St. Catherine. No legend. Figured by Ducarel and Nichols, 
in their Histories of the Hospital. 

2. Same Court. Seal temp. Ed. VI. " Regiae Majestatis ad 
causas Ecclesiasticas." Royal arms. See Archseologia, xxxiv. 
438; Proc. Soc. Ant. Loud. ii. 113. Matrix extant. 

3. Peculiar and exempt jurisdiction of Penkridge, co. Stafford. 
Formerly a Collegiate Church and Royal Free Chapel. Seal 
of Daniel Piper, A.M. official and commissary. Subject : Dove 
with olive branch. Seventeenth century 

4. Peculiar and exempt jurisdiction of the King's Free Chapel 
of St. Mary in Shrewsbury. The church, formerly collegiate, 
forms part of the endowment of Shrewsbury School. Two seals : 
a. Church with tall spire. S. OFFICIAL . PECUL . ET . EXEMPT . 
JURISD . LIB . CAPELL . REG . B. MARIE . SALOP. Eighteenth 
century, b. A still later seal in imitation of old work, B. V. M. 
seated. Legend, as the last, but letter V after MARIE. 

5. Great Canfbrd and Poole, Dorset. This appears to have 
been an exempt jurisdiction belonging to Bradenstoke Priory. 
Having come into the hands of the Crown, it has been called 
Royal. Dr. Kendrick has an impression of a seventeenth ceil-, 
tury seal, not unlike that of Exeter Dean and Chapter (see 
below), said to belong to this Court. Subject: a rude ogee- 
arched portal with two doors. A shield below, which is blank, 
as is also the legend-space. 

6. Wimborne Minster. Formerly a Royal Free. Chapel, made 
exempt by Letters Patent 11 Edward II. The shadow of a col- 
legiate church with three vicars, of whom one was the Official, 
remains, or did so till lately. Dr. Kendrick has a poor impres- 
sion of an oval seal with a figure in long drapery. Legend : 
SlGILLUM D'NI. OFFICIALIS. DE WlMBORNE MlNSTER 1685. 

ARCHIEPISCOPAL . 

7. The Official of the Dean of the Arches, fifteenth century. 
B. Y. M. under a canopy, and a kneeling figure. Matrix extant. 
Proc. Soc. Ant. Lond. iv. 273. 

8. Court of Abp. of Canterbury for Deaneries of Pagham and 
Tarring, at Chi Chester. A fifteenth-century seal of a suffragan (?) 
bishop (See uncertain) was used in 1853 for this Court. See 
Chichester Catalogue Arch. Instit. p. 107. Brass matrix with 
the chapter clerk. 

9. Francis Ringstede, L.L. Bacc. Commissary of the Peculiar 
Jurisdictions of Canterbury, in the county of Sussex (i.e. of the 
Deaneries of South Mailing, Pagham, and Tarring). A curious 
seal, date about 1610. An angel of justice with RVAT CCELVM 
FIAT IVSTITIA on two labels, above and below. Impression 
exhibited by Mr. W. Figg, F.S.A. at the Archaeological Institute 

R 2 



244 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

Congress at Chichester, 1853, described in the Catalogue of the 
temporary Museum formed there, as the Official Seat of the 
Peculiar of the Archbishop of Canterbury at Lewes. 

10. Dean of Deanery of Booking. A shield bearing a cross 
between four dolphins embowed. SIGILLVM DECANI DECANATVS 
DE BOOKING IN COM. ESSEX. 1596. 

11. Charles Trumbull, LL.D. "Dean or Commissary of ' the 
Deanery of Booking, " &c. Personage seated on a chair, helow 
which coat of arms bearing a chevron. Undecipherable legend ; 
wafer impression to a probate dated 1683. Add. Ch. 10, 574. 

12. Saltwood, by Hythe in Kent, formerly an Archiepiscopal 
Manor. Peculiar said in Lewis' Topographical Dictionary to 
belong to the archbishop ; not returned in 1828. Possibly the 
peculiar is rectorial. A ship, one-masted, with furled sail, on 
waves of the sea, wherein swim two fishes. + S. IURDICCIONIS : 
ECCL'IE D' SALTWODE. Fourteenth century matrix penes Mr. Rolfe 
of Sandwich. 

13. Wingham, in Kent, between Canterbury and Sandwich, 
is also stated to have been an archiepiscopa] peculiar. Though 
-no distinct court appears to have survived here, there is in the 
British Museum a seal (described Proc. Soc. Ant. Lond. 2 S. 
iii. 74,) of the pointed oval form ; subject, B. Y. M. with 
kneeling ecclesiastic: Legend s. OFFICIALITATIS DE WENGHAM. 
The church here was formerly collegiate. 

DECANAL AND CAPITULAR. 

Exeter. 

14. Consistory Court of the Dean and Chapter over thirty 
peculiars'. 

A figure of Justice under a rude three-foiled arch, supported 
by circular masoned pillars ; beneath, a buck's head caboshed 
between two flowers slipped. THE SEAL OF THE JURISDICTION 
OF THE DEAN AND CHAPTER OF EXETER. Seventeenth century. 

Lincoln. 

15. Dean and Chapter. Seal for Oxfordshire and Bucks. 
They had several peculiars in these two counties. The return 
of 1828 gives a separate court for each. There would seem 
to have been one seal for all towards the end of the sixteenth 
century, to which date probably belongs a seal bearing a figure 
with cross in hand and long robes, passant. 

The Legend -f SIG : OFFIC . DECA . ET . CAP . LING . PRO . PEC . 
IVR . IN . COM : ox : ET : BVC. 



Jan. 25.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 245 

Norwich. 

16. Peculiar Court of the Dean and Chapter. Seal for 
Plumstead Magna, one of fifteen parishes within the juris- 
diction. Oval-pointed seal, 2 inches long. Subject, under a 
canopy a bishop in pontificals, in benediction ; beneath, a shield 
bearing a cross between two others patee in chief [and as many 
flowers in base ?] Legend : 

Stgtllu (?) ofuctalitaf : peculiar : turtetoict : to : plugteto* 

A fifteenth-century seal, consequently belonging to the Prior 
and Convent, rather than to the Dean and Chapter. 

Salisbury. 

17. Peculiar Court of the Dean. Seal of the officially. 
B.V.M. angels around, shield below. On the only impression I 
have seen the arms on the shield are not clear. Legend in cor- 
rupt Gothic; 

SIGILLVM: OFFICIALITATISH- IVBISDICCIONIS -f DECON^ATVS -f SARVM. 

18. Deanery of Sunning, one of the dean's peculiars. A 
seal " Regise Majestatis, &c." Temp. Edw. VI. Matrix penes 
Soc. Antiq. Lond. See Archgeologia, iii, 414. 

PREBEND AL. 
LicTifield. 

19. Prees, or Pipe Minor. Oval seal, dated 1633. Large 
open book held by a hand issuing from clouds in chief, among 
which is a cherub's head. Figured, sed ubi qucere ? 

20. Sawley. Seal " Regise Majestatis," &c. temp. Edward 
VI. Legend, probably blundered, reads PRO : BENDARII DE 
SALLE. Matrix extant. At the Gloucester meeting of the Arch. 
Inst. 1860, it was exhibited by Rev. S. Lysons as the seal of 
Saul, a perpetual curacy near Gloucester, once belonging to the 
abbey there.^ A note on an old impression at Somerset House 
says that the seal was in the custody of the deputy registrar at 
Gloucester. However, there never was a prebendary of Saul, 
while Sawley is a prebend in the church of Lichfield which had 
peculiar jurisdiction. How the matrix travelled to Gloucester 
I cannot tell, but of its attribution there can be little doubt. 

Lincoln. 

21. Biggleswade, c. 1620, Ivory matrix lately belonging to 
Mr. Bateman of Youlgrave. Pelican in her piety. On a 
scroll, Sic CHRISTUS [suos?] + SIGILLVM. CHR'OFERI . SVTTON . 
PREBENDARII . DE . BiCKLESWADE. Christopher Sutton was col- 
lated in 1618. Journ. Arch. Assoc. 17, pi. 8, fig. 4, p. 75. 



246 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

22. Dunham alias Dunholme. Rude representation of a per- 
sonage in a high-backed chair. SIGILL : PREB : PREB : DE 
DUNHAM. Impression of ivory or bone matrix in library St. 
John's Coll. Camb. Archaeological Journal, x. 263. 

23. Leighton (Buzzard ?). Morse ivory matrix penes Rev. 
T. Salwey, described above. 

24. Leicester. St. Margaret, eighteenth century. Shield 
with arms of See of Lincoln, impaling, Gules, a chevron arg. 
between three crescents erm. (Gosling.) SIGILL PREBEND. 
S. MARGARETS LEICESTR. Nichols's Leicestersh. vol. i..pt. 2, 
p. 624, and pi. xli. John Gostling was collated to this prebend 
in 1689. 

25. Long Stowe. A seal of the fraternity of Saint Lazarus -of 
Jerusalem, described Proc. Soc. Ant. Lond. iv. 273, was used 
up to 1837 as the official seal of this peculiar. 

Salisbury. 

26. Calne. Small lozenge-shaped seal, late sixteenth or early 
seventeenth century. A full-length figure, bearded, in a long 
gown, the hands joined in prayer. SIGILLVM . OFFici\_alis~] 

PECVLIARIS . IVRISDICTIONIS . DE . CALNE. 

York. 

27. Masham. Silver matrix, apparently of late sixteenth- 
century work, very poor. A bearded kneeling figure, with a 
chalice. Proc. Soc. Ant. Lond. 2 S. iv. 270. 

RECTORIAL. 

Norwich. 

28. Great Cressingham. A sword erect, the pomel divides 
the date MCC | xcvu. Beneath, the words GLADIUM SPIRITUS. 
The origin of this peculiar is clear enough from Blomefield. 
The prior and convent had spiritual jurisdiction exempt from 
the bishop in all their manors and churches, of which Great 
Cressingham was one. Instead of ordaining a vicarage, they 
left the rector in possession, and took from him an annual 
pension of four marks, and for two shillings a year more ceded 
the peculiar jurisdiction to him. 

Rochester. 

29. ClifFe. Hand grasping staff. . <SHfictaltt[a]tf tUtt'0- 
fctCttontg [de?] . . Cltffe, Figured in Rawlinson's Topographer, 
93, 94, where the doubtful words are thus supplied, lit. patOCf)* 
tf, a reading scarcely warranted by the only impression I 
have seen. A poor fifteenth-century seal. Matrix in the 
Bodleian. Impression penes Soc. Antiq. 



Jan. 25.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 247 

Worcester. 

30. Alveclmrch. Perspective representation of a church ; 
beneath two shields. 1. Worcester see, impaling Arg., a bend 
sa. ensigned with a mitre, for Bishop Hough. 2. Arg. a chevron 
between three escallops sable. Crest : a blackamoor's head. 
Littleton. Legend, THE SEAL OF THE PECULIAR IURISDICTION OF 
ALVECHURCH, 1742. 

31. Hampton Lucy. Perspective view of a church. Legend 
SIG. COM'RII SIVE OFFI'LIS PECUL : IVRIS'NIS DE HAMPTON EP'I 
IN DIOC : UIGORN. Eighteenth century. 

32. Hanbury. B. V. M. and child on high-backed throne; 
beneath, a shield bearing a fess between six martlets. Legend 
SIGILLV' : PECULIARIS : IVRISDICT1ONIS : ECCL'IE : DE : HANBERI. 
Perhaps a sixteenth-century copy of thirteenth-century work. 

33. Hartlebury. Oval, late fifteenth-century. St. James. 

SlGILLU' : PECULIARIS I IURISDICCOIS : DE HERTILBURY. Nash, 

Wore. i. 575, fig. 

34. Hartlebury. Another seal. A church. Legend nearly as 
33, but the word ECCLESIASTICS after IVRIS'NIS. 

35. Ripple. Square-capped figure in profile, clad in a gown. 
Legend -i SIGILLV' IVRISDI'TIONIS RECTORIS DE RIPVL. Seven- 
teenth century. 

36. Stratford-oii-Avon. Seal "Regioo Majestatis," temp. Edw. 
VI. Archasologia, xxxiv. 438. Matrix extant. 

37. Stratford. Another seal. Hideous conventional repre- 
sentation of a church. Legend, in two concentric rings, SEAL 
OF THE REVD. JAS. DAVENPORT ORDINARY JUDGE OF ECCLE- 
SIASTICAL PECULIAR JURISDIC'N OF STRATFORD UPON AVON. A 
Dr. Davenport was rector in 1830. 

38. Tredington. Under a canopy of Perpendicular work, 
St. Peter seated ; tiara on his head, and double or patriarchal 
cross staff. Legend : 

StjjtUu' : often : fcecanat' : to tretotngton. 

Fifteenth century. A cast is in the Prattinton collection at 
Somerset House. The ancient parish was of great extent and 
belonged to the church of Worcester and formed a detached part 
of the hundred of Oswaldslow T . There were several chapelries 
dependent on the mother church, and the benefice appears at one 
time to have been termed a deanery, but it does not give its 
name to the present rural deanery. In the last century the 
living was divided, by a private Act of Parliament, into three 
rectories, Tredington having two rectors styled Senior and 
Junior Portionists. The peculiar jurisdiction is recited in the 
Act (of which there is a printed copy, without date, in the 



248 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [~1872 ? 

Prattinton collection,) to have been exercised from time imme- 
morial by the rector, and it is reserved to the Senior Portionist. 
In 1830 the rector bearing this title was Official of this peculiar 
according to the Parliamentary return. 

These were all manors belonging, with the advowsons, to the 
bishops of Worcester. 

Winchester. 

39. Overtoil. Sinecure rectory. Three spires, suggesting a 
corrupted version of an early seal representing a church. Legend, 
SlGILL . PECUL . IVBISDIC . 1640 . 1)E OVERTON . IN . COM SVTH. 

MANORIAL AND OTHER PECULIARS. 

40. Castle Rising, co. Norfolk. A rude figure of Justice, with 
sword and scales, beneath on a sort of plinth SWM CVTQVE. 
Below this a shield bearing a chevron between three talbots 
passant. No legend. The rector was the Official, but according 
to Blomefield he would appear to derive his jurisdiction from 
the lord of the town, and not from any monastic exemption. 

41. Corfe Castle, dioc. Bristol (now Sarum). Officially of 
Peculiar, 1668. A curious seal, bearing a skeleton with hour- 
glass and dart. Figured Journ. Arch. Assoc. vol. 17, pi. 8, 
fig. 3. The advowson of the rectory of Corfe belonged to 
Shaftesbury Abbey. 

42. Rothley Manor and Soke, co. Leicester, dioc. Lincoln. 
A seventeenth-century seal with arms of Babington and legend, 

SlGIL : CONSERV : SPIRITUAL : ECCLE : IURISDIC : DE : ROTHELEY, 

COM : LEIC. is engraved in Nichols's Leicestershire, iii. 955, 
pi. cxxx. Rothley belonged to the Templars, and passed to the 
Hospitallers. 

43. Exempt jurisdiction formerly of Battle Abbey, co. Sussex, 
called the Deanery of Battle. A tonsured head in profile : 
above is an object which may be described as a label of two 
points. 

44. Bibury, dioc. Gloucester, formerly of Abbat and .Convent 
of Oseney. Scrolled shield bearing a bend vary. Legend, 
SIGILL . PECYL . IVRISDC'ON DE BiBVRY IN COM : GLOUC. Seven- 
teenth century? 

45. Burton-on-Trent, dioc. Lichfield, formerly of the mitred 
abbey there. Modern seal. Abbat mitred, but in a gown instead 
of eucharistic vestments. Legend, SIGILLV. OFFICIALITAT BVRTON. 

46. South Cave, dioc. York. Formerly belonging to the 
church of York, now in lay hands. Large shield, quarterly. 
1 and 4, a bear sejant, Barnard ; 2 and 3, Barry, a saltire sur- 
mounted of another. Crest, a demi-bear, muzzled. Legend, 



Jan. 25.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 249 

THE SEAL OF THE LORD OWNER AND PROPRlETAR[y] OF THE 
PECULIAR JURISDICTION OF SOUTH CAVE. 

47. Dale Abbey, dioc. Lichf. (dissolved Monastery). A cross 
incline, outlined merely. Legend, DALE ABBEY PECULIAR. 
Eighteenth century. 

48. The matrix of copper or a red mixed metal, of a seal of 
an awkward oval form, nearly 3 inches long, by about 2 inches 
broad, with the device of a pelican in her piety, accompanied by 
the words EN SANGVIN' EN sic PULLOS ALE, and the initials T M, is 
preserved at Sion House, in the muniment chamber of the Duke 
of Northumberland. I am indebted to Mr. A. Way for an 
impression. The legend in three distinct lines, one within the 
other, is as follows: (- SIGILLVM JOHANNIS PEILINGE OFFI- 

CIAL1S * DOI EDWARDI ' SEIMER ' COMITIS ' HERTFORD!^ * IN 
PECVLIARIBV * SVIS * XX* ' IVRISDICTIONIBVS . DE * BED WINE ' 
MAG ' COLLINGBORNE * DVC ' ET ' TRVBRIDGE. 

Bedwine ]\lagna (and Parva, a chapelry thereof ) formed a 
prebend in the church of Salisbury, which, in Henry VIII. 's 
time, was suppressed, and the estates given to Edward Seymour 
Earl of Hertford, afterwards Lord Protector. The jurisdiction 
is said to have extended to the parish of Collingbourne Ducis, 
parcel of the Duchy of Lancaster, also the subject of a grant to 
the Protector. On the attainder in 1552 these estates were 
forfeited, but regranted by Queen Elizabeth to ' the second 
Edward Seymour, eldest son of the Protector by his second 
wife, which Edward was, by a fresh creation in 1559, restored 
to the dignity of Earl of Hertford. 

Trowbridge was also the subject of a grant to the Protector. 
1 am unable at present to trace its ecclesiastical history. It had, 
however, a peculiar jurisdiction, ,but belonging to the Bishop of 
Salisbury. 

Up to 1847, when all peculiar jurisdiction was abolished in 
the diocese of Salisbury, the Marquis of Aylesbury, the successor 
of the Seymours, exercised, through his official, the jurisdiction 
which had belonged to the Prebendary of Bedwyn Magna,f and 
in the often-quoted Parliamentary Returns, his court is styled 
the Court of the Lord Warden of Savernake Forest. 

It is uncertain whether this seal belonged to the official of 
the Protector, and was made before his promotion to the Duke- 
dom of Somerset in 1547, or whether, as seems more likely, it 
dates from the days of the second Earl of Hertford, 1559-1621. 
In 1591, one Pellinge was instituted to the living of Trowbridge 
on the presentation of the second Earl, and he is probably the 
same person who graduated at Oxford, B.A. 1583, B.D. 1597, 
and whose name appears on the seal as the Official of the 

* Two letters seem to have been cancelled here. 
f See Wilts Areh. Mar. vi. 267. 



250 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

Peculiar. The Wiltshire estates, which had descended to William 
the third Duke, passed on his death in 1671 to his sister 'and heir 
general the Countess of Aylesbury, ancestress to the present 
owners of Savernake, and it is singular that the matrix in question 
should not have accompanied the title deeds of that property. It 
was found, I understand, some years back at Northumberland 
House. 

This seal would perhaps more properly be classed among 
those of prebendal peculiars. 

49. Evington, dioc. Lincoln. Exempt jurisdiction, formerly 
of Abb. and Conv. of Leicester. Seal bearing arms of Caven- 
dish. SIG. . DN^E. . RHOD^E . CAVENDISH . PRO . PECUL . DE . 
EVINGTON. She was widow of Lord Henry Cavendish," 1700- 
1730. Nichols's Leicestersh. vol. ii. pt. 2, 559. 

50. Little Malvern, dioc. Worcester (dissolved Priory). The 
peculiar jurisdiction probably ceased on the dissolution. Not 
returned in 1828. Good fourteenth-century seal. St. Giles 
under a canopy. SIGILLUM JURISDICTIONS PARVE MALVERNIE. 
Impression in Prattinton coll. Soc. Antiq. Lond. 

51. Fountains Abbey, dioc. York (now Ripon). A small 
circular seal with B.V.M. Legend, CVRIA B. MARI^ DE FON- 
TIBVS. The lettering very late in character. Figured in Visi- 
tor's Guide to Harrogate. Quaere, if this be a seal of a peculiar ? 

52. Sturminster Marshall, co Dorset. Peculiar (exempt?) 
jurisdiction, formerly of the Alien Priory of Pont Audemar. 
A square-capped and gowned figure seated in a chair, and 
holding out a book in left hand. SIGILL. PECULIVR (sic) DE 
STURMINSTER MARSHALL, &c. 1688. 

53. Witham Friary, dioc. Wells. Peculiar and exempt 
jurisdiction. Formerly a Carthusian House. The seal of the 
Court bears Mr. Beckford's arms, with the motto u Renascentur 
quse cecidere." See Parliamentary Return 1829, of Courts 
empowered to grant Probates of Wills. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these Communications. 



Thursday, February 1st, 1872. 
EARL STANHOPE, President, in the Chair. , 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Royal University of Norway : 

1. Foreningen til Norske Fortidsmindesmerkers Bayaring. Aarsberetning 
for 1869. 8vo. Christiania, 1870. 

2. Almindelig Norsk Huus-Kalender med Primstav og Merkedage. 12mo 
Christinia, 1859. 



Feb. 1.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 251 

From the Author, C. A. Holmboe : 

1. Ibn-Fozlan, om nordiske Begravelsesskikke, fra det Arabiske oversat. 
8vo. 1869. 

2. Om Naever i nordiske Gravhoie. 8vo. 1869. 

3. Et Guldbracteat-Prrcg, som ofte forekommer. 8vo. 1869. 

4. Norske Vacgtlodder fra fjortende Aarhundrede. 8vo. 1869. 

5. Det chinesiske Skakspil. 8vo. 1870. 

6. En buddhistisk Legende, benytted i et christeligt Opbyggelsesskrift. 
8vo. 1870. 

From the Author : Fortegnelse over Mynter fra Middelalderen, f undne i Aaret. 

1869. Af C. Schive. 8vo. 1869. 
From the Author: Fra Raknehangen. Antiqvarisk Mcddelelse. Af A.Lorange. 

8vo. 1870. 
From the Camden Society : Publications. New Series, III. The Old Cheque- 

Book of the Chapel Royal, from 1561 to 1744. Edited by Edward 

Rimbault, LL.D. 4to. 1872. 

New Scries, IV. The Life and Death of William Bedell, Bishop of Kil- 

more. Edited by Thomas Wharton Jones. 4to. 1872. 

From the Massachusetts Historical Society : Collections. Vol. X. Fourth 

Series. 8vo. Boston, 1871.. 
From William Harrison, Esq. F.S.A. : A History of the Ancient Hall of 

Samlesbury, in Lancashire : with an account of its earlier possessors, &c. 

By James Croston. Folio. London, 1871. (Two hundred copies privately 

printed for Presents only.) 

William Sedgwick Saunders, Esq. M.D. was admitted a 
Fellow. 

EDWARD PEACOCK, Esq. F.S.A. Local Secretary for Lincoln- 
shire, exhibited a bronze Simpulum or ladle recently brought 
from a tomb at Thebes, in Egypt, and much like those figured 
and described in Wilkinson's u Manners and Customs of the 
Ancient Egyptians." 

JOHN GOUGH NICHOLS, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited an impression 
of the Seal of Milton Abbey, co. Dorset, 011 which he made the 
following remarks : 

" Somewhat more than a century ago the two matrices of a 
very beautiful conventual seal were discovered, and came into 
the possession of the Rev. John Bowie, of Idmeston, in Wilt- 
shire. An engraving of the impressions which they gave was 
made at the expense of the Earl of Warwick ; and the Rev. 
Samuel Pegge (now better known as Dr. Pegge) wrote a long 
and very elaborate dissertation upon the devices which they 
exhibited. This was read before the Society of Antiquaries on 
the 7th November, 1771, and subsequently printed in Hutchins's 
History of Dorsetshire, third edition, vol. iv. pp. 390, 391. 

" On one side of the seal was represented King Athelstan. 
seated on his throne, and the first idea that was entertained by 



252 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

the antiquaries of the time was they had actually recovered the 
great seal of King Athelstan. Mr. Pegge did not fall into that 
error ; but, properly recognising the seal as a conventual one, 
he proceeded to inquire what religious houses claimed King 
Athelstan for their founder or patron. He ascertained there 
were four, a house of Augustinian canons at Bodmin, a monas- 
tery at Exeter, w r hich became the cathedral church, a Benedictine 
priory at Pilton, in Devonshire, and the abbey of Midelton, or 
Milton, in Dorsetshire. After weighing the presumed claims 
of these four houses, and rejecting Exeter as being one whose 
seal was already well known, Dr. Pegge decided in preference 
of the abbey of Milton, partly on the ground that so magni- 
ficent a seal seemed most appropriate to so important and wealthy 
a church. 

" This decision was accepted by Mr. Gough, the editor of 
Hutchins's Dorsetshire, and Dr. Pegge's dissertation was printed 
in that work (in 1815), accompanied by the engraving already 
mentioned. 

" In the new edition of the Monasticon Anglicanum, under 
Milton Abbey, in vol. ii. p. 346, this misappropriation, for such 
it has proved to be, was repeated ; but before the editors of 
that work had arrived at the Priory of Pilton (vol. iv. 443), 
they had discovered their error. The acknowledgment of the 
King's supremacy made by the prior and monks of Pilton in 
1534 had been examined, and appended to it was an impression 
taken from the same matrices that had been preserved for the 
admiration of the lovers of ancient art,* and which Dr. JPegge 
had assigned to Milton Abbey. 

u The real seal of Milton Abbey had also been found, attached 
to a lease granted in 30 Henry VIII. and preserved in the 
Augmentation Office. 

u In the series of seals etched by Coney, published in the new 
Monasticon, the seal of Milton is represented among " seals of 
the Benedictine Order," plate xii. fig. 4, and that of Pilton, in 
plate xxv. fig. 4 ; the latter not so faithful to its delicate work- 
manship as the engraving in the History of Dorset, and the 
former in the rough-and-ready style which characterised the 
vigorous but too hasty burin of Coney. The single impression 
of the seal of Milton which had been found, and which was 
placed in his hands, was both imperfect and considerably defaced ; 
and it is only just now that Mr. Eeady has been able to find for 

* Dr. Oliver, in his Monasticon Diocesis Ezoniensis, fol. 1846, p. 245, 
describes "the splendid circular seal" of Pilton, and alludes to the "rude 
engraving " of it in the last edition of Dugdale's Monasticon, but he does not 
appear to be aware of the better engraving in Hutchins's Dorsetshire, nor of the 
fact that the matrices are (or ought to be) extant. I am sorry that I cannot 
state where they are now preserved. (J. G. N.) 



Feb. 1.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 253 

me one somewhat more complete. It is one no longer attached 
to any document. From this I now beg to exhibit casts to the 
Society.* 

u This seal is not of such beautiful workmanship as charac- 
terises the seal of Pilton, but it is sufficiently interesting to 
deserve some examination. From its style of art, and its symp- 
toms of wear, I think it probable that the matrices were of no 
better metal than lead. 

" Both sides, in my belief, were intended to exhibit some 
resemblance to the edifice of the abbey church ; which on the 
obverse may be considered as viewed on its western side, and on 
the reverse from the east. In the former view a central and 
two smaller spires appear ; and the fact that the abbey church 
had such three spires is confirmed by an old painting, still pre- 
served in the church, representing an abbot worshipping the 
sainted Athelstan, and inscribed le.t aMSttin' ijUt' lOCl f. 
(i.e. fundator), in which the King holds in his right hand a 
model of the church, also showing three spires. The other side 
of the seal represents the edifice in greater elevation, to accom- 
modate which object the spires are omitted. The eastern gable 
of the church, or Lady Chapel, rises to the circumference of the 
seal, but on either side the transepts are also shown, their fronts, 
north and south, being turned round to view, in distorted per- 
spective, distinguished by large doors with elaborately orna- 
mented hinges. 

" Besides these architectural features there are several other 
objects in the designs. In the centre of the obverse, as it were 
in the western doorway, is a figure of the Virgin seated, holding 
up her right hand as in benediction, her Holy Child on her 
knee. Within the side towers - are standing figures, mitred, 
intended probably for Saint Sampson and Saint Branwalader, 
the former a bishop and the latter an abbot, who shared in the 
patronage of the abbey. 

" Above the church are two angels, descending from heaven, 
swinging censers, and between one of them and the central 
spire, as it were appearing in the sky, is the cross flory of King 
Athelstan. 

" On the reverse is represented the Annunciation, the figures 
of the Angel and Virgin occupying as it were two great windows ; 
whilst in a trefoil window, or opening placed in the gable of the 
edifice, is a human head, a front face, with shoulders. This I 
take to be meant for King Athelstan, who does not otherwise 
appear on the seal. Our blunted impressions do not show any 

* To the kindness of Mr. Shipp, of Blandford, the Society is indebted for the 
use of the well-engraved cuts of the Milton Seal, executed for the new edition 
of Hutchins's Dorsetshire. 



254 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

crown, but behind his head there appear, as I believe, three of the 
ends of his cross, which present the same effect as is frequently 
seen in the nimbus placed behind the head of our Saviour. 
Otherwise this head may have been actually intended for the 
Deity. 

" It remains for me to notice the legends. That on the ob- 
verse may be read thus : 

SIGILLVM CONVENTUS SANCTE MARIE MIDELTONENSIS ECCLES1E. 

" That on the reverse, consisting of an hexameter, and pen- 
tameter couplet, is much more remarkable. 

" On both sides of the seal, as I have already mentioned, the 
Virgin is placed as in the entrance of the church, and -in the&e 
verses she is addressed as the Gate or Porch of Salvation. 

PORTA SALUTIS AVE PER TE PATET EXITUS A VE. 
VENIT AB EVA VE . VE QUIA TOLLIS AVE. 

" We are enabled to make these verses complete for the first 
three words are broken away from both our impressions of the 
Milton seal from the seal of the Abbey of Arbroath in Scotland, 
where the same legend occurs.* 

" The counter-seal of that abbey represents the Virgin seated, 
within the open doors of a church (misdescribed in Laing's 
Catalogue as 6 a casket or reliquary ' ), whilst the obverse 
represents the Martyrdom of Saint Thomas of Canterbury, to 
whom the abbey of Arbroath was dedicated. 

" But there is another and more important conventual seal 
(as has been kindly pointed out to me by our Director, Mr. 
Charles Perceval,) with which the Milton seal has to be com- 
pared. It is that of Christ Church, Canterbury, which is en- 
graved in the Vetusta Monumenta, vol. ii. pi. xix. and in the 
new edition of the Monasticon, in the first plate of seals. It is' 
of a somewhat larger diameter than the Milton seal, but in its 
general pattern the latter seems to have been directly copied from 
it. The obverse presents a similar three-spired church and 
angels censing ; the reverse also is of the pattern -followed in 
the Milton seal, a church with transepts, north and south, turned 
round in like manner, a head in the trefoil opening of the gable, 
and the open arches filled with figures. Those on the Canterbury 
seal represent the Martyrdom of Becket the Archbishop. It is 
remarkable also that the motto of the Canterbury seal is of the 
like jingling character as the verses adopted by Milton and 
Arbroath. It refers to the martyrdom represented, in these 
lines : 

* Henry Laing's Catalogue of Scottish Seals, 4to. 1850, Nos. 979, 980. 



Feb. 1.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 



255 





SEAL OF MILTON ABBEY 



256 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

Est huic vita mori pro qua dum vixit amori 
Mors erat et memori per mortem vivit honori. 

" Another rhyming legend, intended to be impressed on the 
edge of the impression, was also engraved on the edge of the 
Canterbury matrix, the words being placed, as it were, in the 
mouth of the seal itself : 

Sit michi causa mera, salus, jus, integra cera. 

" This seal, which is called the third seal of Christ Church, 
Canterbury, by Somner (Antiquities of Canterbury, edit. Batteley, 
p. 126), is supposed to have been made in the middle of the 
thirteenth century, certainly after the translation of the body 
of Saint Thomas, in 1220. 

" We may therefore conclude that the seal of Milton Abbey is 
very nearly of the same period, 

" It is further remarkable that there is much similarity in the 
seal of the Cathedral Church of the Holy Trinity of Norwich, 
which actually bears an inscription recording the date of its 
fabrication in the year 1258.* 

a The seals of Southwick Priory (Archesologia^ xxiii. 374), 
and of Shaftesbury ( Vetusta Monumenta, vol. i. plate Ix.) are 
also deserving of comparison, as bearing architectural designs 
of about the same date as the Milton seal.f 

" The curious seal of Boxgrave Priory, Sussex, which is de- 
scribed by Sir Frederic Madden in the twenty- seventh volume of 
Archceologia, had another jingling couplet somewhat resembling 
that which has occasioned these remarks. It runs thus : 

Qui transmisit ave Boxgravam liberet a ve 
Judiciumque grave non sentiat immo suave." 

* See it engraved in Blomefieltfs Norfolk. Fol. 1745. Vol. ii. and in the 
new Monasticon, plate xxi. of seals. 

f The vicissitudes suffered by the reverse of the Norwich seal are worth notice, 
It is an architectural composition in the principal gable of which there was 
originally a representation of the Holy Trinity in quatrefoil. To this the 
legend referred 

Est michi nomen idem tribus, uni, laus honor idem : 
Et benedico gregi, famulatur que michi regi. 

In the portal was the Angelic Salutation. In Queen Elizabeth's time, as 
appears from impressions of that period in the British Museum, the Salutation 
had been replaced by a large shield with a plain cross, the arms of Norwich city. 
The words AVE MARIA however were left under the shield. Subsequently 
the seal was still further altered by substituting three initials for the Holy 
Trinity, and by removing the legend, and repeating that belonging to the 
obverse, containing the name of the church. 

The obverse has also undergone a change. In the porch of the church was a 
bishop, now removed, with an inscription beneath which appears to read : 

" Norwici (or Norvicensis Ecclesie) Fnndator Herbertus," referring to Herbert 
de Lozinga, who removed the See to Norwich, 1094. (C. S. P.) 



Feb. 8.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 257 

The Rev. H. M. SCARTH, M.A. Local Secretary for Somerset- 
shire, communicated an account of certain Camps on the river 
Avon, near Clifton, together with remarks on the structure of 
ancient ramparts and vitrified forts. This paper will appear in 
the Archaeologia. 

In connection with this communication Captain A. C. TUPPER, 
F.S.A. exhibited some specimens from the vitrified fort of 
Craig Phaidrich, N.B. thus noticed by him in a letter to the 
Secretary : 

a I send for exhibition this evening some specimens from the 
vitrified fort at Craig Phaidrich, some three miles north of In- 
verness. This structure is made up of two terraces, oblong- 
spherical in shape, if such a term may be used. The others 
are from the Fort situated at Glen Nevis, which cannot possibly 
have been a beacon tower, as it is surrounded on three of its 
sides with mountainous grounds and Ben Nevis itself on the 
other. I obtained these specimens in 1834 and I know that 
they are genuine; they must have been subjected to a great 
heat, but for what cause I know not." 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these Communica- 
tions. 



Thursday, February 8th, 1872. 
C. S. PERCEVAL, Esq. LL.D., Director, in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Editor, -LI. Jewitt, Esq. F. S.A. : The Reliquary. Nos. 33-36. 
Vol. 9, Vol. 10, and Vol. 11. 8vo. London, 1868-71. 

From the Author : The first and second Houses of Lacy. [From the Yorkshire 
Archaeological Journal, Vol. 2.] By John Gough Nichols, F.S.A. 

From the Literary and Philosophical Society, Manchester: Proceedings. 
Vol. XI., No. 8. 8vo. Manchester, 1872. 

From the Shropshire and North Wales Natural History and Antiquarian 
Society : Annual Report for 1871. 8vo. Shrewsbury, 1872. 

From the London Institution : Journal. No. 11, Vol. 2. 8vo. London, 1872. 

From the Imperial Academy, Vienna (PMlosopMsch-Historischc Classe}: 

1. Denkschriften. 20 ter Band. 4to. Vienna, 1871. 

2. Sitzungsberichte. 66 Band, heft 2, 3 ; 67 Band, heft 1, 2,3 ; 68 Band, 
heft 1. 8vo. Vienna, 1870-1. 

3. Archiv fur osterreichische Geschichte. 43 Band, heft 2 ; 45 Band, 
heft 1, 2 ; 46 Band, heft 1,2; 47 Band, heft 1. 8yo. Vienna, 1870-72. 

VOL. V. S 



258 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

4. Fontes rerum Austriacaram. Band 31, 32, 34, Abtheil. II. 8vo. 
Vienna, 1870-71. 

From A. W. Franks, Esq. V.P. : Railway Chronicle Travelling Charts. No. 6, 
Basingstoke, Winchester, Gosport. 

CHARLES TRUBNER, Esq., exhibited a large series of Elec- 
trotype Fac-similes of Scandinavian Bracteates, handsomely 
mounted and prepared for publication and sale. Some inter- 
esting observations on this class of antiquities will be found in 
Professor George Stephens' work on Runic Monuments, vol. ii. 
pages 505 564. 

JOHN EVANS, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A., Local Secretary for Hert- 
fordshire, exhibited, by permission of Edward Lloyd, Esq., of 
The Winns, Walthamstow, an inscribed Anglo-Saxon Knife 
found at Sittingbourne in Kent. On this exhibition Mr. Evans 
offered some remarks which will be printed in the Archaeologia. 

A. W. FRANKS, Esq., V.P. made the following communication 
respecting the Megalithic Monuments of the Netherlands, and 
the means taken by the Government of that country for their 
preservation : 

" Having in the course of the last summer had an opportunity 
of examining some of the megalithic monuments that are to be 
found in the province of Drenthe in the Netherlands, I have 
thought that it might be interesting to the Fellows of the Society 
if I were to give some account of these remarkable remains. I 
do not, however, pretend to lay before you any complete details on 
these structures, for time did not admit of my visiting more than 
a few of them, nor do I intend to enter into any discussion as to 
their age, or as to the people by whom they were erected. To 
do this properly, excavations should be systematically carried 
on through the entire range, and it would be necessary to com- 
pare them with similar structures in other countries, especially 
those in the neighbouring parts of Germany, which I have not 
yet visited. My object is simply to call attention to this interest- 
ing group of antiquities, and more particularly to direct the 
notice of the Fellows of the Society to the efforts that are being 
made by the Government of the Netherlands for the preservation 
of these precious memorials of the past. 

" The province of Drenthe, one of the poorest and least visited 
portions of the United Provinces, is situated about the centre of 
that part of the Netherlands that stretches to the north-east, on 
the north-east side of the Zuyder Zee. A great part of the province 
consists of heathy plains, at a considerable elevation above the sea, 
sloping off to the east and west into turf-moors or veens. It is 
bounded on the north by Groningen, on the west by Friesland, on 



Feb. 8.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 259 

the south by Overijssel, and on the east by Germany. Its capital 
is Assen, a small town, but, like most Dutch towns, showing signs 
of prosperity. The megalithic monuments extend in a band 
from somewhat south of Groningen in a south-east direction ; 
there are a few outliers, but all the principal monuments are in 
this band. One is known to exist in Friesland, and one in 
Groningen, at Noordlaren, close to the boundary of Drenthe, and 
in an angle which I understand originally formed part of that 
province. They are all composed of rough boulders, derived 
from the mountains of Scandinavia, and scattered during the 
glacial period (probably by means of icebergs) over the plains of 
the Netherlands and North Germany. They belong to the class of 
monuments that we term cromlechs, and which are known in 
France as " allees couvertes," but differ from the latter in 
having the two ends generally closed. In all but a few instances 
the boulders which form the covering stones rest at each nd on 
two others set in the ground, forming a series of triliths ; these 
covering stones vary in number from one to ten ; but in most 
cases three or four are met with. The position of the structures 
with reference to the points of the compass differs considerably, 
but is more generally in an east and west direction. In some 
instances a sort of entrance is found on one of the longer sides, 
formed of smaller stones ; and in a few cases they appear to have 
been surrounded by a range of smaller stones, not .circular, but 
following the outline of the structure. In some examples traces 
are to be found of a mound by which they have been covered. 

" These monuments are locally known as Hunnebedden or Huns' 
beds, or as Riesebedde or giants' beds. They were noticed by 
Keysler, Antiquitates Septentrionales^ 1720, in connection with 
Stonehenge. In his second plate, p. 7, he gives a representation of 
one of these monuments, but somewhat exaggerated in size. They 
had previously been noticed by Picardt and others. Van Lier in 
his work Oudheidkundige Brieven, Hague, 1760, speaks also of 
these remains, though the monument which he principally de- 
scribes, and to which I shall have occasion to refer presently, 
belongs to a somewhat different class. A special treatise was 
published at Groningen in 1815 (2d Ed. 1822) by Nicholaus 
Westendorp, Verhandeling over de- Hunnebedden^ and treatises 
upon them have been published by Ali Cohen, Governor Hofstede, 
and others. The principal and most useful work is, however, that 
composed by the late Mr. L. J. F. Janssen, keeper of antiquities 
at Leyden, under the title of Drentsche Oudheden, published at 
Utrecht in 1848, in which are to be found tables with rough 
diagrams of all the Hunnebedden with which he was acquainted, 
then fifty-two in number. A few more have been since brought 
into notice. ,1 should add that Mr. Sadler has contributed an 

s2 



260 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

interesting notice of these monuments to the Journal of the 
British Archaeological Association for 1870, with which I have 
only recently become acquainted. 

" At Assen is a museum belonging to the Province of Drenthe 
specially devoted to local antiquities. Mr. Gregory, the Royal 
Commissary of Drenthe, has taken a great personal interest in 
the subject, in which he has been ably seconded by Mr. L. Olden- 
huis Gratama, and Mr. B. W. S. Boeles. To the labours of this 
Commission I shall have presently occasion to revert, and Mr. 
Boeles being absent, I was kindly assisted by Mr. Gregory and 
Mr. Gratama; the former giving me advice as to the monu- 
ments best worth visiting, as well as kindly lending me a 
manuscript map, and furnishing me with letters to "burgo- 
masters, &c. 

u The first monuments I visited were at Ballo and Rolde,. not 
far from Assen. I was kindly accompanied to them by Mr. 
Kijmmell, the excellent secretary of the Provincial Museum, 
but as our visit was late in the day I was unable to examine 
them very minutely. The monument at Ballo is a very con- 
siderable one, having ten covering stones ; on the outer margin 
are one or two smaller stones which M. Janssen considers to 
have been part of a band surrounding it. At Rolde there are 
two, at no great distance from each other ; one of them had 
seven covering stones, the other six; in this last several of the 
covering stones are supported at one or both ends by two instead 
of one stone. One of these monuments is shown in the accom- 
panying photograph, from which a woodcut was prepared for 
Mr. Fergusson's recent work on Rude Stone Monuments. They 
both lie from north-east to south-west. The next day I took a 
carriage to Borger, to the south-east of Assen, and on my way 
passed by Eext, where there is a very fine Hunnebed. It has 
had eight covering stones, of which one is gone and another partly 
removed by blasting. Two portions of the stone thus injured 
are still at the spot, and I think we found the third portion not 
far off by the side of the road near the church at Gieten. This 
cromlech seems to have had a kind of entrance on the .north-west 
side and a row of smaller stones round it. 

" At no great distance from the cromlech is a monument of 
another kind, which is erroneously classed by M. Janssen with 
the usual Hunnebeds. It is a sepulchral cist, consisting of a 
large slab at each end and three on each side, a space being 
left between two of them on the south side ; the whole is sunk 
into a barrow, of which however a large portion has been 
removed, as well as the covering stones. The barrow has 
been recently restored and turfed. This monument is locally 
known as the Huns Kelder, or Huns Cellar ; an account of it 



Feb. 8.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUAKIES. 261 

was published by Van Lier, Oudheidkundige Brieven, 1760, 
who calls it the Grafkelder. In this cist were discovered 
three urns, four flint celts, a long chisel of flint, very Danish in 
type, and now preserved at Assen, and a ball of iron-stone 
(pyrites ?), and a flint arrow-head, also perhaps a pierced stone 
hammer. 

" Proceeding thence to Drouwen I found two very fine Hunne- 
bedden on the right of the road and close to each other. One of 
them seems to have had eight covering stones, of which one is 
lost, and an entrance on the south side. Janssen makes the 
number of covering stones to have been originally nine, and he 
may have been right. The other has only five covering stones, 
and perhaps the remains of an entrance and surrounding band, 
but it is much disturbed. Further on, on the same side of the 
road, but at a greater distance, is another Hunnebed, which I was 
unable to visit ; this brought us to Borger, in the neighbourhood 
of which are several Hunnebedden. The weather being however 
extremely hot, and being assured by the Wethouder that the 
two small Hunnebedden on the way to Buinen were not worth 
visiting, I went to see the great Hunnebed, which is certainly a 
magnificent structure. It is not easy to find, being surrounded 
by trees. This has nine covering stones, some of them of large 
size and one resting on four stones. The entire length was 
70 feet and the width about 14 feet. The largest stone measured 
10 feet 10 in. by 8 feet 6 in. and was from 4 to 4J feet thick ; 
on one side was the entrance, with a portion of its cap-stone. 
Janssen gives the number of cap-stones as ten, which is probably 
correct. This Hunnebed is said to have been explored by a Dutch 
poetess, Titia Brongersma, in 1685, when some urns were found. 

u Retracing my course, I sought for a group of five Hunnebedden 
on the heath to the left of the road from Drouwen to Borger, 
and after a great hunt I discovered them. Much of the land 
was under cultivation, and these remains were concealed by 
stunted trees % and bushes. The five cromlechs were arranged 
like a quincunx, at no great distance from each other, and were 
much injured ; they had three or four cap-stones each, and most 
of them exhibited evident traces of an earthen mound. Janssen 
speaks of six Hunnebedden at this 'spot, but I was only able to 
find five, and only five were indicated in the manuscript map 
kindly lent me by Mr. Gregory. This completed the day's ex- 
pedition, and, tired but much pleased with the journey, I 
returned to Assen. These were all the Hunnebedden which I was 
able to examine closely ; there were two others however which 
I saw at a short distance from the railway. One of these, at 
Tinaarlo, is very well preserved, and from its position is prob- 
ably the best known of the Hunnebedden. It has only three 



262 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

cap-stones ; an engraving of it may be found in Westendorp's 
work referred to above. The other was at a greater- distance 
from the line, in the neighbourhood of Loon, and has six cap- 
stones. 

" In several of the Hunnebedden I discovered fragments of 
pottery, which I exhibit, and I saw at Leyden a similar collec- 
tion, as well as a flint arrowhead, obtained in the various Hunne-. 
bedden by Mr. Pleyte and Mr. Hooft Van Iddekinge, some of 
which they were good enough to give me. These fragments are 
of considerable value, for, nearly all the Hunnebedden having 
been explored by treasure seekers and others, there 'is little 
hope of obtaining from them complete urns, and, although 
many urns are preserved in the museum at Asseri, there are 
scarcely any that are known for certain to have been found in 
the Hunnebedden; they were mostly collected years ago by 
persons who were content to attach to them the names of the 
villages near which they were found, without any further par- 
ticulars. I ventured, while at Assen, to call the attention of the 
members of the Commission to the value of fragments of pottery, 
which with due search might probably be found in most of the 
Hunnebedden. These fragments enable us to judge of the 
character of the pottery found in these ancient sepulchres, and I 
beg to exhibit drawings of some of the urns from Assen, of 
which several, from their similarity to the fragments, must have 
been found in hunnebedden. The whole style of the pottery 
agrees with what we know from Germany and Denmark as 
belonging to the stone age, and stone implements seem unques- 
tionably to have been found in these structures. Some excellent 
examples of urns from Hunnebedden in the neighbourhood of 
Osnabriick, are engraved in Bonstetten's Essai sur les Dolmens. 
pi. v. p. 322. 

" Mr. Fergusson, in his recently published work ' Rude Stone 
Monuments,' after describing these remains, goes on to say : 
6 Judging them from a general abstract point of view, they do 
not seem of high antiquity, and may range from the Christian 
era down to the time when the people of this country were con- 
verted to Christianity, whenever that may have been. This, 
however, is only inferred from their similarity to other monu- 
ments mentioned in the preceding pages, not from any special 
evidence gathered from themselves, or from any local tradition 
bearing on their antiquity.' 

" From this view, as from many other views brought forward 
by Mr. Fergusson in his clever work, I entirely dissent. The 
similarity of the pottery to that known to belong to the Stone 
Age ; the presence of numerous barrows with later pottery, of 
quite a different character, in the same district ; and the discovery 



Feb. 8.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 263 

of urns exactly like our Anglo-Saxon urns, but not buried in 
barrows, all seem to me sufficient to show that Drenthe has 
passed through many of the same stages of civilisation as other 
parts of Europe, and the age of the Hunnebedden seems to me 
unquestionably far anterior to the Christian era. 

" As, however, I stated at the beginning of this communication, 
it is not my intention to enter into any discussion as to the age 
or the builders of these monuments ; and I will now pass to 
another point, viz. the measures that have been taken by the 
Dutch Government with a view to their preservation. 

" I have already mentioned that the Royal Commissary, 
Mr. Gregory, has devoted much care and used all his influence 
for the preservation of these remains, and I requested Mr. Olden- 
huis Gratama, member of the Parliament and of the Provincial 
States of Drenthe, and the author of an essay entitled Openbrief 
over de Zorg voor en het Onderhoud der Hunnebedden^ Assen, 
1868, to bo kind enough to communicate to me the measures 
taken for their preservation. This he has been good enough to 
do in a letter, of which I will read you a translation. 

" Assen, Sept. 6th, 1871. 

" 6 Dear Sir, You have asked me to give you some account of 
the efforts which have been made in the Low Countries for the 
preservation of the Hunnebedden, and I beg to do as follows: 

a ' It is well known that there are fifty-four of these Hunne- 
bedden in Drenthe ; one at Noordlaren, in Gronihgen, on the 
north-east boundary of Drenthe ; and one in Gasterland, Fries- 
land. 

" 6 There was some uncertainty in whom was vested the pro- 
perty of the Hunnebedden, and who was chargeable with their 
preservation. 

" ' The former provincial government of Drenthe had taken 
measures for their preservation, but without coming to any 
decision as to the ownership. 

u * This induced me, as a member of the Provincial States of 
Drenthe, to 'address an interpellation to the body of the Deputy 
States of Drenthe ; as this interpellation was not favourably 
received by that body, I thought of applying to the public. I 
did this in my " Open Brief," of which 1 have sent you a copy. 
In order to comply with your request I have only to refer you 
to that letter, and to state what has been since done. 

" * My Open Brief was favourably received by the public; in 
all reviews and newspapers my complaint as to the neglect of 
the Hunnebedden, and my insisting upon their preservation, 
were strongly supported.* The Royal Academy of Sciences, 

* See, for instance, Weekblad van het Regt, No. 3050, 9 November, 1868, 



264 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

in their meeting of December 14, 1868, resolved, after receiving 
my Open Brief through their member Mr. J. de Wai, to take 
the matter in hand, and a pressing letter was addressed to the 
Minister of the Interior urging him to do the best for the preser- 
vation of the Hunnebedden. In the Second Chamber of the 
States -General of December 14th, 1868, the member for 
Arnheirn, Baron Sloet van de Beele, late governor-general of 
the Indies, instigated the government, with reference to my 
" Open Brief," to take up the matter of the Hunnebedden, which 
was promised by the Minister of the Interior. 

"' Drenthe had received at that time a new royal commissary, 
Mr. Gregory. He was intrusted with the task of purchasing 
the Hunnebedden for the State, and a sum was placed, at his 
disposal for the purpose. This gentleman performed this task 
with great energy and judgment ; he persuaded many pro- 
prietors of Hunnebedden to offer them as presents to the 
province, and in other cases he purchased them for the State. 
He had them fenced in with posts to indicate their being pro- 
vincial or national property. 

" ' You will scarcely expect me to give you the details of the 
mode of acquiring each Hunnebed, or sepulchral cist, especially 
as you are not acquainted with all of them, and these particulars 
will not assist you in the object you have in view. I will there- 
fore refer you to the words of the Royal Commissary of Drenthe, 
whose zeal is well shown in this matter ; in his opening address 
to the Provincial States of Drenthe in July, 1871 (see Notulen, 
bl. 26), he makes the following remarks : 

" ' The number of Hunnebedden at present known in pur pro- 
vince amounts to fifty-four, including three sepulchral cists. 
Of these twenty-two belong to the State, and nineteen to the pro- 
vince ; therefore there are but thirteen remaining in the hands 
of private individuals. Of these thirteen, however, there are 
two which have been provisionally purchased by the State, and 
negotiations which promise to be successful have been entered 
into about a third. 

" ( The Deputy States of Drenthe are indebted for these satis- 
factory results to several of the members of the States, and to 
the burgomasters of the different communes in which the 
Hunnebeds are situated, as well as to various other persons who 
have directly or indirectly assisted in the matter. Without 
their strenuous co-operation most of our efforts would have 
been fruitless. 

Nederlandsche Spectator, 28 Nov. 1868, No. 48; Volksblad van de Bosch 
Kemper, 3 Dec. 1868, No. 49 ; Drentsche Courant, 29 Oct. 1868, No. 128 ; 
Bijdragen tot Regtsgeleerdheid en Wetgeving van de Geer en Faure, deel xix. 
1869, bl. 130; Vaderlandsche Letteroefeningen, Jaargang 109, No. 8, Aug. 1869 ; 
Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Begt van Oudeman en Diephuis, 1869, bl. 317. 



Feb. 8.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 265 

" * I do not trouble you with the names of these persons, as I 
might accidentally omit one of them, and I will, therefore, 
confine myself to returning hearty thanks on behalf of the 
provincial states to all those who have contributed to the preser- 
vation of these hoary relics of our ancestors, hoping and trusting 
that the members of the states will assist us further by acquiring 
for the State or province the remainder of the Hunnebedden, in 
order to preserve them. 

" * In addition to this, the large boulder-stone situated near 
Noord Barge, by the side of the road, and estimated to weigh 
50,000 kilogrammes, has been preserved from demolition, and 
has become the property of the State with some ground round it. 

" * I last year had to acknowledge the kindness of the Govern 
ment in placing at the disposal of the Deputy States a certain 
sum, for four years, for the purchase of the hunnebedden, and 
now again I feel bound to renew my thanks to the Government 
for having fou the third year allowed me to exceed the sum in 
question on account of the success of the previous purchases, 
and also for making a grant for the fencing in of the hunne- 
bedden that have been purchased, in order to protect them from 
damage.' 

" ' Thus far Mr. Gregory : you will be able to see from 
these communications how we have arrived at so favourable a 
result for the preservation of the Hunnebedden and sepulchres. 
I do not doubt that by the zeal of Mr. Gregory all the hunne- 
bedden of Drenthe will be placed in safety before long. You 
wish, I am sure, that some similar measure could be carried out 
for England. What educated person would not have a similar 
desire ? 

" < I shall be glad if this account of the efforts made in this 
country may lead to the acquisition and safety of similar memo- 
rials of the past in England. Any further particulars that you 
may require I will gladly furnish. 

" ' I should only add that in my Open Brief I have asserted 
that the Hunnebedden are no man's property, and that according 
to our law they are now the property of the State. This asser- 
tion has been contradicted here and there, but I have maintained 
it in various articles inserted in our. periodicals.* 

" ' Whatever may be the opinion on this debateable point, I 
need hardly say that I have heartily approved of the more prac- 
tical and speedy solution arrived at by the Minister of the Interior 
in purchasing the Hunnebedden, and I have of course done my 
utmost to promote this undertaking. 

* Nederlandsclic Spectator, 9 July, 1870, p. 283 ; Weekblad van het Regt, 
No. 3,223, July 7, 1870. To this last there is an answer from Mr. H. G. Jordens 
in Weekblad van het Regt, No. 3,231, August 4, 1870. 



266 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

" ' The somewhat nice question of law as to the ownership 
becomes of less importance from the low price at which the 
hunnebedden have been purchased. 

" ' I hope that I have furnished you with the information that 
you require, and that you will believe me,| 

Yours, faithfully, 

OLDENHUIS GBATAMA.' 

" The Dutch system seems to be the purchase of a quadrangular 
plot, with a fair margin round each hunnebed, which is marked 
out with a ditch, and a post at each corner, stating that it is the 
property of the State or the Province ; a way is also purchased 
and marked out in a similar manner to the nearest road. 

" I trust, therefore, that the Hunnebeden of Drenthe are -in a fair 
way to be preserved, and I wish that the same could be said of 
the numerous and still more important megalithic monuments of 
Britain. When we find that a small state like the Netherlands is 
willing to make sacrifices for the preservation of its antiquities, it 
seems hardly right that a wealthy country like our own should 
not be able to do something for its ancient remains. You have, 
doubtless, seen in the papers some correspondence relating to the 
threatened destruction of the scanty remains of Abury. I am 
glad to be able to state that one of our Fellows, Sir John Lub- 
bock, has secured the plot which it was proposed to improve 
by destroying the megaliths. The same gentleman intends to 
introduce into Parliament a bill for the preservation of ancient 
monuments, in which all true lovers of antiquity will heartily 
wish him success. 

" If nothing can be done for the purchase of these remains by 
the State at the present moment, the country might, at any rate, 
cause a true and careful survey of what remains to be prepared, so as 
to ascertain what is now left. The present century has, no doubt, 
produced many admirable buildings, but I fear that it has con- 
tributed more than its quota in the way of destruction, and that 
is the point which we have as antiquarians to deprecate and 
avert." 

Additional Note by Mr. L. Oldenhuis Gratama. 

According to the speech with which the Royal Commissary 
Gregory opened the Provincial States of Drenthe on the 2nd 
July, 1872, there were then but five Hunnebedden which 
have not been acquired by the state one at Westenesch, one at 
Tinaarlo, one at Steenbergen, and two at Rolde. Since then 
the two at Rolde have been purchased by the state and it is to 
be hoped that the remainder may likewise be acquired, so as to 
be preserved from destruction. 

October 31, 1872. 



Feb. 15.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 267 

In illustration of this communication, numerous drawings 
were exhibited by Mr. FRANKS and CHARLES WARNE, Esq. 
F.S.A. exhibited a photograph of the cromlech known as Hel- 
stone, in Dorset, accompanied by the following remarks : 

" The remains are shown in the accompanying photograph as 
reconstructed by a party of gentlemen who, strange as it may 
seem, thought they were doing a meritorious work. 

" A local paper says, attached to the- 4 photograph is the follow- 
ing : 

We the undersigned, a happy and obliged company, on this llth June, 1869, 
desire to record our thanks and best wishes to our hosts, Mr. and Mrs. Munfield, 
on occasion of the initiatory restoration of the Hel-stone at Portesham. 
(Signed) MARTIN F. TUPPER. JOHN NICHOLLS. 

ROBERT GAMBIER SWEETING. W. R. TUPPER. 
J. O. W. VANDELEUR. H. DE BEAUVOIR TUPPER. 

JOHN BULL. 

" In my archaeological map of Dorset you will find a vignette 
of the cromlech as it was when I last saw it, and before it was 

restored." 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these Communications. 



Thursday, February 15th, 1872. 
COLONEL A. H. LANE FOX, V.P., in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Historical Society for Lower Saxony : 

1. Zeitschrift. Jahrgang, 1870. 8vo. Hanover, 1871. 

2. Dreiunddreissigste Nachricht. 8vo. Hanover, 1871. 

From the Author : On the true nature- of the Contorniate Medals. By C. "W. 
King, M.A. [From the Archaeological Journal, XXVIII]. Svo. Lon- 
don, 1871. 

From the Liverpool Architectural and Archaeological Society : Proceedings. 
Twenty-fourth Session. 2nd and 3rd Meetings. Svo. Liverpool, 1871. 

From C. Knight Watson, Esq. M.A. Sec. S.A. : History of the Fens of South 
Lincolnshire. By W. H. Wheeler, civil engineer. 12mo. Boston and 
London, 1868. 

From the East India Association : Their Journal. No. 4, Vol. V. Svo. 
London, 1871. 

From Thomas Close, Esq. F.S.A. : History of the Old Trent Bridge, with a 
descriptive account of the New Bridge, Nottingham. Illustrated by Photo- 
graphs, By M. O. Tarbotton, F.G.S., engineer. 4to. Nottingham, 1871. 

A vote of Special Thanks was accorded to Mr. Close for his 
interesting addition to the Topographical department of the 
Library. 

Hugh Owen, Esq. was admitted a Fellow. 



268 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

A. W. FRANKS, Esq. Y.P. exhibited and presented a number 
of topographical Prints and Drawings selected from -his collec- 
tions and which were likely to be useful to the Society. 

Among these may particularly be noticed two drawings of 
Eastbury House, in the parish of Tarent Gunvill, Dorset. This 
mansion was commenced by George Doddington, Esq. of Somer- 
setshire, about 1718, but he only finished the offices. The house 
itself was completed by his nephew, the notorious Bubb Dod- 
dington, the son of an apothecary at Weymouth, w r ho raised 
himself by court intrigues into a considerable position, and was 
created Lord Melcombe. The house was completed by him at 
a cost of 140,000. The main body of the house extended 144 
feet, and was 95 feet in depth. Plates of the house and garden 
are given in Campbell's " Vitruvius Britannicus," voL iii. 
It is alluded to in " Thomson's Seasons," Autumn, i. 651, 669, 
and other poems. Lord Melcombe died without issue in 1762, 
bequeathing his property to his cousin, Mr. Wyndham. It 
then came by family settlement to Eichard Grenville, Earl 
Temple, and descended to his nephew George, second Earl 
Temple, created in 1784 Marquis of Buckingham, who sold it to 
Josiah Wedgwood, the famous potter, whose widow resided 
there. It then passed into other hands, and was ultimately 
pulled down, the materials selling for about the plumber and 
glazier's bill of the original dwelling. One of these drawings was 
made by A. Grant, and represents the house in its ruined 
state. 

EGBERT DAY, Jun. Esq., F.S.A. exhibited four Dagger Blades 
of bronze, from Ireland, of different types. 

They may be described as follows : 

No. 1 resembles those engraved in Horae Ferales, Plate vi. 
Figs. 24, 25. It has a tapering blade about 6 inches long, 
with a tang of 2f inches, at the end of which there is a perfect 
rivet-hole ; the blade is ornamented with four ribs. Breadth, 
at base, a little over 2 inches. It was found in the county of 
Westmeath, in June 1865, and is of a form rarely met with in 
Ireland. 

No. 2 is a well patinated dagger-blade of triangular form, 
about 7 inches long, with remains of two rivet-holes at the end ; 
the blade is ornamented with a series of finely cast lines, which 
diverge from the base and meet again near the point, and be- 
tween these, upon the lower part of the raised mid-rib, there is 
an engraved chevron-like ornament of five rays. It was found 
near the old Castle of Colloony, co. Sligo, during the spring of 
1870. 

A similar blade is figured in the Archseologia,xxxvi.330, pl.xxv. 



Feb. 15.] 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 



269 



No. 3 (figured in the margin) is a little 
leaf-shaped dagger with one rivet-hole, from 
Craigs, co. Antrim, found in 1866. 

No. 4 is a short sword or rapier blade, 8| 
inches long, rather wide (If -inch) at the 
base, with two large bronze rivets. The 
blade much resembles those of the bronze 
swords in outline, narrowing from the handle 
and gradually swelling in breadth to within a 
third of the point. It was found near Bush- 
mills, co. Antrim. A similar weapon occurs 
in Wilde's Catalogue of the Museum of the 
Royal Irish Academy, p. 448, fig. 325. 

Col. A. H. LANE Fox, V.P. exhibited a 
figure in bronze representing a boar. It was 
obtained at Abbeville, and is of very singular 
workmanship. Its date has not been ascer- 
tained, and it is doubtful whether it is of 
Oriental or of Celtic workmanship. 

H. H. BURNELL, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited a 
photo-lithograph of the original Grant of 
Arms, dated 12 Edw. IV. 1472, to the Com- 
pany of Masons of London. 

The document itself was lately purchased 
of a dealer by the Court of the Masons' 
Company, and by them presented to the 
British Museum. 

The text of this grant is as follows : 



BRONZE BLADE, 
FROM CRAIGS, 
CO. ANTRIM. 
-linear. 



To alle Nobles and Gentilles theise present letters herying or seyng William 
Hawkeslowe otherwise called Clarenseux King of Armes of the sowthe marches 
of Englond sendeth humble and due recommendation as apperteyneth. For as 
moche as the hole crafte and felawship of Masons corogeously mooved to exceer- 
cise and use gentill and commendable guydyng in suche laudable maner and 
fourme as may best sounde unto gentrice by the whiche they shall moove with 
Goddes grace to atteigne unto honoure and worship have desired and praied me 
the said Kyng of Armes that I by the powre and auctorite by the Kyngs 
goode grace to me in that behalve commytted, shuld devyse a Conysaunce of 
Armes for the saide Crafte and felawship which they and their successours myght 
boldly and vowably occupie chalenge and enjoie for evermore without eny pre- 
judice or rebuke of eny estate or gentill of this reame : At the instaunce and 
request of whom I the saide Kyng of Armes takyng respecte and consideracion 
unto the goodly entente and dispocicion of the saide Crafte and felawship have 
devised for them and theire successours these Armes folowing, that is to sey, 
A feld of Sablye, a cheverone grailed, three Castellis of the same garnysshed 
with dores and wyndows of the feld, in the cheverone a compas of the last. 
Which Armes I of my saide powre and auctorite have appointed gevyn and 
graunted to and for the saide Crafte and felawship and their successours, and by 
theise my presint, letters appoynte geve and graunte unto them the same. To 



270 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

have chalenge occupie and enjoie without eny prejudice or empechement for 
evermore. In witnesse whereof I the saide Kyng of Armes to theese presents 
have sette my scale of Armes with my signe manuell. Gevyn at London the 
yere of the Reigne of King Edward the fourthe after the Conquest the xiith. 

CLAKEXSEUX King of Arms. 

Seal lost 

At the foot are two memoranda, one under the hand of Thomas 
Benolte, Clarenceux, confirming the Arms in the 12th year of 
King Henry VIII. The other by Henry St. George, Richmond 
Herald, testifying to the entry of the Grant in the Visitation of 
London, 1634. 

The present document is interesting, as adding one to the six 
grants of arms dating from the fifteenth century, which were 
exhibited in the Society's apartments in 1860. These -were all 
in favour of corporations, and were as follows : 

1. Drapers' Company, 1437. Original not extant, but recited 
in an exemplification and ratification by Segar Garter. 

2 and 3. King Henry VI. to the Colleges of Eton and King's, 
Cambridge, 1449. 

4. Lancaster King of Arms, to the Ironmongers' Company, 
1455. 

5. John Smert, Garter, to the Tallow-chandlers' Company, 
1456. 

6. William Hawkeslowe, Clarenceux, to the Carpenters' Com- 
pany, 1466. 

7. Sir Thomas Holme, to the Wax-chandlers, 1485. 

A. W. FRANKS, Esq. V.P. exhibited the following objects : 

1. A bronze Neck-ring of a massive twisted pattern, diminish- 
ing towards the ends, which terminated in short hooks ; diameter 
8f inches ; also two solid bronze armlets with triangular sections 
and ornamented with a few engraved lines. These objects are 
stated to have been found together in the neighbourhood of 
Mayence. They have since been presented to the British Museum. 
A neck-ring of the same form and from the same district is in 
the collection of Mr. John Evans, F.R.S., F.S.A. One very 
similar, found on the Quantock Hills, Somersetshire, is engraved 
in the Archaeologia, vol. xiv. pi. xxiii. It was found with a 
bronze palstave. 

2. Two enormous globular armlets of bronze, hollow, with 
elaborate ornaments engraved on the surface. Diameter 7 J inches. 
These remarkable objects were found in the Grabfeld, at 
Konigsfeld, near Kissingen in Bavaria. These armlets have 
since been purchased by the British Museum. 

3. Two British urns and an object in stone of some rarity 
recently found near Brandon, in Suffolk. Mr. Franks gave the 
following description of this latter exhibition : 



Feb. 15.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 271 

" The objects which I beg to exhibit were recently found in 
the neighbourhood of Brandon, in what are locally known as 
Brandon Fields. A slightly elevated bed of drift on the Suffolk 
bank of the Little Ouse has been extensively worked for flints, 
among which a few drift implements have been found, but 
chiefly of a rude type. These excavations have led to the 
discovery of a number of antiquities in the superficial soil which 
had of course to be removed to reach the flints. The specimens 
of pottery and the object in stone were found together, but not, 
so far as I am aware, under any tumulus ; and I was assured by 
Mr. Maynard of Brandon, through whose kindness I have be- 
come possessed of these specimens, that no human bones, burnt or 
unburnt, were found with them. The two vessels are of the 
usual character of British pottery. The larger would probably 
be classed by Dr. Thurnam as a food vessel, the smaller as a 
drinking cup. 

" The first of these is somewhat globular in form with a recurv- 
ing lip, very red in colour and well made ; it measures 5 inches 
in height and is 6 inches in diameter. The upper part is orna- 




CUP FEOM BRANDON, f of actual size. 

mented with four bands of short diagonal lines^ one band 
sloping in one direction the next sloping in the opposite. Below 



272 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



[1872, 



this are triangular dots in four rows : then again four bands of 
diagonal lines and five bands of triangular dots with two bands 
of diagonal lines at the bottom. The circular base is quite 
plain. 

" The cup (see woodcut) is 3J inches in height and 3f inches 
in diameter; it is of the same general form as the other, but less 
rounded ; the body is ornamented with four horizontal bands of 
short lines nearly vertical ; but in one part these are crossed by 
four similar bands, and part of a fifth, 
placed vertically, a peculiarity I .do not 
remember to have noticed in any other 
specimen of the period. Both. vessels are 
unfortunately somewhat damaged. 

" The most curious and rare object how- 
ever of those discovered is a small oblong 
slab of stone, apparently a fine schist, nicely 
polished on both faces and tapering slightly 
towards the two longer edges. It is 4f 
inch long, 1^ inch wide, and about ^-inch 
thick. One corner is injured ; at each end 
are three drilled holes, the drilling having 
apparently been effected from both sides. 
(See woodcut.) 

" Several objects of the same kind have 
been brought to light in antiquarian re- 
searches, and recorded in various archaeo- 
logical publications. In the Archaeologia, 
vol. viii. p. 429, the following account is 
given of a discovery made in 1763 at the 
Grove, near Tring, in Hertfordshire. An 
extended skeleton was found laid at its 
length. ' Between the legs were some flint 
arrow-heads, and at the feet some small 
slender stones, polished and of a greenish 
cast convex on one side and concave on 
the other the larger was 4 inches long 
1 inch broad, the smaller not quite 4 inches long nor 
somewhat narrower in the middle with two 
There were also a circular ornament 




STONE OBJECT FROM 
BRANDON, f actual 

size. 



and 

1 inch broad, 

holes at both ends.' There were also a 

of jet, and apparently the remains of two earthen vessels. 

In plate xxx. two of the stone objects are engraved full size, 

as well as the jet ornament, and the former are evidently 

of the same class as the specimen now exhibited, differing 

only in being convex and concave ; the larger one has 110 

holes at the ends, the smaller two at each end. The speci- 



Feb. 15.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 273 

men with holes is preserved, I believed, in the Museum at 
Stourhead. 

Three specimens of this kind were discovered by Sir Richard 
Colt Hoare in his exploration of the Wiltshire Barrows, and 
the originals are preserved at Stourhead, where I made drawings 
of them. One was found in a tumulus on Mere Down. It is 
described as u a piece of gray slaty stone perforated at the ends," 
and is engraved in plate ii. It appears to be 4 inches long, 
1 inch wide, and has one hole at each end. It was discovered 
with the skeleton of a man with his limbs gathered up, and of a 
younger person at his right side. With it was an instrument of 
bone, two circular ornaments of thin but pure gold, and a small 
bronze knife or dagger, as well as part of a rudely ornamented 
earthen vessel. A much larger specimen, measuring 4^ inches 
by 3 inches, and with three holes on each of the narrower sides, 
but not in a line, was found in a barrow between Sutton and 
Longbridge Deverill. It is engraved in Hoare's "Ancient Wilts," 
plate xii. It was placed immediately under the right hand and 
close to the breast of a skeleton which had been interred with 
its head towards the north, and its legs, according to primitive 
custom, gathered up. With the same interment were found two 
boar's tusks and a drinking cup. A third specimen was found 
in a barrow north of Chidbury Camp, and is engraved in 
Hoare's " Ancient Wilts," plate xxi. It is 3^ inches long, 
J inch wide, and has two holes at each end. With it were dis- 
covered a diminutive bronze celt mounted in stag's" horn, some 
rude bone implements, and a whetstone. There were however 
no human bones or ashes, though the objects were deposited in a 
cist. 

In the Stourhead Museum are two other objects of the same 
nature ; one is a plate of pale greenish gray stone, measuring 
44 inches by 2 inches, and which appears to have had no less 
than seven holes at each end ; one corner is now injured. The 
other is one end only of a similar plate, but with three holes, not 
in a line. It'is labelled as found at Abury, probably in one of 
the tumuli. 

Another stone of this kind was found at Lindridge, in 
Worcestershire, in a gravel bed.- It was exhibited at the 
Archaeological Institute, Dec. 7, 1849, and is figured in the 
a Archaeological Journal," vol. vi. p. 409, and the same engrav- 
ing is repeated in Allies' " Antiquities of Worcestershire," 
second edition, p. 149. This specimen is described as of greenish 
stone, 4| inches long, 1 inch broad, and about inch thick. It 
tapered towards each end, and at one end had three perforations, 
of which the central was not completed. The other end was 
brought to a fine edge. 



274 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

In Scotland examples of the same kind have been found. In 
the year 1832 a large tumulus at Broadford Bay, Isle of Skye, 
was levelled and found to contain a vaulted chamber with a 
human skeleton, alongside of which an ornament of polished 
pale green stone, 2 % inches long and 2 inches broad. It was 
convex on one side, concave on the other, and had a drilled hole 
in each corner.* Another was found in a tumulus at Cruden, 
Aberdeenshire, which was 4j inches long ; a third "6\ inches 
long and about 1 inch broad, but tapering at each end, was 
found near the tumulus above described in Broadford Bay. 

Only one specimen is in the British Museum, which is from 
Ireland. It was formerly in the collection of Mr. Crofton 
Croker, and differs from the English specimens in being made 
of red stone ; it has one hole at each end, passing diagonally 
through the edge, and measures 3f inches by 1 inch. 

The discovery of an ornament of the same nature is noticed 
in the Archseologia, vol. xxxiv. in the account of the opening 
of tumuli in the East Riding of Yorkshire by Lord Londes- 
borough. In one of the tumuli was found a skeleton of large 
size with the knees drawn up ; " the bones of the right arm were 
laid in a very singular and beautiful armlet, made of some large 
animal's bone about 6 inches long, and the extremities were a 
little broader than the middle, neatly squared ; in this were two 
perforations about half an inch from each end [corner ?] through 
which were bronze pins or rivets with gold heads, most probably 
to attach it to a piece of leather which had passed round the 
arm and been fastened by a small bronze buckle which was 
found underneath the bones." f The rest of the objects consisted 
of a small bronze dagger, three amber beds, and a highly 
ornamented drinking cup. 

It is evident from these descriptions that objects of this kind 
are not common, and belong to the very end of the Stone or 
the very commencement of the Bronze age, and before cremation 
had come extensively into use. The bronze implements found 
with them are generally of an early character, and flint arrow- 
heads have been discovered. So much for their age : as to 
their use, some light is thrown on them by Lord Londes- 
borough's excavation in Yorkshire, which connects them with 
the arm. It has been suggested to me by Mr. John Evans, 

* Wilson, Preh. Arch. p. 157. 

f This object is also noticed in " Catalogue of a Collection of Ancient and 
Medieval Rings and Personal Ornaments formed for Lady Londesborough, 1853." 
No. 164. It is there described as " of bone or stone, studded at the four corners 
with bronze rivets having gold heads. Length five inches." From a note to 
this description it would appear that Dr. Lukis suggested this object to have 
been a surgical splint post. [The original was exhibited before the Society 
at a subsequent meeting, see p. 288, and proved to be of stone.] 



Feb. 22.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 275 

F.S.A. that they may have been used as bracers or guards 
against the rebound of the bow-string.* This suggestion 
is quite borne out when we turn to the Esquimaux. These 
inhabitants of the cold regions have two different forms cf 
bracers, made, however, of bone and not of stone, of each of 
which I exhibit a sketch. One of them is a single piece of 
bone with leather straps and a bone button. The other is formed 
of three parallel pieces of bone, with similar mode of attachment. 
This second variety would account for the presence of several 
stone objects of this kind in one grave, as in that recorded in 
the Archseologia, from Tring. 

These objects, I may add, arc destined to be placed in the 
Christy Collection. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these communications. 



Thursday, February 22nd, 1872. 
EARL STANHOPE, President, in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
io be returned to the Donors : 

From the Literary and Philosophical Society, Manchester-: Proceedings. 
Vol. XL, No. 9. Session 1871-2. 8vo. 

From the British Archaeological Association : Their Journal, December 31. 
8vo. London, 1871. 

From R. N. Grenville, Esq. M.A. F.S.A. M.P. : A Catalogue of Portraits and 
other Pictures at Butleigh Court. To which is added the " Index " of 
original studies of Portraits, by John Downman (with his remarks). 8vo. 
Taunton, 1865. 

From the Editor, Earl Stanhope, P.S.A. : Miscellanies. Second series. 8vo. 
London, 1872. 

From the Royal Institute of British Architects : 

1. Sessional Papers 1871-72. No. 5. 4to. London, 1872. 

2. Catalogues of the Drawings, Prints, and Photographs in the Library of 
the Institute. 4to. London, 1871. 

From J. W. K. Eyton, Esq. F.S.A. : 

1. Miscellanies of the Fuller Worthies' Library. Edited by the Rev. A. B. 
Grosart. Licia and other Lore Poems, by Giles Fletcher. The Poems of 
JohnNorris. The Poems of Lucius Carey, Viscount Falkland. Svo. Printed 
for private circulation, 1871. 

2. Mr. Ashbee's Occasional Fac-Siinile Reprints. XX. " The Primrose of 
London," 1585. XXI. " Mad Fashions, od Fashions," by John Taylor 
(The Water Poet). 1642. XXII. The Poet's Blind Man's Bough," 1641. 
Small 4to. London, 1871. 

* Mr. Evans has since published an account of objects of this nature in 
" Ancient Stone Implements," p. 380. 

T 2 



276 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

Captain J. S. SWANN, F.S.A. communicated some observa- 
tions on recent Excavations on the site of a Roman- villa, at 
Holcombe, near Lyme Regis, which will appear in the Archaeo- 
logia. 

Sir WILLIAM TITE, C.B. M.P. V.P. communicated the follow- 
ing memoir on the Kirkham Chantry in Paignton Church, 
South Devon, in the compilation of which he had been associated 
with Mr. W. H. H. Rogers, Local Secretary of the Society for 
Devonshire. 

" About the centre of the beautiful semicircular expanse of 
water known as Tor-Bay, lies the old, but now rapidly increas- 
ing, village of Paignton, and from its centre rises the lofty plain 
and heavy tower of its parish church. 

" Paignton was originally a place of some note. * It was,' 
says Pole, c aunciently the inheritance of the Bisshops of Exceter, 
where alsoe they had a dwellinge house ;' the mouldering re- 
mains of which, in the shape of an ivy-clad tower and some 
ruinous walls, are still to be seen near the churchyard. 

a An extensive park surrounded the palace, where on one 
occasion Dr. Oliver relates, quoting from Bishop Bronescombe's 
Register, Sir Henry de la Pomeroy, of Berry Castle, a powerful 
neighbouring noble, but with very lawless inclinations^ had to 
make the amende honorable for trespassing within it. With a 
numerous company the knight had dared to hunt the Bishop's 
deer, and had actually taken and killed some. For which 
flagrant offence he personally appeared before the venerable 
prelate, and acknowledging himself most guilty promised amend- 
ment, and solemnly engaged to make restitution. 

" The grand effigy, splendidly illuminated with colour, of this 
distinguished prelate, who flourished towards the close of the 
thirteenth century, perhaps the very finest in the country, re- 
poses in the Lady Chapel of Exeter Cathedral. 

" Paignton Church is a large structure of Late-Pointed work 
with 110 architectural pretensions, but there is a fine Norman 
western doorway. 

" The beautiful mortuary screen, upon which neglect, mutila- 
tion, and lime-wash have done their worst, divides a small side 
chapel or transept from the body of the church near the eastern 
end of the south aisle. 

" It is difficult to describe with sufficient minuteness the ex- 
ceeding beauty and intricacy of this elaborate sepulchral 
memorial, which I believe to be about a century later than the 
church proper. 

" It consists of three arched openings, the central one forming 
the doorway to the chantry, the hinges remaining ; the other two 



Feb. 22.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 277 

being canopies over altar-shaped basements on which the 
remains of four effigies recline. 

" Above the arches are hoods of rich tabernacle work, whose 
finials form supports for full-length figures of angels that stand 
on them, having long dependent wings and holding shields in 
their hands. 

" Below the tables that support the recumbent effigies there 
runs on both sides a series of rich niches containing angels, 
ecclesiastics, and other figures. The buttresses between the 
arches are similarly decorated, and around the soffits of the 
arches is a string course of most delicately worked vine-tracery, 
beautifully under-cut. 

a The vaulting of the arches over the effigies is of fan-tracery 
with rich pendants. 

" Two curious panels occur inside the canopies over the feet 
of the figures. 

" One appears to represent a Mass there is the altar with the 
vestiges of the crucifix, candles, and foot of the chalice thereon, 
while above and behind are shown the subjects and emblems of 
our Lord's death. Below is seen a bishop and two priests, while 
two cardinals stand by, one of whom holds a crozier. 

a The other panel seems intended for the Nativity. 

u On the opposite faces of the piers are small full-length figures, 
and above are string courses of demi-angels alternating with 
busts of bishops and others. 

u The recumbent effigies, four in number, have been sadly 
mutilated. Of one, only the head and shoulders remain, but 
each pair represents a knight and a lady. 

" The knights are in complete plate armour dating towards the 
close of the fifteenth century. They are bare-headed with long 
straight hair parted in front. Their feet rest on the remains 
of dogs, and their heads on helmets with mantling beneath. 

" Eound the breast of one of the knights are three chains, and 
from the lower one a cross patee depends. This decoration is 
frequently found on effigies of knights of this era, and probably 
indicates that the wearer had held some high social or eccle- 
siastical position, such as sheriff of the county or patron of the 
church in which he lies buried. 

" The ladies are somewhat differently attired. The figure under 
the western arch was probably a maiden, and the pair may have 
been brother and sister. She has on a plain bodice, skirt, and 
robe, but her hair is very luxuriant, parted in front and falling 
in great profusion to her elbows. Around her forekead is a 
narrow fillet or circlet fastened in front with a jewel shaped 
like a rose. 



278 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

" The other lady, though robed in a similar manner, wears on 
her head a couvre-chef and was presumably a wife, 

" The shields held by the angels above and the others occurring 
elsewhere on the screen are of very late shape, and a bouche, 
with the notch at the dexter chief point. No trace of blazonry 
is to be found on them, nor does inscription of any kind 
occur. 

" Tradition asserts that this striking and elegant memorial was 
erected by an ancient family long resident at Blagdon in this 
parish, some members of whom the recumbent effigies .are said 
to portray, and has appropriately termed it " The Kirkham 
Chantry." 

" There is little doubt of the correctness of this designation, as 
there exists within the chapel against its eastern wall near the 
screen a large Jacobean monument with large kneeling figures 
and the Kirkham arms Argent, three lions rampant gules 
within a bordure engrailed sable, but singularly enough there is 
no inscription remaining on this tomb. 

" Very scanty records exist of the history of the Kirkhams, the 
earliest member of which, Sir Nicholas Kirkham, migrated to 
Blagdon from Ashcombe near Chudleigh, he having married 
the heiress of Dennis, Lord of Blagdon, temp. Edw. I. 

" Nicholas Kirkham was Sheriff of Devon 2 Edward II. ; 
another Nicholas, 2 Richard II. ; and Sir John Kirkham, 15 
Henry VIII. The heir-general of the Kirkhams appears to 
have been Margaret, daughter of James, son of Sir John Kirk- 
ham of Feniton, and wife of William Westofer of Yardbury, 
Colyton ; whose only daughter Margaret married William 
Drake, of the family of Drake of Ashe, Musbury, baronets, who 
resided at Yardbury, and formed a collateral branch of that 
family, from whom its present representatives derive their 
descent. 

" A very curious circumstance apparently relating to the race 
of Kirkham of Blagdon, Paignton, and subsequently of Feniton, 
claims mention here. 

" There is in the wall of the north aisle of Paignton Church, 
under a depressed arch, a large sized memento mori, or effigy of 
a skeleton in a shroud or winding sheet. In Feniton Church 
there is an exactly similar figure, alike in every peculiarity 
except the situation where it occurs in the church, that at 
Feniton being placed on a high altar-tomb on the south side of 
the holy table. 

" At Feniton there lived a branch of the very ancient family 
of Malherbe, where Joan, the last heiress and only surviving 
descendant of thirteen generations, married twice, first a member 
of the Ferrers family, and secondly Sir John Kirkham of 



Feb. 29.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 279 

Blagdon. She bore a son to each husband, but a generation or 
two only passed, and all three of these ancient names became 
extinct. 

" Were these figures of Death placed in the churches of Paign- 
ton and Feniton to symbolize the extinction of these branches of 
the families of Kirkham and Malherbe, so strangely linked, and 
subsequently so quickly bereft of living representatives ? At any 
rate, the coincidence of the figures is suggestive and peculiar. 

" The arms of Malherbe Or, a chevron gules between three 
nettle-leaves erect vert (literally Mal-herbe), displays a pertinent 
example of allusive heraldry. The three iron horse-shoes of 
Ferrers have doubtless similar allusive origin." 

This communication was illustrated by drawings of the screen 
and the two panels referred to above, by two etchings of the 
effigies on the tombs, and by a sketch of the memento mori and 
tomb at Feniton. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these communications. 



Thursday, February 29th, 1872. 
C. S. PERCEVAL, Esq. LL.D. Director, in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Institute of Archaeological Correspondence : 

1. Monument! Inediti. Vol. VIII. Tav. 25 48 a ; and Vol. IX, Tav. 125. 
Folio. Rome, 18G6-70. 

2. Annali. Vol. 3842. 8vo. Rome, 1866-70. 

3. Bullettino. 1866, 1867, 1869, 1870. 8vo. Rome, 1866-70. 
From Her Majesty's Secretary of State for the Home Department : 

1. By the Queen. A Proclamation in order to the Electing a Peer of 
Scotland. 

2. By the Queen. A Proclamation for a Bank Holiday. 

Both given at Osborne House, Isle of Wight, 21st February, 1872, in 35th 
year of reign. Broadsheet folio (two copies). 

From the Author : County of Oxford. Notes upon the Jurisdiction of the 
County Justices within the city of Oxford ; and cognate matters. By 
John M. Davenport, Clerk of the Peace. 8vo. 1872. 

From J. W. K. Eyton, Esq. F.S.A. : 

1. The Times Newspaper, September 15 and 16, 1852 (containing the news 
of the Death of the Duke of Wellington). 

2. Memoir of the Duke of Wellington. Reprinted from the " Times." 8vo. 
London, 1852. 

3. A Collection of Curious and Interesting Epitaphs, copied from existing 



280 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

Monuments in the Cemeteries and Churches of Saint Pancras, Middlesex. 
By F. T. Cansick. 8vo. London, 1870. 

From the Manx Society : Publications. Vol. XIX. Eecords of the Tynwald 
and Saint John's Chapels. By William Harrison. 8vo. Douglas, 1871. 

Sir W. C. TREVELYAN, Bart. F.S.A. exhibited : 

1. A drawing of one of a pair of Andirons or dogs, now at 
Nettlecomb, Somersetshire, for which they were made for Sir 
Walter's ancestor, John Trevelyan, who died in 1546 or 1547. 
He married, about the year 1508, Avice Cockworthy, co-heiress 
of that family and of that of Champernown. The andirons repre- 
sent two armed figures, not duplicates cast from the same 
mould, but facing right and left, and with other variations in 
the position of the hands and arms. They stand about two feet 
high, and support shields bearing the arms of the husband and 
wife. 

They were probably cast in Sussex, and are interesting spe- 
cimens of old English work. 

2. A doubtful charter of King Athelstan, in favour of Exeter 
Cathedral, printed once in Hodgson's Northumberland, Part II. 
vol. i. p. 194, and again in Trevelyan Papers (Camden Society) 
Part I. p. 1 and Part II. p. 124. 

The Rev. E. V. FRENCH, LL.D. F.S.A. exhibited three Photo- 
graphs of a carved and inscribed stone of the transitional Nor- 
man period, lately found built into the wall of the old National 
Schools at Godmanchester. It appears originally to have been 
the head of a pier or column (possibly of a cross) standing clear 
on all sides. The height is 29 inches, breadth at base 10 by 
8 inches. 

In plan the stone has been nearly a square, with " bowtells " or 
half-round mouldings at the corners, spreading above, bat 
laterally only, into an equal number of corbels, worked in 
volutes, and supporting a flat slab, part of the same block, 
forming a kind of capital. The panels on the front and back, 
under the projecting capital, are devoid of ornament, but 
headed by an acutely pointed arch formed by the intersection 
of two curved lines, springing from the head of the bowtells. 
Both side panels are ornamented with carving on the front of 
the stone, worked in a spiral or volute. On one side at the top 
is an angel, the head nearly entirely worn away ; beneath this 
is a fillet, then the inscription, THOMAS the T being combined 
with the L. Beneath is the full-length form of a mitred 
personage holding a staff in the left hand, while the right 
is uplifted in the act of benediction. The other side contains, 
at the top, an angel holding a censer ; beneath, a fillet. Under 
the fillet, in a Vesica Piscis, the Saviour nimbed and seated in 
majesty, the left hand as usual in benediction. The spandrils 



Feb. 29.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 281 

above the vesica contain the initial and final Greek letters A and 
i. The spandrils below the vesica contain two ornaments, pro- 
bably mere foliations. Beneath is inscribed : 

WILL 9 : 

00(1 ?... 

F 6 C : 

P: ATA 

P A TB I S 

Which may probably be read Willelmus me fecit pro anima 
patris (possibly fratris)'. The episcopal figure is probably St. 
Thomas of Canterbury. A church to his honour (the chapel of 
St. Thomas at Portsmouth) was begun as early as 1180, ten years 
after his martyrdom.* 

C. E. DAVIS, Esq. F.S.A. in a letter addressed to the Secre- 
tary, communicated the -following account of a recently dis- 
covered Roman Altar at Bath : 

" In removing a portion of the building of the Bath markets 
adjoining the Guildhall that was built at the close of the last 
century I found several fragments of what appear to have 
been arches and other enriched work removed from the ruins 
of the chancel of the Abbey Church, dating from the twelfth to 
the thirteenth century. In October I found a fragment of what 
I believe to be a Roman altar built into a wall, arid in the fol- 
lowing month I discovered what I presume to be a portion of 
the same altar, although the two pieces do not precisely fit. 

u Presuming that these two fragments belong to each other, 
and that they constitute an imperfect whole, I have so repre- 
sented them in the accompanying drawing. 

" The form is peculiar, the face of the stone, back and front, is 
perfectly perpendicular, and the thickness thus given perfectly 
agrees in each stone, but at the sides they taper with an entasis 
of so slight' a character as not easily to be represented in a 
small drawing. This tapering gives the precise height as shown ; 
without this peculiarity it would have been a mere guess. 

" The Rev. H. M. Scarth, in hh-Aqu<z Solis, gives an account 
of all the altars discovered in Bath. The altar now described 
is particularly valuable, as there is no record of any previous 
discovery of one of the Genius Loci type. 

" The inscription evidently consisted of six lines ; the first line 
is tolerably plain, although the face of the stone has been chopped 
off with the upper mouldings ; obliterating, with the exception 
of a few words, the second line. 

* Glossary of Architecture, iii. 166. 



282 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

e< The words and letters following remain : 

1. GENILO C . . 

2. [gone.~\ 

3. [gone.'] 

4. LA1'.. 

5. D. IIANCC 

6. VSLTM 

" Are we to suppose GENI to be for genio, perhaps, originally, 
written GENI; or is there any known formula in which the 
genitive would be a place ? In Orelli's Inscriptions (Zurich, 1 828) 
No. 988, there is an inscription on the base of what Orelli 
states to be the bronze figure of a Genius. This too might have 
been a pedestal for a figure of the Genius Loci ; but it is 
evidently an altar, the upper portion of the stone being of a pink 
colour, the result of fire. 

" In line 4, the first letter may be E, the second probably is 
the top of an M, the fourth may be the same, but is perhaps N. 

" The closing formula has something uncommon about it ; in- 
stead of the usual v s L M it is VSLTM. The former is commonly 
interpreted " Votum solvit libens merito," but what is the T ? 
Orelli, 5,039, has one from Zurich that reads V s L T L M, for which 
he suggested two explanations. The first was that ST might 
stand for solvi T ; this will not apply to the Bath inscription. 
The second suggestion was that TL stood for LL, and that the 
whole line was equivalent to that known formula V s L L M where 
LL is placed for L and signifies " libentes." 

" I have much pleasure in communicating the particulars of 
this find ; and also a drawing of the altar, as no discovery of 
Roman antiquity in Bath, during the present century, has 
equalled this in interest. I hope at no distant date to give some 
particulars of a portion of the Roman Hot Baths I lately found 
more than 23 feet below the surface, still lined with lead nearly 
half an inch thick, laid upon concrete or most beautifully dressed 
freestone." 

JAMES THOMPSON, Esq. Local Secretary for Leicestershire, in 
a letter addressed to the Secretary, communicated the following 
account of Roman Remains observed near Hinckley : 

u It is well known to antiquaries that a road ran through 
this island, in Roman times, from Dover, by London, to Chester. 
In its course, this highway passed by Yeronse (High Cross) to 
Manduessedum (Mancetter), and this part of the line of com- 
munication is still used and known as Watling Street ; serving 
also as the boundary between Leicestershire and Warwickshire. 



Feb. 29.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 283 

About two miles eastward of the road lies the market town of 
Hinckley, and on the road stands a house once known as the 
Harrow Inn, away from other habitations. Between the Har- 
row Inn and Hinckley, a quarter of a mile eastward of the 
former place, the cutting of the new railway from Ashby-de-la- 
Zouch to Nuneaton is now being proceeded with by railway 
labourers. On July 7th, 1871, while one of these was removing 
the earth, in order to make the cutting, he perceived, at a 
depth of eighteen inches, that his spade or his pick was resisted 
by a hard substance. On removing the soil he found a jar of 
dirty-white earthenware, which, when broken, proved to contain 
a large number of silver coins. I here take up the description 
furnished to me by N. E. Hurst, Esq., of Higham Grange, the 
proprietor of an adjoining estate : 

" A discovery, interesting to antiquaries, was made in 
Leicestershire, on the 7th instant, near the Watling Street, 
about six miles north-east of High Cross, where the Fosse 
Road bisects it. In a cutting on the Hinckley branch of the 
Nuneaton and Ashby llailway, about eighteen inches below 
the surface, a * navvy ' came in contact with a Roman urn, 
larger than a quart measure, and which, on shaking, he thought 
contained money. On making this remark, his companions 
rushed forward the urn of burnt clay was broken into frag- 
ments and a general scramble took place for the* coins which 
fell from it. A large portion was secured by the finder, who 
has left the country, and the selling price of the remainder has 
been from one shilling to two shillings each. The coins are 
silver of the size and weight of an ordinary sixpence with 
the inscriptions in good preservation. The earliest one of the 
Emperor Otho (A.D. 69). On the reverse of one of Vespasian 
is JUDAEA, under a female figure in chains. Those of Trajan 
and Hadrian are the most numerous. There are some of Domi- 
tian and Nerva, and the latest in date are Antoninus Pius, his 
wife Faustina, and Marcus Aurelius, and Lucius Yerus.' 

" A list of the numbers of each type, so far as it could be 
prepared, has been furnished to me by the Rev. H. Fisher, of 
the Rectory, Higham-on-the-Hill, which I here transcribe : 

Otho . '. .2 Antoninus Pius . 8 

Vespasian . . 7 Faustina the elder . 3 

Domitian . . 3 Marcus Aurelius . 1 

Nerva ... 3 Faustina the 

Trajan . . .14 younger . . 3 

Hadrian. . .12 Lucius Ver us . . 2 

58 



284 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

" The neighbourhood has proved rich in antiquarian discovery 
for many generations. In 1607 coins, rings, and other articles 
were found at Higham, as related by Burton, the author of The 
Description of Leicestershire, published in 1622. Subsequently, 
at High Cross, the foundations of buildings, coins, pottery, and 
other relics of the Roman period have been often met with y but 
not always recorded. 

" I may repeat a recommendation I ventured to make some 
few years ago to the Society, namely, to initiate or promote 
excavations on the site of Veronse the point where two- of the 
main roads through this island intersected each other, and where 
doubtless a station of great importance existed during the 
prevalence of the Roman authority. If the right place were hit 
upon, I believe a more complete outline of a Roman-British city 
than those exhibited either at Silchester or Wroxeter would be 
brought to light." 

Thanks were ordered to bo returned for these Communications. 



Thursday, March 7th, 1872. 
AUGUSTUS W. FRANKS, Esq. V.P. in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Koyal Society : Proceedings. Vol. xx. No. 131. 8vo. London, 1872. 

From the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester : Proceedings. 
Vol. xi. No. 10. 8vo. 1872. 

From the Imperial Academy of Sciences of St. Petersburg : Bulletin. Tome 
xvi. Nos. 26. 4to. St. Petersburg, 1871. [Completion of vol. xvi.] 

From the Canadian Institute : The Canadian Journal of Science, Literature, 
and History. Vol. xiii. No. 3. 8vo. Toronto, 1872. 

From the London Institution : Journal. No. 12. Vol. 2. 8vo. London, 1872. 

The Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants of the 
Stationers' Company exhibited and presented an impression in 
bronze of a Medal struck in commemoration of the munificent 
bequests of the late Mr. Thomas Brown of Paternoster Row, to 
the Company and their school. 

Obverse : Head in profile regarding the left, THOMAS BROWN 
BORN 1778 DIED 1869. 



Marcli 7.] 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 



285 



Reverse : Shields of the City of London, the Stationers' Com- 
pany, and Brown, in a trifoliated panel. THE STATIONERS' 

SCHOOL * BROWN MEDAL * FOUNDED 1871. 

Diameter, 2 inches. J. S. & A. B. Wyon, sc. 

The Hon. ROBERT MARSHAM exhibited a small volume con- 
taining prayers in English, most beautifully bound in plaques 
of solid gold, adorned with elegant patterns in black enamel, 
from designs by Holbein, as appears on comparison with the 
design for a book cover by that artist, preserved in the British 
Museum, Add. MSS. 5308, and published by Mr. Shaw in his 
Encyclopedia of Ornament. The details have been slightly 
modified in execution, but the main features of the drawing 
agree precisely with Mr. Marsham's book. Mr. Marsham's 
account of this interesting object, with illustrations, will appear 
in the Arcliteologia. 

GRANVILLE LEVESON-GOWER, Esq. F.S.A. Local Secretary for 
Surrey, exhibited a bronze or brazen Censer found about 2 feet 




BRONZE CENSER FROM LIMPSFIBLD. 



286 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

below the surface of the ground under the floor of a pew, in the 
chancel of Limpsfield Church, Surrey, during the restoration of 
the church in the autumn of 1871. This relic is represented 
two-thirds of the actual size in the accompanying wood-cut. 

Notices of Thuribles will be found in the following publica- 
tions : 

Journ. Arch. Association, xix. 81 ; Arch. Journ. vols. xv. and 
xvi., 206 ; Proceedings, ii. 318. 

THOMAS F. EVANS, Esq. of Mona Lodge, Amlwch, Anglesea, 
exhibited, through A. W. Franks, Esq. V.P. two cakes of 
copper, on which the latter made the following observations : 

" The two cakes of copper exhibited this evening were found 
near the Paris Mine, Anglesea, and are of great interest in 
connection with early mining operations. One is entire and 
quite plain, the other is broken, but has on it a circular stamp 
with Roman letters, unfortunately very indistinct. 

"A similar cake with a Roman stamp, but impressed four times, 
was exhibited to the Archaeological Institute by the Hon. W. 0. 
Stanley, M.P. F.S.A. It was found also in the Paris mine.* " 

The two cakes exhibited on this occasion have since been pre- 
sented to the British Museum. 

Miss STOKES exhibited a very large collection of photographs 
of early Irish Antiquities formed under the immediate superin- 
tendence of the late Earl of Dunraven, K.P. F.S.A.. and de- 
signed as materials for a work on the subject projected by that 
zealous antiquary, for the production of which, interrupted by his 
much lamented decease, he has left the necessary funds. Miss 
Stokes, who has undertaken the labour of editing this publication, 
which promises to be of the highest value for Irish Archaeology, 
favoured the Society on the present occasion with a paper, 
briefly describing the collection exhibited, which embraced, 
besides numerous specimens of ecclesiastical architecture, views 
of many of the cashels, duns, forts, and other primitive habita- 
tions in remote parts of the western shores and islands of 
Ireland. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these communications. 



* Arch. Journal, xix. 189. 



Marel i 14.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 287 

Thursday, March 14th, 1872. 
EARL STANHOPE, President, in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Corporation of London : Catalogue of the Library of the Corporation 
of London, llth Supplement. 1871. 8vo. 

From the Editor, LI. Jewitt, Esq. F.S.A. : The Reliquary. No. 47, vol. XII. 
8vo. London and Derby, 1872. 

From the Royal Society of Literature : Transactions. Second series. Vol. X., 
Part 1. 8vo. 

From the Author : Memoir of the late Thomas Colby, Esq., Captain in the 
Royal Navy, and one of the Commanders of Greenwich Hospital ; compiled 
from his own Memoranda, by his son, Frederic Thomas Colby. Printed for 
private circuKition. Sm. 8vo. 1872. 

From the Cambrian Archaeological Association : Archseologia Cambrensis. 
Fourth series. Vol. III., No. 9. 8vo. London, 1872. 

From Octavius Morgan, Esq. M.P. F.R.S. F.S.A. : Thirteen Views of the 
Castle of Saint Donat's, Glamorganshire, with a Notice of the Stradling 
Family. 4to. Shrewsbury and Cardiff, 1871. 

From the Royal Institute of British Architects : Sessional Papers, 1871-72. 
No. 6. 4to. London, 1872. 

Notice was given of a Ballot for the election of .Fellows on 
Thursday, March 21st, and a list read of the candidates to be 
balloted for. 

George Tomline, Esq. M.P., Ralph Neville Grenville, Esq. 
.M.P., and Charles Shirley Brooks, Esq. were admitted Fellows. 

OCTAYIUS MORGAN, Esq. M.P. exhibited a volume containing 
a copy of the Bible, printed by Grafton in 1533, and other 
works bound up together. Mr. Morgan furnished the follow- 
ing notes on this exhibition : 

^" This curious old Bible was given to the Rev. Augustus 
Morgan by an old friend in the year 1822, in which year she 
died, 3rd April, aged 83. She was the widow of William 
Pollock, Esq., to whom the book belonged in 1809. He was 
for many years Chief Clerk in the Home Office at the beginning 
of this century, and died in 1816, and both he and his widow 
were buried in St. Margaret's, Westminster. He wrote so good 
and clear a hand that he was always accustomed to write the 
copy of the King's speeches, from which His Majesty read them 
in the House of Lords. How it came into his possession is not 
known. 



288 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

"This very curious and interesting thick small quarto volume, 
in height 7-J inches, in breadth 6 inches, and in thickness 4J 
inches, and in its original binding, contains the following works, 
which were probably bound up together in the latter part of the 
sixteenth century, and it forms a complete Church Service, 
perhaps the earliest and only one existing. It comprises the 
following works : 

" 1st. The Boke of Common Prayer and Administration of 
the Sacraments, and other rites and ceremonies in the Church 
of England. Printed in Powles Churchyarde by Richard Jugge 
and John Cawood, Printers to the Queen's Majesty. 1560. 

" I am informed that this edition is mentioned in Lowndes, 
but that there is no copy in the British Museum. 

" 2nd. A fragment of eight leaves, containing 6 Godlye 
Prayers.' Printed at London by Richard Jugge and John 
Caw r ood, between the years 1558 and 1572 ; most probably in 
1560. 

66 3rd. ' The Bible in English, according to the translation of 
the great Bible.' ' Imprinted at London by Richard Grafton, 
Printer to the King's Highness.' This is Cranmer's version. 
The type is remarkably small, and the edition has marginal 
references, and indications of the portions appointed to be read 
as lessons in the Church. This edition is, I am informed, of 
extreme rarity. 

" 4th. The Homilies called ' Certain Sermons,' first printed 
by Richard Jugge and John Cawood at London, in 1560. This, 
I am told, is not in the British Museum, and was unknown 
to Lowndes. 

" 5th. The Psalter, or < Psalms of David,' in English metre by 
Thomas Sternhold and others. i Imprinted by John Day, dwelling 
over Aldersgate^ beneath St. Martins. These Bokes are to be 
sold at his shop under the gate.' 1561. This, I am informed, 
is not in the British Museum, and was unknown to Cotton, 
Lowndes, and Lea Willson. It opens with a treatise and in- 
structions in music. All the Psalms of David are given,, very 
many with the music notes and tunes ; besides these, there are 
many other psalms and hymns with the tunes, as the Lord's 
Prayer, Te Deum, Ten Commandments, &c. The names of the 
persons who composed the metrical versions are also given, but 
to the Hundreth Psalm there is neither name nor initial letters. 
It closes with a form of prayer to be used in private houses 
morning and evening." 

The Right Hon. Lord OTHO FITZGERALD, M.P., exhibited 
an object discovered in a tumulus near Driffield, Yorkshire, on 



March 14.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 281) 

which A. W. Franks, Esq., V.P., made the following observa- 
tions : 

" In a communication which I made to the Society in February 
respecting the finding of a stone bracer in Brandon Fields, I 
noticed a very curious discovery of the same nature made by the 
late Lord Londesborough, F.S.A., in a tumulus near Driffield, 
and described in the Archasologia, xxxiv. 251 258. The object 
discovered by Lord Londesborough was, however, described 
as made of bone, and though there is a reference to the plate, 
it is not engraved ; the only means of judging of the nature 
of the object being a slight indication in the representation of the 
skeleton then discovered. 

" On referring to a privately printed description of a collection 
of rings and other personal ornaments in the possession of Lady 
Londesborough, I found under No. 164 ' an armbrace or armlet 
of bone, studded at the four corners with bronze nails having 
gold heads. length 5 inches.' 

" This, I found, was the object in question, and Lord Otho 
Fitzgerald kindly permitted me to see the original, which, like 
all the specimens noticed in my communication, is of stone, and 
not of bone. 

" I may add that Lord Otho Fitzgerald has consented to this 
object being engraved for the paper on Long Barrows, by 
Dr. Thurnam, about to appear in the Archaaologia." 

Captain R. F. BURTON exhibited : 

1. An Altar-stone from the site of the ancient Canatha, in 
Jebel Duruz Hauran. 

2. A Thurible of bronze, found in the country between Pal- 
myra and Damascus. 

These objects were thus described by the exhibitor : 

" Your indefatigable Vice-President, Colonel Lane Fox, sug- 
gested to me that the two articles now before you, which have 
been lying for. some time at the rooms of the Anthropological 
Institute, should be exhibited before the Society of Antiquaries, 
and your Secretary did me the honour to ask for a few words 
by way of illustration. I have willingly accepted both sug- 
gestions, especially the latter, because it will give me the oppor- 
tunity of adding a few words which may be useful to future 
explorers. 

" The thurible, in Syria called " mabkharah," comes from a 
convent known as the Dayr of " Mar Muza el Habashi " (St. 
Moses the Abyssinian), which I visited in Sept. 28, 1870, distant 
about an hour and a half of slow riding, say six miles, from 
the town of Nabk. This holy man was a hermit from the land 
of Prester John, who lived in the Anti-Libanus, and who died 

VOL. v. u 



290 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

there in the odour of sanctity. The first monastery was built 
over his remains by the Emperor Heraclius (A.D. '610 641), 
and it has, they say, been four times destroyed by sectarian 
hatred. His annual pilgrimage was well attended until the 
last five or six years, but since that time the incursions of the 
Bedawins have been an effectual bar to pious visitation. Mar 
Muza's thumb is kept in a silver box, and is kissed by wives 
who would become the joyful mothers of children. 

" The monastery is posted upon the left side of a rocky 
fiumara, a bare line of white and reddish limestone, in places 
curiously streaked and banded. This I found, from the great 
number of mortuary caves, large and small, which riddle its 
right side, to have been the conventual cemetery. We had no 
difficulty in picking up five skulls, probably of priests ; one had 
the mouth stuffed with wool. Near the monastery, the bridle- 
path, a narrow ledge and ladder of slippery stone, ends abruptly : 
the good monks preferred keeping a precipice of some 500 feet 
in front of them, in order to ward off the nomads who ride the 
lowlands. We exchanged a shot or two with some fifteen of 
these gentry, mounted on horses and dromedaries, but more for 
bravado on both sides than with the idea of doing harm. It is 
strange that of all those who have passed, when en route for 
Palmyra, almost under the walls of this conspicuous and com- 
manding building, not one appears to have noticed it. They 
were probably too much occupied with the material hardships 
and the physical discomforts of the journey to look out for 
thuribles, and they certainly had no guides who would look out 
for them.* 

" The date of the thurible has been disputed, but the altar is 
unquestionably an antique. In June 1871, accompanied by my 
friend Mr. Charles F. Tyrwhitt-Drake, I visited the basaltic 
range which fronts the Anti-Libanus, and lies between the 
fertile Auranitis (Valley of the Hauran), and the mysterious 
Desert of the Euphrates. This chain, purely volcanic and 
basaltic, has been identified with the Alsadamus Mons of 
Ptolemy. It is now in the hands of the Druses, who, driven 
by persecution and oppression from their old homes on the 
eastern slopes of the Hermon, began their exodus to these 
fastnesses about 150 years ago. Burckhardt found the emigra- 
tion hard at work in 1810 12. 

" At present undoubtedly the most prosperous settlements of 
Jebel Duruz Hauran are Shakkah, the ancient Saccoea, and 
Kanawat. The latter is the classical Canatha and the Hebrew 
Kenath, all signifying "underground aqueducts." The altar 

* For a further account of this visit, see Burton and Tyrwhitt-Drake, Unex- 
plored Syria, vol. ii. p. 272< 



To face p. 290. 











BRONZE THURIBLE FROM SYRIA. 



March 14.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 291 

was found on the terrace of a private house, being used as a kind 
of flower-pot, and of course the owners knew nothing of its 
value. My friend and fellow-traveller easily bought it for a 
few piastres. 

" Intending again to visit with more apparatus the Duruz 
mountain, I had hoped to carry away two or three camel-loads 
of carved basalt ; but unfortunately the exigencies of economy 
cut short my career in Syria. Damascus was reduced to a 
vice-consulate, and consequently I was recalled. Allow me 
strongly to urge upon antiquaries the necessity of taking some 
steps to bring home some of these interesting relics. The 
Hippodrome of Kanawat and the Temple of Si'a, to mention no 
others, are full of figures and images, especially birds, well cut 
in the hardest basalt. The Druses use them simply as building 
stones. The fanatic Muslims of a former age have mutilated 
them, especially by breaking off the heads, and the children 
now amuse themselves with stoning them. The people are, and 
have been for long ages, most friendly to the English, although 
in these days we think but little of keeping up such time- 
honoured connections. Still, an Englishman will always be 
received by them with the utmost kindness and hospitality, 
especially where the settlements have not been much troubled 
by dragomans and tourists. They are entirely ignorant of the 
importance which we attach to such antiquities, and they are 
ready to part with them for the smallest sums. Collectors, 
however, must be careful not to arouse their greed, as they are 
mountaineers and poor. And the sad catastrophe which lately 
befell that most interesting of monuments the altera lectio of the 
third chapter of the second Book of Kings, the Moabite stone a 
catastrophe brought about solely by the mismanagement and 
jealousy of Europeans at Jerusalem will, I venture to hope, 
read a lesson of prudence to all future time." 

The thurible which is here figured has since been acquired by 
the British Museum. The woodcut shows the censor itself with 
chains of twisted copper wire terminated by a cap ; the sculp- 
ture round the body in an extended view ; and a figure in relief 
which ornaments the bottom. All these are to a scale of f rds 
linear. In the left hand corner the incised pattern on the base 
is given full-size. 

R. H. MAJOR, Esq. F.S.A. communicated a paper, entitled 
Further Facts relating to the Discovery of Australia; which will 
appear in the Archa3ologia. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these communications. 

u 2 



292 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

Thursday, March 21st, 1872. 
AUGUSTUS W. FRANKS, Esq. Y.P. in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Master and Wardens of the Company : History and Antiquities of 
the Worshipful Company of Leathersellers of the City of London ; with 
Fac-similes of Charters, and other Illustrations. By William Henry 
Black, F.S.A. Folio. London, 1871. [Printed for private circulation.] 

From the American Philosophical Society : .- 

1. Transactions. Vol. XIV., New series. Part 3. 4to. Philadelphia, 1871. 

2. Proceedings. Vol. XIL, 2. No. 87. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1871. 

From the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester : Proceedings. 
Vol. XI., No. 11. 8vo. 1872. 

From the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland : Proceedings. Vol. VIII., Part 2. 
[Completing Vol. VIIL] 8vo. Edinburgh, 1871. 

From the Imperial Archaeological Commission : 

1. Compte-Rendu pour 1'annee 1869. 4to. St. Petersburg!!, 1870. 

2. Atlas. Folio. St. Petersburgh, 1870. 

A vote was passed recording the Special Thanks of the Society 
to the worshipful Company of Leathersellers for their handsome 
present to the library. 

This being an evening appointed for the election of Fellows, 
no papers were read. 

The Ballot began at 8'45 and closed at 9 '30 p.m., when the 
following candidates were declared to be duly elected : 

Thomas Morell Blackie, Esq. 

Rev. Samuel Savage Lewis. 

Edward Breese, Esq. 

Samuel Spalding, Esq. 

John De Havilland, Esq. 

Edward Arber, Esq. 

Sir Charles James Palmer, Bart. 

William Henry Hamilton Rogers, Esq. 

George William Reid, Esq. 

John Samuel Phene, Esq. 

James Thome, Esq. 



April 11.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 293 

Thursday, April llth, 1872. 
C. S. PERCEVAL, Esq. LL.D. Director, in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Compiler, John Watney, Jun. Esq. F.S.A. : Some Account of St. 
Osyth's Priory, Essex, and its Inhabitants. 8vo. London, 1871. [Pri- 
vately printed.] 

Erom the Numismatic Society : The Numismatic Chronicle. Vol. XI. New 

Series. No. 44. 8vo. London, 1871. 
Erom the Royal Society : Proceedings. Vol. XX., No. 132. 8vo. London, 1872. 

Erom the Wiltshire Archasological and Natural History Society : Their Maga- 
zine. No. XXXVII., Vol. 13. 8vo. Devizes, 1871. 

Erom the Commission of Antiquities of the Seine Inferieure : Bulletin. Annee, 
1870. Tome II. l' e Livraison. 8vo. Dieppe, 1871. 

Erom the Royal Institute of British Architects : Sessional Papers, 1871-72. 
No. 7. 4to. London, 1872. 

From J. W. K. Eytou, Esq. F.S.A. : Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica. 
Monthly Series. Edited by J. J. Howard, LL.D. E.S.A. Nos. XVIII. and 
XIX. March. 8vo. London, 1872. 

Erom J. O. Phillipps, Esq. F.R.S. F.S.A. : A curious paper of the time of Queen 
Elizabeth, respecting the office of the Revels. Now first printed from the 
Lansdowne Manuscript No. 83, in the British Museum. ' 8vo. London, 
1872. [Twenty copies printed for presents only.] 

From the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland : The 
Journal. Vol. I., No. 3. January. 8vo. London, 1872. 

Erom the Editor -.The Church Builder. No. 42. April. 8vo. London, 1872. 

From the Royal Geographical Society : Proceedings. Vol. XV., No. 5. 
[Completing the vol.], and Vol. XVI., No. I. 8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland : The 
Journal. Vol. I. Fourth Series. No. 8. 8vo. Dublin, 1871. 

From the Author : A Topographical Index to the Fellows of the Geological 
Society of London, resident in the country or abroad. By Townshend 
M. Hall, Esq. F.G.S. [Corrected to January 1st, 1872.] 

From the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester : Proceedings. 

Vol. xi. No. 12. 8vo. 

From the London Institution : Journal. No. 13. Vol. 2. 8vo. London, 1872. 
From the Society for Nassau Antiquities and Historical Investigation : Elfter 

Band, 1871, und.Eiinften Bandes zweites Heft. 1871. 2 Vols. 8vo. 

Wiesbaden. 

From the Author : An Account of the Township of Iffley, Oxfordshire. By 
the Rev. Edward Marshall, M.A. 8vo. Oxford and London, 1870. 

From General Meredith Read, F.S.A. : Galerie Historique et Critique du dix- 
neuvieme siecle par Henry Lauzac. (Extrait du sixieme volume.) 8vo. 
Paris, 1872. 

From the Author, Edward A. Freeman, Esq. M.A., D.C.L. : 

1. Inaugural Address. At Crewkerne, August 29, 1871. 8vo. 

2. Address to the Historical Section of the Annual Meeting of the Institute 
held at Cardiff. 8vo. 



294 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

Notice was given that the Anniversary Meeting for the election 
of the President, Council, and Officers of the Society would he 
held on St. George's Day, Tuesday, April 23rd, at the hour of 
2 p.m., and a list was read of the persons proposed by the Council 
as the Council and Officers for the ensuing year. 

The Report of the Auditors of the Society's accounts for the 
year 1871 was read. (See page 295). 

Thanks were ordered to be returned to the Auditors for their 
trouble, and to the Treasurer for his good and faithful services. 

FRANCIS FRY, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited and presented a litho- 
'aph of a Mural Painting discovered in Kelston Church, near 



M. H. BLOXAM, Esq. F.S.A. Local Secretary for Warwick- 
shire, presented a woodcut (from a drawing made in 1865) of a 
Megalithic Monument known as the King's Stone, at Long 
Compton, Warwickshire, near the Rollwright Stones. 

J. T. MICKLETHWAITE, Esq. F.S.A. communicated some account 
of the discoveries in St. Alban's Abbey Church, consequent on the 
repairs actually in progress, and presented a photograph showing 
the portions of the Shrine of St. Alban lately found. 

Mr. Micklethwaite also exhibited a brass or latten Candle- 
stick, probably of late fourteenth century work. The nozzle for the 
candle was formed by a tapering tube 3 inches in height, rising 
from a coronet of fleurons in pierced work of elegant design. 
This rose from a nearly hemispherical base, about 5 inches in 
its largest diameter, placed on a base }-inch high of eight-foiled 
plan. Total height about 7 inches. 

The hemispherical portion was ornamented with an incised 
inscription in Gothic letters 

tf)g najarenus rex tutoeoru. 

The candlestick had for many years occupied the place of 
honour on the mantle-shelf of a country farm-house, and from 
constant polishing the inscription and other incised ornaments 
have nearly been effaced. 

EDWARD PEACOCK, Esq. F.S.A. Local Secretary for Lincoln- 
shire, communicated a transcript of two Inventories of the 
goods of Cardinal Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, at his Palace 
of Rochester, and also at his Manor of Hailing in Kent. This 
document is contained in a volume marked J E G 8151, among 



April 11.] 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 



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296 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

the records formerly of the Queen's Remembrancer in the 
Exchequer, now in the Public Record Office. 

Both inventories purport to have been taken on April 27th 
26 Henry VIII. (1534), being the day after the Bishop's com- 
mittal to the Tower for refusing to take the oath to the Succes- 
sion. The year previously he had been found guilty of misprision 
of treason, and subjected to the forfeiture of his goods and to 
imprisonment for life. He appears, however, says Mr. Cooper 
in Athenae Cantabrigienses, i. 53, to have been allowed to retain 
his liberty ; and it would seem from the document now before 
us, that entire execution of the sentence of forfeiture .did not 
take place immediately. 

The Record Office paper must be a fair copy of the original 
made subsequently to the date of the inventories, for it is headed 
" John Fisher, Cardinal," and it was not until May 20 or 21, 
1535, that he was created a cardinal by the title of Saint Vitalis, 
just one month before his decapitation on Tower Hill, June 22nd 
of that year. 

The following is the extended text of the inventories. The 
meanness of the personal effects of this excellent prelate sufficiently 
corresponds with his known frugality and simplicity of life. 

[On the cover in a modern hand.] 

Palatium > 26 Hen. VIII. 

RofFen. > Inventory of the goods of the Bishop of Rochester. 



John Fissber Cardinal. 

Palac'm ) An Inuentory taken and made the xxvij th daye of 
Roffen. } Apriell in the xxvj tl * yere of the reigne of our sovereigns 
lord king Henry the viij th of all suche goodes and implementes 
of Housholde of the Busshopp of Rochester's beyng and Re- 
maynyng in the sayde house to th' use of our sovereigne lord the 
king as hereafter more playnlye shall appere. 

That ys to say 

In his ounebedd chamber. 

Furst a bedsted with an olde materas theron. 

Item a Counterpoynt lyned with Canuas which counterpoint ys of Redd clothe. 

Item a Ceter* and a Tester of olde Redde velueyt, lytell worthe. 

Item a Cheyere of Lether and a Cusshyn in yt. 

Item an Aulter withe a hangyng of white & grene saten of brydgies with our 

Lord embrowdred on the same. 
Item ij Curteyns of Blewe sarceneyt. 
Item a Cubborde with a clothe vppon the same. 
Item a litle cheyer kovereyed with lether & a cusshyne in the same. 

* Query an error for Celor, a ceiling, i.e. a wooden top to the bed to which the 
velvet tester was attached. 



April 11.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 297 

Item a Closse Stole and an olde Cusshyn vppon yt. 
Item an Aundyron a Fyere panne and a Fire shovell. 

In the great Study within the same chamber. 

Furst a long spruce tabyll with trestell. 

Item a lytle playne table with a Trestell. 

Item iij lether chayers. 

Item ij cusshyons. 

Item a payre of Tonges ij Aundyrons. 

Item a Fyere Forkke. 

Item viij Rounde deskes ij great Tables with dyvers shelffes to ley on bokes. 

In the Northe Study e. 

Item dyvers glasses with waters and syroppys and certeyne boxes of marmalad 

which was delyuered to my lorde of Rochester servante. 
Item a Table and iiij Rounde deskes with dyvers shelves to lay on bokes. 

In the Southe Galorye. 

Item 1 glasses of dyvers Sortes with viij olde litle curteyns of grene and Redda 
saye. 

<Jn the chappell in thende of the Sowth Galory. 

Item a Cusshion in the Sete of the chappell with all the alter clothes, and certeyin* 

other stuff left ther as ij peces of old velueyt with a superaltare. 
Item iij Imagies gylte with a Crucifyxe. 

In the brode galary. 

Furst old hanginge of grene Saye. 

Item dyverse old Carpettes of Tapesterye work set under the sayde (sic) boke. 

Item an alter clothe paynted with grene velueyt and yelow damaske. 

Item a saint Johnes hedde* standing at thende of the altere. 

Item a boke pontificall lying vnder the same saint Johnes hedde". 

Item a paynted clothe of the Image of Jesus taken from the crosse. 

Item ij curteyns of old sarcenet. 

Item in the Stewe f a counter and a cheyre. 

In the olde galary. 

Item certyne olde bokes perteynyng to diverse monasteries. 

In the warderobe. 

Item a kyrtell of StamnellJ single. 

Item a Spanyshe blankett. 

Item ij payre of course blauckettes. 

Item a Lymbecke to stille Aqua vite with diverse olde trashe. 

Item a Trussing bedstedd. 

Item a paire of -Shettes. 

Item vj bordes ij paire of tristellys. 

In the lytle Study beside the warderobe. 

Item dyuerse glasses and boxes with Syropys, sugar, stilled waters, and other 
certayne trasshe sent and delyuered to my Lorde. 

In the great chappell within the same. 

First the alter hanged withe whyte sarceneit with crosses of Redde Sarcenit vppoii 
the same and vrider the same two hanginge of yelow Saten of bridges and 
blewe damaske. 

* A picture or carving of the Baptist's head in a charger. 

f A bath and hence a small closet. Russell's Bolte of Nurture, Early Ens. 
Text. Soc. vol. 32, p. 152. 

J Fine worsted. French Estame. " In sommer vse to were a scarlet petycote 
made of stamellor lynse wolse." Andr. Borde, Early English Text Soc., vol.32, 
p. 248. 

An alembic, vide Shakespeare, Macbeth, act. i. scene TIL 



298 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

Item viij Images gilte vppon the same Alter. 

Item ij Candelstykes of Laton. 

Item a dyaper clothe vppon the same Alter. 

Item a hanging over the same Alter. 

Item a pixe to putt the Sacrament in with a clothe hanging over the same gar- 

nysshed with golde, with tasselles of Redde Sylke and golde. 
Item at the endes of the same Alter ij Curteyns of Redde sarceneyt. 
Item vppon the deske where he syttyth in the same chappell ij peces of Tapisterie 

w l ij cusshions koueryd with dornexe. 
Item a Masse hoke. 

Item an olde Carpeit vppon the grounde before the same Alter. 
Item the hanginges of the said chappell be of Redd say paynted. 
Item an alter ben'eth (sic) in the same chappell hanged with old dornexe and a 

paynted clothe of the thre kinges of Coleyn. 
Item v other Imagies of Tymber. 
Item a Table of Domesdaye. 
Item a Crucifixe with the Imagies of the Father and the holy goste. 

In the litle chamber nexte the same chappell. 
Item the hanginge ther of olde paynted clothes. 
Item a great loking glosse broken. 
Item an olde Foldyng bedde with cordes. 

In the great chamber next the same. 
Item a long table and ij Trestellys. 

Item a Copborde and a yoyened (queer e forjoynecT) bedsted. 
Item a lytle bedde vnder the same wherin ys an olde materas (ij bolsters) a lytle 

olde Fetherbedde and one olde blanckett. 
Item in the Chymney one Aundeyron. 

In the olde dynyng chamber. 
Item ij chayers of lether. 
Item a nother cheyre of black velueyt. 
Item a Long table with Tristelles. 
Item a copborde. 

Item a nother copborde of waynscott. 
Item ij carpettes in the wyndowys. 
Item ij Joyened Formes. 

In the halle. 

The same halle hanged with olde Arras. 
Item ij Tables iiij Formes vj trestelles. 

In the parlor. 

First the said parlor hanged w 1 grene verder verye olde conteynyng v peces. 
Item a Table ij trestelles and iij Formes. 
Item a Carpeit verie old lying in the wyndow. 
Item a joyened bedsted. 
Item a Turned bedstede and ther vpon a litle Fetherbedde (a bolster) ij lytle 

coverleites. 
Item ij chayres. 

In the chamber nexte the same. 
A chest with certeyne olde Euydences with certeyne old accomptes. 

In the clerk of the kytchyns chamber. 
A Joyened beddsted with a Matares theron. 
Item a great chaire. 

In William Smadles chamber. 

Item a Materas a bason of Tynne and a nother of Laton. 
Item an Instrument to hei'ght a bedde with. 
Item iij dyshes with shelffes and other trasshe. 

In Maister Wilson's chamber. 
Item a Fetherbedde. 



April 11.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 299 

In the Brewhous. 

Item Vesselles to brew with of all sortes and kyndes. 
In the Cookes chamber. 
A Fetherbedde and a bolster. 

In the keching. 
Item iij brasse pottes. 
Item vj Spyttes. 
Item ij ffrying pannes. 
Item ij grydyrons. 
letm ij great aundyrons for spittes. 
Item a Colebran. 

Item ij Trevyttes and a great panne. 
Item xvj platters of pewter. 
Item a dreping panne. 
Item ij Aundyrons. 
Item viij dishes and vij sawssers. 
Item iij chaffing dishes. 
Item a Candlestyke. 

Item a lytle brasvn Morter with a pestell. 
Item a chafer with a colender. 

In the entre besides the kechyn. 
Item a Beame balaunce and thre half hundrethes. 



Fo. 5 b. 

The Manor of \ An Inuentorye made and taken the xxvij daye of Apriell in 
Hawlyng in f the xxvj th yere of the reigne of our souereigne Lord king 
the countie f Henry the viij th As well of all and singuler implemented 
of Kent. ) of householde as of other Mouables and goodes remanyyng 

there to the kinges vse as hereafter ensuythe. 

viz. 

In the Brewhouse. 
First a paire of querne stones. 
Item a ffurneys. 

Item a Leade and a nother olde leade for a Furnes. 
Item a Brewing ketell. 
Item ij Brewing Tonnes with a Masshing Toobe. 

In his dynyng chamber nexte vnto the great chamber. 

Furst iij Tables and ij paire of trestellys. 
Item a Litle copbourde. 
Item a cheyre. . 

In the Stewardes Chamber. 

Memorandum ther ys xviij saintes stondyng on lytle walles within the chappell 
which there still remaynythe. 

In the lytle chamber next the chapell. 

Item a bedstedde a deske with diverse other implementes all which remayneth 
stylle. And so doith all other bedstedes and deskes in every other chambers. 

T. McKENNY HUGHES, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited 

1. Specimens of Crag Fossils, viz., sharks' teeth with perfora- 
tions which had been alleged to be due to human agency. 
With reference to certain paragraphs in the newspapers on this 
subject, Mr. Hughes expressed his conviction that the holes in 
question were due to natural causes. 

2. A Loadstone found in the bed of a torrent near Cor wen, 



300 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

North Wales. This was a cubical piece of loadstone, mounted 
with iron poles and brass fittings, forming a natural magnet. 
The brass work was probably not later than the seventeenth 
century. 

Sir HENRY DRYDEN, Bart, exhibited 

1. A Celt of greenstone, found at King's Button, Northampton- 
shire, on what had been, first, a British, and subsequently a 
Roman station. This celt was originally the property of Mr. 
Baker, the historian of Northamptonshire, and at his death 
came into the possession of the exhibitor. Mr. Evans had con- 
tended, as Sir Henry Dryden observed, that this implement must 
have come from the West Indies. 

Mr; McKenny Hughes remarked that, although Mr. Evans's 
statement was probably true, yet that the celt exhibited resembled 
so closely in colour some of the serpentine rocks in the south of 
England, that he did not consider it absolutely impossible but 
that it might be of English origin, as the circumstances of the 
find assuredly indicated. 

2. A bronze Spearhead found in Ireland, with flanges twisted, 
so as to facilitate rotation, a circumstance believed to be very 
unusual with bronze spearheads. 

3. A large collection of drawings and plans of Megalithic 
Remains in Brittany, made daring the summers of 1867 1869, 
by Sir Henry Dryden, Bart and the Rev. W. C. Lukis. F.S.A. 

Sir H. Dryden entered into some explanation of the principles 
on which the drawings had been executed, and stated at some 
length a few of the results to which he had been led with reference 
to the history and construction of the dolmens. 

It is hoped that these primitive structures will form the subject 
of a communication from Mr. Lukis to the Society ; the plans 
exhibited this evening will afford the materials for the necessary 
illustration of such a paper. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these communications. 



Thursday, April 18th, 1872. 
C. S. PERCEVAL, Esq. LL.D. Director, in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical Association : Their 
Journal. Part 6 [not previously presented.] 8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Author : The History and Topography of the Parish of Kirkburton, 



April 18.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 301 

and of the Graveship of Holme, including Holmfirth, in the county of York. 

By Henry James Morehouse. 4to. Huddersfield, 1861. 
From the Author: The Anthropological Institute. President's Address. 

Anniversary Meeting. January 15th, 1872. By Sir John Lubbock, Bart. 

M.P. 8vo. 
From the Editor, Llewellyn Jewitt, Esq. F.S.A. : The Reliquary. No. 48. 

Vol. XII. April. 8vo. London, 1872. 

From the London Institution : Their Journal. No. 14, Vol. 2. 8vo. Lon- 
don, 1872. 
From the Author : The Moabite Stone. A Lecture by Samuel Sharp, F.S.A. 

[Printed for private circulation.] 8vo. Northampton, 1872. 

From the Royal Asiatic Society : The Journal. New Series. Vol. V., Part 2. 
8vo. London, 1871. 

John de Havilland, Esq was admitted a Fellow. 

W. H. HART, Esq. F.S A. exhibited a collection of twenty- 
six volumes, containing transcripts of the whole of the Cartulary 
of St. Peter's Monastery, Gloucester, selections from which 
volume (the Chronicle) have been printed under Mr. Hart's 
supervision in the Rolls series. 

M. H. BLOXAM, Esq. F.S A. Local Secretary for Warwick- 
shire, exhibited a Bottle of rude manufacture, and other antiquities 
from Warwickshire, which he thus described : 

" 1. The glass bottle now exhibited was found a few weeks ago 
by Mr. W. Bezant Lowe, a young gentleman of Rugby School, 
with the neck downwards, protruding from one of the banks of 
the river Avon, four feet below the surface, imbedded in the 
gravel, about 200 yards from the site of Lawford Hall, an old 
mansion of the Bo ugh ton family, which was pulled down, on 
account of a cause celebre, between the year 1785 1790. 
During the winter the floods had apparently washed away a 
portion of the bank leaving the bottle partially exposed. 

a Connected with Lawford Hall, which was two miles from 
Rugby, Warwickshire, was one of the Warwickshire legends, 
of, I think, no great antiquity, as the first writer who alludes to 
it is Ireland in his ' Warwickshire Avon,' published in 1795. 
In this work he says : 

" ' In Lawford hall, I am told, a room was preserved as the 
bedchamber of an ancestor of the family, who, in the time of 
Elizabeth, having lost an arm, went afterwards by the appella- 
tion of one-handed Boughton. After his death the room was 
reported to be haunted, and as such many attempts were made 
to sleep in it, but in vain ; and such is the credulity of the lower 
people, that it was with difficulty any labourer could be pre- 
vailed on to assist in pulling it down. The ghost of this one- 
htinded gentleman, I was told, by persons on the spot, had been 



302 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

frequently seen by their fathers riding across the neighbouring 
grounds in a coach and six. With the same air of confidence I 
was informed that within the present century his perturbed 
spirit had been laid by a numerous body of the clergy, who con- 
jured it into a phial, and threw it into a marie-pit opposite the 
house. Nor does the family seem to have been exempt from a 
similar superstition and belief in ghosts, for it is told of the late 
Sir Theodosius's father, that, being visited by his neighour, the 
late Sir Francis Skipwith, and walking together near the marie- 
pit, Sir Francis observed that he thought there must be many 
fish in that pond, and that he should be glad to try it ; to which 
Sir Theodosius's father gravely replied, u No; that I cannot con- 
sent to, for the spirit of my ancestor, the one-handed Boughton, 
lies there." 

" Haifa century ago or more the marie-pit alluded to by Ire- 
land, and which was in a field near the site of and about 200 yards 
eastward of Lawford Hall, was cleaned, and a bottle similar in 
shape to that now exhibited was found. This was at once sup- 
posed to be the bottle in which the spirit of the one-handed 
Boughton was laid, and excited much attention, as the story of 
the one-handed Boughton was implicitly believed in. 

" Of the supposed laying of the ghost I had an account from 
the lips of an old man, Mr. John Wolf, formerly my tenant, who 
died about four years ago, aged 97 or upwards. He was born 
within a mile of Lawford Hall, arid in his boyhood used fre- 
quently to go there, and well remembered the legend, in which 
he firmly believed. Amongst other stories he told me was one 
relating to the laying of the ghost. * There were,' said he, 
' twelve parsons to lay the ghost ; he was to have two hours 
every night during which his spirit might wander about; all 
their lights went out but Parson Hall's, and Parson Hall laid 
the ghost.' 

" Parson Hall was rector of the adjoining parish of Great 
Harborou^h from 1754 to 1755, and I hardly think this bottle is 
of earlier date than the early half of the eighteenth century. 
Could it have been connected with an earlier reputed laying of 
the ghost, or could this have been the bottle in which Captain 
Donellan distilled the poisonous laurel water, and afterwards 
concealed it? 

"The bloody hand of Ulster has been productive of more than 
one legend, and a story very similar to that of the one-handed 
Boughton is told of a ruined mansion in Suffolk close to 
Thetford. 

" 2. At Cave's Inn, on the Watling Street, in the parish of 
Churchover, Warwickshire, about 3J miles fram Rugby, several 
Roman antiquities have been discovered. This place 1 consider 



April 18.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 303 

to have been the site of the Roman station Tripontium, not- 
withstanding most commentators have fixed that station at 
Lilbourn. Amongst the antiquities from Cave's Inn are the 
following objects, viz., a piece of flat semi-opaque glass of a 
greenish hue, a small bronze stylus , a bronze fibula of the 
Roman pattern, a spindle-whorl of stone, part of a bronze ring, 
a denarius, a bone counter, and three small rings of brass. 

u 3. Near Peterhall, formerly the old church of Smite, belong- 
ing to Combe Abbey, about six miles from Rugby, the two 
steelyard weights of brass and lead representing human heads 
were found. 

" At Princethorpe, Warwickshire, on the Foss Road, about 
seven miles from Rugby, both Roman and Anglo-Saxon remains 
have been found. Of the former a bull's head and key of brass, 
and a denarius ; of the latter a brass fibula and iron chisel. 

"4. At Mkrton, Warwickshire, adjoining Princethorpe, a tu- 
mulus was cut through in making the Rugby and Leamington 
railway. This proved to be an Anglo-Saxon burial-mound. 
Several urns, Anglo-Saxon, were here found, and amongst other 
relics were a scyphate and a circular fibula, and the acus or 
pin of another, all of mixed metal. Some of these objects are 
now exhibited. 

"5. At Brownsover, Warwickshire, about two- miles from 
Rugby, was found the small brass dag or pistol, a boy's toy of 
the reign of Elizabeth. 

"6. In clearing out the river at Coventry the two long-necked 
spurs, of the time of King Henry VI., and an anelace of the 
same period were, with other remains, found. 

"7. At Brailes, Warwickshire, an ancient misericorde or 
dagger, of the late 15th or early 16th century, was found in 
clearing out a ditch. This was not far from an ancient man- 
sion, Compton Wyniate, belonging to the Marquis of North- 
ampton. 

" 8. A small brass shield, fourteenth century, charged with 
three lions passant, probably affixed to something as an orna- 
ment. Found in the churchyard at Wyke, Worcestershire." 

JOHN GOUGH NICHOLS, Esq. F.S. A. exhibited an heraldic Tile, 
in illustration of which he read the following remarks : 

" I am enabled, by favour of John Nock Bagnell, Esq. of West 
Bromwich, and of Gr. V. H. Harrison, Esq. Windsor Herald, 
to exhibit to the Society an early armorial tile which has been 
lately found within the church of West Bromwich, in Stafford- 
shire, at the depth of nearly two feet below the floor. It was 
evidently intended to present the well-known coat of Basset, 
three piles and a canton ermine ; but the canton appears on the 



304 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

sinister side of the shield, which may probably be attributed to 
the accidental oversight of the designer in cutting his stamp.* 

" It will be remembered that the varieties of the coat of Basset 
form the principal example of differencing set forth by William 
Wyrley, Rouge Croix, in his essay on The True Use of Armorie, 
1592, and followed by Sir William Dugdale in his Ancient 
Use of Bearing Arms, 1681. 

" Altogether those varieties are thirteen in number. 

" The original coat of Basset had been simply undfe, which 
some of the descendants retained ; but Richard Basset (temp. 
Hen. III.) having married Maude, daughter and. heir of Sir 
Geoffrey Ridell, her sons took the arms of Ridell, which were, 
Or, three pales gules ; Geoffrey, the eldest, differencing that 
coat by a bend azure ; Richard, the second, by a bordure azure 
charged with bezants ; Ralph, the third, by a canton ermine, 
or, as Wyrley terms it, "a quarter of Bretagne." This was for 
many generations the coat of the family of Basset residing at 
Drayton, in Staffordshire. 

" Another branch, seated in Warwickshire, retained the same 
arrangement, but varied the tincture of the pales into sable. 

" Others differenced the canton, one by making it vaird or 
undde, like the old coat of Basset ; another, Argent, charged with 
a sable griffin ; another, Argent, charged with a cross patee 
sable. 

u It is to be remarked that while Wyrley terms the charges 
pales, Dugdale has altered that term to piles, whilst both in 
their figures represent them as piles. The obvious conclusion is 
that what was originally paly upon a banner became three piles 
upon a shield ; and the blazon of the ancient Rolls of Arms en- 
tirely supports this conclusion. f It is further shown by the 

* I have now ascertained that this is one of a set of Armorial Tiles, several 
others of which are affected by the same mistake. See the Tiles represented in 
Fox's History of Morley Church, co. Derby, 1872, plate xii. where the coat of 
Zouche, with an ermine canton, is reversed ; also, that of Mawley, a bend charged 
with three eaglets ; a shield of Aruudel and Warren quarterly, within a bordure 
engrailed (for Archbishop Arundel, 1396 1413) ; and one of Roos and Manners 
quarterly. Some others, also reversed, occurring in the church at Melton Mow- 
bray, are engraved in Nichols's History of Leicestershire, vol. ii. plate xlvi. 
(J. G. N. Jan. 17, 1873.) 

f Rauff de Bassett d'or a trois peles de gules ung quartre do- ermyns: Roll of 
Henry III. edit. Nicolas, p. 12. 

Rauff Bassett palee d'or et gulez in un cantell d'argent un crois patee sable. 
Roll MS. Harl. 6589, edit. Walford, No. 131. 

Rauff Basset port paale de goules et d'or ove une quarter d'ermyn. Grimaldi's 
Roll, Coll. Topogr. et Geneal. ii. 326. 

Rauf Bassett de Drayton 1'escu palee de or et de gales od le quarter ermine. 
Roll in Cotton Charters. 

Mons. Rauff Basset le filz porte d'or ove trois poyns (i.e. points) de goules ove 
un quarter d'ermyn. ove un labell d'azur. Roll of Dunstable Tournament 
7 Edw. in. Collect. Top. et Geneal. iv. 392. 



April 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 305 

stained glass formerly in the church of Dray ton Basset ; as 
engraved in Shaw's History of Staffordshire, vol. ii. plate iii. 
where a knight (probably temp. Edw. I.) is delineated with his 
banner and surcoat paly, whilst in numerous shields the same 
change takes the form of three piles. 

" I may take this opportunity to point out a clerical error in all 
the copies of the Eoll of Arms temp. Edward II. as hitherto 
printed, and which, though palpable, as yet has passed un- 
noticed. It is that the arms of Basset are in one instance mis- 
assigned to the name of Clinton ; the first two names being 

u * Sire Johan de Clinton, de or, a iij peuz-de azure, e un quarter 
de ermyne, 

" ' Sire Roger Basset, de or, a iij peuz de sable, a un quartier de 
ermyne ;' 

the names which follow being Sir Johan de Clintone and Sire 
Johan de Clinton de Madestoke with the proper arms of Clinton. 
It is obvious that the knight first named in the list was a Basset, 
not a Clinton." 

H. C. COOTE, Esq. F.S.A. communicated a paper entitled " A 
Test of certain Centurial Stones," which will appear in the 
Archseologia. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these communications. 



ANNIVERSARY. 

Tuesday, April 23, 1872. 

C. S. PERCEVAL, Esq. LL.D. Director, and subsequently 
EARL STANHOPE, President, in the Chair. 

The Rev. William Cooke and Talbot Bury, Esq. were nomi- 
nated by the Chairman and appointed Scrutators of the Balloting 
List. 

During the Ballot the following Address was delivered by the 
President : 

GENTLEMEN, 

From the day of your last Anniversary when, as now, I 
had the honor of addressing you, until the 5th of April in this 
year, the Society has sustained the following losses : 

VOL. V. X 



306 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

Deaths. 
Edwin Richard, Earl of Dunraven and Mount Earl, K.P. 

F.R.S. 

Charles Faulkner, Esq. 
*James Stewart Forbes, Esq. 
*The Kev. David James, Ph.D. M.A. 

Thomas William King, Esq. York Herald. 

The Kev. Thomas Bayley Levy. 
*William, Earl of Lonsdale, F.R.S. 

Frederic Corbiii Lukis, Esq. 

The Rev. Wharton Booth Marriott, M.A. 

Richard Meeson, Esq. 

Sir Francis Graham Moon, Bart. 

Julius Alexander Pearson, Esq. LL.D. 
Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart, M.A. F.R.S. 

William Pinkerton, Esq. 

The Rev. Henry Smith, M.A. 
* Richard Bryan Smith, Esq. 

Samuel Tymms, Esq. 
*Charles Tyrell, Esq. 

EDWIN RICHARD WYNDHAM WINDHAM QUIN, third Earl of 
Dunraven and Mount Earl, was born on the 19th of May, 1812, 
and died on the 6th October, 1871. He was elected a Fellow 
of this Society on the 6th April, 1865, and in the year 1 5b7 
he became a Member of our Council. Lord Dunraven s con- 
tributions to our Proceedings were very few, and of no great 
importance.! But this circumstance would form a very in- 
adequate measure of the loss which archaeology has sustained 
by his decease. For in Ireland, with which he was by birth 
and property more intimately connected, abounding as that 
country does in archseological problems and remains of the 
deepest interest, Lord Dunraven laboured diligently, in con- 
junction with his distinguished friend Dr. Petrie, to lay the 
foundations of a sound school of archaeology, and to promote 
the publication of works and the efforts of Societies directed 
towards the elucidation of the antiquities and early history 
of the sister island. After the death of Dr. Petrie, which 
took place in 1866, Lord Dunraven conceived the design ot 
completing the work which that distinguished Antiquary had 
left unfinished I mean the History of the Ancient Ecclesias- 
tical Architecture of Ireland. During four years he devoted 
himself to this task with an energy which it is scarcely too much 

* Fellows who had compounded for their subscriptions, 
f Proceedings, 2 S. iii. 31, 357. 



April 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 307 

to say hastened his decease. He travelled through Ireland, 
obtaining photographs of all the principal ruins, making measure- 
ments and ground plans and collecting materials for a descriptive 
letterpress to accompany the plates. On this subject, however, 
it is needless for me to enlarge. It is only as recently as the 
7th of last month that you were afforded the privilege of seeing 
with your own eyes some of the results achieved by this truly 
zealous antiquary. On the evening of that day nearly 300 
photographs, so taken, were exhibited in this room, and must, 
as then beheld by you, have added keenness to our regret that 
a work so auspiciously begun should have been interrupted by 
the untimely decease of its lamented author. It will however 
have been a satisfaction to you to learn, as you did on the same 
evening, that while on the one hand no expense will be spared 
by the present Earl of Dunraven to carry out his father's design 
to completion J on the other hand the task of so completing it 
has devolved upon one who is eminently qualified, by all that 
culture and learning can supply, to bring the work to a success- 
ful issue. The paper which was read on the evening to which 
I have already referred in illustration of these photographs, from 
the pen of Miss Stokes, showed a grasp and an appreciation of 
the subject from which we may augur the happiest results, and 
I am glad to be able to inform you that a well-known London 
firm of publishers have undertaken the work, and that steps 
are now being taken to execute the plates, and to complete the 
letterpress, within a time as short as is compatible with the care- 
ful elaboration of a scheme of no mean magnitude. I am sure 
you will join with me in offering our thanks, 011 behalf of 
Archeology, to the present Earl of Dunraven for the public 
spirit as well as filial feeling in which he is giving effect to his 
father's wishes, and to Miss Stokes the assurance of our earnest 
hope that she may bring to a successful issue the arduous task 
which she has auspiciously begun. No better or worthier me- 
morial could be set up in honour of our lamented Fellow than 
the completion of a work to which he had devoted so much 
energy and zeal. 

CHARLES FAULKNER, Esq. was elected a Fellow on the 21st 
January, 1858, and died on the llth September, 1871. Being 
a resident in the country, his attendance at our meetings was 
not as frequent as we could have wished, but he always mani- 
fested the warmest interest in our proceedings, and felt a pride 
in being enrolled on our list of Fellows. On the rare occasions 
when he was enabled to visit us, he almost always brought with 
him objects of interest for exhibition, as will be seen from the 

x2 



308 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

note which I subjoin,* and in this manner testified his desire to 
promote the objects of the Society. 

THOMAS WILLIAM KING, Esq., York Herald, was elected a Fel- 
low as far back as January 14th, 1836, and died in the month 
of February of the present year. His first contribution to the 
Archaeologia will be found in vol. xxix. pp. 407-413, under the 
title of " Observations on the Coats of Arms appropriated to 
the Welsh Princes." The object of this paper is to show that 
the origin of the three lions " passant reguardant " on the seals 
of Edward, the son of King Edward the Fourth, and of Arthur, 
son of King Henry the Seventh, respectively, is to be "traced to 
the descent of these Princes of Wales from Rodric Mawr, a 
Welsh prince who reigned from 1194 to 1241. In a subsequent 
volume, xxxi. pp. 164-181, Mr. King contributed " Remarks on 
some of the Stall-Plates of the Knights of the Garter." He 
here endeavours to define the several periods when the Garter 
first encircled the shield ; when helmets assumed the two cha- 
racters distinguishing those of the nobility from those of com- 
moners ; when coronets were introduced to distinguish the 
several classes of the peerage; and when heraldic supporters 
first assumed that character. These are the principal topics 
handled by our lamented Fellow, and no one, I apprehend, who 
is desirous of information on these subjects will possess that 
information complete without turning to this interesting and 
learned memoir. In the next volume of Archaeologia, xxxii. 
p. 58, we have a Observations on the Monumental Inscription to 
Richard Grey, Lord Grey de Wilton, in the Chapel of Eton 
College." Some years now elapsed before Mr. King made 
another, and that his last contribution, to the Archa3ologia. It 
is printed in vol. xxxviii. p. 272, and is entitled, a Observations 
on some Deeds from the Muniment Room of Maxstoke Castle." 
In the Proceedings, however, his name occurs frequently as a 
contributor to both series, as will be seen from the references in 
the note.f On the occasion of our Heraldic Exhibition, in the 
month of May, 1862, many of you will remember the ability 
with which Mr. King called attention to the more interesting 
specimens of English heraldry then brought together. But his 
services to the Society were not confined to contributions of this 
nature. For twelve years he . served with assiduity on the 
Library Committee namely, from April 1853 to May 1865. 
Nor would this notice of him be complete if I omitted to mention 
the singular courtesy and unaffected readiness with which he 

* Proc. 2 S. i. 323 ; ii. 75, 174, 381, 410, 411 ; iii. 120. 
f Proc. i. 230, 309 ; ii. 69, 78. 2 S. i. 239 ; ii. 63, 123, 169. 



April 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 309 

was always eager to place his knowledge on any subject, and 
especially on heraldry, at the disposal of any who applied. 
Many here, I doubt not, will testify to the very great pains he 
has frequently taken at the Heralds' College, in seeking out and 
tracing facts or documents for the use of those who were engaged 
in historical or genealogical researches. 

FREDERIC CORBIN LUKIS was elected a Fellow on the 28th 
April, 1853, and died on the 15th November, 1871. His name 
does not appear as that of a contributor to our transactions, and 
I am therefore precluded from devoting to his memory a 
notice as ample as his rare qualities and great attainments in 
scientific and archaeological pursuits might justly claim. His 
collection of antiquities in illustration of the Channel Islands 
enjoyed a reputation which extended far beyond their limits. 
To three sonsj one of whom has already received a place in the 
obituary notices delivered from this Chair,* he imparted tastes 
for the same pursuits as those which had occupied and adorned 
his own life ; and I venture to hope that at no distant period 
we shall have at one of our Ordinary Meetings a proof that 
those tastes have not been imparted in vain. I am informed 
that the Rev. William Collings Lukis, F.S.A., is engaged in 
preparing a paper on the Megalithic Remains of Britany, which 
will be communicated to this Society. 

The Rev. WHARTON BOOTH MARRIOTT was elected a Fellow 
on the 30th May, 1857, and died in December, 1871. At the 
time of his death he was a Member of our Council. Mr. Mar- 
riott was one of the most distinguished of the Masters at Eton 
College, and had achieved no small reputation in the department 
of Ecclesiastical Archaeology. On the 24th March, 1870, he 
laid before the Society a paper on the famous inscription at 
Autun, the first letters of the successive lines of which form the 
word IXT2, which was afterwards published in a volume 
entitled, " The Testimony of the Catacombs and of other Monu- 
ments of Christian Art from the second to the eighteenth cen- 
tury, concerning questions of doctrine now disputed in the 
Church. London: Hatchards. 1870." This, however, was 
not Mr. Marriott's first contribution to this branch of inquiry. 
In the year 1868 he had published his u Vestiarium Christianum; 
the origin and gradual development of the Dress of the Holy 
Ministry in the Church, as evidenced by Monuments both of 
Literature and of Art from the Apostolic Age to the Present 
Time." 

* Proc. 2 S. ii. 393. 



310 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 



Sir THOMAS PHILLIPPS, Bart, was elected a Fellow on the 
1st April, 1819, and died on the 7th February, 1872, at the 
advanced age of 80 years. As a collector of literary treasures, 
printed and manuscript, he enjoyed a high reputation. Middle- 
hill, the name of the estate in Worcestershire where the great 
bulk of this acquisition was first collected, was nearly as well 
known by name to men of learning at home and abroad as any 
of the great public libraries of Europe. His printed volumes 
amounted, in round numbers, to 100,000 his manuscripts were 
not less than between 30,000 and 40,000. For the list of pri- 
vately printed publications which issued, from time to time, from 
the Middlehill press, I must refer you to the pages of 'Lowndes 1 
Bibliographers' Manual, Part vii. p. 1856, and Appendix, 
pp. 225-237. When I state that the catalogue of these publications 
occupies fourteen of the closely-printed pages of Lowndes, you 
will readily understand how impossible it is for mo, in the 
narrow limits of this Address, to attempt to give you any idea of 
the varied nature of their subjects and contents. It will be more 
within our scope to give a statement of the communications 
which at various times he made to our Archaeologia. Those 
which are made to our Proceedings are enumerated in the sub- 
joined note.* In the xxvth volume of the Archaeologia, p. 146, 
we find a communication from Sir Thomas Phillipps, entitled 
" Charters relative to the Priory of Trulegh, in Kent." This is 
immediately followed (p. 151) by another paper from him, on a 
u Survey of the Manor and Forest of Clarendon, Wiltshire, in 
1272," which comprises some interesting and ingenious specu- 
lations on the structure of royal palaces, where they were merely 
country seats. The xxvith volume, p. 255, contains, " Three in- 
edited Saxon Charters from the Cartulary of Cirencester Abbey," 
which Sir Thomas Phillipps considered to be peculiarly valuable, 
because they put in a clear light, by their juxtaposition, the varia- 
tion in Anglo-Saxon orthography between the time of Edward 
the Confessor and William the Conqueror, showing that a change 
was then taking place in the language. In volume x-xviii. pp. 96- 
151, he furnishes us with some curious traits of manners in the 
time of Henry VIII., by giving us the " Life of Sir Peter Carew 
of Mohun Ottery, co. Devon." This Sir Peter Carew died 
in the year 1575, and the life in question is from the pen of a 
contemporary, one " John Yowell, of the Cetie of Excester, 
Gent." In volume xxxi. p. 326, we have from the same source 
an " Account of the Ceremonial of the Marriage of the Princess 
Margaret, sister of King Edward the Fourth, to Charles Duke 
of Burgundy, in 1468." The xxxiind volume contains perhaps 

* Proc. i. 101 , 192 ; ii. 133, 275 ; iv. 41. 



April 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 311 

the most valuable of the communications made to this Society 
by Sir Thomas Phillipps. I refer to the u Transcript of a manu- 
script treatise on the preparations of Pigments, and on various 
processes of the Decorative Arts practised during the Middle 
Ages, written in the twelfth century, and entitled Mappse Cla- 
vicula " (pp. 183-244). This is held to be one of the most curious 
and interesting treatises on the composition of colours in exist- 
ence. The same volume contains in the Appendix (p. 444) a 
" New Notice of Shakespeare." The last communication made 
by Sir Thomas Phillipps to the Archaeologia will be found in 
volume xxxvii. pp. 492-498, under the title, " Extract from a 
Record explanatory of Grants by Henry II. and Edward I. to 
certain Ostmen in Waterford, of the privilege of ' Lex Angli- 
corum in Hibernia. ' ' 

If, passing from this funereal list and these obituary notices, I 
may be allowed a glance m another and an opposite direction, 
I should desire in a few but earnest words to commemorate a 
case of deep public interest among the Fellows of this Society 
a case of providential and auspicious recovery from most dange- 
rous illness. Need I say that I am referring to our illustrious 
brother Member, His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales ? 
Need I at all remind you of the gratitude we all owe, to Almighty 
God for having mercifully granted a life so precious to a nation's 
prayers ? 

Within the same period from the last Anniversary to the 5th 
of this month there have withdrawn from the Society : 

John Thomas Blight, Esq. - 
Henry Edmund Cartwright, Esq. 
Charles R. Scott Murray, Esq. 

The elections within the same time have been 

William Hazlitt, Esq. 

William Adlam, Esq. 

Charles Harcourt Chambers, Esq. M.A. 

John Edward Price, Esq. 

Thomas Brooke, Esq. 

The Rev. Francis John Rawlins, M.A. 

Cunninghame, Lord Borthwick. 

The Rev. Richard Valpy French, LL.D. 

Samuel Dutton Walker, Esq. 

Edward Jackson Barren, Esq. 

The Lord Rosehill. 

Edward Sheannc, Esq. 



312 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

George Charles Yates, Esq. 

Charles Shirley Brooks, Esq. 

William Sedgwick Saunders, Esq. M.D. 

General J. Meredith Read, Consul- General of the United 

States to France. 

The Rev. William John Loftie, B.A. 
The Rev. Richard Kirwan, M.A. 
Hugh Owen, Esq. 
Thomas Morell Blackie, Esq. 
The Rev. Samuel Savage Lewis. 
Edward Breese, Esq. 
Samuel Spalding, Esq. 
John de Havilland, Esq. 
Edward Arber, Esq. 
Sir Charles James Palmer, Bart. 
William Henry Hamilton Rogers, Esq. 
George William Reid, Esq. 
John Samuel Phene, Esq. 
James Thome, Esq. 

Honorary. 
His Excellency The Due de Broglie, Ambassador from 

France to England. 
Signor Rudolfo Lanciani. 
Professor Sven Nillsson. 
Cavaliere Giuseppe Fiorelli. 
M. Augusto Pereira do Vabo e Anhaya Gallego Soromenho. 

Gentlemen, you all heard with real concern that the severe ill- 
ness of our much-respected Treasurer had compelled him, towards 
the close of last year, to relinquish for a time his arduous pro- 
fessional duties, and to seek some rest and recreation in a climate 
more genial than ours. I am happy to be able to announce to 
you that the voyage undertaken for that object has been attended 
with success. Only a few weeks since I received from him a 
letter written on the banks of the Nile a letter dated from Siout, 
to inform me of his nearly complete convalescence, and express- 
ing his hope to have returned to England in time for the next 
Anniversary of the Society of Antiquaries. It was with very 
great pleasure that I received that letter. With still greater plea- 
sure did I see Mr. Ouvry himself returned, and in good health, 
at the Meeting of the Committee of the Athenaeum on this day 
week. Next day, however, he wrote me a note to my regret 
announcing that he was obliged to obey the positive directions of 
his medical advisers, who had bid him repair without delay, and 
for one month, to Tunbridge Wells. Thus, as you will perceive, 



April 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 313 

the gratification which we had promised ourselves for this day is 
for a while postponed. It will not be long, I trust, ere we are 
enabled to take Mr. Ouvry cordially by the hand, and congratu- 
late not only him but ourselves on his auspicious re-appearance 
among us. 

Before Mr. Ouvry took his departure for the Mediterranean 
he wrote to me expressing his hope and desire that the Secre- 
tary might be deputed, during his absence, to fill his place as 
Treasurer. The same wish, upon his recommendation, was ex- 
pressed at the next Meeting of the Council. Mr. Watson, with 
his customary zeal for the interests of the Society, expressed his 
readiness to undertake the task, and it is scarcely necessary for 
me to assure you that, in his able hands, the Society's monied 
affairs have been duly cared for. 

Since the last Anniversary two Special Exhibitions have been 
opened in thee rooms which appear to have been attended with 
very considerable success. - I refer to the Palaeolithic Exhibition 
held here last May and to the Neolithic Exhibition last December. 
I desire to take this opportunity of once more putting on record 
the expression of our gratitude to those gentlemen who con- 
tributed so zealously to promote the success of these exhibi- 
tions, either by sending objects from their collections, or, in 
addition to this, by delivering addresses. 1 refer especially to 
Mr. Franks, Mr. John Evans, and Col. Lane Fox. Nor let me 
omit to add the constant and valuable aid which the Secretary 
rendered us. 

Probably, however, the principal business on which the lead- 
ing members of the Society have been, during the last year, en- 
gaged was to bring to a conclusion the task of the Committee 
appointed in pursuance of the letter of Mr. Layard, then First 
Commissioner of Works. You may, some of you at least, re- 
member that in my Anniversary Address of 1869 I read to you 
the letter in question, dated the 13th of February in that year. 
Mr. Layard then requested the Council of the Society " to 
have the goodness to furnish him with a list of such regal and 
other historical tombs or monuments existing in cathedrals, 
churches, and other public places -and buildings, as, in their 
opinion, it would be desirable to place under the protection and 
supervision of the Government with a view to their proper 
custody and preservation." 

On the receipt of this letter by the Council, a Committee, 
entitled the " Sepulchral Monuments Committee," comprising 
some of our ablest men, was at once appointed. It was plain 
from the outset that a task of no common labour was before 
them. But, on close examination and further trial, the task 
proved even more laborious than it at first appeared. There 



314 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 



were repeated meetings, and great assiduity, not only on the 
part of many of the members, but also of other Fellows and 
Local Secretaries of the Society, whom the Committee called to 
their assistance ; but it was not till the 10th of February in this 
year that the Committee were enabled to present their full 
Report, together with the List required. 

One sentence of that document I will now, with your per- 
mission, have the pleasure of reading to you : 

" In concluding their Report of the fulfilment of the task 
entrusted to them by the Council, this Committee desires to 
record its opinion of the valuable services rendered by the 
Director in the prosecution of their work. On him has fallen 
by far the largest share of the labours undertaken by the 
Society in replying to the appeal of the late First Commissioner 
of Works ; and, much as the Committee is indebted to the gen- 
tlemen who kindly gave their services in collecting the materials 
on which the accompanying return was to be founded, those 
services would have been ineffectual for their purpose without 
the assistance so largely contributed by the Director. To digest 
such extensive and varied materials, to verify and correct as far 
as possible the information collected, and reduce the whole to a 
consistent tabular form, was a work involving no ordinary 
ability, patience, method, and zeal ; and the Committee consider 
it fortunate that the chief responsibility of preparing their 
returns should have fallen on a gentleman so amply possessed 
of these valuable qualities." 

On this point, as on others, the Members of the Council fully 
concurred with the Report of the Committee, and they have 
most cordially passed an unanimous vote conveying the thanks 
of the Society, with a token of our high esteem and respect, to 
Mr. Charles Perceval. 

The List itself, prepared with so much deliberation and after 
so many meetings of the Sepulchral Monuments Committee, is, 
I may venture to assert, a document of no mean importance. 
We may feel some doubts, indeed, how far at the present time 
Parliamentary control can be effectually brought to bear upon 
the affair in question, considering both its novel nature and 
its inherent difficulties. But, at the very least, it is a. subject 
which deserves the most attentive consideration, and which, if 
successfully solved, would secure for ages to come the noblest 
records of departed glory. To smooth the path for such con- 
sideration, was therefore an aim most worthy to be sought ; and 
it is precisely this aim which the List of the Committee has 
attained. It does not assert, as it was not bound to do, that 
an Act of Parliament is at present practicable, but it gives 
the foundation on which any such Act of Parliament, if framed 






April 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 315 

at all, must rest. It shows the length and breadth of the work 
before us ; it establishes, on high authority, what are the works 
of stone or marble that WG should, if possible, protect from 
further harm. On these grounds, I may fearlessly assert that, 
whatever the issue of any immediate attempts at legislation, 
the gentlemen who served on the Committee will not have toiled 
in vain. 

Gentlemen, the Council having first considered and approved 
the Report of the Committee, lost no time in transmitting it to 
Mr. Ayrton, as now filling the place of Mr. Layard, the Chief 
Commissioner of Works, and they expressed their hope that 
Mr. Ayrton would cause the List thus communicated to him to 
be laid upon the table of both Houses of Parliament. I am 
sorry to have to inform you that the reply of Mr. Ayrton, or 
rather of his Secretary in his name, is, to my mind at least, by 
110 means satisfactory. Mr. Ayrton wholly declines to be bound 
by the letter of his predecessor, which, he observes, was written 
without the sanction of the Treasury having been first obtained. 
And he adds, on behalf of that Board, that their Lordships 
" have no intention either of introducing a Bill, or of laying 
before Parliament the Report which has been made by the 
Sepulchral Monuments Committee." 

I will not deny that I, in common with the other officers of 
this Society, received this communication with some surprise. 
Perhaps some surprise may also be felt by yourselves on this 
occasion. But I think it will be right for me to refrain from 
any comment or remark upon the statement it contains, since 
your governing body has not yet had the opportunity of seeing 
it. It will be laid in due form, before the new Council, w r hich 
is appointed to meet on the 30th of the present month. Mean- 
while, I content myself with saying, on the general subject, that 
I doubt very much whether it will be found to the advantage 
of the public service, if a system should arise of the Chief of a 
Department disavowing the acts of his predecessor, even though 
that predecessor was of the same political party as himself, and 
whether a continuity or fixity of Ministerial action be not a 
necessary condition in seeking for the future to obtain for any 
public object the unpaid services of independent men. 

There is every reason to believe that in the summer of 1873 
we shall quit the apartments we now occupy, and take up our 
abode at Burlington House. The initiative in effecting this 
change was taken not by the Society, but by Her Majesty's 
Government. It will be the duty of the Council to take care 
that in carrying it out we lose none of the advantages we at 
present enjoy, and that we are subjected to no expenses which 
do not legitimately fall to our share. 



316 PROCEEDINGS OF THE | 1872, 

The President having concluded his Address, it' was moved 
by the Rev. Walter Sneyd, and seconded by William Smith, 
Esq. LL.D. and carried unanimously : 

" That the thanks of the Meeting be offered to the President 
for his Address, and that he be requested to allow it to be 
printed." 

The ballot for the election of President, Officers, and Council 
being closed, the lists were examined by the Scrutators, when 
the following Fellows were found to have the majority of the 
votes of the Society : 

Eleven Members from the Old Council. 

The Earl Stanhope, President. 

Sir William Tite, C.B. M.P. V.P. 

Very Rev. A. P. Stanley, D.D. Dean of Westminster, V.P. 

Colonel Augustus Henry Lane Fox, V.P. 

Frederic Ouvry, Esq. Treasurer. 

Charles Spencer Perceval, Esq. LL.D. Director. 

Lieut. -Col. John Farnaby Lennard, Auditor. 

Thomas Lewin, Esq. M.A, Auditor. 

Charles Drury Edward Fortnum, Esq. 

Rev. William Sparrow Simpson, M.A. 

William John Thorns, Esq. 

Ten Members of the New Council. 

The Lord Henniker, Auditor. 
John Winter Jones, Esq. Auditor. 
William Durrant Cooper, Esq. 
Henry Charles Coote, Esq. 
John Evans, Esq. F.R.S. 
Philip Charles Hardwick, Esq. 
Clements Robert Markham, Esq. C.B. 
Octavius Morgan, Esq. M.P. M.A. F.R.S. 
Edmund Oldfield, Esq. M.A. 
Captain Arthur Chilver Tupper. 

C. Knight Watson, Esq. M.A. Secretary. 

The thanks of the Society were then voted to the Scrutators 
for their trouble in examining the Ballot Lists. 



May 2.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 317 

Thursday, May 2nd, 1872. 
J. WINTER JONES, Esq., Y.P., in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Royal Geographical Society : Proceedings, Vol. XV. No. 5 [com- 
pleting the vol.], and Vol. XVI. No. 1. 8vo. London, 1871. 

From the Royal Society : Proceedings, Vol. XX. No. 133. 8vo. London, 1872. 

From the Royal Institute of British Architects : Sessional Papers 1871-72, 
No. 8. 4to. London, 1872. 

From the Institute of Archaeological Correspondence : 

1. Monumenti Inediti. Vol. IX. Tav. 2636. Folio. Rome, 1871. 

2. Annali. Vol. XLIII. 8vo. Rome, 1871. 

3. Bullettino per 1'anno 1871, 8vo. Rome, 1871. 

From the Historical and Archasological Association of Ireland : The Journal. 
Vol. II. Fourth Series. January, No. 9. 8vo. Dublin, 1872. 

From the Author : Poseidon : a Link between Semite, Hamite, and Aryan. 
By Robert Brown, Jun. F.S.A. 8vo. London, 1872. 

From the Author : A Report on the Expedition to Western Yunan via Bhamo. 
By John Anderson, M.D. 4to. Calcutta, 1871. 

From the Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland : The 
Archaeological Journal. No. 112 [completing Vol. XXVIII.] 8vo. Lon- 
don, 1871. 

From the Literary and Philosophical Society, Manchester : Proceedings. 
Vol. XI. No. 13. Session 1871-72. 8vo. Manchester, 1872. 

From Rev. F. T. Colby, F.S.A. : Verses by the late Thomas Colby, and F. T. 
Colby, F.S.A. Printed for private circulation. 8vo. 1872. 

From the Author, E. P. Shirley, Esq. M.A. F.S.A. : Catalogue of the Library 
at Lough Fea, in illustration of the History and Antiquities of Ireland. 
4to. London [privately printed], 1872. 

From the Author : Social Life in Former Days, chiefly in the Province of 
Moray. Illustrated by Letters and Family Papers. By E. Dunbar Dunbar. 
Two Series. .- 2 Vols. " 8vo. Edinburgh, 1865-6. 

From the Royal United Service Institution : Their Journal. Vol. XV. No. 65 
[completing Vol. XV.] 8vo. London, 1872. 

From the Author : Collections for a History of S. Alban's Abbey by Mackenzie 
E. C. Walcott, B.D., Precentor of Chichester. Folio. (M.S.) 

A vote of Special Thanks for these Presents was accorded to 
E. P. Shirley, Esq., and to the Eev. Mackenzie E. C. Walcott. 

The nomination by the President of John Winter Jones, Esq., 
to be a Vice -President, was read. 

William Copeland Borlase, Esq. and James Thorne, Esq. 
were admitted Fellows. 



318 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

R. H. WOOD, Esq. F.S.A. Local Secretary for Lancashire, 
exhibited an ancient deed relating to land in Westminster, of 
which he gave the following account : 

" Quit-claim from John de Notlee to Sir Walter de Langeton 
Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield. of a plot of land with 
the appurtenances in the vill of Westminster lying between the 
end of the Court and the gate of the Bishop on the one side and 
the tenement of Henry Cook on the other, and between the 
High Street which leads from Charryngges towards the Court 
of Westminster on the one side and the tenement of the Lord 
Walter the above-named Bishop on the other. 

The text of this document is as follows : 

Omnibus Christ! fidelibus ad quos presentes littere pervenerint Johannes de 
Notice salutem in domino. Noveritis me remisisse et omnino quietnm clamasse pro 
me et heredibus meis domino Waltero de Langeton Coventriensi et Lichfeldensi 
episcopo heredibus vel assignatis suis totum jus et clameum quod habui vel 
aliquo modo habere potui in quadam placea terre cum pertinentiis in vico 
Westmonasteriensi sine ullo retenemento, illam videlicet que jacet inter exitum 
curie et portam domini Walteri episcopi supradicti ex una parte et tenementum 
Henrici Coci ex altera et inter altam stratam qu*e ducit de Charryngges versus 
curiam Westmonasteriensein ex parte una et tenementnm domini Walteri episcopi 
supradicti ex altera. Item quod ego praedictus Johannes aut heredes mei sive 
aliquis nomine nostro nunquam durante seculo in prcedicta placea terre cum 
omnibus suis pertinentiis aliquod jus vel clameum habere, exigere vel ven- 
dicare poterirnus quoquo modo in perpetuum. In cujus rei testimonium sigillum 
meum apposui huic scripto. His testibus : Dominis Johanne le Bretun tune custode 
civitatis Londonensis, Roberto de Basingges militibus ; Johanne de Bankewelle, 
Radulpho le Vynneter, Adam de Kynggesheved, Henrico Coco, Reginaldo le 
Porter, Henrico du Palleys, Hugone le Marischall, et aliis. 

\_ln dorso : Quietum clamancia J. de Notice, de quadam placea demissa 
Episc'o Coventr' et Lichf.] 

The deed (which is so much injured by damp as in some parts 
to be hardly legible) occupies nearly ten lines in a fair hand of 
the period of medium size the parchment 8 inches long by 
3 J deep. Seal pendent in centre, of white wax, of which only a 
small fragment remains. 

This quitclaim being dateless, the first inquiry is how nearly 
we can approximate to its period by such internal evidence as 
it supplies. This is mainly furnished by one of the parties to the 
document, Walter de Langton, Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, 
and by such of the witnesses as are notable enough to have left 
their names on record in connection with the local or municipal 
history of London and Westminster, in which latter city the 
land was situate. 

Walter de Langton was born at West Langton, co. Leicester, 
and was nephew of William de Langton, Dean of York. He 
was himself dean of the Free Chapel at Bridgenorth, a canon of 
Lichfield, and one of the Pope's chaplains. He was raised 



May 2.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 319 

to the Treasurer ship of England in 1295 ; in the following 
February he was elected Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, and 
was consecrated December 22, 1296 ; still retaining the office 
of treasurer. In 1301 he was charged with such heinous crimes 
that the King was obliged to dismiss him till he had purged 
himself. For this he was compelled to take a journey to Rome, 
where after great cost he succeeded, and was not only re-instated 
in June 1303, but was made principal executor of the King's 
will. On Edward's death he was turned out of his office and 
cast into prison. After being again imprisoned he was restored 
to office in 1311, and died November 16, 1321. These facts 
confine the date of the deed within the years 1296 and 1307, 
except from 1301 to June 1303 ; and again from 1308 or 1311 
to his death in 1321. 

The first witness is Sir John le Bretun, then custos or warden 
of the city of London, as to whom we find the following facts. 
In the seventeenth Edward I. the King committed to a John le 
Bretun the city of London, which had been deprived of its 
liberties, and he is found to be still custos in the twenty-fifth 
year, when the liberties were restored. On the day after the 
Purification B.V.M., the 3rd of February, 1286, John le Bretun 
succeeded Sir Ralph de Sandwich, and continued to be warden 
until the feast of St. Margaret, 20th July, 1287, at which time 
Sir Ralph de Sandwich was again appointed warden, and so 
continued until the twenty-second Edward I. 1294, when Sir 
John Bretun a second time succeeded him as warden, and held 
the office until the twenty-sixth year of the same reign, 1298. 
Sir John Bret an' s name occurs in various writs and other 
documents during his wardenship. The periods then during 
which Sir John le Bretun was warden seem to have been first 
from 1286 to 1287. Secondly, from 1294 to 1298. As Walter 
de Langton did not become Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield 
till February 1296, and as Sir John le Bretun finally ceased to 
be warden of London at Easter 1298, we may narrow the 
period of the execution of this quit-claim to some date within 
these two years, 12961298. 

The next witness is Robert de Basinge, knight. We find 
he was present at a meeting of convocation of the citizens in 
Easter week, 24th Edward I. 1295, and in the twenty-seventh 
of the same reign he is named as an alderman. In the records 
of the city his name is spelled both Basinge and Basynges, and 
the quit-claim shows that he had been knighted. Of the other 
witnesses we can find no trace, nor can anything be found to 
identify the quit-claimor or grantor John de Notice, a name 
which may have become Notley, or Nottall, or Nuttall, in course 
of time. 



320 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

The next point of interest is the locus in quo. The document 
gives no measurement, but simply calls it a plot of land in 
Westminster, lying between the end of the Court of West- 
minster and the gate of the residence of Walter de Langton, 
then Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, on one side, and a 
tenement of Henry Cook one of the witnesses on the other, 
and between the High Street leading from Charing towards the 
Court of Westminster on the one side, and the tenement of the 
Bishop on the other. It is clear this is a plot of land which the 
Bishop had obtained by purchase or otherwise as lying near his 
residence. It is important to ascertain what edifice is meant by 
the "Court of Westminster." The earliest writer who .has 
described the city of London was Stephanides, or William Fitz 
Stephen, a monk of Canterbury and biographer of Thomas 
a Becket, who wrote in the latter half of the twelfth century, 
and died, it is supposed, about 1191. In his fourth chapter or 
title, " De Firmitate et situ Urbis," he first describes the 
Tower of London on the east, which he calls the Palatine 
Tower, and then continues, " On the west, also higher up on 
the bank of the river, the royal palace rears its head, an incom- 
parable structure furnished with a breastwork and bastions, 
situated in a populous suburb (i.e. the village or wick of West- 
minster), at a distance of two miles from the city." We learn 
that in 1299 this venerable hall was " burned by a vehement 
fire kindled in the lesser hall of the King's house," but was 
afterwards repaired. Also that " the said palace before the entry 
thereunto hath a large court, and in the same a tower of stones 
containing a clock which striketh every hour on a great bell to 
be heard into the hall." 

Enough has been quoted to show that by the words " Curia 
Westmonasteriensis," in the quit-claim, must be intended the 
cluster of law and equity courts forming internal or external por- 
tions of the old Palace of Westminster, best known for ages as 
Westminster Hall. Whether " Exitus Curiae " means the end of 
the outer court or of the hall itself, is doubtful ; but it seems to 
indicate the outer court in which stood the clock-house (now the 
New Palace Yard), on the east side of which court " is an arched 
gateway to the river Thames, with a fair bridge and landing- 
place." So far, then, it may be assumed that one clear and 
unquestionable boundary has been ascertained for " the plot of 
land " in the quit-claim, but there appears to be no record as to 
the site of the palace or town residence of the Bishops of 
Coventry and Lichfield towards the close of the thirteenth 
century. 

All that can be safely stated in reference to "the plot of 
land " conveyed in the ample terms of the deed " durante 



May 9.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 321 

seculo " is that it was probably situated somewhere on the line 
of street now known as Parliament Street and Whitehall, leading 
from Charing Cross to the New Palace Yard, and very near the 
latter open space ; but a reference to very early plans of London 
and Westminster might perhaps aid in the approximation to the 
site of the plot." 

C. D. E. FORTNUM, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited a collection of 
early Christian Rings, of which a description will be found in 
the Archaeological Journal, xxvi. 137, and xxviii. 266-292. 

The Rev. J. C. CLUTTERBUCK exhibited five Roman Spoons 
of Silver, found in gravel-pits on the roadside about one quarter 
of a mile to the south-east of Dorchester, on the high turnpike 
road leading to Benson. The exhibitor was told by the men 
who found them that they were found with the bowls uppermost 
a little below the surface of the soil. It is well known that at 
and about Stonesfield, in Oxfordshire, where there is a Roman 
villa, &c., a peculiar snail is found, said to have been imported 
by the Romans. The pointed end of the Roman cochleare was 
used to extract the boiled snail from his shell. 

H. C. COOTE, Esq. F.S.A. communicated a paper, to be 
printed in the Archaeologia, in which he argued, with much 
ability, that Vortigern, not Hengest, was the invader of Kent. 

W. C. BORLASE, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited a small round-bottomed 
Sepulchral Urn or Cup, with one handle, found in a barrow at 
Denzell, in Cornwall ; height 3^ inches, breadth 4 inches. It has 
since been figured in Mr. Borlase's " Nsenia Cornubise," p. 246. 

Mr. Borlase also communicated an account of recent ex- 
plorations of tumuli at Trevelgue, or Trevalga, in the parish of 
St. Columb Minor, Cornwall ; with remarks on a singular 
" Cliff Castle " in the same locality. This memoir will appear 
in the Archaeologia. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these Communications. 

Thursday, May 9th, 1872. 
EARL STANHOPE, President, in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Author : [Reprinted from The Sacristy, Feb. 1, 1872.] The Works 
of S. Dionysius the Areopagite, especially in relation to Christian Art. By 
James Fowler, F.S.A. 4to. 
VOL. V. Y 



322 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

From the Author : On the Alphabet and its Origin. By John Evans, Esq. 
F.R.S. F.S.A. [From Proceedings of the Royal Institution.] 8vo. London, 
1872. 

From the Author : Chronologische Anordnung der Athenischen Silbermiinzen. 
Von Dr. C. L. Grotefend. 8vo. Hanover, 1872. 

From P. H. Howard, Esq. F.S.A. : The Worthies of Cumberland. The 
Howards, Rev. R. Matthews, John Rooke, Captain Joseph Huddart. By 
Henry Lonsdale, M.D. 8vo. London, 1872. 

The Rev. MACKENZIE E. C. WALCOTT, F.S.A. communicated 
a transcript of three Inventories relating to the Churches of St. 
Alban's, Waltham, and Westminster, with introductory matter 
and notes by himself. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for this Communication. 



Thursday, May 16th, 1872. 
COLONEL A. H. LANE-FOX, V.P. in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors: 

From the Author : A Description of the Ivories, Ancient and Mediaeval, in the 
South Kensington Museum, with a Preface by William Maskell. 8vo. 
London, 1872. 

From the Author : A Review of British Diplomacy and its Fruits. (From 
the St. James's Magazine and United Empire Review.) By R. G. Halibur- 
ton, M.A. F.S.A. 8vo. London, 1872. 

From the Royal Institution of Cornwall : Journal, with the Fifty-fourth 
Annual Report. No. XIII. April. 8vo. Truro, 1872. 

From the Author : The History and Law of Church Seats, or Pews. By 
Alfred Heales, F.S.A. Book I. History. Book H. Law. 2 volumes. 
8vo. London, 1872. 

From Kazi Shahabudin : Syed Ahmed Bahadoor, C.S.I., on Dr. Hunter's " Our 
Indian Mussulmans are they bound in conscience to rebel against the 
Queen ?" Compiled by a Mahomedan. Printed for private circulation. 
8vo. London, 1872. 

Notice was given of the Ballot for the Election of Fellows on 
Thursday, May 30th ; and a list of the candidates was read. 

RICHARD ALMACK, Esq. F.S.A. Local Secretary for Suffolk, 
exhibited 

1. A volume, of which he gave the following description : 
" A book in my possession may possibly be considered of 
sufficient interest to be placed on the table of the Society of 
Antiquaries, ' The Workes of Seneca. By Thos. Lodge. Printed 



May 16.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 323 

by Wm. Stansby, 1620.' A large folio, gilt-edged, bound in 
crimson silk velvet, and on both sides large gilt letters 

E 
. K D 

" The following note is inside, written by Christopher Lord 
Hatton, after he became a Viscount, 1682. He says, 'The letters 
stand for Richard Earle of Dorset, whose book this formerly 
was, by his daughter Margaret Countess Dowager of Thanet 
(together with seaven other books all of the same binding) was 
since left as part of her legacy to me, 1676. ' 

" In the margin is a viscount's coronet, surmounted by a 
reversed cypher, C. H. 

" The date has reference to the death of his mother-in-law, 
the Countess of Thanet, who was the only child of Richard Earl 
of Dorset, by the celebrated Anne Clifford, Countess of Dorset, 
and afterwards of Pembroke and Montgomery. The Countess 
of Thanet, in her will, dated 20th June, 1676, gives to her 
daughter, the Lady Anne Grrimstone, her jewels, pictures, coins, 
china, and books of what sort soever, except only my eight 
books bound with redd velvett, and marked with the letters 
RED, which were formerly my father's, Richard Earl of Dorset.' 
She afterwards says, ' I give my son-in-law the Lord Hatton 
the sum of 100, and also my said eight books covered with red 
velvett, and marked RED.' She appoints him 'one of her 
executors. The death of her daughter, Lady Cecilia Hatton, 
was a dreadful event. Her husband and his family were resid- 
ing, 1672, at Cornet Castle, Guernsey, when the powder maga- 
zine was fired in the night by lightning. Lady Hatton and 
several of her women were blown into the sea and killed. Lord 
Hatton was blown through the window of his bed-room upon the 
ramparts of the castle, but he and his children received little 
injury. One of the children, an infant, was found the next day 
alive, sleeping in its cradle under a beam. Lord Hatton's mother 
was also destroyed when the explosion took place. 

" A former owner of my book unfortunately had it backed and 
lettered in bad taste. 

" I have not been able to trace any of the other seven books, 
which would probably descend to the Finch family by the 
marriage of Anne Hatton, the Viscount's daughter by Lady 
Cecilia Tufton, with Daniel Finch, Earl of Nottingham and 
Winchelsea." 

2. A letter from Margaret (Russell) Countess of Cumberland, 
mother of Anne Countess of Dorset, Pembroke, and Montgomery, 
who erected, as she says in her will, " the pillar near unto 
Brougham Castle, in memory of the last parting between my 
blessed mother and me." 

Y 2 



324 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

The letter is to Roger second Lord North, and alludes to her 
unhappy married life. It is sealed with the goat crest and 
coronet of her father, the second Earl of Bedford. 

The following is the text of the letter 

' Moste hon rle Lo. The continewance of this your Lo. soe 
ho rle greate favoure doth tye me more and more both in all 
kyndnes and thankfulnes to your Lo p , being muche ashamed 
these thinges, soe farre unworfhye you, shoulde soe much trow- 
bell you. Your Lo ps favourable and forceable p'swadinge Letter 
doth nothinge move further then before : All that will be had 
is that the accomptes may be taken, w ch nowe, since it cannot 
otherwaise, I am willinge to doe, and will followe your Lo ps 
moste wysse and favourable advyse therein, wishing I had been 
advysed by your Lo p in the beginninge. Then I shoulde either 
avoyded him altogeather or had more vantage of him, but 1 
muste endure my harde happes who ame fallen into his handes, 
whose harde deayllinge is not unknowen to all. Thus recom- 
mendinge my kyndest thankes w th my moste lovinge commen- 
dacions to your Lo? I leve, this 5 th of Marche, 1595. 

* Youer Lo. in affecion, 

6 M. CUMBERLADE. 

c Noble Lo. Thes favers of youers excede, but the shall never 
out of my desier to seke amen of som dessarte towardes youer 
Lo. I made offer to reseve this hondrete pountes, and if it wes 
not due to me, to retorne it after the accountes wer .taken by 
the marchante, or so much as was fouiite not to be mine by 
thaies accountes of his hone contreman (I sente youer Lo.) 
but all was denite. At the laste he sayet win the acountes was 
taken and you satiesfiet my Lo. of Shrosbry sholld leant me a 
hondrete pountes, this man was borne and broat ope with slite 
and bat shiftes that makes him forgett him silfe so much as to 
denie wat he saiet to youer Lo. I am a freat you can not rede 
this. 

6 To my verie ho rble Lo. the 
Lo. Northe thess.' 

W. M. WYLIE, Esq. F.S.A. Local Secretary for Hampshire, 
exhibited a drawing of a small bronze object of archaic art 
representing an ox with two heads, found in the Lago di Fucino 
in South Italy. A woodcut from the drawing, together with 
Mr. Wy lie's note thereon, will appear in the Archasologia, vol. 
xliii. Appendix. 

JOHN THURNAM, Esq. M.D. F.S.A. Local Secretary for Wilts, 
exhibited two small bronze bracelets from a barrow at Arras, in 
Yorkshire; figures of which objects will appear in illustration of 



May 30.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 325 

Dr. Thurnam's paper in the Archaeologia, vol. xliii. on Ancient 
British Barrows. 

ALBERT WAY, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited by permission of Miss 
Maitland a remarkable piece of Embroidery of early fourteenth 
century work. It belonged to the late Rev. G. Rowland, of 
Shrewsbury, a local collector and antiquary of good repute, who 
finished the volume entitled " Sheriffs of Shropshire," begun by 
Owen and Blake way. This very choice work was a decoration 
of a vestment, probably a chasuble. Its length is four feet ten 
inches, and its breadth fourteen inches. The subject figured 
is the " Arbor Jesse," and the treatment comprises features of 
great interest and beauty. To these, however, it is hoped that 
more special attention will be called in the Journal of the Royal 
Archaeological Institute. It may be sufficient to state generally 
that the figured running up the centre, and as it were framed 
in the interlacing of the branches of the tree which bifurcates as 
it emerges from the body of Jesse, are : 1. Jesse. 2. David. 
3. Solomon. 4. Blessed Virgin and Child. 5. The Crucifixion, 
with the Blessed Virgin and the St. John on each side. In the 
angles formed by the interlacings are four figures to which the 
names are appended 011 labels as follows : 1. IEREMIAS. 
2. DANIEL. 3. IZAIAS. 4. MESCIAS. The groundwork 
is a gold diaper pattern composed of leopards and a quatrefoil 
ornament. 

R. D. DARBISHIRE, Esq. communicated a paper on " Pre- 
historic Remains from Ehenside Tarn, in Cumberland," which 
will be printed in the Archaeologia. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these communications. 



Thursday, May 30th, 1872. 
J. WINTER JONES, ESQ,, V.P., in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Royal Institution of Great Britain : Proceedings, Vol. VI. Part 5, 
No. 56. 870. London, 1872. 

From the Royal Society : Proceedings. Vol. XX. No. 134. 8vo. London, 
1872. 

From the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club : Proceedings. Vol. VI. No. 3. 8vo. 
Berwick, 1871. 



326 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

From the Royal Institute of British Architects : Sessional Papers, 1871-72. 

Nos. 9 and 10. 4to. London, 1872. 
From Her Majesty's Government, from the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh : 

Edinburgh Astronomical Observations. Vol. XIII. 18601870. 4to. 

Edinburgh, 1871. [Containing The Great Pyramid in Egypt. Part I. 

Original Observations. Part II. Recovery of the Ancient from the Modern 

dimensions. By Prof. C. Piazzi Smyth, F.R.S. Astronomer .Royal for 

Scotland]. 

From the Royal United Service Institution : Journal. Vol. XVI. No. 66. 
8vo. London, 1872. 

From E. Peacock, Esq. F.S.A. : Compendiose Notizie sulla congregazione de' 
Monaci Armeni Mechitaristi di Venezia, nell' isola di S. Lazzaro. Sm. 8vo. 
S. Lazzaro, 1819. 

The Chairman having reminded the Meeting that the President 
of the Society, Earl Stanhope, had recently been elected a Foreign 
Member of the Institute of France, a Resolution was moved by 
C. S. Perceval, Esq. LL.D. Director, and carried unanimously : 
" That this Meeting desires to convey to the President the 
assurance of the sincere gratification felt by the Society at this 
mark of European distinction having been conferred upon him." 

The following gentlemen were admitted Fellows : 

Thomas Morell Blackie, Esq. 
Samuel Button Walker, Esq. 
Love Jones Parry, Esq. 
Edward Breese, Esq. 

This being an evening appointed for the election of Fellows, 
no papers were read. 

The ballot began at a quarter to nine, and ended at half-past 
nine, when the following Candidates were declared to be duly 
elected : 

George William Marshall, Esq. 
Rev. Joseph Mercer Cox. 
Rev. George Hewitt Hodson. 
Frederick Iltid Nicholl, Esq. 
Henry James Morehouse, Esq. 
Frederick Edward Hulme, Esq. 
John William Bone, Esq. 
Sir James Jell Chalk, Knt. 
Charles Joseph Knight, Esq. 
George Rolleston, Esq. M.D. F.R.S. 



June 6.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 327 

Thursday, June 6th, 1872. 
C. S. PERCEVAL, Esq. LL.D. Director, in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the British Archaeological Association : The Journal, March 31. 8vo. 
London, 1872. 

From the Wiltshire Archreological and Natural History Society : The Maga- 
zine. No. XXXVIII. Vol. 13. 8vo. Devizes and London, 1872. 

From the National Society of Antiquaries of France : Memoires. Quatrieme 
Serie. Tome 2. 8vo. Paris, 1871. 

The following letter from the President referring to the 
Resolution passed at the previous Meeting was read : 

Grosvenor Place, June 2, 1872. 
Dear Mr. Watsoh, 

The Resolution which was passed by the Society at its last weekly meet- 
ing and which you have forwarded is in a very high degree gratifying to me. 

I should desire by this note, which I hope may be read from the chair on 
Thursday next, to express to the Society my grateful thanks for this and their 
many other acts of kindness. 

Believe me, 

Yours very faithfully, 

STANHOPE. 

An announcement was made from the Chair that the Treasury 
had consented to print as a Parliamentary Paper the Report 
of the Sepulchral Monuments Committee of the Society with 
Appendix thereto prepared at the request of the Rt. Hon. A. H. 
Layard, when First Commissioner of Works and Public Buildings. 

Sir James Jell Chalk was admitted a Fellow. 

J. H. PARKER, Esq. C.B. F.S.A. gave an account to the 
Meeting of the progress of the Excavations carried out in Rome 
during the year 1871-2. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for this communication. 



Thursday, June 13th, 1872. 
FREDERIC OUVRY, Esq. Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From A. Way, Esq. M.A. F.S.A. : The Barons' War, including the Battles of 
Lewes and Evesham. By W. H. Blaauw, Esq. M.A. Second Edition. 
8vo. London and Lewes, 1871. 



328 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

From the East India Association : Journal. No. I, Vol. 6. 8vo. London, 1872. 
From J. W. K. Eyton, Esq. F.S.A. : 

1. The Fuller Worthies' Library. Edited by the Kev. A. B. Grosart. The 
complete Works of Richard Crashaw. Vol. I. The complete Poems' of 
Eobert Southwell. Two vols. Privately printed. 8vo. 1872. 

2. Miscellanies of the Fuller Worthies' Library. Edited by Rev. A. B. 
Grosart. " A Crucifixe," and " Queene Elizabeth's Teares." By 
Christopher Lever [completing Vol. III.] The complete Poems of 
Christopher Brooke [first part of Vol. IV]. Privately printed. 8vo. 1872. 

3. Early English Text Society. No 49. Old English Miscellany. Edited 
by Rev. R. Morris. No. 50. King Alfred's West- Saxon Version of 
Gregory's Pastoral Care. Edited by H. Sweet. Part II. 51. The Liflade 
of St. Juliana. Edited by Rev. O. Cockayne. 3 Vols. 8vo. London, 

1872. 

4. Mr. Ashbee's Occasional Fac-simile Reprints. XXIII. " A Three-fold 
Discourse :" 1642. XXIV. " Heads of all Fashions :" by John Taylor (the 
Water Poet).) 1642. XXV. " The English Mountebank :" 1652. XXVI. 
" To day a Man, To morrow none :" 1644. Small 4to. London, 1871-72. 

6. Birmingham in Miniature ; a complete Manual for the Stranger. 24mo, 
Birmingham, 1851. 

F. D. HARTLAND, Esq. F. S. A. exhibited and presented two 
Arrow-heads of flint, accompanied by the following notice : 

" In exhibiting the Flint Arrow-heads, of which I have the 
pleasure of requesting the acceptance by this Society, a few 
remarks of the way in which I obtained them may not be out 
of place, although a tour in the East is not now such an un- 
common affair at it was in our fathers' time. 

" Alexandria, the first Eastern city usually reached by Eu- 
ropeans, is approached by a long winding channel, which can only 
be threaded by experienced pilots during the hours of light, and 
it is long after you first see its white minarets gleaming in the sun 
that you land on its quay to the music, that is the first in Egypt 
to reach your ears, the last to leave them, " bakshish." The 
rail soon takes you to the magnificent capital of Cairo, and 
there Oriental life is opened to you in all its grandeur. You 
sit at your window in the Usebekeck, and everything around 
you is new ; there goes the fretful camel under its load of sugar- 
canes, casting its intelligent and watchful eye around ; there 
rides the green-turbaned shereef or descendant of the prophet, 
on his fast little donkey the cheap and wonderfully active 
carrier of Cairo ; there pass the jealously-veiled beauties, watched 
over by their lord's eunuchs ; there, uttering their cries, are the 
vendors of sherbet, or lemonade, or the sweet waters of the Nile; 
there is the Governor, surrounded by his kavasses ; there, in 
fact, is that ever-teeming, ever-babbling, motley crowd of the 
East revelling in its outdoor sunshine life. 

" You take a donkey-ride through the crowded bazaars, where, 
at a kind of booth elevated a few feet from the street, sit cross- 



June 13.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 329 

legged the vendors of all the luxuries of Asia and Africa. There 
in that mean stall, looking a picture of poverty, sits the jeweller, 
whose chests can display more beauty of form and pride of 
workmanship than could be found in any shop in Bond Street. 
There are rich shawls and cashmeres, here pipes and amber 
stems, there spices and rich incense In fact, you ride through 
a succession of scenes such as only are told of in tales of The 
Arabian Nights. 

" A rise in the ground at length and a short steep pull takes 
you up to the citadel of Cairo, and here, in the glorious hues of 
the setting sun, you look over its thousand minarets, from each 
of which the mueddin is calling the faithful to prayer. ' Prayer 
is better than sleep ! Prayer is better than sleep ! There is one 
God and Mohammed is his Prophet.' You look over this surging 
hive down the rich green quiet valley of the Nile to the same 
grand old Pyramids that Abraham looked upon so many thousand 
years ago, and to the bleak, drear desert, the confines of which 
they seem to guard, and you feel transported far back into the 
days of the old Pharaohs and the times when Sesostris went 
forth to conquer and bring back vast trains of captives to build 
and hew out those wondrous temples, those mighty shrines, 
which, far down from where those bright blue waters come, 
engage and will engage the attention of antiquaries as long as 
time shall last. 

" In the view on the other side, life seems to die out, and 
death, beginning at the tombs of the long-forgotten kings, seems 
to spread far and deep, for here (so near to the city that on one 
hand all is life, on the other all is death) commences the mighty 
desert. Here lies the land where the wanderings of the Israelites 
commenced, and here, seated on your camel, you must follow on 
their route to Sinai. 

" The first thing that strikes you is the wide well-beaten road 
stretching along in a straight line all the way from Cairo to 
Suez, the old track of the East India Company before the rail 
replaced it, still whitened by the bones of animals, and in the 
olden time often by those of men this empty road with its 
deserted stations strikes wonder fully, on the senses in the dreary 
waste. Three days brings you to Suez, the miserable station of 
the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Company, with its disputed 
site of the crossing of the bright blue Red Sea ; you sail on its 
waters and are carried ignommiously from your boat to your 
first landing on the shores of Asia. 

" Once past the brackish water of the Wells of Moses, the 
Wilderness of Sin stretches before you ; and none but those who 
for three days have endured a monotonous march under a vertical 
sun, whose only wish is for the day to pass, and dying of thirst, 



330 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

have felt the deception of the bright mocking waters of the 
mirage, can tell the relief of reaching the shady tamarisks and 
palm-tree groves of Wady Gherundel. From this you enter 
into the defiles that lead to Sinai ; but these have been so often 
described that I shall leave them,, and turn aside to the locality 
to which I wish especially to call your attention. 

" An English gentleman travelling in these parts was struck 
with the small blue stones he discovered in the dried watercourses 
that in the rainy season convey the thousand streams that hurry 
to the sea, and having the curiosity to bring some home soon 
discovered that they were turquoises of no common order. This 
determined him to make further researches, and eventually Ine 
has built a house near the junction of the Wady Kenuch, the 
Wady Mokatteb, or the written valley, and the Wady Megham, 
and here, aided by the friendly tribes he has taken into his pay, 
he has discovered the old turquoise mines of the ancient 
Egyptians, the rocks that they worked for the stones, the very 
tools they used, their polishing and grinding places, and bring- 
ing to bear on this the advanced knowledge of the day he is 
obtaining and sending over, to this country some of the finest 
specimens that exist. In such a lonely spot he naturally has not 
confined his attention to this subject, but has traced out their 
system of fortifications, and, what is still more wonderful, the 
remains of what were their vast ironworks. These stand on 
some hills at a place called Surabit-el-Khadin, and were evidently 
conducted on the Catalan system, and the ore was so imperfectly 
extracted that one piece of slag I brought over to this country 
from the vast heaps that like mountains are piled around con- 
tained no less than fifty-three per cent, of iron. 

" These works were commenced in very early times, and each 
Pharaoh as he continued them added a large engraved stone, 
not unlike our tombstones, to state his work. 

" Here was also erected a small temple for the use of the 
workmen, and here was a barrack for the soldiers who pro- 
tected them or kept them in order. In the ruins of the latter 
were found the arrow-heads I exhibit. 

" In fear of fatiguing you I have only briefly touched on this 
most interesting subject, but I do hope that what I have said 
may have the effect of inducing other antiquaries to explore this 
most interesting part of the peninsula, which being out of the 
beaten track finds no favour with the dragoman, and is passed 
by unheeded. 

" This Society has an interesting collection of the flint period, 
and I hope they will allow me to add to it what I believe to be 
the earliest known specimens in the world." 



June 13.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 331 

FREDERIC OUVRY, Esq. Treasurer, exhibited a Flint Imple- 
ment obtained 011 a recent tour in Egypt. This object was thus 
described by John Evans, Esq. F.R.S. F.S.A. 

" Mr. Ouvry exhibits a flint implement picked up by himself 
on the Lybian hills above Thebes. It is of oval form, 5J inches 
long, and 2f inches wide, and more convex on one face than the 
other. It has been but roughly chipped out, though there is 
some secondary working along a portion of the side edges. 
Though entirely -unpolished, there can be but little doubt of its 
belonging to the Neolithic period ; and it was probably destined 
to be a sort of axe or adze. Polished stone hatchets or celts 
are of rare occurrence in Egypt, but the cutting end of one 
formed of nearly transparent quartz, and found in that country, 
is preserved in the Museum at Geneva. Finely chipped blades 
of flint from Egypt, some much resembling the large Scandi- 
navian blades*in character, and others with a lateral tang at one 
end for insertion in a haft, are to be seen in the British Museum, 
and in the collection at Ley den, Berlin, and elsewhere. Long 
and well-formed flint-flakes have also been found in Egypt, 
some of them in a grave, to which Lepsius has found reason to 
assign a date of about 2500 B.C. More rudely chipped flakes, 
scrapers, &c., have of late years been found in considerable 
numbers by M. Arcelin, and others. Some of them were 
associated with polished stone hatchets." 

Mr. BYLES, of Boxmoor Station, exhibited through John 
Evans, Esq. F.R.S. F.S.A. a stone Celt found lately at Whaddon 
in Cambridgeshire. 

ROBERT FERGUSON, Esq. Local Secretary for Cumberland, 
exhibited a number of miscellaneous antiquities found among 
Roman remains in that county, during the last two or three years. 

The collection included an iron hanging lamp, plain. A small 
bronze sitting figure, which seems to have been the ornament 
of a helmet. A small horn-handled clasp knife for suspension 
to a girdle, keys, fibulae, and other small objects. 

HODDER M. WESTROPP, Esq. exhibited a fragment of the 
bronze matrix of a Seal of an Archbishop of Armagh, dating 
probably from the later part of the twelfth century. Half a 
human figure only remains, with a leg and uplifted right arm, 
which latter terminates in two large projections, which can 
scarcely be intended for fingers. It is difficult to say whether 
when complete the figure was a full-length effigy or seated. 
The drawing of the leg, which is bold and good, rather indicates 
a sitting posture. The legend reads . . . ARDMACHAENSIS EPI. 



332 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

This fragment was engraved in the Gentleman's' Magazine 
for June 1863, but not very satisfactorily, for the folds of the 
drapery above the elbow have been so treated as to give the 
idea of a grotesque face. 

COLONEL CAREW, of Crowcombe Court, exhibited through 
Sir Thomas Duffus Hardy a noble manuscript volume dating 
from the tenth century, containing with a few other pieces a 
copy of the Gospels in the Vulgate translation. 

The contents of this volume have been fully particularised by 
the learned Deputy-keeper of the Public Records, in the Appendix 
to the Second Report of the Historical Manuscripts Commission, 
pp. 7476. 

As, however, it did not fall within his province to describe 
the fine illuminations which adorn the book, the following note 
respecting them may be acceptable : 

1. Full-page illumination : St. Matthew seated at a desk on 
a folding stool, over his head a curtain suspended by rings on a 
cord, crossing the corner of the border of the picture. In the 
opposite corner is an angel holding a scroll. 

2. Opposite this page is the commencement of the first Gospel, 
the L of LIBER being finely ornamented with knot- work and 
animals' heads. This is also a full-page illumination, and is sur- 
rounded by a broad border. 

3. Similar full-page bordered illumination of St. Luke, with 
interlaced squares in the corners of the border. The letter Q, 
the initial of QUIA, faces the Evangelist, who is seated with a 
curtain over his head, accompanied by his emblem, the winged 
bull. 

4. The illumination of St. John has also the feature of the cur- 
tain. The eagle appropriate to this Evangelist is introduced in 
the right-hand upper corner, bearing a scroll. The border sur- 
rounding this is very beautifully adorned with eight roundels, 
one at each corner, and in the centre of each side ; the three 
upper roundels contain repetitions of the same subject, The 
Majesty (the Saviour sitting in glory), supported by angels. 
The two middle roundels each contain six nimbed figures seated. 
In the centre of the lower border two angels are seen sup- 
porting in a mantle or piece of drapery of a blue colour a 
number of small half-length figures naked, and with upraised 
hands ; possibly the " souls crying from under the altar." On 
either side is a group consisting of three nimbed figures : that in 
the centre in alb, stole, and chasuble, having a maniple over 
the fingers of the outspread left hand ; he is attended by two 
personages in mantles, one carrying a book. Four crowned heads, 
all looking upwards and inwards, are placed in panels, two on 



June 13.] 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 



333 



either side, alternating with the roundels,, and completing the 
border. 

5. The opposite page, beginning the text of the Gospel, is of 
precisely similar composition as to the border. The upper 
centre contains the Blessed Virgin seated, with the Divine 
Infant, and with right hand uplifted, holding up an object 
resembling a roll, all within a vesica ; on either side a cherub 
with six wings. The two centre roundels contain groups of three, 
very similar to those already described, but the four assistant 
personages are crowned, and all look upwards and inwards. At 
the foot, each roundel has a group of three, that in the centre 
comprising a tonsured ecclesiastic in a long blue dress with hood, 
a two-headed pastoral staff in one hand, an open book in the 
other ; with two smaller tonsured figures, one bearing a book. 
The other two groups are of women, each bearing a book. The 
kingly busts in the quadrangular panels complete the design. 
The initial I of the words IN PRINCIPIO is adorned with knots 
and heads of beasts. 

Near the end of the volume is a copy of the letter addressed 
to King Alfred by Fulco, Archbishop of Rheims (A. D. 883 
900) introducing a priest named Grimbald. The initial G of the 




INITIAL FROM COLONEL CAREW'S MS. 



word GLORIOSISSIMO, with which the letter begins, is of sin- 
gularly fine design. A faithful outline is given in the accom- 
panying woodcut. The letter itself is printed in Wise's edition 
of Asser's Life of King Alfred, and elsewhere. 



334 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

C. D. E. FORTNUM, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited seven antique Gold 
Kings from Palestrina, accompanied by a descriptive notice, which, 
with engravings of the rings, will appear in the Archaeologia. 

JOHN BRENT, Esq. F.S.A. Local Secretary for Kent, com- 
municated a memoir on Polychrome Beads, from various parts 
of the world, which will be printed in the Archseologia. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these communications. 



Thursday, June 20th, 1872. 
J. WINTER JONES, Esq. V.P., in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From J. W. K. Eyton, Esq. F.S.A. 

1. Some Revelations in Irish History ; or, Old Elements of Creed and Class 

Conciliation in Ireland. Edited by Saxe Bannister, M.A. 8vo. London, 1870. 

2. Catalogue of the Shakespeare Memorial Library. By J. D. Mullins. First 

Part. English Editions of Shakespeare's Works. 8vo. Birmingham, 1872. 

From F. Ouvry, Esq. Treas. S.A. : Notice des Principaux Monuments 
exposes dans les Galeries Provisoires du Musee d'Antiquites Egyptiennes 
de S. A. le Vice-Roi a Boulaq. Par Aug. Mariette. Troisieme Edition. 
8vo. Paris, 1869. 

From the Author : The Ancient Stone Implements, Weapons, and Ornaments 
of Great Britain. By John Evans, F.R.S. F.S.A. 8vo. London, 1872. 

A vote of special Thanks was accorded to John Evans, Esq. 
for his present of an early copy of his work, the issue of which 
had been looked forward to with great interest by many Fellows 
of the Society. 

Charles Joseph Knight, Esq. was admitted a Fellow. 

HENRY H. BREEN, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited by the hands of the 
Secretary, and presented to the numismatic cabinet of the Society, 
two Silver Coins 

1. A ten-stiver piece of the seven United Provinces, 1775, 
with the legend : HAG NITIMUR, HANG TUEMUR. 

2. Small piece, issued during the reign of the French monarch 
Louis XV. for circulation in that division of the Antilles known 
as " Les Isles du Vent," or, as we call them, 6t The Windward 
Islands," comprising Martinique, St. Lucia, Barbadoes, St. 
Vincent, Grenada, and Tobago- At the period referred to the 
whole of those islands, with the exception of Barbadoes, were 
dependencies of the French Crown. 



June 20.] 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 



335 



John Rogerson, Lord Hollo, proposed for election as a Fellow, 
being entitled as a Peer of the Realm to have his election at 
once proceeded with, the ballot for such election was taken, and 
his Lordship was declared to be unanimously elected. 

HODDER M. WESTROPP, Esq. communicated a note on the 
hafting of bronze palstaves, in which he contended that the 
method adopted in Siberia at the present day : for handling iron 
weapons of this kind, described by the late Mr. Kemble in 
Hor<% FeraleS) p. 77, was equally applicable with the mode 
suggested by the late Mr. Du Noyer, which is illustrated by a 
woodcut in Wilde's Catalogue of the Royal Irish Academy. In 
this method a cleft stick is used and the blade is parallel to 
the haft ; while by Mr. Westropp's arrangement the implement 
has the blade at right angles to the haft, like an adze. 

ROBERT DAY, Esq. Jun. F.S.A. exhibited a bronze Cross, for 
the use of the blocks illustrating which the Society is indebted 
to the exhibitor. This exhibition was accompanied by the fol- 
lowing note : 

" The bronze cross, which is here engraved of the actual size 




. i. Fig. 2. 

BRONZE CROSS FROM CO. LONGFORD. 



(fig. 1), was found during the Spring of 1865, in the county 
Longford, and the different patterns of the ornamentation with 
which it is enriched are peculiarly Celtic in both character and 
feeling. The back portion of the relic is also engraved (fig. 2), 
so that the mode by which it was attached and the purpose it 
was intended to fulfil may be better determined. 



336 PROCEEDINGS OF THK [1872, 

a It may have served as an ornament for a missal cover, on 
which it would have been attached by the two back loops to a 
Hat surface, the other loop overhanging and securing a move- 
able clasp, or it may have been the centre ornament on either a 
shrine, reliquary, or cross. The setting of the centre collet, 
which was probably crystal, amber, or enamel, has been lost, 
and the intertwined ornament that surrounds it, instead of being 
superimposed upon the metal as in the fine gold or silver filagree 
work that occurs on such ornaments as the Tara brooch, is here 
simply engraved or chased and overlaid with a heavy plating of 
gold. The workman had perhaps some such work of art as the 
Cong cross or Ardagh cup to model from, but he had not either 
the requisite skill or time sufficient to imitate the style of work 
which they display. 

" A portion of the dexter arm of the cross is wanting, and the 
sinister arm bears the representation of a partly-hooded human 
face; the angles and sides of the upper and lower limbs closely 
resemble the ornament on a fibula figured in Wilde's Catalogue, 
p. 565, and to another in the Kilkenny Journal for April 1869." 

THOMAS HELSBY, Esq. barrister-at-law, of Manchester, ex- 
hibited a portfolio of Drawings, of which the following account 
was given by JOHN G-OUGH NICHOLS, Esq. F.S.A. 

" These drawings were taken in the year 1854 from ancient 
paintings and inscriptions on the pillars of the Latin Conventual 
Church at Bethlehem, and the history of the collection, as I am 
informed, is this. They were given to Mr. Helsby by the Rev. 
William Charles Cotton, M.A. Vicar of Frodsham, Cheshire ; 
that gentleman, when travelling in the East, met incidentally 
with a Swiss artist (R. Durren, of Berne), by whom the drawings 
were copied from their originals, and who, having received some 
favours from Mr. Cotton, presented them to him. 

" I am not aware that any traveller has previously noticed these 
paintings, but there is nothing about the drawings exhibited to 
raise a suspicion of their not being faithfully copied. The 
originals appear to have been memorials of pilgrims, who not 
only, like a modern Englishman, were desirous to leave their 
names at the places they visited, but, in the spirit of the medi- 
aeval ages, thought it right to distinguish their identity more 
conspicuously by some of their armorial insignia. They are 
evidently of different dates, and commemorative of natives of 
very different countries German, French, Italian, perhaps 
Greek, and in one case only of an Englishman Burdyt of the 
C . . . the last word unfortunately obscure. 

" Whether these are all the paintings the artist could find or 
decipher in the church, or whether they are only a portion of 



JuilC 20.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 337 

the whole, is not ascertained, for no other notice of them has 
hitherto been found. 

" The main architectural features of the church were described 
long ago by the English traveller George Sandys : 

On the site of a grot or cave used for a stable, in which our Saviour was born, 
the empress Helena " erected this goodly temple, yet entire, and possest by the 
Franciscans of Jerusalem (of whom some few are here continually resident), 
called Saint Maries of Bethlehem. In forme representing a Crosse, the stalke 
whereof compriseth the body ; entred at the lower end through a portico sustained 
with sixtecne pillars. The roofe, in the midst, is lofty, flat, arid (if I forget not) 
of cedar ; the sides, of the same fabricke, but much more humble, are upheld 
with four ranks of pillars, ten in a row, each of one entire marble, white, and in 
many places beautifully speckled, the largest and fairest that ever I saw : whose 
upper ends do declare that they have in part bene exquisitely guilded. The 
walles are flagged with large tables of white marble, wel-nigh to the top : the 
rest adorned with mosaique painting, although now greatly defaced. * * * 
The three upper ends of the Crosse do end in three semicircles, having in each 
an altar. In the midst the Chaucell, roofed with a stately cupolo, .covered 
without with lead, and garnished within with mosaique figures." A Relation of 
a Journey begun An.' Don. 1610. First edition 1615, p. 177 : followed in p. 
178 by an engraved plan, " The platforme of the Temple anil Monestary in 
Bethlem With the place of our Saviours nativity." 

" In the nave of the church are shown on either side two rows 
of ten columns, forty in all : and it is evidently to these rows 
that our Swiss artist refers by his term ligne. 

The following is an attempt to describe the devices of the 
drawings, with a conjectural reading of the inscriptions which 
accompany them : 

[The numbering of the sheets is merely as they are now bound 
up, by accident, in the portfolio.] 

1 colonne a clroite, 2 ligne. (Sheet l.J 

A kneeling male figure, in profile to the left, the head almost 
faded away, hands raised as in prayer, in blue clothing, and 
large mantle, on his legs and feet resembling modern trowsers 
and boots. At his side a purse ornamented with a scallop shell. 

"2 colonne a droite, 1 ligne. ( Sheet 7.) 

A tilting helmet, with a very tall stag's head for crest, rising 
out of a red cap terminating in five curved points. Inscription, 
Karage a shed. 

A fanciful shield, the upper margin of which terminates in 
three fleurs de lis ; its charge apparently a comet. It stands be- 
tween the letters A M. It has for crest a camelopard's head, 
crowned with a flat cap ; with an inscription, which is perhaps 
current Greek. 

3 colonne a droite, ligne 1. (Sheet 3.) 

An inscription only 

BAYAHT YO VEIN ANY. 
VOL. V. Z 



338 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

4 colonne a droite, 1 ligne. (Third sketch on sheet 9.) 
In red, Johd vd anhe. Burdyt of the Godly (?) 

5 colonne a droite de Pentode, 1 ligne. (Sheet 9.) 

On a helmet a boar's, or perhaps an elephant's, head, in 
profile, with long flapping ears, and something like a tall crown 
of feathers. Inscribed pourpre. 

5 colonne a droite, 2 ligne. (Sheet 2.) 

A kneeling figure not unlike that on the first column, but only 
drawn in one brown tint, looking to the sinister, and on the other 
side of a heater shield two female figures, also kneeling, facing 
the male figure. The shield is very long and acutely pointed, 
with a cross band and a border, and a wide loop as if for suspen- 
sion at top. 

1 colonne a gauche de V entree, 1 ligne. (Sheet 11.) 

On a helmet, a fish or part of a wild beast with great teeth, 
fixed by its mouth on the helmet; inscription, bernzot Rosi By 
the side a small shield, Gules, a fess parti-indented argent and 
sable. 

3 colonne a gauche, 1 ligne. (Sheet 6.) 

Two shields couche in conjunction, the dexter, Gules, a pile 
argent ; the sinister, Argent, a sable. 

Both have helmets and mantling, which, with the crests, 
face each other. The dexter crest resembles a chapeau, the 
front turned up argent or ermine, its skull-cap gules, from 
which rise two horns also gules, tipped argent. The first, for 
crest, on a cap, two horns like the proboscis of an elephant. The 
second, a dragon or wyvern sejant, wings addorsed, drawn 
in outline. 

To the first is attached the wordflandre, to the second le bas 
flandresa. 

At the corner of the same sheet is a small sketch of a shield, 
charged with two oars (?) in saltire. 

3 colonne a gauche, 2 ligne. (Second sketch on sheet 9.) 

Inscription, in black, hokelem beg (?) 

In red, a pot-shaped shield, Per fess indented argent and 
gules, a chief of the second. Inscription : Svenstellanus (?) 

5 colonne a gauche, 2 ligne. (Sheet 4.) 

A shield couche, Sable, a bend; with a crest, on a helmet and 
wreath, two very long ears, tinctured and charged as the shield. 
The helmet is of the fifteenth century. 



June 20.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 339 

7 colonne a gauche, 1 ligne. (Sheet 10.) 

On a helmet, and wreath, a head in profile, like an ape's, 
between high bunches of feathers. Inscription : Araynos al ram 
dd de Brugios (?) Below the drawing, bon sove .... 

2. A helmet drawn in front perspective; crest, a pair of bullock's 
horns and hairy scalp. The mantling is, externally, party per 
pale ; on the dexter side, argent, seme of pellets, on the sinister 
sable ; internally, ermine. Inscription : Coucy de Gaul. 

8 colonne a gauche, 1 ligne. (Sheet 5.) 

Two pairs of crests, probably each pair of two brothers. 
All are placed upon helmets, The first pair are, out of a coronet 
formed of one flower between two leaves, a demi-swan beaked 
gules, with long wings. One is accompanied with the inscrip- 
tion, Roye o droyt; the other (apparently) Roguet. The crests 
of the secend pair are, placed on a helmet and flat chapeau, a 
moor's head in profile, wreathed gules. The inscriptions are, 
Mathieu de Hangiest and Laurence de Hangiest. The family of 
Hangest was of great antiquity in Piccardy. Rogue de Hangest 
was made a marshal of France in 1352. See Diet. Geneal. ii. 261. 

9 colonne a gauche, 1 ligne. (Second sketch on sheet 11.) 

On a helmet two very tall wings affronte, each charged with 
three bendlets gules. Inscription RiV ma I 1276. (Whether the 
last characters were intended for the Arabic numerals 1276 may 
be questioned, but their appearance resembles them perfectly.) 

Two drawings from places not indicated. (Sheet 8.) 

1. On a helmet an old man's head, in profile, with long 
beard ; on his head a pointed cap, and fixed on its point a long 
feather. Inscription, bombona Stirist. 

2. A small blank shield, couche ; on a helmet above it this 
crest, from a coronet a horse's head (or zebra's), with long 
ears. Inscribed, Sarmnysy (?). 

JOHN F. LUCAS, Esq., exhibited- two gold Torques, which 
may be described as follows : 

1. A gold torque of the funicular type, formed of two bands, 
each bent at a right angle, and then twisted together ; the 
recurved ends are solid. Entire length 3 feet 9J inches ; weight 
5 oz. 437^ grains. It was found in 1853 in Staffordshire at 
Stanton, near Ashborne. Several ornaments of this kind have 
been found in the British islands. See Archaeological Journal, 
vol. ii. 379 ; vol. iii. 27. Proceedings, ii. 103, 136. 2<* S. iii. 439. 

2. A gold torque formed of a flat band loosely twisted and 

z 2 



340 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

terminating in small hooks, by which it has been fastened. 
Length 2 feet 3 inches ; weight 3 oz. 420 grains. It was dis- 
covered at Swineford, co. Sligo, Ireland, in October 1868. This 
variety of torque has been termed by Sir W. Wilde a Mum-tore, 
or Muinche. See his catalogue of objects in gold in theRoyal Irish 
Academy, p. 73. They are not uncommon in Ireland and 
Scotland.* 

A. W. FRANKS, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited a Ring of pinkish 
agate inscribed with a legend in Runes. The Ring is described, 
and the inscription not very correctly given, in the - Archaeologia,' 
vol. xxi. p. 1 17. A woodcut of both will accompany Mr. Fi'anks's 
remarks in a future volume of the same work. 

Dr. GUSTAV OPPERT communicated a paper on " The Vulgar 
Christian ^Era," which will appear in the Archaeologia. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these communica- 
tions. 



Thursday, June 27th, 1872. 
J. WINTER JONES, Esq. V.P. in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Royal Geographical Society. Proceedings. Vol. XVI. No. 2. 8vo. 
London, 1872. 

From the Literary and Philosophical Society of Liverpool. Proceedings. Six- 
tieth Session, 1870-71. No. XXV. 8vo. London and Liverpool, 1871. 

From, the Author. Architecture Romane du Midi de la France. Appendice. 
Etudes comparatives et classification de ses Edifices Religieux anterieurs au 
XI e siecle. Par Henry Revoil. Fol. Paris, 1870. 

John Rogerson, Lord Rollo, was admitted a Fellow. 

OCTAVIUS MORGAN, Esq. M.P. F.S.A. exhibited and presented 
the following publications of the Arundel Society, in continua- 
tion : 

Issue of 1871. First publications. 

1. The Annunciation with the Prophets and Sibyls. By the 
Brothers Van Eyck. In the cathedral of St. Bavon at Ghent. 

* In consequence of the death of Mr. Lucas, these gold ornaments have passed 
into other hands ; the first of them has been bequeathed to Dr. J. Barnard Davis, 
F.S.A. ; and the second has been purchased by the Trustees of the British 
Museum, with other portions of Mr. Lucas' collection. 



June 27.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 341 

2. St. Cecilia at the Organ, and an Angelic Choir. By the 
Brothers Van Eyck. In the cathedral of St. Bavon at Ghent. 

3. The Prophet Jeremiah. By Michael Angelo. In the Sis- 
tine Chapel at Rome. 

Issue of 1872. First publications. 

1. Side Compartment (No. 1) of the Crucifixion. By Pietro 
Perugino. In the convent of Santa Maria Maddalena de' Pazzi 
at Florence. 

2. The Crucifixion, centre compartment of the same. 

3. Side Compartment (No. 2) of the same. 

The following letter was read, addressed, by order of the 
Council, to the Chancellor of the Exchequer : 

* Society of Antiquaries of London, Somerset House, 

June 26, 1872. 

Sir, At a meeting of the Council of the Society of Antiquaries of London 
held yesterday, the 25th inst. Earl Stanhope, President, in the Chair, I was in- 
structed to convey to you the annexed Resolution, which was moved by the 
President, seconded by Octavius Morgan, Esq. M.P. and carried unanimously. 

I am, Sir, your obedient Servant, 

C. KNIGHT WATSON, 

The Right Hon. Robert Lowe, M.P. Secretary. 

Chancellor of the Exchequer. 

(Inclosure.) 

" The President and Council of the Society of Antiquaries of -London having 
been apprised that the excavations on the site of the Temple of Diana at Ephesus 
have been suspended, desire with all respect to express to Her Majesty's Govern- 
ment their earnest hope that this suspension is only temporary, and that means 
will be provided to carry to its close a work which has been so auspiciously 
begun." 

The receipt of this communication has been duly acknowledged. 

THOMAS HUGHES, Esq. F.S.A exhibited a fragment (the 
shoulder) of a Roman Amphora found, in the presence of the 
exhibitor, on the site of the Blue Girls' New School, lately 
erected near St. John's Church, Chester. The fragment lay 
on the clay, 8 feet below the surface of the soil. When found, 
a coat of mortar was adherent to the outside of the fragment. 
This being carefully cleaned away by Mr. Hughes and the 
contractor, who happened to be on the spot, a scratched inscrip- 
tion was revealed. 

The Secretary having taken an opportunity of communicating 
this discovery to Professor Hiibner, who is now engaged upon 
the Roman inscriptions found in Great Britain, received from 
him the following note on the subject : 

" - curious is the piece of amphora 'from Chester. The 
inscription has been evidently scratched on it with a knife, when 



342 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

the clay was still wet. So the workmen often did, as you know. 
The graffiti on tiles and vessels of every description are nowhere 
scarce ; but most of these writings are unintelligible ; only 
here and there a name is to be made out. On tiles quotations 
out of the poets, especially from Virgil, are to be found. The 
word on the Chester fragment is evidently 



\ V II 





that is moves. The last four strokes seem to be accidental or 
ornamental. The character of the letters is of a good epoch ; 
they may very easily belong to the first century. It is impos- 
sible to conjecture anything about the sense of that single word 
moves. The scratchings have often an erotic character ; so one 
might fancy the workman, being in love, may have put to his 
sweetheart the poetical apostrophe "inoendia moves," in recollect- 
ing Ovid's 

c Adstiterit tunicata ; Moves incendia, clama ; ' 

(Art. Amat. ii. 301). But this is merely a conjecture. In the 
fourth volume of the Corpus Inscr. Lat. amongst the Fompeian 
graffiti, there are many of that kind." 

A. W. FRANKS, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited an impression of a Seal, 
which he thus described : 

" I beg to exhibit an impression from the brass matrix of a 
seal recently found among old iron and rubbish in a house near 
Doncaster, and which has been presented to the British Museum 
by the Rev. J. F. Dimock. 

"It is pointed oval in form, 1-V inches long, and has the 
usual loop at one end of the back. The subject is the Annunci- 
ation, and the legend a pentameter verse 

* CHRISTI CONCLAVE VE QVIA TOLLIS AVE. 

" c Hail thou receptacle of Christ, because thou takest away 
woe.'* This is the reading proposed by Mr. Dimock, and which 
seems correct, though ' Conclave Christi ' is an unusual title for 
the Virgin.* 

" The seal is evidently the secretum or counter-seal of an 
English ecclesiastic of the close of the thirteenth century, and is 
a valuable addition to the national collection." 

* For other examples of the mediaeval use of the interjection vce as a sub- 
stantive, see ante, pp. 254, 256, 



June 27.] 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 



343 



Eev. ASSHETON POWNALL, F. S.A. Local Secretary for Leices- 
tershire, exhibited the object of mixed metal, possibly a sword 
pomel, which is here figured. 




It was found at East Farndon in Northamptonshire, by a 
labourer, not far below the surface. 

A. W. Franks, Esq. F.S.A. in a letter to Mr. Pownall, re- 
marked as follows : 

" Though the shape of the little object of which you have sent 
me a drawing is somewhat different from any I have seen, I 
cannot but think that it is a sword pomel. Perhaps for some 
official sword, I should guess, of the thirteenth century." 

AUGUSTUS GOLDSMID, Esq. F.S.A. communicated a paper on 
the origin of the word Coach, which he traced to the Hungarian 
language. 

W. L. LAWRENCE, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited a bronze Bowl, with 
Arabic inscriptions and talismanic characters, as to which the 
following note was communicated by the Vice-President in the 
Chair :- 

A magic bowl, supposed to give healing or protecting power 
to liquor poured into it. The virtue is comprised in the verses 
from the Koran the repetition of the name of Allah or God, 
and certain cabalistic numbers. The age is uncertain. These 
bowls date back as far as the thirteenth or fourteenth century, 
but as they have been copied from time to time, with more or 
less accuracy, the inscriptions are often corrupted, and some- 
times to such an extent as to be utterly unintelligible. 



344 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

So far as they can be read they are as follows ; .- 

Inside. 



In the centre -'M* surrounded by L^ b, which may perhaps 



be read j^ U yajabbar, Almighty. 

Around this: [^j] % JL- *i>\5 51 ^'&\ ^\ p ill 21 <dtt 

part of Kor'an, ii. 256, " God, there is no God but He, the 

living, the everlasting, whom slumber doth not seize nor (sleep). 

The circlets contain alternately cabalistic figures and the 

names of God in Arabic : b ..^i \> *U\ l> L_Sl-> "\j\ *$\ 

.. ^ j , p 

+z>-j. God, lo, we ask of Thee, Allah, compassionate, 

merciful, &c. 

Round the inner edge the word <M Allah is repeated over 
and over again. 

Outside. 

In the centre, Solomon's seal. Around the edge, Kor'an, ii. 
256, from the beginning to [/ll] Uj ^ , this last word being 
omitted for want of room. 

J. T. WOOD, Esq. who had recently returned from Ephesus, 
communicated orally an account of the excavations which he 
had executed there on the site of the Temple of Diana, noticing 
some of the principal antiquities discovered, and which have 
been placed in the British Museum. 

Sir WILLIAM TITE, C.B. M.P. V.P. exhibited two drawings 
of a portion of Torre Abbey, accompanied by the following 
observations, contained in a letter addressed to the Secretary: 

" In my communication to you upon the monumental screen 
at Paignton,* two or three miles from Torquay, I spoke of some 
very curious Norman ruins at Torre (close to Torquay), on the 
western side. Torre Abbey is at present the property of the 
old family of the Careys, and the existing owner, Mr. Robert 
Carey, to prevent the destruction of the beautiful remains by a 
thoughtless public, preserves them with great care, and until I 
obtained his special consent, which he readily and very kindly 
gave, I was unable to draw them. 

" The ruins are so little known to the inhabitants of Torquay, 
that when I showed the sketches to a clergyman who lived 
within a few hundred yards of the estate, he said he did not 
know of their existence. 

* See ante, p. 276. 



June 27.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 345 

" The drawings which I send you consist of a Norman arched 
doorway and two side windows, traditionally said to be the door 
of the chapter house. The destruction of the abbey has been 
most complete. It has been thrown down with great violence, 
and it is impossible to trace the plan. At some distance east- 
ward from this doorway are the fragments of an east window, 
and in the south wall are the complete remains of a Norman 
piscina, as shown in the sketch, and in front of the altar is the 
smaller of the two stone coffins. 

" Leaving this part of the ruins altogether, and going north- 
wards, we come to the stone with the three circular sinkings, 
flat on the ground. I cannot at all conjecture what this stone 
can have been, and it seems equally to have puzzled all other 
antiquaries who have visited the ruins. As will be perceived 
by the measurements on the sketch, the sinkings are of very 
slight depth, ^and of three different diameters. It lies just on 
the surface. 

" Proceeding further northwards, and apparently in front of 
the high altar, lies the larger of the two stone coffins. No 
trace remains in either case of any cover and I use the word 
" apparently" because, as I have before stated, the ruins are 
in such confusion, with such large masses of the clerestory walls 
and roof lying about in all directions, that there must of neces- 
sity be much of conjecture as regards locality. 

66 The former occupants of these coffins are naturally a subject 
of great interest, and, with the help of my friend Mr. W. H. H, 
Rogers, of Colyton, I give you the following conjectures : 

"Torre Abbey was founded by William Lord Briwere, or 
Brewer, a powerful nobleman, and great at the courts of 
Richard I. and John. Two other religious houses were founded 
by him Dunkerswell, about ten miles from Colyton, and 
Potsloe nunnery, near Exeter. He had one daughter Alice, 
who was married to Sir Reginald de Mohun, by whom she had 
two sons, Sir William and Sir Reginald de Mohun. These two 
brothers, in conjunction with their mother (who is also said to 
have given all the stone for a period of seven years during the 
building of Salisbury cathedral), 'founded the abbey of New- 
enham, near Axminster. The effigy of this noble Lady Alice 
lies carved in stone in Axminster church, and opposite to her 
lies her confessor, Gervase de Prestaller, Vicar of Axminster. 
But Lord Brewer, although he founded three houses, could 
only be buried in one, and so he ordered that his burial should 
take place at Dunkerswell. 

" Now comes a curious fact about stone coffins and their find- 
ing. Dunkerswell Abbey is entirely pulled down, and where the 
fabric stood there is now a meadow ; but every year when the 



346 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

grass i burns/ during the heat of July, the foundations of the 
Abbey may be easily traced. But one spot seemed to be 
scorched more than all the others, so much so, as to be very 
noticeable. Curiosity as to its cause stimulated a search beneath, 
and just below the surface, perfectly intact and unmoved, two 
large stone coffins were found with their covers on ; the covers 
were carefully raised, and beneath were two skeletons, one in 
each. The parish doctor was summoned to examine the bones, 
and he pronounced them to be male and female, man and wife 
no doubt, and undoubtedly the mighty Lord Brewer and his 
wife, the founder alike of Dunkerswell Abbey and the Abbey of 
Torre. I say, undoubtedly, because it is not likely any other 
female would be buried in this community of monks. 

" These coffins were exactly like those at Torre. The covers 
were plain slabs of Purbeck, and around their edges a hollow 
moulding, usual in Gothic work. 

" All the bones were placed in one of them and carefully re- 
buried, the other coffin is still above ground. 

" Now, as to the Torre coffins and their once probable occu- 
pants, I had thought they might have been the two knights 
Mohun, but I suppose that idea was erroneous. 

" Sir Reginald, one of the brothers, was a very devout son of 
the Church, and high in the estimation of Pope Innocent IV. ; 
and a very singular and unique episode of English history, and 
an invasion of the royal prerogative, are connected with him. 

" The pious knight went to Lyons to see the Pope and get his 
sanction for his proposed foundation of Newenham. The Pope to 
show his estimation of him determined to bestow on Sir Reginald 
the Golden Rose ; but here came a dilemma ; no person in 
dignity short of an earl could receive it, and Sir Reginald was 
only a knight ; so the Pope created him Earl of Est, which the 
Bull interprets Earl of Somerset, with a yearly pension of 
200 marks out of the English Peter's pence. 

" Thus celebrated in life, he was equally celebrated in his 
death, which happened in 1257, at Torre, where he resided. 

" Three days before his death both he and his confessor 
had a most extraordinary beatific vision of angels, all particulars 
of which are recited in the Chartulary of Newenham. 

" Although his death took place at Torre, he was buried at 
Newenham ; so also was his brother (and the co-founder of the 
abbey) Sir William de Mohun. 

" A strange fame still followed Sir Reginald. In the year 
1333, sixty years after, the pavement of the Presbytery was 
being laid (or relaid perhaps) when the coffin containing Sir 
Reginald was opened, and there his body, says the recording 



June 27.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 347 

monk, 6 was found incorrupt and uninjured and exhaling a 
most fragrant odour ; I both saw and touched it.' 

u Who then could have been buried in the stone coffins at 
Torre ? Here even conjecture cannot find anything to lay hold 
of. I never heard of any stone coffins being found at Newenham, 
where the Mohuns are said to be buried, and it may be they 
are still undisturbed. But Newenham is a long way from Torre, 
and perhaps, after all, the two knights were buried there, where 
they died. 

u There is another curious stone at Lustleigh above Newton 
Abbot, with an inscription that has puzzled every one who has 
seen it, and proved a fine bone of literary mystery for learned 
savans to quarrel over ; but it has no resemblance to the curious 
stone at Torre Abbey." 

LIEUT. PECK, B.E. communicated, through the Eight. Hon. 
the Secretary of State for War, plans and sections of the Pharos 
and the Keep of the Castle at Dover. By permission of the 
Secretary of State this communication will be published in the 
" Archgeologia." 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these communications. 

The Meetings of the Society were then adjourned to Thurs- 
day, November 28th, 1872. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

SOCIETY OF ANTIQUAKIES 

OF LONDON. 
SESSION 1872-73. 



Thursday, November 28th, 1872. 
EARL STANHOPE, President, in the Chair. 

The President, on taking the chair, congratulated the Society 
on the success which had attended the applications made to 
Her Majesty's Government by this in common with other 
learned societies in favour of a further grant of money to carry 
on the excavations on the site of the Temple of Diana at 
Ephesus. The Trustees of the British Museum had, in conse- 
quence of the interest thus manifested, made representations to 
the Chancellor of the Exchequer, who had obtained the assent 
of the House of Commons to allot the necessary funds for pro- 
secuting those interesting researches. 

The following letter from the Director to the President was 
then read to the Meeting by the Secretary : 

" 64, Eccleston Square, 

" Nov. 20, 1872. 

" Dear Lord Stanhope, On St. George's Day, 1872, the 
Society of Antiquaries thought fit to re-elect me to the honour- 
able office of Director. By an odd coincidence it was on the 
same day that 1 received an intimation that I was nominated to 
another office one in the Civil Service of the Crown. 

" The experience of a few weeks was sufficient, however, to 
show me that the duties of the two offices were incompatible 
with each other, and that the daily demands upon my time in 
my new position would render it impossible for me to continue 
to devote proper attention to the most important branch of the 
Director's work, the editing of the Society's publications. 



350 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

" Under these circumstances it was plainly incumbent on me 
to resign the Directorship. I considered, however, that I should 
best consult the convenience of the Society by postponing my 
resignation until the beginning of the next session. 

" As our Meetings are now very shortly to be resumed, I 
must no longer delay placing in the hands of the Council, 
through your Lordship, my resignation of the office of Director 
of the Society of Antiquaries. 

" At the same time, in order to put no obstacle in the way of 
the selection of my successor, it is necessary that I should place 
my seat at the council table at the disposal of the Society, and 
I have to request your Lordship to communicate to the ' next 
Council my resignation as a member of that body. 

" I cannot conclude without expressing my cordial thanks, 
both to your Lordship and to my colleagues, on five successive 
Councils, for the constant support which I have received from 
you and from them. 

" I am, 
" Dear Lord Stanhope, 

" Very faithfully yours, 

" CHAS. SP. PERCEVAL." 

The President then communicated to the Meeting the follow- 
ing Resolution of the Council of Nov. 26, 1872, which had 
been moved by Sir William Tite, C.B. M.P. V.P. seconded by 
J. Winter Jones, Esq. V.P. and carried unanimously : 

" On receiving this communication, as they did with sincere 
concern, the first wish of the President and Council was to ex- 
press, in a cordial vote of thanks, to Mr. Charles Perceval their 
sense of the great ability as well as active exertion and never- 
failing courtesy and kindliness with which during the past five 
years he has fulfilled the duties of his office. 

" In considering the recommendation which it would be 
incumbent upon them to submit to the Society with respect to 
the choice of his successor, the President and Council could not 
fail to bear in mind the past services and eminent qualifications 
of Mr. Franks. They were convinced that could Mr. Franks be 
induced to resume the office, no appointment would be more 
agreeable to the feelings of the Society, or more conducive to its 
interests. There was however this difficulty, lest the duties 
hitherto devolved on the Director might press unduly on the 
time of Mr. Franks, engaged as he is in other no less important 
avocations. But this difficulty has been overcome by the zeal 
and public spirit of your Secretary, who, in the kindest manner, 
and of his own free will, has undertaken for the future to pre- 
pare for the press our record of ' Proceedings,' leaving to the 



Nov. 28.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 351 

Director the care of the * Archgeologia ' only, and the general 
superintendence of all the Society's publications. 

" It is on this basis then that the President and Council, with 
the fullest confidence, submit to the Society the name of A. "W. 
Franks, Esq. as Member of Council and Director, and they 
propose that the Ballot for the election shall take place on the 
evening of December 12th." 

H. S. MILMAN, Esq. F.S.A. hoped he might be allowed to 
move a Resolution which should convey on behalf of those pre- 
sent at the meeting who were not members of the Council the 
assurance of their entire assent to the Resolution which had just 
been read. After enlarging on the excellent qualities which had 
distinguished Mr. Charles S. Perceval's official relations with the 
Society, Mr. Milman proceeded to move the following Resolu- 
tion, which was seconded by William Smith, Esq. F.S.A. and 
carried unanimously : 

" That this Meeting cordially shares the sentiments expressed 
in the Resolution which has just been read respecting Mr. 
Charles S. Perceval, and desires to put on record the most 
hearty thanks of the Society for his past services as Director. 
It cannot but feel that the Society is under great obligations to 
Mr. Charles S. Perceval for the readiness with which he under- 
took and the energy with which he carried on the Society's 
publications and fulfilled the other duties of the office. It must not 
be forgotten that in addition to 6 Archgeologia ' and ' Proceedings ' 
Mr. Charles Perceval has during his tenure of office edited two 
Parts of the sixth volume of our ' Yetusta Monumenta,' not to 
mention the very laborious task, which he voluntarily undertook, 
of arranging for publication the ' List of Sepulchral Monuments ' 
appended to the ' Report of the Society's Sepulchral Monuments 
Committee.' 

" This Meeting is specially anxious to give its most emphatic 
assent to that part of the Council's Resolution which speaks of 
the courtesy which Mr. Charles Perceval brought to the dis- 
charge of his duties. On this point it is impossible that 
throughout the whole Society there can be a single dissentient 
voice." 

Notice was then given that at the Ordinary Meeting of the 
Society to be held on Thursday the 12th December, 1872, a 
Ballot would be taken for the election of a Member of Council 
and Director of the Society, in the room of Charles Spencer 
Perceval, Esq. LL.D. resigned, and that Augustus Wollaston 
Franks, Esq. F.S.A. was nominated and recommended by the 
President and Council to fill the vacant office. The ballot to 
open at 8'45 p. m. and to close at 9*30 p. m. 



352 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Editor : The Church Builder. Nos. 43 and 44. July and October. 
8vo. London, 1872. 

From the London Institution : Journal. Nos. 15 to 17. Vol. 2. 8vo. London, 
1872. 

From Sir G. Bowyer, Bart. : History and Description of the Venerable and 
Miraculous Icon of Our Blessed Lady of Philermos, Patroness of the Sacred 
and Military Order of Malta. 8vo. 

From the Royal Society : Proceedings. Vol. xx. Nos. 135 to' 138. [Com- 
pleting Vol. xx.] 8vo. London, 1872. 

From W. Munk, Esq. M.D. F.S.A. : 

1. The History of Exeter. By the Rev. George Oliver. 8vo. Exeter, 1821. 

2. Ecclesiastical Antiquities in Devon, with Memoranda for the History of 
Cornwall. By the Rev. George Oliver. 3 vols. (in 1). 8vo. Exeter, 
1840-42. 

From the Author : The Author of " The Club " Identified. By G. Steinman 
Steinman, Esq. F.S.A. Printed for private circulation. 8vo. 1872. 

From the Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland : The 
Archaeological Journal. No. 113. 8vo. London, 1872. 

From the Royal Lombardic Institute of Science and Literature (Class of Litera- 
ture and Moral and Political Science) : 

1. Memorie. Vol. xii. 3 della Serie III. Fascicolo 2. Fol. Milan, 1871. 

2. Rendiconti. Serie II. Vol. iii. Fasc. 16-20; Vol. iv. Fasc. 1-20; 
Vol. v. Fac. 1-7. 8vo. Milan, 1870-71. 

From the Council of the Incorporated Law Society of the United Kingdom : 
Catalogue of the Mendham Collection : being a selection of Books and 
Pamphlets from the Library of the late Rev. Joseph Mendham, M.A., sub- 
sequently the property of the late Rev. John Mendham. 8vo. London, 
1871. 

From the Royal Institute of British Architects : 

1. Sessional Papers 1871-72. Nos. 11 and 12 ; and 1872-73. No. 1. 4to. 

London, 1872. 

2: General Conference of Architects, 1872. Report of Proceedings. 

London. 

From Lieut.-Colonel Manby : The Ancient Vessel found in the Parish of 
Tune, Norway. Dedicated by the Translator to Commander Stephen B. 
Luce, U.S.N.,in remembrance of the U.S. corvette "Juniata's" visit to 
Norway in 1871. Fol. Christiania, 1872. 

From the Author : A Calendar of Records belonging or relating to the Rectory, 
Church, and Parish of West Hackney, in the county of Middlesex ; with an 
Introductory account of their collection. By Rev. Thomas Hugo, M.A. 
F.S.A. 8vo. Stoke Newington, 1872. 

From the Numismatic Society : The Numismatic Chronicle, and Journal of the 
Numismatic Society. Vol. xii. New Series. Nos. 45 and 46. 8vo. Lon- 
don, 1872. 

From the Author : On an Antique paste Cameo, found at Stanwix, near Car- 
lisle. By C. W. King, M.A. [From the Archaeological Journal. Vol. xxix.] 
8vo. 

From the Editor, LI. Jewitt, Esq. F.S.A. : The Reliquary. Nos. 49 and 50. 
Vol. XIII. July and October. 8vo. London and Derby, 1872.- 

From the Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland : Their Journal. 
Vol. II. Fourth Series. April. 8vo. Dublin, 1872. 



Nov. 28.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 353 

From J. W. K. Eyton, Esq. F.S.A. : Miscellanea Geuealogica et Heraldica. 

Monthly Series. Edited by J. J. Howard, LL.D. F.S.A. Nos. XX. and 

XXI. July. 8vo. London, 1872. 
From the Essex Archaeological Society : Transactions. Vol. V. Part 3. 8vo. 

Colchester, 1872. 
From C. K. Watson, Esq. M.A. Sec. S.A. : Keport of the Committee of the 

Dilettanti Society respecting Exploration of the Temple of Diana at 

Ephesus. Fol. London. (Privately printed.) 
From the Canadian Institute : The Canadian Journal of Science, Literature, 

and History. Vol. XIII. No. 4. July. 8vo. Toronto, 1872. 
From the Royal Commissions of Art and Archaeology : Bulletin. 10 me Amice, 

Nos. 1-12 (completing the vol.), et ll mc Annee, Nos. 1-4. 8v. Brussels, 

1871-72. 
From the Author, II. C. Barlow, Esq. M.D. : 

1. Studies from Dante. Svo. London, 1857-62. 

2. The Sixth Centenary Festivals of Dante Allighieri in Florence and at 
Ilavenna. By a Representative. Svo. London, 1866. 

From the Library Committee of the Corporation of London : Catalogue of the 
Library. Tenth Supplement. Svo. London, 1870. (Not previously pre- 
sented.) 

From the Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical Association : 

1. The Journal. Part VII. Vol. 2. 8vo. London, 1872. 

2. Excursion Programme and arrangements at Fountains and Ripon. Svo. 
Ripon, 1872. 

From the Imperial Academy of Sciences of St. Petersburg!! : Bulletin. Tome 

XVII. Feuilles 1-26. 4to. St. Petersbnrgh, 1871-72. 
From the British Archaeological Association : Their Journal. June 30 and 

September 30. 8vo. London, 1872. 
From the National Society of Antiquaries of France : 

1. Memoires. Quatrieme Serie. Tome l or . Svo. Paris, 1869. 

2. Bulletin. Annee 1871. Svo. Paris. 

From the Cambrian Archaeological Association : Archaeologia Cambrensis. 
Fourth Series. Nos. 10 and 11. Vol. III. Svo. London, 1872. 

From the Royal United Service Institution : The Journal. Vol. XVI. Nos. 
67, and 68 (double number). Svo. London, 1872. 

From the Science and Art Department of the Committee of Council on Edu- 
cation, South Kensington : The Fairford Windows, a Monograph. By the 
Rev. J. G. .Joyce, B.A. F.S.A. Rector of Stratfieldsaye. Folio. London, 
1S72. 

From the Camden Society : 

1. Publications. New Series, V. The Maire of Bristowe is Kalendar, by 
Robert Ricart, Town Clerk of Bristol, 18 Edw. IV. Edited by Lucy Toul- 
min Smith. 4to. London, 1872. 

2. Publications. No. CV. Trevelyan Papers, Part III. Edited by Sir 
W. C. Trevelyan, Bart, and Sir C. E. Trevelyan, K.C.B. 4to. London, 
1872. 

From the East India Association : Journal. No. 2. Vol. VI. Svo. London, 

1872. 
From the Smithsonian Institution : Annual Report for the year 1870. Svo. 

Washington, 1871. 
From the Essex Institute, U.S.A. : 

1. Proceeding's and Communications. Vol. VI. Part 111. 1868-71. Svo. 
Salem, 1871. 

2. Bulletin. Volume III. 1871. Svo. Salem, 1872. 
VOL. V. 2 A 



354 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

From the Author : Star-Chamber Complaint against Humber Pirates. By 
Edward Peacock, F.S.A.. 8vo. [Reprinted from the " Yorkshire Archaeo- 
logical Journal."] 

From the Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries : 

1. Memoires. Nouvelle Serie. 1871-71. 8vo. Copenhagen. 

2. Aarboger for Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historic. 1871, II-IV. [Com- 
pleting the Volume], and 1872, 1. 8vo. Copenhagen. 

From the Society of Emulation (Seine Inferieure.) Bulletin des Travaux. 

Annee 1869-71. 8vo. Rouen, 1870-72. 
From the Author : Former Inhabitants of Chichester. By . W. Durrant 

Cooper, Esq. F.S.A. [Reprinted from Sussex Collections, XXIV.J 8vo. 
From the Royal Geographical Society : 

1. The Journal. Vol. 41. 8vo. London, 1871. 

2. Proceedings. Vol. XVI., No. III. 8vo. London, 1872. 
From the American Antiquarian Society : 

1. ArchaBologia Americana. Vols. 3 and 4. 8vo. 1857-60. 

2. Proceedings. Nos. 15-57. 8vo. Cambridge, 1849-71. 

3. Catalogue. 8vo. Worcester, 1837. 
From the Hon. R. C. Winthrop, Hon. F.S.A. : 

1. Fifth Annual Report of the Trustees of the Peabody Museum of American 
Archaeology and Ethnology. 8vo. Boston, 1872. 

2. Peabody Education Fund. Proceedings of the Trustees, June 25, 1872. 
8vo. Cambridge, 1872. 

From the Author : Genealogical Notes of the kindred Families of Longridge, 
Fletcher, and Hawks. Collected and arranged by R. E.' Chester Waters, 
Esq. B.A. 4to. [Printed for private circulation.] 

From the Author : (Euvres Completes du Trouvere Adam de la Halle (Poesies 
et Musique) Publics sous les auspices de la Societe des Sciences, des Lettres 
et des Arts de Lille. Par E. De Coussemaker. 8vo. Paris, 1872. 

From the Exeter Diocesan Architectural Society : Transactions. Part HI. 
. Volume 2, Second series. Miscellaneous. 4to. Exeter, 1871. 

^rom the Author : Fouilles Archeologiques. No. 4. Vase Antique. Phaleres 

en bronze. Par Henry Revoil. 8vo. Paris, 1871. 
From the Author, James Wyatt, Esq. F.G.S. : 

1. Antiquity of the Human Race. Further Links in the Chain of Evidence. 
8vo. 1870. 

2. The Ancient Camps of Maiden Bower and Totternhoe. 8vo. 1871. 
[Both from Papers of the Beds Architectural and Archaeological Society.] 

From the Author : Notices relating to John Anysley, Constable of Norham 
Castle. By Edward Peacock, Esq. F.S.A. 4to. 

From the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society : Proceedings of the 
Evening Meetings. Session 1871. 8vo. London, 1872. 

From the Author : Notes on Two Monumental Brasses in the church of Saint 
Andrew-under-shaft, Leadenhall Street. By W. H. Overall, Esq. F.S.A. 
Librarian to the Corporation of London. 8vo. 1872. [From Transactions 
of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society, Vol. IV.] 

From the Bombay Geographical Society : Transactions. Vol. xix. Part 2. 

8vo. Bombay, 1871. 
From the Author : St. Dionis Backchurch. By W. Durrant Cooper, Esq. 

F.S.A. 8vo. 1872. [From Transactions of the London and Middlesex 

Archaeological Society, Vol. IV.] 

From the Royal Asiatic Society : Their Journal. New Series. Vol. VI. 
Part 1. 8vo. London, 1872. 



Nov. 28.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 355 

From the Author : A Century of Bibles, or the authorised Version from 1011 to 
1711. By the Rev. W. J. Loftie, B.A. F.S.A. 8vo. London, 1872. 

From the Author : Sleaford, and the Wapentakes of Flaxwell and Asward- 
ham, in the county of Lincoln. By the Venerable Edward Trollope, M.A. 
F.S.A. , Archdeacon of Stow. Svo. London and Sleaford, 1872. 

From the Society of Arts and Sciences at Batavia \->- 

1. Tijdschrift. Vol. xviii. 3, 4 ; xx. 3. 8vo. Batavia, 1871-2. 

2. Notulen. Vol. IX. 1871. Svo. Batavia, 1872. 

3. Eerste Vervolg Catalogus der Bibliotheek. Svo. Batavia, 1872. 
From the Surrey Archaeological Society : Collections. Vol. vi. Part 1. 8vo. 

London, 1872. 

From the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland : Records of the Monastery of 
Kinloss, with illustrative documents. Edited by John Stuart, LL.D. 4to. 
Edinburgh, 1872. 

From the Author, Rev. R, C. Jenkins, M.A., Loc. Sec. S. A. Kent : (Reprinted 
from Archaeologia Cantiana. Vol. viii.) Documents disclosing a Passage 
in the History of the Twysden family. Svo. 

From the Imperial Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Class of History) : 

1. Sitzungsberichte. 68 Band. Heft 2, 3, 4. 69 Band. Heft 1-3. 8vo. 
Vienna, 1871. 

2. Archiv. 47 Band. 2 Heft, Svo. Vienna, 1871. 

3. Fontes rerum Austriacarum. Diplomataria et Acta. 35 Band. Svo. 
Vienna, 1871. 

From the Literary and Philosophical Society of Southport : Laws of the 
Society. Svo. 

From the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester : Proceedings. 
Vol. xi. No. 14 ; and Vol. xii. Nos. 1 and 2. Svo. Manchester, 1872. 

From the Author : Sir Ralph de Rayne and Lilian Grey, a legend of the 
Abbey Church, St. Albairs. By Francis Bennoch, F.S.A. Svo. London, 
1872. 

From J. J. Howard, Esq. LL.D. F.S.A. : 

1. Genealogical Memoranda relating to the Family of Newton. Privately 
printed. 4to. London, 1S71. 

2. Pedigree of the Family of Ashburner, co. Lancaster. Privately printed. 
4to. London, 1872. 

3. Additions to the Visitation of London, A.D. 1568, published by the 
Harleian Society. Svo. 

From the Author : Genealogy of the Family of Winchell in America. By 
Alexander Winchell, LL.D, Svo. Ann Arbor, 1869. 

From the Associated Architectural Societies : Reports and Papers, 1871. Vol. 
xi. Part 1. Svo. Lincoln. 

From the Author, M. H.'Bloxam, Esq. F.S.A. : 

1. Monument in Stanford Church, Worcestershire. Svo. 1870. 

2. Easter Sepulchres. Svo. 1871. 

3. Discoveries at Warwick Castle. Svo. 1872. 
From the Editor, Rev. M. E. C. Walcott, B.D. F.S.A. : 

1. Inventory of St. Mary's Benedictine Nunnery at Langley, co. Leicester. 
1485. Svo. 

2. Inventories and Church Goods of Devon. 4to. 1870. 

From the Author : Index Expurgatorius Anglicanus : or a Descriptive Cata- 
logue of the principal Books printed in England, which have been suppressed, 
or burnt by the Common Hangman, or censured, or for which the Authors, 

2 A2 



356 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

Printers, or Publishers have been prosecuted. By W. H. Hart, F.S.A. 
Part 1. 8vo. London, 1872. 

From the Secretary of State for the Home Department : By the Queen. Pro- 
clamation declaring the Parliament further Prorogued from October 25 to 
December 19. Given at Balmoral, October 15, 1872. 36th year of reign. 
Broadside folio. (2 copies.) 

From the Author : Verhandlungen des International Congresses fur Alter- 
thumskunde und Geschichte zu Bonn im September 1868. Herausgegeben 
von Prof. Dr. Ernst Aus'm Weerth. 8vo. Bonn, 1871. 

From the Author : Hullinia : or, Selections from the Local History of Hull. 
By John Symons. 8vo. Hull and London, 1872. 

From Charles E. Fox, Esq. : Genealogical Memoranda relating to the Family 
of Fox, of Brislington, etc. Privately printed. 4to. London, 1872. 

From M. L'Abbe Cochet, Hon. F.S.A. : Bulletin de la Commission des' Anti- 
quites de la Seine-Inferieure. Annee 1871. Tome II. 2 e Livraison. 8vo. 
Dieppe, 1872. 

From the Archaeological Society of the Province of Constantine : Recueil des 
Notices et Memoires. 5 e volume de la Deuxieme Serie. 8vo. Constan- 
tine, 1872. 

From the Author : To the Very Rev. the Dean and Chapter of Ripon. (A 
Report by the Rev. J. T. Fowler, M.A. F.S.A. on the Cathedral Library.) 
Facsimile. Folio. Durham, 1872. 

From J. Wilson Holme, Esq. F.S.A. : Memoirs of the Clinton Family. Com- 
piled by the late Henry Fyncs-Clinton, Esq. author of " Fasti Hellenici," 
"Fasti Romani," &c. 4to. 1872. (Privately printed. One of only 12 
copies.) 

From the Archaeological Society of Valencia : Memoria. April 22 to Dec. 31, 
1871. 8vo. Valencia, 1872. 

From the Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society : 

1. Original Papers. Vol. 7. Parts III. IV. and V. 8vo. Norwich, 
1868-72. 

2. Illustrations of the Rood-screen at Barton Turf. With descriptive Notes 
by the Rev. John Gunn, M.A. F.G.S. Folio. Norwich, 1869. 

3. Illustrations of the Rood-screen at Fritton. With descriptive Notes by 
the Rev. Richard Hart, B.A. Folio. Norwich, 1872. 

From the Publishers : Vie et Travaux de Edouard Lartet. Notices et Discours 
publics a 1'occasion de sa mort, de la part de la Famille. 8vo. Paris, 1872. 

From the Society of Antiquaries of the West of France : Bulletins. Deux- 
ieme Trimestre de 1872. 8vo. 

From the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History :~ Proceedings. 
Vol. 4. No. 5. 8vo. Beccles, 1872. 

From W. W. E. Wynne, Esq. F.S.A. : Pedigree of the Family of Wynne, of 
Peniarth, in the county of Merioneth. Privately printed. 8vo. London, 
1872. 

From the Society for Useful Investigation at Treves : Jahresbericht. Von 
1869 bis 1871. 4to. Treves, 1872. 

From the Royal Society of Literature : Transactions. 2nd Series. Vol. X. 
Part 2. 8vo. London, 1872. 

From Thomas Falconer, Esq. : Dissertation on St. Paul's Voyage from Caesarea 
to Puteoli ; and on the Apostle's Shipwreck on the island Melite. By 
William Falconer, M.D. F.R.S. Third Edition. 8vo. London, 1872. 

From J. G. Fanshawe, Esq. : Notes, Genealogical and Historical, of the Fan- 
shawe Family. No. 5. Fanshawe Wills. Part 2. (Reprinted, for private 



Nov. 28.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 357 

circulation, from Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica.) 4to. London, 
1872. 
From W. C. Boulter, Esq. F.S.A. : 

1. Aston, Joseph. A Picture of Manchester. 12mo. Manchester, 1815. 

2. Bailey, Thomas. Hand-Book to Nottingham Castle. 8vo. London, 
1854. 

3. Bailey, Thomas. Hand-Book to Newstead Abbey. 8vo. London, 1855. 

4. Baker, W. H. The Panoramic Guide to Welsh Mountain Scenery. 8vo. 
Carnarvon, n. d. 

5. Batcheller, W. A New History of Dover, and of Dover Castle, with a 
short account of the Cinque Ports. 8vo. Dover, 1828. 

6. Bath, an Historical Account of the Honourable Order of the. 8vo. 
London, 1725. 

7. Beck's Leamington Guide ; with an historical and descriptive account 
of the neighbourhood. Eleventh Edition. 12mo. Leamington, 1860. 

8. Bell, Robert. The Roman Wall ; an attempt to substantiate the claims 
of Severus to the authorship of the Roman Wall. 4to. Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, 1852. ^ 

9. Bickham, George. Delicise Britannicse ; or, the curiosities of Hampton 
Court and Windsor Castle delineated. 12mo. London, 1742. 

10. Binckes, William. The Christian Synagogue : or, the original use and 
benefit of Parochial Churches. 8vo. London and Lichfield, 1710. 

11. Birmingham, a brief History of, intended as a guide to the inhabitant 
and stranger. Third Edition. 12mo. Birmingham and London, 1805. 
11*. Birmingham, the Picture of. Second Edition. 12mo. Birmingham, 
1831. 

12. Black's Warwickshire Guide. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1866. ' 

IB. British Museum, Synopsis of the contents of the. Sixth Edition. 8vo. 
London, 1813. 

14. Britton, John. Antiquarian and Architectural Memoranda relating to 
Norwich Cathedral. 12mo. London, 1817. 

15. Bruce, J. Collingwood. Hadrian the builder of the Roman Wall. 4to. 
London, 1853. 

16. Buckingham, Historical and Biographical Memoirs of George Villiers, 
first Duke of. 4to. London, 1819. 

17. Cambridge, Cantabrigia Depicta. A concise and accurate description of 
the University and Town of Cambridge and its environs. A new Edition, 
corrected. 8vo. Cambridge, 1781. 

18. Cambridge, Testimonies of different authors respecting the colossal 
statue of Ceres, placed in the vestibule of the Public Library at. 8vo. 
Cambridge, 1803. 

19. Cambridge, the Pictorial Guide to, containing descriptions of its 
Colleges, Halls, Libraries, Churches, a-nd Public Buildings. 8vo. Cam- 
bridge. 

20. Chambers's Handy Guide to London ; together with information re- 
lating to the International Exhibition of 1862. 8vo. London and Edin- 
burgh, 1862. 

21. Coventry, the History and Antiquities of the City of, from the earliest 
authentic period to the present time. 12mo. Coventry, 1810. 

22. Danby, Thomas, Earl of (now Duke of Leeds), Memoirs relating to the 
Impeachment of, in the year 1678. 8vo. London, 1710. 

23. Dick, W. R. A Short Sketch of the Beauchamp Tower, Tower of 
London ; and also a Guide to the inscriptions and devices left on the walls 
thereof. 8vo. London. 

24. Dyde, W. The History and Antiquities of Tewkesbury. The Third 



358 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

Edition. To which is prefixed, a descriptive sketch of Gloucestershire. 
12mo. Tewkesbury and London, 1803. 

25. Furness Abbey, a Guide through the ruins of, with a brief account of 
Dalton and Pile Castle. 8vo. Ulverston, 1858. 

26. Gibbs, S. Illustrated Bath Visitant; or new Guide to Bath. 12mo. 
Bath. 

27. Gilmour, D. E. An historical and descriptive Guide to the' City of 
Winchester, its Cathedral, College, etc. Eleventh Edition. 8vo. Win- 
chester, 1851. 

28. -Gloucester, Hand-Book for visitors to the city and neighbourhood of. 
Second Edition. 8vo. Gloucester. 1861. 

29. Glover's Illustrated Guide and Visitors' Companion througn the Isle of 
Man. 8vo. Douglas. 

30. Grundy, John. The Stranger's Guide to Hampton Court Palace and 
Gardens. 12mo. London, 1845. 

31. Havergal, F. T. The Visitor's Hand-Guide to the Cathedral Church 
of St. Mary and St. Ethelbert, Hereford. Third Edition. 12mo. Here- 
ford, 1869. 

32. Hemingway, J. Panorama of the Beauties, Curiosities, and .Anti- 
quities of North Wales. Intended as a pocket companion to the tourist and 
traveller. Second Edition. 8vo. London, &c. 1835. 

33. Herbert, Homely. Eastbourne Guide and Visitors' Directory. Fifth 
Edition. 8vo. Eastbourne, 1863. 

34. Hereford Guide : containing a concise history of the city. Also, an 
account of the principal seats and remarkable places in the neighbourhood. 
8vo. Hereford, 1806. 

35. Hicklin, John. The Hand-Book to Llandudno and its vicinity. Fourth 
thousand. 8vo. London and Chester, 1858. 

36. H. S. H. The Writings of Edmund Spenser ; with some observations 
upon allegorical composition. Printed for private circulation. 8vo. Lon- 
don, 1866. 

37. Hunt, Robert. Companion to the Official Catalogue. Synopsis of the 
contents of the Great Exhibition of 1851. Fourth Edition. 8vo. London, 
1851. 

38. Hunter, K. E. A short description of the Isle of Thanet. 12mo. 
Ramsgate, 1806. 

39. Hyett, W. A description of the Watering Places on the south-east 
coast of Devon, from the River Exe to the Dart inclusive, comprehending 
Dawlish, Teignmouth, Shaldon, and Torquay. 8vo. Exeter. 

40. Johns, C. A. A week at the Lizard. 8vo. London, 1848. 

41. Kentish Traveller's Companion : a view of the towns and antiquities 
on or near the road from London to Margate, Dover, and Canterbury. 8vo. 
Rochester and Canterbury, 1776. 

42. Kneale's Guide to the Isle of Man ; comprising an account of the island, 
and a collection of Manx Legends. 8vo. Douglas. 

43. Lincoln Cathedral, historical and descriptive account of. With a plan 
of the edifice, and other illustrations. 12mo. Lincoln, 1849. 

44. Lisch, G. C. F. Blatter zur Geschichte der Kirchen zu Doberan und 
Althof. 8vo. Schwerin, 1854. 

45. London, Recorders of the City of. 1298-1850. Printed by direction of 
the Court of Aldermen. 4to. London, 1850. 

46. Louth, Notitise Ludae, or notices of. (By R. S. Bayley.) 8vo. Louth, 
1834. 

47. Lumsden, James. Guide to Loch Lomond, Loch Ketturin, the 
Trosachs, &e. Sixth Edition. 8vo. Glasgow, 1 849. 



Nov. 28.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 359 

48. Macmillan, James. Guide to the Chapel-Royal and Palace of Holyrood- 
house. Written chiefly from materials collected by Henry Courtoy. 8vo. 
Edinburgh, 1837. 

49. Neve, Charles. An Account of King's College Chapel, with an his- 
torical description. 18mo. Cambridge, 1855. 

50. Nottingham, the Stranger's Guide through. Second edition. 8vo. 
Nottingham, 1848. 

51. Parker, J. H. The Church of St. Bartholomew the Great, Smithfield. 
A Lecture delivered in the Church, July 13, 1863. 8vo. London, 1863. 

52. Perry, John. The State of Russia under the present Czar. - Also an 
Account of the Tartars. 8vo. London, 1716. 

53. Phillips, Samuel. Guide to the Crystal Palace and Park. Illustrated 
by P. H. Delamotte. 8vo. London, 1854. 

54. Piper, Ferdinand. Karls des Grossen Kalendarinm und Ostertafel. 
8vo. Berlin, 1858. 

55. Plymouth, Devonport, Stonehouse, etc. Hand-Book of. 12mo. Exeter. 

56. Prestwich, Joseph. The Ground beneath us, its geological phases and 
changes ; being three Lectures on the Geology of Clapham, and the neigh- 
bourhood of^London generally. 8vo. London, 1857. 

57. Ritson, Joseph. Annals of the Caledonians, Picts, and Scots ; and of 
Strathclyde, Cumberland, Galloway, and Murray. Two vols. 8vo. Edin- 
burgh, 1828. 

58. Rooke, Octavius. Jersey, pictorial, legendary, and descriptive. Third 
Edition. 8vo. London. 

59. Schillio, J. H. Journal of a Tour from Bath to the Lakes. To which 
is added a short account of Worcester, Derbyshire, &c. 8vo. London 
1836. 

60. Stewart, P. G. Essay on the Dunblane Mineral Springs. 8vo. Glasgow 
&c., 1839. 

61. Surrey, Excursions in the county of. 8vo. London, 1821. 

62. Sussex, Excursions in the county of. 12mo. London, 1822. 

63. Watson, W. W. The Visitor's Guide to Herne Bay and Canterbury. 
8vo. London. 

64. Welsh Tradition, an Essay on the influence of, upon European Litera- 
ture. Not published. 8vo. London, 1838. 

65. Woodward, John. An account of some Roman Urns and other anti- 
quities, lately digg'd up near Bishops-gate. Svo. London, 1713. 

66. Worcester, a Guide to the City and Cathedral of. 8vo. Worcester, 
1867. 

67. Yarmouth in Norfolk, an Historical Guide to. Third Edition. Svo. 
Yarmouth, 1821. 

From the Trustees of the British Museum : 

1. Catalogue of the Manuscript Music in the British Museum. Svo. 
London, 1842. 

2. A Guide to the First Vase Room, in the Department of Greek and 
Roman Antiquities. Fourth Edition. 12mo. London, 1871. 

3. A Guide to the Second Vase Room, in the Department of Greek and 
Roman Antiquities. 12mo. London, 1869. 

4. A Guide to the Bronze Room in the Department of Greek and Roman 
Antiquities. 12mo. London, 1871. 

5. A Guide to that portion of the Collection of Prints bequeathed to the 
Nation by the late Felix Slade, Esq., now on exhibition in the King's 
Library. 12mo. London, 1869. 

6. A Guide to the Autograph Letters, Manuscripts, Original Charters, and 



360 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

Royal, Baronial, and Ecclesiastical Seals exhibited to the Public in the 
Department of Manuscripts. 12mo. London, 1870. 

7. A Guide to the Printed Books exhibited to the Public. 12mo. London, 
1870. 

8. Catalogue of Prints and Drawings in the British Museum. Division I. 
Political and Personal Satires (No. 1 to No. 1235). Vol. I. 1320. April 
11, 1689. 8vo. London, 1870. 

9. A selection from the Miscellaneous Inscriptions of Assyria, being Cunei- 
form Inscriptions of Western Asia. Vol. III. Edited by Sir H. C. Raw- 
linson, assisted by G. Smith. Folio. London, 1870. 

10. A Catalogue of the Greek and Etruscan Vases in the British Museum, 
Vol. II. 8vo. London, 1870. 

11. Catalogue of Syriac Manuscripts in the British Museum, acquired since 
the year 1838. By W. Wright, LL.D. Parts 1 and 2. 2 Vols. 4to. 
London, 1870-71. 

12. A List of the Books of Reference in the Reading Room of the British 
Museum. Second Edition revised. 8vo. London, 1871. 

13. A Guide to the Exhibition Rooms of the Departments of Natural 
History and Antiquities. 8vo. London, 1871. 

14. Catalogus Codicum Manuscriptorum Orientalium qui in Museo Bri- 
tannico asservantur. Pars secunda, codices Arabicos amplectens. Folio. 
London, 1871. 

From the Anthropological Institute : 

1. The Journal. Vol. 2, Nos. 1 and 2. 8vo. London, 1872. 

2. List of the Members. To March 1872. 8vo. 

From M. Ch. Rsessler: La Mosa'ique de Lillebonne. (Extrait des Publications 
de la Societe Havraise d'Etudes diverses.) 8vo. Rouen and Havre, 1871. 

From the Author : Nsenia Cornubiae, a descriptive Essay, illustrative of the 
sepulchres and funereal customs of the early inhabitants of the county of 
Cornwall. By W. C. Borlase, B.A. F.S.A. 8vo. London and Truro, 
1872. 

The Rev. George Hewitt Hodson and Charles Harcourt 
Chambers, Esq. were duly admitted Fellows. 

A. W. FRANKS, Esq. F.S.A. made the following exhibitions 
and communications : 

1. The first object which I beg to exhibit is a bronze pricket 
Candlestick, 4^ inches high, the stem of which issues from the 
body of a stag. It appears to be of the fourteenth century, and 
is unfortunately much mutilated. A more complete example of 
the same kind is engraved in the < Archseologia,' Vol. XXVIII. 
p. 442. 

It is not, however, so much on account of its excellence or 
rarity that I consider this object deserving the attention of the 
Society, but as illustrating in a remarkable manner some sug- 

festions that I made on the occasion of the exhibition of Neolithic 
tone Implements (see p. 233). 

Mr. Alfred Newton Hennessy, to whom I am indebted for this 
exhibition, and who has authorised me to place it in the British 
Museum, has given me the following history of the candlestick. 



Nov. 28.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 361 

About two years since, a friend of his went to Calcutta, in a 
ship which had dredged for ballast off Erith, and in discharging 
the ballast the object in question was found. 

In my observations to the Society on the occasion of the 
exhibition of Stone Implements already referred to, I called 
attention to the action of ballast as one of the causes which 
might explain the discovery of foreign types of stone implements 
in various parts of the world. Had this bronze not been 
observed, it might at a subsequent period have been found in 
India, and brought back to this country as an undoubted Indian 
antiquity. I need hardly add that a stone implement would 
have more easily escaped detection, and when we consider the 
very large quantity of material that has thus been removed from 
one country to another it is scarcely to be wondered at that a few 
antiquities should have been displaced, and puzzle antiquaries 
by the unexpected places in which they crop up. 

2. The next object to which I have to call your attention is a 
relic of no slight interest, as it is connected with the royal family 
of England, in the beginning of the fourteenth century, and is 
one of the few such relics now in existence. 

It is a shrine-shaped Casket of silver, 2|- inches high and 3f 
inches long, unfortunately recently regilt, and has engraved orna- 
ments ; those on the lower portion consist of arches ; on each of the 
two sloping surfaces are quatrefoils inclosing arms. The three in 
front are the arms of England and France impaled by dimidia- 
tion and differenced by a plain label. The three at the back 
contain the arms of England and France similarly impaled, 
but without any difference. On the bottom is the following 
inscription " 1272. Arms of Edward E. of Lancaster, called 
Crouchback, 2 son of K. H. 3 ob. 1296. In Dr. Ducarel's 
Collection, 1779." 

Mr. W. S. Walford, F. S. A. has published in the ' Archaeological 
Journal,' xiii: p. 134, a memoir on this casket, written with his 
usual discrimination. After stating that the arms cannot be those 
of Edward Crouchback, he proves that the simple arms of England 
impaled with France, and differenced by a plain label, though 
there is a slight error in the label extending over the whole shield, 
can only be the arms of Isabella of France, wife of Edward II. 
before she ascended the throne. The arms at the back of the 
casket can only be those of Margaret wife of Edward I. or of 
Isabella of France as queen. As, however, it is not likely that the 
arms of the same person would be on the same object both as 
princess and queen, it follows that the arms on the front are those 
of Isabella before she came to the throne, although then only 
betrothed to Prince Edward, and those on the back the arms of 
Queen Margaret. The date must therefore be between May 



362 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

1303, the date of the Betrothal, and July 1307, when 'Edward I. 
died. 

It will be observed that the coat with the label is in front, 
while the more important coat of the Queen Regnant is on the 
back. Mr. Walford therefore conjectures that this object was 
a present from Queen Margaret to her step-daughter Isabella. 

As to the object for which the little shrine was made, it is 
said that before the unfortunate regilding traces were to be seen 
of divisions, and it has therefore been conjectured that it was 
intended to contain the three different chrisms and was intended 
to form part of the young prince's chapelle. 

Till recently this curious relic formed part of the Meyrick 
collection. It was formerly in the possession of Astle and 
Douce, and from the latter passed to Sir Samuel Meyrick.* 

3. On the 14th of June, 1866, I exhibited, by permission of 
the Conservators of the Thames, a very remarkable bronze 
Helmet, found in that river, and which is now deposited in the 
British Museum. (< Proceedings,' 2d S. iii. 343.) 

I now beg to lay before the Society another helmet which, 
though not so remarkable in its form as the Thames helmet, 
possesses some points of interest. The other helmet had two 
extraordinary projections like conical horns, confirming in a 
singular manner the statement of Diodorus Siculus, that the 
Gauls wore " brazen helmets having great projections from them, 
and giving a singular appearance to the wearers, for to some of 
them are added horns springing from the substance of the 
helmet." The present example is of a more ordinary form; it 
consists of a conical cap, on the top of which is a circular mark, 
with rivet-holes, to which, no doubt, the crest was attached. 
From the back projects a semicircular plate, intended to protect 
the neck. This plate is decorated with embossed ornaments of 
that peculiar character which I have termed i late Celtic ' (see 
Kemble's < Horae Ferales '), and very similar in design to the pat- 
terns on the Thames helmet, the Celtic origin of which it is 
important to bear in mind. 

I am acquainted with two examples of this form of helmet, both 
found in England ; one of them was discovered near Tring, Hert- 
fordshire, and is engraved in the * Vetusta Monumenta,' vol. v. 
pi. 26, 27. It is quite plain, and, instead of a crest, has a circular 
moulded button or knob, not unlike the shape of a Roman pedestal. 
The other was also discovered in Hertfordshire, in the neigh- 
bourhood of St. Alban's. It is quite plain, but is peculiarly 
interesting, from its having punched upon it, in letters formed 
of dots, the name of its possessor. The inscription is, unfortu- 

* The casket has since been purchased by the Trustees of the British Museum. 



Nov. 28.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 363 

nately, very difficult to read, but seems to contain the name 
Papirius, a good and ancient Roman name. The original is 
now in the Colchester Museum. 

The form, therefore, of our helmet may be considered to a cer- 
tain extent Roman, but of an early period in the history of Roman 
Britain. The decoration however is not Roman, and there is a 
certain want of finish about the edges, and modifications in the 
general form, which is more conical than in the two Roman 
helmets, which suggest a Barbarian origin. The ornaments 
moreover are not classical, and among them are bosses once 
coated with red enamel, like those on the Thames helmet, and 
intended, no doubt, to imitate the red coral with which the 
Gauls, as related by Pliny (lib. xxxii. c. ii. s. ii.), used before 
his time to decorate their helmets. 

Unfortunately nothing is known about the history of this 
specimen. On going over the Meyrick Armoury, while still at 
Goodrich Court, I found to my surprise among the Turkish 
arms this interesting object. It is evident from the condition of 
the metal that it has been discovered in a river. It may possibly 
have been found in the Witham, where was discovered the 
very remarkable shield published in the ' Archseologia,' xxiii. 
pi. xiii. see also 6 Proceedings,' iv. 144 ; or it may have been found 
in the Thames. At any rate I feel no doubt that it was dis- 
covered in Britain. 

I am glad to be able to state that this interesting specimen 
has come into my possession, and is destined to be added to the 
National Collection together with the Witham shield.* 

While on the subject of the Meyrick Collection it may be as 
well to correct an error which has found its way into our ' Proceed- 
ings,' 2d S. iii. p. 518. On the 20th June, 1867, Mr. W. Tayler, 
F.S.A. exhibited to us, by permission of Mr. Goulburn Parker, 
some antiquities which had belonged to the late Mr. Kirkmann. 
Among these. was a circular bronze shield which was presumed 
to be the one found in the Thames between Hampton and 
Walton in September 1864, and described by Mr. Kirkmann in 
the * Gentleman's Magazine ' for September 1865. The shield did 
not accord in several particulars with the engraving in the 
4 Gentleman's Magazine,' and it now appears that it was one of 
the two bronze shields from the armory at Goodrich Court, 
having been found in 1784 in a peat moss at Moel Sinbod, near 
Capel Curig, Caernarvonshire, and presented to Sir Samuel 
Meyrick by Mrs. Newcombe, see ' Archeeologia,' xxiii. p. 95. It 
had been lent by Colonel Meyrick to the late Mr. Kirkmann, and 
has since been returned by the executors. It has now come 

* Both specimens were presented to the British Mnseum, Dec. 14th, 1872. 



364 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



[1872, 



into my possession with the other specimens. It .would be 
desirable to know what has become of the shield found in the 
Thames in 1864. 

4. I have next to call attention to the drawing of an ancient 
Canoe recently found in the bed of the Thames near Marlow. 




EECTION AT B 



SECTIOJ1 ATA 



Remains of British Canoe found in the Thames. 

Mr. Alfred Heneage Cocks having been good enough to inform 
me of the discovery, I sent my clerk, Mr. Gay, to examine the 
original, and he made me a drawing, which is reproduced in the 
above woodcut. The canoe in question had been discovered 
about eighteen months ago by some men engaged in taking ballast 
from a sand bed in the Thames about 50 yards from Marlow Eoad 
Railway Bridge. It had been hewn out of a solid oak log, having 
three transverse ribs or seats 16 to 18 inches wide, rising from 2 
to 4 inches above the rest of the floor. The sides were decayed 
away. The length of the canoe was 25 feet, the width 3 feet 3 
inches, the greatest depth 15 inches. The bottom was 6 inches 
thick, except at the seats, where it was 9 to 10 inches. The weight 
of it was considerable, taking, as it did, eleven men to lift it. 

In ' Archaeologia,' XXVI. p. 257, is a description by Mr. 
Thomas Phillips, and an engraving, of an ancient British canoe 
discovered at North Stoke, in Sussex, and now in the British 
Museum. It has several points of resemblance to the specimen 
discovered in the Thames, but measured no less than 35 feet in 
length. It had been hollowed out of the half of an oak trunk. 
Reference is made in the memoir by Mr. Phillips to King's 
' Munimenta Antiqua,' i. p. 28, for notices of canoes found 
in Britain. It may be interesting also to refer to Wilson's 
i Prehistoric Annals of Scotland ' (2nd ed. vol. i. p. 52) for notices 
of the discoveries of ancient canoes in Scotland, and to our 
* Proceedings ' (2d S. ii. p. 10) for other instances found in 
England and Wales. 

An ancient canoe was found at Burpham, Sussex, now pre- 



Dec. 5.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUAKIES. 365 

served in the Lewes Museum. See 6 Sussex Archaeological Col- 
lections/ x. p. 147. 

The Rev. F. J. Rawlins, F.S.A. has called my attention to 
another discovery of the same kind in the Thames, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Windsor, but in a very mutilated condition. 

An interesting account of the finding of a canoe in a ' veen ' 
in the province of Drenthe, Netherlands, has been published by 
Dr. Conrad Leemans, Hon. F.S.A. in the Transactions of the 
Royal Academy of Sciences of Amsterdam, 1871. This canoe 
appears to have been very similar in its construction to the 
example from Marlow, and was of about the same length. In 
this case an oar was discovered. 

H. C. COOTE, Esq. F.S.A. communicated a paper on " The 
Milites Stationarii, considered in relation to the Hundred and 
Tithing of England." Mr. Coote endeavoured to show that in 
the u Milites Stationarii," - or Roman Police, as instituted by 
Augustus, was to be found the germ of the English Hundred 
and Tithing those two territorial institutions which up the 
reign of William IV. supplied the police of this country. Mr. 
Coote stated in detail all he had collected respecting the history 
and organization of the " Milites Stationarii," a branch of the 
Roman Executive which had attracted very little, if. any, atten- 
tion, and proceeded to point out the analogy which, as he con- 
ceived, was to be found between that organization and the 
English Hundred and Tithing. One curious illustration of this 
analogy was to be found in the fact that just as the Roman 
" decanus " presided over ten men, being himself one of those 
ten, so in the old English Tithing there also prevailed this 
strange peculiarity of reckoning. 

This Communication will be printed in the * Archa3ologia.' 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these Communications. 



Thursday, December 5th, 1872. 
FREDERIC OUVRY, Esq. Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The following extract from a letter from Charles S. Perceval, 
Esq. LL-D. F S.A. to the Secretary, was laid before the 
Meeting. 

" If you see no objection, I should be glad if, at the Ordinary 
Meeting to-night, you would let the Society know how much I 
value the very cordial expression of feeling towards me which 



366 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

was elicited by the news of my resignation. I am truly glad to 
know that there is every likelihood that the Directorship will 
now revert to those hands, far abler than my own, from which 
it passed five years ago. 

" During my tenure of office I have met with nothing but 
kindness and ready assistance from everyone connected with 
the Society " 

Notice was again given that a Ballot for the Election of a 
Member of Council and Director in the room of C. S. Perceval, 
Esq. LL.D. F.S.A., resigned, would be taken on the evening of 
December 12th, and that Augustus Wollaston Franks, Esq. 
F.S.A. was recommended by the Council to fill the vacant 
office. The Ballot to open at 8*45 p.m. and to close at 9*30 p.m. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Editor, Mrs. M. A. Everett Green : Calendar of State Papers, 
Domestic Series, of the reigns of Elizabeth and James I., Addenda, 1580- 
1625 ; preserved in Her Majesty's Public Kecord Office. 8vo. London, 
1872. 

From Her Majesty's Secretary of State for the Home Department : By the 
Queen. A Proclamation publishing and declaring the Parliament further 
prorogued to Thursday, February 6th. Given at Windsor, 27th November, 
1872, in the 36th year of reign. Broadside folio. (Two copies.) 

From the Cambrian Archaeological Association : Archaeologia Cambrensis. 
Fourth Series. No. 12. (Vol. III.) October. 8vo. London, 1872. 

From the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society : Pro- 
^ceedings during the year 1871. Vol. 17. 8vo. Taunton, 1872. 

From the Royal Institute of British Architects : Sessional Papers 1872-73. 
No. 2. 4to. London, 1872. 

Frederick Illtid Nicholl, Esq. and James Eglinton Anderson 
Gwynne, Esq. were admitted Fellows. 

A paper was read by the Rev. W. C. LUKIS, M.A. F.S.A. 
" On certain erroneous Views respecting the Construction of 
French Chambered Barrows." 

The object of this paper was to correct, and if possible blot 
out, mistakes from the pages of archaeology relating to prehistoric 
monuments. It was the first of three papers on the megalithic 
structures of France, and in it Mr. Lukis confined his remarks 
to the errors which are commonly entertained on the subject of 
chambered barrows both in France and in Great Britain. He 
regretted that so little progress had been made in the study of 
them during the last fifty years, and attributed it in a great 
measure to cursory observation and want of experience, and also 
defective education in this particular branch of the subject. 



Dec. 5.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 367 

Antiquaries, he thought, were too prone to rest satisfied with 
the already published descriptions and conclusions of others, 
without personal examination, or they entered upon the study of 
the structures with preconceived ideas which they were loth to 
renounce. This was shown to be pre-eminently the case with 
the author of " Kude Stone Monuments in all Countries," whose 
praiseworthy efforts to bring together for comparison the mega- 
lithic structures scattered over the world were marred by his 
misconceptions as to their true construction. 

The errors to which Mr. Lukis called attention are the 
following : 

I. That some of the tombs were always " free-standing," i.e. 
formed of upright stones supporting flat roofs, as we now see 
them, standing on the natural surface, wholly exposed, never 
having had any artificial envelopment of earth. 

II. That from the first there were such monuments as those 
to which the names of "demi-dolmens," or "earth-fast dolmens," 
have been given, i.e. that some tombs had their roofing-slabs 
always, as now, supported at one end on one or more uprights, 
and at the other end resting on the ground. 

III. That some stone chambers or cists were erected on the 
top of their artificial mounds, and were always, partly or wholly, 
exposed to view. 

Mr. Lukis objected to the word " dolmen," on the ground 
that it is applicable to few of the monuments. It signifies a 
stone table, and the majority of these tombs bear no resemblance 
whatever to such a thing. He employed it, however, under 
protest, because it is in common use on the continent. 

I. With regard to the first error, his large acquaintance with 
the French examples has led him to the conclusion that the 
custom of dolmen-builders was to inclose them in mounds of 
earth or stone, or both. The generally received opinion, result- 
ing from numerous explorations, is, that these structures were 
erected for places of sepulture. Many exist in the same condition 
as when they were erected, the mounds containing a chamber, of 
which there is no external visible sign. There is no difference 
of opinion about these monuments ; it is only when the chamber 
is more or less exposed to view that opinions become divergent. 
When the upper surface of the capstones is seen, it is then said 
by some authors that such was the mode of construction in many 
cases. When the capstone is wholly exposed it is declared that 
such was its primary condition. When the supporting walls of 
the chamber are partially visible, the opinion is at once expressed 
that this kind of monument was always intended to be thus seen. 
And when the dolmen is exposed from the surface level it is 
positively asserted, as a matter beyond dispute, that this kind 



368 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872. 

had not been inclosed in a mound, and never was meant to be 
inclosed. 

These various opinions, Mr. Lukis contended, arose from 
persons not having closely observed and compared one monu- 
ment with another, or were maintained because they adapt 
themselves to some preconceived notions. It is of little conse- 
quence whether the upper surface of the capstone, in some cases, 
appears; the chamber is still a dark secluded tomb, and the 
interments are carefully concealed and protected. The difficulties 
begin to manifest themselves when the capstone is wholly exposed. 
The rational inference would be, that the destructive agencies of 
the natural elements have caused this partial denudation, and 
probably most persons would concede this. It is when the 
supports are visible that careless observers begin to exercise 
their powers of argumentation in defence of their views. They 
overlook the unmistakeable traces of the original enveloping 
mound, the form and dimensions of which can be approximately 
determined. 

Mr. Lukis then showed that Mr. Fergusson, who has 
strongly advocated the " free-standing " theory, and who has 
brought forward several examples in support of it, had not been 
happy in his selection of them. Out of 150 monuments belong- 
ing to the dolmen class existing in Brittany, and up the river 
Loire as far as Saumur, the lecturer could name only thirteen 
about which there is no distinct trace of a barrow: viz. : 1. 
Kerhuen-Tangui, in the parish of Orach, near Auray ; 2. Ker- 
lairec, parish of Carnac ; 3. Le Cosquer, parish of Plouharnel ; 
4. Le Roch, parish of Erdeven ; all in the department of the 
Morbihan ; 5. A dolmen, near Plouneour ; 6. One at Goulven ; 
7. One at Ste. Barbe, near Roscoif; all in the department of 
Finisterre ; 8. La Grotte aux Fees, near Esse, in the department 
of Ille et Vilaine ; 9. La Barbiere, near Crossac ; 10. La Grotte 
au Loup, near Bergon ; 11. Dolmen at S. Nazaire ; all in the 
department of the Loire Inferieure ; 12. Dolmen of Mettray, 
near Tours ; 13. Dolmen of Bagneux, near Saumur. 

In a question of this nature, it is not right to pick out an 
instance or two of total denudation, or complete exposure, and 
thence form a distinct class of monument ; nor is it right to swell 
the list by including those where traces, however slight, of mounds 
are distinctly visible. Mr. Fergusson has done this. Mr. Lukis 
wished it to be understood that the rule for which he contended 
was established by the extreme rarity of the instances, and that, 
for every case of complete exposure in France, he could pro- 
duce more than a dozen where traces of the barrow exist. He 
then proceeded to criticise Mr. Fergusson's illustrative examples. 
The reasons given by this author for supposing the Bagneux and 



Dec. 5.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 369 

the Mettray chambers to have been never covered, are that 
they may have been left unfinished, or that the capstones of the 
former could hardly have supported a heavy mass without falling 
in, and the latter are so thick that the builders would hardly 
have wished them to be hid. Against the a free-standing " 
theory, Mr. Lukis stated that he knew not a single instance of 
complete exposure on any headland, or site far removed from 
habitations, in France. A large proportion of existing barrows 
are stone cairns, upon which the elements have exercised little 
or no influence, whereas many of the exposed chambers are 
situated in localities where there is little or no stone, e.g., at 
Esse and at Saumur, and at the latter place a smaller, yet 
huge, chamber, on a neighbouring elevation, exhibits traces of 
its sandy mound and encircling stones. The feature which he 
thought helped to prove that exposed dolmens had been covered, 
is that adjunct, existing in some of the exposed examples, by 
which access to the sepulchre was obtained, i.e., the passage, 
which is constructed in precisely the same kind of way as the 
chamber itself, by upright walling-stones supporting the roof. 
According to the " free-standing " theory, its use would be 
wholly unnecessary. 

The names which have been given to some of them point in 
the same direction ; " Grottes," "Cavernes," "Creux." We can 
understand these names being applied to covered tombs 
having a galleried entrance externally open, but not to those 
which are wholly exposed, except on the supposition that they 
were once enveloped in mounds, and still retain their names 
notwithstanding the loss of their mounds. These " grottes " no 
doubt became dens of wild animals, and their names indicate 
the fact, e.g. " La Grotte au Loup/' " La Maison du Loup " ; and a 
completely denuded dolmen standing in a cultivated field near 
Bergon (Loire Inferieure) is known by the former name. It 
consists of a large stone supported by three uprights, and is in 
every sense very unlike a cavern or den. 

The great dolmen of Cotirconno, in the parish of Plouharnel, 
was then alluded to, and, by means of a large diagram of its 
ground-plan drawn to scale, it was ' shown that Mr. Fergusson 
was mistaken in supposing that it never was covered up, for 
traces of the mound are clearly visible, and several of the side 
walling stones which had formed the long gallery or passage 
leading to the chamber are still lying there. When Mr. Lukis 
first planned this monument in 1854, a larger number of them 
existed. This remarkable structure will be more fully described 
in the second paper. 

The curious and anomalous monument standing on an 
island at St. Germain-sur-Vienne, near Confolens, was now 

VOL. v. 2 B 



370 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

critically examined at some length, and explained and illustrated 
by a series of plans. Michon's account, printed in the " Statistique 
Monumentale de la Charente," was quoted, and confirmed by 
discoveries made by Mr. Lukis and Sir Henry Dry den. There 
appears to be very little doubt that this monument, as now 
seen, was inclosed within a small chapel of the eleventh or 
twelfth century, and that it comprises the works of two dates, 
many years apart, that it was erected in the first instance for 
one purpose, and was subsequently turned to a completely 
different use. This transformation took place when the chapel 
was erected. Evidence of the antecedent use of the ponderous 
rude capstone was adduced by Mr. Lukis's discovery of faint in- 
cisions on its under surface representing a stone celt mounted in 
its handle, and a second celt unmounted. This sculpture was 
compared with similar representations on Britany tombs. A 
more detailed account of the monument will also appear in the 
second paper. 

Mr. Lukis's remarks on the first error terminated with a 
description of the well-known dolmen of Dolar-Marchant, in 
the parish of Locmariaker, which Mr. Fergusson considers to 
be " the most interesting, if not the finest, free-standing dolmen 
in France." A ground-plan and section drawn to scale were 
produced to prove that the chamber possessed a long gallery or 
passage, and that the whole was buried about five feet in the 
remains of the enveloping mound, the interstices between the 
walling-stones being filled in with a dry masonry for the express 
purpose of keeping out the earth. 

II. In refuting the second error Mr. Lukis pointed out how 
it was based upon the misconceptions of antiquaries of a past 
ill-informed age. It is probable that we are indebted to the 
French for this supposed class of monument. They originated 
the name of " demi-dolmen," for which word we have no 
English equivalent, on which account M. du Noyer proposed 
to call them " earth-fast dolmens." This blind leading of the 
blind has induced and encouraged the notion of a late chronology 
for these structures, which Mr. Lukis clearly showed were none 
other than dilapidated dolmens. It is stated in " Rude Stone 
Monuments," page 345, that it is " a form of dolmen very common 
in France;" but Mr. Lukis declared positively that it exists 
nowhere, as a primitive structure, in that country. In support 
of this error Mr. Fergusson has made special mention of three 
examples by way of illustration, which, it is presumed, he con- 
sidered most striking and convincing. The first is said to be 
taken from Mane's " Antiquites du Morbihan." This example, 
however, has been so altered in Mr. Fergusson's woodcut as to 
give a new complexion and a more modern character to it. The 



Dec. 5.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 371 

stones have been reduced in number and made to appear as if 
they had been artificially squared. Besides this inexplicable 
modification* of another man's sketch, the name of " demi-dol- 
men" has been fathered upon Mahe, who, although a firm 
believer in demi-dolmens, does not apply this name to it, but 
considers the monument to be of so special a character as to 
deserve a special designation. The truth is that no such monu- 
ment as represented in Mahe's engraving exists, or has ever 
existed. This ecclesiastical antiquary was a wretched draughts- 
man, and in his canon's residence at Vannes made a drawing, 
partly from memory and partly from hearsay, of two monuments, 
exhibiting different features, which he has converted into an 
ideal building. 

The second example is the monument near Poitiers, which 
Mr. Fergusson considers a typical specimen of French demi- 
dolmens. Prosper Merimee, in his u Notes d'un voyage dans 
1'Ouest de la France," written in 1836, describes it as " a dolmen, 
the capstone of a nearly round form, resting partly on the 
ground, some of the pillars having been destroyed, and partly on 
stones of about four feet in height, irregularly spaced." There 
seems to be no satisfactory reason for making it into a distinct 
class of monument. 

The third example is that known at Carnac by the name of 
Crux-Mo tten, from the presence of a stone cross fixed upon it. 
Mr. Fergusson's opinion is that " it is and ahvays was a Christian 
monument." The woodcut in " Rude Stone Monuments" is very 
faulty in several essential particulars. The cross is drawn per- 
pendicular, whereas it leans to the extent of eighteen inches in a 
direction eastwards ; and a side walling-slab which formed part 
of the chamber has been placed by the artist midway between 
the monument and Carnac church, whereas it is only four feet 
from the sole remaining support and at a right angle to it. 
When Mr. Lakis first saw and planned the monument a part of 
the passage or gallery was visible, and the stone-breakers had 
laid their rude hands upon the capstone. This is a very clear 
instance of the mistakes which result from careless observation. 

If the cross were perpendicular, as represented in the wood- 
cut, it would show that, at the time of the erection of the cross, 
the eastern end of the capstone rested on the ground ; but the 
actual position of the cross shows that the capstone has been 
lowered at this end by the removal of supports, and that in 

* Mr. Fergusson has informed me that although, through an oversight, he has 
attributed the original of his woodcut to Mahe, it is really taken from the sup- 
posed reproduction of Mahe in Gailhabaud's Architecture. I beg therefore to 
withdraw any imputation on Mr. Fergusson's good faith in this matter, the mo- 
dification in question being the work of another writer. 

2B2 



372 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

falling it has carried the cross with it. The idea of such monu- 
ments being Christian is in no way supported by this example. 

As Mahe has been quoted as an authority for the supposed 
class of demi-dolmens, Mr. Lukis exhibited an enlarged copy of 
one example engraved in the Canon's book, plate iv. fig. 3, and 
compared it with a scale-plan and section, drawn by himself. 
Mahe's drawing is quite unintelligible and bears no resemblance 
whatever to the reality. Mr. Lukis' s plan proved to demon- 
stration that the Canon was mistaken and that the monument is 
a dilapidated dolmen. Another fanciful conception of the same 
author with regard to a remarkable structure on the same hill 
(Mane-er-Klo'ch) was also pointed out These monuments -will 
be fully described hereafter. 

III. The third error relates to tombs in the South of France, 
which Mr. Fergusson describes to be dolmens erected upon the 
top of artificial mounds, and of which he informs us there are 
numerous examples in Europe, and " more especially in France." 
It is probable that this author has been misled by the inaccurate 
language employed by continental writers. It is quite clear 
that, when they write " un dolmen sur le sommet d'un tumulus," 
they simply mean that this is what appears to the eye. This 
error has led Mr. Fergusson into cenotaphic disquisitions which 
happen to have no bearing whatever upon the monuments in 
question. The woodcut of the Bousquet (Aveyron) chambered 
mound is not an accurate representation of it, and conveys the 
impression of a considerable monument both as regards the 
mound and the chamber. It is, on the contrary, of small 
dimensions, about 40 feet in diameter and 4 feet in elevation. 
Mr. Lukis and Sir H. Dry den have planned a few tombs of like 
construction, which are situated on the calcareous plains of 
Salles-la- Source, near Rodez, and have been assured by the Abbes 
Marcorelles and Ceres that no material difference exists between 
them and the group at Sauclieres, to which the Bousquet mound 
belongs. In 1862 Abbe Marcorelles partially explored the 
Bousquet dolmen, and found bones of adults and of a child of 
8 or 10 years of age. A few years later the exploration was 
continued by MM. de Cartailhac and Ancessy. This discovery 
quite sets at rest the question of a real or a simulated tomb. It 
is the deliberate opinion of the two Abbes that there is no such 
monument, in the groups of tombs on the plains of Sauclieres 
and of Salles-la- Source, as a dolmen erected on the top of an 
artificial mound, and Mr. Lukis's scale-diagrams of those on the 
latter plain confirmed this view. The stone chambers were 
shown to stand on the natural surface level. 

Mr. Lukis concluded his paper with these words : " I have 
established my propositions, not from second-hand information, 



Dec. 12.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 373 

but from personal investigation ; and, not only so, I have arrived 
at the truth after a very long study of the monuments planning, 
drawing, and comparing one with another. I have taken you 
to the monuments themselves, and pointed out the changes in 
their form which they have undergone by the violence of rude 
hands or other destructive agencies ; and if, after such evidence, 
men refuse to believe, or the smile of incredulity continue to be 
indulged, the only conclusion I can come to is that the wheel of 
archaeological science has met with an accident and is therefore 
unable to advance, or that, owing to some strange complications, 
it has ceased to revolve, not because any formidable obstacle 
lies in its path, for the road is clear and even, but because 
knowledge and skill are wanting to keep it in motion. 

" What is required is not any dabbling in archeology, not 
any dogmatic expositions of hypotheses, not fanciful theories, 
but carefully noted facts, plainly and honestly stated, a whole- 
souled aim of contributing to the promotion and illustration of 
scientific truth. Imagination must not be allowed to run riot 
in such a matter as this. 

" I have met with the remark somewhere, * an evil tradi- 
tion dies hard ;' and the ideas of ' free-standing ' dolmens, of 
' earth-fast ' dolmens, and of 6 external dolmens on the top 
of tumuli,' ideas having their origin in very re'cent times, 
have been tenaciously clung to even until now, . because men 
have not observed for themselves, but have been content to 
follow the lead of superficial observers." 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for this communication. 



Thursday, December 12th, 1872. 
COLONEL A. H. LANE FOX, V.P., in the Chair. 

The Secretary read that portion of the Statutes (chap. vi. xi.) 
which relates to the election of any Member of Council or Officer 
of the Society upon such vacancies as shall happen in the in- 
tervals of the Anniversary Elections. 

R. H. Major, Esq. and H. S. Milman, Esq. were nominated 
by the Chairman, and appointed Scrutators of the Ballot, which 
was declared to be opened at 8*45 P.M. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 



374 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

A vote of Special Thanks was awarded to Mr. Ellacombe for 
his work on " Bells of the Church." 

From A. W. Franks, Esq. M.A. F.S.A. Publications of the Friesland Society 
for History, Archaeology, and Philology; as follows: 

1. Jancko Douwama's Geschriften. 4to. Leeuwarden, 1849. 

2. Thet Freske Riim, met aanteekeningen van E. Epkema. 4to. Worku'm, 
1835. 

3. Gesta Fresonum uit de Apographa Juniana. 4to. Workum, 1837. 

4. Oude Friesche Kronijken. 4to. Leeuwarden, 1853. 

5. Jr. Fredrich Van Vervov, enige Gedenckoveerdige Geschiedenissen. 
8vo. Leeuwarden, 1841. 

6. Oude Friesche Wetten. Deelen, 1, 2. 8vo. Leeuwarden, 1846-51. 

7. Worperi Tyaerda ex Renismageest, Prioris in Thabor, chronicorum 
Frisiae libri tres. Worp Tyaerda Van Rinsumageest. Fierde Boek. 8vo. 
Leeuwarden, 1847-50. 

8. Proeliarius of Strijdboek, bevattende de jongste oorlogen in Friesland, 
in het jaar 1518. 8vo. Leeuwarden, 1855. 

9. Memoires relatifs a la Guerre de Succession de 1706-1709 et 1711, de 
Sicco Van Goslinga, publics par MM. U. A. Evertsz et G. H. M. Delprat. 
8vo. Leeuwarden, 1857. 

10. Het Leven van Menno Baron Van Coehoorn, uitgegeven door Jhr. J. W. 
Van Sypesteyn. 8vo. Leeuwarden. 1860. 

11. Catalogus der Bibliotheek van het Friesch Genootschap van Geschied, 
Oudheid-en-Taalkunde. 8vo. Leeuwarden, 1862. 

12. De Lex Frisionum, uitgegeven en toegelicht door Dr. Karl Freiherr von 
Richthofen. 8vo. Leeuwarden, 1866. 

From the Author : Open Brief aan het Collegie van Gedeputeerde Staten van 
Drenthe, over de zorg voor en het onderhoud der Hunnebeddeh. Door 
Mr. L. Oldenhuis Gratama. 8vo. Assen, 1868. 

From the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne : Lapidarium Sep- 
tentrionale : or, a Description of the Monuments of Roman Rule in the 
North of England. Edited by J. Collingwood Bruce, LL.D. F.S.A. Folio. 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1872. 

From the Author : Bells of the Church : a Supplement to the " Church Bells of 
Devon," by the Rev. H. T. Ellacombe, M.A. F.S.A. 4to. Exeter, 1872. 

From the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester : Proceedings. 
Vol. XII. No. 3. 8vo. 1872. 

From the Architectural and Archaeological Society for the county of Bucking- 
ham : Records of Buckinghamshire. Vol. IV. No. 3. 8vo. Aylesbury, 
1872. 

From Capt. A. C. Tupper, F.S.A.: An accurate Description and History of the 
Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of St. Peter, York. 2 yols." 12mo. 
York, 1768-70. 

The following gentlemen were admitted Fellows : 
George Bonnor, Esq. 
William Long, Esq. M.A. 

EDWIN FRESHFIELD, Esq. F.S.A. exhibited 
1. A fragment of a Stone Celt found at a place called the 
Cross Ways at Chipstead in Surrey. These ways consist of two 



Dec. 12.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 375 

roads, one following the line of the old pack road over the hills 
from Reigate to Croydon, the other from Gatton to Walton 
Heath, and across the heath to Mickleham. The two roads 
intersect at right angles at a house called the Mint House, 
belonging to Mr. E. Freshfield, and form the southern and 
eastern boundaries of one of his fields. It was in the latter of 
these two ways in August last, after a very severe thunder- 
storm, which had washed it bare to the chalk, that he found 
this implement just where the road begins to mount the hill. 
It was a micaceous grit unlike either the Reigate stone or the 
Nutfield stone of the adjacent district. The mark round the 
blunt end had been thought to be due to the thong for fastening 
it to the handle. Mr. John Evans, however, was of opinion 
that this mark was of comparatively modern date. 

2. A rubbing of the brass of Robert Halam, Bishop of Salis- 
bury, who died at the Council, and was buried in the city of 
Constance, A.D. 1416. On this exhibition Mr. E. Freshfield 
remarked as follows, in a letter to the Secretary: 

" The engraving in the * Archseologia,' vol. xxx. p. 430, of the 
Constance Brass is so good that there is not much to be gained 
by a comparison with the present impression. The word ' mense ' 
is omitted, but otherwise the impression is very accurate ; but 
there are one or two things in the written description on which I 
think a remark may be made. I suppose that it is not necessary at 
this time of day to confirm what the writer surmised, viz., that 
the brass is entirely English and that the inscription is as much 
a part of the original brass as any other portion of it. I ex- 
amined the stone in which the brass is fixed, and I am quite 
certain that it is English stone,- and I think Purbeck, and so no 
doubt the stone with the brass fixed in it was exported to Con- 
stance. The only word about which I have a doubt is the word 
' Constantia,' The piece of brass upon which this word is 
written has .been at some time cut out and replaced, and I 
believe that the piece of brass was turned upside down, the 
name re-engraved in the town of Constance, and the piece of 
brass fastened down again. It is possible that it may have been 
inaccurately written. I feel pretty sure that if one could obtain 
permission to take up that piece of the brass you would find the 
word written (and probably inaccurately) on the other side. The 
character of the writing of the word * Constantia ' also is quite 
different from the rest of the inscription. The inscription is 
interesting as it solves any question as to the actual Ecclesiastical 
rank of Bishop Halam ; if there had been any truth in the 
statement that he had been made a Cardinal by Pope John 
XXIII. as has been suggested, his title would have been so stated 
upon his brass. 



376 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

"The only other matter I would remark upon is' the obli- 
terated Shield. The brass of this remains perfect, and a portion 
of the pewter or lead to which the enamel was fastened still 
remains; no doubt the arms were those of the bishop. I must 
apologise for the rubbing exhibited, but, although permission was 
granted with apparent willingness, I was continually pressed by 
the officials to be quick when it was clear that I would not pur- 
chase a very indifferent rubbing made by them." 

The doubts expressed by Mr. Freshfield as to the cardinalate 
of Bishop Halam must yield to the evidence furnished by the 
Bishop's register at Salisbury. It appears from " The Regis- 
trum Halam," ad finem fol. 13, and from a letter addressed to 
the bishop, and quoted in the register, that Halam was made a 
cardinal on the 5th June, 1411. The following is an extract 
from the letter in question, which appears to have been addressed 
by the College of Cardinals to Halam. The writer is speaking, 
of the Pope 

Ad veram igitur pateriritatem nientem suae beatitudinis flectens, nobis non 
solum adsentientibus sed etiam cohortantibus, hodie, videlicet die quinto mensis 
Jnnii vos in sancte Romane ecclesie Cardinales elegit. 

The letter is dated as follows : 

" Datum Rome quinto mensis Jnnii iiij e Indictionis," i.e. 1411. 

EDWARD PEACOCK, Esq., F.S.A., laid before the Society the 
following communications on The Will of Henry Whitgift, and 
on a letter of Thomas Windebank, respectively : 

" Through the courtesy of the Right Reverend the Lord 
Bishop of Lincoln, I am enabled to exhibit before the Society 
of Antiquaries a copy of the will of Henry Whitgift, father of 
John Whitgift, sometime Archbishop of Canterbury. The 
original from which my transcript is made, is itself a copy, 
but one evidently made very soon after the probate of the will. 
It was discovered by me among some other papers of the middle 
of the sixteenth century, which have been handed down in the 
custody of successive bishops of Lincoln. 

" Of Archbishop Whitgift's family nothing seems known ex- 
cept the facts that were collected by Strype, and which are to 
be found in the first chapter of his Life and Acts of John 
Whitgift, D.D. 

" The archbishop's father was a Yorkshireman. His name 
was John, and he had two sons, Henry, the father of the arch- 
bishop, and Robert, who became a monk, and was the last abbot 
of the black canons of Wellow, near Grimsby. The date of his 
death is unknown, but he was evidently alive when his brother 
Henry made his will. 

" Saint James's church, where Henry Whitgift desired to 



Doc. 12.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 377 

be buried ' be sydes mye mother at the fount,' is the present 
parish church of the borough, a large and interesting structure, 
once rich with monumental sculpture and heraldic glass, but 
now sadly shorn of its ancient glories. 

In the name of gode so be it the ix th daye of y c monethe of June in the yer of 
our lorde god M 1 ccccc th and fyftye I herr' Whetgif te of Grymesbye Alderman 
beyng of hoole mynde and goode remembrance ordenyth & makes my Testa- 
ment & laste Will in manner & forme folouing. firste I commende mye 
Soule to gode Allmyghti yt is to wit vn to y e mercye of y e father the merites of 
his [*] greate passion and vn to y c comfort of y c holye goste wich ar three 
persons but on gode, and mye bodye to be buriede within my parich church of 
saynt James be sydes mye mother at y e fount. Item I be quyeth vn to y e pore- 
mans chiste of saynt James iij s iiij d . Item I be quyeth vn to y c altar with in 
the same church for Tythis for gotten xij d . Item I be quyth vn to Anne my 
wyffe xx tj [f] in moneye. Item I be quyth vn to Alyss mye doughter vj 11 
xiij s iiij d in moneye & husholde & to be deliuerede vn to her at y c day of 
her mariage bye Anne my wyffe & sche to haue acquetanee y r for. Item I be 
quyeth vn to Mergerye Ive iij 11 vj 8 viij d & to be dcliueryd vn to her at y e tyme 
of her mariage or Avhan sche 'is at lawfull age. Alsoo I will that after my wyffe 
haue deliueryd & taken forth, of y c hoole goodes y c for seid some of moneye 
y 1 yan y e reste of all mye goodes both corne & catalles be evenlye devydyt 
emonges all mye sons y* is to wit John Whetgift, Philipe, William, George, 
Richard, & Geffraye Whitgifte all mye seid sons and euerye one of them to 
be heir vn to oyer in y e schifte of y c seid porcons ; yt is to knawe, yf on of yame 
forton to depart or dye his seid part to be evenlye dyvydit emong all y e rest of 
mye seid sons y* doth survyffe & so all waye frome on to a noyer. Also I will 
yt yf ye f or se i(j Alys mye doughter forton to depart or sche be mariede yan I 
will also y* her seide part of vj !i xiij s iiij d be evenlye devydyt, emonges mye for 
seid sons. Also I will y* so long as mye wyffe kepith her vn mariede sche to 
haue all mye for seide goodes & catalles & all mye takes and leesses and y 
house y* I purchessyde during y tyme y* sche kepith her soole. And yf sche 
goo to marage yan I wyll y l mye Tenement y* Xpofer Atclyffe dwellyth in and 
also mye marche to be solde bye my executores & mye wyffe to haue y halffe 
part of both y seid house & marche and y e oyer halffe to be evenlye dyvydit 
emonges rnye seid sons. Also I will y 1 y e take of mye tythe & also y e take of 
mye closses in Wellowgate & y e tenement callyd Walkar house to be solde 
also bye mye executores and ye moneye yerof taken to be also evenlye divydit 
emonges mye for seid sons. Also I wyll y 1 so sone y 1 mye Wyffe goyth vnto 
mariage y* yan all y e seide goodes and partes of mye childeren be deliueryde 
vn to y e handes of mye broder Robert Whitgifte & S. William Ive cTarkes, 
& my wyffe & Robert porter to take eyer of yame on of mye seide sons and 
yeir partes with yame & to set sewertes vn to mye seid broder S. Robert 
Whitgift for yeir porcions & partes agayii vn to yame whan yai schall cum 
vn to laufull age. Item I be quayth vn to William Colynwode mye Reede 
chamlet dublett. Item I be quyeth vn to William frances a gren selke dublyt. 
Item I be quyeth to John Brabyn ar' a tanye wirstede wirsted (sic') dublet. 
Item I lie quyeth vn to John Whitgifte o'u'r & be sydes his for seide portion 
mye beste gown & mye beste dublyt of tafyte. The resydewe of all mye 
goodes not wil I gyff and be quayth vn to Robert Whitgift my broder & to 
Anne mye wyffe whome I make executores of this mye Testament & laste 
wyll & mye seid Broder to haue mye horse for his labor, and yai to paye my 
dettes and legaces & to order this mye mye (sic) Testament & last wyll as 
yai schall think most profytable of all mye for seid childeren. Thoos Wituesse 
Robert lawrence clarke, Robert porter, John Brabyn, William ffrances with 



* The word son's seems wanting here. 

f A blank has been left here by the transcriber pounds is probably the 
missing word. 



378 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1872, 

" I found the following letter some years ago while searching 
among the uncalendared State Papers in the Public Record 
Office. As it was written by a person concerning whom there 
is much uncertainty it may be of interest to some of the Fellows 
of our Society. 

" Sir Francis Windebank, Knight, eldest son of Sir Thomas 
Windebank, Knight, of Haines Hall, in the parish of Hurst, 
Berkshire, was 2 through the influence of Archbishop Laud, 
made Secretary of State, in the place of Sir Dudley Carleton, 
Viscount Dorchester, deceased. He took the oaths of office 
15 June 1632.* Dreading impeachment by the Long Parlia- 
ment he fled abroad and died in Paris in September 1B46. I 
have not been able to find any pedigree of the family, and 
therefore do not know whom he married. 

" Wood says his eldest son was Sir Thomas, but does not state 
whether he was a Knight or a Baronet. In Courthope's. 
Synopsis of the Extinct Baronetage, f it is stated that on the 
25th November, 1645, Thomas Windebank, of Haines, co. 
Wilts, was created a Baronet. The author points out the con- 
fusion by stating that ' Haines Hill is in the parish of Hurst, 
co. Berks, and was the seat of Sir Francis Windebank, Secre- 
tary of State to King Charles I.' It seems that no further 
trace of him or his descendants has been come upon until the 
year 1719, i when a Sir Francis Windebank, Baronet, died, 
leaving everything to his widow Elizabeth.' 

" This Thomas or Sir Thomas Windebank is almost certainly 
the c Thomas Windebank, esq.' who represented Wootton Basset 
in the Parliament of 13th of April, 1640,J and who on the 25th 
May, four years after, wrote from Exeter the following letter to 
Mr. Robert Reade at Oxford. A document which, as it still 
exists among the State Papers, probably never reached its 
destination, but fell on its journey into the hands of some servant 
of the Parliament. 

" That Thomas Windebank was reputed to be a Knight or 
Baronet we have other positive evidence beside that of Anthony 
Wood. In or about December, 1660, Sidney Bere stated that 
he held a patent for the reversion of the clerkship of the signet, 
and requests ' that if Sir Thomas Windebank and Robert Read, 
the present reversioners, now Romanish and beyond seas, do 
not return and take the oathes of supremacy and allegiance . . . 
he may be admitted to the office. ' 

" The brother Francis, who was reported to have quitted the 
regiment, is the unhappy governor of Blechingdon House, 

* Wood. Fasti Oxon. 43-44 Eliz. f P- 216. 

t Rushworth, vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 1,112. 
Cal. Stat. Pap. 1660-1661, p. 445. 



Dec. 12.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 379 

Oxfordshire, who surrendered his charge to Oliver Cromwell on 
the first summons, 24 April 1645.* It does not seem that he 
was a coward or a traitor, but was 6 over-ruled by his fair 
young bride and some ladies that were come thither to visit. 't 
On his return to Oxford he was tried by court martial, and 
according to Sir William Dugdale who was in Oxford at the 
time ' shott to death .... within the garden at Oxford 
Castle on the 3rd of May following.' Wood on the other hand 
says it was * in Broken hayes near Oxon.' Heath tells us the 
execution took place 'against Merton College wall.' It is 
said the King when he understood the business felt deep regret 
for this act of stern justice. J My friend Colonel Chester 
informs me that the burial register of Saint Mary Magdalen, 
Oxford, bears testimony that Colonel Windebank was buried on 
the third of May, the day of his death. 

" Sir Francis Windebank had two other sons, John Windebank, 
M.A. Oxon., created Doctor of Physic by virtue of the Chan- 
cellor's Letters, 5 April, 1654, who afterwards practised at 
G-uildford in Surrey, and Christopher Windebank of Magdalen 
College, Oxford, who went into Spain, and is said to have been 
reduced to poverty by marriage. || 

Stat. Pap. Dom. 25 May 1644. 
SIE 

Yours of the 22 in*, came hether in good diligence ; and by that to my father 
I perceaue yon had not then departed from generalls, but belieue that ere this 
you may have had occasion to discend to particulars, though I doubt your cor- 
diall endeauors therein will not proue so succesfull as could be wished. 

Mr. Collimore hath scene the letter of exchange and accepted of it. 

I learne Mr. Farnshawe is sworne secre. to the Prince of Wales, if that be 
you knowe who hath not bin f airely dealt with ; if otherwise, I should be glad to 
knowe it, that some order might be taken in it. I am also told that my bro. 
fran hath quitt the Regiment, but I hope he hath rather done it for better 
employment, than out of ciuility to expose himself e to starring with his best 
friends. I pray you remember my true affections to him and the captaine with 
theire deere consorts, and let my good sister in the strawe know that I pray for 
her, and wish her much contentment with her Babe. I forgett not my sendee 
to Doctor Reade, Mr. Holloway, and the rest of that family. Richard Phillips 
writt to me that he had returned 200 to you to Oxford from Bristoll, hopeing that 
you might finde better meanes to returne it from thence hether, than he could 
do from Bristoll. 

I am eternally, Sir, your very affectionate cousin to serve you, 

THO. WINDEBANK. 

Exiter 25 May 1644. 

I pray you bringe me halfe a dozen paire of white kids leather gloues', and as 
many colored of kid, and I will pay you for them. The black silk stockings 
must not be forgotten. 

To my very worthy cousin Mr. Robert 
Reade at Oxford. 

* Hamper's Dug dale's Diary. 

f Heath, Ckron. ed. 1676, p. 74. % Ibid. 75. 

Wood, Fasti Oxon. 5 Apr. 1654. 

|| Clarendon, vol. 1, ed. 1843, p. 733. 



380 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



[1872, 



" The arms on the seal consist of a chevron between three 
birds volant. This shield is supported on the breast of a hawk 
or falcon." 

Mr. PEACOCK also exhibited a mediaeval Arrowhead or bolt 
which was found in Bottesford (Lincolnshire) churchyard about 
two feet below the surface of a footpath on the north .side of 
the church. 

Mr. BYLES of Boxmoor Station exhibited, through John 
Evans, Esq. F.R.S. F.S.A. a Saxon Fibula recently found at 
Orwell, Cambridgeshire. It is of bronze or brass richly gilt, 
and of the broad-ended bowed form not uncommonly found in 
the midland and eastern counties. The bowed part has a central 
and two side ribs, and the flat parts are highly ornamented over 
the whole surface. The triangular end has a semicircular pro- 
jection on each side, and a circle at the apex in which is engraved 
a radiated full face. The semicircles are engraved with a 
radiated border, but the principal design consists of scroll work 
and conical projections on either side of a flat central rib. The 
rectangular end of the brooch is ornamented in a somewhat 
similar manner, but the borders are decorated with a series of 
projecting human faces, two on each side and four along the 
end. At each of the extreme corners is a flat pear-shaped 
projection. 

The length of the fibula is 4J inches, and its greatest width 
2 J inches. The pin, which was probably of iron, appears to have 
been very short, as the distance from the hinge to the hasp is 
less than an inch. There are two semicircular projections cast 
upon the rectangular part of the brooch to form the sides of the 
hinge, and these have holes drilled through them through which 
the rivet passed to form the pivet of the pin. The hasp has been 
cast in a separate piece, and appears to have been soldered on to 
the triangular part of the brooch. The catch for the pin is 
| inch long, but is carried on a plate 2 inches long,. expanding 
at the end into three points, somewhat like a heraldic ermine's 
tail. 

The character of the fibula is somewhat different from that of 
any of those from the same county engraved in Neville's ' Saxon 
Obsequies.' It is, however, of much the same design as one from 
Fairford ;* and even more closely resembles one from Linton 
Heath, Cambs. engraved by Akerman.t 

The Rev. F. J. RAWLINS, F.S.A. exhibited, by the kind per 

* Fairford Graves, pi. iii. 2. Akerman's Pagan Saxondom, pi. vii. 
f Pagan Saxondom, pi. xxxvii. 



Dec. 12.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 381 

mission of Lieut.-Col. C. J. Cox, of 29, Waterloo Crescent, 
Dover, some human bones and flint chips found in a tumulus 
near Walmer, Kent. 

This tumulus (Lieut.-Col. Cox reports) is situated on the 
elevated downs between Dover and Walmer, near St. Margaret's 
Bay, and about half a mile distant from the tumuli recently 
opened by C. H. Woodruff, Esq. It measured about 24 feet in 
diameter, and 2 feet in height at the centre. There is no per- 
ceptible depression at the circumference to indicate that a trench 
had been dug for the earth to construct the tumulus. 

Upon removing 3 inches of the turf a layer of flint stones was 
laid open. This was found to rest upon the solid chalk, and to 
be 5 inches in thickness at the circumference and 18 inches at 
the centre. Near the centre a circular cavity in the solid chalk 
was discovered, upon the surface of which some pieces of char- 
coal and burnt flint were met with. This cavity measured 
2J feet in diameter and- 3J feet in depth, and contained the 
fragments of human bones and flint chips exhibited. At the 
depth of 20 inches were found a portion of & femur and tibia; 
and, a little deeper, portions of an arm the ulna being fairly 
perfect. At the bottom, and resting upon the chalk, was found 
a skull lying on the frontal bone, with the face inclining west- 
ward. The thinness of this skull would indicate its' having been 
that of a young person. 

From the position in which these remains were discovered it 
would appear that this body had been buried head downwards 
with the limbs compressed on the abdomen. No trace of pottery 
or metal work was detected. A heart-shaped pebble of unusual 
weight, and a few small marine shells, were the only objects 
associated with the bones and flint chips exhibited. 

Mr. Rawlins also exhibited, by permission of Mr. Payne of 
iSittingbourne, a .Roman Glass Bottle which had been found in 
a field known as Bex Hill, to the east of the town of Milton 
next Sittingbourne. Mr. Payne states that this spot has yielded 
many relics of great interest, the most important being four 
leaden coffins and four glass vessels. The coffin found with the 
bottle exhibited was exhumed on Nov. 21, 1871, and was entire 
until the work of excavation commenced, when all but the lid or 
cover fell in pieces. In shape this bottle closely resembled one 
which was discovered at Windsor in excavations superintended 
by Mr. Rawdins, and which was presented by Her Majesty to 
the British Museum. It is described in ' Proceedings,' 2d. S. 
iii. p. 243. The Sittingbourne bottle, however, had been ex- 
humed in a much more perfect state, and had in addition on the 
front of its cone-shaped base a medallion in relief of a head of 
Medusa. Such heads are ordinarily found, in Roman glass, at 



382 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1873, 

the base of the handle. The bottle was 8 inches high,' the neck 
being 4J and the base 3|. The diameter of the bottom of the 
bottle was also 3f inches. 

C. H. WOODRUFF, Esq. communicated an account of a remark- 
able discovery of Celtic Kemains in East Kent, and exhibited the 
urns and other objects discovered. Such remains are extremely 
rare in that part of the county. Mr. Woodruffs Paper will be 
printed in the ' Archaeologia.' 

The Ballot closed at 9'30 p.m. when the Scrutators reported 
that Augustus Wollastoii Franks, Esq. M.A. F.S.A. was unani^ 
mously elected Member of Council and Director, in the room 
of C. S, Perceval, Esq. LL.D. resigned. 

Thanks were voted to the Scrutators for their trouble, and to 
the authors of the various communications. 



Thursday, January 9th, 1873. 

J. WINTER JONES, ESQ., V.P., in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Numismatic Society : The Numismatic Chronicle. Vol. 12, New 

Series, No. XL VII. 8vo. London, 1872. 
From the Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland : The 

Archaeological Journal. Vol. XXIX., No. 114. 8vo. London, 1872. 

From J. R. Appleton, Esq. F.S.A. : 

1. The Visitor's Guide to Ripon, Studley, and Fountains Abbey. 8vo. 
Ripon, 1861. 

2. Cuzner's Hand-Book to Froome-Selwood. With Illustrations. 8vo. 
Froome-Selwood. 

From the Sussex Archaeological Society : Sussex Archaeological Collections. 

Vols. 23 and 24. 8vo. Lewes, 1871-72. 
From the Literary and Philosophical Society, Manchester : Proceedings. 

Vol. 12, No. 4. 8vo. 

From the Royal Society : Proceedings. Vol. XXI., No. 139. 8vo. London. 1872. 
From the Council of the Art Union of London : Report for the year 1872, with 

List of Members. 8vo/ London, 1872. 

From the Author : Some Account of the Ancient Monuments in the Priory 
Church, Abergavenny. By Octavius Morgan, Esq. M.P. F.R.S. F.S.A. 
(Printed for the Monmouthshire and Caerleon Antiquarian Association.) 
8vo. Newport, 1872. 



Jan. 9.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 383 

From the Editor : The Athenaeum. Two vols. 4to. London, 1872. 

From the Editor, George Godwin, Esq. F.R.S. : The Builder. Vol. 30. Folio. 
London, 1872. 

From the Proprietor, James S. Virtue, Esq. : The Art Journal. Eleventh Vol. 

(New Series). 4to. London, 1872. 
From the Editor : Notes and Queries. Vols. 9 and 10. (Fourth Series). 4to. 

London, 1872. 

From the Society of Arts : Their Journal. 8vo. London, 1872. 

From the Photographic Society : The Photographic Journal. 8vo. London, 

1872. 

From the Editor : Nature. 4to. London, 1872. 

From the Royal Institute of British Architects : Sessional Papers, 1872-73. 
No. 3. 4to. London, 1872. 

From the Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland : The 
Journal. Vol. 2, Fourth Series. July, No. 11. 8vo. Dublin, 1872. 

From the Kent Archseological Society : Archseologia Cantiana. Vol. VIII. 
8vo. London, 1872. 

From the Author, Major Heales, F.S.A. : 

1. Cranley Church ; its Monuments and Register-Books. 8vo. London, 1872. 

2. Limpsfield Church. 8vo. London, 1872. [Both reprints from the sixth 
volume of the "Surrey Archaeological Society's Collections."] 

From the Editor : The Church Builder. No. 45. January. 8vo. London, 1873. 

From the Royal Geographical Society : Proceedings. Vol. xvi. Nos. 3 and 4. 
8vo. London, 1872. 

From the Secretary of State for India : Archaeological Survey of India. Four 
Reports made during the years 1862-65, by Alexander Cunningham, C.S.I., 
Major-General R.E. Vols. 1 and 2. 8vo. Simla, 1871. 

John William Bone, Esq., was admitted a Fellow. 

Notice was given of the Ballot for the election of Fellows on 
Thursday, January 16th, and a list was read of the Candi- 
dates to be balloted for. 

Notice was also given that the President had appointed the 
following Fellows to be Auditors of the Society's accounts for 
the year 1873: 

The Lord Henniker, 
John Winter Jones, Esq., V.P. 
Octavius Morgan, Esq., M,P. 
Granville W. Leveson Gower, Esq. 

The Right Rev. Christopher Wordsworth, D.D., Lord Bishop 
of Lincoln, was proposed as a Fellow, and his election being at 
once proceeded with in conformity with the Statutes, ch. v. s. 1 
he was unanimously elected a Fellow of the Society. 

WILLIAM ADLAM, Esq., F.S.A., exhibited and presented : 
1 . A matrix of the Seal of the House of Carmelite Friars at 
Oxford. This seal has been engraved and described in the 



384 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1873, 

' Archaeologia ' vol. xvm. p. 438. The impression then- exhibited 
(1815) is still in the Society's collection and differs in some 
particulars from the matrix presented by Mr. Adlam. 

2. A Bottle of white glass, procured by Mr. Adlam at Con- 
stance, with three necks or channels curved and interwined, 
leading to one common orifice. 

A. W. FRANKS, Esq., Director, exhibited and presented 14 
casts of ivories, which may be described as follows : 

1 4. Back and front and two ends of an ivory casket of the 
11 th century, representing, in twelve compartments, the twelve 
Apostles. Each compartment surmounted by a lunette contain- 
ing a sign of the zodiac. From the cathedral at Bamberg ; 
three in the National Museum at Munich, and one at Berlin. 
Length of casket 9 inches, height 4| inches, width 4 inches. 

5. Plaque. Our Lord in the centre between two candles, 
on either side of the candles two of the Evangelistic symbols, and 
on the side of these again the twelve Apostles, six on each side. 
Height 4J inches, width 12 inches. National Museum, Munich 

6. Plaque. Figure of a Saint nimbed and vested, holding a 
cross ; the Evangelistic symbols at the four corners. Height 
5 inches, width 2 inches. Formerly at Kinsheim monastery, 
near Augsburg, now at Munich. 

7. Plaque. Adoration of the Magi, 14th century. Height 4 
inches, width 3 inches. National Museum, Munich. 

8. Plaque. At the top, the Crucifixion ; at the bottom, the 
Maries at the Tomb. Carlovingian work. Height 8 inches, 
width 4 inches. National Museum, Munich. 

9. Plaque. The Nativity, 12th century. Height 3} inches, 
width 5J inches. Munich. 

10.-11. Two leaves of a Diptych. Circa 1500. Height '5 J 
inches, width 2 inches. Munich. 

12. Mirror case. Judgment of Paris. Circa 1500. Diameter 
3 inches. Munich. 

13. Ditto. Two figures playing at Chess. Circa 1300. 
Diameter 4 inches. Munich. 

14. Plaque. Emblem of St. Luke holding a book. Square, 
If inch. 

Mr. HENRY ErtoY, of Ashburton, Devon, exhibited through 
J. Winter Jones, Esq. Y.P. two Vases one of them a fragment 
which had been .round along with others in the chancel wall 
of St. Andrew's church, Ashburton, some years ago. The cir- 
cumstances of the discovery are communicated in the following 
letter to Mr. Winter Jones from Charles Worthy, Esq. : 



Jan. 9.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 385 

"Dear Sir, The Vicarage, 

" Ashburton, Devon, 6th Dec. 1872, 

" The inclosed sketch represents an earthen vessel found in 
the chancel wall of St. Andrew's Church, Ashburton, (of which 
my father is the present Incumbent,) whilst the chancel was un- 
dergoing restoration. Leland says that Ashburton church was 
founded by ' Ethel ward fil' Gul mi de Pomeroy,' who lived about 
A.D. 1137. In 1186 Bishop John the Chaunter, the then Bishop 
of Exeter, appropriated to his Chapter the Church of Ashburton. 
In 1314 (3rd April) Bishop Stapledon visited the church 
' which he found in a dilapidated condition, especially the north 
aisle ? which was ruinous. He ordered the church to be repaired 
and the north aisle to be rebuilt, and a vestry to be constructed 
on the north side of the chancel.' No trace of this vestry remains. 
The architecture of the greatest part of the present building 
appears to date from the commencement of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, with the exception of the north entrance, apparently of the 
transition to semi-Norman period, and the window of a small 
chapel immediately behind the altar (now used as a vestry) which is 
early-English. The east wall separating the chancel from this 
chapel is about 3J feet thick. The whole chancel is said to be 
of an earlier date than the rest of the edifice, but it was so 
thoroughly transformed before I first saw it, by the introduction 
of new windows and the blocking up of the ancient doorway, 
that I am not prepared to vouch for this assertion at present. 
Between 1836 and 1840 the alterations to which I have alluded 
were made by the late vicar, and it was then that the workmen 
found the original of the inclosed sketch, with some nine or ten 
others, lying in what one of them describes to me as ' holes like 
those left by masons for the reception of their scaffold poles.' 
They were not regularly piled one above another, but, to use 
my informant's own words, * were scattered all over the north 
and south walls of the chancel on their interior sides.' The 
only ornament is a zig-zag line over a very faint white mark, 
no other indentation or moulding whatever. I may add, that 
the vessels were all empty and unsealed, but had a small piece 
of slate placed in front of their mouths ; they are of the roughest 
description, of common red clay like a flower pot in appearance 
and quality, and were firmly fixed in the recesses with mortar. 

There are the remains of old camps in the neighbourhood, viz. 
at Holm Chace 3 miles, Druid (Borowood) 1^ miles, Ashburton 
Down 1 J mile ; Hembury Fort, Buckfastleigh, also is only about 
3 miles distant. 

u Yours &c. 

" CHAS. WORTHY, 

" Late 82nd Ilegt," 

VOL. V. 2 C 



386 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



[1873, 



The vessel described by Mr. Worthy is figured iir the an- 
nexed woodcut. 

But for the circumstance 
mentioned by Mr. Worthy, that 
a piece of slate was placed in 
front of their mouths, it might 
be conjectured that these vessels 
had been designed to serve the 
purpose of those acoustic vases 
to which attention has hot un- 
frequently been called in this 
and other countries, "and, of 
which a succinct account is given 
in the < Norfolk Archaeology,' 
vol. vii. p. 93, by the Rev. G. 
W. W.Minns. See also, f Archae- 
ological Journal,' vol. xii. p. 
276. 

W. P. RUSSELL, Esq. exhi- 
bited a silver-gilt finger Ring 
set with an intaglio in nicolo, 
representing a griffin ; stated to 
have been found in Fleet Street, 
London. Unfortunately a por- 
tion of the original surface has 
flaked off, which mars the design. 
The date of this object is some- 
EARTHEN VESSEL PROM ASHBURTON what uncertain, but seems to be 
CHURCH, DEVON. o f the Middle Ages rather than 

of the Roman period. 

Dr. JAMES KENDRICK, of Warrington, exhibited a ewer of 
bronze, in the shape of a knight on horseback, of the fourteenth 
century. This ewer has been figured and described,. along with 
others, in the 6 Journal of the British Archasological Association,' 
vol. xiii. p. 130. See also ' Archaeological Journal,' vol. xv. 
p. 280, xvi. p. 103 ; Wilson's ' Prehistoric Annals of Scotland,' 
p. 556 ; ' Catalogue of Antiquities in the Museum of the Institute 
at Edinburgh,' p. 67 ; * Archaeologia JEliana,' vol. iv. p. 76 ; 
W. B. Scott's * Antiquarian Gleanings in the North of England,' 
plate xii. ; Labarte's i Handbook of the Arts of the Middle Ages,' 
p. 396. 

R. H. MAJOR, Esq. F.S.A. communicated a paper on Sup- 
plementary Facts in the History of the Discovery of Australia. 




Jan. 16.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 387 

In 1861 Mr. Major had made known a reputed discovery of 
Australia by the Portuguese cosmographer Manuel Godinho de 
Eredia, in 1601, a date which preceded by five years the earliest 
known discovery of that country, and which transferred the 
honours from Holland to Portugal. Mr. Major had since been 
made acquainted with the original Autograph Report to King 
Philip the Third of Eredia's discovery, which had been found at 
the Burgundian library at Brussels, and the object of the paper 
laid before the Society this evening was to show that what was 
looked to as a perfect confirmation of the 1601 discovery proved 
it, on the contrary, to have been an imposture, concocted by 
Eredia and his accomplices. This paper will be printed in the 
* Archa3ologia.' 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for these communica- 
tions. 



Thursday, January 16th, 1873. 
J. WINTER JONES, ESQ. V.P. in the Chair. 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From A. W. Franks, Esq. M.A. Dir. S.A. : Die Romischer Steindenkmaler, 
Inschriften mid Gefass-Stempel im Maximilians-Museum zu Augsburg, 
beschrieben von M. Mezger. Svo. Augsburg, 1862. 

From the Author : Traditions and Customs of Cathedrals. By Mackenzie 
E. C. Walcott, B.D., F.S.A. 8vo. - London, 1872. 

From the NeAvbury District Field Club : Transactions. 1870-71. 8vo: 
Newbury, 1871. 

From the Author : An Historical Sketch of the Ancient Manor of South 
Winfield, Derbyshire, with Notices of its possessors from the earliest times. 
By Joseph TSaiiow Robinson. Svo. Derby. 

From the Royal Society : Proceedings. Vol. XXI., No. 140. 8vo. London, 

1872. 

The following gentlemen were admitted Fellows : 
Henry James Morehouse, Esq. 
Frederick Edward Hulme, Esq. 

The following correspondence, relating to Wimbledon camp 
and the Survey of Wiltshire, respectively, was laid before the 
meeting. 

" Society of Antiquaries of London, 

" Somerset House, December 6, 1872. 
" MY DEAR SlR, 

"The President and Council of this Society having observed 

2 c 2 



388 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1873, 

that the question of the preservation of the so-called * Caesar 
Camp' at Wimbledon is now before the Corporation' of the 
City of London, have instructed me to request you will convey 
to that body the expression of their conviction that the idea of 
purchase of the camp by the Corporation which they rejoice to 
find has been mooted would arrest a crying evil, and add one 
more to the many benefits which the public spirit and munifi- 
cence of that great corporation has so often conferred upon the 
inhabitants of the metropolis. 

u In the present case the benefit would be conferred not only 
on London, but on the country at large, for all Englishmen 
must be interested in rescuing from destruction a site which, on 
so many grounds, is bound up with the earliest history of their 
country. 

" This Society was among the first in the field to try and 
effect the object in which the President and Council now invite 
the active aid of the Corporation of the City of London . Early 
in the year 1871, when tidings of these building projects first 
reached the Society, letters were sent to the parties principally 
concerned, couched in terms of the most earnest remonstrance. 
The answers received on this occasion were not encouraging, but 
the President and Council now venture to hope that the action 
of the Corporation of the City of London may overcome the 
financial difficulty which they believe to be the real obstacle in 
the way of the end they had in view. 

" I have to request that you will take the earliest opportunity 
of laying this letter before the Corporation. 

" I beg to remain, faithfully yours, 

- " C. KNIGHT WATSON, Secretary. 

" F. Woodthorpe, Esq. Town Clerk." 

" Society of Antiquaries of London, 

" Somerset House, December 6, 1872. 

" GENTLEMEN, 

" I am instructed by the President and Council of the Society 
of Antiquaries of London to express to you the warm interest 
taken by them in the preservation of the so-called ' Caesar's 
Camp' at Wimbledon, and their earnest hope that it may be in 
your power to effect that object. The history and origin of this 
most interesting site are involved in considerable obscurity, and 
have given rise to a great deal of discussion. But this very 
circumstance does but increase a hundredfold the interest which 
attaches to it, and the regret which all men of culture must feel 
at the prospect of its destruction. Not less obvious is the vast 
importance of keeping the ground open as a source of health 
and recreation for the public. 

" The President and Council think it due to themselves to 



Jan. 16.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 389 

add that they have not been backward in endeavouring to 
preserve this camp from the projects of building speculators. As 
far back as March 1871, when the first intimation of any such 
projects reached the Society, the most pressing remonstrances 
were sent to Mr. Drax and to Mr. Dixon. The former of those 
gentlemen did not favour the Society with a reply ; the latter 
sent an answer which left us little hope that the project would 
readily be abandoned. 

66 1 have only to request in conclusion on behalf of the Presi- 
dent and Council that you will take an early opportunity of 
laying this letter before the Board. 

" I remain, your obedient Servant, 

" C. KNIGHT WATSON, 

" Secretary S.A. 

" The Chairman of the Board of Conservators 
of Wimbledon Common." 

" Society of Antiquaries of London, 

" Somerset House, November 27, 1872. 

" SIR, 

" At a meeting of the Council of this Society, held yesterday 
afternoon, Earl Stanhope, President, in the Chair, attention 
was called to the great importance of securing without delay a 
survey of Wiltshire, and especially of Stonehenge, to the scale 
of -rfsVo, for the purpose of preserving a record of it in its pre- 
sent state before the plough has carried any further its work of 
destruction in effacing interesting remains of antiquity. 

"As such a survey would form part of the survey of the 
kingdom, no additional expense would be incurred by doing it 
at once. 

" I was instructed to add that the President and Council have 
received urgent representations to this effect from Sir John 
Lubbock, Bart. M.P., F.S. A., Mr. John Evans, F.E.S. and others 
"I remain, your obedient Servant, 

" C. KNIGHT WATSON, 

" Secretary S.A. 
Rt. Hon. A. S. Ayrton, M.P. 

" First Commissioner of Works, &c." 

H.M. Office of Works, &c. S.W. 
" 10th Dec. 1872. 

" SIR, 

" I am directed by the First Commissioner of Her Majesty's 
Works, &c., to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 
27th ultimo, and, in reply, I am to acquaint you, for the infor- 
mation of the Council of the Society of Antiquaries, that the 
survey of the county of Wilts could not be undertaken at pre- 
sent without disturbing the arrangements made for the general 
survey of the United Kingdom. 



390 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1873, 

" I am, however, to state that it will be possible during the 
course of next year to survey the few parishes in Wiltshire 
which include Stonehenge and the most interesting objects 
connected with it, and the First Commissioner has accordingly 
given directions to the Survey Department for this to be done, 
which he trusts will meet the requirements of the Council. . 
" I am, Sir, your obedient Servant, 

" R. CALLANDER, 

" Assistant- Secretary. 
" C. K. Watson, Esq. 
" Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries, 
" Somerset House." 

This being an evening appointed for the election of Fellows, 
no papers were read, but an exhibition of Bronze Weapons and 
Implements was opened, to which the following were the con- 
tributors : 

Bath Eoyal Literary and Scientific Institute. 

Bodmin Museum. 

Royal Institute of Cornwall. 

Royal Irish Academy. 

Shrewsbury Museum. 

Suffolk Institute of Archaeology. 

Sussex Archaeological Society. 

Swansea Museum. 

Warrington Free Museum. 

Rev. Thomas Bacon. 

Rev. E. L. Barnwell. 

W. Beamont, Esq. 

Rev. James Beck, Local Secretary for Sussex. 

J. R. Blagden, Esq. 

Captain Bloomfield. 

M. H. Bloxam, Esq. F.S.A. 

Major Bunny. 

T. Q. Couch, Esq. F.SA. 

Robert Day, Esq. F.S.A. Local Secretary for Ireland. 

John Dixon, Esq. 

John Evans, Esq. F.R. S. F. S. A. Local Secretary for Herts. 

J. W. Flower, Esq. F.G.S. 

C. D. Fortnum, Esq. F.S.A. 

James Foster, Esq. F.S.A. 

Col. A. H. Lane Fox, V.P. 

Augustus W. Franks, Esq. Director. 

Rev. W. Greenwell, F.S.A. Local Secretary for Durham. 

John Henderson, Esq. F.S.A. 

Sir Alexander Acland Hood, Bart. 

Rev. Thomas Hugo, F.S.A. 

Dr. James Kendrick. 



Jan. 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 391 

Eev. John Knowles,. F.S.A. 

Thomas Lay ton, Esq. F.S.A. 

John Lunn, Esq. 

Silas Palmer, Esq. M.D. F.S.A. 

Earl Powis. 

T. J. Provis, Esq. 

Lord Ravensworth. 

J. J. Rogers, Esq. 

J. A. Rolls, Esq. F.S.A. 

George Roots, Esq. F.S.A. 

Rev. W. Sparrow Simpson, F.S.A. 

W. J. Bernliard Smith, Esq. 

Lord Talbot de Malahide, F.S.A. 

John Thurnam, Esq. M.D. F.S.A. 

Ven. Archdeacon Trollope, F.S.A. Local Secretary for 

Lincolnshire. 

Charles Tucker, Esq. F.S.A. Local Secretary for Devon. 
Hodder M. Westropp, Esq. 
Ralph Westrop, Esq. 

Samuel Wood, Esq. F.S.A. Local Secretary for Salop. 
W. W. E. Wynne, Esq. F.S.A. Local Secretary for Wales. 

The Ballot opened at a quarter to nine, and ended at half- past 
nine, when the following Candidates were declared to be duly 
elected. 

Rev. Henry Thomas Armfield. 

Willett Lawrence Adye, Esq. 

James Murray Foster, Esq. 

William Longman, Esq. 

Col. George Hattoii Colomb. 

Charles Tyrrell, Esq. 

John Parsons Earwaker, Esq. 

Francis Cook, Esq. 



Thursday, January 23rd, 1873. 
Colonel A. H. LANE FO'X, V.P., in the Chair, 

The following Presents were announced, and Thanks ordered 
to be returned to the Donors : 

From the Royal Society : Proceedings. Vol. 21, No. 140. 8vo. London, 1872. 

From the Royal Institute of British Architects : Sessional Papers, 1872-73. 
No. 4. 4to. London, 1873. 

From the Author, R. C. A. Prior, Esq. M.D. : 

1. On the 'Popular Names of British Plants. Second Edition. 8vo. 
London, 1870. 



392 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1873, 

2. Notes on Croquet : and some Ancient Bat and Ball Games related to it. 
870. London, 1872. 

From A. W. Franks, Esq. M.A. Dir. S.A. : Fasti Monastici JEvi Saxonici : or 
an Alphabetical List of the Heads of Religious Houses in England previous 
to the Norman Conquest, to which is prefixed a Chronological Catalogue of 
Contemporary Foundations. By Walter de Gray Birch. 8vo. London, 1872. 

From the East India Association : Journal. No. 3., Vol. VI. 8vo. Lon- 
don, 1872. 

The Rev. Joseph Mercer Cox, M.A. was admitted a Fellow. 

The Exhibition of Bronze Weapons and Implements remained 
open. Colonel A. H. Lane-Fox, V.P contributed, in illustra- 
tion of the subject, a large diagram, prepared by himself, on 
which were drawn full-size the types of bronze celts in various 
countries, arranged in the order of gradation of form from the 
simple flat celt to the more complex socket celt ; each country 
being placed in a separate band.* 

John Evans, Esq. F.R.S. F.S.A. delivered the following 
Address on the " Bronze Period." 

We have already had in these rooms exhibitions illustrative of 
the early condition of this and neighbouring countries, and of 
implements in use at an earlier period than those which are 
now exhibited. The first of these exhibitions consisted of those 
implements which are now known, among both antiquaries 
and geologists, as palaeolithic, implements which belong to a 
time when the earth's surface presented a somewhat different 
configuration from that which at present exists ; and the second 
of neolithic implements, belonging to the more recent stone 
period, or the surface stone period an age which was subse- 
quently succeeded by the bronze period, which we have illus- 
trated here this evening. 

I must confess that I feel some diffidence in having again to 
invoke the pre-historic muse, having on two evenings already 
given discourses on pre-historic subjects to the Fellows of this 
Society : and on this occasion feeling that there are others present 
who are better able than I to give some idea of the bronze period 
and of the implements then in use. Now, the question of course 
arises what is it we are to understand by the Bronze Period? 
I think that the division into periods which has been more or less 
in use amongst antiquaries for a long series of years, and which 
has in later times been adopted mainly in consequence of the 
influence of the Danish school of archaeologists, may now be 

* Published in a reduced form in the Journal of the Royal United Service 
Institution, vol. xiii. PI. 32. 



Jan. 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 393 

regarded as fairly~established. There can be no doubt whatever 
that, at all events in western Europe, there was a time when the 
sole implements in use by the human occupants of the country 
were made of flint, stone, bone, and wood, and of other readily 
accessible materials ; that those people were unacquainted with 
the art of grinding and sharpening their tools, and were asso- 
ciated with a different fauna from that found in Europe at the 
present day ; that this paleolithic period was succeeded after a 
long interval of years by a period during which the inhabitants 
of western Europe were acquainted with the art of grinding 
and polishing their implements, and were associated with a 
fauna similar to that which we now find ; and that this was in 
turn succeeded by a time when bronze was in use for cutting 
implements, and when iron was unknown. That bronze was 
succeeded by iron, will of course be evident ; but it must not for 
a moment be, supposed that any of these periods, except possibly 
the palaeolithic period, is susceptible of any w^ell defined line of 
demarcation from the others. There are periods of over-lapping, 
when the one age shades off into the other, and in the case of 
both bronze and stone antiquities it is very difficult indeed to 
assign to a given specimen a definite date, or to say that any 
one neolithic implement was in use at a time when bronze was 
absolutely unknown, or to say that one of bronze was in use at 
a period when iron had still to be discovered. Still, looking at 
the general features of the case, these three periods may be re- 
garded, as I have said elsewhere, as analogous with the three 
principal colours in the spectrum. They succeed each other in 
definite order, and, although they intermingle and overlap, yet 
their succession is well established. Even if we look back at his- 
torical testimony we find history also bears us out in a similar 
distribution of time into these different periods. We find among 
the earliest historians notices of a time when iron was unknown, 
or at all events was a metal of extreme rarity ; and also evidence 
of bronze having remained in use for a certain period after iron 
had become known, owing to that feeling of reverence which 
attaches to ancient rites and ceremonies. In Hesiod we have 
that often quoted passage about the-inhabitants of the earth at a 
certain time making use of bronze, for they had not the " black 
iron ;" and, again, we have in Lucretius also another hackneyed 
quotation in which the succession of the ages is pointed out, 
and there is the distinct remark made that the use of bronze 
preceded that of iron. In the Greek language itself we find 
traces of the succession of the use of iron to that of bronze, for 
the ordinary name for blacksmith, a worker in iron, in Greek is 
not as might be supposed in any way connected with the metal 
itself, but is ^aX/ceu?, a worker in brass, and that word remained 



394 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1873, 

in use after bronze had ceased to be employed for cutting pur- 
poses, and survived in connection with the manufacture of iron 
and steel, by whicli bronze had been superseded. In the same 
way it is related by Agatharchides, as an instance of the use of 
bronze at an early period, that in some Egyptian gold mines 
the miners about a century before Christ had broken into an old 
working, and were struck to find that those who had preceded 
them had made use of bronze implements, which Agatharchides 
explains was in consequence of iron being at that time un- 
known. 

Again, in some instances we find traces of the transitional 
period, when bronze appears to be going out of use for ordinary 
purposes, and iron to be coming in. We have the well-known 
cemetery of Hallstatt, which has been so well described by Baron 
von Sacken, with its thousand graves, the remains from which 
are preserved in the Antiken-Kabinet at Vienna. We there find 
swords, celts, and hatchets in iron, which are the very counter-, 
parts of those we are accustomed to find in bronze, and in this 
cemetery, up to the present time, no trace of any kind has been 
found of the use of coins ; traces of silver are very scarce, and 
there is every reason to believe that, although, no doubt, the 
cemetery was in use during a considerable number of years, pro- 
bably some centuries, yet that the latest of the graves discovered 
would hardly come down to the third or fourth century before our 
era, and that the bulk may range back to the fifth, sixth, and seventh 
centuries, or to even an earlier period before the Christian era. 
In this country we have what may be called another transitional 
period, to which Mr. Franks has given the name of the " late 
Celtic " period, when iron was known and bronze was apparently 
just going or gone out of use for other than defensive and orna- 
mental purposes. The antiquities of that period we are not going 
to discuss this evening, but 1 hope that on some future occasion we 
may see a collection of "late Celtic" implements exhibited in this 
room, and hear from Mr. Franks some exposition of their nature 
and uses, and their relation to other antiquities. We must too 
bear in mind that bronze itself does not occur as a native metal, 
but is a composite alloy of the two metals copper and tin, and that 
therefore in all probability we may say almost demon str ably 
there must have preceded the bronze age an age in which copper 
alone was used, in which it had not as yet been discovered 
that tin was so valuable an adjunct, not only in increasing its 
fluidity, but in adding to its hardness and temper. In this 
country, indeed, we have but very slight traces of any such 
copper age, for even where we find implements which consist 
mainly of copper there is usually a small per-centage of tin 
present, which shows that tin must have been known, because it 



Jan. 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 395 

is very rarely the case that any appreciable quantity of tin is 
found in native copper and copper ores. In North America, 
however, there is every evidence of a considerable period during 
which native copper was in use. Large blocks of native copper, 
many tons in weight, have been found, portions of which have 
been utilised by the natives of the country for many centuries for 
the manufacture of their tools and weapons, which they produced, 
not by melting but by cold hammering, and by that means forged 
the ductile copper into various forms. The bronze itself, of 
which the antiquities before us are made, consists, as I said 
before, principally of copper and tin in somewhat varying propor- 
tions ; it usually, however, ranges from about 5 to 15 per cent, 
of tin to every 100 parts of bronze, the remaining 85 to 95 parts 
being of copper. The usual proportions are 9 of copper to 1 of 
tin. There are, however, slight traces of other metals, and 
occasionally, in some of the later bronze implements especially, 
we find lead present in considerable quantities. T must not, 
however, dwell this evening either upon the general features 
of the bronze age or upon the chemical constituents of 
bronze. 

With such an exhibition as we have before us, I think it will 
be more to the purpose for me to attempt to describe to you the 
various forms of implements manufactured from that metal, 
having principally regard to the antiquities found in this country, 
but also making comparisons with the implements, from other 
parts of the world, and especially those which are found in the 
adjoining countries of western Europe. In the ante-room you 
will see a fine collection of implements from the continent of 
Europe, and also from Asia, on the latter of which, at the next 
meeting of this Society, you will probably hear some interesting 
remarks from Mr. Franks. 

I think that these bronze antiquities may be divided under 
several heads, namely, those of tools which were used for various 
domestic and constructive purposes, weapons used either in war 
or in the chase, and ornaments for the person. Having described 
these various forms, and called attention to their uses, I propose 
to say a few words as to the method by which they were manu- 
factured, and then shortly to glance at the sources whence the 
metal from which they were made was derived, and conclude by 
adding a very few sentences on the chronology of the bronze 
age. 

The best known form of tool we meet with in bronze is 
that which is termed a celt. I use the word "celt " in prefer- 
ence to " kelt," which I find is occasionally used for this pur- 
pose, because we must never forget that the word u celt" has 
nothing to do with the great Celtic or Keltic people, but is 



396 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1873, 

simply an English word derived from the rather barbarous Latin 
word " celtis," a chisel. The derivation is simple, and it is a 
pity the word should have been modified to such an extent as to 
lead people to suppose that it bore any other meaning than that 
of a simple tool. Of celts there are various classes. The first 
consists of what may be called flat or plain celts. These, again, 
merge into celts which have slight projections on either side, and 
which may be called flanged celts. Then follow the palstaves, 
some of which are provided with a stop ridge, against which the 
handle would abut. Some are looped on one or both sides. 
Next after the palstave come the socket-celts, or those provided 
with a socket for the insertion of the handle, arid these also 
usually have loops, though they are occasionally without them. 
Besides these principal classes, there are a number of minor 
varieties, of which specimens are exhibited. I propose briefly 
to treat each of these classes separately. Most of these imple- 
ments were I think used as hatchets, though possibly some may 
have served as spuds. That they were in use for various cutting 
purposes is demonstrated by the fact that they are frequently 
found worn away at the edge by sharpening, and, as it were, 
(i stumped up." They occur in various forms all over Europe, 
and some types have been found in America, and others in cer- 
tain parts of Asia. 

Of the first class of flat or plain celts, some appear to have been 
cast almost in the same form as are the celts of polished stone, 
which, in fact, in some cases, may have served as the models from 
which these metal implements were cast. Others again are 
merely flat pieces of bronze, usually provided with a segmental 
edge at the broad end, and wedge-shaped at the narrow end. 
They are apparently adapted for insertion into a club or haft of 
wood like the iron hatchets commonly in use among the natives 
of northern Africa. In some of them, at the end of the wedge- 
shaped portion which went into the handle, there is a sort of 
dovetailed notch, which possibly was connected with a pin, to 
secure the blade to the handle when mounted. Another form 
of flat celt, of which some Irish specimens are exhibited, presents 
a different type, having projections at the sides so as to assume 
almost a cruciform appearance. These projections appear to 
have been intended to prevent the pointed part being driven too 
far into the handle. Many implements of this class have their 
flat faces ornamented by lines arranged in different patterns, 
such as a succession of compartments of a triangular form alter- 
nately striated and plain. This ornamentation is usually con- 
fined to the broad part of the blade and does not extend to that 
destined to be buried in the handle. The patterns appear to 
have been produced, generally speaking, not by engraving, but 



Jan. 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 397 

by hammering with a sort of punch, and the dexterous manner 
in which that was done is well exhibited by the specimens 
before us. There are ornaments on some Irish specimens which 
are tastefully designed and beautifully executed. On one 
English specimen the whole surface is grained, as it were, like 
morocco, with cross bands resembling plaits and looking like 
blind tooling on a morocco binding. In Scotland these flat 
celts are frequently ornamented by hammering. In some the 
whole surface is raised into chevron-like ridges, and in others a 
punch with a sharp edge has been used, and the designs have 
almost the appearance of having been engraved. The sides are 
also frequently ornamented, sometimes with leaf-like patterns, 
and sometimes with raised bands like a heraldic torse; occa- 
sionally also a succession of flat lozenges makes its appearance 
on the sides. * Celts of the flat kind have been frequently found 
in barrows, both in Derbyshire and Wiltshire, and in some 
cases associated with daggers. In one instance, with a remark- 
able dagger to which I shall subsequently allude, there had also 
been buried a stone hammer. Occasionally the flat celts are of 
large size, for there is one from the Pentland Hills preserved 
in the museum at Edinburgh, which is 13f inches long and 
9 inches broad. The beautiful instrument from , Egypt ex- 
hibited by Mr. Sparrow Simpson belongs to this class, but 
instead of being inserted into the handle, the Egyptian hatchets 
were provided with projecting ears by which they were tied to 
it, in the same way as those now in use in some parts of South 
America. 

The next stage from the flat celt is the flanged celt, in which 
the sides are expanded, so that the section is to some extent like 
the letter H, with a long cross bar and very short limbs. (See 
a specimen from the Thames, PI. I. fig. 1.) The greatest 
expansion of the flanges is usually towards the middle of the 
blade, from which it would appear that these flanges were of 
use, not only as strengthening the blade and preventing it from 
bending, but also in maintaining it fast in the haft to which it 
was attached. It would seem too -that when the flanged celts 
came into use there was a change coming over the system of 
hafting, and instead of the blade being driven into a club- 
like handle it was attached to a side branch projecting from a 
stem of wood, which was split for the purpose, and in which it 
was tied. Some of the flanged blades, however, appear rather 
to have been driven into the club in the same way as plain celts. 
In some there is a kind of cross ridge about the middle of the 
blade, which , appears to have been intended as a species of 
stop ridge, to prevent its being driven backwards into its handle. 
The edge again in this form is very often drawn out so as to 



398 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1873, 

assume a sort of semi-lunar shape, which is very rarely the case 
with the flat celts. 

The more perfect form of these flanged celts is developed in 
what are now commonly known as palstaves. This name of 
" palstaves " has been derived from an Icelandic word, which 
was formerly a term applied to weapons used for battering the 
shields of the enemy, but is still used to designate a sort of spud 
now in use in Iceland, which in its general form closely re- 
sembles these bronze implements. The ancient specimens, how- 
ever, appear for the most part to have been used as axes rather 
than as spuds, and this is not by any means a mere matter of 
conjecture, for in the salt-mines in the Salzkammergut of Austria 
bronze palstaves have been found with handles still attached, 
and iron celts of this character have also been found in the 
cemetery of Hallstatt with the handles still preserved. In 
palstaves the central part of the side flanges usually projects to 
a considerable extent, and at first the flanges appear to have 
been at right angles to the general blade of the hatchet, but it 
was found after a time that there was an advantage in hammer- 
ing these over, so as to form two nearly semi-circular sockets, 
one on either side of the central blade. In all cases they were 
originally cast with the wings projecting at right angles, and 
these were subsequently hammered over so as to form the semi- 
circular sockets, in which the split end of an L-shaped handle 
could be inserted. Palstaves with the sides hammered over 
in this manner are not however commonly found in England. 

When used as hatchets, it seems to have been found by 
experience that the blades were liable to be detached from their 
handles, and in consequence some ingenious man conceived the 
idea of casting a loop at the side, through which a cord might be 
passed to secure the blade to the handle, and thus prevent its 
being accidentally detached. Accordingly we find a series of 
these implements with a loop at the side, which are known as 
looped palstaves. Very rarely they occur with two loops. Four 
specimens from the British Islands are exhibited this evening 
two from Ireland, one exhibited by Mr. Hugo and the other by 
the Royal Irish Academy, and two, from Cornwall, by Mr. J. j. 
Rogers. (PL I. fig. 2.) The type, however, is more common 
in Spain than in this country. In Denmark a much longer and 
narrower form occurs and usually more ornamented. In these the 
ornaments extend not only over a portion of the faces, but usually- 
round the middle of the blade close to the stop-ridge. In this 
country the ornaments, such as they are, are usually on the faces. 
They generally consist either of a central rib or a simple loop in 
low relief, and occasionally of a few lines arranged in a pattern. 
There are rarely any ornaments on the sides ; but there is a very 



PLATE I. 



To face page 398. 




1. FLANGED CELT, THAMES. Scale 





3. SOCKETED CELT, STOGBRSEY. 
Scale ;i 




2. TWO-LOOPED PALSTAVE FROM CORNWALL. 
Scale . 



4 . SOCKETED CELT FROM THE THAMES . 
Scale . 



BRONZE CELTS, ENGLAND. 



Jan. 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 399 

beautiful specimen from the Thames, exhibited by Colonel Lane 
Fox, in which all the angles are grained in an artistic manner. 
The same forms as we have in England occur in France, but 
each country presents peculiar varieties. There are also peculiar 
forms which are found in Germany and Denmark. An Italian 
type presents a thin flat blade with a very strongly marked stop- 
ridge, and very wide projecting flanges at top. 

It sometimes, but very rarely, occurs that these palstaves 
have the edge at right angles to the portion of the blade which 
was inserted into the handle ; from which it is evident that 
some of them were used as adzes rather than as axes. There 
are specimens here of this form, both from Ireland and 
Germany. Having arrived at this system of having a kind of 
double socket, one on each side of the central blade into which 
these two portions of the handle were inserted, I presume it 
was discovered, as greater progress was made in the art of casting, 
that it would be preferable instead of having a split handle, 
such as that for the palstaves, to have one with the solid pro- 
jection from the stem left. To allow of this, some one appears to 
have conceived the idea of casting celts with a socket in them, 
into which the handle could be inserted, and by that means con- 
verted them into implements of an entirely different character 
from that which they had previously possessed, for the ordinary 
socketed celt was the result. The loop was still preserved for 
attachment to the handle. On many socketed celts may be seen 
traces of their derivation from the earlier form with the side 
flanges hammered over. Those who are heralds will know what 
in heraldry are called flanches a term which has nothing to do 
with the word flange as applied to a celt. They are semi-circular 
compartments on each side of a shield, and always of a different 
colour from the field. Those flanches on a shield strongly re- 
semble the hammered-over flanges of the palstaves, and on these 
socketed celts there are frequently cast two semi-circular lines in 
low relief on the face, which apparently preserve in a rudimentary 
form the original side-flanges of the ordinary palstave, in the 
same way as on some railway carriages of the present day are 
still to be seen the curves which were in fashion on the old 
mail coaches. 

With regard to the method of hafting these implements it is 
not, as I said before, a matter merely of conjecture. A specimen 
I exhibit is of a different form any of those already mentioned, 
and belongs to a class of itself. It has evidently been copied 
from an ordinary palstave which w r as attached to the usual form 
of handle, but, the founder' thought that it would be desirable 
to avoid the necessity of cutting a hooked stick and merely attach 
a plain straight handle to the hatchet. It was therefore cast 



400 PROCEEDINGS OF THE [1873, 

with a socket at one end, into which such a handle might be in- 
serted ; but by way of pattern from which to cast this new form 
of tool, a celt already hafted was taken as a model, and this 
Swiss specimen is in consequence the exact counterpart of a 
bronze celt with its original wooden handle ; the character of the 
stick which served as the handle may be seen, with the short off- 
shoot which was split for the insertion of the blade; in proof 
of this, there runs round it a spiral band representing the band 
of leather or sinew by which the original blade was attached to 
the handle. Socketed celts are occasionally met with having 
two loops. Specimens have been found in England, and moulds 
for them have been found near Salisbury and in Anglesea. The 
sockets present different shapes, square, circular, oval, hex- 
agonal, and octagonal. The faces are sometimes ornamented 
with parallel or converging ribs (Plate I. fig. 3), sometimes 
ending in rings and pellets. Mr. Layton exhibits a singular 
specimen ornamented with chevrons of pellets. (Plate I. fig. 4.) 
Besides these, there are varieties notched at the sides, or with- 
out loops, or ornamented in different manners, into the details 
of which I need not enter. I may, however, mention that, 
after the use of these celts apparently had gone out, there still 
remained some sort of superstitious respect for them, inasmuch 
as in an interment near York, very possibly belonging to the 
late Celtic period, there was found a diminutive socketed celt 
of not more than an inch in length. In France a number of 
celts have been found so small as to cause a' doubt whether they 
could have been in use as tools, and they have therefore been 
regarded as votive. I am not sure that these may not after 
all have served some industrial purpose, but that found at 
Market Weighton can hardly by any possibility have been 
intended for a tool. The forms of socket-celts vary considerably 
in different European countries, though the general character 
is preserved. In looking through a collection of implements 
of this class and comparing those of one country with those 
of another, there are differences perceptible, almost sufficient 
for any one of experience to predicate from what country a 
given specimen was derived. 

Besides socketed celts, there is still another variety known as 
tanged celts, which, instead of having a socket, has a pro- 
jecting tang for insertion into the handle. These are very rare 
in England, but have been found in the Thames and elsewhere. 
It is a question whether they may not more properly be called 
chisels than celts, though sometimes they appear rather better 
adapted for use as axes than as chisels. In one of the barrows of 
Wiltshire an instrument of this kind was found inserted in a 
stag's-horn handle. In Ireland they are more common, and 



Jan. 23.] SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 401 

several are exhibited. Both straight and tanged narrow chisels 
have been found in England, but the socketed form is more 
rare, though some have been found in Yorkshire and at Romford. 
They are more common in Hungary, and have been found also 
in the Swiss lakes. 

The next form to be noticed is that of the hollow chisel or 
gouge, which is of somewhat rare occurrence. It is a marked 
variety of tool, and cannot possibly be mistaken for a weapon. 
These are generally formed on the socketed principle for the 
insertion of a handle, but are occasionally tanged. One such 
was found at Carltoii Bode, in Norfolk. They are commonly 
associated with socketed celts, though occasionally with palstaves. 
In France they are very rare, but a specimen from thence is exhi- 
bited by Mr. GreenwelL In Denmark and Germany, and other 
foreign countries, they are of exceeding rarity, if even they exist 
at all. ^ 

The next tool I have to mention is the hammer, which is of a 
very different kind from the hammer now in ordinary use, inas- 
much as, instead of having a hole through it, it is socketed like 
the gouges and celts. The form is similar to that of the celt, 
except that, inste