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Full text of "Proceedings"

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HENRY PERCY B0ULN0I8, M. Inst.C.E., 
Past President. 



From a Photograph. 



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EDWARD RICE SWEET ESCOTT, M.Inst.C.E., 
Past President. 



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PROCEEDINGS 



OF THB 



INCORPORATED ASSOCIATION OF MUNICIPAL 
AND COUNTY ENGINEERS 



VOLUME XXII. 1895-96 



EDITED BT 

THOMAS COLE 

A8800. M. INST. O.E. 

{Secretary of the AssoaiaUon) 



The ABBOciation U not as a body responsible for the facts and opinions 
advanced herein. 



Honlion : 
E. & F. N. SPON, 125 STRAND 

SPON & CHAMBERLAIN. 12 CORTLANDT STREET 

1896 

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|iHr-N£WYORK 

PJ3LICLIBRARY 

4ST0R, LeNDX ^N0 
riLOEN FOUNDATIONS. 



1897. 



LONDON: 
P&IKTKD BT WILUAX GZ4)WS8 AlTD 80VS. UVTTBD, STAMFORD 



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CONTENTS. 



Frontispiece PorlraiU-^ 

1. H. Pbrot Boulnois, M. Inst. O.E., Past President. 

2. Edwabd B. S. Esoott, M. Inst G.E., Past President. 

FAOB 

List of Offiobbs •• •• •• .. v 

List OF Mkmbbbs .. .. •• vii 

List of Towns and Distbiots Bbpbeskntnd xxiii 

DiSTBiCTS xxxiii 

List of Graduates Ixiii 

Parliamentabt CouMiTrBB • Ixiv 

Btb-Laws Ixv 

Annual Bbpobt and Financial Statbmbnt fob Yeab ending Afbil 

80th, 1896 1 

Affointmsnt of Sobutinebbs • .. •• 6 

i» „ Auditobs 6 

Distuiot Mevtinos— 

IffEETINa AT LONDONDEBBT AND POBTBUSH: 

The Eleotrio Lighting of the City of Londonderry. J. Christie . . 9 

Municipal Electricity. J.Perry 17 

Disonssion 27 

Visit to Works 83 

Light Bailways and Tramways. B. H. Dorman 84 

Discussion 44 

The Headquarters of the Belfast Fire Brigade. J. Munoe . . . . 53 

Discussion «• 61 

Visitto Works 63 

Meetino at Westminsteb: 

Some Suggested Amendments of the Metropolis Local Management 

Acts. J.P.Barber 64 

Discussion 73 

Notes on the Wear of Hard Wood Paving and the Weight of 

Traffic thereon. W.N.Blair 85 

Hard Wood Paving. J. P. Norrington 91 

Discussion 94 

Adjoubned Meeting at Westminstbb: 

Further Discussion on Mr. Barber's Paper 102 

Meeting at King's Heath: 

Fourteen Tears* Work in a Midland Suburb. B. Godfrey . . . . 121 

Discussion 136 

Visits to Works 144 

a 2 



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lY OONTENTS. 

District Msetihos (continued)-^ 

MSBTINO AT KiW, TWIOKXMHAM AND HaXFTON : 

FAflK 

Biohmond Main Sewerage Board Works, Mortlake. W. Fairley .. 145 

Discuasion 153 

Viflito to Works 155 

Mestiko AT Hanlet: 

Some of the Public Works carried out in Hanley during the past 

Ten Years. J. Lobley 162 

Disonssion 173 

Visits to Works 179 

Annual Mketino at Brighton: 

The President's Address 181 

Biver Pollution. Professor H. Bobinson 196 

Discussion 199 

Disposal or tJtillBation of the Besidue from Towns Befuse 

Destructors. H.P. Boulnois 211 

Discussion 217 

HouHing of the Working: Class-es — Model Cotfagea — Tenement 

Huil< liners and Municipal Lodging Houses. J. U. Brierley.. .. 228 

DittcuHsiun 238 

Eh ctrio Traction : a review of its application, and a comparison 

with other methods. B. St George Moore 252 

Discussion 260 

Street Construction for Medium Traffic. A. E. Collins 268 

Disouasioii .. .. " 274 

Steam Kolliiig. E. P. Hooley. (Plates) 2H 

Discussion 299 

Footways. C. H. Cooper (Plate) 309 

Discussion •• 321 

VifliU to Works 829 

Afpenddl: 

Description of Public Works Visited at Brighton 832 

List of Books of Statistics at Offices of the Association 842 

Examinations 347 

Board of Examiners 357 

Certificated Candidates 358 

MkMOIRS of DeOXAJSED MicimiCTM ., , ,, .. 863 



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LIST OF OFFICEES, 1896-97. 



OOUNOIL. 

FRANCIS J. C. MAY, M. IirsT. C.E., Bbiqhton. 



1873-4.\ 

1874-5./ 

1875-6. 

1876-7. 

1877-8. 

1878-9. 

1879-80. 

1880-1. 

1881-2. 

1882-3. 

1883-4. 

1884-5. 



LEWIS ANGELL, M. Inst. CJL 

•J. O. LTNDE, M. INOT. C.E. 
JAMES LEMON, M. Inst. C.E. 

F. ASHMEAD. M. Inst. C.E. 

G. F. DEACON, M. Inst. C.E. 
. E. PRITCHARD, M. Inst. C.E. 
•A. W. MORANT, M. Inst. C.E. 

W. S. TILL, M. Inst. C.E. 
C. JONES, M. Inst. C.E. 
W. H. WHITE, M. Inst. C.E. 
W. G. LAWS, M. Inst. C.E. 



1885-6. 

1886-7. 

1887-8. 

1888-9. 

1889-90. 

1890-91, 

1891-2. 

1892-3. 

1893-4. 

1894-5. 

1895-6. 



♦R. VAWSER, M. Inst. C.E. 

J. LOBLEY, M. Inst. C.E. 
•J. GORDON, M. Inst. CE. 

E. B. £LLICE-CLARK,M.In8T.C.E. 

JH. P. BOULNOIS, M. Inst. C.E. 

' T. DE C. MEADE, M. Inst. CE. 
J. CARTWRIGHT, M. Inst. C.E. 
J. T. EAYRS, M. Inst. C.E. 
A. M. FOWLER, M. Inst. C.E. 
E. R. S. ESCOTT, M. Inot. C.E. 



' Deceased. 



9ui-|prtsibtirt8. 



E. BUCKHAM, M. Inst. C.E., Borough Enoinbbb, Ipswich. 

C. H. LOWE, M. Inst. C.E., Vestby Subvetob, Hampstead. 

O. C. ROBSON, M. Inst. C.E., Subvetor to Urban Dist. Council, Willesden. 



^rirhmr; PMbtrs oi ((ounnl* 



J. p. BARBER, M. Inst. C.E., Vestrt Surveyor, St. Mart, Islington. 
A. R. BINNIE, M. Inst. C.E., Chief Engineer, London Countt Coxtncil. 
J. H. COX, M. Inst. C.E., Borough Surveyor, Bradford. 
A. CREER, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E., City Surveyor, York. 

A. T. DAVIS, Assoa M. Inst, C.E., County Surveyor, Salop. 

B. GODFREY, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E., King's Heath, Birmingham. 
W. HARPUR, M, Inst. C.E., Borough Engineer, Cardiff. 

E. P. HOOLEY, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E., County Surveyor, Nottingham. 
£. G. MAWBEY, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E., Borough Surveyor, Leicester. 
S. S. PLATT, Assoc. M. Inst, C.E., Borough Surveyor, Rochdale. 
W. WEAVER, M. Inst. C.E., Vestry Surveyor, Kensington. 

C. F. WIKE, M. Inst. C.E., Borough Engineer, Sheffield. 



gistmt l^mtwatj Btrntrnts. 



Home Counties District. — G. B. LAFFAN, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E., Twickenham. 

Metropolitan DifirrRicT.— G. R. W. WHEELER, Assoa M. Inst. C.E., Westminster. 

Midland Counties District. — A. T. DAVIS, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E., Shrewsbury. 

Yorkshire District.— T. W. STAINTHORPE, Eston. 

Lancashire and Cheshire District. — F. S. BUTTON, M. Inst. C.E., Burnley. 

Western District.— JOS. HALL, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E., Cheltenham. 

Northern DiOTRiCT.—JAS. HOWCROFT, Kirklfatham. 

Eastern Counties District. — J. W. COCK RILL, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E., Great 

Wales (North).— J. W. M. SMITH, Wrexham. [Yarmouth. 

„ (South).— W. E. C. THOMAS, Assoa M. Inst. C.E., Neath. 
Ireland.— R. H. DORMAN,M. Inst. O.E., Armagh. 

0. JONES, M. iNgr. C.E., Ealing. LEWIS ANGELL, M. Inst. CX, West Ham. 

Btatimjl. 

THOMAS COLE, Assoc. M. iNflrr. C.E., 11 Victoria Street, London, S.W. 

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LIST OF MEMBEES. 



HONORABY MEMBERa 

CARET, Majob^bneral G. PHIPPS . . Local Qoyornmeiit Board, Whitehall. 
CODBINGTON, TH08., M. Inst. O.B. .. 5 Riverdale Bd., Twickenham Park. 

MANSEBGH, JAS., M. Inat. G.E 5 Victoria Street, WestminBter. 

BAWUNSON, Sib ROBERT, K.C.B.. 11 The Boltona, S.W. 

M. Inst. C.E. 

BOBINSON, HY.. M. Inst. O.B 13 Victoria St, Weetminster, S.W. 

TAYLOR, ARNOLD, O.E. • Local Ooyemment Board, Whitehall. 

TULLOCH, Majob H.; R.E Local Gk>y^nment Board, Whitehall. 

PUTZEYS, E InK^nieor en chef, Direoteur de la 

Ville de BmzelleB. 
LAMBRETGHSEN VAN RITTHEM, Director of Pahlic Works, Am- 

C.L.M., OE. aterdam. 



MEMBERS. 

ABRAHAM8, 0. V City SarvB^r, KingBtoo, Jamaica. 

Abubbow, C, A.M. Inst. C.B. Town Engineer, Johanneshere, 8. A. 

AowoBTH,A.B Town Suryeyor, Milton-uezt-Sittinghouma, Kent. 

Adshead, E. E Borough Soryeyor, Macdeafleld. 

AiTKKN, T., A.M. Inst. C.B. | County Suryeyor, Cupar, Fife. 

Allbn, T. T Broad Street, Stratford-on-Ayon. 

ANDEB801}, R. 8., Assoc. M. County Suryeyor, Peebles, N.B. 

Inst. C.B. 

Andbbws, G. R Waterworks Engineer, Johannesberg, S. A. 

Anobll, J. A., A.M.In8t. G.E. Suryeyor to Urban District Council, Beokenham. 

ANGELL, LEWIS, M. Inst. Borough Engineer, West Ham. 

G.E. (Past PrestderU, and 

Treasurer,^ 

ABMierTBAD, R., Assoc M. Suryeyor to the Urban District Council, Bingley. 

Inst. G.E. Yorkshire. 

Abmittagb, W. K. L Borough Suryeyor, Yeoyil. 

ABHMEAD, F., M. Inst. OJE. 3 Manilla Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

(Past President.) 

AspiNALL, M., A.M.InBt.C.E. Borough Suryeyor, Ramsgate. 

Atkinson, J., AM. Inst. C.B. Borough Suryeyor, Stockport. 

Atkinson, W Suryeyor to Rural District Council, Kiyeton Park. 

Bailby, E Borough Suryeyor, Town Hall, Leominster. 

Bakbb, F. Borough Suryeyor, Middlesbrough, Yorks. 

Bakbb, J., A.M. Inst. C.B. .. Town Suryeyor, Slough. 

Baldwin, L. L Suryeyor to the Urban District Council, Coalville 

Leicester. 

Ball, B., Assoc. M. Inst. G.E. Borough Suryeyor, Nelson, Lanes. 

Banks, W., A.M. Inst G.E. City Surveyor, Rochester. 

Babbbb. J. P., M. Inst. C.B. . . Vestry Suryeyor, St. Mary, Islington. 

Babnbs, S. W. J., Assoc. M« Surveyor to the Urban District ODunoil, Hanwell 
Inst.C.K 



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TUl LIST OF MBHBEB8 OF THB INOOBPOBATED A8800UTION 

Babras, G. G Surreyor to Rand District Goundl, Doncaster. 

Babbatt, F.W Vestry Surveyor, Bethnal Green. 

Baugh, a. Late SurTeyor to Baral District Ooonoil, Wrex- 
ham. 

Batlbt, W. T. S., Assoc. M. Surveyor to Urban District Gonncil, Warminster. 

Inst. C.E. 

Batlis, T. p., A.M.In8t.C.B. Borough Surveyor, Droitwich. 

Bbatsoit, W Borough Surveyor, Leith. 

Beaumont, A. , County Surveyor, County Hall, Beverley. 

Bbokley, J. W Town Surveyor, Brierley Hill. 

Bell, G., Assoc. M. Inst. C.E. Borough Surveyor, Swansea. 

Bellingham, a. W. H., Assoc. Municipal Engineer, Tientsin, China. 

M. Inst C.E. 

Bennett, C. G Surveyor to Urban District Council, Oystermouth. 

Bennett, H. M Surveyor to Rural District Council, 'Kejnsham, 

Bristol. 

Bennett, W. B. G., Assoc. M. Borough Surveyor, Southampton. 

Inst. C.E. 

Bbbrinoton, R. E. W., Absoo. Graisley, Wolverhampton. 

M. Inst. C.E. 

Beswiok, W. H., Assoc H. Surveyor to Urban District Council, Exmouth. 

Inst. C.E. 

Bettant, F. ., Borough Engineer, Bnrslem. 

BiNNiE, A. B., M. Inst. C.E. Chief Engineer, London County Council, Spring 

{Member of Council,) Gardens, S.W. 

BiSQOP, B|uW. .. ,. .. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Sutton- 

in-Ashfield, Notts. 

Bi«A0KBi7BN, T, , Snrveyor to the Urban District Council, Barmouth, 

North Wales. 

Blaoksbaw, W., Absoc. M. Borough Surveyor, Stafford. 

Inst C.E. 

Blaib, W. N., A.M.In8t.C.E» Vestry Surveyor, Vestry Hall, St. P&ncras. 

BiiAND, D Snrveyor to the Urban District Council, Chester- 
ton, Cambridge. 

BoDEN, G .. Surveyor to the Rural District Connoil, Romford. 

BoTTEBiLL, C. , Town Hall, Walham Green. 

BOULNOIS, H. P., M. Inst City Engineer, Liverpool 

C.E. (Past President,) 

BowEB, J Borough Engineer, Gateshead-on-Tyne. 

Bbadfobd, J. H Surveyor to Urban District Council, Aylesbury. 

Bbadlet, J. W., Absoo. M. Borough Engineer, Wolverhampton. 

lust C.E. 

Bbadshaw, F. E. G Surveyor to Trowbridge Urban District Council. 

Bbessey, J. T Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Wanstead, 

Essex. 

Bbbtland, J. C, M. InstC.K City Surveyor, Belfast 

Bbett, J. H County Surveyor, Co. Antrim, Belfast, Ireland. 

Bbbttell, W. H. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Rowley 

Regis, Staffordshire. 

Bbidgbs, O. A Borough Engineer, Lymington, Hants. 

Bbieblet, J. H Borough Surveyor, Richmond, Surrey. 

Bbieblet, R Town Surveyor, Newton-in-Makerneld, Lanca- 
shire. 

Bbookbank, W. H Borough Surveyor, Bolton. 

Bbodie, J. S., A.M. Inst. CU. Town Surveyor, Whitehaven. 

BuooKE, J Surveyor to the Urban District Council, North- 

wich, Cheshire. 

Bbooke, W., Assoc. H. Inst. Surveyor to the Rural District Council, Strood, 

C.E. Kent Meopham, Gravesend. 

Bboom, G. J. C, M.Inst C.E. Borough Engineer, St Helen's, Lancashire. 

Bbown, a., M. Inst. C.E. Borough Engineer, Nottingham. 

^Member of Council), 



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OF MXTNIOIPAL AND OOUMTY BNQINEEBS. IX 

Bbown, J. W., A.MJnst.G.B. Borough Engineer, Weet Hartlepool. 

Bbown, p. H., A.M. iMt C.E. Diatriot Engineer, Godaveri, Madras. 

Bbown, B.B Surveyor to Urban District Council, Bridlington. 

Bbown, W. I Borough Borreyor, Northampton. 

Bbown, W. T Surveyor to Rural District (iuncil, Worksop, 

Bbownbidob, C, Assoc. M. Borough Engineer, Birkenhead. 

Inst. C.E. 

BUOKH4M, E., M. Inst G.E. Borough Surveyor, Ipswich. 

(Vice-President,) 

Bunting, T.F Borough Surveyor, Maidstone. 

Bdbden, a. M., Assoc. M« County Surveyor, Kilkenny. 

InstCB. 

Bdbgsbs, S. E., Assoc. M. Vestry Surveyor, Stoke Newlngton. 

Inst. C.Ei. 

Bubblam, B Borough Surveyor, Congleton. 

Boston, J. H Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Auden- 

shaw, Lancashire. 

BuTLiB, W Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Faroham. 

Button, F. S., M. Inst C.E. Consulting Borough Surveyor, Burnley; Blannel 

(Member of Council.) Street, Burnley ; Hon. Secretary, Lancashire and 

Cheshire District. 

Caink, T., As8oc.M.In8t. C.E. City Engineer, Worcester. 

Caibnoboss, T. W., Assoc. M. Waterworks Engineer, Town House, Cape Town, 

Inst. C.E. S.A. 

Calvkbt, W Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Hebden 

Bridge. 

Cambbon, D City Surveyor, Exeter. 

Campbbll, a. H., Assoc M. City Surveyor, Canterbury. 

Inst C Ji. 

Campbell, K. F., Assoc. M. Borough Surveyor, Stockton. 

Inst. C.E. 

Capon, E. R Surveyor to the Urban District Council, ] 

Cabd, H County Surveyor, Sussex (East). Lewes. 

Cablinb, J., A. M. Inst C.E. District Surveyor, Lewisham. Catford Uill, S.B. 

OABTWRIGHT, J.. M. Inst Borough Surveyor, Bury, Lancashire. 

C.B. (Past President.) 

Ca8S,R. W Snrvevor to the Urban District Council, Pudsey, 

Yorks. 

Catt, a. J Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Sandwich. 

Chadwiok, J Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Fenny 

Stratford. 

Chablbs, T. Snrvevor to the Urban District Council, Harrow. 

Chabt. R. M. Consulting Surveyor to the Rural District Council, 

Croydon. Vestr^r Hall, Mitcbam, Surrey. 

Christib, J City Electrical Engineer, Londonderry. 

Clabb, J., A.M. Inst. C.E. .. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Sleaford. 

Clark, F. D., A.M.InstC.E. Borough Engineer, Reigate. 

Clabkb, a. M Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Witham. 

Clabson, H. J Borough Surveyor, Tarn worth. 

Clouoh, W Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Atherton. 

Coalbs, H. F Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Sunbury- 

on-Thames. 

Coalbs, H. G., Assoc. M. Inst Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Market 

C.E. Harborough. 

Cookbill, J. W., A. M. Inst. Borough Surveyor, Great Yarmouth ; Hon, Secret 

C.E. (Member of Council.) tary, Eastern Counties District 

Cookbill, T., Assoc. M. Inst Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Haverhill, 

C.E. Suffolk. 

Collbn,W.,M.A.,B.E.,A.M. County Surveyor, Dublin (Soutb). 202 Great 

Inst C.E. Brunswick Street, Dublin. 



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X LIST OF IIEMBEBS OF THB INGOBPOBATED ASSOOIATIOM 

CoLLms, A. E., A.M.lD8tG.E. City Engineer, Norwich. 

Collins, B Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Enfield, N . 

CoMBBB, A Borough Surveyor, Kidderminster. 

CoMBEB, P. F. , M. Inst. O.E. I. Town Surveyor, Bray. 8 Auglesea Street, College 

Green, Dublin. 

Cook, F. P., Aasoo. M. Inst Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Mansfield 

C.E. Woodhouse. 

Cook, J., Assoc M. Inst C.E. Borough Surveyor, Lancaster. 

Cooke, E. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Abersy- 

ohan, PontypooL 

CooPBB, C. H., A.M.InstC.E. Surveyor to Urban District Council, Wimbledon. 

CoopEB, F. A., M. Inst C.E. Director of Public Works, Hong Kong. 

CooPEB, J., AssocM. Inst. C. E. Burgh Engineer, Edinburgh. 

Cooper, W. W Surveyor to Urban District Council, Bedlington. 

Copland, C. A Surveyor to Urban District Council, Sheerness. 

Copley, C. T., A.M.InstC.E. 252 Bstrkerhouse Boad, Kelson, Lancashire. 

Cordon, B. C Surveyor to the Belper Bural District Council, 

Duffield, Derby. 

Cottbrbll, a. p. L, Assoc. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Horfield. 

M. Inst C.E. 

Coverlet, J. S Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Penmaen- 

mawr. 

Cowan, P. C, M. Inst C.E. County Surveyor, Down, Ireland. 

Cox, J. H., M. Inst C.E. Borough Surveyor, Bradford. 

(^Member ofCotmcil,) 

Crabtreb, W. H. B., Assoc. Borough Surveyor, Doncaster. 

M. Inst. C.E. 

Crbbr, a., Assoc. M. Inst.C.E. City Surveyor, York. 

(Member of Council,) 

Cbboeen, IL S Consulting Surveyor to the Urban District Council, 

Bromley, Kent. 

Crimp, W. Santo, M.Inst.C.E. 27 Great George Street, S.W. 

Crowther,J. A Borough Surveyor, Bootle. 

Crummaok, H. C, Assoc. M. Borough Surveyor, Hartlepool. 

Inst. C.E. 

Currall, a. E Surveyor to the Bural District Council, Solihull, 

Warwickshire. 

Curry, W. F Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Morpeth. 

Curry, W. T., A. M. InstC.E. Wentwood Waterworks, near Caerleou, Mon. 

Dalton, J. P Surveyor to the Urban District CouncU, Byton-on- 

Tyne. 

Dayies, B Borough Surveyor, Brecknock. 

Davies, B. W Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Newtown, 

N. Wales. 

Davies, W. A., Assoc. M. Inst. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Heston 

C.E. and Isleworth. Town Hall, Hounslow. 

Dayis, a. T., Assoc. M. Inst. Countv Surveyor, Salop ; Hon, Secretary, Mid- 

C.E. (Member of Council.) lana Counties District 

Dawson, C. J Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Barking. 

Dawson, N. H Borough.Surveyor, Banbury. 

Dawson, W., M. Inst C.E. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Leyton, E. 

DEACON, G. F., M. Inst. 32 Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W. 

C.E. (Past President.) 

Dearden, H., A.M.Iust.C.E. Borough Surveyor, Batley. 

Debnam, a. W Surveyor to the Urban District Council, East 

Stonehouse, Devon. 

Dennis, N. F., A.M.InstC.E. Town Surveyor, West Cowes. 

Dent, W Bail way Street, Nelson, Lancashire. 

Deyerbll, T. C, Assoc. M. Box 383 G.P.O., Melbourne, Victoria. 

Inst. C.E. 



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OF MtTNIOIPAL AND OOUITTX XNaiNEBB& 



XI 



Dkt?hibot, J Siureyor to the Raral DiBtriot Coanoil, Guildford. 

Dickinson, B. Surveyor to District Ck>unoil, Berwick-on-Tweed. 

Dickinson, T. R., Assoc. M. c/o Boroagh Surveyor's Office, Bradford. 

Inst G.E. 

DiQGLB, J., A.M. Inst. G.E. Borough Engiueer, Hevwood. 

DiooLB, Wm Surveyor, Frodsham, Chester. 

DiTCHAM, H Borough Surveyor, Harwich. 

Dixon, E. K., M.E., M. Inst. County Surveyor, Castlebar, Mayo. 

C.E. 

DnoN, F. B., Assoc. M. Inst. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Walton- 

aE. le-Dale. 

Dixon, J. B Vestry Surveyor, Shoieditch. 

Dixon, B Borough Surveyor, Stratford-on- A von. 

DoDD, P., Assoc. M. Inst.CE. Surveyor, Wandsworth, S.W. 

DoBMAK, B. H.,M. Inst C.E. County Surveyor, Armagh ; Hon, Secretary, Irish 

(^Member of Council.) District 

DuFFiN, W. E. L., M. Inst County Surveyor, Waterford, Ireland. 

C.E.I. 

Dttkboombe, C, M. a., M. Inst. 82 Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W. 

C.E. 

DuNS00MBB,N.,A.M.Inst.C.E. Borough Surveyor, Chesterfield. 

Dtaok, W., A.M. Inst. C.E. Burgh Surveyor, Aberdeen. 

Dtkb,S Surveyor, Bridlington. 

Dtson, J. W Surveyor to the Bund District Council, Halifax, 

Clifton, Brighouse. 

Eabkbbaw, J. T., Assoc. M. Borough Surveyor, Ashton-under-Lyne, Lanca- 

Inst C.E. shire. 

Eaton-Shou, Q., Assoc. M. Borough Surveyor, Crewe. 

InstCE. 

BATBS, J. T.. M. Inst. C.E. 39 Corporation Street, Birmingham. 

(^Pasi President.) 

Ebbbtts, D. J Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Acton. 

EoKBBSLET, W. SuTvcyor to the Urban District Couucil, Chadder- 

ton, Lancashire. 

Eddowbs, W. C Borough Surveyor, Shrewsbury. 

Edok, F. J., A. M. Inst C.E. City Surveyor's Office, Manchester. 

Edinobb,P Surveyor to Urban District Council, Frome. 

EoHONBSON, S Survevor to Bund District Council, Burnley. 

Edson, W City Surveyor, Bipon. 

Elfobd, J Borough Surveyor, Poole. 

ELLICE-CLABK, E. B., M. 34 Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W. 

Inst. C.E. {Poet President.) 

Ellis, B. E., A.M. Inst C.E. Engineer to the Municipality, Madras. 

Entwislb, H Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Swinton. 

ESCOTT, E. B. S., M. Inst. Borough Engineer, Halifax. 

C.E. {Past President.) 

Evans, A. J. L Borough Surveyor, Luton. 

Evans, E. I., Assoc. M. Inst. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Penarth, 

C.E. South Wales. 

Evans, J Borough Surveyor, Grantham. 

Evans, J. P Surveyor to tlie Bural District Council, Wrexham. 

EvBBBTT, F. C, A.M.Inst.C.E. Surveyor to Urban District Council, West Derby. 



Paiblbt, W., A.M. Inst C.E. 
Fabball,T. .. 



Fabbington, T. B. 
Fabbington, W. .. 



Bichmond Main Sewerage Board, Mortlake, S.W. 
Surveyor to Urban District Council, Sherborne, 

Dorset 
Borough Engineer, Conway. 
Surveyor to the Hoyland "Kether Urban District 

Council. 



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XU LIST OF HEUBEBS OF THB INOOBPOBATBD ASSOCIATION 

Felkin, H.B. Siinreyor to the Sonthall Norwood Urban Goanoil. 

Femn, T Snrreyor to Urban District Council, Upper Soot- 
hill, near Dewslmrj, Yorks. 

FiDDiAN, W Town Surveyor, Stonrbridge. 

FiNDLAT, R., A.M. Inat. O.E. Surveyor to the Parish of Eltham, Plumstead. 

Fleming, M. J Borough Surveyor, Town Hall, Waterford. 

Floweb, J. M., AsBOcMJust. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Portis- 
C.E. head, near Bristol. Carlton Chambers, Baldwin 

Street, Bristol. 
FoBDEE, W. G., A.M.In8t.C.B. " Sunnydale," Thornton Heath. 

FoBTEB, T Surveyor to the Hoylake and West Kirby Urban 

District CounciL 
FOWLER, ALFRED M., I St Peter's Square, Manchester; 85 Old Queen 
M. Inst. C.E. (Past Presi- Street, Westminster, S.W. 

Fbanks, T. W., A.M.InsiC.E. Borough Surveyor, Lewes. 

Fkaseb, a. O Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Allerton, 

LiverpooL 
Fe.\8Eb, W., Assoc. M. Inst Surveyor to the Rural District Council, Cardiff. 

C.E. 270 Cowbridge Road, Cardiff. 

Fbost, H Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Famham, 

Surrey. 
Fet, W. H., A.m. Inst. C.E. Surveyor to Urban District Council, Alverstoke. 

Gamble, S. G., Assoc. M. Inst Metropolitan Fire Brigade, Southwark Bridge 
C.E. Road. 

Gammaqe, J Borough Surveyor, Dudley. 

Gammell, H. H Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Perry 

Barr, near Birmingham. 
Gabbatt, C. T Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Ashby 

Woulds. Market Street, Ashby-de-la-Zouch. 
Gabbbtt, H. a., Assoc. M. Town Surveyor, Torquay. 
Inst C.E. 

G abeettt, J. H. County Surveyor, Worcester. 

Gaskell,P Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Hornsea, 

near Hull. 

Gaulteb, M. S. Town Surveyor, Fleetwood. 

Geen, H Borough Surveyor, Okehumpton. 

GiNN, A. F District Surveyor to the Kent County Council, 

Tonbridge. Salisbury Villa, Quarry Road, 

Tonbridge. 
Gloteb, B., M.A., B.E., County Surveyor, Eildare, Ireland; 19 Prince 
M. Inst C.E. Patrick Terrace, North Circular Road, Dublin. 

Glotke, R. M., A.M.InstC.E. Borough Surveyor, Eastbourne. 

GoDDAED, D. Borough Surveyor, Kendal. 

Goddabd, J Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Ware. 

Gk>DFBET, B., A .M. Inst. C.E. Surveyor to the Rural District Council, Rotherham. 
GoDFEET, R., Assoc. M. Inst. King's Heath, near Birmingham. 
C.E. (Member of CouncU.) 

GoLDEB, T. C Borough Surveyor, Deal. 

GoLDBWOBTH, W. Surveyor to the Urban District Councll, Presoot, 

Lancashire. 
Gkx}DTEAB, H., Assoc. M Jnst. Borough Surveyor, Colchester. 
C.E. 

Gow, W. C Vestry Surveyor, Vestry Hall, Plumstead. 

Gbaves, M. D Surveyor to the Urban District Council, BexhilL 

Gbat, R. A County Surveyor, Dublin. 

Gbat, W. H Borough Surveyor, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershhre. 

Gbbatobex, a. D., Assoc. M. Borough Surveyor, West Bromwich. 

Inst C.E. 
G been, A. A. Borough Surveyor, Brackley. 



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OF MT7NIGIPAL AND OOUNTY ENQINEEB& XIU 

Grkxnwbll, a., Awoo. li. Sarveyor to the Bural Diatriot Cotmoil, Frome. 

Inat. C.B. 

Gbkenwood, A 89 Calder Street, Todmorden. 

Gbeoson, 6 Sarveyor to the Rural District Council, Dorham. 

Grsoson. J., Absoc. M. Inst. Burveybr to the Urban Diatriot Council, Padiham, 

C.E. near Burnley. 

GniEvn, R Surveyor to the Cowpen Urban Difltrict Council, 

Blyth, Northumberland. 

Griffiths, F Corporation Waterworks En^neer, Leicester. 

Gbimlet, S. S., A.M. InstC.E. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Hendon. 

Gtjkkis, J. W. .*. .. .. County Surveyor, Longford, Ireland. 

GiTiiTON, C. J., A.M. In8t.C.E. Surveyor to UrbEin District Council, Wood Green. 

Hagkett, E. A., M.E., M. County Surveyor, Clonmel, Tipperary, Ireland. 

InstCB. 

Haioh, J., A.M. Inst C.E. .. Town Surveyor, Abergavenny. 

Haikswobtb, M Surveyor to Urban District Council, Teddington. 

Hall, J., Assooi M. Inst. CJB. Borough Surveyor, Cheltenham ; Hon, Secretary ^ 

(^Member of CouncU.) Western Counties District. 

Hall,M. Borough Surveyor, South Shields, Durham. 

Hall, W., A.M. Inst C.E. .. Surveyor to Urban District Council, Great Crosby. 

Hamar,A Borough Surveyor, Bishop's Castle, Shropshire. 

Hambt, G. H Borough Engineer, Lowestoft 

Hahmondb, G. li. ., .. .. Surveyor, Newport, Salop. 

Hanson, W Surveyor to the Rural District Council, Wantage. 

Haba, R Engineer to Tokio Fu, Japan. 

Habdino, J. R.» Assoc. M. Surveyor, Epsom^ Surrey. 

Inst C.E. 

Hare, F. H Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Mirfleld. 

Harlook, H. Borough Engineer, Southend-on-Sea. 

Habpcb, W., M. lost C.E. .. Borough Engmeer, Cardiff. 

Habbib, F Surveyor to the Rural District Council, Tonbridge. 

Bidborough, Tunbridge Wells. 

Habbibon, R. J., Assoc. M. Borough Surveyor, Derby. 

Inst C.E. 

Habtlbt, T. H Borough Surveyor, Colne. 

Habtt, S., M. Inst C.E. I. .. City Engineer, Dublin. 

Habvet, E. J Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Yentnor. 

Habvct, T. F., Assoc. M. Engineer to the Urban District Council, Merthyr 

Inst C.E. TydvU. 

Haycboft, J. J Borough Engineer. Woollahra, Sydney. 

Hawkinos, S. T Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Bromley. 

Hawkins, I. T Town Surveyor, Somerton, Somersetshire. 

Hawlby, G. W Surveyor to the Nottingham District Highway 

Board, Nottingham. 

Hatneb, R. H Borough Engineer, Newport, Mon. 

Heath, G. A Surveyor to the Rural District Council, Watford. 

Heaton, G., Assoc. M. Inst Surveyor to Urban District Councils. Pemberton, 

C.E. Aspull,Abram,andOrrell. King Street, Wigan. 

Hbndebbon, a. J., Assoc. M. Surveyor to the District Highway Board, Kingston. 

Inst. C.E. 

Hebon, J., B.E., B.A County Surveyor, Monaghan, Ireland. 

HsBBOD, H. Surveyor to the Rural District Council, Barrow- 

on-boar, near Loughborough. 

Hewabd, T. L 80 Elgin Road, Croydon, 

Hewson, T., M. Inst C.E. .. Borough Engineer, Leeds. 

HioKES, T. J County Surveyor, Cornwall (W. division), Truro. 

HiGOENB, T. W. E., Assoc M. Vestry Surveyor, Vestry Hall, Chelsea. 

Inst C.E. 

H1GOINS0N.T 17 MUlfield Road, Widnes. 

HiHBOH, H. G Surveyor to Urban District Council, East Dereham. 



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Google 



ZIV LIST OF M¥l>n^iP^ OF THE INOORPORATBD A8S00UTI0M 

HiVD, H Surveyor to the Urban District Connoil, Erith. 

HoDOB, J. L^ A.M. Inst O.E. 22 Goortenay Street, Plpaouth. 

HoiMMOir, W Surreyor to the Urban District CJouncU, Keswick. 

HoDtOH, Q., M. Inst. O.E. . . Loughborough. Abbey Buildings, Prinoe's Street, 

Westminster, S.W. 

HoGEiir, L. W Surveyor to the Rural District Council, Isle of 

Thanet. 

HoLDBV, J., A.Bl Inst G.E. Surveyor to the Rural District Council, Llandaff. 

Ely, Cardiff. 

HoLLnro8,G Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Wallsend. 

Holmes, G. W., Assoc. M. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Waltham- 
Inst C.E. stow. 

Holt, G. F. Late Surveyor, Poplar District Board of Works. 

HooLKT, Cosmo C. Assoc. M. Rural District Council, Barton*upon-Irwell ; Ur- 
In8t.C.B. ban District Council, Urmston, near Man- 

chester. Green Lane, Patrioroft 

HooLKT, B. P., A.M.InstC.E. County Surveyor, Nottingham. 
{Member of Council.) 

HooPKB, J. D Consulting Surveyor to Urban District Council, 

Woodford, Essex. 

Hops, W. H Surveyor to the Rural District Council, Kingston- 
on-Thames. 

HopKiNSON, W. H Borough Engineer, Keighley. 

Hoppbb, H. T Surveyor to the Urban District Council, North 

Ormesby, near Middlesbrough. 

HOBAH, J., M.E., M.Inst.C.E. County Surveyor, 50 George Street, Limerick, 

Ireland. 

HoBSFALL, W. H. D Surveyor to Urban District Council^ Southowram. 

HoRTON, G. 8 Surveyor to Urban District Council, Felixstowe. 

HowABD, H Surveyor to Urban District Council, Littlehampton. 

HowoRorr, J. {Member of Surveyor, Kirkleatham Urban District Council, 
Council.) Redcar, Yorkshire ; Hon. Sec,, N. Counties 

District 

Howell, F. G County Surveyor, Kingston-on-Thames. 

Howell, J Surveyor to Urban District Council, Glyncorrwg. 

HowsE, W. T Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Hinckley. 

Hunt, G. J Borough Engineer, Dorchester. 

HuBD, H Surveyor to llrban District Council, Broadstairs. 

Ingham, W Water Engineer, Torquay. 

Iron, W Vestry Surveyor, ClerkenwelL 

Ibvcnq, W. E • Surveyor to the Municipal Shire of Toowong, near 

Brisbane, Queensland. 
Isaacs, L. H Surveyor to the Holbom District B. W., 3 Veru- 

1am Buildings, Gray's Inn Road. 

Jackson, N. County Surveyor, Co. Cork (West Riding), 

Bandon, Co. Cork. 

Japfbet, W Town Surveyor, Matlock Bath. 

James, A. C Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Grays 

Thurrock. 

Jameson, M.W. Surveyor to Urban District Council, South Homsey. 

Jeeves, B Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Melton 

Mowbray. 

Jenkin, C. J. Surveyor to Urban District Council, WillenhalL 

Jennings, G Borough Surveyor, Rotherham. 

Jepbon, J Surveyor to Urban District Council, Levenshulme. 

Jevons, J. H Borough Surveyor, Hertford. 

Johnston, J., A. M.Inst C.E. Waterworks Engineer, Brighton. 
Jones, A. S., Lt.-Col., 9.C., Ridge Cottage, Finchampstead, Berks. 
Assoc. M. Inst. C.E. 



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OF MtTNIOIPAL AKD OOUNTY SKOINSEBS. 



XV 



JONES, C, M. iDst. O.E. Baireyor to the Urban District Council, Ealing* 

(Past President and General MiadlCBez. 

Han, Secretary,') 

JoyEB, Chbistophbb .. .. Surveyor to Urban District Gonncil, Teignmonth. 

JoKSB, I. M., As80o» M. Inst. City Surveyor, Chester ; Engineer to the Dee 

C.E. Bridge Commissioners. 

JoNBS, J Surveyor to the Rural District Council, Merthyr 

Tydvil. 

JoNBB, J. O Borough Surveyor, Pwllheli. 

JoNBS, B Borough Surveyor, Aberystwyth. 

JoNia, W., AssocMJusiCE. Surveyor to Urban District Council, Colwyn Bay. 

Juris, W. H Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Tipton. 



Kay, W. R Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Irlam. 

Kkmp, J., Assoc. M. Inst C.E. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Hampton, 

Middlesex. 

Kenkedt, J. D Town Surveyor. Retford. 

Kbtwood, H. G Surveyor to the Rural District Council, Maldon. 

KiDD, T., Assoa M. Inst C.E. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Worksop. 

KiLFOBD, H. J Borough Surveyor, Ilkeston, Derbyshire. 

Kmo, W Surveyor to the Rural District Council, Blaby. 

Alliance Chambera, Municipal Square, Leicester. 
KntBT, C, A880C.M.InstC.E. Water Engineer, Newport, Mon. 
KmK, T., Assoc. M. Inst. C.E. Surveyor, Brisbane, Queensland. 
KiBKBT,S.A.,M.A.(Cantab.) Countjr Surveyor, Cork (South division), E. 

Riding. Miramur, Queenstown. 

BLhapp, R. W Borough Surveyor, Christchuroh, Hants, 

Knight, J. M Vestry Surveyor, Mile End. 

Kkowles, G. W Town Surveyor, Clevedon, Somerset 

KuBATA, T. Engineer to Tokio Fn, Japan. 



Laoit, p. W., A.Bf.Inst.C.E. Town Surveyor, Bournemouth. 

Lacet, G. W Borough Surveyor, Saffron Walden. 

Laffan. G. B., A8Boo.M.Inst. Engineer to the Urban District Council, Twicken- 

C.E. {Member of Council,) ham ; Ifon, Secretary ^ Home Counties District. 

liANDLBSS, J. T Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Brier- 
field, Lanes. 

Latham, A., M. Inst C.E. .. Borough Engineer, Margate. 

Laubbms, F., A.M. Inst. C.E. Surveyor to the Rural District Council, Cookham. 

Law, E Coun^ Surveyor, Northampton. 

liAWS, W. G., M. Inst C.E. City Engineer, Newoastle-on-Tyne. 

(Past President,) 

Lawson, C. G., Assoc. M. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, South- 

Inst C.E. gate. District Offices, Palmer's Green, N. 

Lexbodt, J. W County Surveyor, Co. Tyrone (8.). 

LsBTE, W. H., A.M.Inst.C.E. County Surveyor, Bedford. 

Leioh, W. Borough Surveyor, Chorley. 

LEMON, J., M. Inst. C.E. Consulting Engineer, Southampton; and 9 

iPast President,) Victoria Street, Westminster. 

Lkwi8,J. D Thames Conservancy. 8 Blenheim Villas, Maiden- 
head. 

Lewis, T. L Town Surveyor. St George, Bristol. 

LiLLST, G. H Surveyor to tlie Urban District Council, Ashby- 

de-la-Zouch. 

LiviKOSTONB, G., Assoc. M. Vestry Surveyor, St. George, Hanover Square. 

Inst C.E. 1 Pimlico Road, S.W. 

LOBLEY, J., M. Inst C.E. Borough Engmeer, Hanley, Staffordshire. 

(Past President,) 

LoouB; W. R Surveyor to Urban District Council, Caversbam. 



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Xn LIST OF KEKBEBS OF THB IKOOBPOBATED A88O0UTIOM 



LooKWOOD, P. C^ MJ^istCE. 
LoMAX, G. J^ Amoo. M. InBt. 

OB. 

LoiransLD, B. W. F 

liOTKOBOTv, E. J^ Amoo. M. 

InstCE. 
LowB, G. H^ M. Inst G.E. 

(Vie^Pretideni,) 

liUVD, G. 

Luro, G. W., A. M. Inst a E. 

liUVD, J. .. .. 

Ltvam, F. J 

LTVA]f,P.J 

Ltohs, a, O., M. Inst G.E. . . 



Suryeyor, Brighton. 

Grosrenor Ghamben, Deanqgate, Manchester. 

Goonty Snryeror, Go. Donegal (8.). 

Engineer to the Urban Diatriot Gonndl^ HomBey. 

Vestry Sarreyor, Hampstead. 

Snrreyor to the Urban District Gonncil, Yeadoo. 

Late Boroagh Engineer, Blackbom. 

Borongh Surveyor, Bedford. 

Gonnty Snnreyor, Go. Tyrone (N.). 

Gonn^ Snnreyor, Lonth. Dundalk, Ireland. 

Gonnty Snnreyor, Go. Gork (EastX Mallow. 



McBkatb, a. G., Assoc. M. 

Inst G.E. 
MaoBbaib, B. a., Assoc. M. 

InstG^E. 
Macdovald, D. G., As80& M. 

InstG.E. 
KoKkkzik, J. MoD. .. .. 

MoKn, H. U., M. Inst G.E. 
Maib, H., Assoc. M. Inst. G.E. 

MALLnraoH, J 

Mallihson, T. 

Maltbt, F. T., Asboc. M. 

InstG.E. 
Haw, J., AssocM.InstG.E. 
MAinfiHG,G. W 

Mabeb, H. C., A.M.InstG.E. 
Masks, T. T., A.M JnstG.E. 
Mabstov, O. F., Assoc. M. 

Inst.GJL 
Mabtkv, H. J., Assoc M. 

Inst. G.E. 
Hasov, G., Asboc M. Inst 

G.E. 
Masob, W. a. 

Massix, F., A.M. Inst G.E. 
Matotw, G., A.M. Inst G.B. 
Mathews, G. 8., Assoc M. 

Inst G.E. 
Mawbet, E. G., Assoc M. 

InstG.E. 

Mawbon, B. G 

MAY, F. J. G., M, Inst G.E. 

(^Prendent^ 
Matbvbt, BuP. 



MATn,G. 



Surveyor to the Urban District Gonndl, Sale, 

Gheshirc 
(Xty Engineer, Lincoln. 

Surveyor to the Urban District Gonndl, Bngby. 

Surveyor to the Rural District Gouncil, Bucklow, 

Lossie Bank, Bowdon, Gheehire. 
11 Victoria Street Westminster, S.W. 
Survevor to the Parish of Hammersmith. 
1 York Street, Golne, Lancashire. 
Surveyor to the Urban District Gonndl, Skipton. 
Borough Surveyor, Guildford. 

Surveyor to Urban District Gooncil, Sevenoaks. 
Survevor to; the Beds Gounty Gonndl, Biggles- 
wade, Beds. 
Borough Engineer, Dewsbury. 
Surveyor, Llandudno, Gamarvonshiic 
Borough Surveyor, Sutton Gddfield. 

Vestry Surveyor, Streatham. 158 High Boad, 

Streatham. 
Vestry Surveyor, St Martin-in-the-Fields. Town 

AOl, Gharmg Gross, S.W. 
Surveyor to the Urban District Goundl, Shildon, 

near Darlington. 
Surveyor to the Rural District Gouncil, Wakefield. 
Surveyed to the Urban District GouncO, Woodford. 
Surveyor to the Urban District Gouncil, Dorking. 

Borough Engineer, Leicester. 

Borongh Surveyor, Evesham. 

Borough Engineer and Surveyor, Brighton. 

Surveyor to the Urban District Gonndl, Great 

Malvern. 
Enapneer and Surveyor to the Municipal Gouncil, 

Shanghai ; Hon, Corresponding Sec for Eastern 



Meabt, M. G., A.M.InstG.E. 
MEADE, T. DB GOURGY, 

M. Inst OB. iP<ut iVwf. 

dent,) 



Vestry Surveyor, St Luke, Middlesex. 
Gity Surveyor, Manchester. Kenmore, Didsbnry, 
Manchester. 



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OF MUNICIPAL AND COUNTY ENGINEERS. XVll 

MsLLOR, T. E. W., Ab0OO. M. Borough Surveyor, TuDbridge Wells. 
Inat. O.E. 

Metoalf, J. W., Absoc. M. Town Sorveyor, Newmarket 
Inst. O.E. 

MiDDLEBBOOK, 8. .. •• .. 10 FembiU Road, Bootlo. 

MiDDLETON, R. H., Assoc. M. Borough Surveyor, WaLttll. 
Inst C.B. 

MiLLEB, H., M. Inst C.E. .. County Surveyor, East SuflTolk, Ipswich. 

Mills, J. H Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Crompton, 

near Oldham. 

Mitchell, J Borough Surveyor, Hyde, Manchester. 

MoLDfEUX, W. F. Y Surveyor to Rural District Council, New Win- 
chester. 

MoNOUB, J Highway Surveyor, Staffordshire. 

MoNSON, H Vebtry Surveyor, St James, Westminster. 

MooBE,J. H County Surveyor, Co. Meath. 63 Eccles Street, 

Dublin. 

MoBOAK, G. S Surveyor to the Rural District Council. Llau- 

trissant, Glamorgan. 

MoBOAN, J Surveyor to the Pontardawe Rural District 

Council, Swansea. 

MoBOAir, W. B., Assoc. M. Borough Surveyor, Weymouth and Melcombe 
Inst. C.E. Regis, Dorsetsiiire. 

MoBTiMBB, J Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Tetten- 

hall, near Wolverhampton. 

Mountain, A. H., Assoc. M. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Withing- 
Inst O.E. ton, near Manchester. 

MiTBOH, P. Borough Engineer, Portsmouth. 

MuBZBAN, M. C, CLE., A.M. Executive Engineer, Bombay. 
InstCE. 

Myatt, J Town Surveyor, Leek. 

Nanktvell, H. H Surveyor to Urban District Council, Braintree. 

Natlob, W., a. M. Inst. C.K 16 Walton's Parade, Preston. 
Nettleton, H., A880cM.InBt. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Weston- 
C.E. super-Mare. 

Newman, F Borough Engineer, Ryde, and County Surveyor, 

Isle of Wight 

Newton, G. H Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Denton, 

Manchester. 
Newton, J., M. Inst. O.E. .. Carlton Buildings, Manchester ; Engineer to the 

Urban District Council, Bowdon, Cheshire. 
Newton, W. J., A.M.InstO.E. Borough Surveyor, Accrington . 
NoBBiNOTON, J. P., Assoc. M. Vestry Surveyor, Lambeth. Vestry Hall, Ken- 
Inst C.E. nington Green. 

NoBBisH, G. R Vestry Surveyor, St Saviour, South wark. 

NuTTALL, T., Assoc. M. Inst. Surveyor to the Urban District Councils, Kearsley 
C.E. and Bamsbottom, Lanes. 20 Market Street, 

Bury, Lanes. 

Obchabd, W. P., B.E County Surveyor, Ballina, North Mayo, Ireland. 

Ottlet, D. G., M. Inst O.E. County Surveyor, Co. Leitrim. 
Oxtobt, W., A.M. Inst. C.E. Surveyor to the Board of Works, Poplar. 

Pallibeb, W. a Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Hkley. 

Palmer, F. W. J Surveyor to Urban District Council, Heme Bay. 

Pabdoe, J. C. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Barry, 

near Cardiff. 
Pabkeb, J., A.M. Inst C.E. Brougham Chambers, Nottingham. 
Pabkbr, J., A.M. Inst. C.E. City Surveyor, Hereford. 



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XYUl LIST OF MEMBEBS OF THB INOOBPOBATED ASSOOIATION 

Pabker, S. W Surreyor to Urban District CJonncil, ThomhUL 

Parkinson, J., Absoo. M. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Turton, 

Inst. G.E. near Bolton. 

PABBf F Borough Surveyor, Bridpfwater. 

Parr, N Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Brentford. 

Paton, J Borough Enpfineer, Plymouth. 

Pattison, W. P Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Ben well 

and Fenham. 

Pearson, W. T Surveyor to the Urban District Council, RothwelL 

Peirob, R., As800.M.InBt.C.E. Municipal Engineer, Penang, Straits Settlements. 

Pembbbton, O Surveyor to Urban District Council, Desborough. 

Penty, W. G Surveyor to the Rural District Council, York. 

Pebbt, J., M.E., M.InstC.E. County Surveyor, Ca Gal way (West Riding), 

Gklway. 

Petbee, J Borough Surveyor, Jarrow. 

Petbeb, M Borough Surveyor, Great Grimsby. 

Phillips, B County Surveyor, Gloucester. 

PiOKERiNQ, J. S., Assoc. M. SuTVoyor to Urban District Council, Nuneaton. 

Inst. G.E. 

Pickering, R 11 Lowther Street, Whitehaven. 

PioKERiNO, S. A. Borough Surveyor, Oldham. 

Pickles, G. H Borough Surveyor, Burnley. 

PiLDiTCH, J. T. Surveyor to the Parish of Battersea. 

Platt, S. S., Assoc. M. Inst. Borough Surveyor, Rochdale. 

C.E. {Member of Council.) 

Plowrioht, a. H Borough Engineer, Wisbech, Cambs. 

Pollard, J., A. M. Inst C.E. 31 Old Queen Street, Westminster. 

PoBTEB, R Borough Surveyor, Wakefield. 

Pratt, R • •. Borough Surveyor, Henley-on-Thames. 

Pbesb, W. J Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Bumham, 

Somerset. 

Pbioe, J.. A.M. Inst. C.E. . . Assistant City Engineer, Liverpool. 

PRITOHARD, EDWARD, 37 Waterloo Street, Birmingham; and 1 Victoria 

M. Inst C.E. {Past Presi- Street, Westminster, S.W. 

dent) 

Pbootob, J., M. Inst. C.E. .. Mere Lawn, Bolton, Lancashire. 

Pbousb, O. M., Absoc M. Inst Surveyor to Urban District Council, Dfracombe. 

C.E. 

Pubnkll, E. J City Surveyor, Coventry, Warwickshire. 

Badpobd, J.C, A.M.InstC.E. District Surveyor, Putney. 

Raplet, W., jun Surveyor to the Dorking Rural District Council. 

Read, R., A.M.Inst. C.E. .. City Surveyor, Gloucester. 

Reynolds, E. J., Assoc. M. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Friern 

Inst C.E. Bamet 

Riohabds, H 51 Grosvenor Road, S.W. 

RiOHABDS, R. W., Assoc. M. City Surveyor, Sydney, N.S.W. 

Inst. C.E. 

Richardson, H., Assoc. M. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Aston. 

Inst. C.E. 

Richardson, J Surveyor to Urban District Council, Stamford. 

Richardson, R Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Malton. 

Richardson, W Highway Surveyor, Low Fumess, Ulverston. 

RiDOUT, A. R Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Stone. 

RiLET, H Surveyor to the Rural District Council, Gains- 
borough. 

Robinson, A. R Surveyor to Urban District Council, Clacton-on- 

Sea. 

Robinson, J., Assoc. M. Inst County Surveyor, Hants, Winchester. 

C.E. 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



OF HX7NI0IPAL AND 0QT7NTY ENGINEEBS. XIX 

RoBiKSOW, W. P Surveyor to the Urban District Cotmoil, Skelton- 

in-Oleveland. 
Robinson, W. J., Assoc. M. City Sorreyor, Londonderry. 

InstC.B. 
RoBSON, O. 0., M. Inst. O.E. Sorvevor tothe Urban District Council, Willesden, 
0^ice-Pre$ident,) Middlesex. 

RoDWBLL, A Sunreyor to the Rural District Council, Skipton. 

RooBBS, W. R Surveyor to Rueely Urban District Council. 

Rooe:b, J. W. B., Assoc. M. Surveyor to the Urban and Rural District Council, 

Inst CM. Biggleswade, Beds. 

Ross, J. C, A.M. Inst C.E. Town Engineer, Warmambool, Victoria, Australia. 
Ross, P., Assoc M. Inst. CE. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, North 

Bierley, Bradford. 
BoTHEBA, F Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Sowerby 

Bridge. 
RoTHWELL, E., A.M.In8t.C.E. Springfield Cottage, Biarland, Rochdale. 

RouNTHWAiTB, R. S i3orough Engineer, Sunderland. 

Rowland, J District Surveyor, Plumstead (Charlton Parish). 

155 Church Lane, Old Charlton, Kent. 
RoTLE, H., Assoc. M. Inst. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Stretford, 
O.E. Lancashire. 

BucK,F. W County Surveyor, Kent. Maidstone. 

Rush, J Borough Surveyor, Eye, Suflfolk. 

RusHBROOKB, T. J Borough Surveyor, High Wycombe. 

BusHTON, R Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Clee- 

thorpes. 

Sadlbb, G. W 467 High Street, Cheltenham. 

Saise, A. J Surveyor to Urban District Council, Stapleton, 

Bristol. 

Salmon, A., Assoc. M. Inst. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Wallasey, 
C.E. Cheshire. 

Sandbbs, R. B. County Surveyor, King's County. Parsonstown. 

Sasse, 6. H Borough Survevor, Chelmsford. 

Savage, W. H Surveyor to Urban District Council, East Ham. 

Saville,J Town Surveyor, Heckmondwike. 

SooBOiE, N., A.M. Inst. C.K Vestry Surveyor, Rotherhithe, S.E. 

SooTT, A. P Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Cromer. 

SooTT, E. M :. .. Borough Surveyor, Wednesbury. 

Scott, H. H., A.M.Inst.C.E. Engineer to the Commissioners, Hove. 

SooTT, R. S., Assoc. M. Inst. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Bishop's 
C.E. Stortford. 

Seniob, J. S Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Swanage. 

Shaokleton, 0. W Surveyor to Urban District Council, Ooseley. 

Bhabman. E Surveyor to Urban District Council, Welling- 
borough, Northamptonshire. 

Shaw, H., As80C.M.Inst.C.E. Surveyor to Urban District Council, Todmorden. 

Shaw, J. H. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Borwn- 

hills. Staffs. 

Shiabd, W. C. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Heaton 

Norris, Stockport. 

Shepherd, O.J Highway Surveyor, Kidderminster. 

Shbppabd, O Borough Surveyor, Newark. 

Shillinoton, H Town Surveyor, Lurgan, Ireland. 

Shifton, O. H Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Oldbury. 

SiDDONS, J. M Surveyor, Oundle. 

SiDWELL, H. T Surveyor to the Blean Rural District Council, 

Herne, Canterbury. 

SiLOOOK, E. J., A.M.Inst.C.E. Borough Surveyor, king's Lynn. 

SdfpflON, J Surveyor, Wirkis worth, Derbyshire. 

SnfP80N,W. H.,A.M.In8tC.E. Horsefair Street, Leicester. 

SiNOLAiB, J. S., A.M.Inst.C.E. Borough Surveyor, Wldnes. 

uigitLd^by Google 



XZ LIST OF MEMBBRfl OF THE INOOBPOBATBD A8S00IATIOK 

Skelton, R., A.M. iDBt. G.E. Municipal Engineer, GolombOf Ceylon. 

Bmillis, J. F Borough Surveyor, Tynemouth. 

Smith, C. C Surveyor to the Urban Diittriot Council, Dalton- 

in-Fumess. 

Smith, I. C Surveyor to Rural District Counoil, Chelmsford. 

Smith, J., Assoc. M. Inst County Surveyor, Co. Galway (B. Biding), Balli- 

C.E. naaloe. 

Smith, J. B Surveyor to Urban District Council, Tyldesley, 

Smith, J. C, A.M. Inst C.E. Borough Surveyor, Buij St Edmunds. 

Smith, J. W. M. {Member of Borough Surveyor, Wrexham, Denbighshire; 

Council ) Hon. Secretary, AVales District 

Smith, T. R., A.M. Inst C.E. Surveyor to the Urban District Councilr Kettering. 

Smith, W. H., Assoc. M. Inst. City Engineer, Carlisle. 

C.E. 

Smithies, A Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Trent 

Boulevard, West Bridgford. 

Smythe, F Surveyor to Urban District Council, Finchlej^ N. 

SoMRRViLLB, R. N., B.E. .. Couuty Surveyor, Cavan, Ireland. 

SoCTHAM, A., A.M. Inst. C.E. Surveyor, Clapham, London, S.W. 

Spencer, J. P.. A.M.InstC.E. 82 Moseley Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Spines, W., Assoc. M. Inst. 52 Prudential Assurance Buildings, Park Row, 

C.E. Leeds. 

STAiNTH0RPE,T.W.,A.M.In8t Survcyor to Eston District Urban District Council, 

C.E. {Member of Council) Yorkshire ; J/on, Sec, Yorkshire District 

Stallabd, S Surveyor to Rural District Council, Maidstone. 

Stead, S Borough Surveyor, Harrogate. 

Stephenson, E. P., Assoc. M. Town Surveyor, Llandudno. 

Inst C.E. 

Stevens, G Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Aberoam, 

Mon. 

Stevens, L Surveyor to tlie Urban District Council, Newton 

Abbott, Devon. 

Stevenson, A District Surveyor, Ayrshire County Council. 

Stevenson, J Surveyor to Urban DLitrict Cuuncil, East Molesey. 

Stiokland, E. a., Assoc. M. Borough Surveyor, Newbury. 

Inst C.E. 

Stirrat, J Municipal Engineer, Rangoon. 

Stoeoe, J Surveyor to Urban District Council, Altrincham. 

Story, J. 8., M. Inst. C.E. . . County Surveyor, Derby. 

Stbaouan, J Municipal Engineer, KurachL 

Btringfellow, H. W City Surveyor, Cliichester. 

Stringfellow, W., Assoc M. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, East 

Inst C.E. Cowes, Isle of Wiglit 

Stuart, J. C Surveyor to Urban District Council, Smethw ick 

Stubbs, W., A.m. Inst. C.E. Borough Engineer, Bluckbum. 

Sumner, F., A.M. Inst. C.E. Vestry Surveyor, Bermondsey. 

Scutebs, R. T Went worth Place, Hexham-on-Tyne. 

Sutoliffb,A. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Feather- 
stone, near Poutefract 

SwABBBiOK, J.. Assoc. M. 88 Brasenose Street, Albert Square, Manchester. 

Inst C.E. 

Stses, E., Assoc. M. Inst Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Cheadle, 

C.E. Manchester. 

Tanner, W. County Surveyor, Monmouthshire. Newport 

Tarbit, T. H Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Loftus, 

Yorkshire. 

Tay LOB, H. W Surveyor to the Urban D^trict Council, Newbnm- 

on-Tyne. 

Taylor, R Borough Surveyor, Haslingden. 

Terrill, W Surveyor to Urban District Council, Ashford, Kent 

Digitized by vjjv^v^v i\^ 



OF MUNICIPAL AND OOUNTT BNOINEEBS. XXI 

Thomas, J., A.M. Inst O.B. Burveyor to the Raral DiBtriot Ooanoil, Swanaea. 
Thomas, R. J., A.M.In8tO.E. Oonn^ Sunreyor, Bucks. Aylesbury. 
Thomas, T. J., A-M-InatC.E. Surveyor to Urban District Council, Ebbw Vale. 
Thomas, W., A.M. Inst. C.£. 1 Above Bar Street, Southampton. 
Thomas, W. E. C, A.IL Inst Surveyor to the Rural District Council, Neath; 

C.E. (Mfniberof Cuunctl.) Hon. Secretary, South Wales District. 

Thompson, O. W., Assoc M. Vestry Surveyor, St Olave, Southwark. 

Inst. C.E. 

Tmobbubn, T. C. 17 Devonshire Road, Birkenhead. 

Thobpe, J Surveyor to Rural District Council, Macclesfield. 

TILL, W. S., M. Inst CE. Borough Engineer, Birmingham. 

(Past President,) 

Tomes, 6. B. Surveyor to the Barnes District Urban District 

Council, Mortlake. 
ToMKiNS, H., A. H.Inst 0,B. Vestry Surreyor, St Marylebone. 
TooLiT, H. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Buck- 
hurst Hill, Essex. 

TowLSOK, S Surveyor to tiie Urban District Council, Cheshunt. 

Tbaykbs, W. H. Surveyor to Urban District Council, Wavertree. 

Tbow, S Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Otley, 

Yorkshire. 

TuLET, W Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Rothwell, 

near Leeds. 
TuBLET, A. C, A.M.Inst.C.E. Borough Engineer, Eocles. 
TuBMBCLL, A. J Borough Engineer, Greenock. 

Vallakob, R. F. Borough Surveyor, Mansfield. 

Valon, W. a. MoIntosb, Ramsgate Corporation Gasworks Engineer; and 

Assoc. M. Inst C.E. 140 and 141 Temple Chambers, Temple Avenue, 

RC. 

Veevebs, H., a. M. Inst C.E. Surveyor to Urban District Council, Dukinfield. 

Ventbis, a., Assoc. M. Inst Surveyor to the Strand District Board of Works. 

C JS. 49 Seymour Street, Portman Square. 

WADDtKOTOH, J. A. P., AsBOO. Vcstry Surveyor, WhiteohapeL 

M. Inst CE. 

Wakelam, H. T., Assoc. M. County Sunreyor, Hereford. 

Inst C.E. 

Walkeb, T., M. Inst. CE. Borough Surveyor, Croydon, Surrey. 

(Member of Council,) 

Wallace, G. Surveyor to St Giles* District Board of Works. 

Walshaw, J. W Borough Surveyor, Peterborough. 

Wardlb, J. W., A.M.InstC.E. Borough Surveyor, Longton. 

Watebhoube, D Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Watford. 

Watkets, G., A.M.InstC.E. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, LlaneUy. 

Watson, J. D., A.M.InstCE. County Engineer, Aberdeenshire. 

Watts, E.T. Surveyor to the Rural District Council, Bishop's 

Stortford. 

Watts, W. Water Engineer, Oldham. 

Watb, H. Surveyor to the Urban District CounoU, Millom, 

Cumberland. 

Wbaveb, W., M. Inst C JJ. Vestry Surveyor, Kensmgton. 

(Member of Oounctl,) 

Wbbsteb,J.L. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Portland. 

Web8TIB,R.J Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Castleton, 

Manchester. 

Welbuhn, W Borough Surveyor, Middleton, near Manchester.. 

Weston, G Vestry Surveyor, Paddington. 

WnT0N> H. J., Assoc. M. Late Surveyor to the Urban District Council, 

Inst C.E. Shirley and Freemantle, Southampton. 



uigitized by 



Google 



XXll LIST OF MEMBEBS. 

Wethebill, J. W Surveyor to Urban District Cooncil, Rawmarsh. 

Whuleb, G. R. W., Absoc. Vestry Surveyor, Westmlnater; Hon. Secrttary, 
M. Inst. C.E. (Member of Metropolitan District. 
Council.) 

WuiTBBEAD, R Surveyor to the Urban District Oonnoil, Carlton , 

Notts. 

White, A. E., M. Inst C.E. . . Borough Engineer, Hull. 

White. H. V., M. Inst. C.E. I. County Surveyor, Queen's County. Portarlington. 

White, J., AsBoo.M.Inst.C.E. Borough Surveyor, Folkestone. 

WHITE, W. H., M. Inst C.E. City Engineer, Oxford. 
(Past President) 

Whitehead, C. L„ jun. . . Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Wembley. 

WiDDOWsoN, W. C/ . . . . Surveyor to the Urban District Council^ Tredegar, 

Mod. 

WiEB, C. F., M. Inst C.E. Borough Engineer, Sheffield. 
(Member of Couneil.) 

Wild, G, H Surveyor to Urban District Council, Little- 
borough, near Manchester. 

Wilding. J Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Runcorn. 

Williams, H. D Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Ogmore 

and G^arrw, Bridgend. 

Williams, J. B. .. ., .. Borough Surveyor, Daven try. 

Williams, J.' Surveyor to Urlwn District Council, Mountain Abb. 

WiLLCox, J. E., Assoc. M. 63 Temple Row, Birmingham. 
Inst. C.E. 

WiLLMOT, J County Surveyor, Warwickshire. 6 Waterloo St, 

Birmingham. 

WiLLSON, F. R. T County Surveyor, Co. Fermanagh, Enniskillen. 

Wilson, C. L. N., Assoc. M. Town Surveyor, Bilston. 
Inst C.E. 

Wilson, G Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Alnwick. 

Wilson, J Borough Surveyor, Bacup, Lancashire. 

Wilson, J. B Surveyor to the Rural District Council, Cocker- 
mouth. 

Wilson, R. A Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Car- 

shalton. 

Window, B. R., A.M.In8t.C.B. 16 Cook Street, Liverpool. 

Wmsmp, G., A.M. Inst. C.E. Borough Surveyor, Abingdon, Berks. 

WiNTEB, O. E., Assoc. M. Inst. Vestry Surveyor, St. George the Martyr, South- 
C.E. wark. 

Wood, A. R Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Tnnstall. 

Wood, F. J County Surveyor, Hubert Place, Lancaster. 

WooDBBiDGB, C. A Surveyor to the Hendon Union Rural District 

Council. Pinner, Middlesex. 

Woods, H District Surveyor, Plumstead (Parishes of Lee 

and Kidbrook). Dryden Terrace, Turner Road, 
Lee, Kent. 

WoBTH, J. E., M. Inst C.E. District Engineer, London County Council, Spring 

Gardens, 8.W. 

Wbight, a.. A.m. Inst C.E. Electrical Engineer, Brighton. 

Wyatt, W. J Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Paignton, 

Devon. 

Wtnnb-Robebts, R. O.,As80C, Bofough Suryeyor, Oswestry. 
M. Inst CE. 



Yabbioom, T. H., Assoc M. City Engineer, Bristol. 

Inst C.E. 
Yates, F. S., Assoc. M. Inst. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Waterloo, 

C.E. near Liverpool. 

YOBK.H Surveyor to the Urban District Council, East 

Bamet Valley. Station Road, New Bamet 



Digitized by vjjv^v^v i\^ 



xxm 



TOWNS AND DISTRICTS 
BEPBESENTED BY ME^fBEB8 OP THE ASSOCIATION- 



Abkbcabni G. Stefena. 

Aberdeen W. DyiM^k. 

Abebdeenshise • J. D. Watson. 

Abergatemnt J. Haigh. 

Abebstoha}! • K CocuDe. 

Abebtstwtth B. Jones. 

Abinodon 6. Winship. 

Abbax G. Heaton. 

AooBnroTON W. J. Newton. 

AoTOW D. J. Ebbetts. 

AxLERTOSi A. O. Fraser. 

Alnwick G. Wilson, 

ALTRDicBAif J. Stokoe. 

Alyebstoeb W. H. Fry. 

Antbdc (Oooniy). J. H. Brett 

Abxaoh (County) R. H. Dorman. 

Abhbt-de-la-Zot70h G. H. Lilley. 

Ashbt W0ULD6 0. T. Oanatt 

AsHFOBD W. TerrilL 

Ashton-tthdeb-Ltnb J. T. Earnshaw. 

AsFiTLL G. Heaton. 

Aston EL Richardson. 

„ (Rural) B. H. Hawgood. 

Athebton W. Clongh. 

AiH>EN8HAW .. .. J. H. Burton. 

Atlesbubt J.H.Bradford. 

Atbshibb (County) A. Steyenson. 

Baoup J.Wilson. 

Banbubt N.H. Dawson. 

Babkino C. J. Dawson. 

Babmouth T. Blackburn. 

Babnes G.B. Tomes. 

Babbow-on-Soab (Rural) H. Herrod. 

Babbt J. C. Pardee. 

Babton-ufon-Ibwell C. C. Hooley. 

Batlet H. Dearden. 

Batfebsba J. T. Pilditob. 

Beokbnhah J. A. Angell. 

Bedfobd J. Lund. 

„ (County) W. H. Leete. 

Bedlinqton .. .. ■ W.W.Cooper. 

Belfast J. C. Bretland. 

Bklpeb R. C. Cordon. 

Benwbll W. P. Pattison. 

Bebmondset F.Sumner. 

Bebwiok-on-Twbed R. Dickinson. 

Bethnal Gbeen F. W. Barratt. 

Bexhill M. D. Grayes. 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



XZIY TOWNS AND DISTBIOTS BBPBS8SNTED BY MBUBEBBw 

BiooLiswADE .'. J. W. B. Booke. 

BiooucswADB (Oonnty) G. W. Blanning. 

B1LLE8DEN (Rural) W. F. Ault. 

B1L8TON C. L. N. WilBon. 

Btnoi^et • .. .. B. ArmisteAd. 

BiBKENHEAD • C. Broworidge. 

BiRMINOHAM , J. Price* 

Bishop's Castle A. Hamar. 

Bishop's Stobtfobd B. 8. Soott 

n n (Bural) .. .. E. T. Watts. 

Blast (Bnral) W.King. 

Blaokbubm W. Stubbs. 

Blean H. T. Sidwell. 

Bolton W. H. Brookbank 

Bombay M. 0. Marzban. 

BooTLE J. A. Orowther. 

BoUBKEMOUTH F. W. Laoej. 

BowDOH J. Newton. 

Bbaoklet A. A. Green. 

Bradford .. J. H. Oox. 

Bbaintbbb .. .. H. H. NaokiTelL 

Beat P. F. Comber, 

Bbbcknoor B. Davies. 

Brentford N. Parr. 

Bridgwateb F. Parr. 

Bridlington B. R. Brown. 

Brierfield J. T. Landless. 

Brierlet Hill J. W. Beckley. 

Brighton F. J. C. May. 

Brisbane, Queensland T. Kirk. 

Bristol T. H. Yabbioom. 

rt (St. George) T. L. Lewis. 

Bboadstaibs H. Hard. 

Bromlet 8. T. Hawkings. 

Bbownhills J.H.Shaw. 

Buokhxtrst Hill .. • H. Tooley. 

BuoKiNOHAM (County) B. J. Thomas 

BuoKLOW J. McD. MoKenzie. 

BuRNHAM W.J. Press. 

BuBNLET G. H. Pickles. 

„ (Bnral) .. S. Edmondson. 

BuBSLEM .. .. • F. Bettan^. 

Burt J. Cartwnght. 

BuBT 8t. Edmunds J.C.Smith. 



Cantebbubt .. .. A. H. Campbell. 

Cape Town, S.A T. W. Caimcross. 

Cabdift W. Harpur. 

„ (Rural) W, Eraser. 

Oablislb W.H. Smith. 

Cablton R. Whitbread 

CABSHAim)N R. A. Wilson. 

CAflTLBTON .. R. J. Webster. 

Cavan (County) B, N. Somerville. 

Catersham W.R.Locke. 

Chaddebton W. Eckersley. 

Chablton J. Rowland. 

Cheadlb E. Sykes. 

Chblmsfobd G. H. Sasse. 

„ (Rural) LO. Smith. 

Obhaba T. W. E. Higgens. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



TOWNS AND DI8TBI0T8 BBPBB8KNTBD BY mEiffumm, XXY 

Cheltenham J. Hall. 

Cbeshunt 8. Towlaon. 

CHE8TEB I. M. Jones. 

GHE8TEBFIELD N. DaDsoombo. 

Chesterton D. Bland. 

Chichesteb H. W. Stringfellow. 

Chorlet W.Leigh. 

Chbistghubcb B. W. Knapp. 

Claoton-on-8ea A. B. Robinson. 

Clapham, 8.W. A. Southam. 

Cleatob MooB F. J. Edfi^e. 

Clsbthorpbs E. Bushton. 

Clerkemwbll W. Iron. 

Clevedon .. G. W. Knowles. 

Coalville L. L. Baldwin. 

CocEEBMOUTH ^oral) J. B. Wilson. 

C0LCHE8TEB H. Goodyear. 

CoLNE T.H. Hartley. 

Colombo B. Skelton. 

CoLWYN Bay W.Jones. 

CoNOLETON B.Bur8lam. 

Conway T. B. Farrington. 

CooKHAM , F.Laurens. 

CoBK (County), West K.Jackson. 

„ „ South 8. A. Kirkby. 

„ „ East A. O. Lyons. 

CoBNWALL (County), West T. J. Hickes. 

C08ELEY C. W, Shackleton. 

CovENTBY E. J. Pumell. 

CowpEN R. Grieves. 

Crewe .. G. Eaton-Shore. 

Cbomeb A. F. Scott 

Crompton J. H. Mills. 

Cboydon T.Walker. 

CuPAB(Fife) T. Aitken. 

Dalton-in-Fxjbness C.C.Smith. 

Daventby J.B.Williams. 

Deal T. C. Colder. 

Denton G. H. Newton. 

Derby B. J. Harrison. 

n (County) i-l^te 

Desbobouoh U. Jremberton. 

Dewbbuby H. C. Marks. 

DONOAOTEB W. H. B. Crabtree. 

(Bural) C. C.Barras. 

Donegal ((bounty) South B. W. F. Longfield. 

DoBcnoESTEB • G. J. Huut. 

PoBKiNO G.S.Mathews. 

^ (Rural) W. Bapley, jun. 

Down (County) P. C. Cowan. 

Dboitwioh T.P.Bayhs. 

DuBUN 5-¥*^y* 

„ (County) B. A- Gray. 

„ „ South Division .. W. CJoUen. 

Dudley J- Gammage. 

DvxiNFiELD H. Veevers. 

DuBHAM (Bural) G. Gregsoo. 

Baliko ^^S^^' 

East BARMirr Valley H.York. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XXYl TOWNS AND DIBTBIOTS BEPRBSBNTED BY MBMBBBB. 

East CJowes W. Stringfellow. 

East Dereham H. G. Himson. 

East Ham W. H. Savage. 

East Moleset J. SteveiiBoii. 

East SromEHOUBB A. DebDam. 

Eastbourne B. M. Gloyne. 

Ebbw Vale T.J.Thomas. 

EooLBS A. C. Turley. 

Edinburgh J. Ck)oper. 

Eltham B. Findlay. 

Enfield B. Collins. 

Epsom E. B. Capon. 

Erith .. .. H. Hind. 

EsTON DisTRicrr T. W. Stainthorpe. 

Etesham B. C. Mawson. 

Exeter D. Cameron. 

ExMOUTH W. H. Beswick. 

Eye J. Bush. 

Fareham W. Bailer. 

Farnham H. Frost 

Featherstone A. Sntcliffe. 

Felixstowe G. S. Horton. 

Fenny Stratford J. Chadwiok. 

Fermanagh (County) F. B. T. Willson. 

Finohley .. F. Smythe. 

Fleetwood M. S. Gaulter. 

Folkestone J.White. 

Fribrn Barnet E. J. Beynolds. 

Frodsham W. Diggle. 

Fromb P. Edinger. 

n (Boral) A. Greenwell. 

Gainsborough H. Biley. 

Galw ay (County), West J. Perry. 

„ M East J. Smith. 

Garston H. T. Wakelam. 

Gateshead-on-Tynb J. Bower. 

Gloucester B. Bead. 

„ (County) B. Phillipe. 

Glynoobrwo J.Howell. 

GoDAYERi, Madras P.H.Brown. 

Grantham J. Evans. 

Grays Thurrock A.C.James. 

Great Crosby W. Halt 

Great Grimsby M. Petree. 

Great Yarmouth J. W. CockrilK 

Greenock A. J. Tumbull. 

Guildford J. Dewhirst. 

F. T. Maltby. 

Halifax E. B. S. Esoott. 

„ (Bnral) J.W.Dyson. 

Hammersmith H. Mair. 

Hampstbad C.H.Lowe. 

Hamfton J. Kemp. 

Hanley J. Lobley. 

Hants (County) J. Boblnson. 

Hanwell S. W. J. Bumes. 

Harrogate S. Stead. 

Harrow T. Charles. 

Hartlepool H. C. Crummack. 



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TOW MS AKD DOTEICn IXPUnSHTSD BT ygWWTOIL XXTIl 

Habwkh H. DttelaiB. 

HjjujsGjms R Tk jlor. 

Hatkrhiu. T. CwckrilL 

Hkatoh Nobus W. C 81ieud. 

HiBonBciDOS W.Calrert. 

HDTDCur aaGrimWy. 

„ (Bmml) C. A. Woodbridcvw 

HKn.KT-OS*THAMB B. PimtL 

Hebooso J. Piftrirer. 

(Coontj) H.T.Wmk«lMi 

Hbsxb Bat F. W. J. Palmer, 

USBTFOED J. H.JeTOIMU 

Hktwooo J. Digjfle. 

HCCXMOXDWIKK J. SftTille. 

High Wtoombs T. J. BiMhl»ooke. 

HlXCKUET W. T. Howwl 

HoLBORN L. U. lanca. 

H93IO Kcoro F. A. Cooper. 

HoRFiKLD A. P. J. CotterelL 

HoRHSEA p. GaakdL 

RoRNBST E. J. Love^Te, 

HonfSLOw W. A. D«Tiea. 

Hov« H.H. 8eott 

HoTUun AXD West Kirbt .... T, Foster. 

HOTLAKD KCTHIE W. FArrii^;toD. 

Hull A. K. White. 

Hyde J. MitchoU. 

Ilfraooxbe O. M. Proaae. 

Ilkeston H, J. Kilford. 

Ilklet W. A. Piklliser. 

Ipswich E, Buokhatn. 

Iblam W. RKay. 

Isle OF Ely (OoQii^) O.J.Moore. 

Ible of Thanet L, W. Hogbin. 

Jabbow .. . J. petree. 

JOHAKNBSBEBO, 8.A. C. AbUTPOW. 

w »» Q. B. Andrews. 

Keabslet ' T.Nuttall. 

^lOHLEY W. H. Hopkinson. 

f««>^ •• •• D.CGoddard, 

Kenninoton Gbeen J. P. Norrinirton. 

Kbnsinoton W. Weaver. 

Kent (County) F. W. Buck. 

K«8wic3K W.Hodgson. 

Ketterino T.B. Smith. 

KEYN8eAM(B.D.C.) H. M.Bennett. 

KiDDKBMiNSTEB A. Comber. 

„ (Highways) .. ,. O. J. Shepherd. 

KiLDABE (County) E. Glover; 

^^f'^^y A.M. Burden. 

KiNQsCorNTY B,B. Sanders. 

Kings Lynn.. R J. Silcock. 

King's NoBTON (Bural) B. (Godfrey. 

Kingston (High way Board) A. J. Henderson, 

(Bural) W.H.Hope. 

M Jamaica O.V.Abrahams. 

KiNGSwooD D. H. W. Powell. 

KlEKLEATUAM J. HoWCFOa. 



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XXTUl TOWNS AND DISTBIOTS BBPRBSBNTED BY MEMBBB& 

KiTETOH Pabk W. Atkinson. 

KuBAom J. Strachan. 

Lanoabteb J.Cook. 

Leb H. Woods. 

Leeds T. Hewson. 

Leek J. Myatt. 

Leioesteb £. G. Mawbey. 

„ F. Griffiths. 

Leith W. Beatson. 

Lettbim (CJounty) D. G. Ottley. 

LE0M1M8TEB E. Bailey. 

Leyenshdlme J. Jephson. 

Lewes T. W. Franks. 

Lewisham J. Carline. 

Leyton, E W.Dawson. 

LiMEBiOK (County) J. Horan. 

Lincoln B. A. MiicBndr. 

LlTTLEBOBOOQH G. H. Wild. 

LiTTLEHAMPTON H. Howard. 

Liverpool H. P. Boulnois. 

Llandaff J. Holden. 

Llakdudno E.P.Stephenson. 

„ T.T.Marks. 

Llanbllt G. Watkeys. 

Llantrissant G. S. Morgiin. 

LoPTCS T. H. Tarbit. 

London (County) A. B. Binnie. 

„ „ J.E.Worth. 

LoNDONDEBBT W. J. Boblnson. 

„ .... J.Christie. 

LoNGFOBD (County) J. W. Gnnnis. 

LoNOTON J. W. Wardle. 

LouoHBOBOUGH G. Hodson. 

Louth (County) P. J. Lynam. 

Lowestoft G. H. Hamby. 

LuBGAN H. Shillington. 

Luton A. J. L.Evans. 

Lthington .. .. .. .. .. .. O. A. Bridges. 

Maoolesfield E. E. Adshead. 

„ (Buial) J.Thorpe. 

Madras B.E. Ellis. 

Maidstone T. F. Bunting. 

„ (Bural) S. StaUard. 

Maldon .. .. H. G. Keywood. 

Malton B. Bichardson. 

Maltern H. P. Maybury. 

Manohbsteb T. De C. iSdeade. 

Mansfield B. F. Vallanoe. 

Mansfield WooDHOUSE F.P.Cook. 

Margate A.Latham. 

Market Habbobo' H. G. Coales. 

Matlock Bath W. Jaflfrey. 

Meath (County) J.H.Moore. 

Melton Mowbbat .. E. Jeeves. 

MsBTHTB Ttdvil T. F. Harvey. 

„ „ (Bural) J. Jones. 

Middlesbbough F. Baker. 

BiiDDLBTON, Lancashibe W. Welbum. 

Mile End J. M. Knight. 

MiLLOM H. Waye. 



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TOWHS AKD mSIBIOIB BKPRBillITU) BT MUnHBH XXiX 

MiLTOs-HKXT-SnTDrGBOUBars .... A. B. Aoworlh. 

HnFiKtD F. H. Hare. 

MoxAGHAB (Coontr) J. Heron. 

MomocTBsmKB (Ooonty) W. Tanner. 

MoBprra W. F. C^irry. 

MocxTAcr AsB J. WUliama. 

KKATH(Biiral) E. W. G. ThomM. 

NEL805 B. BaU, 

Kelson-ik-Mabsdkv W. Dent. 

Kkw Haldd T. L. Hewaiti. 

Nkwabk G. Sheppard. 

KKWBrRN-ON-TTNB H. W. Taylor. 

Kkicbcbt £. A. Stiokland. 

Newcastle-ox-Ttw W. G. Laws. 

Nkwmabket - J. W. Metodf. 

Nkwfobt, Mon B. H. Uayoet. 

Nkwton ABBarr L. Stevens. 

Newton-in-Maksbfikld B. Brierlej. 

Newtown B. W. DaTie*. 

NOBTH BlCSLKT P. RosS. 

NoBTH Mayo (County) W. P. Orchard. 

NoBTH Obmksbt H. T. Hopper. 

KORTHAXFTON W. I. BrOWU. 

„ (Ooonty) E. Iaw. 

NoBwica A. £. CuUini. 

NoTTiNOHAM A. Brown. 

(Connty) E. P. Hooley. 

KnnEATON J. S. Pickering. 

OoMORB AND Gabbw H. D. WiUiamt. 

Okehamfton H. Geen. 

OLDBrBY T. H. Shipton. 

Oldham 8. A. Pickering. 

W. Watta. 

Obbell G. Heaton. 

Oswbstby B. O. Wynne-Boberts. 

Otley 8. Trow. 

OuNDLB J. M. Biddons. 

Oxford W. H. White. 

Oystbbmouth O.G.Bennett 

Paddinoton G. Weston. 

Padiham J. Greffson. 

Paignton W. J. Wyatt. 

Peebles (Connty) B.S.Anderson. 

Pembebton G. Heaton. 

Penang, Stbatts Settlements .. .. R. Peiroe. 

Penarth E.J.Evans. 

Penmaenmawb J. 8. Overley. 

Pebrt Barr H. H. Gammell. 

Peterborough J. W. Walshaw. 

Plumstead W. 0. Gow. 

Plymouth J. Paton. 

PoNTARDAWE (Roial) J. Muigan. 

PooLi J. Elford. 

Poplar W. Oxtoby. 

Portishead J. Moss Flower. 

Portland J. L. Webster. 

Portsmouth P. Muroh. 

Pbesoot W. Goldsworth. 

PuDSEY B.W.Cass. 



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XXZ TOWNS AND DISTRIOTS REPRESENTED BY MEMBERS. 

Putney J. C. Radford. 

PwLLHEU J.O.Jones. 

Queen's County .. H. V. White. 

Rangoon J. Stirrat 

Ramsbottom T. Nuttall. 

Ramsgatb M. Aspinall. 

W. A. M. Valon. 

Rawmarsh J. W. Wetherill. 

Reioatb F.D.Clark. 

Retford J. D. KeDnody. 

Richmond J. H. Brierley. 

RiPON W. Edson. 

Rochdale S.S.Piatt 

Rochesteb W.Banks. 

RouFORD G. Boden. 

Rothbbham .. G.Jennings. 

„ (Rural) B. Godfrey. 

Rothebhitbe N. Scorpe. 

Rothwell W.T.Pearson. 

„ W. Tuley. 

Rowley Regis W. H. Brett^ll. 

RcoBY D. G. MacDonald. 

RuGELSY W. E. Rogers. 

RuKOOBN J. Wilding. 

Ryde F.Newman. 

Ryton-on*Tynb J. P. Dalton. 

Saffron Walden G. W. Lacey. 

St. George, BRiffroL T. L. Lewis. 

St. George, Southwark O. R Winter. 

St. George's, Hanover Square . . G. Livingstone. 

St. Giles G.Wallace. 

St. Helen's G. J. C. Broom. 

St. Luke, Middlesex M. C. Meaby. 

St. Martin-in-the- Fields C.Mason. 

St. Mary, Islington J.P.Barber. 

St. Mary, Newington J. A. P. Waddington. 

St. Marylebone H. Tomkins. 

St. Clave, Southwark G.W.Thompson. 

St. Pancras W. N. Blair. 

St. Saviour, Southwark G. R. Norrish. 

Sale A. G. McBeath. 

Sandwich A. J. Catt. 

Sevenoaks . J. Mann. 

Shanghai, China C. Mayne. 

Sheerness C. A. Copland. 

Sheffield C. F. Wike. 

Sherborne T. Farrall. 

Shifnal, Salop W. F. Y. Molinenx. 

Shildon W. A. Mason. 

Shoreditch J.R.Dixon. 

Shrewsbury W. C. Eddowes. 

Shropshire (Connty) A.T.Davis. 

Skelton-in-Clev eland W.P.Robinson. 

Skipton T. Mallinson. 

„ A. Rodwell. 

Sleafobd J.Clare. 

Slough J.Baker. 

Smethwick J. C. Stnart. 

Solihull (Rural) A. E. Currall. 

Somerton L T.Hawkins. 

South Brisbane T. C. Deverell. 

South Hornsey M.W.Jameson. 



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TOWSS ASD MSmCaS UPBBBBSTCD BT MSKBEEft. XX\i 



SoTTB ILlto KK. IHXCA. 

SorTH 6aiELDe M. Hall. 

80CTBALL — Ko«woof> H. R. Fc'UdA. 

SocTHAMntHi W. R Q. BeDoett 

6orTHZ3nxa-Ss4 H. Harioc^ 

SOTTBQATB C G. LftVMO. 

SormowmAii W. H. D. HcrslmlL 

80WXKBT BsiDU F. BoUmrl 

Staffobd W, Bbekahaw. 

Staitobdbiiiib (Higbmt ji) J. XcBoor. 

6tamiou> J. BichAnlscML 

6TAFLsrcnr A. J. Saise. 

Stocxfobt J. Atkinaon. 

Stocktok K.F. Ou&pbeU. 

Stotbbbidgb W. Fiddian. 

8TKA]n> A. Veotris. 

Strattobd-ox-Atos B. IHxod. 

Stekatham J. Barber. 

Stbcttobd U, Bojle. 

Stbood W, Brooke. 

6unbuby-ov-Thames H.F.O(mles. 

SoTOLK (Ooontj), Bast H. Miller. 

SuKDEBLAXD R. 8. RooDthwmita. 

ScBBcr (County) F. 6. HoweU. 

Sussex (CoontyX Ewt H. Card. 

SCTTOlf COLDFIELD C P. MaTStoO. 

SuTTON-nf-AsHFiELD McW. Bishop. 

SwANAGB .. •• J. 8, Senior. 

SWAKSBA O. Belt 

,. (Boral) J. Thomaa. 

Swnrrow W. F. Pinfold. 

„ H. Entwisle. 

Stdket, N.S.W B. W. Bichaida. 

Tamworth H. J. Clanon. 

Tkddinoto!! M. Hainswortb. 

TnoNMorTH C. Jonee. 

Tm-ENBALL J.Mortimer. 

Tbwkesbubt, Gloccbstbbshibb.. W. U. Qray. 

Tffi^BNHux 8.W. Pfcrker. 

Tientsin, China .. • A. W. H. BelliDgbam. 

TiPPCRABT (CoontyX South .. .. £. A. Uackctt 

Tipton W. H. Jukes. 

ToDMOEDSN H.Shaw. 

ToNBBiDGB F.Harris. 

TooTiNQ J.Barber. 

ToowoNG, Queensland W. R Ir?iiig. 

Torquay W. Ingham. 

„ H. A. Garrett. 

ToKio Fu, Japan R. Hara. 

y, „ Y. Kurata. 

Tredboab W. O. Widdowson. 

Teowbridgb F. E. Q. Bradshaw. 

TuNBRiDGB Wells T. B.W. Mellor. 

TuNSTALL A. R. Wood. 

TuRTON J. Parkinson. 

TwiGKBNHAK G. B. Laffau. 

Tyldeslet J.B.Smith. 

Tynemouth J. F. Smillie. 

Tyrone (County) North F. J. Lynam. 

„ „ South J. W. Leebody. 

Upper Soothill T. Fenn. 



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ZXXU TOWNS AND DISTBI0T8 BEPRESSNTED BY MEMBERS. 

Vkntmob E. J. Harvey. 

ViOTOBiA, Australia J.O.Bobs. 

Wakefield .. .. .. R. Porter. 

„ (Rural) F. Massie. 

Walham Gbeen C, Bottorill. 

Wallasey .. A. Salmon. 

Walsall R. H. Middleton. 

Wallsend G. Hollinga. 

Walthamstow G. W. Hulmes. 

Walton-le-Dale F. E. Dixon. 

Wandswobth P. Dodd. 

Wanstead J. T. Bressey. 

Wantage W. Hanson. 

Ware J. Goddard. 

Warmiksteb W. Bay ley. 

Wabwickshirb (County) J. Willmot. 

Watebfobd M.J.Fleming. 

„ (County) W. E. L. Duffia. 

Waterloo, LiVEBPOOL F.S.Yates. 

Watford D. Waterhouse. 

„ (Rural) G. A. Heath. 

Wavebtbeb W. H. Travers. 

Wednesbuby E. M. Scott 

Wellingbobough E. Sharman. 

Wembley C. L. Whitehead, jun. 

West Bbidgfobd A. Smithies. 

West Bbohwiou A. D. Greatorex. 

West Cowes N. F. Dennis. 

West Debby F.C.Everett. 

West Ham, London L. Angell. 

West Hartlepool J. W. Brown. 

Westminster (St. James') H. Monson. 

^^jXr ^^*" ^"'^^ ''°''} O-B-W. •Wheeler. 

Weston-sxjper-Marb H. Nettleton. 

Weymouth and Meloombe Regis .. W. B. Morgan. 

Whitechapel ,. J. A. P. Waddington. 

Whitehaven J. S. Brodie. 

WiDNES .. J.S.Sinclair. 

Willenhall CkJ. Jenkin. 

WiLLESDEN O. C. Robson. 

Wimbledon C.H.Cooper. 

WiBKSWORTH A. R. Ridout. 

Wisbech .. .. A. H. Plowright. 

Witham A. M. Clarke. 

Withington A. H. Mountain. 

Wolvbbhampton J. W. Bradley. 

Wood Gbeen C. J. Gunyon. 

WoODFOBD C. Mathew. 

WooLLAHBA (Sydney) J. J. Haycroft. 

WoBOESTEB T. Caink. 

„ (County) J. H. (Barrett. 

WoBKSOP T. Kidd. 

„ (Rural) W.T.Brown. 

Wbbxham J. P. Evans. 

J. W.M.Smith. 

Yeadon C. Lund. 

Yeovil W. K. L. Armytage. 

YoBE A. Creer. 

„ (Rural) W. G. Penty. 

Yorkshire (East Riding) A. Beaumont. 



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XIXIU 



DISTRICTS. 



No. 1.— THE HOME DISTBICT. 
JSToM. Socretarjf — G. K LArrAN, Twiokenham. 

MEMBEBS. 

AowoRTH, A.B Town Surveyor, Milton-next-Sittinfi^boiime, Kent. 

Ahoell, J. An A.M JnatCE. Surveyor to Urban District CoonciJ, Beokenham. 

ANGELL, LEWIS, M. Inst Borough Engineer, We«t Ham. 

G.E. (^Pa8t President and 

Treasurer) 

AsFiNALL, M., A.M.Inst.G.E. Borough Surveyor, Bamsgate. 

Bakbb, J., A. M. Inst O.E. .. Town Surveyor, Slough. 

Bahks, W., a. M. Inst C.E. City Surveyor, Rochester. 

Babnes, S. W. J., Assoc. M. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Hau well. 

Inst. C.E. 

Benicctt, W. B. G., Afisoo. Borough Surveyor, Southampton. 

M. Inst C.E. 

BiKNiE, A. R, M. Inst C.E. Chief Engineer, London County Council, Spring 

( Vke-President.) Gardens, S.W. 

BBADroBD, J. H. Borough Surveyor, Aylesbury. 

Bbsssxt. J. T Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Wan- 
stead, Essex. 

Bbidois, O. A. Borough Surveyor, Lymington. 

Beieblbt, J. H Borough Surveyor, Richmond, Surrey. 

Bbookc, W., A.m. Inst C.E. Surveyor to the Rural District Council, Strood. 

BuNTiNO, T. P Borough Surveyor, Maidstone. 

BuTLKB, W Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Fareham. 

Campbell, A. H City Surveyor, Canterburv. 

Capon, KB Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Epsom. 

Cabd, H. Coun^ Surveyor, Lewes. 

Catt, a. J Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Sandwich. 

Chadwigk, J Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Fenny 

Stratford. 

Chableb,T Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Harrow. 

Chabt, R. M Consulting Surveyor to the Rural District Council, 

Croydon. 

Clark, F. D., A.M.InstC.E. Borough Engineer, Reigate. 

Clarke, A. M Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Witham. 

COALES, H. F Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Sunbury- 

on-Thames. 

Collins, R Surveyor to Urban District Council, Enfield, N. 

Cooper, C. H., A.M.InstC.E. Surveyor to Urban District Council, Wimbledon. 

Copland, C. A Surveyor to Urban District Council, Sheemess. 

Creoeen, H. S Consulting Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Bromley, Kent 

Crimp, W. Santo, M. Inst District Engineer, London County Council, Spnug 

C.E. Gardens, S.W. 

Davieb, W. a., A.M. Inst C.E. Town Hall, Hounslow. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XXXIV 



HOMB DI8TBI0T. 



Dawson, 0. J. Surveyor to the Urban District Ck>uncil, Barking. 

Dawson, N. H Borough Sorveyor, Banbary. 

Dawson, W., M. Inst O.B. .. Surveyor to Urban District Council, Leyton, E. 

DEACON, G. F., M-Inst-CE. 32 Victoria Street. Westminster, S.W. 
(^Past President) 

Dennis, N. F., A.M.InstC.E. Town Surveyor, West Cowes. 

DxwHiBST, J Surveyor to Rural Dihtrict Council, Guildford. 

DrrOHAM, H. Borough Surveyor, Harwich. 

DoDD, P., Assoc. M. Inst. CE. Surveyor, Wandsworth, S.W. 

DuNSOOMBE, C, M.A., M. Inst 20 Victoria Street, Westminster. 
CE. 

Ebbbtts, D. J Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Acton. 

ELLICECLABK, E. B., M. Late County Surveyor for Sussex (West). 32 
Inst CE. (Past President), Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W. 

Evans, A. J. L. Borough Surveyor, Luton. 

Faiblet, W., A.M.lDstCE. Bichmond Main Sewerage Board, Mortlake, S.W. 

Felkin, H. B Surveyor to the Southall Norwood Urban 

Council. 

FoEDEB, W. G Sunnydale, Thornton Heath. 

Fbanks, T. W., A.M.Inst.CE. Borough Surveyor, Lewes. 

Fsoer, H Surveyor to the Urban District Council, 

Famham. 

Fbt, W. H., A.M.In8t.CE. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Alver- 

stoke. 

Gamble, S. G., Assoc. M. Metropolitan Fire Brigade, Southwark Bridge 
Inst CE. Bead. 

GiNN, A. F District Surveyor to the Kent County Council, 

Tonbridge, 

Gloyne,B. M., A.M.Inst.CE. Borough Surveyor, Eastbourne. 

Goddabd, J. ... Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Ware. 

Goldeb, T. C Borough Surveyor, Deal. 

Geaves, M. D Surveyor to Urban District Council, Bexhill. 

Gbeatobex, a. D., Assoc. M. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Sutton, 
Inst CE. Surrey. 

Gbimlet, S. S., A.M.InstCE. Surveyor to Urban District Council, Hendon. 

GuNYON, C J., A.M.InstC.B. Surveyor to Urban District Council, Wood Green. 

Hainswobth^M Surveyor to Urban District Council, Teddington. 

Hanson, W Surveyor to the Rural District Council, Wantage. 

Habdino, J.B., A.M.InstCE. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Epsom, 

Surrey. 

Harlook, H. .. Borough Engineer, Southend -on-Sea. 

HabuiSjF Surveyor to the Tonbridge Rural District 

Council. 

Habvet, E. J Surveyor to Urban District Council, Ventnor. 

Hawkinqb, S. T Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Bromley. 

Heath, G. A Surveyor to Rural District Council, Watford. 

Hendeuson, A. J Surveyor to the District Highway Board, Kings- 
ton. 

Hind, H Surveyor to Urban District Council, Erith. 

HoDSON, G., M. Inst. CE. .. Loughborough. 

Hogbin, L. W Surveyor to Rural District Council, Isle of Thanet 

Holmes, G. W Surveyor to Urban District Council,Walthamstow. 

Hoopee, J. D Consulting Surveyor to the Urban District 

Council, Woodford, Essex. 

Hope, W. H Surveyor to Rural District Council, Kingston-on- 
Thames. 

HowABD, H. .. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Little- 

hampton. 

Howell, F. G. , County Surveyor, Kingston-on-Thames. 

HuRD, H Surveyor to Urban District Council, Broadstairs. 

James, A. C Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Grays 

Thurrook. 



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HOMB DI8TRI0T. ZXXV 

Jameson, M. W Surveyor to the Urban Difitriot Gounoil, Sonth 

Homsey. 

Jetonb, J. H Borough Surveyor, Hertford. 

Jokes, Lt-Col. A. Or, V. C, Ridge Cottage, Finchampetead, Berks. 

Assoc. M. Inst. C.E. 

JONES, C, M.InstCE. {Past Survevor to the Urban DiBtrict Council, Ealing, 

Pres. and General Bon, Sec,) Middlesex. 

Kemp, J., Assoc. M. Inst. O.E. Survevor to the Urban District Council, Hampton, 

Middlesex. 

Knapp,B.W Borough Surveyor, Christchuroh. 

liACBY, F. W., A.M.InsiO.E. Town Surveyor, Bournemouth. 

Laffak, G. B., Assoc. M. Inst Engineer to the Urban District Council, Twioken- 

C.E. ham. 

Latham, A., M. Inst. C.E. .. Borough Engineer, Margate. 

Laubens, F Surveyor to Bural District Council, Cookham. 

Lawson, 0. 6., A.M.Inst.C.E. Surveyor to Urban District Council, Southgate. 

Levtb, W. H., A.M.InstC.K Countv Surveyor, Bedford. 

LEMON,J.,MJnstO.E.(Pa«< Consulting Engineer, Southampton. 

President.) 

Locke, W. R Surveyor to Urban District Council, Caversham. 

LooKwooD, P. C, M Jnst. C.E. Late Borough Surveyor, Brighton, Sussex. 

LovEOBovE, K J Surveyor to Urban District Council, Uornsey. 

LxTKD, J Borough Surveyor, Bedford. 

MgKie, H. U., M. Inst. C.E. 11 Victoria Street, Westminster. 

Maltby, F. T., a. M.InstCE. Borough Survevor, Guildford. 

Mann, J., Assoc. M. lust. O.E. Surveyor to Urban District Council, Sevenonks. 

Manning, G. W Surveyor to the Beds County Council, Biggles- 
wade, Beds. 

Mathew, C Surveyor to Urban District Council, Woodford. 

Mathews, G. S.,A.M.InstO.E. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Dorking;. 

Mat, F. J. C, Assoc M. Inst. Borough Engineer, Brighton. 

C.E. {Member of Council.) 

Mbllob, T. E. W., Assoc. M. Borough Surveyor, Tunbridge Wells. 

Inst CE. 

MoLiNSUX, W. F. Y Surveyor to Rural District Council, New Win- 
chester. 

MuBOH, P Borough Engineer, Portsmouth. 

Nankivell, H. H Surveyor to Urhem District Council, Braintree. 

Newman, F Borough Engineer, Ryde, and County Surveyor, 

Isle of Wight 

Palmeb, F. W. J Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Heme 

Bay. 

PoLLABD, J., Assoc. M. lust Late Surveyor to the Urban District Council, 

C.E. Hendon. 7 Old Queen Street, Westminster. 

Pratf, R. Borough Surveyor, Henley-on-Thames. 

Raplet, W., jun Surveyor to the Dorking Rural District Council. 

Retnolds, E. J., Assoc. M. Surveyor to the Urban Dibtrict Council, Frieru 

lost CE. Barnet 

Richards, H 51 Grosvenor Road, S.W. 

RiCHABDsoN, R Surveyor to Urban District Council, Malton. 

Robinson, J County Surveyor, Hampshire. 

RoBSON, O. C, M. Inst CE. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Willesdcn, 

(Vicg-'President.) Middlesex. 

RooKB, J. W. B., A. M, Inst Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Biggles- 

CE. wade. 

Ruck, F. W County Surveyor, Kent, Maidstone. 

RusHBROOKE, T. J Borough Survoyor, High Wycombc. 

Savage, W.H Surveyor to the Urban District Council, East 

Ham. 

SooTT, H. H., A. M. Inst. C.E. Engineer to the Commissioners, Hove. 

SooTT, R. S., Assoc. M. Inst Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Bishop's 

CE. Stortford. 



uigitize? brGoogle 



XXXYl 



HOlfE DISTRICT. 



SmwELL, H. T. 
Smith, LO. .. 



Smtthe, F 

8tallabd, s 

Stevenson, J 

Stioklano, E. a., Absoo. M. 
Inst. C.E. 

Stbinqfellow. H. W 

Stbingfellow, W 

Tebbill,W 



Thomis, R. J. 
Tomes, G. B. . 



TOWLSON, 8 

Walker, T., M. Inst O.B. 
{Member of Council.) 

'Wateehodse, D 

Watts, E.T 

Weston, H. J., Assoc. M. Inst 

C E 
WnrrB, J., A. M. Inst C.E. .. 
WUITE, W. H., M.InstO.E. 

(Past President,) 
Whitehead, C. L. 

Wilson, R. A 

WiNSHip, G., A. M. Inst C.E. 

WOODBBIDOE, C. A. 

Worth, J. E.. M. Inst C.E. 
York, H 



Snryeyor to tlie Blean Rural District Gonnoil, 
Heme, Canterbury. 

Surveyor to the Rural District Council, Chelms- 
ford. 

Surveyor to Urban District Council, Pinchley, N. 

Surveyor to Rural District Council, Maidstone. 

Surveyor to Urban District Council, Elast Molesey. 

Borough Surveyor, Newbury. 

City Surveyor, Chichester. 

Surveyor to the Urban District Council, East 

Cowes, Isle of Wight. 
Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Ashford, 

Kent 
County Surveyor, Aylesbury. 
Surveyor to the Barnes District Urban District 

Council. 
Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Cheshunt. 
Borough Surveyor, Croydon, Surrey. 

Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Watford. 
Surveyor to the Rural District Council, Bishop's 

Stortford. 
Late Surveyor to the Urban District Council, 

Shirley and Freemantle, Southampton. 
Borough Surveyor, Folkestone. 
City Engineer, Oxford. 

Surveyor to Urban District Council, Wembley, 
Surveyor to Urban District Council, Carshalton. 
Borough Surveyor. Abingdon, Berks. 
Surveyor to the Hendon Union Rural District 

Council. 
District Engineer, London County Council, Spring 

Gardens, 8.W. 
Surveyor to the Urban District Council, East 

Barnet Valley. 



TOWNS. 



Abinqdon G. Winship. 

AOTON D. J. Ebbetts. 

Alverstokb W. H. Fry. 

Aylesbury .. .. J. H. Bradford. 

„ (County) R. J. Thomas. 

Banbuby N. H. Dawson. 

Babkino C.J.Dawson. 

Babnes G. B. Tomes. 

Beckenham J. A. Angell. 

Bedford J.Lund. 

„ (County) W. H. Leete. 

Bexhill M. D. Graves. 

BiOGLESWADE J. W. B. Rooke. 

„ (County) G. W. Manning. 

Bishop's Stobtpobd R. S. Scott 

„ „ (Rural D.C.) E. T. Watts. 

Blbam (R.DC..) .. .. H. T. Sidwell. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



HOMB DI8TBI0T. XXXTU 

Bbaimtbbb H. H. NankiTelL 

Bbiohton F. J. 0. liaj. 

Bboasotaibs H. Hurd. 

Bbomlet S. T. HawkingB. 

BucKiNGHAifHifTiw (Ooiiiity) «. .. R. J. Thomaa. 

Oaktebbubt A. H. Campbell. 

Cabshaltoit R. A. Wilson. 

0ATBB8HA1I W. B. Locke. 

Cheshunt 8. TowlaoD. 

CmoHBSTKB H. W. StriDgfellow. 

CooKHAM F. Laurens. 

Ghbistohuboh R. W. Koapp. 

Gbotdon T. Walker. 

Deal T. C. Golder. 

DoBKiNO G.S.Mathews. 

^ (Rural D.O.) W. Rapley, jun. 

Ealino G. Jones. 

East Babnet Yallet H. York. 

East GowES W. Stringfellow. 

East Hah W. H. Savage. 

East Molbsbt J. Sterenson. 

Eastboxtbne R. M. Oloyne. 

Enfield R. GolJins. 

Epsom E. R. Gapon. 

Ebtth H. Hind. 

Fabeham W. Butler. 

Fabnham H. Frost 

Fennt Steatiobd J. Ghadwick. 

FiNOHLET F. Smythe. 

Folkestone J.White. 

Fbibbn Babnet * E.J.Reynolds. 

Gbats Thubbook A. G.James. 

GuiLDPOBD J. Dewhirst. 

F.T.Maltby. 

Hampshibb (Gounty) J.Robinson. 

Hampton J. Keoip. 

Haitwell 8. W.J. Barnes. 

Habbow T. Gharles. 

Hendon 8. S. Grimley. 

„ (Rural) G. A. Woodbridge. 

Henlet-on-Thames R. Pratt 

Hbrne Bat F. W. J. Palmer. 

Hebtfobd J. H. Jevons. 

Heston AND Islewobth W. A. DavJes. 

High Wtoombe T. J. Rushbrooke. 

Hobnset E. J. Loveg^ve. 

Hove H. H. Soott. 

Isle OF Thanet L. W. Hogbin. 

Kent (Gounty) F. W. Ruck. 

Kingston (Highway Board) .. .. A.J.Henderson. 

„ (Rural) W. H. Hope. 

Lewes T.W.Franks. 

Leyton, E W.Dawson. 

Ltttlehamfton H.Howard. 

London (Gounty) A. R. Binnie. 

)> n J. E. Worth. 

Luton A. J. L. Evana 

Ltminoton G. A. Bridges. 

Maidstone (Rural) 8. Stallard. 

Malton R. Richardson. 

Haboate A. Latham. 

Milton-nsxt-Sittingboubne .. .. A. B. Acworth. 



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XXXYIU HOME DI8TBI0T. 

New W1NOHB8TKB (R.D.C.) .. .. W. F. Y. Molineux. 

Newbubt ; E. A. Stiokland. 

Oxford W. H. White. 

P0BT8MOUTH P. Mnroh. 

Bamsqatb M. Aspinall. 

Bbioatb P.D.Clark. 

BiOHHOND J. H. Brierley. 

B00HB8TKB W. Banks. 

Btdb F.Newman. 

Sandwioh A. J. Cati 

8BVBNOAK8 J.Mann. 

Shbbbnesb 0. A. Copland. 

Slough J.Baker. 

80UTH H0BN8BT M.W.Jameson. 

80UTBALL NoBWOOD H. B. Felkin. 

Southampton W. B. G. Bennett 

Southbmd-on-Sba P. Dodd. 

H. Harlock. 

Southoatb C. G. Lawson. 

Sunbubt-on-Thames H. F. Coales. 

SuBBBY (County) F. G. HowelL 

Sussex (Connty), East Hy. Card. 

Sutton A. D. Greatorez. 

Teddinoton M. Hainsworth. 

ToNBBiDOB A. F. Ginn. 

„ (Bnral) F.Harris. 

TuNBBiDOB Wells T. E. W. Mellor. 

Twickenham G. B. LaflSan. 

Ventnob E.J.Harvey. 

Walthamstow G.W.Holmes. 

Wanstead J. T. Bressey. 

Wantage W.Hanson. 

Wabb J. Goddard. 

Watpobd D. Waterhoose. 

„ (Bural) G. A. Heath. 

Wembley C. L. Whitehead. 

West CowES N.F.Dennis. 

West Ham, London L. Aogell. 

WiLLESDEN O. C. Bobeon. 

Wimbledon C. H. Cooper. 

Witham A. M. Clarke. 

Wood Gbbbn 0. J. Gunyon. 

Woodford C. Mathew. 



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MRBOVOUTAS DOSmiClL XXHX 



No. 2.— METBOPOLITAX DISTRICT. 
Hon. Secreta ry Q. R. W. WmEiLXB, Tovb HaH, WngaJMlii. 6.W. 

MEMBEBS. 

Basbkb, J. P^ AJLIiMtaEL Ycstry Sorrvvtor, f^l Xarr. ItJarfo^ 

Babratt, F. W. Tcfltiy bcnrej'v. Bethna] GncB. 

Blaib, W. N^ AJf.Iiut.GJS. V€«4ry Sorrejur, Sc Puktm. 

BoTTEBiLL,C Vestry Sarrejor, TovB HaJL WalfaMi Qrt«K, 

BrBOEsa, 8. E. Veatry SurreTor, f^ofce Xewirirtoo, 

Caruhe. J^ A.M.IiiitCJS. District Sorreyor, Levkfauu Ctttianl Hill, 6.EL 

D1XO5, J. R. .. .. .. Vestry Sorreror, SfaorvdiieL 

DoDD, P., Assoc M. Inst. C.R Sonreycr, Waadsvortti, ». W. 

FniDLAT, B., A. M. Inst CE. Snrreyor to the PsLruh of EltfasB, Pfvut^^L 

Gow, W. C Vestry Sarrcyor, Vertry HsJl, Pln—tf si 

UiG6ES8,T. W.E., Assoc M. Veatry Sarreyor, Cbekc^ 

InstCE. 

Holt, 6. F. Late Bonreyw; Poplar District Board of Works. 

Jboh. W -.. .. Vestry SonreTor. Clerkcnveli 

IsAAoa, L. H. Surreyor to t^e HrA\am Dutriei Br«rd of Woriu, 

Vemlam Boildin^ Gray's Inn B'jwL 

KviGHT, J. M. Vestry Surreyor, Vestry Hall, MOe Eod. 

LiTDTOSTOSK, G., Assoc H. Vestry Sweyor, Si. George, Hauorer Squaie. 

InstCJE. 

LowK, C. H., M. lost G.E. Vestry Snrreycr, Haaipstfd. 

( Vke-PretidtmL) 

Maib,H^ Assoc H. Inst C.E. Smreyor to the Parish of Haia iiMiJsui itiu 

MAirmi, H. J., A .M InstC.E. Vestry Sorreyor, Wsnisvortb (Streatbaa aod 

Tooting). 

Masoit, C Assnc. M. Inst Vestry Sorreyor, St Xartin-m-tbe-Fields. Tovn 

C.E. Hall, Charmg Croa*, S. W. 

Mkabt, BL C^ A.lLInstC E. Vestry Smreyor, St Luke, KiddV^ex. 

MoHBOV, H. Vestiy Sorreyor, Bt James*, Weiftminster. 

NoBBiHGTOir, J. P^ Assoc M. Vestry Sorreyor, T^amhrth Vestry Hall, Kenoing- 

Inst G.E. too Green. 

NoBBiSH« G. B. Vestry Sonreyor, St SaTioar, Sooth wark. 

OxTOBT, W., A.M. lost G.E. Sorreyor to the Board of Works, Poplar. 

PiLDTTCB, J. T. Vestiy Sorreyor, Buttersea. 

Badfobd, J. C, A.M.InstCE. District Sorreyor, Potwy. 

Bowlakd J District Sorrejco', PI amttead (ChAr] ton ParishX 

SooBOiE, N., AM, Inst C.E. Ve*try Sorreyor, RAbwhithe. S.E. 

SorTHAM, A., A.M. Inst C.E. Sorreyor, Cla'pham, S.W. 

SuvHKB, F,, AJ€. Inst C.E Vestry Sorreyor, Bennondsey. 

Thompson, G. W., Assoc M. Vestiy Sunreyor, St. Olaye, Soothwark. 

InstC.E. 

ToMKiXB, H., A.M. Inst C.E Vestry Sarreyor, St Maryleb^nc 

Ventbis, a., a. M. Inst C.E. Sorreyor to the Strand District Board of Works. 

Waddikgtoh, J. A. P., Assoc Vestry Sorreyor, Whitechapel. 

M. Inst C.E 

Wallace, G Sorreyor to St Giles District Board of Works. 

Weaves, W., M. Inst C.E. Vestry Sorreyor, Kensington. 

{Manber 0/ CouncU,) 



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Zl MBTBOPOLITAN DI8TBI0T. 

WB8T0N, G Veetry Bunreyor, PaddingioD. 

Whseleb, G. B. W., Assoc. Vestry Surveyor, WeatminBter. H(m, Secretary, 

M. Inst. G.E. (Member of Metropolitan District 

CounoU.) 

Winter, O. E., Assoc. M.Inst. Vestrv Surveyor, St. G^rge the Martvr, South- 

C.E. wark. 

Woods, H District Survevor, Plumstead (Parishes of Lee 

and KidbruoK). 



TOWNS. 

Battebsea J. T. Pilditch. 

Bbrmondset F. Sumner. 

Betbnal Green F. W. Barratt 

Gbel£EA T. W. E. Higgens. 

Glafham A. Southam. 

Glerkenwell W. Iron. 

Eltham B. Findlay. 

FuLHAM C. Botterill. 

Hamuebsmith H. Mair. 

Hampstead G. H. Lowe. 

HoLBOBN L.H. Isaacs. 

Ken'sington .. W. Weaver. 

Lambeth J. P. Norrington. 

Lewisuam J. Garline. 

Mile End J. M. Knight 

Paddington G. Westou. 

Plumstead W. C. (Jow. 

„ (Gharlton) J. Bowland. 

., (Eltham) B. Findlay. 

„ (Lee and Eidbrook) . . U. Woods. 

Poplar W. Oxtoby. 

Putney J. G. Badford. 

BOTBBBHITHE X. SoOrgio. 

St. Geobob, Hanover Square .. .. G. Livingstone. 

St. George, SouTHW ARK O. E. Winter. 

St. Giles G. Wallace. 

St. Luke M. C. Meaby. 

St. Martin .iN-THE-FiELDS O.Mason. 

St. Mart, IsuNOTON J.P.Barber. 

St. Martlebone H. Tomkins. 

St. Olave, Southwark G.W.Thompson. 

St. Panobas W.N.Blair. 

St. Saviour, Southwark G. B. Norrish. 

Strand A. Ventris. 

SnoBEDrroH J. B. Dixon. 

Wandsworth.. ^ P. Dodd, 

„ (Streatham and Tooting) H. J. Martin. 

Westminster (St James*) H. Monson. 

Joh^) .^^^. *^T^*. '"^. ^^} <*• «• ^- "«^**'«'- 

WeiTECHAPEL J. A. P. Waddington. 



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MIDLAND DI8TRI0T. xli 



No. 3.— THE MIDLAND DISTRICT. 

Hon. Secretary — A. T, Davis, Shire Hall, Shrewsbury. 

MEMBEBS. 

Bailet, E Borough Surveyor, Leominster, 

Baldwin, L. L Surveyor to the Urbun District Council, Coalville, 

Leicester. 

Batlis, T. P Borough Surveyor, Droitwicb. 

Bbckley, J. W Town Surveyor, Brierley Hill. 

Beitakt, F Borough Engineer, Burslera. 

Bishop, MoW Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Sutiou- 

in-Ashfield, Notts. 

Blackshaw, W., a. M. Inst. Borough Surveyor, Stafford. 
C.E. 

Bbadlbt, J. W Borough Engpineer, Wolverhampton. 

Brettbll,W. H Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Bowley 

Regis, Staffordshire. 

Brown, A., M. Inst. C.E. Borough Engineer, Nottingham. 
(^Member of Council,) 

Brown, W. I Borough Surveyor, Northampton. 

Brown, W. T Surveyor to the Bural District Council, Worksop. 

Clarson, H. J Borough Surveyor, Tam worth. 

CoALEs, H. G., Assoc. M. Inst. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Market 

C.K Harborough. 

CoiiBBR, A Borough Surveyor, Kidderminster. 

Cook, F. P., Assoc M. Inst. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Mans- 

C.E. field Woodhouse. 

Cordon, B. C Surveyor to the Belper Bural District Council 

Duffleld, Derby. 

CuRRALL, A. E Surveyor to the Bural District Council, Soli- 
hull, Warwickshira 

Davis, A. T., Assoc. M. Inst. County Surveyor, Salop ; Jffon, Secretary^ Midland 

C.E. {Member of Council.) Counties District. 

Dixon, B Borough Surveyor, Stratford-on- A von. 

DuNSOOMBB, N., A.M.I.C.E. Borough Surveyor, Chesterfield. 

EAYRS, J. T., M. lust. C.E. 39 Corporation Street, Birmingham. 
{Past President,) 

Eddowes, W. C Borough Surveyor, Shrewsbury. 

FiDDiAN, W Town Surveyor, Stourbridge. 

Qaiimage,J Borough Surveyor, Dudley. 

Gamhell, H. H Surveyor to Urban District Council, Perry Barr. 

Garratt, C. T Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Ashby 

Woulds. 

Garrett, J. H County Surveyor, Worcester. 

Gk>DFRET, B., Assoc. M. Inst. 

C.E, {Member of Council,) 

A. D. Grbatorex, Assoc. M. Borough Surveyor, West Bromwich. 
Inst. C.E. 

Green, A. A Borough Surveyor, Brackley. 

Griffiths, F Corporation Waterworks Engineer, Leicester. 

Hamar, A Borough Surveyor, Bishop's Castle, Salop. 

Hammonds, G. B Surveyor to the Urban District CouncU, Newport, 

Salop. 



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Xlii MIDLAND DI8TBI0T. 

Habbison, B. J^ Assoc. M. Borough Surveyor, Derby. 

Inst. C.E. 

HawlkYjG. W Surveyor to District Highway Board, Nottingham. 

Hebbod, H Surveyor to the Bural District Council, Barrow- 

on-Soar. 

HooLET, R P., Assoc. M. Inst County Surveyor, Nottingham. 

C. E. ( Memher of t ouncU.) 

HowsB, W. T Surveyor to Urban District Council, Hinckley. 

Japprby, W Town Surveyor, Matlock Bath. 

Jbeves, E Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Melton 

Mowbray. 

Jemkin, C. J Surveyor to Urban District Council, Willenhall. 

Jukes, W. H Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Tipton. 

Kennedy, J. D Town Surveyor, Betford. 

KiDD, T., Assoc. M. Inst. C.E. Surveyor to Urban District Council, Worksop. 

KiLPOBD, H. J Borough Surveyor, Ilkeston, Derbyshire. 

KiNO,"W! Surveyor to Biiral District Council, Blaby. 

Law, E County Surveyor, Northampton. 

LiLLEY, G. H Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Ashby- 

de-la-Zouch. 

LOBLET, J., M. Inst. C.E. Borough Engineer, Hanley, Staffordshire. 

(Paat President.) 

Mabston, C. F., Assoc. M. Borough Surveyor, Sutton Coldfleld. 

Inst. C.E. 

Mawbey, E. G., Assoc. M. Borough Engineer, Leicester. 

Inst C.B. 

Mawson, B. C Borough Surveyor, Evesham. 

Middlbton, B. H Borough Surveyor, Walsall. 

Monour, J Highway Surveyor, Staffordshire. 

MobtimbBjJ Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Tetten- 

hall, near Wolverhampton. 

My ATT, J Town Surveyor, Leek. 

Pabkeb, J., A. M. Inst C.E. City Surveyor, Hereford. 

Pehberton, O Surveyor to Urban District Council, Desborough. 

PiOKEBiNG, J. S., A. M. Inst Surveyor to Urban District Council, Nuneaton. 

C.E. 

Price, J., Assoc. M. Inst. C.E. City Surveyor, Birmingham. 

PBITCHARD, E., M. Inst 37 Waterloo Street, Birmingham. 

C.E. (Pas* President), 

PcBNELii, E. J. , City Surveyor, Coventry, Warwickshire. 

BiDOUT, A. R Surveyor to Urban District Council, Wirks worth. 

BooBBS, W. E Surveyor to the Rugeley Urban District CounciL 

SooTT, E. M Borough Surveyor, Wednesbury. 

Shacklbton, C. W Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Coseley. 

Shabman, E. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Welling- 
borough, Northamptonshire. 

Shaw, J. H Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Brown- 
hills, Staffordshire. 

Shephebd, G. J. ,. .'. .. Highway Surveyor, Kidderminster. 

Shbppabd, G Borough Surveyor, Newark. 

Shipton, T. H Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Oldbury. 

Simpson, W. H., Assoc. M. Late Surveyor to the Blaby Union Bural District 

Inst OE. Council, Leicester. 

Smith, T. B. .. ., .. .. Surveyor to Urban District Council, Kettering. 

Smithibs, a Surveyor to the Urban District Council, West 

Bridgford. 

Stoby, J. S., M.In6tC.E. . . County Surveyor, Derby. 

Stuabt, J. Surveyor to Urban District Council, Smethwick. 

TILL, W. S., M. Inst C.E. Consulting Engineer, BirminghauL 

(Past President,) 

Tuley, W Surveyor to Urban District Council, Bothwell. 

Vallanoe, B. F Town Surveyor, Mansfield. 



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lODLAND DI8TBI0T. 



zliii 



Wakelav, H. T., Asfloc. M. Gonnty Surveyor, Hereford. 

Inst. O.E. 

Walshaw, J. W. Borough Snryeyor, Peterborough. 

Wardlb, J. W., Assoc. M.Inst. Borough Bunreyor, Long^ton. 

C.E. 

WmTBBEAD, B Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Cnrlton, 

Notts. 

Williams, J. B Borough Surveyor, Daventry. 

WiLLMOT, J Oiuniy Surveyor, Warwickshire. 

Wilson, 0. L. N., Assoa M. Town Surveyor, Bilston. 

Inst CE. 

Wood, A. B Surveyor to the Urban District Obunoil, Tunstall. 

W'TNKK-BoBEBTS, R. O. Borough Surveyor, Oswestry. 



TOWNS. 

AsHBT-DB-LA-ZoucH G. H. Lillcy. 

AsHBT WocLDB 0. T. Garratt. 

Aston H. Bichardson. 

Babbow-on-Soab (R.D.O.) H. Herrod. 

Bklpbb B. 0. Cordon. 

BiLSTOH C. L. N. Wilson. 

BiBMiNGHAM J. Prioe. 

Bishop's Castlk A. Hamar. 

Blabt W.King. 

Braoklbt A. A. Green. 

Bbieblbt Hill J. W. Beckley. 

Bbownhills J. H. Shaw. 

BuBSLEM F. Bettany. 

Cablton, Notts * .. .. B. Whitbread. 

CHESTBBnELD N. Duusoombe. 

Coalvillb L. L. Baldwin. 

CosELBT 0. W. Shaokleton. 

Covbntbt E. J. Pumell. 

Daybhtbt J. B. Williams. 

Debbt B.J.Harrison. 

„ (County) J.S.Story. 

Disbobouoh O. Pemberton. 

Dboitwiob T. P. Baylis. 

DuDLKT J. Gktmmage. 

Hanlxt J. Lobley. 

Hbbbfobd J.Parker. 

„ (County) H. T. Wakelam. 

Hinckley W. T. Howse. 

Ilkeston H. J. Kilford. 

Kettebino T.B. Smith. 

KiDDEBMiNSTEB A. Combor. 

„ G. J. Shepherd. 

King's NoBTON (B.D.C.) B. Godfrey. 

Leek J. Hyatt 

Leicbsteb E. G. Mawbey. 

Leominsteb E. Bailev. 

LoNGTON J. W. Wardle. 

Mansfield B. F. Yallance. 

Mansfield Woodhouse F.P.Cook. 

Mabkkt Harbobough H. G. Coales. 

Matlock Bath W. Jaffrey. 

Melton Mowbbat E.Jeeves. 

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Xliy MIDLAKD DI8TBI0T. 

Newark G. Sheppard. 

Newport, Salop 6. B. Hammonds. 

Northampton W. I. Brown. 

„ (County) E. Law. 

Nottingham A. Brown. 

„ (County) .. RP. Hooley. 

Nuneaton J. 8. Pickenng. 

Oldbury T. H. Shipton. 

08WE8TRT R. O. W. Roberta. 

OuNDLE J. M. 8iddons. 

Fkrry Barr H. H. Oammell. 

Fbterborouoh J. W. Walahaw. 

Bbtford J.D.Kennedy. 

BoTHWELL W. Tuley. 

Bowley Regis W. H. Brettell. 

BcGBY D. G. MacDonald. 

BuGELEY W. E. Bogers. 

Shrewsbury W. C. Eddowes. 

Shropshire (County) A.T.Davis. 

8METHWI0K J.C.Stuart. 

Solihull (Bural) A. E. Currall. 

Stafford W. Blackahaw. 

Staffordshire (Highways) . . . . J. Moncur. 

Stourbridge W. Fiddian. 

Stratpord-on-Avon B. Dixon. 

Stretfobd H.Boyle. 

Sutton Coldfibld .. C. F. Marston. 

Sctton-in-Ashfield Mo W. Bishop. 

Tamworth H. J. Clarson. 

Tettenhall J.Mortimer. 

Tipton W. H. Jukes. 

TuNSTALL A. B. Wood. 

Walsall B. H. Middleton. 

Warwickshire J. Willmot. 

Wednesbury E. M. Scott 

Wellingborough E. Shannan. 

West Bromwich, Staffordshire . . A. D. Greatorex. 

Willenhall C. J. Jenkin. 

Wolverhampton B. E. W. Berrington. 

WoRCEOTER (County) J.H.Garrett. 

Worksop T. Kidd. 

„ (Bural) W.T.Brown. 



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YORKSHIBB DI8TBI0T. xlv 

No. 4.— THE YORKSHIRE DISTRICT. 
JTm, Secretary^T, W. STAnrraoitt»B, Eaton. 

MEMBERS. 

Armistbad, Riohabd, Assoc Surveyor to the Improyement Commissioners 

M. Inst. C.E Bingley, YorkRhire. 

Atkinson, W Surveyor to Bupal District Council, Kiveton Park. 

Baker, F Borough Surveyor, Middlesbrough. 

B ARRAS, C. C Surveyor to Rural District Council, Doncaster. 

BBALMOirr, A County Surveyor, Yorkshire, East Riding. 

Brown, R. R Surveyor to Urban District Council, Bridlington. 

Cas8,R. W Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Pudsev. 

Cox, J. H.. M. Inst C.E. .. Borough Surveyor, Town Hall, Bradford. 

(^Member ofCoundL) 

Crabtree, W. H. R., Assoc. Borough Surveyor, Doncaster. 

M.InstC.E 

Crber, a, Assoc. M. Inst.C.E. City Surveyor, York. 

(^Member of CouncilJ) 

Dearden, H. Borough Surveyor, Batley. 

I>TEB,S Late Surveyor to the IJrhan District Council, 

Bridlington. 

Dtson, J. W Surveyor to the Rural District Council, Halifax 

(Clifton, Brighouse) 

Edson, W City Surveyor, Ripon. 

ESCOTT, E. R. S., M. Inst Borough Engineer, Halifax. 

C.E. {President.) 

Farrinoton, W Surveyor to the Hoyland Nether Urban DUtrict 

Council. 

Fenn, T Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Upi>er 

SoothiU. 

Gaskbll, P Surveyor to the Urben District Council, Hornsea, 

near Hull. 

Godfrey, B., Assoc M. Inst. Surveyor to Rural District Council, Rotherham. 

C.E. 

Hare, F. H Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Mirfield. 

Hewson, T., M. Inst C.E. .. Borough Engineer, Leeds. 

(^Member of CoHnciL) 

HopKiNSON, W. H Borough Engineer, Eeighley. 

Hopper, H.T Surveyor to the Urban District Council, North 

Ormesby, Middlesbrough. 

HoRSFALL, W. H. D Surveyor to Urban District Council, Southowram. 

HowcROFT, J. {Member of Surveyor, Klrkleatham Urban District Council, 

CounciL) Reacar, Yorkshire ; Hon, Sec.^ Northern Counties 

District 

Jenninos, G Borough Surveyor, Rotherham. 

Lewis, J. D City Engineer's Office, Leeds. 

Lund, C Surveyor to Urban District Council, Yeadon. 

Mallinson, T Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Skipton. 

Marks, H. C, A. M. Inst C.E. Borough Engineer, Dewsbury. 

Massie, F., a. M. Inst C.E. Surveyor to Rural District Council, Wakefield. 

Pallisbr, W. a Surveyor to Urban District Council, Ilkley. 

Parker, S. W Surveyor to Urban District Council, Thornhill. 

Pearson, W. T Surveyor to Urban District Council, Roth well. 

Pentt, W. G Surveyor to the Rural District Council, York, 



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Xlvi Y0BK8HIBB DI8TBI0T. 

PoBTER, B Borough Barveyor, Wakefield. 

B0BIN8ON, W. P Surveyor to the Urbaa DiBtrict Goundl, Skelton- 

in-Oleveland. 

BoDWELL, A Surveyor to Bural District Council, Skipton. 

Boss, P., Aasoc M. Inst. O.E. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, North 

Bierley, Bradford. 
BoTHBBA, F Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Sowerby 

Bridge. 

SAyiLLB,J Town Surveyor. Heckmondwike. 

Spinks, W., Assoc. M. Inst. 52 Prudential Assurance Buildings, Park Bow, 

C.E. Leeds. 

Stainthobpe, T.W., A.M.Inst Surveyor to the Eston Urban DistKct Council, 
C.E. (Member of Coitncii.) Yorkshire ; Hon. Sec., Yorkshire District 

Stead, S. Borough Surveyor, Harrogate. 

ScTOLiFPK, A. Surveyor to Urban District Council, Featherstone. 

Tabbit, T. H Snrveyor to the Urban District Council, Loftus, 

Yorks. 

Tbow, S Surveyor to the Urban District; Council, Otley. 

Wethbbill, J. W Surveyor to Urban District Council, Bawmarsh. 

Wikb, C. F., M. Inst. C.E. .. Borough Engineer, Sheffield. 
(Member of CovmcU.) 

TOWNS. 

Batlet H. Dearden. 

BiNQLET B. Armistead. 

Bbadfobd J. H. Cox. 

Bbiolinoton B. B. Brown. 

Dewsbubt H.C.Marks. 

D0NOA8TEB W. H. B. Crabtree. 

„ (Bural) C. C. Barras. 

EsTON DiflTBiOT T. W. Stainthorpe. 

Evesham B. C. Mawson. 

Fbatherstomb A. Sutcliffe. 

Halifax E. B. S. Esoott 

Habbooate S. Stead. 

Heckmondwikb J. Saville. , 

Hobmsba P. Gaskell. 

Hoyland Nethbb W. Farrington. 

Hull A. E. White. 

Ilklby W. A. Pallujer. 

Keiohley W. H. Hopkinson. 

KiBKLEATHAM J. HoWCroffc. 

KivETON Pabk W.Atkinson. 

Leeds T. Hewsou. 

L0PTU8 T. H. Tarbit. 

Middlesbbough F.Baker. 

MiBFiELD F. H. Hare. 

Nobth Biebley P. Boss. 

NoBTH Obmesby H. T. Hopper. 

Otley S. Trow. 

Pudsby B.W.Cass. 

Bawmabsh J. W. Wetherill. 

BiPON W. Edson. 

Botuebham G.Jennings. 

B.Godfrey. 

Bothwell W.T.Pearson. 

Sheffield C. F. Wike. 

Skelton-in-Cleveland .. .. « W. P. Bobinson. 

Skipton T. Mallinson. 

„ A. Bodwell. 



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LANOASHIRB AmO 0HB8HIBB DI8TBI0T. xlvii 

SouTHOWBAM W. H. D. Horsfall. 

SowEBBT Bbidob F. Bothera. 

Thornhill 8, W. Parker. 

ToDMOBDBN H. 8haw. 

Wakefield R. Porter. 

H (Rural) F. Masde. 

West Hartlepool J. W. Brown. 

WoBK80P(R.D.O.) W.T.Brown. 

Ybadon C. Lund. 

YoBK A. Creer. 

„ (Rural) W. G. Penty. 

YoBKSHiBE (Ck>unty), East Riding .. A. Beaumont 



No. 6.— THE LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE DISTRICT. 
Hon. Secretary — F. 8. Button, Town Hall, Burnley. 

MEMBERS. 

Adshead, E. K Borough Surveyor, Macclesfield. 

Atkinson, J., A. M. Inst. C.E. Borough Surveyor, Stockport 
Ball, B., Assoc. M. Inst O.E. Borough Engineer, Nelson. 
BOULNOIS, H. P., M. Inst City Engineer, Liverpool 

C.E. {Past President.) 

Bbieblet, R Town Surveyor, Newton-in-Makerfleld, Lanoa* 

shire. 

Bbockbank, W. H Borough Survevor, Bolton. 

Brooke, J Surveyor to Urban District Council, North wich. 

BnooM, G. J. C, M. Inst C.E. Borough Engineer, St Helen's, Lancashire. 
Brownbidoe, C, Assoc. M. Borough Engineer, Birkenhead. 

Inst C.E. 

BuRBLAM, R Borough Surveyor, O)ngleton. 

BoRTON,J. H Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Auden- 

shaw, Lancashire. 
Button, F. S., Assoc. M. Inst. Late Borough Surveyor, Burnley ; ffon. Secretary^ 

C.E. (^Member of Council.') Lancashire and Cheshire District 

Calvert, W Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Hebden 

Bridge. 
CART WRIGHT, J., M. Inst Borough Surveyor, Bury, Lancashire. 

C.B. {Past President.) 

Clocgh,W Surveyor to Urban District Council, Atherton. 

Cook, J., Assoc. M. Inst. C.E. Borough Surveyor, Lancaster. 

Crowthbr, J. A Borough Surveyor, Bootle, Lancashire. 

Dent, William Late Surveyor to the Urban District Council, 

Nelson • in • Marsden, Lancashire. Railway 
Street, Nelson. 
DiGGLE, J., A. M. Inst. C.E. . . Borough Engineer, Hey wood. 

Diggle, Wm Surveyor, Frodsham, Chester. 

Dixon, F. K, Assoc M. Inst. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Walton- 

C.E. le-Dale. 



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Xlyiii LAKOABHIRB AND OHBSHIBE DISTBIOT. 

Eabnshaw, J. T., Abboo. M. Borough Sunrejor, ABhtoa-under-Lyne, Lanoa- 

Inst. O.E. shire. 

Eaton-Sbobb, G., Assoc. M. Borough Surveyor, Crewe. 

Insi G.E. 

EoKEBSLET, W Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Chadder- 

ton, Lancashire. 
Edmukdbok, 8. .. :. .. Surveyor to Rural District Council, Burnley. 

Entwislb, H Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Swinton. 

EvBBETT, F. C, Assoc M. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, West 

Inst. C.E. Derby- 

Foster, T Surveyor to the Hoylake and West Kirby Urban 

District CounclL 
FOWLER, ALFRED M., St. Peter's Square, Manchester. 85 Old Queen 

M.Inst.C.E. (Past President), Street, Westminster, S.W. 

Fbaseb, a. O Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Allerton, 

Liverpool. 

Gaultbb, M. S Town Surveyor, Fleetwood. 

Gk)LDBWOBTH, W Surveyor to the Urban District Couucil, Prcsoot, 

Lancashire. 

Gbbenwood, A Late Surveyor to the Urban District Council, 

Todmorden. 
Gbboson, J., Assoc. M. Inst. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Padiham, 

C.R. near Burnley. 

Hall, W., ABSoc.M.In8tC.E. Surveyor to Urban District CoudcU, Great Crosby. 

Uartlbt, T. U Borough Surveyor, Colne. 

Hbaton, G., Assoc. M. Inst. Surveyor to Urban District Councils, Pemberton, 

C.E. Aspull,Abram,andOrre]]. King Street, Wigan. 

HiGomsoN, T 28 Deacon Road, Appleton, Widnes. 

HooLEY, Cosmo C, Assoc. Rural District Council, Barton - upon - Irwell, 

M. Inst. C.E. Patricroft; Urban District Council, Urmston, 

near Manchester. 

Jbpson, J Surveyor to Urban District Council, Levenshulme. 

Jones, L M., Assoc M. Inst. City Surveyor, Chester ; Engineer to the Dee 

C.E. Bridge Commissioners. 

Kay, W. R Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Irlam. 

Landless, J. T Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Brierfield , 

Lancashire. 

Leigh, W Borough Surveyor, Chorley. 

MoBba'^h, a. G., Assoc. M. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Sale, 

Inst. C.E. Cheshire. 

McKenzie, J. MoD Surveyor to the Rural District Council, Bucklow. 

Mawson, J Late Surveyor to the Urban District Council, 

Shaw, near Oldham. 
MEADE, T. DE COURCY, City Surveyor, Manchester. 

M-InstCE. {Past President.) 

Mills, J. H. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Crompton, 

near Oldham. 

Mitchell, J Borough Surveyor, Hyde, Manchester. 

Mountain, A. H., Assoc M. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Withing- 

Inst. C.E. ton, near Manchester. 

Naylob, W., a. M. Inst. C.E. 16 Walton's Parade, Preston. 

Newton, G. H, Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Denton, 

Manchester. 
Newton, J., M. Inst. C.E. . . Engineer to the Urban District Council, Bowdon, 

Cheshire. 
Newton, W. J., Assoc. M. Inst Borough Surveyor, Accrington. 

C.E. 
Nuttall, T., Assoc. M. Inst. Surveyor to the Urban District Councils, Kearsley 

C.E. and Ramsbottom, Lancashire. 

Parkinson, J., Assoc M. Insi Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Turton, 

C.E. near Bolton. 

PiOKERiNG, S. A Borough Surveyor, Oldham. 



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LANOASHIBB AND CHBSHIBB DISTRICT. zlix 

Pickles, G. H Borough Surveyor, Burnley. 

Platt, S. S., Assoc. M. Inst. Borough Sorreyor, BoohdaJe. 

C.E. {Member of Council,) 

Pbogtob, J., M. Inst C.E. .. 13 Mawdesley Street, Bolton, Laneasliire. 

BonnrxLL, E., Ajssoc. M. Inst Springfield dottage, Marland, Bochdale. 

C.E. 

BoTLB, H., Assoc M. Inst Soryeyor to the Urban District Ckmncil, Stretford, 

G.E. Lanoflshire. 

Salmon, A., Assoc H. Inst Surreyor to the Urban District Council, Wallasey, 

C.E. Cheshire. 

Shaw, H., Assoc. M. Inst C.E. Sorveyor to Urban District Council, Todmorden. 

Shkabd, W. C Surreyor to tho Urban District Council, Heaton 

Norris, 

Sinclair, J. 8., A.M.InstC.E. Borongh Surveyor, Widnes. 

Smith, C. C. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Dalton- 

iiV-Kumess. 

SxiTB, J. B Surveyor to Urban District Council, Tyldesley. 

Spinks, W., Assoc. M. Inst Late Surveyor to the Urbau District Council, 

C.E. DuMnfleld. 9 Albert Square, Manchester. 

Stokob, J Surveyor to Urban District Council, Altrincham. 

Stubbs, Wm., a. M. Inst C.E. Borough Engineer, Blackburn. 

Swabbbiok, J., Assoc M. Inst 83 Brasenose Street, Albert Square, lianchester. 

C.E. 

Stkbs, E., Assoc. M. Inst Late Surveyor to the Urban District Council, 

C.E. Cheadle, Manchester. 

Tatlob. B Borough Surveyor, Uaslingden. 

Thobbubn, T. C Late Borough Surveyor, Birkenhead. 

Thorpe, J Surveyor to Rural District Council, Macclesfield. 

Tbavibs, W. H Surveyor to Urbau District Council, Wavertree. 

TuBLEv, A. C Borough Engineer, Eccles. 

Veevebs, el, a. M. Inst. C.E. Surveyor to Urban District Council, Dukinfiel 1. 

Watts, W. Water Engineer, Oldham. 

Websteb, B. J Surveyor to Urban District Council, Castleton 

Welbubn, W Borough Surveyor, Middleton, near Manchester. 

Wild, G. H Surveyor to Urban District Council, Little- 
borough, near Manchester. 

Whdino, J. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Enncom. 

Wilson, J *.. .. Boroufich Surveyor, Bacup, Lancashire' 

Window, E. R-, Assoc M. Late Surveyor to the Urban District Council, 

Inst C.E. Bishop's Stortford. 16 Cook Street, Liverpool. 

Yates, F. 8., Assoc. M. Inst Surveyor to the Urbau District Council, Waterloo, 

C.E. neigr Liverpool. 



TOWNS. 

Abbam , Geo. Hoatou. 

AooBiNQTON * .. .. W.J.Newton. 

Allebton A. O. Eraser. 

Altrincham J. Btokoe. 

Ashton-under^Lynb J. T. Eamshaw. 

AspuLL Geo. Hoflton. 

Athebton W. Clough. 

Avdenbhaw J. H. Burton. 



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LANOASHIBB AND dlBSHIBB DISTBIOT. 

Bacttp J. Wilson. 

Barton-ufon-Ibwbll (Bural) •. ,. 0. C. Hooley. 

BiRKKMHBAD 0. BrownridgB. 

Blaokbubn W. Stubbs. 

BoLTOK W. H. Brookbank. 

BooTLi .. J. A. Oowther. 

BowDOK J. Newton. 

Bbiebfield J. T. Landless. 

BuoKLOW J. McD. MoKenzie. 

BuBNLiT G. H. Pickles. 

„ (Bund) 8 Edmondsoti. 

BuBT «• J. Oartwright. 

Oastleton B. J. Webster. 

Ohaddbbtoh W. Eckerslejr, 

Ghbsteb I. M. Jones. 

Ghorlet W. Lei}?h. 

GoLNB T. H. Hartley. 

GoNGLBTON B. Burslam. 

Obkwb .. G. Eaion-Sbore. 

Grompton J.H.Mills. 

DALTON-iN-FuBNBas C.O.Smith. 

Dbmton G. H. Newton. 

DuKiNfixLD .. H. Veevers. 

EooLES A. 0. Turley. 

Flebtwood M. S. Ganlter, 

Frodshau W. Diggle. 

Great Crosby W. Hall. 

Haslinqdbk B. Taylor. 

Hbaton Norrts W. C. Sheard. 

Hebden Bbidob W.Calvert. 

Hetwood J. Diggle. 

HoTLAKB AND West Kibbt .. .. T. Foster. 

Htdb J. Mitchell. 

Irlam W. B. Kay. 

Kbarslet T. Nuttall. 

Lanoastbb J. Cook. 

Leyenshulue J. Jepson. 

LiTTLBBOROUQH G. H. Wild. 

Liyerfool H. P. Boalnois. 

Macclesfield E. E. Adsbead. 

„ (Bural) J.Thorpe. 

Manchester T.de C.Meade. 

MtDDLBTOH, Lancashibb W. Welbum. 

Nblson B. BalL 

Newton-in-Makerfield B. Brierley. 

NoRTHWiCH J. Brooke. 

Oldham 8. A. Pickering. 

„ W. Watts. 

Orrell G. Heaton. 

Padiham J. Gregson. 

Pembebton .. G. Heaton. 

Preroot W. Goldsworth. 

Bambbottom T. NuttalL 

BOOHDALB 8. 8. Platt 

BuNooRN J. Wilding. 

8ale A. G. McBeath. 

St. Helen's G. J. C. Broom. 

Stockport J. Atkinson. 

SwiNTON H. Entwisie. 

TuRToN J. Parkinson. 

Ttldeslet J. B. Smith. 



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^jyEgTBRN DISTBIOT. 

A. Sidmon. 

Waixactt Y. E. Dixon. 

Waltoh-i.»-Dalb p g YBtes. 

Waterloo, LivBBPOOL W. H. Travere. 

Wavkrtbm • F.O.Everett. 

West Dbbbt * j^ g^ Sinclair. 

WiDNis A. H. Mountiiin. 

WXTHIHOTOK 



No. 6.-THE WESTERN DISTRICT. 

Hon. S^ory-JOBEPH Hall, Town Hall, Cheltenham. 
MEMBERS. 

iP"^ P«»<*|rf>-^ ^^ jj g^eyor to Urban District CotmcU. WormiMter. 

"ISTo-E: ^ ■' g „, to the Rural DUtriot Council. Keyn- 

BraSKT.H. m aham, Bristol. .. „ .. 

SnrTevor to Urban District Connoil, Exmonth. 

B«w.cK,W.H. .. .. •• l^tyor to Urban District Conncil, Trowbridge. 

Bbamhaw, »VK. "• • • £ Q.^ Enpnoer, Worcester. 

Oajsk, T., Assoc M. Inst. 1..1!.. ^ y gnp^eyor, Kxeter. . ^ ^ ,, „ »„,h 

CA«mBOH,D. .. •• •• - gXyor tithe Urban District OonnoU,Horfield. 

M.InBt.O.E. snrreyor to the Urban District Council, East 

"^^y 8„«^?^?neUrbanDistrictOoancil.F.ome. 

^Z^l :: :: "• '•"• K;^Sl^i>SrtrictConncil.8herbon.e. 

^*""\\ 8,?;'^i:to the Urban District Conncil.Portis- 

Flowkb,J. M. head, near Briatol. 

•o A M TmL B. Town Surveyor, Torquay. 
Gabber, H.. A. M. Inst. o.ii. ^ Surveyor, dkehampton. , . 

Geeh,H Worouffh Surveyor, Tewkesbury, Gloucesterehire. 

G^W.H Kfor to the Biral District Council, Fro^^^^ 

GBEEiwKLL, A. .... .. ^^^^^ l^tyor, Cheltenham; Hon. Secretary, 

Hall, J., A^. M. Inst. C.E. ^^^^^ ^^^^tjes District. 

(^MemherofCowtcd.) ^^^^ Surveyor, Somerton. Somersetshire. 

Hawkins,!. T. Boroueh Engineer, Newport, Mon. ,. . . ^v 

Hathes,B.H SySurfcyor, Cornwall (Western division), 

HicMB,T. J Truro. ,0 

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lii WBfflKBJS DIBTBlCr. 

HoDQB, J. L., Aaaoo. M. Ini t Late Snireyor to the UrbaD District Council, 
G.B. East Stonehonse, Devon. 

Hunt, G.J Borough Sarveyor, Dorchester. 

Inoham, W Water Engineer, Torquay. 

JoNBSfG. Surveyor to Urban District Council, Teignmonth. 

KiBBT, C., Assoc. M. Inst C.E. Water Engineer, Newport, Mon. 

Knowlbs, G. W Town Surveyor, Cleverion, Somerset 

Lbwis, T, Lu Surveyor to Urban District Council, St George, 

Bristol. 
MoROAir, W. B., Assoc M. Borough Surveyor, Weymoutli, and Meloombe 

Inst C.E. Regis, Dorchester. 

NrrrLBTON, H., Assoc. M. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Weston- 
Inst CJS. super-Mare. 

Pars, F Borough Surveyor, Bridgwater. 

Paton, J Borough Engineer, Plymouth. 

Phillips, B. Coun^ Surveyor, Gloucester. 

Powell, D. H. W Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Kin^- 

wood, near Bristol. 
Prbbs, W. J Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Bumham, 

Somerset 
Proitsb, O. M., A.Bf.Inst.C.E. Surveyor to Urban District Council, Ilfraoombe. 
Bead, E., Assoc H. Inst City burveyor, Gloucester. 

C.E. 
Sadlbb,G. W Late Surveyor to the Rural District CouncO, 

467 High Street Cheltenham. 
Saise, A. J Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Stapleton, 

Bristol. 

Seniob, J. S Surveyor to Urban District Council, Swanage. 

Stevens, G Snrreyorto Urban District Council, Blaina, Mon. 

Stevens, L. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Newton 

Abbott, Devon. 

Tanner, W. County Surveyor, Monmouthshire. Newport 

Websteb,J. L. .. •. .. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Portland. 
WiDDOWsoN, W. C .. .. Surveyor to Urban District Council, Tredegar, 

Mon. 
Wtatt, W. J Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Paignton, 

Devon. 
Yabbioom, T. H., a. M. Inst City Engineer, Bristol. 
C.E. 



TOWNS. 

Abbroavennt J. Haigh. 

Blaina G. Stevens. 

Bournemouth F. W. Lacey. 

Bridowateb F. Parr. 

Bristol T. H. Yabbicom. 

„ (Rural) H.M. Bennett 

BoRNHAM, Somerset W. J. Press. 

Cheltenham J. Hall. 

Clevedon G. W. Knowles. 

Cornwall (County), West T.J. Hickes. 

D0ROHB8TBR G.J.Hunt 

East Stonehouse A. W. Debnam. 

Exeter D.Cameron. 

Exmouth W. H. Beswick. 

-Frome P. Edinger. 

„ (Rural) A;Grocnwell. 

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I 



WJCBTJUtN DISIEIOT. liil 



Glouoestsb B. Bead. 

^ (County) B. Phillipi. 

HoBFiiLD A. p. L Ootteiell. 

Ilfbacombb O. M. Proase. 

KiHOswooD D. H. W. PowelL 

MoNuouTHSHiBB (Ck>imty) W. Tanner. 

Nbwton Abbott L. Stevens. 

Kbwpobt, Mon B. H. Haynea. 

Okeuaiiptoh .. H. Qeen. 

Paignton W. J. Wyatt 

Pltmoxtth J. Paton. 

PooLB J. Elford. 

PoBTisHBAD J. MooB Flower. 

PoBTLAND J. L. Webater. 

8t. Gbobgb, Bbistol T. L. Lewia. 

Shbbbobnb T. Fanall. 

80MEBTON L T. Hawkina. 

SwANAOB J. S. Senior. 

Tbiohmouth 0. Jonea. 

Tewkesbubt, Gloucbstsbshirb . . . . W. U. Gray. 

ToBQUAT H. A. Garrett 

„ W. Ingham. 

Tbedcoab W. O. Widdowaon. 

Tbowbbioob F. E. G. Bradahaw. 

Wabmtnbteb W, Bayley. 

We8ton-8Ufeb-Mabb H. Nettleton. 

Wbtmouth and Meloombb Bbqis . . W. B. Morgan. 

'WoBCkSiBB T. Gaink. 

Yeutil W. K. L. Armytage. 



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liy NOBTHSBN DI8TBICT. 



No. 7.--THE NOBTHEBN DISTBICT. 

Hon. Seoretary — Jas. Howoboft, Bedoar. 

ME!MBEB8« 

AiTKBN, T County Surveyor, Cupar, Fife. 

ANDBB80N, B. 8., A880C. M. Couuty Bunreyoi^ Peeolee, N.B. 
lust C.B. 

Bratson, W. Borough Surveyor, Leith. 

BowEB, J Borough Engineer, Gateshead-oQ-Tyue. 

Bbodib, J. S., A. M. lust C.B. Town Surveyor, Whitehaven. 

Brown, J. W., A.M. Inst C.E. Borough Engineer, West Hartlepool. 

Campbell, E. F., Assoc. Borough Surveyor, Stockton. 

M. Inst C.E 

Cooper, J., Assoc.M.Inst.C.E. Burgh Engineer, Edinhurgh. 

Cooper, W. W. .. .. Surveyor to Urban District Council, Bedlington. 

Crvmuaok. H. C, Assoc. M. Borough Surveyor, Hartlepool. 
Inst C.E. 

Curry, W. F Surveyor to the Urban District Couficil, Morpeth. 

Dalton. J. P Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Hyton- 

on-Tyne. 

DiOKiNSON, R Borough Surveyor, Berwick-ou-Tweed. 

Dyaok, W., AssocM.InstC.E. Burgh Surveyor, Abordeen. 

Goddard, G. C Borough Surveyor, Kendal. 

Grbgson, G Surveyor to the Bural Distri<*t Council, Durhsm. 

Grieves, R Surveyor to the Co wpen Urban District Council, 

Blyth. 

Hall, M Borough Surveyor, South Shields, Durham. 

Hodgson, W. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Keswick. 

Hollinos, G Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Wallsend. 

LAWS, W. G., M. Inst C.E. City Enginoer, Newcastle-onTyne. 

(Past President.) 

Mason, W. A Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Shildon, 

near Darlington. 

Pattison, W. P Surveyor to the Urban District CouncU, Ben well. 

Pbtreb, J Borough Surveyor, »Tai-row. 

Pickering, B 11 Lowther Street, Whitehaven. 

BouNTBWAiTE, B. S Borough Engineer, Sundcrlaud. 

Smillie, J. F .. Borough Surveyor, Tvnemouth. 

Smith, W. H., Assoc. M. Inst City Engineer, Carlisle. 

CE. • 

Spencer, J. P., Assoc. M. Inst. 32 Moeeley Street, Newoastle-on-Tyne. 

C.E. 

Taylor, H. W Surveyor to Urban District Council, Newbura* 

on-Tyne. 

Turnbull, A. J Borough Engineer, Greenock. 

Watson, J. D., A.M.InstC.E. County Sanitary Engineer, Aberdeenshiie. 

Waye, H. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Millom, 

Cumberland. 

Wilson, G Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Alnwick. 

Wilson, J B Surveyor to the Bural District Council, Codccr- 

mouth. 



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NOBTHBBN DISTRICT. 



TOWNS. 



^XRDBBN W. Dyack. 

Abebdbenshibx J. D.Wataon. 

Alnwick G.Wilson. 

Atbshibb A. 8te?eii0Oii. 

Bkdlihoton ' W. W. Oooper. 

Benwxll W. P. PatUBon. 

Bbbwick-on-Twuu) H. Diokinsoii. 

Carlmlb W.H. Smith. 

CocKSBXouTB (R.D.O.) J. B. Wilson. 

Ck)WFKN W. Grieves. 

CuPAB T.Aitken. 

DuBHAX (B.D.G.) G. Gregson« 

Edinbuboh J. Ck)oper. 

Gbbbnook A. J. Tornball. 

Habtlxpool H. 0. Crummack. 

Jabbow J. Petree. 

Kbmdal D. 0. Goddard. 

Kbswiok W.Hodgson. 

Leith W. Beatson. 

BfiLLOH .. H. Waye. 

MoBPBTH W. F. Curry. 

Newbubv-on-Tynb H. W. Taylor. 

NswoAflTLB-OK-TYNB W. G. Laws. 

Peebles R. S. Anderson. 

Rtton-on-Ttkb J. P. Dalton. 

Shildon W. A. Mason. 

South Shields M.Hall. 

Stafleton A. J. Saise. 

Stockton K. P. OampbelL 

SuNDEBLAKD B. S. Bounthwalto. 

Ttnemocth ., .. J. F. Sraillie. 

Wallbend G. HoUings. 

WuiTEHAYEN J. S. Bfodie. 



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Ivi EASTERN DISTRICT. 



No. 8.— THE EASTERN DISTRICT. 
Hon, Secretary^^, W. GocRBiLL, Qreat Yarmouth. 

MEMBERS. 

Bland, D Sorreyor to the Urban DiBtriot Council, Cheeter- 

ton, Cambridge. 

BoDEN, G Soryeyor to the Bond District Cooncil, Romford. 

BuoKHAH, F., M. Inst C.E. .. Borough SorTeyor, Ipswich. 
(Member of Council,} 

Clabb,J Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Sleaford. 

CooKBiLL, J. W., Assoo.M.In8t. Borough Surveyor, Qreat Yarmouth ; Hon, Secre- 

C.K {Member of Council,) tary, Eantem Counties District. 
CooKBiLL, T., A. M. Inst C.E. Surveyor to Urban District Council, Haverhill, 

Suffolk. 
Collins, A. E., A.M.Inst.C.E. City Engineer, Norwich. 

Evans, J Boroagh Surveyor, Grantham. 

GooDTEAB, H., A. M.Inst.C.E. Borough Surveyor, Colchester. 

Hambt,G. H Borough Engineer, Lowestoft 

HiMSON, H. G Surveyor to the Urban District Council, East 

Dereham. 

HoRTON, G. S Surveyor to Urban District Council, Felixstowe. 

Key WOOD, H. G Surveyor to Rural District Council, Maldon. 

Lacet, G. W Borough Surveyor, Saffron Walden. 

MaoBraib, R. a., Assoc. M. City Engineer, Lincoln. 

Inst C.E. 
Metcalf, J. W., A.M.InstC.E. Town Surveyor, Newmarket. 

MiLLEB, H County Surveyor, East Suffolk, Ipswich. 

MooRE, G. J City Surveyor, Wisbech. 

Petbee, M Borough Surveyor, Great Grimsby. 

Plowbight, a. H Borough Surveyor, Wisbech, Cambe. 

RiouABDSON, J Surveyor to Urban District Council, Stamford. 

Rilet,H Surveyor to the Rural District Council, Gains- 
borough. 
RoBiNBON, A. R Surveyor to the Urban District Council^ Clacton- 

on-Sea. 

Rowland, T Borough Engineer, Louth, Lincolnshiie. 

Rush, J Borough Surveyor, Eye, Suffolk. 

RxTSHTON, E Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Clee- 

thorpes. 

Sassb, G. H Borough Surveyor, Chelmsford. 

SooTT, A. F Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Cromer. 

SiLGOCK, E. J., A.M.InstC.E. Borough Surveyor, King's Lynn. 
Smith, J. C, A. M. Inst C.E. Borough Surveyor, Bury St Edmunds. 
TooLET, U Surveyor to Urban District Coundl, Buckhurst 

HUl. 
White, A. E., A.M. Inst. C.E. Borough Engineer, Hull. 



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EASTERN DI8TRI0T. ItU 



TOWNS 

BuBT St. Edmunds J. C. Smith. 

Ohblmsford G. H. Sasse. 

(B.D.O.) I.C.Smith. 

Chbbtirton D.Bland. 

Claoton-on-Sba A. B. BobinKm. 

Glbithobpxb E. BoBhtoD. 

C0LOHI8TBB H. Goodyear. 

Obombb F. A. Soott 

EaatDsbbham H. G. HimBon. 

Ete J. Bu«h. 

Fbuxstowx G. S. Horton. 

Gainsbobouoh H. Bilej. 

GbAMTHAK, LlKOOLNBHIBB J. EraDfl. 

Gbkat GBDfSBT M. Petree. 

Great Tabmouth J. W. GockrilL 

Harwich H. Ditobam. 

Haverhill T. CookrilL 

Ipswich E. Buokham. 

Isle of ELT(Goaiity) G. J. Moore. 

Krao's Ltnn E. J. Siloock. 

Lincoln B. A. MaoBrair. 

Louth T. Bowland. 

Lowestoft G. H. Hamby. 

Maldon H. G. Keywood. 

Nbwhabket J. W. Metoalf. 

„ H. W. Taylor. 

Norwich A. E. Collins. 

BoMFORD G. Boden. 

Saffron Walden G. W. Laoey. 

Sleaford J.Clare. 

Stamford J. Biobardson. 

Suffolk (County), East H. Miller. 

Suffolk „ West F. Wbitmore. 

Wisbech A. H Plowrigbt 



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Iviii DISTRICT OP WALES. 



No. 9.— THE DISTRICT OF WALES. 

u o ^ ' i (North)— J. W. M. Smith, Town Hall, Wrerbam. 
Son, Secretanea {\a ^,i m ^ r^ tr, -^t xi. 

\ (South)— W. E. C. Thomas, Neath. 

MEMBEBS. 

Bell, Qbo Borough Surveyor, Swansea. 

Bennett, 0. Q « . Surveyor to Urban District 0>iincil, Oystermouth. 

Blaokbi;sn,T Surveyor to Urban District Gonnoil, Barmouth, 

North Wales. 

OooKB, E Surveyor to Urban District Council, Abersyohan. 

Ck>vEBLEY, J. S Surveyor to the Urban District OounciU Pen- 

maenmawr. 

Dayibs, R Borough Survevor, Brecknock. 

Da VIES, R. W Surveyor to Urban District Council, Newtown. 

Evans, E. L Surveyor to the Urban District Couacil, Penarth, 

S. Wales. 

Evans, J. P Surveyor to the Rural District Council, Wrexham. 

Farbinqton, T. B Borough Engineer, Conway. 

Fbaseb, W., a. M. Inst. C.E. Surveyor to the Rural District Council, Cardiff. 
Haioh, J., A. M. Inst. C.E. .. Town Surveyor, Abergavenny. 
Uarpub, W., M. Inst. C.E. .. Borough Surveyor. Cardiff. 
Uarvet, T. F., Assoc. M. Engineer to the Urban District Council, Merihyr 
Inst. C.E. Tydvil. 

HoLDEN, J Surveyor to the Rural District Council, Llandaff. 

Howell, J Surveyor to Urban District Council, Glyncorrwg. 

Jones, J Surveyor to the Rural District Council, Mer- 

thyr TydviL 

Jones, J. O Borough Surveyor, Pwllheli. 

Jones, R Borough Surveyor, Abeiystwyth. 

Jones, W Surveyor to Urban District Council, Col wjm Bay. 

Mabks, T. T., Assoc. M. Inst. Late Town Surveyor, Llandudno, CJamarvonshire. 
C.E. 

Maybubt, H. P Surveyor to Urban District Council, Festiniog. 

MoBOAN, O. B Surveyor to Rural District Council, Llantrissant. 

MuBOAN, J Surveyor to the Pontardawe Rural District 

Council, Swansea. 
Pa!UX)e,J. C Surveyor to the Barry and Cadoxton Urban Di«« 

trict CounciL 
Smith, J. W. M. {Member of Borough Surveyor, Wrexham, Denbiglishire ; 
Council.) Hon. Secretary, Wales District (North). 

Stephenson, E. P Town Surveyor, Llandudno. 

Stevens, G Surveyor to Urban District Council, Abercame. 

Thomas, J., A. M. Inst. C.E. Surveyor to Rural District Ouncil, Swansea. 
Thomas, T. J., A.M.lnstC.B. Surveyor to Urban District Council, Ebbw Vale. 

Thomas, W. Late Surveyor to the Margam Urban District 

Council, Port-Talbot, S. Wales. 
Thomas, W. E. C, A. M. Inst Surveyor to the Rural District Council, Neath. 
C.E. (Member of Council.) Hon. Secretary, Wales District (Soutli). 

Watkbys, G Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Llanelly. 

Williams, H. D Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Ogmore 

and Garrw. 

Williams, J Surveyor to Urban District Council, Mountain 

Ash. 



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IBI8H DISTBICT. lix 



TOWNS. 

Aberoarnb G. Stevena. 

Abbrstohan E.Cooke. 

Aberystwyth R. Jones. 

Barmouth T. Blackburn. 

Barry AND Cadoxtou J. E. Pardoe. 

Breokkock B. Davies. 

Cardiff W. Harpur. 

^ (Rural) « .. W. Eraser. 

Colwyn Bay W.Jones. 

Conway . .. T. B. Farrington. 

Ebbw Valb T.J.Thomas. 

Olynoobrwo J. Howell. 

IiLAiTDAiT J. Holden. 

LiLANDUDNO K P. Stepheuson. 

Llanelly O- Watkeys. 

Llantrissant G.S.Morgan. 

JdBBXHYB Tydyil — .. T. P. HaTvey. 

„ (R.D.C.) .. .. J. Jones. 

MorNTAiN Ash J. Williams. 

Neath (R.D.O.) W. E. O. Thomas. 

Newtown R. W. Davies. 

OouoRE and Gabrw H.D.Williams. 

Oystermouth C. G. Bennett. 

Pbnarth E. I. Evans. 

Penmabnmawb J. S. Coverley. 

Pontardawb (Rural) J. Morgnn. 

Pwllheli J.O.Jones. 

Swansea G.Bell. 

(Rural) J.Thomas. 

Wrexham J.P.Evans. 

J. W. M.Smith. 



No. 10.— THE IRISH DISTRICT. 

Hon. Secretary—^. H. DoRMAN, Armagh. 

MEIMBERS. 

BRETLAND,J.C.,M.InBiC.E. CJity Surveyor, Belfast 

Brett J. H County Surveyor, Co. Antrim, Belfast, Ireland. 

Burden, A.M., A.M.InstC.E. County Surveyor, KUkenny. 

Chriotib,J City Electrical Engineer, Londonderry. 

CoLLEN, W.,M.A.,B.E.,Assoo. County Surveyor, Dublin (South). 

M.In8tC.E. « « 

Comber, P. F.. M. Inst C.E.I. Town Surveyor, Bray. 

OowAN, P. C, M. Inst C.E. . . County Surveyor, Down. 

Dixon, E. K., M.E., M. Inst. Coun^ Surveyor, Castlebar, South Mayo. 

C E 

DoRMAK. R. H., M. Inst. C.E. County Surveyor, Armagh ; Hon, Secretary, Irish 

(Member of Council.) District 



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Ix IBISH DI8TBI0T. 

DuFFiN, W. E. L., M. Inst. County Surveyor, Go. Waterford. 

O.E.I. 

Flbmino, M. J Borough Surveyor, Waterford. 

Qloveb, E., M.A., BE., County Surveyor, Cu. Kildare. 

M. Inst C.E. 

Gbat, B. A County Surveyor, Dublin. 

QuNNi8,J. W County Surveyor, Ca LongfonL 

Hackett, E. a., M.E., BL County Surveyor, South Tipperary. 

Inst C.E. 

Habty, S., B1 Inst C j:.L . . City Engineer, Dublin. 

Heron, J County Surveyor, Co. Monaghan. 

HoBAN, J., M.E., M. Inst C.E. County Surveyor, Co. Limerick. 

Jackson, N County Surveyor, Co. Cork (West Biding), 

Bandou, Co. Cork. 

KiBKBT, S. A., M.A. (Cantab.) County Surveyor, O). Cork. Miramur, Queens- 
town. 

LsEBODT, J. W County Surveyor, Co. Tyrone (S.) 

LoNOFiBLD, B. W. P County Surveyor, Co. Donegal (S.) 

Ltnam, F. J County Surveyor, Co. Tyrone (N.) 

Ltnam, p. J County Surveyor, Louth. Dundalk, Ireland. 

Lyons, A. 0., M. Inst C.R . . County Surveyor, Co. Cork (East). 

MooBB,J. H County Surveyor, Meath. 

Obohabd, W. p., B.E County Surveyor, Ballina, North Mayo, Ireland. 

Ottley, D. G., M. Inst C.E. County Surveyor, Co. Leitrim. 

Pebby, J., M.E., M. Inst C.E. Couuty Surveyor, Galway (W. Biding), 

BoBiNSON, W. J., Assoc. M. ' City Surveyor, Londonderry. 

Inst. C.E. 

Sandbb8,B. B County Surveyor, King's County. 

Shillinqton, H Town Surveyor, Lurgan. 

Smith, J., A. M. Inst C.E. .. County Surveyor, Co. Galway (East Biding). 

Ballinasloe. 

Somebvillb, B. N., B.E. .. County Surveyor, Cavan; Ireland. 

White, H. V., M. Inst C.E. I. Couuty Surveyor, Queen's Co. Portarlington. 

WiLLflON, F. B. T Ck)unty Surveyor, Co. Fermanagh. 



TOWNS. 



Antbim (County) J. H. Brett 

Abmaoh (County) B. H. Dorman. 

Belfast J. C. Bretland. 

Bray P. F. Comber. 

Ca8TLEbab £. K. Dixon. 

Cavan (County) B. N. Somervillo. 

CoBK (County) N. Jackson. 

„ „ S. A.Kirkby. 

„ „ A. O. Lyons. 

DoNBQAL (CountyX South B. W. F. Longfield. 

Down (Couuty) P. C. Cowan. 

Dublin S. Harty. 

„ (County) B. A. Gray. 

„ „ South W. Collen. 

Febmanaoh (County) F. B. T. Willson. 

Galway (County), E. Biding .. .. J.Smith. 

„ „ W. Biding .. .. J.Perry. 

KiLDABE (County) E. Glover. 

Kilkenny (County) A. M. Burden. 

Kino's County B. B. Sanders. 



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DISTBIOrS ABROAD. Ixi 

Leitbim (County) D. G. Ottley. 

LiMBBioK (Oounty) J. Horan. 

LoNOONDEBBT W. J. Bobinson. 

„ J. Christie. 

LoNOFOBD (County) J. W. Gunnia. 

Louth (County) P. J. Lynarn. 

LuBOAN H. Shiliington. 

Mbath (County) J.H.Moore. 

MoKAGHAN (County) J. Heron. 

NoBTH Mayo (County) W. P. OrchanL 

NoBTH TiPPEBABT J. O. Moynan. 

Queeh'b CorNTT H.V. White. 

Sooth TipPBBABT R A. Hackott. 

Tybonb (County), North F. J. Lynam. 

„ „ South J. W. Leebody. 

Watebfobd M. J. Fleminjr. 

„ (County) W. B. L.Duffln. 



No. 11.— ABROAD. 

Hon. Corresponding Secretary— C, Matnb, Shanghai. 
MEMBEBS. 

Abbahams, C. y City Surveyor, Kingston, Jamaica. 

Abubbow, C, a. 11 Inst. C.E. Town Engineer, Johannesberg, S.A. 

Andbews, G. B Waterworks Engineer, Johannesberg. 

Bellinoham, a. W. H., A.m. Municipal Engineer, Tientsin, China. 

Inst <J.E. 

Bbowb, p. H., A.M.Inst.C.E. District Engineer, Godaveri, Madras. 

Caibncboss, T. W Waterworks Engineer, Cape Town, S.A. 

CooPEB, P. A., M. Inst. C.E. Director of Public Works, Hong Kong. 

Deyebbll, T. C, Assoc. M. Melbourne, Victoria. 

In»t. C.E. 

Ellis, B. E., A. M. Inst. C.E. Engineer to the Municipality, Madras. 

Haba, B Engineer to Tokio Fu, Japan. 

Hatcboft, J. J Borough Engineer, Woollahra, Sydney. 

Ibying, W. E Surveyor to the Municipal Shire of Toowong, near 

Brisbane, Queensland. 

KiBK, T., A. M. Inst. C.E. .. Brisbane, Queensland. 

KuBATA, Y Engineer to Tokio Fu, Japan. 

Mathb, C Engineer and Surveyor, Municipal Council, 

Shanghai; Bon, Corresponding, Seo.^ Eastern 
Asia. 

MuBZBAN, M. C, C.I.E., A.M. Municipal Engineer, Bombay. 

Inst. C.E. 



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Ixii DISTBIOTS ABBOAD. 

Pkibob, B Municipal Engineer, Penang, Straits Settlements. 

Richards, B.W City Surveyor. Sydney, N.8.W. 

Boss, J Town Engineer, Warmambool, Victoria, Aus- 
tralia. 

Skelton B., a. M. Inst C. E. Municipal Engineer, Golombo, Ceylon. 

Stirbat, J Municipal Engineer, BangooQ. 

8traohan,J Municipal Engineer, EuraohL 



TOWNS. 

Bombay M. C. Mnrzban. 

Brisbane, QuEENSLAKD T. Kirk. 

Colombo B. Skelton. 

Godatbri, Madras P. H. Brown. 

HoNO KONO F. A. Cooper. 

J0HA.»«8BK«> {g:&i:iw.. 

Kingston, Jamaica O.V.Abrahams. 

KuRACHi .. .. J. Stracban. 

Madras B. E. Ellis. 

Melbourne T. 0. Deverell. 

Penano, Straits Settlements . . R. Peirce. 

Banqoon J. Stirrat. 

Shanghai, China 0. Mayne. 

Sydney (N.S.W.) E. W. Bichards. 

Tientsin A. W. H. Bellingliam. 

ToKio Fu (Japan).. ,. B. Hara. 

fj ,♦ .t Y. Kurata. 

ToowoNO, Queensland W. K Irving. 

Warrnambool (Australia) J. 0. Boas. 

Woollabra (Sydney) J. J. Ilaycroft. 



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luit 



(JRADUATES. 



Anoel, R. J Awistant Borough Surveyor, Town Hall, Walaal), 

Abmstbono, J. G. D H M. Office of Works, Hanley. 

Ball, 0. F., A.M. Inst O.E. City Engineer's Office, Bristol. 

Ball, Gbo. Borough Survoyor'« Office, Scarborough. 

Ball, J. B Great Northern Railway, King's Cross. 

Batlbt. G. H., A.M.lD8t.C.E. Craybrow, Lymm, Warrington. 

Birch, J. E. W 52 Heigbam Road, East Ham, E. 

Blizabd, J. H., A.M.In8tC.E. liansdowne House, Southampton. 

Bkadshaw, H. G. .. .. Assibtant Surveyor, Baoup. 

Bradshaw, J. B R. K Office, Gravesend. 

Bbown, R Urban District Council Offices, Ealing. 

Bruce, W Borough Engineer's Office, Edinburgh. 

Bbtans, J. G Assistant Engineer, Buenos Ayres and Pacific 

Railway, Junin, Argentine. 

Bbtning, W. G County Surveyor's Department, Preston. 

Burton, A., jun Town Hall, Hanley. 

Carter, G. F., A.M.In8t.C.E. City Engineer's Office, Leeds. 

Catohpolb, J. H. 27 Avenue Villas, Avenue Road^ Finchley, N. 

Chasbmore, A. E. ** Eberbach," Oxford Road, Putney. 

Clayfoolb, a. H., a. M. Inst City Surveyor's Office, Manchester. 
C.E. 

Clbgg, H Burgh Surveyor's Office, Aberdeen. 

Cobrie, H. W Borough Engineer's Office, Birkenhead. 

CB088, F. W., A.M. Inst. C.K The Bridge, Walsall. 

Crow, A. 51 Great Prescot Street, E. 

Dolamork, F Borough Engineer's Office, Bournemouth. 

Fell, P. O City Engineer's Office, Norwich. 

Fenton, W. C Borough Surveyor's Office, Sheffield. 

Finch, A. R., A.M. Inst C.E. Town Hall, Kensington. 

FiNOLAH, F. J Town Hall, Hounslow. 

FiTTON, G Borough Surveyor, Basingstoke. 

Forbes, A. H. Surveyor to the Urban District Council, Cheshom, 

Bucks. 

Fox, Senior L. Sootbill Hall, near Batley. 

Franck-Clark, a. H Midland Railway Construction Works, More- 

cambe. 

GiBBS, L., Assoc M. Inst C.E. Surveyor's Office. P.W J)., Hong Kong. 

Glass, S. N 41 Old Queen Street, Westminster. 

Gordon, J., A.M. Inst. C.E. Borough Surveyof s Office, Aberdeen. 

Greenwood, J. P Barry and Cadoxton Urban District Council, 

Cadoxton, near Cardiff. 

f ELLA well, O Town Hall, With ington, Manchester. 

ENDRT. J. S Town Hall, West Bromwich. 

Hills, H.J 86 College Road, Camden Town, N.W. 

Hills, O. C 147 Bow Road, E. 

HoRNE, B The Parade, Sutton Coldfield. 

HouQHTON, J King's Heath, Birmingham. 



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Ixiy GRADUATES. 

Jenkins, A. J Town Hall, Rochdale. 

JuuAN, J. .. Bonmgh Surveyor's Office, Cambridge. 

KiE8BR,W. H. G Town Hall, Torquay. 

EiLLicK, W. H. Borough Surveyor's Office, Southampton. 

KiBK, J. W Town Hall, Westminster. 

LiyBBSEDGB, J. W Rookery Villa, Fitzwilliam Street, Huddersfield. 

LoBLBT, F. J City Engineer's Office, Norwich. 

Ltnajc, G. T., a. M. Inst C.E. Assistant Burgh Surveyor, Aberdeen. 

Manlkt, J. Resident Engineer, Sewage Works, Buckingham. 

Mabtin, E. B City Engineer's Office, Leeds. 

Maxwell, W. H Town Hall, Ley ton. 

Newton, E. R Oily Surveyor's Office, Carlisle. 

Nichols, A. E., A.M.Inst.C.E. City Engineer's Office, Leeds. 

NiOKOL8,F. J Ci^ Surveyor's Office, Carlisle. 

NiGHTiNOALB, C. F 86 Bradford Street, Walsall. 

Openshaw, J., A.M.In8tC.E. City Surveyor's Office, Sheffield. 

Perkins, J 85 Willows Road, Balsall Heath, Birmingham. 

Perkins, T.L 51 Prince Street, Bristol. 

Price, A. J City Engineer's Office, Worcester. 

Pritohard, T., AM.Inst.O.E. 264 Gre5iam House, Old Broad Street, E.C. 

PuTMAN, W. E., A Jf .Inst.C.E. City Engineer's Office, Leeds. 

Roberts, F Borough Engineer's Office, Birkenhead. 

Saunders, J Borough Surveyor's Office, Oldham. 

Sayaob, E. B City Engineer's Office, Norwich. 

Settle, J. A Borough Surveyor's Office, Bolton. 

Smith-Sayille, R. W., Assoc. Borough Surveyor's Office, Burton-on-Trent. 
BL Inst. C.E. 

Steele, W.J Assistant Engineer, Tottenham. 

Taylor, W. J., A.M.InBtC.E. 1 Rose Road, Southampton. 

Thackebat, F 43 Richmond Terrace, Darwen. 

Veit, L. J Town Hall, Wolverhampton. 

ViDEAN, H. N Assistant Borough Surveyor, Folkestone. 

Ward, F. P., A. M. Inst C.E. 8 Cobden Street, Welshpool. 

Willlams, D. S Woodland Villa, Mountain Ash. 

WoRRALL, F Borough Surveyor's Office, Leicester. 

Wright, J. A. Lonsdale Chambers, Baldwin Street, Bristol. 

YARW00D,Hy Town Hall, Rochdale. 

YouNO, W. r. Town Hall, Salford. 



PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEE. 



O. C. ROBSOK, Chairman, 



Lewis Anoell (West Ham). 
R. Godfrey (King's Norton). 
Chas. Jones (Ealing). 



C. H. Lowe (Hampstmd). 
T. Walker (Croydon) 
W. Weaveh (Kensington). 



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hv 



BYE-LAWS. 



Membership. 

1. Members, Graduates, and Honorary Members of the existing 
Association may, upon signing and forwarding to the Secretary a 
claim accoirding to Form F in the Appendix, become Members, 
Graduates, or Honorary Members respectively of the Association, 
without election or payment of entrance fees. 

Members. 

2. Candidates for admission as Members must be Civil Engineers 
or Surveyors holding chief permanent appointments under any 
Municipal Corporations, County Councils, or Urban or Rural 
Sanitary Authorities, and Civil Engineers or Surveyors holding 
other chief permanent appointments under any Public Authority 
of the like nature within the United Kingdom, or in the Colonies 
or foreign countries. 

Graduates. 

3. Candidates for admission as Graduates must be successful in 
obtaining certificates of competency at any examination under the 
auspices of the Association, and who are not otherwise qualified as 
Members of the Association ; and as such shall be entitled to attend 
the General and District Meetings, and to take part in the pro- 
ceedings thereof, and be entitled to a copy of the Minutes of 
Proceedings, but shall not be entitled to vote. Graduates shall at 
their request become Members of the Association when quaUfied 
according to Bye-law 2. 

Honorary Members. 

4. The Council shall have the power to elect as Honorary 
Members gentlemen of eminent scientific position or acquire- 
ments, who in their opinion are eligible for that position. 

5. The Members, Graduates, and Honorary Members shall have 
notice of and the privilege to attend all Meetings, and be entitled 
to a copy of the Proceedings of the Association as published. 

Entrance Fees and Subscriptions. 

6. An Entrance Fee of One Guinea shall be paid by each 
Member, except Members of the existing Association, who shall pay 



e 

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gle 



Ixvi BYE-LAWS. 

no Entrance Fee. Each Member shall pay an Annual Subscrip- 
tion of One Guinea. 

7. A Graduate shall not be required to pay an Entrance Fee, 
either on his becoming a Graduate or on his llecommg a Member. 
Each Graduate shall pay an Annual Subscription of Half a Gtiinea. 

8. All Subscriptions shall be payable m advance, and shall 
become due on the 1st day of May in each year ; and Members 
elected between the Ist day of January and the 1st day of May 
in each year are required to pay an Entrance Fee on Election, 
their first Subscription being due on the 1st day of May following 
their Election. 

9. The Council may at their discretion reduce or remit the 
Annual Subscription, or the Arrears of Annual Subscription, of 
any Member who shall have been a Subscribing Member of the 
Association for ten years, and shall have become unable to con* 
tinue the Annual Subscription provided by these Bye-laws. 

10. No Proceedings or Ballot Lists shall be sent to Members 
or Graduates who are in arrearvnth their Subscriptions more than 
twelve months, and whose Subscriptions shall not have been 
remitted by the Council as hereinbefore provided. 



Eleotion of Membebs and Graduates. 

11. A recommendation for admission according to Form A for 
a Member, and Form B for a Graduate, in the Appendix, shall be 
forwarded to the Secretary, and by him be laid before the next 
Meeting of the Council 

The recommendation must be signed by not less than Two 
Members, who from personal knowledge ot such Candidate shall 
certify that he possesses the necessary qualification. Candidates 
residing outside England and Wales not known by two Members 
of this Association, may be proposed by three Corporate Members 
of the Institution of Civil Engineers. Members wno cease to hold 
their appointments are eligible for re-election by the Council, but 
will be aisqualified from holding any Office. 

All Elections of Members and Graduates of the Association shall 
be made by the Council, and shall be decided by a majority of 
votes of the Members of the Council present and voting. 

12. When the proposed Candidate is elected, the Secretary shall 
give him notice thereof according to Form C ; but his name shall 
not be added to the List of Members or Graduates of the 
Association until he shall have paid his Entrance Fee and First 
Annual Subscription as defined by these Bye-laws. 

13. A qualified Graduate desirous of becoming a Member shall 
forward to the Secretary a recommendation according to Form D 



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BYB-LAWB. Ixvii 

in the Appendix, signed by not lees than two Members, which shall 
be laid before the next meeting of the Council for their approval. 
On their approval being given, the Secretary shall notify the same 
to the Canoidate according to Form E. A Graduate on becoming 
qualified to be a Member shall cease to be a Graduate. 

EiiEonoN OF Pbesident, Yiob-Pbesidents, akd Members of 

Council. 

14. ^i'he Council shall nominate one name for President, six 
for Vice-Presidents, one for Honorary Secretary, and fil'teen 
for Ordinary Members of Council In addition to these, each 
Member of the Association shall be at Uberty to nominate one 
Member for the Council, but in the event of the last named 
nominations exceeding fifteen, the Council shall reduce them to 
tiiat number, so as to leave thirty names in all from which to elect 
the required number of Ordinary Members of Council. Members' 
nomioations must be in the hands of the Secretary on or before 
the 20th of April in each year. And in case the Members' 
nominations should not reach fifteen, the Council shall have the 
power to make up the total numb^ of nominations to twenty. 
Such list of twenty nominations shall be printed and sent to each 
Member of the Association not less than fourteen days previous to 
the Annual Meetiug. Each Member shall be entitled to vote for 
or erase any of such Nominations or substitute other names, 
subject in all cases to the limits of Clause 25 in the Articles of 
AssociatioD, and return the same within seven days from the date 
of issue. Such Ballot Papers shall be examined in London by 
the President, Secretaries, and two Scrutineers appointed at the 
previous Annual Meeting, or by any two of the aforesaid Membera 
Any Member canvassing for votes for the oflSce of Member of 
Council shall be considered ineligible for Election. 

Appointment and Duties op Opficebs. 

15. The Treasurer shall hold the uninvested funds of the Asso- 
ciation, except the moneys in the hands of the Secretary for current 
expenses. He shall be appointed by the Members at a General 
or Special Meeting, and snail hold office at the pleasure of the 
Council. 

16. The Secretary of the Association shall be appointed by the 
Council, and shall be removable by the Council upon three months' 
notice from any day. The Secretary, if desirous of resigning 
his appointment, shall give the same notice, 'i'he remuneration 
of the Secretary shall from time to time be fixed by the Council. 



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Ixyiii BTB-LAW& 

17. It shall be the duty of the Secretary, under the direction of 
the Council, to conduct the correspondence of the Association ; to 
attend all General and Special Meetings of the Association and of 
the Council, and of Committees (but not the District Meetings, 
unless required so to do by the President) ; to take minutes of the 
proceedings of such meetings; to read the minutes of the pre- 
ceding meetings, and all communications that he may be ordered 
to read; to superintend the publication of such papers as the 
Council may direct ; to direct the collection of the subscriptions, 
and the preparation of the account of expenditure of the funds ; and 
to present all accounts to the Council for inspection and approval, 
and generally to do all such other matters as usually pertain to 
the office of Secretary, or as may be prescribed by the Council 



Examinations. 

18. Two examinations of Candidates for certificates of com- 
petency in Municipal Engineering, Surveying, Building Construc- 
tion, Sanitary Science, and the Public Health Acts, shall be held 
annually at such places and at such times as the Council shall 
appoint. 

The Board of Examiners shall be 12 in number, and shall be 
elected by and be Members of the Council, or such other Members 
of the Association as shall be leading men in their particular branch 
of the Engineering profession. Four of such Board shall be 
selected by the Council to carry out each Examination, who as 
'* Acting Examiners," shall report to the Council the names of 
those Candidates who have satisfied them of their proficiency. 



Miscellaneous. 

19. All communications to the meetings shall be the property 
of the Association, and be published only by the authority of the 
Council. 

20. Seven clear days' notice at least shall be given of every 
meeting of the Council. Such notice shall specify generally the 
business to be transacted by the meeting. 

21. The Council shall present the yearly accounts to the Members 
at the Annual General Meeting, after being audited by two auditors, 
who shall be appointed annuaJIy by the Members at their Annual 
Greneral Meeting. 



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THE 

INCORPORATED ASSOCIATION OF MUNICIPAL 
AND COUNTY ENGINEERS. 
■ ♦^ 

TWENTY-THIRD ANNUAL MEETING. 

Bbiohton, June 25, 26 and 27, 1896. 



The Members assembled in the Mnsio Room of the Boyal Pavilion, 
Brighton, the nse of which had been kindly granted by the Mayor 
and Corporation. 

The Mayor of Brighton (Mr. Alderman J. G. Blaker, J.P.), 
opened the proceedings by offering to the Association a very 
hearty welcome to Brighton. 

The President, Mr. E. R. 8. Escott, M. Inst. G.E., on behalf of 
the Association, thanked the Mayor for the kind welcome offered 
them. 

The Secretary read the Minutes of the last Annual General 
Meeting, which were confirmed and signed. 

The Secretary read the Council's Annual Report. 



ANNUAL REPORT. 

In meeting the Assodatioo at the commencement of its twenty- 
tldrd year, the Council have to express their gratification at the 
progress which has been made during the past twelve months. 

DiBTRIOT MEETINaS. 

Since the last General Meeting, held in Hali&x on June 27, 
28 and 29, 1895, the following District Meetings have been held. 
At Londonderry and Portrush, on August 23 and 24, 1895 ; at 
Westminster, on February 21, and March 11, 1896; at King's 

B 

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2 TWENTY-THIBD ANNUAL HBETINa. 

Heath, on March 28 ; at Mortlake and Twickenham, on May 30 ; 
and at Hanley, on Jnne 13. 

Boll of the Assooiation. 

Dnrmg the financial year ending 30th April last, 79 New Mem- 
bers, consisting of 1 Honorary Member, 63 Ordinary Members, and 
15 Gradaates, have joined the Association. One Honorary Member, 
2 Members, and 1 Graduate have resigned, 13 names have been 
written off, and the Council record with regret the death of 
Mr. W. Crabtree, of Southport. 

The number on the Boll of the Association at the close of the 
year was 9 Honorary, 614 Ordinary Members, and 77 Graduates, 
making a total of 700, an addition equivalent to 8 per cent, on the 
numbers of the preceding year. The Council have transferred 
Messrs. B. Ball, S. Pickering and G. H. Pickles from the class of 
Graduates to that of Members, these gentlemen having been elected 
to appointments qualifying them for this dass under the Articles 
of Association. 

Mr. Schuurman, the Director of Works and Chief Engineer of 
the City of Amsterdam, having resigned his official position, the 
Council have, upon Mr. Schuurman's proposition, elected his suc- 
cessor, Mr. C. L. M. Lambrechtsen van Bitthem, upon the list of 
Honorary Members of the Association. 

Finances. 

The audited Balance Sheet and Statement of Accounts which 
accompany this report show a balance in hand on April 30 of 
164Z. 58. 5d, During the year the capital account of the Associa- 
tion was augmented by the investment of 21 3Z. in Southampton 
Corporation 3^ per cent. Stock. The accounts show that the 
financial position continues satisfactory, and the increase of invested 
capital gives further proof of the steady advancement of the 
Association. 

Award of Pbeihum. 

The Council have awarded the premium of lOZ. to Mr. James 
Paton, Borough Engineer, Plymouth, for hiM paper entitled 
" Plymouth and its Municipal Works," read at tjhe Western Coun- 
ties District Meeting held in that town on May 17 and 18, 1895. 

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TWBNTY-THIRD ANNUJlL MSKEUie. 



EXAMINATIOKS. 



Since the last Report two examinations have been carried out, 
the first of which was held at the Town Hall, Manchester, the use 
of which was kindly granted by the Corporation of that city, on 
October 4 and 5, 1895. On this occasion 12 candidates were 
examined : 6 satisfied the examiners and were granted the Associa- 
tion's certificate. The examiners were Messrs. Eayrs, Lemon, 
Meade and Pritchard. The second examination was held on April 
10 and 11, 1896, at the Institution of Civil Engineers, West- 
minster, by kind permission, when 23 candidates were examined, 
of whom 11 satisfied the examiners and were also granted their 
certificates. The examiners were Messrs. Crimp, Eayrs, Lemon 
and Lobley. The number of candidates entered for these 
examinations steadily increasing each year, tends to prove increased 
public confidence in this branch of the work of the Association, 
and the Council trust that all Members will use their influence 
with their various Councils to recognise these examinations to their 
full valua 

New Council. 

The Ballot Lists having been duly issued, the Scrutineers report 
the result of the voting for the new Council as follows : — 

President— FrBSicia J. C. May. 

Yice-Prmderds — K Buckham, C. U. Lowe and 0. C. Kobson. 

Ordinary Members of Council — J. P. Barber, A. R. Binnie, 
J. H. Cox, A. Creer, A. T. Davis, R Godfrey, W. Harpur, E. P. 
Hooley, E. G. Mawbey, S. 8. Piatt, W. Weaver and C. P. Wika 

General Honorary Secretary — C. Jones. 

Treasurer— Jj. Angell, 



InSTBUOTIONS fob THB PBEPABAmON OF PaPRB& 

With the view of aiding the Members in the preparation of 
papers, and at the same time to place before intending contributors 
the very great importance of delivering their communications to 
the Secretary in sufficient time to allow for examination, printing 
and distribution before the meeting, the Oouncil have prepared and 

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4 TWENTT-THIBD ANNUAL HEBTIKa. 

issued to the Members fall instructions upon this subject. It is 
hoped that Members will on their part do their best to comply 
with the instructions so given, in order to £acilitate the general 
work of the meetings, and to obviate the complaints of Members 
being unable to obtain copies of papers before tiie meetings. 



Nbw Fobm op Application. 

In consequence of a widespread opinion that the form of applica- 
tion for candidates for admission as Members of this Association 
did not meet the requirements, nor convey to the Council sufficient 
information for their guidance in the consideration of applications 
for membership, a new Form has, after careful consideration, been 
decided upon, by which a rSstimS of the professional career of the 
candidates will be set forth ; and it is confidently expected that the 
e&ct will be beneficial to the status of the Association. 



New Seal. 

In reference to the designs for the new seal of the Association 
mentioned in the Council's last Annual Beport, the Council after 
due consideration have awarded the premium to Mr. W. Oxtoby, 
then Borough Surveyor of Bamsgate, now the Surveyor of the 
Poplar Board of Works ; the design sent by him being considered 
the most appropriate. The new seal was first utilised in May 1896, 
for the sealing of the certificates of the successfid candidates in the 
examination of April last 



Members Ceasino lo hold Appointments. 

As an apparent ambiguity appeared to exist as to that portion of 
Bule 11 which refers to the position of Members who cease to 
hold their public appointments, the matter was brought under the 
notice of the Council and received careful consideration. Several 
alterations in the Bule were suggested to meet the case, but it was 
ultimately decided to leave the Bule as it at present stands, the 
Council dealing with individual cases as they occur. A note 
calling attention to the matter is now added to the Association's 
receipt 



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TWEKTY-THIBD ANNUAL 1ISETIN0. 



Co-operation or Associations — Superannuation. 

At the inyitation of the Municipal Officers' Association, Messrs. 
Jones, Lowe and Etobson attended, as delegates representing this 
Association, conferences at which the question of snperannnation of 
officers was discussed. Ultimately it was decided that the Bill then 
before Parliament dealing with Poor Law Officers' Superannuation 
shonld not be endangered, but that its success should be availed of 
in the future, either by the individual action of the various societies 
representing municipal officers, or by a combination of such societies, 
having in view the superannuation of all municipal officers. The 
matter is being watched by your Parliamentary Committee, and 
representations have been made to other societies urging joint 
action in this matter, which is of such vital importance to all 
municipal engineers. 



Suogested Amendments to Metropolis Local 
Management Aots. 

At the Metropolitan District Meeting referred to previously in 
this Beport, an important paper was read by Mr. Barber, dealing 
with some suggested amendments to the Metropolis Local Manage- 
ment Acts, resulting in a committee of Members of this Association 
being appointed to go into the suggestions made in the paper and 
to report thereon. It is considered that several more suggestions 
may thus be made, and the whole matter is now under the con- 
sideration of the said committee. 



"Sewers" and "Drains." 

A Bill to amend the interpretation of the words " Sewer " and 
"Drain" under the Public Health Act is being promoted in 
Parliament, and there appears a fair prospect that it may pass into 
law during the present session, and it is thereby hoped that this 
much vexed question will be thus finally settled to the advantage 
of local authorities throughout the kingdom. 



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TWENTY-THIRD ANNUAL MEBTINO. 



Visitors to thi Mebtinos. 

The Gonncil haye felt that some action should be taken to 
regulate the attendance at Meetings of the Association of persons 
not being Members thereof, and they have accordingly decided 
that in future any Member desirous of introducing to the meetings 
a visitor, other than members of the public authority of the place 
where the meeting is held, shall, with the concurrence of the 
President for the time being, be provided with a card of admission 
bearing the visitor's name and signed by the Member introducing 
such visitor, and countersigned by the Secretary or the District 
Secretary. 

Chas. Jonbs, Hon. See, 
Thomas Cole, Secretary, 

The Beport was unanimously adopted. 

The President then presented the 10/. premium in books to 
Mr. J. Paton, of Plymouth. 

Mr. Escott then introduced his successor, Mr. Francis J. May, 
and vacated the chair in his favour. 

A vote of thanks to the retiring President was proposed by 
Mr. Lemon, seconded by Mr. Fowler, and carried. 

Mr. May read his inaugural address * a vote of thanks for 
which was proposed by Mr. T. De C. Meade, seconded by 
Mr. Eayrs, and carried. 

Mr. B. J. Thomas (Buckinghamshire), Mr. Clarson (Tamworth), 
and Mr. Silcock (King's Lynn) were appointed Scrutineers for 
the ensuing year. 

Mr. Savage and Mr. Lewis were reappointed Auditors. 

It having been moved and seconded, it was agreed that the 
various District Secretaries continue in office till the next Meeting 
in their respective districts. 

The following papers were read and discussed : — 

"Biver Pollution," by Professor H. Eobinson. *' Disposal or 
Utilisation of the Besidue from Towns Refuse Destructors," by 
H. P. Boulnois. "Housing of the Working Glasses — Model 
Cottages, Tenement Buildings, and Municipal Lodging Houses," 

* This Address, and the Papers read at the Mectiog, will bo found at the end 
of this volume. 



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TWBNTY-THIBD ANNUAL MEBTINa. 7 

by J. H. Brierley. " Electric Traction — a review of its applica- 
tion and a comparison with other methods," by K. St. (George 
Moore. "Street Construction for Medium TraflSc/* by A. E. 
Collins. •' Steam BoUing," by K P. Hooley. "Footways," by 
C. H. Cooper. 

Yotee of thanks were accorded to the authors of the papers, 
to the Mayor and Corporation of Brighton for the use of the rooms 
of the Boyal Parilion, and to the President, Mr. F. J. C. May. 



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8 



TWEKTY-THIBD ANNUAL MEBTINa. 






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DISTRICT MEETING AT 
LONDONDERRY AND PORTRUSH. 

(1) LONDONDERRY. 
Angast 23, 1895. 

Hdd at the Town Hall, Londonderry. 
K B. S. Eboqit, M. Ikbt. G.E., Pbbbidsnt, in the Chair. 



The Mayor (Alderman Bell, J.P.) offered the Members a hearty 
welcome to tiie City of Derry. He mentioned several points of 
interest to be visited, and trusted that the Members would carry 
away pleasant recollections of their stay. 

The President, as well as Mr. Botdnois, replied on behalf of the 
ABSodation, thanking the Mayor for the welcome accorded to the 
Members. 

Mr. R H. Dorman was unanimously re-elected Honorary 
Secretary for the Irish District 

The following papers w^re read and discussed. 



THE ELECTRIC LIGHTING OF THE CITY OE 
LONDONDERRY. 

By JOHN CHRISTIE, City Eleoteical Enginbeb. 

Thb question of electricity supply, both for public and private 
lighting, is now becoming of so much importance to municipal 
engineers that when the Author was asked to contribute something 
to this meeting of the Association, he thought he could not do 
better than give you a brief description of our generating station^ 



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10 THE ELEOTRIO LIQHTINa OP THE CITY OP LONDONDERRY. 

with details of the scheme as adopted here for the public lighting of 
this city. 

The idea of public lighting by electricity was first discussed by 
the Corporation so fietr back as March 1888, but was allowed to 
drop. 

The matter was again brought up two years later, and it was 
then agreed to take out a Provisional Order under the Electric 
Lighting Act of 1882. 

In 1892 private companies made proposals to the Corporation, 
offering to lay down plant and run it under certain conditions. 
These propoi^, however, the Corporation declined, and wisely 
determined to keep the monopoly of electrical supply under their 
own control 

As the time wore on, and the Board of Trade required the 
Corporation to take some active steps in the matter if they wished 
to retain their powers, they, in September 1892, called in 
Ikfr. H. W. Blake as consulting engineer, to advise them on a 
scheme. 

The following year the Corporation finally decided to adopt a 
scheme for the public lighting of the city by means of arc lamps. 
This scheme, prepared by Mr. Blake, was submitted to Dr. John 
Hopkinson, and on his approving of the specifications, &c, tenders 
for the plant were invited by advertisement, accepted, and gone on 
with as soon as the permission had been granted by the Local 
Government Board to borrow the necessary estimated capital of 
15,000Z. 

In the selection of a site for the station, the Corporation were 
particularly fortunate in obtaining on very favourable terms 
what had formerly been an old saw mill, situated in the Strand, 
at a distance of some 700 yards from the centre of the city, 
-J^pig a frontage of 63 feet to that thoroughfare, and extending 
^SK^30 feet to the quay, and having an opening on to the 
river, Q^js affording every facility for storing our coal direct off 
the steaniei;^ and also an ample supply of water for condensing 
purposes. 

On this site in the central portion there has been erected a sub- 
stantial brick building, comprising engine room and boiler house, 
temporary gables being erected at each end, so that if any exten- 
sions are contempli^ted, the buildings can be easily enlarged to 
accommodate the olxtra plant. The chimney stack, of handsome 
design, is octagonal in shape, 125 feet high and 5 feet in diameter, 



r 



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^ ^ THE ELBOTBIO LIGHTINQ OF THE OITT OF LONDOMDERBY. 11 

which is more than ample to suit any additional boilers that are 
oyer likely to be required. 

At present there are only two boilers laid down. They were 
snppUed by Penman, of Glasgow, and are of the Lancashire type, 
26 feet long and 7 feet in diameter, constmcted for a working 
preesore of 125 lbs. per square inch. They are well proyided 
with all the usual mountings, mostly of Hopkinson's latest type. 

The feed water arrangements comprise two duplex double direct- 
acting pumps, each capable of supplying 900 gallons per hour 
against the maximum working pressure. The water is drawn from 
a storage tank of some 20,000 gallons capacity, placed on the roof of 
the boiler house, and supplied direct off the town mains. It can be 
delivered either direct or through the economiser, and all the steam 
and water pipes are in duplicate, in order to avoid as &r as possible 
all risk of failure. 

The economiser is one of Messrs. Green's, and consists of 96 
4-inch tubes, 9 feet long. It is placed in the main flue, being 
heated by the waste gases from the furnaces. Suitable by-pass 
flues and dampers are provided to regulate the temperature of the 
feed water or shut off the economiser altogether for cleaning or 
repairs. To prevent the tubes from becoming covered with soot 
and thus reducing the efficiency of the apparatus, a small horizontal 
engine is provided, which, by means of suitable gearing, actuates a 
set of scrapers, which slowly traverse up and down the tubes, 
keeping their surfaces clean and free from soot. As we use nothing 
but Welsh steam coal we have comparatively little soot, and the 
scraper engine, run for an hour or two at the beginning of each 
run, is sufficient to maintain the temperature of the feed water well 
up to 200° P. 

The steam is conveyed to the engine room by two lines of 9-inch 
wrought-iron pipe, having 6-inch branch pipes to each boiler ; both 
lines are common to each engine, and they are all thickly coated 
with a non-conducting composition to prevent loss from radiation. 
The pipes are provided with drain pipes and steam traps. 

In the engine room are placed along one side three vertical 
compound condensing engines of 150 indicated horse-power, made 
by a local firm of engineers, Messrs. Brown <& Sons. The diiuneters 
of the cylinders are, high pressure 11 inches, low pressure 22 inches, 
and the stroke 18 inches. The average speed at which they are run 
is 145 revolutions per minute. Each engine has a jet condenser of 
its own placed under the floor of the engine room, the air pump 

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12 THE ELBOTBIO LiaHTINa OF THE CITY OF LONDONDEBBT. 

being operated off a crank disk on the end of the shaft The con- 
densing water is supplied to each engine by a separate 4-inch cast- 
iron pipe laid direct to the river, each pipe being fitted with a dack 
valvei rose head and mud box. A 9-inch cast-iron pipe serves as a 
common discharge to all the engines. An auxiliary injection 
pipe off the town mains is provided to each engine to assist at 
starting if the tide is very low or a suction pipe gets choked. 

The speed of the engines is controlled by Hartrell's patent 
automatic expansion governor fitted on the crank shaft, which, by 
shifting the angle of advance of the high-pressure eccentric, varies 
the cut-off of the valve to suit the load. The distribution of steam 
is effected in the high-pressure cylinder by a piston valve, admitting 
the steam in the middle and exhausting at the outer edges, and in 
the low-pressure cylinder by an ordinary trick slide valve ; by this 
arrangement the high-pressure piston gland is the only one which 
is subjected to the full working pressure. 

All the bearings are of ample size, and are provided with a 
suitable means to take up the wear. The fly-wheels are 8 feet in 
diameter and 24 inches broad, and each weighs about 8 tons. 

By means of two 10-inch leather belts, each engme drives two 
dynamos, placed on sliding rails one behind the other. The 
dynamos are of the constant current series type, made by Messrs. 
Siemens Bros. & Co., Limited, London. They are designed for an 
output of 10 amperes at 3000 volts at 750 revolutions per minute. 
The machines have ring armatures rotating in a double magnetic 
field, and are fitted with copper commutators 18 inches diameter, 
divided into segments, and insulated with mica. We have had 
them running constantiy for nearly 18 months at 2500 volts, and 
often having them subjected to the most severe strains possible, and 
they have given no trouble whatever, the sparking is not excessive 
and the wear on the commutators very smdl. To keep the current 
constant a very ingenious regulator is provided, which automatically 
varies the voltoge to suit the number of lamps on circuit by rocking 
the brushes back or forward ; with these regulators in gear it is 
almost impossible to get more than 10 amperes for any time> and 
they give the current just as well on short circuit as when the 
whole resistance of the circuit is on. Last winter we had ample 
opportunity of testing them through the high winds which were so 
prevalent, putting lamps to work temporarily, and also when two 
faults would sometimes come on the cables at one time, cutting out 
10 or 20 lamps. 

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THB ELEOTBIO UaHTINa OF THB OITY OF LONDONDEBBY. 13 

From the dynamoB the cnrrent is led to the switchboard by 
means of insulated cables laid in trenches under the engine-room 
floor. 

The switchboard, also made by Messrs. Siemens & Co., is 
composed of slate panels, in polished wood frames. It is arranged 
for six dynamos and four circuits, and is provided with short- 
circuit fleld switches, double pole fiisee, and a Swinboume electro- 
static voltmeter to each dynamo ; each circuit having a Siemens 
ammeter, double pole fuses, and a Thomson-Houston lightning 
arrester on each end. By means of a plug-board any circuit can 
be run off any dynamo. 

The lighting of the city is divided into two sections, each section 
having two circuits with lamps arranged alternately on different 
circuita At present we have the lamps arranged on the four 
circuits as follows : 40, 43, 41 and 48, or 172 in all ; but extra 
lamps will most probably soon be looped in to bring the 
numbers on each circuit up to over 50, and do away with 
some more of the gas lamps which still exist in some of the 
smaller streets. 

The cables consist of ^ copper strand heavily insulated with 
vulcanised india-rubber, served with a covering of bituminised 
jute, armoured with galvanised steel wires, the whole being covered 
mth jute steeped in a preservative compound and laid in the 
ground direct. The armouring is earthed at every lamp, and also 
at the station ends. There are some 34 miles of this cable laid, the 
longest circuit being about 9 miles round, and the area lighted is, 
the Author thinks, one of the largest in the country. During the 
first six months after the plant was taken over by the Corporation 
we had a most unfortunate time, through failures of the lamp 
cut-outs, cables and other causes, incidental to the start of such a 
large scheme. For a long time this made the electric light most 
unpopular with many, but Me8srs. Siemens successfoUy surmounted 
all the many difficulties as they cropped up, and in the very depth 
of winter entirely relaid the whole of the cables without inter- 
rupting the lighting of the city. All these fsdlures are happily 
a tiling of the past, and now we rarely have even a single lamp 
&ilure reported. 

All the lamps are of the well-known Brockie-Pell double- 
carbon 32-hour type, so that in winter they only require 
trimming every second day, whilst in summer once a week suffices. 
Each lamp has fitted within itself a cut-out, which, should the 

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14 THE ELEOTBIO LIOHTING OF THE OITY OF LONDONDEBBY* 

carbons bum out or the rods hang up from any cause, auto- 
matically cuts out the lamp from the circuit, and forms a by-pass 
for the current to go on to the next lamp. 

The lamps are fixed on ornamental cast-iron pillars 25 feet high, 
and pitched from 75 to 250 yards apart In the base of each 
pillar, inside a locked door, an isolating switch is provided, by 
means of which any separate lamp may be extinguished, quite in- 
dependently of any of the others on the same circuit. 

A brief description of our method of detecting faults on the 
circuits may be of interest to some of you. Daily insulation 
resistance tests of all the circuits are taken, and if any one shows 
below the normal it is carefully watched ; should it become dan- 
gerously low, the position of the fault is first roughly located by 
means of a Kelvin electrostatic voltmeter of the ordinary type, 
reading up to 6000 volts ; the weights on the vane are adjusted so 
that the scale reads 50 volts per division. One terminal of the 
instrument is then earthed, and the other terminal connected to 
the positive and negative ends of the faulty circuit, and two 
readings obtained, which, assuming the voltage per lamp at 50, 
reads directly the number of lamps from either end, about which 
the fault exists. By referring to the map we can at once go to 
almost the exact lamp, and by freeing the ends at the switch tell by 
means of a detector whether the fault lies in a lamp or a section of 
the cable between two lamps. This method the Author finds saves 
an immense deal of trouble, rendering it unnecessary to split up a 
long circuit into several parts until the faulty one is found ; and if 
the readings are carefully taken we can always find the section 
within two lamps either way. If the fftult proves to be in a lamp 
it is hnmediately remedied by replacing it with a sj,are one, and if 
in the cable and of low enough resistance it is at the earliest 
opportunity burned out dead to earth, by temporarily earthing one 
end of the line at the station, when by means of the loop test 
taken on the section with a portable tt^sting set, the exact position of 
the fault is located and cut out. The Author is glad to say, how- 
ever, that such faults never occur in the cable we now have through 
any inherent weakness of the insulation, but have always been 
clearly traceable to pick marks caused by some careless workman, 
when opening the streets, accidentally striking the cable and 
neglecting to report it 

The cost of the whole scheme up to the present amounts to 
between 18,000i and 19,000Z. The difference between this amount 

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THE ELEOTBIC UQHTINQ OF THE 0IT7 OF LONDONDBBBY. 15 

and what was first estimated, is chiefly due to extensions of the 
scheme entered into after the contracts were settled. 

The end of onr financial year is not up till Noyember, and 
the Author regrets that he cannot now give the exact cost of the 
pnbUc lighting. In winter during the long nights the works costs 
per lamp hour were as low as *65i., and in sunmier when the 
runs were shortest they reached as high as l'70d, per lamp hour. 
So far as can be judged, the total costs, including everything, should 
not much exceed .192. per lamp per annum, which, considering the 
number of hours we run (over 3000), is by no means excessive. 

No attempt has yet been made by the Corporation to introduce 
private lighting, except in the Guildhall and clock, which are 
both Ughted by lamps looped off the street mains, but as they 
have every facility on the site of the present station for the 
accommodation and working of all the necessary plant for private 
lighting, and as the town is particularly weU situated for the 
working up of a most lucrative electricity supply business, the 
Author has no doubt that before long they will be following the 
example set them by nearly all other leading municipalities, and 
vrisely keep the valuable monopoly of supplying electricity to the 
citizens in their own hands by extending their present station and 
laying down suitable machinery. 

The Author has nothing further to add, except te wish all of 
you a pleasant time during your stay in this part of the country, 
and bid you welcome to inspect our generating station this evening 
at 9 o'clock, when you will see the machinery at work which has 
been described to you in detail 

LONDONDEEEY COKPOEATION ELECTBICITY WORKS. 
Hian TRNinoir,— r so only. 



i4Mntt «ioct|«ti<K|, Amwt* 







ITil 



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16 THE ELEOTBIG LIOnTINa OF THE OITT OF LONDONDEBBY. 



Costs of Pboduotiom and Distribution. 

Amount. Fttr Unit. 

£ ff. cL d. 

Coal,*o. 4:)9 15 6 -50 

OiU waste and engine room stores .. .. 96 13 8 *09 

Carbous 817 5 8 -81 

Wages 660 15 4 -66 

Bepairs and maintenance 191 18 '19 

WorksooBts 1766 2 9 1*75 

Bents, rates and taxes 64 10 5 -06 

Management and office expenses, printing, 

insurance, &0. 260 8 9 *26 

Total works and management costs .. 2091 1 11 2-07 

Interest and sinking fond for repayment 

of loan 1415 2 6 1-41 

Total expenditure £3506 4 4 8-48 



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( 17 ) 



MUNICIPAL ELECTRICITY. 
By JAMES PERRY, M.Inst.CK 

Fob six years, as part owner and engineer, the Anther has been 
connected with the pnblic and private supply of electricity in 
Gbdway, and he has thonght that his yiews and experience in this 
department might have some interest to his brother municipal 
engmeers. The counties in Great Britain have been municipalised, 
those of Ireland are about to be, and there appears to be a prospect 
of legitimate shortening of our title. Most of us as officers are 
entitled surveyors. It is a good old title, honoured and ennobled 
by the men who have preceded us, and not to be lightly discarded ; 
as it records our origin and marks the gradual growth in the 
complexity of our functions. The rapid march of civilisation 
during the last one hundred years — the steady rise of the standard 
of comfort and decency, the recognition of the mutual dependence 
of all citizens, rich and poor, in preventing disease ; appliances for 
street cleansing ; systems of sewerage, with pumping machinery ; 
water-works; gas-works; tramways — necessitates that the city sur- 
veyor shall be an engineer in the widest sense. As a specialist in 
a department he might attain greater riches and wider fame ; his 
part is to select and control specialists as a commander-in-chief 
controls the complex and highly scientific departments of a modem 
army. 

Electricity— electrical engineering if some prefer so to speak 
— is forced upon us, and we have got to do our duty in regard 
to it as we have done our duty by the other human refine- 
ments which have preceded it. Most of us are specialists in some 
direction as a relief and variety from the routine of official duty, 
and some of us are no doubt electricians as some of us are 
artists or musicians ; but an electrical engineer is not necessarily 
an electrician, just as a mariner is not necessarily an astronomer. 
There has been for some years in the public mind a confusion 
between electricians and electrical engineers which would be 

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18 MUNICIPAL ELECTRICITY. 

paralleled by sapposing mariners and astronomers to be the same. 
Astronomers have done good work for mariners, and electricians 
are doing good work for engineers, bnt a mere electrician is not an 
engineer, and when he nndertakes an engineering job, he necessarily 
makes a mess of it, and there has been a good deal of messing. 

The generation of electricity is purely a question of mechanical 
engineering. The laying of mains involves digging and paving, 
the wiring of houses is a kind of plumbing, the laying of an 
electrical tramway is a piece of ordinary tramway engineering. 
The electricians have a great variety of units which they have 
variously named and symbolised, so that it becomes more and more 
diflScult for plain men to understand what they write, and they 
tend more and more to become a select half-dozen — for the whole 
world — who can dispute with one another in a language which no 
outsider understands. Engineers who desire to keep sane should 
avoid trying to comprehend the discussions in which English pre- 
positions and conjunctions are mixed up with block letters and 
German text letters (which in mercy to the eyes of Germans have 
been banished from their books), and occult phrases and names of 
dead persons, but it is necessary to know something of the way in 
which electricity is measured, and useful to know the small equation 
which expresses Ohm's law. 

Electricity leaving a central station, passing round an external 
circuit and returning to the station, may be compared to an 
endless rope driven by a pulley in the station. t( you conceive 
of a rope of this kind passing round capstans and through tight 
places of one kind and another, you will see that when it is 
made to circulate it will turn the capstans and heat the tight 
places. Note, the rope comes in as fast as it goes out and no 
faster, but it comes on to the pulley tight and leaves it slack. Let 
us call the speed of the rope amperes and the tightness of it volts ; 
the speed is the same at every part (except for elastic movements 
which we may neglect), but the tightness varies. As many 
amperes return to the central station as leave it, but the volts 
vary from point to point. Now if we multiply the tightness or 
pull by the speed we have the power transmitted at any point. 
Volts multiplied by amperes measure power. It is of no great 
consequence how the units, ampere and volt, have been fixed, the 
volt means pressure or tightness of the rope ; the ampere means 
speed or quantity per second; ampfere^ and volts multiplied 
together are watts ; and now we are in familiar ground because 

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MUNICIPAL ELE0TBI0IT7. 19 

746 watts are a horse-power. When 1000 watts run for an hour 
it is called a Board of Trade unit A unit of electricity for which 
we in Cralwaj charge 3^., used in printing or bottle-washing, or 
5t2. used for lighting, is equal to 1^ horse-power for one hour. 
This is all absolutely exact ; the unit of electricity can be stated as 
being 2.554,155 foot-pounda When, however, we have to com- 
pare the value of a unit of electricity for lighting purposes with 
that of 1000 feet of gas, we have the elements of lamps and 
burners coming in in ways which allow of a considerable field for 
discussion between gas conservatives and electric radicals. It is 
fair at this time of day to accept Gordon's estimate made long ago, 
that one thousand of gas is equal to ten units of electricity, which 
would make electricity at Sd, equal to gas at 2a. 6d. 

" Amperes " in our analogy are units of speed. 

" VoUs '* „ „ pull or pressure. 

Volts X amperes are " waits" 

746 watts are 1 horse-power. 

1000 watts for 1 hour make 1 unit of electricity. 

The engmeer has also to deal with the unit of resistance called 
an "oftm." 

If there were no resistance to the rope running there would be 
no difference in the tightness between where it comes on and where 
it leaves the driving pulley — that is, there would be no loss of volts ; 
but there is resistance at every supporting pulley and at every 
capstan and every tight place, and at all these places the rope is 
less strained coming on than leaving : it is losing volts owing to 
resistance all along its course. This resistance might be called 
negative volts, but it is advisable to have a distinct unit for it, the 

In any continuous current circuit the three quantities coucemed 
expressed in these units are connected by a relation which is shown 
by a simple algebraic equation and is known as Ohm's law : — 

. . volts 

Amperes =-x — • 
•^ ohms 

This relation comes into most of the electrical calculations which 
the engineer has to make. 

If we consider the resistance between two points, and that the 
loss of volts between the points is due to that resistance, it will 
be seen that there is a further small loss from friction between the 
rope and the driver, and if we wish to speak of the total pull at 

"r^ I 

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20 HUNIOIPAL ELECTBIOITY. 

the maximum point in the circuit account must be taken of this 
friction. We speak of the difference of volts between two points on a 
circuit, but the ekctromotive-force of the circuit is different in the 
way illustrated above. 

An endless rope driven as shown above illustrates machines or 
lamps worked in series in which the same current passes through 
them all, and there is a more or less great drop of voltage at each 
lamp or machine. A modification of the illustration shows lamps 
or machines worked in parallel Conceive the different machines 
or lamps to be worked by separate bands or fine ropes which com- 
bine through the driver up to a certain point to act as a single 
rope, and at these points separate to' the several machines or 
lamps ; we must, however, modify our idea of amperes by con- 
sidering not the velocity, which is supposed to be constant, but the 
sectional area of each separate band as representing amperes.* 



TsANSFOBMIKa. 

The power of a current is measured by ampferes x volts = watts ; 
any arrangement by which for a very small loss these two factors 
are varied is called a transformer. Any machine by which we 
obtain a mechanical advantage, wheel and axle, lever, &c., is a 
transformer of mechanical power. With alternating currents 
electrical transformation is very simple ; it is not so simple for 
continuous currents, and in this lies a great point in favour of 
alternating currents for certain circumstances. There are dis- 
advantages, and we have electricians who show some partisanship 
both for continuous and for alternating currents. The engmeer 
will use whichever best suits his special conditions. A continuous 
current transformer is a machine which revolves; the alternate 
current transformer has no moving parts. Accumulators, which 
are lead plates in cells filled with sulphuric acid, besides acting as 
stores for energy, are also transformers. 

Continuous current dynamos are of three kinds (neglecting 
peculiarities of armature, &c.) : — 

(1) Shtmt dynamos, in which the field magnets are excited by a 
shunt of fine wire connecting the poles of the machine. 

(2) Series dynamos, in which the total current produced by the 
machine passes by a thick wire round the field magnets. 

*>If moment can be taken as amperes it will apply to both analogues. 



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ICUNIOIPAL BLBOTBIOITT. 21 

(3) Compound dynamos^ which have both series and shunt 
windings on the same machine. 

Shnnt dynamos are used with aocumnlators, because whether 
they revolye as dynamos or as motors they revolye in the same 
direction : there is always more or less chance of the dynamo and 
engine being driven by the accumulators. Series dynamos are used 
for arc lamp lighting and compound dynamos for incandescent lamp 
lighting without accumulators. For five years the Author hais 
every night run arc lamps off a shunt dynamo, and he has charged 
accumulators with both compound and shunt dynamos. With a 
turbine at an inefficient speed he has also run incandescent lamps 
direct from a shunt dynamo without any injury, so that the above 
rules in some respects are flexible. 

The electrical arrangements at a central station are extremely 
simple. The part in which there is any complication is the ac- 
cumulator portion. Accumulators if used for storing are in first 
cost very expensive as compared with gas-holders, and if used as 
regulators they involve some little complexity in connections and 
switchea In London, accumulators should not give very much 
trouble where the companies who manufacture them agree to main- 
tain them at a percentage of their first cost per annum ; but in 
out-of-the-way places like the West of Ireland, they will give 
trouble till they are set free from the last restraints of the Patent 
Office. With proper arrangements on the premises for remaking 
defective plates, the maintenance of accumulators will give very 
little trouble. Accumulators are specially suitable for water power 
because they allow of the power being utilised during the whole 

24 hours. There is a loss of energy in accumulators of about 

25 per cent. 

Mains : — The Thbeb Wibb System. 

The filament of a glow lamp is of such a thickness (or sectional 
area) that a given number of amperes being forced through it 
heats it to the required brightness (the brightness determining the 
life of the lamp). In two lamps A and B, suppose A to have 
a filament twice the length, and half the sectional area of B. A 
will only require half the amperes, but it will need twice the volts 
(or pressure) to give the same candle-power as B at the same 
brightness. If there were no practical limit to the fineness of 
filaments we could save largely in the copper of the mains by 



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22 MUNICIPAL ELBOTMCITY. 

keeping the voltage np to the limit fixed by the Board of Trade as 
low pressure ; but it appears to be desirable to have lamps of 8 
candle-power, and the conditions of filament appear to limit the 
voltage to about 110 ; with cheaper electricity enabling us to use a 
minimum lamp of 16 candles, we could double the voltage and very 
much increase the capacity of our mains. 

By Ohm's law, volts = amperes x ohms, but the rate of work 
s= amperes x volts ; 

.•. rate of work = amperes' x ohms (in watts). 

Every current in a conductor does work by heating the conductor ; 
this is waste, and the rate of waste is proportional to the amperes', 
so that it is seen how important it is to keep the amperes low by 
keeping the volts high. It is of the greatest importance to keep 
the mains at a nearly equal voltage, and our copper must be propor- 
tioned to the drop we calculate for in designing the mains. Now 
suppose we calculate for a drop of two volts from one end to 
another of a series of lamps, and suppose the amperes to be 50, 
and the voltage of the lamps to be 110. If we replace the ordinary 
lamps by others having filaments twice as long, the cross section 
remaining the same, the voltage must be increased to 220, but the 
/amps will give twice the light and there will be no more than the 
2 volts drop, because the amperes will not have been increased ; but 
if we had arranged to get twice the light at the 110 voltage with 
the same loss we should have had to multiply the quantity of 
copper by 4, so that we save | of the copper by doubling the 
voltage. We need not have our double filaments in one bulb, but 
we may place two common lamps in series between the conductors, 
they need not be close together, they may be in difierent apart- 
ments, but they must be turned on or off together. We shall get 
rid of this inconvenience if we run a small main connecting the 
middle wires of the lamps, because if the lamps are unequal on the 
two sides of the middle the balance of current flows up or down 
the wira This is the three- wire system. The three wires need 
not be carried into the houses, but consumers should be balanced 
on the mains in the streets. 

It would appear that the network of a low-pressure system 
should be fed from centres about | mile apart. The network 
should consist of two conductors laid down each footpath, one of 
them being cross-connected to form the middle wire of a three- 
wire system The size of the conductors of the network should 

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MUNIOIPAL ELE0TBI0IT7. 23 

be (probably) uniform^ extra business in certain localities being 
provided for by extra feeders. The network should be fed by 
mains from which no services of any kind must be taken. These 
feeders will vary so that whatever the length may be they will all 
have the same resistance, so that the drop in volts in each feeder 
shall be the same. The secondary centres may all be supplied 
from a principal centre, accumulator transformers being used in 
the secondary or feeding centrea There are continuous current 
motor transformers, of which we do not hear much in actual 
practice, but it would appear to be quite feasible to send a high- 
pressure current from compound dynamos arranged to give a fixed 
voltage at the centres, and transform it down to the low-pressure 
centre voltage. Two years ago we met suggestions for small step- 
up transformers placed in mains so as to allow of the voltage to 
drop two volts below normal, and at such a point transform it up 
four volts ; but we have heard little of this device in practice. In 
Galway we shall probably complete our half mile radius of low- 
pressure area, and deal with the outlying straggling places with 
alternating currents. 

The enemy to be met everywhere in a continuous current 
system is electrolysis. If you maintain two pieces of copper wire 
at different voltages, and dip them in a solution of sulphate of 
copper, that which is of the higher voltage will waste away and 
the wire of lower voltage will become thicker. If two naked 
copper conductors rest on porcelain or glass insulators in an 
underground culvert it is almost impossible to prevent damp from 
making a connection with the earth. Pure water is almost an 
abeolate non-conductor, but the word almost condemns it, because 
the faintest trace of hydrated oxide of copper improves its con- 
ducting power; probably its first encouragement comes from 
common salt, which is a universal enemy. The rate at which the 
" earth " becomes good is a rapidly increasing one ; it results in 
one main being eaten through at the insulator and the other 
main forming an incrustation of metallic sodium at its insulator, 
and this incrustation may drop off, and meeting with actual wet 
strike a light which fires gas which may have accumulated in the 
culvert from gas mains. These culverts are exceedingly expensive 
things to construct; there is difficulty in keeping them drained 
and ventilated. Water accumulates in them; they are regular 
traps for water owing to the steady temperature of the ground 
and the varying temperature of the air. Service connections are 

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24 MUNICIPAL ELECTBIOITT. 

troubleeome. Yarions makes of continnoiisly insidated lead-oovered 
mains are in the market, the difficulty with them is in service 
connections. Where such mains are armoured the light character 
of the armouring does not promise long life in damp soils. The 
threading of cast-iron protecting pipes on a long length of main 
is difficult unless the pipes are roomy. The Author has had 
experience with different kinds of mains. The variety of practice 
in this respect indicates an uncertainty which experience will by- 
and-by settle, we shall in the end have only one or two kinds. 
The Author has devised a main of his own, but as it is yet untried 
he had better say little about it. Leaky electric mains besides 
wasting themselves away may do some injury to gas and water 
pipes buried in the ground close to them. Wherever the iron 
pipe is at a higher voltage than the earth in contact with it, there 
rusting of the iron is promoted. Tramways with rail returns may 
do much damage in this way. For electric lighting by gas engines, 
accumulators are a necessity ; any kind of throb or irregular re- 
volution shows very distinctly in incandescent lampa For some 
time the Author ran incandescent lights off a compound dynamo 
driven by a wooden water-wheel; if the wheel stood idle for a 
short time so that the upper part got dryer, and consequently 
lighter, than the lower portion of the rim, the rise and fall of the 
heavy part of the wheel could be seen in the Ughts till the wheel 
got equally soaked with wet all round. If alternators could be 
satisfeuitorily run with gas engines the question of storage of 
electricity would be solved, because gas may be comparatively 
cheaply stored, and a series of gas engines might be put into work 
as the load increased and put out as the load diminished ; the only 
inconvenience in such an arrangement being that it would be 
necessary to have a generating plant with reserves equal to the 
maximum demand. Another way of meeting the varying load is 
to keep the engines going all tiie time at a steady electrolytical 
manufEkcture of some kind which might be considered a bye-product 
of electric lighting. 

With the method of differential charging to consumers the 
Author has but little sympathy, it is a throttling kind of action. 
Electric men have sooner or later to face the gas men in deadly 
combat as suppliers of light, and they have got to do it by 
reducing prices and standing on a common platform of equal rates. 
A differential charge for power supply is legitimate, it comes into 
the competition >vith the gas men. 

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MUNICIPAL BLSOTBIOITY. 25 

In the few remarks made by the Author in seconding a Yote of 
thanks to the Borough Surreyor of BelfiBbst, he suggested a 3d, rate 
per unit Other people have come to this 3(2. unit, and the Author 
is now incUned to halve it as a reasonable rate in large towns. 
When electricity is to be had at l^d. a unit, a 16 candle-power 
lamp will keep lighting for 13 hours for Id. 

With alternating currents the Author has hitherto had no practi- 
cal experience, but he is contemplating using them in the near 
future. The beautifully steady power of turbines, with which we 
work in Qalway, appears to suiC alternator work, but the obvious 
applicability of accumulators as a means of making the most of a 
water-power decided our commencing with continuous current 
When increase of business drives us to auxiliary power, we shall no 
doubt run alternators at night with our turbines and put them to 
continuous-current work in the daytime. 

A new form of tramway is just now being experimented with, 
worked with alternating currents, and it may possibly set at rest 
for ever the vexed questions between overhead troUies and under- 
ground trollies ; no form of trolly, good or bad, being needed for 
the new kind of tramway. 

The public and private lighting should be all done from the same 
mains. 

In Belfast the area selected for an experiment is an early closing 
shop area, and it is in this respect not the best The scheme would 
be improved by adding public to private lighting. The best kind 
of work is pubUc lighting, which continues during all the hours of 
darkness ; the worst kind is that of early closing shops, which in 
summer take no light at all, and in winter they all light up together 
for a short time. The Belfast experiment appears to be farther 
handicapped with dear fuel ; town gas burned in gas engines and 
costing 28, Sd, a thousand is a lavishly expensive fuel. Belfast is a 
plucky egotistical place, and the mass of the people will* not long 
be grovelling in worship of a row of smoky chimneys in Cromao 
Street 

The subject is probably too large to be satisfactorily treated in 
a paper of this kind. The purpose of the paper, however, is not to 
be a treatise on the engineering applications of electricity, but to 
reassure municipal engineers who are kept hard at work in an 
already complicated routine that this new claimant of attention is 
in no way dangerous ; that he is amenable to familiar and kindly 
treatment The Author, while engaged in a varied practice, has 



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26 HUNIOIPAL ELE0TBI0IT7. 

formed a strong attachment to this new professional friend, and lie 
is desiroos that he shall receive kind treatment from his brother 
surveyors when he knocks, as he soon will do, loudly at their 
doors. 

Note, — This paper has been considerably criticised It has been 
variously misunderstood, and there consequently may be some 
obscureness of expression which the Author fails to see. 

An editor critic finds fault generally that it is too elementary, 
and he is mystified by the expression '* negative volts " used for 
" back electromotive force," but this is an ordinary mathematical 
use of the word " negative," which the Author expected everyone 
to understand. Another editor supposes that the Author intends to 
rectify alternating currents to continuous currents, and awaits the 
result of the experiment. — J. P. 



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DISCUSSION. 27 



DISCUSSION. 

Mr. T. Db Couboy Meade : I have pleasure in proposing a vote 
of thanks to the Anthors of the papers. In the first paper, that of 
Mr. Christie, we find that in Londonderry the installation is 
restricted to street lighting only, a reversal of the procedure in 
many other towns where public lighting by electricity has not up 
to the present been attempted. In Manchester there is a larger 
demand for the light for private consumption than can at present 
be met, and therefore the Corporation is now engaged in enlarging 
the works and extending the area of supply. The Corporation of 
Londonderry having adopted public lighting alcme, can show no 
profit, nor can there be any hope of making a reduction in the cost 
of street lighting as compared with gas for many years to come. 
I observe that Mr. Christie says nothing about the price of gas. I 
shall be glad if he would give the cost per lamp for gas and for 
electricity. If we could obtain from electrical engineers reliable 
information as to the relative cost of the two lights (without giving 
undue credit to electricity for illuminating power) the public would, 
I believe, have less hesitation in using the new and very much 
superior illnminant. The second paper, by Mr. Perry, will no 
doubt induce some municipal engineers to approach the subject of 
electric lighting and make themselves conversant with this new 
branch of science. But the municipal engineer who has not 
received a special training, both theoretical and practical, will be a 
very bold man indeed if he attempts the responsibility of laying 
down a large installation without the advice and assistance of an 
expeoenced and thoroughly reliable electrician. None but trained 
electricians devoting their whole time to the work can keep pace 
with the rapid advancements and improvements that are being 
made in the application of electricity to municipal purpose& 
Personally I am very much obliged to Mr. Perry for his interesting 
and instructive paper, although I cannot endorse all his views. I 
think, however, that it would be a calamity if any of our Members 
who have not had a very special training were induced to undertake 
or advise upon works of this kind. Some of us can remember the 

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28 KLECTBIO LIOHTINO — UTONIOIPAL ELECTRIOITy. 

failures which occurred in the early days of sewerage and sewage 
disposal work from the same cause, but I am glad to say that this 
state of things has long since past. The examinations held by the 
Association, and the visits to works, have done much to improve the 
status of the municipal engineer and to qualify him for the difficult 
works he has to perform. 

Mr. E. Pbitohabd: I have great pleasure in seconding the 
vote of thanks to the authors of the paper& I agree generally 
with the remarks of Mr. Meade, and on one point I should like to 
know something farther of the reason for generating electricity at 
great expense for the purpose ot public lighting only. Public 
lighting by electricity has been attempted in many cities, and in 
some of those cities it has been abandoned. Take London. We had 
first introduced the system of arc lighting, which was abandoned. 
Then we had the incandescent lighting on Holbom Viaduct, which 
also came to grief. Latterly we have had the system of arc lighting 
again introduced, but it has been confined either to open spaces or 
to wide streets. I have seen the electric light in America and on 
the Continent, and there it has been very successful because the 
streets are wide. I should like Mr. Christie to say why, in Lon- 
donderry, electricity has been confined to the public Ugbting of 
the city ; whether it is due to the streets being better adapted for 
the light than those of other towns. In Birmingham there is an 
important electric lighting company, and there is also one in 
Liverpool, but neither in Birmingham nor in Liverpool has there 
been any attempt made to introduce the electric light for street 
lighting. In Birmingham the company only desired to be per- 
mitted to supply the light to business premises and to offices, thus 
confining itself to the domestic supply. This pays the company 
very well, and though individual offices do not consume very much 
electricity, the number of customers is being rapidly extended, and 
in a short time the interior of the whole of the buildings in the 
centre of Birmingham will be lighted with electricity. The price of 
gas in Birmingham is very cheap, being 28, 7cL per 1000 cubic feet. 
It may be on that account that electricity is not able to compete 
with gas for street lighting, or, on the other hand, it may be 
because the gks- works belong to the Corporation and have been a 
source of great revenue, that it would be unwise to interfere with 
gas lighting in the streets. We have very few cities lighted with 
electricity where the light is not supplied for domestic purposes. 



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DISOUSSION. 29 

With regard to Mr. Perry's paper, I think as mtuiioipal engineers 
we should feel grateful to him, because we have not all the 
time at our disposal to master these difficult subjects. Mr. Perry 
has assisted and directed us to an easy way of understanding the 
subject, and municipal engineers can point to the paper as a yery in- 
structive and useful one. All municipal engineers will never become 
all-round electricians, but they are a necessary adjunct, and will work 
in conjunction with electricians. The question of accumulators 
has been dealt with, but only in connection with electric lighting. 
We are told by all experts that the day of accumulators has to 
come; and that the present failure of accumulators will be 
thoroughly oyercome. My own experience is that in tramway 
traction accumulators have proved a great failure. With the con- 
stant strain of tramway work they are practically useless after two 
or three months' work. The accumulator mode of traction is very 
nice^ but it is not one which will give a return to the shareholders 
in its present form. It would be very interesting if Mr. Perry 
could give us some information as to the new form of electricfd 
traction which I believe his brother is experimenting with. I 
understand that the invention is registered. Of course I must 
not assume that Mr. Perry is free to say everything respecting 
this new system, but I am sure a few words of explanation would 
be of very great interest to tramway engineers and others. I 
would like again to refer to the great ability with which the 
papers have been prepared, the first by Mr. Christie and the 
other by Mr. Perry : but I think particularly Mr. Perry is to 
be thanked for the interesting and instructive paper which he has 
given us. 

Mr. J. Loblby: I have pleasure in supporting the vote of 
thanks to Mr. Christie and Mr. Perry for the papers we have had 
this morning. With regard to the system of electric lighting 
adopted in Londonderry, it may be said that the city was the 
pioneer of public electric lighting as distinct from private lighting 
in this country. It is a very serious matter for a town to establish 
electricity works for public lighting alone. The first cost of the 
works, together with the annual expenses, presses heavily on the 
rates when the whole has to be charged to the public street lighting 
account. I desire to know a little more as to the cost per unit, and 
also the number of hours the lamps are lighted. I think that where 
private lighting is undertaken, the public streets should also be 



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30 BLEOTBIO LIGHTINa MUNICIPAL ELEOTBICITY. 

lighted by electricity. I cannot, however, agree with Mr. Perry 
that the pnblic and private lighting shordd be done from the same 
mains. One great advantage of lighting the streets by electricity, 
is the ease with which the light can be switched on and off With 
electricity there is no need to tnm on the light until later than 
gas, because the whole area can be lighted up at once, whereas with 
gas a considerable time is occupied with the lighting of the lamps. 
That advantage can only be obtained by having separate mains. 
Then, again, where the lamps are arranged in series, a higher 
voltage is required than for the private supply mains. Another 
reason for undertaking the public lighting, is that it is a very good 
advertisement for the private lighting. In places where the public 
streets are lighted by electricity they have the largest number of 
private consumers of the light. I advocate incandescent electric 
lighting for indoors, and arc lighting for out of doors ; but there 
are small narrow streets in most towns where incandescent lamps 
might be used with advantage. I believe the borough engineer is 
the right man to pull the streets about, and he ought to take suf- 
ficient interest in the work to advise his council on such matters. 
The civil engineer may very fairly go hand in hand with the 
electrician, and will doubtless require his advice and assistance, 
but that is a very different thing to surrendering what I con- 
tend are civil engineer's works to another department outside 
his control. The advantages of the alternating current make 
it very useful for straggling places. I have not a customer 
further than two hundred yards from what is practically a gene- 
rator station, that is a transformer sub-station. Therefore it is not 
necessary to go into the complexity of the three-wire system. 
It may be that Birmingham, Manchester and Bradford have 
done wisely in adopting the continuous-current system, and 
some places in Jjondon have done unwisely in adopting the 
transformer system. In my own town the transformer system is 
very valuable indeed. Our first capital outlay was 22,0002., and 
we are now engaged in doublmg our works. The first six months' 
revenue from the supply of electricity paid the whole of the 
working expenses, the interest on capital, and smking fund 
charges. I scarcely think the present six months will do so 
well, as we are running the works continuously during daylight 
with little consumption. At present we have got more customers 
than we can supply. We have our own Corporation buildings 



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DISCUSSION. 31 

wired, but dare not pat them all on. I hope we shall have a 
500 horse-power steam alternator, by Ferranti, at work in a few 
months, which will get ns ont of this difficulty. With regard to 
cost, the 8-amp^re arc lamps are charged 480Z. per annum for 80 
lamps. The incandescent lighting of onr free library at 6d. per 
unit costs 15 per cent, more than gas at 2«. 9d. per thousand feet, 
but we have much more than that extra amount of light, and there 
will also be a great saving in bookbinding, cleaning, &c. I 
previously had over my own desk two 16 candle-power gas 
burners of a good make, and I find that one 16 candle-power 
incandescent electric lamp will give me the same light. 

Mr. G. J. C. Bboom : I quite agree with Mr. Meade when he 
says that the borough engineer would be indeed a very courageous 
man who undertook the lighting of a town by electricity. In a 
busy town there is no time for the borough surveyor to get up the 
question of electricity. In St. Helens, two years ago, I put in 
400 lamps with the necessary engine and dynamos for the Town 
Hall. That was a special arrangement, inasmuch as the Town 
Hall was under the control of the Public Works Committee. We 
have now called in an electrician, who will, under the charge of 
the Gas Committee, carry out the lighting of the town. That is 
the proper thing to do. I do not think any engineer, who has so 
many and various duties to perform, can give sufficient time to 
carry out the lighting of a town in a proper and efficient manner. 
There is one remark in the paper of Mr. Christie to which I 
should like to refer, that is with regard to mains being damaged by 
pick marks. I should like to ask whether the mains are cased in 
any way, or merely laid in the ground without any casing at all. 

The vote of thanks to the Authors of the papers having been 
unanimously accorded, 

Mr. J. Christie, in replying to the discussion, said: The 
first question was the comparative cost of gas and electricity for 
lightmg the streets. Formerly we had about 700 gas lamps, and 
550 of these were replaced with 170 arc lamps. The cost of gas 
lighting was about 220UZ. a year, and I estimate that the cost of 
the electric light, including the repayment of loans and everything, 
will be 8500Z., and the additional cost for the existing gas lamps 
500Z., making a total cost of 4000Z. as against 2200Z. But you 
must consider that those streets which have the electric light are 
about twenty times better lighted than when lighted by gas. The 



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32 ELEGTBIO UGHnMCh-^MUKIOIPAL ELEOTRIOITY. 

price of gas was formerly 8a. 10(2., but has now been redaced to 
3s. 7d. per 1000 cubic feet, a rednciion which I take to be dae to 
the introdaction of the electric light 1 am of opinion that the 
public and private lighting should be run in conjunction, and that 
it would have been better to have at first worked up a private 
lighting supply along with a few public arcs in the centre of the 
town, extending both systems as the demand increased. In reply 
to Mr. Broom's question, I may state that our cables are laid in 
the ground direct, and have armour composed of steel wire for 
mechanical protection. 

Mr. Pbrbt, in replying to the discussion on his paper, said : 
I think I must have failed to make myself clear to Mr. Meade and 
to Mr. Broom. I do not propose that the borough engineer should 
be the electrical engineer, but I maintain that there ought to be an 
engineering chief, and that that position ought to be filled by the 
borough engineer. If an electrical engineer is called in, the 
borough engineer ought to know what he is about I do not 
think there is time for me to do more than to say something about 
this new form of electrical traction which has been invented by my 
brother. We, all of us, whether enthusiastic electricians or 
practical men, like to see a thing tested before saying too much 
about it in public, but I do not think there is any harm in my 
explaining the principal points in the system. You are all aware 
that in the existing electrical systems you must have direct contact, 
but for a magnet circuit contact is not necessary. All the electric 
trams which have been worked up to the present have been worked 
on a circuit, which involves contact. The new tramway is simply 
an extended alternating transformer, which will be spread out all 
along the track. A number of thin plates of iron will be laid 
upon the track, enclosing a thin band of copper through which the 
alternating current will be sent, magnetising the sheets of iron, and 
thus actuating the motor without any direct contact Of course 
it will be run quite close, but there will not be actual contact as is 
involved with tiie present systems. The success of the system is 
dependent entirely upon Uie first cost of a line of this character 
not being excessive. 

The Members attending the meeting were entertained to 
Itmchean hf the Mayor in the Cotmcil Chamber of the Guildhall. 
The Members then walked along the city walls and visited the 



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VISITS TO WOBKS. 33 

Cathedral, the Walker Memorial and other objects of interest, wider 
the able guidance of Mr. Bcbinson and Mr. J. O, Ferguson. 
Aft^ the completion of the tour of Berry, the Members were taken 
by train to Buncrana, a charmingly sitvaied village on Lough 
SfwiUy, where dinner was served aJt Lou^h Swilly Hotel. 

The Members then returned to Berry, where a visit was paid 
to the City Electrical Station, and the installation for public 
lighting inspected, under the guidance of Mr, J. Christie, the 
Electrical Engineer. 



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DISTRICT MEETING AT 
LONDONDERRY AND PORTRUSH. 

(2) PORTRUSH. 

August 24, 1895. 

Held at the Tovm HaU, Portrush. 
E. B. S. EscoTT, M. Inst. C.E., Prssidekt, in the Chair. 

-*♦- 

The following papers were read and discussed. 

LIGHT RAILWAYS AND TRAMWAYS. 

Br R. H. DOBMAN, M.Inst.C.E., County Survbyor, 
Abmagh. 

So much has been written regarding light railways and tramways 
during the past few years, that it is difficult to prepare a paper con- 
taining any new matter on these subjects. 

It is probable, however, that nearly all the Members of this 
Association are called on occasionally to report in some way or 
another respecting their construction, and it is therefore to be 
hoped that the few remarks which the Author proposes offering 
may give rise to an interesting discussion. 

The Author has thought it advisable to confine his remarks 
chiefly to light railways and tramways as constructed in this 
country. "Although he was engaged for some time on railway 
work in England, and superintended the construction of the 
Highgate Hill Cable Tramway for the Homsey Local Board, he 
is better acquainted, and has been connected for the greater part 
of his life, with work of this kind in Ireland. 

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LIGHT BAILWAYS AND TRAMWAYS. 35 

It is not proposed to deal with the lighter descriptions of tram- 
ways, namely, sach as might be laid down in order to connect a 
series of farms with a neighbonring town. Snch tramways are 
not required at present, and probably never will be required in this 
country. 

A light railway in Ireland is defined by the 31 & 32 Vict, 
c. 119, as a railway on which the weight on one pair of wheels of the 
engine does not exceed 8 tons, and the speed adopted does not 
exceed 25 miles per hour. 

The chief difference between a light railway and a tramway 
appears to be that a light railway is run oyer land which is 
specially acquired for the purpose, while a tramway runs over or 
alongside a public road, and tixe speed is limited to 12 miles an 
hour in the country and to 6 miles in towns and villages. 

Light railways and tramways in this country may be classed as 
follows : — 

(1) Light railways both of the ordinary 5 feet 3 inches gauge 
and narrow gauge. 

The line known as the Bessbrook and Newry Electric Tramway 
should be properly classed as a light railway, as it runs over 
specially acquired land all the way, except where it crosses the 
public roads. 

(2) A composite type. Those which run for part of their course 
over specially acquired land, and for part of their course along the 
public road. 

(3) The Lartigue system. 

(4) Tramways of various gauges and worked by steam, by 
electric power, by a combination of steam and electricity, and by 



The light railways and tramways in Ireland have been con- 
structed — 

(1) As feeders to existing main lines. 

(2) To open up tracks of country through which no railways 
run, and in which there is no probability of heavy trunk lines ever 
being constructed. 

(3) Horse tramways in the larger towns. 

(4) Short lines for the accommodation of special industries. 
The capital for the construction of the 4th class has usually been 

obtained from private sources, and for the 3rd class it has been 
obtained in the open market. Previous to the Act of 1883 the 
capital for the 1st and 2nd class was obtained by the barony, or 

D 2 

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36 LIGHT BAILWAYB AND TBAMWAYS. 

baronies, through which the line passed, giving a guarantee for a 
portion of the capital, generally for a limited number of years, 
afterwards ratified by a special Act of Parliament, which also 
authorised a loan from the Board of Works and the issue of 
ordinary shares. In 1883 a special Act of Parliament was passed 
by which the Treasury guaranteed to the county a maximum of 
2 per cent when the grand jury gave a guarantee of 4 per cent, 
or more ; this Act also conferred powers for the compulsory purchase 
of land, and did away with the necessity of obtaining a special Act 
for each particular line. A considerable stimulus to the construc- 
tion of light railways and tramways was given by this Act, but it 
is to be regretted that the 2 per x^nt. guarantee given by the 
Treasury was not made a direct guarantee. If a direct guarantee 
of 3 per cent, were given by the Treasury, a portion of which 
would of course be raised by the county, it would be as easy 
or easier to find the necessary capital for the construction of a line 
than it 13 now with a guarantee of 4 or 5 per cent, from a grand 
jury. 

As a general rule the light railways of the ordinary gauge are 
worked, and the rolling stock or part of it provided, by the railway 
company to which the hght railway forms a branch, or of which 
it is an extension, for a percentage, usually 50 to 55 per cent., of 
the gross receipts. A working agreement of this kind is always 
favoured, and sometimes insisted on, by the Treasury as some 
security that a line will be kept open. Instances of railways 
having been opened for traffic and afterwards abandoned have 
occurred ; as, for example, the Parsonstown and Portumna Bailway, 
the rails, sleepers, and even the station building of this railway 
having been appropriated and removed by the country people. 

It may be mentioned here that the majority of these railways 
have at first proved anything but remunerative, and in some cases 
the receipts have proved insufficient to meet the working Expenses ; 
but almost invariably the receipts are found to increase annually, 
and in some cases these railways are now able to pay not only the 
baronial charges, but also a dividend on the ordinary shares, or a 
contribution to the baronies, as specified in Sect. 5, c. 43, 46 & 47 
Vict. 

This result proves that increased traffic is created by the con- 
struction of these railways in the districts through which they run, 
and the ultimate benefit to these districts can hardly be over- 
estimated. 



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LIGHT RAILWAYS AND TBAMWAYa 37 



Gattgb of Light Railways and Tramways. 

The great majority of engineers in this country fayonr the 
adoption of the Irish 5 feet 3 inches gauge, and with good reason. 
Bailways in this country can generally be constructed easily and 
cheaply ; they are to a great extent surface lines, and as a rule 
no expensive works are required in connection with them. 

By the adoption of the narrow gauge there would doubtless be a 
slight saying in the cost of land, in masonry works, in earthworks, 
and in ballast, but there would be no saving in the promotion of 
the scheme in the first instance, nor in station buildings, nor in 
fencing, nor in signalling, &c., and not much saving in maintenance 
and working expenses, while the advantages of being able to 
interchange rolling stock with other lines fieur outweigh the slight 
saving in cost effected by adopting the narrow gauge. Moreover, 
the rolling stock adopted for narrow gauge railways is not suitable 
for the conveyance of cattle, one of the most important items of 
traffic over Irish lines. 

In the case of tramways the gauge which should be adopted is 
more difficult to decide. For tramways running along the side of 
a public road, in which case the rails need not be kept on a level 
with the surface of the road, a 3-feet gauge will probably be found 
the most suitable, a greater width of roadway (which must not be 
less than 18 feet) can thus be left than if a wider gauge were 
adopted, and sharp bends in the road can be manipulated more 
easily. In the case of tramways running over a central track, the 
4 feet 8^ inches or 5 feet 8 inches gauge is usually considered the 
most convenient. 

Curves and Gradients. 

For light railways of the ordinary gauge the sharpest curve 
usually adopted is t«n chains, but the Author has occasionally 
known curves as sharp as seven chains put in. For light railways 
of the 3-feet gauge, curves as sharp as two and a half chams are some- 
times tried, and on tramways of the same gauge curves of one chain 
radius can be worked round. At each terminus of the Bessbrook 
and Newry tramway (3-feet gauge) there is a loop of 55 feet 
radius, round which the cars are easily worked in order to avoid 
the necessity of reversing them ; it should be remembered, however, 
that these cars are of the bogie type. Gradients steeper than 1 in 

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88 LIGHT RAILWAYS AND TBAMWATS. 

30 are seldom adopted in this country on railways and tramways 
worked by mechanical means, and considering that owing to an 
nnfortnnate clanse in the Act 31 & 32 Vict., the weight on one 
pair of wheels of any engine shall not exceed 8 tons, it is evident 
that only light trains can be taken over a gradient of 1 in 30. If 
anything in the shape of heavy traffic is anticipated, the gradients 
should not, if possible, exceed 1 in 60. 



Cost of Constbuotion. 

The cost of constmcting and equipping a light railway or 
tramway has been varionsly estimated at from lOOOZ. to 10,000^ 
per mile, and a few tramways have been constmcted in England 
at a cost of about lOOOZ. a mile, but I think the lowest at which 
any tramway has been constructed and opened for passenger traffic 
in this country is 1800Z. per mile, the approximate sum at which 
the Warrenpoint and Bostrevor Tramway, 3 miles 20 chains in 
length, was constructed. Probably no light railway has been 
constructed and equipped in this country at less than 30002. per 
mile ; perhaps the cheapest line which has come under my notice 
is a branch of the Gavan, Leitrim and Boscommon Light Bailway 
and Tramway, from Ballinamore to Drumshambo, which is stated 
to have cost only 3100Z. per mile. The gauge of this line is 
3 feet ; weight of rail 45 lbs. ; weight of engines 20 tons when 
empty ; steepest gradient 1 in 30 ; and sharpest curve 250 feet 
radius. The engines are specified as being capable of taking a 
train of 100 tons up a continuous incline of 1 in 40, for one-third 
of a mile, with curves of 10 chains radius. 

A few other examples may be given showing the comparative 
cost, &a of light railways and tramways in Ireland. The Castle- 
derg and Victoria Bridge Tramway (7 miles 12 chains) : 3-feet 
gauge; cost slightly over 30002. per mila 

The Portstewart Tramway (1 mile 68 chains) : 3-feet gauge ; 
cost also slightly over 3000Z. per mile. 

SchuU and Skibbereen Bailway (14 miles) : gauge 3 feet ; weight 
of rail 45 lbs. ; steepest gradient 1 in 30 for a distance of 1 mile ; 
sharpest curve 2^ chains ; cost 40002. per mile. When this line 
was first opened for traffic, four engines were provided, one only 
being of the bogie type, the remainder Stiff, which, however» 
proved very unsatisfactory. 



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LIGHT RAILWAYS AND TBAHWAY& 39 

Glogher Valley Light Railway and Tramway (37 miles 3 chains): 
gauge 3 feet ; weight of rail 45 lbs. ; steepest gradient 1 in 30 ; 
sharpest corye (in the town of Caledon) H ^ains ; on private land, 
sharpest curve 4 chains ; cost abont 4000Z. per mila 

Clonakilty Extension Bailway (8 miles) : gauge 5 feet 3 inches ; 
weight of rail 65 lbs. ; steepest gntdient 1 in 70 ; sharpest curve 
15 chains ; cost about 4500Z. per mile. Although this line cost 
such a small sum to construct, it can hardly be classed under the 
head of a light railway, and it was not constructed under the Act 
of 1883, but under a special Act 

The Author would mention that all the above lines are worked 
by locomotives except the Darrenpoint and Bostrevor Tramway, 
which is worked by horses, and ako that the estimates given include 
the cost of rolling stock, except in the case of the Clonakilty Exten- 
sion Bailway, which is worked by the Cork and Bandon Bulway for 
a percentage of the gross receipts. 



Method of Constbuotion. 

The method of construction is usually pretty much the same 
for light railways and tramways of the kinds mentioned above. 

The rails are of the Yignoles section, weighing from 45 to 
65 lbs. to the yard. The sleepers for narrow gauge lines 6 feet by 
8 inches by 4 inches, for ordinary gauge 9 feet by 9 inches by 
4^ inches: both creosoted and uncreosoted are used, generally 
rectangular, but sometimes half round. The sleepers are generally 
placed 3 feet apart centre to centre, and at the joints 2 feet centre 
to centre. As the traffic on these lines is not very heavy, the rails 
will last for a very long period without requiring to be renewed, 
but the life of the sleepers deserves consideration. Ten years is 
found a good average life for Baltic sleepers creosoted under 
pressure, but they will frequently be found sound after being in 
as long as 15 years. Six years would be a &ir average for the 
same sleepers merely dipped, and 5 years if unprotected. Scotch 
fir sleepers will last about 5 years, and larch about 8 years, but 
larch is not always obtainable. While on the subject of sleepers, 
the Author might mention that he had recently to inspect a short 
narrow-gauge line on which very light wrought-iron sleepers were 
used ; they seemed very well adapted for their purpose. 

The rails are secured to the sleepers by dog-spikes ; frequently 



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40 LIGHT RAILWAYS AND TRAMWAYS. 

fang bolts in addition are used at the ends of each rail, and on 
curves sometimes about the centre of each rail as well. Sole 
plates are also occasionally used. 

Depth of ballast about 12 inches below the under side of the 
sleepers, bottom ballast 6 inches quarry shivers, top 6 inches gravel 
or broken stone ; gravel is probably the most suitable ballast for 
light railways, as broken stone makes a harsh and noisy road. 



Dbtails of Cost op Construction. 

The most important item is usually for permanent way, 
and this, including fencing, is variously put down for a light 
railway at from lOOOZ. to 1800Z. per mila The rails, fish plates, 
bolts, &c., of course vary with the market, but as regards the 
other items of permanent way, unoreosoted sleepers 9 feet by 9 
inches by 4 J inches, cost about la. 6d. each ; laying permanent 
way la. 6d. per lineal yard forward ; ballast-pitching and boxing 
also J 8. 6d. per yard forward ; sod fencing both sides 9d. to 2a., 
per lineal yard ; and wire fencing la. per lineal yard. 

Clay cutting is probably the next most important item, and is 
frequently put down at la. a cubic yard for cutting, and 8d, for 
filling; sometimes cutting and filling are estimated together at 
la. 2d. to la. 8d. per cubic yard, and la. 2d. a yard will generally 
be found a very fiiir price for it. 

Eock is estimated at la. 6d. to 4a. a cubic yard, according to 
circumstances. 

Masonry work varies so much that it would be impossible to put 
an average price on it. 

Metalling and forming roads and level crossings, la. to 2a. per 
yard super. 

The above give some idea of the prices at which work is let to a 
contractor. The actual cost is of course in many cases far less. 
The Author has known clay, for instance, taken out and tipped at 
4d. per cubic yard, and fencing sublet to a labourer at la. 6d, per 
Irish perch. 

BoUtng iSfocft.— Engines, 500Z. to 1800/. each. 
Coaches, 300Z. to 500Z. „ 
Waggons, 50/. to 1501 „ 

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lilOHT RAILWAYS AND TBAMWAY& 41 



Objeotxons, Bra to Tbamways Buknikg along the Sides 

OF PUBLIO BOADS. 

When the condensation of the escape steam is properly effected, 
the machinery invisible and the sound from it inaudible, ike danger 
of running a steam engine along a public road is very much 
minimised ; while further, if ample room is left for the ordinary 
traffic, little objection can be raised to the construction of a tram- 
way alongside it. A few minor objections, however, may be raised 
— ^for example, the duty of seeing tiiat the line is constructed in a 
proper manner, and that it is fit to be opened for traffic, lies with 
the Board of Trade, but the onus of seeing that public rights are 
not interfered with, and that the roadway is maintained safe for 
traffic is left to the county surveyor. As, however, the contractor 
can frequently save a few pounds by taking in a little more of the 
roadway on one side instead of a strip of land on the other, and the 
engineer can obtain better gradients by dropping his line a little 
below the roadway in places, the county surveyor has to exercise 
constant supervision over the work. Olice the contractor has got 
his line laid down it is very difficult to induce him or compel him 
to alter it. Another objection to these tramways is that tiiej are 
frequently raised to suit the gradients, 2 or 3 feet over the road 
level, and the occupiers of the fields inside the tramway are 
constantly endeavouring to cart across the line, and in order to do 
00 have to make some sort of an approach on the public road to 
reach the tramway level, and so raise a dangerous obstruction to 
the road traffic. 

EiJBOTBioAL Tramways. 

Electrical tramways may be classified under five heads, according 
as — 

(1) The conductor is an overhead wire ; 

(2) Is laid underground ; 

(3) Is a central rail laid on the surface ; 

(4) Is a side rail ; or 

(5) When accumulators are used. 

The overhead system, which may be subdivided into tie span 
wire system and the side wire system, is doubtless the best known 
in Great Britain. Some of the objections raised to it are the un- 



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42 UGHT RAILWAYS AND TBAMWAY8. 

sightly appearance of the poles, the difficulties at sharp cnrves and 
where wires cross, and the possibility of the wires breaking. I 
understand, however, that the poles recently erected in connection 
with some continental systems are ''things of beauty," and one 
objection to this system has therefore been got oyer ; moreover the 
difficulties with sharp curves and cross wires have been very much 
minimised, while the danger of the wire breaking is little more than 
imaginary. This system will probably be found, as a rule, the 
most suitable for suburban and rural lines. 

The underground system will no doubt come more into favour 
for street tramways, but it is an expensive system : a slot of any 
sort in a street is objectionable, and the difficulty of keeping the 
tube free from dirt is an objection to it. 

For light railways or tramways laid on private land, or carried 
overhead or underground, the central rail is perhaps the simplest 
and cheapest, but the difficulties of arranging points and crossings 
owing to the central roil, are considerable. 

In particular cases, as in the case of the Portrush and Causeway 
Tramway, the side rail answers well. 

The cost of the accumulator system renders it generally pro- 
hibitive. 

Two of the earliest electrical tramways constructed in the 
United Kingdom were the Portrush and Causeway Tramway, 
opened in 1883, and the Bessbrook and Newry Tramway, opened 
in 1885. Both of these tramways have been fully dealt with in 
papers read before the Institution of Civil Engineers, and it is 
therefore unnecessary for the Author to enter into many details 
regarding them. 

In both cases the electricity is generated by means of turbines 
worked by water power. The generating station in connection 
with the Portrush and Causeway Tramway is some 7 miles from 
Portrush, the starting point of the tramway, while the generating 
station in connection with the Bessbrook and Newry Tramway 
is at Millvale, about half-way between Bessbrook and Nevnry. 
At both places the arrangements are so simple that only one 
attendant is required at each station to look after the whole of the 
machinery, &c. 

Portrush and Causeway Tramway. This line is 8 miles in 
length and 3 feet gauge; the conductor is at the side and of 
T-iron, weighing 19 lbs. to the yard, placed about 2 feet 6 inches 
above the level of the permanent way. Contact is maintained by 

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UGHT RAILWAYS AKB TBAMWAYS. 43 

means of brushes projecting from the side of the cars, and the 
return circuit is conveyed through the tram rails. The cars are 
taken from the terminus of the Northern Counties Bailway to the 
commencement of the electric tramway, a short distance out of 
Portrush, by means of ordinary locomotives. 

Bessbrook and Newry Tramway. This line runs from Newry 
to Bessbrook in County Armagh, a distance of 3 miles 2 chains. 
The gauge is 3 feet, and the maximum gradient 1 in 50. 
The conductor consii^ts of a central rail of channel section 
resting on insulators; at the joints the electrical connec- 
tion is made by means of bent strips of copper riveted to the 
channel iron. Where the tramway crosses minor roads the con- 
ductor consists of a cable carried underneath the surface, and 
where the tramway crosses the main road from Armagh to Newry 
the conductor is carried overhead. The return circuit is through 
the tram rails, the rails being connected at the joints by wire or 
copper strips. The motors are of the Edison-Hopkinson type, and 
are placed on the front of the cars, and the gearing arrangement, 
although rather complicated, is working satisfiEUstorily. No doubt 
the practice now being adopted on other Imes of placing the 
armatures on the axles of the cars very much simplifies the 
working, but the Author imagines that it must be found difficult 
to keep the parts clean in such a position, and they are also more 
liable to suffer from vibration and inequalities in the road. 

The rolling stock consists of three passenger cars, two of which 
are provided with motors in front, and numerous waggons. The 
waggons are designed with flangeless wheels, so that they can be 
drawn by horses from the terminus in Newry to the quays, and 
these wheels run, not on the tram rails, but on rails placed 
immediately outside them and at a slightly lower level. Of course 
the fact of there being four tram rails, as well as a central con- 
ductor, renders the arrangement of points and crossings extremely 
complicated, but otherwise no difficulty has been experienced in 
the working of the system. This tramway has now been open for 
traffic for the past ten years, and it is satisfactory to note that the 
cost of working and general expenses have been extremely small. 

Time will not permit the Author to deal with horse tramways in 
our larger towns in Ireland, and he trusts that some Member with 
more experience of these tramways will present the Association 
with a paper on a future occasion. 



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44 LIGHT RAILWAYS AND TBAMWATB. 



Conclusion. 

The subject of light railways and tramways in this country is a 
large one, and the need for them is great. Government has 
dealt liberally with Ireland in the past, and it is to be hoped it 
will deal still more liberally in the future. Further free grants to 
the poorer districts, and the issue of loans at 2 or 8 per cent, on a 
grand jury guarantee in every district, would probably be the 
means of doubling the tramway system of Ireland in a few years. 
In order, however, to make the Irish tramway systems popular 
and useful, it is necessary that the rates charged for the conveyance 
of goods and passengers should be as low as possible. To enable 
this to be done the working expenses must be reduced to a 
minimum. In this country — at any rate inland — coal is dear, 
but water is plentiful and can be rendered easily available for the 
working of turbines or other hydraulic machinery. The author 
therefore ventures to suggest that the motive power for the 
working of tramways in Ireland may possibly in the future be 
obtained most easily by electricity generated by means of hydraulic 
power, and he earnestly hopes that the close of the nineteenth 
century may witness the construction of light railways and tram- 
ways throughout the length and breadth of his native land. 



DISCUSSION. 

Mr. J. Perry : I wish to say a word or two in regard to this paper, 
and it may be convenient if I say that word or two before our English 
friends speak upon the paper. I have had a great deal to do with 
the light railways that have been assisted by the Government. I 
live in a part of the country which was nine or ten years ago very 
badly served with railways, but in consequence of this Act of 
Parliament, that was largely stimulated by Earl Spencer when 
Lord-Lieutenant, the district is very diflferent to what it was ten 
years ago, and is now fairly well served. But I think the Govern- 
ment assistance might have been much more efficiently given. The 
arrangement was, as Mr. Dorman has explained in his paper, that 
the Government guarantee one-half up to 2 per cent. Now 
Government can get money at about 2| per cent., and in my 



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DISCUSSION. 45 

opinion if the Goyemment had given the money at | per cent, to 
a properly arranged authority in the district, the thing would have 
been much more economically done, and would have been much 
better for the district The result of the arrangements set up by 
the Act of Parliament, was that we were thrown into the hands 
of financial speculators. Take the line from Galway to Clifden. 
There were a large number of applications for guarantees ; ulti- 
mately it was made by the Midland and Great Western Bail- 
way ; not one of the sets of speculators got it. The risk of such 
a thing could be^ provided against by Act of Parliament. In 
this country there was a precedent which might have served for 
the work, though, like most Government things in this country, 
it is capable of improvement. The drainage boards which are 
appointed to promote arterial drainage, would have been a much 
better model than the plan adopted by the Government when 
they passed this exceedingly foolifili Act of Parliament. One point 
in fiavour of adopting the narrow gauge for light railways, is 
that the proportion of rolling stock to load carried is much 
smaller with the narrow gauge than with the broad gauge. That 
and greater liberty as to curves form the main advantages in the 
use of the narrow gauge. The narrow gauge costs pretty muc^ 
per mile the same as the 5 feet 3 inch gauge. 

Mr. Pkbby adds the following explanatory remarks to the dis- 
cussion : I appear to Mr. Boulnois to have a different opinion from 
what I really hold. I desire to avoid any appearance of poUtical 
bias in speaking of what either of the great parties when in power 
has done to benefit the poor and congested districts of the west 
of Ireland. Both parties have shown willingness to be of real 
benefit. 

The Tramways Act provided a large sum of money for the 
construction and maintenance of tramways, and it appeared to be 
sound policy to bring in the local authority of the district and 
make it a partner with the imperial authority. If this idea is 
contrasted with the policy by which large sums were simply handed 
over to existing railway companies on condition that they would 
make, equip and work certain lines of railway, it would appear to 
most people that it is the sounder policy of the two, and that the 
second plan is sheer waste and extravagance. But this is not so ; 
most people conceive of a local authority as being solvent and 
sound. In our western districts, where the poor rate is 4a. in the 
£, and county cess firom 58. to 4^. in the £ per annum additional, 

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46 LIGHT RAILWAYS AND TRAMWAYS. 

where the workhouse buildings are falling to pieces because the 
ratepayers are unable to mamtain them, the safest and most 
economical course for Government was that adopted in the case 
of the Gkdway and Clifden Bail way and the other railways of the 
same character in Mayo and elsewhera According to the early 
proposals, the Goyemment agreed to pay 2 per cent on the capital 
of tixe promotion company, but there was not sufficient care taken 
to make certain that the railway would be worth the money it 
appeared to cost, and Goyemment, in paying 2 per cent, on capital, 
would in many cases be paying quite 8 per cent, on the yalue. In 
a solyent district, assuming the full guarantee to be called upon, 
Goyemment would therefore, as a joint guarantor, be paying more 
as its proportion than the money is worth in the market, and the 
district would be paying its share besides. In Conneraara, how- 
ever, the probability was that the district would be unable to 
pay its share of the guarantee, and Goyemment would haye had 
ultimately in some shape to help the shareholders. Where I name 
Earl Spencer, my feeling is of respect and gratitude. 

Mr. H. Percy Boulnois : I haye very little to say about the 
paper read by Mr. Dorman. Of course it is absolutely new work 
to a great many of us, as light railways are practically unknown 
in England. With reference to Mr. Perry's remarks, I think he 
has been rather '' looking a gift horse in the mouth." A great 
deal has been done in that way for Ireland, and in my humble 
opinion — without touching at (dl upon politics — the Goyemment 
did what was wise. I think the reason that the local people did 
not take up the light railways, was more from want of enterprise 
than anything else. It is no fault of the Government that the 
railways were not made by local companies and local people. 
With regard to the question of cost, I should be glad to know 
what compensation was paid for the land, and in what way the 
compensation was paid — whether under the Lands Clauses Act or 
a special Act — and whether the land was dear or cheap. If the 
land was cheap it is a pity the lines were not made double, as the 
single lines make the conduct of the traffic difficult, and the service 
is not good. Comparing the light railways in Ireland with 
the tramways in Liverpool, there is a vast difference in the cost of 
consfaruction. The tramways in Liverpool cost 6000/. a mile, and 
to compare that with the 1800Z. a mile these light railways cost is 
strongly in favour of the light railways. I beg to propose a vote 
of thwks to Mr. Dorman for his paper. 

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DIB0U88I0N. 47 

Mr. E. Pbitohard : I rise with pleasure to second the vote of 
thanks to Mr. Dorman for the paper he has given ns. It is 
indeed a very interesting description of the existing light railways 
in Ireland, and the facilities which they offer. I, with Mr. Boulnois, 
rather think the Government have acted very fedrly in this matter, 
but I do not venture to set my opinion against that of Mr. Perry, 
who is much better acquainted with the work that has been dona 
Still there must be a very great advantage in the adoption of 
light railways, not only in Ireland but in other place& The author 
has dealt with tramways as well as light railways in his paper, 
therefore I take it we may consider the question of tramways, 
their construction and working. The curves and gradients form 
an important point in connection with the cost of working. I notice 
the curves and gradients which the author mentions on the light 
railways are very much easier than what we are compelled to 
adopt in the construction of tramways. I have had to construct 
tramways — horse, steam, cable and electric — where the gradients 
have been more severe and the curves sharper, and I find with a 
good road no difficulty in having curves sharper, and gradients 
more severe, than the figures given. The lines I constructed in 
Birmingham have curves of 34 feet radius. The cars are upon 
bogie frames, and the wheel base is a very short one. If the 
wheel base is properly considered in connection with the curve, 
there is little difficulty in getting round it. The engines weigh 
from 9 to 13 tons, but the 13-ton engine is not satisfEu^tory. The 
best engines on tram roads are those of Eitson, of Leeds : tbey do 
their work better than any other with which I am acquainted. 
I notice you are still running in Ireland the obsolete form of 
vertical cylinder with gearing. That form of engine was tried 
extensively in Staffordshire, Birmingham and the north of 
England, but has had to give way to the locomotive type. 
Eitson's engine has its cylinders well out and above the roadway, 
and there is very little to damage by the dirt and grit which is 
always likely to get into the working parts of a locomotive. 
Another advantage is that it is worked with the Eitson valve 
gearing, which is easy to get at, and the working parts are all 
outside the locomotive. Those engines are doing work on 
gradients of 1 in 16, and some of the curves, as already referred 
to, are as sharp as 34 feet radius. The condensation of the 
steam is easily effected, as they will carry one tank of water and 
condense their steam for 54 miles. The weight of the engine is 

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48 LIGHT RAILWAYS AND TBAMWAYS. 

determined by the load it has to draw, but we find the 8-ton or 
8 ton 10 cwt. engine will move itself up a gradient of 1 in 16, 
drawing a car of 4 tons plus a weight of sixty passengers. That 
is very good work indeed. Tramways are a great boon to the 
public. The Corporation of Birmingham have, under their private 
improvement schemes, taken a great portion of the central part of 
the town which formerly accommodated artisans, pulled down the 
houses and constructed wide streets; and the tramways have 
formed a great aid in supplying fisicilities for the artisans to get to 
their homes outside the ci^. We have got one company which 
is carrying thirty times the population of Birmingham per annum, 
with very few accidents, and at an enormous amount of receipts. 
I am very much astonished at the low cost of the light railways in 
Ireland — lOOOZ. a mile is exceptionally low. I take it these 
figures represent the construction, and not the equipment of the 
line ; the lowest figure at which I have been able to construct a 
line is at Magdeburg in Germany, where the land was given, and 
the line was constructed throughout at a cost of 1834Z. per mile. 
That was only the permanent way and road construction. It may 
be that in Ireland the lines are constructed at a much less cost 
than in England. It would be interesting to know what has been 
given for compensation, whether the land has been given, and 
what has been paid for the right of easement. Tramways in 
England cost from 3500Z. a mile, where there is no important 
paving to be executed, and where the rail is of light construction, 
up to 6000Z. a mile, which latter sum was, I believe, the cost of the 
Liverpool track. I must say, however, that for horse traction I 
think the Liverpool road is one of the finest specimens of tramway 
construction I have seen. The cost of maintenance in many towns 
is very heavy. The cost of maintenance for some 14 miles of road 
in Birmingham has exceeded 10,OOOZ. per annum — which is an 
enormous outlay for the company. The cost of construction of 
the tranvvays in .Birmingham works out at 5000Z. or 5500Z. a 
mile, which is 500Z. to lOOOZ. a mile cheaper than Liverpool. 
The weight of the rail in Birmingham is 98 lbs. to the yard, 
one of the heaviest of any tramway in the country. 

Mr. BouLNOis : The weight of the rail in Liverpool is 80 lbs. to 
the yard. 

Mr. Pritohard : The heavier weight of the Birmingham rail is 
rendered necessary in consequence of the paving being 6 inches 
in depth. With regard to electrical traction, I agree with 

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DISOUSSIOK. 49 

Mr. Dorman that the overhead is the cheaper system^ and now 
that the poles are made more ornamental, onght not to be objected 
to in any district We have got one running in South 
Staffordshire, which is working very well, and has this advantage, 
that it does not require a network of overhead wires. If you take 
Leeds, which is a very good system, there is a perfect network of 
wires above you. In South Staffordshire the side contact system 
has been adopted. Birmingham will not permit the overhead 
system either in the city or in the suburbs, and consequently we 
could only adopt the accumulator system, with which I was 
associated as joint engineer with Mr. Eincaid. To work an 
ordinary tramcar we require approximately 3 J tons of accumu- 
lators. As I mentioned the other day, the wear and tear is so 
great that the accumulators have only a short lifa Until we have 
a dry accumulator or a greatly improved ordinary battery, it is 
impossible for any electric tramway or light railway to be worked 
successfully by this system upon a grooved rail. At the present 
moment IJiere is a loss of about 2000Z. per annum on a three* 
mile length of road in Birmingham. On the other hand, the over* 
head electric system is being worked by contract by the Electric 
Construction Company at a very low rate of cost for traction. I 
have known lines where the batteries alone have for a time cost an 
expenditure of lOd. per mile to maintain. As against that we 
have a less voltage than we should have if we were working with 
the overhead system and from the stations direct. We are allowed 
200 voltage for the working of the tramway. With the overhead 
electrical system we can work a tramway pretty well as cheaply as 
vrith steam engines, and much more cheaply than with horses. 
Now a word or two with regard to cable traction. I have (in • 
conjunction with my colleague Mr. Eincaid) constructed three miles 
of cable road double track in Birmingham. Prior to the con* 
struction of that work I went to America and visited every city but 
one where the cable system was in operation. When there, I 
obtained information as to what to avoid, not what to adopt. 
Therefore with regard to the construction of the line in Birmingham, 
the tramways company had to take the responsibility of the work 
and make a very heavy deposit. The line was costly to construct, 
by the necessity for the removal of large gas and water maina A 
cable line may be constructed and equipped for from 10,0002. to 
20,000Z. (according to local requirements) per mile for a double 
road. The Birmingham hue is somewhat on the lines of the 

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50 LIGHT RAILWAYS AND TRAMWAYS. 

oonduit laid in Chicago. It has now been working for seven years, 
and little or nothing has been required to be done at it. The road 
has an ascending inclination of 1 in 15 upon a cnrve with a radius 
of about 50 feet. In Birmingham, whilst the electric system is 
working for 118 per cent, of its receipts (a loss), steam, 73 per 
cent, of its receipts, the cable road is worked throughout at 
45 per cent, of its receipts — I believe the cheapest worked road 
either in this country or America. The number of passengers 
has been great, and upon this road a profit of over 19,900Z. per 
annum has been transferred to revenue account. It appears to my 
mind that the endless rope, with a properly constructed road, must 
be the cheapest. The cost is not more than an electric or steam 
road, if you take into consideration the equipment and a frequent 
service of cars. The cost of steam is l\d. per engine mile for 
fuel. The consumption of fuel on a cable road is represented by 
^d. per mile. One driver controls the whole seven miles of rope or 
steel cable, and there is no reason why there should ever be a 
cessation of working with ordinary care. There is no difficulty in 
guarding against a broken cable. The cable should be examined 
every night One cable has run in Birmingham fourteen months, 
in Brooklyn nearly three years, in San Francisco twelve to sixteen 
months, while at Philadelphia the cables did not last longer than 
six weeks until the road was repaired. A good steel cable may be 
said to be worth a twelvemonth's life. I can only again say it is 
a very great pleasure for me to second Mr. Boulnois' proposition to 
accord a vote of thanks to Mr. Dorman for his paper. The paper 
is one which has a freshness about it, inasmuch as it brings new 
matter for our consideration in place of the constant recuiTence 
of papers on sewage purification^ sludge pressing and similar 
works. 

Mr. Traill : First, briefly, I wish to welcome you to this dis- 
trict. This paper has opened up so many questions that it is very 
hard to dwell upon them, except a very few points. With regard 
to one question — the opposition that tiiere has been to so many 
lines. In our case we have been subjected to most dreadful 
opposition. We were to a certain extent the pioneers of the 
narrow-gauge light railways. We were opposed by the town 
of Portrush, by the town of Bushmills, and tiie local railways ; in 
fact, we had no one to say a good word for us. It took us two 
opposed Acts of Parliament, and we had to fight three days in the 
House of Commons to get our extension from Bushmills to the 

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DISCUSSION. 51 

Causeway. That threw a very great expense npon a line like onrs. 
Then, we were the pioneers in the use of electricity, which has also 
thrown a great deal of expense upon us. Our worst gradients 
upon this line are 1 in 24, and our worst curve — I can beat all the 
records — is one of 30 feet radius. 

Mr. Pritohakd : We have one of 19 feet radius going into the 
depot 

Mr. Tbaill : We have also one of 50 feet going round a semi- 
circle. Our method of working is very crude, as we began at an 
early stage of electrical locomotion. We began in 1883, and 
though our system does fairly, it might be very much improved. 
We also introduced the system of working by turbines to obtain 
our electrical power. Our traffic has so much increased that we 
have to supplement our electric working by steam working, so we 
are afforded a means of comparison between the cost of the two 
powers. Our average cost during the past twelve years for 
electricity has been 3|(2. to 3^(2. per train mile, and that includes 
what is not usually included in the train mileage, the conductor of 
the car. Now our steam train mileage for the same line, and for 
the same number of years, has averaged from Is. 3d, to Is. 4(2., so 
there is a very great saving by electricity. In some cases our 
steam engine is able to take a larger load than the electric car can 
carry. 

Mr. MooBB : I wish to say a word or two on this paper, as 
the surveyor of a county which has no light railwaya There were 
five or six schemes proposed for the construction of light rail- 
ways in Meath, but the Grand Jury threw them all out on the 
question of the guarantee. They have not only to guarantee 2 per 
cent., but if the line fails to pay and becomes derelict they 
have to take it up and work it. In Kerry, in consequence of a 
serious accident on the Tralee and Dingle Light Bailway, the 
baronies were rendered nearly bankrupt and had to get a grant in 
aid from Government. A light railway was proposed from Kilmain- 
ham Wood in Meath to Bailieboro in Cavan, of which eight miles 
were in Meath and four in Cavan. The Meath district was almost 
uninhabited, and practically all the parties benefited lived in Gavan, 
but the Meath Grand Jury were asked to guarantee in proportion 
to their mileage, which they, of course, declined to do, and the 
scheme fell through. One of the disadvantages of light railways 
to which no reference has been made can be seen on the Blessing- 
ton and Lucan line. Going along the road from Dublin, a number 

B 2 T 

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52 LIGHT BAILWAYS AND TBA1CWAY8. 

of stones have been put up by the side of the road which might be 
taken for milestones, bat they are not : they are stones erected 
asking the passer-by to pray for the soul of the person who was 
killed there by the railway. The people are getting more used 
to the tramway now, and there have not been so many killed 
lately. The Lncan steam tramway has been made on the road 
itself. This is the worst position possible, and the directors are 
raising 10,OOOZ. to reconstruct the line on the side of the road. 
With only 18 feet clear on the roadway, if two vehicles have to 
pass, one of the horses would have to be very near the tramway, 
and an accident might happen. The Dubhn and Garristown 
tramway was thrown out by the Dublin Grand Jury by 14 votes 
to 9, entirely on the question of the guarantee. I wish to show 
you why the Grand Juries do not like to guarantee these lines 
and the difficulties which have arisen in the matter. 

The vote of thanks to Mr. Dorman was unanimously accorded, 
but Mr. Dorman was not present to reply. _ 



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( 53 ) 



DESCRIPTION OF THE HEAD-QUARTERS OF 
THE BELFAST FIRE BRIGADE. 

By JAMES MUNCE, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E., Mbm. San. Inst., 
Assistant City Subvbyob. 



Up to 1892, the staff of the Belfast Fire Brigade was composed of 
six permanent men, and 29 auxiliary men who gave their services 
when called npon, making a total of 35 ayailable in case of necessity. 
During the day, as the auxiliary men were scattered over the city 
engaged at their ordinary avocations, messengers had to be 
despatched on cars for them ; and at night these auxiliary men 
had to be called up from their houses about 300 yards from the 
station. The horses were hired by contract, and stabled on the 
premises, but as they were frequently changed they could not 
be expected to show much intelligence. It will be seen from 
this that some considerable time might elapse between the receipt 
of an alarm and the concentration of the whole strength of the 
brigade upon a fire. 

The urgent necessity for continuous improvement in this de- 
partment of Belfast municipal work will be seen from the following 
table, which shows the increase in the number of dwelling-houses, 
and of the valuation for rateable purposes, and consequent increase 
in risk, since 1891. (The figures for the years 1862 to 1891 in- 
clusive have been given in a paper by the City Surveyor, published 
in the Proceedings of this Association, vol. xix.) 



Year. 



1892 
1803 
1894 
1895 



No. of Buildings 
erected. 



2212 
2533 
2538 



Valtution of City on 
Ist Jan. of year. 



£737,816 
761,840 
792,127 
844,714 



The Corporation decided, on the resignation of the late super- 
intendent after 40 years' service, to look into the whole question 
of the fire protection of the city. 

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54 THB HEAD-QUABTEBS OF THB BELFAST FIBE BBiaADB. 

The present superintendent, Mr. Parker, who was appointed in 
1892, after considering the matter fnlly, reported that in his 
opinion a permanent sta£f should be appointed and the chief station 
rearranged. This report was endorsed by a special committee, 
adopted by the Corporation, and a permanent staff appointed which 
now numbers 50 men. The Author was instructed to confer with 
the superintendent, and prepare the necessary plans for additional 
accommodation. 

The old station, opened in 1872, occupied a portion of the present 
site. It consisted of house for superintendent, a shed for fire 
engines, a two-story building containing stable and driver's room 
on ground floor, with firemen's room and workshop above, and an 
enclosed yard. 

As it was found impossible to convert these buildings into a 
station suitable for the accommodation of a permanent staff, with 
the necessary fiBUsilities for prompt turn-out, &c., sketch plans for 
an entirely new station were prepared and laid before the Corpora- 
tion, who decided, after much consideration, to erect ii 

The Author and superintendent were directed to visit some of the 
larger towns in England and Scotland, so that advantage might bo 
taken of their experience, before the contract drawings were pre- 
pared. The chief object in view was to ascertain what to avoid. 
About twenty stations were visited, and without exception the men 
complained of their quarters being confined and unfit for the ac- 
commodation of fjEtmilies. Firemen's children, like our own, do not 
remain babies, and accommodation sufficient for a family of small 
children is quite inadequate when they grow up. For this reason 
we were told many good men have been forced to leave the service 
and forfeit their pension rights. London is specially faulty in 
this respect. 

The site of the new station is shown by old maps to have been 
at one time the foreshore of the river Lagan ; at a later date it 
became the site of a dock, afterwards a market, and for 25 years 
past it has been covered with buildings. 

The opening up of the foundations revealed two very interesting 
facts. A concrete foundation 4 feet 6 inches wide, 2 feet thick, 
with two longitudinal timbers 12 inches by 6 inches on edge, and 
cross sleepers spiked to the longitudinals, embedded in it in the 
usual way, was found to have broken right across both timber and 
concrete like a pipe stem, showing the very yielding nature of the 
sub-soil, as the buildings were only one story high. This 



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THE HEAD-QUABTEBS OF THE BELFAST FIBB BBIGADB. 55 

foundation bad been laid in 1870 to carry a high building, but the 
Author decided, on examination, to remove it altogether, and pnt in 
a new piled foondation. The excavation for the tower foundation, 
which is carried down 1 5 feet below the surface, showed that it 
takes more than three years to render bad filling innocuous. The 
smell was so bad that the workmen complained bitterly, yet this 
site had been filled more than 40 years. 

The new buildings of the station comprise dwellings for 25 men, 
VTith laundry and workshops, residence for superintendent, offices, 
duty-room, engine room, gymnasium, quarters for single men, six- 
horse stable, hose tower, boiler house and dynamo room. The old 
buildings have been converted into stables, stores, &c 

The buildings enclose a drill yard, and are arranged fironting 
three streets. The main buildings are in Chichester Street, which 
is 80 feet wide and a leading thoroughfare. At the left side of the 
frontage is the gateway leading to the drill yard. It is made 
wide enough to admit a load of hay, and is the only entrance to 
the interior, except through the engine room or duty room. 

The foundation is formed of piles and concrete. Larch piles 40 
feet long, 12 inches diameter at base and 8 inches at point, were 
driven down and sawn off level ; a layer of old roofing felt was 
placed on the bed of the trench, to prevent the cement mixing with 
the sleetch. (Wood was specified in first contract, but was found 
unsuitable owing to the yielding nature of the bottom.) Portland 
cement concrete was then filled in to the level of pile heads. 

Gross sleepers 12 inches by 6 inches were spiked to the pile heads 
and concrete filled in to their top surfEice; longitudinal sleepers 
were spiked to these, and the concrete brought up 6 inches above 
their top edge. On this the footings of brickwork in cement 
were built to ground line. The superstructure is of perforated 
bricks and mortar ; solid Annadale bricks were used for the external 
facing of the engine-house block. There are 49 piles under the 
tower, and 490 under the remainder of the building. 

The buildings have been constructed in brickwork with the 
exception of the engine-house block ; the external facing is of 
ordinary red perforated facing bricka 

The engine house occupies the main portion of the front, and is 
65 feet by 35 feet in the clear, and 16 feet 6 inches to ceiling. It 
consists of five bays, each with a door 9 feet 3 inches wide and 
12 feet higli, so that an engine can pass out with the horses at 
full gallop. The doors are framed in four leaves, glazed in the 

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56 THE HBAD-QUABTEBS OF THK BELFAST FIBE BBI6ADB. 

upper panels with plate glass having the city arms ground on. 
The engine house is a clear span of 85 feet, this width being 
absolutely necessary to give sufficient space for working round the 
machines inside. The floor and roof are carried by steel girders 
formed of two 16-inch by 6 X joists, with J-inch plates riveted 
on top and bottom. The front wall is carried over gate openings 
by steel girders formed of three joists and plates. The facing of 
the piers is of brown glazed brickwork with Gastlewellan granite 
bases. A brass brick with screw plug is fixed in each pier so 
that the gates can be left open, and a rope fastened across in 
summer to hooks which take the place of the plugs. 

The bay next superintendents house is screened off as a duty 
room by a wall 5 feet high, above which a clear glass screen rises 
to the ceiling ; in this is fixed a clock with a dial on each side, 
so that the duty man and engineer can note times of departure 
and arrival of machines or men. 

The walls are lined with enamelled bricks of various colours, and 
the ceiling is of pitch pine, varnished. 

The floor of tiie engine house is of Dutch clinkers laid diagonally. 
The stable floor is similar, but has 4-inch granite cubes in the 
stalls. 

Immediately behind the engine house is the stable. The stalls 
are arranged so that the centre line of each pair is opposite the 
centre line of a gate. The doors open into the engine house, and 
are fitted with galvanised rollers at the angles so that a horse rushing 
out cannot be injured. Teak rollers were used at first, but the 
horses destroyed them by their teeth. At one end of the stable a 
washing place is provided where horses and machines can be washed 
under cover. It is also lined with glazed bricks. 

The gymnasium and single men's quarters are located over the 
engine room and duty room. The gymnasium is 39 feet by 
35 feet by 16J feet high. It is used as a reading and amusement 
room for the men, and a sleeping room for the men on night duty. 

The flat roof of the stables forms a promenade for men off duty, 
and is the approach to the gymnasium, &c. It is reached by a 
spiral staircase at one end. The flat roof of the gymnasium forms 
» drill ground, and is also used as a promenade by the men. 

The tower is situate behind the duty room. It is 103 feet 
high, and combines a chimney from boilers, ventilating shafts from 
stables, engine house and gymnasium, wire passage, electrical test 
room and hose-drying tower. It can also be used for look-out 

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THE HEAD-QUABTBBS OF THB BELFAST FIBE BRIGADE. 57 

porposee. The hone used in Belfiast is in 50-yard lengths, and can 
be hong up without a kink. The tower is approached by an out- 
side iron spiral stair, and has a wrought-iron balcony all round, at 
level of testing room, which enables the men to deal with the wires 
without risk. Hoob and pulleys are attached to balcony at one 
side for drying hose in the open air. 

All telephone wires and fire alarms are received in a room at top 
of tower, from which they are led down a tube to the switchboard 
in duty room. 

The quarters for married men are arranged round two sides of 
the drill yard. Each house is complete in itself, and consists of 
kitchen, bathroom, water-closet, and one, two or three bedrooms. 
They are so arranged that one room can be taken off any house 
and added to the adjoining house to suit the number of occupants. 
There are two-roomed, three-roomed, four-roomed and five-roomed 
houses at present. Each house is on one fioor, i.e. there are no 
stairs in a house. Those on the upper fioor are approached by a 
balcony formed of concrete on steel joists, built into the walls, with 
an iron railing, and stairs at each end and centre. 

The laundry and coal vaults are in the centre of the block at the 
comer of Town-hall and Oxford Streets. The workshop occupies 
two stories at the end nearest the engine housa 

AU the buildings are covered with fiat asphalt roofs, so that 
ihey can be raised hereafter without disturbing the occupants. 
The roofe over the dwellings form a playground for the children, 
who are not permitted to run about the drill yard. Each house is 
provided with a supply of hot and cold water. The hot water is 
laid on from a cistern placed on roof over the coal vaults, and 
the cold water is supplied direct from main. A dresser is fixed in 
each kitchen. The sink is of enamelled earthenware, and is fitted 
with a wooden cover which forms a table when not in use. The 
walls are plastered in Portland cement for 3 feet in height The 
fioors of the kitchen and bathroom are laid in red and black tiles 
on concrete. The bedroom fioors are of wood. All are deafened. 

The laundry is arranged so that five families can use it at once. 
The fittings consist of five washing stalls, each containing washing 
tub, boiler, scrubbing bench and drying horse (all screened off so 
so that one person cannot see the clothes being washed by another), 
a hydro extractor, washer, wringer, box-mangle, ironing table and 
iron heating stove. Hot and cold water and steam for boiling are 
laid on. The fittings are all by Messrs. Summerscales, of Keighley. 

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58 THE HEAD-QUABTBBS OF THE BELFAST FIBB BBIGADB. 

The workshop contains on ground floor a fitter's bench, coach- 
maker's hearth and anvil, drilling machine, lathe and an 18 horse- 
power yertical engine. The upper floor is used as a carpentry and 
painting shop. A travelling crane capable of lifting 10 tons is 
fixed to raise an engine to the upper floor, and is so arranged that 
if a fire alarm is given it can be left in any position with perfect 
safety. A boiler well is constructed in the ground floor. 

A drill balcony 70 feet high is erected at one side of yard. It is 
of timber and represents two bays of six story building. It is used 
for training the men to climb, use escapes, &c A water main 
fitted with numerous hydrants is laid in drill yard, and kept 
charged at high pressure. 

The gymnasium is fitted with bridge ladder, scaling ladder, 
vaulting horse, parallel bars, horizontal bars, dumb bells, rings, 
climbing ropes, &c. Boxes and tables to cover the apparatus are 
arranged round the walls, and form seats by day and beds at night 
for men on duty. Bookcases are at one end, and a piano occupies 
a comer. The floor is laid like a ship's deck, and caulked so as to 
be perfectly water-tight. 

The whole area of the buildings is covered with Portland cement 
concrete 6 inches thick, and Limmer asphalt below the floors. 

The stable fittings are by Messrs. Musgrave. A brass rail is 
hinged at end of each stall to prevent the horse backing out. The 
heel posts rise to ceiling and support roof girders. A ventilator 
runs the whole length of the ceiling and joins flue in tower. The 
channel is flushed by a concealed water pipe in wall at one end. 

The system of electric bells is so arranged that the duty man can 
call any individual, or by turning a lever, the whole staff at once ; 
a sick man or one off duty can be left undisturbed. 

The station is lighted entirely by electricity, the current being 
generated on the premises. A very compact Lancashire boiler 
made by Galloways, of Manchester, supplies steam not only to the 
engines for driving the dynamos, but also to a separate engine for 
the workshops, for boiling hot water in the cistern which supplies 
each of the twenty- five houses, laundry, single men's quarters and 
superintendent's house, and steam to the heating coik in duty room, 
engine house, gymnasium, &c. It is kept at about 40 lbs. pressure 
during the day, and at 80 lbs. whilst the electric light is turned on 
to the whole station, Le. to 11 p.m. The exhaust steam is used for 
heating the feed water which is pumped into the boiler by a 
Worthington pump, through a superheater. The consumption of 

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Tira HEAD-QUABTSBS OF THB BELFAST FIBE BBIGADE. 59 

fuel has been as low as 30 cwi per week, which the Author yentures 
to think is remarkable, and is dne to careful attention and firing. 

The dynamos are driven by two high-speed engines bnilt by 
Mr. W. Malcolm, of Belfast. Each engine is capable of developing 
about 18 horse-power, but the average load is about 10 horse- 
power for each. The dynamos, which are the production of the 
contractor for the electric light, Mr. J. H. Greenhill of BelfiEkst, 
are placed on the same bed plates as the engines, and are driven 
by belts from the respective fly-wheela To avoid any risk of 
failure in the lighting either machine can be instantaneously 
connected to any particular circuit by means of a very complete 
double pole, double break ** throw over " set of main switches, also 
made by the contractor. There are three main circuits, termed 
the " ordinary," the " all-night " and the " emergency," and these 
terms explain their purpose; the '* emergency" being switched 
on when there is a call of fire. The switchboard is placed in the 
duty-room, and although at first sight it appears very elaborate, 
it is in reality extremely simple to manipulate, and renders it 
totally impossible for a mistake to bo made. It contains all the 
Corporation's telephone wires, the direct fire alarms, bells to each 
apartment and dwelling in the station, electric-light switches, 
speaking-tubes, &c., also gauges showing the pressure of the town 
water supply, and the electric-light volts and amperes. In short, 
the duty-man iat the switchboard has control of the lights, bells 
and telephones of the whole establishment and the out stations as 
welL The ordinary lights are switched out at 11 p.m., but there 
is an additional switch for each lamp in the dwelling-houses and 
in other sections, by which any lamps not required may be cut ofi*. 
When the fire alarm rings the " emergency " switch is operated, 
and instantaneously the special lights in the fire-engine room, 
stables, single-men's quarters, and one light in each of the 
married -men's houses are illuminated, so that no delay occurs in 
any section from want of light. These '* emergency " lights are 
controlled from switchboard only. The current is on the direct 
low tension principle, and in addition to about 170 incandescent 
lamps there are two very powerful arc lamps for illuminating the 
open spaces of the station. The general effect of the lighting is 
extremely fine, and it has proved to be extremely satisfactory after 
two winters' experience. 

The gymnasium and single-men's bedrooms have polished steel 
shafting fixed as poles for the rapid descent of the men to the 

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60 THE HBAJD-QUABTBBS OF THE BELFAST FIRE BRIGADE. 

engine house. The engine house and stable doors are fitted with 
Try's patent fittings. Gas lights are hung at each side of each 
engine for igniting the lamps. The flames of these are mere specks 
until taken in the hand, when they enlarge to the size of No. 2 gas- 
burners. When released they rise above the men's heads and 
resume the small flames. The harness is suspended and becomes 
free on the weight being taken by the horse. 

At 11 p.BL all lights (except those known as " all-night lights *') 
are turned out by the man on duty at switchboard. The other 
men on duty lie down in the gymnasium on stretchers with rugs 
round them. 

When an alarm of fire is being received, whilst the telephone 
is at his ear, the duty-man turns one handle. This operation 
lights up the bedroom of every man, the engine house and stable, 
single-men's quarters and gymnasium; then the bells ring, the 
men on duty slip down the poles, and the first man pulls a cord 
which releases the stable doors, the horses trot out and get under 
the harness ; during this time the driver takes his seat, and the 
moment the engineer sees all right he pulls a cord releasing the 
doors, and in less time than is occupied in describing it, the Qrst 
machine is off, only fifteen seconds {on the average day and night) 
having been occupied between the receipt of the alarm and i^he 
engine responding. Immediately another machine, men and hori^ 
take the place of those gone out. Of course, if the fire is ian 
extensive one more machines follow. • 

In planning the buildings the points kept in view were cojn- 
venience and economy in working, fecilities for prompt turn oiit, 
comfort of men, and provision for future extension without uniue 
interference with the working of the station. ) 

The latter has unfortunately for many towns been neglect^, 
and in consequence increased accommodation can only be obtained 
at enormous expense. The total cost of the station and fittings, 
exclusive of land, has been under 20,OOOZ. 

The contracts for the work have been carried out by tthe 
following firms : — 

Buildings, Messrs. W. J. Campbell & Son, Belfast, and Messrs. 
Fitzpatrick Brothers, Limited, Belfast. \ 

Stable fittings and stairs, Messra Musgrave & Co., Limited, 
Belfast. 

Heating and balconies, Biddell & Co., Belfast. 

Plumbing, H. M'CIoy, Belfest. \ 

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THE HEAD-QUABTflBS OF THE BBLPA8T VIBB BBIGADB. 61 

Electrical work, J. H. Greenhill, Belfast. 

Machinery workshop, Messrs. Combe, Barbour & Combe, Belfast. 

Steam engines (3), W. Malcolm, BelfiEist. 

Laundry fittings, Sommerscales & Co., Eeighley. 



DISCUSSION. 

The President: Gentlemen, we have had a very interesting 
paper, and one that there might be a good deal said upon. I have 
myself taken a very great interest in fire brigade stations, and I 
have visited the station which Mr. Munce erected at Bootla It is 
perfectly arranged for the speedy turning out of the men and the 
engines. I was there the other day when notice was given of a 
real fire, and the brigade turned out in rare style. 

Mr. H. Percy Boulnois : I have very few remarks to make on 
thia paper of Mr. Munce's. It is a very interesting p^per, and 
will be most useful to u& If any of us have to construct a fire 
brigade station, we should be able to refer to this paper and got 
most valuable hints as to the whole of the buildings and the 
arrangements necessary. With regard to Mr. Munce's statement 
as to refuse smelling after being covered up forty years, it is quite 
true that the celebrated Dr. Parkes, the sanitarian, and the late Dr. 
French, Medical Officer of Liverpool, said there was no nuisance 
or danger from organic matter which had been buried for three 
years. But that was house refuse deposited where the air could get 
at it. The refuse referred to by Mr. Munce had been put on bog 
land where aeration could not go on, and where ofiensive matter 
might remain offensive for many years. It is exceedingly interest- 
ing to find that the foundations were so bad, and that they had such 
great trouble in making the piled foundation. I should like to 
hear whether there have been any settlements in the building since 
its erection. I have much pleasure in proposing a vote of thanks 
to Mr. Munce for his very valuable paper. 

Mr. B. Godfrey ; I have great pleasure in rising to second the 
vote of thanks to Mr. Munce for his paper. As Mr. Boulnois 
said, it contains about all we want to know with regard to fire 
brigade equipment. I am very pleased that Belfast has taken such 
a lead in establishing a permanent fire brigada The time has come 
when fire brigades want to be made a permanent institution. It is 
the greatest mistake possible to have policemen acting as firemen ; 



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62 THB HSAD-QUABTBBS OF THE BELFAST FIRE BRIGADE. 

the fireman's trainiug is as important as the policeman's. I hope 
the time will come when it will be compulsory npon every authority 
to protect the public against fire as against any other eyil. I haye 
established two fire brigades, and I have always protested against 
haying to go round with the hat to provide means to purchase a fire 
engine. 

The vote of thanks having been accorded, 

Mr. MuNOB, in replying, said : I am very much obliged to the 
Members for this vote of thanks. The paper was prepared at the 
request of my friend Mr. Bobinson, and I do not think I could have 
done lesS} for he made a special visit to Belfast to ask me. In reply to 
Mr. Boulnois' question, I may say that the only settlement which has 
appeared in the building is at the side of the door nearest to the 
dynamo room, where there is a slight crack. If an expert were 
to go round he might find it, but I do not think any one else 
could discover it. As I had seen one or two of the London Fire 
Brigade stations, and noticed how the glazed bricks had chipped, 
I put a clause in the contract making the contractors responsible 
for any such damage. Mr. Parker, who has had a very large 
experience, tells me that a great deal we hear about America is 
not quite true, whilst a great many of the things done are only for 
show and not for practical work. What we have done in Belfast 
has been done for practical work. When Captain Shaw visited the 
station, he said he thought our engine room was better adapted 
than any they had in London, owing to its being quite free from 
pillars or other obstructions. 

The President said : After the very interesting business of this 
meeting — and we have now reached the end of the business — we 
ought to record on our minutes a vote of thanks to Mr. Bobinson, 
of Londonderry, for the way in which he has prepared for the 
meeting and carried it out, and also to Mr. Dorman, our local 
honorary secretary. 

Mr. J. LoBLEY : I second the vote of thanks to Mr. Bobinson 
vnth great pleasure. We are all much indebted to him for the 
manner in which he has looked after our comfort. I can corra- 
borate what was said about " show," in connection with fire brigade 
work in America. I was in Montreal when there was a competition 
of fire brigades on a large piece of ground near the City Hall, and 
I can safely say we never see anything so showy in England. 
They will also submit to many things in America which would not 
be tolerated in this country. When the cable tram line was laid 



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DISOUSSION. 63 

in Broadway, New York, they had the roadway up for several miles 
in length, and for the most jwurt the entire width from cnrh to curh, 
in order to re-arrange the water, gas, steam, hydraulic and other 
mains. 

The Members then proceeded hy the electric tramtoay to the 
Gianfs Causeway y where they were entertained to luncheon at the 
Causeway Hotel hy Mr. B, H. Dorman, Honorary Secretary for 
Ireland, The Bishop of Cork and Mrs. Meade were amongst the 
guests. 

After luncheon the principal points of interest in the far-famed 
Causeway were explained by Mr. Traill^ who also acted as cicerone 
on the visit to the picturesque ruins ofDunluce Castle. 



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DISTRICT MEETING AT WESTMINSTER. 

February 21, 1896. 

Held at the Institution of Civil Engineers^ Westminster, 8, W. 

C. H. LowB, M. Inst. C.E., Vice-President, in the Chair, 

-44= 

The following papers were read and discussed. 

SOME SUGGESTED AMENDMENTS OP THE 
METROPOLIS LOCAL MANAGEMENT ACTS. 

By J. PATTEN BARBER, M. Inst. C.E., 
Islington. 

As the object of this paper is to consider only those portio^ns of 
the Metropolis Management Acts of 1855 and 1862 which ijelate 
to matters connected with a surveyor's work, reference t) the 
Amendment Acts of 1856 and 1875 is omitted, and the two Acts 
referred to throughout the paper will be the Metropolis Management 
Act, 1855 (18 and 19 Vict. c. 120) and the Amendment Act of 
1862 (25 and 26 Vict. c. 102). It will be convenient if these 
Acts are referred to respectively as the first and second. 

The first Act had been in operation nearly seven years before 
any Act amending it or giving extended powers to the authorities 
constituted by such Act was passed. The Act was then amended 
and extended by the second Act, which came into operation in 
August 1862. 

It could hardly be expected that such an Act as the first, wjiich 
dealt with such an extensive area and a large number of subjects 



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THB METROPOLIS LOCAL HANAaEMEKT ACTS. 65 

affecting a great variety of interests, should be perfect; and it 
was no reflection upon the skill and experience of the framers of 
the measure when it was found necessary in 1862 to pass an 
amending Act, to meet the difficulties, and supply the deficiencies, 
which had been discovered during the seven years' working of the 
first Act 

Although, with the exception of two short Acts passed in 1890, 
no attempt has since been made to amend the two Acts referred 
to, it is not because the necessity for more definite and compre- 
hensive powers has- not been felt by those who have to administer 
these Acts, and it is somewhat surprising that, considering the 
advance which has been made since 1862 in most of the works 
connected with municipal and sanitary engineering, there should 
have been no movement made by metropolitan local authorities to 
bring the Acts under which they work nearer to the standard of 
present-day legislation. 

Some of the authorities have no doubt found the insufficiency 
of the two Acts, but, in order to obtain powers more suited to 
present requirements, the co-operation of the majority of metro- 
politan Vestries and District Boards would be necessary. It might, 
perhaps, be difficult to secure this, but the Author believes that the 
reasons for either an amended or a new Act are sufficiently 
strong to induce a majority of the Yostries and District Boards to 
combine for the purpose of securing the necessary legislation. 

For the purpose of calling the attention of metropolitan sur- 
veyors to some of the matters which he feels are insufficiently 
dealt with in the two Acts, and to the want of more definite and 
comprehensive powers respecting the works which come under a 
surveyor's control, the Author has prepared this paper. 



Sewbrs. 

Before any person can begin to construct a sewer, a plan and 
section thereof must be submitted to the Yestry or District Board, 
and their consent in writing obtained to the proposed work. This 
consent, however, cannot be given until the Yestry or District 
Board have submitted such plan and section to the London County 
Council, and obtained their approval thereof in writing. 

It is diflBcult to understand the necessity for the approval of the 
Council in such matters, except it be to give them control over the 



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66 80MB SnOGBSTED AMBNDMBNTS OF 

size and inclination of sewers in order to enable them to limit 
the quantity of sewage and rainfall discharged into the main sewers 
under their jurisdiction. As, however, the various districts must 
be efficiently drained when built upon, a limitation of the quantity 
of water discharged therefrom would prevent that object being 
attained ; and it seems undesirable that the power to control the 
sizes and inclinations of sewers with a view to imposing restrictions 
as to the quantity of water to be discharged into the main sewers 
should be continued. It is suggested, therefore, that the power 
of approving plans and sections of sewers to be constructed by any 
person other than the County Council should be vested in the 
Vestries and District Boards ; and, as the future maintenance of 
such sewers devolves upon the Vestries and District Boards, they 
should have power to require them to be constructed in accordance 
with specifications and detailed drawings of the sewers, manholes, 
gullies, &c., prepared by their surveyors ; also that the construction 
of such sewers should be under the control and supervision of the 
surveyors, and that the cost of such supervision should be paid by 
the persons at whose expense the sewers are constructed. Plans 
and sections of all such sewers should be forwarded to the London 
County Council to enable them to keep a record of the sewerage 
system of the metropolis. 

The obligation on Vestries and District Boards to ventilate and 
cleanse the sewers vested in them, sections 71 and 72, first Act, 
should be extended to the London County Council as regards main 
sewers. The ventilation of the latter being, in many cases, effected 
through the sewers under the control of the Vestry or District 
Board and the ventilating shafts provided by them for the ventila- 
tion of their own sewers. 

The provisions of section 204, first Act, and of section 68, 
second Act, prohibiting the erection of buildings, walls, fences, 
&c., upon, over or under sewers without the consent of the 
authority in whom the sewers are vested, should be extended 
BO as to enable the authorities to make and enforce conditions 
under which such buildings, &c., may, with their consent, be 
erected. Power should also be given to the authorities to pre- 
scribe the manner in which the foundations of walls and buildings 
near sewers shall be formed, and the depth at which they shall be 
laid, in order that the work of reconstructing such sewers may 
not endanger the stability of the walls and buildings near them. 



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THE MBTBOPOLIS LOOAL HANAQBMENT AOTa 67 



Gullies. 

By section 71, first Act, the Vestries and District Boards are 
compelled to trap gnllies, including those discharging into the 
County Council's main sewers, although by section 27, second Act, 
the lastrmentioned gullies cannot be trapped without the consent 
of the Council or of their engineer. A better arrangement would 
be that the Council should be compelled to trap all gullies vested 
in them. At present there is a curious mixture of duties respecting 
the Council's gullies ; the Vestries and District Boards are obliged 
to cleanse the gratings, to remove deposit from and to trap the 
gullies, whilst the Council maintain both gratings, gullies and 
drains therefrom. Probably the best way of dealing with the 
whole matter \fDuld be to vest the gullies and all things apper- 
taining thereto in the Vestries and District Boards. 

Dbainage of Existinq Houses. 

The extensive powers conferred by section 73, first Act, with 
respect to drainage works and sanitary arrangements in existing 
houses, are rendered inoperative by the introduction of the expres- 
sion " sufficient drain." The purpose of the section is evidently 
to enable the authorities or their officers to require the construction 
of such works as may be necessary for the perfect drainage of a 
house, and the provision of all necessary sanitary appliances ; but 
its whole force is dependent upon the construction placed upon 
the expression "sufficient drain." The word '* sufficient " seems 
to be applicable only to the size of the drain, and it therefore 
appears that, however bad the drains of a house might be, the 
provisions of this section could not be enforced unless the drains 
were too small. An alteration of the section, giving to the 
authorities power to put its provisions in force in all cases where 
honses were found not to be drained or fitted with sanitary appli- 
ances to their satisfaction, would make it a most useful one. 

DSAINAQB OF NsW HoUSES. 

The intention of section 75, first Act, is that no house or other 
building shall be built or rebuilt, nor occupied, unless drains and 
other connected works have been provided to the satisfaction of 
the surveyor to the local authority. But the words with which 

F 2 T 

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68 SOME SUOaESTED AMENDMENTS OF 

the section opens are so weak as to be altogether ineflfective in 
preventing the acts against which the section is directed. Instead 
of the expression ** it shall not be lawfnl," words should be intro- 
duced forbidding the acts referred to, and there should be a penalty 
for a breach of the provisions of the section. 

Drainage into cesspools, which is permitted by this section, should 
be prohibited. 

Section 76, first Act, contains the provisions by which the making 
of drains and their accessories, as well as the other works and 
apparatus (except water closets) connected therewith, is controlled 
by the Vestries and District Boards. It places very extensive 
powers in the hands of these authorities for prescribing the 
materials of which the drains, &c., shall be constructed, the manner 
of laying or fixing them, their direction, form and workmanship ; 
and gives the authorities control of the works during their con- 
struction. Notice must be given to the Vestry or District Board 
seven days before commencing the work, and they must make 
their order respecting the same within fifteen days after the receipt 
of such notica No provision is made requiring that either plans 
or sections of the propoped works shall be submitted, although 
these are usually demanded ; should they be refused it is not clear 
that their production can be enforced. It is often impossible for 
an order to be made within the time required by section 76 of the 
first Act, viz. seven days, or the fifteen days specified in section 53 
of the second Act. In order to avoid drawing up an order specify- 
ing all the details of the work in each case, the Author's Vestry 
have adopted regulations relating to drainage and sanitary fittings, 
and have ordered that all such work shall be carried out in accord- 
ance with these regulations. This, it is believed, is the course 
generally adopted by metropolitan authorities. Section 83, first 
Act, is, however, the only place in which the word regulations 
occurs, and, as there is no provision in either of the two Acts 
referred to in this paper, empowering Vestries or District Boards 
to make regulations as to drainage and sanitary works, it is 
frequently contended that the regulations which have been made 
cannot be enforced. The power to make bye-laws as to drains is, 
by section 202, first Act, conferred on the London County Council, 
but no such bye-laws have yet been made by that body. 

Sections 76 and 83, first Act, appear to recognise the power of 
the Vestry or District Board to make orders and give directions 
only with respect to new drainage and sanitary works, and it is 



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THB MBTR0P0LI8 LOOAL MANAGEHENT ACTS. 69 

doubtful whether they can exercise similar powers with regard to 
the reconstruction of drains. 

The Author is of opinion that new legislation is required with 
regard to all drainage and sanitary work, and that a complete code 
of regulations governing the entire procedure with respect to such 
work should be drawn up and made applicable to the whole of the 
metropolis, giving the Vestries and District Boards control over 
both the construction of new, and the reconstruction, relaying or 
refitting of existing work. The Author does not consider that these 
regulations should be drawn up by the County Council, as that 
body has no experience in the carrying out of regulations relating 
to this subject. A committee formed of surveyors to metropolitan 
local authorities would be, in the Author's opinion, better able to 
produce a satisfactory and efficient set of regulations. 

Drains Under Boads. 

The Vestry or District Board is empowered by section 78, first 
Act, to make that portion of every private drain which is under a 
road, and to recover the expenses thereof from the owner of the 
house, building or ground to which such drain belongs. A pro- 
vision is required giving the authorities power to apportion the 
cost of making or of reconstructing a drain used for the drainage 
of several houses upon the owners of such houses, and to recover 
the apportioned cost from such owners. 

Paving, Draining and Bepairing Courts, etc., not 
BEING Thoroughfares. 

Section 99, first Act, places the duty of paving a court, passage 
or public place, not being a thoroughfare, upon the owner of any 
adjoining house, provided the freehold of such a court, &c., is vested 
in such owner, and the Vestry or District Board deem such paving 
necessary. No provision is made either for the drainage of the 
court or for the future maintenance of the paving, nor for the 
execution of the paving work in the event of the freeholder 
neglecting to do it. 

The Author has not succeeded in j>utting the provisions of this 
section in force, on account of the difficulty of proving that the 
freehold of a court is vested in the owner of any adjoining house, 
or of finding any freeholder at all to such oouri It has also been 



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70 80MB SUaaSSTED AMENDMENTS OF 

found that there may be as many freeholders as houses in a ooort, 
each haying the freehold of part of the ooort 

The next section contains more ample provisions for the paving, 
draining and repairing of courtB not being thoronghfEures, but the 
Author has found it quite as impossible to take advantage of this 
as of the preceding section, on account of it placing the duty of 
carrying out the necessary work upon the owner of the court. 

llie 99th section might be repealed and the responsibilities now 
placed by section 100 on the owners of courts might be laid upon 
the owners of the houses and lands abutting thereon, and, instead 
of rendering such owners liable to penalties for not carrying out the 
work, the Vestry should be empowered to do the necessary work 
and apportion the expenses incurred thereby upon the owners, and 
to recover such expenses in the same manner as those incurred for 
repairs to new streets under the Metropolis Management Amend- 
ment Act, 1890. 

New Streets. 

Section 105, first Act, enables the Vestries and District Boards 
to pave new streets at the expense of the owners of property 
abutting thereon ; as, however, it does not empower the authorities 
to provide the necessary gullies in such streets at the expense of 
these owners, the section needs amending to remedy this defect. 

BnEARiNa UP Stbebts. 

With the increasing number of openings in the roads for gas, 
water and other purposes, the sections relating to this work 
require amending, and enlarged powers should be conferred upon 
the local authorities for controlling the opening and reinstating of 
the roads. Too little control over these matters is at present 
allowed to the authorities, and the restrictions and obligations 
respecting openings in roads are not sufficiently definite and 
stringent. Having regard to the safety and convenience of the 
public, and to the expense which may ultimately devolve upon the 
local authorities in consequence of the opening of the roads, it is 
necessary that the work should be carried out in entire conformity 
with conditions drawn with a view to the prevention of danger and 
inconvenience to the public and expense to the local authorities. 
The following are the principal requirements which are needed 
under this head : — 

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THB METBOPOLIS LOCAL MANAGEMENT ACTS. 71 

That no new mains or pipes, &o.y be laid, no new pipes snbstitated 
for existing pipes until plans thereof have been submitted to and 
approTed by the local authority. 

The positions and depths of mains, pipes, &o. ; positions of valves, 
hydrants, meters, &c. ; as well as the description of covers to valves 
dc., should be subject to the approval of the local authority* 

The extent of road which may be opened at one time should be 
fixed by statute, and the duty of fencing, lighting, and watching the 
road occupied by the work provided for. 

The local authority should have power to prescribe the manner of 
opening and reinstating roads ; the work should be done under the 
supervision of their officers, and to the satisfaction of their surveyor. 
The expense of such supervision should be paid by the persons 
opening the roads. 

Persons opening the roads should be required to keep in repair so 
much of the roads as may be affected by such openings for twelve 
months after the openings have been filled in. 

Subject to the preceding provision, power should be given to the 
'local authority to repair openings in roads when such repairs are 
found necessary, and to recover the expenses from the persons by 
whom such openings were made. 

Works abandoned or suffered to fall into decay ; to be removed by 
owners at request of local authority, who may, in case of default, 
remove same and recover the expenses from the owners of such 
works. 

In the event of alterations in line or level of road ; mains, pipes, 
&c., to be altered as required by local authority at expense of owners 
of such mains, &c. 

Private Paving. 

Owners of private paving adjoining the public way should, on 
being required by a Vestry or District Board, be compelled to alter 
the levels of such paving so that it shall coincide with the paving 
in the public way. Such a provision is frequently found necessary 
when the paving in a road is repaired or altered in level. 



Projections. 

Section 119, first Act, empowers Yestries and District Boards to 
require the removal of projections made since January 1, 1856, 
but they could not enforce such removal unless they satisfied the 
magistrate before whom the person who had neglected to comply 
with the notice requiring the removal of projections appeared, that 



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72 SOMB SUaGESTBD AMENDMENTS OF 

such projections were an annoyance, or endangered or rendered less 
commodions the passage along the streets. However large or 
unsightly projections into or oyer a street may he, their removal is 
impossible so long as they do not endanger or obstruct the passage 
along the street 

It is necessary that the YeetrieB and District Boards should have 
power to prohibit all projections into or over streets, and to make 
regulations for controlling such as they may be willing to sanction. 



Temporary Closing of Streets. 

Power should be given to Vestries and District Boards to close 
streets during the execution of repairs or the construction of 
sewers, without having to obtain the consent of the London 
County Council, who cannot have such knowledge of the require- 
ments of the traffic along the streets as the local authority. 



Street Improvements. 

By the provisions of section 72, second Act, the Vestry or District 
Board can only carry ont works of street improvement in their 
district after having obtained the sanction of the London County 
Council thereto. It must be evident that the local authority is 
better able to judge of the necessity for such improvements than 
a central authority formed of representatives from all parts of the 
metropolis, many of whom have, in all probability, never seen the 
streets in which improvements are contemplated by the Vestry or 
District Board ; the necessity for obtaining the consent of the 
central authority to such improvements is, therefore, a useless 
interferenoe with the powers of the local authorities. 



Acquisition of Property. 

Section 151, first Act, gives power to Vestries and District 
Boards to purchase property for the purpose of constructing any 
works which they are authorised to execute under that Act, also for 
use as dep6ts, yards, &c. There is, however, no power given to 
take property compulsorily ; in fact, this power is, by section 152, 
expressly reserved for the London County Council, although there 



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THE METROPOLIS LOOAL KAKAOEHBNT A0T8. 73 

appears to be no reason why it should not be extended to Yestries 
and District Boards, who would, as the law now stands, have to 
incur the expense of obtaining a special Act of Parliament in 
the eyent of property being required for the purposes referred to 
which could not be obtained by agreement with the owners. 



DISCUSSION. 

Mr. W. Wbaveb : As an old metropolitan surveyor it gives me 
great pleasure to see, what I may call, comparatively speaking, the 
younger metropolitan Members taking the very great interest in 
their work which Mr. Barber must have done to prepare a paper 
on this subject. The preparation of a paper of this description 
requires a good deal of study and attention, not only of the routine 
work of the parochial surveyor, but of the various Acts of Parlia- 
ment under which we work. There are no doubt a great many 
provisions of the Acts of Parliament appertaining to the Gbvem- 
ment of the metropolis, which could be amended to the advantage 
of the community if the experience of practical men were brought 
to bear on the subject If at any time the legislature could have 
sufficient leisure to spare a little time from matters of imperial 
moment to matters affecting the health and comfort of the people, 
apart from glory and conquest, there would be a great deal of 
advantage accruing to the community. I have just marked a few 
points which struck me as Mr. Barber was reading his paper, 
but I have not had time to study it thoroughly, and there- 
fore my remarks must be taken to be of a general character. 
The first point I would touch upon is the question of the 
drainage of existing houses, dealt with on page 67. Mr. Barber 
refers to the extensive powers conferred by section 73, first Act, 
with respect to drainage works and sanitary arrangements in 
existing houses, which he says are rendered inoperative by the 
words '' sufiicient drain." He suggests an alteration of the section, 
giving to the authorities pow^ to put its provisions in force in 
all cases where houses are found not to be drained or fitted with 
sanitary appliances to their satisfaction. Well, of course a power 
of that kind, if exercised with very great discretion, would amount 
to a great public service, but we do not always find powers of that 
description exercised with the discretion which is advisable. I 
think the law as it now stands, as amended by the Public Health 



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74 AMENDICBNTS OF THE HSTB0P0LI8 LOCAL UANAQBMBNT AOTS. 

Act, gives about as much power to the public officers as they ought 
to be entrusted with. Speaking of my own district, there most 
have been some hnnd]:eds of thousands of pounds spent by owners 
of property in reconstructing drains, wd the powers of the 
existing law have been sufficient to call for that outlay. With 
regard to drainage, Mr. Barber is quite right in saying there is no 
express provision requiring that either plans or sections of the 
proposed works shall be submitted, and he says it is often impos- 
sible for an order to be made within the time required by section 
76 of the first Act, viz., seven days ; or the fifteen days specified 
in section 53 of the second Act. Although there is no express 
provision in the Act for plans, I dare say most metropolitan surveyors 
have very little difficulty in obtaining plans for dramaga There 
is not much difficulty in getting over that omission in the Act. 
The drains must be laid to the satisfaction of the surveyor, and if 
builders will not submit plans, then after they have laid about 
20 feet you find fault with the drain, and make them take it up 
and relay it in a different line. After you have done that several 
times the builder sees the error of his ways and submits plans. 
Mr, Barber says the power to make bye-laws as to drains is by 
section 202, first Act, conferred on the London County Council ; 
but no such bye-laws have yet been made by that body. Strictly 
speaking, the County Council have not made bye-laws if we speak 
of an underground drain, but they have taken a great deal of 
trouble to make bye-laws as to soil pipes and water-closets. 
Hearing that the County Council were drafting bye-laws as to 
drains, I called at the Council offices a month ago to ask if they 
would let the Secretary of this Association have a copy of the 
draft bye-laws as proposed, when we would discuss them, and arrive 
at a consensus of opinion respecting them. It struck me that 
would be a better plan than sending the draft round to the thirty or 
forty vestries in the metropolis, as they did the draft bye-laws for 
soil pipes and water-closets, and getting such a variety of opinion 
that nothing satisfactory resulted. We could then have considered 
them in this room as practical men who have to enforce the bye- 
laws after they are made. They told me they thought it an 
excellent suggestion on my part, and they would endeavour to 
meet it, but they were afraid from the state of the draft that it 
would not be sufficiently advanced in time for this meeting. In 
fiact they were taking counsel's opinion on one or two points before 
they could settle the draft. We have not received the draft, and 

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DISCUSSION. 75 

therefore we shall have to go through it the same as the draft 
hye-laws for soil pipes and water-closets. There were some yery 
queer provisions in the soil pipes draft hye-laws, as, for instance, the 
weight of iron pipes : I suppose some one in the office had gone to 
some text-book and taken out the weight of water mains. If 
those pipes had been insisted upon, they would have pulled down 
any jerry built house they were put against. On page 69 
Mr. Barber refers to the paving of courts. There is no doubt 
that is a very difficult matter. In almost every parish in 
London there are a number of dirty little courts and passages 
which the authorities find great difficulty in dealing witti. The 
trouble mainly arises from the difficulty of finding an owner of the 
court If any one wished to build over them, or a railway was to 
come and want the land, an owner would soon turn up, but when 
it is a question of spending money the owner keeps in the back- 
ground. I have in my own Vestry suggested the issuing of a 
circular to the ether metropolitan vestries and district boards, 
suggesting that powers should be obtained to treat these courts 
under section 105 of the Act as new streets, but without taking 
them under jurisdiction. My Board have coincided with the view 
set forth in that circular. As to the breaking up of streets, much 
could be said about that One of the worries which is manifestly 
shortening the surveyor's life, is the action of the gas and water 
companies in constantly breaking up the streets; I know it is 
bringing my grey hairs in sorrow to the grave. You no sooner 
retire from the making of a street, satisfied with a piece of good 
work, than you go next morning to find the street all broken up 
and like a hill of ants. Mr. Barber suggests that persons opening 
the roads should be required to keep in repair so much of the roads 
as may be afiected by such openings for twelve months after the 
openings have been filled in. There is already power to charge 
for twelve months' maintenance of the trench ; at any rate I know 
I frequently do it. If from the trenches being badly filled in the 
work has to be again done vrithin the twelve months, I charge 
them a second time. Mr. Barber suggests that in the event of 
alterations in line or level of road, mains, pipes, &c., should be 
altered as required by local authority at expense of owners of such 
mains. Although my sympathies are dead against the companies, 
I cannot go quite so far as that ; I think it would be asking too 
much of the gas or water companies to lower their pipes every 
time we lower the roads. One of my roads I thought it would 

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76 AMENDMENTS OF THE METBOPOLIS LOOAL MANAGEMENT ACTS. 

be well to take 18 inches off the incline to improve it, and 
I called upon the gas and water companies to lower their mains, 
but did not ask them to pay for the work ; I thought that would 
be unjust to the companies. The question raised on page 72 
with regard to street improvements is a very important matter 
as affecting local authorities, but I do not quite agree that we 
have no further powers than are given in section 72 of the 
Act of 1862. Michael Angelo Taylor's Act, 57 George III., gives 
vestries and district boards very full powers, and an immense 
number of important improvements have been carried out under it. 
I have carried out improvements involving thousands of pounds, 
and never asked the sanction of the County Council. We ask the 
County Council for their sanction when we want them to con- 
tribute some proportion of the expense ; but if we are prepared 
to pay for the improvement ourselves, we go ahead under 57 
George III. ; I do not know whether we are right or whether this 
paragraph in the paper is right. My reading of the law is that 
the Act has never been repealed, and that all the powers are 
existing so long as they are not inconsistent with the later Act. 
Anyway we work under it. I think Mr. Barber might look into 
the matter again, when probably his views might be modified. I 
should like to express my personal thanks to him for the care 
he has taken in compiling this paper, and I am sure so long 
as the Members of the Association will enter into their duties 
in the spirit which he has shown, our interests will be ad- 
vanced. There is one other matter I should like to refer to 
before concluding my remarks. It does not come within the 
four comers of the paper, but as the paper deals with some 
suggested improvements in the local management of the metro- 
polis, I may perhaps be permitted to say something on a 
cognate subject. At the present time there is a conference going 
on between the local authorities and the London County Council, 
as to what powers under any revised scheme of local government 
should be transferred from the central authority to the local 
authority, and a great many suggestions are being made in that 
conference by gentlemen more or less acquainted with the subject. 
One point I have had very steadfastly in view is the transfer of 
the administration of the Building Act from the central authority 
to the local authority. I think there is no better work which 
could be entrusted to the local authority, if they are to assume the 
powers of corporations, than that they should be entrusted with 

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DI80DS8ION. 77 

the SQpervisoQ of the erection of haildings ia their district, to see 
that they are properly erected and properly drained. At present 
the adipinistration of the Act is mixed up between the district and 
local surveyors in a most confusing way, causing much unnecessary 
trouble and expense. The present system is a chaotic way of 
supervising work which would not be tolerated in any private 
establishment I am sure if the work was transferred to the local 
authority the income received in the shape of fees would almost 
pay for the surveyors' departments of the vestries of London. 
The opponents of my views hold that we are not competent to 
discharge this duty, and in many cases I admit that ; but if the 
necessity arises for the man the man will be forthcoming. It would 
improve the status of the surveyor, and would be to the advantage 
of the community, as the result would be better buildings and 
cheaper buildings, because there would not be so many fees and 
salaries to be paid. This subject of the transfer of building super- 
vision to the local authority, working under general bye-laws, with . 
right of appeal to the Couuty Council, will be brought before the 
conference before referred to, and I trust that my views will be 
carried. 

Mr. Mason : Perhaps I may be permitted to say, in my opinion 
this is one of the most important papers we have had presented to 
us as metropolitan surveyors. 1 fully endorse everything that 
Mr. Weaver has said, and should like to comment on one or two 
points which have struck me in listening to the paper. First, as to 
the ventilation of main sewers, I agree with Mr. Barber that the 
obligation on vestries and district boards to. ventilate and cleanse 
the sewers vested in them (sections 71 & 72 of 18 & 19 Vict. c. 120) 
should be extended to the London County Council as regards main 
sewers. One of the County Council's main sewers traverses the 
northern part of St Martin's parish ; this sewer has, I believe, no 
direct ventilation between Chelsea and Little Queen Street, a 
distance of about three miles, the only means of ventilation being 
by a few vertical shafts connecting with local sewers at a higher 
level. Therefore the local authorities are in many cases blamed 
for inefficient ventilation, their sewers practically acting as ventila- 
tion shafts for the main sewer, and any complaints received from 
inhabitants, or persons passing through the district, of inefficient 
ventilation is placed upon the local authority, which is very unfair. 
I am perhaps to blame for having wrongly interpreted section 71 
of the first Act, by which Mr. Barber says the vestries and district 



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78 AMEMDHENTS OF THE KBTROPOUS LOOAL MANAGEMENT ACTS. 

boards are compelled to trap gnllies, inclnding those discharging 
into the County Council's main sewers. I always thought the 
onus of trapping these gullies was upon the County Council In 
my own district — which is a small one — I have main sewers 
running through, and the gullies of these main sewers are un- 
trapped. We have repeated complaints from owners and others as 
to the emission of sewer gas from the gullies. In eyery case of 
complaint I refer them to the County Council, and I have not 
known of any complaint being referred back to the Vestry. 

Mr. Blaib : Have the County Council trapped them ? 

Mr. Mason : My friend, Mr. Blair, asks me if they have trapped 
them ; I must say I do not know a case where they haye done so. 
A point on which I feel yery strongly is as to the proyision of plans 
for priyate drainage. I am inclined to agree with Mr. Weaver that 
where plans are refused the best way is to object to every thing that 
is being done ; but this is a matter that should be clearly defined by 
the legislature, and it should be a sine qua non that plans of all 
drainage should be submitted to the local authority, showing what 
is proposed. By possessing a plan we know exactly what we are 
reporting upon, and what we have to instruct the inspectors to 
specially watch. The question of regulations for priyate drainage 
is also a very important one. It is a question I have had to thresh 
out on more occasions than one with committees of the Vestry. I 
have been told that the regulations I have framed cannot be law, 
although adopted by the Vestry. My reply has always been that 
they can. By the Metropolis Management Act absolute power is 
given to the vestry or board to do what they are advised is right. 
Therefore, why not define the requirements in writing. I regret 
that so very valuable a paper should be limited as to discussion, 
and I would suggest that we have an adjourned meeting. I think 
it is such an important paper that two or three evenings spent on 
the discussion would be time exceedingly well spent. 

Mr. W. NisBET Blaib : I should not have liked the opportunity 
to pass without having said something on this paper, because it 
is a subject which I have been obliged to work up recently, 
and therefore I am tolerably familiar with the clauses of these 
complicated Acts. I am obliged to say I am not prepared to 
discuss the paper to-night, because I have only been able to run 
through the paper hurriedly for a few minutes. Can you hold 
out any hope of our having an adjourned meeting to fully discuss 
the paper ? 

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DIB0U88I0N. 79 

Mr. NoBHiNQTON : There is a good deal to be said in favour of 
an adjoomipent. The paper has reference to Acts of Parliament^ 
and one would like to scan it oyer with the local Acts before them. 

The Chairman : I do not know whether it is possible to have 
an adjonmmeni It rests with this meeting to decide that question. 
The paper is so full of debatable matter that it is impossible fairly 
to consider it at one meeting like the present ; time should be allowed 
for careful perusal. 

It was decided to adjourn the further discussion of the paper for 
metropolitan Members to a subsequent meetings but provincial 
Members were asked to take part in the discussion that night. 

Mr. J. T. Eaybs : I did not come with the intention of saying 
anything on this paper, because it appears to me entirely a metro- 
politan matter. There are, however, some points in it which touch 
very closely on my provincial practice, and from what I can gather, 
the difficulties which you experience here are also experienced in 
the country. A great many of the provisions of the Metropolis 
Management Act oomcide with the Public Health Act, and the 
sever^ points which have been taken up follow very closely in the 
same relation as they are in the provinces. I might perhaps 
supplement what has been said as to the drainage of existing 
houses. There appears to be no provision in the Public Health 
Act to prevent any one altering drains after they are laid. You 
may see them properly and perfectly laid one week, and any one 
may go the next week and take up the drains and alter them in any 
manner he may think fit. I do not know whether the Metropolis 
Management Act deals with that ; if it does not it ought to do so. 
Then with regard to plans of drainage, I notice nearly all the 
London vestries insist upon plans being submitted for drainage 
purposes. My own opinion is they cannot be enforced. Mr. 
Weaver says, put as many obstacles in the way of the builder as 
possible. If the owner is laying the drains properly, and is well 
advised in laying them, if you object to his drainage I do not see 
how the objection can be of value. He can go on and defy you, 
and make matters very awkward for the local authority. I think it 
should be made compulsory that plans should be submitted to a 
uniform scale and size. My own practice is to have a plan, and I 
am very pleased to say that every one in the district which I repre- 
sent has fallen in very readily vnth that, and I have had no 
difficulty in getting them. The plans are on tracing linen of 
uniform size (foolscap) and we keep a full record of what goes on. 



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80 AMENDMENTS OF THE METROPOLIS LOOAL MANAGEMENT ACTS. 

There is one difficulty I have sometimes : a man submits a plan 
for drainage which is right as far as it goes, but does not go fiar 
enough. If a man drains a certain portion of the premises you 
cannot compel him to go further provided there is no nuisance, but 
you express approval of it as far as it goes. Shortly afterwards he 
is called upon to do further drainage work, but he turns round and 
says they have been approved by the local authority. With regard 
to the paving and draining of courts, I can quite realise the difficulty 
of ever finding who is the freeholder or owner of the court. It is 
practically impossible to ascertain that without reference to the 
deeds of the property, which the owner would be very chary to 
show you. Where the owher lays out the land for building, he 
would not convey the roadway, he would simply convey the land 
for building, and the thoroughfare would simply vest in the original 
owner and no further notice is taken of it, and it does not become 
the property of any one. I can understand the difficulty of getting 
the owner of the adjoining property to prove that he is the owner 
of the court There is one clause on page 71, with regard to pro- 
jections, in which I am much interested. I have had considerable 
difficulty with regard to projections. People will put up signboards 
disfiguring the streets, and it is a matter we have no control over 
providing they are a certain height. Ton have to prove that the 
signboard is dangerous or an obstruction, which is difficult to prove 
if it is put up properly. There should be really some provision 
made whereby these projections can be regulated. With regard to 
private paving, I do not think it would be right where the authority 
calls upon the gas and water companies to lower their mains, to 
compel them to do so at their own cost. On that matter I agree 
with Mr. Weaver. I am sure we must all be very much obliged to 
Mr. Barber for preparing this paper. It is most instructive and 
very valuable to the metropolitiui and also to the country Members. 
We shall be very much interested in seeing the result of the dis- 
cussion. It may result in a committee of metropolitan surveyors 
to draw up the points in which the Metropolis Management Acts 
require amendment. There is no doubt the surveyors are the 
proper persons to realise all the difficulties, and if they were 
consulted more in the drawing of Acts of Parliament, we should 
get Acts which are workable, and the difficulties which at present 
crop up would not be so numerous. 

Mr. Lewis Angell (Borough Engineer, West Ham), said : I 
am not a metropolitan Member, but I am very pleased to see 

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BIBOUSSION. 81 

this large accession of metropolitan Members, which gives the 
Association not only greater strength bnt the advantage of other 
experience. We must congratulate Mr. Barber upon the manner 
in which he has dealt with a subject of very great importance. I 
am, although not in the metropolis, a next-door neighbour, and for 
some five years was a metropoUtan surveyor, but as that is 
more than thirty years ago, the practice will have very much 
changed. We provincial surveyors have some advantage over our 
metropolitan colleagues, to the extent that we have the whole 
municipal engineering of the district in our own hands. The 
control is not divided among a great many bodies and officials 
as in London. I do not know that I can say much on the paper 
beyond what has already been said. If we have the power to 
adopt regulations as to drainage and sanitary fittings, we should 
also have the power to enforce them. As a rule people fall in with 
regulations, but we want powers to deal with those who will not 
accept them. Within the last fortnight I was in the courts, and 
one of the most able counsel of the day said we had no power to 
enforce regulations upon owners of property. Mr. Weaver has 
referred to the possibility of regulations being drawn up by the 
London County Council. I agree with him ; it is very desirable 
that the regulations should apply to the whole of London, as the 
County Council would have power to enforce them ; if different 
regulations are drawn up by the various vestries, it would be 
very difficult and confumng for builders. If the vestries are to 
enforce the regulations, they should be common to the whole of 
London. As to the obligations proposed to be placed upon the 
gas and water companies, I think you would find the companies are 
too powerful to submit to the regulations suggested, even if desirable, 
but you could not carry such proposals through Parliament. We 
have power under the Gas and Waterworks Act to require plans of 
mains and pipes which are 1 iid. I have tried to enforce it, but the 
companies " bucked " very much ; but we have that power, which 1 
take it applies to London as well as to the provinces. I agree 
with Mr. Weaver that you could hardly expect the companies 
to pay for the lowering of water mains for carrying out street 
improvements. The subject of combined drainage has not been 
touched upon. The London County Council are tryiug to set that 
right as affecting the metropolis. Although there are points of 
difference between the metropolis and the provinces, the general 

6 

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82 AMENDMENTS OF THE METROPOLIS LOOAL MANAGEMENT ACTS. 

principle is the same, and I hope the London County Council will 
carry their Bill in Parliament, and the provinces will very soon 
follow their example. 

Mr. J. T. Eayrs : With regard to Mr. Angell's remark as to 
plans for gas and water mains, t may say for the information of 
the country Menihers, that in West Bromwich we have plans and 
sections for every new water main laid in the district. I raised the 
question with tlie water company seven or eight years ago, when I 
saw that we could enforce it, and we have not been troubled since 
upon the matter. 

Mr. NoRRiNGTON : The question of the drainage of existing 
houses has always been a source of trouble to the London vestries. 
I have had to do with a great many troublesome cases. In some, 
the vestry has tried to enforce their regulations by appealing to a 
magistrate, sometimes successfully and at other times the reverse of 
successfully. There is considerable weakness in the present Act of 
Parliament on these matters. I agree with Mr. Barber as to the 
advisability of having plans deposited by builders, and I think plans 
should also be submitted for all reconstructions. My Vestry has 
had the same question raised about submitting plans, and has had 
them refused. With reference to the question of paving and drain- 
ing courts, it is the custom of some London vestries to pave these 
courts and apportion the cost on the adjacent owners. That has 
been done very successfully in many cases I know of. Michael 
Angelo Taylor's Act is in force at the present time, and does 
remove some of the objections which Mr. Barber has raised to 
section 72. I have known that Act put in force recently. With 
reference to the supervision of buildings, undoubtedly the divided 
supervision in London is a very old sore. I referred to it some 
years ago in a report to my Vestry. It creates considerable extra 
trouble and difficulty, and should be altered. I hope the London 
surveyors vnll try to induce the members of the committee who are 
conferring with the London County Council to deal with this 
subject. The paper is a very valuable one, and opens a very wide 
field for discussion. I should like to go through it with the Acts 
of Parliament, and speak upon it on another occasion. 

Mr. T. H. Yabbicom: With regard to provincial practice, in 
Bristol the gas and water companies work under dissimilar Acts 
of Parliament. The gas company is compelled to raise or lower 
its mains when required by the Corporation, but that is not the 

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DISCUSSION. 83 

case with the water company, where the cost of relaying the 
mains to suit any alteration in the level of the street has to be met 
by the Corporation. We find just as much trouble in provincial 
practice with the breaking up of the streets as you do in the 
metropolia I have made an arrangement with the gas company 
which works very well, by which the Corporation reinstates every 
surface opening and keeps it in repair for twelve months at the ex- 
pense of the company. The company, in addition to the statutory 
notice, sends a full list of openings which they have made ; each 
opening is measured up, and the cost of the repairs is paid for at 
the scheduled price. I have not been able to succeed with the 
vwiter company to the same extent, except that the relaying of 
wood paving is done by the Corporation and paid for by the com- 
pany in the same way as for the gas company. 

Mr. C. H. Lowe : There is not the sUghtest doubt that each 
page of this paper would give us an evening's employment to dis- 
Gns& The points touched upon are so numerous and important 
that the adjournment of its consideration is very wise, so as to 
enable us to look through the paper with the Acts of Parliament 
referred to. With reference to sewer ventilation, I suppose no 
district has apparently suffered more from the effects of the outcry 
as to sewer air than Hampstead. With regard to plans for drainage, 
we have experienced no difficulty in obtaining the deposit of plans 
in the case of new drains. I do not think that difficulty need be 
anticipated at the present time by surveyors. If they insist upon 
plans they will succeed in getting them. The difficulty is chiefly 
in the case of reconstructions of old drains. A man reconstructs 
or alters his drains, and does not trouble about informing the local 
authority as to what he is about to do ; and until one sees some 
evidence of work going on, it is impossible to know what is being 
done. The subject of projections over the footpath is often very 
troublesome in Hampstead. We have endeavoured to remove objeo- 
tionable signboards or advertising boards projecting over the foot- 
path, but found we were powerless unless we could prove they 
were an actual obstruction or annoyance to passers-by. Therefore 
you have practically no power to interfere, and these unsightly 
boards go on multiplying all over the district. The last matter 
I can touch upon this evening is in reference to street improve- 
ments. In my own district we have carried out five or six im- 
provements under Michael Angelo Taylor's Act. But I should 

a 2 

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84 AMENDMENTS OF THE METROPOLIS LOCAL MANAOEMENT ACTS. 

adrise any one not to rely too much upon this Act. The powers 
that be do not like it, and many times it has been termed an obso- 
lete Act. It would be preferable to go to ParUament to obtain 
new powers rather than rely upon it I am much obliged to those 
country Members who have made the journey here to give us the 
benefit of their experience, and their support and assistance in the 
discussioa 



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( 85 ) 



NOTES ON THE WEAR OP HARD WOOD 
PAVING, AND THE WEIGHT OF TRAPPIO 
THEREON. 

By W. NISBET BLAIB, Assoc. M. Inst. O.E. 

In order to ascertain the rate of wear on different pieces of wood 
paying, and to know the actual amount of traffic thereon, ohsenra- 
tions have been taken recently with regard to some roads in 
St. Fancras, and it is thought that the figures may proTO of 
interest to Members of the Association. It is of little use to be 
informed by the writers of the many pamphlets which have 
appeared during the past few years, each referring to some 
p^cular class of Australian or New Zealand timber as suitable 
for road paving in this country, that such and such a timber would 
require to be renewed '^not earlier than twenty-one years after 
being laid, and most probably not for fifty years under the heaviest 
traffic " ; indeed, it would almost look as if the heavier the traffic 
the longer would be the life of the wood. Sometimes more precise 
statements are made, as, for instance, in referring to Queen Street, 
Sydney, it is stated that a daily traffic of approximately 25,000 
tens passed for eight years over some wood paving which, when 
removed, showed that the gross wear observable was ^ inch. In 
another street in Sydney, described as one of the busiest, the blocks 
were only reduced ^ inch after thirteen years' wear. 

A paper by Colonel Bell, United States Consul in Sydney, 
recommending the use of the Australian hard woods for use in 
American cities, quotes George Street, Sydney, where paving laid 
eleven years previously, showed less than i inch wear in the centre ; 
he does not say this was the maximum wear, but we may assume 
it to be so, nor does he name the wood employed ; but he speaks of 
the street as " very narrow, only 48 feet between kerbs." The 
traffic is stated as amounting to 3324 vehicles in three hours. To 
give one some idea of what this is, it has been found that in 
Enston Boad, opposite the Midland Station, 3051 vehicles passed 
in three hours. 

Coming to observations made by some Members of the Associa- 

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86 WBAB OF HARD WOOD PAVING 

tion, Mr. Mason, of St Martin's Vestry, says that in the Strand, at 
the West Strand Post Office, yellow deal wore down 4J inches in 
twelve months. This was replaced hy jarrah, which wore 2^ inches 
in three years, or | inch per annnm. Then came a trial of karri, 
upon which the wear amounted to J inch per annum. It should 
be observed that this situation does not give a fair example of 
the wear under normal conditions of traffic, for owing to its being 
a stopping place for omnibuses to the number of 300 to 400 per 
hour, the wear is excessive to the highest degree. In another 
part of the Strand, near Exeter Hall, deal lost 2j^ inches in four 
years, and jarrah 1 inch in the same time. 

Mr. Norrington, of Lambeth, is quoted as stating that jarrah 
wore iovm 1^ inches in six and a half years, or i inch per annum, 
but no reference is made to the situation or the traffic. Perhaps 
he will be good enough to give the Association some further 
particulars. 

It is, of course, generally admitted that the life of these hard 
woods must be considerably greater than that of other timbers 
used in the towns of this country before their introduction ; but as 
to how much longer such life will extend we are still limited to 
speculation, for there has not been any hard wood pavement worn 
out in this country yet, and certainly some of those portions which 
have been longest laid look remarkably well and likely to go on 
for many years without becoming so irregular on the surface as to 
need relaying. In view of the probable long life of the hard wood 
as a paving material, it may seem rather early, so far as the cases 
to be quoted are concerned, that any figures as to wear should be 
submitted, but the information was only obtainable by the Author 
with regard to cases in the district under his control, and the state- 
ments are submitted to the Association to be taken at their worth, 
whether more or less. 

Between February 23 and March 11, 1893, a portion of the 
western end of Euston Eoad was repaved, and, with the special 
object of proving the durability of the diflFerent timbers employed, 
the length in question was paved in four blocks. From the line of 
the south side of Southampton Street, a length of 63 feet was 
paved with jarrah, the next length of 63 feet was paved with 
yellow deal, the next length of 62 feet was paved with karri, and 
a closing length of 49 feet with yellow deal. 

The wear upon these different lengths has been recently mea- 
sured, and may be taken as at three years from the date of laying. 



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AND THB WEIGHT OF TBAFFIO THEREON. 87 

It proves to be ^ inch on the jarrah, ^ inch on the karri, and 1| inch 
on the deal blocks. These measurements were taken in the centre 
line of traffic, where the wear might be regarded;Jas greatest, and 
at about the centre of each length of wood. It was found that 
the reduction in depth was the same on both sides of the road. 
These figures are equivalent to ^ inch per annum on the jarrah 
and karri, and |^ inch on the deal, and the relative rates of wear 
are as 1 to 6. 

It should be mentioned that this portion of the road has electric 
lamps placed at intervals along the centre of the road, so causing a 
marked division in the lines of traffic passing eastward and west- 
ward. The whole width of the carriage-way from kerb to kerb is 
33 feet 9 inches, of which 15 feet 3 inches forms the available width 
on the north side of the refuges upon which the electric lamps 
stand, and 14 feet 10 inches the width on the south side of the 
refuges, the refuges occupying 3 feet 8 inches. 

A complete record of the traffic during seven days, including both 
night and day continuously, was taken between July 14 and 21, 
1895. The observer was supplied with ruled books (see pattern 
leaf on next page), in which it was only necessary for him to make 
a dot or stroke in the particular column suited to the vehicle to be 
entered, and by ruling across the page at each hour of the day or 
night the number of each class of vehicle is obtainable for each 
hour. The numbers of the diflferent classes of vehicle were after- 
wards multipUed by their weights, giving the total weight for each 
day. 

The results showed that during the seven days, 110,977 tons of 
traffic, Le. vehicles and their loads, not including horses, passed 
along this portion of the road ; this may be taken as equal to 
5,770,800 tons per annum, or 575,544 tons per yard in width per 
annum. The omnibus traffic during the week amounted to 8575 
tons, or 7 '72 per cent, of the total traffic. 

The first four days under observation were dry, and the last three 
days wet ; but during the week the observations showed that no 
horses fell upon the length of road in question. 

Observations both as to wear and traffic were also obtained upon 
another length of Euston Eoad, at Si Pancras Church. This 
portion of the road was paved with jarrah blocks between April 30 
and May 24, 1894. The road has therefore been under traffic 
for say If years, and the wear has been very carefully measured 
upon an opportunity affi)rded by a water trench which completely 

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88 



WEAR OF HARD WOOD PAYINO 



o 

I— I 



o 



S 



fiQ 



•i 1 



5 *, 



11 



•1 s5 



iS"3 2 



m I 









II ^ 



35 



II 



I I 
3 S 



♦ S 






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AND THE WEiaHT OF TRAFFIC THBBEON. 89 

crossed the road from kerb to kerb. The blocks were exactly 
5 inches deep when laid, and the wear is shown upon the diagram. 
The greatest reduction being ^ inch at 12 feet from the kerb on 
the soath side, and ^ at about the same distance from the north 
side. The greatest wear is therefore * 18 of an inch, or less than 
^ inch per annum. 

The record of traffic taken near this trench, at a point where 
the road is 38 feet 4 inches wide, shows that during seven days 
from August 26 to >September 2, 1895, 101,063 tons passed in 
the week, or 5,253,276 tons per annum, or 411,318 tons per yard 
in width per annum. The weight of omnibus traffic included in 
the aboTe is 32,113 tons per week, which is equal to 81*8 per 
cent, of the total weight of traffic. The total number of vehidies 
daring the week was 67,153, of which 12,677 were omnibuses^ 
their proportion being 19 • per cent of the total number. 

During the week under observation the road was described as 
in a greasy condition, with the result that seven horses fell 

The Author has referred to weight of omnibus traffic as distinct 
from the remainder, as he believes that the effect of omnibus traffic 
upon a roadway is very much greater than an equal weight of 
general traffic, and it remains to be seen whether the second 
instance described, with 31*8 per cent, of omnibus traffic, wears 
better or worse than the first case, where omnibus traffic is only 
7*72 per cent., though the total traffic is about 40 per cent, 
greater in the first case than in the second. 

It will be recognised by those who know London well, that the 
omnibus traffic of Euston Bead is not nearly so great as in many 
other roads nearer the Thames, but it may be interesting by way of 
comparison to refer to figures contributed by Mr. Mason, of 
St Martin's Yestry, who reports that the omnibus traffic in the 
Strand, by the West Strand Post Office, amounted to 402, 354, 
378 and 306 omnibuses per hour. In Euston Road it is found 
that 258, 257, 247 and 237 omnibuses have passed per hour. 

Tottenham Court Koad was paved with jarrah blocks, between 
September 16 and December 12, 1892, and has unfortunately been 
opened by trenches for gas, water, or other purposes, only too 
many times, and the wear of the blocks has been noticed ; but there 
does not appear to have been as much as i inch wear anywhere, 
except against manhole covers or other sur£Eice-boxes. The traffic 
here has not been recorded as in the other cases quoted, but it is 
very considerable, probably more than in Euston lioad. 

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90 HARD WOOD PAVINO AND WEXOHT OF TBAPFIO THEREON. 

Another road, of somewliat different cliaracter, has been under 
the anthor's observation, but more with regard to the effect of 
traffic than to actual measurement of the wear of the payement, 
namely, Gray's Inn Road, because, owing to a double line of 
tramway passing along the road, the effect upon the paying has 
proved to be very prejudicial to the durability of the wood. This 
road was paved with jarrah blocks between the tram rails, and on 
strips of about 18 inches in width outside the rails, between May 
and September 1894. The portions of the road outside this 
limit were in some cases not interfered with, but in other cases 
were repaved with the old blocks, as the general condition was 
not sufficiently bad to necessitate reconstruction, and it was 
anticipated that three or four years' life remained in the blocks. 

With regard to a road of this character, it is a question upon 
which the Author would be glad to hear expressions of opinion by 
Members of the Association, as to how the yard tonnage of the 
traffic should be calculated. It is quite clear that the bulk of 
the free traffic uses the sides of the roads clear of the tram rails, 
and yet it is equally clear that the effect of tram rails existing in a 
road induces many vehicles to run with their wheels on either or 
both sides on the tram rails or immediately adjoining thereto, with 
the very unfortunate result of forming a groove in the paving 
which quickly wears below the surfece of the tram rail. It is, 
of course, not reasonable to add in the weight of tramcars with 
the other traffic upon a road ; at the same time, it is not equitable 
to apportion the free traffic solely to the width of the road clear of 
the tram rails. 



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( 91 ) 

HARD WOOD PAVING. 
By J. P. NOKKINGTON, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E. 

Haying been asked to supplement Mr. Blair's paper with some 
observations, the Author begs to express his regret that the time 
at his disposal has not enabled him to give the matter the atten- 
tion it deserves. 

The parish of Lambeth probably has the largest area of any 
place in England paved with hard wood. This is dne to the 
foresight of the Author's predecessor, Mr. Hngh Macintosh, who 
was, in the face of a strong opposition on the part of many 
members of his Vestry and others, probably the first surveyor to 
use these woods on a large scale. 

The first piece of Australian hard woods was laid in May, 
1889, when the portion of Westminster Bridge Koad between the 
foot of Westminster Bridge and the junction of York Koad was 
paved with jarrah. 

A list of all the roads paved with hard wood in Lambeth is 
given on the following page. 

The method adopt^ by the Vestry is to purchase the timber 
by the load, the price varying from 51. Ids, to 61. 2$. 6d. per 
load, which includes barging alongside the Vestry's whart It is 
then unloaded by the Vestry's men and sawn into blocks close to 
where delivered. It is customary to estimate that 640 blocks 
4^ in. in depth can be cut from one load, which brings the cost per 
1000 blocks to 9Z. lis., the cost of cutting being 4«. d^d. per 1000. 
The loss in sawing is precisely J in. per block. On testing this, 
17 saw cuts were found to be equal to 2^ in. The cutting is done 
with a single saw 30 in. diameter, which is worked by an 8 horse- 
power gas engine, the saw making 1200 revolutions per minute, 
and four saws require to be sharpened each day. The effect is 
to cut the blocks with great rapidity, 37 blocks being cut in 70 
seconds, and 43 blocks in 78 seconds. 

Most of the roads paved with wood in Lambeth are level; 
Waterloo Bridge Koad, however, which is paved with jarrah, has 
a gradient of 1 in 35 from the entrance to Waterloo Station 
to the bridge over the Tliames. This road has an enormous traffic. 



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92 



HARD WOOD PAYXNO. 



Most of the Members will recollect the Author's paper of March 
1893, in which the use of hard woods is recommended in prefer- 
ence to deal ; the opinions therein expressed have been very much 
confirmed, the only variation is that the jarrah supplied to 



LocaUty. 


Araaln 
sq.ytto. 


Date 
Laid. 


Cost of Work. 


Go0< 

yd. 


tper 
sup. 


KemarkM, 








£ «. d. 


9. 


d. 




Westminster Bridge Boad 


1,960 


1889 


1,096 11 9 


11 


8* 


(New, replacing 


Lambeth Walk .. .. 
Lower Marsh, &o., New\ 
Cut 


4,956 
8,723 


1889 
1890 


3,095 6 1 
5,254 9 1 


12 
12 


6 
0* 


Ditto. 
Ditto. 


Oakley Street 

Brixton Boad, Brixton 
Hill (part oO, Kenning- 
ton Park Boad (part of) 

Stamford Street .. .. 


3,656 
31.175 

4,700 


1890 
1891-3 

1892 


2,216 9 
23,944 

2,623 8 3 


12 
15 

n 


2 


Ditto. 
Ditto. 
|Relav, replacmg 


York Boad 

Brixton HiU (part of) .. 


7,000 
1,112 


1893 
1893 


3,952 5 7 
798 19 10 


11 
14 


3i 
4i 


Ditto. 

(New, replacing 
[ macadam. 


Albert EmbaDkment,\ 
Lambeth Boad .. ../ 


5,474 


1893 


3,676 2 9 


13 


61 


Belay, replacing 
deal. 


Westminster Bridge Boad 


7,010 


1894 


4,159 5 3} 


11 


lOi 


New, replacing 

Ditto. 

Jarrah, string 
bark and blue 
gum, relay part 


KennlDgton Boad .. .. 
Waterloo Boad (part oQ . • 


21,878 
1,014 


1894 
1894 


14,084 4 6} 
522 7 7 


12 
10 


lOJ 
3J 


Upper KenniDgton Lane 
Lower Kenningtou Lane 


10,352 
7,574 


1894 
1895 


^ 8,153 


9 


1 


and part new. 
/Belay, replacing 
\ ded. 


Waterloo Boad .. .. 


12,435 


1895 


6,512 2 1 


10 


g. I fart new and 
* 1 part relay. 


Eennington Park Boad.. 


4,338 


1895 


4,280 18 


12 11 


New, replacing 
macadam. 


Glapham Road .. .. 


16,295 


189^-6 


15,665 12 6 


13 


4 


Ditto. 


Total 


149,652 





* This Includes cost of reUylng footpaths, &o. 



Lambeth Vestry is somewhat superior to the sample then experi- 
mented on and referred to. 

In that paper the Author advised snrreyors to obtain alterna- 
tive tenders for karri or jarrah. His suggestions now are that, 
in addition to the Western Australian woods, numbers of other 
Australian woods, of more or less equal quality, provided, of 
course, that they can be supplied at reasonable prices, might be 
encouraged. 



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HABD WOOD PAVINa. 



93 



Below is a list of the names of some woods which appear suit- 
able for wood paving: — 



Local Name. 



Karri 



West 

tr^lLij '^*™^" 

Wa^l Mahogany .. 
Wales ^ ^^j^^ ^^^ 



Botanical Name. 



Weight 

!per cob. ft. 

Inlb^ 



Eue. JHveniooUr 
Euo, Marginata . . 

Eucalyptus Cuba 

^ Pilularis . . 
„ Bennifera 
„ Microcarys 



65-00 
56 00 

78-85 
66-69 
75-06 
72 06 



Breaking 

Strain In 

lb0.per 

sq. In. 



21500 
171-00 



Elasticity In 
Ibi. per aq. in. 



7070-000 
2940-000 

5526-400 
3105-979 
3741-376 
2274-790 



The figures given for karri, jarrah and iron bark are from 
T. Laslett's ' Timber and Timber Trees.' 
The samples produced are as follows : — 



Wood. 



Locality. 



Date laid. 



Years' 
wear. 



Dec. of in. 
Loss, loss per. 
I annum. 



1. Jarrah •« 
2a. Karri 

2c. „ .. .. 

2d, Jarrah 
2fl. „ .. .. 
2/. „ .. .. 

3. Blue Gum 

4. Black Butt 

5. Stringy Bark 

6. JarraJa 

7. „ 

8. „ 



Westminster Bridge Boad 

I Grossing Lower Marsh,^ 
6 feet from side .. ../ 
Crossing Lower Marshy 
oentre / 

{Grossing Lower Marsh,j 
6 feet from op. side . . / 
{Lower Marsh, 6 feet froml 
side / 

Lower Marsh, oentre 
(Lower Marsh, 6 feet from j 
\ op. side / 

{Waterloo Boad (be7ond\ 
Station) / 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Lambeth Walk .. .. 
Westminster Bridge Boad 
Ditto 



May 1889 
Nov. 1890 



Oct 1894 

Sept. 1895 
Oct. 1894 
Sept. 1889 
May 1889 



nearly 7 
5* 
51 
5| 

5| 
5J 
5| 

16 months 

5 « 
16 „ 
6J 
nearly 7 
.. 7 



i 

i 
i 
i 

nil. 

.1 



•1607 
•045 

•01126 

•0337 

•045 
•045 
•02275 

•047 

nil. 
•047 
•05769 
•1607 
•15178 



The traffic in the Westminster Bridge Road (towards West- 
minster) where these blocks were removed from, is at the rate of 
334 tons per foot in width of road in twelve hours, from 6 a.m. to 
6 p.m. 

The traffic on the other side of the road from town is equal to 
233 tons per foot in width of road. 

The length of jarrah paved roads in Lambeth is about nine 
miles. 



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94 HARD WOOD PAVING. 



DISCUSSION. 

Mr. 0. Mason : Mr. Blair has done me the honour of quoting 
some statistics famished by myself in a paper previously read to the 
Members of this Association. I therefore venture to trespass further 
upon ycnr time by acceding to the chairman's request that I 
should open this discussion. There are one or two points in con- 
nection with Mr. Blair's paper, which requure a little explanation 
in helping us to consider the relative wear of hard wood in relation 
to the traffic upon it. The diagram showing a cross section of 
Euston Boad gives the wear in fractions of an inch, beginning 
with ^ of an inch on the south side, increasing to i, then -j%, with 
I in the centre, and ^g, J and nil on the north side. I should like 
to ask Mr. Blair whether the traffic on the south side is greater 
than on the north side, or in other words, whether the traffic going 
west is greater than the traffic going east ; for by the diagram the 
wear on the south side of the road appears to be double that on the 
north side. If the traffic on each side of the road is practically 
the same, these figures lead us to suppose there is something w rong 
with the paving material on the south side of the road. The figures 
given in my paper were for the average wear across the portion 
of the road paved with hard wood, | inch being the average wear 
of the jarrah, compared with ^ inch per annum for the karri. 
This may be taken as the ratio of the wear of the two woods ac- 
cording to my observation. Another point is as to the "caning " 
of the blocks. 

Mr. NoRRiNGTON : I said the caney nature of the wood. 

Mr. Mason: I mean the bearing over of the blocks ; had they 
been laid close together that would have been obviated. I have 
some interesting points as to laying blocks close together, compared 
with a ^ or-f -inch joint, on a considerable gradient. The importers 
of the wood came to me, saying I was making a great mistake in 
laying with a f-inch joint : the blocks ought to be laid with a close 
joint. I thought I would try whether the |-inch joint did answer 
better on a gradient, so I laid one portion with a close joint and 
another with a f-inch joint I found, on examination after two or 
three years* wear, that the wear and tear on the close joint was 
practically as much as that on the 0{)en joint, if not a little more. 
Thus you see in the case of excessive wear on an incline there 



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DISCUSSION. 9(5 

is not much to choose between the close or the open joint In 
my own opinion, with a fairly level road the close joint is by far 
the best, and I now always advise my Vestry to lay the wood with 
a close joint ; but on a gradient with heavy traflSc there is not 
much to choose between them. In Mr. Blair*s statistics nothing is 
said of the horse traffic, which is as important as the wheel traffic, 
and it would be interesting to have this worked out if possible. In 
narrow streets you can clearly see the line of the horse and wheel 
traffic, and it will be noticed in such places that the horse traffic 
wears the roads more than the wheel traffic. If some means could 
be devised for ascertaining the " hoof " traffic as well as the wheel 
traffic, and then reduce both to a standard of traffic, we should have 
a good basis to go upon in determining the relative wear and life 
of the various woods. As intimated in my reply to the discussion 
on my own paper three years ago, we have no data, no fixed rule, 
for taking traffic statistics. We give the number of horses, cabs, 
carriages, &c., and nothing else. If some combination could be 
formed whereby public authorities would join together and bear 
the expense of taking a long series of statistics, much valuable 
information could be obtained. Mr. Norrington in his remarks 
mentions Waterloo Bridge, and gives the gradient there as 
1 in 35. I do not think he states the amount of wear on the 
wood. 

Mr. Norrington : It has only just been done. 

Mr. Mason : I should like to know whether he considers that 
gradient excessive or not. My opinion is that 1 in 35 is the 
maximum gradient for paving of this kind. We are sometimes 
inclined to run mad upon hard wood ; in my opinion it is possible 
to have it too hard. I have recently (in Coventry Street, Leicester 
Square) laid a wood which figures under three or four names, but 
is known really, I believe, as Moulmeim. A strip of this wood has 
been laid in front of the Prince of Wales Theatre, and is, in my 
opinion, too hard. Horses cannot get a foothold on it, and there 
are several other objections to it. My experience is that you can 
have too much of a good thing, and if we go on getting harder 
and harder wood we might as well put down cast iron at once. I 
will conclude by giving one or two statistics as to the expansion and 
contraction of hard wood. I laid some karri wood in Green Street, 
Leicester Square. Green Street has a width of carriage-way of 
31 feet. I left IJ-inch expansion joint on each side of the street, 
and since then I have taken out two longitudinal blocks on each 



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gA HABD WOOD PAYlKa. 

side of the street, and in addition have cut off a quarter of tbe 
third block. That gives an expansion equal to about I in 40, 
proving that the hard woods do expand and contract equally, if not 
more so, than the soft woods. 

Mr. T. H. Yabbioom : I am very much interested in these papers 
by Mr. Blair and Mr. Norrington, and desure to express my deep 
thanks to the metropolitan surveyors for the amount of information 
which they were good enough to give me when I was making 
inquiries some time ago for the Corporation of Bristol. The result 
of the information then obtained was that my Corporation decided 
to lay certain streets with hard wood. For the last three years we 
have been trying karri wood, and our experience, combined with 
that of the metropoUtan districts, has been such that the Corpora- 
tion has decided to extend its use, and I think very wisely, 
although I am not led away by the extravagant ideas which have 
been advanced, to the effect that hard wood will last such a very 
long time, say five or six times that of soft wood ; and in certain 
cases I think it will not be economical to lay hard wood, that is 
unless the traffic is such as to demand it. It has already been 
mentioned to-night, with reference to Tottenham Court Boad, that 
the surface of a street is liable to be broken up a number of times 
from various causes, and this so damages the pavement that unless 
you have places where the ordinary soft wood would wear out in 
six or seven years, the extra cost is not warranted, and of course in 
provincial towns we have not the traffic you have in London. One 
place where I laid karri was on Bristol Bridge, the bridge over the 
Biver Avon on the direct Une to the railway stations. This has been 
subject to heavy traffic for about twelve months; a short piece 
lately taken up, showed that the wear during the twelve months 
has been about | of an inch. As to laying the wood with the close 
or open joint, I am quite a convert to the close joint. The result 
is much more cleanly, and the wear does not produce that corduroy 
look and feel which a wood pavement laid with open joints gets, after 
several years' traffic ; the wear is always more on the joint than it 
is on the centre of the block. I especially notice this on the tram- 
way tracks. We have a large amount of tramways, and whether it 
is caused by the fretting action of the horses' feet or not, but the 
corduroy appearance is more manifest there than on the sides of 
the road. Another difficulty with the tramways is the grooving at 
the side of the metah, and for that situation the hard wood is much 
more desirable than the soft I was much surprised to hear Mr. 



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Google 



DISCUSSION. 97 

Mason mention the large amount of expansion with the AnstraUan 
woods, as I have not fonnd anything like that where karri has been 
laid ; 1 or 1^ inch is as much as I have allowed on each side of a 
street 60 feet wide, and these spaces have not disappeared yet. 
When the Bristol Corporation advertised some time ago for tenders 
for hard wood, it was stipulated that the people tendering should 
famish sample blocks, and on weighing these blocks, say jarrah, 
the weight of 9 by 3 by 4-inch blocks varied as much as from 
4 lbs. 3 ozs. to 3 lbs. 2 ozs. There were not two samples sent 
where the weight was the same. Those I should regard as the 
high-class woods weighed the heavier, and the lighter appeared to 
be submitted by people who were not in the habit of supplying a 
first-class wood, and probably got it at a cheaper rate. The blocks 
that were lighter in colour were also Ughter in weight. I mention 
this, wishing to know whether the experience of London surveyors 
has been similar. The Corporation selected what I consider, 
although paying a higher price for it, was the best wood. 
Another block of hard wood was introduced to me as having been 
used by the engineers of the city of Worcester. It is a very 
ingenious built-up block, 9 by 3 by 4 inches, made of twelve 
rectangular pieces of oak, and is said to have the advantage of 
affording a good foothold for horses when laid upon a steeper 
gradient than 1 in 30. I induced my Corporation to allow me to 
experiment with a sample piece which I am going to put upon a 
gradient of 1 in 20, and if it interests any one, I shall be pleased 
to let them know the results. 

The Chairman: We have had most interesting papers from 
Mr. Blair and Mr. Norriugton on this subject. For myself, I have 
had very little experience with wood paving, but that experience 
agrees with Mr. Blair's. I have found a 4-inch expansion joint on 
a 60-feet road is quit© suflRcient and remains perfectly good. The 
modem system of skidding 'buses, on the soft woods more especially, 
is very injurious to the roads, as the skid is driven into the wood. 
The result is that we have shot holes very soon made in the new 
paving. The High Uoad, Kilbum, is paved for the most part 
with jarrah wood, and the gradient of 1 in 40 in a portion of 
its length is as steep a gradient as I should like to use jarrah 
wood blocks upon. 1 cannot agree with Mr. Mason as to the open 
joint or use of " screeds " between the wood blocks. I thought this 
practice had been discontinued for some time past, and that it was 
accepted that block to block was the only proper method of laying 

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100 HARD WOOD PAVING. 

will be I don't quite see. If yon want an asphalt road make 
it asphalt ; if yon want a road of wood make it of wood ; bnt 
I do not see the good of mixing it As to skids, we are not as 
much troubled with skids as in some provincial towns. In the 
northern part of my district skids are used, and I had one cut in 
a road with a skid which was distinctly an eyesore at first, but it 
was obliterated after about two years' kaffic 

Mr. J. P. NoRRiNGTON, in reply, said : I was rather astounded at 
the figures relating to the expansion of wood paving given by 
Mr. Mason. I cannot say I have found hard wood to expand to 
that extent ; of course, after a continued heavy rain it is necessary 
to send round the parish to examine the open joints left between 
the wood paving and the kerb to allow for expanrion. Becently I 
have been putting clay instead of sand in this open joint, as it yields 
more freely under pressure. As to the difference of weights, I have 
found jarrah wood to vary very much in weight. The first paper 
I read on wood paving was after an experience of some light jarrah 
blocks. Since then my experience has caused me to look with 
suspicion upon light jarrah blocks. The light wiBight shows the 
wood to be lacking in closeness of grain, density, &p. Mr. Mason 
referred to certain woods as likely to prove too hard. I think that 
may prove true of iron bark. I had a conversation with a gentle- 
man a little while back, who stated that he had tried to work iron 
bark, and that it destroyed his tools. I question whether the 
Australians will be able to cut it and send it over here at reasonable 
prices. Mr. Lowe has spoken of the effect on pavements of wheels 
skidding. I think a fair example of this effect is to be seen in 
front of the Wetft Strand Post OflBce. The greatest injury appears 
to me to be done by the narrow wheels and heavy weight of the 
omnibuses. The condition of these hard woods at stopping places 
for omnibuses is a very severe test of their qualities. I was 
surprised to hear Mr/Mason say he found the pavements laid with 
vrider joints between the blocks wear as long as the pavement with 
the close joint. I have been converted to the opinion that the close 
joint makes the beet pavement. Unfortunately my Vestry do not 
care for me to lay paving with a close joint, and they prefer to use 
a cement grouting instead of pitch, such as I used at Fulham. I 
do not agree with Mr. Blair as to the non-seasoning of the wood. 
1 hope, that thoge who import the woods will take great care to 
season it. I believe that if it is seasoned there vrill not be the 
pxpansion and contraction in the pavements when laid whi(?h takes 

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1>I8CUS810N. 101 

place with new wood. We have all probahly seen some wood paving 
in London which was laid in time of frost, and tlie joints of which 
opened to snch an extent that it had to be relaid. My experience 
is that new wood when laid expands and contracts for a time, and 
(after it is seasoned) finally settles down to an almost stationary 
position. 

Mr. NiSBBT Blair : One word in explanation as to the seasoning 
of wood. I mean to represent that wood should be laid very soon 
after it is imported into this country. I do not wish it to be implied 
that the wood should be felled when the sap is up, or sent out with 
the sap in it. Let it be felled at the proper time and cut up into 
deals, but the sooner it can be used after it is imported into this 
country the better it will be as a paving material. 

The Chairman moved a vote of thanks to the Council of the 
Institution of Civil Engineers for allowing the vbio of the rooms for 
the meeting, which was heartily accorded. 

The meeting then adjourned. 



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ADJOURNED DISTRICT MEETING AT 
WESTMINSTER. 

March 11, 1896. 

Held at the Town HaU, Westminster, 
C. H. LowB> M. Ikst. O.E., Viob-Prbsidbnt, in the Chair, 

«♦♦- 



The discussion on Mr. J. P. Barber's paper was further proceeded 
with. 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr. W. NiBBET Blaib : I feel a very great interest in this paper, 
and as I had not the opportunity at the last meeting of really 
saying any thing, after consideration, and as I thought other people 
would be in the same position, I suggested that we should have an 
adjourned meeting. I have made some marginal notes which I will 
take in the order followed by the paper. The first note I have made 
is, that Mr. Barber should recognise the principal Act as the Act 
of 1855 and not 1856. That is purely clerical My next note is 
against the first paragraph of the second page of the paper, under the 
head of sewers, " before any person can begin to construct a sewer a 
plan and section thereof must be submitted to the yestry and district 
board, and their consent in writing obtained to the proposed work" 
Neglect on the part of owners of property to comply with this 
direction has resulted in a great deal of the trouble in which local 
authorities are now placed with respect to the distinction between 



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103 

and dniBfl^aad ^ caafiwiMi is fintlier laci cisg d hjihm 
mterpreftatin of than wri& TiMt point ke baem the subject of 
co M Bi i i nifmtintw to the Aaocatiaa befixe* and I do not intend to 
toodi upon it fartlier than to paint ont that if it hadfaeennadean 
ohKgition onpgJTateowmepinlaTingontaneBtate toentnut plans 
of thepnipoaed seven^ then the testiT and the Metropolitan Boaid 
— DOW the Gbnntj Condi — ^mwld hare been in poBHewBinn of 
infomatni which wonU have enabled tfaea to keep an eye upon 
the maintenanee of these pnrmte aeireiB npon pmate groond. 
Nov local anthoritieB aze iy<fiding enonnoiis sams of mooey in 
reb jing pnrely pmate dnms on pnTate pn^eitj. In m j own 
district we are jost eompleting one little HoA. whidi is ooetmg ns 
19002. That is dne to the fi^t that the pec^ who bnilt the 
|si^efty boSt the sewos on pnrate land without anthoritj. We 
are hoping great things fipom the amending Act iriiidi the Conndl 
has promoted, which is framed on the lines of the proposals of the 
eonferaoee hdd in London twelte months aga The j hare adopted 
the piedse wwding iriiidi that eonferenoe suggested. Mr. Barber 
snggests ^that the coDstmctaon of sachBewors should be imdor the 
control and saperrision of the snrrejoca; and that the cost of soch 
snperrisioQ sboold be paid by the persons at whose expense the 
sewers are coostrocted." I agree with him in pnneiple, and the 
statutes agree with the proposal, becanse where prirate work is 
executed by the local anthority, that authority is anthorised to 
diarge 5 per cent, in reepect to what amounts to s uper fision. To 
make a d^nite reeomm^idation I woold soggest that any ammid- 
ment shoold embody the figure of 5 per oeskt as the amount to be 
paid to any local authority in respect of any work to be executed. 
If any record had to be kept of the work of suptfiiaion it would 
render a great deal of book-keejMng necessary, and would be much 
bett^ aTCMded by the payment of 5 per ceoL upcm the cost by 
persons who may execute such work. With the next paragraph, 
in which Mr. Barber refers to the Tentilation of sewers vested in 
the Gmndl being specially ^oTided for, I distinctly agree» and 
would emphasise the necessity of some such proTiai<m by referring 
to what has happened in my own district somewhat rec^tly. The 
Councils sewer passing through the district receiyes our local 
sewers^ and into one of them, a yery short distance from the main 
sewer, the effluent is disdiarged from the gasworks. That effluent 
is at times strcmgly impregnated with anmuxiiacal liquors and 



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104 AMBNDMEKT8 OF THE MBTB0P0LI8 LOCAL MANAQEMENT ACTS. 

sulphur compounds, which give off most offensive smells all the 
way along the line of the CouDcil's sewer. Complaints were made 
by members of the public, and on examination being made it was 
found that the offensive smells came from the Council's sewers, 
when the attention of the Council was called to the matter. The 
Council referred it back to the Vestry on the ground that the 
effluent was discharged first into one of the Vestry's sewers. We 
had to recognise that was correct. But when we attempted to deal 
with the gas company we found ourselves in a difficulty. Until 
the Act of 1894 there was no power authorising the local authority 
to take proceedings against any person discharging offensive matters 
into the sewers. In the Act of 1894 a clause is inserted giving the 
Council power to prevent the discharge of offensive effluents, not 
only into the Council's sewers but into local sewers discharg- 
ing into the Council's sewera It does not authorise the local 
authority to take proceedings, and in the case in question the 
local authority were unable, and the Council declined, to take 
proceedings. Therefore, except by calling the attention of the gas 
company to the offence, we are unable to do anything in the 
matter. Of course the offence was reduced in degree after the 
complaint, but we are unable to take any effective steps to prevent 
what is a nuisance. The matter has been known to the officers of 
the Vestry for thirty years, the difficulty being really to get such 
evidence that you might with any hope of success take proceedings 
against the company. We took samples of the liquid, had it 
analysed, and it was proved that the nature of the effluent was 
such as to cause the nuisance. In spite of our offer to support 
them the Council declined to take proceedings. We are helpless, 
and the Council by their inaction allow the offence to be repeated 
as often as the gas company care to permit it. As to gullies, 
Mr. Barber says *' By section 71, first Act, the Vestries and District 
Boards are compelled to trap gullies, including those discharging 
into the County Councils main sewers, although by section 27, 
second Act, the last-mentioned gullies cannot be trapped without 
the consent of the Council or of their engineer." I do not think 
Mr. Barber has read the eection of the first Act as closely as he 
might, or he might get a different result. The first Act forbids 
the ventilation of gullies by street gratings, whether by manholes 
or in the middle of the road. Mr. Barber then quotes the second 
Act, that gullies cannot be trapped without the consent of the 



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DISCUSSION. 105 

Council. There is certainly great confusion there. With regard 
to gullies I think they should be disconnected &om the sewers into 
which they discharge. Gullies are incidental to the street forma- 
tion. If there were no street you would need no gullies, and I 
think all gullies should vest in the authority in whom the street 
may be vested. In most cases the streets are vested in the vestry, 
even in cases where the Council construct, as in Rosebery Avenue; 
they hand the street over to the vestry to maintain. Therefore 
any power with regard to gullies should vest in the local authority. 
On the question of the drainage of existing houses, the words 
''sufficient drainage" are emphasised. Mr. Barber takes those 
words to be applicable only to the size of the drain. I cannot quite 
agree with him there, because the section refers to materials, size, 
level and fall of the drain, and I think that is all-embracing. The 
drain must be " sufficient " in all those respects. I think that gives 
us all we need. The weakest point in regard to house drainage 
is the absence of authority to require a plan. The plan is the 
most important thing, so as to record the work that is done, but at 
present we have no power to require it. In the case of the drainage 
of new bouses the omission there is to provide a penalty for the 
offence. '' It shall not be lawful " implies an offence against the 
statute which is not difficult to prove, but having proved that, we 
are at present in the position of having no penalty attached to the 
offence. Mr. Barber says, "drainage into cesspools, which is 
permitted by this section, should be prohibited." Yes, where a 
sewer exists within 200 feet of the premises, but there may be 
cases where no sewers exist within that statutory limit of 200 feet. 
In such cases we are bound to admit drainage into cesspools, and 
the liquid can be used on the fields and gardens, and the solids 
removed periodically. The alternative to extend the public sewer 
a long distance might be unreasonable in view of the size of the 
property to be drained. On page 68 is emphasised the necessity 
for plans. We have a case under notice at present where that 
is demonstrated most forcibly. A certain builder is redraining 
some property. He expresses his full desire and intention to 
comply with the wishes of the Vestry, but refuses to submit any 
plan. Therefore we do not know on what line he is going to relay 
the drain, and he refuses to inform us. He exposes himself to the 
risk of a double expense in doing the work wrong and having to 
amend it, but he refuses to recognise the assistance it would bo to 



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106 AMENDMENTS OF THE USTROFOLIS LOCAL UANAGEMBNT ACTS. 

the Yeetry and its officers to have a plan first I agree vdth 
Mr. Barber that direct authority should be provided for the yestries 
to make the ro;^u1ations which are referred to in section 83. It is 
only by implication we can say we have authority to make regula- 
tions. Most local authorities have made regulations, and the Yestry 
of Islington has recently made some extended and elaborate regula- 
tions. The power to make bye-laws as to drains is, by section 202, 
first Act, conferred on the London County Council. The Council 
are now engaged in preparing new bye-laws from which we hope 
great things, though we have not yet any knowledge of them. I 
agree with the third paragraph, that sections 76 and 83 appear to 
recognise the power of the vestry or district board to make orders 
and give directions only in respect to new drainage and sanitary 
works, and it is doubtful whether they can exercise similar powers 
with regard to the reconstruction of drains. I maintain the laying 
of a new drain does not depend upon its dimension or lengtii or 
size, but whether there was a drain there before, or whether it is 
to be reconstructed in a new position or at a different level or 
depth, even if it is only two pipes in length. Such a case I 
should maintain was making a new drain. On page 69 Mr. Barber 
says, ** The Author does not consider that these regulations should 
be drawn up by the County Council, as that body has no experience 
in the carrying out of regulations relating to this subject. A 
committee formed of surveyors to metropolitan local authorities 
would be, in the Author's opinion, better able to produce a satis- 
&ctory and efficient set of regulations." I am afraid he is not 
likely to induce the Council to transfer any of their authority 
in the matter to the vestries. I am also liraid we should not 
convince the medical officers of health and the sanitary in- 
spectors that we could produce an efficient code of regulations 
without their assistance. As to the power of local authorities 
to make private drains under the roads, and to recover the 
expense from the owner, it is legal to do so, but in my opinion 
it is not desirable. The local authority should throw the whole 
responsibility upon the owner or builder. Where any difficulty 
arises in any portion of the work, the idea is to throw the responsi- 
bility upon the local authority ; but if the owner carries out the 
work no such difficulty can arise. As to the paving of courts, the 
principal difficulty is to prove who is the owner of the court, because 
the Act refers to the court and not to the property fronting the 
court The houses may be held under lease, and for all statutory 

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DISCUSSION. 107 

obligations the lessee is owner of the property ; bnt I think it is 
donbtfal if he is the owner of the conri I think there is no doubt 
in all the leases, or at any rate in nine-tenths of the leases, there is 
nothing to indicate that the owners of the honses own any part 
of the court. Therefore the liability in respect of paving the 
court is upon the ground landlord. I think that should be altered 
to bring it into a parallel position with work that may be executed 
under section 150 of the Public Health Act, 1875, where work in 
any road, street, square, court, alley or passage — ^there is a very 
long list which practically means everything that is not a public 
street — ^may be dealt with, that is, formed or drained by the local 
authority, and the cost of the work apportioned upon the property 
facing that work. Similar powers in tiie metropolis would remove 
the difficulty that now exista The penalty that can be imposed 
under the Metropolitan Acts is too paltry to induce owners to 
comply with^ihe regulations. It simply amounts to the payment 
of 5Z. The law says that ^'any person who fails to comply with 
an order to pave a court is liable to a penalty of 52." That leaves 
the responsibility upon the local authority to do the work. 
Mr. Barber says that clause 105 as to the n^Jdng of new streets 
wants amending. Amended powers ought to be given to local 
authorities to make portions of a street, those portions being 
selected longitudinally or transversely. You may want to lay out 
a street where it is desirable to form and pave one side, because 
property ib built on that side ; but it may be undesirable at the 
time to lay out money in paving the footway on the other side of 
the street Under the present powers you cannot do that. If 
you serve notices on the one side^ you cannot recover afterwards, 
for the other portion of the work. I know that in the provinces 
certain towns have the power to do the work in that way. There 
is also power to charge land less than buildings in laying out and 
forming roads, but there is nothing to provide that when that land 
is built on the owner shall pay the difference between the original 
payment and the actual cost of the work. It saddles the rates 
with a charge which the owner will have made as profit by 
deferring thos building on his land for a few years. Then as to 
the powers of statutory companies to break up the streets. I am 
a&aid we should not be able to secure the agreement of companies 
to the stringent conditions which Mr. Barber suggests, and in 
some instances it would be hardly practicable. We know in how 
many instances where openings are made they are matters of 



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108 AMENDMENTS OF THE METROPOLIS LOCAL MANAGEMENT ACTS- 

emergency ; it may be a burst pipe or something of that sort. In 
such a case would Mr. Barber require them to submit plans to the 
local authority before the work could be done? There is an 
important matter in connection with this class of work which I 
wish to call attention to. We have ourselves been landed in a very 
remarkable position in this way. Some three years ago, during 
the night — the exact time was about two o'clock in the morning — 
a portion of Euston Boad between King's Cross and St. Pancras 
was observed by a watchman to be rising up before his eyes, and 
eventually he was confirmed in his idea when a terrific crack, 
almost like an explosion, took place, and then the whole place was 
deluged by water. Presently the water company's oflScer came 
and shut ofi" the water, which did not do much damage to property 
but very serious damage to the road. It proved to be due to the 
fracture of a branch pipe from the company's main supplying the 
Great Northern Bailway. It was such a connection as the water 
company was not authorised to lay, and the Great Northern 
Railway had no statutory right to require the water company to 
lay such a pipe. It was laid by agreement more than twenty 
years ago. It was not quite clear, but was supposed to be 
laid by the New River Company at the expense of the Great 
Northern Railway. The water company repaired the pipe and 
asked the Vestry's officers to repair the roadway. The granite 
roadway was undermined for a considerable distance, the concrete 
in many places lying hollow. Eventually we reached the limit 
of the disturbance, and made the repairs, which amounted to 250Z., 
the water company's charges for the repairs to the pipe being only 
12Z. In due time we charged the account to the New River 
Company ; they returned it and asked us to send it to the Great 
Northern Railway. Their officers came to see me and discussed 
it, and I had every reason to suppose they would pay it. A delay 
occurred and we wrote to the railway company, who then returned 
the account, saying they were advised there was no liability resting 
on them. We then approached the New River Company, but 
they said it was not their pipe and they were not liable. We 
then consulted our solicitors, and counsels opinion was taken, and 
we were advised that we should not be able to recover from the 
one or the other. The service pipe of 5 inches was one which the 
railway company were not authorised to possess, or the New 
River Company to lay under the road. I suppose the Vestry at 
the time thought it was the right thing to permit, though no 

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DISCUSSION. 109 

agreement was required. The resnlt is we fell between two stools, 
and had to repair the road at our own expense. A similar case 
has occurred since this happened, and was reported about six weeks 
ago — Saint Olave's District Board against the water company on 
that side of the river — and the decision was that the Vestry could 
not recover the cost. Such a thing should be provided for. That 
is the most important omission in this paragraph relating to 
statutory companies* trenches. Mr. Bturber deals with the 
question of street improvements, I think he has overlooked the 
authority which does exist under George III. chap. 59. That 
certainly does authorise the local authority to obtain property 
compulsorily for improvements. The method is somewhat cum- 
bersome, because it provides that failing agreement there is to be 
summoned a sheriff's jury of not less than 48 or more than 72 to 
assess the value. We can understand the sort of judgment that 
might be arrived at by a sheriff's jury as to the value of property. 
Bat even tha^t Act is open to question as to its powers, the question 
being whether that section gives the vestry powers as against a 
railway company which has obtained land under an Act of 
Parliament. I should argue it is so, although a railway company 
in my district say their Act overrides this antiquated Act, and does 
not allow their property to be taken from them even if a very 
heavy cost is paid for it. 

Mr. LovEGBovE said : There are several points in the paper to 
which I should Uke to refer. To one who has been accustomed to 
work in provincial towns it is very difficult to understand how, 
under the present divided state of things, municipal work is carried 
on in London. Take for instance the erection of new buildings, 
the supervision of the building itself is in the hands of one 
authority, and the supervision of the drainage iii the hands of 
another authority. In the provinces the whole of the work is under 
one authority, and the inspection of the erection of buildings and 
the laying of drains is combined. With regard to the drainage of 
existing houses, I think that there will be some difficulty in obtaining 
regulations for the reconstruction of the drains. Most of these cases 
arise from three or four causes. (1) The existence of a nuisanoe ; 
(2) Consequent upon an inspection of the drains after a case of 
zymotic disease ; (3) As the result of house to house inspection ; 
(4) A case of voluntary reconstruction on the part of the owner. 
With regard to the first three cases, the power of the local authority 
is to cause the defects which exist to be remedied. In the fourth 

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110 AMENDM£NTS OF THB HETBOPOLIS LOCAL MANAaEHKNT A0T8. 

case, that of yolnntary reconstrnction, I take it that if the owner 
is willing to reconstrnot his drains he is also desirous of putting 
them in the beet condition possible. It appears to me improb- 
able, however desirable it may seem, that you will obtain in 
London greater powers than those now existing in the provincial 
towns, viz. the remedying of defects .which constitute a nuisance. 
In Hornsey we have a number of cases of defective drainage in 
hand, and in every instance a plan is kept of the drains. We 
have no such regulations as are suggested in the paper, but persuade 
the owners to see that what is asked is for their benefit, and we 
are able to get many things done, not only in the case of recon- 
struction of drainage but also in respect to the drainage of new 
buildings, which the byelaws do not provide for. This may be 
partly due to a local interest in sanitary matters, an interest that 
centres in the Sanitary Museum which my predecessor, Mr. Meade, 
laboured so hard and successfully to obtain. With regard to the 
opening of roads, Mr. Barber suggests that persons opening trenches 
should keep them in repair for twelve months. Judging from the 
number we have, I think that the maintenance of our highwajrs 
would on these lines gradually fall into the hands of the various 
companies and others opening the trenches. The Waterworks Act, 
1847, already requires that the undertakers opening the trenches 
shall keep them in repair for three months, or such time not ex- 
ceeding twelve months during which the soil subsides, and it appears 
to me that it would be better that a schedule of payments should 
be adopted sufficient to cover the repair and maintenance of the 
trenches; but that in any case the actual work of repair and 
maintenance should remain in the hands of the local authority. 
Mr. Barber has already been deservedly complimented upon his 
paper, which deals with a subject of unusual importance, and I 
hope that his work will be rewarded by practical results. 

Mr. P. DoDD : With regard to drainage into cesspools, Mr. Barber 
suggests that this should be prohibited. I should like to know 
what he would recommend should be doue in the case of pro- 
perties already having cesspools, and which are several hundred 
feet away from the sewers, and which cannot be drained into the 
sewers without considerable expense to the local authorities, seeing 
that they have no power to compel the drainage of any house into 
a sewer which is more than 100 feet distant therefrom. I quite 
agree there should be some farther legislation upon this matter, 
as under the PubUc Health (London) Act, 1891, it is the duty 

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DISOUSSION. Ill 

of eyery sanitary authority to empty and cleanse cesspools, privies, 
&c., and it is a question worth consideration as to whether it would 
not be more economical in some cases to lay the sewer up to 
100 feet from the premises, and thereby save the continued expense 
of emptying the cesspools, &c. Another point of interest is one 
which I believe was referred to by Mr. Blair, viz, the paving of 
portions of a street I have had a case before a magistrate to-day 
bearing npon this matter. The road in question is an old highway, 
and was for many years built on on the west side only, and the foot- 
path on that side was kerbed and paved at the expense of the local 
authority in 1879. Becently seven or eight houses have been 
erected on the east side of the road, and it is now proposed to kerb 
and pave the footpath on this side, and apportion the cost on the 
owners on both sides of the road opposite the proposed paving. 
Some of the owners on the west side objected to pay their portion of 
the cost, first on the ground that it was an old highway, and secondly 
because their side of the road had been paved at the expense 
of the local authority. The case was partly heard to-day and 
was adjourned.* 

Mr. Wheeler : There are several matters beyond even those 
which Mr. Barber has referred to, which I should like a com- 
mittee of London surveyors to go through and see if we could 
not get them amended. Take the sewers for instance. I have 
large works in this parish which have been waiting a month for 
the consent of the County Council. Then when they give us 
power to do the work, they require us to surround the sewer with 
concrete because the pressure of water from their main sewer is 
so great that they are afraid these branch sewers will burst. 
Mr. Barber thinks, as the future maintenance of such sewers de- 
volves upon the vestries and district boards, they should have power 
to require them to be constructed in accordance with specifications 
and detailed drawings of the sewers, manholes, gullies, &c., prepared 
by their surveyors ; also that the construction of such sewers should 
be under the control and supervision of the surveyors, and that the 
cost of such supervision should be paid by the persons at whose 
expense the sewers are constructed. I would even go further than 
that. I should like to see these plans prepared by the surveyors, 
and the proportion of the cost of the drawings paid by the con- 
structors of the sewers. Further than that, I think the whole of 

* SiDce tho date of this meeting the case has been decided in fa?oar of the 
local authority. 



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112 AMENDMENTS OF THE METROPOLIS LOCAL MANAGEMENT ACTS. 

the drainage of the houses should be under the supervision of the 
local authority, and that the authority should give a certificate so 
that owners of property should be in a position to say, " we have a 
certificate to show that the drainage is satisfiewtory." There ought 
also to be an inspection of house drains every three or four years. 
That is a work which the local authority has hitherto shirked. 
Under the present system, one portion of the work is under the 
local surveyor and the other portion is under the district surveyor. 
With regard to the ventilation of the sewers, it is a fact that in the 
Westminster district they object to ventilating shafts, and to our 
gullies, which we have to run on to the foreshore of the Thames. 
That is a wrong thing. I have fought the County Council because 
their system is not perfect, and they ask us to carry out a perfect 
system. Then as to the drainage of existing houses. We have a 
great many experts in this district, and they come before my 
committee to prove that their drains are efficient. We have no 
cesspools, as the sewers are near enough to the houses to compel 
the owners to drain into them. I do not have very much difficulty 
as to plans. We generally make so far as we can a survey of the 
drains ourselves, and we keep a record in that way. It is a difficult 
thing to do, but I keep in touch both by the sanitary inspectors and 
my own staff. As to drains under roads, I have not experienced 
any difficulty in this district with respect to that. If a man makes 
a complaint and suggests that the stoppage is in the Vestry *s sewer, 
we require him to deposit a sum of money to cover the cost of the 
work. If the stoppage is in the Vestry's sewer the money is repaid, 
if it is in the owner's drains the cost of the work is charged. There 
have been only two cases where the stoppage was in the sewer. 
We have also met the difficulty as to the paving of courts. We have 
served notices under the Sanitary Act calling them insanitary 
courts, and deal with them as a nuisance. As to the making up of 
new streets, we have not had many in this district. In an adjoin- 
ing district I had some experience of new streets, and we always 
included the cost of the gullies in the cost of the road, and so put 
it into the apportionment. I do not know of many cases where we 
had to sue after the road was made up. The suggestions in the 
paper are of very great value, and I think it is only right that a 
committee of surveyors should bo appointed to work with 
Mr. Barber and to bring up a report on the different sections 
of the Acts. That is the only way to get the opinions of metro- 
politan surveyors. 

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DIB0US8ION. 113 

The Chaibhan : I am sure, althongh onr meeting is small in 
Dumber, the interest in the paper has been very frdly shown by 
the remarks of the speakers who have taken part in the discnssion. 
I have looked through the paper carefully and have made a few 
notes upon some of the points. With regard to sewers, I think 
there most be some central authority to have control over the main 
sewers of the metropolis, and no exception could be taken to the local 
sewers being designed and constructed by the local authority. The 
question of combined drainage has been threshed out by this 
Association and by most of the yestries and district boards, and we 
have all felt the difficulty more or less. In my own district it 
has been less felt, because, fortunately, my predecessor covered him- 
self by making special reports in all cases of combined drainage, 
and we can look up these reports and trace the statutory order 
required. The ventilation of sewers has caused a great amount of 
difficulty, largely due to sentiment. The sentimental complaint is 
one which is most difficult to deal with. I could give you an instance 
where the nuisance was thought to be so bad that I blocked up the 
ventilators as the most drastic remedy for the evil, but strangely 
enough the complaints came in just as frequent as before, thus 
giving a strong proof that a person seeing the ventilator in the 
street considers it to be a nuisance. Onr difficulties are thus 
increased by the sentiment imported into it. Ventilators in the 
streets are doubtless a crude method of ventilating sewers, but we 
are advised they are the best system at present known. With 
regard to the drainage of existhig houses, the byelaws recently 
passed are not retrospective in their nature ; and where you have a 
good house drain which is doing its work well, but which may not be 
water-tight outside the premises, you cannot compel it to be. 
brought up to stand the water or the smoke test. As long as the 
drain is doing good work I do not consider you can make the bye- 
laws applicable in a retrospective sense. There have been two 
cases recently decided in the law courts, clearing the ground for 
us in regard to this, I happen to be a governor of a metropolitan 
school, and the Inspector recently called upon us to take up the old 
drains and put in an entire new system. The main drains were all 
situate outdde in the playground, and 4 feet from the sarface, 
perfectly good as drains, but not equal to stand the smoke or water 
test. The Medical Officer of Health very wisely said the drains were 
domg good work and were not likely to cause a nuisance, and he 
therefore could not press the matter. The result was that a consider- 

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114 AMENDMENTS OF THE METROPOLIS LOCAL MANAGEMENT ACTS. 

able saying was effected. With regard to the drainage of new 
houses, we have to guard against over-sanitation. We have experts 
and experts. The builder possessing a truck containing six drain 
pipes, and a boy to push it, puts himself down as a sanitary engineer. 
Some drains are so trapped and over-trapped that the wonder is that 
any sewage finds its way to the sewers. You have to exercise care 
to prevent a householder being poisoned by over-sanitation of his 
own house. I have experienced no difficulty in obtaining plans. 
We have only had one case of refusal point blank to produce a plan. 
I think the public are now sufficiently educated in sanitary matters 
to put their houses in proper order. As to new legislation, there 
should be some general law under which we could act, and allowing 
local authorities to frame bye-laws, subject to proper approval, for 
their own districts. As to drains under roads, in my district 
(Hampstead) the builders make the sewers under my supervision, 
and we have had no difficulty. As to the paving and draining of 
private courts, there should be some powers to enforce, as in the 
case of new streets, apportioning the cost upon the owners. As 
regards any court which may be a nuisance, you have no difficulty 
under the Sanitary Act of 1891 in compelling the owner or owners 
to put it into good condition, so as to remove the nuisance. Like 
Mr. Wheeler, I have always charged the cost of gullies and works 
incidental thereto in any new street, in the apportionment, and have 
had no difficulty in recovering the money. I am afraid the question 
of breaking up of streets is too important a subject to go into to- 
night, a subject almost worthy of a paper to itself. We have expe- 
rienced much difficulty with pubUc companies, and now, with the 
electric light and other disturbances, the streets are ploughed up in 
all directions, and we have no chance of supervising as rapidly as we 
ought. The alteration of levels of paving is provided for. There 
is a provision in the Metropolis Management Act giving the 
vestries the powers to raise or lower the level of a roadway. I do 
not say you have the right to raise without compensation the road- 
way, say 5 feet, so as to bury a man's doorway, although the Act is 
perfectly silent on this subject. It simply says " they shall have 
power to alter the roads." As to projections, notice boards, &c., 
Mr. Barber says they are becoming a nuisance in London, and we 
have not much power to deal with them. The Hampstead vestry 
have tried to deal with signboards, but without much success. But 
an even greater nuisance is the " squatter " on the footpaths, the 
vendors of flowers, gold-fish, toy balloons and other things, people 

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DI60U8SION. 115 

who pay no rates and undersell the tradesmen. The police, unlike 
the '' good Samaritan/' pass by on the other side and do nothing. 
If yon attempt to remove them, strong representations are made to 
you by benevolent people' to allow them to remain. Of course I 
do not desire that itinerant vendors should have their livmg taken 
away, but some place or places might be set apart in most of our 
districts where such a market could be formed and placed under 
proper control, and so do away with a practice which is becoming a 
great nuisance. With regard to the temporary closing of the 
streets, I think it is intended to transfer this power to the local 
authority. I may say, so far as my district is concerned, if it is 
necessary to block a road on an emergency I do not go to the 
County Council for consent. Of course if I have to close the street 
for a couple of months, to relay paving or construct a sewer, appli- 
cation is made. The Act of 57 G-eorge III. gives certain power 
to local authorities to carry out works of street improvements, but 
the process is tedious and cumbersome, and the award of the Court 
in case of dispute is rarely satisfiwitory. The County Council 
intend to introduce a bill to enable local authorities to purchase 
property compulsorily for pubUc purposes. It is proposed to 
transfer important powers to local authorities. The most im- 
portant of these duties is that of the work of district surveyor& 
Should this be transferred to the local surveyor, I hope the 
authorities under whom he may serve will properly appreciate and 
value the extra duties thus thrown upon him, as was mentioned 
by Mr. Weaver in his remarks on this branch of the subject. 
Mr. Barber in his admirable paper only refers especially to two 
Acts of Parliament, thus touching the fringe of this important 
subject. According to Woolrych, late edition, there are no less 
than 37 statutes under which we have to carry out our duties, 
and since 1888 there have been some ten Acts of Parliament 
passed ; in fact, during the last two sessions Amendment Acts 
were showered upon us like leaves in autumn. I am very anxious 
that some practical results should come from this meeting, and 
therefore tlurow out the suggestion of consolidation of the existing 
Metropolis Management Acts, as was done in 1891 when the 
Public Health Act was passed. This would be of very great 
service to all engaged in local afikirs, and much simplify our work. 
Many must have found, like myself, great difficulty in looking into 
the Local Management Acts for guidance. Directly you fixed 
upon a particular clause meeting a difficulty, you also found in a 

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116 AHENDHBKT8 OF THE HBTB0P0LI8 LOOAL HANAQEHBNT ACTS. 

footnote half the letters of the alphabet referring yon to old Acts of 
Parliament ; and by the time yon had searched them through, a very 
yagne and foggy idea was obtained of what was the law. If these 
Acts could be consolidated by a combined body of lawyers and 
surveyors going through the various Acts, eliminating clauses 
which are useless, extending and amending others up to date, it 
would be, I feel sure, a very great advantage. My suggestion is 
that you should look rather to a proper consolidation and revision 
of the powers of local authorities, than to a tinkering of the existing 
Acts, if I may use the term. Whether when the district councils 
are formed, or now, is the time to do this, I am not prepared to say ; 
but it is possible, in my opinion, to very much simplify the powers 
under which we act by some such process as this. I am sure our 
best thanks are due to the Author of the paper, Mr. Barber, for the 
careful attention he has given to the subject, and for attending here 
this evening at considerable personal inconvenience and risk to 
his health. I am sure on your behalf I may wish him a speedy 
recovery. 

Mr. J. Patten Barbeb replied in the following terms : — 
Sewers. — I believe that a provision in the Act, as suggested by 
Mr. Blair, enabling the vestries and district boards to make a 
specific charge for supervision of 5 per cent, on the cost of the 
work would be found inconvenient, owing to tJie difficulty in 
ascertaining the cost of the work, which is not carried out by 
the local authority, but by the person laying out the estates on 
which the sewers are constructed. 

Drainage of Existing Houses. — Mr. Blair does not agree with 
the interpretation of " sufficient " as applied to a drain, in sec. 73, 
first Act, on the grouad that the section empowers a vestry or 
district board to prescribe the material, levels, fall, &c., of the 
drain to be provided to such a building as this section is applicable 
to, and the apparatus and appliances which shall be furnished in 
connection with such drains. Nearly the whole of the matters 
which this section enables the vestry or district board to require, 
are accessories to the drain which has to be provided to a building 
not drained by a *' sufficient drain,'' and their purpose is stated. 
Now it is clear that a drain described as not '' sufficient " could 
not be made so by the provision of the accessories mentioned in 
the section, or it would have been provided that such a drain 
should be furnished therewitL But the section contains no such 
provision; the building which is found not to be drained by a 

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DI80U88ION. 117 

'^sufficient dram" must, according to this section, be provided 
mth a new drain. If^ therefore, the drain not found ** sufficient " 
cannot be made so by the proyidon of the accessories mentioned 
in this section, it could only be on account of its discharging 
capacity being insufficient, that being the only matter which would 
be unaffected by these accessories. The word " sufficient " there- 
fore relates to the size or to the discharging capacity of the drain, 
and not to its being furnished with suitable accessories. Again, 
the function of a house drain is to carry off the sewage discharged 
into it; if it does this the drain is "sufficient/' whatever may be 
its other imperfections. It appears, therefore, that however faulty 
a drain may be, so long as it is capable of carrying off the sewage 
discharged into it it could be successfully contended that it was 
a " sufficient drain," and the local authority would be unable to 
enforce compliance with requirements made under this section. 
Mr. Weaver considers that the Public Health (London) Act, 1891, 
gives the local authority sufficient power to deal with the drainage 
of existing buildings. A comparison of sec. 4 of that Act with 
the section under consideration, will show how much more extensive 
and specific are the powers conferred by the latter. Under the 
Public Health (London) Act the abatement of nuisances may be 
secured, but systems of drainage and sanitary appliances bad in 
design and construction cannot be abolished and replaced by 
improved and efficient ones, as they could be if this section were 
altered as suggested. Mr. Lovegrove's contention, that the powers 
of a local authority should not extend further than may be 
necessary to secure the abatement of nuisances, is at first sight 
reasonable. But a nuisance may be abated, whilst drains with 
uneven gradients and laid in irregular and tortuous lines, and 
numerous other fiEtulty matters, may remain, which the local 
authority is powerless to require should be replaced by a proper 
system of drainage and efficient sanitary appliances, because their 
powers are limited to the extent advocated by Mr. Lovegrova It 
seems reasonable that when such a condition of things is found 
upon premises, the owner should be required to remove all such 
drains, &a, and to carry out a more satisfactory system in accord- 
ance with present-day regulations. 

Drains wider Roods. — Those who have spoken on this subject 
have not referred to the defect in the Act pointed out in the 
second sentence of the paragraph dealing with this subject One 
advocates that the portion of the private drain which is under the 



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118 AMENDMENTS OP THE METBOPOLIS LOCAL MANAGEMENT ACTS. 

road should be laid by the owner of the buflding with which snch 
drain is connected. The owner can do this now, provided the local 
anthority will allow him ; the matter is, therefore, in their control, 
and legislation respecting it is unnecessary. A second speaker 
states that in the event of a private drain under a road requiring 
reconstruction or unstopping, the local authority can do the neces- 
sary work and charge the owner of the drain with the expense 
incurred, lliese remarks do not touch the point raised in the 
paper, which refers to a private drain through which several 
houses belonging to different owners are drained. 
< Paving, Draining and Repairing CourtSf (fee, not being 
Thoroughfares. — Two suggestions have been made in the dis- 
cussion of this part of the paper: (a) That such courts, &a, 
should be paved as new streets, under sec 105, first Act. The 
objection to this is that the vestry or district board would have 
to maintain the paving, (t) That such courts, &c., should be 
repaired under the Public Health (London) Act, as insanitary. 
This has been tried, and the difficulty of proving who is respon- 
sible for paving not used exclusively by the owner or occupier of 
one building, but by the several owners or occupiers of buildings 
in the court, has made it impossible to succeed. The ownership 
of a court is never, in the author's experience, found to be vested 
in one person, and where there are numerous owners it is impos- 
sible to ascertain the extent of their several liabilities. None of 
the difficulties or objections with which these two suggestions 
would be met, would be experienced if the alteration suggested 
in the paper were made. 

Breaking-up Streets. — It has been stated in the discussion that 
if a trench opened by a gas or water company subsides after it 
has been reinstated by the vestry under an agreement with the 
company, the surveyor requires that a second voucher be sent, 
and that he succeeds in obtaining this, and thereupon repairs the 
trench a second time at the expense of the company. There is 
no legal obligation to send in the second voucher, and where a 
veetry agrees with a company to reinstate paving which they dis- 
turb, it is very doubtful whether the cost of a second reinstatement, 
necessitated by the subsidence of the trench, could be recovered. 
The opening of roads in emergencies, to which Mr. Blair calls 
attention, is not dealt with in the paper, as the existing pro- 
vision in the Act, that notice shall be given within twelve hours 
after beginning to make such openings, is considered satisfactory. 

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DISCUSSION. 119 

Mr. Lovegrove appears to donbt the practicability of the fifth 
suggestion, but a similar provision is in force both in the metro- 
polis and in the provinces — in the former nnder Michael Angelo 
1 aylor's Act, and in the latter tinder the Gasworks Clauses Act. 
1847, and the Waterworks Clauses Act, 1847. In the first- 
mentioned Act, however, an opening made for the purpose of 
repairs is only to be kept in repair for three months after being 
made — a curious provision, as there appears to be no reason for 
the time during which such an opening is to be maintained being 
less than one made for the purpose of laying a new main. The 
Gas and the Waterworks Clauses Acts, 1847, referred to by Mr. 
Angell, only apply to works authorised after the passing of those 
Acts, and they would, therefore, not be applicable to the metro- 
polis. The last suggestion in the paper — respecting the alteration 
of mains, &c — has met with no support in the discussion, those 
who have referred to it having considered that such alterations 
being required for the purposes of the local authority, should be 
made at the expense of such local authority. My suggestion is 
not without 'precedent, as the Telegraphs Act, 1863, contains a 
provision similar to that suggested in the paper. The provision 
is a reasonable one, for the power of a local authority to alter and 
improve a road should be predominant, inasmuch as it is the 
interest and convenience of the public which it has to consider 
in regard to such works ; and all mains, pipes, &c,, in a road 
should remain only so long as they do not interfere with the 
functions and duties of the local authority with respect to a road. 
The view advocated by those who difier from me is one which 
makes the position of the local authority subordinate to the 
interests of the companies. 

Private Paving. — The paving which I had in view is that 
which adjoins the public footway, and over which the public walk, 
although separated therefrom by a straight joint ; and the altera- 
tion contemplated was only such as could be carried out without 
affecting the property. The raising of private paving to such an 
extent as to cause injury to the premises to which it is attached, 
is a matter on which the Author would scarcely venture to express 
a general opinion. 

Street Improvements. — The provisions of Michael Angelo 
Taylor's Act, enabling a vestry or district board to carry out 
street improvements, have not been overlooked, very many of such 
works being carried out in Islington every year under the Act. 



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120 AMENDMENTS OF THE METBOPOLIS LOCAL MANAGEMENT ACTS. 

But there are varioas improyements mentioned in the section 
referred to in the paper which are not covered by Michael Angelo 
Taylor's Act, and to carry out snch improyements the consent of 
the London County Council would have to be obtained, a pro- 
ceeding which is thought unnecessary. 

I appreciate the interest which has been taken in the paper, 
and the very exhaustive discussion which has arisen upon it^ and 
I particularly desire to acknowledge Mr. Blair's. able and careful 
contribution to the discussion. I have not dealt with every 
subject respecting which the Acts require amendment^ as it 
would be impossible to do so in a single paper, but I trust that 
the subject will be taken up by the Association, which, in my 
opinion, is the body from which any authoritative suggestions 
for the amendment and alteration of the existing Acts should 
proceed. 

Mr. Wheeleb moved that a committee of surveyors be ap- 
pointed to go into the suggestions made in the paper and report 
to the Council. He said — I have no doubt after threshing it 
out there would be many more suggestions to add to those in 
Mr. Barber's paper. The Council would send these suggestions 
to the various local authorities in the metropolis, with a view of 
obtaining legislation. 

Mr. Blaib : I cordially agree with the proposition and have 
much pleasure in seconding it I can see it is a big undertakings 
and one which the Council and the Association must not expect a 
report upon at its next meeting, or probably within a period of 
months, but I think it is one which will benefit by such con- 
sideration. 

Mr. DoDD proposed that Messrs. J. P. Barber (Islington), 
C. H. Lowe (Hampstead), W. Weaver (Kensington), W. N. Blair 
(St. Pancras), and G. K. Wheeler (Westminster) form the com- 
mittee. He said, those genUemen have had much experience in 
carrying out the Metropolis Management Acts, and I am sure 
much good will result from their deliberations. 

Mr. LovEQROVE seconded the proposition, which was adopted. 

The Chaibman moved a vote of thanks to the Vestry of 
Westminster for the use of the council chamber for the meeting, 
which \\H3 heartily accorded. 

Mr. Wheeleb : I will convey the thanks to the Churchwardens 
and Overseers. The Town Hall will come under the control of 
the Yebtry at the end of this month. 

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DISTRICT MEETING AT KING'S HEATH. 

March 28, 1896. 
Held at the InstitvJte, King' 9 Eeath. 
E. R S. EsooTT, M. Inst. O.E. President, in the Chair. 
4 ^ 



Thb chairman of the Rural District Council (Mr. T. K. Bayliss) 
offered the Members a hearty welcome, and referred to the fact 
that the visit was the first that the Association had paid to a 
Eural District. 

Mr. A. T. Da-vis was unanimously re-elected Honorary Secretary 
for the Midland Counties District. 

Letters were read from several Members who were unable to be 
present. 

The following paper was read and discussed. 



foukteen yeaks' wokk in a midland 

SUBURB. 
By ROBERT GODFREY, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E. 

Thk district which is included within the jurisdiction of the Rural 
District Council of King's Norton comprises the parishes of King's 
Norton, Northfield and Beoley in the county of Worcester, being 
the only parts of the King's Norton Union which are not under 
the control of urban councils. 

It extends from the boundary of the city of Birmingham on the 
north to the boundary of the town of Redditch on the south, a 



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122 FOIJBTEEK years' WOBK IN A MIDLAND SUBUBB. 

distance of 10| miles, and from the parish of Yardley on the east 
to Halesowen on the west, a distance of 7 miles. 

It has a total area of 22,106 acres. In 1881 the population was 
19,476; in 1891, 5272 inhabited houses, with a population of 
28,300, and in the present year it is estimated that it has reached 
34,000, an increase of 74 per cent, in fifteen years, a rate of increase 
almost American in its rapidity, and probably greater than any 
other district not adjoining the Metropolis. 



Geology. 

The district forms part of the great midland tableland which 
constitutes the watershed of the Trent and Avon and Severn valleys, 
the Lickey hills in the parish of King's Norton being the dividing 
Una The rainfall from the northern slopes reaches the Trent, 
while that from the southern slopes passes into the Avon, and thence 
into the Severn. 

The eastern part of the district is on the Eeupar sandstone 
formation, with great beds of clay prevailing, interspersed with 
alluvial deposits of water-worn gravel. On the western side the 
Permian formation is manifest, one lane in Northfield being cut 
through a deposit of Permian brescia, which has attained almost 
classic rank, forming, as it does, one of the typical illustrations in 
the standard geological work of Jukes. 

North of the village of Northfield there is an irruption of the 
Bunter pebble beds ; while at the Lickey the Cambrian formation is 
present through an upheaval of the earth's crust. 

There is no mineral wealth except clay, from which a fairly 
good building brick is made for local use. 



BuRAL District Council. 

Prior to the Local Government Act, 1888, the administration of 
the district was under the following bodies or persons : — 

1. The Bural Sanitary Authority for the purposes of the Public 
Health and Cognate Acts. 

2. The King s Norton Board of Surveyors for highway purposes 
in King's Norton. 

3. The Northfield Highway Board for highway purposes iu the 
parish of Northfield. 



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F0X7BTEEN TSABS' WOBE IN A MIDLAND 8UBUBB. 123 

4. A parish surveyor appointed by the vestry for the parish of 
Beoley. 

In 1889 the County Council took over the charge of the main 
roads, thus causing a fifth authority to exist within the area. This 
state of things lasted till the Act of 1894, whereby all the powers, 
duties and liabilities of the four first were amalgamated in one body, 
termed the Bural District CJouncil of King's Norton, the County 
Council still retaining the main roada 



Urban Powers, 

In 1874 and 1881 the Eural Sanitary Authority applied for, and 
obtained power to make bye-laws regulating buildings and to water 
streets ; and in 1883. and subsequently, additional powers have 
been obtained (see Table II.), so that except in name the Bural 
District Council is invested with powers almost coincident with any 
urban district not governed by a private Act. 



Sewerage within Drainage Area. 

From its geographical position on the southern boundary of the 
city of Birmingham, with being traversed by valleys all trending to 
the Biver Bea, which passes through Birmingham, and the subsoil 
being of a stiff retentive clayey character, the difficulties which the 
Bural Sanitary Authority had to face were very great. 

After a leogthened and searching enquiry by the late 
J. Thornhill Harrison, Local Government Board Inspector, a 
Provisional Order was sanctioned by Parliament in 1877 con- 
stituting a special drainage district, which comprises the city of 
Birmingham and all the surrounding suburbs whose watersheds 
lead to the Trent, so that within that area no sewage farm 
exists, but all sewage is discharged to the Drainage Board's land 
at Tyburn. 

This district for sewerage purposes is governed by a body 
known as the Birmingham, Tame and Bea District Drainage 
Board, to which all the contributory districts send representatives, 
Birmingham having the preponderating representation. 

This Drainage Board took over the Saltley Sewage Works belong- 



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124 F0X7BTESN YBABS' WORK IN A MIDLAND 8UBX7BB. 

ing to the city, and established the Tybnm sewage farm (about 
1400 acres) lower down the valley of the Cole, and to one or other 
of these oatfedls all the sewage of the Drainage Board area is 
conducted. 

The Bural Sanitary Authority commenced a system of sewers 
in 1878, which were only just completed when the author was 
appointed in 1882. And since that time extensions have been con- 
stantly in progress to meet — and often to anticipate — the growing 
needs of the district 

No less than thirty miles of sewer have been added since 1882, 
both within the drainage area and in the populous parts without 
that area. 

In order that the sewage from the drainage area should reach 
the outfalls of the Drainage Board, it is necessary that it should 
pass through the exi^ting city sewers, and for that purpose pro- 
vision was made in the Order of 1877 (Sec. xxvii.) whereby the 
City of Birmingham was to receive a perpetual annuity *' to be 
settled and secured by agreement on the basis of the population or 
the number of inhabited houses." Forty gallons per head per day 
being the maximum quantity. 

!]Dhis payment was 2^d per head of the population in the drainage 
area ; but on the completion of the Cole valley sewer it was raised 
to b^d, per head per annum. 

The sewers of the council join the city sewers at six different 
points, and gaugings are taken periodically to see whether the 
stipulated quantity is exceeded. 

The Drainage Board levies a precept on the district for a contri- 
bution based on the number of rated tenements (houses or lands) 
calculated over the whole area of the Drainage Board. The 
overseer levies this as a separate rate upon all properties within 
the area. 

The capital cost of the sewers within the King's Norton and 
NorthMd drainage area is levied on the whole parish in which the 
outlay occurs. 

Thus the sewerage within the drainage area costs :— 

1« Interest and principal on capital cost. 

2. Way leave through city sewera 

3. Proportion of expense of maintaining the sewage &rms. 
The last two items amounting in 1895 to 1739Z. 28. 6d, 



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F0T7BTEEN TEABS' WOBK IN A mDULKD SUBUBB. 125 



Sewerage without the Dbaikaoe Abea. 

Outside the drainage area there are several villages which have 
had to he dealt with separately. Northfield Village, Bartley 
Green, and Woodgate and Moor Street, have each had to be 
provided with outfalls, all of which have been carried ont with- 
out recourse being had to mechanical power. 

King's Norton Village was the last which required treatment, 
and in 1892 a scheme was submitted to, and approved by the 
Local, Government Board, but before it could be carried out or 
even commenced, a large building estate was put on the market, in 
an adjoining valley. The only piece of land available for an out- 
fall had been secured, and the whole scheme had to be re-cast 

Lifting had to be resorted to, and eventually Shone's ejectors were 
adopted. A central station was established at Lifford, from whence 
compressed air is sent 2000 yards into the area termed the Exten- 
sion Area. The sewage from there is propelled a height of 70 feet 
to the top of the hill separating the two valleys, and from there it 
flows by gravitation to the outfall, into ejectors which lift it into 
the t^nks. 

The plant provided consists of two boilers 20 feet by 7 feet, 
fitted with Lee Howie & Go's forced draught, two Hughejs and 
Lancaster's horizontal engines and compressors, with Shone and 
Ault*8 valves, capable of compressing 109 cubic feet of free air per 
minute. 

The sewage is received into an elevated carrier, and during its 
passage along this to the tanks it receives the milk of lime and proto- 
chloride of iron, which becomes thoroughly incorporated with it 
before it enters the tanks. In the tanks, which are )^orked in 
pairs, it undergoes a period of quiescence and deposits the heavy 
matter. The supernatant liquid is then drawn off and passed 
through the Bacillite battery, which is the peculiar feature of the 
method of treatment adopted. 

The liquid is now subjected to the action of steam and carbonic 
acid gas, the steam being charged with a germicide composed 
largely of carbolic acid, the action of which, it is claimed, effectually 
destroys the putrefactive organisms in the sewage, thereby pre- 
venting any secondary decomposition. After the liquid leaves 
the Bacillite battery it is passed into two of Thwaite's filters, which 
are capable of passing 27,000 gallons of liquid per square yard per 



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126 FOURTEEN YEABS' WOBE IN A MIDLAND SUBUBB. 

day. The filters are 8 feet in diameter, and by reversing the flow 
of the liquid are self-cleansing. 

From the filters the effluent passes direct into the river, and as 
it is a very small one, most exceptional care has to be taken to 
prevent any cause of complaint The city of Birmingham is on 
the watch, and at all cost pollution of the river and consequent Hti- 
gation must be avoided. Irrigation is not adopted owing to the 
unfjAVOurable character of the subsoil ; and although 14 acres have 
been purchased, only part is used for the buildings and some osier 
beds. 

The system has not been in operation sufficiently long to enable 
the cost to be accurately given. 

The works have been designed by the Author and carried out 
under the immediate supervision of the assistant surveyor, Mr. J. H. 
Webb, whose valuable assistance is cordially acknowledged. 



New Sewers. 

Since 1882, new sewers to the extent of 30 miles 6 furlongs 
have been laid, and schemes for another 2 miles are now in course 
of preparation. 

Public Lightino. 

In 1883 and 1884 an attempt was made in Parliament to sever 
the gas supply of the district from Birmingham, but the eflbrt was 
not successful. At that time each public lamp cost 2Z. 88. 6d. per 
annum, mcluding all repairs, lighting, &c. 

In 1885 the outside authorities were oflered gas for street 
lighting at ^ of the lowest current price per 1000 cubic feet. 
At that time largo consumers paid 28. Id. per 1000, so the ofler 
meant gas at Is. per 1000 cubic feet, provided the cost of lighting, 
maintenance, &c. was undertaken by the local authority. The 
Rural Sanitary Authority at once closed with the offer, and im- 
mediately realised a saving of 500Z. per annum. The average cost 
now, including gas, is 32s. per lamp, so that with 1050 lamps a 
saving of 866Z. 5s. is effected. The incandescent system has been 
applied to seventy-six lamps. Particulars of twenty-five which 
have been up more than a year are given in Table III. 

The difficulty of lighting from the outside of the lanterns, and 



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F0X7BTBEN YEABS' WOBE IN A MIDLAND SUBUBB. 127 

of protecting the mantles against the effect of the wind, has been 
overcome by a device which can be seen both in the room and in the 
lamps in the High Street 



New Stbeets and Eoads. Section 150, Public Health 
AoT, 1875. 

Twelve miles of new roads and streets have been made by land- 
owners, and six and a half miles have been made good under 
section 150, Public Health Act. 



Highways. 

On April 1, 1895, by the Parish CJouncils Act, all the roads in 
the district (except the main roads) were transferred to the Boral 
District Council. The total length is 129 miles. 

A steam roller (10-ton) was at once obtained, additional horses 
and carts purchased, and the whole district divided into nine 
sub-districts, each under a foreman. 

The Eural District Council has adopted a " Forward " policy, and 
is now applying to the Local Government Board for loans to carry 
out various schemes for widening and improving roads and bridges, 
the most important of which is the Kaddle Bam Lane Improve- 
ment, which will entail the reconstruction of two bridges and the 
widening of a considerable length of road. (See Appendix.) 

The district is peculiarly devoid of good road metal ; the nearest 
which can be obtained is from the basalt at Bowley Regis, 8 or 
10 miles distant. This costs 68. 6d. per ton dehvered to wharves 
in the district. 

When the Local Government Act of 1888 was passed, rural 
authorities had not the option of maintaining their own main roads, 
but this council is placed in such an exceptional position that they 
are making a strenuous effort to have the charge of the main roads 
in the district restored to them. 

Being so essentially urban, and bordering on the city of 
Birmingham, there is every reason to contend that with head- 
quarters at Worcester, 20 miles away, the care of these roads 
would be better in the hands of a local authority than under a 
central organisation. 



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128 rouBTBKN tears' work in a midland suburb. 

As an iUnstration of the character of the traffic, a censas 
was taken on^ Feb. 8 to 14 on the three main roads which 
intersect the district, and 15,727 vehicles were counted between 
4 am. and 11 p.m. on the seven days, 40 per cent of which was 
heavy, and 60 per cent, light traffic. 

With eight railway stations within eight miles of the city 
boundary the*urban character']of the district is clearly manifest. 



Cemeteries. 

In 1895 the Lodge Hill cemetery of seventeen acres was com- 
pleted in the parish of NorthHeld, and tenders are now being 
invited for the fencing and laying out of another cemetery of thirty- 
two acres at Brand wood End for the parish of King's Norton. 



Fever Hospital. 

In 1888 a hospital for infectious diseases was completed at 
West Heath. It is built to provide thirty-two adult beds, but as 
the patients suffering from scarlet fever only are admitted, the 
majority of which are children, there is room for sixty. Plans 
have just been adopted for a house for the nursing staff, and 
instructions given for the preparation of plans for a small-pox 
pavilion. The cost up to date has been 9950/., including site. 

Small-pox cases were treated in a Doecker tent, which will te 
burnt as soon as the new pavilion is ready. Admissions and deaths 
are given in Table IV. 

The water supply of the hospital is from a well in the grounds 
97 feet deep, from which the water is raised by a Ha)liday windmill 
16 feet in diameter, into a tank holding 9000 gallonsi about 30 feet 
above ground, and during the time the mill has been np the hospital 
has never been short of water. On some occasions |700 gallons an 
hour have been raised. 

The hospital is connected with the Council's ofl9.ce by a private 
wire, which for a distance of 350 yards is carried tl&rough a sewer, 
and though it has been in use eight years it has wclrked well. 



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FOUBTEEN YEARS* WORK IN A MIDLAND SUBURB. 129 



Water Supply. 

The city of Birmingham has the monopoly of water supply in 
the parishes of King*s Norton and Northfiel(^ but there are parte 
of the district which they are unable to supply, and it has devolved 
upon the Eural District Council to take action. A supply is 
obtained from the East Worcestershire Waterworks CJompany for 
Bednal and Bubery on the south, and at Bartley Ghreen a supply 
is being provided for that neighbourhood, containing about 1600 
persons. A well has been bored through the Bunter pebble beds 
to a depth of 280 feet, and a 20,000 gallon tank is being erected. 
Within the tower supporting the tank, two Homsby-Akroyd oil 
engines will be placed, and from the tank the whole of that part 
of the district will be supplied. 

In both these cases the distributing mains have been laid by 
the city of Birmingham, the District Council paying 5 per cent, 
interest on the outlay. This course was adopted owing to the fact 
that the city has the monopoly but cannot furnish the supply 
without pumping ; should they do so in the future the interest will 
cease. 

Dust Behoval. 

In 1882 there was no organised system of dust removal ; the 
prevailing receptacle was the wet midden. Gradually the whole 
of the drainage -area, together with the villages of King's Norton and 
Northfield, have been embraced in a scheme whereby the whole of 
the refuse is removed by the employ& of the Eural District Council 
Last year some 8000 loads of refuse were removed. Water-closete 
and tubs are rapidly superseding the ancient abominations, and 
wherever sewers are available nothing but water-closete are per- 
mitted in new buildings. Duckett's slopwater closet is being largely 
adopted. 

The contente of the ash tubs are tipped into disused clayholes, but 
this cannot last for long. An attempt is to be made at LijSbrd to 
bum some of the dry refuse by aid of forced draught, but as the 
district increases the necessity of a destructor will become apparent 
The land is ready, access to it by canal is available, and it only 
needs the assent of the Bural District Council to have the machinery 
of the district complete. 



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130 FOUBTBEN YBiBS' WOBK IN A lODLlND SafilTBB. ^ 



FiBE Bbigadb. 

Eleven years ago a start was made to establish a fire brigade, 
and a hose cart was obtamed. Matters have gone on, tiU now 
there are two efficient brigades, one at King's Heath and one at 
Selly Oak, provided with manual engines. These are shortly to be 
replaced by steam fire engines, and the manuals placed at King's 
Norton and Northfield. 

An additional station has jost been established at Stirchley, for 
the protection of a populous part of the district which has increased 
very rapidly. 

Since the establishment of the brigades 96 fires have been 
attended. 

New HousKa 

As an illustration of the rapid growth of the district, plans for 
4723 houses have been before the building Committee and approved. 
(See Table VI.) 

Tbamways. 

The Birmingham Central Tramway Company have laid down 
new lines to Moseley and King's Heath, with steam as a motive 
power ; and on the Bristol Road have adopted the electric accumu- 
lator system, with generating station at Boumbrook. 

The opportunity was taken when the King's Heath line was 
being laid, to widen an existing bridge &om 18 to 36 feet 

A bridge at Bournbrook was also widened, jointly, in 1883. 



DBPdrs. 

Owing to the wide character of the district the plant of the 
Bural District Council is kept at three depdts, but it is proposed 
to amalgamate two of these on a plot of freehold land belonging to 
the Council, and to increase the stabling accommodation, &c. 

The Council has just given instructions to purchase a site at 
Selly Oak for the purposes of depdt, fire station, mortuary, Ac. 



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POUBTEEN YBARS' WORK IN A MTDLAND SUBUBB. 131 



Omosa 

The Councit cannot boast of a palatial suite of offices at present, 
but the right of pre-emption to a yery suitable site has been secured, 
and during the summer it is probable that steps will be taken to 
provide suitable accommodation for all the officials of the Council. 



FiNANOE. 

In the appendix will be found some financial figures which may 
be interesting to some of the Members. 



TABLE I. 

Financial Statmtics. 

Loom for Kin^B Norton Parish — 

For Sewerage £59,121 

Public lighting 600 

Road milking 7,260 

Scavenging 2,400 

Cemetery (land only) 6,800 

£76,181 
Amoant ontstanding £40,519. 

Loans for NorOifietd Parisk— 

For Sewerage £21,593 

Public lighting 350 

Boad making 2,230 

Cemetery 15,000 

Costfl of gas bUl 1,340 

Water supply 1,650 

£42,163 
Amount outstanding £27,291. 

Loam on Common Fund — 

For Hospital £9,950 

Steamroller 330 

£10,280 
Bateahle value — 

Lady Day, 1893 £171,379 

„ 1896 200,695 

TokU Bates {inclusive)-^ 

Beoley 3«. in the £. 

King's Norton 5«. 5d. in the £. 

Northfield 5i. lOd. in the £. 

K 2 



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132 



FOUBTEEN YBABS* WOBK IN A laDLAND SUBURB. 



TABLE n.— Tablb SHOwnra Ubbah Powers with whkjh thx 

DiSTBIOT COWCTL IS InTBSTED. 



Year. 



Act 



Sect. 



Pbwera. 



1874 
1881 
1883 



Local Goyeminent Act, 1858. 
PubUo Health Act, 1875. 



1884 

M 

1887 
1888 



25 



42 

44 

45 

66 
112 
113 
114 
155 
156 

158 



160 

169 
170 

171 

150 



Bye-laws as to new buildings. 

Watering streets. 

Penalty on bnilding houses with- 
out drains. 

Pnblio 



Cleansing streets and remoyal of 
hoose refuse. 

Making bye-laws for the prerention 
of nuisances, Ac. 

Provision of receptacles for deposit 
of rubbish (street orderlies). 

ProYision of fire plant. 

Offensire trades. 



Begulating line of buildings. 

Buildings brought forward (now 
Sec. 3, Public Health Act, 1888> 

0)mmencement and remoyal of 
works contrary to bye-laws. 

[1. Naming streets and numbering 
houses. 

|3. Ruinous and dangerous build- 
ings. 

[4. Precautions during the construc- 
tion and repair of streets and 
houses. 

Provision of slaughter-houses. 

Notice to be affixed to ditto. 

[2. Police regulations as to fires. 
[4. Hackney carriages. 

Making good Heeley Bead. 

Making good six streets. 

Making good thirteen streets. 

Making good five streets. 



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FOUBTEEN YBABS' WOBX IN A MIDLAND SUBUBB. 



133 



Table XL — ooniintted. 



Year. 


Act 


Sect 


Powers. 


1890 


Towns, Police Glaases Act, 
1847. 


28 


Obstractions and niUBanceB in 
streets. 




Ditto Aot, 1889. 






Amending proyisions of Act 1847 
as to hackney carriages. 


1891 


PubUc Health 
Acta, 1890. 


Amendment 


20 


Sanitary conyenienoes (public). 


» 


>f 


It 


22 


„ (for factories) 


n 


»f 


i> 


23 


Power to make bye-laws extending 
Sec. 157 of Act of 1875. 


n 


» 


91 


24 


re Booms oyer priyies. 


•• 


99 




26 
27 


re Bye-laws as to remoyal of honse 

refuse. 
re Keeping conunon oourtcr and 

passages dean. 


f» 


H 


M 


29 


re Slaughter-house licences. 


n 


M 


99 


SO 


re Ghange of occupation of 
slaughter-house. 


I* 


19 


M 


81 


Beyocation of licences. 


n 


99 


l» 


34 


re Hoarding during 'progress of 
buildkig. 


>i 


•9 


W 


35 


Bepair of cellars under streets. 


n 


» 


9f 


86 


Ingress and 'egress to public build* 
ings. 


M 


n 


n 


87 


Safety of platforms, ftc 


f» 


99 


»» 


88 


re Danger from whirligigs. 


» 


H 


»» 


39 


Befnges in streets. 


n 


M 


99 


40 


Cabmen's shelter. 


n 


»9 


ft 


42 


Statues and monuments. 


n 




»» 


43 


Trees in roads. 


•* 


w 


M 


45/ 


Parks and pleasure grounds. 


»» 


M 


» 


46 


Public clocks. 


1891 


PabUc Health Act, 1875.] 


150 


Making good one road. 


1894 


i> 


» 


»> 












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134 FOUBTBEN TEABS' WORK IN A laDLAND SUBURB. 

TABLE m. 
Sellt Oak, 25 Lamps. 

Present oonstimption, twelve months ending 

18th December, 1895 12,650 cnK ft 

PreTions consumption, twelve months ending 

28th September, 1894 89,020 „ 

Saving on each lamp 26,379 „ 

Saving on 25 lamps 659,475 „ 

At 1«. Id. per 1000 cab. ft £35 H 4 

5 per cent, discount 1 15 9 

Net saving in gas £33 18 7 

The total number of manileB used and chimneys replaced was : — 

£ ff. d. 

Mantles. 227 at U 11 7 

CJhimneyt, 77 at Is 3 17 

Forks, 19 at Id. 17 

£15 5 7 

leaving a net gain of 18Z. Ids. by the use of incandescent burners. 

The cost of the bnmers and fittings was 25 at 16«. = 20Z., so that 
the first year's saving in gas leaves only 27«. capital cost to be met 
oat of next year's savings. 

The largest number of mantles nsed by any one lamp (No. 9) was 
14, the smallest number (No. 18) was 6. 



TABLE IV. 

Admissions to Hospital. 



Year. 


Scarlet Feter. 


Deaths. 


SmaU-Pox. 


Deaths. 


1883 


21 




10 


1 


1884 


20 


,, 


3 




1885 


7 


, , 


1 




1886 


38 








1887 


45 








1888 


52 


1 






•1889 


156 


3 






1890 


371 


13 






1891 


156 


7 


2 


1 


1892 


106 








1893 


243 


13 


1 




1894 


146 


1 


34 


4 


1895 


139 


7 


10 


1 


Totals .. 


1500 


45 


61 


7 



Percentage of Deaths to cases treated : 

Scarlet Fever, 3 per cent. ; 8mall-poz, 11 * 4 per cent. 

* Prior to this date temporary provision was made. 

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TOUBTEBN YBAB8 WOBK IN A laDLAUD BUBUBB. 



135 



TABLE V. 
Dbath Bate. 



TearendiBg 
December. 


middle of Year. 


Bate. 


Oenerml Death 
Bate. 


1873 




8-4 


15-6 


1882 


19,683 


1-42 


13-21 


1883 


19,876 


•04 


13-51 


1884 


20,265 


•78 


14*00 


1885 


22,700 


•44 


12-95 


1886 


23,560 


1-81 


13-62 


1887 


24,453 


0*94 


12-71 


1888 


25,892 


•55 


10-23 


1889 


26,367 


•70 


10-61 


1890 


28,396 


•73 


12-04 


1891 


28.300 


•77 


12-36 


1892 


28,562 


•70 


1252 


1893 


29,884 


1^03 


15-35 


189i 


30.977 


•60 


10-87 


1895 


34,000 


•80 


12-27 



TABLE VL 

Number oi* New Houses bubmi 'ii' ed iob Appboyal (exolusiyb of 

Al/TEBATIONB, ADDITIONS, ETa) AND New RoADS MADE 

BETWEEN Januabt 1882 AND Deoembeb 1895. 



Tear. 


King's Norton Pariah. 


Northfield Parbh. 


Be6le7 Pariah. 


Boada. 


Hoosea. 


Boada. 


Uooaea. 


Boada. 


Honaea. 


1882 


1 


71 




20 


1 




1883 


• t 


124 




32 






1884 


,, 


174 




26 


,, 


1 


1885 


3 


122 




72 






1886 


1 


155 




10 


,, 


2 


1887 


3 


167 




95 


., 


4 


1888 


,, 


127 




152 




8 


1889 


7 


140 


1 


198 


.. 


2 


1890 


7 


208 


, , 


204 






1891 


4 


812 


3 


124 






1892 


9 


259 


2 


306 


.. 


2 


1893 


5 


292 


9 


84 


, , 


8 


1894 


10 


405 


1 


90 






1895 


19 


498 


6 


233 


- 


1 


TotalB .. 


69 


3054 


22 


1646 


1 


^23 



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FOUBTEEN TBABS WOBK IN A MIDLAND 8UBUBB. 



TABLE VIL 

Pbojiotkd Wobks. 

^Brandwood End Cemetery, laying out, fencing, 

chapelB £9,500 

Raddle Bam Lane Improvement 3,000 

Weet Heath Sewerage 2,500 

^Silver Street (extension) 354 

^Quarry Lane (widening) 800 

^California Bridee (rebuilding) 102 

^Nurses' Home (Hospital) 2,500 

Beoley Brook Bridge 1,000 

Weoley Park Road 700 

New stables, fire station, fto^ Selly Oak .. .. 1 ,500 

New offices and stabling, King's Heath .. .. 3,500 

Ayenue Road Impzoyement 400 

£25.856 
* Loftns applied for. 



DISCUSSION. 

Mr. J. T. Eaybs : I think it might be nsefal to Bome of the 
Members if Mr. Godfrey were to explain more folly the portion 
of his paper with reference to incandescent gaa lighting for street 
lamps. He has some arrangement for the lighting of the lamps 
which has proved advantageous here and may be nsefal to other 
districts. 

Mr. B. Godfrey exhibited a lamp which he had had temporarily 
fixed on the stage of the Institute, and showed the method of 
lighting by a torch from an improvement on the Wiesbeden spoon. 
The method of lighting adopted has proved most conven ient, and of 
great value in preserving the life of the mantie — the m ost serious 
item in an installation of incandescent lighting. 

Mr. Davis : I think it would be interesting if M r. Grodfrey 
would explain to us why he adopted this plan of light ing rather 
than the bye-pass, to which we are so accustomed ? 

Mr. R. Godfrey : I found the bye-pass damaged tl le mantles 
more than the explosion of lighting. I also found th a bye-pass 
light often got blown out. I tried the bye-pass first, but it was not 
successful. You will find some particulars given in ibe tables, 
showing we have already saved half the cost of the ii ^staliation. 
At the present time the cost of installing the incandesc( '^nt system 
would be one-half the cost given here. Eighteen montl is ago the 
cost was 16a. per lamp, now it would be 80. per lamp. 



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DISCUSSION. 137 

Mr. T. B. Batliss : Is there not some escape of gas from the 
bye-pass ? When a room is lighted with the incandescent bnmery 
and has been closed all night, there is a strong smell as of gas on 
going into the room next morning. 

Mr. K GoDFBEY : It is a smell as of bnmt tallow. It is some 
substance in the mantle which giyes off a smell which is unpleasant 
and yery objectionable. 

Mr. B. GoDFBET : The effect of the bye-pass on a burner in my 
house has been a complete failure — sometimes refusing to light, 
and other times giving off a fearful smelL 

Mr. A. T. Dayis : I haye an incandescent burner in my house 
which has been there since January 1, and it has only gone out 
once during that time. I haye not experienced any smell in the 
slightest degree, neither has the mantle broken or anything of the 
sort. It has been a decided success. 

Mr. Hall: I haye had some experience with the incan- 
descent burners. Of two burners in my own house, one had the 
unpleasant smeU complained of, and the other, burning at the 
same time, had no smell whateyer. I had a gas fire burning 
in the same room, and three burners. Some time ago I found the 
cause of it, which was a small leakage &om the top of the burner. 
If you take the burner to pieces, you will find it is not properly 
made, it is a number of stsmapings put together. With regard to 
the durability of the mantles, I had one in constant use for ten 
months. It gradually became so worn that only one-third of its 
surface emitted any light ; it lost its power of incandescence. The 
next one lasted two days ; the next a fortnight ; and then I got 
another good one. I find they are not at all a reliable mantle. 

Mr. J. T. Eaybs : I am afraid we are drifting rather on to 
the subject of domestic lighting than street lighting. The object of 
this paper is street lighting only, not whether these mantles smell 
in a closed confined room. The question of smell does not concern 
us here, because the gas is consumed in the streets. I haye a 
considerable number of these lamps at work, but I am not at 
present prepared to giye you any statistical information as to the 
life of the mantles, which is the most serious part of an installation 
of incandescent Ughting. But generally speaking as to this 
system of incandescent lighting, I think it has a yery great future 
before it. One pomt we haye to keep in yiew is the efficient 
lighting of the streets and the exercising of the greatest economy 
in producing or distributing that light. Take an ordinary street 

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138 FOURTEEN YEABS' WORK IN A lODULND SUBURB. 

lamp burner which bums 4 feet or 5 feet per honfy and replace it 
with an incandescent burner : you get no economy in gas, but you 
get a much superior light for the quantity of gas consumed. If 
you have a bye-pass to the burner, you use more gas than with an 
ordinary street lamp burner. I am trying experiments with 
incandescent burners constructed to bum 2^ feet instead of 4j^ feet 
of gas per hour, with yery good resulta If you put one of these 
burners in a street lamp, and compare with another lamp with an 
ordinary burner, you find a great improrement, and you are saying 
at the same time about half the quantity of gas. I am using a 
2^-feet incandescent burner to replace an ordinary 5-feet burner, 
and two 4i-feet incandescent burners to replace burners in large 
lamps consuming about 24 feet per hour. In these cases you get a 
much better light with the incandescent burners, and the saying in 
gas pays the cost of the mantles. 

Mr. Campbell : I should like to ask Mr. Godfrey how there 
is so large a saying of gas. Mr. Godfrey states that the present 
consumption of the lamps for twelye months is 12,650 cubic 
feet, as compared with a preyious consumption of 39,020 cubic 
feet. The latter appears to be an extraordinary consumption, as 
the ayerage of the country is about 20,000 cubic feet. 

Mr. Godfrey : All the lamps referred to were burning 10 cubic 
feet per hour, now they are burning 4 feet. 

Mr. C. H. Lowe : I should like to ask as to the effect of the 
yibration caused by heayy and continuous street traffic on the 
life of the mantles. They bum yery well in rooms or on a steady 
platform, as at present, but when they are put in the ordinary 
street lamps the mantles appear to suffer yery much from the effects 
of yibration. Mr. Bobson, my respected colleague at Willesden, 
has reported fully upon the loss caused thereby yery recently. 

Mr. J. T. Eayrs : A great many of my incandescent burners 
are fixed on lamps on main roads with steam trams mnning back- 
wards and forwards, and I haye experienced no difficulty from 
yibration and no greater destruction of mantles than in streets 
without trams. 

Mr. Wheeler : I haye tried the incandescent gas lamp for four 
months, and found the yibration minous to the mantles. In four 
months we had 91 mantles to pay for, which doubled the cost of 
the burners. We haye, therefore, abandoned the use of the burners " 
for the present. 

Mr. SooRGiE : Haying a district subject to heayy traffic, I can 

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DiBonssioN. 139 

bear ont what has been said as to the effect of vibration on the life 
of the mantles. We had six lamps as an experiment, and we hare 
need as many as two mantles in a night. We have tried aU sorts 
of burners^ and now the South Metropolitan Qsa Company think 
they have a burner which will succeed. 

Mr. G. H. CooPBB : I cannot see that the use of the Wiesbaden 
spoons for lighting the incandescent lamp produces any saving. In 
l^e year which Mr. Godfrey has tried 25 lamps, he has used an 
average of nine mantles for each lamp. With the ordinary method 
of lighting, the average number of mantles per lamp is estimated 
at eight, so I do not see any saving in the mantles. 

Mr. PiGKEBiNa : Beferring to the filters, I notice Mr. Godfrey 
says the filters are capable of passing 27,000 gallons of liquid per 
day. I should like to ask Mr. Godfrey whether he has actually 
tested the filters or whether they are merely figures of the patentee. 
A filter 8 feet in diameter is roughly about 5j^ square yards, so that 
a filter this size would deal with 148,000, gallons per day, or the 
sewage from a population of say 7400, assuming a flow of 20 gallons 
per head. Personally I do not think the filters will do anything 
of the kind, so that I should like the author to say how he arrives 
at the figures given in his paper. 

Mr. T. DE CouROT Meade : I rise to move a vote of thanks to 
Mr. Godfrey for his paper. In the first place I must congratulate 
him in getting this paper circulated in time for us to consider. 
We have had a lot of trouble to get these papers out in time, but 
Mr. Godfrey has shown us it can be done. I would like to ask, with 
regard to the Bacillite system, whether Mr. Godfrey has had an 
analysis of the sewage and the effluent, and whether he can give us 
the quantity of chemicals used. I assume the sewage does not 
contain manufacturers' refuse ; if this is so there will be very little 
variation in the character of the sewage, taking one day with another. 
The population at present connected with the sewers is small, I 
therefore assume that the sewage would be somewhat diluted by 
subsoil water. 

Mr. Massie : I have pleasure in seconding the vote of thanks to 
Mr. Godfrey for his paper. I think he especially deserves the 
thanks of the rural Members in having the courage to ask yon to 
attend a rural district, aud I think he should be congratulated in 
having such a very large meeting of Members. There are one or 
two points in the paper that I take a very great interest in« I 
should like to say that Mr. Godfrey must have round him surveyors 



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140 FOUBTEEN YBIBS' WOBK IN A MIDLAin) STTBUBB. 

who are not at all ambitioiis to enlarge their areas, or else, it being 
so essentially an urban district, he would have suffered like I hare 
from having surveyors, I will not say greedy, but ratepayers so 
anxious to annex districts as soon as they see they are prospering 
at all ; we have, unfortunately, to get a district into good working 
order, and as soon as we have done so we are immediately 
threatened with an annexation scheme. In the West Biding of 
Yorkshire, unfortunately, these annexation schemes come very 
frequently. I should like to ask Mr. Godfrey about his Infectious 
Diseases Hospital. I notice in the paper that they propose to 
treat small-pox'on the same site as scarlet fever. I should like to 
know whether he has received any intimation from the Local 
Government Board that they will grant him a loan for the building 
of that small-pox hospital on the same site. The death rate is 
certainly exceedingly low. I wish we had a similar one in my 
own district. The highest seems to be about 15, and the lowest 
10 per thousand per annum ; but ours averages 18 per thousand. 
On page 127 Mr. Godfrey contends that the care of the main 
roads should be in the hands of the Bural District Ck)TmciL 
In the West Biding of Yorkshire that is so. I have under my 
charge something like 30 miles of main roads. I know it is a 
rather debatable point, and I notice in one of the papers an article 
contending that the main roads should be in the hands of the 
coimty authorities. The difficulty in my district would be that 
the main roads would be so intersected with little urban authorities 
who have elected to maintain such roads, that, if the county claimed 
-to maintain them they would have little bits here and there scattered 
all over the district In the management of main roads in the 
West Biding we try to work entirely in harmony with the surveyor 
for the County GounciL All that Mr. Qoifrej wants to avoid — ^if 
I may give him a hint — ^is not to have the chairman of the County 
Council living in his district. If he does he will find complaints 
coming very frequently, and no doubt the chairman will forget 
that the same Coimty Council are pressing us every week or month 
to prepare sewerage schemes, and if you have to cut the roads up 
for such purposes^ you cannot get tiiem back into order in a few 
months, 

Mr. T. H. Yabbioom : I can answer the question which has been 
asked as to whether the Local Government Board will sanction a 
loan for hospitals for small-pox and other infectious diseases on the 
same site, because only tins week I had an interview with Dr. 

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DIS0US8ION. 141 

Thome Thorne, and Mr. Gordon Smith, the architect of the Local 
Oovemment Board, and they expressed the intention of the Board 
not to allow the two diseases to be treated on the same site at the 
same time. Consequently, we have to get two sites, one for the treat- 
ment of small-pox and another for the treatment of other infections 
diseases. I notice the cost of the infections diseases hospital at 
King's Heath for 32 beds is put at 9950/., including site. That 
works out at 309Z. per bed. I take it that does not include the 
administration block. Does it include the laimdry for treating the 
articles used ? Are there any isolation wards ; and is the cost of 
furnishing included ? 

Mr. WiLLOOx : I should like to ask Mr. Godfrey why the Bacillite 
people hare altered their method of treating the sewage? If I 
remember aright, when I was at Kettering the carburetted steam 
was applied to the sewage itself, and not to the separated liquid. 
It was pointed out to me that one of the advantages of this method 
of treatment was that there was no smeU from the sludge. I saw 
a great heap of the sludge at the depot there, and practically there 
was no smelL If the steam is applied to the liquid only, I should 
like to ask whether the sludge is likely to be offensive ? I read 
vnth astonishment the amount of work done by the Thwaites filters. 
I have had experience of sewage filters and never obtained results 
like that. I should like also to ask whether the sewage is treated 
by the quiescent or the continuous process in the tanks ? 1 conclude 
it is the continuous process, and if so, I should like to ask how the 
nascent liquid is drawn off. Perhaps Mr. Godfrey will give us the 
capacity of the tanks, as that is very interesting information. Also 
as regards the night sewage, does he pump at night ? 

Mr. BiOHABDSON : As regards the site of the infectious hospital, 
I may say I have a hospital for treating small-pox on one side 
of the road, and for other infectious diseases on the other side of 
the road. We wanted to make dome additions to the small-pox 
hospital, and the Local Government Board refused to give us a 
loan. The only land we could get was 400 yards away. I had an 
interview with Dr. Thome Thome, and he said we might dismiss 
all idea of ever getting a loan for a building within a quarter of a 
mile. His rule is strict, we did not get the loan. 

Mr. W. NiSBBT Blaib : May I say one word as to the Local 
Government Board and infectious diseases hospitals. I cannot say 
what their practice is recently ; I take it to be as various speakers 
have described it, but I know that ten years ago they did give 



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142 POURTBBN YEABS' WORK IN A MIDLAND SUBURB. 

consent to a loan for payilions for treating typhoid and scarlet 
fever in ground in which small-pox pavilions were placed. I carried 
out the plans, and at that time they sanctioned a loan for pavilions 
all within the same enclosure. 

The President : I should like to ask a question as to Duckett's 
slop-water closet, whether in the time of frost and very severe 
weather there is any difficulty in the flow of the sewage ? I should 
also like to ask the cost per 1,000,000 gallons of the chemicals put 
in the sewage ? That is a rather important question. We have 
tried several experiments lately, and the cost varies from 228. to 
82a. 6d. per 1,000,000 gallons. That is rather more than one 
thinks it should cost And even after that outlay you have to pass 
it over land for land filtration. The Local Government Board 
requires that. Then with reference to the hospitals, I think the 
present order of the Local Government Board is that the small-pox 
hospital must be some distance away from the other infectious 
diseases hospital I know we have been obUged to buy a site over 
two miles away from the other hospital. I do not think at the 
present day any one could borrow money with the sanction of the 
Local Government Board, to erect a small-pox hospital anywhere 
near another infectious diseases hospital. 

Mr. Campbell: Has Mr. Godfrey any statistics showing the 
diminution of infectious disease since the erection of this hospital 
in the district That is an important matter which ought to 
receive more consideration. 

Mr. J. T. Eayrs ; I should just like to say I have put up a 
hospital within the last two months for 20 patients, and have 
erected it on the same groimd as the permanent hospital. It is 
an iron building costing 600Z. famished complete, and we are paying 
for it out of the rates and not applying to the Local Government 
Board. That is the solution of the question if you want a hospital 
The remarks of Mr. Campbell are a Uttle wide of the mark. We 
do not go into the medical side of the question or the rate of 
sickness, but provide what is asked for by the local authority. 

Mr. Mabston : There are very great difficulties in the way of 
undertaking the collection of ashpit refuse in a large and scattered 
district, and I should like to ask Mr. Gt)dfrey whether the whole 
of the cost of removing ashpit refuse is charged upon the rates, 
or any part upOn the occupiers whose ashpits are emptied. 

Mr. J. P. Nobmngton: I notice on page 126 Mr. Godfrey 
says that by reversing the flow of the liquid the filters are 



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DIB0U8SI0N. 143 

self-cleansmg. I think when Mr. Qodhej replies he might explain 
the process to ns. I assume the first portion of the sewage which 
passes through the filters after reversing the process is sent back to 
the sewage tanks again. 

Mr. R. GoDrsEY, in reply to the discussion, said : I thank yon 
for the Tote of thanks, though the success of the meeting is 
sufficient thanks in itself. I think this is almost a record in attend- 
ance for any midland counties meeting. I must say I feel it to 
be a compliment both to the Council and myself. Mr. Pickering 
spoke as to the work done by tbe filters ; the 27,000 gallons per 
square yard per day is the maker's claim ; I hare not sufficient 
stufif to test them at their full capacity, our sewage does not come to 
50,000 gallons per day. We hare put down works to suit a 
population four or five time our present population. The sewage 
does not go through the filters ; it is the effluent after it has been 
sterilised that goes through the filters. With regard to the treat- 
ment, the largest quantity of chemicals we put in is 7 cwt. of lime 
and 5 cwt of proto-chloride of iron. On the wall of this room 
there is a chart showing the proportion of purification obtained. 
With regard to the question of the provision of a small-pox hospital 
which Mr. Massie raised, we are in the same position as others. 
When we applied to the Local Government Board for a loan, they 
said, ** No, you must go and find another piece of land." I said, 
" We were seven years finding the piece of land we have got now, 
and if we are to wait another seven years small-pox may decimate 
us." The authority are now going to put up an iron building 
and pay for it out of the rates. It is best to put up a temporary 
building, and then to find the firemen a job to bum it. You 
don't want to have a building permeated with small-pox. Mr. Will- 
cox asked as to the difierence of the Bacillite treatment at Kettering 
and King's Norton. At Kettering they began treating the crude 
sewage ; that is now changed to treating the effluent only. The 
sludge is no more offensive here than it was at Kettering, and with 
a domestic sewage like ours we do not get such a large quantity 
of sludge. With regard to Duckett's closet we have only intro- 
duced them since the great &ost of 1895, which compelled us to look 
for something different from the ordinary plumber's water-closet. 
One great reason why they have been introduced here, is that in 
this scheme we have every gallon of sewage to pump, and therefore 
we endeavour to reduce our flow of sewage to the smallest possible 
quantity. Mr. Campbell refers to the death rate from zymotic 



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144 FOUBTBBN YEARS* WORK IN A MIDLAND SUBURB. 

disease. I most refer him to the doctors and to Table Y. in the 
paper, which gives the death rate for the last fourteen yeara The 
hospital was erected in 1887. 

The Members toere entertained by Mr. Bayliss, Chairman of 
the District Cotmcil, to refreshments, before proceeding to view 
the various works and places of interest. 

The first stop was called at Highbury , the residence of the Bight 
Hon. Joseph Chamberlain, Secretary of State for the Colonies, who 
had kindly given permission for the Members to view the pleasure 
gardens and grounds and the famous orchid houses and conserva- 
tory. The opportunity was utilised to take a photographic group 
of the Members attending the mating, in a picturesque portion of 
the grounds. 

From Highbury the Members proceeded to the electric generating 
station of the Birmingham Central Tramway Company. This 
section of the Central Tramway Company route is worked on the 
electric accumulator system, the whole of the batteries being charged 
at this depot at Boumhrook, The engineers to the Company 
are Mr, E. Pritchard, C.E,, of Birmingham, and Mr. J. Kincaid^ 
who are jointly responsible for the various works, which were 
executed under the superintendence of Mr. A. W. Pritchard. 

The Members were next afforded an opportunity of seeing one 
of Morrison's road scarifiers at work, a section of a public road 
being broken up by the machine. 

The round of visits uxis concluded with an inspection of the 
Sifford Sewage Works, designed and carried out by Mr. Godfrey, 
and fully described in his paper read earlier in the day. A 
great deal of interest uhis taken in an ingenious engineering 
device by which Mr. Godfrey su^cceeded in making water-tight a 
portion of a leaky sewer running under the canal, and which uhis 
drawing away the water of the canal company. 

On returning to King*s Heath the Members were entertained to 
dinner by the BaciUite Syndicate. 



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DISTRICT MEETING AT 
KEW, TWICKENHAM AND HAMPTON. 

May 30, 1896. 
C. H. Lows, M. Inst. C.E., Yi^A-Prbsidbnt, in the Chair. 
-♦*- 



A Home Counties District Meeting of the Members of the Associa- 
tion was held at Eew, Twickenham and Hampton on Saturday, 
May 30. The members assembled at the Biohmond Main 
Drainage Works at Mortlake. The President of the Association, 
Mr. E. B. S. Escott, M. Inst. C.E., was unfortunately unable to 
attend the meeting, and in his absence Mr. C. H. Lowe, of Hamp- 
stead, Vice-President, presided oyer the proceedinga 

The Vice-President having expressed regret at the unayoidable 
absence of Mr. Escott, called upon 

Mr. Farrldy, Engineer in charge of the Bichmond Main Sewerage 
Board Works, who read the following paper. 



RICHMOND MAIN SEWERAGE BOARD 
WORKS, MORTLAKE, S.W. 

By WILLIAM FAIRLEY, Assoc. M. Inst. C.R, F.G.S., 
Ehoinbeb to the Boabd. 

Thb district of the Bichmond Main Sewerage Board includes six 
parishes, viz. Richmond, Kew, Petersham, North Sheen, Mortlake 
and Barnes, having an area of 4983 acres, a resident population of 
about 45,000, and an assessable value of 344 J94Z. 

L 

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146 BIOHHOIID MAIN SEWERAGE BOARD WORKS, MORTLAKB, 8.W. 

The Board was constituted by Provisional Order, dated 1887, 
and consists of twelve members, ten being elated by the constituent 
authorities, with two ex-ofi^o members. 



Sbwbrs. 

The Board, in addition to the pumping station, precipitation 
works, &c., have about five miles of deep-level intercepting sewers. 

These sewers are laid at such a level that the sewage of the 
whole district can be intercepted, and gravitate to the works at 
Mortlake. 

The sewers vary in size from 12 to 40 inches in diameter, and 
are constructed of brick and cement, stoneware piping and concrete, 
and where along the river front under the towpath, of cast-iron 
pipes. 

The gradients vary from 1 in 250 to 1 in 1200. 

Kiver water can be admitted at several points for the purpose of 
flushing. 

The ventilation is by means of ^ewer-gas destructors, plain 
ventilating columns, and gratings in the roadways. 

As a great portion of the district is not much above the level of 
high water in the river, no overflow can relieve the sewers during 
rain storms at such a time. Overflows have, however, been con- 
structed at two points, and additional overflows are in progress. 
The usefulness of these overflows is of course limited to the time 
when the river water is below or about half tide. 



Works. 

The works at Mortlake are situated close to the Biver Thames. 

The total area of land purchased by the Board was 11 acres. 
Of this, however, only 8 acres are enclosed, the remainder being 
in the occupation of a market gardener. 

The works include a range of buildings containing all the 
necessary appliances for pumping sewage, carrying out the neces- 
sary operations for chemical precipitation, and for pressing the 
sludge by means of filter presses. 

Cottages are also attached for the employes, together with 
stables, also dock and wharf for the unloading of goods. 



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BIOHMOND MAIN SBWE&AQB BOABO W0BK8, MOBTLAKB, 8.W. 147 



Tanks. 

There are eleren precipitation tanks, each 100 feet by 30 feet 
by 7 feet 6 inches deep from the top of coping, the capacity of 
the whole being about 1,210,000 gallons; they can be worked 
either on the intermittent system or with continons Bow. 

The walls are of Portland cement concrete, faced with blue 
Staffordshire bricks, the division walls being 2 feet 6 inches thick« 

The coping is formed of specially made blue Staffordshire coping 
12 inches deep. 

In addition to overflow weirs, each tank is fitted with the usual 
discharge pipe with floating arm. These floating arms are fitted 
with two outlet pipes, one of which draws the water in the tanks 
down to a level of about 3 feet below top water-level, and delivers 
into a channel commanding the high-level filters. The remain- 
ing depth of water in the tank being drawn off by a low-level 
outlet and delivered by a low-level channel to another set of filters. 

The tanks are fitted with scum boards fixed at the weirs, and a 
wrought-iron gangway runs from one end of the tanks to the other, 
in such a position that the whole of the valves may be worked in 
stormy weather without risk to the workmen. 



Filters. 

The effluent water from the tanks can be led on to eight filter 
beds; four of these are at a high level, and are each 107 feet by 
100 feet, formed yf'nh Portland cement walls coped with blue 
Staffordshire coping, the floors being formed with cement concrete 
12 inches thick. 

The filters have the usual inlets fitted with disc valves, and the 
filtering material, averaging 3 feet 6 inches in depth, is composed of 
a layer of 9-inch pipes, followed by gravel and sand of varying fine- 
ness, and finished with 3 inches of loam and sown down with grass. 

The four low-level filters are constructed in a similar manner, 
but measure 107 feet by 44 feet 6 inches each, and the filtering 
material is only 2 feet thick. 

The total area of these filters is 1^ acres. 

They have been in constant use since the works were opened, 
and are only now having the surface soil cleaned and renovated. 

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148 RICHBfOND MAIN SKWBBAOB BOARD W0BK8, MOBTLAKB, &W. 



Pbooess. 

The process of precipitation in use consists of first, a small dose 
of carbolic acid and iron salts is mixed with the sewage as it enters 
tho pump well. 

After being pumped up, the sewage receives the addition of a 
small quantity of milk of lime, approximately 4 or 5 grains per 
gallon, and afterwards a^ont 7 grains per gallon of a mixture of 
sulphate of alumina, iron, &c. 

The water after leaving the tanks is passed through the high- 
level or low-level filters and gravitates to the outlet channels, from 
whence it is discharged on the ebb tide into the river. 

At high water the surface of the wat^r in the river is at a 
considerable height above the level of the water in the filters, 
and at such times the filtered water gravitates back by two 
24-inch pipe drains to a pump well in the main building, from 
which it is lifted by two direct-acting steam pumps, capable of 
lifting 4,000,000 gallons in twenty-four hours, into a channel at a 
suflScient height for it to gravitate to the river. 

The expense for chemicals per million gallons varies from time to 
time from 228. to 25d. per million gallons. 



Analyses. 

Free aniinonm 0*(»475 0-017 

Albuminoid ammonia 0*005 0*0012 

Oxygen absorbed from standard, K MuO^ , 

acting in the cold fur three hours .. 50*2 c.c 1C*2 c.o 

Constituents expressed in parts per 1000. 

The above are taken from a paper by Professor Adeney, Royal 
University, Dublin, read before the Institution of Civil Engineers, 
Ireland ; the tests being made on samples taken hourly for twelve 
hours, and sent to him by the Author. 



Pumping Maohimbby. I 

The pumping machinery originally provided consisted off three 
horizontal jet condensing pumping engines, each capable of piAmping 
4,000,000 gallons in twenty-four hours, the approximate U^t being 
40 feet. 



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RICHMOND MAIN SEWBBAOB BOABD WOBKB, MOBILAKS^ 8.W. 149 

The following are the chief dimensions. 

High presBore oylindera 14 in. diam. 

Low ^ „ 24 „ 

Stroke 3:s „ 

Air pumps, single-aotiDg 14} «, 

,, „ stroke 16 „ 

Pnmp plungers 24 „ 

„ stroke 5 ft. 

Displacement per foot 19*539 galls 

They give a mechanical efficiency of aboat 65 per cent, with a 
consumption of feed water per I.H.P. of 20*5 lbs. per hour, or 
31-5ontheP.H.P. 

Within the past two years additional pumping engines have been 
fixed, with a total capacity of 20,000,000 gaUons per day. A new 
engine room has been built adjacent to tibe old engine room, and 
contains a vertical duplex pumping engine on the Worthington 
principle, capable of pumping about 15,000,000 gallons per day. 

The following are the chief dimensions : — 

nigh-pressure cylinders 12 in. diam. 

Intermediate-pressure cylinders 17 n 

Low-pressure cylinders 28 „ 

Stroke 86 „ 

Pump plungers 80 „ 

Stroke 86 „ 

Displacement per foot 30*354 galis. 

Contract spee<l 22*87 rov. per min. 

Steam pressure (maximum) 80 lbs. per sq. in. 

Clear total area through suction vaWee .. 8380 sq. in. 
„ „ delivery valves . . „ 

The steam valves on this engine are a departure from the usual 
practice. They are all circular valves, but the high and low- 
pressure valves are placed in the cylinder covers. The clearance 
spaces are thus considerably reduced. 

This engine is fitted in the pump with hanging flap valves, being 
the same kind of valves as fitted in the three horizontal pumping 
engines, with several details improved. 

It may be interesting to know that the valves in the main pumim 
at this station fitted with leather hinges and beats, have been m 
work for more than five years, practically without any renewal of 
leather or valve. 

The vertical Worthington, on trial runs at a speed of 28^ 
revolutions per minute, gave a mechanical efficiency of 87*4 per 
cent, the feed water per I.H.P. being 17 lbs. per hour, or per 
P.H.P., 19-44 lbs. per hour. This, on such a low lift as 35 feet, 



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150 RICHMOND MAIN 8EWERA0R BOARD WORKS, MORTLAKB, 8.W. 

that being the total head against the pumps during the trials, is an 
exceptionally good result. 

The cenbrifagal pumping engine is one of the ordinary pattern 
direct-coupled vertical engine and pump. 

The deUyery from the pump is below the floor, and the suction 
does not go to the bottom of the well, the pump being intended 
only to draw 20 feet below the floor in case of storm water rising 
to that level 

The principal dimensions are : — 

Cylinder 11} in diam. 

„ stroke 9 „ 

Diameter of pnmp fan .. * 88 „ 

RevolatioDS per minnte u.. 255-260. 

Steam pressure 60 Us. 

Diameter of delivery pipe 15 in. 

i« 19 suction „ 

In 1893 the two auxiliary Worthington pumping engines used 
for lifting e£3uent water only, were altered and fitted vrith double 
suctions connected to one main suction pipe 21 inches diameter, 
leading into the sewage well a distance of 126 feet. By this means 
these two pumps can be used either for pumping effluent or for 
assisting the main pumps in stormy weather, whenever the water 
rises to a dangerous level 

From the report published by the Board of the work in 1893-4 

the cost of pumping is given as follows : — 

£ B, d. 

Wages 11 8 

Coal 17 

Waste 2 

OU 5 

Fluid, &o., boUers 5 

Other expenses .004 

£1 10 

The above is for the dry weather flow only, and includes the 
proportion of the expense of three shifts of men. 

Since the new machinery has been fitted the cost has been 
reduced, more particularly for the pumping of the storm water, the 
new engine alone being capable of pumping 7,000,000 gallons on 
30 cwt of coal. 

The pumping power by the above additions has been increased 
within the past three years from 12,000,000 to 36,000,000 gallons 
per day. 

Steam is supplied by three Galloway boilers, each 18 feet by 6 feet 
6 inches. The flues are on the Livet system, and each boiler is 

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RIOHMOMD MAIN SEWSBAaB BOABD W0BK8> MOBTLAKB, 8.W. 151 

fitted with a Hotchkiss mechanical boiler cleaner, by means of which 
the deposit is removed hourly. 

Stbam Supbbhbatbb. 

A Schwoerer steam superheater has been fitted within the past 
eighteen months, and no difficulty has been fomid in getting a 
superheater of 150"" aboye the temperature of the saturated steam. 

Numerous trials have been made on the different engines with 
saturated and with superheated steam. 

With the newest and best engines a gain of approximately 10 per 
cent, on the P.H.P. has been got, while with the more wasteful 
type of engine a gain of from 25 to 28 per cent, in the amount of 
steam used was the result from using steam highly superheated. 

Elbotbio Light. 

About three years ago the whole of the works were fitted up with 
electric lighting plant, consisting of dynamo, engine, and 84 lights 
(aU incandescent) varying in power from 8 to 400 C.P. 

The generating pbmt is placed in the main engine room, and 
consists of an Elwell-Parker dynamo capable of producing 60 
amperes at 100 volts, driven by means of a heavy link belt from a 
vertical ^igine specially fitted for this worL 

The whole of the building is divided into five circuits, each 
circuit being controlled from a switchboard in the engine room. 

The large sewage well below the pump house is fitted with 
lights in water-tight fittings with special precautions taken for 
insulation. 

This was, the Author believes, the first sewage well of any con- 
siderable size and depth lit by the electric light permanently in 
this maimer. 

Since the date of its inauguration the installation has run 
without any trouble and practically without any repairs. 

On many occasions during the vnnter months it has been run 
continuously for more than 14 hours. 

The price per imit to the Board works out as follows : — 

Coal, Ac 1-05 

Oil, waste, &o '20 

Interest, lamps and sundries *25 

1*50 pence. 

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162 RICHMOND MAIN SBWBRAOB BQARD WOBKB, MOBTLAEB, 8.W. 



Prbssinq Plant. 

Originally three 36-iQch sludge presses were erected in the 
pressing-house, the pressing being done by means of hydraulic 
forcing engines. The system, however, had very serious disad- 
vantages and the maintenance was extremely heavy. 

Becently three additional presses embodying several improve- 
ments have been fitted, and the opportunity taken of changing 
the whole system over from direct pumping to pressing by air 
pressure, one direct pumping engine, however, being still reserved 
as a stand-by in case of a breakdown or anything going wrong 
with the air plant. 

The whole of the plant since its erection has worked extremely 
well, and has fulfilled all the conditions that were required of it 
the plates having been tested in an unusually severe manner but 
without any breakages. 

The new presses differ materially from those formerly put down. 
The opening and closing gear is a new pattern. 

The plates, the breaking of which were the chief troubles 
formerly, were designed and specified to overcome the previous 
difficulties. The specification required a test pressure of 150 lbs. 
on the one side of the plate only. 

All the plates, both new and old, are fitted in the central orifice 
with a brass clip to secure the dotha This device obviates any 
expense or trouble in sewing or preparing the cloths, nothing 
b^g necessary beyond punching out a hole in the centre of the 
canvas the required size. 

The clip as first devised was not satisfactory, but by remedying 
the defects a clip was at last modelled whic^ gives little or no 
trouble. 

The cost of pressing is as follows : — 

«. d. 

Labour 10 

Lime 9 

Cloths 4 

Goal, oil and stores 8 

2 2 

The above is for ordinary work, but the output can be increased 
from 25 to 30 per cent, without increasing the total amount paid 
for labour in the day or week. 

Large lantern lights have been fixed on the roof, and the sludge 



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DI80U88ION. 153 

pit and sludge vats ventilated continaonsly into the chimney 
shafts by a steam exhauster worked by the exhaust from the 
engines. 

The outfall to the riyer has been reconstructed, and is capable of 
discharging all the water pumped by the pumping machinery at 
high water. 

The whole of the work complete! up to 1891 was designed aid 
carried out by J. 0. Melliss, E^., M. Inst. C.K 

Since 189 1, the extensionSy additions, new pumping and sludge- 
pressing machinery, &c., have been designed and carried out under 
the Author's supervision as Engineer to the Board. 

The annual amount of expenses for maintenance, repayment of 
capital and payment of interest is about 14,500{. 



DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Jones : Is all the effluent filtered ? 

Mr. Faiblby : The storm water is not filtered. The system is 
the separate system throughout, but roof water is admitted to the 
sewers. The Board made the Barnes district take all their road 
water out of the sewers, and we hope ultimately to keep all the roof 
water of new houses out of the sewers. 

Mr. Lovegbove: You cannot do that under your existing 
powers. 

Mr. Faiblby : No. The Board have been in communication with 
numerous sanitary authorities to approach the Local Government 
Board to get a public Act to apply to the Thames valley, so that 
each authority could adopt it to keep out the roof water, and have 
the complete separate system if desired. Where you have to pump 
all the sewage, it is a very important matter. 

Colonel Jokes : How do you get your sewage so very dilute ? 

Mr. Faibley : We don't get it very dilute ; the solid matter is 
down below, and does not go over the weirs but under the surface. 

Colonel Jones : There must be very careful screening. 

Mr. Faibley : Yes, there are three screens, one before pumping 
and two after. 

Colonel Jones : Where do you pump the sludge out ? 

Mr. Faibley : It all goes through the pressing house : the quan- 
tity is from 23 to 26 tons per day of pressed cake. 



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154 BIOHMOND MAIN BBWBaAGB BOARD WOBES, MOBTLAEB, S.W. 

Mr. Walker: To what extent do you filter? 

Mr. Faiblby : I think it is all being filtered at present 

In reply to a further question, 

Mr. Faiblby said : Generally speaking the whole of the water 
is filtered, but at night and in the early morning, when it is more 
dilute, it does not require to be filtered. The Thunes Conserrancy 
Board have a standard, and at no time since the work commenced 
has there been any complaint. 

Mr. T. Walkbb : How often have you to take the settling out 
of your tanks ? 

Mr. Faiblby: Two or three times in a fortnight. It varies 
according to the weather. 

Mr. Walkbb : That is the stuff that is pressed from the bottom 
of the settling tanks. 

Mr. Faiblby : There has been nothing done at the filters for 
fiye years until the present season, when we took off the top layer 
and put in some fredi soil. 

Mr. Walebb : How do you get out the solids ? 

Mr. Faiblby : We sweep it into the sludge tank, and from the 
tank it is pumped up to yats at the level of the pressing house. 

Mr. Walkbb : What is the depth of the filtering material, and is 
it clean ? 

Mr. Faiblby : From 16 inches to 2 feet, and as clean as a water- 
works filter. I 

Mr. Siloook: Do you work some of the filters on thel con- 
tinuous system and some on the intermittent system ? And |^hich 
do you prefer ? 

Mr. Faiblby : If you want a very clear effluent it is be^^ter to 
run intermittently. 

A Mbmbbb : What is the practice in the contributory distbict ? 

Mr. Faiblby : They separate the whole of the rain water ^on the 
streets and roads from the sewage. 

Mr. LoYBGBOYB : Has Sichmond adopted the separate si 
throughout ? Do they have a double system of drains foJ 
house? I 

Mr. Faiblby: I do not know the practice in the surveyors' 
offices of the different constituent authorities. 

Mr. LovBGBOVB : We should like the proportion of slu^dge to 
sewage, and the cost. 

Mr. Faiblby : The proportion is about, say 8 tons of ^ 
sludge per million gallons. The price for pressing is froii a 25. to 



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DISCUSSION. 155 

28. Sd, per ton ; and the barging another 2s. The cost of barging 
is from 500/. to 6007. per annum. 

Mr. BiLCOCK : Cannot yon dispose of the sludge ? 

Mr. FAiBLBr : Not in London. At the present time the 
Board have a scheme under consideration for enlarging the works, 
and if carried they propose to burn the house refiise from the six 
parishes and the sludge together. 

In reply to a question, Mr. Fairley said the furnaces proposed 
would be bimilar to those Mr. Dawson was erecting at Leyton. 

Mr. y^\ H. Savage said : The quantity of sewage seems to be 
equal to 50 or 60 gallons per head daily. 

Mr. Faiblby : It works out at 45 gallons per head per day. 
The population during the summer was more than 45,000. 

A Mekbeb : How are the sewers ventilated ? 

Mr. Faxelkt : By BhaS* s gas destmctiaB, and open giatjngs in 
the roadways. 

A Membeb : Are the gratings all open ? 

Mr. Fairley: The only open gratings are in the roadways 
which you may call rural. In the streets they are fitted with 
shaft ventilators. The gas destructors we ha^e to maintain under 
the award of an arbitration. 

A Member : Do the furnaces keep alight? 

Mr. Fairley : I believe they do. 

Mr. LovEOROVE : What is the cost per year ? 

Mr. Fairley : 81 or 9/. per column. But we must maintain 
gas destructors where the award requires them on the river front 
We use Hohnan's old pattern. 

Mr. G. Jones proposed a hearty vote of thanks to Mr. Fairley 
for his paper descriptive of the works. 

Mr. T. Walker seconded the vote of thanks. He said. We 
are much indebted to Mr. Fairley for the opportunity which he 
has given us of seeing the works. 

The vote of thanks was unanimously accorded. 

The Members then inspected the various works described in the 
paper, and were afforded an opportunity of seeing one of the 
sludge presses actually at work. From the Richmond works the 
Members drove to Twickenham, where another opportunity was 
given for the inspection of sewage disposal works. At Twickenham 
Mr. O. B, Laffany Engineer to the District Council^ gave the 
following description of the works. 



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156 VISITS TO WORKS. 



TWIOKENHAM &EWAGB WoRKS. 



The Twickenham Sewage Disposal Works were among the 
first oonstmcted in the valley of the Thames, and consequently did 
not have the opportunity of profiting by the experience of similar 
works; but even at the present time they will bear favourable 
comparison with many of the more recent works. I have not 
asked you to come here because I have anything novel or interest- 
ing to show you, but I thought as it was on our way to Hampton 
we might break the journey here with some little interest. The 
scheme of sewage disposal adopted here is, I think, a good one, 
but it was rather badly carried out. The whole of the parish, 
consisting of 245 acres, with a population of 17,000 or 18,000, is 
drained to these works by gravitation. The sewage is received 
into these low-level tanks some 30 feet below where we are 
standmg. It passes from these tanks through coke screens into a 
passage leading to the pump wells. The sludge left behind in the 
tanks is discharged into a well at a still greater depth by means of 
pipes with plug valves from the bottoms of the tanks. There *are 
penstocks at each end of the tanks, and one of the four tanks is 
emptied every week, the tank cleaned out, and the sludge dis- 
charged into the sludge well. We have a chain pump, worked by 
a separate engine, which lifts the sludge some 70 feet, and it then 
flows through the shoots you see to the pits made on the adjoin- 
ing land. The liquid sewage is lifted some 55 feet by means of 
two 25 and one 40-lI.P. horizontal engine. It then flows through 
the concrete carriers erected above the ground level on arches to 
the high;leyel settling tanks. It is treated on its way with alumino- 
ferric at the rate of about 2 grains to the gallon. The chemical is 
simply placed, in the form of cakes, in the carrier, and is allowed 
to dissolve therein, about 2^ cwt. being used per day in this way. 
The sewage then is allowed to rest for some five or six hours in 
the high-level tanks, and is thence discharged over these filters. 
The sludge from the tanks is discharged, by means of shoots on 
the adjoining land, into pits similar to those provided for the 
aewage from the bottom tanks. We have eight high-level tanks, 
and fill and empty several every day, dependmg, of course, on the 
quantity of sewage. Our usual summer fiow is about 750,000 
gallons, but in winter we have double this quantity. We work on 
jbhe separate system throughout the whole district, having a com- 

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VISITS TO W0BK8. 157 

pleto separation of drains discharging direct into the Riyer Thames 
to take all the snrfEU^e water from roo& of honsee, yards, roads, &c. 
Every possible effort is made to exclude the snrfiEM^ water from 
the sewers which discharge into these works. We insist on 
separate drains for every honse, taking only the sewage from 
water-closets, bath wastes and sinks into our sewers, and all other 
drainage by means of separate pipes into our surface-water system. 
We have no diflScuUy in carrying this out, and all owners and 
builders freely comply with this arrangement. We have four 
filters, two being constantly at work, one cleaning out and the 
other at rest ; sometimes three are required, but two usually do 
the work. The filters consist of coke, shingle and sand, through 
which the sewage passes several times by means of upwards and 
downwards intermittent filtration and exposure in thin layers to 
the atmosphere. We find this exposure very beneficial, and I 
have recently made alterations in the filters, which have the effect 
of making this exposure more extensive. From the filters the 
effluent passes to a culvert which discharges into the Thames 
about a mile from the works. Formerly the effluent discharged 
into the river Colne, which flows past the works, and it was 
originaUy intended to discharge it direct into this stream, but 
that has been abandoned, and I have constructed this culvert right 
away to the Thames. Samples of our effluent are taken at regular 
intervals by the Thames Conservancy, and on all occasions give 
them perfect satisfaction. In fact, they inform us that our effluent 
is the best in the Thames valley ; but I believe they make the 
same complimentary statement to many of the other works. We 
have very favourable terms for the disposal of our sludge, as we 
are here surrounded with market gardens, and the occupier of these 
gardens takes the whole of our sludge and uses it on his land. 
We make him an annual payment for doing so, but we are saved 
all cost of pressing and other expense usual in connection with 
the disposal of sludge. There is one important consideration in 
this matter to which I would like to call your attention, and that 
is that we use no lime with our sewage, and this,, in my opinion 
makes fche sludge hr more valuable for agricultural purposes. 

The works were thoroughly inspected by the Members, Mr. Laffan 
acting as guide and pointing out the various matters of interest. 
From Twickenham the journey was continued by way of Bushey 
Park to the Grand Junction Company's works, and the Southwark 
and Yauxhall Water Company's reeervoira On arrival at the 

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158 VISITS TO WORKS. 

waterworks the Members were entertained at Inndieon by Messrs. 
Aird & Sons in a marquee erected in the grounds. Mr. Ellis, of 
Messrs. Aird & Sons, presided after luncheon. 

Mr. Lowe, Vice-President, proposed the health of Messzs. 
Aird & Sons, coupling with the toast the name of Mr. Ellis. 

The toast having been heartily honoured, 

Mr. Ellis briefly responded, and expressed his personal pleasure 
at meeting the Members of the Association. 

The Members then inspected the various works which were in 
progress. The first was the Sunnyside storage reservoir of the 
Southwark and Vauxhall Water Company, which has recently been 
constructed by Messrs. Aird & Sons, and has a capacity of 90,000,000 
gallons, with a total depth of 36 feet of water. The top water level 
is 21 feet above the ordinary summer level of the river, the water 
being raised by centrifugal pumps driven direct by high-speed 
single-acting triple-expansion engines, which are supplied with steam 
by four Babcock and Wilcox boilers working at a pressure of 200 lbs. 
per square inch. The bottom of the reservoir is some distance 
below the surface of the London clay, and the structure is kept 
water-tight by a puddle wall carried all round the embankments 
from top bank level down to 3 feet into the clay. The inner 
slopes and bottom are lined with 9 inches of cement concrete, the 
upper portion of the slopes being further protected by brick-on-edge 
paving set in cement. Provision is made for drawing off at different 
levels, or decanting the water, by means of a cast-iron valve shaft 
having the necessary sluice valves. 

The next object of interest was the ''Stam Hill" storage 
reservoirs of the same water company, in course of construction 
by Messrs. T. Aird & Sons. This reservoir is divided into two by 
meanei of a central embankment common to both, and will, when 
finished, contain 300,000,000 gallons, having a total depth of 
water of 40 feet, and a top water level of 37 feet above ordinary 
summer river level. These will also be filled by the pumping 
engines above referred to. The puddle trenches have been com- 
pleted to ground level, and some portion of the excavation of the 
body of the reservoirs could be seen in progress, together with 
the formation of the earth embankments, which are being made in 
8-inch layers well watered and punned to thoroughly consolidate 
them. 

The form of construction of these reservoirs is practically the 

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VISITS TO W0BK8. 159 

same as the *' Sonnyside " reservoir, only the bottom and the 
lower portion of the slopes of these will not be lined with concrete. 
A sindlar arrangement for decanting the water is intended. The 
object is to draw water &om these storage reservoirs for the daily 
supply instead of from the hyer in the time of flood. 

From here the Members were conducted to the works of the 
Grand Junction Water Company, where the ''Beidler" and 
" Worthington '* pumping engines were seen at work. 

The Qbjlsd Junction Company's Worm. 

The whole of the water pumped by the company, amounting to 
about 20,000,000 gallons per day, is obtained from the river at 
Hampton. The intakes are provided with screens and sluices for 
straining and controlling the water. A portion of the company's 
district is supplied from Hampton, for which purpose there is a 
complete system of filters and pumps, but the most important — 
viz. the town district, is suppUed £rom the Eew Bridge station. 
Powerful engines of the horizontal compound tandem type are 
used for supplying the Eew Bridge station from the Hampton 
station. A system of preliminary filters is in use at Hampton 
for this portion of the company's district, the water being, as a rule, 
passed through two sets of filters (one at Hampton and the final 
at Eew Bridge) before it is pumped into the district. 

The following are the approximate capacities of the pumping 
engines :^ 

C«pacity for 
Twenty-four Uouis. 

Two rotative compoand engines, by Boulton & Watt, 

1882 8,000,000 

One diagonal compoand engine, by Hawthorne 

Davey, 1889 4,000,000 

Two direct-acting Corniali engines, by Harvey & Co., 

1860 s\ 18,000,000 

Two horizontal compoand tandem, oonpled, by 

J. Simpson & Co., 1891 (high lift) 14,000,000 

Two horizontal compound tandem, coupled, by 

J. Simpson & Co., 1891 (low lift) 14 .000,000 

One triple Worthington, J. Simpsou & Co 3,000,000 

One centrifugal, J. Simpson & Co 11,000,000 

Two Ihorizontal cylinder, with three-throw vertical 

pumps, Boulton & Watt 7,000,000 

This station contains about 9 acres of preliminary filters and 
about 4 acres of filters for the country district, besides one storage 
reservoir containing about 45,000,000 gallons. 



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160 VISITS TO W0BK8. 



The West Middlesex Waterworks Cohpany. 

The West Middlesex Water Company have at Hampton only 
an intake and pumping station, the water taken from the river 
being merely passed through screens and pumped for treatment to 
the Bubsiding reservoirs and filters at Barnes, about 10 miles 
distant. The plant at the Hampton station consists of a horizontal 
high-duty Worthington pumping engine, capable of delivering 
24,000,000 gallons per day to the Barnes reservoirs, and two high- 
duty vertical Worthington pumping engines, each having a capacity 
of 16,000,000 gallons per day. Steam is supplied to thete engines 
from five Cornish boilers and three Lancashire boilers. 



The Southwark akd Vauxhall Company's 
Pumping Engines. 

After leaving the West Middlesex works the Association had an 
opportunity of viewing the direct-acting rotative pumping engines 
of the Southwark and Vauxhall Water Company. These engines 
are in two pairs ranged side by side, and are compound surface 
condensing, having cylinders of 32 inches and 52f by 7 feet stroke. 
They pump against a head of 280 feet, and deliver filtered water 
direct on to the company's district through a 80-inch main, and also 
to the service reservoirs at Nunhead through a 42-inch main. Thdr 
combined capacity is 20,000,000 gallons in twenty-four hours. 
They are steamed by six Lancashire boilers, 7 feet 6 inches in 
diameter by 28 feet long, having corrugated flues, and work at a 
pressure of 100 lbs. per square inch. In a house adjoining were seen 
a pair of Cornish beam engines at work, having 80-inch cylinders, 
10 feet stroke, and double-acting pumps 24| inches in diameter by 
10 feet stroke, these pumps filtering water against a head of 
240 feet through a 30-inch main on to the district, and each has 
a capacity of 5,000,000 gallons per twenty-four hours. These 
engines are suppUed with steam by eleven Cornish boilers working 
at a pressure of 40 lbs. per square mch. 



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DISTRICT MEETING AT HANLEY. 

June 13, 1896. 

Beld at the Town Hail, Eanley. 

R R 8.ES00TT, M. Inbt. C.E., Presidbnt, in the Chair. 

— *♦- 

A Midland Ck)tmties District Meeting of the Association was held 
at Hanley on Saturday, June 13. The Members who arrived in 
Hanley on the Friday evening were given an opportunity to 
inspect the Corporation electrical works, and the installation of 
the light in the public buildmgs and the streets of the town. 
Mr. Lobley, the Borough Engineer, who has charge of the elec- 
trical works, with Messrs. Cowell and Sutherland, the Electrical 
Engineers, received the Members at the works, and fully explained 
the system of lighting adopted. Subsequently a tour was made of 
Hanley, the Victoria Hall, the Public Library and other buildings 
being visited. 

On Saturday morning the Members of the Association met in 
the stipendiary court room at the Town Hall. Mr. E. R S. Escott, 
M. Inst. G.E., Hali&z, President, occupied the chair. 

The Mayor (Mr. Councillor Tunnidiffe), in receiving the 
Members, said : Gentlemen, I am sure I give you a very hearty 
welcome to Hanley. You will have an opportunity, under the 
guidance of Mr. Lobley, of seeing the improvements which Hanley 
has made since the Association was last here ; among which I may 
mention the park and the electric light installation. I think, on 
the whole, considering the size of the town, we have kept abreast 
of the times. I once again welcome you here very heartily. 

The President said: Gentlemen, I have, on behalf of the 
Association, to thank the Mayor for his kind remarks and for his 
welcome to Hanley. We have a long programme before us, but 
under the guidance of Mr. Lobley we look forward to a very 



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162 60MB OF THB PUBLIO WORKS OABBIED 0X7T IN HANLBY 

pleasant day. I, on behalf of the Association, thank the Mayor 
and the other members of the Corporation who have feyonred us 
with their presence this morning. 

Mr. A. T. Davis, Honorary Secretary for the Midland Gonnties 
District, said: I haye received through Mr. Lobley letters of 
r^et from Mr. Oartwright, Bury, Mr. May, of Brighton, the 
President Elect, Mr. Lewis Angell, of West Ham, Mr. A. M. 
Fowler, Mr. E. Pritchard and Mr. Bradley. 

Mr. Lobley then read the following paper — 



SOME OF THE PUBLIC WORKS CARRIED OUT 
IN HANLEY DURING THE PAST TEN 
YEARS. 

By JOSEPH LOBLEY, M.Inst.O.E., Borouoh ENomBBB 

AND SUBVBYOB, HaNLBY. 

It is not the intention of the Author to attempt a complete 
statistical record of the ordinary routine of the borough engineer's 
department, but simply to give a short description of some of the 
principal works carried out since the Annual Meeting of this 
Association held in Hanley in July 1886. 

Sbwage Works. 

In May 1881 a district meeting of this Association was held 
in Hanley, and a paper was read by the Author on the Hanley 
Sewage Works, wluch had then recently been opened. Members 
are referred to vol. vii. p. 58, for this description, and it will only 
be necessary now to shortly describe the extended works carried 
out since that date. 

An additional precipitation tank measuring 200 feet by 100 has 
been constructed. About 19 acres of land has been purchased, 
extending the property of the corporation close up to the boundary 
of the borough along the valley of the Trent near Stoke station. 
This land is reserved for filtration areas. Four sludge presses, 
with air compressor and circular sludge tank and other appur- 
tenances, together with the new buildings required, have been 
erected. Plans have been approved by the Local Government 
Board, and the work will be shortly taken in hand for dealing 



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DUBmO THB PAST TEN TBARa 163 

with the small outlying districts whidi are below the leyel of the 
existing intercepting sewers. It is proposed to lay down the Shone 
system for these districts, which although small, are a considerable 
distance from each other, extending from a mile to the south-east 
to a mile to the north-west 

An additional air compressor will be erected at the sewage works 
and will probably be driven by electricity, thus affording some work 
for the electric light engines and boilers during the daytime and 
after midnight. 

Since the beginning of lilay, the consent of the Town Ck)uncil 
having been given to the experiment, the Bacillite Sewage Purifica- 
tion Syndicate have had arrangements in progress for dealing with 
the sewage. At the present moment it cannot be known positively 
whether sufficient work will have been done to enable the Members 
to form any opinion on the merits of this system. 

Hanley Town Hall. 

When the Annual Meeting took place in 1886, the Members 
then present were able to see the alterations effected in the front' 
part of the building to adapt it for municipal purposes, also the 
new police cells. The new Quarter Sessions Court was then in 
course of erection. In 1887 tho Author was instructed by the 
council to prepare plans for an assembly room to be built upon 
what was then the bowUng green, together with accommodation 
for the School Board Offices. His instructions were (1) to erect as 
large a hall as the site would permit ; (2) the room to be good 
acoustically for music or public speaking; (3) the cost not to 
exceed 8000Z. 

This was a problem that had rarely been faced, but the Members 
will be able to see the result. The building has been erected 
and furnished for 10,000Z. complete. The external appearance is 
designed in keeping with the remainder of the btiilding. 

The hall will accommodate 8000 persons, including promenade 
standing room. For political meetings or other large gatherings, 
by removing the chairs from the ground floor, over 5000 people 
have been present at one time. 

Very little has been attempted as regards decoration, that being 
left to be dealt with in the future. The ceiling is elliptical in 
section, but part of the roof timbers and tie-beams come down 
below and are visible. 



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164 SOKE OF THE PUBLIC WOBKS OABBIED OUT IN 0ANLET 

Until the design is fully carried out as regards decoration, these 
timbers certainly do not present a very good appearance. The 
object, however, of their existence, in lieu of any other form of roof 
and ceiling, has been obtained, as the acoustic^ properties of the 
hall when filled, both as regards music and public speaking, have 
given general satis&ction. 

The Author's plans were submitted specially on this pomt to 
Professor T. Boger Smith and received his approval, with a report 
that the proportions of the room were likely to produce good 
acoustical results. 

1887 being the year of the Queen's Jubilee, the title ** Victoria 
Hall " was given to the building, the foundation stone being then 
laid ; but it is really the Town Hall in the same sense as the Bir- 
mingham Town Hall, namely, the place of pubho assembly, and is 
part and parcel of the Town Hall or Municipal Buildings. 

The Committee has decided this season to paint and d^an the 
ceiling of the Hall and the corridors of the Town Hall, considerably 
the worse through undermining and electric wiring, but unfortu- 
nately this will not be done in time for the district meeting. 

Subscriptions were raised to commemorate the Queen's Jubilee, 
the proceeds of which were appropriated to several objects, including 
the new organ in the Victoria Hall, grants to the School of Art, 
memorial medals, and a dinner to 2300 old people. 

Mr. George Meakin generously contributed one-third of the 
amount of the subscription list, and for this reason the organ is 
generally associated with his nama 

He further provided a sum of money to establish popular con- 
certs at very low prices of admission. These go by the name of 
the Meakin Gonccorts, and are very extensively patronised during 
the winter half year, six or seven concerts being then given. In 
addition to these, other concerts and entertainments are continually 
taking place, and generally speaking the Hall is very much m usa 

The North Staffordshire Musical Festival hold their triennial 
concerts here, the next taking place in the October of this year. 



Fbee LnaABY. 

The late borough offices have been converted into the Free 
Library. This work was in progress at the Annual Meeting in 
1886. Since then the cellar under the reading room has been 



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DUBINa THB PAST TEN YBABS. 165 

deepened, tiled and famished as a boys' reading room, the ex- 
Mayor (Mr. Alderman Hammersley) taking a great interest in the 
work 

The mnseum is located in the former large room of the 
Mechanics' Institution. It was commenced as the North Stafford- 
shire Technical Museum, but fiEiiled to be self-supporting, and has 
been since taken oyer by the Corporation, the admission being 
free. 

Thb Higher Grade School. 

This building, which the Members will hare the opportunity of 
seeing, has been carried out from designs by Messrs. Scrivener & 
Sons, Architects, Hanley, and is considered well adapted to the 
purpose of higher education. 

Butohers' Market. 

A new stone front, together with an entire new roof, has been 
constructed for this market The back yard, whidi was endosed 
by a wall and other outlying buildings, being remoyed and thrown 
open to the street 

Hanley Park. 

At the time of the Annual Meeting here, Hanley had no park, 
indeed no sign existed that there was likely to be one within a 
measurable time. The movement to secure land for a park before 
all available and accessible areas were built upon began in 1890, 
and rapidly found favour. 

The proposition to purchase land for a park on the southern half 
of the borough was accepted at a large meeting of ratepayers, 
coupled, however, with the understanding that the north-eastern 
and north-western parts were also to be provided with smaller 
parks. 

The park at present in course of formation consists of 104 acres, 
24 of whidi is left as a fringe outside the park, and is offered for 
sale for building residences. A portion of this land on the north 
side has been recently sold and has realised good prices, the amount 
obtained being over 8000Z. 

The site is the whole of the open area of land lying between the 
Ebnley built up areas and Stoke station. 

No other area of equal capacity was available without going a 



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166 BOMB OF THB PUBUO WORKS OARBIED OUT IN HANLBY 

long distance, and most probably outside the borough. The 
Council judged it better to have the park practically in the midst 
of the people, and thus save it from being coyered with houses and 
streets. 

Doubtless there are some disadvantages; trees, shrubs and 
flowers cannot be expected to flourish quite so well, and the sight 
of the smoke is to be regretted. 

On the other hand, the close proximity of a park, merely as an 
open space, to the residents of a manufacturing town must be 
regarded as a great boon, and the expense entailed has been 
ungrudgingly incurred. 

No large landowner or titled neighbour is at hand to make 
Hanley a present of a park or two, as many other towns are 
fortunate enough to possess, and land has had to be bought for all 
three parks, at an average price of 500/. per acre. 

To the cost of laying out, the late Mr. George Meakin gave 
5000/., Mr. Councillor Huntbach, Mayor 1889-92, gave 1000/., 
and many gifts of money and objects from a large list of donors 
have also been received. Mr. Alderman Hammersley, Mayor 
1892*95, has given the fountain in the Cauldon grounds, or first 
section of the park. The cost of the park remaining a charge on 
the ratepayers will be over 70,000/. 

The area of land acquired by the corporation for the park is 
divided broadly mto four part& 

The Cauldon canal divides the property by an irregular line 
running east and west, and Victoria Bead further divides it by a 
nearly straight line running north and south. 

The Begent Gate on the north is within half a mile from the Town 
Hall, and Queen's Gate is within a quarter of a mile from the 
populous district of Broad Street. 

Prince's Gtate is approached by a tree-bordered avenue 250 yards 
bng and 20 yards wide, which brings the main park into sight, 
and commodious access from the main road passing through the 
borough and along whidi the tramway is laid. 

Boughey Bead Gtate, at the south-east, affords access to the park 
for the rapidly increasing population of the district lying between 
this point and the borough boundary, adjoining the North Stafford 
Hotel at Stoke station. 

The Park Beads, north and south, and Avenue Bead, afford 
access to the belt of building land on the one side and to the park 
on the other. 



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DUBINa THB PAST TEN YEABa 167 

Yioioria Boad has now been opened through into Stoke Station 
Boady nearly at the point where the boundary of the borough cuts 
across the railway station. 

In connection with the park, four new canal bridges have been 
required. No. 1, or Victoria Boad bridge, is 45 feet in dear width 
of roadway and footpaths ; No. 2 is a footbridge ; and No. 3 is a 
carriage-drive bridge, both within the park ; No. 4 is the outer 
road bridge on the eastern side, and is 36 feet dear width, the span 
being 33 feet clear. 

This general description has so fieur referred to arrangements 
exterior to the park proper, such plan having been prepared by the 
author before the appointment of a landscape gardener. 

The following more particularly refers to the design within the 
park fences, prepared by Mr. T. H. Mawson, Park Architect, of 
Windermere. 

The pavilion is placed near the centre of the upper ground, 
on an elevated position, commanding extensive views in all direc- 
tions. 

The drive irom the Begent and Queen's Gkttes passes the south 
front of the pavilion on the way to the bridge over the canal ; 
then turning westward by a large curve, it passes by a bridge 
over an arm of the lake and on to Prince's Gbtte. Branch drives 
connect with Boughey Boad Gbtte. 

Between the pavilion and the canal the ground is laid out in 
terraces and garden plots, vrith flights of steps, to a band-stand 
and foot-bridge over the canal, extending to the bowling green in 
the lower ground. 

In the same line from the pavilion the walk is continued below 
the lawn to a fountain, and by flights of steps to the lake boat 
landing. 

Playgrounds are being formed adjoining Victoria Boad, the 
canal dividing that provided for girls from that for the use of 
boys. 

The lake is about 5 acres in extent, and together with the 
ravine or dingle has been excavated and formed out of practically 
level ground. 

The ground between Stoke Boad and Victoria Boad is laid out 
as a public garden, and connects the cemetery with the larger 
portions of the park, free from the intervention of any buildings. 
This is called the first section, and with the conservatory, green* 
houses and lodge was formally opened in July 1894. 

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168 SOHB OF THE PUBLIC W0BK8 OABBIED OUT IN HANLBT 

Those previotifily acquainted with this area, with its plain nnin- 
teresting fields interspersed with pit shafts, will admit that Mr. Maw- 
son in designing and laying ont the park has had a difficult task to 
do, and that he has succeeded in his work in a marked degree. 
It will be remembered that at the last annual meeting at HalifiAx, 
Mr. Mawson read a paper on park and garden architecture. Those 
who wish to enter into fuller detail will find it well described and 
illustrated in a little book written by Mr. Mawson and published 
by Messrs. Allbut and Daniel, Hanley, at one shilling. 



Hanlby Elbotbioity Wobks. 

A Provisional Order was obtained in 1891, enabling the corpora- 
tion to lay down mains and erect buildings and plant for the 
supply of dectrical energy within the borough. 

The Author visited America in the autumn of that year, and 
made special visits to the electric lighting stations in towns of 
about the same size as Hanley, in order to make himself acquainted 
with the general business engineering arrangements required. It 
will be remembered that at that time there were very few examples 
of that description in this country. 

The designing and carrying out of the buildings, lines of mains, 
erection of generating plant, and all works in connection therewith, 
has from the first been entrusted to the Author. 

In September 1892, the Council entered into a contract with 
the Brush Electrical Engineering Company for the boilers, 
engines, dynamos, mains and sub-station tnmsformers requisite 
to deal with the compulsory area lighting, both pubUc and private, 
in its first stages; the system adopted being that known as 
bighi-pressure alternating current, with transformers at sub- 
stations, from which low-pressure distributing mains are laid to 
consumers' premisea The reasons that influenced the Council in 
selecting this system as against a continuous-current scheme, as 
being more suitoble for a district like Hanley, were principally : — 

1. The works could be placed away from the centre of the 
town, and where land is less valuable, and where, consequently, 
extensions could be more readily made as requured. 

If. The north-eastern comer of the park estate, adjoining tlie 
canal, was available as the site for the electricity works, and will be 
found to be very conveniently situated and but little removed from 



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DUBINa THB PAST TEN YSAB8. 1^9 

the actual centre of the area of supply. Further advantages accrue 
from its proximity to the canal, for the supply of coal and water 
for condensing engines. 

The high-pressure mains are concentrically arranged in one 
cable with inisulating material between the two sets of copper 
strands, the whole being insulated and protected by outer coverings. 
This cable is drawn into cast-iron pipes, forming a ring main 
from the works, via Bethesda Street and Piccadilly and the 
Market Square, and returning vid Tontine Street and Lichfield 
Street. 

The low-pressure distribution mains are not concentric, but are 
laid double in cast-iron troughs, afterwards filled up solid with 
pure bitumen. The capacity of these mains is practically in- 
creased to any extent desired by reducing the area served by them. 
This is done by adding transformer stations at the points of most 
demand. 

PuBLio Stbebt LiannNa. 
(Within or adjacent to the compulsory area,) 

The contract includes provision for 80 arc lamps of 1200 N.G.P. 
each, Le. 400 watts. These are arranged in series, supplied with 
electricity by a special cable irom a continuous-current dynamo. 
A second engine and dynamo is provided as reserve. 



Ikoandbscent Lamps fob Side Stbebt LiOHTiNa. 

Within and adjacent to the district through which the electric 
light mains pass are other existing gas lamps, in addition to the 
53 lamps of various sizes that were dispensed with by the establish- 
ment of the 30 arc lamps. 

At present it is generally conceded that arc lamps should be 
used for leading thoroughfares, but there are many positions, 
particularly in side streets, where the establishment of such a lamp 
is out of the question, and where an ordinary gas burner or a 60- 
watt (16 C.P.) glow-lamp would suflSce. 

There has been laid in the same cast-iron trough with the 
general supply mains, two separate insulated cables of small size, 
the whole being afterwards filled up as before described with 
bitumen. 



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170 BOMB OF THB PUBLIO WOBKS OARKIED OUT IN HANLEY 

The Author has devised an arrangement for lighting incandescent 
lamps in parallel without sending round the lamplighter. 

Where arc lamps exist in series controUed from the central 
station and have independent continuous-current plant and cables, 
the arrangement is as follows : — 

The arc lamp cable is passed through the apparatus (which is 
placed at sub-stations) and whenever the arc-lamp current is turned 
on, the apparatus switches on the current from the general supply 
low-pressure mains to the incandescent lamps arranged in parallel. 
These should not exceed twenty 16 G.P. lamps off one connection, so 
that the distance of the furthest lamp should not exceed 200 yards. 
When the arc lamps are turned out the apparatus switches off the 
current supplying the incandescent lamps, which are thus automatic- 
ally Ughted and extinguished by closing or opening the arc light 
circuit at the electricity works. 

The apparatus consists of a solenoid or electro-magnet operating 
a lever ; the current of the arc lamps energises the solenoid or 
electro-magnet, lifts the lever, and by a mercurial or other switch, 
closes a low-pressure circuit for the incandescent lamps. 

The Author believes that incandescent lamps in parallel for street 
lighting has not received the attention the method deserves. He 
has seen many complicated arrangements of lamps in series. There 
are now in operation several lamps arranged as above and working 
satisfieustorily. No switches of any kind or " cut-in " arrangements 
are requisite at the lamp post. 

Within half a mile of the works it is proposed to try a modifica- 
tion of this system devised by Mr. Sutherlimd. In the new roads 
round the park, the special cables will be supplied with current at 
800 voltSy switched on when required at the works ; in each lamp- 
post three lamps, 8 C.P. and 100 volts each, will be placed in series, 
the group of three being in parallel off the special mains. The 
cable used is twin lead-covered equal to 7-20 S.W.G., and even if 
series lighting was used it would not be advisable to use a smaller 
conductor than thai 

The first loans sanctioned were as follows : — 

Electricity works, buildings, generating plant, mains, &c., for 
dealing with the compulsory area of 35 acres in the centre of the 
town, 21,000Z. ; meters, &c., lOOOZ. ; wiring corporation buildings 
3000?. 

Current was first supplied in April 1894, and the works formally 
opened in the following July. The plant and mains were capable 

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DURING THE PAST TEN YBAB8. 171 

of snpplying 10,000 8-G.P. lampe^ and before the end of that year 
the demand had exceeded the safe limit, and rendered it imperative 
to extend the works and main& 

Additional sanctions were obtained amoonting to 24,000Z., the 
capacity of the works both for public and private lighting bemg 
doubled, and the mains commanding an area of 400 acres. 

Supply can be given to all applicants along the entire length 
(Ij mile) of the main road through the borough, from Stoke Station 
on the south to the Burslem borough boundary on the north. 

The generating^lant first erected was as follows : — 

Three Lancashire boilers, each 28 feet by 7 feet, working 
pressure 120 lbs. per square inch ; four vertical compound con- 
densing engines, namely, two 200, and two 100 indicated horse- 
power ; four alternating-current dynamos, namely, two 100, and 
two 50 kilowatts, each driven from engines by ropes ; separate 
compound engine for air and circulating pump and surface con- 
denser; two dynamos for street arc lighting, driven from two 
vertical compound steam engines of 30 indicated horse-power 
each ; two 10-kilowatt continuous-current exciters driven by belts, 
each from one of the 50-kilowatt altematora 

The plant erected for the extensions consists of one 800-kilowatt 
Ferranti flywheel alternator with exciter ; one new exciter to each 
of the former 100-kilowatt alternators, thus providmg each alter- 
nator in the station with its own exciter ; one combined plant for 
air and circulating pump, surfiace condenser and boiler feeders, by 
Messrs. W. H. Allen & Co. ; 80 arc lamps and poets, by Messrs. 
Crompton & Go. ; two Ferranti rectifiers capable of deaUng with 
each of the two circuits of 30 arc lamps, the former arc dynamos 
being held in reserve ; new switch-board, by Messra Ferranti. 

The electric light mains for the extensions consist of paper 
insulated concentric conductors, lead-covered and laid in troughs, 
afterwards filled up solid with resin compound ; all supplied by 
the British Insulated Wire Co. 

The engine house is furnished with a 7-ton travelling crane, and 
the boilers with Cass's mechanical stokers driven by separate 
engine, and two water storage cisterns. 

A platform extends in front of the boilers at a level above their 
tops, so that coal can be discharged into the hoppers of the stokers 
with the least amount of manual labour. 

An arrangement for lifting the coal out of a canal boat or coal 
shed, and depositing it on the platform, has been devised by the 



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172 80MB OF THB PUBLIO W0BK8 OABBIBD OUT IN HANLBY 

Author and carried out by the Temperley Transporter Co., who 
sapplied their speciality ; Messrs. J. Warner & Sons, of Hanley, 
supplying the platform traveller, and Messrs. Bergtheil and Toung 
the alternating-current motor. 

The Author believes that it will meet the requirements of the 
electricity works better than the usual form of elevators, n^hich are 
no doubt well fitted for places requiring steady constant duty. 
Further the transporter can be used for lifting the coal out of a 
boat and depositing it in the coal store sheds, or for unloading 
paving or other material from canal boat to cart. 

In carrying out the works the Author has been ably assisted by 
Mr. G. H. Gottam, the Corporation Electrical Engineer, who had 
the running of the works in his charge until he received the 
appointment of Chief Electrical Engineer to the Hampstead 
Vestry, and also by Mr. C. A. Cowell and Mr. C. J. Sutherland, 
who were appointed, last September, Electrical Engineers and 
Joint Managers under the general direction of the Auihor. 

Bearding the financial aspect of the undertaking, the rate- 
payers have every reason to be satisfied with the prospects. 

Not only did the works conclude the first completed year on 
December 31,. 1895, with a balance in hand after paying all 
expenses, including interest and redemption of loans, but on 
December 31, 1894, with practicaUy less than six months' running, 
there was a favourable balance, after discharging all obligations, 
including a whole year's interest on loans. 

The price charged per unit is 5cf., current for motive power is 
offered at 3d,, and to churches, &c., for Sundays, at 4(2. 

The Town Hall, Baths, Free Library, Museum, General Market, 
Fish Market, Butchers' Market, School of Art, Higher Grade 
School, St. Mark's Church, and the Public Qocks at the Old 
Town Hall and Shelton Church are lighted throughout by elec- 
tricity. 

Stbebt Ihfbovembnts. 

This paper is already too long, so the Author will refer to one 
only of those carried out amce the Association last met in Hanley. 

During the last ten years, opportunity has been taken from time 
to time to widen the main road between Hanley and Stoke. 
From Piccadilly to Stoke Station Boad, a length of more than one 
mile, less than a quarter of a mile remains to be dealt with. 

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DlTBma THB PAST TEN YEAB8. 173 

When the Author urged the exercise of the ordinary powers 
of the council whenever new buildings were required, there were 
few who did not believe the attainment of the object would be far 
beyond their tim& 

Messrs. Brown, Westhead, Moore & Go. gave the land between 
the Park and Canal Bridge required to widen Stoke Boad from 
41 feet to 55 feet 

The Author wishes to show by this illustration that the prospect 
apparently of a long period should not deter municipal engineers 
from venturing to recommend the widening of important roads 
or the formation of new ones. He has seen more than one 
agreement to give up land at the end of twenty years come to be 
realised. 

Members who are interested in local particulars respecting 
Hanley are referred to the Author's Presidential Address in 1886. 

Mr. Lobley added to the paper the following remarks illustrative 
of the varied duties which have to be discharged by a borough 
engineer. One of my recent duties consisted in rearranging the 
wards of the borough. There were originally three wards. The 
town has been divided, not that each ward should represent a sepa- 
rate locality, but that each ward should have a portion of the centre 
of the town and a portion of the outer boundary, with the roads, 
generally speaking, connecting the centre with the suburbs. The 
plan represented a circle divided into sectors, and each ward had 
intereste in the central parts as well as in the outskirts up to the 
borough boundary. 



DISCUSSION. 

The Pbbsidbnt : I think we might style this a very interesting 
paper, and considering that Mr. Lobley has been in Hanley so 
long, it is interesting to hear and read what has been done here. 
I have never had the pleasure of being in Hanley before to-day, 
but it certainly looks an enterprising town. It is an advantage to 
Hanley to have a gentleman like Mr. Lobley, who seems to have 
the technical knowledge and experience of every department. 
Some of us representing larger populations find our work run in 
a certain routine, such as sewage disposal or tramways. Here 
Mr. Lobley goes in for electricity and for laying out parks. These 



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174 WOEES OABBOBD OUT IN HANLBY DUBINQ ^AJ9T TEN YBABS. 

are things which do not oome under the direction of every borough 
engineer. The paper seems to give full information on every 
subject but tramway& There is no allusion to the Hanley 
tramways. I can hardly say I admire the tramcar which brought 
me from Stoke this morning. I shall be glad to hear any remarks 
you wish to make on the paper. 

Mr. Lobley: I hoped we should have been in the midst of taking 
up the tram line and relaying it. Last^ year the company began 
this work and relaid a considerable portion of the line through 
the borough for an electric tramway ; but for some reason there 
has been great delay in recommencing. The Provisional Order 
has passed the Board of Trade. I ask the Members not to pay 
attention to the not very creditable state of the tramway track. We 
have deferred the work of repaving the roadway and footpaths until 
the Tramway Company have relaid their track. The system to be 
adopted will no doubt be the overhead electric trolley. That por- 
tion of the line which has been relaid has a return wire under the 
sets for that system. I may say I had a scheme under considera- 
tion for utilising in the daytime the spare energy we have in boilers 
and engines at our Electric Light Works ; but unfortunately we do 
not consist of one town like Hali£ftXy with the country all round, or 
Huddersfieldy which has its own tramwaya We are a number of 
towns, like beads on a string, and the tramway runs through from 
Longton to Fenton, Stoke, Hanley and Bnrslem. There is a 
difficulty in getting the towns united for any object, and they took 
fright when it was suggested that Hanley was going to supply 
the current, and it soon had to be dropped. There were other 
difficulties — probably financial onea The Tramway Company 
considered they would be better with their own independent source 
of supply for electricity. 

Mr. H. Feeoy Boulnois said : I have very great pleasure in 
moving a very hearty vote of thanks to Mr. Lobley for his paper, 
and for arranging this meeting in conjunction with the District 
Secretary. I had the good fortune to be one of the few who last 
night accompanied Mr. Lobley to see some of his works, and 
consequently I am perhaps able to say what others are unable to 
say at present. I agree with you, Mr. President, that this paper 
shows us distinctly the multifarious duties which a borough 
engineer has to perform. In this paper we have mention made 
of architecture, sewage disposal, electricity, each one a speciality 
of itself, and from what 1 have seen of Mr. Lobley*s work I can 

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DI80US8IOK. 175 

heartily congratnlate him and Hanley upon the way in which he 
has carried out this difiScnlt and arduous work. I am obliged, un- 
fortunately, to criticise one little matter which he himself criticises 
in his paper, that is the ceiling of the large hall. Mr. Lobley was 
good enough to have the hall lighted last night, and I made a careful 
inspection of it, and there is no doubt that the ceiling is not a 
" thing of beauty or a joy for ever." But I understand that the 
acoustic properties of the hall are due to that ceiling ; that if it 
had been covered there would have been an echo like that of the 
room in which we are now meeting. Therefore perhaps he was 
right in sacrificing aesthetic views for a more utilitarian purpose. 
Passing to the free library, I was delighted to find a cellar put to 
such an excellent purpose as a boy's reading room. It was the 
only cool room I was in yesterday. There was not the slightest 
smell of closeness in the room, which is well lighted and ventilated, 
and I congratulate the boys of Hanley upon having such a delightful 
place where they can go to in their hours of leisure. I have no doubt 
that Mr. Lobley advised you thoroughly well when he advocated the 
high-pressure alternating-current system of electricity, under the 
circumstances of the works being so far from Hanley, and, as I see 
from the map, it being a straggUng place. Otherwise I am not much 
in favour of the high-pressure alternating system. There is a con- 
siderable amount of loss, and I should Uke Mr. Lobley to say what he 
finds the loss to be in sending the current to the transformers, and 
how much is lost in the transforming operations. In these works 
he has concentrated the power to some extent. He tells us that he 
has these compound condensing engines of 200 and 100 H.P., and 
in addition these large Ferranti alternators. Where you have elec- 
tricity works, there is a varying load which gradually increases up 
to a certain point, and then rapidly descends. To my mmd it would 
have been better to have spUt up the power to smaller units, and 
had the Willans and Bobinson or some similar class of engine ; 
but no doubt Mr. Lobley has good reasons for acting as he has 
done. There is one thing which is very interesting, the plan for 
lighting the incandescent lamps. Mr. Lobley, with his usual modesty, 
has not drawn attention to this. But I was struck with the sim- 
plicity and ease with which the incandescent lamps could be lighted 
directly the arc lamps were switched on. It is a most ingenious 
arrangement, and I commend it to my brother officiala I notice 
that the mains and cables are being laid by the British Insulated 
Company of Prescot. They have a very high insulation indeed, and 

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176 WORKS OARBIED OUT IN HANLEY DUBINQ PAST TEN YEARS. 

the way in which the cahles are being laid struck me with admira- 
tion. I congratulate Mr. Lobley upon having a meeting in Hanley. 
He has, I understand, served Hanley for 25 years^ and it gave me 
and my brother o£Scials great satisfaction to know tiiat Mr. Lobley's 
staff have presented him with a testimonial of their regard, which 
he most richly deserves. 

Mr. E. G. Mawbbt said: I have very great pleasure in 
seconding this vote of thanks. I think we all agree that we shall 
go back to our homes very much better informed than we came, if 
we are to judge from this paper and the opportunities which are to 
be offered to us to-day of inspecting works. We shall also all 
agree that it is another proof of the great advantage to the 
ratepayers of entrusting to their borough engineer — ^when they 
have the advantage of so able a borough engineer as Mr. Lobley — 
such important works, because the engineer on the spot has a 
great deal at stake, especially if he is likely to remain as Mr. Lobley 
has done. He must go heart and soul into the work, and cannot 
afford to make mistakes. There is very little said about the 
sewage, in which I am much interested, as we have so difficult an 
undertaking at Leicester. I gather from Mr. Lobley's remarks 
this morning that it is very heavy land. If it is heavy land, with 
only nineteen acres available, it is not sufficient in area for irri- 
gation or intermittent filtration, and Hanley will have to look to 
chemical treatment and artificial filtration for dealing with the 
sewage. With 200,000 people at Leicester, and clay land, we 
require 1400 acres to clarify the sewage, but we have succeeded 
in doing so, and are sending out a satisfiEu^tory effiueni With 
regard to the assembly room at the Town Hall, I think you are 
to be congratulated upon having obtained so large a room for so 
small a cost, and having succeeded with the acoustic properties. 
The Mayor knows how much that means to public speakers. 
With regard to the electric lighting, I do not know that I quite 
agree with Mr. Boulnois. All I can say is, we have got the same 
system at Leicester. The works were carried out by Mr. Golson, 
the gas engineer, who is also the electrical engineer. He advised 
the (Corporation to put down the electric works at the gas-works, 
because they would have the advantage of delivering coal by canal, 
of being outside the town, and of concentrating the departments 
together. I can say that Leicester has not regretted adopting this 
system. No doubt there is a loss in transforming; but turning 
to another part of the paper, Mr. Lobley very modestly says. 

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DISCUSSION. 177 

" regarding the financial aspect of this undertaking, the ratepayers 
have every reason to be satisfied with the prospects." I think they 
onght to be eminently satisfied at the success already achieyed. 
When yon see an undertaking that within twelve months has to 
double its load, and loans, and can supply current and make a 
profit on it at 5d. and 3d. per unit, I thhik it speaks volumes for 
the success of the undertaking. It is, of course, a very fortunate 
thing that you had a borough engineer who could rise to such an 
undertaking, and remain among you to direct it so that there are 
such splendid prospects of ultimate success. 

Mr. BouLNOis : Speaking of public street lighting, Mr. Lobley 
says the contract includes provision for 30 arc lamps of 1200 
candle-power each, of 400 watts. Is that correct ? 

Mr. LoBLEY : There were thirty of these lamps in the first 
contract and thirty in the second. 

Mr. S. S. Platt said : I should like to add my meed of praise 
of Mr. Lobley for the admirable paper he has prepared. Perhaps 
it is not generally known that I was a pupil of the previous 
Borough Engineer of Hanley, prior to Mr. Lobley's appoint- 
ment, and consequently I know something of the work which 
has been done here. There is one question I should like to ask 
Mr. Lobley — ^whether the diflerential rate for electricity supplied to 
churches and other places of worship has been taken advantage 
of. To me it seems a new idea to make a difierential rate in the 
case of churches and chapeLs, but it appears to be the right thing 
to do, because it is utilising the electric energy on the day when the 
shops and places of business are closed, and there is less demand on 
the electrical plant. I can corroborate Mr. Lobley's remarks as 
to the improvement which has been effected on the Stoke road. I 
knew the road before anything was done, and I think it one of the 
greatest improvements which have been efiected in the borough. 
I commend it to the younger Members of the Association, not to 
be afraid of advising a similar improvement in their own districts, 
where it can be seen to be an advantage. Mr. Lobley has men- 
tioned the difficulty of rearrranging the wards of the borough. In 
my own borough of Rochdale, twenty-five years ago we had a similar 
rearrangement of the wards, and the same plan was followed of 
giving each representative a share of the centre of the town and of 
the suburbs. 

Mr. J. Lobley, in replying to the vote of thanks and discussion 
on the paper, said: I thank you very much for the vote of 



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178 WOBES OABBIED OUT IN HANLET DUBIKa PAST TEN YEARS. 

thanks, and I wiU not detain the meeting with any very lengthy 
remarks. With regard to the loss on the high-pressure system, I 
think the electrical engineers, who are both present, will corrobo- 
rate me in putting the loss at 5 amperes at 2000 volts as the 
amount of loss. That is to say, that is the registered amount of 
current which goes out of the station, and includes any lamps that 
may be lighted during the day, and the whole of the transformer 
losses. We have a considerable number of transformer stations. 
Our first compulsory area was 35 acres, and we now cover 400 
acres. I am inclined to object to the word loss. It is true that it 
is a loss electrically, in the same way that you cannot get the full 
duty out of coal. We do our best to get tiie duty out of the coal 
with improved engines and boilers, and we do our best to get it 
in the distribution of electricity. At the same time what do the 
low-pressure stations do? The great advantage is that they can 
use accumulators. They can shut down at eleven o'clock at night, 
and work from the accumulators until sunset the next evening. 
That is a great advantage, but they have to pay for it. For each 
kilowatt they put mto secondary bsitteries they get a much reduced 
amount out. I should not like to value the magnetising current 
at the same price as we sell it at ; that would be hardly fair. If 
you turned out fim'shed doors and reckoned them at the finished 
price, you would hardly value the shavings and the sawdust at the 
same price per cube foot. As regards the sizes of engines and 
dynamos, the tendency is growing to put down large units of plant. 
We do not want small units with the alternating system, except in 
the daytime and for our light loads in the summer. We hope to 
have a sufficient load for our smallest engine of 100 horse-power, 
but for other work we shall not find our 300-kilowatt alternator too 
large. The Willans and Bobinson engines suit the conditions for 
a low-pressure station, but they were not known when these works 
were started, as applicable to a high-pressure system. We have 
one church lighted up entirely by electricity. The installation has 
been put in this year. There is no doubt it is an advantage to us 
to get customers on Sunday evenings. We have a good deal of 
spare plant, and we are compelled by the Board of Trade require- 
ments to keep the engines going. As regards the additional land, 
it will not be a sewage farm in the ordinary sense, but filtration 
areas. With the filter beds we have in use we find the land very 
heavy ; in fiict we have the greatest difficulty to persuade the water 
to go through it. I thought of burning it and mixing it with sand. 

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DISOUflSIOK. 179 

80 as to make it more permeabia Unfortunately we are hemmed 
in by other towns. If we must have a large area of land we should 
have to pump the sewage a considerable height and take it a 
long distanca We hope that chemical precipitation and treatment 
with filtration will improve to such an extent that we can put the 
effluent into the river without polluting it. 

The Members then inspected the various departments of the 
Municipal Buildings^ induding the spacious Victoria Hall. Here 
the Members were entertained to light refreshments by the Mayor 
and Aldermen Shirley and Bidgway. A hearty vote of thanks 
was accorded to these gentlemen for their kindness. Alderman 
BidguHiy, in acknowledgment^ remarked that as chairman of the 
Works Committee he had worked with Mr, Lobleyfor twenty-five 
years without a single cross word. 

The Members then visited the Free Library y the Museum, the 
High Grade School, the Park, Electric Light Works and Sewage 
Precipitation Works. 

Here Mr. J. Loblby said : I wish to remind the Members 
that when we were at King's Norton about six weeks ago we 
had the opportunity of seeing the system in working order. 
Mr. Godfrey has established this system there and it is working 
very well, but it is only dealing wilii 50,000 gallons a day, where- 
as we have nearly 3,000,000 gallons a day to treat. At that time 
the Town Council had not thought of putting this plant down, 
and what you have seen to-day has all been done since the 
EiDg's Heath meeting ; but I am sorry we could not complete the 
arrangements, though Mr. Hope and Mr. Quick, the Sewage Works 
Manager, have worked very hard to do so. 

Mr. A. P. Hope, M.P.S., F.C.S., said : We very much regret 
that we cannot show you the process to-day in full working order. 
The plant, as you see, is erected, and it was really one pipe that 
stopped us this morning. I can, however, tell you about the 
chemistry connected with the Bacillite process. The idea is this — 
we treat the sewage with lime and protochloride of iron. This 
protochloride of iron is made from a bye-product in one of the iron 
trades, consequently it is very cheap ; and mixed with lime, I 
know of no precipitant that is better. After the sewage is pre- 
cipitated with this lime and protochloride of iron we pass it through 
batteries. If there is any excess of lime, producing alkalinity, you 

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180 W0BK8 GABBIED OUT IS HAKLBT DUBINa PAfiT TEN YBAB8. 

can nentralise your free lime with carbonic acid gas, which is made 
from the coke fuel tised in the boiler. If the sewage is very weak, 
yon can precipitate with lime alone. Yon know that an alkaline 
efiSuent is condemned immediately. The carbonic acid gas is 
dragced into the effluent in the batteries with an induced current 
of carbolic and cresylic steam, generated by distillation and intro- 
duced at the bottom of chambers through which the effluent has to 
pass. This treatment with the germicidal steam is the main 
feature of the process, as it destroys all putrefactive germ life in 
the effluent. It is then passed through a Howitson or any rapid 
mechanical filter — one that can be cleansed regularly every twenty- 
four hours. These filters pass about 1 6,000 gallons per square yard. 
The result is a clear, bright and perfectly innocnous effluent, which 
can be submitted at any time to any test, and it will be found no 
putrefaction can be produced ; and you may be quite safe that you 
will not be condemned by ai^ authorities. Of course it is possible 
to further reduce the albuminoid ammonia by passing over oxidis- 
ing beds at a further cost of 12s. per million gallons, but it is not 
necessary. 



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ANNUAL MEETING AT BRIGHTON. 

June 25, 26 and 27, 1896. 
-4^^ 

THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 
By FBANCIS J. 0. MAT, M. Inbt. O.R 

I AFPBEOUTB moBt fallj the great bononr yon have conferred npon 
me by nnanimonsly electing me as your President for the ensuing 
year. I therefore feel it my dnty to take the earliest opportunity 
of expressing my most heartfelt thanks to yon, as I now do, for 
this honour, the highest it is in the power of the Association to 
confer npon one of its Members. In accepting the office, I recog- 
nise the important &ct that the honour carried with it a great 
amount of work and responsibility. It will ever be my earnest 
endeavour to emulate the good example of that long list of 
illustrious men who have in past years filled the office so worthily, 
by promoting the interests of the Association to the utmost of my 
ability ; and I know I may rely upon the cordial assistance of all 
the Past Presidents, the Council, and the Members generally, to 
enable me to make the ensuing year one of pleasure and profit to 
all, individually as well as collectively. This knowledge enables 
me to accept the office without that feeling of fear and toepidation 
which would otherwise prevail within me. 

In selecting the matter for this address, I find it somewhat 
difficult to follow the usual practice, by wldch the President for 
the year has generally described the works of the town which he 
represents, inasmuch as a largely attended District Meeting was 
held in this town last year, and a full account of all the works 
executed, in progress and in course of preparation were fully 
described in detail by myself and my colleagues, and our papers 
have appeared in the lalst volume of our ^ Proceedings ' recently 



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182 THE PRESIDEMT*B ADDRESS. 

issued. I shall therefore only refer to them incidentally en 
passant, as, although they are progressing as rapidly as the 
exigencies of each case \nll permit, with one exception (the 
destructor) they are not yet completed. If, a year or two hence, 
when they are finished, the Members of the Association deem 
them of sufficient interest to lead to the arrangement of another 
District Meeting to inspect them, I shall then be pleased to furnish 
them with all further particulars. 

My remarks, therefore, will be confined more particularly to the 
objects of the Association, the professional duties and responsi- 
biUtiee imposed upon the Members generally, and other kindred 
matter which it is well for us to review and consider occasionally, 
or which it may be m ell to bring under the notice of the public 
from time to time, so that the relation of the municipal engineer 
to the community he serves, through its elected representatives, 
may be better understood and appreciated. On this point I wish 
to state distinctly that, although my experience, like that of most 
of my professional brethren, has been of a most varied character, the 
Corporation of Brighton is one of those authorities which set a 
good example to others in the relationship between it and its 
officers. So long as an official shows that devotion to, and diligent 
discharge of, his duties which the Corporation has a right to expect, 
that official will be a happy man, and the most cordial relations 
will exist between him and the Corporation, and he may depend 
upon receiving that kind consideration and sympathy which he 
also has a right to expect from them. 

I think that, as Members of the Association, we have every 
reason to congratulate ourselves upon the position our Association 
has now attained. Marshalled into existence, as it was, in the year 
1873, under the careful guidance of its Founder and First 
President, Mr. Lewis Angell, with a total number of only 164 
Members at the end of the year, it has steadily increased in 
numbers so that, as you have already learnt from the Annual 
Keport of the Council, we now have a roll of more than 700 
Members. 

During the past three years 200 new Members have been added 
to our list, a fact which alone, I think, fully justifies my decision to 
dilate on the objects of the Association and the advantages of 
membership. 

Our Members now are scattered over the whole of the United 
Kingdom, our Colonies, Canada, Australia, India, and even China 

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TBB PBBSIDENT's ADDBBSa 183 

and Japan* There are still many gentlemen eligible for member- 
ship who are outside the pale, and I tmst that during the ensuing 
year we shall all join in making the advantanges of the Association 
more widely known, so that at the next annual meeting a further 
great increase of nxmibers may be recorded. 

As one of the oldest Members of the Association, having joined 
it in the second year of its existence, I am able to appreciate the 
adyantages of membership most thoroughly, and to commend them 
to my younger brethren with every confidenca . 

The great advantages I personally gamed during my younger 
days, when, as is known to my older confreres, I never lost any 
opportunity of attending the District Meetings, wherever they 
might be held, regardless of distance, inconvenience or expense, 
induce me to advise my younger brethren to avail themselves of 
every like chance of inspecting the work of other engmeers which 
the Association offers. This is one of the best means I know of 
becoming acquainted with the rapid progress that is continually 
being made in engineering and sanitary science. 

The chief objects of the Association are threefold. 

1. To encourage such intercourse among its Members as shall 
afford opportunities for an interchange of the experience and 
practice which prevails within the department of a municipal and 
county engineer or surveyor. 

2. To promote the advancement of engineering and sanitary 
science as applied to municipal work, and a continuous progress 
in the knowledge of all the duties imposed upon the engineer or 
surveyor by the Public Health, Load Government and other 
kindred Acts of Parliament, pass^ from session to session. 

3. To further by all legitimate means the professional interests 
and status of engineers and surveyors engaged under municipal 
and other local governing bodies. 

This is the first occasion on which these objects have been 
pubUcly announced in the country south of the metropolis. Our 
friends who are with us to-day as visitors will therefore observe 
that when we meet on such occasions as the present, it is not as 
Members of a mutual admiration society, nor are we altogether on 
pleasure bent, although we do endeavour to get as much pleasure 
as we can from the renewal of old friendships during these visits, 
but that we come to work, to criticise and to learn. 

Both scientific and practical knowledge up to date are required 
of the engineer and surveyor of the present day, and our confreres 

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184 THB PBESIDENT's ADDBB8S. 

have always generously supported the efforts of the Council to 
provide this at the District Meetmgs, by writing and reading 
papers upon the leading subjects of oar practice, which may be of 
\o^ or general interest (often at great inconvenience and labour 
to themselves, owing to tine heavy demand usually made upon the 
time of public officials), and by affording facilities for the inspection 
of the various works in their respective localities. The public dis- 
cussion and criticism of these papers, and the friendly interchange of 
opinions thereon between the Members during the visit, is one of 
the best means of education one can devise, and the Authorities 
whom we serve respectively, and through them the public gene- 
rally, reap the benefit of the knowledge gained by these means. I 
hope that all the papers which have been so kindly prepared for 
res^g at this meeting, will be so fully discussed that we bjibH 
all feel we have spent the time profitably, and that even the oldest 
Member may have learnt something ; for it may truly be said that 
an engineer's education ends only with his life. The progress of 
civilisation is very rapid, and is shown by the great number of 
Acts of Parliament which are passed every session, throwing 
additional duties and powers on local authorities. Engineering, 
too, in all its varied branches, makes such rapid strides and plays 
such an important part in that progress, that unless an engineer 
takes the pains to keep pace with the advance he soon becomes a 
fossil That which is new to-day will be old-fashioned and obsolete 
a year or two hence. We have only to look into some of the 
early volumes of our valuable ' Proceedings,' to prove the truth of 
this remark. How improved or changed are many of the various 
matters, ideas or opinions therein expressed, compared with those 
of the present day ! How can we, then, keep ourselves better 
acquainted with the progress made in the different subjects within 
our own particular sphere, than by attending such meetings as are 
arranged for us under the auspices of this Association, whereby 
we are enabled to visit in turn all the great centres of work 
throughout the United Kingdom, and even on the Continent? 
How can we better qualify ourselves for the duties of our individual 
appointments, and render ourselves more useful to the community 
we serve, than by storing up and taking home the lessons we learn 
by hearing these papers and discussions, and by seeing the great 
works that are being carried out in the wide world beyond our 
own little local orbit ; so that when called upon to advise, or to 
design some local improvement or advancement, we are able to 

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'tHB PBESIDENT's ADDBESa 185 

give onr Corporation or Gonncil the benefit of the latest experience 
in any particular line. In this way we assist in the advancement 
of engineering and sanitary science, and promote progress in the 
knowledge of all the other duties relating to the office of a muni- 
cipal or county engineer or surveyor. The success of the individual, 
however, must depend largely upon his own earnest thought, and 
hard, unseen and unknown study. The advantages offered by this 
Association do not supersede^ but are auxiliary only, to such 
private or individual efibrts. 

I think that one grand work promoted by this Association, of 
whi(*h the value cannot be over-rated, is the advantage afforded to our 
pupils of joining as students or graduates, after having passed the 
examinations so vrisely instituted by the Association a few years 
ago. Engineering, as a science, has numerous branches. We 
recognise the Institution of Civil Engineers as one which embraces 
all sections of the profession, but our Association represents the 
branch of municipal engineering and sanitary science only, and its 
members are therefore peculiarly well qualified to teach, to examine 
and to certify as to the qualifications of those students whose aim 
is to occupy official positions under local authorities. The muni- 
cipal engineer's office is undoubtedly the best school in which such 
aspirants to official life can be trained; and the gentlemen 
^)pointed by the Council to act as examiners are especially well 
qualified to judge and to certify as to the soundness of the training 
of a pupil, and his fitness for the duties of a municipal engineer. 

The certificates issued by our Association to qualified students 
ought to be most eagerly sought after, and highly prized by all 
candidates for office. I am also of opinion that local authorities 
would do well, before appointing young engineers to office, to 
require them to produce the certificate of the Association, in 
addition to other testimonials, as corroborative evidence of the 
correctness of such testimonials as to their proficiency and general 
fitness for the duties and responsibilities of office. 

That the status of the municipal engineer has improved since the 
establishment of our Association there can be no doubt, and I 
regard this system of voluntary examination as one means among 
others by which it will be still further improved in the future. 
Amongst other matters I should Uke to see some arrangement 
made, whereby, when appointed to office, the salary of the engineer 
should be settled on a sliding scale, advancing gradually to a fixed 
limit Also a further arrangement by which superannuation may 

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186 THE president's addeess. 

be secured to those who, having borne the heat and burden of the 
day in an honourable manner, may retire at a suitable age or when 
incapacitated by ill health, and spend the evening of life in serenity. 
I am confident that it would tend much to the interest of the 
community, if an officer can feel that it is unnecee^ry for him to 
be always seeking a higher and a higher appointment, in order to 
secure that ease and comfort in the declining years of life which 
every good man desires, has a right to strive after and to obtain. 
This may be accomplished in our own particular sphere just as 
easily as it is in many other departments of official life, without 
unduly interfering with freedom of action by the local authorities on 
the one hand or by the officer on the other. 

It has been suggested by some Members that the position of an 
engineer would be improved if he were protected by the Local 
Government Board and had a right of appeal thereto, as have some 
other public officials, but I do not hold that opinion. I think that 
if the difierence between a local authority and its officer be so great 
as to necessitate an appeal to the Local Government Board or any 
other tribunal, it would be better that the officer should retire, even 
if the tribunal were to favour his views more than those of the 
authority. No work can be successfully carried out when there is 
not absolute confidence between the authority and its officer. This 
leads me to observe that in addition to the qualifications I have 
already named as beiug required of a municipal engineer, viz. 
scientific and practical knowledge, there must also be a large 
amount of common sense and tact. The want of these latter 
qualities will often render nugatory the best efiFects of the former 
qualifications, and I recommend our younger brethren, students 
and graduates to well consider this fisict. It has been said that 
man's chief study should be man. I commend this idea also to my 
younger friends, strive to know thyself — but don't stop there — ^try 
to know also those whom you serve, or with whom you may have 
to work, or over whom you may be placed, in whatever capacity 
they may be ; then, discreetly controlling your own words or actions, 
and as discreetly leaning towards the peculiarities of others, you 
may prevent a deal of unnecessary friction, which is so irritathig, 
and promote that degree of harmony and friendship which conduces 
to mutual forbearance and respect of each other's feelings, and lays 
the foundation of an increasing and mutual confidence. It is quite 
as essential to be clever in engineering men as in engineering 
matter. I speak strongly on this subject, having learnt the lesson 



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THE PBBSIDBNT*S ADDBE88. 187 

from my own experience. I frankly admit that often on calmly 
investigating the cause of my toonbles and disappointments, 
especially in my younger days, I have come to a conclusion that 
they often arose from some little indiscretion on my part, leading 
to an absence of a due regard for the opinions of others. As a rule 
we tone down considerably as years roll on, and become less 
impulsive and dogmatic, and it is well it should be so. If these 
remarks should lead any of our younger brethren to avoid errors 
into which I may have fallen in this respect, and their disagreeable 
consequences, and so help to promote in them a happier and easier 
life, my purpose in making these remarks will have been well served. 

That the duties of the engineer or surveyor to a local authority 
are in most cases heavy and multifarious to an exceptional degree, 
may be readily recognised by even the most uninitiated, by a review 
of some of the subjects upon which we are called to advise our 
authorities, and afterwards to receive and carry out their instruc- 
tions. That they are extremely varied in character, and therefore 
require a wide field of education and knowledge, is equally obvious. 
That they are ever increasing in number or degree is also quite 
clear, when we think of the number of new or amending Acts of 
Parliament, casting additional duties and responsibilities upon local 
authorities, which are passed every session ; of which it may truly 
be said that most of them throw, directly or indirectly, some 
additional duty upon the surveyor to the authority. I find upon 
reference that no less than thirty-five such Acts have been pa^ed 
during the last seven years. 

The wave of centralisation which ruled us so long has turned, 
and the spirit of the present age is decentralisation. The principle 
has made considerable progress during recent years, but I expect 
your experience has been of much the same character as mine, and 
so you will agree with me that a good many local improvements 
are often unnecessarily delayed, crippled or stopped altogether by 
too much grandmotherly interference by the Local Government 
Board officials, so that further progress in this respect is urgently 
needed. The change, however, has already produced among all 
classes a greater interest in the management of local affairs, a 
higher tone in regard to the value of human health and life, and an 
honest desire to promote the general well-being of the community. 
Improved sanitation is now still further demanded. Improved 
dwellings for the working classes is one of the leading requirements 
of the age, including the better housing of the nomadic class in 

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188 THE PBE8IDENT*8 ADDRESS. 

mnnicipal oommon lodging houses ; the preservation of existing 
open spaces or the acqnisition of new ones, and fitting them for 
health-giving or recreative purposes ; the establishment of technical 
schools, free libraries and reading rooms; the provision of greater 
supervision of places of business where many persons are occupied 
daily, to secure better sanitation and ready means of escape in case 
of panic or fire ; these and many other subjects that might be 
mentioned, have within recent years added much to the labours and 
responsibilities of a municipal engineer. It may, therefore, be 
easily understood that such a man, to be eflScient, must be a man of 
cosmopolitan knowledge and ideas. It is because this is so that 
an Association such as ours becomes so important and valuable. I 
shall do all I can during my year of office to render it more valuable 
still, making it and its objects as vridely known as possible. 

Before passmg on to speak of local matters, perhaps a short 
comparison of the ** past " and ** present " of municipal life will not 
be considered out of place. 

We are all aware that Municipal Government has existed in 
England from early times — the oldest Municipal Charters date from 
the year 1132, and were granted by Henry I. There was always 
a Mayor, and of course a Town Clerk, but I have been unable to 
discover any trace of a Borough Surveyor till modem times, and the 
Borough Engineer is of still more recent date. The principle of 
local self-government, or decentralisation, was very dear to our 
early forefathers in the towns, who resented strongly the interference 
of outsiders, even from the adjoining country ; for I have read in 
the history of town life in tiie fifteenth century, that the chief 
magistrate set over the inhabitants must be one of their fellow- 
citizens, '' not a far dweller," unless in time of special need, such as 
war, and then only " by pleasure of the community." 

The dignity of the office of Mayor was as great, and the honour 
as highly prized then as at the present time ; and in those early 
days the duties of the Mayor were certainly qaite as onerous us 
those of the present time, for on the day that each new Mayor 
entered on his office, he received from his predecessor the common 
chest, the town treasure, and the standard measures, and was 
required forthwith to send out his Councillors to the house of 
every shopkeeper, baker, brewer, or innkeeper, that they might 
carry all bushels, gallons, quarts, yards or weights back to the 
Mayor's house to be compared with the standard models and 
duly sealed. 

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THB pbbsidbnt's addbess. 189 

Those who aspired to and attained the dignity of Oonncillor 
fonnd too, in those days, as at the present, that the office was no 
sinecure, bat made heavy demands npon their time, their talents 
and their pockets. 

From this statement of the Mayor's duties in olden times it is 
evident there was neither a Borough Treasurer nor an Inspector of 
Weights and Measures. There was, however, a Town Clerk, and as 
at the present time, he was always expected to be a man of learn- 
ing, but I believe it is at Nottingham that we have the first evi- 
dence of a Town Clerk, bom 1534 to 1545, who knew enough of 
the classics to quote a Une of Virgil and a line of Horace ; but in 
1587 they possessed a Town Clerk who, in addition to the erudi- 
tion of his predecessor, was also learned in Greek. In reading the 
history of * Town Life in the Fifteenth Century,' we find many of 
the same social questions troubling the Town Council then as now, 
and the duties devolving upon them of the same character. In 
many towns, education, both technical and otherwise, was governed 
entirely by tixe Town Council, as at Nottingham and Bristol, among 
others. 

It is therefore evident that in municipal work and life, as in 
other things, there is nothing new under the sun. Men and 
manners only change, matter always remains pretty much the 
same, but is dealt with in a more or less modernised way according 
to the progress of science, and the prevailing requirements and 
notions of the times. During the present century science and 
learning have made more rapid strides than in any previous period. 
In municipal work and life they have had the efiect of giving birth 
to the ofiice of Borough Surveyor, Medical Officer of Health and 
Sanitary Inspector. The office of Surveyor of Highways was 
established by an Act passed during the reign of Queen Mary, 1553 
to 1558 ; but the office of Borough Surveyor and its additional 
duties was made to apply generally for the first time by the Towns 
Improvement Act, 1847, although Brighton in 1825 (see Sec. 21, 
6 Geo. ly., cap. 179) and some other towns had instituted such an 
office by a private Act. The offices of the Medical Officer of Health 
and Sanitary Inspector by the Public Health Act of 1875. It is 
the Towns Improvement Act, and the various Public Health Acts 
that have followed since 1847, that have given so great an impetus 
to engineering and sanitary science. It is during the last fifty years, 
during the operation of these Acts, that all the great improvements 
have been carried out, such as improved roads and pavements, water 

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190 THE PBE8n>ENT*S ADDBBS8. 

supply, subsoil drainage and great sewerage schemes, whereby the 
death rate has been so considerably diminished. These Acts have 
made local anthoritieB almost wholly responsible for the health, 
edncation and comfort of the people living within their respective 
areas, and these responsibilities are increasing every year. We, as 
mnnicipal engineers, are required by our respective authorities to 
be prepared to advise and to carry out, under their direction, those 
great works and innumerable duties within our department for 
which they are responsibla How great, therefore, is the necessity 
for making ourselves thoroughly competent in every detail of our 
work, and fully acquainted widi all the latest improvements in 
engineering science and practice. Our duties and responsibilities 
are ever increasing, and let us hope that as our efforts to render 
ourselves efficient and useful to the community we serve become 
better known to them and the local authorities, they will be 
better understood and appreciated, and that our services then will 
be remunerated in due proportion to their real value, as I am sorry 
to say is not often the case now. This Association affords us every 
opportunity, and it should be recognised and assisted by all loctd 
authorities on account of the good work it has done and is still 
doing. 

I think one way in which the usefulness of the Association may 
be further promoted, is to make local authorities better acquainted 
with its principles, and so induce them to take an interest in it, 
and to encourage their officers to do likewise, by readily granting 
them the time to attend the several meetings, and by paying their 
travelling expenses. I think, too, that, if possible, our rules should 
be altered so as to admit to all our meetings the Mayor and the 
Chairman of the Works, Sanitary or and other Committee affiliated 
with the work of the engineer's or surveyor's department, from 
every town or rural district council represented by a Member, 
should he or they desire to attend any of them. 

I know from past experience, that chairmen are often most 
anxious to become well acquainted with the details of the work 
governed by their respective committees. I believe many would 
avail themselves most readily of the right to accompany the 
engineer or surveyor to our meetings, and join in the discussions if 
invited to do so. This would induce a friendly feeling towards the 
Association, and in my opinion be a mutual advantage, as in the 
discussion we should also hear opinions given from another stand- 
point than our own, or, in other words, the other side of the question. 

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THB PBESIDEKt's ADDBBSS. 191 

It should be constantly borne in mind that by giving municipal 
officers every facility for attending the meetings of the Association, 
BO that they can examine and discoss the various methods v^hich 
other bodies have adopted for dealing with questions that are 
common to all communities, the various authorities are contributing 
in perhaps the greatest degree to the commonweal of the whole 
country, and are most truly fulfilling the duties which their 
position involves. And considering the fact that the Members 
voluntarily attend these meetings at considerable inconvenience 
and expense individually, but with great profit to the public 
generally, the authorities whose districts are visited should offer 
every encouragement and hospitality in their power to lighten that 
which to many is a heavy tax upon a small incoma 

The hearty reception which has invariably been accorded to us in 
those towns we have already visited (many more than twice or 
thrice), is a proof that when the* Association and its objects become 
known, the respect and support of the governing bodies is most 
cheerfully given to it. Let us therefore do all we can to extend 
that kindly feeling, not from personal motives, but because it will 
enable the authorities and their officials to work together more 
harmoniously and effectually for the commonweal. 

I will now pass on and briefly allude to some of the public 
works carried out within the borough by the Ciorporation of 
Brighton, which will prove that in the past, as at the present, 
they have been and are very energetic in the pursuit of their 
duties, to ensure the prosperity of the town, the welfare of its 
inhabitants and the comfort and pleasure of its visitors. 

You wiU have opportunities of inspecting all these works during 
your visit. 

Smce the passing of the Towns Improvement Act in 1847, they 
have secured two private Improvement Acts giving them additional 
powers for the better government of the town to meet special local 
requirememts. More than 70 miles of roads and sewers have been 
constructed, 10,000 houses have been built, adding considerable 
mileage of house drains, which it is impossible to estimate correctly. 
Of these, 40 miles of roads and sewers and 4000 houses have been 
added during the last twenty years. 

During the years 1894-5 a new main valley sewer with storm 
water overflow chambers, and outfalls into the sea at the Albion 
and Norfolk Groynes, were constructed at a cost of 33,000/. 

The Madeira Bead or undercliff drive, with its Shelter Hall and 



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192 THB president's addbess. 

Colonnade, finished in 1890, cost 15,O0OZ. and a further improve- 
ment and extension of the road and Colonnade is now in course 
of progress at an estimated cost of 20,000Z. 

The Corporation Electric Light Station was built, and the 
undertaking started in 1891 at a cost of 21,0001., and further exten- 
sions are now being constructed at an estimated cost for buildings, 
machinery and mains, of 12,4002. The whole of the front, nearly 
three miles in length, and the principal streets are h'ghted by 
arc lamps, and the side streets by incandescent lamps. This 
undertaUng is one of the most successful and flourishing in the 
country, under the guidance of Mr. Arthur Wright, the Engineer 
and Manager. 

Sea-defence works, such as walls and groynes, have been con- 
structed at a cost of about 220,0007., by which upwards of 21 acres 
of land haye been reclaimed from the sea and added to the foreshore, 
BO that it has been possible to widen the King's Boad three 
times, to its present noble proportions. 

The cost of these widenings and improvements has been about 
84,000/. 

The Waterworks were acquired from a private company at a 
cost of 352,0002., and additions to the works have since been made 
which have raised the capital account to nearly 540,00021 A most 
abundant supply of water, drawn from deep wells in the chalk, is 
provided, and is of an exceptionally pure and excellent chfiracter. 
This department is most ably managed by Mr. James Johnston, 
the Engineer. 

Public parks and open spaces to the extent of 200 acres have 
been acquired, principally through the generosity of local-spirited 
men ; and about 31,OU02. has been spent by the Corporation in 
fencing and laying them out, &c. &c. 

The Koyal Palace, known as " The Pavilion " has been pur- 
chased and restored at a total cost of about 82,000/., as a pleasure 
resort and place for public or private entertainments. 

The Sanatorium, or hospital for infectious diseases, was built 
at a cost of 10,000/. out of current rates, but it is shortly to be 
rebuilt at an estimated cost of 27,000/., provided by a loan recently 
sanctioned by the Local Government Board, after much correspond- 
ence and trouble, due to their usual grandmotherly interference 
already referred to. 

A Municipal Technical School is in course of construction, at an 
estimated cost of 22,500/. 



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THE PBB8IDBKT*S ADDRESS. 193 

The Town Hall is to be enlarged and remodelled at an estimated 
cost of 30,000/. 

Slipper batbs haye been eonstmoted in four separate establish- 
ments in different parts of the town. 

A new swimming bath was opened last year. 

The Pnblic Abattoir was opened in June 1894^ and the Befnse 
Destructor, built by Messrs. Manloye, Alliott & Co., and fitted with 
Messrs. Boolnoia & Brodie*s Patent Charging Apparatus, was fired 
for the first time in May of this year. 

We are extremely fortunate in the matter of sewage disposal 
The whole of the sewage of Brighton and Hove is collected in an 
intercepting sewer which runs right along the front, and for a 
distance of seven miles beyond the eastern boundary of the borough 
to Portobello, where it is discharged into the sea as the tide 
servea At Boedean, about one mile from the eastern boundary, 
a ventilating furnace was built to draw the gases from the 
intercepting sewer. This has been most succesful in accomplish- 
ing its effectual ventilation, and in preventing the gases from rising 
to the higher levels of the main draining area. 

You will readily understand that the sanitation of this important 
" health resort " and " pleasure town," is of primary importance. 
In the entire absence of manufactories and the ordinary industries 
of commercial towns, our prosperity and even our very existence 
depend upon its popularity. The Health Department, under the 
direction of Dr. Newsholme and his large staff of sanitary 
inspectors, is very ably managed. All the best sanitary measures 
and arrangementi9 are adopted and strictly enforced. 

The detail dravnngs relating to the several works mentioned 
are exhibited in the adjacent rooms, and will, I think, enable you 
to understand them easily. 

I will not therefore take up your time now by a fuller description 
of these various undertakings and works of the Corporation, as 
they were very fully described in the papers included in the last 
volume of our ' Proceedings,' as I have already told you. We shall 
visit, or pass by, most of the works and places named, and I will 
then give any further information respecting them which any 
Member may desire. 

In proceeding to close this address, I would like to remark thai 
in the past it has unfortunately been too much the practice for the 
Association to depend upon the senior Members to furnish papers 
for discussion. We therefore do not get that variety of subject 

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194 THE PBBSn)BNT*8 ADDBBSa 

matter which might be obtained if the number of writers were 
increased. I am sore the surveyors of some of the smaller towns 
or even country districts, must have much experience which, 
inasmuch as it differs from that gained in larger towns or districts, 
would be found both interesting and instructive to us all ; there- 
fore I take this, my last opportunity, to emphasise again the value 
of this Association, and to urge ihe younger or new Members 
especially, to strive to extend its usefulness by preparing papers to 
be read at the meetings ; by bringing into the fold those gentle- 
men who, though eligible, have not yet joined our community ; and 
by bringing the existence of the Association and its advantages to 
the knowledge of their individual local authorities, so as, if possible, 
to gain their hearty sympathy and cheerful co-operation. 

The local authorities are the elected representatives of the 
people, and are entrusted with their confidence to advance by all 
means the welfare of the community. All our labours as municipal 
engineers and surveyors tend to promote, either immediately or 
eventually, the pubUc advantage and the public benefit. It is by 
the free and friendly interchange of ideas among the Members of 
the Association, and by the strengthening of the already strong 
bond of sympathy between the local authorities and this Associa- 
tion, that this common beneficial result can best be effected and 
advanced. I believe we have a great future before us, a future of 
which we can form no idea by comparison either with the present 
or the past. There is no finality in our work. Fifty years ago 
we were not, but we are now a powerful body, and a recognised 
influence in the municipal life of the nation. We are what we 
are simply and solely through our own exertions — a position of 
which no one can be more proud than I am myself — and what we 
may be rests not only with the generations who will succeed us, 
but in a very great degree with the generation of engineers and 
surveyors which is now so full of life and activity. Our exertions, 
and those of onr predecessors, have only been called forth by the 
constantly advancing demands of civilisation, and our successors 
must, as we have to the best of our abilities tried to do, keep well 
abreast of the times, even if not a little before them. 

*' Onward, ever onward," must always be our cry, and as long as 
^e have this in our ears, and friendship, unity and concord in 
our hearts, our words and actions regulated by that absolute truth 
in all our bearings, without which we know as engineers that no 
machinery can work efficiently, so long shall we go on increasing 

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THE PRESIDENT'S ADDBBSS. 195 

and enlarging our sphere of knowledge and usefalness to ourselves 
and to our fellow men, a sphere to which I can see no limits and a 
sphere to which I believe there is no limit 

In conclusion, I have only to endorse the welcome which the 
Mayor and Corporation have accorded to you — ^to thank those 
gentlemen who have so kindly prepared papers for our considera- 
tion and discussion — to ask you as the greatest compliment you 
can pay to the Authors of those papers, to discuss them as folly 
as they will admit — and to express my earnest wish that both 
from the subject matter of the papers and from the inspection of 
our works, much profit and pleasure will be derived, so that you 
may return to your respective scenes of work, feeling that your 
visit to the Queen of Watering Places and Empress of Health 
Besorts has been a profitable expenditure of both time and money. 



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( 196 ) 



RIVER POLLUTION. 
By PBOPESSOR HENRY ROBINSON, M. Inst. C.E. 

The subject of " River Pollution " is now entering npon a new 
phase, and the Members of this Association know that in the 
immediate fdtore, remedies will be enforced to prevent the continu- 
ance of the pollution of rivers. 

The Author intends to confine this paper within very brief 
limits, and to refer only to the main points which now deserve 
attention. 

From 1876 (when the first Rivers Pollution Prevention Act 
was passed) until the last few years, the powers that had been con- 
ferred by Parliament to prevent river pollution were not only of 
too permissive a character, but as a matter of fact those who had 
to enforce them were generally the very ofienders themselves. 

The Local Government Act of 1888, however, gave County 
Councils power to enforce the Rivers Pollution Prevention Act of 
1876, and it enabled the Local Government Board to form joint 
committees to deal with river pollution. In 1892 the Mersey and 
Irwell Joint Committee obtained an Act, which was followed in 
1894 by the West Riding of Yorkshire Rivers Act. By these- 
Acts a step in the right direction was made. 

The Rivers Pollution Prevention Bill now before Parliament 
indicates a further advance, as the following *' Memorandum '' 
attached to the Bill shows : — 

"The principal object of this Bill is to improve the law for 
preventing the pollution of streams by extending to County 
Councils, Joint Committees and Rivers Boards in England the 
main provisions of the Mersey and Irwell Act of 1892, and the 
West Riding of Yorkshire Rivers Act of 1894, &c" 

It is well known that rivers are fouled by the discharge into 
them of polluted water from canals or canalised streams, and this 
is prohibited by the Bill. Many canals are seriously polluted and 
constitute a danger to health. Besides the foulness of the water, 
the mud deposited in their beds is decomposing filth, the outcome 
of long continued pollution. 

Lord Tbring has a Bill now in the House of Lords, by which 



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BIYBB POLLUTION. 197 

Gonnty Cotmcils can cleanse watercourses and improve the channels 
of rivers. This indicates an appreciation of what actually exists, 
inasmnch as many river beds and canal channels are so folded that 
artificial cleansing is imperative, as the self-pnrifying action is 
arrested owing to the absence of free oxygen, which is so essential 
to effect this. 

Section 3 of the Rivers Pollution Act, 1876, has now been 
amended in a very important respect by the provision that the 
passage of sewage matter into a stream through a channel which is 
vested in a sanitary authority shall be deemed to be knowingly 
permitted by the authority. 

Besides prohibiting the deposition of solid refuse in streams, the 
Bill now before Parliament prohibits solid refuse, as well as sludge, 
solid sewage matter or putrid solid matter, being placed in such 
a position as to be liable to fall, or be carried, into a stream. 
Those who have had to trace and note the causes of pollution in 
streams will appreciate the usefulness of this provision, as many 
serious causes of fouling arise from refuse from works or £Eirmsteads 
passing direct, or being washed into the stream by heavy rains. 

The admission of liquid manufacturing refuse into sewers has 
often increased the difficulties attending the treatment of sewage 
at outfalls, and Section 7 of the Act of 1876 (which permits the 
authority to allow this) has often led to abuse of the sewers. In 
future, however, it is to be anticipated that these facilities will be 
very much curtailed, inasmuch as the Local Government Board 
have on two recent occasions required schemes to be amended in 
which a large amount of manufacturing refuse was proposed to be 
admitted to sewerage systems. Section 6 of the Bill of this year 
prohibits the discharge of polluting liquid from manufactories into 
streams, unless it can be shown that the best practicable and 
reasonably reliable means to render harmless the poisonous, 
noxious, or polluting liquid have been adopted. 

There is one definition in Section 29 of the Bill of this year, which 
appears to the Author to be open to question. It stands thus : — 
^' SoUd matter shall not include particles of matter in suspension in 
water." Section 3 states (as before mentioned) that it shall be 
deemed an offence to discharge into a stream any sludge or any 
solid sewage matter or other waste or putrid solid matter. The 
definition of solid matter given in the Bill would enable foul 
substances suspended in water which had a sufficient velocity to 
prevent their deposition, to be discharged into streams. 

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198 RIYEB POLLUTION. 

Flood waters haye been relied on frequently to cleanse the beds 
of riyers which are subject to pollution. As these foul matters are 
more and more excluded from riyers, the necessity for using flood 
waters for scouring purposes will disappear, and such waters will 
then be capable of being stored either for domestic supply or for 
compensatory purposes. It has hitherto been generally thought 
that flood waters were not admissible to storage reseryoirs that 
were intended for the supply of water for dietetic purposes. This 
view, the Author thinks, can no longer be sustained, as the self- 
purification of stored water is now recognised. The storage of 
flood water now becomes feasible, and besides largely adding to our 
ayailable supplies of water for domestic and other purposes, would 
at the same time mitigate the injury that is now caused by the 
rapid discharge of flood waters in the lower reaches of riyers after 
heayy rains. 

Those who haye now to adyise in regard to sewage disposal 
works should bear in mind that the best practicable and ayailable 
means of dealing with sewage must not be based upon that which 
was accepted only a few years ago. In fsuA, many existmg outfall 
sewage works will haye to be rearranged in the light of recent 
experience, as a higher standard of purity of effluent is now more 
readily attaiDable than heretofore. 

The further powers now conferred on County Councils, Joint 
Committees and Biyer Boards will lead to a closer scrutiny of 
riyers and streams, and to the detection and abatement of 
pollutions. 

The Author has, duriug this month, had to report on the points 
of pollution of a stream which may be taken as a type of a yast 
number of streams in this country, where the pollutions can be 
clearly traced, and the remedies can be as easily applied. 

The Author classified the sources of ayoidable pollution broadly 
under the heads of: — 

(a) Works or premises from which foul matters can flow or be 
washed after heayy rains. 

(h) Farmsteads or dwellings draining into ditches or channels, 
whidi ultimately discharge into the stream. 

(c) Sewage outMls which discharge polluting effluents, sludge 
or sewage from works which easily admit of improyement in the 
light of present knowledge. 

The endeayour to utilise for agricultural purposes the manurial 
iDgredients of sewage, too often leads to the practical difficulty of 

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DIBOUSSION. 199 

sanitary requirements being sacrificed to the exigencies of farming 
operations. The knowledge which is now ayailable in regard to 
the purifying action of bacteria, indicates that their fanctions are 
best exercised by working filtration areas nnder well-known con- 
ditions, which depend on uniformity of treatment and the avoid- 
ance of excessive, or variable, volumes. The provision of large 
areas of land, or of extra tanks, to meet abnormal fiows, adds much 
to the cost of outiall works. The author believes that, after pro- 
vision has been made for treating on land, or dealing in tanks 
with the first and foulest dischargee from sewers, the large 
residuum can be deodorised and sterilised without overtaxing the 
outfall works, so that under no conditions will the streams be 
made the recipients of polluting matters. 



DISCUSSION. 

Mr. GiABSOK, in moving a vote of thanks to Professor Bobinson 
for his paper, said : The question of rivers pollution is one in which 
I am particularly concerned at the present time. Unfortunately the 
town and neighbourhood that I represent is situated about twelve 
miles below the sewage works of Birmingham, and the river Tame 
into which the effluent is discharged (formerly a clear pellucid 
stream and foil of fish) has been rendered in fifteen years an ob- 
noxious stinking sewer. I think if Professor Bobinson had included 
sewage farms amongst the causes of river pollution, he would have 
hit the mark better. Birmingham, which poses as the beet governed 
city in the world, is about to take up more land in the endeavour 
to deal with their sewage more satisfiEictorily, and they are destroy- 
ing picturesque rural villages and stinking them out At Tamworth 
we have lately spent considerable sums of money in clearing out 
the filth that has been put into the river by Birmingham. I think 
this is a very important subject, and should not be lost sight of in 
the discussion. Some of you may, perhaps, view the matter from 
difierent standpoints. Some of you may be in such a fortunate 
geographical position that the river is your greatest friend ; some 
of you, as at Brighton, have the sea to depend upon. It is likely 
I shall be concerned in three actions against Birmingham for the 
pollution of this river. Not only with regard to the Midlands, 
but throughout the country, is this a very important subject. The 
rivers of this country ought to be purified, and, if possible, put into 



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200 RIVER POLLUTION. 

the state they were years ago. The river Tame is the worst 
polluted river, at any rate in the Midlands if not in the whole 
country, and I shall be very glad to take part in any discussion 
on river pollution and to give any information I can. I hope 
this is not the only discussion we shall have on the question of 
rivers pollution. 

Mr. Fowler said : The paper read by Professor Robinson is so 
concise and so multum in parvo that there is very little to be said 
except to echo every word that he has expressed. I consider the 
powers it is sought to obtain from Parliamant with regard to the 
Yorkshire and Lancashire rivers, will be a step in the right direc- 
tion. You must remember that in Yorkshire and Lancashire^ 
you are not, perhaps, all so &miliar with them as myself and some 
other gentlemen here — the rivers are simply like boiling cauldrons. 
You will see the sulphuretted hydrogen gas formed by the deposits 
from the manufactories and house drains, bulge up the water in 
these rivers as if some one had thrown in a large stone ; it bubbles 
up and, as it were, explodes. Where the rivers Mersey and Irwell 
pass through the neighbourhood there are about a million acres of 
country studded with manufactories, small and thickly populated 
towns ; in fact they give you the impression of one great town. 
The river Lrwell brings down volumes and volumes of material, 
not material merely discharged by the sewers, but the ashes and 
refuse of the manufioctories deposited on the banks. The manu- 
fiacturers do not throw their refuse into the rivers : they put it on 
the banks during the season of drought, and when the floods 
come — and you can imagine what the floods are from so large 
an area, especially when I tell you that in some parts of the 
district they have a rainfall of something like 47 to 50 inches a 
year, and sometimes of more than an inch in an hour and a half — 
the river rises to a great height, sometimes 16 to 20 feet, it brings 
all this refuse down, and perhaps deposits it in the Manchester 
Ship Canal ; but it is much better now than in the past. I should 
imagine that the dredging in that canal at the present time must 
be something enormous, and I should think that the canal, with 
the expense of dredging and the general working, can hardly pay 
expenses at the present time. If you go out of the valley of the 
Irwell you get into the valley of the Aire, and to repeat ancient 
history, I must tell you that Professor Way, who was one of the 
gentlemen appointed on the Rivers Pollution Commission of 1865, 
wrote a memorandum with a portion of the water taken from the 



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DIB0U8SION. 201 

river where it flows past Castleford. It was published in the bine 
book, and there yon have it recorded in 1866, a facsimile of what 
was written with the waters of the riyers Calder and Aire at their 
confluence just below Leeds. You can imagine, therefore, the 
coudition the rivers are in at the present time in Lancashire and 
Yorkshire. If the legislature would only rise to the occasion and 
put their foot down by compelling municipalities to prevent this 
deposit in the rivers and this great pollution of towns' refuse, which 
has been going on for the last thirty years, I think it would be one 
of the greatest boons it could bestow on this country. We know 
very well the great distress caused by these foul streams, and we 
know very well the advantage which would accrue from the great 
sanitary works which could be accomplished if the rivers were 
made comparatively pura With regard to the storage of water, I 
think the Author of the paper has made a very good point there. 
You can all of you imagine the advantages that would accrue in 
the case of the Manchester Ship GanaL If the canal was provided 
with storage reservoirs in the upper reaches of the Biver Iwell 
basin, they would by that means be able to store this great quantity 
of rainfall, or a great portion of it, and they would then have been 
able to send down to these manufactories a certain amount of 
water — which we know they watch so jealously vrith regard to 
taking the pure water for water supply — whether pure or polluted 
does not matter, and distributed it among the manufacturers along 
the valley, thus supplying the canal at the very time it was needed. 
I read in the paper the other day, that during the recent drought 
there was an alarm of scarcity of water in the Ship Canal. If 
they had had these reservoirs they would to a very large extent 
have rendered this danger impossible. They could have given 
the mills a good supply, and have kept up a good stream of water 
through this now foul and polluted river. In the paper the Author 
has hit upon two very important points, and I shall have very 
great pleasure in supporting him on those points. I trust the 
legislation shadowed forth will be successfully carried through 
Parliament, and that the local authorities, who are the custodians 
of the pubUc health, will see that the provisions of an Act of Parlia- 
ment are carried into force — ^not a mere ornamental Act like that of 
1847, which was nothing more than a dead letter, but one which 
will stroDgthen the powers now existing and add the powers now 
shadowed forth. 

Mr. Cox : I think the paper is a model of brevity and terseness, 



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202 RIVBB POLLUTION. 

and I will try to follow Professor Robinson's example. So far as 
concerns me, the paragraph relating to mannfactarers* refase is 
the most important The purification of trade refuse may be a 
small matter in many towns, but in the town I represent — 
Bradford — it is becoming a yery serious matter indeed. As many 
of you know, it is the seat of the worsted industry. Large 
quantities of wool have to be washed, and the amount of grease, 
sand and greasy matter turned into the sewers of the town is 
something enormous. It will have a yery serious effect on the 
disposal of the sewage, and we may or we may not be able to take 
advantage of the provision in Section 7 of the iiivers Pollution 
Prevention Act of 1876, where it is provided that if the trade 
refuse is so harmful as to prejudicially affect the sewers or the 
disposal of the sewage, the auttiority may have power to prevent 
the discharge of such refuse into the sewer. That seems to be a 
very moot point. The discharge of the trade sewage into the 
public sewers affects us in this way. The grease has ihe property 
of holding water, as it were. It causes an emulsion and prevents 
settlement ; in fact it takes very large quantities of chemicals to 
cause precipitation at all^ and when it is settled, instead of the 
ordinary 90 per cent, of water in the sludge, we have over 
98 per cent. Now the serious difference between these two 
percentages will strike many of you as very remarkable. Ninety 
per cent, means 9 volumes of water to 1 of solids ; 98 per cent, 
means 49 volumes of water to 1 of solids — 5| times more. The 
sludge is of so watery a character, it is almost impossible to do 
anything with it. Even when pressed in sludge presses there is 
still over 75 per cent, of water left in the sludge, and it is scarcely 
portable. There may be an escape from this dilemma by treating 
the wool-washing refuse separately, or by adopting some other 
method of cleansing the wool. We are now carrying out a large 
experiment of degreasing the wool by the use of solvents such as 
bi-sulphide of carbon, so that no soap or anything of that kind 
will be required in the cleansing process. The chemical could be 
used over and over again, with the exception, of course, of a small 
quantity lost in evaporation. There is a possibility that good may 
come out of evil in the long run, for it may happen that what 
is now a very great trouble and expense may in the future 
prove a source of revenue if this experiment proves successful ;^but 
unless something can be done in that direction, the outlook seems a 
very gloomy one indeed. It is very difficult to turn the refuse back 

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DISCUSSION. 203 

on the mannbcturers and compel them to treat it at their own 
works, for many of them are short of space already. Some mann- 
fiEustorers discharge their refuse into the watercourses, and others 
into the sewers. The latter look to the Corporation to deal with 
the question for them. The Bivers Board will look after those 
who discharge into the rivers. Those who discharge into the 
rivers ought, in fairness I think, to have the option of diverting the 
refuse into the sewers of the town, otherwise they will be placed at 
a disadvantage, although in doing so, I am aware they would be 
robbing the streams to some extent of water. 

Mr. Lemon : Everybody appears to approve of the paper, and 
as I approve of it myself, I feel some difficulty in criticising it, 
although we presume that the papers are read for critical purposes. 
I think there is a gleam of sunshine about it. We have heard 
from the surveyor of Tamworth that there is going to be an action 
against Birmingham. I am delighted to hear it. It will certainly 
be a good field for inquiry for the surveyor of that city when he 
takes office. I must say that I have not very much sympathy 
with Tamworth. I saw, when the matter was before the House of 
Commons, that three landowners appealed against the Corporation 
of Birmingham obtaining land for the purpose of dealing with 
their sewage. You will remember the case was very severely 
criticised by the Press at the time. It was a case in which the 
Corporation of Birmingham was willing to do the best it could to 
get rid of its sewage, but was prevented by the landowners from 
obtainmg land for that purpose. I think the qnestion is not so 
much the dealing with sewage outfalls as of dealing with the 
pollution of rivers from the causes which have been so ably stated 
by Mr. Cox. I do not think there is any difficulty in dealing with 
the sew^e of an ordinary town, so as to discharge a pure effluent 
into the river ; but I do know there is immense difficulty in deal- 
ing with sewage which has been previously polluted — if I may use 
the term — by manufacturers' refuse. The resources of the chemist 
are almost lost I know chemists, very able men, who have been 
consulted as regards sewage of this sort, and they have been unable 
to suggest any method of dealing with it I think the legislature 
should give local authorities larger powers to force manufiEicturers 
to purify their sewage before it enters the sewer. A manufficturer 
who has a connection with a sewer and discharges his refuse into 
it, has a kind of vested interest in it, and there is a very great 
reluctance on the part of members of a council to take proceedings 

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204 KIVEB POLLUTION. 

against sncli a mannfitcturer. I think that mannfactnrers shonld 
be compelled to deal with their sewage before it enters the sewer. 
They should not be allowed to discharge an effluent unless it is in 
a reasonable condition — at least as good as an ordinary effluent 
from a town. They certainly shonld be prevented from discharg- 
ing a quantity of polluted matter into a sewer, and then leave it to 
the local authorities to deal with it, because it is so affected by the 
mixture of chemicals that it is very hard to treat. I had to deal 
with a case not long ago in Famham, Surrey, where 33 per cent, 
of the sewage was brewery refuse. I advised that the brewery 
should be compelled to deal with their refuse before it entered the 
sewer. A long correspondence went on, and litigation was 
threatened by the local authority, but so far as I know, nothing 
has come of it. We get at the outfall of the sewage works this 
large percentage of brewery refuse, which sets up a kind of fer- 
mentation, and I do not think there is anything that stinks much 
worse than brewery refuse. The result is that the difficulty of 
dealing with the sewage there is much greater than in the case of 
an ordinary town. I think we should draw the attention of the 
legislature very strongly to the question of compelling manu- 
£EK^turers to deed with their refuse before it enters the sewer. 

Mr. T. DB CJouBOY Meade observed that in dealing with this 
matter both sides of the question should be carefully looked at. 
It was easy to make laws, and still more easy to suggest additional 
restrictions, with a view to the theoretical purification of rivers ; but 
when the practical side of the subject had to be dealt with, it was 
frequently found that old established manufacturers were so situated 
that it was almost impossible at a reasonable cost to efficiently deal 
with the trade refuse before it entered the rivers. The powers at 
present possessed by the Mersey and Irwell Joint Committee were 
exceptional, and if enforced to the letter would result in the closing 
of many works. He did not for a moment wish to argue that it 
was not a desirable thing to have the rivers as pure as possible, but 
he would like to mention that statistics of the death rate taken in 
those portions of a large manufietcturing town which immediately 
adjoined a river, compared very favourably with that of localities 
situated a little further from the banks, and proved that although 
the river in question was badly polluted, the death rate in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood was lower than that in other parts of the 
town. He mentioned this merely to show that illness was at times 
attributed to river pollution which probably arose from other causes. 

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DISCUSSION. 205 

No donbt the current of air that generally followed the coarse of 
the river, helped to neutralise the bad effects which might otherwise 
aocme to those dwelling in its immediate neighbourhood. Many 
of the mannfSsu^tarers within the district nnder the jurisdiction of 
the Mersey and Irwell Joint Committee, had constructed works for 
the purification of their trade refuse, and in some cases they were 
permitted to pass the effluent (after treatment) into the town 
sewers. This was desirable where it could be done without caus- 
ing an nndue burden to the rates, or creating difficulties in the 
subsequent treatment of the sewage. 

Mr. MoBbaib : I feel in listening to the paper, that the manu- 
facturers' side of the question has been oyerlooked. I do not hold 
a brief for them, but they are entitled to some consideration, and 
we must not forget there are two sides to the question. I am 
acquainted with several works where I cannot see how the manu- 
facturers are to deal with the effluent. There are several works of 
that kind at Lincoln, and I know distinctly when they send their 
refuse into the sewer, because it completely blackens my effluent. 
I am taking samples at the present time to see what can be done. 
At the same time I am conscious of this difficulty. What are these 
people to do ? They turn many thousands of gallons of refuse into 
our sewers, but it seems to me that if yon proceed too strongly 
against them it simply means shutting np the works and sending 
the men adrift. I am sure that on this question there is another 
side as well as the one we have heard so much of to-day. 

Mr« J. S. PiOKEBiNO : The question of the admission of manu- 
facturers' refuse into the sewers is a very important matter, and I 
think there should be a day set apart at some of our meetings to 
discuss it. There was an excellent paper read on the subject some 
time ago, without a single word of discnssion. This paper dealt 
with the whole matter, but it is impossible in a short discussion to 
go into the subject fully. There are certainly two sides to the 
question. It is a very serious matter — for small towns especially 
— to have to treat the refuse of large manufactories. I can speak 
somewhat feelingly, because we have this very matter in hand at the 
present time. We have, I am very pleased to say, been able to 
persuade the manufacturers, rather through diplomacy than 
pressure, to move in the matter, and we have fairly satisfactory 
resulta At the same time, I think local authorities should have 
more power to prohibit these liquids being discharged into the 
sewers without some treatment. There are factories where it may 

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206 RIVER POLLUTION. 

be difficult to adopt some particnlar means of treatment, but I iiail 
to see where there is a factory so placed that it could not adopt any 
form of treatment whateyer. I certainly think that something 
might be done in this direction. The Author has referred to 
legislation that is about to be promoted for the prevention of 
pollution of rivers — legislation that proposes to give further powers 
to County Councils. This is a step in the right direction, and I 
think if the County Councils had more power in this matter and 
the Local Government Board had less, matters would go much 
more smoothly than at present. The Local Government Board, as 
most of the Members of the Association are aware, insist on the 
acquisition of a certain area of land, whatever the condition of the 
effluent from the works may be. That, in my opinion, is a very 
great hardship indeed, and particularly in some cases, where it is 
almost impossible to obtain the land. I know towns that have 
had to adopt the suggestions of the Local Gt)vemment Board, and 
have had to acquire land, knowing at the same time that the 
system they are adopting would be a complete fisdlure. There 
is another point I should like to bring before you. I think that 
before Bills are submitted to Parliament it would be a good idea if 
this Association could thoroughly discuss them. I consider if this 
course were adopted there would be fewer blunders put into the 
Acts. We know that there are lots of matters on which the 
Public Health Acts fail, because the Bills have not been submitted 
to some institution that understood the matter. For instance, if 
this Association had had some voice as to the definition of a drain 
and a sewer, and as to what was a street and a first floor, the 
present difficulties as to these matters would not exist. 

Mr. Fowler : I may add that the town of Brighouse, in their 
new scheme for which I am engineer, practically- passed a resolu- 
tion to take all the manufacturers' refuse into the sewer. 

The President : I quite agree that our thanks are due to Pro- 
fessor Bobinsou for bis admirable paper on a subject which is of the 
greatest importance to the country generally. Fortunately for me it 
is one which at the present time does not concern me personally 
very much, but I have in my past career been situated as many of you 
are at the present time, where the question of river pollution and the 
treatment of manufiusturers' refuse was one that gave me consider- 
able trouble. I have been in a similar position to that spoken of 
just now by Mr. McBrair. I have seen the Biver Medway turned 
into a veritable Ift^way by manufacturers' refuse. I recollect the 



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DI80U8SION. 207 

local authority requiring the manufacturer who fouled that river, to 
take the refuse out of the river and put it into the sewer, llien it 
became a very difficult matter to deal with at the sewage works. 
The river was improved, but the sewage works were not, and for 
years it was a matter of considerable trouble to me and expense 
to the Corporation of Maidstone. I tried to make myself fully 
acquainted in every way with the different systems of treatment of 
sewage, so that I could, if possible, devise some means by which we 
could retain the improved condition of the river and yet get rid of 
our difficulties at the sewage works, at a reasonable cost and with 
some satisfactory results. But I had to give it up ; I had to leave 
the place before I had solved the question, and a few months before 
I left, the Corporation insisted upon the manu£Eu;turers taking their 
refuse out of the sewer and turning it again into the river. Then 
the Bivers Commissioners were down on the track of the manufac- 
turers, and they were required to deal with their refuse in such a 
way that the river should not be fouled to any great extent. They 
were compelled to use the best available means for taking the most 
obnoxious matter out of their refuse. It put them to such a 
great expense that it ultimately smashed up the concern. An 
industry which employed between three and four hundred hands 
was eventually closed, but it has recently been reopened under other 
circumstancea What they are doing now I cannot say. It appears 
to me there are two difficulties in the way in dealing with this 
matter. First of all there is the difficulty that local authorities 
experience in getting a sufficient quantity of land whereon to deal 
with their sewage, and I do think it is the duty of Parliament in 
some way or other to give greater fekcilities to local authorities for 
obtaining the necessary land. Then I also recognise the difficulty 
that manufacturers have, and I agree with those speakers who have 
said that if the manufEioturers are not allowed to turn their refuse 
into the sewer on the one hand or the river on the other, it means 
closing their factories altogether ; that is only a natural result. 
But I think at the same time it is necessary that manu£Eu;turers 
should be compelled to do equally as much in the purification of 
their refuse as local authorities are in dealing vnth their sewage, 
by adopting the really best known available means. I think, also, 
that manu^turers should be — and I have no doubt they will be 
in future — called upon to so treat their refuse as to render it 
harmless. I believe, too, that by the aid of the chemists and 
engineers combined, it will be possible for manufacturers, as a rule. 



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208 BIVER POLLUTION. 

to take out from their refuse those waste products which are 
causing so much expense at the present time, and use them or 
utilise them in some profitable manner. I believe that will be the 
result if pressure is put upon them. At the same time, I agree 
that powers should be given to local authorities by which they should 
be able to obtain land upon more reasonable and easy terms than at 
the present time. It is one of those difficult nuts that have to be 
cracked at the present day. I am one of those who think that 
the rivers ought not to be fouled at all ; I am one of those who 
think that it is a wilful wicked waste for us to throw so much 
valuable material into the rivers and into the sea as we are doing 
at the present time, and 1 believe that those who come after us 
will certamly not call us wise, even because I think our successors 
will find some means by which that which we throw into the sea 
and the rivers, polluting the water and impoverishing the land, 
may be returned to and become of value to the land. I believe 
some means will be devised, by which all faecal matter and urine 
will be, as I have said, retained and returned to the land, and I 
am not quite sure that electricity will not be the power that those 
who come after us will use for that purpose. I wish to add my 
thanks to Professor Eobinson for his admirable paper, and I hope 
at some future time we shall be able to deal with this question at 
some special meeting, when we shall be able to give it more con- 
sideration and fuller justice than we have done to-day. 

Professor Eobinson : I thank you very much for the way in 
which you have received this paper, and I am glad to think that its 
brevity has commended itself to your good opinion. I am quite 
aware that the part relating to the refuse of manufactories is that 
which is likely to give the greatest difficulty, and I can quite 
appreciate the position of those in this room who are acting for 
manufacturing towns. They have to exercise the wise discretion of 
saying nothing, instead of saying something that may commit them 
with their authorities. In my paper I referred to the desirability 
of dealing with refuse by means difi'erent from those which have 
obtained in the past. I do not come here, amongst a gathering of 
pi*actical men, to reiterate what every one knows has been done up 
to the present time, but there are remedies which are now under 
investigation, that in my opinion — I am very strongly of opinion 
on this point — will in the future provide a means of lessening: the 
difficulties of manufacturers in this matter. I have now under 
investigation two methods of dealing with manufacturers' refuse. 

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BiflousaioN. 209 

One place eepedally I have in my mind, and I hoped I should hare 
been able to include some data on the subject in my paper, but it 
was not receiyed in time. I do not wish to suggest that any manu- 
facturer should be dnren to move elsewhere by reason of a system 
being enforced which is arbitrary and unnecessary. That is the 
argument, of course, that has been used for the last thirty years by 
those who will not do anything. I do not wish to force it home 
to that extent, but I am perfectly clear in my opinion that a vast 
number of sources of pollution from manufetctories are easily 
capable of being remedied. As regards the refuse of fEumsteads, 
you will find a number of small watercourses, which in dry 
weather would never be noticed as watercourses, bringing down 
refuse from piggeries and farmyards. These small foul tributaries 
to streams abound all over the country and admit of very easy 
abatement. With regard to the remarks of Mr. Cox, I have a case 
in my mind of a manufacturer who had been in the habit for many 
years of sending his refuse into a sewer, and he was called upon to 
abate this ; and I have before me now the methods he pursued, 
which show that he has been able to extract from the wasto 
products of his manufactory enough to pay for the little plant that 
he put down, thus removing what was formerly a source of 
mischief and annoyance. When he approached the subject he was 
under the impression that he was going to be heavily handicapped, 
but the result proved differently. Where solid organic matter is 
discharged into streams it deposits, and has not the help of the 
bacteria and plant life to purify it ; whereas auy dissolved impurity 
is more likely to become oxidised than the suspended matter, 
which goes to the bottom and remains there putoefying, until it 
eventucdly comes up in the form of foul gases. I do not tiiink it 
is necessary to deal with the speakers in detail, because they may 
be summed up under two heads : those who think I have written 
a good paper, and those who fear I am trying to force home 
remedies in manufacturing districts which would be to the injury 
of the trade of those districts. That is not my wish at all. As 
regards the Bills before Parliament, the Bivers Pollution Bill 
was read a second time in the Commons last week, but it may not 
pass in the present session, for we all know the position such Bills 
are in just now. The Bill, however, is very influentially backed, 
and as it passed the second reading last week, there is no reason- 
able doubt that it will become law in a year or so. The other 
Bill has more to do with the removal of obstructions, and the 

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210 RIVBB POLLUTION. 

improTement of watercourses by enabling Connty Councils to 
cleanse tbem. The Uiyers Pollution Bill is really the outcome of 
a great many years of thought and experience, and with the 
exception of that elauFC which I have pointed out in my paper, 
I do not suppose auy material alteration will be made in it. 
Therefore it behores all of you to look forward to the immediate 
future, when some steps will have to be taken to remedy the present 
pollution of the rivers. 



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( 211 ) 



THE 

DISPOSAL OR UTILISATION OF THE RESIDUE 

FROM TOWNS' REFUSE DESTRUCTORS. 

By H. PERCY B0ULN0I8, M. Inst. O.E., 
City ENamESR of Liyebpool. 

Many papers have been given and books written upon the subject 
ot house refuse destruction, and incidentally the questions of the 
disposal of the ashes and clinkers hare been mentioned, but at the 
request of the President, the Author proposes to submit a few 
remarks upon the question of the disposal of the waste products 
which emerge from the furnaces of the destructor. 

It has been found that the amount of fine ash and clinker whidi 
is left after the refuse has been passed through the fires averages 
from 22 to 83 per cent., but it may be safe to assume that with an 
ordinary refuse destructor there will remain 8 to 9 per cent, of fine 
ash, and 17 to 18 per cent, of hard clinker. These amounts, 
however, vary not only in every town according to the habits of 
the people and the quantity of trade refuse treated in the destructor, 
but also according to the time of year, the amount of coal con- 
sumed in the domestic fires,, and whether there is a large propor- 
tion of vegetable matter in the refuse. The question is also 
afiected by the length of time the house refuse is allowed to remain 
in the adipit, and further, the condition of the refase varies 
according to the state of the weather. In addition to this, the 
amount of the residuum is regulated by the heat in the farnaces, 
according to the fierceness or otherwise of the fires, this condition 
being almost entirely a question of construction or of forced draught 
It must, however, be borne in mind that the word "destruction" 
is an incorrect appellation, the fact being that the material is 
subjected to fire, which disposes of the moisture in the form of 
steam and converts the organic matter into various gases. 

In a well conducted refuse destrnctor, the residuum consists of 
a fine ash and a hard cinder or clinker, which is fosed more or less 
together according to the heat to whidi it has been subjected. 

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212 THE DISPOSAL OB TTTILISATIOK 07 THE BE8IDXTS 

The qnestioii of the disposal of this residnnm is important, as 
bearing upon the cost of the so-called '' destrnction " of the house 
refuse, as up till now, in nearly all cases, it has had to be treated 
as a waste product which requires to be either carted or barged 
away as a useless material. 

This material has been, however, used in some cases for filling 
in of pits, old quarries, or depressions in suburban districts, and 
the hard clinker is somewhat extensively used for bottoming mac- 
adamised roads ; in other instances it has to be taken away in steam 
hopper barges and discharged at sea in deep water. Another 
method for its disposal is that of breaking and. sifting the clinker 
and using it, after having had mixed with it a certain proportion 
of the fine a^, upon suburban footpaths for the purpose of making 
** cinder " footwalks, but these paths are seldom very satisfactory, 
as they are apt to become muddy in Winter and dusty in Summer. 
The fine ash may be used in certain cases as a cushion bed to 
receive paving seta in streets, but necessarily this method of dealing 
with it only disposes of a very small quantity. Another use to 
which it is almost universally put, is that of mixing the clinker 
with lime, placing the mixture in a pug mill with water, and thus 
mantJacturing lime mortar. Owing to the porous nature of the 
material, the mortar thus made is extremely tenacious and hard 
when set, and is very useful for bedding flagging, and in fact for 
any other purposes where lime mortar is required. 

The clinker can also be used for making concrete in the usual 
way, especially if it be broken into suitable sizes and mixed with 
Portland cement in the ordinary mannei, and this method of disposal 
has been extensively adopted in all refuse destructor installations, 
where foundations, walls, steps, and even buildings, may be seen 
constructed of clinker concrete. 

In connection with some investigations recently conducted by 
the Author on the question of the utilisation of clinker, he had 
occasion to consult the analyst for the City of Liverpool and 
County of Lancaster (Professor J. Campbell Brown, D.Sc.), and the 
following extract from a communication on this subject received 
from that gentleman by the Author, clearly defines the practical 
uses to which this material can be applied : — 

<<I find that the sample of refuse destructor clinker 
** consists of 74 per cent, slag and other matters insoluble in 
"hydrochloric acid. The portion soluble in hydrochloric 
<*acid consists of silicate of alumina, lime, and magnesia 

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noM towns' bbfusb dbstbuoiobs. 213 

^ and iron, with a little Bolphate and a considerable proportion 
**o{ finely divided and diffused metallic iron. 
** It is useless for any purpose except — 
" (1) Boad making. 

** (2) Packing between sleepers on ndlwaya 
** (3) Grinding for use in cement 
** For these purposes it seems to be adapted. 

''(Signed) J. Campbell Bbown." 

With regard to the ashes, the Author has found them to be most 
useful for mixing with the heavy clay soil of one of the Sewage 
fiarms under his charge, and he also believes that these ashes, if 
mixed with brick earth or clay, would greatly improve the quality 
of ordinary bricks, both in colour and hurdness, and he is at present 
engaged in carrying out some experiments on these lines. • 

Another method for the utilisation of the clinker which is 
becoming more universal, is that of the manu&cture of flagging 
for footwalks. In thi» case the clinker may be broken to suitable 
sizes, and made into Portland cement concrete in the usual manner, 
and laid in situ upon the footwalk about 3 or 4 inches in thickness, 
and trowelled up to a face, taking care to lay the concrete in 
alternate bays of not more than 6 feet in width, to prevent up« 
heaval and cracking, which is so disastrous to monolith concrete of 
large unbroken area. 

Another plan is to make clinker concrete in the ordinary manner 
and place it in iron-lined moulds of suitable dimensions, ramming 
the concrete by hand punners into the moulds, and when the 
concrete is sufficiently set, removing, the sides of the mould and 
stacking the slabs until they are sufficiently hard to lay upon the 
paths, usually from six to nine months after manufacture. 

This method requires a considerable amount of plant in the way 
of moulds, and the Author will now proceed to explain the manner 
in which he is now dealing with the clinker and ashes produced 
from a 24-cell destructor erected by him in Liverpool, and of which 
he has charge. This installation consists of twenty-four cells con- 
structed on the " Fryer " principle, built back to back on each side 
of the tipping platform, which is approached by an inclined double 
roadway at a gradient of 1 in 16. A very large proportion of the 
material dealt with by this destructor is light trade refuse, and 
consequently upwards of 4500 tons of fine ash, and 9500 tons, of 
clinker are made annually from a total of about 49,00Q tons of house 



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214 THB DISPOSAL OB UTILISATION OV THE BSSIBTTE 

and trade refose disposed of at this destmctor. The destructor 
is situated in the centre of Liverpool, and experience has shown 
that although the clinker and ashes are offered free to any one who 
will cart them away, scarcely any advantage is taken of this offer. 
The site of the destmctor abuts on a branch of the Leeds and 
Liverpool Canal, and is so restricted in area that there is little or 
no storage room, consequently the bulk of the clinker and ash is put 
direct into specially constructed iron tank barges each holding about 
48 tons, and by these barges taken to a screw steam hopper barge 
of 380 tons, where the tanks are lifted and emptied into tiie steam 
hopper barge, which proceeds about twenty-two miles out to sea 
and discharges her contents into deep water. The total cost of this 
disposal reaches about 28, per ton, which of course adds consider- 
ably to the cost of burning the refuse, and in order to reduce some 
of this expense, the Author has manufactured and sold lime mortar ; 
and more recently he has introduced a method of making clinker 
concrete flags under hydraulic pressure, which has been very 
successful, and the method of this manufacture he will now 
proceed to describe. 

The plant, which has been patented by Messrs. Musker of 
Liverpool, consists of a hydraulic press or " ram," shown on the 
drawing and by photographs which the Author produces. The 
pressure for this ram is obtained from the Liverpool Hydraulic 
Power Company, who give a pressure in their mains of 750 lbs. 
on the square inch, which is used for the moving operations ; but 
for the final pressure an ^' intensifier " has been introiduced between 
the main and the press which raises this pressure so that the final 
pressing operations reach a pressure of 24 tons on the square inch. 
The clinker is broken in a small crusher worked by the engine 
supplied with steam by the destructor, to about f ths of an inch 
size, and this is mixed by hand on an ordinary banker in the 
proportions of one part of cement to three parts of broken clinker, 
the compo being mixed very wet. 

The frame in which the mould is placed works in a horizontal 
direction, upon the rails supporting the frame, by hydraulic pressure, 
and the mould is filled with the compo when it is outside the press, 
a pad being placed at the bottom of the mould, composed of a 
perforated zinc plate covered with thick insertion. When the man 
(who is filling) has screeded off the top of the mould, he places a 
felt pad over the mould, pulls a lever, and the frame passes into 
and under ths head of the press. By means of another lever he 



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FBOM towns' BBFUSB DB8XBU0IOB8. 



215 



ndses the mould and frame right nnder the fixed head of the press ; 
and by a third movement he brings the whole pressure from the 
ram directly upon the slab. 

This pressure is allowed to continue for about a minute, when 
water from the compo ceases to flow, and it may be observed that 
owing to the pads no cement comes out with this water, llie 
pressure is then relieyed, the frame is allowed to drop and then 
withdrawn by hydraulic pressure outside the press. 

Underneath, and level with the ground, a movable platform is 
provided which is worked vertically by hydraulic pressure. Upon 
this platform a small trolly is run, having had previously placed 
upon it a movable flat board provided with handles, and upon this 
board the slab is received. In the meantime the frame containing 
the mould and slab is turned over and the platform lifted, which 
brings the flat board already referred to close up under the slab, 
and by turning a handle, the nuts pressing against the heavy Mae 
bottom or die at the bottom of the mould are slackened, which 
then &lls and pushes out the slab in the mould ; and consequently, 
when the platform is lowered the slab comes out with it, and is 
wheeled off on the trolly and carried on the flat board in question 
by two men to a suitable position, where the slab is allowed to 
ripen for a couple of days and^is then up-ended. 

The number of men employed is as follows. A lad works the 
lever handles, fills in and screens the compo in the mould, and 
three men manufacture the concrete and pack the slabs. 

About 45 yards of slabs are manu£Etctured per diem, the cost 
being as follows : — 

Oo9r 07 Makufaotubb 07 Onb Tabd 07 Oldxkmr Ck)irOBITB 

FlAGOIKG, 2} IH0HB8 ThZGK. 



Material. 


Cost. 


Remarks. 


65 lbs. of Portland cement .. 

1.52 „ ofoliaker 

Water 

Labour • 

Plant, contingeiMieB and raper* 
vision. 


lOfd. 
id. 

8t 


Varies with cost of eement. 

Beallyasavingoflfd. 

This item could be dispensed 
with where pressure is ob- 
tained by using steam power 
of destraetor. 


Total cost per yard .. .. 


U.7i<L 





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216 



THB DISPOSAL OB UTILISATION OF THE RBSIDUS 



The total cost of mannfactnre is tbns about Is. l^d. per square 
yard, without reckoning the saving in using the clinkers. The 
sizes of the slabs that are made are 2 feet x 2 feet, 2^ feet x 
2 feet, and 3 feet x 2 feet, each being 2^ inches in thickness. 

The Author produces some samples of slabs which have been 
made in this manner. Some of these slabs have been laid twelve 
months, and show no sign of wear, but sufficient time has not yet 
elapsed for the Author to say whether they will last as long as 
Yorkshire or other natural stones ; but from the experience he has 
already gained, he is of opinion that this class of flag will have a 
Ufe as long, if not longer, than Yorkshire flags, and owing to the 
porous material with which they are made, the clinker paying slabs 
have a foothold much better than the natural stones. Their colour 
is rather dark, but this slight objection may be obviated by painting 
the flags, after they have been laid, with a mixture of cement and 
vfater, which takes some time to wear off. 



Tests of Maohinib-Madb Clinkeb Oonobete Flags, 

2} INCHES Di TmOKKBSS. 



Age of Flag. 



Breaking Load applied at 
centre of Flag. 



Age of Flag. 



Breaking Load applied at 
centre of Flag. 



months. 



1804 lbs. 
1474 „ 
1742 „ 
1917 „ 
1608 „ 
1752 „ 



6 months. 
6 „ 
4 „ 

4 M 

4 « 



2061 lbs. 
1966 „ 
1859 „ 
1659 n 
1589 „ 



The preceding table gives some tests of these slabs which have 
been made quite recently, and when the youthful age of the slabs 
is taken into account, they may be considered very satisfactory. 

The total cost of the machinery as supplied and fixed by Messrs. 
Musker was 1275Z., the foundations and necessary plant cost 225Z., 
exclusive of the clinker crusher, which cost 452^, making a total 
for the whole installation of 15452. 

In conclusion, the Author is of opinion that the use of these 
waste products of waste products can be carried out with economy 
and utility, and although the quantity of clinker and fine ash in 
any town where destructors are at work would be largely in excess 



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FBOM towns' befusb dbstbuotobs. 217 

of the amonnt that could be utilised for this purpose, it is evident 
that any use to which these materials can be pat most necessarily 
be of considerable advantage, and tend to lower the initial cost of 
the disposal of house refuse by the process of burning. 



DISCUSSION. 

The Pbesident : This is a very interesting paper and one that 
deals with an important subject. Mr. Boulnois describes it as 
dealing with " the waste products of waste products,'* and I thmk 
that is a very apt description. We all know what difficulty we 
have in dealing with the waste products from tbe house refuse of 
towns, and we also find that after we have reduced its quantity and 
altered its character, there is still a waste product which we do not 
know how to dispose of with advantage. Mr. Boulnois appears to 
have gone a little in advance of most of us. He has utilised the 
clinker for the manufacture of paving slabs and so on, and in a 
cheaper way than has been hitherto done. We all know the way 
to make paving stones of clinkers ; it has been done over and over 
again at various places, but I think Liverpool is the first place 
where hydraulic machinery for pressing the slabs has been used. 
The paper gives satisfactory results as to the cost, and I have no 
doubt there are many here who would like to question Mr. Price 
on the subject, with a view to elicit still further information on 
this interesting subject, as Mr. Price has kindly undertaken to 
represent Mr. Boulnois on this occasion in his unavoidable absence. 

Mr. T. DE CouBOY Mbadb said he had the opportunity of seeing 
the machine described at work at the Corporation Yard, Liverpool, 
and it then appeared to be acting well He had some time ago 
experimented in the construction of street paving with destructor 
refuse instead of crushed stone. A model plant had been lent 
him for that purpose, and the slabs were made under pressure; 
the result was very satisfactory. He thought that the extraction 
of the water from the slabs by pressure was a great advantage ; 
it certainly caused an immediate hardening of the slabs, and 
he believed that it would lead to their ultimate hardness and 
durability. 



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218 BBSIDUB roOM TOWNS* BEFT78E DS8TBU0TOB8. 

Mr. Tabbioom : I had an opportunity some time ago of seeing 
this machinery at Liverpool, and was very much pleased with the 
work that it did, so mnch so, that I advised my Council to pnt up 
a similar apparatus in Bristol. They were willing to do so, and we 
obtained the consent of the Local Government Board to borrow 
the money to allow ns to carry out the scheme, and 1 hope that at 
no distant time we shall do so. The slabs that I saw turned out 
at Liverpool, which I think were not so good as the sample on 
the table, gave one the impression of being rather rough on the 
surfEuse. They certainly give a firmer foothold for that reason, 
but they do not present the pleasing appearance of a concrete 
pavement worked up by the hand. At the same time it must be 
a very great advantage to reduce the amount of water left in the 
slab, and the permanent wear I should think would be very great 
There is another company in South Wales at present manufac- 
turing slabs from crushed granite under pressure, and I think the 
pressure employed is very much greater than in the machine 
illustrated here for the purpose of manufacturing slabs from 
destructor clinker. Anything which can give us a chance of 
utilising the products from a destructor, and especially at such an 
economical rate as is being done at Liverpool, must be a very 
great advance. From 30 to 40 per cent of residue is simply the 
ordinary return, and although only a very small proportion of that 
can be utilised for laying down in the streets, yet any apparatus 
capable of producing from it a material which may be of per- 
manent use, is a very great advantage, and one to be encouraged. 
Certainly the results of that machine which I saw myself at work 
were very satisfisictory. 

Mr. Lows : I have been making clinker pavements for the last 
eight years, and have used no press of any kind. It has been 
simply made, shaken down and hand trowelled, and the proportion 
of cement used has been as 1 to 3. I have also laid some tnat^u on 
the footways ; I inspected it yesterday, ^nd it looks as good as when 
it was put down. 1 think there is a very wide field for those who 
have destructors to use up their waste products in this way. I 
agree with the Author of the paper as to the results. I obtained 
about the same amount of fine ash from the burning. The builders 
will take the fine ash free ; they will not pay you anything for it 
The hard core is more difficult to deal wiUi. If your roads are 
ahready made you cannot use it for your foundations, it has either to 



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